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J-5~ fr 






Outlines of a National History; 



OF . 


Of this wide WestcrD Hemispbere, 
Let us letiace the history ; 

Of all the Nations dwelUng here, 
Ijet OS recall the memoiy. 



By prof. C. S. RAFINESQUE. 









Published quarterly, at Five dollars in 
advance for Six Numbers or Vdumes, simi- 
lar to thiSj^of nearly 300 pages— each sepa- 
rate Number sold for one Dollar, or more 
when they will contain maps and illustra-^ 

A list of Agents will be given here^ifter. 
At present the principal Booksellers may 
act as such. 

The Names of the Subscribers will be 
printed in a subsequent Number. 

It is contemplated to conclude these an- 
nals and their illustrations in 12 Numbers 
or Volumes. Therefore the whole cost to 
Subscribers will only be $10, for which a 
complete American Historical Library will 
be obtained. 

By remitting $5 to the Author, Six Vol- 
umes are secured whatever be their future 
price, and will be sent by mail : a similar 
sum will be due when the 7th number is 
issued. Those who may prefer to pay $10 
at once, will be deemed patrons of the work. 

Whoever subscribes and pays for 5 sets, 
is entitled to a 6th gratis. Agents will be 
allowed 20 per cent commission. 

The price of this Number by itself is one 
Dollar and fifty cents or Five Dollars for 
Five copies. 

It contains researches on the Oldest Na- 
tions of America, the Mosaic, Chinese, and 
Atlantic Nations, interccoirse with AmoriQA, 
tfefo^Q Columbus, Slc. 















With MapSf Plates, Views, and Plans of Monvments, 

Tables, Notes, and Illustrations, 

--II ,1 — ' ■>' ■■ 


Professor of Historical and Natural Sciences, Mem- 
ber of many Learned Societies in Paris, Bordeaux, 
JBruxela, Bonn, Vienna, Zurich, Naples, &c. in Europe. 
— Philadelphia. New York, OiBcin»ati, NasUyiUe,&c. 
in Amerloa,-"'The American Antiquarian Society^ ^e. 


*' All we have hitherto learnt respecting the ancient state of the 
" Natives of the New Continent is nothing in comparison to tho- 
*' light that will be one day thrown on this suibject, if we succeed ia 
'* bringing together the materials now scattered over both worlds^ 

•< that have survived th« ages of ignorance and barbarism.." 

Humbold^s Researches, 




1 si« 

ENTERED according to the Act of Con- 
gress, in the year 1836, by C.S. Rafinesque, 
in the Clerk's office of the District Court 
for the Ea£d:ern District of tha State of 



Oldest natkjns of America : Researches 
and remarks on the earliest primitive 
HISTORY of both Americas^ early and di- 
luvian traditions of the Mexicans j Peru- 
vians^ Chilians^ Maypuris^ i^^c. 

If we were to believe the majority of 
writers, the American Nations, had neither 
theogonies, nor cosmogonies to transmit us: 
whatever notions or traditions may have 
escaped the swords or fires of late invaders 
and destroyers, are worthless and unavail- 
able ! But other writers of a better frame 
of mind, have transmitted and preserved a 
few valuable relics, of the ancient records 
of many nations and empires, from the 
crude notions of the boreal Innuit or Es- 
quimaux, to the more refined narratives of 
the Agricultural nations from Anahuac to 
Chili ! In central America, and the regions 
of the Andes, we find positive notions on 
the most early periods of human existence, 
blended as usual with religious and astro- 
nomical ideas : which are both curious and 
available for historical purposes. 

The Chilians to the south called Heaven 

Guenu-mapu or celestial country, and 

gave many expressive names to the Deity, 

• such as Chienu'pillan celestial-spirit, Buta- 

gen great-being, Vilvem-voe creating-all . . . 

I They gave him a crowd of Angels called 



This primitive people is thus found all 
over the earth, and even in America, un- 
der similar names of various meanings, ac- 
cording to their proper or improper appli- 
cations. The Chaones^ or rather XAON 
of Thrace, lUyria, and .Thessaly, were also 
mountaineers, dwelling in Greece before 
the Greeks, perhaps a pelagic tribe, akin 
to the X'NONI of Moses, whom we nick- 
name Canaanites : whence all might be of 
the nation of X'NON. In the Alps they 
became the Cucnis of 3000 years ago, 
same as the Honest 

In the Antilles we have seen them as 
CON and Conel his sons. In Peru the 
KON or Chons were one of the earliest 
conquerors, to be compared with the Ly- 
bian people of same' name ; but when con- 
quered by the Incas they became the Fan«- 
Conas or vassal-Conas ! The CagnaSy 
Canaris . . • of Peru, the Conos of Chaco, 
the Conivos and Conamas of the Andfes . . . 
were fragments of this nation, as well as 
the Austral Cunis ; but there are others 
all over South America. 

The Chanas or Cruanas, large nation 
spread in Peru, Tucuman and Cbaco. The 
Cunchos of Chili. 

The Chanchones of Tunca to the north. 

Chonos of Quixos, east of those. 

Cunas of Darien. 

Chones and Chongones of Popayan. 

Th emountaineers of India, Persia^ Cau*^ 


casus, were often called Kas^ Khas, Kau- 
kas . • . in the earliest times, ' and we find 
in South America, the following akin na- 
tions of the Andes. 

1. Xaiixa of Peru, pronounced Khau- 
kha,, who boast of having escaped a deluge. 
Their posterity was called Kakhas and 
Kakana; but they are the ancestors of 
many nations, since Jolis tell us the Dia- 
guitas and Calchaquis of Tucuman, spoke 

2. Kakaka of Charcas conquered by 
the Incas in 1280. 

3. Chancas or Ancas of Peru, who left 
it, and went east in 1250. 

4. Chuncaris of Charcas. 

5. Cagnas or Kanas^ an Amazone na- 
tion of ancient Peru. 

6. Caucaes or Cauques of Chili. 

7. Ca4^ozis or Kaqueses or Cahetes.of 
Chaco and Tucuman in 1540: same as 
Kakokis of Azara in 1780. 

To this ancient people of the Peruvian 
mountains, may be ascribed the origine of 
many southern nations of America, aa I 
shall prove elsewhere by their languages* 
Kaka means mountain in KdkanO^ and 
KaM also in the Talahet language of a 
people nicknamed Pampas and Tolderos in 
Austral America. 

This people TALA-HET rmeaning 

High-people) lead us to the American 

atlantes. All^this continent from the Ohio 



and Mexico, to Patagonia, is full of their 
names, posterity and dialects. 

The historians tell us that the L^ybian 
Atlantes were formed by the union of two 
nations, the Atlas and Antes^ who con- 
quered a part of south Europe, and the at- 
lantic islands, long before they were sub- 
dued by other wandering tribes and heroes. 
(Note. 3). 

Both these Lybian nations are found in 
South Americ?i. The Antes as the Antis^ 
and Andoas tribes of the Andes, which 
gave name thereto. United to the tulis 
they appear as the Aktulis of North Chili 
in the annals of 1450. The TALAS, Ta- 
lahetSj Taluets^ Taelae . . • which are sy- 
nonyms, are also the Hatihets^ Puelches 
and Pampas^ the bold nation, which has 
withstood the Spaniards for three centuries, 
east of Chili. One of their tribe is called 
Dihuihetj Divihet^ Diaguitas^ which con- 
nects them with the Kakanas, as they 
speak their language; but we shall see 
these Atlantic languages to approximate to 
the Haytian, and Toltecan. 

The Atlantes have given their name to 
the Atlantic Ocean, which they first cross- 
ed, or very early. They are found every 
where on both sides of it. I shall not de- 
cide if they are antidiluvian as some pre- 
tend, and their history belongs properly to 
Central America, where they had their 


Capitals at Otolum and Tula near Yuca- 

Many nations have sprung from them in 
America: the principal were probably: 

1. The Talegas of North America and 

2. OtaliSy Tellicosj TztduJds^ Talahas 
of Apalachia and Florida. 

3. Tolas or Tara^cas of Anahuac. 

4. Tols and Chon-tals of Mexican and 

central America. v 

5. Tara-humara? of Sonora. 

6. Attdas or Atures of Guyana. 

7. Talas and Taricas of Tucuman. 

8. Talahets of Ghaco and Patagonia. 

9. Atalalas or Atalas a tribe of Yilelas 
in Chaco. 

10. Antalis^ Toels and Telmels^ tribes 
of Chili and Patagonia. 

While in Peru, the Antis^ Andoas^ An^ 
dacolaSj Andcd-galas^ preserve their syno- 
phonic affinity with the Antes or Anions 
of Lybia, akin to the Hyantes of Greece. 

But the whole earth is full of their name 
and deeds. They gave name to Italy or 
Vetuliaf Etruria or Tyrhenia {Talania)^ 
Etolia, Thrace or Thalas ... in Europe — 
The mts. Atlas in the North, and Thalas 
in the centre of Africa, and in Asia to 
TURAN or West Tartary; which was 
perhaps their cradle, being named Talan 
and Talaha still earlier. As early as 2850 
years before our Era, the great conqueror 


Oguzkan, took the kingdom of Talash 
which is now T'ala in Turkestan. The 
plains of Mongolia are called TALA to 
this day by the Mongols* The Mongol 
name of Thibet, was Baran-Tola. The 
Eastern Caucasus forms the Talish mts 

A crowd of nations, countries, kingdoms, 
cities, mountains, rivers .... have born, or 
bear yet their name: this famous name, 
whereof the root TaJj Tol^ Tul^ means 
eminent, lofty, high, tall, preminent, exalt- 
ed .... in nearly all the languages. It is 
said they were the founders of 500 cities, 
from Tolosa and Toledo in Spain, to Tou- 
lon and Toulonse in France, or even Tu- 
la in Russia. In Asia from Syria to China. 
In Africa from Egypt to Marrocco. 

In America we have many Tula, Talega, 
Telico, Otolum, Atala, Talaha, &c., in 
North America. Tolu, Taliha, Tolima, 
Atoli, &c., in South America. AJl ancient 
cities or sites of ruins, and their huge 
monuments are spread on their footsteps 
from Lake Erie to Lake Titicaca for 5000 

Their Asiatic posterity was or is found 
in the Tolotes or Scolotes the ancient 
Scythians, the Talaos or great Laos, the 
Tali of Pegu, the Cun-tala ancient peo- 
ple of Central India, the Cutilas other old 
nation of India, the Athulas or ancient 
Assyrians, the Teliuts or white Calmuks . • . 

In Africa they became the ancient Au^ 



tololes^ ThalaSj Getulians^ Talahas^ Tfe- 
ladus^ Telemsin^ (Slc, of Lybia. 

In Europe the following ancient tribes, 
might be of Atlantic origine. The J?a5- 
tiili and Turdes of Spain, the Ru-tules^ 
Cu'tules, EtuUis or Etruscans of Italy, 
the Etolians, Atalantes, Tilatis^ Thalaka 
or Thracians of Greece and east Europe. 

This crowd of analogies and synophonies, 
added to the collateral proofs of languages 
and historical traditions, ought to convince 
at last that the Atlantes have reached Ame- 
rica, and widely spread in it, at a very 
early period. 

Another ancient people, widely spread, 
had also reached South America. They 
were the Lelex or Leleges of Caria and 
Greece, deemed akin to the Pelagians^ 
The same as the LaU ancient Iberian 
tribe of Spain, the Aeoles or ancient Eoli- 
ans of GreiRce, the Pelei^ or ancient Dlyri- 
ans and Helenes : which must be compared 
with the Eleis and Alalas of ancient Ara- 
bia, the Elams or ancient Persians, the 
Ghulghuls human monsters of the east, 
the Lolo of China, the Lolas ancient peo- 
ple N. E. of India, the Lezghis of Caucas- 
us, the Lestrigons of Sicily, the CJielus or 
ShiUus of the Atlas, Huile (our Havilah) 
tribe of Pelagians in Moses, &c. (Note 3.) 

In America we find them in the ImIb 
and Vilela two akin tribes of Tucuman 
and Chaco, who call men Pele and YoaU^ 


and whose dialects have 10,000 affinities 
with all the Pelagic nations. 

2. Hi and Gna4li of the Antilles, al- 
ready proved akin to the Pelagic nations. 
Compare Chili and Huilliches. 

3. ELES ancestors of the Mexicans, 
their name for n^en. 

4. OL or HUL ancestors of the Chols 
and Olmecas. Both Olm and Iniz mean 
old or ancient people in the 3Iosaic lan- 
guage. The CholdSj Colas, Calls, filled 
America from Chiapa to Peru, under these 
or akin names, and were also in the Antil- 
les. The Glyce or Gluche were the ances- 
tors of the Chilians. 

5. Salivas of the Oronoco, and some 
akin tribes. 

The May IS are also a very old nation of 
Central America, akin to the Ayars of Pe- 
ru, Aymaras of Bolivia, the Mbayas of 
Chaco Muyzcas of Bogota, Maypuris of 
Oronoc. If they could be traced to Meu- 
yal anti-diluvian nation of Moses; they 
would be still more ancient. Compare the 
Mayas of Lybia and India, the Ayas very 
old nation of India, and HIA of China. 

All the nations unconnected with these, 
appear much more modern in America. 
All those of North America, beyond Flori- 
da and Mexico, may be traced west to 
north and east Asia. The Guaranis and 
Galibis of Brazil and Guyana, may be 


traced by the languages and traditions to 
west Africa in latefr times. 

The primitive history of nearly all those 
nations, is very scanty, or conjectural, 
when we lack their own traditions. It is 
probable that many of them did not exist 
before the floods or deluges, and that their 
ancestors had often different names at 
early periods. It is then surprizing that 
we can still trace so many links of ana- 
logous names. 

It appears doubtful whether the Boreal 
and Austral Americas were inhabited by 
men, before the deluge. The Innuit and 
Chilians have both traditions of it; but 
they may refer to a different region where 
their ancestors dwelt. Even the central 
and tropical Americas could only have few 
inhabitants then: perhaps some weak clans 
or scattered colonies of primitive nations 
from the Atlantic shores. The Atalas, the 
Antis, the Cunis, the Kakans, the Chols,^ 
the Ayars .... Brother tribes sprung from 
the Jin and Anu of Tartary, the Tolas and 
SoLis of the Imalaya mts., the Thalath 
and Anement of Assyria, the NIgas and 
Kasap of Iran and Cashmir, the Kven and 
LoLO of China, the Colas and Lolas of In- 
dia .... All anti-diluvian tribes, and prob- 
ably Adamic ; altho' their history is but 
slightly connected with the Mosaic nations. 
Perhaps the KIN of Moses (our Cainites) 
were ancestors of the Cunis and Kakans? 


These weak colonies of dispersed wan- 
dering tribes, had to contend in America, 
against dreadful volcahos, constant calami* 
ties, powerful streams, immense swamps, 
flooded plains, heavy rains, ferocious beasts, 
venimous snakes, great diseases, and many 
other evils; which prevented them from 
spreading and increasing. Thus we have 
no traces of antidiluvian cities or monu- 
ments in this Hemisphere, or none properly 
ascertained as such. 

Yet we must not believe that they were 
entirely savage, and without industry. The 
antidiluvian nations of Asia knew Agricul- 
ture, Navigation, Architecture, Astronomy, 
Chemistry, Writing, Geography, Metalur- 
gy, Music, &/C. . . . They had the use of 
dresses, sandals, gardens, cattle, butter, 
dances, poetry, fire, pottery, weapons, 
houses and huts, roads and boats, the 
plough and axe, (perhaps the loom), reli- 
gion and worship, civil policy and laws, 
castes and vassals .... Their colonies 
might then, and probably did bring these 
discoveries to this continent even before 
the deluge. 

The Hebrew writers appear to speak of 
America as their Shaul {Sheol^ in modern 
Hebrew) where dwelt the King BLIOL 
{Belial mod) with all his giants, apostates, 
devils, &c , or wicked men: ivho were 
drowned by the deluge (see Isaiah). This 
fact shows that they had a faint idea of the 



spherical earth, or a* lower hemisphere, 
with many evils, where the wicked people 
of the KIN race had resorted. (Note 4.) 

If the great table lands of both Americas, 
indicate as many ancient separated islands, 
there were at least 3 such in South Ame- 
rica. 1. The Id. Anti of the Andes, the 
largest and longest, spreading from Cu- 
mana E. to Choco W. arid thence south to 
Chili. 2. The Id. of Brazil or the mts. 
thereof, perhaps a huge peninsula of the 
last, as Africa is of Asia. 3. Id. of Guy- 
ana, (Juite insulated by vast plains. 

North America might also have 3 islands. 
1. Central, from Choco and Panama to 
Nicaragua. 2. Anahuac, from hence till 
Oregon or Asia, perhaps a peninsula of it. 
3. Alleghany, from Maine to Alabama, cut 
in two at the. Hudson and Champlain by a 
narrow channel. Besides lesser islands of 
Borealia, Canada, California, Antilles, At- 
lantis, Magellanics, &c. 

In the hypothesis that the Americans 
are autoctones, or sprung from the ground, 
all those islands ought to have produced 
peculiar men ! but this is not the case. — 
Only two of them, Anahuac and the Andes, 
by their v/ide extent, great height, and 
some traditional accounts, might allow of 
this supposition; but these two great re- 
gions are woefully volcanic, and the nations 
found there, are exactly those which have 




the greatest affinities with the '.Asiatic and 
Atlantic nations. 

The great massive region of the Andes, 
must have been in volcanic blaze, even un- 
der the primitive ocean, and before being 
lifted over it. These mountains contain a 
croM^d of huge hollow bassins or craters 
from 60 to 600 miles in circuit, now dry 
or with Lakes, that were once the subma- 
rine outlets of the heat and materials eject* 
ed. They are so high that they were be- 
lieved the highest on the globe, but the 
peaks of the Imalaya mts. are higher, be- 
ing from 26 to 28,000 feet above the sea ; 
while the mts. of Bolivia are under 26,000 
feet according to Pentland. The higheM 
mt. Sorata is 25,250, and mt. lUimani 24,- 
350, while the mt. Chimborazo, the highest 
of Quito is only 21,425. It is then near 
Austral America that the volcanic peaks 
rise highest in this hemisphere. The plains 
of this high region of Bolivia and Peru rise 
to 10 and 12,000 feet as in Asia ; but are 
dreary, altho' not barren. Those of Quito 
and Bogota are less. In Anahuac the plains 
and mts. are still less high ; but yet volcanic, 
parched and dry. The valleys and hollow 
craters are the most fruitful spots. 

It is yet a problem if the first men, were 
born and lived in mountains or plains f but 
to place them in volcanic craters should 
appear preposterous. Fire could not be 
the cradle of mankind. I think more prob- 


ab]e that mountains were, since all the 
animals and plants can be traced to moun- 
tain regions, whence they descended gradu- 
aly to the plains. While it would not be 
easy to trace their genera and families 
backwards, up the mountains, nor lead up 
there plants and trees, insects, worms and 

Geology teaches that the surface of this 
globe, was once very different, having ex- 
perienced many cataclysms and revolutions ; 
altho' I rather believe that their number 
and extent have been much exaggerated. 
All the cataclysms appear to have been 
confined to some localities, of more or less 
extent, either by upHfling, sinking, and up- 
setting of strata and mountains, preceded 
or followed by deluges, or inundations of 
watery, muddy or sandy matter, thrown up 
by the ocean, the lakes, the fountains, the 
caves and the volcanoes. These throes 
with earthquakes and fires have succes- 
sively desolated the old ground, covering it 
with new strata, debris and hills: wherein 
were involved the relics of the organized 
beings now found therein entombed. 

The volcanic chain of the Andes reaches 
to the strait of Magellan, being however 
cut in south Chili: the whole Magellanic 
Archipelago appears to be fragments of it : 
while the whole country east of the mts. is 
a mere low plain, 300 feet at most above 
tb^ sea^ wbioh has of course been left dry 



much later by the oc^an. The Boreal 
group of islands, north of Canada, is also a 
broken land, hardly fit for life. The vast 
plains of the Mississippi, Oronoco. Maranon, 
Paraguay, were drowned and full of swamps^ 
when America received a population. They 
appear more fit for the cradles of reptiles 
and crocodiles, than any human race. 

When the high table land regions were 
lifted above the sea, or left dry by it, the 
earth came out of its oceanic cradle, in the 
shape of many islands ; where the produc- 
tion of organized beings took place, the 
terrestrial plants and animals. 'And lastly 
, mankind in the largest and highest, in cen- 
tral Asia. From thence the nations of the 
eastern Hemisphere were scattered in all 
directions, and can trace their own steps 
by history or traditions. Many American 
nations indicate also a similar cradle ; but 
few deem themselves Autoctones, as did 
the Greeks, whom we now well know to be 
of Asiatic origine. There is no positive 
proof of any peculiar creation of men out 
of Asia, even the negro and black nations 
can be traced with accuracy to India. 

In Polynesia and Australia no such cra- 
dle is found, their two races of men, black 
and brown, are also Asiatic, by languages 
and traditions. The Id. Lanca spoken of 
as a cradle of mankind was the south of 
India united to Ceylon. We mufet hate 
better proofs of total disparities bet\^eeii 

b^ ^> ^. .«~ I 


f&tes of men, before we can admit of more 
than one great cradle for the whole. Much 
less can any such be proved in America. 

Th^ volcanic tropical table land of the 
Andes, the only one where the doubt might 
occur, is hardly fit to produce and sustain 
the human life, and we find no where in it 
the evidence of a peculiar opician race, 
born out of the volcanic soil, altho' some 
rude tribes deemed themselves sprung out 
of caves and lakes, which only implied a 
refuge in times of calamities. Many ages 
must have elapsed before this region could 
sustain human life, and receive colonies 
fi-om elsewhere. Perhaps America only 
received such colonies when the continent 
was formed, or even united to Africa; or 
else with many large islands in the Atlantic 
ocean as gradual stepping places. 

However the Mexican history offers a 
view of the 5 ages of the world, which may 
either apply to America or to Asia. This 
sketch has puzzled the learned, and they 
have not yet well decided how the succes- 
sion of the 4 ages must be read, or the 4 
epochas of nature, which form a square of 
4 suns, that have preceded the actual sun 
or age, nor how the chronology of it ought 
to be fixed. Humboldt pretends that all 
the Spanish authors have been mistaken, 
in reading them backwards, and he gives 
their duration by a double series of dates. . 

I* Age or Sun {Tonatiuh) or Period or 




Cycle. TL'AL the earth, 5206 ydars— or 
676 years dmation. 

Inhabitants Tuinametin Giants^ destroy*^ 
ed by the TeqiMties Tygers. Catastrophe 
a famine of 13 years. 

n. Age— TL'lS the Fire. 4804 year&— 
or 376 jears. Inhabitants the Tequanes^ 
destroyed by Xiuh-teuc Vulcan-God. 

III. Age— EHECA, wind. 4010 yea^s^ 
or 312 years. Inhabitants the Cooolin 
Fowls, diestroyed by hurricanes. 

IV. Age— A'TL, water the. 4008 years, 
or 52 years. Inhabitants monkeys and men, 
destroyed by a flood; but they are changed 
to fishes. 

Total duration till the flood 18028 years, 
or only 1417 years by the traditional re- 
form of the Mexican author Ixilxochi. 

In the history of central America, these 
opinions will be examined critically. Bat 
there are other early dates in the Mexican 

5200 years before or Era our 6692 bef<»*e 
Columbus, creation of the world, according 
to the Toltecas, and of Tonaca their Adam. 

327 years before the flood (which ? Xelhua 
or Coxcox?). Foundation of the, city of 
Coa-tUan (Snake-the-place), by the OL 
or HUL and the Mecas, ancestors of the 
actual Zapotecas and Miztecas. 

At the flood this people was saved with, 
their king Petela on the mountain Coatlalu 
Is this flood of JPetda a third one ? 


4800 years after the creation, flood of 
Xelhua (different from that of Coxeox at 
the end of the 4th age). The Giants 
TzocuUli are destroyed by it, but Xelhua 
is saved upon the mountain TL'ALOC* . 
Compare Atlas and Localoca of Lybians 
and Hindus. 

13060 years afler the creation by anodi* 
er computation Epocha of Tezca-poca the 
Brama of Anahuac, Quetzal cod-tl (Pheas^ ^ 

ant-snake-such) the Budha of Ahahuac^ 
and of thef dynasty of Huemac at Cholula. 

These fragments of primitive Chronology 
are contradictory, and difficult to reconcile, 
or assimilate to our dates. They will re- 
quire long discussions. But these events 
indicate at least some peculiar American 
nations, even before a flood. The giants 
Tuinametin and TzocuUli^ nations of ty- 
gers, birds, ^apes .... and that mouatains 
saved some fragments of mankind at floods. 

Tondca means flesh. He was made a 
God afl:erwards. In Chili the Epa-tun, 
twin TUN, were the divine ancestors of the 
Gluche or SEKE, ancient Chilians. Are 
. they the Net-ton of the Pelagians, called 
Neptune by the Latins? Post-ton by the 
Greeks. Were they leaders of Colonies in . 
earliest times ? Compare also with Vo-tan 
of the Chontals their leader and legislator. 
Many individuals may have been known as 
such Neptunes. (Note 5). 

According to Torquemada the first in- 



habitants of Anahuac before the flood 
were the ACULMA, probably the same as 
* the HULMEC ; but'the Chilians call all 

the strangers CULME, and this accord- 
"- ance must be noticed. They really call 

themselves S6-k6 (written Scene by Molina) 
meaning old-people, which has many affini- 
ties. TEK is people in Mexico, Hue-tek 
old-people. Thus the Mexicans and Chili- 
ans, so far apart, have national analogies 
of namies, and much more of languages. 
This had been denied by the lazy en* 
A quirers. 

Twenty American nations have peculiar 
traditions of the deluge ; nut it does 
not follow they were all in America then. 
All the northern tribes allude to Asia, 
whence they came. The Haytians were 
in the east then ; the Tamanacs, Mexicans, 
and IJIuyzcas might also be there as yet. 
But in Peru, they point to the places where 
they were saved. (Jarcias says they re- 
membered 8 different floods or inundations ; 
but gave no details, except on 3, the others 
might have been volcanic eruptions of the 
sea, as when Callao was destroyed in 1746. 

1. The first, called the great deluge of 
Mama-cocha (mother-ocean), happQued af- 
ter the reign of the Gods, (see the Peru- 
vian theogony) and a human dynasty or 
people of Ayahs, with an antidiluvian 
Manco^ perhaps an Asiatic Menu ?) pro- 
ducing 3 sons or people, Cachuj Uchu and 



Sanca^ who were saved in the mts at the 
flood. Some have deemed these to be 
Japhet, Shem, and Ham. 

2. Another great flood, when those three 
people, that had become the Xauxas^ 
Quichuas and Huancas^ were saved in 
the mts. Xauxa and Collao, parts of RitU 
suyuj mts. of snow of the Andes. 

3. The third, less disastrous, was perhaps 
that of Peleg. Many nations escaped it, 
the Kons, Cagnas, CoUas, Guancas or 
Huanacos . . . ; No dates are given. In all 
men escaped in mts. and dwelt in Caves. 
They were then in Peru, at this time. 

In Chili by Molina's account, the only 
flood mentioned appears this last : a vol- 
canic Cataclysm, like the flood of Polynesia, 
Some men were saved on mt. Thegtheg 
(thundering) which had 3 peaks, and float- 
ed on the waters, while men had to cover 
their heads, against showers of fire ! Tag^ 
tag are the great mountains of Tartary. 
Tegla or Tedla is a name of the African 
Atlas. Tectec are the nations of Anahuac 
in general. 

Gili. has given tlje diluvian traditions of 
the Maypuris, which agree better with the 
oriental accounts, and may be foreign to 
America. This people which ha^ no analo- 
gies with the Puris of Brazil, but many 
with the Moxas and Muyi^cus of the north- 
ern Andes, held for ancestor ENO (heaven, 
God of heaven or celestial man) comparb 



Anush (our Enos) and Hnux (our Enoch) 
with NH (our Noah) of Moses. This Eno 
was saved in boats with his posterity, from 
the great flood Veni Murare (water ca- 
lamity). His posterity was divided in 3 
names or a triad of tribes. 

1. Minari or Minachi, compare with 
Menes, and the Menus. 

2. PurrunUj compare with the Puruays 
and RunaSj nations of Peru. 

3. Unuma (God of water) compare with 
Neptune and Numa* . 

This triple God or peoj^e,. had for wife 
a double goddess or tribe Tapani-marru. 
Compare the nations Tupan^ Panos and 
Aymarus of Brazil and Peru. 

And they had a son, or produced another 
tribe, Sisiri. Compare Osiris of Egypt, the 
Seres of Asia, the Kiriris people of Oro- 
noc, the Kieres of Parana .... 

Between the 2d and 3d floods of Peru 
KON brought from the North to Peru, a 
colony of white and bearded men, who 
built the city of Tia-huanaco^ meaning the 
divine Huanaco. They civilized the Gu- 
ancas or Huanacas of Peru, lleoti-huacan 
another divine city of Mexico was also 
very ancient built by a Solar people. 
(Note 6). 

This KON has appeared in the history 
of Hayti, ON and KON were primitive 
names for the solar dynasty of Lybia, where 
Bince become Antony it assumes analogies 


with Tofuitiuh Sun of Mexico, Inti in 
Peru, Ante in Chili, and Tun Chilian an- 

By the Lybian history towards 2737 
years before Chr. or 4239 before Colum- 
bus, the personified dynasty of Anton, was 
driven away from Lybia to the Canary or 
Atlantis Ids. by Sephinah son of Pa-ton- 
chin (the Sun) and one of the Lybian 
Heros or Hercules, coming from Tyr6 or 
Tura in Phenicia. He is also one of the 
Melkartj (King of city) changed to Meli- 
certus by the Greeks. This event and ex- 
pulsion being 4 centuries before the flood 
of Peleg and Yao, leaves ample time for 
this passage to Peru, and subsequent flood. 

The Tiahuanacos called themselves also 
Puruaes, Pururauca, and Mayo-runa 
(river-men). They exist as yet, and are 
whiter than the other Peruvians. The 
name of Peru derives from these Puruaes, 
and not from a King or river Biru in Po- 
payan. They are now called Piros, Paros 
and PuruaySj they dwell on the Uyacali R. 
Their language is a dialect of the Panos, 
who had the painted mpts. mentioned by 
Humboldt ; which if recovered may throw 
much light on their history. 

It appears that all th6 tribes East of the 
Andes, except those of the Anti nation, of 
whom we hardly know any thing, are of 
the nation Panos or Maynas, speaking 
consimilar dialects. But these Maynas 



had once the names of Manaitas and 
SeteboSj which are the Gods of the May- 
puris and the Tmguis (our Patagons). 
They bear a crowd of names, probably of 
as many tribes, such as Roamaynas^ Ma- 
noasj HibitoSj Chachapoyas, compare with 
the Poyas of Honduras and Magellania. 

Cholones and Choltos^ compare with 
the Chols of Guatimala, &c. 

Conivos which are Panes, and with a 
white complexion, compare with the Kons^ 
Curtis of America and Africa. The Sipi-- 
boSj Sipotuhas^ Chipios^ Capanahuas^ are 
also tribes of Panes. 

The Sapibo-Conas^ appear mixt Sipibos 
and Conivos^ yet their language partly 
known, is akin to the Aymara ; which will 
connect all these nations. 

Among the Piros are found the tribes 
of Eno and Maparis^ akin to the Maypu- 
ris and their Eno. Also the Puinahuay ^ 
which connects them evidently with the " 

Returning to this primitive empire, the 
annals without dates of Peru, tell us that 
long after the last flood, the last King 
Intillapac (Sun-Llapac) divided his empire 
to his 4 sons : giving the North to Manco, 
the South to Colha, the East to Tocay, and 
the West to Pinahua. These are as many 
nations, the Colhas or CoUas are well 
known as such, the l^inahuas are found in 
the Piros, the Mancos became the Yuncas 

and incas, and the Tocays appeal* the To- 
cbnotes and Tucmas of Tucuman. 

After this great event, a God or Legis<» 
tor Cati-pnchacama, came from the South 
or the Collas, who conquered this divided 
empire, and expelled or banished the Kons t 
they probably became then the Chonos 
and Cunis of Magellania, the Conos or 
Toconotes of Chaco, with these scattered 
Pahos and Maynas. 

It is then from the Peruvian region that 
great part of South America has been 
peopled, and the whole of Austral America., 
This was probable physically ; Ethnogra- 
phy and Philology will complete the his- 
torical proofs of it. 

A single essential word, that of man, 
may even lead us into the enquiry, without 
tedious Vocabularies and comparisons. 

In the diabets of Maynas and Panos, 
man was called Eno^ Pano^Anoa- — In the 
dialects of Chili and Majrcllania it is EN, 
Hueuj Jen^ Cani^ Anij Enuj Chon, Cho- 
■ Reansi in Sapibo-Conas. 

Andua in Tamocan. 

Runa in Ctuichua. 

Hake in Aymara, different but akin to 

Akane, Akian in Moxas, E. of Peru. 

Nani^ C liana in Zamuca, near Tucu- 

Kana in Diaguitas or Kakana. 




Gvana in Guanas. 

Huonuj Guognus in Tao of Tueuman^ 

Uneleiffua in Mbaya of Chaco. , 

Guitna^ Nitimoy^ Yoale in Yilela; but 
PeU in Lul6, both languages evidently Pe- 
lagic or Atlanjtes. 

Nia^ Enu in Maypuri. 

Mena in Omagua. 

Ani in Guarani. 

Ion, Nuani in some Galibi dialects. 

Umassi in Betoy, which is a Pelagic 

Ch"* ha, Muyzca in Muyzca, an Atlantic 

While in North America, we find analo- 
gies in Marin, Puecha, Cuiri, ofTalasor 
Tarasca, Atlantic language. 

Inicj Vinic, Vinac in the Chontal dia- 
lects near Otolum, the Poconchi, Maya, 
Huaztec .... 

Hinoi in Coweta of Florida. 

InaM in Otali or Tzulukj. 

Hunake in Seminol. 

Nokeneh in Chacta. All these are prob- 
ably Atlantic nations. 

Such ample, analogies and conformities 
must indicate a common origine ; a single 
word may thus point out ethnographical 
affinities, that may be confirmed by a deep- 
er examination. 

The root of all these names for a man, 
appears to be A N, EN, IN, ON, UN, or 
the various modifications of the nasal sounds, 



bf which the primitive meaning was folks 
or beingvS, Eon of the Greeks, Gens in 
Latin, Gente Italian, Gens (pr. Jan) of 
From h, springing from the ancient source 
of JIN, the primitive men of Asia from 
Arabia to China. 

Such were in Asia, the Ani^ Januy 
Manu of Imalaya mts. 

Kuen^ Han\ Shun^ 8an;s^, Man, Jong, 
Hiong, &c. of China and Tartary. 

2!an and Alan of Caucasus. 

Aion and Anak of Syria, Kin; Anush^ 
Xnon of Moses. 

Oan and An-ament of Assyria. 

Van and Gian of Persia. 

In ancient Europe, the liyantes, Xaons, 
Aones, Xantes of Greece and Thrace — 
Yan, Chons, Rasen, Cunis of Italy and 

In Africa, the Antes, Anions, Am-on of 
Lybia. — Cunex, Gons, of Atlas — Guan$ 
or Guanches of the Canaries. 

It is then evident that all these aiicient 
nations have been once connected, since 
they all bear nearly the same names, that 
of men or maiily beings. Compare also the 
Antidiluvian KIN and KIN'N of Moses, 
our Cain and Cainan. They have also had 
some primitive connections, with the Ame- 
rican nations with similar or analogotfs 
designations. This indication shall be furthidr 
ascertained and proved, as far as such oU- 
8cure times and subjects may allow. 


Therefore we may reckon among thd 
earliest inhabitants of America, in the 
times of the floods or soon after, the 

CUNIS yet found at the Austral end of 
America, and in the Andes, also in Darien 
as Cunas^ in Central America as ChontaJs^ 

MAYAS in Central and South America. 

ANTIS, most savage tribes of the Andes. 

AT ALAS, spread in America a$ yet 
from the Apalachian mts. to Chili and Ma- 
gellania, Toltecas of Mexico formerly. 

CHOLS, yet from Anahuac to Tucu- 
man : once Olmecas in Mexico. 

AYARS, ancestors of the presumed an- 
tidiluvians Cachuy Uihu^ Sancuj since 
Xavxa5^ Quichvas and Htiancas^ who 
have peopled nearly the whole of South 
America, from the Equator to Chili. 

Be^ides the Wakons or Snakes of North 
America. The Khayas of the Haytians, 
the Mu 'zcas, and the many tribes indicated 
by the Linapi aud Haytian annals. 

To ascertain the relative articuity or 
separation of these various Nations, and 
others now fcurd in bcth ^ mericas, will be 
jio easy task; but altho^ the dates of their 
origine iray be difi:cult to fix, we can yet 
hope to detect their successive separatioHi^ 
or colcnial settlements in America The 
Offgwis, Otcmis and ^achez of N^ Ame^- 
rica appear also of very ancient standing" 
in this Ilemispbere/ • 



Notes to Chapter VIII. 

Note 1. The oldest name of Neptune in 
Italy before the Romans was CONS-US. 
said to mean horseman, as Ilippias and 
Centaur in Greek; but more likely alluding 
to this CON nation of Lybia that invaded 
Italy — Mayors Mythology. 

ISote 2. The Mythological notions about 
the several ATLAS, have historical bases: 
we find many of them as Kings of Egypt, 
Lybia, Mauritania, Italy, Arcadia . . * . in 
very early times, which are di tinct Dynns* 
ties or Colonies of Atlantes. Tan-TALUS 
was a Kinsf or Dynasty of Phrygia lon^ 
before the Troyan war, since Pelops his 
son, is said to have coloniz.ed Peloponesus, 
The Atlantes have been proved by Bryant 
to be identic with the famous Titans, and 
these ruled long over the world. Three 
great Titanic wars are to be distinguished. 
1. Before the deluge, same as the oriental 
war of the Giants and sons of God, the 
Alitas arid Titanes of Phenicia, war of 
Gods of India. 3. Between the two floods^ 
the first Mahabharat of India. 3. After the 
' last flood of Peieg, the second Mahabharat^ 
when the Titanides or Atlantides and Cy- i 
clops, ruled for 500 years or 16 generations. 
Many of the facts and events of those 3 
wars have been blended ; it is probable thai 
the great Titanic Dynasty was betweeii 
xffoah and Pe1eg> d.nd that tfafe division of 



th<> Earth at Peleg applies also to the (ff«- 
vision of the Titanic Empire after Jupiter: 
$ great rulers of this period have historical, yel^ may be l))nasties. They ar^ 
1. FAN, Pfi^n gn Phaneus, leader from the 
East to Artnenia and Phrygia, 2. Acmon, 
3.. Uran, 4. EIl«US or Chronos, Saturn^ 
5. lU or Jou or Jupit<T. In North Africa 
the Atlantic rulers or dynasties subservient 
to these, were 1, Ura<n, *i, Hyperion, 3, He-^ 
lius or th^ &'un, 4, Ckean,. ... 5 Japetus, 
0, Atlas, certainly a dynasty since Kings 
thus called are found as late as Hercules 
^nd Perseus. The Hesperian, Herculian, 
Fivenor and Neptunian dynasties tire alsa , 
Jater, extending into t^e Atlantic. Ocean. 

Note 3. The true oriental Saturq, waa 
EILUS ; the Persian nomades are yet pall* 
ed EylauU or ElhO ; in Tartary, Teliuti. 
Und Elaths: compare the Helotf$ of Arch'^ 
dia and all the EL, ILI already noticed in. 
Cha^pter 3 and 6. Add thereto Pale God of 
Shepherds in Italy, the Palici Gods of thc^ 
Pelagians, Pallas gigantic Titans slain b|r 
ll^ineBv^., & c. 

J\ote 4. ThjB Tartarus and Hades of thqi» 
Greeks, was also in the West, in Italy^ 
Spain, and. America ! The volcanic chaina 
of America froqa the Azores, Canaries^ 
Antilles, Mexico, Niqaragui^ to Peru and 
Cbili« appear mpre likely to answer that 
•description than the small Italiii^ volcanoes,/ 
Vid Spain, ha^i no^ie ! Jt iyas ^p ^le <rf 


the Giants and Titans by Jupiter. But we 
shall find that America was also the West- 
ern Elysium, in Florida, Hayti, &/C , where 
no volcanoes desolated the soil, and a 
happy life was led. 

Note 5. The Greeks and Latins had a 
dozen Neptunes, all strangers, chiefly Af- 
ricans. Their oldest were the Okeanoi 
(our Ocean) thie Titanic Admirals, who 
led fleet in the Ocean^ Neton was a i|%ar« 
ticij Neptune of the Lusitanians. Uippias 
(the Horseman) was a Neptune Kinfif of 
Lybia 148.'l years before our Era. The 
crowd of Neptunian sons and aquatic dei- 
ties of old, were as many navigators and 
leaders of earlie>t colonies: their history is- 
very interesting for America. The foes of 
the Neptunes wwe Taraxipus^ a people 
of Dragons or Bats produeing storms, the 
Tajfra or Devil of Ilayti and also their 
furacan or storm. Yet a son of Neptune, 
was Taras who rode a Dolphin, and built 
Tarantum. His name is plainly found in. 
America. In Polynesia all the great navi-% 
gators ar« deemed Gods or Neptunes, call- 
^ there Wra { while in Peru, thfey were 
•called Vtra-cocha^ Foam or maa of the 
^a* and deemed Gods;. 

Note 6. Perhaps the Conis were expell- 
ed fi'om Europe and juy bia by the Atlantes^ 
mnd oametto America* No modern trav-^ 
#ller has properly described the wonderflil 
cm% of Tiahuaoaco^ The huge massive^ 


Structures and sculptures have been as^ 
* cribed to Giatits. or wicked men. Trac^ 
of other Giants are found in Popayan, Chilly 
Central America, &c. I think the build* 
ers were Chons from Central America. 
The names of Giants preserved by our 
' oldest Poets, apply to the tribes and 
Princes of the Titan race in Europe and 
'elsewhere, 300 are mentioned. But be- 
sides these, there are all over Europe, other 
traditions of early Giants or powerful tribes, 
preserved in local festivals and legends, to 
whom are ascribed mighty deeds, the 
foundation of Cities, &c. The Gqthic na- 
tions have their. Iotas and Boreas. In 
the South of France Tarasca and Cava^ 
mantran are yearly exibited in dances or 
revels. In Spain, Italy and Sicily, other 
Giants appear in processions, as early an- 
feestors or builders of Cities, if no longer 
Gods. Bronte town of mt. Etna, stiB 
bears the name of a Gigantic tribe of Cy- 
clops Bronte^ wBo dwelt there, 3000 years 
ago or more. In Messina the Giant 6H- 
fone and his wife Matriwe yearly exhibit- 
ed «Ls founders of the City^ then called 



Jlesearches on tlie Ancestors of some 
American primitine Nations^ CuniSy An^ 
tiSj Atalas^ Chilians^ Peruvians^ BraziU 
ians^ ^c. Connections of American an^ 
Asiatic tribes by Lybia and Europe^ Gi-- 
ants and Pygmies. 

The historical indications of the Cunis 
and Antis are numerous, ^Itho' faint and 
obscure, in Asia, Europe and Africa. They 
appear to me connected with the earliest 
tribes of mankind, and very interesting to 
elucidate primitive history every where. 
Whether they be derived from KIN of 
Moses, and the KUEN (Dogs) or KONG 
(Devils) of China; they may be traced 
from before the floods to our times. Tribes 
of Dogs and Devils are met with in History 
even in Java and Megani^sia, and through^ 
out America, as men and despised hations^ 

I venture to suggest that these primitive 
tribes were the Pygmies and Trogrlodytes 
of the North, the earliest men of Tartary, 
or rather the Ural and Altai mts. of Eu- 
rope and Asia, spread from China to Spain^ 
before the ( hinese, Tartars, Scythians, 
Celts, &c., and probably the ancestors of 
the great human race, now called FinSy 
Chudsj Sami^ &o., yet spread from Lap- 
land to Hungary and Siberia. 

Jimt^brun m9y be consulted for inte^- 


esting facts on their various ancient and 
modern tribes ; but he has not sec'n their 
brethren in the earliest inhabitants of 
Western Europe and Lybia, much less in 
America. The wildest Northern tribes of 
this Continent, altho' obviously later comers 
are partly connected by languages v^ith the 
Sami^ Wo^(ulh C/mii7ae/«,&c., of Siberia* 
Such are the American Innuit^ LinapiSj 
Uchis^ Panis or Apachis^ Shoshoais .... 

The ancient own names of this Asiatic 
and European stock is doul tful, Strabo 
called them Zumi: now all their tribal 
names are obscure or foreign* Chudi 
their Russian name means strangers, Unn 
is a gothic name meaning Foe or Fiend. 
Their own modern name is Sami,. Sumij 
Suomi^ Lain meaning people. Whence 
the Samoyeds the most Northern branch, 
Vfx^i akin with the Innuit ; but Ninetz is 
their own name, akin to Ninnis^ ^ large 
branch of Linapis ; Chosovo their word fw 
Man is found in many American languages. 
But the ancient OLINI are yet found in 
the Oleni the Deer tribe of the Tonguz on 
River Lena. 

Meantime the Cunis are found m the 
Asiatic Chuni^ (h(td and Huns who in- 
vaded Europe, and were called KUN by 
the Hungarians; in early times the Kong 
and Kt)^K!f pf China, and Oni, of Japan: 
as well as the Spanish and Magellanife 
CuNis : alt ho' separated perhaps for 5000 



y6ars. The Kuan, Kainu or Cayan are 
yet the main tribe of the Finns, and Laps 
of Norway, The Cayans are spread i^i 
Asia to the Birman mts>.) in the South, and 
over many parts of India and Perisia, un- 
der akin names, and the main branch of 
Mongols are Caydns. (Note 1)* 

We have seen the Zemis and K-*ayas to 
be ancestors of the Ha\tians: But the 
Cnyubas of the Andes, are one of the Anti 
tribe, of which the known language will 
afford historical links, and enquiries : while 
the Sapibo-Conas language will show the 
Andis-C«iwi of America. 

In ancient Italy the Cascus meaning 
oldest^ were the earliest people, according 
to Niebuhr. There Ante meant Anterior 
and primitive, whence AnticusxYie ancient: 
Anti foe and opponent, in old Latin. The 
Hectenes and Hy antes of Greece were the 
oldest tribes of the mountains with the 
Xaons ; but the Antes are yet the East- 
ern Finnish race of the Ural. 

AH these were called dwarfs, pygmies^ 
dogs,&c. by their foes, the early conque-ors 
of Europe, Celts, Pelagians, Atlantes, 
Goths, &/C., who took the proud names of 
Giants, Gods, Heroes and Nobles. The 
Giw-ANTES (giants) appear a compound 
name from Ogyg and Antes, meaning per- 
haps Over-antes. The Goths and Iotas 
were Giants : Volotes of the Slavons ; com- 
pare the Icotas and Cautas of the Antilles^ 

40 RBS£ARCHfeir» 

since become the Gotos and Colos, mafai 
branch of the Caribs m Cumana and Guy- 

Traces ' of dwarf nations by stature or 
weakness are found from the Apalachian 
aits, to the Andes. The Cherokis expell- 
ed a dwarf nation from the first. In Ana- 
hudc they were called Ozofna or Apes. In 
South America they are the ZumacoSj 
Chaymas^ and many others ; while Giants 
by stature or power are traced in Ohio, 
Anahuac, Popayan, as far as Patagonia. 
The CaribS) Talahets, and Tinguis are 
often such as yet. Ymis were Finnish 
tribes; but Yndr Giants of the Edda, 
gothic poem : Tmis Giants and Satyrs of 
it and Celts, Dasi^ Tuski . . . . 

The Xoni of Italy were the husbandmen 
TassaLs, or settled tribes, while the Pelagai 
were the wandering Palis or Shepherds of 
old. These were conquered in e&rliest 
times by the Atlantes or Titans of the 
Greeks, Turans or Etruscans of Latins, 
divided in 4 Castes as in India, 1. Tuski 
Priests^ 2. Larthes Nobles, Tyrheni in 
Eolian-pelagian, 3. Raseti Warriors, or 
Rhaetes Eagles, 4. Gens or Plebes^ people 
and vassals. Among the Celts the Turones 
or Camutes were the presiding tribe. 
Among the lUyrians or Guegue (ancestors 
of the Httehue of Central America ?) the 
Taulanti and Toski were the Noble and 
priestly tribes. The AET-OLI or Eagle 

" f 



Bolians were Dlyrians, and old Greeks^ the, 
warlike tribe; the llienses of Sardinia, 
and the Sic-uli of Sicily were also Illyrians. 
ILI-UR Sons of light or the East are the 
same as the EL or Angels of both Conti- 
nents. In Spain they became ILER-GET 
a tribe of Basks, connecting the Geta or 
Northern Illyrians, since become the Goths, 
with the Western OSKI of Italy, Vaskons 
of Spain and Gascony, that were Iberian 
tribes, meaning beyond the sea,* see Obri 
of Moses, brethren of the Pelagians, his 
FLG, our Peleg. * . 

The LiGVREs of Italy, were also Illyrians, 
and many of their tribes had spread from 
the Danube to the Tagus. But all these 
ancient nations were brethren of the Thra- 
cians ancestors of the Russians and Slavo- 
nic nations. Pelagic Greeks, Lybians, 
Etruski, &c. But the Opiki of Italy said 
to be indigenous, might be the earlier Com. 
Opiki meant terrestrial, adamic, borji ' of 
the soil. 

The Heneti of Asm, Venetiof Italy and 
Gaul, Vindili or Vs^ndals of the North, 
were Slavonic tribes or colonies, perhaps 
of Eagle nation, or GENTES (people An- 
tes). ViNTTLi of Cimbria (became the Lom- 
bards since) were Cimerians or Celts ; who 
deemed of Gomerian origine have less ana- 
logies in America : few if any of their colo- 
nies can be traced there. The Cotini of 
Sarmatia deemed Celts by Tacitus, are 




akin to the Coti and Coni of the AIp^ . 
The Canti of England, Kauki of Ireland, 
Xantes of Phygia, Kikones of Thracia^ 
Kankones of Arcadia, Canta^brians and 
Conte-stans'of Spain, appear akin tribes 
to the Ant£S and Conis. Justin puts the 
Cunetes in the forests of the Tartesians of 
Spain, and deems them Titans, because 
they made war on the Gods of the Greeks. 

In Lybia or North Africa, beyond the 
black nations, we find nearly 2000 years 
ago, the Anti'koli nearest to the Ocean 
near Senegal, South of the AutololeSj who 
might be parents of the Antis and KoleSj 
both American nations. The Tolotes, Tu- 
lensesj Teladusi, EluU, were tribes of At- 
lantes under the Romans in Algiers. The 
Thala were independent in the mts. of that 
name in Soudan, with a branch in Numidia 
to N. E4 while the Cynethi were in Lybia 
proper nearer Egypt. 

Earlier, Herodotus places the Atlantes 
in mt. Atlas ; who were the Atlantes of 
Diodonis, the Atarantes of Plinius. The 
Amantes of Solinus are the Eastern Atlan- 
tes of Lybia, Garamantes pf others. Ama- 
zons and Antes of earliest times. They are 
now the modern Tuarics. The Getulians 
were Nomadic Atlantes, Talubath was 
their Capital. The Autololas were South- 
em Atlantes, very powerful, with many 
tribes, Auloles^ Galdlas^ BantbaSj &c., 
ancestors of the modern Gnlas and Ftilns 


spread in Central Africa even beyond the 
Equator. The Felatas or Pahtas are 
Nomads, the African Palis or Pelagians. 
The Chaulasi and Chaulotei were the old 
Oetulians, similar to the Galas. 

The oldest Asiatic nations or tribes an- 
cestors of these were I . the Cuntalas of 
Central India, 2. Pallis now. Bhils of the 
mountains of India, 3. Chulicas North of 
Sulya mts. 4. Talicata of Decan now Te- 
lingas. 5. Cholas of South India, compare 
with the American Chols. 6. Kanaka m 
Persia. 7. Tala of the N. W. of India, 
TaUtha and Turuca near them, all Tu- 
lans or Turans of Bactria. 8. Caicaya now 
Cabul. 9. Hematala North of India. 10. 
Sameya near them the Sames? 11. Lola 
and Cunaha between India and China. 

12. Vahlicas of Balk, ancestors probably 
of all the Pallis, called Po-li by the Chi- 
nese, became Palavas or Peluvis in Per- 
sia, Palangslia in the West or Asia minon 

13. Chintas and Canihas^ ancestors of 
the Xanti of Phrygia and Thracia, Xanthe 
of Lycia, were Eastern Asiatic Antis. The 
Xanthari wer« a tribe of Bulls or Mino- 
taurs in Lybia on the Ocean! 14. Cutilas 
or.Negros of Indostan whom Wilford deems 
ancestors of the black Gaituli or Getulians, 
were the black Attantes. 

These are all ancient names from the 
Sanscrit Books of Geography. — In them 
our Europe is called Varapa^ the Western 



Europeans or Celts Cransha. The Sacas 
were the Saxons or Germans, who dwelt 
on the Oxus, but spread in Persia long 
ago, reaching the Danube 1508 years bef. 
C. — Apar-antica at the end of the West 
were the Antis of Lybia? Atala was 
America ! Apara-gahan by Birmans. 

The Antidiluvian and Animalized tribes 
of the Hindu Books, are very curious; and 
partly connected with America. We find , 
there Snakes, Monkeys, Crocodiles, Grifins, 
. Birds, Elephants, Tygers, Bulls, Fishes, 
Turtles, Hogs .... besides Amazons^ Cy- 
clops, Triclops, Gods, Angels, Fairies, Gi- 
ants, Devils, &/C. 

The Telxins of Crete and Rhodes be- 
fore the floods, were Atlantes and KIN f 
one of their Colonies was the CantalianSj 
who peopled the Id. Cos. The Curetes 
were their Priests and Lords. , 

Car-ihuK was the oldest name of the 
Iberians of Caucasus, who colonized Caria, 
and perhaps became the Taul-anti in . 
Western Macedonia by uniting with the 
Antis. The Kikones of Thrace dwelt on 
the Lissus, in country Bri-antica : they 
became Caucones in Greece ; spoke Ca- 
rian, and came by Crete : thus they were 
all connected tribes. 

The Cynurians (dogs tails) of Arcadia, 
Faunes of Italy were the oldest settlers, 
come from Ionia. 

There must be a distinction between the 


Solar Cones and the dog like Cynos. The 
Pelagic Solar Priests were called Kun and 
Cunides; in Assyria Kona. Xon was a 
name of the Sun in Asia and Lybia ; the 
lleS'Caones of Spain were probably mixt 
Xaones of Greece and Eergetes^ noble 
tribes of Getes and Illyrians colonies. The 
names for dogs in many languages would 
afford curious results, it was Cuna in 
Guanch as in Pelagic. In Peru Alco was 
dogf^ and Olco man .... 

The old KuEN of China exist yet in the 
mts. ol Anam, and are called Kuan-to^ 
deemed the oldest people there. Two large 
provinces of South China, hear yet the 
name of Kuang^ from that conquered na- 
tion. Kuni is ground in Japanese. 

In the Himalaya mts. beyond the snowy 
range dwell yet the Kuna-tcur speaking 
a peculiar language, Frazer. While the 
same Kunawur are deemed in Hungary 
the united Kuns and Avars. The Te- 
qtianes or TE-KUAN of Mexico, Tygers 
who destroyed the Giants, may have been 
such KUAN, since become Tecas or later 

Thus these two nations are traced from 
Asia, thro' Europe to Lybia. the Canaries, 
and over the Ocean to America, in the 
earliest periods, by the Atlantic, whether 
before, or with their conquetors the At- 

Philological remarks on the languagi 




and terms for men, people^ angels^ &c. I Xk 
the languages of these early tribes, might 
be much extended, but must be barely al- 
luded to. 

Fir man Celtic and Gothic, is akin ta» 
Feri Hungarian; but in the Italic L. Fera 
is beast, or the beastly wild men, Nera a 
strong man ; while in the Greek L, it be- 
comes Her OS — Aner man gr. Gneri in 

Cuno was dog and woman in Pelagic 
languages : Cants and Conu in the Italic : 
Choni "woman in Hungarian. , Cunicus 
Rabbit in Italy : compare Anti with Ants 
in English, and the Anti or Tapir of Ame- 

Suomi people in Finnish L. is akin ta 
Homo, which is the Hebrew OM people^ 
Pelagic, Somds body — loma is Priest in^^ 
Chuva, a Suomi language, and luma God, 
laimala is the good God of the Laplanders,. 
Noa-iadcLS (heaven above) their Angels,. 
Olma a man, Olmai a Lord, Lain tribe^. 
compare Olmecas of America. 

Gan is deceit, illusion, magic or power,, 
in all the Finnic, Celtic and Gothic lan-^ 
guages ; whence Inganno (deceit) in Ital- 
iaa. The Kimas, Xanies, would be de^- 
ceivers, jugglers, our Enchanters. Compare 
Gan ia Hebrew, said to be a Garden or 
rather a M£fgic circle, and Kan Kinga o^ 

£um w^rf^ the Flnoish husbvidBieii^ 



compare th€ Curi^, Coras^ KiriSy of Ame-^ 
rica ; but Kuri i» also Crane, and in 
Greece the Pelagians were also called 
Cranes PelargoL Race, to run, in Celtic 
L. derive from Kur, whence the names of 
many tribe? of wanderers, runners • . • . 

• Jah are the Finnic Spirits of dead, Ahis. 
Devils of Slavons or bad men akin to the 
Chape^ Jtbi, Api of the Linapi tribes ; Opara 
of the Vandals, Opi of Antilles. 

Giboit^ lakoi Urag^ were divine Snakes 
worshipped from Lithuania to Italy. Traces 
of Snake-men are found among the Finnic 
tribes ; also of dwarfs, slaves, devils, wolfs, 
dogs, birds, &c. Thie Edda names many 
of these tribes of dwarfs. The animalized 
nien of old Europe have not yet been prop* 
^erly investigated : the emblems of tribes 
became their title. The Dacian Getes 
were Dragons as the Chinese, the Arca- 
dians were Eagles like the Actolians, the 
Lybians and Thessalians became Horses 
and Centaurs, the old Spaniards became 
Rabbits and Fishes, because dwelling in 
Caves^ and fishing in boats. The old Celts 
were Lions and Cocks, the Clans took af- 
terwards trees for emblems, the Oak wa» 
their holiest tree and priestly caste. The 
thistle is even now the emblem of the Cel* 
tic Scotch ; while the Eagle feathers de* 
noted the chic^ then as in Greece,. Italy,. 
Siberia and North America. 

7y/4?»m (the Wolf) was inthfi Eddta 



the father of Finnish tribes, and child of a 
Snake: while Gimer and Ymiry Gamerir 
anSj were Giants of the momitains. This 
Northern Poem aHndes also to tribes of 
Cows, Birds, Wonni^ Fairies, Negroes,. 
Rock-dwellers, Gods .... The older Vol- 
uspa Poem alludes to the delage, and con- 
quest of Ytnir by Bore the Boreal nation* 
Altho' the Gothic traditions are but little 
connected with America, they are valuable 
for Asiatic comparisons. They even speak . 
of the South pole, the Heaven Himtn of 
Central Asia, the Genf or Angels called 
ALF and ELF whence our Elves, the 
Gods or AS, akin to Asia, the AZ of Mexi- 
co ; the Van nation of Persia, the Ida of 
the Greeks, and their whole mythology is 
Asiatic : while we can trace their MAN 
(people, men) from Manchuria to Ger- 
many, as brethren of American tribes. See 
Mallet Northern Antiquities. 

Epirus was the name of South Dlyria, 
and Fannonia the Northern Illyria : Pano 
means Lord in Slaronic. We must com- 
pare thereto the Piros and Panos of the 
Ucayali East of Peru, both tribes of Man- 
COS or Maynas^ (the Mainas of Greece 
are modern Albanians). The Piros of 
Maw are the Paros of Amicb, and were 
formerly Purvays, who gave name to 
Peru : while the Panos had written books 
and annals. The languages will prove 
them connected with the Zamucos and Gvt^ 



anas, and all with more analogies with the 
Leleges and Illyrians, also the Lezghis of 
Caucasus their Eastern brethren, than 
with almost any other nations. 

But the Manoas were once Manoitas 
and Setebos^ names of Gods of Maypuris 
and Tinguis. Their tribes are numerous 
with niany names connecting with the 
Chols and Conis, such as Cholones^ Choltos^ 
and Conivos who are Panos with a white 
complexion. The Sapiho-conas whose lan- 
guage is known and akin to Aymara, are 
formed by two blended ifxhe^^ Sipihos and 
Conas. The Piros have tribes of Ene 
and Maparis which connect with the May' 
puris^ and their Eno. Thus the ancient. 
Peruvian tribes are all connected, as the 
ancient tribes of Europe were. 

It will be shown that ms^ny nations of 
South America were interlinked by lan- 
guages and names, when we come to ex- 
amine these respective subjects, and the 
annals of each. At present this ample 
theme will be merely indicated. It might 
be still more extended by tracing these con- 
nections to North America, and to the 
other Hemisphere as it has been partly 
done for the Conis and Antis. 

The Chilians called themselves anctently 
SE-KE meaning old-people. They em- 
ploy yet this term for the natives, in op- 
position to the Culme or strangers, Chiapi 
or vile^mej^ (the^ Spaniards) an$ Maru-kSj, 




Sea-people, those who come by Sea. AH 
these are historical designations. 

The Sechura were a people of North 
Peru, speaking a peculiar language, 
D^ulloa. KE meant people and mountain- 
eer in all the Austral languages of Ameri- 
ca, being akin to KA of Peru and KAZ 
of Asia. The Poyas South of Chili are 
divided into Keyus axid Caucas or Caca- 
kuets. Compare also Seke with the JS^- 
kuaras or Cantabrians, and OskanSj Cas- 
cus of Italy. 

Culme^ appears the same as Actilma a 
wretched old nation of Anahuac (^Torque- 
mada) perhaps s^ame as Hulmrcas. But 
IJLMEN means Noble in Chilian, and in- 
dicates a double point of view, or different 
ideas applied in double sense. 

Chiapi^ has many analogies, compare 
Chipi and Api of the Linapis, Chiapa in 
Central America; but above all the Chipa" 
nas or Zipanas^ ancestors of the l*anos, 
people or Dynasty of Collas in Peru ; per- 
haps ancient foes of the Sekes^ whose name 
became synonym of vile. It is remarkable 
that the Spanish Creoles have since applied 
this despising nickname to the natives of 
Spain, who are now called Chiapes and 
Chiapetons from Chili to, Guatimala, jBTm- 
inca (murderer) was also applied to the 
invading Spaniards in Chili, a term bor- 
rowed from former foes, the Incas. 

.^rw-^c answers to Fira-cocfta (mea 

llES£ARCH£d. 51 

of the Sea) of Peru. That name was given 
to all the strangers and legislators who 
came by Sea, bringing civilization. Many 
are mentioned in Peruvian history, and 
some were deified. This connects with 
Polynesia, since HIRO was the last or 14th 
Neptune of Tahiti. The first Viracocha 
was TIZE, and in Tahiti TI or TIHI is 
the God ancestor, while H-mariO'tun 
(God-sea-neptune) is the God of naviga- 
tors and pilots: whose name is known in 
Chilian mythology as Epa-tun the twin 
Neptune, or double ancestor. 

The name of Chili has perplexed the 
'authors, who have given ridiculous etymc- 
logies of it . . . from cold in Peruvian, 
Laet ... a Valley, D'ulloa ... a bird, Mo- 
lina . . . yet he has indicated the true 
meaning, which is South . . . Huila in 
Chilian, Cula in Quichua. Thus Chili- 
mapu name of the country means South- 
land. The Southern Chilians were called 
Huili'ke South people. The HuiUafis are 
the South Poyas; the Hf leans a tribe of 
Lul6, perhaps even the Vilelas and Lul6s, 
imply Southern, since they dwelt South of 
Tucuman. The Chulilans are yet the 
most Southern Chilians in lat. 41 to 45 d. S. 

But this term can be traced further, 
since the Collas of Peru, were also the 
Southern tribes there, and at the partition 
of th« Empire of Tiahuanaco they formed 
the Southern kingdom. The Chilis^ Hu^ 


His, VtlelUs.SLC. may spring from thpiie' 
primitive CoUas : whos^ name has analo-- 
gies with many Southern nations, elsewhere. 
The Chelus or Shilus are yet the Atlantes 
of the South Atlas: the Colas, CohaJas^ 
Cholas, ChuUcas were Southern tribes of 
Hindostan. The Colas were in Decan 
before the Hindus come from the North. 

These may perhaps connect with the 
Chols, Southern people of Mexico, the 
Cholas of Tucuman Cholones of Popayau, 
Chiloagas of Bogota, &c. The Incas 
only conquered in 1464 to 1466, and with 
much trouble, the Calluas of Peru, who 
with the Cassa and Ayahuaca formed a 
powerful and flourishing Confederation, of 
CoUas, Kas and Ayas, three primitive akin 
tribes : all of Asiatic impdrt. 

Colas, CoUas, Colhuas, Calluas . • • . 
appear identic, and must be compared with 
the Xelhua, Eles, Acul, Hul or OL • . . . 
most ancient nations of Anahuac. Olco, 
Alca means man or male in Colla and 
Chilian dialects, EL, OL in Mexican! 
Coxcox, the great COX is the Mexican 
Noah. KOKO is man in Saliva .... But 
KO is water is Chilian and akin lan- 
guages ..... while JEN is a being, aGeni, 
a Lord, a master .... 

The Chilians deem two brothers TUN 
their ancestors. They may be compared 
with TON or TUN Neptunes of Lybia, 
Nei-ton navigator, An-ton Old-ton, Plu^ 

ion the TON of the Swamps .... Paius 
m Latin, Pdus in Greek, Pde in SekS . . . 
Also with Tonaca the Adam of Anahua<^, 
or ancestor. These Chilian TUN were 
adso called Glu^ce (primitive people), 
which may be compared with the Huts 
and Ghuls or Gaulus ancient demons of 
Europe, Gluri or Imgur ancient syncmyms 
of liigurians. In Feru Hatun means 
great, Vuta and Buta in Chili, compare 
• the Votan of Central America. The main 
CoUas of Peru were the Atun-collas, 
Hunca or Tunca was the Capital of the 

The Xauxas of Peru, the supposed 
ante-diluvians, called their ancestors Guari 
and Balia^ a man and woman sprung from 
the Lake Guaribalia. This appears to me 
to refer to the ocean, and the ancient men 
Ari and Bali of Asia The Quichuas 
thought themselves sprung from the sacred 
Lake Titicaca, and the Anda-bdylas a peo* 
pie Anti from the L. Sogdo-coca, see JHei^ 
rera. As men never were born in Lakes, 
these notions allude to other times and 
places: the names being transfered to 
America, Coca and Coeha mean both 
lake and sea, in Peruvian dialects, akin to 
Co water in Chili, compare the l^nd Coea-^ 
na or America of the old Spaniards. 

Debrizhofer tells us that the Abipons 
had a tradition to have once come from be- 
yond the seas or great waters, and to have 





long wandefted with the Antis. (or an Anti 
or tapir a beast, D. said a Jackass by mis* 
take! none being there*.) Being connect* 
ed with the, Tobas, Mocobis, Mbayas ^^ 
all these tribefii were then foreigners and 
wanderers, perhaps Mayas ; the Antis on 
whom they rode were their vassals: riding 
is a figure of speech. This Nation of No- 
bles had always vassals, the Guanas became 
such afterwards, who are akin to the 

East and South of Chili from Tucuman 
to the Magellanic Ids, a single nation once 
existed, since divided in 3 branches and 
many tribes. 1 Talahets or Hatihets to the 
North. 2 Poyas or Huilik6s south of ChilL 
3 Cunis east of them as far as the Islands 
of our Fuegoland. They are yet partly 
confederated ; but the Unguis our Pata- 
gons, and the Cunis are almost exiled, 
having been driven to the Austral end of 
America, by discords, or fear, or in search 
of fishing stations. They might be once 
a single nation with the Chilians : the Ta- 
lahets or main tribe are the Austral At- 


The traditions (although hardly known) 
of these tribes, their languages, customs, 
veneration for the Sun, mountains and the 
Sea; indicate a. common origine with the 
Peruvians, come once fi-om beyond Seas, 
but saved in mountains fi-om floods. 

In Chaco East of Tucuman 56 Nations 


had been found, by making one of each 
tribe or even village. Jolis in 1767 re- 
duced them to 10, v^^hich I shall still further 
reduce; altho' Azara states that there 
are more, having languages quite peculiar, 
but giving no vocabularies, as I will to prove 
the contrary. 

Yet it is in those vast plains of Chaco, that 
are found the synonyms and synqphonies 
of many tribes, far removed in and out of 
America. Such are the Curetes of the 
Pelagians, the Palalis or the very Palis 
of Asia, the Palomis or Pali-men . . . the • 
Teutas or Tenf as, which are not Teutons; 
but may be compared with the Thits of 
Charcas, Titi and TYa of -Peru, Teuti of 
Anahuac, all gods or divine people. The 
C^aUegas which are akin to the Calis of 
South America, the Calaici of Gallicia 
&c. Yet they and the Palomos were 
tribes, of Tobas, while the Palalis were 

It would be highly interesting to -have 
preserved the traditions of these Vilelas 
and the Lul6s their brothers : both of Pe- 
lagian origine, Uke the ILI of Hayti and 
Western Greece. Their known languages 
show strong analogies with the Italic and 
Cantabric nations, and in America with 
the Salivas and Betoys of the Oronoc, 
also with the Chilians. Many tribes of 
Choco and Tucuman, belonged to this 
people : Jolis mentions 12 of them, among 

56) ' researches; 

which are the Atalas or Atalalas (agau» 
Atlantes !) the Uacas or Gnacas, the To^ 
nocotes or Todonotes . . • . all remarkable 
names. The Ocoles or Ocloyas recall 
the Collas of Peru, ^11 might have been 
such once. Compare the Hucoles shep- 
herds of the Carpathian mts. 

The Southern Aiitis or Andis are found 
in the mts. Andes as AndaUgolas^ mixt 
with Colas or Golas: and further South 
they became the Antulis allies of the^ 
Chilians in Peruvian annals. The CM- 
. ehas were mixt with them in the mts., 
and became the Cal4^haqu%s of Tucuman» 
But all those tribes were of Xauxa or Ka- 
kana origme, like the ancient Cagnas of 
Peru: speaking dialects. . The Guanas, 
were also of similar origine perhaps,* and 
they fiU'd one-third of South America, by 
connected tribes and languages. The* 
Chiri-guanas or sons of Guanas dwelt in- 
S. E. Peru and Tucuman, descended of 
the Huanacas who founded the Empire of 
Tiahuanaco. The relations of the Gu- 
anas are found in Peru, and further North, 
till lat. 30 S. under many names. CruanO' 
means man, which has affinities every 
where ; compare the Guanches of the Ca- 
naries. The Calchaquis said Kanct^ The 
Maynas said Anoa. 

The Z'amucas or Yamoeos North* of 
Chaco was a polished people, akin to the* 
Guaranis and OmaguoiS, their neighbors j^r 


but of Guana origine; they call men 
ChanUf and the Chanas or Chonos were 
spread as far as Popayan and the Oronoc 
regions. They appear the relics of the 
Chans of Peru, Chonos of South Chili. 
Did they come from the East before 
entering Peru by the North ? Zemais was 
one of their tribes. Compare them with 
the Zemis of the Antilles, and the Zumas 
ofAnaJmac^ Zumi or Finns of Asia, Zemo- 
pas the earthly spirits of the ancient 
Leches or Lygians, now Polanders. 

I shall not enter now into the history of 
the Guaranis and Gatibis, the two Eastern 
Nations of S. America, this will form a 
peculiar enquiry. They had each split into 
100 tribes, which it shall be interesting to 
pursue in their settlepients ; they are all 
more modern in America, than the tribes 
of the West and South : probably both of 
afiicaa origine akin to the brown Nations of 
West Africa, now settled by Negroes 
driven by other eastern invades. 

Another Nation of Tucuman, the TAO 
nicknamed Chiquitos, is a stranger there; 
since I have traced it by the language to* 
tiie Aruac and Taino Stock of Guyana^ 
The Tingui-dichas nicknamed Patagons^, 
are another similar colony, the most re«- 
mote. The Aruacs once fiUed nearly the 
whole of Guyana and Brazil; but were 
driven away gradually by the Galibis and 
Guaranis, This TAO ftaoguagQ is linked. 


58' RBBFi A ttCHBS^ 

with the Mbaya, and there is a chain of 
akin dialects all over S. America ; while 
the Austral Cunis, had akin tribes and dia-* 
lects, from the^ Mbayas to the Muyzcas and 
Cunaeunas oi Darieiu 

AzarHi ' has seekoned 30 n^rtiohs ancF 
languages South of the tropic, but they have 
all moral and physical similarities, and 
their languages, which he did not study 
nor give, are often mere dialects, like the 
actual dialects of France and Italy. 

Thus I have detected that the Juaiadge 
or CayajeSj nicknamed Lenguas by the 
Spaniards, are a branch of the Taos. The 
Guayanas are Guanas ; the Guayarapos or 
Ckiarpes of Cuyo are akin to the Muras of 
Brazil, spread from Guyana to Cuyo ! they 
are the Murumurus of East Peru and the 
fiimous Ambares nicknamed Botocudo in 
Brazil, wha eall man Engerek akin to 
Engaty Ergmz in Atlantic Languages. 
They might be Eastern AntiSy of America: 
The northern were the Chin^anteeds of 
Mexico ? (Note *.) 

These Marus with other nations of Bra- 
ail are deemed of doubtful origine : this 
•ommonly happens when we know not tbeil* 
iqieecth Their languages always lead to 
4H3fmectibns. The Paris are connected 
with the Yiarur&s and Gtiaraus of Qaj^* 
anay perhaps akin to the Paruays and Fw- 
bis of Pek^u, Ivlit black tribes are finmd 
^oqg thwa^ rakiainfi ef iM African w» 


ktoes. The JUlurus are akin to die Ay^ 
maras, (^ Peru. I hate ascertained that 
all the Mundntcus, CMmanos^ and Tin^ 
Jriraa of BrnaA^ akin tribes^ have plulolo* 
gical analogies with the Chilktns^ and that 
the Geico and Coretu two tribes of people 
KO in Brazil, have 70 per cent>. of analo* 
gies in languages with the Chilians. This 
unexpected fa:ct assimilates the ancient 
popuktioh of Brazil, with *tfaat of Chili and 
Peru ; but the Soke did not come frem 
Brazil direct ; the KO are perba^ a 
branch of tilie KA of the Andes, like the 
. CoUas, the Kokos men of the Salivas, 
Coros of Cumana, Coras of Peru and 
Mexico, Cores of Antilles. . . .who are con-^ 
nected tribes, with many Oriental ana- 
logies, and can be traced from Coxcox, the 
Noah of AnahUac, throughout &e Conti- 

It is doubtful if the Andes or the Antifles 
were the central focus of this population. 
The MurcLS can also be traced to the North 
by the Muretes of Moxos. The nations 
North of Peru, and their traditions will af* 
fbftd additional lights ; but require a pecu- 
liar investigation. From hence at least 
eame the Yuncas or Incas of Peru in later 
times, and many other L^slators previ- 
ously. Thoma-Gata Muyssca priests of the^ 
second Dynasty Hunza, went far away to^ 
teach and civilize all over & America ; mis- 
takoL for Sl Thomas! by the Spanfeti. 



Monks. They appeared in Brazil as 
Zume or Tzome, and founded the Zumace 
Empire* In Peru as Tume, and the God 
Omeque ai the Manazicas polished state 
of Taos, where he established the 4 Castes. 
Compare also the Zamna of Yucatan, and 
other Legislators with various names. 

The region of Guyana and the Oronoc 
to the N. E. offers besides the Aruac and 
Galibi tribes, many others further inland, 
that are connected with the West Nations 
of America; such are the Atures^ or 
AtoraySy their language having no R it is 
the same as ATULA, the real Americai^ 
Atlantes ! they call man Yuwane, akin to 
Yawan of Europe and Guana of S. A. 
They are evidently connected in speech 
with the Bask and Pelagic races. In 
old Spain with the tribes of Astures 
Turdes^ Bas-Thila Slc, 

The Betoy of Oronoc must be compared 
with the Betoi, or Vetories of Spain, the 
Sfdicas with the SaJivis or Salyes a 
Lignrian tribe enthe Rhone, and the. /Sfa2a- 
vas of Central India. All those old Nations 
of Guyana altfao' of various stock have 
connections together by speech, and even 
gs much with the Basks and Berbers of 
Spain and Atlas. Mr. Van Heuvel has 
favored me with 7 vocabularies of their 
Languages, which will enable me to trace 
these connections, in the history of Guyana. 
The Guaranos, and Warrows are two tribes 

researches; 61 

irf'Yaruras of later African origine. The 
Acoway, Macusis, Tiberacokis, speak dia- 
lects of the Galibi and Tamanae ; but the 
Atorays are Atlantes and older than any.. 
While the* Otomacas or Tamocans are a 
tribe of Antis, not Yaruras as Gili wrongly 
stated, unless the Yaruras are also Antis* 
The Mobtmas^ and Itonamas are also 
Antes: perhaps the Kiriri spread from 
Guyana to Quito, are such likewise. 

Gili has also stated the Atures to be 
a tribe of Salivas ; but his Saliva lang. is 
very different from my Atures: both may 
be Atlantic however. The Betoy with 20 
tribes (JSfe, Lolaca^) has analogies every 
where; but striking ones with the Pelagic 
li. Man is Umasiy God 7)?o, Fire Futui 
&c. It has 60 per cent, of analogies in 
Italian and Latin. 

The great Nation of Moxas, Musus^ 
Muyzcas &c. was spread from Oronoc to 
Popayan and East Peru — their traditions, 
bring them from the East. They had 
many tribes and dialects. Man was 
Akane^ Mma, MuhL . . .with affinities as 
fer as Chili. This was an ancient Ameri- 
can Nation, probably of Chontal Origine 
from Central America. And these Chon^ 
tals spread from Oaxaca to Nicaragua, 
were evidently Atlantes, united with the 
Cbons of Lybia. 

There, as in Anahuac Giants or power*^ 
fill men dwelt evea before the flood, ther 




Tzociiilli are met yet in the Zoqaes of 
Chiapa, the Zacas of Zaeutecas, and of the 
Muyzcas — the Ihina-metin were the 
primitive TUN or Neptunes, ancestors of 

the actual Totonacas, Tunicas spread 

from Louisiana to Guatimala; perhaps 
akin to the Natchez who certainly came 
from the East, before they settled the mts. 
of Anahuac, and spread from hence North 
and South. Compare the Inamas Angels 
of the Apalachians, Tonacas Adamites of 
Mexico, Tuncas of Muyzcas. In Lybia 
the Amantes, in Celtica the Tuins and 
Titans (N. 3.) - 

But the Pygmies, Apes and Ants, des- 
pised vassal tribes, were in Anahuac the 
Aculmas, Zumas and Comayas : whose 
radical term is perhaps OM, UM, like the 
Pygmies of Europe, the Zumi^ JZiwrni, 
the Finish nations. Can Homo and the 
akin terms for man, among some Pelagic 
andLigurian nations, be the same term? 
But it is found for man in Central Asia, as 
well as Central America, and in Hebrew 
OM means Nation. Perhaps the Gothic 
and English word ANT w^'s synonymous, 
and thus many Antis might be Myrmi- 
dons also. Make calls the Ancestors of 
the Russians Antes ! The Pygmean tribes 
would be . spread then from the Ural and 
lodia to Lybia, and might have given name 
to Antila, one of the Atlantic Ids., in the 
Ocean, since our Antilles «... ItUa is 


nan in the Mobima an.Anti language: 
Antij Inti was the Sun in the Chilian and 
Quichua languages: while Chom meant the 
first or primitive in the Zamuca language, 
akin to OM in Motor of Asia, OIM in 
Zend • • • • 

These few contrasted terms, to which 
many others might be added, evince at 
least some connections of ideas, between 
the names of primitive men. Pygmies and 
Troglodytes, dwelling under ground like 
Ants. While the terms for Giants, Heros 
Angels and Gods have as many or more 
connections every where. The Goths, 
Getes, lotes, lutes .... were Northern 
Giants. Hindu legends are full of* Giants ; 
in China we meet none ; but instead MAN 
for vassals, besides barbarians, devils and 
angels or spirits SHIN. . . .THUS Giants of 
Goths, DUS of Celts, are connected with 
the Gods ZEUS, theos of Greeks, TEO 
of Mexicans, Deus of Latins, Devatas of 
Hindus, Dives of Persia. 

notes to chapter IX. 

Note 1. It appears the real name of the 
Huns of Asia was KHUN, the Man or 
Gothic tribes their foes changed this to 
Hund meaning Dog! the Chinese to 
Hiong meaning Vermin ! The first Oguz- 
kan Empire in Tatary after lasting lift 
years from 3824 to 2708 bef. C. was divi- 


^ed in 6 Kingdoms (called sons), the firsi 
vas that of KIUN meamng Sun! the 2d 
AY or Moon« the solar and lunar domino 
ions. MAN-TO]$r is deemed a second Qgus 
yet he was son vassal or decendant of the 
last Chinese Emperor of Dynasty HIA 
Cfloding in 1767 bef. C. See Tartar history. 
Ib the KUA dialects of Austral Africa 
(Hottentot) Man is Kan, Kuy Kui, tribe 
or people is Ktrna, K»a. • • .preserving the 
true import of the Kons and Kuns of botiti 
hemispheres ! this brown nation has been 
compared with the Chinese nations in £»* 
tm*es: the Kalmuks, call man KomMh 
and the African nations from Congo to 
Scfala call seen Muntu, Jfon/^^ . « « % the 
Chuanas nearest the KUA call man JKie- 
nona : these resemble Homo latin, Man 
ik^ic and Chinese, Mo7i of Pegu . . . • 
The Gonas and Chafmsv/ere the hand- 
somest KUA tribes. Is it not astomshtng 
to find thus the primitive people Kun 
•driven to the very ends of South America, 
South Africa, West Europe ? . . . . While 
traces of the MA^ people are met through- 
out both hemispheres. Even the Negroes 
Asfhantis caJl God Suman ! the real name 
of all the tribes of Calabar is KUA ; but 
they call man Awo. The Asluinti na- 
tion, with their tribes Inta, Fantij Ahanta 

must be Wack ANTES. A bad 

man is Omu, Otnara ; but a good man* 
Riadfh Banin • , • • as in Asia and North 



' Note 2. The Mauri of Mauritania, may 
be compared, their name meant Mari- 
time .... Mary Mor meant Sea in the 
Italic, lUyricand Lybian languages, ilfaru 
in Chilian. Muru might be such an ap- 
pellation: while Anti has many meanings 
already alluded to; but in the Haytian 
lang. it would mean pi'ople eminent being 
isynonymous of Atlantes ! the lands Antilia 
come perhaps from this; many had that 
name: Jlnfeto^ was the name of Madeira 
\eTy anciently. 

Note 3. The Giants of Moses were 
RFAIM, this has no analogies in America; 
but is akin to the Grifins or gigantic Birds 
of Oriental fables, who were men also; and 
both are 'the Ripheans of the North in 
Grecian fable, name once applied to the 
Carpathian mountains, as well as a tribe 
of Giants there. Giants and Nobles were 
once ^nonymus, Nflim or Nephelim of 
Moses, were such, whence the word NobiUs. 
On the contrary pygmies and vassals were 
also synonymous. Compare the vassal 
Nations of China and Tartary, of Europe 
and Lybia, of North and Soiith America. 




66 MOSAIC Nations. 

la I nil II 111 ■ I Tail Mi I itwiam 


The Genuine Mosaic history anA 
NAMES OF MANKIND before the two floods 
of Noah and Peleg^ with the account of 
these deluges and primitice nations. 

The history of the western hemisphere, 
is certainly an important part cf the annals 
of mankind : no fact, event, tradition or 
notion imparted or preserved by the Ame- 
ricans ought to be neglected, and" we may 
try to frame out of the whole a complete 
view of mankind in this western world ; but 
we must not rely altogether on these, to 
afford a connected account with the rest of 
mankind. Therefore it is in the annals 
and events of men in the Eastern and 
Oceanic Worlds, that we ought to seek for 
the earliest deeds and colonies of both 
hemispheres. These become partly con- 
nected with American annals by the primi- 
tive nations they allude to, or make known, 
with their deeds, both before and after the 
historical deluges, subsequent to geogoni- 
cal cataclysms. 

Whether mankind had origin in Ameri- 
ca, or came there before the flood ; it is in 
Tain that we seek complete light on the 
feet and early deeds of mankind, in the 
obscure American traditions: they can only 
offer coroborating proofs or concurrent de-* 
tails. We must therefore search for these 
deeds of the American ancestors, among 


the nations which have preserved the earli- 
est records, ahho' often involved in myste- 
ries and fables. Those of the Qreeks are 
quite niythological, and derived from the 
earlier fabulous records of Egypt and In- 
dia. By studying the primitive records of 
the Persians, Assyrians, Phenicians, Hin- 
dus, Arabs, Celts, Polynesians, Budhists 
&c., we meet new fables, but additional 
facts. These shall be eventually noticed 
by degrees ; but two of the oldest, and best 
accounts of ancient history, deserve pecu- 
liar attention : as they appear founded on 
truth, and less involved in fables, or hidden 
style than any other. They are the Mo- 
saic account and the Chinese account. 

In these we meet at the two opposite 
ends of Asia, the Western and Eastern re- 
cords of primitive history, preserved m lan- 
guages that are written and understood, 
in' books dating from 3 to 4,000 years past, 
and including still older accounts and t]uo- 
tations. The Mosaic history is besides as 
yet part of the rejigious belief of about 400 
milHons of men : while the Chinese history 
is believed by nearly as many : both united 
including therefore nearly the whole of 
mankind. This additional fact renders 
them of paramount interest: and induces 
me to give a sketch of both. Altho' they 
. contain two distinct accounts of the West 
9nd East of Asia in the later periods : they 
appear to meet in the early period at the 


centre of Asia, and offer the same events,, 
nations, tribes and deeds of this central era 
die of mankind, and of the Americans also, 
whose traditions often point to that cradle. 

Each of these two historical accounts 
has peculiar features with disparities and 
coincidences. They shall be pointed out ; 
but it is needful at first to show the style 
and mysteries of both. 

In giving the Mosaic account, I shall not 
adopt the veiled sense of our erroneous 
vulgar translations of the Brashith or 
Genesis of Moses ; but recur to the genu- 
tne pristine language and style of Moses 
himself, using the text without points, and 
chiefly.the learned translations and expla- 
aations of Fabre D'Olivet 1815. I refer 
to his work on the Mosaic language restor- 
ed; for his philological prr>oft of grammar, 
roots and proper Whereby we per- 
ceive that Moses without using fables has 
employed a veil of homonymous words of 
different meanings, which may be under- 
stood in various ways; and thus our trans- 
lations made according to the vulgar sense 
ami veiled impprt are filled with ambigui- 
ties, allegories and metaphores, particular- 
ly personifications, generalizations and 
animalizations. To this St. Paul alludes or 
affirms in Cor. IL ch. 3. Lord Bacon says 
tiiat the general priictice of the first ages, 
was to explain everv thing by fables, parp,- 
bles, similie^, ariu5^ions &c., this mode of 


speech was. more intelligible than plain or 
abstract narratives. But after the lapse of 
ageB, this became a refined art, — Now 
another art is required to unravel these 

For the Chinese account I have taken 
for guide Leroux, who translated about one 
hundred years ago, the works of two Au- 
thors Lopi and Liujuy whose works are 
called Ytsi and TJaiki. But unfortunately 
he did not give the text, nor radical trans- 
lation, and thus I am deprived of the 
means to analyze these accounts, thorough- 
ly, and explain the meanings of all the 
names. Since in Chinese as in Mosaic 
Hebrew every* name has a meaning, oft<an 
affording a clue to history. The Chinese 
admit of few fables; but they also use 
emblems, allegories and personifications, 
with some animalizations. of tribes. We 
lack as yet a^ correct account of all their 
*■ early writings, with the. original ancient 
names,* and their significations. When 
we shall obtain this addition to our knowl- 
edge of antiquity ; we may hope to find 
therein many more coincidences with 
Moses. Such have already been fouixd 
with the Hindus writings, which . shall .be 
hereafter noticed in this work. 

Even our name of Moses is efrone<bus, 
fte writes it himiself MSH£) : his language 
was the OBRI, our Hebrew pronounced 
imv by us. Our Gene^$ 19 fi Crr,c*k mmi^ 

79 xosAii t ^rio5g. 

the Hebrew nan.e <} it, is BBASHITH, 
firom the first xuid ui it. (Note 1.) 

D'01i?et has ananxd Moses philologi- 
eally, and otdy \miU\ laircd his veil. I 
shall venture to pn cc c<i in this investiga- 
tixm hi^ricully, witiiout intruding on the 
dogmas nor concealed f|i)»d:eries Ue says 
that son of the pa^t, and father of the 
future, the Mosaic work, it» heir of all the 
science of Kg} pt and Ass) ria : it bears be- 
sides the germs of many future sciences, 
and our age is not yet on a level with it. 
Fruit of a divine inspiration, it contains in 
some pages, the 10 first chapters chiefly, 
the origine of the universe, the beings, ele- 
oients, and mankind ; with the vicissitudes 
c^the earth and men. 

^ut the whole is under veils and clouds. 
All the translations have bren based on 
the veiled sense. Moses better understood 
will no longer be the bane of reason and 
natural sciences. To this restoration all * 
firiemis of truth ought to contribute : I at* 
tempt it for historical purposes; others 
may continue it for physical and spiritual 
aims. Moses was so misunderstood even 
2^000 years ago, that the Saducian se-t 
made him a materialist : altho' he is spirit** 
ual throughout. 

The language he has used, is one of the 
earliest and most simple libe the Chinese ; 
having only 4 or 500 monosylabic generic 
moist including each a genus of ideas*; 




and even the signs or letters used have a 
general meaning, representing an order of 
ideas. From this arises the ambiguity 
both oi the Mosaic and Chinese langua- 
ges, and the Jireat variety of homonyms or 
same words with different meanings in our 
languages. Whereof it is needful to select 
the most proper, instead of the most obvi- 
ous or material, as so wrongly done in 
Bome instances. 

Even Josephus, the learned Jew Histo- 
rian, was aware of this ; when he express- 
ly said. "Our legislator speaks some 
things wisely, but enigmatically^ and 
others under a decent allegory ; but still 
explains properly such things as required a 

direct explication" Torah is the name 

that the Samaritans give to the 5 books of 
Moses, keeping no other as inspired. 

As to the chronology of Moses, it hasnerer 
been properly understood. Josephus him- 
self alludes to the great year of the patri- 
arch«5 equal to 600 of our years : which is 
exactly the NER of the Chaldeans and 
perhaps the SH'NE of Moses. The fine 
Astromical Cycle of 600 years, when ,the 
Sun and Moon return precisely to the same 
points : which is accomplished in 219,146 
solar days forming 7200 solar months and 
7421 lunar months. 

Lowth the late Bishop of London has 
fssLid in his new translation of Isaiah* that 
Ate* whole Hebrew Bible requires a new 


translation^ our actual versions being allde^ 
fecti ve : he adds that our vulgar English 
version admits of but little improvement, as 
to style and language ; yet, in respect of 
the sense and accuracy of interpretation^ 
the improvements of which it is eapahle 
are great and numberless. 

I shall begin the human history of Moses 
at Adam only, leaving out his previous 
Cosmogony, Geogony and Ontogony ; which 
altho' highly important, would lead me too 
far. I have merely hinted at his true 
meaning and sense in the chapter on Cata- 
clysms. There are ' positive proofs in 
Moses* Hebrewtext, that ADMoriBankind 
was multiple, and had human colleagues 
or subjects : that there were hutnan An* 
gels, Devils and Beasts on earth with him 
or before him. The AD of Gen. II. v. 6. 
wrongly translated mist ! is the" singular 
identic word of ADM, the M. forming the 
plural or amplitude. In the additions to 
Calmet, this AD is made a stream, it is a 
fountain in the Oriental translations. If a 
Geogonical name, it may apply to the 
aquatic revolutions of the dry land before 
mankind ; but if it is Ontogonical, it be- 
pomes evidently connected with the subse-^ 
quent ADM in name and import. 

This Adamic history now given fronci 
Moses true , names of beings and things, 
will unfold many unknown facts, events, 
Wd. human tribes under Allegorical naiue^ 


7%r whole truth may yet he disclosed. 
The OBRI language of Moses times, was 
partly different from th it of Noah, and even 
of Abraham; as aftrrwards it became dif- 
ferent again under David next Esdras and 
lately the Rabinic Dialect. 


1 Part — Antediluvian history from 
Adam to Noah. 

1. Event. N'H'SH or Nahash of Jevirs. 
Cupidity and vice ; bnt translated snake 
by animalization was Ohtjm Adversary! 
(Ariman of Persians): tem,itation of ASHE, 
use of t'le forbidden tRI /Viirt or produce 
of OTZ ffrowth (not apple). Nahash was 

Erobably the wicked Snake tribe of human 
)evil8. The Orientals eal) them Nagas 
Arim, Satatf, (Adversary) ZahaL Moses 
ch. 3. V. I to 5. 

2d. Event. Shame of Adam and Ashe. 
Use of OLE oblation^ veil ? (not leaf) 
and of EGRTH pilgrim dress ! They hide 
in OTZ-FATN,ffroicth'Self^Eden. They 
could not have hidden in an apple eaten* 
Moses ch. 3. v. 6, 7.«^(Note2) 

3d. Event. lEUE (Jehovah) reproves 
Adm. for having used the M'N-E-OTZ 
suhstance-self^growth (net apple, nor fruit!) 
curse of Nahash, war shall subsist with 
Ashe^ troubles of Ashe and Admi the 
Adme or soil (not earth artz) shall deteri- 
orate, and absorb Adm mankind; but 



OFR human spirit shall again arise. M 3. 
V. 8 to 19. Early belief of immortality, 

4th Event. Ashe becomes ' HUE Eve, 
and lEUE gives to Adm and Jfti«, 
X'TH'NUTH sheltering shapes. M. 3 v. 
30, 21, 

6th Event. Adm driven from M'G'N'H 
D'N Miganheden of version^ meaningyVowi 
Eden of pleasure by XRBIM Cherubim, 
meaning numberless legfions: who are set 
to guard the way to OTZ-EHII growth of 
lives. 3. V. 22 to 24. 

6th Event^ Adm or mankind and HUE 
produce KIN the kingly or powerful 
tribe^ of heroes and kings! with ABL the 
ablel KIN became OBD-ADME servant 
•ofsoil, while ABL became ROE-TZAN 
leader of bodies. M. ch. 4. v. 1. 2. Evi- 


dent personification of early tribes, and 
figures of Tillers and Herdsmen. From 
KIN comes our King^ and Kan of Asia: 
from ROE, leader, Roi^ Rex^ Raja &c., 
of 100 languages. 

7th Event. It was from K'TZ-IMIM 
end of the Seas ! that KIN sent an offering 
to lEUE ; while ABL sent his from TZAN 
his world of bodies. lEUE became ISHO 
Saviour of Abl; but not the Isho of Kin. 
M. 4. V. 3. to 7. Kin dwelt then far away 
in th^ Sea, perhaps in Aniericaj altho' it 
is supposed that it was in Syria or Pheni- 
cia. They were tributaries of the He^ivenly 
.pontif who took the title ofIEUE(Note 3.) 



8th Event. KIN angry against ABL, ^ 
destroys him v. 8. VVar of the Tillers 
against Shepherds.^ 

9th Event. Reproof of lEUE, on the 
complaint oftheDxVlI (likeness) of ABL. 
Curse against the first war and murders. 
ION became NON'D wanderers^ and re- 
ceive AUTH sign to be known as murder- 
ers. V. 9 to 15. — The Dmi are probably 
the Demoi of Greeks, Dimi of Iran ; it is 
Demei or bloody in versions. The Nonod 
are the Nubians and Egyptians ? 

10th Event. KIN withdrew to lands of 
NUD, K'D'MTHof ODN. v. 16— Nud or 
Nod is No of Ejrypt and Lybia — ^Kidemath 
is Syria, Kadmian • land ? Odn is Eden 
again in version, sensibility ? (Notie 4). 

11th Event. KIN produced another 
tribe HNUX the founder^ and built a city 
called after this HNX. v.- 17. — A city of 
Hantich in Asyria has been supposed such; 
but did not the flood destroy it ? 

12th Event. And HNUX produced 
OIRD Irad of version, meaning the pas- 
sionate. V. 18. Compare with Ird. 

13th Event. And Oird produced 
MEU Y AL manifestation of existence, v. 
18. Compare the Mayas of America. 

I4th Event. And Meuyal produced 
MTHUSHAL death fathomless pit y . 18. 
Compare the deadly Shaul of America. 

I5th Event. And this produced L'M'X, 
Laihech of version flexible knot. v. 18. 
All these are nations 6r tribes. 



Ifth Event Lamech took two N^SHIM 
wives or allies, ODE Evident, and TZLE 
obscure, v. 19. 

17th Evfint. From Lamech and Ode 
sprung IBL plenty and irrigation ; Jabal 
of version: who was the father of ISHB- 
AEL abode aloft or houses divine, and 
of M'KNE lawful propertif v. 20. IBL 
>yas thus a legislator : he is famous in the 
East as IBLIS an Angel. We make him 
father of the Nomads. 

1 8th Event. And he had a brother 
YUBL our Jubal, joy and prosperity; 
who was the. father of all the Sciences and 
Arts. V. 21. Another Legislator or Phi- 
losopher ; but it is not an individual, rather 
a tribe or Caste.-' — (Note 5). 

19th Event. But TZLE produced 
THUBL-KIN, our Tubalcain, the mighty 
King THUBL meaning mutual yielding 
who forged brass and iron, and had for 
akin NOME lawful society, v. 22. (Note 6) 

20th Event. LMX having produced 
such tribes, destroyed the progeny of clan- 
ship, by the social order, and became ex- 
alted 77 times, having 77 subcessors : while 
KIN had only 7— v. 23, 24. Our transla- 
lation of Moses is obscure and absurd ; this 
is the real sense found by D'Olivet. Here 
ends the history of the KIN nation, and 
begins that of SHTH, by going back to 
Adam. (Note 7). 

21st Event. ADM (mankind) and 

Mosaic nations. W 

ASHTHU (own will symbol) produce 
SH'TH (Base) our Seth. v 25 Compare with 
the Scythes. Seth is famous in Asia, as 
theinventor of Astronomy and Symbols. 

22d Event. SHTH produced ANUSH 
(bodily man), when hope began by invoca- 
ting lEUE— ch. 4. v. 26. Thus ends the 
4th Chapter of Moses, and begins the 
5th ; where Moses quotes positively anoth- 
er account anterior to him, called the SFR 
THULDTH ADM book symbol-progeny 
of Adam ! which g^oes back to the creation 
of Adm (mankind) male and female, ch. 
V. 1,2. (Note 8). 

23d Event; Adm had existed 130 
SHNE before SH'TH his IKRA shadow 
or offspring and his IMI periods were 800 
ScHNiu afterwards, and he had many 
BNIM and BNOTH sons and d aught ei-s 
ch. 5 V. 3, 4, 5— D'Olivet thinks the SHNE 
are not years, but ontological temporal 
mutuations or cycles. 

24th Event. The SHNE of SH'TH 
were 105 before and 807 after ANUSH 
and he IMTH went off or died. This 
book of Adam progeny by Seth is a kind of 
chronology ; giving the times of the forma- 
tion of tribes, and their duration. 

25tli Event. The SHNE of ANUSH 
were 90 before and 815 after producing 
producing K,IN'N (general invading) — 

126th Event. The SHNE of KIN'N 


were 70 before and 840 after MEL-LAL 
(Exalted power). 

27th Event. The SHNE of MEL-LAL 
were 68 before and 830 after prodacing 
IRD persetering. 

28th Event The SHNE of IRD were 
162 before and 800 after HNUX (central 

29th Event. The SHNE of HNUX 

were 65 before and 300 after MTHU- 

SHLE, and he followed the ways of the 

Aleim, wrote a work yet extant ! and is 

'called Edris by the Orientals or Enoch. 

30th Event. The SHNE of MTHU- 
SHLE (death shaft) 187 before and 782 
after LMX (tie of dissolution), or 802 by 
other copies. 

31st Event. The SHNE of LMX were 
;182 before and 595 after NH (Repose) 
onr Noah. (Note 9). 

32d Event. The SHNE of NH were 
500, when he produced SHM (celestial} 
HM (gloomy) IFTH (spreading) our Shem, 
Ham and Japheth — all. 3 produced in the 
same SHNE! thus evidentl> Nations 
eh. 5. V. 32. Here ends the Adamic book ; 
written probably by NH himself, like the 
following account of the flood &c. Each 
of these Patriarchal tribes had many 
BNIM sons, and BNOTH daughters, or 
clans and families. The name of SH^NE 
IS important, nnce it means change I comes 
from celestial repose or exaUed-reposing" 


i •> 


se^. D'Olivet compares them to the' Sares 
of the Chaldeans. As to their number I 
follow P'Olivet who has followed the Mo- 
saic Hebrew copy, and reduced the whole 
Shne to 1660 till the flood : (our Vulgar 
version has only 1656.) As they are notx 
years, but cycles ; this point belongs to 
Astronomical Chronology. ^ 

If the Sepher or SFR of Moses has 
been altered by the Jews, it is perhaps in 
the letters of these numbers, since the co- 
pies used by the Samaritans, Ptolemy and 
Josephus ' had other numerical letters. 
Whatever be the case, here is the SHNB 
chronology of NH or Noah ! himself as 
given by Moses in the suppos^ed pure copy. 
The subject shall be resumed in the Ameri- 
can chronology, and the world before the 
flood : When the SHNE shall be compar- 
ed with the BTnus and Avatars of the 
Hindus, the NER of Chaldeans, the Chi-, 
nese SHI, and other Oriental Cycles of 
changes. (Note 10.) 

130 SHNE from Adm to Shth Ad'm. 
lived d30 Shn6. 

105 Shth to Anttsh. 
90 ANUSHtonext 
70 Kin'n to next, 
68 Meixal to next 

162 Ird to next 
65 Hnvx to next 

18*7 Mthvsle to next 
. 1^^ Lifx to next 

50D NH to hii 3 families 
















100 NH with them till flood 100 

1 year ot flood) after 380 

whole life 980 

1660 Shni ! if they were Ner of 600 com- 
mon years or great years of Josephus, 
this would make 996,000 of our y^ears! 
The 70 Greek translation, swells these 
8hne to 2262 by increasing by 100 those 
of 1,2,3, 4, 7th giving 165 to 5th and 188 to 
Lmx. Other Mpts. and Josephus have some 
slight variations yet: 
2d part, History of Noah and the food. 

1. Event. Many families BNOTH are 
produced by the dissolution XI-EBL of 
ADM mankind — ch. 6. v. 1. 

2. Event. The sons {Bni) of ALEIM 
see that those Bnoth are good, and take 
them for mates, v. 2. This evidently proves 
the ALEIM to be human Angels. All this 
alludes to the Atlantic Empire, and war 
of the book of Enoch. 

, 3.. Event. lEUE refuses to lavish his 
RUH breath, on ADM mankind, and 
Oiakes their IMIU (manifestations^ not 
days,) to be 120.— v. 3. (^ote 11.) 

4. Event. The NFLIM (Nobles) . or 
Apostates and the GBRIM (Hyperboreans 
or Heros) were produced on l^arth by the 
sons of Aleim and Booth of ^€2m who sway 
land and sea. v. 4. 

5. Eveht. lEUE perceives that Adm 
inorease in wickedness and Evil RO, the 
whole of that ;day! or time! XL-E-IUM^ 
Here lum is put for a long while, v. 5. 

MOiAIC Kkviom. $1 

6. Event. lEUE forsakes the earte of Adm 
and BeaiSts, resolves to wash their existence 
from Admi the soil. v. 6, 7. The text 
does not say repent, but forsake or re* 

7. Event. But lEUE dpes not forsake 
'NH who followed the ways, (^Aleim (the 
Angels), nor his 3 sons or progenies, BNIAf» 
¥• 8 to 10. Here God and Angel&are coil- 
trasled fully! 

8. Event. The Artz, Earth, was de- 
grading, and filling with HMS (violent 
heat) — V. 11, 12. fioes this allude to vd- 
eanoes ? 

9. Eirent. ALEIM speak to NH and 
advise him to get a TH'BE (sheltering 
abode, some retreat ; but not ark !) with 
OTZI-GFR (growth preserving), v. 13, 14 
Thbe has been translated a vessel by the 
Saitiaritans, Kytharos a Box by the Helle- 
nists, Area a closet ! by the Latinists, but 
means nothing like it. It eomes from the 
Egyptian THEBA or Thaube, cave, 
' Asylum, refuge of Gods, a Circuit, Orb, a 
land* a world. ARX, was a castle, vessd^ 
in Hebrew, Assyrian and Persian; but 
Moses has no ARX but a TH'B'TH or 
THBE — Otzigfr has been translated 
square wood, smooth wood, cedar boards 
Ebony &c. by, the translated versions; ou» 
edys Gopher-wood ! — Orzi is a grov^th or 
enbstance, neither wood nor tree. GF|t 
tneant preserving body. 




In verses 15 to 23 of ch. 6, the Aleim or 
Angels continue to advise NH about his 
retreat now called THBE, ever after, and 
he performs it. 300 Am6 long, 50 broad 
30 solid was the size or extent, AME is n(^ 
a cubit ; but a proper measure or rule of 
fMtians ! derived from AM, mother and 
nations ! They may mean that this shel- 
tering abode was (o be 300 yards long if a 
cave, or 300 miles if a mountain, 50 broad 
and 30 high; KUMTHE heap or bulk of 
self, with triple parts for the 3 families &e. 
V. 15, 16. 

The flood is called EMBUL (the gre^ 
swelling)^ MIM (Waters) and the long ad- 
vice becomes a narrative in the next chap^ 
ter 7. 

10. Event. Now lEUE appears (no 
longer the Angels) and invites NH to come 
in the THBE, as he had been advised by 
the Angels. He invites saying BAt ATHE 
come thou I with thy own people, and seven 
pairs of AISU and ASHE men and women! 
of the nations BEME (beastly) TEUKE 
(Pure) and two pairs of men. and women of 
all the beastly tribes or Nations which 
were LA-TERE-EUA (not pure in life) 
ch. 7. v. 1, 2. The text says positively 
men and women Aish and Ashe^ not male 
and female as in the corrupt translation^*. 
Ashe was the first name of Eve, very di^ 
ferent from ZXR male, NKBE female T. 
Thus Noah had with him man^ men ai)d 


tribes in his refuge ! He had also the ORB 
and lUNE which came out of it after the 
flood. The invitation of lEUE is positive 
an4 he was then, in THBE (Thebeth) or 
near it. This Thebef h must be Central 
Asia, when the name i3 preserved in Thibet, 
and vi^as since given tp Thebes of Egypt 
and Greece. Ail the pinacles of hills are 
yet called Tiba in Thibet, and worshipped 
as abodes of spirits or Angels. 

ir. Event. And also seven pairs of , 
ZXR and NKBE, male and female of 
MOUF-E-SHM-M (Fowl heavenly) Epi- 
thet for the roving and flying tribes ? — v. 3L 
Because in the IMIM (manifestations) 
OUD (actual period) SHBOE (theseventb) 
ANXI (myself I am) going to cause a rain 
of404iay lUM and 40 night LILE and 
deface the whole of my works of ^rfmc the 
soil — V. 4, 5. These two verses are very 
important; they teach that other tribes 
were compart to Biids as in China and 
that the flood happened in the seventh 
period OUD-SHBOIi; of ANXI another 
n^me of God, which period or cycle was 
lasting yet, and is ccMnpared to the seventh 
lUM of the Creation. In v. 6 NH is called 
the son BN of 600 SHNE, (Note 12.) 

12. Event. Now NH Noah, went with 
his sons, and his ASHE, arid the NSHI or 
his sons, towards the TIIBE, out of the^ 
great swelling of waters : with the MIN 
Qmep or njany) BEME, (beastly) TKURK 

CM KosAic nations; 

(pure or terrestrial) and also mainr 
beftstlyAIN-NE (not being selQ TEURE, 
and with many OUF, and widi XL (all 
-the) RMSH (creeping life) of AdnU the 
'soil V. '5', 8, 9— This gives the ' names of 
all who went with Noah tp^rardsthe Theba. 
(Note 13) 

13. Event. This flood was on the 
SHBOTH-IMIM (seventh of days), v. IQ. 
In the 600 SHNE of Noah, in the second 
BADSH (lunation) in the I7th lUM of it: 
and a mass of waters HGSHM, came fr(Hn 
the 4 corners of heaven V. 11. Which fell 
for 40 lUM and 40 LILE. v. 12. In the 
13 to 16th verse occurs a repetition of the 
whole going to this retreat. The 14th 
end» by • adding XLrTZFUR all running 
thing, and XL- XNF all flying-things— went 
there — The 16th ends by the approbation 
of lEUE given to the ALEIM. 

14. Event. The waters were on the 
earth 40 lUM not in the plural, and the 
THBE was UISHAU (in equilibrium) and 
UTHRM (beaten beyond) the earth Artz,) 
and UTHLX (beaten on all sides by the 
surge) V. 17, 18. (Note 14.) 

15. Event. The waters covered all the 
BRIM hills, and 15 AME (measure) was 
over the hills v. 19, 20. No mountains 
are mentioned but only hills. 

16. Event. Thus disappeared by lEUE 
all bodies of the earth, frcmi the worms to 
tb^ Anai mankind, wbick were overtaken 



by the disaster, except NH Noah and all 
that was with him in THBTH.— v. 19 
to 23. 

17. Event. And the waters prevailed 
on earth for 150 lUM period, v. 24. 

18. Event. Th6 ALEIM remembering 
Noah and the beings of the Thebeth sent 
a RUH (breath) on the earth which re- 
pressed the waters. Ch. 8. v. 1. The 
MOINTH (springs) THEIM (unlimited 
powers) were shut, and the tides of waters 
were quelled, v. 2, 3. 

19. Event. The TUBE liad rest on the 
17th lUM of the 7th lunation, beinsr bound 
by the LA-ERI bright hill of ARRT (earth 
of boundary.) Our Ararat, v. 4. D'Olivet 
translates ARRT by Orb of luminous in- 
fluence or stream of light ; but by his own 
note, it is rather a land with a boundary. 
This famous Ararat has been placed in 
many countries by human pride. The 
mt. JBaris of Syria, Ararat of Armenia, Sy- 
para of Assyria The Samaritans translate 
Seredip^ which is the Id. of Sere^ China, 
or Lanca now Ceylon. 

20. Event. The waters ebbed and 
flowed in tides, till the 10th lunation, when 
vrere seen the RASHI-EERIM princi- 
ples or heads of the hills, v. 5. 

21. Event. Noah opened on the 4th day, 
the HLUN (door, breach, opening) of the 
Thebeth, and he let out ORB (dusky 
west), who went out and came back mMj)r 


times till the earth was dry. v, 6, 7. ORB 
is the famous Erebus of Greek mythology: 
The warb of Arabs. They, as the Hebrews 
derived their names from it, being Wester- 
lings. It was since the name of the West- 
ern Negroes and of the Raven or Crow:- 
whence the mistakes of translators. 

22. Event. Next he letoutlUNE, (Dove 
brooding) who returned, the waters being 
yet high on the Adme soil ; and he let out 
ligain lUNE that weiitZIMIM or beyond 
the waters, v. 9. 10. lUNE is the people of 
tbeplains(j^na plain in Aramic) ancestors 
of the lonians and perhaps Semiramis of 
Asyria, who were called thus, like the Dove 
their Emblem. Compare long of China, 
a people: the word Zimim is remarkable. 

23. Event. And lUNE returned with 
ORB (omitted in our version!) anfl with 
OLE-ZITH (not Olive branch; but rather 
oblation exalted self-essential) perhaps a 
people produced by them, and by these 
tokens Noah knew that th^ waters had sub* 
sided. After other seven lUM, this lUNE 
went away and never returned, v. 11, 12^ 
This begins post diluvian history. (Note 15) 

34. Event. In the 601 SHNE Noah 
rises the MXSE (heaped shelter) and the 
earth was dried on the 27th lUM of the 
second lunation, v. 13, 14. 

23. Event. Then the Aleim Angel% 
ndvise Noah to depart from the THBE! with 
all those ha brought there : he does so; aiid 



his followers issiie also, L'M^H'F^HTH- 
I£Af, a long compound word written 
Lemishephehotheihem with points, and 
meaning after'the-tribes-their-own ! which 
plainly implies that there were many tribes 
there v. 15 to 19. The Arabs say 80 men 
or tribes were saved. 

26. Event. Noah erects ^ MZBE (of- 
fering temple) to ifeUE, with the help of 
all tho BEME-ETERE (Beast pure) and 
aU the OUF-ETEUR (Fowl of purity), 
and he sent a OLE from this temple, v. 20. 
Mistaken by o^r version for a sacrific of 
Animals, which were forbidden by lEUE ; 
the holocaust of OLE is the same as that 
brought by the Dove to Noah : both are 
offerings of oil perhaps,' instead of Olive 
and oblations or holocausts. (Note 16) 

27. Event. lEUE was pleased with 
this offering, and he promises not to punish 
any more Adm mankind, and that XL- 
IMI (all the dayS) of the §arth would no 
longer Sabathise ! ISHBEI ! nor cease to 
have germs, harvests, heat and cold, sum- 
mer and winter, v. 22. This verse is sup- 
posed to be interpolated and not of Moses: 
yet here we find as a comment the days 
mentioned for years, and to sabathise used 
for continuation in permanence. If the. 
literal sense is taken it wouW imply an 
abolition of Sabaths ! or the repose of the 

28: Event. The Aleim (angels) bless 

' , 


Noah and his children or descendants! 
BNIUU, tell them to multiply and declare 
that all the EITH Animals (not BEME as 
above !) with all the fowls, fishes and other 
moving things shall respect them. They 
allow them to feed on life which had been 
forbidden to A^m ; but forbid to feed on 
human flesh. Ch. 9. v. 1 to 6. 

29. Event. Mankind is now called 
ATHM (such^perfectiafij or that increase) 
ordered to spread, and the divine creation 
ofAleimshRll exist in future with their pro- 
geny, all the Ouf, Berne, and Eith (Ani- 
mals) which were in the Thebeth, and no 
other flood ^hall happen to destroy Artz^ 
nor NFSH-EHIE soul of life v. 7 to 11'. 

30. Event. And Aleim the Angels, for 
a sign of this covenant or alliance, put their 
KSHMI Iris of celestial fluid in the BONZ 
nebulous space v. 12 to 17. This has been 
taken for the rainbow ; but is rather an 
allusion to the^omets, which were remov- 
ed from the earth. KSHM realy means 
vomit of heavenl Emission from above 
(Note 17.) 

31. Event. HM the gloomy hot son of 
Noah, was father of XNON (solid dusky) 
T. 18. But aflerwards he is made a fourth 
son of Noah ! in the genealogies. 

32. Event. The sons of Noah divide 
the earth, v. 19. While NH Noah him- 
self set free AISH his own intellect to cul- 
tivate XRM his lofty thoughts, v. 20. ThiB 

V • 


in ouir vulgar debased version is translated 
the grape vine ! XRM in Chaldaic means 
assembly of learned^ and it is very proba^ 
ble that Noah, the Menu of India founded 
the learned caste of learned Bramins and 
Chaldeans. From this word derive Car-- 
men of latins, our charm^ charming, and 
50 others in all languages. 

33. Events And Noah becoming exalt- 
ed, revealed himself in the AELE, the holy 
Angelic Shrine, v. 21. This relates' again 
to mysteries of knowledge and worship. 

34. Event. HM learned the secret mys- 
teries of Noah, and divulge them to his 
brothers in the BHUTZ outward inclo^ 
sure. V. 22. How worthless our version! 
and the shameful indecency of the pervert- . 
©d text ! 

35. Event. SHM and IFTH took the 
SHMLE (heavenly veil) and cover witlhit 
tJie secret mysteries of Noah. v. 23. Which 
means they covered their worship with a 
veil or mantle, or put aroof to^the temple. 

36. Event. Noah restored to quiet, 
knew what had been done by EKTN (the 
youngest) XNON ; whom he cursed, and 
devoted to be servant of servants, v. 24, 25. 
Here XNON becomes evidently a young 
son, and it was he, not HM who had re- 
vealed the mysteries. A verse must be 
missing in the text. 

37. Event. And the Aleim Angels wilt 
spread, IFTH, who shall worship in the 



BAEU (house divine^ tCTciple) of SHM> 
aiad be blest by lEUE, who is the ALEI the 
angel of SHM. v. 26, 27. This explains 
the religious worship of Shem and Japheth. 
So far may have been written by Noah 
himself; the two next verses on the 380. 
SHNE of Noah after the flood, and 980 of 
whole life, must have been added after- 
wards. Our version has 350 and 950 ! • 

ni Part. History from Dfoah to FLO 
or PheUg. 

1. Event. The Ethnology of the IFTH 
(spreading) or Japheth tribes. His off- 
spring or BNI were. Ch. 10. v. 1, 2. 

1. GMR our Gomer — ^meaning elemen- 
tal heap. 

2. MGUG our Magog extended faculty. 
3 MDI our Madai— abundant. 

4. ION our Javan — ^lovingly or Dove, 

5. THBL our Thubal— mixt diffuse. 

6. MSHX our Meschech — ^perceptible 

7. THIRS our Thiras— modality. 

2d. Event. The tribes of GMR were. v. 
3 (Note 16.) 

1. ^ASHXNZ our Ashkenaz — ^latest 
fire. "^ 

2. RIFTH our Rirfiatti — expansion. 

». THGRME our Thogormah— density. 
3d. Event. The tribes of lUN were 
T. 4. j(Note 19.), 

I. AX«ISHE-~meaning happiness in 



. a. THRSISH.— mutual intense. 

3. XTHIM our Cutheans or Scythians, 
meaning the Barbarians and Schismatics. 

4. DDNIM. The civilized^ confeder- 
ates or elected. Our version calls them 
Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, Dudanin. 

4th. Event. All these established social 
institutions in their own lands according to 
their particular speech LSHNO, towards 
the general tribes, MSHT-HTHM. v. 5. 

Here we have already peculiar langua- 
ges before Babel &c ! Thus happened the 
division of AIM interests and opinions, 
wrongly translated Islands, and identic 
with our English word Aim ! 

5. Rvent. The tribes of HM or Ham 
were v. 6, 

!• XUSH— '-meaning Combustion, the 

% MTZRIM — subduing powers, the 

3. FUT— stifling. 

4, XNON — ^solid and dusky. 

6. Event. The tribes of XUSH were v. 7 

1 . SBA — Sap or moisture. 

2. HUILE our Havilah — striving energy 

3. SBTHE— Cause of motion. 

4. ROME [—Thunder ! (Note 20.) 

5. SBTHXA— Effect of motion. 

7. Event. The tribes of ROME were 

1. SHBA— Exalted house. 

2. DDN our Dedan— Elective. 


8. Invent Meantime XUSH produceif 
ATH-NMRD (such will of power) our 
Nimrod^ who strove to be the GBR (domr 
inating Hero or Borean) on earth, v. 8. 
This has been translated a mighty hunter f 

9. Event. He became theGBR-TZHL 
(Rebel or Hero opponent) of lEUE, which 
became a proverb, v. 9. This indicates 
both a t)ivil and religious rebellion. 
(Note 21.) 

10. Event. And such was the rise of 
his Kingly power, in BBL our Babel (van- 
ity) and ARX (Castle of slackness,) and 
in AXD (Insulated selfishness) and XLNE 
(ambition) in the fend of SHNOR (Revo- 
lution) V, 10. A picture of the foundation 
of the Babylonian Empire in Shnor our 

11. Event. Yet out of that land arose 
ASHUR (orderly sway) which established 
NINUE (expanding youth) and the instir 
tutions of OIR (City) and XLE (the Sen- 
ate). V. 11. Thus the Empire of Assyria^ 
the Asuras or Devils of India, sprung out 
of Babel. - 

12. Event. And also RSN (State reins) 
between NINUE and XLE, and this cen- 
tre was a civil safe guard, v. 12. (Note 22.) 

13. Event. The tribes produced by 
MTZRIM, our Egypt, were V. 13, 14 uU in 
the plural, like the Egypts implying multir 
tudes, or the revolutions of nature ^nd. 
mankind in the^ Egypt^ ! 


1^ LUDIM — ^Propagating powers; 

2. ONMIM— heavy waters. 

3. LE}BIM-«^bkzing smokes. 

4. NFTH-HIM--caverns» the Troglo* 

6. FTHRSIM— broken crowds. 

6. XSLHIM — ^atoning trials : who pro** 

7. FLSHTHlAI-slighters, Infidels, our 

a XFTHRIM.— converted, faithful, our 

14. Event. And XNON produced the 
dispersed tribes of 

1. TZIDN — ensnaring foe,, our Sidon. 

2. ETH— dispirited. 

3. EIBUSI — inward crushing. \ 

4. E AMRI-out-springing, our Amorites. 

5. GRGSHI — ^nuninating or Gregarious 
(Note 23.) 

6. EHUr — animalized.. 

7. EARKI — brutal passions. 

8. ESINI — sinners, vile, bloody, hateful 
(Note 24.) 

9. ARUDI — ^plunderers. 

10. ETZMRI — seeking power. 

11. EHMTHI— craving desire, v. L5 to 18 

' 15. Event. And these tribes of XNON 

^(tended from TZIDN by AXE (strength) 

GRRE (war) AD-OZE (forming firmness) 

B'AXE SOME (by strength of hidden 

viles) UOMRE (and tyranny) UADME 

(and soil) UTZHIM (and swelliDgs> AD* 


94 HOfiAIC' NATIOim. 


LSHO (form swdlowing). And sHeh 
were the tribes, tongues and lands of HM 
¥. 19, 20. Whether those names mean 
cities as in our version, or only a descrip- 
tion of the means of power of the XNON 
pr Canaanites as D'Olivet translates ; may 
he doubtful,^ perhaps both. The whole 
text is given, so as to clear the matter. But 
are SDMEand OMRE the later cities of 
Sodom and Gomorah ? Could the builders 
call themselves vile and tyrants? 

16. Event— SHM the brother of IFTH- 
GDUL (Japhet the great) was the. father 
of the tribes OBR (Ultramundane) ouSr 
Heber^ which were v. 21, 22* 

1. OXLM — ^Eternity. Compare OZme^o^ 
of Anjerica. 

2; ASHUR— orderly sway. 
. 3. ARF-XSHD— earthly-restorer. 

4. LUD — ^Propagating. 

6. ARM— Earth filling. 

17. Event. The tribes of ARM were v. 23 

1. OUTZ.-^SubstantiaL. 

2. HUL. Striving or working.. €om^ 
pare HUL of America. 

3. GTHR. Plenty. 

4. MSH. Harvest. 

18. Event. And ARF-XSHD produced 
SHLE (Grace divine), from whom came 
OBR (beyond the real world, or ultramun- 
dane) meaning the tribe that went beyond 

. tfa<e limits, v. 24. Iberians! 2d Hebeit^a 
ighird is a son of Salah in qhapter llthKUi9 
^iurth OBRI are the Hebre^ws,^ 


19\ Event GBR had two offsprings,, 
FLG our Pheleg, meaning Separation^ be- 
-cause in his IMI (time or rather Sea) was 
separated the Earth Artz^ and liis brotlier 
was IKTN our laktan, meaning hssenifigj 
V. 25. This FLG misunderstood by many 
Biblists, and even D^Olivet, who deems the 
separation that of speeches, alludes to 
another physical revolution of the Artz 
(not Admd soil). The word of Moses for 
this separation is GFLGE wnS'Separa-^ 
tion-self. {Note 25.) 

20. Event. IKTN produced the tribes 
of V. 26 to 29. 

1^ ALMUDD. Divine mensuration. 

2. SHLF. Exalted Emission. 

3. ETHR-MUTH. Cut off by death. 

4. IRE. Sparkling moon. Compare 
Iram or Persia. 

5. EDURM. Knowledge splendid and 

6. AUZL. Fire divine. Auzal or Ether. 

7. DKLE; Subtile sound. 

8. OUBL* Orbicular diffusion. 

9. ABIMAL. Father of fulness. 

10. SHBE. Exalted return. 

11. AUFR. Golden end. Ophir of versions 

12. HUILE. Tried virtue. Hamlah do.. 

13. lUBB. Jubilation. (Note 26.) 

21. Event. Their dwelling places were 
from MSHA, (harvest exalted) by dint of 
contriving SFRE (booking or meditations) 
<(n th^ERrEKDMhiU of the East or smb-^ 


mit of antiquity, v. 30. This verse ba9 
been strangely distorted in versions, evea 
by D^livet who makes it quite mystical p 
Imt oor vulgar version mistakes SFRK 
(from SFR a book) for a place I Sephar ! 
The verses^ 31 and 33, confirm these tribe&r- 
aJid nations of Shem and Noah, and gives 
them peculiar languages before Babel • • . ! 

Such are the real names and events pre* 
served by Moses, but so often widely alter- 
ed by the versions of translators. Ilie 11th 
Chapters relates to the Babylonians, and 
the patriarchs or tribes of Abraham line, 
beginning a subsequent history. 

In this Mosaic account of the early 
deeds of mankind ; we have probably a 
faithful view of such history as Moses knew 
and the events^ that did happen in the 
West of Asia chiefly, as in the Antidilo- 
vian, and Diluvian periods in Central Asia 
&c. D'Olivet thinks that as Moses knew 
the whole wisdom of Egypt, having been 
initiated to the holy Mysteries, he has re- 
lated the secret history known in Egypt, or 
at least the Egyptian Comogony ; but that 
he has suppressed 9 chapters at the begin- 
ning, as they related to the Theogony and 
. Wars of Angels, which he did not deem 
the Israelites fit to understand. The first 
chapter of Genesis,^ was the 10th of this 
theogony, or the transition Chapter to the 
human part being yet obscure and bierNa- 
tio. Tl^wc»*ds used by Mos^ havinig^a; 


double or even manifold sense as in Chi- 
nese, have given rise to the veil erf the Bri^ 
shitb or Genesis, to which allusion are ofteB 
made. The most gross, Vulgar and least 
obvious meaning has prevailed in our ver- 
sions; even teginning with the helleni^ 
translation made over 2000 years ago : as 
the Jews would not reveal the hidden sense 
kept as most profound mysteries in their 

In the notes will be given many explana- 
tions and elucidations of this important and 
veridic account. Moses was neither ig- 
norant nor absurd ; but, very learned and 
very wise : none of the absurdities of our 
translations are found in his genuine text 
without points. We must therefore deep- 
ly study and restore his heavenly learning. 
Meantime the paramount facts deduced 
from his own tcords and texts^ may be 
resumed as follows, 

X. That terrestrial influences afler crea- 
tion or realization, are ascribed to Aleim 
Angels, emanated from SHITH the Eter- 
nal Being, and the lUM or times of it, 
are unknown periods^ 

2. That lEUE power self and self is 
another title of the Deity, appearing cwoly 
in the 2d chapter of Gen. and since assum- 
ed by a terrestrial power, probably the 
Mahabads of Pontifs or Iran, whose 
priests and subjects became also called: 
Jangels: whiph are also the first h^avQjjly 
]pImperors of China ? 




Note 1. Jx must be recommended to 
whoever se^ks and procures materials fi>r 
' liistory, to give always the original genu^ 
ine names of men and places, with their 
meaning, in the respective languages* 
Without this precaution, Annals and 
Geography become a Dedalus or laby- 
rinth of unmeaning words. The Greeks 
have perverted all their names, and even 
Moses is perverted by changing his names 
for euphony sake, or thro' dialects. Those' 
of his, which appear so rough by clashing 
consomants, p,re not so ; since a sheva or 
soft breathing is used between them as in 
our words Vlief^ receive, deceit &c.; to 
which other vowels were added afterwards 
uselessly. I have substituted our letters 
for his or rather the Chaldaic signs of his 
text, in order to make the • whole intelUgi- 
ble to the reader. But as my Orthogra- 
phy is improved, I must state how my 
letters are to be pronounced for the Mo- 
saic words. Each sound and letter cor^^ 
respond, except in Sh, Tz and Th, -which 
altho' simple sounds, must be expressed by 
a double letter, since we have no signs for 
them. Sh, th, are as in English, Tz as the 
Italian and German Z. I vnrite F instead 
of PH, and X instead of CH, as these 9-Te 
the real sounds; X as in Gr^ek or our KH^ 
and guttural. The following letters are 
of obvious sounds B, G, D, Z, T, L, M, N, 

\ \ 


*S,K, R. ^H is nearly guttural, but diflfer* 

ent from X, something like OS or in 
French HEU, The vow^els are quite plain 
and as in Italian, Spatiish atid nearly all 
the world,; not like our English distorted 
sounds. A is like ours in ball. ' E like ours 
in beU. U like ours in bull. I like ours in bUh 
O like ours, in Go. 

In Hebrev/ 1 often becomes Y before a 
voVvel and U becomes then Y. It has no 
P, since B supplies it, or is pronounced be-^ 
tween the two, as F between F and P. 
All these letters are to be always prO'*- 
ftouncedinthe same way, without other 
Variations, nor ainy silent sound or sign. 
The J does not exist in Mosaic Hebrew; it 
is the I rendered harsh of the dialects,^ the 
G is always harsh as in God; there are no 
nasal sounds, except perhaps the final O, 
which in late dialects becomes Ong; but 
AN, EN, INj ON, form double sounds, 
where the iV is to be soundied as in En- 
glish. All this is needful to appreciate the 
correct Mosaic language. 

Note % This word OLE occurs many 
times in Moses, and is always differently 
translated ; here it. is a dreiss of Teaves, 
elsewhere the Olive Branch of the Dove, 
and next the oblation of Noah. It proper- 
ly means the self OL, which is the foot^ 
whereon many ideas are connected energy 
above aU, ascent, vegetation, expansion, 
&c:^ and must imply somethiag different 



fiom all our TeiBicnB^ perimpB vabmtarp 
oUaHon is the nearest, a kind oi,emergie 
tf^eUMe aferimg. 'Tb&k all the 3 impor- 
tant passages would refer to iMatums 
made tohide afiiulL OL is often feimd in 
Genesis, and common^ means exalUd, as 
a Terb to ascend; hot is often translated 
tman cfTiAimel why not OLE also? Oar 
, ]&)en 13 HDN and ODN in Mosaic lan- 
guage, it means abode of ddigkt^ settled 

Note 3. . The only rational manner to 
mderstandwho was this I£U£, ^i^alldng 
on Earth and speaking to men, is this his- 
torical so[qposition. We know that in 
earliesttimes there was in Asia a Celestial 
fjnpire, headed by Dirine Ponti& who 
ciyilized mankind. In this traditions agree, 
from China to Persia, from India to Celti- 
ca. It was the Uranus of the Greeks as 
much as of Egypt and China, and his sway 
the Golden Age of mankind. Moses con- 
firms all this by his lEUE represented as 
a holy divine nder : who had the title of 
the Deitjr Power'Setf-and-selfj being deem- 
ed the celestial self on Earth. The idea 
is perhaps connected with the primitiTe 
BAP, BUD, JAIN of India and Iran: 
9SI the successive Ponti& being deemed 
Emanaticms of the Supreme Deity. This 
name changed to Yece^ Yao^ Johahj Jeho- 
vah ajid Jove &.C., became the name of the 
Qivini^ of mAaj nations; but the reverse^ 


with Gothic tribes ? The Jews held it as 
sacred afterwards and unilterable. It is 
very needful to notice when he acts of 
speaks^ instead of the Aleim his Angels, 
both blendsd as God in the versions ; but 
lEUE is often called. Lord in Greek which 
has a worldly meaning. As to XrMm 
they were evidently an Army, being in the 
plural, and Rhim means a multitude* 

Note 4. The land of Nod NUD of Mo- 
$es has puzzled all the Biblists. It is iden- 
tic with Non*d (of wanderers)^ and both 
may be Nubia or Antidiluvian Africaj 
others deem it Turan. The Arabs arid 
Orientals give a Dinasty of Cainites to 
Egypt before thef flood, and even state 
their names. Whether they produced the 
Negros and ugly Tartars with some Amer- 
ican Nations, is doubtftil, and requires 
ulterior researches. But the sign of KIN 
Was blackness, Autk means no such thing ; 
but rather Auth-orityl Mark! Mazi-hin 
(Amazing Kings !) are the Demons oS Ra- 
binic tales. Josephus says that Ntm was 
East of Eden, thus in India or China ! un- 
less Eden was in America ! 

Note 5. YU-B'L must be compared 
with YUof China. B'L is the same as 
Bel and Baal, the Oriental Dynasties: the 
Balis and Palis of the Indies. r 

Note 6. From NOME came Nomos 
law in Greek, also the Nomades^ the Nth 
mas J the Nemesis or Justice Set. 


Note 7. Lamex killed no one, and yet 
we make him say he did. His 77 fold, ap- 
p\y to as many of his Dinasty. Compare 
him with the SolimanSy or Antidiluvian 
Monarchsof the Orientals, L'M is the root 
of both ! 

Note 8i It is remarkable that Ashthu 
Ib the mother of Seth, instead of HUE or 
r Eve ! and Anush becomes another name 
for mankind : quite similar to the Manu- 
sha of the Hindus. This book of genea- 
logy is stated to be written by the Aleim 
Angels. GN the first abode of Adam is 

?roperly a clos^ valley, one of those fertile 
Craters so common in Central Asia. 
Note 9^ Our Noah- is thus NH (pr 
NOE) which the Jews since pronounced 
NiTH, and even Mnuh ! exactly the same 
name as given him by the Hindus ! and all 
meaning repose^ with many collateral 
meanings, lawgiver^ collecting people^ as-- 
sefnhly^ humanity &c. The laws of JtTnu 
are preserved by the Hindus : to him is also 
ascribed the substance of the Yedas, and 
the whole Mosaic history till near his* own 
death. But the Hindus have m^ny- JfPnus ; 
Adam and Seth were such, by the names of 
Adimo and Satya. The Hindus trimurti 
can be traced in BRA-SH-ITH BRAma^ 
ViSHmu, ShivITH. This misunderstood 
first word of the Bible means REAL-EN- 
PURING-ESSENCE, and is the inefabl^^. 
hidden-namQ of the Supreme Being*. . 



iVbf^ 10. l%e hellenists translated 
years and we have followed them; but 
SH^NE means realy Change ! any kind of 
Change, even in the RsLbinic Lexicotii^. 
The true years are called SHNO mascu- 
line, and »HNI in the feminine* SH^N is 
the root of any changeful pel*iod or object. 
Thus the IUm of Moses is a manifestation 
of any thing, and not daylight alone. The 
Jews spell Yoemj and Sheneh. ' Through- 
out the Bible these terms often blended are 
interchangeable. NAO means Cycle in Chi- 
nese, NE also in old Assyrian. 

Note II. Here the IMIU are taken for 
years, instead of days, if Imiu is the plural 
oflum which is doubtful. They are realy 
manifesiations, which may allude to 120 
successive progenies, or to cycles of 120 
years ! If to lives of individuals w^hy did 
Noah and others live much longer after- 

Note 12. We must observe that IMUVT- 
CUD is the real epoch of the flood. Now 
IMIM is not the plural of IUM, itself plu?- 
ral ; but either the duplication of IM (many, 
and marafestations) or the I-MIM poiVer- 
ful waters! OUDis evidenccy perhaps the 
type of the famous Prophet HDUl) of th^ 
Orientals, personification of this time. Th^ 
Arabs coraiect him with the flood. Yet 
in the 10th verse of (Genesis IMIM is trans- 
lated Days! and the whole period since 
^dam is called the seventh of dff/ys ! an 

imfioitdxit fact*. 



Note 13. It is strange that these tribes 
have been mistaken for real Beasts, while 
these are called RMSH, and in. the previ- 
ous eh. 7. y. 1. these tribes are ealled 
AISH and ASHE just like Adam aiid his 
wife ! and in the v. 14 other names are given 
to animals. 

Note 14. The whole vulgar translation 
has> been made to suif the idea of a floating 
ship ; while the text alludes only to the 
violent, tides of the flood beating against 
the land of refuge. 

Note 15. Here occurs again the OLE 
oblation brought by lUNE to NH. Zith 
might be the bearers ! but it means exalted 
essential, being akin to the Deity name of 

Not^ 16. Again a third OLE here bet- 
ter understood ; but the beasts helped 
Noah instead of being, sacrificed. 

Note 17. The flood has been ascribed 
to a Comet by manyi. K is the root' of 
weapons not bow alone, Comets are comr 
pared to swords, SHMJ means celes- 
lestial power I then sword or weapon celes^ 
tial, is perhaps the correct meaning*. And 
it may imply that the Comets were remov- 
ed and would always be, never producing 
again such a flood. 

Note 18* Most of these explained pa- 
triarchal names are taken fi*om D'Olivet^ 
who takes them all, in the mysterious hie- 
catic ^ense, and is not inclined to deem them 
^ibes*. li) this I disagree with him*, wi. 

■ VW' 

- HfiXnm TO CHAPTFB Xt^ Ifff 


Also in some derivations of these titles. But 
the differences are not. material, as they 
are all synomyms of courses of life. Such 
real Mosaic names which I give, are often 
differ<ent from those in the late Jewish 
dialects, which we have copied. But these 
genuine Mosaic names are essentialy im*^ 
portant in history and Ethnography ; they 
must be restored. 

Note 19. It will strike every one that 
this lUN is the same as the lUNE of the 
Thebeth. He might be a son or tribe 
born there, during the flood, that went to 
dwell in the plains luna^^ becoming the 
lavanas of the Hindus. 

Note 20. Here we have the name of^ 
Home (which meant strength); not JRoa- 
ntah as perverted, and was a nation of 
Egypt, the true Men is Egyptian. 

Note 21. Gbr is the root of Guebre, 
Oriental name for Infidel and Rebel. This 
xefers evidently to the great revolt and 
Schism of Iran and Hind from Turan, the 
heavenly Empire of Tartary ; which begins 
the history of many Oriental nations, as 
well as the Hebrews. 

Note 22. Let us remark that RSN or 
Rasen is also one of the names of the 
Etruscans or most civilized nation of Eu- 
rope' and Italy in early ages. We make 
it a City ! 

iVbte 23. lyOlivet calls GRGSHI the 
C^^ersj be having t»kea ak cpUatei:^, 

108 KOTtiS TO OHAFtER %• 


Miuse, tt really implies the Ruminating^ 
Animals who go in flocks. From thence 
derive the Latin word Greges^ the Greek 
Crregor^ our Egregious and also the 
EgregoH^ the mountain flocks, name gir^ 
en since by the Jews to the Shepherds 
8cms of Ahgels who took human wives. 

Note 24. SIN in Hebrew is the root 
of whatever is vile, whence our word Sin ; 
but SEN whence derive our Senior, and 
Shin whence Ashinish our Elssenians are 
not: implying deavj perspicuous^ honotO' 
hte. ^ They must not be blended. The 
Essenians were the clear sighted sect of 
Jews, who knew the mysteries of Moses ^ 
and became the parents of the Christians. 
Jesus was an Essenian. But Sin and 
iS%tn are the Angels of Japan and China t 
important fact! 

JSote 25. Even this word GTLGE i& 
important, since it is the parent of PHLE- 
GREAN fields of antiquity, the root of 
which is FLG: as in our Pheleg. His cata-^ 
clysm was volcanic and thus became the 
Phlegrean or volcanic fields of Mythology. 
FLG which many spell PH 'LG Pfeleg in our 
Bible appears also identic with the Pela^ 

£'ans of history, and their brothers the. 
eleges : who are often alluded to in these 
outlines. Their Eastern brethren are the 
Pallis of India now called Bhils. Remark 
also that OBR father of FLG, altho' call- 
ed Ebers in our rersion, and deemed the 


ance&tor of Abram, is stated by Moses to 
be an Iberian^ an» ultramundane ! and thi« 
cataclysm happened in the Sea IMi. 

Note 26. Four opinions have been 
formed on these genealogies. 1. That they • 
are individual sons of Patriarchs: this is the 
intimation of the veiled sense. 2. That 
they apply to a succession of events after 
the flood. 3. That they are tribes and 
nations. 4. That they allude to successive 
Empires, Dynasties and Rulers. All the 
four opinions may be conciliated by my 
theory, deeming them both Individual titles, 
Rulers, Dynasties and a succession of na- 
tions, bearing common names. 

These Mosaic names of the ancestors of 
mankind may be traced among many primi- 
tive Nations frpm China to Spain and South 
Africa; in America from Canada to Pata- 
gonia : altho' often under different hieanr 
ings. Some of these ethnological affinities 
have b^en alluded to, others may be sought 
for by antiquarians. The lUN of the 
flood, -is identic with YUN of China, KIUN 
of Tartaty, both diluvian Natioii^. Who 
could have found them in our Pove ? ex- 
cept by restoring the real nam^ as I do. 
From them spring 50 other subsequent na- 
tions all over the Earth. The Teure are 
the Turans, the Ain-ne are the Ay or lu- 
nar Tartars, Ayu of India, Yv of China \ 
who are found in America also. AU ni(> 

tjfm roeet iR Central Am^ 




Chinese History of mankind »remowr 
iP the two floods o/ Yun-ti and Yao ; an^ 
€fient Chinese Nations and civilization^ 
Nations of Corea and Eastern Asia. 

The contrast of the early annals of Chi- 
na, with the records of Moses, are more 
ftf^rent than real : after divesting both 
ctf the supernatural and mythic veils, they 
emncide in many important points; altho' 
alluding to branches of mankind early sepa- 
rated in the East of Asia, 'from the Wes- 
tern Asiatic nations, which we called Ori- 
ental, because yet Eiast from Europe, 

Chinese antiquities have been elucidated 
in the work Y-TSE by Lo-pi^ and also by 
Id'kij Yen-ise^ Uai-ki oflAu-ju^ Yuen-leaa^ 
san^ Cheu'li, record of Empire written 
1105 years before C. by Cheu-kong: Tsa* 
shiy Chin-'huen^ San-Sen^ Se-ki &c. an- 
cient Chinese writers: who were partly 
translated for Goguet by the learned Le- 
roux. Their accounts shall be chiefly fol- 
lovs^ed here ; but I have consulted also, and 
may often add other facts or details, taken , 
from Duhalde, Guignes, Barrow, Mailla, 
Klaproth, Wain, Morison, Leyden, Remu* 
sat &c. 

Even in China, the early history of man* 
kind, and of the Empire before Yao, is va- 
riable, only known to the mo^t learned meii^ 
md antiquarians, who differ about aev^ral 




pMta and dates ; as we do about our ancient 
history previous to Ninus, Abraham, Cc- 
"crops, &/C. But it is nevertheless autheii- 
tic, altho' obsctu'ed by contradictioni^^ a pe- 
culiar style and modes of speech. 

The ancient Chinese Books and Letters, 
^e now as little understood, as our manu- 
scripts and In^cr]ptions of Etruria, Egypt, 
Phenicia and Celtica. Yet there are in 
China as with us, learned men who study 
these ancient records, and preserve their 
memory. The actual characters of Chi- 
na are of modern or igine, altered by round- 
ing angles and abreviations, from those 
adopted about 2000 years ago: just like 
our modern mpt. and printing letters have 
been formed from the ancient' Greek Let- 
ters. They are symbols in variable num- 
lief; formed by the Union of 216 Keys or 
radical signs, - and these from only 6 ele- 
mentary strokes. 

But all authors vary in their number : 
Gutzlaf says 216, Barrow 212; Guignes 
and Remu^at 214 ; only introduced in 200 
aft. C. by lAiB'te and called Jnng-shu. 
The great Chinese Lexicon contains 80^- 
000 symbols, the smaller or usual about 
10^000. These include many ancient sym- 
bols, and those used for inscriptions, devi- 
ses, besides another set for legal writing, 
contracts, bonds, acts &c. 150,000 inclufie 
the literature of all ages. 

]^ny of these Symbolic Letters haw 


112^ CmliESE HAflOKS. 

been properly compared to our signs fbf 
Geography, Algebra, Alchemy, Astrono^ 
my, Music Sec. that would greatly swell 
our graphic Lexicons if introduced there. 
The Chinese have also many styles em- 
ploying different forms of symbols the sci- 
entific or learned, the poUte, the poetical, 
the vulgar, the legal &c. The historical 
style is generaly learned^ mysterious, con- 
cise, allegorical and obscure : whence all 
the peculiarities of history. 

The ancient characters Ntao-ki or kJuh- 
chu are ascribed to Sse-hoang 5000 years 
ago, before Fu-hi, they were 540 Chuen or 
symbols ; but many were added afl:erwards, 
and 840 bef C. Shy-sh^B call them 
Ta-^huen-si (great ^mbols of the West) 
making 15 classes of them. 

Kircher has engraved' and preserved 
these old pictured symbols ; bnt without 
explanations: they are very singular, and 
important as types of some American sys- 
tems. The 15 classes are 

1. Dragon symbols of Fuhi, KWA-ho- 
Tu in 2941 bef. C. 

2. Agricultural Ditto of Shi-nong. 

3. Avicular— of Fui-hoan. 

4. Oysters and worms— of Shuen-kio. 

5. Roots — 6 Birds of Shoan-han. 
7. Turtle— of Yao. 

8;^ Peacock — ^9. Herbs and wings. 
ICt Herbs and stars. 
11 &0 12 fu'chuen-tay-Ten^shi or privilege 


i^dect symbols of laws and edicts: some* 
what similar to the complicate symbols of 
Otolum or Palenque in America ! 

43. Medium between 11 and 12 of science 
and learning. 

14. Fishes of Yao — 15. Similar to Runic. 
But Ching-tsiaii in the Chinese Cyclopedia 
has 24255 primitive symbols divided in 6 
classes. While the actual or modern let- 
ters have 8 different forms, like our capit- 
als, roman, italic, scrip &c., one is called 
Ko'-tow or tadpole-head. 

All these apply to the graphic Ian* 
guage of China. The Phonetic or spoken 
Languages are another Dedalus, not yet 
well understood by us. There are in Chi- 
na 20 Languages and 200 Dialects that 
apply different or modified sounds to all 
these symbols. The usual Modern Chinese 
is only one of them, the Kiang-nan of Nan* 
king, which has only 330 monosylables 
Duhalde, 342 Barrow, 411 Morison, 487 
Gutzlaff ! with 1445 intonated sounds. AH 
differ ! and omit to speak of the 20 Chinese 
Languages of Kong, Fokien, Pecheli, Yu- 
nan, Honan, Sechuen &c., with other 
different sounds, and words, the letters R, 
p, B. &/C., lacking in Kiang^ see Leyden. 
1 ParU Anlidiluvian History. 
1^ Event TI-EN Celestial Entitv or 
Heavenly Spirit, did produce all things. 
He has received many titles CHANG iSm- 
f»or, WANG Eminent, TE the Lord, 


114 <«IlfE9E KATIOHf. 

TAI-KI Supreme Being, TAO Ohaosi 
SAN-Y three in one or Triune God. 

2d. Event. This Supreme Bemg TAI* 
KI, produced. the Universe by double Ema- 
nations of himself YANG Perfection, YIN 
Imperfection: thus the monad becoming 
a triad by producing a Duad. And these 
again producing successive Duads and be- 
xx)ming Triads. 

In the spiritual and moral sense the 
Deity is called LI, the Divine Reason or 
Love, which combines with the good and 
evU of the above to form binary and terna- 
ry i^'oductions. From LI itself has sprung 
GIN Piety or love for God, and Y Equity 
or love for mankind ; which produce and 
induce all the virtues of Religion and Mor- 
ality by successive emanations. 

The triad of the TAO religion is T-A-O 
Heaveply-Main-Being, and SAN-Y three 
in Unity: his LI or Spirit, is called Y-HI- 
YI Love-Life-Matter, applying also to 

3d. Event. The productions of YANG 
are, the Masculine principle, SHIN heav- 
'enly Angels ; Heaven, the Sun, the jGre, 
the light, the day, the intellectual Souls 
WAN &c While from the Imperfec- 
tion YIN were produced the feminine prin- 
<)iple and all the terrestrial things, the 
JBarth, Moon, night, water, animals and 
jrfants A.e., as well as PIH the animation 
,<Nr. animal souk, and the KI or terr^trial 



. . . ' _ « 

The Earth TI was an Emanation of 
TAI-KI thro' YIN, while the actual ma- 
terial heaven and sky was made thro* 
Yang. They form the whole visible world, 
which is to last according to Chao-kang^ 
one YUEN or period of 129,600 years, 
composed of 12 equal parts HOEl con- 

{'unctive period^, of 10800 years. The 
lalf or six periods had elapsed at the time 
of YAO about 2350 before our Era. Thus 
we are now in the seventh HOEI which is 
to last till our year 8450 : this is evidently 
the 'SHBOE 7th day of Moses. Others 
reckon from 276,000 years to 96,961,740 
years, between the creation of Mankind 
Puan-ku and the death of Confucius 479 
years before our Era. (Note 1.) 

4th Event. In the first HOEI, the 
sky was produced by degrees, by TAIKI 
who gave an impulse or motion to the TAO 
or Chaotic matter, HOEN-KUN. 

5th Event. In the 2d HOEI, the Earth 
was produced in the same way by TAI- 
KI, out of HOEN-KUN and YIN. 
6th Event. In the 3d HOEI the Supreme 
Being produced Plants, Trees and Ani- 
mals, with men near the middle of it. This 
human half period is called PUAN-KU 
meaning remote antiquity. As soon as 
men appear on Earth, the periods assume 
the name of KI, which means both terreS" 
trial spirit^ Angel of Eurth^ personifica- 
tion of Nations and Dynasties ; and tMi 



appellation is often substituted to HOEI 
by the T AO Books ; but with many chro- 
nological variations. 

7th Event. The 4th HOEI or first KI 
is called TIEN HOANG Heavenly Em- 
pire or Emperors of Heaven! It is the 
Celestial Empire of Asia, founded by the 
JE^ontifs who civilized mankind : which is 
plainly alluded to by the early history of 
all nations from Japan to Lybia ; but chief-* 
ly best indicated in Japan, India, Egypt, 
Greece, Per^a &c., a;s the reign of Gods, 
or celestial Rulers. In the Mosaic' aq* 
count this is perhaps the 4th Yum or man- 
ifestation of the Deity when arose the So- 
lar and Lunar Dynasties, called by Moses, 
MARTH Centralities. Many translators 
have said the Sun and Moon ! Moses says 
no siich thing ; but EMAUR GDL with 
EMAUR KTN Self-Luminary greatest 
and lesser : a fitting title of celestial Leg- 
islators, called Sun and Moon by meta- 
phore in India, Persia Sie. 
' These Celestial Emperors formed a Dy- 
nasty of 13 brothers or successors and bear 
many other titles, they appear to indicate 
9^ triad of Rulers : and are 

TIEN-LING Celestial Intelligence—to 
whom is ascribed the invention of pictural: 
symbolic Letters, Books and the cyclic As- 
tronomy of the 10 Kan and 12 Chi. 
. TSI-JUN,. Nourishing son — ^Inventor of 

CBOmB KAtlOHt. 117 

CHON6*KUN, Middle King—perfaAps 
the ancestors of the nation of Ku£if and 
Chdng, that appears afterwards, (Note 3.) 

The duration of this period is duMoiiB, 
but extended to great length by some Chi- 
nese, 1800Q years: if moons are meant, 
1384 years. But others say 45,000 years 
or moons. 

8th Event. The 5th KOEI or 3d KI 
is called TI-HOANG Terrestrial Empire 

or Dyhasty of 11 brothers ^When it may 

be supposed that the Celestial Emperors or 
Pontifs spread their dominion over the 
Earth; or descended from the Celestial 
land of Asia. To them is ascribed Astro- 
nomy, the solar year, and the chronology of 
moons and years. They were 11 or 13 
brothers and successors, and the progeni- 
tors of the next human Dynasties. They 
answer probably to the Lunar Dynasty of 
the Hindus. A^ a HOEI olr |)eriod^ this 
answers to the 5th Yum of Moses, or the 
5th divine manifestation in the Sea. 
Whether they allude to a Seashore domin-^ 
ion, and literal human tribes, is a question 
worthy enquiry. The duration being also 
stated at 18000 years, if moons, 1384 of 
solar years, would be a proof of eontempo- 
rjary existence with the first KI. 

9th Event. The 6th HOEI or KI \» 
caUed JIN or 6IN-HO ANG, Human Em- 
pire or Dynasty, or Emperors of mai^nd^ 
then called GIN wl^ch is identic witlilli^ 

Gins or Gehi of Oriental history. Gin is: 
alao identic withi Kin of Moses, our Cain, 
Ruler of men. This 6th HOEI is the* 
aame as. the 6th Yum or divine manifesta* 
tion of Moses, when were* made the beast^ 
ly tribes and the Adamie tribes, perhaps 
both human tribes, v But there are many 
verbal and chronological difficulties be- 
tween such remote Nations and Annals. The 
Chinese ascribe 4560D years to these GIN^ 
equal to 3508 Solar years if moons. But 
they extend their period to fuM^ and thus 
all the next KI are GIN, 

The Chiuese Annals make GIN with 
a Dynasty of 9 or 10 human Emperors, all 
brotners, sons of the Terrestrial Emperors; 
who divided the Earth and began to build' 
Cities with walls, as KIN did in Moses* 
But Moses makes these 10 brothers, sue-* 
cessive rulers or Patriarcl^ of 'mankind. 
These 10 rulers 'who founded Kingdoms- 
and Nations, Cities and where contempo- 
rary or successive, are found under various 
names in the annals of Assyrians, Pheni- 
cians, and other Nations : while the Hin- 
dus furnish us many other names and de- 
tiails. (Note 3i) 

Meantime it is by these GIN that the 
pro()er human history begins in China : very* 
obscure at first, and still mythological ; but 
wjith a few details. The end of this UOEt 
or KI is difierently stated by the Sects and' 
Udtorians.v To correspond with Moses,. 



and tbe 6th Yum, it ought to end at ADM 
gince Moses says tliat after ADM until NH 
or Noah, was the 7th Yum or manifesta-i 
tion : he stating positively that the iQood 
happened in this 7th Yum ; but whether 
it is lasting yet, or the flood began, the 8th 
Yum is not stated by him, 

yet in China, there are various compu- 
tations of manifestations HOEI (our YUM) 
subdivided into historical KI and these 
into SHI, which means a family, or tribe 
or Dynasty. The 3 first KI celestial, ter- 
restrial and human are also called by others 
3 SHI forming a single KI, called SAN- 
HOANG triple Empire : and the 12 KI 
are thus reduced to 10 ; we aro in the 
10th, beginning at Hoang-ti who is very 
different from TI-HOANG, as we shall 
see. And these 10 KI are further redu- 
ced to 7, agreeing with the 7 HOEI, by ' 
the reunion of contemporary ancient KI. 
Thus these are mere versions and amplifi-^ 
cations of the Mosaic Ontogeny arid Chro- 
nology, of which I give the obvious parale- 
Usms, spliting as usual in two, forming tri- 
ple manifestations. 

1, HoEi. . 1. luM or Yum or Yom of He- 
brew Dialects. Heaven and Earth. 

2. HoEi. Earth. 2. Ium, Chaos cf 
Earthy and remainder lof Ontogeny till ani- 
mals and men. 

. 3. HoEi. Animals and mankind — 3^ 
luM, compriBing the 6 lums or manifesta.^. 

190 cnnraan HAnon* 

tions on earth detailed by Hoses tHl ADIL 

4. Hoei. Celestial Empire 1 KI— AU& 
and RKIO of Moses. 

5. Hoei— Terrestrial Empire 2 KI— Sea 
and Land, Son and Moon, 

6. Hpei — ^Hmnan Empire 3 KI — Ani- 
mals and Adam. 

By this paralelism the 3 first HOEI are 
Comiogonical, but the 3 last OntogcMiicaly 
and each divided in two lUM of Moses. 

7. HOEI lasting yet, equal to the 
SHBIOI of Moses, or 7th lUM (manifesta- 
tion of the Deity) in which we are: akho' 
The Chinese often begin it with Yao or 
Fuhi and thus later. 

Now begin the historical KI and SHI, 
which are made successive, but are evi- 
dently paralel, refering to less cirilized 
men than the Celestial homan beings of the 
Chinese, ALEIM of Moses. 

10th Event. 4tb KI of the U-LONG 
Fire or dark Dragcms. Men dwelling ia 
Caves or on trees and divided in 5 SHI or 
families. This is realy the corresponding 
first KI of the Barbarians, who dwelt near 
the Celestial Enq>ire : they are ammalized 
as Dragons or winged Snakes. The 5th 
KI or next to this is nameless or misunder-^ 
scood even by the antiquarians of China r 
thus it has probably no historical existence. 
Such is the uncertainty of these remote 
annals ; and the whole Series pf KI is suIk 
ject to great variations and difficulties, lij^ 


blemling with SHI afterwards as ti^y have 
with HOEI before. 

Here is a table of these variations, . 

1 KI— 1 Ki— TIEN > 

2 KI— 2 Ki— TI > 1st. KI-SAN. 

3 KI— 3 Ki— GIN S 

4 KI-^ Ki— U-LONG— or the 2d 

5th or 3d Ki nameless and to be 

3 Ki again HO-LO. (4) 
3 KI— 4 Ki again Lien-tong. 

5 Ki Su-min6. 

6 Ki SuN-FUi. 

6 KIr-7 Ki Yun-ti- flood ofNoah. 

8 Ki Shen-tong. 

9 — Ki Fu-m and Hoangti. 

7 KI — 10 Ki. Yao. second flood of Peleg. 
11th Event. Of the HO-LO either as a 

KI or Nation, it is only said that they 
dwelt in hollow clefts of locks, or caves like 
the U-LONG, and had 3 SHI or tribes of 
families^ It js very probable that they are 
similar babarians; the ancestois of the 
LO-LO or great LO, -who yet dwell as 
such in the South West of China, and of 
the LAO of Siam &c. The meaning of 
Ho-Lo is not given but Hu-lu means Bar- 
barians and hunters : it depends on the 
symbols used. In phonetic language HO 
means Fiie, River and Queen ; LO means 
old and six. 

12th Event. Klofthe LIEN-TONG; 
ipue ining ro^tional beings of the East^ whQ> 


had 6 SHI or families. Nothing else told. 
13th Event. KI of the SU-MING, 
meaning perhaps Western Idght'i Com- 
pare them with the Shamans and Sa-- 
mangs of North and South Asia. They 
had 4 SHI or families : and Lo-pi pre- 
tends that 90)000 years, or moons moie 
likely, had elapsed from the beginning of 
the GIN to the end of this KI of Suming. 
14th Event. KI of SUN-PUI, perhaps 
Holy Snake ! FUI, is similar to FUHI, 
and -means perhaps the Snake Nation like 
it. The Chinese reckoa sometimes two 
FU-HI, and this may be the first;, whttm 
Li'ta followed by Morison, puts in 3369 
3rears before our Era, and deems the real 
founder of the Chinese Empire, called 
TIEN-HIA Celestial Region. This KI 
ha^ 22 SHI or families. TSE-SHE one 
of them or the last, began agriculture and 
to build houses ! These monarchs were be- 
nevolent and pious, never made war, nor 
put any one to death ; all the world sub- 
mitted to their virtues and good laws : they 
wore no crown, but long hair. Property 
was in common and universal concord pre- 
vailed. Men lived on roots, fruits and 
milk: they neither killed cattle, nor wild 
animals. Such was the golden age of Chj- 
na, before the flood ; but it refers to the 
TIEN and TI Empires, rather than the 
GIN and Barbejrians. TS&SHE iu-e 
deemed yet the fir^t human Gods, Th»y 

ure placed between 3114 and 2814 bef. C« 
as a Dynasty of 4 Princes, Ch&w andJKouN- 
Itmff being the 1st and 4th, who were 
deified as TSE and SHE Gods of Corn and 
Mil, deemed patrons of all the Dynasties^ 
and] are worshiped by the Emperors even 
now next to Heaven and Earth; 

11 Part. Diluman History between 
the floods of YVN-TI and YAO. 

15th Event. KI of YUN-TI or the 
iPioqd : also called YN-TI Silver Earth or 
Dominion, and YU-CHAO ifish or flood — 
good or Lord : AH names alluding to the 
silver age of Noah. YUN-TI means First 
Dominion or New Earth.' 

This flood was attended with many phy- 
sical changes; but' did not destroy the 
whole of mankind, in the East of Asia, or 
where dwelt then the Chinese, ptobably on 
the Eastern ranges of the Imalaya, moun- 
tains, called TIEN-SHAN Celestial moun- 
tains by the Chinese, and deemed their an- 
cient abode. Their branches are SIEN- 
SHAN Snow mts. in the South. Imalaya 

KIN-SHAN Gold mts., in the North. 
Altay mts. 

LUNG-SHAN Dragon mts., or KUEN- 
LUNG Dog-Dragons, in the Central parts. 
All from 20 to 30 thousand feet above the 

This was the refuge THBE of the Chi- 
rnse land Nodi; the. Chinese Annals do 

124 cmNESE NAtiom. 

not enter into the details preserved by 
Moses; but they state that this cataclysm 
was attended with greater cold, winds, and 
heavy rains, a change* in the solar year 
from 360 to 365 days, and an increase of 
wild beasts, which had sought refuge in the 
mountains.* . 

Of YUN if Noah very little is said, altho' 
he gave naiihe to this KI, which comprises 
13 SHI or Dynasties, He was probably 
the ruler of the East, while in the West 
other rulers or names prevailed, the NH of 
Moses, 3Pnuh of India. 

It must be noticed that the SHI become 
now better identified with Dynasties of Na- 
tions ; but are often mistaken for KL 
Thus in Gutzlaff, who has followed other 
historians, we find all the KI called SHI, 
and he mentions only 6 SHI before Fu-hi 
thus answering to the- 6 contrasted KL 
They are. 

1. PuAN-Ku SHI. Remote old age. 

2. Tien SHI — Celestial Dynasty or age* 

3. Ti SHI— Terrestrial Dynasty. 

4. Jin SHI — Human Dynasty. 

5. YU-CHAU-SHI— same as YUN-TI 
Dynasty: 11th SHI. 

6. StJY- JIN-SHI— who is the 13th SHI 

ofYUN-TI in our historical series* It 

must be remembered that SHI means at 

the same time. Age, Generation^ House^ 

family, dynasty, tribe and nation ! and 

is the root of SHIN Angel or heav^jr 



Spirit : while KI is only a terrestrial- Spirit 
or Soul, meaning also Period, year, part, 

16th Event. SHIS-SANG, Angelic trt- 
pie-Lord: or Chin-fang begins the first 
SHI or Dynasty after the flood. Does not 
his name allude to the triple sons of Noah ? 
He finds the Earth and mankind desolate ; 
the Snakes and Beai^s (^or human tribes 
thus named) were prevailing, the cold in- 
creasing. He teaches mankind to dress 
in skins and hair cloth or wool, to subdue 
the Beasts &c. His SHI lasted 350 years, 
which includes probably the 9 following 

17th Event. Of all the succeeding SHI 
of this KI, altho'the names are given, but 
few details are stated, except of the 11th. 
They may be compared with some of 
Noah's descendants, altho' they appear of 
a different line. Perhaps all rulers of the 
1st SHI or diluvian events. 

2d. SHI of SHU-SHAN. Water moun* 
tains * 

3d! of HAI-HUfel. Shore-kneeKng or 

4th. of HOEN-SUN. Name obscure; all 
things yet in common: happiness of men 
Itnd beasts. 

5th. of TON6-HU. East Barbarian. 
This Dynasty had 7 Kings. HU meafui 
also Lakf), Deer, and Gate. Wars of Beutt 
against men. 

190 ^apNESB lUTIONe. 

$th. SHI of HOANG-TAN, Empire 

^ Altar. 

7th. o'fKI-TONG, Terrestrial spirit of 
t^e East. 

8th. of KI-Y. Spiritual Unity. 

0th. of KI-KIN. Spiritual Gdd. 
lOth. of HMJEI, Name obscure. HI 
ineans Victim and life, UEI tail or end. 

I have tried to explain thtee names by 
l^e phonetic Language, which like th? 
Mosaic is often obscure and full 9f hor 
oaonyms. The graphic import must be re- 
wrted to for further light and to rectify 
tyhem : or prove as probable that they ar^ 
explanatory of the Deluge ! 
18th Event. T^e 11th SHI was YEU- 
TSAO, same as YU-CHAU of Gutzlaff 
[Pynasty lasted 310 year@. The name 
means Lord of food. He was a Legisla- 
tor! who taught the use of houses, cooking 
and of nets to catch fish. He was also a 
traveller and went to the West, beyond 
tfce desert of Cobi, to the Lake Ta-tfising 
(Great blue) our Caspian Sea (5), and vis^ 
%t$ there Si-nang'tnu (west people mother) 
a western Nation: also the mt. PucheuhB' 
ycjnd the Sun and Moon ! He received 
jfrpRi Long-fna (Dragon horse) a nation of 
horsenien probably, the turtle symbols or 
l^tJ^Qrs, from the hack of a turtle. He 
Mllde w$r on beasto: and Ibund yet mudl 
mwt^r qp^ the E^rth* (Not^O.) 

I9th Event. SULGIN ^aa thi^ 12tk 



SHI, the same as SUY-JIN of GutzlldST 
who must include the next KI into hid 
SHI: while others ascribe to him the deeds 
of the past Shi» His name means Wat^* 
man. His successor or 13th SHI was 
YONG-SHING Solar Wisdom, to whom 
is ascribed the discovery of the symbols on 
strings or cord letters, like the Quipos of 

20th Event. Beginning of tlie 9th KI of 
SHEN-TONG SprakeroftheEastiyvhich 
had 91 SHI ; but as nothing is related of 
the 2d to 11th, it is probable they are 
identic with those of last KI. This wheth- 
er the 9th or ^he 6th still ends at FU HI 
and appears to include but 660 years — 350 
of Shin-sang and 310 of Yeu-tsao from the 
flood to Pu-^hL 

first SHI of this KI. Yet some say he was 
only the Minister of the subseqnent HO- 
ANG-Tl. He travelled to the South 
Mountains of Yang-yu (pleasing food) and 
the green River LO. He invented the 
Ho-Tfj-cHU characters, that lasted in use 
till 827 bef. C. He settled the laws, rites, 
and music. His name means Old Yellow 
and forest dweller. His successors are 
mostly named without deeds ; they were, 2 
Pe-hoang^ 3 Chong-hoang^ 4 TdUtivg^ 
5 Kuen-Utn, 6 Yen, 7 TVit, 8 Ching-hoeij 9 

i'ln, 10 SofuMng, 11 Niiei^tuan. 

121st Event. HIEN-YUEN Town kuUder, 


was *the 12th SHI or rather Emperon. 
Another Legislator and improver who in- 
troduced townS). music, laws, money, com- 
merce, carts,, exchanges, weights and mea- 
sures and the- Letters Yen-tse. He traded 
in Metals, Skins, Woven stuffs. Gems and 
Ivory. His deeds have been blended witb 
those of Hoang-ti. Successors 13 He-suy, 
14 Kai'tienj 15 Tsun-lin. 
22d Event/ SHO-JONG the 16th SHI 
invented the music Tsie-ueh meaning- 

S*ac€ful beauty. Others ascribe it to 

23d Event. KAO-YNG the 17th SHI 
had wars with the Beasts KONG which 
soon appear as a human tribe. Men fought 
then with clubs, and the Earth was cover-, 
ed with Forrests. (Note 7). 

The 18th SHI was YEU-TSAO, who is 
supposed by Lopi to be same as the lltb 
SHI of the last KL 

a4th Event CHO-SIANG the 19th SHI 
invent the SE or Guitar. YN-KHANG, 
30th SHI with a great drought and stagnant 
water causing diseases, the TA-VU or 
great Dance is invented to cure them, 
of VU-HOAI the 21st SHI nothing is sta- 

35th Event. The tenth KI of FU-HI or 
FO-HI meaning Snaking or Happy lAfe 
or TAI-HAO great ancestor^ begins the 
positive history of China and foundation of 
tbeEmpii'^, also of the TI or Empbrors^ 



But with many difficulties as yet. FtP'hi 
forms also a SHI named PAO-III Croeern- 
ing lAfe. The date of this period or Dy* , 
nasty is 2933 years before our Era by the 
majority of calculations, and it lasted 115 
years, ascribed to a single life ; but as 15 
Princes follow him, they form probably his 
Dynasty. From GIN to FU-HI had 
elapsed 45600 years or 3506. 

It is stated that Fv-hi found men as yet 
wild ^thout marriage jior agriculture, 
eating raw meat, drinking blood, dwelling 
in caves &c., which is impossible after the 
preceeding dietails and facts ; but applies to 
the Barbarians he civilized. Two tribes 
are mentioned as constantly his foes, the 
RONG-KONG (or Kungkung, the great 
Kong) who were beastly Devils and Cy- 
clops using Iron and Axes ; they dwelt in 
the South of China. The lAlVG (insects 
or Vermin) dwelt in the North, infesting 

Meantime Fu-tii, helped by his sister 
and Wife NIN-NA (compare to Ninus) 
or N(E-HO A female flower, or NtU'ua^ of 
which wonders are related, introduced a 
better civilization, laws and agriculture. He 
divided the whole people in 200 SING or 
tribes, establishing marriages; but forbid- 
den in the same tribe. Six domestic ani*> 
mals already subdued are spread, the Horse 
Ox, Hog, Dog, Sheep, and Hen. Rice 
und Corn are cultivated^ houses and towns 


ttiilli The KUAI Symbols la eotds aifi 
ikies 'i^jpted. Waters ar^ draiiied, eA*' 
ntHb anA causeways ' made^ Jle iAtrodtf*^ 
c«d the wor^ppf the SHIN and KI Ce» 
l^Aial and tef'f estrial spiriiS' by sacrifices^ 
*ivH tind |>^al laws, six or^lers of LU civil 
dffie^Sy square oopper money in strings, the 
wt of medecine t&c. He also invented the 
KIN-LI or Gbld6n Lyre^ the Kia-tse or 
fieriod c^ 60 y es&rs. 

The Emblem of the FU-HI Nation ind 
Einlpire wte the Wihged Lizard LUNG^ a 
kind a I>ragon which has remained ev^ 
isihce the symb<^ aiid standard of the En- 
piiSe. /Note 8.) 

26th Event. SHIN-NONG Spirit ef 
'husbandry y in the next SHI or TI, datii^ 
of 2838 years bef. C. He had 7 succes- 
fijotis aikd his Dynasty lasted 140 years. He 
Uras the |)romoter of Agricultnre inventor 
trf the wodden plo'ogh, and ouhivat-ed five 
kinds of Corn, hemp, trees &c. He introda- 
t^ed markets, fairs, festivals, songs, pottery, 
sak, tiedip and silk cloth, Wine 6f Rice,, 
Medecihea &e. He went oter th6 Earth 
to meabur^ it. In a Car drawn by fiv^ Dra- 
ins, reaching the 4 seas, aiid employed the 
Ma^friel t6 guide himself. He had to eoh- 
%ehd ^gaibst mahy Rebels ; he killed SO- 
'SHA tme of theii^ ; but was kiUed by aBotb- 
€P. PrcfbsMiy OGfjz^itAN in 2834.? (Nc«e9) 

17th Bvdnt. HOANG-TI iSl^^ralfte 
JSM^ihrar or iSIEM-TS was t<hd ffaild 

mnH ESS NATiojwSi 131 

historical SHI or Dynasty of this KI be^ 
gun in 2698 before our Era, when, began 
the historical cycles of 60 years in 3((37. 
It lasted 100 years, with several coUeague^ 
or successors' 

He built the temple of Ho-k<»7g to 
Chabtq'Ti Supreme God. He invented the 
KiN-TAo fnetal'knife money* His wife 
SHI invents or improves the silk stuffs: his 
capital was Chochiu in Pecheli. He had 
intercourse far away in the Oceaiti and in 
the westno YUEN-YU (delightful food) a 
<50untry beyond TAHIA (the great under- 
world) which is said. to be Iran or Khora- 
san ; but more probably the AY A of In- 
dia; ivhence came probably the HIA na- 
tion and Dynasty soon afler. 

His foe was SHI-YEU, tiie Luqar Djr- 
iia^y ? who was a warlike foe, using irixK 
fefwords, satu^es and bows: against wbc^m 
he used Lances and shields : and put in 
use the compass as a gui(le in the war ! (tO.) 

His colleagues (perhaps successors or 
Tlu&ais) are said to have invented many^ 
useful objects. YoiKTishiiHEK invented the 
sphere and maps. 

LicmtJ ; invented the Arithmetical iia- 
atniment yet in use. 

IjiN£^«iii]tN;» a native of yi7£if-YU, the far 
land to tke >Vest, invented the LU-LU or 
reeds of Pan, and employ them to govern 
li^ them the Kax (lai»fe) of Yo^Band Yakg 


132 cmN;Eȣ kation0# 

(the Ocean) Youg-xuen invents the Bettiv 
and Organs. 

Mien, invents the Diadems or Crowns^ 
called after him. 

NiNU*J0N6 and She-tsiang invent kettles^ 
mortars, stoves, dyes, roads, wagons, 
bridges, shoes, coffins, mills and machines, 
of many kinds &c. 

HoBi and Y-MEN invent bow ami arrows. 

Khv-pe invents the drams, trumpets, 
horns, and ffutes. 

KoxG-Kv and IIoa-hu, make ships of 
follow trees inventing oars, and go to ex^ 
plore the^ Ocean, where they found many 
islands without men, nor cattle: whid^ 
were colonized. This happened between 
2670 and 2600 bef. our Era : and is a very 
important fact for the history of Poly- 
nesia pr even America. 

The Empre of Ohina^ extended then 
from the East Sea, to Khong'tsdng West, 
from Hoen-jo North to Kiatig South. It 
was divided in Shen or provinces, having 
each 1000 Ye or Cities. 

28th Event. After these 3 great SHI 
who are often called coUectiyely the SAN- 
HOANG Dynasty, begins the period call* 
'ed U-TY (five Emperors) altho' realy 
more than 5, but the worthless are omitted. 
This SHI lasted 393 years from 2598 to 
12205 beH C. and in it happened the second 
flood of YAO. 

SHAO-HAO was the first of these elee- 


tive Emperors, \)^ho made many reforms^ 
sacrifices SlCj and had to contend with' 
9 Chiu-hiu or Lords of the nation KIEU* 
LY or Kiu-li, who caused nmeh trouble by 
. Magic and Idolatry of Spirits or new Gods, 
towards 12500, deluding 9 Hiu or Kings 
causing civil wars. He ruled from 2598 to 
2514—^ years. 

29th Event. CHOEN-HIO or Chuen- 
hyo. Ruled 78 years Irom 2514 to 2436. 
He opened many mines, and is said to have 
regulated religion and united the priest- 
hood to the throne ; but this had ever been 
the case in China. (Note 11.) 

30th Event. TI-KO or TY-HO or 
TI-KUH, was the third. He ruled 70 

iears from 2436 to 2366, or perhaps was a 
)ynasty of 3 Emperors. He was a poet, 
composed many songs; but introduced 
Polygamy, taking 4 wives. 

31st Event. TY-CHY or TI-GHE, was 
a worthless son of the last, who only ruled 
8 years from 2366 to 2357, and is often 
omitted: he was deposed by his brother 
YAO, or rather the vassals. (Note 12.) 

32d Event. YAO or Yaou, meaning 
Brilliant Wolf is reckoned the 4th, iltho^ 
realy the 5th of these. He ruled 72 years 
fi-om 2357 to 2285 bef. C. We have aift- 
ple materials for his reign; Guignes begins 
by it his Chinese ancient history. He took 
»Iso the name of Y-KY because born in 
l^ingdom Y and dwelling in kingdom KY. 

1^ CfflNia^ TtArtO«U4 

He was made Pfiiice of TAO and 
TANG by his brother* After Imving de* 
posed him for his vices, he made Ping'-yai* 
in Shan-si^ his capitaL He employed the 
HY and HO Astronomers to observe the 
Solstices at various places and at the tropic^ 
who increase the year to 366 days, and in- 
tercalate 7 lunar months every 19 years* 
His bad geniusf or foe was CHI a bird or a 
nation, who at last leave him in |>eace. But 
this bird turns out to be CHI-YKU King 
of the MIAO nation ! But he had a good 
Genius or friend in KY-LIN a peculiar 
Animal of good Omen, who went and carne^ 
probably another Nation. 

The Empire enjoyed great happinesa; 
he visited the whole of it every 12 years 
and was received by songs of praise. He 
worshiped chiefly the fire of heaven, and 
was published by a flood for it. 63 floods 
we mentioned in Chinese history ; but this 
the second was nearly as destructive ad 
the first. (Note 13.) 

Meantime KU-SEU King of Yu, (de. 
scended from YU-MU (Yu-mother) who 
had invented the Voe-sing Musi^ was 
King of the YU Nation (Fishes or Fisher- 
men) at Cutr-FANG, where was born SHUN 
in 2327: who built in 330S the city of 
FU-HIA on River KOey. He was a great 
vassal of the Empire. This shows that 
the nation of Fishes ! was vassal of the 



The flood of YAO happened in 2296. It 
wm a great deluge of waters, which oter-^ 
flew the plains and hills. According ^ to 
the Shuking book, it destroyed the moun*^ 
tains, formed a great Abyss and reached 
to Heiaven ! - But this amplification does 
not apply literaly, and mankind was not 
destroyed. YAO employed the vassals 
KUEN for 9 years till 2287 to drain the 
waters; but in vain: they knew neither 
how to obey nor behave. 

The Barbarians, Devils KONG-KONG 
oQer to undertake it ; but YAO refused to 
employ them ; he takes the YU in favor, 
and their King SHUN as his colleague, 
giving him his two, daughters in marriage, 
and in 2285 he abdicates in his favor, but 
only died in 2255. 

33d Event The reign of SHUN lasted 
77 years from 2285 till 2208. He ought 
to begin the Dynasty of YU; but he is 
made the 5th U-TY, and his successor 
YU is made the head of the HI A Dynasty. 
The Chinese history is full of these incon- 
sistencies, and other imperfections; like 
other Annals. (Note 14.) 

Meantime SHUN with his people the 
YU undertook to repair the ravages of the 
flood, and succeeded after 10 years of ex- 
ertions, ending, in 2277. He visited the 
plains and mountains, burnt all the forests 
repair all wild beasts, confined the Rivers 
&C. Plenty begins to reappear. He was 



crowned in the temple Ven-tse of sphere 
and tube ! sacrificed to Shang-ti, the 6 
venerable Ancestors, the Mounta!ins and 
Rivers, and all the Spirits of Heaven and 
Earth. He visited the whole Empire 
every 6 years, receiving the homage of 
vassal Princes. He employed 8 Lords of 
Chtten-hio family to govern the Provinces, 
and 8 Lords of Tiko family to renew the 
laws of parental duties. 

In 2282 he exiled the Kong-kong people 
of Demons to the North, in Yeu-cheu of 
Leao-tong. In 2283 he exiled the three 
tribes of MI AO to San-uey westofSnEN- 
si. They were a bad and cruel people of 
the South, who had made long wars with 
the Celestial Empire, their King CHI- 
YEU had formerly begun the first war on 
Earth. These SAN-MIAO (three tygers) 
renewed now the disorders of Kieu-ly. 
SHUN employs again the regulations of 
SHOEN against them, called CHONG 
(a people) settling what relates to Heaven 
and the Gods, and LY relating to Earth, 
people and fires. (Note 15.) 

The people KUEN was exiled to YU- 
SHAN (fish mountain) and the people 
these details intimate wars and disorders 
after the flood, and the expulsion from 
China, of severalty nations. The Kono and 
KuEN may be traced perhaps to America, 
ki subsequent colonies. The Chinese Em* 


pire wa8 then <sMtiposed of* >maiiy diflTereiit 
Nations; eomeof ivtiicii urere Barbarians. 
The 9 CHEU of it, were vassal kiHgdooa^ 
»or nations. Tb^ wtere 

1. KY in ^bansi, tribute skins ai)d 
dresses. Traded ^ith the fiarhaiians of 
the Islands by the River Moang-ho. 

2. YEN in Shantong, tribute sik, doth 
asnd varnish. . 

3. TSING East df it, on the Sea, people 
Barbarians YU and LAY •tribute Salt 
cloth, hemp, tin, ^iies and gems. ; 

4. SIU in Honan, tribute feathers, and 
pearls by Baarbarians HUY. 

5. YAN<x ^m sea shore from Kiang to 
Fokien, tribute metals, ♦ bambus, . skjias, 
oranges, woods &c., besides Ivory and 
grass doth brought from thlB Islands. 

6. KING i« Hukuang, triloote metals, 
feathers, skins, arrows, stones, vermilion. 

7. YU in Honap, tribute varnish, hamp- 
doth, stones 4fcc. 

8. LEANG in Sedbiiexi, tribute Iron, 
^ver skins, ^^c, had Barbaiians HQ, in- 
dependent till iOOO years after. 

^. YONG m Shensi. Certainly a peoto- 
fiar nation, and West dl them was &AJi- 
UEY. (Note 16,) 

"SHPIXN i^as a greaM; legator; he a!boI^ 
ished slavery ; J^t 6onfh*med the ^eodal 
^y^em €if antiq«i1j. In HSlfS >he increased 
<^ preMrinees to 1% each, wkh a TAW ai- 
-tar for ^acrifioes; he made YUd^£-fi& 




KONG Prince of HIA, and SIA prince of 
SHANG, who were t^e founders of the 
HIA and SH ANG Dynasties : also KY 

Erince of PIN, who became HEN-TSI a 
lemigod of Agriculture, and ancestor of 
the third Dynasty of CHEU or CHOW. 
SHUN also divided the fruitful lands of 
the Empire into 5 FU or districts. 

1 TIEN. Celestial, where was the 
capital^ furnishing Rice for the Imperial 

2. HEN for the support of officer^ and 
vassal Lords. j 

3. SUY for Education and DefencQ. 

4. YAO for the Barbarians and Crimi- 
nals * - * 

6. HOANG for the MAN vassals frog 
people and the Exiles. These MAN are 
the ancestors of the Germans, the Man- 
chus, and English ! called still man and 
men\ , 

In 2255 died YAO. His son TAN- 
CHU being vicious was set aside by the 
vassals, and SHUN elected alone Emperor 
and Pontif; but he was made PE (Prince) 
of Tang. SHUN took for his Minister 
YU prince of HIA, and in 2234 made him 
partner to the Empire. 

They established the 5 great tribunals, 

- Chuy of public works, 2. Y of lands, 3 

iKuey of Education and music, 4 Pe-y^of 

iteremonies., 5 Long of Censor^ip. Many 

new laws were made, also rules, rites 



holy dances, new musical instraments, 
hymns and songs. Sec. 

In 2222 Rebellion of the MIAO; but 
they submit to YU. In 2208 SHUN died 
after a glorious reign ; and after an inter- 
regnum of 3 years, YU was elected Em- 
peror by the vassals in 2205 beginning the 
great Dynasty of HIA^ that lasted till 
1766: a branch of it reigned in India as 
HYA from 2000 to 1550 lays Tod. 

Such are the primitive annals of Eastern 
Asia, and one third of mankind, till the 
second great historical Cataclysm of the 
Earth. The patriarchal, pontifical and 
feodal system ol government, were firmly 
established, and have lasted ever since, un- 
der airthe subsequent revolutions; divisions, 
invasions and changes of Dynasties. The 
feodal i^stem alone after many sti-uggles 
and civil wars was nearly destroyed in 221 
bef. C. by the TSIN Dynasty, but partly 
revived since by other Dynasties. 

This primitive history ofiers the names 
of many distinct Nations, that probably had 
peculiar Languages, yet preserved in the 
various provinces of China. It is among 
them, that we must chiefly look for the an- 
cestors of some American Nations, instead 
0f any modern or later tribes. However 
the subsequent annals of China- speak of 
many other barbarous Nations- or tribes, 
within the limits or the borders of the Em- 
|dre; which existed there previously, and 

149 eomBHSr KATlQlf 8. , 

matjr alsc offer aitelagies or defieeadants in 
America. I therefor^ shaU soeiKion mo6t 
ctf theiftf in order tb a£S»rd all t)>e iDftterials 
fi>r Wm Etbnotogieal enquity* 

HIQNG rated all Chikia from 2180 to 
3070 be£ C: and formed a Dynasty of 3 
Emperors, iaternpting the IJIA^ but omit^ 
led liy the annals^ oeeause Barbarians. (17) 

YUE sontSi of Kiang, received Hocs-n 
for klTiglQwardsr^iS060^so]|» of the Eoiperor 

KIEU-YUEN at waf with th^ Empire 
toitardfi 1950. 

BHANG nation dndkii^oai overthrows 
the rule of the HIA in 1766^ and make 
war cm the KO watdr pedpAe^ e^taUishii]^ 
then- Dynasty* (Note 18.) 

RUEN-Y Barbarians of the West isk 
Sbensi, mol^t the Empire since ]lS60,r sev-t 
4f a) in vasionSy till quite overthrown towards^ 

KIANG Barbarians of the South, paint- 
mg bodies &e, are civilised by Tay-pe son of 
TAfiFt King of CHEU, towards 1259: thdr 
fariigaage has prevailed in China. 

yU. 4 SHY.U. 5 Y^TU, Barbadian tribe» 
tf the North, of Tartar Raee, beaten oS 
betwejen 1190 and 1168. The first allied 
With the KUEN-Y invade again in 1140. 

lilY-SIN barbarians of 8hensi, destroy 
khigdoin of LIN, of the YAO (wdU) m^ 
liQih b4t rep^lp<j| l;fn««4s. i\^ 

CHINESE nations; 141 

CHEU nation becomes par imdunt, be- 
gins a Dynasty in 1122; towards 1130 con- 
quest of 99 barbarian tribes, 10 miltions 
destroyed, their countries given as king^ 
doms to vassals: forming a federal Empire 
the King of Cheu at the ^^ head. One of 
these kingdoms subsists to this day altho often 
conquered, and has 3000 years of exist- 
ence. It is K AO-LI (our Corea) far to 
the N. E. LI-TSE or KI-TSE of the 
Shang family, was made King of it in 1120 
and civilized the Inhabitants, forming 3 na- 
tions ME, HUN and FtlYU or KAO-KIU- 
LI, divided in 8 kingdoms. * They had 
been subject to China formerly under 
YAO; but had revolted in 2188, and in 
1324 had even in^^ed Chitia, and con- 
quered Kiang-nan and Shan-tbng. The s 
Dynasty of KI-TSE lasted 954 year^ till 
246, ruling over Leaotong and Pecheli 
likewise. The yellow Sfea was then dry 
land, it is said, having been formed by 
another flood since, of which I find no date 
nor other details. The HUN which Ap- 
pear the famous HUNS of Europe, had 3 
great tribes, Ma-han, Pien-han^ Shin-han. 
(Note 19.) 

But even befora this period China had 
sent colonies stilL further to Japan and 
other Islands. As early as 2037 Embas- 
sies had come by sea from these Colonies 
to the HI A. Atid in 1197 a large Colony 
was sentto Japan^ (Klaproth says in 1195 


flying th^ eruel Emperor Wnyi from wh<3ilce 
they drove the ONI BUck Devils, proba- 
bly the black or hairy AINU our Kurites. 
The Japanese and Coreans^ althp' of Chi- 
nese origine, h^ve very different Langua- 
ges, not monosylabic ! (Note 20). The 
Japanese becaiiie bold navigators like the 
Chinese afterwards, and traded from Afri- 
ea, Java and Australia, in the West and 
South, to Kamchatita and America in the 
Ektst and North. Towards; 325 after C. 
the Chinese discovered Uowiir or Jedzo. 
' America was discovered towards 458 near 
lat. 53 arid called FU-SHAN, the snake 
mountains; Kamchatka was TA-SHAN 
Great Mountains. Towards 630 after C. 
the Chinese traded to both. Chinese 
Geographers mention both. (Note 21.) 

FU-YU of Eastern Tartary, settled aba 
ifi Corea, very early, and became the Kao« 
MivLi in 234 bef.. C. they claim a solar de«- 
scerft, and appear sons of the.FU and YU 
of China. 

MOKO East branch 6i the Jffogola, 
helped the Emperor Yanoti in 611 after 
C. to invade Corea ; they became after- 
wards the NiucHE Nation. 

^ LEAO of lieaptoiig, appear as early as 
Yao; became in later times the SiiiLOy 
FsTSi, KrrAN and Manchu Nations ; biJt 
exist yet in West China as Lkao. 

Leavin^f these Northern Nalibiisi Pm 
find the Chinese intereourw with tbe IM 



Sir to the West in lllS bef C. In 1111 
tbe HO AY, YEN and SIN 3 barbarousp 
SHANG tribes of Kiangnan were con- 
q^ered, and exiled to Pu-ku. (Note 22.) 

KINQ barbarians of TSU in Hukuang 
submit to the Emjrire, in 1110 j yet had 
a King in 1D78 called Hiang-ye. 

JONG of the West, probably same as 
Kiong ? and Hiong, had wars with China 
in 988 to 984. In 966^ being allied with 
theold KUEN they molest China. 

SIU, in the absence criT Emperor MU in 
980, who had gcme to visit the holy mts. of 
KuEN-LUNand Lake Yao-shi (Note 23)y 
<lhe King of these barbarians usurp sway 
©ver 3& vassals of tbe Empire. On his re^ 
turn, with thp help of the barbarians TSU 
the SIU are driven from their country 
CHEN, and retire with 10,009 families to 
Pong-ching* , 

In 870 great revolt of barbarians and^ 
vassals TSU of S. HOAY of East. TSIN,, 
TSI, OEI&c, form a confederation of in- 
dependent kingdoms, against the cruel 
Ekiqperor LY, and elect the Prince of 
Si-GAN for Pontif. Great anarchy. The 
barbarians fall on the Empire from all 
sides. This lasted for 663 years. In 770 
tbe SHIN and JONG killed^ the Emperor 
in battle : 20 kii^dbms are formed, often 
at war, and destroying each other; until 
ti^eHAN Dynasty and nation begun in. 
425 prevails in 207,. ro'^uniting tiie wholie^ 
Empire and quelling the barbarians*. 


The formidable hostile foes were in 772;. 
to the Westthe JONG tribe Ya, Kfio,Uey, 
Bo, Yang, Goey, Shuy. 

MANG to the East, tribes Tsy, Lu^ 
Tsao, Song, Tong, Sie, KiA, Tseu. (24), 
Yet found in Sechuen to the West in 18^ 
as Man ? which means Frogs and FuU I 
akin to Manchiis. 

TIE to the North, tribes Oey, Yen, 
Sien-yu. And to the South was the KING 
nation. The Southern nation of U was 
only known to the Chinese in 685, and 
was conquered by the Y^e in 473 ; and 
themselves in 334 by the TSU. 

In 491, the JONG who had long lived 
independent in China, were destroyed or 
expelled; but they reappear in 215 as the 
Hiong-nuj forming a powerful state N. W. 
of China.. BBcame vassals and peaceful 
only in 176^ But agdin at war from 12ft 
till 33; 

YU-SHI of the North destroyed or ex- 
polled in 162, They go far West and 
North, become YLI-SU and USIUN to 
N. and YE-TA or Getes in Turan and 
Iran. (Note 25). 

The remainder of the Southern barba- 
rians- conquered between 136 and 109. 

KIANG a people come from Thibet to 
Sechuen conquered in 111 meaning Goats 

and Sheep. , 

LOLO of Yun-man invaded by Chin^scK. 
in 109. Xet existing now. 

, f 

In 104 to 101, conquests of the Chi^se 
as far as River Ox^ns in West. 

The aniraalizBd nations \)r tribes of the 
Chinese partly indieated in History are 1. 
Yu fishes, 2 CH Fowls, ^Imng Dragons 
and Lizards, 4 Man frogs and toads, 5 
Kiuen Dogs, 6 Miae Cats, 7 Ma Tygers 
8 Yang Goats 9 CAe and Fu Snakes, 10 
The Swine, 11 Thu Mice, 12 1/uA Deer 
\3 Ma Horses or Centaurs, 14 Chuy and 
Niau Krds, 15 Yao Wolfs IGiSrirei Tor- 
ties or Spirits .... 

If We had better materials on these va- 
ffious nations and their Languages, wa 
eould draw safer eonelusions on their Ame- 
Fican Colonies, if any. But we have ma* 
terials on the Coreans, Japanese, Manchus 
Mogols, Kong of South China, Fokien of 
East China posterity of the FUtll and 
J^TS^I The East Kiang is become the 
Uterary modern Chinese. Of the old Lan- 
guage we have mere fragments. I shall 
give them hereafter. (Note 26.) 

Meantime this rapid, but faithful, sur-^ 
vey of aneient China, is full of instruction; 
both in its disparities and similarities, with 
the other Asiatic accounts, and Atlantic 
Sketches, concerning the earliest reewds 
of mankind, the floods, ^e foundation of 

It may remove many historical difficul- 
U689 and offer many useful objects of com* 
l^ajrisons, all over tke £!firth^. In Ajpoerica 


this last became llie fifflious JKtfii^^u or 
Mongols. The Hteng-nu are ulso of suk 
race, that is to say our Tartars ; but all 
are of old Tong-vz nation, or Ochdz, Bagij 
Syij Beye meaning, men and DowJBe 
ineaniqg folks. The Lahtot and Yupi are 
the fishing tribes frcMn Lmma Sea. lllie 
nomads are Oroehen, the Northern Jhm^ 
guz. They are all called iUan-cAit by the 
Chinese, meaning popukms cauntnf. 
MAN IS an eld Chinese name for frogs ajad 
ivfMrthless people akin to the English won! 
man. Man*i is yet the Chinese name of 
the barbarians of llf eganesia. 

Bnt we learn {rom MaHebrim that 
the Yogills, Ostiacs and Permians, all Fimi 
tribes, call themselves Mansi! and ma;y 
therefore come from these Max of China, 
extending from Corea to La|riand ; as the 
Huns have from Corea to Hungary. The 
Sams or Samoyeds, the most Northern 
Asiatic Nation, call themselves Nunrz, and 
are certainly brothers of the Ikdodit of 
America, akin also to the Ainus of the 
Kuriles. The nation of Kaincliatka or 
Itel, altho^ akin to the Ainus, call them- 
selves Itel-Majv ^Inhabitants of itel)^ .and 
thus are also MAN. itel means coimtay. 
Their brothers in America are the Jl2etf- 
UaHj Alaskans and o^r Western tribes, 
who call America Alak-suta great ianfi. 
Compare Itel with the Tala nations t>f 
America and Italy in Europe ? iBiit the 

CHINESE 1>^A.X10N8. 149 


People of Pegu call themselves Mon, the 
Burmas call them Talieng^ the Siamese 
call them Mawnl thus they are Man of 
China and yet Atlantes! The Ainus tribes 
of Saghalien are Gilnkis^ and Chokas^ all 
names met in N. W. America^ Thus the 
Man Nation would be spread from East 
China to Siberia and Pegu : once akin to 
the Manni of Europe, our German nations, 
come from the Germani of Persia ; but 
the Saxons came froih the Sacas. Com- 
pare the Man-nat Devils of Burmans, and 
Munitu Spirits of N. America. 

The names of Tonguz and Boya arie 
traced to America, in the Tongas, the 
great tribes of * Missouri, and Poyas of 
Central America. The Donki may be 
compared to the Dacota and Ongwi] but 
if really separated tribes, the date of it 
goes back perhaps to the times of Og-uz. 

The HO-NO (Huns) are a branch of the 
Kin-szi^ or Oigurs, therefore Turks, In 
522 of. our Era the Peti-hono sent an Em- 
bassy to the Dynasty Liang of China, from 
near. Po-szu (Persia) where they had re- 
moved under the Han: their King was 
called Szu-hi-mi of family Ckohi, and king- 
dom Huo. These must be the Huns of 
Turan Q,nd India about that time. 

The real Tartars are called Tha-ta in 
China ; in 824 they were conquered by the 
Ki^tan, who ruled over Nv. China till 1 125 
when subverted by the Niu-chi or KIN^ 


150 dUMfiSfi KAnOHS* 

and they in 1343 by the Mongols; whose 
Empire was founded by Chingiz bom in 
1162 — about 4000 years after the famous 
Ooue, whose conquests he equalled by 
uniting, all the Tartarian Nations. He de- 
scended frmn Tohu-ting (heaven, blue) 
a Prince came from India to Thibet 300 y. 
bef. C. 


Note 1. The Chinese historians and An- 
tiquarians do not however agree on these 
HoEi, nor beginning of the actual one. 
They differ on this, as we do on our primi- 
tive chronology. Some think that Fuhi 
began the actual Hoei or period: others 
say it ought to begin at Hoangti when the 
cycles of 60 years were introduced from 
which they reckon to this day. The Chi- 
nese philosophers deem these early ac- 
counts uncertain or fabulous ; but to doubt 
the regular history beginning at YAO or 
earlier, is a crime in China. Our year 
1820 was the 17th of the 75th Chinese 
Cycle, which thus ascended to 4457 years, 
or the year 2637 before our Era. The 
Tao Rdigion began once the human his- 
tory by anothet kind of series including 4 
Dynasties and 16 successive Rulers. 

1. San-hoang^ the 3 august powers. 

2. I7-fi, the 5 Emperors or duties. 

3. Sau'-vang, the 3 Kings or lights (Sun 
Moon and Stars.) 


%. IT^-pa, the 5 Chiefs or Mountains^ at 
the 4 sides and one Central. This was 
an Allegorical rather than A$tronomioai 

My Orthography of Chinese names is, 
the Spanish and Italian ; except SH as in 
English, CH as teh and tsch of French 
and Germans, U is the French OU, tl t\i& 
French U. l*he final N must be pronounc* 
ed, and becomes nasal only when it chan-^ 
ges to NG — ^Y must be pronounced as in 
Yardy Yolk Sec.. (E as the French EU« 
Every letter must be sounded i but some 
double letters as SH, TH, TS^ form pecu- 
liar sounds as in Hebrew. 

Note 2. The nation of Chong is exist- 
ing to this day^ in the Mts. of Tung-yai be* 
tween Siam and Camboja, having dark 
features, but soil hair and beards. They 
are the ancient Dog nations ancestors of 
the Yaa wolves^ foes of the JUtaa cat 

Note 3. GIN is also spelt JIN by many 
writers: whether this important word has 
H sounds in Dialects, or GIN is meant for 
DJIN, is not told. JIN in the actual mod- 
ern Chinese derives from JI-IN Solar-be- 
ing! In Japanese the first men were 
ZIN: inAmerica IN is the root of the i^ 
nuit and Linapi groups c^ Nations. la 
India Jut A was thie only God of the Jains 
of old. 

152 NOTES. 


may be compared with the Aleim or 
Elohfm of Moses : altho' deemed Barba-, 
rians by the Chinese. The Shin ' Angels 
of China, cannot well coincide with these; 
isince they appear rather as fiSn-ful Devils, 
and the Fuhis as Snakes and Satans. The 
celestial Empire of Moses and his Angels 
were in Turaa and Iran, rather than East 
of Thibet. Compare also the Eluwi of 
Linapis and Laos Nations, from China to- 
Siam as yet. In Hebrew LOZ means 
strangers and barbarians ! which is more 
than a coincidence." 

Note 5. This earty intercourse of Chi- 
na with Turan on the Caspian Sea is re- 
Dfmrkable; but dofes not this allude to 
some other Lake in the Mountains of 
Thibet or Tartary, which are fliU of them? 
Kokonor is yetcailed Thsing-kai blue Sea. 

Note 6. No one gives the name of this 
Turtle J in Chinese : which might be essen- 
tial, as it was also a nation. We must go 
to North America to find it in TULA of 
language and annals of Linapis : whereby 
it is explained ; Tulan and Turan are 
identic, the Linapi changing R to L, as 
the Chinese. Others ascribe these turtle 
letters to Yao : they are the 7th series of Chi- 
nese Symbols in Kircher. The turtle land 
is also- found in the Hindu Mythology. 
Kwei is Tortoise in modern Chinese, and 
synonym of Demon ! 

Note 7. The Kon^ is the mod^n dior^ 

^f»ij .u- ---: *ii. '^^ "^^HV^ 


iect of South China aad Gantonv^ ramaw «f 
this nation of JSToii^, Are they diiTereiit 
from the Chongi Kungm the Fokien lan- 
guages means a leader or general ; but 
Kuang is tt^ name of the old South na- . 
lion : whence Kuan-Umg. 

Note 8w The history of Fu^hi i^ copious. 

is 6 LU or Dragon officers were appoint' 
ed to oversee 1. Books and Education, 
2 Astronomy^ ^ buildings, 4 the people, 5 
the lands, 6 the waters. His 8 KUAI or 
Symbolic lines, represented the 8 elements 
of Heaven, Earth, Mountaki, thunder, fire, 
clouds, water and wind, a different system 
from the 5 elements of Asia : by cpmbina-^ 
tion 2 by 2. they formed 64 radical letters, 
and these all the others. The Dragon 
characters are also ascribed to him: some 
pretend he was only King and Pontif of 
Shensi in the Mts. N. W. of China, elect- 
ed by some other petty Kings. The name 
of his 15 successors or vassals are not 
given. His capital was CHIN whence 
our name of China. One of his titles was 
lierhise Celestial som 

Note 9. His 7 successes were 1 Lin- 
kme^ 2 Cheng^ 3 Mingj 4 F, 5 Lay, -6 Ly^ 
7 Yu-wang^ which may all indicate pecu- 
liar tribes. This last was a violent op- 
pressor, was deposed by Shi-yeit, and 
JSoang'-Zi elected, son of Tu-pao King of 
Shu-tien (Duhalde) birt they were after- 

ipards at war. This SHI was a bad 




bird, King of the tribe YE-U or YEN" of 
Nation Miao; the same rival Dynasty 
mentioned under Yao. Oguz-kan Emper- 
or of the Tartar Nations, was the first in- 
vader of China under this Dynasty; his 
Era is about 2824 bef. C it was a war of 
the Pastoral against the agricultural tribes. 
Note 10. It is strange that after this 
positive historical fact, some of our authors 
seem doubtful of the origine of the com- 
pass. Klaproth has lately proved, that it 
was borrowed by the Arabs from China, 
and spread in the West ; but even the an- 
cient navigators of the Mediterranean 
knew it, as I shall prove hereafter. It was 
used by the Lybian Hercules in their con- 
quests and navigation)^ : and by the Hindus 
before the Arabs. 

Hoang'H adopted the blue and yellovr 
Robes as emblems pf Heaven and Earth : 
his palace of Ho-kong was in the Kuen- 
lun Mts., He established the TA-NAO 
KIA-TSE Great Cycle of 60 years ; which 
began at his advent ? He wrote several 
books on Astronomy, Medicines, the arts, 
nets, weapons, regulating weights and mea- 
sures '&c. He built many cities, and his 
posterity ruled China for 3457 years, in 3i 

Note II, The annals of China begin 
here to be based upon Astronomical obscfr- 
vations made in 2447 bef. C. and confirmed 
by retroactive Astronomy^ tfai» Emperor 

• ■ 

NOTES; ^ 15$ 

having begtin a new calender then, in the 
15th year of Aquarius while the first re- 
corded eclipse was in 3155 bef. C, He in- 
vented the telescope, and restored Astro- 
nomy and religion, with the absolute ponti- 
ficate : The Kiu4i having set up a new 
priesthood. His capital was WHA in 

Note 12, This worthless CHI is perhaps 
the tribe of that name under Yao. Tiko 
is said to have had 4 sons from his 4 wives 
CHI, YAO, KI who was the ancestor of 
the CHEU Dynasty, and SI of the Shang. 
Tiko was very popular and promoted 
learning, education &c ; but he set the bad 
exaniple of Poligamy. His capital was 
Yensa in Ho-nan. In most ancient times, 
they are called CHI Birds and Moon: 
eoinpape <hem with the Bird and Lunar 
tribes oT Egypt and the Orientals, which 
are personified by us, as Isis^ ibis^ luna 
and Semiramis. 

Note 13. The deluge of Yao must have 
flooded the vast plains of China, and reach- 
ed the foot of the Celestial mountains; 
some reduce it to great overflowings of all 
the streams : others appear to blend it with 
the first flood as we have so often done in 
the Westi The authors of the Universal 
history advance the conjecture that Fuhi 
was Adam, TA-NAO or Hoang-ti was 
Noah and Yao or Shun was Shem ! which 
is quite as absurd as making Fuhi Noah% 

159 , Nans;. 

both in dates ami fitots. It is stated that 
under Yuo the Son did notset for 10 daysi. 
which meand that 10 days were added to 
the calendar at the Astronomical reform. 

Note 14« The Yv are called sons of the 
KUEN, which is unlikely, else YU would 
not have exiled their fathers ; yet it may 
unply a revolution. 

Note 15, The MIAO Nation have ex^ 
isited for 5000 years in China ; since they 
are still there, and partly independent in^ 
the Mountains. They are even now divi- 
ded into a triple tribe SAN-MIAO, con- 
sisting of 1' MIAO-SSE cat's chUdren * 
YAO-SSE Wolves children, and 3 LI-GIN 
reasonable men ; while the wild or inde- 
.pendent are called MUrL AO Wood-Rats !' 
compare them, with the LAOS, andl 
TSEL AT Water Rats of Siam, but Sim 
is Mice in modern Chinese, 

Note 16. All these Nations of the pro- 
vinces reappear afterwards in history, as- 
such, and particularly in the feodal an- 

Note 17. They were Tartars; but not 
Oguz-kan, who was anterior by better ao- 
eounts. The Lmg^ Yang^ Yongj Hieng 
Kiong &/C foes of Chinese at various times 
appear identic, and perhaps also the 
Southern Kong. 

Note 18. These Shang appear identic 
with the S/iaw yet existing North ofAva^ 
aJod Sw W. of China.. 

\ » 


Note 19. The MA are the horsemen^ 
the Shin the Spirits, the Pien the Noblea 
or Princes. Does Han mean tribe or rath- 
er Kan or King ? is the later Han Dynas- 
ty of China to be traced to these? They 
united afterwards with the IIIONG to 
form the HIONG-NU, ancestors of the 
Huns and Turks of later times. 

Note 20. They might have been mono- 
sylabic once, altho' offering different roots 
from the Kiang Chinese ; but in Corea by 
mixture with the earlier Tartar tribes, and 
in Japan with the Polynesian tribes, they 
are become now Disylabic or Polysylabic. 

Note2\. Barrow has stated that in our 
7th Century, the Chinese traded by Sea 
and by land with Ta-shan. Chinese geo- 
graphy describes the tribes, Lakes, and 
Mts of it. A Chinese priest who sailed 
£ast of it to America, has written the Jour- 
nal of his voyage J why are not those ac- 
counts tr.anslated? The Chinese sent co- 
lonies as far as Madagascar and Sofala, In 
the 13th Century Marco Polo went with 14 
Chinese Ships as far as Zanzibar in Africa. 
At Nutka in N.America there was a tfra- 
dition of Chinese priests coming there. 
See Meares' travels. 

Note 22. These LU are tjie same al- 
ready mentioned as teachers of Hoangti and 
Ministers of Fohi. Are they Eluhis? or 

N^t^ 23. This Lake is the same as the 



blue Sea or Caspian formerly visited^ the 
same Mother of Si-nang ruling there ; but 
the name of Yao now given to it, is impor-- 
tant, relating to the ¥ao Nation. 

Note 24. The Manq Nation nearest ta 
tlie Pacific Ocean ; must be kept in mind: 
and compared in America with the Man^ 
cos of Peru . • . are they the same, as the MA3f. 
of the We^t, ancestors of the Germans ? 

Note 25.' This conjecture of Guignea 
about the origine of Getes and Gothic Na-^ 
tions is not probable; they date earlier in 
Europe, and may be traced to the Massa-^ 
Getes a Scythian tribe of Turan : the Goths, 
had not the Tartar features nor com-^ 
plexion. Even now in the single province 
of Sechuen in West China; next to Thibet^ 
there are remains of 5 nations with pecu- 
liar Languages; according to Lamiot in 
1832 ; all called FU or Barbarians (as th& 
primitive FU-HI and FUYU) or Faa 
(vile). They are the 1 MAN, 2 Y or 
Thibetans, 3 LEAO, 4 LA-TAO, & 
MIAO. lit the SI-YU or West country 
North of Thibet, dwell many HUE tribe» 
chiefly Mahometans, and the FU-L0-*CEL. 
(barbarous LO primitive) a wild LO tribe^, 
similar to the Chinese of 5000 years ago^ 
dwelling in huts, without letters nor mar-^ 

Note 26. This old Chinese is called 
KUAN or KUEN and was probably spo*. 

ken by tke liUEN Nation of Kuea-imii 

1#0T£S. ISD 

mts. It is mery different from the modern 
Chinese or KI ANG. 

It will be very important to restore the 
fragments of this primitive language. I 
have collected many words and numbers of 
it, which may be given hereafter: mean- 
time I give the compared ancient and 
n^odern names of the 4 cardinal points and 
winds to show how different they are as 
well^s the Language! more so perhaps 
than the Sanscrit and English : and also 
quite unlike the old and modern Japanese. 
South KiAO in old Chinese of 4500yearsago 
now NAN in the Kiang or modern Chinese. 

North Yeu old. Pe modern. 
. East Yang-eit old. Tong modern* 

West San-uei old. Si modern. 


Japanese early Annals, Nations and 
Languages* Vocabulary of the G AGO or 
old Japanese. 

. The Japanese being of acknowledged 
Chinese descent ; and their history being 
common till 660 bef. C. when began their 
separation during the feodal anarchy : the 
annals they have preserved in a different 
Language, andrWith peculiar features, are 
very: important to show how far similar 
. ammls may deviate, ormayhav^ ywv^ 




in America, India and elsewhere ; when- 
ever a Celestial Empire is deemed the 
origine of human society. In this account 
I shall chiefly follow Kempfer, who has 
translated the Japanese historians, of the 
SIN-TO Spiritual Religion of Angels or 
Gods, SHIN of China. (Note 1 .) 

I. The Soul of the World made every 
thing. He has many titles, 3IIO-SIN sub- 
lime holy spirit, TONO-SAMA Supreme 
Being or Lord, ON-TEN mighty Celestial, 
SIN-O the Spiritual Upity, and TEN-IN- 
JE heaven-nature-Earth, being the Ja- 
panese divine Triad: in the spiritual sense 

n. MI O-KAM I a Chaos was floating 
in water or a fluidi and on it was KUNt 
ground changing soul the blissful. From 
them arose the Heavens s^nd the Earthy 
with all their SIN Spirits or Angels or 
Gods. They form the mystical Duad and 
Triad of Heaven, Earth and Mankind ; 
having annexed ideas. 

AWUN. Heaven is actioe, generating, 
giving, opening, and the Rising Sun. , 

NIWO. Earth is passive^ conceiving 
taking, shutting, and the Setting Sun. 

IN JO. Mankind is Sapientjiving hold- 
ing, and the Noon Sun. 

Others call this triad MIO-KAMI 
mighty-first God ; the Chaos that divided 
'in these 3 parts, or the 3 perfect, imperfect 
. and divine principles. 



m. There are 33 Heavens or Celestial 
regions TEN. The highest or 33d has 4 
SIN — TAMON in the North, TSIGOK of 
the South, SOSIO of the East, KAMOK 
of the West. (Note 2.) 

IV. FUDO Angel of Fire macje the 
Earth, by stiring the Chaotic Waters. Be- 
tween the Heavens and Earth are the 
Takamakahava or Taka-mano-farra 
(high under celestial fields) where go the 
Souls after death, of those who do not be- 
come SIN. (Note 3.) 

V. The first series of beings on Earth 
were the seven NO-MIKOTO the blissful: 
who lasted for countless ages. - They are 
deemed Dynasties of celestial beings. The 
first had no wives, and form a triad. The 
4 last had wives. They are collectively 
called TEN-DSIN-SITZI-DAI, Celes- 
tial Angels seven succession. Their names 
or titles are 

1. KUNI TOKO DAT. Ground or 
Earth-changing soul. 

2, KUNI SATSU TSIJ ) Compare these 

3. TO JO KUN NAN I Kuni,Kun with 
the primitive Jtunis of Asia, Europe, 
America .... 

4. UTSIJ NINO, his wife Susixai nino 
Mno is mankind. 

5 OOTONO TSIN, his wife Ootoma-fe 
Tdn is Jin of China? 

6 OOMO TAMO, his wife Oosi Wote 
Omo other men. (Note 4.) 


7 ISA-NAGI, his wife ISA-NAMI. 
They lived in the region ISHE, anid had 
for teacher the bird SEKIRE. These 
were the progenitors of) mankind; the 
nam^ are related to Moses AISH and 
ASHE : The Dairis or Pontifs of Japan 
claim direct descent from them. The 7 
DAI are also similar to our 7 DAYS of 
creation ! and DAI in old Japanese means 
Succession! or Great and Lasting. (5.) 

YI. The second series of human beings, 
or period is called DSI-SIN^O-DAI 
Terrestrial- Angels-five-succession. This 
answers to the 5 KI of China. The im- 
mense duration df 2,342,467 years is as- 
cribed to them ; but reduced to days it 
amounts to 6418 years. These 5 Dynas* 
ties are. 

1. TEN-SIO-DAI-TSIN Celestial rays 
great-lasting Spirit, in the holy learned 
old language ; but in the vulgar Ama T£RU 
OoN Cami Lord of temples great soul. He 
ruled 250,000 years (or days), was parent 
e[ all the Japanese and is worshiped as a 
Crod. ( During his reign Ten Kivo si and 
his 3 Descendants ruled over China, who 
is said to be the TIEN-HOANG-SI of 
China ; but all the Chinese names before 
Fu-Hi are so altered in Japanese as to be 
difficult to trace. 

2. OSIWONl, ruled 300,000 years or 

3. NINIKI, ruled 318, 533 years or days. 


During these two Dynasties Sat-teiki waa 
ruler of China. 

4. FIKODEMI, ruled 637, 892 years 
or days. Katpisra Kaki was ruler of 
China, with 5 others of his Dynasty. 

5. A W ASEDSU, ruled 836,042 years or 
days. He begot the Men Emperors, 
whence came the Dairi Pontifs, whose 
titles are Tensin Heaven sons, Tenoo 
Heavenly Lord, Tee-Ordai Prince of 
gi^eat generations. This period lasted pro* 
bably till 660 bef. C. 

. VII. After these two series of Mytholor 
gical bemgs or Rulers of mankind, begins 
the Chinese Japanese History; when Ja- 
pan was dependent on China. Fu-hi is 
called TAIKO FUKI. He is acknowl- 
edged to be the first Legislator, his Em- 
blem being the Snake-head! (Note &.) 
He had 7 successors, his Dynasty lasting 
381 years, and beginning in 3588 before 
our Era. Thie fabulous accound gives them 
31106 years. 

China. Dynasty begun in 320d bef. C. 
lasting 149 years under him, and 380 yeBrjB 
besides under 7 successors, together 520 
years. Their Emblem was the Ox head 
(Note 7.) They taught Agriculture and 

IX. KWO-TEI was HOAN-TI of Chi- 
na, begun jn 2689, Dynasty lasted 395 
years with 5 successors. But there are 


other calculations. Meantime the last of 
the 5 was TEI-GIN (great man) called 
TI-JAO (it is YAO) in China, who reign- 
ed since 2357 bef . <i The flood instead 
of being put here is put to the next ; but 
agrees in date with China, 

of China, Son-in-Law of the last, who be- 
gan to reign in 2294, ruHng 61 years 
whereof 20 joinly with the last. In this 
reign happened the great Deluge of China. 
The former one of YUNTI is not in the Jar 
jpanese Annals. , 

XL KATE VU (Emperor VU) of the 
family KA ;or JU, same as HIA or YU of 
China, 17 years with the last a^ 10 alone, 
fo 2233 made the great Canals to drain the 
flood. He had 1 1 successors lasting 458 

XII. SHEI SEI TU begun in 1766 the 
TAM Dynasty, or KSHAN of China ) had 
38 Emperbrs lasting 644 years. It was 
near the end of this Dynasty that a large 
Colony was sent from China in 1 197 bef. 
C. on which the Japanese Annals are also 
silent ; altho' they mention another large 
Colony or army sent towards 220 bef, C 
under the 8th Dairi by the tyrant of China 
SiKWO. The first Colony, must have been 
composed of the tribes or nations, 1. G A- 
GO name yet retained for the old learned 
language 2 IBISI, which means in it peo-^ 
pk of the West, and 3 MOMO 4 FITO- 


NIN. 6 ZIN &c., the old names for Men. 
To this early period belongs the tradition 
of a solar people in Japan, the ONI WA 
and ONARI solar Gods of the ONI, and 
the SASAN-ONO Lunar God, who had 
quarrelled. FENSYO-DAI-SIN a Solar 
Goddess sister of the Lunar God, retired 
to the Cave Amano in province Finga 
whence she was brought out by Fatkijara; 
who was perhaps the leader of the Chinese 
Colony. The ancient name of Japan was 
NI-PON solar ground. (Note 8.) 

XIH- SIU-NO-BU-O begun in 1102 the 
SIU Dynasty on CHEU of China lasting 
868 years under 38 Emperors. In this pe- 
riod Japan became independent of Chin 
towards 870 bef. C. It was then called 
Akitzu the government was patriarchal^vith 
simple ma,nners under the heads of families^ 

XIV. In 1027 bef. C. was born in Fndia 
the great prophet SIAKA or SIT-SHUN 
surnamed FO-TO-JE godly-grea:tly per- 
fect who died in 949. His religion and 
holy book KIO introduced in 63 after C 

XV. Five brothers called UDAI-SIN (5 
great Angels) lineal descendants cflf the Celer^ 
tial Angels, ruled in succession over Japan 
daring the feodal Anarchy of China be- 
tween 870 and £60, civilizing still further 
the people. ' They were called FITONO 

XVL The youngest of the S JWA-FI- 
lX)NO the Y begun to rule in 600; he 


was a Legislator and Astronomer, who be* 
gan the Dynasty of Pontifs D AI-RI (Great 
Ruler or Great Beam of light). He also 
took the titles of NIN*0 (Man Siipreme)^ 
TEN-O (Celestial Unity,) SIN-MO (An- 
gel parent) &c. The Dairis take the titles 
of TSIN-MARO Angels nf*w-sons, Sin- 
ATAKO in the vulgar Language ; MI-K ADO 
holy Emperors, TAl KWO Greatest 
Lord, and many more. That holy Dynas- 
ty has heen uninterrupted ever since in the 
FIT6nO line or family. There had beea 
118 Dairis till lately or Figaso the 119th 
in 1770: some of which vi^ere female. But 
in 1195 YoRiTOMo became Sei*Seogun or 
Secular king jointly with the Pontifs; of 
these there had been 8 Dynasties and 40 
Rulers till Yefar the 41st in 1760. The 
actual Dynasty is called Cubo^kio. 

XVII. The ancient inhabitants of Japan 
and the Ids North and South, were called 
ONI, meaning Great Svn ! in the old Ja** 
paiKse; but since made sybomymous of 
Black Devils; their God was ONARI: also 
the MA Lions atid Poxes, UMA Horses 
INU wild dogs br Wolves, YEBIS Barba- 
rians. AKUSI and YAKURI, all deem- 
ed Devils in history. The Yakuri appeal* 
to be the Kuriles ; the Yakusi the Yakui«5 
of Siberia, the ONI and INO are the Ainus. 
The Wolf or Fox tribes are found in 
Aknerica. In 772; after C. the Yakusi or 
Evil ^iritd caused a great stwin 6f 


In '5^38 Japan was invaded by a. powerful 
naval army by TRO- JI, come from farther 
West than China : which conquered part 
of it, and held it for 18 years till 806. They 
must have been Malays ! Atsumayebis Bar- 
barians of the North were only conquered 
about 960, were they Siima and- Zuma of 
America and Asia? {Note 9.) 

XVIII. In 478 aft. C. URA-SIMA 
(seeker of Islands^ went to visit FOREI- 
SAN the land unaer the Sea, inhabited by 
the Water Gods NEfelS or- Neptunes, and 
remained there 348 years, only returning 
in 836* This plainly indicates an inter- 
course with Polynesia or America, and the 
tribe of URA dwelling there 348 yearsf 
where many may have remained. (Ndte 10) 

XIX. In 1284 Mo^OKo general of the 
DA ATS^ or Tartars sails from China with 
4000 ships and 240,000 men to conquer 
Japan; but the whole fleet was destroyed 
in a storm. (Note 11.) Thunberg says in 
1281, the history of China gives other 
hames and causes, dissentions 8lc. 

XX. Many Japanese Ships traded from 
OKU or the Id Sagalien North of Yedzo, 
to Siam, Sumatra and Papua, between the 
years 1000 and 1640: then foreign trade was 
forbidden; the Chinese, Coreans, Liuchius 
%ind Dutch traders alone allowed to come 
and trade. Yet, since that time they have 
«ent trading colonies to KURIL and OKU 
Ids, and even now send Sbip$ to Liilcliiu. 


In 1075 they discovered a large desert 
Island BUNE 1000 miles & K of Japan 
In 1610 they rendered tribkitary the Ids 
LiucBiu. In 1405 they conquered Yedzo 
or Matsumai. In 1620 they conquered 
Formosa, ^ite lately, between 1792 and 
1825 Japanese ships have been Uown by 
tvtorms to Kamchatka and the Sandwich 
Islands. Wrecks of such ships, and indi- 
cations of trading sbip^ were found in 
America, North of California between 
1540 and 1620. 

The Japanese are very active, bold and 
industrious; if not forbidden by the restric- 
tive policy they would trade afar again, 
and further than the Chinese. They use 
a peculiar compass, different from the Chi* 
itese, having 1^ points and' winds answer- 
ing to the 12 Zodiacal signs, each ruling a 
year. These signs and their names are 
very important ; because applpng to 12 
Animalized primitive nations. Tbev are. 

KITA North 

1. NE. Rat. 

2. US. Ox. 

3. TORA. Tyger. 

FI6ASI East. 

4. OW. U. Hare. 

5. TATS. Dragon, 
ii. MI Serpent. 

MIRAMI South. 

7. XJ3tIA Horse. 

8. TSITSU or FITUSI Sheep. 


1 I 

9. SAR. SARU Ape. . 

NIS West. 

10. TON! Fowl or TON 

11. IN. DegorlNU. 
12 L Bear. 

We have thereby 12 primitive Nationsi, 
of Asia, since the Tyger, Dragon, Serpent 
and Ape, are |iot found in Japan. (12.) 

Barrow has described the Chinese com- 
pass, having many concentric circles for 
the Elements, 12 hours, 24 months, 60 
years, 28 Zodiacal sign^. Stars and Con- 
stellations &c; thus very different from the 
Japanese. Humboldt has given a compa- 
rea table of the Zodiacal signs of the Thibe- 
tans, Manchus, and Mexicans, which are 
akin to the Japanese ; but under different 
names. He has omitted that of Siam, 
which is still more alike ia import* - All 
these, with others in Asia, Ceylon, Pensia, 
Egypt, Europe and America, will be com- 
pared hereafter in the illustration of Chro- 
nology. Meantime I give those of Thibet 
and Siam, because they are identic in im- 
port with the Japanese; while they fornish 
synonyms for the primitive animalized na- 

Thibetan. Mexican Andogies. 

1 Quip Water rat. 1 A. Water. 

2 Lang. Ox. > 2 Zipa.Sea monster 

3 Tah. Tyger. 3 Ozelo, tyger. 

4 Lo. Hare. 4 Toch. Hare. 

5 Bru. Dragon. 5 Cohua. Snake* 



6 Pritl. Snake. 

7 Tha. Horse. 

8 LoN. Goat. 

9 Prshu. Ape. 
10 Cha. Fowl. 

^11 Ky. Dog. 
12 Pah. Hog. 

6 {Aca Cane. 

7 {Tecpa. Knife. 

8 IpUin. Solar path 

9 OzoMA. Ape. 

10 KwoH. Fowl. 

11 HzcuiN. Dog. 

12 {Colli House. 
Zodiac and Cycle of Sl/im. 
By Kempfer 1690. By Fynleyson 1826. 

1. Tselat 

2. TsiA 

3. Kaen 

4. Tao 

5. Maroni 

6. Maaho 

7. Mamia 

8. Mamb 

9. WOAK 

10. Erka. 

11. Tso. 

12. KOEN. 




















Khun. * 



The Japanese have the week of 7 plane- 
tary days, now obsolete imChina; and re- 
ceived from India; but for civil use they 
^ploy a week of 15 days. The 7 days 
are called 

1 Nt-yo — Sun-day. 

2 Wats-yo — Moon-day. 

3 Kua-yo — Mars or fire day. 

4 Suy-yo — ^Mercury or water day. 

5 mok-ya — Jupiter or wood day. 
C Kivhyo — ^Venus or gold day. 

7 Dihyo — Saturn or Earth day. 


Wherein can be* traced the older primi- 
tive week of 5 days, compared to the 5 
elements of China. 

The element of wood, is more fitly ex- 
changed by Ether in the Hindu philoso- 
phy. All the Hindus nations have the 
week of 7 planets from Cashmer to Siam 
and Java, Bali &c. In Siam the first day 
is Van-a-thed Day-of-Sun. This planetary 
week must date back from the Solar and 
Lunar Dynasties of Asia, and was spread 
thus from Japan to Ireland, in very early 
times ; but not in America. 

The Mythology, Pp-ntheon, Religions 
and sects of Japan are very intricate like 
those of China, and not yet fully ufiderstood 
by us. It is only lately that those of India 
have been made known. Both shall be 
examined hereafter with the American 
Religions. In Japan 33,333 SIN Saints 
or Demi Gods are in the great temple of 
Miaco; yet the Main Deity is only a Mir- 
ror ! KoKORo meaning heart of the World; 
The Dairi can deify any man, like the 
Pope of Rome. 

jBut the GAGO or old language of Ja- 
pan ; being very important for American 
history : I hereby introduce it. There are 
4 primitive Asiatic Languages, of the ut- 
most historical importance 1. MSHE or 
Mosaic, 2 TUR AN or Uranian of centraf 
' Asia, 3 SHU ARG A or Celestial of Imalaya 
Mts, 4 KUEN or Old Chinese: which re- 


present the 4 earliest Dialects of mankind 
in tl e West, North, South and East of the 
Asiatic Celestial Regions. These aitho^ 
long ago extinct, exist yet in Books or frag- 
ments which I have collected, as well as in 
later Dialects, even now obsolete, or such 
as the Zend, Toha or Old Arabic, Sanscrit 
Bali, Thibetan, Singala of Ceylon, Kawi 
of Java, the Kiang or learned Chinese &c. 
with the GAGO or learned Japanese 
which I have selected as the KUEN Dia- . 
lect nearest to America, for a first speci* 
men of American philological pattern. It 
is in these old Languages of mankind, that 
we are to seek for the best philologi<;al en- 
quiries, instead of their actual modern 
Dialects, that are so often greatly aliered. 
The GAGO Language of Japan, was 
probably that spoken by the Chinese set- 
tlers 3000 years ago, and in use for over 
1000 years ; but now become extinct, and 
only understood by the le<irned, like the 
Latin with «s; being superseded by the 
Yema or modern Japanese ; which has al- 
so produced some Dialects. The GAGO 
is probably mixt with some words of the 
WO or still more ancient Languages of 
those WO Islands. It was- a Monosyla- 
bic language ; but is become partly disyla- 
bic by the amalgamation of rootsi offering 
that facility so eommon in American Lan- 
guages, and so uselessly wondered at : by 
which compound words may be formed, by 

)Ji»AlnSBE AM^AM. 173 



ellisions or other modes. The Japanese 
languages have the facuky to abrieTiate and 
elongate words, to chamge some letters, or 
to add N or a sylable ! 

Thus Fontomida becomes Fondai Fira- 
Icawa becomes Firangal and the usual 
prayer of Namu Amida Budsu (help us 
Amida Godly) becomes Nama/nua\ (see 

The Japanese Languages have become 
of a mixt form, byadmitinsf the adjec* 
lives after substantives, as well as before; 
while the Chinese admits only the lastform? 
which implies a mixture with an older 
Language of regular construction as that 
of Moses. Every noun can be changed to 
Yerb by adding Suru^ meaning to do\ W is 
pronounced as VHU. The G and K, F 
and H, J and Y are interchangeable. It 
lacks the sounds of L, Sh and Y, changinj 
them to R, Ds, Ts, W. It has no T] 
and few B, P, Z; but has the French U 
which I write A. The other vowels are as 
in Spanish. The Japanese have 4 sets of 
written characters. 1 The Chinese or 
compound, 2 Imatto, 3 Catta, 4 Firo; which 
are all Sylabiq and of 50 letters . ' 

The following 272 roots and words of the 
G AGO Language, are taken from the ety- 
mologies of Kempfer, Thunberg, Titsingh 
&c, with the preserved roots of the mc^d- 
em Language. 

* This mark indicates analogies in t^e 
English Language. 





* 1. O. Cho. 
S«LGo.i(io. Ni. 
a Nitio, Ta. San. 

4. Si. 

5. U. Ko. 

Voict^tdary of tie G AGO Language, 
Sfmjfem's old. 

6. Goka, Rok. 

* 7. Sitzi, Sitp. 

* 8. Fa, Fats. 
9. Sm. Ku. 

*iO Sin. Chu, 
In order to show how widely deviated 
are the YeVa or modern Japanese Dia- 
lects frpm Uiis old Japanese, I will ^ve 
the numbers in two inodern Languages 1 
Japajnese of the North ? 2 Luchu, of the 
Southern Islandspfthat name: both collected 
by Broughton in 1797. With the Yema of 
South Japan and Luchu of Klaproth Asia- 





Nine . 

' SevTH 


,4. . . 


LccHi; Ids 





























loz '. 



. . iti 











¥a • ' 







It is obvious thereibre, that if the G'aoo 
Japanese, have colonized America; they 
may have stiO more deviated, in numbers^ 
and Dialects. Only 4 of these 10 mimbers' 
marked* appear derived from the double 
series of Gdgo number^. Thib -fiVici^^x- 
on or English has as many analdgiep! Biit' 
the other essential words are Aot so utter- 
ly deviated. We shall find the ttinie ftct 
in America; where numbers hate more de« 
viated than words: while the reverse oc- 
curs from India to England. It miust be 
noticed besides that the Yema ha& ^ven* 
now a double form or 2 Words for many 
things, one used in poetry and by Nobles; 
another in prose^and by common people. 

Ais. Wara 
Ape. Sar 
AlQne^ Tosin 
AngeL Sin 
^Animat. Mofip 
Arrow. Ja. 

[Jaculus L 
Bird. Sho. 
^Bone. IFon 

Box. Ire. 

JBreA^.Pan! (PapsL 
Book. &omb. ^ 

BaU. Tama. 
Bed. ^IV)ia 
Beer. AwM 

M Beings ^!^ 
A Bear. %. 
^Bligimtng. Qm. 
^Basket. Bako. 



Blood. 1% Shi. 
to Bo Namoji. 
Boat. Tema. 
Before Si. 
Bodu Gotai. ^ 
Breath. Iki. 
*^aMi Cobo. 

"^Doar. TO 

^Day. Yo, Ju* 
I>rfiiA?. Mi 
Dn^. In. (Kynos Gr 
Dragon. Tats, Rio 
^Different. Iro. Do. 
/>e9i/. Oni, Ma ^ 
CahiUf hut. DakL Earth, Tye, Ye* l)si| 
CJiMiik. Toi (Toga L^ Ejfe.Ml 
•CUy. Kio £ar. Mimi, Su 

Chin. King ^End. Sim (Cima L. 

H^ountry. Kuni *Ea8t. Figasi, Kai, 
Come. Kurd Sosio 

CefeyfioiTeiiyGawa Evemng. Sek. 
Cat Mio. Enter. IJche. 

Cm9. Us *%|r»Go 

CaHle. Sinoy Sq Ever, Enduring^ 
Com. Miyi Dai, Mi, 

CAiM,Son,Zi,Vina Elephant, So 
Maro, amako Eternal. Iso 

Emperor. Mi-kada 
jSi^ti, &a£? Ma 
JotpJ. Ton 
friend. Nakn. 
* JV^oi?. Kwu, Bon 

, Foe Kataki. 
l^oof. A^ii Taiu 

^Court. Co^ Gu 
CktpeL Mia, ^tia 
^Chamber* Bea 
CAai^. Toko . 

CAnreool, Smn 
CAte/: Dyo 

Ctnife. Mv 
CoUL Kang 

^MliMfie^ GodiiN Sin J* lower. Fan, Sao,/ 

J&^mf, Muru 

^Feather ^a, 
JFSntf. Jui- (Joli'fe 



Msh. Iw6. Horse. Uma, Go 

First. Cho-siai . WM-^xi. \ -• * 

loam. Awa, '• ' \*Ili^A. Faja» 
i^Vitlt. Mi, Same -Hag-. Si?.. r 

Hame. Fonb " /ce. Kori 

(Fana L Idol. Mitz, <)aini'i ' § 

iJVrf/Koj. '. =fti». Dru ' 

JFW<2. Siwo J, ilf«. Kus ; ' 

*JFVVeAiific.Fi,K^a i»te»<Z. Sina; 

Hi. Ev J». Ote 

♦^tf out.- Sato . Hmdge. le. Ye. . 

(Sbrtft* Ptigiftch *Ju«h'cc. Cri 

Good.YvL, King.Sami, 

Crate, Mong. *JCeen. Ken 

Chd Daitsin, Sin. *JiSs«. Hisi 

€rold. Kin (di. Learned. Godo, 
Oreaf. O, Ta, Tei Sesin. 

Dii, • Iiatfl. Sioki. Tu. 

Guard. Banj > Iica/'. I^a. 

Ground. PdmKuni. Lord. Gup, Kwq, Wo 

<?cm. F&to JWo»- Sis-Uma; 

*Gnat. ktt. iowg-. Faka. 

Hand. Te. Letters. Cknna. 
Hedr^ Koto (eor ii. IfO«8. Ko 

Hear^l. M6. - I«nil.Kitoi,Ta,Do 

Uarc U.Ow. *JI!f%%. Mi, Oft, 

iHim. Maso *Meat. Mi 

Ha»c. Arfti Kir rt Middle. Chu. 

HoZtf . Mi<i^sin ' *me. Hi (LI Ci4»* 

Head. Cub, Osi •Jl«««lilli. YaB«4,' 
Hcauc».T6ft ^ '***•„, 

Bote. Ana «: "^''' -^•:^;Sae*i^tDw,^ 



*Man. Moma Fite, "^Pleasure. Sio* 

Nin, Zin Perfect^ le. 

Much. Amo, Gin, .PlanLSiontt 
Mess. Mes . Ponds ForU 

Mak.Tki: J2a<,Ne, 

' ^Mother. Mu, Fafe* JSoof , Ne, Motto 
*Mat. Ma A^*JJire, Se 

MetaL Kan ^MaySy Slo^ Ri. 

*iVat/tc. Na, Mio .' IS^e, Urn 
Not.i^ ^Ruler^ Ri. 

JVet. Ami . * Rivera Rawa, Gawa 

Nature. lu Roofn^ Wa. 

Night. YorA Rounds Mami . 

Narth.^ Kita, Tamon ISesf Ze. 
*Nose! NoBu - Road^ Mitsi 
*Oar. Re (Rewo L JBe^^on, To 
*^i. Aburr^bulr)' Region^ Do. 
*0;r. Us Rain. Ame 

♦0?rf. Ro. (lo) iS/ream Ama,Ri, Wa 

^, my. No Sward^ Ken. 

JVetry, Zu^ *i8(far, Sey, Nind, TV> 

* Peace. Seij Zen. Soldier^ Bus 

* People^ Ibfai, Ijbi ' Shore, IJaii . 
^Phpsician. I^ Ship, Funa 
*Pmk. Boko. Sweaty Aze^ 
Poor. Fing ^ iS^nfo//, Ko. 
Parrot. OmA fika^ Tohq^ Ume 
Plo^h. 3ruku9 Seri Stoncj Tsi, Jwa. . 
*JPareiiif .Rio Mu L. Supreme, T^no 
Powderi Ko. fiW#, S^o 
fi)2iieeOkA(LocttL iShmNi/Fi,; Tai, lUu 
PHetff.'BoliostZo, iSSei2f,Iu1 ,^;/, ,. 

Canusi /SS^^^Miro (mirrer^ 



'Sleep,^wt (Snore £ TaU, O 

mi Urft 

Smil^ Ooia! Siria 

iSI^ve, Bo 
Sn&Wf Juki 
SmaJfe, Ono 
^eech^ Ju, 
Smithf Kasia 

^/>Jfi Jingj 
i»ep,K], Gi 

Songi Uta 

ro, Ni 
7%uif , Koto 
* Thought So 
•^^er, Tora, 
Upper J O 
Under Ka 
Unitedj Sin 
Valley^ Fire 
Fictr, Gc. 
Village. Siu-ku 
Virtue^ Dsin, 

Spirit^ ^Q, Tsin, Tfin/Z, Kaz 

iSf^eif, Mono 
Saup^ Miso 
SaecesstQn^ Dai 
Sheep, Tsi 
South, Miranp 
Shadow. Kagi 

IFay. Do. Tu. 
TFomaii Fira, kisi. 
ITeaZ/A, Fuku 
Tfc^f , Nis, Sai, Si 
TFJ/e, Bina, Asumsv. 
WWJk. Ita. (Iter L. 
TTater, Mi, Suy, Tsu 

Smikei Hebi, Mi, TTarm, Kaiig 

Nawa? Si, Rio Wild. Inu 
Thunder, Nari TTeH aim? TFi7«n^ Sio 

r*i?, To, Na, Ne. Without Dar 

* Tooth fang, Fa, Ha ITAt^e, Sira. . 

* 2V6, tsubo Wood, Mok 
71?m|ifef Mia, Si« Young, Gosa 
a>u^, Fon Fear, Nen, Toer 
Town, Matz, Kio . Yesterday, past 
Tong^f Sta. ^ Kino. 



> » c • 

By this vocabulary, we are taij^ht in first 
instance, that theEnglJis^ Lai^B^nage, at 
the , opposite extremity of the Btetern 
hemisphere, retains 68 affinities with the 
Gago or old Japanese, within 372 words 
mostly radical; which amounts to 25 per 
cent: altho' the too Languages must have 
been separated for a long while. But the 
6a: o-o ^NH) ^ years ago, had perhaps otUy 
been separated from the Asiatic SA6A 
parent of the Saxon, for 1000 y^ftrs. 
Therefore, as no one will sustain that the 
Japanese produced the Endish 'Natictn; al- 
tho' the parents c^ both iriight have been 
brother nations 4000 years ago; we must 
draw the inference that no American na- 
tion can have been produced direct from the 
Crago of Japan; unless they ofier moch 
more than 25 per cent ef mutual analogies 
in their Languages. 

This Craga Language offers besides ser- 
eral synonyms and homonyms. The first 
indicates the mixture with the ONI and 
UM A Languages, which were fKiIynesian 
and of simple natural structure. While the 
'Homohvms indicate a p6yerty of phcHietic 
expressions, as in the uhinese Languages 
and perhaps primitive associations of ideas^ 
For instance SI means Tree, temple, i>e-' 
fore, fbur, west &c, which may have had 
connected reference in ancient times. 

O means one, first, great, al^ne, otij Sux 
which itt% even synonymous widi its j^U 


^ SIN means God, Amgel, Saint, Spirit, 
Ohost, Ten, United &c, rising oh the roots 
>of SI and IN. Similar to SHIN of China. 

SIO means all, pleasure, well, willing, 
Sec being the evident imi6n ' of the roots SI 
atid O. 

MI means Eve, Ear, Fruit, Water, 
Drink, Mighty, Meat, Rays, &c. which 
have a double root, MI Eye in Polynesian 
Languages and MI Water in Asiatic Lan- 
guages Grom Thibet to Egypt. 

The Japanese have different symbolic 
characters for all these Homonyms, which 
only appear perplexmg in our alphabetical 
writing; while they even often employ dif- 
ferent letters of their 3 syllabic alphabets 
to^ express them, and thus distinguish them 
properly; as we do in English by using dif«- 
ferent Letters for the same sounds, PUl 
Ped^ Peal^ all pronounced PIL — See and 
Sea both SI* Slo yet we have also many 
words of different meanings written alike 
as Bill (Bee, billet in french) Sounds Fair^ 
Bar Slc. 


Note \. I have also consulted Tbunbers 
Fischer, Klai^roth and Titsing who furnish 
additional details. The Japanese books 
QiHisulted by themi wer/e chie% 1 ^n Dai- 
hi Divine history^ 3 Nipon-OdaikU and 
JNipon Ohaitzi^ history and annaU of Ja- 



JVii*i? 2, These 4 fitods rtseojiMe the 4 
Cardinal Gods of the Hindi}. Hep.ven; but 
the names or tUresure different. 

Note 3. The Sm^o Religion h^s pro- 
perly no Helk except 10 VoUanos, in 
which it differs from the Budhists and Bm- 
mins. The wicked souls hecome aniipals 
in Volcanos or NenokuM (underground) 
and chiefly Foxes^ tha,t are hated and 
deemed Devilst remain probably of ancient 
Enmity with the Foxes nation; but Hares 
are holy as in North America. 

Notie 4. These super hiim^s^ Rulers £^e 
Mythological ; they answer to iShe Celes- 
tial and terestrial Angels of China* 

JSote 5, It is remarkable that i^ rmny 
languages Z>ay^ coincide with^i^ m G94: 
pr Change. In Latin DUb and Deus ap- 
pear to derive equiJy from the Oriental 
Bewets and Dives^ Gods and l)0vite Has 
not the. Mosaic lUM An^ogies wit|l I^^U B 
and Ytr of China? 

Note 6- VV-m,FuMyFoU&,c,\»i}m^ 
fore the Snake Nation of Central A^>A» Rf^ 
haps identic with the Snake tribes of India^ 
Iran, Nagas^ Naka&h &e; altho' the name 
or title be different They will be the AJCO 
of the Linapis (&o. The snake worship 
was unknown in China, unless the LUNw 
winged snake i^as once* worshipj^^ Ite 
could not be Noah, cm that account^ a»ki 
point of time a)sa T%e fSSllji 6r A^d? 
of China, are Terjr difi^rent and oppwlt^ 

^roTES. 183 

' to the ALlK Angels of Moses. 

Note 7. The Oxhead of this Dynasty re- 
minds of the Cherubim with such a head. 
JShinung is hot Gain; but rather' his 
teacher. ^ ^ 

Note 8 These facts are from Titsing. 
These Solar and Lunar deities of Japan, 
must be compared with the Polynesian an* 
nals. In 209 bef. C. came another Chinese 
Colony. It is very likely that the LiucMu 
Ids and others further S. W. may haVo 
been peopled from Japan; by these ONI. 
The anhals of Liuchiu ascribe their ori^ 
gin to TiEN-TSUN (Celestial grand-son) son 
of Omo-mey (the Omo-tamo of Japan) 
who had 2 sisters become Spirits of the 
Sea KuN-KUN and Cho-Cho, siinilar to the 
KUNG nation of South China, and the 
Cho nation of Anam. , As far as Borneo, 
Tahiti and Havay, all the first settlers and 
Kings were Gods of Solar and Lunar de- 
scent. Again the primitive Kunis and 

Note 9. This striking fact has been over- 
looked by all historians and even Crawfurd. 
Thunberg says they were Tartars; but 
their history is silent on this. If they 
were Malays; they must have ' been > very 
powerful to send Naval fleets so far, with 
many recruits, that sustained a war of 18 
. ' years with Japan. In 701 began the great 
Empire of Purwa in Java; Imt these 
strangers- might be Bogis from Gdebecv or 
Tagalas frotn Luzon: whose history does 

184 HOTBB. 


hardly ascend so high. They could not 
be Arabs, which were not powerful enough 
so far in the , East. The annals of the 
Island Celebes only ascend to ;^4 genera- 
tions before 1512 or about lOoO, the 5th 
was Queen Tontano^ronga^ who about 
1300 came from Heaven! which means 
China or Japan, and returned there. The 
Chinese sent a Colony still earlier to Bor- 
neo. But the annals of Polynesia go back 
to 100 generations before 1800, (at least 
2500 years) or 100 years bef. C. even at 
the lowest computation of 25 years each. 

Note 10. This figure of speech of sub- 
marine lands, implies somewhere &r South 
beyond the Equator. UR A can be traced 
in Polynesia, and also in America by Sy- 
nophony ; but Foreisan is unknown to me 
as the Japanese import is not given. Is it 
the Chinese Foshan or tushanl The 
Chinese and Coreans have also many other 
Mythological notions on the Eastern or 
Pacific Ocean, and the lands therein, in- 
cluding probably America; but we know 
little of them as yet. The Chinese say 
there is in that Ocean a great mountain or 
Island SAy where dwell two Kings of the 
KUEI or spirits, called LOEH and VUH, 
kinds of Demons; they hold the entry of 
Ktiei'fnun (Spirit or Devil gate) to pre- 
vent Demons from passing over to China. 
In Corea Sa^ Sana^ Shan are names for 
mountains, Jin, Hu^ Nandu for men. SA 

NOTES. ' 185 

and HU appear the same as the Chinese 
SA and VUH. The KUEI are Evil spir- 
its OF Demons, the good Spirits are called 
SHIN and KI. 

Chu-mong (meaning good pilot in 
Corean) who is deemed son of the Sun and 
a daughter of the River GoAHoang-hoi is 
said to have fled from the King of Fu-ya 
in Corea in early times, and to have cross- 
ed the Sea on a bridge of fishes; whether 
he went to Japan or further still is unknown 
Thisabridge means with boats of the YUor 
Fish, nation of China, who are the Yupi or 
Eastern Manchus. These maritime no- 
mads of East Tartary of the Munchu na- 
tion, chiefly fishermen the YUPI, may be 
compared with Api^ manly in Linapi. The 
' deer tribe of the hunting Tonguz of R. 
Lena, are' called 04ena; compare witKthc 
OUni of the Linapi annals. 

KOEK-SHIN means Old-men in Kal- 
miik. Shin for nian, is thus the Shin, 
Angels or good spirits of China. In that 
Language MQEN means trtw and <rw6-men 
with analogies from England to India and 
Siberia. Socha is the true national name 
of the Yakutes. This name has affinities 
in America. Cha is male in Muyzca. 
CAo^oro Man in Samoyed. 
' Note 11. To this late attempt and, diis- 
aster, some blunderers about America j have 
been pleased to trace the origine of aU 
the Americansl being quite ignorant of &e 


;86 lfOT£0. 

former communications. The Chinese 
Annals give other names and details; but 
all agree in stating that by quarrels and 
.storms, the expedition failed. * If any had 
been blown to America, we should have 
found there a nation of pure Mogols, ai»d 
Chinese, since only 20S years elapsed be- 
tween 1284 and 14^. The supposition of 
the late dreamer Rankin, that they brought 
to America the Elephants and Mastodons, 
now found fossil, exceeds in absurdity every 
ilream upon America: and yet it has found 
believers, witness Alexander's travels in 
Guyana and North America! The Otho- 
mis of Mexico the most obvious akin to 
Chinese in America, were in it, at least 
1000 years before 1284. 

Additional Note. Many other interest- 
ing facts could have been added on Japan 
Corea and China; some will find a place in 
the Annals of Polynesia and the Pacific: 
meantime two are now introduced of some 

Valentyn says that in 1696 a Japanese 
ship was sent to make discoveries in the 
N. E. by the Emperor of Japan, who went 
as far as America, between lat. 40 and 50 d: 
the Captain well described _ on his re- 
turn the natives of the Coast. 

Gonzalez Mendoza in his history of 
China, has given one of the traditicms of a 
Chinese Nation? perhaps the Miao? TAIN 

KOTJBS. 187 

or Heaven created a man and a woman 
Panzon, Panzona. This Panzon made 
Tanhin and 13 brothers, who lasted 90,000 
years, and the next brood of men was Lui- 
zii^zANlunar men with two horns; next the 
AzALAN, the next Atzion .^ . . These 5 Dy- 
nastiesor families of mankind have American 
and Mexican features. Are they akin to 
the unknown Othomi and Tarasca tradi- 
tions? the words are polysylabic. 



Results of the Enquiries on the old- 
est Nations of both Hemispheres^ No- 
menclature of Nations^ primitive style 
and denominations of tribes^ elassifica- 
tion ofnameSf application to South Ame- 
rica: instabmiy of National names &c. 

From these Enquiries, we may begin to 
draw some accurate and important results 
which must be ever kept in view, in any 
further researches; and may afford one ct 
the keys of the ancient history, not merely 
in America; but every where else. 

Without entering even as yet into the 
primitive notions on the early tribes of 
Central Asia, from Thibet to Hindostani 
HOT those of Oceania, Central Asia &c, 
enough has been stated to give some ideas 
i^them. Those of Europe, North Afri- 
ca, Moses, China and Japan, well ascer- 

' » 


tained and illustrated, are already sufficient 
to lead into the path of truth, affording am- 
ple, views of the parents of mankind, almost 
every where, and above all in America; 
where the connection with later Nations 
are as plain as in Asia itself. 

Before giving the historical details of the 
intercourse between the two Hemispheres 
by the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, , it 
may be proper to recapitulate the re- 
sults of the researches already instituted. 

In order to unravel the nomenclature 
and parentage of Nations or tribes, we 
may employ 6 kinds of Evidence, 3 are in- 
dications, and as many are certitudes. 

1. !^thnographic Indication 

2. Synopfionic Indication 

3. Geographical Indication 
J. Philological Certitude, 

2. Etymological Certitude, 

3. Historical Certitude. 

The degrees of evidence are in propor- 
tion to the number and character of these 
COQibined proofs. When all the 6 exists 
there is not the least matter for doubt.' 
WTieh there are only a few, or even a sin- 
gle one, their relative importance increases 
or lessens the Ethnographical evidence. 
'iPhilology appears to be even preferable to 
History, or traditions : while Synophony af- 
fords more certain indications than Geo- 

The acknowledged descent is a tradition- 



a} proof, that may fail in some instances, 
when a Nation boasting of a noble origin, 
pretends to be sprung from Gods meaning 
divine men, or else Giants, Monsters, Ani- 
mals, the Clouds, the Heavens, the Ground 
the Sea or Lakes . • . . which are Allegori- 
cal suppositions, indicating peculiar fictions. 
Thus the origin from the ground implies 
a very old f esidonce; from the Sea a Colo- 
ny by Sea; from the clouds a settlement in 
Mountains; the Heavens higher mts. still 
or the Central Heaven of Asia. 

But if Nations have kept the remem- 
brance of their origin by books or well con- 
nected traditions in plain language, we 
may admit their claim, even if it should 
lead to fabulous times, or if they have 
often changed their language, as the Chi- 
nese and Jews for 'instance. In theii: case 
they only became distinct Nations in the 
time of Fuhi and Noah, or even of Yao 
and Abreae our Abraham. Before these 
periods they were surely blended with 

It is when historical proofs are lacking, 
that Philology becomes of paramount im- 
portance, since by it we can trace ihe Dia- 
lects and Languages to their sources, the 
degrees of fparentage are indicated, and 
a crowd of proofs may be accumulated. 

This only fails when a people may lose 

its own language, and has adopted another 

which does not often happen, but baji how- 

.190 mmcvn.^ 

^▼er happened. The lucas of Pera, com* 
pelled some nations to adopt the Quichua 
language; but their vassals in Chili and 
the Andes were left their own languages. 
Conquests or oppression, as well as amal- 
gamation and trade have given in 'Asia and 
Europe, two languages to a single people: 
one of which may at last predominate and 
expel the other. Thus in Ireland the En* 
glish is supersiding the Irish. The Jews 
have every where adopted the modem lan- 
guages except for their worship. The an* 
cient Cunis was lost for the Gaul, .and this 
for the French^ Languages may become 
extinct like Nations; but yet leave traces in 
the Dialects they produce. Thus the Latin 
has had a numerous offspring. (Note 1.) 

But sometimes conquerors instead of impo- 
sing their own language, lose, itfpr that of 
their vassals, when these are very(numerous; 
the Goths and Vandals lost theirs in Italy and 
Spain. Many Turks have adopted the 
Greek or Arab. In Peru the Spaniards 
adopted the Quichua, in Paraguay the 
Guarani, and might have lost their lan- 
guage, if the government had not restored 
if. The orders to introduce^ Spanish in all 
the Missions of America has failed, except 
in a few localities. The Jesuits prefered 
to spread the Guarani, Tao, Tupi «... in 
their Missions teaching them tomany tribes. 

Etymology is a branch of Philology, which 
ftMio^ liable to some abuae^ mistiS;:es^ con- 



joctures, illusions 4^c, aflbrds notwitfastand'^ 
ing many useful materials. In seeking the 
meanings of national names; curious ana- 
logies are often detected. Those of tribes, 

kings, legislators, Heros, men may 

often evolve a concordance or history with 
philology; while those of countries, moun- 
tains, rivers, cities . • . .complete compara- 
tive Geography. If mere synophony is 
taken for base of similar researches, the 
evidence is not always complete; but uni- 
ted with critical philology, the multiplied 
indications increase the proofs and impor- 
tance of the conclusions. 

Knowing the discredit which the abuse 
of Etymology has created, I have but 
sparingly used thi^ help. Yet I could not 
neglect to elucidate the meanings of all the 
names that may occur, and by comparing 
them other useful accordances are evolved. 
Thus the numberless evidences of similar 
names ank meanings for the primitive Na- 
tions KUN, MAN, Antis, Atalas, OL, 
IN .... are so obvious and plain, that we 
must be convinced of their existence and 
widely spread colonies, even as far 'bs both 
Americans. But these facts do not depend 
n^erely on such indications, since annals, 
traditions and languages unite besides to 
corroborate them. 

The historical proofs of comparative 
Ethnography are various: they extend to 
Annals, tra4itiQii9i n^tions^ fictioi^, remem- 




192 ftESlTLtS. 

brances of emigrations, conqaests, separa- 
tions, adoptions, colonies, &/C of Nations 
and tribes^ Ainong whom there arise in 
the lapse of ages. Ancestors and forefathers 
Oncles and nephews. Brothers and cousins. 
Sons and progeny ... as in families. These 
familiar terms are even much used in 
America, and they often furnish collateral 
proofs of consimilar origine. Others are 
afforded by analogies in religions, monu- 
ments, arts . • . of the tribes to be compared ^ 
altho' jthese later proofs are much more 
dubious, and rather indicate friendly con- 
nections of mutual trade or civilization. 

Anthropography or the study of physical 
men, may also afford additional proofs; but 
men are pretty much the same every where: 
the various complexions features, sizes, 
color and texture of the hair, are so evane- 
scent and variable even in the same fami- 
lies, tribes and nations; that they are very 
deceitful indications. It is however th^ 
principal branch of Ethnographic proofs; 
the others are manners and civiUzation, 
equi^ly variable and fluctuating: since the 
VOTy same people may have been barba- 
rous or ci vilified at different periods. Such 
were the MAN Nations, the Finnish tribes 
the Negroes of Africa, and many Ameri- 
can States. 

Geographical position is often a sure in- 
dksation when united to common language, 
and name; but there arp many exceptions. 


Several Nations may be crowded in a pe- 
culiar Country, as it was in Italy, Anahuac, 
the Caucasus . • • . WhiVe a Nation may be 
widely spread, having sent Colonies far 
away. The English people have, now Co- 
lonies in all parts of the world, even Aus- 
tralasia. The same happened once to the 
powerful Atlantes who reached even 
America and Borneo in Meganesia. The 
Tartars did spread in the middle ages 
from Corea to Hungary. The Romans 
earlier from England to Lybia and Assyria. 
The Hindus still earlier from Java and 
Australasia to the Danube, where the Zin- 
gani one of their tribes had settled, and 
has since wandered throughout Europe.. 
The Chinese and Mosaic annals evince 
how widely tribes have scattered. The 
Jews are now wanderers all over the 
world; the Palis or Philistines were Nomad 
wanderers, who once spread from furthest 
India to Europe, Lybia and South A^frica; 
becoming Pelagian sailors in Greece, they 
spread to Atlantis and America. 

Upon the whole, the true names of Na- 
tions are ^the tfest 'of indications, as they 
last as long as the Nation itself, and only 
change, when a new nation is formed. The 
national names may even survive the politi- 
cal existence, under modifications, or as 
applied to the language instead of the 
State, or to the subdued tribes as in 


Thus the Francs became the Francois^ 
and now the Franeais pronounced Franse 
called French by the English neighbors, 
Francesi pronouncfed Franchezi by the 
Italians . • . . Nam,es easily seen to be deriv- 
ed from each other, even if history did not 
tell it. Again the, Angles are become the 
English, pronounced Inglish. and in Amer- 
ica Yankis; Auglais (pr Angle) in French 
Inglesi (pr Inglezi) in Italian . . . • Yet the 
names of British and Great Britain remain 
to indicate their predecessfprs in England. 

I call this the Synophonic indication^ 
meaning accordance of sounds in names, 
since the modifications of pjonunciation or 
orthography afford it, audi oflen open the 
way to historical researches; united to the 
indications of Geography and Ethnogra- 
phy, they combine to furnish a proof equal 
to any other evidence. 

If we were to consider the Gaels and 
Gauls of Europe, the Gallas of Africa, the 
Tagalas of Meganesia, the Gals of Austra- 
lasia, the Ghuls of Persia, the Aleim ' and 
Hul of Moses, the Huls and Galibis of 
America .... as the same people, we^might 
be mistaken; but these single indications of 
Qonsimilar names are sufficient to draw 
our attenition, and ought to induce to com- 
pare them, bv other means. K the sur- 
mises are thus confirmed, we obtain a 
key to lead us thro^ ancient unknown paths 
of history. This is therefore a very phip 


ftEfilTLM. ' 195 

losophical pursuit, and admits of rules like 
^very science. 

We must even endeavor to trace these 
names in their deviations; by consulting the 
well known changes of the best known, we 
ascertain that Gaels became gradualy 
Gauls, Wallons, Welsh . . - . The Teutons 
or Teuch became Dutch pronounced Dock 
. . • wherein the original names are nearly 
lost. We know that the letters L, Jl — ^D, 
T,— F, V, B, P,-G, K— S, Z— SH, CH . . . 
are interchangeable in most languages: 
thus Atala and Adara might be the same; 
Pali^ Bcdi^ Fali, Volt and even Part, Ba- 
ri^ Fm*i (or Pharaon) Avari are the same 
people in different times and dialects. 
Allthewowels may be used indifferently 
in some oriental languages, arid thus 
tal^ tel^ tol, tul are only variations of a 
single name. In America similar instan- 
ces occur, and our orthographies of Gna^ 
Hua^ Ouu, Wa are even absolutely the 
very same sound. Puruays and Paris, 
Parias and BoYas xndiy all come from 
Pali. We may say that a people or na- 
tion is a human society, or number of men 
gpeaking the same language or akin dia- 
lects, bearing the same name or names 
nearly alike, and dwelling in the same 
country or region. Bui all these distinc- 
tions may lead astray in some CBses, since 
a people may have niixt or changed its, 
original language, adopted a new name, or 


196 itEsttt«. 

it may have sent colonies far away, or have 
been subdued. 

In such cases the Nation is divided, and 
produces other Nations, progeny of the 
first, which may deviate more or less un- 
der the 3 views of languages, names and 
sites. If the people was civilizfed, agricul- 
tural and dweUing in towns, it will. divide 
into Nations, States, Provinces, Districts, 
Cities and villages* If otherwise, either 
Nomad or wandering, hunter or fisher, 
without fixt dwellings, it will gradually 
divide into tribes, clans, bands and families. 
If it becomes settled afterwards, it may 
retain the tribal or clanish distinctions, as 
did the Hebrews, the Palis, the Tartars, 
the Chinese, and many American Nations. 

If further civilization introduces pecu- 
liar castes as in India, Persia, Egypt, Hayti 
Anahuac . • . . they supersede the tribes. 
This social form was widely scattered; 
whether under the 3 feodal Castes only of 
Priests, Nobles and Vassals as in Asia, 
Europe, America, probably of Atlantic 
origine; or with the addition of a fourth for 
slaves, or the division of vassals into Hus- 
bandmen, and Shepherds or else traders 
as in India. In Egypt, Persia .... 5 or 
even 7 Castes were distinguished. All 
these assume peculiar names, and may 
gradualy become distinct classes or tribes 
again. To this day the lower Caste of 
Egypt is called F^elah^ which certainly 

REBULTg. 197 

identifies ijt with the Felatas of central 
Asia, and both with the PaMlas or Palis of 
ancient Egypt. Our word Fellow is akin 

Tribes of outcasts or despised impure 
clans, are met from India to America 
under akin names of Farias, a mere modi- 
fication of Palia as well as Bali, and 
Bhils modern name of the free tribes of 


those outcasts, who eat the holy Cows! In 
former times the Paharias of India were 
the Highlanders, or men of the hills, and 
a peculiar nation. In most instances the 
Nobles and vassals were distinct nations 
or tribes, ic^iiiquerors and conquered, which 
became united in time by speech. This is 
distinctly stated in Asia as in America. 
But in China the primitive institutions 
were different, as holy Pontifs civilized the 
barbarians, abolishing Nobility and slavery, 
which however were partly restored again 
and are revived to this day. 

In early times, when the Nations were 
most barbarous or least civilized, when 
discords and wars, or wandering propensi- 
ties, compelled them to scatter themselves 
and remain insulated; it is easy to conceive 
how similar or brotherly tribes, have be- 
come quite distinct by remote emigrations 
and the ^changes which ages bring on.. 
Tribes when disunited or scattered, may 
change their manners, mode of life and 
speech, multiply and adopt new names of 


198 nam.n. 

tribes and clans.... It is thus that both 
Americas have been filled during 50 Cen- 
turies or more'by colonies, tribes and Na- 
tions sprung from each other, often difficult 
to trace to their common stocks. Yet by 
care and science, we may obtain the clues 
that lead in the investigations of coniiec* 
tiions and origin. 

The following table of parental or rela- 
tive degrees among Nations, with a chro- 
nological approximation of the time requir- 
ed to form them, will be found useful as a 
guide. A human generation is commonly 
calculated at 33 years, altho' it may vary 
from 20 to 40. A national generation of a 
peofde or tribe, may be estimated at 1000 
years, altho' it may vary from 500 to 1500. 
In ten centuries or thereabouts Nations 
change in many things, assume a ^ifierent 
aspect or even name; their languages be- 
come dialects or greatly deviate: becoming 
thus as maiiy new nations and languages 
by the mere natural course of the general 
deviation and instability of human concerns, 
even without the help of conquests, emi-. 
gratiims, dr admixture. Even the most in- 
sulated tribes feel more or less these efiects 
and ofier tliemselves under a new aspect 
after so many Centuries, enduring 75 to 
100 human generations. 
Tabl£ of Ethnographical Connectioks 

I. Original Stock. Ancient Nations. 

1. Degree. Ancestors, 3000 years 


2il/ Fo&£*^FATHERS, SODO years. 

3d. Fathers 1000 years. 
II, Posterity. Modern Nations. 

i Degree. Soms 1000 years after. 

2d. GRAND-ciEaDREN, 2000 years after; 

the whole including thus 5000 years. 
ni. Colonies of all dates. 

1 Degree. Antediluvian Colonies, before 
the floods. 

2d. Primitive Colonies, within 5 to 3000 

3d. Ancient Colonies, within 3 to 2000 

4th. Intermediate Colonies, within 2 to 
1000 years. 

5th. Modern Colonies, within less than 
1000 years. 

IV. Collateral Nations, posterity of the 
ancient, but only more or less connected 
with the modern 1. Uncles, — 2 Brothers 
3 Nephews — i Cousins .... and other de- 
grees of parentage as in families. 

The Languages are like Nations con- 
nected in the same way; but by borrowing 
from grammatical distinctions the deg^^i^ 
are made feminine; languages being called 
mothers, sisters, daughters ... of e^ch 
others. This is the only difference. 

But the natic^nal names must yet be CQn* 
sidered Under the numerical and technical 
points of view. , 

Many Nations and tribes have m4>re 
than one name. The English are also 



called British. The Greeks were calted 
Hellenes and Grail^os. The Chilians 
called themselves S6k6,ChiIencs, Araucas, 
The Jews called themselves Obrij Ishraly 
leudcj or Yahudis: we now pronounce 
Hebrew or rather Ihrul Israel or Izrael, 
Jews or rather Djiul.. These various 
names relate to successive' designations, or 
national titles (since Nations take titles like 
Kings), or to perverted names, mispeh or 
mispronounced by neighbors. 

As many as 5 Ethnographical names 
may be adopted by any Nation, as a pro- 
per appellation, independently of foreign 
kiickntsmeis, altho' neighbors or travellers 
often pervert them. They are 1 ancient 
Name, 2 the national name, 3 the vulgto 
name or national nickname {Sobriquet in 
French) as for instance John Bull by the 
English themselvf^s, 4 the national title, 
the Eiiiblcmrtlic or pcelieal name. 

There are besides th^ technical names 
of the tribes, castes, vassals, slaves, war- 
riors, nobles, priesthood, colonies. . .which 
often become national after awhile, and are 
always important to know; since they indi- 
cate amalgamations, conquests and disper- 
sions. Thus in France, the name of 
Francs and VUains indicated the conquer- 
ors and the vainquished Gauls. In Peru 
the Incas were a peculiar tribe and people 
giving n^me to the Empire; but the Vassals 
were called Yana^Conas^ the Nobles 


tLmoiM. 301 

Curacasy and the priesthood VUtad Wfett, 
Ichurii the Amantas were teachers, and 

Philosophers. All these names lead to 

Among these names, it is always need- 
fiil to seek the chief, which is prefe^ed 
and boasted of, as it is commonly the best 
or the oldest. If the meaning of it, is 
known, we obtain s another clue, and 1 or 
H words of the older language. Every 
name had a meaning, it is because we lose 
the knowledge of this, that we presume to 
employ unmeaning names. All the ancient 
tnbes had taken names in their own Lan- 
guages, often meaning Men, Nobles, War- 
riors, Nomads, Mountaineers, Sylvans, 
townsmen or citizens, navigators, Gods, 
Angels .... Others adopted the names of 
favorite or holy animals, and became thus 
Snakes, Wolfs, Lions, Tygers, Monkeys. 
Eagles, Doves .... tribes and men. (2.) 
. Comparative Ethnography becomes 
swelled besides by foreign names, despising 
nicknames, fi^lse designations, given by 
neighbors or Foes. A lingle people may 
thus have 20 names or more in various 
languages, which produce a great confusion 
of nomendature and ideas, requiring an 
acute criticism and sifting of meaning^. 

This must be attended to: travellers and 
historians must give us these synonyms m 
such, adopt the true name, and reject the 
others^ By doing, otherwise iii America 


208 uncvn* 

or dseidiere, we act as if we were to call' 
the French people by the Spanish nick- 
name of Gavaehe^ or the English one of 
frog^HMters. The French in •retam call 
the English Rost-Mfsva derision; In Amer- 
ica the ancient Ulmecas have been disguised 
under the Mexican nickname of ^po-te* 
cos meaning aj^le-people: One third of 
the names in common use are such, mere 
nicknames! The Chinese callus ail yet 
Barbarians and Devils. All the foes of 
the Hindus are Devils now as 4000 years 
ago. (Note 3). 

It is very curious and proper to seek in 
America as elsewhere, these nicknames of 
contempt, as well as the assumed titles, in 
the traditions, dialects and notions of tribes. 
We may sometimes be mislaid in these in- 
tricate researches, when the indications or 
vocabularies are deficient; but these ex-^ 
cepticms or doubts are only casuid: in the 
maiority of cases useful historical results, 
will be detected or ascertained. 

If we take as an instance the primitive 
people of Snakes! it will be easy to show 
that such a people has existed, even be- 
fore the floods has survived it, and widely 
spread since all over the Earth. The an- 
cient CHI of China were Snakes, the 
Firms had for Emblem the Lung or 
Winged Snake. The Hindus had the 
Nagas^ Takshas and Vrdgas tribes of 
prinikive Snakes, called Nahash and 


OUIM (Hivites) by Moses and the Arabs. 
The Greeks, Egyptians, Moors and Ne- 
gros had theirs under names found in 
America. Compare Uragas and Asura 
of India with Saru (Ape) of Japan, the 
Seres or ancient Thibetans, Skeres, Jlra 
Seris of N. America, Sechura and Vraba 
of S. America. Serprs and Colubra in 
latin akiit to Ser and Bru of Thibet. 

There, we shall find tribes of Snakes 
from the Shoshonisof the Oregon mts., to 
the Potjas of the Austral Andes. The 
Akos or foes of the Linapis are thus call- 
ed by them. It is possibiethat these prim- 
itive Snake men, were of a common rrli-^ 
gion: that of Eternity, personified by ^he 
circle or coiled Snake: or else worshiping 
the God of Evil, the Satanic Snake. Yet 
the Snake was also the emblem of wisdom 
and rinovation, the ancient knowledge pre- 
served by primitive Priests: whose names 
are often akin or homonymous to Snakes. 

' Thus Snakes imply at once iHen, foes, 
Wicked and IViests, according to the 
notions of tribes, and their religious ideas. 
The PAY AS, Poyas, Poyayas, Mbayas 
....were in S. America, ^ake tribes- 
worshiping them, ascribing their engine* to 
Keheoet or Demons .... While Maboya 
Mapuya was the Demon of the ' Galibi 
Nations; Cupay^ Zupay that of the Peru- 
vians .... but Boy^ Boyas is Snake irv 
Guarani — Pay^ Pue, Peyh Piauya &c., 

90^ iK«|ia7»* 

mean Priefiit or Juggler from Comvuu 
Guyana, Brazil to Paraguay, which cer- 
tainly evinces common ideas on tl|at 

Amaru^ Aymaru means Snake in Qui' 
chua, and was the name of a great natk>n 
of Peru, probably Snakes or^ foes like Uie 
Poyas and Chachapayas. In Chilian 
VUui is this the etymology of the VUdas 
Nation? But in Peru VUa^ VUomOj VUcu 
were names for priests — another striking 
accordance. Compare VUe and VUain of 
our European Lan^ages. 

Ercono is the Devil of the Mpxos E. of 
Peru, and their foes were the Conos Na- 
tion. Chdul is the Devil of the Tinguis or 
Patagons, compare their foes lade and 
ChUoagas. Compare also the devils of 
the Taos Tupas^ with the Tupis or Guara- 
nis, who called their God Tupan^ 

It is a positive fact that all over Asia 
from Japan to Syria, in Africa from Egypt 
to SenegaU in Europe from Greece to 
Celtica, and Oceania from Ceylon to Poly- 
nesia; as well as in both Americas irom 
Labrador to Chili— primitive history be- 
gins by Divine meii or Gpds: who were 
often the very first Priests, Lawgivers or 
Civilizers of mankind. 

After them iinder many similar or akin 
names, a{^ear 2. Angels or Geni, religious 
or beneficent men and tribes. 

3k Devils and Demons, wicked foes, ad- 
versary tribes, of let different belief. 



V • 

4. Men or Human tribes, so often divi*^ 
ded in Highlanders and Lowlanders^ Citi- 
zens and Nqmads &c. 

5. Giants and Monsters, or tribes of 
powerful strangers and Tyrartfcs. 

6. Pygmies and Dwarfs or Troglodytes, 
tribes of weak men, dwelling in caves. . 

7. Human Animals, or tribes of Mon- 
k'eys. Lions, Tortoises, Wolfe, Dogs, 
Snakes, Birds, Fishes , • . . 

But all these tribes from the Gods to 
Animals were Men ! . , . Since they act as 
such m every respect. The names of the 
respective languages might often be inter- 
changed; since the Gods of one Nation 
might be Devils for others.,.. Gianter 
might be deemed Dwarfs by foes . . . arid 
viceversOf. All these may be traced through- 
out both Americas; whoever shall deeply 
study these primitive tribes, must enter in- 
to a vast field of Philological enquiries and 

Meantime these Allegorical terms and 
titles, have survived to this very age; and 
ajre yet much employed as National and 
tribal names all over the world; except 
where new religions have changed the 
style and notions. 

A method must be adopted to classify 
this branch of Idea» and Ethnography, 
and I propose therefore the following series,^ 
of suqh Allegorical nam^es. 

1. Deification. When tribes and Na-. 
ions are exalted above the real human* 

906 R£8€I.T8« 

nature deemdd IHvine and' caUed Gods, 
Demigods, Angels, Spirits, Geni, Fairi^ 
'Lamas, Priestly Caste .... 

2. Exaltation. When they are raised 
above the usual human Standard, and 
called Heros, Nobles, Tyrants, Titans, 
Sons of God, children of the Sun or 
Moon... • 

3. Demorphy. When they are changed 
into Devils, EvU beings or Demons, called 
such, or else Elfs, Imps, Manes, Ghosts, 
Wizards, Witches .... 

4. Degradation. When they are de- 
graded l^low the proper human nature, 
being called Pygmies, Dwarfe, Ape-like, 
^aves. Vassals, Barbarians, foes, murder- 
ers, wretches, cripples .... 

5. Personification. When tribes and 
nations instead of being called such, are 
embodied and individualized as Patriarchs, 
Pitris, Emperors, Kings, Legislators, Her- 
cules, Neptunes, Pontifs .... to whom is 
aiscribed what belongs to many men and 
could never be performed by a single one. 
This is one of the keys to ancient history, 
the Chinese and Jews, the Hindus and 
Greeks have equally used that historical 

. 6. Bemizony. When such tribes are 
partly animalized, and deemed Monsters 
or BMMistrous men» called Satyrs, Faunes, 
Centaurs, Minotaurs, ''Sphinx, Cherubim, 
Syrens, Tritons, Cyclops, Acephali • • » • 


7. Gynomorphy. When tribes are 
deemed women, and called such, or Ama- 
zons, Nymphs, Fairies, Dryads, Nereids, 
Gorgons . . . The Nagunis of India are 
women half snakes. 

8. Meteor omorphy.Whenm'enandtriheB 
exalt themselves by ascribing their origii\ 
to Meteors, the Sky, the clouds, winds, 
thunder, Iris, or the Stars,vthe Ocean, the 
JLiaAes • • • • 

9. Simitation. When they are degra- 
ded by being deemed or called Monkeys, 
Apes, Simias, Baboons, Cynocephales .... 
The Negro tribes have often been called 
such by their neighbors and are to this 

10. Zoomoarphy or Animalization*-^ 
When tribes or Nations either adopt them- 
selves or are given the names of Animals 
and chiefly quadrupeds. Bulls as in Persia 
and England, Bears as in Russia and 
America, Wolfs, Lyons, Tygers, Cats, 
Goats, Elephants; Deer, Cattle . . . (Note 4) 

11. Ornithomorphy. When names of 
Birds and fowls are taken or given to men, 
as Eagles, Grifins^ Phenix, Doves, Crowsj 
Peacocks, Hawks, Cranes, Storks .... In 
America besides, Quetzal, Parrots, Condor^ 
Turkey .... 

12. Erpetomorphy. When ^names of 
Reptiles are taken or given, sucK as Snakes 
Yipers, Serpents, Lizards, Dragons, Gua- 
nas, Frogs ... 










» * 




13« Ickthyomorphy. When men are 
called Fishes, or Seals, or deemed any 
other Water \nimal, implying aquatic 
tribes of mem 

14. Entomorphy. When mem and tribes 
are deemed Insects and Vermin, called 
Flies, Gnats, Be^s, Ants or Myrmidons, 
Crabs, Beetles, Butterflies .... This is not 
Hlways by degradation. Our Gnats are 
the Nats of India, spirits and demigods: in 
N. America flies and spirits are both 
deemed Manitos. 

15. Phytomorphy. When tribes adopt, 
trees and plants lor emblems, and are call- 
ed such in fiction or poetry, becoming Oaks, 
Cedars, Palms, Thistles, Roses, Apple- 
trees, Bushes, Reeds, Grass • . , In Ameri- 
ca Opuntias or Tunas, Zapos, Zeybas, 
Mushroons, Pines . . . 

16. lAthomorphy. Lastly when they 
even are called Stones or Jewels, RocI^ 
or Mountains, Rubies or Diamonds, Clay 
or Sand, Flinty or Stony ... as common in 
both Americas. 

Besides these Allegorical names, the 
proper titles and plain technical names of 
nations and tribes may also be classified, as 

]. Geographical namesy derived firom 
the regions, islands, sites &c., they dwell 
in. These connect history and geography; 
they have all meanings to be sought for. 
Altho' tribes often give theur own names 

RESULT^ 909 

to sit03, thay also as oflen receive names 
f^m the mountains, hills, plains, fivers . . . 
th^y inhabit. Islanders almost always 
take names from their Islands, as Japanese^ 
Javans, Haytians • . • . * In : America the 
Chilians, Brazilians, Canadians . • • have 
received such names. 

2. Political names ^ derived from the 
state, civil society, social relations, civiliza*^ 
tion, and meaning in various idioms the 
United, the Allies, the free or Francs, the 
servile, the liberal, the conquered, the 
friehds, the foes, the ruling people, the 
nomads or wanderers, the tillers ... 

3. Urban names taken from the Cities 
or Capitals of Nations, like the Romans, 
.Tyrians, Napolitans, Mexicans.. . 

4. Patronymic names received from the 
acknowledged head of the tribe or Hero 
of a nation, such as the Arabs, Jews, 
Egyptians, in America the Chons, Penn* 
sylvanians, Chactas ... 

5. Dynastic names when Dynasties of 
rulers give name to the nations they rule 
Buch were nearly all the Chinese, and 
Oriental Dynasties, iQ America the Incas, 
Tuncas, Chons • • . 

6. Imitated naines when colonies take 
the same name as the parent nation or 
tribe, as the Atlantes, Tulias and T6l8, 
Palis and Pelagians^ Newyorkers, Nova- 
Bcotians . . • • in this case the coimec^ioare-^ 
mains very plain* 


7. BdaHoe names when Nations &r^ 
called from their situations to' the N. 9. 
E. W. of others, or called central, univer- 
€al, celestial or from above, hellish or from 
below. In N. America the Shawanis are 
the Southern Linapis, in S. America the 
Collas Southern PeruTiana • . • . 

8. Epithetic names^ qiost of the na- 
tional titles are of this kind, meaning the 
Good, or Wise men, the valiant people, the 
strong hearts, the true men « . . or the people 
of the hills, the plaiiis, jthe swamps, &,c . . . 
or dwellers in tents, in towns, on trees, in 
caves. These may be multiplied ad Ubi- 
tum, and often offer a picture of the life 
of manners of tribes. Some relate to the 
mode of dressing, the kinds of clothes, the 
painted bodies, the food • • . 

9. Despising names or rather nick- 
names, are more common than we are 
•^ware of, almost every nation has one en* 
more given by neighbors, in Greece and 
Italy each city and tribe had them: to this 
'day in Siciiy niany towns receive such 
terms of contempt, alluding to habits or 
rtdiculdus ideas: the men of Trapani ar9 
called Horse-eaters, of Termini the Gliders. 
in the United States these terms begin to 

'fbe inti^oduced, the E. Virginians are nick* 

named IPuekahos or Roots, West Virgi- 

-nians Buckskins^ the Ohioans Buckeyits 

-ftom a tree; the Kentukiaris Redhorsts^ 

and UlioDis SucierSf both from flshies, 

jf^ioh Site almost AUegoripal ■ terms* Such 
iiames were found all over both American 
and new ones were introduqed since the 
iatercourse with Eurpppans. 

10. Unmeaning namesj spph as our r^idic- 
ulous termsof Indians, Iroquois, Del^ware3 
Algonkins, Patagons . . . which are mere 
nicknames without any appropriate sense, 
or sometimes the first allusion is even lo^ 
or unknown. These abound; througljrout 
America and are very perplexing, to, the 
correct historian: thoy ought to be entirely 
dismissed ^nd discarded. 

11. Physical names^ such,a^ Ethiopians, 
Negros, Hindus, Redmen, Yellow men, 
Colored men. White men, applying to c(Nmh 
plexion; or else gigantic and dwarfish men 
^plying to sizes, Coroadi^S; ojp crown-haijC- 
ed, Encabeliado& or long-hairs of S. Ameri- 
ca ... . Mulatos, Mestizos, ^ambq? ^p 
irelating to mixtures of colors. 

13. Fictiatfs or Poetical namesy comi- 
(H'ize all those that are applied by fancy, 
whims or at random, w^ithout any partipii- 
lar object, both in poetry, romances oi^ in 
colloquial speech, with or without ^ pie^Q- 
ing, or often fabulous, li^e SatanSi Yahoff^^ 
Fairies^ Stjlphs^ UnditieSjHarpifiSfGlu^nts 
Liliputians .... the Chinese and Orientak 
have also similar fabulous names^ whicn 
must not be taken as properly, historic^, 
but mere metaphorical allusiona. Pheniaff 

Fung^ Okulghuls 4r^» 

SIS mxmvn. 

'■ The fltitiflyof this Nomenclature of so 
iStmj iHunerous and variable terms, names 
and titles, is a newln-ancfa of Ethnograi^, 
much n^lected heretofore by historians; 
bat desiring peculiar attention, like eyerj 
idea or notion having a name. . To neglect 
names is to neglect things and facts, events 
and tribes, and to increase the confiision of 

We find moreover many Animals high- 
ly venerated and others despised by many 
nations. As they have all been used for 
emblems or tribes, we may trace thereby 
the Gods, allies or friends; else the Ices, 
adversaries or despised tribes of each pecu- 
liar nation. Elach commonly abstain fi'om 
the flesh of those they venerate, or even 
keep the practice when the original notion 
is lost. The Jews abstaiued from many 
Animals deemed impure; but this idea (for 
some at least) was rather a remain of for- 
mer veneration. The Hindu and Chinese 
' nations generally abstain from the Ox and 
Cow, as holy Cattle employed ii> Agrical- 
• ture. The Hare was deemed a holy ani- 
mal and not eaten from Celtica to Tartary, 
and even N. America, nor by the Jews: 
the reason was forgotten; but arose from 
primitive Hare Nations, yet found in N. 
'.^nerica. The Dove emblem of inno- 
<^nce, and of the Assyrian nation, was 
iholy^ the Russians do not eat that bird. 
We neither eat the horse nor dog, and 


(||a¥0 forgot en whyv t^epimre "oot^e 'facAy 
(Aieiidfl'aiid AHtes. Tlie Ei^lteH Will if»t 
eat frogs; but thw anctet(irs MAN^ WMe 
oticethe frog people of Asia! • * / 

^Evtry where nmy be ionnd such forhil- 
en animals, how many once in 'Eg^? 
Geese, Tcirtles, ^akei^, . Eaglesi, Hares, 
Bears . ; . • were forbiden: anoietitfy in EA- 
rope;and Asia. In Afriea all; the fetiches 
or sacited^ahimais c^a tribe are never eaten, 
but other tribes do. It is so in America 
with the Hbtems oreanimals patrona'ofa 
tribe or family or nation; The Jains and 
Budhists abstain fi:om all animals, som^ 
tribes did so in S. America. Many fruits 
and roots-ai'e also rejected on superstitious 
principles by each nation. 

In applying these views tO'the Ethnogra- 
^y ijf South America, we shall meet with 
happy results. 

Lavega saya that Manco • was not a 
duicboa' name, but forei^ to it. Yet it 
has jHiany meanings in the Coilas aitd 
Chilian dialects; MaM-lm means in Seke 
hSffMand-aquktic, MAN means highland, 
mountain, hand • . • . Men means to lead, 
go, guide .... AldnqueiB the Cbndor. We 
maiy choose among these Etymologies. 
The oldest M^mi^. was perhaps the primi- 
tive people of Coiidord, the largest bird- of 
the Andes, or was a leader by Sea, or both. 
We most coinpfure alwtbe/Jfan, itt^ti, 
Menes 4.... otAm^ and Afirtea* i Tli» 

18 • 


/Mflfmth fiMHBMbr of th^Inca Empire «nli 
riwidSi iaUiri and ealae from tha &a shoiMi 
,i0 Cbtoco. But Mamng vtas &iake in 
8Kam, ono of tlio peninao fmblemsi the 
biftM had Ihto PtifiM Of Amencan Lion 
as aticb. 

Tlie3fto8or tribes spnttg fram tlus 
MaMo I ha?o moainDgs in Qaichuar Cadfei 
Saift or the people of theSalt wdler^ tS liSSsn- 
00 Olee or the hap[^ people, 2 I%rAu 
P^iper or the strong people. 

XauxOf Kakana^ ixuaneas^ Hum&sos 
J are ail synomyms for BIoiinta]neelr& C^U 
laa means Sokithron, — Panoa fathers or 
the peqple ancestor — Taos Chief or head, 
the main tn\»^Ghum(iuru8 the warriora 
(NT warlike tribe « ^ • &idi in their rtepec- 
tive LiuigiiagAsiL 

^Tbltf'j^f tfiews the high or eminent 
people, Hati-^hel the great people^ in th^ 
own laiiguage, evidentijr AtlaatiG* 

€^0arani means Eartem or Solar peo|rte 
in Ctuarani. ^P^ ^^ ^^ *^ tribes 
means Exodlent^^-CWy and Cutcty were 
Monkeys in 6iwrani, and perhajpa the 
Nation of Cu(go% w Qttl$ and Jforiqpea 
their ne^hhorsto the West had Ireceived 
this nickname. Alt the Gnarani tribes bad 
iaeaning tutmes, 4SarMmtas were Hawfta, 
J^a^ weni ftabhit^ Otwaji^^ flit 

Btot of BBiiii|thnflBfeiefor«'fiifiM pM- 


Nfitided neoclj all the wiid tribeiB of. GlHfedo. 
In Chili Chiilu. mean^ ^ox, iwbmee tlto 
*A«r tribeCSiiUotefir. SbtiUche^ ttit Sonihr 
am fM»ple, iitMlzs^ the free tribei, Pdftn- 
«ROJki^ I the; Pioetftte^penpfe. SiM was 
ther afuitot people, the Peravians duu^ed 
it^ Saem^ and catted their baHbarow neigli- 
hmsl^aeoi-runas wild foibs. &tca recalls the 
Saoasof Asia the oBcienl Serbians, and the 
Saetp S grnaa (Saca^scms) ahcestora of the 
^Ixons; bat the Sek6 of Chili have In fiir 
tnord Pbilologieal affinities with the Fekh 

ri tribes than with the Teutonic tribes* 
ladia Saoas mdans the tribe^. 
Cuna^ Cunya, . . Cugnuj are names fiir 
women in Cfcuidiaa;, Omagua and Gnarani, 
allied abo to the warlike women or Ama*- 
lams ef Maranon, the ancient Cagnm 
flbtioa of women in Pern, the Cunaeunas 
of Darien, the Cums of Magellania • • • . 
spread in various spots, and caUed^woateon 
i» derisiohf or because they were ruled by 
<}ueM% or wamen fimght like meii» In 
Nortb Anmrica unwarKke tribes are on the 
cebtrary called women. 

The special name of men has often been 
^^ or assumed bj proud and warlike 
t#»e9# It i& often the real national desig- 
msiJ&m^ Thb€fttoMi5^ HuenhM, Runms^ 
Ci^iYM^ PoiNMi^ Cuni»^Em»...y9tr^ as 
«Miitf|*tio8i8|¥akon namea meant Mut 
pK^i^ mi^mm taoginigp.; Wi^i 



River people irt^ Peniy Lmim^kS nieiBmbg 
the Bane in M tfgeUania •% . • 
. Ddpbcated names* always iQ^ab. ttm^- 
tiuleiOr,the teain tribe, thvn^ Ciifmatnms 
ve tfre great Canms of Darieaki €lhoco^ 

Since the Spanish invasions^ thejr: hare 
given rniRiy nicknames, such as Pa%agMa 
big-t>aws who are the l^nguv^U^EOrf^ 
Pampas or Plain-dwellers to the Puetehte 
Bnd Taiahets — Lenguas or bigitoB|[Qea to 
many tribes wearing, a hff ornamentr^ 
Or&fones or big ears to tho»6 who stretrii 
theirs . • . • Thus are nicknaHies fonned, 
often blending several tribes, undei:.tidica- 
ious terms. 

. 'However some better terms may-'idsobe 
applied, . the Arancas^ or free pe<4>le are 
dbeconile the free Chilians, Ibldei^s iBBe 
the Poelcbes dweUing in Toldes.of tents. 
. l^acanas or 'Pedestrians is now the name 
of the Oumy that use no horses. . * 

(Mo is 6un in Yilela, InHi.iB LulS — 
tbese Solar terms may be compared with 
the.OL of Mexico, t\m Jnie^ Vime nlien in 
Maya, Olco man in Colta : compare the 
Latin and Gothic SOf^ SUNI .« , 

At the. inva^en of Mexico and Pera^ the 
Spaniards were deemed Sdaf'^men; bdt 
their cruelties soon changed llie .notion, 
juid they -were caUed dpthed^meny Fire- 
m&a^ Men of tbefiea, or Guachumiis, fihia 

fer8» Bf urdererfr, Devils • . « , The Spanish 
fcmiades of Chaoo and Chili are become 
Quachos or Gvasos^ term adopted by 
themselves, implying ramblers, Gacho in 
the old Spanish' is a bad-feilow. In North 
America the outcasts of the English popa- 
fation are called Squaters^ either from the 
old word to squat like i tailor, or from 
Squaw a woman in Linapi dialects that 
Squats! It is hard to say which. 

Since the settlement of Spanish America, 
the native Americans are become Creoles 
-and they have lately transfered to thci 
Spaniards the contemptuous names of 
Guachupin?;, Chiapetons,and laterly Gotos 
implying Goths and Vandals; but Goto9 
were also the wicked Carib tribes of Guy- 
ana, Cumana &/C, meaning tribes in their 
language . \ . Thus are new names inter** 
changed, altered, disusedor ever fluctuatii^ 
American nations are gradually losing 
their names and languages, by amalgama- 
tion with the conquerors, as the Gauls and 
Spaniards did with the Romans. But in 
N. America where the English Race ap- 
pears to avoid the contact and offers no in- 
ducement for blending the stocks; the ori- 
ginal American tribes either become ex- 
tinct or are removed further, forming new 
Nations and confederacies. This unwise 
policy will recoil on the abetors, who coiv , 
centrate these Nations, instead of scatter- 
if^ them, and make them strai|ger9 or often 
foes instead of citizens. 




SI8 iLJsswn, 

If the Greeks have kept th^ namd for 
ages, it is owing to a religious* separation 
from the Turks; few if any old Nation now 
bear their very first name any where, not 
even the Basks, nor Gaels, nor Chinese, 
Inuch less in America: here few Natioite 
appear to have borne the^ame name since 
they came to this hemisphere. They all 
have split into tribes or smaller commani- 
ties; the Dacotas or Sioux for instance, 
who were a united Nation, not many ages 
ago, and earlier still a single , nation with 
all the Missouri tribes, then called Washas 
or Men, Wakons or Gods. These divine 
KONS however are Westerlings, while 
the KONS of Si America are Easterlings: 
yet both might once have been Atlantes in 
Asia, very long ago. 

We often see in this continent the ex- 
tinction of some tribes, or their change of 
names; divisions into clans, that soon be- 
come new tribes: the peculiar custom of 
adopting tribes blends many together. Tlius 
the Nachez exist yet among the Chicasas; 
many lost tribes have jollied the Cowetas 
or Creeks. It is when the dialects of tribes 
cease to be spoken, that we may deem 
themrealy extinct as such. Large states gen- 
erally swallow many tribes; the Russian 
£m[Hr6 grants liberty of manners, religions 
aiid languages to their numerous vassal 
tribes. So did formerly the Asiatic Em- 
pires, and probably the Atlantic Empire: 

«Ise~mftny more ^atioss should hure long 
b^en extinct. The Romans^ Arabs aira 
Turks were less tolerant. In Am^ica a 
peculiar intolerance has oden prevailed, 
and broken the former social tiesofc^ech 
and manners. 

When in, a subsequent volume the cen- 
tral Nations of Asia from Tartar y to Cey- 
lon will be introduced as real parents of 
(^U Nations whatener^ we ^hall meet with 
constant proofs of all these deductions aind 
factg. There, before and after the deluge 
were the doable cradles of mankind. Every 
aocient Race, every language, every reli- 
gion, every civilization ... sprung there. 
ISvefy American tribe h?Ms there a proto- 
type: Every complexion its primitive type 
from white to black, ftom brown to yellow. 
The solar and lunar Races began there, 
as w)eU as human Gods, Devils, Monkeys, 
and beasts. In the Southern .climes of 
India have poured streams of Nations from 
the heav^nl^ regions of this Centritl Asia, 
since the diluvian Suryas (Solar) to the 
modern Afg^ns, the Jews of Cabul. Such 
streams flew also west to Europe, Lybia 
fltnd America; East to^ China, Polynesia 
and also America. 

Tis thus that wo find yet in the Indian 
j^^gions from Balk, the mothers of cities, 
to Ceylon and Ava, the brethren in names, 
f^atlires and latignages of nearly all - the 
j^xoL^sxcdSk Nation^. ^ In addition to Ihow 

already mentitmeS, let me add from Tod 
akme the foikmring aneienC and modern 
tribes, speaking varkMis dialects, in a single 
province pf central India, Rajastan. 

Unwi, Hnii<,.KpNi . • . Our Uonis. 

Hui^ our Hul-mecas. 

T AK, Nag, Snake-men, oar Afcos. 

Mer and KoUs; highlanders, our Ajnoorar 
ras ? and Colas. 

Yanti a Yadu tribe, odr Antis, and we find 
even the Andes to be the mts between 
Thibet and China! 

TuR, T'hori, 2 oldest tribes, Tilolo, 
Boiilaj TnUi^ more modem, ow Tares 
and Atlantcs, 

Cabas, Jaua, GoALA...our Galihis? 
Golas? Capas? 

Seriah, Usara, SARAe, the Seresi our 
Seris . • • a M ina tribe. 

MiNA, tribe older there than the Scdar 
people (ov^r 5000 years) akin to Hamtrman 
god of monkeys. The M ah of China, Tar^ 
tary, Europe and America: yet of Bh3' 

Macaras Alligator Nation, oor Maeae 
and Caras? 

6RA8,GRAHA8^Grifl{ns, GARViMa Yid* 
tures. Crompare the Harpies of Greece^ 
the Gnaras find Amacas of America. The 
AS and ES or Lord3 ot Sdar race^ oor 
Az tecas? 

The SuRTA or Soliv Ilatimii and the 
fioMAor Lnrnir natieo of Indnu can abo W 

traced to America; but under other names. 
Lastly to conclude by a general clajs@i- 
fication of all Nations and tri bes, either 
extinct or existing, we may comprise them 
under 8 great claisses in their order of 

1. Mythic or fabulous. The human 
Gods and Angels, Demons and beasts an- 
terior to regular history. 

2. Ante-dUuvian^ or doubtful previous 
to the main human deluge. 

3. DUuvian ; that escaped this flood, or 
survived till the next historical cataclysm^ 

4. Prtmtftw; earliest after these events. 

5. Ancient; belonging to ancient history, 
between 3000 and 20(90 years ago. 

6. Medial; of the middle ages from 1000 
to 2000 years ago. 

7. Modern; latest nations within ten 
'Centuries or even less. 

8. Actual nations and tribes, that still 
exist in. our times and age. 

In both Americas the period of 1492 

• commonly divides the ancient and modern 

nations; but the same distinctions may yet 

be admitted, if we wish to be more exact. 

Under various names, abodes, and social 
forms, all thes6 successive cla^se3 have* 
sprung from each other: , it is the duty : of. 
the historian to trace their steps, and their 
d^eds; peeking their names /^nd hunches; y 
by all the availatie means.. 

A very curious additional mean may be 



obtained by noticing carefuly the names 
of animals deemed holy or obnoxious, eata^ 
ble ' or inipure, by all the Nations. This 
new idea may be, fruitful in future results. 
We, and all the nations that loath the horsey 
dog, snake, ... , as food; may descend from 
ancient nations, once called such! The hog, 
hare, oxen . . . forBiden to others were once 
holy, or embllms of nations. The Egyp- 
tians and Hindus who deified so many ani*- 
mals, had historical meanings and recollec- 
tions as an excuse; besides the transmigra-* 
tion belief. 


Note 1. The actual Italian, Spanish, 
Portugueze, French &/C, were once only 
dialects of it, that are become languages 
within a few ages, by being adopted as na- 
tional tongues, and becoming polished. Yet 
they now have split into other dialects that 
might become Languages if they were to 
preponderate. The Sicilian, Sardinian^ 
Corsican, Proventia], Zenese, Gascon, Ca- 
talan .... are already very distinct, and 
have books, being called languages by those 
who speak them. The Italian dialects 
offer many baces of the Etruscan, Oscan, 
Umbfian, Ligurian, and other ^ old langua- 
ges (^ Italy. It is so in America; many of ^ 
our presumed languages are Similar mod- 
em dialects: but with traces of older idioms 

Note 2. It is a general rule never to , 



be lost sight of, that good or exalted names 
ar6 the proper adopted names ; while bad 
names, nicknames of contempt or degra- 
dation, are always such as were given by 
neighbors or foes. Yet names of Animals 
were not always had names, and many 
tribes prided themselves in being deemed 
Lions, like the Sinhala our Ceylonese, or 
Eagles like the Aetoli of Greece .... Our 
names of Foes (JFo of China) Fiends 
{Finns\ Enemy like Inimicus from InU 
mik man-Snake in Central Asia . . • are all 
expressive of old foes of the Gothic {Oodsy 
and Man Nations of Asia. 

Note 3. AsuRA which means A-surya 
not solar or infidel,^ is the most common 
name for both: when at war with the Ma- 
hometans and English; they gave them 
that name 'which appear to relate also ^ to 
older foes, ihe Ashur or Assyrians: Rac- 
shashas is another akin to Rascal. In 
our niodern idioms we even now call our 
foes Devils sometimes, and devilish fel- 
lows mean yet very bad men, robbers doing 
misdeeds. Human devils are mef ev^ry 
where in primitive history, and may h^iYe 
suggested many of our Satanic or deippBifi- 
cal notions. Devil and Snak^ is also ^^y- 
nonymous in many languages^. Boa in 
Africa is Snake and God or Devil. Jlioya 
Poya^ Pay ... in America., Boya is in 
Italian a devil of a man, now applied to 
cruel men arid the Executioner. 

224 iroTB. 

Note 4. The history of American reli- 
gions, Astronomy and celestial notions, 
will explain many of these Allegoricid 
ideas. We shall find the Hare or Rabit, 
the Dog, Ape, Tyger^ Snake . . , • placed 
in the Heavenly Zodiac, divine mansions, 
in America as in Asia, by a remain of 
former Zoolatryi or as emblems of men thiis 
called. The BuU and Ram were placed 
there in Persia and Egypt by similar no- 
tions. Each tribe of ^rael had an ani- 
mal for emblem, Judah was oft called tha 


History of ^ intercourse^ and an^ 
dent connections between the two hemis^ 
pheres^ hy the Atlantic Ocean and 
islands^ before Columbus or 1492: by the 
Atlantes, of Africa^ ^ain, Ireland; the 
Lybians^ Pelagians j Ctreeks^Phenicians^ 
'Europeans^ and other Nations. 


After leaving the primitive records, an4 
doubtful lights of American traditions. We 
may now reach historical bases and con- 
sult the apnals of the Nation^ found East 
and West of the American Hemisphei^e, 
in order to seek their mutual knowledge of 
each other. We must at first dive into the 
doubtfiii periods of historical records} ^pt 







gradualy obtafn facts, events and proofs. 
Two Oceans divide the two hemispheres, 
the Atlantic'' and Pacific, and each affords 
wide tracks of communications: offering 
thus a double path to the litoral or insular 
tribes of either. 

As in modem times, the ancient Nations 
could communicate by three ways over 
these Oceans, even without taking into ac- 
count the probable union of North Ameri- 
ca ^ with Asia, and many Islands in the 
Atlantic. The Northern, tropical and 
Southern paths may have been employed 
on both sides. Our historians have ne- 
glected to collect all the scattered facts 
on this intercourse, whence the erroneous 
common belief of the insulation of Ameri- 
can population. 

In ord^r to examine well these primi- 
tive and ancient connections, I shall use 
all the facts that distant annals or Geo- 
graphical notions may suggest or furnish; 
but all my researches cannot now be given 
as they would swell to a volume. However 
nothing omitted that may have 
any influence on the principal point to be 
unfolded: that both Americas were former- 
ly known and visited by many nations be- 
yond Seas from the East and the West. 

A Ghronologicai order shall be chiefly 
adopted; but without excluding discussions 
ini«|ier to elucidate Aots by res^^rolies 
aftdhcoinparisdns.' ^ " -" 



3j^ tHB kThkm&ik 

We have seen that et^n %efore the 
floods and Mosaic Deluge the difuvian'^a^ 
^ons must have been connected, and mi- 
gfations took place as far as America, of 
▼iMTious human tribes, since found there at 
the flood. South America was the SHAULi 
or lower world of Job, Moses and the He* 
Inrews; there reigned Blioi* (Belial or Plu* 
to) king of the human Devils, OUUMLwick*^ 
ed Snakes (Hivites), Shorim Satyts,* 
N'FLIM or nophelim tortoises and mona- 
sters, AMIM formidable, R'F AIM wicked 
'Giants or Titans, • • . . various appellations 
of such early wicked men, who were de<^ 
stroyed by the Deluge, or supposed to be} 
altho' some may have escap^ in the Moun^ 
tains. In fact they reappear after the 
flood under the same names in Sjrr ia and else* 
where. ALEO^BRin or Ele^giiarim, Gods 
or angels*powerful or monstrous," were the 
subjects of Beioe, in the C01.-YPLAA1 world- 
ancient (America). Compare Eles^ Ols^ 
CAob of Mexico. 

Among the Adamic patriarchal tribes 
we find seme since in America, such as 

KIN in the Inic, Kuin, Kini . , . 

ABL as Apalas, Ot*abalos . • • 

Meutal as Mayas, Uyas, MuVzcas ... 

YuBL or Jubal, as Yupalas, Yiibis . . . 

Anush as Anos; Uchis, Nachez . . . 

McxxAL as Amalas, Malles of (^uj^a 

. compare Malays. ;^^. 

Bikt however they may have reac|)«5Jl 

• •• 



America %ince the flood. The diluWal 
tribes that^bovt to have escaped it in 
America, bear different names; yet' some 
akin to the subsequent patriarchs of Noah's 
line. We even meet in America the 
ALEIM or Angels of Moses; the ORB 
probably Orobi of Italy also, may be Uru- 
bas of America: the Iuns, Ainne and 
TEinBtE of the Thbe, are also met v^ith in 
t America. After the flood many American 
tribes can be traced direct to the Mosaic 

From ION our Javan, may have come 
the Huanas, Yuncas, Gionas or Aunas, 
Conas or Ghons, Yanas • • . 

B'rom Alishe, one of the names of 
America, the happy land of the West, the 
Allias tribe of Cuntisy Hichitis, Huiliches? 
Ouailis, Lechos ... 

From XnoN our Canaan, the Cagnas 
• Kakanas, Chanaes tribe of Guanas, Conos 
Xons, Cdnamas • . • • 

From HUiLE our Havilah, the Huili or 
Chilians, Huaylas or Collas, Yoales or 
Vilelas . . • . 

From Rome tribe of Xush, the Roamay- 
nas,. Lomas and Remas tribes of Maynas, 
Omaguas . • • while Shba tribe of Rome 
might . produce the Shebaoys, Chapoyas, 
Cayubas .... 

From AsHUR the Assyrians may come 
the Achuras, Chores ... 

From NiNTE, the Innuit, Niniwas? 
Dinnis? « • • ^ 



From Onmim (heavy waters) the Atlan- 
tic colonies of Ons, Cons, Xons, Chons • . • 

From Ehui (animals) some beastly tribes 
the Huicas of Tucuiman, the Qoios or 
Cuyos, the duichuas . • • . 

From Earki and Arudi the Aruacs, 
Araguas, Ayars? Guayras, Caracas, Gua- 
ranis? ^ . . 

From EsiNi, the Cenis or Senis, Siniu- 

From Eamri our Amorites, the Ajrma- 
ras, Muras, Marianes ... 

Out of OILM and HUL both of Shem's 
line, have probably come the Olmecas or 
Hulmecas, the Aculmas, and many more. 

Out of ARM or Aram, the Arumas ? See 

Out of OBR the Iberians and Hebrewsr 
perhaps the Iperis, Puniays,^ Puris, Ba- 
ures ... 


Out of FLG the Pelagrans, many of the 
American nations under names somewhat 
different. Apalachis, Apalas 

Out of IKTN brothers of the last, many 
more, the Icotas, Tuncas, Cuntis, Cotos 
tribes of Galibis. One of the sons is also 
HtriLE; another Ire or Irans, was a lunar 
tribe, producing in America the Yuris 
X aros • . • • I ' 

By these tribes ai}d their akin, under 
other names, nearly the whole of Ameri- 
ca might be peopled from the East between 
the two great floods, except the most 




\ f 

northern parts; they must have migrated 
,W6Stwxirdtii from central Asia, and assum- 
ed the common name of Atalas and An- 
tes, of which, the Greeks made Atalan- 
Toi, the Latins Atlantes. The Atlantic 
Ocean bears yet their name after 4 or 
5,000 years, given* by them or their colo- 

These Atlantes also called Titans, colo- 
nized nearly the whole of South EuropjB 
and North Africa; they went even as far 
As Ireland: the Irish traditions speak of 
many such <?olonies even before the flood. 
Atfuas was a title meaning Eminent, ^n- 
tes another meaning ancient. 

The ancient history of Ireland has been 
deemed fictitious and fabulous by their 
English foes; supposed to be made up by 
the Bards and Monks of the 6th Centu- 
ry. But it has hktorical bases, mixt with 
fables, and old Celtic ' traditions. A colony 
is «aid to have been led by Beth-keazair 
before the flood; and many colonies after- 
wards from Africa and Spain, whose dates 
are variously stated. Some were probably 
Lybians and Atlantes, under other names. 
Thomas Wood has in vain attempted to 
derive i^U the Irish from Brittish colonies 
;1000 years bef C. Kut a crowd of Irish 
historians strenuously contend for a remote 
antiquity and Iberian Origin. ERI and 
Ogygia the oldest names of the Id^ ^r« 
^Qrifintalr the Hindus^kn^w tbem. 



Fiontan King of it at the Deluge is said 
to have escaped it: this alludes to Peleg's 
flood. 383 years after it, came a colony of 
Spanish fishermen: 312 after it or 1002 
years after Hoah's flood, Pau-tholan, led 
aji Atlantic colony from Greece; he is said 
to be the 8th in descent from Japhet. Sev- 
eral other Thoian settlers followed: T^olon 
means the world in Irish as Tlwlos in 
Greek. One of them wasled 30 years after 
by Neimhid, from the Euxine in^34 shifM. 

After thesR Atlantes came the Fogh- 
mkoraik, African pirates of Mauritania 
who had long wars with the former set- 
tlers. More son oi Dele Ikought another 
fleet of Moors, and they were only expelled 
^.from tbe Island 1405 years bef. C. or 717. 
^hen they may have settled other lands. 

In 1497 bef. C. the Danas or Bolgas of 
Thracian Origin, therefore Tharacas and 
Atlantes, reached Ireland from Germany 
and claiming kindred with the Tholaks 
beeame allies against the Africans. 
, Towards 1300 bef. Christ, the Milesians 
settled in Ireland from Spain, and in 1348 
Eiri-amhon or Erimion became sole king 
of it. They claim descent from the Scuits 
or Scythians, by Gaill king of Scythia 70 
years after Babel, and Brath his 16th suc- 
cessor who led them to Spain, where Ga- 
lamh Mileadh was a great Hero. 

Thesebardic. annals altho' romantic and 
doubtiul in details allude to ancient notions 




^^^^'^^T' TheFEiKEofold Ireland ar« 
not Phenc.dansj but Finns of the North a^d 
Peni of Apenine Mts? Oconnor who ha, 
given a totaly new form to other doubfful ' 
Irish Annals, admits only the CLOBENbe 

m7^bef. C. and the Milesianf in Im 

The Egyptians said that as early p, 
90OO years before Solon, these Atlantes 
dwelt m the Islands of the Ocean from 
whenc. they invaded Europe and Afric™ 
Almost al the authors who^ have bdS 
tn^i^T"** fact, reduce these 905? yS 
to 3000, because the Egyptians recCd 
then years by seasons of 4 solar mnnfl« 
Even 3000 years before Solon wt obtaj^ed 
this account, would ascend to nearly 3600 

r *u^ v., i' ^^® removed these Atlantes 
or the Atlas Dynasty to 3890 yearrbef r 
whjchis 5382jears before ColuSs, alut 
1500 years after the Adamic epocha and 
many ages before Noah. He^evenpe" 
ceives traces of early communications ^be- 
tween the two hemispheres, by astronoml 
cal conformities ascending to 4600 yeZ 

called Cot^^wr in Peru, and the Hyadef 
coinciding there by them with the eqdnox 

We have many facts on thd history of 

\ « 





332 « TfiB ATLANtM 

/' • ' ■ . 

these Atlantes. related by Plato, Diodorust, 
Marcellus, Proclus, Grantor, Homer, Pli- 
nius, Strabo, Bory, Carli, Garcias, Denjrs^ 
&c. Their history appears to connect the 
Nations of both sides of their Ocean, from 
the earliest times. I shall try to collect 
all such facts elsewhere: here it will be suf- 
ficient to state the main facts and conse- 

These Atlantic Islands existed before 
the floods and Cataclysms that have since 
desolated them^ and formed the Strait of 
.Gibraltar. Europe and Africa were once 
connected at that place by an Isthmus, and 
inhabited by the same people. According 
to Ferraras the best historian of Spain, 
this strait was only opened about 654 years^ 
after Noah's flood, which is nearly the time 
of Peleg's and Yao's second flood; which 
should be also the Atlantic cataclysm that 
broke the land into the Volcanic fragments 
now ^called Azores, Maderas, Canaries, 
Gorgones or Capvc^d, Abrolhos . . . Islands 
between Africa, and America. Bory and 
Carli have giv^n maps of their' presumed 
former state. 

But beyond these Atalantis * lands or 
Islands, there was a larger land still, the 
Great Atlantis, Megalantidos in Greek 
which was America! the Tala-tolo of the 
Sanscrit books, meaning, the Tala*- World, 
qS which OTOLrm was^ perhaps the capital 
or emporium: also the Taul and Shaul of 
the Palis and Pelegs. 


IffiSATL ANTES. 333 

The real d^tes of the historical floods 
and Cataclysms, are very uncertain, owing 
to the confnsion throivn by Chronologists 
who admit only one of them, blending those 
of Moses and Peleg. The Egyptians ad- , 
mitted also several floods, and the Atlantic 
Cataclysms may be the very same. The 
earliest was thatofCHON or XON in 
4693 or 4315 bef. C. — Another mentioned 
by the Rabi Solomon was in the Ocean, 
where lands were sunk in 3573 bef. C., but 
this may have in the Indian Ocean, when 
Ijanca and Meganesia were parceled. 
Riccioli in his reformed Chronology has 
fixed the Mosaic flood as early as 3543 hef. 
C. which coincides with this. Pormerly 
St. Augustine placed the same in 3212 bef. 
Ci His opinion ought to have weight with 
theologians, and that of Riccioli with As- 
tronomers. But the majority of historians 
place the Mosaic and Hindu Deluge be- 
tween 3300 and 3100 bef. C— Some Chi- 
nese Annals in 3170 . . . 

The Assyrians and Babylonians i^eak 
of two floods in 3993 and 2473 bef. C. ; 
This last coincides somewhat with that of 
Peleg, the third of Egypt, placed ' however 
in 2308 bef. C. by Mustady and Egyptian 
Mpts. A fourth Egytian or Ethiopic flood 
happened in 1660? bef. C. that formed the 
streight of Babel mandel. TNote 1.) 

Whatever b^ the period, tke Cataolysms 
that sunk or l«*oke the Atlantic Ids. i^^«re 



volcanic: this Ocean is full of volcanos friom 
Teneriffe to the Antilles. Bory has tried 
to distingush 3 such successive cataclysms. 
The first broke or separated the Gorgades 
of the South, inliabited by the Gwgones a 
Negro Nation; this might be in very early 


After this the Ama-zoks, a Lybian So- 
lar people ruled by Queens, invaded the 
insular Atlantes, under the Dynasty of 
Queens Murana or Myrine. C(»ttpare 
with the Muras and A} maras of South 
America, and the solar people ^Amazons 
with the Zamucas and Amaynas. 

The second Volcanic cataclysm separa- 
ted the Canaries Ids. inhabited by the 
Ctmaris a tribe of Cunis. Compare the 
Cagnas and Canaris of Peru. The Atlan- 
tes Hying these disasters invaded Europe 
and Africa, settling in many parts. 

The third Cataclysm and the most fatal, 
sunk the remainder of the Atlantides, leavr 
ing only the actual small islands, and de- 
stroying not only the insular Atlantes; but 
also the Pelagians who had fbUowed them 
there: they probaUy had reached also the 
main land of America, with other vassal 
Nations, either as conquercfd or conquer- 
ors. , 

Such Catastrophe broke for a long while 
the communications of the two hernia 
idieres, as America or grest Ataia was 
belieyed to have been destroyed- along with 




the islands. . In fact the Antilles were then 
convulsed and divided into their actual 
shape, separating perhaps from the main 
land« Their name of Antila recalls the 
Antes and Atlantes. 

Traditions of this great event were pre- 
served among many nations on both sides. 
Even the' Hindus speak of a land Atala 
sunk in the Opean. The Lybians had 
a lively remembrance of it; and even down 
to our days, we are informed by Dupuis, 
that the actual atlantic inhabitants of the 
Atlas Mts. have not forgotten it. They 
say that a great extent of country was simk 
on their shores, when the streight of Gib- 
tar was formed: that many men perished; 
but they escaped in the Mountains. See 
JhipuU Ashantis. 

Many personified Dynasties, did rule oh 
those Atlantes of Asia, Africa, Europe, 
and the Atlantic Ocean. Their history 
altho' involved in fables, is partly ascer- 
tained, arid forms the mythological history 
of ancient Europe; they were 1. Acmon 
and Uran, the celestial Dynasty. 

2. Htperion and Helius, the Solar 

3. Atlas, the Atlantic Dynasty. Many 
of this name are indicated by the traditions, 
The 4th king of the second Dynasty of 
Egypt by Manetho was TLAS who reign- 
ed 17 years, beginning 377 years after 
Menes first king of the first Dynasty. Boe- 

^ ^ 




thus first king oi the 2d Dy • begun 255 
years after Menes, and was the stock bf 
these Atla^K, that had rule once cm Egypt also. 
Boethus may be compared with the Bohi- 
tos of Hayti. 3 wives and 7 daughters are 

SVen to Atlas, the 3 wives Ethra, Pleione 
esperis are allies: the daughters are the 
Hesperidian tribes : the eldest was Maia 
the Mayas of America! 

4» Hesperws, the Hesperian Dynasty, 
which ruled in the clouds or far West in 
the Idandsi and America. Cknnpare the 
Puruays oldest Peruvians, and the Puris, 

5. EvENOR, the human Dynasty of the 
AtJahtides. Compare with Vinac^ Viniej 
Vent EnOj Huenu &c. 

6. Omman and NxaroN, the Oceanic and 
Nepfiine Dynasty, of navigators and con- 
cuerors by Sea, with hjany other names, of 
P^^eidofh Triton^ Mdicertes . . y. •sons 
of the Sea, or Sea-kings. Gcxnpare the 
American Gods Okih^ Vaquh Votan^ 
EMtun . . . firom Florida to Ciiili. 

7. Second - Dynasty of Astlas, sons of 
Neptune, different from the earlier Atlas 
-^Kings of Atlantic Ids. 

After these or with them came the sub- 
sequent Dynasties of conquerors 8 CitoNs 

-*-0 TuBALS-r-lO AnTOKS 11 GERYOlfS 

12 Hercules .... who possessed Lybia and 
Spain; some were called Plutmi and Phi- 
ius^ beeanse kings of Tartarus^ and of 

THE AlXAlfTCS. 337 

great JMUnes. Sevefal can be traced to 
America. Bliol or Belial appears the 
same as Pluto — Tubal or Thubl of Moses 
the same as Plutus. Compare thd Tobas 
of Arabia and America. 

These Atalantoi or Atlantes wete a 
polished, industrious and navigating peo- 
ple — ^To them America is indebted for its 
ancient civilization, political and reli^ous 
institutions, many arts and sciences, Agri« 
caltiire and Astronomy, the Maize brought 
from Asia and Africa, many' kinds of pulse 
and guards, the peculiar months, weeKs of 
5 days, the civil castes, a glyphic writing, 
all the ancient monuments, the actual ruins 
of many cities and temples, the fine arts of 
Architecture, sculpture and painting . . . 

If they did not bring cattle and horses, it 
is because they made little use of them, 
not being a pastoral people. The Lybians 
had horses; but to convey them to Ameri- 
ca and feed them on the way, was a diffi- 
cult task. If they did not use wheat, rye 
barley and rice, they had Maize, Millet 
and Pulse* In Chili a kind of wheat was 
found cultivated. They had Cotton instead 
of flax. Beers instead of Wines, many oils 
for Olive Oil .... 

They foupdin America mitny animals 
to subdue, and they tamed the several 
kinds of Deer, Hogs, Vicunias or Landas 
thAt afforded . Wool: they, made Cotton^ 
Wool and Graas cloth, beautiful feather 


v^aiitl^s IBtnd mate. They lHt>iight . dogs 
uid fowls. The Polynesians have no other 
doii^stio animals. A crowd of us^fiil plants 
were discovered, cultivated and employed 
for food, dies, implements . , • 

Plato gives a vival picture of the power 
and policy of the Atlantic Nation^ Their 
religion was chiefly Solar and Angelic, but 
they deified many kings and Neptunes as 
holy men. They had a r^gulietr govern- 
ment, a general diet every five years, and 
tnany customs carried to America. 

If tribes by far less civilize^ were found 
here, it is because they had allies and vas-. 
«ala of various nations much more barba- 
l*ous, that followed them in their migra- 
tions ftnd colonies, or settled apart. In 
i^di a wide continent, so full then afforests 
gwanips, volcanos, reptiles; after so many 
|ihymcal ^revolutions, floods, inundations of 
liver, firy eruptions, sunken lands . . . man>f 
trifaSes had to scatter themselves far away, 
and fall into a savage state^ becoming wan- 
di^rers and foes. But Atlantic priests and 
rulersnte seen afterwards to become legis- 
lators, of new and powerful Etnpil'es. The 
isame happened in Europe and Lybia tothe 
successors ofthe Atlantes and Titans. 

The Atalab or TvKikxs were l&e main 
or ruling Atlantes; but they had nuinerous 
tfibM, whence mam c^tlie American Nia- 
lAmm may be traced by names and tii^, 
INlii Centtiil Adia, to Ihdia> l^entfa, Lybia 



Itialy &c . . to North, Central, Tropical and 
Austral Americas. Amovig their allies 
were the Antis, Mayas and Chols • • • among 
their foes or vassals, the Cunis, Amazons 
and Pelagians .... with many others en- 
slaved tribes of Africa and Europe; whose 
languages are plainly traced to America. 

The Keltoi or Celts, the Cantas or Can- 
tabrians of West Europe, were the north- 
ern and Southern Atlantes that settled in 
France and Spain. The Gaels or Gali, 
Gauls divided since in 5 Nations and 60 
tribes, of Keltoi race, may have been once 
brothers of the Gal-ibis (Gasmen) of South 
America, altho' the Galas of Africa are 
probscbly their real parents. The Contes 
of East Spain, the Cantas and Antabres of 
North Spain, were evidently Spanish An- 
tis and Corn, perhaps mixt with Cunis^ 
and already shown widely spread in Amer- 
ica. They followed the Atlantes there, 
some even proceeding them, and the Kelts 
of Spain and West Gaul traded to America 
at very late periods, hardly 2000 yearsa^o. 

Cumra, Atnbri . • EslMaraj Oskij Vas^ 
k&ni . . • were ancient tribes of Kelts and 
Cantas, ^^ch might also be traced to 
America: where we find the Tara-hutna* 
ras^^rS, Tkiskigis . • • from Florida to 
Mexico; beindes the Cams and Coras • . . 
There are many F'hiltflogieal affinities be* 
f ween the Celtic Natimis, and Basks of enir 
times, with many American Nations: many 


more than have been, supposed. Thus 
man is Guizana^ Guigon^ Avd^ in Bask 
dialects, which is found in Tao, Yilela^: 
Chilian, Tala, Guarani and many other 

It is Gar^ Fir, Ergaz in Celtic dialects 
compare Viraj Cora in Peruvian, Hira, 
VirOj Cuirij Marin ... in the Florida 
languages aii^ in Tala or Tarasca. Gui* 
Zona connects the Basks with the Afri- 
can Ama-zans'^^ as Ergaz : connects the 
Celts with the actual Berbers who call 
men the same. In french dialect^ Grar- 
$an, Garsu% mean a young man. In 
Etruscan it was Ragaz, now in Toscan 

But it is above all in the Italic and Pe- 
lagic languages,, of ancient Italy and 
Greece, that the most a^onishing affirmi- 
ties are found with American Nations- 
Compare with them the name for Man in 
Etruscan, Oscan, Ombrian, Ligurian, Sa- 
bin, Latin ... of Italy — Ian, Teon, Ca$^ 
Ner^ Homen, Homoy Vir,^ Ma^cul . « • all 
found .in America* 

Compare also the name for Man in the 
dialects of Greece, Tbracia, lUyria..., 
su^h as Hiiay HeU^ An, Aner^ Hyany 
Thrapf Palif Ldex, JUen^ Demos, Bure 
Gtim^ JV«iert .••• There we have nearly 
as many Synonyms as in Austral or Cen-^ 
tral America; but they often express our 
Synpnyms of Moki hu^and or folks. 


The Eastern Talahets or Chechehets, 
and the Eastern Cunis or Toelohes, which 
dwelt in Magellania, venerated the Atlan- 
tic Ocean, and came to bury their parents 
on the shores, where they had landed, in 
coming from Brazil or Laplata. They 
were real Atalas. 

Many tribes of Brazil and Guyana may 
have reached there direct from Africa. 
The Puris and Yaruras appear to be mu- 
lato tribes, speaking negro dialects, they 
may have come in later times. The great 
Guarani Nation filling the Brazil, Para- 
guay, part of Guyana and Amazonia, has 
many African analo^es of ^speech, even 
among the negro nations: besides putting 
adjectives afler substantives like them and 
the Berbers. 

Mai9 is called in the Dialects Ani^ Ndm^ 
Ava^ Aba^ Ibi, Manhi • ... In Africa it is 
Baning^ Nipa^ Enipa, Abina^ in the dia- 
lects of Fetu, Fante, Akim — Maniin So- 
ko—lhalu in Tambu-^Gfa2^, Kab in Beg- 
harmi. All ndgro languages. 

Among other such languages we meet 
American analogies in Kane of Bornou — 
Njuj Biomo of Akra — Gus^ Guas of Jqlof 
see the liKO—Okono in Yariba,' see the 
Conas, Aymara, Moxas. Yet in general 
the other negro laiiguages have f^w analo- 

S'es in^ America, the same with those of 
ustral Afiica and Abyssinia; but the 

Egyptian and Ly bian languages off&^ miny 

Man is called Tom Toigarj Rom in 
Copt or Egyptian. It is Guan, Coran^ 
Tabanga^ Argaz, Rajal^ Avis . . • in the 
Lybian and Atlantic L. of Africa. Com- 
pare these with similar words in Galibi, 
Poyas, Quichua . • • • 

Altho' the Hindu notions of America 
deserve a peculiar chapter, and may ha^e 
been obtained by an intercourse thro^ 
the Pacific as well as Atlantic Ocean; yet 
we may begin here to iirtimate some of 
their traditions. We have seen that 
America was their Tala-tolo, world of 
Tala, and also Atala land sunk in the 
Ocean. It was the Country of the Giants 
(the Atalas) and the exiles: it was South of 
the Equator, one of the 7 inferior worlds. 
They tell alj^urd fables of it as usual; ' but 
there the Localoeii Mts., surrounded the 
worldf probably the Andes. One of their 
Crishmas or Solar Heros went there by 
cutting a strait (that of Gibraltar, as H^- 
cules was said to have dope) and visited 
the Kingdom of jVtaha-Sweta, or great 

*In Bengal this land or Dip Atala vhia 
called Shul)mUi^ being also the 3d in order 
of the 7 worlds or continents. Shul is ex- 
actly the Shaul of the Jews; is MUu the 
Meuydl of Moses? have we here our HUL, 
Cvlme and Mayasi The ancestors of the 


Hul-mecas was X^shmel • . . fllelon was 
a Synonym of Hesperides! 

In Ceylon, out of the many worlds, hea- 
vens and hells, admitted by the Budhist 
Mythology, it is hard to find out, which is 
meant for America* Perhaps it is the 
Purwa continent, the first out of 4, . East 
of Meru, where men have moonheads or 
axe lunar beings: is it Puruay or ancient 
Peru? Or else it may be the Mts. of the 
Nagas or Snakes, floating on Water, in- 
habited by GaUpollowa^ the Oauls and 
Pallis? whose king is Mahakilla, the great 

' But all the Bramihic and Budhist tales 
spring from earlier accounts in the Vedas 
and Jain Books, of nations, claiming celes- 
tial origine in central Asia, in TULA since 
called Turan (celestial) and lately Tarta- 
ry: and this is exactly the cradle of the 
Asiatic Atlas: who migrating Westwards 
lik^ the Mosaic tribes, filled Europe, Afiri- 
ca and America. The Sanscrit language 
is itself sprung from an earlier diluvial 
language, the Shuarga Tin French Chouar- 
ga) meaning heavenly! oeing the supposed 
speech of the celestiar kingdoiq of the 
Deities of Meru, the Imalaya region, spo- 
ken before the flood, of which fragments 
are scattered in the Vedas, laws of Menu. 
This celestial language altho' different 
from the ^Mosaic and Chinese, has astonish- 
ing analo^es with all the European Ian- 



guages and many Americdn, of which it is 
probably the parent^ ajs well as of the San- 
scrit and Indian languages. 

I have partly restored this curious prim * 
itive speech, by fragments collected out of 
the above, and shall give the whole when I 
write on the cradle of mankind* The 
Men are called iMfo, J9ara, Nara^ Which 
are found in America. Mankind is Manor 
vah. The Angels or AngeUc men Shar^ 
UrsaZ'i which are the demons of Moses, 
and men of the Berbers. The Giants or 
powerM people are Oshur^ 8at, Bara^ 
the Solar men, Satans and Baals. The 
Gods or divine people are Devas^ Deoatas 
DuytiaSj Ditis; whence our Deities^ but 
also the Devils of the Gothic tribes. Last* 
ly the Demons or Evil people are Kos^ 
Koshif Asuras^ Vantasd: akin to the 
Kas, Kaskus, Assyrians, Antes .... All 
the^e terms allude to the primitive world 
and tribes of men. We may perceive 
therein many Asiatic Nations. The Ar- 
genz or Atlantes of Asia before the flood, 
the Dives and Vam of Persia,, the Satans 
Caucasians, Cushites ... 

These jHiecious fragments of primitive 
philology and ethnography^ are connected 
with America by the Atlantes, Giamt^v 
Mountaineers Kos or Kas^, the Antis which 
are connected with the Vans and Vanta- 
sa . . Compare f he Koko man in Saliya; the 
Cqxcox or KqkhrKokh^ Noah of Mexico 


the Xauxp.' or Khaukha and Kakanas 
of the And^s; the Cazas^Caxas, Cahanis 
and Kah^s who are the sa'me as the Tala- 
bets : the Kehehets who are the people of 
Devils in Austral America, while the Sete* 
bos are Gods. 

Altho' the Celestial Empire was certain- 
ly once in Central Asia, yet many Nations 
placed in America or the Ocean, their fu- 
ture Paradise and fortunate Ids. which is 
the reverse of the Mosaic iSfeaw/ or Hell. 
It is strange but true that throughout .the 
Earth, the place of departed souls, the 
land of Spirits, was supposed to be in the 
West Q^ at the Setting Sun. This happens 
every where, and in the most opposite re- 
ligions from China to Lybia, and also from 
Alaska to Chili in America. The instan- 
ces of an Eastern Paradise iivere few, and 
refered to the Eastern Celestial abode of 
yore, rather than the future abode of 

The AsMnish or Essenians, the best 
sect of Jews, placed Parudise in the Wesr 
tern Ocean, ai^d the Id. Alishe or Elisha 
of the Prophets, the happy land. lezkal 
(our Ezekiel) mentions that Island; the 
Phenicians called it Alizut, and some 
deem Madeira was meai^; but it had neitli- 
er npen nor Spirits^ From tl^s the Gre^e^ 
made their ElysiujpaL and Tartarus placed 
near together; at first in Epirus, then Italy, 
Qext Spain, lastly in; the Oceai^, as the set- 
tlers travelled West. 


The sacred or blessed Islands of the 
Hindus and Lybians were in f^^is Ocean: 
Wilford thought they meant the British 
Ids. Ptishrara the fiirthest off he s<jys wss 
Iceland; but may have meant North Amer- 
ica. ITie Lvbians called their blessed Ids 
Aitnones^ they were the Canaries, it is said; 
but likely the Atiantides, since the Atlau- 
tes dwelt in the Aimones. 
' A crowd of names has been given to the 
Canaries and the other Atlantic Ids; it is 
not always easy to distinguish which are 
meant. According to Pena and Nebrixa^ 
the Canaries were peopled by Crano and 
Crdna son and daughter of Noah ; this ap- 
pears to allude to Cronos or the Atlantic 
Saturn ;*but a tribe of Gomerians or CeltK 
peopled Gomara : the peak of Tenerif was 
deemed one of the Atlas Mts. 

The Fortunate Ids and the Hesperides 
(Western) Ids, are often blended witb the 
Canaries, but erroneously : this last proper 
name was known very anciently. The 
former were rather the Antilles. Hesiod 
places the Hesperides far away into the 
Ocean, Plinius puts them 600 leagues 
West of the Gorgades. Every ancient 
Geographer varies the number and names 
of ^ese and the Canaries, owing to di^ 
ferent accounts received. Maxim of Tyre 
describes Hesperida as a long and large Id. 
therefore as America. 

The opinion that from Cadiz vessels 


( -'■v-^,- 

eould sail westwardly to the Indies, was 
entertained by Aristotle, Seneca, Strabo, 
Plinius, Petrus Heliacus, Julius capitoli^ 
fius, A verhoes &/C long before Columbus. 
Thej must have deemed the world round, 
or else dreamt of strange tracks; but this 
idea was a faint surmise or recollection of 
former voyages to America, Seneca there- 
fore declared that a new Tiphys (pilpt of 
Argonautes) would discover a new world 
there. (Note 2.) , 

Plutfireh altho' laughing at the idea . of 
Antipodes, says that the Atlantic Ocei^m is 
^surrounded by a main land 5000 Stadia 
from Ogygia or Iceland, which has large 
rivers and a large Gulf $ which must mean 
America land the Gulf of This 
is supposed to be the Haiders or Hell sy* 
Bonym of Tartarus. (Note 3.) 

According to Cosmas in 540; Herbelot, 
Bailly &/C, the Persians of old, placed /a 
4Jry Island beyond the Ocean, where naen 
were created, and dwelt from Adam till 
Noah 5 but the Ark of Noah was carried to 
Asia. This strange opinion lately revived 
by Priest, arose from the Arabic belief of 
Adam dwelling once in Lan<5a, land of the 
Indian Ocean, rather thain from a knowl- 
edge of America. 

An island Icaria was placed also in the 
Atlantic and far away, where Dedalus and 
Icarus went with sails ; some say it was 
Sicily ! others Ireland ; but it is rather 
iiome Antilles, 



t4B tHB 

Thfe Afiriean Adantes cafled America 
HAN-TAL. (Old land or higfa land). The 
Spanish Atlaotes called it Ahtcia. FrcMn 
these hare derired the Dotions about the 
Id AntUoj and the Antilles. 

The CHd ^laniards pot two large Ids in 
the Atlantic, Antula and Caea : this last 
was the Coeagneof the Gaols, Codungn 
of the Saxons, Coeama of the liOfiitanians 
* • • . a land irf* delight and'|rfen^, wAtdk is 
praverbialto this day! By the Celts it 
was called Dunna feadhmgh, a fairy land, 
some Aeeoi they m^-ely meant a mirage 
or <^ood land, that aroided the search ; Imt 
yet they based many tales there<». O^Bra^ 
zU was snch a fairy land West of Ireland 
seen in the 9th Century and pot in iliaps^ 
The Brazil wood was supposed to grow 
there, and was thrown ashore on Ireland. 
This conceit has given name to the vast 
American region of Brazil, where it grows! 
and is carricNl to Europe by currents from 
Honduras and other places. 

But an these notions have earlier foun* 
dations, since the English Druids put their 
Paradise in a remote island in the West^ 
called lUahrlnnis, the flat island ? PoUi* 
us called the Atlantis Acon implying the 
land of angels or Geni. Tertulian men- 
tions the Atlantis of Plato as Aeon or 
Aeon : which would connect these terms 
with the Con or Xon or a Lybian name, 
similar to the Hercules of the Greeks, im-» 
plying » Solar HerQ« We have s^en that 


9nch Legislators have appeared in Hayti, 
Central America and Peru, (Note 4^ 

The first Lybian Hercules or XON I was 
perhaps the leader of a Colony from Egypt 
lie cartie to Lybia before the floods, between 
4693 and 4515^bef. C. He was also the 
%rst Atlas, a titan brother of Saturn ; but 
the Theogony of the Atlantes, Orpheus, 
Hesiod and Pronapides, in Lybia and 
Greece, speak of other Gods anterior to 
him, altho' perhaps* far away in the East. 
Japetus was father of the first Atlas. — 
Uranus or the Celestial is at the head of 
these Theogonies, yet he has before him 
«>any progeWs. ^Thk is the sHccession 
.or line of such Aethor or Gods. 

1. Zeus — 2 Daimo-gorgok, Genius of 
the Earth. 
. 3. AcHLYS— 4 Eros Love — ^5 Chaos. 

6. Manu Menu of India— 7 Hypsitus — 
8 Uranos — ^9 Okean — 10 Japetus — 11 
Atlas or .Atlantes. 

THALu«God of Ai^abia was an Oriental 
Atlas, a Baal^ (of Ninus or Assyrian Dy- 

Urotal was the Oriental and Arabic 
Solar Uranus and Atlas, same a^ Osiris of 
Egypt. TuLE a son of Of us was the Span- 
ish Atlas- 

The Greeks kav« at least 6 distinct 
Atlas, l,lhe :Son ^ Japetus king of Africa, 
H a king of Arcadia, 3 a king of Italy^ 4 
tthe son of Jieptune, S king of Africa in 



time of Hercules, 6 Ditto time of Perseils 
— ^Therefore it is evident that they were a 
Dynasty, and the personified Atlantes 
spread from Assyria to Blauritania. 

In the same manner they have a dozen 
historical Neptunes, and a crowd of Her- 
cules, with many Plutos. 

XONU, the real Lybian Hercules dates 
of 2737 years bef. C. nearly 2000 yeftrs 
after the first, and between the two floods. 
He came from Phenicia, his true name 
was Sephinah ; he drove the Atlantes into 
the Mts and Ids Atlas : where lie followed 
them probably, and also to America. Was 
he the Xnon of Moses ? (Note 5.) 

XON in, the 3d Lybian Hercules, came 
600 years after, or towards 2138 bef. C. 
from Syria, after the Atlantic cataclysm. 
His true name was Ethen, his titles were 
Magtisan^ Makerion^ Melkart^ meaning 
great and holy, and king of cities. 

XON lY, the 4th Lybian Hercules came 
towards 1740 bef. C. from Egypt. His 
true name was Desan (6bd-h<rfy ?) his ti- 
tles Midacrit, Sancus^ Orus. He had a 
great fleet and army with the use of the 
cdmpas or Herculian Stone. He brought 
tnany vassals, conquered Spain and Italy. 
He gave Lybin to his Son Sophax, wiidse 
spn Diodoms was a great conqueror. Juba 
king of Mauritania under the Romiuis 
boasted to descend fi^m him : he knew 
the Atlantic Ids and Antilles, where the" 
Moors went to trade. (Note 6.) 



1 do not write the history of Ly t»a and 
of the African Atlantes which exist there 
yet ; but I indicate these ancient Heros 
and Hercules to show they knew America, 
^nd probaby went there, or some XON of 
their Dynasties, 

Such must have been the case with all 
the other Conquerors of Lybia and Mauri- 
tania, from Myrine Queen of Ama-zons, 
till the Arabic conquerors, who all knew 
the Canarieil and other Atlantic lands, 
where the invaded tribes took refuge. 

The Neptunes or great navigators of an- 
tiquity followed them there and elsewhere. 
They are as many as the Hercules ; but 
their periods are difficult to fix. They 
were allies .of the Atlantes, since Atlas and 
Anteus are often, called sons of Neptunes. 
One of them went certainly into the Atlan- 
tides, . since he married there Leucipe 
daughter of Evenor king of the insular At- 
lantes,, and began the Neptunian Dynasty* 

HHie Grecian fables of Neptunes and 
Phitos, do not a^ly to single Gods ; but 
many Lybian navigators and western kings 
who bear that name in Latin. They are 
not evenGreeiaii names. Neiton wais the 
Lvbian name meaning Admiral ; Consus in 
Pelagic, Hippius in Greek meaning horse- 
dealer. They gere the Titamc or Atlan- 
tic Admiteds, Kings of the Mediterranean 
^ ^hof es and Lybia ; who I)ecame Okean \n 
Ute'dcean. They were leadecsaf the Sea, 


Colcmies, promoters of commerce aad ilay- 

Their Oriental prototypes are the Saga- 
KA Oceanic kings, and Ura Neptuoes of the 
'Hindus, whence Hiro Neplones of Polyne- 
sia ; Orus of Africa : of which many are 
also noticed in traditions and fables. The 
earliest Hindu Neptunes appear in the 
Mahabarat (great war) of 2996 bef. C. 
This is the Asiatic Titanic war after the 
deluge, «oarce of all the Grecian fables. 
Perhaps the first Titanic Neiton is as old. 

All the early princes powerful at Sea 
were Sea-duties and Neptunes ; all blend- 
ed in the legends of fable. They may be 
distinguished by their actions, foes, wives 
and sons: the* following are some of them, 
in the probable -ordfer of time. 

1 . Oke AN or Atai^ the Oceanic - king 
who raled over the Atlantic Ocean, father 
of the Titans or primitiye Atlantes. See 
Hesied The^gony &c. 

% Thami-xas-ades of the ScytMans, 
Tkands of Orpheus, meaning Just^great 
western in Pelagic : an Oceanic Tltanu 

3. PoNTOfi, who ruled from the Euxine 
to the Atlantic, father of the NereiC line of 
Titans. Perhaps the Canopus of J^ypt 
Tethys given for wife to all these, means 

the personified Titans? 

4. Triton or Turi-tim, the triple TON 
•or Turanic and Ifindu Ura M^adUlig vfMk 
]tbeTON of Mexicans^ Chilians ..^jfad^ 




i5f the Tritonic race of Navigators, who 
are evidently ancestors of many American 
Nations. Their female personification is 
Amphi'TniTE (quite tritonic) given for 
wifei to several Neptunes, was the title of 
the Amazonian Clueens of the Atlantic 
world. Compare Th'rshish of Moses. 

5. Egeon or Glaucon I, a Pontic Giant, 
king and God of fishermen ; all grej^t fish- 
4^rmen became Glaucus afterwards; the 
Sirens were the female fish-women, pries- 
tesses, wives and allies of the Tritons and 

6. Phorkys, Pontic kings of Lybia, Co- 
fiica and Sardinia, meaning Whales like his 
wiffe Keto, father of the Pelagians, Gorgons 
ttid Graias (the Greeks) conquered by the 
Atlantes and Persians. 

7. KerKyon king of the insular Lybians 
land Cyclops of Sicily ; who were Aloids and 
Giants of Titanic race : and of the Cercops 
monkey tribe of Sicily. 

8. Neiton, the Atlantic Admiral in the 
time of Jupiter I. Netofi of the Spaniards 
Lusitanians and Gauls j conquered the Ly- 
bians and Titarts His allies and wives 
were Tritons, Salacia, Amphitrite ... He 
had many sons or Colonies. It was he pro- 
bably who went to the Id Atlantis, or one 
of his sons: and married Leucipe daughter 
of King Evenor. 

9* Enosixton, meaning Earthquake, the 
JVeptune of the Peja^ian Cataclysm, who 


254 7HS ATLANTE6. 

caused the disruption of Gibraltar, and Sicily 
or lived in that time. 

10. PosEiDoiv, the Phenician Neptune, 
father of Melicerte andNauplius by Amy- 
nome in the time .of Danaus. 

IL AsPHALioN or HippitJS, the LyUan 
Neptune, 'and King of Horses, Consus of 
Italy -.period towards 1483 bef. C. father 
of Belus and Agenor by Lybia. 

12. S^iVRON, a Pelagic King of Corinth, 
fiince God of Sailors. 

There are yet other Neptunes ; the fath- 
er of Pelias or Pelagians, — Egeus father of 
Theseus — ^Perseus . . . but they are s6 blen- 
ded by fable as to be difficult to distinguish 
well. As to the sons of these Neptunes, 
they were numberless, and all Naval He- 
rosi^^r leaders of Colonies. 

\As to the Plutos or western kings of 
SpaiO) Epirus, Celtica &c tkey are nearly 
as many, and offer also a crowd of names. 
They were kings of all the Western Atlanr 
tes and Titans, and must have forn>ed a!ev- 
eral Dynasties. They were, called Age- 
sUaus leader of tribes by the Pelagians, 
Dis and Samotlies by Celts, Sumanus and 
Soramis in Italy, 3iuth by Phenicians, Hch 
des by Greeks. Each had his Proserpine 
or Snake woman, for wife. I shall men- 
tion some of them, without being able even 
to ascertain their real order of tim€. Some 
branch of their families ruled also in Amer* 


; I 


1. Bliol of Moses, our Belial, the ante- 
diluvian Pluto, king of the Western Hell 
S^Al^L, same as Grecian Hades. 

2. Meneticis brother of Adas, son of Ja- 
petus, sent to Hades or Tartarus by Jupi- 
ter I, was king of Western ^ritans; saine as 
Sumantis of Latins, Ainentes or Serapis of 
Egyptians, His subjects were Manes or 
Spirits of dead ; and the Menides or furies : 
his kingdom the lartarus^ (name akin to 
Tartary as Menetius is to Menu) or Tar- 
tes in Spain; but other similar places were 
in Epirus, Italy, Cimmeria, America . . Cen- 
tral Asia was high, lofty, the Cc^lestial re- 
gion of TuRAN ) the Western World was 
deemed low, th^ infernal regions of Tar- 
tar same as Tal-tal or Anierica, Tar- 
$hish of Jews. But this western region 
had also the Elysium, Hecate was Queen 
of it; while Tisiphone was Queen of the 
true firy or volcanic hell Phlegeton, and 
miry hell Cocytus. 

3. Agesilaus or Campe the second Plu- 
to, brother of Jupiter, who gave him the 
West, after the Titanic War, to keep the 
Titans in Tartarus. To him most of the 
deeds belonging to the others are ascribed. 
He was deemed the ancestor of the Celts, 
and called Dis-Cussis,the God Cush! Com- 
pare XusH of Moses. 

4. Sedon surnamed Typhon, was the 
second Egyptian Pluto, foe of Osiris ; he 
was king of Lybia and Sicily, the Lestri- 
gon^ and Giants, father of Enkelades king 


of Etna, and of the Pythonic Snake tribe. 
His fabulous typhonic war alludes to the 
volcanic flood of Peieg. 

5. Ghrysaor the goldeu Pluto or Plutus, 
god of wealth, the Manunon of Lybia, Plu* 
SOS of Lydia, Puros of Caria : a wealthy 
line of Lybian kings who opened mines and 
trade. Callirhoe was his wife. He had a 
large and monstrous posterity : the Geryons 
who conquered part of Spain ; the Lamias 
and Echichnas Snake tribes of Amazons : 
whence came the animalized tribes of Hy- 
dra, Cerberus, Chimera, Sphinx, Lions • • 

6. AiDON king of Epirus and Illyrisuis, 
time of T)ieseus. 

7. Rhada-mant I son of Vulcan, grand- 
son of Talus (the Atlantes) who was king 
of Caria and Crete long before Minos : he 
became king of Tartarus. 

8. Eacus son of Areas or the Arcadians 
was a just king of the Myrmidons and 
Pelagians of Thessaly, Beotia : afterwards 
made judge of Tartarus by Pluto or Mi- 
nos; 'meaning that His posterity ruled 

9. Raacpsinithus king of Egypt, who 
visited all the kingdoms of IWtarus ainl 

The early Spanish History is deemed 
partly fabulous, but is. not more so than the 
Grecian, and Italic ; being based upon his- 
torical grounds. The Tubal Dynasty of 
6 kings till the Goryons,may be the Plutonic 
of Agesilau9, after* the Atlantj^s. Chrysor 



or Deabus was Geryon I who invaded 
, Spain from Africa with Nomades in 1830 
bef, C. his 3 sons, the 3 Geryons or Lomi- 
nis wei^e conqudhed by the Atlitfitic or Her- 
culian Dynasty, dividing also in many states, 
the Chief bemg Hispal king of Sevilla and 
Betica. After 4 kings. Atlas or Italus (the 
Atlantes of Italy another branch) establish 
the Sic Dynasty in 669 after flood, had 6 
kings in 241 years. The next Dynasty of 
Cantestans were Lybians and ^Intes^ ^ like 
Anteus and Anton. 

After them came another conqueror 
lAXON or Bachus, whose Dynasty lasted 
till 200 years bef. fall of Troy ; he was pro- 
bably XON and the Lybian Bacchus. The 
7th Dynasty of Gargoras was Spanish and 
lasted a long while, if Arganthon king of 
Tartessus for 80 years, who died only in 666 
bef. C. was of this line. 

During so many conquests and subver- 
sions of rulers, the Spaniards must have 
often sought to escape elsewhiere. They ' 
had besides many other calamities to su^ 
fer. A great drought of 26 years between 
1250 and 127fr after the flood. Rains of 
fire, and great storms^ dearths &;C. in 1432, 
1038, 729 and 403 bef. C. Moreover a 
crowd of Colonies came there and took 
many settlements ; thePelagian tribes of Te- 
lamons and Almonides,Rhodians, Egyptians 
who built Taraco, Carians, Greeks who 
built Lisbon, Phenicians, Assyrians, Car- 


thagmiaiis and Cehs^ In these T^iioos 
stmsglcs vaaasf Spanisli tribes remored to 
Crani, Italjr Ei^laiid, Iivtand. zdA Amer* 


I bare made up an important table cf 
these Spanisfa I>jrnast]es or |irpdeini£aDt 
XatKHST taken clucflj from Faria Sooza 
bist. of Portugal, Ferraras of Spain, and tl^ 
miTersal bistory : it will be osc^ Unr Ame- 
rican and Atlantic comparis<Mis. 

I. NoELJ^ tbe Noelans imt Noacbites* 
said to baTe settled in Spain, and buik cities 


IL Tt BAt or Thobel, legi^atw and Dy- 
nasty lasting 153 years fr<m 2098 to 1943 
bef. C. Faria ; but each bistwian Tary on 
the dates : they may be earlier and real At- 


ni. iBEMAif Dynasty of 6 kings. 1 Iber 
37 years, 2 Jnbalda 34 years, 3 ' Idobeda 
do years, 4 Brig 32 years, 5 Tag-Orma 3ft 
▼ears, 6 Betis 31 years, together 194 years, 
endmg in 1814 Per. 1836. Univ. H. bad be- 
gan while Tubals lasted yet. 

IV. Gertoic, Atlantic inrader and ty- 
rant, who landing at the Id Emea now Ca- 
diz, kills Betis, introduces Idolatry. 

V. Egyptian Wars of Osmis against 
Geryon from 1794 to 1780: called by the 
Spaniards ; \ke kills Geryon. 

VL The 3 Geiyons or LiOMims from 
1780 to 1738 bef. C. when Onus the Ly- 
bian Hercules, destroys them, establishing 


the Solar worship, and makes bis son His- 
pal king of Spain. 

VII. Orian Dynasty of 3 kings, 1 His- 
pal 27 years, 2 Hispan 32 y. 3 Orus 19 y. 
from 1738 to 1660 bef. C 

VIII. Hesperian or Atlantic Dynasty, 
7 kings from 1660 to 1416 bef; C- all hav- 
ing title of SIC (meaning Lord as Sheik in 
Arabic) 1 Hesper 11 years, 2 Ital 10 y. 
3 Oris 55 y. 4 Anus 31 y. 5 Eles 44 y; ۥ 
Lusus 33 y, t TJlus 61 years. These kings 
had wars in Italy, and partly ruled there 
alsp. The great calamity of 1432 com- 
pelled Sic-ulus to leave Spain for Sicily in 
1416 bef. Q. leading there the Siculian tribe 
or nation. 

IX. I^epublic of Spain, and cbnfedera-^ 
tion of tribes for 96 years till 1310 bef. C. 

X. Iaxon dominion for 12 years, laxon 
a Xonor Bacchus conquered by persuasion 
from 1310 to 1302 bef. C. his Son Lusus 
only reigned 3 years. 

XI. Dominion of the Cantesta^is^ a Ly- 
bian Nation of Antes, in the East of Spain, 
during these two last periods, 2 kings Testa 
74 years, Rom 33 years. 

XII. Dominion of the Beticans or Tur- 
dules in the South under four kings from 
1298 to. 1046 bef. C. 1 Palntus 67 years. 
Wars with Cacus4icinius general of Lusi- 
tanians, who conquers the Beticans ; but 
Alcides the Theban Hercuil^s is said to 

960 THE ATLi^mai. 

have restored, again Palatus 'm 1282 bef. C* 
2 Erythres 73 years, 4 Oargoris or ilftft-* 
colo 111 years, 4 Abidis 35 yearis. 

XIII. Period of Calamities, dearths, em- 
igrations and foreign colonies irom 1046 to 
952 bef. C. Oconnor puts in 1008 B. C 
the invasion of Sru-Amac an African con- 
queror, and iii 1007 the emigration, of the 
Gaelags from the N. W. of Spain to Ireland 
who had come there in 1490 bef. C. from 
Phenicia led by Calma. 

XIV. Celtic invasion in 952 b. C. wars 
and conquests of North Spain, forming the 
Celtiberian tribes. Dominion over Spain 
and Portugal, till 752 bef. C— The Phe- 
nicians extend their dominion in the South ; 
they had set^ed-there in Belica^«ice 1630 
bef. C. long wars with Theron king of th» 

XV. Elective Monarchy of the confed- 
enated Celtiberians, Beticans and Bas- 
tules. Arganthon elected king in 752 bef. 
C. long happy reign of 80 y^ars. After 
him Baux at war with Phenicians, who call 
the Carthaginians to their help. 

The Assyrian invasion of Lybia and 
Spain under Nabuchodonozor, after the 
destruction of Tyre, and about 600 bef. C. 
belongs here ; but is very doubtful, as it 
falls under the happy period of Arganthon, 

XVI. Carthaginian dominion, gradualy 
extended over the whole of Spain: 14 great 

generals mentioned from Mezerba! in 560 




bef. C. to Mago conquered by Scipio in 
19^ bef. C. with several kings of Celtibe- 

XVII. Roman Dominion : gradually ex- 
tended over the whole of Spain ; but the 
Cantabrians and Lusitanians. resisted the 
Romans ufntil Augustus time, and Sertorius 
nearly freed the Spaniards. 

Xyill. 3 invasions of Mauritanians and 
partial conquests in 162 bef. C— in 140 by 
Micipsa — in 36 by Bogud. 

•After the Roman pow^r declined, came 
in 416 after C. the Gothic dominion, the in- 
vasions of Suevians, Alans, Vandals, Silin- 
gi 4&C, which lasted 300 years till the Ara- 
bic invasion and dominion begun in 714, 
In this period there was a great flood in 
the S. W'. of Spain, in 580, when the large 
Id. ofGadesor Erna, was overwhelmed by 
the Sea; the actual island of Cadiz is but a 
fragment of it. ' 

Many Osiris and Orus, Grecian titles of 
Egyptian kings, did also invade and con- 
quer Lybia and Spain to the Ocean. The 
last Osiris came there towards 1794 bef. 
C and the last Orus is the same as Xon 
IV. Some Egyptian colonies may have 
reached then America, where therfe are in- 
dications of their institutions and language. 
The various Sesostris and Bacchus did also 
push their conquests into L3 bia ; but have 
not sent colonies to America. In 1787 ^r- 

%v6 (the Snake) a typhonic tribe begun to 


902 THM 

rale in AbysnBia, tbe Dynasty lasted 400 
years till the Z A family cf PaJis. 

In 1528 bef. C. Shedad or Afnk I king 
of Arabia, invaded Afirica as far as Lybia 
where he baiit many cities. He was the 
XoN y or Arabian Hercules. He led the 
ancient Arabs into Lybia, which are very 
different from the modem Arabs. 

In 1330 bef C. there was a Xoii YI, 
another Lybian Ilercolesi who conquered 
Anteos or the Antes. 

In 950 bef C. Obed or Afrik H made 
other conquests in Africa from Arabia ; and 
in 607 Ya^ur or Afrik HI, conquered Afri*^ 
ca as far as the Sabara. 

Lybia was also invaded by the Hamites 
or Amorites, the Assyrians and Persians, 
* the Carthaginians, the Romans, Vandals, 
Greeks, Arabs . , • But the ancient Atlantes 
have survived all these invasions, and nev- 
er been subdued. Mountains and Deserts 
have sheltered them under the ancient 
name of Talatas, Au-tololeis, Talad, Ge- 
tules .... and the modern names of Tuali 
or Tuaric, Shelus, Berbers, Showias . . • 

Haivtela was their name for the Atlas 
Mts. (Leo Afric.) their refuge against the 
floods and invaders. This name modified 
into Hantal was applied to the Ameriean 
Mountains. They also called Spain Han- 
dal whence the name of Andalusia in Spain 
wrongly deemed to derive from Vandal* 
haus. l!lie Spanish Atlantes now extinet 



existed yet in the time of the Romans, 
2000 years ago, as the Bas-tuli, Bas-tita- 
ni, Tur-tuli, Tur-detani .... in the South of 
Spain: besides theCaones, Contes, Cantas, 
Onnis .... their former allies or vassals. 
B(B-turia or Betic Turia, As-turia of the 
North q.nd Ca-talonia of the Kbro or N. E, 
were also Atlantic names. All these are 
found in America ! 

These Spanisli Atlantes had written an- 
nals going back 6900 years, according to 
Strabo. Their loss has often been regret- 
•ed. An Af abic work on the history of the . 
African Atlantes has lately been found, and 
the translation of it has been promised to 
the learned. (Note 7.) 


Note 1. Xenophon mentions 5 floods — 1 
the general Deluger— 2 Under Hercules 
and Prometheus in Egypt that lasted one 
month — 3, In Attica and Samothrace 1000 
years before Rome, probably Ogyges flood. 
4 of Deucalion in Thessaly — 5 In Egypt 
tinder King Thuoris that lasted 3 months* 

Note 2. The Egyptian priests knew that 
the Earth was a sphere, and had measur- 
ed it: this knowledge was a mystery ; dis- 
believed by many, yet faint traces of it are 
found widely ijcattered. 

The late discoveries on Egyptian anti- 
quities have beei]f wonderful. Id the jncs 




. tares of Thebes are ships that go by inter- 
nal machinery ! and it is now surmis(ed that 
American Atlantes came to iBgypt in the 
time of Sesostris, since pictures represent 
among foreigners, taU beardless red meuj 
driven away to their Ships ! See Rosellini. 

Note 3. Plutarch calls the Hebrides Spo- 
rade^y he says that 5 days beydnd Ogygia 
were the 3 Cronian Ids, and 600 mites be- 
yond was the main land. He puts the For- 
tunate Ids West of Spain, where are the 
As^res. Lucian speaks also of several 
groups of Islands W. of Spain. 

Note 4. XO^ was pronounced KHON 
as in Hebrew and Greek. ^ This was a 
name of the Sun, and of Solar deities. It 
is remarkable that the 12 Great Gods of 
the Atlantic, Greek and Latin Olyijapwj 
were called in Italy CON-SENTES, mean- 
ing the old-beings XON. 

Note 5. This was also called the Tyrian 
Hercules, whose God Pa-fon-chin was the 
Sun. Fariaputs his birth in 2113 after 
Adam : He lived 192 years till 2545 or 2444 
or 2384 bef C. which applies of coarse to 
his Dynasty. 

Note 6. Other Lybian Hercules might 
be added; since it was the title of all great 
Heros and their successors ; besides great 
Merchants called Harokel in Lybian. Va- 
DimoN or Des-inao was the God Hercules 
<^the Garamantes, an Atlantic Ifybian na« 
tion: he is supposed to be contemporary 


KOTES. 265 

with Moses- Perseus was the Persian 
Hercules of the Getulians, who led the 
Pharuii to Lybia : his date was about 2005 
years before C. was he Utac-siis? the date 
is the same. These Pharusis are the 
Pathrusim of Egypt, probably theFaluhis, 
how Fulas and Felatas of Africa. 

The Celtic Hercules Ogmius was a leg- 
islator, orator, teacher, writer &.c, foe of 
the Snake tribes. The Belgic and Teuto- 
nic Hercules Maguzan was a Neptune also, 
his Symbols being the Dolphins and Sea 
Monsters. He was called Krutza-man 
valiant man in Germany, Sascan (rocky) 
in Lojcaine^ Duis-Sanan in the Danish Ids, 
Telhasen (tall^house) was. his temple there. 
He must have been an Atlantic Hero, pro- 
bable Magusan the third Lybian XON of 
2138bef. C. 

Note 7. We lack as yet a true^ history 
of the ancient and modern Atlantes; but 
have many materials for it, which if proper- 
ly put together, would prove acceptable ta 
the learned, and readers of history. In 
Europe the Spaniards and Italians chiefly 
derive from Atlantic tribes. In Africa all 
the Tuaric and Berbers tribes from Maro- 
co to the Nile, ai'e pure Lybian Atlantes, 
In Asia their cbnimon ancestors are, found 
in Tartary among the Car-thulis orOeor- 
gia and the Caucasus, besides many tribes 
of Turans or Tartars. The Heph-tJials 
or Eu-thalites, or White Huns of the mid- 

266 H0TE8. 

dte ages were TiiALs and Atlantes. Thibet, 
India and even China have tribes of Atlan- 
tic posterity . • . and America is full of them ! 
but it must be remembered that they form- 
ed many nations, since all the Eminent 
tribes were such anciently. 


Continuation of the Atlantic eonnee- 
turns and Navigations, Discoveries of 
America, knowledge of it by many an- 
cient and modem Nations before Colum- 
bus or 14939 Chronological account of 
this knawU^e. 

The ancient Pallis of India, parents of 
the Pelagivis, Philistines and Fulas, have 
according to the Hindus, filled once all the 
lands from the confines of China to the At- 
lantic Lybia. They were pastoral tribes; 
but became navigators on the Mediterra- 
nean. As early as 2500 years bef. C. their 
king Aramah conquered Tamah king of 
Persia and Egypt, invading Nubia, Lybia 
and Soudan. 

In 2450 bef. C. the Yarbas or Yuribas, 
the bjack Arabians, invaded Africa,' and 
have produced all the long haired Negros 
ofthis continent, called Melano-G^tuli by 
the Greeks, They had then 10 tribes, two 
of them were Atalas and Antas or 



Atlantes^ another was Pala» whieb are the 
black Palis. Thus these nations had al- 
ready mixt with the Asiatic Gushits pr dark 
tribes. Some Africans change the letter T 
intoP, thus the Palas should be also Talas, 
and merely the pastoral Atlantes. ^ See 

In 2312 bef. C. Hemira first Emperor 
of the Toba Dynasty in Arabia, drove away 
from it, all the Atlantes or Berbers, and 
Fellatas, who went to Africa. 

In 2071 bef. C. another Pali king Toi- 
gur invaded Egypt and Lybia. « Another 
Utuc-sus did the same in 2005. They 
were the Shepherd kings who conquered 
Egypt and held it for a long while. I do 
not pretend to make these Indian and Ly- 
bian dates agree with Egyptian Chronolo- 
gy and names, which are so much involved 
in doubts. . I merely mean to prove that 
the tribes of Pahs have spread thro' Africa 
to the Ocean in very early ages; which 
may explain the Americap analogies with 
them and their European brethren the Pe- 
lagians. They may even be traced around 
Eastern Africa from Abyssinia to the Cape : 
since the Amharas and Gallas descend 
from them, like the Cosas and Quas, nick- 
named Caffers and Hottentots. 

When these Palis conquered Palestine, 
they drove many tribes to Africa: the Ar- 
ba or Anak a powerful gigantic people, 
went there; Moses call them Orjbo and 







Onk, one of their tribes was Talmai or 
Thlmi of Moses. The Amorites, Amri of 

* Moses went also to Lybia. The Amoiiites 

r Omun of Moses are well known to have 

dwelt both in Arabia and Lybia. The 
Amalekites,OMLK of Moses were the prince- 
ly tribe of these Palis. All these naay be 
traced to America, in the akin tribes of 
Uuanacos, Aymaras, Omagua^.... 

Long after, when leusho our Joshua in- 
vaded Palestine, and drove awiiy some 
tribes of Palis and Xnons, (our Philistines 

' and Canaanites), they went as far as Gib- 

raltar, whence they have been led by some 
authors to America; but they had come 

, * there much earlier . . . The Philistines 

Flshlhim of Moses) were strangers, a 
tribe of Casluhim (Xslhim Moses) jfrom 
Lybia, and Mt Cassins. who had conquer- 
the OUIM, Avim troglodytes. 

AUFR is the Mosaic name of Africa, 
since written Ophir, that of Solomon wa^East 
Africa and Sofala.* Thh'shish of Moses 
our Tarshish was properly the Ocean, our 
very Atlantic ; it was since applied to Tar- 
tessus in Spain, and Tarsus in Cilicia 
AiDfini were the Giants of the Ocean. 

The ancient circumnavigation of Africdt 
long doubted or forgotten, was often per- 
formed in early times by the Hindus, At- 
lantes, Egyptians and Phenicians. See Fors-^ 
ter and Murray. Only a few accomits of 
them have reached us. As ea:rly as 720 


y^rs after a flood, under an Egyptian king' 
Panaisis, it was performed by the Red Sea, 
returning by Gribraltar, This great voyage 
was repeated under Solomon by the same 
way. In 660 bef. C. again undier Neeho 
king of Egypt. 

Budoxusof Gyzicus might have been 
a Cohimbus, if not thwarted. Under Pto- 
lemy Evergetes II he went to the East In- 
dies and East Africa : he met there wrecks 
of Moorish Ships that had come from Mau- 
ritania. Wanting to proceed on their track 
he was refused a ship by Cleopatra ; but 
made 3 attempts with others. The first 
with a Greek ship of Marseilles, but the 
crew revolted on the way : the second with 
a M^rish Ship furnished by king Bocchus, 
but the crew jealous of him defeated the 
voyage : the third from Gades with 2 Phe- 
nician Ships is said by Neposto have been 

successful. ^ 

A merchant related to Celius Antipater 
that in 20 bef. C. he made a voyage from 
Gades to Ethiopia ; but perhaps it was only 
western Ethiopia. 

The Horites, HuitiM of Moses, were the 
ancestors of the Edomites, Adum of Moses, 
and bold navigators as early as 20Qft years 
bef. C. TheEdomites, Idumeansand Pheni- 
cians were the same people, dwellinsr at 
the head of the Red Sea, and on the coatst. 
of Syria, the boldest of Sailors in bath 
Oceana. Diodorus has related their dis- 





» « 

covery of Americsu See vol I. p, 173. 

says elsewhere that the Ama-zons conquer-- 
ed the Island Hesperia in the Ocean, where 
was ttie holy city MenUj and volcanos^: this 
might be Tenerif or one of the Antilles. 
Towards 1658 bfef. C. the Spanish Hespe- 
rians* discovered the Antilles and the Gor- 
gones Ids (Capverd) ; the other and near-^ 
er Atlantic Ids must have been known long 
before^ Oviedo, Garcias (Note L.) 

In. 1400 bef. C. the Etruscans werje. pow- 
erful at Sea, and went soon after into the 
Ocean, where they reached the Antilles at. 
a subsequent period, and traded theire^ 

After the dominion of the Neptunes at 
Sea!, the Cretans began to preponderate in 
1334 bef. C. and were succeeded gradualy 
by the Lydians, Pel^ans, and Thracians, 
Rhodians, Phrygians,.rhenicians, Egyptians 
and Carians whose sway ended in 734 heL 
C.^ After them the Greeks, Etruscans^ 
Carthaginians, Sicilians, Eomans had their 
sway by turns. This was chiefly in the 
Mediterranean ; bih they ventured also ia 
the Ocean. The legend of Lisbon ascribes, 
its foundation to Ulysses. Piriicy and 
trade were often intermingled. The Span- 
iards and Gauls were Pirates and traders 
on the Ocean. The Venetes of the Loire 
fcad large ships and fleets ; they traded to 
lling(an<i, Ireland, Spain, Africa, and even 
America it is said. Their American Em^ 
porium was the coast of Paria. Postal 



says ^he Celts went to America as la.te as 
^0 b. C. under Augustus. 

In the Argonauttc of Orjiheus, the Ar- 
'gonaotes are led thro' the Ocean, to the , 
Id Ceres -covered with Pines and black 
clouds. One of the Hercules after having 
conquered Anteus and the Ligures of Ly- 
bia, delivered the Hesperian islands called 
Princesses ! from the Pirates of lSie Ocean : 
this relates to Oceanic islands. 

The Grecian fable of Perseus? is b ro- 
mantic allegory of the Wars of the Per- 
sians against the Lybians and Gdrgons. 
'These have been placed from I^ybiato the 
Orkneys, made Heroines, Monsters, Ani- 
mals, 'Snaltes, Negros . . Riorcys was .realy 
a king of Lybia, ,and of 5 islands jn the 
Ocean, 3 Gorgones, Stheno, Euryale, Me- 
dusa, and 2 Graias, Pephredo tmd ilnyo, 
inhabited by such tribes. Medusa was 
•conquered by a Neptune, and Chrysaor 
king of Spain, with Pegasus a naval Mon- 
ster or Pirate, were produced by them.' 

Carthage was founded by the Pheriicians 
towards 1233 bef. C. and extended trade 
with dominion afar. In 850 hef. C.a Hi- 
milco I discovered the Id Himilca in the 
Ocean, which has been deemed the Azores 
or Portorico. (TVote:^.) 

In 445 b^f XJ. Himllco II made a voy- 
age to the Ids of Ymidun, in the Ocean 
says Avicenes. Garcias believes they 
cirere Portorico -and the Antilles. These 


272 KEo:iru&DGE or aneuca. 

Islands are mentiiHied by Ddodonis, ^'enus 
Xucian, Elian, l^linius, Seneca, Aristotle, 
Plu1;arch, Marcellus, Sertorius, St. Jerome 
,&€ under the various names of ima^ Mil' 
.dun,,A^on^ Aron^ Aeon^ AntdUiy Zambo^ 
Todon, AprositaSj Slandamo^ CElstrimnias 
• • • • which were all Atlantic Ids, perhaps 
the Madeiras, Azores, Bermudas aiid Carib 
Ids. (Note 3.) 

Many authors have re|>eated the story 
of an Equestrian Status found in the Id 
Corvo the westernmost of the Azores, with . 
an inscription, and the hand pointing west 
to America ; but I could no where jfind the 
origin of that fable. If it really was found 
,what became of it ? why Is it not there yet ? 
;Dr where was it taken ? 

Marcellus says in his history oC Ethiopia.^ 
^^ there are 7 Ids in the Atlantic OceaA 
(the Azores) which are sacred to Proser* 
pine, and 3 larger, consacrated to Pluto, 
Ammon and Neptune : this is in . the mid- 
dle and is 1000 stadia long^ it is inhabited 
iind the people preserve the memory of the 
igubmerged Atlantic land J" — ^This accouiA 
can only apjply to the Atititles. Madeira 
And the Azores had no . inhabitants, nor 
signs of former ones. 

Pomponius Mela says that beyond Mau* 
ritania in the Atlantic Ocean, are the Ida 
pf Satyrs who sleep by day and rever at 
night, with flutes, drums, danses and ix>n« 
fires. This can only apply to the Nejgrofi 


^of the Gorgons, or the Caribs of the An- 
tilles. Other writers have spoken of these 
Ids Satyrides, where men had tails like the 
Faunes of Italy, and the Caribs often wear 
a kind of fictitious tail. In 158 bef. C. 
Euphemus df Cariamade a voyage to those 
Ids which Gebelindc^ms to'bethe Cariblds. 
In 384 b^f. C. the Phenicians made a 
^voyage to the Id Kernaa in the Ocean : 
which is supposed to be that described by 
*Diodor us, which can only be Hayti or the 
.American Continent — See Maytian An- 

In 338 bef. C took place the travels dT 

'Euthymoii in the Atlantic Ocean S. of Ga- 

des, and of Pytheas to the North as far as 

TThule in the Orkneys : both were Greeks 

Tof Marseilles. 

All these voyages, and many others omit- 
ted or forgotten, must have given knowl- 
•edge, or renewed the intercourse with the 
Atlantic Ids and lands.' In 1038 bef. C. 
there was a great calamity in l^aint '3i 
great draught and dearth after a:.£re "vn 
the Pyrenees, whidh compelled the people 
to leave the country in crowds: they took 
refuge as far as Italy, England, Ireland and 
other distant lands. (Note 4.) If they 
luiew then of America, they may have 
gone there also. It was then perhaps that 
the CaHs or 6ra/i&i^, and other recent na- 
tions came to America in search of fooil 
i^nd in distress, becoming Canibak. 






The Carthagintan pcfWi^- began iB &S9 
^ef. C. when they were called to help the 
Phenicians of Spain. ^They isoqn sailed 
over the Ocean. Hahno I, and II visited 
the coast of Africa, as far as Guinea, and 
settled many Colonies there on the Ocemi 
towards 435 bef. C. A Hahno III is suppo- 
sed to have gone round Africa to ArabiiBL 

Towards these times the Etruscans sail- 
ed also into the Ocean, and visited the An-- 
tilles ! Since they had a quarrel with Car* 
thage for that remote trade, and the right 
to send colonies there. The Carthaginians 
prevented them, and forbid their own colo- 
nies^ afraid^ of their drawing away the peo- 
^e J Nothing .^oves that they settled there 
or in the continent. However Cabrera in 
his memoir on Palenque deems that Yotan 
X ancestor or leader of the Chiapans came 
to Central America in 384 bef. U. after vis- 
iting the Antilles, and he blende him with 
ExHEN the 3d Xon or Hercules who dates 
Qf2138 bef, C. besides the first Votan came 
to Chi^pa by the Soiith Sea. See annals cf 
0uaHimh* Ther^ore the conjectures of 
Cabrera are erroneoiis, and the wyage ofVo- 
kani{I to Europe in 291bef»C. qoit^ apocry- 
gh?^. The .^erican Vot^s who have 
^^^131 cqio^ared with the ]Qitdai? and Odiqs 
pjT A^a» ar^muciji moro nhciejjt; and ccrfat- 
*^S* tl^*^!^ Atlantic Hist9ry of Otplue*. 


rather Monte Video, in a tomb, a Grecian 
helmet with the inscription of Ptolemai^s 
64 Olympiad* If it is not an imposture : 
this indicates a Grecian voyage to South 
America, after the year S20 bef. C. which 
corresponds to this olympiad. It may be 
a reUc of Eudoxos voyage ; bqt nothing in- 
dicates a. Grecian colony there nor else- 
where; it might be the tomb of a traveller 
dying while on a visit. 

In 136 bef. CL Glkin wrote his dialogues, 
wherein he makes Silenus relate to Midas 
king of Phrygia long before, the discovery 
of a new world beyond Africa ; wkh many 
large cities, two of ^hich were called Eu- 
sebes or Paximus, and Maximus, Ima pf 
peace, and of War. It "is doubtful if this 
relates to Ima Id, pr America, or Lanca 
or even if it is not a pure fiction. Iron 
was there more valuable then Gold : it was 
a populous country, that had sent armies to 

Sertorius when in Spain, heard of the 
Fortunate Ids from travellers who had gone 
there. B^ the account they meant rather 
the Antilles than the Canaries. Apcor^- 
ing to Juba^ Sebosus and Plinius, towards 
^ pf our Bra or 146? years before Cojum- 
bus, the Moors went yet to thosp Islandjs^ 
Vfhich w^re not the vf^nftries; since they 
w<8re 40 days wil wt^tivards frpn^ thp Gpr- 
;ones! Ilverie£pre the 0wp§ri^ AptiUfs^ 
^ ajKusitive {^pcounjL 



Having reached our Era and more tnod- 
em history, let us value (hese ancient ac- 
counts and notions. It is not needful to 
suppose chance navigations and shipwrecks 
to people both Americas: altho' many sai- 
lors may often have 'been wrecked there. 
We must no longer doubt that several an- 
t^ient nations knew the existence of this 
hemisphere. This knowledge may often 
have been lost or neglected, confined to 
'some daring sailors, the Oceanic Neptunes 
of the Atlantes and Polynesia: or hidden 
linto sacred books, so often lost, or hardly 
^Jcnown to thte crowd of madkind. 

As we advance towards our ages,the in- 
culcations are stil} more obvious : we have 
^tiow always dsLtes as well as facets; and my 
^account will assume 'the Chronological 
^Order, by a double date — after Christ — 
and before Columbus. 

In 150 aft. Cor 1342 bef. Col. St. Avi- 

tus is said to have. gone to preach to the 

F^ortunate Ids. This is rather apocryphal, 

like the voyages of St. Thomas to America : 

who is known to liave gone to Persia and 

^he East, ndt to the West. 

Between 550 and 500— 942 bef. Col. is 
placed the fabulous voyage or legend of St. 
Brandon or Blandand to IMA, an ^island 
of the western Ocean; which may be 
based on somd truths. Ima appears the 
' Ymidun of the ancients or the Azores ; but 
tthe Giant Mildon and other jdetails are vi 

icamse fabulous. Towards these timi^s the 
.Komances and Legends called this Ima, a 
iind of a Paradise, and beyond it was the 
land of plenty or Cooagne, where is Amer- 
ica. These notions arose from earlier 
knowledge and traditiws of the lands Cocji 
qnd Antula, in the Ocean, (Note 5*) 

In the North , Iceland was known long 
.ago since 500 ; in 640 and 720 it received 
coicmies of Papars from Ireland, which 
were expulsed by the Norvegians led by 
Thorolf m 883. 

• Before the Arabs, the Goths and Van- 
4als had sent Pirates to the Canaries, 
where the Romaic exiled formerly the re- 
bellious Moors. The Arabs that omquer- 
ed Africa in Uie 7tii Century, knew also 
^bse Ids, since between 700 and 1150 the 
Arabian Geographers designate seiparat^ 
Jy the Canaries, Madeira and Gorgons.— ^ 
The first were called haj^y Ids. But they 
had abo a distant IdSAALE (blessed?) 
which was one of the Antilles, since the 
men had no beards, smoked tobacco, an^ 
^rest with leav^.... which applies only 
xthere. The Arabs of Lisbon went former- 
ly to exjpliore the Ocean or dark Sea of the 
West. They discovered in 1120 the Azores 
.without men, calling them Bbktuita or 
windy Ids, a very good name. They visits 
^ abo the Canaries, where th^ found an 
Arab, The King of Canaries told them 
that his father had sent a ^p to discover 

W6 * ^ KH OWLtlMffi OF ABTEItXCA. 

the Western latid which returned aftet 
tailing one month Westward Without meet- 
ing it. See Glass hist, of Can. and Na- 
varete. Tliis Voyage based on a previous 
knowledge must ^ve happened towards 
4070, or 422 years bef. Col. 

In 714— 778 brf. Col. when the Arabs 
i;onquered Portaga), Sa'Cara a Gothic Lord 
of JVf erida, escaped by Sea, with a. large 
colony for the Id Antila of the West. 
Upon this fact well stated in Souza hist, of 
Portugal, was based afterwards the legend 
of 7 Bishops bullding^ 7 cities in America; 
but these cities and GhrisfiantGrOths have no 
where been found. Yet this proves that 
the western land Jlnfs*^ waslmown as ear- 
dy, and if the colony readhed America, it 
must have blended with the Mayas, where 
-some faint Christian rites have been de- 
tected. In the time of D. Henry some Por- 
tugueze Ships are said to have been in that 
land of Septi-ritadiy and remained there, 
only one escaping : %ut the account ap- 
ipears a pure tale. 

As early as 720 the Nor man and Danish 
-Pirates began to appear in the 'Ocean, and 
made many discoveries. In 752 they be- 
gan to molest England. In 770 they dis- 
•cov^red Greenland according to the Dan- 
ish c^hronicle before Iceland. 

In 743 the bishop Virgilius sustained the 
M>pinion of Antipodes and another world 
(Sthere; which doctrine was condemned by 


Pope Zachariah. Others say that Yirgili- 
ttg believed there was another £arth,/Sua< 
and Moon, or a plurality of worlds. Both* 
opinions are now known to be true. In 
745 the same Pope exeommunieated Boni- 
facius bishop o£Mentz»who taught that the^ 
Earth was spharkaL 

In the romantic history of King Arthur 
be is said to have gone to Iceland in 517 
with a fleet, and l^at in 530 ti)e King of it 
Malvasius came to his Court : Hackluyt.^ 
But by other* accounts the first colony went 
there in 640 from Ireland. It was knowa 
tp Ausgar w Norman as early as 8^ yet 
was discovered again hy a Pirate- in 861 ^ 
and the first Norwegian Colony was led* 
there by Ingolf and Lief in 875. . Irekmd 
as well as Greenland is a part of America ; 
it has been occupied by them ev^r since i 
their history however is. but slightly con- 
nected with the other Americans. It shall 
be considered apart ; but it is a fact that 
the Norwegians sent the first modern Colo«^ 
nies to this Continent. 

In 835 the Danes conquered part of Irer 
land. In 834 and 837 the Pope gave inr 
charge to Ausgar^and to St. Anselm bish- 
op of Hamburg, all the Northern countries: 
including the Fero Ids, Iceland and Gro- 
enland. Yet the former were settled only 
in 868. 

In846 the Normans extended their Pira^ 
eiesas far as Spain^ Africa and the Canaries. 


38(1 mowuBDes op akekica* 

In8l8 the Anibs made Qt is said) a ▼qjr-^ 
age aroand Africa bythe KedSea, retom* 

ing by Gilmdtar. 

In 860 the Id. HUD or Flath Iimis or 
Olmzfl was discovered West <^ Ireland, 
becoming a fairy land : since soj^posed to* 
be sank. See Logan 8ApI Gads. 

Ia93Gthe Normans took Arzilla in Mau- 

In .970 Ganbiom discovered again Gre- 
enland, and in 986 the first Goloi^ was 
led there by Eric Road, 506 years bef. 

In 965^—507 years bef. Gol. the coast of 
Vinland or Labrador was discoved by Nor- 
wegians. In 1001 the first Colony was led 
there by. Biom, alnd several settlements 
were made till 1010 or ^2 years bef. Co* 
lombus, on the America^ Continent. 

Towards 1000-492 bef. Col. the Fri- 
sians visited the Antflles, or a Western Id. 
where they found Canibals, Giants and 
dogs. See Oareias. 

Towards 1050 the Arabs of Lisbon vis- 
ited the Id Alghaman, or of Sheep, 33 days 
& W. of Lisbon, supposed to be Madeira : 
12 days further they came to the Canaries 
where dwelt tall red people, and an Arab 
was found. This is related by Ebn al Ouadi 
who died in 1348. The Canaries were 
called Aljazir fortunate, and AUudedad 
delicious place, the peak of Tenerif was 



In 1098 Vinland was under the domin- 
ion of the king of Norway, 4 days sail from 
Groenland, a place of trade &c. 

In 1121 or 1151 the bishop Eric went 
from Groenland to Vinland and Drogeo 
North America to convert the natives : he 
remained with them, and di^d there. This 
visit is remembered by the traditions of the 
Micmacs, Mohigans, Linapis and Tusco- 
roras. He went as far as Carolina, ' This 
was 340 years before Col. 

In 1170 — 322 bef. Col. supposed voyages 
of the prince Madoe from Wales to 
North America : two voyages are mention-* 
ed, and he settled there in the last. He 
neither begun a Nation^ nor became the 
ancestor of any tribe ; but he went hither 
and his lone colony was blended with the 
native tribes^ 

In 1198 the Brazil wood, well known as 
a die; supposed to come from the land 
Obrazil, and picked up on the coast of Ire- 
land ; brought however all the way from 
South America by the Currents. 

In 1280 Roger Bacon contends that 
there is a western land and world. 

In 1291 the Genoese traded in West 

In 1326 the French Normands traded 
there also, to the Canaries and Guinea. 

In 1344 the Pope gave the Canaries to 
the Spaniards; 11 are mentioned among 
which are Atlantica^ Hesperida^ Gorgo^ 


nOr Cemtj wliidL do not bdong to the 

That same year 1344 Han^iam an En- 
^ishman visited Madeka and Barbary. 

In 1346 the Catalans. w«nt to trade to- 
West Africa. 

In 1348 a great plague intemipts trade 
with Groenland. 

1350* Losada goes as a Pirate to plun- 
der the Canaries, which example was fol- 
lowed hj others. 

136a The Nbrmands traded yet to the 
coast ofGuinea. 

1360. The fishermenof the Shetland 
rds visit the Northern ccdonies of Norwe- 
gians, Estotiland in Newfoundland; sixoC 
them travel in N. America or Drogeo vis* 
iting 15 kingdoms between 1365 and 1378 z! 
which they saw as found afterwards 200^ 
years after; the Northern tribes being 
chiefly hunters, and the Southern tribes* 
more civilized worshiping the Sun. Thej 
must have gone as far as Florida inland. 
One of them escaped,, reaching again Es^ 
totiland, where he was met by Zeno in 
1382. See Farster. This account has 
been doubted ; but bears the stamp of^plain 
truth: this nameless fisherman was in 
America 120 years bef Cel. 

1382. The brothers Zeno Yenitians 
travelled long in the North, Shetland Ids, 
and this year were in Greenland and Esto- 


1367, the Id' Antilia is on the map of Pi- 
xignano or Pizigani of Venice, and the Id 
St. Brandon where is now Portorico. 

1376. The Skreling or Esquimaux be- 
gin to be formidable, and molest the colo- 
nies of Greenland* 

1402 to 1404. The blatifk plague deso- 
lates the Northern countries and depopu- 
lates the Norwegian colonies. 

1402. The Spaniards began to settle 
in the Canaries, made a kingdom by the 
Pope, Bethancouft was the first king. Long 
wars with the Ganarians or Guanches, who 
are only totaly subdued in 1497. 

Towards 1400 or 1405, 'Sanudo a Veni- 
tian discovered the bahic and Id of New- 
foundland. Mpt seen by Bridges^ hist. 

1428. South America was in Portu- 
gueze maps, with ^e straiit of Magellan, 
named Coda dragui Dragon's tail : proba- 
bly from some former voyage, viibrgotten 
like so mariy others. 

1438. The map of Bianco has an Id. 
N. of Antilia* called D^latnan Satamaxto^ 
the Devils hand. 

1448. A dorfbtful voyage to the An- 
tilles is mentioned : instigated by the fact 
of a boat and 2 dead men being thrown 
ashore at the Id Flores of Azores. In 1415 
the Flemish had discovered again the Azo- 
res, where the Portugueze settled between 
*1432 and 1449. They had again discover* 
Ked and settled Madeira in 1420. 

284 KNaWLEDCE <NP AftSttlCA. 

In 1450 the Danes began to n^Iect 
Groenland altogether. 

In 1452—40 years bef. Col, Antonio Le^ 
me of Madeira discovered 3 of the small 
Antilles w Carib Ids. Nacarete^ Ircing. 

On the same year 1452 Tiene from the 
Azores discovered the Bank of Bacaiico 
or Newfoundland, in lat. 48 d. and began 
the Codfishery there« Herrera. 

1455. A Spani^ ship going from Spain 
to Ireland saw the Id Bacalaos now New- 
foundland, and thought it was the shwe of 
Tartary. Herrera. 

1458. Pedro de Velasco went to exam- 
ine this land of Bacalaos. Herrera. 

1459. ^e map of Mauro has the Cape 
Diab or Goodhope. 

1464. J^uan Yaz Costa made a voyage 
to Baccallaos. Seoreby. 

1469 The English fished in Iceland ; 
they killed the governor who wants to pre- 
Tent it, and a war with the Danes CbUqws. 
Anderson Commerce^ 

1472. The Portuguese settled in the Cap- 
' verd Ids discovered by them in 1447. 

1477, Juan Scale visited again Labra- 
dor and Estotiland. .Charlewaix. This 
same year 'Columbus was in Iceland. 

1480. Another voyage of Velasco to 
Bacallao, with the pilot Francisco Sanchez, 
they deem it the coast of Japan. Navarete. 

1484. Alonzo Sanchez of Huelva, dis- 
covered the Id. Dominica of AatiUes» 



^here he was thrown by a storm. See 
Lavega. It is him whom it was believed 
«ince iiad given his journal to Colambus : 
who did not require it, since he had so 
many other indications of America ; 'but he 
was led by it in the proper traick, altho' be- 
lieving to go to the East Indies. 

1488, Cousin oO)ieppe discovered Bra- 
zil and visited tHwreatt Maranon River. 
Mpt. records of Ineppe. 
All these voyages, mostly forgotten or hard- 
ly noticed, and little known for so long a 
time, prove how easy it has been to forget 
or neglect those of the anterior and an- 
cient times, when writing was little used, 
and printing unknbwn. It is then a posi- 
tive fact ihAt ^Columbus was not the first 
discoverer of America ; biit he has had 
the glory to restore the ancient communi- 
cations of the two hemispheres, and to lead 
there new colonies ; ^ile he sou^t and 
believed to have found the Eaidtern^^^eBdof 
the Indies : and America was not deemed 
a peculiar continent till the oircumnaviga-^ 
tion of Magellan. 

These indications and d^ails were se 
forgotten, that Columbus met for many 
years with great difficutti^ in persuading 
those he sollicited. Altho' supported by 
Toscanelli atod other Oeographers, he was 
refused belief in Genoa, Portugal and Eng- 
land, and for a long^while in Spain ; while open a trade tcthe Kast Indies 


"986 XKOwuaKa er AtaaucA, 

by the Atlantic. He himself chiefly de* 
prided on his belief of the Earth beii^ 
round to reatdi them, which was the great 
stumbling block of the church and learned 
of that age. He did not know ai America 
as a continent ; but thought the East Indies^ 
Japan and Tartary extended as fiur as the 

Meantime it is probaUe that the ancient 
Nations who migrated to^ or colonized 
1 the Antyies and U>th Americas, thro' the 

Atlantic, were led hither in very early 
^imes, by casual navigations, enterprize, or 
driven by foes; afi theHaytian annals indi« 
<mte, and many other American traditions 
4X>nfirm. They were |Hrobably as connect* 
ed already in mamiers and languages, as 
the modern naticms of Europe now are. 
Their primitive Dialects have since widely 
changed in the Americas during. 4 or 5,000 
years, producing the actual American lan^ 
iguages, that have such astcmishing analo^ 
gies as yet with the European languages, 
and those of North Africa, Spain, Italy and 

In such vest continent the colonies anS 
tribes, must have kept apart, not being 
connected by mutual trade cm* common do* 
nwnion ; produciqg thus the separate Amer* 
iten Nations and States, offering however 
m&ny cenfunoa liak&of manners, eiviliza* 
tion an4 religion. AU the ..primitive or im** 
|prav€|d fovQw of soaial a^te w<we fcoind 

li^e; except the pare pastoral lifoi fiir 
lack of Cattle and Camels, that could not 
be conveyed in the boats of those times,' 
while dogs and fowls could be and have 
been lu'ought. 

Re£f>ecting the Wild Animals of this 
hemisphere, it is absurd to impose that 
they have been brought there ; and it in 
not possible to prov^ that both Americas 
having so many peculiar genera of large 
animals, have been i^onnected by continu- 
ous lands with Africa : ^^Itho' many larger 
contiguous Islands may have filled the 
North Atlantic, now sunk or broken. It 
has always been as great a problem how to 
bring Quadrupeds and Snakes to America, 
ms^to lead men there. No emigrating tribe 
icoqM have been induced to bring l^apirs, 
Jaguars, Noxious Snakes, « • • « and leave 
none behind. All the American Monkeys 
and Snakes are lyeculiar to this Hemis«^ 
Inhere. So are the Ticumas,t>eers, Hogs, 
Turtles, with UOO genera an& s^iecies of 
large land Animals, not foxmA eitbsr in Af- 
rica, nor Europe, nor the Atlantic and Po- 
lynesian* Islands. 

(Therefore it is evident that there was a ■ 
peculiar creation of Animals and Plants in 
the Western Hemisphere, 'as also in Aus* 
tratia, except in the most boreal regions. 
' Ms^pty Genera of these animal and vegeta- 
ble' |iFOcreations lia^ng survivied the Geo- 
Jogidsil and Hislorusal Delugei^ or ''Cata*- 

^tSS DnnruBMSB or amesica« 

clyamsy In the Hoontaiiis and spots thidt 
were not totaly oT^rwfaebned, have after- 
wards s|M^ad again over the regions left 
•dry by the waters, or becoming habitaUe 
by theVcdcamc sfpent iBres: tbere since 
•5000 years ago at least, they have gradual- 
ly {M^aced adl the actual species, by suc- 
cessive variations and natural deviatkms 
.from their original typical iorms. (Note 6.^ 


Note 1. Garcias maintains that^He in- 
tercourse between -Spain and America, be- 
gan under the Atlantides and Thubal Dy- 
nasties, being continued till after the time 
of Claudius. Medals of Augustus were 
found in Caracas, Panuco and Chili, of 
'Claudius in Comana in 1575. The 6ua- 
raycos-ofCharcas called themselves the pos- 
tterity of (dd Spaniards; but Ihey were 
probably Moxas like the Guarayos. The 
'Statues of Tiahuanaco iand Coban, were 
drest like the Spaniards. Portorico is only 
3180 miles from Cadiz and can be reached 
-easily in one month from hence, in smooth 
'•water all the way. 

Note 2. The foundation of Carthage is 
very doubtful. Some ascribe it to a Tynan 
Hercules, successor of he who built tlitiea 
j[meaning first abode) at MBzaha 786 years 
before the fall of Troy. X^arthoge was 
built 286 years after, 500 before Troy^ 
IMdo only •entailed the Colony. 

Hfete 3« Festus Rufiis Airienud was a 
Spanish GhristiaKi who wrote in 306 a po- 
^em on the navigations' of Hi^iilcon. He 
went for 4 months in the weedy Sea from 
Tartessus South to the Oestry^midum or 
Estrymfdas Ids, which have been deemed 
the Bissagos Ids of Africa; but Garcias 
4eems them the Antilles. The Northern 
Estrymnias were the Jersey Us. The ut- 
most confusion and perplexity exists on the 
real actual names of all the old Atlantic Ids ; 
because so often blended. It is not even 
certain that the Cassiterides are the Scily 
Ids : Ritson says they were the Azores and 
inh^^bited : perhaps rather the Oberon Ids 
of France. MictiS 6 days sail from Brittain 
is no where to be found. The Sygdiles 
were the Scily Ids. Thule, Thyle or Tht- 
la was Shetland, and also Iceland since 
king Alfred puts it far away N. W^. frtoi 

Note 4. Some com(Hitatious make this 
disaster much earlier.' It may be connec- 
ted with another singular eveiit, the rain of 
fire indicated by some fal>les ; which is the 
same as the fall of a Phaeton, placc^d by 
Eusebius in 1432 bef. C. when a great Me^ 
teor or Mock-Sim fell in the Eridan : not the 
R. Po; but old name of the Erenus^ Reda^ 
nU8, Garadan^ Oridan^ Iberis .... mean- 
1!^ large River in the Western languages 
and now modified into Rhine, Rhone, Ga- 
ronne, Loire, Ebra ... It was a deluge of 

'290 KDTBI. 

'fire ! Meteoric rather than volcanic ; flames 
fell from the sky that consumed several 
^places, attended with great heat, thunders 
' and Aerolites. This was under Phaeton 
son of Tithonius : and it agrees in time and 
fact with the- solar phenomenon and rain of 
fire of Joshua, which has puzzled so many 
Biblists. {See Mavor Mythology). Bat 
there are other Phaetons, which is a title 
meaning luminous or hriUiant in Pelagic ! 
Epa]phus son of Orus in the time of the vol- 
canic rain of fire of Sodom, 506 years be- 
fore, had that name. Another was king of 
ithe Molossians and a great Astronomer. 

Note 5. St. Brandon had for compan- 
ion St. Machutes in his travels, and 75 men 
who perished in 7 years wanderings on the 
Ocean : while the sp.ints were saved by a 
nvhale ! They visited also the Ids Mildun, 
Aron^ and.the main -land of Tumeneso vlvA 
.Maclovio with city of Aleta. Was % 
America ? Barinto another Monk is stated 
to have gone in the American Seas. Oth- 
er Monks travelled in the Ocean. In 565 
Cormar went 14 days sail N. of Scotland. 
rin 5^0 Boracho went so far as to see 
Whales, mistaken for rocks. Some old 
maps have two Bratidon -Ids in lat. 11 
and 53. 

Note 6. Those who may believe that 
the high mountains of America were cov- 
ered by the waters of a universal Deluge^ 
xafter these mountains were lifted from W 



notes; 29r 

Co 20 thousand feet above the Ocean 
must adroit of three very improbable 
suppositions, 1. that the Ocean rose 
25)000 feet perpendicular, ^d that the 
American colonists brought along 50,000 
species of land^ animals^ Snakes, Insects, 
trees and plants ; 3d or else there was; lu 
second creation in America sineo 5,000 
years .! . . . The subsequent lesser fbod or 
volcanic cataclysm of Peleg, so highly pro- 
bftble, may account for human, animal and 
vegetable colonies in the North; but not 
in the tropical regions, having distinct gen- 
erations of beings. Men, Birds, and Fishes; 
can alone have widely spread by Colonies 
to the American shores, before and after 
the floods. 


' *^ 


CosTEim'oF THE Secoio) Volvib. 

Chapter YIII. Oldest Naticms of > 
America^ primitive history, early tra« 
tions Sec. PAGE. & 

Notes 3a 

Ch. IX. Researches on the primi- 
tive Nations of America^ Giants and 
Pygmies Slc 37 

Notes ... .63 

Ch. X. Mosaic Nations aud diluvi- 
al history. . • . 66 , 
Ante*diluvian history . • 73 
The flood of Noah . '. 8A 
From Nosdi's to Peleg's flood. 90 
Notes. . . 10ft 
Ch. XI. Chinese Nations and. di- 
hi vial history • • 110 
Ante-deluvian history • . 113 
The floods of Yunti and Yao 123 

N6TES. . ... 150 

Ch. Xn. Early Japanese Annals 
andiN^ations. . . • .ISO' 
Vocabulary of the Old Japanese 174 
Notes. ... . 181 

. Ch. Results of the Enquiries on 
the Oldest Nations of both hemis- 
pheres &c. • . • ^ 187 
Notes. ... * 222 
Ch. XIY. Annals of the Atlantes 
and Atlantic Ocean Sec. . \ 224 
Notes. . . . . 263 
Ch. XV. Intercourse with Amer- 
ica before Columbus • 266 
Nons9 288