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Full text of "An encyclopædia of trees and shrubs; being the Arboretum et fruticetum Britannicum abridged: containing the hardy trees and shrubs of Britain, native and foreign, scientifically and popularly described; with their propagation, culture, and uses in the arts ... Abridged from the large edition in eight volumes, and adapted for the use of nurserymen, gardeners, and foresters .."


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...1, -. .,!C^(Xi>;lc 








^ This Abridgement ofiho Arborelunt et Fruticeltm Brilnaaicum contains. — 
l>n I- CliHnictcrB and short Popular Descriptions of all the species and 
^ varieties of hard;^ trees and shrubs now in British gardens, with directions 
- Tor tlieir culture; including the soil most suiluble for them, their pro- 
"Oi pagatton, and their uses in the arts, &c. 
■v^^ 8. Engravings of all the species which are descrilied, with the exception of 
tj half a dozen. The whole arrsnKed according to the Natural System ; all the 
Qj engrevinan being to the scale of two inches to a foot, or one sixth of tile 
^' natural size. 

3. The Scientific Names and Scientific Synonymes of all the species ; and 
their Popular Nuincs in the languages of the dilTerent countries where they 
are indigenous or cultivated. 

4. An Alphalietical Index to all the species and varieties, with their 

5. A Tabular Analysis of the Leaves, by which the name of any species 
of tree OT shrub described in the work may, in general, be discovered, from 
a small portion of a shoot with the leaves on. 

6. Suerific Characters, Descriptions, and Figures of some species, more 
pnrcicularly of pines, Rrs, and oaks, which were not in llie country in 1838, 
when the large work was completed. 

In a word, though this Abridgement does not include all the interesting 
and useful information on the natural history of trees which will be fuund In 
the larger work, or an^ of the portraits of entire trees which constitute so 
distinguished a feature in it, yet it contains all that is necessary to enable the 
reader to discover the names of the diflerent spedes, and to ascertain their 
culture, propagation, and in Britain ; in snort, all that is essential for 
the nurseryman, gurdtiiLT, and foresicr. 

The most remarkable circumstance connected with this Abridgement is, 
that the Author has been able to obtain figures of nearly all the species. 
For the drawings or specimens from which these additional figures were 
taken, he is indebted to the kind assistance of various Public Insiitutionn, 
and of several of the most eminent botanists and possessors of herbariums 
and living cdlections in Europe and North America. 

The Institutions to which he is under obligations are, the Linnean and 
Horticultural Societies of London, the British Museum, the Museum of 
Natural HiHtory of Paris, and that of Berlin : and the Botanists who have 
kiudlvknt him drawings or specimens include the late A. B. Ljimbebt, Esq.; 
Sir W. J. HooKEii ; Dr. Lindlev; the late Professor Don ; Georgk Don, 
Esq., who prepared the characters of the Orders and of the Genera ; 
Messrs. Loodigbs ; the late Professor DbC*ni>ollb ; M. Alphonsb Db 
Candolle 1 W. BoaaBR, Esq.; P. B. Webb, Ejo, j Baron Db Lkssert; 
M. Micutux; Signor O. Minetti ; M. Otto; M. Charles RAtiCHj M. 
Francis Raucu, who made most of the drawings; and Drs. Torrev 
and Or*v : to oil of whom ; to the Curutors of most of our Botanic and 
Horticultural liardens, and those of many foreign ones; and to all Nursery- 
men and Gardeners, both at home and abroad, who may have rendered him 
assistance, he bess to return his most sincere thanks. 

To the Council of the Horticultural Society of London he is under especial 
obligations, for their permission to make drawings from the cones and other 
specimens sent home by their collectors, Douglas and Hartweg, and for 
authorising him to procure information from their intelligent and experienced 
superintendent of the arboricultunil department of the Garden, Mr. Oborob 
OoRDON, A.L.S. ; and to Mr. Gordon he is indebted for the ready and 
obll^ng manner in which, at all times, he rendered his assistance. 

Baytiroter, April, 1848. 1. C. L. 


., Google 



An AnlljilJ ^thIi°G^r. rf tha fMi ud Shribi *«ribed In Uil. AbrUfamnn, ^^^ 



HfiirAiignt - 





GlouuUl IndBx 




Ib i^ Wknrlng TiM* On SrnoDniHa im prlntnl In lullc 
wttefi tberAni mrrrij mfulatiom or Ui« actflntldc lUTiict. 
ttmntm ue, Httb Irw riMtloDiv wM fiTfli irTwn Lbvy an the 


Class I, EXO'GEN^. 
Subdiv. I. DICHLAMY'DE^. 



Tribe I. Ci..M4Ti'nM. 

L C'le'katis L. 

4 rub«1l> i)«. . 9 

C^nbun^a Bert. 

C. pufmUla Tbun. 
8. orienUlis £. - 4 
WiiUuT c. odrc^^ ' Hon. : 

3. cbin^nsia Setx. - 5 

4. Vitilbai,. - - 5 

Tlinller'i Joy.— C. lUlmi 
Hulb.. C. UrUa Com.. fMnu 
Gtr.k I.ii)>,.Vl(i)>lfraFiKli.: 

C. HiHtfiuta Hl'lL DlcL. 
tvraffWia M<n>cb Mipp-, C b 
Itrmila Hoit. : BntailJM C 

a bncteita S«. • G 

C. tneuiUa Moocb. 

G. griu WaU. - 7 

C ntn-au H«t.. C. rrAcr- 

7. Vi6ma L. - - 7 

8. cyllndrica &'n» - 8 

10. Hendenwnii Chan. 9 
g il nticiaa Dee. 

11. fldrida TKun. • 10 

AJrigriH hi^iVa Unf, Aliyf- 

rroHdn flnri, Fr. \ OraublU- 
Hlge WtUrtbr. na. 

S Jlore pl^o ^ort - 10 
3 B. pi. Tidlinu - 10 
C.f. SkUtiK D. Dim. 
IT. SlrMUI\ Fnit. 

IS. cariilca i".Wi. - 11 

C tramlifiira Hon. 

13. Vitic^llBl.. - II 

rUicMa drhiidea Hmch: 
Sed-Jtowerea . .- . " 

3 mfilliplei G. L 

5 bwcata i^cc. . Iv 

C eam^anyidra Hort. 

14. campaaifidraBrol.lS 
C. ttonSUa Schrailn', u. 

2 pwiflora J^'i. aV(. 12 

15. trhpuL. - .13 

C.jUrc crlipo Dill HlllL 

t iii. CAtiVupiu Dec. 

10. cirrh6saZ. - - 13 

Milltnt cirrtiiarm : Trm- 
oetirr'a Jof ij Cinntia, Ukd S/ja- 
nitk Travrtirr't Jp^, Gerard & 

i Vrmrt, Fr. -. ElmftdMiarlie 
Z pet^icelUis Z>«. . 1 4 
C.anJr^rfco Pon.' 

S White flm. Dtc. 



S. sibtrica I.. - ■ 17 

A. alplna OimI. h PilU CU- 

maKi tiblrica Hia Dkt. A Dec. 

a Blueflvi. fi. Jtf. IT 

A. oekMn,/! Ftltu ? 

A. iiJ;>iiH L. ? 

3. americina Si'nu - 17 
Cl^maia rrrllcllUHt Dec. 
S ofallqiu Do<i. MS. 17 

OUrr SpK<i-( and Varltlla. — 
.:4. odiottnlli i>aJJ.( A. ifHi^ca 
*ir. rt, A. columbttu A'h«. 
(CtfiuUi cotuHiMiu Tor tl 
ijt.yi.p.n.) . -17 

Tribe 11. Pmosit'cEjK. 

I. P«o"N/.< L. - le 

2. glalJcB i.. 


Bun, Small Magnoiia, Swamp 


3 TbomsoniiHalhp.SS 

II'I 1-1 

:!e L. - 27 
a Lam.> At- fnm- 


+. inacri>|)hi1la M.r. 8S 

/auat Vmbrtlia Tree'. Anerf '' 
5. acuminata Z.. - S9 

M. rOtJrea. M.pnvUMltiam'ra. 
UVKlla, Cucumier Trn. 

1. opiifolia t'«CT*. - 2( 
XatUlunu i FtuJlla ir Peru 
Fr. ; SiBtiiiMiUHittGllbiimn 



lutf L. 

1. floridhnum .K//Z> SO 

Fiari4a IrScium. Red-ltnperr^ 
AalK-irnl Trn Mor. Hl«,: K 

I, Magno"lm L. - 21 

The Magnolia. — Hfntnalh 
Tw., Oct., a tUI. 1 Birbrrbaum 

1 . grandifldrH L, - 82 

Uagmilla, C^arirr lnUpler, Fr. ; 
GrautltimlMer Uiuatollt. or ' 
"'-' 1 XapuMa , 

.a ./<>(. 

- 22, 

3 eionifnsiii Hart. - Z3 ) 

gUb^M* Hort. 

tnill «r.. M. g. raWginfBrn, 
•inpllci Aa.. M. B. linnlRilIa I 

3 Canddlli Saii • 29 
3 mtiiims Lodd. - 29 
nOrr Con. — M. lUilu. M. 

5 ii. Cu.'i«imi» RoU. 
i. consDkua &i/u£. 3.S 
Yulao MaraQ)]!. — V. pricta 
-jiwru. V. Yiilon DftK: Vi. 
Lan, ChLiHH ; Lilf-JIml U. : 
U^n^er Yalani, Fr. i Ymiau 

2 Suulsngeiina - 3;i 

Ollifr VnTicltet, BT IMtIiIi. 

Alexindirtna"" . .'■» 
I. purpurea Snw - 35 

Af DAiirdfa Thun,, M. iicv- 
9r VenL, if. imadila Lam. : 
Uatalc-lvi .«.; Uaiinlier ill. 
otort, lion Jard., unputi'f bt- 

a gMicilis - - 35 
M. Kbbiu £». 

IliaVn i!:^n.' 

I. TuVifAfenL. . 36 
7^ J'tplar, tVkiu Wocd ukI 
Canoe H^vf, Amer.; fiijAifas 
f*iiplitf, Tmiip-bfarixgL^Trer, 
aDd SiMifJr TVw, Eng.; T%l^«tr 
tlt Firgmic, Kr. j rlrtiiUlclier 
Tallftcrlmim. Ger. ; fiJipicrt, 

2obtua[]obB ((/'.- 36 

RJto At>,. L. T. Uva HuTf. M 

1. AsfMiSA Adanaon 38 

AQD^a L; OrekM :cirjmM 
Ha 'T(B. * Grij; Cmlari 

I. trdoba />un. - 33 

ADDtna MMta L.. Pontile 

IrUobti Ph™., Orc^iitocdrpum 

arirlnuim Mi., I'ldmi (rAiils 

Aiiiitlnlrr L Flrgiait Vj.; d'n- 

«M, lUl. 

OUirrSa-nei—J. purrlMn. .«. 

A/«j ispet-m&cete. 

\. MeNtSPG'RMUH L. 39 

The MooasKd.— .V^ru^^crme, 

I. canadense I>. - 40 
M. anadtMH Mr. . LdUHrk, 

sEbilum Dtc ' - 10 

Tritopkut Ampetliigrin FU. 

n. Co'cci.Lirs B'liiA. 40 
The CoKi\iu. — MnilMpir- 
mam L., WtruUXiiMii IVtlli., 
Andi(pliilia Wcndl. 

I. carolinus I> c. - il 

irfadia popul^ia Wllid., .:4)>. 

I. BEBSEitis L. • -ia 

The Berherrj.— P*jipo-/i(t( 

■icji FaU. 



S \h.\x» - 
S Uba - 



9 longifolia - - 43 

10 gUtica ■ - 13 


11 mltii - - 43 
18 proiincuUn - 43 

3. emarginiita WiUd. 44 

4. ciitia L. - 44 
K c. butgiUm Toini. 

5. eralm'ffna Dec. - 45 
0. iberica SItv. • 45^ii.lttTiea D*c, B. 

7. canadenMS MUl. 45 
B. H^rA Mi^ B. >. uu- 

8. nn&iua Detf. - 46 
B. tmlfiHi Tbunb. 

ff. dli'da O. Air • 47 
la (uxifdlia Lam. - 47 

11. scCinacinthB MartA7 

12. heCerophyllaJ'M. 48 
B. lUeOlliti Foni, a. iHami- 

Tilt Ltdmm if OinuarUn: 

B.CIillrta Shc*.. a mit*tU- 

IVaOl ST C(U( l/I*c Orarj. 

I. re'LL* - - * 

1. Pstildo^ytiBus I.. 54 
■- — 'wttprcui^t. 

I. Ci'HTtia Z.. - - 54 

Ho^i Aiue.Gmrd | Cum Ciiln.* 

1. purpDreuii Zdm. 55 
g. incinuB £. - - 55 

C JMltfu Usn^ C. q w Mli iii 

3. corbari^iu Pour, 55 

bU>rn„ ( 

II. MAmo'Ni^ Nutt. 50 

I. raicicul^B iJff. 50 

Bdbrrli ffHxila Lu^Bit- 
i. ^qutralium Ntilt. 61 

BMnU AfstfMAn Ph. 
3 nutk^ Dec 
S. nervosa yutl. - 52 

AfH^. rfpAU Tor. A Gny. 

S t. ftseiculiria - S'. 

tnndfelb^H. nnidtull. « 
nalhinui. M. mnculhi 
■do. U. mriviiulBlta - I 


Cvnfli loUnr. erceoniat 

4. populifolius !•. 

5. iburiBlius .L. 
ladanlferiiH L. 

1 albiflorui .Cec. - 57 

C. LiAm Clui. Hut. 

5 mtiai\itu% Dtc - ST 

3 plenif^liin AH. - 97 

7. cjprius Lam, - 57 

7. macrtnthuin Suit. 60 

3 m^lt^ilsi SiBt. . 60 

8 can&cenB Stvl. - 60 

9. A}'isopir6liiim3Wi.60 
1 crocitani Smt. . 61 
3 eilpreuiii &d(. . 6t 
3 mUtiplei ^>l. . 61 

10. scabTosun Ptrt, 61 

Avd to vkiei Ukt Se 

1. svriacus L. - 68 

Aia^a Prmut: KHmlt da 

V puipur«o 

5 A. pDip. plino 

6 6^re rilbro - 

7 floreilbo - - 

8 fldretibopUno - 

I. TYliA L. - 63 

Tin Umt Tr«— tftw Trtt, 

Tmrtd, Vr. i aM(*oll«, Ger. j 
LAidc, Gci. ind DuUh 1 TVfU^ 
lUl.i Tilt, Spin. ; Jj^, Ruu. 

I. europte's L. - 63 

lirit IUtm. T. r.' lsn4//( 

1 piirrifdiia - - 64 
T. mtcropkSUaVtat., *e. 

T. uMWia BcDp. 
T. lyltluni D«r. 
T. BarW/Nio. Bbtb. 
T. ^if£a HUl. 

3 grandif^lia • BA 

t'. tramd(f»Uil Ba. 
9 intcrmMU - - 6J 
T. taUrmidla HlTne. 
T.piMJtflltimbHr H. 

4 Ucinuit* - - 65 
T.'up&M^> B»M Hon! 


S-IIMU, grandllWta Sm «- 
Mm Im. Mni»'a Hook. 
Laid.). muUliIlii, UU bno 
tolU, pne'ooKjirpiiiilililta.lii- 
urmMla. twnOtiUi. obllqw, 
europieX 5i*>-p pvrLIbLU Sm,, 
■rttnta (lyo. «bi W. A ^ > 


3. BiaenckmL. - 6B 
T. ^Mra Vml„ T. cBrslt- 
H/JHWinRSDk - T. eaHan'f UK 
Uk., T. (JdAni Dec. ; SramlA- 
tfl. or lEai, Ltmt Trcr, luul 
Sau tdnd. Amir. 

9 heterophilU - 69 

S alba - " " 69 

T. Ma Mi., ftb 
T. lail/Ora Funh. 

O'in- AmirlemLimt. — T.t' 
IcpCoiiiflU rnL - - Tl 

TemsfrSm i acese. 


Caw. 71 

I, ov&tum Calf. -71 
Sutmlia i c*nq Slfla, Fr. 

II. Stua'rtm Ca», 78 

Tba Sluutla. 
1. vir^lnica "oo. - 78 

HI. GoBDONMEllia73 

Ugr Qiniomit, 0«T. 

2. pub£scenB L'Hcr. 73 

I. Wvpb'wcum Z,. 74 

Th» SI. Johni Won.— 


5 i, Amjnifia Choi*. 
«. SVIrt etmnmmlg i. 

I. elitum .4i/. - 7S 

Si. hircinum L. - 75 


3 mtnui Dk. 

B. 54^( nnnuaV ' 

I. KhIhiururi L. 

H.Jbmma Jlcq.. R. f ufari- 
B- Sfpalt taclited, utajtU^ vtUM 

7. nnpetrifBUum W. 77 

II. .Indrobx'miiii Ck.n 
The AHlrswR>aiii.Dr TVUsb. 

itroiniK, le»l. '■' *" 

1. oBctni]e Atiioni 78 
ConnnonTutnii Cifmmm 

■ liffkhuiit.ri. -.UTrii 

lilcmana, Ital. 

I. .icEB L. - - 79 

Th* Maple, ind Tbs £70- 
A. Leatet ttmpit. or rmJv 

1. obldngum Wail. 79 

B. Ltmn S-Jskd, or I 

3. spicSitum ZriTm. 

fir: ETiMt rfc HmUw. Fr.; 

4. EIriitum L. - S] 

Duf BkkI : E'riMr }atf*, T 

C- Letntr R-Med. 
5. niacrophyiliim J"*. ( 

HomarMivll: S'Tnilrptamr; 
or E'rablr ic Sorcirl. Fr.i 

S Lobiiu - '- 83 

A. Jj>M« TViMTE. 
A, p(Bii|ni'U Uim-t Hfli. 

r. SHCchirinum Z,. 85 

tfrrftt^ Kapit' t.Bttr. i dcvri 
A. I. e^rrim Tor. A O. 

8. Paeitdo-mtunM L.86 

Tte Sfieamorr, or Great Ua- 
bIc, Planr Trrt, Scoldl ; S'ra- 
bU S/feamere, Fr. j AjbrvHMwH, 

9 opulifdlia - • S6 
A. mwMaUiM HoTt. 
A. M^UioH Hun. 

CorttoTfMfiu Plsne. 

5 ilbo-nriegata . S6 

6 purpOrea HoH. - 86 
OUitr roHftrn.— HodDkliu'i 

SeedUnc /ton. Soc i JLinlie'i 
Seedllni, HtT(. Soc. : A. P. 
•uotpun Hatm Dent, i .<. 

^. PHudT mlcrAirtarft Hafne 
9. obtuaatum JfiZ. - 88 

MArtftm Hart. Sdc. Gird. : Uc 
NK^oUlan Mi^ilt. 

a coriiceum - 88 

A. EDrfdcnon BoK. 

S ibfricum - - 88 

4 l(«iluni - . 89 

U'palus AU. - 69 

Liult.j A. wiuHtim' Priili 
" E-ratle Opali. Fr. ; tonm, 

II. circbalum PorjA 89 
\2. palmatum 2»unA. 9(1 
13. eriocBrpum Afj-. OO 

l^pr'. ifa;^i STaifc * 



A. anfiiiHtiim Synch : &jA 
M^U, Swamp Maplr. 

a inUnnnliuni Lodd. S3 
15.DionBpes'iulBnuinZ,.92 , 

aiegita - 93 

3 heb«eirp<im DiK. 93 

a! mtSrOfit. 

4 mlllnuni ITaltr. 

Vcriirum G. Dom IQS 
S eioliceum Boolh 13S 

I. JE'scuLus L. - 194 

The Horiochmnut— H7T«>- 
rjade. Fr. i RattiaUiniilc, Ger, 

I. Hippocaataniitn L. 134 

!j flora plenu - 134 

3 aureo-niiegilum l!4 

4 aig6Mi!o--mic%. IZ4 


Niiii ScirlM, £. H. u 

II. P*V/:< Boerh. - 188 

a HKjrnv, /*dv1k part 

4hilmilis - - ISd 

8. flava Dec. - 130 

M-MCMbuJUma All., X. M/<a 
Vtogb^SrU lUra Folr.: Ui 

icrorfrpa HitI. 138 

L^ F. maetvcArpa Lodd. 

5. discolor Siut. - \XI 
«K0toT Tor. & Gr»j.'' 
mHcrostachyn i>oif. 1 33 

£-t»fii( fun^ra Wall.. 


If. L. 11. i cairevtrta, lul. 
1. DBniculatB Zatin. 135 
S~t>H(w ahMiuU L. BL, K. 


I. f'lVis L. - - 136 

T)» Gimpa VlH.-OfW. (M- 

WW, tui. -^^M. cSf"' *''■ ' 

1. vinifera L. • 13S 

riftir. Fr. : Grmrimrr ir<*b 

UKt. G«r. I V/tt da y/iu, lUL 

9 foJii> inciiiis ■ 137 

BlacJt CIkiI^ arofr, 
3 fol. rubofiiitibui 131 

Tic Oanl Oroft, 

rUc ^EfilUa, luL 

2. Lnbrutca. /.. - 137 

Abntlhu. itin. 

yarUlia. — Th* lulMlb. 

3. sstiviilii Afr. - 137 

4. cordilolis JUj. - 
Tbe dildusGruK— v. 

vulploa L.- - IS8 

'he BuUM Gnpn.— V. num. 
i/j/Siia Ml. ; Miacadim Grafts 

II. Ampelo'psis JI/jT. 139 

Vi/ii rp., Cfuiu (^.: ^iHpf- 

1. Adderiicea Afz. - 139 

nt/NIa Liun., ^Mu hrdrraen 
t-h., C. ^inMHia Hon. Pu-., 
VUil tud<r. WilU.. Ainfl6p- 
tU qnlitruftat Hook. : yiriti 
yirrgi, ft. 1 Jw^fni SrSm. 
Cor. I »u ^I COT-ada. lUl. 
S hiraau r. J- Cr. 140 

Cfinu bcdrr. fUriUaVti. 
3. bipinn&ta ^^/.i. - 140 

fen.! yta'dr/C^ 

Wllld.) i cuts 
(Vriilr cnpmli 
A. bdtFfl i}«. 

IK. Ci'mus J 

I. X*NTII0'XYI.tJW Z..14« 



nifbiidaRirfb. : Cliaal/fr, Ft.; ' —X. nlla VtlU.. fltxitmaa 

Z4*we<tMt. Gcr. 1 SooMKte, I Tor.^Qnt-- ■ ■ 1» . 

',"'■, , ,„„j ! II- Ptk'lb* jC, - 1*3 

I./raxineum (Ci/W. 148 l shruwrr T™roll. _ Bollilcl. 

2aj«Md^im rdnHAtniiii Ux. i ' Lr4erblmme, Utr. 

te'iBHGcR^DDi'flr Lun.Tz'l 1< triroliiita jC. - 144 

awrlednuH Mill. Dkn. i Z. I SMrviir TrefaU : Ormi dn 

eUra HlremUt war. Lin. ip.j , Samatir <l irA FnMa, Fr. ; 

Z. Irtsirindll Uook^ niK of' dnyMijIlr^ LnfcrtAuw, Ger. 

Ml. I CrnoMr « iVwUa ^ 2 pentaph411» Mim. 144 

ZatianMoA. G«. i Fnilma 3 puUcsoeni ftiriA 144 

V(««,lul.^i>rfc*%^rf,Am.r. Oltn Sprcia Vlilra. — ?. 
X- rirjrf IHCK4 Lodd CkI. I 

8.(/Jtr[c4rpum /l/i.U3 ' y™ i)' J^r F^l* G«^ 

Z.curWjiJuiiHni Laai.,Ta''.A a-,,— n„_ . rfj/l-_i- i».i 

OrVjF«f*"f™riiKra«aljiii. ""»■"«'■. ^lUBilo, Itw- 

I"- 1. glBnclul6»kI>i'i/: 145 

OlUrr Sprcia XonMAqftan. < .4. prorfra SbI . lUiJJ tHUC- 

Kruiim aflttky 

i QerAentrOMcM. 

I. myrtifolial. - I« 

ArBDaJ d PttuUti it Itgrlc, 
Fr. ; UtrUnbSillilfcr Ctrta- 


I. Stapiivle'a /,. 147 

BlidilH.NuC TiecSlnrMr- 

bMmlnm TiHini. : SiapUlier. 

fiau Pltlatkitr. Fr. i Pimper- 

inui Bkb. -lb 

1. trifdlU L. ■ 

. 147 

Jhilt, lUL ; Jbt'i 7riiri. 

I. Eoo'NYMys 2Vii. 149 

aplndle TrH.-fWaOL A 
mnilrPrarr.irr ■ ' ' " 

S lalifdlim LodCU.150 
A fol.nriegBtis Z. C.I 50 

4 friiclu illbo Z^ C. 150 

5 ninus Ladi£ Oil. 150 

3. latiloliiu C. Baui. ]50 

E. nnpa-tii MT. 1. T.<n . 

*>T<IMaUr4~ '-■---■■ 

5. BCropurpiireua Jq, lal 

loli/iltm Minh. : Bitralii^Biak, 

iafi Bulk, SlrairberTfi Trtr. 

a N<Ut. - 15 
rui Dec. Frnd. 

. eaaAit&nmn Dec. 155 



cmRi[lS._._.^ „_, _ 

rbllui Roib^ tiStlu H'nA., 
rolcrJdlhu. D. Dm. IDdrliu 

■eni IfnK.. g»ti»r jiort.. 
Imbrtlnil >f^„ iDilInu 

awiu hlimt. Thunti^gr^HW 
Blume. pindului H'nU., frUI. 

II. Cbla'stros L. 154 

1. ac&ndena L, - 154 

BannmWbiin', Ger. i 'SilUr^ 

Hier Spnta «■ CtOitni. 
butltui J>7iil.. nrp^ 
Load., pyn/staMBMia 

OllKr Sptcia ef Cf laifrtaa 

.VaylmiHchlUniliSn. ISA 

L Mroi'ND.* Jacq. 156 

I'lu Furih, Orr^ifa Hu[t. 

I. niyrtifolia IfuU. 156 
r/K HgriMtei Ponb. Or(- 

dp^ite aifrlifblia Nuu. 

II. rLBX Z,. . 156 
The Hollf.— AfufrUten Tm., 

CiBrt. ! Hoitr. Fr. ; Sln-tadlmr. 


ul. 1 .^crto, Spui. i Atetinko, 

. J'arifilti dairmaUd^fniL At 
Fsm, MagHilwIe. fkickncu. 
Sarfaa, or Mixrgtii nf tkl 

2 hrteroph^ilum Hi. \Sft 

3 angintifolium ITl. 15B 

4 ■■tifolium Hurt. 158 

1. jfquiruJiiun L. 

fill. H0lmr. Eni- ; lA 


7 huriWHura Hori. 158 

8 cilialum Sort. - 158 

9 ciliaCummiDin/ftvl^S 

10 reedrvuni Hart, 15S 

11 lerrMifoliuin .^^ 158 
IScr'npum ffait. . \5B 
13 ferox J/orf. . 158 

nifaiiuia tfort. 159 

IS ilbo-margLiiatuTT 

SI fen 

n in. 159 

SSIrlictu lilt«a Brt. t59 
93 frdelu Ubo /Tori. J 59 

z* rnictu DlgKi flDrt.]5g 
2. (A.) hstraricaZ). 


AiBFricin HolJT.— AfrflWiai 

S luiflora - 

4. Perado Ait. 

5. Caitiiif Ait. 

6. anguBtitolia Wmd. I6t! 
I. ■ii|mtfM''i Wilt Ac., I, 

7. Tomitoria -Jii. - 168 

tira Walt., I. liB*i(riM J»c^, 

8. AlikNtn Wall. 

$1 FWnuii&i Dec 

1. decfduus IJff. . tG4 

Pfci prJHoWii All. Hon. 
Kpv., rti dcdtfu Wall. FL 

III. Bbrchb'iim N. 169 

Schuii, stu. 

I. Tulubilis iJec. - 170 
RMiRm kMM>) LIi>. m. 

■rwEEviii wS'id'sprc: ; ^ISSL 

toAMrt ScMulI, SjU.: jivftd 
Jack, ViTflnlvi. 

IV. AHA'HNUsLaiH. 170 

§ ii. Aghia Dec. 

i. vcnicillkii<i L. - \ 

p. |l«iraftia Wllld. Bnu 

+. Iffivigiitii* Punk 165 
fl. lancculittus Piirtji I6j 
rfm'Hort. " J™- • 
S iil Wiatfrlia Maoctl. 
6. glaberZ,. - I6(> 

3 biipinlcB H. Far.n\ 

A uigiisiirdUn . ni 

5 foliis Duculatii 171 

6 folii.«(J™ii . ni 

7 fulii^ .rgintei* - 172 

a. hybri(lusl,'//f>if. 17a 

[{, hMrguaOiasiit Hart. Fw., 

1. Zi'ztvavsTovrn. 167 

1. vulgaris Z^iin. - 
tUjnuu Zlintu Lin. 

OUcr Sjirelti nl Zl^nfau. — Z. 

1, HcultiilLiB J^n. If 
P. i^Unu Duin. Couri., P. 

Fr. 1 teflUgrllrr Jmda,^ 


a. (h.) vir^i'ilus IJ«n 169 

iffTjV*. flucilloHi; {.'rrfnat 
Jirindrr Wewdoni, <J*r. ; 

6. uixdtilisZ. - 173 

R. U«ittliUu, Hill. DM.: 
SWa ffMilorn, Oer. i LaciB 

7. Juxiloliua /•(»■. . 173 
? a. IiudNi'iu Bnit. Ft, Liu., 

■ 8. hcioUes L. - 174 

9. Erjthr6x>]on P. 174 

10. dahiiricuo Pall. 174 

11. aInifoliiiH Z.'/ftr. 175 
S rratifpJoJdes i)H. ITS 

IS. Hlplnu 

a B-- 


. 176 

Commoo ToDlhKhe Tiw. — Aiami: OrmtileSamarli.Yi.: 

Ai^'hih Gsn., IKK orLun,; z' I I- irifoliata L. . 144 

anrrieimm Mkll. Dkl. ; 2, Slirvbiv Trtfull : Ormr lie 

lUm. HircuUl rar. Lin. Ip.i I Samarir .1 tria FrmiUtt, Fr - 

Z, Mctrpmm Hook., Dol of drtximurier LfittbhtTni. Gw, 

M^ Oa^^^ d*!™^, i, , s pentaphjlla JWb,. |44 

Zu*i.B.(Mili, G«. ! i'nJ.KJ 3 pul}&i<:en» Pl.r«4 144 

V™«.lUJ..yrK**^rt,An,er. 0^^- SpKla <^ PtfJ«. _ P. 
BlMwlnri Tor. ft Grn - 144 


I IIl.-i/Lrwri7«Desr.l45 

S. (/)tricar[>um (Wr.Hs! Th« Alljnio — IU«i Ehrli. ; 
Z.MroJi>i((iiii.>iiLini.,Tor,ft ■ JL?''"?' ' " 

1. gtanduloiiaJDft/: 145 

^, pnoira Sal., RMi 1^^- 

Subcl. 11. CALYCIFLO'lt 

I. Stapiivlb'a /,, 1*7 

lodtMnm Toum. ; ii™»&S-, 
/«-. Paine*irr. Fr. ; rtu-jT. 

S. pinnitn £. 

Raj: SiapUHrra FtMllIa aOta 
faia, lul. : Jl*-, r™r»r^ 

I. Euo'nvmus TVs. I4fl 

Splmlle Tr« Puialn. D,. 

'■ eiiropicW L. . 

Wwin-.Tjmrdj Ia,;i.' 

*^»< ™;v i- 

S lMiftliu.1,,,/ 

4. nSnut Bieb. 

5. atronurniireu 

E. ta,il.,,A«.t. i 
'"'l/^'AuHuili.: £. 

6. ainericanii>^ ' 


^4. 0.;i ^ibfricH L. £10 

- S06 I 36. triangularis ff^/i^.2 1 1 

Vibl O. Irintlra WaldlL it KU. 
li. Bui. Kuog.. butmtot Al[. 

.la - - iOS 
:am cPpftAfirm Cat. 

■noie. Letmei ail, 

■}te ofthem^T^etinlitU. 

•xknicaL. - 805 

,.) TadlklaScop. SOS 

U Dtc. - ' 20 

J6. purgaiu L. - 308 

BpirUum pirtnuLiu.Sji^ 

17. aericea Ifaff. - 908 

18. Rphvllai^e. > S08 

Sparli.'nt apkiOHtit Lin. fll. 
Buppl.. C. rtrfila Ljun. Dltl. 

SO ii])hal 

SI. (Fthn^nsiN Dec. 209 

SfuCrlfvn xMntf BLt. St. 
Ic. Mmil.. BsflnMq. Sinwh.. 
Imi BDt. Mlg.i Spar/iam /rf- 
■frmun Sm. In Bhi'i Crcl. 

28. diffusa rTiZ/iJ. 

29. prostrata Loin. 818 

O. pedumetUila L^Herlt. 
Stlrp,, G. diHimiim Dur. 

4>1ii6h ■ tia 

VII Cv'tisus Dec. 813 

C^Anu owf Spirlnnm if. L.. 
iHtetm, Ga. 1 CU», ful. 
% i. /4/ftaniiid(( Dec 
I. ilbusZA. - - 813 

^lu I«n. Diet,.' ^Rlun 


$ ii. I.4itlin<VH E 
3. I.ab6rnum Z>. 

Oct. i iHonieUo. iul. 

S pendulum /fort. 215 

3 auerclf^lium H. £15 

C. L. t fncinm. 

4 foliii lariegmlia ai5 

5 frignDi Hort. 915 

3. (L.)alpinu9JI/i//.81* 

Scotch Liiburdunir — C. Ld- 

Fl""™: CtfH«i .iS*'"i«''" 
MiTTich ileSi., C. l7«l^ Inl/- 

CtiUe Ha'^rr: r^ntcu^i. 
Atpm BotuteittaHm, Ocr. ; 



- 17G ' 

§ ii. FraMpula Toum. 
14. csrolimiinustf'iiA.176 
12. FriapiUL. - 177 

Bern^bearing Aidrr : Ner- 
prioi Saurttiu, Amu ttiytr, Fr. i 
ttaiitr ire/di-m, 0«.j JJ*a 

tf ■ngmtitolia iforf. 177 

16. lutimu-1 L' Her. 177 

£WeT SgeHa of RA/imnia.-^ 
R. nnMRiRui Bm, «. 
amtiMUaai Drtf. R pru- 
nUbllui In., Jf. SltKhorp- 
Mbw SefauU-ityn.^ R. ;miUi- 

■M(R>Uw Punh. 'nut or L' 
lleilUar), ». slalfUlut «i»il.. 
A. umbdUliu Cat. Jam., S. 
fcuriRiUui NyU., B. criKtat 
A'W(., B. linenUlul niri*. 
A. puvlOHiu nv, 4 Cm*, 
A. Amiglwui J^kO.. a. can. 
nmleui Ek»., B. tcifaiili 
Tor. f Gr^, A. put>£5c«Dt 

Inugrinilli • - ■ 1 

1. Pista'ci* L. - IE 

a trifoiu 

3 Dirbon^ruii A M. 185 

F. reUailila WlUd. 

a, T^reblnthus L. 185 Cbtan.TuipenUix 
TroB. — TffiWntti.. ivIViIni 
TounL, p. r.!f« Mm. Dltt-t 
PiuncUer TnMaOe, Fr, j 

V. Collet;.! Coui. 178 

lUdiniiail in part. 

I. hocrida lAiidl. • IT9 

Olier Spain of CullilU — C 
iplnfcii. l\ Bllrtoi, C. K^br- 

nSs E^frfr" B™^) . US 

Red RoM^-HJiamaiu iprcia 

tamm, Ger. ; drinioij, UmL 

1. nmericdnuB Z.. - 180 


•i anguMifolU Dtc. ISG 
P.OfUtimnitKia. Did. 

3 clili iV. J}, flum. iB6 

f. e*)a Daf. *Mi. U, Fir. 

(«*» SprrJn^ VtaicUl. — P. 

II. Ahu'sL. - 186 

The Suiiucb. — Shmuc, Ft. ; 

§ L Oifinut Tourn. 
1. C6tiniiBl,. - 1B7 

gifto™ Smp.Cara., U^nch 

8. typhlna 

2. utlrcuH lietf. - 

C. mlcnxAfiW Itarl. 

4. Telutlnus Doug. 

5. colDnuB Doug. 182 
Oilitr Sf'clei cf Ctanillmi.. 

I. Aristotb'lm H. 18 
1. Micipd L'H^rit. 183 { 

I hGrmaplirodlU 188 

R. rliOiTa U'[lld. SjHK. 

enenilo Dec. 

i^R. rtnvi Lin. ip7BI«. 

Boti liirto" " '- 

H IfiU. DM. 

6. copBllina L. - 100 

UoMiicM-lrcr-laKd $«ac*. 
8 leucintha Jiicq. 190 

7. Toxicodendron X. 190 


Sndlcani I'. ^ C 191 

R. r. -..feJrrMx. 

3 microcirpoii T. j- ff. ] 91 

k. (r(rW(. 

mlUbi. A. din 

tlmu., A. iitirliii 

. dep^ndeiu Z^. 
a™>-« «|tf,«« Ci 
cAiMH dfjtiitjfnt On. £ 


SmL I. Sopodnjjjt 

I. SOFHOEA R. Br. 105 



- 196 


3 virii^ats HoTX 

3 p^odula Hort. - 196 

2. heptHpliylUi Z. - 197 

II. \iK<n'UA L. - 197 
1. liilea Mx, - 198 

YiUov Hand. 

III. PlPTA'NTHl'SS. 198 

1. nepalenns Sipt, - 199 

Tlinrmtfiiii iahimf/blia D. 

Ua.'. SaalinaiupaUmii Hook 

Sect. II. LoTtM. 

IV. U\.EX L. - 1!S 

llMFurH ^tonc.Ff iHrc*- 

IMW. On. ; Clur. HI. 

I. eiiropEe'a L. 

rrmtaynraViMi.. U. *t. 

TbcHE : W'jtta, Odtjc, Prtctlf 

■urn. Jiimarin, OaUl ip(. 

S. (e.)naoa Forri. - 201 

3. (e.) prorinciiilis 2.. 80 1 
Cf. auariUi CUmeat. 


Irlib Vant. — V. Itlltnkica 
Dau'i UUl., U. JuU^ita Hurt. 

DbtfldH Snit '({T ^iSb 
Hail., WllBI ilLJHttM vIO- 

Ju Ut.> ■ ■ - «-■ 

V. S^AIRTIVM BBf. 203 

I. funccum L. 
Spaiuinili*! J finer! 

VI, 4;eni'9Ta Lam. 803 

GnUo <f &p6rtirm ific. 
l.hi.: tinf I. Fr. i atiHIiT, Get. : 

J L UHarmai. Leacet aU, 
or Jot Ibt moil pari, Iri- 
I, panifldra Dec. - 803 

2. cindicBii! L. 

3. pdCcni 2>rc. 

5. umbellata PcAr, 804 

L'HrsLt. , BaiUa In AuUliula.'' 

2 capiliu - - ZQS 

SptrUm capOUan Cst. 

$ ii. i^nnoM. ZAiDn all, 


6. lusit&nicB £. - 805 

7. fl) radii" Scop. 805 
^«rf«M« rodfdfim LiD.qi.. 

Mia Ic.. Stmt BM. Uw, C. II- 


8. qiheUroiilts Z)«:. 80j 
0. triacintboB Brot. £06 

a inlerrfipWifcc. S06 85.(t.)orita (ToW. 811 
Bpdifim hlrrT^pMnCir. a. mmila IU[. lo LIU. 
10, \\6TtviaDrc. 


I /«rri<h 


O. llipimica Juq. Icon, 

18, 5c6Tpius Dec. BOB 

13. hispinicai. . 1 

SpamLk Putkl, UorC. 

14. drulica £. - - 1 
Phit Whin.— C. wAwr 1 

15. Bermanica L. - i 
Mrplta tpiatna Ma 

MrtK.rdelm ntiaja fl.V, 
BxUnuala di SgHc, luJ. 
8 infnnii iJcc. ■ 808 

80. triangularis frw.8 11 

a. (rtnrlra WiUM. M KU. 

ST. sasiltUisL. - 811 

ti. kerbieea Li&. Fl. FV., 

OwmUfOa raamiH Htnch 

a inlniiti>ee. - ill 
88. ditfusa lVi//d. S18 

O. ImmfftMa Wul(.. tairih-m 
or All. "'■ "■ "™* 

29. pnetT^U Lam. 818 

IT. Bcricea PfV^ - 808 

18. aphvllaZJce. - 806 

Spariinn apteuum l.ln. SI. 
Buppl., Q, r^fiiaLMa. Diet. 

19. monosp^rma L. 808 

IM tpk^roci rpom 1 J 

8t. [Fthn^nitLH Dec. 30E 
3pjrf/m KIntitic BIt. Si 
Sic. Mum., HaHnMo. Sp«tb. 
SlnnBot, Mig.j SpJr/AiBi iri- 
^rman Sid. In !!«■'• Cfi'l. 
28. anxantira Ten. 80S 

VILCi'tisus /)fc. 813 
, C^iini oM S^rlAm ^. L., 
Lun., Ac.: tMtc, Fr.) But. 
mntnim, Otr. i DMkt, rul. 

i i. Albnmoidei Dec 

I. &lbuBZ>. - . 813 

iMUiMn N. Suh, : 

I incvnitui - 
( H. IjMnm 1 
2. Labtirnum 2.. 

2.1. tinctoria L. - 810 

O. HWai Lodd. CU. : Bnv 

Wsai.' ^fT-l Weed. Waai- 

Oaitl 'ir Satrle, Fr. : Farlie,^ 
4cr aiKtUr, Go. I BmrltaM, 

S flurepl^Tko - ElO 

S latifoli* Dec. • SIO 

4 hira^ia Dtc. - 810 

.■i prat&Bia FaB. 810 

frigniu .ffort. £15 
3. (L.)alplniisJW;//.815 

An 1 

penauiui • ■ 
purpuriKcnt B. 
r. Ji&M Pair. 

.. 216 

4 Mgruu Hort. SI T 

^ WeldtnaViB. - 217 

5. nlgriciuis L, - 818 

6. Kssililolius £. - <>"■ 

8. pktensZ. . - 219 

C ^andifl/lnu Dot Prod,; Gf ' 
SpSrUiim pdlnu Lin. sjit' 
SboKAhii graKfuUrBni Bnit! 
Ft. Lm. ; SarotMamrnut pilem 

9. icoparius Li. - 219 

KUpirluM Lin. Sp. sinilh Eag. 

9 dlbiis /fort. . 320 
S flore plfno ffort. BSO 

§ iU. CaJ^tomt Lk. 

10. spiniflus iam, 230 
SpdrlrHM ipAiJIiiiiii Lin. Sp 

1 1, tribrsctcol&tua \V. 22 , 
13. lanfgerus />fiT. 221 

Sliirtiiat luaiemm Dnr. 
Fl, All.. CnlfcAlo^railita U. 
Enum., SpJra',iM (AJSHmBim. 

SrigiduB Dee, - 231 
S IT. Tubacytina The. 
A. nwHTi B*rti or vduUMh. 
13. leucsnthua . 831 

R Ftowert purplt. 
1*. purpilreus Scop. 822 

2 flore Ubo Hort - 222 

3 fldra rdsco - 222 

C. RnKrt frliav. 

16. multiflorus £iM(/. 222 
Cftoiigiiii fi miiiijtii^ Dec! 

17. felcitUB If. * i", 223 

!0. hir«aiu8 Z.. - 8 

lot ofLln. 1 C. irlftinU U 

21. capit^tua Jora. 2: 

$lvilBll LlQ. S|>, ' 

*^«*» or S^,™n. _ a- 
ll)UI UlMtllclu /.Ml,, C ca- 
lif IMBl R>e*. nj- Oo(.. ~ 

C. |>«"inn'im/.o*., c° nirea. 
IU. ImI., C. luplQU Lc4. tti 

22. citiAtus WakUnb. 224 

23. polytrichus SieA. 224 
5 y. Lo«iW« Dec. 

2*. argfinteus I,. - 235 

L«>u argtnt. Brat Fl. Lui. 
25. calycinus Birh. 225 

86. njnus lVi//d. - 2i 
CAronaiMw Dec. 

87. orientnlu Ixjw. 226 
" g'^J**''''' *'■ ""If* * 

Oa^Spfcin qfcflinii C. 

VIII. Adrn-ica'ri-usZ). 
. hispanicuM Dec. 227 

C^fi'tw iiipdnaia Lim 
Diet.. C. tauaOriTU L'HWt'. 

.f. intermedius iJce. 228 

G^!tiaaimplicilat ttr.Fl. L. 

4. parviRliiis i^, . 228 

O^iut lanifUm, N. Du 
HiuD.. LuL Diet, ncrliuin of 
the .™. ( C.#((«M *™-iM(w 
L'Hirtt. SOrp-i CA/Ma coh- 

1. rnilicdsai.. . 830 

/mj^. Ft. i /iMsEO Bailaria, 
a nnguitifSliB Pun. 2^0 

3 emarpnata Purih 230 

4 Leirisii Ld. Ct. 230 

5 CBTiilca Ld. Ca.1. S30 
8. (f.) elibn, Dc^ 2.10 
3. (F.)nanaiVK«. -831 


5. ('r.)(T6ceo-lanala 231 

Tairnir Kailard Imiilgo. 

6. (f.)(.-an^scen8 A7.232 

XI. Evsbnhi'rdt/^ H. 

DaOtrgU Sprcng. Sga. Arp. 

XII. RoBr\M L. 83.1 

M«h. : Robmirr, Fr.'i Battnil. 

I. Pseild- Acacia L. 233 

"rntdv^TM Roib,, Af^ncd- 
l^la'blme, Camise da Aimt- 
2 ildre Ittteo JW' 234 

5. teloninsis Dec, 228 

Cflinu lrh<-*«l, iA,- - 
al.. N.Du Hun. I Sm 

19. BapitiasJacg. ■ 223 
C. iDfRdn Pour. kit. TduI. 

IX. Ono'mis £. . 229 

""' ' ReKbuTDW. _ KitAnii 
«, r,, }''.'' r *'""°'' *•«">.; 
' UatXcditCGer^"'^' ' 

1. fruticosa Ii. - 829 
2 micmph^lla J)«; 229 

2. rotundiidlia Z.. - 229 

trlbncMdla Cvc. . -399 

X. Amo'ppra Z. . 830 

7 «p&jratfolia £. C. 234 

8 HlnorphielolU U. 2?A 

9 alricu Lk. . 234 

10 proceraXot/rf.Ca(. 234 

11 pfndula Ort.Dtc. 234 

12 monatriM i. C. 234 

1 3 iDflcrophf ll« Z- C. 23 4 

14 rnicrophjriB /,. C 334 
R- inffHif/rBAa llort. 

15 Bpectabilis BiHH. 234 
Acacia arafanle of the 

16 l»ti<lliqit» Pr. Cat.SSi 
i. y'lucdaa Vent. - 833 

H. fhiliadia Bol. Mug.. R. 

3. dilhia Fouc. - 836 
" »Jtnta Audlb., n. am- 
Folr. Supiri., rjt. fc*^ 


SIbnIu rm Trn.~llaUmt» 

I . arborfscenB Lam. 837 
JEdMhU Cuuiu Lim. ».p 
N. Dm Han., faU. fl. »*.. ; 

2 in^rmlB Hart. - i3B 


Polr. Siq:)!). 

i. (a.) Reddwskt D. 838 

2 pTK'roi JT«A- - 239 

S.(a.)areDBrini>oRn 239 

6. frut&icens Dec. 839 

P^. Fl. RSH.; C. I^ila 

Lvn. Diet. 

1 iMtffilia - - S39 
S uiguMifuru ' S39 

7. (r.) mdllU 5fu. 239 
Ai>»i>U in«u» Bleb. Fl. 

(ftJ^Fluta^urt. Conok., C|I 

8. pvgmx'a Dec. ■ S40 
JbiMl nttK'a Lit. Sp., 

U artaaria Z' 

9. snindsa Zltn 

Mor. Alt. Fit., Cuigiu/^TH 
10. 'nuacBfithiikles 940 

iMtaS U-^nrmiKffMfl Fill. 
fAiUaLodd. CU. 
Il.iubW Poir. - 2-11 

AjMiiaMliI Fall. In Ad. 
PW. Aitr., LoM. Bol. C^. 

12. grandiflAm i>e<-. 241 

13. Chamlaga Lain. £41 

lana argi^fcn Lani. In Fall. 

r Tulgire J)«. Pr. 243 
3 bracbysteu Z>. F. 2A2 
3 Sievfnij . . 243 

2. (a.) Bubvir^cns 243 
SsAbila irAUra L'Btrll. 
SUrp. Not., H. arxMnan d 
HirMMni D«c. Prod. 


1. woWricB Fi-di. 843 
CSIItia nipianu Fall. llln. j 

CilCHf KvUiricia LId. Fil. 

all., N. DuHam.i CoOIra 
Mea Lain. ■ Mtmxirjna 
hull Spmg. Srit. 

XVI, COI.U'TE* fi. 5r. 

1. arboi^scens L. 244 
C.UriUaRothFI. G«ni. 

2. (a.) cruenta .4//. 244 

DrivDta] Bladdar Senna.— .(!. 

Hun. Kit 
Sdkmtut- Jirb. \ t;. litria Mill. 
Dice; C. pnK«»liiiu L'Hirll. 

5, nepnl^nais HoiA. 845 


I, TragHcSntha Z.. 24« 

nmiriwl'i TbDm.— A. niu- 

Don'lMlll."' '■ 

OOKt Uwnv>tta Sp^rt 1/ A«- 

iTagitha.— A. olt^lcui /.AAf. 


Un. Sp.. 

r. 1 , E. winor Mill Ic. L in. 

2 >uncea I,. • - 848 

Sect. IV. Phasiolui. 
X[X.WisT*"H/>N. 848 
EHIot, ArifiAla A<^ 
1 . frul^acenx Dec. 

GlirtiK finlfic 
A^pHU JnMuieMt ra. n. not. 

Mnt, An6ntrmoi fi mtttaem 
Walt. n. Car., IC/iblfU v<' 

fiSwtiu liiuliant DIM Joiirn. 
AwL Ah. FklUd., Pkain- 
li'iia Hot!. AngL : T>c SlUlW|^ 

8. chinfnaUI^. - 240 

aiSciiK rklntiali Bol. Hag., 
O. t/mfmii But. >t«., )r. Cm. 
Hfiidna £«■<«■ tmV.B. 

Sect V. C»ut'.s. 
Jui€ia M. Pluk,: FMrr. 
Fr. ; GlnlJlte»(r, G«. | CMU. 

aTa. wrfds'c^ 

Ilal. i TkoTTiM Acacbi, tevrl 
/.MW.UDltnrBtaM I Canvt 

a Min, cuHia. 

S iD^rmis Die - 3S0 

3 brechjeirpa . 3SO 
Q. braekuearpa Punh. 

2. (t.) monoKpf rma 851 

Uativo Lam. Diet, (J. laiiJ- 

3. sinentiia Lam. - 858 

S. lUrrHfaWllld.Gp.: RiHr 

3 mijor /r»r^ - Si 
O . Wrriila Bi^iT Lad. Ui 

4 cloa Hart. ■ . Si 

Sect. ni. /Tmnxs 


S purpilrea I/art. < 

G. Hrnda piatpArta lmx, 

-C. cMn^iu (F'Ju).'" 

4. (a.)macJ-Bc4ntha 854 
O. J&M Budi. : Ftcler i 

fTDtfrt E'pinet, fr. 

5. (e.) ftrox DcgC - 25* 

6. ciapica !;«/: . 25* 
9 HibrirJseeiu Hart. S54 


OUitr Strua/ aiaOlKi 
mJmeiolht Ban. St 
G. E^ H«t. Sw 

a. mtoitia Lmli. 
mirma). O. oftantU 

dicica Vmfil SjBh., 
1 : Nicker Trte. SHtmp 
lited SMMl Anufac 

Fr.: CUoU. Cunldluii 

XXII. Cs'fl. 

I,. 256 

5«h, '"^ntri-'^'FT. -, Jtidat. 
lamm. Oar. ( AOin ii Ciuda, 

1, SillQuifttriim i^. 857 

l^KhMMh.: iUwr TVa,- 
GaiMn- nnnnn, jfrin * 
Jmlle. Fr. I .IrW *-^r»r. 

HoDcbHDLh. : Stil Bird Tr, 
2 puUsceiu PA. - s; 

SiKt.1. .^htod^'lia Jii 

L/fuY'ODALUsT'. 21 

Th> Almond Tm — 4nnrgc 
JMora Nsck. ; AmimHtr.f\ 
Ji£«MbMM, Gh. I M-mM 

1. n^naL. - - !< 

■Jna »of., A. »W|arft De 

2 gefirRi™ i)™. - S 
A. grdrgia Dsif. Arb. 

9 camp^rit Scr. Q 
A. cvn^tfrA BflUnr 

4 aibSrica I-Ai. Cat. 
incana Pa//. - 


9 d^lcis Die. - SBI 

Tha iwM AJmuad. 

DuHuo.. NoLi. J. F. 
■nuTocicpa Str. 364 

ricoida &r. 3GS 

ni of L. ft )u», TrjJWr- 
flfr)nlni*iii.m, "Otr. i >««,' 

I. Tulgaria Miii. 266 

AmftdalHi Flrtica L. Sp, ! 

J'icAe Awlnur, Fr. ; PJIikIk, 

iTIie free-stone ooff 



fftikf, Fr. 

2 The clinn-ilone 


men Pe«h 

r«i*. Fr. 
3 flore pUno Hart. 



4 i[\M LiKffi 


S KliiB v.riegitiifll 366 



2. (v.) ia'vis D«. 


TbBNiKHrliwiTrt..- AmA- 
•ItlaiVtTIKa Lin. DIcl A. 

I NfTlarhm All. Hoit. 
1 The free-slone Neo- 

III. ^rjieni'aca r.267 

a cordifolia Sir. ■ 9C8 

4 Bore plino Hor«. 268 

.S.('v.)iiih(ricH Per$. 869 
+, (v.) bricantiaca P. 270 

Frteu irlgamlaca VIU. 
D>ij^..D«. n, Fr., Lidl.ln 

I^Aminu, Ocr. ; froM, lul. 
1. spindea L. - 271 

Comvioit SJ« Tliorn. — P. ip^ 
rfi(r/j Fuch. Hill., BavSyn.: 

, E-firu ■ 


r fVunrUD. lul. 

- 271 

I. vuI^sZrirm. 267 
1 oTBlifolU Ser. S6B 

2 filiLBvaiieg. 'Ser, 871 

3 miaodrptWaUr. 271 

4 mscrodirpa fTaSi-. 271 

5 ovita &r. - 271 
6earepl^IU> - STl 

2. inEitltJa L. - 272 

P. tylrfttrii B^for Baj : J'n*. 
ntrr iniiHvf, Fr. ; Alfaloiu In 
D>iiptitD7', Xfnc*« i'jfaiuie, 

1 ftficlu olgio Hrl. 272 

2 f. lilte<.-iIbo Hn. 272 

3 fructu ribro i/rt. 273 

4 fl^re pUno Ccu. 273 

3. doin&tica L. ■ 273 

4. (d.)niyrabAlBnBi;.274 
P. ligroiilim Du Hum,, P. 
wvrobaiaitti Loll., P. onuiAfrd 
Ehrh.Bvltr.: IVrilMnClmv, 
JEitrfr &arM P&in ; Pnnuer 
M^ohaUm^ or CrrittUcy Fr.; 
KiTMcknfiammt, G«r. 

2 fSliit var. AT. 011 A^.274 
6. cindicans Baib. 875 


OtkirSftt/aqrFttmmt . m 

V. CrTxAtiis Juu. 876 
Tin Cl Htr^. — Zjurnrff jMi 

K. Du Hu^ DoD'i Mill. 1 C 
mkra Hill, DM., DCH of Alt. 
Pr*H( drrMH llD. Sp.i F 
a>A>iHMr. at SWUM. Bum. 
p. 4>4n Mr. ^4r Bni. Flor . 
P. ■ifrttw um /.r^Bbwh. 
nttU.: Oram, Btltrrtmi. Ce- 
rom, Ciinwa, SmaU Black, 
BbK* ^rtfitnlMrr, Blati 
Htart, SUtk MaOMri, at 
McTTf Tttt if thfl CliCillIra 
puiua ; Ikt Kcrrla In Suf- 
folk: Mtriitrr, Mrriit itomii 
mirt. Omigm/tr, BUarmmiicr, 

S Guigoien or ( 

S Heaumiera^ the bd- 

C t. duricina S Ban 

pliao Hart ■ 2T8 

trtrUltTi Flmri datAla, 

8. vuIgiriB MUl. - 87S 

Prkw Ctrami Lis. Bp. ; c! 
ttnhuli Pan. Sn. i C. cbtd- 
dUiii Dtt. Fnd~ Dtm't WoL i 
P. awtfrw ad P. <eMa Blir. 
Flar.i'acrrv. XnSSarKni 

CtriMi te Maittmmmim, Ctrit* 
ttTtrt,, OHfaFrSumidi, 

3 fldre pUno Hari. £79 
* petKtaban Hart. 279 
5 foliii Tvirgitis ff.STS 
niiff.t«r^ rarlMfa. 

(mt.— Th> BIgvrHu.Bul. 
Clkrtri, the Hit Uuk™ lh< 
Honllo. D'Oohflni - m 

3. (v.) semperddrena : 

Bellr.. P. wrMnu Rdtli Ci 

4. serrulBtafr'. iJon i 

aat OLcrr^: yimt- Tt, Cblil 

5. Paejdo-Ceruus S*t2 

PrliKi FltUo-Ciram. 

ctOila Kar Bui. Rr^', b^f^ 

14. hyeui^lii Midui. 885 

\5. chlcaw ^AfioLr. - 8BA 

Prkau cUnui Punb PL 
Anur. ■■g;^^^'^" *•>«■ 

16. pub^ens &t. . SSS 
Prl-M fuMicrm fa. Fl. 

7. prostrBla iSw. - 888 

lYtanii/irDifnlla Hart. Kew. 

rdH Supluni Id H^. Sdc 


S.^KTsiciiblia Z.ou. 863 

9. borealis Michx. ~ 883 

PrAiBU ioreilH Pull. Met : 
Ut N^IHtTW a^U Cktrrf. 

10. pilmik Jiicb. . 883 

PrW. ;>ik«i(i LLn. Hani., 
Punb n. AmfT. Sept. 1 C^- 

II. (p.)depriwaM.884 

C. pimfU Hlch. PI, Bor. 
.... .^_.„ ^^11, j^_ 

18. pjgmK'B Z/uit. 884 

Frtaniann^a WUId. Sp.. 
Punta Fl. jK«. Sept. 
13. nlgTB £ou. - £84 

17. pennaylvimcaZ. 286 

Prima pmnitediuica L, U. 

WULi AboT" ' ^' '*'°"'™ 

IB. jap6nicaZ«u. . 886 

Pr^MU Jujuin TbuDb. Fl. 
J-ip. •nd lindl. In Bot. K<c, 
F Mi>«iHf( Fwi. Encb. 

S maitiplcl S'B-. - 288 

19. sin^nsia G. ZXm 88T 
80. ralfi^ina G. Don 887 

Hori, Ti™. : Ckt^-C*t-L^, 
am«(. C*al. ZA,Tbliw. 
Jlfn/ii hOangimtiiiUti pmtt- 

A,!'pfHri^B/rd.airnw IVbh 
alrtrntr in Cmltfrubm fm 

!1. Jtfat<iiU Hill. - 888 

PrtaKiXihUDbl. J., A>£| 
^ SainltLucit, arPmiirrUt- 

S ftfiitu fliTo flort. 888 

3 latifolium Hori. £88 

88. PUuB /)»c. - 880 

Frtmii PAAh Lta. Sp., 
Hm*. Brl(. Finn. Smlih-i 
EniL Flnrt ; BtrO-amy, 
Foal OuTTf, HttitTs Swi. . 
--w- a n iiTtiltr 

'rraiter i Orapptl. 1 
OTIfpa, Uatritr.Pi 


9 parriflora Str. - 3t 
S riibn Ser. - SS 


£3. lirginiilna Mi. S91 

Si.(T.) 8er6tinal/j.2 

Ancricu Blr>t-CherTT Ti 

i rrtilM Srr. . 298 

85. mdllis Sdi«. - 892 

86. CapSUia Dec. - 898 

H»1C. 1c. UldllSS., P. OKU. 

Ic. Iwd.. Hun. Hn. 

87. nepal^na'iB &r. 893 

r. flLilptlu Lou., C puika- 
Uu Z,<iir. - - ■ Ka-4 

i iti. Lamcinui. 
Tlw Lnurel-CtieiTT Tre». 

88. lusitBtiica Lmi. 89* 

ComnioD Porlug^ Lnmrl. — 
Friliiw ^wUjiUO. Lin. Sp.: 
/At Ckrrry Baff : Cfritier Lait- 

'a ffffo SeV. - 394 


I. JBodnicailrc. - 89^ 

iUmt Ji^aicMM Lin. Hunt. 
CSrdliinii JapSnicMt Thunb 
Fl. ItP; S»w-«"o J*p6ti<x 
Cimb. Ann. Set. NU. i ^irt' 

s'l^ pUl 


VIII. Spira'a L. -299 

$ i. PKymArpat Camb. 

1. opulifuliaZ. - 80S 

_ fVr^n GtiiUtr But, 

S tomeiit^llB Str. - 300 
SmonAgy™ - aoO 

S. caiHlita Pk. - 300 

I Tuli^riaOim.Maii.300 

3 midla P*. ft Am. 
Srpt., Camb. Mtm. SCO 

SoblongitaiU CM. 30} 
3. ahiwtmu WaMB. tl 

4 ■ubrooemou iSrr. SOI 

5 inclu fiiiri. - 301 

^ (c.) ulmlfbVia Srp. 301 


a phylUntha Str. 901 

5. (r.) flexuosa Fit. 301 

a. <iA.I>a Hon. Pmi. ««.M- 

dilSrioi Wen.. - 
S. cirplDimil. 

■ctlU Sir. . 

2 Tiriegita Sort. 895 

3 ugtutifaiia ifort S95 
30. CBfolini^na Mx. 296 

Did. ; )rCU Oranfc, Amur. 
Sect. II. ^NiiAE'.a. 

VI. Pu'r8h;> Dec. 897 

1. tridenUta Dec. - 897 
Tl^ns irMauaia pb. Ft, 

B. (c.) rnitiE^rd1ia£.308 
7. (c.) Setulifolia P. 308 

?S. caryniUia lUr. In D«t. 
Jouni., 'r s. cmWiOWfa Lk. 

10. alpina Potf. - 303 

11. Aypericifoliai>e. 303 
Kgflrtam frtta Hon. ; 

1 ural^nns £rr. . 303 

Ll0„>nd Dgn-i Mill. 

3. hnvrtc^fiUAl Canb- H. 

8 FlukeDclidu Sr. 304 

S. tWM-iCeWla LId. Sp.. 
S. h.w.^bn.Pl. Ft. 

u naldM. etKlt. 


6 Biwn'diu Scr. 304 

s"°.lp!n» («o.'), S. KulllMU 
(&l;, .!. derdDili^ [40.) 301 

12. («.) fbalinroldes 305 
a. «wiM(ro«o Pall, iiin., s. 

13. cundfolia FFo//. 305 

S. ontJcni Dun. Prod.. Dab 
Prod., SoD'l MiU. 1 «. antWM 

14. pikowifnsu Be; 305 

1 5. ceanothil&lia Hn. 305 

16. corvmb^a Aq^. 306 

a lorana - . 306 

17. iiaccinu((tlu>CJ>.306 

8. lUmaHWa Hon. 

la. laiiflAra lAnM. 306 
19. b^lkiSnr. - 306. 

3 panteuUu ftlU. Sp., 

Ait. H. K. - 307 
S. ian Ebrh. Brttr. 

4 Utiraiia WilLL Sp. 307 
S. Dbn^ta RiT. In LIU., 

5 giandiflora 

S. (><>«a Hon. , 
OUfT Vartaiet or «h«i 
nUa, S. ladDliu S. d 

M1»^ ». Ui 

Si. MenzieM Hook. 306 
S3. tomeDtosa L. - 306 

S. DBatOiti Hpat. n. Bcr. 

83. Iievl^ta L. - 30B 

PiUnp.. S. nUdlOi' Fill! Fl. 

24. orisfBlia Anifi 309 

Salpliu PaLFLR. 309 
S. m«*|)»™ Swt. K. Br, 

86. LiniUefimWal.SlO 


IX. A U' BUS X. - 311 

W. A N,, Dflt of Sanjl, lo Km. 
BoCwlileJi U 1 laiia larm at 
It iHluli tr.^S.; R. ««»«- 

/MAn Wllilabna. Tlnwhale 

2. affinis W.^ N'. -318 

Smith la Eni. Fl'. LbuU. Ld 
Sj-u. Br, PI. fd. i.i R. pffcanu 
BOiTor In Eur. Bot. SuppL 

4^ occideniiilu £i. - 31 

Um'iafiElm ■ten Dlliri t) 


6. roryliloliuBSmiUSlA 

R. ralrirti W. ft N, R. 

yZortiipTi D 

licToph^lli^ r^ 31 

$ iL Ltiaiei digit 

3 — 5 bq^. 

6. taciniatiu W. 


9. ipectalulii Ph. 3le 

10. fniticAsua L. - 316 

Thronnnion BlukbviT R. 

^I^m^ Bra 

R. a^mum NmiUi. nfVr 

rW»r» ; — jf7 lucroplitniu 

IV. iH.. X. anlolC^llU IF. 

«A". tr.iW. 
». KlPhlfif W. k N.tR.HU- 
IW« W. ft V.i. R. ilMiHlii. 
li,ui( jnflt. R. rddb H'.t' V. 
(B.«itrl>dni>UDd]. Sjn. hI. 

CillM,' iiort. 

S nonpJniw S«r 

5 loliii varieg^tii SIT 

6 Uaaxiipiu Str. 317 
. hfapiduB L. 

S unutlotn &r. . SSO 
Pjruieiia ^ Nnti . PM, 
Lslua. Put. n. •«-. >, 

3. Salesovii Steph. 3S0 
Oo'harum palCiMre Z,. 

XI. CowA'NM D. Don. 
I. plicaU D.Don 3H 

Seel. IV. Bo'»A Dec 

XII. .Ro'sA Tuum. 321 

Tha Boh Trw, — Alortf. 

J i, Ferdcti Lind Uonog. 
I. rerox Laior. . 32S 

R. t am t i d tSlini fijinr Sw. b! 
U«. PRXL, a HMmdU Do. 

3 nlleni LindL in BoL 

Rfg., &>-. in Dec. 

Prod. - - 32S 

8. (f.) kamucli&tica 3E2 

§ a. BraditUa, 

3. brscteaU JVetiM. 333 

L^r4 tiae*rirHw'i /late. 
a ■cubrica^lii i.iW.3S3 

3 flore pl^ao .»^i>r<. 323 

4 MvikLeonidair. 3X3 

4. iiiicro)jh(llHAarA. 3S3 
tlot-amt-*Bi^, Cfalnna. 

5. involudits J?ari. 324 
fOltitrit Buchu. (Uim.) As. 

$ iii. Cinu 

. of Nora 

6. I^cida £ArA. - 

B. rUra Mrtfa Roulg. : 
R. lAdda j4Cq. Fruid. : 
TWiuipi : Bmitr i raim 

H ntfltMH TbgiT 

., Google 


9. Aipa Bote - S85 

B. liriUa Pm. Blich„ R, 
trmtimifitia PuniAl in Cwin. 


9. parviAdre Ehrh. 385 

Ti( Pmii.jUKdul Row— R. 

S flonpJenoiin'. ii- 336 
iO./raxinifaiiii Bork. 326 

I I R ccntfO'te MIIL 

rrCM Routt. RH'I R W^fts 

go. lutescens FuriA 3S9 

Liwt. B«. 

- — '- -'-'1.,^. (.- 

«. Wo6diffLliidt., 

18.cinnB[ndmea.B«/. 326 
HuiT., B. KiVajTlloim.Dhi: 
OM(r JurOTTM S^Kt" "Of 
WaMo ^BrUain — It. tia- 
tetftruB Asi.. HAririatairli. 
■Dd A ditatelc* Pof. in 
13. (c.)mBJ«lis Befit. 327 

R. mJIMca Fl. DUL, R. jpf- 

14. IKcksonuina L. 327 
$ ir. FimpinrlliJSHie Lindl. 
A. Sfmla Nati^a i^ Europe. 

1 j. al|>lna Z.. - - 328 

B. SauWijrta miKr/(. 

ieTimL El[h. 
K. a^liu hUAth Dht. 
S, a. H^drti Bad. Hoi. 
9 ■pcaioH Mort. 33R 

OUo- FarirUa. - lis 

16. Buivis fTJilU. - 328 

17. lulphilres Ait. 329 

R, tti^lfifrlai RoB.DJu., 
B. (jwa^iiiUa Ebrh. Baltr.. 
BHalUrifinrliiK, Rll HU.. 
B. MUn Bnc. Fl. Lui. : (*< 
4hiMi IFeUM Xdh. 

18. HinguiBorlKfoU). 389 

B. MftmlllflM (W. HWH/' 

witMi Usdl . Rot, R' ^"i". 
■or. afenflitUa 8w. In Dk. 

82. rev^rsa ff. .^ f . 330 

D. ^fle<9 Xatinti qf Britain. 

23. apiiuufMima L. 330 

24. rubfllB iS^iM < 331 

25. hibernica Siralh 331 

26. WRsoni Borr. . 331 

27. involi'ita SmilA . 331 
B. mitilii Doan Hort. Gut. 

28. Sabini Woods - 338 

Var.—It. B.fTtdUiH. 5. 

29. Doniofui Woods 332 
B. &M>I f Dndl Ah. 

§ T. CentifiUa Lindl. 

0. damasc^na 3fUI. 338 ' 

aHm If MkUae S^vft, 
33. tiufnnita Aii. - 335 

fMuMla Efarti, Beitr., fLfiim- 
o^orti^tta Munch. HmoiT., R. 
frami/iirlliua Roulf. Sim. 

Inncofurtipa r 
34. ilba L. 

AtUnaliSil'' Woodi, R. |i«n- 
"yar^Si - - M* 

36. tomentdsB Sm. - 336 

iglndla Liiull. 

A. SprcUi Katira qf BHIaM. 
37. niblgindu L. - 337 

Tlia SwtMbrtiF. DT Efln- 
■In*. — R. nuii/Wl Lbhif. 
SfM., Fl. Dun. ; 11. Bflaultell 
JVUJ. AM., i.A>. b. ed. l.i 
R. agrtoit Stii Ff. Pto.i S. 
mA^imiMK forrlflAra Rul 

36. micrinlba Ah. - 337 

B. rmtiftnllMa a mttrSrUAm 

39. s£pium Thiol, - 337 
B. MtfUea ud R. ntrtmna 

40. iDoddre - - 336 
B. ilinul»r_n Bnc. Bat. 1 

B, aSrrcii Sm. £»■ A., Dch'i 
Mtil- 1 R nMgtnSia ■ST. fiv- 

B. ^S^Bfei K^ipa <g MMili 

41. littea D. Don - 338 
B. EgUnlMi /.ibi. ^- AX. 

X«. I R. fi^lHa Heno, Dlu. i 
R. Alonik^ia Ehrh. BdU. i 
B. «ru7l0Hl(. BOL 

S Bibritbn Std. S. 338 

3 puntcca Lhul A. SM 

fa ynliM HUL DkL, 


R. Btt . Mi kM R^.goi.^.fentorI>e.FI.Fr. 

4 fldre pl^oo • 338 

5 HSggit D. Don 339 

Bw^ R. nwM^ I'vct, 

f >iiL Caniita IdndL 
A. ^cdn JbMa ifBHUtt. 

42. eanka £. - 339 

LolLS il. orvtlHu Bchruk Fl. 
tL'njuni Her J B. Itnt^tn^ 
Ddbd Hart. Gun. kL 8. ; B. 

K aeiphjila Ziii^ 3H9 

R. adpllfilM Rau., B«l. 
Oiiir rtTKit-,. - . MP 

43. Fo-Meri Sm. - 339 

M. dumetdnunT^ia/.SW 
Bui. Id Dm. Fl. 1*7 , Sn^iai 

R. atryu^f^prd OnisL Fl. BkL 
45. sarmenCicea Sw. 340 

DlL. R. caiHU Roth Fl. Oir; 

m. cx'sia J'iR. - 340 

47. rubiHrdlla H//. - 340 

H. imJbllUrs Rern. Aft .L«iu. , 
Areh,, R. ttrila Andr. Hot.; 
B.dimmm»ma yrmirONiatiri. 

C. Sptda KaUtcm </ Atle. 

4«. caucuictijPa//. -341 
49. indica L. - -341 

S NoUelluiu Set. 343 

R.Mifw(IiiAH Svt Bon. 

4 longifcilu ZJmff. 348 

j pi)mi1> LixU A. 34a 
6 carjophf 11m Aid. 34S 
T ptuinoM Rtd. - S4S 

8 crutolaAtd amIDon'i 

MilL . - 34S 

9 Ffwiiima Hort. 343 

10 itlgtLiiidL B. S. 343 

1 1 ochroleilea B. A. 343 
19 flaifKeni . - S49 

13 Blairii D. Dtm - 343 

50. amnperflorens C. 343 

UjHrrrii/iiui Vnit. reii,. R. 
irmgall<ul. P.-ri. Eoch., R. 

51. LflirrenceJnii S. 343 

i.»ahceaLindt. • 344 
$ ir. Syilyla LiadL 

3 ayicHhirei Sm-. - .145 

3 hJbricU Liaif. «. 345 
B. Speda Nalift et HIHU 

55. (a.)BeiiinErvlreiis345 


56. n)ukifl6raTtunJ.34B 
_R. jM«o Donn. B. JUrUa 
Pair. Suppl.. B. i^'^H Ruib. 

3 GrMillet Hort. - 348 
R. AuMnMI Kirf. 
^^rlMrpkglu Bed. R«. 

Bouih61u' Hort. 34T 

57. Brunonii' Lindl. 347 
R. Bi^mi 4>m(. ^(. 

5S. moBi^h^ta ^fij/. 347 

4 DcpslCn^ i.iiiA 348 
O^w '■'"-- Tl« MogfJ 
T»-i»nte4 .""'-»« 

D. Sptda SMItH 1/ \o«* 

59. rubifolia R. Br. 348 
{ I. AnLbiinn i,im«. 

60. ifnica Aii. . 349 
Thi trlbllue-lwri Chlu 

Boh B, trifiiliiia Bok Diet. 

68. microc4rpei/mrf^ 350 

63. hjstrix Lmif/. - 350 
OUieT iptctn and FerleUit af 

H9» ■ - . -*ia 

1. itriwifTilia iinrf/. 352 

R. HmpUcifiUa Sal. Hort. 
Alkn. 1 B. bcrlKrVa/iti Pall. 
Llndl. Roa. HooDf. Ftcneb 
rdllloa, Dh, Pnld.. Spma. 
Sr«. WallrMb Monoc. 


bKAra*t tUiprl. Otr. : tnMK- 

2 coiiliiia' - - 354 
C. cDTdJbM Lodd. CU. 
C. ptrri^nmu, ■n^C. 

C.BeAr£ita Doag- 

4 mfiinuiLwI.aif. 324 
C. c. iTrfnaiji CodeftOT. 

Bnespolitina /fort. S.M 
(ana GoialtOf. 
i. rianduldsa >r. - 354' 

C. TOImidilSllii Booth. 

5 buccuI^dU .n'tcA. 954 
Klipilui ncntfaM B. 

3 tubvillou - - 35£ 

3. puoc[&lB Alt. ■ 365 
C. Crut-galU IXl Ral, M«i- 

pjiMi acarOliUa Ebih. Bellr.. 

3 riibm PiD-fA . 356 
C.cdiUi RiBiildl. 

3 r^brsitrictx HarLSSS 

4 Btira Au-fA -' 356 

.« brev^ptna Douf. 356 

4. pjriKlia -li/. - 356 

Ci mt om kl a f 'ul UeklUJtiH'ied) 
Honch WsIh., C. rxUdu Lsd. 

§ uL Macrac&K&a. 
6. macracintha Z<orf. 357 

£ minor - - 368 

$ a. O&i-giBL 

6. Ciiii-g&lli L. . 356 

C. flcMi Wang. An., Mill. 
nict.iC.CBiwi^nLadrl. CM.: 
WapOiLt rtnaa Ehrh. Beltr., 
M. CrAl-giOi Polr.i U. *^. 
naiii iftjl. 1 M. cimcfr&a 

3 spl£nd«ni bu - 359 

C.vturirM/aandC.jB n- 
dmt Laid. Cut. 

6 nina iJH. Prod. 3G0 
H«4ii}h ndiu I>uni. Sup. 

7, [c.)OTHlilBlia//iim.360 

Cr6i-gidiotiali]ilia But 'llsg. 

B.{c);)ruiiif61iaBoic 361 

tUiDjfiii iin~(W/d Poll. 
Dtst., C. canftitAliu Lsdd. 

§ I. Mj™. 
0. nigra IV. ^ K. - 368 

C. corpiUrai Iddd. CU. 

? (7. ftiscl Jocf. - 362 

10. purpfirea Smc 363 

2 fll^^ -° - 3S3 
C. aMka Lodd. Cu. 
j vi. ZJeii^Uiu. 

11. Dougliksn Lindl. 364 

13. ftkva ^if. - 364 

iXm Uon.'i C. f'wt 

14. (f) triloUta L. 36e 

16. cordftla M'ifl. - 367 

Heg.. C.jUnda 

2 gejrsica - - .168 

5 1, Aioroli. 
tS. Aiatoha L, - 368 

Pinu AurMu Stop, Carw., 
J. SaiJl. mil. : tUipilul Au- 

Ataral Maptl, Ov.i !.4iilrl 

Aui4lB. with rellowlih white 

lUlT «B 

19. (.d.) maroccina 369 
eordtn "to" »«■ : "&^?™i 
80. Aiima Bote - 370 

Aia^liu ^ Wtild. "p.. C./fu^ 
SI. orientMiB .Sue 371 

82. canacetifaiia P. S78 

ttfifilHt Imiaalf/illa Pnlr. 

$ li. HcterophyUa 
83, heterophylla f . 37* 

24. Oxyacintha L. 375 
' -^ 


we, Fr, ; Hofttlirm gtmti' 

2 slricta Lorl Cai. 375 
3pindul«/j«i,Cn(. 376 

4 regime Rbrt. - 376 

5 CelBunn Hort. 37" 

' Gcapitita Sm. Ayr 3TT 
7 Seiuou Sm. Ayr 377 

B. VaricUa iCMMh A> Ue 
rMmr i^llu Karen. 

fl rosea flbrt. - 377 

E'fimlir UamM, Fr. 

9 puni«a Lad. Cat. STl 
C. O. rSlcanptrta Hoit 

C. F'tfHetin t/ifirimg /m the 
HevflffprnaU or Htntclmrt qf 

10 mOltiplei Hurt. 3T7 
C. O-JIdrrplimi Hort. 

llpanfcMff. FliDa3T7 
1 S inciD6|[7iui - 377 

C- nnmOfjpu Jacq. 
13 upaaU £aJ.Cat.377 

D. Fanelia ^trl,^ A> Oc 
14pmco)i«'Dr(, . 877 

1 6 truMjlninica B. 377 
B, VMrktia imri^ a» l*c 

17 meluiociriM • 37B 

C. OA^nikiuSHe. 

C. (WkHi Lntf. CU. 
C.sri^luaiVi LodiLCU. 

IBaureaffljrf, . 379 

C. jUm Hort. 
SO aunntraca Amxi 379 
21 leiusocirpi - 379 
V. yar1rliadifiTltui»liarliig 

S2 enodipt Lin^ 519 

C. triicarpa Lodd, Cml. 

O. yarifUH iOrritg A> tin 

Farm ^ l£ I>aK(. 

93 ofatuilta £t«. P. 379 

C. OniKdiiUii Fl. Dan, 
34 juercifolu A 380 
S5 lacinUu - - 380 

26 ptcridifdlia .' 3fi! 

C. pliTffiUa l.nd. Cw. 

S7 oiyphflla Motc.SSi 

H. rarirOtl HArint In Itr 

S8foliua6n:uL. C3S1 

C.jW^KflU Booth. 
S9 foliii vgiMeit 3N1 
30 lucida - • 3BI 

8S. porvifolia ,i4if. - 383 

M. nwiulu Pair. DIci. fn! 
fiHt'JlDcdrwv Un. Bl- fiuppl-l 
M. •ontiMia WatL Danl. 
BrK; CrMt'na toKnAuI.ln. 
Bp., Tm Ebr. i C. MilftoM 

jUrUa, Mudrtt Lodd. I 
1 Oocitberry-I^tntd Thorm, Im 

3 ffRHfiulariic 

26. virginica iorfrf. 384 

C. *,>flWd» Hon. i C. ip» 

j XT. IV'™^^"''^ 

SB. i^TacfiDtha Pm.385 

KfifOtu rpradnlJta L.; 
inri,^. : inmrrirlimr MU^L, 

Gn, , Jgantnjt, JUl. 

S KKBuHU Hort. - saj 


Creui'tiu tm part. 
1. dajc^cena Lindi.iOS 
Crau-giH tffattaVM. Cat 

XVI. Photi'nia L. 403 

1. Kiruliita Liiidl. 404 

Craltr'waigatra lliimb. Ft. 
Jap.. Bi{. Ha(.. Lodd. Bat. 

E. arbutifolis Ltndl. 404 

CrnCa'fU artWifMlii AEI. 

3. integrirolin Lmdi. 405 

Pinu lnlrgfTTima Wall, ex 
D. DoD PraT Ft. Nep. 

4. ditbia Z«iifJ. - 405 
H^Au btmUnta Boib.. 

XVII. Cotonba'stbb. 

tonwio. Pr.; Omtntn-MUpH, 
Car. I CotvMMn?. !UI. 

f i. . LtBvrt doHditoia. 

Lmdl. - 406 

r. Srnot*. and Bop. 
I j 3. (t.) ]ax\a6raJacq.Vi't 
a UDJflStB Fitditr 407 

4. dentkulata • - 407 

, i il. Sub-entrffrtm or dtel- 
ihuu. TM SkrvktorloK 

5. frfgida WaU. . 407 

Pjnu Mdull Ham. Im Prod. 
FI.Nlli., Drc. Frail. 

6. (f.) afflnU LincU. 408 

UtrpiUa inlafrrtma HAn. 

Mas., H. 4tflrii/i D. Don 

In Lodd, CDllB«laa, 

7. acuminfita JjiniU. 409 

8. niimmulikria Lin<tf.409 

C. (Wpn;™ HOH., BrtoM- 
CulV Si?, PC.'to'^lB 

wtfA /irotfrote Brandlui 
TrailiTi, (at Hol fiKi- 
ptrlji Crttpin. 

9. rolundifolia H'oil/.IIO 
C. micmpiplla fi I/'M^r^ 

LlmU, Dot, Hcf^ C, 

10. (r.) microph^lJaill 

3marginaU . -411 


1. Tukiri* 
3r., J^, Ft. 

erythrociipB £,«il. 40f> 

mvlanoc&lpa ImI. 40G 

.., .'^aivdfdrpa 

3 ieprtaaA Fritt Nob. 

Shm,, Dtc Prod. 

2. (v.) toniem6u Z..406 

M<enrh 41 S 

Icr'tnuTar; AriHiJa 

luiHfs P«fi. ain. ; Cm- 

wgiHn<»iMF2ttaLiDi.| Mr. 

ilolf, N^rr' d AufUM romUt, 
2. fv.) BotryJpium 418 

Sp.. S, orUm Mkhl. Arbli 
Crai^^gta raceiKOta l4m. 
Did,. PJtm Betrg^mm LtiL 
Dl. RuppT. { Arimia Bolrj/A^Mm 

3, (v.) flttngutnea - 413 

Pjnt •aiifwiK'd Pimh Fl. 


4. (v.)oTalU Dec. +13 
CriUm'nt micita Lwa. 

Did. f, SUtyibu Anelinrhter 
WmU. Car., A. ranilOni 
I>ou(. MSS.j M. a-a&u't 
•DT. - nUK H<chi. An.. Fj- 
iw iwUi Wllld. Sp., Ar»>^d 
ettia l>en. Srn. ; Amtrlim- 
etltr Ai Cmadm, AUtUr i E-pl, 
Vt. : naMOOTltt Binu, Orr. 
8 Hibcordita !>«. 414 
A-^aii nAim^lii Raf. 

5. (T.)fl6ridaLiiuy/. 414 
SpurifoIIa - - 414 

A.rarv^blia Rorl. Soc, 

XIX. AfESPiLUs i.414 

Th« HHllit MfnIIu ID. 

bT Un. Ukd otbrri, MeipilS. 

■jbord fp, of Neck, : liffiifry 

Ti. I mitveit Ger. : itapuio, 


I. genninicB L. • 415 
1 ■7lv£strisMitI>ic.416 
3BtricU£>H:. .^lY. 4Ifi 
3 di'trit«I>re. Ait. 416 

him, HI cotuTDOD, M«dL«Fi 
4. atcpnelHl HcdUr. 

£. Smtthii Dec - 416 

NiUm HKl SSrbm Tmi 

1. communM L. - 41 

P. A'^nu Cntn. Fruct.. 
P. nMllril D«]. Ffmpl. 
rfTiMUr lUj 8711.: /■«>•«■. 
Ft. : ifiwUe Bine, or £Jnv- 
luLj' fVm, SpuL I arwoUnl 
1 ?-chru Wallr. . 417 

3 Pyristcr WdBr. 418 
9 loliU «riegjli> 418 

4 fructu variegito 41 B 

5 ungumaknta - 418 

6 Aire plii 

7 ji'Tii. 

' adi^Mfll for In 


8. fc-ValvifoliaCre. 421 

AnrrUat, or OrTmM /-wrj 

Po/rftr StuftT. D'Ourch In 
Bib). PbiL^con. Hal, lan, 


4. (c.)sinaicB3'^oui>i42I 

5. (c.) ralicifolia i. 488 

p. dramtflUla Pill, P. 
arlmlillt Horo. SuppL, P. 
(c.) W2i«ii(ratfa Alb. Bril. 

7. sinensis LiniU. 422 
P •i.'^^oj'o III. I'HinJ^ 

8. bollwylleritlna - 423 

p. boUinUeTiina J. B«u)l. 
HIU., p. PaUr^r\t Lin. UmU^ 
P. nnio^ani Knoop PomoJ. 

9. variol6aa IVail. 484 

IS. Jlrtlus i;. 

13. (M.) ac^rba D. 486 

14. (M.)pruniaiia 4S6 

ni Siitrim Crat i P. Hd- 
(m B il^^Ai ill. Hon'. K««., 
? KUlu AjUrids Dcif. Arb. 

15. (M.)b(iccataL.427 

U^HTioccdto Dedf. Arb. 

16. (M.) diolca If. 487 

p. n^wto Mlinch. H.UH., 

17. (Jlf.) astraL'4nica487 

emir. Gtace^Zlta'it : t*t 
Crai ol Engllih 

Iha Coart peodu plUi Ik* 
the Tulin ApiHci Iho VkTlM 
ciiwrj Apple ; (be Supreflno 

18 coron^riaZ. - 429 

19. (c.) angufltiColia 430 


F. itlpuacM Hurl. - - 

§ iji, A^ria Deo. 
21. J'riaE/ir*. - 1 

Sp.. tlSfihii ArVd g« 

9 sculifdlia Da. 433 
Crilir'fiu Invt/'^Sii N. 
? Fjru DlpJiu WIIU. En. 

3 unduUu LimII. 433 

4 anguttifulia ZimA433 

£ rug&uii'iHJl. - 433 

6 er^ica LindL - 433 

F. A rMnietf (fWl Holt. | 

28. (^.) Intennedia 434 

S3. Tcstlta H'^atf. - 435 


ineiP.cratila O. DcaProd. 

$ IT. Titrminiria Dec. 

84. torminalia £Ani. 436 

CmW-fU larmmMl LJn. 
Sp., EmlUi Enf , Bat > S^tiH 

MMtr'dt AM. Fr. ) Ebtter- 
Humglatait, lul. 

85. rivularis i)(>i^A 437 

CbflDooL trlbA or IndCua. 
§ 1. Eri^lntu Dec 

86. trilobita Dec. - 43T 

PdLt. SuppL. 

S tL S.(r6i£f Dec. 

2 luiiwincbc - - 438 

3 pia£i]ii - - 439 
S.ltitrilapftidMia Lad. 

4 arbuncula i}«. - 439 
89. aucup^ria G-n-Zn. 439 

(hut? B^ '^tu ja, Inii 

Smiir, Hic»n Trre, Bauax 

S fi-aeni luteo • - 4SS 

3 (oliis lariegitii - 439 

4 &>tigiilB - - 439 
30. ameriuunB Dee. 440 

Coun., S.mimeirfa Fb.F1. 

3S. 56rbua G^rfn. - 448 

The True Serrlct. — Sirlmt 
iom it tioa Un. Sp. ; Fj^rkj do. 

33. laniigindsB Dec. 443 

p. .IJMrAa Lanifjaftis Hart.. 
Sdrhu <im>jrii^aa Kit. iD \JXt., 

34, Biiilria Z)«. • - 444 

%6rlmi ip^ria Pen, ^.. Kti- 
VjTuf torbtfdJia BoK. & Wfttt-, 

35. foHolnsB ffoiU. - 445 

L AdemiraiAit Dec 

36. orbutifoliai.jK. 446 

37. (a.) metanodirpii 4(7 

p. trbntl/ilia B WUld. 8p., 
Ar4»fii mSullfblla Pen. Sya,. 

JloribtMm Lodd., U. plAm 

8 lu^ub^coem Z. 447 

38. ('i.)flDriblindaZ,. 447 

39. (>i.)dt7r£ssai.. 446 

40. (d.) pubcDsZ. -446 

§ TJii. CAaminKffpt/iH Dee. 
. Chamsin^spiliis 449 

'rslE'fiii OumitwittpllMt 
•film Lin Sp. S^ftaj Cita- 
[fnnt Ouiiia .- uletMgrr'uu. 

Drc. Frat., vhta tomnil 

xxi.CvDo-MAr. -450 

Ilia Quloca Tree. — F>w 

Jip. *Dd Bot. Uu.. Maw. 

milajofintco Llndl. LId. Tr. 
3 flore tabo - - 45a 
3 fl. >«nii-pUno • 459 

Calyca nlAacea. 
I.*'nthus L. 448 

1. vulsiiria Pen. - 450 

Fjnii <M9>lii Lin. Bp.. Jacq. 

Aottr. i C. mnam'a Sn. 

1 pyrif6rmii Hort. 450 

a m»lifilrmi« ffiirf. «0 

3 liuiUnicM Du H. 451 

8. ain^nsja "Utomi • 4fil 

tir^iMmili roll. BoppL 

3. japAoica Fen. • 458 

?>J™. Je»*nto> Tfcm*. Fl. 

itni). Jfrtol AAsK, Uer. | 

I. fl6riduB £.. • - 453 

TlH CuoUn AlUfita C. 

tUrHnyitix. Cmt.: (wxfwnM 
•krtii. In CuaUai i oamH* 
dmtrlcan AlUpfu: : CbhnWW 
<c la CarsJfH, Ft. i O-ralMtcU 
X(fe* AlMK, O*. I Ftmpadur 

1 obl6ngus £><e. - 453 
3 OTiiua Da. ■ - 453 

3 mplcniKkliuiL. C. 458 

4 l£roi £wU. CiA 453 

5 itUlicug Locf. Oil. 453 

6 inoi&rMljid. Cat. 453 
T Itmgif&liiuZAiLC. 453 

8 nriegitiuZol C. 453 
8.(f.}gb6cus I4'>J/J.454 

BM.KeK.. GutDp. Al*. Hall- 
Don't m\.:airkriac.Jli»KTci 

2 oblon^MuiWot. 454 

£. eMmgHtOmt Hart. 

3. (f.) lavieitua W. 454 

cAf Wchaui Fl, Bor. 

Anur., C. pwyinln/ciu Led. 


Co^K^utlip. LLun. 

I. frisTsni Li«dt. ■ 45S 

CuljfCintJlmMpr^'cat LId. Sp., 
A«. TBort. Kew.. Curt. But. 
I Mm.. Lvn, lU.; HrrMiM. 
> {^.i(rAL.orJ)Ma<Knqif. 
I Amer. : t^ Wntirr Ftnarrf 
i CaJ^atmle dr Jamtm. Fr. i Ja* 

9 grmndiflaru* £fiui.45S 

3 laieul ^DTf. - 155 
1 piTviflorut Hart. 455 

I. PuNicA Tfaum. 456 

I. GmAuim L. - 466 
1 tSihitxmDecfit>d.A56 
S riib.B.p1. IVw ■ 457 
3 albinaH Dm A. 45T 

., Google 

4 albdieeTufl.pliao 4-?' 

5 flivum Hort. - 45' 
2. iG.) nkna L. - 45' 

P.awmcJM .aMToum. 

I. rA'MAHix Z}(m>. 45t 

Tbs Tuiurii— ne nKfei g 

ft; not of VtU. : Utrict, Itsl. 

ir. MvRICA'ltlAZ)f^.429 

1. eerm&D 

i&Dics Z)eni. 459 

7. speciAauB Schrad. 4£ 

p. fTBMMUnH of Oorm. 
guiJencn. P. gramliiaTmi la 
mi DfoIbeT Budonari. 

8. Gonioniaiiiu Lin. 463 
§ IL Sltmi mort $U 

Toai&itf, twiggy, 
boK. FUmtrt loliiary, 
or a or 3 togethtr. 

9. latus Schrad. . 
cm' Lodd. Cu°im. ' ' 

10. (1.) graodifl6rua 464 
Lodd. cu.TJae """' *'■ 

11. hirsiilu* NuU. - 

fr4Kait Lodd. Cat.' 

OOitT Spedet qfPUIaMlpAiu. 

TamarMai, Grr. \ Tamarit 
piaoU, I'll. 

9 dkhilric* Dec. - 4^ 

L Pbii.4i>b'lphusZ^.460 

Til* M«kOrui|e. — STUnin 
TcMm. Ihu, Dot of Lin. : J'&. 
ladilplnu, Pr 1 Ffiffnalnnick 
t^lft ikruf), Ger. 1 >Hndrip*a, 

iTiilgiris ScA.Han.4Gl 
3 ninui UiU. Diet. 461 

3 flute pl^no L. Di<.46l 

4 vuiegiius L. Cat. 4fil 
E. (c.) inoddnis 2^. 461 

Syrlnji m«Mni MgeiKb j 
nnttu : SHindia jflu' oSors, 

III. Decuka'biaZ. 466 

RirjjMla IFoa., not of Vital. 

l.b&rbaraL. - - 467 

O. raJlamt HoDidi »«(h.. 
i). FOnflUt Mlda. n. Bar. 
ftrttiT.. D- prottrita Lodd. 

i armcntdis Dec. 46T 

FtriiUi^tciniau Walt. 


I. .R/jEs L, - - * 

TBiMnlirfa Toum.j CI- 
rwi, CoteMlTMi CorrSn 
RebM .9paBl : Oroiri/t 

5. (t.) latifoliufi Sai.4«8 l ' 
p. fultitam Cell. Hon., 

Lolt. »srb. Anut. I 

6. (v.)rtoribundua S. U3 i 

. <7r«niitin'i> Adi. 

1. aifBcanthiJidea i..4M 

2. aetosum Z/»u& 470 

3. trifldnim W. - 470 

4. (t.) nWeum Lind;.470 

5. (t.) Cyn^boti L. 471 

e fruotusculealo - 471 

6. (t.)diTari<:atun>D.471 

H. riri/amm rar.. R. 
OrgoiiUrla MT. triflira 

. (t.) irrfguum Bob. *7S 

8. hirtellum A/icAz. 478 

9. gricile JtAcAj:. 473 

10. aciculare Sinilh. Vli 

1 1. nrossuliria L. 473 

R. [Tm erinm (Ed. PL. 
Din., ^ SroHnt/rti iirtjua. 

a uV»^criapa Sairt 473 
B. trwa-eriipa Ua. !»p. 
fM-crliw Fuch. Hill. 
tTia-ipiiu UitlLValgr. 
R, ITtia crifpa nar, I jf/- 

3 apinosSiBuaB BerL 473 

4 reclinata BerL - 473 
R. rrdls^nn Lin. Sp. 
arotluUriarcclmiU MD. 

6 iubin^rmis floY. 473 

7 mBcrocirp* /)«. 473 
B bracledta BerL . 473 

12. specii^umPunA 474 

Crci., Dec. Fnd.i?B.Atlit- 
liAilu PI. Hex. Ic. laad.j R. 


BMlli Sponf .- GnunJIa 

T fSiiia £lba voriegilia 
iJH*. - - 477 

8 I'lbtrieum OUalltr 477 

19. (r.) alpinum L. 477 

1 lUrile ruQi-. SduiL477 
a. Atomn Untch Mctt. 

9 b»ecircrum fFo/h-. 47S 

3 p&miEum LinlL . ^jp 

4 foliit Tuii^tui - 47 H 
SO, (r.) petrte-um W. 47« 

2S. (r.) ciirpfithicum *79 

S3, (r.) maUifldnini 479 
Fl. Id. 1 . R. T«(«um Hurt. ■ 

a4'.(r).BlljinerTum 479 

25. acmninktum If. 479 

26. (r.)trifiduiiiA£r.479 

B. ntfwwj fTHHtei Jfetrov. 

3 bdccitfl£TiilBff0rt.48l 
SUecavlridi Hart. 481 

4 foUis THriegitis K 48 1 

ScJ«U» ^ Osrdni fir. 

S9. (□.) fldtidum •4^1 

n.H|frHi 9 Ua. Sp., R. 

^mujfa&nictMt Ijm. Diet., 

Amur.. RlMllUD n^pun', Ac.| 
3 enindifiorum HorlAH 
3 parvifl oruni Hnrt. 483 

30. (n.) procdmbens 488 
E. poi^itirpiM GrvaU Sjit. 

31. (a.)proBtrBtuni 468 

^'laIiflo^nl . - 482 
R. qtfluDnwI.llSS. 
R. ^UiUrwH FunliAiiin. 
38. fn.J resindaumP. *HS! 

33. (n.) puncQtuui 468 

R. ghmMlMim B * P. Fl. 
Per., not [rf All., Don-. Mill. 

34. (d.) betcr6trichuTii 

Meyer - - 483 

35. (n.) bracCeoBuin 463 

36. (n.) viscosteaLiDuni 

Purih - - 484 

Cwfitma vltcutiMtfrnn Spub. 

37. (n.) huJsoni^uni 

Richardton - 484 

R-petlaOn DmlgL. Hort Tr. 

38. glaciale iVaU. ■ 484 

39. inebrinnB lAndl 485 

40. cereuiD Dougl. ■ 485 
C, RDHwn itcw red. nw( 

41. sanpiineum P. -46G 
CjeL. CoiiiUfrya M>ir"= — 

,tro-rilbeni ifort. 486 

48. atro-purpiireuiii 467 

I Flawen deep purple. 

Leaves raUier pu- 

beiceat beneath, but 

imootb nnd elibroin 


S Leave* rather pu- 
beiceot beneath, but 
hispid from briitlei 
■bote, ai veil ai the 
petioles and itema. 

3 Flowen paler. Leave* 
pubescent above, but 
most pubescent belmr. 
Branchfa smootb. 

Plirtl, nnilDt<MT]«l TnoUU 

I pne'col Lima. - 487 

R. A4(»M Laid. But. 

S lilldHim Dtt. Pr. 488 
R. iBi^iJft'Tait FnHr 

3 ser6tinum LimU. 488 

44. (a.) tenuilloruni 488 

46. (a.) fliivum Coll. 488 

I. virglnica L. - 490 

II. Esc*i,lonmM.490 

SirrtStylim R. » P. Fl. Pm. 

. rubra Pert. - 490 
I ^^^^^^MuU Hoot, el 
Am. ■ -ISO 
S albifldia H*. *t A. 491 
3 puWwiua.rf-*-^! 

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2. monteftd^iuu JD. 49] 
e.Jhnttniia tar. a ■wMni. 

dtoiA SchlKtlt. In LI<l^K■' 
£. ifeUi Unk « OC(i> AUMUL 
9 floiiblinda . . 491 
S. JbiriitiuLi H. B. n K. 

3. illinitaP/w/ - 491 


Tribe Htdka'iiqea. 

A. Specirt Kaltra ^ KMt 

1. art>or£9cena L. 

H.tabiri. Mkh.. 1 

Amw., ft, ^rViUfoim M«uh 

8 diHoIor Str, - 493 

S. (B.)cordBlBi>HriA 493 

II- fr^'Oi Lodd. Co. 

3. nhea JlficjLr. . +93 
rr. Taiau Wii. fi. c*r,, dm 
a gUMIIa &,, . 493 

4. jiiwciRlia £arfr. 493 

It.. bulDolaf Will. 

a. ^irciti NalMifi tf Jila. 

5. heteromnlla Don 494 I 

6. altfaaima Wall, . 494 | 

Ol^rr Spnin of Huir&tma 

H. HorUntiS hK, (j5 tor. 
««. SBIU,). H. T«1U 


1. rniliciaiiin L. - 495 

TmirUfrtHeiia Sprnw. In 
SchUlB. gyn. ; BipriUll/TM. 

2.JBp6nicB TAunb. 497 
II. ^e'deba SiBortx 497 

Th« IT7. — JrtiLQMrt. Cnb 
indplmm BLnm. BIJdr,, HMmi 

Fr. i £p*i>, bsr. 1 Ucn, lur 

T»» /rtnL or Gi;«(. />». 

f 3 chrysocirpa Zlec, 498 

H. ctryiiKjrwi DiiiMb, 
K. DI&itfiiaiTBiuh 
H. HcV/< WUI. 

4 fol. arg^DtMi i. 0.498 

5 iSlii, .(irei. i. C. 498 
S digiUu Lod. Cat. 49a 
7 ■rborf«ceiu Z. C. 498 

Hama meUdctcem. 

I /Tamahb'lis i, 499 
-^■■-wyd, Ho.l._7Wa,w 

— Ad. And Nil. Cur; a, 

App. : UamamclMe, In). 

J. vii^Enical.. - 499 

'■—-Ud mem mUa Vlrgmia, 

Tm, CatUrUgi Tm, trOt 
Cormeti Corm^tt&er Komatt, 


II. POTflBf 

* WbU. . 499 

BM., C. lal&rka MJl). Ion. 

aciroioiuZtaii'.Jlf. 503 

3 Eiblrica Lodd. Cat. 503 

i. (a.) strieta i,. - 503 

C. /lulMila Utchi. FI. Bur. 
Anwr. ^ C. uiHiiKH Wall., 

Meerb. Icon,, but not of L»m. 
S up; rii^lia . 504 

JU9|.|CR.) . . . t^ 

I. Ara'lia £. . 496 

Th» Annliu Tiw. _ ArUia 
tp. Un., AriOt rrrm Blum, 

, , . — li'iCycl. 

I obttls* SinuB.M.SO0 

P. Mlm^fMa IAb. aii Sof. 
S BcilU 5iiiu - - .WO 

3 miljor Simt B.' M. Soo 


3 •eraperylre; 

C. temperwkrent Lad. Cat. 

A. (a:.)paoiculitsK. W4 

'list. HIU. D«t J C. cJfr* 

■la Hun. Par. 

9 ilbida Ehrk. - f 04 

3 ndiiu Punh . S04 
6. (a.)sericeaZ'ff. ^t^ 
" lm»rt«flM Mkh. n. Bor. 
.< aiiOa Wilt. FI. Cu-,, 
101 o< Lin. ( C orruai 
IXct. \ C AntimiK Du 
Hirt*, 1 C, milglnlm 

S oblonpiolii I>ec. £04 
C. i>MM((/Uu lUlln. 

7. (a.)circinatal.'fl' 505 

Aomr., C. rutiia Lun. Diet.! 
C. UriMiaaHaH. Far. 

8. obWoga JCa^. . 505 

Dm trod. Fl. Sap. 
$ ii. lucolucrata Dec 


- 505 

S i. Kiidifiint Dec 
A- LtfttK aUemati. 

1. alternifolia Z. . 50 

C. aiOraa Manh, 

8. sangutnea L. - 60 
C /<r-mlma Bil. Sfn., nn 
uwn^Ks thitta. Vilir. : R 

Trtt, PHttned, Oaun. a 

""'-It. Corn, Lcmg CloTra 
. ■- . ConrUa, COnmaOrr 
taSte, Cortiea, Comeillat Fr.i 

0»r. ; OtrgHolo. itai. 

a frdctu ckne eol6nt 
N. Da Ham. 506 

3 Tmegitoi - 506 

10. fldridai. - 507 

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Sect. 1. SiKBD'ci*. 

I, Sambu'cus TVium. 5 1 3 

otnot DfUa. 

8. CBoad^iuis L. - 51 5 
3. racondca £. - 515 

S. HMldM Cuo. Bptt. 1 s. 

3.(r.)pubein-Mx. -616 
Am,iicH<rfLta.[ a.FMtttam 


-.(L.Jnr - ' "" 

r. p^riWriDi 


3 gnuidifolia ^rt 

V. i„ lalifllia Lodd. C 

S (oliil T»riegitl» - S 

9. (L.) lantaniildea • 530 

V. £m«<u figramdiftlHtAH. 
Hon.Ko.. Bd. 1^ V.fmfl- 
ya«n gmlth In BmJ^ Cjtl^ i 
BKh.! UiMi Awt. Ahm. 
10 (LOdahiincuii] -531 




IS. denuttum L. 

Farlttta V. d. pubCiceib. 

r. d. niJfi •uWu.. »". 
Kumlnilluin. F. \oo^RAtan 
»Dd ^^ uouUnuED vt In 
KtHii. LwUiio'i CDlloe- 

lion . - -na 

13. (d.) pub^eni- 528 
v.itnliln S yuMfcnj AK. 

14. nltidiun ^i(. - 5» 

§ iiL O'pn/w Tourn. 

15. r/pulua I..- - 528 

SSrr, IliiH EUCr, Wtiir EUni 

Maui. lul. 

S M«rilH See. Procl SS3 

16.(0.) ocerirdlium 583 


VjMha BTlnUiUi JWe «•- 

yttdhB (rMruAu Tduth. Cor. 

18. (O.) OiycficcoB 38* 

diE^AH°&f kST' 

8 ■uUntcgrildluulf. 534 

V.iodiUfKi. FLBor.Am. 

IB. (O.) edille P. - 524 

V. {ypirfu (AU Hichi. n. 

Sect II. Lomcx'uA 
III. DiEBTi'u.4Tou.585 

1. canBdiaiia H'. - 5S5 

Lmiicm DitnUI^ Lin. Mml. 
UtA., D. Tntnt^^rtlL Utdm. 

r^ E»ch-, B^- tti™ Punh 
Scpc, D. nWa Haneh MiA., 


IV. LoNrcBR^Dcsr. 536 

Thv HnaoTtacLla.— Lanlivn 
CdprfAMui ind Xalitlrwm 
tta*. dea-, XtHUmm CmH- 

% L Capri/dUvm Dec 
Co^rt^ABH Jim. G™., lo- 

I. PericiymenumZ:..527 


Dutcti J 

reStlta, lul.ind 

2 serfitinum ^t(. - 527 

3 b^lgic'uin - ' 527 

4 9 u«rcij31iuro Ait 528 

t. CxprilAlium L. - 538 

Tfrm^menum perjbiiitum 

3. (C. etrubca) 2W 5SB 

Ctprffiliim CIriicxm Kkih. m 
Schult Sjit, PtT/cWumiiini 
Gmiu Hon.. CaprT»&aia Hi. 

Toum. fn«. : U< /Mj£» flo- 

4-. imnl^xa AH. . 5S9 
Tht hlnon* Hon>viur^1«_ 
CWlAJlHM fmjfnun RiRU. 

5 bal«&ricB FTd. - 599 
Caprlfliliari batiiTi.B urn. 
£. (H^ifmrm Deir. 

5. flava Sinu - 339 

O^n-iQHvM jUnn EU. 
Sketch .jC^rtl&AHt fHwrl 

6. ff.) pub^ens S. 539 

7. parvifl6rB Lam. 530 
Pnnh MM.. Lantern iittca 


Roih, Bt Schnll. Sfil,, C.BlaA- 

Pr.; Mrrrtrihri Gnur-Ou. 
Ger. i Mi'tdfttnmre KaiT^er- 

8. (p.) Douglusii D. 5.30 

Hon. TV-oiH. 

9. hia))i (luk iJouff. 531 

ciiWH Mill. 1%!., Cajrri 

I. LfmAqfCjroJtnnearfy tptat. 

3 mijaT Ait., Curt. SSI 
9 mloor AU., SiiHt 533 

4 BrAimiJ Oordim 533 
13. ciliosa Pair. - 538 

Caprifiiitim eHi^Btm Purih 
n. Amrr. S«pt.. C cili^U 
DLgtr. Lu. Sup^ 

13. occidentaiis H. 533 


Otter SfPmAi.— L. pllftM W„ 


j ii. Xyl&flaim Dec. 

U. cnndjsa Dec. - 633 

BriL, Ltmian JapAntcn Andr. 
Ji7p6nfatm Loud. Hort. Brit. 

15. loDgifldni Z)ec. 534 

Cuprif&um Icmtifltrmn Si. 
Una, NlDCoCll lotMlira iiin. 
JIntl. Brit. Kia. Ca»™U(ii.M 
japSt^cmn D. Don fr^, n. 

16. jap6nicB T^unA. 534 

NlUoil JagMca Sot. Hart. 
Brit. eiL a., X. PtiH^w/i Hort- 

Sifihuii ivWn^iM Lt>ud.'ki!rt 
rit., C./fXbdnua Hart. 
Ollirr Spatti.—l.. loDiinilLi 

imi dtwrgiaf HI lit Tip. 
Corolla IrniOf fOhoui al llu: 
Bolt, or tmJ- Ertcl irci. 

17. lat&ricaZ,. - 535 

L- gnmHifldriim Lodd. 

la ft.) nigra £. -535 

Caprifmum r^nini Lun. F1. 

XtUilnan conponul.Liid. 

19. (t.)ciliitaJW«. 536 

XgUtlcrm ciUitMm Pnnli 
Sept.. L. taiarica Hkhi. V\. 
canidhulM Rmi. e( acbuk. 
80. pyren&ica L. - 536 

Capriftiiiim wmJi^fwJa 

21. pi 

- 536 

Si/mptioricarfot fncitifnuSw t. 

22. Xvlisteum L. 537 

Lun. Fl. Fr. ; XvI^Unin d%- 
mrt»n.m Homch TUMh. : Oi.(. 

2 ieucociipuiD Dec. 537 

3 iBnthociq>um D. 537 

4 meUnoolrpuia D. 537 

23. hSepiila Potf. - 537 
34. flexuuaa TKutiA. 537 

L. Mgra 'niunb. n. J>p.. 
but not of LliL 1 J., traot^pg^ 

25. invo!ucrata.San. 538 

Xyt£tteum ijtwIneriUwm 

Richvdl In Fiuik. FimJoirn. 

26. Ledeboiint Each. 538 

87. alpteena H. ■ S39 

OBrtiL' Frut, Itlka »&itrmi 
Borck- Ulka Ibdda HvebcL. 

Mn/Hi MncIu, tSa. i Uamt- 

8 Bbirica 2)K.IYalj:i9 
Z. jiUrlu Veil 111 Run. 

«t SthuU. S,rt. 

S8. (a.) microphyiU 539 
«9. oblanniaiiafl(>at539 
so. cfErulea L. - MO 

32.ib£ricB .ffieft. - MO 

Cent, PI. Bmi. « Siqipl.,Liiild. 

Til* St, Pelct'l Wort, — Syn- 
f ko n canm NacL. Elsm., %ia- 

1. Tulg&ris Midix. - 54] 

Bp., J. poTwiftbra DnF. Cat, 
SMnttifn nnwli«wrill>i Pen 
RDcti., ^iH^lrH glomrriu 

2. montinus Humh. 648 
Sjn.. S. (iaiK«Knu Soo'i 

3. racemdmii ARchx.^ii 
Tilt SnaatieiiT — agmplihrt, 

TocnaiH Panb B>I>t., M, FJM 
(lUn and S. kamvliflla Pm 

l.tbnnAsa WaU. - 



Tbe - 


V9 5W 
occident&lis L. • 544 

■)appBtUlfillmi Hmh HHb. : 
S bnoh^podui iter. 54 J 

VII. MuTi's/rf Cav. 551 
1. latifdlia Z). X>on 552 

I. Stkbeij^n.* L. 540 

Smulatt, Fmch ud Ck 

1. dCibiaZ. - - i 
S. ramaritlfiUa Cui,, 

if»l. Bol. HiK. i M. inch. 

Smit. I. fisi'cBw. 
1. £m'c* O, Don -555 

II. Sa'cc 

:s,9r. 64« 

1. islimirolia L. 

orSorfKinu Hon. K«w, 

8. (A.) HnguBtifoIia - 547 

III. Tf^ L. - 
1. fruC^acens L, 

/"ftttattt rtira 1 


1. i4br6tBnuiii L. - &50 

1 rib™ Hort. Eric Wo- 

burn. - ' 5S6 

2 ciTBf»Loi>iLH.B.S56 

3 ilba Son. Eric. Wo- 

3 fttropurpi^rea Lodd. 
Bat. Cab. - - SSe 

3 flba Lodd. Cat. - 556 

4 pilUda LDdd. Bel. 

Cab. - - - iS6 

5 camfsociai,. Cat. 556 

6 ^ToAtenLod. Cat. 5S6 
T MrieU Zddd. Cot £56 

3. auBtiilis L. - - 556 

4. ciliiris X. - ■ 557 
II. 6vp»oc*' S. 557 

Tha Hoar HMk— Briene 

1. VH^ns Jin/. - - 557 

LId. HuiL.E. (^'Sal. 
IB. Tniu„ B. mStaOrm 
■ n. Aiul.. B. .^M^ 

SpiUid* - - 557 

5 rubficeos Bra - 557 
4 purpunbceiu B.-S5t 
6a\M ' - 55S 

6 iea&lm - - A5B 
8. multiflorBD.Dm 558 

Erica iiniUOI<>ra Lin. Spn B' 
Imncrin'i'i, dCn Girldcl A)m i 

PrHl : S«^ froufe fWB, 

3. cirnra D. Am - 55B 

4. mediterraneaD.i), 859 

1. vulgaris &:. - - 55 

l,\'aa,trIlralkrT EHca re 

lIlMr, Got. i L^itg, Dui 

V, CABsropiDon 561 

Juarfmalt qi Uo., PiU. 

Ajpnoldes D. D. 561 

a. tetragrtuB U, Don sua 

, 5S9 

3 dec(itnb«ii« 

5 tll» - - S59 

6 fldrc pl^no - 559 
Tf&liuTori^di- 559 

8 lAre* - - 559 

9 cocoinc* . . 559 
lOtpicita - - 559 
II fitro-rflbeiu] - 559 

12 [, 

- 559 

IV. Andromeda L. 560 

Poldilia Buibum Ctnt.. 

1. DolifoUaiy. - 560 

liTocinriin. — TUuiUHltmlnm 
fBUftHnm Scop, Carn. : ujAif 

MartA Cfifw, Kin* Hc^ 

3 gnndiBon Zoi 

4 iiiCirSlia Ud. 

e reTolClU LodL 

S. rosmaiinUaiia P. 561 


i. ffricfiidefl D. /Job 568 

n- Speeta Bf Caalnpe. — C. 

2. (c.) angustifBlia 563 

VII. Zkno'bm Don 563 

if litfr^iiif^ ifi- HIchuu. 

1 . ■[leciosa S. Don 564 


.i. i^MuirndL. 

1. femiglneB NuU. 565 

F1-, if- ^frrn^jtfa /mtitdta 

2. rtgida A'bU, - 565 

fiia piicdi FL Adwc. sipL 

3. marginita Don 565 

4. mariJiDa D. Don 566 
9 obUnKi 5ri. - 560 

5. ncan&nD.n. 568 

Amllimalt raccmita Uu. 
Sp, L'Htrlt. Sdrp.; J. fami. 

6. arb6rcB ZJ. Don. 566 

dnOr^medm UTbAna Ud. Sp. 

7. paniculata KuU. 567 

8. Mi]icif5Ua WaU. 567 
' iiidow iV. 567 

I fitmditit Punh 

:iultifl6rB 567 
apreEef&lia 568 

IX. LsticoTuofD. 569 

^(■cfntowifi fp- <^ pntloiu 
1. aiilUriB D. Don 568 

S. BpiniildsB G.Dan 569 

Jmlrime^ ipmaaMa Punh 
SapL; t A. Catabml H'all. R. 

3. acuminata 6. D. 569 

At^T^mt^ acmminHa All. 
Hon. K«w.. A. Aoifii Juq. 

P^K-flm-iiwad, Abut. 

4. floribunds D. D. 569 

AmArAmtitt JleriHrnila Liroii 

X, Pr"ERis D.Dnn 570 
1. ovalitolia D. Don 570 


XI. Phtllo'doce 570 

1. faxifStia 5c/. - 571 
Mmfiili airVta Svi. tn 
Lin. TruiiL, AhMhoO w 
rUn> Up. Sp.. A. UiffiUa 

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]. Om^lint D.Don 671 

8. Sl^lleri D. Don 572 

XIII. Dab(b'cuD. 578 
1. politblia D. Don 578 


XIV. ifBBUTL'S C. 573 

. ITnedo t, - 573 

1 £lbui .4it. H. K. ST. 

2 ruber .fif. H. K. ST. 
S pleniu Ait. H. K. ST. 

4 ■chiiop^Uluit 57- 

5 mugriroliui Shiim 57- 

6 erifxa - - S7- 

7 nlicifoliuB - 57- 
8. h^rida JTrr - 571 

3 MiUeri Mayei - 57J 
3. .^ndricbne L. Sli 

tricks PM-k.T 

Bol. Reg. 

S niii^Hook.ttATn. 576 


OUrr SprolFi itf li'rlmliu.—A. 

.^rfoM. - 577 

Tb« BturbeTTjr. — Ifta-irii 

1. UVa-6rsi Aimu;. 577 

Saiutrbca XaiU. J7T 

t. alpina Spreng, - 578 

A'riwia a^ilM Lin. Sp. 

(Mv Spnin iif ArOoMlipliM. 

lot. — J.fUngeat Ji.B.etlt. Bn 

XVE.PerhbVty.* 578 

S CumningA - 379 

/>. Cumminfil Loti. 

2. pilosa & Don 579 

OUcr 4>reAa ij^ FmtfUji— P. 
mtcToiibflto Ca^. (A'rAatai 
microptbbi Font., A. trr- 
nlltyitla Lmm.). P. pbmUi 

XVII. Qaulthb'h/^ L. 

I. proc&Dibens L. - S79 

8. liOiiZInn Ptirah . 560 
XV[II.Epiu*'a L. 580 

1. ripens L. - 580 

a rubicl^Dda SwI. 581 


Sp„ OnMlHl „TT^U.fiui 
Funh Srpt., A riWiu jUi- 
firmii LiBi. Diet., Oitttiaa 

XX. Clb-thba I.. 581 

1 . olniiBIia L. - 588 

Alt' Hon. KnirT" *" 

2. (a.ltomentoMi,. 588 
(a.) panicuUtaiJi/. 588 

5. (a.) BcUm /><». 583 

Snot I[. BuODO^tlM. 

XXI. Ahddodb'ndron 

j i. Pdi^eMM D. Don. 

1. p^nticum L. - £84 

8 obtiUum IFatt. 5S4 

3 Hjrtifoliuiii Lodil-Si* 

4 Smilhn Sirt. Brit. jB4 

5 Ldwii Gud.M^.5fl4 
Gaultolds . - SM 

7 rrjgnni ChandlerSBS 
8. miximuin I.. - 585 

K. Jtirramt I 

3. (m.) purpureum 566 

^m^^mtem y pvvki mm 
Ucum ■tacn^^nLod. Cm.' 

4. Purshtj G.Don 586 

R. miilm-m g mmm Punb 

5. catawbi^nse Mx. 586 

2 RuitflliaiiHm ss^ 

3 tigrlnum ^ar<. - S8T 

6. chrysfinthiim L. 587 

7. caucisicum FaU. 587 

2 itruuineum Hoot.5S7 

3 pulchl<rriinum L. SHT 

4 Nulilediiiin Hort. S8S 
a. punctatum Jindr. 588 

ir.*mtiH>i #aU. DokL Bril. 

0. rerrugtnciiin L. - 588 
2 Ubum LoiU: Cal. 5SS 

10. (? f.) hirsiltamA. 588 
2 Tiriegituni - 589 

11. Mtoeiim i). Ont 580 
ckcr Sp«!^.— A. munphfl- 

S iL Boaram. 
IS. rampannlitum 589 


3. anlhopogon Don 500 

•m D. Don. 

S T. Ctonwcbf lu D. Don. 

16. cnmtschiticnn P. se I 

17. Chamecistus L. 5S2 

$ vi. AiKunlil^ D. Dim. 
I8.flavuni O. Am 593 

Ai^Jtapdmltca Uo. 9p., 
faricUa ami BfirlS - B9S 

19. Dudifl6runi Torr. 592 


.? popiJionaceuTn - S93 

6 pardtum D. D. J93 
A. p. jBrUfs Punta. 
T pdjindnim i). - 593 

8 Gormi jnm D. - 593 

9 rilbrum Zod. 9. C. S94 

II ihyniaSrum^.A. 594 
IS •cioliltBiH B. R. £91 
IS Seynwuri B. R. 594 

80. (n.) Mcolor D. - 5»i 

AJiMi^wmiaan M^. iialar 

SI. (n.) cttlendul&ceum 

Torr - . 595 

.Mln taltmhMaa MJcbi. 

9 Hortirii Swt. - 595 

3 tCi\pAam Hboi. - 595 
A. cflUgida Hon. 

4 Itpidam Bd. R. . 595 


8S.oii«acens if.DimSM 

AUIta tmfimu MIchi. n, 

S3, viscdsum Thrr. - 595 

JaJfcn ^iMdia Lla. Sp. 
2 oniitum Sui. - 596 
yarirHii ami HfbrMial A. 

8t. (r.)Kla(itumXI.5»6 

ifr S' 


95. (v.) hfspidum T.597 

Jiilia Uiciila Punh Sept.. 

J7. specidsuin Don 597 
.<idjra iprcilnWllld.Eiuiiii^ 
(. OKXiitia LdM. BM Citl. 

i8, wboi^Hcena T. 508 

S TU. tUaJdra D. DoD. 
29. Ahodora G.Don 598 

XXII. KAtuu L. 596 

l.lntilolia £.. - - 599 

Bmk, CnJico fioMtf. Amer- 

2. angiiRtif^lia L. ~ 599 
Skrrr Laurel. Aniar. 
2 oriu Purih - S99 

K. VOlifblle Wingh, Acl. 
Soc. Benil. 

9 nwnariiiifoliaP. GOO 

i. cuneAta Michaia 600 
5. hirsuU Watt. ■ 6O0 
K-dUiWOvu. \aa. 

XXIII. MtlNZlE's/rf 600 

1. isTm^ne* Snath 601 
S. clobuUria ,5^ifii«. 601 

M.SailanMi. Pt.Bor.AmtT., 
Atila pi,hMa Um.UL 
Ota Pm. Bncb. 

XXIV. Aia'leaD. 6 11 


'orbmbeDa Z.. - 601 


Ammjrtft Punh Srpt.. 
l.ihvmifuliuiii Pen. SOS 

UihHi butnUHia Benin, 
Urim XkfiHiUvn l.uL0k:t.. 
LMsn •rnil'IWMiluii L-IIfrIC 
atln>., Atmafrimt Imiifilla 
Purili Sep.: Jiiii«iryrlfc,t<iw 

WAiT apecin ttf I.mpk^iam 

wotirAia Swt.. Loud. Hon. 

XXVI. Xe'duk Z.. 60S 
I. palustre L. - 603 

DurliHn iplrMn Cam. EpIL 
S dHOmlwiB jiff. 603 

8. iBtrBlium AU. - 603 

Lj^^* Mt^lBo^lASS] 

3. canaJ^nge Xojif. 603 
Sect. III. Taccinic's. 

XXVII. Tacci'mium L. 

Tho WbotllctMfn. — VI(H 
U^ataata. InK-: ifKOe.Fr.i 
arUtOfere, Qa. 

M. I'ldJctllt.Jhwmd.mHtallg 
•aUlarg.rarrlg lvilt.orfatclm- 

i. jMjnillus L. - 60t 

a biixa £1bii Ssuf A 604 

5. u1igin6aiiin L. - 605 

'At jrral Sfli«l>. 

3. angUBlifolium .Jif. 605 

V. mgitaiSldix Ui. PL Bar. 

i. cKBpitdsum Mr. 605 

b. FlooTi in KttiU IV)'. 
3. gatexaiu Michx. 606 

V. nH/ftmbl Bid. Ai Req'l 

6. tenflliim AU. - 606 

7. fisiBtriniiniJ»ricA*.e06 

c. Flcwtrt dltpBiritH Saoama. 
H, |iillidum AU. - 606 

9. arbareum Marth 607 
V. d(f%nM All. Hoit. K*w. 

10. staiufneum - 607 

siibum a. B. HE. ear 


2 biimUe fValM.D.B. 60S 
IS. corj'oibdBum L. 608 

4 ■ngunifSlium . 609 
JUimm Wui. DsiBr. 

1 '■(?■): 

18. Jabi 

19. mnidoai 

\aiiram trail. - 610 

2\. ArttosUphyioB L.6U 

S3. carBca^num - t!19 
84. f Itii kln'a Z.. - 618 
Itc Ad WJurOctinr, or £id- 
2&. fr.) Auiifoliuin 613 

28. (rr.}nyrtiaiiiim613 
87. Dltidum Jnifr. - 614 
2S. cnusiTolium jfn. 614 

29. ovatum i^trd - 614 

30. canadcDse Sit*. 614 

ntfti. <>rarf|> HoOr. 

31. Myraiaites 3£e. 615 
9 boceolatus AriA 615 
3 obtitsui Furih 615 

38. hiinaink(im(?nri.6)5 

1. pal ^Crii Pen. - 616 

^aitftimt H^. KJ.Uor. Amer.. 
mm Cora. Ulil! : Mew^ 
ItoarWTTfa, Fmicr. 

2. miicrocirpui Pur. 616 

liui Ml. fC Uar. Amer. 

a foliii variegalii GIT 

fi.iiiHi. Fl. kor. Am 
I. A'VBAX L. - - 6lf 

2. (oO graitdifolii 

II. .Sums' 1 

A f fMir/. 683 

3. (o.)Ltevig&tum^. 6I» 
• -njadmii L'Hirii. Stlrp. 
S.iMtraiH CiT. Dili., 

I. Halr'su EUIb 620 

Th. RiKKidnip Tr«. — «a- 

1. tetrftptera L. 

I. AaGA'niA RtEin. 6S3 

rjrgam,tr.; BOnJuib,, Otr. 

1. SiderAxylon .R(»i.62S 

itrSjvtom jw. I4U. uid ath»t i 
CkiiitpliffKm ip. Aubl. ud 
otberi ; fisclunui, Ga. 
1. /jcioides Gecrln. 683 

H™. AtE a. J:;>c Will. Fl. 

2. rediii^la r«i/. - 68S 

SUerdwtoi ricUnihmi Mich. 

3. tfinax irW. - 684 

B. ckTftorttuautt Punh F). 
Amar. Sspt., SUt^ix^laK U- 

p»rUMri Nicbi. Fl. lESl 
Am«., arytafliSUam lanti. 

4. lanugtndsa PunA 684 

Mlchi. fi°"sor. ilSr., i. 
(JKU Will. F]. Cv. 

5. obtongirdlia AWf. 684 

I. iJloapr'iiM i:. - 623 

nnHf. AHiManl ^r>|n>- 

«; Ptaitirmlmir, fmaM 
r, Ft.: llMamitt DM- 

ireiiiiins L. - 686 
* FarilaDn. — OiuUcAb* 

3. (t.) pub^aceas P. 687 

B. rtTgtnUMM HT. UMll. 
OfAn- i:«iA ^ AMb IMh- 

r^FTDj - - - . en 

Sect. I. Oli'in.b. 

£iBu'sTitUM 7W. 688 
Tba PriTM.— TMW. Ft. I 

. vulgkre 7W. - 688 

L. (Cni&MMI luh. Rbl. 1 
WW MM^|Pr. { 'fnvAu 

3 leuoociipuni - 6S9 

3 xuitbocirpum - 689 

4 chkKociipiim - CM 

., Google 


6 vanegntum - 639 

7 anguMifdlium - eS9 
9. snicitum Hamilt. 630 

L. nrr^fmi Wall. In Hoib. 

£ glitbrum Hook. 630 
3. lAcidum Aii. - 630 
r** tc« jv«. 

a florib^ndum Donald't 
Cat. - - 630 

Tkuiii. (L. lulpBIhrn Vtlni.). 

II. Phil 

* T. 631 
■ 632 

1. niMia L. - 

p. laUfblia tar. i nrilM l^ 

(I^WmPoII.I'L Ver. 

3 lirgAu .lii. /T. K. 63Z 
Sfruiifolis.^. U.K. 63^ 

2. (m.) anguBt[loliaI..G!tS 

p. oiCfXt Ten. SjLL. P, 
s'lmnceolaU A. H. K. 633 

3 rtWDuriairolU Ait. 632 

4 bTMhUu^rt. H: ff.632 

3. (in.) 'igiialrifolia ^.638 

J^aiu. Ciu-HM. 

b, (m.) otesf&lia ^i/. 633 

P.niAWa ) All. Hort. K»w., 

6. (m.) Utifolia Z.. - 633 
F. laUfHiaBtrTfiu Poll. Fl. 

Vn., f. loHfiUae Ten, Fl. 

'•UO'Mia J9 qindu Sis. Vnr' 

7. (m.>lce'¥ia^K. - 633 

P. fctf^SMMtirDirt. ^' 

B. (in.)obl)quB vlit. 633 

p. lofi^a V Wind. Sp., p. 

JUiiera Link Jibrb., Vmjrra 

9. (m.) spinosa JIM. 6^ 

laliiua filphlbaViiM. 3p!, P. 
luffiWa lormiaiia Link J^rb., 
VIMjrta I. CliH. Htn. 

III. Citiona'nthi's 634 

/Vfif' Tr^ZlaUmUt, Fr. ; 
ScjtKFiJiuH. Ger. 

LvirgtmcaL. -834 

S latifSlia Cat. Car. S34 
C >. .Kmldia Purih Stpt. 

3 aaj^^tlfolu Ait. 634 

4 m^imk nTrM - 634 

Sect II. Sru'naSA 
IV. SrBi'KOA L. - 635 

n mijar Zsd: a 636 

4 talvifaiU Lmiil C. 637 
4. rothomag^naia - 637 

(M«- Sprc/n iff Syifdlm. _ S. 

Kojlc lltuit. - ■ -EN 

V. F0NTANB'g/.< Lab. 638 

I. jihill^reiMdei Lab. i 

Sect III. J^.iiKi.\ 

1. exc^lsif 

2 p& f.640 
fr«K Farawl. Fr, 

3 ilirH ffi/U. £h. 640 
F. airra Pen. EKb., 

Lodd. Cm. 1836. 

4 ilirea pinduU - 641 

5 criip. - - 641 
F. erimt Bo«. 

F. <Unfrh-m. D«r. Arb. 

6 jupfdea mild. 64 1 

7 purpurfiimi* D. 641 

8 argentc* Dirf. 641 
9lClteB - - 641 

10 eron Z^tri. EncA. 641 
1! vmucoM .Dm/ e4l 
13 verruc p^ndula 641 

15 fungdta Ladd. C. 641 

16 TenicillaU L. C. 641 

2, (e.) helerophyila 648 

F. lAiBJictra'iii wind, Sp., 
F. mmm^yila l>Mf. Arb,, F. 

a «rie^t. - "- 643 

F, lalicifilla Hort, 

B. Z*^*'i imoU, >«ooil, or 
lAUnfoAODE, Xatim^Uir 

4. pBTvifolia fTiad. - 643 

5, (p. ) BTg^ntea Z>>ii. 643 

6. (p.) oxyrfrpa tT. 644 

F, DjypA^ BieV, Fl, Tmur., 

7, p&llida Bote - 645 
■3,_/entiscif6lia Detf. 6+5 

II , JT, purrlfWM iW 

0, americftna tVi/M. 646 


p. H^a Du Kd HnU.. F 

4 subpuli^KViii Ptn.&n 
It. (a.) lauibucifDlia 647 
Harl.: i*< Slaci Jiki llaUr 

2 crispa LoM. Cat. 617 

1 8. (a.) quadrangulata 

Mi. . . . f •- 

5 nervosa Laid. Qi(.648 
13. (a)r'i]glaiidr(&1iH64>8 

F.riridu Aarr.Sj[. 

M, Klchi, i WaUm Blot* 

2 sutMnteg^riuu 649 

F. i^tanOmUa ar'-- 

I+. (a.) caroUniami 649 

F. irrratililia MIcHi. bI. 
V. lamxoUla Borkb. : Si 

15. (R.)ep(ptera VaUSSO 

F. cammiiiuii OacRD. FruO., 
F. UiKfii B«c. 

16. (a.) platycirpaF. 650 

) nlpi jBOK. f . 

Vn. fTRNUB Pot. 651 



\ JbiriftTa aroB. Cm., F. tefry- 
W Sell. Vn, ^ 

2. (e.) rotundifolla 65i! 

FrAr^mt rcttrndifAiia Aft. 
Hon. Kn.. F.iuiHifrra Hon. 
Plui. Aim, -— — ^ 

3. (e.) americdna P. 65a 
4^ floribfinda G.D. 653 

I. JABiai'ifVM FoTMi. 654 

TbB Jumiiu. - Uonir 
ton..- Jtiu-lwe: Ja 

3. heterapliyiluin X. 655 

J. arMiv«1liii>Ul. HSS. : 
Oocjee 4bd JaramM iD NojmI. 

4. revoliitum XVr - 655 
ItuLi X yepat ttilau Ja- 

5. Cr.)publgen]rniJ. 656 

6. ofGcinale L. - 656 
a foliii BrgtnUis L €56 

3 foliu alJreiB L. C. 656 

4 floribug plenii H. 656 

I. r:'>c* Z.. - 657 

S»mgill». dm,: «M. ^ 
mftjori. - 657 

ZfoViitvgtattiiL. 658 

S loliis adras Lod. 65S 

4 Hire ilbo Led. C. 658 

5 flOre pleno IaI. 65H 

6 Bdre punieeo L. 658 
T aculifl^ra BtH. 658 

b 3 

A scle/iiadttcew. 
I. Fbri'floca £. - 650 

Prnplxa. ft., StMi^t, 
Gir. 1 Ptr^tBca, lUI. 

1. giw'caZ,. - -659 

Bu^. : .lU IV«.''4hcAh 
•"F^rUnK^ lUl. 

2. aiuuatifolie Xoi. 659 
v£i'^^ "■""'■ '^**' 
Puveia'nthus AIIkdi 

3fart. - - - 650 

imTou.- 01 

««FlDit«— R,. 

I. capreolata L, - 660 

II. TE'coit^ JuM. 661 

A^iWalai^ Lin. mad oUHn. 

I. radicana Juu. • 061 

J^^la ivrfiuiu mijcr HoA„ 

a inijor .ffort. . 661 
a. mndiBiruSwI.- 661 

FL Jin.. B. tUnhait Lm. 
Diet., i»rt^ K»iiip[ Abu™., 
Inearwttem grAid^fftfra Spreng. 

III. Cat/lpa Jubs. 6GS 

B(|iitaU ^. or Ud. ind 
oChvrij Bigmrme Cntalpa^ Fr, j 

t. 'jmnczfilia %>» 66V 

Bin»><^ ClUI)l> i.A>. SB., 
Cullpa i^tn^Miln Wiia. R. 
t'ar.i C. a/TdjIiUa Null. Gfo. 
Amir. : Asu Aamto*. Cala/pm 
at rAwtHqur, Fr. ; TrutapC' 

I. ^laVvm rount. 663 

Tb* Ml«bubadfc _ Ur/«. 
fjiu Toum. Intl., Pirtin- 
Vipiictaii Hmdi H«b., JVyc- 
UrmiM Vnil. Jam. Malm., 
.tfudrlia Jac^. AtKir. : HtrrBt, 
Fr. I KackUduUlat, Qa. i Sa. 

1. Dulcamara I,. - 664 



t violicM H. Eyil. 6S4 
8 tlba Lin. FL Sute. 664 

3 ciiaea CtU. Upi. 6S4 

4 pl^u 7wr<i. Inil. 664 
3 Tkriegiti Mint. 564 
t> hinilbi i>ait'i AfiU. 664 

S, liUnrilt Hon, 
T rup6>tri9 Schmidt 664 

S. crispum J?. * iS. B6-1 
IL tY'cioM L. ■ 665 


% (e.) b&rbnrum Z,. 666 

L-haffniTM/wa Mill. Dkt,, 
L. bArbtnim ■ VN^dre AH. 
Holt. K«ir. ; M( I>ia( q/' dr- 
ftlTt Tea Tra. 

3. (e.) cbinfnse M. 6G6 

I_t^4drwiijflclMw Alt. 

4. (e.) 1 

6. fe.) riitb£nkum 667 

L. Ulirlcum Pill. Fl. Ecu. i 

i c&ipicum i><i/I. 6fiT 

6. (c.) lanccolutiim G68 

L. rtrop*'"" B Um. n. Fr. 

7. (?e.) turbinatum 66B 

8. afruTQ L, ~ - 6G8 
9 rtgiduRi - - 668 

L. rifUmm Booth. 
OUIfT ^rc/a tr Lfctum. — L. 

III. Crabo'wskm Schl. 
I. boeThaa,fiiefdlia 

/ilia t.'iUnt. Stlrp., I^dum 
kflrrafhiUiim Uurr. Comn. 


I. Bu'dwi-b^ L. - 670 

l.RlobdiwL. - - 670 

Ham.; B-t^Mu Itral CaL, 
Icon. Rar.i i>iUoiiAi. Fwlllk 
(C: BtMlda tlettltui, ¥t.\ 
Kofirilrafndc Bmdldt, Ow. 

II. P*ULo'wN/j Sieb. 

£4{iiinU naaft. Ft. Jap., 

\iiSsSieb. - 671 

ig. SyiL Veg.^ Xlrrf, 

onus fruticdsa 678 

Salvia officinMii L. 673 

1. A gnai chetua I,. 673 

KJr^raiai T^n^r^ll Loft. 

Pll>Fr nir^jlfi Osrnrd : .IHkn 
O" /-mrrt lamtagr. Fr.j P(p« 

9 latifolia MiS. - 674 

2. (^.) incisii iMm. 67* 

V, Ne«aada All. Viy. 

3. arborea Box. • 674 


I. Cbbmopo^ium £.675 

Lin. I JhitAic, Fr.i CilW 
Am, Oar.; Ckenofadlii. lul. 
1. fruticoaum Sckrad.%15 

fruHdiaUn. Sp. PI. : Tkc 

Cluc, Sal^a fntlciia 8iel 
Cup., Suo^ifa iiu'i?nniilAJ 
Put, hlq.t. 

II. il'TRIPLM £. - 67 
Hh Ondx— .«mc*r. Fr. 
J6Ue. Ocr. 1 AlrifUtf. Uil. 
1. AalioiuK £. . 67i 

Tta* Tl« FurlluH HM 

2. porlulacoides L. 676 


1. CcratSldes fF. - 677 

A'xvtU Cera&tttet Lin. 8p. 
PI,, Ceraiotp^rmKm ptrppAnm 
Pen., ^i-irryi /fuliiimJfdrt. 
Sib.. At^grinllKM fonita 
^WU Guldeut In Aet.Pitrop.. 

t TaAOOPv'HUM Sieb. 

Tha Gait.Wbut_Pg(^a- 
■HH LId. Hart. L'pt. 

I. lanceolHtunifli«6. 678 

2. Auxilbliiini Bieb. 678 

PoWjiiniinn CTiijmlam mr. m 

S.poiygaraum Spr. 679 




■ L. 679 I "'^■^?»'«t.*«V- ■■ ^ 


.680 '5^ 

I. Falluu L'Herit. 

VoT., ilsUfm^ pD<KC<» 
PJl. lUll,, PmOuiix ol, 

I. Z^iu'iics I- - 681 

Bfa^Inf^ or A« nw- — 

i< undnliia itfitf. . 

3 nlicifoliB Smt. . 683 

L. ■. mwnMOMia Lod. 

1 nn^iu Sb(. - e 

L. vj&f. HIT. Lodd. C 

5 UtiioliH Uta. . 6 

6 erUpa Ladd, Cat. G 

7 «dn pliDo . G 

8. carolin^nsis Calet. m'i 

4 obtj^n ParA . £83 

I. CUesbiirnii Mx. 683 
L, mnUwiut Lin. Sn>c., I. 
■trm Mill. Dirt.. UitiSi- 

4. Sitiafiat L. 

S.(B.) niiMpyrusP. ee 

Cea., U iientltS!rx^"i 
Bor. Amu., i L. witliiim/ii 
Will. Cr. ~~— " 

7. genicuUta Mr. B8fi 

I. Sa'phne I,. - 6B6 

G»rtii. ; DmAmt, Fr. j JcWt^ 

ASmrAu SpMrgt, PirktlMiii 1 
UirarJ gaj,, Geruil: haiatoU 
fliKtlt, Bill ima. Untmm. 

imt, Dr Krdrfiatt, Oct. ; Fr. 
IxracMtt Ua^iatt, Dnlrh | 

S fl^ ilbo - . «87 

3 BulumTula . 6HT 

8. altkicB Po/A - 687 

^ tEwv, Fr, : ' jiiiTiMio- 

3. alplna L. - -688 

nc Alfau Ommrlai Munli. 
luiL: £ilr>Wiln>4n, Ft. ; 

4. LaiireolA Z.. 

- 688 

^ tiOm Hart. . 689 

3 fsliil fwiegitU ^ 689 

6. TliymelK'a FoU. 669 

j^Mra. jOunM nUMMi ad 

(Ufaw Bauh. Pnd.t Ana. 

■hCaAi fjlUn Bwh. HIU. 1 
Faurrima T*»iwte'a U«c ' 
l*c ff I'M OliH : la ntntUi, 

ratlila latt^a Bitt. Ic' 

Uc cwatJiatt* Darlati : Iji^ 
Tttti Monctc, Vr.\SiaicTtat. 
Irigrr StMlltaU, Ow. 

8. (r7\) puM«cein 68Q 

rfflftf Gaito-proplnttje MimiUt, 
•^per n^i jwi/DT, UJchcin 

9. (? 7'.) tomentflBa 690 

C. Ertct. Ltam frrr 

10. collina Smilh 

CoUmn, LaurMi i 

11. (c.laleoldea - 69U 

/Uld Urn. Bicr^i LtmHaU 

12. (c.)BerlceaF<iA/6Bl 
Dtfinr aH^Ua Lm. Bbck': 

stri&ta TVu/. - 69? 

15. CneorumZ.. - 691 

., Google 

HM.: nrmtUtdtiAlpn.Fr.: 

tVMrier^rmleT SrUiUlX, Gar. 
9 folUs luiegiktis 69-2 
S fldre ilbo - 693 

II. Dl'HCA L. - 6»i 

I.Httan'-wood. — T^mrlc'ii 
Gtoo. Vlrg. 

1. paluBirisL. • «9t 
Stti it'plomi, Fr. i SmmTlf- 

I. Nt'ss^ L. - 693 

1. \M6rt.mckT. - 693 

H. antUa LlD. Sp. Ft. ; 
/Ute Alt. Hon. Aew., tCft- 

Pfpttidgi. Amat. ' 

S. (b.) vill6sa3I>. 6M 

) cindicana 31. 6! 




4. fb.)gnindidentikta694 
The Lir^ 'nnwio Tth. — 
y. UHfbiiidfp una S- angmli- 

ieaUatiHa Alt. Hort. Keir^ n! 
vyw^a Polr., y. uiMdt-4 
Wuigsiib. Ain«r.; IFiVd DA'tc, 

ftie, i^n. flUI. 
IL Osv-Bis £. - 695 
Tb> Poct'i CurtL _ Cilia 
Ciiner., Lob,, AlplD.. Gsn. 
]. ilba L. . 
.5; -R"* UaiMt— —^c3rta 


dfrra Biul 

Ohd. EpJI. ! iKfue Oirrii. 

I. £lxa'gni)s rniir. 69H 
iamm. Ocr. i SitagM, lUL 

I. hort^nsis Bkb. ~ 696 

PI, i E. umrdnc^' FlKh.'. 6'. 
infrmU Mil], Dict^ B. «r^(«. 
im Maneli MHh.. B srVnUdJfi 
UclKIr, ? e. artMra Wu>. 

d fWll« ftrsttri. Ft. ; iolMal 

littriiA- OInuin-, Gsr. i 
tnSPandiia. lul. 
1 wi^atifSlii Bi'it. 6 

1. Rfaamnoides L. - 698 

Tam. C«.. JUomiiUo 


8. /alicifolia B. Dnn 6! 

1. argfntea Null. - 7l 

HilvMiw onrtaCra Pui 
Int.: Minwf SUht li 
□d Amn^i Arry IVre, Ave 
toUll BcrTjF. and Be<f Si 

8. canad^naia A^b''. 700 

Sp. 'fTTwUld'^ Fl.'far^ 

A ristolochidcetV. 

\.ei\iho L'Hiril. - 701 

Arltltladit Syplan. Fr. i (TOH- 

S (b.) tomcnt6aa S. 702 

I, STlLl.lNa/.<Oard.702 
I. figfistrina WJId. - 702 
n. Bu'xua J,. - 703 

2 angustitolu AfiO. T03 
Si£i.i.r.-,Mjir^ta H. Tin 

I. Afoltua roufj.. - 705 

Ths Multnrry Tth. — Vf. 

1, nigra Pnr. - • 706 

Ths CDmnHn Kolbwry, — 
HftnuDod.Pempt, M./htcn 

2 UcmUtaJK/t: i>. 706 

8. &lba L. . - 707 

Mtmjf-ttaikrd MuSerttr. 
Utrlrr PirrclUt. Ml- 

Mora^& nilpmiiie.tal. 
} Morettiaiu Hot. 70' 

4 iiucrophTlla i., 707 
U. ■ JiuyMiii Hon. 

FnBUe<eEipagitt, Ft. 

5 nmOna toii C. 707 


miUJVrni.?- 70e 

1. campfiMriB L. - 715 6 TheMrrow-Ud H 

ITtaw AOtim TUaj Hii. fiircU.£]m, Wood 

Hllt.i U. mirKir.JSXW «w«<8 , , ,. „ ,, 

(coAra. Oei. Bnuc.: Obmen- 3. (c.]niqjor AWfA 

he, Du Hun. Arb.i TUn rail 

Hinll. Valgr.. VJ»i lalifttia 
MIefai. MTXiHr. Bjl. 

4u effuu IPuiU. - 719 
-■ Miia Ehrti.Art.,U,pr- 
lita Lus. met. U. OD- 

>Wi P(l. Bom. : eorme 

I. papyrfrera Vnd. ■ 710 

fW sanrVcrii Un. Sju PI. 

S euciJlita - - 710 

a. citeuiUta Bon Jord. 

3fr(icHiUbo - 711 


Titfkm BUliiMi|u> In isn. 
I. aurantiaca Nutt. 711 

Th« 0«i« Orango. — BoB- 
aonl, F(«»i™d, V. Anier. 

IV. Fi'cog 7W».-712 


1. C4ric« L. - - 712 

M.^ .ml F. jyMitifi Twm'. 
Inil.T J^*!*' ™»-iBi, Fr.i 
gOHTliu feitmtiaiim. On-. 

V. BO^Y.* W. - 713 
idWa Michi. Fl-Bor. Am., 

^WM> SmM *• lUat Cucl. 

l.figflrtrinaH'. - 713 

Bor. Am. B^f liirtm H™*™* 
BdIUi In lUia'i Crclop. Add. 

2. (?f.)a<:uminaW-7H 

Bor. Amur., BigrlMt tiaamlmita 
Smltb n BH^iCrclop. Add. 
rfdcUs wniOB Hi. FI. Bor. 
Ann-., BigtH^* funaita 
Smltb ta R«™'» Cielm. Add. 

? B.fiu Lodd. dJ. leae. 
L (/■iJiuaL. - 715 

The Elm. — O""'. Ff.j (•''"■ 
« Slimr, G*r. i 0*«i, lul. 

S latifdliB Hort. 

I-Dnr. 716 

usJ/ort. 716 

10 fSliis T«riegitii - 71 

11 belul(efu1i> - 71 
U. brlait/l^ia I-od. CU. 

13 g iTrti nAlia H. D, ' 71 

n.) Pill, B™.„ 
J. iMUtoWllld. Sp. PI 
J. piHlla /i*V» pdfT( 

TU t. 


5. montilna Batii. - 780 

Tta« Scotch iirWntlElm_U. 

V-aira Hudt.. U. (fkia BlbUl., 
. «ds™ MIIL Dkt.. U tnUs 
Glirh..U. cmatdr'iWiUd.Sp. 
PI., U. camtttrii to«flW"Hort. 

T ausuilis tforf. - T£0 

BpenduU - -791 

U. pltdlda Lodd. Cat. 


9 (Mtigi 

16 cucullata Hort. 

17 conOYsfSlia H-. 717 
18(uliisa(irei«Hi>rt. 717 
19 jAia Bart. ■ 717 
OUtr ♦'arirt^ - - 717 

2 (c.> suhertsa Jtf. 718 

" ^amrficV' WoodT. Med. 
t;.Smp»iir.i uidT*m- 

I lulgins - 
U, nAfran Hort. I 
Tin Birfot B>T*-6i 

4 ericta I.«U. Cot. ' 

5 Tlie broad-lyd Hert- 

fordfcElm, Jr«>ii7I9 


Mr. 1. With. : tit 
Tanier TV™. 

lu rigria Hort. 


S gkndiddn linA T: 
fi btiAlia Und. - 7 
T micraptaf lb Sort. 7 

8 p&idiJa - 

1 Hlbn Ail. H. K. 734 
9 inn Ait. Hurt. K. 724 

a pAuluU Pur* S. 784 

4 indM Horl. - 724 

5 foUtinriegi^ IT. 7S4 
9. ^a.) Ajlra MlcAx. 784 

TlH (Knwy Blm—U. rMrn 

10 alita Jlfr. - - 725 
Mt Waim or tiM Xorth Am*. 

II. Pla'nbr^ Gmel. 723 

/^•fffl" wind. Bhih., U. 
H^ma Rkshud Act. Virii. 

v. /mn «v>a'A u>r W-*^' 

»«, JViBM HffMn HK com- 
wrtuo. Point Bktc. H«Ui.t 
& Ztltama, or Ormc it Hbtrii, 
Fr. ; tMUrTi Palmai, Ott. 
2. Om^iini M«. - 726 
P. BfM^fcU WW - "■ 


3. (a.J caucirica W. 728 
3. TaurnerurtiiLain. 726 

C. trUntilil mimlT.fiMil ml- 
JhHt. Tmim. Cor. t C. trtf. 


I. nvsttUa L. - - 727 

LMu Artor Lab. Ic„ LMu 
1«K CJKCl Cun, Spit ; Loll 

6. occideaUlii L. - 729 

7. cratdfolia Lam. ~ T30 

6. 1tev%ita H'i^.J. - 730 
9. pumila Pi. - - 731 
OOtr Stirciti Iff CMU.—C. ort. 


I. yu'CLlNE L. - 732 

4 iiT6tlnn Bm/. - 73: 

iTl'Uqfiba Laid, C*t. 

Hickory Ntit. N 

- 735 

r S,L, . 

■tfer, Anivr. ; NotfT eetuM, 

IJ. Ca'rt* A^ntt. - 735 
Ttit Hlckorr Tne — )*««• 

S. Ltn., Wiad.. Mtchi. I Rkb- 

S.mvUMIihUhMl, Hoit-KfTW.: 
i.^lUi^nnl, Ml. Fl. Boc! 

4. tomentdM JVyU. 733 

dJiaMill. Dm., J. (Dnnliua 

it^arf Hidtorj.'mmmi^'uidiorr, 

3 iiiixima jVhM. - 739 

5. £lba A'uU. • 739 

Tha Sbell-tHrk Hltkorr.— 
llitlmi iBM Ui. ri. Vat. 

6. sulcata AV/. 


u*niri<i«o JJilhlenl 

SgUli™"" - - 741 


8. myrirticKfiinniB tf. 7* 1 

9. microcarps A^u/i. 742 
OOcr Saeda «/ Um — C. 

uibl(i» (Jtolw hikMcwi 
Hi.). C. pab««u Umi, C. 
tlfliU (J. rw'tfil Lodd. CU.). 
C. lnl«»rtfl>Hiii Spfnu;.. Hl- 
cMiu (■(tiitWIiii HiBn. 4W 


J^tawv. Lin. 
I. caurasica JCutilA 743 

J^foiu i>fenc4nr<> HlEbi. 
Fl. Bor. Anwt., ft^Vin. 

I. 5ALIX I,. - - 744 

braw 1 //«, Cr. 1 SaUx, taHn 1 
JMb. Pr. i IFrMc mul Alicr, 
Get. I Jolfciii. lUl. i Sanu, 
Spu. 1 H'ldf. Svrd. i WOgi. 
Flam. I ICAUr. Anflo-iu-i 
trillDiii, iruitv. Snflou, Owr, 
EaBlUh; Sa^k^ Scotch. 

Group L PMrpirta Kocb. 
1 . purpurea L. - 74i6 
8. hilix L. 


leranica WiOd. 749 

. 747 

Croup, iii. Tri&Kdra Bor. 

iSgn. ^mygdUJut ««*.) 
10. undul&tB Koch 749 

S uodllUU ^or««( Tjl 

3 luceolAta Sn. 751 

4 I4r. hiTing atkim 
■ndrogyaaiu - 751 

ipophaefoliar. 751 

agUlica - - 753 
a Hoppeiiiui - - 752 

4 £ trUndn unaul&ta 
M^rUnt, imd. — Ap- 
proachei to S. arngg- 

13. HotrmBnmaan 8.732 


so. decfpiein Hofm.lSB 
-no wklM W*Uh, « nr- 

nlllicd. Wlll0.._S. <HCriH 

"'•Ik. Eiujrt on Nit. HIM., 

SI. montinn Forbirt 750 
88. frttgitis L.. - 75» 

f/U., hir>f«. Kocb COIDID. 

ipeti^ns F. 760 

84. KuBselliona 
Tb> Dita of BadBH-i w 

low. — ?S. JVi^Ml Woodi 

15. Villanianfl Plug. 753 

p^nta 9ar, Kocfa CoiQDL. ?3. 

3. LanibertiiTna Sm. 747 

purrtrtaV^'^ Cumin. 

♦, WoolgBtTfiiu Bor. 747 

*., 9. TufmAmdra tor. HofTin. 
HM. 3^L 

5. Forbyaiu Smith 74B 

Tho tDo Bulut Otlar.— 
of HoC (SntfU.) \ a, T^s |9 

7. acutitolia WiM, - 748 | 

bul'nat of WI1Id..'nai'Ui« s! 

8. <^hnoides TiUari 749 | 
S.artv'sf Hopps la BCurm 

D. Fl., S. MjiwiWi Honn. , 

3 hemuipbrodltiu 754 

, S. ehSrta I 

The Wee^of Willow 
prw^adCiu SsilDC. Sal- 
or^McB, 4c., C. BHh.: 
pkHTflir, ParoMOi du rrf4 

nrwin IV^i. Cat. 

I vulgirLi fono. K 7f B 

I Z NapoleoTia Hurt. T5B 

3 a\wp» Hart. - 75S 


iSr., 8. MrWi Frta^ S. 

25. PuTshiona BoT. 761 

p Ti. A'lbei Borrer. 
of tbc Urcnt Sl». wKfa 
■^ FoUigo iibWdL 

26. Mb*!;. - - 761 

3. d/Cx.Hrltf', KocfaCoa.i 

t HiaiAigilim, or SmiUgtr- 

9 carillM - - 761 
a. ifJifl MT. SmWi, Fl. B. 
S. atrVn Smith kng.B. 
T*( y^mul, or rrd-lmttd. 

Tit l^carr WiaoH, 

ScriipaHbrt. - 761 
4 rowa ZaU. Col. 761 

27. viteUiiia L - 763 

28 nlna JfiiiU. - 768 


99. Humboldtianii - 764 

30. Bonplandiana 764 

Oniup *iii. Pnwlifai B. 

Shruhi, nuatlf Natliu of N. 

Anieilu,indui«<lln lahrt- 

31. rigida AfuU. - 7S4 

32. prinbides Purti 764 

33. discolor M'Ud. 764 

34. anguBt^taPunji 764 

35. conKrniiaFoT*** 764 



37. reflixa Forba 765 

38. virgata ForUt 765 

39. Lj'dnii ? Schl. 765 

40. Houstoniana P. 765 
S. Irillfi Laid. Ot-IBM. 

41. fklcata PuriA - 765 
48. grisea ffiiW. - 76fi 
43. petiolnrU iS'nu^ 765 
(tatrSM Kocli Conn. 

snbergiam 766 

46. trlstiB Ait. - 766 

47. cardaUMiiJilmb.166 

49. anffusCirolia 3orr.766 

50. decfin:iben«Far6i;(766 

51. fugcaCa /'iiriA - 766 

Group li. i^Hijffl Boner. 
Honlr pranimlinit S)im)ii. 

5S. fiiscs Z,. - 707 

repent Koch, purr q/; Kocb 

a prosLT^tB 

55. finm4rchlca W. 769 

56. verstcolor F. - 769 

57. olaternotdes F. 769 
5B. proteffl/3io Seh. 769 

». (Bl 

BttiaUita Bor. 


Group xii. j<i»i(giiit Dor. 
54. ambigiia Eirk. 768 

>9. reticulata L. - 769 

Small, uprlaht, allh 10(1 illkf 

60. flnagnoidea&A. 770 

61. glafica /.. - 770 
wiiiii'^Tpi. "■' 

62. serlcea Fi/lar, 770 

63. Lapponum L. 770 

64. oI)tuslf51iaFri//rf,771 

65. Brenftrial-. - 771 

66. obovata PuriA 77 i 

67. caniscenH Wi/M. 771 

68. StuaiU'dna 8m. 771 

69. pyrenaica Gou. 771 

70. WHldsteinfdnaW.771 

Gr. IV. Viminala Bor. 


71. aubalpina F. 'til 

72. Candida WUId. 771 

73. incanaSoir. - 771 

■a Polr^^l'iu H. 

Hart , 3. r/nAtdM Via Uclpb. 

74. linearis Fnrbet 772 
? S. Mrd« »r. Imtirii Bcr- 

75. viminaliH L. - 772 

gffiMa Lun. fl fr."" 

76. stipularis 5fln(i 772 

77. SmithionoWilld. 772 

78. mollfssiina £iir. 772 

79. holoaertcea Hi. 778 

80. MichelidBoForb.772 
61. rerru^nea And. 773 

83. pallida ForUi 773 
44. Willdenovuina 773 
85. Pontederjtna W. 773 

86. macroslipiil^cea 778 

87. incan^Bcens fSe. 773 

88. pannosa Forbei 773 

89. mutdbilis J'(ifA:»776 

90. cinerea L. - 776 

91. aquBlica Smi/h 776 

92. oleifolia Smith - 776 

93. geminataFori. - 776 

94. crispa Forbei • 776 

SimgJk Id Torluhire, Orrt 

98. sphacelata Sin. 777 

Gr. »»ii. Mgritiuln B. 
ShniUwlIh lung RTnnct> 
■mill Trnn. MihII; lilllowi. 

99. austrfilia Forba 778 

100. vBudensia For, 778 

101. (ifisophvlla F. 778 

102. laciistriii For^. 778 

103. crongiiaiia fH. 778 

104. rotinifdlia 5ni. 778 
The Qnlim-IniTed Siltow. 

— S. iptdicra Vllkn Donpli,, 
S.ptfScffMiter. Koch Conini. 

105. htrta Smlh - 778«a SchlelchRlt llw (Hn. 

106. rivularis Fori. 778 

107. atropurpilrea 778 

108. corikcea For*. 778 

109. nigricans SniiM 778 

S. fkgUcipitia fi Ua. Sp P], 

ilO. Andersoni^na 779 


111. damiuc^a F. 779 

MSS.. S. p»gliclfilla LId 

1 19. AnBoniana F. 779 

113. helvetica ForA. 779 

114. rinanForbet 779 

115. c9rptnifolia&A.779 
lie. rolundatB Frb. 779 

119. TupietmDcnn 7B1 
130. tenuifoiraX. 781 
s. arUtnIa Wib^cnb.. Mr. 

128. petTs'a ^NiftT. 781 

123. Ammannutno 782 

184. atrovJrens Fri. 782 

185. str^idaFori. 

186. 86nlida Forin 

187. 6chleicher»mi 7B8 
128. grwin^nsis F. 782 

189. teniiior Borrer 788 

130. laiifldni fiorrer 788 

131. titirmt. Sn^h 783 
Tba •hlnlnc duk-xn-n Wil- 
ls*.— 3. MeoliirSiii. Bng. B«.. 

138. piitens Forbet 783 

133. mdinns ^nUh 783 

S. plyltctiada Lhl. FL L^>p. 

134. Borreri>nia8m.783 

135. DBvalLfJna Sid. 7B3 

136. t^traplB^miM 783 

137. ramifli8caF«-i.783 

138. Forbesuifui - 783 

139. WeigeliQiuBor. 783 

142. btcolor Ehrh, 764 

■• ID U>s Icnrf a. flarlUnta 

146. csriii&ta SmilA 785 
147.prunif61ia^'niM 785 

148. venu16sa StniA 785 

149. ccUia r^/ori ' 

Cr. IX. Mgrttmsida B. 

150. mvrtilloides L. 786 

Gr. iiL Mjfrnnlla Borrer. 

153. JWyrsiniles L. 787 

PJ.. prDh4bJr S. jVHv^WknA 

154. Aetulifcilia Forfr. 787 

1 55. procOmben8For.787 
s. 1^^ ll«.k. Br, Fl.. S. 

156. retLlsai:. - 787 
S. irtMlH/illn- Jw). Aiutr. 

157. KitBibeiionn W. 767 

158. irvB-0nriPur»A787 

159. iEr|)y1lifaIia5«i. 787 

lei.herb^ceaJ^. - 788 
]62.polHrie H'(uUni£.78e 

Gr. iiiii. Saititm BoiT. 

163. haat^ta L. ■ 788 
S aerruUu - 789 

S. tanitu WOld. Sp. PI. 
3 KMlifalU - V 

164. bm&ta £. 

165. E^ptiaca L. 789 

166. BlpinaFur&r5 789 

167. berberima PaM. 790 
)l<8. tetnuperma A. 790 

1 69. almifolia Forbet 790 

170. rillosa Pcr&fi 790 

Gr. m. Mlialiinta B. 

nuDH Id Biilkh Ga^mi TM 

11. Po'piJLUs2Wrn.819 

The Popl»r.— /•r^i&T-, Tr.i 
Pappet, Grr.i Piopjui, lU]. \ 
Pcrtver, Dnicli ; Jlamm, Spun. 

1. tilba L. - - 819 

T)m AbitiK Tr«_r. Ala fa. 
imUti Lob. IC! F. IH^M- Hfll. 

&^'iu>^ Hut. Mm'. ; iJidti, 

Fitplar. fTtat ilifrm, ttult* 
Bcrek : PnflltT time. Yprtn, 
Blame Or HoUmmlr. Frame PI. 
tatB* dtotIdmi J vfiut Pom. 
pri. sSttT Ptipprl, mine Atpt. 

3 hybrids 5U. - 830 

P. (ariraua Lodd. Cit. 

F, (JHTrtfcrWff Holt. 

F. ammttTglea, Lod.CM. 
p. Mfica Lodd. CU. 

4 doAitMa - - B30 

r. KtMn Lodd, CU. 

F. lomemlim of [ht Hi- 

JlrjhMrr Poplar vf iht 

Edlnburili Hantrfn. 

5 i^ypttaci Hart. 8S0 

G pendula - iSO 

F. fi. ror. grAdUt rimit 

g.(a.) canescens Sm. 880 


3. cr^ula Z.. - • 821 

Tlw Aip«i. —P. iiftyca Unit 
pTiJjtIi Trig. H1K-. V. pfn'- 

Sp^nduU - - 9S3 

r.fttidlUnhBM. CM. 

3 ImgiU • ■ SSS 
P. latifita All.Hnrt.Ke». 

4. (t.) trepida Wiild. B££ 

Ucmidalin Kichi. K. Amcr. 

5. (t.) gran didentata 823 

Thi N. AmtrlCHl lar^Ajpm. 

9 p^ndula Wichx. - B23 

«. irne'ca -<i/. - - 883 

TGs Atlmlui Popllir. 

7. nigra L. - - 824 
Tb> CDinaDD Uuk Pofiliu' — 

P. iUn Tru. Hill., P. Koiiani 
Du Hu. Trb., P. rlimUittii 
Hon.. P. pgiMCa Hon. ; ^i- 
(ffm, Greek ; Kaiai', Modern 
Crrek : Ue oU Er^iill Poplar, 

CeiabcliiHtain i M'lUn' Pofk 

i^ied uectM* rm' wibuit 

St. GdmuniU: FrwpHcr nair, 
pisrUer Uart, Oiler BlmK,WT., 

a Tiridii ZtoA ' - S24 
P. elrHUi LoiM. Ct. 

8. (?n.) canadfnds B84 

P. ter^dU WIIM. Sp. PI,. 

9. (?n.)ietuli/olia< 825 

BOK » LaU. : 'Arkrriom HaCk 

10. (? n.) monilf r^ 825 

3 foliii Tulegiti) ' 
U.fMi\etlU.Detf. - 827 

Tbc LombudT Pwlmr — » 
tfUWiUa Alt. Hon. Ke> 


■r, 7V™>roptor, etPof- 
_., . renplltrSlUBt. PcwpUtr 
prramidai, Fr. ; 7AnnAdHi«cAc 
Papmcl, Iull<miKlt€ Fatprl, 
am. i fiopfo Cfprrtt. lUl 

\2.meutaUAU. - B28 

3 MedilH Booth ■ 838 

I. heterophyila i. 889 
p. mil** Jb&i Smpiii. ai 
GroD.Vlrg.. Pinri/jlUu Burt 

I. .^'LNva roam. - 832 

Ua.'juf/'Ft.-. Erlr! 
OuauB, lul. 1 AUa, SfHi 

l.alutinoiui Gorfn. 832 

A-mamcSrpa — 

7 Alia varieg&lii H. 833 

2. oblongata fViUd. - 83« 

A'Mw.fN.0Uav,$r.. Baub.; 

lict. : lamtli<*t KImt, aer. 
SRUataipacitAU. 834 
A.jiiiivtiiLodd. <;u. 

. incana iViiid. - 834 

ngulila AU. - 894 
4. Berniiata WStd. - B35 

7. vlridis Dec. - - 

A. OKdULodd. Bot.ClI 
frVlciu Schmidt. Btlmta . 
•^ehreokSil., B. A'tes-ft 
ihrb. Bcjtr., B.eiriittJil 
ll*rr Spnfri qf A'law. 
tarbiu. W™w. (^ 
Vev<r. A. J«^ll«ulr 

Brrk. butch ;' Sir*, ' 1 

S p^dula 8niJ 


4 p6Dtica - - 838 
B. pfyu,c4L Lod. CU. 

5 iirticit^is - - 839 
B. urlicfpiUa Ixid. Cat. 

6 dalsc£rllcai:. 5up. 839 

7 muroctrpa WilU. S39 

B foliii nriegatiB - 

S. (? B.) Fruttcoaa i>a//. 840 

4i. Cell. AM. Suae 

S urlcu LodiL Cat, 841 

Lemalartr. Saliti ^ Sarlli 

7. tMtpulifc 

3 kciniAta - - B4I 
a. lad^iiu Lodd. CmX. 

3 p&iduls - •841 
B.^Aufi^LiKU. Cm, 

8. papyrikcea Alt. - 848 
H. p>nTi/^aMtcki. Fl. Bor. 
Amcr.. B. imKxiUaU Hon.. B. 
rUn Lodd, C^ IS3£. B. ca- 
nrndimU Lodd. Cit.. B. ■Ifni 

S irichocliida Hari. S43 

4 pUljpb jib Hon. S43 

9. nigra L. - - 843 

10. exc^Isa J7. Kew. 843 

a Aua mctu. N. Ann. 
Sji. I ? B. nigra Du Rol H«b,, 

1 1. Unta i:. . -844 
B. tarptitlltHm Stub. BcUr.. 

B. mtgrM Do Bal lUrb, under 
both Ckna unm, md (lu that 
or B. tfiKa in Lodd. CollMttati : 
BkKk Btr^.Clurrt Bin*. Cn- 
Ink VstefOH, Amer. i Jfeu- 

Corvlacete, or Gmu 

The Oa — rfcaTonni..B»*«- 


I. peduncul^taH^M. 849 

Tbe iMmmanBiitlili Oil 

I arapfti, Clirae/fmrUc. (iraK- 
m. Fr.; SIMEiclLi.JrllX £lclU. 

!;iiit(. Ccr. i fjotu. daTiTii 
nuilc, lU].(£>ufiu n>Mt. Spin, 
fi pub^MCiu Lod. C. 849 

3 futigUu ' - 849 
Q. Jailigiaut Lun. 

4 ft^aXt 


5 belerophflU • 
q. uMrjAJte Hon. 

Q. au^iftba Hon. 
q. Amiiil Hgit. 
efoliis nriegitii- 8J1 

4- parptrca LwU. CU. 


fiufle Hut. Fl. Riul^yQ.ifii. 

'■' H. Arb. 1 g. pialf^Mi 

ef/iffi.Dalacb. Hfit.^QJ 

«d;u flimrt;' 

S. pvreniica tViild. 853 


Q. UoAiBUrrB IjMTt.. Q. /«■ 

mMn Ch:.: Ow ■ui>'. as- 

4. E'sculus Z,. - B53 

The lUUin Oak P*%« 

B'iciiJu. nui rf /ciH. DalKb. 

5. (E.) apeniiiaa.L. 854 

Q. awlmwdM Pan.; CUf 

$ ii. Cirrii. Himy-aijiptd, 
or Trriiy, Oob. 

6. Cinia L. . - 854 

Ma., Q. Hi^Uh'h Ji """ 

hi^, »e., ,„, 

DaiKh! HJiL : I*c I^li^lcW Oa.t. 

rM*c (Wi, CMmr ciklTcA^ 
CUw di Anirsvu. Pr. : Bur- 

iMmJic ESke, Cerr-ttclu. 

l^lgria - 



i> lal^la, tc.. 

2 piaiuik Ntill . 856 

3 laciniAla . . S56 

4 lariegAtn Lod. C BSS 
b. tflitndnuA. Cn^qr 

3 auitrUisn - . 8j6 

q', Cfrrii Uoat Syn., a 

Q. er~Ui f UtHi Ud. 
Q. cJ^cr tfipAfg, fc., Bau. 

S IUkiuI • 

., Google 

18 L. oriipB - 85! 

a. L. criipa Hart. 

IS L. (uberon - 85! 
Q. i.. mirrau Holt. 

14 L. incW - es: 

7. ..irplonii. - 860 

ra«i. ac. Tourn. Cor-i £'|tKni> 

Sscondali Veltnl TVi^.fw..- 
aiini Cirri IMteK ma. ■■ Mr 

Sit ^? F?r^«^>- 

JmiMc Bdic-. KoiiffeT BklK, 
•j pfnduU ^orf. - B60 
3 UtifolU £arf. - 860 

§ iiL Alba. WiiU Amtri- 

cm Oala. 

8. ilba Z-. - - B62 

Q. «Ua tiirgrii/djHi Fwk. 

Tbat. Bat. «. a. pHmaiifida 

a reptindi Afi'cAz. 863 
9, (a.) oli»ief<SnnLB 864 

11. obtUBlloba Mx. 866 

Oak, V^Mi vtUlt (Mil. AiDiI, 

12. lyrtla Wofl. - 865 

S iT. Frinu. OUabiltf 

I piJfistrui Mr. - 866 
g, p. foMtlril Hi. 
Q. FrbM Un. Sp. PI. 
Q. tmtamHtr^im. Ac. , Pk. 

Or OloMBf wkHrOak, 
Aner. i Ur mllK (M. 
mr Fhlladelpbli. 
S ini>nlS«ila Mz. - BRiS 


Q. ChllMiupln Pvrih Ft. 
Tke CJitivp^^pim, or Damf 

% T. flii™. JtcdAmeri- 

cai Oakt. 
U. rubra L. - - 968 

R-ici^ ai>u£'ii. Jtc. 'pJuk! 
l-arirtirt, Q. rllbn lUKblLa 
S'rf. ofHort-KB-. " 

15. cocctnea H'JM 869 


16. ambfgiia H'i/M. 870 

8. tmctmia Willd.- 871 

THe QMrcllren. _ a. Br- 
teMH, fc, Pluk. Urn- : Q 

I sngulon Afi'cAz. STl 

S linuusi Michx. - 
19. pa]uBtri8ir;/i(/.- 872 
Lodd. Cut. isae, q On 

80. Caleshor-i Willd. 873 
liim S Abb. ft Smltli [». ()', 

$ Ti. Nigra. Blmk 
Amcriran Oak.. 

81. nlara £., - - STi 

ThB %\Uk Jack Oik.-.Q. 
Kun-gliiulita. ^c , Rail i g. Ai-- 
n^lMo MIchx. N, Am«. iti. i 
Q. afHAfcd Lodd. Cu. IIW 

28. aqu4tica Solanii. 875 

Q, jilili amrifSrmOiu, flc., 
Oron. Vi™.; Q. /d(,o ■« «r. 
r^M, fc, Cu. CudL ; a i>%ni 

Ul. ^Pl. 

Olkir Varitlia ■ ■ »7» 
83. (s.) iliciffilia If. 876 

24. i^ellos L. - 876 

A *. ■^!^ia' £tiliniici 
I syl-iti^ui MirSi. 877 
S Istifulim Lodd. C. 877 
3 hitniniii PMTth ■ 877 

a. P.*. I 

6 TniritiTnui JVi'Mz. S7B 
Q. nirttfna Willd. Bp. PI. 

25. (P.)/aurif61ialf.878 

The Laurtl Oak, Swamp Wa- 
Idv Onk. 

S hybrids Mz. Qht. 878 

26. imbricata WUii. 879 

q. lalipUa Halt.: tmrtl 
Oo^. Fam-nai oak. Jack Oak, 

il. heterophylla M. 879 

OIkrr Sprdtl -a TkHlM. — Q. 
nerlrell. WrUi. (?a. cw- 

rlWn^ _ _ . . BTQ 

1 mlfgntalia/.0(I.C8S0 
9 wiTMijaiia Xod. C.880 

S/kgiaVuk lodiLCSaO 

4 cr^w Lod. Cat. 88( 

5 luifolia Lod. Oit. S80 
Q. [. iMittga tlort. 

e langitolii Loi. C. 8S0 

Q. 1. lalictfil-a Ilort. 
T lariegaU Hart. . 

30. (/.fl.)gi*in"ntitt882 
?rtF2 /Mill rMi-uliitraw. 

«e^ Migu. HoBtp.: asmr at 
L-rBwnmmt. Fr. ; H'^^tiUJC. 
ud Gimata, Span. 

!j Co6kii - - SS3 

31. cocdfeniZ.. . 883 
Tfa> HtwTon 0>k. ~Ylf.aK- 

iVtra CuQ. Epl'.. I. taiUdU 
aec^amlifrTa Carld, A'- 

3S. pseOdo-coccfrera 883 

3a SuhaL.. 

Sktrr Cud. Epll., S. Prtiwt 
Xuiti. Valgr., a. lalifiliMm 
tc, Du Ifiim. Arb. ! C«» 
U/e, Fr.; Korli Eidlr, Ci-r. 
tatra, lu). ; Alconupu. Sp. 

2 lutifflliuTa - - 884 

$ I. Lanola. Woetly or Thwrnt., fi. i 
doKng-lemtd Oa/u. \ ^ fi^^^ 
39. lanain .^nitM 

40. aiiQulata SiailA 8S8 

App. L EnTBpoBi Kladi 

af Oaki not yet Intro- 

:..hS)n« Lam. . . 

tt. wgilcjiiliUm WUld. 
. irs>l.;plltlTa PtTi.S^m. 

i4. lUfiHl^/Miwi Bauh. 

3e. hyiinda aina ■ 8S6 

Q.iftrlda Lodil. Clt. IRM; 
9. "a Mrid itltrim Q pt- 
AimUte osit Q. I'l^i Id HoR. 
Soc. Cud." : Q. MkHOb Hart., 

>. JfatfMt cfnara Amerita. 

$Il. ririnla. UnOakt. 

37. rlrens .ilif. - 886 
Tha IJh Oik Q PitllM 

a Un. Ss. PI., q. itrnprrw h -au 
Baniils. q. iemiipiit'TKm Br. 

38. myitUblia Wi/U. 867 

App. iL OtOi of Afriea, 

Amis Minor, and Pcriia, 

tmh/ parliaSji introduced. 

a. oMtoa Pair. Did. . BW 

0, InfRiurla OM, )'». - ago 

il tiaUei.Fr. ; FarirrEicJu, 

Q. Utiini OUr.. d. r^gldaHViU.. 
e. itwrlca SItt., tl, mUnaL- 
fftll* C. J. iirper, ud 0. 

App. lii- Hinudayan Oakt 

only partiaUy introdmctd. 

a. apldU Smid, fmKftl'iC. M] 

App. T. Oofa D/Jnoo, 5fc 
nulni, a>^ (A« Afofwca 
Itlrri, not ytt inlrodnced. 

pp. iv. OalLt of Japan, 
Codun-CMm; f China, 
naff 0/ uAicA bice mol 
yef been ijttrodttcad. 
a. (libra nxK). 

•».. «. « 

YlK Jrollf Oai. 
. aniiulAu aiou a J, 

. pimidanHHf7../«. 

lilnaMin<>». 4 jViinpf. 91 

a.uldnili/niiA. f ^. «M 
tt. acuiUblll tl>IU..H. ^B.tM 
U. cllljitk* KVlIW., e. irucn- 

(I. ciddlcwii liiiu., H. ml. 
crrwhflU ICdU., ^ Igbiiu 
WWif.. a. mmmiat^fllia 

wiud a Ltia* Waia., awl 

a. pMtoUita £n/4. . . «o« 
U. dfUpl^Ua fflUt. PlitMl. 

a. barbTiiirtli AM.. 6 ila. 
brtKtiu au.. a. Hutittl 

a Ela. 


li. Fa'o. 


l.HflvliticaZ.. - SOS 

CoMiaei Fdnu Scop. Cim., 
FdfwBtuta.nn.pF. «'''•("' 
M«li. H. Amer., 0*f Creek, 
^■■(W. Ul. ; mirt commtm. 

3 purp'area AU. - 905 

iMtKuA', Fr. 
9 ctlpre* X«U. Oit. 905 

4 folju vBriegali* - 905 

5 heterophf Us - 906 
F. I. upWMia I. CU. 
fI »! tBiicijilla Hort, 

6 crisUM £odiJ. Cot. 906 
£f«rrC™«S». Fr. 

TpendulsLod. Gif. 906 

8 «niericBnii 
F. wMifrlf Hichi. 
miK An*. Amar. 

S. remieinea Ail. • 909 

F. onn^au lat^iUa Du Rpl 

2 caroliniana ' - - 90 
F. canMmiiu Lad. CU. 

3 l»lifolia - - 90 
F. baifdUa of Leg'i Nuri 

3. oblSqua Mirb. - 010 

ricl lattraUt 'imltrlii. 

4. ietuliildes JfrA. BIO 

1. T^sca Gfcr/n. - 818 

The Sweet. orSputili.Chett- 
□ut, — ^^8" CatUnea Lin. 

Mill/ Din..' C. vnJfdrii LUB. 

3 caclileatsLoJ. Cal. 91! 
4e]Hbn Z«U. dr. 918 

5 gU6c& AoH. - gis 

6 THiieifAu ^dK. - 91S 
C. T.Jiliii atnlt Lodd. 

T americiiw - - 9ia 

8. piimik Wm. - 91' 

Tli> ChluuiilD Fdgu D» 

mOs Ud. Sp. Fl, Culdv. 
p«M<2a tirgrmaaa. fc, Pliik 
Aim. : CMalaaurr Ckntaplr 

Hort. B«i., Spnag. B, 
7. tphieroclb'pft £AM^ - 1 

Qiifrnu trlAnIoulei Snltli 
Heci'i CjcL^ D. I>oii 
Prwl, Neji., WnU. In JJt 
0.ait(ini|« Ham. MS: 
tt.ytnwfiol. Hort. Ben 

6. Domb^vi Mirb. - 91 1 

Th> ll;rtle-le»>d Bncb. 

7. dubia Miri. -911 


1. fl^UllUB L. . - 

CfryiuM MUth. Vllrr.. 
O'M'Vil Bulb. Pin.. O'ruiu- 
Tng.Hlrt., FJ(iuB*uli. Hlu. 

Fr.; f nwAH Hagr^Mctt. Oei. 

nciaLaliL Cat. 91' 
:. B. autrcffMa D»t 
;. B.lrfn^*^HaHoR. 
racu^iutorf.Cof. 91' 

c! •Imlm L(i«U., tf>lL -919 
C. hglon £dkU.. W. -SID 
V. CSTBY* Witfrf. 919 
I. viil^^ris WHU. - 920 

Cfitrga corp^nt^JidScop.Cjim-. 
O'jfrvdBauh. Flo., O.ft&tieOt 
|c.. Mlchi.Goo.i Carp*" "t™. 


-'—'■111 Krj.'-"— ' 

■yUfstru .^if. - 933 

3 hcleniphf lU - 938 
C. ttlrmiilla LodiL C«> 
C. DrticilUlo Hon. 

4 purpilm - - 999 
C. purp^fa Lodd- Cal. 

5 tubulin - - 9¥ 
C. maxima Via. Tlla. 

Nm$ilUrJramc' tt FnUI 

roue. Polt. et Turp. 

e tubulou Uba - 9S9 


7 crispn Em. of PI. 923 

S tinva Lodd.' Cat. 923 

mn-iitfUcd. or OufaTd, 


9 barceloo^nsi* - - 923 

C. A-frawfu Lodd- Cat. 
ne aili Nml. Hi Barcr- 
lima KhI, tlu Daimttm 
large Nitl, Hurt. S. C. 
8. Cblurna L. ■ - 983 
C bfttaittma Henn. Lo^db-. 

::. niSna 

3 MitnrtKXIuFitcA. 924 

3. roBtrita AH. - 983 

Amt-i IKrm^ Cueteld ifMl. 

Odur tacein. — C. Rni Wall 
PI. JTUar. ■ «B 

I. Oa'rrvj Doud. &20 

1. ellfptica Dmt^. - 986 

2. Auirilolia iTorfiu. 9^Q 
Otli€T Sfecta «* GlnTs.— G. 

l-tamit, a. UKTOphflU, 

tm HmiMgliiiB - - 9S7 


I. PLA'TiNUS i. . 927 

I. orientals £. - - 926 

VUtamm orinUilil tira 
Pvk.Tbalr.. Du HJim. Arb. ; 
Plalaiu it rOritnl, Fr.| Jtfor- 

£g^. AnMe 1 CUnar, ^I^'. 

S omifolik AU. - 9S6 

P.». A'wrilJSttiTour.C. 


P. niurr\l4ia HiHl. 

p. kln^mia Lodd 

S. occitlent^Iis £. 931 

«( df riTgliilt. Fr. 

lARi,. 932 

]. Stvracifliili Z.. 

Aim. S*™ A'omVja 
HIiL: LilrlUiamiaT r 

Blnms Bidr. (dMvla cit^i- 

Eyl. £unb«n't Cfoui ^?i 
iJinMM pofwiiinui Rumpb. 
UertMir. AmbOTiiO - to 

I. MVki'c* L. - 934 

Tlis CudlcbFrTT MTrtl«_ 

1. G<i^ L. - - 934 

DolcbWIllDli.— Cils Baii Sun., 

trabamlira Get. Bdmc, 1u«> 
mtrltfU/n ii^tca Bmh. Fto.. 

MiRIi — III. ecrlftra aumMtitO- 
Vi AU. Uort. Ke..7M^tu 

trpiiiaiai, »c, Pluk. Jim.; 

iln di sLirL, Pi. 

1. Ta'ius i. - 

1. baccftta L. . 
Tdna Ho. laa., urn. 

IS, Ft,; na^aam, Jka 

II. Coupto'nu Sol. 936 

UtuUBmiar Ltn. Sp., UiiTl- 

1. aEnlenirdlia Solan. 936 

LIb ap.. L. wrMrlBuni Lin. 
g^B.. Ufrloi Linn. Hurt CUft, 

Flirt. ; tin Ilea Pen Bi4di, 


I, fPflEDBA L. - 937 
I . distJchya L. - 937 
Thi QiHl itaniblir HoruUlU 
ar &A Crape. — y.'ptudia wul- 
tirii Kkh. Htm. Conlf,, Volt- 
limim f>Mrl»~ Tllwrn.. ^. 
iMtitnUmm, tc, Buih, PiD.i 
H-ajW A-a ■uriMiw tuUor Tm. 
loK. : aallM lie Mer. Kiillcjrr 


5 nsnifglia 
e fSliu TBrie, 

- 940 

Him. 940 
ieg. L«f. 940 
T filictu li)t» - 940 
^ (b.)[;anad£ns[s 1^.942 

Ttis Koilli Amcrlcu Yxr.— 
7. 1. mbMr Ulctii. Uar. Amer. 
3. Harrinetdau Kn. 942 

? Tfinu macrcptfOa Tliunll., 
fFodoc&fpm m^eropkSUaM Sw., 
Limb. Zdsd., Arb.Wl[. litdL 
OMcr S^Kcfci qf Tirw. — 7*. 
KDlfbt^ Ctx', T. glo- 

texit&Iia .^m. • 044 

Wllld. : aiinkmf Cedar, fWdi. 

IIL Salisbv'r^.< S. 944 

Gniita at KwspfEi. Uu- 

adiaiitirdtia StiaHi 945 

Fh* GfaiM TtM — C<>i*Ka, 

(iinkta lUota ' Do. Mint. : 

Conifera, ov Pind- 

Tribe L Ata'tivM. 
L Pi^NubI,.- - 950 

Th. Pto.. — L. Ni^ Pr. 1 
Fickle, Punbmtm. or KiOer, 
C«T. ; .^nloaai, Dulrh; Kw, 

ToBy S in u (AoafA. 

1. syW^tlisi,. - 95i 

Tb( 3«Ich Pine, oi Scotcb 

Sff^f P- £Kar^ ffAu.- 


Xfigtr, Tour, inil U ocbsr 
>..■... „ gi„n In 

» Spiui- i 'Vt". 

Dulcb; !■■ 
f/no tfrlwa 

a. Timttr Tmi. 
I Tulgub - 
3 horiunUIil 

nt Spfgilii Flit, G 

Hit^. Sing. 
9 unciniu - - 

J^/k dc HatMtnaa, Fl 
5 rig£i»u - 

Oatr Timttr Tra Far 
'■- Vtrlfliei curiam or i 

9 intermedia - 953 

10 aJtiio Itdebour 953 

11 tortu^ Z)imo/F.954 
8.(a.)pum(lioMM. 955 

Snibnfolia- . S 

3 Ftschert Booth ~ S 

4 A%tw - - 9 

1 conicina - - 957 
Larttie di riU dc Coru, 

4 oUbrica . . 95 

LarlelB it Homt SSa • 

Calthirtt DeUnurra. 

4. (L.) auBtriacaHiwi 958 
aBuHortll'p. ,SpfimU"^"- 

5. (L ) Pallasiona 1. 

Cones straight ■ 

■hurt - - S 

Conefl long a 

ccoakHl . S 

6. (L.) pvren&icaL. 9 

T.UifMca Cool> SkRc 

In Spuln, nnQUtr Uair 

KoxAl (H 8hi GlrBMllv ; . . 

mMMw I^.HUt.dB PI. dM 



■. mariliaa K. Du Hun. ; P. 
fn/ca Thora Frmii. >ur ■« 
^IH de Gucogne. P. ttar. 
mllDt Lomt. cd. 1. ; IVa ilr 
bnfcau. nt da IdKds. Fr. ; 

S Abetd^ia O.M. 963 

P. F. Huarinal^rt.Bnl. 

3 I<«noni'i)aiii - 963 


10. bruttia Tm. - 968 

TtuCilabriu Pint Pan- 

llomtraui Otvftr PI. EulHj 
l^oMMIf XMfer, 0«r. 


;. Hon. 

Bof FHtt : Ypra, Cuadi. 
18. Inops Ait. - 970 

Til. Icruy Pine. — p. nM. 
nl'diuDu nDHUrbk.sdPg^i 

13. pungeiK Michx. 971 
H. rcsindna jfif. - 978 


ibiUl Ihlnh Fl. At^ 

r. - 971 


.7. turbinata Bote 975 
§ii. TVn^fii. — LeanaSin 

18. 7^ da £. - 976 

Tha LoWollr Pine.— p.ywfo 

MEdrw lemtfblit IripUcl'i P[uk. 

S olopccuroidBi .f<i(;9TS 

19. rigidBJlfiff. -977 
TheT-ltcli PIne_P. Tw'da 

a Pair. Diet.: rilirrt.tmei 
nTftnian fine. Sac FiM, 
Blact PAh : fH UrUlt. PM 

P. TuUbUli Lanh. Fnt. • seo 

89. ponderosaZlDr^. 981 
~3. SabinianaDoiig. 988 

Tin treat prfot^-smcd nar. 
24. (S.) ColiltenD,985 
Tha fTM b«*«l PUh.— rP. 


- 9S5 

£5. australis Mx. 987 

•tUeii FeUw Pmt 

87. csliibmi^na L. 969 

F. matUrrthuil Gnieltoj, 

•* D.Don 987 

47. oodirpa ScAd. lOlS 
F oocarpoides AcnM. 1013 
46. apulc£nais Ld/. 1014 

"n». ft 

29. tuberculaUiJon 990 

30. radiabi Z). Uos 990 

31. r™™^ 8.&D, 991 

IVnMr lud OmU or Cba Hi 

39. piCula^. fZ). Sgg 
aciiii - ■ - ■ --- 
33. LJBT. 

35. longitotiB AwA. 996 

36. Gernniuina W. 998 

TlH ihort-laiTcd Vtfi PIh. 

Kroia PImt, Ponnj Cjc. 

37. Einensis Xamfi. 999 
36. Umori^naia - 1000 


39. Haitw^' Ldl. 1000 

40. DevonimuiLdt. 1001 
i>ftu Uhvb, « l>. rol, dT tha 

41. Riuselliomi L. 1003 

42. MontezilnxTL. 1004 
The rnufh.bniichti] Uril- 

ati Pine. — Phmi ocraentHii 

No.. C«r. K V^Pl.. Dtppeln 
aLiudW™ , 10(M 

I. Va»*a ^^ EtmtK m 
50. Ccmbra L. - 1016 

CrminK. Boitk. JVatr, .... 
ZtirtrtUifrr, (J(r. j P;« ZAh. 
tn. Ual, ; Xcdr. Run. 

' HbiricK - ■ t016 
P. CdnbrnLoM. Cat. 

Spygma'z. , 1016 

S helvfiiHi LoAL 1016 
I. JVatrKi^yorU Amrrica. 
51. Ardbiui^. - lOIB 

The W«n.<H,th PiBB. _ p. 
M fnhui. ^c.. Own. Tt™. 1 

-'- •"V. SapOt fine. Ama., 

* eompitsaa Boatli 1016 
Fli>aici± WtymmlkPim. 
. (5'lr.) Lambertiona 
Doug. - - 1019 

53. (5.)monticola 1021 

54. {S.) exc^Isa If. 1023 

55. Ayacahiiile Ehr. 1083 

IL .J'bies D. Don 1085 

The Sjimn Ftr — FHu of 

i». Gar. I MrU, It^ ; 
. Lena ittragtmat, awl- 

1. eic^«n Dec. 
The Nnrwaj Spi 


/UK Sairin, E'picra. Sain- 
. SfretUe, Simm gmlii, 

Votga i nwAu n>(*t Tmmr, 

1 coram&nU - 1036 

S nigra . - lose 

SMrpfoira- . 1027 
A. cmrpium Hon. 

4 pindula ■ . 1027 
A. cp ni M hm ii pfn4itta B. 

5 f&liu varie^di 1037 

6 ClaabranlUiu 1097 
T ClaotH-. nricti lOST 
8 pygmm'a- - 1027 

A. nJru Holt. Sue. Oird. 
A. llrfaml Snltb Df Ayr. 

luifSIm ' 1027 

nnUa . ■ 1097 


A. g'iaiurn omiui oi Ajr. 

11 moniti^a . lOST 
A. maitlrMiM HoTt. 

12 mucronaU Hart, 1097 
OUur j-orftu™ . . IraT 

2. orieiitalin Toti™. 1029 

Phnt DrHnUAi Lin. Bp. Fl., 

4. &lbB JTTuAr. - 1030 

- u tlta Alt. Hon. Kew.. 

rMlia Hort. : tmde SprMcr. 

Aiur. ; EpiirtU tSxUki Cl. 

nWU ; Saplniiu btaiuhr, tT. 
8 niiu DidUtm - 10:10 
OMrr Korlrlia • - IWO 

5. nigra Poir. - 1031 
■iflnd""S^. Bpjt.; a''m« 

6. (n.) nihm Poir. IftiS 

Th* Newfounilhlld KtA Pine. 

Bfri-. P*"" '**'" l-amb- P""-. 
Putlh liepl. 1 A'Wn f«J*>Jla 

A. «r«I(( Bootb. 

7. KhiilToui - - 1033 

iar.. aCj jSIwiiwi LHuli. 
Pm. Cfcl.. A. Morlnd* Horr. t 
Bmo, or Ao««, fn ii» VmIm- 

§ ii. Lcavafial, gerun^g 
glauamt Itneath, imper- 
fidly a-raietd. 

D. Katitti Iff Karlli ilmaiaa. 

8. Bougl^' Lindl. 1033 

FlN-P. LwJw'J Lamb.'piin 
Pur.h Fl. AiwT. Sept.i A. 

9. Menaesii Dour, 1034 

10, canadensis jlfr. 1035 

SfUcTllBgi FiOU, Gut. 

E. S-Hitctirfffpa'- 

11. ilumosa - 1036 

PbWf ^mbta I'srab. Pin., 
Ppil cicl., P. iradMa Wall, 

Otter Speriei o/" A'Afr* — A- 

«., A. irigani, A. 

nlrrophfllA, ^, oMlqi 
^. llilciui. .«. hfr. 

laoRili Tliin>l>„ .^.Tliun- 


A.Torimo&ida.. A. Anrifi 
SIcb. - - - 1M6 

III. Pi'cba'JJ.D™ 1036 


■rt Polr. DIM., A. pedl- 
Icc Fl. Fi, A.MiflMVi 

P«r.. A. Pl«o Llnd. in 

Penn. Crr., A. cizlUa Link 

■ '-'--Td. SC ; SjiB^Ut* iVr ; Sa- 

d-f/.Saphi Ume. Sapiaartrall, 
SapM en Peigne. Sapim de Nor- 

a toTtuou Booth 103T 

3 foliia Tuiegitia 1037 

4 cinirea - - 1037 

. fti.) ccphalMca 1039 

nd Elaloi In Cepluloiiii ; 
. (p,)Pim^ - lOtl 

6. (p.) Pkhla - - 10*3 

Plj> w nctfa Lodd . CU. I ».16 
P. (fUnlii Hon.; A 6in UAiri 

FiKbeT;J'Ai*u,Rui>. ' 

B. KaUraofK. America. 

6. balfi^mea - - lO-f 

iPi" Lin"ap^'pi p."a'"' 
KudII A^ Aaltamirim Mlcki 
nnW- dV C'l^aA Fr.i Beiiai 

2 longfoliB Soalh 1044 

7. (b.) FrWn - ICM-i 

Snl,, I,iimfc PAi./ A'ti>( Fri- 
Krl iiiKf. In !>«■ Cy<[. 

C. Niffm qf California. 

e. giindis - - 1045 

Pi»ut jrt&niit Dullgl. H£5 
Lamb, Pln,^ Kbia erAndit 
nmCftl.p Ikegrtal 

9. amibilu - ■ 11144 

FiauaimUfUlDiiUB, USS. 

10. Tuibilia - - 1047 

TbeJuo*. bracCed SIWorFir. — 
rtnuiitS^ia I>aus,U3,.Lviib. 

Cjd ' " '"'" 

11. bracleiCa - 1048 

Doug, In Gomp. u BoL A^. 

D. Nallniiif Uatce. 

2. religiosa - 1049 

FhHU riUt^m Humb, at 
[unlh No.,^cn. « 8p. Fl.. 
khieda St Deppe In Scnlacbt. 

16. naphtha Hort. 1053 

1. eurofiasa Dec. 1053 

liaatm.EitrQva iteJie CedeTt veiv- 
1 comniiinisi.aaw. 1054 
a Um Ijiwi. . 1054 
3 compicU Z,<mt. 1054 
i pfaduia Laai. 10S4 

5 floro riibTOff. r.10,54 

6 flore&lbo - - 1054 

7 siblria . - 1054 

?'L, arckaagfuialJ.'ri, 
L. ruifcTCib. In Hoct. 

Plmu Lirfi flUHra Lod. 
ne SiuMiam Lan*. 
B dihClrio - - 1055 

8. americina Mx. 1056 

ed. Po(.. V.tiBCTxarpa WUld. 

I rubra . . 1056 

Spi^dX'^'' - 10S6 

timvptiuluia AU. Hort. 
P. Imiirmiiia Du Roi Uk. 

X'bkMpi^iiU Tab, Did. 

Sprolireim' - 1056 

L rn<Vns MWcolm. 

V. (Te'drus Barr. 1057 

Tba CtOMt.-Vima Uo. Ai 

»y A'Ma riir.tttpmrl.U,- 

Cedrr, Gr'-i Cedrii. lul.' 
I. libiiii AoT, - 1057 

md^H Dud. Fonpt , C. «- 
■i/era Buk. Mb. i (:.>l<nia-ii 
Keoadai Sp. ; (Ainu Bell. 
■L I Aila fJdnu Foir Did. 

S ^lik ■rg&iUi* 105S 
SnAiia . . 1059 

raritUa . . ion 

VL Aracca'bia^. 1061 

Enlitta S*].. CalgmUa Sal.. 
2>i««^ Z,iib4., CnrtuBi 

I. imbrictlta Pud. 106S 
Tb* cum P)ii«:— A. Dmi^ 

s£^^»ij>i^n*f > Ri^. 

Hlu JA.. uxl A. Cimnlo*. 
bte</ Alt., an batf-hudr 
mdei whlcta m flAured tod 


1. riDfiiBJa RteA, - 1065 

Tb* Mgad.l«Ted ChlMM 

Fir.— Wto jocWtAUa Sittob 

*««. Ger.i h,i,'l't.l. 

DccidentiliR L. 1066 

S MrieriU WaruL 1069 
T. o.JiUii TarlrgiU, Lod. 

J^a'i irior yam. 

1 BtrictB JUiZL nia. 1073 

3 horuoDiiiisjifil/. 1073 
C. karitauitil N. Ou H. 

S. tbydtdeai,. - 1074 

fionir. : Ctprt'fau'i n^a, Fr. 
S foliis variegitu I0T5 
3 aknmHon. - 1075 

3. lufiit£nica Toiim.1075 

IX. C*'lJ,ITRI3 y. 1072 

1. quRdrirflvisrm 1078 

Ti^ arlicmlita Dfl. All. 
Alb. M ATbriu., Ctiprfmaar- 

I iif CaUilrU.— 
I (? Ciprtumt I 


X. CuPBE'esva Z.. 1073 

Tlw Cjmtt.—Ctlpni, Ft. j 
cmritt. b«. 1 UMnm. lul. I 
oipniric. Pan.) Cnmi, Hiin- 

1. semperTlrens L. 1073 

ftmuam Hon.. ? c 
Ua Hort. » Phi. ^ 
r«i rrramiiei. Cm^. -. 
dmdirf, Ft. ; ffnfmf Cfrp^tt- 

i. toruldiia Lamb. 1076 

Tie Skein* Ci/prtu. 
5.p£ntluU rAuni. 1076 

OlAer KtitdM nf CaprfuuM, ronv 
qfvkkiA kavr brm mlmhtad^ 
tW I)/- Bin* lilUt u Iwm.— 
C. borlioDllUi Jk^Arrr, C. 

Wob. (TU. Umr'fin H. B. 
MK.), C.rull(Uutf«'f./-M. 
Wvi-^GanL Uag. (JmjWTvf 
fiuUiiila H(Ht^ ■ ■ 101] 

XI. Taxo-dium R. 1077 

Tin dHfduoui Cn;rM.._ 
CLnk^iKAtpH S4ll>b. 

Rid. 1078 

1. diBtichui; 


j Cipraui ga^. 
it Hort. IOT8 
111. - 107B 

S pendulum - 10TB 
T. lUltiulpladKlumWoit, 

Oxyctdri- - — Lemm 

FbaUi. D. Dun. 

A. ffflWKi if B«" 

l.coniinilnu£. - 

J. rmlfirii, *c, Ibd 


r CH#jn«, Fr. I f 
I Vul^ris PariL T. 

U Dordottae, 
J. dridd riirt. 
). ntdni MUL Diet. 
J. imigArIi Arbor Bwjb. 
IV IVfi Jt nUp cr. 
Snina IfiAJ. Sp. 108 

i. ••Iff!' lull Sjnl 

J. ■JiuSmlihEnfl.Floi 

8. CJiycedrus i. - 1083 

pluenlcta Dnd/Fnipt 

Pridilg Crdar ! le CaS. 
SpaaliiMe llarUoUtT, IMT. i 
CUn J'c<iA:A>. Ital. 

at»&rieaffort. - 1083 
3. macroc&rpa 5. 1083 

1'. druphcca Lai. 1084 I 


RJiniu. fc., SUwn ; Ukltjmi 
a^iiin'Aa Laid. C. I0S4 
3 cuolmiina . 1084 

J. fOFV^In/ABd Dtl 

Other Spfftej of Jnhwr^i. — 
paltmU Horl. (CwfVtn 

g ii. Sabtna. — Leavei of 
thi ad^U Plant imbri- 
cated. D. Don. 

JuTijpar_ 9. thurffera L. 

micm Mill. Diet. ! CUnuUai. 
■loi, 4i;., Taun. Init. 

10. ejcc^lsa (TittJ. 1088 

14. uvfrerai}. ifon 1069 

recent InlrodiicliOm, Aitf a/ 
ukc* USk Q tiuiilm. — J, 
trtrwftni a. B <* K.. J. 
MctOM Sckiede. J. dMlMta 
Horl., /.SioillMniiltHBrt -f. 
HNualnlbinn Horl., J. B«d- 

I. fvPETRUMl,. . 1091 
The Ciowbwiy. 

I, nigrum L. - lo9l 
TbaCnkebrnj.— En^ix*. 

K. Cirfi /Ma HBAwaMa Cliu. 

S<c£ticumH«>i.- 1091 
8. rilbrum i^. . 1091 

3. Conriidn Torrcy 1092 

II. Cohe 'ma DJ)on 1092 
I. ilbaD.Don . 1098 

S-mptlmm dUmrn LIB. Sb : 
B. lnJiinleMm, 4e..Taiir. \oa', 

lit whlubirrTiet' Hralk, Par- 
mtai CriEtedrrry. 

Hi. CbrjIti\>li - 1092 
l.ericoidet • . 1093 

Class II, ENDO'GENjB. 

i.exc&mL. • - 1094 

S.DriflUitA, fc.Toiini.Cor., 
Bai. c™i. i a. iiptra Alp. 

3 riibena Il'ai:». - 1094 
4. SariapariHa L. - 1095 

S . pimndfu Suuparl llaan-. 
S«i<ir. «■ " ------ >.- 

l.iepera L. - . 1094 

"—'■ - 5. httitita fCitfrf. , 1095 

9 >uncuU[a ^."l, - 1 094 S. if ipn-n '^ li^ Eic^" 

o :.j.:_ .™^ g WdtKim 8wt. - 10™ 

I R' bntOtUm WUl. Dm. BriL, 

Ek 4. t lamcaliia irb. Brit. 

7. WahernPurxh 1095 
a. CjU«WMit.FLCv. 

8. macuUta Rorh. 1090 

SmUu JtprramliurFlnil. It.; 
jmwS.lul."™'' *■ ' 

10. rotundifolia L. 1096 


18. famnoldei h. - 1096 
3. Btyisw ■!(«,((., Cu. 

13. caditcaZ,. - 1097 

14. gtalicft iSnt - 1097 

15. B6n8-nc5x L. 1097 

Bwh. Pta., B. ttritflaa 

16. latifotia £. fir. 1097 

17. quadrengularu 1097 
5 IT. StamM tmarmtd, r 

18. lanceolaLaL. - 

SO. pubera Wi 

J^/. loss 

WiUd.. 1098 

a. VJIIindata Hm. 
mfhfUa Eoib.), 3 

ffJjFr. I 

haculedtusX. - 1099 

mjFrf^/Nnu aaJtimi Tour. 
L : &u M%. JfHT Jisfb. 

< JMVmc. prUiit Pcttrgrec : 
u ypTjm. prill Houi. Blil 

wa^ pta^taU, Fr.i SircJi 
a rotuDdl^liiu - Iww 
3 luiii ^i(A - 1099 

2. hypoph/Uum L. 1 100 

E tiifaliAcum - IIOO 

B. ui/bnuMi Hiu. Diet 



Fragoit i Grofpea, Fr. ^ 

I.jloridwt. . 1101 

TT CMOdnu AM. Hart. Fir. t 
T. taMs. fe.. But. Bw. i Y. 
pamhta G(r. Ebk. : r. Mh 
ftrriitt, tc, Lsb. Adr. : IH 
•mrrri ^ias : Ymam mAi, 
YMOa 4 FmOla ewtiirrt, Fr.i 
prae/ltlger YitacMt Gv. 

3 foliuntl^. Lod, 1 103 
8. (g.) mp^rba - 1108 
3. dolBlia Z,. . 1109 

Y. artoriMm, fs.. Dill. 
Blth.) Y. emtieau tti. Fl. 
Bor. Amer. 

S ptodvjfCaL Sri.llO^ 

i. dracdnia L. ~ 1 103 

Tbfl dTQoahif-lHtBil Adim'i 

NcbUc. -^Drmdiit irtarl, tc , 

Daiih Pin -. » " 

5. II 


. IK 

S. (f.) angustilblia 1 104 

9. fliccida /A>». • 1104 

10. glaucfacem H. 1 104 










reUridsum f&6. ? 1111 

gnmdilldm iw. Hir- 


fulfiris fol. puipdreis 
tfort. - - nil 

p&Uida • - 111) 
BMvU f^Otfa Hutw. 

er£cilis - - 1111 

triroliiu - - 1 1 1 1 

lanceolitiuD - II IE 


-B. Hanalgli B, 



Laurtola FfoAL 1118 


rosmarimfoliuin 1118 



iBTigatuDi Wall. 1118 
c61chicum /frtunt.l 1 18 
cAlchicum var. rubruni 

Booth . - HIS 

camp^re rilbris 1 1 18 
c. heterocarpum 1 1 12 
triparthunp .Vii/J. Ills 
graDdidenUtum Ills 


(H.) Tuinc Linda 



pairif&lia Rogle 1113 

heteroph^llaf. Fills 



a, 8 internikfiua 1 113 


WIckliuB Joe?. 1113 

prunifulius Booth 1113 


longifaiia /fcT/. 1113 

[fj^onica] graiiififldra 
Hort. . • IIU 

jap. pub£scens £. 1 1 14 

tbyrsifldra .ffooM 1114 

nepal^sia HoH. 1 1 H 



fniticdsuB £Vc. 1114 
Timfneiia J^c. -1114 

Pall^ Ledeb. 1114 
A, ftdumtrOta Fillu. 


Jfunu? 8ieb. • II H 


L. oar. MlchicB 1114£»ie«ffl(?)lll4 

flsaa ZcfniU. - HH 
lanceoUu Pd^. J 11 + 

rotuadifdliai.iniJ. 1114 


cerasifdnnii 7'or. 1 1 15 


laaiocirpuB Rotfi. 1 1 15 
trilobuii^M. - 1115 

OxvBc. oxyph^lla II IS 
i^ H^.1115 
ri»ulilrii r. rt G. 1115 
cocclDcan.Ttridiil 115 
c. var.popnWiWA 1 1 15 
c. var. oli^iidra 1 1 15 
c var. mollis - 1115 
arbor^ens Tor. 11 15 
c. .pw« Hook, 
derienfolia 7Vr. 1 1 15 


badlUrii WaU. 1115 

(t.) oTiUta 8 tubcor- 
AktA - - 11)5 


heterophyila B, 11 15 
P/j iltulelph^ece. 


taCricum Jacquitt 1 1 1 S 

He\ix car. taurica 1 1 16 

grindia Bnlh. - 1116 





pjgmB^ RogU 1116 


dlidsaPov-. •1116 



p&nj!ena H.el S.11I8 

nllida J?fn£k. - 1 116 

angii8tifaiMliarf/.l 116 



fmad - .1117 

voldmicuin Jfli. 1117 

odoritalMiS. - 1117 

imbncata S. ri P. 1 1 1 7 

parrifblia, Roj/ie 1117 




mdUis Z«uJ/. < 1117 


/'lex AaZU^ . HIT 
lanita • - 1117 

Sktnnen' Benth. 1117 

r Q. acmtfftUM K««. 

pyrea^ca- - 1118 
pann^nica Aoo/jI 1118 
rilbra - - 1118 
r. teraxacifblta 5. 1 1 1 8 



[occidentUis] hetero- 
phyila /Tort. 1118 

oifcarpSldea - II IB 
distich, nucfferam 1 1 18 
Tint nwiftrd Hon. 




%■ Wb«™ U» G«mk Nm« onli »« llwo. Uw "»fcr li left W»l«l Un Sp 
orliliBKlf. Thli he wUl m^ be aMt lo do (17 tumliu 10 (be pnfo ™fci 
;«erk Kuw. ud Eoniiilllnl tbe Populu Dncrlptlou. Tb« ImenkHi el fbi 
Ipeclet Mad VuleUsi Lu tbli Aulf til vouU have tveUed K to tea linei ktt pni 

(oliu, »19. autrcot pedmnUCb^ fl. "••m;*™. •l.F"'^ *-^^?- .S ™^' 
■Dd l)*111i<ri>. MS. Tubdlm dfMkliina, l<KT. mi* eunne'*, Ct. (/"Iiiub e 

ud f . ihn&iCer, OM. 
jjJcl*.— ""»r(il«iniM«, ^. rHoc*tpum, ind J. rtbm, IB. jl|lni (lutilll«u. 

jaM*.— ^"»ri'1««n«il«, ^. rHocitpum, ind J. rOtrr™i, JB. ^-nn* (lutlDOU, ^. m- 
cinfcind J.corrlirbll.,ia5. /»lolipapjT*ce«.S3T. C^niuiqlTfiHta.mndC.TuliirlK 
SJSro-itriMTulgdri.. 919. I»i5puluib.tMni(fcr.,ai9. i>)n> conttDti, •»> f .tor- 
mlDklll 4IT aa«mu£'Knlui, MG. BoUDllaPwud.^cicU, tn. 

^ _ ^'blet 411H, lOBJS' /^ex JquirbUum. 106. ^imfperol flrflllUlIU, IQBO. Pfce* 
balikiDifi, )n36. Qufmu/'lei, MS, 

ud y cunpturs, 79. ' CriitK'gui. miiU of the ipecln. lU. CJdbnU lulflltll. UO. 
C(lUinl»t>4n!lim.»ndC.iJpliiiii, il». KuftpjmiuMirot-- 1*1*9. O^ui «ir<n»X 

6B1. J"»nii.1'lU. ■adi'. «>™p*rl».tlT. SUii rfpr«.YM, 

B"_.rbleii«fT»,liMft. Jonipeni. ThglBllu., i»0. Itau. b^rft., 9» 

&!I.7mh. JHh.. peel* IMS. 0M™i,11W. KnMOM. l1n«.W0. inaat, 

^^^ £a:M.-.f KOlul, IM. tSiynui, 916. Fipit.KS. SiUi, 74/. 
Xe^CupitixH Hmpenlmu. ion. 

^""oiMZ-'Linx coSininIi, lOW. i-fculm monilflHl, P. Cutlgau, tnd /■. Wbn, 819. 
Alli tiyt, wid 3. Ruuelliiu. Tti, 
ft—.l'bHieicSm.lOM. rteee poclloil*. lOSS. PInui ijitHtrta. md P. I^rfclo. >». 
Prf^uced In Albert tl ma, with It bruichf beed. 
^^^TMtf—.l'nr PKildo-PIAtaiilu.ltl. .X^cnlui Hlppocditunun. 1M. AglulTl (Mica, 906. 

Blli™. P. Miwttnrii. P- gnfa. imd P. uignUtii. BIS, On^reut Wrrt., MG. Ulli 
^uii lu c;'1miiiiiiontliii>Heta(tlielliui>lTiid<>ne]iB). end V.cmpttHt.1lt. 
Jfc!!Staui Plt^ua. F. iTlifatrii. P. I-riclii, md ?rp«ll»iidiui. 9S0. 

^"'"'ftSi— dToiu, M* «1I».J*4. P4]MliM,»l». JEteoliu,m. Llriodtodrm, is. 
"*^TM£.'_/«r »9. Aaimlmt.US. MluU. UT. aT^noi, 918. C»ri». T». OuUnn, 
■II f^lUL 117 nnu. 90&. TitiluDi, £39. Oledfuchis, 949. A(lua. Ta. 

SiirT»r9S'p^'t.»^^»*<"'».8»- a»*«™.e«. Robi™i.m. m-^u^nt. 


Vtr* hud. aoBniKt, ■ni dnraliL* 
i>»<(_<5iiiii.. ST6. CrB 

£•. — Miui.roa. Cupriuui, 1<I 

- J'bUa. 1025. CUmi. lOM. JtCH. lOM. Mniu, WO. 

AccHl J'tvPitbia.FUUBnm.MaiJ.iM'aMam.Ta. .fKului KIppDcttUnina. IM. 

Orplnai Wtulus.SlS. Mcui t;l<Uka, MA. Urix auraiw'm, lOU. Mnulu nioU of 
ths ipvrjMt ii&- QitArctu Cerrli, 046. ^tiUi, Hf6n] ip«Lv«, 7M. riUaeuiDpv^, 

S>. ^ mi<u^l?iWrit, p'S^io^ r. PlnUtar, ud i-. PtiluUoo, MO. 
Fv lu uprliliE tuWI. 

£'aM. — J'lnoi glulhiAu lidiiUti. S31. Pfipului hKltUU, ud P. nooiUfin, M*. 

aufrciu MrrU, M. mmui cuapiilrii itricu. ;i». 
Xr. — A-btmt.l<m. i>tcai.iaK. /imu.sso. 
- For <u uiieidiDt buMI. 

0^ ArtliKiriKLSI]. n(uiirlitilci,MS. Akilnuaictl^r, (as. Qntma 

pcdUKUlUii. SM. Cnmuinuniiiu.IlS. 
Selniti aritt a tirv la OcfHvdndfga qT Sirllrr. 

^«M.'!!!'^^t?'pHhdi>-ntUniii. ». (XlplDU Mtolui, (16. ngiu IjlitUa, 9I». 
Xlril (urau'i, IIUS. i^ulut UtH, 819. i^nu .^'rU, 4LT. fUniu moatdu, riS. 

Fat dnvlu op rouu plauutlcoi. 

llr^— Mlul* illiL n7. Urix nirffK'i. lOU. /^rui wcaptrit. 417. Ftrvlm 

. Ffn, 

'rcU.~A'BariT\<irkraim, ud A, rOb 

'. Pdpului tr£uuU|Uidi'.lMluaiffsn.9[9. SUIx clpitA, 714. 

— .:Cicullu HI|ipoe*lUlllliII, IM. Carrl tlba. 713. Ct 
1, TM. i'lipiiliu, noM If Um ipeetai, el9. fluinnu, m 

PfrtiB jTrlA. iDd ^.maeiip4iia.4Ll 

Bhalund bj hams. . 

Dtfid. — A-rB pHtido-nUunu. T». Flttuui, it!. Mpuliu fUclglUi, U9. nil 
eunpiE^t, fa. l/'lmui cudpAiilrii. 7IB- 
Bxpnwl Id tiia in bmu. 

Dtc><l~AatVKAio-V*UB1\M.n. H(p]iililuIIthmiiinBMH,aH. MpnloiUKtll 
Pjrua^'rli.417. ^mnbttcui idfn. Ml. 

Iiu, iK. niui vliMcm, Ma. TUU «»»]»'>, si. C/nmiu cmptilili uil U. 

Eh—J'Uh nufta. lOK. Aniu aVtbMt, P. Luldo, ud P. PtBtttei. MO. 
PuUillT talnUmipt [bi Tin. 

Dti!liL^Bku^ln»,Kt. Ofawiu nlrfttrb. m. /Hilnui ncfltior. CM. Gl«dluctaite 
trlKtntbili. M. f DpullH Er«mul^ ud P. fn^ a, SI9. aobln^a PHud-^cAcil. 131. 
Fn* producing tLmbcr In hvdoerowi. 

Decid. — J^Hr PieitdD-F^iUnui. T9. AilAniiu filonduiaiK, LU. arrAllba. 73B. t^j- 
Uwa TtK*. Bll. i^iui commlliiU. tlT. Ouercni pedoncultu. O. leulllllBra. 
fj. nrrti. a. riUn, a. cdcclniK, ud Q. p^liMri^ B4G. (Jlmoi cunptotll, 715. 

DtM—A'ati P—hio-PMMnoM.n. .S>iculIU RlppociiUnimi, IM. arplnui JMCului 
Sie. arritllirkTa*. CuUn«Tsis.S11. Ctruui lili^ttdl. ud C.TUl|«cl>.Z76. 
n>luirlr<I<ci,M6. /.IHi eur«,B>a. ION. Pltuoui orltnUlll, 
a^ P. bcclde^li. 917. PApurui, moit of tba t» "~ ~' . . > 


M. nxui bUciU, 9*9. 

mp*«rti,fr». """" ""• 

tlei,!m. Urii Burapz'ii. lora 0-ttryt Tiil^rU. S1& ^ipuliu finliuiii. ' 

A:~irbigi«cClu,li)lS. J'lei .iqulRtlluiii. IMi JBnlpenu 

pealiAu. lOM. aatmu /In, MS. nim twiAu, m. 

' batng DflrMUcBll* cot doikD u GDpplc«-iri»d. but Dot \o (hv iludc ar otbi 

JVc^. — JMuIailb>,Ba7, Aitlii«TiKJm<ll. rrtilou4 HciUIor. 

For Mac perladlallT cut dnwo h conilce-wooit. tn tl> 
£v- — Cfinim UDmetruut. TTu- fiduLu tempi 
Jmntpmt, MK. Uatieot ria.Me, Tixui Mccua, km 
cM «• r^t ;br Mrfr sroAu' ta AMB or SMA. 
Und In TMtl«u mrb and manuEuHURt. 

Dttiil. — Xtailui,l%t. Afni, ggi. £utrinu. Me, 

OnU. — C«>^'w!''fkdii«.»il. Cfraiunh«wte,udC. Tal| Aflw, 
^ni._^ Wfiplhu. tie. J»iiu. TCB. Praum, tiD. /^nit.4tT. 

!l •cmnt'l, lOe*. Ffnu VKB- 

«M. ^*llI,nIl*u•■|w:l■^TM. 

£k — Z In JqiiHUliun, IH. mil mropd^ tk. 
I iklfAltutH for ipflni tvi Id BArdnu. 

AU tint. MPKUU7 tiM brcwUlHTid Undt. 

iJnif.— Klul 

L«r|e-iU«l omMnmUl trm. _ _ , „. 

J]lilU.~.d'nrri(lwi«IdBI. ^, tTfnciiTniDl, ud^. ritlHimi.n .^Bolui Hlppoclh 
unmn. ]M. ^iIuMt (tudiiltna, I4(. .«'lnui gluUnJM lutlnttti. .<. iDcdu, and 
J. runUraiia. SM. AtuU nopulllMia, and B. nlgni, Bt7. CtllU Iiutl*l<a. TO. 
nru ITlTtdca poTTiilnK. sot. AtlJnui amvrtdlna, 08. Llrlodtabw TuHplfcra, 
as. O-itira TulilrllL Slfi. i-lUaniu orlnillUi, St!. Qutrcua Ctrrti hlbunhub, 
and a. 1^ IriioBibMiu, B46. BabtiUa FMOd-.lcida. at. TuxMlun dUttcbnia, 

£■■ — jnts. low. CMiia, LOOT. i^ca. 1DU. nau, SU. 

c. n. C6r>lu>. m. ClBlltach/a. M>, Uquldlinbar, «U. HatnMAl 
II. VArili tlba. TW. Ni^^da, in. l^nxH. S>l. O'lDra, 9]>. 
- - - -- \tt. Baliliila,m. Sallabbrto, «M. Ulll, TM. 

rtr/m.n». P6piliu,SI9. i^nii 


M^ W_ ^ .„™™ 

'ioTi'J'iSri's*' 'jm^arm, imo. Ladnu, 
ni. m».iia& «unciB,S«. mu,MS. nbja, lOW. 

[h inrtilit obloiif or gMma hiadi. „ -, 

jIwEi.— I'nr oblailIUBi,T9. ^kuIdi HIppDaMiniiia, IM. .i'lnii, Na. »r 
til. ncuhMB. iiepntal, 819. P^mi J'[lV,udJ-.alKiipkrU,4n. Outreuita 
MS. t?ilBVM,nt- 

J^eU^ABHUct, KT. CiUa'tni Crtli-BdIU. in. i»upf ma. Sit. M^ni, 

Er JVtt. I«S& CTdnu. KHT. CDprtuni •HBpenimii, 107). Juslpmia, tOW. 

nHa,IDM. i1nua,M0, 7taAJa.lCi6l. 
"* £3iLTaMB'fii> Ouacistlu itrtcCa. tM Fttnlu batlfUta, B19. 0i.<tcib iwhm. 
nUU fiuticllu. MS. 

fa Ttiat bteAa lUttf^ta. SB. 

Fttt r^Timx Id (Mr Vale irrOnuLI. 

S!^— Altula ilba ptndal^ Kl. Ctniui MmparHrmu. IK. Crala'iui Oincanthi 
rigtna, Ml. Cfdiiu /.aMrnum pdiduliim, 911. Ftfiu arl'ltlea ptadula. 9(». 


>Wiliu«iu«riorp«ni)uU.uiilF.((ntUdlUi>pteiduU.a». Urii taropB'iptnduli, 
lOfiK Vkwia rtibr« p^DduLk, 118. Pdpulua trfmuU pteduLa^ RI9. QuWciu pedim' 
ouUtii,S«6. MUX bibj'liiila, 744. TuMlum dUltchum p^mhilaiD, lOTT. frlmiu 

A capn*iui|>teduliL. ]«n. /'lu ^ullbUmo, T. [■teitulum<lK)tiinH). ISS. Ju- 

nliwnii rflrdTTA, loeo. 
Ml nrdod (hiiaU ud bruckM. 

AhM.— CkrplDuMtuliu.Bie, ngu nlTUtia.9as. ar™i'<d«iw*°>dte>l(, !W. 

^nu ^'rik,Bid /■. auoqibU. 417. C'liiiui m<HiUuiCucl«IU4, lit ; ud Iba oIli«r 

kaUilito or ipltj-beiidad ottt eoiuunwd ilwre. 

1>bM._ ^iDuclatlnta lutsU 
OB. SoUntt Aatid-Astcla, B 
miu nooUu pteduli, 711- 

S>.-><'lii<>. IDsi. CMnu. Il»7 

>*T«lDp«d evir Lq nrflDE- 

OmU.—VcMPHUa-I'tUaniu, ud ^. luiricum, T9. Cntn'pu nl 
ud C. Oiruintlu pne'cm. SU. /'£pul» t>«lum![en. SIS. iUmbi 
□Ign, tn. nu* euri^K'i, 61. VImm cunpiitrii. 1 1S. 

J)<cl4 — AtUntmi giMaaalbu. Ui. Clrj^73i. Calilpa. ee3. Ft^I! 
GtB GlidlocbM, MS. GTmndcUdus, lt&. Jbglam, 731, i^rui J 
ud P. tuCIU. 417. Qutrciu Tatxl*, MO. VIrgflls Ifiu, tB^. 
Dnvpiag rmi\j. 

DeOtL — A'oa Pubdo-ntLtuniu, 79. .finilui HIpiHGiiUdaiii, 
i'rlllniii eicdilor, 639. ti^, IM. ^Opului, »!». Bobiolil, 

Dropping lua. 

t« nnUnloi on In ( v 


u. 911 rxnu 
*>rU, mia.T 



nui ^Mulin. 916. 
dtmUr iBiUibe, 

tilu. ID». 

S39. TTiflJi, 


03T. C^ruui 




|<uCrdl-gdlU.udClIHIldbiI.K>. Ma(ii)lliii Thiiin|»n<di>a. 
ICOPndrU. 417. Outrcna C^rrla flilhamnuli, 0. C&r^a LuCD 
B, 6. hftHldAaiuud fi. TdmenVMG. 

£wfd.— ^'cer nucnplijllani. 79. (^tlnsa Thn. 91 1 dsdtpa ivrhtgia- 
mil, «Gt, MugnbWnucrophfllL M. trlpMllL ud H. acumbOU. II. 
PILUniu, 3». P6pu1ilt lieHr(»lifUi.B19. /-frui miiU, tn. ((iifTCIU 

£> lbr>'l^ giudllan, II. 

Dtdd.—A-nr tsiOaaa, ... 

ihxiil. — iJrti.'iMJ. TuMlam. I07T. 
Si. — A'bim, lou.' CMnu. IMT. Cupiinu. ID 
PIcn. lUK. Plmu, 960. TXxu, 339, TliClK 10 

iVWrf j4d . ..^. __,.,_ . — ^-,...- . 

2W. Jllgl4u,731. KdlTHtirta, IS4. ntiluni, 

'i>Wd.~.«'icaliu,lM. CtIljiu,3U. O'cniu.Stl. Krgtadt, \tl. tkrla, 

ladduoiu Um In wir nimnar. 

Llriu,arnlla*Uh, fliaen. _ 

i}«<d.— .^cerPHrfido-Plttuai liilSl»iii, and J. platuSldei. T9. (^ 
iSlpa itiHiKim}ia,BB3. Kolnnatrfti, 134. Uultira, 711. NtiAnds, IX. 
.Pdpul ui hi[BnUen, »19- 
£d.— QuiccuipedimcviUU,udQ.I«iIUlUita,Hd. «U>,T44. nUi,6a. 

VirgUia, 197. 
S«^— 'Tlniu, m. Cutlnia. 911. C«IUl7I7. Cudnj^ui, 149. U- 
^uldimbu, 933. FdT<^118. i^biui.37D. 
^^Dmid. — ^oetPMhdo-Wliuuiporpurticen.. 19. Wgni ■rlfStic* pur. 
pbto, SW. Ouitcui psduncuUU puipurbnuii, MB. 

^^(T*i. — .4'»r pUunaldH nrlegtUnr. ud ^. PuiiMa.mLinui lUisglU. 
U. atOntt •(«• Taricgku. 911. FriilDUi bMersphfll* TirisriU, 
(39. fiittrcuip«)uncu11UiuIc^uudQ.C£rr<iT>rl(aiB(,M6. Viitam 


In dKUudoi mM hi (lUiuQii IwAin UUbi (Hr. 

^S^-^ d^r Tibmm.n. Lt4tildimliH, tM. IbciiWi urtcDltt^ tt. 
Outran rbbn, Q. nlgri, Q. UneUrU, uhI V. piMltrb^ Mt, 

^ccM.- J-w plunDllUa, Old 4. •wUrinini. 7«. MtuUAlM, «9T. 
Aillnu clcSlior, oa. KtnivqMnii, 134. UHl, IMA UrlaUaartiB, 
W. llHslkn.Tll. Jir<(*Ms,IM i>4ii»iUDl|riuvidf.em<ui»iul>.SI& 
Atla.trilslUU,llt. PtnuiaRMcil]. B.£Ari*,«M. VlrftUo. 1>T. 
Onh, grwnkaat ikugliif wkKir. 

DrM;—£ CClrli.7I7. CViM'tiu Cnl>«UII,iBJ(;.n«kliu, 
Ml iMewfni.SM. ^nu nnniiU, llT. 
Stmo, or vltlHnitMifat colour. 

OteU.—tt^^rfimliioJ'ltiunm.'n. Aadtittt.lU. Ckrn,ra&. AcUo*. 
low. i-jpaluiira-a, />. lrteHiU,»Ddi>.liiilHii)llltn,SI« 
Ugtil (niBi. 

iunu SmMrs, Jan. 

T>cru>, 1000. lllfDbU 

.I'Uci aic«lH nlpl^ lOM. CCruui tiu 
. AmpenM, IWO. £*llrni nM 
btturiu.Mft. niii>,S». 

innriailtll, int. OiprI— IfcrBldw T»l1«t*U. llffl. rid 
^aUMlum Tirkateun, lU. Ptaat Plnltctr Tmifxgttt,t6l. Outran 

rfti.i«taciu,MSr niutiKciutuia«Mi,sM. 

rncnnE Itmt. 

SEcaf. — £itiiIa.nT. Jbglui.m. LlqiMfmlm. SM. nUi intiDdn, r«. 
£>. — J\d«,l(iw. JuDtpenu, lOM. /iiirui, 681. Plan, lOU, i>!Diu, MO. 
Ttbji, IWM. 
c(f4 tffU rflimcrlii lArA- Rnnri. 
Produced In tprlDE. 
BAd or purpja. 


fl(rt. .__.. 

fttoui, na nnu, 417. SUstiTMa, 1' 

AnU.— .^Muhu.lH. nWAlM. phu MUu. P. eomolrii, *i 


Lvfa jUHl tbowy. 

i>RU. — Jnseatoc* Ts1(lrih WT. Crdlinlii Tu1(trli. 4U.. ,.. 

Ptnkk *ul(l>U, lU. i>rflnu lumiaicM, no. Pfnu catDmiuU, P, Myui, u.^ 

i*. JV. aitnclnla, 417. 
■mall, Int ehusIcdm* rroni niloar and qsiBitltT. 

maMUaTf- M. tanita. P. J'ria, P. InMnMiL /, lonnliAUi, P. ■urlmiUu, 
P. UEDpMl, ml P. (BHridnil, 417. ilhimnul cUhlrOnu, •-* ■ frtimU. IMl. 

Xr rin ./quitUlom, IH. Junlpcnii, HHO. Lutrm,»l. 

Nagulir In fi>nn oc chunctcr. 

ud a. ]B'gUopi. mL 


IkdJ!^?Ctiia> uuulu*. u^ C Ute. Ul. CKrrlnt ^TdUUw. m . I.I(tfMnm inil(tn. 
BSB. UlUciiprn^. 

inn, im. 

titd at adaputfir HtOga. 
DicU. — BMrrli,4S. C«tbw jcniiUai, 111. i/l(ip4p)i«i. OK LICdMnuB, I 
IfiS. JRlu, S31. Syrbiia. GO.'Sr _ _ 

£( MxBi.TM. /l«i,lU. Aalpenii, IWO. Ptiaifna,SU. V\n,n». 

., Google 


iS.' LlnHttram, en'. FatMBtUlM, 1\»7 SaadoaitidiaD~il 
Mi, Smrm'tfVS. flrmpharlc^paa, Ml. Swr^nga, 6>B, 
St. — AiaAa,tA\. Auplrtinun, J9^ ^auu. TC& Wphoe. CM. Hntt\. 
abimmm, 7*. Hahftnu, U. />falUfm, SI. Xbodgdnilnia, U3. C/ lu, IW. 

Wllk nm. nlbir Irrmlaj, hnili. 

AeM. — AuMnhl. no, Mcc)iu1>. tlfi BUdlen. £71). CaltttK, lU. CoUmAilat, 

With mriul or polnlcS^bMd*. 

Al — Cavrtuvt, iiTJi, I'kE, IK. Junlpenu, 1060. fTlet itrlca, J99. 
Mntd' v'AI r^flFmtf to dfA' JfDrff q^ Grovfjl. 
Bmbof witb uprlfht rtbogta vitf branchu. 

«M. XtrrIA 3Si. LercnliTia, Ml. FlMi^fiva, tea, SptRlum, SDl. .101'^*. 
£«._Jkiiilp«uc.niMu,IMI. ^'I«a.itrici*,l9». niui b. Rrtcu. 939. Thilji 

B7 toodrilt, or ffniplnv PbrlLi. 

Dre^d. _ AmpvlOnJft, tSS. JErlfov, IS. CIcmaUj, 1 Abfi* ndlCHU, 

E*.— S\gDbnia,SK. fiMen,4n. SffiUu.lCn. 
Br twLDbig utrai. 

OkAI. — JTliliJtKtali, m. BfrchtoAi, in. OKilnii. IM. LoBlcaa, 

Ua. ifanliptriDiua, M; Pntploca. fiU. WllUrhi. MS. 
5v. — Lonfcwd) MS. 
Bt alsiifmud ■iHidn- tirna, 

DtiM. — jMnxnum <lae1^U^ «M, Mdum suroiw'uiii, Ms. ilfiu. 

Bunarow HHU. ni. Xkbui,tll. SoUnum Dulcusln. GBI. 
B> — AlkHkHnnlKiit(.ni. 
TnOan : Ike brucba proKrHe. but «■> tiatnlij nxitlni. 

CnrM. — j<r«ciUfeb}^» llplu. SIT. Occiuilllil Miliui. «GC. lata pro. 

£».— rfrrtMttph.lci. U'n*™!, B— ■-■■ ■ ~ ■ 

ukrdphf lla. 406. Ouillliirya, »13. 
Gntfperi 1 Ctu brucbu prulnta tnd rool 
Dmdf. — Shiii, IM. ffbbut.BII. 
£>,— EpItB'ittpeu, nao. Mibtu 
tHHUt irUk TK^met u IMr FMafi. 

DflTflJoped evly In larluff. 

SiirM.— CrMBV>3Sl. Atfannm. 113. HiptrlnnB. Tl LMitniiii. m. 

A»B, in. jbu.sai. sunbiifli^ S13. i^rnxm. ^niwa,a3t. 

Dmlonl Lue 


I>»IMln( [ reuliilDC sn In i w l llwml lUte. 

D^eid — frnlBU, »a. i/jpferimoo. 74- Juntperui ncOrrt. lOAO. Onboii, YO- 

f'mpMnun, VOX. f'nlKdn. MT. Uuln'ii. MO. Etirn. NU. Oforn, SM. 

OuiWria, 67*. OjiiiwcUlli, AW. Hrptrleum, Tt. i-lri, lU. '''■ 

ION. Kamlf,SI». I**m. en, I^^kfllum. 601. heuclitiiar, 

__ ..n. MS.™ 

mill. S3- - 


/ Ibi, IK.' ~ rtfoB (iotlftu, 1 101. 

il(BU.— inrfldaliu. Ml. ^ttUMifbfln, un. ^Inphtili. ET9. Afr. 
*rrl(,41 HtuUn*BIL,M7. BtirTa.TII. ailiu. M. CamMAnln, MS. 
CbrUtfta, IM. CydiinU. 4U. Stpiiiu. EW. FonunMi, bs. liall. 
bubnanm, te. /flpliMue. «a8. ;'ta.U9. f.lgliilruni, G38. MltrirU, 

i.Mii'm iitimium. em. 'lcu. 

i>£ptaut| 686. /frpfrlnnn KAlmit^Muv 
c6(1lO(, Ma. Ll«ii(a, E>6«. Phlllfrca, 
MS. ^lUou, im. t'uclnliun, 601 i 

ilnM,— HrpMam HrpilUnUum, 74. HjTlcirU niminlu. 4». Pliala. 
nciriKU HrpTlUniLi, ^1. Pb;IIMacc nnpnrfliniili. A7a Ttmuix 

Antrph^Bll. Aiitl^49 

AmArph^ BC 

DltU.^CM^Iita. 343. Cangiaa, Vl. Ct 
laiUUi,119.' XuUiorblu, 19.' 
m ihnibi >lHn Bru dnelopad, or is tulj nDun 

pirlcum. 74, Xintliarhlii. IS. 

flMfHIi.M. lUlhnOdt , —r'-r -,, , 

JtMuctmim.uld Jt.trlBtinuililTeuiB,468. SmnuUna, MB, Bbeptitnl/^ 
tat. -njavii. 4M. 
ET.^Ytcca, UDl. ZtntMa pnlKraUnla, M3. 

Dtdi — CtrjluidralUupinptiiWiSM. Btritrftraiginifaiptnt,*!. 

OicM. — ArlmjtiU*. IW. Hlbl*eut,6a Aiminoai, 6S* llrtttm. W 

nun befon blUug off. 

U. _ AmpaMMli. 139. BtrbtrU. tl. Coniiu, ul . Eufafmu.M 
laClDU. 4UI. ^nk*,«N. SbcaoHnilTon. tlO. Rhfii trpblB*, U 

pM^m, n. Bbfli Ctthiui, IM. Attn, 168. ncswa, 681 

., Google 


» 74- JiiDlpflTul, lOHO. Jffrira. 14 

nnuLlirl. Suibliciu. M3. SutollIH, M8. Sdllnuni, W). 
£f. — Junlpeiui. U-m. Z^ilnii, ffll. 
•Mrdrrfnrt u Ihrlr FtiK'-ert. 

' DrrU ^in<^lmnliiii.3«l, (ViltinU jiip6nlu, 4tD. Dtpbot ientmim,a 

DrrM Caratinn.m. Chltnnafnthut, tM. CAniui mti. Ul. KlnYa JlpCiata, 

DnAT. — AndrATnedapollftilla, BGO. CiphiM MnAvm, EW. i'ciin/ii Uotum, 

Dlcld.— Alailphm.^3(l. fUtui.M. {7f Uiul. 111. HmllinailiiidrDI, 94L Hill. 

InthnniiDi.M. Onanii.ii^! JlhndodisdtDn.U). RWfl.tM. A6U.B9L. Splnt'a, 

399. Svrtnjta. 6SA, 
Sn — SrWlu. KllinfD.eM. AbolDdf nilron, K>. 
y«Un or oru». 

SreM BfrbfTii. <i. BdiMlia. GTD. CdtphK*. Ht. C^n^t^u, KT. CUnu, 

U. Jumlnuni, l»4. PIMinthiu, IM. ffbodDdtnilnHi, M). 'fflh-I, ^ fftH*^ 
ni. SptnEun. »» 
^ ffn^rtcum. 74. MAhdn/a, BO. AhDdad^DilrDB, Ua. 

'- ' /.lurfrtram.' CIS. f hll^ptim, 160. ' Phitlnft JOS," 

B> CuOndra. Ml. Ginja,9M. l^iMboH, SW. LjtiUa.gU. PhlUfiw, 

"^tdi. — Mttftitiu.en. C(Mu>,m4. cargmiii. mi. piiaiii>,Ma. 

X> AlllH.eai. ^tpbllF.SW. Ej)tm.tta. CfpmtlUM.iC7. Kthma, DM. 

dncBd Id utamD, 
Rtd, bin*. «r tiurplK. 

Bbim, ni. £»'. — Ftlca, »5. 
Yrihnr or unDge. 

ZlKiil. — (."hlmonliiDiuI. IM, ffinuoiNJi. 499. Jfrpjrlcum, 14. i>>llilni). IM. 

^fcAf. — AmArpbL 130. ATlBtDrfliVr, 

Er.—A' OTpiOcillL', U7. 
PruranI flowpn. 

. O^IIIUl Lsb^TDUDl Mgnnt, III, Dipbnc Mrurnn, ««. Hf 
'-^milium, SM. LonlceTa. Me. /-UUiUlptaui, 460. /»IH, Ml. 

Irlniue. 'km. iHiu iempHTiKU, S91. AousurlDiu, tn. 

lU, but comptnoqi ttm colour tod qacnlltT. 

£«ML — BMn'fi, <9, 0)iisiu.ul. Cotonrlittr, 409. CYiM'toi, IM. Mpbns.CBS. 
futajiniu. 14«. rniip6phili, fiSa. LlEfiilruin, EW Lonlcm, SK. I.<cluni, 6S». 
Mjnu.ea4. Tatlploci. GM. X1ldl.ll>e, AI^,4«8. SuDbbcul, OIH. Sbrafa^ntw, 
TM. &iUiium.«(3. SfniphDrtctrpui, Ml. rifdnlam, Mt. Flbdnim, SlSi PIUi, 

j;*. — Cotonr4ilK, 40S. CraWju*. Ml n.iillh»W«, 179. HHsrn 491. /'kl. IW. 
JhDlpcrut. IGSO. Mlhaofo, ». naicui. IODSl FKdnlum, G04, nbHrBOB, »I6. 

DMd' CtlAphK>,Ml. dlictnthni, 4n. CntelinUilu. M4. CM. 

noDinthiu. tM. CnlUca. 944. Kudnjmui, 149. MufnbUa. ai. fUlttnu, IM. 
Pbrillntbui. AM. Htnphyl^i, I4T. 


., Google 



TenstnttliiB In ■ 

■Unlng J "*""' 



Erergnqi OT nbrr«rgTe«n< 

I (VllA 

., Google 


OnU-lvuaolitf, 9-rlUMd 
LbHxolftte, f labroUL Urge 
OrMe Of luKvoUCB» wlnlDS 
LwhcAoUiB, rMlcuUtelv Tdoed 
Corilflte, ubdlTlded or B-lobHl. I*rn 
Lioceolita ar avtUt betet »^th tiWaj to 



tf dHplj laciDftlte) 


LanceoUtc. Jblnlng .... Phillt' 

ar*U,cdllue.ihlnlng . - • ■ Fl'mm 

Oblong, nlUi terolula tiftt, null . . Myoi'm 

u«n.M.d, »»a.. or «b-™u.. *«.d - . { ^;^;;^^„^- 

Ovate-luiccolACe, msmbniuHU, gUocoui - Litcbi 

LiDCKiUCe. giubmui .... liaCiT 

OnlB-limmlite, lometlmei Unur, hkwUt dad'l £tia'„T: 

O^fHiu or aUtmaU, tiitif<tlalc. 

Blfdd. pnU grwo on bglh ill 

■Itmis'tj' - - »« 


Inpart-plDuU - 

Impul-nlaAKg, b« 
Abnipuj plmutd^ 

iTnpiLri-plAfifttc. doubly ind ctcbly 

TrIMloUU, (i<puln I 

Imput-plnuta. •t)pal« UUcliad to tlw pdlola 

ir blpluuu. iHllMi ST 


Impjirt-piiuiUa, MHh gluduloui on Uh undtr lU* , 

Imimf-pliimiCe. rcddlab rkd - 
CoDjugiu, lTlli>UiiU. UnlrIM 

Imparl-iil'niuic, iFillcU noirly Hulle. bud! I 
(Oasnrictrliu llirple iBDtH, P.Gil.) 


ibnplsl but loiiHtiBis plDDUeli dlildod 
Jiiwllj' itnpla. but laiiiMliiiei jiiDutilT cut 

■jBCfUmU, Unnr, or ttUbllolMB 

., Google 


» orden ira gtr™ ilni, loteodeil to ihow st a gluca tha v 
Mbad Ln each ariftr. T^dh Aktia n^tftvtt lArgfl, tnuU^ «Dd 
irl I tba IIfiI iLpi in «acta rov lodLcAtkni ■ deddwHll tne Dr A 

«£,*■:. D«l 



Ltl LJ Ltl LJ Indi tj 

a.'4:S!",Eiy£."«;;i,t.'SiS!ni^,s"' " ~ "" " "" 

} DtddiHHHtrea, n. ExiKrHn uudiir-ibnilj. Jr DnddiMiii Inll 

jKnmwntr». I Dcclduouilitlncr. t, Eiergiem Irali 

m DflcUUHHu thmb- %_ Eierancn twiner. ^ D«c^auDui evtf 

* dISIu*™ '^"^ d. 1 DkiSuoui cllmbor. fc ETcrjreen B» 

bcnlina, DfH^iUiJli IL. „ „ 

Thi naKviD FiGuiLU 

■nlddlv-ilJCd IbrutM. DcCMOout u 
cllmBen. tnllen, Ac. 

■iu. D«lduout tnd FT«rgrfai, but d 

t. TwLnlnf ihrubi : lucfa u tba banc] 
■uckle, BriHoliKhU. tbc. Dtciduow u 

1. Tniling rtmln, tht brmh 

TlUow, Cfllni, Ac. 

Creeplni •l'™'^. " *"*• • 
iboMI (roto tlwit CTMptng 
muif tpcde* of splcc'i. tic. 




Xkbu >i><i shrulA >■> common witii all other Sowering plaoti, u« arranged 
hy boUniits ia two grand divisioDs ; vis. the Exogenous, or Dicot^Iedonoui, 
Plants, the Btema at which increase from without, and the leaves of which 
have reticulated veins ; and the Endogenous, or Monocoty ledonous, PluntB, 
the stems of whit-h iacrease from within, and the leaves of which have parallel 
reins. The fint class includes all the hard; trees and shrubs in Britain, with 
the esceptioQ of shrubs of the genera Vucca, Anilaz, ifuscus, and one or two 
others, which belong to the second class. We shall arrange the genera and 
•peciet under the same lubdivmons, subclasses, sections, orders, and tribes, 
u we liaye adopted from DeCandolle in our Horltu BrUannicut. 

Cl«« I. EXCGEN* 

Slemt mcreamgjroa aUhoat ; XMieet talk Ttticalated Vmt. 

Subdivision I. DICHLAMY'DE^. 

Ct/yr axd CoroUa dittmct, bu uaitoi Ihry ar» Stimguuked frma Svbdimiion II., 

m uMch thefioaen have onfy a eali/x. 

It is in consequence of this high devel<^]ement of the floral envelopes, that 

the greater part of handsome-flowering trees and shrubs are found in Dichla- 

m^des. it nrdy happenii^ thst those with a aingle Bond envelope have an; 

bnlliant colouring. 


Flowen ailh Ptlali and Stameiu mterted m lie Beeeplacle 
Thia subclass contaios all the Folyandrous plants of Linncus ; as the sub- 
class Caljcifldrs, in which the stamens are seated on die ctiyn, containn all 
the plants of the I.inweaii class IcosiDdria. 

Section I. 



with hjpogj'noiu ttameni [that is, Btameng under the piatill ; mlhen bursting 
by longitudiiisl sUta ; Bereral dbtinct simple carpeila [fruitB] t eutipulate 
Icaiei, Bbeathtog at their base ; solid aliumen ; mnd teedt without anllus." 
(^Xat, Sffil.,p, 6.) — Climbing shrubs Bcaice\y woody, aad [aw luffiniduwe 
b«ube«. Nfttivei of Europe, Asia, and North Amenca. 

Z,€aea genra^lj alternate, but sonietiiiies opposite, generally exatrouiete; 
deciduous, or evergreen ; much divided, especially in Cleaiatis, in which the 
leaves are not articulate with the stem. The petioles often serve as tendrils ; 
and are dilated at the base, fbrmine aisbeath halfklasping the stem. Hurs 
if any, simple. Injiorcicmee small iu Xanlhorhiza, and some tpedea of 
Cl6aia,tia, and larve in Pttdaia, Seedi small and pointed, except ia Pitdida. 
— The species in British garden's are included in two tribes, dematldes 
and Pxonidcea, which contain the genera Cldmatis, .Itiigene, AeAn*^ 
and XantlMdilza. 

Tribe J. Clemati'de£. 

lyibat daraeler. Oimben, characterised by having the (estivation <rf' the 
calyx valvate or indupUcate ; with no petals, or with the petals flat ; the 
anther opening outwards j the carols, or seed-vessels, not opening, one- 
seeded, terminated by a tail, which is the indurated style. Seed pendulous. 
Leaves opposite. Deciduous and evergreen climbers. — The genera are two, 
dfmatis and jjtr^ne, which are thus contradistinguished : — 
Cix'Hktii L. Petals none. j^tra'gbnb L, Petals several. 

•Genus I. 

QQ0 fflH 

1m. &fit. Poly. 

MnlMcoMlB. Tb« word KlnnUli -wu. u veil u AlraiwiB, UHd br ThBophr»jtq», to deflgDMa 
Iha fltoutli VIUIlH of Llnnnu. ClemuUwu iiiedb* MHtUolu,ad iIm M CiMIIiurwba 
nqilM It to C. VIUctLU L.tmC ttnhlMM, L. 

Sfxmymfi. LidlH' Bomr OfraM) CMuUU, A'. | Wal^b*^ Oer. i ClamiUdt. lal. 

DrHriuiat. Th« word CItBUk, or Klnitli, U iaitni froa Um OtMk word iOma, ■ luill 
bnnih of a itiH i iikd It k Kipllad to lUi nniu, bMSuM kHHt of til* plmu eoBmodiu II cUmb 
IlksinnB. TboBoriWiniBHof Udtet'Bsiiv wun^i*lil«<d«pUdA« III nriuSnathr 
co'rriiiE liDMin I inl, ■• the IrK kind of dsmiitb bnUfht to En^Bid (C. Vltkflla) wu <Dl»- 
duced In 19S, durtns tho rolgn of BIlUbMb. tb* lufan i< Vlrglo'i Ihnnr migtal ba httiidad to 
C9nii7 ■ cDinpllnHnt u lb*l lannlpi, wl». u U U w*ll koon, liked to be allel Iba VInIa 
Queen. Waldnbfl Is compounded of tfaJif, avood. and rrAr. Iba brucb ofaTlne. 

Gtneiic CharacltT, Iiivoiaere none, or situated under the flower, in the fiwm 
of a calyx. Ca/yz of from four to e^t coloured sepals. Petidi none. Car- 
pelt numerous, aggr™te, terminated by a long, and mostly feathery, tail.— 
Climbing shrubs, with variously cut appasite leaves. The recent herb of all 
the species is acrid, and, when uiplied to the skin, it occasions blisters. 
(Don't Mill.) The seed is penJuloui, and the carpels are one seeded ; 
each is terminated by a persistent style, and does not open until ruptured 
by the germination of the seed. 

Leaoet compound, opposite in decussating pairs, without stipule*, deci- 
duous or evergreen ; the petiole possessed of a clasping power for attaching 
the plant to contiguous bushes, or similar otgects) in all the spedes, morv 
or lem pernstent after ihej are decayed. Flowert in axillary ramose paniclesj 
•mall and white in some, and in others lai^r and highly coloured. Seed 

I. ranuncula'ce£: cle'mavib. ') 

mall, addom seen divested of its envelope, aa that never burita till after it i* 

conimitted to the soil. — The species are included io four sectioiu ; viz. 

FUromula, Viticella, Clleir6pmB, and ^nemonifldra. 

RootEtrong: the fihres rather straight, and not very much branched i ex- 
tended in the soil rather faorizontally than perpendicularly. Stem ligneous, 
not rigid enough to Btantl erect. Branches the same, and slender. Well 
adapted for covering bowers, or for ornamenting verandaa or trelliswork. Tile 
greater number of the apecies ripen their se^s in England, uid are easily 
propagated by them, or by layers. The seeds retain their vitality for several 
fears ; they are of slov vegetation, and ouEht to be sown as soon as gathered. 
In which case tbe> will generally come up the following spring; though, some- 
timea, not till the aecond spring. All the species require support by props of 
•ome kind ; and all, with one or two exceptions, grow freely in any soil that 
is toleraUy dry, but more especially in one that is calcareous. Prom the 
acridity of^ these plants, they are not vei^ liable to be attacked by insects ; 
noverthdeaa, snails and slugs are occasionally found eating their young herbage. 

$ i. Fl&mmida Dec. 


Seclhmil Character. Involucre wanting. Tail of the carpels long, bearded 
uid leatherv. Cotyledons distinct (tliat ix, slightly separated) in the seed. 
(Don'i Mifl^ i. p.3.) Deciduous. 

■1 1. CIb'matis Fl* uuula i^. The inflammatory^iyif Clematis, or 
tweel-icrnled f'irpn'i Bouitr. 
I. Ep.. 7GG. \ Dk. Prnd.. I. p.l. 

Specific CharacUr and abridged Deicriplion. 
Leavex pinnate, smooth; with orbicular, 
oval, oblong, or linear, entire or three- 
lobed, acutish leaflets, {lion't Mill.) A 
deciduous climber. South of Europe i 
in hedges and waste busby places, not 
fiir from the sea, and in soils more or j 
less calcareous. Heigiit 10 ft. to 15 (t. 
Introduced in IS96. Flowers white, 
sweet4cented j July to October. Fruit 
white i ripe in October. Leaves deep 
green, often remaining on (he plants tiU 
■nid-winter, and dying off black. 

VarieUci and their S^nonymei. The moM 
distinct is C. F. uiarltima ; the rest are 
of little importance. 

X C. F. 3 . 

X C F.'\ rubiUa Dec— Leaflets ' ™~*"'™'^ 

oval, usually emarpnate. Sepals four, reddish on the outside. 

., Google 


1 C. F. 5 ea^i4a Dec. C. caiplt&u Stop., C. FUimnulH BeritJ. ~ 

Leaflets nnnute, entire or cnt. 
J C. F, 6 paniadaia. C. paniculata TlvR. — FlowoY with the peduncles 

A Tigorous-growin^ plant, the stems of which rapidly attain the length of 
from 15 ft. to 30 ft. in a Bt«te of culture. The leaves are subject to much 
variation, from soil, situation, and clioBte. Thepeduncles of the flowers are 
somelimei simple, and sometimes branched. The colour of the sepals is 
white, slightly pubescent on their eiterior margins. The whole plant has a 
dark green hue; and in autumn it is diundantjy cohered with flowera, the 
odour of which is of a honied sweetness, exceedingly disagreeable to some 
person* when near, thou^ at a distance it is not unlike the fragrance of the 
common hawthorn. From the rapidity of its growth, it will in four or five 
years cover a very targe apace of wall, roof, or bower. Its herbage ia con- 
sidered less acrid than that of any other of the European species, notwith- 
standing its name of Fl&mmula. 

1 a. C. orikntaYis L. The Oriental Clematis. 

Srmmiut. FUmniuIl'iaiidni apU folio gbuco. Dm. £11*. Ul, : C, flkia Vmi*. ttfl*. SS. i 
ClbuIlU nrinitah. Fr. ; MoifViilindtKlia WlldntK. Otr. ■ ' ■ - ■ 

BmtTa, ma. Elth.,[. 11B.1. lU. 1 mnABSljit.i- 

Spec.ChaT.,i[t:. LeaTes pinnate; 

leaflets smooth, wedge-shaped, 

with three toothed pointed 

lobes. (DDirijU(//.)Adecidu- 

ous climber. Levant and Cau- 
casus. Height 10 ft to 15 ft. 

Introduced in 1731. Flowers 

greenish yellow slightly tint- * 

ed with russet, sweet-scented) 

July, August. Pruil: white ; 

ripe in October. Leaves 

somewhat glaucous, dying off 

black or dark-brown. 
VarieOa. C. glaiai Willd. and 

C. oehroUuca Hort. are, by 

some, allied to be varieties 

of C. orientalis; but we do 

not consider them sufficiently 

dislinctforvarieties, and have, 

therefore, included these 

names in our Eynonymes. 

The genera] magnitude of tbb 
species resembles that of C. 
FUmmula, from whieb it diflera 
in its ulterior branches b^g 
more persistently ligneous, 
thou^ the main stem in old 
plantH is seldom seen so thick as 
thatof C. FUmmula. It is also 
distinguished from the latter 
species by throwing up encketi 
freely, which the oUier does 
not. Its leafleU are glaucous, 
flat, lane as compared with 

those ofC. FUmmula; and it *- ™™«'"<«»ik 

does not produce flowers so profuselj as that species, llie flowers are yd- 

1, kanuncula^cea:: cli/matis. 5 

lowiijh, aiid not so B(rong?y scented ; and the carpets are diuituilar, though 
Mill cottony in appearance when the Med b ripe. 

^iwir. Char., ^c. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets ovate-lanceobte, auite entire. Pedun- 
cles few-flowered, longer than the leaves. Ovaries uBually four, with almost 
naked toils. (Doa't Mili.) A deciduous climber. China, in the island called 
Danes. Hdght 10ft. tolS ft. Introducedin 1880. Flowers ?. Leaveapur- 
plish green, retained till rendered black by troet. 
A plant in the Hor- 
ticultural Society's 

tiarden, erowE vigor- 
ously against a wall, 

producing shoots as 

long and strong at 

those of C. Flimmu- 

la; and retaining its 

leaves till thej are 

blackened by frost. 

It has never flowered; 

but, in its leaves snd 

its general appear- 

•emble C. orimtilis, 
ezc^t that the leaves 
are of a dark pur- 

C'l green, instead of 
g glaucous. 

a. %f.,V6.\ Dm. Prod., I. lit. ; Smllh'l Eng. 

.1 4. C. Vita'la* L. The White- Vine Clematb, o 

Un unidlt Un tni^icrViiii." 
a auM of Old Mu'i Bwd !• 

■ of ttt " itMat 

■ paobli tr«nA.'* un Gen 
nniBiad It tin tn»ll«'t h| 

bet Af thb pLvit I And 
VKmiHHB on nlla lo ilB growlliK 
nnanll* la batea. Tb« nuoa at 
FilHta wi Ciwui nfen to Uh «n- 
vtajwmot or It 19 tbt bcti*r* !■ 
FADCa. whD UH II ta vnkn nlcvn 
Inlbdr umlMiil len. IDttlwpurpiiH 
of (ndtlas uapudon, curing Ihnn- 

FAUvnt ■llQdfl to th« lunB pncthx, 
VLonitabifaia grliaiU; dtilTBd rtom 

^Ef. am.', enTuKi «ir'Jt«»."'. * »■' 

.^c. C*ar., ijc. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets ovat&Janceolnte, acuminated, cordate 



Bt the base, pnrCty cut. Peduncles forked, shorter than the Icbtcs. (ZId>*> 
MiU.) A deciduous climber of Tigorous gronth. Europe and Britnin, in 
bedees and copses, always indicating a calcareous soil. Hewht l^fi. to 
30 ft. : in rich soil, and in a sheltered situation, 50 ft. to 100 ft. Flowers 
while; August, September. Fruit white; ripe from October to February. 
Leaves long retained, and dying otF black or dark brown. 

The stemM nre woody, more so 
than those of any other species, an- 
gukr, climbing to the height of 80 
or 30 feet, or upwards, and hanging 
down from rocky cliffs, ruins, or the 
branches of treeaj or b«ng supported 
by, and forming tufte on, the upper 
surfnce of other shrubs or low treeK, 
which they often so completely 
cover as to have the appearance of 
bushes at adiiitance. The footstalks 
of the leaves are twined about what- ~ 

ever object they spproach, and after- ^ ^.^^^^ ^^ vniib» 

wards become hard and persistent, 

like the tendrils of a vine. The leaflets are ^ther quite entire, or unetiually cut; 
sometimRs very coarsely so. The panicles ore axillary and terminal, many- 
flowered and downy. The flowers are of a greenish white colour, with little 
show ; but they have a sweet almond-like scent. The aeedn {fig. S.) have 
long, wavy, feathery, and silky tails, forming beautiful tufts, most conspicuous 
in wet weather. The French gardeners use the twigs instead of withs, lor tying 
up their plants ; and make very neat baskets of them when peeled, and also bee- 
hives. The twigs are in the best st&te for making these articles in winter ; and 
their flexibility is increased by holding them to the fire before using them. In 
gardens and plantations the plant is valuable for the rapidity with which it may 
be made to cover naked wmIIs, unmghtly roofs of sheds, or low buildings and 
arbours ; and for a variety of similar ptuposea. 

J 5. C. VLKCINIA'SA L. The Virginian Clematis. 
UtnllflcaHm. Linn. Aniiu.. p. ITS. ; Doe. Pml.. 1. p.t.i Don't Hill., 1, p. e. ; Tor. sad On;, 
SymmyiiiM. C. Biwlintli tritT.IlM rtpimi Toam. 1 C. uimdiiiih Mitt. Did. No, 6.. SnStS. Prai. 

Do««; Cl*lil»Ut« de Vlrglnlt FT.; Virglnlicho Wmldrtim, iltr. 
£iwn»Av<- DcO' Brlc (ibcmnleptint), t,T«. i tiKlmrJIt.e. 
Spec.Char.,S;c. Flowers panicled, dicecioua. Leaves 

temste; leaflets cordate, acute, grossly toothed. 

or lobed. (Doti'i Mill.) A deciduous climber. 

Canada to Florida, in hedges and near rivers 

Height loft, to 15ft. Introduced in 1767. 

Flowers white ; August, September. Fruit white. 

Decaying foliage brown or black. 


i C.v. 2 hyacteala Dec. C. bracteJta MameA. 
— Leaflets ovate-Iunceolatc, entire. 
The general appeamnce of this plant is like that 
of C. Vitalba; but it is less robust in all its 
parts, and less ligneous in its stems and branches i 
and it is also somewhat more tender. Panic ei <. runuiu rijiiniiiu. 

irichotomously divided, with small leaves at the divisions. Sepals 4. white. 
obovate, exceeding the stamens. Flowers often dioecious or polyeamoiis. {Tor. 
and Gray.'^ Miller states that it seldom ripens seeds in Englantf; but, as it in 
di<eciuus. It is possible that be possessed only the male plant. 


Jt 6. C. obi'ta Wall. The gratefiil-Mmi/A/ OenuitU. 

tmSHliart.i C nnaltniii b 
. WalLAthl.. l.t. 9a 

^>ec. dor.. 4c. Flower* uil- 
)aiy, panicled t leavet *ab(n- 
temate, villout ; leafiets cor< 
date, aaiminated, semted, 
3-liibed ; lepal* obtuse. (Cr. 
Don.) A dedduoui climber. 
Kepal, on mountains. Heisht 18ft. IntmduceJin 
1831. Flowers white. 
Closely resembling C. vir- 
giniuia, but rather more hcmryi 
and equally hardy, though it 
has not yet flowered fre^j in 
the open air. A shoot intro- 
duced into the innde of a (tove 
in the Chelsea Botanic On- 
den, from a plant on the out- 
ude, flowered there in 1833. 
■series as C. 


-1 7. C. Vio'bna L. 

Uar^ JoTi tin 


DtriimUam, FtoB nto, ■ wUt ■") ariHn, to onumnl. LtMbgt-Oavnwl Vlrftai-i ] 

£■«»•««> DIII.BIU1..IIS. t.lUi odourjIf.S. 

S/vc. Char., 4^. Peduncles 1-flowered. Sepals conniTenl, thick, acuminated, 
reflezedattheapex. I.esvea smooth, pioDate; leaflets entire, 3-lobed, alter- 
nate, ovate, acute, flor«l ones entire. (Dm'i MUl.) A deciduous climber. 
PeanaylTsnia to Georgia. Height 6 El. to IS ft. Introduced in 1730. Flowen 
purple without, whitish within ; June to August. Fruit white ; ripe in Sep- 
tember. Decaying leaves retained long, and dying. 
off black. L 

Variety. C. V. 8 cordala. C. cordaU Shni Bol.Mag.^ 
t. 1816., and our Jig. 9. from that pktei Cl^ni.K 
Stmsn Sweefs HorL Biit. 
Tliis species is striking in the dissimilarity of its 

flowers to those of most other species. It is f^jigtx- 

ous growth, and, exclusive of its flowers, assimilates 

to C. Viiic£llai but its Htems and branches a 

! peduncji 

deflexed towards the tip, rendering the flowers pen- 
dulous ; the sepals never open, except at their ex- 
treme ends, which are bent back, giving the whole 
flower a belj shape, but with the mouth of the bell 

narrower than the body. The sepals are of a greenish purple or reddish 
lilac on the outside, and of a very'pale green within. The ntamens scarcely 
emerge from the sctwls. The carpels are broad and flat; ax they ripen, the 


to a rod oT to a wire 
frame. Asitabrnnchei 
are not very decidedly 
ligneous or persistent, 
but consist mostly of 
annual shoots from a 
RUfTruticose base, and 
are not much branched, 
the plant does not ex- 
hibit a bushy head. It 
thrivea best in bog 
earth, kept somewhat 
Dioist, in which cir- 

from most of the 
woody species of CH&- 
matis. It may be 
increased by layers, 
though not so readily 
as ftom seeds, whicn 
it produces in abund- 
ance. This species, C. 
cylindrica, and C. re- 
ticulata, being neither 
very woody, nor very 
luxuriant in growth, 
may all be trenled as 
herbaceous plants, to 
be supported during 
the flowering season 
bv temporary profs. 
Few border plants, in- 
deed, will be found 
more elegant or more 
ornamental when so 

X 8. C. cym'ndbic* Sim*. The cylindrical^oiwrfwi Clematis. 
lilrmKllctUat. Stni.lnBql.Uic.. t-lieiXl Dm. Fro 

mt oT Lino, t C. VlArw ^odr. Id Bal. Brp.i C. dlnrfcku Jm^.i 

_„ _.. __. . feat. Hep., 1.71.1 •ndoi.rA.'ia 

!^fc. Char,, ^c. Peduncles I-Bowered. Seiiala thin, acuminated, ^eflexed 

nt the ape», with wavy margins. Leaves slender, pinnate; leaflets stalked, 

ovate or oblong, middle one sometimes irilid, -~ 

flond ones eolire. (Don't Afiil^ A deciduous 

climber. Korth Carolina and Florida. Height 

3ft.to5n. Inlroducedin 1802. Flowers larce, 

purjiliah blue, nodding ; June, August. Fruit 

white ; ripe in September, 

DeCandolle describes this species as related 
lo C. Vioma, reticiil&tfl, and crispn, and dis- 
criminated it from these. C. cjllndrica, he snys, 
differs from C. Vi6ma, in the sclents of its 
leaves being entire and not trifid ; in the flowers 
being blue, not reddish lilac and pale within, and 
twice the size of ihose of C. Vi6ma ; in the sepals 


being not leather;, but somewhat of ihecousJBience 
oT paper, with the margin WHVed ; the ovaries 
12-15, not 85-30. C. c; lindrica iliHen from C. 
reticulata in its leaves being in conaisience papery, 
not ieathen ; K:aTcel]> veined, not reticulatelf 
veined ; and in other points. C. cjlindrica closely 
reaembles C. crispa in habit and mode of flower- 
ing I but differs rrom it in its sepals being waved 
in [he mar):in, not rolled backwards, in its larger 
flowers, and, especially in its carpels haviiu long 
bearded tails, and not naked ones. C. Vi^na lo.. Pni 
and C. cylindricB, seen together in a living state, 
are very dissimilu' in appearance. C. Vi6ma has vigorous long branches and 
reddish flowers, which are acom-llke in fi^re, except that they have a spread- 
ire mouth ; there is also obvious dissimilarity in the foliage and shoots, C. 
c^Ilndrica beii^ almost herbaceous. 

a'ta H'a/I, The nct-veineiUfiiivd Cleoiatia. 
i d™. rrod., I. p. T, i 

EmgrmaimgM. Dond. BrlL,t-n.i SDdaurJ^. 11. 

^ice. Char., S[c. Peduncles 1-flowered. 8q>al 
connivent. Leaves coriaceous, netted with 
nerves, soMOth, pinnate ; leaflet! stalked, 3- 
lobed or entire, ovate. {Don't Mill.} A de- 
ciduous climber. S. Carolina and Georgia. 
BeightflfttoBft. Introduced in 1813. Flow- 
ers pale purplish red ; June to August. Fruit 
white ; ripe in September. 
Leaflets all petiolulate, 1 in. to 1} in. lon^, ^1^ • 

undivided or variously lobed, the lowest pair <*'»*i. 

3-parted, sometimes rather acute and mucronate. 

Peduncles longer than the leaves. Flowers 

as lane as in C. crSspa. Sepals dull purple, 

ovate-unceolate, velvety externally. Tails of the 

carpels long. (JTor. and Gray.) In C. Vi6ma 

the sepals do not divaricate, excejit in their 

recurved tips ; while in C. reticulibtB the sepals 

expand in the mode of those of C. Viticella. 

A side view of a flower less expanded resembles 

more the Sower of C, cylfndrics, but tlie cylin- 
drical portion is shorter. The flowers (st^s) ii- riMManuniiu. 

of the two are different in colour. Tlie leaves of C. reticulata are veined, 

as is implied in the xpccific name. The stems are scarcely ligneous. 

A 10. C. Hrndrrso'n// Chandler. Henderson's Clematis. 

Eitgrartngt. Oar Jigi. IS, mud 13. 

Spec. Char., ^a. Peduncles 1-flowered, much longer than the petioles of the 
leaves. Sepals long, wrinkled, reflexed. Leaves bipinnate, leaflets ovate- 
acuminate. A deciduous climber. Hybrid. Height 8 ft. to 10 ft. Cult. 
1835. Flowers bluish purple ; June to September. Fruit white. 
The steins and foliage bear a general reseinblanee to thoae of C. Viticella, 
while the flowers, in magnitude and colour, and the leaflets in shape and 
veining, rewemble those of C. integrifolia ; but the sepals expand much 
wider, in the manner of those of C. Viticella. This plant is apparently a 
hybrid between C. Viticillaand^rif^a. having the flowers of the latter, 
and the leaves and stems of the former. It was raised by Mr. Henderson, 


niirBcrymBn, or Pine-upiile Place, Hiid finit 
flowered in the nursery or Mr. Chandler, 
by whom it was rmmed. It may fairly be 
dCHCribed as one of the most omHmental 

apecies of tliis section, from the largeness 
of its flowers, their long footstalks, which 
make them stand out distinctly from the 
foliage, the great profusion with which they 
are produced, anil the long time the plant 
— . .Q projuce them. Layers. 

i ii. ViticeUa Dec 


UtHtalit*. Fnini wUlnla, ■ imall tin* ; on uxomC oT Um pluU cllmblag lUw nU% riulfan L. 
Sect. Char. Involucre wanting. Tail cf the pericarp (tliat is, of the carpel) 

short, beardless. Leaves ternate, or decompound. Steals ciimbiiig. (Don't 

Am., i. p. 9.) Deciduous. 

1 II. C. P[.o'rida nma, T\ie Aotvi, or ihowyJlowvTed, Clematis. 

l-lttUlfeiian, Thunb. PL Jap., SWi D«. Prod.. I. B. i Don 'i Hill. 1. p. 9. 

XuiuMmo. AOkgrae Indka Dt^f. ; AUtttOB SArldl em. ; CltaulLH k anndn Flniri, Ft. ; 

(rowWUrhlfsWiJdrrtH. Grr. 
Unpailmfl. Slnu Bot. Utg., t. SU. ) Andr. But. Rep., 1. tOt. ; imd ourjlf. J4. 

Spec,Char.,^c. Peduncles 1-flowered, longer than the leaves. Leaves temately 
decompound ; leaflets ovale, acute, quite entire. Sepuls ovhI -lanceolate, 
much pointed. {Don't Mill.) A deciduous climber. Jupan. Height 
lOft. to 12ft. Introduced in I77fl. Flowers white; June to September, 
Fruit ?. 

i C. /. 8. ftorc plena Hort. has the stamens changeil into floral leaves, 
which may be denominated petals. It js very handsome, but the 
petals have frequently a tinge of green, which renders it less orna- 
mental than the single apeciea, in which the centre of the flowor is 
comparatively inconspicuous, while ihesejials are large, and of b pure 



p. 147. ; C. bkolor Hurl. -. and our Jig. 14. ; 

u in alJ res[>ects the same u the Iwtt, eicc|>t 

that the petals, tsr centre of the flower, arc 

of a rich violet colour, approaching to purple. 

It WHS sent Irotn Japan to Europe by Dr. 

Sieboldt ; and intniduced into Eogluid in 

1836. It is a most omamental plant, and as 

hardy and eaiil; propagated as the other v>- 

rielj or the ^lecie*. 

The Bten is slender (^ 
and striated ■, climbing 

I to the height of 15 ft. _ ^^ 

or upwards when it is "" '■*•"'•■''■•'■'•'"■ 
trained to a wall with a faTourable eipoaure, 
though nerer becoming very woody. Theflowen 
are large and hanilaome, either in a single or 
double state) and these, with the neatness of its 
foliage, and the slendemess of its stems and 
branches, give it such an air ofel^ance, that no 

I lover of plants should be wiihout it, who has a 
garden in which it will thrive. North of Lorulou 
It requires a wall ; and in Scotland, aa wdl as 
in France and Germany, it is generally kept in 
the green-house. A mode of pruning plants of 
this species, by cutting [hem down to the rround 
i*- oHUHiwL annually, though not generally practised, is said 

to produce vigorous shoots and fine flowers. This spedes never ripens seeds 
in Kn^and, and is therefore only propagated by layers. 

.1 \2. C. cjgr[>Yea Umlt. The blue, or vhlet-fcwmd. Clematis. 
UmUkaHim. LtDdl.,lD Boi. Bi|., t. ISU 
iSv™^iv'' Boc Het.. I' ISUl; ud Dorj^. L6. 
Spec, Char., ^c. Leaves spreading, hairy, temale. 

Segments ovate-scute, entire. Peduncles 1- 

Aowered. Sepals 6 to 8, oblong, lanceolate, 

acute, membranaceous. Margin distended. 

(IJnd!.) A (ledduoiis climber. Japan. Height 

10ft. to 12 ft. Introduced in 1836. Flowers 

blue; June and July. Fruit'/. 

A firee.growing i 
vith the habit of 

violet-coloured, with deep purple stuniens. It 
aifiers from C. fl6rida in the colour, delicary, 
and transparency of its blossoms, and also in 
its leaves bong only once temate, and in the 
sepals not touching and overlapping each other 
at the edges. Culture and propagation as in 

J 13. C. Viticb'lla L. The Vine-Bower Clematis. 


VIUcAU^llblira 1 

idrVBovcr. Cfl-artfi It 

Spec. Char., ^c. Peduncles l-flowered, longer than the leaves. Leaves 
temately decompound, lobes or leaflets entire. Sepals obovate, sprewling. 
(liotfi Mat.) A denduous climber. South of Europe, in hedges, on 
calcareous soil. Height 10ft. to 1.1ft. Introduced in ia<i» Flowers blue 


or purple; July to September. Fruit white; ripe in October. Etccajlng 
fobage black or brown. 

1 C. r, 1 tsrriilea. — FIowctb blue. 
1 C. y,2 purpurea. — Flowers purple. 

1 C. y. 3 mmpUx G. Don. C. pukh^lk F^rri. — FIowcth 
This variety produces more robust, more extended, and fewer shoots, 
than the rinele-flowered blue or purple Tsrieciea. 
1 C. r. 4 tmuifolia Dec., C. tenuifdlia liisitinica TVura. ; and 
1 C V.b baccdla Dec., C. campaniflora Hart. ; are vuietiei whicb we 

C. Viclcflla, and all itB varietiet, are 
tolerably robust and Timorous in their 
growth, and decidedly ligneous ; though 
plants, individually, do not endure many 
years. They are, perhaps, the most beau- 
tiful and moat estimable of all the kinds 
of clematis, for the purposes of floral de- 
coration. For the mere covering of bowers 
and other objects, they are, however, less£ 
suited tlian C, Vitcilba and C. FlammuLs; as" 
these grow faster, eiitend farther, and each 
yields a greater aggregate of herbage, and 
so covers better : hut none of them can 
vie with C, ViticfUa and its varieties in 
beauty; more esnecially with the sinale _, ....... 

purpJe and the single blue. 

... J*. Ihim the Berlin 

TknUltdaSalnAT. Hort. BrH. 

Spec. Char., *c. Pedun- 
cles 1 -flowered, some> 
what longer than the 
leaves. Leave* biter- 
luitely decompound ; 
leaflets entire, or 3- 
lobed. Sepals half- 
spreading, dilated at 
theapex.wBvy. f2)on'* 
Mill.) A deciduous 
Euffhitescent climber 
of vigorotu crowth. 
Portugal, in hedge*. 
Height lift, to 15ft. 
Introd.1810. Flower<i « 
white, slightly tinged 
with purple; July and 
August. Fruit white. 
Decaj ing foliage dark 


i C. c. 8 pani/tdra. C. parvifldra FUch. of GikHngen.— 
■mailer than in the species, sepals crisped at the edg 

, sanunculaceje: ci.s'MAria 


The babit of growlh of this plant is that of C. Vitic^lla, to which it also 
comei Dearest id affinitj, but, thoueh less woody, id ihoou an muri) more 
robint; the much smaller and white flowera, and pointed sepals conniTcnt (that 
is, lyii^ close twethcr) below. wiH readily distinguish it. It seldom ripens 
wood in England, but is readily propagalM by layers. 


^c. CAar^ 4t. Pedunclea l-flowered, 

diorter than the leares. LesTes entire, 

3-lobed, or tcmate, very acute. Sq>als 

connireot at the base, but reOexed, and 

nreadii^ at the ^h. (Doa^i Mill.) A 

dieddooua dimber. Vii^nis to Floridi. 

HdghtSft I* 5 ft. Introdticed in 1786. 

Flowers purine; July to SetMember. Fruit 

farowmifa; ripe in (Jctober. 

LeaTes glabrous, or s'ightly hairj. Flowers 
one third smaller than in C. ViSma, bright 
purple. Tail of the carpels thick and rigid, 
■boat half ao inch long. (Tbr. and Gray.) 
The flowers of this species are pretty, but 
perhaps nercr produMd in MifliiCient quan- 
tftv to render it highly decorative. The se- 
pals hare tbdr tips renexed, and waved with 
trwiSTCne wrinkles. Tbestemsare weak.and 
do not generally rise higher than 3 or 4 feet. The plant* frequently die down 
to the ground, so that tnia sfiecies requirea to be treated more as Derbaceow 
than ligneous. It ripens seeds ploitifully. 

f iti. C/mniptU Dec 


Sect, CAar. Involucre in the form of a calyx, Irom two joined bracteas situated 
at the top of the peduncle just under the flower. Tails of perkaipa 
bearded. CliiabiDg or rambling sbnibs, with simple or lernate leave*. Tne 
old petioles persistent, and the new leaves and the peduncles produced in 
clusters from the aids of these. (Dec. Syit., i. 169.) Evergreen. 

L 16. C. ciRRHo'sA L. The tendriled.f)ef>aJed Clem^is. 
m.,1K.tOt.rnii.,l.r.%: Doa'tKnUf-t. 
. JCrigffi* drrbAn Ptrt Srrt. 1. b. 9a.i TtniUar*! Jot oT Cukdift, sihI Spsnllh TtS" 

rof, JAmm'f Smrrii Spinlih Joi Olobn. ,"— ' "- "' ^ 

.i„_„._ ~, , wiSmJanL), 

^Kc. dor., t[c. Peduncle Uflowered, with an involucre. Leaves simple, or 
variously divided ; evergreen. An ever g reen climber. Spain and the 
Balearic Isles. He^t in British gardens, in the climate of London, in a 
warm situation, t^anist a wall, 5 ft to 10 ft, Introduced in lAM. Ftowcrs 
■■■■- ' 'h or yellowish white; March and April. Fruit >. Foliage of the 

■» formii^ a fine dark green n: 

., Google 


C. c. % peiSceilela Dec.; V. pedicellita Sacri't 
Sort. Brit. p. 8., and Di>n'i Mi/I. i. |i. 9. ; C. 
baleirica Peri.; C. cir- 
rfadsa iS!iiu B, Mag. 
t. 1070.; and our Jig. 
80.; hiu the pedicel be- 
tween the involucre and 
the Sower conatderebly 
longer than in the 

L C. I'. 3 angutlijolia. C. bale- 
inta Rkh. But. Mag. 
t.959., sndourj^.SI.; 
C. calycina AU.; C. 

po1yTn6r|iha Hori, CUmatite ile Mahon, Fr. 
variety vary exceedingly, Trorn those shown in 
size, taken from a plant in the Horticultural 
Society's Garden, to those shown in J!g. 82., reduced from Smith's 
Flora Grirca. Introduced into England by M. Tbouin, in 1783. 

The V 

s ell e 

n climbing shrubs, rising 
to tiie height of from 6 ft. to 
lOfl., and branching fredy, to 
as to become, in two or three 
yvvn, very thick bushy plants. 

The leaves vary from simple to temate ; and hom being entire to bdng 
deeply cut. The flowers appear at the end of December, or the beginning 
it( Junuary, and continite till the miildle or end of April. They are pendulous 
^nd bell-smiped, the mouth being of the bretultii ofa sliilling, or more. Their 
colour is greenish white, with some purple on the inside. The sepals are 
downy wimout, and smooth within. In its native country it is said to climb 
tip Hnd overwhelm the trees ; but in England it in a weak plant, not very 
readily kepL In nurseries it is generally cultivated in pots, and kept in a 
gn.'en4iouiie, «r in a colli -frame. The princ^ial beauties of this species con- 
sist in iu briicht evergreen verdure, and in the eurlinen of its flowcrii^ in 
spring ; and Ihise properties may be best obtained by training it against a wall 
wkh a souUiern aspect. Layers and cuttings. 




Dtr^tUim. From tlw Aov«n Mii| tik 

A Ham, The Mountain ClematU. 

••.MM.iVtc.Troi., I. p.S.; Bojlo. p.EI. 

J.Ant >rn(. f7.M)»/. p.m, Om'i ViS. I. p. t. 

tu-^ 1. p. IL 1.117-; Bm^ Bt. Fl.-Ganl., li. : jwdoiirjb' 

hiplul !d UuHgn. Soc OirdiB, aodj^. M. troD > iiwImhii of 

Spec. Char., {c. Peduncles l-flowereil, Dot bracteeted, sefenl together. 
Leates temntely parted, tne BCfment* ovat&«bloi^, Bcuminate, tcxithed, the 
teeth in the mode of iniisionii. Sepals etliptic-obfcng, mucronulate, «pre«d- 
ing. (D. Don.) A deciduous climber. Himalavan Mountains at 5000 ft. 
to 7000 ft. elevation. Height 10 ft, 1« 15 ft., or in sheltered situations 
30 ft. to SO ft. Introduced in 1831. Flowers white; April in Nepal, 
May in England. Fruit white ; ripe in August. Decaying foliage brown, 
and dropping more fteely than in most of the other kbds. 
A hi^ly ornamental spedes. The plant is large and 
branching ; the bark Uiick, aah-cuioured, and de- 
ciduous. Leaves numerous, pale green. Flowers 
nunicrouB, about the size 
and form of those of Ana- 
mdne aylv^stris L., burne 
sereral together, each u[ion 
a separate, upright, slender 
^ peduode, aboM S is. long, 
Segals i, I in. long, pure 
white, &mtly ataineU witli i 
. pink outside at the base. \ 
Styles clothed with loi^ ', 
white silky hairi ; Ifoiu 
which it may be inferred 
M. (MHkmMb.. ^j jjjj^ specie* will hare 

its Iruits terminated with feathen taus, in a state of 
maturity. In the climate of En^and it prores to be 
quite hardy, and seemii to flourish as well a« on its 
native mountaiDS. It grows with great vigour in a 

Other Speaet of (Uimafii. — There are several other sjiecieB of Clematis 
described in boc^a, some of them u introduced, and others as not yet in 
cullinition in Britain ; but we have refrained from describing any species of 
which we have not seen living plants. In Torr^ and Gray's Flora of Norlk 
Anienca, C. kulotttic^a Pursh, C, Vgattiaf&lia Nutt„ C. nrummimTn Tor. ^ 
Gray, C. pmviflbra Nutt., C. Ummiiha KutL, C iveariioha Dec, end C 
Pbcnni Tbr. ^ Gray, are described as woody species, none of which, even 
by name, are yet in British gardens. <]. puhaceni, vitifSHa, Ba^Jnii&na, end 
some others, mentioned by Drs. Wallich and Royle, are yet to introduce 
from tbe ilioialayaa; and there are several nanies in DeCandolte's Pr^romui 
of which living plant* are not in our gardens. 

., Google 



.^TRA'GEKE L. The ATRAaEHS. Lin. Sgtl. Poly&adrui Polygyok. 

ii VlUtb* L. 

t if tT^icDS ippean M ba taken tnm two OreA vardi \ 
ippon them. It*«i Ont uiad b7 TbAoptanttiu, vid m 

Gat. Char, Involucre aaac. Sepals i, somewhat induplicate in thti bud. 

Pelatt numerouB, shorter than the Bepd*. Cariopiida (carpe^R) terinineted 

by a bearded taH. Cofyledom approiiDiate in the se«d. (nmi'i MilL) 
Leavei compound, <^posite, generally eiatipulate, aeciduous; leBflets 

vsriouslf cut. Ploaen axillary, pedunculate ; purple, blue, or white. 

CSmiing timbi, DBtirea of Europe and North America. 

The aCragenes differ from the clematises in producing leaves and one floirer 
&om the same bud contemporeneously ; trnereaa in most clematises the 
flowers are oroduced opon wood developed previously to iheir appearance^ 
and during the same veason. Hence the winter buds of ^tr^gene are larger 
than those of Cl^atis, from their including the flower as well as the leaves 
of the succeeding year. In atn^nes the leaves are less divided thaa in manj 
of the species of Clematis, and they are always divided temately. All the 
specif of j^tiigeue described in this work have petioles, which not only clasp 
objects, like those of C'l^niaiia, but maintain the hold for more than the 
season, like the vine. AU extremely interesting from the beauty of their 
blosBoma. The culture is the saiDe as in Cl^atis, and the propagation 
generally by layers. 

^ 1. JTRA'nsNa alpi'n* L, The Alpine Atragene. 

Utmt^kaUam. Lio. Sp., TM. 1 Don'! HUV, I. p. 10. 

s 'MmiOt aaiOu Budi. t Aaiaaat tuiOUa Star, lai Sot. Hag. ; ^crtsmi dmii. 

j CUmitijilptau VOf-Sid. No.a.i C. ilplDS Bee. iVgd. 1. p. lo. i Atn«tl»dM 

Bpathulate, blunt. (DonV M^l.) A deciduous climber. South of Europe, 

on mountsJos, in calcareous soils. Height 8 ft. Introduced in 1798. 

Flowers blue; May to July. Fruit white; 

ripe in August. Decaying leaves brownish, 

and in general parting more freely from the 

stems than in Clematis. 
Farietiei, DeCandolle mentions its varying with 

white flowers; and J. sibirica Lm., described 

below as a species with yellowish white flowers, 

ap|>ear8 to us nothing more than a variety of 

A. otpina. 

The stems are numerous, branching, weak, 
forming knots at the joints where the leaves and 
flowers are protruded. One flower, on a longish 
scape, springs from between the leaves. The sepals 
are twice the length of the petals, and are blue 
on both sides. Tite petals are small, of a dirty 
white, and in genravl 18 in Duiid»er. Yery orna- 
mental. Layers. 


't he SiberiHi) Atngene. 

1 1753. Flowers 

vhite ; June and July. Fruit white : ripe in August 

Deca)ii^ leaves brownish. 
CanV/y. A blue-flowered Tariety of this species is men- 

(ioued in Sot. Mag., t. 1591., which is probublv the 

A. ocbol^nsis of Paltas, or possibly nothing more thmn 

A. alpiiia L. 

There is a considerable similurity in this to the last, 
in foliage and habit of growlh ; but it is less robust and 
less brancby ; its branches are more ligneous-looking, and 
the segments of the leaves longer. The calyies of the 
flower are white, longer, and with the tips rather con- 
nirent than spreading. The barli and foliage are of a 
tighter eoloitr, and the flowers longer than those of A, j,rt_» iintA-. 

alpina ; and the latter are perhaps less numerous. *" 

1 3. A. akerica'na Sinu. The American Atrvgene. 

«A°a'' '* '* ■ ^' * ''^' '" ^ '" 
Spec. Char., 4'c. Peduncles 1-flowered ; leaves whorled. in fours, temate ; 
leaflets stalked, cordate lanceolate, acumrnoted, entire or somewhat lobed 
or soraleJ. Petals acute. {Don't JUiU.) A deciduous climber. Ver- 
mont to Carolina, on mountains and rocky places. Heieht lOfl. to 15 ft. 
Introduced in 1797. Flowers pnrplisfa bUic ; May to July. Fruit white j 
ripe ?. Decaying leaves dark brown. 

± A. a. 2 obSqua Don. MS— Leaflets bluntly serrated. 
Tills species is distinguishable from all the oilier Clema- 
tidea described in this work, by the peculiarity of its leaves 
being disposed, not oppositely in alternately decussating 
pairn, hut in whorU of four. This is an anomalous rha- 
mcteristic, which DeCandoUe has expressed by his specific 
epithet verticill^ris. The flowers are very large, and cam- 
panulate. Sepals oblong-lanceolate, bright purplish blue. m. ^trtum n^i^rtea. 
(TVr. anrf Gray.) Layers. 

Ol/ier Speaet and Varielki ofAlrigeae. — A. ocAotemu Pall, we consider aa » 
variety of A. sibirica L. A. columbi/iiui Nutt., C. columlniina Tor. A Gmy, j, 
p, 11., has temate leaves, and pale blue flowers smaller than those of ■<. smeri' 
cinn. It is a tiative of the Bocky Mountuns, but has not yet been introduced. 

Tribe II Pje.oviJ'CE^. Dec. 

7ViA. Char. At once dLitinguishable Irom dematldete, by the character of 
the anthers opening to admit the escape nf the pollen on the side next 
the ovaries. In ClematideiE, the anthers open on the side outward to the 
oraries. The sstivation is tdso imbricate, and the carpels from one-seeded 


to many-scdled SiiShitkose deciduous shrubs, of low growth, natives of 
teinperate climales. 

Leaiiei compound, shernste or opposite, stipulate, deciiiuous, but with- 
Oiit pouessing a clasping power. Fiawm very large in Pseonia, very amall 
ii) Xaiilhorhiza ,- and tlie following arc the distinctive characteristica oT 
these genera : — 

Ps.o'rtlA L, Sejjala persistent. Petals orbicular, sessile. 

Xanthorhi'xi //. Sepals deciduous. Petals !f-lol>cd, unguiculate. 

Genus I. 


PJEO'yiA I. 

The PsoNr. Lfn. Sy,l. Polyindria Di-Pentag 

litMVtealitm. Thelerr 


DeriKUi<m. The I*™ 
thlDk. It mOTd prolM 

n PkhiIi nu ■(iplled bj tlie Orwki la Ih«e pluib, which blT 
n or Fcsn. Uio phTllcUn vho Ant iitnl II In mrdtclDe ; bui I>n 

knobbj oc gnulr ipixaruice of tbe roou dT Hit botliiictaiu iptcin. 
(7fn. Char. Calt/x of 5 leafy, unequal, permanent nepals. Feiali from 5 to 10, 

somewhat orbicular. Slament numerous, liiik Beshj-, girding the ovaries. 

Carpelt follicular, from 3 to b, large, many-Beeded, terminated with thick 

bilaciellate stigmas. SeedM rather globose, shining. 

I/eava compound, alternate, biternate or bipinnate. Flower* ]arge, rosy, 

or rosy and white, usually with a strong disagreeable smell. A suShiticose 

shrub. Height from 3 (t. to 10 ft. Native of China and Japan. 

There is but one ligneous species, P. Moulan ; but there are several 
varieties ; all undershrubs, which never attain a great bright, and the wood 
of which always retains a herbaceous character, with a large pith. The roots 
are ramose rather than tuberous. The whole plant is narcotic and poisonous. 
The varieties are all beautiful, and hardy in most parts of Great Britain ; 
though, from vegetating early, they commonly suffer from spring frosts, 
• 1, P. Mol/TAN Sims. The Moutan, or Tree, Paony. 

UnUiOailfim. Sinn, Bol. Mig., L IIM. ; D«. Piod., I.jj. S5. i Don'iMllL, 1 j. W. 

SgKiiirmri. Fwliniii arbtim Domt Herl. Can. ; P. lullVuIlcbu Bol. Rrp, ; Fliidiia Houtis. VId 

yeut. P. aronrea izid P. lutrrutlciu •lEJ'll'r t^s trrt and the lub-ihrulibr peony. Tbe German 

spec. Char., ^c. Segments of leaves oval-oblong, glaucous underneath. Car- 

SIs j, villose. (Don'i Atili.) A deciduous suffrutescetit bush. China. 
eight 3 ft. to a ft. Introduced in 1787, Flowers pink j May. Fruit 
brownish green ; ripe in September. 
Decaying leaves brown or black. 

■ P. M. 1 papnv^acea Andrews. 
Bot. Rep., t.4(i3. ; Lod Bot. 
Cab..54.7.i Bot.Miig,,2l75.; 
and our fc. 29. — Petals from 
e to 13, white, with a purple 
spot at (he base of each. 
CapNulcs altogether enclosed 
in the iirceolus, or disk. In- 
troduced in 1805. Professor 
Don remarks (Sw. Br. Fl.' „. «„„.»,— .,h*-»-». 

., Google 


be realiji 


sucge&ted in hU |>BpCT on tne sutycct in the Lmmran TVomacliotu, 

■ P. M. S BiBJc$» Andreui,. Bot. Rep., t. 448. ; 

Bat. Reg., 379.; Bot. Mug., t. 1154.; and 

our^. 30. — Plovers double. Petals sligfatiy 

tingeu with blush, becoming neerlv while I 

St [he edges, marked at the base with pur-v 

plish red. In the centre of the flower are " 

some elongated petals, which Eoinetiines 

appear to rise from amongst the gcrmens. 

Cultivated in 1787. 
Other Varieliet. Upwards of twelve are described 
in the first edition of this work; and the number is 
continually increasing, in consequence of cross fe- "" f**^ "•"■ "***• 
cunJstion with one another, and with the herbaceous species. They are all 
very beautiful, and well deserving of cultivation. 

The /Voma iVfoiiian, in a sheltered situation, will attain the height of from 
6 (t. to 10 ft. in ten years : and nu plant can be a more corgeous omamoit 
of the garden than such a bush, abounding an it does in leaves striking from 
their branched ctiaracter and numerous segments, and in very magnificent 
flowers of extraordinary size j both leaves and flowers being produced eariy 
in the spring. On its Iirst importation, this plant was grown in tandy peat; 
but it nas since been found to thrive best in deqi rich loamy noil. Au 
o[ien situation is preferable, both on account of maturing the wood and leaves, 
and for displaying the flowers to advantage ; but the plant must be sheltereil 
from the cold spring winJs, unleaa it is mtended lo cover it, when it is in 
flower, with a movable glass or canvass case. The protection eiven to this 
plant is necessary, not so much to prevent it from being iifjured during winter 
(for it will bear the wintem of Paris without any protection, if the wood has 
been properly ripened), as lo protect the tender leavea and flowers when they 
firat appear, in April and May, from being blackened by the frost. Seeds are 
frequently produced from which new varieties are raised, and any variety 
may be increased by division of the root; by grafting on the (ubers of herba- 
ceous pEFonies, any time from the middle of September to the middle of 
March ; by budding, a mode said to be practised by the Chinese ; by layers. 
which is the most general mode ; by ringing a branch beneath each hud, and 
then pegging down the branch, and covering it with soil ; and by cuttings. 
The details of these modes of propagation wdL be found in the first edition 
of this work. 

Genus II. 


XaNTHORHI'ZA L. The Ybli^w-Root. Lin. S</,t. Poljin.hia 
Mono- Tri-gy nia. 

Grn. Chat. Calyx of 5 deciduous sepals. Prtalt 5, of two roundish lobet 
raised on a pedicel. Sfamait 5-10. Ovariet &-10. Carpelt2—3-iieedei\, 
but usually oolilary from abortion. (Don't Mill., i. p. 65.) — There is only 
one tpedes linown. 

Leave* compound, opponte, Btipulate, deciduous; pinnately divided, 
toothed, and serrated. Fhmeri in racemes, axillary, compound, appearing 
with the leaves. 

c S 


Sipiatfma'. 'jEuUiorbtu dpKflilli ; ZaathartH t FenUla de Fcrill, Ft. \ SeUeik.bQiurtfa Cdb- 
DtrimHow. FrtHA tht Gmk wordl f^nfttu. TVllow, md rA^ir^ ■ root ^ upllFd IVnm th4 d«rp 

^i^tfvt'itft. Laiil 111, I'SM, ; Bol, TtFjg,, 17BG. i ind our/^. 31. 

A/wc. Ctdr., tic. Flowera minute, dark purple, nflen byHhortion polvgamous. 

A low, BufFnitescent, deciduous shrub. Flowers dark purple; May. 

Height 2 ft. to 3 ft. Pennsylvania. Introduoeil in i77<>. Decaving leaves 

yellowish or brown, dropping in September. 

A small shrub with yellow creeping roots, which 
nttain a large siie. and throw up nuiiierous suckers ; 
with irregularly pinnate leaves, branched racemes, and 
small purplish flowers (which are usually uniGexual ^ 
from abortion) rising from the scaly buds. The flowers ^ 
appev early in May, and continue a month or upwards 
beKire they drop olf. We have never heurd of its 
ripening seeds in Europe; nerertheless, this may have 
occurrnl, and been overlooked, from tbe inconspi- 
cuomneM of the shrub, and the smaUness oi* its fruit. 
Sucken, or dirision of the root. 

Order II. WINTER^'C^.^ 

ORDlt^ALCHAKACTER. Calyx of 2 — 6 deciduous acpala, and S to many petals ; 
the steals and petals, when more than two, disposed temately. Carpelt 
whorled, very rarely solitary from abortion. — Evergreen shrubs, or low 
trees, chiefly natives of warm climates. 

Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, evergreen ; full of pellucid dots, and 
coriaceous. Properties aromatic and stitnulunt. llUcium is the only genus of 
this order which conlaina species that will stand out m the open air in 

Genus I. 


ILLI'CIUM L. Tab Illicivm, or Aniseed Tree. Lin. &/$l. Polyindria 

Idnili/ltalllM. lin. □ni.,Gll.| Tor. and Cnj, I. p. 41. ; T>«. Prod., I, p. 77, : Don't Hni., 
Smmiiraa. Bidiaan. or Alili.ttall(. tr. i aiernuiU. OtT. 

■men baiiaf ( tlrong membluux Is that or uiLiecd. Badlus appsin to be u >boTlB>n*l Fmtb 
word ; Anli.fetall^, and StflmaDLi. t\gn\Jy LIteralLy tbe ItUTT aolio. JlDd PUIT &Ulld« to tb« Btwrr 
dtipotlLlon or tbs ]4rtt of the flower and oTtfae capiulea. 

Gen. Char. Calyx of 3-6 petal-like sepals. Carpelt ttellately disposed, cap- 
sular, opening on tbe upper side, 1-seeded. (Don't MUl., i, p. 79.) 

• I. iLLi'duu in:,OBiDA'KUii EUit. The Florida Illicium. 
MmUflcatim. Lin. Mint.. SM.i Dec Trod, ]. p.TT. 1 Don'e Ulir, 1. p. 79. 
Sgmnmia. The FlorUU Anitnd Tree, red-tlowetad AdIh-iskI Tree, Mor. RU. i BidtuM de !■ 

Florlde, Ft. i unichlcr (■piirloui) Slrmaiili, Gtr. 
Engrnhiti. Bot. Ua«., o6. ; Lod. Dot. Cab., t. KS. i nd our;^. R. 

Spec. C&ar., ^e. Petals £7 — 30, dark purple, outer ones oblong, inoer 
ones lanceolate. (Don't Mill.') An evergreen glabrous bbrub. Wes^t 


Florida to Louisiana, in swamps. Height 
4ft. to 6ft Introduced in 1766. Ftotters 
dark reddish |iuq)le, with the odour of anise; 
April to June. Fruit none io England. 
Decaying leaves reddish brovrn, dropping in 

A compact, niaiiy-stemmed, bushy, eveN 
green, stow-growiii2 shrub, attainini;, in the 
neigh boiirhood of London, the height of 6 or 
H feet or upwards, and flowering every year. 
The leaves are oblong-lanceolate, quite entire, 
pointeJ at both eitremities, smooth, shining, 
luid, ill common with ihe whole plant, have a 
rich reddish hue. The flowers are numerous, 
solitary, and temuDal ; and bear aonie general 
resemblance to those of Celycintbus fl^ridua. 
The manner in which the plant is propagated 
in the London nurseries is, generally, by firm- 
ing stoi Is of it in a cold-pit, and laying do*n 
the shoots, which require two yeani to root 
sufficiently to ailmic of their being separated 
trom the tiareni plant ; but it is sometimes 
propagated by cuttings both of the young and 
of the old wood. This very handsaiiie ever- 
green shrub is sufficiently hardy to have re- 
sisted the winter of 1S37.8, in several sit uutioiis 
in the climate of London. 

OiiDEn MI. MAGNOL/^Cfivi?. 

0«D. Chab. Calyx of 3 deciduous sepals. Cvrolla of S — 12 petals, dis- 
posed in threes. Antheri adnate, elonguted, Carjieli numerous, dis|used 
along B spiked axis. Lama destitute of|icllucid dots, stipulate when younj;. 
^'(ipuZrs convolute, and enclosing the unelpunded leaves. — Evergreen and 
deciduous trees and bhrubs, chiefly natives of warm climates. 

LeatKt simple alternate, stipulate, evergreen or deciduous ; oblong, not 
dotted, more or less coriaceous, artJculiited distinctly with the stem, and, 
when ei[>anding, rolled together like those of i^cus. Floiptrt large, mostly 
white or yellowish. Seedi roundish, large, red or brown. — The species 
hardy in British gardens are included under the genera Magnolia ami 
Liriodendron, the diflerential characters of which are as fbilows : — 

Magno^IXJ L. Carpel dehiscent ; thut is, opening to admit tiie escape of the 

LiitioDE'NDRoM L. Carpel indehiscent ; thut is, not opening to admit the 
escape of the seed. 


MAGNO'L/./* L, Thb Magnolia. Lin. Si/tt. PolySodria Polygyni 



Gen. Chirr. Cabfx of 3 ileciduoul sepals, that resemble petals. CorABa of 
ttam 6 — 9 petals. Slamcm numerous. PiMtiU numerous. CarpeU disposed 
compactly in s|)ikeB, opening by the external angle, I — 8-seeded, |)ernianent. 
Seei/i baccate, somewFiut cordate, pendulous, hanging out beyond the car- 
pels by a very long umbilical white thread. 

LeatKi simple, alternate, Kti|)ulaic, deciduous or evergreen ; entire, large, 
oblong or oval, stipulate. Flowcrt terminal, solitary, large, odoriferous. 
Seed Targe, roundish, produced in conical strobileB. Trees and shrubs. 
Datives of North America and Asia. 

One of the species is a lofty evergreen tree; but the others are decidu- 
ous, and partly trees end partly shrubs. The seeds are mostly of a scarlet 
colour. The roots are branched, and yet but sparingly supplied with 
fibres. Magnolias may be cultivated in most parts of Britun, and of the 
■Diddle and southern itstcs of Europe ; but, north of London and Paris, soroe 
of the species require protection during winter, or to be kept in the green- 
house. A deep sandy soil, and a situatiou sheltered from the north and east, 
will suit most of the species ; though some, as M. glauca, for example, thrive 
best in a moist peaty soil. Few of the species npen seeda in En^and, but 
most of them do so in France. From these seeds, or from such as arc im- 
ported, all the American species, except M. gnuidiflora, are most freifuently 
raised ; but the species from Asia are increased by layers, as are occasionally 
some of the more rare of the American species. In no case whatever would 
we recommend purchasing any sjieciea of magnolia not grown in a pot ; 
because plants so grown may be seat to an^ distance witnout injury to the 
roots, which are few and succulent, and easily damaged by exposure to the 
ur and light. The hardy species of this genus are included in two sections, 
Hagnoli^/rtiiH and tiwilllmiii. 


l>erivuimi- HagnMi\ uid attntm.tnwtat bMar, insMEtd parth:le,«1gn1iylni1ltafw«. 

Seel. Char. American species, witli one spathe-like bractea enclosing the 

flower-bud ; ovaries approximate ; anthers bursting outwards. (ZJon'f 

MUt.. i. p. 83.} 

t 1. MjIGNo'l;.* GBANDiFLo'iiA h. The large-flowered Magnolia. 

Urmtgia^n. Llo. Sp., TU. 1 Dm. Prod., I. p. BO.; Don"! Mill.. 1. p. SS. i Tor. and Graj, 

simgtma. Liurel.l«««l M«(Iloll», tlic l>rI*-aoit»red iveiRiMn HunDMa, OiB Lmurtl Itajr. blf 
Laurel, the larec MhsddIIc. (.luHrT tuHplcr, Fr. In Louiilima : MibudILh t gnndti Flsura, 

Klgrmmaf- MIH. Ic. 8. I. IT*.; tie pUIB In »ol.r. of Arb. Brll. Ill edll. \ and aur.^. U. 

Spec. Char,, S;c. Evergreen. Leaves oval-oblont:, coriaceous, upper surface 
shining, under Burlace rusty. Flowers erect, 9 — 12 peta1s,expandmg. (Don't 
Mm.) A large evergreen tree. North Ciiroltna. Height in North 
America 60 it. to 70 a. ; in England id h. to 30 ft. Introduced in 1737. 
Flowers white, fragrant ; June to September. Strobile brown, with scariet 
seeds : ripe in Uctotier. Decaying leaves yellow and orange, dropping in 
June. Young wood green. 

1 M. g. i ohovata Ait — Leaves obovate-oblong. Flowers expanded. 
(^Horl. Kew., iii. p. 389.) This seems to be the only variety found 
in a wild state. In British gardens it is a magnificent plant, the 
broad ends of its leaver formine a conspicuous feature, and distin- 
guishing it readily from the original species, the leaves of which arc 
pointed; but it docs not flower freely. 

t M. g. i extrmenMit Hort. M. g. lanceoiam Ail.; M. g. «tr!cta HoH. ( 

M. g. femi^fnea Horl. TAe Eimouli Magnolia. (Bot. Mw., t. 
195e.iBot.'C><b.,t. 1814.; the plate in Arb. Brit., Ut edition, vol. v.; 
irj%.33.) — The le»ei ■« oblong-dlifiticaJ, generally nisty 

underneath. Flowers somewhat contracted. This it the moM 
distinct of all the vsrietiei of the npedes, and, on account of its 
flowering early and freely, the one best deseniag of general culture. 
It fonns a tall, fastigiate, elegant buEh, or tree, and hai attained 
the height of 30 ft., as a BtHndorJ, al various places in (he South o'' 
I M.g.4 mgutHfolia Hort. ~ Leaves lanceolate, pointed uc both extre- 
mitiei, wavy. A very distinct variety, introduced from Paris about 
I6SJ, which has not yet flowered in England. 
* 3^. 5 ^rie'coj Andry.^ Leaves oval-oblong. Flowers fully expanded. 
This ID an early variety, introduced from Paris about 1631), The 
flowers are as large as those of any of the vnneties, and they are 
produced from the end of May till the approach of winter. 
Other Varietiet. In consequence cf the great demand for this speaes in 
the nurseries, many slight variations have been noticed b^ cultivators, and 
named ax distinct. In the garden of the London Honicultural Society, 
in 1B3+, there were plants with tbe following names ; — M. g.vera, M.g. 
latifiHia, M. g, exoraeuiu oar., and AI. g. mbiginoia. In the London nurne- 
ries are — M. g. TDiundifolia Swt., M. g. euiptica Ait., and various others. 
In the nursery of M. Roy, at Angers, are 18 varieties, among wliieli ore 
included M. g. longijnlia uTtdnlata, M. §. exonihiitM a ficvr demi-iimib/e, At. 
canaliculi, M. g. flonbimda, M. g. folHt varieg^lU, &c. At Desio, neiir 
lonza, there is a variety called M, g. magordituit. 
Sriection of Varieliei. M. g. ohnvnta deserves the preference for the mag- 
nificence of its Foliage ; and M. g, rxonihuU, because il flowers early and 
freely ; and because, from the fesiigiste form of the tree, it is less liable 
to be imured by a heavy fall of snow ; It seems also to grow faster than 
anv of the other varieties. Where the tree is to be trained against a wall. 
At. g. pne'cox deserves the preference, on account of the largeness of its 
flowers, and because the) appear early, and continue auring tbe whole 
■ummer. AI. g. anguitifnlia deserves culture on account of itn foliage, which 



is quite distinct from that of all the other varieties. The apeciea sold in 
the nurseries a* tiie common broad-leBvetl Magndlia grandiflord ii fre- 
qiienll/ raised from American, French, or Italian seeds ; and, hence, the 
plants, thou^ the)' grow freely, do not flower for 80 or 30 years after being 

tlanteJ out. For this reuson, when it ia deiiired to have i)lanta of the 
lagiiolia grandiflorn which will flower early, those plants wbtch have been 
riiised by layers from jloweriiig trees ought to have the preference ; or the 
Exinouth, or some other varietv, should be made choice of, because the 
varieties are always raised from la} crs. 

In its native countrv, M, grandiflora is a tree varying from 60 ft. to 
100 ft., or upwards, in height; but in Europe, except in some situations in 
Spun and Italy, und a few in the South of England, it is chiefly to be 
considered as a wall tree. 

A deep sandy loum, dry at bottom, and enriched with v^etable mould or 
heath soil, seems to suit all the varieties of this species. When these are 
to be trained against & wall, any aspect may be chosen, excqit, perhaps, the 
north-east. To display the flowers to the greatest advantage, to a spectator 
walking in a direction nearly parallel to the wall, the ground plan of the 
latter should be curvilinear, by which means a direct or front view of a 
considerable portion would be brought before hiin. In the London nur- 
series, propagation is generally effected by forming stools either in wurm 
situations m (he open air, to be protected during winter, or in cold-pits. 
The shoots are laid down in autumn, and require two years to become 
sufficiently rooted for separation ; they are then potted, and kept in pits 
or under glass during winter, and set in the open air, in a shady place, 
during suninm~, till wanted for final planting. M. grandifldra is occa- 
sionally raised Irom American seeds. In planting, the hall should be care- 
fully broken by the hand, and the roots spread out in every direction, and 
covered with hcaih mould, or a mixture of leaf mould and sandy loam. The 

111. MAGNOL/^ CE^ : MAONo'l./^. 25 

soil ou«tit to be maile Arm to the fibrous routs, pot by treading, but hv 
abuDduit watering, and, if the plant be large, by filing with water; that ia, 
while the earth is being carefully put about the roots Ly one man, another 
should pour water froni a pot held 6 ft or B ft. above it, so that the weight 
of the water may Hash the soil imo every cTCviee formed by the roots, 
and consolidate it there. Shading will be iidvi;sable for some ueeks after 
planting. If the Exmouth variety be chosen, laj'en will produce flowers in ■ 
yc-ar or two after being separated from the parent plant, tf kept iii pots; tiut, 
when they are planted out, and grow freely, so as to nuke shoots of 8 or 3 
feet every season, they will probably not flower for three or four years. 
Whether the tree be against a wall or trellis, or trtated as a itandard, all the 
pruning it wit) require, alW it has begun to grow freely, will be, to cnt out 
the stumps from which the flowers or the Etrohiles have dropped off, and 
any dead or decaying wood, and any branches which cross and rub on each 
otner. M^nolias against a wall require very little protectioD, even when 
young; and this can ea^y be given by mulching the ground at the roots, and 
''-—- ' "-Ts with a mat, or with the fronds of the spruce fir. 

^MT. CAar., 4'C. Almost deciduous. Leaves elliptical, obtuse, nnilcr sutfucr,- 
glaucous. FlowerS — 1 8-petaled, contracted. Petals ovate, uuncave. (^Doii'i 
Mill.) A shrub, or low tree, sometimes sub-evergreen. Massachusetts tu 

Missouri in swamps. Udght in America 3 ft. to 10 ft. ; 6 ft. to SO ft ii 
^land. Introduced in 1688. Flowers white, S in. to 3 in. broad, v 


T Af. glauca 2 temjiervircru Hort. — Sub^vergrcen, and with smaller 
leaves than those of the next variety. 

T Jf. glaiea 3 T%ompton\ana Tionip. M. glalica var. a m^jor Bol. Mag-t 
new edition, p. 36. The plate of this in the Arb. Brit,, first edition, 
vo). v.; and our _fig. 36. — It was noticed about 18S0, in a pot oT seed- 
lings, liy Mr. his nursery at Mile.end; andby bim kept 
distinct, and prupagiitetl under the above niune. 

., Google 



Other P'arielKi. M. glaica Gordonmnd and M. gtauca BiircieirAn» are 
Damea Found in nurserjnien's catalofcucs, o( varieties said lo Jiave double or 
semi-doublf flowers. M. g. Inngijiilia Pursh ja supposed to be an abori- 
ginal variety, and sub-evergreen ; but we think it prob^lj the same variety 
as M. g. Thompsonianii, whtch may have come up wild in America, as well 
B9 in Mr, Thompson's nursery. M-g- Cardnnii, M. Cfirdon J. Knight, is a 
variety imported from Belgium, wliere it wan found by Mr. Knight of 
the Exotic Nursery, in the nursery of M. Cardon, after whom he has 
named it. 

A low tree, nearly- evergreen in moist soils, with a slender stem, covered 
with s smooth whitish bark. The wood is white and spongy; the young 
shoots of a Hue green. Tlie leaves are smooth, of a bluish green on th^ 
upper surface, and whitish or gluiicoua and a little hiun' underneath. The 
flowers are produced in May or June, at the extremity of the List year's shoots. 
They have b>x concave white petfll^, and have an agreeable odour. The 
spike or ulrobile of fruits is nn inch or more in length, conical, an inch in 
diameter in the widest part, and of u reddish brown colour when ripe. When 
the plant is in a soil supplied with moisture during the summer, it continues 
CO produce flowers till the euCunm, and retains part of its leaves all the winter : 
in dry situations the leaves droji off. Seeds are frequently ripened in Eng- 
land 1 they are of a bright scarlet, and they hang down by slender white 
threads, as in all the other American s[)ecies. The young shoots are from 1 t'l. 
to IB in. in length, and the plant, in ordinary circumstances, will attain the 
height of 12 ft. in ten yenrs. Plants are generally raised from seeds inportt-d 
from America, which should be sown in pots of bog carih about the begin- 
ning of March, and placed in gentle heat under glass. In a year Ihey will be 
Bt to transplant into small pols ; and everv year they should be shifted into 
others of a larger size, till wanted for final planting out. M.glafica Thomp- 
sooidna, anil (he other varieties, are propagated by layers, which require t»u 
years lo root projrerly. 

„ Google 


"S 3. Macno^l/j TRll'ft'TiLA L. The three-petaleil MagnoliB. 

[HnUOLMHrn. Lin. Sp . !. p.TM.: Hichl.. 1. p. 90. 

SK»<inK-'l M. umbrilli /:«■., JVi>«>.i>wt..£MT.Frvf,I>«'f MtU-.Txr. » Orf, H. frcmdKu 
Sabii.; Ih* Unbrrlla Tm ; UnlmUa HagnnJk i Elkimail i MicivdIIe FuiuI. ind Arbn 

JhTiniflsii. 'l*!!!! ip«l« liiallnl Iha Umknilli Tm. ■CTardlrg' lo Mlchmi, lircaiiH iU lM>«. 
which Hre thkn. oval. niUn, And mcumlnAle mt bi4b 'itrcmlUei, IM Ln. or » In. lon^, and ? In. or 
ft In. brand, im ortvn dltpoHd Ln rari a1 ttio FilrainlEy of tlKuroui iliooti ; and 1h«« dJiplftf ft 

of thi-clV. Thp VrfDcb namis iditfIj ilgnll^ umbrellft Lm. and Ihe Cennu] onis Vat (br«- 
£™B™r.»((. Mtchi! Arb.rS. t. S. i UkU. Bot. Cftb.. t. 418. ; lh» plAle nrihlitpsdn In Art. Bill. 

Spec. Chttr.. ■J-r. Deciduous. Leuves lanccoliitc, Kpreading, adult nnes smooth, 
younger ones pubescent underneath. Petals 9 — 18, exterior ones pendent. 
{Don't Mill., I. p. 83.) A deciduoui tree of the middle lize. Pennsyl- 
vania to Georgia, in moist soil. Hright 30fl. to 40il. in America ; 15 ft. 
to 30 tt. In England. Introduced in 1T5£. Flower* white, 7 in. lo & in. 
in diameter, with an unpleasant odour; May to July. Strobiles rose- 
coloured, 4 in. to 5 in. long ; ripe in October, Decaying leaves dark brown 
or block. Naked young wood of a fine maliogany brown. 


smooth, and polished ; and, if cut while green, it exbali-'S a disrigreeahle 
odour. In Britain the tree senda up various ehoota from the root, to replace 
the stems, which are seldom of long durution ; so that a plant that has alood 
thirty or forty ycBrs in one spot huahad its bI em a several times renewed during 
that period. The leaves are 18 or 80 inches lone, and 7 or 8 inches broad. 
The flowers are 7 or 8 inches in din meter, with Inrge white flaccid petals; they are 
borne on the extremities of the last year's stiootn, have a languid luxurious 
appeanuicc, and a sweet but heavy odour. The fruit, which is conicnl, '" our 



G inclies long, nnd nliout i in. in diBraeter; it ii of u be^iutiful rose colour, and 
ci>n:ain» usually froui SOio 60 seeds. ThU species is very hardy, anil caa 
withstand the moat rigoroua winters, when the summer bos heen EuSiciently 
liot to ripen the wood thoroughly. As it is a short-lived tree, and conse- 

Suently flowers early, there is not the same objectian to raising plants of it 
'urn seed, as there is to raising plants in that manner of M. grandiflora, 
irhich is a lonsi-liveU spedea. The soil should be a deep, rich, sandy loam, and 
the situation sheltered und shaded. Exjiosure lo the sun is injurious ; and, 
trained i^inst a soutli wall, the plant suflerji extremely. A sheltered glade 
in a shrubbery or wood, where the tree is sufficiently distant from others not to 
be injured by their roots, is the most desirable site. In the nurseries it is 
uluiost always propf^aced by seeds, which should be sown immediately after 
they are gathered, as when they are left exposed they become rruicid and lose 
their vitid Qualities ; though, if enveloped in moist moss or earth, they may be 
preserved for several months, TTie plants should be kept in pots uDtil 
required for 6aal transplanting. 

t 4. M. macrophv'lla Mji. The long-leaved Magnolia. 
Uaili/ltaltm. Mkh. Bor. Amer,, I. p. M7. i U«. Prod., I. p. BO. ; Uob'i Mill., I. p. SI. ; T«. 
^wnyiivi.' LirBe-lciTnlUmbKllaTrH, J«irr.;lbini)>ltiiMlcbi<iliHH<lR.iUi«DallertfruiilH 
Entrml*i$. B«. Uii.,2l89.i'tl»pUW In ArU. Hill, l««Ui. lol.i, i •iidouiA-JS. 
Spec.ChaT.,Sfc, Deciduous. LL-:iveaveryliirge,oblong-obovate,somewhatpuadit- 
rifunn, cordate at the base, under Hiirfuce whitish, glaucou.i. Petals G — 9, 
ovate. [Don'i Mill.) A deciduous tree of the middle size. North Caro- 
lina and Ueor^ Height SOIt. to -10 ft. in America ; l^ft. to 30f[. in 
England, Introduced in IbOO. Flouers white, with a purple spot near 
the base of each petal; Sin. to 10 in. in diameter, frajji'iinti June and 
July. Strobile rose-coloured i ripe id October. Decaying leaves yellow, 
brown, or black. Naked young wood of a whitisli brown. 


111. MAONOL/^VS-K : MAGNO LM. 29 

"Die general appe&ruice of tliit tree greatlv rcEembles that of HsinK^I''' 
trip^tak. The terminal arrangeineiit of the leaves it the same, and it is 
remarkable that id Amerim the two trees are almost always found togetlicr. 
In point of size, it exceeils the M. trip^tala, both in its leaves and ^i-ntral 
height ; but it ia selilom found higher than 35 ft., which exceeds the iici{:ht 
of the other by a sixth part only. The body c^ the tree is covered with 
a smooth and ren' white bark, by which, in the winter, when stri|iped ot 
its leaves, it is rcsdily di!i(iii:;uished from M. tripetula. Al this season, 
' e distinguished by iCa buds, which are compressed, and covered v ' 

may bed 
soft ends 

veiT dowi 

I. The li 

inchea broad ; and in vigorous piantn, in England, they Kunetimes even exceed 
these dimensions. The; are borne on petioles short in comparison vith the 
siie of' the leaves, and are of an oblong oval shape, pointed at the extremity, 
and cordiform at the base ; their colour is light green above, and fcliiiuous 
beneath. The fruit is about 4 in. lone, nearly cylindrical, and of a vivid rose- 
colour when arrived at malurity. Young plants of this species grow very 
slowly till they are thoroughly ettnblished, which will retjtiire, in general, 
two years. The year's shoots may then be from 1 fl. to S fl. ; so that in ten 
years a plant may att^n the height of \2 or 13 feet. It may he coneidereil 
a short-lived tree, and, like all such, it comes into Sower when young. It has 
rarely, if ever, been propagated in this country by inarching or layers, and 
very sieldom from seeds ; and, hence, the plant is very sparingly distributed. 
Sou, propagatian, &c., as in M. trip£tala. Seeds are ripened in France, aod 
young plants imported from that country, or from North America. 

A L. The pointed-^rmint MB;;nnlin. 

DrTtwallBtt. Tbil ■Pjelo <• oiled Itaa Cueanibn' Tm, tn Amnim, frcnn lU fndl nHmblhii i 
Enrrawimgi. ULch. Aril., S. p. S3, t.l.; BaL Hmf., M17. i unit th* ^lU In ArthBllC., lU adit. 

<ol. 1. 1 ud our A. »0- 
Spec. Choreic Deciduons. LeavesavaI,acuminRte,undnsurfBce pubescent. 
Flowers 6^0-petaled. (^Doa'i Mill.) A deciduous tree of large siie. New 
York to Oeoigie. Height in America 60 ft. to 6011., with the trunk 
4. II. to 5 ft. in (tiam«ter at the base ; in Eneland 30 ft. to 50 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1736. Flowers yellowish within, glaucous without, slightly fra- 
grant; Bday to July. Strobile cylindrical, t^ownish ted. Sin. lone; ripe 
in October. Decaying leaves dark brown or black. Wood of a mahogany 

Z M.a.iCaadaW\Sam. — Leaves ovale oblong; acute. Flowers greenish. 

Figured in Savi's Bitt. Ilal., p. S84. 
Y M. a. 3 ntariiaa Lodd. — X«aves much larger than those of the original 

species. Introduced by Messrs. Loddiges, and cultivated in different 

Othar Farittiet. The Magndlia acuminata being frequently raised from 
seed, and (he seedlings varying much in the size of their leaves, and in the 

Cesence or abseDce of pubescence, both on the leave* and wood, it would 
easy to select seveml varieties apparently as distinct as those above 
mentioned, such as M. striata, latifulia, &c. In the Ooldworth Nursery, 
Woking, Surrey, are some which appear remarkably distinct. 
Trunk straight, branches numerous, shoots regularly distributed. The 
leaves are from 6 in. to Tin. long, and ftonj Sin. to 4 in. broad, upoi. old 
trees, but double that size upon young vigorous-growing plants. Michaux 
describes them as oval, entire, and very acuminate ; but, in the seedlings 
raised m British nurseriee, they are found oomethnes ovate, ncariy orbiculate. 

ET FirtricKTini miutanxicum. 

and cordate Bcuminate. The flowera are 1 or 5 indies in diameter, bluuh, 
and sometimes white, with a tint of yellow. They have but a feeble odour, 
and the petslg are never fully expanded, though, as they are large and 
numerous, they have a fine effect in the midst of the eiiperb foliage. 
Plants raised from Beeds do not usually produce flowera till ihey are 
eight or ten years old, when the tree will probably be from 15 ft. to 80 ft, 
in height; but plants raised from layers produce flowers in two or three 
years. The Iruit is about 3 in. long, and nearly 1 in. in diameter. It is 
nearly cylindrical, and ot^en a little larger at the summit than at the base : it 
is convex on one iide, and concave on the other; and, when green, it nearly 
resembles a young cucumber: it becomes rose-coloured when ripe; and, as 
in the case of the other species, the seeds, before they drop, remain sus- 
pended for some time by long white threads. The wood of this tree is of a 
tine grain, and of an orange colour. A free, deep, and rather moist soil answem 
best lor this species ; but, as it is much hardier than an}' of the others in this 
section, it will grow in almost any sod that is moderately free, and not over- 
charged with moisture. It is generally propagnted in the London nurseries 
layers, the planU so produced flowering much sooner than seedlings ; but 
: latter, as they make far more durable plants. ^Iioidd always be preferred 
when this snecics is used as a stock to graft or inarch others m. It is bo used 
very generally, not only for M. auriculata and corduta, but for M. conapiciia 
and Ijouliingeana. The plants are, in some nurseries, grown in the free soil ; 
but it in always preferable to rear them in pota ; because, in that ease, 
they are not checked by transplanting, and at least a year is gained in their 

T 6. M. (*.) coedaV* Mi, The heart-Zfowrf Magnolia. 
/dnUtfoibn. Mkta. Bor. Arnfr., I. p. gjB. ; Dec. Prod., I. p. M. ; Don'i MUU. 1. p. It. i Tor. 
^fucnrmn'. Tlie tiHTt.lnTtil Cuciunbn Tns, A-air. i Migaaliar 1 FaulllH n Cotur, fr. ; ben- 


111. MAGKOLIJ^CE^ : MAGNoYf-if. 31 

Imcrairii^t. Bat Mi*.. I. SH. i B<K. Calk, (It. : Ike plati In Arb. Brtl., lit edJL mL t, : ud our 


^tec. Char,, jr. Deciiluous. Leaves broadly ovate, subcordate, acute, 
under surRice tomentoNe, upper surface sinootli. Petals 6 — 9, oblong, 
(^DoiCi Mill.) A deciduous tree of the middle size. Carolina to Georgia, 
on mountains. Height 20 ft, to 40 ft. and 50 ft. in America, and 20 ft. to 
soft, in England. Introduced in ISOO. Flowers yellow slightly streaked 
with red, with a disagreeable odour, sddom expanding fully ; June and 
July. Strobile like that of M. acuminata, but smaller ; ripe in October- 
Decaying leaves dark brown or black. Naked young wood hoary brown. 

This tree, in lU native country, has a trunk 12 or 15 inches in diameter, 
■traicht, and covered with a rough and dee;ily furrowed bark. Its leaves 
are from 4 in, to e in. in length, and from 3 in. to S in. wide, smooth and 
entire. The flowers are from Sin. to 4in. in diameter.and are succeeded by 
fruit about 3 in. long, and nearly I in. in thickness, of a similar rorm to those 
of the preceding species. The soil, situation, propagation, &c., may be con- 
aidered the same as for M. acuminata ; but, aa M. (a.) cordilta seems, in its 
native country, (o inhabit higher and drier localities than M. acuminata, it 
ina^ probably be placed in still more exposed situations than that species in 

S 7. M. auricula'ta Lam. The auric led-ileaeri Magnolia. 

Idtmlifailiim. Willd. Sp^a. p. liSH. ; D«. Prod, 1. p. BO. j D™'«MLll., I.j. SS. 

Cucumber Trot, Amtr. ; HunoHei aurltu'lfr. Fr. ; sefiliiUir Istnd) BlatwrtHuin'. Gfr. 
Ent'Ofhitl. DM. Mag, IKKi.i HirplaMlnArb. Brl[., IBedlLiol. T.! and our J^. 11. 

Spec. Char., i/c. Deciduous. Leaves smooth, under surface somewhat 
glaucous, spathulatcly obovnte, cordate at the base, with blunt approximate 
auricles. Sepals 3, spreading. Petals 9, oblong, attenuate at tlie base. 
(Z>or'i Mill.) A smooth deciduous tree of the middle size. Carolina to 
Florida, and on the Alleghany Mountains. Height 30 ft. to 40 ft. in America, 
and 20 ft. to 30 ft. in England. Introduced in IT86. Plowers white; April 
and May. Strobile oval oblong, rose-coloured; ripe in October. Decaying 
leaves of a rich yellowish brown. Naked young wood smooth, and of a 
purplish mahogany colour, with small white dotii. 


M. a. t pyramid&ta. M. pyramid&ta Barlr.; H. Friscri pyramid: 
yuttt Tar. •}' Gray. The plate in Arb. Brit. Ist edit. to!, v. ; a 



our^. 41. — Leaves shorter than llioscnf the species, and theplati. 
sitogether veuker. It is found in the western parts of Carolina and 
Ueorgia. but only in tno or three localities. Propagated by in- 
arching on M. auriculilta, but it requires two years to adhere, and 
seldom makes a vigorous plant. 
This tree has a straight trunk 13or 13 inches in diameter, oflen without 
branches for half its height; the branches spread widely, and ramify but 
aparinglyi and this circumstance, Michaux observes, gives the tree a Ter}' 
peculiar air, so that it may readily be known at a distance, even in winter. 

The leaves are of a light green colour, of a fine texture, 8 or 18 inches long, 
and from i in. to 6 in. broad : on youni; and vigorous trees they are often one 
third, or even one half, larger. The flowers are 3 or 4 inches in diameter, of 
a milky white, and of an agreeable odour, and are situated at the extremity of 
the yodng shoots. The fruit is oval, 3 or 4 inches long, and, like thai of 


r Kpecies by a little inreriority of aiie, and by n Bmall nppendage 
which terminates the carpels. Each carpel contains one or two seeds. The 
wood is soft, spongy, very light, anil unfit for use. The bark is gray, and 
•Iwaj-* smooth, even on the oldest trees. When the epidermis is removed, 
the cellular [ntepiment, by t^ntact with the air, inatanlly changes firom white 
to ydlow. In England, annual shonts of young plants are from I ft. to 2 ft. or 
morein length ; and the height which the tree usually alcolDS in 10 tears ia 
from 10 tt. to 15 ft. The sciil for this species ought to be free and deep; 
and the xituation low, sheltered, and moist, rather than dry. As seeds are 
not very easily procured, the common mode of propa^tion is by layers, or 
by inarching on M. acuminata. Two years are rtquued before' the plants 
can be separated Irom the parent stock. 

GwiUimia Bott. in Dee. Si/xt. 


Sect. Char. Asiatic species, generally with two opposite spathe-like bractcaa 
enclosing the flower-bud. Anthers bursting inwards. Ovaries somewhat 
dblant. (Don'i 'MiU.') Trees or shrubs ; natives of Asia. 

* SaHtb. The Titian, or conspicuous^^ouvrf^ Magnolia. 

H tin Lllr-Bavarod Uitnollii 

Spec. Otar., Sfc, Deciduous. Leaves obovate, abruptly acuminated ; younger 
ones pubencent, expanding after the flowers. Flowers erect, 6 — 9-pctaleJ. 
Styles erect. (Don'i Mill) A deciduous tree of the middle size. China. 
Hei^t in China 40 ft. to 50 ft. i in England SO ft. to 30 ft. Introduced in 
1769. Flowers white, fragrant j February and April. Strobiles brownish ; 
ripe in September. Decayiiu leaves dark brown or black. Naked young 
wood aab^coloured or greyish brown. 
FarieSn, or Hybrid: 

1 M. c. 2 SouioTige^a. M. Soulangedrui An. 

Hort. Soc. Pur.; Magnolier de Soulanet;, 

Fr. (M. Soulangea'na Swt. Brit. Fl.- 

Gard., t. 360. ; and our Jig. 43.) — The j 

leaves, wood, and general habit of this i 

tree bear a close resemblance to those of 

M. conspicua. The flowers resemble in 

form those or M. purpitroi var. gracilis 

or of H. purpurea, and the petals are 

slightly tinged with purple, tt was raised 

at Fromont, near Paris, from the seeds 

of a plant of M. conspicua, which stood 

near one of M. purpilrea, in front of the 

chateau of M. Sonlange-Bodin ; the "• MMtna. -^- a. j .p ,—, 

flowers of the former of which had been accidentally fecundated by 

the pollen of the latter. 
OlheT Farieliei, i-r Hubridt, M. conspiciia has ripened seeds in variou* 
pUcea i and, as it rertifisea readilv with M. purpitrea and M. giicilii, many 
new varietie* may be expected when the attention of cultivatofa i* more 



espedall; directed to the sul:>iect. M. c S. ijieddm luid M. c, S. AUtan- 
dnaa are in British gardens, but they are not worth keeping dittinct from 
M. c. SoulBngeitfu. 


This IE a very showy tree, distinguishable from all the other magnoliBR 
of both sectioni, by its flower* expanding before any of tlie leares. The 
tree assumeii a re^lar conical shape, with a erey bark and numerous 
branches and twigs, which generally ba»e a verticJ, rather than a horizonial. 
direction. The young shoots are from I ft. to 18 in. in length, and the tree, 
in ten years, will attain the heisht of from 10 ft. to 15 ft., flowering the second 
or third year after grafting. It is nearly as hardy as ^e American species; 
flowering freely every year, as a standard, in the neighbourhood of London, 
when the wood has been properly ripened during the preceding summer. A 
rich sandy loam seems to suit this species best ; but it will grow in any deep 
free soil, properly drained, and moderately enriched. The situation, when it 
is to be treated as a standard, ought to be sufficiently open to admit of ripening 
the wood in autumn, and yet not so warm as to urge forward the flowcr.4)uds 
prematurely in spring, as they are very liable to be injured by frost i from 
which, however, they may be protected by a very slight covering (during nights 
and frosty days) of gauze or bunting, stretched over the tree horizontally, 
and snpportea bj' posts. A^amst a irall, the tree shows itself in its greatest 
beauty; and there it can easily be protected, bj| a prcgecting coping, fi^im the 
severest weather ever experienced in the neighbourhood of London. In 
warm situations, sloping to the south or south-east, the tree has a fine eSbct 
planted in front of a bank of evergreens ; and, indeed, wherever it is planted, 
evei^reens should be placed near it, and, if possible, so as to form a back- 
ground, on account of the flowers expanding before the tree is furnished with 
any leaves. The species and all the varieties are propagated by layers, or 
by inarching on M. purpOrea or on M. acuminata. When inarched on M. 
purpurea, the tree is comparatively dwarfed, by which it is rendered very con- 
venient for use as a shrub, or for growing in pots, and forcing ; but, when it is 
intended to form a should either be inarched on M. acumintkta, or raised 
Irom layers or seeds. It generally requires two years before the plants can 
be separated from the parent stock. Some plants of this spedes have been 
raised fivim seed ripened in Europe ; and we have no doubt that, when this 
magnificent tree becomes better known and more generally in demand, it 
will be raised in this way extensively in France and Italy, and iupptied to 
the British nunwries from these ruuntries. 


* 9. M. purpu'rba Siou. Tlie purpXe-Jtotixirii HtgnolJa. 

tlM Dbcnau-Wnl HaimoUi; HBgnollct illKoiarf&n'.'jar^.. un] Mi(W^>> blnlDri Am., fv. | 
Et^rtnalsl. StJ. Far.. L n. ; BoC U^^ t. Z9D i ud ourj^. U, 

Spec. Ciar.,^c. Deciduous. Leuvesobovate, acute, reticulately veined; alrooM 
mnooth. Flowers erect, of 3 Kpals and 6 obot ate petals ; styles very sliort. 

i Don't Mm.) A deciduous aitrub, with iHrj^e dark green foliage. Japan, 
[eight 3 ft. to 5 ft. Introduced in ITHO. Flo weri purple outside, white 
within; HsTch to May. Strobile brownish ; ripe in September. Decaying 
leaves black. Naked 3'oung wood greenish brown. 

a M.p.2 gridSt. M. Ki'Jiai Dec. and G. Don t M. tomeniAsa Tiun. in 
Lm. Trant. Kanipf. Icon., t.43. ; Par. Lon., t. ST. —The two main 
points of difference between it and M. purpurea are. the paler green, 
and somewhat narrower shape, of the leaves ; and the longer and 
more sieader form of the flower, the points of (he petals of which 
are slightly turned bock ; while the flower of M. purpurea is more 
cup-shnped, and the petals at the points are rather turned inwards. 
The petals of IiL grtoilis are on the eiterior entirely of a dark purple, 
whereas those of M. purpurea melt oS" into white at their upper 
extremibes. A number of plants ofthii variety, which stood in the 
HamnKmmith Nursery as tM>rder shrubs, and flowered freely erery 
year, were killed down to the ground in the winter of IB3T-8. 
Other rarieliet. In DeCandolle's Prodromui, and in Don's MU/er, three 
varieties are described : jV. p. dentidata Lam., di^^tmguiahed by the flower- 
ing branchea being without leaves i M. p. discolor Vent., which is said to be 
rather more tender than the species; and M.p. ]iii/lora Lam., the petals of 
whicb are white on both sided. Theaie varirties were originally described 
by Ksempfer ; but, as far ta we know, none ot them are in British sardens. 
Several plants of this species having been raised from seed ripened in this 
countryi the plants may exhibit slight shades of diflerence, as has been the 
case with certain seedhnga raised in the Brentford Nursery; but, as far as 
we have observed, none of these are worth keeping distinct The only 
variety which we consider truly distinct is M p. gracUU, considered as a 
^iMiea by Salisbury and other Dotanists, but 
which, we are ctmvinced, is nothing more than 
a race, or a variety. At Desio, a variety has 
been raised which grows only IJft. high, and 
which Signor Cassoretti, the garden director 
there, calls M, obovdla puniia, 
A deciduous shrub, attaining, in the gardens 
^XHit London, the hdght of litmi 4 ft. to 8 ft. in 
■a many years, and seldom growing much higher 
an a biufa. The items are numerous, but not 
much branched; tbe leaves are large, of a very 
dark green ; and the plant produces a pmfuuon 
of flowers, which do not expand fiilly till a day 
or two before they drop ofl'; and which, unless 
the weather is warm, do not expand at all. but 
wither on the phmt, and disfigure k. The 
flowers are large, more or less purple (according 
to the season, but never wholly darii purple) 
without, and always white within. The bark, 

when bruised, has an aromatic odour. A very "^ i(.r»u.^.H— . 

ornamental species, which no garden ought to be without. This species is 
generally considered as requiring a mixture of heath soil, or sandv peat, with 
loam i but in many gardens about Londoo it succeeds perfectlv both in sand 
D S 



Bn<l c\ay ; the iHtter boII being rendered free by aand, leaf mould, or msnure, 
and dminage. The Bituation, when the plant is treated hk Bbuiih. ought to be 
open, in order that the wouil may be ripened ; and the plant should be 
detached, in order thni it Ttiay be covered witJi foliasie and blo'isoms on every 
■iile. North of London, in most situationn, it requires a wall, and few |i'Biitl 
are more deserving of one. Agtunat a wall, it will reach the height of 15 ft. 
or SUft. In the London nurseries, it in generally propiigated by layers ; but 
it will alao strike by cuttings, both of ihe ripen^ and the herbaceous wood. 
The slools are generally formed in pits ; or, if in the open ground, they 
are covered with mats during winter. Seeds have been ripened both in Eng- 
land and France ; end from these plants have been raised in »onie few nur- 
series. The plants, whether raised from layers, cuttings, or seed^ should 
always be kept in pots till wanted for final planting. This species often 
iferves •^* a stock for graAing the other kinds on, which belong to this section. 

Genus II. 

LlRlODE'NDltON L. The Tuut- Tree. 
(ifv. Char. Carpelt I — 3-9et'dcd, disposed in spikeB, indehiscent, dedduous, 
drawn out into a wing at the iipex. Calyx of 3 deciduous sepals. Comlla 
of 6 petals, conniving into a bell-shaped flower. (/Jun'j ATi//., i. p. 86.) 
— There Is only one species ; a deciduous tree of the Urst rank, native 
of North America. 

Leavet simjile, alternate, stipulate, deciduous; 3-lolied, the terminal lobe 
eraarginately truncate, the lateral ones with two siiiufes. Slipaiei flat. 
Flowert teniiiniil, solitary, greenish yellow, orange within. — The only spe- 
cies in Britbh gardens is the Liriodlndron Tulipifera. 

h. Pop'i'K.WIi'llr WW, rinMWoo^, Ibii'Tullp T™, .I-kt. ; VlrgliH.n P 
' "- Tm, !>Kld]( Tm, fin; . i Tullplvt da Vliginie, Fr. . Vi^nli&r Tot 

Tulip Tne, (ton lUtulip-llktllowfni ud Saadia Tm. rrom [he romi of lu Ihhi. Tin Fnndi 
■mdG«iiiuiiIiinnuel[t«*llriulilUliln>oftb'^iii>rdi Vlrglniu tulip tree. 

Spec. Cliar., ifc. Leaves smooth, truncate at the top ; 4-lobed, resembling a 
saddle in shaye. Flowers large, solitary, terminal ; vari^ated with green, 
yellow, and orange colour; furnished with two decidaous bracteas under 
flowers. (JJon'f Mill.') A smootli deciduous tree of large siie. Canada 
to Florida. Height 70ft. to 1-K)ft.,and trunk 8ft. to 9ft. in diameter, 
in America ; 50 ft. to 90 ft. in England. Introduced in 1686. Flowers 
greenish yellow without, orange within ; June and July. Strobile brown ; 
ripe in October. Decaying leaves rich yellow and brown. Naked young 
wood smooth, and of a mahc^any brown, 

1 L. T. S obtutUoba Michx , intcgrifolia HoH., Yellow Wood, or Yellow 
Poplar, has the leaves with blunter lobes than the species, but is in 
no other respect different from it. 
Other Farietia. L. T. acuHJolia Michx. has never, we believe, been intro- 
duced. L. T. fiaea Hort, has yellow flowers. As the tulip tree is almost 
always raised from weds, it is probable that the flowers of seedlings will 

111. MAUMOL/^VfiE : liriode'ndhon. 

in their tliiHies c4 colour, and any ikainlile wiation majr be 
d b; propagBting the plunt pouessing il b} la>ert or inarchiiig. 

In the Uevelopement of its leavei, the tulip tree diflera from mott other 
trees. The lenf-buds, in general, are com|>oaed of scale* closely imbficated, 
which, in the spring, are disLended by the growth ofthe minute bundle of leaves 
that they encloHc, till they finally fd\ off. The flowers, which are large, bril- 
liant, and on detached trees very- numerous, are variegnted with different 
colours, amoiii; which )etlo« predoinindtcs ; tliev have an aj-rpeable odour, und, 
surrounded by the luxuriant rollagc, they [iroduce a liiie effect The rniic i« 
composed of u great number of thin narrow scales, aiioclied lo a common axis, 
and forming a conical spike 2 or 3 inches in length. Kach fruit cunlains M or 
70 caqiels; of which never more than a tliird, and, in ujme seaiuns, not jnore 
than seven or ei);ht in the whole number, ere matured. It is also olmenird, 
that, during ten years uflcr it b^ns to yield friiit, alniosi ull the seeds are un- 
productive , uiiJ that, on large trees, the seeds from the hifihest branches iirc 
the best. The heart, or perl'ect, wood of the tulip tree is\'e|low, approaihing 
to a lemon colour ; and its sap, or alburnum, is white. The annual shoots of 
joune plants, in the ncichbourhood of London, are from 16in. to 2ft. in 
lengtb ; and the tree will, in favourable circumstances, attain the height of 
from 15 a, to SO ft. in ten years ; seldom, however, flowering IJIl it is upward* 
of twenty years old. The height, in England, freifuently exceeds 70 II. ; and 
it has ripened seeds here, occasionally, from wliich youne [liants have been 
raised. It ripens its fruit very generally in France ; tlniugli i( is observed, in 
the NotuKua Dtt Uamd, that these seeds do not v^etate so freelj as those 
which are imported from America. Dee[), Juainy, gtiod soil best suits the 
tulip tree j and (he siiuution most I'avountble is one which, while it is sheltered 
from high winds, is, at ihe same time, sufficiently ex|Kised to the light and air 
to admit of the maturation of its leaves on every side, and the perfect ripening 
of its wood, witliouE which it can neither resist the severe Irosts of winter, 
nor form blotsom buds. The species is seldom, it' ever, propagated otherwise 
than by seeds, whicli come up best in heath soil, very fine mould, or ssndy 
loam, in a shady situation, kept miher moist ; but the vsrieties are multiplied 
by layers or inurching. Wtien the seeds are sown in autumn, ihey generally 
come up the following spring ; but, sown in spring or the bctiinnin); of summer, 
they generally remain a year in the ground. The tuiip tree, like the maunolias, 
having roots furnished with but few fibres, does not transplant reaaily ; and, 
tberejore, the pUnts ought either to be kept in pots, or, if in the free ground, 
transplanted in the nursery every year; or, if neither of these modes be prac- 
ticable, removed to their final situation, when not more than two, or at most 
three, years old. The tree is, like the magnolias, not very patient of the knife, 
cither in a young or in an old state; and, from the tntter quulitiea of thn 


ImrM, i( doe( not wem to be much aCtiicked by iniects. Ah tulip trees ndaed 
from >eed seldom flower before they are twentj' or thirty yean old, it u much 
to be wiiihed, that nuncrynicn would propeigiite them by grafting or inarching 
from flowering trees, in consequence of which the plants would probablv 
flower the second or third year. 


OSD. Char. The distinctive characteristics of this order from that of Mutno- 
V^eetc are : Anihert witli an enlarged four-cornered conncctiviim, which is 
sometimes nectariferoiiB ; a/bumen pierced by the substance of the seed-coat ; 
katrs without stipules, conduplicnte in the bud ; jtroprtiiet aromatic. 
— Trees or shrubi mostly natiTes of warm chmates 

Leanei simple, alternate, exstipulatc, deciduous ; diitmctly articulated with 
the Item, entire; leaves and branches pubescent when younft, the leares 
commonly minutely punctate, with pellucid dots. Ftotnert Bxiilary.-- The 
hardy species, in BKtish gardens, are included in the genus AAmata Aduns, 
fonueriy Aaona L., and are natives of North America. 


ASFMINA Adans. Tre Asiwina. Lin, Sytl. PolyAndria Poiyg^nia. 

tlfmoiwmt9, Avitinalj-i OrefaBafArpqm 3#j.t Twft\lMtp.Pm.\ Uviiu Tor. 4 Gnir t C 
Appla; AilmlDlir, And AnoDa, Pr.\ FlwhHbainii, <ier- 

n_,..,j— 1 j-i — I. . -liniicd lyom I wDrd of C»n«dl«n Drljln, Ihs 1 '— -' ->-<-'■ 

— *» Li prolHblfl, intendnd to expr^- - ">'— - 

Gen. Chnr, Cali/x 3-parted. Felaii 6, sprcnding, ovate-oblong, inno* ores 
smallest. AniAert numerous, nearly sessile. Ovarirt many, but for the 
roost part only 3, ovate or obloi^. Carprlt tliesaine iiuml>er us the ovaries, 
baccate, seijsilc. Seedt many, disposed in a single or double row. (Don't 
Mill.) — Low trees or shrubs, deciduous, with white or purplish flowers, 
and fruit about the size of small plums. Rather tender, and difficult of 
culture. Only one species is truly hardy in the climate of London. 
■ I. A. thi'lobii DiiR. The three-lobed-rsi'^jwrf Anmina. 

Ment1HeaHBm. Don. Hono^, ; Dw:. Prod.. l.p.ST, ; Don'l Mllf,, I- p-9L 

nam afr.'Bor. Am. 1 Urliil 'tr)1ab> nr. 9 Crrn : Ihe Pupa'. Amrr.'\ Ailral^«rd<Vllctlil^ 
£iifnWa(l. mn. iKro.. l.'l. U| Tor. inlflrv, I'F' U.; Ml. Arb.. 1, I-'b. i tuiim)lt.*T. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves olilong-cuneated, acuminated, and. as well as the 
branches, smoothish. Flowers on short peduncles ; outer petals roundish- 
ovate, four times longer than the calyx. (Don't Milt.) A low deciduous 
tree. Middle, southern, and western states of North America. Hrigfat 
15 ft. to SO (t. in North America; T ft. to lOft. in EngUnd. Introduced 
in 1736. Flowers dark purple and yellow. Fruit yellowish, esculent ; 
ripe in August in America, rarely seen in England. Decaying leaves rich 
yellowish brown. Nuked young wood duric brown. 

A small tree, densely clothed with long leaves, \y\j\g over one another in 
such a manner as to ^ve a peculiarly imbricated ap]>c«rance to the entire 
pinnt. The flowers are camjtanulHte and drooping, and appear lieiore the 

IV. ANONA'CEjP.. v. MENiSI'ERMA'cE*;. 39 

lenei; the outer petals ve purjile, und vazy in colour in diffcrrent ptaati; in 
Konw being yerj dark, nnd in othen light, inclining to yellow. All parta of 
(he tree have a rank, if not b fetid, smell ; 
i>nd the fruit is relished by few persona ex- 
cept the negroes, vlio call it papaw. The 
fruit HpenH in America in (he bt^inning of 
August, and is about 3 in. long and I ) in. ' 
X\t\ck, oval, irr^ular. and swclHng into in-^ 
equalities. ]n British gardens, the plant is 
alwBj-g raised from American seeds ; and, to 
thrive, it requires to be planted in sandy peat 
nr deep aand, and kept moist. In England 
it may be considired at a curious, rlow-grow- 
ing, deciduous shriib, or low tree, well de- 
serving a place in gardens, but which ought 
always to be isolated, and at some distance 
from rapid-growing plants. Relatively to 

growth. It may be ^ced near Dfrcapaliislris, ,;. .i»»(,.«i»t 

some of the daphnes, or lUicium. 

Otier Spedet of Asimina. — A. oamfiora ond A. grimdifldra are North 
American ahrubs, seldom growing higher in their native habitats thao I ft. to 
S ft., and rstfaer too tender tor the cHmate of London. 


Ord. ChAK. Floaxri unisexual. Sepalt and pclalt similar. Slanimt inuno- 
ilclpbot)", or rarely free. Ooariei somewha connected at the base i with 
one or many it^et ; manv-celled. Frml. in most, baccate or drupaceous, 
onc-aeeded or many-needed, oblique or lunulate, compressed, with (be tentt 
at the same form. Eminyo ciirred or peripheric. Aliumen none, or very 
glaring and fleshy. (Don't JUi/l.) — Climbing or twining flexible ahrubs, 
native* of North America and Asia. 

Lcavet simple, alternate, exstipulale, deciduous ; stalked, usually cordate 

r peltate, palmately veined, and always with the middle nerve terminating 
point. Flowm in axillary racemes in most species, small. 
s in Briiisb gardens are included in the genera Menispjrmuin 

and OScculus, which are thus contradistinguished :- 
Mknisps'rmum /.. Sepals and petals quaternary. Male flowers with I 

SO stamens. 
Co'ccuLUS Bauti. Sepal* and petals temnry. Male flowers with 6 stamen 


Ge». CW- Sepalt and pclalt disposed in a quaternary order, in (wo or tliree 

terie*. MaU fioiom with 16 to 80 stamens i Jhrnile Jtouvri with 8 to 4 

ovmriea. Drnpe baccate, roundish-kidney-shnped, l-seeded. — Chmbing 

shrubs natives of North America and Dauria. 

D 4 



aKiltury, or sii|irn-Bxil1ary. 

Flourcri iitibU, preeniiih white. — The species are all of the eiwieat cuiiure m 

coiuinon soil, and are pmiHigatcd by dividing tbe root, or by cuttingi. 

Jt 1. M. canade'nse. The Canadiun Moonseed. 

linlljlcitliim. Llo. 8p. 1 D«. Prod., I.p.l0».i Don'i Mill., 1. p. lH.i Tor. tod Giv- 1. p. «. 
Sj/iwurmri. M. CHniidi^iiie viir.a Lddtdrct; U. an^liUIID JVoncA ; Hf nUpmne dii CiAhU. An. 

Jari. i CMiMliKher Mundt-™^ Cn-. , .. , 

£>Wrin/iw>. Schkuhi. H., S. I. WJ. i Lun. Wcl., U BM. i mhI mir/r, 4S. 

Spec. Char., Sfc. Leuves peltate, smoolhish, somewhat cordtite, roundisb- 
nngular ; angles bluntish, terminal one abruptly awned, mucronate, Ra- 
ceitiea solicary, compound. Petuls 8. (liim'i Mill.) A 
k decidunuH, suflhiiirose, long, slender twiner. Canada to 
Carolina. Height S{t. to liit Introduced in ITI3. 
Flovers small, greenish yellow ; June and July. Berry 
black ; ripe in Sepl«niber. Di^caying leaves greeni»n 

J M. c. 2 loMlu«< Dec. M, I'^Cffj" 
vireiniciim L. (Dill. ' ' 
Elth.,t.l78.fig.»:l9.) ■ 
— This variety is dis- 
lingiii^hed hy the angles of the leaves being 
acutiNh,and the flowers ofa greenish whire. 
-1 .If c, 3 iJidlacmum. M. miilftcinum Dei 
(Jac. Icon., t. 869.; and our J^. *9 ) - 
Leaves smoother, artd raceinea more siiii|il 
than in the species. 
Roots thick and woody, with numerous very slender shoots, •fhich, though 
BOmewhat li|ineoua, never attain any considerahle diamete.-, and arc not of 
inanr years' duration. The stem twines iu a direction contrary to the sun's 
apparent motion, and is smooth and even, 
having more the H(ipearance of a herbaceous 
plant, than of n fihrub, 

J 2 Memspb'kiium dau'ricum Dee. 

The Daiirian Moonseed. 

IdmificaUmi. Dk. Prod., I. p. (Os.;Doii'> Mill,, r. p.m. 

Swnmtia. Tniophui Ampallilgrli /Vb *. ; M.Mnndfnia 

Entrath,g,. Del™, Iran.. 1. 1. IM.; inrt our flj. .w. 

Spec, Char., Sic. Leaves peltate, smooth, cor- 
date, angulnr ; angk's acute, terminal one 

acuminated hardly miicrjUBte. Racemes in ■ 

pairs, capitulate. (Don't Mill.) A twining, L 

deciduous, suffriiticose shrub. Dauria, on ™ 

rocky hills, near the river Chilca. Height 
5I>. tolOft. Introduced in I8t8. Flowers 
yellowish ; June and July. Berries black ; a ^ 
ripe in September. '"• M">iip»'>™n iinrtrt«>. 

Resembles the preceding species, and probably only a variety of it 

Genis II. 

Lin. Sytt. Diie'cla llexftndriM. 



armm^wKt, MmUptmoni t. i WnvUinilia Wllkl.i Anirfiphllu Wntdl. 

DfriiMiom. Fmn caeemM, tht ljr»t«Aulk nuBv dT cvchlnMj ^ which li ^pUad to tbLi |eDai na 
■cccwBl Df tbt gremter number of tlic «p«clf4 bHring tarJn berrtcoL 

Gen. CAnr. Sepaii and pHa/i disposed in a ternary order, id 8, very rBrely in 
3, iieriea. Maiefiomert with 6 Iree atameiiB opponite the petals ; female ones 
with 3 or 6 carpels. Dnipa buccatc. 1 to B, usually otjlii|ueI}' renifonn, 
somewhat flattened, l-seeded. Coiyledoiu distant. {Dan'i Mill.) 

Jjravei sim|)te, alternate, exstipulate, dcciduo is ; cordate or ovate, entira 
or lobed. Flowm smuU. — ITte only hanly S|>ccieB ie C. caroUnus, a nuive 
of Carolina, of the same culture ss Menit>pennuin. 

J. I. Co'ccvLUS caboli'nus iXv. file Carolina Coccului 


EfmK^. Dll. Elth., M. t. ITS. f. SIS i Wnull. 
Obi., a, 1. IS. 1 tai Oil! flt- b\. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves cordate or ovate, 
entire, obtuse, and somewhat 3-lubed ; 
under surface velvety pubescent. Male 
racemes floriferous froin the base, female 
ones 3-flowered. (Don't MUl.) A twin- 
in«, deciduous, suffhiticose shrub. North 
Carolina and Geor^^i. Iltight 6 ft. to 
10ft. Introduced in 1759 Flo«er™ 
small, greenish i June and JuTy. Fruit 
red ; ripe in September. Decaying 
leaves yellowish or brownish. 
Leaves extremely variable in form, Sin. 

to 4 in. long, often quite entire, but 

uwally with several siDUBled, obtuse lobes. 

Drupe red, as large as a HniHtl pea. 


Ono. Chak. Sepali ususUy 6, in two whorls, deciduous, and furnished with 
petal-like scules on the outside. The pelali arc equal in number with the 
sepals, and the itaTiiewi eqmil in numlier with the petals, and oppobite to 
them. The anihert " open by reflexed values ; [hat is to say, the face of 
each cell of the anther peels off except at the point, where it adheres as If 
it were hinged there ;" aslruclure so remarkable, Dr. Lindley observes, as to 
be " found in no European plants except Berbfranra and the laurel tribe." 
(Penny Cyc, vol, iv. p. 859.) — Bushy shrubs, which throw up numerous 
suckers \ natives of the temperate climates of Europe, Asia, and Kofth 

Leavrt simple or compound, alternate, generallj exstipulnte, deciduous 
or permstent; shoots generally ftimiahed with prickles; the nap, and the 
colour of the leaves and bsrfc, more or less yellow. F/owen generally 
yellow, — The genera containing species hardy m British gardens are two, 
Berierit and Mahonia, which are thus contradistinguished: — 

n the inside of each. Stamens tooth- 

., Google 



BB'RBERIS L. TtiK BeHRKitnr. Un. Syil. Hexindria Monog/Dii 

Jdnttlftuitiim. Lin. Gm.. Ml,| Dec. Prad., 1. p. 106 ; Don'! MIIJ.. I. p, I] 
SnontpiKa. Plpoerldge Puth ^ E'pllie TlncQe, Ft- ; B«Tb«rltH. 0^. 
DfTiv<ilitm. Berbervt ll Ibe ArAblc word utai for tbia pluit br A— "^~' 

fcilnd fKiB tha Pkonlclnin 

, , ^ „-J, from their i 

, wort BerbirFti ■mmiiUoo of mmfrtrrii, Itaa lum* MTni u It 

pluu bv Atlcnuu. DuHuHlufilhuAirtniitadarlitdftmiii IndlB Turd iltnl^H BHtKr 
oTprwI. PIppcridEB huih, n plpnin ln>, Gmrd •«>, li Dr. Tunm-'i bbu fur Ifai Miiiit. and 
IlliBUIilnntaltlDC^iBlirP — ■■■— "'-J— ---^ -i— '■— -i " ■ -i. — • — 

Gen. Char. Sepaii 6, guarded on the outaidf by 3 scales. Fetaft 6, with 8 
glanda on the inside of each. Slameai toothles*. Berritt t — 3^«eeded. 
Sefdi 8, rarely 3, laterally inserted at the ba»e of tbe berries, erect, oblouf^ 
with a cnistaceous coat and fleshv albumen. Colyledoiu 'ea^, elliptical. 
Jtadide long, capitdlate at the tip. (Don'i MUl.) B. heterophjUa Juu, has 
toothed stamens, 

Leacet aimple, alternate, exstipulate, deciduous or evergreen ; toothed 
or serrated, coriaceous, with numerous small leaves produced at the aiiJs 
of the larger ones, often abortive in the form of prickles. Ftomm j'ellow. 
FmU red, in some kinds black, purple or while in otherg. — Shrubs natives 
of Europe, North America, and Asia ; characterised in a general view by 
being crowded with suckers, and having axillary tufts of leaves and spines. 
eds which most of them ripen 
t suckers, which almost all of 
them throw up in abundaDce. 

A. J^eatKi Ihin, deaduoui. Flaweri toiiloTy, 
M 1. B. sibi'rica Pali. The Siberian Berberry. 
Iilrmltfltialai. Fdl. Fl. Hmi,. t. p. 41. ; Dec. Pnid., I. p. vm. i Don'! Mill., I p. ItT. : P<n. Cfc, 

Spec. Char., ^c. Spines 
3 — T-parted. Leaves 
lanceolate-obovate, ci- 
liately serrated. Pe- 
duncles l-flowerH, 
shorterthan theleaves. 
{lion't IKilUr.) An 
erect deciduous shruK 
Siberia, on hills Bnd 
the lower 

Height 8 ft. to 3fl. 
Introduced in 1790. 
Flowers yellow; May 
and June. Berry red ; 
ripe in Septemlier. 

B, Leaoei th'm, moitli/ decidvout. Floweri in Racemei. 
a 2. B. vulga'his /.. The common Berberrj-. 

Lin. Sp.,4n. 1 Dm. Prod.. I. p. 1».; Don-j MIU^. p.llS, 

ItnrrnrintM. Suf . Bot.. 

Inilt of Ih* nctonl il 


^lee. Oar., ^r. Spines S-psrted. Leaves lotncwhat 
obormte, cilimtdj' Berrated. Ituci^ica mnoj-flowered, 
nenduloua. Petals em ire. {Ihm'i MiU.) A spread- 
ing, many-stemmeil, deciduous shrub. Europe, and 
BritWD in hedges and copse*, and naturalised in man]' 
parts of Am and America. Height 6 ft. to 10 ft. 
Flowen yellow ; May and June. Berries red ; ri|>e 
in Septcaiber. Decaying leaves reddinh yelluw. 
Naked wood tellowish white. 

• B. r. B litea. — Fruit yellow, sometime* stone- 

■ B. c. 3 i&a. — ^Fruit white. ' 

A B. V. Aviolacea. — Friiit violaceous 
m B. V. 5 pttrpirrea. ^. innominHtafn/n. — Fruil 
purple; leaves narraw, hardly ciliated. 

• B. c. 6 nigra. — Fruit black ; teaves oUong, ci- 

liately serrated, gernitiire* few. The fruit of 
this plant a said by Touroefort, who found 
it on the banks of the Euphrates, to be of 
delicious flavour. 

• B. c. T dulca, — Fruit red, somewhat less arid 

than that of the common berberry. Lesrea of 
a bright shining green. Native of Austria, 

where it was first considered to be a distinct species, till the fruit 
of plants raised from iis seed was found to be as acid ss that of 
the common berberry. It is now, however, propsgatnl by layers ; 
the leaves and fiuit are considerably larger than those of the species, 
nnd the fhut is found perfectly sweet and agreeable to eat. In 
^ort, this variety is (o the common berlierry, what the apple is to 

• B, ». 8 aipermn. 711? leedteu Brrbmy. — Frtiit destitnte of seeds. 

Miller, and also Du Hamel, both say that suckers taken from this 
variety commonly produce fruit with needs; thst, aa the tree grows 
older, the seeds beconie fewer, and that it is the nge of tl'e plant 
that at last caiites the fruit to be seedless ; io that case this plant 
must be considered more a variation than a variety. B. v. asp^rma 
is said by Du Hamet to produce the best fruit for preserving; and 
it is from it that the delicious Confilurrt iTE'jime vinettr, fur which 
Rouen is so celebrated, are made. (A'am. Duh^ iv. p. 13.) 

• B. p. 9 long^oSa Booth. — Leaves longer than those of the ijiecies. 

• B.D. \Oglaticn. B. glaOca Baotk. — Leaves glaucous. Mr. Gordon 

considers this plant as related to B. sibSrica ; but, as it has not yet 
flowered in the Horticultund Society's Uarden this point cannot lie 
detennioed. (See Gard, Mag., vol. xvi, p. 8.) 
■ B. V. II milii. — Shoots without spines. Leaves glaucous, rather 

s brown. Leaves and fruit 

All these varieties are in the London Horticultural Society's <TBrden. 

Other VoTKtiei. In the Horticultural Society's Qardea a number of 

allied species of berberries have been raised from seed, which have all 

proved varieties of B. vulgaris, and most of them so slight, as to be icarcety 

worth keeping dJHtinct. fSee Gard. Mag., vol. xvi. p. 8.) 

The common berberry will live for two or three centuries, without increasini; 

much in size. The wood is hard and brittle, of a ypllow colour, and but 

little used except for dyeing. The rate of growth, wlien the plant >s young. 

IS rapid; «aA, in consequence, in five or six years it will attain the height of 



7 or B feet ; but it grawi slowly aAerwarda, unlesa the sucken are retnored 
from it as they are produced. It is seldom seco above 10 ft. high ; but there 
arc examples uf trees of it 301^. high, probably of 30 years' |>rowth. The 
inner burk, both of the stems and roots, uRbrdii a yellow dye. The leaves are 
agreeably ucid, and, according to Cleraril, were useil in his time " to seasoa 
meut with, and instead of a gaJad, like sorrel." The berries arc so add, that 
birds selilom touch them. They are not eaten mvr, but are excellent when 
preserved with sugar in syrup, or candied. They ure also made into jelly and 
rob. both of which are not only delicious to the taste, hut extremely whole- 
Bome ; and ihey are picliled in vinegar, when green, as a snbstilule for capers. 
The pluiit is cultivated In gordenx as a fniit tree or fruit shrub ; and the 
variety, or rather variation, in which the seeds are sa'd to be wanting, and 
that in which the truit is sweet, are recommended iu preference. The plant 
makes an excellent hedge ; but there exists a prejudice against it among agri- 
culturists, from its su^posied Influence in producing blight, or mildew, on the 
com adjoining it. This opinion is of unknown antiquity; but it is now ge- 
nerally considered to be an erroneous prejudice. 

• 3. S. (v.) EHARCiNA^A IfUla. The emarginate-/>ffiiM Berberry, 

lanccolate-obovate, ciHately serrated. 
Itaceines scarcely pendulous, shorter 
than the leaves ; petals i 
(Dun-i MM.) A 
deciduous shrub. 
Siberia. Height 
oft. to 7 ft. Intro-"' 
duceil in IHifO. 
Flowers yello. 
$^ May and Jiir 
Berries red ; ri 
in Si'ptember. De- 
caying leaves yel- 
low. Naked young 
wood whitish yel- ' 

low. bm™ —.««.* 

u. &,hrba4n.inui. Closely rcsembling fl. vulgaris, of 

which it la, doubtless, only a variety ; but it is one half smaller in all its parts, 
ind has thc^ petals eiiiarKiiiaie, and the leaves decidedly ghiucous. 

-4. C.(V.)CF.E'T 

j» L. The Cretan Berberri. 

Citle.iV.i <Jr([lic-b»B«r- 

Smfrtiiiaiit. Fl.r.ra}t..lM%.: 

Spec. CAar.,^r. Spines 
3 — 5-parted. Leaves 
ovnl-oblong, entire, ' 
or somewhat serrat-^ 
eJ. Racemes 3 — 8- 
llowrd., rather short- 
er than the leaves. 



(Don'i Mill.) A deciiliioua shrub, crowded with ahoota. Crete, Csndia, 
and, perhujw, Japan. Height 3 ft. to 4 fL Introduced in 1759. Flnwers 
rellow ; May and June. Berriea ovate, black ; riiie in September, De- 
caying leaves whitish yellow. Naked young wood also whitish. 
The leaves are produced without any obvious order ; they are small, nnd In 
their shape they resemble those of the narrow leaved variety of the common 
box. The bcrrieti are ovate, black, 8-seeded, more astringent than acid; 
Btigmn on a very short style. 

• 5. B. (v.) cBATx'oiNA Dec. The Cratagus-like Berberry. 

fugrnAw. Oar jl(. m, trim ■ tpednwD 

l^iec. Char., 1^. Spines simple. 

LesTCS oblong, reticulated, 

hardly aerated. Racemes 

nunj'Jowered, crowded, 

spr^dine, scarcely longer 

than the leavea. (Don't Mill.) 

A deciduous glaucous-leaved 

shrub, Asia Minor. Hdght 

4 fl. to 6 ft. Introduced in 

I8S3. Flowers ;^ellow ; May ^ 

and June. Berries red ; ripe 

in September. 

Distinguished from all the 
other species, by the leaves being 
long, flaccid, entirely glaucous, 

orwhitish Young shoots brown. »< BnbWiauBVi>w, uluil 

A plant bearing this name in the Horticultural Society's Garden h 5 ft, 
high, with the leaves much longer than those of B, vulf^aris ; serrated, as in 
that species, and decidedly glaucous. In other respects we can aee no 

« 6. B. ibb'rica SUv. The Iberian Berberry. 

l^wlifiarliBtt. Don'i Mm., I. p.lia.; and LlndL, Phi. CTC..4. p.«l. 
Sj/mmtrma. B. Tulglili ? t. IbMd D<K. %«. S. p. 6. ; B. ilntnill WaL 
SmfTttimfl. D«kL Brit., I.X.,llB. •iDtnllli 

l^c. Char., S;c. Spines simple, and 3-parted ; leaves obovate- 
oblong, quite entire. Racemes many-flowered ; petals en~'~' 
(Don't Mill.) A deciduous shrub. Iberia. Height 3ft 
5ft. Introduced in 1780. Flowers yellow; May and June. 
Berries dark purple ; ripe in September. Decaying leaves yeU 
lowihh red. Naked young wood reddish yellow. 
Readily diatinguiahed ftom the common berberry by its smaller ^ 
and smoother leaves, its red shoots, and its almost upright mcemca ; * 
and from B, sin^sis by the leaves being comparatively entire. 

• 7. B. canadb'nsis Miil. The Canadian Berberry. 
UmfflcaHta. Pnnh't PI. AiiHr. SqM.. I. p. 319, i Dk. Frad., l.p. lOG. i Don'i HII 
^HOnKt. B. Tul^ril Mm. Ft. Bar. Amrr. 1. p. WB. i B. Tulglrli tu. aiuIUi 
K^n^iiati. 'lUjiw Abblld., t, O. t ind our;^. SI. iftar ttuluithor. 

Spec, Char.,^e, Branches verru cose, doited, with short triple spines i leaves 
spatulate, oblong, remotely serrate, with somewhat bristly teeth ; racemes 
■ub-coirmbose, few-flowered ; petals emar^inate ; berries sulffiloboae, or 
oval, (Tor. and Gmif.) A deciduous shrub. Canada to Oeorgia. Height 
9 ft to 3ft., in Engtartd £ft. Introduced in 1759. Flowers yellow; 



Uij Bud June. Berriei red ; ripe in September. De- 

CBjing leaves yeUowiBli green and reddish. Naked young 

wood whitish yellow. 

Leaves mucK aniBller and narrower than in B. vulgirin, 
BttenuaCe at the base, bnt nearly Beseilej the margins ■^ni- 
Ute, with 6-8 distant, ollen inconspicuous, miicronate tteth. 
Raceme 5--S-floitcred, nodding ; flouers snialler than in S. 
Tultiikris i fruit smaller and much shorter. Stem and roots 
yellow; the former rarelv eicecdinp 3ft. in height. Found 
ID the All^hanir Mountains, Virginia and Cnrolina, Tenessee, 
•nd Georgia. (TV. and Gray.') Introduced into England in 
1759, but protwbly lost, as we have seen no plant answering si 
this descriptiun in British gardens. 

* 8. B. sihb'nsis Detf. The Chinese Berberry. 

UrmiHlaUim. Drtt. Cttti. Bon. P., IM. : 
Bte. Prod., 1. p. 106.1 Don'i Hill,. 1. p. IIB. 
SntmiMV. S. viiLrtirliT^Mi.Jw^ti. IM. 

cuiefi Lq tbs Hort. Soc. Ovdan. 

^)ec. Ckar., ^c Sonnet 3-parted. 

Leavei oblong, obtuse, entire, or 

the lower ones a little toothed. 

Racemes many-flowered, noddii^. 

(Don't MUl.) A deciduous shrub 

with slender shoots. ChinsL. * 

Height 3(1. to 5ft. Introduced 

in 1800. Flowers yellow ; May 

and June. Berries oval, dark red ; 

ripe in September. Leaves 

smooth, sharply serrated. Decay- 
ing leaves of B fine yellowish r^. 

Naked young wood reddish yel- 

The plant at the Horticultural 
Society's Uarden, and at Measrs, 
Ijoddiges's, has smooth leaves, red 
shoots, and closely resembles Bhbrrii 

ov Google 

Vt. BERBERA'cE^.: BlfSBERlS. 47 

C Ltava leathery, tvtrgnm, or ujt-ner^rem. Fhwen leUtary, or m CUalat, 

* 9. B. du'lcis D. Don. The aweetfryHed Beiterrj. 
UaUleattm. gvt. Brit. FI^GuiLi Undl.Pfn. Cjc.,<.p.iei, 
fi^nniV*- SirLBriE. n. Gud., UHr,, t. lOO.i ■ndouc^-M. 

Spec. Ckar., ^e. Bpinea long, ilender, aiinpte, or 3- 

parted. Leaves oborote obttiie, with or without a 

brutl; pobt, quite entire, glaucous on the under dde. 

Flowers solitarj, on ilender italks, twic« as long as 

the leaves. {Lmdl., Pen. Qio.,] An evergreen sfarub, 

with shining leaves. Straits ofHuellan to Valdivia. 

Height 2(t. to A ft. Introduced m ]B3a Flowers 

ydlow ; March to June. Berries round, black, about 

the size of a black currant; ripe in August. Decay- 
ing leaves bright yellow ; dropping in May and Jur 

An el^ant evergreen bufih, which, in some places, has I 
attained the height of 5 ft. The flowers are large, o? a 
fine bright yellow, more expanded thui they are in 
many species, and, Trom their long slender stalks, they 
hang down in a very gracefiil manner. In its native country, the fruit it 
used, both green and ripe, as we use gooseberries, for making pim and tarts 
and preserves, for whicn it is most excellent. It is quite hardy and evergn-en. 

M \0. B. Bo-iltsf'Viii. Lmn. The Box-leaved Berberry. 

Engrmmgt. iMa- lU- 1. 3fi3k Bg. ^ ; lUKl our jig. 69. 

Spec, Ckar^ ift. 8|iioet 3-parled. Leaves ovate, or ovate- 
lanceolate, smooth, quite entire. Pedicels longer than 
the leaves, either solitary, 1-flowered, or in threes, 
rising from a short peduncle. (iJon'i 3fitf.) A small 
twisted aub-eve»reen shrub. Native of the Straite 
of magelbil. Height 2 fu to 3 ft. Introduced ?. 
Flowers vellow. December to March. Berries blu- 
ish puri>le, 4-seeded. ''•'Mfc3~ 
Said to be nearly allied to B. d^tcis. A very valuable "- SAMrfitviiMi^ 

additioci to our hanly evergreens ; though, at preaent, rare in Briuth gardens. 

j> II. B. ACTiNiiCk'HTHA Mart. The ray-spined Bprberr)'. 

Sugrarimg. OoTflt-m. 

Syec. Char., Sfc. Spines palmate, 3 — 5 
divisions. Leaves ovate elliptic, rigid, 
coriaceous, toothed, mucronate. P^ 
duncles 4—5, sub-umbellate, shorter , 
than the leaves. An evergreen shrub, ^ 
with numerous spreading branches, and 4 
long white spines, generally in threes, ^ 
but sometimes more numerous. Straits ; 
of Magellan. Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. In- 
troduced ? 1830. Flowers deep yellow, 
a little larger than those of B. vul- 
garis; Hay and June. Fruit?. 
A very desirable species, nearly allied 
to B. heteroph^lta. Our engravine is of 
n specimen taken from a veiY handsome 

phnt in the rich collection of evergreens * »**^ «i™toa^ 

at Eivatton <^tle. Dr. Hooker mentions a variety with smuiler leave* than 
the spedes, but it does not appear to be introduced. Quite hardy. 



A Jut. The vHriouB-lenved Berberry. 

. B. iac\fb\\x Farit. 

Spec. Char., Ifc, Spines 3-parted. Leaves ovate4anceolate, 

glubroua, some of them entire, others tiirnished nith 3 

pungent teeth. Pedicels solitary, l-flowered, hardly longer 

than the leaves. I^laments toothed. {Don't MUL) An 

evergreen shrub. Straits of Magellan. Hei!>ht 3 ft. to 

4 ft. Introduced in 1823. Flowers orange yellow ; May 

and June. Berries red ; ripe in September. Decaying 

teares greenish yellow ; June and July. 

Much branched, and the older branches covered with dnrk 

wrinkled bark. The leaves clustereil, and of two kinds ; the 

old ones terminated with a ghsrp spinose point, and having 

& lateral tpinule on each aide above the middle, and the 

younger ones being pale peen, unarraed, and having th^r 

mar^ns entire and toftish. The old leaves are also quite ri^, 

Mid shining. 

^ 13. B. £>iPETRiFo'i.iA Lam. The Ein|ietruiD' leaved Berberrj'. 

lirtUi/lcalKm. Lim. 111.. [. S53.i Dm. Prod., I. p. 107.; Don'i Mill., J. p.llT. j Pen. CTC..4. 

Spec. Cliar., ^c. Spines 3-parted. Leaves linear, quite entire, 
with revolute margins. Pedicels 1 — 8, l-flowered. (D'hi'j 
Mill. ) An elegant, decumbent, evergreen bush. Cordilleras 
of Chiti in subalpine woods. Height 1 fl. to S Tt. Intro- 
duced in 1830. Flowers ydlow ; December to March. Ber- 
ries Pyellow ; ripe in July. Wood reddish brown. 
Branches slender, twi^^y, angular, covered with a chestnut- 
coloured bark. Leaves fasciculate, linear, mucronute, revolute, 
and entire at the margins, f:laucoiis ; about half an inch long; 
and nearly a line in breadth. Flowers large, spreading. A 
very curious and pretty plant, in general aspect much more like 
a heath than a berberry. It is perfectly hardy, and deserves "' 

B place in every collection. It is readily incri 

d by layi 


Spec. Char., ^c. Spines scarcely any. Leaves roundish, 
coarsely toothed, rather glaucous, white beneath. Ra- 
cemes very bhort and compact, pendulous. (Fen. Ci/c.) 
An upri^t evergreen bush, with white or glaucous 
leaves. Mexico. Height 3fl. to 5 ft. Introduced 
in 1830. Flowers yellow, sweet-scented ; December .^^ 
to March. Berries yellowish purple ; ripe in August, ^ 
A tall, slender, evergreen bush, with deep brown 
branches, and scarcely any spines. The leaves are some- 
times wedge-shaped and 3-toothed, but more frequently 
□early round, with two or three ipiny teeth on every side. 
A curious and beautiful species, well deserving of cul- 
tivation. It is quite barily, and readily increased by 
layers, which root the same season that they are made. 



« 15. B. asia'tica Raxb. The At^iatic Berberry. 

n Oct. Srit,,l. f. II. ; D«. Prod^ I. p. 107.! Oon'l Hill.. 1. p. lISi PpD. 
"Jn orDkucoridM, /torfc In Lam. Tram., >iU. p.Wj B. SocWrU lor*. ; 

5/OT. CAor,, ^c. Spines iriSd, or simple. Leaves ova], cuncaled or ellip- 

... , i or ^inuloHely 

toothed. Kaceines short, 
tnuDjr-flowered, corymlraae, 
shoner than the teaveii. 
Fetlicels elongated, one- 
flowered. Beiries oval. 
(Don't JiSil.) A ligoroui- 
Iv growing sub-evergreen 
shnib, crowded with nume- 
rous luxuriant suckers. Ne- 
pal, on mountains. Height 
6 ft. to 8 ft. Introduced in 
1820. Flowers yellov 
May and June. Berrieii i 
purplish, with a fine bloom ; 1 
ripe in July. Decaying 
leaves yellow unit red. 
Leaves somewhat resi 
bling those of £, heterophyUa, 
l>ul not glaucous. The plant 
U easily dihtinguixhed Irani 
that species by the very short 
racemes of its flowers, by their being produced much earlier, and by the 
smoothness of its shoots. On July 20. 1637, a Pne plant of B. asiatica, 
iD the grounds at Syon, was covered with fruit, while one of B. arisiata, 
■landing close beside it, was covered with its beautiful rich yellow blossoms, 
many of which were not fully expanded. The Iruit is oblong, pinkish or 
puqjiish, wrinkled, and covered with a fine thick bloom like that of the 
best raisins. The plants in 5 or 6 years sttain the height of 6 or 8 feeL 

• 1«. B. akistaVa Dec. The bmt\ed-looaJeaved Berberry. 

UtttllfitMiim. Dbc. Prod.. 1. p. lis.; Don'i Mill., 1. p. im 
^rmmfma. B. CkUri* Bach. ; B. ■Bniiciniiii Acrl. -. B. ilntnili Dnf. 
SmgmlMti. Hook. EloI.FIor.,1. M.) Bol. Bog., t.;».; iiidour.*.71 

^lec. Char., ^c. Lower spines 3-parted, simple ; 

leaves obovate-acute, taperinv much to the 

base, ending in a mucro (nrickly jjoint) at the 

apex, membranous, smooth on both sides, ser- 
iated, with * or 5 bristly teeth. Racemes , 

noddinj-, many-flowered, longer than the 1 

leares. Berries oblong. {Don't Miii.) A 
, Tworous-growing sub-evergreen shrub, crowd- 
ed with suckers which sometimes grow 8 ft. 

to 9ft. long in a season. Nepal, on mountains 

5000ft. to 8000 ft. of elevation. Height 6ft. 

to 10 ft. Introduced in 1820. Flowers yel. 

low i June and July. Berries purplish, with 

a fine bloom ; ripe in Septeniber. Decaying 

leaves yellow and scarlet. Naked young wood ., ,Ate,(,.,ua,t 

yellowish brown. 

Very distinct from any of the preceding species o 
extraordinary vigour, and curable of being formed int 


tne. Ths root and wood are of a dark yellow colour, and foitn the jellow 
wood of Persian authorg ; tliey are lued aa a dye, and, being bitter aad a 
little astringent, they, as well as the bark, are employed in medicine. (^Royl^i 
UluiL, p. 63.) In Nepal, the fruit of thit apecies is dried, like grapes for 
forniin}( raisins, in the sun. A most desintble plant, calculated to produce a 
tpl<:ndi<l effect, both when in flower and when in fruit, upon an open lawn. 
As H rapid grower, it ought not to be planted near slow-growing shrubs oi 

Other Speciei of B^rberis. — B. Coriaria Rojie, a spedes having the aame 
general HppeHrance es B. aristate, has been raised in the Horticultural 
Soriety's Garden, and there are [>lantB 3 ft. high, but they have not yet flow' 
ered. Plants have been raised in the Horticultural Society's Onrden, and 
in Home nurseries, from seeds received from Mexico and Nepal ; but, though 
these have new nojnes, it is not certain that they will all prove new speciea, 
and therefore we consider it better not to record them till they have flow- 
ered. In Hook. Bol. Mil. vol, iii., B. chUtBru Oill., B. tutdfSlia Ijun., B. 
corymbota Hook, et Am., B, gloiaerdia Hook, et Am., and B. Grn^iekaa GilL, 
are described, or mentioned, aa having been, found in 8outh America, and 
Dr. Hooker has specimens of them in his herbarium. Numerous varietica 
of Bhberii vulgaris are raised in the London cardens, under contJnental names. 
as if they were species, but very few of tnein are worth keeping distinct. 
See in Gard, Mag. for 1840, p, I,, Mr. Gordon's Report on those raised 
in the Horticultural Society's Garden in 1839. 

Genus II. 


HAHO^N/^ Nutt. TBmlAiMOSi.\,or AsR BESBEsar. Lin. Sift. Hexindria 

HaUiflcattM. Nutt. On. Anw., I. p. MT. ; Dbc Prod.. I. p. IDS.; Don'i Htll., f. IIT. 

Ahuwho. BirberU tA tiMian \ Odailtomn flq/, i Atb Bttbtrt] Fat. CjKl. 

Drrimaliim. Mimad tij NuUiJl In honour of BtnMnl WViLhoH. a ifwlmin it PUUdllpUi, tbt 

Oett. Char. Sepah 6, guarded on the outside by three scales. Peialt S, with- 
out glanda on the inside. Slament fumished with a tooth on each side at 
top of the filament, jffnriirt 3— ^.seeded. {Don'i MUl.) 

Leaxi compound, pinnate, alternate, exstipuUte, evergreen; the leaflets 
coriaceous, with the margins toothed or serrated. Flowen yellow, frud 
mostly black, — Natives of the north-west coast of America, and also of 
Nepal, and perhaps Japan. 

Though some botanists think that the character! ascribed to this ganus, and 
those ascribed to Birberii, as exhibited in p, 41., are not sufGcirat to keep 
them separaie as genera ; yet the habits of the species of one, as to the mode 
of growth, foliage, and inflorescence, are so distinct from those of the other, 
as to induce us to adopt the genus Mah6nH. The species in British gardena 
are all of comparatively slow growth, and admit but of slow multiplication bjr 
layav, which require to remain on two years, and scarcely at all by cuttings. 
Some of them, however, seed freely, and are readily propagated in this way. 
The seeds of all the species of Mahdnin, and also of those of Birbmt, if 
sown immedUtcly after they are ripe, and protected through the winter from 
frost, will come up the following spring, 
a 1. M. FASCicuLA^is Dec. The crowded-nuvrwd Mabonia, » AA Berbeny. 

UX«(., AM, A*, ^'Jra(.,ind Ttir.tOT^; ff. IkKlnlhli r«. 
1> BmuA that U^ODfi dltanlliiLU li tht urn* u Ikii B«ln i IkMah 
' -TSwHCuiipKlH 

Et^nvttff- Bot. E«f .. I 


VI. bbrbrba'csm: maho'km. 51 

Spte. Char., tie. Leave* 
of 3 — 6 pain with an 
odd one, the lowest 

pair near the base of 

the petiole. Leaflets 

OTate-lanceolBte, ra- 
ther distant, odc' 

n erred, spiny-toothed, 

with 4 or A teeth on 

each side. Raceme* 

pearlj erect, much 

crowded. Filaments 

bideotate .(Don'iMU. ) 

An upruht evergreen 

shrub. Califbmia and 

Mexico, on mountains. 

H^ht Aft. to 6 a. 

Introduced in 1810. 

Flowere jellow ; Mar. ' 

to May. Berries pur- 
ple; ripe in S^teniber. 

Decaying leave* rich 

yellow; drop in June. 

Very handaome, " Per- "" ■■>••* t i "i i <>•'•• 

bapa the most showy of all the lamily." (Hooi.) It it readily cJiatinguiihed, 
even at a distance, from the other mahoniaa, by the glancou* green and 
subdued tone of colour of it* leave*; those of all the others being of a 
darker green, and more or less sliining. The plant is rather too tenJer to 
be treated aji a detached bu*h, unless some alight protection be ^iven to it 
during very severe frosts ; but it will grow Treely against a wall with scarcely 
any protection. Layer* and seeds. 
m 2. M. JduiFo'LiuM ymi. The HoIIy.leaved Mahonia, or AA Berieny. 

UaiilltaUim. Kult. Gen. Amr., 1. p.lll.i D«. Prod., I. p. lOS.i Doo't MUL. I. p. lit. 

JWrnnywr. BtrirHl jl>iaiaUata Pk., Pen. Cf.. tai Tor. » Gr^. 

Eittrmtatt. Ponh. FL Amer. S^i. \.t.t.; BoL IU|., t.lM>.i mioaTjIg.n. 

i^per. Char., IfC, Leave* of 4 pairs 
of leaflets with an odd one, the 
lower pair distant from the base 
of the petiole.; leaflets ovate, ap- 
proximate, rorciute at the base, 
one-nerved, apiny-toothed, with 
9 or 6 teeth on each side. Ra- 
cemes erect, and much crowiled. 
Filaments bidentate. (D.'t MUl.) 
A shining evergreen shrub. New 
Albion to Nootka Sound. Height 
5(t to 7 II. in its native couniry, 
probably 10 ft. in EngUnd. In- 
troduced in IBS3. FlowerB yel- 
low ; April and May. Berries 
purple ; ripe in September. i 

Varietiet. One variety, M. A. nu'- 
drNHin Dec., is mentioned by De 

Candolle ; and another, found at ,]. iidiph mummh 

the Junction of the Portage river 

with the Columbia, by O. Don. Taney and Gray consider Mah&nia 
rjpeua and M. pinoita Mettaet as only varietie* of this qiecies; an inad- 
— ■ — e excuaable in thoie who have not seen the plant* in a living state. 


One of the handeotnest of evergreen ahruta, attaining the height of 6 ft. 
in 6 years quite hardy, producing a profusion of bunches of yellow flovere 
during April ana May. In Its native eounlry it grows in rich vegetable 
BOil, among roekn, or in woods, where it forma a thick and ni'h undergrowth. 
According to Dr. Lindley, it is " perhaps the handsomest hardy evergreen 
we yet posaess. Its foliage is of a nch, deep, shining green, becoming 
purple in the winter; it bears fruit in some abundance, wliich consists of 
clusters of roundish black berries, having their surface covered with a rich 
violet bloom. It most resembles M. fosciculiris, from which its large shining 
leaves at once distinguish it." {Fenny Ct/c. iv, p. 862.) Layers and seeds. 

■. 3, M. NKRvo'sA Nuit. The nerved-fcoorrf Mahonia, or Aih Berberry, 

Spec. C/ioT., Sic Leaves of 

5 — 6 pairs, with an odd 

one, the lower pair distant 

from the petiole ; leBlli:t3 

ovate, acuminated, and re- 
motely spiny-toothed^me- 

what 3 — 5-nen-ed, wiih 12 

or H teeth on each side- 
Racemes elongated. Fila* 

ments bidentate. {Don't 

Mill.) An evergreen un- 

dershrub. North-west of 

N. America, on the river 

Columbia, in shady pioe ^ 

woods. Height 8 ft. to 3 ft. , ii.hw.»mi» 

Introd. in 1S22. Flowers 

yellow ; October to March. Berries roundish, glaucous purple, or deep 

blue; ripe in July. 

According to Torrey and Gray, the stem is so low, that it often scarcelv 
rises from the ground, and. indeed, is much shorter than the leares, which 
are I ft. to 3 ft. in length. Racemes spi- 
cate, often 6in.to8m. long. Flowers 
larier than in M. vlquilolium. The pe- 
tioles of the leaves. Dr. Lindley says, 
" are jointed at every pair of leaflets, 
in the manner of n bamboo stem." 
The plant is hardy, and will thrive in 
a shady border of peat soil. One of 
the handsomest of undershruhs. 
«. 4. M. re'pens G. Don. The 

creeping-roo(frf Mahonia, or Ai/i 


Writ ^quil^llum IJnilt. Bol. 
g%l.'l K '.Jquirauum >u. r^pfliii tar. i 

Sptc. Char., ^c. Leaflets B — 3 pairs, with an odd one. roundish ovate, opaque. 


»|iiny-(oothed. Racemes diffuBe. Root creening. Filunents Imlentate. 
iDon'i Mia.) An e\apeea underabnib. Wmi cout of N. America, on 
the Rocky MouDtains. Height 1 <l. to 2 ft. Introduced in ISSS. Plowen 
jellov; April and May. Berries pur|>lish blachj ripe in September. 

* M. T. 2 repffTu-Jiudctiiarii. — Habit of H, laBcicullris, with larger and 
more robust foliage, resembling that of Al. repens. A sport, or a 
hybrid, produced accideataUy in the Saw bridge worth Nursery. 

The shoots consist chiefly of short unbraiiched suckers, with the leaves some- 
what glaucous on both Bur&ces, The racemes of flowers are tcmiinBl, numc 
rous, fascicled, diSiiae, rising from scaly buds. The plant, in British gardens, is 
perTectlj hardy, and produces a profusion of rich yellow flowers in April 
Bud May, liiyers or suckers ; but it does not root readily. Seeds are 
aometimes prodiiced. 

Other Speckt of MaAoma are no doubt in British gardeus ; but as they 
have been only rallied lately from Nepal or Mexican seeds, nothing can be 
recorded of them with that degree ol^ certainty and detail which is suit- 
able for this work, JUaionm tentdfoHa, a Mexican species with pinnate 
leaves, and entire quite smooth leaflets, on very long slender foatstsiks, has 
been raised in the Horticultural Society's Garden, and may probably be as 
hardy as M. (aacicularis ; but this is uncertain. Jlf. Tiepaiiim, M, acanlhi- 
/dSa, M. ^TaffKant}iSdet, and M. cars:gaoffi/aAii, are said lo be ?ery desirable 

Cttrvella icUiary, or conitaU ; Placenta panelai {that Fart of the Capiule which 
Ae Setdt are attached to adhering to the Sidei or WaiU y the Ovary or Gtr- 
■u*), attached to the Walli or CelU of the Ovary. 


Okd. Coab. The order Cruciace* is readily recognised by the cruciform 
arrangement of the p«ta/f, which are alwiiys tour, in conjunction with letra- . 
dynunoiu itameiu, and the friit a silique or silicle. — Though there are 
sereral specie* which, technically considered, are ligneous planU, such as 
^l^iBum aaiitile, ib^is seuiperrirens, Cheirinthus C'^n, and some others; 
yet, in a popular iraint of view, the only ^nib included in the order b the 
Telia P8et)iki-0tuua. 

Gkmus I. 


t'E'LLA L. Thb Vella. Lin. Sfiti. TctmdyuiiiiiH Siliculosa. 
Drritatim. Thm ntt. «1l» U UHolwd frm Lhi word wJar, lb. Ctltk ume of U.( cat. 
Gen. (Jhar. Slament the 4 longer in 8 pairs, the 8 of each pair grown together. 
Style ovate, flat, tongue-shaped, at the tip of the silicle. ^kcle ovate, com- 
pressed, its valves concave. Partition eljiplic. CotyUdont folded, the embryo 
root diaposed in the sinus of the fold. {Dec. Syil.) 

Leavet simple, alternate, exstipolate, aub-evergreen ; toothed or serrated, 
^sucoui. Flowert in axillary spikea, vellow, seldom succeeded by seed poda 
mdK dimate of LoiKlon.— Shrub low. suShiticOEe, native of Etpun, 




«, 1. Ks'LLji Plieu'Mt-Cv'Tisiis L. Fiilse-Cytigiu,< 
UalVHHm. Lin. Sp. BM. i Dec Prod,. I. P-M»-j Om'i MII1„ 1. 
Umcmfma. rHklDMiriBHuSa/.i F.ui-c/U»,*'r.;. Irani- 

^MTC. Char., ^e. Petals jellow, with long dark 
purple dawn. Larger stamens peifecily con- 
rule by |>Birs {Don't Mill.) A low sub- 
evergreen shrub. Spain, on calcareous bills. 
Heights ft. to 4 ft. Introd. in ITS». Flowers 
yellow ) April anil May. Silique greenish 
yellow ! ripe ia July, Decnying leaves yellow. 
Branches arrhed, spreading, somewhat decum- 
bent. Leaven glaii::ous green. Somewhat ten- 
der, but require* no protection in the climate of 
London, when pinnted on dry soil. It is a 
short-lived plant, lihe all the suffhiticoie Cru- 
cfferie, but It may readily be renewed by cuttings 

■ ihnilAy, Cress- Rocket. 

Order VIII. CISTAK^E.^. 

Ojid. Char. SepaU i, two of them being exterior. Petali 5, very fugitive. 
Slamcm numerous. Frail capsular, 3— 5-ralved, 5 — lO-cetled, with pari- 
etal pi acentz, fnifrryo inverted- Properties balsamic. (^Lindl.) 

Leauft siuiple, opposite or altenmle (the lowest leave* always oppo- 
site}, stipulate or exstinuhite, deciduous or sub-evergreen; generally pubes- 
ceot, pubescence Bimjile or stellate. Fioweri large, showy, white, red, 
or purjile. — Shrubs low, suflrutesccnt, many subherbaceous ; native* of 
Europe anil Africa. 

The C'iKtaces: have no medical properties ; but the resinous balsamic nib- 
stance called ladanum or labdanum is produced from C. crflicua, C )ada- 
niferus, C. /aurifolius, and one or two other species. Their uxe in gardens ia 
for ornamenting rockwork, or Tor keeping In pits during the winter, end planting 
out in flower-bordurs in spring ; as, froui the tenderness of the finer species, 
they are unfit for a permanent place in a shrubbery or arboretum. Most 
' of even the larger^owing kinds require some protection during winter : 
but they will hU growfieely in any soil that is dry ; and they are readily 
propagated by Eeed^, which, in fine seasons, they produce in abundance, or 
by cuttings; the plants, in both cases, flowering the second year. Tbougti 
easily propagaied, the Cistacea: do not readily bear transplaoting, having 
very few fibres, and these rambling to a great distance from the main root. 
Plants for sate ought, therefore, to be always kept in pots; and, in the 
winter sea.ion, they should be protected by some slight coveriag during 
severe weather. The hardy ligneous apeciea are included in two genera ; whi^ 
are thus coiitradiEtingui?ihed by DeCaudoUe and G. Don : — 
Ci'sTUS L. Capsule 10— 5-ce!led. 
Hblia'nthbhum Tount. Ciipi^ule 1-celled, 3-valved. 

Genus I. 



Vtll. ClSTACEf: Cl'S' 

-Gen. C&ar. Calyx of iS sepaU. Sepals dupo«etLin a double serips ; 9, outer 
ones unequal, lumedines wanting. Petali 5, equal, somewhRt cuneuted. 
caducous. Stamem numerous, uEuallj eiserted from the glandular dUk. 
Style filiform. Stigma capitate. Captule covered by the calj'x, 5- or 
lO-Wved, with a seminirerous partition in the middle of each vdve, 
therefore 5- or 10-celled. Seedi ovate, angular. Embryo filiform, spiral. 
Leavei simple, opposite, exstipulate, ^ub-evei^reen, entire or toothed ; 
ihe peiioleH embracing the stem, Flowert axillary, or many flowered 
peduncles ; lai^ beautiful, resembling a rose, red or white. — Shrubs or 
Bubshrubs, natives of the South of Eurojie and North of Africa. Onlj 
r subspecies, and tneir varieties, are liardy in the 

jJda:'. C&ar,, ^c. Leuves oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or 
acute, and more or less rugose ; reticulately veined, / 
with undulated margins. Petioles short, hair^, con- t 
nected at the base, and sheathing the stem. Flowers 
terminal, from 1 to 6, on short peduncles. Bructeas 
sessile, leaf-like, pubescent, broad aud concave at theS 
base, where they are connected, and terminating in ' 
acute points. Pedicels short, and with the calyx hairy. 
Calyx of 5 sepals. Petals 5 or 6, obovate or wedge- 
shaped ; very niuch imbricate, more or less crum- 
pled. Stamens numerous, filaments smooth. Style 
very short; and stigma large, capitate, 5-lobed, papil- 
lose. (iSiu'. cut.') A sub-eveip'cen low bush. Levant. 
Hdght 3 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1659. Flowers 
large, bright reddish purple, with a yellow spot at the 

base. June and July. Capsule browui ripe m Sept. Decaying leaves brown. 
Branches numerous, erect, and clothed with a brownish pubcKence. 
Hie flowers are veiy large and tuuidsome, of a bright reddish purple, with 
a yellow spot at the base, above which is a laive (urk purple velvet murk, 
surrounded with red, and slighily branched, l^e petals are imbricate, and 
much crumpled. It tlowers abundantly in June and July ; grows very fast, is 
easily propagated by cuttings, and is verj' ornamental, 

■, S. C. inca'nus L. The hoary Cistus, or Rock Rot. 

Spte. Char., ^c. Leaves spathulate, tonienuise, wrinkled, 
somewhat ;i-nerved, sessile, somewhat connate at the base, 
upper ones narrower. Peduncles I — S-flowered. (Ddh'i 
MUL) Aboaryeveisreen shrub. Spain and France. Height 
8 ft. to 3fi. Litroduced in 1597. flowers reddish purple, 
with the petioles emarginate. June and July. Cupsule 
brown i npe in September. Decaying leaves brown, 
(^itte hardy in dry smL 

B 4 




• 3. C corbahib'nsis Pourr. The CortHcrei Cutus, or Rod Itme. 

UlVfieMiam. DiK. Fml, 1. a. 3GE. i Doa'l Mill., t. p. V». 
SvHnwvi. C. tajiiO/Mat g Dtc. I'n4. Ft Fr.. *. a. ai-i 

vVMiMitmraanwrtrt ; C. tafurldiuPnrr.. nutorVthl. 
EagriniagM. Svt- CLit.» I, A, \ Kai oltTjIg 73. 

Spec. Char, ^rc- Leaves stalkeil, Eoniewliat cordate, ovale, 
acuminaied, with fringed marpna, wrinkled on bothsurfmes, . 
and very glutinous. Peduncles long, 1 — S-fliiwereil. {Don't 
Afill) A. Ktib-evergrcen shrub, tjoulh of France, on Che 
mountiuna of Corbieres ; and also in Spain. Height 8 (t. to 
Htt. Introduced in 1656, Flowers while; Majr and June. 
Capnule brown ; ripe in August. 

A handsome plant, and, according to Sweet, one of the 
hardiest B^cies of the genus, thriving well ia common garden 
8oil, and in anj situation where it is not too moist. It conti- 
nues in bloom for about two months ; and every day during 
that period the plant U covered with a profusion of hand- ' 
some white UowerR, the margins of which are tinged with rose colour. 
The rose-coloured hiids ore also very pretty before tile flowers expand. 

* 4. C R>pt;LtroLitJS L. The Poplar-leaved Cistut, or Sock Sole. 

tOttlificnllm. LIn.Sp 7M^ DoD' 

f*. fpipptl hrJitl'r/II?'ci.l«i"Kiiic, OnT"" * 
Fnfminft. Sw(. cm. Zi, i ud «lij<i, SO. 

Spec. Char., 4^c, Leaves stalked, cordate, 

wrinkled, smooth. Flouers cymose. Peduncles bracteate. ( 
Brecum obiong. Sepnlsacuminate.claminv. (^Doti't MM.) 
A sub-evergreen shrub of vigorous growth. France and 
Siiain, Height 5 ft. to 7 ft. Introdiicedin 1656. Flower* 
white, with distinct petals; MaytoJuly. Capsule brown ; 
ripe in September. '^Z-; 

Leaves dark green, cordate, clammy, with undulate margins. YT 
One of the most robust species of the genus, and also one of 
the hardiest. A plant 7 ft. high, in the grounds at Syon, 
stood through the winter of 1837-8 uninjured, without the 
slightest protection. n 

• 5. C. ^aurifo'livs L. The Laurel-leaved Cistun, cr Rods Rot, 

UnHftaOlaa. LUl. tf.TK.; C\ai. Hilt l.p.TS. t l.g piin-| Mm.. I. p. MO. 
iSi^ialt^: Chii. HUt.. t.p.TB, t l.i Svl. 'CIU.. t. it.; anifourj^. II. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves stalked, ovate- 
lanceolate, 3-nerved, npjier surface gla- 
brous, under surfnce tomcnto^e. Foot- 
stalks dilated, and connate at the base. . 
Capsules 5-celled. {Don't Mill.) 
Hub-ever(>reen bush. South of Fiani 
and Spain. Height 4 ft. to 5 ft. I 
troduccd in 1771. Flowers large, white. 
with light red bracteas; July and Aug. 
Cflpsulc brown ; ripe in October. 
A very robust species, with large 

green laurel-like leaie^. It prnduces an 

ubundance of flower;, which, with thtir 

light red bracteas, are very ornamental 

before they expand, resembling, at a distance, the bursting buds of n 

requires do protection ; and may be raised from seeds, which it ripens in 

abundance ; uid ulso by cuttings, which, however, do not strike so freely as in 

■ome of the other specie*. 


The Lallan ua)-bearing 6'utM Ostus, or Rod Rate. 

Im'iMlll.. 1 p. wo. 

c. Char., ^. Leaves almoiiE se«>ile, connate at the , 

base, 1 1(1 ear- Ian ceu laic, S-ntrved, u[)per surfare elii- 

hroua, under eurfnce tonienlose. Capsule lO-celled. 

Petals imbricate. (Don't Mill.) A sub-evernreen 

shrub. Spain anti Ponugal, on hills. Ileight 4n. to 

5 ft. Introduced in le»9. Flowers large, white, 1 in. 

(o 2 in. broad ; June and July. Capsule browD ; ripe 

in September. 
Vanetici. C. L I albifiorut Dec, Prod. i. p. 266., Swt. 

Cist.t. H. ; Ledan, i., Clia. Hitt. i. p. 7B. ic.; and 

iX I. 2 maculolat Dec. Prod. 1. c. ( Swt. Cist. ; and 

our ^g. 88.) i C.l 3 plenifoiius Jlii. Hurt. Kew. iiL 

p. 305.; are varieties of this Bpecifc", "■ '^■'•'•"i'-"*'^"^ 

The leaves are lanccolale, and nearly sessile, of a deep green ; the llowera 
termiriHtiiig the branches, solitary, white, and larve. The variety C. ludanf rerua 
maculatus, which our fig. 82. represents, u a plant of very great beaut)', and 

ir Cyprus Rock Rote. 

S^w^.'^sn. Ciit.. 1. ». i md am fit. fa. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves stalked, obiong-liiiiceolule, 

upper Burfiice glabrous, under surface clothed with 

ho«ry tome n turn. Pedunulps generally many- 
flowered. Petals spotted. Caj)»ulcs 5-celled. (Don't 

Mil/.) A splendid sub^evei^ven shrub. Island of 

Cvprus. Height 5ft. to6ll. Introduced in l^00. 

Flowers white. 8 in. to 3 in. across, imbricated, each 

petal having a dark rich brownish crimson spot at 

the base ; June and July, dipsule brown { ripe in 


Une of the handsomest Kpccies of the genus, and so 
closely resembling C. ladanirerus, as, in our opinion, lo 
be nothing more than a variety of that species. Young 
cuttings. Sweet observes, planted under hand-glasses "" **™'^*>'^"'- 

in autumn, will strike root ; but the best way is Co raise them from layers 
or from seed. There was, in 18.14, a plant of this species at Minard, in Ar- 

"'■ "" "■ ''' with a head 12 ft. in diameter, which is clothed with 

Other ^ittiet of CUtut are described in Sweet's GtHnnr, as nearly equally 
hardy with the above; but the experience of the winter of IB37-8 has induced 
as to omit them. Those who intend to treat them as garden plants, and can 
aflbrd them a little protection during winter, will find 36 species, beside* 
varieties, described in the first edition of this work, and several of ibem 
figured. Those who intend only to have a collection of showy species, with- 
out much regard to their names, will have recourse to the mode recommended 
in the concluding paragraph on the Heli^nthemum. (p. 61.) The following 
species or subspecies were found tolerably hardy in the Canterbury Nursery : 
C. beterophyllus, C. cr^ticus, C. crlspiis, C. Cupanldntu, C. hirs^tus, C. I&xus, 
C. vill6sus, C, oblongifdliuH, C. undulatus, C. lalvislolius, C. longilolius, C. 



Genuh II. 


HELIA'NTHEMUM. The Heliantbemuh, or 5t/M R(UX. Lm. ^. 

Polj'Sndria Monogyoia. 

dowert of KplLinEhmimn. u wclL »i df Clitut, anir Lut for t fCvboutftwbn Che tun iblDSi ukd 
tf the wdUhpr 1l dull, vid Ihv lun don not mikv Id ■pp«KTmD4T, thfl to-mmn do Dot opn, buE 

Cm, CAar, Ca/yr of 3 — 5 sepals i.the two ouler usually ainnller ihao the 
inner ones, rarfly larger. Petalt 5, usually regularly denticulBted at the 
top. Sligna capitate. Style sometime* alrpost wanting, lometimes straight, 
■ometimes obliaue, and sorneiimcs bent at the base. Ocary triquetrous. 
Cttpiulc 3-Talvea. Seedi angular, smooth. 

Leave! simple, opposite or alternate, stipulate or exstipulBte, sub-CTer- 
green ; S-nerved or feather^nerved. FUneen axillary or terminsl. FetSceii 
usually fumislied with braMeas at the base. — Shrubs or uibshrubt, low. 

I. H. TULCA^RK Girrt, The common Helianthemtim, or San Bote. 
Fnct,l,p.m.t.76.i DDB'tMOI., 1. p. Ml. 
Momfmr. L-uimH^Hwhtninm Lin.Sp.l.o.7U.,Sm.Xi^l.Sbl.l3U.,Cmrt.Tt.LBm* S-t-ls. 
eifratiitl Bag. BM.,l.mi,i jidourj^.^. 

^ec. Char., j-e. Stem suflruticose, procumbent, branched, branches elongated. 
Leaves srarcely revoliite at the margins ; under surface cinereously hoary j 
upper Burfaceereen, pilose, somewhat ciliated. Lower leaves 
somewhat orbicular, midilte ones ovate-elliptical, upper ones ^ 
oblong. Stipules obtong-linear, ciliated, longer than ibe foot- 
stalks of the leaves. Racemes loose. Pedicels and caljxes , 
pilise. (Don'i Mill.) A procumbent ?ub-evergreen under- 
shrub. Europe and Britain, in dry and hilly pastures. Height 
6 iiL to 1 ft. Flowers yellow ; May to September. 
Farietiri. There ia a very handsome double-flowered variety, 
with pale yellow flowers ; and another, called Lee's new double 
yellow, with dark yellow flowers; both of which are in general 
cultivation in the nurseries. De Candolle also notices two 
forms of the species ; one with tomentnse pubescent branches, 
and stipules scarcely longer than the footstalks of the leaves i uuu hiiouiet 
with branches glabrous at the base, but pubescent upwards, and the stipulea 
twice or thrice the length of the petioles of the leaves. 
The stamens, if touched during sunshine, spread slowly, and lie down upoo 
the petals. {Snath.) "A very variable species," even in a wild state i and, 
in gardens, many beautiful varieties, single and double, have been originated 
from it bj cross fecundation with Continental helianthemuins, and perhaps with 

1^ 2. H. fv.) st;RREJA'NVKiMii'. The Sur- , 
rey Ueliimtb emrnn, or Sun Roie. i 

L Diet, No. IS.) S>L Cln, t-K. 1 

Spec. Char., S/c. Stem suShiticose, procum- | 
beot. Leaves ovate oblong, rather pilos 
Raceme* many-flowered, terminal. P 

viir. cigr&'csjR: helia'ntbemuh. 69 

tab narrow, lanceolate, iffged, (Don^t JUiO.) A procumbent, Mib-ever- 
freen,Bu&Hiticose.underBhrub. Britain, in Surrey, near Croytion. Bright 
6 in. to 1 ft. Flowers yellow, with the pelali diatinct, tod the cdyxM pilofe ; 
July to Octol>er. 

%~ 3. H, (v.) si^RPitxiFo'LiUM Mill The Wild-Tbynie-leuved Helianth»- 
mum, or Sun Bale, 

Dv~«'- St. Ci>t;t.«).!*»iourA.aa. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Stem suEIrucicose. Branches ascend- 
eut, {[labrous at the baBc, aod pilose at the apex. 
Leaves oblong^elliptical, with revolute mnrgiiis ; under 
suiface boary-tomentose ; upper aurfece intensely 
green, bhiaing, at firat rather pilose, afterwarda almost 
smooth. Stipules and brncteas green, ciliated. Ca- 
lyies (^Descent, with inconspicuous down, and with 
the nerves sparingly pilose. (_Don'i MUtJ) A trailing, ■ 
nib-eversrecn, suSruticose undenthrub. Alps of Stjria and Austris, and in 
Britain, in Somersetshire. Height 6 in. to I ft. Introduced in 1731 ) dt»- 
covered in England in 18S6. Flowers large, yellow, with the petals distinct; 
May to September. 

_,.,.. _ ., %oj>.'Cmn,.l6.t.iio.'&.l.'it. 

EKtrariatt- awL Clit.. t. a. i Sarp. Cub., cd, 1. 1. ». ; ud our /g. K. 

Spec. Char., S^. Stem sufihiticose, ascending. Branches hairv. 
Upper lenvea flattisb, oblong, rather pilose; upper auHace 
freen, under surface sometimea pale cinereous. Stipules 
ciliated, rather longer than the footstalks of (he leaver. 
Flowers large. Calyxes rather hairy. {Doti'i Mill.) A neat, 
little, bushy, sub- evergreen, Hufl^ticoae undersbrub, bearing a 
close resembliinee to H. vulg&re, but larger in all its parts. 
Pyrenees. Height e in. to 1 (t. Introduced in IBtiO. 
Flowers large, pfde yellow ; June to August. ' 

lU 5. H, (v.) TAv'nicuM Fiteh, The Taurinn Helianthemum, or San Stne. 

HrMlpcMlam. Fticti.HSS.) DOB'IMUI., l.tLlll. 
Smtraitiip. SM. Clit.. lOB.i uidour.A(, M. 

Spte. Char., ^c. Stem suflruticose. much branched, pro- 
cumbent. Branches procumbent, beset with lung hairs. 
f Leaves oblone-lanceolate, with rather revolute margins, 

rinlose on both lur&cca, green abo*e, and paler beneath. 
Stipules lanceolate-linear, ciliated, longer than the petiole. 
> Flowen large. Calyx shining, rather hairy. Petals imbri- 
I cate. {Don'i Mill.) A procumbent, sub-evergreeD, suflruti- 
cose undershrub. Tauria. Height 6 in. 
to 1 h. Introduced in 18S0. Flowers 
lai^, pnle yellow ; May to October. 

H. «.iiAj Resembles H. grandifldrum ; but diSers 

from it in the branches spreading flat on the ground, and 
extending to a great distance. 



^ee. Char., 3fc. Stem Buflriitlcose, branched. Bmnches Epreoding. boary 
tomentose. Leaves stalked, oblong linear, with the margins acarcely revo- 
iule; under surfai^e tomentose, uiiper surface glaucescent, but at length 
becoming Nmooth. Stiriulcs Hw1-i>haped, longer ihan tbe fuotBtalks of the 
leuvia. Calyxes covered with very short hairs, striated, cinereously glaucouH, 
blimtUh. (Zton'i MUi.) A procumbent, aub-evergreen, suffruticoae, under- 
shrub. (Jertnany and Italy, on dry hills and places exposed to the sun. 
Height 6 in. to 1ft. Introduced in 1731, Flowers white, with the petals 
distinct, and marked with yellow at thdr base \ May to August. 

t 7. H. (vOmacra'nthum Salt. 

UtHii/iaUim. Drni'iirm.. 1. p. jia. 

Eatrattiift. Ssl. CiK..l.loa.{ uidoarjIe.M. 

Spec. Char., <j-c. Stem suffhiticose. Branches procum- 
bent, rather tomentose. Leaves flat, ovate oblong, 
acutish ; smooth above.and densely lomenCose beneath ; 
pale cinereous, ijiipules rather pilose; about equal to, 
or longer than, the petioles. Calyx stri- 
ated, pilose. Petals distinct. {Don'i 
Mill.') A procumbent, sub-evergreeiii 
suffVuticose undemhrub. Originated in 
^rdens. Height 6 in. to 1 fl. Cultivated 
in 1HS8. Flowers larger than in any 
other species ; cream-coloured white, 
"■ "■"'«'™'™-- with the petals distinct, spreading, and 

very slender at the base, where chey arc marlied with yel- 
low 1 May lo August. 

I. H.m.imidtiplei (Swt Cist., t. lOt.; andour «g.9l.) „. a.m.^ai,^ 
is a benutiful plant, not only on account of its fine 
double flowers, but of its habit of growth. It ought to be iu every 

t 8. H. (T.) c 

lim^aUim. Swl. O 

Spec. Char., S[c. Stem suffi^ticose, branched, diffiue. Branches ascending, 
rather toiuentose, canescent. Leaves flat, or hardly revolule at the msj'gins; 
under surface tomcntosely hoary, upper surface greenish glaucous. Lower 
leaves ovate oblong, obtuse ,' upper ones lanceolate, acute. Stipules linear, 
ciliated, somewhat longer thnn the footstalks. Calyxes smoothish, but with 
the nerves pubescenL Petals imbricated. (Don'i MUI,') A procumbent, 
aub-evergreen, sufH-uticose undershrub. Originated in gardens. Height 
6 in. 10 1 foot. Cultivated in 1826. Flowers reddish crimson; May to 

A splendid plant, with reddish crimson flowers; 
the petals imbricated, and having a small orange spot 
at the base of each. Sweet considers it as having ihe 
darkest-coloured, if not the handsomest, flowers of ^ 
the genus. The flowers are also, he says, very large ^ 
for the siie of the plant. It is nearly related to H 
rhodinthum, but is readily distinguished from it by it 
canescent leaves, and stronger habit of growth. 




Spec. Char., ij-c. Stem BuffhiticoBC, ascending. Bnmcbei h4it7-toniento»e. 
Lower leaves ova] ^ upper ones obIong-lan< culate, green on both surbces, 
flai, hairy. Csl;^*'^ nairy. Petals inibricMe. (i>on'i MHi.) A sub- 
evcrgreen suShitJcose undenhrub, with the biUQcne* ascending. Origi- 
nated in gardens. Height 1 tt. to IJ 1^. CultivBted in 18:i7. Flowers 
Turiable from salTron to red ; May to August. Capsule brown ; ripe in 
September. Varying considerably by culture. 

*~ H. h. I cmcahim (Swt. Cist,, t. 92.) has 

flowera tuflVon-coloured, with more or less 

of a ferrugineous tint, and may represent 

the species. 

*~ N. h. t cuprrtin (Swt. Cist., t. 58.) has 

flowers or a reddish copper-colour, 
fc. U. b. 3i(.<!//tpfcx(Swt.Cist.,l.78.iandour 
Jig. 93.) has double flowers, of a reddish 
All the three fornu of this variety are splendid 
plants; they are hardy, of luxuriant growth, flower- 
ing freely, and of the easiest culture, either in pot* 
or on banks of light aandy soil, covered with flints _ 

or stones. The fiowers of the copper^coloured v«- "■ "■''■"'■''""'•■■ 
riety, and also the leaves, are la^er than those of the two other kinds. The 
double-flowered variety appears to be of a loore upright habit of growth, 
and not quite so robust as the others, 

.■ 10. H. sCABRo'sDH Pen. The rough Hetianthemum, or Sua Rote. 

n. Ench., I. II.T6.I Brot. Fl, Liu., 3.p.Wt.i 

tea mrjlf. W. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Ercctish. Branches pilosely to- 

mentose, scabrous, canescent. Leaves sesaile. 

tapering to the base, oblong-ovate, aculiab, 

roughisH, S-nerved, with waved revoluie margins ; 

upper surface green, under surface clothed with 

grey tomentum. Peduncles terminal, 1 — 8-flow- 

ered, shorter than the leuves. Calyx S-tepaled, 

hairy. Petals distinct. {Don't Mill.) A sub-eveN 

green erect undershrub. Portugal. Height S (I. 

toSft. Introduced in 1TT5. Flowers rich yellow ; 

June to August. Capsule brown ; ripe in Sept. 

Diflen from most other species of Ilelifinthemun), 
in growing erect. It forms a very handsome litllebusb, 
but it requires a sheltered siluation, and a dry soil. "' "■"■'"*■"■ 

Many other Kindt of Helianthemamt describedin Sweet's CiirinftB are, perhaps, 
ashardyas those we haveaelccted; hutit would be of little use giving them here, 
the greater part having been lost during the winter of 1S3T-8. In the first 
edition of this Arboretum 99 species are described, besides varieties. Sup- 
posing a cultivator about to form a collection of (Jrslacea, we should attach 
much less importance to his being able to procure all the sorts of CistUE and 
Hetiinthemum described in Sweet's Cittineie, than to his obtaining all the sort* 
easily procurable, whatever names they might pass under, and cross-fecunda- 
ting them so as to produce new forms. There can be no doubt whatever that 
the sorts of both the genera Clstue and HeMnthemum might, by cross-fe- 
cundation, be increasea i«f iafinUum ; and, considering their very great beauty 
as border and rookwork shrubs, we think they merit the attention of culti- 
vators at least as mnch as many florist's flowers. 

., Google 

akbohetum ct fbuticstum britaknicum. 

Order IX. JVfALVA'CE^. 

Okd. CnAK, Calyx with a valTBte (Estivation, mostly with an iriTolucre. S»- 
tnfni nilb t}ie fitamenta montulelphouB, bdiI the anthers l-celled. Puhet- 
cenrx itarry. (Lindl,) — Trees or shrubs, deciduous, nativea of warm climates. 
Leavft simple, ulternate, stipulate, deciduous ; more or less divided. 
Henrt stellate, axilWy. Flomert on peduncles, large, showy, — The only 
genua containing Hardy species is Hibiscus. The genus Lav&tera contains 
«ome species which have an arborescent appearance, but which are in Gut 
only Bulfhitescent biennials or triennials. 

Gehus I. 


frlBI'SCUS L, Turn. Hibiscus. Un. Syti. Honadflphia Polv4ndria. 

MeuttcaMiK. Lin. OcOnMS. i DK.Prod, 1. ii.MH.i Dan'illJll., I. p. <7S. 

feanwsa. K<Dnta,H''i ElUuh, Grr. j Wtco, Hal, 

DtTtnaim. Tbe vatd kAtaot l> ons o( the nucu eItcd by the Qnnki lo lbs nullaH. Tfas Mbten 
I whilvihrntDrvIrgltli jLpUm wlttapUut bniicba^ 
<KUI li lUppoHd Er loma to bs derlTsd from £Wj. ■ 
IH. Kcun[e[Fr.)<i<ledT«iirrom X/CnntbeiiaH 

Cm. Char. Calyx encompassed by a many-leaved, rarely by a few-leaved, in- 
volucel, or one with its leaves connate. Peiatt not auricled. Stigtaat 5. 
Carpelt joined into a 5-celled 5-vslved capsule, with a dissepiraent in the 
middle of each valve on the inside. CelU many-seeded, rarely l-seeded. 

Leatm simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous j variously lobed and 
toothed, generally ovate- wedge-shaped. FUnveri pedunculate, large, ahowy. 
— The only hardy ligneous species is H. syrlacus. 

• I. H. 9rai'«cus L. The Syrian HiUscua, or AltJuca Fhder. 
Dk. Prod.. I. p. MB. ; Don'i Mill, 1. 4Tt. 

1.1 Bat.Hig..t.n.iuddarAl'».. 

Spec, Char., Ac. Stem unarmed, arboreous. Leaves 
ovate, wedge-shaped, 3-lobed, toothed. Pedicels hardly 
longer than the leaves. Involucel 6 — 7-leaved. (Don't 
MUl.) A deciduous shrub. Syria and Camiola. Height 
1^. Introduced in 1596. Flowers large, single or 
double, white, red, purple, or vnri^ated ; August and 
September, Capsule greenish brown ; ripe in October. 
Decaying leaves yellowish green. Naked wood white 
One of our most ornamental hardy shrubs, of which "^ 

there are the following varieties : — 

• H. f. S Jnliu variegalu. — Leaves variegated. 

• H. ». 3jMrriMrif^aio.— Flowers variesated, 

• H. «. i Jtore jnajiurro. — Flowers purple. 

a H, f, h Ji6re purpurea pltTto. — Rowers double, purple. 

A H. «. 6 flore rubra. — Flowers red. 

A H, i, 1 Jlore iJbo. — Flowers white. 

B H. <. 6^flire ilbo plmo. — Flowers double, white. 

., Google 


BnncheB numerous, upri^t, vhite-bgirbed ( their general character being 
rather feitigiate than Bpreading. Leaves variously lohed ; flowers aiillary, 
large, and bell-shaped. Conspicuously ornamental ; and the more velualile, 
bemuse it produce its flowers at a tune of the year when few shrubi are 
in bloom. It forms beautiful garden hedges ; inoro eipeciall; «hen the 
diAerent sorts are planted in a harmonious order of succession, according to 
their colours ; and when the plants are not clipped, but carefully pruned with 
the knife. In the colder parts of Britain, and in the north of Oermany, few 
omamenEal shrubs better deserve being planted against a wall. It nill grow 
in almost any soil not too wet j but, like all the JfalvacesE, seems to prefer 
one which is sandy, deep, and rich, rather than poor. An open airy situation, 
where it will rt|>ea its wood, is essential. The single-Sowered varietieB are 
propa^ted by seed, which come up true to th^r respective colours ; and the 
double-flowered varieties are propagated by layers, by grafting on the common 
■ortt, sjid sometimes by cuttings of the ripened wood, plaiited in sand in 
autumn, and covered with a hand-glass during the winter. 

Oeder X. nUA'CE.^ 

Omd. Chab. Sepak 4 or 6, with a valvate sestivation, mostly without an inro* 
lucre. PetaU 4 or 5, or rarely not any. Stamem hypog^'nouB, generally 
□umerous, with filaments separate, and anthers S-cdIed. Mostly g/anat 
betwoen ttte petals and ovarium. Ovary undjruit single^ of 4^10 carpels 
grown together ; cells in the fruit, at least in some, not so many as the 
carpels. (Laidiet/.) — Trees and shrubs chiefly from warm climates. 

Lmnwf simple, alternate, stipulate, decnduous; cordate. fVoiwri panicled, 
yellowish, fragrant, with an oblong bractea united to the common stalk. 

TIXIA L, The Ltn Tbbb. Lm.,^l. Potyindria Moaog/nio. 

m. JJb. G«.,««I). I Dk. Frad., 1. p. SII. ; Dou'i MID., 1. p. Kt. 
. LhMTn,a«wili Llnd. ilnwIe-Sar. i TUlcukfy. ; But-Holu, air.; Ltaide, Ofr. 
'I I TliIlL lUi. i Tllo. 9m. ; U», Ruii. 
■• CoBdan ud Wlw't HiOrrd OanlrnrT lb* niTDe of rUla l( dFrlnd fn 

Gea. Char, Calyx 5^>arted. PetaJi 5. Slanum numerous, free, or some- 
what polyadelphous. Ovary globose, villous, 1-styied, fuelled ; cells 8- 
ovuled. tfat coriaceous, I>celled, 1 — 8-seeded, firom abortion, (lioiit 
MiU.,\, p. 540.) — Timber trees, with a tough fibrous baA, large deciduoua 
leaves, mellifluous flowers, and a remarkable bractea attached to the pe- 
duncle of each of the cymes of flowers. Natives of Europe and North 

X^ocvfsimple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous; cordate, 
three, according to some ; and more than twice that number, according 

and T. ameri< 

cminionis, that they niay be all included under two, T. eutopat^ 

The European, or amtmon. Lime Tree. 
Ua-Og. m.j D»><H111.,l.t>.iHS.| BniUb>BB(.Fl.,S.p.lS. 
- ■-—'-- Of . rT^*.\.M*.■,olT.n^^X\tt^^tmDlmi.^ T.t*nf^*t 



Spec. Char., ^c. Petals without fcnles. Leaves cordate, Bcuminatcd. ser- 
rated, smooth, except a tult of hair at tEie origin of the rdiu beneath, twice 
the length of the petiolea. Cymes many, flowered. Fniit coriaceous, 
downy. (Don'i Mill.) A larne deciduous tree, Europe, and Britain in 
some aboriginal woods. Height 60 ft. to 90 (t. Flowers yellowish white : 
August and Septeinher. Fruit veilow ; lipe in October. Deifljiog leaves 
yellow, or yellowish brown. Naked Toung wood reddish, or ydlowi$h 

Varietiet. The extensive dislribution and long cultivation of this tree in 
Europe have given rise to the following varieties, or races, described by 
moit botanists as species : — 

A. Varietiet diffeting in reipect to Foliage. 

S T.e.] parvjfolia. T. microphyila Vent., tTU/d.. Dec, and G. Dim ; T. 
e. var. y L.; T. ulmilolia Scon. \ T. sylv&tris Benf. -, T parvifolin 
Ehrh., Hayne Dend. ; T. cordilts ATJl. ; Tilleul i petites Feuilles 
Fk; kleinblattrige Linde, or Winterlinde, Gw. (Wiljd, Ilolart, 
t. lOe.i Engl. Bot.. I. 1705.; and our jfe. 97.) 
— Leaves cordate, roundish, acuminated, snamlj 
serrated ; smooth above, glaucous and bearded 
bencuth on the axil^ of the veins, as well as 
in hairy blotches. Fruit rather globose, hardly 
ribbed, very thin end brittle. Native of Europe, i; 
in sub-mountainous woods ; in England, frequent \ 
in Essex and Sussex. This variety is distinguish- ^ 
able, at fiiDt sight, from all the others, hy the 
smallness of ilsleavea, which are only about 2 in, 
broad, and sometimes scarcely longer than their 
slender foorstalks. The flowers are also much '"■ '■'""^i^ 
smaller than in any of the other viirietles ; they expand later; and 
they are very fragrant, having a scene like those of tne honeysuckle 
There was, m 1834, a subvariety of this in the garden of the Hort 
Soc, under the name of T. parvifolia glaiica. 

f T.e. S grandifdlia. T. platyphvlla Scop.; T. cordifolia Bett. ; T 

X. riLIA'CEX: n'LtA. 


lande, Fr. (Vent, Wm., p. 6. t. I. f, 2. ; the plate in Arb. Brit., lu 
edit., vol. V. ; and our fig. 98.) — Leaves cordate, roundish, 
acuminated, sharply aerrated, downy beneath ; oriicin of their veina 
woolly. Branchei hairy. Cymes 3-flowered. Fruit iroody, down;, 
turbinate, with 5 prominent angles. This tree is readily distingiilBhed 
from T. e. parvif&lia by its much larger and rougher leaves, and, also, 
by its rougher bark and hispid branches. 
T. e. 3 mirrmiiUa. T. interm^ia Hayne ; T. platyphyita rolnor 
Hort. (The plate of thii variety in Arb. Brit, Ist ecUt., vol.v.j 
and our^.99.} — Leavei intermediate between T.a. grandifttia 


and T. e. panrifdlia. This vtrietv i» the most common in Britain; 
T. e. grandifol'a io the South of Europe ; and T. e. perrifSlia in the 
North of Europe, and especially in Sweden. 
t T. e. 4 UvModla. T. platyphyila laciniata Hurt.; T. anplenifdlia 
n6va Hort. (The plate in Arb. BriC, laC edition, vol. v. ; and onr 
fig, 100.) — Leaves deeply and irregularly cut and twisted, tcarcely 
two on the tree being aulie. Apparently a subvariety of T. e. par- 
viOlia. Height 80 or 30 feet. 

., Google 


B. Varietia d]^rvig m the Colour of the young ShooU. 
Each of the varieties includeil in Diviiiion A may have aubvarieties dif^ 
fering in the colour of the young vood ; but we sh^ only notice those 
in general cultivation. 

T T. ff. 5 rifi™. T. corinthlaca Boic; T. cor&IUna HoH. Kew.; T. 
europie'a (3 rilbra SAtiiorp ; T. europn'a y SmUh'i Flnr, Brit. 571, s 
T. f^randifolia fi SmilA't En^. I'lora, 3. 19. — Young shoots of a 
bright red ; apfiarently a vanety of T. e. iiiterm^ia. 
t T. e, e poTvi/Slia aiarea. (The plate in Arl>. Brit., lat. edit. vol. v. ; 
andour &. lot.)- Youiuahoota of arich ycllov. Height 15ft. 
to 20 ft. 


Wkt Farittiet. There is a variety with variegated leaves, but it is nich a 

X. riLiA'cEf: ti'lia. 67 

ngged ilMooking plant tbat we deem it altogether unworthy of culture. 
Bust, in hu FInra Aiulrinea, has tbe folloiking names, uhich he connideri ai 
(peciea : T. ritifolia ; corylifolia ; gninclifoliu Sm, ; corallint, sjn. eutopEe'a 
Hook. Iiond. ; muC&bilia ; lale bractenta ; pm'cox ; pyramidalis ; inter- 
media ; tenuifdlia; obliqua; europte'a An. ; parvilolia ^ni. i argfniea, sjn. 
ilba Waldtt. el Kit. lam. t. 3. { Ft. Aui., vol. ii. p. 59—63.) 
The wood of the lime tree ia of a pale yellow or white, close-grained, soft, 
light, and emooth, and not attacked by insects. It weighs, per cubic foot, 
when green, bb lb. ; half-dry, 45 lb. ; and dry, 37 lb. ; and it Ioecs b third 
part of its weight, and a fourth part of its bulk, by drying. (Baiidrill.) It ia 
uied by pianoforte-makers for »oundini;-boardB, and by cabinet-makers for a 
variety of purpoKB. It is carved into toys, and turned into dume^tic utensils 
of Tanous kinds, and into Email boxes for tlie Bpotbecaries. The most el^ant 
UM to which it is applied is for ornamental carving, for which it is superior to 
every other wood. This wood is said to make excellent charcoal for gun- 
powder ; even lietter than elder, and nearly as good as haiel. Bankets and 
cnullei were formerly made from (he twigi^ ; ard shoemakers and glovers are 
said to prefer plonks of time tree for rutting the finer kinds of leather upon. 
the leaves of Che lime tree, in common with those of the elm and the poplar, 
were used, both in a dried and in a ereen state, for feeding cattle, by ine Ro- 
mans ; and they are still collected wr the same purpose in Sweden, Nor«ay, 
Camiola, and Switterland. One of the most important uses of the lime tree, 
in the North of Europe, is that of supplying material for ropes and bast 
mats i the latter of which enter extensively into European commerce. The 
Russian peasants weave the bark of the youne shoots for the upper parts of 
their shoes, the outer bark serves for the soles ; and they also make of it, 
tied ti^ether with strips of the inner bark, baxkebi and boxes for domestic 
purposes. The outer bark of old trees supplies them, like lliat of the birch. 
with tiles for covering their cottages. Ropes are stilt made from (he bark of 
the tree in Cornwall, and in some parts of Devonbhire. The lishermen of 
Sweden make nets tor catching fish of the fibres of the inner bark, separated, 
by maceration, so as to form a kind of flax ; and (he ahepherds of Camiota 
weave a coarse clotbof it, which herves them for their ordinury dothins. The 
sap of the lime tree, drawn offin spring, and evaporated, aiTords a considerable 
quantity of sugar. The honey prtxluced by the flowers ia considered superior 
to all other kinds for its delicacy. London and Wise recommended the lime 
tree, as preferable to the elm, for sheltering gardens or orchards ; because the 
roots do not, like those of the elm, spread out and impoverish all around them. 
A deep and rather light soil is recommended ; tmt the largest trees are as. 
nerally fouod in a good loamy soil. In dry situations, the lime never utuni 
a large size, and it loses its leaves earlier than any other tree. Bdog a tree 
of the plains, rather than of the mountains, it does not appear suitable for ex- 
posed sur&ces: bnt it requires a pure air rather than otherwise ; for, though. 
It is found in towns on tlie Continent, and nnringly so in Britain, the smoke 
of mineral coal seems more injurious to it tnen it is to tbe platanus, tbe elm 
or some other trees. It is seldom propagated otherwise than by layers, which 
are made in the nurseries in autumn and winter -, and which became rooted, 
so as to admit of being taken off, in a year. The tree in Britain appears sel- 
dom to ripen its seeds. 
X £. T. (bur.) a'lb* tValdtl. 4 KU. The whitfrinmri European Lime Tree, 

~ ~~~ .PI. Huns-i Doo'iMUL l.p.SU. 

Roi I T. •litnln Duf., Dee. Col. Eort Xmup., uul Da, Prat. 1. 

Eiirni<ai.' W^dit! ud H^fl. Bimf. 1. 1. S.'i' Wul Umd., L Tl.i tha pUU In Atb. Brit.. M 
Sli,-rS.T.; aadinuA. 101. 

^lec. CAar., ^c. Petals each with a scale at the base inside. Leaves cpnlau^ 
•omewbat acuminated, end rather unequal at the bace, serrated, clothed witb 
white down beneath, but smooth above, 4 timet longer than the petiolea. 
Fruit ovste, with 6 obscure ribi. {Don't Mill.) Pniit eridnitly nbbed. 


(Slevert.) Hoat asya that he has slwara found the calyx 6-aepaled, and the 
corolla )3-peta1ed. A large tree. Hungary. Hdght 30 ft. to 50 ft. Iit- 
trodueed in 1767. Flowers yeltowiBh « liiie, very rragrant ; June to August. 
Fruit yellow; ripe in October. 

Our own opinion is, that thin is nothing more than a Tery distinct race or 
the common hme ; notwithstanding the circumstance of its havinB scales to ita 
■KtHl", which no one of the other varieties of T. europaE'a in said lo pofisess. 
Even allowina this strurture to be permanent in the Hiingarian lime, the tree 
bears such a geneml renemblnnce to T. curopzNi in all its main fcotnres, that 
it seems to us impossible to douht the identity o( their origin. We nre 
atrcnftthened in thia opinion by the circumstance of its beinj; found only in 
isolated stations in the Himgariati ruresix. We have, however, placed this 
lime by itself, rather than among the other yariciies ; because, from the white- 
ness of its foliage, it is far more obviously dis'inct than T. e. );randifoIia or 
T. e. parvifolia. The tree is at once diatin^ishable from all the oiher species 
and varieties by thi* white appearance, even at h considerable distance, and 
by the strikingly snowy hue of its leaves when they are ruffled by the wind. 
Its wood and shoots reKemble those of the common lime; but it does not 
attain the.ume height ei that tree. 

t 3- T. america'na L. The American Lime Tree. 

Sgj-'inwma. >. «l*i)r» Vwil.';' T. urollnliilij (frmim*. ;' V. cnimlin.l. Uirlmui: T, nUbrm D«-., 
Emgrarimgl. Vmt. Diu.,1. 9. i w'lU Dcndr. Brit..l.'lM. ^ [hii'p)urln Arb! Bril., lit KUt.. nl.T.: 

^^icc. Char., Sfc. Petals each with a scale at the base, inside. Leaves pro- 
foundly cordate, xbruptty acuminate, sharply serrated, somewhat coriaceous, 
imooth. Petals truncate and crenate at the apex, equal in length to the 
style. Fruit ovate, soniewhHt ribbed. (Dan'i Mil/,) Alurgctree. Canada, 
Virf^inia, and Ucorgia. Hei>:ht TO ft. to 80 ft. in America ; in Enjand 60 ft. 
to TOft. Introduced in 1758. Flowers yellowish white ; July and August. 
Fruit the size of a Urge pea, yellow ; ripe in Octot)er. Decaying lu«ea 
yellowish brown. NakM young wood dark brown. 

, Google 

X. tilia'ceje; ti'lia. 69 

Varietia. Those which we shall give us such are deKiibed io the I'Vrra of 
ToTTejf and Gray as species ; but with the following remark, which we think 
fully juBli&cs us in nol considering them more specificBlly distinct than the 
diSerent alleged apecies of the European lime. " There is great uncertainty 
lespecilng the synonymes. Inileed, nearly all the tharactera which have 
be«i employed for distinguishing them are either inconslani, or arc common 
to tliem all. A caieful examination of the flowers in the living planu may 
afiiird more certain marks ot'diBi'riminMtion,' 

J T. a. 2 heterophj^tla. T. heterophWla Vent,, Pwth. Dec. Prod., Tor. 
4 Gray. — A tree of 30 ft. to 50 ft. hijrh, found on the banks of the 
Ohio and Mississippi, and introduced in 1811. Leave* glehroiis and 
deep green ahove, very white and velvety tomenlose beneath ; the 
veins dark-coloured, and nearly elabrous, with coarse mucronute ocr- 
reture*. Petals obtuse, crenuliile. itlaniinodia spatulnte, entire. 
Style hairy at (he base. (T«r. and Gray, i. p. S40.) Leaves * in. 
to 8 in. in diameter, very oblique, and more or less cordate, with a 
■hort abrupt acuminution ; Eomewhat shining above ; the veins on 
the under surface very conspicuous, in contrast with the white pu- 
bescence. Cyme few-llowered, loose. Stjle longer than the petals. 
T T. a. 3 a/ia. T. alba Michx., Tor. * Gray; T. laxifldra Purth. (The 

plate of this tree in Arti. BriL, Ist ed., voL v. ; and our^. 103.^— A 

targe tree in Pennsylvania end Mnryland. Height 30 ft. to 50 ft. 
Introduced io 1920. Flowers yellowish white, very pale j June. 
Leaves 3 in. to 4 in. in diameter, with a shoirt abrupt acumination, 
cordate, somewhat unequal at the base ; the under surface rather 
thinly pubescent, very pale, hut scarcely while. Staminodia (scales) 
two thirds (he length of the petals. Filaments slightly pentadel- 
phous. {Tor. and Gray, i. p. 240.) We have only seen this tree in 
the H. S., where, 10 years planteil, it was about 10ft. high in 1837. 
T. a. 4 pabhcem. T. pubiscens Ail., Vent., Tor. <f- Gray. (The niate 
of thi>; tree in Arb. Bnt., Isted., vol. v. ; and our ^. 104.) — A We 
tree found in Carolitta and Florida, along the sea coast. Height 
50 ft. to 70 ft. Introduced in 1726, Flowers pale yellow i June. 
Leaves 3 in. to 4 in. in diameter ; the under surface, when young, 
rather paler than the upper, hut at length nearly the same colour; 
fl broail nnd short. (TV. imd Gray, i, p. 240.) 

., Google 



a general view of the trees, the most obvious external differential chs- 
Glics of the EuroiKsn and American limes appear to us to be, that 
the Ibnner have regularly cordate, and the latter obliquely cordate, leaves. 
The other American limes we consider to be nothing n^o^e than varieties of 
this speciea. La^^^ Thene trees only thrive in warm sheltered situations. 
The American Itme is readily distinguished from the European limea by the 
largeness of its leaves, which are 3 in. to 4 ui. wide, lieart-sliaped, acutely 


pointed, coarsely and niucronately serrated, deep green and glabrous on th«r 
upper aides, and pale green beneath. Some of them have a tendency to be 
■lightly pubescent ; but they are generally smooth and shining. In winter, 
this species is readily recognised by the robust appearance of the trunk and 
branches, and by the dark-brown colour of t)ie bark on the young shoots. 
This circumstance alone is a very marited distinction ; and has, do doubt, pro- 
cured for the species tha name of the black lime tree. 

XI. TERNSrnOHJ^'CfliB ; malachode'hdhon. 71 

OtMer Amerieam Lmet. — T. p. U^tojA^lla VeIl^ is mentioned by Torrey tnA 
Ony as having the leaves very tbia Rod papyraceous. There vere in 1S34 
othtT Tarieties ia (he li. S. O., but the plants had not aitained sufficient xiie to 
enable iib to state mj thing with certainty respecting them. All the B[iecie« 
and varielieM of Amerieun limcii are delicate in this countc? j they are readily 
injured by spriii| frosts, but. where they thrive, are readilv diatinguished from 
other limes by their very large cordate leaves, and rouyh bark, even on the 
jroung wood. Some of the oldest and largest American limes in Engtand are 
in Gatton Park. Surrey, near the lake j and at Croome, near Uplon upon 
tSevem. There is bd old tree, alio, at Puraer'a CroHs. Fulbam ; and a m- 
mailabljr baDdaome youog tree at White Knights. 


Oru. Cbak. Cafyr with an imbricate estivation. Slatntiu wii _ . 

monadelphoua or polyadelphous, and antbera S-celled to 4-c«lled. — Trcei 

and shniba of varro climates. 

Jjcaert simple, alternate, exstipulnte, deciduous or evergreen i moMlj 

coriaceous, now and then with pellucid dots. Flomtm aiillary, large, 

Fhowy. — The hardy genera iti British gardens are Malachodtndron, SCu> 

irtio, and Gorddnia; which are thus contradistinguished i — 
Uauchodi'ndhon Cm. Calyx unibracte&te, Styles fi«e. Caipels capsular, 

S, connected. 
Stua'bt/.* Cav. SepaU connected, bibracteate. Style 1. Capsule fr4:elled, 

fi-valved. Seeds wiuglesB. 
Oobdo'km Ellia. Be^ distinct. Btyle 1. Capmile 5<dled, 5-valved. 


HALACBODB^DRON Cm. Trs MALicHODitMDmiiif. tA». Sgtl. 
Honad^lphia Poiyindria. 

HaHHaiUtm. Cn. !>!'>..».; Dk. Trod., I. p. EM.i Don'lHUL. 1.p.m. 

SMmrma. Stulit/a L'Htrti. i Suvtnfo L. 

ihrfmUHm. From malakiK, foil, uiil ^n^rom, ■ tree ; In •lliulon. psrhipi, tn Uh qiulltv of Ik* 

Gen. 0UIT. Calyx S-cleft, furnished with two bracteas at the baae. Frlab 
5, with a crenulate hnib. Ovarv S-furrowed. Stylet S, unconnected. Sdgmai 
capitate. Carpcti S, capsurur, connected, 1- seeded. Seedi unknown. 
(An'f Mill.') — A deciduous shrub or low tree; native of North Americ*. 
Leave* simple, alternate, eutipulate, deciduous. Floweri axillary. »o- 
litai^. large, showy. 

I ■ I. Hil«chodk'hdrokova'tuh Cas, The ovate-^nit>ni Halachodendron. 

/dmMuUn. Ct': 1. c i IJikH. BoL Rrt.; Don', Mill.. I, p.m. 

•^momri. Sminte pcniiff d1> VHttU. \ BMvirUa HaUcbeMndno UBI. \ BUwiitls k dof 

Eyrari-tt-' Smlih'i Eiot. BoL, t. lol.i N. Du Hud.tdI.tI t <4.i BoC B(f., t. ll«.| ndoar 

Spec. Char,, ifc. Leaves ovale, acuminated. Flowers aiillat;, solitary, almost 
•easile. Petals waved, cut, of a pole cream-colour. (DoiCi MUL) A de- 
ddnotis tree ; in Englaiid, a lat^ shmh. North Carolina to Oeorria. Hdsht 



7 ft. C0 12 (t. IntroducediD 1795. Flowers 
arge, white i J jly nnd Aiigust. CapHules 
brownuh; ripe in September. Decaying 
leaves purplidh braivn. Naked young 
wood (larlt browr. 

The soil in which it is generally grown 
JB a mixture of lutun and peat, in which ; 
the hitter prevails ; but, in the Mile End 
Nursery, it shoots vigorously, end flowers 
freely, in deep sandy loam. The situation 
ehoiild be iheltered ; and shaded rather 
than otherwise. The usu^ mode of pro- 
'""" Btion is by layers ; and the stools are ""• " 

luring winter, by mats. 


', ifirqwH ol Bute, Ihi piiroa ot Sir Jotia HU], and 

Gen. Char. Calyi permanent, S-cleD, rarely 5-twrted, fiimished with two brae- 
teas at the buse. PetaJt 5. Ovary roundish. Style I, lilifbmi, crowned 
by Bciqjilate 5-lobed stigma. Capitde woody. 5-ce1led, 5-valveU j cells 1 — 2- 
seLnled, Secdi wingless, ovate, even. (Don'i Mill.) 

l/caaet simple, alternate, exstipulate, deciduous; ovate, acute. Floaert 
axillary, solitary, large. — A deciduous shrub, or low tree, native of North 

■ 1. STUA'RTr^ virgi'nica Call. The Virginian Stuertia. 
Jiauiflealkm. Dec. Prod , I. n. SM. i Doa't Mill.. I p. stt. 
Srmir'ma. SUmknia MilK)irid»ndrDn /.m. Sp^ 9st.; StuiiUanoMtiMa £ot. Sft-i Sunmtla 

h un SIrle. fr. 1 Elngriaicbfi (onc-iiilnll Siiwtik. tier. 
fiurotAaf'' l4rn. III. t. BTQ. ( BdL Acp.. 1-397, i vui our Jif. IH, of t plutfD Ikower. Htd Jig. dMM trgm > UooL 

Sfiee. CbiiT., ^c. Flowers targe, white, with purple filaments and blue anther^ 
usually in pain. Leavet ovate, acute. Petals entire. (Don't MUL) A 
deciduous shrub. Virginia to Carolina, in swamp* , Height 6 ft. to R ft. 

XI. TEnN8TRi>MwY'£^: aoRDoV/^. 73 

Introduced in 1742. Flowera large, white ; July to September. Cnpsulei 

brownish ; ripe in October. Decaying leaves reddish broMn. Nuked young 

wood dark brown. 

The general appearance of the plant is the Btime as that of the preceding 
reniis; but it forms a smaller bush, and the foliage l>as a redder hue. The 
tlouerx are of the same size, white, with crisped petals, purple fihiments, and 
blue anthers. This plant is not so extensively cultivated as the orher, from 
its being more tender, and of somewhat slower growth ; bnt its beaiilv, and 
the circumstance of iti flowering from July (o Septiml>er, when but few trees 
or shrubs are in blossom, render it desirable for every collection. It thrives 
beat in ■ peat soil, kept moist ; but it will also grow in deep moist satid. 

Genus III. 

IB Goudonia. L 

70. 1 d™. Prod, i-p- ™ 

U0RD0'K/.4 Ellis. The Goudonia. Lot. Sga. Honad^lphU 
Mtiui/tMi-m. EUlh tn Phil. T 

Cm. CAar. Ca/yxoTS rounded coriaceous sepals. Felaii 5, some w hat adnatc 
to the urceolusoflhe stamens. Ulyfe crowned by a peltate 5-lobed stiamn. 
Capiiilei 5-celleil, 5-valved ; cells 8 — 4-sccded. Stedt ending in a leafy 
wing fixed to ihe central column, filiform. (Don't Miil.) 

Ltaoet sinijile, alternate, exstipulute, sub evergreen or deciduous ; serrated 
or nearly entire. Flowcn axillary (or terininul), sohtary, large. — Trees 
or shrubs, sub^^rergreeo or deciduous ; natives of North America. 

■ ■ I. GoKoo^NU Lasia'nthui L. The woolly-flowered Oordonia, or 

Loblolly Bay, 
UmljflDiillim. Lin. Midi.. no. I D«. Prod., I. p. MB.) Don'i MUL, 1. p. DTI.) Tar. ud Cnj' 
Sfkinvmn. /rjT^rlculD Lultottiui tim. Sp. He\..CaUMb. Carol. I. t. U., Plat. JmaM. I.IH.! 

Spec. Char., ^c. Pedicels axillarv, usually shorter than the leaves. Leaves 
oblong, coriaceous, smooth, serrated. Calyx silky. Capsules conoid, acu< 
minaled. (Don^t Mill.) A sub-evergreen tree; in 
England a shnib, deciduous in dry soils, but relain- 
ina its leaves in irarm moist situations. Virginia to 
Florida, in swamps. Height 50 ft. to 80 ft. in Ame- 
rica; eft. to 10 ft. in England. Introduced in IT39. 
Flowers white, 4 in. across, scented; July and August. 
Cajiaule oval, brownish ; ripe in September. 
Trunk straight. This most beautifiilly flowering plant 

well deserves to have a suitable soil prepared for it, 

•nd to be treated with more care after it is planted than 

it appears to have hitherto received in England. The 

■oil ought to be peal, or leaf-mould and sand ; and it - 

^ould be so circumstanced as always to be kept moist. Layers or American 

• 2. G. > 

ItmHlttUim. L'H«. SUrp..p.]IW.; DM.PmL.l.p.! 
■• Uridi Sal. Par. Lmd. t. ML ; 
'. ' Sal. flor. Loud., t. H. i ifldn., t. ». ! ■ 

... Google 



Spec. Char., ^c. Flowers almost sessile. Leaves oborate- 
lanceolate, pubescent beneath, somewhat serrated, 
uembranaceous. Petals and sepals rather silky on the 
outside. (Dor'i MiU.) A deciduous tree in America, 
in Britain n Rlirub. Georgia and Florida. Height in 
America 30ft. to SOft-i in England 4ft. to 6lt. In- 
troduced in 1774. Floweralarge, white, fragrant, 3 in. 
Bcros«, with yellaw filaments; M^iy to Augiul. Capsule 
globose, brownish ; ripe in October. 
Somewhat hardier than the preceding ipecies, but 

rDquiring the same general treatment. 


Oad. Cbak, Sepatt 4 or 5, unequal, with an imbricate testiraticm. Stameni, in 
nearly all, numerous, and in 3 or more parcels. Frml, a capsule or berry of 
many valves and many cells ; the edges of the vulves curved inwards. Seedt 
attached to a placenta in the axis, or on ihc inner edge of the diiisepiments. 

Lraeei simple, opposite, exstl[>ulBle, deciduous or evergreen ; emire, ct^ 
piously dotted with immer>ed, pellucid, resinous glitnds. Floioert terminal 
or Bxillarj', generally yellow. Sap vellotr, rcsiiioiis. — Shrubs, natives of 
Europe, North America, and Asia. 'The genera in British gardens are two, 
which are thus conlrudiEiingulshed ; — 

/fi'PB'Kicua L, C^isule membranous. Stamens polyadelphous. 

^HDROt^'NUH (3tat. Capsule baccate. Stamens monedelphous. 

Genus I. 


BYPE'RICUM L. Tub St. John's Wort. Lin. Sytt. Polyadflph. Polyfind. 

IJrxlikalfmt. lAa. Ocn.. SM. i luu,. 9». ; Dtl. Prod, I. p. H3. ; Don't urn., I. p. m. 
Sm^mfl. Fug» DBmonum ; Hille Pertul>. Fr. ; Johinniikraul. Ofr. j Iprriio, Jial. 

POH ll W llgnlli that the uppir pirt at rh» Bo«r reproi 
iIBh Uirough. ma Ibu lbs aim* iilludn lu thr pelliid 

,n. ~, _™. . ™. ™~-„ '"^j^^i;^ 

. — MngihlTpTionDnSl.JSo'j 

drits- Thli plftnt, with komr OUin-l. wu mplana 
■iipp«ed to be ■ Mcuritjr. ^' tbote who khtdled Lt. 

. . .- .- _- . ..^ ,-^. For tbli reuon-alio, the ifvp^rlcnm reolted tbe 

u«u. of Fuo UsmDoimi. 

Gm. Char. Capiulel membranous. Slament numerous, free 
the batps into 3 or 5 bundles. Pctali 5. Sepalt 5, more or 
at the base, unequal, rarely equal. Stylrt 3ia 5, rarely connate in one, 
permanent. Capiule 1- or many-celled, many- needed, 3 — -5-vnlved. Integu- 
ment ofieed double. Enibryn with the radicle situated at the umbilicus, 
and with semicylindrical cotyledons. (^Doh'i Mill.') 

Leaua simple, opposite, exstipulatc, sub-ever^een or deciduous; orate* 
oblong or lanceoiat^ sessile or subsessile, usually full of pellucid dots on 
their disks, and some dark ones on their edges, lodging an essential oil. 
Pbuvrt terminal, racemose, yellow. — Low sub-evergreen shrubs; oativei 
of Europe, North America, and Asia; of easy culture in common soil; 
and propagated hy division, suckers, cuttings, or seeds. 

r joined at 

., Google 


j L Ktcyraa Cbois. Prod. Hyp. 


, Fram a, not, «nd Mkurn, bftrd ; Ihtf it to l>T, plxnta toft to (be tou 

&cL CAdr. Sepals connected st the base, and uoequiiL Stamens ni 

Styles 3 to 5, Flower* termiual, large, few, sub-corymbose, (ttm'i MUl., 

A. Slgtei commonli/ 3. 
■ ■ 1. B. blaVvm Ait. The tall St. Joha's Wort. 

)l60I. : Tot- uid Gnjr . 1 . jx 1G6. 

Xngmi^nfi. WUiDsul. BriL.LU. i andourXf. lil. 

^p<c. Char., i(C. Younger sterna reddish. Leaves orate- 
obloog, acute, dilated -at the base, somewhat emar- 
ginate,witfa the margins somewhat revolute. Flowers 
coiymbo^^e. Peduncles bihracteate. Sepais ovate- 
oblong. (Doji'i Mill.) A sub-evergreen shnih. North 
America. Height 3 ft. to 5 ft. Introduced in 1702. 
Flowers jfellow ; July and August. Capsule reddish _ 

brown; ripe in October. Decaying leaves y el lo wish. "*" "ii**«~*" 
.- «. 2. //. hikci'num L. The Ooat-sceoted St. John's Wort. 

UmiflaUa^. Lin. Sp.. Uia, Don'i Mm..l. b.SM. 

**3°"*™Jf'. J'**!'™ *■'"■ i .<r-l™"'inuin fc-udum Jta»l., Par*., ind 

Spec. Char., ^c. Branches winged. Leaves somewhat 

emarginute at the base, dilated, sessile, a ...^ 

apex, ovate-lanceolate, with glandular maipns. Pe- 
duncles bibracteate. Stamens exceeding the corolla b 
length. Seeds 2, appendiculated. (Don't MU.) A de- 
ciduous orBub^rergreenundershrab. Sea coaet of Spain. 
Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1640. Flowers yellow ; 
July to September. Capsule reddish brown ; ripe in Oc- 
tober. Thelenres of this species, when bruised, have a very disagreeable 
amell, resembling that of a goat, whence its name. 

jt n. H. h. 2 oittaiJoSum Dee. — Leaves blunter 
than the species. Found oa the mountains oT 
Corsica, on humid rocks. 

.■ a. H. A. 3 ntRuf Dec. is a smaller plant than the 
others, 6gured in Dend. Bril, t. 67. 

B. Sli/kt ema-monfy i. 

» m. H. KkLMiA'KUit L. Kahn's St. John's Wort. 

«™««»»*i* WnW. Sp.. ». P.43S.! Don-. MIU, l.p.S«.i Tor.ud 

AwMliWi. H. BvtriniAn HOI. { VlrgfnU St. Jofan'i Won. 
fi^TM^. Our.<l(.llt. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Branches tetragonal. Leaves Hnear- 
lanceolate. Flowers 3 to 7, in a terminal corymb. Se- 
pals Unceolale, bluntish. (Dvn'i MUL) A aub-ever- 
^reea undenhrub. Canada to Virginia. Height 1} ft. 
ID America ; 8 ft. to 3 ft. in England. Introduced in 
1759. Flowers yellow ; June and July. Capsule red- 
difli brown t ripe in October. 




A neat compact busli, one of the mott ornamental of the bttrdy speciea of 
the genus. The general hue of the entire plttnl is vellow, and the calyie* 
and the capiule, before they are ripe, particularly so. Flowers very numeroua, 

in upright raceme-like corymbs. 

" a. i. H. USi'LUU Ham. The Ursla St. John's Wort. 

Sjtee. Char., ^r. Branches compressed, 2-eJged. ^ 
Leaves elliptical, mucronulate, smooth, shining. 
Flowers terminal, somewhat corymbose. Sepals 
oval, very blunt. Petals orbicular. Styles shorter ^ 
than the stamens. (Dwi'i Mill.) A neat sub-ever- 

Bcen underhhrnb. Nepal, on the tops of mount 
dght 3li. Introduced in 1823. Flowers yel- 
low } July to September. Capsule reddish brown ; 
ripe in October. 

In mild situations, and on a dry soil, it may safely be left through the winter 
without any protectiou; but this should not be the case where the »"* ' 
is cold, and tne soil tenacious or humid. 

to (Jir 11 thi: iiiprvmnn of Mug ipnucd vitb Mood. It wu culltd C'onUiiulliwpoKUD (n 
luiiiil iHen Ibiiiid nriiT Ihitt clly.ia 1CTE, bj Sir 0»rtt Wheeler, Burt. Ths liree tii» -. .- 
OowerilinmukiblcuidhuglniinMUinoitaf llialJivrauoH. ThenuwortGi.- Tcrrenrtd 
mr ths aurflice of tba gruund. 11m 
orlgiB oC the umi of iMon'" B««rf. 
mJ* our A- 110. 

Spec. Char., $c. Stem tetragonal, dwarf. Leaves ovate, coriaceous, broad, full 
of pellucid dots. Flowers large, terminal, solitary. Sepals large, obovate, 
spreading; capsEile nodding, (Dmt'i Mill.) A beautiful little evei^reen 
undershriib, with dark green shining leaves. Levant, Olympu^ Bninin, 
on the western coast of Scotland, and in Ireland near 
Cork, in woods. Height 1 a. to 1^ ft. Flowers of a 
bright golden yellow, with innumerable reddish tre- 
mulous anthers ; June to September. Capsule reddish 
brown ; ripe in October. 
Valuahle for covering banks, rockwork, or the surface J 

of the ground in old shrubberies or picturesque woods, 

especially for the latter purpose, as it thrives perfectly well 

utider the drip ami shade of trees. The root creeps, and a 

small plant will soon extend itself in every direction, espe- . 

dally if the soil be light, so as to cover a great many ...^ — -.jnp~ii. 

square yards in a very short apace of time. It is an excellent shelter for 

game. It may be readily increased to any extent by division. 

§ ii. Perfordria Chois. 



&ef. Oar. Cdyi or S equal sepals, toothed in some with glandular teeth, 
bat entire in others, connected al the baae. Siamens numeroui, free or 
dinoaed in 5 sets. Stvles commonly 3. Ilertu or underehruba. Flowers 
aitllaiy, or in tenninal panicled corj-mbs. Loives rarely linear. {limt't 
Hill.) Uodcrsbnibs. from 1 FL to 3 ft. in height. 
A. Sepali entire. 
■m ^ 6. H. pROLi'i'ici;!! L. The p«lific St. John's Wort. 

*™'<rKT ""■ '*™'^ ^'^' ■***■■ ''^- ^~*- S''™!'- t MB. i UKl ^ 

Spec. Char., S^c. .Stem round. Branches angular. Leaves 
linear-lanueolate, with revolute edges, full of pelludd 
dots. Corymbs few-flowered. Sepals ovate- lanceolate, 
stamens xery numerous. Styles usually connected to- 
gether. {Don'i Mill.) A sutvereigreen shrub. Kew 
Jersey to Florida, in swamps. Height I ft to 4 ft. In- 
troduced in 1758. Flowers yellow ; June to August. 
Capsule reddish brown; ripe in October. iii. a.iMiicnB. 

Frequent in gardens, and fonning a dense leafy bush, covered with flowert 

great part of the suimner, and with seed-pods in the autumn. Readily 

diatm,5Uisbed from H. KalnuiinMiH, by the leaves, bracts, and sepals being 

much smoother and shining. 

B. Sepalt toothed, utuaify mth tie Teeth glandulnr. 

«. 7. H. mpetrifo'liuh WiIM. The Empetnim-leaved St. John's Wort. 

JOrml^Mltm. Wind. Sim., a. p. li»; Don'! Mill.. I p Gin 
£<WT«0|I'. I>W<1. firll., t. Hf. jMdouTA. IIS. 

^wc. Char., ijc. Steins siiRruticose, round, with subulate 
hmnchlels. Leaves Unear, ternary, with revolule 
marpns. Calyi amajl, obtuse. Petals without glands. 
(Oon'i MM.) A neat little evergreen shnib. South ^ 
of Europe, near the HediterrHneBn ; and in Greece 
Height 1 ft. to a ft. Introduced in 1820. Flower^ i 
yellow; May to August. 

Olhrr Spfda of H^hic»m, — Tlte only tnilv hardy shrubby species ■ 
.Hy-pencuin are, H. elatom, IT. birclnum, H. ndjciimm, H. Kahniaaum, am 

H. prolilicum. The other hardy species are of such low growth, that they 
may be considered, for all practical purposes, as herbaceous plinta. H 
nepaleite Koyle appeared to be hardy in the Hort Soc Garden, but it was 
destroyed by the winter of 1837-8. H. a^pntium Banr., H. Tomunimfilium 
Lam., H. gnliiiilri Lam., H. ftadcalaium Lam., and some other shrubby or 
fruiesrent species, are described by Torrey and Gray, but we are uoi aware of 
their having been yet introduced. 

Genus II. 


i<NDROS.« MUM (Joi,. The AnDsosmnr-. or Tutsas. Lin Syt. 
Polyadelphia Polyandria. 

., Google 


llngBri. iMn* out > MoDd-calouIid )ulc«. Tumn ti > corruiilon of imue $aau. 111 fa«l j ud 
II nu applied Id IIu pliDt formsrlr rrom lu luppuHd tulnenrf proptiUii. 

Cm. Ctor. Capsale bnccate; usually l-cellud. Co/^f SparCed, with unequal 
lobes. Pelalt 5. Slule* 3. Slamnii niunerous, dis|)Osed id 3 sets. (IXoa*t 

Leavet simple, opposite, exstipiilate, siih-eTergrecn. Florrtrt terminal. 
The whole plnnc closely resembling a ifypericum, — SuShiticose. Indi- 
geuouB in Britain. 

.■■. 1. A. opficxsa'Xb AllionL Theofficinal ADdrostemtim.orcotutwon TVfmi. 

UeMMcalim. All. Fed,, Vo. IMO ; Dec FnoL. 1. 

Stwurmri. Cll^rrnor. lu 

J.ln.. WaU., SnM. liKl 

quonll^ (Hind wild In pwkl) ; . 
blaltrlgei IbrOHl-lUTnl) Jsliannl 

(lo-.r, Kid A. ISO. ihawlDgltao I 
Spec. Char., ijc. Leaves ovBte, and aomewliat heart- 
Ehaped. sessile, widely apreitdinj;. A Bub-cvcr!;re 
suflruticosu slirub, funning a dense bi ' 
stems. Europe; and in England ii 
3 ft. Flowere jreltow, I in. Kcross ; July tc 
purple, and lastly, almost black ; ripe in 




The fruit is an ovate capsule, assuming 
appearance of a berry ; it 's at first 

yellowish green, then red or brownish 
purple: and, lastly, almost block when 
ri[>c. The juice of the capsules, and also 
that of the leaves, is claret^oloured. The 
latter, when bruised, have an aromatic 
■cent, and were formerly applied to fresh 
wounds; and hence the French name of 
ia toute laiae. In gardetiing, the plant is 
valuable as growing under the drip of 
trees, and thrivinjj and (lowering freely 
in almost any soil or situation. It is 
readily propagated by division of the 

Order Xlll. ^CERA'CE.^. 

Ohd. Char. Fhteert either unisexuai or bisexual. Cali/x and corolh equal 
in the number of their parts, with an imbricated Ee^tivation ; the corolla 
gometimes absent, PetaJt without apppndages. Slammi inserted upon a 
diGti, which ariacs (rom below the piuillum, not agreeing in number with 
the divisions of the calyx and corolla. PUtUlum 2-lobed, each lobe having 
a wing at its back. Sl^/e I. Sligniat 2. Fruit formed of two samane, or 
keys, each containing 1 cell and 1 erect seed. Embit/a curved, with leafy 
shriveled cotyledons, and no albumen. (LiuiiL) — Deciduous trees or shrubs, 
natives of the temperate climates of Europe, North America, and Asia. 

Leavet simple, opposite, exslipiilate, deciduous, rarely evergreen ; variously 
lobed, nrely pinnate. — The species in British gardens are included in the 
genera Xcer and Neg6.ndo, which are thus contradistinguished: — 
Leaves lobed. 


Xltl. ^C£RA*CEA: ^^R. 

^CERX, TkbMaplb. Zir. ^rf. PoljgimiB Monce'cin. 
G«L, No. Ills, I Honch Hcih., BM 1 Dr. Fred., I. p.Hi3, i Don't 


Gen, Char. Sexet hermaphrodite, or mooceciously potjgamoui. Flawen 
with a calyx and corolla. Calyz divided into 5 pnrts, or aome number be- 
tween 4 and 9. Vrtali the aame in number. Slameiu B, or some number 
between 5 and IS. Antheri ^-lobeit. Carjieli 2, very rarely 3, eacb ■ 
sftmars ; that is, a fhiit which is called in Britain, Temacularly, a key. — 
Deciduous trees, natives of Europe, North America, and Asia. 

Leiwet simple, opposite, exstipulatc, dedduoun, rarely eiergrecn; t»- 
riouslj lobed, toothed. Flouim axilUry, corymboHe. Fruit a samara. 
Decaying leaves rich yellow in some, and red or brown in others. 
SevenI of the species produce UBeful timler; and Buger is oneoF the con- 
ttituenC parlB of llie sap of all of them. They all prefer a sitiiation shel- 
tered rather than exposed ; a free, deep, loumy soil, rich rather ihun sterile, 
and neither very wet, nor very dry. They are {iropagaled liy seeds and layerg, 
or by grafting. The maturity ot the seed may he provol by ojiening the key, 
and observing if the cotjiedona are green, Bucculen^ nnd freah i if the green 
colour of the cotyledons is wanting, the seeds are good lor nothing. The 
seeds of all the species may either he sown in autumn, after they are gathered, 
or in spring : and the latter method is preferable where moles aboun J, as ihey 
are vei^ fond of the teeds. Sown in Hpring, they come up in five or six weeks 
afterwu^ ; with the exception of those of the A. canipestre, which never 
come lip till the second or third year. The seeds should not be covered with 
more than a quarter to half an inch of loil. The surface of the ground in 
which they arc sown may be advantageously shaded with leaves, troiids of 
feniB, heath, or straw. 

A. Zifoeel limple, at only ilightly or occaiimallj/ lohed. 

S m \. A. c 

iQVtt Wali. The oblong-/ea»erf Maple. 

LV. nui. m A.IK.: tine. Proi^ \. a,KH. 1 Don'! H IlL, I. p.C4S. 

_, .._. A.lmatWmumO. I>im. FTHd. Ft. Urp.v.'MB.: A.Buziiapiln HamOt. 

Emtrnhigl. OurAi. l»l, lU., radiHvd w out utuid i«J« i ami Iho agiirn of lbs ]I 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves oblong* 
lanceolate, acuminated, quite en- 
tire, coriaceous, smooth, rounded 
at the base. Racemes compound ; 
wings of fruit parallel, smooth, se* 
parated. (Don't MiU.) A low, 
deciduous tree ; in Britain, a 
rather tender ihrub. Nepal. 
Hdght aoh. Introduced in 18^4. 
Ill I itiiiiijin FlowersgrceniflhyellowiFebniary. i„ 

KeyB?( ripe?. 
This species ia rather tender, and somewhat difGcuIt to keep in 
gronnd, unless when planted agunat a wail. Though the leaves are 
tntirc, yet they are sometime* lobed, or show a tendency to become 


SfWuyMn. E'HMe d* TuUiic, Pt. i Tutu 

Spec. Cbar., ijc. Leaves cordate, unjiviilfd, serrated, wiih obanleie lobes. 
Racemes compound, crowded, erect; winpi of Tniit parallel, ;oung ones 
puberuloiis. (Don't Mill.) A low deciduous tree, nalive of Turtary. 
Height 20 h. to 30 ft. introduced in IT59. Flowers pale greenish yellow, 
sometimes slightly tinged with red : May and June. Keys brown ; ripe in 
August. Decaying leaves reddish yellow, or brown, huked young wood 

some, it will thrive in a mointer soil than moat others. 

ttona, it is vBlUHble on account o( tbe early expansion of its leaves, whidi 

appear before those of almost every other kind of ^^cer. 

B. Leave, Z-lobed, or trifid I rarc/y MaUd. 

13.^. bpica'tuk Lam. The spiked^uwrvtj Maple. 

Unilfiaain. Lun. Dl«., 1 p.Ul.; Dm. Prod.. 1, p.M3.; 000*111111., l.p.BU.; Tor. indOnfi 

Ettrawintfs. Tnl. Arrh., No. 13. \ tho p1jit« of thiB BpedH In Arh Biit.. l«t. vrlk., rat t. i OBT 
jig, IM. \ Bid thefigunof Uwl««vei, DitUeDBlufftliifc, bUie plUB fnTDliw p. yf . 

^Kc. Char., ^e. Leaves cordate. 3- or sliglitly globed, acuminated, pubescent 
benench, unequally and coarsely serrated. Racemes compound, erect. 
Petals linear. Fruit smooth, with the nini^ rather diverging. {Dim't 
Mill.') A deciduous shrub, or small tree. Canada to tieorgia, Height 
fift. to lOft. in America; 18 i>. to 'iOU. ia England. Introduced in 1750. 
Flowers small, greenish, raceme mauy-tiowered ; May and June. Keys 
oflen reddish; ripe in August. Decaying leaves yellowish red. Naked young 
wood brown. 

A CBii: : ^'CER. 

Very ornnmencal in autumn, from iu toiM keys, which we fixed upon 
•lender peDdulous Bpikea, and have their membranouB winga beaulifiilly tinged 
with red when ripe. Michaux states that this ipedes, grafted upon trie lycK- 
more, is, like the A'-txi striltum, aui^ented to twice its natumJ dimension* : 
n fact which wc have never had an opportunity of seeing TcrilieJ. 

y 4. A. STRU'TUM L. The tUiped-baried Maple. 

Lm. Dtct.,1. p-Ul.i DtcProi. I. aMi.(0«o'i 

., Google 


uldOii*. Jr*. t.t.ll.; lukB-bukal tUl4& Mdoh Wood. lUilMil Hwlt. Dug Wood i B'raU* 

)u|«. JV. ; ftMnlftn- Abom. Otr. ; Anra Kmlita. Hal. 

B^trB'lt'tt- Hill., t.1. ; TnU. Arch,. No. II. ; Mkh. FeJ. Art!., 1. I. IT. i rhirl"' ilf thii iym\t* 

Id Arb. Brit., lit nlli.. rol. i. ; our A. 111. ; ud jb. IIG. of the lam, of Uh BMuiil ibc. 

Ibrming p. s», W. 

^c. C^nr^ ^c. Leaves cordate, S-lobed, ftcuminated, finely and amt«!y 

■errsted. RacemES pendulous, simple. Petals oval. Fruit smooth, wilh 

the wings rather diver^ng. (Don't Mill.) A deciduous tree, with green 

bark, striped with white. Canada to Georgia. Udjiht 9 ft. to 10 ft. in 

America; 10 ft. to SO ft. in England. Introduced io Vi55. Flowers 

vellowiah green, on long peduncles; May. Keys brown, and remarkable 

lor a cavity on one side o( the capsules ; ripe in August. Decaying leave* 

yellowish green. Naked young wood green, striped with white and black. 

The buds and leaves, when banning to unfold, are rose^oluured ; sod 

the leaves, when liilly expanded, are of a thick texture, and finely serrated. 

From the great beauty of its bark, this tree deserves a place in every collection. 

It is propagated by seeds, which are received from America; or by grafting on 

A. Pseikdo-Platanus. 

C. Ltavei 5-lobed. 
1 5. A. MArHOPRY'LLUM PuTib. The long, or Im^^, leaved Mafile. 

ita. Fl, Amcr. S«pL, I. p. KI. 1 Drc Frod., l.p..'X>l.; Uon'i Mill,]. p64».| 


Spec. Char. *c. Lmvcs diiitately 5-lobed. with roundish recesses. Lobes 
somewhat S-Iobed, repandly toothed, nnbetcent beneath. Racemes com- 
^S^ni' "It.- . .^"™^"" 3- 7i"' ^''y filaments. Ovaries very hairy. {fl™V 
MUi.) A deciduous tree of argeaiie. Korth-west coast of Sorlh America, 

?29R n ""■"' ^S^' i ""^- "'^'«'" Wf'- "■ »»ft Introduced^ 
1886. *^°"ersyeliow, fragrant ; April and May. Keys brown ; 



LesTcs nearly I Si. broad. CaqieU sometimes 3. Sap u abundant m in 
any Bpeciea, except in A. aacch&rinuni ; the wood soft, whitiih, but beautifully 
voaed. (Tar, and Gray.) Thi> spedcs ia quite hardy in the climate of Lon- 
don, and promises to form a most valuable additioD to our ornamental, and, 
posaibly. to our timber, trees. The tree in the Hort. Soc. Garden is between 
40ft- and 50 ft. high, after having been thirteen years planted; and it ha* 
flowered, and ripened some seeds. 

i 6. A. i^ATANOi'oES L. The Platanus-like, or Norway, Abple. 

MeMjtDtfilM. LlD. S|i..14K.i Dec Fnd.. 1. p.Gtg. ; Dun't MJU.. I. p. MBl 

SfmBifimrl. E'nbl« pUDs, or R'nble >1« Kurr^fr, FT, ; iplu Absni, or qiltiblinrlt«r Abon, 

Magraii^. Dub. Arb.. I. t la f. 1. : lbs plaU o( tlili ipHHx In Arh. Uiit, IHrdlt, rol.T. i our 
jfi. IA; laijlt- IW-ortiMli«iii,ofibcDmtunlil».fi>nDlo(ii.lM, Ids. 

Spec, Char., ^. Leaves cordate, smooth, AJobed. Lobes acuminated, with a 
fcwcoATse acute teeth. Corymbs stalked, erectlsh, Bnd,as well at the fruit, 
smooth. Fruit with divaricated wings {Don't Mill.) A deciduous tree, 
above the middle tize. Korway to Switierland, but not in Britain. Height 
30ft, to 60ft. Introduced in 1683. Flowers rich yellow; April and 
May. Keys brown ; ripe in September and October. Opening roJiage end 
flowers, in spring, of a bright yellow ; when decaying, also, of a Rne yellow. 
Naked young wood smooth, brown. 

J A. ^lata- 

Doides Dtrii MiU. i. 

p. 649. (Ourj^. 187.; 

and Ji^. 150. of the 

leave«, of the nstiirat 

size, in the plate forming 

p. 106.) — The leaves are 

very sli^lly heart-shaped, 

irregularly toothed, 5- 

k>bed, with the lobes 

more or leM abruptly 

pointed. The bark of 

the young wood striped, 

somewhat in the manner 

of that of .J. striatum; 

by which circumstance 

the plant, in a young 

state, is readily distin- 
guished from A. ^Iata>, 

DtSdes. A large tree, 

native of the kingdom of 

Naples, and found on 

mountains. One of the 

most beautiful acers in 

cultivation ; but vtry 

little known, though it ,^. nw .iHMnriB i » iirr 

was introduced about 

1683. There it a tree of it at Croome, above SO ft. high, which ha* 

ripened seeds. 
I A. p. 3 variegatumVion. ^,p. &lbo vari^ium Rsyne. — Leaves v»- 

nc^ted with white. 
1 A. p. 4 a&reo cariegatuta Hort. — Leaves variegated with vellow. 
1 A. p. S laemiatim Dec. A. p. c Isptim La^ ; Eagle s Claw, or 

Hawk's Foot Maple. (The plate of this variMy in Arb, Brit., 1st 

edit., vol. V. ; our^. 18B.; and fe. 151. of the leaves, of the Mtnnl 

nie,ii) the plate forming p. 107.) — Leaves deeply and variously cut. 




It ii frequently produced Troni wed, being found by nuraerymen 

among seedlings of the species. 
The tree, in general a distance, ia like the comroon vreaiaon ; 
but, on a nearer approach, the leaves ore roundoFsBmootherand finer texture. 
The roots extend considerably, both downwards and laterally, The bail b 
green on the young shoots, but it aftcrwarda becomes of a reddish brown, dotted 
with white points : that of the trunk is brown, and rattier cracked. The buds 
are large and red in autumn, becoming of a still darker red in the course of the 
winter : those on the point* of the shoots are alwajs the largest. The lesTCi 


are thin, green on both sides, and shining. When the petiole is broken, an acrid 
miiky tap iinies li-oin it, which coegulatea with theair. The leaves are about 
£ in. long, and nearly the same in width. The petioles are longer than tbe 

XMi. ^ceua'ck^: ^^ceh. 85 

leaves. About the end of October, the teavea become either oracletir, or a yel- 
lowish, red, and then drop off*. The flowers appear juat before the leaves, near 
the end of April : the^ form a short raceme, tmrnewhat conmboae. The fruita, 
or keys, have their wings yellow. It is not till the tree naa attained the age 
of nearly 40 years that it produces fertile seeds, though it will flower many 
years before that period. The rale of growth of thb species, when once es- 
tablished, is from IB in. to 3ft. long every year, till it attains the heiehtof iO 
or 30 feet ; which, in favourable situations, it does in ten jeara. T^e wood 
weighs, when dry, 43 tb. 4 oz. per cubic loot ; in eniiily worked, takes a fine 
pollsli, and ahcorba and retains all kinds of colours. It uiay be used Ibr all 
the various puT|ioses of the wood of the cominoD sycamore. tSugar is made 
from the sap in Norway, Swede[i,and Lithuania. Seeds are ripened in England 
in abundance. 

1 7. A. saccha'rinum L. The Sugar Maple. 
Idn^falitm. Lfn. 3p,, 1I9&. ; D«c. Prod., 1. ]>. MS. ( Don'a Mill., ]. ^w>.\ Tor ud Gnj.I. 
AMM^rMq, Bo^ ^Jt'*' Il>rd Vule, B1ird'B.«r' Habile. Atiur. t Ann dd Cviikdk, Hal. 
jS!^130. i udjif. li').afIlMifi»i>,ofIli«iiUiir>lilie,lnUiepluelorm1iigpl IIM, m ' ' 
Sj ec. Char,, ^c. Leaves cordate, smooth, glaucous beneath, palmaleiy 
5-lobeJ ; lobes acuminated, serrately toothed. Corymbs drooping, on short 
peduncles. Pedifeis pilose. Fruit smooth, with the winga diverging. (Dvn'i 
Mili.) A deciduous tree. Canada to (ieorgia. Height in America £0 ft. 
to 60 ft.; in England 30ft. to 40ft. Introduced in 1735. Flowers 
small, yellowiiih, and suspended on lung, slender, drooping peduncles ; 
April and May. Keys brown ; ripe in September. Decaying leaves rich 
yellow. Naked young wood smooth, whitish brown. 


Sugar Tree, or Rock Maple, Midn: Arb. 
Leaves pqle green beneath, the veins of the lower surface and petioles 
minutely villous, pubescent j wings of the fruit a little more diverg- 
ing. (Tor. and Gray, j. p.248,) Michaux, who considered thia 
variety a a)>ecies, says the le»i'e» resemble tllosc of the speciea in 
every respect, except that they are of a darker yreen, and of a thicker 
tcxliu^, and somewhat more bluntly bbed. The tree is indiicri- 
minately mixed with the common sugar maple, through extensive 
ranges of country in New Hampshire, Vermont, and Conneclirul ; 
but is readilv distinguished from it by the smaller size which it at- 
tains, and the darker colour of its leaves. The soil in which it 
flourishes best is a rich, strong, sandy loam ; and there it usually 
grows to the height of 40 or 50 feet, 
noselj resembling -*. jilatanotdes in foliage, except in being tomewhal 
O 3 _ 



glMicoua beneath, and in the fruit being much more divergent. Bark of the 
tnink white. Leaves 3 in, to ■> in. in length, generally wider than long. The 
budi have a fine ruddy tint, especi^ly in spring hefbre they expand. The tree 
in England io rather tender, and never attains a lai^ eiie; but in America the 
timber ia nduable, and the sap producer BUgar, American seeds. 
I e. A. P-ibu'do-Pl*'t*>(us L. The Mock Plane Tree, the ^caman,ar 
Great Maple. 

a 1^. vc^ut i°E'nihl< ' s^ci^Drs, B'niile bbinG de Moaunit, biuu FIMntg, 

v.; Ebrmtaum, ireloM Ahom, e«i»lne Ahorn, On-. i Acero Ft», /to/. 

1. Arb„ 1. t.M 1 ScbmMt Arb., 1. p.a(. ! tfas]diuo(t>ih ipKlaln Arli. Brit. 

tai"pTJVo,iii, ■ ■ ' 

Spec. Char., S(c. Leaves cordate, smooth, with 5 acuminated, unetjually 
toothed lobes. Racemes pendulous, rather compound j with the rachis, as 
well aa the filaments of stamens, hairy. Fruit smooth, with the wings 
rather diverging. (^Don't MUl'i A deciduonit tree of the fimt rani. 
Europe and Britain, in wooUeil mountainous situations. Hi^ht 30 ft. 
to 80 ft. Flowers greenish yellow, mostly hermaphrodite ; May and June- 
Keys reddish brown ; ripe in October. Decaying leaves brown, with dark 
blotches. Naked young wood reddish brown. Buds 
targe, green, or tinged with red. 


X A. P. 8 opuHfiHa. A. opuliBlium Hart. ; A. 
trilobitum Hort. i A. barbAtum Hurt. (Our 
Jig. 138.) — Leaves and fruit smaller than 
in the specieB, as shown in ^. 153. of the 
leaves, in the plate forming p. 1 14'. Wc have 
no doubt of this being the A, opulitblium 
of Thuillier and Villars, L'E'rable duret,Bnd 
L'E'rable ayart, Fr., which is said by these 
authors to resemble A. P8judO'i^4tanus, but i 
to be much smaller. It is a nauve of the »T,y' 
Alps and Pyrenees. Introduced in ISIS, iji/ 
Height 15 ft.' to 20 ft. 
y A. P.3/on£i^iiJia..J.longif6Uun).5ooM.-~Leaves 
more deeply cut, and the petioles much 
longer than in the species. Altogether a tree of very remarkable 

1 A. f ■ * ^dvo vanrgdia. — A. P. lut&cens Horl. ; the Corstorphine 
Plane. — Leaves variegated with yellow. The original tree stands 
near an old pigeon-house in the grounds of Sir Thomas Dick 
Louder, Bare, in the parish of Coritorphine, near Edinburgh. Seeds 
of this variety, sown, have produced planls with the chamcter of the 
parent to a certain e^ttent. 

i A. P. 5 6iho variegdia Hayne.— Of all the variegated varieties of ^\:er, 
it must be acknowledged that this ia the most ornamental ; espedally 
in spring, when the leaves first expand. 

1 A. F, tt purpdrea Hort. — Leaves of a Rne purple underneath. This 
variety was found in a bed of seedlings, in Saunders's Nursery, 
Jersey, about I82B, and is now to be met with in all the priaci|Ml 
nurseries. The tree has a very singular eSect when the leaves are 
slightly TufBed by the wind, alternately appearing clothed in purple 
and in pale green. In spring, when the leaves first expand, tbb 
puiple bloom is iens obvious than when ihey become matured, at 
which time it is very distinct. 

Olier Varietiet. In the garden of the Hort. Soc. there is a variety called 
Hodgkiat'i Seediing, with yellow-blotched leaves ; and another, callod LttHe't 

xiti. -^ceha'ce-e: ^cer. 87 

SeedSag. In Hayne's Dmdreiogiirhe Flora there are, eito, ihe rollowine ts- 
lietiea : A. F. itmoplera, A. P. marroplera, and A. P. taicr^lera, which diSer 
in the proportioaR ofthe winsB of the kev, Bn<l do not appear worth farther 
Dotke. In bU seed beds and jonng plantations »ome of the plants will be 
round with the petioles and the buds red, and others with the petioles aod 
the buds greenish yellow : auth trees, when of forsidemble aiie, are very 
distinct in their general »8f|ect, when in bud, and wheD they have newly 
come into leaf; but after midsummer, when the leaves are fully mattveJ, 
■nd bc^n to get rusty, the trees are scarcely distinguishable. Di^ent 
plants also differ much in the time of thdr coming into leaf, and of droii- 
ping their leavcH ; and some of the more remarkable of these it might be 
worth while to propagate by extension. 


The growth of the con)mon sycamore Is ver^ n^id compared with that of 
most other species of A'txr, particularly when it is in a deep, free, rich soil, 
and in a mild climate. It arrives at its full growth in 50 or 60 years ; but it 
requires to be 80 or 100 years old before its wood arrives at perfection. In 
Dlarshy soil, or in dry sand, and even on chalk, the tree never attains any size. 
It produces fertile seeds at the age of ^0 years, but flowers ceveral years 
liooner ; sometime* even perfecting its seeds sooner also. The longevity of 
the tree is from 140 to 200 years, though It haa been known of a much greater 
age. The wood weighs per cubic foot, newly cut, 64 lb. j half-dry, 56 )b. ; 
dry, 4S lb. It loses, in drying, about a twelmi part of its bulk. When the 
tree is young, it Is white ; but, as the tree gets older, the wood becomes a little 
yellow, and often brown, especially towards the heart. It is compact and 
firm, without being very hard ; of a fine grain, sometimes veined, susceptible 
of a high polish, and easily worked, eilher on the bench, or in the turning- 
lathe. It does not warp, and is not likely to be attacked by worms. It u 
used in joinery and turnery, and cabinet-making ; by musical instrument 
makers; (or elder-presses ; and. Bometinies, for gun-stocks. Formerly, when 
wouden dishes and spoons were more used than [hey are at present, it was 
much in demand, especially in Scotland, by Che man u fact urcrs of these articles. 
As underwood, the sycamore shoots freely from the stool, to the age of 80 or 
■00 years. As a timber tree, it is most advunlngeously cut down at the we 
of 80 years, or from that age to 100. As an ornamental tree, it produces the 
best eflect, either singly, or in groups of two or three, jilaced sufficiently near 
to form R whole, but not so as to touch each other ; and in rows or avenues. 
He varieties with variegated leaves are very ornamental in the bc^niiiiig ot 


Eummer ; but their leaves air iitaiost elwavB more or lex impeiTecl, especiall} 
on the edges, and Tall o(f much hooner in the aulumn than tlioaeof ihe spuriefi. 
The leaves of the pur^ile variety are not liable to the same objection us those 

of the variegated Borta, Seeds j and the varieties by grafting on the species. 

3 9. A. oaivsn^tvu Kit. Tlie obtuse-lobed- /eared Muplc. 
Unuiflaalim. Kit. In Wllld. Sp«., 1, p MS.-. I>«.Prad,.l. p. DM.; Don'i Kill.. 1. p.»». 

Mirjlir. fss. 1 uidjV. lM."o(ihe k««i, of ih« niiut*] iiH, fonntng p, [|!, US. ■ 
i^occ. Char., 4^. Leaves cordate, roundiiih, 5-lobed ; lobes hluntisli (or 
pointed), repandly toothed, velvety beneuih. Corymbs pendulous. Pe- 
dicels hairy. Fruit rather hairy, wiih the wings somewhHt diverging. (Don'i 
Mill.) A deciduous tree of the first rank, of as rapid growth as A. Pseucio- 
/lataniis. Hungiin, Croatia, and many parts of Italy, on hills unci mountajas. 
Height 40 ft. to 60 ft. Introduced in 1823. Flowcra greenish jrdlow, few in 
a panicle ; May and June. Keys lirown ; ripe in September. Decaying leave* 
dark brown. Haked young wood smooUi and brown. Buds |iroauDent, 



Varietia.— \n the Neapolitan territory, this tree is probably somewhat dif- 
ferent in its habit and aspect from what it is in Hungary ; and hence, the A. 
nrapolildnum of Tenore may be considered ■ variety. The foHowing also 
appear to belong to this species i — 

1 A. ». 2 coridceam, A. curiaceutn Soic. (Don'a 

Mill., I. p. 649.iandour/£. 131.) — Leaves co- 
riaceous, the same length as breadth. 3-j-lobed, 

denticulated, smooth. Corymbs loose. Wings of 

fruit ereclk diverjtent. Native of ?. (Dnn'i 

Miller.) There are small plantHof ihia A'qct 

in the collection of Messrs. t.oddii;es, which ap- 

pearto us to belong lo thi.s species, though it is 

with considerable doubt that we have placed it 

here. Possibly it may belong to A. plalanoidea, ^ 

as we once thought, or to A. O'palus. 
t A, 0. 3 ibiricum. A. ib^ricum Bieb. Fl. Tour. 

p. 8+7. — Leaves shininf!, glaucous heneath, 

bluntly three-loUed ; lubes furnished with one 

or two teeth ; lalerul ones mnrkeid with the 

middle nene to ibc insertion of the petiole. 

Petioles a little shorter than the leaves. Tree ' ■'••■™"™-- 

20 ft. in height. A native of Georgia. (Dm'i M,U., i. p. B49-) As we 

have only «een plaiita a few inches high, we may be mistaken in 

considering A. ih^ricum as a variety of Jl. obtusatum. 


A. o. 4. Mattem, A. lobituni FurA., has the leaves 7-Iobed, accord- 
ing to Don't Muter, but the young plants bearing this oeme in the 
Hon. Soc. Garden, which waa ratBeil from seeds received from Dr. 
Fiacherof Peteraburg, appears obviously to belong to A. obtus^tiim. 

D. Leovet 5-, rardi/ 1-lobed. 
J 10. A. Cpalus Ait. The Opal, or Ilaiian, Maple. 

-rible OiiilF. E'nDIa t Fpullln wnnda. i 

fiuuH], TnlLfr, Ac, vol. 5. p-lS. ( Ibe pliMoT tlili ipedc* In Arb. Brit-, lit «d1t., 
or Jtg. U»- 1 bad Jig, 1S6-1 ot lll« l«ftv«K of ttav HtUTMj iLie. In tba pUt* formLng 

I^Kc. Char., ^c. Leaves more or lens heart'Shaped, roundish, 5-1obed, smooth 
beneath ; the lobes generally obtuse, and coarsely serrated, Floweni in 
drooping corymbs. Keys smooth. (^Pen. Ct/c.") A low deciduous tree- 
Corsica. He'ight 8ft. to 12fl. Introd. 1758. Flowers whitish; May to 
June. Keys amall, brown; ripe Sept. Decaying leaves yellowish brown. 
A branchy tufted tree, covered with amooth leaves, someuhat canaceoni, 

roundish, indented, with five blunt lobe*, deep green on the upper surface, and 

somewhat glaucous undemcnlh, with long red petioles. Its flowers are whttith, 
in abort rucemes ; and the snial! fruits, or keys, which succeed them, are 
almost round. It is found in forests and on mountains in Corsica; in Spain, 
on the Sierra Nevada ; and in Italy, where, from the dens^ness of its shade, 
it is aometimes jiianted by road sides, and in gardens near houses. The red 
colour of the petioles of the leaves, of the fruits, and even the red tinge of 
the leaves themselves, more especially in autumn, ^vc it rather a morbid 
appearance. It pushes later in the spring than most of the other species. 

1 11. XciBCiNA^UM PuriA. The round-feotw/ Maple. 
Unatbamm. Funb FI. Aouir. Sept., I. p.SKT.-. Stc. ITod., 1. p.MS-iDon-i Mm.. Lp.SM. 

Ayrnfitin. Hook. Annr., t. Hi. i our ^. IK. ; ind Jig. 1ST. of tha [niei, of tha nunnl di*, la 
tlw plate famiDg p. 1 1& 

Spec, Char.,Ssc. Leaves orbicular, rather cordate at the bate, T.lobed, smooth 
on both aurlaces ; lobes acutely toothed ; nerves and veins hairy at their 
origin. (JJun'i MUL) A deciduous tree of the miiidlc siie. N. W. coast 
of North America, between lat. i3° and 49°, Height 20 it, to 40 ft. In- 
tpod. 1826. Flowers with the i^pals purple,and the petal* white; April and 
Hay. Keys purplish brown, with thin stntght wings, which are so diva* 
ricate as to form right angles with thepeduncle; the lowerinaigin scarcely 



thickened. {Tor. and Gray). Decaying leates of a fine reddwh jMow, 

Naked jroung wood reddiitti brown. 

Branches slender, pendulous, and crooked j 
often takiog root, in the manner of iboae of 
many species of Fkua. Bark smooth; green 
when young, while when fully grown. Leaf 
the length of the finger, upon rather a short 
IbOtHtalE, membranaceous, heart-shaped, with 

7 9 lobes, and 7 — 9 nerves ; smooth above, 

except hain in the axils of the nerves j downy 

beneath, and in the axils of the nerves woolly: 

lobes ovate, acute, and acutely serrated ; the 

sinuses acute : the nerret radiate from the tip 

of the petiole, and one exieniis to the tip of 

each lobe. Flowers of a middling size, in 

nodding coiymbs, that are on long peduncles. 

{Hook.F1.Bor.Amn:) This ia a very marked '™- ^^''^'^^^ 

and beautiful species; distinguishable, at sight, by the regular form of it» 

leaves, and their pale reddish green colour. Though this fine tree has been 

in the country since 1826, it seems to have been comparatively neglected, for 

there is no good specimen that we know of in the neighbourhood of London. 

At High Clere, a thriving tree has ripened seeds for some years past ; so that 

diere can be no doubt of ita hardiness. 

■ 18. A. palma'tum TAuab. The pahnat&:/«»>«f Maple. 

illlb. Fl. Jap..p.lfil.j Dec. Fiwt., l.p.SM. , Don'l MJIL. I.p. SAO. 

t. Arch, I. No. n. : utd Jlf. IM. of the Inm. oC tbe uluril ■!», lu the jitu 

^lee. Char., Sfc. Leaves smooth, palmately divided into 3 — 7 lobes down 
beyond the middle ; lobes acuminated, oblong, serrated. Umbels 5 — 7- 
flowered. {DotCi Mill.) A low deciduous tree; io England a rather deli- 
cate shrub. Japan. Height in Japan, 80 ft. Introd. in 1920. Flowera 
greenish yellow and purple; May. Keys?. Decaying leaves reddish yellow. 
This species requires the protection of a wall; having been, like .4. ohlon^m, 

killed to the ground in the open air, in the Hort. Soc. Garden, in tbe winter 

of 1S37-8. 

5 13- A. erioca'bpum Michx. The hairy-fruited, or white. Maple. 

SMnatKMa. A, durcirpun WHU. Strc. i. p.SS.V, Tbt. 4 Grot, 1. P.MS.; A. tmnrttnn 
Horl. Par. ; A. rUdcuiD UaTlh. ; A. lirBinltnum DilL ; A. rdbnini A'iBwnA. ; ohlu, diTW. 
kaiad. or loft. Mipts. Bnitti SliKv : sir Cbarin Wiget'i Miiile ; E'ribic 1 Fiulu eDtasDnii, 

aiit;t^)T. I and .14. lis. iiritMlsaT«.'<if tbanUunl lice, Inltiaplilii roniilag'p.'IS. 

Spec. Char., Sfc. Leaves truncate at the base, smooth and glaucous beneath, 
nalmately 5-lobed, with blunt recesses, and unequally and deeply toothed 
lobes. Flowers conglomerate, on short pedicels, apetalous, peotandrous. 
Ovaries Jowny. (Don'i MiU.) A middle-sized tree. North America, from 
lat. 43° to Georsia. Height in America 10 ft. to 40 ft. ; in England 30 ft 
to 50ft. Introduced in 1785. Flowers small, pale yellowish purple; 
March and April. Keys brown ; ripe in July. 

FarieHei. There are several names in nurserymen's catalogues, such as A. 
cocdneum. A- macrocirpum, A. floridum, A. Vkwia wbit£ are only very 
slight varieties of A. eriocdrpum. The last-named »ariety, introduced by 
Messrs. Booth, has received the absurd name of Ptkra, Irom the upper 
surfece of the leaves being slightly wrinkled, somewhat in the manner nf 
those of the boniechestnut. As the species aeeds freely, endless vi 
nuy be obtained from seed beds. 


XIII. ^crra'cba: : ^'CER. 


Dntinguished from A. 
rubmm by the leave* 
beini more ilecidedlj 5- 
lob^, the lobes deeply cut, 
and tbe whole \etS more 
touientoie. A veiy desir- 
able species, from the ra- 
pidity of its growth, tbe 
grncelul divergent direction 
of its branches, the beauty 
of its leaves, and the pro- 
fusion of its earlv flowers. 
In mild seasons, theie flow- 
«fs b^in to burst from 

their buds in the first week ^ j-^^^^u. 

ID January ; and they are 

often fully expanded by the end of February or begiuning of March. It 
requires a deep free toil, and more moisture than most of tbe other specie*. 
It ripens its seeds, both in America and Britain, by midsummer, or earlier ; 
and, if these are immediately sown, tbej come up, and produce planta which 
are 8 or 10 inches high by the succeedii^ autumu. 

T 14. A. RV^auM L. The red^/fouwrntg, or learlef. Maple. 

I Don-i HID, t. r- UO. j Tor. anil Cnf. 

Klc*. : J. ilXlu MaTM*. ArhmMl. , A. H- 

Bwmp Hirla. m Miplf i E'nbl* naft, 

. Micb.Arbi.'l.l.U.i Bcbnudl Arti., I t&i Ihs iiliuof Uh Ik* la AiH BrlL, In 

iirj((.US.|udjlt-ICa. (T A*Ianii,titllM nWnl «»,la Um pUta Imliia 

unequally toothed, palmately S^obed, with 
gjamerate, &-pela1ed, pentandr< 

beneath, deeply and 

«se«- Flowers con- 

Ovarie* smooth. (/fonV MiU.) A 


large tree with numerous divergent slender brancheB. Canada to Florida. 
Hughl in Ainerica SO ft. to 80 ft. ; in England 30 ft. to 60 fl. Introduced 
in 1fI56. PlowerB nmall, dark red, appeariiig a fortnight before thelea*eit; 
March and April. Keys bruwn ; ripe in September. 

1' A. r. 3 intrrmedium Lodd. seeniB intermediate between this Bpeciei 
and A. eriocirpum. 
tn England distinguished at si^ht from A, eriocirpum by the leevea beJiw 
much less cut, and lets white beneath, ami by the tree being generally less vi- 
gorous. The red-fiuwered maple, whether we regard the beauty of its flowera 
and opening leaves in early spring, its red fruits in the beginning of aummer, 
or its red fol age in autumn, deserves to be consitlereJ one of the most orna- 
mental of hardy trees. CoDtrury to the general character of the maples, 
this species is said to thrive best in moist soil, which must, however, at the 
■amc lime, be rich ; and, for the tree to attain a large size, the situation ought 
to be sheltered. In Britain it is chiefly propagated by layers ; but, on the 
Continent, almost always hy seeds, which ripen before midsummer, even 
sooner than those of A. erioc&rpum, and, if sown immediately, come up the 
flame season. The seeds, even vthen mixed wiib soil, do not ki-ep well ; and, 
in general, but a small propordon of those sent home from America vegetate 
in Europe 

S 15, A. monbpessi;la'ni]|| L. The Montpelier Maple. 

f^rc. CAar., 3[c. Leaves cordate, 3-lobed ; lobes almost entire, and equal. 
Corymbs (ew-flowered, pendulous. Fruit smooth, with the wings hardljr 
diverging. A low tree. South of Europe. Height 15 ft- to 40 ft. Intro- 
duced iu J739 Flowers pale yellow; Hay. KeyB brown ; August. 

In geuend aspect the tree resembles A. creticum, which has much Bhorter 
footslaliu, end coriaceous leavei. It also resemblea A. (;amp£Btre, which. 


however, haa the leaves &-lobed, while in A. monspessullnum they are only 
Uobed. See the bnircs uf lesTCi in p. 130. and ISl. The learet, in mild 
Bcasons, remain on Ihrougb the greater part of the winter. SeetU i which it 
ripena in great abundance. 

t IG. .4. cAKPB'.tTtiBi^. The cDnnmii, or Field, Maple. 
/*w6*EsMn. Lin. Spec,. KST.-, Hifnt Dnd.. |i.lll.i Drc. frod.. I, |i. talk 1 Ddd'i Nil],. I.B.MS- 
Sntnyiwi. E'nbli cfaunpMrc. Fr.( klFlnrr Ahoni, Feld Aboni. (in-.; GiUuiil. or Ploiipo, lUL 
'■frini^i. Bnal. BM.. t.VH, : Wllld, Abtjlld., l.lll. j our^.ltl.; tai Jig. 1£1. of thi lane, 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leave* cordate, with Stooihed lobes. Racemes erect. 
Wings of fruit much divaricated. (Doji'i JUiil.) A low tree or shrub. 
Britain. Height 15 ft, to 30(1., eometimes 40ft. and upwards. Floweta 
^ellowicli green ; Hav and June. Keys brown ; ripe in September. Decay- 
ing leaves yellow, tiaked young wood pale brown. 


I A- c. tfoliit vanegiA. — Keit to the variegated^leaved variety of J. 
IViido-Plitanaa, this teems the haudsomeit of all the variegated' 
leaved m^lea ; die leaves preserving, with their variegation, the 
appeamnce of health, and the blotcbea and stripes of white, or 
whitish yellow, being diatinctly marked. 
T A. c. 3 hebec&rpam Dec. Prod. L p. d9a A. CBDip£iRre WaOr. in 
IMl. TrtO. Arch. L No. 7 ; ^. mdlle Opii. — Fruit clothed with vel- 
vety pubescence. 
t A. c. 4 eotSmm Walb-. in IM. Dee. Pmd. i. p. 594. A. afflne and 
J. macrooSrpuDi Opix. — Fruit amooth. LobeH of leaves obtuse. 
Flower smaller. Native of France, 
t A. c. 5 aoMlnaeum Tratt. Arch. i. No. 6. (The plate of this tree in 
Arb.Brit.,l«t.edit.,voI.v.) — Fruit smooth. Lobes 
of leaves somewhat acuminated. Flowers larger 
than those of the species. Native of Austria, 
Podolie, and Tauria. {Dott'i MiU.) This variety S 
ia lai;ger in all its parts than the ori^al spedet, ' 
and is of much freer growth ; the main Etem rises , 
erect and straight, and sends out its branches 
rt^larty on every side, so as to form a sort of 
cone, almost like a fir. A subvariety of this sort, i 
with variegated leaves, is propagated in the BoU- j 
wyller Nursery. ' 

OtAer Vizrietwt, A. e. Itrvig^tn, leaves very smooth 
and ishinrng; A. c. nanum, habit dwarf; and, perhaps, 
gome others, are in the collection of Messrs. Loddiges. 
A. lainevm, leaves larger and leas divided than in the 
tpvoKH and A. Ayrcanuta (j%-l4l.) with the leaves van- k_i__ 

outly cut, are also in some collections. < , *-■ 'i ' "■ 

Differing ftom A. inonspessiil^mn in having the Sowers produced upon 




the jouagvhogli; u well a« in the racemca of flower* being erect. The wood 
w^ha 61 lb. 9oz. a cubic foot in a grt^n state, aod SI lb. 15ox. when per- 
fectly diy. It make* excellent fu^, and the very best charcoal It i> 
cotnpact, of a fine vain, Bometimea beautifully raned, and takes a 
high polish. It was c^ebroted among the ancient Romans for tablea. The 
wood of the roota is freqUEDtlj knotted ; and, wheo that is the case, it I* 
used for the manufUclure of snuffboiea, pipes, and other fiuiciful productions. 
A dry soil suits this species best, aad an open situation. Seeds ; which often 
remain eighteen months in the ground Wore they vegetate, thou^ a lew 
come up the first ^ring. The varietiea are propagated by layers. 
1 17. A. cRE'TictiM L. The Cretan Maple. 

litnmfiHiiom. LlD, Spic^ Un.; Dec Fiod., 1. f-K*-; Dm'iMUU 1- P-Mtl. 

^ihi^im!^ 4. bMrrophflluni WilU.Eii., A. lemtiiiritniu L. Mml.; .< . oMuKMlfBa SMlHr I 

£ivra>l^t. rlor'. Once, 1. 36J. 1 Schmhlt Arb.. [.IS-i Ihe pint* of Chit iptdn In Atb. BHL. 
lit edli., Tal. T. I HIT j^. Ml.. froiD tM Flora GnKii uid j^. IS. or tha Imtm, of the nuunl 
ijie, Ld tn«pUt*ramlD|tp. 131. 

Spec, Char., ^e. Leaves permanent, cuneated at the baae, acutely 3-k>bed at 
the top. Lobes entire, or toothleted ; lateral ones shortest. Corymbs few- 
flowered, erect. Fruit smooth, with the wings hardly diverging. (^Doh'i 
MiU.) A diminutive, slow-Krowing. sub-evergreen tree. Candia, and other 
ialaadti in the aredan Archipelago. Height 10 f^ to 30 ft. Introd. I7S8. 
Flower* greenish yellow ; May and June. Keys brown ; ripe in September. 
There is a general resemblance be- 
tween iJ.creticum,^,monspeBSulftntim, 

and A, caiup&tre ; but the first is 

readily known from both, by its being 

eveif;reen, or mib^vergreen, and by it* 

leaves having shorter footstalks, and 

bnng less deeply lobed. In a joung 

state, tha leaves are often entire or 

nearly so. It is oltener seen as a shrub 

than as a tree ; and it seems to thrive 

better in the shade than any other 

Acer. Seeds, teyers, or grafting oi 


Otier SpecKi o/A^cer. — A. barbatum 
JIfifAr., nven in our Erst edition, ha* 
been omitted, because the plant in the 
Hort. Sac. Garden bas always appeared 
to us nothing more than A. olala- 
nSides, and because Torrey and Gray 
consider it a doubtful spedes, and probably described by Hichauz fivm " qwd- 
mens of A. sacch&rinum j the only species, so far as we know, which ba* the 
sepals bearded inwde." (TV. and Gray, i. p. S49.) A. opulifSUum given in our 
first edition as a specie*, we bave now tBtisfiedourselves,froni having been able 
to examine larger plants, it nothing more than a variety of A. Psetkdo-nitanul 
diminished in all its parts. There are several names of specie* of .1'cer in the 
works of European botanists, the plants of which would require to be pro- 
cured and studied in a livins state : such as A. granatime Boi*., a native of 
Spain j A. pani/'aiium Tauscn ; also some natives of the Himalayas ; and the 
following in North Amenca as given by Torrey and Gray ; K, gldbnai Ton., 
n shrub of the Rocky Mountains; A. tripttrtitum Nutt MSS., sahrub of the 
Rocky Mountain* allied to A. glUirtim; A. grattdidentalwii Nutt. MSS^ a 
shrub or low tree from the Rocky Mountains, supposed to be the same as A. 
baiUtum Douglta, mentioned in Hooker's Fhr. Spr. Aner., i. p. 1 18. Ttie 
mmes of several other species, not yet introduced, irill be founa in tlw firvt 
edition of this work. 



A'eer oMngnm. The oblnng-biMrf Ma|de. 
LiAve' of the natural riit:. 



A^MT tatdrieum. 'i'he Tartarian, or mlire-leaired. Maple. 
Leaves and fruit of the natural size. 


Xlll. ^cera'cex: .4CEB. 
The sfiVe^fiowertd, or iMotmAuN, Maple. 



A'fv ttrwtwn. 'llie itripe^ 



XIII. ^ckra\:£«; ^'cxb. 


_ Maplo. 
the natxiTKl nxe. 



A'^cer mn'-rophi/lhim. Tlif 
Pan of . \ 


Kill. ACIia.A\iEiKl yf'cKit. 

'ar^e— leaved Muple. Flate I. 
G'^iit. ^f the natural mk. 



A'eer maerDpk^Uttm. Tlie 
Smaller lea* et, alto of the natural liie. 



lM%e4eaT«d Maple. Plate 11. 
to dtow bow oiuch thejr <nrj on th 

0. Google 


T pialanoida. The Pbtwui- 
Leavet aaitrOt ti 



like, or fforwt^, Maple- 
(hc mtural xae.. 



A^cer (ptatanoides) Lobifu. L'Obel'i Maple. 


, .rfcERAcex: ^ceft. 

A^eer platemoidet taeinidlum. 
The aii-ltaoed PlaUniu-like, or Eaglii elaw, MKpI& 



ir p 


The leave* aad fnui 


, ackha'ctje J^rt. 



A^txr Pteiido-Vl^aHtu. Tte 


False Plane, or 
of Eiie iwturai liM. 




' fhuticetum britannicum. 

A eer obtttaatum. The obhue- 


:ra'cf,.«: ^'CER. 

hbed-leaved, or Neapolitan, Maple. 



A'cer Pteudo'Pldlanut opulijiilia. 
The Opulus-leaved False Fliine, or S^camort. 


Xlll. ^CERACE^: J'CER. llj 

r O'paltu, The Opal, or Ilatian, Maple. 



xr rireinalttm. The tounA-lniced Maple. 
Leaves of a the natural BJze. 



XIII. ^ceiua'ces;: ^^cer. ,117 

K'eer pabnatum. The palmate- ^eoeeif Maple. 


A'crr moedrpum, Tlie woolly- fruited Maple. 


XIII. ^CEBA^E^: .^'CER. 

rufrrwn. The rei-Jlowered Maple, 


120 ARBoni:TUM et fhuticetuu britannicuh. 

A'oer mtnupeitulanum, and A. eampittre. The Montpelier Maple, and 

the common, at field. Maple. 

Leaves and fruit of the iiatural uze. 

0. Google 

XIII. ^cera'ce^: ^Vek. 121 

A^cer crfticunt. Tlie Cretan, or varmu.ltm>td. Maple. 



Genus II. 




rnr yrgtMOo U ; but Ihv munini of the UOfT 
, ., Ij thv IlliaolJ uni* of Glgurro (l*om f^fiw. IB 

Gfn, Char. Sexet diizciouB. Flowrri without a corolla. Calyx with 4 — 5 
unequal teeth. Male fiowert upon thread-hhaneil pttlicels, and dispospd 
in faaciclen i fluMeri 4 — 5, linear, »r ''" j -. . i-. . ■ •_ 

racemes. {Jier, Prod.) — Deciduoiia ti 

Leavei compound, opposite, eiElipulule. deciduc 
There is only one species in British gardens. 

* I. N, mAJINIKoYlUM A'u/ 

UemlfitaikiK. Nuu. Gen. Aintr., I.e. 
«.". n— i._4 ■. p. DM. ; Don^i 

The Ash- leaved Negundo. 

GIpdtm. mi- 

XMVfiiw." Mlcil- Vrb.. *. t. IB.I 
SdiBMl Mt.. 1. 1. 19.1 Watt. Dend.. 
t In-ilheBJucortblttpHlnli] ArtL 
trom Schmidt. 
Spec. Char. ,!ic. Leaves of from 
3 to 5 leaflets, the opposite 
ones coarsely and eparingly ' 
toothed, the odd one oflener ' 
3-lobed than Himple. (/)«(-. 
Prod.) A deciduous tree, o'' 
the middle size. (Canada ti 
Carolina. Height l.Mt t< 
30 El.; in England 30ft. ti 
40 ft. Introduced in 1688. 
Flowers yellowish green, np- 
poin'ng with the leaves; 
April. Kevs brown; ripe in 
Aiuust. Decaying leavts of a rich yellow. Naked young wood imooth, 
and^of a fine pea ereen. The tree hi the Uort. Soc Garden is a mule; but 
there U a female plant in the collection of W. Borrer, Esq., Heniield. 

1 K. f. 2 cHtpum 0. Don. (The plate in Arb. Brit., latedit., voI.t.; and 
oarjfg. 165.) — Leaves variously cut and curled. The plant of this 
variety in the arboretum of the Hort, Soc ia a male : the inBo- 
rescence consists of pendulous panicles of flowers, that arc green, 
with some redness from the colour of the anthers; and each n 
placed upon a slender peduncle of about 1 in. lonj;. 
1 y.f.S Pioldcrttm Booth. — Young shoots covered with a violet bloom. 
Tbis appearance is not uncommon in the young sboota of di 
tpedei of 1\xr as well as in yegiaiUi, 



A rapid-growiiu tree ; very ornamental, froni its coin[>ound leaves, and the 
fine pe»freen oTitB founc Bhoota; arriving at maturity io 15 — fiO ^ears. 
American seedis, which ought to be bowd ■■ soon ai posnble, or layert, m any 

Other Kpeatt of Negfindo. — iV CBlirdmicum Tor. ^ Gnu/, found bv Douglas, 
b supposed to be a new species ; but neither fruh, nor fult-growo leavea, ar* 


Ord. Cbjb, Calyx campauulate, 5--lobed, (huay roundish, trigonal. Seti» 
large and globose \ albuinen wanting. Emityo curved, inverted ; with 
llethy, thick, gSibous cotyledons, not produced above ground in getininatioD. 
Plamvie lai^, i-leaved. — Dedduous trees, natives of North America end 

Leavei compound, opposite, exstipulate, deciduous; leaflets 5 — T, ser- 
rated. FTowert terminal, in racemes, somewliat panicled. — All the known 
plants of this order cross-fecundate freely, and by moat botanists they are 
included in one genug ; but so numerous are the garden varieties, that we 
have thought it mote convenient to follow those authors who separate the 
species into two genera. These are jCscuIus and Piivin, which are thus 
contradistinguiBbed : — 


jE'SCULUS L. The Horsbchestnut. Lni. S^tt. Hept£ndria HoiK^'nln. 

Uouiflcaliim. Lin. Cen., No.lfil. ; Dsc. Ihnit.. 1. u.M7. ; Don'i MIR. ]. p-ia. 
Syaom/mn. HLpiHKiiUimm Tbars. : HirrmLer d'Ilh]«t FT. ; lloctkutanlB. tier. 
JJfntalim. The word ^unlui. drrtifd frmr ckh. nouriihiDKil. ta qipUfd br > linr toawcKi 

b»eiheapp«rumDriw<Mchalsi.u. beintDnl; HI hrhana ; ud h; otken, Iikuih i[ li Bid 
lb> niiu are UHd iD Turkejr. Cor curing hortet at jiulmonuT dlieua. 
Gen. Char. Cafyr campaaviiate. Pctalii — 5, expanded, with an ovate bordrr. 

Slameni Hith the filument9 recurved inwnrdly. CapnUei echinated. Lrafl/it 

»ei»ile, or almoet ie»^le. {^Don't Mill.) — Deciduous trees, natives of Asia 

and North America. 

Lravei lulmately divided, with Btulked leaflets, Generally rough. Capnlc 

rough. Budi eeneraliy covered viih renin. — Two species and several 

varieties are in British gsrilenx. 

The common horsechestnut is invariablj' propagated by the nuts, which are 
sown when newly gathered, or in the rollowlrig spring; and in either case tbey 
will come up the succeeding sumjner. All the other sorts, as being varieties 
of the species, are propagated by budding or grafting;. Soil deep fandy loam. 
Only the first three sorts described beluw can be considered aa true horse- 
chestnuts; the remainder, to which some other names might be added, we 
consider as hybrids between jS'iiculue end some kind of Piivia, moat pro- 
bably P. fl&va. 

1 I, M. Hippoca'stanum L. The covimon Horsechestnut. 

Jilntllfltallim. Ltn. Sp.,4BS.i D«. Prod.. I. p. S97. ; ud Don'i HIU.. 1. p.SSl. 

SywnvsHj. HIpinciiUDum Tulgtre TVura. i Mnironler d'inde. Fr.; («HliK[toukiiitul<.<!n.; 

*'5r"'7id Ju^a-im"'' °°^' "■ "*■ ' "" "^"^ "' "''' ''^" '° "" *'*'■ ^'^" '* '^'' 

Spec. Char., Sfc. Leaflets 7, oborately cuneated, acute, and toothed. A larce 
deciduous tree. Asia and North America. Height SO ft. to 60 ft. In- 
troduced in 16S9. Flowers white, tinged with red ; May. Fruit brown ; 
ripe in October. Decaying leaves dark brown. Naked young wood 
brown. Buds long, large, greenish brown, covered with resin. 


y JE, H. % Jlire pleno. — Recorded in nurserymen's catalogues, but not 


1 M. H.i arginteo-varUghtunt. — Leaves blotched with white. 
Y M. H. 5 incuam Booth. ^. asplenifolia ^oW. — Leaflets cut into 

Other Varietiei. In Booth's Catalogue are the names JE. H. crfspum, 
nigrum, pne'cox, striatum, torlnosum, &c., but none of these, nor any other 
variety which we have seen, is worth culture, 

A tree of the largest size, with an erect trunk, and a pyramidal head. The 
leaves are large, of a deep ereen colour, and singularly interesting and beau- 
tiful when tbey are first developed. When enfolded in the hud, thej are 
covered with pubescence, which falls olf as the leaves expand. The growth, 
both of the tree and of the lenves, is very rapid ; both shoots and leava 
being sometimes perfected in three weeks from the time of foliation. The 
wood wdghs, when newly cut, 60 lb. 4 oz. per cubic foot ; and, when dry, 
35 lb. 7 oa. ; losing, by drying, s siiteenth part of its bulk. It is soft, and 


XIV. .«scula'ce«: jE'SCULUS. 

ise where great strength, and durability id the opeo sir, are required ; 
Devertheleas, there are many purposes for which it is applicable when anwn* 
up iuto boards ; such m for flooring, linings to oarts, pacrking«:BseB, &c. The 
nuts maj be uKd when bumed as a kind of ley, or substitute for soap. The 
outs, if wanted for seed, should be gathered up an soon as they drop, and 
either sown or mixed with earth ; because, if they are left exposed to the air, 
they «ill lose their genrinating properties in a month. Borne nurserymen 
cause the nuts to germinate before sowing them, in order to have an opportu- 
nity of pinchiiu; off the extremity of the radicle j by which means the plants 
are prevented from forniing a taproot ; or, at least, if a taproot be formed, it 
is of a much weaker description than it otherwbe would be, atid the number, 
of lateral fibres is increa&ed ; all which is favourable for transplanting. When 
the tree is intended to attain the latest size, in the shortest time, the nut 
ought to be «own where the tree is finsJIv to remain ; because the use of the 
twroot is mainly to descend deep into tne soil, to procure a supply of water, 
which, in dry soils and seasons, can never be obtained in sufficient quantities 
by the lateral roots, which extend themselves near the surface in search of 
nourishment and air. 
y 2. M. (H.) obioe'hsis JlficA.r. The Ohio .Esculus, or /fonee^rfniJ. 

UnOaUiUitm. Ulch. Arb.. ». p. Ml. i D«;. PrM.. I . p. »;. : Don-i U Ul.. 1 . p. an. 

SMma, .£. oblDinill l.lmU. i IX. pillkU Wiild.; A cchinUa Midi-i X.i»tn Tor. » 
ar7f, Ftifa Dhlotnik Midu. ; Tliia glkbrm Spatl:; Ohio Buck«7>. loM Duckijc. Atnrr. 
AUQuseiTDODTnlBlppwu toultRldouWrul.whfnwaaHniiuTIllUn vtthtbi KM beuint tMl 
nuns Id the Hon. Soe. Cordm. and vKh Dr. UnUa/'i dacrlptioD of tt Id Bot. Jli%. for ISM, 

Eiifrmimtt. Wchi. Arb.. *. 1. 99.-; Boc Beg.. ISM.tSI. i and «uj|(. IS7. (ran Uduui. 

Spec. Char^ ^c. Stamens nearly twice the length of 
the (yellowish white} corolla; petals 4, spreading, a 
little unequal, the claw scarcely the length of the 
ounpanulate calyx ; thyrsus racemose, loosely flow- 
ered! lea" ■ - ■ ■' "-- -' 

i leaflets 5, oval or oblong, acuminate, fine and 
unequally serrate, ^abrous. (TV. a7idGTay,\. p. S5I.) 
A deciduous tree of the middle size. Pennsylvania 
and Virginia. Height in America 10ft. to 30ft. ; in the 
climate of London apparently the same as the com- 
mon horaech est nut. Introduced in? 16S0. Flowers, 
white, yellow, and red ; May and June. Fruit brown; 
ripe in October. Bark rough, fetid. Branches of 
the thyrsus of flowers short, 4 — d-flowered ; the 
flowers mostly umlateral, small (not half the size of 
those of die common horsecheatnut). Fruit prickly, 
rcaemUing that of the cultivated horsecbestout. 
but scarcely half the size. (TV.onJCnty.L p.SSl.) 

., Google 


According to Michaux, the American horBerhestnut in commonly a buih or 
Ion- tree, from 10 It. to IS fK in beifilit ; but it is sometimea 30 or 35 feel hi^b, 
trunk IS or 15 inches in JiBmeter. Hefuund it only on the iwnks oftheObio; 
but Torrey and Gray give as itn habitats the neelern parts of Pennsjlvaria, 
Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky. The tree in the Hort. Sor. Garden is of equally 

Xrous growth with the common horyechestnut ; the leaves are larger, and 
bright (jreen: on the supposition that thi»is the^. ohio^ndsof JWicAi. and 
Tor.^ Graji, we have no doubt in our own mind that it is only a variety of the 
common horsrchestnut. Dr. Lindlej, however, is of a different opinion, con- 
sidering it us a distinct species. (See Bot. Reg., 1S38, t. 51.) 

I 3. JE. (H.) rubicu'nda toir. The rtAAaYt-JiotBered jEscuIus, or Hone 

Spec. Char., ^c. Petals 1, with the claws shorter than the calyx. The 
flowers are scarlet, and very ornamental ; the leaves of a deeper green than 
those of any other sort, and they have a red spot at the base ofthe petioles 
of the leaflet* on the under side. The flowers come out of a dark red, and 
die off Ktill darker. Fruit pricklj. A deciduous tree, below the middle 
size. ? Hybrid from North America, Height SO ft to 30rt. Cultivated 
in I6S0. Flowers red ; May and June. Fruit brown ; ripe in October. 
It is doubtfiil whether this tree is a native of North America, or originated 

in British gardens. It passes under diferent names in difierait Durseries, 

M will be seen bj our list of synonymea, and may be considered as diffferiiig 
little, if at all, from ^. cimea Lindi. It is disungaished from Pikvta rftbra 
by its larger and rougher leaves ; and fimn jK. Hippocistanum by the leaTC* 

XIV, ■fiBCULA citfi ; ^scuLUs. 127 

beii^ fuUer and more uneven on the niifafe, tnd of a deeper green. The 
tree it also Bmaller, and of much less vi^rous growth than Uie comm<Mi 
borMchestant. It is, aithout doubt, the most ornamental aort of the 

1 &. (It.) 8 r. rdiea, .f scului rAsea Hort. — This Tariety diSera from 

jS. (H.) rubicunda, in having the leaflet! without a red ipot at the 

base of the petioles. The flowers come out of a pnle red, and die 

off about the same nhade as the flowers of -E. fH.) mbiojnda are 

when they first appear. 

Other yarietifi. There sre sereial names in eardens, and in nurserj- 

■neo's catalogue!), which appear to belong to jS. (H.) rubic^ndEi, but how 

far they are worth keeping distinct, we are very doubtful. Whiller^t w 

tcarUf, of which there is an imported tree in the Fulham Nursery, is Mid 

to have flowers of a darker scarlet than any of the above-named varieties ; 

and, if so, it may be recorded as ^. ( H.) r. 3 Whitlea. £. (H.) mueri- 

edaa of the same nursery belongs also to ^. rubicdnda. 

1 4. .<£. eLA'BRA IViild, The smoolh-/;<TrRf £sculus, or Hortetieilmiit. 

Spec. Ciar.,ic. Claws of the petals of shout the length of Aecalyi. Leaf- 
let* of a pale greea, very smooth. Flowers of a greenish yellow, A de- 
ciduous low tree. North America. B«gbt 90 ft. to 30 ft. Introduced id 
1812. Flowers yellow ( June. Fruit brownj ripe in October. 
This sort ia tctj distinct ; 

but it is evidently not the M's- 

raltu gl&hra of Torreji end 
Gray, but probably a variety ol 
the ..Csculus fiava of theac 

BUthora, with rou|>h fruit. Th« 
whole plant ia comparatively 
glabrous, and even the ftuit 
partakes of that quality. The 
tree is of less vigorous growth 

than -X. rubicunda J and the ,„ »^~i-rtu«. 

shoots take a more upright di- 
rection. It i^ipears to lose its leaves sooner than most of the other aort*. 

X 5. ^, (a.) Pa'llida WiUd. The paXe-Jlowered .£ku1u«, or Horieche$tniU. 
HnulkMwib WUkLEmm., p.«as.; HMriHl>Bd..p.M. i Dtc Pnd., I. p.5n.| Dm-iMlU.,!. 
M^Kmgme. Get 

^MC. Char., ^c. Petals with the claws shorter than the calyx. Stamens 

twice B* long sa the corolla. A deciduous low tree. Originated in gardens. 

He^t !0 ft. to SO ft. Cultivated in 1818. Flowers pale yellow; May 

and June. Fruii brown; ripe in October. 

TliiB sort so closely resembles X. giibra, aa to leave no doubt in our mind 
oT its being a variety of that species . It is of somewhat more robust ffomHa, 
Mtd the leaves are, perhaps, not qiute so smooth. 



e enumerated in some nurserymen's catalogues \ 
lotice, except Ihose slreadj recorded. 


Ufltffilcahba. Boerh. Lutd., L ICO. ; D*c. Prod.. I. p.ta». \ Don'i Mill.. 1. p. Sii. 

Dtrirali<m, In boixHir or Ptltr Fmnr. t, Duub botuilit, once uro[nKir of botur u Lrfdn. 
Buct<7 > hu rflr«Tiic< to Ihs imuplcuuuiiiiiii of [hi hllum a( llie ihi), vtm Uken out of Ibc 

Gen. Char. Calyx tubular, Felalt i, erect, narrow, Stanunu straight Cop- 
tiiUi unarmed. (Don'i MUiSj — Midd1e-»ized deciduoua trees or ihrube, 
natives of North America; distinguiahable from the hoisediestnuts bj the 
■moothneas o( their Truit, and the comj>arative smallness of their flowen, 
whicli have their petals erect and narrower. 

Leavei palmate, willi 5 — 7 leaflets, smooth. Flouxrt small, with er^'ci 
and narrow petals. Bud* blunt, not covered with re^in. — There are three 
flpectes, and several varieties or hybrids, in British t>ardena. 
Distinguished from the common horsechestnuts, by being amuller anJ 

smoother in all their parts. There are probably only three aboriginal spedes) 

but there are several beauiiful garden varieties, or hybrids. Culture the same 

as for the common horsecheslnut. 

3 I. P. RLi'SRA Lam- The reii-Jlawered Pavia. 
Mauifieatum. Lnn. niiul.i Dk. Prod.. ).p.BWi,i D«n'>Mi]l,. I. p. SSI 
^iHWfHi. ^«uJm Tkiia Lin and Tor. ft Gimil X. PJtAi iir. • taill* H(W« Dfltitp. H.; 

VitiaBtf\tlXi Hem. i imall euckne, .tiiwr. i Hunmlcr Parie; ir Pkila 1 Hcuii rDu(«,i>.: 

rotlM BdiiUmuIe, Ger.; Hutoim d) Paw, tial. 

pUw oriht troln Arb. Brtt.. lu biIi.toL i. -. ind ouiAf. its. 
^>ec. Char., ^c. Corolla of 4 petals, chat are longer than the stamens. 
Leaflets 5, ellJptitM>blong, ta|)ered to both ends, and smooth, as is the 
petiole; axils of the nerves hairy on the under surface of the leaf. (Dec. 
Prod,') A slender-growing tree. Virginia and Carolina, on mountains. 
Height loft, to 20rt. Introduced in ITIl. Flowers brownish scarlet i 
May and June. Fruit I'toivn ; ripe in October. Decaying leaves brown. 
Naked young wood reddisb brown. 


XIV. ^scula'ce* : ta\ia. 

T p. T.iargula Q.lioxi. 


^. 172.) — Ahand- 

■ome imall tree, with 

dark brovnish red 


from thoEe M P. 

ntbra. Introduced in 

? ISSO. 
T P.r.SiiMaiMiUaVl^tt. 

Dend. Brit. t. ISO. 

M. P. serrka ZT-irf. 

— Leaflets acutely 

■errated : in other r». 

ipecti it differs little 

from the Bpedes. 
A /*. r. 4 hutmtit. P. hb.- 

miliB G, Dm; and 

.£'seulus hilDiilis 

£«W. (B<«.Reg.,t. ,^ r^^«^^^ 

1018; and our j^. 

173.^ — A diminutive, weak, Hraggling form of the ipecie^ probably 

obtained from si 

cumbent buih, ftoat S ft. to 

n height! but which, wfaengroAed 



i, there are the three fornts which ai 

1 culli- 
Tation in vsriouB forms : as a tree, in which character it hai. at 8;on (see 
our plate in the Jlri. Bril.. 1st edit., vol. v.), attained the hdglit of !6 ft. i as 
■ pendulous tree of IS or 14 feet in height (see our plate in the AH>. Brii^ 

1st edit., vol. T., under the name of P. r. rentlula) ; and as a tra 
under the name of P. bfimilis, in the London Hort. Sac Garden, 
arboretum of Messrs, Loddiges. 

I 2. P. fla'va Dec. The jellow^/fouwm^ Pavin. 

Ewmhv- Wl 

K Prod, I. p BM. 1 DOD-I Mill 
<M\«t Uti liL. U«w, >dd 7b> 

Spec. Char., ^c. Petioles pubescent, flattish towards the lip. Leaflets S — 7. 
pubescent beneath, and above upon the nerves. (Dec. Prod.) A deciduous 
tree of the middle size. Virginia and Georgia, in fertile vallejs. Height 
30 ft, to BO ft. in America ; 30 ft to 40 ft in England. Introduced in 1764. 
Flowers yellow; April and May. Fruit brown; ripe in October. Decay- 
ing leave* yellow, tinged with brown. Naked voung wood yellowish brown. 
A more vigorous and rigid-growing tree than P. riibra, with the branches 

XIV. ..Sscula'cex: paVw. 

upright ; whereai in P, rilbra they are spreading, slender, and nendulous. 
Lcacea paler than in P. rilbra. To thrive, it, like all the other ^scuikcem, 
requires a Jeep rich soil. PropagMed by budding, because the colour of the 
Sowen i* found to nry much in plants raised from seed. 

¥ 3. P. (p.) NBGUu'cTA G. Don. The neglected Puvia. 

S*!lii. Kol. "tg^L lOOB. 1 ud OUT Jig. '■&, 



Spec. Char., ^c, LeiiileU 5, lanceolute, seiTu1at«'l, U|)erine to the base, UmI, 

rather plicate, smooth bcneHlh, but pilone in the axis of the veins. CBI71 

campanuLite, obtusely 5-toothed. about the length of the pedicel. Stemeos 

ruher longer than rhe corolla. Superior petal veined. {Don't Mill.) A 

ileciduoua tree. North America. Height 80(). to 30 fL Introduced in 

16S3. Flowerti yellow and red; May and June, a we^ earlier than P. 

flava. Fruit brown ; ripe in October. Leaves with mroiia down on the 

veins on the upper side. Flowers pale yellow, veined with red, disposed in 

thyrsoid racemes. Capsules unarmed, but the ovary toinentose. 

A tree reaetnbling Paviu tliva but smaller. The plant in the H&rt. Soc. 

Garden was purchased from M. Catros of Bordeaux, under the name of X. 

ohioensis. In the Bot Reg. it is said to be most nearly related to M. (Pavia) 

fliva, but to dilier from it in the (towers appearing a week or 10 da^s earlier, 

and in the leaflets being more el^irous, with nilbua down on the veins on the 

upper Bide, and with hairs in the axils of the veins on the under sur&ce. 

T 4. P. hacboca'rpa Horf. The long-fniited Pavia. 
Sawmgrnt. ^tculiH Fl'te nuriKirpa Lflrtd. Cot., ino. 
SufTarii^ TIW |il*t« In Art. Bril, niL r. j uil oorjV- 17T. 

^pef. OW., ^. Leaves glabrous on both sides. Leaflets ovate-1anceolal«. 
A deciduous tree under the middle siie. A garden hybrid between 

ilus and P&via ^rubra. Height SO (t. to 30 ft. Cultivated in 1SE0. 
rs pale red and yellow, nearly as large as the common horsechestnut ; 
nd June. Fruit brown ; ripe in October. 

XIV. yCBCULA^Ef: faW/^. 133 

The leavei are large, gtabroiu on the upper surbce, uid Bhining. The brancbe^ 
ue aptetding and loose ; and the whole tree has an open srocetiil ^pear- 
tncu, quite different rrom that conpactnew of form and rigi£tf of branchex 
which belong to most of the tree ipeciea and Tarieties both of Ji'aailua 
iind Pano. 

HrmHIUaUtii. Sirt. Hurt. Brit., ilR. ; Don'l Mill. 
bnvJH. .K-KUliu dlKoIor Pk. moi Bat lUf- i 

Surl, The two-coloured^ Kiffreii Pavia. 

T/d dUcolor Tor. 4 Gra^. 

Spec. Char., ic. Leaflets 5, acuminate at both ends, tomentose beneath, un- 
equally lerruiateil. Raceme ihyrsoid, many-flowered. Corolla of four con- 
niving petals with their claws the length of the calyi. Stamens 7, shorter 
than the corolla. (Don'a Mil/.) A dedduous tree-likeBhrub. Virginiaand 
Geulgia, in fertile valleys and on nioiintama. Height 3lt. to lOfl. 1d- 
troduced in 181S. Flowers rarie^ted with white, yellow, and purple; 
May and June. Fruit brown; ripe in October. Decaying leaves y^lowish 
brown. Naked young wood of a brownish stuoe-colour. 
The whole plant, including the young 

wood, is covered with pube&cence. 

Hie flowers are large, showy, continu- 
ing a long time expanding, and ntune- 

roiis though they are but sparingly 

lucceeded by Iruit. When the plant 

is raised from seed, it is remarbable 

for iu thick, £eshy, carrot-like roots, 

which, in free soil, penetrate perpendi- 

cnlarly to the depth of 8 or 10 feet f 

before they branch. Unless when 

grafted on .iK. Uippocistanum, it is 

Seldom seen above 4 or 5 feet in 

hdebt; but it is a very free flowerer, 

and, considered aa a shrub, is in May, 

when it is in flower, one of the most 

that the British arboretum ,„^ niuuMto. 

'CHTA Loit, The long-racemed Pavia. 

'.' 'f"'!^'^f7 Rouhuli 

'roi^i.p.ta^.i Don'l Mill., l.n.eM. 

nd 'hrr. t Crim ; A' inKrHUcbl* Mt. nd tfanr 1 

\ri. Fr. t. SH. t KuTolhf nui dlmihil ^oat | Pairfit i 

.n«hri™ R™.t„,.nl. fi-,. ^^ ^ ^_ 

Spec. Char., J^c. Stamens much longer 
than the corolla. Racemes very long. 
Root stolon iferous. Flowers white. 
(Dee. Prod.) A deciduous shrub, 
with numerous rsdicled shoots. South 
Csrolina ami Georgia. Height in Ame- 
rica 8 ft. to 4 ft.; in the climate of 
London lOA. to i5ft. Introduced in 
ISgO, Flowers while, with long pro- 
jecting stamens, which give the spike a 
fine fringed appearance ; July and 
August, Fnut brown; ripe in October. 
The shoots are slender, spreading, and 
rooting at the joints where they happen 

lo rest on the soil, with ascendent extr» ' 

""lies. The tree comes into flower about a '"■ "* "*"**>• 

n»onih or six weeks later than the other jEicaikeete, and continues Boworiog, 

., Google 


in tbe case of large piftnti on rooist soil, for three nontiis or kmger, fbrming 
one of the ^eaceiC flnrol ornaaenta of the Hhnilibery, at a Beason when tctv 
few Irees or shnitM are in flower. The fruit, which ia Kmnll, Bddom lipena 
in England : but in America it is said to be eaten, boiled or roaated ; and 
M. Poiteau, accordingly, has included this xpecies of Phvia in his list of fniil 
trees. Layers ; or aeeiJa, when they can be procured, and which ooght to be 
sown BB soon as possible afier they are ripe. 

Other Kindt of Pavia. — Pavia cnlipmica (M. calif<5nucB A'hU.) has been 
described by Torrey and (iray, but is not yet introduced. P. Lyotm is in the 
Hort. Soc. Garden, btit has nut yet flowered there. We hare omitted to this 
edition P. hybrida, described by DeCandolle as a truly inrermediate plaot be- 
tween P. rilbrB and P. flnva, with yellow, white, and purple flowers ; because 
the only plant which we have seen bearing ihia name, that iu tbe Hort. Soc. 
Garden, lias the flowers yellow, and appears merely a very slight variety of 
P. fl&vH. In nurserymen's catalogues there are several numes which «c 
have not noticed ; for the truth in, that the different kinds of .f sculua and 
Pilvia crosB-fccnndate so freely, and seedlings VEU'y so much, that there is 
no hmit to the number of varieties that might be produced. The great error 
(because it creates so much confusion in the nomenclature) consists in givug 
these varieties to the world as species. 

It is atmuGt unnecessary to observe, that all the most valuable varieties, 
of both .^sculus and Piivi'i, are best perpetuated by budding or grafting and 
that collectors ou(;lit always to see that tbe plants they purchase have been 
worked. Pavia rilbra as a tree, P. discolor either as a shrub or graded standard 
high, and P. mavrostachya as a shrub, ought to be in ever^ collection, whether 
small or large. Piivta hilmilis, when gralied standard high ou the common 
horsecheatnut, forms an ornament at onre singular and beautiful. As the 
horaecheatnut ia to be found in moat plantations, those who are curious in tbe 
species and varieties might graft them on the upper branches of old trees ; or 
young trees might be head^ down, and one kmd grafted on each. 

Order XV. SAP1NDAH:E.^ 
Obd. Chak. F/ouwrf polygamous. — Matetvilrii thecalyi more or lesa deeply 
4 — 5-parted. Petali 4—5, or occasionally absent, alternate with the 
sepals. Uitk Seaby. Staturm 8 — 10, inserted into the disk. — Hermi^iknt- 
itile Jloweri with the calyx, petals, disk, and stamens as in the male*. 
Vpan/ .^.celled. Coty/edota incumbent. iVuinu/^' S-leaved. (Liad/.) — A 
tree, a native of China. 

Leavei compound, alternate, stipulate, deciduous, Flouvri Iermii>al, 
in racemose panicles, small, white or yellow. — There ia only one hardy 
speciea belonging to this order in British gardens, namdy, Kolreutetia 
paniculata Larm, 

kDlREUTE'RM Laxm. The Kolrevtehia. Lin. Sj/it. Oct£ndru 


Umli/kmllM. L«<oi. And. Prtr,.l«. p.BBI.i L'Hfrlt. SctL, is. t. lAg WUId. Spec. Fl.M). i 

On-. ProA., I. n filfi < linn-. Ulll InBl* "^ • — ■ 

SruMfmn. Suplndullp Lln.flL; CWsraUttt. lUt, 
litrlraliai. la hucDiir nl Join Tlitor»Uai KSrcmlrr, ODCii prul 


Gfli. tlor., J^e. Calyx of 5 nepals. Prfo/i 4, each vitli 8 scale* at tbe baie. 
Captule 3-celled, inflated, Seedi orate-eloboae, the Bped-coat penetrattng 
into tbe seed, and occupying in the plnce of an axu the centre of tbe em- 
brj'o, which ii spirally convoluted. (Z^re. Prod.) 

Leavci impari-pinnHte, of ninnj pairs of teafletR, that are ovate and 
eoamely toothed. F/omert yellow, in panicles. — A dedUaouR tree. 

The panicled^^oKwnug Kolreuteria. 

I, n, eiG. ; Dm-! HiU., ]. p. tfl. 

^mr. Ciar., ^c. Leaves impari-pinnate, with ovate leaStts, coarsely toothed. 
*■' " ' A deciduous tree of the middle siia. North of 

rs polygamou 
Height SO H 

[eight soil, to 40 ft. in the climnte of Londoa. Introduced i 
1763. Flowers yellow, in terminal, racemose, nireading panicle* ; July 
and Augiut. Fruit a bladdery capsule, whitish brown ; ripe in October. 
Decaying leaves deep yellow. Naked young wood bruwo. 
It ii very hardy ; the hermaphrodite plants not unfrequently ripening seeds 
in tbe ne^bourhood of London. It has not only a very fine a 



when in flower, but also in autumn, when the tree ii covered with its larn 
bladdery capsules, and the leaves (ibange to a deep yellow, which they do 
before they (all oW. It ia of the easiest culture in any common soil, and is 
readily propagated either by seeds or cuttings of the root or branches. In the 
London nurseries it is generally propagated by teed. 

Order XVI. nTA"CE.ffi. 

Obd. Char. Caiyi small. Petah 4 or 5. Stament etjual in number to the 
petals ; filaments distinct, or slightly cohering at the base. AtUhm versa- 
t3e. Oporium 2-celled. Fnal a pulpy berry. Setdi 4 or 5, (ewer by 

136 aubobetum et frui'icetuh 

nbortion; embrjo erect; albumen herd. — Climbing riinibs, with tumid 
»»>pvable joints. 

Lmuxi simple or compound, opposite or alternate, stipulate, deciduous { 
ihe lower ones opposite, tlie upper nlCernate. Flomn axillary, racetcose, 
sometimes by abortion changing to tendrils, which are generally opposite to 
the teavesj ; sDwIl, green. - — Shrubs, trailing and climbing, tleciduoua. and 
including the gnipe vine, which may be consid»%d as the type oT the 
order. Tlie genera which contain hardy speciea Are tbre«, which are thua 
GonimditUDguinhed : — 

Ki'tis. Style wanting. PetuU 6. 

Anpblo'fsis. Style 1. Petals 6. 

Ci'mus. Style 1. Petali 4. 

Genub 1. 


rPTIS L. Thb Obipb Vine. Ua. Sj/*t. Pentindria Monog^nift. 

UtmliflcatHm. Lin. Can., W. ; Dec Prod., 1. p.tD.t Dod'iMIIUI.P. SM. 

Stmtmn. Olud, CtlUc ; Viil. S;>a>i, i Vlg«, Fr. ; Vile, Ilal. ; Wain, Orr. 

Gen. Char. Fluwen hermaphrodite, diiccious or triiecious. Co^ commonly 
6-toothed. PetaU 5, cohering at the top, separating at the base, and de- 
ciduous. Stameni 5. (Dec. I'tod.) — Climbing ten driled shrubs, dedduou* ; 
Datives of Asia and North America. 

Leavei simple, alternate, stipulate, lobed or serrated. Flotaert in thyr- 
soid racemes, small, and of a greenish yellow — There are several specks in 
British gurdens, the principal of which is the grape vine. 

-I I, y. vini'fkra L. The wine-bearing Vine. 

littnllflamtH. Lla. SpK., WS ; Dec. Prod.. 1. p. S3, ; Don'l Mill.. I. p. «9& 
Sjltumtinri. Vljne, rt-. ; gimrlner Weiniludl. Grr. i VItt di Vino. Ilal. 
Satrarini- Duk. h'b. Kr, t. I. 1ft i Juq. Ic, I . p. U. i ud OiTfig- Wl ■ 

Spec. Char.,^c. Leaves 

lobed, toothed, si- 

nuated, or serrated, 

naked or downv, 

{Dec. Prod.) A de- 
ciduous teudriled 

diniber. Syriu. Stem 

soft, to 60(1. Cul- 
tivated in 164H, or 

probably from the 

lime of the Romans. 

Flowers greenish 

yellow, scented ; 

JuneandJuly. Fruit , 

green, red, or black j ^ 

ripe in October. 

Decaying leaves yel- '"■ '*i"'°f«™- 

low or red. Naked young wood yellowish brown. 
I'arUtiei. The grape vine has been in cultivation from the remotest period of 

history, in the warmest narta of the temperate lones of the Old World. 

The varieties have been described at length by Du Hamel in France, D«n 

Roxas de Cleuicnti in Spain, and Sickler in Germany. The varieties of the 

*ine as a fruit shrub, and all that relates to thrar propagation and culture, 

will be TouDd treated of in our Encydopadia iif Gardeitmg ; and we ihall 


XVI. riTA*cE«: n'ris. 137 

here only notice tboM which we ihink deaerf ing of niltiratiOT, u orn^ 
ineDtal and frafranUflowered climbera. 

1 V. V. 2fii>uo,cmli. MlUer's Grape, or Miller's hUck Cluner Orape. 

— Leave* alinost eDtire, unall, woolly, and whitish. Fruit round, 

Bmall, in compact bunches, black. This Tariety ii Mtected od mccount 

of the whiteness of its leaves. 
d V. B. 3 filiit nietcinlibui. The Claret* 

Grape ; Tenturier, Ft-. ( A', Dii Nam., var. > 

7i., not Clairette Du Ham., var. 12.) — 

The leaves are larger than those of the 

preceding variety, and more lobed and 

notched : in the autiuao, before they die 

otf, they change to a deep claret colour, in 

which state they are highly ornamenta], 
.1 V. V. 4 aoBfo/u larmota L, The ParNley- 

leaved Grape Vine; Ciotat, Ft.; Vite 

d'Egitto, Ital. {^. 182.) — The leaves 

are beautifully laciniated. middle-sized, end m. n ri mifiMi 

the iruit black. A very handsorae climbing 

shrub which bai been in cultivation for its fruit once 1648. 

1 e. V. Z.ABBt/>GA L. The wild Vine, or Fox Grape. 

1. P.6M ; Ddd'i MUI., 1. p>TII.i Tor. and dnf , 1, 

Spec. Char., He Seies diodous or polygamous. Leaves 

heart-shaped, rather 3-lobed, acutely toothed beneath, 

and the peduncles lomentose and rather rusty. (Dec. . 

Prod.) CaiMula to Oeorgia. Climbing stem 10 ft. to 

SO ft. Introduced in 1656. Ftoweni greenish yellow ; 

June and July. Fruit red or black ; ripe in October. 

Decaying leaves brown or black. 
FarieSa. Several varieties, with red, white, or black i 

fruit, are known ia the gardens of North AiDerica,C 

fivm which wine is made ; aucb as the Isabella, Schuyl- f 

kill or Alexander's, the Catawba, and Bland's Grape, 

which have doubtleos been produced from seei'~ ' 

this species. {Tor. and GmyJj 

Leave* 4 in. to 6 in. or more in diameter, often distinctly 3-lobed, short, 
mucronate, and densely tomentose beneath. Berries — 7 lines in diameter, 
globose, osually very dark purple when ripe, but soiDetiuies amber^oloured or 
greenish white, of a strong musky flavour, and filled with a tough pulp. (Itid.) 

1 3. V. astiva'i.IS Mkhx. The Summer Vine, or Grape Vhe, 

Spec. Char., ^c. Seies diiecioua or polygamous. 
Leaves broadly heart-shaped, with from 3 to 5 
lobes; the under siirfnce of the joung one* ' 
invested with a cottony down; of the adult 
ones, smooth. Raceme* fertile, oblong. Berries 
■roall. (Dec. Prod.) A lendriled climber. Con- 
necticut to Florida. Stem 80 ft. to 30 ft. In- "•■ tr^— i-^ 
troduced in 1656. Flowers greenieh yellow ; Ju le. Fruit dark blue; ripu 
in October. 
LeavM * in. to 7 in. wide, often deeply lubed, with the sinuaea roundedi 

., Google 



the loira- surface, particularly in the younj; titate, clothed with a reddi^ 
cobweb-like pubescence ; when old, somewhat giabruux. Berries 3 — ( lines 
in diameter, deep blue, of a pleasant flavour; ripe in Oftober. {TV, onJ 
Oray.) Perhaps only a variety of the preceding species. K. Jabruuoldes 
Mvii. is also probably a synonyme or a variety of chat species. 

.1 4. F. cordifo'lia MicAx. The heart-fiapff- leaved Vine, or Chicken Grape. 
UtnliflealliKi. Hhhi. Fl. Bar. AiHt., t. p. 931. ; D«c Prod. I. p.SM.', Dm'i MICL. 1. P.TII-: 
tymm^fi. y. inclu Jaaj. ScAmi. t. 497. i V. 'ulplna Lhl Sprc. p. nL, IVall: Fkr, Cm. XL i 
Rmgrawfn^*^ J*r^ ScJian . t' 24T. ; ud VBjtg- ISfc 
S}>ec. Char., S^c. Sexes dineious or poly- i 

gamoua. Leaves bearC-Bhaped, acuminate, ' 

tootlied in Che mode of incisions, smooth £ 

on both surfaces, Kncemes loosely many- i 

flowered. Berries small, greenish, ripened 

late. (Dec. Prod.) A tendriled climber. 

Canada to Florida, in thickets along rivers. 

Stem 10 ft. to 20 (t. Introduced in 1806. 

Flowers greenish yellow ; June. Fruit lu. nn. naiirw«. 

greenish ; ripe in November. 

Leaves thin. Sin. to 6 in. In diameter, often slightly 3-lobed, and rarely 
ainuaced. Berries nearly black when mature, about a quarter of an inch to di' 
ameter, ripening late iu autumn ; acid, but tolerably well flavoured af):er having 
been touched by frost. (Tor. and Gray.) 

» 5. K F 

■**iiiA Michx. The ri 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves heart-shimed, shullowly 3- 
clefl, toothed in the mode of xnei.siona and un- 
equallv. Footstalk, and the margin of the nerves, 
pubescent. Racemes loose. Fruit small. (Dec. 
Prod.) A tendriled chmber. Canada to Vii^nia. 
Stem SO fi. to .30 ft. Introduced In 1806. Flowers 
greenish yellow, with the fragrance of mignonette: 
June and July. Fruit dark purple,.or amber ; ripe 
in October. 
Leaves 4 in. to 6 in. in diameter, thin ; teeth very 

coarse, acuntinHte. Berry 3 — 4 lines in diameter. 

dark purple, or amber colour, when ripe. {Tor. and 


I 6. y. VULPI' 

T-side, or iweei-tcenUd, Vine. 

The Fox Orape, or Bidlet Grape. 

'. Ttuun'dl^iii' 

IIBI.) WBlt. Cir., B. 941. 1 
Miclu., Punk, Die„ Deal 

U, and AtI.' 3rfl IMtriit ; 

Spec. Char., ij-c. Branches minutely verrucoie. Leaves cordate, shining on 
both surfaces, somewhat 3-lobed, coaniety toothed, the teeth not acuminate. 
Racemes composed of numerous mpitate umbels. Birriea ^tirge. (Tor. 
and Gray.) A tendriled climber. Virginia to Florida. Stem 20 ft. to 30 fL 
Introduced in 1806. Flowers greenish yellow ; June and July. Fruit deep 
blue; ripe in October. 

The stem of this species hat a smooth bark, and climbs to the summit of 
some of the highest trees. Leaves 2 — 3 in. in diameter; the tower surfcce 
more shining than the upper ; sinus deep, but rather acute Fruit 7 — 8 lines 

3t»I, riT.OcE* ; AMPELO'PaiS. 

in diaineter, coTered with a corin- 
ceous iDt^r<">ert, tbe flower not un- 
ptetuunt. This, Bccordtng to Torrey 
and Gray, appears to be the original 
y. vulpina of LinnsuE. 

American specie 
(IcTiibly reduced in number by 
Mes-irs. Turrey and Gray ; but it 
uppearg to iia, that the reduction 
Kii^ht have been carried bCill farther. 
Some species are described a« nn- 
tives of tile Himalayns, and ISO 
varieties are noticed by Kaflnesqiie 
in bis Mmograpk of American ytnet 
(see Gard. Jlfi^., vol. viii.p. S4e.) ; 
but they are not yet known in tMa 
country. Indeed, from the appear- 
ance of the above-described iiKciea 
in tbe Hort. Snc. (iarden, we are 
much inclined to think they are 
only varieties of the same iDecies. 
They certainly do not differ' more 
from each other than the known 
varieties of the common cultivated 


AMPELO'PSIS Mkis. Thk AurKuonu. Lin. SyH. Pentindria 

UalHlelKm. MMn. Ft. Ba. Amer., I. p. las. i Dec Prod.. I. p. «n. i Dm'i HUL. I. p. M4. 

Smuomffmet. f 1(U »p. UHl Cluua m, \ AmwloHldv. haL 

rKrnMttn. ^M^elH.iTliii, Hidi^.nHBbUiicc; liBltarlljtiitheluMtiorilHiipKlx. 

Gen. Char. Cali/t almost entire. Pelah i, falling off separately. Stigma 
cupitute. OKoy not immersed in a di k, including 8—4 ovules. (£>ee. 

LeavcM compound, alternate, exBttnulate, deciduous; pnlmate, pinnate; 
or bipinnate. Flouteri amall. — TendHled climbers, natives of North Ame- 
rica. The niecies in Brillih gardens are two, of tbe easii^t culture in any 
common soil ; and one of them, A. Aedericea, is among the most omunentiu 
of hardy climbers. 

_1 I. A. BSDEHA^C 

^ ^^^.r^'^ 

.^mrr. Oar., Sfc. Leaves dictate, of from 3 to 5 leaflets, that arc slalbed 
oUong, toothed with mucronated teeth, Bacemeii dichotomously corym- 
bose. CZJ**- P^^-) A tendriled climber. Cunad a to Georgia. Stem 30 ft. 
EO dOR^ Of more. Introduced in I62B. Flowers yellowiih green; June 

Avr. p. Iin. ; Anipel6«ti qnliiqiirtllla 

rigna Vlorn pt. ; ianiifnn Brhm, or wll> 

Emfram^t. Comot. Cuud., i. 100.; jumIuu 


and July. Berry bUck or dark blue; ripe 
in October. Decaying leave* deep purple 
or red, or yellowUli nd. 

X A. h. 2 UrtaUi Tor. & Gray. A. 

hirsjtta Dom ; Citnxa Aedericee 

f3 hiretlU /WiA. — Leaves pubescent 

on both sides, leaflets ovate. The 

plants of this varietv id British gar> 

dens do not die oH of so intense a 

crimson as the species. 
Stem attaching itself to trees and walls hy 
expansions of the extremities of the tendrils. 
Panicle many-flowered. Petals at first aome- 
ithat cohering, at length spreading. Berry 
about as large an a sniall pea, the peduncles 
and pedicels bright crimson ; and the Toliage 
in autumn, before it dies off, of a deep crimson. 
The most vigorous-growing and generally 
ornamental climber in Europe. It thrives in 
almost every noil and situation from Warsaw 

to Naples, and in town, as well ai in the ,„ tui^^i^.ti^ 


i 2. A. BiPiNNA'T*,3flcif. The bipinnate-^emvi' Ampelopsis. 

Igrateicaaeit. HJchi. Fl. But. Amer.. I.p. ISO.; Due. Prod.. rp.S3>. ! DiHi'i WIU., I. p. St. 

Stmni^mrt. VMm arMTsa WiOd. »fec. I, p. IIM. : »^lt> blplnnlU Tbt. t Cray; Ctuui Hliu 
FtTI.Sfn. 1. n, \ta..Fk. FL Amir. Stpl. f . p. IHI.i VlM del C4rollB», ilai. 

£a(ra>Av(. Pliik. H>Dt..p. 4I«. Rg. 1. 1 udotirj^. IS9. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves bipinnate, smooth ; leaflets cut in a lobeil nwnner. 
Racemes pedunculate, almost doubly biRd. Berries globose and cram- 
coloured. (Dec. Prod.) A tendriled climber. Virginia to Oeor^a. SCeni 
10 ft. to 80 A. Introduced in 1700. Flowem greenish white ; June to 
August. Berry black ; 
ripe in October Decay- 
ii^ leaves purplish red, 
sometimes yellowish red. 
Stem upright, or some- 
what tvming, glabrous. 

Panicle short, spreading, 

and without tendrils. Berry 

globose, depressed, as large , 

as a small pea, blackish 

when ripe, slightly hairy. 

{Tor. and Oral/.) A very 

handM>me climber, of easy 

culture, and much admired 

for the beauty of its foliage. 

Compared with A. hede- 

r^cea, it is of slow growth, '••- aijuMi^ nii ii.m 

the shoots in thi; climate of London being seldom inure than 18 in. or S ft- i" 

Other S{>crJet of Aiiipeloptit. — A. incua, ^itis incisa Nail., is described in 
Torrey and Oray's Flora ; but we are not aware of its having been introduced- 
i<. cordita Michx. (the t'issus Ampeldjisis of Persoon, anJ/^itis indivisa of 
Willdenow) is descrilicd in the first edition of this work ; but, as we consider it 
a very doubtful species, we have omitted it in this abridgeniL-nt, A, capreoli a 
G. lion, Vvxi capreolata D. Don, and A. b6lrya Dec, are also omitted, as oot 
leaving been yet introduced. 




Cl'SSUS L. Tbk Cissws. Lin. S^i. Tetrindria Monogjoii 

. G«..Na. 14T. i Dec Prod, l.p. OT. : Dsn'I Mill.. I. p. SW. 
■l6piU, and Fttit In |]4rt. 

Gm, Clin-. Calyi slniost entire, /'rtni 1, (ailing off «eparalely. Owny 
4-cclIed. Berry 1— l-seeded. (Dec. Prod.) 

Learnt compaund, alternate, exitt- 
pulate, dedduoua ; trifoliate. Flowert 
axillary, small, greeniah. .FVtrtt a benj. 
— Climbing iihrubs, onlv one of which 
is hardy in Sritish gardens. 

£iwr»Av>. Lm. ni- t. M. Sg. I : uid our 

Spec.Ciar^4^c. Lravea bipinnate, smooth ; 
leafleta o?ate, serrated. (Don'i JUill.) 
A deciduous ctimber, Levant. 8teni 
AlttolOft. Introd. in 1618. Flow> 
ers yellowish green ; June and July. 

We have only seen the plant bearing 
this name in toe collection of HeMT*. 
Loddiees, from which our figure is token, 
and which, as it docs not agree very well 
with the specific cbarecter, is perhaps 
not the true plant. At all erenti, the 
plant figured i« handsome, and as vigo- 
roiu ana hardj' m AmpeldJMW bipiimita. 


OxD. Char. Flewen uniseiua], regular. Co/jat in 3—5 divisions. Felab 
the Mine number, longer than the calyx ; gestivation generally twiited. 
rSfomnu equal io number to the petals; in the female flowers wanting or 
imperfect. Omtiy with as many carpels as there are petals. FrvU either 
berried or membnmoiu. — Trees or slirubi, chiefly natives of warm climates. 

Leaeet compound, alternate or opposite, without stipules ; •hruptlj or 

unequally pinnate; with pellucid dots. Flovien aiillary or terminal; 

grey, green, or pink. — The species in British gardens ore comprised in 

three genera, which are thus contradistinguished ; — 
X*BTHo'Trtuii L. Flowers bisexual. Carpels 1 — 5, S-valved, Leaves 

abruptly and impari-p innate. 
T^k' />. Flowers bisexual. Fruit compressed, 2 — 3-celled j cells winged. 

Leaves of 3 leaflets, rarely of 5 leaflets. 
Aili^KTUS DesT. riowers polygamous. Carpels 3 — S, membranous. Leaver 

abruptly or bnpari-pinnate. 



XANTHO'XYLUM Z... wid H. B. el Kth. Thb X*ntho%ti.Oii, «■ 
TooTHACHti Tbbb. Lin. Sgil. DicEcia Tri-Fentandria. 

UtmliflciiliBii. Lin. Gen,. No, IM. aad lift). ; nee. Pmd., I- p. li^.t Don't Mill., I. p. HI. 
Srnomvtnet, Zvithi^vjluin (It la thui ifvlled In manj bounlcal workt); Kampmapa^ RadD.i 

i>fripafwit Fronn TAafAtv, jr«Uow, aiid nifoiB. wood i fhirn cha ydlowneH of tbe wood, man aafH^ 

Gen. Char. Calyx short, S — 4~|iartetl. I'etalt equal in number to the lobes 
of the c.ilyx, but longer, very rarely wanting. — Malefiawen. Stament equal 
in number wiCb the \ieia\^.— Female Jiotveri. Stnaieni soiiietimea wanting, 
or very short. Ooanei 5 — I, Bometimei equal in number to the petals. 
Capittlei 1 — 3, 1 — S-seedcd. Seedi globose, dark, shining. (Don't Mill.) 
Leavet compound, alternate, Gtlpuliile, deciduous ; pinnately 3 — I3-folio- 
l&tu. Flowett Blillary, small, greenish or whitish. Infioreirenee various. — 
Deciduous loir trees or shrubs, nni.ives of North America, with prickles od 
the branches, petioles, and midrib of the leaflets. The species in British 
gardens are of eas^ culture in any common soil, and are easily propagated 
by seeds, layers, or cuttings of the roots. 

T * I- X. ntAZi'KBUH Wmd. The Ash-Jnnifd Xanthojcyliim, or connaoN 

XVI), xanthoxyla^cea: ptbYba. 143 

. Sp., 


WBId.Sp.,4.p.n7.i DccProd.. Ip-TM.) Don'i MIU., I, bl HI 

Micu.; (.UTEiier B FniniH lie FVtH, J'r. i Eickcii-bliltrign Z*hn*nb1lt>1l. Gcr. ; PrlcUf 
Aih. Amer. i FnHlW) (ptDOW, /UJ. 
nvrMAHf. I>a Hui. Arb., 1. 1. try. i ih> pUu ofUUt >p«l« la Arb. Brii.. lit nlli., lol. t. -, and 

^ift. Cior., j-c. Lenves pinnate, of 4 to 5 pairs of leaflets, and an odd one ; the 
leaflets ovate, obitciireiy saweJ, equal at the liase ; the petiole round, and de~ 
Toklaf prickles J pHckleit in the situation of Mipiitrs. Flowen in axillary 
umbels, without petals. (Dec. Prod., i. p. TEG, 727.) A low deciduous 
tree or Bhrub. Canada to ViKinia. Hei^t 10(1. to 15 ft. InCrod. 1740. 
Flowerg yellowish, with red anthers ; April and May. Seeds large, black ; ripe 
in September. Decaving leaves yellowish green. Naked young wood aah- 
coloui^ and greenish. 

n of Lodd. Cat., of which there ia 
Horticultural S" 
n the aitoretum of Messrs. Loddiges, appears U 
of X./raxfneum; probably the saine as X. (/) tricirpum. 

agm^mn. Z. Hn^UknniB 

Xmfraringi. LuL ID.. 1. L 3M. i niiil oui.^. tM 

l^tec. Ckar., ^. Leaves pinnate; the leaflets 3 

to 5 pain, and an odd one, all on short ataiks, 

oblong oval, acuminate, finely sawed, oblique at 

the b^. Petioles and branches prickly. Pa- 
nicle* terminal. Petals 5. (Dec. Prod.) A low 

tree or shrub. North (^rolina to Florida. 

Height LO ft. to 15 ft. Introd. 1806. Flowers 

greenish ; June. Seeds large, black ; ripe Oct. 

Leaves and bark very aromatic and pungent, 
PriiileB very sharp. The bark of this and the 
precediiw species i« imported irom New York, 
and solif in Covent Garden Market as a cure for 
the rheumatism. Probably a variety of the pre- 
ceding species. 

Other Speeiet af XanthSxyhtm, — X. mite Witld., treated as a species by 
aome aatbora, ia made a synonyme of X.yhaxineuin by Torrey and Gray, and 
it pn^nbly bears the same relation to that niedes that Oledltscbia b£rmia 
does to O. triacinthos. Our opinion is, that there is only one speciea of the 
geous in British gardens. 

Genus II, 


. On., Na. IH. ; Dk. Prad., I. p. St. 1 I>«i'i lUU- 1. p. BM, 

. ^■£4 AdlAI. ; DrtiM dfl SukiArle, Pr. \ I^dVTUiima. Orr. 

. Ttaai plrm, Uh GreA DB» of Ih* dm, •dopted bf Llmunu. 

Gem. Ckar. C<dt)t short, ^—i parted. PetaU 4 — 5, loncer than iba calyx. 
— Male fiowen. Slatneat 4--5, longer than the petua. — Fcmtde fionrr*. 


Stamau 4 — A, very short. Style Bhort. Fruit comprested, iDJebiicent, 

sjunarnJilte, turgiJ, a — 3-celletl. Seeiii oblong. (Don't AftU.) 

Leant* compound, alternate, stipulate, deciduoua ; pinnate, 3- rarely 5* 
foliolaCe, with pellucid dots, the lateral leaflets ineqiiilatefBl. Fbttnen 
whitish, cynioEe : cymes cnrynibed or pHiiicled. — Deciduous shrubs or low 
trees, natives uf North America and Asia. There is only one species in 
British gardens, which is of the easiest culture, and is propagated by seeds 
and cuttings, put in in aututnn, and covered with a hand gfass. 

S • 1, /*, thifoli*Ta L. The threc-iny7rtird Ptelea, or SinMy Trefoil. 

UrMiflcalioH. LiD. Sp., 173.1 WlJliL Sp. Fl., l.«a; Drc. Prod., 3. p. n. ; Don't HUl, I. ^SM,; 

Kmnumti, Onne de Samarln 1 troll Feulllei. A-. ; drnbUCtrlge LKIeiblurw, Grr. 
igrafnigi. DHL £Uli., (.llli Scbmldi Arb., S. c. T6.i tlia plua In Arb. Brit., lit, «dU.,>aL>.i 
ud gurjtf. ISO. 

Spec. Char,, Sfc. Leaf of three leaflets that are ovale acute, the middle one 
much tapered towards ite base. Flowem in corymhs, usually tetrandrous. 
(Dec. Prod.) A low tree or shrub. Lake Erie to Florida and Teias. 
Height Gft.tolOft. lutrud. 1704. Flowers whitish; June and July; 
Capaulea greenish ; ripe in October. Decaying leaves of a remarkably citar 
rich yellow. Naked young wood dark purplish brown. 

X ■ P. f. 2 pciUaphjUa Munchh. has 5 leaflets, H. S. 
X • P. t. 3 pubeiceta Pursh has the leaflets pubescent. 
When this plant is pruned up with a single stctu, it forms a handsome low 
tree with a hemispherical bead j but in British gardens it is more frequently 

Ibund M a IftTge shrub, with numerous »tems proceeding from the rootatock. 
The shoots and leaves pubescent when young. Ovary of the staminate 
dowers abortire. Odour of the flowers diaBgreeable. Capaules with flattened 
wings, somewhat resembling those of the elm. 

Otier Speciet of Ptelea. — P. BaldwinW is described by Torrey and Gray iw 
a shrub not more than a foot high, but it has not yet been introduced 


Genus III. 

AILA'NTUS Deaf. Thb Aiunto. Lm. ^iI. PotygAmta Hoiue'ci 

UmiftaUt*. D«f. Acl. A™d.P»r., lT«,p. : — " . - ~. - 

blot. It" «Ktn»°ot b 
<7nt. 6'Aar. JUaleJIoieeri. Caij/r 5 cltSt. Pelalt b, longer than the calyx. 
Siaraau 10, the 5 opposite the petals shortest. Ditk central. — Hermaphro- 
dile, or female, fiowert. Cafyx, petalt, and diik as in the male, but with 
(ewer stamens. Orvvin 3 — S, distinct. Samara 3— £, obliHig ; l-celled, 
l-seedea. (Don'i ATitf.) 
Z>at>racoiiipouod,attemate,eistipulate,(Ieddi](iua;iniparM>inDBte. Floaen 
lemiinal, small, greeaiah. — One species, a deciduotu tree from China. 
3 I. A. OLANDULO^SA Da/. The ^andulous-Zfam/ Ailanto. 

IdtntifiaMm. I>Mf. Ad. AwL Pv, ITK, p. KS. , Dec Prod., 1 p. B9. ; Doo'I HllL, I. p. 807. 

Str^tOMfmet. A.pnKtra,SAL, Prod. p. 271. j RbAttiysmein^'-^ " "■ ■" "'- ' — " 

R.AatamEUu; AjUnlhe glBidiilituI, A.; drullter C( 
£iwra>Atf(. Wiu. Dend. Brit., L IM i ctw pUu ^ th* 

spec. Char., ^c. Leaves impari-pinnate ; the leaflets coarsely toothed U the 
base : the teeth gtandulous on tbe under side. {Dec. ProdJ) A lai^ tree. 
North of China. Hdght 50(1. to 60 ft. Introd. 1751. Flowers vhitish 
green, exhaling a disagreeable odour; August. Capsule* like tbe kevi of 
the ash, but smaller ; ripe in Octol>er. Decaving leaves browouh, but arop- 
ping with the first frost, without unjr great chatue of colour. The leaflets 
oAen separating from the petiole of the lea( and leaving it for some weeks 
attachnl to the tree. Nalied young wood 
rust; tntiwu, without buds. 

grows with great rapidity for the first 10 oi 
18 jean, producing shoots Itoid 3 ft. to 6 0. 
in length at first, and attaining the hdght ofj 
15 or SO feet in 5 or years, in favourable J 
aitiiations. Afterwards it» growth is much . 
slower. It grows in any soil, though one that fl 
is light and somewhat humid, and a sheltered ° 
situation, suit it best. In Prance, it is said to 
thrive on chalky soils, and attain a large size 
where scarcely any other tree will grow. It 
is readily prop^ated by cuttings of the roots. 

Section !V. 
Fnai gjpubatic ; that U, htterled mlo ajle$ii/ Receplarh, vnlh mbich the Slyle 


IIrd. Char. Flowen either hermaphrodite, n>oncecioirs, oi 
campanulate, ^.parted. Felalt h. Slnnma 10. Carjvli 
natives of temperare and warm climates. 

., Google 


Iicavei simiile, opposite or alternate, exatipulate, deciduous; <niure. 
Badi scaly. Flotocrt in terminal and ailUary ractxnes. Fru'U in some 
pouonous, in oth ere edible. — There is only one hardy genna, 6'oriaria; the 
species of which are low shrubs, natives of Europe and Asia. 

C*OUIA'RIA Kill. The Cobiaria. 

Lin. Sy,t. Diee'cia Dccindria. 

|K3^ Ftommrtw...hldaiC.B.rrtinili;i«lo 

lusd tMh Id UDDing Itutaecnid <n dj 

Gen. C4ar. Flowers either hermaphrodite, montecious, or dioecious. 
Calyi 5-parted. Petali 5, sepaloid, smaller than tlie lobes of the calyi. 
Slanient 10, hypogynous, 5 between the lobes of the calyx and the angles of 
the ovarium, 5 tietireen the petals and the fiirrows of the ovariuin. Anlken 
bursting by longitudinal slits. Style none. Sligniai 5. long, awl-cbaped. 
Carpels 5, surrounding a fleshy axb i when ripe, close together, but separate, 
not opening, l-sceded, surrounded with glandular lobes. (Lindi.) 

Leavei simple, opposite, exstipulate, deciduouii; 3-ribbed. Brandiet 
square, opposite. — Low sulTruticose shrubs, of easy culture in conmioa 
soil, and propagated by division of the root. 

■M 1. C. Jtvktifo'lia L. The Myrtle-leaved Coriaria. 

Uettiacalion. Lin. Sp., IIGT. ; D«. Prnl, 1. p. nS.i Dun'l Mill.. ]. p. SIS. 

l^iMviHi, FuiMt da Corrojeun, or Redoul k FeulUu de Mirtc, fr. ; V-jtitaVOUi^it On. 

ExfTawliift.' Lun. Ill,t.m.i WUi. Dend. Brtt,. t. ice.i iDd our j^. 19S, 
Spec. Char,, tfc. Leaves ovatc-Ianccolate, acute, 
three-nerved, on short footstalks, glabrous. 

Flowers in rather upright 

racemes. {Dec. Prod.) A . 

low, deciduous, suffhiticose 

shrub, consisting of nume- 
rous suckers. South of 

Europe, and the North of 

Airira. Height 2 ft. to 3 ft. 

Introduced 1839. Flowers 

greeniah ; May to August. lu. r^^^t -;-■»— 

Carpels in the form of a 

berry, blnck ; ripe in October. Leaves drop off of a 

brownish green. 

Found in hedges and waste places, throwing up Dume- 
rous suckers. An ornamental underahrub, chieSy re- 
markable for its myrtle-like leaves, and the bandsome 
frond-like form of its brandies. Suckers in any com- 

Rar. t. 269., and our j^. 196., from B 
_— iBnii. "^ ^^ Hort. Soc. Gardens, a native of Nepal, at heights 

of from 5000 fl. to 7000 fl„ appears to be quite hardy, 
and of robust growth. C. utrmentoia Forst., from New Zealand, is probably 
hardy also, but has not yet been introduced. 



Subclass II. CALYCIFLO'Ri^. 

iV(a/« teparate, ttuerted in the Cali/x. 


Ord. Cbar. StpaU 5, connected at the baae, coloured, with an imbricated 
sstiratian. Felali 5, allemiiCe. Staiaeru 5. D'uk Inrge, Ovary S — 3-celled. 
F'nat membranous or flexhy. — Shruba, natiTes chiefly of vrarm chmate*. 

Leavtt compound, opposite, stipulate, deciduous, Flowert terminal. 
Frmt a bladdery capsule. — The only hardy ligneous plants beloTiging to ibi* 
order are contained in the genus Staphylea. 

Gbkus I. 


8TAPBYLE*A L. Tna 8T*pHYnt», or Bladdbx-kvt Thee. Ua.Sytl- 
Pentandia Di-Trigynia. 

. Ifai. Om, Nu-nt. ; Due. Prad.,1.11. 1.1 Don'! WU. 1, p. 1. 
SUfilif ladtadroD Tnm. ; SuphUkr, tuix Puuclitn'. Pr. ; Plmpcniau, Otr. : Su- 

fMi»ml/, ■ IWDrh or clrnUr, viil Oadrtm, « tree ; Ibe Bowni ud rruiu Mug dlipncHl In clutlol. 

Gen. dor. Calyx of 5 coloured sepals, connected at the baae. In KstivB- 
tioD imbricate. Pelalt 5, in oativation imbricate. Slametu 5, perigynous, 
alternate with the petals, and opposite the Bcpais. A large urceolate disk, 
or nectary, within the corolla. Chariuia 2- or 3-cdled, superior. Fruil 
membraneooB. Seedt with a bony testa, end a large truncate niliiin. (Lindl,') 
Leaoet compound, opposite, stipulate, ded<luous ; pinnate, with both cont- 
mon and partial stipules. Ftoweri in terminal stalked racemes. — Two 
hardy species, low trees or ahruba ; nntivea of Europe and North America, 
of easy culture in any common soil, and propagated by seeds, which ought 
to be sown as soon as they are ripe, or by cuttings. 
• 1 1. S. trifo'lii L. The thrce-leavcd Slaphylea, or Bladder-nut Tree. 

Ma^Dkallim. Lin. Sp., 3B6. ; Dxc. Prod..!, p. S. ; Dso'l HILL.. X P- t. i Tot. IDd Gray, I. p. HA 
J J SHaM ffk StBphLLLvr II FeulUet toTDto, fr. ; Vlrginliclie PJmpFrnuu, Grr. 
Mm^Tmmimg»M fldimldt Bium.. t. BL.; ourj^- 197. iD floTer. and/f. 138. In nruit. 

Spec. Char., ^c. The leaf of 3 leaflets, which arc ovale, scumrnate, regularly 

sawed, and, when young, pubescent ; the style SLiiooth ; the ewiBule bladdery. 

(^Dec. Prod.) A deciduous shrub or tow tree. Canada to South Carolina, 

and west (o Arkansas, in moist places. Height 6 ft, . 

to IS ft. Introduced in 1640. Flowers whitish ; May 

and June. Kuts globose, in a bladdery capsule, white ; 

ri[>ein October, Decaying leaves 

greenish yeiluw. 

BrancheH slender, smooth, and 

dotted. Petioles pubeMent above. 

Partial stipules mostly none. 

' Petals ohovate-spstulute, ciliate at 

the base. Stamens rather exseried ; 

ai. s-HMia. filaments hairy below i anthers '••■ s-Mftai 

cordate; the lobes somewhat united at the tip. Capsule Sin. long: the carpels 

Csometimea 4) distinct at the summit, tiffed with the persistent styles, and 

opening by the inner suture; seeds smooth and polishfd. all but one often 

abortive. (I^nrey and Gma.) Wben not trained to a ringte stem, this dmib 

throws out abundance of diooU resembling suckers from the collar; but, if 




y handsome low tree. 

tbes&be reniOTed aa they ve produced, it will fona a ^ 
Seeda, Bucbers, layers, or cuttings, in any commoa soil, kqit moist. The 
laifcat plants c^ thu species, in the ndgfabourhood of London, are at Syoa. 
a 1 S. S. pinma'ta L, The pbnatedJrBocd Staphylea, or Bladder-mU TVet. 

Sp,,M6.i Dw. PraJ,, I p. ».; Don* Mill., ».,._ 

'-''-■ plDDttum Aovi aUnhHkr*FBiil1l™ ■Ulet.ft'. ! 

-^ ot PJKuchIo blK, /Wt 1 Job'i Tan. 

; Hiine Abblld., I. IC. ; ud •mM- 1W. 

pinnate, of 5—7 oblong, perfectly glabrous, s 

agmBrnffiiia, BUphilo 

Sutrntmti. ' Eni. Bot.. t. lodo. { Hiine AMillil. 

^c. Char., f[c. 

leafleti; tbe flowers in racemes ; the capsule* membranous and bladdery. 
(Dec. Prod.) Shrub or low tree. South of Europe, and ? Enjcland m 
bei^B. Height 6 ft, to 12 ft. Flowers whitish ; May and June. Nuts 
globose white, in a bladdery capsule ; ripe in October. Decaying leaves 
yellowish green. Naked young wood greenish, with green buda. 
A smooth branching shrub, throwing up 

many side aucken, in gardens often mim 

6 ft. to 12 ft. high, and exhibiting ■ much 

more luxuriant growth than the precediug 

species. The nuts, in some parts crt" Europe, 

are strung for beads by the Soman Catholics. 

The kernels taste like those of the pistada, 

and are eaten in Oennany by children. Tbe 

flowm contain a great deal of honey, and 

are very attractive to bees. In the London 

nurseries, the plant is generally cultivated by 

aide suckers, by cuttings put in during the S 

month of September, or by seeds, which 

are ripened in abundance. The seeds ought 

to be sown as soon as they are ripe ; be- 
cause, as they contwn an oil, they very soon 

become mncul. They will come up the folio 

shaped, seminal leaves ; though sometimes they i 


•XD, ChaS. Sepaii 4 — 6 : eettivation imbricate. Petal* 4 — 6. Slamtmt 4—6, 

alternate with the petals, opposite the sepals, indistinctly perigynotw. 

Onorii superior, free, ^rded with a fleshy dbk, with 8 ~4 cells. Otwfn erect, 

rarely pendulous. i'Vuit capsular, baccate, drupaceous, or samarideous. 

Seedt, la most, attended with an aril (Uadi.) 

Leavei simple, alternate or opposite, generally stipulate^ deciduous, or 

evergreen. Ptoaert whitish or greenish, in axillary cymes. — Shrubs or 

low trees, generally deciduous ; natives of both hemispheres. 

The species are chiefly remarkable for the form and colours of their fruits; 
tbrar flowers btnng neither large nor showy, nor thdr properties valuable in 
medicine, or general economy. All the soedes are readily increased by layera, 
by cuttings struck in sand, or by seeos in any common aoil. The genera 
containing hardy species are .^idnymus, C^Ustrus, and Ncsnop&nthes, which 
are thus contrHiUstinguished : — 
£uo'hthus Toum, Setes mostly hermapbroditc. Fruit a dehiscent capstde, 

of 3 — i cells. Seed with an anl. Leaves mostly opposite. 
£^i.a'strui L. Seies mostly hermaphrodite. Fruit a dehiscent capsule 

of 8 — 3-cells, Seed with sn aril. Leaves alternate. 
Nemopa'mthbs Aq/En, Sexes polygatoous or dicecious. Fruit aa ii 


XX. celastra'cE/B: svo'uvMve. 


EUIXNYHUS ToMn. Tmi Edontmus, or Spindlb Tags. Ln 
Tetra-Hei-indria MoDog^nia. 

'1. 1 D«. Prod., 1. p. s. I Dm'! HID, » 

foodrnoM, Tb* 

Gen. Char. Calyi 4 — 5-lobed, flat, covered by the peltate disk at the base. 
PHait 4 — 6, spreading, inserted in the disk. Stamnt 4—4, inserted above 
the disk in rsther prominent glands. Ca^nde 3 — A-celled, 3 — 5-angled. 
Serdi 1 — 4 in each cell, and wrapped in pulp or aril. (Don'i Mill.) 

Lcanei nmple, opposite, serrate. St^tJet mostly none. Pedundei axiU 
hay, 1 — many-Aowu^. InJIoreiixtice cyiaoee. — Deciduoui shrubl or low 
trees ; sometimes traiUng, or climbii^ by rootlets, 

I • 1. £. KUROP£^s L. The European Euonj-mus, or ^htdle Tree. 

lirmlllcmlnm. Via. Sp,. MS. ; D« Prod., t. p. 1. ; Dod'i Mill., 1. p. 1. 

, „ ...1^^- u.,, n,-. . o-i.i.Jnibiir Olrari-^ Louis B«tr. I>«wood, OtttwUga 

imMm t[h Bi^h dmhh PrictL-tlDiMr. or Prick-wood, i 
Dvkhif toDthidcIa aod ik«wtn. which wer« fonuerly call 
caur am wood of Camu unguliua ud thai of Ihs £iiAd 

..J. »_ .1. piiip(i««», both being CMllnd OuUnidn T 

Lawfr.wDfid, boam e the powdered leer 

ti ^ 

Spec, Char., S^e. Braaebes smooth, LeaTes lanceolate-ovate, Tery finely sawed. 
Flowers about 3 upon one peduncle; the petals oblong rather acute. Lobes 
of the capsule obtuse. {Dec. Prod.) A deciJuoiu shrub, or low tree. 
Europe and Britain, in hedges and copse woods. Height 12ft. 
Flowers greenish white; May. Fruit scarlet, produced in great abundance. 


and very showy ; ripe in September. Decaying leaves reddish. Nalieti younj 
wood green or reUdinh green. 

1 • E. r. 2 lalij&luu Lodd. Cat. has rather broader leaves than the ipedcs. 
X ■ E. r.3 /uZiuvo/irgafii Lodd. Cut. has variegated leaves, but ocirr 

looka healthy. 
5 .- E. e. ifructu ilho Lodd. Cat, has white capsules. 
« E. r. 5 aanttt Lodd. Cat. U a dwaif-growing plant. 
No9. 2. and 4. of these varieties are, in our opiDJun, alone worth culti- 

Itoota numerous and whitish, forming a dense mass of network, and sac 
extending to a great distance from the stem. The brunches are numeroiii 
and op;io8ite ; and the wood hard and fine-drained. The leaves and bdii 
are acrid, poisonoua, and fetid when bruised. The CRjisules areofaSoe 
ruse colour, except in the wbite-capsulcd variety, and the seeds are ocb 
invested with an aril of a fine orange colour. In a state of cultiratioa tt« 
tree attains the height of 30 ft. or upwards, and, though almoat entirely oej- 
lected in pleasuie-grounda, it forms a singularly hiindsoine object in autumn, 
when covered with its ripe fruit. Seeds; in any common soil not over moiit. 
!•?.£. vER[n;co'sus Scop. The warted-iarAerf Euoninius, or S/wit 

sluirniw^ Voa4. Ehi''l?am.,Vl^S. "s^hmUt Arb., t. n. ; 

Spec. Char.,^, Branches warted with prominent 

lenticular glands. Leaves ovate, slightly ser- 
rate. Flowers three on a peduncle. Petals 

ovate. Capsule bluntly ^.cornered. (Dec. 

Prod ) A deciduous shrub or low tree. Austria, 

Hungary, and Cariiiola. Height 6ft. lo 12ft. 

Introduced in 1763. Flowers j)urpli3h brown ; 

M^ and June. Fruit reddieh puriile ; ripe 

in September. Decaying leaves reddish green. 

Nailed young wood green, with brown and 

white spots. 

A shrub of somewhat fsstigiate habit of growth, ,ij' 
with rough warty branches. This species is culti- ' 
vuted in collections chiefly for the singularity of its 
appearand;, beinj; among spindle trees what the 
uurted ash is among ash trees. It ripens seeds, 
and is readily increased by cuttings, 

t a 3. £. latifo'lius C. Bauh. 

IdcMificalloo. C. Blnh. Pfil.,<S9.; Dtc. P _,.... _ ^. .. 

Sl/mm^mn. E. euTOpc'ui lit. 1 Lin. ; FuulD 1 largcj Fciillln, Fr. ; brillUililMgir E 

ErifTaciBis. Juq, Fl. Auitr., t. 389. i Bol. Mag.. 23U. ; Ihe plali DC Ihv ipedei In Artl. Bill. I* 

Spci: Char., ijc. Branches smooth. Leaves broad-ovate, toothleted. Pe- 
duncles trichotomona, many-flowered. Petals oval, obtuse. Lobes of capsult 
acutely angled, wing-lbrmed. (Don't Mill.) A deciduous shrub or low tr«. 
South of France to Tauriii, in groves. Height 10 ft. to 20 ft. Introducoi 
in 1730. Flowers white, becoming purplish; June and July. Fniitdwp 
red, and very showy j ripe in September. Decaying leaves purpli&fa ti- 
Kaked young wood reddish green, with long pointed green buite, lingo' 
with r..'d. 
In British gardenii, this foims much the handsomest species of tbe gcnui. 

. celastra'ce^ : evo'symvb. 

(rom its broad ahinbg Irvves, Mid iu large red pendulous fruits, inth orange- 
coloured seeds, which, when ihe capsules open, are Euspendcd from the cells 
somewhat in the manner that the seeds nf the magnolias hang from thinr 
alrabiles. Even the wood of this species, during winter, is much handsomer 
than that of an^ other, the branches being regularly divaricate, with a clean 
baik, of a reddish green, and with long pointed dark brown buds ; by which 
alone this species may be distinguished from all the others. Unfortunately 
for this species, it is generally treated as a shrub, and crowded among other 
shrubs or trees ; so that it b never allowed a chance of attaioing either its 
full size or its proper shape. 

-+. E. N4'nus Bkb. The dwarf Euonymus, or %>u/& 7>w. 

;. B[»b. Fl Tjiur. Supril, p. 160; I>«c. Prod, 1. p. 4, i DoD't Ulll., 3. p. t. 
!jlt. W» (rum Mflin. I.oddlgM'1 plul. 

Sprc. CkoT^^c. Bninchcs smooth, somewhat herbaceous. Leaves lanceolate, 
entire, nearly opposite. Flowers 4-cleft, from 1 to 3 on a peduncle. {lUc. 
Prod.) A truling undershrub, with the aspect of the widow wail (fliedrum 
tnc6ecum). Northern Cau- 
casus. HLight 1 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1830. Flowers 
greeniish white ; July and 
gusL Fruit ? i ripe ?. Sbools ~ 
slender, recumbent, and with 
the leaves of a deep green. 

¥ * 5. £. ATROFtiRFV^RBUs Jacq. The dark-purple;;feu>fre^ Euonymus, or 

Spindle Tree. 
UnitiMatiim. Ju^. Hon, VlDd..3.i Dk. Prod., & p.4. i thm'i Htll, 3. p, 1. 1 Tor. udflrij, 
ifitSn^ma. B. nrolloKnli MarA. Arb. Amtt. Ho. I , j ud, pro1»btT, B. IBIMiu HatA. Art. 
Em^^S^m^l Jiic<i"H(in. viu£,3.t.i3a.iSchiDMtArtt.,Ln. : ird Dur^V- 1M. 
Wc. Char,, ^c. Branches amoolh. Learcs stalked, lanceolate, temUd. 

., Google 


Flowers many iipon a peduncle ; the peduncle 
compressed. Petals ortuculate. Capsules 
angulately furrowed, smooth. (Dec. Prod.) 
A shrub or low tree. Canada to Florida, 
He^t 4ft. to left. Introduced in )7£6. 
Ftowen dark purple ; June and JuIt. Capsule 
crimson. Seeds white, with a red aril ; ripe 
in Oi:tober. Decaying leaves piuplish red. 
Naked young wood purplish green 
Branches slightly 4-si(ted, Leaves iii 

lobed. This and the other Amencan species of 

Britain : as 
planted b n 
sandy soil. 

n a thriving 

Spean to us, troni not Deing 
lady situations, and in peat or 

.. The American Euonyi 
Prcrf,lp.«.i i> ■ — ■■ - 
k. ; E. iltamiruUi 

Aire. C'hitT. 

wUlJr ll'lD HHl, >! 

Branches suiootb. I.eiives ahnost se^ifile, elliptic4aDCColile, 
Flowers 1 to 3 on a peduncle. Petals Bub.«rbiculBle. Capauk 

echinately wiiny. (Dec. Fmd.) A sub-evergreen recumbent shrub. Canada 
to Florida, among rocks, and in moist woodlands. Height 2 ft, to 6 ft. In- 
rroduced in 1686, Flowers greenish yellow, tinged with purple; May ai 
June. CapKule deep crimson. Seeds white, with a scarlet aril i npe 
October, Decaying leaves and natej shoots green. 

• ■ E. a. 2 atigtuHfoliut. Var. fi Tor. j- Gray. ^Our J 

/g. 807,) — Leiives narrowly elliptical or oblong, 
slightly lalcHte, the margin minutely serrated. Pos- 
aiWy the E. angustiffiliuB of Pursh, which Torrey and ( 
Uray had only seen in a herbarium. 
■ .■ n. E, o. 3 larmeTUdtut Nutt. Var. y Tor. S; Gray. — 
Shoots trailing and often rooting i leaves ovate-lan- 

• j> ■. £. a. 4 obottdlut Nutt. Var. I Tot. ^ Gray, B. 

obov^tus Dec. Prod, 8. p. +., Don't Mill. 8. p. 5. 
(Ourj^.£08.) — Trailing and rooting; leaves obovate, 
or oval-obovate, obtuse or slightly acuminate, acute at the b 


XX. CELAsrnA^cEX : £Uo'nyhus. 153 

Erect Leave* oval or eJlipdcal lanceolate, the uppermoat often slightTv lal> 
eate, nioatly Bcuminaie, acute or obtuse (rarel)' subconlate) at the base. (Tor. 
aad Gray, var. a.) Branches sleader. green. Leaves 1 in. to 8 in, long, cori- 
aceous, nearly evergreen in the aouth^ s^tea. Seeds smaller than in E. 
atropurpureiu. The scarlet fruits, according to Pursb, resemble, at a dis- 
tance, those of .4'rbutus ITnedo. The^ form a great ornament, he says, to 
this almost evergreen thrub, and have given rise, in America, to its common 
name, the burning bush. Of easy culture in moist soil, ami a shady ntuation. 
Cuttings or seeds. 

T A T. £. HAiiiLTON/^mr< WalL Hamilton's Euonymua, or SjmdU Tn*. 

Spec, Char., ^c Branches smooth, 

terete. Leaves lanceolate, finely 

■rarated. Peduncles dichotomons, 

6-flowered. Flowers tetrandrous. 

Petals 4, lanceolate cordate. Ovary 

44obed, 4-eelled, each ceU con- 

t^ing 8 ovules. (Don't MUl.) A 

low tree or shrub. Nepal. Height 

I0ft.toS0ft. Introduced in 18S5. 

Flowers yellowish grein; June 

and July. Fruit ? purple; ripe in 

? October. Decaying leaves and 

naked young wood green. 

A free-growing species, with an 
erect stem ; the young iboots green ; 
the leaves large ; bark of the older 
shoots white. Left to itseir, ai a 
standard, it forms a dense fastigtate ' 
bush, with numerous suckers ; but, 
traioed to a single ston, it would 
doubtless form a handsome small 
tree. A plant agamst the wall, in 
the Horticultural Society's Garden, 
Sowers (reely every year ; but has 

the open garden was killed to the^ound by the winter of 1637-B, but sprang 
up again with vigour. In the Liverpool Botanic Garden it 

was not ii^jured. 

Other Spedei of EuSnifrma. — E.ja^Stucvt Thiuib. four 

J^. 310.), and E. jat>6nicut Jdliu pariegalu, B. ^^cmiKfAlius 

Sorb., and some other species, aie in London gardens ; but 

they can only be considered as half-hardy. In tbe Canlcr- 

bury Nursery, E. J. f51iis variegitis has been found hardier 

than the spedes. In the Hordcultural Bociet^s Garden, 

E. japdnicus, trained against a wait, was but hCtle injured 

by the winter of 1837-8. The following species, shortly de- 

I scribed in our first edition, Mr. Don cunsiders as likely to 

. prove "truly hardy;" some of them are introduced, and are 

* m green.houses : E. grdssus WatL, E. micrinthus D. l><m, 

E. lOcidus D.Don, £. cchm^tus fVal!., E. tingens IVaU., 

E. gUber Sorb., £.fimbriUus Wall., E. fndicus Hei/«e, E. 

v^^B Wail., E. KubtriflAnis Slume, E. ThuobergiiwM 

*" '■J'"""" Blume, E. p^ulus Walt., and E. frf^dus Watt. 

., Google 



CELA'STRVS L, Tbb Cblastrus, or 5»r7 Tjuk JJat.&ftt. 1 

UndVfloH. Lin. G«d.. 170, -. Dn, Prod., 1. B. t. ; Don'i Wll., 1 p. «. 
Sftvmfwut, Euoapntilda Mamek i Ctfuf re, Fr. i Cetut«r, 6n-. 

laiMAtrat of Lhfl Gr«hi It wppofcd lo bfl ttw £ii6njnim- 
Gen. Char. Calyx small, 5-lobe(I. PetaU 6, unguiculate. Ouory lawJI, im- 
mersed in a 10-atriped disk. Slifrmat2 — 3. CapiuleS — 3 valTed. .Scerf I, 
in a large fleshy anl. (Doiit MUl.) 

Leave! simple, altemaCt:, stipulate, decidumu; stipule* nunute. — One 
harJy q>ecies ; a climbing shrub, a native of North America. 

1 1. C. sca'ndunsX. The climbing^lfmnnf CelaitniB, or Ste^TVev. 

/dnfijkoMn. Liu. Sp, M3. ; D«e. Prod^ 1 p. G: Dgn'i Hill., 1 p. i Tor. udCTn, I. p-WT. 
hngraenv tfaur. Da liRm.,1. t. S!t, i mnilouTjig. 3\\. 

S/iec. Char., ^c. Thornless, climbing, smooth. Leaves oval, acuminate 
serrate. Flowers dicecious, (Dec. Prod.) A deciduous twininKiifarub. 
Canada to Virrinia. Height 5 ft. to 80 ft. Introduced in 1736. Flowen 
small, pale veUowish ijreen ; June. Capsules orange ; ripe in September. 
Seed reddlMi brown, coated with a bright orange aril, chan^ng at bttt to 

The Ktems are woody and flexible, and twist 
theiiuelves round trees and slirubs, or round each 
other, to the height of 12 or [5 feci, or upwards, 
girding trees so closely as, in a few years, to de- 
stroy them ; whence the French and German names, 
which signify " tree strangler." The leaves are about 
3 ill. long, and nearly 2 in. broad, serrated, of a lively 
green above, hut paler on the under side. The plant 
prefers astrong loamy soil, rather moi^t than dry; and 
IS readily propagated by seeds, layers, or cuttings. 

OlAer Speciei of Celattm. — C. buUdtta, described from a figure of Plukenet, 
is, according to Torrey and Gray, a doubtful plant. C. nepaleniu and C. pyf- 
cantM/oSui are in Messrs. Loddiges's collection, but rather tender. 


NEMOPA'NTHBS Rafia. Thb A'ehopinthbs. Lm. Sytt. PotygamU 

, — , n. Joofn. Phri., 1919. p, M 1 D«. Piod., i. p. IT. I Don'j lUIL, 1 p. II. 

Smmifme. lIldbldH Dttm. Court. 1. toI. 4. p. VJ. 

DtTinllon. Fcom mmoi, % gnvt, tai laUJua, m Sowiti n being (enenllj roond Id imM. 

Gen. Char. Cidyx small, scarcely conspicuous. Peta]i &, distinct, oblong, 
linear, deciduous. Staiaeai 5, alternating with the petals, Oeary honl* 
spherical, covered with clammy juice. Style wanting. Stigttiat 3 — 4,e^- 
■lie i ni the mule flowers bardlj manifest. Berry irloboae, 3 — l-ceUed. 
(Dim; Mill.} 

Leavet simple, alternate, ovale, exstipulate, deciduoui i quite entin. — One 
hardy species. 



SumByma. rioM mwd^Tuli ll/tkM. fluT. Bor. AmiT. L p. m. ; N, 
E^frmrmn. lUc^x. H, Bor. Amrr. B, L 49^ u riei ODBdituia i and 

Sprc. Chnr., Sfc, Leaves orate, quite entire, or BerraCed »1L 
the npex, smooth PediceU usual!]' soiitar]', I -flowered, 
very long. Flowen white. Berries large, beautiliil 
criniKin, very onuunental. (Lkm'i MUI.') Adeciduoui 
shrub. Camda Co Carolina, on Tnountains. Height 
sn. to 5 ft. Introduced in 1808. Flowers small, white i' 
April and May. Berry large, beautif jl crimion ; ripe in 
October. Very orDamencal. 

Plants of this species in the Hort. Soc. OvdeD, and at 
Messrs. Loddij^'s, under the name of /^iiios liiciduB, 
form neat fastieale shrubs, rather o( stoir growth. A 
few years ago there were some very bandsonie plants of "*' 
this spetdea at White Knights. Suckers or layers In loamy soil 
of the young wood in sand under a glass. 

Other Specie! a/ Celaitrdcete. — Miylemis chilemu Dec 
(our fig. 213.), a handsome evergreen bianchy shrub, 
with twiggy branchlets. The flowersare in axillary clus- 
ters, wi£^the corolla of a vellowish green colour, nut 
showy. It is a native of Chile, and stood eight or ten 
winters against a louth wall in the Hort. &oc:. Garden, 
and was [nought to be tolerably hardy, hut was killed to 
the ground in the winter of 1837-8, and did not spring up 
y again. It also stood several winters in the open garden, as 
, ^ a standard, and promised to be a valuable addition to our 
« hardy evet^reen dirubs, which it may possibly yet prove. 

Order XXI. ^QUIFOLIA'CE.*:. 

^»«^tri&'!i<ia'f°IUc«,inpait,DH.i>n>Al. p. II.; /lldDaii. to put, tniK 

Ord. Char. Calyx and conlta with an imbricBte Estivation. Sepalt 4 — 6. 
Corvlla hypogynous, with *— 6 lobes, and as many stamens inserted into It 
Hltemately to its lobes. Ovary 2— 6.<:elled ; a pendulous ovule in each 

cell. Fndt Seshy, indehiscent, with 2—6 stones, each containing a pendu. 
lous seed, which has large fleshy albumen. (LiniW.)— Low trees or shrubs, 
chiefly evergreen. Nadves of Europe and North America, 

X«iRwi simple, alternate oroppoaite,exstipiilBle, evergreen or dcdduous; 
coriaceous. FIoukti small, axillary, solitary or fascicled, — The genera 
containing hardy species are three, and are thus contradistinguished : — 

Mvgi'kd.1 Jacq. Sexes hermaphrodite. Stamens 4. Fruit l-celled, l.seeded. 
Shrubs with square branchlets ; leaves opposite, subcoriaceous, and flowera 
upon trifidly or trichotomounly branched peduncles. 

Tlej: L. Sexes hermaphrodite, dicecious, or polygainouj. Stamens 4 — 3. 
Fruit including 4 or 5 nuts. Evergreen shrubs with, mostly, coriaceous 
leaves. Flowers many on a peduncle. 

T^i'nos L. Sexes mostly dimciousor polygamous. Stamens 6. Fruit in- 
cluding 6 nuts. Sbrubs with leaves deciduous or persistent, and Bowers 
1 u|>on a peduncle. 




MYOrifD^ Jacq. Tub Utoihda. ZAt. S^ Teoindrb Moaogf-M. 

MMljIuMM. Jbo. &BV., p. M. 1 Dtc Pmd.. 1. p. II. i DubH WI, 1. p. II. 
*H««>«'- /InPiH-ftt OradiAlbMicr.ln Ito-.K^Orty. 

Dcir4>al»l>. SOBamWtl^ jKqvlBllllHIOOIltarfV«£<l>Da llW<M,ll(9«KVlllDtailC 

Gfn. CAiir. Co^ nnall, 4-cleft. Corolla deeply 4^left, subiotBte. Stamau i, 
elternatiiig with the ECgmenti of the corollB, and shorter than then, wmI 
inserted in iti throat. Oeary roundiih, Sligtmu 4/, Dntpe orate, 1-cedled. 
(Do%', Mill.) 

LeaBet aimple, moitly opposite, eiBtipuUte, evergreen ; entire or remotdj 
■errulBted. Flowert asiliary, subsolitar;, minute. — One ipedes ii hardf. 

.> 1. H. JUviiTiFo'Li& Nua. Tbe Xyrtte-leaved Hj^nda. 

Spec. Char., ifc. Li«vei oblong, blunt, teRated, smooth, 
with revolute edgei Pedonclea tstv ahgrt osnally loli- 
tary, l-flowered. Style short, ctub-tnaped 4-lobed at the 
apex. {Dim'* AIM.) A Low evergreen atirab. N.W. 
coast of North America, and the Rocky Mauutains. 
Height ! ft. to 4 (t. [nucdvcedm 1S18. Flowers nuall, 
white i Hayto August. Bnipedail puiplej ripe in Oct. 
Plants of this q>cciei atc in the arboretum of Messrs. 

Lo<U]igea ; where it b increased by cuttinp, and ffo-wt ie 

common soiL 

Oenus IL 


rLEX L. Thb Hollt, Un. Si/tl. Tetrindria Tetragynm. 

_o. G«i., Ma ll>. ! Dmv PraJ-.i. p. IS. i Doo'i MUI.,}. p. la. 

avmmnaa. .<gulft)Llnni Tatan, AuL L K\., Onrt. Frmt. I. t. SI. i H«ii, A-. ; SI 
HilEa. Gcr._^mct. Hal. 

DtHraam. Thaopbcutui. ud oIlHr Gttet lulbon, UDied Uia hsllf Agtli i that II wIM, or tl 
Uu Otldii (od tbaRonuu (nnntd Ann thil Ihs vard sgnMlau -, aiHl alM II, ■)■% Afni- 
tOUiiiB, ftaa j fH —i, ibvp, ADd faiimit, a laf. C BauhtB ud LounIro Ant Aumd R rin, «■ 

IiiiuiBadaftadlb*iiBiiasrnal<ii^aHnii,udpnKnadllw<uiBcJr AiBilMiaD t^Si 
wKt nodnOrkBonnMla. Tba dok of Hgllji b, pr^ibiH/. * oiinvHoa of tti mcd bdh, 

hTdtht taThb&rMeStt Hglf.indHohTmt probA&fMB - li'-jril 1 him 

BontastlK bolr Dim of CbrlitMiii, not tatf a Iwhum, bat In dmrchaa. 1^ Ghbhb ub* 
OiriMdan, tba Dulib uiu Clirl*t«a, lud the Swadlih hum Chrlitum, Hen to JsMtiy ttli 

G«i. Char, Caiyr 4 — 5-tootbed, permanent. ConUa 4 — 5-cleft, aubtotate. 
Slamem 4 — 5, altemaling with tne Segments of the corolla. Ovary acsule. 
Sligmai 4. Berry containing 4 — h 1-seeded nuts. (Dim't JUi/L) 

Laivci Ample, alternate, esstiputate, mostly eveigreen; ovate, oval, or 
ovalfr^aceolate, coriaceous, serrated, toothed, or quite entire. Ftoicrrt 
uxillary, agsregace, bidbII, generally white. Frmt a drupe, mostly red. — Low 
trees and shrubij chiefly evergreen, nBtivea of Europe, North America, and 
the Himalayas, generally of slow growth, and of long duration. Loamjr 
soil, rather dry than moist. 

XXI. ^quipolia'cea:: /'lex. 

A. Leavei imty-Umthed. 
t I. J. Aavi¥o\.ivu L. The prickly-leaved, or coMMOK.HoU}'. 

H. I D«c.PniL,E 

, ADttparU of Eitr,,- 

H fD ttUHtllTlneEliropcWllUnugH- 1 

i^prc. Ciar., ^e. Leaves oblong, shining, wavy, ■pinjr.toothed. Pediuidea 
axillary. Flowera nearly umbellate. A haDdsome, conical, evergreen 
tree. Europe and Britain. Height 80 ft. to 30 ft. b a wild state; and 

twice that height, or upward., m a state of cultivation. Flowera white; 
Blay. Fruit red; nne m September, and remaining on the tree all the 
wmter. The lower leaves are very spinous ; while the upper ones, eape- 
cially on old trees, are entire. Decaying leaves yellow, dropping in June 

Korirtiw. In general the variegation of plants, more especially of treoi and 
Arabs, IS accompanied by a ragged, or otherwise unhealthy, appearance in 
the leaves; but the holly is one of the very few exceptions to this rule. 
The VBrieeaUons of the holly are chiefly conGned to the modification of 
whrte and yellow m the leaves: but there are tome sorts in which the 
vsnation results from the state of the leaves with reference to prickles, to 
oamitude, and to form ; and others consist of differences in the colour 
of the fruit, which is red, yellow, or white, and black. These varieties are 
for the most part, without names, and those in the following groups wn. 
pear to us to be all that are truly disimct ; but the shades of difference under 
each name in these groups are almost inaiimepible. 



t 1, A. S helcropKAUum Hort. — Leaves vbHoiibIj shaped. 

t 1. A. 3 angtutijolimn Hort. — Leavea narrow. 

T f. A. 4 lalijolium Hort. — Leaves broail. Shoots dark miipte. There 

is B fine specimen at Elvaston Castle, where it is called the Water 

t I. A. 5 aitacla-hue Hort. The High Clere Holly. — Leaves brood, 

thin, and flat, 
f L A. 6 marginatKm Hort. (j&. 816.) — Leaves without prirkles, 
coriaceous, oearlf as broad as Ton^, and with a thickened m 

t L A. 7 lawi/ofiutn Hort. (jfe. 817.) — Lea»eB small, oval-lanceolate 
without prickles, about the size and shape of those oT Laiiua 

t I, A. 8 aSatum Hort. {jig. 818.) — Leaves oval-acuminate, small; 

the prickles along the niarpns like bairs. 

A. 9 ciiSd(um Bunm Hort. — Leaves thinner and smaller than in the 
preceding variety. 

A. 10 recimum Hort. {Jig. 219.) — Leaves recurved. 

1 I, A. 1 1 KtraHJ^uvt Hort. (fig. 880.) — Leaves serrated. 
» I. A. IB CTiwHffl Hort. — Leaves curled. „ ,, ™ ^ 

t L A. 13 firox Hort. Hedgehog Holly; Hou«-h6ns«on, Fr. (Jig.ti\.) 
— The <B^ of the leaf has fts edges: "■ ' ' 

ts edges rolled back ; and a somewhat 

XXI. ^quifolia'ceje: /^x. 

. a the sumce jj 

abounds in prominences and 

prickles, it ha^ a curious up- 

pevance, not unaptl; com- 
pared to that of a hedgehog, 
t 1. A. 14 eraai/olttiiH Hoit (^. 

288.) — Leaves thick and 

I 1. A. 15 leniicau Sweet. — ^^ 

Leaves spinelesa, thin. 
All these varieties may be seeo 
ia Messrs. Loddiges's collectiun, 
and it is no smatl proof ot their 
value for town gardens, that they 
thrive in the smoky atmosphere of 
«i. I. Anna. that magnificent establishment. 

b. Varieliel detignated Jrma the Colouri of the Lea/. 
Under the general name of vari^^ed hollies, twenty or thirty vi 
aome of them with, and some of them without, popular nnmes, are obtainable 
in the principal London nurseries. Having examined and compared the 
difi^nt shades of variegation in the plants in the very complete collection 
of Messrs. Loddiges, we think they may be all included in the following 
groups: — 

i I. A. le dlbo-marfftidimn Hort. -^ Leaves with white edges. Of this 
variety the subvarieties in Loddiges's arboretum are marked 5, 15, 
IS, and 24, which have all long and narrow leaves, with ed^ngs of 
white or pale yellow along their margins j and 4, 6, 7, 12, 17, 32, 33, 
and 28, which have brger leaves, and a greater breadth of margin 
vari^ated ; the white or pale yellow forming in some cases one 
third, or even one half, of tne surface of the lenf, 
I I. A. 17 a&reo-margmSium Hort. — Leaves with yellow edges. The 
following subvariclies are in Messrs. LoddigesN arboretum, Nos. 19 
and 20 with dark yellow mamns; and Nos. 1, 2, B, 9, 10, 13, and 
29, with mai^ns of dark and light yellow. Another subdivision of 
this group consists of plants with broad leaves, in what may be 
called a transition state from green to variegated, viz., with greenish 
yellow or very pale green blotches or marffins. When such plants 
become old, they are generally very distinctly variegated with yellow. 
Examples in the Hackney arboretum are Nos. 3, 20, and 21, 

1 I. A. 18 albo-piclunt Hort. — Leaves spotted with white. This variety 

has a considerable portion of the centre of the disk of the leaf white, 
and of a somewhat transparent appenrancej the edges of the disk 
of the leaf being green, 

2 1. A. 19 aureo-jAclum Hort. — Leaves spotted with yellow. The fol- 

lowing subvarieties are in Messrs. Loddiges's arboretum, Nos. 1 1, 

H, 16, 26, 27, and 30, 
J I. A, iOfirox araenteum Hort. — The hedgehog holly with leaves 

blotched with white. 
J L A. 2 1 /mw-aimiTn Hort. — The hedgehog holly with leaves blotched 

with yellow. 

c. VarieHa devgnated fiom the Cohw of tie Fmil. 
X L A.. 'ii frUctu laieo Hon. — Pruityellow. 

* L A. 23Jricla Mho Hort, — Fruit white. 

* I. A. 24 fHicta niffv Hort. — Fruit black. 

The holly nukes the most jmpenelisble and the roost durable of all v^» 



tdilefi»cea; and it baa tbia great adTanbge over deddiioiuJeafed treea and 
iiiniha, that it ii setikHn liable to be attacked bj> inaectt ; and, if ■honi, the 
outer tui&ce becomes impenetrable even to birds, who cannot Ixiild their neati 
in it. The wood is almost as white as noty, except in the centre of very 
old trvi>ks, where it is somewbat brown. It u ray nard, with a ^ — 

and turnery ; in ^n^neering, i 
even used for wood-en^ving. Tbe bark aibrds birdlioie, wbidi is pr^iared 
b; boiling and evaporation. Thelioilj attains tbe largest raze in aridi cand; 
loam ; but it will^row, and even thrive, on almost anj soil, provided it is not 
overcharged with moisture. As its seeds, like those of tbe nawtboro, do not 
come up the first year, to save ground and the e^iense of weeding, tbe ba- 
ries are commonly buried in the soil, or kept mixed up in a heap afeattb for 
one year ; after which, if sown in autumn, they will come up the following 
June. The variedes are propagated by budding and gtafting. These ope- 
ratioas are po^rmed at tbe usual times, and in the usiul manner ; bat it naa 
been observed by Tschoudi, that cleft-grafting does not succeed nearty so 
well with the hoUy as whip-grarting or buddii^ In England, the Mocks 
budded or grafted on are generally of four or five years' growth ,- and the 
grafting it cycled iu March, and the budding in July. The variegated kinds 
are also propagated by cuttings, which are made in autumn, of the ripened 
summer shoots. They are planted in sandy soil, in a shBdy border, and covered 
with hand-glasiea ; and they generally put forth roots the following sprit^ 
Holly hedges should never be clipped, because, when the leaves are cut 
throiuh the middle, they are rendered unsightly ; and the shoots should 
therelore be cut with a knife dose to a leaf. The proper season for cuUii^ 
would appear to be just after the leaves have attained maturity s because 
at that season, in tlie holly, as in the box, the wound is comparativdy soon 
obliterated by the healing over produced by the still abundant sap. 

t 2. /. (A.) balbi'bica Detf. The Minorca Holly. 
IdtmtUaUat. DMt. Ai1i.,3.p.»l. l Dua'i HUl.. l.p. IT. 
d. . .Jqalfllllum nr. > I^m, Diet, t, p.J4A.L '- Dude- 

. Oat Jlf.ia. 
Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves ovate, acute, flat, shining, 
entire or spiny-toothed. Umbels axillary, few- 
flowered, short. {Don'i Mill.) An everareen low 
tree. Minorca and Madeira. Height 10 ft. to 80 f^. 
in England ; in Madeira 60 ft. to 80 ft. Introduced 
in 1744. Flowers white; May and June. Drupe 
scarlet ; ripe in December. Decaying leaves yellow, 
dropping in June and July, 

A very distinct variety of tbe common liolly, readily 
distinguished at sight, by its yellowish green leaves, 
which are sharply acuminated, but very slightly wav^ 
at the edgea, and with few prickles. It is propagated by 
budding or grafting on the common holly. 

Is./, opa'ci Ait, The opaque-Zraan/, or Ametican, Holly. 
Idau^aMm. Alt. Har ~ — - - . - - - 

Knfratt^, Tbe plate ol 

1. p. ITT. j Dec. Prod., 1. p. U, : 
t CTorl. Flor. firrtK.; /'lax At 
lOrin StnhpiliiM. a/T- i AgrtfoUo i Fo(ilr( 
LtoofUieipi-'--'- ■->• '•-• ■" --• 

^ec. Char., 4-c. Leaves ovate, fiat, coriaceous, acute, toothed in a scalloped 
manner, spiny, and glabrous, but not glossy. Flowers scattered, at the 
base of onl^ those branches that are a year old. Teeth of the calyx acute. 
Sexes dicECiouB. (Dec. Prod.) A beautifiil evergreen low tree Canada 

XXI. .^UtFOLIA'CEiB : /LEX. 161 

to Carolina. Hoght in Bi^and 10 ft. to SO ft. ; in Carcdina 60 ft. to eo ft. 
Introducedin 1744. Flowers white ; May aiid June. Drupe scarlet ; ripe 
in Decembw, remaining on the trees all the winter. 

I I. 0. 2latijldra, I. laxiflorB Lam., I. opaca var. Nutl., has the flowers 
on looael]' branched peduncles, and the drupe yellow. Introduced 
in 1811. Several other Taneties are meatioDedbj' BaGnesque. 

In America, this ipecies is ^tplied to all the uaet which 
the common hoUj is in Europe. It formt hedges ; is an 
ornament^ tree or alirub in gardenB; b employed for 
making birdlime; and the wo<kI is uned in turner}' and 
cabiDetmaking. Pr<^>agation as in the common hoUy. 

Tlar maeellamca {fig. 225,), of which tliei'c is a Bmal! K 

plant in me Hort, Soc. Garden, nromista to be a very ^7 

Handsome species, and tolerably hurdy, as it stood the ^^ ^ „«_«h,kfc 
winter of 1837-8 against a walL 

B. LeoBci toothed, terrated, or eretiaU, but not tpmy. 
m 4. /. Peiado Ait. The Perado Holly. 
MnUfBLlAm. iU-Bort. K«r., I.e. ira.; J^'>Mlll..».p. IT. 
drngrmfrnfi. H.DuHun.,T.tN.i BiitC>b.,tM».,; uidcwA.n^ 
Spec. Char., ♦c Leaves ovate, with an entire acumen, 
or having very few teeth, shining. Umbels short, ai- 
illary, few-flowered. {Don'i Mill.) An evergreen 
Bhrub, Madeira. Hei)^t in England 5ft. to 10ft. 
Introduced in 1760. Flowers white or reddish ; May 
and June. Drupe large, red ; ripe in October. 
Commonly treated as a green-house plant, but quite 
hardy in the Hfwt. Soc. Garden ; where, and alao in se- 
- reral other places, it stood ttte winter of 1837-6, without 
any protection, unii^jured. 
i. /. CAsatss Ait- The Cassine-fi*e, or braadJeaxed Datoon, Holly. 

, l.p. ITO.; D»c. Prod.. i.p.H.i Fanb Fl. Am- Sep- >. p. 1 17- 1 




Spec. Char., ^e. Leavea onte-lanceolatt^ iharplj 
aerratctl, flat ) the niidribi, petiole*, and branch- 
lets gUbroui. The flowera upon latoral corym- 
hoaelj branched peduncles. {Dec. Prmi.) An 
ererareen shrub. Lower Carolina to Florida, 
in snady awampa. Height 6 fl. to 10 ft. Intro- ' 
duced in ITOO. Flowers wlute ; August, Drupe i 
red ; ripe in December. 

The fruit is rather smaller than that of the coin- 
(non holly ; it continues on the trees the must part 
of the winter, untouched bj birds ; and, being of a 
bright red, anil large in proportion to the leaves, 
which are about the site of those of the commoa 
arbuCua, the plant makes a Gne appearance, both in 
its native country and In England. Commonly pro- 
pagated by seeds i but it wiU also strike by cuttings, 
n holly. 
m e. /. ANOusTiPo'LiA mOd. The narro' 

M. Wind. Bnno., 1. p-ITI.; Dsc. Frod, 1. p.U-i 

U.. » p. 17. 

. /.MvHHMIs »■««. CorolMl^W. fti*, «od LaM. 

^er. Char.,Sfc. Leaves linear- lanceolate, sowed at 
the tip, rather revolute in the margin; the mid' 
rib, petiole, and brancblets glabrous. Flowers in 
Blalked lateral cymes. {Dec. Frod.) An evergreen 
shrub. Height 6tl. to 10 ft. Virginia to Geor- 
gia, in iwampi. Introduced in 1806. Flowers 
white; June. Drupe globular and red ; ripe in 

A very handsome spcriea, but not very 
There are plantii of it at Mesani, Lod.ligea, and 
the U. 3. (larden, under the name of /. myrtiRili 

South Sea Tea. 

Spec, Char., Sfc. Leaves oblong or elliptic, 

obtuse at both ends, crenately serrated, and, 

with the brancblets, glabrous. Flowers in 

Bubsessile lateral umbels. (Dee. Prod.) An 

evergreen low tree, Carolina to Florida, ulong 

the sea coast. Height 10 ft. to 13 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1700, Flower white ; June and July. 

Drupe red, like that of the common holly j 

ripe in December. 

Not very common in British collections i but 
there arc plants of it in Loddurea's arboretum, ^^ j^, 

ind in the garden of the Hort. Soc. 

C. Leaoet qmU entire, or nearly lo. 
i*6.J. Dauq&s Wall. The Dahoon Holly. 

t Dea. Frad, S. p. 14. 1 DcB't MnL,t.v ». 

Stmrngim. I. CWttw WlUd. H«t. Bvol. I . t. U 

., Google 

XXI. .^UIFOLIA^CES : Ptll^SOS. 163 

B Hon. ftnolin.' ' 

Spec. CAar^ ^e. Leaves lanceolatdy elliptical, nearly entire, almost rerolut* 
in the nar^ ; the midiib, petiole, and bmnchleta tiIIoub. Flowers db- 
poxed in coryoiboae panicle*, that are upoo lateral and tenniiial peduncles. 
{Dec. Prod.') A beautiful ever^een shrub or low tree. CaroliDa to Flo- 
rida, in swamps. Hdght 8ft. to 10ft. Introduced in 1726. Flower* white; 
May and Jun& Drupe red ; ripe in December. 
The leaves of this species are very niunerous, 

and resemble those of Launis BorbAnia. The 

plant is rare in British garden«, and aeldom ripeni 

Iruit. It is most commonly kq>t in neen-houses or pits ; but there was a 
plant in 1S36 in the opea air, in the Mile End Nursery, which was 90 ft. high. 

tion, there is a great deal of uncertainty. /. Caaine, I. 
Daho6» are probably the same species. 



PRI'NOS L. Thb PaiNos, or WiSTEit Sexbt. Lin, Syit. Hexindria 
Monog^nia, or Polygiimia Ditc'dB. 

Mni^bMim. Un. Gn., Wo. 4EI. : D(c. I^od.. t. p, 16. ; Dod'i Mm., s. (t. ao. 
^rufttrmlft. A^iia Jdaiu.Fmji. "L p. LfiC.; Apalincfae, n-r ; WLDLmtiHK, Cfr. 

ot.WBDorMngtoithan.aom prtta. a u«, on mecount of the Hmttd l«K*e« of Iha ip«de». 

Gen, Char. Flomert 6-cleft, hexandrous; usually ditscioiiH, or polygamous 
from abordoa. Frtal with 6 nuts. In other renpects the character is the 
same as that of /'I«x. {Han't MUL) 

Leatiei simple, axinary, eistipulate, deciduous or erergreen ; oval or 
lanceolate, entire or serrated ; dyii^ off of a greenish yellow. FUmiert 
on axillary pedicels, uiuidly siiule, sioall, mostly white. — Shrubs, ever* 
green and deciduous ; natives of North Americs- 
In habit of growth the species are all more or leas fastigial 


would font nest miniUnre trees. Propanted by ncken, or by cutdagt d 
the youDg wood in wuiil under Hgtus, or by seeds. Common soil, kept mont. 
There ii n close geneml rescmblnnce among all the deciduous specir^ whieb 
leads us to doubt vbetber they are any thing more than vtrieties. 

§ i. Vrinoides Dec. 


E*t™img, Our ;4.Bl.ftinmplintlDlke Hurt. Boc.Guda. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves deciduous, elliptic-lauceolate. 
tapered to the petiole, Ghallowly serrateiil ; the midrib 
villous beneath. Peduncles axillary; those of the male 
flowers seTeral together ; of the female ones, sinF;1y. 
Berries red. (Z)ec. Prod.) A deciduous shrub. Vir- 
ginia to Oeoreia, on rocky shndy banks of river*. Height 
3 It. to 5 (t. Introduced in 1736, Flowers white ; June 
and July. Berries large, crimson ; ripe in December, 
Plants of thi^ species are in Loddiges's nursery, under 

the name of /'leu prinoidea. 

» 2. P.* 

! MicAx. The ambiguous Winter Berry. 

Spec, Char,, ^c. Leaves deciduous, oval, scuminate at both 
ends ; both adult ones and youn; ones glabrous in erery 
part. Peduncles of the male flowers crowded togetber in 
the lower parts of the branchleta; of the fem^e ones, 
singly, (Dec. Prod.) A deciduous shrub. New Jersey 
to &irolina, in wet eandy woods. Height 4 ft, to 5 Ii. 
Introduced in 1818. Flowers white; June to August. 
Berries red ; ripe in November. 

The leaves uresubimbricete, serrated, acute at the apex, and 
the berries small, round, smooth, and red. There is a hand- 
soDK plant of this spedes in the arboretum of Messrs. Lod- 
diges, which, inl835, was 5 fi. high. It is of easy culture in any 
free soil i and is propagated by seeds, cuttings, or layers. 

§ ii. Ageria Dec. 


Sect, Char. Flowers niually 6-elefl. Leaves deciduou*. (Dee, 
ii. p. 17.) 

• 3. P. vbrticilla'tds L. The whorled Winter Berry. 
tAHOfftttlaii. Un. Incc.ei. 1 Dk. Prod.,!, b. IT.: Dun'i UU.. S. B.M. 
Cw^niK*. F. fniOtiiat waid. Khbih, r,. S^Ti P. OnnflrU UchxTFI. Bor. Amb. 1. 

XXI. ^quifolia'ce£ : i'ai'MOS. 

SmgriKimrt. WiU. Dgod. Brit., 1.10.; Dub. Art)., l.t. U-i M 

Spec, Char., ^c. Leaves deciduous, ovul, 
nate, serrated, pubcKent beneath. Male 
flowera in axillary unibel-BhBJ>ed laiciclesj 
the female onei ^gregate, the flowen of 
both sexes 6-paRed. lUec. Pnd.) A d«- 
dduous *hrub. Canada to Vii^niB, in wet \ 
woods. Height 6 ft. to ft (I. Introduced 
in 1T36. Flowers white ; June to August. 
Berries red or crinuoa, turning purple ; 
in November. 

There arc two handsome plants of this 
k species in Lodd^ea's arboretum, 7 II. hi^, one 

Cif which is under the oenie of P, pninifolius. 

■ 4. P. lxtioaVus Furih. The Kmooth-teavrd Winter Berrj. 
~ Sept. AiHr„ I. p. 130. 1 D«. Prod., i. p. 17.i 
d. Brll..t.lS.i (Ddour.^. tSS. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves dedduoua, lanceolate, serrated, 
the teeth directed forwards, aciiminiite ; glnbrous on 
both Eurfacea, except on the nerves beneath, wheru 
they are sligbtly pubescent ; upper surbce glossy. 
Flowers 6-clctl ; the male ones scattered; the feniBlu 
ones axillary, xolitary, almoat fessilu. (Dec. Prod.) A 
deddiioiis shrub. New York to Virginia, on the Alle- 
ghany Mountains. Height 6 ft. to 8 ft. Introduced in 
18IS. Flowera white i July. Berries large, dark red ; 
ripe in November. 

The plant of this species in Lod. 
digea'a orboretuui was 4 ft. high in 
1835. Readily distinguished by ita 
somewhat mure succulent leaves and 
shoots, the latter, when young, tinged 
with dark purple. 



m 5. P. lancbolaVus PurtA. The laoceolate-ZoiDnf 
Winter Berry. 

MnuHleallmt. Punb F1. B«]i(. Amu., 1. p. n. i Dec Prod., 1, p. II. i 
Dm'. Mill., i. p JO. 

Sj/mmntn. P- canodtetlt Lyom \ P. lAddiu ffitrf. 

/•igrartmg. Our./^, a& rnHfl ■ pUmtlii U» Hon. S«. Cuden. 

Spec. Char., Sfc. Leaves deciduou.i, lonccolute, rentolely 
and very slightly serrulate, smooth on both surfaces. 
Male flowers aggregate, trinndrous ; female ones mostly 
in pairs, pedunclcd, and 6-cleft. (Dec. Prod.) A deci* 
duous shrub. Carolina to Georgia, in low grounds. 
Height eft. to 8 ft. Introduced iu IBtl. Flowers 
white [ June and July. Berries small, srarlet ; ripe in 
The plant in Loddigea's arboretum is 6 ft. high. 

} ill. Winterlia Moench. 

Stct. Ckar. Flowers, tor the a 
Prod., ii. {I. 17.) 


&-deft. Leaves permanent. (Htc. 

., Google 




m 6. F. alji'bbr L. The glabrous Winter Ben;. 

litmnjIciHam. LIB. Sp«c„ (71. ; I>«. Tnd^ t, t, IT. i Doo'i Mill., 3. p. «). 

u Kri*. ' 
Spec. CAor., 4*'^- EYergreen. Learea lanceolate, 

with wedf^e-ahaped boiea, coriaceoiu, glabrous, 

glosay, Mmewbat toothed at the tip. Flowers 

moitly three on an aiillsry peduncle that ii usu- 
ally Bolitaiy. Fruit black. (Dec. Prod.) An 

evergreen abrub. Canada to Florida, in shad; 

woods. Height 3 FL to 5 a. Introduced in 17&9. 

Flowers white ; July and August. Berries black ; 

ripe in November. 

A lowbut very handsome evergreen shrub, which, 
in its native country, makes a fine shoo, when 
(xivered wltb its black berries. In Loddiges's arbo- 
retum it has attained the heightof 4>fl., witharegu- 
lar ovate shape, densely clothed with shining foliage. 

• 7. P. coria\:eus Purih. The coriaccousJeaoei Winter Beny. 
HauHlcatlim. Punb Fl. Sept Amcr.. 1, p. HI. ; Dec. Frod., i.f.11 
Svnomujht. p. flibar JVati^ 

BtttrmlKft. WaU. Ilend. BrtU I. 3T, ud BrX. Cab.. 4H., uodH t: 
3 p. sWtv ; Hud ourj^. 139. 

Spec. Char., S^c. Evergreen. Leaf lanceobite, with a wedge- 
sbaped base, coriaceous, glabrous, glossy, entire. Flowers ^ 
hi ehort, sessile, axillary corymbs, many in a corymb. 
(^Dcc. Prod.) A handsome, tall, evergreen shrub. Oeorgia, ^ 
in sandy woods near the banks of nvers, Hdghi 8 ft. to 
lOfl. Introduced in leso. Flowers while; June and 
July. Berry black; ripe in November. 

Vancliet, This species varies, with leaves broader, obovate- 
lanceolate, and acuminate; and narrower, lanceolate, and 
acute. {Dec, Prod.) The broad-leaved variety appears to 
be that figured in Lod. Sol. Cab., t. 460, « 

The general aspect of- this plant is that of /'lex Daho6n. It is a handsome 

shrub, well deserving a place m collections. 

Other Speciet of Pnnoi. — P. dibiui G. Don. u)d P. atomarita Nutt. have 
been introduced, and, probably, some others ; but we have only noticed 
those of which we have seen living plants, and which we consider to be 
tolerably distinct, though there arc probably only three species of i^iaos; 
two of which are dedduous, and the other evergreen. 


OxD. Char. Calyx i — 5-cleft ; zsUvatiou valvate. CoroJla of t — 5 petals; 
in some absent. Pelali cucullate, or convolute, inserted into the orifice of 
the calyx. Stametu 4, — 5, opposite the petals, perigynous. Ovaty supe- 
rior, or half-superior, 8-, 3-, or 4-ce11ed, surrounded by a fleshy disk. Oeala 
one in a cell, erect, as are the seeds. Fruil fleshy and ind^iiscent, or dry 
and separating into 3 divisions. — Trees or shrubs, otlen s[Uny, and generally 
deciduous. {Lmdl.) 

Leavet simple, uternate, very seldom opposite, with minute stipules. 

XXII. khamma'ceje ; zi'zYPHUii. 167 

dedduous or ererffeea. Floven axiUarj or tetmlnal- — Chieflji natiTM of 

Burape or North Aireiica. 

They are ontBtDental in Bridib gardens md thnibberiei, chiefly &om the va- 
litty of thdr foliage, and from their berries ; but some of them, ns Ceanothus, 
from their flowers. They are all of easy culture ; and thev are propagated by 
seeds, cuttings, or layets. The hardy genera in British gardens are aix ; which 
are cfaaracteriaed aa follows :.— 
Zi'zTPBus TVuTw. PetsiaS. Styles S — 3. Fruit an ovoid mucilaginous drupe. 

Kuts ] — 3-celled. Seed compressed. A deciduous low tree or shrub. 
Paliu'rus TVium. PetaU 5, Styles 3. Fruit dry, indehiscent, girded with 

& broad memlManaceous wing, S^i^led. Seed ovate. Spiny shrubs. 
Bkrchb'm/.j Necker. <>etals 5. Style 1. Stigmas 8. Fruit an oblong dry 

drupe ; the out S-celied. A twining deciduous ahnib from Carolina. 
JIha'hnus Laat. Petali in some absent. Style 3 — l^lefi. Fruit nearly 

dry, or berried, S-~-4-celled. Seed oblong. Shrubs or small trees, deciduous 

or evergreen i chiefly natives of Europe, but some of N. America and Asia. 
CoLLB'T/d Comm. CoroUa none. Styk ending in 3 teeth. Fruit n S-ce!led 

capsule. Spiny shrubs ; natives of Peru or Chile. 
Cbamo^hus L. Petals 5. Styles 2—3, united. Fruit a dry berry, S^eelled, 

rarelv 8 — i-celled. Seed ovale. Shrubs, evergreen or deciduous, from 

Norui America. 

Oenvb L 


Zl'ZYPHUS Thum. The Jujube. Lm. Syil. Pentindria Di-Trig^ia. 

UmfPealfm. Tourn. Init., >. tCj. CHrl< Frua., I.p.Ui Lam. I]]., I. IU.| D«. Fnd., L 
agmmrma. Jijubln, Fr, : JIlliinda^^ Ger.i Dluggtola, llaL 
Btrttstiam. Fiomijuatr, lu AnlilciiuuorUiakitiu. 

Gen.CluB; Co/^f spreadins, 5-clell. Pelo/tS, obovBte,unguicu[ate, convolute, 
f teTnmi fi, eiserted. AstlieTi ovate, 2-cclled. I^k flat, pentagonal, ex- 
panded, adherine to Ibe tube of the calyx. Ovary t — S.celled, immersed 
m the disk. Sylei £ — 3. Fndt fleshy, containing a 1 — 2'(;el)ed nut. 
{Don'M MIL, 2. p. 23.) 

Lemci simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; 3-nerved. Flowcn axil- 
lary. — Only one hardy species. A low tree or shrub from Syria. 
X 1. Z. ruLQA'Ris Ijom, The commoD, or cuiUBoled, Jigube. 
MnltlfaatliM. Lib. D], lU. r. 1. ; Dm. Prod., t. p. IS. j Doa'i WU., 1. p S. 
^mnw*. itliAninii Zlintau Ut. Sptt. VX., Ball. A Baa. 1. 1. H. : Z. uUn Dttf, Art. i. 
p.m., N. Dm Ham. I. a., Ijut not of Geti. i Z.JUmU UUL EHcl. So. I., but not of LuB.i 
JnlDlriR cnltiii, Fr. ; BnuIbeBTMi, Off. i Gluntnlo. Jul. 
Kwrartwi. I.H). IU,1S9.< 1. ; K.DuHvn.,*.!. 1S.I uidoar.Af. MO. 

^>ec. Char^ ^c. Branchlets glabrous. Leaves ovate, retuse, denticnlate, 
glabrous ; or, beneath, pubescent along the nerves. 'Prickles not any, or 
twin, one of them recurved. Drupe ovate-oblong, (Dee. Prod.} A deci- 
duous tree. The Soa'h of Europe and Syria. Hdght in the South of 
Eon^SOfL to 30ft.; and in England 6 ft. to 10 ft. Introduced in 1640. 
Flowers greenish yellowj August and September. Fruit blood-red oi 
Bafih>n ; rarely seen in 

Stem thick, cylindrical, somewhat twisted. The bark is brown, and rather 
dapped. The branches are numerous, pliant, armed with prickles, zigzag in 
Iheu- direction ; the prickles St the joints being two of unequal size, of which 
one is almost straight, and the other shorter and quite strwght. The leaves 
•re alternate and oval-oblong, somewhat hard and coriaceous. The flowers 
■re small, axillary, of a pale yellow colour, with short peduncles. The fruit 



u oval-obloiif!, resembling ihat of the olive; at 
first green, afterwards yellow, and entirely' red 
when ripe. Hie juice of the fruit ie used for 
making the jujube lozengei. The plant is 
tolerably hardyj having stood the winter of 
1837-8 in the Hort. Soc. Gurden. It is easily 
iDcreased by cuttings of the rtxits, whether of 
young or old trees; or by suckers, which it 
throws up in the greatest abundance. Seeds 
of it may also be procured from Italy. 

Olier SpeewiofTj:aphut. — Z. tinintit Lam. 
has been cultivated i>i the Hort. Soc. Oanleii 
but it is only half-hardy ; and the same may 
he said of Z. tphia ChriiA, Z. JieruSta, and 
Z. mcirva, which are marked ii) some cata- 
logues as hardy. 

Genus II. 

PALIITRUS L. The Paliurus. or Cubist's TaoRS. lAn. Sgtt. Pentuidrii 


OnOMcalioit. Tnara. lnU.,t. SU. ; D. Don Prod. FLMetSp. lUS-t Dne.Piiiil.. l.|i. M-i Doa'i 

urn., 1 p. S3, ; Branin, Mtm. Rbun., p. M. 
Synonpiii-i, Fallbrij. ruTti.cluipuu, Fr.\ Judcndarn. Gcr.; Pillurn. lint. 
Iftriiraiion. Fwam folic, la man, tot mm, uiine: In illiuloo (o III dhimic quUdMi 01 btm 

Gen. Char. Calyx spreailing, 5-clell. PelaU 5, obovale, ci 
- --— uding, ^bM^/ ovate, 3-celled. 2>uit flat, pentaijoi 

. Fnat drv, indehiscent, expanding into a membrane round the diik, 

S protruding. ^nM^/ ovate, 3-celled. 2>uit flat, pentaijonBl. Ota™ 3-celled. 
SlyUt 3. Fnat drv, indehiscent, expanding into a membrane round th' " ' 
containing a 3-ceI1ed nut. (Doi^t Mill.) 

Leavet simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous; nerved with spinel in the 
axils. FhwcTi nzillary, greenish yellow- 
Two species are hardy, und lay ornamental from their shining leaves, and 
abundance of rich greenish yellow flowers, which are succeeded by fruit of 
rather a singular forni. Propagated by seedj, which they produi% m Englaud, 
ID abundance. 

T • I. /*. acolba'tus The prickly Paliurat, w Chuf* Tiom. 

JdmlMcaiioa. Liffi. I[l., t. 910. ; Fl. Fr., (d, S,, No. 4M1. ) N. Du Hu., ). t. IT. i Doo'i Hnu I' 

Sutimimri. P.vtuiatDxia. Cimn.6.p.Ke.i P.viiaUU Orrt. Fr^a. i.t.n.t.S.i f.Tulglrli 
D.Donl'ml. n »rs.l«9.| AhSmnui /■flltanu Lf*. SfMC-Vi.; Zlirphui i>.iliftnu WfOd. 
Spn.l. ji. 1IU., S/mi Sat. M/<g.l, 1»M - Chriifi Thoni, or KmiD of Libin. Qtrard; Z-jinr ile 
CbritI.Argii]on,PorIc-cliftpHU,^.l g^nQBri^pr Judeodom, G^. I GllinfMo uIthUcd, Itat. ; Xlin. 
Id tlui hflrb-ihopa of ConitADUaapJo, where thft K«dt vo loldu jimnlklne. Aod u A Kllow df*. 
Ettfracinrt. LiiD, 111.. 1. 910. ; N. I)u Hun.. 3. t. 17. i Bat. Mu., I. I8S1. ; tbe pUm al Ihit 

■P«dM.l»t>ilDi70uiiguiduialdiuUi, In Arb. Bilt.. Ill edit.. Vol. T. ; mi oar Jig. HI. 
Spec. Char,, ^c. Branchlets pubescent. Leaves ovate, sernilated, quite 
smooth, 3-nerved, with two spines at the base, one straight, the other re- 
curved. Flowers in axillary crowded umbellulcs ; few in an unibellule. 
Wing of capsule crenated. (^DoiCt Miil.') A branching deciduous shnib, or 
low tree. South of Europe, and North and West of Asia. Hdght 15 ft. to 
30 ft. Introduced in \696. Flowers greenish yellow; June and July. 
Fruit yellow ; ripe in September. 

The fruit is bucklcr-sht^>ed, flat and thin, but coriaceous. From the sin- 
gular appearance of this fruit, which has the footstalk attached to the middle, 
which IB raised like the crown of a hat; and the Battened disk, which re- 

XXII. jihaxha'ceje : bebcuf'hj^. 



seiiibles its brim; the French have given this tree the name ai porle-chapeau. 
On both »hore» of the Meililerranean, it jrroira to vixml the tune height u 
the common hawthorn, on rocky sterile pUces. In many parts of Italy the 
hedges ore formed of this plant, aw they ere of the hawthorn in Britain ; it ia 
also the common hedge plant in Asia. Any common aoil; seeds, or cutting! 

.2. /-(a.) VI 

iD.Doa. Thetwigg^Chriat'sThom. 

U. Mic.t iDd Fl. Kcp.. 189.! Don'> Hill., I.p.a. 

Spec. Char,, S[c. Branches smooth. Leaves obliquely i-ot- 
date, or elliptical, 3-nervc(l, shining ; wing of fruit entire. 
(G.Don.) A deciduous shrub. Nepal, on mountains. 
Height 10 fl. to 15 ft. Introduced in 1819. Flowers 
n^enish yellow, in exillery corymbs ; July and August. 
Fruit yellow ; ripe in September. 
The only tree which we have seen of thi* species is in 

the Chela^ Botanic Garden, where in general aspect it 4.! 

bean a close resemblance to P. acule&tus, of which it i- ~ 

all probability onlj a variety. 

BERCHE'H/^ Neck. 

UaaalcaHim. N«k. E 

Hal., t. p. IT. 

h/mam^mr. (EnApUm H 
Drrimlttm. From Stri 

Genus III. 

TiH Bbbcbehia. 

.1 D™. Frod-.S-pM.i 

Lm. Sj/il, Pentindris 


DM annulv, nth«r flu. Ovary hair-iminened in the disk. Swelled. St^ 

•bort, bifid at tlie >p«i. Fndl dry, indehiBcent, S-ceUed. (Don't Mill.) 
Lratei nmple, elteniate, eutipulate, deciduoua ; nerved. Fhieen tenoiial, 

(ticeciouB bj defect ; EmBll, greenish yellow. — A twining deciduous shrub; 

a natire of Carolina i oi easy culture in an; common soil, and prop^ated 

by aeeds, or cuttings of the root. 

i ]. B. told'bilis Dec. The twining Berchemia. 
Uti^t*catlim. D«. I'rod,,l.n. It-i D«'iUIII.,!.p.I7. 
Sfmrngmtl. jn>fnipu> toJUmIIi LUt. fii. Suppt. !»., Jicf Ic<m. Rar. I. 33C. ; ZliTphu ToMUIt 

Ji'MM. SfKc. 1. p. IIDI,: CEnlpllitolabllii sctii". Sfit. B. p.s)).; Suppla Jirli. rifgiv'n. 
Sngrawtrntt. Juq. Icon. Rv, t. IM. 1 our jif. US. Id flowsr. mod Jig. Ml. b bail, jram uDim 

Spec. Char., ^c. Branches glabrous, rather twining. Leaves oval, mucnmate, 
somewhat waved. Flowers ditEcious. Drupes oblong. (Dec. Prod.) A 
deciduous twining shrub. Carolina and Virginia, in deep swamps. Height, 
in America, SO fl. to 50 (L ; in British gardens, d ft. to 10 ft. Introduced in 
1714. Flowers greenish yellow; June and July. Fruit violet-coloured; 
ripe ID October. 
According to Purah, this species, in Virginia, ascends the highest trees, and 

is known by the name of Supple Jack. The stems twine ronnd one another. 

or any object which they may be near. In British gardens, they are seldom 
seen above 8 or 10 feet high; probably from little attention being pdd to 

place the plant in a deep sandy or peaty soil, and to supply it with al - ' 

of moisture in the growing season. In 6ne seasons it npens fruit. 


Gen. Char. Calyx urceolate, 4 — 5-cJeft. Stamem bearing ovate S-celled an- 
thers. Dili tllin, covering the tube of the calyi, Ovarif free, 3 — i-ccDed. 
Stulei 3—4, connected or free. Fnat baccate, containing 3 — iindehiscent 
nuts. (Don't Mia.) 

Leatei simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous, sub-cvergrecn, or e>er- 


XXtl. RHAVtlACE.X: AHA'mTIUS. 171 

green ; feather-nerred ; the Btipalei ncrer coa*erted inta prickles. Flaaen 

KxiUuj, a^regate. often uniaeiuaL Fral not eatable, genenllj black, 

rarely red or ydlow. 

Deckluoiu or erergreen ■hnibs, with the tips of their branches ofteu be- 
coming spinel. One or two (pedes hare the habit of low trees, and Eome of 
them are iub-{»w:iimbent ot procumbent ; all of theni, except (be latter, bein<; 
distinguished by an upH^t stiS' mode of growth, and numerous strong thoma 
in their wild state ; whence the name of ram, or buck, thorn. The dowers 
in all the species are inconspicuous ; but R. ^lat^mus uul its vsrieties are 
most VBluable evergreen shrutn, and several of the other species are orna- 
mental, both from thor foliage and their fruit ; the latter of which is also 
tueful in dj'eing. All the species are easily propogated by seed;i or layers, and 
most of them by cuttings ; and they will all grow in any soli that is dry. They 
all vary much in magnitude by culture, in common wiUi moat plants which, in 
n wild state, grow in arid soils. 

$ i. MareoreUa Neck. 

^nwmgmn. Atnu nd ^bUnw oT Tonra. 

Scet. Otar. Flowers nsoally diiccious, and 5-cleft. Fruit a hsry, vrilh 3 
seeds, or, from abortion, 2 seeds. Seeds deeply furrowed, with the raphe 
in the bottom of the furrow. Leaves usnally permanent ; corisceaas, and 
glabrous. (DfC. Prod., ii p. 23.) 

A. Al^Te'RVUs Toum. Fhwen Toeemme, b-ei^. Eeergrren SAnii. 
• 1. R. ALkT^nnvi L. The AlaCemus. 

Smm imi mrt, ,nttiro<ll Piimtnt MBI. Dttt. So, l.| A^MU^it^IUL 
Dtntiuait. Frrun djmnw.i (inerlc unK idopud Irani Dior- 

EmfartM S)U. Diet.,!. I&r. 1.1 N.Su HUB.,1. p. 

Spec. Char., S[e. Leaves ovate^lliptical, or lance- 
olate, coriaceous, quite smooth, serrated. Flowers 
dksuouB, disposed in short racemes. (Don'i Miil,) 
An evergreen shrub. South of Europe and 
North of Africa. Height 10 fl. to 20 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1629. Flowers green, without any corolla ; 
April to June. Berry black ; ripe in October. 
r«™rtrt. «»■ »'—-''-*— 

« R. A. S baieirica Hort. Par. The AhimDUS rotundifdliua of Du- 
-• Leaves roundish. We take this as the first variety, ■ 
the species to be what is called R. 
A. latifoiia, which is the commonest 
If- variety in British nurseries. 

^^' • R. A. 3 Itttp&mea Hort. Par. (Our fy. t 
346.) — Leaves ovate, a little toothed. J 

■ R. A. 4 angatiyo6a. R. Clusii Wllld. 
(MiU. Icon., I. IS. (ig. 9. ; and 
fig. S47.) Leaves long and narni* 
This variety is so distinct, that it is by 
many authors ctmsidered as a species. 
It is of remarkably rapid growth. 
There are two subvarieties of it, the 
gold-atriped, and the silver-Klriped ; 
both of remarkably free erowtb. 

■ R. A. ijniat a a c ula ti t, — Leaves blotched with ydlow. 

■ R, A, 6 JoliU airtU. — Leaves edged with yellow. 

., Google 


* R. A. 7 JoUit arginltii. — Tbit varietVi which U very conepkuoua Irom 
tbe large proportion of the leaves which is white, ii more temler thaa 
some of the othm. It generally does best af^nst a wall, uid m wc^ 
worth a place there, od account of its splendid appearance, espedcally 

In British gardens, this shrub is particularly valuable for the rapidity of its 
growth in almost any soil and siniaCion, more especially the narrow -leaved 
Toriety, It is less iiyurcd by the smoke of coal than most other erergreens. 
The species, and all the varieties, are readily pro- 
pagated by cuttings, which are taken off in autumn, 
and planted in sandv soil, in a shady border, and 
covered with a hand-glass. As the toots arc not 
very productive of fibres, when large plants are 
chosen, they should be such as have been reared in 
pots, in onler that they may receive no check from • 

^pec. Char., S[e. Leaves oblong, acuminated, ser- 
rated, Hmooth, shining, hardly permanent, rather 
coriaceous. Flowers androgynous. (Don'i MUl.) 
A garden hybrid, a sub-evergreen shrub, raised 
from B. slpinus, fecundated by Jt, ^lalernus, and 
forming a very distinct and deeirable kind, which, 
in British gardens, grows to the height of 10 or 
U feet. The flowers are greeu, and appear in May 

B. Riu'mnus Dec. Flowert 4w^, in Faicicln. 

a. BranMeU lermmating tn a 7%um. 

1 » 3. S. catha'bticus L. The pui^g Buckthorn. 

IdatlOctllat. Un. Spec, mO-j DrcPrDd., t. p.U. Da 
^ntnimi. Tbt WhIU Ttaom o( tlw inodum Oreeki. 


^>ec. Char., ^c. Erect. Leaves ovate, toothed. 
Flowers in £iscicles,polygamo-di(Ecious. Berries 
^■seeded, rather globose. (Don't Mili.') A deci- 
duous shrab or low tree. Europe and Britain, 
in woods and thickets, on calcareous loamy soil. 
Heieht 10 ft. to 13 ft. : in cultivation, 12 ft. to 
15 &. Flowers yellowish green, with very n 

Hie flowers are, for the most part, hermaphro- 
dite, and in a wild state abundant and cliuiercd ; 
but in a state of cultivation they are fewer, and 
nearly solitary. The juice of the unripe berries 
is of the colour of safiron, and it is used for stainittf 
maps or paper : they are sold under the name or 
Preach benies. Tbe juice of the ripe berries, mixed with alum, fonni the sa|> 

XXII jihamna\;eje ; shamnus. 

* 4. S. tincto'riui Waldit. The Dyo's Buckthorn, 
. n. Ku. Huii(„ a. p. ■»&. I D«c Prod., 1. p. 

fiiwra**«>. Hi^Dg AbUld., I 

Bcrrits obcordate, 3 — 4-weded. (iAin'i Jlcn//.) A de- 
ciduoLis shrub, llungary, in hedges. Height 8 ft. 
latroduced in 18S0. Floweni greenish yellow ; Mvy 
and June. Berries yellow ; ripe in September. 

I, \a the garden of the London 

A plant of this 
Sorticultural So< 
being 7 years [Jantei 

> 5. R. infbcto'hivs L. The itaining Buckthorn, or Aeignon Bfrri/. 

IS. Un. Mmiit..49.: Dee. Piod. l.|).M.; Don'i Mill.. l.p.ti. 
. jmtoniu (./duDi Sorf. Can. cd. 1. n. 3M. : dwuf, or ycllaw-tnTUid. Bucktboni i 
*-- '^-"-"urlnri, Graiiie d'AvlBiiDn, Nflrpnui tvljinvit. Fr. \ rirbcnd4T Wflfdani, Qer. 

Spec. Char,, Sfc. Leaves orateJanceolate, sermlaied, smoothitih. Flowers 
ditecious, bearing petals in hotb seies. (Don'i MUi.) A deciduc 
procumbent shrub. South of Europe, in rocky places ; 
AvignoD and the Vaucluse. Height 8 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1683. Flowers ereenish yellow ; June and - 
July. Berty S-cdled, black ; ripe in September. a 
The root fixes itself so iirmlv in the Ibsures of the ^ 

rocks, that the plant can scarcely be pulled up. The 

stem divides iramediatel; into branches, lh« are very 

much subdivided, and form a veiy cloae head, the 

■hoots having numerous spines, both tenninating and 

lateral The berries are used for dyeing leatJier yel- 
low ; and the Turkey leather, or yellow mi 

generally supposed to be coloured by them. 


s L. The Stone Buckthorn. 

. 1 p. M, 1 Don'iHai.,l.p.Sl. 

ein Waifdom. Cer. i l^D lUHaiiD, Rol. 

^KC, Char., i^e. Procumbent, or ereccish. 
Leaves ovnte-lnnceolate, serrulated, Bmoolh- 
ish. Flowers dicecious, female ones destitute 
of petals. (Don't MUi.) A procumbent de- ^ 
ciduous shrub. South of Europe, among V 
rocks, in Austria, Switzerland, Ilaly, and 
Oreece. Height 1 fl. Introduced in 1752. 
Flowers greenish yellow ; June and July. 
Berries black, contuningthree whitish seeds, 
each enclosed in a dry whitish mnnbrane, 
which separates, when ripe, into two parts 
with elastic fiirce ; ripe in September. 

UemH/kaHim. Pcdr. Diet,, 4. p. 4GS.; Dec. Prod..!. p.H.| Don'i HUl., 1, n. II. 
agmamima. 1 R. haifMat Bm. *L Lm. I.p. 30l.| Lfcjoin tuitfUluni BmM. 
B-fr^r/mtE. Da Hmiv.,». t 3. Mo. 11. : Mldoot A^IH- 

Spec. CSar., ifc. Diffiise. Leaves ovate, iiutte entire, mucronatfl, smouth. 


coriaceous, green on both nir ■ 
faces. (iWf Mili.) A sub- 
evergreeti ehrub. Spain, Italy, 
and the Levant, on hills. 
Hei^t S ft. to 4 ft. Introd. 
in 1620. Floiren greenith 

?ellowi JuneandJuly. Berrj 
black i ripe ?. 
A very aatt shrub, of which 
there ii a good spedmen in the 
Chelsea Botanic Garden, which 
is quite hardy. 

Id our Jig. IM. 

Spec. Char., iic. Erect. Leaves linear, quite entire, 
obtuse, smooth. Flowers bermaplirodue. (-Don'i 
J£!i.) A dedduoua shrub. Sjrain, on the lime- 
stone hills of Valencia. Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. In- 
'troduced in 1753. Flowers greeaish yellow ; May 
and June. Fruit?. 

a 9. R. EBTTRBo'irLoN Pall. The red-wooded 

PiU. FL Bou., 1.) Dk. Prod., 3. p.H.) I>i»'i at. n iinirw. 

>lU.FLR(>u.,3.l.G3.i IUb, FnDcbtd]I..I.90.i UHtourA.KS. 

Spec. Char,, 4'c. Erect. Leares linear, lanceolate, quite entire or semted, 
smooth. Flowers hermaphrodite. Berries oblong. (Don'i MiU.) A de- 
ciduous shrub. Mongolia and Siberia, near rivers. Height 6 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1823. Flowers greenish yellow ; July nnd August. Berries black 
ripe b September. 

^ R. £. 8 angiuHiiimum Dec. Prod. 
2. p. 25., S. /ycioides Pali. Fl. 
Bott. I. 63., and our fig. 256., 
bas the leaves narrow, smaller, 
and very finely serrulated. Na- 
tive of Caucasiu. 
Delights in a « 
in cold and humid plac 
■ervea, it is never met witn, ine 
wood, on account of its hardness and 
red colour, is used by the Mongols 
for making their imaqes; and the ber- 
ries, when macerated in water, afford 
them a deep yellow colour. The 
«.. .Ltittrtnta. plants in ;(„ ^[j ^(j,,^ j^ ^ prickly"^"— 

bush ; but, when cultivated, (he spines no longer appear. 

b. Branehleti not Urvimaied by Spiiut. 

* 10. R. uamu'bichs Pall. The Dahurian Buckthorn. 

P^Fl.BoM., ».t.«. ; D«. Prod..l.|i.M., Doll'lMl]|.,^p.lL 

XXII. sbamna'ces : sha'mndb. 175 

^>ec. Our., ft, ErecL Learea oblong- 

orate, teinited, unooth, Teinv. Flower* 

dicedoat, female ones with bifid atiRtnas, 

(Baft MiU.) A dedduous ahnib. Da- 
. huria, near tbe river Arguintu. Hei^t 5ft. 

lutrod. in 1817, Flowers greenuh yellowj 

May and June. Beny black ; ripe Sept. 

The general appearance of the plant is 
that of R, cathaiticiu, but it it without 
tboms. The wood ii red, and ia called uodal 
wood by the Busaiana. 
.■ A II. A. dumo'uva VHhit. The Alder 
leaved Buckthorn. 

lig^lfc^ga. L-H(rit.S<n.,t.S.i D«.Fra>3.,l.I>.n.: 

Mmttrartrntt. IbTH Allbild., t. Gl. ; md our ;^. XH. (J,, .u n iii.iiniiM 

Spec. Char., fc. Erect, teaves obovate or ovate, aernilated, obliquelj line- 
ated with lat^ nervet, acuminated or obtuse, amoothiah beneath, except 
the nerrea. Flowcra hermuphrodite or dicEcious. Pedicels 1-flowered ag- 
gregate. Calyxes acute. Fruit turbinate. (Dua't MUl.) 
A deciduoui ahrub. Hudson's Bay to Pennsylvania, in 
ipbagnous swamps. Height 
B ft. to 4 ft. ia America ; 6 ft. 
to 8 ft. in England. Introd. 
in 1778. Flowers ereenish 
yellow ; June and July. 
Berry black, fleshy, S^seeded; 
ripe in Septemba. 

H ■ R. (t, 2 fraaguloida 

Dec. S. ftanguloldes ? 

Michx. (HI. DaUB.m.3. ^ 

M. lUnwdnUNlK '■ 1^.; our J^. 259.)— . 

Leaves oval, serrated, *■* "■' "'■"'■'" 
pubescent on the nerves beneath. Canada to Virginia. Introd. 1810. 
tt a. R. alfi'nus Lia. The Alpine Buckthorn. 
rdnujfcoMsa. Lta. Sfw., 113. ; Don'i Hill., 1. p. n. 

^^"S5' iKSfuIS.'J''"^' B«. a*., I. lon.i B(h]<pii>Mo(tiwirMiii 

Spec. Char., 4rc. Erect, iwisttJ. Leavea oval lanceobte, creuat&aMTated, 
■mooth, Uneated with many parallel ne^es. Flowers difccioua. femaleonex 


with 4-cleftBtigniiu.(j>(nt'f^itf.J 
A deciduous ihrub. Alps (rf 
Switzerlonil, Daupliio^, and 
Carniola. Hei^t 5fl. to lOft. 
Introd. 1752. Floaersgreeniahi 
Miiy and June. BeHes block j 
ripe in September. 

m R.a.2graadiJoUiu(j!gM2.) 

baa much larger leaves 

than the species. It forms, 

when well grown, a very 

striking and hand Home 

object, from the large siie 

of its leaves anil bu^s. 

This is H very distinct speciet, 

and remarkable for its twisted 

leaves. There are strong plants of 

both the species and the variety in 

the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, 

and of the variety in the garden of 

the Hort. Soc, which, in 10 years, 

have attained the height of 6 fl., 

with numerous siiberect branches, 

clothed with a purplish bark. 

.» 13. ft. puuims [.ill. The' dwarf Buckthorn. 

s^p.CuD.,l-t. i-i Schmidt AiiL.».t. lii., udDorj^.Kt. 

Spec. Char., 4'c. Plant procumbent, mueb branched. 

Leaves ovat>, serrated, smooth. Flowers hcrmairiiro- 

dite. (^Dottt MiU,) A deciduous procumbent SDnib. 

MouD* Baldo in the Alps, and Carniola, in the G*- 

surenoT rocks. Height 2 It. Introd. 1752. The flowers 

greenish yellow within and red without, the stamens 

white i June and July. Berries black ; ripe in Sept. 

The plant bearing this name in the London gardens we 

have never seen in such a thriving state ai to enable us to 

decide whether or not it is truly distinct. 

$ ii. FrAiyuia Tour 

IdtnUfcalirm. Tourn. InM.. 1.M3, ; Dk. Prod., t 

p.K-i Don'! Hill.. II. p. at 
SeH. Char. Flowers hermaphrodite, rarely , 

di(eciouB,£-c1elV, aoroetime«4-c1eft. Seeds 

smooth, compressed, with the hilum white 

and exserted, and with the raphe lateral, 

on the surface of the inner testa. Embryo 

flat. Leaves membranous, caducous, 

quite entire, lined with antroitimate pa- 
rallel nerve*. (Ihn't MiU.) 
t A 14 A. CAROLINiA'Mis tVall. The Ca- 
rolina Buckthorn. 

WnQInMbii. WiU.C>r..p.W.inK.FfaS..l.p.lT., ' 
[><iii'i Ulll., >. p. SI. I Tor. ind Gnr. ■ . (>. K^ 


XXII. ahahnaVes: aha'mnus. 177 

Sptc. Ctar^ ic. Erect. Leaves oval-^bJong, almost entire, imooth. Umbela 
■talked. Flowers hermaphnMlite. Berriet globose. {Don't Mill.) A 
deciduous shrub or tree. North Carolina to Florida, on the banks of 
rJTers. Bei^t 6 ft. to 8 ft., Bometimea a tree 30 ft. to 40 ft. Introduced 
in 1810. Flowers greenish; May and June. Berries black; ripe in 
In America this species, though usually a shrub in North CHrollna, is ia 

Georgia a considerable tree. Leaves 3 in. to Sin. long, and 1 in. to Sin. wide; 

sometimes acuminate, irregularly serrated ; sometimes the margin is waved. 

Fruit as la^e as a small pea, mostly 3-seeded. {Tor. and Gray.) 

• T )5. n. Fra'nsula L. The breaking Buckthorn, or Beny-bearmg Alder. 

i ffUftvT Wwlom, GfT. : AluOTWn. IlsJ, 
-li to iBu mecla. tnm th« bniUvwct 

£ i wi»«»r-~Bi<. Bt*.. t. aa 1 tEJ. Fl . Dm., t. VS. ; tb* plMte of the apedu Id Aili. Brit. IM 
Sit, tS. >. i ud our jV' M». 

^/ec. Char., ^c. Leaves oval, quite entire, lineated with 10 or 12 lateral 
nerves, and, as well as the calyx, sinooth. Flowers hermaphrodite. (Don't 
MiiL) A deciduous shrub, or low tree, Europe and pan of Siberia, in 
woods and thickets ; not uncommon in Eagland, but rare in Scotland. 
Height Sft to6rt.,wild;8fl. to 10 It. in British gardens. Flowers whitish, 
with purple anihen ; May. Berries dork purple; ripe ir " ' ' " "" 
caying leaves reddish green. Naked young wood dark 


* X R. F. 2 angutt^Hia Hurt, has narrower leave*. 

The plant of this species in the Horticultural 

Society's Garden is very distinct; and, in 1B35, 

was 6 ft. high, after being 10 years planted. 

Branches numerous, alternate, leafy, round, smooth, 

and blackish. From a quarter to half an ounce of the 

inner bark, boiled in small beer, is a. sharp purge. The 

bsirk dyes yellow, and, with a preparation of iron, black. 

TIic nowera are particularly grateful to bees. The 

charcoal prepared from the wmid is preferred by the 

makers of gunpowder to any other, ug, n.rrtM^i* 

« X 16. A. LATtKo'Livs i^'/fjri^. The broad-Jeaved Buckthorn. 
JAUgfedOAt. I.'fUrtt.S«t,S. t.a.iDte.Prod„l.p.K,i Don'iNIIJ., 

Bitrr^rlitft. L'Hfrit. gtn^ «. t. S, i DtDd. Brll-.L II. ; WIltd, Ab. 
tild.,t.1so.;tbipLiUi>(tiiI(trHlnAib.Brtt., lttedJI.,irol. >.( mi 
ear A. tes. 
^prc. Char,, fe. Leaves elliptical, acuniinate, quite 

entire, lineated with 18 or 15 lateral nerves ; younger 

lesves and calyxes villous. Flowers hermaphrodite. 

(Dtm't Mill.) A deciduous shrub, with the habit 

of a low tree. Azores, on the mountains of 8t. 

HichaeL Hnght lOft to 15 ft. Introduced in 1TT8. 

Flowen greeoUh ; July. Berries black or red, both i 

colours appearing on the same plant at once ; ripe in ' 


The leaves are lai^r than those of any other speciesi 
except R. alplnus grandif&lius ; and the whole plant 
b remarkable for its robust appearance, and the con- 
•picuotia opposite nerves which proceed lifom the middle 
M the lenvea. It deserves a place in every collection. «c nunuuiMMn 

., Google 


■jmonynioui with kinds already described. Among those which remain to be 
introduced are wme which promise to be ukTuI additiom to tint genus ; sucb 

■ R. periiafoliut Bert. (Moris. Scirp. Snnl. fig. 2.) — An erect ehrub, with 
lanceolate, minutely crcnated leaves, pubescent on the under xide, and on \oag 
petioles. Calyx free. Sardinia. Height 10ft. to )Sft March and ApriL 

j$ R. imygdiSnut Tied. At\. 1. p. 19B. — A native of the Konli of Africa, in 
the fissures of rocks, whi're it grows to the heieht of 3 ft., and produces berries 
used for dyeing yellow, lihe those of R. saxkt\[>e. 

* H. prumfoltut Smith Prod. Fl. Grtec. 1. p. 157.— A native of Crete, on 
the highest mountains, and probably only a variety of one of the preceding sorts. 

a 11. SiblAorpikaua Schult. Sj/il. 6. p. 886. ; R. pub&ceng SiblA. FL (iraic. 
t S39. — A native of Mount Parnassus, and nearly allied to R. alpinus and H. 

* R. Purtli<\a Dee. Prod. 2. p. 25. R. atnifolius of Pursh, but not of 

L'Heiitier. (Hook. Flor. 

Bor. Am.I. p. 123. t.43., 
I and our fig. 267.) — A 

shrub growing to the 
^ height of 6 (t., native of 
n North America, on the 
S baiiksof the Koorkoosky. 
■ • R. o/eiJoSm Hook. 
I Fl. Bor.Ani. 1. p.l83. t. 

44., Tor. & Gray, 1. p. 

200., end jSg. 268. from 

Hooker, is an evergreen 

shrub, with coriaceous 

^ leaves, unarmed shoots, 

>i and the flowers smell, in 

'§' axillarycrowdedpenicles. 

«j. HiinuiM PoMiu-ik It Is B nativeof the noTtb- ,5, f, | „ imhh,, 

west coast of California, 
where it forms a handsome shrub from 6 ft. to 12 fL high. 

* R. ambeildliu Cav. Icon. 6. p. 2. t. 501. — A shrub, growing 6 ft. high in 
Mexico ; was raised in 1839 in the Hort. Soc. Garden, from seeds sent home 
by M. Ilortweg ; but it is probiibly only half-hardy. 

B. /aurifoliua Ifutt,, R, crdccus Nua., R. lanceolittus Furih, R. parvif&tiu* 
Tor. ^ Gray, «. ferniglneus iVb«., R. califdrnicus Etch , and R. tei^nsis 
Tor. fs Grau, are described in Tor. and Gray's Flora 0/ North America ; R. 
pubescens Ft. Grac, and several others, are described in Don's Millrr, and 
ID the first edition of this work. 

Genus V. 


COLXM-IIA Com. The Colletia, Im. St/tl. Pentandria Monog^nia, 

Sfmii^ml. ffhimnui Input. 

On^MnlM. Nuntd br Cknoiaaruii, la bODoiir gf Calltl, bli Maid and couatiriaui, who wraM 
upoo tht ]iluiu of BnH. 

Ge«.CIar. Ca/j/ccampanulate, membraneous, coloured. fe/nJli wanting, or very 
minute, linear, jidimfni with ovate S.celled, or reniform 1-celled, anthera. 
IXik short, cup-ahaped, e<lnate to the bottom of the calyi. Ovorji free, 
3<eUed. Style simple, elongated. Stigma 3-lobeJ. Fniit guarded at the 


base by the penDanent tube of tlie calyx, tricoccoua, dehiiicent. {Don't 

Lauei, when present, simple, opposite, stipulate, deciduoua -, very minute, 
and quite entire. Flowen axiliiiry, fasi:icled, or racemose; nnd, when the 
leaves are alnent, rising from beneath the base of the spines. — Much- 
branched dirubi, with divaricating, decussately opporite branches, and tpiny 

- 1. C. ho'hrid* Lbull. ThebristU Collnia. 

x'aiU. rl'Uixi'. \ii B^l, Mu,'l.lH.L4t. 0. 

^Drc. CAar., tfc. Spines rigid, simple, or much branched. Peduncles mostly 
in pairs. Calyx ovate-oblong. Stamens sessile. (_LmiU,) A spinv shnib, 
evergreen, from the colour uf its branches and hrenchlets. Chili and 
Mendoza, on mountains. Height 3 It. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1033. 
Flowers grcenuh white, stained with dull purple ; Hay to Julj'. Berry 
whitish, t£out the sise of a small pea; ripein Sept. 
The young branches are furnished with " bright 
green sawed scales" as leaves ; they are placed opjio- 
■ite. and at the base of each is a small stipule. The 
leaves and stipules epeedily Rill off, " leaving the ', 
branches to act as leaves, by the aid of their so^ par- 
enchyma, wiih which they are clothed in the form of 
bvk." Hence, |)1anta of any size appear one mas 
naked spiny green branches in winter ; and, in sumc 
having leaves and flowera all over the pobta of the 
branchlets. It is a most desirable addition to our 
evergreen shrubs ; and, as it escaped the winter of ' 
1837-6, it may be wifely recommended ns hardy, for cli- 
mates not much colder than that of London. It grows 
in common garden soil, in a dry situation, fully exposed 
to the sun. It has not yet been propagated otherwise 
than by Chilian seeds, which are frequently received 
under the name of RetHnilla. We have no doubt, 
however, that it might be increased by layers, or by 
cutdnga in sand under a glass. 

OlAer Specici of CoUetui. — There are plants in the London gardens, under 
the name of C. eplniW and C. uUcina. which we consider merely as varieties 
of C. horrida; though Ihe fornix has white flowers, and the latter broader 
leaves than those which we have described. They are considered more ten- 
der than C. hdrrida ; but this may possibly be owing to the plants having been 

^ , o have survived 

at Liverpool. In j^. 270., a represents C. nifcina 
ai/fa .Ephedra Brong.') ; and c, C. spinosa. 

C. £'(Aedra {Rtta- 




CBANO'THUS L. Thk Ciknotiius, or RxD Boot. Im. ^. 

PentiodriB Monog^nia. 

TUpIcahM. BroiifD. Utag. IUuni.,|i,«, ; Hook. Fl. Bor, Am«r., '.p. IM.1 Die Ptod, If. 

m. CAar, Catifx with a aubliEniiipherlcal tube, and 5 conniTcnl legmmti. 
Petalt 5, iiTij^uiculate, cuculbte, deftexed. Siament with ovate S-c^led iid- 
thers. Dili Hpongy, annular. Ovaiy ipherical, girded by the disk, 3-cdled. 
SlffUi 3, diverging, terminated by saisll papilliform nJBiniui, Frtdt IricoC' 
coua, girded by the circumcised tube of the calyx. (Don'i Mill.) 

Leaoei limple, aJtcrnate, Btijiulate, peraisteiit or deciduous ; orate oreUiptt- 
cbI, serrated or entire. Floweri terniinsl or axillary, in elangHted racemes. 
— Shrubs, natives of North Americu, very ornamental in British gerdriu, 
and easily propasaled by cuttings of the young wood, planted in sand, uid 
covered with a hand-glass. Moxt i>f the species produce leeda Ireety in 
Britiah gardens, and they all grow in any common garden soiL 

vaiKHu. Bot.M»g..l.UW.i juidiRir;«(.«J, 

fc. Char., ^c. Leaves ovate, acuminate, serrated, pubescent betwath. 
Thyrne elongated, axillary, with a pubescent rachis. (Don'i Mill.) A de- 
eiduoua suflrutescent low shrub. Canada to Florida, in woods and copM*. 
Hdght 1ft. to 3ft ; in British gardens, S ft. to 4ft. Introduced in 1713. 
FlowNv white : June to August Fruit black ; ripe in September. 
rieHei. Torrey and Gray describe three varieties, 
C. a. S Pftcheri, C. a. 3 her- 
baceus (C. perennis PurtA, C, 
ovalus Dn/.), and C. a. 4 
inlermediua (C. interm^ius 
Panh, _fig. 271.) ; but we 
scarcely think they are worth 
keeping apart in collections. ^ 
Stems shrubby, or suflhiticose. 
J Leaves 8 in. to 3 in. long, t 
The leaves and items of the 1 
plant are pubescent ; and the 
dowers, being produced in great ^^ 

numbers together, arc very oma- |»^ 

ntai. They are nucceeded by bluntly triangular cap- Jf 

esi and, about London, in fine seasons, Uie seeds ^^ ,^^_» ^^^ 
en. Any soil that is tolerably dry. Seeds or cuttings. 

ic leaves of this plant, dried, were used by the Americans as a subttitule 
' Chinese tea, during the war of independence. 

i Dei/. The azurejfbtwred Geanothus, or Bed Root. 

119, p. 01. ( Dac Vroi.. I. p. 11. -. l>m\ HUl., S. p ff. 

(. at».ti •— '■"= - " ■ ■-■■•—'-- ""'" ■- •-'-■■ ■ 



Sptc.Oiv^ ^c. Le»Te« orate-otilong, obtuae, acutely «crnited, snuMith above, 
hoary ukI downy beneath. Thyrse elongiited, nxilbry, with a downy richis. 
PediceU smooth. {Don't Mill.) A Bub-evorgreen shrub. Mexico. Height 
6fl. to lOfl. Introduced in 1B18. Flowen brigiit blue; May to Sep- 
tember. Fruit blad(,enc1osing3Beed(i ; ripe in Uctuber. 

• ■ C. a. 8 mlemidiiu, C, intermedins Hort., hai the 
hRbit of C. •iAreua, with pale flowwi, like those 
of C. aniericBaus, varying with diRerent shades of 
blue. It was raised by Mr. Masters of Canter- 
bury, from seeds of C. aiikreus fecundated by C 
A rery handsime shrub, profiisely covered with brilliant 
celestial blue flowers in large panicles. In Mexico ila bark 
ii considered as a febrifuge. It is the most robust-growiiu 
species of the genu^ attaining, in 3 or 4 years from geed, 
the height of 5 or 6 feet, or more, against a wall. It waa 
at 6nt treated ax a green-house plant, but lately it has been 
found to be nearly as hardy a« the North Amencan species. 
In the winter ol 1B3T-B these plants were greatly injured, 
but none of them killed. North of London the plant is 

• • 3. C. (a.) TBvmsirLo'Rus Etch. The Thyrse-flowered Ceanothus. 
MmH/leaUa^ Bicb.lB Hna. Aiad. St. Pst«dnrg<tM6) i Honk. FLBar. Aia.,1. K.IM.t DdhI 
^ MIU., I. p- W. i Tor. BuJ Crtj. I-B.M& . r- ■ 

Exfrwriiit. O-atJ^, . Is p. 

Spec. Char., ifc. Leaves oval, S-nerved, serrulated, smooth. Stem manv- 
angled ; panicle thyrsoid in the axillary branches. {Don'i Mill.) A sub- 
evergreen shrub, or small tree. Monterey, Upper Califom'a, and north- 
west coast of North America. Height in America 5 ft. to 20 ft. Intro- 
duced in P1830. Flowers bright blue ; May to November. Fruit black ; 
ripe about a month aflcr flowering. 

In its native country, in favourable situations, this species becomes a small 
tree, with a stem sometimes rs thick as a man's arm, and strongly angular 
branches. In British gardens it forms a free-flowerinj highly ornamental 
shrub, with much of the habit of C. azOreus ; from which it chiefly differs 
in having the flowers in a close, instead of in an elongated, thyrie. Not- 
withstanding this difference, we consider it an only a variety of that species. 
A M ^ C. TtunCmiB Doug, The velvety-/KK>ri Ceanothus. 

Bagtawtlli. Hooii. Ftai. Bar. An«„ )', t. U. i ind ODr fig. 274, 
^c. Char., S/c, Branches somewhat pendulous. 
Leaves orbicular, elliptical or elliptical ovale, obtuse, 
subcordate, glanduiarly crenate, serrulate, coria- 
ceous, glabrous, and shming (as if varnished) above, 
velvety, canescenc, and strongly 3-ribbed beneuth. 
Panicles axillary, elongated, on rather long pe- 
duncles. (TV. and dray.) A shrub, probably 
sub-evergreen. North-west coast of North America, 
on tubolpine hills. Height 3 ft. to 8 ft. Not intro- 
duced. Flowers white. Fruit dry, 8 — 3-seeded. 
Thu is apparently a very desirable species ; and, as J 
it is so abundant as In cover the whole declivities of ^^ 
hills, foraiing thickets very difficult to penetrate, we 
have nu doubt that it will soon be introduced. **' "^ '**■*' 

Blanches oearly glabrous. The leaves abound with an aroi 

., Google 



■■ 5. C. coi.Li'Niis Doag. The Hill-«iile Ceanothiu. 

Untlflcalion. l>Due. In MSS. ; n. C»b.. 1. IS, 

SiifriirHf. rUMh.l.lX-.tnioiuJIg.tln. 

Spec. Char., j-c. Branches ilecumbeiit, round, and 
smoolhUh. Leavea orale or elliptic, somewhst 
claminy.glandQljr.serrated, upper surface shining, 
under surface covered with adpressed hairs, 3- 
nerved. Stipules awl-shnped. Panicles axillary. 
(KtioaiUt and WetUatt.) A hardy, erergreen, low, , 
deciimbenl shrub. North America. Height 1 ft. 
Introduced in 1827, Flowers white, produced 
in great abundance; June uiitl July. Fruit 
hrown; ripe in September. • 

Layers, which root readilv, or seeds. *sk 

Olher Spedet of C^nolhat. — C. ovatus and C. 
interinediuB, we have «een, on the authority of 
Torrcy and <iray,are only varieties orCaniericenus; 
and we have no doubt that this will be the c«m 
with C. oviilis, C. Mitgutneus, C. oreganus, and 
other Bpecies described by authors. In short, there 
appears to us nn assignable liuilli to the sports and 
hybrids that may be produced in this genus. 


OsD. Char. Calyt funnel-shaped, its tube usually adnate to the ovaiy, iti 
limb with 5 — 15 lobes. Pctalt inserted into the calyx, as many as its lobes, 
alternate with them, smaller than they, and deemed by some an inner whorl 
of lobes of the culyx. Glandt present in front of the se^'ments of the caljl. 
Slamtiu arising from the base of the tietaU, either singly, or in threes or 
sixes. Anllicri ^celled, opening longitudinally. Ovary l-celled, with nu- 
merous oTulea. Slyiet 3—5, simple. FtvU berried or capsular. &rd> 
small. {Lmdi.) — Trees or shrubs ; natives of South America. 

Leava simple, alternate, with deciduous stipules, sub-evergreen ; toothed 
or entire. JYowm axillary, in spikes, racenieK, or panicles. — The species in 
British gardens belong to the genera Aristotetio and Azara (the latter rather 
tender), which are thus contradistinguished ; — 

AnisTOTB^Lr.! L'H^rit. Corolla of b petals. Stamens 15 — 18, polyadd- 
phous. Fruit a globose, free, 3-celled berry. Cells 1 — K-seeded. 

A.zk'vlA R. et P. Corolla none. Stamens numerous. Fruit a globose I- 
celled, 5-aeeded berry. 

Genus I. 

Uh. Sytt. Poly<idct|ihi« 

Dtrtmtim. Nuniad In commnnDnliuii ot ATiiloilr. tha celrbnlsd philoiDphcT niid nuunlbt. 
6e«. Char. Calyi cumpanulate, profoundly 5-cleft. PHah b, inserted in the 


base oi* the calyx, and eltemBlin^ with its lobea. Slamem 15 — 16, gpnc- 
rally 3 or * in each bundle, placed m front of the lobei of the caljx. An/heri 

opening """ ~* """" " ■■ -. . ^ . . 


Iiona nmple, opposite, stipulate, aul>«TeTgreen ; stalked and shining. 
Flouen in axillaiy racemes. 

• • ¥ X 1. A. MA'caui L'Herit. The Hacqui Ariatotelio. 

SpWr^Kl. A. lijiodalllu «.«/>. Fl.J'er.^.p IM. ; A. Wi*^ In Dfic Trail.. 1. p. K. 
Engramitt. L'lMrll. Sllrp., t. 16. i Win. nnd. Brit., L M. ; K. I>n llm., t-tt. ; Iht plMtnt 

lElilmlaArb, BilL, lilsdlt., tdI. t.; uii air Jit. t!t. 
Spec, Ciar., ijc. Calyx deeply S.rleft. Styles 3, somewhat connected at the 
base. A sub^everpeen shrub, or low tree. Chili. Height in British gar- 
dens T — IB ft. liitroduced in 1733. Floweri amall, green, purplish, and 
yellow ; May and June. Berry vei^ dark purple; ripe in Septeinber. 

• M ^. M. 2f6lat varicgalu. — The variegated-leaved Macqui Aristotelia. 

In Chili this plant (bnns an evergreen shrub, with diffiiae branches, growing 
to the height of 6 ft. The floweri are not very showy ; but they we succeeded 
bv berries about the size of a pea, very dark purple, and at length becoming 
buck, which are acid and eatable. In British i^dens, it forms a sub-ever- 


green ilinib or low tree, of very vigoroug growth ; so much so, in b yoiaig 
iCate, that, from the shoots not bein^ matured, they are frequeotly killed down 
Co the ground, and tlieCbliage more or less injured. Notwithstanding this, tbe 
aristotelia Trequcntly flowers, end even ripena rruit; and, in ull prohabilitT, 
if the tree were planted in dry and rather poor scil, so a£ to grow slowiy, wid 
not moke more wood every year than it could ripen properly, it would attain 
B large size, and form a very handsome hardy ever- 
green shrub or tree. The plant grows vigorously in 
any common garden soil, producing shoots 3 ft., 4 ft., 
or 5 fl. in length when young i and it is readily pro- 
pagated by cuttingH or by layers, 

Olhrr Specie! of Aruiolelia. — One has been raised 
m the Chelsea Botanic Garden, from South American 
seeds, which Mr. Dillwyn found to stand the winter 
of 1S37-B better then A. Micqui. 

a Azan dmtttla R. & P., Don's Mill. i. p. 357. 
(Bot. Reg. 1. 1768., and our/g. 277.) is an evergreen 
shrub or low tree, growing to the height of 1 2 ft. in 
Chili. It. stood S years in Che Hort. Soc. Garden, 
■gainst a wall, and, though killed by the winter of 
1837-8, it may yet ultimately prove tolerably hardy. 
A. inUgnJalia, if a different species, may possibly be found hardy dsa 


Okd. Char. Floiom generally unisexual. Caiyx usually d-parted. Pelali 
eouel in number to the divisions of the calyx, cohering at Che bace when the 
disk is absent. Slaiaeni same number, or twice that number. J)iii, when 

S resent, annual. Ovarium usually solitary. Styla 1 — J, sometimes wanting. 
>iut indehiscent. (Lind!.) — Low deciduous or evergreen trees, nati*e> of 
Asia and Africa. 

Leave! simple or compound, alternate, exstipulate, deciduous or evn^reen ; 

without pellucid dots. Floweri terminal or axillary, in panicles, with bracts. 

— The hardy species belong to the genera /^cocia, ifhus, and Duvaua, 

which are thus uontrsdistingiiished : — 

^isTA^ciA L. Flowers dicecious, apetalous, amentaceous. Stigmas 3. Drupe 

dry, containing a 1-celled, l-aeeded nut. 
Raa'a L. Flowers polygamous. Styles or stigmas 3. Drupe nearly dry, 

containing a l-cell^, I — 3-seeded nut. 
DuvAu'.! Kth, Flowers moncecious or di<ec)OUE. Stylo 3 — *, short. Drupe 
containing a coriaceous l*secded nut. 

Gem US I. 



PISTA'CIA t. The Pistachia Tbbb. Lin. Si/il. DiixVia PentAndria. 

Geii. Char. Flowrn ditEcious, and without petals ; disposed in amentaceous 

XXIV. anacardia'cex : fistacia. 185 

rmeeoMS,eMh scale with one flowa'. Calyx S — &«left. iSTmnu 5, inserted iato 
a caljdne dkk, or iato the caiyx ; irith 4-coniered, almoot sessile, anthers. 
Oeanf I — S-cHted. Sbgrniu 3, aad tbicbish. Fnat a drj onue drupe; nut 
boay, and nmallv l-celled, with a single seed affixed to tbe bottom. Co^ 
ledattt thick, fleshj, oily, and bent bedi upon the radicle^ — Small trees, 
nstJTes of the South of Europe antl Asia. 

Leme* compound, impari-pionntc^ dedduoaa <»* evergreen ; dying off of 
a beautiAil reddish purple ; ;oung shoots tinged with purple. 

X ]. P. Ti^RA L. The true Pistachia Tree. 

Ud. Sptc., I4M, I D<c.Pn>d.,l.p.6l.i Don't MUl,. t p-U. 
- . Madi oOdninni ««!. Xnr. : PIUkW, Ft. ; PtBaJcDbuiiii, Oir. ; 

p^ BUAw, lc«l.,L4fiL; N-Du Hun., 4, t- LT-i tn± oar Jig. 9}S. 

S^pec. Cbttr,, Src. Leaves deciduous, impen-pinnate, of 3 — 5 leaflets, rarely of 
1 ; the leafieta orate, a little tapered at Uie base, indisdnctly mucronate at 
the tip. (Arc. /Vn/.) A deciduous tree. Syria. Height 80 ft. Introduced 
in 1770. Flowers small, brownish green ; April and May. Fruit reddish, 
an inch long, OTSte; ripe in Syria in September, rarely seen in England. 
Varirtia. The following are considered by 
some authors as species : — 

> P. e. S tr^tia Lin. Spec. 1454.. Bocc. 
Mns. S. t. 93,, has leaves usually of 
1 P. e. 3 tiarbonhuu Bocc. Hus. t. ii. 693., 
P. reticulata WiOd., has pinnsU 
leaves, the leaflets having prominent 
veins. H. S. 
li^hivBted in the South of France, and in i 
Italy, lor its fniit; the nut of which isaome- fi 
times eaten raw, but more frequently in a dried jl 
RtBte, like almonds. In British gardens, the tree U 
t much planted, from its being generally ' 

ir by cuttings. 

t 8. P. T^kbbi'ntbus Lin. The Turpentine Pistachie, or VautimorCImm 

Turpenlinc Tree. 
UtnlVtUim, Lhi. Bik.. I4U. j Dae. Fiod., i. p. 64. ; Don'i HIU., 1. B. St. 
4va»rwi. T. n^an^ Tarn, IniL Kn. ; p. Tin MilL Did. No. <. ; nitachlar T 

TspanUo PliUrie, (irr, : Tarchlnto, Ilmi. 
Engmri<ltt- Wuodr. MhL BoL. tl6. t. I!i3. ; md oarjlg. 179. 

S^iec. CAar^ 4^. Leaves deciduous, impari-pinnate, of shout 7 leaflets, that 
are ovate-IanceolHte, rounded at the base, and at the tip ■ ' 
nate. {Jicc. Prod.) A deciduous tree. South of , 
Europe and North of Africa. Height 30 It. In- 
troduced in I6A6. Flowers dull yellow and crimson ( 
June and July. Fruit dark blue, hardly bigger than • 
a large pea 

t P, T. 2 ipharoeirpa Dec. — Fruit larger and * 
rounder than that of the species. 
ILe general appearance of the tree is that of P. 
vera, but the leaves are larger, and the fruit only a third 
of the sise ; the leaflets are, also, lanceolate, instead of 
bcii^ suboTBte, The red hue of tbe branches, espe- 
cially when young, is very beautiful ; and the leaves are 



■Im) more or leu tinged with red. The fruit is round, not succulent, and 
wmewbat farrowed ; at flmt areen, and Bfteroards reddish ; but bladl, or of « 
ver^ dark blue, when ripe. The leaves and flow»« emit a very reainoua odour, 
which spreads to a considerable distance, more especiatir at sunset, wlien 
the dew is falling, after a very warm day. The substance called Venice 
IT Chian tuipentine is the resin which exudes from this tree. In British 

It, the tree is not very common, though it is generallv cou^dered ■ 

hardiest of the genus ; and, with P. vtta, nay be planted in warm shettefed 
situations in the open border. 

1 3. P. Lbnti'scus L. The Mastich Tree. 

UnUlficaliim. Llo. Spec, IWt. 1 Dh. Prod., I. p. CD. i Dm'( MUI., I. p. 6«. 

Srvfiantu- Corno capn, lial. 

SmgrmBtfi. Waadi. MnL Bat, I. IM. ) ud Dor jV DM. 

Spec. Char., Stc. Evergreen. Leaves abruptly pinnate; leaflets 8, lancoolatei 
petiole winged. (Dec. Prod.) An eveivreen tree. SouLbem Kurope, 
Northern Africa, and the Levant. Height 20 ft. Introduced in ISM. 
Flowers green ; April and Hay. Fruit browniitb ; ripe in October. 

1 P. L. S an^a^fSlia Dec., P. massili^nsit MilL Diet., P. anguHifdln 
massili^su Toant,, has leaflets almost linear, and the tree leldoin 
exceeds 10 ft. in height. 
I P. L. 3 cAia N. Du Ham. iv. p. 72. ; P. 
ehiu Detf. Cat. Hurt. Par. — A native of 

Scio, where it produces the mastich. 
The species bears a general resemblance to the 
two preceding ones, in summer, when they are 
clothed with foliage; but it differs from them ii 
being eveiv'een, and in having the leaves rauci 
umafler. The leaves have sometimes 5 leaflets on 
each side; and the petioles are so much winged 
as to appear like pinnn. The tree in the South 
of Europe, and the North of Afiica, is cultivated 
in nrdens, as well as found in a wild state ; but 
in British gardens it is not so hardy as P. To- 
rebtnthuB, and north of London should always 
be planted against a wall. 

. aUdaiiea Desf., a deddi 

of a frame or green-house. 


AHU'S L. Thb Rnus, or Sumach. Lm. Si/it. Peniindria Trig^nt 

Diie'cia Pent&ndria. 
l4nnllcaHo^ I,ln. CaD.,ses. I Lun. Ill.,c. WT.; Konth Gin. Tenb,,B. K.i Utc Pn«..lp. 

Gen. Char. Sexet herm^hrodite, dioecious, or polygamous. Cafyt small, 
5-parted, persistent. Felalt ovate, and inserted into a calycine disfc, or 
into the calyx. SUmeiu 5, inserted into a calydne disk. Ovarg single. 


XXIV. anacardiaYex: Aitr's. 187 

- tl'i-lobulu', of 1 cell. Slyla 3, short, or wanting. Siigmai 3. Fruit an 
I'liiwt dry drup« of I cell, with a bony nut, which includes a single seed; 
.ud.inBoiiieinatanceB, S— Sseeils. {Dee. Prod.) — Deciduuui ehrubs. Na- 
Mes of Europe. Asia, and North and South America. 

Leavei simple or uiiequall)' pinnate, altemste, stipulate, deciduous. 
Floioen in terminal racemes, or panicles. — The leaves vary much, both in 
form and magnitude ; and the^' ^generally die oS^ in Hutiimn, of a dnrk red, 
or abright scarlet, or yellow, when they are very ornamental. Most of the 
bpecies are poiaonoua, some highly so ; und they ail may be used in tanning, 
and dyeing yellow or hisck. They are all easily propagated hy cuttinga of 
the root, and some of them by cuttings of the branches. 
Some of the hardy species are rainhling climbers, and others tree-like 

{ i. CSHnus Tourn. 
SeH. Char. Leares undivided. Flowers hennaphrodile. 

The Cotinus Rhus, or Vraetuat Sumach. 

I. p. 6>. 

* Man. n. ; CblDIli carUru 

Sugrmrli^t. J«|. Aiuu, LIIO. ; and 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves obovate, {Dec. Prod.) A de- 
ciduous rambling shrub. Spain toCuncasus ; and, accord- 
ing to Torrey and Gray, probably of North America. 
Height 4 ft. to 6 ft wild ; 6 ft. to 8 fl. in a state of cul- 
ture. Introduced in 16^. Flowers pale purplish, or 
lloah colour 1 June and Jolj'. Fruit white; ripe in Sep- 
tember. Decaying leaves of a fine reddish yellow. Naked 
young wood tmouth brown. 

Hie dower* are disposed in loose panicles, and are her- 
maphrodite. The drupe is half-Jleart-shaped, smooth, and 
veiny ; and its nut is triangular. Many of the flowers are 
abortive i and their pedicels, aflcr flowering, lengthen, and 
become hairy. A highly ornamental shrub, more especially 
when covered with its large loose panicles of elongated hairy 
pedicels. It b easily known from all the other npecies by 
it> sirople, obovate, smooth, stiff, lucid green leaves, rounded 
al tbe points, and supported by long footstalks, which remain 
on till they are killed by frost, so that the plant is almost a 
eub-evergreea. A dry loam suits it best; and it is props- ^^ ^ na,^ 
gated by pegging down the branches flat to the ground, and 
strewing earth over them, through which young shouts rise up, which root at 
the base, and may be removed in autumn. 

j ii. Sumach Dee. 

Sect. Char. Leavea impari-pinnate ; leaflets more tliaii 3 in the leave* of each 
of the first 8 spedes of this section. Flower* in panicles, polygamous, 
dicEcious, or herm^ihrodite. 

m i 2. R. typhiXa L. The Fever RhuM, or Slag'i Hum Sumach. 

gl^lSrilSi. N. DaH.. 1. 1. «. i WM. TwJl Brtl., I. 17. and t. IS. I Uld oar A- W>-. tlu nulE. 

Spec. Char., 4-c. Leaf of B — 10 pairs of leaflets, and the odd one, that are 
lanceoUie^ acuminate, serrated, hairy beneaib. Petiole and branches hiury. 


(Dee. Prod.) A shrub, with the habit of b low dedihious tree. Canadk 
to Carolina, )D rocky dry situation a. Height 20fL Introduced in 16^9. 
Flowert, female dark purple, mule greenish yellow and purple; Juljr 
and August. Fruit hairy, purple ; ripe in October. Defajing leaTca dark 
purple or red, eametime« mixed witli yellow. Naked youn|; wood daA 
brown, hairy. DeCandolle has characterised two forma of this gpedca as 
follows : — 

T R. /. 1 arboriteeni. —A tree between 10 ft. and 25 ft, high ; leaf iligbily 

downy beneath. 
• R. t. ifnditceiu. — Shrubby, between Sft. and 10ft. hi^; and its 

leaf downy and whitish beneath. 
¥ R. f. 3 viridijldra. R. viridiflora Potr. — Flowers green. Poaahly 
nothing more thnn the male plant. 
Rh(xt typhina, in Briliiih gardens, Is either a large shrub, or a low tree with 

a woody stem and a head compused of many irregular branches, penerally 

crooked and deformed. The ^oung shoots are covered with a soft veUet-ltke 

down, resembling that of a young aiag'a horn, both in colour and texture ; 

whence, and probably nlso 

from the crookedness of the 

branches, the common name. 

The cellular tissue of the wood 

b of an orange colour, with a 

strong aromatic odour, and a 

copious resinous juice. The 

leaves are S ft. to 3 ft. long, and 

they are very conspicuous in 

autumn, before they drop off, 

when they chan^ to a purplish 

or yellowish red. The flowers 

are produced in close spikes at i* 

the ends of the branches ; they ' 

are often polygamous or di' 

CBciouB by ubortinn, end the *"■ «i>*-ii*im- 

female ones are followed by seeds enclosed in woolly, simple, succulent covers. 

As the plant is of open irregular growth, and not of long duration, it should 

nerer be placed where it ia intended to act as a screen. Like all objects the 

chief beauty of which consists In their singularity, it pruducea the most stciking 

effect when standing alone on a lawn. 

■ 1 3. A- (? T.) rla'sra Lin. The glabrous Rhus, or &nr/ef Smuol. 

UHliflcaliim. IJn. SKC..380.; Dm. Proi, ».p. 67.i DoB'iMill.,lp,TO;Tor.iiiilGrv.l.p-«IT. 
Emtratiiifi. Wiu. Drnd. Bilt., L tlL ; uid mirytg, »<3., the [milD. 

Spec. Char., 4'c. Leaf (glabrous, of 8 — 10 pairs of leaflets, 
and an odd one; leaflets Ian ceo late, oblong, serrate, 
whitinh beneath. Branches glabrous. {Dec. Prod.) 
A deckluous shrub or low tree. Canada to Georgia. 
Height 5 ft. to IS ft. Introduced in IT26. Flowers, 
male greenish yellow, female greenish red. Fruit red; 
ripe in October. DeCandolle has distinguished three 
forms of this species; namely : — 

. Mhn WUld. &iec. 
— Flowers her- 
maphrodite, ereeniah. 

■ R. ^. 2 rfioico Lara. 111. t. 207. f. 1. — Flowers { 

dKEcious, greenish. , 

■ R.£. ?3«>cdnea. R. caroliniAnum jlfi^. XNcf. ; C 

S, £legana Ail,, Lodd.Cal., Ihn± Brit. t. W. 
— Flowers dimctous, red. This variety is dis- 

XXIV. anacardia'cea: : SHv's. 189 

tinguiahed by a more tq>r^t habit of growth, and smoother branchea 

and leaves, tban £. glabia. The leavet are gliucoiu nnderiieath ; 

and the fruit u of a rich velvety crinuon. 

The general appearance of tbe species \* umikr to that of R. typblna ; 

but tbe leaves and the entire plant are smaller, the branches more spreading 

and smooth, and the leaflets wider, less serrated, and of a deeper green. 

■ 4. A. VBNENA'TAiJrc. The poiBonous Rh US, Pouon Wood, or Swamp Sumadt, 

. i-j. 68. ; Don'i ¥I1L, I p. 71-5 Tor, ujd Orm;. 1. p. Sl^ 

■- " b. PoUon Elder. 

IB. i ud our A- SB* 

reticulatelf veined. {Dec. Prod.) A deciduou* shrub. Canada to Georgia, 

and west to Louisiana, in swamps. Height 15 ft. to 80 ft. Introd. 1713. 

Flowers green ; July. "Bary smooth, greenish white; ripe in f October. 

Decaying leaves intense red, or purple. 

Naked yonng wood purplish green. 

The leaves are divided like those of R, 
tvphlna and R. glAura; but they are quite 
dio'erent hotn those or boUt kinds, in being ' 
smooth, shining, and having the leaflets very 
entire, narrow, and painted, and the veins of 
a purplish red colour. The whole shrub is 
in a high degree poisonous ; and the poison is 
communicate by touching or smelling any 
port of it. In British gardens it is not very 
common ; but it well deserves culture, on 
account of the beauty of its smooth shining 
foliage at all seasons, end of ils almost un- 
paralleled splendour in the autumn, from the 
time that the leaves begin to change colour, 
till tfaey ultimately drop off, of an iutense 

purine or scarlet, with the first frost. ***■ "*" """" 

> S 5. A. Cobia'bia Lm. Tbe hide-tanning Rhus, or lAe Elm-leaved SunucA. 

IdHUmcmHoM. LlD. Sprc.nS. ; T>sc Prod., I. p. «T. ; Don'i Mill..!, p. TO. 

Am^oMM. CorUrls slludH totlHUK nud« cC (Mt plant br tbe Rgmau, md iIh l>r UwTaiki, 

leafletA elliptical, and toothed with 
large and faiunt teeth. The petiole 
smooth at the tip, a little margined. 
(Dec. Prod.) A deciduous shrub or 
low tree. Portugal to Tauria. on 
rocks in exposed situations. Height 
I5ft. to SO ft. Introduced in 1629 
Flowers whitish 
green, in large 
boae panicles ; 
July and August. 
Pnut red; r"" 
in October, i 
in England. De- 
ns. FW to-atr casing leaves pur- 
ptisb red. 
The genent) haUt of this plant resembles that of R- typhliw ; but it )■ 



much smaller in ull its pBrta. The Imflctx are about 2 in. king, anii 4 in. wide:, 
of B pale fTeen, serrated, and in general appearance resembling the leaves of 
"' ■ Culture as in R. t}'phina. 

A Lin. The Oum Copal Rhus, or Matlick-trce-lcaeed 


Iila/'yicalfim. Lla.S»c.,38a.i DecTriHl ,9.p.6B.j Diin'iMm.,9.p.Ta.! Tor.uHlGnT.l.p.nT. 
BlfMiMt,. Jicq. H^rt. 3cKaii..t.34L.; FJuk. Aim., p. M. C 1. 1 ud iH.r^. Mr. 

j^'^^. CAar,, Bfc. Leaf glabrous above, a little pilose beneath, of 5 — 7 pairs 
ofleaAets, and the odd one; leaflets lanceolate and entire. Petiole winged 
and jointed. Root stoloiiireroua. Flowers yellow ereen. Sexes ditEcious. 
(Dei:. Prod.) A deciduous Bhrub. Canada to Florida. Height 3 Tl to 8 a. 
Introduced In I6BB. Flowers yellowish green; July and August Berries 
red ; ripe in September. Di^caying leaves purplish red. 

Varietiet, Three forms are given by Torrey and Gray : — a. Leaflets endre, 
usually acuminate, which may be considered ss the Hpecies : /), leaSets 
coarsely and unequulty serrate; and t, leaflets (about 21) small, oblong, 
acute at the base; obtuse and slightly mucronate at the apex; petiole nar 
rowly winged. Jacquin has 

» K. C.2 teve&ntha Jac. Hort. 
Schdn., t. 342. — Root not 
stolon iferous. Panicles more 
contracted than in the 
The leaves and general habit of 

the plant are those of R. typhina, 

but it seldom grows to the height of 

more than 4 or 5 Teet in British 

gardens. The branches are smooth, 

and the leaflets entire with acute ' 

points; they are light green on both 

sides, and in autumn change to a 5ne 

purple. The petiole, as in R. Con- 

aria, is somewhat winged towards its 

tip, which, with other circumstances, 

induces us to think that they may both 

be varieties of the same species. The 

leaves ere used as tobacco by the „;. jthiion-iiuu. 

Indians of the Missouri and the Mississippi. 

■* l 7.R. Tojhcodb'ndros L- The Poison-Tree Rhus, or SmuacA. 

tdmii/lcaUim. Toi. »ikL Crmj, 1. p. 51«. 

ZSrw**- Our ^J. ooo"o p. Qoo. ™" ■"■ I ., c. 

Sjiec. Char., Sfc. Stem erect, decumbent, or climbing by radicles. Leaves 3- 
foliolate, somewhat pubescent ; leaflets (membranaceous) broadly oval or 
rhomboid, acuminate, entire or toothed, the lateral ones inequilateral. Pa- 
nicles racemed, axillary, subsessile. Drupe subglobose, smooth. ( TorreT/ and 
Graif.) A low rambling or climbing ahrub. Canada to Georgia, in shady 
damp places. Stems 10 ft. to 20 ft. as a climber ; or 3 ft. to 5 ft. high as ■ 
bush. Introducedin 1640. Flowersgreeni!ih,niostlydi(EciouB; JuneandJuly. 
Berry pale chestnut; rip«in September. Decaying leaves purplish red. 
yaiietiei. The following forms are given by Torrey and Gray : — 

.* R. T. I querci^Hum Tor. & Gray. R. T. fl TUercifolium Michi. — Not 
climbing ; leaves entire, or variously and irr^ularly sinuatedly 
tootbeo, or lobed. The R. Toxicodendron of the London gardens, 
readily distinguished from the two following varieties, by its deeply 
sinuated, or almost pinnatiGd, leaflets. It grows to the bright ot 

XXIV. anacardia'crx: film's. 191 

3 ft. to 4 ft. with wreral upright stems, foriBing a imati Inuh, from 
the base of vhichproceed many prostnite runners. 
jiR.T.2 Todicant Tor. & Gray. R. T. a Tulgire JMicAx. ; R.T.ffm. 
dicani Tor. (Bot, Mag. t. 1806. and N. Du Ham. 8. t. 48., and our 
Jigt. 288. and 299.) — Climbing j leave* more commontj' entire, or 
nearly m). The Shut radlcani 
of the London gardens, readily 
known from the preceding Tariety 
by its trailing or climbing Mem, 
and by it« entire leaflet*. 

,« 1 R. 7*. 3 microedrpott Tor. & Gray R. Toxicodendron y microcirpoD 
Michi, — Leaves oval-oblong ; fruit omailer. 

These varieties, which have been liitherto, for the moat part, treated a* 
lieloneing to two species, R. radicans and R. Toxicodendron, are com- 
mon in many parts of North America; sometimes covering the surface of 
the ground to a great extent, nnd at other limes climbing to Ihe top of the 
higheht trees, and penetrating the bark with their fibrous roots, Tlie terri- 
ble effects of their poison are frequent, and well authenticated. 

$ iii. Lobadium Dec. 

Sect. Char. Leaf of 3 leaflets, and palmately di>pOEeil on the tip of the com- 
mon petiole, cut in a serrate manneri the teeth large. Flowera in a dense 
catkin. Sexes polygBmoiis. There are two-lobed glands under Che awy, 
alternate with the stamens. Styles 3, short, distinct. Drupe rather com- 
press ed, villose. Kut smooth. Aromatic shrubs. (Urc. Prod., ii. p. 72.) 

Sprc. Char., S[e, Leaves pubescent when young 
(at length coriaceous, and often glabrous) ; lea^ 
leta sessile, rhomboid- ovate, unequally and in- 
cisively toothed, the terminal one narrowed at 
the base. {Tor. and Gray.') A unall aroinatic 
shrub. Pennsylvania to Carolina and Georgia. 
Height lfi.to4ft. In trod, in 1772. Flowers 
small, yellow ; April and May. Fruit small, 
li^t red ; ripe in Septend>er. 
DniiiM the aize of a nnall pea, light red, more 

., Google 


or less hiipkl, ili^tly compreweJ, agreeably acid. Thii species varies grail] 
in the decree of pubescence of the le*vea. S. Buareoleni Ail. o: ij diSen it 
having the leavea almost glabroiu. H. S. 

Other Specie! of 'RAit. — Several names are in the London cataloguet, irhlif 
are Bynonymes of Linda which have been loat, or are not distinctly known b] 
us. R. pimila Mic&x, R. diversiloba Tor. ^ Grav (H. lobata Hooi.), R 
tlilobita Ifiitt., R. burina A'u/f., are described in Torrey and Ors^'i Florai 
but they have not yet been introduced ; or, if they have, tbey exist <^lj a 
small plants. Some jfUnts of Ahljs have been raised in the Hon. Soc. Gar 
den, from seeds sent from the snowy mountains of Nepal, which will doublks 
prove hardy. 

Genus III. 

DUVAU'J Kth. Thb DtiTAUA. Ln. Sy$L Pol}^mia Monoe'tia. 

.Gn. Tersb.. p.S. | Doc. Frad., 9. p. t*. ; Don'i UlU., t. p. 7G. 

St m emiiiirt. Schlnui in. .*•*-. i jlnfrii ip. Cm. 

BtriMiim. CiIIm) Oa-riAa. mitmt M. Sanni. ■ Frenrh boUnlit, knavn u tlia sUUir i( fit 
orlflul HyUonof BIchud'i Amalgudm fnUl; IDdfOriDiilsaliMoULiiiuau I'ertmuM." (LHHkt 

Gen. Char, Calyr persistent, with 4 — 5 aliments. CoroUa of i — 5 coDctn 
petals. Sr.rft mo nmciouslv polygamous. Slamem 8 — 10, inserted under i 
pitcber-chaped calycine disk, which hasa^ many sinuses and as nuny teed 
as there are stamens : these are opposite the sinuses, half of them oppodu 
the petals, end half alternate with them. Antheri in the fruit-bearing floaoi 
barren. Ovary conical. Sliflet 3 — 4'. Sligmat capitate. Fhal a globes 
drupe, with a leathery nut. — Chilian trees and shrubs, becoming spiny a 
they advance in growth. (_Dec. Prod.) 

Leacei simple, alternate, exslipulaie, evergreen; generally oblong a 
ovate, toothed, small. Floxoeri in axillary racemes, greenish yeUow. — Then 
are four species in cultivation, which are all very handsome evergreen bu^es 
with bright shining fbliage. 

The foliage emits, when bruised, a strong but not unpleasant odour, d 
the nature of turpentine. The leaves of D. ovats, and, doubtless, those o 
every species of Duvaun, when thrown upon water, move about in a manic 
which may be compared to a fleet of ships employed in moncDuvring, or b 
persons engued in dancing. Seeds have been produced plentifully in thi 
Hort. Soc. Garden by D. dep^ndens, trained to a south wall ; and seeds o 
D. latiFSlia aie often imported from Chili. Cuttinss of the ripe wood laa 
in sand, under ■ bell-glass, in a gentle heat. D. dep^dens was but liI'J< 
injured at Kew, in the Chelsea Botanic Garden, and in the Hort. Soc Garden 
by the winter of 1837-B j and D. ov&ta was not injured at all, and maybi 
considered as an evei;;;reen shrub, as hardy in the chmate of London at Aiii 
totelis Mac<psL 

• I i. D. depr'ndbns Bee. The driMping-inuuAed Duvaua. 


Spec. Char., i[c. Leaves mostly, especially upon the flower-bearing branches 
obovate, and very obtuse, or even ematsinate, with scarcely any dentica 
lalions. Racemes scarcely exceed] ngtheleaves in length. Stataieiis moetli 
10. Flowers smaller than those of D.OT&tB.(Z4n(iJL) An evo-gruen tree' 
in British gardens a wall shrub. Chili. Hdght in England 10^ to lEIi 

;r of 1837-8, in the Hor- 


Introduced in 1790, Plovers jrellowish white : 

June anil July. Berries black i ripe n Sqit. 

There IB an old plant in the Botanic Ourilen 
M Kew, and a tree in the Chelsea Botanic (iur- 
den, which is \2 !L high, with a trunk 7 in. in 
circumference. The plant in tire Hort. S<>c, 
Garden passed seven winters against a wiill with 
asuuthem exposure, till the winter of lb37-8, 
when it was killed down to the ground ; but it 
has sprung up again vigorously. 

• t 2. D. OVA TA Liadl. The ovate4eaivd Dutaua. 

Bet-, t 1M«, 
Engrarlngi. BM. Hcf., L 1M!(,i 
lixl oat Jig. ■at 

Sprc. CAar., ij-c. Ijcavvs 
; ovate, toothed, in most atiile at the tip, i 

obtuse. Kucenies a little longer than the leaves. 

Stamens mostly 8. (Lmdi.f An evergreen tree ; in 

British Hardens a shrub. Chili, on mountains. Height 

in the climate of Loudon 6 ft. to 10 ft. against a wall. 

IniL-oduced in 1825. Flowers yellowish white; June 

and July. Berries black ; rijie in September. 

Probably a variety of the preceding species. 

o«. Dmtjfrtu. wholly uninjured by the wint — ' '""' " ' ' 

ticultural Society's Uardeo. 

■ t 3. D. latipo'lia GUI. The broad-leaved Duvaua. 

UtMlifltaliBm. Glll)« HES. ; LlmU. In Bol. Vet., t. I.Wa. 
S^taagmit. D. depfoikDirnuiit. Sal. Misc-i Ifulnghu], CkiU. 
Smfrmtimti. BoC. B^.. t. (MO- 1 inl our ^/. 193. 

Spec, char., ije. Leuves oblong, acute, coarsely 

plicate. Racemes dense, the length of ihe leaves. ' 

Stamens 8. (Lad/.) An evergreen tree; in 

British gardens a shrub. Chili, on mountains. 

Height 6ft. to 12 ft. against a wall, tninxluced 

in 1B26. Flowers greenish white; JuneandJuly. 

Berries black j ripe in Uctober. 

"* Whatever," observes Dr. Lindley, " may be 
thought " of ibc distinctness, as species, " of D. 
ovata and D. dependens, there can be no doubt 
that D. latitblia is a totally distinct species ; for 
not only are the leaves, in their outline, aurliife, 
and colour, and the whole plant in its habit, very 
diffiirent, but we find it maintain all its peculiarities 
unchanged when raised from seeds." "s- rKi™t.iiur«iM. 

OIluT Speciei of Duvaiia.—D. dtnldla ]>cc., fthinua dentala Bat. Hep., was 
introduced in 1795, and is doubtless as hardy as any of the above kinds j since 
all of ibem are safest when planted against a wall. Ihtvaua linuiita Lindl. 
appears equally hardy with D. dependens in the Hort, 8oc. Garden. It differs 
from the others in producing the flowers before the leaves, and in being deci- 
duous. All the species well deserve culture as evergreen bushes, in shrubberies 
where the soil is dry and sandy, the situation sheltered, and the surface stopinj; 
to the south. A concurrence of circumstances of this kind is not unfrequent 
in country residences, both in England and Scotland ; and two exiimples which 
occur to IIS at the moment we are writing are. Bury Hilt in Surrey, and Blair 
Drummond in Stirlingshire. 

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Ord. Cham. Caiyt wilh 5 diviaions, either partitionn, teeth, or clefts, the odd 
one anterior to the axis of inflorescence. ^Vuif b legume. Steil wilh tbe 
radicle next the bilum. (Lindi.) — Treea and shrubs natives of every climale. 
Leavei alternate, stipulate, generally cnmpound ; deciduous, or sometiaiet 
evergreen ; petiole tumid at the base. St^ulei 2 at the base of the petiole^ 
and 2 at the base of each leaflet. Pedicelt usuallj' articiiUted, with 8 brad- 
lets under the flower. 

The name of Legiuninicete is applied to this eitensive and truly natural 
order, on account of the seeds of all the Hpeciea being produced iu leguminous 
pods, bearing more or lexs resemblance to those of the coramoa pea <tf bean ; 
and quite different from the uliquose pods of cruciferous plants. 

The ligneous species are trees and sbniba, for the most part deciduoiu; and 
they are disposed through almost every part of the world. The order coot^ni 
some of our finest ornamental shrubs and low trees, such as Robinia, Cydsus, 
Wistaria, Genfsta, f/'lei, Amdrpha, Halimod^ndron, Acacia, Gleditschia, 
C'frcis, nnd various others. It aUo contains some considerable trees, which 
belong to the genera Robinia, UleJitschiiT, Sophara, &c. The genera con- 
taining hardy ligneous plants are in number twenty-three, which, after De 
Candolle and O. Don, we pUce in charucterieed sections, and ascribe to cbem 
short characters, that are more or less contradiatiuctive. 

Sect. I. SOFHo'aE^. 

Sed. Char. Corolla, in moat, papilionaceous. Stamens 10, with the GU- 

menls distinct. Lc^me not jointed. Cotyledons flat, leafy. Embryo 

with the radicle beside the edges of the cotyledons. Leave* umpljr pm- 

nate, or simple. 

SoPHO'XA R. Br. Legume necklace-shaped, including many seed*. Leaf with 

more than three leaflets. 
Vihoi'lm Lam. Legume compresaed, including many seeds. Leaf with 

more than three teanels. 
Pipta'nthvs Sml. Legume compressed, including 6 seeds. Leaf with its 
leaflets 3. 

Sect. IL Lo'tes. 
Sect. 0iar, Corolla papilionaceous. Stamens 10, the filaments of all con- 
nate, or those of 9 connate, and that of one ilistlnct. L^ume not jointed. 
Embryo with the radicle beside the edges of the cotyledons. The coty- 
ledons flsttish ; in germination, converted into leaves fumisbeU wilh 
Btomata. Leaves simply pinnate, or simple. 

many. Habit spiny. 
A'A'n-.iuM Jlec. StandarJ roundish. Keel acuminate. Branches rush-like. 

(?ENl'sT* Lam. Standard oblong-oval. Keel oblong, not wholly including 
the stamens and pistils. Leaves with 3 leaflets, or, in some, simple. 

Cv'tisus Dec. Standard ovate. Keel very obtuse. Including the stamens 
and pistil. Leaves, in all, wilh three leaflets. 

Adenoca'rpijs Dec. Stamfns with the filaments connate. Legume bearing 
stalked glands all over it. 

Ono'nis L. Calyx with 5 linear segments. Standard striate. Lc^me con- 
taining few seeda; in most, turgid. 

Auo'rpma Zi, Corolla conststin;; of the standard only. 

Bvsesha'rdtia H. 4- S. Corolla with the standard, and 8 keel petals distinct. 

Robi'n'.4 Dec. L^nme flat i th»t edge to which the seeds nre attached 
margined. Leaf impnri-pinnnte. 



Camjoa'KA Lam. Legume ratber tylindricaL I.eaf abruptly ninnate. 

Haumdde'nokon Fad. Legume stipiute, inflaW. bladdery. Leaf 
abruptly pinuBte. 

CiLo'PHiCA Fitd, Stamens with the fibunentB of S connate, that of one 
distiDct. Legume seasile, with concave valvea bearing baits, some loft. 
atune ligid and gUnded. 

Alu'tea H. Br. Lc^me stipitate, much inflated, glabrous. 

AsvmiL.'auMS Dee. Legume with ils lower luture bo bent in towHrd* the op- 
posite one as to cause the l^ume to seem, more or leas, ll^celled. 

Sect. in. Hkd\h''hkx. 

Sect. Char. Corolla pepiHoiiaceous. Stamens usually with the filaments 

connate in one of three modee; the 10 connate; 9 connate and one 

distinct; or connate by fives : in a few cases all are distinct. Legume 

dividing transvcraely into l-seeded joints, called lonients. Embryo with 

the radicle beside the edges of tlie cotyledons, which are flaltish, and, in 

germination, are converted into leaves furnished with stomata. Leaves 

■imply pinnate, or simple. 

COMMll'u.A Neek. Calyx campanulale, usually shorter than the claws of the 

pet^s. OsriDM acute. Stamens diadelphous. Seeds ovate, or cylindrical. 

Sect. IV. Phabeo'le*. 
&e(. Char. Corolla papilionaceous. Stamens usually with 9 filaments 
connate, and one distinct. Legume not jointed, including many seeds, 
that are separated from one another with a cellular, transverse, membrane- 
ous panitton, that is in some cases not complete. Embryo with the 
radicle beside the ed^e of the cotyledons, which are thick, and, in ger- 
mination, dther remain under ground, or are changed into thick leaves 
that scarcely have stomata. Leaves simply pinnate, or simple. 
WiSTs^KM Ntttt. Leaf impari. pinnate. 

Beet. V, Cassib'a. 
Sed. Char. Corolla, in moat of the species, of equal petals; in some sub- 
papilbnaceous. Stamens with the filaments distinct. Leaves doubly 
or triply pinnate ; in some simple, 
GiXDi'ncKlA L. Sexes diceciously polygamous. Corolla of 3—5 equal 
petals. Legume in most long and narrow. Seeds compressed. Leave* 
conipoundly divided. Bearing prickles in most. 
Otmno'cladus Lam. Sexes, by defect, dimcious. Corolla of 5 equal petals. 
Lt^me compressed and iiroad. Seeds scarcely compressed. Leavea 
compoundly divided. 
A'acis Ii. Sexea liermaphrodite- Corolla siib-papilioaaceoug^ of 6 unequal 
petals the nde ones, or wings, longer than the others. Leaves simple. 

SecL I. Sopho^'REjE. 

SOPHO'tlA B. Br. The Sophoka. Lin. Syif. Dec&ndria Honogynia. 

MmlVeatm. K. Brown In Hon. K«w,*d. 1 t Dk. Pni<l.,9.p.«t.i Don't Hia,&». Ida. 

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Gen. Char, Calyr 5-tootheiI, cnmpsnulate at the base, or somewhat attenu 
ated. Petait of the keel usually concrete at the npex. l^vme somewhat 
monilirorm, winuless, many 'Seeded. (Don't MiUJ) 

Jjtovet impan^innate, with 1 1 — 13 leaflets, generally exsttpulate. Ptowen 
yellow, white, or blue, iu nimjile racemeK, or panitles. — The onlj hard; 
species are deciduous trees, natives of Japan or China. 

o'niCa L. The Ja{ian Sophora. 

Spec, Char., Sfc, Leaves pinnate, wilti 11 — 13 leaflets, which are oblong- 
ovate, acute, and smooth ; panicle loose, terminal ; pods nmooth. A de- 
ciduous tree of the middle size. Japan. Height 40 ft tn 50 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1763. Flowers cream-coloured; August end September. Pods 
rarely produced in England. Decaying leaves yellow and green. Naked 
young wood dark green, like that of Jaaminum ofGeinale. 

1 8. j. 2 variegaln Hort. has the leaves rari^ated, but is not worth 
cultivating as an ornamental plant. 

V S. j. 3 pendula Hort,, and the plate of this tree in our 1st ediL 
vol. v., has pendulous shoots, and is a very remarkable >wietT. 
Orafled near the ground, the shoots nin alotu the surface, like those 
of B trailing plant, to a very great distance from the main stem ; in 
fiood soil, a shoot extending itself 6 or H feet in one season. 
Orafted nt the height of 10 or 20 feet or upwards, the shoots han> 
down, and Turin one of the most ornameutal of pendulous trees, 
both in summer and winter. 

A round-headed tree, readily distinguished in winter by the fine, smooth, 
dark green bark of its young wood and smaller branches j and, in summer, by 
the dark blue green of its foliage. In deep free soil, it grows with great rs. 
pidit;', seedlings attaining the height of 10 or ISfeet in 4or5yenrs; and 
in SO or 30 years, in the neighbourhood of London, 30 or 40 feel. There are 
large specimens in England, which flower freely; but they have never yet 
ripened seeds : indeed, tl)e tree ripens seeds in France only in the verv 
warmest seasons. The wood is very hard and conipact, as much so, it is KaiiL 
as that of the box. The bark exhales a strong odour, which, it is stated in 
the Kouveau Da Hamel^ produces colic and purging on those who prune the 



tree, or otherwise work vrith the wood in a green state. Liitte appears lo 
be known of the uses of tlie tree in China and Japan : but it is said ibat the 
fruit is employed to dye a fine yellow ; and the flowers for dyeing it yeltuir of 
so superior a hue, that it is exclusively rmerved for dyeing stufls to be worn 
by the members of the imperial fuinih', None of the srboreouij Legumiii^ioe 
are eijual to this tree in beauty of foliage and bark. Its flowers, when tbey 
are produced, are also in large terininal compound apikex, and very con- 
spicuous, though much smaller than those of the Roblnu viscosD. Une re- 
markable property in the foliage of the sophora is, that the very hottest and 
driest nesMoan do not turn it pale, or cause it to drop oS, as beat does that of 
most of the other plnnated-leaved L^uminacez. The pendulous variety is 
well deserving of culture as an object of singularity and beauty; and, 
it is desired to cover a surface with intense green foliage during summer, for 
examnic, » dry hillock, a plant of this variety, placed on the centre, will ac- 
complish the purpose effectually. The tree will thriie in any free soil ; but, 
in cold climates, it ought to be placed in one rather poor anil dry tiiat it may 
be compelled to moke shorter shoots j which, of course, being less succulent, 
are more easily ripened. It is generally propagated by seeds imported frocn 
France i bat, where it is desired to hate trees that will ^oon come into flower, 
seedling plants should be gmfled with scions from a flowering tree. It wilt 
grow by cuttings, mure especially of the roots, and uino by layers. 

■ 2. S. bbptafht'lla L. The T-leaf- 
leted Sophora. 

I^rmll/lctrim. Lin. 8wc, 933. ; Dn. PiDd., % 
EvrmvingM- Humph. Ad>., 4. p. ML 1. 0. ; ind tiur 

Sprr. Ckar., Sfc. Leaflets 7, glabrous. 
(Hoa't Mtlt.) A deciduous shrub- 
China. Height 6 ft. Introduced in 
1S30. Flowers yellow ; October. 
There are plants of S. beptaphylla in 

the Uort. Soc Oanlen, which have 

flowered and appear to be quite hardy, 

but as they do iiot exactly agree with 

Rumpbius's figure, especially in the 

number of leaflets, we wish our engrav- 
ing to be considered as of doubtful 

authenticity. The living plants alluded 

to are sufficiently disiiuc^ and deserve 

a place in collections. ^^^ t-ttnim n lu 


VIRlilLUL. Thb Viiio;i.i*. 7A(. .Vyt/. Decindria Monogynia. 

'"o^t^' i''^"''ft'' ^iiT ' « ' ^"''''■' '' "•■"*■'"■ ^'"° '" "^- '<'"■• ""• *■ •"'■ *-f*- 
Oiri«ili«t. '>^«l tij L™»rck tohraiur of Ibe port ffrgiJ, •hot> atortiaeaaae lilm lo bDdnic 

Ot-n. Char. Calyx 5-eleft. PetaU 5, about equal in length. VexUlum with 
the edees not refleied. Stigma beardless. Legume compressec^ oblong, 
S-vaiveti, many-seeded. (Dob'i Milt.) 

LeooM compound. imjiari-pinnate, deciduous; with 9 — 11 leaflets. Flomert 
ydlow, in racemes. — There is only one l.ardy species, adeciduous low tree. 


J 1. V.Lu'TBii Mckr. Thaydlow-wwH^Virgilia, or VeUotetfood. 

Spec. Char 

berland, and the Mississippi. Hei^t in America 40 [t ; 10 fl. to 20 ft in 

England. Introduced in 1B18. Flowers yellowish white, in peadutous 

racemee; June to Aitcust. PoiIb never pruJuced in England. Decaying 

leaves rich yellow. Naked young wood yellowish brown. 

The leaves, on young trees, arerrom 1 ft. to 1} 11. in length, and on old tree* 

not above half that Bile. Th<r flowers form white pendulous racemes, a Utile 

larger than those of the Robinin Paeud-^eacia, but not so odoriferoui. The 

sc^ are like those of the robinia, and, in America, ripen about the middle 

of August. In Britain, the tree has flowered in the Chelsea Botanic Oar- 
den, and at Hylands in Essex, but has not yet produced pods. An opentirj 
rituation is desirable, in order tliat the tree may ripen its wood; and, to b- 
cilitute the same purpose where the climate is cold, the soil ought to be dry 
rather than rich. In the London nurseries, it is propagated chieAy by Ame- 
rican seeds, but it will doubtless grow by cuttings of the roots. 

Genus III. 

PIPTATflTHUS Swl. Thb Piptasthws. IMt. SyiL Deoindna 
UenUftcaliira. S>l, Fl^-Cint., K4. : Don'i WW-, t p. 111. 

<cTi.u»fl. From^ 

XXV. leoumina'ceje: c'lex. 199 

Gen. Char. Cali/i bilabiate ; lower lip trifiil, upper lip S-lobed ; H^ments 
loon blling off Pelalt deciduous. VrxUlusi large, obcordate, rurcacent. 
fCo^ cuneated. JTm/ cucullace, acciimbent. Slammt 10, free, deciduous. 
Sbgaia minute. Legume broad-linear, Foniprea*ed, 6-see<ted, Btipitate. 
(Don't Mil.) 

Lraoet compound, trifoliate, stipulate, sub-eTcrgreen ; leaflets ellipiical- 
oblong, acute, broad. Floweri large, \cllow. — One species only in British 

(■ ■ I. P. NEPALE'NSts Swl. The Nepal T^ptsnllius. 

imFrok. Fl. Srp. f'.'m'.; .JoagfrJi Indld M'ait. MSI.\ 
I, Fl.-Gird.,t. SM.i and our ^i. Vt. mni 391. 

Spee. Cliar., j-c. Leaves rrifbliolate; leaflets elliptical -oblong, acute, broad. 
Stipules S, large. A sub-evergreen shrub. Nepal. Height 8 ft. to 10 ft. 
Introduced in 1881. Flowers rich yellow j May and June. Pod green, 
turniug to brown ) ripe in October. Decaying leaves yellow and green, naked 
young wood dark green. 

The young leaves are silkv j and the flowers are of a bright yellow, and ve 
much larger than those of tlie common laburnum, to which they, and also the 
leaves and the shooia, bear a general 
imblunce. In British gardens it / 
I be considered as rather tender, § 
. not of many years' duration; ii 
nevenheless, in Sne seasons, it ripens l 
abundance of seeds. It may be pro- 
pagated by cuttings of the roots, and ^ 
of the shoots, as well as by seeds or 
7 layers. In most of the counties north 
, of London, the saTeiit situolion for it 
will be acainst a wall ; and it well de- 
serves a place there, on account of 

Sect. II. Lo'trjr. 


Sf90M§niicr^ AJnn 

tTLEX L. Thb Fubxb. Lin. Sgil. Monad^phia Decindria. 

nsi.i Lvn. m.,t. Stl.i Dec. Prod,,!. p.lM, i Don'iNm.,!. p.lM. 

Gen. Char. Calyx bibracteate, bipartite, one of the lips 3-tooiIied, the other 

bidentMe. Stauteni all connected. Legume oval-oblong, turgid, many- 

ovulate, but few-seeded, hardly longer than the calyx. 

Lenvei simple, linear, caducous, often changing into spines. Floweri 

solitary, yellow. 

Branchy spinous shrubs, evergreen from the colour of the berk, with yellow 
ftowera, natives of Europe, which will px>w in any tolerably good soil that is 
dry ; and ore readily projiagHted by seeds, or by cuttings planted in sand. 



« I . ITlex kuroPjE'a L. The European, or •■ammon. Furze, or fCUa. 

/ifcwillrnjrpii Lin. Spw., IMS. tw. ■ 1 Dfc. Prod.. 1. p. I«. i llon'i Mill , 1. p. 1*". 
SrHomtma. Cf„ttu [pInbM 1,-Otrl ; U. (HiullMu Pour.; V. irrnilti Tibrr; WUu, Giich. 

Eu/fat^/'^g!B^.7M™'«ild^^.8»9.''Md'wi), ^' 

5;vc. (.'Aar., i$'^- Leave* lanceolnte, linear. Branchlels villous. Bmctms 
ovute, loo^e. Calyx pubeweni. An erect comjiact bush, evergreen, from 
the colour of the bark. Middle end South of Europe, on grjvelly soili ; 
■.inA in Uriuin on hills. Height 2h.to5h.i in sheliercJ voods, lOit 
Flowers rich yellow ; February to Ma}', and in mild winters September 
lo May. Pod brown; ripe in August. 

m U. e. 2jl'''re pirno has double flowers, and is a splendid plant when 
profusely covered with blos-toms, well aita|)teil for small gardens,aiMl 
easily tncrease<l by cuttings. 
U, proniaeidlii and U. tlricla are probably only varieties of C. eii- 
ropie'a, but, as they may possibly belong to U. niina, we have kfpt them 
distinct, and treated ihe^n ag botanical species o 
The common furze, in Caernarvonnhire, grous 
to the height of 1500 ft. above the sea, in open, 
airy, warm situations ; but in damp shaded vnlleis, 
not higher than 60(>'ft. 
In the North of Eng- 
land, according to Winch, ; 
it fonns fii^c 

.laturalised, it scarcely e 

lOfeeti and 
'in sheltered 
It 2000 ft, 
t At Inverness, it is found 
to the height of 1130 ft. 
Aliout Ton^-ue, in ihe 
north -west of Suther- 
land, where it was in- 
troduced, lint is now 
ittains 350 ft. of elevation. The young branches, 
bruised, and pven to cattle and horses in a green state, are found highly 
nutritive as fodder; and for this purpose the variety U, (e.) atrlrta is pre- 
ferable, on account of the absence of prickles. The use of furae for hedge<; 
is chiefly desirable in siiiiHiions where tlie hawthorn or the bolly will not 
thrive j because the furze is not a plant of long duration. As a shelter to 
young trees, it is sometimes sown where acorns, beeeh masts, or chestnuts are 
to be sown, or young treen are to be planted. The use of furze in a dead 
state is chiefly as fuel for bakers' ovens, for brick, tile, and lime kilns, and for 
lighting Rres. In Scotland, it is sometimes used in kilns for drving ott.-t. 
In England, a common of it is to weave into the sides of hovels fnr 
sheltering cattle, to prevent them from rubbing ai^inst them. In gardens, 
the points of the shoots are choppcil Into pieces of about I in. in lemith, anil 
dropped into the drills in which peas are sonn, before the seeds are covered ; 
and, the earth being drawn over them and trud down, they are found effcctn- 
ally to resist the atiaeka of mice and small birds. In Fmnce, the chopped 
lininrhes are mixed with cow.dung, and the mixture afterwards foriniHl uilo 
bricks, which are dried in the sun, and used as fuel. The seeds, if they could 
be procured in sufficient quantity, would, if around into flower, form a nutri- 
tive food both for cattle and swine : they retain their vital property for several 
years. In Brituny, large heaps are formed of alternate layera of turf and 
dried furze branched! ; nn^l, the whole being set fire to, the ashes are preserved 
as manure. In ninny parts of lioth France and England, the ashes of dry 
furze branches are used as a lye for washing linen. A pound of seeds, whicfa, 
in London, costs from 8i^. to It., will sow an acre broad-cast, or a drill of a 


mile in length as a hedge. The double-Aowered and the faaiigiate VBrietiesare 
prnpagBled by cuttings : the latter, when wanted for agricultural purpoiea, 
may be bedded in, like box, in a sandy soil rather moist, in the banning of 
Septemberj and by the following spring they will be fit to transplant. 

K. 2. U. (e.) n*'n* Foril. The dwarf Furze, 
Mrtut/baliem. italth Ehb F1., I. p. 9M. i En|. fiat, I. 713. i Dec. Prod., 1. p. m i Don'i Mill. 

1 p. UH. : Webb IWr HUpvi.. ik 
Rvwontfmet. V. tntnOT Batli Cat. ]. n. 83. ; f. nirop^'ui ^ Urn- Spfc- t{14A- 
Etgmimf- Enf. Bm.. i.;u. 1 tni oai fyt.3al. mnilam. 

Spec, CAar., 4fc. Branches and leaves smooth, the latter linear. Calyi jLla- 
hrous, with spreading narroor teeth. According to 9mlth, ihe essential 
character consists in the more distinct and spreading calyx teelh, and the 
more minute, rounded, close-pressed, and often hardly discernible, brae- 
teas. An evergreen, compact, low, spiny shrub. Britain and the western 
parts of France, on poor gravelly soils. Height S — 3 ft. Flowers rich yel- 
low; August to December. Pods brown ; ripe in December. 
A very distinct sort, though, 

froni the very different and more 

luiuriant habit which the plant 

has when cultivated in gardens 

on rich soils, we have no doubt of 

its being only a, variely of U. eo- 

rops^a. In its native hahitals, it 

is easily distinguished from that 

species by its low growth, seldom 

exceeding id. in height; by its 

being much smaller in all iu parts; 

by its decumbent habit ; and by its 

flowering from the end of August ' 

till the beginning of December, "'' ■'■i*-"** 

and seldom at any other season. Very neat low hedges and edgings may be 

(armed of it. 

n. 3. U. (b.) protincia'lis Loit. The Provence Furze. 
UntOkallam. LcU. Not.. lOft. : Dm. FtDd., *. p. IM. i DoD'i Ml]., 1. p. i4il.i 
WtMi lui Hlipan., tn. 

SinoHiii, L^. NoL. L e. f, 1. : ud DDrjft. 30*. 

Spec. Ckar., j«. Calyx rather pubescent, with lanceolate distant 
teeth. An erect, evergreen, com[>act shrub; intermediate, in 
all its parts and in its haUl, between U. europn^a and U. 
niina. Provence, Andegavany, and Mauritania. Height 8 ft. 
to 4 ft. Introduced in 1H80, Flowers rich yellow i August 
to December. Pod brown ; ripe in December. 
Whatever doubts there may be as to [/. nana being B dbtinct 

species, there can be none as to this sort being only a variety. 

As an evergreen shrub, flowering freely ; it well deserves a place 

in coUections. as- o.p<ni>ctua. 

• +. U. (8.) STBi'cTA Madcay. The upright-jrowing, or Iriih, Fune. 

tdmiffcalMm. HicImt'i Lilt of lilih PlanU i Haat. Brit. F1., p. MT. 
Stiuiriita. V, MMrnlca Odi'i JfiU. 1. p. Its. •. 1/. fBUl^Uti aoTi. 
tmtran^. Our ^. . Ln p. 

Spec. Ohb-., Sfc. Habit erect, narrow, and compact. Spines few or none ; 
and what there are, weak, branched, leefy, and pubescent. An erect, com- 
pact, evergreen shrub. Ireland. Height 6 It. to 10 ft. Introduced in 
ISIS. Flowers yellow, rarely produced ; August to December. Pod 
brown ; ripe in December. 
Discovered in the Marquess of Londonderry's Park, in the county of 

., Google 


1815, or before. It ii very upright in iti growth, and attains ttw 
good soils, of from 6ft. to 10 ft. in &■ nmnj years. Its bnuicbcs 

i and sucvuient chat aheep anil cattle eat them without injunng their 
and are verj fond of them. It forma excellent garden bedgea, and, 
moist climates, is a most excellent forage plant, as has been airodj 
(ler U. europa^'a. It only rarely flonrera, and has very seldom pro- 
wls I but it IS easily propagated by ciillingn. 

ipeiiri of Vlei. — V . genutoidct Brot., U. mitis Horl., Stauracan- 
. Hum Lmi, i» a leadens shrub, with the habit of ITIex ; a native of 
in sandy pine woods ; and differing Iroin ITlex nana chidy in the 
mcbine into two small ones at the sides. It was introduced b 18£3; 
•s to the height of I fl. to 9 ft. It is rather tender in the cUmate of 
but sometimes stands the winter among Tockw(H'k. 

Genus V. 

.TIUM Dec. Thk 8 parti vm, or Spjisiaa Sroom. Uk. Sytl. 
Monad£iphia I>ec&ndria. 

ndi ; SpERUnthui 

From MparicM, conb^ i 
tfjta to the prUflDt daj, fij 

r., ^c. Cali/i membranous, spathaceous, clefl above, A- toothed at 
X, somewhat labiate. Corolla with a roundish complicated vexillum, 
acuminated keel. Petalt e little agglutinated, but partable. Sla- 
lonadelphous. L^ume compressed, many-seeded, glandless. {Doxt 

•el simple, alternate, eistipulate, caducous ; lanceolate. Flotetn in 
il racemes, large, distant, and yellow. — A shrub, a native of Spain 

. S. Jv'nCBUU L. The Rush-££if Spartium, 

I. Lin. Sp.,9SS.i I>«. Prod., ».n. US.) Don"i MILL, a. | 

[Jcntt d'Etpwiw, Ft- 1 Blinennrllge Pfriemtn, Ctr.: Gin , ^ 

. N. I.m.i Bol. M^., l.SS.j wid our A- JOS- 

r., 4'Ct Branches upright, round, of a deep green colour, oncath, 
th but few leaves, which are lanceolate, and soon drop off. An up- 
hnib, evergreen from the colour of its numerous shoots. Spain, 
al, and the South of France, in gravelly soils. Hnght 5 ft. to 8 ft. ; 
ish gardens 8t^. to 12 ft. In- 
ii in 1548. Flowers dark yel- 
■ge; July to September. Poda 
: ripe in October. Naked 
*ood smooth and dark green. 

j. 3 odoraiUnmiivi (S. odura- 
tfssimum D. Don Brit. Fl. 
Gard. 2. St. 390.; S. acutifo- 
lium Liridl. Bot. Rnjf.; and our 
fig. 304.) has the flowers sweet- 
scentod, and the leaves more 
acute than those of the species. 
Raised from Turkish seeds. 
J. SJtore plena has double flowers. 



In It^y and tbe South of France a rny good cloth 
is raanu&L-tured from the fibres of this plaot. Both in 
Spain and France, the shootn are used Tor Tonning 
baskets, and for lying up vin^s and other fruit trees. 
The beea are saiii to be very fond of the flowers j and 
the seeds are eaten with gma ai'uiitj by [loidtry, par- 
trid)^, Sic. Medicinalt)', the flowers and leaves, in 
infusion, act as nn emetic, or, in a larger quantity, us an 
aperient. In Britain, the plant is solely regarded as an 
ornamental shrub. Seeds are produced in uhundance, 
and they will come up in any aoil that is tolcrBbly dry. 
In the nurser}', they ought lo be trarisplanted every year, 
■e apt to form long taproots and very few fibres. 


Sytl. Mon»d£lphi« Decindria. 

AEXrSTA LoM. Thb Gbnista. 

UtnlificMiBn. LuD. I»i:t„l.p, «ie-: HI 1.1119 
S^Hof^iim. GeDUU, ec5p4nrum,apee. Lri4. ; ( 
Gm. Char. Cali/x bilabiate, upper lip bipartite, lower one tridentate, t 

lobed, the three lower lobes nearly Joined to the apex. VexUtma oblong-oval. 

Carina oblong, straight, not always containing the stamens and |>is(iU. Sla- 

mrru monad elphous. Legume compressed, many-ieeded, ^Don'i AfiU.) 
Leaea simple or compound, alternate, rarely opposite, ittipulate, decidu* 

ous or sub-evergreen ; lanceolate, linear, or trifoliofate. Flowert terminal or 

axillary, yellow. 

The hardy species are deciduous or eub-evci^een shrubs, generally with 
trifoliolate leaves and yellow flowers ; there is a great sameneaa of character 
among them, and, though many are quite distinct, yet it is hightv probable that 
the ereater number now recorded as species are only varieties. They are 
chiefly natives of Europe; but a few are found in the North of Africa. Ah 
they grow rapidly, tmd flower Ireely, especially on soils not wet at bottom, 
they are desirable phinta for newly formed shrubberies, but in general they 
are not of long duration. A numW of the species were formerly included 
under the genus Sbartium and some under C^tisua, from which they have 
been separated by Lamarck, whose arrangement, as modified by DeCandolle, 
we have adapted in the following enumeration. 

§ 1. Uramned. 

flowered Oenista. 

Syiuitfme. Spirttnm pBrrtftonu 

Leave* all, or fir the moit part, frifoBolaU. 
The smalt. 

Spec.Char.,^c. Leaf trifoliolale.thepetiole 
very short; and the leaflets usually deci- 
duous, very narrow, glabrous. Flowers 
in lengthened terminal racemes. Le' 
gumes compressed, I — 3-aeeded, rather 
pubescent, being covered with minute 
closely pressed down, sbghtly spread- 
ing. {Dec. Pmd.) A deciduous shrub. 
Lerant, new the Gulf of Mundania. 


Height 6 ft to 7 ft. Introduced in 181 
May to Auput. Legume ?. H. S, 

L. The Mhilifih (icoista. 

£'~(«>. Doid.B 


Spec. Char., !fe. Lear triroliulule, peliolale ; IcRllets obovatr, 
pubescent, with appresseJ ilo*r. Branches angled. 
Flowers in terminal heads, few in a head. Legume hairy. 
{Dec. Prod.) A hoary sub-evergreen shrub, of short du- 
ration. Mogador, Italy, and the Levant. Height 4fl. to 
6fi. Introduced in 1135. Flowers large, j'ellow. scent- 
leas; April to July. Legume ?. 
The great advantage of this aperaes is, that it growa 

rapidly, and flowers freely. , 

* S. G. PATTENS Drc. The spreading Geniata- 

. Ok. Proil.,!. p. Hft.i Don't Mill,. 5.p, JtS; Wrt* 
£i^«n^l.' C«. IcMi.. Ip-iW, 1. ITS.j moia<irjlt.»0». 

Spec, Char., ^c. Branches striated, twiggy, glabrouH. 
Leaves stalked, irifoliulate. Leaflets obovate, pu- 
bescent beneath. Flowers in fiiurg, pedicellate, 
nearly terniinal. L^ume glabrous, H — &.8eeded. 
{Don'i MUl.) A s[>reading shrub. Spain. On 
monntains near Alliayda, anJ found by P. B. 
Webb on Monte Santo in Catalonia. Introduced 
in?l830. Height l^.toSft. Flowers yellow; 
April to July. 

It difters from Cjttsus patens, in tbe upper tip of 
the calyx being acutely bipartite ; lower tip of three 
brisites, not with the lips nearly eijual and entire. ^t. < 

* Jii, The triangiilar-«/fmm«J Genista. 

Enttraringl. Bat. DL^., 1. 114.^ Dend. Bl 

Spec. Char., ^c. Branches 3-sided, decumbent, the younger ones villoai 
Leaves trifoliolate, simple about the eitremities of the branches; lesle 
ovate-Ian ceol»te, villose. Flowers in short terminal ra- 
cemes. (Dec.Piod.) A trail Lng shrub, evergreen from the 
colour of its shoots. Spain, Italy, and France. Height 
6 in. Introduced in l7-t8. Flowers yellow; April to 
July. Legume ?. 

No ahrub is more ornamental on rockwork ; and, when 
trained to a atiike and allowed to form a head, or grafted 
Niundard hi^b on a laburnum, it forms a singular object, 
and, when m flower, a most magnificent one. It is also an 
admirable plant for training against a wall, particularly in u>, a. iritHn. 
dry situations, where it is exposed to the sun. 

.■ 5. G. umbella't* For. The umbetlate^/Iouwrr-rf Genista. 

UnUifiiaHox. Pair, Gu|ipl., 3. p. 91S. \ Dae. Prod., 9. p. I4fi. \ Dod'i Utl]., I. p. Its. i VrUi Ll 
engnrit' OMjIf. .Inp. - 

Spec. Char., Ifc. Leaf trifoliolate, its petiole short, ita leaflet! linew-lanceolal 


xxr. leoumina'cex: geni'sta. 


Bcd rather silk;. Flowers in teruiiiul heads. Calyx hairj, in a lilky man- 
ner. Corolla and legume silky. Branches ^abrous. {Dec. Prod.) A low 
shnil). Burbary. on arid hills ; and Spain, in Andalusiu, on htllg. Hei^t 
1 ft. to 2 ft. Introduced in 1779. Flowers yellow ; April to June. 

^ G. u. 8 eapUala Dec. Spfirtium capii'atum Cap. Anna/. 1801, p. 63. — 
Branches and leaves covered with silky villi. Native of Mc^ador. 

Leaart nit, or tnnie of them, Iri/bliolate. 
sita'nica L. The Portugal Genista. 

□rmq of Cliu. iM 

Bauh, I Lam. Diet,, 

}8. Splno, 
j> 6. G. 

Hml'JIcallat. Lin. Sp., 9M.. 

Emtmta^. AiKlt.Bot.Rep.,t./l9.i milDiirA, 

Spec. Char,, cjc. Branches Npiny, round, becomine striate. 
Leaves triibllolatc, opposite, upon short petioles ; the leaflets 
linear, folded, somewhat silky. Floivers few, terminal. 
C»lji Tery hairy. {Dec. Prod.) A very spiny shrub, ever- 
green from the colour of its young Rhoots. Purtu^. 
Uraght 4 ft. Introduced in 177 1 . Flowers yellow ; March 
to May. L^ume ?. 

Remarkable for having opposite leaves and branches ; a cha- 
racter not common among Ltguininacetc. ,ia, , 
j» 7. G. (l.) badiaVa Scop. The rayed -iron cAcd Genista. 

n.l Dec. Prod.,*, p. !«,( Don'lMLII,, «. p. !». 
■in Sp. flK.. Mitt, tnm., slmt Bat. Itag. ; G. llTinili 
\.; 6m. VVc., I.neil. ;u1dnltA.?l1. 

.^m-. Ckar., ^c. Branches ansled, grouped, glabrous. 
Le)if trifoliolate, almost sessile, opposite, the leaflets 
somewhat silky. Flowers in terminal heads, 2 — t in a 
head. Corolla and legume silky. The old branches 
show B tendency Co become spiny. The l^umea are 
oval, short, compressed, pointed with the style, and 
include two seeds. {Dec. Prod.) A low shrub, of short 
duration, evergreen from the colour of its young shoots. 
Italy, Camiola,and the Vail ais. Height 8 ft. to ift. 
Introduced in 1758. Flowers yeltowi June and July, 


M G. (/.) r. 8 mnbdiata. G. umbelUta Poir., 5pirti 
uinbelUlum Deif., appears, from a plan 
was in the Hort. Soc. Garden in l837,to I 
to this species. 
Differing from G. lusilinica principally in being without 
^ines, and having its leaves somewhat longer. Both G. 
radiata and (i. tusitinica have a very Bingular appearance 

when without their leaves', and, in that point of view, they may 
be considered as almost as interesting in winter as they are in 

C4or„ /le. Leaves nome trifoliolate, some simple, few ses- 
sile ; leaflets linear, almost glabrous. Branches rigid, round, 
becoming striated and spiny. Flowers in spilies, alternate, 
yellow. Calyx somewhat pubescent. {Dec. Prod.) A shrubs 




wild about 

-10. C 

. Ho'Rt 

LIDA Dec. 


D«c. Fl. 
9. 1 WtW 



cntfftea {ram the colour of its young slender (hoots. Sardinim. Height 
i ft. i in British gardens 4f[. Introduced in 1832. Flowera Bmall, jdla> i 
June to September. Legumei'. 

• 9. G. triaca'n'TRos Bro/. The three-spined Genista. 

■Mtcnlioii. BrM-Phjt., 130.1, M-i D«. Prwl.. S.p.l«.i Don't MiH-.S. 

I'snrnM. O. FHlriU Fair.Suppl. t. p. Tit), 
[r«nf'* BiM, Ftayt., I-M.; lud our jl(. 31>. 
re, C*nr,, ^■f- l.eavea Bwsile, trifoliolate and simple, gla- 
brous. Leaflets lineur-lanceolate. Bnuichlel:* spiny, oraiich- 
ed. Flowers in terminal racemes, few in a raceme. CaK'K. 
corolla, and legume glabrous; legume J-seeded. The 
spines ore simple, irifid, or hranched. (Dec. Prod,) A 
deciduous undershrub. Portugal, on mountains and in 
woods. Height 3 ft. to 3 ft. Introduced in 18i!l. Flowers 
yellow ; May to Jul}'. L^ume 'i. 
j> U. (. 8 inlerrlipia Dec, 5partiuin interruptum Cav. _ 

Annul., 1801, vol, iv. p. 58., has linear leaflets, and "*■ °' " ' " 
branches UHually sinnile, and shoner than those of the epedes. 

The horrid Genista. 

). j Dh. Prod.. 1. p. ]M. I Don-i 
'."^nium'iiniiam'ViiU S^. I. p.M., aiiliiiimil 

re. Char., &c. Branches grouped, angled, spiny, 
apposite. Leaves trifoUolaie, opposite; the leaflets 
linear, folded, somewhut silky. Flowers few, 
ahnost terminal. Calyx pubescent. (Drr. Prod.) 
A native of the Pyrenees. Height 4 ft, Intro- 
duced in IS8I. Flowers yellow i May and June 
Legume?. "* o..*uii«.«* 

A 3. Spinose. Leatvi all smplr, 
- II. G. stltb'stbis Scop. The wood Genista. 

grnixt'- Jinjlwn. R»r,, t. M7. i iml cmr/^. sjs. 
•ec. Char., Spc, Leaves simple, linear-awl- 
shaped, glabrous above, villoee in a closely 
E rested inanner beneath. Spines axillary, 
ranched, slender. Flowers glabious, 
disposed in a terminal spiked raceme. 
Teeth of the calyx almost spiny. The 
keel longer than the standard and wings. 

ST. Prod.) A deciduous undershrub. 
niola and Croatia, on hills. Height 
1 ft. to 2ft. Introduced in 1818. Flower: 
yellow; June and July. Legume?. in. emuaiiMtiu. 

M 12. G. 5eo'Bi'nis Dec. The Scorpion Genista. 
Illnm'^Bl" '*""-'''"*P*''-; •*« Prod.,!. p.l«..DiHi'i Mill., I.p,lM,iW(«> 

nd nor A'. SIS- 


xxv, leoumina'ce^:'sta. 

S^m. Char, ^c. Spiny ( qnneH branched, spreading, 
itriated, glabrous. Leaves aimple, very few, oblong, 
•oroewhat silky. Flowerg glabrous, upon ^ort pe- 
dicels, in groupB disposed somewliat racemosely \ the 
keel as long as ihe standard. Legume containing ' 
S — 4 seeds. {Dec. Prod.) An ujiright, deciduous, , 
spiny shrub. South of Europe and Barbary, in 
arid places. Height £ ft. to 3 fi. lulroduced in 1570. 
Flowers yellow ; April and May, Legume ?. 
A spinysbrub, almost leafless when the shoots are full ""■ "■ »i"i«* 

grown. This species is commonly thought to be theitorpius of Theophrastiii 
J" 13, G. BisPANici L. The Spanish Genista. 

/rinf^foMw, till, Sp., DM.: Dsc. FroiJ..l.p. lU. ; Don-) Mill., S. p. Itl.i Wibti Iter Hlipui..a 
Engracmgr, Ca'. Ictm.. 3. t. :2II. | Lim. IU.,t. S18. f. i. g >ntl Qur/f . Si;. 

Spec. Char^ IfC. Spiny, except in the flower-beariiig ^ tS 
branches i spines branched, rigid. Leaves simple, lanceo- r^ 
late, villose. Flowerij in a terminal subcapitate raci 
Keel villose, the length of the glabrous standard. 
Kume oval, including S — t seeds; when ripe, rather gla. . | 
brous. {Dec, Prod,) A diminutive undershrub, evergree '^ 
from the colour of its shoots. Spain and the South oi 
France. Height i ft. to 1ft. Introduced io 1739. Flowers 
yellow ; June and July. Lc^me ?. 

.- 14. G. a'nslica L. The English Genista, or Petty Wlun. 

lirv^cMiim. LhL Sp- nS. : Dcc^ Prod^ 1. p. 149. \ Don'i MQl., t. p. Iftl. 
^Wiarniei- Bll«. BM.. I. VO. \ Liibcricon., I. p. SS, r. 1. ; aiulcHiTjl(. Sia, 

Spec. Char., ^c. Spiny, except in the flower- . 
bearing tu^nches ; spines simple ; the whole ^^^. 

Elant glabrous. Leaves simple, ovatc-lanceo- - "-Sfii^ 
ite. Flowers in terminal racemes, tew in a 
ivcetne; the keel longer than the standard and 
wings. Legume ovately cylindrical, including 
many seeds. {Dec. Prod.) A prostrate de- 
ciduous shrub, with woody stems. Native of 
the Middle and North of Europe ; and fre- 
quent in Britain, on moist, boggy, heathy com- 
mons. Height I ft. Flowers yellow i May and 
June. Legume brown; ripe in August. 
Cultivated in collections, where it forms a 
spiny bush about 2 ft. in height. 

M 13, G. germa'mica L. The German Geni 

Mrwialaliim. LIr. Sp,99«. i D«. Pml , 3. p. 1«, : Don'l Mm..S. n ISl. 
Sgmnt^Mii. Sc6rplui •plnfttDi itanch Mtlh. \M.; Vdglcri 

Spec. Char., ^c. Spiny, except in the flowcr-bearirij; 
branches ; spines simple or branched. Leaves 
simple, lanceolate, slightly hnirv. Flowers somewhat 
villose, in terminal racemes. Keel longer than the 
standard and wings. Lei;ume ovate, slightly hair^', 
including 2 — 4 seeds. {Dec. Prod.) A spiny khrub. 
Euroi^, in woods and oil heaths. Height 2 ft. to 311. 
introduced in 1773, Flowers yellow ; June to 
August. Li^me brown ; ripe in September. 

., Google 


\t without spines. 
J 4. Unarmed, Leavet all tiiiiple, 
m 16. G. pu'rgans L. The punpng Genista. 

SMWyiw. Jlitrtluin piinuil L/k. %i(. 411. 
Bmgrarmtt. But. Clb., 1117. 1 lad wir .llf, aW. 

S,p«. Cfcw.,**;. Uprifjilt, much brBnihed. Branfhea round, 
striate. Leuves simple, very few, lanceolate, nlniost sessile, 
EomewhHl silky. Flowers axillary, solitary, scurcely po 
diceled. Petals equal, glidiruiis. The young leeuiiic 
adprensedly pul)cscent, (ilce. Fiiid.) An upright snruh, 
evergreen from the colour of its shoots. France, on hills. 
Intrud. 1766. Height 3 ft. to 6 ft. Flowers yellow ; June 
and July. Legume brown ; n|>e in Septemher. 

J: 17. G. SERi'cEA IVuif. The silky Genial 

If.fD Jacq-Coll,, I. p. 167.; I 

Spec. Cliar.,$c, Decumbent, with nprrght 
round branches. Leaves simple, linear- 
Innceolale, silky bPTieath. Flowers ter- 
minal, 3 or 4 together, in a sort of ra- 
ceme. Petals silky, nearly equal. Lobes 
of the calyx oblong-acununate ; the flornl 
leaves equalling (he calyx in len:;th. 
(Wee. Prad.)Adecumbent shrub. Height 
6 in. Austria and Croatia, in suhulpme 
places near the shore. Introduced in 
ISIE. Flowers yellow; May and June. Legui 

I. G. AP 

* Dec. 

brown ; ripe August. 
The leafless Genista. jj^:'^^ 


Engrmliigt. Pill. IILd. ed. Oall. Append., No. KJ. t. as. r. 3. 1 lod 

Spec. Char.,$c. Branched, upright. Leaves simple, 
vely few, linear, very short. Flowers disposed dis- 
tantly, in lengthened terminal racemes. Leiiuines 
compressed, including 3 seeds ; when young, toincn- 
tose ; when adult, glabrous. (Dec. Prod.) Hciuht 
311. to British gardens. Found in Siberia.iu de- 
serts, Rbout the Volg». lu- 
b-od. 1800. Mowers violace- 
ous ; June and July. Legume 
brown ; ripe in September. 

- 19. G. 


RHA Lam 

Mill., a. p las.i wrt 


1 n«. PiwL, 

S.p. Ila, D™-, 



a (..■■. Sp.KS 

. Crt. Boc V^. 

Spec.Cltai:,tpc, Branched, upright. Leaves simple, very 
rew,linear-oblong,adpre!iscdlypubi.'sccnt. Flowersin 
latend rai'emes, few in a raceine. Petals silky, almost 
> equal. Legumes ovate, inflated, membranaceous, 
glnbrom, including 1 — 2 seeds. {Dec. Fntd) An 
erect .nhrub, with numerous slender, twiggy, fleiilo 

xx\. leoumina'ce^ : geni'sta. 209 

bnnchea. On the MeditcjTsiieaii gbom, whac, m manj places, it ttxrtt 
Uf retain and consolidue the drifUng sand. Height fi ft. to 4- ft. Introduced 
io 1670. Fkmen white ; June and Julj. Li^iune Imtwn ; ripe in Sqitember. 
The leaves and joung branches are, in 

goata : and the twiga are used for taring i 

and thej- are also twitted into rapes. 

jt 80. G. spnMmoGi'RP* Lam. The round-fruited Oeniata. 

Spec. CAar^^e. Twiggy, branched. Leaves simple, wr, 
few, linear, almost glabrous. Flowers in lateral 
racemes, many in a raceme. Petal8glBbrous,equBl. 
L^umes orate, in some measure fleshj, contain- ^n 
ing 1 — 2 seeds. Flowers small, and pale yellow. C^ ] 
(Dec. Prod.) A twigKV ahrub. Native of the 
South of Europe aadNorth of AJrica. Height Q) 

3ft.to4ft. lntrod.173). Flowen rellnw; June ^ „ ., ^j,_ 

and July. L^ame brown ; ripe in September. 

A £1. (?. xtshb'nsis Dec. The Mount Etna Oenista. 

Uriuileallim. D«e. Prod., 1, p. lU. i Don'i Mm., 1. p. )H. 

Snimrma. Apiitliiiii athoteH Mr. St. Sic ilimi. 1., ilqIkK *«at,l.& IT., Mw £M. Mf. 
iOi.i 5p<rt<uin triiptmnn AdUttnJtef'fCKj.Tol.n.lIa.y 

Rifrmimt,. Bot.Hji«,t.W<.iUdoiuAr.lU- 

Spcc. Char., ^c. Uprisht, rery much branched. LeaTca 
simple, few, linear, slUy. Flowers in terminal racemes. 
Pelkis almost gUbroua, nearly equal in length. Legumes 
obliquely ovate, compressed, contwning 2^ — 3 seeds ; when 

Siupg, pubescent, (Dec. Prwt.) An erect twiggy shrub, 
ative of the wooded region of Mount Etna, 3O0O ft. 
— 6000ft.elevatbn -. growing with ij^cermonspeasul^num. 
(Prrtl, in Comp. Sot. Mag., voL L p. 91.) Uei^t a ft. 
to4ft. introduced in 1816. Flowers yellow i June and 
July. Legume brown ; ripe in September. "*■ "'"'■■■'**'* 

Resembles the preceding species, except that the flowers are twice the siie. 
Ji 22. G. iMxA'KTiCA TVji. The Anxantic OeniHa. 
(fnPrnL. p.41.1 Dm. Prod., I. p, lULi : 

^iiii'iiiu. a. muintia nmirt. __ . ..r ■ ■-. 

jjwc. Cliar., ^c. The whole plant is perfectly sla- 
brou*. Stems spreading. Branches angled. 
Leaves simple, ovBt6.eIliptical, nther coriaceous, 
vony. Flowers in racemes. Corolla thrice as 

., Google 


long M the cdyx ( anil about 8 lines long. Lwume cont^ningS — lOienk. 
(Dec. Prod.) A Aiffuae shrub. Tfaplet. HeigBt 3 ft. to * ft. Introdured m 
1816. Flowers yellow ( Juneaod July. Legume brown j ripe io September. 

-t 0.a,2 icarioia. O. Matiosa Hr. (Freg. Fl. Ital. 1. L B.; and oar 
J^. 3SB.) — A.n upright ahnib, closely resembling the speciea. lotro- 
Juced in 1821, and flowering in [he Hort. ik>c. Garden in JuDC 
and July. It deserves a place in coUectioni. 

23 G. tincto'bi* L. The Pjer's Broom, or Green Weed. 

lUIIu Lad. Cof, 1 BtMm BrHim. Ciefn Wosd, Uver'l WHd, wd Wmd-nia; 

uKen. CenMae SlUtrii, FT. ; fiirlKiJlor GlaUsr, Orr. { BacdUniA^ 

Spec. Char., ift "Root (creeping. Stems almost upright. Bnoches nniDd, 
striated, upright. Leaves simple, lanceolate, rather glabrous. Flowers gl^ 
brous, in spiked racemes. Legume glabrous. (Dec. Prod.) A creejni^ 
rooted low shrub. Common in Europe, in greasy fields, and in woods uii 
copses, particularly in dry gravelly or sandy soils. Height 1 It, to 3 fl. 
Flowers yellow ; July. Legume brown ; ripe in September. 

mO. I. 2 flore plena. — There are plants in the Epsom Nursery uJ 

the Hort. Soc. Onrdcn. 
j-O. t. 3 latijolia Dec. — Leaves broad- 
lanceolate. A native of Auvergne, < — 
the Mont d'Or. 
O. (. 4 hiriuitt Det^. — Leaves somewhat J 
villose. Branches upright. A nativ 
sunny meadows. 
^ Q. I. 5 prathaii Poll. — Leaves oblong- 
lanceolate, rather hairy. Branches as- 
cending. Tohatnts the mountainou* parts 
of Upper Italy, 
It is very common in pastures, in many places, 
both in EngUnd and Scotland; but, when cows 
feed on it. it is said by Ray to give a bitter tasie 
to their milk. All parts of this plant, and espe- 
cially the branches and leaves, have long been used by dyers lor produdni 
yellow, especially for dyeing wool that is afterwards to be dyed g 
woad (/satis tinctorial,.). The plant isnot 
now in Gultivaiion for this purposes but, in 
Norfolk 'and SufTolk, it U still collected in 
quantities from sandy wastes and commons, 
and sold to the dyers. 

t. C.(T.)S1 


The Siberian 


nliU llDCtbrU ru. N. Da Mam. 
Ei^ar/iifi. Ju. Hort. Vlikd.,1. 190. 1 udoutAf.aiO. 
^Kc. CAar.,^c. Stems erect; and the whole 

plant more slender and taller than G. 

tinctdria, of which it is evidently only a 


Ji 8i. C. (t.) ot&'ti Waldtl. The ovUe-leaved Uenbta. 


[It. FL HuDi 

S;)ec. <^ar., ij-c. Stems numerous, hairy, 
erectish, somewhat herbaceoua, striated, 
terel& Leaves ovate, or ovattxiblong, 
and are, ai well as the Ic^iumeij, hairy. 
Racemes short. Corolla smooth. (Don't 
JMi//.) A ^rub. SclaTonia and Hun- 

Kry ; and on the hills of Italy, from 
edmont to Naples. Hdght 8 ft. to 4 ft. 
Introduced m 1819. Flowers yellow ; 
June to August. Legume brown ; ripe 

Ten.; Df. Prod- 

^ 28. G. THiANovLi'ftis WiUd. "Die triangulaisjtentmn/ Genista. 
UaillflcallaK. WIIM. Sp..g. p. iOS. 1 Dec Prod.. I. p. W.; Don'a mil- 1 n. 1U. 
Sft^K^^mr. G.lrlqoitn fToMM.dKA. fiw.&p. l6S.t.lM..blU 
gi^ramnltti WtidU. K KJt. Hunf.. 1. 1. lU. i udoiu A-U>- 

^ee, Ciar., ^c. Branches smooth, 3- 

angled, and, as well as the stems, ascend- 
ing. Leaves lanceolate, and mucronate. 

Flowers axillary L^ume compressed, 

sod mucronate. (Dec. Fred.) A shrub. 

Hungary, on calcareoiw rocks. Height j 

Ift, Introd, in 1815. Flowers yellow ; 

May and June. Legume brown; ripe 

in August. 

Cloaely resembling G. trfquetra, of which, notwithstanding its rimple leave*, 
h may pouiblj be only a variety ; the change not being greater than what 
takes place in .fUxiuus excelsior siniplicifolia. 

^ 27. G. s 
UoaffleaHeii. Lfn. Sp., ws, t : 

The uTTov-jmnted Oenista. 

.; HiiDe Abblld,, t. 

Spec. Char., Ifc. Stems prostrate. Branches herbaceous, ascending, S-edged, 
membranous, somewhat articulated. Leaves ovate-lanceolate. Flowers 
disposed in an ovate, terminal, leafless 
quke. Corolla smooth ; but the keel is 
furnished with a villous line on the back. 
(Jton't mi/.) A prostrate shrub. Con- 
tinental Europe, in mountwD pastures. 
Hdghtain. Introduced in 1750. Flowers 

yellow ; May and June. L^ume brown ; -. 

ripe in August. p'Sj 

a O. (. S imnor Dec. — A small shrub, ^M;Wv 
having the branches clodied with ^bj« 
adpr^sed puteccnce at the apei, ^S 
as well as tne leaves. . ^ 

For practical purposes, this may be con- """ *°'""«'™'»* 

■idered as a herbaceous pUmt. It is a very distinct, ornamental, and hard? 
tort ; groiring and flowering freely. 


■1 SS. G. DiPPU's* Wiild. The diffuse Oeniate. 

K.Priid.,».B.16».i Doo'lMI 
iiKlU'wiff, in Jieq. CalL i.p.ieb.j Spirtlain |>r< 

luxma. O.bumtniu «'■{'. Id. 

r>A., but nM of Atum. 

,r— «.. J-fl. ICOB-IUr, 1.1 

Mc, C'*ar., ^e. Branchn pro- 
cumbent from the nerk, trique- ' 
troiu. LeaveB UficeolHt«, and 
smooth, B little ciliated. Pe- 
duncles axillary, erect, and di»- 
poted in interrupted hMcMea. 
Corollas and It^mes glabrous. 
(Dec. Prod.) A procumlKnt 
■hrub. Italy and St^ria, in ex- 
posed places. Hragbt 6 in. In- 
troduced in 1815. Flowers 

yellow J May and June. Le- »,. oauiiKtab^ 

gume brown ; ripe in August. 

Ji 29. G. pbostra't* Lam. The prostrate Oeniata. 

■»n»irwi""'Lo£. Bol, Cib.. lis. ; iDd ouf A'- »«H». 
pec. Char., <Jc. Stems diffuse, prostrate. Branches angular, stcuted, rather 

bury. Leaves OTst^oblong, somewhat 

hury beneath. Flowers axjilary, on ,^ - , , ,. . . , 

long erect petUcels. Corolla glabrous. 

Leeumea hBiry,3— 4-seeded. (Dec. Prod.) A prostrate shrub. Burgundi. 
and the Alps of Jura, Height 1 ft. Introduced in 1775. Flowers yellow. 
May and June. L^ume brown; ripe in August, 
-> SO. G. PBOi 

ItnUPcaliom. WdiM. at Ki[. Id V 
itgrarit^l- Bot. Bes-, I- IIM.{ and 

'pec. Char., Jjrc. Branches procumbent, * 
round, striated, rather downy. LeaTes 
lanceolate, acute, and, as well as the 
calyxes, downy beneath. Flowers pe- 
dicellate, axillary, in threes. Corolla 
glabrous. {Dec. Prod.) A procumbent 
shrub. Hungary and Moraria. Height 

1 ft. Introduced in 1816. Flowers " 

yellow ; June to August. Legume brown ; ripe in September. 
Most likely only a rariety of the preceding species. 

Ji 31. G. pij-o^* Lin. The hairy Oenist*. 

Wm'JIeatlom. Udd- Sp-999. ; Smith 'i Eu. F1., a. el MS.: HsTEU AbbUd. du daol. llaU..ii.Kl. 

D.c.Prgil,l,p.l6H Don'iMll].,I.p.lla. 

namgrna. u. ripeiu Lam. Fl. Fr. ; Gcnlitiildai tubamilita Mandi MiU, 

•wrainfl, J~cn, Fl. AuMr.. t. 908. ; Hlrn* AbbUd., L 110. ; lod our j|(. ISS. 

pec. Char., ^e. Stems procumbent, striated, branched, tuberculated. Leave 
obovate-luceoUte, obtuse, folded, and having beneath a das&^iresBed silk. . 

XXV. leouhina'cEiC : cy'tisus. 918 

down. FIoweiB axillsrT, on «hort pedicels. 

CaJjx and pedicels aillty. L^umea pu- 
bescent, and 3 — 1-seeded. (Dee. Prod.) 

A procumbent iihrub. South of Fraace, 

SinUerland, Qtuoany, &c ; and Britain, 

on dry elevated downs or heathi, in 

Suffolk, Cornwall, and North Wale*. 

Hei^t 1 ft. Flowers jellow ; Blay and 

JuDe^ Legume brown ; ripe in Sept. 

The ^>ed&: name, raUra, is certainly not 
vcTv apprapnate,foTtaereareodierE^>eciei, taiiBiiiB 

such as G, candicatu, much more hairy. 

OiMer Specia ef OenSda. — Q.ipinata, in the Hort. Soc. Garden, is a young 
plant with trifoliolate leavet, and the side shoots tenninoting in spinea. There 
are various other naniec in collections, and a areut many in books i but the 
whole genua b in such a state of confusion, that nothing can be detcnniued 
"'. coBected together and 


CY'TISUS Dee. Thb Cvtisls. Lin. Sj,il. Mouadaphia Decatidrta. 
Ur^igkaUm. Dec. Prod., ]. p. 1». ; Doo'i Mill., 1. p. 151. 

SftuMfima.; ciMta.rr.\ Dobneilbuin. Oct.; CIUh. /f^. 
t 'l i faM i im . Fnm c^ffcHu, au nf Ui* CrcliiUi, ibe SrK of ihe ipsriia kiuwD h*Tlii( tw*D fouDd lb«e. 
Gen dor, Calyx biUbiate. ^pprr lip usually entire ; lower one somewhat 
trideotate. Vexitlitn ovate, large. Carina very rfjtuse, including the sta- 
mens and pistils. ^fuBUTu monadelphous, X^cvnic compressed, many-ieeded, 
glandleas. {lion', MiU.) 

Lcava Irilbliolate, alternate, stipulate. Flowert of nearly all the species 
yellow. — Deciduous orsub-erergreen shrubs of short duration, or low trees; 
natives chiefly oT the Middle and South of Europe. 

All the species have trifoliolate leaves, and the Howers are for the most iwrt 
yellow. The bhruba have the habit of Genista or of 5pirtium, to both which 
genera the; are nearly allied. They are all ornamental, some of them eminently 
so ; and tnose which have their flowers in terminal racones are decidedly more 
decant than those which have them in close terminal, or in axiliarj- heads. 
The wood of the laburnum is valuable in turnery and cabinet-work. All the 
species produce seeds in abundance, by which they are ahnost exclusively 
propagated. The species recorded in books are numerous ; but, if they were 
all brought together, and cultivated in the same garden, we question much if 
a tithe ufthem would be found specifically distincN 

J 1. Albumoidet Dec 

JVnVatfnt. From the vord tf/ftfU M n, tlsnltyiusUievhlle ivwr Hp-woodoF inn; mo6 jippUeJ 
to thli Hctloa rroni tbo flcmn of the ip«lci b£tg while. 

Sfcl. Char. Calyx campanulate. Pod 1 — t-aeeded, not dilated at the upper 
suture. Flowers white. Leaves very few. Brunches unanned. (Dec. 
Prod., n. p. 153.) 

■ 1. Ca'lbus Xini. The white Cytisus, or Portu^o/ .Srotnn. 
UmlHUall-m. L<nk EDiiiii..l.p. Ml. i DM-Prod., l.p. IM.; Dsn-i MIU.,r p. IM. 
Sf/mimfila. CmUuilunLdn. Dia. ■. p.Gm.; S|tkniuin tibuin Dr^f. FI.AU.l p.lSl-l Sptltllim 
nuhllttnini ilil. Han, Knc, t, p. ll.i Spirtium dtiptnnum Uanc* Mfk.fAK.s Cnliuuul- 
OKn n. On Ham. 1. p. TS. ; Snittimi 1 I1«in Dlucbsl, Fr, ; T-dHt PMOMD, Otr. 
Kifr'Hitiip. v. DuHuil.,1.1. S. 1 ■Ddourj^.M). 




Sjiec. Char.. S^. Branches terete, twi^y. Leaves simple, 

uid trifoliolate, seasile. Leaflets Unear-oblong, and silky. 

Flowers in fascicles, disposed in long racemea. Legume 

8-seeded, Tery villous. {Don'i Milt.) An upright shnib; 

evergreen, from the colour of its numerous straight parallel 

young shoots. Portugal and the Levant. Height 5 ft. 

to 7 ft. Introduced in 1752. Flowers white; May and 

June. Legume brown ; ripe in August. 

A very handsome shrub, more especially when covered 

with its white flowers in May, and when surrounded by 

hundreds of bees, busily occupied in extracting the honey. 

In good soil, it is of very rapid growth, attaining the height 

of 5 or 6 feet in 3 or 4 years ; and, in 6 or 8 years, growmg 

as high as 15 or even 30 feet, if in a sheltered siluaiion. 

Placed by itself on a lawn, it forms a singularly ornamental 

plant, even when not in flower, by (he varied disposition 

and tufting of its twiggy thread-like branches. When in 

flower, it is one of the finest ornaments of the garden. 

Trained to a single stem, its eflect is increased ; and, grafted 

on the laburnum, a common practice about Paris, it forms ^ 

a very remarkable combination of beauty and singularity. 

Plants are easily rwsed from seeds. 

* C. d. 8 inctimatut has flesh-coloured llonert, or flowers very slightly 
tinged with reddish purple. This variety was introduced in lEllS; 
and reproduces itself^ fh>m seeds, but it varies much in the quantity 
of colour in the flowers. 

j ii. haMmum Dec. 

DtiiwMm. A luna ijiplhit by FUny to loinB ipHiH of CtOiai. 

Sect. Char. Calyx campanulate. Pod many-seeded, not dilated at the upper su- 
ture. Flowers yellow. Branches leafy and imanned. (iJec. Prorf., ii p. 153.) 

t i. C. Ladu'rnuii L. The common Lebumum. 

XXV. lkouhinaVea:: cv'tisus. 
'.; Dk. Tni, t. p. m. I Ddd'i Mm,, t, p. im. 

' tar.ArtBli," A. 

_rtTr»lM»rt( _ 

■Uudoi to Um Ivnfth of Ifaft drDDpfDa nmH 01 iiowert, WAICD, » 
Uw™. in - rich Id iir«iniog fM> 
AvrnAui. Jacq. AuK., I, loG. ; Bat. Ulg., I. 1T& ; H. Du Hun_ t. L. U.j tkSElaUef thUlm 

In Aib.%ft.. IiikUi., Till. 1. 1 udourjti.MO. 
^wc. CAor., c^f^. Branches terete, whitiah. Leaves petiolate ; leaflets ovate-Ian* 
ceolate, pubescent beneuih. Racemes pendulous, simple. Pedicels and cft. 
lyxes doched vith closely pressed pubescence. I.^Die linear, manv-aeeded, 
clotheil with closelj preaised pubescence. A low deciduous tree. Nstive of 
Europe, on thelowermoiintainsof the South of German}, and of Switzerland. 
Height ZO ft. or upwards. Introduced in 1596. Flowers jeJlow; May anil 
June. LegumedarkbrowDi ripein October. Decaying leaves yellow. Naked 
young wood green. 

1 C. L, Zpendulma Hort. has slender pendulous branches. 
1! C. L. 3 qMrdJi&uM Hon., C. L. 8 inclauni, bas siuuated leaflets, not 
unlike tbe l»Te8 of the common oali. (See the plate of this variety 
m Ari. Brit., 1st edit., vol. v.i and our^. 341.) 

t C. L. 4 /Wat variegatu has variegated leaves ; but it is a plant of no 
beauty, and rarely seen in collections. 

1 C. L. bfiogrant Hort. — Flowers fragrant. Wherever a number of 
laburnums are found in flower tugetber, whether of this or the other 
species, the scent of the blossoniH will be found to differ very con- 
sideralily, and occaaionally one may be found which may be termed 
firigisnt i hence the origin of this variety. 
t 3. C. (i.) ALPi'NUS AfUt. The Alpine, or Smicft. Laburnum. 

., Google 


Spec. Char,, ^c. Branches glabrous and terete. Leaves petiolate; leaflet! 
ovate-tanceolate, rounded at the bfiBe. Racemes pendulous. Pedicels wid 
culyxea puberulous. Legumes glabrous, tew-seeded, marginate. (Don't 
Milt.) A deciduous low tree. Found id CBiinthio, in the Alps ol Jun, 
on Mount Cenis, and on the Apenninea. According to some, it is alu 
found wild in Scotland ; but, though it is much cultivated in sonie pRrtt of 
Fifeshire and Forfarshire, it is far from being indigenoiii there. He^t 
£0 ft. Co soft., BometimeH much higher in a state of cultivation. Il mi 
introduced into Britain about the same time as the other species, viz. I596i 
and was, probably, for a long time confouuded with it; (or which reason «e 
sMl treat of the two species, or races, together. Flowers yelloiTi Haj 
and June. Legume brown ; ripe in October. 

T C. (L.) a. S pindidui has pendulous branches, and, in the foli^c Koi 
l^umes, Eeenis intermedtate between C. Z/ablimum and C, (i<.) sl- 
plnus. This is very obviuus in a fine specimen of this variety^ in the 
ariioretuin of the Messrs. Loddiges, as shown in the plate in A^. 
Bril., 1st edit., vol. v. The peuilulous variety of C. I^umum is 
a much less robust plant. 
t C, (L.) a. 3 purpuToicmt Hort., C. L. purpilreum Mori., C. Adami 
Poir., C, L. cocclneum Bauia. Cat, the purple Lohumum, the scarlet 
Labumuiu, is not a hybrid between C. i^blirtiuin and C. puq)ilreu9, 
as was bC firtit supposed, but a Kjiort from a bud ol C'jlisus pur- 
pilreus inserted in (.'. ulplnus, in 18S5, by D. Adam, a nurseryman at 
Vitry, near Paris. The flowers are of a reddish purple, slightly 
ting^ with buff, and are produced in pendent spikes, 8 in. or more 
long. A lew years after this sport was originated, it was found thai 
it bud a strong tendency to return to tlie original kinds ; and that 
from one bud or graft, tenches were produced of the true Cytisui 
purpureus, of the true LabfiruuD) (either the Alpine or the a 


XXV. legtihina'cea : iVtisub. 217 

Mcwding to which of these mav have been chosen as the stock) with 
yellow flowers, and of the purple laburnum. Thin was soon obserred 
both in France and England. (See Card. Mag., vol. xii. p. S95., 
toI. it. p. 1S2,; and Arb. SrU., lat edit-^ p. 590.) It ii a very vi- 
gorous, and somewhat erect and fastigiate, growing rariety, having 
produced shoots froiu 6 11. to ft. Ions in one seasoa i but, though it 
has been bighly ^xiken of by same cultiTBtora, b point of beauty, it 
cannot be recommended. 
t C. (L.) a. ifragraru Hort. — Blossoms fragrant. There are plants 
in the Hackney Arboretum. 
Miller recognised C. Labliraum tod C. alf^na as species; but LinnKtn 
did not. Whether they are ^>eciea or varieliea, tbey are certainly van dis- 
tinct i as mucb so, pertiapa, as the (ju&^us Itbhur pedunculitum, and Q. B. 
sesailifl6ruiD, and like these two oaks they come tnie from seed. Both sorts, 
bejiu hi^y ornamental, have been extensively propsgated and cultivated in 
Britnh gardens and plantations. There are trees at Syon of C. alpinus above 
40 ft. h^j and some at Alnwick Castle with trunks 3 ft. in diameter. The 
boart-wDod of the laburnum is of a dark colour; and, though of rather a 
coarse jrain, it ia very hard and durable : it will take a polish, and may be 
made to resemble ebony. A cubic foot weighs 5! ib. 1 1 oz. in a dried state. 
The colour and grain of the heart-wood vary much, according to the soil, and 
tbe age of the tree. It is darkest in the C, Zabfirnum, when grown on poor 
calcareous soil ; and lightest in the C. (X.) alpinus, when crown in de^ rich 
■oil : in which last case its colour is a sort of ereenish black. It is in much 
demand among turners and cabinet-makers. The ordinary use of the wood in 
the North of Sostland, is to form alternate staves with the wood of the holly, 
or the spindle tree, in making smajl noggins, orlnckeiBj but it is also used 
for the bowls of punch-ladles ; for flutes, and other musical instruments. 
Bares and rabbits b^ng remarkably fond of the bark of the laburnum, it has 
suggested to sow laburnum seeds, in order to produce an undergrowth in 
'^ ns liable to be infested with these animals; for, though the plants are 
eaten to the ground every winter, yet they will spring up again the next season, 
and thus yield a regular supply of winter's food tor these kinds of game. As 
an omamental tree, the laburnum has few rivals. The shape of the head is 
irregular and picturesque; its foliage b of a smooth, shining, and beautiful 
green ; and, what is a great recommendation to every ornamental plant, it is 
not liable to be preyed on by insects. Though the laburnum will grow in a 
very indiflerent soil, it requires a deep fertile sandy loam to attain a large size. 
In regard to situation, as the tree |iuts out few horizontal roots,Bnd has rather 
a sprrading head, when it grows rapidly jt is ^ to be blown aside by hi^h 
winds I but, for the same reason, it is less iiyunous to plants growing near it, 
than some other ornamental trees. For producing timber, it should be placed 
in masses in a sheltered situation, or in aplantation among other trees, so as 
to be drawn up with a clear straight stem ; and when so circumstanced, in 
good soil, C. (L.) alpinus will grow to the hei^t of from 35 ft. to M ft. Both 
C. /.abumum and C. (_L.) alptnua are invariably raised from seed, and the 
pendulous and other varieties are propagated by grafting or budding on either 
of the common sorts. The seeds are fit to gather in October ; and they may 
be kept in the pod, in a dry airy loft, till the March following, when they 
should be sown in beds of light soil, at about an inch ^lart every way, and 
covered about half an inch or three quarters of an inch thick. Half the plants 
which corns up will be fit for transplanting into nursery lines in the November 

* 4..C. Weldeh/J Vis. Welden's Cyrisus. 

If klnjjjf teat LU 1^ the IaU Bbtdh Ja 

» temate, petiolate { leaflets elliptic, m 



oeatcd at the base, andobtuae at the apex, smooth. Racemes terminal, stilked, 

CyramidBl, slr^ht; pedtcell 
oary and villous. Calj'ies 
campanulate, S-Iobed ;. lobes 
toroentoseiy ciliated. Corolla 
glabrous, but the carina is 
clothed with silky villi. Le- 

eume glabrous, mucronate 
y the style. {Dotft MUL) 
An erect woody shrub, re- 
sembling a laburnum. Dal. 
taiatia, in woods on moun- 
tains. Height S ft to 3 li. i 
6 a. to 6(1. in gardens. In- > 
troduced in 1837. Flowers 

Jeilow, fragrant ; June and 
Illy. Legumes brown ; ripe 

in October. 

The racemes are erect, and 
do not droop even when in 
Truit. The seeds are still more 
poisonous than those of the 
common laburnum, and the 
scent of the flowers causes 

headach. The nrilk of the »»■ «'—«'«"«■ 

goats which feed upon the flowers, Baron Welden observes, produces the 9uitK 
effect, only more severely, upon those who drink it. 

■ S. C. Ni'oRiCANS L. l^e black Cytisus. 
UemUficalim. Lhi. Sp., 1HI. i Dec. Prwi., l.p. 1U. i Doo't MIU . 
EnfTtntnfit- Jicq. AuKr, I, STS,^ BoL Beg., t. WA--, uid our 

Spec. Char., ^e. Branches round, twiggy. Leaves 
stalked, and clothed with closely [ircssed down 
beneath, as well as the branches, calyxes, and 
pods; leaflets elliptic. Racemes elongated, ter- 
minal, erect. Calyxes without bracteas. {Dec. 
Prod.'j A handsome deciduous shrub. Piedmont, 
Vallais, and Bohemia. On hills and along way- 
sides. Height 3tt. to 6 ft. Introduced in 1730. 
Flowers yellow ; June and July. L^ume black ; 
ripe in October. The whole plant turns black (^ 
when drying ; whence the specific name. *> 

It ripens seed in abundance ; and il may also be 

pn^a^ted by grafting on C. Laburnum, thus form- ^^ ^ ^.i^ 

ing a handsome standard. ^^ 

* 6, C. 8bssiufo"liu5 L. The sessile-leaved Cytisus. 

UnuaicaUen. Lln.Sa.,lM1,: DM.Prad.,1 piiris.; Dod'i Mill., 1, p. 1U. 
BatTflf- Lm. lit, 1. 6ia, f. 1 i lloL Mw, 1. ISS, ; Md our fit'- M5- ^^ »«■ 

Spec. Char., ^c. The whole plant quite smooth. Branches round. Floral 
leaves almoEt sessile, and leaflets ovate. Racemes terminal, short, and ereci ; 
each calyK having a 3-leaved bractea under it. (Dec. Prod.) A shrub, »iih 
upright branches, and smooth shining leaves. Kacive of France and Pied- 
mont. Heiffht 4 ft. to 7 ft. Introduced in 1569. Flowers yellow ; Hsv 
and June. Legume black ; ripe in October. 
In very general cultivation in Briti«h gardens, generally as a bush, but somt- 

XXV. leouminaVea : rv'Tisus. 

timet grafted HtBndard high on the 
laburnum; vben it forms a very 
(brmal, Bymaietrical, round-headed, 
I ranall tree, wliich, however, is 
highly lieautiful when in flower. 
We have given two figures of 
thb species, both drawn to the 
MUne scale, to show how much It 
THries in the magnitude andgeneml 
a[^iesrance of ica foliage, accord- 
ing to soil and situation. Plants 
grafted standard high are common 
in the London nurseries. 

tbiflo'rl's L'Herit. The three-flowered Cytiaui. 

FioiL,!. PL IM.; Don'i Ulu! %. p.'lU,( n'glib Iter Hllpui,, ll' 3^ 

Shuhtiw. C.tmttvu Ptmr, Aa.Timl.S.f 3\T. Wlk 

/■(TBiiV Cl<u.IIlU.,l.p.»4.r.S.i Duh.,t.a.r.<Sti •iirAC'»7. VA 

^>ec Char^ ^c. The whole plant hairy. Branches / ^^k 
round. Leaves petiolate; leaflets ovate-elliptic. Vlow- % ^ 
er» axillwy, pedicellate, terete, and somewhat race- ^^-— ^„'' 
iDOse at the tops of the branches. {Dec. Prod.^ A "" 

atraggling hairy shrub, closely resemhling C. c^itatus 
and C. hirsAtus. South of Prance, Italy, Sicily, and 
BlauHtania. Unght 3 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1640. 
Flowers yellow; June and July. Legume black i 
ripe in October. 
Fre<^ent in gardens, sometimes grafted standard high ; 

but Deitber as a standard nor as a dwarf is it of great duration. 

be planted in an ury situation. 

■ 8. C. pa'tens L. The spreading Cytisua. 

Umificaliim. Lin. SraL V(i. SM.. KcordlDg to L'HMl. SUip^ 1S4. ; Dk. 

[7. fNAlullPiu z!^ Pit. Sitpf. aiffi. { C. grmaditbrua Dk. Prorf,!. 
lalBi lommUlu Pair, 9aw>' !.|i- 119-1 Sptrtluni pllPni Lit, 
1..^ n /.». 1 n. ID., but not of Cmt. i Sriinliiiii giiuiUaiinBn 
iniu idlnu irat Iter Hiiptut. 91. 

Em^rawrmg. Otitjtg- }4S. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Branches striated and pubescent. Lenvea 
trifoliolate, petiolate ; the upper ones aunple, end obovate, 
as are the leaflets ; covered with closely pressed down. 
Flowers axillary, usually in pairs, pedicellate, nodding, 
Podsvery hairy. (JJeif.iVod.) A spreading shrub. Native 
of Portugal 'Height 4 ft. to 6 ft. Introduced in 1758. 
Flowers yellow ; June and July. Legume dark brown, or 
black; ripe in October. 
A very handsome shrub, espedally when eralled standard 

high, not so common in collections as it ought to be. ' 

■ 9. C. scoPi^RiuB UtJi. The eommon Broom. 

Utrn M calkni. UnkBDnm,!. p. Ml.l Due. Frod., 9. p. 1M. [ Dcm'i Hill., 1. p. lU, 

TuiBMiin'l Spbtlum icopkriuiD Lin. Sp- 99&, SmtlM Fng. Bol. 133fl. { (fenlitm «u>pjlr1> l-tm. 
d3. L p. Sn. bill DM □( Vm, ; C. blriau Mnct ititk. lU. ; GenM k Bmldt, 0«ik Eammua, 

xSli^^oSln^Di^t^BlS. : SiDUh Engl. Bot.. t, IIN. , ud our jb. M. 

Spec. Char., Spc. Branches angled, Rlabrous. Leaves petioled, trifoliolate ; 
the uppermost simple; these and the leaflets oblong. Flowers axillary, pe- 
diceled, solitary. Legumes pilose at the marpns. {Dec. Prod.) A shrub, 
eveiKreen from the colour M its numerous young shoots, NaUve of dry 
■andy or gravelly soils, tbrougbout Europe. Hdght 3 ft. to IS ft. accoidinj 

, Cixigle 


to the loil and 
black ; ripe ' 

Flowen large, jrellow j May Mtd J 
Naked young •moitd green. 

It any other apeciea 

• C. ■■ ! iAiu Hort. has tbe flowen white, or of a very pale ydlow. 
A C. s. AJUre plena Hort. haa flowers ilightly double. 

Tbe roots are itraigfat, and penetrate perpendicularly to a great depth. Tlie 
irea are trirolialaie or simple ; the branches numerous, long, straight, ai^lsr. 
rk ^reea, smoolh, and tough. The flowers are of a deep golden ydlor, 
netimn tinged with orange, and occuionBllv of a uniTonn pale lemoo 
lour : they are «ueeceded by pods above an inch long, 
ick when ripe, and each containing 15 or 16 seeds, 
le flowen are larger than those ol any o1 
the genus ; and, were the plant j 

wild state, it would, doubtless, be considered the ■, 
>st ornamental. The whole plant is exceedingly tough, 
il bitter to tbe taste, and nas a strong disagreeable > 
ell. Though it is at present comparatively neglected, 
t in former times it was ana of very great importance 
rural and domestic economy. The branches are eaten 
sheep and cattle ; and, on poor gravelly soils, formed, 
fore the general improvement of grass lands which 
9 taken place within the lust century, the principal 
rba^. One of the principal modem uses of the broom, 
[h in Britdn and on the Continent, is to form 
>omii, or besoms; for which purpose, as the specific 
ne would imply, it Bp[)eara to have been used from 
le immemorial. The young shoots were formerly 
:d as a substitute for hops in brewins beer; and the 
irer-buds,Just before they become ydlow, were pickled 
the manner of capers. The lops and leaves are purgative and diuretic, 
the North of Scotland, a decoction of the recent •hoots it used bf shep- 
'ds, for dressing the backs of sheep, instead of tobacco water. The broom 
•duces abundance of seeds, whicn, according to M. Hartig, retain tbtir 
~"'~itiag quality for a very long time i some that he kept 25 years, b a 
hicB w - . . ■ 

im which ' 

is occupied, having o 

le up as readily ai 

$ iii. Calyculnme Link. 

, Hclyi, uid ipHif, ft cutting; In refmace 

I. Char. Calyx campanulate, somewhat bilabiate, at len^h becoming oun- 
ate. Pod thickened on the upper suture. Shrubs with spiny hraocba 
.nd yellow flowers. (iTec. Fnid.) 

• 10. C, splNo'sus Lam. The spiny CytJE 
MB. Diet., t. p. MT. I Dtc Prod., i. p. IH.) Dob'i HUI 

..».p. II 

mrmt. AHUtlum inlntHuni Ltn. Sp. 99T. 

mmlfiti. 1. Buih. Hlit, I. p. £. p. tI6^ lam. i LoU lean., 9. t. 99. ; ud ourj^. IM. 

c. ClmT., Sfc. Branches angled, spiny. Leaves trifoliolate j 
nflets obovate- oblong. Legumes perrectly smooth. {Dec. 
'rod.) An upright spiny shrub. Upon hills and rough places 
■om Perpienan to Genoa, in Corsica, and in (he Algerine 
ountry. Height 2 ft, to 10 ft. Introduced in 1598, Flowers 
ellow ; June and July. L^ime black \ ripe in October, 
'here are plants m the Hort. Soc. Garden. 

Denized DvGooglc 

XXV. leoumina^cea: cv'tisus. 221 

11. C. tribracteola'tdb We&b. The three-4>racted Cflitui. 

Hiipm, p. SI . ; OUi Hlipin., Ik I. 
Hlipu.. t. a. and sue ^' »' ' 
Spec, (^ar., ^c. Decumbeat. Sninches letra^aal, 
ilivBricate, rigid, obtuse. Learei trtfoliolate, 
Terticillately «ub-opposiCe ; leaflets ovate-elliptic, 
rii^tly obtuse at the apex, retnse, with aah- 
coloured silky down, petjolulale. Common pettote 
none, or cohering with the branch. Flowers axil- 
lary, cliutered, pedunculate. Calyx bilabiate, 
haiiyi upper Up cut to the middle in narrow 
acute segments ; lower lip longer, narrow, 3- 
toothed ; middle tooth loogesl, supported at the 
base by three orate closely pressed bracts. 
{Webb, OtiaHup.) A decumbent shrub, ever- "'■ '''*" "' 
ffeea from the colour of its bark. Spun near Medina Sidonia, on the sum- 
mits oT mouDtains. Height 1 ft. to 3 ft. Introduced in 1B38. Flowers 
yellow J May. L^ume ?. 

• 18. C. LANi'GBBUs Dec. The wool-bearing Cytiaus. 

UrwlflaMm. Dk. Pcod., 1. p. IM. ; Dou'l MIIL, 1 p. lU. i WAb IMr 

armBmrmJi. Sptrduin luilnnm Daf. rt, AU i.p. las. : Galn^Moaa 
TlUftH Umi SwM. i «pi(FtlLmi illlSn^ Brol. A Lnt. a. p. W, ud 

Eiitritrims. Ovifis. SU. froin n ipKhnen In Iha BrlUih HuMOO. 

Sprc, Char., S/c. Btanches furrowed, apiny. Leaves tri- 

folioUte; leaflets obovate^lliptical. Legumes very hairy 

in a wooUy manner. (Dec. Prod.) A spiny shrub. 

Found wild on hills and in rou^ places in Corsica, 

Crete, the Archipelago, Mauritania, Gibraltar, and For* 

tugsL Height )! ft. to 10 ft. Introduced in lesi. 

Flowen yellow ; June and July. Legume dark brown, 

or Mack ; ripe in October, 

■ C. J. 2 rtgidta Dec — Spines very strong. 

Not common in collections, and in all probability it is 
nothing more than a variety of the preceding species. ,^ c. iHiini. 

} iv, Tuboc^ima Dec 

DtrHatiim. From wiw. ■ tubs, urd intint i In ittittBet %a Ihe Cobulir ihipi of Iha culrx- 
Stct. Char. Calyi tubular, with the apex toothed-lipped. ThomlcM shrubs. 
{Dee. Prod., u. p. 155.) 

A. Floteen abtlt or iMtM, 
m 13. C. LBttCA'HTHUs Waldit. et Kit. The white-Sowered 

XMKcjiMb.. WildM. « Kit, ». p. 141. i Dec. Prod., a. p. 1S& i Dub', um, 

S^xe. Otar., if'c. Stem erect. Branches round, and, am well 
aa the leaves, clothed with closely pressed pubescence. T^— E . 
lets dliptic and acute. Flowers atthe pointsofthebrauchesj 
heads of flowers bracteated by two leaves. (Dec. Prod.) A 
downy shrub. Croatia, in woods. Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. 
Introduced in 1806. Flowers yellowish white ; June and 
July. Legume black ; ripe b Uctobtf, *'*■ »!■■**» 

., Google 


B. FlovxTt purple. 
u'revb Scop, The purple^uvmf CjtiEiu. 

Stems procum1>ent, twiggy. Leaves, calyxes, and leguina 
lets oblong. Flowers axillary, solitary, on short pedicds. 
A procumbent shrub. Native of CamioU in exposed place. 
Introduced in 1702. Flowers purple ; 
Legume black ; ripe in October. 

« albo Hort. has the 6owers of a pure 

re Totco. — Flowers rose-coloured. Plants 
in the Horticultural Society's Oaiden. 

Of all the different species of Cf- 
tisus, when grafted on the laburnum 
standard hi^, this forms the most 
graceful tree ; and a plant of it covered 
with its purple flowers, placed on a 
lawn, or in a border near a standard of 
Genista trSquctra, covered with its 

golden yellow flowers, will produce a 

Tery striking effect. The sin^lar hybrid *"' '■'"'** 
or sport formed between this plant and the laburnum li> 
been already described, p. 216. 

C. Flowert j/eUoa, 

Stems erect. Branches elon- 
i; young ones hairy. Leaflets 
d teneath with closely pressed 
lateral, usually in fours, on short 
es hair^. (Dec. Prod.) An erect 
>. NativeofHungary,in woods. 
' ft. Introduced in ieu4. Flowers 
nd June. Legume dark brown, 
n September. 
I, and at Messrs. Loddigcs's. 

iFU>'iti;s Lmdl. The muny- 
awered Cytisus. 

S«t. Rut.!- 1191-1 Dun'! Kill.. 9. pins. 

^.K^f,'!. 1191.1 «nd out Jfc.MT. 
Stems erect. Branches elon- 
ounger ones villous. Leaflets 
I to the base, villous beneath, 
me colour on both surfaces. "•■ ««"■•*■»»*•■ 
f ternary. Pedicels about equal in length to the petiole* 


XXV. LFGUMINA^CE^ : cy'tisus. 233 

Vexillum emarginate, undulated. (Don't Mi/l.) A downy ihrub. Native of 
Eun>pe. Hdght S ft. to 3 ft. Imrodjced in IBOO. Flowers yellow j Hay 
and June. Legume black; ripe in September. 
It appears to us to be only a variety of the preceding species. 

M IT. C. falcaVus tValdtl. el XU. 

Wildu. «t Kit. Huu., a. p. t 
Lodd. Boc C*b,. tTm. ; Wi 

^c. Char.t fy:. Stems decllnate Branches round and twiggy; the young 
ones, aa well as the leRves, clothed with closely presaed hairy down. Petioles 
h^rv. Flowere usually in threes, lateral, and on short peauncles. Calyxes 
clotbed with closely pressed hairs. {Dec. Prod.) A downy shrub. Native 
or Croatia, the ISouth of Russia, and Oallicia. Height 2 ft. to 4 ft. Introd. 
1816. Flowers yellow; June to August. Legume blacic ; ripe in October. 

Farietiet. C. triflonis Ltid,, C. ruth^nicus Lod., C. decAmbens Lod., are 
apparently all varieties or this species. 

■ 18. C A 

s L. The Austrian Cytisus. 

Syr^tnVi. UlU. Icdo., IIT. t i, ; Full. Itln.. ad, G*: 

^xc. Char^ ^c. Stems upright. Branches round and twiggy, and, as well as 
the leaves, clothed with closelv pressed strigose pubescente. Lnflets lan- 
ceolate, attenuated at both ends. Flowers ternimal, somewhat umbellate. 
Calyxes and l^umes rather hairy. (Uee. Prod.) An upright downy shrub. 
Found in woods and rough places in Austria, Upper Italy, the Ukraine, 
and Siberia. Height 2 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1741. Flowers yellow ; 
July to September. Legume black ; ripe in November. 

• C. o. 2 nova Lod. has the leaves much smaller than 
the species, and seems to be an erect, and very dis- 
tinct variety. 
•* 19. C. suPiVtis Jacq. The supine Cytisus. 
JdnUjficaHtm. Jacq. Ft AoMr, 1.1.9b; Dn.Pnid.,a p. IH.t I>oa'tMm.,a 

Smrnfrte, C MSIda Ptmr. Jet. Ttml. S. t. SIB, 

Avm^vi. Cliu. Kin.,;. W. No.T, ioB.i Jiii|. E 

Spec. Char., iic. Stems branched and decumbent. Branches 
round, and, when young, rather hairy ; adult ones smooth. 
Leafleti obovate, hairy beneath. Flowers 2 — *, usually 
terminal and pedunculate. Calyxes and pods slightly hairy. 

., Google 


(Dec. Pnd.) A decumbent hairy shrub. Nadre of Bdgiuro, Anstm, 
Pannonia, Siberiti, Turkey, and Dauphin^ botii on exposed hilU, Rod in 
sheltered bush; places. Height 1 ft. Introduced in 1755. Flowm pale 
yellow, with the Btandard reddish ; Hay to August. L^ume dark brown, 
or black ; ripe in November. 

^ SO. C. HiRsuViis L- The hairy Cytisus. 

Spec. Char.,4^. Stems decumbent. Branches round and twiggy ; when voune 
bmry, but smooth when old. Leadets ovste, hairy beueatoT Flowers htenl 
on very short pedicels, aggregate. Calyxes and pods hairy. (Dec. Pnd.) A 
decumbent hoary shrub. Found in rugged places from Genoa to Hungry. 
Height 1 ft. Introduced in 17S9, Flowers yellow; June lo Au^ist. Le- 
gume black ; ripe in October. Closely resembling the C. ca ^ta t us, aad 
C, triflAniB of Loddiges's arboretum. 

^ 81. C cipita'tus Jacq. The headed^uviyrf Cytisus. 

^KWS«i«. 'C. hlnilnil Lam. bid i.'p. HO. : C. lUStDIU LfK. #. 1040. ' 
Entratimgi. Ladd, Bo(. C«b., 1. 197. 1 ind our.l4. S^I. 

Spec. Char., S(C. Stems and branches erect, the latter his[Hd. 
Leaflets 0Tat&*lliptic, hairy. Flowers numerous, and 
forming heads at the points of the branches ; but some- 
times lateral in the autumn. Calyxes and pods covered 
with short hairs. (^Dec. Prod.) An upright hoary shrub. 
Found wild on the edges of woods in Burgundy, Italy, 
and Austria. Hdght 2 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1774. 
Flowers yellow ; June and July. L^ume dark brown, 
or black ; ripe in October. 

Farietiet or SvnoHynirt. C/tisus ausiriacus Jjod., C. canteens ¥uA. of Got., 
C. ural£nsis Lod,, C. calyclnus Lod., C. parvifBlius Lod., C. hirsCitu* 
Lod., C. auplnus Lod., ^pear to be all varieties of C. cepittltus, or in 
some cases, perhaps, identical with that species. 

.■ S8. C. cilia'tus WaUmb. The ciliated-jrodiW Cytisus. 

Mflificahim. Wiblnb. Fl. Cup, ll«. ; D«. Prod., 1. p. IH.; Dou'i MUL, 3. p. IM. 
£iVoA«f. Our^. . laflg. . 

Spec, Char., 4^c. Stems upright. Branches smooth when old, but when y oui^ 
hispid. Leaflets obovate, clothed beneath with closely presaed hairs. Flowers 
approximate in threes, at length lateraL Pods glabrous and ciliated. (Hec. 
n-^j \ A \.i.,„^A .t.».k V..*;... ^p •!.« r^..m. — ^u; iLr ....: ii-:_L. 

s Sieb. He many-haired Cytitus. 
IdBiieiotUom. BMi. n. Tut. Bupid., 477. 1 Dk. ITod., 1. p. 116.; Dsn'i HUl.. 1. p. li 

Spec. Char., 4^. Stems declinate. Branches hispid. Leaflets oboTate-ellip> 
tie. Flowers lateral, usually in pairs, pedicellate. Calyxes and pods hairy. 
(Dec. Prod.) A recumbent shrub. Poiuid m pone forests, on high noun- 
tuns, in Tauria. Height S ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in IBIS. Flowers yellow; 
June and July. L^me black ; ripe in October. DeCandolle observes of 
it, that it has the hairiness of C. capititui^ the disposition of ihe flowers of 
C. hirsAtua, and the habit of C. ■uplnus. 


xxT. leouminaVe^: cy'tisus. 

} V. holoides Dec, 

PiiftaWw Fr«D lo4a$, (be loliu» >pd «idDf» oppannc* ; (TDCQ the »ii«TftJ RKBbUucfl or Eh* 
•pcdM u tb* fcou LMiu. 

^wc. C%ar^ ^p. Tub« of the calyi short, obconicat ; the upper lip S-parted. 
the lower 3-toothed. Corolla hanlly Ioniser than the calyx. Many-«tefnined 
ibent shrubs, deciiluous, with few flowers, generully CHpiteie and ter- 
and nUyeUow. (Dee. Prod.) 

Jt 2+. C. ahcb'stbus L. The silvery Cytisus. 

...... .. . .'p,iia' "' ■■ ■'■ 

£vra(iv>' Loll Icvn., l-p.-ll. r. !.; ■ndour;^. Ml. 

!^>rc. Ciar.,^. Slems decumbent. Leaves, calyies, corollas, 
and podi clothed with a closely pressed eilky down. Leaves 
petiotate, trifoliolate ( leaflets oblong-lanceolate. Flowers ■ 
3 — 4, produced at the points of the shoots. (Dec. Prod.) < 
A decumbeuc shrub. Native of Carniola, the South of '* 
France, and Mauritania. Height I h. Introduced in 1739. 
Flowers yellow } August. L^ume black ; ripe in October. 
A silky silvery- looking shrub, from the prevalence of closely ~ 

pressed silky down over all its parts ; noticed in the specific cbatacter, and 

whence it derives its spedfic name. 

3 Sie6. The ^r^g^calyxed Cytisi 
i Dte. Prod., 1. p. It), i Dod-i 

^Kc. dor., ^c. 8teins ascending. Leaves, calyxes, and 
podi somewhat hairy Iroro spreading down. Leaves 
trifoliolate and petiolate. Leaitels roundish, obovate. 
Flowers terminal, from 2 to 8 together. (Dec. Prod.) 
A prostrate shrub, with trailing inches, the ends of 
which grow uprioht. Found in stony places on Mount 
Caucaius. Height I ft. Introduced in IBSD. Flowers 
jellow ; August. Legume black ; ripe in October. 

.a 86. C. na'mus IViiU. The dwarf Cytisui 

Spec. C3ar.,4'c. Stems cylindrical. Leaves trifih- 
liolate, obovate, clothed with strigose pubescence 
beneath, and smooth above. Raceme terminal, 
secund, usually 4>flowefed. Calyx deeply 3- 
pwted ; hairs on the steins and peduncles ad- 

K eased. (Don'i Mill.) A procumbent shrub. 
alive of the Levant. Height I ft. Introd. in 
ISie. Flowers yellow; June and July. Le- 
gume black; ripe in October. 
This is a beautiful little shrub for rockwork ; 
and if planted in dry sandy soil, covered with 
brood nnt atones to retain the moisture during 
the hot weather of July, it will continue flowering 
daring the whole of that month, and produce 
■buDdkoce of seeds | which may be sent u> any 



j vi. ChronAjitkus Dec 

Seel. Char. Calyx with the upper lip bifid, and the lower one trifid ; lobes 
acute, of the aunie length as the tube. Petali permanent. Legume ova), 
much compressed, S-«eeded. (_liee. Prod., ii. p. 157.) 

^ 87. C. oriemtaYis Loii. The Oriental Cjtisus. 

KnUTatHltl. Fluk.Phfl.,t. SI. f. *.( ind our J^. SCA. 

Spec. Char., 4'i^- Stems erect, hairy. Leares almost sessile, 
trifoUolate, huir^ ; leafleta linear, acute. Pioirers large and 
yellow, subterminal, on short pedicels, and few. The flowers 
and pods are both glabrous. Calyi hairy, more 5-cIeft than 
bilabiate, {Dec. Prod., ii. p. 157.} An erect hairy shrub. 
Native or the Leranl. Height 2 ft. to 3 ft. Introduced in 
1H18. Flowers yellow, large and persistent ; June and July. 
L^ume black I npe in October. to. cm^mw^ 

Other Spedei ofCytim. — This genus, in British gardens, is in such a stateof 

confusion, that nothing can be done in it satisfactorily till all the binds are 

collected together, and ctillivated for two or three years till tbey show their 

flowers and fruit. Perhaps two thirds of the alleged species in the London 

gardens are only varieties. In the mean time, all that a cultiTntor can do is to 

iirocure as many kinds as he can ; and to the collection of Messrs. Loddigen 

he wilt find the greater number of those above described, though some of them 

have been killed by the winter of 1B37-B. Among the species probably hardy, 

by far the handsomest in point of foliage is the C. ledfirw Gusa. (Bot R^. 

t. ISOa., and ourj%. 366.) 

It is a tall, very hoary 

shrub. A native of Strom- 

' boli. Height S ft. to 8 ft. 

^ Introd. in 1835. Flowers 

? pubescent, yellow, cam- 

Knulate, and the young 
jumea glabrous. It has 
k the appearance, Dr. Lind- 
ley observes, of being an 
intermediate species be- 
tween C. Laburnum and 
C.triflorus. (See.JrA.ifr., 
. iBted., p. 8551) C. ro- 
%cf»;anu MBmock (Flor. 
(«. cfiMMUc jjgg ^ ^(,1 jj ( jg , ^^ ijyj. ^^ JJ67.) is a hand- 

some shrub, of moderately robust habit ; a native'of the Peak of Ten^lfb. 
Height 3 ft. to 4 11. Introduced in 1635. The Bowers are terminal, in a 
spike tlDonX 6 in. in length, and of a bright yellow. There were plants in tbe 
EpKom Nursery in 1838. Many other species of Cytisus are described by 
authors, for wliich we refer to Don's MUier, Webb's Iter Hitpameme, Bois- 
sier's EUnckiu PUmtarum, Duby and DeCandolle's Botamcim GaUicunt, and 
the first edition of this Arbarelum. Many genera of ligneous plants require to 
be cultivated together, in the same garden, in order to settle their nomea- 
clature : but whUe some of these, as Qucrcus, PIuus, Ac, would consume the 
greater part of a lifetime in procuring them from the different quarters of the 
world, and waiting till they came into flower, the genera Genista, t'jfttsus. 
and Adenodirpus are almost exclusively European, and might be collected in 
tbc course of one year ; while, in three years after the seeds were sown, the 
plants would in most cases come into flower. It ti sutTirising, therefore, that 
fiOiDe amateur of leisuie does not undertake their arrangement. 

XXV, leguhina\;rs : adenoca'rpus. 



Mnt l tfi tati am. DK.F1.Fr. ttlf^.Ua.; Ltt- kl«TD.,£.i Prot.. 9. p. IM. ; Don 'i MID . 9. p. 1ST. 
DtHtUim, From ai<nh ■ (Uod, md tarfai, mat ; la ntanou Is ttas lifunu brint beM wllk 

Got. Char. Cofyf obconical, usuhIIj' beset with glnnde, bilabiate; upper Up bi- 
partite, loiTtt one longer and trifid. Carim obtuse, encloning the itBineiu and 
piatila. Stamcm monadelpfaoui. Legume oblong, compremed, (ZXxt'i MUl.) 
hraeet compound, trnolwlate, alternate, stipulate, deciduoui. Floaxn 
jellow in all the tpedes. — Shrubs, straggling, of ghort duration, somewliat 
erergreen from the colour of their j'oung shoot* ; natives chiefly of Europe. 
Branches diTergent; leaves trifolioUte, with petiolar stipules, and folded 

leaflet*, and usually grouped; Sowera upon bracteolate pedicels, and disposed 

in tenniual lacemcs. Culture as in Cytisus, from which 

geoDB most of the species have been separated. 

j> 1. A. eiispa'nicus Dec. The Spanish Adenocarpus, 
Mtntifliat/im. Dh. F1. Ft. Enppli A*^ ; L,^' kUm, 8. i Prod., t. 

p. iSa ; Ddd'i HIIL, 1 p. tM. 
Amohiivj. cftltiia blapApkciu Zjh*. Diet. % p. 44A. ; C. nucfrliH 
_Vlflrll, SUrf. \at.. tfTS* «■■. ». p. KUl 

Spec. Char., Ifc. Calyx glondulose and villote ; lower 
lip with three equal sf^ments, that are barelylonger 
than the upper lip, firanchlets hair]'. Flowers 
grouped. Standard rather glabrous. (Dec. Prod.) A 
Dairy shrub. Spain and Portugal, in shady and moist 
places. Height 8 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in ISIS. 
Flowera yellow ; June and July. Legume dark browo, 
or black ; ripe b October. —. a. tM " — 

* 2. A. Boi SSI B^n/ Webb. Boissier's Adenocarpus. 
MrMMnniM. WEUi'ilt«IilBi,ii.n.iOt<i tUuiD.,p.4. 

Kfmm^ma. A.darAitlEui B^HM.iarr.tMi'lI'tevg.p.R. i EUotIije, ^oi. 
BiH'"*^'- OtlilUipuiku,L4. lUkdourj^.SGB. -•-•-• 

Spec. Char,, 4c. Arborescent. Berli scaly. Branches purplish, ash-coloured, 
clothed with soft hairy pubescence, and with nuraerous leaves. Petiolei 
elongate, terete. Leaves with ad- 
pressed pubescence. Leaflets Unear, 
with revolute margins, somewhat ob- 
tuse^ Calyx villous, the lower lip 
somewhat longer than tbe upper. 
Vexillum pubescent at tbe ^>ei and 
middle. Legumes elongate, obtuse, 
whitish, with purple glands. Seed 
greenish black. ( JVebb, Otia Hupaii.) 
A larg'; deciduous shrub. Spain, in 
warm valleys of the mountains of 
fltanada, 4500 ft. to 5000 h. above 
the sea. Hebht 15 ft. to SO ft. In- 
trodueed ?. Flowers reddi^ yellow, 
fta^rant) June and July. Lc^gume 
whitish, covered with nutnerous pur- 
ine gland* ; ripe in August. 



A most beautiful species when in flower ; but, vhen out ofnower,ofa^ooniv 
uhy hue. The trunk is disfigured bj the old ragged bark, whence the 
Temacular name. It is truly astonishing, Mr. Webb otwerves, that this splendid 
European plant, of almost arboreous stnture, with spikes of flowers sometimei 
a (bot in length, should so long have esci^ed detection. It closely resembles 
A. hispinicus, but, accoriling to Mr. Webb, it is " vwy entirely distinct." Planls 
are, or toon will be, in the Milford Nursery. 

■ 3. A. interne' 

s Dec. The intermediate Adenocarput. 

Aifmtif. CLiu. Hlu., 1. p. » 

_^.c.Char., ^c. Calyx pubescent; pubescence glandu- 
lated ; the middle of the tlirec ai^nents of the lower 
lip of the calyx longer than the side ones, and than the 
upper lip. Branchreta ratiier villose. Flowers rather 
distant. Standard rather glabrous. {Dec. Frod.) A 
pubeBcent shrub. Native of sunny gravelly places in 
Portugal and Old Castile, and Mount Scuder, iii Sicily, 
and of Mongiana, in the kingdom of Naples. Height 
ift. Yenr of introduction unknown. Flowers yellow ) 
May to July. Lf^ume black; ripe in September. 
A very handsome species, and one that is much admired 
for its Gne terminal spikes of (lowers, which, in favour- 
able seasons, and in a dry soil, ripen abundance of seeds. 

• 4. A. PARVCFo'i.ius Bee. The small-leaved Adenocarpus. 

MaUillcaliat. Tttr. [.tg. Mfm. «, luid Prod. 1. p. ISS. , Dan'i MU1., !. p. I5S. 

Srovvta. Cjlliui pinllWlul K. Du Ham. i p. U7., Lam. Dkt. i p MS., 
mcliuLr, of Ihnmonrmeti CJtUui illnrlcilui f/ftrtt SliVp. IM. ; bflMiu 
complictlui Dee FL Fr . fit. lira ... Sfkn\\in, comvlVAVim Lou. PL GalL 141 

£fWra>rngl, N.DiilUin.,S.L4T. £ l.i 

Spec, Char., ^c. Cslyx somewhat pubescent, with glandulous 
pubescence ; the central segment of the lower lip longer 
than the side segments, and much exceeding the upper lip 
in length. Branches glabrous. Flowers distant. Standard 
pubescent. (Dec. Prod.) An erect shrub, whitish from the 
down on its branches. Native of sunny heaths in the West 
of France. HeighlSft. to 10ft. Introduced in IBOO, Flow- 
ers yellow ; May to July. Legume black ; ripe in October. 

The Toulon AdenocHrpus. 

:. FL Ft, Suppl. M., Ltf. Mta 

a Wlonfaiil! /j/j, f1.tlaU.U 

Vart. Mauii. 35S.. EIcliutTior (B( (TncmniHL 

u Hun., & t. 41. 1 1. i iud oat Jlf. in. 

Spec. Char., <J-c. Calyx not glandulose, pubescent; 
the segments on the lower lip nearly equal, ex- 
ceeding a little the unper lip in length. Branches 
_i . j.i. Flower '■ ■ - "■ ' ' 

almost glabro 


tive of sterile places and heaths in the Pyrenees, 
in Cevennes, in Provence, and in Rome. Height 
Sft-tolft. Introduced in leOO. Flowers yel- 
low; June and July. Legume dark brown, or 
black ; ripe in October. 

It well deserves a place in British gnrdena ; 
where, when judiciously treated, it wilt, owing to 
the moisture of our climate, attain double the 
b^ht that it does in the South of France. 

XXV. LEOUHINa'c££ : QNoVlS. 

□ □ 

Sjaa^nan. .tuanli and Mitrli llintck Milk, ISI. ant IM. j AirMt-bmr.'or •omeUiuisi'Bugruici 

Oen. Char. Ca/yx eampanulate, 5-cleft, with linear segments. Vexillum lai^e, 
striated. Stameni monadelplioiiH, the tenth one sometime* almost free. 
Legume Usually turgid, Eessil<^, feW'Seeded. (Don's Mill.) 

Leavei tiifoliolale, stipulate, alternate, deciduous. Flormrn yellow, pur- 
plish and red, or rarely white. — Stirubs, very low, aulfl-uticoae ; natives of 
Europe. Two species are hardy. 

The peduncle is, in many instances, furnished with an awn, which is the 
petiole of an abortive floral leaf. Tiie two specimens here described are well 
adapted for rockwork or flower-borders, on account of their lively flowers, 
which are red, or reddish purple ; colours not frequently met with id the lig- 
neous Ltgiiminacew, by far the greater part of which have yellow flowers. 
They are readily propagated hy seeds or by division, and 
will grow in any soil that is tolerably dry. 

Mmt^ottM. Lin. Sp., I 

£iW™Ah(. N. Dd Huii„ 1. I. H.l MUL icon,, t. K. i Bat, HU,,I.IJ7l 

ud aatJt. >R. 
Spec. CW., ^c. Leaves trifoliolate. Leaflets sessile, 
lanceolate, serrated. Stipules connate into one, sbealh- 
ing, and 4-awned t and, in the uppermost parts of the 

flant, occupying the places of leaves which are absent, 
'edicels .■J-flowered, disposed in a raceme. (liec. Prod.) 
A low shrub. Alps of DHuphin^, &c. Height I fi. to 
4 ft. Introduced in 1680. Flowers purplish red ; 
Hay and June. Legume brown ; ripe in September. 

j> (). /. S mki-opkylia Dec, O. fruticiJsa Auo. — 
Leaflets small, obovate, and serrated. Native of 
the mountains of Aragon. „^ ^.^ 

a 2, O. ROTCNDii'o'Li* L. The round-leaTed Restharrow. 

Uatl^laaiBm. IJn. Rp. cd. I. V- Tl^i *>»< not ed, 3. i Drc. Fiod., 1 p. Id. 1 
Eu^airhlct. iicq. FL Auttr. Appeoo., I. 49. i Bot Hb&, I- 33S. ; 

^>ec. Char., Jir. Leaves irifoliolaie; leaflets ovate, 
and toothed. Peduncles 3-flowered, and with- 
out brscteas. (Dec. Frod.) A low Kbnib. Native 
of the Pyrenees, and the Alps. Heiglit I ft. to 
2 ft. Introduced in 1570. Flowers purplish red; 
May to Sept. Legume brown ; ripe in October. 

OlAer Kmdt of Onitmt. — O. IrOirecteala Dec, a 
suffhiticose plnnt with pink flowers, supposed to 
he a native of Cnrinthia, differs little front O. ro- 
tundif^lia. Several other s[>ecie.s are hardy, but 
not Bufliciently ligneous for our purpose. 


Genus X, 

ANKyRPHA L. Ths Amohpha, or Bastard tsbtoo, Lm. Sgtl. Hana- 
d^lphia Decindria. 

lieHlificailm. Lla. nm.. K9. ; I^n. IlL, t CJl. i Dec Prod., t, p. IK. ; Doa'i Mill., f. il xM. 
%>Knij«a. Boimfrdta Jftct, Btol*. No. ISM. i F«ll» iKlifo, JV. ; llnfonn, C*r. i Amorh, /toi 
ArrAdtHHi. From «, pri««U«. jnd ■»««, (DTTm iDnhmcx loUwikronnltT aril»a>rDtla,rh]sa 

(h* null of Uh wiDgi ud kMl. 
Gen. Char. Cidyx 5-toothcd, obcoDically ctunpnnulHte. Vexiilum ovate, con- 
cave, Wiagi und Keel wantiog. Style filiform, straight, glabrous. Slament 
exscrted, Tnonadclphous at the very base. Legume compressed, 1-ccUei), 
1— B-seedcd. (Don't MUl.) 

Leavei compound, iiupan^innate, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; atipulea 
dGciduoun. Ploweri of a blue violet colour, in spicate racemes- 
Shrubs, large, deciduous ; natives of North America. Leaves having many 
purs of leaflets that have transpnrent dots in tlicir dieks, and usually minute 
stipules at their base. The flowers are disposed in racemes, usually grouped 
at the tips of the liranches. The species are highly ornamental on account 
rf their leaves, and more especially of their long spikes of flowers ; which, 
though, when taken separately, they are small, and imperfect iu regard to 
form, are yet rich from iheir number, and their colours of purple or violet, 
uiangled with a golden yellow. The plants are not of long duralion ; and are 
habie to be broken by wind; for which reason they ouglit always to be 
planted in a sheltered situation. They produce abundance of suckers, Irom 
which, and from cuttings of the root, they are very readily propagated. 

• I. A. FHUTico'sA LAn. The shrubby Amorpha, or Batterd hdiga. 

■ .^.L. ._•_ . — -ndlgOpft-., s'trmurfiinlj^Unfenii.W.i Iwhcabuurds. 
ol. lle»., in. 1 ind am fig. WJk 

^prc. Char,, S;c. Rather arborescent, somewhat 
villose or glabrous. Ledflets elliptic-oblong, 
the lowest distant from the base of the 
petiole. Calyx somewhat villose ; 4 of its 
teeth obtuse, 1 acuminate. The standard 
glandlesa Legume few-seeded. (Dec.Prod.i 
An erect glabrous shrub. Carolina and 
Florida, on the hanks of rivers. Height 
Stl. toisn. Flowers very dark bluish purple; 
June and July. Legume brown ; ripe Uct. 
Naked young wood greyish brown. 

m A. /. i angutti^ia Pursh has the leaf 

lets linear-elliptic. 
■ A.f. 3 emargmdla Pursh has the leaflets ^^^ \jMta r-^uct^ ^^" 

notched, and the calyi hoary. wn*« -obi*-. 

A vf. / 4 Leui{ni Lodd. Col., 1830, appears to have rather larger fluAer» 
and leaves than the species. 
f. 5 aerulea Lodd. Cat., 1830, has the flowers of somewhat a palef 
' -' Perhaps ooty a variation of A. crdcen-lan&ta. 

* 8. A. (f.) aLA'BRA Deif. The glabrous Amorpha, or Bailard Indigo. 
MmllfiiaUan. l>ttt. Cal. HoR. Far., Ita. \ Dk. PnnL. t. p. iw. ; Don't MUI., 1. p. IM. 
Brngratij^. Ou Al- tie. Irom m HMdiiKD tn Dr. Llndkj'i herbmnuni. 

Spec. Char., S^e. Rather arborescent, glabrous. Leaflets elliptic-obloDg, the 


XXV. i,EGUMiiiA*cE£ : amo'rpha. 231 

lowest dbtBiit from the base of the petiole. Calyx riabroiu, four of its 
teeth obtuse, one acuminBte. Staoibrd elanded on the outside. Le^me 
containing few seeds. {Dec. Prod.') A glabrous shrub. North America. 
' HeightSl^. to 6fc. Introduced in IBIO. Flowers bluish purple j July 
aod August. Legume brown ; ripe in October. 

: 3. A. (p.) Hi'NA Natt. Itie dwarf Ainorpha, or Batlard IruSgo. 

-itfes Niitt.lnFru.CiUIBU.) Nw. 0«. Anwr, I. |i, 81. ; Dec.Prod.,1. p.lM.; Don't 

•twninK. A. mlcTDpll^Ul iNtnt Ft. AmfT. Sevl. 9. p. 4M. 
SmtrmK H tt. BuL Wig^ llll. ; imd hit Jl(. STf- 

^ec. Char., ^c. Shrubby, dwarf, rather glabrous. Leaflets ellipdcRl, mucro- 
nulate. Calyi glabrous, all its teeth Mtaceuusly acuminate. L^ume 1- 
seeded. (Dec. Prod.) A low glabrous shrub. Nadve of hertiage-covered 
hills near the Missouri. Height I ft. Co 3ft. Introduced IBll. Flowers 
purple, fragrant ; July and August. Legume brown ; ripe in October. 

■ 4. A. (f.) pba^rahs Sweet. The fragrant Amorpha, or Baitard Indigo. 

Spec. Char^ ^t 

oblong muc - • f , .. 

Calyx pubescent, pedicellnte; superior teeth obtuse, lower one acute. 
Style hairy. {iSo^t Miil.} A pubescent shrub. North America. Height 
? ft. to 8 ft. Introduced in 1800. Flowers dftrk purple; June and July. 
Legume brown ; ripe in September, 

• 5. A. (p.) cro'ceO'Lana'ta IValt. The 
Safiron-coloured-wooUy Amorpha, or toamy 
Bailaid Indigo. 
UtnlVtallat. Wau, Dead. Bril.; Don'i UIIL. l.n.St. 
XacrorAifi. Wut. Dend, Brie. t. in. i and oni fi0. Kt. 
Spee. Char., ^c. Plant clothed with tawny pu- 
bescence. Racemes branched. Leaves witb 
6 — 8 pairs of oblong-elliptic, mucronulaie, 
downy leaflets ; the 3 upper teeth of calyx 
ovate, acute, the S lower ones very short, 
and rounded. {lioiCt Miit.) A pubescent 
shrub. North America. Heigbt 3 ft. to 5 ft. 

Introd. 1820, Flowers purple or purplish 'n. A.a.)mi,mttmttk 

blue i July and August, Legume dark brown, or brown ; ripe in Oclaber. 

« 4 



tds'scRNS Kull. The canescent Araorpba, in 

Sept,, S. r.*BJ. : Dnc Prod.. 1. p. M&i t>an'i 

e^S^. (luVjIr.WO. (romrurih'iiinclnim 

Spec. Char., ^c. Suffruticose, dwsrf, all otct whitely 

IT the ba»e of the petiole. Calyx tomen- 
tose; iti teeth ovate, scute, equal. Ovary 2- 
ovuled. Legume l-seeded. (ZJre.iVod.) A low 
tODientose shrub ; Louisianii, on the bonks of the 
MiMOuriand the Miswasippi. HdghtSft. Introd. 
1812. Flowers dark blue ; July and August. Le- 
gume brown [ ripe in October. 

Genus XI. 



I. Syit. IMadclphb 

; Dcn'i MUU «. p. St- 

IdenUfiralum. H. R. si Kunth Not. CFn.,Tlj). 489.^ Dk. I 
Stinonjrme- lii\b%xpii Sprang, Sj-it. App, K3- 
Dtri'ntim. NrnmoiriD honour of C*ort» WailaniEri™**! 
of KGnlgllwrt, In Pruilll. 

Gen. Char. Calyr obconically camjiiinulate, 5-toothed ; upper teeth rather 
remote, lower one longest. PetaU 5, disposed in a papilionaceous manaer. 
VeriHum oblong, and tlie two keel petals distinct. Slameiu diadelpbous. 
(Bob'. MUl.) 

heavei compound, impari-pinnate, alternate, stipulate, deciduous; beset 
with glands. F/ouwrtinterBiinBl racemes, while. — An unarmed Ehrub or 
low tree ; native of Mexico. 

* I. E. AUORPHoi'DES H.H B. The Amorpha-like Eysenhardtia. 

UmigitiMoti. H. B. M KuTiIh ; llK. Prod., and Don'i MIU.| Bot. Reg. Chron.. irag.Ko.3& 
.ynoiivuK. Ilnll*rj/a oniiiri.holdM Sprmg. 

Spec. Char. .Bfc. An unarmed low tree or shrub, with 

itupari. pinnate leaves, composed of many pairs 

of stipulate leaflets, and these are, as well as the 

calyxes, beset with dands. Racemes terminal, 

cylindrical, flowers white. (Ain't ilf(//.,ii.p.834.) 

A deciduous shrub or low tree. Mexico, on 

mountains. Height G ft. to 10 ft ; in British gar- 
dens 4 ft. to 6 ft Introduced in 1637. Flowers \ 

white. Legume?. 

This plant was raised in the Hort. Sac. Garden, ' 
find ha.s proved quite hardy. The leaves are di»> 
tinctly marked with glandular dotting ; a very un- 
usual Bicong Icijuminous plants. The twigs 
are short, and so closely set upon the branches 
as to form a dense niasa of foliace. Each is ternit- 
uated by an erect compact spike, from 2 in. to 
3 in. lone, of white or pale vellow flowers, 
which, althoujjh not larger than those of a spina, nevertheless, from thcif 
abundance, must produce a beautiful i^ipearancc. (^Bot. Keg. 



UO&WIA Ud. Thb Robimu. or Locust Tsss. Lot. Syit, Dind^lphia 

Uaut/kaUm. D(c Mfan. T%.,a.i FniL, 1. p. ael.j Don'iMUI., l.p.07. 

g yiMiy H. FuodKlcl* TgonL /Ml.t.4i;., ifinut WrU. I4A.1 lEoUnlcr. n-., BoUnle.Orr. 

Id P«rifl, vui wu t&B Bnt pcnon who tulUTAtsd the RohlnJB Fieud-Jc^ciK !□ Buropv. 

Gen. Char. Calt/x 5-toothed, lanceoLiCc, 'i upper onea shorter and Hpproii- 
mate. Corolla napilionaceoua. Vcxiiliim large. Keel obtuse. Stament tlia- 
(Idphoua, deciduoua. Otaria 16 — SO-ovuTute. Stole bearded in front. 
L^ujne compreAsed, almost sessile, nmny-aeeded, with the valve* thin and 
flat, mai^ned at the seminireroui suture. (^Don't Mill.) 

Lemxi compound, unequallj' pinnate, alternate, deciduous ; teaHeta 
generally OTste or obovate, petiolite. Flowert white or roBe.«oloured, in 
Bkillary utually nodding racemes. — Trees, deciduous, natives of North Ame- 
rica, where one of the speciee is highly vahied for its timber. 
The species are prized, partly for their use, but chiefly Cor th«r beauty. 
They are readily propagated by seeds, Urge truncheons of the stem and 
(■ranches, cuttings of the roots, or by grafting; and they will grow in any soil 
that is not too wet. Their roots are creeping, and their brancnes very brittle : 
they grow rapidly, but are generally not of lung duration. Their rapid (j^owth 
is a property that they have in common with all trees and plants the principRl 
roots of which eitend themselves close under the surface j because there Lho 
soil is always richest : but the same cause that produces this rapidity at first 
occasions the tree to grow slowly afterwHrds, unless the roots are allowed 
•inple space on every side ; since, as they never penetmte deep, they soon 
exhaust all the soil within thmr reach. They are, therefore, highly objec- 
tionable among omannental shrubs, or in (lower borders. For this reason, 
also, such trees are objectionable as hedgerow trees, or as scattered groups in 
aratde lands ; their roots proviiu a serious impediment to the plough, and the 
suckers thrown up by them choking the com crops. Roots, on the other 
hand, whkh penetrate perpendicularly as well aa horizontally', belong to more 
slowly, but more eieadily, growing trees, which alHaye attain a lai^ alie in 
proportion to the extent oi ground they occupy. 

X 1. R. PsBU^-./lc&H:iA lAit, The common Robinia, or False Acacia. 

Lio^Sp.. 1«». : IHc Pro*., 5. p. Ml. 1 Don'iMlil.jS. p. M7. 

DtwinSom. TbUtm, vhfli flnt Inniducncl. wu nippMcd u b* ■ •padci of tks BgnxluHcl*, 

Iifdels **n), (toa iu pridilr liniKbn tuA ptuucca Icits. whtdi xatnitlUi tboH o[ tint lite. 
twH HiiKd tba loRnttnc bf 1)m miulimviis, ahobnclnKliuhsu thi tm Dial •upporteil 
St^Ma Id tha vtUMneu. It li not, hoimcr. ■ siUne or ui^ «bsr put oT Us inirld thmn Monh 
.... . , . ._,^ 1^ prnbiibly, Ibe (nw locuU of lbs A'™ Tctlanml. ^e 'ccnnui 

ID. Dl.. 1. S6A. ; H. Uu lUm., 1. t. IS. ( tba pl«t«o[ (bli ipeclet In Aib. Brtt., 
>_ Txi., .». .. I and Dur fif. 3>1 
^pec. Char^ 4<'- Prickles siipular. Branches twiggy. Racemes of flowera 
loose and pendulous ; and smooth, as are the l^iimcs. Leaflets ovate. 
The Sowers are white and sweet-scented ; the roots creeping, and their 
fibres sometimes bearing tubercles, (Dec. Prod.) A deciduous tree, above 
the middle size. North America. Canada to ('arolina. Hcdght 70 h. to 
soil. Introduced in 1640. Flowers white ; May and June. Legume 
compressed, dark purplieb brown ; ripe in September. Decaying leaves 
yellow. Naked young wood purplish brown. 


VarieUei, The plant vwying much in its dif^ent natiTe localitie*, mud abc 
hRTing been long cultivBted from aeeda in Europe, the varieties are nuoie- 
rous. Some of those included in the followine li»t appear in our Horbu 
Briianmcui, and in Don's MUler, as species ; whue some hvbridc, sudi as R. 
hybrids and R. intermMia, might also have been consiclered at nuieties, 
but we have {deferred keeping them apart. 

I S. P. tfiore ikter, Dumont 6. p. 140. has the flowers yellow. 
t S.P,S imenaa Dec. Prod. ii. p.26l., Dec. Cat. Hort. Honsp. 136.— 
Prickle* wanting, or nearly obsolete. Leaflets flat. Plant of fra« 
growdi, in irhicn respect it differs from R. P. umbracuUfen. 
t B.P.A: criipa Dec. Prod. iL p.S6l, — Prickle* wonting. Leaflets all, 

or ibr the moat part, undulately curled. 
I B.P. 5 umbramlifira Dec Prod. ii. p. B61., Cat. Hort. Honsp. 157. 
R. inermi* Dum. Ctnm. vi. p. 140. — Pricklea wanting. Branches 
much crowded, and bmoolh. Head orbicular. Leaflet* ovate. This 
variety is raid to have been raised from the seed of R. P^ei'id-jlcacui ; 
and, according to Dumont de Courset, to have yellow flowers. Ii 
ha* been common in Britiab gardens since I8J0, but hoa not yet 
flowered in this country. 
1 R. P. 6 tortuotaHec. Prod. ii. p. S61.; and the plate in Ari>. Brit., Ist 
edit., vol. V. — Branches mucli crowded, and twisted. Racemes limi- 
lar to those of R. Pseitd-^ciiciB, but sinailer and fewer-flowered. 
T R.P.I sophorte/Viii Lodd. Cat. 1830 haa the leaves large, and aome- 

what like tho»e of 5Df>idra j[q>tinica. 
T A. i*. 8 amoTpk^olia Lk. has leaves somewhnt like those of Aoaurpha 

3 iZ. P 9 ttiida Lk. baa the general tendency of the shoots upright -, 

but still the plant is not so fastigiate as the Lombardy poplar. 
I R. P. 10 procera Lodii. Cat. 1630. — A tall ngorous-growing variety. 
t R. P,\\ pendula Ort. Dec p. S6. — The shoots are somewhat droop- 
ing, but not very decidedly so, 
i R.P.iS mmutrm Lodd. Cat. 1 830. —The leaves are large, and twisted. 
X R. P. 13 macroph^Ua Lodd. Cat. 1S30 has the leaves long, and the 

leaflets broad, 
I S. P. 14 micropA&ia Lodd. Cat. IB30, R. angujtifdlia Hari,, has tbe 

leaves small, and the leaflets narrow. 
T R. P. 15 ipeclibUit Dum. has large leaves and ii without pricklea : it 
produces strai^t vigorous shoots, which are angular when young. 
It was raised from seed by M. Deacemet, at St. Denis, and was 
formerly known in the French nurseries by the name of Acacia 
agafante (enticing). 
S R. P. 16 latiMiqaa, the broad-podded locuxt, is mentioned m Prince'* 

Calahguetor 1629. 
Host of these varietie* are tolerably distinct in the foliage when the plants 
•re young. Those best worth cultivatii^ for tbe shape of the tree, are R. 
P. umtoacuKfera, the parasol acacia ; R. P. [i£ndula ; R. P. ttricta, the 
upri^t.growlng sort ; and R. P. speci&bilis. With regard to the yellow- 
flowered variety, it ma^ be worth continuing by grafting or suckers; bat, to 
make quite sure of having white flowers, the trees producing them ought to be 
propagated by grafting alsc ; as plants raised from seed, though for tae moat 
part they have white flowers, yet occasionally produce yellowish ones. 
The wood, which is commonly of a greenish yellow colour, marked with 
brown veins, is hard, compact, and susceptible of a bright palish : it has a good 
de<d of strength, and is very durable ; hut it ha* not much elasticity, and » 
Bomewhai li&te to crack. A cubic foot of locust wood, newly cut, wei).tis 
63 lb. 3 01. 1 half.dry, 58 lb. 4 oi. ; and, when auite dry, only 481b. 4 os. It* 
value for fuel, when compared with that of the beech, ia a* IS to 15. Fot 
duration Hartig place* it nnmediately after the oak, before the larch and the 


Scotch pine. According to Barlow, the aCrengch of Kcacia timber, m compared 
with fine En^h oak, ia M I85T to I67S ; the strength of uh being u 20£6 ; 
beech, 1556; dm, 1013; Higa fir, HOB; Norway spu- (spruce fir), 1474; 
and teak, 8-l>e8. The tree has one propertj almoat peculiar to it, that of Torming 
heart-wood at a very early aee,m. in Its third year; whereas the sap-wood of the 
oak, the ctieitnut, the beech, the elm, and moit other trees, does not begin to 
change into heart, or perfect, voad,tillafler 10 or 15 years' growth. The trees of 
thb species^ and of several ofits varieties, in the garden of the Horticultural So- 
ciety, and in thearhoretumorMessrs.Loddiges, have attained the height of 30 fl- 
•nd upwards, in 10 years from the lime they were planted. Tho'e is, perhaps, no 
Amencan tree respecting which so much has been said and done, in Europe, as 
the locust. It was one of the first trees that we received from America, and 
it has been more extensively propagated than any other, both in France and Eng- 
land. It has been alternately extolled and neglected in both countries ; and evea 
at the present time, though the beauty of its foliage and flowers is generally ac- 
knowledged, and though It has, at different periods, been enthusiastically praised 
by diferent writers, for the valuable properties of its wood, it cannot he con- 
ndered a* holding a high rank as a timber tree, or as bdng worth planting with 
a view to proBt. We [lass over many curious and historiMl facts respecting the 
loctist tree, for which we refer to the 1st edit, of this work, and come to the 
year 18S3, when an extraordinary aensatii^D was excited in Britain respecting 
this tree i^ Cobbett. This writer, while in America, from 1817 to 1819, "was 
convinced that nothing in the timber way could be so great a benefit as the 
general cultivation of this ttee," On his return to England he coimnenced 
nurseryraan, and the name of locust, as applied to this tree, being, before 
Cobbett's lime, almost forgotten in Ensland, many persona, in coiuetjuence, 
thought it was a new tree. Hence, while quantities of plants of Kohinia 
Pseiid-i4cacia stood unasked for in the nuneriea, the locust, which every one 
believed could only be had genuine from Mr. Cobbett, could not be grown by 
him in sufficient quantities to supply the demand. After creating a orodigioua 
sensation for a few years, the locust mania entirely subsided, and the tree is 
now, as it was before Cobbett's time, phuiled only, or chiefly, for ornament. 

I 2. R, visco's* fenl. The ciainmy-iariai Robinia. 

Uimt^teaUaii. VmLRon. Oil., t. t.| Dk. Prail.,1. p. Ml. I Don-i UIU.. 9. p. ISt 
^pait/mtt. a. iIuiIdOu Aw. Mag. UO. | R. mooclnt Barlram ; ttia ftoH-SastrlDg LociuC. 
SmtririKfi, Vm Hon. C«I>,.L t.i Boc Mig,, 1. UO.,u it. ^UCIntel; IhsplaU of Uili in* Ri 
Alt. BM., lit aUL, tdL T. I ud our 4|. HA. 

^>ee. Char., t^. Branches and Iqumes glandular and clammy. Racemes 
crowded, erect, Bractea* concave, deciduous, each ending in a long bristle. 


The 3 lower teeth or the calyx acuminated. Roots creeping. (Arc. Prai) 
A clamTny-bnrked tree. South Carolina and Georgia, near riven. Hi^lit 
30 Ti. to 40 a. Introduced in 1797. Flowers scentless, jmle pink nuied 
with while, varying to pale purple or violet colour accordins to the mbI; 
June lo August. Legume brown; ripe in October. Naked joung wood 
puriilish nnd clainmy. 
The liark, particularly that of the young shoots, which is of a dull red, ii 

covered with a clammy substance, which, Hhcn touched, sticks to the fiogen. 

In every other respect, both in natural churacters and artificial culture, thn 

tree strongly resembles the common R, Pseud-^cacin. 

* 3. R. 1 

UrnlMctlllam. Fnuc 

SgntmBBKi. K. hfbrida 4tidib. ; R. unhliui Fair. SapPl. *. B. SDO. ; ud, prrtupi, B. achlulS 
muL Did.. Ho. t, ; B. Inl>?nn^la Saylnngt- Bairn In iwi. fHarl. ill Farii, 1. p. U. 

^lec. Char., ^c. Spines very Ehort. Sranchea, petioles, peduncles, and calyxes 
furnished with a lew glands, rarely clammy. Leaflets ovate. Racemes loose 
and pendulous. Bracteas concave, caducous, ending each in a Ions brisde. 
{Don't Mill,') A deciduous tree, rather under the middle size. Hybrid? 
between R. Pseud-iifcacia and R. viscosa. Originated in ? 1730. Flower* 
sweet-scented, pule rose-coloured ; June to August. Pods browti, tbicklf 
beset with short prickles ; ripe in October. " — 

3 « 4. R. Ht'si 

UmHlaiiom. LIq. Mudi., 101. i Dk Prod. I. p. IGI. i Don'i 
Mli! . 2. p. SM. 

Eiv™im Mill. Ic.,t. Mti llot.^.,aiki UU OU[J%. S«4. 

Spec. Cliar.,SfC. Spines warn! nv. Leaflets obovate. 
Branches and legumes hispid. Ruccmes loose ; 
the 3 lower teetb of the calyx acuminated. (Dec. 
Prod.) A shrub, or low tree. Carolina, in pine 
woods. Height 6 ft. to 20 ft. Introduced in 
1758. Flowers lurgc, dark rose-coloured j June 
to October. Legume brown ; ripe in Octobei 

and Noveiidwr. Naked young wood purplish 

brown, thickly beset with prickles. °°'' "■■■^^ 

I.., I, . .,C(Xi>;lc 

XXV. leoumina'ce-e: casaga'na. 237 


■M B.i. i nana Dec. is a plant hardly a foot high, found in pine woods 

in Carolina. 
A JI. A. 3 totea Farsh hna the leaflt^ts for the most part alternate, and 
the brancheB smoolhish. In its oative habitats, on the high mountnina 
of Virginia and Carolina, it grows, Discording lo Pureh, to B con- 
udnuljle shrub, whereas the specien is a low etraggiing plant. 
■ A. li. 4 macroph^ila Dec., R. grandiflorB Hort., figured in Ath. Brit., 
Ist edit., vol. T., has the leonets large, and ovate-roundish; and the 
branches and peduncles glabrous, and without pridcies. 
Tlie wpecles, and the different varieties, are shrubs or low trees, with tor- 
tuou« and very brittle branches, and leaves and flowers nearly twice the size 
of those of Roblnia PseOd-'^c^a. They form singularly ornamental shrubs 
for gardens ; but, as staodai'dB or bu»hes, they can be only planted with safety 
in the moat sheltered situations. When ^ajied standard nigh, and trained to 
« wire paraaoUike jrame, supported on a rod or po^t fl or B feet high, few 
ptenu an equal to R. h. ntacrt^hyila in point of brilliant display. 


"■NA Lam. TaB Caraoana, or SiBBRiAH Pea Tree. 
Lin. Sytl. Siadelphia Decindna. 

L Diet. 1. p.<U.i Dw.Prad., 1.ILK8.; Dou'l MIU., 3. p. tU. 
Amhk. Rotriiifa tp. L. 
BtritiUtm. CmagBt a tba noH of C. iriiaTbcnu uninif tha Honiol Tinui. 

Gen. Char. Cidgx short, tubulous, 5-toothed. Corolla obtuse, straight ; the 
wings and vexillum about equal in length. Slametu diadelphouK. Sti/ie 
glabrous. SUgnia tenninal, truncate. Legume sessfie, young ones com- 
pressed, at length somewhat cylindrical and many~eeeded, mucronate by the 
style. Seed, somewhat globoite. (Dan', MUl.) 

Leave! compound, abruptly pinnate, alternate, stipulate, deciduous i 
stipules usually apinescent. Flotvert mostly yellow. 

Trees or shrubs, natives of Siberia and of the East, Leave^ with the leBf^et^ 
mticronate, and the petioles either with a bristly or a spiny point ; their flowera 
axillary, each on a distinct pedicel, usually several together, pale yellow, 
eiccst in C jubota, in which they are white tinged with red ; their stipnles 
usually become spines. They are all omBinenlBl or curious, and of the easiest 
culture in any common soil ; propagated by cuttings of the roots or by seeds. 
The dwarf and pendulous-growing spedes, when grafted standard high on C. 
arbor^s<:ens, ronn very singular trees. 

¥ I. C. abbobb'scens Lam. The arborescent Caiagana, or Siberian 
Pea Tree. 

,,a.p.K8, : Don'i Mill., a. p. 143. 

Caragnna iIMricm Sag i huiH Aads Ss Sllii 

Fr, ; Stbirlictaii ErbieDbuiD, GtT. i Comctaoll., 

Emarariaei, N, Du Hm., 1. c 19.; PulL FL Bo»., I. k <!.. ni<dd1ii ggnre i thapUWDrthliqicdei 
In Arb. BriL, lu nlll.. roLr. 1 udmu-Jtf. US. 

^ee. Char,, ^c. Leaves with 4 — 6 pairs of oval-oblong villous leaflets. 
Petiole unanned. Stipules spineecent. Pedicels in fascicles. (Don't 
Mill.') A low tree. Siberia, in woods, and upon the banks of rivers. 
Hnght 15 ft. to 20 ft Introduced in 1753. Flowers yellow; April and 
May. T«gunie brown ; ripe in Auguitt. 

., Google 




X C. a. S inimii Hort. has tbo brsnche* 

without spinet. Plants in the Horti- 

cultiml Society's Garden. 
Pal lu inform ■ us that upon the banks of riven 
it grows to the height of 18 fl. or mcii-c ; but in 
arid placeH it is only a small shruh ; in the latter 
state forming, as we think, the varieLies C. (a.) 
AUagdna, aniTc. (a.) microphyila. C. arborcacena 
forms an erect stiff tree, with numcroua upright- 
growing branches. The flowers are axillary, one 
on a pedicelj the pods are ohlong-taper, and each 
contains 3 or 4 seeds. The wood is hard, com- 
pact, and very tough ; yellow on the outside ; and 
within, waved and striped with red, and with 
reddish brown. 

M 2. C. (k.) Altjoa^NA Poir. The Altagana 
Caragana, or Siberiatt Pea Tree. 

UeiUifitaltam, Pair. Sap.. 

lySna P^li J"L Roil, t At.. L'H«Ht. SUrp. 1. K. i Carm- 
gOta mfcrophjlli Lan. Ditl. I, p. 6IS. 

««rw™,. p2f. Fl. 'ro^™ 4S., 'uiKlJthe"nMH of Ro- 
Unm JiUfdna, UHtiU. SUtp,. t. JC ; Bld-our A- BB«. 

^ec. Char,, <fc. Leaves having 6 or 8 pain ot 
glabrous, obovate-roundishiretuse leaflets. Pe- 
tiole unarmed. Stipules spinescent Pedicel* 
solitary, Ltgumea rather comprrased. (Don't 
Mill.) A low shrub. Siberia, in arid plains. 
Height 3 ft. to +ft. Introd. 1789, Flower* 
■ss. C.I . '——. yellow; April to July. Lc^me brown ; ripe in 

fiww, September, 

Usually propagated by grafting on C. arborfscens. 

3, C. (A.) 

I Dec. 

tdnUf/ltBUoii. DM.Prod.,l.p.l«8.iI>oa'iMm.,l.p.l4>. 

( 1, 1. : Carag^a i»r. fort-. SmL 1. p. («. 
XMTaniwj. nal.FI. I(au..l.Sl. r l.l.uDdertliaiMinii 

>J|{ol>liilaiiikroph]!11(l tuioatjlf.i*!. 
Spec. Char., fc. Leaves with 6 — 7 pairs of i 

hoary retuse leaflets. Petioles and stipules ^ 

rather spinescent at the apex. Root creep- i 

ing. (DotCt MUl.) A low shrub. Siberia, 

in the Desert of Bareba, and in other arid ' 

places. Height S ft. to 3 ft. Introduced in 

1819. Flowers yellow I April to June. Le- 
gume brown ; ripe in August. "'' '^ ■" -'"»^'' 

J> i. C. (a.) REDo'wssr Dec. Redowski's Ceragana, or ^lerim Pea Tret. 

Mtniyicatim. Die. I>gum..1. [I.i Don'iMlll.l p. M*. 
EKi£ra%iKf. Due L^rum-.l. li- 1 IS , In tbe Kodllof luta. 

fpec. Char., i^e. Leaves with two pairs of ovate, acute, smooth leaflets. 
Stipules spinose. Flowers yellow. {DotC, Am.) A low shrub. Siberia. 
Height lit. to 5ft. Introduced in 1880. Plowen yellow; April and May. 
Legume brown ; ripe in August. 

... Google 




M C. (A.) R. 2 jirre'cox FiBch. onlj difien from C. Heddwaki in coining 

into flower earlier. The specimen in the Hart. Soc. GarJen was in 

full lear, and in flower, on April 30. 1836, when C. frDt^scena and 

C arbor^Bcens had not a sfatgle leaf expanded. 

In fenetal appearance and hsbit of nvwth, it resemblei C. AUagana, ol 

which it is prolMDij onl; a variety. H. 8. 

M 5. C. (a.) iuha'bia Dotm and Sim. The 

Sund Caragana. 
nmf{ifca«n. Dihui Hurt. Cut.; Slisi Bat. lIa(.,I.IWt. 

Spec. Char., S/c. Leaves with, usually, 4 or 

more pairs of obcordate leaflets. Pedicels 

usually twin, and shorter than the flowers. 

Stipules subulate. Flowers yellow, (pon'i 

Mill.) A low shrub. Siberia. Height 1 ft. to 

2 ft. Inlrod. 1802. Flowers jellow ; April 

and May. Legume dark brown ; npe in August. s 

Probebly only another variety of C. ariiorfscena. It ripens leeds v 
land, but is generally propagated by grafting. 

■ 6. C. frutb'scens Dec. The shrubby CaragaiiB. 

Spec, Char., ^c. Leuves having 3 pairs of leaflets, which 
approx'uaate near tbe top of the petiole: they are obo- 
vate^uneated. Stipules membranous. Petiole furnished 
with a iibort spine at the apex. Pedicels solitary, twice 
the length of the calyx. Flowers yellow, resupinate. 
Leaves with a yellow hue. (DoiCi Mill,) A bw shrub. 
Native of Russia, on the banks of the Wolgn and other 
rivers. Height in open situations 5 ft. ; in v»ood» and 
gardeiiB 9 ft. to 10 ft. Introduced in 1752. Flowers 
yellow ; May. L^ume brown ; ripe in August. 
. DoCondolle mentions two forrns : — 

* C. / I lafifolia, which has gla- 
brous broadly obovate leaflets, 
and is frequent in garifcna ; 
there being a subvaricty, with 
S-flowercd peduncles; and 

• C. / 8 angtut^lia, which has „ 
leaflets, and is found near Odessa. 

A handsome shrub. 

oblong cuneatei 
grafted etandard high o' 

■ 7. C. (p.) ho'llis 

7eu. The soft Caragana. 

ilh.Ji.M.;Don'lMllL,4 B.»«. 
1. Tirnr. SMfpl. ^TI-^ RoUD'a tanwn- 
w rucM. Dan. UDTCiu. laia ; Cara^^n* mi1fK4B« tmf, tnAlUd Drc. 
EvgraifKt. Unr^, S»ILfraniifp«ImanlilDr. LlDdlei'tbBrtariDin. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves with 2 pairs of oblong, cuneated, 
approximate leaflets, near the tip of tbe petiole, clothed 
with soft hair. Petiole ending in a short spine. Pe- 
dicels solitary. Flower* yellow, (Dm. Prod.) A low 
Native of Tauria and Podolia. Heiaht 8 ft. to 3 ft. Introduced in 
Flowers yellow ; April and May. Legume brown ; ripe in AuguBt. 




■M 8. C. pvomx'a Dec. Thepvgmy Caragana. 

__. , . . , D«. aw,; Dcm-iMlll,! p, !« 

awnyinc. RDblm^rl"^'* i-™ % '<***-• '''>''- ^- "o"- 1- 1- *"■ - •Imm. Smtk. I. XL 

Kmtrni»ti. Pill. Fl Eton,, I, t M. i Aram, Rulh., I. l,^.u RoMnu pjgnw'i i udoutj^. W 

i^rc. CiW., ^c. Leaves with 2 poirt of linear, glabrous, approximate leafiett 
near the tip of the petiole, wliich ia very short. Stipules and petioles ^»- 
nescent. Pedicels solitary, and ncBrly the length of the caljj;. Calyx nearij 
equal at tlie base. LemeLa acute, cruwiled, usually in the axils of triGil 
■pines. Flowers yellow. (JJcc. Prod.') A low shrub. Native of the Altaic 
Mountains. Height 2 ft. Co 6 h. Introduced in 
1751. Flowers yellow ; April and May, Le- 
gume brown ; ripe in August. 

j> C.p. 2arrnaria Fisch.haa Unear^cuneate leaf- 
letB, and pedicels of the Rowers generally 

longer than the calyx. J 

This species has larae trilid spines, slender leaves, 
and small flowers. The leaflela ure remarkable for 
being in fours, disposed in the form of b stur, in the 
axils of the spines. The young shoots are of a fine 
yellow, very tough, and fit for being used as withs. 
When grafted as a standard on C. arbor^ecens, it foni 
singular appearance. Increased by suckers or by grafting. 

1 small tree of vt 

■ 9. C. s 

It Dec, The spiny Cnragana. 

Enfrariiitl. PtO. Fl, Rou., t, C M. ; Bal, Reg., t. IM[.; mnd ouijlf . 391. 

ifpec. Char.,4:i^. Leaves with 2 — tpairs of eu. 

neate-linear gUbrous leaflels. Stipules small, 

spinose. Adult petioles jicrmaiient, strong, 

and spinose, twice the length of the leaflets. 

Flowers solitary, almost sessile, and of a 

bright yellow. Legume rather compressed. 

(Don't Mill.) A 

spiny shrub. Si- 

Iwria, in gravelly 

and also said to 

plentiful in Chi- ' 

na, about Pekin, 

where branches 

of it are stuck in 

clay upon the tops of the walls, in order that ii; 

Sines may prevent persons from getting over 
em. (Pal/. Fl. Bou.) Height 3 ft. to + ft. In- 
troduced in 1755. Flowers yellow ; April and 
May. Legume brown j ripe in August 

>r grafting. Standard bi^ ii 

p. 90, ; Dec. PiDd., 1. p. MS. i 

Slimmln*rt. Rsblni'a InneuUiailtel FlUi.St 
crulnUu laU. Cal. 

■ . PiU. Noi. Act IX, 10. t. T. i Ai 

L SS. ; ind our j^. sn. 




^ee-ChoT^ 4c. Leares with 8 — 4 paire of oblong-lanceolate sOky leaflets, 
endiiig in a tittle sfrine. Stipules spiDescent. Adult petiole* permanent, 
itrong. ami tpioooe, twice the length of the leaflets. Pedicels solitary, short, 
L^me hoary-villous. {Uon'i MUl.) A low spiny shrab. Native of Si- 
beria, araonc granite rocks. Hdglit 6 in. to 1ft. Introduced in 1816. 
Flowen ydlow, drooping ) April and Bfay. Legume browns ripe in August. 
When grafted standard high, it rorms a very singular olyect. 

M 11, C, jubaVa Pair, The crested Caragana, 
Mnfjlulin. Prii. Suppl.. 3. p. St. ; D«. Prod., 1 p. 469. ; Don't MUL, t. p. SM 
EmtFwtinet. Pal. Ao. Pm,. 10. I, B, i Lod. Bol. Cmb., U a«.. 4. RoWcAi jubiU i ud \^iJiK.»*. 

Spec. Ckar., ^c. Leaves with 4 or 6 pairs of oblong.lanceolate lanuginously 
ciliated leaflets Stipules setaceoui. Peiioles somewhat apioose; adult 
ones defleied, Gliforra, permanent. Pedicels solitary, very short. Legume 
glabrous. Flowers few and white, suffiised with red. ( JJon'i MiU ) A low 
abnib I native of Siberia near Lake Baikal, 
Height I ft. to 1 ft. 6 in. Introduced in 1796, 
Ftowen white, tinged with red; April and 
May, L«fuine brown ; ripe in August, 
This species has a curious shaggy appearance, \ 

occasioned by the footstalks of tlie learea being 

bristly or thorny, and remaining on long after 

the leaflets hare dropped off. Increased by 

g^ng m Caragma arbor&cena, and as a standard forming a very aingular- 

- 12. C. aRiNDiPLo'BA Dec. The great-flower«d Carafiaoa. 

UaimkaUtti. Dec, PlD<l.,a.p. «&; Son'iHOl^S. p. Ml 
a fm mfm r . BiMaia (randUlin Bui. Fl. Tour. 1. p. 168. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves with 8 pairs of oblong-cuneated ap- 
proximate leaflets, near the tip of the petiole, which la 
»ery short. Stipules and petioles apinose. Pedicels aoli- 
taiy, almost the length of the calyi, which is gibbous at the 
baae, \^saK terete, acute, brown. gUbrous. Flowers 
1 in, long, yellow. (Don'i Mill.) A low shrub ; native 
of Georgia, near Teflis. Height 2ft, to ift. Introduced 
in 1823. Flowers yellow, 1 in. long i June and July, 
Legume brown; ripe in September. H. S. 

- 13. C. CaAML^'eu Lam, The Chamlagu, or Oincte Caragana 

ar ^at m i. BiMBlaitaaatuVlttnt. mrr,, n. 

EnBTitimt/i. L'HirU. Sclrp., t. TT. i N. Da Hu. 
£b., 1. I. II. I ind Dur J^.Wfi. 

^vc. Ckar., 4-c, Leaves with 8 pairs of 
distant, oval, or obovate, glabrous 
leaflets. Stipules epreading, and, as 
well as the petioles, spinoae. Pedicels 
solitary. Flowers pendulous, la^e, 
and y^ow, at lei^th becoming reddish. 
Root smelling like liquorice, (HinCi 
Mm.) A diffuse smooth shrub. Native 
of China. H^t 8 ft. to 4 ft. In- 
troduced in 1773. Flowers yellow, at 
length becoming reddish, large ; May 
and June. L^ime brown \ ripe August, 

, Google 


Thit Gpeciea has a thick root and branching stem, wicli ((rejf bark. The 
branches are altemnle; at Grst upright, and tiien decumbenl. The whok pbnt 
baa a linRuIar appearante, more especially when jiwt going out of Bower, ll 
U generollj' propagated bj BCpanuing the ofTsets, or bj needs, or it aay be 
erufted on C. arbor^scens. Urolled on thia species, espet^llj when the rioA 
II 10 or 18 feet high, it farnu a Bingulaiij' picturesque penduloua iree; besu- 
ciful not only when it n in leaf or in flower, but from the gnceful lines Ibnonl 
b; its hranches, eveu in the midst of winter, whm they arc coinpl^ely stripped 
of their leaves. 

Genus XIV. 


HA,L!M0DE'NDRON FUch. Trb HALiaoDKHDKoN, t>r Salt Tbee, 
Lin. S^tl. Diadelphia Decindritt. 
In Ltu. 1 Dk. Uguin. Him., 6. ; Prod., !. p. MS. i Don't Mm.. 1 ^ IM 

Gen. Char, Caiux urceolHtely campanulats, with 5 short teeth. JTerfobtnse, 
straightiah. tVtngi very acute, and auricled. Stament diadelplions, abmit 
equal in length. Stglt filiform, fjlahrous. Stigma terminal. Leg/one stift- 
tile, inflated, bladdery, hard, ovule, and few-seeded, depressed at the semi- 
niferous suture. &c<ft oval. (Z)t>n'i Mi/l.) 

Leavet compound, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; abruptly pinnate, with 
"i pairs of leaflets: petioles and stipules spinose. Flawert bluish pink. « 
purplish, in 2 — 3-flowered peduncles. — Shrubs, deciduous; natiiea of Europe 

Propagated by weds, by cuttings of the roots, or by grafting on the coaimoo 
laburnum, or on the Caragana arlMrescens. 

• I. H.«rgr'nteum Dec. The silvery' /ratwrf Haliiuodendron, v 
Sail Tree. 

Uemraltaiiam. DfC. F . . . . , 


IS HiloiltndnrD Un. fl. Sunit. *n, r 
Lam. taFall. aiMAfp.U. sm. I. O-f. t. 
Eifminti. Fill. n.Ito«..t.ic.i *Dd«irjl(.ll 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves hoary. Peduncles 8'flowered. 
{Don't Mili.) A slirub, known from the colour of its 
leaves and brunches. Native of Siberia in saline 

Spes near the river Irtis. Hei^t 
to 6 ft. Introduced in 1779. 
lowers bluish pink, fm^miit ; May 
3 July. Legume inflated, brown ; 
Ipe in September. 
VarietUt, DeCandolle mentions two 
forms of this apeciea : — 

■ /T. a. 1 valgdre Dec. Prxid.— 

Leaves hoary or silver}. 

Standard the same length as 

the keel. 

m H. a, 2 brachytema Dec. Prod. 

(Bot. Mag., 1016.; and ourjfe. 398.) — Leaves 

noary or silvery. Standard shorter than the . 

wings and keel. Style short. 



• W. a, 3 SievSnii, H. Siev^rn Figch., is a dwsif variet;, »ery haFdy, 

named by »otae tus a specie*. U. S. 

An irreoular, much-branched, rieid shrub, with > itrigOBe grej bark, and 

leave* clothed with a whitish aJky down. The flowers are numerDua, resem' 

bling those of UthyniE tuberoBua, both in colour and liie; and they smell 

sweet. According to Pallaa, it ij much frequented by iuaecu, eapecially of the 

:n grafted 
t graceful 

UL.lp. Ml. 

K>tm L'Utril. SOrp. Xtr. 1S3. ; H. U(tDt« 

£i«r«iiW. Oorjlr. .lap. . 

i%ve. Char., ^c. Leaves greenish. The standard of the same length as the 
keel. Pedicels 3-flowered, (^Don'i MUl.) A shrub, like the preceding one, 
of which it ia, widwut doubt, only • variety. 

Genus XV. 

CALO'PHACA FmA. Thr Calophica. Lm.Sfftl. Dlad^lphia Decindria. 

Gen. Ciar. Calt/x 5-clefl, the lobet acnninaled. KcH obtuM. Stameni dia- 
detphous. St^le villous and siraight at the base, but glabroua incurved at 
the apex. Stigma terminal. Legitme sessile, oblong, (omewhat cylindrical, 
imicronate, l-celled. yahei concave, beset with son hairs, as well as with 
sdlT glandular bristles, mixed. (Don't HUi.) 

iJaim compound, alternate, stipulate, deciduous; impari- pinnate: stipules 
taaceokoe^ Fkneert ydlow. — A shrub, native of Siberia. 

■■ I. C. woLOA'itiCJi Fuck. The Wolga Calophsca. 

UrmMixliim. FlKfa. Id Lllt.l D«c. Prod., 1 p. nO-j D«'> 

f. >.. oL aad. Aprcmi. No. aM. I. 101. 1. 1. 1 Cnliiu f\a- 
nknuPoU. n Ku. ].t(7. 1 Cyiliui wolFtricut £m. ' 
SL a„mmi. ma., H. Dm nam. I. t. *i. \ ColuUi wal«l- i 
i AdnK>ctr«H wolrfiult Smme. SgU. I. p. M6. *- 
P<U.n.Kou.,«.(.(7.i )'.DuIIlln..M,4e.l ' 

Spec Charlie, Leaflets 6 or 7 paira,orbiculiir, 
velvety beneath, as well as the calyxes. (Z)onV 
MUl.) A deciduous shrub. Siberia, in deseit 
places near the rivers Don and Wolga, in a 
sravelly or sandy soiL Hdgfat S ft to .1 ft. 
iDtinduced in 1780. Flowers jetlow; June. 
Legume reddish ; ripe in August. 

Baaft somewhat difGcult to propagate except 
by seeds, which, however, in fine seasons, it 
produces in abundance, it ia not bo common as 
It ought to be in British gardens. Grafted 
MwKUrd high on the common hfaumum, it forms 




£V)LtJ'TEA R. Br. Thb Colvtba, or Blabder Skhsa. Lin. Sj/mI. 
Diadelphia Dec^dria. 
ItlmfflcaUtm. R. Br. loUort Kaw.,id.l, Tol4.p. na.i DccProil.K p.VtLi Oao'i MUL. 1. 
Spruv^ma. BMgavauMtr. Fr^ i Seniu EUub» luL ■ Bluaabvim, Oer. 

Gat. Char. Calyx 5-toothed. Vexillum flat, bicallose, larger than the keet, 
which ia obtuse. Slameni diadelphoua. Stigma lateral, liooked under the 
top of the style. Style bearded longitudinally behind. Legume stipitmte, 
ovate, boat-formed, inflated, acarious. (Dott'i atilL) 

Leaieei compound, alternate, Etipulate, deciduous ; impari-pinnate ; atipoles 
imall. Ftowert usually yellow, axillary, the racemes shorter than tfaelesTea, 
and Huccceded by bladdery i^;umes. — Shrubs, deciduous ; natives ftf the 
Middle and South of Europe, the North of AfHca, and Nepal. 
All the kinds that have hitherto been introduced into Europe are prohably 

only rarieties of one speciea. They are readily increased by seedi or cutting! 

of the roots on any common soil. 
■ 1. C. arbore'scbns Lm, The arborescent Colutea, or Bladder Stmta. 
. Sp. 1IM1.I Dsc Mtr., No. 1.) D<cFnid.,&p.IZO.i Dgn'I MUL, 1. v^ MS. 

SMMwmt. C. htnau RdU FL Gtrm. 1. p. SOS. 
SatritV- N. Du Hub., l.L».i Schmidt Ai 
Spec. Char., ^c. Leaflets elliptical, refuse. Pe- 
duncles b<«ring about 6 yellow flowers. Callosities 
of the standard short. Legume* closed, (p^c. 
Prod.) A npid-growiog shrub. Middle and South 
oF Europe, Italy, and on Mount Vesuvius is found 
even on the ascent to the crater, where there are 
scarcdy any other plants. Height IS ft. to 14 ft 
lotrvduced in 1570. Flowers yellow ; June to 
August Legume bhidder-like, reddish j ripe in 

The bladders, when pressed, explode with a crack- 
ling noise. On the Continent, the leaves have been 
recoDunended ai a substitute for senna, and they are 
aUo said to afford a grateiiil food for cattle. The 
seeds, in dose* of a drachm or two, are said to excite 
vomiting. In British gardens, the plant is chiefly 
valuable as a bulky fast-growing shrub, of the easiest 
culture, and fit for all 
• B. C. (A.) chub'n- 


k Ait. The bloody^nnmrd Colutea, or Oriental Bladder 

ew,. S. n U. I Dr. Aitr.. No, ).| Ddb'i Mill. 3. p MS. 

^>ec. Char., Sic Leaflets obovale, emarginate, glaucous. Peduncles bearing 
A — 5 flowers. Callosities of the standard obtuse, very small. Legume* 
owning at the tip. Corolla, in colour, between red and saiThiit-coloured, 
with a yeUow spot at the base of the standard. (Dec. Prod.) A glaucous 

XXV, lbgumina'ce*! cold'tea. 


shrub. Archipelago, Georgia, and the 
Levsnt, Height 4 ft. to 6 ft Introil. 
1731. Flowers reddish c(^>per-coloured { 
June and Julj, L^ume reddbh ; ripe 

Resemblei C. arbor^tcens, but of smaller 
dinienuoQs,and with leaflets more glaucoui, 
end more retuse. 

• 3. C. (A.) MBliu WUId. The interme- 
dcate Colutea, or Bhdder Senna. 

Empanii^i. WUi. Dmd. 
SrlL, [. ItD.i indourib' 
4W. ^ 

Spec.CAar.,^c. Leaf- 
lets obcordBte,glBu- 
cescent. Pediinclea 
usually 6-f!owered. 
Legumes closed at 
the apex. Flowers 
orange-coloured. — 
{Don't Mill.) e 

AshrubrBtherlarger than (7.(l.) <^"i^'^ Bi'l (li^ering ^ 
from it chiefly in having orange-coloured flowers. Per- 
baps; a hybrid between the two preceding sorU. ^^ ^ (.'iinuit 

■ 4 C. (i.) HiLB'pPiCA Lam. The Aleppo Cdutea, or Bladder Senna. 

Wnui|tcB(/oit. Lmm.Dlct, J.p,ii».( in., t. CTl. 1.3.; Dec 

:'. vSictii Alt. Ii'on,^Kn. 1. p. u . Sdimldi 

t'WfrB.SIirfp.A'iMi.a.t.Hl ' ■■ ■ P 

rlngi. Scbmldt Arb., 1 110. ; ud our j|f , tot. 

^c, CAar,, ^c. Leaflets roundishly elliptical, 

Tery obtuse, mucronate. Peduncles bearing 

3 yellow flowers. Callosities of the atandarrl 

lengthened, ascending. Lef;iimes closed. Smaller 

than C. arbor^Rcens. (Dec, Prod.) A low 

shrub. Fields about Aleppo. Height 3 ft. to 

6ft. Introduced in 1752. Flowers yellow; 

May to October. Legume reddish ; ripe Oct. 

Closely resembling C. arboriscens, of which it 

t4>pearB to be a variety, but rather more tender 

b British gardens. 

m 5.C. kbpalb'msis Hook. The Nepal Colutea, oi 
Om^fi^im. Pe«k BcLMm-ien.: Don'. Mill..! p. MS. 
Ajf"'''*'. I^»k. But, Ibg., t XH. I and aw J^- ™^ 



Spre. Char., ^c. LeafletB roundiBh-elliptic, retuse. RBcemes drooping, few- 
flowered. Calloaiues of Htandani papitUfonn. L^uraea rather coriaceoua. 
pubeicent. (Don't MiU.) A bninchj ahrub. Nepal. Hd^c 3 ft. to 
IGft. Flowers yellow ; August and September. Lepune reddish ; ripe in 
The ieafiets are Bnwll, and, bdng more imperfectly dereloped than in any of 

the other kind*, give it a singular appearance. 

Genus XVIl. 


Lin. Syit. Djadiifiua 

„.. . ._ IIU.,».F.»». 

^lu^vnc .filrUaliu ip. of Un. unil othsn ; AMnailf, Ft. i Tngint. air. i Aunnlo. IltL. 
utTitriuiom- Frocn iulra§aJoi, a vfrrt«brm ; the Ktd* Iq ch« leguinei of tame wpodm ft^iHt *qu««ud 

tuter, ft«ur, H>dj«ia,niUk- It it alto tbe aaiu gtren lot Arubbj Greek ■HMn- 
Girn. Char. Calyx j-toothcd. Keel nbtUKe. Stantm* diadelphous. Lrpame 
bilocu1»r or half-bilocular, Itom the upper suture being bent in so much. 
(2*™-* Mill.) 

LtttBti compound, alternate, stipulate, deciduous; pinnate: petiolea pcc^ 
■nanent. Flomert in the only hurdy ligneous speciea purplish or white. 
— Shrubs, low; natives of the South of Burope and Asia. 

HnKOtcMiM. Ltn. Sn.lDra.i WoodT. Mecl.BotuirG.t.9«.t WUl C 

ter>v. A. mwUKiiili Dirt. 1 . p. IMv. C«. Ailr. No. 9«.. D< 
Kwi. P*ll, Aur., L '. r. 1, 1. 1 Duh. Alb.. 1. 1 100. i WoadT. H 
Simi. irtt.. t U. ) iDd our fit. (Ot. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Peduncles usually 4-flowered, 
about equal in length to the leaves. Calyxes 
cylindrical, with S short blunt teeth. Leave* 
with 9 — 11 pairs of elliptic hoary leaflets. 
(Don't Mill.) A low prickly elaucous shrub, 
with sub-periistent leaves, and persistent pe- 
tioles. Marseilles and Narbonne, in sandy 
? laces, as well as Corsica and Mauritania, 
leight 6 in. to 1 ft. Introduced In 1640. 
Flowers purplish or white ; May to July. 
L^umet toroentose, brown ; n|>e in Sep- 
tember. General aspect whitish. 
The flowers are disposed on axillary pe* ^ 

duncles, so diort as to prevent them Irom 

b«ng at all conspicuous above the leaves. After the leaflets drop off, the 

petioles become indurated, so as to give the plant the appearance of being 

densely covered with spines. Propagated \>j seeds, wfiKh it sometimes 
ripens in Bncland, or hy cuttings. It requires a dry soil, and a sunny 
utuation ; and is well adapted for rock-work. 

Other figiMoui Spedei o^ Ailrigalut. — A. allmcta Lodd. Cab. ; A. ariilalm 
L'H^it. Stirp. 170., with yellow flowers, which is figured in Bot. Cab. 
t. IS78., and oiir^. 406. ; A. brenfiliiu, with a purplish flower, figured in 
Bot. Cab. t. 1383., and our ^.407.; and A. nuuofinuit Lam., which is 
probably a variety of A. TVagacSntha with white flowera inMead of purplish 

XXV. leoumina'cex: coroni'li 


e inBritiah collectionB; but, though tedinically ligneoui, arc iMualli 
u rock hertwceous planla. 

Sect III. /Tedvea^rea. 



CORONI'LLA JVr-nl. Th'i Coionilla. JM. Sj/it. Uiadelphia Dcctiulris. 

UaUI/kmliam. VaA. ELon.. No. Illfl. i LuB. 111^ (. SX, f □«. Pi id., 1. p. MS. 
Sfniotfnmt. CflrontllBspr of Ltd. uid GPthvri. 

umbcK ^ ^ lopi of the pflduncln. 

Gen, Chv. Calgx ounpanulste, short, 5-toothed, the two superior leeth ap- 
proiimate, and joined together higher up than the rest. Clawi of petala 
usually longer than the calyx. Girtna acute. Aantfiu diadelphouB. Legtiitie 
nearly terete, slender, at length separating into oblong I-aeeded jointM. Seedt 
ovate or cylindrical. (Don'i MiJJ.) 

Leave! compound, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; impHn-pinnate. FlmxTt 
hi axillary peduncles, bearing at thplr tops umbels of pedicellate Roiren, 
usimIIj yetlnw. — Shrubs, deciduous or sub-cTerpven; natives of the South 
of Europe or Asia. 
They are all highly omamental, and most of them produce seeds in England, 

by which, or by cutiingn, they are eusily propagated in cotninon soil. 
• 1, C. E'uiitus L. The Scorpion-Senna Coronilla. 

MfOVaoim. lAa. Sp.. IMS. i Dk 

vm, >. p. tn. { i>od'i uiu., i^. w*. 

Sf»arifmn. BlDcnu ii^tw Mia. lam. 
I. JH. r. I., ind E. BUHir. r. X. ; c. 

Eyniyi. Bat. N*«., t. Mt. ! N. Du 
«—.,£(. MI.1 Bd oar A. US. 

Spec Char^ 3[c. Shrubby, gU. 
brouB. Ita leaves are attend- 
ed by minute sttpulet, and 
h»e 5 — 7 obovate leaflets. 
Its flowers are yellow, dis- 
posed 3 upon a peduncle. The 
claws of the petals are thrice 
as loi^ as tne c«lyx. The 
legume is rather cylindrical 
than compressed, and its 

., Google 


joints Beparatc slowly and unobviouslj', but they do separele. (Dfe. Frd.) 
A buihy glabrous sbnib. Middle and Southern Europe, in tliickets and 
hedge*. Height t ft. tu 10 (l. Introduced in 1596 Flowers yellow ; April 
to June. Legimw brown ; ripe in September. 

Before the flowers are expanded, the corolla is partly red eztemaDj, mottlT 
■o towards the tips of the petals ; and the mingling of the ydlow flowers, widi 
flower-buds more or leas red, and the elegsut folinge, produce a fine effect. It 
flouriahea most in a aunnv sheltered situation, and a dry soiL It beiin clippiof, 
and would form a beautiful garden hedge. 

■>• 8. C. ju'nce* L. The i\i3\\y-bnniched Coronilla. 

lilnHJlcaliam. Un. Sp,. IMI. \ Due. Prml, S. p. M9. ; Don'i MIU, ». p. tt*. 
Satratiati. BoL Rag., (. nO. | Bat. C^, t m. ; udour^- ^OS- 

Spfc. Char., 4-c. Shrubby, glabrous. Branches rush-like, round, bearing tut 
few leaves ; the latter are attended by minute stipules, and *" 

have 3 — 7 leaflets, that are linear oblong, obtuse, and rather 
fleithy i the lowest leaflets being rather distant from the base 
of the petiole- The flowers are yellow, S— 7 in an-umbeL / 
The claws of the petals are scarcely longer than the calyx. \ 
The l^ume is rather compressed, and its joints separate 
obviously, (Dec. Prod.) An erect glaucous shrub. South 
of France. Height 8 ft. to 3 ft Introducedin 1756. Flowers 
bright yellow; June and July. Legume brown; ripe in 
September. «>. i;.jHa>. 

It deserves a place in collections, on account of the angularity of its ru^ 

like slender branches, which, like those of S^rtium j6nceum, are partly detti- 

tute of leaves. 

Sect. IV. PhaseoYe*. 
Genus XIX. 


Gn. Char. Calyx carnpanulalc, somewhat bilabiate, upper lip with two short 
teeth, lower one with 3 subulate teeth. Corolla papilionaceous. VeiiHam 
' bicallose. Wingi conforming to the keel, which is S-edged. Stament diadel> 
phous. Ifectarirerous tube girding the stipe of the ovary. Legume standing 
on a short stipe, coriaceous, S-vaTved, 1-celled, rather torulose at the seeds- 
(Don'l Mill.) 

Leave! compound, opposite, exstipulate, deciduous; impHn-{>innate. 
F/omrri bluish purple, in terminal and axillary racemes. — Shrubs, deciduous 
twining; native* of North America and China; of vigorous ^wth, forming, 
when in flower, some of the most splendid ornaments of British gardenv 
The species are quite hardy, will grow in any soil, and are generally pro- 
pagated by layers of the young shoots, which will root at every joint if kid 
down during summer as they grow. They may also be propagaKd by cuttii^ 
of the roots ; or by seeds. 



^ 1. W. fruth'scbns Dec. The shrubby Wistaria. 

linlifrmlit*. D«.I'rod.,l.p.J90.iDon'iMm,,a.»J4B. W^ 

^mrmo. Glfcin. fmcticimi /j». Sp. lOCT. : -J-pl« t '■A'*£^N 

ftuAnoi f*. «. An. Srrl. %. p. m-i AD«nvni« " -' ^- '^ 

frulfami WaH. Ft i^t. ie& ; WbUrla ipBdJu KMI. 

Grm.MmrT.\.f.\\i.x TbyrsiDtlHU IruUKSH £|IUM 

Jnn. ^csl. &I. ^Iilad \ PhueolaldH Aerl. .fiv'. 

Sfi. 1 tbo KldneTban Tree. 

Spec. Ckar., ^c. Wings of the corolla each 

with two auriclea. Ovary glabrous. Flow- 
en odorous. {Dec. Prod.) An eleeaot 

deciduous climber. Virginia, Carolina, ! 

and the Illinois, in boggy places. Stent 

20 ft. to 30 ft. Iniro(n784. Flowere 

bluish purple, sweet-scented, the standard 

having a greenish yellow spot at the base; 

July to September, Legume brown ; ripe 

in October. 

It is readily propagated by cuttinga of the 
root and by layers, and ftirmE a very ornamental climber, especially when 
trained agninat a wall. 

_1 e. W. chins'nsis Dec. The Chinese Wistaria. 

Unili/lcatltm. I>«. Priid..l.p. Mn,; Dml'l Mm.. Lp.Mg. 

Ifmytwa. GIfdue ctalninili iM. U«. t. soa. i G. ilotaiCi JM. Brt. L UO. : WUUrAi Con- 

Hiutaa LoudOD Oird. M>s. .ol. U. p. %»., ind Aon. Brit. 
fiV'oniWI- Sin, BrIL Fl.-Oud,. Llll.j But. Mig.. t. ajO. ; BM. Rig., t. SM-i Bot. CltL, 

ITTl-i •ndourA'*"- 

Spec. (^ar., ^-c Wings of the corolla each with 
one auricle. Ovary viUose. Flowers larf^ 
(Dee. Prod.) A vigorous-mwing dedduouB 
twiner. China. Stem 50 ft. to liO ft. In- 
troduced m 1816. Flowers pale bluish purple; 
May and June, and sometimes producing a se- 
cond crop of Sowers in August. Legume f. 
The flowers are larger than thofe of W. fru- 

t£scens : they are dinpoted in loi^r and looser 

rdcemes, and are somewhat paler in colour. On 

established plants they are produced in great 

sbundance ( but they have not yet been succeeded 

by t^umes in England. This plant may truly be 

considered the most magnificent of all our hardy . 

deciduous climbers. It will grow wherever the 

common labumuio will flourish; but, as its flowers ,,, WMUHMibi** 

sre somewhat more tender than those of that 

tree, they are more liable to be iryured bv frosts in very late springs. A plant 

in the Hort. Soc Garden, against a wbD. extends its branches above 100 ft, 

on each aide of the main stem; one at Coughton Hall covers 90d superficial 

feet tk walling. 

Sect. V, Cassie'-b. 
Genus XX. 

GLEDITSCHW L. TnR GLEOfrscniA. Liti. Sgil. Polyg&inl 

• tp. i>M. i'tiriar', fy7; Qia^a^it.'acr.i ClHliuli, M. 



HIMei aitiiodi, or LclpiIc.aDi 
I uiUiiir of ICillgAu nn^crm 

Gen. Char, Fbneen unisexual &om abortion, or hermaphrodite. Caljfr irf 
3 — is equal sepals, which are connected together at the base into a cu- 
pule. Pelali equal in miraber to the sepals, rising from the tube of dw 
calyi. Slameru equal in number to the smala. Sjfte ahort. Shgma pu- 
bescent above. Legume continuous, furnished with more or leas pulp. Send* 
compressed. (Don't JUUi.) 

Leana compound, abruptly piaimte, and bi[nnnate, on the same tree ; or, 
nrely, by the coalition oi the leadeta, almost simple, alternate, slipuiatc^ 
aeciduous. FloiBerg greenish, in spikes. — Trees, deciduous, of the lat, 8d, 
and 3d rankg ; natires of North America or Chioa. BraDchlets sopra- 
axillary, and often converted into branched spines. Decaying leaves yellow. 
Naked young wood purplish or brownish green. 
'nie species are of easy culture in good free soil ; and, in Britaio, genentlly 

propagated by imported seeds, or grafting. The species appear to be in a 
state of great conniition in Biitish gardens; and, judging from the trees in tike 
Hort. Soc. Garden, and in the arboretum of Messrs. Lod^ges, we should 

coiy'ecture that diere are, probably, not more duin two Bpcde^ the Aioerican 
and the Cliinese. The Chinese species is distinguished by its tmnk being 
more spiny than its branebes. 

s Imi. The three-thomed Oledittebia, or Hoiug Loeiat. 
i Don'i MiL, t p. <M._^ _^ ^ _^. _ 

Spec. Cliar., tfc. Spines simple or trifid ; stout, >rt the very base compressed, 
in the up|ier part cylindrical, but tapered. Leaflets linesr-oblong. Lcgumca 
flattisti, rather crooked, many'Seeded, and more than ten times as long as 
brosd. (Dee:. Prod.) A large tree. Carolina and Virginia. Height 50 ft. 
to 80 ft. Introduced in 1700, Flowers greenish ; June and July. Legume 
brown ; ripe in October. Decaying leaves yellow. Naked young wood 
purplish brown. 

I G. (. 2 infrmw Dec., O- leMs Hort. (Dec. Leg. Mfim., 8. t.ti. fig. 109. ; 

Catesb. Carol., I.t. 43.; Pluk. Aim., t. 183. fig. 3. ; and tbepbuesof 

this variety in Arb. Brit., I st ediL, vol. t.), has the stem and branches 

not spiny, or but very sparingly so. 

1 G. I. 3 iracAycirpa. O. brachycirpa Purih, O. triacintbo* var. fi 

MiiAr. — Leaflets oblong obtuse. Spinea thick, short, not rardj 3 

together, L^umes oblong, short. 

The trunk and branches, when the tree is young, are covered wid lam 

prickles, which, though they are not ligneous, become nard, and remain on for 

several years, and offcrr a formidable defence. These prickles are not only 

produced by the young wood, but occasionally protrude themselves from the 

trunk, even when the tree is of considerable bulk and age. In general, the 

trunk presents a twisted appearance, and the branches proceed from it rather 

horizontally than in an upright direction. The pinnated foliage is particularlj 

elegant, and of an agreeable light shining green : it appears 1^ in spring the 

trees in the neighbourhood of London sometimes not bdng fully clothed till 

the middle or end of June ; and it b«^ns to turn yellow, and drop ofl^, early 

ia autumn. The flowers are inconspicuous i the male flowers being in the 

form of catkin-like racemes of nearly the lanie colour at the leaves. Some 

trees ia the grounds at Scon have ripened seeds, the pods oontniniDg which, 

b«ng I fi. to 3 ft. in length, and remaining on the trees after the leavesareoi', 

liuve a singular apiiearance. These crooked pendulous podi are of a reddish 

XXV. leoumina'ce«: 

■ubsunce, which. Tor about a month after the maturity of the s 
lerj sweet, but after a few weeks becomes eitremely sour. The rate of 
growth of tbistree, for the first 15 or 80 j'eara, is generally about 1 he average 
of a Foot a year; but in favourable aituetions it will grow at double that rate. 
In the garden of the Hort. Hoe., and in the arbOTecum of the Messrs. Lod- 
due«, plants 10 years planted were, in 1835, from SO (t. to 85 fl. in height. 
l^e wood of this tree, when dry, weighs at the rate of 5S lb. the cubic foot : 
it is verv bard, and splits with great facilitj, resembling in this and other re- 
spects the wood of the rohinia ; but itH grain is coarser, and its pores more 
open. In Britain, this, and all the kinds of the genua, can only be considered 
a« omamentii] trees : but in that character they hold the first rank ; their de- 
licate BCnda-like foliaee, and the singularly varied, graceful, and picturesque 
forms assumed b^ the tree, more especially when youn^ or middle-aged, lo- 
cether with the singular feature afftirded hy it* spines, will always recommend 
It in ornainental plantations. It requires a deep, rich, free soil, and a utuatiou 
not exposed to high winds ; and it requires the South of England or France 
to ripen the seeds. The apedes is always propB);n<ed by seeds imported from 
America, or from France or Italy. The plantu are best transplanted to where 
they are finally to remain when quite young ; as they make but few libroua 
roots, and these take, for the most part, a descending direction. The variety 
O. t. inenuia can only be insured by grafUng on the speciea. In general, how* 
erer, abundance of plants without spines may be selected (rotn beds of seed- 
lings of O. triacinthoa. 

UenliftaUi,^ Win. Cu.. IM. ; Dk. I>rDd.. a. 

^tee, Ciar., j'c. Spines slender, not rarely tridd, few. Leailets ovat&oblong, 
acute. Legumes flaltish, roundish, 1-seeded. (Dec. Frod^ A tree of the 
largest size. Native of Carolina, Florida, and the Illinois, in moist woods. 
Height 60ft. to BOft. Introduced in 1723. Flowers greenish; Juneand 
July. Legume not seen in kngland. 
Closely resembles the honey locust, irom which, id England, where ndtber 

of tbem ripens seed*, it i* almost iiiipo«aible to distinguish it. The bark, 




Ihough smooth when the tree ii 

joung, yet craclu and scales oS when 
the tree grows old, as in G. triacan- 
thos. The leaves, Michaui saya, 
differ from those of O. triai^nthos, ill 
beinK a little smaller in all their pro- 
portions. The branches ere amied 
with thoniB, which are also less nu- 
nierous, and somewhat smaller ihan 
those oFO. triac&nlhos. The tree is 
treated in all respects like O. tria- j 
c&nlhoa ; of which it has, till lately, 
been considered only a variety. It 
is raised in the nurseries from im- 
ported seed ; but whether the plants 
really turn out perrectly di&tiiict, 
with respect to the form of their fruit, 

' i from their not having yet, as far 

t 3. 0. siNE-NSis Lain. The Chi 

furirnwi. Drc.Licnni. Htm., !.(.!' -.the plaU 

3 Ihli ipeclci m Arb. Brll., lit tdlt., toJ. t. 
Spec. Char., ^c. Spines stout, conical; 
those on the branches simple or 
branched ; those on the stem ^ouped 
and branched. The leaflets ovnte- 
elliptical, obtuse. L^umes compressed, 
long. The spines in this species are 
axillnry, not distant from the axil. (Dec, 
JW.) A middle-sized tree. China, 
Height soil, to 50 tt. Introduced in 
177+. Flowers greenish; June and 
July. Legume not seen in England. 

t G. t. 2 tnermit N. Du Ham., 0. 
jap6nlca IjodH. Cal,, G. jav£nica 
I^am. (nee the plnte of this tree 
in Arb. Brit., 1st edit., vol. v.; 
BDd our j^. 414.), differs from 
O. sinensis in being without 
■pines, of much less vigorous 
growth, and in having the foliage 
of B much de^)er green. It seems 

a very desirable variety fbramuJI ,u, aMMcM>i.tak«K 

i G.i. 3 major Hort., O. horrida m^or Lodd. Cal„ seem* Rcarcdj <■> 

differ from the species. 

1 G. J. 4 nina Hort., O. h. nana in Hort. Soc. Gard. (see the pUeoT 

ibis tree in Arb. Brit, 1st edit., vol. t. ; and our /g 4.15.)>.» 

tree of someuhat lower growth than the species, but scarcely, x '' 

appears to us, worth keeping distinct. 

T G. I. 5 purpurea Hurt.. (). h. purpurea Lodd. Cal. (see the plBtein 

Arb. Brit., let edit., vol. v. j and oar Jig. 416.), is a small UW rf 

compact upright growth, very suitable for gardens of limited eltm'- 

OlhcT Varietk* of G. imauu.—la Loddigea'a arboretum there ii a pi*"' 



marked G. Mniiuit 
(Pntta), which was im- 
ported from China bj 
Ihe Hon. Soc. It is, at 
present, a low biub, 
and may, periiaps, prove 
Bometbing disdoct. 
There vere also, :a 
I83S, in the Ilort. Soc. 
Garden, some plants 
without names, appa- 
rently belonging to this 
nieciesj but, as we have 
alread; observed, the 
genua is in great con- 
cision, and nothing 
perfectly aatisfiutory 
can be stated re^Kct- 

The spines, which are 
very strong and branchy, 
are more abundant on 
the trunk than on the 
branches, and are fre- 
quantly found in bundles. 


Hie leavet we bipinnate, &ud thn leaflets are elliptic ofatiue, notched on the 
edges, unooch, HhininE, aad mjch larger than those of any other spedes. 
(Detf. Arb., ii. p. 248.) The pods are nrely above 6 in. long. The tree 
staniu the cold better than the lioney locust, and has ripened ita fruit in E^ns, 
in the Jsrdin des Pluntet, and in the aureery of Bf. Cels. {Diet, dtt Etii et 
da Foriu, vol. ii. p. IM.) 

y 4. G. (s.) uicrkja'ntha Detf. The loDg-spined OlecUtscfaia. 

Srnetijfmrt. G. ttnx Bamdr. \ F^ter i grvuvt E'plntfi. FT- 

AvwAw. ThapUUDt tUi ipwla IB Arb. BrfL, IKsdli, xri. >. 

Spec, Chttr., if-c. Prickles strong, branchy, numerons. Leaflets lanceolate, 

somewhat rigid, notched, dentated. Podv elongated. (Iie$/. Arb.) A 

middle-siiiid tree, with a pricklv tnink. CbioB ?. Height 40 ft. to £0 ft. 

Flowers greenish ; June and July 

The prickles are axillary and large. The leares arc twice winged j the 
leaflets Isrge, coriaceoiu, dark green, and shining on the lu^er surface. The 

Cing shoots are covered with extremely short heirs, ana are of a purplish 
wn colour. On the whole, it bears a close reseniblance to G. sinensis, of 
which it is, probably, only a variety. It is very hardy; and Desfontaines says 
that it fruits freely id France. The fruit ripens iu the autumn ; uod the pods 
are long, pendulous, swelled, and ratha" cylindrical. Tbey are filled with a 
sharp acrid pulp, somewhat resembling that of tamarinds, but the emanstkias 
from whidi, when inhaled, occasioa sneezing. 

X S. a. (s.) fe'rdx Desf. The ferocious^ricUnf Gleditschia. 
UtMUkMlM, Dal. Arb.. 9. p.«7.; Dim'iHlll..!.p. <M. 
Sgtumpma. a. orlsnttUi BoKi Ftdsr btrUift. Fr. 
gutnuttg. Our A. .tap. , 

Spec. Char., Ire, Prickles large, robust, much compreesed, trifid. Leaflet* 

lanceolate, notched, {Detf. Arh.) 

A middle-sized branching deciduous tree, the trunk of which is thickly beaet 
with strong branchy prickles, and which is supposed to grow &om 30 ft. to 
50 ft. in height ; but of which the native country, and year of introduction 
into Britiun, are unknown. Judging from the plants in the Hort. Soc. Garden, 
ami those in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddigcs, we should say it vna only 
a variety of U. sinensis; though J>eafbDtaineB states the foliage and habit pf 
growth to be somewhat different. It has not yet flowered in Europe. 
I 6. G. ca'spica Detf. The Caspian Olei&tschia. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Prickles slender, trifid, compressed. ^ 
Leaflets elliptic- lanceolate, obtuse. (Detf. Arb.) A i 
middte-siied tree Pttrsia, and found alao near the Cas- 
pian Sea. HeightSOft. to40a. Intioduced in 1888. 
Nothing is known cf its flowers and fruit i but it 

strongly resembles G. sinensis (of which it is, probably, 

only a variety) in its leaves, general uppearance^ and 


i G.e. 2 tubark-eaai Hon., Fevier verdfitre, Fr., is mentioned in the 
Ben Jwdmicr for 1836, as a variety of this species, 

OlAer SorU ofGletSUchin. — Every modification of the species of thia gemn 
is so InteresLng, both m point of the elegance of its foliage, and the ungi^ritr 
of its prickles, that new varieties have b^n eagerly sou^t after by cult^ators; 
and the genus seems particuhirly favourable to this denre, ftwm the tendency 
ofseedUiy plants to sport. Hence there are several names in coUectiona, of 


which it u ilifficult to uy any thing EatisriictDTy in the present young and im- 
mature state of the pLinrs. In the Hort, Soc. (rarJcn, there were ia lb37 
G. micracmlAa, G. Boqui, anil G. pm'ctvr; and in Messrs. Loddiges's arbo- 
Tetum were plants marked G. aqidlica, which ore cTidenllj' the same m U. 
monosperma, G, orienfalU, erideotl.v G. ftrox, G. chinamt (already meDtioned) j 
and aome yoong plants without names. 

Genus XXL 


OYHNO'CLADUS Lam. Thk Gvmnocladus. Lm. Sytt. Jiia-<S» 

; Dec. Plod., 1. p. <n. 

, _-TUU:b ; tnm [JiriMknlipiHUHieeGpftbDbruvha 

■t pvriijipt tt Ukt pdnu of (be ifaoou, louJlj d«voli; of liudi, 

Gan. Char, Flotoen dkEciouB from aborlioa. Calyx tubular, S-cleft. Pel^g 
a, equal, oblong, exserted trom the tube. Stament 10, enclosed. Legume 
oblong, thick, fiLed with pulp inside. (Don'i MiU.) 

Leaet* compound, alternate, stipulate deciduous j bipini ~' 

:'ksis Lam. The Canada Gymnoclulus, or Xentuciw 
Cofee Tree. 

IH.. 1. p. «l.l DfC 
IB. Vr. I ChHuE, Cel 

. Sp. M8. 1 Hnwnnthin duta rail 
ip Tr». UmlliJ aiMta ; BnndiJC Clilq 

Spec. Char., ^e. Branches blunt at the tip, bipinnate leaves, flowers m ra- 
cemes, and wfaiti^ petals. The leaf has 4 — T pinnte ; the lower of which 
eooakt each of but a single leaflet, the rest each of 8 — 8 pairs of lenflets. 
^Dec Pnd.) A biogular tree. Canada. Hdght 30ft. to60ft. Introduced 
in 1T4S. Flowers white; May to July, Decaying leaves yellow, Naked 
yonog wood of a mealy white, without any appearwtce of bitdt. 
He branches have almost always an upright direction ; and the appearance 
of the bead, in the winter season, is remarkable, from being fas tigiate, and from 
the points of the temches bebg few, and ihick and blunt, as compared with 
those of almost every other tree. They are also wholly without the ap. 
peannce of buds ; and this latter drcumatance, connected with the former, 
give* the tree, during vnnter, the appearance of being dead ; and hence the 
l'jimj;«n nunc of diicoE, or stump tree. The leaves, on young thriving trees, 
■re 3 ft, long, and 80 in. widej but, on trees nearly lull grown, they are not 
half that size. The leaflets are of a dull bluish green, and the branches of 
the pedoleg are somewhat of a violet colour. It ia very hardy, and flowers 
frtdy in the nei^bourhood of London, but does not produce pods. The 
wood is hard, compact, strong, tough, and of a fine rose colour. In America, 
it is used both in cabinet-making and carpentry, end, like the wood of (he 
robioia, it has the remarkable property of rafudly converting its sap-wood into 
heart-wood; so that a trunk 6 in. in (Uametcr has not more than six lines of 
Mp-wood, and nuqr, contequeotly, be almost entirely employed for useful pur. 
posea. The seeds were, at one time^ roasted and ground as a substitute for 
coSee in Eentockj aad Teunesseej but tfadr use. in this way has beeil long 
nnce diaoontinued. lliepods,preservedliketh<He of the tamarind (to wbicE 


this genus is nearly Bllicd), are said to be wholesome, aud slightly aperient. 
In Briiuin, the ODly use of the tree is for ornamental purpotes ; and, con- 
»dered as an object of curiosity anii beauty, no collection ought to be without 
it. A rich, deep, free soil is essendal to the thriving of this tree; and such a 
■oil is never met with naturally in exposed situations. The tree is generally 
propagated by unported seeds; but it will grow freely from cutting of the 
roots, care being taken in planting to keep tbat end upwards which is oa- 
turslly BO. 

Genus XXII. 


CE'RCIS L. Thr Judas Trbb. Lin. Sytl. Decandria Monogynia. 

JinUiflatHmi. Lin. Ccn., No. Sid. ; D«. Find., 1. p. ill. : Dou'i 1IU1_ ■. p. MI. 

^WHiibiMi-J. ^Liqu^trum T^nml. /jur. t. «ll.» Manuk metk. ; Gaiajrr, Fr. t JudubWDD, Gtr. i 

Albara da ClwU. lUi. 
Dtriwarlon. From itrkii, 4 ibatUKOck, lb« tamt ftTtn by TbrophtiUnl ta (hll ll«. 

Gen. Char, Calyx urceolate at the liase and gibbous, bluntly 5-toothed at the 
apex. PclaU5, unguiculate, oil diiitinct, disposed in a papilionaceous manner i 
the wings or side petals the largest. Stamen 10, free, uneqiral. Onary on 
a short stipe. Legume oblong, slender, compressed, l-celled, many-seeded, 
somewhat winged on the tenuniferous luture. Seed* obtmtte. (AmV 


xxv. leouhina'ce£ : ce'rcib. 257 

Leata mmple, alternate, BtipiiUle, ileciduous ; heart-shaped at the ba«e, 
many-nerved, rising after the nouers have decw>ed. Floaert in 1-flowered 
pedicels, riaing from the trunk and branches in fascicles. — Trees, deciduous, 
of the third rank ; natives of Europe, or North America. DeiBying leave* 
yeUowish purple. Propagated by teeds or grafting. 

T 1. C. SiLiaUA's-rnDu L. The common Judas Tree 

Spec. Char., tfc. Leaves very c^tuse, and wholly glabrous. {Dec. Prod.') A 
low tree. SouLh of Europe, in Greece, in Asiatic Turkey, and more es- 
pecially in Judea. Hei^t SO ft. to 30 ft. Introduced in 1596. Flowers 
purplish pink; May, I*{!Uine brown; ripe in September. Naked young 
wood pDi^lish, with small white spots. 

* C. 8. 2 pawijlonim Dec. — A shrub ; ite branchea spotted with white, 
its flowers smaller by hulf [ban those of the species. A native of 
T C. S. SJIdre o/fiirfo,— Flowers whitish, H, S. 

t C. 8. 4 rriieo. — A seedling, raised from foreign seeds, which has 
flowered in the Botanic Garden at Kcw ; lias numerous flowers, 
which are brighter, and a shsde darker, than those of the species; 
and they ulso appear about u fortnight later; but it is, perhaps, 
hardly worth noticing as b variety. 



in cOTered with its nmnerouE brigtit 
the leaves, and are produced not 
only from the young wood, but from wood of 6 or 8 years growth, and even 
from the trunk. The leaves are not liable to be attacked by iiuects. The 
flowers are succeeded by flat, thin, brown pods, nearly 6 in. in length, which 
remain on the tree all the year, and give it a very singular appearance in the 
winter season. The rate of growth ia about 18 in, a year, fur the firai lOyear*. 
The wooJ is very hard, and agreeably vdned, or rather blotched or waved, 
with black, green, and yellow epots, on a grey ground. It takes a beautirul 
pmlish. and weiehs nearly 48 lb. to the cubic Foot. The flowers, whiuh have 
an agreeable acid taste, are mixed with salads, or fried with baiter, as fritters ; 
and [he flower-buds are pickled in vinegar. In British gardena. the tree grows 
about the same height, and flowers about the same time, as the labumutn, the 
Guelder roie, and the hawthorn, and enters into benutiful combination with 
these and other tree*. Tile foliage ia hardly lesa beautiful and remarkable than 
the flowers ; the leaves being of a pale bluish green on the upper surface ; and 
of a sea-green underneath, and of a cordate reniform Bha|ie, apparently con* 
sisting ol two leaAels joined tocetheTi which circumstance, combined with 
others, brings the genus In close alliance with that of Banhlnit, Like most of 
the Lc^miniceee, this tree prefers a, deep, free, sandy soil, rich rathv than 
poor; and it will only thrive, and become a handsome tree, in sheltered situa- 
tions. In the northern parts of the island, it requires to be planted against a 
wall; and few ornamental trees better deserve such a situation. The spedea 
is propagated by seeds, and the varieties by grafting. The seeds are sown on 
heat early in spring, and come up the same season ; and the plants will produce 
dowcfa in three or four yeais. 

1 2. C.c 

MaittflcalllM. Lin. Sp,, DM, ; Dsc I>nid., ■■ 


XXVI, JI08A CEM. 259 

^ee. da:, 4c. Learea acuminate, tiIIok beneath at the axili of the veba. 
Am compared with C. ^iquaatrum, its flowen are of a paler rose colour, 
the l^ume i» on a longer pedicel, and tipped with a longer style. A low 
tre& Canada to Virginia, (bee. Prod.) Height 10 It, to 80 ft. Introd. 1730. 
Flowen red ( Haj and Juiie. ; Legume brown ; ripe in August. 

I C. c. pMscent Ph. — Leaves pubescent on the under sur&ce. (flee.) 
This tree beais a general resemblance to the preceding species ; but it is 
more slender and bmaller in all its parts ; and it seldom rises higher than SO 
feet. It is at once distinguished Irom C. 5iliqu4sii-uiii by its leares being 
faenrt-shaped and pointed ; they are alio much thinner, more veined, and of a 
lighter green ; and the flowers are generally produced in smaller numbers 
than in the other species. The flowers are used by the French Canadians in 
•alads and pickles, and the youiu brancbei to dye wool of a nankeen colour. 
He wood resembles that of the other Bpeciex. Propagated by imported 
•eeds, and considered more tender than C. ^iliquiatrum. 


Tbe terra BaAceK has been appUed to this order, because all the species 
beion^Dg to it agree more or less with the genus Adsa, in essential cbarsc- 
tera. It includes many genera belonging to the LinnKan class Icosindria. 
Onl. Ciiar. ¥1oweTittf^\»T. Calyr, in most cases, with 5 lobes, the odd one 

posterior to the axis of inflorescence. Pelait and ifameru arising from the 

cal^. Slamrfu, for the most part, numerous. Ovariet many, several, or 

solitary ; each of one cell that includes, in most ca«es, 1 ovule ; In some, 

1 to many ovules. Slyle lateral or terminal. 
Leava simple, or pinnately divided, altmiate, in nearly all stipulate. 

fZncwrr showy, with numerous stamens. Fnii/, in many of the genera, edible. 

— TreesBiidslinibs,mostly deciduous; natives of Europe, Asia, and America. 

The ligneous species which constitute this order include the finest (lower- 
ing shrub in the world, the rose; and the trecH which produce the most 
useful and agreeable fruits of temperate climates, viz. the apple, the pear, the 
plum, the cherry, the apricot, the peach, and the nectarine. The plants are, 
for the moat part, deciduous low trees or shrubs, all producing flowers more 
or less showy j end the greater number fruits which are edible. They are 
chiefly natives of Europe and Asia ; but several of them are also found in 
North America, and some in South America, end the North of Africa. The 
fruit-bearing species, and the rose, have followed man from the earliest period 
of civilisation, and are, perhaps, better known to mankind in general than any 
ctther ligneous plants. The medical properties of several of the species arc 
ranarkdde, from the circumstance of their yielding the pnissic acid ; while 
others produce n gum nearly allied to the gtim Arabic, which indicates a 
degree of affinity b«ween this order and L^ruminitcetD. The bark of some 
q^ecies, as of C'iraaus virginiana, is used, in North America, as a febrifuge ; 
and that of others, as the capollin cherry (C'erasus Capol&i), for tanning, 
in Mexico. The leaves of Cratsgus Oxyacantha, T^unui spinAsa, Cirasua 
ayKestris, and S6aa rubi^indsa, have been used as a substitute for tea, or for 
adulterating tea. The leaves and bark of the spirffias are said to be at once 
astringent and emetic. There are two characteristics of this order, with 
reference to its cultivation, which are of great importance to the gardener : 
the first ia, the liatnlity of almost all the species to ' sport, and produce 
varieties dM^riag, ia many cases, more from one another, than the^ differ 
fitxn other species ; and the second is, that they are remarkably sulqect to 
s 8 



the attacki of insects and diseaMS, They almogt oil require a Tree loamy (ail, 
not overcbarged with moiature, and rich mlher than poor ; and, while all the 
species are increased by seeds, which, for the most part, are produced freely in 
Britftin, or by cutting* of the root«, almost all the varieties are best increased 
hy ^tAinf or budding; and not, aa in some other orders, with equal ease bf 
cuttings of the shoota, or by layera. 

With reference to landscape-gardening, all the rosaceous trees have three 
properties which deserve to be kept constantly in view by the improver of 
grounds : 1st, they never attain a large size ; 8d, they attain their natural size 
and shape in a very few years, in good soil not requiring more than from 
10 to SO years; and 3d, they sooner take the character of old trees than the 
trees of any other Detural order of ligneous plants, A few exceptions may be 
token froin different orders, aitch as the common field maple, Che common 
laburnum, &c. ; but we know iif no natural order, in which, like the RoA/xte, 
all the trees are low oi middle-sized, and all cake the character of age while 
comparatively younf;. Hence their value in laying out small places, wh«e 
the otgect is to make a new place appear old, or a small place appear lai^e^ 
and at the same time to combine character of form with beautiful blosaonis 
ia spring, and showy (Cratse'gus, Cotoncister, and Amelanchier) or useful 
(PMiB and Primus) Iruit in autumn. 

The genera are included by DeCandolle and G. Don in five tribes; and die 
following Of e their names and distinctions ; — 

Sect. L JuVODA^LBX Juw. 

&cf. Char, Fruit a drupe j the nut 3-ovnled, I — S-seeded. Style termmaJ. 
Calyx deciduous. Leaves feather-nerved, undivided, wrrate, with the 
lower serratures or the petioles glanded. Stipules oot attached to the 
petiole. Kernel containing more or less of hydrocj'anic acid; chiefly 
fruit trees. 
AM\'aj)n\.ua Toum. Covering of nut not fleshy ; nut even, or peribrated 

Young leaves folded flatwise. Flowers almost sesMle, solitaiy or tWin, 

protruded before the leaves. 
Pb'rsica Taarn, Covering of nut very fleshv ; nut wrinkled. The. durtto- 

ters of the other ports described under jlniygdalus are the same in /'teica. 
Jrubni'aca Toum. Covering of nut fleshy; nut furrowed at both edges, in 

the other parts even. Young leaves with their edges rolled inwanla. 

Flowers almost sessile, solitary or a few together, protruded before the 

pRV^svs Toum. Covering of nut fleshv; nut indistinctly furrowed at the 
edges, in the odier parts even. Young leavea with the edges rolled inwards, 
Flowers upon pedicels, in groups retonbling umbels, and produced before 

or ai^r the leaves. 

Ce'b*»vs Juii, Nut aubglobose, evea, its covering fleshy. Young leave* 
folded flatwise. Flow^a upon pedicels, either in groups resembliDgumbel^ 
and produced before tlie leaves, or in racemes terminal to the shoots, pro- 
truded along with them. 

Sect. 11. Spikxb^a Dee. 
Sect. Char, Fruit of 5, or fewer, c^Mular carpels, which arc distioct from 
the calyx (which is persistent in Sp\rm'a, and, perhaps, ia the other 
genera), and, in most cases, from each other; eani contains 1^4 seeds. 
Style terminaL Low deciduous shrubs. 
Pu'asHM Dec. Stamens about SO. Carpels 1—2, ovate-obloDg. 
Kb'rsm Dec. Stamens about SO. Carpels 5 — S, distinct. 
Aiibs'a L. Stamens 10 — 50. Carpels 1 to sevc^, distinct ; st^utate ; each 
includes 8 — aeeds, affixed to the inner suture. 

Sect. IIL Potbnti'llrs Juu. (Synon. Dr^dca Venl.) 
Sect. Char. Fruit an aggregation of carpeU; their integuments dry at 

XXVI. aoSA'cEf : ^my'gdalus. 261 

■urauleot ; the caipeU distinct rrom odb anoiiier, and froEQ the olvk, 
which is penittent, and BurrouDdB them, and, in man;, is Eubtended 
by M manv hroctcas ai it has lobes ; the bractew alteroate with the 
lobes. Style proceeding rrom a little below the tip of the carpeL Leaves, 
in most cases, jHDDBtely divided. Stipules attachea to the petiole. Shrubs 
bearing fiiiic, or aniamentaL 

^u^Bua L. Int^umeiits of carpels juicy. 

Potbhti'lla Nail. Intt^ments of carpels dry. 

Sect. IV. So'tVM Dec. 

Sed. CAoT. Fniit a hip ; that is, with the tube of die calyx fleshy, of a 

patcher shape, contracted at the mouth ; and including an aggregation of 

caqiels attached to its inner face. Style proceeding from the inner ^e 

of the carpd. Shrubs eminently oraameotaL 

Ro'^t Tmm, Leaf impari-pinnate. Stipules attached to the petiole. Prickle* 

ho^wkd LiDdL Leaf dmple. Stipules none. Prickles usually compound. 

Srct. V. Po'mu Lhdl. 
Sect. Char. Fruit « pome ; that is, with the tube nf the calyx become very 
fle^y, and iucluiling, and connate with, the carpels. Carpels narmally 3, 
nidi gristly or bony walls, including 1 — 8 seeds : in C^donia, severaL 
Habit ^liny or not ; leaves, in most cases, undivided, ui some pinnate. 
Stipules not connate with the petiole. Cvnamental low trees, or large - 
■hnibe, with showy flowers, in some genera spiny, and in others bearing 
some of our best hardy kitchen and dessert fruits. 
CitATJE'avs L-hdl. Carpels 1 — b prismatic nuta with bony shells, each in- 
cluding I seed. Leaves angled or toothed ; in most cases deciduous. 
Flowers in terminal corymbs Spiny shrubs or low trees. 
Photi'hia LbulL Carpels i. Petals reflexed. Evei;green. Flowers in ter- 
minal panicleB. Leaves simple, leathery, serrated or entire. In P, intt^- 
f&tia the ovarirs are 3, and eath includes S ovules. 
CoTONKA'sTEK MeSk. CoTpels 8 — 3 ; ovules 2 in etch cell. Leavee dmple, 

entire, woolly beneath, flowers in lateral spreading corymbs. 
AnsLA'ffclilEB Hedik. Ovaries 5, each divided by a partition; ovules t in 
each cell. Ripe pome including 3 — 5 carpels. Petals lanceolate. Small 
trees. LeaveH simple, serrate, deciduous. Flowers in racemes. 
JI/B'spii.tJS Lindl. Carpels 2 — 5 compressed nuts with bony shells, each in- 
(dudiniF 1 seed: Leaves lanceolate, serrulate, deciduous. Flowers larg^ 

i, subsolitary. 

IS LMi. Carpels 5, or 9 — 6, Seeds 2 in each carpel. Leaves simple 
~ nate, deciduons. Flowers in spreading terminal cyme* or corymbs, 
t Tbvra. Carpels 6, each including many seeds. 

MnM(lMMni. Tcun. Ii 

SeCL 1. .iiMYODA.'LE£ JuSS. 

Oemub 1. 


Im. Syil. Ico 

i-i Km., J. p. M*. 

., Google 


anrMTKi. Aii>rKd.i«phon 

with almonds in 

Grn. Char. Drupe clothed nith veWety pubescence, having b drj rind, which 
separates irregularly, containing a pitted or smooth putuinen or nut. ^Uom'm 

Leavei simple, condnplicate when youni;, alternate, stipulate, deciduous. 
yiouicri nearly setisile, usually pink or rose coloured, rising either singiy or 
by pairs frum the si.'ajj buds, earlier than the leaves. — Shrubs or trees of the 
middle size, deciduoiia. Natives of the North of Africa, and tb« mountuiBs 
of Asia i alao of Russia, and the LevHQt. 

The fruit-bearing species are cultivated in the Middle and South of Europe 
and the Levant, and are propagated chiefly by grafting; and the othera by 
fraAing, layers, suckers, or cuttings of the root. The almond was included 
by Linnteus in the swoe genus with the peach and nectarine, of both of which 
it is, doubtless, the parent, m trees neve been found i 
state of transition to peaches, and with both peaches 
(Boie branch. 

M 1. A. na'na L. The dwarf, or tirubbj/. Almond. 

MnUMMAin. Lin. Kant.. S98. ; Dm. Prod.. I. p. MO. l Don'i MUJ., 1 |i, Mi. 

Stminfmei. PrOwu Inlmlt CnfJ. l A. alattal. m rultkrU Dtc. i AmuiUtr BilB,Ft. ; Z«rdR. 

Bn^^aigi. BOL Mig., I. 161. J K/fiu H™, 4.1.10, mm OUT J(J1.J»,4M. 

spec. Char,, Sfc, Leaves oblong-linear, tapered at the base, serrated, glabrous ; 
Flowers solitary, rose-colour^. Calyx cylindrically bell-«haped. Fruit of the 
same Bha[>e as that of A. coinmi'inis, but much smaller. {Dec. Prod.) A 
deciduous low shrub. Calmuc Tartary, very frequent on the banks of the 
Volga, and about Odessa. Height 2 ft. to 3 ft. Introduced in 1683. 
Howera rose coloured ; March ana April. 

.s A. n. 9 jflirgica Dec. A. ge6rgica Detf. Art. E. p. SSI., and Lodd. 
Cat. — It differs from the species iu having the lobes of the caJyx 
lanceolate, and as long as its tube ; and the style* onlv tonientuse at 
the base, being scarcely so there, and nut protruded. A native of 
Oeorgia, which has been cultivated in the Ueneva Botanic Ganlen, 
.■ A.n.icavtpiitruiiar. A. cmnpeiitria Beuer Emm. p. i^. No, 14^5., 
Horl. Ft Autt. 2. p. 2., and Lodd. Cat. j A. BeaaeiiaHa Schott in Col. 
Hart. Vadob. 1818, and Lodd. CW.— Leaves 
broader. Lobes ui'the calyx as long as the tube. 
Petals narrower, longer, and white. Styles t( 
mentose at the base^ The (ami of the nut, ai 
cording to Besser, is various. Supposed to be a i 
native oftheSouthofPodolia. (Dec. />rwf.) This ' 
variety is in the Hort. Soc. Garden, where it 
was raised from seeds received from Dr. Fischer 
of Petersburg. 
• A. n. I' libbica Lodd. Cat., and Lodd. Bot. Cab. 
lJie9.,and our^. 421., is extant in some British 
botanical collections, where it is an upriglit shrub^ 
about eft. high, with wand-like shoots, clothed 
with fine, long, willowJike, glossy, serrate leaves ; A J 
on account of which, and its upright habit irf' r\' 
growth, the latter being difierent from that of all ^ 
the other species and varieties of almond, it it va- 
luable in every collection wh«% variety of cha- 
racter is desired. H. S. 


of the specie* of willow, but are of u 
darker and more shining ^een, at least 
in the original specie*. The Btems are 
not of long duration ; but ihe plant 
throws up ubundance of trBvelling suck- 
ers, hy which it is continued natutally, 
and also propi^ted. It is common 
throu"!) all the plains of Russia, from 
55° 9. lat. to the south of the empire. 

IId British garden! it is valuable on 
account of its early flowering, thegrace- 
fiilness of the slender twigs, on which 
its flowers are producecT before (he 
leaves appear, and of its easy cultui 

us. j.atoa. any dry soil. Its frulc resembles that of n 

jf. commijnis, but ia much smaller, and 
nrdy seen in England. The plant, which is usually called the dwarf double- 
blossomed almond in British gardens, is O^rasus japdnica fldre pleno, or, as it 
is frequently named in the nurieriea, Aiafgiial\a pumila, 

.M 2. A. iNCk'HA PalL The hoary tfuor/' Almond. 

aUan. Lin, Sp,fiT7. 1 D«. Prod., 1. p-UO. i Don'il 
i^l. N. Du Ham., 4. 1.3a.; inil Um pliU of thll [re 

Emtrar^nf- P»1L Ho«., l.t.T.i Flol, Gim, I. <7T. J Bol. Reg., JOB, 

Spec. Char., J^c. Leaves obovate serrated, clotbed with 
white tomentum beneath. Flowem solitary. Drupe 
compressed, pubescent, (din'i J^GIi.) A low decidu- 
ous shrub. Caucasus and the Levant, between Smyrna j 
and Bursa. Height ^ft. to 3ft. Introduced in 1613. M^x' 
Flowers red ; Uarch and April. • ^^1^ 

Readilj known from A. nana by its leaves being covered ^^ 

with hoarinesa beneath. Increased by budding on the 
common plum. tn. ^-iimm. 

y 3. A. coHNU^is L. The common Ahnond Tree. 

^pec. Char., $c. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, serrulate. Flowers solitary. 
Calyx of a betl-shape. Fruit compressed, and rather egg shaped, {Dee. 
Pi-od.) A middle-sized deciduous tree. Mauritania, and in the Diountmo- 
ous parte of Asia. Height 20 ft. to 30 fl. Introduced in 1538. Flowers 
white or roae-colourcd ; March and April. Drupe brownish ; ripe in Oc- 
tober. In line seaionn the fruit ripens on standards as lar north as Derby, 
and on walls at Edinburgh. 

T A. c. 1 amara Dec. The IMier Almond. Amandier amer, ,Fr. ; gemeina 
Mandelbaum, Ger. — Flowers large. Petals pale pink, with a tinge 
of rose colour at the base. Styles nearly as long as the stamens, 
and tomentose in the lower part. Seeds bitter. There are two 
forms of the bitter almond ; one with a hard shell, and the other 
with a brittle one. The tree is cultivated in the South of France, 
in Austria, in Italy, iu Ureece, &c.. tor its fruit, which is preferred 
for some purposes in medicine and in domestic economy to that of 
the sweet almond, particularly for giving a flavour ; and for stocks 
for grafting the other varieties on, and the peach, apricot, aod even 
the plum. Bitter almondi are ^enerajly mixed with sweet odm, in 
very small proportions, for makmg blancmange, &c. 

., Google 


T A.C.2 dMai Dec, Lam. Ul. t. 430, 1^ tweet Almmd. 

a petits FniilB, Amande douce, Fr.; susse Mandel, Ger.— Lava 

Ky-green, Flowers protruded earlier than the leaves. Stylu mudi 
ger thnii tite stamens. Fruit ovale-comprewied, acuminate. Sfaell 
hard. Kernel aweet-flavourei). Cultirated in ihe same pUcea as llit 
preceding sort, and generally propagated by grafting standard high on 
the bitter aluiond, or an^ strong-groving seedling almonda, iu order 
to make sure of the ftiiit bein^ sweet. 

T A. c. H Jlnre plena Baum. Cat. has double flowers. 

1 A. c 4 /iJiu varirgala Baum. CaL has vari^aied leaves, 

* A. c. 5frAgiiu Ser., Dec. Prod. 2. p. 531. A. frigilis NeU. 1. p.500.; 
Amandier des Dimies, ^^. Du Ham. 4. p. 1 13., Kouette Jard. Frvl. 
|). 7. J tkique molle, Amandier k Coque tendre, Fr. ; Abellan, Fro- 
vcnct, — Flowers protruded at the same time as the leaves, and of > 
[>ale rose colour. Ptrtals broader, and deeply emaKinate. LeavM 
shorter; the petioles thick. Fruit acuminate; sh^ soft; kernel 
swect'flavoured. Cultivated for its fruit. 

H A. c. 6 inarroedrpa Ser., Dec. Prod. 8. p. 531. Amandier i groi 
Fruits, A^. ilu^ain. 4, p. lis., NoueUeJard.Fndt.p.T.i Amaiidia 
Sultane, Amandier des Dames, Amnndier Pistache, Fr. — Leaves 
broader, acuminate, scarcely grey. Peduncles short, turgid. Flowen 
of B very pale rose colour, Inn-c, protruded liL-lurii the leaves. PeUlt 
broadly obcordate, waved. Fruit large, umbilicate at llie base, acu- 
minate at the tip ; shell hard. There are two suhvarieties, one with 
the fruit rather smaller, called, commonly.iii France, Amandier !^ul- 
tane; and another, with the fruit still smaller, called there Amandio' 
Pistuche; the kernels of both of which are considered remarkntilj 
ddicate, and are preferred fur the table. The flowers of this rarieiy 
are always produced earlier than those of any other; and the kenn'U 
of the fruit are always sweet, tn British gardens, the A. c. macn^ 
cirpa has much the largest Bowers of any of the Tuietiet. It i* a 

XXVI. sosa'ce^ : pe'bsica. 265 

v^orout iBTge tree, of rapid growth, gomewhat more fiwti^aie than 
the species. 
1 A.C.7 peracoidet Set., Dec. Prod, 2. p. 531 Anuuidier-Picher, A'. 
DuHam. 4. p. 1 U., f^aueUe Jard. Fhul. p 7. — LesTe* similar to 
those of the peach tree. Fruit ovate, obtuse ; ils husk slightly suc- 
culent 1 the shell of a yellowisti dark colour, uid the kernel sweet- 
flavoured. Du Hamel has stated that its fruits vary upon the aanie 
branch, froin ovate, obtuse, with the husk rather flesny, to ovate, 
compressed, acuminate, and the husk dry. Cultivated in France and 
Italy for its fruit, but rarely found in British garden*. 
Other yarieSei. The almond, considered as a fruit tree, has given rise to 
tomeother varieties, which will b<e found treated of at length in French works 
oD gardening, in the Nouveaulia fionw^ and the Nouvtmi Court iTjtgTictillim 
There are several varieties of the ahnond in cultivation on the Continent 
for th^ fruit ; and two or three in this country, partly for the same purpose, 
but chieflyfor thmrHowera. The common almond, in a wild state, is found 
oometimes with the kernels bitter, and at other times with them sweet ; in 
the same manner as the Qu^rcus hiHp&nira, which, in Spain, though tt gene- 
rally bears sweet and edible acorns, yet sometimes produces only such as are 
bitt^. For this reason, in the case of ihe almond, instead of giving one form 
as the species, we have followed DeCandolle, and described both the bitter 
and the sweet almond separately, either of which may be considered as the 
species, and classed them with the varieties. 

4. A. orienta'lis Ail. The Eastern Almood Tree. 

Emfrawnitt. Lodd. BM. Cit. 1. 1171. 1 taiom Jli.tX. 
Spec. Cliar., Sfc. Iiiipcrfectly evergreen. Branches 

and leaves clothed with a silvery tomentum ; 

petiole of the leaf short, the disk lanceolate 

and entire. Flowers rose-coloured, and rather 

longer than those of A. nana. Calvx cylin 

dricHlly bell-shaped. Fruit tipped with a point. 

(^Dec. Prod.) A tall shrub yr low tree. Le- 
vant. Heigtit 6 ft. to 10 ft. ; and, according 

to Bosc, I5ft to soft. Introduced in 1750 

Flowers rose-coloured; March and April. 

Very striking, from the hoary, or rather wivery, 
appearance of its leaves ; and it makes a hand- 
•ome plant when budded standard high on the 
common almond or the plum. It flowers much less freely than the 
almond ; notwi^standbg wliich, it well deserves a place in collections, 
accoiuit of its fine silvery foliage. 

Gents 11. 

/•ETISICA Toum. Thb Pbach Thbr. Iab. Syl. kosindria Monc^ynla. 
Jdouillcaliim. Toarn. InU., t. 4M. ; Mni. Diet, i Due F1. Fr., 4BT. ; Don't Hill.. 3; 9. MS. 
MawKvimtt. jtmlidMl'ai >p. of Lin. ind Juii. t Trlchoctip"" *'«*■ **«"- Nq. TIR, ; PMw, fr. 1 
Pandmitanini. Grr. ; PeKO, lUi. .,..,=. 

wrinkled from irregular furrows. {Daa'i 

htavt* simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous: conduplicato when young. 

266 auboretuh et fbuticetuh britannicum. 

Flovten almost sessile, solitary, or twin, riaing frorn the scalj buds eariKr 

than the leavra. — Tree, deciduous, beaeath the middle size, and not of long 

duTHlion. Persia. 

The peach and the nectarine are by some bctanisls made distinct species; 
but there can be no douht of their being only varieties of one kind, which 
kind is itself nothing more than an improved or fleshy almond ; the ^rnond 
bdng to the peach and nectarine what the crab is to the apple, and the sloe to 
^e plum. 

t \. P. vulca'bis AfilL The common Peach Tree. 

Utui/lailiim. Mill. Dirt, No. 

Spec. Lliar., 4-c. rruic clothed with velvety tomencui 

Persia. Hdght 20 ft. to 30 ft. Cultivated in 1568, c . , „ 

Flowers rose-coloured j March aud April. Fruit red and yellow ; ripe in 

X P. c. 1, He freeilone eoDiMon Peach, Peche, Ft., has the flesh of the 
fruit parting from the shell of the nut (the stone). 

X P. o. 3, the clingilone comnum Peach, Pavie, Fr^ has the flesh of the 
fruit adhering to the bliell of the nut. 

X P. o ^ 1^' "'' ti/oi —in »..■ .1 

I P. D. SfoBit vanegati* Hort. — Leaves ( 
variegated, .'. 

■ P. p. 6 compreaa Hort., the flat Peach '.i 
ofChiDB (Hort. Trans, iv. t. 19.; and ,1 
oat Jig. +28.), is chiefly remarkable for ^ 
the form of its fruit, and fur being I 
nearly evergreen in its leaves. In the 
Hort. Soc. Garden, against a wall, it 
keeps growing throughout the winter, 
when the weather is not too severe. 


XKVi. aosa'cE£: ^kmeni'aca. *267 

IS. P. (y.) lkVis Dee. The smouth-iioutfif Peach, w ATMtonne 3Vm. 

^-»vxn' ^nit^ia Knhl'LM-i' Did. ' A. pVr'tS^ilmcuiiiim AM. Hart. Ktm.; PMw IUm. 

BmKinm. Fl. ; IVirt now. /(ij. 
fiWrurijifj. KdU. Jard. fruit., 1. U. f. I, t. 1. II. t. a, 4. 

5j>rc. CAor., ^c. Fruit imooth, A deciduous tree. Persia, Hei^t 15ft. 
to 20 fi. Cultivated in 156S. or probubly iong before. Fluven rose- 
coloured ; Mvch and April. Fruit red and yellow; ripe in September. 

T P.(v)L \, lAefreeilone Xeclaiine f with the fhiit parting from the nut). 

Peche liase, Fr. — The Elruge is the bent variety. 
1 P. (v)l. 8, MecfinctfoneAVcforTRrfwithtlieflesbtullieriDgtOtheaut). 
Brugnon, Ft. — The Orange ii the best variety. 
The different varieties of peach and nectarine, when treated as standard 
tree* in the open garden, assume the general Ibrin end character of the 
almond ; but, as they are more delicate, in consequence of being Girther re> 
moved from their aboriginal state, they are of slower growth, form trees of lets 
■tie, and are of shorter duration. The nectarine, as a standard in the open 
garden, forms a siiuiller and more delicate tree than the peach ; and the double- 
flowered peach is of less vigorous growth than most of the single-flowered 
varieties, but veiy omamenlM. 

Genus III. 


^RMENrACA Tourn. Tbb Apricot. £n. Sgil, Icotindria Monog^nia, 

orn. lut.. I. NB.', JaskOa., Ml.j Dk. FL Fr., 4. B.4SB., Prod. Lp.tll.t 


lui ip. ot Ua. ud otbuni AbricutiR, Fr., Apriknmtunni. Gtr. ; Alblencgo, 

.„,«nnilin(nied jTmnilKi.friiin<Ii<>TirlcallMlnf orlfliialljrfnini jfrnn/B. Tb» 

[■nichB. or ilotcocro ; 4Dd thv £n|){th. obrlcot. OF aprlcoch. eTenlUAllf a»rrupL«] Inlo mprkcoC. 
Some penoDl i^rlTO tho nAmfl frttm ^rwcor, fram Ihit frull rlptnlnf hxki« ttuH noat othere. 

Gcw. CAar. Drupe ovate globose, fleshy, covered with a velvety akin, con- 
taining a nut or stone, which in acute at one end, and blunt at the oiher, 
with a furrow on both sides ; the rest smooth, not wrinkled. {Don't MUl.) 
LeatKi simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; when young, convolute 
Ftoaert almost sessile, solitary, or few together, rising before the leave* from 
sculy buds. — Trees, low, deciduous, or shrub*; natives of Europe and Asia. 
The common apricot is a fruit tree in general cultivation throughout the 
temperate regiuns of the globe, distinguished at first ai^Kt from the almond, 
peaeh, and nectarine, by its heart-shaped, smooth, shining leaves, and white 
flowers- Thereareseveiil wild varieties, bearing flowers ofdifferent shades <rf 
pink, chiefly cultivated as ornamental. The great beauty of both the wild and 
the cultivated sorts of apricot is, that they come into bloom in Britain before 
almost every other tree ; the Siberian apricot flowering a fortnight, or more, 
before the common sloe — ' ' 

'. Char., 4'A Flowers sessile. Leaves heart-shaped 

i, the Himalayi 
&e. 'Hdgbt SO ft. to 30 ft. Cultivated in 1546. Flowers pinkish white 

Prod.) A middle-sized tree. Armenia, Caucasus, the Himalaj 
&e. Hdgbt SO ft. to 30 ft. Cultivated in 1546. Flowers pink 
February and March. Drupe orange and redj ripe in August 
Decaying leaves reddish vellow. Naked young wood smooth, purplish. 


X A. «. 1 tma&JbUa Ser. Abricot Angoumois, A. pr£coce, A. blaac, F>. 
* (N.DuHain.,5.t.50.r.6^ , 

and oaifig. 429.) — Leaves 
OTal; fntit Binell. 
I A. B. 8 cordifiSa Scr. (N. Du A 
Ham., a. p. 167. t. 49 i | 
and ourj^. 430.)— Leaves \ 
hesrt-ahaped, broad. Fruit 

It A. V, 3 JoSu vanegalit Uort. 
— LeavcH variegated. FJow- 
crg double. The Breda va- 
riety in generally that which 
has varle^ted leaves io British gardena. 
X A. V. 4Jlore plirio Hort. — Orossier says that the 
Chinese hsve a great many varieties of double-bbssomed apricots, 
which they plant on little motints. 
Very few trees attain the appearance of maturi^ so noon as the apricot ; « 
Btandard 10 or 12 years planted, in ^ood loamy rich soil, will grow to the 
height of 20 ft., with a head 25 ft. in diameter, preeentiog all the e|ipeanu>ce 

of a tree (if 20 or 30 years' growtli, or of a tree arrived at imturitr. ITie beat 
variety for producing IVuit, as a stuidard, is the Breda apricoL It is also a 
very nan dKoiiie-gro wing plant, and its blossom buds, before they are eipandod, 
are of a moat lieautifufand brilliant scarlet, 

T 2. J. dasvca'rpii Ptrt. The rough-finite d Apricot Tree. 

IHtnlfficaliOn. Pen. Sjn., !. p. K. ; Doc Prod., 1. p. 6SJ. ; Don-i Mill, S. p. «;. 

VBCi y. Jmi.nlicinlgr.Dti'^ CaJ. cd. in. sob. ; iWhliri Apricot. 

Engratingi. N.DuH>iD.,M. ftl. M.| LodJ. Uot. Cib., L liuo.i •ndoarAi.tat.tM. 

spec. C/iar., ijc. Leaves ovate, acuminate, doubly serrate. Petioles glandcd. 
Flowers upon thread-shaped pedicels. In the flowers of a plant in the 
(leneva Botanic Garden, the calyx was purple, and 64obed; the petals 
were 6 ; and the stamens 24. (Dec. Prod.^ A tree with a twisted trunk, 
resembUng the common apricot, but smaller. Levant?, He^tiOft. to 
\5 (t. Introduced in 1800. Flowers white; April, Drape pui^ or 
black I ripe b August and September. 


~ ' . d. 2 veniafB __.^ . 

» de Pecher, Ft. (N. Du Ham., 5. p. 178. t 
and our &. 434.) — Leaves ovate and ehort, or lanceolate, with amal) 
lobea, FTesh of the fniit red, validated with pale yellow. In the 
A'omeau Du Bamel, it Ib stated to be a verj slight varietj', which 
can only be coDliiiued by budding. 
The rough-fruited apricot merita cullivBtion for its flowers, which are gene- 
ral); white, but which, in this country, troui the earliness of their appearance^ 
are not oftcD succeeded by fruit, unless the tree is planted against a wall, where 
it can be protected b; netting troni the spring frosts. 

3. A. (r.) bibi'bica Pm. Hie Siberian Apricot Tree. 

P«rL SjD., 1. ji. 3£. :, Don't MIU., 1. p. ««. 

fwrinnfi. Anunn Bilrp. BnS!, aJa. I. a., VtO. PL BOH., 1. 1. l.niidoi»i*it«loArt 
Bin., Ut tan. idI. t. 1 ud mirjlf. WS. 

I. I ....Google 


Spfe. Char., ^c. Leaves ovate acuniUMte, of the farm of thoK of the beeik 
The petiolei long and ftUndlen. Fruit imull. A native of mouUBsni 
districts in tile most remote parts of Siberia. PersocHi has slated tkil ■ 
Taries with leaves linear-lunceolate. (_Dcc. Prod.) A low tree, hiving lU 

Snend appearance of the common apricot, but smaller in ail in pam. 
fthuria, on mountains, growing upon the face of perpendicular rocki d- 
poied to the nun. Hei^t 6 ft. to Hd.; in England S ft. to SO fL Intny 
duced in 1788. Flowers rose^oloured; Hay. Drupe?. 
ThiB trt-e, on the mountaina of Dnhuria, does not attain a greater bd^ 
than that of a man ; but it has a I runk the thickiiets oF the wrist, a roi^ li 
black bark, and h<ird wood. It flowers about the same time aa the Abo<i>- 
dendron daurlcum ; growing on the south sides of the mouniaina, while tte 
latter grows on the north sides. When both these plants are in Smrt, 
Pallas observes, tile north sides of the mountaina appear of a purple colour. 
end the south of a rose colour. (Ft. R'ti., i. p. IS.) In British gardeni,lk 
Siberian apricot forms a tree of nearly the tame height as the common tpriox, 
of which it appears to us to be the wild form. 

T 4. A. (v.) brioanti'aca Pen. The Brtan9O0 ApHcot Tree. 
Mnai/laukm. Pan. Srn,, & p. 36. : Dk. Prod., t. p. Ul. : Doi't ~ 
I V umynf. I^^nol brtiutUra ydL Damp*. I. p. iis., Dre. Ft. 

Spec. Char.y^c, Leaves nearly hesrt-shRped, toothed 
with numerouB sharp subimbricate teeth. Flowers 
in groupi, almost sessile, scarcely protruded before 
the leaves. {Dec. Prod.) A low tree. Dau- 

fhiag, in only one locality, and in another in 
'iedmont, where an oil, called huile de marmotte, 

has for a long time been expressed from the 

aeeds. Height in British gardens 14 ft. to 15 ft. 

in 10 or 18 years; in its native habitats, Oft. to 

8ft. Introduced b 1819. Flowers white or pink ; 

March and April. Drupe 7. 

Seringe suggested that this kind may be thesume 
as A. siblrica, and we think it not unlikely to be only 
another variety of the common apricot in its wild 
state, with toothed leaves. 


PEU'NUS Toum. Thb Pluk. 7,m. Syil. IcosAndria Monogynia. 

Utmnftallim. TourD. Init.. t. K». ; Orn. Prnd., 1. p. 1S9. | t>an'l Hill., t. 4M. 
Summirmfl. PrunVio™ >f">'- EIrm. Na. TiS. i i>rilaiii ip. of Lin. u4 Mtwi ; PrOBII, II^ 
DfrltaUon. SiOd to )M > void of Ailillc orl^n j Uiii vlld plant, Kxonlina (d Grnhn, twlii| ia>fl 
;inwiiiHitla Alia. Thi QnA nima forUii plum ii praimt: U OKun In Ttwaphmtnl. 

Oen. Char. Drwpe ovate or oblong, fleshy, quite glabrous, covered with > 
glaucous bloom ; containing a compressed nut or puiamen, which is acute at 
both ends, and a little furrowed on the mai^n, the rest smooth. (l>im'j MilL) 
Leavei simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; convolute when jouni. 
f%)umv usually disposed in umbellate fiiscicles, sulitaiy on the pedicdt,risiw 
seuendly before the leaves. — Trees or shrubs; nativei of Europe, A^aM 
North America. 


XXVI. aosa\;e£: ^rhkmi'aca. 271 

Many of the niecies are Rpinj 'm a wild state ; mort of them bear odible 
fruits i and h11 of them have show/ bloraoma. In British gardens, they are 
chiefly [tfopagated by graftiog, but some of them by layers; and they will grow 
in any soil that u tolerably free, and not overcharged with moisture, but a cal- 
eareous soil is found beat. The epidermis of the berk of the plui 

T I. P. spiNo'sA L. The spiny Plum Tree, or common Sloe Tliorn. 

UBUifieath*. Lin. Sp.,1. Kl.-. Dec, Prod,, t. p. 631. ; Dnn'i MI1l.,!.p, 4M. . 

* " -7lv*«il> Pluk. Hitl. p. im.. Rail SjTS. p- «a ; BUcklhomi Pmnler (ptunill, 

' «. or Utn-du-BcU. Fr. \ ttcblajidani, Dr ScbLan Fliium. Ocr. ; Pru|iiii, oi 
, ._ ... SK. : (he plaU In Ailj. Brit., Iittdlt., toL. t.; ind mir fit. Ol. 

at MoBlMwgit^ bwmiufl It hu bnn mnu-kecftfaerfi, that. vh«D 11 wu c4t4b1libBd on (be maiftDlof 
viKHll^ 1(1 under^oudd thoolt. ind tha turken wJiLch tpnng up Cnm Ihvm, bftd ft COdfttmL (?□■ 
dentj 10 viteQd tbe wood over Uie odJalDlDg fieldi. 

S^itc. Chnr., r^c. Branches spiny. Leaves obovate, ellipticnl, or ovate ; downy 
beneath, doubly and ihunily toothed. Flowers produced before the leaves 
or with them, white, and solittuy. Calyx campanulate; with lobes blunt, 
and longer than the tube. Fruit globose ; the flesh austere. {^Der. Prod.) 
A low tree or ehrub. Europe from Upsal to NaplcE, and the West of 
A«a and North of Africa. Height 10 ft. to 15 ft Flowers white; March 
and April. Drupe black ; ripe in October, 

I P. (. I vtJg^ni Ser. P. apia&sa Loii. <N. Du Ham,, 5. p. 185. t. 54. 

f. 1.) — Leaves obovate-elliptical . Fruit dark purple. This may be 

considered as the normal form of the species, 

1 P. t. 2 JaSu varii'gatiM Ser. — Found wild ; but a plant of no beauty. 

I P. *. 3 micTocarpa Wallr. (Exs. Cent. 1. No. +5.) — Leaves ellipiic, 

narrow, bluntish. Fruit smaller than that of the species. 
t P. I. 4 mocriKWTia Wallr. ( Ex s. Cent. I. No. 45.)— Leaves obovate, 
bluntish. Fruit large, dark purple. This has been found wild in 
Germany: but Seringe doubts whether it be not identical with P, 
domistica Juli&Dn, or with P, insitilia. 
1 P. J. 5 ovdla 8er. (Blackw. Herb., t. 494.) — Leaves ovate, roundish. 
T P. (. O^fiore plino, — This is a very beautiful variety, said to be in cul- 
tivation, and highly prized, in China and Japan ; and also fouiid wild 
some years ago at Tanacon. The flowers are white, and are pro- 
duced in such abundance as to entirely cover the branches. 
The sloe, or blackthorn, is much more frequently seen as a Utrge spiny shrub, 
than as a tree; hut, when the suckers are removed from it, and all the strength 
of the plant is allowed to go into one stem, it forms a small scrubby tree of the 
most cnaracteristic kind. The stems of the sloe differ from those of the haw- 
thorn, in growing to the hei^t of 3 or 4 feet before they branch off. The 
bark is black, whence the name of blackthorn ; and the leaver are dark green. 
The roots are creeping, and, in every soil and situation, throw up numerous 
aacLers ; so much so, that a single plant, in a favourable eoII, would cover an 
acre of ground in a veir few years. In hedges, in Britain, it is seldom seen 
above SO fl. in heuht ; but in woods and in parks, as single trees, we have sei n 
it above 30 ft. high : for example, in Eastwell Park, in Kent. The wood is 
hard, and in colour resembles Uiat of the peach, thouih without its beauty : it 
taka a fine polish ; but it is so apt to crack, that littte use can be made of it, 
except fbr handles for tools, teeth for hay-rakes, swingles for flails, and 
waUuD^ticka. The wood weighs, when dry, nearly 52 lb. [>er cubic foot. 
The branches, from being less spreading than those ot^ the common hawthorn, 
■iMke better dead hedges than those of that spedes; and, for the sane reasoi^ 
(hey an particularly weU adapted for forming guards to the stems of tree* 



plnnted id grou fieldE or in parks, to protect them from cattle. Hey we in 
general use for this purpoae in France. They are also used as a substrtute fat 
stones and tiles in draining ; and, formed into faggots, they arc sold for heatiag 
bakers' ovens, and For burning lime or chalk in kilns, &c. The iiring plant 
cannot be recommended for nedges, on account of the rambling habit of its 
roots, and the nutuerouE suckers they throw up; and because it is apt tu get 
naked below, from the tendency of the shoots to grow upright and without 
branches. These upright shoots make excellent walking^ticka, which, ac- 
cordingly, throughout Europe, are more frequently taken fh>m this tree than 
&om any other. Leuvea of the sloe, dried, are considered to form the best 
substitute for Chinese tea which has yet been tried in Europe; and they hare 
been extensively used for the adulteration of that article. The juice of the 
ripe fruit is said to enter largely into the manubcture of the cheaper kinds of 
port wine ; and, when properly fermented, it makes a wine strongly resembling 
new port. In plantiiig groups and messes in parks, by the addition of a few 

Silanta of the sloe, a degree of intricacy may be given sooner and more eC- 
ecdvely, than by the use of the common thorn ; but, at the same time, the sloe 
produces a degree of wildness from its numerous suckers, and the want of 
control which they indicate, which is not displayed by any of the spedes of 
CretK^s, which do not throw up suckers. For producing wildness and iit> 
tricacy, therefore, in park scenery, the sloe is of great value, and its effect is 
much heightened by the addition of the common furae or the brooni. The 
sloe prefers a strong calcareous loam. It may be progngatcd freely by auckera, 
or by seeds ; the latter should be gathered in October, when the fruit it dead 
ripe, mixed with sand, and turned over two or three times in the course of the 
wmter ; and, being sown in February, they will come up in the month of Hay. 

f 2. P. I! 

The engrafted Plum Tree, or Bullare Plum. 

E.Fr()il.,9.p.e33.i Don'l Mill., I. p. 49a. 

QMir Ttmn. ; F. tj\iiiu\t mijar Rag i Pmnier onnf*. ' 

Flowers in pairs. Leaves ovate 
Fruit roundish. (Dee. iVorf.) 

low tree. England, Germany, and the South of France, and also Baritaiy. 
Height 10ft. to soft. Flowers white; March and April. Drupe black; 


1 P. i. 
* p. i 

XXVI. bosa'ce£ : PRu svs. 


t P. i. ajrietu rubra Hort. — Fruit red. 

t P. L 4Jldn plena Descemet in Mini, de la Rmae MiriiSonaie, 1. 

p. 63. — Flowers double. 

Hie fruit, which is globular, and usually block, ia Bometimea yellowish or 

\nixj, with a red tint, and sometimei red; it is also so much leas austere than 

dw aloe, u to make excellent pies and puddingi, and a verjr good preserre. 

He fruit of thU plum in ProTence is called prune aibarelle, because it is in>- 
posnble to whistle after having eaten it, from its sourness. The wood, the 
branches, the ftuit, and the entire plant are used, throughout France, for the 
same puipoces as that of the sloe. 

It L. The domestic cultmaiai Plum Tree. 

id ffar ; PrunL«r domeitiiiue, Fr. i ■•- 

Eagrmiitft. Wood. Mei. Bex., i.Sfi. i B. BM..t.m3.; inAaaiJIg.iK. 

Spec. Clmr^ 4^. Branches spineless. Flowers mostly 
solitary. Leaves lanceolate-OTate, concave on the sur- 
face, not flat. (Dec. Prod.) A low tree. South of 
Eur(^>e, on hills; in Enslaitd, found sometimes in 
hedges, but never truly wild. Height 15 ft. to SO ft. 
lowers white ; April and May. Drupe various ; ripe 
AnguBt to October. 


1 P. d. t flare plena Hort. — Flowers large, double. 

1 V.d.A JoUu variegdiu Hort. — Leaves vari^ted. 

T P. if. 4 Brmeranidei Ser. — Leaves and fruit like I 

those of j^rmeniaca briganttacs. 

iltivated plum resembles the common sloe, but is 

all its parts, and without thorns. There ar« 

I varieties and subvarieties ; but, as they belong 

pomoli^y than to arboriculture, we have here only noticed those 

distinctness in an omamental point of view. 

larger i 


The apricot-like plum seems in termed iftte between the wild p'uin snd the 
wild spricat, The varieties cultivated for their fruit have, in general, mucfa 
larger leaves, mnl stronger young shoots, than the other Korts; they flower 
later, their bloasoms are larger, and tlicir fruit, particularly such sorts ai tbe 
magnum bonum aud the diamond plum, several times as large; the latter being 
upwards of SJ in. long. These iniit-bearing varieties are in imivenaJ culti- 
vation in temperate climates ; and for every thing of interest relating to them. 
as such, we rder to our Encyclopedia of GaTdming, edit. 1835, p. 9!B0. The 
use of the fruit in doroesiic economy, in Britain, for the dessert, and fbr 
making tarta and puddings, ia well known. In France, plums are used prin- 
cinally dried, as an article of commerce, and they are known under tbe nwne 
01 bngnoles, prunes, and French plums. The different modes of preserving 
plums in France will be found detailed at length in the Ist edit, of thia mark, 
and in our Saiwtatt HorHcutltaitl, 

t 4. P. (d.) HrROBA'tANA L. The Myrobalan, or Cherry, Plum. 

Ifaat/lailKm. Lin. Sp.. >^B0. ; D«. FnMl.. 3. p, sn. I Dmi'i Hill.. 1, p.Wa 

Srxmsmn, P.KjrobMm Du Ham.t I". lnlH«*l»IU i«ir, ( i>. (sruiriim EArA. BcOr. 1. p. 17. ; 
Vlriloiu Cfasrri I Barlj ScBteC Flum I nonlo mTrobtlu, or CuliMU. fr.i KlriCfapOuniM, 

Spec. Char 4"' Sepals narrow Fruit gtolrase, depressed at tbe base i um- 
bilicus depressed nut wi'h a small point. (Dec. Prod.) A low tree. 
Europe or acrording to some North America. Height 15 ft. to 30 fl. Cul- 
tivated in pu^lens tur an unknown period. Flowers while ; March and 
April. Fruit cordate, red. rarclj' produced in England. 

i P. (d.) ni. 2 futat vnrifgatit N. Du Ham. has vari^sted leaves. 
Though we conader this nothing more than a variety of the common plum, 
yet it is so distinct, both in the habit of the tree and the colour of the fruit, 
(hat we think it more convenient to keep it apart. Its flowers arc produced 
as enriy as those of the sloe; and, the nUnt being more tender than that 
species, it seldom produces fruit in Bnglund, except when the blossoms are 
protected. It forms a good stock for varieties intended to be k^ dwarf. Id 
India the fruit is sold to dye black. 


XXVI. sosaV 


IS B native. It is quite 
with white blossoms in 
f hence the name. 

Ci'ndicans Balb. The white Pium Tree. 
I. Bilb.CM^ur..^81».^.« WHI(I.En™.Suppl.,p.Jli Dm. Prod.. 
Sneratiwg,. Bol, Reg, [. llM.j Md ourjlp. Ml, t4i. 

,^1:. Ciar., ij-c. Branche.'i pubescent. 
Flowers 2 or 3 together, upon short 
pubescent peJunclci. Cnljx belU 
shaped. Leaves broadly ovate, 
whitish beneath. Stipules or the A 
length of the petiole, very narrow, ) ' 
and cut b a. toothed manner. (Dec. ^ 
Prod.) A low shnib. PTauria. 
Height 6 ft. to 8 ft, InlroJ, in 1825. «». p,rtMi 
Flowers white ; ApriL 
It ia not known of what country it ' 
hardy, easily cultivated, and bo laden 
'■'*"'"'■" spring as to appear a niuis of snow, 1 
•• 6. P. Cacoai'LLA Tenore, The Cocomilla Plum 1 

,.™., Jl^^iiTt'jJ- "■"■' '^■'"*- "■*■' '^■ 

Emgrmmg. Our /». tM. from ^ B^Bg .p^cin,™. 

^c. Char., ire. Flowers upon short peduncles, in Dairs 
Learcs obovate, crenulate, glabrous on both surfaces - 
the crenaturea glanded. Fruit ovate-oblone, with a amnil 
pomt, yellow, ? bitter or ?acid. (Dfc. /■ro4 A ll^hrb 
CaW™, ,n hedges. Height 8 ft, .0 3 ft: Introduced 
in 1884. Flowers white; April. Drupe yellow- rine in 
August. "l^"i 

The bark is febrifugal, and, in Calabria, ia conadered to 
be « q)ecific for the cure of the pestilential fevers common 
■a rbat country. 

• 7. P. mari'tim* tFoMgeniam. The sea-side-iniaiiftng Plum Tree. 

MmtttOrtibii. WlDiFDh. Amer 103 UR,r.lli 
(o \V1LW. Enoni p. (19., ri„h Vl. Am, 
SjjM., 1, p. asi. ; Di. Prod., s, J,. 1133. ; Don 


ttit Limbemui herb 



Spec, dor., ifc. Leave* lanceolaie- 
ovaie, serrate. Flowers in pairs. 
Fruit small, round, sweet, dark hlue. 


I Dec. Prod.) A niWille-Biied shrub. North America, io sandy Boils,on tbe 

sea coast, from New Jersey to Carolina. Height 6 ft. to 8 ft. Introduced 

in 1818. Flowers while; April and May, Fruit, of the siie oF a pigeon's 

egg, dark purple, and, according to Piirsfi, very good to eat ; ripe ?. 

There are plants in British gardens, but they have never yet set fruit. 

d 8, P. pube'scens Poir. Tlie ptibescent-Zeocerf Plum Tree. 

Spec, Char., ij-c. Leaves with short pubescent petioles, and disks that are 
Blightly pubescent, ovale, tliiekiah, rounded, or shortly acuminate and un- 
equally toothed. Flowers mostly solitary and nearly sessile. Friut oval. 
Tjbec. Prod.) A Hhnib. Native country unknown. Cultivated in 1818, 
Height 2 ft. to 3 ft. Flowers white j May. 

The divaricaied-AntncAeif Plum Tree. 

^c. Char., rjc. Branches spineless. Leaves with 
glandless petioles, and disks oblong-ellipiical, ta- 
pered to both ends, concave above, serrate, gla- 
brous, with thamiiirib bearded beneuth. Flowers 
solitary, very numerous. Calvx rcrtcKed. Fruit 
elliptical, yellow. {Dec. Prod.) A middle-sized 
shrub. Caucasus. Height 8 ft. to 10 ft. Intro- 
duced in leaO. Flowers while ; April. 

Other Speaa of Prwiai Juss. — In consequence of many species of the 
genus Primus being removed to Cfirasus ; and also because of the dose tc- 
semblance of one species to another in both genera, there is a good dral of 
confusion, whicli cannot be cleared up till the plants are studied in a living 
state. Prinua effusawas raised in 1838, in the Hort. Soc. Garden, from aeods 
presented by Baron Jacquin. 

0£MU8 V. 


CE'RASUS Jw*. The Cherry. Lm. Syil, Icosandria Mont^yni*. 

iSiiiviUlim. From Ciraita. iha .Dosnl muM of . lown "'^""^^ Jj ^'^ whence the «i]tl>iC*4 

Gen. Char. Drape gliAose, or umbilicate atlhe base, fleshy, quite glabrous, 
destitute of bloom, containing a smooth, raiher globose compressed stone. 
(Doa-i Mm.) 

Leacet simple, alternate, stipul ale, deciduous, or evergreen ; when younp, 
conduplicate. FVokotj white. Perfioei l-flowered, risingbefore the leaves, m 
fnHcicled umbel B, from scaly buds j but sometimes rising after the evolution of 
the leaves, in racemes, froiii the topsofihehranches. — Trees and shrubs, almost 
all deciduous, with smooth serrsted leaves, and white flowers j and, generally, 
with light-coloured bark. Natives of Europe, Asia, and North America. 
Sume of them are cultivated for their fruit, and the others as ornament^ 
In British nurseries, the deciduous species are generally propagated by grafb- 
ing or budding on the Cerasus sylv&tris, and the evergreens are propi^ated 

XXVI, aosa'ce£: ce'rasus. 277 

by cuttings or ceeds ; thef will grow iu any tominon soil that is tolerably dn. 
There is much confusJOD in all the nnecies, more particularly as regards 
those which are nattvea of North America ; and which, as Sir W. J. tlooker 
Judiciously obiiervca, can only be " reuioved by carefully studying the plant* 
in a living slate, botli during the season of the blossom and that of the truit." 
(P/or. Bar. Amer., i. p. 167.) 

$ i. Ceraidphora Dec. TIte Cherry-bearing Kinds. 

A . ^>eciei cultivated fir their Fnal. 
The Cherriet cvlthaled in Gardeni, according to Linmeun, and almost all 
botanists to the time of DeCandolle, have been referred to Priinus kvium L. 
and Prunus C^raaus L. ; the fonner being the merisier of the French, and 
corresponding vfith the small wild black bitter cherry of the English {the C. 
8y!v£stjis of Ray) ; and the latter the cerituer of the French, and correspond- 
" ' ■ ' - . - ist^M" 

ing with the comnion red sour cherry of the English (the C, i 
ler>. To these two species DeCandolle has added two others : C^rasus 
Juiiaaa, which he considers as including the giiigniers ; and C^msus dur&cina, 
under which he includes the bigarreaus, or hard cherries. Under each of 
these four species, Seringe, in DeCandolle's Prodromiu, has arran^jed a num- 
ber of varieties, with definitions to each group ; but, a* neither tlie species 
nor the groups appear to us distinct, we have adopted the arrangement of the 
author of the article on Cerasus in the Aburrou DuHamet, us much more 
simple and satisfactory ; and have referred all the cultivated varieties to the 
same species as Lintueus ; substituting tor Prunus avium L., Cerasus aylv^tris, 
the aynon. of Ray ; and for Prunus Cerasus i>„ 6'^rasus vulgaris, already used 
to designate the same species in Afiil. Diet., and by Loiseleur in the Kouveau Du 
Hamel, The arrangement of the varieties, and general culture of the cherry in 
the kilchen-gsrden and orchard, will be found at length in our Ewyclopa^ of 
GardeTimg; and, in a more coiidensed form, in our Suburban HorHcuUunit. 

1 1. C. stlvb'stris Bauh. and Ray. The wild black-fhaltd Cherry Tree. 

irmmtma imt Gonlfli h'^Wj.' '^'i>liuIi%Me«,V. Urn ^^H^'i^^' Ihm', Um. I. p. dU.; 
c. nign MIIL Did. Ho. i., nol at All. : i>riUiiu kilum Urn. ip. CSOv i P. kilura lar, s wd A 
wmd. Baiam. rd.t.B.IOA. ; Prilaat i'iam nr. jliml « E<lg. FloT. 1. p. S&n ; p. oUrlcini md 

■ BUck Ueut, Bluk Hu'iud. tW ncnr Tiee qf llu ClinUre vraiaiUJ, ifie Herrlo At 

fDidihlrc, BUck Uort, Bluk Huiud. the Hcirr I'lee g^Uc CknAIrt ptmami, Ac Herri 
SuffuUi Mftrliler. Hcriie groufi oolra, Guiglll(r, BI(UTtiulder, HEaumlcr, Fr. ; SUue Kli 

Dcrttauaa. TbU chfrn li olltd CoroiH, or Conxm, bi khm parli nf Eniluid, rran nmu-. ■ 

cticiTT. Blpuivui ii dcrlvad fr:iin MturrA; llulr-coliHinid, IncauH tha ilunln knavn 1^ Alt 
Dame MTK pmn-BllT of two »lourl. f«II*i* *0'1 red i tad Hrtvmioi b fiom iht Frvncb mtd 
iWomif, t IiPlTlift, nom the ihapvafthe rnUl. 

Spec, Char^ ^c. Branches vigorous and divaricate i the buds fruni which the 
Ihiits are produced oblong- acute. Flowers in umbel-like groups, sessile, 
not numerous. Leaves oval-lanceolate, pointed, serrated, somewhat pen- 
dent, slightly pubescent on the under side, and furnished with two glands at 
the base. (Dec. Prod., iV. Du Hamel.) A niiddle-flized tree. Europe, in 
woods and hedges. Height, in dry fertile soils, 40 ft, to 50 ft. or upwards, 
IHowen white ; April and May. Drupe red or black ; ripe in July, De- 
caying leaves of a fine red, or rich yellow and red. 


1. Mhitiert or Merriei, with black or yellow truit. 

2. Gaigmeri Qt Geani (C. Juliana Dec), with red or biack fruit, early or 
late, and including the tobacco-leaved gtiignier, or gean, of four to the 
pound (the C. decumana of Delauuy). 

., Google 


3. ffmumtrn, lie Heltntl-thaped Cherriet ((.'. Jutuns var. Hemtiniiia Dec.), 

somewhat resembling the bigvTTenu, but with let* finn flesh. 
Variely of thii race tuedfor ornamnial piirj/otet. 

X C. I. durieiaa S fiure pliao Hort., tEie double flowered wild Uwk 

Cherry ; Merisier it Fleura doubles, or Heriuer RcnuiKulisr, Fr.; 

is a very beautiful Tarietv, known, iu the garden of the HorC Soc, 

as the double French white. 

4. Bigarreautiertjthe BigarTeaiu,orhard-fiedadCherTie$(C.iaT6i:iaat)re.) 

wich white, flesh-coloured, aod black fhiit, geiiM^lly heart-shaped. 

The colour of the truit of the wild species is aver; deep dai^ led, o 

" ' 's of the same colour, small in quantity, atistere and tntte 

J maturity, and in»pid when the fruit is perfectly ripe. The 

te, like the fruit, firmly adhering to the flesh, aad Tery large 

he size of the fruit. The juice is mostly coloured ) And the 

before it comes to maturity, and in»pid when the fruit is perfectly ripe. The 

nut is oval or ovate, like the fruit, firmly adhering to the flei'' ~ ' ' 

in proportion to the size of the fruit. The juice is mostly ci 
skin does not sepurate from the fleiih. 

bluck i the flesh is of the same colour, small in quantity, atistere and In^er 

ic fruit is pa ' ' " 

1^ to the flei 

■ IS mostly CI 

t 2. C. vuLQA'Kis Mm, The common Cherry Tree. 

^Kommrt ana CMrdcH Hmct. C^ruui iilum Hmck ; frtrniu Ctnnu Lin. Sp. <n. i C km. 

UniTi Pm. Stn. 1. p. 14. : C cepmiina Dec. Fiod. 1. p. US., Udd'i Mill. i. a. 907. i r. 

tuiUri mill p.ic\dagkr. Btio-. 7. p. IK>. and ISO.: p. Cinmu tu.. Bag. fkr. i. p. til.: Ckrnr. 

Kntlili ur Flnnlih Cherri, MorelK Ksv Duke ( ChIki de Hontmamicr. Ctriw d« Fmiu. 

CeriH t Frulli njDili, CtAtin du Nnid, Cedtler. and GrlntUer la uou piarlDm, Fr. ; Sun 

KICKhc, Gtr.\ Uiruci, or Cllieglo. IlaL 
Derlmiiat. COfmifiMiu It Htd lo be dtriTcil froniuprDii. <hc liuubaliiU'aurliH'rT. pnbatalf bm 

i»orckiUa tKuMmSl, Ibe Hub bciDi d[ ibi uine coiuliKncyu lb* a«>b oT (bat runiui: or. 
paihipt. Item Iha Fnnch word nortlU, • fnnals iKgra. Uay Duka U > coiruHioii^ M^*>i^ 
the province qf Franca whpra the variety la auppoeed id have been orlglDalcd. Griottirr la aaU 
to ba dertved ^oa aigrtur^ loutneu, or ibarpbeaa, and applied to thlt cberry tram tbe BcUtt} ot 

Spec. Chai\,^c. Tree small, branches spreading. Flowers in liubsessile im)- 
heU, not numerous. Leaves oval-lanceolate, toothed, glabrous. A decidu- 
ous tree. Europe and Britun, in gardens and plantations. Height 30 ft. to 
40ft, Flowers white; May, Drupe redj ripe in July. Decaying leaves 
red and yellow. 

Varietiei. — There are numerous cultivated varieties, which are classed hy 
Loiseleur in the Neiaeau Da Hamel in three i^oups, including in the Gnl 


ot tbeae the four following varieties, which we particulurise on account of 
tbdr being pure); ornamental ; — 

X C. V. 2 _fidre lenaplino Hort. — Flowers semidouble. 
I C r. 3 jl^s plino Hort. — All the aramenaof this variety are changed 
into petals ; and the pistillum into amall green leaves, which occupy 
the centre of the flower. The flower is smaller and lees beautiful 
than that of the double mjriaier; but, as the tree does not grow so 
high, and as it can be srown as a shrub, it is auitabie for planting in 
sitUBtions where the other cannot be introduced. It is commonly 
grafted on the Prilnus Maialeb, 
T C. D. i perticifidra Hort. — The flowers are double, and rose-colouretl. 
This variety was known to Bauhin and to Toumefort, but is at pre- 
sent rare in gardens. 
1 C. 0. 5 JBSii tiarieg^ Hort. has vari^ated leaves. 

7^ JruU-iemng varietiei are arranged in the Komxaa Du Hamel, 
under the following beads : — 
I. Flesh whitish, and more or less acid; including the Montmorency 

8. Flesh whitish, and onlj' very slightly acid; including the En^isb 

duke cherries. 
3. Flesh red, including the griottiers, or morellos. 

T7ie Bigorreaa is a tree of vigorous growth, with large pale green leaves, 
and stout divergent branches. 

Suibiti't Tellov>\B a vigorous-growing tree, like the preceding, but witli 
golden- coloured fruit. 

The KaiHth Chart/ is a round-headed tree, with slender shoots, some- 
what pendulous. 

TV Mag Duke is a middle-vzed or low tree with an erect laatigiate 

TheMorrOo is a low tree, with a spreading head, somewhat pendulous ; 
most proliRc in flowers and fhiit -, the latter ripening very late, and. 



from not being bo greedily eaten by the birds as omM odicr sorta, 

hanpng on the trees a long time. 
lyOitheim is a dwarf weeping tree, a crnit bearer. 
1 C. D. 6 Morischa, i^Onus Maraidia Jacq., is theTarie^ from the fnrit 
of which the liqueur called Haraschino is made. Plants of it Iwre 
been raised in the Hort. Soc. Garden in ltJ37. 

The Bowers are smaller than those of C. sylv^stris. The fruit is round, 
melting, full of a watery aap, more or less flavoured, and almost always seo- 
sibly acid. The skin of the fruit is commonly red, but, in the numerous ya- 
rietiea in cultivntion^iassing into all the shades between that colour and dark 
pur|)le or black. The akin of all the varieties of C. vulgikris separHte* easily 
from the flesh, and the Seah parts readily from the stone; while, in all tbe 
varieties of C. aylvestris, the skin ia more or less ndhering to the flesh, and the 
flesh to tbe stone. {N. DitHam., y. p. IB.) This species fonna a tree of 
leas magnitude than that of C. sylv^stris : it is never found in a tndy wiJd 
state in Europe, and the aboriginal Ibrm is unknown. 

Remarkt refcrnng to both Spedei, — Tlie cherry trees in cultivation, whether 
in woods or gardens, may, in point of general appearance, be included in three 
forms : Inrge trees with stout branches, and shoots proceeding from the nniii 
>teni horizontally, or slightly inclining upwards, and when >oung and without 
their leaves, bearing a distant resemblance CO gigantic candelabra, such as the 
geens, and many of the heart cherries ; fiistigtate trees of a smaller size, such 
as ihedukesj and small trees with weak wood, and branches divergent and 
drooping, such as the Kentish or Flemish cherries, and the mor^llos. The 
leaves vary so much in the cultivated varieties. Chat it is impossible to charae* 
terise the sorts by them j but, in general, those of the large trees are largest, 
and the lightest in colour, and those of the slender-branched trees the smallest, 
and the darkest in colour i the flowers are also largest on the large trees. The 
distinction of two species, or races, is of very little use, with reference to 
cherries as fruit-bearing plants ; but, as the wild nort. C, sylvfstris, is very 
distinct, when found in its native habitats, from the cherry cultivated in gar- 
dens, it seems worth while to keep thein apart, with a view to arboriculture 
and ornamental planting. For this reason, also, we have kept C'frasus sem- 
perflorens, C. Pseildo-C'^rasus, C. serrui^ta, and C. Chamiecerasus apart, 
though we are convinced that thev are nothing more than varieties. In 
consequence of its rapid growth, the red fruited variety ought to be pre- 
ferred where the ohject is timber, or where stocks are to be grown for 
fruit trees of large size. As a coppice-wood tree, the stools push freely and 
rapidly ; and, as a timber tree, it will attain Its full size, in ordinary situations, 
in 50 years. Its rate of growth, in (he iirst 10 years, will average^ in ordinary 
circumstances, IS in. b year. There arc various trees in the ndghbourhood 
of London upwards of 00 11. high ; one on the Cotswold Hills, on the estate 
of the Earl of Harrowby, is B5 ft. high. The wood of the wild cherry^ (C. 
sylvestris) is firm, strong, close-grain eii, and of a reddish colour. It wetgns, 
when ^rcen, 61 lb. 13oz. p^ cubic foot; and when dry, 541b. l5oz.; and it 
loses in tbe process of drying about a I6lh part of its bulk. The wood ia 
sofr anil easily worked, and it takea a line polish. It ia much sought after bj 
cabinetmakern, turners, and musical initntmcnt makers, more particularly in 
France, where mahogany is much less common than in Britain. The fruit 
of the cherry is a favourite with almost every body, and especially with 
children. The distillers of liqueurs make great use of ripe cherries: the 
spirit known as kirschewasser is distilled from them after fermentation ; and 
both a wine and a vinegar are mode by bruising the fruit and the kernels, and 
allowing the mass to undergo the vinous fermentation. The ratafia of Orcnoble 
is a celebrated hqueur, which is made from a large black gean ; Ironi which, also, 
the best kirschewiisser is made t and the maraschino from a variety of the tree 
found in Ualmatio. The preparation of these will be found in our first edition. 

XXVI. rosa'cex; ce'rasus. 281 

B. Specia or yaiittiet cuUioaUd at emamenlai or rHriiNM. 
'±3.0. (t.) sRifFBRrLo'RENS Uec. The ever-flowering Cherry Tree. 

tn.Fr.,«. p.j81.,,DdPKid.. s. p.B»7.i Don-! HILI., » p. II. 

at ■gmpnUrniJi ekrk. Brur. T. p. IH. ; P. hiMIu ItOi CaUL 1. p. W. ; Ui> 

Ua AUulpU Cheirj j Ccrto da l« TouMalnl, CarW <te 51. MuIlD. (Tarlw 


iJ^MC tSor., ^r. BrBDchea drooping. Leaves orate, leiTBted. Fluwers pro* 

truded iote in the season, axillary, soliiary. Calyx aerraied. Fniits globoB) 
and red. Itfl natire countiy not known. {Dec. Prod.) A low pendulous 

tree. Ueicht 10 ft. to SO fi. A garden proditc- 

tioD. Cultivated in ? ITOO. Flowers white j May, 

Drupe red i July and August. 

An ornamental tree, usuhII; greAed Rlandard high 
on the common wild cherry, or gean ; growing 
rapidly for B or ID years, and forming a round 
head, e or 10 feet high, and 10 or la feet in diameter, 
with the extremitiea of the branches drooping to 
the groiuid ; Bnd flowering and fruiting almoit the < 
whole summer. It forma a truly desirable sdibII single 
tree for a lawu. 

t 4. C. ■bbrula'ta G, Don. The e< 
Cherry Tree. 

Urmtlfe^itm. Hon. Bril.. p.tM.i Diin'i HIII^ 9.p.BI4. 
• "-^uiMiroiIuii*^*. HoM. TVma.T.p. ; 

Chun \ Yung- To. Ckhiai. 

Jig- <n)i tfoa ■ litlnfl ipcciiHO. 

., Google 


^e. Char,, ^. Leaves oboTSte, Hcuminued, MUceoiulj Mmilated, quite 
glabroiu. Petioles glandular. FloverB in fsBciclea. (Don'i Mill.) A low 
erect tree, or ra^er treerlike shrub. China, Height in China 4 ft. to 6 ft. ; 
in British gardens 0ft. to lOft. Introduced in 1838. Ploven double 
white, tinged with red, though not lo much co ai the double French 

Thu tree resembles the conmon chen^ tree, but is not of such vigoroiu 
growth i and only the Jouble-Sowered vanetj of it hai been yet introduced. 
A very ornamental plant. 

T b. C. Psbu'dd-Cb'rascs ImuU. The Fabe-Cherrj Tree. 

£m!^S^ Fitln-at PHCidD-aTuu 'LImll. Ilarl'.'n-aiu. S.' p. M. ; J>. pH 

too., but not of Thnnll ; Vnng-To. Cklaat. 

S^^rinii. But. Beg., E. 100. 1 uiioaiJIt.W. 

Spec. Char., ^e. Leave* obovate, acuminate, flat, aerrated. 

Flowers racemose, firanchei and peduncles pubescent 

Fruit small, pale red, of a pleasant subacid flavour, wittt 

a small smooth stone. {Don't Mill,) A low tree. China. 

Hraght 811. to 10 ft. Introiluced in 1819. Flowers 

whitej Hnrch and April. Fruit pale red; ripe in June, 

This tree is readily known Trom the other ehen^ trees, 

even when without its leaves, by its rough gibbous joints, at 

which it readily strikes root; and is, coni>equentlj, very 

easily propagated. It bai been tried by Mr. KnighC as a 

fruit tree ; and be finds that it forces in pots better than 

any other variety. Dedrable for small ganlens, on account 

of its very early flowertng. 

m 6. C. Cbakscx'rasui Lmi. The Ground-Cherry Tree, or JUmmh 

(. DBEIua.,S. p.B.! Dk. PnNt^lp.ssT. iDon'ilOIL, r 


Spec. CAar., ^c. Leaves ovate-oblong, glabrous, 
glossy, crenate, bluntish, rather coriaceous, scarcely 
gUnded. Floweri in umbels, whidi are usually 
on peduncles, but short ones. Pedicels of the 
fruit longer than the leaves. Fruit round, reddish 
purple, very acid. (Dec. Prod ) A neat little ihruh. 
Siberia and Germany. Height 3ft. to ift. Introd. 
in 1587. Flowers white ; May. Drupe reddish 
pur[j[e ; ripe in August. 

It forms a neat little narrow leaved bush, which, 
when grafted standard hi|^, becomes a email round- 
heodeutree with drooping brancht'i, at once curious 
and ornamental. It does not grow above a four ili 
part of the size of C. semperdorens ; and, like it, it 
flowers and fruits during great part of the summer. 

J 7. C. prostra'ta Ser, The prostruie (Cherry Tree. 

lD(e Id D«. Prod., tp. Ms. j Don'. MI1L. s. b. in. 

MrowrlU Ban. Xcw. ni. 1 a. m,, ud lA. PI. art D.c. ] v. 
Fl. Bou„ I. L T. I BoL Beg., L 10«. 1 ud a<irj%. 133. 
4>rc, CUr., ^c. Decumbent. Leaves ovate, serrately 

toae, and hoary beneath. ™ ' 

tubular. Petab 

Is ovate, retuse, 

.-, .J — , glandless, tomeD> 

Flowers mostly solitary, nesriy aeaule. CUn 
ise, rote-coloured. Fruit ovate, red : flesh thin. 

XXVI. bosa'cejk: ce/rasus. S83 

(J>ee. Prod.) A prostrate 

•brub. Native of the moun- 

taiiu of CandU, of Mount 

Lrijsnon, and of Siberia. 

Ud^t ^ ft. to I ft. Intro- i 

duced in 1802. Flowers 

rose-coloured ; April and 

May. Drape red ; ripe July. 

A rery desirable species for 
grafting staadord high on the 
common cherry. The red co- 
lour of the flowers is very un- 

1 8, C. PEBSiciPo^iA Loii. The Peach-tree-leaved rherry Tree. 
JdrmH/kaOm. LaU.<a N. Du Him.,lL p.CL; D«. FroL, t. p.NT. 1 Don'i Ulll., 1. p. 81). 
e^trarimt. OurjV. 000. in A- «»■ 

^>fc. Char., tfc. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, unequally serrate, gla- 
brons, with two glands upon the petiole. Flowers numerous, upon slender 
peduncles, and disposed umbellately. (Crr. Prod.) A deciduous tree. 
P America. Height SO ft. to 50 ft. Introduced in IBIS. Flowers white j 
May. Drape sniiill, black ; ripe in July. 
A rapidly growing tree, attaining the height of the common wild cherry, 

and bearing so close a resemblance to it in almost every respect, that it is 

Srobably only a variety of it. There are trees of this kind oi cherry in the 
ardin des PlanCes at Paris, of a pyramidal form, with a reddidh brown smooth 
bark, flowers about the aize of those of C. Maliateb, and fruit about the size 
of peas. The wood is raid to be harder and redder than that of the con 
wild cherry. It was raised Iram seeds sent from America by Michaux. 

tni., * p. Ut. I Don't MU1.. I. p. SIS, 
Sp^ata. FiUma bgnilli Polr. DM. S. p. 674. ; th« NcH 
EmfTMuingt. Mlchx. Atb. Amcr., 1. 1- S. ^ uul our^. 454. 

Sfxe, Char., ^e. Leaves oval-oblong, 

denticuEuCe and almost in an eroded manner 
common almond tree, but have the sermtures 
iofiexed, protidterant, and tipped with minute 
glandulous mucros. Flowers on longish pe- 
dicels, and disposed nearly in a corymbose 
manner. Fruit nearly ovate, small; its fleab 
red. [Dec. Prod.) A small tree. Northern 
perts of North America, Height SO ft. to 
30 ft., with a trank 6 in. to S in. in diameter. 
Introduced in 1888. Flowers white; May. 
Drupe red ; ripe in July. 
Of all the cherries of North America, Mi- 
chaux observes, the C. borealis is the one that 
lias the greatest analogy with the cultivated 
cherrv of Europe. Fursh describes it as a 
very nandsonie small tree, the wood exquisitely 
liard and fin&«rained ; but the cherries, though 
agreesiile to the taste, astrin^nt in the mouth, 
and hence called choke chemet. 

10. C. Pu-MILA MicAx. 
chx. PI. Bor^ Amrr., s. P. >S8. ; Dec. Pmil.. S. p. sn. i Uon-i Mill, 1. p. SIl 

•l.n., Pmrii n.AwKT. Sett. I. p.nt.1 rlniiH flMca 

The dwarf Cherry Tree. 

, Ntgi. Mmel du Cuuidi, fr. ' 


ruUted, glaucous beneath. Flowers upon ' 

pedunclea, diipoied rather umbellately. Calyx 

bell-chaped, moH. Fruit ovate, black. (Drc. 

Prod.) A low aomewhat procumbent Mirub. 

North America, in Pennsylvaiua and Virginia, 

in low groundi bikI awamps. Height 3 ft. 

to 4 ft. lotroducedin 1756. Flowers white; 

May. Drupe black i ripe in July. 

A curious and nther handsome tree, when 
grafted standard high ; and a fit comnanion for 
the other dwarf sorts, when so grafted. Sir W. 
J. Hooker suspects this lo be the same as C. 
deprissa. It das been compared, Sir W. J. Hooker observes, ii 
hiitiit, to .fmygdalus n^a; and such a couiparisoi) is equally applicable to ('. 
depr^a. (^V. 3or. Amer., i. p, 167.) 

^ll.C. (p.) dbpre'sss /'A. Thedejireased, or ymufrvfr. Cherry Tne. 

Umt^aHim. Furib H. Amtr. Seft., 1. p. Bt.) Dec. Frod., % p.tM. ; Hook. Fl. Bet. ima^V 

EMgrawimg. Our^, 4fi6- £r«n LlTins pUnt Ld ij^idigtt't J 

Spec. Char., j-c. Branches angled, depressed, prostrate. Leaves ' 
cuneate- lanceolate, sparingly serrate, glabrous, glaucous beneath. 
Flowers in grouped sessile urabeLt, few in an umbel. Fruit 
ovate. (Dec. Prod.) A prostrate shrub. North America, ' 
from Canada to Virginia, od the sandy shores of rivers and 
lakes. Height 1 ft. Introduced in ISOd. Flowers white ; 
May. Drupe black, small, and agreeably tasted ; ripe in July. 
la America it is called the sand cherry, and said to be distin- 
guished at sight from all the other species, not less by its prostrate 
habit, than by its glaucous leaves, which bear some resemblance 
in shape to ihoae of .^migdalus niLna; and, according to Sir W. uk 
J. Hooker, to those of C. pilmila. (n*w*- 

■ 12. C, ptomc'a Lmt, The pygmy Cherry Tree. 

IjmHltaliim. LoU. In N. Du Ham., 5. p.I2.1Dd 91.) D«. Pnld., 1 p. US. ; Doa'l KUI., 1. p-M). 
^MKifqnKi. JWnui vftmn't iruM/Sp. a. p. »M.. Ptinh n. Amtr. Si ■ ' 

spec. Char., Sfc, Leaves ovate-elliptical, but tapered ti 

and rather acute at the tip, sharply serrated, glabrous on both 

surfaces, and with 2 glands at the base. Flowers of the si ' 

those of P. apindaa, disposed in sessile umbels, fl 


1SS3. Flowers white; May. Drupe black, of the site of i 
large pea, a little succulent, and very indifferent to the taste; 
ripe io July. «■- tn^— > 

ft I 13. C. Mi'oRA Lm. The black Cherry Tree. 

N. Du Huii.,E.p.SS. 1 Dec, 1V(id^X.p.ll3S. 1 Dm'l Kill.. & p. BII. 
Praooi nlgn Ail. Horl. Kac. Xd ed. S. p. 193.. Pvi* Ft. Amtr. S^. I. p-SU. ; r 
OtiUagim Tn Amtr. Lye. If- H. qf Nrm l^t. 
emrawritti, Bot. Mis., l. hit. i and our JV- *^^. *^- 

Spec. Char., Ifc. Leaf with 2 eland* upon the petiole, and the disk ovate 
acuminate. Flowers in sessile umbels, few in an umbel. Calyx purple 
to lobes obtuse, and their margins gtandcd. {Dec. Prod.) A tall shrub a 

XXVI. »08A~CE«: ce'rasus. 265 

low tree. Canada and the Alle- 
ghany Mountains, Hnght 6 ft. 
to 10 ft. Introduced in ITTa 
Flowers white, with purple an- 
thers. Drupe red ; April, Hay. 
The fruit, which, as Ikr as we 
know, hoa not been produced in 
England, in described by Sir W. J. 
Hooker as being u large as » mo- 
derate-flized cherry, and, apparently, 
ens this forms a very handsome Bmall "•■ t»'«~ 

. '^" '" winter by the smoothness and dark colour of its 
young wood, and m this respect resembling more a plum than a cherry. 
.■ 14. C. UTBHAUB JWicir. The winter Cherry Tree. 
pTSi. i Don'. MIH., a." • *^-"™-* 

1 bluk Cbali* ClwrrT. jlliu 
«& (torn ■ iptdmai In 

Elgrartmg. Our J^f. 
■DUWUIil of tbg JicdlM .«■ riamn. 

^pec. Ciar., ^c. Leaves oblong-ovai, or 
oval, abruptly acucpinate. Flowers gla- 
brous, disposed umbellatelv. Lobes of 
the calyx knceolate. Fruit 'nearly ovate, 
and blackish. (Drc. Prod.) A shrub. 
Western mountains of Virginia and Ca- 
rolina. Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced 
in 1605. Flowers white i May. Drupe 
smnU, black, and eitreniely astringent, 
but eatable in winter; ripe in October. 

A Mickr. The Chicasaw Cherry Tree. 

"T-. I- p. M4. ; LoU. In N. Du 
OSS.ifloo'lHIIL. 9. p.Slt. 

Sptc. Oar *c. Branches glabrous, becoming rather 
spiny. l,eBves oblong-oval, acute, or acuminate. 
Flowers upon very short peduncles, and mo«llr 
in [Mirs Calyx glabrous, its lobes very short. 
Fruit nearly globose, small, yellow. (Dec. Prod) 
A shrub. Caroiina and Virginia. Height 6ft 
lntrod.1806. Flowerswhite; April and May. Drupe 
• small, yellow, and agree- 

ably tasted ; tipe in July. 
Sir W. J. Hooker observes "'■ "■ '*'" 

that a plant which he received under this name appeared 
to bun identical with C. bonkMs; the plants in the Lon- 
'%m» . " S^''*"' ""' "^1 'I'fferent, resembling much mora 
Tff closely the common sloe, as will appear by our figure. 

- 16. C. pudb'scens Ser. The pubescent Cherry Tree, 
«j»^«Qaw". Sjrfnga In i)«. PrwL.a p. Ms. ; Don'i Mill., S. p. si*. 
LaM.Ca'l.; P-'^^ocirii^SuJli.'fl.B^A^UpJ'iS.'.'aa^ 
retiun ; mdA/ja. from ( •pitom^in'S^LS.Siti^bSbijlSr 
. (^ 4>n^' tS^Vi^i^- Youngbranchespubeacent. Leaveamth 


., Google 


the disk shorClv otbI, serrulated, and usuulljp with 8 glands at its base. 
Floners in sessile umbels, few in an umbel ; pedicels and calyxes pubescent. 
Fruit upon a short pedicel, globose, brownish ]iurple, atistere. (^Dec. Prod.) 
A low shrub. Western parts of Pennsylvania, on the borders of lakes. 
Height 1 ft. to 3 h. Introduced in 1880. Flowers white ; April and Ma>. 
Drupe brownish purple, vex}' astringent ; ripe in July. 


A Loii. Tiie Pennsjl™ 

n Cherry Tree. 

• 17. C. 

Maulfcaiirm. I^Li. In V. Du 

EnfTivfrngt. Ablx G«aTg. Int., 

Spec. Char., ifc. Leaves with two glands at the base 
of the disk, which is oblong-lanceolaie, acuminate, 
and glabrous. Flowers disposed in ETouped sessile 
umbels, which have something of the character of 
panicles. (iJrc. Prod.) A shrub. North America, from 
new England to Virginia, in wood* and plantations. 
Height eft. to Bft. Introduced in 1773. Flowers 
white i May. Drupe black, small, but agreeable to 
eat ( ripe in July, 

Sir W. J. Hooker considers this sort as synonymous 
with C. horeiklis Michi., in which he may probably be 
correct. We have, however, tept them distinct ; not 
only because the whole genus appears in a state of con- 
fusion, but because, thoup:h C pennsylv&nica is said to 
have been introduced In ITT3, we have never seen the plant in a healthy « 
and, consequently, feel unable to give any decided opinion respecting it. 

A Loii. The Japan Cherry Tree. 

• irHn-bmH, 

Spec, Char,, ^c. Leaves ovate, acu- 
minated, glabrous, shining. Pe- 
duncles solitary. Lobes of calyx 
shorter than the tube. (Von't 
ATili.) A slender shrub, some- 
what tender. China. Height S ii. 
to 4 ft, Introd. ISIO. Flowers 
pale blush-coloured, produced in 
profusion on numerous slender 
purplish or brownish red twigs ; 
*•». c vi r'u March to May. Drupe ?. Naked 

young wood brownish red. 

■■ C. y. 8 miJiiphr 8er. >*mvgdBlus pumila Lin. 
Manl. 74., Bol. Miig. t. 8176., and of the 
, Hammersmith and other nurseries. (Our 
') fi^i, 4«7, and ten.) — Flowers semidouble, 
' pink like those of the species. 

There are two aliruhs in British nurseries 
often confounded under the name of A. 
pi^mila. The one is that now described, 
which may be known at any season by the 
Mi.cj.iimiafin. purplish or brownish red colour of the 
barb of its young shoots ; and, in summer, 
by its glabrous finely serrated leaves, which have a 

XXVI. rosa\xm: cf/rasus. 287 

reddith tinge on tbeir mai^nB.and on the midribs. The other, C si- 
□eniis described below, the ftitnuB jap6nic* ul' Ker, and of the Ham- 
mersmith and other nurseries, ma; be known in the winter aeason by 
the light green or p'eyiah colour of the bark of its young shoots ; by 
its larger, paler- coloured, and compamtivelj' rufioae leaves, doublv or 
coarsely serrated ; and by its more compact habit of f;rowth. The 
flowers of this sort are also on longer peduncles, resembjmg those of a 
cberry ; while the flowers of C. jap. m61tiplei, the Ani\gtia\as pumila 
ordoubledwarf almond of the nurseries, haTcmucb shorter peduncles, 
and are somelimes nearly aeMile, giving the plant more the appear- 
ance of a FMnus than that of aCerasus. The C Japtinica mulii|)lex 
ha$ been in cultiTaliun in British eardens, under the name of Amyg- 
dalus pAmila, since the day« of Bishop Compton ; and, though it i» 
stated in books to hare been introduced from Africa, there can be 
little doubt of its being of Asiatic origin. The great confusion 
which exists respecting these two plant), in t)oianical works, has 
induced us to examine, with particular attention, the plants of them 
that are in the Horticultural Society's Garden, and in the HommLr 
smith Nurwry. In the former garden, there was (June 10. 1837) a 
Cerasua japdnica in its single state, but not in its double etate ; the 
plant bearing the name of t'.jap6nica fldre pleno being unquestionably 
the C. sinensis described betow, (he Prilnusjap6nica of the nurseries. 
In the Hammersmith Nursery, there were then some dozens of plants 
of Cjap6nica multiplex, there called ^mygdaluspi^mila.or the double 
dwarf almond, growing in parallel nursery lines, with some dozens 
of plants of C. sinensis, there called /Vilnus Japdnica, or the double 
Chmesealmond. WehaTeconsidered it necessary to be thusparticular, 
to justify UB for having deriated from the Sol. Mag. and Hot. Keg. 

M IS. C. bins'nsi* G. Don. The Chinese Cherry. 

ijimmgme. Piaaai iapdolci Ktr In Bal. Srt. I. «. 

E-irntMgi. But. Bcf., t. ir. ; UKloiirA.MS. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves ovatfrJanceolate, doubly serrated, wrinkled from f«ns 
beneath. Peduncles sub-aggregate. (Don't Milt.) A highly ornamental 
low shrub. China. Hnght 3 ft. to 3 ft. Introduced in IBIO. Flowers semi- 
double, red above, and white underneath, produced in great proRiMon on 
the preceding year's brancfaei ; April and Ataj. 
Hiere is no single state of this species in 

Britain, but there was in 1836 a plant of the 

double variety against a wall in the Hort. Soc. 

Garden, nnmed C. japonica fI6re plino; and, 

as noticed under the preceding epecies, there 

were many plants in the Hammersmith Nur- 
sery, tinder the name of P. japfinica, or the 

double Chinese almond. The plant is some- 
what more tender than 17. j. multiplex, which 

is well known in gardens as a hardy border 

shrub; and, except in favourable situations, 

it requires to be planted against a wall. / 

Though C. sinensis and C japtlnica are quite N 

distinct, there is nothing in that distinctness, 

as it appears to us, to determine thnt tliey are 

not varieties of the same species. ,i^ ri.ip. ,k*^t 

* 20. C. WLi'ciNA G. Don. The Wiilow-fcnuni Cherry Tree. 

Snun^Mwi. ih-QDiu nllcJna Liadl. In Hcrl. TVinii. i CblDg.Ctia-I.«. or Tun|-Cbab.L«a, CUmw. 

E m grmi i^ . Fle-tn. Ann ■ ipn-lntD In Uit hirtivliin of Dr. LIuIIct- 

Spec. Char., ^c. Flowers usually solitary, shorter than the leaves. L«m«« 

., Google 


obovate, acumi nated , glandularly serrated, ghit>roas 

Stipulea subulate, 

glandular, length 

of the petiole. 
P Petiole f>lHndlefis. 

(Oon'l Mil/.) A 
i^shrub. China. 

Height 4 ft. to G ft. 

Introd. in 182-^. 
^ The flowers smull, 

and white. Drupe 

about the size of 
•70. c*BM r"— - that of the myro- 

belan plum. "'- WMaip^ij.^ 

Speaet belon^ttg to the preceding Subdic'uitin (B.), not yet inlroduced. — C, 
Hliishia Hamill., Priinua eeraaiiidea D. Don., Cerasus Puddum Roxb. (Wall, 
PI, Rar., ij. t. 143. t and our Jig. 471.), is a native of Nepal, producing fruit 
like that of the common cherry, and wood which is considered valuable as 
timber. The flowers are of a pale rose colour, and the tree grows to Ebe 
height of aO or 30 feet. C. glandulota, C. &tpei-a, and C. incita Lois., are Japnn 
shrubs, with rose-coloured flowers, described by Thunberg; and C. hiia^ 
Moris., a native of Sardinia. 

} ii. V&di veri Ser. The true Bird-Cherry Kindt afCerasiu. 

Sect. Char. Flowers produced upon the shoots 
the flowers ; the latter disposed raccmosely, 

A. Spedet of Bird^/imy TVcm already ia CuiUvaHon in Britain, 

1 21. C. Maha''LEB Mill, The Mahaleb, or per/umerf. Cherry Tree. 

U. No. 4. J D«t 1 
AaUli L. Sp. S 
i dllcglo cuilnr 

Mihmlcta-Uruhe. Gtr.; ""■ 
Xntntiitfi, N. Du Ham. 

Did.. No. 4. J D«t Prod, !. p. M 


^lec. Char,, ^c. Leaves cordately ovate, denticulate, glanded, curted. 
Flowers in leafy subcorymbose racemes. Fruit black, between ovate and 
round. (Dec. Prod.) A small tree. Middle and South of Europe ; com- 
mon in France, especially in the mountainous districts ; very common near 
St. Lucie, whence the French name. Height 10 ft. to SOft. ; in British 
gardens 20ft. to 30ft. Introduced in 1714. Flowers white; April and 
May. Drupe black ; ripe in July. 
Varietiet. Besides one with variegated leaves, there are : — 

I C. M 2 fr<ictti fi&vo Hort. — Fruit yellow. There is a plant of this 

variety in the garden of the Horticultural Society. 
t C. M. 3 latifoSum "Hort. — Leaves broader than in the species. 
A handsome smalt tree, with a white bark, and numerous branches. The 
leaves somewhat resembling those of the common apricot, but of a paler 
green. The wood, the leaves, the flowers, and the fruit, are powerfully 
scented ; the flowers so much so w not to be supportable in a room. The 
wood is hard, brown, veined, and susceptible of a high polish. Its smell i* 
less powerful, and more agreeable, when it is dry, than when the sap is in it. 
In n dry state it weighs 391b. 4oz. per cubic foot. In France, it is much 
sought mer by cabinetmakers, on account of its fragrance, hardness, and the 
fine polish which it receives. In Austria it is used for forming the twisted 

XXVI. bos\czm: ce'ri 

n wild cherry, by which means the erasing season m prolonged; 
and, lastly, of dwarfing the plants grafted on it. In British gardens, it is partly 
used for iliis purnoie, but principuly as an omBmental shnib or low tree. As 
in the ca«e of olticr dwarf species of tf genus which will unite to a tall robust- 
growing species, the mahaleb, when grafted on the common wild cherry (C. 
Ejlvestris), grows to a larger tree than when on its own roots. The mahaleb 
will grow in an/ poor soil that is dry, even in the most arid sends and naked 
chalks; and, as It fbnns a low bushy tree which is capable of resisting the 
wind, it may be planted in an exposed situation. When young plants are to 
be raised from seed, the fruit is sown as soon as ripe, or preserved among sand 
till the following spring, in the same manner as that of the cherry. Seedling 
platits generally grow I It. in length the first year, and 1 ft. to 18 in. the second. 
The tree may also be propagat^ by layers ; by slipE from the stool, taken off 
with a few roots attached ; and by suckers, or by cuttings from the roots. 

T 32. C. Pa'dus Dec. The Bird-Cherry Tree, 

Brmmyma. PrtlDua ^dul i.At- Spr CT?-, Hook. Brit, ^lora, p. aVL, Smith fiuf. flora, 1. p. SM. ^ 
llrJCheny. Fowl Cherrri Hai.lniiTT. San.; Cf ruler 1 Or»pp«, Nartitrr 1 Gruina. L«nrlw 
Fuller, or PdlUk, hux Bala da Ste. Lade, Fr. : H>s-bler. Siivifii* : Trwitxda RlnAr, Otr. i 
CllltflD ramoM. Ilal. 

Xwrm^l. Enf. Bo(., L IM). I Un |ilUe of Ihlt ipedM Id Arb. Brit.. IK Hill, isl, t. ; Bid on 

^c. Char^ tfc. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, some- 
what acuminate, thin, serrulate, with llie teeth , 
rather spreading. Racemes long, leafy. Fruit t 
round, bitter. (Dec. Prod.) A low tree. Indi- 

rous in most parts of Centra! Europe, and as 
north as Lapland. Height 12 ft to 40 ft. 
Plovers white i April and May. Drupe bhick i 
ripe in July. Decaying leaves greeni^^n yellow, 
or reddish. Naked young wood pur|ilish, with 
white spota. 

1 C. P. I vulgarit 8er. C. /4dua Dec. ,V. 
Du Ham. v. t. I. — This kind has large 
flowers loosely disposed upon long pe- '"""'^ ""^^i^ 
dicels, and black fruit. 1 Y^^ 

I C. P. 8 parmt/dra Ser. ((E.l. Fl. Dan., * -* 

t. 205.)— This has smaller flowers, upon *"* <*•""*"■**■»■ 

shorter pedicels, which are disposed more densely ; and black iruiC. 



C.P.3riAnjSer. {()urj^.47S0 — Thishas red fruit. It is tbe C. 
P&dat Trlictu rubro of Dec. and of Loiseleur; and, according to 
jUt. Horl. Kew., 8d ed. p. 299., it is the Prilnus ribra of IViUd. Ari- 
837. t. 4. f. 2. 
J C. P. 4 bracirita Ser. P^u9 mcerndsuB Hort. — A ?er¥ besutifiil 
variety, distinguished by its long racemes of flowers, with their pe- 
dicels fumlGhed witb long bracteaa at the points of the shoots, by 
which the latter are bent dawn, both when in blossom and whoi 
the fruit is ripe, so as to give the whole tree a pendulous appearsnce. 
A very handsome small tree or large bush. The leaves are finely serrated, 
smooth, and somewhat glaucous ; and their scent, when bruised, resembles 
that of rue. The flowers are of a pure n-hite, in copious, long, terminti 
racemes, making an elt^ot apfiearance in spring, but scarcely lasting a fort- 


night. The fruit is small, black, austere, and bflter, with a large corrugated 
nut. " Birds of several kinds soon devour this fruit, which is nauwous, and 
probably dangerous to mankind; though, perhaps, liiie that of the cherry- 
laurel, not of so deadly a quality as the essential oil or dislilled water of the 
leaves." {^Ens. Flora, ii. p. 354.) The tree grows tapidly when younc, at- 
laining the height of 10 or IS feet in 5 or 6 years ; and, as it has a loose 
head, and bears pruning, it allows the grass to grow under it. The wood is 
hard and yellowish, and, in a green state, it has a disagreeable bitter odour 
and taste ; whence the French name jiutiet, tram jtuer. It is much sought 
after in Prnnce by the cabinettnakcrB and turners, who increase the beautyr of 
its veining by sawing out the boards diagonally, that is, obliquely across the 
trunk, instead of parallel with its length. The fruit, though nauseous to the 
taste when eaten fresh from the tree, gives an agreeable flavour to brandy; 
and is sometimes added to home-maile wines. In Sweden and Lapland, and 
also in some parts of Russia, the bruised fruit is fermented, and a powerful spirit 
dibtilled from il. In Britain, tbe principal use of the 6'erasus Pikdus is as an orna- 
mental tree j and few make a finer appearance than it does, either when in dower, 
in April and May; or in August, when covered witb its penrlent racemes of 
btack fruit. It comes into flower a little before the omamentfil crab trees, 
and about the same time as the 5urbus aucup^ria and the il'cer platanoldes. 
The Wrd cherry prefers a dry soil ; but it will not thrive on such poor ground 
OS the perfumed cberry. It will grow in almost any situation ; but, to attain 
ft timber-like aiie, it require:! the shelter cither of a favourable locality, or of 
aifjoining trees. The species is propagated by seeds, which should betremted 

XXVI. sosa'ceje: ce'rasus. ti9i 

m all napecu like those of C- Mahaltb. The red-rruiced rariety will ge- 
oerall; come true Ironi seed ; as, doubtleSB, -will the early'flowering and 
latC'^wering varietiea, which may be obaerved in copie woods where thii 
tree aboiutds. C. P. bnictedia Ser., which it; a very remarkable variety, and 
one which deserrcB a place in every collection, both on account of its large 
racemes of flowers and its fruit, will be continued with most certainty by grafting 
or budding. The leaves are more inrcsted end injured by the lervte of moths 
■nd butteries, than those of any other European tree or shrub. 

1 23. C TtBGiNiA^NA JWicij. The Virginian Birtl-Cherry Tree. 

Vlr^ltclie KIrKba. Otr. i wild Chun Titt,Amtr. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves oblong, acuminate, doubly toothed, smooth ; the pe- 
tiole bearing about 4 glands. Racemes straight, petals round. Fruit red. 
Different from the /*rUnus vii^niilDa of Miller, wliich is C. (v.) tier6tina. 
(Dec. Prod.) A tree attaining a laree size. Virginia, Carolina, and Canada. 
Height, in England, 30 0- to 40 11. ; m some parts of North America, 60 II. to 
100 ft. Introd. 1 724. Flowers white ; May. Drupe red ; ripe in July. Leaves 
remaining on late in the season, and dropping, green. Naked young wood 
■lender, purplish, but not spotted with white like C. Padu». 
Readily distinguished from C^rssus i'&dus by 
the slender drooping character of its branches. 
The fruit ia frequently ripened in the neighbour- 
hood of London, and plants in copse woods, 
which have risen from selfsowu seeds, are lo be 
met with in different parts of Surrey- The 
wood of the Virginia bird cherry ia of a light red 
tint, which deepens with age. It is compact, 
fioe^grained, and takes a brilliant polish ; it is 
also not liable to warp when perfectly seasoned. i 
In America, it is extensively used by calnnet- 
makers for every species of furniture. In Eu- 
rope, C, virgini^a is planted solely as an orna- 
mental tree ; and, as such, it well deserves a 

place in every collection. It should be planted 

ID eve^y shrubbery or wood where it is desirable i '--^ "^ 

to attract frugivorous unging birds. For soil, si- ,,,. -, .ininn,, 

tuation, pr(^>agation, culture, &•:., see C. J^dus. 

1 84. C. (v.) sero' Lmt. The late^cuwring, or Ameriatn, Bird- 
Cherry Ti-ee. 

Hkh., B. p.S. 1 Dk. Prod,, «. 

coriaceous, glossy, serrated ; the teeth imbri- 
cate, very numerous, and the lowest ones indis- 
tinctly glanded. Midrib downy at its base. Flo- 
ral leaves narrowed at thebase. Kacenies loose. 
Pmit black. (Dec. Prod.) A middie-sized tree. 
A native of North America, in Canada and New- , 
fbnndland. Hdght lOft. to30ft. lotrod. 16!9. ^ 

Flowers white ; H^ and June. Drune black ; 
ripe in Augu*t. Leaves retained late, m 
dropping green. Naked young wood slcndi 

Augu«t. L^ves retained late, and 'W^< { Jj lg l 


¥ C *. 2 rvtuta 8er. — LeBTCBoboiaEcroundiveTy obtU3e,alnicntretu£e, 
slightly villose benenth ; rniclrib hfur; above and below. A natiire 
of South America. 

thta we have no doubt 

I 95. C. wo'LLis. Doag. The soft Bird-Cherry Tree. 

Idraliflraltn. Dovgt. KS8. i Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer., I. 168. ; DoD'i HIU., 

EwrwAv- OurAi. 4TB.. Iicmt iiwclnieii In thsBriilih Humim. 

flpec. Char., S/c. Racemea short, pubescently toinentoBC, 
as well aa the calyxes ; ealjcine s^menta refle»ed ; leaves 
obovate oblong, crenated, pubeacent beneaih i fruit ovate 
(Doa'iMiU.) A 
tree. America, 
near the month 
of the Columbia, 
and on su bo] pine i7i. CDdok. 
hills, near the source of the river. 
Height 18 ft. to 8+ a. Introd. 183S. 
Flowers while. Naked young wood 
dark brown and downy, and the 
general habit said to be that of C. 

Young plants have been raised in 
the Hort. Soc. Garden, from aeeda 
Bent home by Douglas. 

S t 26. C. Cam'luh Dec. t^ 
CapoUin Bird-Cherry Tree. 

Unliflcatiim. I>«. Prod,, t. p. Sja ; DsB'l 
Si^mrmnn. Priioui TirglBiiiii. *tor. Maic. Mc 


Spec. Char,, ^c, LeaieB lanceolate, BerniteJ,and glabrous, resembling in form, 
and nearly in size, those of Sa\\% TrtigiliB. Kacemes lateral and terminal. 
Fruit globose, resembling, in form and colour, that of C sfivestis. (Dec. 
Prod.) A handsome sub-evergreen low tree or shrub. Mexico, In temperate 
and cold places. Height G f). to 12 ft. Introduced in 1830. Flowers while; 
May. Drupe red ; ripe in August. 

The plant bearing this name in the llort. Soc. Garden has leaves broader 
than those of Siiix fr&i>ilis ; and, taken altogether, it is of more luxuriant 
growth than C. virginiana. It is, however, less hardy as a plant in the open 
garden, and was killed to the ground in the winter of 1837-8. In favourable 
dtuBtions, however, it is a very desirable species, being a remarkahly free 
flowerer, and ripening abundance of fruit, which have stones as targe as those 
of the wild cherry. 

ft 27. r. nepale'ssis &r. The Nepal Bird- 
Cherry Tree. 

/ilnif(ll«UM. S«liiK« la Dec Prod., % p. MO. ; Don't HUl.. 

agmatimir. i>IbIIUI shIIKirAllllI tVaO. MSS. 

Kmgratiie. Our/k- tfO . trma a Ipeclnieii in Dr. UaHej't ba. 

Spec. Char., S/c. Leaves resembling in form those 
of i^^lii fr&gilis ; long, lanceolate, acuminate, 
serrBte.with blunt teeth, glabrous, whitiah be- 
neath; the vdiiB much reticulated; and the 
axils of the larger of ihem hairy. Peduncle 
short, end, as well as the rachis, slightly fillose. 
Calyx glabrous. {Dec. Prod.) A deciduous 
shrub or low tree. Nepal. Height 6 ft. to 
12 ft. Introd. 1620. Flowers white; Muy. ,„ a„„„„ii^ 

Drupe ?. 

B. Speciei of Bird-Clierry Treet which have not i/el been bilroduced, or of uihicA 
UK kacc not teen P/anU. 

1 C. acumiiiaia Wall. (PI. Bar. Asint., il. 
p. 78. t. 181.; and out ^g. 481.) is n Nepul 
tree, growing to the height of 80 or 30 feet, , 
with the flowers in axillary racemes, and 
nodding, a little shorter than the leaves, 

• C. enutrgmala Dougl. (Hook. h'l. Bar. 
Anier., p, 169.) is u shrub, growing to the 
height of G or 8 feet, with its Howcrs in co- 
irmbose racemes ; having oval, serrulated, 
glabrous leaves ; and globose fruit, aslringent 
to the tasle. The leaves are 2 in. long; the 
flowers are wliite i and the wood red, with 
white Epols. It is found wild about the 

upper part of the Columbia Kiver, CKpt'cially ,(]. nu— — i-t,. 

about the Kettle Falls. 

I^im'u/ifi.Don. The Goat- iiiling Bird Cherry. /VunuscapricidaH'oiV.; 
P. undulata llaniiit. in D. Don't Prod. Nepal, p. 839. ; C. undulata Dec. 
Prod. a. p. 540. — Leaves elliptic, acuminated, coriiiceous, glabrous, guite 
entire, with uudulutely curled luargins. Petioles glandulous. Racemes either 
solitary or aggr^te by threes, many-flow ered, glabrous, shorter than the 
leaves. (Doa'i Mill., ii. p. SI 6.) A haudsome showy tree, probably evergreen, 
H native of Nepal, at NarBinhetty i where the leaves are found to contain ho 
large a quantity of prussic acid as to kill the goats which browse upon them. 
Roylcaeems to consider C. undulata and C caprlcida as ilistinct species ; and 




he otHerret that these, and " C. cornAta, remarkable for ita pod-like mon- 
•trout}', srs handBome showy trees, fcrowing on loilv mouotaint, and worthy 
of btroductioD into Engtand." (Rovle't lUiut., p. £05.) 

C, caniul^nsu Lw., C. elKplica Laii., C. paniculita Lait^ Mid eome other 
hardj species, are mentioned in our first edition. 

5 iii. LauroceraH. The Laurel-Cherry Tree*. 

Sict. Char. Evergreen. Flowem in racemes. 

* I S8. C lubita'nica Lmt. The Portugal Lnw^Cherry, or eomwto^ 
Forlugal Latrtl. 

limliflciukm. Ldi. In N. Du Hun 

1 f'l", Cr'l>i«i 

Liuii'r du IN 

Spec.Char.,irc. Evergrern. Letivea 
coriaceous, oTate-lan ceo late, ser- 
iate, glandless. Racemes upright, 
axillarj, longer th^n the leaves. 
{Dec. Prvd.) An everi;reen low 
tree. Portugal, and the Aiores. 
Height 10 h. to 20 il. i in British 
gardenB sometimes 30 ft. Intro- 
duced in 16ia Flowers white; 
June. Drupe dark purple t ripe 
in September. Young wood pur^ 
plish black. 

• I C. /. 8 Hiita Ser. Pril- 
nus Hixa Brousaonet ; P, 
multiglandulosa Cav. ; C, 
HUa Webb et Beru Hist. 
Can. t.a8. (OurjTg. 482.) 
— liGHveslai^r, with their 
lowest teeth glanded. Ila- 
cemea elongate. Flowers more loosely diniosed. SpontaiMMit in 
the islands of Tenerifle, Grand Canary, and Palma. Hr. P. B. Webb 
'< thnt this tree, in its native localities, attains th« height 


>t 70 feci. 

The Portujpil laurel is generally seen as 
■n immense bush, but when Imined up to a 
sin);le stem it forms a very handsome tree 
with a conical head. It is not of rapid 
growth, xeldom making shoots more than 
or 10 inches in length ; but, when planted 
in good free soil, and trained to « single 
■tern, plants, in the neighbourhood of Lon. ^ 
don, will r^^ the hei<;hi of from 12 ft. ^ 
to 15 ft. in 10 years. It is generally planted f 
solely as an ornamental evergreen j but \ 
sometimes hedges are formed of it in nur. 
*ery-grounds and flower-gardens. The 
berries are greedily i>aten by birds, and 
form k farourite food for pheasants. What 
renders the tree particularly valuable. Miller 


XXVI. R08A^CE«: CE'lt- 

obaene*, is its being " m very hardy as to deTy the scvertit col J of this country ; 
for, in the hard frott o{ 1740, when almoit ever^ other evergreen tree and shrub 
wBi •everely [nncbed, the Portugal laurels retained that Terdure, and seemed 
to haTc felt no injury." tn the winter of 183T-S, it was severely hurt in all 
low moiit dtuatioDs in the chmate of London ; but in dry erarelly soil, there, 
and ia most parts of En^and, it escaped uninjured. In British nurseries, it is 

: liird cherry (C. PkduB). 
The Laurel -Cherry, or common Laurel. 

spec. CAar., 4r. Evergreen. Leaves coriaceous, i 
senate, beBrine upon the under gurfece of the dis 
shorter than the leaves Fruit ovate-acute. (Di 
bling, evergreen, sub-prostrate shrub. Trefaisond in Asia Minor ; and found 
n (^ucasus, Persia, and the Crimea. Heiriit 6 ft. to 30 ft. Introduced in 
I6S9. Flowera white; April and May. Drupe dark purple j ripe in Oc- 
tober. Young shoots or a light green. 


those of the tpeaee, and a more Hwurf-growing plunt. A very db- 
tinct variety, which seldom, if ever, flowers. In some niineries, il is 
called Hartiigii capdnsU, though this Utter b a totalty different plsnt. 
The common laurel, though it will grow ts high as the Portugal laurel, is, 
in iu habit, decidedly a shrub, though it is occasiunaliy seen trained !□ s 
single stem as a low tree, and in France it is grdfted GtaiiiiiirJ high on the 
common cherry for thia purpose, though such plants, from the stock being 
deciduous, only last a year or two. The growth of the common lanrd is 
rapid for an evergreen, being at the rate of from I (I. to 3 ft. a year; hut, u 
the shoots extend in length, they do not increase proportionately in tbidl- 
nesi, and hence they recline; so that plants with branches 30 or 40 feet in 
length, though gigantic in size, still retain the character of prostrate shnitK. 
Notwithstanding the rapid end vigor- ' ' 

ous growth of thia plant in ordinary 
seasons, it suffers a great deal more from 
very severe frosts than the Poitugal 
Iturel, and is sometimea liilled dowo lo 
the ground, which the lacier rarely ia 
in England. In Britain, the common 
laurel is considered one of the most or- 
namental of our evergreen shrubs; and it 
is also used for covering walla, and for 
hedges, to afford shelter; for which last 

purpose it ia extensively used in the | 

market^gardens about laleworth. It ia ; | 

also extensively used as undergrowth 1 f 

in sandy soil. Laurel leaves have a I 
bitter taste, and the peculiar flavour of 
])rusgic acid, which is common to tntter 
almonds, and to the kernels generally 
of the jfoiygdalece. The flowers have 
a similar flavour; and the powdered 
leaves excite sneezing. The leaves, in 

consequence of their flavour, are used '"■ '''''*""*"" 

111 a gi-een state in cuslards, puddings, blancmange, and other culinary and 
confectionary articles, but always in very small quantities. Any soil tolerably 
dry will suit the eomraon laurel ; but, to thrive, 
it requires a sheltered situation, and a deep free 
soil. It thrives belter as an undergrowth than, 
perhaps, any other ligneous plant, with the excep- 
tion of the box and tlie holly. 

• t 30. C. carolinia'na Michi. The Carolina 
Bird- Cherry Tree. 

Idfittiflcalion. HIchK. Fl. Bor. Aid«r,, I. p. fi8£ - Lgjg jn k 
du Him., ^ n. a. 1 Don'i Mill,! p. MS. 

w •^"'1'^'""* "'**'. £i<iini. i i>lLdiu cuollQlAiu uSl, DW. 

Bignr^t- Mtchi. A'rb. d'Amer., S. 1 7. l sod aarflg. 4S& 

Spec. Char., Sfc. Evergreen, Leaves, with the 

petiole abort; and the disk lanceolate-oblong, 

mucronate, even, rather coriaceous, mostly 

entire. Flowers densely disposed in aiillu'y 

racemes, that are shorter than the leaves. 

Fruit nearly globose, mucronate. (Dec. Prod.) 

An evergreen shrub or low tree; m England 

a tender ahruh. North America, from Carolina 

to Florida, and the Bahama Islands. Heigln 




20 fi. to 30 ft. iDlmduced in 1759. Plowera while ; May. Drupe dark 

purple 1 ripe ?. 

Thb tree Michaux considers as one of the most beautiful regetable pro- 
ductions of the southern parts of the United States ; and it is generally se- 
lected by the inhabitants lo plant near their hou»ies. not only on this account, 
but because it grows with rapidity, and atlbrds an impenetrable ahade. Pursh 
detcribes it as a handnonie evergreen shrub, resembling C. Iu»itinica ; but he 
liayg nothing of the flowers, which, from the figure in Mlchaux, from whiih 
ours was copied. ap[iear to be almost without peinU. Seeds are frequently 
imported from America, and abundance of young plants reared; but, as they 
are rather tender, and, north of London, would require the protection of a 
wall, they are very seldom seen in British gardens. The largest plant which 
we know of is in Hampabire, at SwallQwGeld, where, in 1833, it formed a 
bush 10 ft. high, with a head about 18 R. in diameter, flowering and fniitiDg 
occasioually. Culture as in C. vir^niina, but north of London it requires the 
protection of a wall. 

Sect IL SriRME^s, 


PVRSVTA Dec. The Purshia. Lm. Si/il. Icosindria MuiK^;^iB. 
Uiml^ h a l ltin. Dh. iB Tnni. of lino. Soc., 11. p. IW, i Pnid., l p. Ml. i Lindl. In But. Il<«. 

Amigmir. Tifirra Pb. ti. Amrr. Stpt.. I. p. >», a<K at Anbltt. 

Orrirmlim, Freilfrtci PuriA Grit ctiancUrliail tlia onir knnwn nwdn In bll Fhra ^narrAv, 
Sifltmlr*>maiii, MUd nuncd U T'lirca lildmUU. The goncrlc umr, hcwcYFr, taiTJnf bKD 

Gen. Char. Calyr 5-cleh ; lobes ovale, obtuse. Prtali 5, obovate. Slamm 
about 25, rising with the petals from the caljx. Carpelt 1 — 2, ovate oblong, 
pubescent, tapering into the style at the apet, at length opening by a lon- 
gitudinal chink. Seed 1, inserted in the base of the carpel. {Don't Mill.) 

JjeoBet simple, grouped together, cuneate, 2 — 3-loothed at the opex, 
stipulate or exstipulate, deciduous. ¥lowert yellow. — Shrub, of which 
there is only one Epecies known. 

.DeHTAVA Dec. Tlie S-toothed-Zfotvi Piirslua. 


Spec. Cliar., if-c. 


I., l.p.SH. 1 1K..nD(<ir Aub 
[, t. ftKLi »im ourjlji. 4«, 
s obcuneate, 3- 
dentate, crowded on the pointH of the 
shoots, hairy above, and tomentose 
beneath. Flowers tenninal on short 
peduncles. (PA. Fl. Amer.) A spreading 
ah rub. North America, on pastures 
by the river Columbia. Height 8 ft. to 
3 ft. Introduced in 1626. Flowers 
yellow ; July. Carpels ?. 
Almost the only shrub to be seen 
thi nugh an immense tract of barren sandv 
soil, from the head source of the Missouri, to the Falls ofthi 
nkuits in the London gardens were all killed in the winter of IH.'IT'S. 

., Google 



KE'B.RIA Dec. Tbb Khrkia. Lm. Sifit. Icosindria Polj-g^nix. 

Gen. Char, Cafyx 5-cleft; lobei oTate, 3 of which are obtuse, und the other 
two callouil]! mucronate at the apei ; imbricate in eslivation. PetaU 5, 

orbimlv. Slament about SO, arixing from the calyx with the petals, ex- 
»e«ed, C<rpeU 5—6, globose, free, glabrous, each ending in a Blironn MtIc 
Serd lolitBi^. (Dtm'i MUl.) 

■t simple, ovate, lanceolate, alleniate, stipulate, deciduous; coarsdr 
•od unequally serrated, feather-nerved, conduplicaie. F/owert jetlow. 

* 1. K. jafo'mca Dec. The Japan Kerria. 

SyfWittrmet. AAbiK JipdnLciu LIB- M'idiS'tVVss. 

Spec. Char,, ^c. Leaves ovate, lanceolate, coarsely and unequally senaled, 
feather-nerved ; stipules linear, subulate A dedduoua shnj>. Japan. 
Height 3 ft. to 5 ft. Introduced in lB3d. Flowers yellow ; March to 
June, and often all the summer. Caipela?. 

■ K. j, 8 Jtdre plnm (Bot. R^., t 587. ; Bot. Mag., t. I S96. j uid our 
_fig. 490.^ — ^Flowers double. Introduced in 1700, and in ttrj genovJ 
culture in Britiah garden*. 

It has soft, and not very persistent, wood, clothed with a smooth g . . 
bark ; tffig-like brunches ; leaves that are ovate-4aaceolate, and serrated with 
large and unequal teeth, feather-veined, and concave on the upper suHace ; 
stipules that are linear-subulate. The single-flowered variety wvs, until 
1835, only known through a solitai^ specimen received from Thuaberg by Lio- 
nieus, and preserved in the herbarium of that great botanist, now in the pos- 
session of the LinnKan Society. It wan after examining this specimen that De 
Candolle removed it from the genus OSrchorua, and formed that of Kerrio. 
The double variety is generally planted against a wall, more especial]/ north 
of London. It is easily and rapidly prop^ated by it* sucker*, and pow* fraeljr 
in an/ common soil. 



SPIRM'A L. The Spir^i. lAi. Sj/tl. Tcorandria OkPeDUgyoM. 

Un^tfltrm. Lin. On.. Ho. £90. i Gbtui. Fnict., I. p. m. t. O. ; Dvc. Prod., t, p. Ml. i Don't 
~ ■ ■ * ■ ■» >£im. Spir. In ^u. Set. Sal. \.f.isa.i Splrfo. ft. i Sptu- 

-- „ -. . , tor t plant lh« Uouomt of which 

or nuUpB fulwU ; but Uut plut li thoof hi bj iDme to hAto boon tW 

Gm. CAor. C'o/^x 5-cleft, pemianeiit. Slamau 10 — 50, inserted in the torus, 
lining the calyx alona with the petals. Carpelt Mlitary, or Berenil together, 
rnrely ronnected at the base, ending in (hort points, sessile, rarely stipitale. 
SftlU 2—6. (Don'.MiU.) 

Lcmxi luuallj simple, but sometimeB pimiately cut, haviog pinnate, or 

palmately ternate, □erres ; alternate, stipulate, deciduous. FUnaeri white or 

reddish, nerer yellow. — Slirubs, low, deciduous. Europe, Asia, AmericH. 

Generally of erect growth, with conspicuous flowers of considerable elcganc<^ 

and beauty. The naked youn^ wood, in vlinost all the species, is of a cin< 

namon brown ; and, in those kutda in which the shoots are numerous to «■ to 

produce a mass, the effect is cooKpicuoiis in the winter season. They are all 

readily propagated by suckers, which, in general, they produce in abundance, 

and they will grow in any common soiL 

5 i. Phi/iocdrjMu Camb. 

DfTwmtitm. From pdlfvd, m bUddrr, mnAkarpas, ■ frnU ^ In nfCrom to tbo bllddarj urpali. 

Sect. Char. Ovaries connected at the base. Torus lining the calycine tube. 
Carpus bladdery, rather membranous. Ovula 8 — 3, fixed to the semini- 
ferous mMwn of the carpel, oroid, at first horizontal, but at length sus- 
pended. Flowen hermaphrodite, disposed in umbels. Pedicels l-f1owered. 
LesTes toothed, or somewhat lobed, usually stipulate. {Dan' i- Milt., p. 317.) 


aftai^ma. Nlrw ita£,' •'■w'.i Bionlaio del CuuJ^ AnJ. 
Sugrofmgr. N. Du HvD-,&. t. U. 1 ud our J1ff-491» 41*3. 

Spec. Char., ic. Leaves lobed, or 3-lobed, and par- 
taking of an ovate ^re, doubly serrated, petioled, 
and many of them stipuled. Flowers white, nume- 
rous, disposed in stalked hemi- 
spherical corymbs ; the pedicel of 
k each flower slender and glabrous. 
w Sepals spreading. Toms wholly 
S connate with the tube of the calyi. 
■ Ovaries connate with each other 
^ at the base. Ovules in euch i — 3, 
afGxed to the margin, ^^-ahaped, 
at first horizontal, at length the 
one pendulous, the rest ascending. 
Ml. (.ttuubiu. Carpels bladdery, rather membran- 
>, large and diverging. Seeds 
'•• r.Prmf.) / ' "^ 

obovate, glossy, and yellow. (pec.Frmi.) A lai^ shrub, 
frmn Canada to Carolina. Height 8ft. to 10 ft. Introd. ir 




irhite ; June and Ju\y. Capsule inflated red i ripe in Seplanber. Decaviog 
leave* purpliflh red, mixed with yellow. Kaked young wood light brovo. 
Hardy, and very ornamental, from its abundance of white flowers, whidi are 
produced in corymbs, and rusemble tliosc of the Guelder rose ; and from the 
numerous inflated reddiah capsules which succeed tlie flowers. Prupagzinl 
by division of the root; but sometimes hy layers, or by cutting* of ibe 
young wood put, in autumn, in n shady border, in a sandy soil. 

■ S. o. 2 tommleUa Ser. has the pe<lunctes and c&Iyx tomentose. (Ok. 
Prod.) It is found at the Unind Hapidt of the ColumlHa River. 

■■ S. o. 3 aoniigytia. S. inanogyna Torrey, Don's 
Mill. 2. p. 5J8.— A native of the Rocky Moun- 
tuns, where it grows to the height of 3 or 4 feet. 
It is considered by Sir W. J. [looker as a va- 
riety of 5. opulifoiia. 

• 8. S. capitaVa Ph. The ciipitale-m^ierf Spiraea, 

Spec, C/Uir.,^c. Leaves ovate, doubly toothed, almost 
lobed ( beneath reticulate and tomentose. Flowers 
disposed m terminal snbcapiCate corymbs placed on 
very loii,j peduncles. Calyx tomentose. (_Zkc. Prod.) 
A deciduous shrub. N. America, on its eaati'm coast 
by the Hiver Columbia. Height 4 ft. to 6 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1827. Flowers white; June and July. 

f ii. Chamee^dn/on Ser. 

:s distinct. Torus with i 

e with the tube of 

or toothed, without stipules. {Dec. Prod., ii. p.5iit.) 

* L. The GermandfT- leaved S 

£*gta,latl. P.U.n.Ro«.,t.l6.i KidourJ((-<»- 

Spec.Char.,itc. Leaves ovate, cut at the tip in a serrated manner, glabrous 
Flowers upon long slender pedicels, in hemiaplierical corymbs. Sepsis 
veiny, refleied. (flee. Prod.) An erect shrub. Siberia, Kamtscbatka, Da- 
huria, the N. W. coast of N. America, China, and Japan. Hei|ht 2 It 
to 8 ft. Introduced in 1769. Flowers white; June and July. Capsule 
reddish; ripe Sept. Naked young wood light brown. 
Vaiielia. Seringe enumerates the first four of the fol- 
lowitig forms of this species ; to which, we think, might 
be added S. ulmitBha, S. flexudsa, S. cratiEgifiilia, S. «e- 
tulEefdlia, and, perhaps, Kome otiiers. 

» S. c. I vulgdru Camb. Monog. — Leaves wit! 
the disks broad and glabrous i the petioles ci 
A S. c. 2 Biedia Ph. Fl. Amer. Sept. i. p. 342., Camb. 
Monog., and ourjfg. 49+.— Leaves smaller, slight- 
ly villose upon both sur&ces. Flowers smaller. 
Wild ill Canada, and upon the rocks of Dahuria. 


XXV]. rosa'ceje: sfir^'a. 301 

■ 8. c. 3 aUoitgiJolia Camb. Monoc. S. oblongi- 
BKa Wa! Kit. PL Hang. iii. p, £61.1 835. 
— l.eavei narrower, and leas serrated. 
« 8. c. 4 raAnrnmaia iJer. — Flowers distantly dU- 

poied along a lengthened rachis. 
* S. c. 5 mata Hort. (5. cEiomcdrifolia latifolia 
Hori.) has been raised from seeds received 
from Germany through Mr. Hunnemui ; and 
it appeara to be only a variety of this apecies. 
In Kamtschatka the leaves are used as a substitute for 
tea I nnd the shoots, when straight, arc bored fur to- 
bacco-pipes. In its wild stoic, it varies exceedingly in 
the magnitude of the entire plant, in the largeness or 
■midlness of its leaves, and in their being more or less 
cut or serrated, and more or less smoolli or pubescent. 
A very omainentnl hardy shrub, producing its corymbs of 
white floweri, which are tolerably large, in June and 

July, It is said to make beautiful garden hed!;e^, Though the seeds ripen 
in England, plants can seldom be niised from thcni ; and, as this specie* doe* 
not produce suckers freely, it is generally raised by layer* or cuttings. 

• *. S. (c.) In-MIFO'LIA Scop. The Elm-leaved Spirwa. 

I4nuel.^Kini Sam. Fl, Ctm., nL J. tot 1. ii.M9, ; Dar. Prod., ], p. Ml.; Don't MIU.. 1. n.Sia. 
S^imrmr. S. chuiiEdrimill JnCf. Hurl. Findat. t. 110. 
E'ltriaali. Bot. Heg., I. im.i BoUt^mb., 1043. i tnAoatJIt.Aan, 

Spec. Char., i(-c. Leaves ov ale-lanceolate, acute, flat, sharply serrated, ciliated. 
Flowers terminal, in rather hemispherical corymbs. Sepals reflexed. {Dec. 
Prod.) An erect shrub. Carinihia and Siberia. Height 3 ft. to 5 ft. In- 
troduced in 1790. Flowers white; June and July. One of the hand- 
•omett species of this section. 

m 8. fc.) a. aphylidnlAa Ser. (Oai fig. 497.)— In this variety a whori 
of distinct leaves, that are petioled, lanceolate, and sharply serrated, 
occupies the place of the sepals, and is described as being these trans* 
formed. Petals and stamens are cither not present, or deformed, 
(Dec. Prod.) 

» 5. S. (c.) FLBSUo'sA FiicL The RexMe-brancAed Spiraea. 

Unl^cmliim. Fiich. bi LIU. j Cunb. Honof. ; DR. Frtxl. t. p. Ml. ; Dod'i MUU 1. p. SIS. 
Sytuiitimtt. S. slptni Howt. Par., iccDnllni » Cunli. uhI FlKb. In LJII. 1. ; S. iIMtIcii Herf. 
Emamtmt^ Cwnb. Hodik. Splr. In Add. Sd. Hsu, 1.t.M. i ud ourjtf . 198. 
Spec, Char., J^c. Leaves lanceolate, ^abrous j from the tip to the middle 




denutely serrate. Flowers in corymlM. (Dec. Pred.) 
A Hlender-broached shrub. Kacive country unknown. 
Height 4(1. to 6ft. Cultivated in 18S0. Floven 
white ; June anj July. Capsule reddish ; ripe in 8(f)- 

, lember. 

yarietiei. S. fleiud&B lalifaiia Hort. ; S. dailrica Uorl. ; 
S. utmifolia, S. carpinirolia, S. Aetulief51ia, in Mesv*. 
Loddiges'a collection, are identical with, or verj slight 
of, thi» species. 


Spec. Char., Sfc. Leaves obovBtc, 
obtuse; in the terminal part doiibl; 
serrate ; glabrous, reticuhite on the under suriace. 
Flowers white, diaiiosed in terminal compound corvmbs, 
whose cam|>o8it« parts are rather capitale. '(Dec. 
Prod.) An erect ahrub. Native country unknown. 
Cultivated in 1823. Flowers white i June and July. 

2 7. S. (c) MTULsro'i,!* Pali. The Birch- 
leaved Spirtea. 

Umli/tcalht PJI. Fl. HoK., I. p. 75. J D«. P™d..t ^ SM.l 

North America, i 
Mountains, and in variou! 
pluces on the westem 
Height 3 ft. to 6 ft. Inti 
IBIi!. Flowera white ; Ju 
July. Cupsule red j ripe i 
B. 5. cVna ifaldil. el ITd. 
hoary-leaved Spiraea. 
Utnll/lcaitua, Wildit. M Kit. 1 

DK.Vrod., t.p. Ml. 1 Itan'i Utll., ' 
Sr>(rfln'<w<. Waldit. et Kit. PI. Bur 

^c. CAar. ^c. Le«f ovate, 
or about the size of that 
of 5alii repens or S. ar- 
g£ntea, acute, perfectly 
entire, or slightly toothed, t 
hoarily villose. Corymlw \ 
somewhat racemose ; the 
lateral ones pedunc!ed,of 
few flowers, and lax. Se- 
pal* spreading. Styles 
thick. Carpels divergent, 
rather viiloBe.(/J?<;.J'rtirf.) 
A low shrub. Croatia, 

Spec. Char.,Ssc. Leaves broadly ovale, M^rsted, 
glabrous ; the petiole verv short. Flowers in 
bstigiale panicles. Carpels 5, upright, glatntius. 
(Dec. Prod.) An erect shrub. Siberia; and 

., Google 


on bigfa rocks. Height I ft. to S ft. Introiluced in 18S£. I^owen while; 
June and July. Capsule reddish ; ripe in September. 
A verjr distinct little species approaching S. tncciniilBlia, D. Don. H. 8. 
• 0. S. tbiloba'ta L, The SAobfd-ieaved Bpirtea. 

UmHtr^im. Lln-Huit. M4.1 Cunh. Uinwc, |Dk. PrDd..lp.Sa. 

AnvntuiK. B. trflDha Don^K Milt, 3. p. b\9. 

Sttmimgi. Fill. Batt., I. t. IT.; Witl. DtKl. Brit.. I.«a., ui tri- . 

Spec. Char., ^r. Leaves roundish, lobed, crenated, 

glabrous, reticulHtely veined. Flovers in umbel-like 

ccH'j'mbs. Sepals ascending. Carpels Elabroux. (Drr. 

Prod.) A low erect shrub. Alps ofAltai. Height 

1ft. to Sft. Introduced in 1801. Flowers while i 

Maj, Capsule reddish ; ripe in September. |g>. 

This species is very haudsome, with branches spread- ^'^ 

ing horiiontaily, end bearing, in the flowering Bcasun, V 

nuioeroat compact corjniira of pure white flowers ; ut. (.t>ii>T>ua. 

which, conibinni with the neat appearance of the plant, 

and its glaucous leaves, rounded id their outline, and yet lobed, render th« 
specie* a very ioterestiog aud ornamental one. 

PalL The Siberian alphi 

UAm. PJl. Fl. Hum.. t. W., KmnJlni to 
Uomx.; Dn. Pmd., 9, p. iO.; Dm'l HIU., i. p. SIS. 
f. Fill. Fl. Sou., 1. t. n. I uul otujlg. MO. 

J^Mc. dor., f c. Leaves lanceolate-oblong, 

gile, serrulnted, glabrous ; the midrib pinnatelv 

branched. Flowers in terminal, stalked, ana, 

in many instances, leafless, corymba. Sepals 

ascendine. (Dec. Prod.) An erect shrub. 

Siberia, in wooded alps. Height 4 ft. to 6 It. 

Introduced in 1S06. Flowers white j June aiid 

July. Capsule reddish ; ripe in September. 

The corymbs of flowers being large in propor- 
tion to tbe leaves renders this species very orna- 
mental when in bloom ; and its beauty is farther * no. i^ iihu- 
heightened by the plant being of erect growth. 

■ 11. S. BvPERicipo^Lii Dec. Tbe Hypericum-leaved Spirwa. 

/dflUMcUAni. Sicn. Fr. 9. p. MS. : Prod., I. p. 5t3. i DlHi'lHlU.,1. p. «a 
Sfim^ma. HjVMcwa MHn Horl. ; ttillu] Haj. 

^pec. C&ar., <)-c. Leaves obovate-oblong, 3— 4-nerved, entire or toothed, 
glabrous, sliohlly downy ; primary veins pinnately branched. Flowers in 
either peduncied corymbs, or sessile umbels. Pedicela glabrous, or slightly 
downy. Sepals ascending. A species that presents diversified appcarancr- 
(^Der. Pnjd.) An erect shntb. Supposed by some to be a native of C 
Dada ; but Smith and Hooker tbinlc thiit, like moat of •'' 
the species of the secrion to which it belongs, it is only 
to be found wUd in the Old World. Height 4 ft. to 6 ft. 
Introduced in 1640. Flowers white i JuDe and July. 
Capsule reddish ; ripe in September. 
Farieiiei. Seringe bus characterised six forms of th'ts species, 
which he describes as follows ! — 

■ 8. h. 1 uraletuii Ser. S. creniita Lm., Filch, in 
Litt.. and DotCi Mill ii. p.5\9.i iV. AypericifAlia 
Carat, Moitag. (Our Jig. 504.) — Branches rigid. 


thickiab. Leaves ovate-rounded ; the whole margin crenated. A 
native of the Ut«l Mouniains: ^ 

■ 8. h. 8 PluJcenctiana Ser. S. Aypericifolia ' 

Lin. Sp. Pi. 701., and Zhn'i Mili. ii. 
p. 519. ; S. h. var. ^ Dec. Ft. Fr. v. 
p. 645. (Piuk. Phyt., t. 218. f. 5.) — 
Leavea perfectly entire, glabroud. 
Flowers in sessile corjmbB. A nntive 
of Canada. 

■ S. h. "3 acuta Ser, S. acutifolia WUId. 

Enura, 6W., Comb. Monog., and Doh'i 

MUL ii. p. 519. ; S. sibfrica Hort. Par., 

according to Camb. Monog,; S. ani- 

biguft Pall. (Ourjfe. 505.)— Leaves ,«<•««. 

Bpathulate, elongate, actitc, perfectly 

entire, or rarely 3 — 5-toothed, rather glnbrous. Flowers in aesaile 


■ S. b. 4 rrrnata Ser. S. obovaU Waldit. H Kit. ? in tVilld. Emm. 

541., Camb. Monog., Ban-. Icon. Sar. n. 1376. t. 584.; S. Ayperii-i- 
fdlia 7 Dfc. FL Fr. v. p. 6*5, ; S. crenata Lm. Sp. 701 -, Comb. 
Monog., Don'* MiU. ii. p. 519., Lodd. Cat. {Our Jig. 506.) — 
Leaves obovate. 

m 8> h. 5 lavrimca Ser. S. savranica Seucr in Litt., Don'i Mill, ii, 

p, 519. ; S. crenata Pall. Fl. Ron. i. p. 35. t. 19. ; S. Aypericilolia 

var.^ \on%>rD\\a. Led. FL Ro„. AU. lU. t.429. ((hir j%. 507.) — 

All parta pubescent. Leaves entire, or, at the tip. toothed. Flowers 

minute, disposed in dense terminal corymbs. It is wild about Bar- 

naoul, and in Podolia. 

ft 8. h. 6 Better\i.B» Ser. S. crenata Better in Litt. ; S. MvrinicH ff 

BessertofU] Don's Mill, il p. 519. (IrfiiM. BoC. Cab., t. ISJ2; and onr 

j^. 508.) — All parts rather glabrous. Leaves mostly entire. Flowers 

disposed in rather lax terminal corymbs, A native of Podolia and 


Olhfr f'aricliei or Synonifmet. The following kinds, in Messrs. Loddiges's 

collection, and in the Hort. Soc, Garden, appear to he either identical with. 

or varieties of, S. iypcricilblia : — S. infl^a IVendland ( Hort Soc. Uard.), 

S, ibovAta Wcndliind (Hort. 8oc. Gard.), S. argentea, S. cuneiita, S. nina, 

S. alpina, S. acutifolia, S. deciimbens. 

Thu species hss small hard stems, with numerous side branches, cloibed 
with a dftk green bark, and with numerous wcdge-shiiped leaves, like ihi'se of 
St.Joh'\'s n'ort, with glands in their substance, which give them the appear- 
ance of being punctutvd on the surface ; whence the name. The flowen ara 

XXVI. jiosA^CEx: SPIR^^A, 305 

produced in great abundance ; nnd, when the shrub u allowed space to ex- 
pand on every side, it forniB a very beautiful bush in the flowering Beaion. it 
makes handsome garden hcdgea. and will bear the shean, nrhtch were (onaetij 
applied to it, to sbace it into artiScial fornii, when 
tc^iory work was faahionable in garden scenery. It 
'" reaidily propagated by layers, or by detaching its 

(n.) rnALicTRiii'DES Po/I. Tlie Meadow- 
Hue-ieavcd 8pir(es. 

BrUmMfl'. ' li."Mull«<(ail» PaU. lUm, %. An, 734. Va.U.i X jIt- 

BtrlctfMli TIT. Bltl 'and S. llplu IiHRiIIl 
Kmtmnvl- fllLFUIt<lu..l,l.lS.i mdourA.SlS. 

Spec, char., 4'C. Leaves obovate, obtuse, indistinctly 
34obed, inconspicuously 3-nerved, glaucous beneath. 
Flowers in lateral seasile umbels. (Det. Prod.) A 
low erect shrub. Alps of Dahurio. Height I ft. to 
3ft. Introihicedin 1816. Flowers white ; Hay and 
June. Capsule reddish ; ripe in Sepleniher. 

i. 13. .«. cinrifo'lai IFall, The wedge-leaved Spirira. 
: Bat. Btg. M. ChrdB. sss. Ni 

Spec Ciar., 4'c. Leaves ovul or obovate, obluse, 

stalked, quite entire, villous ; corymbs crowded, and 

as well as the branches tomentose. (Don'i Miil.) 

An erect-branched canescent shrub, with the habit of 

5. Avpericifolia. Nepal, at Sirinagur. Hdght?. In- 
troduced in 1837. Flowers white, downy, in close 

coryiobose panicles. 

The leaves are small, thick, downy, wedge-shaped, 
and either crenated near the point, or undivided ; they 
are bright green on the upper rade, and glaucous be- 
neath, with nothing of a canescent appearance, which 
U only visible when they are dried. 

- 14. S. pikowie'nsis Better. The Pikow Sjiina. ^^ 

tdrmtaicalilm. BoHr Enum. PI. P«d.,|i.<n. No. USD. ; Dec, Ptnl,. 1. ^V^ 

p. Ai 1 Uun't Mill, 1. p, Mft. ,„ _^„ 

Si^rmt^. OutA- OOO- In p, OW). "*■ »-™*t^ 

S^tec. Char., ^e. Leaves with three primary veios, and serrate at the tip, cu- 
neate-lanceolate, obtuse, rarely pointed. Flowers in peduncled corymN. 
(Dee. Prod.) A deciduous shrub. PodolLaat Pikow. Hdght 3 fi to 4ft, 
Introd. in 1607. Flowers white j June and July. 

■• 15. S. C^ANOTHlfO^ii ffom. The Ceanothus- 

leaved Spirsea. 
UewtatcaUom Honi. ll«t.HsAi,p.l «««.) D«. Frod..9.p.SM. 

Spec. Char,, ^c. Leaves ovate, rounded at the base, 

serrated from the middle to the tip with sharp un- ■ 

equal teeth. Flowers in indistinctly peduncled 

tennina) corymbs. (Dec. Prod.) An erect shrub. 

Native country unknown. Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. 

Introduced in I6S3, Flowers white j June atKl .rtuitu. 

July- Ci^Mole reddish ; ripe in September, ' " 



■ 16. S.CORYMBO'^A Saf. The curjinbose^ifauvrji^ ^inra. 
UrmlljItatlM. RuBn. Prfdi dn DtFoniinn SdiiiIoIo(V)w«. od 2«dii«)<)n» 
M BoU^m (Pill ran, IBU), p.afi.iudlii Dc«.J<iun.BM., I8l<p.m.| 

SatTBwiatl'. Lod. BM. Cmb., L HIV ; Ind nirj);, til. 

Spec. Char., Sfc. Leaves ovaUolilong, unequally Eerrated, gla- 
brous, green above, hoary below. Flowen trigynoiis, di«- 
poied in tenninal corvmba. (Dec. Prod.) A handsome , 
shrub. Vii^inia. Height ^ft.IoSft. tntrod. in ISI9. 
Flowers white, producedingreat abundance; June and July. 
Capsule teddish ; ripe in 6e|)t. , 


^ S. e. 8 loriria, S- fordria Permy in Horl. Brit., is a 

smaller |iliuit, seldom growing higher tban 2 ft., and flowers nubtr 
hter than Che species. 

r, fACCiNiiFO^i* D. Dan, The Vacdniiun-leaTed 


I PtuLFL D(p.. I. p.H7,| Dec. Trad, ■.».»«.: 

DoD'lMUi^t n.SlS. 
%HVW. l.aiiMntiaUmHort. 

^tec. Char., 4c. Upright. Bnuichlets hairy, I,eaTea 
elliptica], acute, serrated at the tip, glabrous, glBucoui 
OD the under lurfece. Flowers diiposed in lerminal 
tomentose cymes, a Tew ia a cyme. {Dec. Prod.) 
An upright shrub. Nepal. Height 2 ft. to 3 ft. In- 
troducedin 1890. Flowers white; Julyand AuguM. 
Capsulq reddish ; ripe tn October. 

M 18, S, i.asd'lo'ba Lindl, The loose-itowa^ 

Spec. Char, ,i[c. Branches weak, round, downy. LeaTes smooth, OTate-crenate, 
iong-stalked, glaucous beneath. Panicles looae_, riJlose. Petals relieved. 
(Lndl.) A shrub resembling 5. nicciniirdlia in the form of the lesTcs, 
and the colour of their under surface. Nepal. Height 1 ft. to 8 (^ Intro- 
duced in 1836, Flowers white, in Urge, loose, shaggy panicles; July and 

L Simi. The beautiful SpirEea. 

l^tec. Char,, ^c. Stems erect, branched, glabrous, 
and reddish. Leaves ovate, acute, sharply ser- 
rated, whitiahly tomentose on the under surface. 
Flowers pretty, rose-coloured, in corymbs laxly 
disposed. Lobes of the calyx deflexed. (Dec. 
Prod,) An erect, loose-growing sh nib. Nepal. 
Height 3 ft. to 1 ft. Introd. 1880. Flowers benu- 
tifbl rose-coloured ; Hay and June. Capsule red- 
dish ; ripe in September. 

X looac branchy 
ofgrowt)), and fn the flowers being in corymbs. One 
of the most beautitiil species of the genua. 

.„ Google 


j iii. Spirdria Ser. 

Sect. Oiar. Orariea distinct, Tonia with iti bue connate with the tube of 
the calyx ; its tip separate. Carpels not inflated. Inflorescence a panicle. 
Leaves Kiratc, wichouE stipuleE. (liec. Pnid., u. p. M4.) 

M 20. S. salicifo'lia I 

Idmlttkalltm. LId. Sll.KO. l Cimb. Hdiiiic 
"-■!»■» frtitn Hbrt.; Brldowor 

The WiUow-leaved Spirsa. 

Spec. Char,, ^c. Stem and pedunclei gUiroas. Lesvee lanceulite, oemled, 
and, more or leaa, doubly m ; glabrous. Lobea of the calyx triongulnr, 
nreading. Carpets glabrous. (l)ec. Prod.) An erect. ahrub. Kberin, 
Tartary, and Boliemia ; also of Canada, and, perhaps, of Britun. Height 
4ft. to 6ft. Cultivated in 16ft5. Flowers red; July and August. Cap- 
sule red i ripe in September. 

Fahehet. Serin^ has characterised tbur forms of this 

8. a. I cinta Ait. Hart Kew. ed. iii. p. SM., 
Canb. Hon. (Eng. Bot., t, 14«8. ; andour^.Sli.) 
— Leaves lanceolate. Panicle* consisting of >*• 
cemei more or less spicated. Petals of a deah co- 
lour. Bark of the branches yellowish. This ii tb« 
form found wild in Britain : 
whether it be indigenous or 
not, botanists are not agreed. 
Professor Henslow consi- 
ders it "poBsibivintroduced 
by the agency or man." 
as.8a/pMnfPall. FLHoas. L 
p. 3S. t. 2S., Camh. Honog: 
S. tipiMn* Dim; MilL ~ 
p. 519. (Our fa. 516.)— 
small shrub. Leaves shortn i 
than those of S. i. o&mea. 
Branches very short. 
J, S. •. 3 poMeuOta Willd. Sp. ii. p. 1055., Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. iii. 
p. 254. S. Uba Ehrh. Batr. viu p. 137. (Our &. 517.) — Leaves 
ovate-oblong. Petals white. Bark of the brandies red. It is likely 
that this U also the 5. Alba of MSIer, of WaU. Dend. Brit. L 133., 
and of MMetibcr^t Catalogue of KbrtA-Ataericaa PlanU. 


mUd. Enum. p. 5U)., DoaU MiU. ii. p 5S0. (Wats. Dcnd. Bril^ 

t.66.; widour^. 518.>— Lcnvea OTBte^blong, Petals white. Bark 

of branches rather reddish. 
• 8. 8. 5 gnmdijldra ; S. grandifl6rB Ladd. Bol. Cnh. t. 198S., and our 
Jig. JSI9. ; Kafl its pink flowers nearly twice as large aa those of the 

■pedes ; end is a very ornamenlol free-growing shrub. Raised from 

seeds sent from KamtBchnUa, in lBa6. 
■ 8. s e lairica. S. taArica HoH.—Kn upright shrub, B ft. to 10 ft. high, 

tolerably distinct, and coming, into flower before any other wanetj, 

Hort. Soc. Garden. 

with, S. lalicifolia : — 5. canadensis, S. urticaRtlia, S. laciniata, S. chunedri- 
folia, S. lanceoUta, S, carpinitSlia, S. reflexs, rS'. incarnata. 

This species sends up numerous straight rod-like stems, and these and the 
lateral branches t«'minate in large, conical, spiked panicles, of pale red, or 
flesh-coloured, flowers. In deep moist soils, a mucker will attain the hngbtof 
4fl. in one HCiuon, and flower. These GUckera are produced in such abun- 
dance, that, in order Co keep the shrub in avigorousstste, they ought to be cut 
down when they have flowered two years, in the same manner as is practised 
with raspberries ; and the entire plant ought alio to be taken up ctaj three 
or four years, and BOj>aTated ; otherwise the old shoots are apt to die, and 
render the bush unsightly. It is one of the hordient of earden shrubs, and is, 
also, rery beautiful, trom its long apicate panicles full of light feathery-lookinf 

■m 81. S, MsHziB'sn Hook. Meniiea's S[nrKa. 

UeKHHciUiim. Hook. F1. But. Anwr., p. 171. : Don'! Mill., &!>.«% 

Spec. Char., ^t. Branches pubescent at the apex, as well an 
the peduncles and calyces. Sepals reflexed. LeaTes elliptic, 
coarsely and unequally serrated toward* the apex, Lrlabrous, 
the same colour on both surfaces; panicle crowded with 
flowen, oblong, obtuse. Flowers tuiall. Stamens twice the ^ 
leogthof thecorolla; ovaries 5, glabrous. (Don't MiU.) An ' 
erect shrub. North America, on the west coast. Height 
2ft. to 3ft. Introduced in 1B38. Flowers rose-coloured ; 
June and July. 

Ji 33, S. TOUENTo^A &. The downy Spiraa. 

Urnti/lcattm. Lin. Sp.. m, , Cumlk Udddi. , Dee. Frod., I. p. M4, : Don*! MDL 
JfyjhHiynv. 5. Oau^^B/tf Houk. Ft. Bor. Amer, p. 173. 

S/Kc. Char., S^c. Nearly all the parts of this plant are more 
or less clothed with tomentuin, the under sur&ce of the 
leaves most so. The tomentum upon the stem and pe- 
dn^cle^ and perhaps elsewhere, is of a reddish colour. 
The leaTCK are ovate and serrated, the latter partly doubly 
■o. I.obes of the calyx triangular and defiexed. Carpels 
divaricate. {/)ce, Pmd.) An erect shruhL Canada, on 
mountains. Height E i>, to 8 ft. Introduced in ]ei4. 
Flowers whitej June and July. Capsule reddish ; tipe in 

This species, or subspecies, in its mode of growth, re- 
sembles S. lalicifolia ; but differa from it in having rather 
smaller and nnoro deeply aerrated leaves, which are very to- 
montote beneath. The flowers are much smaller, and of a 
deeper red. 


XXVI. jiosaYejs: spikjea. 
I 8.^. S. latioa'ta L. The n 

Sgmemtma. S.iluktaidiLam. AW. .«(t ffOafi. IS. p,»U. t.n, KS-i 
AvmBw. Ho. Act Petn^., t. B. f. 1 ; Fall. Fl. Bou., 1. 1. ». ; ud 

l^ite. Char^ ^c. Leaves oborate-obloDg, perfectly emootb, 
entire, aenrile, tipped with a tmalt muero. Eranchlets 
of the panicle cylindrical. Bracteas linear, rather shorter 
than the calyx. Lobes of the calyx triangular, ascending. 
^Itec, Prod.) A >preadinB shrub. Siberia, in valleys at 
the foot of the more loity of the Altaian Mountains. 
Height 2 ft. to 4 ft. Introd. in 1774. Flowers white ; 
Hay and June. C^ule reddish j ripe in September. 
A very interesting and handaome species, with a habit 

exceedingly dissimilar to that of spineas in general. 

m Si. S. ^rlsfo'lia SrmtA. The Wbite-Beftm-tre»Jeaved Spiraa. 

I^^McsMh, Smlili, biBM'iCrtlD|>.,Tol.3t.j Bot.Rif.,tl3eB.j I>K.rrod.,lp.M4.j r. 

r , _.. „__ . "Kt.; uidoaTjlti.Va.»M. 

«c. Char., ^c. Leaves elliptical, oblong, 
more or less lobed, toothed, pale, villose J 
beneath. Panicle villose. {Dec. Prod.) 1 
An erect buahy shrub. North America, , 

Siocipally on- the north -went coast. 
eight 611. to %h. Introduced in 18i7. 
Flowers white ; June and July. Capsule i 
reddish ; ripe in September. 
A fre»fn>wiog dense bush, proUfLc both 
n leaves and flowns ; and, as the latter 
.t a temoa when the flowering of 
shrubs is comparatively rare, it is Justly ^ 
connidered ss a most raluuble addilion to 
British gardens. It is perfectly hardy, will erow in any free soil, and is easily 
propagated either by division or by seeds, woich it ripens in abundance, 

$ iv. SorhAria Ser. 

&c^ Char. Leaves pinnate, resembling, as the nanle implies, those of the 
mountain aah, or other spedea of P^rus belongitig to the section iSbrbuB. 

• 85. S. sdbbifo'l 

\ L, Tile Sorbus-leaved Spinea, 

Spec. Char, J^c. Leaves stipnled, junnate; the leaflets sessile, opposite, lan- 
ceolate, doubly and sharply serrated. Inflorescence a thyrso-lite panicle. 
Torus wholly connate with the tube of the calyi, Ovarie« connate, 6. 
(Dec. Prod.') A thick stiff-branched shrub. Siberia, in moist places. H^ght 
3ft. to e ft. Introd. in 1759. Flowers white; July and August. Capsule 
reddish ; ripe in September. 

■. 8. s. S alpma Pall. FL Rosa. i. p. 34, and 60. t. 85. 5. grandifldra 
StoecC, H-^l. Srit. p. 194.; S. Pallisii Don's Mill. iLp. 580.— 
Sufihiticose, Flowers twice the Awe of those of the species, and 
dbposed in corymbs. Leaves smaller, and suralely incised. A na- 
tive of Eastern Siberia and of KamttchatLa. {Dtc. Pnd.) 'Dut ii 



rer; diStrent froni S, i. gnodidtea, the 

S. grandifldra of Lodd., deacribed above, 

among the TarietieE of S. lalidJolia. 
S. mrbifolia ia & branchy shrub, growing to the 
height of 6 or 8 feet, with a round, brown- 
coloured, wartj stem ; tlie wood of which is 
brittle, and hollow within, with a soft ferruginous 
pilh. The leaves are thin in texture, and bright 
green on both sides. The flowers are in tenni- ^ 
nating panicles and small : thej are odorous, but i 
not agreeably so. In dry rocky situations, it 
does not rise above 1 (I. u height, 'and ia sub- 
herbaceous. It deserves a place in ever? coileo- 
lion, from its marked character, and from the ,^ „ , n,,, 

beauty both of its foliage and its flowers. It 
throws up abundance of suckers, by which it is easily propagated. 

A 26. S. LikdlevaVia Wall. Lindley's Spirsa. 

/dflUeiciMM. W.U. CM., Md O^"**. 1»«. ?■ » 

Spec. Char., 4v. Leaflet) ovale 
lanceolate, acumiuate, Gnelv and 
sharply t^rated. A large sorub. 
NepiU. Height S ft. lo 8 ft. 
Flowers white; July and Au- 

The leaves are larger than those 
of an,v other species of the genus ; 
and, altogether, it forms a remark- 
ably handsome plant, well deserving 
a place in collections. 

A Seleelhn of Speaet. — The fol- 
lowing kinds, in the London gar- 
dens, appear distinct ; — 

1. S. toianUoia, comprehending 
S. Tob6lEki. 

2. S. cAamtsdrifolia, comprehend- 
ing S. ielulsfolio, S. daOnca, S. 
siblric:). S. lacini&ta. 

3. 8. so/in/oiitti, comprehending a «t t- i u M ^^.. 
cana<lenns, 5. grandillora, S. panicutata, 51 urtictefolia, S. lanceolita, S. car- 
pinilolia, S. n-fl^xa, S. tncarnAta, S. talirica. 

4. S._fiexuiiia, comprehending S. ulmif&lia, Acaipnifftlia, S. ielulif&lia, and. 
perhaps, some others. 

5. 8. bHie. 0. a corymbiia. 7. S. cuiuri/a/ia. 

6. S. vacdmiJSlia. 9. 8. UafiAra. 

10. 8. hwpmcj/oiSfl, comprehending S, cren&ta, S. infleia Wendtand (H. 
S. Oard.), S. obovata Wendiand (H. S, Gard.}, S. erg^tea, S. cuneata, S. 
ndna, S. alptna, S. ociitifolia, S. deciimbens, 

11. S. ablongifilia Wendiand, apparently an upright fiwiigiate variety of 
S, Aypericifdlia 

"■ " ■ 13. S. tnlobdia. 

14. 8. Borbijo6a, comprehending S. picowiinsis of Loddiges, which ia a 
totally difiitrent plant from the S. pikowi^nsis of Besser, our No. 14^ in 


p. 305. 

15. 8. Lindlryhtia. 

XXTl. X08A'cEA: au'bus. 311 

Sect. III. Potenti'lle*. 
Genus IX. 


SIPBUS L. Ths Bkam ble. £m. Sytt. Icoaindria PalygjmuL 

MugkaMlB. LIB. 0«, Na.lHi D«. Pni4.,l. p.tlH.; Dud'i mi., 1. p. H. 
^M^niM*. Bonn. FramboUlv, A ; Htmbcen. Broiiiti«r>[ruKh, Grr. 
Derimlim. Fnun nA nd lo Csmc ; In nhmiea La tl» cskut or tlH fnill In HD* gf Iba ipidii. 
Ofn. CAor. Ci/fz Sattish at the bottom, 5-cleft. Pelalt 5. Slamnu numerous, 

inserted in the calyx along with tbe petals. Carpeli or Achema numeroui, 

fleshy, disposed in a head upon an elevated toriu. Slylei lateral, near the 

mfei of the caipel. (tJm'i MUl.) 

Leavei compound, digitate, pinnale orlobed, stipulate, deciduous or sub- 

cvir^reen ; with the leaflets usually stalked. Floviert white or pink, in 

termioal racemes. Fnat edible. 

Shrubs, deciduous, subligneous, with pricklj stems j for the most part pro- 
strate, but a few of them growing upright, Some of ikem, such as R. Auti- 
cdsna, may be considered as mb-cvergeen, at they retain the ^eaCer part of 
their leaves in a green state through the winter. All tbe kinds popularly 
called brambles may be considered ea ^gantic strawberry plums ; and all 
their shoots are used by thatchere, and makers of beehives, straw mats, 
8tc. No less than 46 suppoaed npecies of the genus are described and figured 
in the RM Gemuaiid of Weihe and Nees ron Esenbeck, The number of 
species io Engluh Botanif is, in Dr. Undley's Syaopta of ike Briiiih Flora, 
21 ; which, he says, may be reduced to 6, or [Kissiblyto 3, exclusive of the her. 
baceous species. In Don't MUJct, 147 are given as the total number described by 
botanists. We shall only notice such as are tolerably distinct, and which are io 
cultivation in British gardens. The propagution of the shrubby, or raspberry-like, 
apedeeof Aubus is eflectcd by suckers or seeds; that of the bramble division ot 
the genua by p^^ing down tbe paints of the shoots to the soil, when thej will 
root, and throw out other shoots, which may again be pegged down; so that 
plants are procured from brambles much in the same way asfrom atrawbeniea. 

j i. Leaves pinnate, o^3 — 7 Leqflett. 

■m I. R. subbrb'ctvs Anden. The sub-erect Bramble. 

Untbficmlim. Andcn. In Lfaw. Sac ; Dec. Prod., I. p. SM. ; Dob'i UIU„ 1, p. M4. i Smltli Rug. 

Snoww. 'undler. iDhk^tKi^lteBTA. fTim. lui iliin lb* fOllowliit ; _ R. ntuteili Ha« t 
K. l3li:ilui W.tS, Dal ot SnonJ. la Eng, Bat. t ITlt., irhlcll ll ■ uuDsr liinB or K. tinult 
W, t N. ; X. (DiTliailn WiMnit. 

£<«r«Si«(. Bng.Bot., t. Ktt. ; ud oar A- W7. 

Spec, CKar., ^c. StCD) erect. Leaf of nerermorethan 3 leafleta,digitate, occa- 
sionally pinnate, thin, shin- 
ing, and plaited. Flowers in 
simple corymbose racemes. 
Prickles weak. (Lindl.) . 
A sub-erect shrub. Britain, ' 
in moist womlfl and by the 
tides of rivulets, chiefly 
ill the northern counties. 
Stems 3 ft. to 4 ft Flowers 
white ; June to September. 
Fruit pale pnrple ; rqw b 



rhe sterna are bienouil, and flower the lecond year, like those of the com- 
roBpberry, sflerwardB dying off. The Iruit consistB of a small number of 
k red, or blood -coloured, og^i^ate grains, agreeably acid, with Bome fla- 
ir of the raspberry ; whence it Dsa been recommended bj some as perluf)* 


The related Bramble. 

iL SfUH. bt. fi.. >d td. II. y», 

3tfwmfmn. Llnilley moDtJoiu tlfo i 
LmSla In Sgn, Br. FL rA. ]. ; K. I 
Enerarnt'- Wdhe ud Nn4'i K. I 
Spec. C'kar., ^c. Stem ii 

angled, ]>rickly with siroi 

curved prickles, gUbrous. 

lets 3—5 In a leaf, ovate 

a licHrt-tihaped base, cuspiJute, 

iJiarply serrated, flar at tbe baEe, 

a little waved towards the tip. 

having ilowny Conientum beneath. 

Flowers in a compound panicle, 

the component ones cymose. Se- 
pals ovale-acuminiite, exlernally 

naked, rcflexed. Carpels large, 

blue-black. {Dec. Prod.) A low 

bramble. Germany, also of barren 

hills of Montpclier,and of Britain, 

in boggy places. Flowers white ; 

July aiid August. 

-* R. a. i bracleosiu __ _, , , 

t. 3. b. — Bracreas very broad, undivided, 
ft 3. A. MiCRA'.vTHt:s D.Duii. The smaU-Aowered Bramble. 

HtalgkallBm. Don Ptod. Fl. Nrpnl., p. aw. j Dmt. 
St/mi/iu. B. pt!u:iabnu HmJlefhOui. Stg., Harl. 

t. 7 and I, Weihe and Neei't Rabi Germ. 


;. Beg,. 


, u B. puiciBbrui 
31- repntenuag th« 

^cc. Char., Jf-c. Upright, Stem round, 

branched, and bearing awj-shaped ia- 

ilexed prickles, or straight prickles, and 

the branches recurved ones. Young . 

branchleta rather glaucous at the ex< 

tremity. Leaf pinnate, of 5 — 7 leaflets, 

that are ovate or oblong, miieronate, 

doubly serrated, plaitedi green and glossy 

above ; whitishly torn en tose, or else glau- 
cous, beneath. Petiole and nieliis bear- 
ing prickles here and there. Petiole pilose Stipules 
lanceolate, acuminate, membranaceous. Flowers 
small, reddish purple, disposed in a 
corymbose panicle. Petals clawed, 
shorter than the sqiala. (Dec. Prod.) I 
A gigantic bramble, Nepal. Siems \ 
8 ft. to 20 ft. Inttod. 1B22. Flowers 
bright reddish purple ; May to August. 
Fruit black; ripe in August. Naked 
i uung wood of a dark mahogany colour. 



It IS eauily distinguiahed from all the other brBinblea in BritiBh gHrdeni, by its 
nearly erect, strong, smooth, dark niah<^any-coloured shoots, and by its verf 
long pinnate leaves. The Dowers are small, and cbe petals are of a bright 
reddish purple, and shorter than the sepals. The fruit is of a blackish pui^ 

K' , of tKe Itiiddle size ; depressedly spherical, and covered with a fine bloom. 
e grains are fleshy, with a sweet subacid taste. This species throws up 
suckers sparingly ; but its magnificent shoots arch over after they get to 
6 or 8 feet in hei^t, and grow to^jichtng and flowering on every side, tifl they 
reach the ground, when their extreme points strike root, and ibrm new ploots. 
Horttcultural Society's Garden, 

* i. R. occiDBNTAUS L. The Western, or American, Bramble. 

MntliarMlraii. Lin. Sp-.TOS. : Dec.Frod.,9.p. US.; Dcm'i HI1I..1. B.eSI, 
jE^nJcA^i. SlauM JUB..I.1IS.C.I.I Dill. Hun. Elt., t. MT. T-SlS- ; mdiniTfig.tSi. 

^ec. Char., /^c. The whole plant is pretty glabrous. 
Stems round and whitish. Prickles recurved. Leaves 
of the barren branches pinnate ; of the fertile branches 
trifoliolate. Leaflets ovate, tncisely serrated, whitely > 
tomentosebeneatli. Stipules very narrow, and bristle- 
Uke. Flowers in umbels. Peduncle prickled. Sepals 
lanceolate-linear, tomentosc, longer than the petals, 
which are obovately wedg^-shaped, two-lobed, and t 
spreading. Pnut black, acid, of the form of that of I 
A. idte'us. Carpels numerous, rather glabrous ; he- ' 
coming, by drying, rugged with little hollows, (pff. i 
Prod.) A sub-erect shrub. Canada and the West ' 
Indies. Hei^it 4 a. to 6 ft. Introduced in 1696. 
Flowers white j May and June. Fruit black ; ripe in ui. ■. mumsuu. 
Augnst. Horticultural Society's Garden. 

* 5. li. iDx'us L. The Mount Ida Bramble, or nmmion Raipbcrry. 

Uml^fiailkm. Lin. Sn.. 70$. | Dec, Prod.. 1, p. S.K. 

Srmomniitt. R.framSattdmva Lbn-FI. Fr., 3. p. ISA. ; Frunboiilir, TV. ; ntnMDe BroDbeve. Gfr 
" -ni, Kupli Ii mi«l In Cretkr' Bitdi Idaii i in Loin, Ratui Idaa, vl Hie ni<ianuli» Ida, w 
vhlch II grfmtti 1 in Essllih. JtJupli. FrHmbati*. and Hlude-twrr]'." (JuAiu. Gir., B. 11^4.1 

Emfrariniil. E^. Bst.. t. M41.; wd nurJ^.MS. 

l^c. Char., ^c. Villose, Stem round, bearing slender rectn^ed prickles. 
Leaves pinnate; those of the fertile Blems of S leaflets, those of the sterile 
stems c^ 5, rather palmatcly disposed. Leaflets ovate, incisely serrated, 
whitely tomentose beneath. Stipules very narrow and bristle-like. Flowers 
in a corymbose panicle. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, whitely tomentose, ending 
in a |>omt. Petals obovate-wedge-bhaped, entire, conniving, shorter than 
the calys. Carpels numerous, tomentose. (^Dec. I'lod.") An upright shrub, 
with a creeping root and biennial alema. Europe, and, probably, Asia, 
Africa, and America. Found in every part of Great Britain, and in L-eland, 
in the agricultural and subalpine regions, in woods, and in moist wastes. 
Height 4 tl. to 8 ft. Flowers white ; Hay, June, and July. Fruit red ; 
ripe in July, August, and September. 

• R. i. 8 mmoph^Um Wallr. Sehed, p. B56. — Leaves all of 3 leaflets. 

Stem suflhiticose ; dwarfer and more bushy than the species. (Dec. 
Gardm Varktiet. There are varieties with red fruit, yellov^ fruit, and 
white fruit 1 and one which bears twice in the year. 

The fruit of the species, in a wild state, is crimson, amd consists of nume- 
rous juicy gnuns, beset with the permanent styles, and highly fragrant ; with a 
very deliciously sweet, and yet slightly acid flavour, when eaten. Lnjiroved 
varieties of it nave long been in cultivation in gardens, tot the fruit, w4i(4) is 
delightfully fragrant, and grateful to the palate in itself, and is uschI in 'i^l^' 


laeroui culinary and eonfedionefy 

articles, aa well as in liqueurs. The 

raspbeiT; requires a vegetable aoil, / 

raCner moist, soft, and not rery | 

deep i because mast of the roots, ' 

like thoie of all other plants ibat 

throw up numerous suckers, ke^ 

near the surlkce; and Che situation 

should be shadeii, rather than Fully 

exposed to the meridian sun. In a 

wild state, it is almost alwaya found 

more or less shaded by trees, but 

not under their drip ; and in woods, 

the ratuation of which is rather low 

and moist, than hilly and rocky or 

dry. The root bclonn to that description which is called travelling; that ia, 

the suckers extend themselves all round the central plant, so as every year 

to come up in fresh soil. Hence, aa Miller obserres, a raspberry plant^ioii 

requires to be renewed every five or six years. 

§ ii. Leaves digitate, of 3— fi Leaflets. 

ji 6. R. lacinu'tus W. The caXJeaoed Bramble. 
UnuUaaioi. Wind. Rott. DfroL. p. St. uid 1. 9>. i D<c Prod., a (lUS.: Don'i HUL, 1. p. an. 
Bngrml«ti. WIIM. Hon. BhoL. t H. i Wui. DvJl. BiiL, 1. GS. i iDd wtijlf. tOt. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Stem rather round, bearing stout 

recurred prickles, compressed at the base. 

Leaflets 3---5, pinnatejy cut, sharply serrate, a 

little downy beneath. Flowers in loose panicles, 

white or rose-coloured. Sepals lanceolate, leafy 

at the tip, tomentosc, prickled, refleied. Petals ' 

wedge-shaped, 3-lobcd at the tip. Carpels 

roundish, dark-coloured. (Dec. Prod.) A large 

and handsome bramble. Stems 4 ft. to 10 A, 

Flowers white, or rose-coloured ; June to Sep- f 

tember. Fruit black; ripe in AugusL Naked 

young wood of a fine purple colour. 

The appearance of this plant is that of the 
common bramble, except in the leaActs, which, 
from their bdng deeply curare strikingly lUlferent. 
Where it whs first found is unknown ; but it is, in ***' *■'"**'"' 

Bi^trtMnti. N. bn Him., S. c. n. i Hirne AbbllcL, 
I. lOXiBBf. BoC., I.SJ&i taioarjig.ta. 

Spec. <Sar,, ^e. Stem trailing, round, in 
many instances sufliued with a grey bloom, 
bearing slender and a little recurved 
prickles. Leaflets 3 in a leaf, ovate, doubly i 
sermted or crenated, glabrous, or obscurely * 
ciliated. Panicle almost simple. SepnU 
ovate-acuminate. Petals white. Fruit 
sweet. Carpels large, few, greyish. (Dec. 
Fred.) A low straggling bramble. Eu- 
ijipe and the Norui-Bast of Amio, in 

XITI. ilOSA'CE^: BU*BUS. 315 

woods Hid haJgea. Stem 4 ft. to 6 ft. Flowcn while ; JuM and July. 
Fruit Mack ) ripe in August. 

^ B. c. 2 animv Wallr. Sched. 
A. pseildo-ce'Bius IVeiAe, a 
to Em. Mtyw in Litt. — 
tomentote beneath. Brant 
Ji R. c. 3 gntadifiirvt Set. — Pi 

Petals and Eepuls long. 
J, lUcipan^ihaV/elh. Sched 
(Our Jig. 535.) — Stem ai 
purplish, ultimately naked, 
small, incitely lobed. Peduu 
flowered, A natiTe of 
covered bills, 
ji R. c. 5 filui variegdtiM Hort. b 
gated Wves. 
A low, weakly, straggling, prostral 
hanra the flowers with bluih-coloureu |n;»>o, «.—«—. 

and 3ie fruit tmall, with few graina ; but 

these lar^ juicy, black, with a fine glaucous bloom, and very •greeiMj add. 
This speaes raries exceedingly in the size of its flowers and leaves in diffisnnt 
~' — •■ — whence have arisen many varieties. 

' B. R, cottVLiraYius SmiA. Ilie Hazel-leaved Bramble. 

I. Smith F1. Brit., p. M3 | amith In Su, BoL, L BIT. \ Dn't Hill,, *. r-VU. 
B. 'Ulsirli WeOi i Km, icc-rdlBw iDTlDdltr, a^mapmifBrU. Fkn, «!. 1. p. M. ; 
tu aqwT. •xoTdhig to Sprengd and GotdbKh. 
e^ronwi. Bag. But, t-W.; aai oo'M- U8. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Stem angled, bearing straightish prickles. Lesfleta 3 — 5, 
conlat&«vate, Gnn, doubly aerrated, pilose beneath. Panicle nearly ■"!>- 
pie. Flowers white. Sepals ovate acuminate, ultimately reflexed. Carpels 
purpliah-blue, and large. (Dec. Prod.) A large bnunble. Nadve of Europe, 
especially in the southern part; and frequent in firitiun, in hedgea and 
thickets. Stems 6 ft. to IS ft. Flowers white; June and July. Fruit 
purpli^ blue or black. Urge; ripe in August. 

J, R. c. 2 cmtm Wallr. Sched. p. 831. — 
Leaflets all iimitar in form, roundish 
heart^huMd, whitiaUy tomeotoae 
upon boto turlaces. 

jt R. cZghndiiliiBiVaiU. Sched. p. 831. 
R, glanduldsus Sprmg^ according 
to Wallr. (Our fg. 537.) — Stems, 
Dctioles, and peduncles glandulous. 

., Gobble 


the ttens are long and trailing, Bometimea arching, glaucoiu and pwflUi 
■D the Bun, and green in the shade : they are brittle and full of pith. The 
flowera are larfie, and appear earlier than those of matt o fthe Brituh ipecicL 
The berry is Urge, a;;reeBbly add, of iarger and fewer grwna than in B, frnti- 
cdaus, and of a browner black : they are ripened before those of R, frutkdm 
and its allies. 

According to Dr. Lindley, the following British kinds of Aubus inajr br 
asHOciated with H. corylifolhis Smith, either as related species, or as varieties: 
— B..aiacropM/liuWeihe&Heea (Ens. Bot. Suppl., 1.8635.); R. carjiii^Uia 
Weihe & Neea ; R. futco aler Wmhe & Nees ; R. Ki>"ldcn IKriAr 4- Kea 
fEng. Bot. %app\..i.imb.). R.ak\Y\daiWcUie^ Neet; R. ^Zoiu/k/mki Saudi ; 
R. r^dit Weihe & Nees, R. echinatus of ed. 1. of Ujidt. Synopt^ and oir 
H. B. No. g8335. ; R. StmifdHui Lindl. SjtiO[». ed. 1., R. direrMRIiw 
IVeOe, Hart. Brii. No. 28330. 

t 9. R. spbcta'ui 

I Ph. 


The showy^oHwrrd Brnmblc 
:. IS. 1 Dec Prod.. L p. U». ; Doq'i HDI., 1. r-lS. 

Rs(.. 14M. iBot. Cati.,t. liOLi ud ooTJlt. an. 

Spec. Char., S^. Stem not bearing prickles, glabrous. Leafofthree 
that ore ovate, acute, doubly end unequully serrated, downy I 
FlovterH of an agree^le purplish colour, produced dngly 
on terJnlnal peduncles. Sepals oblong rather alHTiptlj 
acuminate, shorter than the petal*. (JOec. 
Prod.) An elE^nt shrubby bramble. 
Native of North America, on the banks 
of the Columbia River, and the north- 
west coast. Height 4 ft. to 5 It In- 
troduced in 1887. Flowers rosy purple, 
odonferous 1 April and May. Fruit 
large, dark yellow i ripe in July, 
Branches subflexuuse, round, smooth ; 
with laive odoriferous flowers, succeeded by large daric-yeltow fruit, of 
acid and somewhat astringent taste, which make excellent tarts. It bmt 
a place in every collection, both as a flowering shrub, and for its fruit. 

s L. The shrubby Bramble, 

Spec. Char., ^c. Stem erect, and afterwards de- 
curved, 6-ansled, rather tomentoie, bearing 
recurved prickles. Leaflets 3 — 5, ovalu-oblone, 
B, gWirous, beneath greylj' tomertose, eai 

out prickles. (Dec. Prod.) A lar^ bramble. 
Native of Europe, in hedges, thickets, iiii^t 
woods ; in Britain abounding in the agricultural 
zone, and tolerably frequent in the upland zone; 
with, according to Mr. Winch, a limit siuiilar to 
that of irtex europat'a. Stem 6 ft. to 12 h. 
Flowers white, or rose-coloured ; June to 
August. Fruit purplish black ; ripe August to 
" ■ - ir October. 

XXVI, jiosA^ciifi: iiu^Bus. 


semidouble or double. Leavei pale green ; leaReti oborate. Cut- 
civated in garden*. lliiK fnriety ma; be considered ai highly omn- 
mental, from the large sile and numerous petals of its flowers, Hnd 
from its very vigorous growth. Though ii will thrive at the roots 
of trees, and in places where other omaniental plants irill hardly 
grow, yet it produces moat effect when it is trained against a wall. 
^ K. /, 3 taincuM Hort. is a vigorous- growing plant, which produces by 

lar the best fniit of any variety of branible, H. S. 
ji R. /. ifiire r6to plene Baiini. Cat._FloHen double pink. H. 8. 
j[ K. /. 5 /uliu variegiilit. — Leaves « vie^teJ, and not liable to the ob- 
jections made to most variegated plants. 
■* R. / 6 leueecdrpiu Ser. — Fruit white. (Der. Prod.) 
This sfienes is considered hs being more 
common than any of the other brambles, and 
iiLio as attaining a greater siie. It is always 
found to prosper best on a soil somewhat dry 
and gravelly : and, accordingly, Switzer, uhen 
spraking of choosing a soil and situation for a 
vineyard, recommends looking out for one where 
the bramble is abundant and vigorous. The 
fi^its have been eaten by children, in every 
country wh^e they grow wild, since the time 
of Fliny. Hiey have alto been used, both in 
France and England, to produce a subacid 
drink ; an inferior description ofuine; by fer- 
mentation and distillation, a strong spirit; and, hi. i.ikwMtrji. 
boiled with sugar, a very good jam. 

i 11. fl. 1 

i L. The hixpid-fffiRimil Bramble. 

Spix, Char^ ^c. Stem procumbent, round, very hispid, 
bearii^ scattered bristles and recurved prickles. Leaf- 
lets 3—5, wed^shiqjed at the biue, unequally toothed, 
pretty slabrous above. Flowers solitary, upon longiah 
peduncles. PetalB ob<>vBte. Carpels black. (Dec. 
ProdJ) A branible with protiiimbcnt stems. Canada, 
Stems 611. to 6 ft. Introduced in 1759. Flowers 
white i August. Fruit black, edible ; ripe in September 
and October- i«- «. ni 

J iii. Leaves bled, not pinnate ur digitate, 

m 18. R. ODOii*'TiTB L. The sweet-acentedW^invJ Bramble. 

UnHflcaUoH. Lin. Sp, 707.iDK. Prod., a. p.f«.i Don'iMiU., S.p.4ae. 
%m|iMn. Jl. occtdKiltUi Mt/., tHil nolsf Un. ; Ib> Vlrgliilui Run. 

berrf, tb« flDwcriog HK^pbetlv. 
/.'■VraHift. MIIL H^, L is. i Hot. Mag.. I. 3TX. ; ud out Jig. Stt. 

Spec. Char.. 4-c. Stem upright. Petioles, peduncles, and 
calyxes bearing glanded hairs. Dinks of leaves 5-lobcd, 
unequally toothed. InSoreacence subcorymbose. Flowers 
liirge, showy, red. Sepals ovate, longiy acuminate, 
shorter (ban the petal*. Carpels numerous, ovate, vel- 
vety. Style (tuincl-sbuped. (Dec. Prod.) An upright 
Khmb, North AmericH, in the woods of Canada, end on 
the Alleghany Mountains. Height 4 ft. to 6 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1700. Flowers purplish red; June to Sept. ^. . j 
Fruit yellow, rarely seen in England. 


The Batten are not lucceeded bj fruit in thii country ; but Pursb inibrms 
ve that, in h wild state, the fruit is yellow, and of a *erv fine flavour, and a 
Itage fllze. " Corautui, who fint figured and deacribod thia plant, gave it the 
Dwne of odorktua, on account of the very grmteful fragrance of its foliage." 

m 13. R. nutea'nus Mac. The Ifootka Sound Bramble. 
MKiHlltalim. Mochm PI. Nulk. ; D«. Prod., S. p. M6. i Bat. Rc«.. L IMa. i Don'i WU, l.p. Mb 
4M9iH«i. Jt. adatiliu Hon., bul d« dF Lin. 
^Vrn&Vl. UodDO Fl. Hulk, i Bol. R<«., :. IHH. ; ud aurjtf. A 

spec. Char,, iff. Stem glutinous. Brandies round, 

K' ibroui, Tufou*. LcaTCS 5-lobed, unequally tootlied. (■' 
florescence subcorymhose. Flowers about 4 in a { 
corymb, white. Sepals ovate, lonely acuminate, gla- 
brous, as long as ttie petals. Allied to R. odoritus, 
but the pcduiude and calyx are glabrous. (Dec, iVod) 
An upright shrub. North-west coast of North Ame- 
rica, from New Califoroia to Nootfca Sound, and at 
various placet betweeo north latitude 43° and 52°, in 
mountains and woods. He«ht 5 it. to 6 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1886. Flower* white ; Hay to October. 
Fruit yellow or reddish i ripe in August. 
The general aspect and appearance of H. odoritus, except being of a paler 
green. He flowers are succeeded by large yellow or reddish berries, whidi 
arc found to make excellent tsrts ; and thcplant will probably soon be ranked 
as a fruit shrub. Horticultural Society's Oarden. 

A. Ered Ratpbern/Jikt SorU. 
R. ocddenlaA, the Weitem, at block, Ratpbeny, No. 4. ; and fig. 53?. in p. 31X 
R. tadtanut, the yooHa Sound Raipberry, No. 13.; and fig. 544. in p. 318. 
R. odoralui, the tweet^cctUed, or Virginian Ratpbcny, No, 13. ; and b. 543. 

in p. 317. 
R. ipecti/ii/u, tie tkounf-HoveTed Raiphem/, No. 9. ; and fig. 539. in p. 316. 
R. nffa'iu, the Mount Ida, or common, Raijiberrt/, No. 6.; and fig. Ii33. in p. 314l 

— The varieties ofthis species which arerecommended as b«ng most Euil^le 

for planting in an arfooretum are, the red Antwerp, the white Antwcip, and 

the smooth cane. 

B. SArubAg Rraablrt. 

R. nAerictai, Ae tvh-erecl BrwaAlc, No. 1.; and fig. 537. in p. 31 1. 

R, micrintAia, the rmaO-Jlmiicred, or Nepal, Bramble, No. 3. ; and figs. 530, 

531. inp. 3U. 
R. /ruiicb»ui, tie tkntbbg Sramb/c, or common Blackberry, No, 10,; and 

n^. 540, in p. 316. — The varieties recommended are, the double-flowered, 

the double pink-flowered (Ifit can be got), the variegated-lnved, and R. f. 

taGricus, on account of its large and excellent fruit. 
R. ladmalui, the cH^-leaved Braiable, No. 6. ; and fig. 534, in p. 314, 
R. con/HJZliai, tie HazeUcaved Bramble, No. 8. ; and fig. 537. in p. 3)5. 

C. Pntitrate Bramhiet 

VLe^'niu.Ihe grey Brambte,oTDewbenj,Tilo.7. i mdfig. SS^ in p. 314. — The 
variety recommended, in addition to the species, is that with variegated leaves. 
Reaiart. The plants in the last two groups arc propagated by drri^on of 

the roots, or by encouraging the points oi the shoots to root, like the runiMrs 

of a strawt>erry ; and the punts m the first group by dirision of the roo^ oa 

by suckers. 


Otlur SorU of lAnibby Rubutn. — ^R. matro. 
pflaAa Doug. MS. in Hoot, Ft. Bar. Amer. 
a. 178. t. 59., and our fig. A45., is a natrve of 
low woods in the nllcy of the Columbia, with 
white flowers, and the general habit of R. 

R. dehrioiM Toirey in An*. Lye. iL p. 196. ^ 
is B DBtiTe of North America, among theRockj' 
MouDtains ; with puiple Sowen, succeeded by a 
Tet7 delicious fhut. It is a shrubby bramble, 
5 or 6 feet high. 

R, ti£acrM Smith in Ree^t Cgd. vol. mx. ia 
a natiTe of Upper Nepal, with white flowerB, 
and leaiea like those of T^lia iiba. R. cordi- 
fStius D. Pan appears to be the same species, 
or periiaps a variety. Hort. 8oc. in 1834. mi. 

GsMtJs X. 


Gen.Ciar. Calyx lO-parted, the 5 outer segments accessory. Pelaii 5. 

Slameiu numerous. Carpelt numerous with lateral styles, seated on a dr^ 

pennanent, derated receptacle. {Don't Mili.) 

Leanei compound, alternate or opposite, stipulate, sub-erergreen ; pin- 

natcly cut. Fimeeri white or yellow. 

Shrubs low, nalires of Europe and America, and of c&sy culture in a dry 
soil. They are propagated by seeds or cutliugi i and, except the common 
Bpedee, P. ftuticosa, are not much in cultivatiun. 

|. bt , I. BS. ; %ntL PuL, 10. 

Spec. Clua:, ic. Stem shrubby. 
Leaves pinnatelycut, hairy ; the 
lobes oblong, lanceolate, entire, 
appro liniate, of nearlyChe same 
colour on both surfaces. Sti- 
pules lanceolate, membraneous, i 
acute. Inflorescence rather co-P 
rjmbose. Flowers yellow. So- \ 
pels pilose, lanceolate, acute, 
broad at the base. Biacteas 
tinear-lanceolate, indistinctly pe- 
tioted. Corolla longer then the 
calyx. Receptacle verr hairv. 
Uiee. Pnd.) A roitndish bush. 
Rngtend, Uermany, the Pyrenees, and other places ; in England, in IiUdUl^ 
ton, Tecsdole; and in Kock Forest, Clare, in Ireland. Height 8 ft. to « ft. 
Flowers yellow ; July and August. Fruh brown ; ripe in October. 



Varielies, accorilini; to Seringe, in Dec. Prod. 

M P.f- 2 dahinca Ber. P. d^iirica I^ettl. Pol. 31. 
S Lehm. Pot. 32. — Glabrous. Lobes of tbe 
leaves 3 — 5, pinnately cut. Sepals shorter and 
broader tlian tbe bracteolca. Dahuria. In- 
troduced in lB£4i and producing its jiellow 
flowers in July. Plaats in the Hon. Soc. 
Garden, and in tbe Epsom Nursery. 
^ P.f.Z tenuUoba Ser. ; P. fruticow ji A'«(/. Po/. 
30., LeAm. Pol. 32, var. 7; P.floriliunda Pk. 
Pi. Amer. Sept. 1. p. 355, Wation'i Bend. 
Bril. t. 70. i P. (enuifclia Schtfctend. Bit/. 
Afag., according to LeAm. Poi. 32. (Our^. 
547.) — Sepals and lobes of the leaves nar- 
row, and with a slight hoary silkiness. North 
America ; where it is a low -growing shrub, not 
above 18 in. high. It vias also found by I^llbs 
in Siberia. The handsomest variety of ti:c 

» 2 P. ow'BB* Lodd. The glabi 

UtiOificalloit. Lodd. Bnt, Cab, t.9N. ; D>k Piild., -i. p. n°4, : UOD 
^mmgrnri. P. trultrtiu ilbi Bturk. •ctati\nt ut LnM. Sal. Cti..t 
Siitratiitgt. Lodd. Doc. Cab., 1 814. 1 taiaar Jig, MS, 
■Spff. Char., 4c, Fmtescent. Branches 
pendulous, purple. Leases pinnately 
cut into 5 entire lobes. Flowers ter- 
minal, white, of the slxe of those of L ^ 
tbe wood strawberry (Fragilna v^sca). A \-'! 
(Dec. Prod.) A beautiful little sbnib. I X/ff^-.^ 
Siberia. Hught 2 ft, to 4ft. Intro. ^-.^diAi 
duced in 1818. Flowers white ; June ^^JV 
to August. Fruit bruwn ; ri|)e in Sep- 

It differs from P. fruttcfisa in beir^ per- 
fectly smooth in all its parts, and in having pendulous branchea and undulated 
leaves. It thrives best in a mixture of loam and peat, is of slow grawth, 
and difficult to increase, except by seed, 

-» 3. P. Saleso'v 

Utnliflcal/im. SMph., ucoii 
L«m. Pol. «. 1 1, j D«. Prod. S. p. Ml 

SmgrarHv. Lahm. Pol., ». 1. 1.; imrourA.MS. 

Spec. Char., ifc. Habit resembling that of ffiiraarum palus.. .., 
Stem suffVuri cose. Leaves pinnately cut, coriaceous. Lobes • 
oblot\g, acutely sernite, pubescent above upon the veins, ' 
wbitely tomentose beneath. Stipules lanceolate, very acute, 
entire, rather filmy at the edge. Flowers large, white, 
upon short peduncles, and grouped. Sepals lanceolate, 
very acute, broad, almost as long as the petals, which are 
oboTate. Bracteoles very narrow, smaller than the sepals. 
Receptacle lanuginose. {Dec. Prod.) A low shrub. Siberia. 
Height 1 ft. to 8 ft. Introduced In 1823. Flowers white ; 
June and July. Fruit brown ; ripe in September. 

/ Stcph. SulcEovius's Potentilla. 

Ojmarum Stup., b well 

OSwamiH ;ia/£,(rf L. (Enp. I , „ ^., 

known British plant, found m boggy soils, with (omeu hat ligneout shoots, and 
showy flowers of a deep dingy purple, may be added to this order, and hut 
prove useful in iwticular situations, on the margina of pcnd* 



COWA'NW D. Don. Thb CowaSI*. Lm. Sytt. IcoiindriB Polygjnia. 
UraidbMlam. D. Don. <n Sv. FL Card, U Krtei. 

DfrfMIAHi. In honour ntJwuri Ctrwan, a Londoli utnliuil. vba Htrral UmM dliUd McalH. 
aod Pem. *1kik« be IntrodiKfd a cmt dudj plaDti. 

Gill. Char. Ca/i/x 5-c\v(t. Pclaltb. Orori«5 — 1+. Orii/eerect. Sli/Irt tcnninat, 

continuous, Achenia adorned with the plumose persistent style, (i}. Don.') 

Jjcavet umple, alternate, stipulate, evergreen ; wedge^hapcd, oblong, 

pin natifid, plaited. Ftowen tennniHl, solitBry.almoit lesaile, nA. — Shrub; 

native of Mexico; veij omamenliil, but somewhat tender in British gardens. 

K 1. C, PLiCA>rx D. Don. The plaited-JnanJ Cowania. 

rd..t. 4no,i OiiTd.H 

t. MO. !llDdDurJ(e. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves wedge-shaped, 

oUon^, pinnatifid, pEaited. {D. Don.) 

A rigid, evergreen, decumbent, tnuch- 

bnuicbe<l shrub. Mexico. Height I (L 

to 2 ft. Introduced in 1833. Plowen^ 

Jark red ; June and July. Naked \ 

young (food dark brown. 

Branches copiously clothed with 
stalked glnnds. Petiole* of the leaves 
very short, slightly channeled above, 
shrathing at the Dase. Stipules adherent. 
Flowers, when protruding from the bud 
exactly Hke thoae of JtHea. This pro- 
minng ever^een shrub, being extremely 
difficult to propa^te, has been lost, for the present, to British gardens. 

Sect. IV. Ro'sES. Ike. 

ffO'SA TbuTTi. The Rose Tree. Lm. Si/it. Icos&idria Polyg^nin. 

n. Tavn.lnil., I.p.Er> I.MS.i LliLOcn^rai., Ua. III., I, 4«. i Llndl. B«. Hob, 
I; Pronilllo'l Notnnl. Rait., I§1>. Mddoc. R«., ISH; Dod'i MUL.E. f.tU. 

^°2u^f"*' a'b"'' ""'"'■ '*'■ ■ Ro*™*"^! Oer,; RooHboODi, Dvlcti 
bu, red, Mile; lu rtlkroacs Id Iha coloiir of tb< iDiien of UDrt ot Ui* ipeds. 
Gen. Char, Calj/x with the tube contracted at the mouth, and with the seg- 
ments usually pmnotely divided Pdalt b, Stanieni numerous. CarjteU 
numerous, bony, inserted on the inside of the tube of the calyx, which at 
length becomes baccate and encloses them. They are dry and inddiiscent, 
bearing each a style on the inner side. (Don't MUl.) 

Lemxt compound, alternate, stipulate, deciduous or evergreen ; iinpari- 
junnate. Slipuiei attachnd to the petiole. Priikla simple. Flovien large, 
showy; red, white, or yellow ; fragrant. 
Shrubs, for the most part deciduous ; natives of Eun^, and of the tent' 

„ Google 


e regions of Africa, Aaia, and America, but nol of Australia ; and thrj 
e been io cultivation in the Old World, for the beauty and fragrance <^ 
tneir flawers, from time immemorial. Aa the culture of roKa belongs more 
to floriculture tbnn to arboriculture, it will be found eiven at length in our 
Eticyclopirdia of Gardeiiing, and in the limt edition of tliis work. All the 
species may be propagated by ciittinga of the roots, cuttings of the youug 
wood in a growmi; Htnte, by layers, or by budding or gr^ing ; and tbey 
wilt all thrive in loamy soil, dry and rich, rather than poor. The g^ius Rda 
19 in a stale of confusion still greater than that which subsists among the 
different kinds of Aubus ; nor can it wet) be otherwlee, when we consider 
that the greater number of kinds in cultivation are garden produetions, and 
that the wild kinds differ exceedingly according to soil and situation, and have 
been chiefly described by hntuniats from dried specimens. We have adopted the 
urrangemeut in Don's MUlcr, with the exception of omitting the first section, 
Simpficilolis, now made a separate genus b^ Dr. Lindley. Where the species 
arranged under a Rection are natives of difierent countries, it may fairly be 
presumed, that there it at least one in each country entitled to be considered a 
species ; or, at least, it may be convenient to do so, in the present state of our 
knowledge. Nature, it is observed in the ^oinmiii Du Hamtt, " appears scarcely 
to have placed an^ limit bemeen the diffia«nt species of the rose ; and, if 
it is already very difficult to define the wild species, which have not yet been 
modified by cnlturc, it is almost impossible to rcf»' to their original type tiie 
numerous varieties which culture has made in the Sowen of species already 
so nearly resembling each other." 

j i. Feroces Lind). Mon. p. 3- 

DtrfnaHim. rtamfirw, aires ; In nCereiKT la Iha tranche! ti(dU( Ihkklf tieut niUi pricUa. 

Sccl. Char. Brunches clothed with permanent tomcntum. Fruit naked. The 
plants contained in this Bection are it truly natural group ; they are low 
shrubs, losing their leaves early in autumn, and are then remarkable for 
their hoary branches, bristles, anit numerous prickles. Thdr &uit is per- 
fectly smooth, which separates thcui irom the next section, in which the 
fruit i« downy. Sepals usually toothed. (Von'i Mill,) — Deciduous low 
bushes, natives of Caucaaus and Kmuischatka. 

^ 1. /f. PK'nox Lninr. The fieTcelypric*/«f Hose. 

. L.awr. Ki»..t.4t.( Dnn'i Ulll,.lp.-v». 

S. kim»rhb[ca Set. not. \. p. 17. i R- kaintichKl 

Spec. Char., l^c. Prickles all alike in shape, and 
much crowded. Flowers large, red. Fruit glo- 
bose, scarlet. (Dim'i Mill.) A very priAlj 
Hhrub. Caucasus. Height 3 ft. to 4 It. Intro- 
duced in 1790. Flowers large, red; July and 
August. Fruit scailct ; ripe in Scpttniibcr. 

^ R. /. 2 uUent Lindl. in Bof. Rfg. t. 8S4 , 
Scr. in Hcc. Prvd. u, p, GOT., has shining 
pale green glabrous leaves, and pate crim- 
son flowers. Deserving a plnce in collec- 
tions on account of Its singularity. 

^ S. li. (p.) KiMTscHA'TH:* i'cnt. The Kamtschatk* Rose. 

tHraOfirallim. VtM. Celt, L «J. [ Don't Mill.. ». b. ir.B. 

'agrarinti. Vent Celt.. L ST. ; H.Du Ham., loL 7. t. IS. f. ft { uhI «r A- HS. 

c.Char.,4:c; Prickles infra-siipulHr, nitcate, large. Leaves opaque. Flowers 


XXVI. sosa'cex: ku^a. 933 

AfiO.) KniDtschstkB, \a dry rockv piaces. Height 3 ft. 

to 4 ft. iDtroduced in IT!*I. Flowers deep red ; June 

und July. Fruit scarlet ; ripe in Sqitembcr. 

From the appearance of the planta bearing this name in 
(he eitendve collection in Misant. Lotldiges'a arboretum, 
we «houl(l consideT it to be only a variety of R. leroi. 
It is, however, very distinct, and, from the rich colour of 
ita flowen and fruh, well deserving a place in collections. 

§ ii. Bracteata. ui. ■>w>cu>k.. 

Sect. Char. Branche* and fhiit clothed with permanent (omentum. This 

aection is readily diEtinguished from the last by the woolliness of the fruit. 

Leaves dense, usually sbining, and prickles placed under the stipules in 

pairs. Sepals siDiple, or nearly no. (Don'i Mdl.) — Evergreen, or sub- 
evergreen bushes. Natives of China and Nepal. 

■ 3. £. bbactea'ta Weadl. The tlorsr-bracted Rose. 
/ilnMbalKM. W»dLOU.,IW.; Bed. Rim., I. p. SI., kc.; Ltedl. Rol Hod., p. I0.| Dk. Prod.!. 

p.S Ii Don't UIIL.l p.Mft. 
S v n m wm f . Ejird MuftDH't Roie. 

Knfrawimff. WendL Hon.^ornnbMiu., (Uc. 4. t. a.| f . Do Hub.. T. 1 13. 1 «doar 1%. u& 
Spec, Char.,^c. Evergreen. Branches upright, to- 

mentose. Prickles stout, recurved, in many 

instances in pahs. Leaflets 5 — 9, obovate, sub* 

serrate, coriaceous, glossy, glabrous. Stipules 

scarcely altschtd to the petiole, bristle-ahaped, 

but trinecd. Flowers Kohtary, terminal, white, A 

large. Peduncles and cnlyirs tomentose. Fruit j 

globose, lai^c, orange red. (flee Prod.) Ever- ' 

green. China. Height 5 II. to 6 ft. Introiluccd ;« 

in 1795. Flowers large, showy, while, solitary, i 

neariy sessile j June to October. Fruit orange 

red i ripe in Uctober. 

Itflowersabundantly,butisraihertcndcr,on which 
account it succeeds best when tnuned against a wall. ">■ H-Monu. 

■ &.b. i icabrica^k Lindl. Hospr Monog, p. 10. (Suns Bot, Mag,, 
t. 1377.) — Branches bristly. Prickles smaller than in the speciiie, 
and ratlier straight. China, province of Tchelchiang. {Bee, Prod.) 
• H.i. SfldrepLno Hort. — Flowers double, but never expanding freely. 
> K. &. 4 Maria Leonida Hurt. — Floners double, white, yellowish pink 
in the centre, expanding freely. One of the finest of auCuinnal roses. 
The species and the vHrietiea, being somewhat tender, 
succeed best when trained against a walL They are very 
umainental from their shining evergreen foliage, as well 
as trom tbeir flowers. 

«. 4. R. KicBOPHv'iLA Biu*. The small-leafleied Rose. 

Jdmfpaalim. Baib. FL lad. iDsd,. accnnlliSE to LlmlL Roau. MoDDg.. 

p. 9. 14fi. IW. : Dec Ptoit.. !. p. EOS. i UiHi'I HID, i. p. KJ. 
AMHwinf- Hof-tong.hoDK, Ciinut€- 
Engrawimtl. Be*. K«g.. t. 9ia ; lud our Jig- «* 

Spec. Char,,4'c. Stem almost without prickles. Leaflets 
gloasy, sharply serrated, veiny beneath, with densely 
netted anastomosing veins. Stipules very narrow, 
unequal. Flowers double, of a delicate rose colour. "*■ '■HUnrbfik. 
Calyx densely invested with prickles. Sepals short, broadly ovate, echiuate, 
endwg in a point. Prickles tiaving at tne base two longitudinal furrows. 


(DecProd.) SulMSvergrerai. China Heirfit Sft. to 3ft. Introduced in 

181?8, Flowers very larye, double, and of a aelicate blush colour; Angun 

to October. Fruit orange red ; rijie in October. 

An interesting little shrub, but somewhat tender, like R. bructeata. There 
is a variety in the Hort. Soc. Garden called R. m. ilba. 

» 5. R. isvoli'CraVa Barfi. The \nyo\acnii-cor^bcd Hose. 
Idcmtiftealka,. Eoil.. F1. Ind. Ined.. Kconllog to Llnill. Rtair. Mom*, p. * i !>«. P«i. »- 

F.ngrialngl. BM. Reg., t. IM. ; mil our^. SM. 

SpK. Char., *c. Shoota long, tender. Branches 
pale brown, tomentosc, warcely prickly. Leufleta , 
3 — 9, elliptical-lanceolate, tomentose beneath. 
Stipules hardly attached to the petiole, brislle- 
like- fringed. Flowers terminal, mcBllj aolitary, 
white. Peduncles and calyxes trimentose. [Dec. 
Prod.) Deciduoua, hrancliy. Nepal and China. 
Height 3ft. to tft. Introd, IB18. Flowers 
white; June and July. Frail orange red; ripe 
in October. 

Seringe aceros to consider this as a variety of 
R. bractcila. The flowers arc in corymbs, sur- 
rounded by three or four ^pmiiuiate leaves. The 
plants arc rather tender, and succeed best against a 
Willi, where thpy flower magnificently. Not com- 
mon in collections. Lodd. 

§ iii. Cinaamomeee Lindl. Ros. p. 13. 

Sect. Char, Plimts setigerouR or unarmed, bracieate. Leaflets lanceolate 

E landless. Disk thin, never thickened. This section is distinguished by its 
)Dg lanceoliile leaflets without glands, its upright shoots, nnd compact habit. 
Flowers red, never solitary, except by abortion, and always supported by 
bracteas. Fruit round, small, red (soon losing its long narrow sepals), and 
with Ertiiill, smooth, shining carpels. The shoots arc usually setigerous next 
the ground ; but rarely so towards the apex, except in one or two instances. 
R, alpina imd R. aciculiuis, of the foUowine division, sometimes have brac- 
teas; but thdr sepals never bll off till the fruit is decayed. S«)als simple, 
entire, or nearly so, unless when mentioned otherwise. (Doni Mill.) — 
Plants of most of the species are in cultivation in British gardens. De- 
ciduous rambling bushes ; natives of Continental Europe and North 
America, and some of them of Britain, 

A. Speciet Xatieei of tforlh Antenea. 

t, 6. R. Lu'ciDA Ehrh. The ghining./i»nw(f Rose. 

IlltiaUlalmt. Elirh Beltr.. 4. p. «. ; Lln«. RoMir, Monoj., p. H. ! 
"^ProiJ,!. r "" ' """'•'■"' » ~ <"» 

Lh Jacq. Froffoi. 

S^c. Char., ^c. Prickles recurved, or none. Leaflcia 
5— B, lanceolate-elliptical, coriaceous, bluntly ser- 
rated, glossy. Stipules dilated, large, findy ser- 
rated, and extended as far as to the leaflets. 
Pedunclcii somewhat hispid. Flowers red, and 
opening late in the season. Se^s almost entire, 

., Google 



appendjcled, spreading. Fruit oblately globose, a little hispid or glabrous, 
scarlet. (Dec. Prod^ An erect ahiiiinf leaved shrub. North America, 
from New York to Carolina ; near Boston, in bogs, and on the edges of 
marshefl ; and in Newfoundland. Height 4 li. to 6 ft. tntroduced b 1794. 
Flowers red, overtopped by the leaves and joiuig branches ; June to August. 
Fruit bright red ; ripe in October. 

A handsome species, oD account of its shining foliage, and one which is 
very bardj' ; but tne flowers huve a very disagreeable smeU. 

.■ 7. fl. h 

I If. The g\ouj-lenird Rose. 

^/waiiirma. B. Btdutts TulHcou rtery In Btd. JI«. I. p. lOS. tc. 

EKfrirhtft. LIiHll. Hour. Mosog,, p. IS. L 9. ^ Rcdnilt Bol 
I. |i. KB. Ic. I ud ana fig. KD. 

^>ec. Char., t[c. Dwarf and reddish in a^ect. 
Stem and brdnchcs almost cOTered with slender, 
rather equal, prickles. Leaflets 5—9, rtiher 
rigid, lanceolate, glossy. Stipules large, finely 
serrated, extending as far a* to the leaflets. 
Flowers red. Peduncle bristly. Sepals spread- 
ini;. Fruit bristly, ahiniuK, and scarlet. (Dec, 
Prod.) A shrub beset with straight red spinLS. 
Newfoandland. Height 2 ft. to 3 ft. Introduced 
in 1B07. Flowers deep red ; June to August. J^ 
Fruit depressed, sphencal, bright scarlet; ripe K 
in September. ' 

This is an interesting plant, from its dwarf 

stature, its abundant reddish prickles, itv glosBf 

leaves, its flowers, and ita fruit. 

. 8. R. Aa'pa L 

IdrmMcaSm. Ba 

The Turnip-jS-u/Ii^f Rose. 

Spec. Char., ^. Taller than S. lucida, and 
spreading. Branches without prickles. Leaf- 
lets oblong, undulate, shining. Fruit hcmi* 
^bericHl. Closely allied to S. lucida, of 
which it is very likely a variety. {Dec. P^d.y 
Petals always multiplied, smaller than those 
of S. ludda; bright red. Fruit deep red. 
Sepals compound. A tall straggling bush. 
North America, in the warmer states. 
Heiuht 3 ft. to 4 11. Introduced ?. Flowers 
double, bright red; June to August. Fruit 
deep red ; ripe in October. 
Only known in its double-flowered state 
in British gardens, where it is a freely growing 
hardy plant, with large double flowers. 

The small- flowered, or Pcrauylvanian, Rote. 

_M 9. R. pabtiflo'ra Ehrh. 

JdemmicaUoit. Ehrh. Bfllli.t. p.»l., , ., , 

STH^im. R. hflmtlU iferrt ^r*. 136.; R. OFDirmAiH llidl. Fl Bar.Amrr. I. p.WL'S.; R. 

Ejigraring. Smltb loHct. G«org., t . p. 41^. t. 2&. 

spec. Char., ^c. Dwarf. Stipules linear. Prickles acicular. Leaflets kut- 
ceolate, smoothish, sharply serrated. Calyxes clammy. Flowera usually 




in pdn. (Don'i Mill.) A low weak shrub. North Amo- 
rica, on the declivities of hills, in the states of New York 
and 'Carolina. Height 2 ft. Introduced in 1734. Fowers 
jiate blush ; June to August. Fruit red i ripe in October. 

^ \l. p. 2 ^Are pleno Red. Roa. 2. p. 73., and our fig. 
559. — Flowers double, pale lilush. uiiexpanded. 
A neat little rose, but not in verj- general cul- 

■ 10. R. ntiixiNiFo^iA Borli. The Ash-leaved Rose. 

liLtilDhaliim. BOrk. Hull., Ml. i Don'i Mill., I. p. KX. 
S^t^ia: R- ilrcliiUn. M,U. Dia. No. 10. ; R. bUndi . Sol. Jl 
Ji.iilplM 8 rfil. Horl- A™.«I.^Tol,B.p.a6B.i Ji.»lpfml«'T). 
£n(rnMiW(. 'Sm. Ri^., TlM. I'li-r. Rgi., I. ». 1 «IldMirj(t. 160 

Spec. Char., ^c. Tal), unarmed. Branches stnight, 
glaiicescent. l.eaficti opaque, undulated, and gia. 
brous. {Dan's Mili.) Bniniihes dark purple, with 
a jmle blue bloom. Flowers small, red, in few- 
flowered cymes. Fruit naked, ninall, round or ovate, 
of dull pale red. A glabrijua shrub. Native 
of Newfoundland, and on the north-weat coast of 
America. Height 4 ft. to 6 ft. Introduced?. Flow- 
i-rs red ; May and June. Fruit dull pale red ; ripe 
in September. 

Olher North- American Spcdet.^R. Wo6daii Lindl., 
n. Carolina Lin,, R. Lindleyi Sprcng., are described 
in our first edition ; and the first two are in Messrs. 
Luddige^'x collection. 

B. Speck$ Native! of Nrpal. 
m II. fl. macrophv'lla Ijindl. Tbe long-leaved Rose. 

MenMlM**™. I.lriU. H<». Monog., p. ». ; Hon'i Mill,, a. p. SW. 

JiiijrnKiigi. Ltmll. Roi, Moudb.. I. 6. i mil our fit. HI. 

Spec. Caar., tfc. Unanijcd. Leaves very long j leaf- 

lutg 5 — 1 1, lanceolate. Petioles with a few glands, 

which, as well as the leaflets, lu-e woolly beneath. 

Sepals narrow, longer than the petals, which arc j 

apicolated. (Don't Mill.) A amootb shrub. Gos- 

wiinthan. Heiishl 5 ft. to 6fi. Introduced in IBaO. 

Flowcm red, on villous peiluncles, and furnished 

with a few unequal setEc, as well aa the fruit. 

Dr. Lindley observes of this rose, that its leaves 
ore the largest he has ever seen ; that it cannoi 
confounded with an; thing else ; and that it may be i 
considered the link between Cinnamfimeie and Pimpi- r 
iicllif&li«. Horticultural Society's Warden. 

C. SjKcia Naiivet of Continental Europe. 
A 12, R. ciNNAMO^MEA Beti. The Cinnamon-ic«i(rrf Rose. 
rjMftf^vifLM b«k1 Hon, Rrit. Vem. Ord-, fl p. B, ; Ua. 3p., 7(0, L Dod'i Mill., t. p. AA^ 
4?SJ^:5!^a t«"ni"«im. «-m^. li^ I,, p. W9.. ft. JMm. t. 1S14. , R. luJUli fltrm 

f^n^ttali. hiail. not, t. S. [ Fl. Dm., I. ISH. ; «IKt our A. 66i. 

Sper. ChtiT., tic. Tall, cinereous. Branches straight. Prickles itipular, 
strnightish. Stipules dilated, undulated. Leaflets oblong, obtuse, wrinkled, 
tomondwe l^neath. (Don't AM.) Flowtr« aolitary, or 2—3 together. 

XXVI. bosa'ckjc: /m^a. 

nile or bright red. Fruit round, naked, and crimson. 

The double-flowered varietj is most common in gnr- 

deiM. An upnsht shrub. Natiie of most parts of 

Europe, and a doubtful aaatt of England. Heitiht 

5 ft. to 6 ft Flowers pale or bri^t red ; May and 

June. Fruit crimson ; ripe in September. 

A very desirsble sort, on account of its fnigratice, 
which resembles th^ of cinnamon. There is a semi- ' 
double Taiiety ; and the single slate is supposed Co be ' v-.r.-— 
identical with S. majalia below. ^.^^9^ 

Olker Earopeim Spedei aof Katitet of Britmn. — A. «. i<.<te 
Autetonun Beu., R. taurica Bkb., and R. dahurica 
PalL, are described in our first edition, and the lirst two are in Hessn. Lod- 
diges's collectiott. 

D. Speatt S'ativet uf Britai*, 
« 13. R. (c.) MAJ&'Lls Rett. The May Rose. 

f Spec. Char.,^e. Dwaif grey. Branches straight, coloured. 
Prickles scattered, nearly equal. Stipules linear. Leaf- 
leta oblon):, flat, glsucous, and tonicntose beneath. 
{Don'i Mil/.) A nearly Bmoolh shrub. Flowers usually 
solitary, pnLs red. fruit omnge red, spherical, and 
naked. Native of Sweden and Ijipland i und of Britain, 
Dear Pontefract, in Yorkshire. 
Height 3 n. to 4 n. Flowers 
pale red ; May and June. 
This is suj^Kised by some to be the single state 

k 14. R. Diciuon/j'm.4 Lindl. Dicbso 

Spec. Char., ^c. BrancheB fleiuous. setigerous, arnied 
with a few slender scattered prickles. Leaflets 
folded togpther, unequal, with coarse double ecr- 
relures. Stipules, petioles, nnd sepula compound. 
Styles stretched out, glabrous. (Don't MiU.) A 
large prickly shrub. Ireland. Height 5 fl. to (L 
Flowers white or pale [unk ; June and July. 

j iv. PimpineUifbiiec Lindl. 

permanent. Disk almoHt wanting. This section is essentially different from 
the last in habit, hut in artificial characters they approach verv nearly. It, 
however, may be distinguished by the greater number of leaflets; which 
vary from 7 to 13, and even to 15, instead of from 5 to 7- The flowers 
are also universally without braclees ; except in the R. alpina, R. Sabini, 
R. Doniarui, and, perhaps, R. margin^ta. These, having connivent permsr 
nent sepals, cannot be confoundt^ with the preceding division ; nor, on 
account of their disk, with the following. There is no instance of stipulur 
l^ricUes in the present tribe. The aK\\v\» ure L-ntire, or nearly so, unlcM 


A. Specie! Nalieei of Europe. 

± 15, ff. ALPi'NA Lin. The Alpine Hose. 

UtMifitaliim. Lin. Sp., 103. 1 Don'! Hill.. 1. p. WT. 

„ n,p*„n, (7ra«,>,«ir. «a. , A. moni[«ll»ai(;««»«imjp. Sft-V 

I. h(bTlda fill. UuMpk. I. p. at. ; R. lif^nlrU fill. L c. p. 063 

Eigrmiiiii. JmO). F1. Aiutr., I. 379. i Llndl. BM. n*;., I. 474. ; and our fig. bti. 

Spec. Char., ^c, UnBrmed. Fruit elongated, pendulous. Peduncles hispid. 
{Doh'i Mill.) Flowers erect, blush-coloured, Bolilary. Fruit onugered, 
oblung or obovate, with long sepaU, generally pendulous. An unarmed 
shrub. Alps of Austria, hills in the t^ouih of Fronce, Silesia, Bobemia 
Caupbinf, Switzerland, &c. Heiglit 5 ft. to 8 ft. Introduced in 1683 
Flowers blusfa-coloured ; June and July, Fniit orange red ; ripe in 8q>. 

• R, o. 2 te'eit Ser, but not of Desv. or Red. -, R. Sanguisorba majAria, 
&c., mi. Elth. i K. alplna glabra Deiv. ; B. a. vulgiris Red. Km. «. 
p. 111., and our ^. 566. ; has the stem, peduncles, and caljx quite 
glabrous, and the truit oblong. 

A 'R.a.&iped&talAon. Drummond's TbomleBs Rose. — Avery beau- 
tiful climbing varietj. raised by Mr. Drummood in the Cork Botanic 
Garden, about 1880. 

OihcT i'arielia. Fourteen are described in the firel edition of this work, 
but they are chiefly of botanical interest. 

M 16. R. slaVis Willd. The sweet Hose. 

Emfmmgi. Hhtdc Abbila., I. 40. ^ and ovrfig. M7. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Stem hispid. Leaves glabrous, glau- 

cescent beneath. Peduncles and petioles clothed with 

glandular bristles. (Don't Mill.) Petals deep purple, 

deeply 8-lobed. Fruit oblong, glabrous. A hispid 

shrub. Native country unknown, moat probably Eu- 
rope. Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1816 

Flowers deep purple i June and July, Fruit scarlet , 

ripe in September. 

This very distinct varict;^, or perhaps species, of rose 
is probably at present wanting in British collections ; for 
it must not be confounded with Rosn suav^lcns or >si a. 

with Wosn suavilQIie, both described in Le BoUmitle CuU *"™' 

livaUuT as varieties of R. rubipndsa, or synonyines to that spcdn. 


xxTt. Adsa^c&s: ao'sa. 329 

A 17. a. SDLPHD'XBA Ail. The tu\f^VT'Co/omred-Jlovered Roae. 
IdtMffitall<m. Atl. Hon. K«w,t, p. Kl., UndJ. R«.. tn.inon'iMIII.,l|< nan. 
SnMMKl, Jt. tansliphfrici ijmii. IHn. la i X. gllucophfUi E:lril. £<nr. >. p.OI. ; Rtm liltn 

ttlra pitoo JM . Mut. 1419. No.31.( /t. 1!it« BrM. fl. Lw. I p. 317. i lbs douUe lEllaw RoH. 
EnfTowimft. LlDdl.Hoi, I.TT-! Bol. Iteg.,1, W. ( IDd ootjV' MB. 

^Tfc. Oar., /sc. Stipules linear, divaricate, 
dilated at the apex. Leaflets glaucoui, flattish. 
Tube heniispheriaU. {Don't Milt.) Stem 
prickles unequal, scntiered. A deciduous 
shrub. Levant. Height 4 ft. to 1 ft. In- 
troduced before 1629. Flowers fine trans- 
parent yellow, double; July. 
This sort does not flower freely, except in 

open airy siuiations ; and, if trained against a 

wall, exposed to the north or east ratb-r than 

to the south. Its flower buds are apt to burst 

on one side before they expand, and conse- 
quently to become deformed ; to prevent this, 

the blossom buds should be thinned, and care 

taken that they bare abundance of light and air. 

Watering it frosly In the flowering season U found 

advantageoiu ; and the shoots, in general, ought 

not to be ahortened. This beautiful species 

is said to flower freely, if grafted on the nni.^k "^ ■.-w*~ 

cluster atSor iO feet from the ground; or it wilt do well on the China rose. 

I Dona. The Burnct-leovcd Rose. 

.09.1 Doti'iHUI..!. p Kg. 
wrbUdUi LliM. am. p. tt. i B. tfiaot. tb. BoaefYtJUA 

^c.Char„^c. Tall. Prickles nearly equal. Leaflet* 9—1 L oblone. gla- 
brous, simply serrated. Fruit globose, depressed, dark. (Don't Miil.) An 
erect shrub. Habitat unknown, most probably Europe Hdght 3 ft. to 5 ft. 
Flowera white; May and June. Fruit black ; ripe in September. 
Easily distinguished by the number of its leaflets, the sbortnen of ita pe- 
duncles, and by ita giobcrae depressed fruit. 

B. Speda ^atnet of Sbtria. 

tmrbKUa'ini Bii. n. Taur.'i P.XH, 

K. bit-, t. »& 1 »Ba out A- MB. 
Spec. Char., ^. Branches without bristles. Prickle* 

nearly equal, distant. Leaflets flat, glabrous, simply 

serrated. (Bon't Miil.) A prickly shrub. Siberia. 

Height 4ft. to 6ft. Introduced m 1618. Flowera 

white ; May and June. Fruit durli ; ripe in Sept. 

Differs from S. spinosfssima, though scarcely so 
much as to render it a distinct species. u, (, (,„iuimi 

R. ocicularit UatU., and Ji. oxjacintha Bieb., are described in our first 

C Speciet Naiitici of Jforth America and SAeria. 
A 20. R. lutb'scbns Furih. The yellow Amerieaa Rose. 
UmtftmUnt. Funb Fl. Aaa. Sep(.,Tal. 1. p.m.; Undl. RoL.p. 4T.; Dgu>> Hill , t. ii Ui. 
^nKTiifmr. K, blinhU Ctrl. But Hag. t. IBTO. 
jfifmntafi. Lb^Bca.t.l.i Boi7lbc.,t.l6n>.; wulcmtA'Sn; 

., Google 



Spec Chat., Sre. Prickles of ihe brandies crowded, unequal, ■ 
slender, reflexed ; of the branchleta, unoll and nearly equal. 
LeeHeta Rat, glabrous, simply serralcd- (JJoaV Atill.) An 
erccl shrub. North America and Siliena. Height 4 ft. lo 
6 ft. Introduced in 1780. Flowers pale ydlowi May and 
June. Fruit large, ovate, black, 
A very dUtinet variety, or probably species, well deserving 

n J 1 lace in botanical collections. 

J, 31. fl. mvbiaca'ntba D<x. The myriad-prickled Rose. 

.Ijifti* nt. 1 niirili*nlh« *T, In IVr. Prn^. 1. p. MS. 

.•kiec. C&ar., ^c. Prickles unequal, larger one« dagger-fonned. LeaSets ^ 

dular, glabrous, orhiciilar. ( iJvn'i Mill.) A diminutive spiuy shrub. Siherii, 

Tauria,flnd also Daupliine.and neur Mi>nt|ielier. 

Ild^t I ft. to B ft. Fowera white j Muy and 

June. Fruit dark; ripe'' 

Shoots simple an 
erect, reseinblinii, i 
many respects, K. sp 
nosisaima in a stunte 

n S^tember. 

tsA Widdit. el Kit. The revenrA-fnidiUd Kose. 
it. HuDH-. B- p.sss.1 DoA*i Mni-, i. n.ara, 

Mun»..S.l.&t. iDurA-SM. 

S/Kc. Char,, 4^c. Prickles setaceous, nearly equal, reflexed. Leaves doubly »ff- 
nted, putieaccnt. Fruit liispid. {l)u»'i MiU.) A larce rambling jhrab. 
Hungary, on the mountains or Matra, in stony places. Height S ft. to A ft 
Introduced in 1816. Flowers solitary, white, tinged with pink i June and 
July. Fruit ovate, dark purple; ripe in September. 

D. Spcci 

s, Naiii^. of BriiB 

siHA L. The most spiny, 
S™/c*, Rose. 



Spec. Char., ^c. Prickles unequal. Leaflets flat. , 
glabrous, simuly serrated. (Don'i Mill.) A dwarf 
compact bush, with cre^ing suckers. Flowers 
small, solitary, white or blush-coloured. Fruit 

very Bpiny shrub. Europe ) plentiful 
Height 1 ft. to 2 ft. Flowers whiteorbluah i May 
and June. Fruit purple or black ; ripe in Sept. 
I'arictkf. A gre"' many varieties, cTOS».bredB, and 
hybrids have been rais«l of this rose, with flowers 


XXVI. flOSA CE« : RO^SA. 331 

double, semidouble, white, purple, red, and even jellov. The 6ret douUe 
varietj' was found in a wild state, in the neighbourhood of Perth, by Mr. 
Brown of the Penh Nursery, who raised a number of others from seed. 
Mr. Austin of the Glasgow Nursery b.Ih> raised upwards of SO select vari- 
eties ; and, subsequently, the number of tlieee varietieR for sale in the nur- 
series has become so great, and they are changing their names so often, that 
it would be useless to attempt to give a list of them in this work. In Mr. 
Rivera's Abridged Liet of Roses, in the Rtue Amateur't Guide, tlie following 
sorts are recommended : Erebus, Guy Mannering, La Neige, Lady Baillie, 
Queen of May, True yellow, William the Fourth, aod Venus. 

■ 2*. R. J 

A Smiii. The reddish Rose. 


Spec. Ckar., S/c. Prickles slender, straight, 
elobose. Leaflets glabrous. Peduncles bnstly. 
Mill.) A low shrub, with divaricating brauchei 
land, in Northumberland, on the sandy sea coast, 
2 ft. to 3fl. Flowers either blush -coloured, i 
blotched with pink, delicately fragrant ; July, 
bright scarlet i ripe in September. 
A rare species, nearly allied to R. apinoblssima 
i. R. hihe'rnica Smith. The Irish Rose. 

Spec. Char.,Sfc. Prickles unequal, slightly hooked, email er ones 
bristle-formed. Leaflets ovate, acute, simply serrated, v '' 
the ribs hairy beneath. Sepals pinnate. Fruit nearly \ 
(Hilar, smooth, ai well aa the p^uncles. {JhtCt Miil.) 
prickly shrub. Ireland, in the counties of Deiry and Down, 
111 thickets. Height 4 fl. to 6 ft. Flowers small, light bluish ; 
June lo November. Fruit orange-coloured ; ripe Sept, 

J, 26. It. Wl'lsoN/ Borr, Wilson's Rose. 
Idrniutouiim. Hook. BrII. Flar, p.mS. { Bii(. Bat, Suppl.. !723. i Don'i 
Kpermaitl. Eng. B«,, 1. DB. j mj our Jtg. 676. 

Sliec. Char,, 4rc. Prickles crowded, unequal, straidit, inter- 
mixed with sets. Leaflets simply serrated, hairy, their disks 
glandlem. Sepals simple. Fruit nearly clobular. {Don't 
MiU.) England, near Bangor Ferry. Ikight 2 ft. to 4 ft. 
Flowers beautiful dark pink ; June and July. 



u't* Smith. The involnt&jprtmW Rose. 
Id Eog. BdI., hiss, i Don'i 
li DtmK Hort Com. ri. I 

.. 87. B. IN 

Stmo^me. S, 

Spec. Char., S/c. Prickles very une- 
qual, and very much crowded. Leal- 
lets doubly serrated, puhescenl. 
Petals convolute. Fruit pricktj'. 
(Don; MiU.) Petals pale red, con- 
cave. Hebrides, in thelslc of Arran, 
and in Glen Lyon. A low shnib. 
Hdght 2 ft. tu 3 ft. Flowers pate 
red ; June. Fruit black ; ripe in 


» Ba. R. Saui'n/ Woods. Siibine's Rose. 

Spec. Char,, ^c. Peduncles, calyx, fruit, and branches 
briatly. I^rii'kles Mattered, straiglitiah. Leaflets 
doubly serrated, nearly aiDooth, with hairj riba. Se- 
pals pinnate. (Don'i Mill.) Flower stalks rather ■ 
aggrt^te. Petals fine red. Fruit OTate, bright scarlet, 
An upright brunchy shrub. Native of !>cotland, near 
Dunkeld ; of England, in Cumberland, Northumber- 
land, and Yorkshire. Height iSL to 8 ft. Flowers 
red; July. Fruit bright scarlet i ripe in September. at. ■ 

Variely. A plant in the Horticultural Society's Garden is named R. i 

m 89. R. DonmV.* Woods. Don's Rose. 

Spec. Char., Sfc. Peduncles bractleaa, bristly, as well 
aa the globular fruh and calyx. Stem bristly and 
prickly, like the downy petioles. Leaflets elliptical, 
doubly and sharply serrated, hairy on both aides. 
Pelals spreading. {Doh'i Mill.) Segments of the 
calyx simple. A large shrub. Highlands of Scot- 
land, particularly on the mountains of Clova, Anfiiu- 
shire. Height 4ft, to 5h. Flowers pink; jur 
and July, truit red j ripe ir " ■ 


There is a variety in the Hort. Soc. Gardeo. 

m». iLDniu.. <;Bllcd •"- D. Ii6rrida: and Dr. Lindley remarks that 

R. WSlsoni Borr. (Enc. Bol. Supp. t. 2723.). B. 

Sabintdno, and R, involijta are all some of the endless varieties of R. 

ni61!is, our R. villosa. No. 35. {Comp. Bol. Mag., I p. 189.) 

This rose was named in honour of Mr. Don of Forihr. 

} V. Centifbiia Lindl. 

■pctlon oam^ in diaTKtar with Ehc hundrod'L«ATed mte. which it u lynible u to mm \a bate ■ 

hundred p«taU. 
Srct. Char., (fc. Shrubs all bearing bristles and prickles. Pedunclce brMs 
teate. Leaflets oblong or ovate, wrinkled. Ditk thickened, cloEii^ the 
throat. Se|ials compound. — This division comprises the portion of^ the 
genua Rbsti which has most pnrticuliirly interested the lover of flowers. It 
IB probable that the earliest roses of which there are any records of being 
cilltivHtcd belonged to this section ; but, to which pnrticuliir species tliosc 
of Cyrcne or Mount Pangieus are to be referred, it is now too late to enquire 
The attar of roses, which is an important article of commerce, is eiltier 
obtained from roses belonging to [his division indiscnminately, as in the 
manuiaclorv at Florence, conducted by a convent of friars; or from some 
particular kind, as in India. {Don' i Mill., a. p. 571. adapted.) Decidu- 
ous bushes, generally ereetisli i natives of Syria, Caucasus, and Middle of 

tt 30. «. damisce's* Mill. The Damascus, or i>„mn4i. Rose, 

MtnlfflcaHm. M»l. Diet. No. IB, ; Don'l Mlll^ % p. »1. 

Srnsn^Tnri. K. bH^cs MOL Din. No. ir. 1 B. enlimdlnim Jfnal. Hnnn. n Borli. NoIl 3Ml 
Rouig Roi. L8. mndl.M. I K.taitt* Par. Sitffl. IV f.iK., Bol. Ha. ]. p. ]07. and p. Ul.i 

Enam/ngi. lledout Bm.. 1 . t. ««. i our A' **"- "f »-■'■ "wcinMi uid our;le. SSI. of A.d.nb. 
l^)ce. Char., >^e. Prickles unequal, lai^cr ones falcate. Sqmls r«flexed 


XXVI. AOSA^CE^: JiD^3A. 333 

Fruit L'loneated. {Don't Mill.) A bush}| shrub. Syria. Height S (t. to Bit. 
iDtreiiliiceJ in 1^73. Flowers lar^, white or red, single or double ; June 
and July, Fruit red ; ripe In September. 
Farietiei. Tliere are nearly 100 varieties which are clashed under this species ; 
but it is very doubtful, whether many of them are not hybrids between this 
and other sorta. Among the names of the Tarielies classed under this 
bead are, the monthly blush ; tlie blush dama-^k ( the red and white da- 
ratak i the red and while monthly; the incomparable ; the crimson per- 
petual 1 and, perhiips, the handsomest variety of the species, the qiiatre 
Kusons, of which there are six or ei^t subvorietles ; the royal; and tho 
York and I^ncaater. 

The present species may be distinguished from R. centifolia by the greater 
size of the prickles, the greenness of the bark, the elongated fruit, and the 
long rcflexed sepals. The petals of this species, and all the varieticB of S, 
centifSlia, as well as those of other species, are employed indiscriminately for 
the purpose of making rose-wafer. R. damaacena is extremely beauliful, from 
tbe nze and brilliant colour of its flowera. 

■ 31. R. cwTiro'iin. Lm. Thehundrcd-petaled, nwewce.or Cuii^ff.Roge. 
MnatflaiiiM. Ua. 3p., MM. ; nim'i Mm . i. n. kti. 
^moigma- B. pTDrlncJllil M 

SctilK. Xott.H.; R.aaji 

K, UDpdciiUU D^. Cat. I' 

fiHronuA Boidg. IlcH^ t. I.i R<d. R«. I. p. SB. I. I. ; mid 
ourjfe.lsS. ol Ifae dfluble-fluvcTHl ™rl«i. 

Spec, Char., lie. Prickles unequal, larger ones , 

&lcate. Leaflets ciliated with glands. Flowers 

drooping. Calyxes clniuniy. Fruit oblong, 

(Don'i wJl.) A buahy shrub. Eastern Cauca- 
sus, in groveii. Height 3 ft. to 6 ft. Introduced 

in 1596. Flowere white or red; single, but 

most commonly double ; June and July. 

Fruit red ; ripe in September. 
Varicliei. Above 100 varieticii are assigned to 

this species, which are classed in three divi- 

. 1 prochda/it Mill. ; He Pro, 

, Google 


mine ; the cluster i the Duchca^e d'Angou- 

lime, a very handsoiue white rose ; the 

Provence, of which there are upwanb of 

twentj BuhviirietitB i the proliBc ; the _ 

striped nosegay ; and the Versailles, 
» R.C.S mutcoia Mill., the Mou Rotet ; ani _ 

which are the common -ingle {fig. 583.). 

the common double, the hlush, the dark, ^ 

the striped, thewhite, and the crested ir 

(A. c. ni. criatita). and manj' others. 
« R. r. 4 pompdnia Dec, the Pimaione Rota 

S. DuHani.; R.pomph>aa B«dout£ Hob, which are the well-known rose 

deMeaiix. an old inhabitant of the gardens; 

the mosay de Mennx, the dwarf, and small Proven«i the rose 

de Bheima ; and the common and proliferous pompone. These 

roses ahoulj be cut down erery year, when they have done flowering, 

that they may send up new ahoota every spring to produce flowers. 

If this be not done, the principal branches will dry up, and become 

bare like those of the bramble. 
This species is distinguished from B. damascena by the sepals not being 
refleied, and the flowers having their petds curved inwards, bo a.s, in the 
double state, to give the flower the oppearaDce of the heart of a cabbie, 
whence the name of the cid>bage rose. Its fruit is either oblong or roundi.«h, 
but never elongated. From R, g^llica it is disunguished by the flowers being 
drooping, and by the larger size of the prickles, with u more robust habit. 

. The French Rose. 

Spec, Cliar., ^c. Prickles unequal. Stipuli 
narrow, divaricate at the tip. Leaflets a — 7, 
coriaceous, rigid, ovate or lanceolate, de- 
flexed. Flower bud ovate-gioboac. Sepida 
spreading during the time of the flowering. 
Fruit subglobose, very coriaceous. Calji i 
and peduncle more or less hiapid with glanded K 
hurs, somewhat viscose. A species allied to - 
R. centifotia L., but with round fruit, and 
very coriaceous leaflets, with more numerous 
nervea, that are a little prominent, and are 
anastomosii^. (Dec. Prod.) A bushy ahrub. 
Middle of Europe and Caucasus, in hedges. 
Height 8 ft. to 3 ft. Introduced ?. Flowers 
red, crimson, or white, single or double ; June 
and July. Fruit red ; ripe in August. 

Farietia, The varieties of this species are vei , 

principal are, the cramoisie, royal crimson, black damask,' Fanny 1 

Flantfera, giant, gloria mundi, grand monarque, the Dutch, the blush, the 
bishop (j^. 585.), and Singleton's, all old favourites in our gardens ; Malt*, 
marbled, several subvarietiea ; mignonne, ux or eight sorts ; Morocco, 
n^ro, mottled black, Ninon del'Enclos, Normandy ; officinal, or the rose 
of the shops, several varieties ; purple, 14 sorts ; poppy : velvet, several 

some of the 


the Kitaa e. parviroliH, our 
_fig. 666. The village maid, a 

Btriped rose, iniroduced by 

Mr. Kogera of Southampton, 

probably belongs to tliis 

Epecies. BesideB these, there 

are numeroua dUttnct va- 
rieties, which will be Found 

described in our Srn edition. 

Tlie petolsof sonfe of ihe VB- »>. i 
rietiea of this rose are used in 
riiedicine, particularly oftliat called ofBcinnlj wliich, 
though not so fragrant as those of tlie Dutch hundrrd- 
leaved rose, another variety, are preferred Ibr tiieir 
beautiful colour nnd their pleasant aatringency. 

K.tim^ i vi. ViUoaiT. 

3A\ fn ftlloilotiiollichalTlDHiortbeiiMclrt. 

Sect. Char. Surculi erect. Prickles straighti^h. LcafletH ovate or oblong, 
with diverging aerratures. Sepals connivent, permanent. Disk thickenetl, 
rloaing the tTiroat, — This division borders equally close upon those of 
Caniafe and RubigiuOEfe. From both it is distinguished bv its root-suckers 
being erect and stout. The most absolute marks of difference, however, 
between this and Caiiinic, exist in the prickles of the present section being 
straight, and the serraturea of the Itaves diverging. If, as is sometimes the 
case, the prickles of this tribe are falcate, the serraturea become more di- 
verging. The iierraancnt sepaln are another character by which this tribe 
may be known from Canlns. Rubigin6>ie cannot be confounded with ttie 
present section, on account of the unequal hooked prickles, nnd glandular 
leaves, of the species. Roughness of fruit and perinimciice of scjials are 
common to both. {lion'i Ali/I., il. p. 576.) Deciduous shrulu. niosUy 
with erectish brnnchea. Natives of Middle Europe, or Britain. 

A. Xatica nf Middle Europe, not of Brilain. 

« 33. S. tuhbina'ta Ail. Tlie lurbi]mte-«:/^*(rf, or Frani/brt, Hose. 

Sfmiminwa. R. ciliip»nuHlm Ekrlt. Bntr. «. f. 97. i B. Inn- 

Kmctti^<tfr. Jieq. SdiOnbr., 4. 1. Ill), i I.»r. Bca.. I. SV. : 

Spec. Ciir., ^v. Stein nearly without prickles. 
Branches smooth. Leaflets 5 — T, ovate-cur- 
daie, large, wrinkled in a bullate manner, 
serrate, approKimate. u little villous beneath. 

Stipules l^e, clasping the stem or branch. i 

Flowers disposed »ub«>rjmbosely, large, vio- | 

Uceous red. Peduncles wriakled and hispid. 
Calyx tjirbinate, smoothish. Scpala undi- 
vided, subspathuLite. {Dec. Frod.) An erect- ,„. jtartintu. 
ish shrub. Germany. Height 4 fl. to G ft. 

Introduced in 1629. Flowera lai^e, red, and loose ; June and July. 
I'arietiet, R. t. 1 Jhmaf/urtana Ser., and R. I. 2 orbeiiina Ser,, are thecnm- 
tnoncst forms of tbis species. 



I Lin. The cotmnoa white Kok, 

m.\ LtwT.Koi., 

Spec. Char., t^. Leaf- J 
leU oblong, glau- 
cous, nther naked , 
above, BJinply ser- - 
tsledi Prick le> 

straightish or fti- 
cate, slender or 
strong, without 
bristles. Sepals pin- 
nate, reflex ed. Fruit 
unarmed. {Don't 
MUl.) A large 
shnib. Piedmont, 

id Saxony. Hei^t 4 ft. 

to 10 ft. Introduced in 1697. 
. , di^licate blush colour, with i 

and July. Fruit oblong, scarlet, or blood-coloured ; 

Denmark, France, a 
Flowers large, either 
grateful fragrance ; Jun 
ripe in September. 

Varietiei. The rarden varieties are very numerous ; and some of the nuM 
beautiful are tEe double, semidouble, and single blush ; the celestial, aaell- 
known favourite ; the great, ainall, and duster maiden's blush ; the double 
thomleaa ; and the double, semidouble, and single white. The rose blanche 
it ccEur vert, the bouquet bianc, and the blanche de la Belgique. are well- 
known and beautiful varieties of this species. 

B. Xaliact of Europe and Brilain. 
m 35. S. viLLo'sA Lm. The villous .l^iwtf Rose. 

il^£u. 17 I J>. htttfDph)lll tContfi In Lin. Tram. 11 p. IM. ; 

Biiratiitf. kug. UoL.I.lus.i udourAt-EM, 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaflets rounded, bUmtish, downy all over. 
Fruit globose, rather depressed, partly bristly. Sepals 
slightly compound. Branches without bristles. (Don't 
Mm.) A rambling shrub. Europe, in hedges ■, in Britain, 
ill bushy rather mountainous situations in Wales, Scot* 
land, and the North of England. Height 5ft. to eh. 
Flowers red or pink j July. Fruit purple j ripe Sept. 

A very variable plant, (See No. 29. p. 3:i2,) 

• 36. R. TOMBNTo's* Snath. The ti 
umollt/Jeaved, Rose. 

Idmli/lcnOim. SmlUi FL. Bill., US.; Kng. BoL. 9H.: D«'l 1 

Srnnmnma. S. Tiuau £*<-*. Art, p. U- I>ii R« flsiM. 1. >. 

n.Dou.. [. 14SS.. R. molllHima Sort. Hl-lM. fXa.; A.< 

EnftatiKfi. n«i. BiH, a. p. ». ud p. sa. ; 'bd(. bdl. l : 

Spec, Char., ^c. Lcnflets ovnte, acute, niore or 
downy. Fruit .elliptical, hiB[»d. Sepals pinii 

XXTI. noSA^CEf: RO^SA. 837 

Prickles ilightlj curved. Petiils white at the base. A rambling thnib. (Don't 
Mill.) Europe, m hedges and thickets ; plentilul in Britain. Hdght 6 ft. 
Flowers pink ; June aad Julj. Fruit scarlet; ripe in Septeraber. 

$ vii. Rvbifjinosee Lindl. 

Iteritalioiu Fmid rubtrbumn, toMj \ Um laftTpj of th« ip^n belDg uiujjtj nimifhnl with ruat- 
CDlAindclmDdi beunui. 

SaH. Char., t[c. Prickles unequal, sometimes bristle-romied, rarely wanting. 
Leaflets oTste or oblong, gluniiular, with dlver^ng scrrntures. Sepals per- 
manent. Disk thickened. Root-shoots arched. The Dumcroui glandE on 
the lower suriace of the leaves will be sufficient to prevent anyuiing else 
being referred to this section ; and otthou^h H. tomenloBa has Eomelimes 
glandular leaves, the inequality of the pnckles of the species of Ruhigi- 
nosK, and their red fruit, will clearly dtstinguish (hem. (Don'i Mill., ii. 
p. 577.) — Thu division includes all the eglantine, or sweet-briar roses, which 
are for the most part erect or erectiab bushes with deciduous leaves. Ka- 
tivea of Britain, Middle Europe, and Caucasus. 

A. Spedct Kalivei if Srilain. 
m 37. A. RUBlotNO'sA Lin, Tlie Tutty-ieared Itose, Suieel Briar, or Eglantine. 

lamglcatim. Lin. H*nl.. t. p. 994.1 D«. IVod., I.p. GM.; Uon'i Mill., 1. p. e;7. 
a^HBiigma. R. miM^iWa^ LMIJ. Scot. I. p. Ml.. FL bas. t. 870.; R. Eglanliri/t Mill. Diet. Nn. 4.. 
Ua. ep. tdit. I. p. 491,1 IC mttttOt Satl FI. Pit. p. 419. i S. niblgllAu pui'iflari Ran. Unam. 

Xigroliw'- BiieBat.,t.K1.) Lawr. Rtu.. I.4].e].<». ;t.udT4.: ud ourj^. 991 

i^aec. Char., Ifc. Frickles hooked, compressed, with 

smaller straighter ones interspers»i. Leaflets 

elliptical, doubly serrated, hairy, clothed beneath 

with rust-coloured glands. Sepals pinnate, an<l 

bristly, at well as the peduncles. Fruit obovate, 

bristly towards the base. {Don't MilL) A ram- 
bling shrub. Europe, and Caucasuq ; in Britain, 

in boshy places, on a dry gravelly or chalky soil. 

Hei^t 4 It. to G ft. Flowers pink j June and July. 

Fruit Bcariet, obovate or elliptic ; ripe in Septembw-. 

Leaves sweet-scented when bruised. 
VaHede*. Eleven are described in our first edition. 

Some of the best for a rosarium are, the blush, "*' ■■"■'*«''''* 

cluster, double, dwarf, semldouble, inossy, scurle , tree double, and whi^ 


The amalUowered Rose, or Swecl Briar. 

Jdattfficallim. Snoilh Id Bog. Bnt., L 1430 ; Dnn'i HEIt., 3. p. tTH. 

agmoi ^ mi. A. rabl(lnau^nlcrtiitluUiHU.JtiH.p.a7,wltfan'raD60ui 

fj^tna^wT' But. Bol., t. 3490. ; ud taxfift. »gS, AM. 

Sptc. Char,, ^e. Prickles hooked, scnttercd, nearly uni- 
form. Leaflets ovale, doubly serrated, hairy, glandular 
beneath. Sepals pinnate. Fruit elliptic, rather 
bristly, contracted at the summit. Stems straggling. 
(^Don'i Mill.') A hush with arched shoots, and strug- 
gling branches. Britain, in hedses and thickets, chieny 
in the South of England. Height 5 ft. to 6 ft. Flowers 
■mall, pale red ; June anJ July. Fruit coral red, ovale 

. R. bb'pium Th«i!. The Hedge Rose, or Briar. 

^S.^ Borr. In Eng. Bot. Suppl, t. MM.; Doil-» MIU., I p. K*. 
a-mptitbU^ HjO: Betabite Dtt. Fl. J^. ti. s. Ha.MIT.| . 
I»n«u,J).mactoc«rpa,iind A. ftipuUrIt Mir. A em-.U 


Spec. CAor^ ^c. Prickl«» lender. Bnuichet fleiuoui. LemT- 
)eti thininf;, scute >t both ends. Flawsra usuall}' motitmry. 
Fruit |)oliihed. SepaU pinnate, witli very narrow Mnaeot*. 
(tioK't MUL) A densely branched bush. Europe, in hedges ; 
in England, near Bridport, Warwickshire. He^t 4 ft. to 
6ft. Flowers small, pale yellowish pink ; June snd July. 

Fniit somII, oblong-ovat 

e, scarlet; njw 

• 40. A. INODO' 

*. The scent 

161"-i H™d«l.t.» 

I A. chloropb^Ua MkrM. adtr. i. y.m.\ 

Knf Boi. nn.i Jt. I 

Emgiwrlaf. Eng. But. vm. ; ud ourjtf . US. 

^ifc. Char., ^c. Prickles hooked. Leafleti ovate; doubly sermteJ, i 

eianiU. Sepals pinnate, ol^n doubly pinnate, deciduous. 

Flower stalks aggre^te, hairy. Fruit ellipticsl, smooth. 

(DoiCt Mia.) A stout bush. Britain. Not very un- 

li-equent in hed);es and thickets. Height 6 ft. to T ft. 

Flotrera pink ; June and July. Fruit elliptic, or nearly 

globose, scarlet. 

The foliage has, notwithstanding the specific name, a 
scent more or less feint, according to the number of ^Isndi 
developed in different individuals; but it resembles ralber the turpeniinc 
odour of the plants of the preceding section than the entrance of the bwed 

B. Specifi Nativet of Middle Europe. 
M 41. R. LUTSA nodon. The yellow Bglatitine Rose. 
UtmUftrntlim. DgdolL mpt.. IST. i HU. DM., Ma II 

SpwambmeM- It. 

E-nravimn. Lliwr. Bo., t. UiBgt. Ma(., t.M3.t R«l. Ba., I.p.l3.| 

Riail|. ttua., [. 1. ( and uorjlf. II9T. 

Spec. Char., If c. Prickles strught. Leaflets deep green. 
Sepals nearly entire, setigerous. Petals flat, concave. 
Flowers deep yellow, large, cup-shaped, solitary. Fruit 
unknown. A branchy shrub. Germany and the South 
of France. Heifiht 3ft. to Ift. Introduced in 1596. 
Flowers deep yellow ; June. 

mR-I.^ tubrulira Red. Rob. iii. p. 73., witli a fig. - 

hispid and glandular. Leaves and petioles glabrous. Stem prickly 
at the bnse. Prickles unequal, scattered. Petals of a lurid red 
above, and yellowish beneath. Stigmas 
yellow. (Don'i M,a.) 
^ R. i. Sputiicea Lindl. Kos. p. 84.; 

nScea Mi/l. Diet. No. IS., Rouig. Hoi. ' 
t. 5. ; R. cinnamdmea Both Ft. Germ, l 
p. 817.; R. liltea blcolor Jac^. Find. i. 
t. 1., I^wr. Rot. t. 6„ Bet. Mag, 1. 1077. ; 
R. Eglanlrria puntcea Red. Roi. i. p. 7 1 . 
t. 24. ; S. Eglanteria blcolor Dec. El, Fr. 
IT. p. 4.37,; and our fig. 696.; has the 
petals scarlet above, and yellow beneath. 
» K. I. ^JtAre plena. Williams's double gellow Sioeet Briar.-~A veir 
beautiful variety, and a fne llowerer, raised from seeds by Mr. WiL 
liams of Pitmaston. Horticultural Society's Garden, 
J, R. £ A. H/^ D. Don in Svt. Brit. M. Qard. t. 410. Aegg's .yvOn* 

- Peduncles rather 


Americaii Itote, — Prelty, and a free floverer. Raised by Mr. Hofcg, 

mineijioMn, in New York, rrum Benla of the aiogle yellow ro«e. 

. Horticultunil Sodety'a Garden. 

Other S^da behnghtg lo tiii Secfion. — A. ib£rica AsitA, ottire ofEaiCern 

Iberia j S. gludnoaa SmM, native of Greece ; R. KlukU Ben., native of 

Tauria ; A, auaveolens Forth, natire of Nonh America ; and R. Montezikin« 

Humb., native of Meuco, are deacribed in our Brst edition. 

$ viiu Caninee Lindl. 

Sect. Char., ^c. Prifkles equal, booked. Leaflet* ovate, ^andlesa or gian- 
dular, with the terraturea conniving. Sepals deciduoiii. Disk tiiickened, 
claaing the throat, l^rcer suckers arched, (Don'i MiU.) Deciduout, but 
some aub-ever^een. — Chieflv buahe«, but partly sarmentow and prucninbent. 
Kativei of Britain, Middle Europe, and Aaia. 

A. Spedei A'otitvi of Brilain. 
m 42. R. c«m'na Uk. The eommon Dog Rose. 

IdmfirMim. Lin, 8a.,70t.: Dos'iHUImI' P->7a- 
^^n^'Ba-'FL WoALrt Lair. im,'Std.Boi 1.^. 9. l.*.i'R.'|la«ca 
UtT.Ar.i AnlM'tlt^.^c°, A. Hixrinuu'liina fori CaKI. 
SiW<wl«i. dng.'Bot.. t. SW-i Li.r. lG», t. ai. «.i»iidoiir'A. e». 

Spec. Char., ^e, PHcklea strong, hooked, t 
Leaflets nmply serrated, pointed, quite i 
smooth. S^nls pinnate. Fruit ovate, 
■iDOoth, or rather briiily , like the aggregate 
flower stalks. (ZJdn'i MiU.) A raoibline 
shrub. Europe generally, and tha North 
of Africa 1 plent^ul in Brilnin, in hedges, 
woods,and thickets. Height 6ft. to lOft. 
Flowers rather large, pale red, seldom white ; June and JiiU 
Fruit scarlet ; ripe in September. 

■ H. c, 2 aciph^lia Lindl. Roi. p. 99.; 
A. aciph^lla Rau. 69. with a h^.. 
Red. km. ii.p.3l.t. 13.; and our 
_figi. 600, 601.; is a very remarkable 
variety, from the straightness of its 
shoots, and Its singular habit of growth. The 
leaves are smooth on both surfaces, and the 
flowers are imaller than those of the species. 
Other Varieliet. Seventeen are described in our 
first edition. ""■ ■-— "**'* 

Pruit orate,bright scarlet, of a peculiar and verv grateful flavour, especially if 
made mto a conserve with sugar. The pulp of the 
fruit besUes saccharine matter, contains citric add, 
which gives it an acid taste. The pulp, before it ' 

used, ^uld be carerullv cleared fron^ ■'■ 

seeds. Nui 

■ 43. H. Fo'nsTER/ 8m. Forster's Dog Rof 
Undlfcaitm HailOt El 

Spec. Char.f^e. Prickles scattered, conical, hooked. 

., Google 


Lesfleta simply lernited, amooth above, but hurf on the ribs beneath. 
Sepals doubly pmnale. Fruit elliptical, smooth, like the aggregate flower 
stalks. (Bo n'» Mill.) A laree shnib. Native of &irope, in hedges j plenti- 
liil in England. Hdght 6 ft. to 6 ft. Flowers pate red ; June and July. 
Fruit scarlet ; ripe in September. 

* 44. It. Di;MBTa'Huif ThuU/. The Thicket Dog Hose. 

-^- ' " leucinUii fi «:uIl(WUl Bomi. In Dte. Fl. Ft. a. p. WS. : «. 1*- 
I iior«, el Hm-. £■>■>«. 79. : R. lolitllUlli Bat. PrM. fl Golf. 3M. i 
imnblfpTii Gmri, FL End. jUl 1. p.lZT. 
rnift. Eng. But. Suppl , t. IGIO. ; Hud aorjtf- ^^ 

5^. CAnr., i[c. Prickles numeroua, scattered, hooked. 
Leaflets simply serrated, bdrv on both surfacea. Sqials 
pinnate, deciduous. Peduncles a^rwnte. slightly hairy 
Fruit dliptical, Eraoolh, as long as the bracteas. (Don't 
MUt.) A larite shrub. Europe, in hedges ; and found in 
England, in the southern counties, but seldom in any 
abundance. Height 4 fl:. to 6 ft. Flowers reddish } June and July. Fruit 
scarlet ; ripe in September. 

* 45. R, SARHEH'TAVSJt StuoTtx. Thc sanncntaceous Dog Rose. 

lia^albm. SwuH HSS. I WooU In Un. TnuL, 
^rtM^. H- (liuKipbf)l4 tnmA Geogr. Dlilrfi. tS 

•pec. Char., ^c. Prickles hooked. Leaflets orate, doublv 
serrated, smooth, slandular. Feduucles a^^regate, smooth , 
or minutely briai^. Sepals pinnate, deciduous. Fruit 
broadly elliptic, naked. {Don't MUl.) A rambling shrub. 
Europe, common in hedges and bushy places ; plentiful in 
Bntun. Height 8 ft. to 10 ft. Floireri jiink, and fra- 
grant; June and July. Fruit scarlet ; ripe in September. 
The fruit is as grateful to the palate, probably, as that of 
R. canina, with wTiich this ei^ually common plant is generally 
confounded. This is the species most commonly made choice ( 
of as a stock for garden roses. 

■ 40, R. G£'siA Sm. The grey Dog Rose. 

Uti^dleiaiim. Smith Eng. Bat. t. KGt. ; Dan'i Hilt,, Xp. HO. 

SfMOm/mtK. Jt. canloa piiI4«eeQI ^J%, Bat. Smec Tent. f. p. 1. 1 It. aalu C ( 

l^>ee. Char., Spc. Prickles hooked, uniform. Le&flpts ^ 
elliptical, somewhat doubly serrated, glaucous, bury be- 
neath, without glands, Sepalii distantly pinnate, de- 
dduous. Flower stalks smooth, solitary. Fruit elliptical, 
smooth. (Dan'i Mill.) A rambling shrub. Scotland, 
in the Highland valleys, but rare ; at Taymilt, in Mid- 
Lorn, Argyleshire ; and in Strath Tar, between I>ud- 
keld and Aberfeldie, and by the aideof Loch Tay. Heipht "^ a-™^ 
4 ft. to 5 ft. Flowers generally of a uniform carnation hue, but occanonaDy 
while; July. Fruit scarlet; npe in September. 

B. Speaet XaHvei of MidJle Europe. 

• 47. R. kubbipo'lia Vill. The red-leaved Dog Rose. 

lUtt^kaUoii. Vin. Dwiili-S. [I.M9.J Doo'i Mill., 1. p. HI. 


XXVI. rosaV'Ejg: ko'sa. 341 

. S/mc. Cfutr^ 4c. Prictln small, distant. Leaflet! ante, and, as well at 
the branchei, glabrous, opaque, disicoloured. Sepals narrow, entire. Fruit 
ovate, ^obose, smooth. Flowers corj'mboRC Peduncles smooth. (Don'i 
Mill,) A law »brub. Daupbin^, Austria, Savoy, Pyrenees, and Auvergne, 
in woods. Height ATt to 6ft. Flowers red ; June and July. Fruit *car- 
Ict i npe in September. 
Stiins red. Leavea red at the edgea. Flow. 

imBlL. Sepali narrow, longer tban the petals. 

■hrub, producing b pleasing effect in a shrubbery, 

Trom the pinknesi or it* foliage. At the funeral i 

or Villars, wlio first uamed and descKbcd this rose, 

branches and flowers of it were cut and strewed 

over his grave. There are several vnrieties described 

in our first editioD. 

C. Speciet Xiifivti of Alia, 
A 46. R. cauca'ska Pall. The Ci 

Unayiaitiim. PiU. tkc—^l, II.; Llndl. Rai.. f.7l.\ Don'i HI1].,1.f. HS. 
iynam^mu. Jt. legciilb* BxA. R. r«r. Sw^ Ul. 7 
Smgmnt*- UnL Hot.. I. 11. ; ud oiujig- W. 

Spec. Char., ^, Prickles strong, recurted. Leaflets soft, oTate, Raucous, 
Celjx and peduncles hispid. Sepals siniple. Fruit smooth. Flowers large, 
growing in bunches. (_D<m'i MUl.') A robust shrub. Siberia. Height 
10ft. to 12ft. Introduced in 1798. Flowers while or pate red; June 
and July. Fruit red ; ripe in September. 

Spec. Char., 4'c. Stem upright, whitish, or green, or purple. Prickles 
stout, blcale, diatant. Leaflets 3 — 5; ovate-acuminate, coriaceous, shining, 
^abrouB, serrulate ; the surfaces of dtfl^erent colourn. Stipules very nar- 
row, connate with ibe petiole, almost entire or serrate. Flowers soliiary, or 
in panicles. Stamens bent in wnrds. Peduncle sub-articulate, mostiv thickened 
upwards, and with the caly» smooth, or wrinkled and bristly, {bee. Prod.) 
Siib-erergreen. China, nenr Cunton. Height 4 ft. to SO It. Introd. in 1789 



Flowere red, luuall}' semidouble ; April to November, fruit red ; ripe. 

One of the most valuable of garden rases. 

Varietiet. There are numerous varieties and hybrids of thii beautiful roMi, 
The following are quite distinct ; and may each be conaider«d the type of 
a Ions list of subvarietiea : — 

• R. i. S Ninieihkai Ser. \a Dec. Pnxf.iL <f. 600., Don't AfiU. ii. p. 5SI.j 

Jig. 609. abore. — Stem firm, and, as well as the branches, prickly. 
Stipules nearlj' entire. Flowers panicled. very numerous, semi- 
double, pale red. Stjles exiierted. Raised in NorUi America, from ma 
Bccidenlal cross between R. indica and R. moschata, and the plant* 
being sold to Philifi Noisette, his aanie was given to this varietv. 
It was first brouiht to England bj Mr. Eraser. This well-known 
and very beautiful rose is almost invaluable in a ahrubbery, from its 
free and vigorous growth, and the profusiou of its Sowers, which are 
continiiailj being produced during the whole summer. Numerous 
■uhvarieties have been raised of the Noisette rosc^ aome of the 
most distinct of which are, the R. i. il. purpuna oi Redout^ which 
has red flr.wers ; R. i. JV. nhea, the Aiiai Vil.ert of the FnoA 
nurseries, which has double white flowers ; R. i. 
^V. Smtthii, Smith's yellow Noisette rose, the 
flowers of which are very double, of a deeper 
yellow thaii the double yellow China rose (R, i. 
ochroleilca), and disposed in clustered corymbs 
of from 10 to 32, and are highly fragrant. 

• R. i. 3 odoratiuima Lindl. Ros. p. 106., Bol. Reg. I 

t. BG4^, Don's Mill. ii. p. bS3. ; R. odomtlssima ' 

Sail. ISoH. Sub. Loud. ; R. (ndica fragrans Red. , 

Rot. 1. p. 6. t. 19. ; and our fig. 610. ; the 

sweetest, or tea-scented, China Rose ; Rose i 

Odeur de Th^, Fr. ; lias semidouble flowers, 

of H most delicious fragrance, strongly resembling 

the scent of the finest green tea. There are no. « mimmi 

numerou* subvaricties. 

A R. i. 4> tongmia Lindl. Roe. p. 106. ; R. loiqti- 
filia WilU. Enum. ii. 1079., flnt Rot. n. 1.27.; 
R. seraperfldrcns var. l.N.Da Ham. vii. p. ii. ; 
R. rolicifdlia Hort. ; and ourj^. 61 1. ; has the 
sterna nearly unarmed, and long lancecjate leaf- 

• R. J. 5 pumila Lindl. Ros. p. 106. is a dwarf 

variety, with purplish flowers, having ovate 

* R. I. 6 cirryopMllea Red. Ros. iii. p.&9. has ihe 

flowers in a kind of panicle, and the leafleu 
large and thin, 
ft R. t, 7 pannota Red. has the stems and braocha 
prickly ; the leaflets ovate, and red beneath, with 
the stipules so finely denticulated as to give 
them somewhat of a fringed or pannose appew- 
ance. Flowers drooping a little, purple od the 
outside, and with the inner petals rose-coloured, 
a R. 1. 8 cTHinla Red., and Don's Mill. n. p. 6SS.t 
differing from the above principally in having 
ni. K. I. wcnu^ the stems and branches ^most unarmed, and the 

stipules almost entire. 
» R. (. 9Fr<un-ianB Hort. Brit, ^.m,, and Dom't MiU.a.^.5ieS.— K 
hybrid, with double pink Roweni. 

XXVI. aoSA CEiC : DO SA. 3^ 

■ R. >. 10 riga UikII. Bol. Re^. t. 1380., 

and our/f|p.6l8., hasdouble, blitsti chane> 
ping to white, »weet-«cenie<l flowera. It 
u a hybrid between A. i. ocloraliraims 
and a. arvensis, brought from Italy, 
where it was raised by Mr. Clare. It 
crows freely, tnaJfing ihooli 10 or 12 
feet long in a season. 

■ R. I. 11 ocAro/fuca Bot. Reg. has large I 

cream-coloured flowers, dee|iEiiiiis almost 
intojellow io the centre. It was intro> 
duced by Hr.Parks in 1824, and appears 
to have been since lost. 

• R. i. \2 Jlmii<viu. — Th.\t, Mr. Gordon ' 

•Murea us, is the true tea-«cented yellow China Hoae, and not the 
preceding variety, which is generally considered as such, and con- 
founded with it. 

• R. i. 13 BMii D. Don in Suit. Brit. 

Fl. Gard. t. 40S., and our Jtg. 613. 
—Raised in 1830, by Mr. Bkir, from 
seeds of the yellow China rose, which 
had been Tecundated by ihe pollen of 
the Tuscan rose. A robust plant, 
remarkable for the size of iti leaves 

nd flowers. Pel , , 
at the base, especially ti 
centre of the Sower. Fragrant, and a 
free flowerer. ^^^ ^^ i ^^^^^ 

A 50. B. aBHPBaPLo'KBHS Curt, Hie everflowering CUna Rote. 
t..l.3U.i SnithBiH. Ba(.,1. p. 9I.I Don't Hill,, 1, p. eai. 
nu. Ctli. X.Vi.;R. btnnlinill Ptrl. £<u». I. p. DU | it. iDdlcl Ktd. 

^SKlS^it 'vTii^bl; Fr^ih ^•ii«". ""■ "'" '■ '*■ ' "■■ 

Spec. Char., ^c. Brandies dark green, armed with 

BcaCCered, compressed, hookeo prickles, and a 

very few gland*. An erect ish sub-evergreen 

shrub. Leaflets 3—5, ovate-lanceolate, crenate- 

scrrated, shining above, but glaucous and slightly 

setigerous beneath. Sepals compound, narrow. 

Fruit spherical. (Don'i Mill.) China. Height 

8 ft. to 10 a. lutroduced in I78S. Flowers 

solitary, single, or semidouble, deep crimson j 

April to November. Fruit red ; ripe September. 

There are some very splendid varieties of thu 

species, with semidouble crimson flowers. They 

are all free growers, and abundant flowerers; and 

few plants are more ornamenial 

against the walls of a cottage. 

■ 51. R. Lawrgmcb.4'V^ Swt. JifiM Lawrence's C6mii Rose. • 

. K. iflBHrHircDi mlDlinii Simi Sal. Uatl. t 17SS. j A. (ndlci 
unlnlu Snf. Am. I. p. N. i A. India LurrmcKiu Rfd. Koi. 

Xttrartuf. Bad. Roi,, 1. p. N. ; anil nit^tf. SID. 

S/tee. Char., Sft. Duarf. Prickle* large, stout, nearly 
strnght. LeafleiB ovate acute, finely •errated. Petals 
acuminMed. (nm't Mill.) A low shriib. China. Ilei^t 

., Google 



I (t. Introduced in 1810. Flower; small, ungle or semidouble, pale 

blush ; April to November. 

The beautiful little plants called Fairy Ro«es, or Miniature RiTcrs'-. 
Ahridged ImI, are oearlj all varieties of R. l^wrenceana ; and they are wtll 
worthj' of culture, from thcif extreme dwarfnetis (often flowering when not more 
than Sin. high), and the beautiful colour of their 
miniature rosebudB, the petals of which appear of a 
much daHcer hue than those of the expanded 
flower. Rivers enumerates five select varieties, of 
which he says the Qloire des Lawrencianas is one of 
the prettiest. 

J 52. R. SBRi'cEA Lmdl. The liUty Rose. 

, Undl. Bot. Monog., t la i ud our flf. 61& 
.^o™. Char., ^c. Prickles stipular, compressed. 
Leaflets? — 11, oblong, obtuse, serrated at the 
apex, silky beneath. Flowers solitary, bractless. 

Sqials entire, ending in long points. {Don't Mill.) 
A shrub. Oussainthan. Height 4 ft. lo 6 ft. 
Flowers ? pale red. Fruit in p^uncles, naked. 

{ ix. Systylre Lindl. 

DerfKtfn. From nut, together, ud tlnCm, s itUe i In rtltttats ta thn ilrla btli 
Sed. Char, Styles cohering together into sn elongated column. Stipules 
adnate. The habit of this section is nearly the same as that of the last 
division. The leaves are frequently permanent. (Dtm'i Mill.) Deciduous, 
everareen, or sub-evergreen, and mostly climbing. Natives of firitun. 
Middle Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America. 

A. Specia NoHvet of SHlam, and other Fartt of Europe. 
1 ji 53- It. sv'sTVLi Sal. The connate-styled Rose. 

/ifnUilteiMm. BU. Fl. Main et Loir, Suppl.. SI. ; Don'i Mill . 9, p 
Slisnwiiia. R. calllna Smilk In Kng. Au. t. 1895. i R, ItrlOw 

.1. bniutrlii Drc Fl. Fr. Suppi f. B3T. ; n. MbnclaUi Dtt, 1. 

c 1 A. ifilrU ■ oilU Liatl Ah, d, 1 1 ) . 
EngravMf. Bog, But., t. IMS.; udaurjt). GIT. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Shoots assurgent. Prickles strong, 

hooked. Pedunclct glandular. Sepals pinnate, 

deciduous, Styles smooth. Florul recent acle 

conical. (Don't MM.) A ramhling shrub. France 

and England, in hedges and thickets j common in 

Sussex ; in the South of Scotland, on hills. Height 

6(t to 12fl. Flowers fmgrant, pink or almost 

white ; May to July. Fruit scarlet, ovate oblong. 

There are several varieties, but they do not differ 
materially in appearance from the species. 

1 J, Hi. R. abvb'nsis HmU. The Field Rose. 

MtalfficaliinL RuIl Fl., I. p. 1S1. l DR.Prod.l.n.nM. 

t^mmfmn. K. irlTfitrli Htm. Diu. p. 10. i ff. iclndeai jErmct Writi. Fl. b. 

rlioitoB Wr*. Si^h-.s. p.flS.i «. Hilfeif r-' " - " - 

H. ■trpcnt Ekrk. Arbor, p. SAl : R. ftnnp 

p. 419.. Jxtcg. Frngm, p. ED. t 101. ; R.ri 
Sagrnrnv. Bag. BU., I. ISB. i Bot. Mag 

spec. Char., ^c. Shoots cord-like. Prickles unequal and Rtlcale, Leaves de- 
ciduous, and composed of 5 — 7 glabrous, or indistinctly ciliated, leaflets, glau< 
cescent beneath. Stipules diverpng at the tip. Flowers aolitary or globose. 

XXVI. nosA^cEx: jio'sa. 846 

S«p«ls alinoBt entire, sbort. Styles cohering into aa 
elongated glabrous column. Fruit ovate, or ovite-globose, 
c<»iBceous, crioi&on, glabrous, or a little hispid, as well a« 
tba peduncles. (i)?c. Prod.) Trailing, or climbing, decidu- 
ous ; in some situations sub-evergreen. Europe, in manj 
places; in England, in hedges and thirkcU and the 
borden of Gelds, chiefly m the midland counties. SteiDi 
soft, to 40ft. Flowers white ( July. Fruit dark blood- 
ooloured; ripe in September. 

VaneHet. Several varieties are enumerated in caialc^ues ; 
the following appear distinct, and of general interest ; — 

1 J L ^ R. a. 2 ayrethirea 8er. fl. capreolSta ,„ , „,f,^ 
NeiU in Edm. P/iil. Journ, No. 3. p. 10i.~ 
Sub-eveigreen. Prickles slender, very acute. Leaflets ovate, 
sharply serrated, thin, nearly of the same coluur on both surfaces. 
Peduncles hispid with glanded hairs, or wriuklerl. A vigorous- 
growing climber, producing shoots sometimes 20 ft. in length in 
one season, and flowering profusely from the middle of May to the 
middle of September. One of the hardiest of climbing roses, and 
particularly useful for covering naked walls, or unsightly roofs. Cul- 
tivated in British gardens under the name of the Ayrshire Rose. 
1 ^ R. n. 3 kubrida Lindl. Uos. 113. has semidouble flowers, of a most 
delicate flesh colour, and is called, in the nurseries, the double hip 
rose : the term hip rose being applied by gardeners to the com- 
monest wild rosea. 
In open situations, a, tmiling plant, sometimes rooting at the joints; but, 
in hedges and among bushes, a climber by elongation ; reaching to their tops, 
and covering them with tiift^ of foliage and flowers ; the leaves remwDing on 
late in the season ; and the fruit often remaining on all the winter. The 
shoots are, in general, feeble, much divided, and entangled ; and they geno- 
nUly produce, here and there, rugged eicrescenees, which readily take root. 

B. Spedei NatiDei of Middle Evntpe. 
L ^ 55. R. (A.) sehfbrti'hhns Lia. The evergreen (Field) Rose. 

. Lin. Sp.TM.j Dec. PrKl., 4 p. WT, 1 Don^ Mlll.,a. p. «». 

u .j_j — u;„ n.- "- 1 1 R. taleiria Daf. Cal. Pm. £»cl t p. <9. i H- 
lerTlreDt gloMu 1U± Roi. %., Hkb ■ ««. j A. Kinp«- 

.tin-I uKlonrjV.GIS. 

Spec. Char., tsc. Evergreen. Shoots climbing. 

Prickles nretty equal, falcate. Leaves of fi — 7 

leaflets, tnat are green on both sides, coriaceous. V 

Flowers almost solitary, or in corymbs. Sepals ' 

nearly entire, longish. Styles cohering into 

an elongate pilose column. Fruit ovate or ovate 

globose, oranse-cutoured. Peduncles mostly . 

hispid with glanded hairs, ('lusely allied to ' 

R, arv£neis, but differing in its being evergreen, 

la its leaves being coriaceous ; and in its stipules 

bang Bubfalcat;;, and more acute at the tip. 

{Dec. Frod.) A vigorous evergreen cliniber. 

France, Portugal, Italy, at Pxstum and other 

places, Greece, and the Balearic Islands. Sitcm 

20 ft. to 40 ft. Introduced in 1689. Flowers 5,, „.„,.^,^ 

white or pale rose-coloured ; June to August. 

Fruit orange-coloured ; ripe in September. 
Variehet, Several varieties are enumerated in cataloguea ; those which we 

conndcr beat worth mentioning are, — 

., Google 


iA K. (n.) I. S BufffOina, rmesA from teed bjr Mr. ginclkir of the New 
Cross Nursery, A Tery strong-growipg vanety, quite deckluoua, with 
blush flowers. 

* R. (a.) f. 3 Clarg^ The Rote Clare. (Bot. H»., t I438.;»— An ele- 
gant variety, with deep red flowers. Both these rarieties are as 
much entitled to be conudered qiedes, as many so designated in 

Used for the same purposea as the Ayrshire rose; Trom which it diSersin re- 
tainiog its leaves the greater part of the winter, and in its less vigorous shoots. 

C. Speeiei Katwetof Ana,atid One of them of A jrka. 
1 56. R. hvltiflo'ka TkiMb. The many-flowered Rose. 

. Fl. Jmp., 114 ; D«. Prod., l p. SM, i Don'! Hja. 1 p. HI. 

Damn Hon. Cmt. «L <. p. Hi. i R. StrMa fair. S^pL ; B. dlffHu Kurt. 

|., 1.1019. ; Bot Het..t.tW.| UHlout^.SlO. 

^>ee.CAar.,4rc. Branches, peduncles, and calyxes 
tomentose. Shoots very long. Prickles slender, 
scattered. Leaflets 5 — 7, ovate'tanceolate, soft, 
finely wrinkled. Stipules pectinrte. Flowers in 
corymbs, end, in many instances, very numerous. 
Buds ovate globose. Sepals short. Styles 

trotnided, incompletely grown together into a 
ing hairy column. (iJfc. Prod.) A deriduous 
climbing shrub. Japan and China. Stems 10 ft. 
to 30 ft. Introduced in \H22. Produces a 
profusion of clustered heads of single, semi- 
double, or double, while, pale red, or red, flowers 
'3 June and July. Fruit bright redj ripe in 


J R. m. 3 GrerfUei Horl, R. Roxburghii 
Hort. i R. platyphyila Red. Rot. p. 69. ; 
The Seven Sisters Rose. ^Our^fe. 681.) 
— A beautiful variety, with muea larger and n 

of « purpli^ colour. No diniliine rohc belter deimi'es ciiltivB 

xsTi. MotycEM: mosa. 347 

agahut ■ wall. It h euilr known from R. multtfldra by the fringed 
edge of the stipules ; while those of the comnxHi R. multiflora (Jig. 
681. a) have much lest fni^, and the leaoes are smaller, with the 
leafleu much less rugose. Tbe form of the blossoms and corymbs is 
prettjt Dearlj the same in both. A rapid-growing Tsriety, producing 
shoots 16 ft to 80 fl. loiw in a season, flowering profiisel; for two or 
three inoDths, but only of three or four j'ean duration, 
t R. n. 3 Boanaulli HoH., Bauriauiet Rote, is placed, in Don's Miner. 
under this species ; though it differs more from the preceding Tarietr 
than many species do from each other. It is cotnparatively a hard- 
wooded oorable rose, and valuaUe for flowering early and freely 
This b a ytry remarkable rose, from its petals having a reticulated 
llie q>eaea is yay distinct, and produces numerous bloasoma, which con- 
linuc expanding for two months . The first variety, when well grown against a 
wall, forms one of the most beautiful of wall roses. This variety and the 
i._ -j-.-j _j fgxheT tender, but they will not timve under . 

<H Kfmt. SjtL, L p. BM. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Shoots trailii^. Prickles of the stem 
stout and arched. Leaflets fr— 7. lanceolate, pilose 
on both surfaces) the under one glandulous, and 
of ■ different colour from the upper one. Stipules 
narrow, acute. Indorescenee cotrmbose. Pedun- 
cles and calyxes pilose, and a little hispid. Sepals 
entire, narrow, and longish. Stales cohering intoa 
very long pilose column. Fruit ovate. Leaves 
■imply serrated. Flowers in terminal bunches, 
(Dec, Prod.) A rambliiv shrub. Nepal. Stems 
10 ft to IStt. Introduced in 1828. Flowers white 
or pale red ; Jane and July. "*■ " 

1 Jt 58. B. uoschaVa JUiil. The Musk Rose. 

jiai, Dfci. 

MoDcf . p. IM. ; Dee. T 

Spec. Oar., ^c. Shoots ascending. Prickles 
upon the stem slender, recurved. Leaflets 
&— 7, lanceolate, acuminate, nearly glabrous, 
the two snrfaces of different colours. Stipules 
very narrow, acute. Flowers, in many in- 
stances, vetT aumerou* ; white, with the claws 
of the petals yellow; very Gwrant. Lateral 
pedunelea jointed, and, as wdl as the calyx, ,' 
piloe^ and almost hispid. Sepals atmottpin- I 
natdy cut, long. Fruit red, t ovate. {See,) 
A rambling shrub. North of Africa, extend- 
ing across the continent fh>m Egypt to Mo- 
ei^r ; and in Madeira. Stems 10 ft to 18 ft. 
Introduced in 1596. Flowers white i July to 

I R, HI, fjidrr plena G. Don. — Flowers ckmble. 


SGl.i and o 

Dupont, nol ot Dec. ; K.m. ( var. 
r^B Scr. in Dec. Prod. — Leaflets 
3 — 5, ovBte-cordete, subaciuninate, 
luTge. Flowers disposed in an int- 
perfectly corymbose manner. Pe- 
duncle and ' calyx ■ little hispid. 
Petals white, or pale rose-coloured, 
lai^ obcordate. This is a very 
liesutiful variety ; tlie petals are 
white, with a most delicate, yet 
rich, tinge of blush. 
J J R. m. 4 mpalhuii Lin Jl. (Bot. Reg., 
t. H29. i and our Jig, 625.) differs 
from the species in having longer 
and ncuminated sepals. Rtused at 
Clfiremont.from 1884 ***" ' ■*■""■ 

Otier rarietia. In Rirers's Ahritfged Lai ef 
Rotet, published in IB40, the kind* recommended 
nre, the Fringed, Frincense de Nassau, and Ten- 
flceiiled ; ihc latter a hybrid, with lur^ flowers of 
a pure white, with a peculiar habit end perfume. 
The branches of the musk rose are ^erally 
too weak to support, without props. Its large 
bunches of flowers, which nre produced in an 
umbel-like manner at their extremities; and hence 
the plants require very little pruning. Being 
rather tender, it does biest against a wall. The 
musky odour is verv perceptible, even at some 
distance from the plant, particularly in the eve- 
ning ; and ihit rousk gives the peculiar odour to the 
«». ■ m Miniirifc Persian attar of roses. 

D. SpttMt Na&net of North Amenca. 
M 59. R. Aubifo'lia R. Bt. The Bramble-leaved Rose. 
UmliflaOlm. B. Brown In AIL Hon. Ksw., ed. L >ol. 1. p. !«). ) Undl-Houir. Moaof.. fl1I3. »ci 
£>Vr<»Av(.'' LIuU. Roilr. Hani«., (. IB. ; ud aatjlf. GM. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Stems ascending. Branches 
glabrous. Prickles scattered, falcate. Leaves 

Cubeicent beneath. Leaflets 3, ov«te-lanceo- 
ite, serrate. Stipules narrow, entire. Flowers 
very small, of a rosy colour, niiostly solitary. 
Bitds ovale, iiiepals ovate, short, simple. Pe- 
duncles and calyxes a, little hispid. Styles 
cohering into a tomentose club-shaped column, 
as long as the stamens. Fruit pea-shaped. 
'Dec.) A shrub. North America. Height 
8 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1B30. Flowers 
pole red ; August and September, Fruit scarlet [ 
ripe in October. ih. a.rvuau. 

$ X. BanMkate LimU. 

HrMificimat. LIndl. Hoi. p. lU. i Don-i HIIL. 1. p. SM 

DfTitailon. fiacdlMl In HHiicquton nr III Ihc tp«1n nnUlncd tn thli mcUod nfmint In clia. 
ncUr wllh Jt. Binkite. a coH nunnl In luwHlc irf L*df Bulu. 

Sect. Char., S;c. Stipules nearly free, subulate, or verv narrow, usually deci- 
duous. Leaflets usually teniate, shining. Stems climbing. Tlie species of 

XXVI. sosa^ckje: ro'sa. 349 

Aia MCtion ve remarkHbte for their long, psceful, and oflen climbing shoots, 
drooping flowers, and trifoUolate shining leaves. They are particularly dia- 
tineiushetl by their deciduous, subulate, or very narrow stipules. Their 
fimt 18 very variable. (Don't Mill.) — Uambling shrubs, deciduous, or sub 
evergreen; somewhat tender in Briiinh gardens, where they only succeed 
when planted against a waiL Natives of China. 
L 60. Ji 

^>ee. Char., ^. Stipules setaceous, deciduous. Cauline prickles equal, falcate. 
Petioles and ribs of leaves prickly. Peduncles and fruit beset with straight 
bristles. Sqiala entire, permanent. Flowers white, solitary. Fruit elliptic, 
orange-red. Disk conical. (Don't lUili,) A rambling Bub.evergreen shrub, 
China. Height 6 ft. to 8 ft. Introduced in 
1759. Flowers white; Mar and June. Fruit 
orange red ; ripe in September. 
1 01. Jt. BA'KKsrA R. Br. Lad^ Banks's Hose. 

awij'lH. ji. Bvt^iii^ AbJl Cbia. ieiO..'!_£ iatr'mll aort-T 
£^r»A»i. But. M>(., L l«6t. ; Kti. O 'rhor. R»., 1. f. O. 

Ic 1 uf our jff . est. 
^)ec. Char,,Src. Without prickles, glabrous, smooth. 
Leaflets 3—5, lanceolate, sparingly serrated, ap- 

proximate. Stipules bristle-Iike, scarcely attached 
to the petiole, rather ^ossy,deciduous. Flowers in 
umbeJ-like corymbs, numerous, very double, sweet- 

scented, nodtmiE. Tube of the calyx i 

dilated at the tip. Fnut globose, black. (Dec. 

PtwL) a climlnng deciduous shrub. China. 

Stemc 10 ft. to 30 ft. Introduced b 1B07. 

Flowers white ; June and July. Fruit black. '*'■ "■ i*"*"* 

1 R. J7. S liUa Lindl. (Bot R^., t. 1105., 

and our fig. 630.) has the Somen of a 

pale buff colour, and is a very beautifiil 


■Riis is an exceeilingly beautifti! and veiy re- 

tnaiiable kind of rose ; the flowers being suiall, 

. round, and very double, on lone peduncles, and 

' resembling in form the flowers of the double French 

cherry, or that of a small ranunculus, more than 

those of the generality of roses. The Sowers of 

R. Banks)0 ilba are remarkably fragrant j the scent 

strongly resemblbis that of violets. Plants of neither 

uo. ■, iBiitj, iriiii, variety thrive in 'he atmosphere of the metrapolia. 


I_ 63. R. micboci'bpa LimU, The tmall-fhiitcd Roae. 

fifnWVfeiit'n LiDdl. Bai. Hon., m, I. )«. | Dk. Pml,!. p.6Ql. 

Snrraninti. LindL Rnur. Msnof .. t n. i ■nd cm Jig. Ol. 

^ffc. CW., <fc. Prickles scattered, recurved. Leaf- 
lets 3—5, iHoceolate, shining, the two suriacea 
different in colour. Petioles pilose. Stipules 
l^tle-«hapcd or awl-Khaped, scarcely? stlacbeil to 
the petiole, deciduous. Flowera dieposed in di- 
chotamouB corymbs. Peduncles and calyidt ^s- 
Urous. Styles scarcely protruded higher than the . 
planeof theapreadineofiheflower. Fruit globose, { 
pea-shtned, scarlet, shining. Allied to R. Binksicr. . 
(Dec. Prod.) A rambling aub-evergreen shrub, 

ntilna ;» »hi> nlvivini^ nf llnntlin Tlfiirht fl It. ta 

J 63. S. bv'hthii Lindt. The Porcupine Rose. 

UnlitlaHim. Liodl, Roa Monm., r. 1». i D«i-| MIIL, 1. p.BM. 

Eivroi^i. Llaili.BM.Moiiog..t.l?.iuid<™rA.6n- 

Spec, Char., ^c. Prickles on branches une^ud, 

crowded, lai^er ones falcate, small ones straight. 

Stipules very narrow, united halfway, the free part 

deciduous. Leaflets three, smooth, ovate, shiniiw, 

simply serrated, with a few prickles on the middle 

nerve. Senale nearly entire ; permanent. Fruit 

bristly, (nou't Mill.) A rambling shrub, with 

flagelliform branches. China and Japan. Flowers 

large, solitary. Fruit oblong purple. 

Other Speciet and Variciiet of Ko»a. — In the cata- 
ItHpie or Messrs. Loddiges, 147 species ore registered, *»■ a.^fBrii. 

of all of which, with one or two exceptions, there are living plants. The 
EBrden varieties in the same collection amount to about 1500. There U 
mdeed no end to the garden varieties, new ones bang every year raked 
from seed, and old mricties every year disappesring. flew species are also 
occasionally introduced, and several have been lately raised in the flort. 
8ac. (vorden from Himalayan seeds. For species we recommend the cul- 
tivator to have recourse to the collection of Messrs. Loddigcs, and fbr garden 
varieties to the most fashionable nurservmen of the time. In Rivera's Abridged 
Lilt oj Roiei, 1840, he recommends, as a selection for small gardens : — Pro- 
vence roses, 7 j moss roses, 8 ; hybnd Provence roKes, 7 ; hybrid China rosei, 
S0{ French roses, 16; Aosa alba, 9 j damask roses, 6; Scotch roses, 8; 
tweet briars, 5 { Austrian briars, 2; Ayrshire roses, 6 ; Xose multifldra, 3 ; 
everp«en roses, 7 ; Boursault roses, 4 ; Banksian roses, S ; hybrid cUmbinc 
roses, 4; perpetual roses, 12 j Bourbon roses, 1; China roses, 15 ; tea-scented 
rosea, 1 1 ; mmiature rosea, 5 ; Noisette roses, 12 ; musk roses, 3 ; Macartnej 
roses, 3; Adsa microphylla, 3, In all, 1^5 sorts ; which would form a very 

iSW and Siluation adapted Jar Roiei. 
The common wild roses will grow in very poor soil, provided it be dry j 
but all the cultivated sorts require a soil naturally light and free, aud more or 
less enriched. The situation sltould be open and airy, eipoaed to the cast, 
or, in warm situations, to the north, rather than to the south ; because the 
intensity of the sun's rays accelerates too r^>idly the expansion of the flowui, 
and also diminlshev the colour and firsginnce of the petals. A rose.gardeii. 

XXVI. B08A'cE£: ao'BA. 351 

iiilly exposed to the tun during the whole dsj, may hmTe b useilil degree or 
(hade given to it by the distnbutioD of a few nnndard rows of not less than 
8 fH- 10 feet ia beicht ; or by the introduction of frames of wood or wire, in 
the forms of obeliska, ^omoaa, crosses, cxiliinms surmounted by ^obes, or 
conea, on which climbing rosea ma; be trained. Theae would produce no 
bad effect b}' their drip, and yet by thdr shadow, which would vary with the 
position of the sun, they would aflbrd a salutai; protection to the dwarf 
rosea by which they were surrounded ; and thus produce b some degree, the 
same object asacool ntualion nod exposure. The rose is one of those plants 
that will not dirive in the ndghbourhood of towns where the prerailing fuel 
is pii^coal ; hence the roses grown within a circle of ten miles of the metro- 
polis are much inferior in beauty to those grown at double that distance. 

In country residences, roses are generBtly distributed in the margins of 
shrubberies along with other flowennB shrubs: but, considering the culture 
they require, it is impossible they can thrive in such a situation ; and, even if 
they did thrive, the kinil of beauty which tbcT would produce would be of a 
chatacter so different from that of a general shrubbery, as to require their 
exclusion from it. The only roses fit to be planted in a shrubben' are the 
ringle kinds, in their wild state. Roses, and all other kind4 of inrubs or 
trees, that are &r removed from a state of luuure, end valued (or something 
produced by art, dtfaer in their flowers, fiuit, habit, or leaves, should be grown 
m situations where the art which produced the artificial effect can be em- 
plDved. Hence oil fruit-bearing trees and shrubs should be grown in orchards, 
in kitchen-gardens, or in some place by themselves, so as to admit or pro- 
perly cultivating the soil, and managing the plants. Hoses, and all double- 
Dowerins ^nil», ought, in like manntf , to be grown by themselves ; and tbc 
samepnnciple will apply to shrubs having any peculiarity in their foliage, and 
even in their mode of growth. The continuation of the peculiarity may not 
always require a rich soil ; on the contr.irj', it will generally be found to have 
been produced by a soil and situation of a peculiar nature : but that peculi- 
arity of soil it is as much the object of art to imitate, as it ia to form the rich 
•Ml, and favourable situation, which produce large or double fiowcrs, or large 
•nd succulent fruit, or variegated leaves. Hence, to cultivate roses properly, 
they must be grown dtber in groups by themselves on a lawn, or in a flower- 
garden,- or te connected into a system of groups or beds, in a rosarium, or 
ro*e-garden. On this subject, and on the pruning, and general treatment of 
rosea, we must refer to the finit edition of tnis work, where it will be found 
given at great length, illustrated with numerous diagrams, having reference to 
propagation, training, pruning, the fomiation of rosariums, for which several 
plans are given, and the destruction of insects. 

Sotanum, or Rmetuni.—Whtre Jt is intended to plant a collection of rosea, 
the best effect will be produced b^ devoting a group to each section ; such as 
one to moss roses, another to Noisettes, a third to Scotch roses, &c. These 
groups ought generally to be planted with dwarfii rather than standards; be- 
cause the fonner are more conveniently looked upon by the spectator : but a 
handsome standard may, frequently, occupy the centre of each gronp, if it is 
» circle or (square; and two or three invline, or radiating from a pmnt, if 
it is of a long or an irregular form. Sometimes a group may be surrounded 
by aTow of standards, which, in that case, should have clear stems, not less 
than 7 ft. high, through which the dwarf roses nia,v be seen by persons walking 
round the group. Standard roses, in general, have the beet effect when formed 
into an avenue along the margin of a walk j and for this purpose they are 
very suitable for common flower^rdens, where the sroups, instead of being 
planted with dwarf roses, are filled with herbaceous pfants. The sizes of the 
diffbrent groups in a rosarium ought to be proportioned to the number of va- 
rieties belongmg to the section to be planted in each, the bulk which they 
Mtain, and tteir habit " " "' ■■■■••■■■- 

Mmra. Rivers ma; b 
way ne representetl by 87 beds of different dimensions. 




LO'WE^ Lindl. Thb Lowba. Lm. Sytl. Icos^ndnB Poljg/iinu 

dl. Bat. IU(.,t. IMl. 

ip. Fall. mll.lmilL In noi. Ifoww. 

npllmcnt U lbs Hrr. Mr. ZavrTrmdUllc Bmbclgr nTtfag Uiil>BdIj itf Cw- 

brtdta. iLnvOtfia Bui. Keg, t. IKJ.) 
Geit. CSoT., ^c. Calyi with the tube contractetl U the mnuth. PHab X 
Slametu aud Carpeli numerous oa in Adsa. Leaf simple, exstipulate. 
Fricklet often compound. (Litut/.) 

LeatKi simple, alternate, exstipulate, decidiiaiis ; serrated. FJanert jd- 
low, marked with puqile. — An imdcn^rub. Native of Persia. 

« I. L. BBJtBESiP&'i.n Lindl. The Bt^rberry-leaved LoweL 

Entmtmfi. BdL Btg., t. 1K1,; tUdomt R«.. I. t. 1; tai OKU Jig. €0. 

spec. Char., ^c. Leaves undivided, without atipult's, obovate-cuneated, 
serrated at the tip. Prickles decurrent, and t>( the colour of i*orj. Sepsb 
entire, Bubspathulate. Petals yellow, marked viih [iiuple at [he bsK. 
(liec. Prod.) An undershrub. Persia, near Amadan, 
where it abounds in saltish soil ; and also iu fields at 
the bottom of Mount Elwend, and in the Desert of 4 
Soongaria. Height Sft. 1790. Flowers yellow 
and purple ; June aad July. Somewhat difficult of cul- ' 
lure, and not a free tlowerer; but it is readily propagated ^ 
by budding on the dog rose, or by seeds, which it pro- 
duces on the Continent in abundance in common soil. 

Varietia. Several are deccribed io Dec. Prod., and some 
hybrids have recently been raised between this species 
and some kinds of Jfosa. 

Sect. V. Po'me* LindL 


CRAT^GUS Lindl. The Thorn. Lm. S^tl. Icos&ndria Di-Pent^jnia. 

Uenii/laaiim. Lindl, Id Lis. Tnni., IS, p. IDS.; Ttec. Prod.,!, p. ex ; Dsa'i Mill Lp. ML 

Si/mmfma. Crtim'fui and Wttpllui ip. of Ua. uid ottitn i N^JFer, Aliiler, mud AabtSat, fr. : 

Dmw, Ullwtr.^ndHliIl*!, On- i Doom, il«(r*| Cntwga. Ibil. ; mad AlAao, SpamT^ 

Gen. Char. Catya with on urceolate tube, and a 6-cleft limb, P^alt ortucu- 
lar, ^reading. Omnuni 2— 5-celled. Stylet 8—5, glabrou*. Pome fle^y, 
ovate, closed j the calycine teeth, or the thickened disk, contaioine a bonv 
putamen. [DoiCt MUL.) ^ ' 

Lforei simple, alternate, sti[>ulate, chiefly deciduous, but in part evergreen i 
angular or tootbed. ,Ptou«rr< in corymbs, usually white. Bradeiu tuhiHtM 
deciduous. J'rw* red, ydlow, or black. Decaying leaves yellow, or reddbh 

XXVI. AOSa'cE.C: CRAT«\}U8. 


Trees or •hru . 
Europe end North America, and b 
Africa. One of then), the common hnKihum, i» well known throughout 
the Middle and North of Europe, an a hedge plant. The ipecies uU m>wer 
and fruit freely ; and tlie wood of all of them ii hard and durable, and the 
plants of considerable longevity. Almost all the Bowers are white, and the 
fruit ii generally red ; thou^ in aome Borts it ie yellow, purple, black, or 
green. AU the npecies ripen fruit in the neighliourtiood of London, most 
of them abundantly; by which, or by graftinc or budding on the commoa 
hawthorn, they are generally propagated. When the 6[)eciea which have 
naturslly a dwarf babit of growth are intended to assume the character of 
low trees, they are grafted standard high upon C (fxyac&ntba, C. cocclnca, 
or on some otter of the strong-growing kinds ; in consequence of which prac- 
tice, this genus fumiahes a greater number of handsome small trees for oma- 
mentBl grounds than any other ligneous lamily whatever. All the species 
uill grow on any soil that is tolerably dry ; but they will not grow vigorously 
in a soil that is not deep und free, and rich rather than poor. Whether as 
small trees or a» shrubs, they are all admirably adapted for planting grounds 
of liniited extent ; and especially for smaU gardens in the neighbouniood of 
Urge towns. 

§ i. Coecituec. 
Seel. Char., ^c. Leaves cordate, lobed, acutely serrated. Flowers and fruit 
targe. The plants also large, and of free and vigorous growth. 

* L. The scarlet:frm(«i Thor 

n. Sp., CSl i Funb Amc 
Sgnoaf/mta. C nlliUIl Bnta ; iWipllni 

Spec. Char., ^e. Disks of leaves cordaten^k-ate, angled wiih lobes, acutely 
sermteil, glabrous. Petioles aaJ calyxes pubescent, glanded. metals nr> 


biciilate. Stylei 5. Pnik tcarlet, eatable. (Dec. Frad.) A lo* tree. North 
America, from CanBila to Carolina, in hedgm and woods. Height 15 ft. 
to son:. Introduced in 1683. Flowers »hitc; May and Jjne. Fruit 
large, round, or lomewhat pear-stiaped. acarlct ; rt|>e in September. De- 
caying leHTca yellow, inclining Co scarlet. Naked young wood daric^coloored j 
old wood with t whitish bark. 
Varktiei. It Would be eiuy to procure as manj vaneties of thU specie* as 
there are of the common hawthorn, by raieing some thouaands of planti 
every year from seed, and selecting from the seed-beds plants indicuting 
any peculiarity of leaf or of habit ; but, ns in the nurseries the most ni|iid 
way of producing saleable plants of this, and all the other species and va- 
rieties of Cratffi'guB, is found to be by grafting on the common hawthorn, 
very few seedtings are raised, and the varieties in cultivation are (Hily the 
three or four following : — 

T C. f . 3 coraUina. C. coiilliiia Lodd. Cat. ; the C. pyrifdrmis and C. peo 
tinataofsome coUectionu. (j^.67B. in p. 367.)— The leaves anil 
the entire plant are, perhaps, rather smaller than in the speda; 
the liabit of the tree is decidedly more upright and EastigiaCe ; and 
the ti^t is smaller, long, and of a fine coral red ; whence the name 
is probably derived, though, in the first edition of the Ilort. Soc. 
Calalogue, it is called the red-branc' ' " ' ■". . 

Messrs. Loddiges's, however, exhibit 
ill the branches of the young wood. 
t Cc^mdmldta. C.iadeatiita LodJ. Cal. ; C. cedrvica i)oi<g. (^. 6TS. 
in p. 387.) — The leaves are smaller, and less lobed, t^ those of 
the species ; the plant is also weaker, of upright habit, and with a 
smooth clear bark. It ii very prolific in flowers and fruit. 
T C. c. 4 nifinn Lodd. Cat. C c, spinosaGoifcfKg'iC. ncerifoUa Atirf.t 
C. P flabellata Horl, — The leaves are larger tlian those of an; other 
variety ; and the fruit is also laree. A^ we have not seen livii^ 
plants of C, flabellata, but only dned specimens sent from Terenurc 

nnd the Humbeque Nursery, we are not absolutelv certain that C. 
tjabellikta and C. c. niAxima are the same; but we feel quite certain 
that they botli belong to C. coccfnea. We are informed that tlie C. 

flabellata of tome nurseries is C. tanacetifolia ; which certainly 
ha.1 its leaves more flabdlute, or fan-like, than any variety of C. 
t f C. c 5 neapoHldna Hort. JIfespilus constsntinopolitana Godejraii. 
— Plants were in Messrs. Loddiges's collection in 1837. 


p.X'.:Don'.MIll..i';.iilft ■ 


S<vrnvAvi. 7 Poll. Fi Rw., 1. 1. II. 1 Lad BoL 
Id p. MS. ) Uh plug of (hl> ipHla hi Arh. Brit.. 1 

Punh Amm. Stpt, t. p UT. i Drr. Prod , I. 


Spec, Char., tifc. Leaves with the disk obovate-wedge-shaped, angled, gla- 
brous, clossy. Petioles, stipules, and s^als glandcd. Fruit ovaT, scarJeti 
; flesh hard and dry. (_Dec, Prod.) A low tree. North Aui»- 

rtca, in Canada and on the Alleghany Mountains, and also ftuind mi the 
Rocky Mountains, Height ISfL to 15fi. Introduced in I7S0, Flower* 

white ; May and June. Fruit scarlet; ripe in September. 


9 C.g 9 mcctiiirUa Fisch., MhpWus succul£nta BooA, haa the fruit 

Inrger than that of the species, and succulent, juicy, and eatable. 

We have seen only one plant of this variety; but we were aasured 

by the Istc M. Fischer of Qottingen, that there are several in the 

. bnlanic garden there, and in various other collections in Gernnnj. 

;vi. rosaYex: CBatxNsus, 

9 C. g. S labufi/Sia, C. !ub»il!6«a Fiirh., 
f our j^. 636., and ^.681. in p. 38a) 
IS apparently another variety of ihe pre- 
ceding sort, or, pertisps, of C. cocclnea. 
It is very distinct in appearance, from 
it* villous twisted leaves, and stunted 
tortuoiiH ihootB ; but, from hd having 
been only three or four yesn in the 
country, very little is known of its habit 
of growth, which seems to be rsther 
more loose than that of C. glandulAsa. 
There ere plants in the Horticultural 
Society's Garden, and in Messrs. Lod- 
digen's arboretum. < 

Diffbr* from the preceding sort in the stipules ' 
BEid calyxes being glantlular, and in the hrad of 
the tree forming a dense mass of smatt twiga. 
Being B small compact tree, of eomewhat conical 
or bstigiate habit, and of comparatively low 
growth, and yet very prolific in flowers and fruit, 
it ii well adapted for small gardens ; and, being 
at the B ~ - '"-'■- >^ - ' 

j ii. Punrtattc. 
Sect. Char. Leares not lobed, larg^ wkh many nerves. Bark white, or ash- 
coloured. Fruil large, or small. 

( 3. C. punctaV* Ait. The dotMd-/Hi>f'rf Thorn. 

MmillcMUan. Ait. Horl. Ken- 1. p, IRft i Jus. 

p. £m.1 D«. Prod.. 1.P niT. ; Don '•Mill..!, 
SfmcK^m K i. C. ilrliM^ni)* Se/j Mttyllnt » 

Enm. I U. CDn.lffA. In*. Escfc. t. v- 4«. 


Spec. Char., ^. Lesres oboTate-wedge-ahaped, gkbroui, aemied. Cilti 
B little villosc ; iti sepals awl-shaped, entire. Fruit usoally dotted. (lin: 
Prod.) A Email tree. North AoiericB, in the woods and svamp* of Vir- 
ginia and Carolina; where, according to Purah, it erows to a haodsonc 
size, pBTticularly the variety having yellow (hiit. Height 15ft. to 30ft. 
Introduced in 174^. Flowers white; May and June. Fruit scsriM; tipe 
in September. Leaves dropping yellow. Naked young wood grey. 
Varietia. There are four forms of this species in British gardens. 

1 C. p. 8 r^bm Pursh, C. edulis RonaMi ( in p. 389.) is die 

most common, and is a spreading tree, gri ' 

from 15 n. to 30 it., wiih red fruit, and, whe 
* C. p. 3 rubra ttricla Hort., C. p. stricia 
Ronalds, has the fruit red, like the pre- 
ceding sort; but the general habit of 
the plant is fuatigiate, like that of the 
following sort, 
t C. p. 4 Biirca Pursh, C, p. flftva Hort.. 
V. dulcis Ronaldt, C. ediilis Lodd. Cat,, 
C. pentligyna flava God^roy (_fig. 683. 
in p. 369), is a treelike C. p. riibra, 
with yellow fruit, and also, wtlen old, 
with few thorns, 
I Cp. 6 brevitpiita Doug., and our^. 63S. > 
— A very handsome fastigiate tree, with ' 
large, very dark purplish red fruiL 
Hort. Soc. Garden. 
The wood is so herd that the Indians of the v 
wedges of it for splitting trees. 

I 4. C. pyrito'lia AU. The Pear-tree-leaved Thom. 

'"^^^Imi' j*"'^"-""-*-''' 1^-1 PonliFl- ABBr.S«j>t.,l.p.MT.i DecPnd.. t.p.Gir. 
SiwatrMTj. 'c. Irucaptilct-oi (Bhi»-barked) llwrict Wtla. p. SI. 1. 1. 1 C. ndUU LaM. CM. 
-»,. nor., r , .ft., n-ftri Uurhk. 1. p. 18S. i C. lUJItlta Ftri.\ MbpUvi UUftU» l^m. 

t coast of America nake 

XXVI. BOSa'cCC: t'RAT-«"GllS, 357 

EwprmtiMim. Mimch Wriu., V S. ; Will. l>«id. BrtL, 1. 61.1 But. Beg., I. 1877.1 our 
jIg. bU.1ii p. M9. ; tbepluaofchnipi^isln AH>. Brit, lit cdll., (Ol. >l. ; uid our ^. S39. 

^vc. Ciar., 4"c. In some iDstances spiny, in some without spines. Leaves 
OTate-etliptical, incisely serrated, obacurelj' plaited, a little huitj. Flowers 
S-etyled. Calyx slightly rillose; its sepals linear-lanceolate. serrateH. 
(Dec. Prod.) A low tree, generally spineless. North America, from Penn- 

Klvania to Carolina, in woods and rocky places. Height 20 ft. to Sj ft. 
troduced io 1762. Flowers white ; June and July, rather later than 
C. punctata. Fruit small, yellowish red ; ripe early in September, aad 
more eagerly sought aAer by birds than thow of any other species. 


The leave* of young trees are larger, nnd the fruit smaller, than those 
of most other species; the leaves are also more strongly plaited, having the 
appearance of being furrowed from the midrib to the margin. When the fruit 
is not eaten by birds, it shrivels, turns black, and remains on the tree through- 
out the wiDter. The leaves drop early, of a rich yellow. 

{ iii. Macracdntha. 

Seel. Char. Leaves large, ovate-d>long, slightly lobed and serrated, with nu- 
merous nerves, and subplicate. Fruit small. Spines very long. Tree 
vigorous and spreading. 

f 5. C. macraca'ntHii Lodd. Cat. The long-spined Thorn. 

|i1uidul<>u B mscrilDUia LhM., Bol. B».. t. 1eit. i C. iplDa hmglulnu in th* 

rluidul<>u a mscrilDUia Unit., Bol. Jtn.. X. 
Nurtprji C, Brriltoni Torrrn i m Btu. ttrg.t. 

Spec. Char., Src, Spines longer than the leaves, and numerous. Leaves 
ovate-oblong, somewhat acuminate, slightly lobed and bluntly serrated, 
nerved, and subplicate. Fruit small, or middle-sized, of a shining red, 
and very succulent when ripe. Tree open, spreading, nnd of very vigorous 


^owtb. The shooti straight, and tendin;; upwardi at an angle of 45°. 
North America, and the moBt commou ipecies in the northern states. 
Height loft, to 30lt. Introduced in 1819. Flowers white; Hay and 
June. Fniit scarlet, rather Bmaller thim that oC C. coccineaj ripe in Sep- 

* C. m. S minor (_/%. 686. in p. 390.) only differs from the specin in 
hnvini; smaller fruit. There are plants at Somerford Hall, Suf- 

Raised from American seed, in 1810, in the nurBei7 of Messrs. Falls, at 
nnleshead, near Newcastle ( whence it was sent to the Edinburgh fiotimic 
Onrden, under the name of the large American uarole. 

j iv. CHu-gMli. 

Sect. char. Leaves without lobes, obovate-oblong or oboTate-Ianceolste, 
more or less serrated, end of a dark shining green, with petioles margined 
by the decurrence of the leaf. Fruit smnlT, or middle sized, round, dark 
green till nearly ripe, and, when ripe, scarlet. Spines very long, and bent 
like the spur of a cock. 

BitrrintMi. Wang. Am, 't. 17. I. a.; t>»iiil' Brli.! i.W.; earfig.tgl.\ar.Kl.; tht pIMisTib* 
ipnim |g Arb. Brit.. Ill (dit., rol. ti. ; ud tur^. HI. 

Spec. Char., ij-c. Spines long. Leaves obovate- wedge-shaped, nearly ses- 
Kile, glossy, glabrous, falling otr late. Stipules linear. Lobes of the calyi 
lanceolate, uiid somewhat serrated. Styles 2. Fruit scarlet. (Dec. Prod.) 
A low tree. North Americn ; common in woods and hedges, and on the 
hanks of rivers, from Canada to Carolina. Height lAft. toirOft. lotm- 

duced in laOI. Flowers white; May and June. Fruit 
at length ecarlec ; ripe ia September and October. Leaves retained 
longer than in most of the species ; so that in the South of England it ap- 
pears a Eub-evergreen, retaining also its showj' fruit through the tFinter. 

* C. C 2 jp/ftirf™ Dec. Prod.. Ait. Hort. Kew. ii. p. 170., Pluk. t. M. 

f. 1. C. arbutifolia and C. splcndens Lodd. Cat, (Jtg. 668. in p. 391.) 

— Leaves oborate-wedge-ahaped, and shining; and, being produced 

in nhundance, the plant tias a splendid appearance. 

T CC.3 pyracanl/iifiilia Dec. Prod., Ait. Hon, Kew. ii. p. 170 C.pvra- 

ranlbifolis Lodrt. Cat. ; If^spilua liicida Dam. Couri. Bnl. Cult. e^. 2. 

J). 446. (JSg. 693. in p. 391. ; the plate in Arb. Brit., lat edit., 

UT,;fjr- 642.) — Leaves oblong, irith the up(ier part lan- 

V. p. 446. 

ceolate ; the lower part tending to wedge-i^iaped. TIiIm, even when 
only 3 or 4 years grafted, fbrma n singular little old-lookiiQ tree, 
spreading like a miniature cedar of Lebunon. 



T C. C. 4 Bn/in/3fio Dec. Prod., Ait Hurt. Kew. ii. p. 170. C.tJkXA. 
(/^.69l,in p. 391.1 and the plate in A*. Bnt, lat <diL,tol.n.; 
and our ^.643.) — Leaves oblong, widi the upper p«rt boceolMe ; 


the lower part tending to wedge-ahapcd. This forma a low B^i- 
heuded tree, tike the preceding variety. A plant in Metsn. Lod- 
digea'a arboretum, in 1S35, after being five years gmfied at a foot 
from the ground, was not quite 5 ft. high. The miniature trees of 
this variety are admirably adapted for children's gardens. 
I C.C. 5 IkedHi Dec. Prod. JUespilus lineiiris lieif. Arb. il. p. Ii6, 
Pidf. Siippl. iv, p. 70. ; C. linearis Lodd. Col. (Jig. 690. in p. 391.1 

— Leaves linear-lanceolate. Spines, or thorns, few and shoniili. 
Styles 1—2. Fruit af a yellowiah red. 

• C. C. e nana Dec. Prod. 3fe^ilus nana Dum. Coart. Suppl. p. 3S6. 

— BranchletB tomentose in some degree. Leaves OTaUaDceoiale i 
the under sur&ce paler than the upper. A shrub, or, irhen trdneJ 
to a single stem, a miniature tree. 

Tliis epecies, being one of the Grat introduced into England, has been nore 
cultivated than any other American thorn ; and on the wTiule il is one of the 
most splendid in appearance, from its sroooth, shining, dark green roliBge,>nd 
the great abundance of its fine white flowers, and dark red fruit vhich remaiat 
long on the tree. In the South of England, and in the climate of London, in 
warm sheltered situations, where the soil b rich and moist, il retains its leans 
and fruit through great part of the winter, so as to appear quite evergreen. 

* 7, C, (C.) ovALiFoYiA Horn. 
liUmtiflcalim. Hornnn. Bort. Hs(n. Siinnt.. si i Tin 
Sjrwiijnnr. C. rlllplka Lofd. Cal. 


ralJeaved Thorn. 

p.«17.i Dno'i iniL, 1 p. SSi. 

Big. t.\am. 

Spec. Char., fic. Leaves oval, serrated, a little pilose on both . , 

abinine on the upper one. Stipules half- heart-shaped, incisely serrated, 
with landed serratures. (Dec. P>^.) A low tree. North America. Heigbl 
15fl.to80fl. Introd. in IBIO. Flowers white. A very distinct variety <if 
C. Cru».gfilli, with a loose spreading hahii of growth, SLod broad leaves. 


-4; ^' 

t C.uroUoLliuldAr.fM.] Luia 

Id p. 391. i at plu« or Ibb Ui 


Spec, Char., ^c. heaiea with tlie ilisk broadly ovate, unequally eerrated. and 

flahrous ; ihe petioles bearing b, few glantlB. Scpaln wiih glundt-d serrstureii. 
'eduni-le and chIji a little villose. tieeds S in a pome. (Dec. I'nd.) A 
low tree. North America. Height 15 ft, to SO ft. Introduced in 1818, 
or before. Flowers while ; May and June. Fruit scarlet. 
Differs from the preceding variety in having broader and shorter leaves, a 
more compact and bstigiate habit of firovth, and rather more thorns on the 
branches. The leaves of this and the preceding kinds die ofT of a tauch 
deejier red than the narrow-leaved varieties, which often drop quite green, 
yellow, or of a yellowish red. 

j V. Niffrcc. 

Sed. Char. Leaves middle.^ed, deeply lobed. I^bea pointed. Fruit rouail, 
black or purple. Tree rather fastigiate, with few or no spiues. Bark 

t 9. C. M'GRA Waiftil. d Kit. The black./hufcrf Thorn. 

Sjiec. Char., ^c. Leaves unuately lobed, and serrated, somewhat wedge- 
shuped, though truiicately so, at the base ; whiiely villose bcncaih. Stipules 
oblong, scrralely cut. Calyxes villose; tiie lobes slightly toothed. Styles 
5. Fruit black. {Dec. Prod.) A low tree. Hungary. Height iSft'. lo 
20 ft., throwing up numerous suckers from its widely spreading roots, which 
soon cover the ground with a forest of bushes. In England, where it ia 

EenerHlly propagated by grafting on the common thorn, it lorms a very 
andsoine, upright, somewhat fastigiate tree, from 20 ft. to 30 fl. high, put- 
ting forth its leaves, in mild scasoua, in February or March. Introiuiced in 
1819. Flowers white; April and May. Fruit black; ripe in July and 

Vnrietti. C. fiiscB Jacq., judf-ing from a seedling plant in the Hon. Soc. 
(lanlen, ap|>ears to belong to tliis species. 
Nightingales are said to be attracted by this tree, probably becauae it is ur- 

ticulurly liable to be attacked by insects, and because 

X.\VI. BOSA t 


trelabe found on it about the time wh« the nightingale is in full song. The 
same property of altnicting nightingales ie ascribed to the common hawthorn, 
in La TXcorie du Jardinagr, ^c, published in 1709. 

t \0. C.PVxpv'Rr.kBote. The parplf-braacAed ThoTn. 
Uenl^lealint. Bok iutO.: Dec. Prod., Ip.GJS.i Dn'i WU.,l.n.»M. 
^luihyiM. C. MiiBiiliiM >f»r(. 
£>ET<inV- Wu> UriHl. Brit., t, m. ; oat Jig. SM. In p. M). i Ills pUU o( tbii ipeclH In Arb. 


^tee. Char., fre. Branches dark puiple. Lenvei OTkt«, cnneate at the base, 
lobed with broad iobea, Rcrrated, glnbroui, or pubcicent beneath. Stipules 
somewhat circnliu", •erroted with ^landed ■efrsturea. {Dec. Prod.) A 
shrub or low tree. Altaic Moiintams. Height 6t). to tOft. Introduced 
in \8Si. Flowers white; early in April ; being the very liriit species of CVa- 
tie'gus tliat comes into flower m the neighbourhood of London, e 
always the Glastonbury thorn. Fruit darL red or purple, sometimci 
very succulent ; ripe in July. 

I'c. p. 2 aUdica ; C.iimn Led., Lod. Cal. (^.696. in p.3f)X); has the 
leaves somewhat larger then the species, and they appear a little 

It forms an upright, rigid, rather slow-growing tree, without thorns. It has 
a few small branches, and is not dense! v clothed with leaves. It has a starved 

, , ir brown 

colour, and rough and sralr- The fruit is small, round, and most commonly of 
a dark nurj)le ; but it varies lo pale yellow, or a milk white, and red, on the 
stunc plHTit. It ripens about the end of July, and is very soil and juicy, but 
soon drops off. The tier: is interesting Irom its early flowering, and the dark 
colour or the anthers of its flowers, which contrasts strongly with the white- 
ness of the petals. The leaves are alno large, and of a peculiar shape. 

$ vi. Doufflasii. 

'whul stunted appearance, i 


nilher numeroiii and rigid. Fruit small, and ititrk purple ; pulp roh uid 


t II. C DouGi.A's/i Lindl Douglas's Thorn. 

UfnllJIciUiim. Bot. Rh.. t. I*ID. ; Lnd. Cat., edlL ISSl. 

t'nU'-d^ Bot Rx, t.1810.1 0llt./«.Ce7.ill p.Sea.i Ibt plUsof the IIMdH tn Art-.Bril.. 

^)ec. Char,, l[c. Branches aacendtng. Spbes rigid, Btraishlish, now ihort, 
now very long. Leavei some obovate, Bome oral, gashedJy aerrated, ncutc ; 
at the base wedge-ahaped, glubroua ; in the autumn, remwkably leathery, 
and they then acquire a purplbh caat, and are shining. {Lmdi.) A ahnib 
or low tree. North-Weat America. Heicfat 10 ft. to 15 ft. Introduced in 
18S7. Flowers white ; May. Fruit vram, dark purple ; ripe in August. 
Dtcayini leaves purplish, leathery, shining, falling oB' early, like thoae of 
C, punctlta and C. pyrifolia. Ifaked young wood purplish. 
This ia a very distinct sort, more particularly u it respecca the colour of 

the fruit, and the colour and texture of the leaves. The general habit of the 

plant is fastigiate; and it is one of the latest kinds in leafing in the spring. 

The flowers and fruit. are produced in great abundance, and both are tery 

5 vii. Fldva. 
Seel. Char. Leaves bdibU, obovate, slightly lobed, and serrated. Flowers fre- 
quently solitary. Spines numerous, atrsight, and more slender than io any 
other division. Fruit top, or pear, shaped ; yellow, or greenish yellow. 

S 12. C. FLAvA Ait, The yellow/rui/«/ Thorn. 

/ilntlillnilnM. All. Hort. Krs.. 3. p. 169.; Fnnh PI. Amcr. Sept., I. p. ISa. ; Ttrc. Prod., X. 

p. <». ; Dou'i MUU a p. «n. 
Sgnatrma. C. |luidiilftu UffAr. Ft. Bar. Amtr. 1, |i.»S,,IIoI or Will. : V(ipllu> Mlcl»lil« 

Pen. SjTD. *. p.U. I C aroUultn* Pair. DiO. 4. p. MI.; C. Omiliilma ^rl. i C. ViurMnili 

Bngrawimgt. Dot. !!((,. t. 19M.<^ [np-SM. i lb* pUtc of tli« ipodcalD Arb. Brll.. lu edIL. 

Spec. Char., S/c. Disks of leaves obovat^wedee-diaped, slightly lobed, cre- 
nately serrate, ujion short petioles. Stiputea glanded. Flowers mostly 
solitary. Sepals glanded. Fruit top-ahaped, yellow, or yellowish green. 
Nuts 4 in a tiniit. {Dec. Prod.) A low sprcat^ug tree. North AiMiica. 

XXVI. kosa'cea: crat.e'gus. 

(rom Vii^nia to Carolina. Height 15 ft. to EO ft. Introduced in IT!4<. 

Flowers white; Ma^, Hbwh yellow; ripe io October. Decayii^ leaves 

rich yellow. 

The flowers and the fruit are iKsther produced io abundance, nor make any 
great show; but tlie tree has a marked character from its general form, aud 
the horizontal tendency of its branches. 

T 33. C. (p.) 

The lobedVravf d Thorn. 

Spec.Char.,^c. Branthea 
n little villose. Disks 
or leaves ovate, uj 
qually serrated, 
lobed, slightly downy j 
beneath, upon very 
short petioles. Sti- 
pules cut. Flowers in 
loose COrynil)B. (Dec. 
ProdS) A tree closely 3 
rcsembliDg C, flava ii 

Sneral appearance 
Btive country sup- 
posed to he Ame 
Height 10 ft. to 1 
Introduced in 1819. 

Flowers white ; May. "»■ e.f.w«n. 

Frnit green ; ripe in October. 
. IMffering from C flava in having some of the leaves with larger lobes, and 
some of the spines larger. "Hie flowers are sparingly prt>d need, amongst dense 
tufta t^ leaves ; and the fruit, which is green when ripe, is still less abundant. 
It Upear4haped,and very different from that of every other kind ofCV«l«'gua, 
except C. flAva and C. f. trilob&ta. 

, Google 

9 H. C. (F.) triloba'ta Lodd. Cal. The three-lobed-Jeonnf Thorn. 

Bitttratin^. Fig, 700. Id p. 305. 

Spec. Char., Jf-c, Lenvei oTate-ciineate, notched and semUed. Petiola 
Blender. Surface ftat, shining, somewhat vrined. Branches sniatl, thickly 
beset with slender tlioma. Habit spreading. A hybrid, raised from seed 
in (he Hammersmith Nursery, about 1830, or before. It forms a tree in 
general appearance resembling C. flttva, hut with the branches much less 
vigorous, and more thorny. The fruit is yellow, sliglitly tinged with red : 
and what distinguishes it from the two allied sorts la, that its leaves die off, 
in autumn, of an intensely deep scarlet. 

} viii, Apiffblitc. 
Scd. Ciar. Leaves deltok), or somewhat resemblina those of the ciHnmon 
(horn. The fruit ie also of the same colour ; but the tree has a totally dif- 
ferent habit, having the shoots loose and spreading, weak, and almost without 

I 15. C. ^ufo'lia jtfintr. The Pandey-l caved Thorn. 

UmliflaiHim. KkhL PI. Bor. Anwr., I. p. KT., not of Med. ; Dk. Piod., L p. EV. ; Don'i Hill. 

Symmffwia. C. OincAnOU Wait. Carol. 14T. : C. oMK 
EnKmtnfi. Fif. ten. Id p. J9!l. ; Die ptite In Arb. Brit. 

^e. Char,, rf-c. Leaves deltoid, cut into lobes that are acute and iudaely 
toothed. Pedicels in the corymb (illose, mostly simple. Tube of calyx 
villose. Sepals obscurely serrated. Fruit scarlet. (Dec, Pmd.) A tow 
spreading tree with AexUife branches. Virginia and Carolina, in moist wood*. 
Height 10 ft. to 30 a. Introduced in 181S. Flowers white; May and June. 
Haws scariet ; ripe in October. Decaying leaves rich yellow. 

I the 

^\vi. bosa'ce-c: chat^'ous. 307 

edgex, like thosB of the common paralev ; but this fringed appetmnce 
is b^ no means conHtnnt, either in the vuriety or in the species. This 
Tanety forma a mont orniunenial low bush ; or, when gnineU standard 
high, a beautiful pcmlent tree. 

$ ix. Microciirp^. 

Secf. Ciar, Friiit smnjl, round, red. Flowers small, produced in corymbs, 
later in (he season than in any of the other species. Spines few, but Minie- 
s very lar^c. 

The heart-shaped'/miinf Thorn. 

I. II. Em. I Doi-i MilJ., }. n. u». 

ordiM MiU.; C. pnpuLlliU* WaU. C*r. HI., lind 

UW.4. p,«3. 

jitt. Drnd Brit- 1. SS. i Btt Rf«_ t.llM ; Ai-KSL in p. (M. 


^xc. Char., 4c. Disks of leaves cordate- ovate, angled by lobes, glabrous. 
Petioles and calyxes without glands. Styles 5 in a flower. {Dec. Prod.) 
A compact, close-hendcd, snail tree, with leaves of a deep sbining green. 
Canada to Virginia, in hedges and rocky places. Height SOfl. to 30 ft. 
Introduced in 1738. Flowers white, in numerous terminal corymbs ; May 
and June. Fruit small, tcarletj ripe in Uccob«r. 
A very distinct and handsome species. 

¥ 17. C. spatmula'ta El/iolt, The Epalhula-iAapnUfamf Thorn. 
EUlatt Fl. a. dr.. 1. p. sn.i Lodd. But. Cm., I. i«i- 
C.JBlmrirftLtn^. ft*, tteg. t '"" " -' ' ■ 

BM. C«b..t.lrel.i BM. Re«.,t 

Id Artt. BrH, IKHlit., tdL d. ( UKt our A. S>3. 
^icc. Char., 4'c. Subspinose. Leaves in ibscicleA, oUong cnnested, 3-cleft, 
lobed and crenated, smooth, shining. Corymbs maoy-flowered. Odyx