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pendent origin is sufficiently attested by the subjects of 
controversy between the anglo-roman and british christians. 
— The Britons had churches of their own, built after a fashion 
of their own; their own saints; their own hierarchy/' 

Blunt's Reformation in England, Chap. I. 


As an apology for presenting these pages to the public, it 
is perhaps necessary to inform the reader that they were ori- 
ginally written with a view to competition for a premium, 
offered by the Committee of the Gwent and Dyfed Royal 
Eisteddfod, for the best dissertation on the following 
subject : — 

"The Notices of the Primitive Christians, by whom the 
Welsh Churches were founded, and to whom dedicated." 

Out of several compositions transmitted for the approbation 
of the Society, the Essay, now printed in an enlarged form, 
was adjudged to be successful, accompanied with a recom- 
mendation that it should be published ; and though some time 
has elapsed since the occasion which called it into existence, 
it is hoped that the interest naturally attached to its subject 
will ensure it a favourable reception. 

Historians have laboured to trace the origin of the Britons, 
a profusion of learning has been expended in the endeavour 
to unravel the mysteries of Druidism, and the antiquarian, 
who finds any vestiges of the occupation of this island by the 
Romans, carefully records the discovery ; — so long as the 
inhabitants of Britain feel an interest in the history of their 
forefathers, disquisitions upon those subjects must demand 
attention, though the materials of information are exceedingly 
scanty. Every author, therefore, who treats of the affairs of 
this country, prior to the departure of the Romans, has been 

diligently consulted, and his expressions construed into every 
variety of meaning go as to obtain a new illustration of the 
points of enquiry. The present researches, however, relate to 
■ period comparatively neglected ; their object being to trace 
the ecclesiastical history ol' the Britons, from the introduction 
of Christianity, or more especially from the termination of the 
Roman power in Britain, to the end of the seventh century. 
From the close of this period, the annals of Wales have been 
minutely detailed by several chroniclers whose labours are 
extant ; before its commencement, the history of Britain may 
be collected from the scattered notices to be found in classical 
writers ; and if those notices are not so numerous as can he 
wished, they are authentic, and are as many as may be ex- 
pected when the distance of the island from the capital of the 
Roman empire is considered. The interval between these 
points is a historical blank ; for it must be confessed that the 
Welsh, though possessed of a variety of records relating to 
that time, have not preserved a regular and connected history 
of their ancestors who rose into power upon the departure of 
the Romans, and who, notwithstanding their dissensions, main- 
tained a longer and more arduous struggle against the Saxons, 
than the continental parts of the empire did upon the irruption 
of the Goths and Vandals. In the middle ages, those records, 
to which was added a large store of tradition, attracted the 
attention of the romance -writers, who gradually invested 
them with e cloud of fable, which at last, when arranged and 
regularly digested, was suffered to usurp the place of history. 
This remark is applied particularly to the Armorican chronicle 
usually attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth. It should, how- 
ever, be allowed in justice to that person, that he was not its 
inventor, for a Welsh version of the original is preserved, 
which shows that he merely made a free t ran slat ion, inserting 
inally interpolations of his own. When the chronicle 


the island, when, for \ 
they are obliged to hav 

alluded to was brought from Brittany to Wales by Walter de 
Mapes in the twelfth century, its contents were found to be so 
flattering to national vanity, that it was soon received as an 
authentic record of facts, to the disadvantage of other records 
of a less pretending nature. For a long time implicit faith 
■was given to the story of Trojan-British kings, and the super- 
human actions of Arthur and his valorous knights commanded 
the admiration of Europe, few caring to question the truth of 
tales which suited the taste of the age and filled their readers 
with delight. The criticism of later years has however deter- 
mined the race of Trojan-British kings to be a pure fabrica- 
tion, and most writers are contented to commence the history 
of Britain with the invasion of Julius Casar, following the 
Latin authorities until the termination of the Roman power in 
■ satisfactory information, 
e to records which they know 
not where to trust, or leaving the affairs of the Britons in that 
darkness which they could not dispel, they have confined 
their researches to the Saxons. 

It Is but right to state, that the substance of several of the 
fables in the Armorican chronicle was known in Wales before 
the time of Walter de Mapes, a fair specimen of which may 
be seen in the works of Nennius ; but the Welsh were also 
possessed of records of another and a different kind; these 
were a collection of poems, triads, and genealogies, preserved 
by the bards and written in the national tongue. The in- 
formation to be derived respecting the Britons of the fifth and 
two following centuries may, therefore, be divided into the 
bardic and the legendary. The latter kind, which was pre- 
served by the monks or clergy, was written principally in 
Latin, and consists of the History of Nennius and the lives of 
several Welsh saints. The genuineness and authenticity of 
the works attributed to Gildas are questionable, and yet a B 


they are undoubtedly ancient they ate deserving of some 
attention. But it is remarkable that in all the records of the 
Britons, both in Welsh and Latin, before the twelfth century, 
historical allusions abound, which are at variance with the 
narrative of the Armorican chronicle ; even the most extra- 
vagant tales in Nennius are more limited than those of the 
later fabulist ; and the various ways in which the same tales 
are related by the former, prove that in his time they had not 
reached the consistency of history, whereas in the latter there 
is no hesitation, but every story is told as positively as if the 
writer were an eye-witness. 

The amount of information, or rather tradition, preserved by 
the Welsh relative to the Britons before the invasion of Caesar 
and during the sojourn of the Romans, is smalt, and that little 
is intimately blended with bardic mythology. But it may be 
asked, whether it is possible, discarding entirely the Armori- 
can chronicle and its followers, to construct, out of the before- 
mentioned older materials, a history, which shall supply the 
hiatus between the departure of the Romans and the beginning 
of the eighth century, where the authentic chronicles com- 
mence. — The present is the first attempt, upon such a system, 
to supply the deficiency. The attempt, however, is but a 
partial one ; for as the purpose of this Essay was to treat of 
the Welsh saints or founders of churches, national affairs are 
only noticed incidentally. Whatever success therefore may 
attend the present undertaking, it is hoped that if the idea be 
approved, a more extended research may employ some maturer 
judgment and an abler pen. The result of an accumulation 
of the most authentic notices that can be collected, would be 
the production of a history, displaying indeed many of 
those moral features which distinguished the Welsh at a later 
time, but bearing a very slight resemblance to Jts representa- 
tion in the pages of Geoffrey. 

In groping 1 through this period of darkness, some glimmer- 
ings of light may be borrowed from Bede, the contemporary 
writers of Gaul, and perhaps from the Irish historians; and 
in compiling such a history, where authorities of the legendary 
kind must be consulted, a simple rule may be observed, 
which, if does not always elicit the truth, will produce the 
nearest approximation to it, namely to take the story of the 
oldest writer, which also is generally found to be the most 
limited. The character of fable is progressive, and a story, 
which originally was true, is in most cases repeated with 
additions. This rule has been established with great clearness 
by the author of " Europe in the Middle Ages," (in Lardner's 
Cyclopcedia, vol. iv. p. 67:) observing the manner in which 
Nennius has been amplified by Geoffrey, he adds: — "There 
is no greater difference between Geoffrey of Monmouth and 
Nennius, than between Nennius and Gildas. This fact is 
very instructive; it may enable the judicious investigator into 
the antiquities of ancient Britain, and of Britain even in the 
Anglo-Saxon period, to steer his way through the darkest 
path ever traversed by historian." 

The learned writer, whose words are quoted, regrets that he 
bad not access to the ancient relics subsisting in the Welsh lan- 
guage, which he supposed must contain stores of information 
but little known to the public. Tliose relics, so far as they 
Lave been printed, form the principal materials of the follow- 
ing dissertation ; and mcigrc as they may seem, they strongly 
confirm the presumption of their antiquity by the circum- 
stance, that they are frequently at variance with the legendary 
authorities ; and wherever they appear to agree, their state- 
ments are more circumscribed than those of the latter, pre- 
senting as it were the germs out of which subsequent fables 
have sprung. An examination of the bardic records, there- 
fore, if it will not discover authentic materials of history, will 


at least be of service in tracing the origin of romance, and in 
this respect may tend to elucidate a large portion of the 
literature of Europe. 

Leaving the task of demonstrating the progress of fable to 
tlie general writer, the business of the antiquary, whose object 
is the history of his country, is to search after the oldest 
authorities that can be procured, and afterwards to consider 
them by themselves, divested of the misconceptions and ex- 
aggerations of later ages. By this mode of proceeding, many 
statements which receive current belief, will be found to rest 
on a alight foundation ; and much of the remainder, being 
placed in a new light, will assume a different character. The 
operation of this rule is the cause why many assertions, which 
have hitherto been credited, are rejected in the following 
pages; but wherever such cases occur, the particular reason is 
added, and the reader must decide according to his own 
judgment upon its validity. It will be observed that even the 
Welsh records arc not allowed to pass without a scrutiny ; many 
of their positions, which are shown to be untenable, are sur- 
rendered ; and that mistakes should have been committed, can 
by no means be surprising, when the remoteness of the times 
tit which they refer is considered, as well as the neglect under 
which they have been suffered to remain. 

The documents, for the possession of which Wales lias long 
been celebrated, and to which of late years little attention has 
been paid, are its genealogies. Of these a large Btore is pre- 
served in manuscript, and though from their minuteness of 
detail they must necessarily contain inaccuracies, yet, as the 
pedigrees are numerous, they may be rectified upon compari- 
son with each other. An attempt is now made to render them 
available for the purpose of history, by arranging them so as 
to construct an artificial chronology. In endeavouring to 
connect the Roman period witli the eighth century, such a 

plan was absolutely necessary, for in the lapse of three hun- 
dred years very few dates occur upon which any reliance may 
be placed; and without attention to this arrangement, the 
events reported present only a mass of confusion. It is how- 
ever satisfactory to learn, that the few dates that have been 
ascertained, agree undesignedly with the arrangement of the 
pedigrees, and so far confirm their correctness. The dates, 
collected by Archbishop Usher in his " Britannicarum Eccles- 
arura Primordia," and which he perpetually shows to be con- 
fused and contradictory, belong to chroniclers of the Armorican 
school, and are of little value: the work of the Archbishop 
however contains, amidst much irrelevant matter, a fund of 
valuable information, for which the present writer is greatly 
indebted. The reason why the pedigrees have been neglected 
is their intricacy, and at first sight they are certainly un- 
promising, but as they are interspersed with historical notices 
they are deserving of attention ; and it should not be forgotten 
that for many ages the only historians whom the Welsh pos- 
sessed were their genealogists. 

Localities are a very powerful auxiliary in forming a con- 
structive history. In this respect the Armorican chronicle is 
exceedingly deficient; for the few localities mentioned in it 
are certain towns and places which were well known and 
flourishing at a late period, proving, not only that the record 
was recent, but also that it was compiled in a distant country. 
The scene of the fable is laid down in Britain, but the places 
introduced are such as were of sufficient celebrity to be known 
abroad. The events of history do not always occur at dis- 
tinguished towns, and it might be expected that places, which 
were celebrated in past ages, had afterwards become obscure. 
National traditions often refer to a spot, it may be the summit 
of a hill or a pass between mountains, which, but for those 
traditions, might have possessed nothing remarkable. The 



Welsh traditions and records abound in localities, the notice* 
of which are generally precise ; among these the situations of 
churches are not the least distinguished. A vast number of 
churches are called after the names of native saints, and there- 
fore may be considered as so many undoubted monuments of 
existence of those persons ; but Welsh tradition proceeds 
further and asserts, that the churches were so called, not so 
much because they were dedicated to the saints, as because 
they were founded by them. 

If the assertion be true, it follows that many churches exist 
in the Principality, the origin of which must be dated from the 
fifth and sixth centuries, for in those ages most of the saints 
alluded to flourished. That churches, though frequently 
rebuilt, should continue uninterruptedly in the same situations 
from such high antiquity, will not be deemed extraordinary, 
when it can be proved by authentic testimony that the ground, 
on which the church of St. Martin at Canterbury stands, 
has been the site of a church, bearing the same name, from 
a date prior to the departure of the Romans. The cathedral 
in that city is another instance of equal antiquity, which also 
shows that wherever, from war or other causes, a sacred 
edifice had been demolished or had been for some time in 
ruins, such was the veneration attached to a spot once conse- 
crated, that a new edifice was erected in the same situation ; 
and it should be remembered that the Christianity of Wales 
did not, like that of Kent, suffer an eclipse from the inter- 
vention of paganism. 

In the first three sections of this Essay it is shown by prin- 
ciples of induction that the churches, presumed to have been 
founded by the saints whose names they bear, are more 
ancient than those which are dedicated to the Apostles and the 
saints of the Romish Calendar ; and therefore that the current 
opinion of their foundation is confirmed by existing circum- 



stances. They were founded at a time when the Britons were 
not in communion with the Church of Rome, and before the 
practice of dedicating to saints according to the usual mode 
had become customary. From the testimony of Bede, it 
appears that the mode of consecration, practised by the Primi- 
tive Christians of this island, was peculiar. — Wherever a 
church was intended to be erected, a person of reputed sancti- 
ty was chosen to reside on the spot, where he continued forty 
days in the performance of prayer, fasting, and other religious 
exercises; at the expiration of the time, the ground was held 
sacred, and a church was erected accordingly. — It would na- 
turally follow that the church should be called after the name 
of the person by whom the ground was consecrated, and in 
this sense the word " founder," as applied to the subject under 
consideration, must be understood. It remained for subsequent 
generations to regard the founder in the character of patron 

Popular opinion seems to maintain that all churches, which 
are named after Welshmen, were founded by them. An 
exception, however, should be made with respect to such as 
are, or may be proved to have been, chapels, which, for 
reasons that shall appear, cannot claim so early an origin ; and 
with respect to parent churches the proposition may not 
indeed be true in every instance, but is assumed as a general 
fact, there being no criterion by which its exceptions may be 
distinguished. Edifices as they now exist, being purely an 
architectural question, constitute no part of the enquiry. The 
original churches of the Britons were all of them built of wood 
and covered with thatch, and it is singular that this circum- 
stance was made a ground of objection to them by the 

So numerous are the Welsh saints, that their history is in a 
manner the ecclesiastical history of their time ; but it must be 

confessed that nothing further is known of many of them than 
their genealogy and their churches. The question of the cele- 
bration of Easter, and other points, on which the Prii 
Christians of Britain differed from the Romanists, have been 
ably discussed in other publications; the object of this treatise 
is, if possible, to add to the stock of information from materials 
which have been but partially Investigated. To his prede- 
cessors, whose works have facilitated these researches, among 
whom may be named the authors of " Ilur.i- Britannicse" and 
" HaneB Crefydd yn Nghymru," the writer acknowledges his 
obligations; and though he has sometimes differed from their 
conclusions, he has done so with diffidence, and is aware that 
the same fate will in turn befal the present undertaking. 
Knowledge is the accumulation of past experience, and all 
that the best informed writer can expect to accomplish, is to 
contribute but a trifle to tile general heap, leaving its amount 
to be estimated by his successor. 




The comparative Antiquity of the Foundation op Churches and 

Chapels in Wales, ascertained from the nature 

of their Endowments. 

Churches at first few, and their parishes extensive 11 

Subdivision of ancient parishes; Chapelries 12 

Origin of vicarages . .13 

Instances of Churches of the earliest Foundation 15 

Churches of later Foundation « .15 
Vested rights of Churches respected by the Welsh Princes 16 

Parochial Chapels, and Chapels of Ease 18 

Cells, Oratories, and Hermitages • .19 

Use of the words " Llan, Capel, and Bettws" . 20 

The establishment of parishes gradual . 21 

Effects of the Law of Gavelkind . .21 

Parent Churches not converted into Chapels 23 
Subordination of Churches and Chapels proved from the 

Charters of Monasteries ; .24 


Tub Subordination of Churches and Chapels considered with 
reference to the saints to whom they are dedicated. 

Churches dedicated to St. Mary . .27 

Their late origin proved from their situations historically 

considered . .32 

And from Domesday Book .35 

Churches dedicated to St. Michael .36 
More ancient than those dedicated to St. Mary j but 40 

Not so ancient as those ascribed to Welsh Saints . 42 

Churches ascribed or dedicated to St. David • 43 

Their antiquity .45 


Testimony of Gwynfardd Brycheiniog about A. D. 1300 
Amended list of Churches of St. David, of which the 
Parent Churches were proliably founded by him, but llie 
Chapels anil Siiliunliiiiili' Churches were erected after his 

Their si 

it arbitrarily chosen 

bralOosbrvations on the Welsh Saints a« distini 
those of the roman catholic church. 
Dedication to Saints, not the practice of the ancient Brit 
Separation of the Britons from the Church of Rome 
Architecture of i hi- Chun-he* 
Mode of Consecration practised by the Primitiw I hn-t 

iaits of Scotland 
The same mode used apparently by the Prir 

Christians of Wales; its effects . 
Invocation of Angels 

The homage paid to St. Alary, of late introduction. 
The Welsh Saiuls, the Founders of most Churches which 

bear their names . , 

Second Class of Foundations 
The Welsh brought into communion with the Church of 

Rome in the Eighth Century 
Romish Computation of Easter introduced by Elbodiu 

Archbishop of Bangor 
Third Class of Foundations 
Cbauels named after Welsh Saints 
Churches consecrated a second time . 
Catholic Saints of Britain . 
Welsh Authorities; "Bonedd ueu Achau Saint Ynys 


the 1: 

Tug Welsh Saints f 

Account of the Introduction of Christianity ir 

by Bran :■ I. Llyr 
Its authenticity questioned 
Account of Bran in the Mabinogion 

f Christianity to the 


Companions and Descendants of Bran .81 

Ueurwg or Lucius .82 

His History uncertain .83 

Dyfan, Fmgan, Medwy, and Elmn . .84 
Lucius possibly the founder of a Church at LlandafF, said 

to have been the first in Britain . 85 

Memorials of his Contemporaries . .86 

Ait Examination op the early Welsh Pedigrees, wim a view to 


Deficiency of Welsh tradition from Lucius to Maximus 
A.D.383 . 

Descendants of Bran ab Llyr 

Inconsistencies in the Pedigree 

Descendants of BeliMawr .... 

Fabrication of Pedigrees which relate to the Roman- 
British Period .... 

Cadfrawd, a Saint and Bishop 

Mistakes, in the presumed Lineage of Bran ab Llyr, 
explained ..... 

Age of Cadfrawd, Coel Godebog, and Cynan Meiriadog . 

The Authenticity of Welsh Pedigrees commences in the 
fourth century .... 





The Welsh Saints prom a. d. 300 to a. d. 400. 

Alban, Amphibalos, Aaron, and Julius 

Conitantine the Great, not a native of Britain . 

Helen, not a British Saint 

British Bishops at the Council of Aries A. D. 314 

Councils of Sardica and Ariminum 

Descendants of Coel Godebog 

Settlement of Cynan Meiriadog in Armorica . 

St Ursula and the eleven thousand Virgins 

Pelagius .... 


The Welsh Saints prom a. d. 400 to a. d. 433. 

Emancipation of Britain from the Romans A.D. 408 or 409 106 
Owain ab Macsen Wledig, Chief Sovereign of the Britous 107 

ft AN ESSAY, &c. 

Descendants of Macsen Wledig or Maximus . 108 

Cunedda Wledig, a Chieftain of the Northern Britons . 108 

Settlement of the Sons of Cnnedda in Wales .109 
Ancestry of Brychan, regnlus of Brecknockshire 110 

Descendants of Cunedda . . .111 

Age of Brychan . 1 13 

Other British Chieftains . .113 

Lands given to the Saints by Cunedda .114 

Peblig, a saint . .115 
Mor ab Ceneu j Notice of his Churches by Lly warch Hen 117 

Visit of Germanus and Lupus to Britain .119 
Examination of the testimony of Prosper 120 

" Victoria Alleluiatica" . .121 

Welsh Account of Garmon or St. Germanus . .122 

Locality of the Alleluiatic Victory . .125 

Churches ascribed to St. Lupus . .126 

Tub Welsh Saints from a. d. 433 to a. d. 464. 

Cystennyn Fendigaid or Constantine the Ble«ed 
Welsh tradition of St. Patrick 
His supposed residence at Menevia or St, David's 
Second Visit of St. Germanus 
He is hospitably received by Cadell Deyrnllug, and 
Insulted by Vortigern 
Churches ascribed to him . 
Gwrtheyrn or Vortigern . 
Cynllo .... 

Gwrthefyr or Vortimer 
Rencounter between St Patrick and Ceredig ab Cunedda 
Family of Brychan 
Sons of Brychan ; St. Cynog, &c. 
Daughters of Brychan 
Legend of St. Keyna 
Brynach Wyddel 
Distribution of Churches ascribed to the Family of 

Brychan .... 
The Welsh Saints, an order of primitive monks 
Female Saints .... 
Cornish List of the Children of Brychan 





Tub Welsh Saints from the Accession op Vortimer a. d. 4C4 to 

the Death op Ambrosius a. d. 500. 

Descendants of Cadell Deyrnllug . .161 

Gynyr of Caer Gawch . .162 

Gistlianus, bishop of Menevia ; Uncle of St. David 162 

Tewdrig ab Teithfallt, prince of Glamorgan . . 164 

Descendants of Emyr Llydaw . 165 

Expulsion of the Gwyddyl Ffichti from North Wales by 

Caswallon Lawhir .... 166 
Retreat of several of the Northern Britons to Wales . 167 
Pabo Post Prydain .168 

Geraintab Erbin, a chieftain of Devon .169 

Gwynlly w Filwr, chieftain of Gwynll wg, Monmouthshire 170 
Dyfrig or St. Dubricius . .170 

Archbishoprick of Caerleon 173 

The dignity removed to Menevia, and afterwards to 

LlandafF ..... 174 
Its power lost between contending parties .174 

Colleges of Llancarfan, Caerworgorn, and Caerleon, 

founded by St Dubricius . . 176 

CattwgDdoeth .176 

Churches ascribed to him 177 

Illtyd or St. Iltutus . .178 

Churches of St Iltutus . .179 

British Monastic Institutions . 181 

Use of the terms «Cor and Bangor" . 181 

The Members of the British Monasteries or Colleges 

very numerous .181 

Death of Tewdrig ab Teithfallt .184 

Meurig ab Tewdrig .184 

Not the same person as Utber Pendragon the Father 

of Arthur . . . .185 

Arthur, a Native of Cornwall . 185 

Paulinos or Pawl Hen .187 

Ffraid or St Bride ,189 


The Welsh Saints prom the Accession op Uther Pbndragon a. d. 500 

to the Death op Arthur a. d. 542. 

Synod at Llanddewi Brefi respecting the Pelagian Heresy 191 
The Heresy refuted by St. David, who is elected Arch- 
bishop of Caerleon .... 192 

g AN ESSAY, &c. 

Death of St. Dnbiiciiu 


Relics not worshipped by the Primitive Christians 


Dcwi or St. David 


Brought ii|) iitijfr St*. [Hutu* and Paulinus 


Founds a Monastery in the Valley of Rusina, afterwards 

called Mcnevia 


His Character , 


He removes Ihe Arcbbishoprick from CacrlcontoMencvia 197 

Extent of his Diocese 


Traces of bis Memory in Devon and Cornwall 


His Death .... 


Canonization by Pope Calistus 


Expulsion of the Gwyddyl Ffichli from South Wale* by 

C : i ■ 1 1 Rhcgcd 


North Britain .... 


Account of the Britons of Cumberland 


Dunawd, Founder of the .Monastery of Bangor Iscoed 200 

Brochwel Ysgythrog, defeated by Elhelfrith . 


Saints of the Line of Cunerlda 


Afan Buallt .... 


Caranoog or St. Cnrantucus ; His Lrgend 


Einion Frenhin 


Arrival of Cad fan with a company of Siiints from Annorica 


Padarn, the First Bishop of Llanbadaru Fawr 


Tydetho, Amwn Ddu, and other Armoricau Saints 


Family of Caw .... 


Aneurin ; Question of his idenlily with Gildas 


Aeddan Focddog. Ui-hitp of Fern* 


Samson, Arcbbishop of York 


Arch i episcopal Pall claimed by the Bishops of St. David' 


Maelog ab Caw 


Family of Geraint ab Erbia 


Families of Gwynllyw Filwr, and Ynyr Gwent 


Inundation of Cantref y Gwaelod 


Romance of Taliesin 


Legend of St. Justinian 


Festivals of Saints represented by modern Fairs aod Wake 



Thb Welsh Smuts from the Accession nv Ctstekn\ 


a. n. '.!.' to the Death of Maelown Gwjkedd a. d 


Cynog, Bishop of Lbnhadarn ami Archbishop ol Mencvia 



Teilo, Bishop of Llandaff . .242 

He retires to Armorica .... 243 

He returns and is appointed Archbishop of Menevia 244 

The Archbishoprick removed to Llandaff 244 
Diocese of St. Teilo . .244 

List of his Churches .... 245 

Grant to the Church of Llandaff by Rhydderch ab lestin 246 
Death of St. Teilo .250 

Ismael, Tyfei, and Oudoceus 251 

Samson, Bishop of Dole in Armorica . 252 

Disputes between the Bishops of Dole and Tours 255 

Welsh Saints in Armorica 256 

Gwynno or Gwynnog ab Gildas 257 

Daniel or Deiniol, the First Bishop of Bangor . 258 

Consecrated probably by St. David . 259 

Cyndeyrn or St Kentigern, the First Bishop of Glasgow 261 

He retires to Wales, and founds the Bishoprick of St. Asaph 262 

His alleged Correspondence with the Pope . 262 

Consecration of British Bishops not deemed valid by the 

Romanists ..... 264 
Cybi . .266 
Beuno ..... 268 
Ancient Welsh Bards .... 271 
Did the Primitive Christians of Wales possess a Trans- 
lation of the Scriptures? . 272 


The Welsh Saints from the Death of Maelgwn Gwynedd a. d. 566 

to the close op the slxth century. 

Advance of the Saxons .... 273 

St Oudoceus, Bishop of Llandaff . 274 

Tyssilio, Bishop of St. Asaph . . 277 

Not the Author of the Chronicle of the Kings of Britain 277 

His Churches ..... 278 

St Columba, Founder of the Monastery of Iona . 281 
Landing of St. Augustin . .281 


The Welsh Saints from a. d. 600 to the Death of Caowallon ab 

Cadfan a. d. 634. 
View of National Affairs .283 

Bede's Account of the Conference between St Augustin 

and the Monks of Bangor Iscoed . 284 

Observations upon Bede's Account . 288 


|0 AN ESSAY, Ac. 

Refusal of the Britons to submit to the Pope . 288 

Alleged Reply of Dunawd to St. Augustin , 289 

Silence of Bede respecting an Archbishoprick in Wales . 291 

Commissions received by St. Augustin from Pope Gregory 291 

Seven Bishops of the British Church at this time 292 

Massacre of the Monks of Bangor by Etbelfrith . 293 

Legend of Gwenfrewi or St. Winefred 295 


The Wblsh Saints prom the Death op Cadwallon a. d. 634 to 

tub Death op Cadwaladr a. d. 664. 

Reign of Cadwaladr .... 299 

Confounded with Ceadwalla, King of Wessex 300 

Cadwaladr esteemed a Saint 301 

Peris ..... 302 

Edwen ..... 303 


The Welsh Saints from the Death op Cadwaladr a. d. 664 to the End 
op the Seventh Century, including those of uncertain date. 

Little known of the history of this Generation . 304 

Degeman or St. Decumanus , . 305 
Saints after the Conformity of the Welsh to the Church 

of Rome ..... 305 

Welsh Saints of uncertain date . 306 

Curig Lwyd ..... 307 

Objection respecting the number of Saints . 309 
Epistle of St. Aid helm to Geruntius respecting the Ton- 
sure and Paschal Cycle .311 

The Britons at this time not under Papal Jurisdiction 312 

Concluding Observations .... 313 

Appendix, No. I.— Saints of Britain from Cressy's « Church History 

of Brittany" . . . .315 

Appendix, No. II.— Anglo-Saxon Saints to whom Churches have 

been dedicated in Wales ..... 322 

Appendix, No. III. — A List of Churches and Chapels in Wales, in- 
cluding the County of Monmouth and part of the County of 
Hereford ...... 323 

Index . 353 


The comparative Antiquity of the Foundation of Churches and Chapels 
in Wales ascertained from the nature of their Endowments. 

According to popular opinion, many of the churches in 
Wales were founded by certain holy persons or Saints whose 
names they retain, as if Llangadog and Llandeilo,* or the 
Churches of Cadog and Teilo, were not so called in con- 
sequence of any formal dedication, but named after their 
founders, who are alleged to have lived in the fifth and sixth 
centuries. Lest however it should be urged that the Welsh 
Records and Traditions, which support this opinion of their 
high antiquity, are of insufficient authority, it may be proved 
that churches of the class alluded to are necessarily, from the 
nature of their endowments, the most ancientt in the Prin- 
cipality, if indeed they were not founded in the early age to 
which they are attributed. 

In the absence of positive evidence to the fact, it will 
readily be granted that the Welsh churches were at first few, 
and that they were afterwards multiplied to serve the oc- 
casions that required them. How soon certain districts were 
apportioned for their maintenance, cannot well be determined. 
It is, however, probable that the districts first appropriated 

• Usually written " Llangadock" and " Llandilo," but the Welsh mode of 
spelling is here preferred, in order to render the meaning of the names 
more obvious. 

t These observations apply to churches as regards their original establish- 
ment, the antiquity of the edifices which now exist, being more of an 
architectural question, does not belong to the purpose of this Essay. 



were extensive ; but when once they were attached to par- 
ticular churches, the sacred nature of ecclesiastical property 
would tend to preserve their limits inviolate. It* therefore 
any such extensive appropriations can be discovered, it may 
be presumed that the churches to which they belong are those 
of the earliest date. An example may be taken from the 
northern part of Radnorshire, where the churches of Nantmel, 
Llangynllo, and Llanbister are ascribed or dedicated 
Cynllo. This tract of country was probably the scene of hi. 
ministry, or it will be sufficient if it be allowed that he pos- 
sessed some influence over it. Whenever tithes would be 
assigned for the support of the clergy, this tract would be 
divided into three districts, which should maintain 
ministers of the three churches mentioned, It would after- 
wards be found that these churches were insufficient for the 
accommodation of districts so eNtensive. Chapels of Ease 
were therefore built in the more remote parts ; and whenever 
the minister of the mother church found it inconvenient to 
attend in person, he would appoint Curates, to whom he 
allowed a certain stipend out of his own income ; for he still 
maintained his right to the tithes of the whole district as 
before- In process of time the district would be subdivided, 
and certain parts assigned to the Curacies, which would thin 
become Parochial Chapelries ; and though the Curacy might 
become Perpetual, the minister still retained the right of 
nomination. He also maintained his right, though perhaps 
little more than nominal, to the tithes of the several parts 
which would together constitute so many parishes according 
to their modern arrangement. 

At this day the district of Nantmel, in the county of 
Radnor, includes the several parishes of Nantmel, Llanfi- 
h angel- Hely gen, Llanyre, and Rhayader. Nantmel is a 
Vicarage in the patronage of the Bishop of St. David's ; 
Llanfihangel and Rhayader are Perpetual Curacies in the gift 
of the Vicar of Nantmel, and the Curacy or Chapelry of 



Llanyre is vested in the Vicar himself, who thus, either 
directly or indirectly, provides for the religious instruction 
of the whole district. The Vicar, it is true, does not possess 
a share of the tithes of all the four parishes, but this right is 
still claimed and exercised by the Impropriiitor, who, as 
regards the original founder, must be considered as one and 
the same person with the Vicar: for it is agreed by eccles- 
iastical historians, that the subdivision of tithes into rectorial 
and vicarial was an arrangement posterior to the foundation, 
and first made to suit the convenience of the minister. 
Originally the Incumbent of every parish was a Rector, and 
under him the Vicar held a situation precisely analogous to 
that of Assistant Curate in modern times. When it waa 
found that the Vicar could perform the whole of the duty for 
a part of the emolument, so much was given him by way of 
endowment, and the remainder was applied to the maintenance 
of a Monastery or the Cathedral of the Diocese. The Vicar 
would readily consent to this arrangement, as, instead of 
having a precarious stipend and being removable at pleasure, 
his place and salary were made permanent. The same fate 
betel the clergy who performed service in the remote 
chapels; certain portions of the parish were assigned them 
for their separate ministry, out of which they received a 
certain small allowance as a fixed stipend, but, as an equi- 
valent, their Curacies were made Perpetual; while the far 
greater portion of the tithes of the entire district maintained 
some distant religious establishment, which thus continued to 
represent the original Hector. This arrangement was not 
without its evils. Jealousies broke out between the monastic 
and parochial clergy; and, at the Reformation, the tithes, 
which had been attached to Monasteries, passed from them, 
by an easy transition, into the hands of Lay- impropriators. 
Those tithes, however, which had been assigned for the sup- 
port of Cathedrals and Collegiate Chapters were suffered to re- 
main, and are still an illustration of the system here described. 


There are also instances of parishes appropriated to a 
monastic institution, where the parochial duties were left 
to be performed bj a Perpetual Curate without the inter. 
vention of a Vicar; but such parishes are generally smaller 
than those now under consideration. 

The expression " mother church" can only mean that the 
edifice so designated is of older foundation than the several 
chapels dependent upon it, and this rule is very generally 
admitted. But if the view of ecclesiastical foundations, jurt 
described, be correct, the chapels mentioned as subordinate 
to Nantmel, must not only have been built after the mother 
church, but at a time when its endowment was fully recog- 
nized and established. If the chapels were of older date, 
it is not likely that the founder of Nantmel would have 
endowed his church with the tithes of an extensive district 
to the prejudice of places of worship already existing in 
country; but, the tithes being once disposed of, no provisioi 
would remain for the support of additional churches, exce 
as dependent upon the Hector of the first establishment." 

The district of Llanbister, also in the county of Radnor, 
comprises the parishes of Llanbister, Llananno, Ll.inbadarn- 
Fynydd, Llanddewi Ystrad Enni, and Llanh'hangel Rhyd- 
eithon ; the last four are chapelries subject to the former ; 
they are also Perpetual Curacies in the patronage of 
Chancellor of Brecon, or his Lessee, who represents 

• " The Constitutions of Egbert, Archbishop of Y»rk, in the year Till, do 
take care lhal church?* of ancient institution should tint be deprived or 
tithe* , or an; oilier rights, by giving or allotting any part to nen- oratories." 
<rWc Hum'= Ecclesiastical Law, Vol. L iu(. MM Clioi*l.) 

If Misting right* were so well defined in England as early as A. D. 750, 
it it not loo much to expect that tiny were c.piiiUy m II defined about the 
same period in YV.des, when' ChrMtttali) had I*'" longer and more [per- 
manently settled. In the Principality the ink-grit; of beneficvj appear* lo 
have been first disturbed by foreigners, though it must be regretted that the 
now arrangement introduced by litem m not adopted generally by the 
native princes. 


Rector, and who still claims and receives the whole tithes of 
the five parishes, except the vicarial tithes of Llan bister. The 
district of Llangynllo extends over the parishes of Llangynllo 
and Pillcth, and it probably included originally one or two 
small parishes adjoining, which are now separate benefices. 
As these districts are very extensive it may safely be con- 
cluded, that the places of worship to which they are appro- 
priated were first built when churches were few. Leaving 
therefore the question of chapelries for a future consideration, 
it may be assumed, that Nantmel, Llanbister, Llangynllo, 
and other churches of a similar endowment, are churches of 
the first or oldest foundation. 

As Christianity became more general, the want of places 
of worship in districts unappropriated would come next to 
be considered. The necessity of multiplying churches would 
now be felt, and the tithes to be attached to them would 
necessarily extend over tracts of country varying much in 

extent according to the nature of the ground before un- 


occupied. These parishes cannot be formed into a separate 
class from the preceding, for their extent alone will not 
determine the order of their foundation; and, though the 
largest endowments are necessarily ancient, there is nothing to 
prevent a small endowment from being of equal antiquity. 
But when parishes of very unequal limits are intermingled 
together, their arrangement must be attributed to the natural 
obligation of circumstances. 

So far the endowments of churches proceed systematically, 
without any prejudice to existing rights. There are, however, 
districts of the Principality where the system is broken up, 
and the country is studded with numerous churches, all of 
them small rectories, as if the chapelries which before existed 
had been converted into separate benefices. A slight ac- 
quaintance with the history of these localities will show that 
this new arrangement is the result of foreign conquest. These 
churches are principally found in the southern part of Pem- 


... >j' (ilamorgnn.t and on the herders 

■it "lutein of subordinate chapelrie* i«* 

■ ■^ 'arts of the country where the :nde- 

:«..-•■- wa< of longest continuance. The 

..L*.iiist:inding their endless dissensions. 

.^; rights of their churches ;J but the 

.i....ii^, asserting the claims of conquest. 

. . 4 l-'icruuigs about A. I). 1 luo. 

,.. . .^.venturers about A. D. li/jo. 

.*.*. :ioui the existing state of churches in Wale*, 

..«. ».iu wrote his " Cambria* Descriptio"' in the reicn 

.1.-. articular as if it were a national characteristic. 

!% . > .\u acted from that work as translated by Sir 

^ . *iiow a greater respect than other nations to 

. fc .. o*ons, to the relics of saints, bells, holy books, 

^. .i-«i<utly revere; and hence their churches enjoy 

t ... ■■:>. For jieace is not only preserved towards all 

. ...i>, but at a great distance beyond them, where 

...Kx have been appointed bv the Bishops in order 

. . . .10 >ancluary. But the principal churches, to 

. * ^. ...*■ greater reverence, extend their protection to 

;»• u» feed in the morning and return at night. 1 • 

^.u.irkable as it shows that there existed in the 
. .lunches distinguished for their antiquity; and 

s extensively endowed, it will readily appear 

xipul." So tenacious were the Welsh of the 

... i... . N»en when they were inconvenient from their 

. ..\ mdo them, they appointed several clergymen 

. ... *i ,i* many parsons and parties as there are 

v , ..,'>. the sons, after the death of their fathers, 

\.v:kv*. not by election, but by hereditary right 

s MiiKiuuy of God. And if a prelate should by 

% .i i:'>iu»to any other person, the j eople would 

, .;,-.n the iiLotitutor and instituted." (Description 

. .s ViclsdiMi'ita "f Brn-knock, and in one of his 
jiinvh in Radnorshire as having six or seven 



would establish churches where they thought expedient. 
All churches of this description may be considered as of the 
last foundation, leaving those which are intermediate in un- 
certainty for the present. 

It may be objected by some, that the extent of benefices 
depends not so much upon their subjection to Welsh Princes, 
or Norman Lords, us upon the barrenness, or fertility of the 
country in which they are situate. A glance at the map of 
Wales will be sufficient to show, that though parishes may be 
large or small for the reason specified, the objection d aw not 
apply to endowments. The fertile vale of Towy, in the county 
of Carmarthen, is filled with endowments of the first class, 
which are subdivided into parishes, of greater or less extent, 
to suit the nature of the country ; and on the other hand, 
places of worship are sometimes numerous in districts the 
most barren. The recesses of the mountains appear to have 
been more populous formerly than at present, for the in- 
habitants of Wales chose to live in such situations as were 
most secure from foreign aggression ; and thus the county of 
Carnarvon contains more churches than the larger and more 
fertile county of Montgomery. 

Though churches, strictly so called, were few, it was not on 
account of the scantiness of population, for chapels of every 
description were scattered over the Principality, which would 

clergymen. ("Clerici sex vol «■[ note Wjlensium, pnrlicipcs EeclesifE 

illius.") The cuilom of ilnidiog a bencHoe between several porlionists, 
without cotniirombitig its integrity, OODtimed in some of parla of the Diocese 
uf Si. Asaph until after the subjugation of Wales; several instances may be 
found in the Taxation uf Pope Nicholas, A. D. 1291, bul the li .Honing 
eitract, relating to the church ol Corweo, Me; looelhshire, will suffice. 

PorcioCvnonapEflOefed.... 8 13 4 

Porcio Kenewyre' 5 

Ecdia de Cot men. Porcio Cwyn op Twdyr .... S 

Porcio Cregor p'bri '10 8 

Porcio Vicar' 6 


not have been requisite unless tlie country were well peopled. 
From what has been already written, it will appear that the 
definition of "church" has been considered to be a place of 
worship endowed with tithes. A "chapel," on the contraiy, 
is considered to be a place of worship without any such en- 
dowment. It has been already stated that chapels are of 
later erection than the churches to which they are subject. 
Some of them are ancient; and an attempt will be made to 
form such a classification of them as will assist in determining 
generally the eras in which they were built. 

Parochial Chapels are considered to be the most ancient, 
being a necessary consequence of the great extent of the 
district assigned to the mother church, which was soon found 
insufficient for the instruction of people spread over so wide 
a territory. There is reason for supposing that chapels of 
this description are coeval with churches of the intermediate 
foundation. They were erected before the division of the 
country into parishes as at present constituted, for such a 
subdivision of the older districts could have been of no 
utility unless chapels were already built ; and the existence 
of these places of worship, which at first were only chapels of 
ease, suggested the division for the sake of convenience. 

Between Parochial Chapels and Chapels of Ease there was 
at first no distinction, but the latter are now known from the 
circumstance that they have no separate districts assigned 
them, being always situate in the same parish as the mother 
church. As a general rule, these chapels are of later erection 
than the former, being the result of a demand for an increased 
supply of places of worship. They belong to a time when 
the boundaries of parishes were so far permanently settled 
that it was not expedient to disturb them. 

There is reason, however, to believe that the Normans and 
Flemings, wherever they made their settlements, converted 
such chapels as they found in the country into separate 
benefices. But they also built many churches in addition, 



making a new distribution of parishes. Thus the Rectories 
in the Deaneries of Rlios and Cast! era artin, Pembrokeshire ; 
in the peninsula of Gower, and the Vale of Glamorgan, 
average at about half the extent of parochial chnpelries in 
most of the other districts of Wales. This distribution, 
however, belongs to a period in which so much information 
may be collected from history, as will serve to distinguish 
the older churches from their more modern neighbours. 

There are also other Chapels, which do not appear to 
have been used for the purposes of public, or congregational 
worship; such as Cells, Oratories, and Hermitages, where 
prayers and offerings were made in private. They are some- 
times distinguished from public churches by their situation, 
either in the solitude of an island, or promontory, over the 
well of a favourite Saint, or adjoining to a church where 
provision was already made for public worship ; and were 
<o small that they could contain but few persons. They 
may also be distinguished by their present state, being all 
of them in ruin, and the situations of most of them are 
known only by tradition. Being of no use as public churches, 
and the offerings to them ceasing, they were suffered to fall 
to decay soon after the Reformation. Nearly all parochial * 
chapels, inasmuch as they are repiiired at the cost of their 
respective parishes, have been preserved entire to the present 
time. Several chapels of ease, however, for want of a similar 
provision, have become ruinated, and in some cases their 
■ituation is almost forgotten; yet the names of most of them 
may be recovered from various ecclesiastical documents and 
editions cf the " Liber Regis." 

In treating of the Saints, it is intended to give auch 
notices of cells, and oratories, as may be supplied from the 
vague information which remains respecting them. If there 
were any small chapels of this description in ancient times, 
the veneration attached to them would suggest their en- 
largement into churches or parochial chapels, whenever a 


demand might be made for an increased number of public 
places of worship; unless their situations were such as to 
render the change useless or impracticable." It may be 
presumed that the earliest oratories, founded after the final 
settlement of parishes, were frequently converted into chapels 
of ease ; and while it is the tendency of ecclesiastical estab- 
lishments gradually to rise in importance,t it may be con- 
cluded that those, which as a class have remained in the 
lowest rank, were the latest. Chapels erected over wells owe 
their origin to the superstition of the middle ages, and those 
which are contiguous to a larger church, or cathedral, have 
their antiquity limited by the date of the fabric to which 
they are adjoined. 

At this stage of proceeding, it will be proper to observe 
that the Welsh word "Ltan" was at first applied to churches 
and chapels indiscriminately; in determining the antiquity 
of chapels, it may be considered that such as have their 
names compounded with this word are of the older kind. 
The word " Capel" appears to be of subsequent introduction, 
as It is seldom attached to the names of parochial chapels, 
but applied principally to chapels of ease and decayed ora- 
tories. Another designation applied to chapels in Wales is 
"Bcltws;" and though several places so named have been 
formed into independent benefices, there are proofs remain- 
ing sufficient to show that they were originally subject to 
other churches in their neighbourhood. Sometimes the two 
latter appellations are used together, as Capel Bettws Lleicu, 

• The exception applies principalis to cells said to have been founded by 
ilif primitive Christians of Wales in certain small islands, to which they 
retired for the sake of security. 

+ This observation, though intended to apply to churchei and chapels, is 
also true of monastic institutions; Priorie!, being of laler foundation than 
Abbeys, remained unequal to them in revenues and importance ; it uiay also 
be noticed that the relationship MhaMtif, between a superior convent and 
it! cells is in some degree analogous to llint between a church and it; chapels. 



Cardiganshire, and Capel Bettws, subject to Trelech, Car- 

Great stress has been laid upon parochial divisions, for the 
reason that they determine the comparative antiquity of the 
churches to which they belong. The idea that parishes in 
Wales were established by a general Act of the Legislature 
can never be maintained. Without entering further into the 
question, it is sufficient to say that they existed in the times of 
of Welsh independency, when no Acts of the English Parlia- 
ment could affect them; and the Welsh annals record no ordi- 
nance for their arrangement, which in the state of the country, 
divided between contending Princes, was almost impossible. 
Their establishment was gradual, and their limits were 
determined by the territory of the person who endowed each 
church with tithes. This is the only way lo account for 
their unequal estent, and the inconvenience of their distri- 
bution. A chieftain might divide his lands between his 
his sons, and this arrangement might form some criterion 
for the division of an endowment of the first class into pa- 
rochial ehapelries; but he could make no partition of the 
tithes, for as they had been already given away, they were 
no longer in his power ; and it rested with the ministert 
of the mother church to make his own arrangements with 
the curates of the chape lries. 

Property in Wales descended by the lew of Gavelkind, 

* Llin appears to he indigenou* In the Welsh language, meaning not 
only the church, but the snered spot which surrounds it, and in this 
sense it corresponds with the tiicfk nurd "re/ievov." The idea of "en— 
cloture" is also observable in it) compound*, gwinUau, porllan, corlm, 
ydlan, *c. Capel ia derived from "Capclla," a Latin word of modern 
intention. The derivation of Bellws is uncertain. Qn. from the Anglo. 
Saion — " Be ad. house." 

t Giraldus Cambrensis does not inform us by what scale the tithes 
e divided between a plurality of Rectors, but tie loudly declaims 
it the whole system as an abuse. 


which ordained that sons should inherit their father's terri- 

tory in equal proportions. Such 
institution, but in practice it was 
always arose about the distribution. 
right, and as a necessary consequent 
unequal, and sometimes intermixed 
of country may therefore be found. 

*as the theory of the 
very defective. Feuds 
Might would overcome 
the divisions were very 
rith each other. Tracts 
the church appears 

to have been endowed when affairs were in the state des- 
cribed. In the Rural Deanery of Maelienydd in the county 
of Radnor, which contained the districts of Nantmel, Llan- 
bister, and Llangj-iillo, the division was regular; but it was 
otherwise in the Deanery of Builth in the county of Brecon. 
In the latter, the district of Llanafan includes the continuous 
parishes of Llanafan Fawr, Llanfechan, Llanfihangel Bryn 
Pahiian, and Llanfihangel Abergwesin ; and also the parish 
of Alltmawr, which is separated from the others by the inter- 
vening parishes of Llanddewi'r Cwm and Builth. The 
district of LI an gum march includes the parishes of Llangam- 
march, Llanwrtyd, and Llanddewi Abergwesin, and there 
is reason to suspect that Llanddulns ought to be added to 
the number. But what is more surprising, there is docu- 
mentary evidence* to prove that it formerly included the 
extensive parish of Lhinsanffraid Cwmmwd Deuddwrt though 

•The authority alluded to is the " Valor Ecclesiastics" of Henry VIII. 
under the heads of " L Ian gam in arch" ami " I. ,r "sejnlffrede." The con- 
nexion is also proved by another authority more ancient; in a Deed of 
Agreement with the Abbey or Strata Florida, to which the Chapter of 
Abergwilly was a party, dated March 81, 1339, mention is made of the 
Prebendary of" I.Langamitiari'h Readr" alluding to the town of Rhayader, 
Id a suburb of which the church of Llnnsnuflraid is situated. 

+ The name "Cwmmwd Deuddwr" is restored from a passage In the 
Valor Ecrleslasticus, where It is said to be a pari of the possessions of 
Strata Florida. (Sec also the enumeration of parishes in the seconil Vol. 
.if the Mjvjftau Archaiology.) It is now generally written "Cum 
y Toyddwr." 



divided from it by the interposition of Llanafan Fawr. The 
parishes of Llanfihangel Bryn Pabuan and Llanafan Fawr 
intervene between Llanwrthwl and its subordinate parish of 
Llanlleonfel ; and Llunganteii is in a similar manner separated 
by Maesmynys and Llanddewi'r Cwm from its chapelry of 
Llangynog. When it is added that Llanddewi'r Cwm* is the 
mother church of Built h, and Maesmynys+ the mother 
church of Llanynys, all the parishes in the Deanery are 
enumerated, and the last two districts alone are entirely 

Jf it be objected that chapelries may have been originally 
separate benefices which were afterwards consolidated, it may 
be replied that the extinction of a benefice and its conversion 
into a chapelry is contrary to the progress of ecclesiastical 
polity. So far from the fact of churches uniting together to 
form one benefice, the tendency is the reverse ; chapels are 
frequently detached from the older church and become in- 
dependent benefices. Even when the whole tithes of a living 
were appropriated to a Monastery or Collegiate Chapter, 
the benefice did not lose its existence and become subject to 
some neighbouring parish, but it continued its independence 
under the name of prebend or curacy. Whenever, from the 
smallness of theii 
jolidated. neither of them merges 
■ chapel ; but they preserve the: 
separate benefices, and 
points do not depend opon 

or vicar ages are con- 
the other, or becomes 
iginal designation as 
only said to be annexed. These 
rcident, as they affect the interests 

of every clergyman upon his institution to a living. Churches, 
which are described as benefices in the survey of Pope 
Nicholas in the reign of Edward the First, continued to be, 
for the most part, so described in the surveys of Henry the 
Eighth, and Queen Anne, and are found to be similar with 

• T»istion «f Pope Nicholas, and Jor 
+ Tuition of Pope Nicholas. 

's Brecknockshire, Vol. II. p. E 


a few exceptions at this present time.* Sometimes, from 
being a larger edifice or more favourably situated, the chapel 
may take precedence of the parent church ; b>it this accident 
does not compromise the integrity of the benefice. It has 
been the interest of every incumbent to observe that his 
rights were not infringed upon by his neighbour; and if he 
held a plurality of livings, they were generally separated 
upon his decease. 

Should ever such a consolidation, or rather extinction of 
benefices have taken place; it may naturally he supposed 
that it was formed for the purpose of aggrandizing Monaster- 
ies, or the dignitaries of collegiate bodies. But the system of 
subordination is of older date ; for the foundation Charters of 
Abbeys in Wales describe it as already existing. Chapels 
are enumerated under their respective churches as at present, 
with the exception, as may be expected, that some of them 
have since been converted into separate benefices, but this 
a proceeding the reverse of consolidation. In Dugdal 
Monasticon is a Chartert of Edw. III. confirming a prior 
Grant made by certain Princes of South Wales in the time of 
Henry III. to the Abbey of Talley in Carmarthenshire. 

.1 he taken to as- 
illy or specifically, 
with other author- 

* In examining ecclesiastical document*, care mi 
certain whether the word -'ccelesia" be used gencri 
and irregularities must lie reclined by a comparison 

tThe information, to be derived from a perusal of documents of this 
nature, may be demonstrated hy another example from the Monasticon, 
in the words of the original.— " A. D. IU1, Mauritius de London, fltlus 
Willielini de London, dedit ecclesie Sancli Petri Glouc. cecleslain S. Mi- 
chaeli* dc Ewcnnv, ccclcsiain S. Brigidie, cum cnpella de Ugemor de 
Laufey. Ecclcsiam S. Michaelis de Cohesion cum terris, &c — ita ut 
conventus Monachorum fiat." — The Grant of these churches to the 
Monastery of St. Peter's Gloucester was made with a view to the es- 
tablishment of a Priory, subject to that society, at Ewenny in the county 
of Glamorgan. The church of St, Bridget, mentioned therein, is SI. 
Bride's Major in the same county. The card I* de Ugcmor was probably 


These Welsh Princes were the founders of the Abbey, and 
in their Grant the churches of Llansadwrn, Llanwrda, Llan- 
Bawel, and Pumsant are mentioned as chapels under Cynwyl 
Gaio. Of these, Llansadwrn now forms a separate vicarage, 
having Llanwrda annexed to it as a chapelry ; Llansawel is 
still subject to Cynwyl Gaio, and Pumsant is the name of a 
place in the parish of Caio, where tradition states there was 
formerly a chapel, of which no vestiges now remain. 

The subordination of churches, described as prevailing to 
bo great an extent in Wales, may at first appear surprising; 
it is however no theory, for it actually exists at this very 
day, and all that has been done is to endeavour to account 
: causes which produced it. The arrangement made 
will be found intimately connected with the Saints to whom 
e Welsh churches are dedicated; for if any of them were 
inded by the persons whose names they bear, they must 
be those which retain the greatest evidences of antiquity. 

■ the castle of Ogmore, on the bank of a river of the same name, as the 
racy of Wick, now subject to St. Bride's is too far fcom the river to 
writ the appellation, and noil large nutlet had formerly o chapel within 
beir precincts. The chapel of Llamphey must hare beta situate in the 
him let so called in the parish of St. Bride's, aod the omission of Wick 
ilbrds ■ presumption that it was founded after the date of the Grant. 
a those documents, however, where ehapels are altogether omitted, it must 
allow, that if they existed in the time of the record, the name of tha 
it church was considered sufficient to include its depend encies. 

The Subordination of Cliurthw and Chapels considered in reference t 
the Saints to whom they tie deoiciied. 

In an enquiry into the question, by whom and at what 
time the several churches of Wales were founded, great 
assistance may be derived from the names of the Saints to 
whom they are dedicated. In forming a classification, two 
grand divisions immediately present themselves; — the Saints 
which have been admitted into the Romish Calendar, and 
those who are natives of the country, or otherwise connected 
with its history. The characteristics of both kinds are so 
different, that they can hardly be conceived to belong to the 
same people, or indeed to the same religion. In the time of 
St. Augustin the Monk,* there was already in Wales a 
Christian Church, furnished with Bishops, Monasteries, stated 
places of worship, and other appendages of a religious es- 
tablish ment.+ It refused to submit to the authority of the 
Pope, and proofs are not wanting to show that it continued 
its independence for some time afterwards, until, from the 
intercourse of foreigners, and the gradual subjugation of the 
Welsh people, it merged into Catholicism. It might naturally 
be concluded that the native Saints belonged to the primitive 
Church of the country, and that the places of worship called 
after their names wereof older foundation than those dedi- 
cated to Saints of the .Catholic Calendar. It will not be 
amiss, therefore, to give the result of an examination of all 

• A. D.600. 

+ BeJe's Ecclesiastical History, Dunk II. Chap. 8. 



the dedications in Wales, according to Ecton's Thesaurus, 
edited by Browne Willis;* and greater pleasure is felt in 
appealing to that book, as it is of generally received authority, 
and its Editor was utterly unconscious of the conclusions 
that are here sought to be maintained. 

The Saints, to whom the greatest number of churches are 
dedicated, are St. Mary the Virgin, St. Michael, and St. 
David. Those dedicated to St. Mary are as follow, and it 
should be observed that care is taken to distinguish chapelries 
from benefices.t 


Hayscastle. V.— 1 Chapel, Forde. 

Fishguard, V. 

Llantair, — chapel to Letterstone 

(SL Giles.) 
Maenor Nawen, C. 
Anible*ton, V. 
Mnoiu-luchog, V. 
Spittle, C. 
Walton- East, C. 
Wiston. C. 
lii.Tliruiiaton, K. 
St. Mary's. Haverford West, V. 
Roch, V. 
Talbenny, R. 

Naiigl.-, R. 4 V. 

i'n iii ('"iiiiiLi, r; 

Tonbv, R.*V. 

St. Mary's, Pembroke, V.— 1 

Chapel, St. Anne's, in ruins. 
Warren, V. 
(.'(H'rft'iinliL'i, — Hiajwl to Mnrtletwy 

(St. Marcellus.) 
Newport, R. 
Puncbettan, R. 
Cilgwyn, — chapel to Ncvern (St. 

Llanlair Nantgwyn, — chapel to 

Whitchurch (St Michael.) 

•Bacon, in his " IJbcr Regis," appears lo follow the authority of 
Browne Willis, with a few corrections. 

t The letters R. V. P. and C. affiled to benefices, denote Rectory, 
Vicarage, Prebend, and Curacy; and it must bo noticed thai those Curs- 
cies only are so designated which do not acknowledge n dependence upon 
iny other church. The chapels, subject lo churches of St. Mary, ate 
printed in Italics; and their Saints, as well as those or parent churches, 
connected with the names in the list, are added, except where omitted 
by Browne Willi,. 


Aber**ryr. V. Har. V.— I Chapel, St. John's, 

Sc. 3iirv°*» BrecuaL rhrcrei id n nr£i». 

St John**. AberlljtaL or Pipton, ruinated, 

Ystrad Feii*,— c&apel zy Dyrri- — cakpei to Glasebury, (St. 

oic ;.Sc Cyne*.". Pecer.- 

OuicnM?. R_— 1 CicjxZ, .Votf Db. Cr^rraiim.— -chapel to Llan- 

UanywenL. C. d^ELI* Sc Matthew.) 

fcrwyuliy*. V. I.iairirT in Buiixh, C. 

laiadfciou. R 

CrwwelL— chapel to Clodock, Wabewtooe, C. 

vSt. CUcog.) 


Kerrv, W 

Bleddta, R. Xewchurch, R. 

Abbey Cwm-Hir,— chapel to Bettws,— chapel to Diserth (St 

Lla'ubister (St. Cynllo.) Cewydd.) 

Pilledu— chapel to Llangynllo Llaniaredd,— chapel to Aberedw 

(St. Cvullo.) (St. Cewydd.) 
Cil»dc*cry % R. 


Fglwv* Fair a Churig,— chapel Coker; Cadog (St. Cadog ;) 

K\> tlcnlUu Aingocd (St. David.) and St, Thontas. 

KftU)* Fair l-annM'.— chapel to Llant'air ar v Bryn, — chapel to 

l.lautvuU v >t. Brvnach.) Llandingad (St. Dingad.) 

KulwolU, V. — $ ruinated Chap- Capel Mair, in ruins,— chapel to 

*U- V*t*l l\ilo (St. Teilo;) Talley (St. Michael.) 

Uu^nAu«yW (St. Michael;) 

• K*rrv is dedicated to St. Michael *, hut the authority of Browne 
Willi* i* followed, in order to preserve the proportion which this and 
th« two succeeding lists bear to each other, including all inaccuracies. 




Rhosili, R. 

Penard, or Penarth, V. 

St. Mary's, ^wnnfea,V.—l Chap- 
el, St. John's. 
Penrice, C. 


St Mary's, Cardigan, V. 
Lianfair Orllwyn, R. 

Llanfair Trefhelygen,— chapel to 

vn, it. Llandyfriog (St. Tyfriog.) 

Brvngwyn,— chapel to Penbryn LI an fair Clydogau, C. 
(St. Michael.) Strata Florida, or Ystrad Flur, C. 


Brecknockshire - 
Montgomeryshire - 

23 Carmarthenshire 

11 G lainorganshire 

2 Cardiganshire 


7 In the Diocese 






Yfgeifiog, R. & V. 
Halkin, or Helygcn, R. 
Kilk™. R. & V. 
Bhuddlan. V r . 
Vhitlbrri. R. & V. 
Gtaunesgor, R. 
Nannerch, R. & V. 

St. Mary's, Flint,— chapel to 

Northop (St. Peter.) 
St. Mary's, Mold, V.— 2 Chapels, 

Ne ranis and Trcuddin. 
Ncrquis, — chajH?l to Mold. 
Treuddin,— chapel to Mold. 
Overton,— cha|H?l to Bangor in 

Maelor (St. Dunawd.) 


Unfair Caereinion, R. 
^ekh Pool, V.— 1 Chapel But- 
tngUm (All Saints) Salop. 

Newtown, R. 
Llanllugan, C. 
Llanbrynmaii, R. & V. 



Gloddaeth,* — a free chapel. Bettws Gwerfyl Goch, R. 


Penrhyn,* — a free chapel. Rhiwfabon, V. 

Llannefydd, V. Chirk, or Eglwys y Waun, V, 

Llanfair Talhaiarn, C. 


Syllatyn, R. Knocking, R. 

Kinnersley, V. 

Total in St. Asaph 27. 



Llanfair Isgaer, V. — 1 Chapel, Trefriw, R. — 2 Chapels, Llaru 

Bettws Garmon (St. German- rhychwyn, (St. lihychwyn ;) 

us.) and Bettws y Coed (St. 3ft- 

St. Mary's, Carnarvon,— chapel chael.) 

to Llanbeblig (St. Pcblig.) Penllech,— chapel to Llaniestin 

Caer-rhun, V. (St. lestin.) 

Conway, V. Beddgelert, C. 

Llanfair Fechan, R. 


Dolgelleu, R. Llanfair juxta Harlech, R. 

Llanegryn, V. Tal y Llyn,— chapel to Towyn 

Maentwrog, — chapel to Festiniog (All Saints.) 
(St. Michael.) 

* Properly speaking, Gloddaeth and Penrhyn are chapels in the parish 
of Eglwys Rhos, Carnarronshire. 




Derwen yn Ial, R. 
Llanfair Dyffryn Clwyd, V. 

Cyffylliog,— chapel to Llanynys 
(St. Saeran.) 


Gwaredog,— chapel to Llanrri- 

sant (St. Sanan, Afran, and 

Llanfair Ynghornwy, 

Llanddeusant (St. 

and Marcellinus.) 
Llannerch y Medd,- 

Llanbeulan (St. Peulau.) 
Tal y Llyn. — chapel to Llanbeu- 

lan (St. Peulan.) 
Llanfair is Cwmmwd, — chapel to 

Llannidan (St. Aidan.) 

-chapel to 

:hapel to 

Llanfair Pwll Gwyngyll, R.— 

1 Chapel , Llandyssilio (St. 

Beaumaris, — chapel to Llandeg- 

fan (St. Tydecho.) 
Bodewrid,— chapel to Llanelian 

(St. Elian.) 
Pentraeth, — chapel to Llanddyf- 

nan (St. Dyfnan.) 
Llanfair Mathafarn, — chapel to 

Llanddyfnan (St. Dyfnan.) 

Total in Bangor 




Bonvilleston, C. 

Penmark, V. 

Wenvo, R. 

St. Mary's, Cardiff, (originally 

Nolton Bridgend, — chapel to 

Aberafon, V. — 1 Chapel, Baglan 

(St. Baglan.) 

the parish church,)— 1 Chapel, Cowbridge,— chapel to Llanblcdd- 
c* r»A M f A ;-.. tut, \~u~ iu~ r> n .^.;„4- \ 

St. John's. 
Cacrau, C. 
Whitchurch, — chapel to Llan- St. Mary-church, R. 

daff (St. Teilo & St. Peter.) Margam, C. 

Coetty, R.— 1 Chapel, Nolton. 

ian (St. John the Baptist.) 
St. Mary Hill, R. 

Monknash, C. 


Llanfair Cilgedin, R. Dynstow, V. — 1 Chapel, Tregaer. 

Abergavenny, V. — 1 Chapel, St. Tregaer, chapel to Dynstow. 
John's. Chepstow, V. 


Llanwern, R. Llanfair Discoed, C. 

Magor, V. Mai pas, C. 

Nash,— chapel to Goldcliff (St. Panted*;, R. (Qu. Pant- teg.) 

Mary Magdalen.) Usk, V. 
Parsenet, alias Porthskewit, R. 

Total in Llandaff 27. 



Newton Wallica, C. Monmouth- New Radnor, V. Radnorshire. 

shire. Kenarton, alias Keyuarth, — chap- 
St. Mary's, Monmouth, V. el to Old Radnor (St. Stephen.) 


St. David's 59 Churches* 98 

St. Asaph 27 Chapels ------ 45 

Bangor ------ 26 

Llundaff 27 

Other parishes ----- 4 

143 143 

The list, notwithstanding its apparently large amount, bears 
but a small proportion to the churches dedicated to this 
Saint over the same extent of territory in England; and it 
must not be forgotten that the great majority is to be found 
in such parts of Wales as became first subject to the English 

• If it were allowable to amend the list given from Ecton, it might be 
shown, from the Taxation of Pope Nicholas, that Llanbrynmair was 
once a chapel under Darowain, though it now forms a separate benefice ; 
Builth was formerly subject to Llanddcwi'r Cwm; Strata Florida is in 
the parish of C-aron, aid therefore subordinate to the church of Tregaron. 
Other corrections mi^ht be adduced ; and if decayed chapels and oratories 
not mentioned by Ecton were included, the number of chapels dedicated 
to the Virgin would be considerably augmented. 


or Flemings. Forty five out of the number are chapels, and 
therefore of later date than the churches to which they belong. 
The remainder are, nearly all of them, churches of the last 
foundation ; and in those parts of Wales which preserved 
their independence longest, the proportion is very small. 
This would almost induce a suspicion that the homage paid to 
the Virgin was not of native growth, but was forced upon the 
inhabitants of the Principality by their English neighbours. 
But with the aid of a map. and some knowledge of the history 
of the country, the subject may be examined more narrowly. 

The number in Pembrokeshire alone is twenty three, but 
many of these parishes do not even possess a Welsh name, 
and in the greatest part of the county the system of Welsh 
endowments is entirely subverted. This tract was colonized 
about A. D, 1100 by English and Flemings, whose descend- 
ants still remain ; and the churches enumerated probably 
date their origin from that period. In the adjoining counties 
of Carmarthen and Cardigan, the numbers are only five 
and six, being the smallest proportions of any, and four of 
the former are chapels ; but these counties preserved their 
independence down to the time of Edw. I. In Glamorgan- 
shire, the number is eighteen, but the same reasons apply 
to this county as to Pembrokeshire, it being conquered by 
Norman adventurers from England, who divided the county 
between them about A. D. 1090. The proportions in Breck- 
nockshire and Monmouthshire must be referred to the 
conquest of both of them by Bernard Newmarch and others. 
Out of eight, the number in Radnorshire,* five are chapels. 
In Carnarvonshire also, the number is eight, two of which 
are chapels ; and if these churches were not founded after 
the death of the last Llewelyn, they at least present a fair 
specimen of the number to be looked for under the supremacy 

* Including thai portion of the county which forms a part of the 
Diocese of Hereford. 



of the Welsh Princes. In Montgomery, Merioneth, and 
Denbigh the proportion is small. Out of ten, the number for 
Anglesey, there are nine chapels; while in Flint, being a 
border county, and at one time an appendage of the Earldom 
of Chester, the proportion is large,* 

Most of the towns in Wales are of late origin, being built 
to suit the convenience of castles in their vicinity, which are 
known to have been erected by Norman and other adven- 
turers. It might, therefore, be expected that the churches of 
these would present the features of a late foundation. Upon 
referring to the list, churches are found at Fishguard, + New- 
port, Haver ford West, Tenby, Pembroke, Brecon, Hay, 
Builth, Kidwelly, Swansea, Cardigan, Rhuddlan, Flint, Mold, 
Llanfair Caereinion, Welsh Pool, Newtown, Carnarvon, Con- 
way, Dolgelleu, Beaumaris, Cardiff, Bridgend, Cowbridge, 
Abergavenny, Chepstow, Usk, Monmouth, and New Radnor, 
dedicated to St. Mary, comprising nearly half the towns in 
the Principality. Several others, as Roch, Brwynllys, and 
Coetty, are in the neighbourhood of Norman castles, where 
no towns have been built; and a few more, as Abbey Civm 
Hir, Strata Florida, Margam, Beddgelert, and Creswell, owe 
their dedications to the Monasteries which formerly existed 
on their sites. 

The late introduction of the homage of St. Mary may be 
proved by another mode of computation. Forty five of her 
places of worship are chapels, while only sixteen of her 
churches are of sufficient antiquity or importance to have 
chapels under them. Again, twenty fourj chapels, dedicated 

• Three churches in the list are in the county of Salop, and four more, 
inclnding one chapolry, are in the Dior esc of Hereford. 

+ In Carlisle's Top "graph leal Dictionary of Wales, reasons are g'uea 
for the supposition that the parish of Kishguaid ou formed upou the 
dissolution of two others more ancient. 

JUy an am t ii dmi-iil of (he list, without the introduction tif anj new 
Dimes, this number may be increased to thirty three. The five ex- 



to St. Mary, are found subordinate to churches ascribed to 
Welsh Saints; while only five chapels named after Welsh 
Saints are subordinate to churches of St. Mary. The in- 
ference is, that the custom of ascribing churches or chapels to 
Welsh Saints had nearly ceased before that of dedicating to 
St. Mary had commenced ; and perhaps the exceptions to the 
rule may be referred to an accident, where the chapel had 
taken precedence of the mother church. 

The justness of these conclusions, as regards one county, 
can be verified from a document of unquestionable authority. 
In the preceding list, the county of Flint has a proportion 
about three times greater than any of the rest; as the entire 
number of its churches and chapels is only twenty eight, 
twelve of which arc dedicated to St. Mary; and of these 
twelve, eight are in the ancient Lordship of TegeingI, or 
Englefield. It happens that this Lordship, as being part of 
the Palatinate of Chester, is included in the Survey of Domes- 
day Book, made by order of William the Conqueror ; and in 
the enumeration of its churches, two* only of those dedicated 
to St. Mary are mentioned as then existing. It must therefore 
be concluded that the remainder were built at a later period; 
and a* the same document describes this Lordship, which it 
calls the Hundred of Atiscros, as if it had been some time 
in the occupation of the Saxons, the dedication of the two 
churches mentioned may be attributed to their influence. 

ceptlons arc the chapels of Cadog and Tcilo under Kidwelly, Llanrbych- 
wyn subject to Trefriw, Llandyssilio subject to Llanfihangel I'wll 
Gwyngyll, and Baglan subject to Aberafon. As the church of Kidwelly 
It presumed to be of a dale subsequent to the erection of a castle there by 
William de Londres, a Norman adventurer, A. D. 1004, the parish church 
before that time was probably the chapel of Cadog, or, as It is called, 
Ltaogadog, to nhich the dispel of Teilo might have been subordinate. 
A similar reason may perhaps be found to account for the three remain- 
ing irregularities. 
» "WLUord" (Whitford,) and "Koeland" (Rhuddl«n.) 


The next Saint, to whom the largest number of churclu ■ 
is dedicated, ia St. Michael, the Archangel. 



Rudbacston, R. St. Michael's, Pembroke, V. 

Stackpoole Boscher, alias Bo- Whitchurch, R. — 1 Chapel. 

sheston, R. Llanfair Nantytryn,( St.Mary. ) 

Castle Martin, V. — 1 Chapel, Castle'Bcith, R. 

Flimston. Llanfihangel Penbedw, R. 
Cosheston, R. 


Llanfihangel Nant Bran, C. Llanfihangel Tal y Llyn, R. 

Llanfihangel Feihan, — chapel to Uanfltumgri Ahcrgwcsiii, — chap- 

Lland; laelog (St. Maelog.) el to Llaiialan Kawr, (St. A tan.) 

Llanfihangel Cwm Du, R. & V. — Llmililian^i-l HrvnPabuan,— chap- 

1 Chapel, Trettcr. el to Llaoat'an Fawr, {SL Afan.) 
Cathedin, R. 


Dulaa, C. 

Ewyas Harold, C. 

Michael -church, Eskley, C. 


Cefn Llys, R. 
Bugeildy, V. 
Cascob, R. 
Br\ngivyn, R. 
Clyro, P. & V.— 1 
tws Clyro. 

Llanfihangel Nant Melan, V. igei Rhydcithon, — chap- 
el to Llanbister, (SL Cynllo.) 
Llnnfihimgel lleUgen, — chapel to 

Nantmel, (St. Cynllo.) 




Egermond, C. 

Llanfihangel Abcrcywyn, — chap- 
el to Mcidrym (St. David.) 

Llanfihangel, in ruins,— chapel to 
St Mary's, Kidwelly. 

Cil y Cwm, V. 

Llanfihangel Fach Cilfargcn, R. 

Llangathen, V. 

Llanfihangel Ararth, V. — 1 Chap- 
el, Pencadair. 

Llanfihangel Uwch Gwyli, — 
chapel to Abergwyli, (St. Da- 

Llanfihangel Rhos y Corn, — 
chapel to Llanllwni, (St. Llw- 

Llanfihangel Aberbythych, C. 

Tallcy, C. — 5 Chapels, all in 
ruins, Capel Crist (Holy Trin- 
ity ;) Capel Mair, (St. Mary;) 
Llanfihangel, (St. Michael;) 
Cynhwm andTeilo, (St. Teilo.) 

Llaiitihangel, in ruins, — chapel to 
Tallcy, (St. Michael.) 

Myddfei, V. 


Llwchwr, or Loughor, R. 


Llanfihangel Ystrad, P. & V. Trcmain, C. 

Llanfihangel Penbryn, V. — 2 Llanfihangel Geneu'r Glyn, V. 

Chapels, Bettws Ifan, (St. Llanfihangel y Creuddin.— 1 
John,) and Bryngwyn, (St. Chapel, Eylwys Newydd. 

Mary.) Lledroed, P. 

Troedyraur, R. Rhosdeiau, R. 

Total in St. David's 48. 



Caerwys, R. & V. 

Rhelofnoid, C. 


Llanfihangel y Gwynt, R. 

Manafon, R. 



Alx?rgele, V. Llanfihangel, R. 

Bettws, V.» 


Llanyblodwel, R. — 1 Chapel, Morton, 
Total in St. Asaph 8. 



Llanrug, R. Llanfihangel y Pennant, C. 

Bettws y Coed, — chapel to Tref- Treflys, — chapel to Cricciaeth 

riw (St. Mary.) (St. Catherine.) 

Llanfihangel Bachellaeth,— chap- 
el to Llaubedrog (St. Pedrog.) 


Ffestiniog, R. — 1 Chapel, Maen- Llanfihangel y Tracth,— chapel 

twroy (St. Mary.) to Llaudecwyn (St. Tecwyn.) 

Llanfihangel y Pennant,— chapel 
to Tywyn (All Saints.) 


Trefeglwys, R. 


Efencchtyd, R. 

* Bettws was formerly a chapel to Abergele.— See Edward*'* M Cath- 
edral of St. Asaph." 



Llanfihangel yn Nhy wyn,— chap- Llanfihangel Tre'r Beirdd,— chap- 
el to llhoscolyn, (bt Gwen- el to Llandyfrydog (St t Dyf- 
faen.) rydog.) 

Llanfihangel Ysgeifiog, C. — 1 Llugwy,— chapel to Llancigrad 

Chapel, Llanffinan ( St. Vfinan. ) (St. Eigrad.) 

Llanfihangel Tinsilwy, — chapel Penrhos, C. 
to Llamestin (St. Iestin.) 

Total in Bangor 16. 



Michaelston le Pit, R. Michaelston, alias Llanfihangel, 

St. Michael's upon Ely, R. near Cow bridge, R. 

Colwinston, V. Eweiiuy, C. 

Fleminston, R. Michaelston, super Afon, C. 


Llanfihangel Istern Llewern, R. Troy, or Mitchel Troy, R. — 1 

Llanfihangel juxta Usk, R. Chapel, Cwmcarfan. 

Llanfihangel Crug corneu, V. Kemmys, (Ccmmaes,) R. 

Llanfihangel, R. (in Deanery of Gwernesey, R. 

Nether Went.) Llanfihangel Tormynydd, R. 

Tintern Parva, R, Llanfihangel Pontymocl, C. 

Machan, or Maghen, R. Llanfihangel juxta Llantarnam, C. 
St Michael's near Rumney, or 

Michaelston Vedo, R. 

Total in Llandaff 20. 



Discoed,— chapel to Presteign Michaelchurch upon Arrow,— 
(St Andrew,) Radnorshire. chapel to Kington (St. Mary.) 


St. David's 48 Churches 

St. Asaph 8 Chapels 

Bangor 16 

LUikIoIF 20 

Other parishes 2 


These churches, unlike those dedicated to St. Mary, do 
not crowd the English districts, but are dispersed over the 
country with greater regularity. They are found in the in- 
terior as well as in the outskirts, and are so far characteristic 
of the Principality, that the proportion they bear to other 
churches is twice as great as that of those dedicated to St. 
Michael in England.* This national distinction would show 
that they were mostly founded by the native princes, and 
their more general dispersion would indicate that they be- 
longed to an era prior to the permanent occupation of parts of 
Wales by foreigners. Another mark of nationality, as well as 
of higher antiquity, is the greater number of Welsh names in 
the list of St. Michael than in that of St. Mary. t But the 
best criterion, in the absence of historical records, is the ar- 
rangement of parishes. Except in those parts where English 
and Norman settlers may have made a new distribution, the 
parishes dedicated to St. Michael are generally of much larger 
extent than thove dedicated to St. Mary, some of them being 
eight, and even ten miles in length. While only nine out of 

* According to Ecton, or Browne Willis, there ire in the Diocese of 
Lincoln oboul 1520 churches, including cxliact chipelrics, sixty of which 
■re dedicated lo St. Michael. According to the same authority, there are In 
the Dioceses of St. Da (id's and Bangor 720 churches, or less than halt the 
unrulier in Lincoln, n'j/y /our of which are dedicnled to St. Michael. 

i Only two churches situate in towns, St. Michael's Pembroke, a: 
Caerwys, occur in the lilt. 



eighty five places of worship, in the Dioceses of St. David's 
and Bang-or, named in the first list, were of sufficient antiquity 
or importance to have chapelries under them ; the proportion 
in the list of St. Michael, for the same Dioceses, is ten out of 
sixty four. Pour chapels of St. Mary are subject to churches 
of St. Michael, and two* vice versa. Out of nineteen chapels 
dedicated to St. Michael, fourteen are parochial ,+ which for 
reasons already stated are more ancient than chapels of ease; 
while of those consecrated to St. Mary, the proportion is less, 
being twenty out of thirty three. From these calculations the 
Dioceses of St. Asaph and L Ian doff are excluded, owing to the 
singular circumstance that, according to the authority of 
Ecton, there are no chapels dedicated to St. Michael in either 
of them. 

These Dioceses therefore require a separate consideration, 
and the circumstance alluded to is an illustration of the truth 
of Welsh history. The Diocese of St Asaph extends more 
along the English frontier than the rest; and long before the 
Norman conquest, according to the Welsh Annals, it appears 
to have suffered severely from the ravages of the Anglo- 
Saxons, who are even recorded to have taken possession of 
the territories comprised in it ;J and though they could not 

'Namely, Llanfihangel, in ruins, subject to SI. Mary's Kidwelly, anil 
Bettws y Coed subject to Trefriw ; but the irregular situations <if both 
the superior churches has been already noticed, in note page 35. Another 
irregularity is Michael -church upon Arrow subordinate to Kington; both 
these churches however are in the Diocese of Hereford. 

t This particular is ascertained fr Carlisle's Topographical Dic- 

t Between A. D. BIO and ft*), as stated in two Chronicles printed in the 
Myvyrian Archaiology, tin? Kluulis look possession uf Rhufoniog, or the 
western part of Denbighshire. In about ten years afterwards, Recording 
to three Chronicles In the same collection, they took possession of the 
"kingdom" or principality of Powys, comprising the county of Mont- 
gomery, with the remainder of Denbigh, and parts of Flint, Merioneth, 



maintain their footing, their continual inroads must have de- 
solated the country. To this cause may be attributed the 
fact that all the churches dedicated to St. Michael in this 
Diocese are only eight ; and also, that though it is, perhaps, 
the second of the Welsh Dioceses in point of extent, it con- 
tains fewer churches considerably than either of the other 
three.* In LlandalF, the least extensive Diocese in Wales, 
the number of churches dedicated to St. Michael is twenty, 
not one of which is a chapel ; but the Normans formed their 
settlements in this district at a later period, and it may be 
presumed that, according to their usual rule, they converted 
such chapels as existed in the country into independent 

On the other hand, the churches of St. Michael, though 
more ancient than those of St. Mary, are not the most ancient 
in the Principality. Chief only of the chapels subordinate to 
them is dedicated to a Welsh Saint ; while fourteen of the 
chapels dedicated to St. Michael are subordinate to churches 
ascribed to Welsh Saints ; and this want of reciprocity can be 
accounted for on no other principle than that the commemor- 
ation of the native Saints is of older date. The parishes de- 
dicated to St. Michael vary considerably in extent, according 
to the nature of the ground unoccupied by previous en- 
dowments ; hut even the most extensive of them do not 
possess the characteristics of endowments of the first class. 
That which approaches nearest is Llanfihangel Penbryn in 
Cardiganshire, which contains the subordinate parishes of 

•nil Salop. Tlie occupation of tho remaining purl of Flintshire by Hip 
Saxons has been already noticed, ami ii will be observed thai the terri- 
tories described are situated principally in the Diocese of St. Asaph. 
(Myvyrlnn Archniology, Vol. II. pp. 392, 476, & 470.) 

* Thy number of churches in St. David's, including eUinct chapelriei, 

nn far ns can he collected J Browne Willis, is HB; in LlnndiffWS; 

Bangor I1H; and H Asaph 145. 

I l'i|«d Teilo, a decayed ch.iti>L-l under TallC) , Carinoilhen-liin- 



Bettws Ifan and Bryngwyn. But this district, the only one 
in the list which possesses a plurality of parochial chapelries, 
shows the marks of a later origin so far that its chapels have 
not been formed into Perpetual Curacies, and continue to be 

served by the Vicar of Penbryn, or his stipendiary Curate. 
The nest Saint, whose churches were to be considered, was 

St. David, and the list according to Ecton is as follows. — 



The Cathedral (St. David and St. Hubbcrston, II, 

Andrew. )-5 Chapels. Gwrhgd; Bridell, It. 

pTw, (St.Kon;) Padrig, ( St. 

Patrick ;)Pislyll; aadStinan, 

(St. Justinian.) 
Brawdy, V. 
Wliiti-fiurch, V. 
Prrodergast, R. 

Llanuchllwydog, 11, — 1 Ch 

i.lilllM IkI'T. II . 

Llanddewi Felffre, It. & V. 
Maenor Dcifi, H. 


LWdewi Brefi, C— 4 Chapels. 

r**w':J GartheU; Gu-en'. 

M.ISt. Gwenfyl.) 
BWporth. P. 
Bwgor, II.— | Chapel, Uenllan, 

(Si. David.) 

Llanddewi Aberarth, P. 

Ilonllnn, — chnpul to Umigor (St. 

I!hi<-ii|n iiiiiil. — chapd to Llan- 
ddewi Brefi (St. David.) 


Amgocd, It. — 1 Chapel, Abergwilly, or Aborgwyli, V.— 

Estop* Fair a Churig. 
MiaQryni, V.— 1 Chapel. Llair 

imq/lAbercywynl St. Michael. 
Cipel Dewi,— chain- 1 to Llanelli 

WwrfliBHi,p. & v.— 1 Chapel, 

:f r.hupfls, f.lanfihatigel I'weh 
Gayli, (St. Michael:) Urn- 
ptimsant ; and Llanllawddoa, 
(St. Llawddou.) 

Bettws, C. 

Llanyerwys, C. 

LLui'Muisant, C. 


Garthbrengi, P. LfawMwl Ahurgwesin, — chapel 

Trallivllgi P. to L In ngaui march (St. Cani- 

Llywcl, V.— 1 Ckaptl, Rliydy- march.) 

Llanwrtyd, — chapel to Llurigalii 
march (St. Cam march.) 

Llauddewi'rCwm, C. 


Maesmynys, R. 


Heyop, 11. Colfa,— chapel to Glascwm (St. 

Whittoii, R. David.) 

I.landduwi Ystrad Enni, — chapel Llanildewi Fach, — chapel to Lly- 

to LLanbistcx (St. Cynllo.) wes (St. Meilig.) 

Cregruiia, R. — 1 Chapel, Lion- Rhiwlen, — diiipultoUlascwm (St. 

(radamyGarreg, (St.Padurn.) David.) 
Glaxcwm, V.— 2 Chapels, Colfa, 

(St.David ;) and Ithitclen, (St. 




13 cttws,— chapel to Newcantle (St. Lnleston, — chai>ol to Newcastle 
Ilityd.) (St Ilityd.) 


Llandduwi Sgyryd, II. 
Llonddowi Ithydderch, V, 
Llauddcwi Fach, C. 

Bcttws, — chapel to Newport (SI 

I'lDstivy, alia? Trawsdro, C. 
Llangynbw, C. Qu. Llaiigytyw! 



Kilpcck, C. (St. Mary & St. Da- Little Dewchurcb, chapel to 

vid.) Lugwardinii {St. Peter.) 

Dewchurch Magna, V. 


Pembrokeshire - ... 10 Glamorgan ah ire • - 

Cardiganshire - - - . - 7 Monmouthshire - . 

Carmarthenshire - • - - 8 

Brecknock 8 Diocese of Llandaff - 

Radnor --.---. 8 Diocese of Hereford - 

«of St. David's - - 42 Total 

Churches 40, Chapels 13.— 53. 

It is remarkable that there is not one church or chapel, 
dedicated to St. David, in the whole of North Wales. The 
nationality of these churches will not be questioned, as the 
person, to whom they are dedicated, was the tutelar Saint of 
the country. Their antiquity appears from the fact that they 
are dispersed without reference to the petty conquests, or to 
the towns of later ages ; and as they are to lie found, in a 
certain quarter, beyond the borders of the Principality, they 
belong to an era when its limits were more extensive than at 
present. Their foundation is popularly ascribed to St. David 
himself; but in order to shew whether any of them can 
advance a plausible claim to so early a date, they must be 
submitted to the same kind of examination as the preceding; 
and the test is the more necessary, because, from the circum- 
stance of his being canonized by the Pope in the twelfth 
century, he was adopted into the Romish Calendar, and several 
churches may have been dedicated to his memory in later 




(iarthbrt'iigi, 1*. 
Trallwiig, P. 
LlvwcL, V.— I Chap<t. 

IjllUlfuOH, V. 

Maosmynys, H. 

Hoy op, R. 
Wfiittim, H. 
LhuuUhwi Ystrnd Emu. 

to LlunhistiT (St. ('} m '" 
Civgniim, It. — 1 fViJiy . . 

(aidant y (iarrey % ( ,Sf. " 
lilasrwiti, \". — 2 Chttjut.s. 

( St. David ;) and llhi : 

David. ) 



iV!:*s,— <harvl to Nv. 
l'>.\d • 

-._ :re of the first class, 
. _...i. "ii them; seven more 
.:e* subordinate chapels 
w . : to Welsh Saints, his 
..uuai to St. David, and, for 
. runt of the list, are sub- 
.uue person, or to other date. Their relative 
. vth churches and chapels 
..: criminate dedications had 
.».tig to Ecton, only one* of 
... ■> subordinate to a church 
.. ^ ud this exception does not 
i ales. Out of the thirteen 
... ..even are parochial, t being 
...> u the lists of those of 
.. i may be urged against the 
. .^ :hat only four out of forty 
, . lAudation. A review of the 
*+# of the country, and some 
. 4k>«r that the majority of 
^v :u their situations, but are 
^ >y three together. Thus 
^ *** kT*. Lkmuchllwydog aiul 
% vC s utU the same may be said 
letiftuvw and LUnddewi 
?whftt>£ arU Liywd; Macs- 
. hc»1 ^* ItUscwia s.r.%1 Creg- 
-VlX *&vh >;•*:*. d jCor.e and 
. §vV \i tv t*erty. To prweed. 

„t»«.u»v« .S.. IVc : "u r.,ct-v 

. *»* •»* 

*.»• • >%*■■ '»'i .>.' .** .''":c: «•: 


Erawdy and Whitchurch, though not contiguous, are nearer 
to each other than many detached chapelries. The same may 
be said of Hen] Ian Amgoed and Llanddewi Felffre, and also 
of Llanddewi Brefi and Llanycrwys ; Garthbrengi and Llan- 
faes are so situate with respect to each other,* that is probable 
they were first separated by the arrangements of the followers 
of Bernard Newmarch.+ In Monmouthshire, Llanddewi 
Sgyryd and Llanddewi Rhydderch are near each other; as 
are also Trostre and Llangyniow ; and the same rule will 
apply to the three churches in Herefordshire. The single 
churches which remain, are only nine; of which number, 
Prendergast, Hubberston, and Llanddewi in Gower, are situate 
in districts avowedly Flemish ; so that it cannot be said what 
was the original extent of their endowments, and what 
churches might have been detached from them. Ileyop and 
WhittonJ; are so situated, that there is reason to suppose they 

ice subordinate to the neighbouring church of Llan- 
•j. Yiillu : their churches are very small, and belong to a district 
which was one of the first to become subject to the Lords 
Marchers. Bbienporth, Cardiganshire, and Llanddewi Faeh, 

>u tli shire, may perhaps be ancient, but they afford no 
criterion to prove their antiquity. 

•The author of the "History of Brecknockshire" (Vol. II. p. 117.) gives 

a reasons for the supposition tint Llanfue.t was originally ■ chipel under 
I.landtlew, a parish which intervene* between it and Garthbrengi. He 
further supposes Llanddew In lie mi abbrciiatirm of l.laudileu i ; but while 

c connexion ln-nii'cn ih. 1 m;mtli] [mri-lie- i> Flthnilk'il, 1lii:ri: stn.- certain 
objections to his etymology, into which it is at present unnecessary tu 
enter. (See Appendix.) 

t A Norman adventurer, who took forcible possession or the county of 

ecknnck about A. D. 1090. 

J The district around VVliitton is included in the Survey of Domesday 
:, and while the name* of the surrounding chinches ore mentioned, 

it of Whiltou is omitted ; from which it uiuy be inferred Ihal the latter 
■a» founded ufter the Conquest, and the itact, assigned for its endowment, 
must have been taken from one of the adjoining parishes. 



The almost uniform disposition of these churches in clusters 
is too remarkable to be the effect of accident. From the 
analogy of other cases, there is reason to suppose that the 
parishes of each cluster formed originally a single endowment, 
in support of one, or perhaps two churches, to which the 
rest served as so many chapels; and the supposition is con- 
firmed from the analogy of Glascwm, and other districts, 
where the chapels are dedicated to the same Saint as the 
mother church. But great light may be borrowed from the 
testimony of Gwynfardd Brycheiniog, a Bard, who is stated 
to have lived between the years llttO and 1230. In a poem 
composed by him in honour of Dewi, or St. David, and in- 
serted in the Welsh Archaiology, Vol. I. page 270, occurs a 
passage, which is thus translated by Williams in his " Disser- 
tation upon the Pelagian Heresy." — 

" Dewi» the great of Menevia, the wise sage ; 

And Dewi of Brefi neur tiio plains t 

And Dewi is the owner of (lie superb church of Cyfelnili, 

Where there is joy and great piety. 

And Dewi owns the choir that is 

At Meidrym, a place affording ■ftpoltur* to multitudes ; 

And Bangor Esgor ; and the choir of Elenllaii, 

Which is a place of lame for sheltering yews; 

And Macnor Deifi, void of steep declivities i 

And Abcrgwilly. containing miMiics-t and modesty; 

And fair Heufynyw, by the side of the Glens of Aeron, 

Fields prolific in trefoil, and oaks productive of acorns. 

•The fallowing i* the original, adapted by V 
>w current in the principality, — 

mam ttjw, tyw Sywedydd. 

A BiMfnr fiignr ; a Riui|{«liyr Himlltm, 

Urifi, Berellirayddi 

Y iynd l'r dod-fiio yrlydYwyddi 

bum b.telif.ut fly/Mm*. 

Jtfariuvr Drifi dl-orfynydd ; 

! rnorm-h, a llrnnT erefydd. 

Aiergvfli Men gii-yl-wlydd j 

11 eh Bnnuciliyr Y 'ydd 

llcn/l/me deg o dn glennydd Aeron, 

n. It »'i myuweql 1 luHiydd | 

KfBMi d -TTir. hyfci gsedydd i 


Llanarth, LUtnadtieu, churches of the Patron Saint; 
Llangadog, a privileged place, enriched by chiefs: 
Llanfaes, a lofty place, shall not suffer by war ; 
Nor the church in Llywcl 1'rom any hostile band ; 
Gartlibrengi, the hill of Dewi, void of disgrace) 
And Tralhvng Cyiiiyn In the dales j 
And Llanddewi of the Cross, witli a new chancel; 
And Gloscwm, and its church by Glas Fynydd, (the 

green mountain,) 
A lofty sylvan retreat, where sanctuary fails not) 
The rock of Vuruna fair is here, and fair its hilly pros- 

And Yrtrad- fynydd, and its uncontrolled liberty." 

In these verses, the Bard considers St. David to be " the 
owner" of twenty churches, fifteen of which are ascribed to 
him in the foregoing list. But as not one of those enumerated 
happens to be a chapulry, it is probable the Bard mentions 
such out of every cluster as were endowed at the time the 
poem was written, and the rest, being chapels, are omitted. 
Thus the Cathedral church of St. David's, then called Mynyw 
or Menevia, is mentioned without Whitchurch and Brawdy; 
Llanddewi Brcfi without its chapels ; Maenor Deifi without 
Bridell; Abergwyli without its chapels; and Henfynyw 
without Llanddewi Aberarth. In the Brecknock cluster, the 
churches are more numerous ; and there are two in the cluster 
of Radnorshire. But what is most remarkable is the fact, that 
with the exception of Brecknock, his native district, the Bard 
mentions nothing of the churches of those parts which, in that 
or the preceding generation, had been occupied by the En- 

Nl. uftldd rhyfel Llanfaa, II* uehcl 
N»'l llui jn Lifter!, gin oeb lluydd ; 
OarlMrwyi, brjn n, w J, dJgjwUjdd, 

A TArnHumjCynfyagnydolydd) 
i A Llanddtwt y Cncgs, Llogiird ncwydd j 
A OluEcmn .'1 egliryi ger glu rynydd, 
G»yrtd.c]fjd unchrl. imvildnl uchwj(td| 
Craig Fumna deg jm«, Itg jm mynjild i 
Ac Yttmd-fynydi, I'l ryddld rydd." 



glish, Normans, and Flemings ; — were they destroyed, or did 
he omit them from patriotic indignation, because Dewi was 
not then the owner of them - The multiplied number near 
Brecon may be due to Bernard Newmarch, who, according to 
the usual mode, may have subdivided the endowment, and 
converted the chapels into churches ; and even the Bard 
alludes to certain circumstances of hostility, from which he 
either hopes, or predicts, that the churches of Llanfaes and 
Llywel should be spared. Gwynfardd ascribes also to St. 
David the churches of Llangyfelaoh, Glamorganshire, Llan- 
arthj Cardiganshire, and Llangadog, Carmarthenshire ; but 
if any dependence can be placed on the names of these 
churches, the first and last must have had a double dedica- 
tion. With respect to Llangadog thiB is highly probable, aa 
there is a place in the parish called Llwyndewi ; but there 
is evidence to the fact in the " Greefes of Rees Vachan of 
Stratywy,"* printed in Latin and English at the end of War- 
rington's History of Wales, in which occurs the following 

" In the church of S. Dnuid, which l/ny call Lkant/aiioc, they 
made stables, * • * * and took awaie all the goods of the 
said church, and burning all the houses, wounded the preest 
of the said church before the high altar, and left him there 
as dead." 

Cyfelacht was the name of the twenty second Bishop of 
LlandafT, but whether Llangyfelach is so called from him, or 

• Rees Vacbin, or rather Rhys Fyehan, was a chieftain of thu Vale of 
Towy, who. in the reign of Edward the First, presented to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury a statement of grievances, or ads of oppression 
committed in his territories by the English. 

♦ See Godwin, De Prccaulibua Anglirc, who calls him " Cimeliauc," 
and slates that he died A. D. 987. A chronicle in tlie Welsh Archaiology 
(Vol. II. pag-e 473,) stales that he was killed in battle at Hereford A. D. 
76*; but this assertion is probably a mistake, as il is unsupported by the 
testimony of three other chronicles in the same collection. 



from another person, is doubtful, as he lived about three 
centuries after the era in which nearly all the Welsh Saints 
flourished; it is possible, however, that he either rebuilt the 
church, or enlarged its privileges: but the connexion of St. 
David with that place is more certain, for it is recorded by 
Giraidus Cambrenais, and Ricemarchus,* a still older author- 
ity, that he was the founder of the " Monastery of Llangyfel- 
ach in Gower." Browne Willis attributes Llanarth to St. 
Vystygy, which is, perhaps, an error, as the name does not 
occur elsewhere. t For the "Llanadneu" of Gwynfardd may 
be read Llanarthneu from Ecton's list, as it harmonizes ad- 
mirably with the preceding word in the original, according 
to the laws of the metre; and there is no place in the Prin- 
cipality which bears the name of Llanadneu, By Henllan 
in Gwynfardd may be understood Henllan Amgoed, and 
not the chapel of that name subject to Bangor. Llanddewi 
y Crwys is Llanyerwys in Carmarthenshire, which, in 
the Charter of the Abbey of Talley, is called "Landewi- 
cms." The rock of Vuruna, or Craig Furuna, is Creg- 
runa in Radnorshire; and the order of succession would lead 
to the supposition, that by Ystrad Fynydd is meant the clus- 
ter in the neighbourhood of Builth. The cluster of Llanuch- 
Hwydog, being in the territory of the Lords of Cemmaes, is 
omitted. The clusters of Hereford and Abergavenny! were 
at that time subject to the Lacies, Lords of Ewyas, and the 
cluster of TrostreyJ was probably in a similar situation. 

» Ricemarchus, or Rhydd march, was Bishop of St. David's from A. D. 
10B8 to 109B. A Life of Si. David by Giraidus, and fragments of 
another by It ice march us, are printed iu the second volume of Wharton's 
Anglia Sacra. 

t It has been remarked that modern fairs hove, In many instances, 
■oeeeeded to wakes or feat'iials; and, in support of the testimony of 
Gwynfardd, it may be stated that a fnir is held at Llanarth on the twelfth 
of March, or St. David's Day, Old Style. 

; Qu. Was not the circumstance of their being included in the Diocese 
of Llandan*, the reason of their omission ? 



The list compiled from Ecton is very imperfect, and use 
has been made of it in order to shew that the inferences of 
this Essay are drawn from premises generally acknowledged. 
The list, as proposed to be amended, is as follows.— 

The Cathedral of St. David's. 

Whitchurch, V. (St. David.) Brawdy, V. (St. David.) 
Capel Gwrhyd;* Capel Son (SL Nort.) Capel Padrig 
(SL Patrick.) Capel y Pistyll ; Capel .Stinan (St Justiu- 

LianueUlwydog, R. 

Llanyehaer, K . (St. David.) LlanlLawen chapel. 

Maenor Deifi, R. 

Eridell, R. {St. David. Cilfywyr chapel. 

Llanddcwi Brefi, C. 

LlonyerwyB, C. (St David.) Blacnpennal chapel (St. Da- 
vid.) Capel Bertws Lk-icu (St. Lucia.) Capel Gartheli 
(St. Gartheli.) Capel Cwenfyl (SL Gwenfyl.) 

St. David.) 

irth, V. 

Llauina chapel (St. Ina.) Capel Crist (Holy Cross.) 
Hcnllan Amgoed, R. 

Eglwys Fair a Chun- (Si M:,i v ,\ SI. Curig, or Cyrique.) 

Lfenddewi l-'clffre, R. & V. (St. David.) jfenllaa, in the 

parish of Llanddcwi. 
Mcidrym, V. 

Llaiifihangel Abcrcywyn, C. (St. Michael.) 
Llanarthneu, P. & V. 

Llanlleian chapel i Capel Devii (St. David.) 

Abergwyli, V 

Llanpumsaut (Sta. Celynin, fi-itlio. Gwyn, Gwynno, and 
Gwynnoro.) Llonllawddog (St. Llawddog.) Llan6hangel 
UwchGwyli (St. Michael.) Betttts Ystvm Gu-yli; Capel 

Llaiiddeusant, (SL Simon & St. Judc.) Capel Gwynfai; 

* The chapels printed in Italics me decayed (11 


Garthbrcngi, P. 

Llanddcw, C. (Holy Trinity.) Llanfaes V, (St. David.) 

St. Nicholas's church. 
Llywel, V. 

Trallwng, P. (St. David.) Capcl Rhyrtybriw ; Dolhywcl* 

(St David.) 
Maesmynys, R. 

Llanynys, R. (Si. David.) LlanddewiV Cwm, C. (St Da- 
vid.) Llanl'air in Ruilth, C. (St. Mary.) 
GInscwm, V. 

Colfa chapel (St. David.) Rbiwlen chapel (St David.) 


Llanddcwi Sgyryd, R, 

Llnuddcwi Rhydderdi, R. (St David.) 
Rhaglan. or Raglnnd, V.t Monmouthshire. 

Trostrcy, or Trawsdrc-, C. (St. David.) Llangyfjw. Qu. 
Dewchurch Magna, V. Herefordshire. 

Little Dewchurch (St. David.) Kilpeck, C. (St. David.) 

Dewshall, V. (St. David.) Callow, (St Michael,) chapel 

to Dewshall. 
Prendergast, R. in the country of the Flemings, chapels unknown. 
Hubberston, R. ditto 

Llanddewi in Gowcr ditto 

Blaenporth, P. 

Llanddewi Fach, C. Monmouthshire. 
L Uuth i> n j", or Lluudduui Naut llunddu, C. Monmouthshire. £ 

■ The hamlet of Dolhywcl ii n™ included in the parish of Mvddfai ; 
bat in the foundation Charter of Talley, the church is called, " Ecclesia 
sancti David de Dolhowe!,' ' as if it was formerly an independent benefice. 
It was situated on the confines of the parish of Llywcl. (See Dugdale'l 


t According to Browne Willis, Kagland is dedicated to Si. Cadoeus ; 
bat it is here assigned to St. David on the authority of Rieemarchus and 
Giraldus Camhrensis. 

X Llandyfeisiint, C. Carmarthenshire, is omitted in this list, as there arc 
grounds for the supposition that it was so colled from Tyfei, the nephew 
of St. Telle There was formerly a chapel, dedicated to St. David, in the 
castle of Dinefwr, in the same parish ; which, in the Charter of Talley, is 
called '• Ecclesia sancti David de Dinewr," and is mentioned separately 
from " Ecctesia de Lantevassan." The former, from the circumstance of 


The chapels of St. David, subject to churches of other 
Saints, are also occasionally grouped. — 

Llonddewi Abcrirwesiii, Uanwrtye!, owl another TJantfiiewi in ruins 
are subject to Llangam march, (St. Cammarch,) Brecknockshire. 

Bettws, and Laleston, subject to Newcastle, (St. Illtyd,) Glamor- 

Heyop, and Whitton, subject to Llangynllo, (St. Cynllo,) Radnor- 

Llanddewi Ystrarl Enni, to Llanbister, [St. Cynllo,) Radnorshire. 

Capel Dewi, to Llanelly, (Si. Kllyw.'j Carmarthenshire. 

Bettws, C. Carmarthenshire. The original parish church destroyed ; 
dedication uncertain. 

Capel Deici, suhjw t to I.liii"l\ ssul, (St. Tyssul,) Cardiganshire. 
Llanddewi Farli. chape] to I-lywcs. (St. lYiaelog,! Radnorshire. 
Bettws, chapel to Newport, (St. Gwynllyw Filwr,) Monmouthshire. 

This list, if its arrangements be correct, presents a series of 
extensive endowments ; and it will readily be allowed that the 
churches, which, in the several groups, are considered as the 
parents of the rest, belong to a class of foundations the most 
ancient in the Principality. In what age, or by whom, these 
parent churches were endowed with the tithes of the sur- 
rounding districts is unknown; for none of the documents 
extant, which relate to the history of Wales, have recorded the 
event. But the precise period is immaterial to the present 
question, for the original church might have been supported 
by the offerings of the people long before a perpetual endow- 
ment was gTanted, The way is, therefore, clear for the belief, 
that the most ancient churches of Wales were founded by the 
persons to whom they are usually attributed ; and the word 
" foundation" may be taken to mean the first erection of a 

eiog tailed "ecclesia," most have been a fi 
nary jurisdiction. (See the word "Chapel 

! chapel, or exempt from 
ia Burn's Ecclesiastical 



building devoted to the purposes of religion, though some 
time may elapse before a revenue is appropriated for its main- 
tenance. Chapels, on the contrary, were erected after the 
endowment became a vested right, for upon this principle, as 
already shown, depends the circumstance of their subordina- 
tion. It will, therefore, follow that the chapels and subordi- 
nate churches, which are assigned to St. David, in the 
preceding list, were not founded by him, but dedicated to his 
memory after his decease ; and though the distinction is not 
carefully observed in popular opinion, it may be stated in con- 
firmation of the view here given, that, in the writings of the 
middle ages, specific mention occurs of only one of these 
chapels as founded by the Saint to whom it is ascribed. The 
instance alluded to is that of Colfa, subject to Glascwm, which 
Ricemarchus and Giraldus* describe as one of the Monasteries 
founded by St. David ; but, as the passages in which it occurs 
are very corrupt, the statement may be a mistake. It is in- 
consistent with analogy, as well as with the testimony of 
Gwynfardd; but allowing it? correctness, the solitary exception 
will not invalidate the general rule. 

St. David is stated to have been canonized by Pope Calix- 
tns, between A. D. 1119 and 1124; it might, therefore, be 
expected that churches were dedicated to bis memory after 
that event ; and also that, according to the practice with other 
Saints of the Romifth Calendar, churches were called after his 
name in places which had no connexion with his history, the 
selection of the patron Saint being left arbitrarily to the 
founder of the building. His canonization appears, however, 
to Lave resulted from, rather than have caused the celebrity in 
which he was held by his countrymen; and upon the churches 
of Wales it appears to have had no further effect than perhaps 
Co increase the number of his chapels ; but numerous as these 
may be, it will be inferred, from the following considerations. 

* Life of St. David, in Wharton's Anglia Sacra. 



that the great majority of them are more ancient, and beloi 
to a time when arbitrary dedication was not the usual p 
Many of them are dedicated to the same Saint as the mother 
church; but this, it will be observed, is an extension of the 
principle of subordination. The remainder are almost uni- 
formly subordinate to churches of Welsh Saints of contem- 
porary or older date. If it were the custom to build chapels 
and dedicate them to St. David in later ages, they would be 
found occasionally subordinate to Saints of a later generation, 
or to those of the Romish Calendar ; but such is not the case. 
If it were the custom to dedicate churches to St. David as to 
St. Peter, St. John, and others, it would be expected that they 
were dispersed over the country indiscriminately; but, on the 
contrary, they are 6trictly local, being grouped together in 
certain districts, over which his personal influence must have 
extended. In the six counties of North Wales there is not one 
church that bears his name. In the original Diocese of Llan- 
daff he has but two chapels, and only three in what is sup- 
posed to have been the original Diocese of Llanbadarn; all 
the rest, including every one of the endowments, are in the 
district of which, as Archbishop of Caerleon, or ilenevia, he 
was himself the Diocesan. The Cathedral of St. David's is 
in the territory of his maternal grandfather, the neighbour- 
hood of Henfynyw appears to have been the property of his 
father, and Llanddewi Brefi is situated on the spot where he 
refuted the Pelagian Heresy. 


The three Saints, * whose churches have been examined, 
happen to be the best specimens that could have been selected 
to represent so many classes of foundations ; and it is hoped 
the arrangement will not prove inconsistent with the testi- 
mony of ecclesiastical historians. The oldest churches in 
Wales are called after the names of certain holy persons, who 
are reputed to have been their founders ; but & difficulty 
presents itself in the question — to whom were they dedicated ? 
for their patron Saints are unknown, and it cannot be sup- 
posed that their founders would raise churches in honour of 
themselves. The objection, that they must have been erected 
to the memory of these persons after their decease, would 
perhaps be admitted as insuperable, if it could not be shown 
front authentic documents, that the belief current in the Prin- 
cipality since the eleventh century has been to the contrary. 
The popular explanation is, that they were called after the 
names of their founders, upon the principle that a house is 

* The pre-eminence of these Balntl did not escape the notice of Gwjn. 
fardd ; the concluding lines of his poem are, — 

Gwh « cAd gwtfn-fflod g»tdi m 


lu>b .rftdd. 
an drugartdd." 


i.r.NirK.M. inv-.rR\.vrui\> 

frequently named after its builder ; anil if they never had a 
other patron Saints, the inference naturally follows, that t 
must have been founded before formal dedications were c 
tomary. It must have remained for the superstition of s 
ceeding generations to dignify these founders with the titU 
of Saints; but, as they flourished in tile fifth and sixth centu- 
ries, it may be urged that formal dedications were at that time 
usually practised on the continent. The superstitions of 
Britain, however, were those prevalent in the Catholic or 
. J jf Universal Church in the fourth century ; for shortly after the 
commencement of the fifth, the communication between the 
Britons and their continental neighbours was interrupted ; so 
that while the Catholic Church was inventing new ceremonies, 
S" A.-^^. the Britons continued stationary ; and in the seventh century 
the discrepancy was so great, that the Christians of Wales 
would hold no communion with the Saxons, who had adopted 
the Roman ritual.* In Italy and the Eastern Empire, in- 
stances occur of churches formally named after Saints as early 
as the time of Constantine; how rapidly this practice may 
have spread westwards is uncertain; but Bcde mentions two 
churches so dedicated in Britain in the beginning of the fifth 
century. The first is the church of St. JIartin at Canterbury, 
which however is intimated to have been built by the Romans 
ratlier than the Britons.t The second is the church of Can- 
dida Casa, or Whithern, in Galloway, North Britain, dedicated 
also to St. Martin; but it is stated that Ninia, its founder, 
received his religious education at Rome, and it is added that 
this church was built of stone contrary to the usual custom of 
the Britons.J About A. D. 710, Naiton, king of the Picts, 
upon conforming to the Romish ritual, desired that architects 
.should be sent him, to build a church of stone in his country 
according to the fashion of the Romans, which he promised to 

'» Ecel. Hist, t Ibid, Book I. Chop. SO. t Book III Char* 



dedicate to the prince of the Apostles, adding that thencefor- 
ward he and his people would adopt the customs of the holy 
Roman and Apostolic Church, so far as they could be learnt 
by persons so distant from the language and nation of Rome.* 
Though the Britons of Wales were not so remote from Rome 
as their brethren of Scotland, they persisted more obstinately 
in their non-conformity, and arc described by Bede, in his 
own time, as celebrating the Passover without fellowship with 
the church of ChrisLt The full amount of difference is not 
stated, but it is a satisfaction to remark that the historian doc 
not charge them with errors of doctrine. That their religious 
ceremonies were conducted with a degree of primitive sim- 
plicity might be expected from their poverty and seclusion. 
It is evident, however, that the churches of the Britons wen 
built of wood, and covered with reeds, or straw ; and from the 
situation of their representatives in Wales, it would further 
appear that they were not formally dedicated to Saints. The 
grounds upon which this opinion rests arc, that the churches, 
which from their endowments are shown to be the most 
ancient, have no other patron Saints than the persons alleged 
to have been their founders ; the next in point of antiquity are 
called after St. Michael, the Archangel, being the first advance 
tn the way of superstition ; afterwards follow those dedicated ' 
to the Apostles and other Saints, still retaining certain marks 
of distinction. But not to depend entirely upon speculation, 
however well supported by existing circumstances, two pas- 
sages in the writings of Bede will perhaps decide the question. 
'Jin- Bret is to the following effect 

" Aidan, the Bishop, having departed this life, J Finan, who 
had been ordained and sent by the Scots to succeed him in 
his Bishoprick, built, in the island of Lindisfarne, a church fil- 
ler an Episcopal See ; which however, after the manner of the 

•Bede. V. J]. 



Scots, he did not erect of stone, but of sawn timber, covering 
it with reeds. At & later time, it was dedicated by the 
most reverend Archbishop Theodore in honour of the blessed 
Apostle, Peter. But Eadbert, Bishop of that place, stripping 
off the reeds, covered the entire building, both roof and sides, 
with sheets of lead." (EccL Hist. III. 26.) 

From this passage it is clear that Finan, who was a Christian 
of the British school, founded a church of cathedral rank 
without appointing a patron Saint ; and though he presided 
over the See of Lindisfarne ten years, and was succeeded by 
Colmnn, one of his countrymen, it may be collected that 
four years intervened between the resignation of the latter 
and the arrival of Archbishop Theodore in Britain.* 

The next passage is important, as it describes the mode of 
consecration practised by the Scots. It must be premised that 
the historian is speaking of Cedd, Bishop of the East 
Suxons,t to whom Oidivald, King of Deira, had given a spot 
of ground for the purpose of founding a Monastery. — 

" The man of God, wishing by prayer and lasting to purge 
the place of its former pollution of wickedness, and so to lay 
tlie foundations of the Monastery, entreated the king that he 
would grant him the means and permission to dwell there, 
for that purpose, during the whole time of Lent, which was 
then at hand. In all the days of this time, except on the 
Sabbath, he always prolonged his fast, according to custom, 
until the evening ; and even then he took only a small piece 
of bread, and one egg, with a little milk mixed with water. 
Fie said that this was the custom of those from whom he had 
learned a rule of regular discipline, that they should first 
consecrate with prayer and fasting those places which had 
been newly obtained for founding a Monastery, or church. 

■ Bode'* Bed, Hurt. III. lb, 

lianslHlcil by Dr. Ingrain, A. D. ( ! 
* From A. D. 653 to QO*. 

, mill IV. -2 Tin: Saxuii Chronicle 



When ten of the forty days were remaining, a person came, 
and summoned him to the king; but that the sacred work 
might not be discontinued on account of the king's business, 
he desired his presbyter, Cynibili, who was also his own bro- 
ther, to complete the pious beginning; who having readily com- 
plied, and the exercise of fasting and prayer being completed, 
he (Cedd) built there a Monastery, which is now called 
Laestingaeu, and established it with religious customs, accord- 
ing to the practice of Lindisfarne, where he had been edu- 
cated. After he had held his Bishoprick for many years in 
the aforesaid province, and by appointing superintendents 
had conducted also the management of this Monastery ; it 
happened that he arrived at the Monastery about the time of 
his mortality, and, being taken with infirmity of body, he 
died. lie was at first buried without; but in process of time, 
when a church was built of stone in the Monastery, in honour 
of the blessed Mother of God, his body was hid within, at the 
right side of the altar." (Ecct. Hist. III. 23.) 

This mode of consecration was so different from that prac- 
tised in the Romish Church, that Bede thought proper to 
describe it at length; anil from the analogy of their situation, 
it may be presumed that the practice of the southern Britons 
was similar. No patron Saint is mentioned, and the church 
of stone, in honour of the Virgin, was not built until after the 
death of the original founder of the Monastery. If the con- 
secration of a place depended upon the residence of a person 
of presumed sanctity, who for a given time should perform 
certain religions exercises upon the spot, it will at once appear 
how the Primitive Christians of Wales were, at first, the found- 
ers, and afterwards, in default of the usual mode of dedication, 
were considered to be the Saints of the churches which bear 

In the Eastern Empire, the invocation of angels commenced 
*o early that the Council of LaiMlicea had occasion to condemn 
it in A. D. 306. It was a more easy deflection from the purity - 


of Christianity than the invocation of Saints ; the latter, how- 
ever, soon followed ; but the custom of dedicating churches to 
them arose from purely local circumstances. About the end 
of the fourth century, it was a practice to erect a church in 
It ■ ^-*tjiiemory of a martyr over his grave. St. Augustine, who died 
A. D. 430, says, — " We do not erect temples to our martyrs, 
as if they were Gods ; but memories as to dead men, whose 
spirits live with God." This extract is given on the authority 
of Bishop Burnet in his Exposition of the twenty second 
Article, who in a preceding part of the same Exposition 

" It was a remnant both of Judaism and Gentilism, that the 
souls of the martyrs hovered about their tombs, called their 
memories ; and that therefore they might be called upon and 
spoke to there. St. Basil, and the other Fathers, that do so 
often mention the going to their memories, do very plainly 
insinuate their being preseut at them, and hearing themselves 
called upon. This may be the reason, why among all the 
Saints that are so much magnified in that age,* we never find 
the blessed Virgin so much as once mentioned. They knew 
not where her body was laid, they had no tomb for her, no, 
nor any of her relicks or utensils. But upon the occasion of 
Nestorius's denying her to be the M-ithcr of God, and by car- 
rying the opposition to that too far, a superstition to her was 
set on foot, it made a progress sufficient to balance the slow- 
neBs of its beginning; the whole world was then filled with 
very extravaganl devotions for her." 

If this view of the learned Prelate be correct, the churches 
generally founded in the fourth century were those called by 
ecclesiastical historians "martyria," or "memoria? martyrum,"+ 
They were necessarily confined to the spot where the Saint 
was buried, in honour of whom, therefore, only one church of 

• The fuurtli century. 
t Bin g ham ; Aatlqalfta af the Uitistjaa Church, VI U. ('liu|'. I, BecttoB * 


tiiis description could be erected. The custom would, how- 
over, lead to the erection of churches to the memory of Saints 
in other indifferent places; and the belief, that martyrs could 
In- ir themselves called upon over their graves, would lead to 
the practice of invocation generally. But the concurrence of 
the view, here taken, with the preceding arrangement of 
Welsh foundations, is most obvious in the late introduction of 
the homage of St. Mary. The heresy of Nestorius occupied 
the attention of the Church, in the East, from the third 
General Council at Ephesus A. D. 431 to the fourth General 
Council al Chalcedon A. D. 451. Sufficient time must be al- 
lowed for the spread of these superstitions, and they would 
hardly reach Britain before most churches of the earliest 
foundation were built. The secluded state of the Britons, and 
their refusal to submit to the authority of the Pope, inter- 
posed a further delay, until long after the conversion of the 

To the class of St, David belong all the foundations of 
churches erected by the Primitive Christians of Wales, from 
the earliest period to the middle of the seventh century. The 
mean peirod of their establishment is from the year 500 to 550. 

• la Ihe works of the " Cynfeirdd," or Primitive Bards, llie second 
|ier»on iu the Trinity is often called " man Mair," or the son of Mary; 
which would indicate the side the Britons would have taken in the Nes- 
torian controversy if it had reached them. But in the poems, which, 
there ii reason lo suppose from their sLj !c, were written hefore the year 
900, the intrrrfuion of the Virgin is mentioned only in an ode Ihe author 
of whicli is not known. (Myvyriao Arehaiology, Vol. I- pp. 197,198.) 
Her name is spoken (if in terms expressive t>! superstition ;;: i' i ■■ ui'-rr 
pneius which have been ntlriljuled to the earlier Bards, bul the language 
in which they are composed is loo modern to allow them to be genuine. 
(My*. Archaiol. Vol. I. pp. ]C, Bfl, 553.) In the Ecclesiastic*! History 
of Bed e, the Virgin decs nut umtpy lite pre-eminent situation lo which 
the afterwards attained ; Ihe favourite Saint of the Anglo-Sajons, In the 
infancy of their Church, being St. Peter. 


Their general antiquity may be shown by the methods i 
proof already employed, and accords well with the not 

• they were founded by the persons to whom they are a 

who are also ascertained to have lived principally in the fift 
and sixth centuries. Very few of these persons have I 
admitted into the Romish Calendar; and, if credit be given t 
the authority of the Welsh Tfjads, only six of them wea 
canonized.* They also differ from Roman Catholic Saints ii 
one important particular, that few of them have been dignifie* 
with the title of martyr. They lived at a time when Christ 
ity was the common religion of their country ; and if s 
individuals of their number met with a violent death, it ap- 
pears to have been at the hands of the enemies of their natiot 
rather than their faith. That they were men of holy lives ii 
recorded in all the scanty accounts which remain respec 
them ; and it is evident that many of them made a 
profession of religion according to the system of Monachisr 
prevalent in the early ages of Christianity. But the charact 
in which, more especially, their names have been handi 
down to posterity, is that of founders of churches. Many o 
them had more than ordinary opportunities of conferring tl 
blessing upon their country ; for they were related to i 
chieftains, and the churches they founded were often i 
within the territories of the head of their tribe. Others, I 

; so fortunate as to birth, are ascertained to have founder 
churches in places connected with ther own history, 
probably they depended upon their influence with & 
neighbouring chieftain. In nearly all cases, the assump 
of their names, so far from depending upon chance, : 
butable to local causes. 

The second class of foundations, or those dedicated 
St. Michael, commenced when the Britons were beginning t 


conform to the religious observances of their neighbours, and 
the mean period of their establishment may, for various 
reasons, be assigned to the time from A. D. 800 to 850. 
Shortly before this period, it is recorded that the affairs of 
the Church made unusual progress. Charlemagne had es- 
tablished the civil obligation of tithes over his dominions in 
France, Germany, and Italy; and a similar ordinance had 
been passed by Offa in England. It is probable that the ex- 
ample of these might so far have had effect upon the people of 
Wales, as to cause generally the erection of churches in places 
not yet supplied with them, and to assign for their mainte- 
nance the tithes of lands not appropriated by previous endow- 
ments. This notion, though highly probable, is only a sup- 
position; but it is recorded, that in the latter part of the 
eighth century the Welsh were brought gradually into com- 
munion with the Church of Rome, for during the time the pri- 
mitive founders flourished the British Church was independent. 
The first public act, which acknowledged a submission to the 
Papal See, has been thought to have been the resignation of 
Lis kingdom by Cadwaladr, that he might make a pilgrimage 
to the eternal city, where it is said he died in 688. But great 
obscurity seems to hang over the accounts of this performance; 
and as this, and other actions in the life of that Prince, are 
related in almost the same words of his contemporary, Cead- 
walla, King of the West Saxons, who died at Rome in that 
year, there is reason to believe that the monkish historians 11 
have confounded the one with the other. It is clear, however, 
that the Welsh did not conform to the Romish time of the 
celebration of Easter till the year 7&5* The Britons had been 
accustomed to calculate this festival from a cycle, according to 
which it was generally held a week earlier than it was ob- 
served at Rome ; and the subject, though trifling in itself, was 
considered to be of such importance that it was made the test 

• Walter de Mapes, Geoffrey of Monmouth, and their followers. 



of difference, and those who re fused to adopt the Romish com- 
putation were deemed without the pale of the Catholic Church.* 
In 755, El fix 1, or Elbodius, became Archbishop of Bangor. 
A modern writert states that he was appointed by the Pope ; 
and though the assertion is not supported by- a reference to 
authority, the circumstance is by no means improbable. Upon 
his accession, he induced the people of North Wales to adopt 
the Romish cycle. The Bishops of South Wales, however, 
refused to comply ; in consequence of which the Saxons in- 
vaded their country, and a battle was fought at a place called 
Coed Marchan, in which the Welsh gained an honourable 
victory-! What further measures were taken is not recorded, 
but in 777 the time of Easter was altered in South Wnles.$ 
In this state it appears to have continued until the death of 
Elbodius in 809, when the South-Welsh Bishops refused 
to acknowledge the authority of his successor.|| The con- 
troversy of the celebration of Easter was again renewed, 
and though it is not stated how soon it subsided into com- 
pliance with the Romish computation, there is reason to 
suppose that the Welsh were still slow to surrender tlieir 
ancient custom.* 

Those Welsh Chronicles, which are generally deemed au- 
thentic, commence about A. D. 700 ; and it is to be regretted, 

* Bcde's Eccl. Hist, patiim. 

■(■ Warrington ; in liis account of the Cburch at the end or Ibe '< History 
of Wales." 

* Brut y Tywysogion, or Chronicle of the Princes, ihe second copy. 
Archniology of Wales. Vol. II. page 473. 

■:,■ Arcbuiology of Wales, Vol. II. p. 174. pp. *71, 175. 

• The following is extracted from Hughes's Hone BriUuinieic. — ' Wc 
find In the Greek life of St. Cbrysostom, (bat certain clergymen, who 
dwelt ia tho Isles of Ihe ocean, repaired from Ihe utmost bonleis of ihe 
i. ..: i ' . ible world to Constantinople, in the days of Methodius, (who was 


that, for the first century after their commencement, they are 
so brief that they afford but few data for tracing the progress 
of superstition. But the introduction of the custom of dedi- 
cating churches to Saints, after the^Catholic method, would s a".*** 
liave been so remarkable an innovation that it could hardly 
pass unobserved. Accordingly, in two of these Chronicles, 
the following curious notices occur. In Brut y Tywysogion, 
or the Chronicle of the Princes, it is stated that between 
-A. D. 710 and 720 "a church of LI an fih angel was consecra- 


ted ;" and in Brut y Saeson, or the Chronicle of the Saxons, it 
is said "in 717 was consecrated a church of Michael."* Nei- 
ther of the Chronicles offers any further explanation, but as 
there is no church of St. Michael in Wales of eminence suf- 
ficient to deserve this special notice, the most rational inter- 
pretation of the record is, that the church alluded to was the 
first, in the Principality, dedicated to the Archangel, and the 
date alleged occurs at a time when such a circumstance might 
reasonably be expected. 

It must not, however, be denied that in the works of 
Bards who flourished before A. D. 700, some traces may be 
found of the corruptions of Christianity ; for to state, that the 
Welsh Church was entirely free from them, would be an 
assertion which it would be impossible to maintain. But 
these traces are slight. Allusions to religious subjects are 
very frequent, and it would appear that some respect was paid 
to the memory of Saints ; but on the supposition that all the 

patriarch there, from the year 843 to 847,) to enquire of certain eccles- 
tical traditions, and the perfect and exact computation of Easter. It is 
to be inferred from hence, that as there can be no doubt that the British 
isles arc referred to, that the disputes respecting Easter were not yet laid 
to rest ; and that our Britons, not being satisfied with the determination of 
the Pope of Rome, resorted to the decision of the bishop of Constanti- 
nople." (Vol. II. p. 317.) 
• Archaiology of Wales, Vol. If. p. 300. + Ibid. Vol. U. p. 471. 


poems ascribed to that age arc genuine," a point which it 
more than questionable, the intercession of Saints is noticed 
only three times; namely, once respectively in two compo- 
sitions which an ancient MS. attributes, with an expression 
of doubt, to Taliesin ; and the third instance occurs in a poem, 
ascribed in the Archaiology of Wales to the same author, but 
since acknowledged to be modern.+ The oldest composition, 
in which the Wvhh Saints are spoken of 6upcrstitiously, is 
attributed to Golyddan, a contemporary of Cadwaladr, near 
the close of the period in question. 

The dedication of churches to St. Michael, doubtless, led 
the way to the erection of others in honour of SL Peter and 
the rest of the Apostles, which were founded as occasions 
required thcin until modern times. In arranging the latter, 
those, which from the nature of their endowments show that 
they have some claim for consideration on the score of anti- 
quity, may be ranked in the same class with the former ; and 
the list may also include those dedicated to St. John the 
Baptist, St. Stephen, and St. Mary Magdalene, as well as the 
older churches of St. Mary the Virgin. $ But the churches 

• The number in the Archaiology of Wales is upwards of a hundred, 
and those which are spurious may be distinguished from the rest by the 
modern style la which they ore written. 

■f The acknowledgment is made by one of the editors of the Arch.iio- 
logy. who thus explains Ibo rule observed during i Is publication. — 

'■The editors of ilie Mj vyriiin Aivlr.iinlogy were hound to give lo the 
world nil the pieces, whatever their origin, which were ascribed lo the 
poets whose works were comprised In that collection, leasing it to the 
critic to elucidate, the virions styles, and pronounce upon the Authenticity 
of the productions — this deportment was not within the scope of their 
undertaking." (Dr. Owen Pnghe, in the Cambrian Quarterly Magazine, 
Vol. V. p. 100 & •XH.) The first two poems, alluded to allure, are inserted 
in thu Archnlology, Vol. I. pp. ?C — 77 and 109—170, mid the last in p. 8S 
of the same Volume. 

J The lime whrn the dedication of churches to the" Virgin first com- 
menced in Wales cannot be ascertained; but the earliest instance upon 


dedicated to the Apostles, in Wales, are not many; and of 
those enumerated by Ecton, nearly one half can be shown 
to have had Welsh Saints for their original founders. 

The mean period of the erection of churches of the last 
foundation is the twelfth century. To this class belong, be- 
sides the remainder of the Apostolic churches, all such as are 
dedicated to inferior Saints of the Roman Catholic Calendar, 

such as St. Nicholas, St. Lawrence, &c. which were erected 


principally by foreign adventurers. But the great pre- 
ponderance at this period of churches dedicated to St. Mary,* 
may in some degree be attributed to the Cistercian monks, 
whose order was the most prevalent in Wales ; and it was a 
rule of the fraternity that their religious houses should br 
dedicated to the Virgin.t 

As formal dedication in honour of Saints was not the ori - 
ginal custom of the Welsh, the question which remains is, the 
era of those chapels which have been built in honour of natives 
of Wales ; that they are ancient may be shown from the fact 
that the great majority of them are parochial, and few o f them 
are subject to churches dedicated to the Apostles and other 
Saints whose homage was introduced at a later period. When 
the Welsh began to honour Saints after thejCatholic method, J.--f* w 
they would naturally direct their attention to those who de- 
served that respect among their own countrymen. But it 
appears to have been under certain limitations ; and compared 
with the Apostles, and other celebrated names, the holy men 

record is that of a church, near the Cathedral of Bangor, which was 
founded, in honour of St. Mary, in A. D. 073, by Edgar, King of England. 
(Wynne's History of Wales,— Beauties of North Wales, p. 448.) 

* An examination of the poems of the Welsh Bards, in the order in 
which they stand in the Myvyrian Archaiology, will show that St. Mary 
began to receive distinguished attention about A. D. 1200, which pre- 
eminence appears to have continued until the Reformation. Vol. I. 
pp. 315, 324. 

+ Tanner's Notitia Monastica. 


of Wales could only rank as saints of an inferior class. 
regard the founders in the character of tutelar Saints of tl 
respective churches was an obvious mode of proceeding; but 
in the establishment of new foundations preference would be 
given to Saints of more extensive reputation ; and the only 
edifices, erected in honour of Welshmen, would be chapels in 
places where they bad lived, or subject to churches connected 
with their history. In other countries where the Romish 
Church has prevailed, many persons who never were canonised 
have been allowed the honours of sanctity in their immediate 
neighbourhood, and in this character the saints of Wales 
must be considered. Accordingly many of the chapels called 
after Welshmen are found to be dedicated to the Saint of the 
mother church, to his relatives, or to persons whom tradition 
has connected with the place ; and the prevalence of known 
cases of the last kind is sufficiently great to justify a similar 
inference being drawn where the tradition has been entirely 
forgotten. Chapels of this description must generally have 
been erected while the memory of their Saints was compara- 
tively recent, and may therefore be deemed coeval with 
churches of the second foundation. The perishable nature of 
tradition, and the occupation of several parts of Wiiles by 
foreigners will sufficiently explain why no material increase 
was afterwards made to their number. 

That the Roman Catholics, or, at least, the various conquer- 
ors of Wales, all of whom professed that religion, hardly con- 
sidered the primitive founders in the light of Saints, wiil 
further appear from the circumstance that in many instances 
they gave their churches a new dedication. To show how far 
the practice prevailed the following list is adduced. 

St David's Cathedral, Pembrokeshire, St. David and St. Andrew. 
RtlilUnil. Pembrokeshire, (St. Kewill in the Monasticon,) St. Peter. 
Staekpoul Elid.-r, Pembrokeshire, St Elider, St. James. 
Uantoni. Monmouthshire, St David, St. John the Uoptist. 
UtWOUao, Herefordshire, St. Beuuo, St. Peter. 


• Llansilloe, Herefordshire, St. Tyssilio, St. Peter. 

Llangathen, Carmarthenshire, St. Cathen, St. Michael and All 

St, Thomas, alias St. Dogmael's, Pembrokeshire. 

Northop, (Llaneurgain,) Flintshire, St. Eugain, St. Peter. 

Llangynyw, Montgomeryshire, St. Cynyw, All Saints. 

Llanegryn, Merionethshire, St. Egryn, St. Mary. 

Llandaff Cathedral, Glamorganshire, St. Tcilo and St. Peter. 

Llanbleddian, Glamorganshire, St. Bleiddian, St. John the Baptist. 

Iianfabon, Glamorganshire, St Mabon, St. Constantino. 

Dynstow, or Dyngestow, Monmouthshire, St. Dingad, St, Mary. 

Llangyniow, Monmouthshire, St. Cynyw, St. David. 

Kilpeck, Herefordshire, St. David and St. Mary. 

It is not necessary to extend the list further, but the hypo- 
thesis must depend upon the supposition that Ecton is correct 
in assigning those dedications which differ from the Welsh 
names of the churches, or from the known history of their 
founders. It can, however, be verified in certain cases. For 
instance, the church of Llantoni, which was originally found- 
ed by St. David and called after his name, is now stated to 
be dedicated to St. John the Baptist. But in A. D. 1108, a 
Priory of Black Canons was built on the spot, by Hugh Lacy, 
to the honour of St. John the Baptist, which accounts for its 
present dedication. The second dedication of the two Cath- 
edrals is well attested. And of all the religious houses found- 
ed in Wales since the tenth century, not one, except perhaps 
the Collegiate church of Llanddewi Brefi, was dedicated to a 

The Romish Church was however determined to have its 
martyrology of Britain; and out of " Cressy," the ^Catholic 
historian of this kingdom, may be enlisted about a hundred 
British Saints and Martyrs, from the first dawn of Christianity 
to the close of the sixth centry. A few only of their names 
are to be found in the Welsh accounts, and as for the rest, 
persons acquainted merely with the history of Wales might well 
wonder from whence they came. Their legends, however, 


were at one time regularly read, and their martyrdoms duly 
commemorated in the Catholic Church. They arc not so 
much distinguished for the churches they founded, as for their 
miracles and the sufferings they underwent for the spread of 
the Gospel. They claim for their names a most remote anti- 
quity, prior to the age of the Welsh founders ; but it will be 
no part of this Essay to substantiate their pretensions, or 
indeed to maintain their existence. It will therefore be deem- 
ed sufficient to append to these pages a list of them, chrono- 
logically disposed, according to Cressy. 

The catalogue of founders is less pretending, and has refer- 
ence generally to a later period; and though the persons 
contained in it have been dignified from an early time with 
the title of Saints by their grateful countrymen, there are 
but few notices in the Welsh language of miracles performed 
by them.* Such marvellous relations as exist were nearly all 
of them written in Latin, and from the silence of the Welsh 
Bards upon the subject it may be presumed they were better 
known abroad than at home. It will be allowed that these 
legends were the productions of the monks, if they were not 
of foreign manufacture. The accounts of renowned Britons, 
current in Cornwall and Armorica, and in England and 
France generally, have been more extravagant than in Wales. 
In the latter country, Lucius, Merlin, Arthur, and St. David 

* The poem ascribed to Golyddan is the oldest composition in which 
it is intimated that a Welsh Saiut wrought miracles; and, if it were 
genuine, it would prove, that in about a century after the death of 
St. David, a belief was current that he was possessed of miraculous 
powers. There is, however, sufficient evidence to prove that the poem, 
though ancient, was written after the time of Golyddan, (A. D. G60,) but it 
is not necessary to enter into the question, as, at the period alluded to, the 
era of the Welsh Saints was passing by, and had nearly terminated. 
Mr. Sharon Turner, in his "Vindication of the Ancient British Poems," 
p. 260, supposes the composition of Golyddan to have been written in the 
eighth century. 



are reduced to reasonable dimensions. The grand parent of 
these absurdities, the Chronicle of Geoffrey of Monmouth, 
■with its long line of British Trojan kings, is acknowledged to 
have been borrowed from Armorica. There are, it is true, a 
few stories current in the mouths of the peasantry, but the 
fact that they never have been written, is a proof that the 
Bards of the middle ages did not think them worthy of credit. 
It is, however, not an unlikely supposition that these stories 
were derived from such accounts as the monks would take 
care to publish. 

In a subject so likely to be mixed up with fable as the his- 
tory of Saints, it is of the greatest importance to ascertain what 
accounts relative to the Saints of Wales may be depended 
upon as true. The Welsh authorities, upon which the great- 
est reliance has been placed, are the catalogues or genealogies, 
usually called " Bonedd," or " y Saint." The fondness 
of the Welsh for pedigrees has always been acknowledged, 
and genealogies arc a species of record in which, owing to the 
complicated nature of the details, forgery is most easily de- 
tected. Owing to intermarriages and descents from a common 
ancestor, family connexions are so interwoven, that a variety of 
pedigrees, derived from different sources, would be contra- 
dictory unless their statements were true 
affinities, while they were well known, v 
order of Bards called " Arwyddfeirdd" 
part of whose multifarious productions have survived the 
ravages of time, and a fair specimen of them may be seen in 
Unas*! History of Brecknockshire. It is not likely that such 
persons would neglect the genealogy of the founders of 
churches, related as so many of them were to the chieftains 
of the country. Accordingly a variety of catalogues of 
Saints, with their more immediate ancestors, have been col- 
lected from different sources and apparently in different 
parts of the Principality. Two only of these catalogues 
have been published. The first, called " Bonedd Saint Ynys 

To record these 
is the office of an 
r Heralds ; a great 


<,r\i:kai. observations 

Prydain,"" is inserted in the Welsh Archaiology, where it is 
professed to have been taken from the book of Hafod Yteh- 
dryd. Its orthography is ancient, and from the names it 
contains it would appear to have been formed in Cardigan- 
shire. t The second is also published in the some Archaiolo- 
gy, under the name of " Bonedd, neu Achau Saint Ynys 
Prydain,"J being a collection by Lewis Morris from various 
old MSS. in North Wales, some of which are still in 
existence.§ There is also a third catalogue which has not 
been printed in an entire form, but a great part of its 
contents have been made known to the world in detached 
notices. It is styled "Achau Saint Ynys Prydain, "|( and 
gives a more full account of such Saints as lived in Si- 
luria, where it seems to have been collected. Each of these 
catalogues contains a variety of detail not to be found in the 
others ; but they also contain a great many names in common, 
and, in treating of them, their statements are seldom so con- 
flicting but that they may be reconciled. With the exception 

of some interesting historical notices in the 
the information they supply is but meagre ; 

i record. 

*" The Gentility of the Saints of the Isle of Britain." 
+ A short list of Saints, without reference to their genealogy, 
pnblishod in the Cambrian Register, Vol. 111. p. 219. It apnea 
originated in Cardiganshire, but it is perfectly distinct from the i 


■ few e 

o Lie fou 

J "Gentility, or Pedigrees of the Saints of the Isle of Britain." 
$ The MSS. consulted by Lewis Morris, amounting to nine in number, 
are specified in the Welsh Archaiology, Vol. II. p. Sfl. 

|| The attention of the public was first directed to this catalogue by (be 
late Mr. Edw. Williams, the distinguished antiquary of Glamorganshire, 
by whom it was transcribed from a MS. written, about A, I). 1670, by 
Thomas ab levan of Tre-bryn in the same county. As this appears to be 
one of the most interesting of (he Welsh records, its publication, accom- 
panied with various readings and additions from other MSS. known to 
exist in the same part of the Principality, is a desideratum wh 
hoped will not long be left unsupplied. 



valuable that it is capable of chronological arrangement. If 
the period, when any one mentioned in the list is said to have 
flourished, be known, the usual computation of thirty three 
jears to a generation, or a century to three generations, will 
assign within reasonable limits the era of his kindred both 
ascending and descending." And if any one of another line 
be found contemporary with either of these, the same com- 
putation will avail with sufficient accuracy to determine the 
order of succession. The circumstances of their history may 
nest be collected together, and embodied lortli from other 
sources of information. The principal of these are the Triads, 
a species of record not to be relied upon implicitly, but de- 
serving of consideration ns they give a fair representation of 
such traditions, relating to the history of the Welsh nation, as 
existed prior to the inventions of the monks, Some collateral 
testimony may also be derived from the poetry of the Welsh 
Bards, though, as already observed, there are few allusions to 
Saints in poems which are of early date. The Romish legends 
will be used but sparingly, and only when their statements are 
within the verge of probability. 

•In forming in artificial chronology, compulation by generations is 
nach more satisfactory than by a succession of kings, whose reigns for 
rarious reasons are of uncertain duration Sir Isaac Newton objects to 
the chronology of the kings of Rome, ami other ancient nations, upon the 
plea that the reigns, averaging at nbout thirty five years each, are loo 
long; and the following is the result of his observations after a careful 
examination of different authorities. — 

"Generations from father to son may he reckoned one with auother at 
about thirty three or thirty four years apiece, or about three generalions to 
a hundred years ; but if the reckoning proceed by the eldest sons, they are 
shorter, so that three of them may be reckoned at about seventy five or 
eighty years ; and the reigns of kings are still shorter, because kings are 
succeeded not only by their eldest sous, bill sometimes by Iheir brethren, 
and sometimes they ate slain ur deposed ; and succeeded by others of an 
equal or greater age. especially in elective or turbulent kingdoms." ( Re- 
marks prefixed to llookc's History of Rome.) 


Where the materials of history are scanty, the deficiency 
may, in part, be supplied by existing monuments, pro 
they are sufficiently numerous to allow of inferences being 
drawn upon fair principles of induction ; and in support of 
the genealogies it may be stated, that the order of succession 
deduced from them is, to a certain extent, observable in the 
arrangement of churches. As the chapels called after Welsh 
Saints have been dedicated to them for local reasons, so it is 
found that they are named after relatives, or contemporaries, 
possibly companions, of the founder of the mother church ; 
and where this is not the case, they are dedicated to persons of 
a later generation, who perhaps enlarged the foundation, or 
were distinguished ministers at the place. The occasional 
recurrence of the same names together is also a circumstance 
which could not have happened, unless some connexion, of 
the nature alluded to, originally subsisted between them. 
On the other hand, chapels are but seldom dedicated to per- 
sons of a generation earlier than the founder, for the first 
Saint who resided in the district was the most likely to es- 
tablish its place of worship; persons, however, of the gener- 
ation immediately preceding may be deemed contemporary. 
for a great part of their lives may have been concurrent. The 
few chapels, named after native Saints, which are subject to 
churches dedicated to the Apostles, are of a date comparatively 
modern; and, with others founded at a similar period, may be 
known by the technical appellatives of "Capel" and "Bettws," 
in contradistinction to " Llan," which in an earlier age was. 
applied to churches and chapels indiscriminately* 


■ from the Introduction of Christianity to the end of Ihe 

To proceed chronologically with the notices of such Saints 
as are to be found in the Welsh accounts, the commencement 
should be made with the introduction of the Gospel into 

The credit of this glorious work has been claimed for the 
Apostles — St. Peter, St. Paul, St. James, and Simon Zelotes, 
as well as for Joseph of Aritnathea ; but without entering 
further into the subject, it will be sufficient to observe that the 
Welsh records and traditions are silent as to their pretensions, 
and their claims must rest upon the support they receive from 
testimonies in other languages. According to the Triads,* 
and more especially the Silurian copies of Achau y Saint, the 
blessed instrument was " Bran ab Llyr," the father of Caradog 
or Caractacus. It is said that he and his son were betrayed to 
the Romans through the treachery of Aregwedd Foeddog, 
generally understood to be Cartiamandua. He was detained 
at Rome as a hostage for his son seven years, and by this 
means obtained an opportunity of embracing the Christian 
faith. Upon his return, he brought with htm three, or ac- 
cording to others, four teachers of the names of Hid, Cyndaf, 
ArwystU Hen, and Mawan ; and through their instrumentality 
the Gospel was first preached in this country. Such is the 
collective statement of the Welsh authorities, and it is so far 
plausible, that Stillingfleet, without being aware of this testi- 

• Triads 18 and 35, Third Saries, My v. Archaiol. Vol. II. 



mony, conjectured that a simitar circumstance was likely 
to have taken place.* If the account were correct, the return 
of Bran must have happened in A. D. 58, allowing seven years 
to elapse from the capture of Caractacus, which occurred in 
A. D. 5].t It is, however, beset with difficulties which it ii 
to be feared are insurmountable. In the first place, Tacitus, 
who mentions the capture or surrender of the several members 
of the family of Caractacus, and describes the appearance of 
the same persons seriatim before the Emperor Claudius.} says 
nothing of Bran. When the historian particularizes twice the 
wife, daughter, and brothers of the captive chieftain, the 
omission of so important a personage as his father affords a 
strong presumption that he was not at Rome, and had not 
been taken prisoner. If an attempt were made to account for 
the omission, it would be met by another difficulty. Dion 
Cassius states that the father of Caractacus§ was Cunobelinus, 
who died before the war with the Romans had commenced, 
and was succeeded in his kingdom by two sons, of whom 
Caractacus was one, the name of the other being Togodumnus. 
The latter testimony precludes the possibility of Bran being 
Cunobelinus under another name ; and would imply that 
Caractacus was not originally a chieftain of Siluria, but of the 
Trinobantes in the neighbourhood of London, where be is 
said to have fought a battle with the Romans in the first year 
of their invasion. In the ninth year following|| he was taken 

* Originee Britunnieie. 

t Tacitus'* Annals, XII. 17. 

I, XII. 33 »nd 86. 

$ Dio. or Dion t' cnmpriHtd fits llistorj of Rome in Greek i and, 
according to the usual practice, altered the name of Caractacus to Katara- 
takos, to accommodate it to the sound of the language j n which he wrote. 
f Lib I.X.) 

|| "Num. uoiil anno, quam helium iu Britannia cceptum." (Tacili 
Annates, Lib. Ml. cBp. 36.) 

FROM A. D. 58 TO A. D. SOU. 79 

prisoner, having opposed tlie Roman arms the whole of the 
interval, in the latter part of which the war had reached 
the Si lures. 

In a conflict with classical historians the Welsh traditions 
must give way, and if the foregoing prove a correct interpre- 
tation of the meaning of Tacitus and Dion Cassius, the claims 
of Bran af> Llyr to be considered the founder of Christianity 
in Britain must be surrendered. That traditions which relate 
to so early a period as the first and second century should 
prove inaccurate might be expected; but as they may have 
originated in an obscure notion of facts, they are deserving of 
respect, and should not be relinquished without a careful ex- 
amination. That the story of Bran is not a modern forgery is 
clear, as the inventor would have taken care to avoid the diffi- 
culties presented by classical writers, which, if he were unac- 
quainted with the original languages, he could have learnt 
from various histories of England. The Triads which support 
it, are professed to he taken originally from the Book of Cara- 
dog of Llancarfan,* who died in A. D. 1156; so that the 
opinion may have been current in Wales before the publication 
of the romance of Geoffrey of Monmouth. When these and 
other Triads were first written does not appear ; but as they 
relate principally to circumstances which took place in the 
sixth century, most of them must have been formed after that 
time. They, however, belong to different dates, being a 
method of arranging ancient traditions together, as they oc- 
curred to the mind of the inventor ; and as they are insulated 
compositions, the incorrectness of some of them does not ne- 
cessarily affect the authenticity of the rest. If Bran were the 
first British Christian, it might be expected that the Bards of 
the sixth century would celebrate him in that character. The 
only poem of that era in which his name occurs, is attributed 
to Taliesin, in which he is alluded to as the hero of a mytho- 

" M)'v. Arctuiology, Vol. II. p. 75. 


logical story or romance now extant." After this there is no 
mention of his name in an authenticated composition until the 
twelfth century, when he is described by Cynddelw as a dis- 
tinguished warrior.+ The weight of evidence would show 
that if the Triads, which relate to his character as a Saint, 
were as ancient as the twelfth century, they were then com- 
paratively recent and not generally received. 

Bran, on account of the supposed introduction of Christian- 
ity, has had the epithet of " Bcndignid" or Blessed attached to 
his name ; and in the Triads he is classed with Prydain and 
Dyfnwal, as one who consolidated the form of elective sover- 
eignty in Britain. J Nothing further is related of him, except 
as the subject of romance. In the " Mabinogion," or Juvenile 
Tales, is described an expedition of Bran to Ireland to re- 
venge an insult offered to his sister, Bronwen, by Matholwch, 
the Irishman. From this expedition, only seven returned, 
after having destroyed nearly all the people of the country ; 
and Bran, being mortally wounded, ordered his companions 
who survived to carry his head to be interred in the White Hill 
in London, as a protection against all future invasions, so long 

•"Bum i pan Vrrm yn Iwerddrtn." (Kerdd am Veib Llyr »b Brych- 
wel. Myv. Archaiology, Vol. I. p. G6. Sue also Turner's Vindication, 
p. 894.) 
f Rtiudd ongyr Bran fab Llyr Llediaifh, 
Khwydil al glod u gluduw anrhailh." 
The bloody spears of Bran, the son ofl.lyr Llediailli. 
Of unrestrained famr a- the hearer nf Hie spoil. 

My*. Arehaiol. Vol. I. p. SIS. 
" Rhybu Fran fab Llyr, llu rwymadur mad, 
Ynghamp, yngli) " lail. \ iighiiil, yngbflr." 
Bran the son of Llyr has been, — the excellent commander of (he host, 
In Ilie games, in I hi; assembly of ih« country, in bailie, in anxious care. 

tbld. Vol. I. p. 848. 
X No. 86, Third Series, and Cambrian Biography HH Bran. 


as it remained there-* It was afterwards removed by Arthur, 
who would not have this island defended by other means than 
hi- own prowess.t 

Itid and Cyndaf, the reputed companions of Bran from 
Rome, are said to have been "men of Israel," which would 
imply that they were converted Jews; while Arwystli is 
styled " a man of Italy," or a Roman. In the Silurian cata- 
logue he is said to have been the confessor or spiritual _. 
instructor (periglor) of Bran ; and by some modern com- 
mentators he is identified with Aristobulus, mentioned in the 
Epistle to the Romans, svi. 10. It is, however, remarkable 
that according to the Greek Marty rology, as cited by Arch- ' 
bishop Usher,J Aristobulus was ordained by St. Paul as a"* 
Bishop for the Britons. Cressy also says that St. Aristobulus, ' 
a disciple of St. Peter, or St. Paul at Rome, was sent as an 
Apostle to the Britons, and was the first Bishop in Britain ; 
that he died at Glastonbury A. D. 99, and that his Comme- 
moration or Saint's day was kept in the Church, March 15. 

Two of Lewis Morris's authorities§ state that Meigent or 
Meugant, was the son of Cyndaf, " a man of Israel ;" but this 
is probably a mistake, as the catalogues of North Wales make 
no other allusion to Bran or his companions. || The Saint in- 
tended appears to be Mawan, who according to one of the 
copies of the Silurian catalogue is said to have been a son 
of Cyndaf, and to have accompanied Bran from Rome to 

The descendants of Bran are styled in the Triads, one of 
tbe three holy families of Britain. It is not stated that Carac- 
tacus himself embraced Christianity; but Eigen, a daughter of 
Caradog ab Bran, or Caractacus, is recorded as the first female 

• Dr. O. Pug he, in Prefacu !o Gunn's Nennius. 

+ Triadj. 

J De Briinnnicaruri) EEcelestarttm Prlmordlti, page 9. 

4 My.. Archaiology, Vol. II. 47. 

U Qa. Is there any notice or Bran in the Regeslum Land&cenae ! 



Saint among the Britons. " She lived in the close of the firrt 
- century, and was married to Sarllog, who was lord of Caer 
Sarllog, or the present Old Sarum. "* Cyllin, the son of Ca- 
radog, is also called a Saint, and with him is closed the list of 
primitive Christians of the first century ; none of whom, ex- 
cept Arwystli, have been noticed by the monkish writers, 
and no churches in the Principality are known to bear their 

That Christianity, however introduced, had taken deep root 
in Britain in the second century is clear from the testimony of 
Tertullian, a contemporary writer, who states that certain 
parts inaccessible to the Romans were subdued by Christ.J 
The first Saint of this period, mentioned in the Welsh ac- 
counts, is Lleurwg, or Lleufer Mawr, the grandson of Cyllin. 
One Triad states that he was the person " who erected the 
first church at Llandaff, which was the first in the Isle of 
Britain ; and he bestowed the freedom of country and nation, 
with the privilege of judgment and surety upon those who 
might be of the faith in Christ. "§ Another Triad, speaking 
of the three Archbishopricks of the Isle of the Britons, says, 
"the earliest was Llandaff, of the foundation of Lleurwg ab 
Coel ab Cyllin, who gave lands and civil privileges to such as 
first embraced the faith in Christ."|| And the Silurian cata- 
logues of Saints further relate that he applied to Rome for 
spiritual instruction; upon which, four persons, named Dyfan, 

•Cambrian Biography.— Claudia, Ihe wife of Pudens sod reputed 
daughter of CnraclacuH. i., mil noticed in thu Welsh records. 

+ LI»nilid, Glamorganshire, supposed by some lo have been called after 
Hid. is dedicated to Julitla and Cyrique. See the List of Parishes, at the 
end of the My vyrian Archaiolngy, Vol. II. with Iolo Morganwg's note. 

t " BritMinurum inaccessa Romania loca, Christo tero suhdita." 

J Triad Sa, Third Series.— The privileges, which are scarcely intel- 
ligible, appear to mean redress in courts of justice, and the obligation of 
contracts made by a Christian. 

|| No. 62, Third Series— The .title, of Archbishop was not known until 
after the council of Nice, A, D. 335. 

FROM A. D. is TO A, D TOO 

Ffkgan, Medwy, and Elfan, were 
Bishop of that See. This is all the 
ities give respecting a person about 
written under the name of Lucius, 01 

him by Eleutherius, I 
the Welsh author- 
i so much has been 
ab Coel. Not con- J 

lent with these statements, Walter de Mapea, and Geoffrey of 
Monmouth, whose authority, as observed, ia not Welsh but 
Armorican, must make him the king of all Britain; and 
gravely relate, that by a decree of his sovereign power he con- 
verted ail the heathen temples in the kingdom into churches, 
that he transformed the Sees of twenty eight Flnmens and 
three Archifiamens into so many Biahopricka and Archbiahop- 
ricks, and in fact established a national religion more complete 
in its provisions than that which is the pride of England at 
this day. But this was not sufficient to satisfy some Catholic 
writers; they must needs add, that after he had Christianized 
the whole of his dominions, he laid aside his crown; and, in 
company with his sister, St. Emerita, he toiled his weary way, 
•» a missionary, through Bavaria, Rha?tia, and Vindelicia, 
until at last he suffered martyrdom near Curia in Germany." 

After this extravagance of fiction, it can be no wonder that 
•orne modern writers have denied altogether the existence of 
Lucius; and it must be admitted that his history, though 
upon the whole better attested than that of Bran, is, with ita 
moil confined limitations, involved in uncertainty. The 
ipposition thai 

Welsh accounts authorize no further s 
w« the chieftain of that part of Siluria 
blown by the joint names of Gwent 
even these accounts muat be receivi 
wcond Triad, just quoted, as it woul 
nuunder of its contents, is of no highei 
century ;+ and some of its statements a; 

that he 
which was afterward* 
and Morganwg. But 
1 with caution. The 
appear from the re- 
date than tile seventh 
■ so manifestly inaccu- 

b that it must be rejected entirely. The statement of the 

* Cressy't Church History of Brittany. 

• 11 speaks or the Archbishop ricks of Canterbury and York: the fatter, 
■iiSiion church, was not founded till A. D.63S. 

niL saints 

first Triad is not incredible, only that the privileges, whic 
could have been granted by a chieftain retaining his patri- 
mony under the Roman jurisdiction, must have been limited. 
As for the mission to Rome, the Welsh authorities make no 
mention of an alleged epistle of Eleutherius, still extant ; and 
it may be observed that the four names Dyfan, Ffagan, 
Medwy, and Elfan are not Roman, but British. Some ac- 
counts* state that Medwy and Elfan were Britons, and that 
being sent to Rome with the message, they brought Dyfant 
and Ffagan with them on their return. Amid these doubts 
and contradictions, the reader must exercise his own judg- 
ment, and perhaps he will reject the idea of o mission to Rome 
as a monkish fabrication. There are, however, local indica- 
tions in the neighbourhood of Llaiidaif which support the 
belief of the existence of these persons. Four churches have 
been called after the names of Lleurwg, Dyfan, Ffagan, and 
Medwy ; and their locality not oniy determines the situation 
of the patrimony of Lucius, but, in some respects, the con- 
fined sphere to which the labours of these Christian teachers 
were limited ; for in no other part of Wales has a tradition of 
their presence remained, a fact inconsistent with the notion 
that they evangelized the whole of Britain. 

Lleurwg was also called " Lleufer Mawr," or the Great Lu- 
minary, which probably was an epithet bestowed upon him at 
at a later age in consideration of his having promoted the 
cause of Christianity. The Latin name corresponding to this 
epithet was Lucius from Lax. Lies, on the other hand, first 
occurs in the fabulous chronicles, and is perhaps due to those 
later authors who formed a Welsh imitation of Lucius. Geo- 
ffrey of Monmouth also gives him a different pedigree to that 

• The Latin Bonk of Llanuaff, and Ilic Life of Si. Dubricius in John of 
THignmouth and Capgrave. {See Usher de l'rimordlis, pp. 49, 60.) 

+ If liny dependence eon Id be placed Dps* the genealogies of this period. 
It would npuear that Dyfeu was a Briton by defeat; his pedigree is 
gi»en under his mmu in the "Cambriiin Biography." 



in Achau y Saint and the Triads; for lie makes his grand- 
lather to be Mcirig, King of Britain, instead of Cyllin, the 
Saint; and thus carries his genealogy to Brute and the 
Trojans. As for the time in which he lived, Archbishop 
Usher* has cited above fifty Latin authorities with a view to 
ascertain the year of his conversion, a few only of whom agree 
together; and even the name of the Bishop of Rome with 
whom he is said to have corresponded is differently mentioned, 
some saying it was Euaristus, while a more numerous party 
maintain it was Eleutherius. But most of them agree in 
saying that Lucius flourished in the latter part of the second 
century, which is rather later than the order of generations in 
the Welsh account from the known date of Caractacus. If 
the Welsh computation be correct, he must have flourished 
about the middle of the second eentury, in the reign of either 
of the two Antonines, whose edicts in favour of the Christians 
would give him the opportunity of promoting the new re- 
ligion. That a native chieftain was allowed to exercise some 
degree of power, is probable from the known policy of the 
Romans in Britain and elsewhere. And Tacitust indeed 
relates that such was their conduct in this country in the time 
of Ostorius, the captor of Caractacus. 

Under these circumstances it is certainly possible, if it be 
not probable, that, according to the h'rst of the two Triads 
last quoted, some place might have been set apart for the 
purposes of religious worship by Lucius at Llandalf. But 
the declaration of the second Triad, that he gave lands to the 
faithful, cannot be admitted. According to the general testi- 

• De Brit. Etal. Primonliis, Cap. III. 

+ His worili are — " t'onsularium [irimus Aulun Plaulins propositus, ic 
silblnde O.-ilorius Scapula, nterque bello egregius: red a cinque paulalim in 
form»m province proxima pars Britannic, additn iusuper veleranorum 
colonia; qoiriitm eiviiale' Cogirfuno regi dt>nala>, rrttrc ac jam pridtm 
ritrpla iHip'ili Riiinaiti «>«»»• Ivilinc. h( habcrrl initrumenti 
ft regt*." I-ife of Agricoln, Cap. XIV. 


7 roony 
tenance of religii 

ecclesiastical historians, endowments for the main- 
did not commence until several generation* 
afterwards ; and from another Triad" in the same collection it 
seen that they did not commence in Britain until about the 
end of the fourth century. If any reliance can be placed upon 
Welsh traditions which relate to so early a period, it will be 
sufficient to acquiesce in the testimony of the first Triad, 
which implies no more than that he built a church, said to 
have been the first erected in Britain. That LlanduiT was one 
of the oldest churches in this country is not improbable, as the 
circumstance would afterwards be a reason for the selection of 
the place to be the seat of a Bishoprick ; but, whether true or 
false, in the simple statement of the Triad may be recognised 
the germ of that story which afterwards grew to be the won- 
der of Christendom.t 

As for the other four churches which have passed under the 
names of Lleurwg, Dyfan, Ffagan, and Medwy, there is 
nothing in the present state of their endowments from which 
they may be judged to belong to the most ancient class. It 
might be said that in this age places of worship were sup- 
ported by the voluntary contributions of the people; and 
though there is every reason to believe that such was the fact, 
still had these churches existed at so early a period, the vener- 
ation attached to their antiquity would, in some way or other, 
have distinguished them from their neighbours ; but there are 
not any traces of pre-eminence to be observed. That they 
were built long after the time of the persons whose na 

• Triai! 18, Third Scries. Archaiology of Wales, Vol. II. 

t In the Catholic Church, the anniversary at the Baptism of Lucius w 
celebrated Mny 38, and lhat of his martyrdom Dec. 3. The festival o 
| Dyfan was held April 8, and of Ffagan August 8* they were als. 
mcmoraled together May 21. The Saint's day of Klfan was held Sept. 
86; lhat of Mcdwy is unknown, except it be identified with the festival oi 
Medwyn, which according to some Calendars occurred Jan. 1. (Cressy. — 
Sir Harris Nicolas's Chronology of History ) 

. D, i* TO A. D. K» 


they bear is evident in the instance of Merthyr Dyfan, the 
designation of which implies that it was a marlyrium, and the 
erection of places of worship of this description did not 
mence before the fourth century. Ecton, or rather Browne 
Willis, asserts that the patron Saint of Jlerthyr Dyfan was 
Teilo; it is not known upon what authority he gives the 
name, but if he were correct, it might be said that the church 
was founded in nwmoriani martyri.* Diiviuni by Teilo in the 
sixth century. The most safe conclusion is that these four 
churches were built at a later age to the memory of the per- 
sons whose names they bear, and in situations which tradition 
reported to have been the scene of their labours. 

The monkish historians mention that Elian was the second 
Bishop of London ; and, according to the authors of the Latin 
account of the origin of the church of Lland.ifl", it would ap- 
pear that he was ordained a Bishop at the time of his visit to 
Rome, while his companion Jledwy, was created a Doctor, 
Upon these points the Welsh authorities are silent; and all 
that is related of Elian is that he presided over a congregation 
of Christians at Glastonbury ; but this allusion to the church 
founded by Joseph of Aricnathea savours of a monkish origin. 
The monks are also prolix in their detail of the acts of Dyfan 
and Ffagan in various parts of Britain ; but setting the 
legends aside, it will be sufficient to add, to the little in- 
formation to be gleaned from the Welsh historical remains, 
the supposition that the former suffered martyrdom at the 
place now called "Herthyr Dyfan;" and as for Ffagan and 
the rest, the conjecture m»y be hazarded that they lived and 
died in Glamorganshire, as in this county alone they seem 
to retain traces of 

" A local habitation and a name." 



ition of the early Welsh Pedigrees, with a view lo! 
t of their authenticity may 

With the foregoing Saints is concluded the list for the 
second century. From the age of Lleurwg, the Triads and 
the Poems of the Bards present a perfect blank until the time 
of Macsen Wledig, generally supposed to be Maximus, Em- 
peror of Rome, who began to reign A. D, 383. But not so 
the Genealogists, for they carry the ancestry of the British 
Chieftains and Saints, without interruption, through the 
period of Roman ascendancy. The alleged descendants of 
Bran Fendigaid are, therefore, drawn up in a tabular form, as 
it appears on the opposite side. 

This pedigree is arranged according to tile " Cambrian Bi- 
ography,"* where each connecting link may be found upon 
reference to most of tile names included, but more especially 
under the names Caradog ab lest in, Cadfrawd, Tudwal Eefr, 
and Eldad, The names printed in Italics are those of reputed 
Saints, and the rest are introduced for the sake of preserving 
the lineage unbroken. It has been already stated that gene- 
alogy, if its details be at all complicated, can hardly fail of 
betraying itself whenever it is not founded in fact. Thus Ys- 
trafael, the daughter of Cadfan, is said to have been the wife 
of Coel Godebog ; and she is placed in the pedigree in the 

> be regretled that Dr. Owen Pughc, Id uhom Welsh literature 
inder greater obligations Ihnn to any other individual, does not 
public with a new and enlarged edition of this useful work. 



s * I? 

" I " 



seventh generation from Llyr Llediaith inclusive. The i 
cestry of Coel Godebog is also given under his name ii 
Cambrian Biography, and the number of generations thei 
enumerated agrees with the statements usually given. 
ancestor of Coel, nccording to that list contemporary with Llyi 
Llediaith was Afallach ; but from Afallach to Coel there a 
fourteen generations, precisely double the number of thos 
from Llyr Llediaith to Ystrafael, the wife of Coel ; and this 
large discrepancy must have happened in the short space of 
250 years, for Afallach and Llyr Llediaith were of a gener- 
ation commencing with the Christian era, while Coel Godebog 
is stated to have lived about the middle of the third century. 
There are reasons for placing Coel a few generations later than 
the date usually assigned him ; but Ystrafael must also be 
brought down to the same period, and, early or late, both 
lineages cannot be true together. It is possible and often hap- 
pens that a son is born after his father is fifty years of age, 
but the accident must be repeated twice before a century can 
pass with only two generations; the line of Ystrafael would 
render it necessary for the accident to happen five or six times 
in regular succession. It happens equally as often that a son 
is born when his father is twenty five years of age or under, 
but this accident must be repeated four times successively 
before a century can pass with four generations ; in the line of 
Coel the accident must have happened about fourteen times 
in about three centuries and a half. But in every examination 
of well authenticated genealogies the accidents generally cor- 
rect each other, and the average in a long pedigree is three 
generations to a century.* In this respect, whenever the 

• From the birlh of William the Conqueror A. D. 1027 to Ihc biilh of 
William the Fourth A. D. 176S, twenty four generations may be reckoned, 
the average duration of each of which is thirty years unci nine months ; 
and the proportion is maintained under the disadvantage of a suci 
in every possible case, of elder children. 



Welsh pedigrees attempt to penetrate the Rom an -British 
period they are all of them faulty.* With the exception of 
the line of Eudaf ab Caradog ab Bran, already given, they are 
during this period a mere string of names, without a single 
marriage, plurality of issue, or reference to historical events, 
by which their correctness may be determined. Those which 
pass through the period in question are five in number, two of 
which have been given already, and the remainder may be 
added by way of illustration. 

CT*«L« II.] 




allon, JrCuilbctau 


Curir Wlctllg 




EKdd ]<n> 

Him.. lihiiil.l 1 





. - Enyd 




Crincu D»uf« 
Twn - 



■ 4* - • 




lorwiilh Hiifl 

wad, a. d 






Cunedclo Wledlg, A. I>. Jl 

• In the first (able it may be noticed, that the date of Teitbfallt, the 
■MitMMtt descendant from Lljr Llc.liaitb in one line li A. D. *30; while 
that of Cysteunya Goronog, the aiiilh descendant in another line, is 
A. D.Mtf. 


11 y variation ; 
I'll memorials 
and upwards 

These pedigrees lire generally given without any \ 
but to say nothing of the improbability that such i 
should be preserved during the three centuries and upwards 
of Roman ascendancy, they receive no con tir motion from 
other authorities until the lower dates affixed, being the 
first that could be ascertained with any tolerable degree of 
accuracy. From those dates downwards, however, these 
pedigrees divide into several branches; their relationship* 
multiply, and are so complex and interwoven that they could 
not have been traced with any degree of correctness unless 
they were recorded soon after the times in which they oc- 
curred, and it should not be forgotten that they are almost 
always reconcilable with chronology. It will be observed that 
the dates in question, to which may be added Teithfallt A. D. 
430, and Ystrafael A. D. 330 from the first table, occur shortly 
before or soon after the departure of the Romans from Britain. 
May it not, therefore, be supposed that all the generations 
from thence upwards were invented to support the pretensions 
of those chieftains, who rose into power upon the decline of 
the Roman interest ; for that they were forged at an early 
time is probable from the fact that they are at variance with 
the monkish stories respecting the British parentage of Con- 
stantine the Great. These worthies were likely to owe their 
influence to the system of clanship prevalent among the Celtic 
nations, and they would find it politic to show their descent 
from the families of Cassibelaunus and Caractacus, of whose 
existence and prowess they could be informed by their Roman 
masters, even if there had been no native traditions remain- 

The line of Eudaf ab Caradog, in the first table, demands 3 
more especial attention upon the present occasion, inasmuch 
as it contains the names of several Saints ; and as its details 
are more complicated, it presents features very different from 
the rest. Cadfrawd, the son of Cadfan, appears in a genera- 
tion immediately succeeding that of Lleurwg ; and upon re- 



ference to the Cambrian Biography, it is seen that this person 
■was "a Saint and Bishop who lived about the beginning of 
the third century," It would appear that the editor of that 
work employed as his authority the Silurian catalogue of 
Saints, and that he calculated the dates accordingly; but in a 
lower part of the line the dates of other members of the 
family may be ascertained from the known era of their con- 
temporaries in history. These dates, however, are so much at 
variance with the former that the whole chronology is con- 
fused. There is reason to think that the inconsistency has 
arisen from a very simple mistake on the part of some compilers 
of genealogies in the middle ages ; and to explain it a third 
table may be produced on the authority of George Owen 
Harry. — 


I cJ.dc*. 

1 Kiidif, or E'uld.f 

S Cynui 

i cL 


rndwm. >vifc bTCmI Uidll 




Cunedda WlcdiR 

3Cjniia MelrladoR. A. 1). .180 

r , nl.rch O 


IA.W, mirr 

dl Atuii.dnugbter D/VTher, A. D. -I'll in 5J0 

- - (CvLri 


. D. m A.,d™,™ 

Cousiniu Epiry, or'Ambro.hi. 

Oilier Emyr UyiUw 




In this table it is necessary first to point out an error. In 
the Triads, Cynan Meiriadog is invariably said to he the 
brother of Elen; and if she was the daughter of Eudaf, Cynan 
must also have been the son of Eudaf. The name of Caradog 
may have slipt into tile place of Eudaf from the generation 



preceding. If this arrangement be the correct one, it will 
immediately be observed that the nameB marked 1, 2, 3, and 
4, are repeated twice over, and the mistake alluded to is 
simply this :— Cadfan the father of Stradwen, and Cadfan the 
father of Morfawr have been thought to be the same person, 
and the ancestry of the latter has been given to the former. 
Cadfan, the father of Stradwen,* which is only another name 
for Ystrafael, must be considered the first person or founder 
of his family, and the time in which he lived will depend 
upon the known date of his descendant Llew ab Cynfarch, 
who was contemporary with Arthur. Cadfrawd and Vstrafael 
will thus be placed in the first part of the fourth century ; and 
Coel Godebog will be coeval with Constantine the Great, 
instead of being his grandfather, as reported in the legends. 
The pedigree of Cynan Meiriadog must commence with his 
grandfather Caradog.t and the notion that he was a descend- 
ant of the great Caractacus must be set aside. The genera] 
period in which he lived may be known from his connexion 
with the emperor fllaximtis, the date of "hose usurpation is 
A. D. 383. But if Cynan Meiriadog was living in A. D. 380, 
it is impossible that his descendant in the fourth or fifth 
degree should be king of the Britons in A. D. 433. It ap- 
pears, however, that George Owen Harry has confounded 
Constantine, the father of Ambrosius, with Cystennyn Go- 
ronog, a descendant of Cynan, and who succeeded to the 
sovereignty of Britain on the death of Arthur A. D. 542. 
So much may be said for the sake of establishing the order 
n from the beginning of the fourth century, eo as 

* George Owen Harry, to fill up the chronology, has heaped the pre- 
sumed ancestors of Slradwcn and Morfawr, one upon the other; but not- 
withstanding this iiccuniulnlioii, the pedigree falls short of Ihe era of 
Cnraclacus by a whole century. 

t According to the first tabic, Caractacus and Caradog the grandfather 
or Cynan were the same person, which cannot he admitted without com- 
mitting au anachronism of I no centuries. 

EARLY WELSH PEl)K.;m-:r.s. 


to include the immediate ancestors of those chieftains who 
rose into power upon the departure of the Romans. It has 
been already observed that the Triads and the poems of the 
Bards allude to no affairs which were transacted in the third 
century; and if the arrangements just made be correct, the 
genealogies afford no information as to the Saints who lived in 
the same period. This chasm in Welsh tradition is due to the 
quiet submission of the people under a foreign power ; and if 
those accounts which relate to the age preceding prove un- 
certain, and occasionally incorrect, the remoteness of the time, 
as well as the interruption, must in fairness be sufficient to 
account for their inaccuracy and uncertainty. The third and 
early part of the fourth centuries include the usurpation of 
Carauslus and the accession of Constantine, both of which 
happened in Britain, but these events more especially con- 
cerned the Romans. As regarded the history of the Britons 
as a nation, this was an eventful period. The Christian 
religion, doubtless, continued to make progress; but as for 
those who were engaged in tile work of promoting it, no 
friendly Bard has preserved their names. 

Omnes illachrymabiles 

Urgentur, ignotique longa 

Nocte, carent quia vate sacra. 


The Welsh Saints from A. D. 300 to A. D. 400. 

In the year 303 occurred the persecution under Dioclesian, 
in which St. Alban, the Prato-martyr of England, and his 
contemporaries, Amphibatus, Aaron, and Julius, are said to 
have suffered martyrdom ; and though ttieir history is obscur- 
ed with fable, the credit of their existence may be maintained 
upon the testimony of writers of great antiquity;* but at 
their names are not noticed in any catalogue of Welsh Saints, 
it will not be necessary to say much respecting them. They 
appear to have been Romans rather than Britons, which may 
account for the circumstance of their having passed almost 
unregarded by the Welsh people. There is no church in 
Wales dedicated to Alban, or Ampliibalus. Julius and Aaron 
are said to have been inhabitants of the Roman city of Caer- 
leon upon Usk, where, according to Walter de Mapes, Geoffrey 
of Monmouth, as well as Giraldus Cainbretisis, two illustrious 
churches were dedicated to their memory, and adorned with a 
convent of nuns and a society of regular canons. But as those 
authors, who flourished from A. D. 1150 to 1200, admit that 
these establishments did not exist in their time, but were 
among the glories of Caerleon which had passed away, the 
wbole account may be regarded as a monkish fable, it being 
inconsistent with the history of the age to which it is referred. 
Soon after the Norman Conquest there was an ordinary 
church at Caerleon, dedicated to Julius and Aaron jointly, 



which was about the same time granted by Robert lie Candos 
to the priory of Gokleliff." According to Bishop Godwin, 
there existed, in the recollection of the generation preceding 
that in which he wrote,+ two chapels called after Julius and 
Aaron, on the east and west side of the town, and about two 
mileB distant from each other ; but so little respect appears to 
have been paid to these edifices that antiquaries are not quite 
agreed as to their situations. Llanharan in Glamorganshire, 
considered to be dedicated to Julius and Aaron, is but a 
chapel; and its mother church, Llanilid, is also of late dedi- 
cation, being consecrated to Julitta and Cyrique, French 
Saints J whose homage was introduced probably by the 

In A. D. 30(5 Constantine was proclaimed Emperor of Rome 
upon the death of his father Constantius, an event which took 
place in Britain. From this circumstance the Armorican 
chronicle has taken occasion to fill the world with the story, 
that he was a native of this island, and that his mother, Helen, 
was the daughter of Coel, a British king. This tale has been 
much controverted, and since the time of Gibbon the decision 
of most historical writers is in the negative. The best au- 
thorities in support of it are, the following passage from 
Eumenius, the Rhetorician, — " O fortunate Britain, and now 
happier than all countries, which hast first seen Constantine 
Camr:" and the following from another panegyrist; — "He 
(thy father Constantius) delivered Britain from bondage, but 
thou by arising from thence hast made it illustrious."! But 
these passages can surely mean no more than his accession, ;i> 

* Dugdale's Mimas lie on. 

t Sometimes called Julietta and Cyr, their Welsh names arc Hid and 


I These passages are original!; thus: — "O forttinatn, el nunc omnibus 

bealior lerris Britannia, qua Cmistanlinum C'cPinrtrn prima vidisti." 

11 Liberavit ille (pater videlicet Ccwstanllus) Bntannins servilnte, lu eiiam 
aobiles illic oriciulo fecisli." — With respect to the meaning of " oriendo," 


Ccesar, to a share of the Imperial government. The opinion 
of Archbishop Usher is to the contrary,* but it is surprising 
that the learned Primate should not have examined the subject 
with his usual chronological skill. Constantine was of full age 
A. D. 306, when he was proclaimed Emperor upon the death 
of his father; indeed Usher produces authorities to show that 
he was created Ciesar before that time. Now Constant! us 
visited Britain, for the first time, in 296; and allowing that 
Constantine was born that year, he could only have been ten 
years old at the time of his accession to the empire; he was, 
therefore, not bom in Britain. Besides, Helen was the wife 
of Constantius's younger years, and, as she was divorced by 
him as early as A. D. 206, ten years before his arrival in this 
country, she was not likely to have been a Briton. But chrono- 
logy and the monkish historians are always at variance, and 
the attempt to reconcile them would be a fruitless under- 
taking. A modern writer+ asks, how has it happened that 
such a tradition, as that of the British parentage of Constan- 
tine, should become perfectly national ? To this it may be 
replied, that in all the works of the earlier Bards, the cata- 
logues of Saints, the older pedigrees, and all the Triads, 
except one, there is not the slightest allusion to the circum- 
stance ;$ and the omission of a fact, which would have gra- 
tified the national pride of the Welsh, is a presumptive proof 
that they were not acquainted with it. When the story was 
communicated to them by the monks in the middle ages, they 
received it with avidity. The solitary Triad to the contrary 
is No. 6, second series, in the Myvyrian Archaiology ; but a 

it Is sufficient to say lhat Enmeniiis describes tbe accession of Constnnlius, 
the fnther of Constantino, In similar terms. 
• De Brit Eccl. Priroordiis, Cap. VIII. 
1 Roberts, in his Chronicle of the Kings of Britain. 
J It appears to have boon unknown to Bede, to the author of the com- 
position ascribed to Gildas, and to the compilers of the Saion Chronicle 
translated hy Dr. Ingram. 

FROM A. I>. 300 TO A. D. tOO. 

single reading of it will discover its monkish origin. The 
only Triad besides, in which even the name of Constantine is 
mentioned, is the Triad respecting Archbishopricks,* which 

may also be referred t 

Helen and Col 
but the name of the latter does 
Saints, and that of the forme 

existing catalog ues.t There i 

l factory. 

canonised by the Romanists; 

not occur in any Welsh list of 

1 is omitted in almost all the 

church in Glamorganshire, 

called Eglwys Ilan, which is supposed by Browne Willis to 
be dedicated to Helen; and to render the dedication more 
complete, the subordinate church of Llanfabon, despite the 
name it bears, is attributed to Constantine. J Another church, 
in Cardiganshire, is called Tref llan ; but the identity of Han 
with Helen is, at least, questionable, us in all the current 
stories respecting the latter the name is never corrupted. A 
church in Monmouthshire is called distinctly Llauelen; but 
not to lay too great a stress upon names, it may be allowed 
that these churches, as well as a chapel of St. Helen§ which 
once existed at Carnarvon, were dedicated to her in the 
middle ages ; and if the story of her British origin were true, 
it would be surprising that such dedications were not more 
numerous. A church in Carnarvonshire, called Llangysten- 
nyn,|| is perhnps dedicated to Constantine the Great; but 
this must be uncertain, as soon after the departure of the 
Romans there was a sainted king in Britain, called Cystennyn 
Fendigaid, or Constantine the Blessed. 

• No. 02, Third Series, Myv. Archaiology, 
t It is mentioned in ouly two of the Mi 

X Llan ration is called after Maboi 

LlandafF; and Eglwys Ilan may derive its 

•bom all oilier memuriali liuve perished. 
$ Rowlands'* Mima Antique, Section XI 
|| This church does no I nppL-ar to be nacit 

wiit ■ chapel under Abergele (St. Michael.) 

cited in the Myvyrian Ar- 

the brother of Teilo, Bishop of 
its name from a Welsh Saint, of 



civitate Eboracensi, provinci 

During this vacuity of Welsh tradition, which later legem 
have endeavoured to occupy with fable, it is gratifying to 
learn, from testimonies of another kind, that Christianity must 
have made considerable progress. Of this the most irrefra- 
gable proofs remain in tbe fact on record, that there* were 
British Bishops present ut the Councils — of Aries in Gaul 
A. D. 314, of Sardica in Illyria A. D. 347, and of Ann 
in Italy A. D. 359. The Council of Aries was convened 1 
Constantine for the sake of suppressing the heresy of 1 
Donatists ; and it is satisfactory to know that at that t 
seventeen years before the general edict in favour of Christian- 
ity, there were at least three Bishops in Britain. The nai 
of those who attended upon that occasion, as given by Usher, 
and Spelman, were: — 

" Eborius Episcopus, 

Restitutus Episcopus, de civitate Londinensi, 

Adelfius Episcopus, de civitate Colonii Londinensi um :— 
exinde Sacerdos Presbyter, Arminius Diaconus," 

None of these Bishops are mentioned in any catalogue i 
Welsh Saints, unless it be admitted that Adellius is identici 
with Cadfratfd, for the names are almost a translal 
other.* The British rendering of Eborius and Bestitutui 
would be Efrog and Rhystyd, both which names wej 
in Wales a few generations later. Colonia Londinensi um i 
evidently an error, as there was no place place known 
that name in Britain, and the Bishop of London is already 
mentioned. StilliugHeet proposes, therefore, to read "Legior 
ensium" for Caerleon upon Usk ; Urbs Legionis being t 
name by which that town was known to Latin writers in 

• Adelfius appears In bo fonu 
liroltier; ami Ihe Welsh Scholar 
.sitiouof t-'adfrawd. 

ed J"r the i.i, 

-ogiiiso i!ra»d in Lhe c 

TO A. D. ion. 


1 division 

middle ages. The same place was also in tl 
of the country" the capital of the province of Britannia Se- 
cunda, as London was of Britannia Prima, and York of 
Maxima Ca^sariensis. Welsh tradition has always reported it 
to have been a Bishop's see from the earliest times ; and the 
importance of these three places enabled their Diocesans 
in a subsequent age to assume the title of Archbishop. No 
further information can be gleaned respecting Saeerdos 
and Arminius, but they attended probably as representatives 
of the different orders of priesthood. 

The list of the Bishops, who subscribed the articles of the 
Council of Sardica, is not preserved ; but it is asserted by 
Athanasius that Bishop* from Britain were present, and that 
they joined in the condemnation of Arius and vindication of 
himself. In a few years afterwards, Hilary, Bishop of Poic- 
tiers, in an epistle from Phrygia, congratulates the Britons, 
amongst others, on their freedom from heresy .t 

The Council of Ariminum was convened by Constat it i us, 
the son of Constantine, to decide, like the preceding, upon 
[he Arian heresy, to which the Kmperor himself was favour- 
able, Sulpkius Severus relates that more than four hundred 
Bishops of the Western Church were assembled together 
upon the occasion, and adds — "unto all of whom the Em- 
peror had ordered provisions and apartments to be given. 
But that was deemed uiibrcnimitg by the Aquitans, Gauls, and 
Britons; and refusing the imperial offer, they preferred to live 
at their own expense. Three only from Britain, on account 
of poverty, made use of the public gift, after they had rejected 
the contribution offered by the others ; considering it more pro- 

• "It plainly appears that the Church was divided into Dioceses and 
Provinces much after the same manner as the Empire, having s Metro- 
politan or Primate in every Province." — (Bingham's Antiquities, Book IX. 
Chap, I.) — L'nilcr each of these pni\ inrial Bishops were several Chorepii- 
copi or Suffragans. 

* L'sher dB Brit. Eccl. Priuiortliis, Cap. VIII. 



per to burden the exchequer than individuals."" — This passages 
has been, by a mistake, adduced to show the poverty of thes=- 
Bi shops of Britain in general, when it states, that such nic 
their sense of propriety that they had rather defray their — nr 

costs and charges than subsist upon the Emperor's bounty 

The three, who did partake of it, are mentioned only as hu^k 

exception, as if the independent Bishops were the more pu 

merous party. Out of four hundred, which number includedL 
only those of the Western Church, a proportion of ten 01 — 
upwards may well be allowed tor Britain, whose distance fronts 
Italy must have added greatly to the expense of their journey- 
The prelates assembled at this Council were forced to submit 
to the doctrines of Arius through the undue influence of the; 
Emperor; but in the year 353, Athanashis describes the 
churches of Britain, and other churches in the west, as ad- 
hering to the faith of the council of Nice.t 

Besides Cadfrawd, already mentioned, the period just 
passed over includes Gwerydd and lestyn, brothers, and Cad- 
gyfarch and Gwvmsel, sons, of Cadfrawd; all of whom are 
said to have been Saints, but their feast-days are unknown, 
and ho churches have been dedicated to them. 

Coel Godebog was a chieftain who flourished in the former 
part of this century. He married Ystrafael or Stradwcn, the 
sister of Cadfrawd, by whom he had a son, Ceneu, whose 
name appears in the catalogues of Saints, and a daughter, 
Gwawl, who married Edeyrn, the father of Cunedda Wledig. 
According to the fabulous chroniclers he had only one child, a 

• The original wonls are tlieso, — "Quilius omnibus mmoius el cclUrit 
dare Imperslor pra'ceperal. Sod id Acjuitaiiis, Gnllis, oc Britannia in- 
tlccens visum; n'pmljiitis tiscalilni>, pn>|iriis Miuiptilius vivcre maluerunt. 
Tres lodliuu ex Britannia 1 , inopiu proprii. publico usi sunt, cum oblaUin • 
ccterin coll»ii.>iiem rcf-iiuisient ; sauctius putantos tist-um ftravaie, qiiim 
sing a] os." — Sulpilii Sever! Sncric Historic, Lib. II. C«p. LV. 

f Uslier, ilo Brit. Ecol. Primordiis, Cop. VIII. 

FROM A. I). 3UD TO A. »• *». 



■? 5 -s 

o bo 5-^ 






i laughter,* who was afterwards the mother of t'onstantine the 
Great. But setting fable aside, no transactions of his life 
have been recorded, and to the Welsh genealogists he is 
known only as the founder of a large family of descendants. 
He was probably regarded us the head of a tribe in the sys- 
tem of clanship, which, as it is found flourishing in full vigour 
upon the departure of the Romans, must have been maintained 
in some degree under their supremacy. 

Ceneu, the son of Coel.t probably spent his life in the ser- 
vice of religion, for which reason he has been called a Saint ; 
but no churches have been consecrated to his memory ; Llan- 
geneu in Brecknock >h ire being assigned to Ceneu, a daughter 
or grand -daughter of Brychan. 

With Cynan Meiriadog and Macsen Wledig, who flourished 
about A. D. 380, the history of Britain according to the 
Triads may be said to recommence. Macsen Wledig, or 
Maximus, is reported to have married Elen Luyddog, the 
sister of Cynan, who was the chieftain of Meiriadog in North 
Wales ; and in this story may be recognised the prototype of 
the fable that Helen, the daughter of Cocl, was married to 
Constantius. It is further said, that Cynan led over an army 
of 00,000 men into Gaul to support the claims of Maximus, 
and that this army afterwards settled in Armorica. Though 
some modern French writers find reasons for discrediting the 
whole of the story, \ it should not, upon that account, be dis- 
missed without examination ; but as its truth or falsehood 
forms no part of the present enquiry, it is only necessary in 
this place to establish the date of the expedition, A. D. 383. 
so far as it may affect subsequent events, 

" "Nyt oed o plant oy lliat namyn hy ehunan." — Brut Gr, »b Arthur, 
Myv. Archaeology. Vol, II. p.207. 

t He is not to be confounded with another Ceneu th Coel, a mriot 
who flourished in the lime of Arthur. 

J Turner's Anglo Saxons, Appendix In Book VI. Chap. II. 

FROM A. D. 800 TO A. D. 400. 105 

The monkish chronologists thought that these 60,000 men 
would, of course, be in want of wives ; and therefore they 
appended the tale of St. Ursula and the eleven thousand, nay 
seventy thousand virgins, who, on their voyage from Britain 
to Armorica, were captured by pagan pirates, and all suffered 
for their faith. But this grave narration is so improbable 
throughout, that the whole may, without scruple, be pro- 
nounced a fiction.* 

There is a church in Cardiganshire called Llanygwyryfon, 
or Llanygweryddon, which is supposed to be dedicated to 
St Ursula and the virgins ; and if so, it is obviously of late 

Before the end of this century the celebrated Pelagius, who 
was a Briton, commenced his career ; but as the name of this 
person has not been enrolled in any catalogue of Saints, it will 
be enough to observe that his heresy was first promulgated in 
Italy, and was soon afterwards brought to Britain by his ! 
disciple, Agricola. 

• The story may be seen at length in Cres sy's " Church History of 

I'll.- Welsh Sninls from A. I). I'iihi, A. D.433 

The list of primitive Christians has reached the beginning 
of the fifth century, and it may be stated that of all those 
hitherto mentioned, none, with the exception perhaps of 
Lleurwg, were founders of churches in the usual sense of the 
term. But the reader is now about to enter upon a time, 
when, in consequence of the distresses of the Romans, the 
Britons threw off their yoke, and the affairs of the island 
underwent a complete revolution. From the Welsh genealo- 
gies it would seem as if the country came at once into the 
possession of several chieftains, who rose into power, either as 
elders of tribes according to a system of clanship, or from 
their activity in resisting the northern invaders. 

This event took place, according to Zosimus, in A. D. 408 
or 409; and he says it happened in consequence of an ir- 
ruption of barbarians into Gaul, which cut off the communi- 
cation between Britain and the rest of the Roman empire. 
His words may thus be rendered: — 

"The barbarians above the Rhine, invading all parts with 
unrestrained freedom, forced, of necessity, the inhabitants of 
the island of Britain, and some of the Celtic tribes, to revolt 
from the dominion of the Romans, and to live independent, 
no longer obeying the Roman laws. The Britons, therefore, 
armed themselves, and, facing the danger on their own ac- 
count, delivered their cities from the barbarians that infested 
them. And all Armoriea and other provinces of Gaul, imi- 
tating the example of the Britons, set themselves free in like 


manner; expelling the Roman governors, and setting up a 
native form of government at their own liberty. This revolt 
of Britain and the Celtic tribes happened during the time of 
the usurpation of Constantine, when the barbarians had 
made an incursion through his neglect of the affairs of the 

This is the statement of a contemporary historian, for Zosi- 
mus died A. D. 420 ; and though it does not enter into par- 
ticulars as much as could be wished, it is of incomparably 
greater value than all the dreaming of Gildas and the monkish 
writers about the " groam of the Britons," whom they re- 
present as the most imbecile of the nations of antiquity. It is 
pleasing, however, to find historians of such eminence as 
Gibbon, Mr. Sharon Turner, and Dr. Lingard, giving to the 
testimony of Zosimtis the respect to which it is entitled; mid 
they proceed to describe the state of Britain after its emanci- 
pation, in terms perfectly consistent with the information to 
be gleaned from the Welsh authorities. Gibbon indeed 
quotest a passage from Procopius to show that the Romans 
could never recover possession of the island, which continued 
from that time under the government of tyrants ; and by the 
latter term, in the original l>Tra itjOTwii, which is not always 
used in a bad sense, it is obvious the writer intended to de- 
signate the native chieftains. 

From the Triads it would appear that the emperor Maxi- 
mus left a son in Britain, called Owain ab Macsen Wledig, 
who was by national convention elected to the chief sovereignty 
of the Britons. It is said that under him Britain was restored 
to a state of independence, and the annual tribute which had 
been paid to the Romans from the time of Julius Carsar was 
discontinued. It is added that the Romans, under pretence of 
consenting to these proceedings, withdrew their troops, and 

t Decline unci Full, Chip. XXXI. Not 



brought away at the same time the best of the Britons who were 
able to bear arms, by which means the country was so weakened 
that it became a prey to its enemies.* — In this traditional ac- 
count may be perceived a confused notion of the events which 
took place as related by Zosimus; and if the Roman and Greek 
writers make no mention of so distinguished a person aa 
Owain the son of Maximus, it was because all communication 
with Britain had been intercepted. One of the Triads+ states 
that Owain was raised to the dignity of Pendrngon or chief so- 
vereign of the Britons, though be was not an elder, from which 
it may be concluded that he was a young man at the time of his 
election. The editor of the Cambrian Biography says that he 
was also called Owain Finddu, and that he has been considered ■ 
a Saint by his countrymen; but there are no churches existing 
which bear his name, 

ij'tfn fifed (.yitcnnra 

Dyfo*:.! Hen 


Nud.1 £13' 

lomi-y dr. of! Id'rtdyn Luyddof 

tirln T„gn^ TWtog WW, dr. 

According to the Welsh accounts, one of the most distin- 
guished chieftains of this time was Cunedda Wledig. His 
territory is said to have been in the north, an expression 
used indefinitely for any part of the tract reaching from the 

• Triads 21 mil 31. Third Series, Myr. Arch Biology. 

tNo. 17. Thiid Series. Qu. Was not bis disqualification owing to 
the foreign origin of his father, which prevented him from being the 
elder of a clan of native Britons .' 

1 A. D. +00 TO A. D. 433. 

Humber to the Clyde; the particular district is not mentioned, 
but owing to the remoteness of the country from Wales it can- 
not be expected that the tradition should be precise. In right 
of his mother, Gwawl, Cunedda was also entitled to the head- 
ship of the clan of Coel Godebog in the south ; Ceneu and 
Mor, the proper representatives of that tribe, being eccles- 
iastics.' Soon after the departure of Maximus to the conti- 
nent, a people, called Gwyddyl Ffichti, or Irish Picts, to 
distinguish them the Picts of the north, landed on the western 
coasts of Britain,+ and occupied the whole of North Wales, as 
well as the Dimetian counties^ of South Wales. At a later 
time, the northern Picts made one of their irruptions into the 
country of their more civilized neighbours; and Cunedda, 
being unable to resist them, was forced to seek an asylum to 
the southward. The probability is that he retired to his 
maternal kindred. He was the father of a numerous family ; 
and his sons, being reduced to the condition of adventurers, 
undertook the enterprise of delivering Wales from the Irish 
marauders. In this it is presumed they were assisted by the 
rightful inhabitants ; and they were so far successful that they 
recovered a great part of South Wales, and the whole of 
North Wales, except Anglesey and some portions of Denbigh- 
shire. The country recovered was divided between them, 
tnd they became the founders of so many clans which gave 
names to the districts that they occupied, some of which 
names arc retained to this day. Thus Ceredig had Ceredig- 
ion, comprising the present county of Cardigan with a great 
put of Carmarthenshire ; the word, Ceredigion, being the 

• Saints. 

tin this statement Ihe Welsh authorities ore confirmed by the Irish 
Mstoi inn*, who relate that an invasion of Britain, on an extensive and 
formidable scale, took place towards the close of the fourth century under 
Ihe auspices of a king of Ireland, called Nial of the. Nine Hostages. — 
Moore's History of Ireland, ('Imp. VII. 
I The present counties of Cardigan, Pembroke, and Carmarthen. 


plural of Ceredig, and meaning his followers. Arwystl had 
Arwystl i, or the western part of Montgomeryshire. Dunod 
had Dunodig, or the northern part of Merioneth with part of 
Carnarvonshire. Edeyrn had Edeyrnion, and Mae) had Din- 
mael, both in the eastern part of Merioneth. Coel had Coel- 
eion, and Dogfael had Dogfeilin, both in Denbighshire. 
Bhufon had Rhufoniog, in Denbigh and Carnarvon shires. 
Einion had Caereinion in Montgomery, and Oswal bad Os- 
weitin on the borders of Shropshire. Tihion, the eldest son of 
Cunedda, died in the Isle of Man ; but his son, Meirion, was 
one of these adventurers, and had Cantref Meirion. The date 
which may be assigned to this expulsion of the Irish is the 
period between A. D. 420 and 430.' 

Another chieftain, contemporary with Owain ab Macaen 
and Cunedda, was Bryclian, the regulus of Brecknock. It is 
said that his mother was Marchell, the daughter of Tudur or 
Tewdrig, who is styled the king of Garthmadryn, by which it 
conceived to be meant the present county of Brecknock south- 
ward of the Eppynt bills. + The genealogy of Tewdrig is 
carried up to Gwraldeg, king of Garthmadryn, who is com- 
puted to have lived about A. D. 230. But here the same 
process may be detected at work which lias been demonstrated 
in the case of Cadfrawd ab Cadfan and Cynon Mciriadog.J 
Two, if not three pedigrees show that the ancestry of Meirig 
ab Tewdrig, who lived about A. D. 500, has been given to 
Tewdrig of Garthmadryn, who must have flourished about 
A. D. 3/0. The majority of authorities, it is true, give the 
older names differently, hut they all agree in saving that the 
father of both the persons named Tewdrig was Teithfallt or 
Teithffallim. Notwithstanding the opinion of the historian of 

• The Silurian Action y Mat, and Nennius. 

t According to Nennius, the hundred of Builth, or the northern p 
of the county was included In the possessions of Vortigern. 
t Page 8* of Ibis Essay. 

FROM A. D. 400 TO A. I). -133. 




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Brecknockshire, 1 there is reason to conclude, as shown by the 
minority, that one Tewdrig has been mistaken for the other; 
since the alternative would render it necessary to explain how 
the ancestry of the elder Tewdrig could have been preserved 
at so early a time ; and it should be noticed that the pedigree 
is disjointed within two generations of the departure of the 
Romans, about the very period at which the authority of other 
genealogies seems to commence. The claims of clanship were, 
doubtless, acknowledged by the Britons, as they are by most 
nations in a rude state of society ; but as the heads of families 
were in a state of dependency, there could have been no great 
inducement to preserve the memory of their affinities. From 
the departure of the Romans, downwards, the celebrity and 
independence of the chieftains, together with the claims of 
their descendants to the inheritance of their territories, are a 
sufficient reason to account for the preservation of the record. 

Harebell, the daughter of Tewdrig, is said to have been 
married to Anllech Goronog, " Brenhin Ewerddon," or, ac- 
cording to others, to Aulach, the son of Cormac mac Cairbre, 
one of the kings of Ireland. He was, probably, the captain of 
a band of Irish rovers who infested the coast of Wales after 
the departure of Maximus, and might have penetrated into 
the interior. The fruit of this union was Brychan. In the 
" History of Brecknockshire" may be found a long legend 
respecting the visit of JUarchell to Ireland, and her marriage 
there, attended with the parade which a writer of romance 
might deem necessary upon such an occasion; but as the 
story, which has been recorded in Latin and English, has 
never appeared in the Welsh language, it may be said that 
the silence of the earlier Welsh writers, as to events which 
concerned the honour of their country, affords a presumption 
that such events were either unknown or discredited. 

• Mr. TbeophiluB 
that country, 
t Vol. 1. Chap. II, and Appcndii No. VI. 

Vol. I. Chap. II. of his "History" of 

. D 400 TO A. D. «3. 


Brychan is computed to have retpwot, such is the terra, from 
A. D. 400 to A. D. 450. « The computation may, however, 
be altered so far as to bring down the commencement of his 
reign to about A. D. 410, in order to allow a sufficient interval, 
after the departure of Maxim us in 383, for the marriage of his 
mother with an Irish adventurer, as well as for his own 
growth to manhood. That he commenced his reign later than 
A. D. 410 is not likely from the chronology which it is ne- 
cessary to give tn his descendants. His grandfather and 
mother must have lived in the Roman time, and therefore in a» 
state of dependence, if not of obscurity ; for, that Brychan at- 
tained to power not possessed by his ancestors is probable 
from his having given his name to the district where he - 
exercised his authority ;+ and the date here assigned to his 
accession agrees well with the time in which, according to 
Zosimus, the Britons threw off the Roman yoke. 

A fourth chieftain, contemporary with the preceding, was 
Cystennyn Gorneu, the founder of a family in Cornwall. 
No further particulars are known respecting him; but the 
pedigree of his descendants, which includes several Saints, is 
given as follows. — 


A fifth chieftain of this time was Cadell, who is often eon- 
founded with Cadell Deyrnliug. Prom the pedigree of his 

•Jones's Brecknockshire, Vol. I. Chip. 111. 

t The names " Brecon and Brecknock" are but English modifications of 
'Brychan nt>d Brvtheiniog." 


family it may be concluded that In- 
tnorganshire and Monmouthshire. 



unriift alum)' Ccrnim Hfvgu 

Cadrod Calehfynydd is the lust that may be mentioned of 
this early date. His territories were situated about the middle 
of England. 

Of these contemporary chieftains there are reasons for 
adjudging the seniority in respect of age to Cunedda.* But 
he is deserving of notice more especially, as the Triads record 
that he was the first who gave lands anil privileges to God and 
the Saints in the island of Britain ; by which may be under- 
stood that this was the first time the Church received temporal 
possessions and endowments in this country. It is not stated 
what particular churches were thus endowed by Cunedda, 
but they probably existed in his northern territories, or in 
England, and subsequent revolutions have swept away every 
trace of them. Before this time the British chieftains were 
not in a condition to give lands to the Church, and perhaps 
the practice did not commence elsewhere before the con- 

• An elegy on the death of Cunedda is printed in tho Myvyrlan Ar- 
chniology of Wales, Vol. !. p. 71, Enm which hi- oharaeter as a warrior 
and some particulars of his history may be collected. It was composed 
by mTaliesin, older than the Bard usually known by that name, and U 
perhaps the earliest specimen of Welsh poetry oitant. An English 
translation of it i> giien in DbyIcs's Claims of Ossian, Section I, accom- 
panied by several interesting and appropriate remarks. 

FROM A. D. 400 TO A. D. 4SS. 


version of Constantine ; but before the end of the fourth 
century it was not uncommon. 

It has been observed that no church in Wales bears the 
name of Owain ab Maesen ; the same may be said of his 
brother, Ednyfed, who is also included in the catalogue of 
Saints. The church of Llanbeblig near Carnarvon is called 
after Peblig, another brother of Owain; and this is the first 
instance of a church in Wales bearing the name of a Saint not 
admitted into the Romish Calendar. The circumstance of the 
name may, therefore, be attributed to the supposition that he 
was the founder, having previously consecrated the place by 
the performance of certain religions exercises, alter the man- 
ner which Bede describes as customary among the Christians 
of North Britain." It is necessary, however, to suppose that 
this church was founded after the expulsion of the Irish, and 
it would not require that Peblig should be more than sixty 
years of age to extend his life down to the time; since Maxi- 
mus left Britain in 3B3, and the Irish were driven from North 
Wales before A. D. 430. The first churches would naturally 
be erected in towns, where the greatest population was col- 
lected ; an opinion which ecclesiastical writers in general 
maintain. Llanbeblig is the parish church of Carnarvon, but 
it is not situate in that town, nor at the neighbouring Roman 
station of Segontium. The Romans had quitted the country, 
and whatever buildings were left at Segontium were likely to 
have been destroyed by the Irish. Carnarvon, on the other 
hand, is of later origin, though of very ancient date. The in- 
ference drawn is, that Llanbeblig was founded before the 
existence of Carnarvon. But another circumstance which 
might have contributed to the foundation of this and other 
churches in the age of Peblig, was the visit of St. Germanus 
to Britain in 429, and that he visited Carnarvonshire is pro- 

• Sue pRgu W of Hiis Es«»5. 



liable from the traces of liia name which still rema 

The chapels subject to Llnnbeblig arc, St. Mary's, or the 
present church of Carnarvon ; and St. Helen's, which formerly 
existed in that town. The author of Mona Antiqua supposes 
the latter to be dedicatedt to Helen, the wife of Maximus, 
and the conjecture is supported by the circumstance that she 
was also the mother of Peblig. The coincidence might be 
thought sufficient to determine the question, if it could be 
shown that the wife of Maximus has ever been considered a 
Saint; and the cause of doubt is increased by the equally 
plausible conjecture, supported by similar local reasons, I 
the person intended was the elder Helen, whose saints hip ii 
undisputed. A belief, though founded on insufficient groundi 
o early as the time of Nenuiua, t] 
peror, or his grandson of the s 
id, in proof, it was atlef 
l inscription pointed out the plat 
hisgrave.J This, however, is contradictory to the testlrr 
of classical writers, who state that the first Constantius 
buried at York, and the second at Mopsuestia in Cilicia; 

is known to have existed s 
either Constantius, the en 
name, was buried 
that a stone with a certaii 

* Llanarmon (St. Germanus) chapel to Llangybi ; and Brlivs Gam 
subject lo LI unfair Isgaei, nil in Carnarvonshire. 

+ The editor of the Beauties of North Wales, carrying the pnpula 
opinion too far, states that this chapel was jnvmlrd by Helen. Had tt 
been the case, according- to the principles laid down in the Prat Section a 
this Essay, it would, at the time of the institution of tithes and the di visi.n 
of parishes, have received its separate endowment; but, being found 
after that time, no means remained for its maintenance, except 
ent upon the church of t lie parish in which it was situated. 

J Nenuius. who nourished in the tiiulh century, says that the p 
C oin memo rn led ns Cotistantiu-j, I lie koh of Constant ine ; while Matt] 
of Westminster states thai A. D. 1983 the body of Constantius, the fati 
of that emperor was found by digging, and was, by order of Edwanl t 
First, honourably interred in the adjacent church. See also Ilanes Gru 
odd ab Cynan, My?. Archaiology, Vol. It. S9S. 

FROM A. n. 400 TO A. D. 133. 


as the words of the words of the inscription have not been 
preserved, and as the name Constantius can be proved to have 
been common in Britain for some time after the retirement of 
the Romans, the stone probably commemorated some other 
person, who was afterwards mistaken for the emperor. 

As Mnr. the son of Ceneu ah Coel, was a Saint contempor- 
ary with Cunedda and Peblig, he may be considered the 
founder of the churches of Llaiinor or Llanfor in Carnarvon- 
shire, and Llanfor in Penllyii, Merionethshire. The first of 
these may claim a higher antiquity than the town of Pwllheli, 
which is situate at the distance of three miles in a subordinate 
chapelry.* Had the town existed first, the probability is that 
the mother church would have been built in it. Llanfor in 
Merioneth is said by Browne Willis to be dedicated to St. 
Deiniol, and the names of both these churches have been 
thought to be corruptions of Llan-fawr, antjlicc " the great 
church;" but to set aside etymological conjectures, both of 
them were known by the name of Llanfor as early as the 
time of Llywarch Hen, a Bard who died about A. D. BrSO, and 
the verses in which he speaks of them may thus be trans- 
lated :t— 

Trust not Bran, trust ncit Dunawd, 

That thou shalt not find wounded by them 

The pastor of the iluek of Llanfor who guides our path. 

There is a Llanfor beyond the tide, 
To whom tin' sea pours forth its praises, 
Whether die be equal to ours 1 know not. 

•The chapel or Pwllheli 
flourished A. I). ,-i-i! 

♦ The following is the original, froi 
page ISO.— 

Uenio, is dedicated to St. Beniio, wh 
Myv. Archniology, Vol. 

Na enred Vi 

N. Ch.i L..1.I [Id) I 

i < hrerf n 


There is a Llanfor, towering aloft, 
Where the Clwyd flows into Clywedog, 
And I know not whether she be her equal. 

The Dee wirlds within her borders, 

From Meloch to Traweryn ; 

The pastor of tile flock of Llanfor is our conductor. 

Here three churches are mentioned together in such a 
that their enumeration may best be attributed to the circum- 
stance of their being founded by the same Saint, since the 
descriptive term — "great church" — was not likely in those 
days to have passed for a proper name. The Bard spent the 
latter part of his life at Llanfor in Merionethshire, where he 
died, and in these stanzas he appears to warn his spiritual 
instructor against some impending danger. Situated where 
he was, unless he was a good topographer, he could easily 
conceive that the upper part of Cardigan Bay intervened 
between him and Llanfor in Lleyn Carnarvonshire, the parish- 
ioners of which place are near enough to the sea to hear the 
music of the waves. The Bard mentions also another church 
which is conceived to be Llanynys* in Denbighshire, the 
name of which, in English " the church of the island," is des- 
criptive of its situation between the rivers Clwyd and Clyw. 
edog. This church has been ascribed to St. Saeran from the 
circumstance of his having been buried there ;+ but as Welsh 
churches are sometimes found to claim the honour of two 
Saints,J this will interpose no difficulty, since the oldest Saint 
may be allowed to be the founder, and the younger may hare 

Yuydd LlMTor tre liinwrg Hell D>-ryr(lwT yn rl Iberrjm 

Vdd u Cl.'jli pi Ngblrwrdiwg O Vtlocli hyd Tnuvnyn 

Ac ill wq ai hi Hulling. Bugiil llol Llanior llnybryn. 

• Chnpel to Llanynys— Cyffylliog, St. Mary, 
t Myv. Archalology, Vol. IJ. page 51. 

1 The two Saints are rnther a proof that there was no formal dedin 
and thai (he church was called after the name of the person whose ■ 
mory was most associated with it. 

FROM A. D. 400 TO A. D. 433. 


been a distinguished minister, or one who increased the pri- 
vileges of the church. In the last stirnza, the Bard returns to 
his own parish; and the Dee, Meloch, and Traweryn, are 
rivers in that neighbourhood which still retain those names. 

About this time (A. D. 420 to 430) it is said that the 
Church in Britain was infected with the Pelagian heresy; and 
that the orthodox clergy, being unable to stem its progress, 
sent to Gaul desiring assistance. Upon which it was deter- 
mined in a full synod of the Gallican Church, that Germanus, 
Bishop of Auxerre, and 'Lupus, Bishop of Troyes, should be 
sent to Britain to confute the heretics. The date assigned to 
this event by Prosper, a contemporary writer, is A. D. 429 ; 
but he speaks of Germanus only, who, he says, was sent by 
Pope Gelatine at the suit of Pulladius, the Apostle of Scot- 
land. Constantius of Lyons, the biographer of St. Grrmanus, 
who wrote while several persons who had been acquainted with 
that Prelate were living, relates the affair differently ; and his 
words may be rendered as follows.* — "At that time a depu- 
tation, direct from Britain, announced to the Gallican Bishops, 
that the Pelagian heresy was gaining an extensive hold upon 
the people in that country ; and that assistance ought to be 
given as soon as possible to the Catholic faith. For which 
reason a large synod was convened, and with one consent the 
prayers of the whole assembly were directed to those bright 
luminaries of religion, Germanus and Lupus, Apostolic priests, 
■who while their bodies were on earth had their minds fixed on 
teaven. And inasmuch as the necessity appeared the more 

" The origins!, as given by Archbishop Usher, is, — "Kodcm tempore 
e * Srtluiniis diri'da leg ilio Gallicania Episcopis mwciiivit, Pplagianam 
pfi'l-vonitatem lat.' pojiulus nccu|-issr, ct <;niiMi|iriii]uiu fidei catholics de- 
ke*-e iuccurri. OI> causam Synodu* mimerosa collecla est: omnium. 
■P*«s judicio duo prteclara, religionia lumina universorum precious arubi- 
"***Jr, Germanus ct Lupus, Apostoliei sacerdotes, terrain corporibus, 
eoe * win meritis, (seu mentibus) possidentes. Et quanlo neceisita* Uboros- 



urgent, so much the more readily did those devoted heroes un- 
dertake the task, hastening the despatch of the business, to 
which they were stimulated hy their faith." — This narrative 
amounts to a full contradiction of the other as regards the 
interference of the Pope, or Palladius. Baronius endeavours 
to reconcile the statements by supposing that Celestine might 
have entrusted the affair to the Gallican synod, and approved 
of their choice. But the haste with which, according to Con- 
Stantius, the business was transacted will allow of no such 
supposition. Besides which, Baronius ought to have known 
that at that time the Pope and the Gallican Church were at 
variance. The latter were charged with Semi-PelagianisoUj 
and Celestine was not likely to trust the suppression of Pela- 
gianism to those persons whom he himself accused of an 
approximation to it. It would appear that when Prosper 
found that the mission of Germanus and Lupus had been 
attended with unwonted success, he wished to claim a share 
of the credit for his friend, the Pope ; for he was himself also 
one of the greatest opponents of the Semi- Pelagians, and per- 
haps the reason why he omits the name of Lupus is because 
that person was brother to Vineentins Lirincusis, who was a 
distinguished leader of the adverse party.' 

Stress is laid upon these particulars because Prosper would 
insinuate that Britain was brought under the Papal jurisdic- 
tion ; but, unfortunately for his pious fraud, the clearest 
proofs of British independence appear after Lis lime. The 
historian Bcde, who was a zealous Catholic, gives an account 
of this transaction in nearly the same words as Constantius. 
In the latter writer may also be found an inflated a 

ior ippsrelin!, tntil" earn prompliua lioroes devulissimi suscepeiunl, celeri- 
tatem negolii fldci siimiilis mttmatei." — lie llrii. Keel. Priumrdiii, 
Cap. XI. 

• Uslier ile Priraordiis, Cap. XI. and XII. Hughes's Mors Britoi 
Vol. II. C.p. VII. 

PROM \ l>- MO TO A. D, 13S. !;>[ 

the zeal, ami success of the preaching of German* and Lupus 
until the Pelagians were triumphantly vanquished at a general 
conference, supposed to have been held at Vcrulam. Then 
follows the discovery of the relicks of St. Alban, und a des- 
cription of a mass of earth still reeking with his blood, which 
Germantis carried away to Gaul. The next occurrence is the 
miraculous victory obtained by the Britons, under Germnnus, 
over the Saxons and Picts, by suddenly shouting the word 
"Alleluia," upon which the enemy fled in great conster- 
nation. It seems strange that Coustantius should describe 
such miracles within fifty years after the death of the Saint, 
but this was the age of religious imposture, and stories could 
he related at Lyons, with perfect safety, of events which took 
place in an obscure corner of Britain. It docs not appear 
that any of these tales are to be found in Welsh MSS. and it 
was the occurrence of the name of " Maesgarmon,"* in the 
pariah of Mold, Flintshire, that led Archbishop Usher to fix 
upon that spot for the " Alleluiatic Victory." That a battle 
was fought there, under circumstances which were afterwards 
improved into a miracle, is not improbable ; and there are 
names of places in that neighbourhood, which show that the 
district has, for some reason or other, been tenacious of the 
memory of the Saint. The alliance of the Saxons and Pictst 
about a score of years before the landing of Ilengist, is 
possibly a mistake, into which Cunstantius was led for want 
of the means of accurate information. 

The mission of St. Germanus, or as he is called by the 
Welsh, Gannon, may have lasted about two or three years, 
and, according to Constantius, he visited Britain a second 
time, upon which occasion he was accompanied by Sevcrus, 
Bishop of Triers. Archbishop Usher calculates that the 
second mission was performed "A. D. 447, and that it was of 
>hort continuance. On the other hand, the Welsh authorities 
would imply that he visited this country but once, which was 
• " The field of Germmus." + Qu. Gwyjd) I r'litl.l. r 



about the time of the last date,' when lie was accompanied by 
Lupus, for they make no mention whatever of Severua. Par- 
tiality for national traditions must give way in a point in 
which Constantius could not easily have been mistaken ; be- 
sides which, there is an incongruity in the Welsh accounts 
themselves which ought to be rectified. The following is 
extracted from Achau y Saint, as translated in the Ilorre 
Britannic^. (Vol, II. page 161.) 

"Garmon was a Saint and a bishop, the son of Ridigius 
from the land of Gallia; and it was in the time of Constant! ne 
of Armorica that he came there ; and continued here to the 
time of Vortigem; and then he returned back to France 
where he died. He formed two choirs of saints, and placed 
bishops and divines in them, that they might teach the 
Christian faith to the nation of the Cymry, where they were 
become degenerate in the faith. One choir he formed in 
Llan Carvan, where Dyfric (Dubricius) the Saint was the 
principal, and he himself was bishop there. The other was 
near Caer Worgorn,+ where he appointed Iltutns to be princi- 
pal; and Lupus (called Bleiddan) was the chief bishop there. 
After which he placed bishops in Llandafl'; he constituted 
Duhricius archbishop there; and Cndoc, the Saint, the son of 
Gwynlliw, took his place in the choir at Ltancarvan, and the 
archbishop of Llandaff was bishop there also." 

Now h happens that another note in Achau y Saint says 
that the College}: of Caerworgorn was founded by Cystennyn 
Fendigaid, and soon afterwards destroyed by the Irish. At 
that time its principal was Padrig. It might be said that 
Germanus restored the foundation in A. D. 44", when he ap- 

* "Gormtin up RedgiiHS o Ffrainc i'f licnyw, ac yn amscr (iwrlhejrn 
Gwrlhenuii i doelh i'r ynys hon."— Myv. Archaiology, Vol. II. p. *S. 

t LUncurvan ami Caerworgorn, the Utter of which is now known by 
the name of Llauilltyd or Lautwit, arc both in Glamorganshire. 

J " College"— io the woid Buigor— the Welsh term for the a 
i ml ilu lions of the fifth and tixtb centuries, is generally rendered. 

IROM A. D. -100 TO A 


pointed Iltutus to be its principal. But the genealogies show 
itai Iitutu- must have been at time too young for the 
, iince about eighty years afterwards he is known to 
t flourished in the court of Arthur, and in his younger 
ji he was not an ecclesiastic but a soldier. The relationship 
ia ■which he stood to Germanus was that of sister's grandson, 
ill appear from the following scale. — 


Inn,, ' 

It Joes not follow that these generations should be ne- 
wswrily parallel, but the Chronicles and Triads state that 
Arthur, Ily wel, and Iltutus or Illtyd were contemporary ; and 
>f it be sai d that Iltutus was appointed by St. Germanus in his 
fa visit, the inconsistency will appear more glaring." But while 
<I1 other accounts agree that Iltutus was the first principal of the 
Cnlltge which afterwards bore his name, the Book of LlandafT 
decides the question by Baying that he received his appoint- 
"Wit from St Dubriciust who lived in an age succeeding 
<k of Germanus. If the foregoing extract be compared with 
Ik narration of Constantius, its incongruities increase. Lupus 
^ not accompany Germanus the second time, and therefore 
»»lil not have been Bishop of Caerworgorn. The same note 

'Tbciimchronisni did not escape llit acnteness of Archbishop L'sher — 
"'limns S. Gernuini fuissc discipulurn, el in Vinceatii Spccuio Historic!!, 
" a Umli vens iu in Regolo Icgimus ; licet id tegre temporum ratio 
Hutur." Cap. XIII. 

'A li'Mii'!" Landivensi episcopo iu loco, qui nb illo Lan.iltul, id 
MEcdena lUuti accepit iiuiucd, est com ti tutus." Viher, from llie He- 



implies that Germanus lived to remove Dubricius to LlandnfT, 
and place Cadog or Cattwg in his room; but Archbishop 
Usher puts an end to this idea, by showing that Germanus re- 
turned to Gatd, and died in the second year of his last mission. 
That Dubricius received any appointment from St. Gennaniw, 
except perhaps the bishoprick of Llatidaff, is questionable ; 
and, by the order of time, it would appear that the connexion 
of Germanus and Lupus with the institutions of Caerworgom 
and Llancarvan was altogether apocryphal. 

Authorities are not wanting to show that Germanu» was the 
founder of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, but 
they are not worthy of a serious refutation, and even the cre- 
dulous Constantius does not make mention of any schools 
bonded at this time in Britain. That Germanus made regu- 
lations for the stability of the British Church is very probable; 
and if credit be given to an anonymous treatise which Usher 
says was written in the eighth century, he introduced the 
Gallic liturgy into this country. It is certain, however, that 
his visit was the commencement of a frequent intercourse 
which subsisted for some time afterwards between the Cam- 
brian and Armorican Churches ; and it was by no means 
unlikely that the one Church should adopt some of the re- 
gulations of the other. 

In the Welsh accounts Gannon or St. Germanus is called 
the sou of Rhedyw, Rhedygus, Ridicus, or Redgitus ; and 
notwithstanding the variety of names in different AI88. there 
can be little doubt that the same person is intended.* It is 
further stated that he was a native of Armories; and as proofs 
remain that his countrymen spoke the same language as the 
Britons, he may have derived from that circumstance one of 
the qualifications winch fitted him for his mission. His sister 
is said to have been the mother of Emyr Llydaw, an Arniori- 
can prince; but as Usher does not quote this relationship 

utlin ,uiili.niii t s ii .ijpjiciir- lln: Correct n 

.3 H Us lira 

FROM A. D. 101) TO A. D. 433. |«J5 

from Constantius, it is probable the prince did not aspire to a 
higher rank than that of an ordinary chieftain. 

Several churches in Wales bear the name of Qarmon ; but 
as he visited this country twice, only one of them can be dis- 
tinctly referred to his first mission, namely Llanarmon in III, 
Denbighshire. It is singular that the parish attached to it 
adjoins that of Mold, in which the "Alleluiatic Victory" is 
said to have been gained ; and if Archbishop Usher has cor- 
rectlv determined the locality of the engagement, the church 
in question is possibly situated on the spot where Germanus id 
described to have raised a sacred edifice," formed of the 
brunches of trees interwoven together, in which he and his 
followers celebrated the services of Easter, and baptized the 

• From the manner in which llic rtory is related it may be gathered 
that the mode of consecration used lipmi the occasion was no oilier than 
the performance of the religion* exercises of Lent; and though it does 
not appear that the consecration uf ground for the erection of churches 
was necessarily confined to that season, yet the lime when a similar oc- 
currence took place, as described by Hede, is a remarkable coincidence. 
The following is a close version of the words of CoDituHni which relate 
in this particular. — "The sacred days of Lent were at hand, which the 

presence or the difines rendered more solemn, ins uch that those in. 

stmeted by their daily preaching flocked eagerly to the grace of Baptism. 
For the great multitude of the ui my was desirous of the water of the laver 
of salvation. A church, formed of interwoven branches of trees (frondibus 
liiiiieviai ii prepared against the day of the resurrection of our J.oid, aud 
though the expedition was encamped in the field, is filled up like that of a 
city. The army, wet with baptism, advances, the people are fervent in 
faith, and neglecting the protection of arms, they await the assistance of 
the Deity. In iho mean time this plan of proceeding, or state of the camp, 
is reported to the enemy, who, anticipating a viclory over an unarmed 
multitude, hasten with alacrity. Hut their approach is discovered by the 
and when, after concluding the solemnities of Easier, the greater 
part of tlio army, fresh from their baptism, were preparing to take up arms 
and give battle, Germanus offers himself as the leader of the war." — All 
exaggerated description follows of the roul of the enemy, wlio were 
in'.' eiui-iematioii upon hearing the word Alleluia shouted thrice, 
l.y the Britons. 



greater part of the army of the Britons, before they proceeded 
to meet their enemies. 

Lupus, it would appear, was the younger and less obtrusive 
of the two legates, as nothing is related of him in which the 
other does not bear a part. His name is rendered in Welsh by 
Bleiddiaii, a word of similar import. The churches ascribed 
to him are, Llanfleiddian Fawr in Glamorganshire, which 
bears the same relation to the town of Cowbridge as Llan- 
beblig and Llannor do to Carnarvon and Pwllheli; — and Llan- 
fleiddian Facb, or St. Lytliian's, in the same county. The 
latter is a small parish, but probably some parts have been 
detached from it by the Normans; and the occurrence of these 
names perhaps gave rise to the tradition, that Lupus was con- 
nected with the College afterwards founded at Caerworgorn. 
The chapels subject to Llanfleiddian Fawr are, Cowbridge 
(St. Mary,) and Welsh St. Donates (Dunwyd:) and, according 
to the jMartyrology of Bede, the commemoration or festival of 
St. Lupus was held on the twenty ninth of July. 

The foregoing are all the churches whose foundations may 
be attributed to this generation, ending with the accession of 
Constantine the Blessed, A. D. "J33; most of which are situate 
in the territories of the sons of Cunedda, under whose pro- 
tection it is obvious they were established. Nearly all the 
parishes annexed to them are of considerable extent, and have 
their subordinate chapelries, in which the Saints of the Catho- 
lic, or more modern character, predominate. For the support 
which they gave to the cause of Christianity, the children of 
Cunedda are called, in the Triads, the second holy fami 
Britain ; the first being that of Bran ab Llyr Llediaith. 

The Welsh Saints from A. D. 433 to A. D. 401. 

It is proposed that the next generation shall 
with the accession of Constantine A. D. 433, and terminate 
with the deposition of Vortigern A. D. 464; not that any 
reliance can be placed upon the history or chronology of the 
" Kings of Britain/' but, since it has been generally received, 
it will give the reader a clearer idea of the succession of 

The chronicles of Walter and Geoffrey relate that about 
this time, the Britons were so oppressed with the inroads of 
barbarians, that they applied to Aldor, king of Armortca, for 
assistance ; upon which he sent them bis brother Constantine 
with a large body of troops ; and it would appear that Con- 
stantine performed such important services after his arrival 
that he was elected to the headship of the confederated states 
of the island. The Triads confirm this account so far as to 
say that Cyslennyn Fendigaid, or Constantine the Blessed,* 
was one of the three foreign princes of Britain; and the 
"Genealogy of the Saints" calls him Cystennyn Llydaw, or 
Constantine of Armorica. In his person the oflice of Pen- 
dragon of the Britons assumed, for the first time, the ap- 
pearance of a monarchy, but it still continued to be elective. 
Upon his death in 443, his son Constans was elected to suc- 
ceed him. This person was in 441) murdered by Vortigern, 
who usurped the kingdom until 404, when be was deposed 
and his son Vorthucr chosen in bis room. 

* He is distinguished from Constantine Ihe Gre 
tennyn Amher««dwr and Cystennyti ab Elcn. 

is culled C) s- 




Constantinc lias been ■ununited "the Blessed" in conse- 
quence of being considered a Saint of the British Church, and 
LUngystennyn near Conway is perhaps dedicated to his me- 
mory- In "Achau y. Saint" the following curious notice 
occurs respecting him : — " It was the glory of the emperor 
Theodosius in conjunction with Cystennyn Llydaw, surnamed 
the Blessed, to have first founded the College of Illtyd, which 
was regulated by Balerus, a man from Rome ; and Padrig, 
the son of Mawon, was the first principal of it, before he was 
carried away captive by the Irishmen."* — The College here 
mentioned was that of Caerworgorn, which was also called 
CGr Tewdws; but what authority Theodosius the Second, 
who was at this time emperor of Rome, or rather of the East, 
could have exercised in Britain is more than can be explained; 
unless it be supposed that the name was given to the College 
in compliment to him because Balcrus was a Roman. The 
account will not justify the supposition that it was founded by 
Theodosius the Elder, or by Theodosius the Great, neither of 
whom was a contemporary of Cystennyn Llydaw. But the 
most remarkable part of the statement is a Welsh tradition 
respecting the great Apostle of Ireland, who, according to the 
Siluiian catalogue of Saints, was the son of Mawon, and a 
native of the country of Gwyr or Gower in Glamorganshire. 
He was also called Padrig Maenwyn ; and as Caerworgorn 
was situated near the sea coast, the story that he was carried 
away from thence by the Irish in one of their expedition* 
would be thought by no means improbable, if it were supported 
by other testimonies. In a composition acknowledged to be a 
genuine production of St. Patrick, and entitled his " Con- 
fession," he states that he was but sixteen years of age when 
lie WM made captive; his youth, therefore, precludes the idea 
thai lie was at that time the principal of a College. He 
further explains that his father was Calpurnius, a deacon, who 

' Cambrian I)ii>;;in|ilij , i 

FROM A. D. 433 TO A. P. 4B4. 


lived at " Bonavem Tabernise, 
of "' Enon," from which he w 
The situation of these last plai 
are generally considered to hav 
contend that they should be 
enter into the eircui 
upon the present 

which was the village 
as himself taken into captivity, 
ees is disputed; and while they 
-e been in North Britain, others 
looked for in Armorica. To 
of his life would be needless 
mdj until the evidence of his 
connexion with tbe Principality were better supported, all 
further investigation would be deemed irrelevant. Ricemar- 
chus, Giraldus Cambrensis, and John of Teignmouth relate that 
he settled at one time in a small valley at Menevia, called 
Vallis Rosina, where he built a monastery and intended to pass 
his days in religious seclusion. But an angel, appearing, com- 
manded him to preach the Gospel in Ireland ; and, in confirm- 
ation of his mission, displayed to him the whole of that country 
in a vision from the spot where he stood. The legend adds that 
the same angel foretold that Menevia should be famed for 
another Saint, who should be burn there thirty years after that 
day. The Saint predicted was St. David; and absurd as the 
whole fable may appear, the latter part of it was embodied in 
one of the collects of the Breviary of Salisbury, and devoutly 
repeated over a great part of England before the Reformation. 
Tbe only religious edifice in Wales, known to have been de- 
dicated to St. Patrick, was a chapel, which once existed in the 
parish of St. David's Pembrokeshire ; and, according to John 
of Teignmouth, was situated close to the spot where the angel 
showed him the vision of Ireland, * ... ' 

The year 447 is the date of the sec'dTld 'mission of "St. <3er-' 
manus to Britain. His stay was short, as, according to the 
computation of Usher, he died in Italy the following year. 
His former colleague, Lupus, survived him thirty years, but 
upon this occasion he was accompanied by Severus, Bishop of 

g in Anglesey Is reported to 
ii of AelfrjJ ;ili Goronwy. 

i: been named from a 


Triers. Several fables are related by Nennius and oilier- & 
to the acts of his second mission, the whole circumstances of 
which are too absurd to repeat. One of them is in brief: — 
Ketelus, or Cadellua, the swineherd of Benly, king of Puwyi, 
offered the Saint that hospitality which had been refused by 
his master ; in consequence of which Benly was deposed by 
the Saint, and the swineherd was elected in his room, who* 
descendants continued afterwards to possess the territory.' 
It so happens that the Welsh accounts mention the name «f 
Benlli Gawr, who, according to Mr. Owen.t was a chieibinof 
a district in the present county of Denbigh about the middle 
of the fifth century; but he was succeeded by his son Bell 
By Ketelus is meant Cndell Deyrnllug.f "a prince of the V*1* 
Royal and part of Powys," who rose into power about this 
time. These facts show that there is some foundation for the 
story, though they are no proof of its correctness. It M "* 
markable that there is a church dedicated to St. Germanus, 
called Llanarmon Dyffryn Ceiriog, in the district which inigW 
have been part of the possessions of either Cadell or BetiU'i "■ 
and a chapel, subject to the church of an adjoining parish. ,s 
trilled Llanarmon Fach. 

Another story relates that Vortigern endeavoured in 
council of the Britons, held in Gwrtheyrnion, to palm up** 
the Saint the fruit of his own incest ; for which he was cur**-" 
by the Saint and the whole body of the clergy assembled; «*~* 
that afterwards Vortimer, the son of Vortigern, to appease *•* 
Saint, gave him the hinds upon which he suffered the insult 
be his for ever. Gwrtheyrnion is a district of Radrtorshi*"" 

• See Usher, De Primordiis, Cup. XI, who attributes this tale to *^ 
Brit mission; but the arrangement here attempted is more consistent ^ 
chronology. The names are given according lo Gildas, as of be* - 
authority than Itanulphus Cestrensis. 

t Cambrian Biography. 

J Neniiiiis, as quoted in Jones's liitcViiickshire, Vol. I pngc 52, #^* 
thaH'jdcl! Deyrnllug n as con veiled and baptized bj Bt QemtflU. 

. D. 433 TO A. U. 4fii. 


The festival of Si 
according to other a 
foundations of which 
in IaJ, Denbighsbir* 
Harm oil's, Radnorsh 
and the chapels dcd 

farming the present hundred of Khayader; and there is in it 
it this day a church, which under the name of St. Harmon's 
is ascribed to SL Germanus. Whether these stories were in- 
vented to account for the origin of the churches, or whether 
the churches owe their dedications to the previous existence of 
the stories, is more than can be determined; but the coinci- 
dence is singular. 

Germanus was observed July 31, or, 
thorities, August I. The churches, the 
nay be ascribed to him, are — Llanarmon 
Llanarmon DyfTryn Ceiriog, ditto, St. 
e, and Llanfeehain, .Montgomeryshire ; 
ted to him are — Llanarmon under Llan- 
gybi, Carnarvonshire, Bettws Garmon under Llanfair Isgaer, 
ditto, Capcl Garmon under Llanrwst, Denbighshire, and 
Llanarmon Faeh under Llandegfan, ditto. -f^lK^UH^ ^ H'j». - 

That Germanus effected a great change in the religious 
condition of the Britons is not unlikely from the respect so 
generally paid to his name ; and it may be observed that 
there are no parish churches in Wales which can be traced to 
a higher date than his first visit, and even those that may be 
so ancient are few. Parochial churches did not belong to the 
early ages of Christianity. According to the concurring testi- 
mony of ecclesiastical writers, the clergy lived for some time 
in towns in communities under their Bishop, from whence 
they itinerated about the country, and on their return brought 
with them the offerings which they had collected for the com- 
mon support of the society. But about the beginning of this 
century the system was undergoing a change, 
«nd Germanus would regulate the British Church after the 
model of the Gallican. Accordingly, in the Council of Vaison 
in Gaul A. D. 442, a decree was made " that country parishes 
should have presbyters to preach in them as well as the 
city -churches ;" — and to the influence of this circumstance, 

• Hi,,,!,., 

liuuUkv Buuk IX. Chap. S. Secllor 


the origin of country churches in Wales may perhaps 

About the commencement of this generation, Gwrtheyrn, < 
Vortigem, first appears among the chiefs of the '. 
According to Nennitis his territories included the norther 
part of the present counties of Radnor and Brecon, i 
of the Welsh genealogists state also that he was the regulus of 
Erging or Erchenfield in Herefordshire. From these two 
points being considered together it would appear that his do- 
minions, as the leader of n clan, extended along the vale of the 
river Wye. But in 448, or about the time of the second 
visit of Germanus, he became by treachery or otherwise the 
Pendragon or chief ruler of Britain. To trace the various cir- 
cumstances of his history would require a separate treatise; for 
they have heen obscured with the extravagancies of romance, 
and a careful investigation would be necessary to distinguish 
the truth from fable.* Suffice it for the present purpose t 
say that his ancestors, as given in the mutilated orthograpl 
of Nennius, were " Guortheneu,t HI' Guitaul, M' Guitolii 
M' ap GIou ;" and the following is the pedigree of his ( 
cendants according to Achau y Saint : — 



<:ri ■.■■„■.,.;.!,■,(. Cynd«;ri 

"*■ Ad 



■h SladrunA,. m. lD t* 

tt tn* 

C "Z1 


• Instances of the coflftudoB, with which Geoffrey of Monmouth 
clouded the life of Vortigern, hate been shown bj Mr. S, Turner ir 
" History of the Anglo Saxons," Vol. I. Boot II. Chan. VII 

t While nearly ill accounts agn 
Gwrthenau, some modern pedigree 

the ftHher of Gwrtheyrn «U 
that his erurdfalher 

FROM A. D. 433 TO A. D. 401. (33 

In passing through the different families seriatim, and ob- 
serving the Saints whose names fall in with this generation, 
the only one that occurs in the line of Macsen Wledig is 
Madog, the son of Owain ; but as other persons of the name 
of Madog have received the honours of sanctity, the churches 
to be assigned to each of them separately are uncertain. 

In the line of Coel Godebog, Cynllo, the son of Mor, pre- 
sents himself to notice. He was the tutelar Saint or founder 
of the three churches in Radnorshire, whose extensive endow- 
ments have been already described. He was also the founder 
of Llangynllo, and Llangoedmor, in Cardiganshire; to the 
latter of which, the neighbouring churches of Mount and 
Llechryd, both dedicated to the Holy Cross, were formerly 
subject. Cynllo is commemorated in the Calendar, July 17, 
under the name of Cynllo Frenhin,' or the King; and as he 
belonged to a powerful family it is probable that he was ori- 
ginally a chieftain, and might afterwards, according to the 
practice of the age, have embraced a life of religion. The 
Pseudo-TaJiesin says of him — 

" The prayer of Cynllo shall not be in vain."t 
— a proof that in after times his intercession was considered 

In the line of Cynan Moiriadog occurs the name of Tudwal 
Sefr.J who is described as a Saint and Bishop ; and as his 
diocese is not mentioned, it is possible that he was a Chorepia- 

•'bjth, v-Iioku descent is traced in the ninth, or according (o others in the 
fifteenth degree from Beli M»»r; but the older and better supported au- 
•hority of Nenuius must be preferred. The discrepancy coincide* with the 
*ime of the retirement of the! Romans, and the names given by Nciinim 
e nu more than might easily have becu retained from the period before 

* See lha old Editions of the Welsh Common Prayer 
"+■ "\i bydd coeg gweddi Cynllo," Dyhuddisnt Elphin. Mytjrifln 
fcretniology, Vol. II. p. 83. 

X Son of Morfnwr ah Cadfen ab Tynan, in Table I 



copus or local Bishop, an offic 
uncommon. An island off thi 
called after him, in which are 
dedicated to the same person,* 
to the church of Lkneingion 

; which whs at this time not 
coast of Carnarvonshire is 

the ruins of a small chapel, 
and subject, as it would seem, 

Frenhin on the main land. 

Another church in the neighbourhood is named Tudweiliog, 
but the word is more descriptive of a district or clan of follow- 
ers than of a religious edifice; and Carlislet says that the 
pariah festival is that of St. Cwyfen, which is holden on the 
third of June. Tudwal Befr was married to Nefydd, daugh- 
ter of Brychan, and is reported to have had a son, I for ab 
Tudwal, who is said to have been a Saint, but no churches 
are ascribed to him. J 

The Saints of the family of Cystennyn Gomeu are, »hin» 
ab Cystennyn Gomeu, and DJgain his brother ;§ to the latte*- 
of whom the foundation of Llangerniw, or the " church of the 
Cornishman," in 1) en high shire, is attributed. His festival is 
held Nov. 21. 

The date of some of the descendants of Vortigern renders 5* 
necessary to place the age of his son, Gwrthefyr or Vortime*", 
in this generation ; and though this arrangement differs fro** 1 
the chronology which has been generally followed, it is agreed 
on all hands that both these persons were engaged in acti*-" *' 
life together, and the inference to be drawn is that Vnrtitn^^ 1 
was born when his father had scarcely passed the time *^~" 
youth. It would appear, however, that the monkish enrolled" 
logists have placed the era of Vortigern several years too latest ' 

• Is there any tradition thai this chapel was actually f minded by 5^ 
Tudwal; its peculiar situation would prevent it from becoming afl^* 
wards a parish church ? 

t Topographical Dictionary.— Browne Willis states that TudweiHor 
a chapel, subordinate to Llangw; nodi, diuI dedicated to St. Cwyfen. 

X Qu. Is not Llonstadwel, Pembrokeshire, au abbreviation of Llmu- ■ 
tudwal ? 

§ la Table VII. Digain was erroneously *bown to be a ion of Erhi» 

KROM A. 0. -133 TO A. D. 1GI. 


for they extern! his reign from A. D. 448 to 464, when he is 
superseded by his son for four years, after which he unac- 
countably reigns again until A. D. 481. All this is inconsis- 
tent with their statement that Vortimer, who is known from a 
respectable authority* to have died before the battle of Cray- 
ford in 457. was of age to take the chief command of the 
Britons in the field so early as 455 ; and though it is uncertain 
how long Vortigem may have survived his son, it is probable 
that the date usually assigned to his deposition is in truth the 
date of his decease. Vortimer, who has been sur named 
" Bcndigaid, or the Blessed," has been accounted a Saint; and 
as he was not an ecclesiastic, the honour is perhaps due to his 
care in restoring those churches which had been destroyed by 
the Saxons, and the respect which he paid to men of religion.t 
In the Triads he is styled one of the three canonized kings of 

The sons of Cunedda were all of them warriors, mid though 
several of his grandchildren might have flourished in this 
generation, the order of succession would be better preserved 
by referring them to the next. The name of Ceredig ab 
Cuuedda, the time in which he lived, and the situation of his 
territories, determine him to be the hero of the following 
rencounter with St. Patrick; and the circumstances of the 
incident, which exhibit a curious picture of the manners of 
the age, are thus related by Mr. Moure in his " History of 

* Henry «f Huntingdon. 

+ Mall hrcin Flmili-aui says — " Vurtimcrus, victuriain adeplus, c(E|iil 
po»sessinnei amissaa embus indigenis rest it u pre, i|>sosi[Uir ililigere, Ec. 
clcsiai destruens restaurs re, adiue rirus Eo'l'/siii-ljcn*. |iru'cipii& rsli- 
giosos, lionnrnre."— (Uslicr He Primordiis, Cap. XII.) "Gwedy kaflael 
o Werthyfyr e wudugolyattli dechrcu n uruc tal>v y pawta Iref y dat nc eu 
Icyvoelh or ar rydugnssey c saysnn y arriadunt. ac y gyt a tienny hevyt 
ktru y wyrda ac eu hanrydedu ac artli (Jarmuwn ae- kynirhor adnewyd- 
hou er eglwyseu."-— Bnii G. n.b Arthur. Myv. Archaiology, Vol. II. 
p. 933. 



Ireland." — "The event, in consequence of which the Saint 
addressed his indignant letter to Coroticus," the only authentic 
writing, besides the Confession, we have from his hand, is 
supposed to have taken place during his stay on the Munster 
coast, about the year 450. A British prince, named Coroticus, 
who, though professing to be a Christian, was not the less, as 
appears from his conduct, a pirate and persecutor, had landed 
with a party of anned followers, while St. Patrick was on the 
coast, and set about plundering a large district in which, on 
the very day before, the Saint had baptized and confirmed a 
vast number of converts. Having murdered several of these 
persons, the pirates carried off a considerable number of 
captives, and then sold them as slaves to the Picts and Scots, 
who were at that time engaged in their last joint excursion 
into Britain. A letter despatched by the Saint to the ma- 
rauders, requesting them to restore the baptized captives, and 
part of the booty, having been treated with contumely, he 
found himself under the necessity of forthwith issuing the 
solemn epistle which has come down to us, in which, de- 
nouncing Coroticus and his followers as robbers and ma- 
rauders, he in his capacity of ' Bishnp established in Ireland' 
declares them to be excommunicated." 

The family most distinguished in the Church during the 
present interval was that of Bryehan, who is said, in Bonedd 
y Saint, to have been the father of twenty four sons and 
twenty five daughters, in all t'urty nine children ! ! Statements, 
however, vary, of which thi9 is the largest. The smallest 
statement is twenty four for the whole number. In explana- 
tion it is said that he had three wives, t though it is not men- 
tioned that they were living at the same time ; and it appears 

■ In some printed accounts of St. Patrick, this name is spelled — Cnreli- 
cus, »nd Ceretlcus, — llio latter of which is hut a slight deviation from the 
Welsh orthography. 

t Eurbrawst, Rhybrawst, and Peresgri. 

FROM A. D. «S TO A. D. 4G4. 


that four, at least, of his sons were illegitimate. It is, how- 
ever, supposed by the Historian of Brecknockshire and the 
Author of the Hone Britannica? that the names of the grand- 
children of Brychan have crept into the list of his children ; 
and, in confirmation of this opinion, it may be stated that the 
Triads record that Brychan "brought up his children and 
grandchildren in learning and the liberal arts, that they might 
be able to show the faith in Christ to the nation of the Cymry, 
wherever they were without the faith :" from which it would 
be inferred that the grandchildren of Brychan were Saints, 
and it might be expected that their names were inserted in 
the existing catalogues. But as few such names appear,* 
when the grandchildren would naturally be the most numer- 
ous, the supposition, that they have been included in the list 
of children, is the most rational way of accounting for the 
deficiency. Their intermarriages also show that they belong 
to times a considerable distance asunder ; and though genera- 
tes are never strictly concurrent, it is too much to suppose 
that two daughters of the same man should be married to 
persons who flourished two thirds of a century apart from 
each other. Those alluded to are, Gwrgon, wife of Cadrod 
Calchfynydd who flourished about A. D. 410, and Gwladus, 
wife of Gwynllyw Filwr who flourished about A. D. 480; 
but if the latter be considered a grand-daughter of Brychan, 
no difficulty will appear in the case. Between the wife of 
Ceredig who flourished about 430, and the wife of Cyngen 
sb Cadell who flourished about 500, the discrepancy is equally 
as great. 

This being the case, Bonedd y Saint leaves the antiquarian 
at liberty to acquiesce in the authority of the legend, en- 
titled " Cognacio Brychan," in which several of the child- 
ren and grandchildren are actually distinguished. But in 
treating of the family seriatim, it is proposed to follow the 

ii. and Ihnie mentioned incidentally. 



list in the Myvyrian Arehaiology of Wales, which, allowance 
being made for the intermixture of two generations, appears 
to give the names most correctly. It is supported by a 
greater number of Authorities than the list to which the His- 
torian of Brecknock si lire has given a preference, and the 
names included are more consonant with the names of 
churches now existing. But in this part of the subject it is 
impossible to proceed with the satisfaction that can be wished; 
all the lists of this family are evidently so corrupt that the 
result of a comparison of them can be only a distant approach 
to the truth, and a great number of cases must be left un- 

1. Cynawg or Cynog, according to all the lists, the eldest 
son of Brychan, by Banhadlwedd the daughter of Banhadle 
of Banliadla in Powys. " Soon after his birth lie was put 
under the care of a holy man named Gastayn, by whom lie 
was baptized."* Cressy says — "the fame of his sanctity was 
most eminent among the Silures ; his name is consigned 
among our English JMartyrology on the eleventh of Febru- 
ary.t where he flourished in all virtues about the year of 
Christ 492." — The Litter part of the sentence is ambiguously 
expressed, but the year mentioned may be taken for the date 
of his death, which is more agreeable to the chronology of the 
family than tbat he should have flourished in the prime of life 
at that time. The Truman MS.J states that he was murdered 

• Jones's Brecknockshire, Vol. I, Chap. 111. and (.'ognacio Brychan. 

f Sir Harris Nicolas, hi bis Chronology of History, gives Oct. 7 as the 
festival of St. Cynog; which would seem to be correct, as Ilia wake of 
that Saint was formerly held in the month or October in the parish, of 
Defy nog, Brecknockshire. According to Edwnrds's Cathedral of St. Asaph. 
the wake of Llangynog, Montgomeryshire, should be held Oct. 8, tnc 
difference between which and the authority of Sit H, Nicolas arises only 
from an error of compulsion, where Edwards should have deducted • 
day from the reckoning at the com men cement of the present century. 

] Cited in Jones's Brecknockshire, Vol. I. Chap. III. 

FROM A. D. 133 TO A. D. 46-1. 


by the Pagan Saxons, upon a mountain called tile Van, in the 
parish of Merthyr Cynog in Brecknockshire; and if so, it 
may be concluded that the church of Merthyr was erected as 
& marh/r!via to his memory, and built over his grave." But it 
does not appear how the Saxons could have penetrated so far 
westward at so early a date.f unless it be supposed that in 
their piratical excursions they occasionally landed upon the 
coast of Wales, and the MS. just quoted mentions an instance 
in which they joined arms with the Gwyddyl Ffichti. 

To Cynog are to be attributed the churches of Defynog, 
Ystrad Gynlais, and Penderin, in Brecknockshire, forming 
with their parishes and chapelries three extensive and con- 
tinuous endowments of the first class. To Defynog the fol- 
lowing chapels are subject — Cupel IlHyd, (St. Iltutus;) Llan- 
ulid, (St. Julitta;) Capel Callwen, (St. Callwen ;J) and 
Ystrad Fellte, (St. Mary.) Ystrad Gynlais has but one 
chapel, Capel Coelbren. Penderin stands alone. The parish 
of Merthyr Cynog, which, like that of Defynog, is of sufficient 
importance to give name to the Hundred in which it lies, 
formerly included the church of Llanfihangel Nant Bran, (St. 
Michael,||) as well as the chapelry of Dyffryn Honddu. Battel 
chapel, now independent, and Llangynog subject to Llan- 
ganten, (St. Cannen,) are also dedicated to Cynog ;§ and it 

•This inference from a general custom, explained in page 03 of this 
Eisay, is confirmed by Cojrnncio Brychan, which buys — "Sepulchrum 
Cynano in Merthyr Cynnwc in Brechenawc." — The words of Boneeld y 
Saint are lo the snme purpose — " Kynawc ap Brychan, Merthyr, ac ym 
Merthyr Cynnwc ym Mrediciniag y mae'n Gorwedd." 

-tHengist is usually believed to have carried devastation into the re- 
motest corners of the island, hut Mr. Sharon Turner has well obserted 
that all his battles, particularized by the Saxon authorities, were fought 
in Kent. 

I In one list of Saints, Callwen is said to have been a daughter of 
terychan, and was therefore a sister of Cynng. 

|| Jones's Brecknockshire, Vol. II. page 193. 

$ There are reason for supposing that l.langunog, a chapel in Carmar- 


may be observed that all these religious edifices are situated in 
the territory of his father Brychan, a circumstance sufficient to 
account for his influence as a founder. Llangynog in the 
county of Montgomery is also attributed to him. 

2. Clydwyn, the second, or as others will have it, the third 
son of Brychan, embraced a military life, and it is said that he 

i must be taken 
;em to contradict the tra- 
, Cardiganshire, and Rad- 
■ of this generation are 
on. It may, therefore, be 

conquered South Wales ;* but this 
with great limitation, as it would a 
ditional accounts of Glamorgan shirt 
norshire, where the native prince 
known to have maintained possess 
understood to mean that he established his dom: 
Gwyddyl Ffichti, who still remained in Carmarthenshire and 
Pembrokeshire ; and, to confirm the explanation, it may be 
shown that the churches dedicated to his family are more 
numerous in that district than in any other, and one church, 
Llanglydwyn, upon the confines of the two counties included, 
bears the name of the warrior himself. According to Mr. 
TlieophiluB Jones, he succeeded his father in the government 
of the western and more mountainous parts of Brecknock- 
shire. His commemoration or festival is Nov. 1. 

3. Dingad, son of Brychan, the founder of a church in 
Carmarthenshire called Llandingad, and of another called 
Llaningad or Dingatstowet in Monmouthshire, where it is 
said he was buried. " He was of the congregation of Cattwg,J 
but like many others he must have entered that society in his 
old age. He is not to be confounded with another Saint, 
called Dingad ab Nudd Hael. The commemoration of Din- 
gad ab Brychan is Nov. 1 ; and the chapels subject t 

thenshire, is dedicated to another Cy nog, who succeeded Si. David u 
Archbishop of MeocTia. 

• Cog-naclo, and Bonedd y Saint. 

+ Generally written Dingestow or Dynstow. 

I Cambrian Biography. 

FROM A. D. 438 TO A. D. 464. 


dingad are Llanfair ar y Bryn (St. Mary,) Capel Peulin (St. 
Paulinus,) Capel Cynfab (St. Cynfab,) and Eglwys Newydd, 
the last two of which have been some time in ruins. Dingat- 
stowc has one ehapel, Tregacr (St. Mary.) 

4. Arthen, the fourth son, is stated in Bonedd y Saint to 
have been buried in the Isle of Man ;• and according to the 
Truman MS. there was a church dedicated to him in Gwyn- 
Ilwg, Monmouthshire, which was demolished by the Saxons. 
The Cognacio says he was the father of Cynon who lived near 
Llynsafaddan, or Llangorse Pool, Brecknockshire. 

5. Cyflefyr;— as the Cognacio and the MS. of Llewelyn 
Offeiriadt state that he was the son of Dingad and gntndaon of 
Brychan, he may, upon their authority, be considered as such, 
and restored to his proper generation. The Cognacio inti- 
mates that he suffered martyrdom at a place since called 
Merthyr Cyflefyr, and the Truman MS. says that be was 
murdered by the Saxons in Cardiganshire ;J but it does not 
appear where Merthyr Cyflefyr is situated, aB no place is 
known by that name in the county which the two authorities 
taken together would indicate.|| 

6. Rhain, surnamed Dremrudd, was the only son of Brych- 
ail, who, besides Clydwyn, embraced a military life. He 
succeeded to the eastern part of his father's possessions, which 
he transmitted to his descendants ; and according to the Cog- 

* Qu. Mona, Anglesey 1 
t In the archives of Jesus College, Oxford. 
J Jones's Brecknockshire, Vol.1, p. 69. 

|J There is, or was lately, a stone in the pariah of Crickhowel, Breck- 
nockshire, with an inscription, part of which a writer in the Gentleman's 
e for 1758 conjectured to be— VERI TR FltlUS DUNOCATI, 


I if this reading were c 


night point out the burying -pi nee of 

of Dingad; but the Historian of Brecknockshire says 

oa ^ letters may be "any thing the antiquary suppi 

ithcr part of the inscriptio 
* was erected orer the grare of Turpiliu 
II. p. 433. arid Plate VI. Fig. *. 

a legible, shows that tl 


5 Jones,* he was buried 
Tlic catalogue in the 
i Lincoln- 

nacio, as explained by Mr. Thcophil 

at Llandefaelog Fach near Brecon. 

Archaiology of Wales, which says he was a saint ii 

shire, is therefore mistaken, the solitary instance of 

with so distant a county being of itself improbable ; and when 

it is stated by the same authority that he had a church in the 

Isle of Man, he appears to be confounded with one of hi* 

brothers, named Rhwfan or Ithawin. 

7- Dyfnan son of Bry chart, was the founder of Llanddyfnan 
in Anglesey, where he was buried.t Its chapels are Llanbedr 
Goch (St. Peter,) Pentraeth (St. Mary,) and Llanfair ym 
Mathnfarn Eithaf (St Mary.) The festival of St. Dyfnan is 
April 23. 

8. Gerwyn, or as others Berwyn, son of Brychan, a saint 
who settled in Cornwall. Mr. Owen, from Achau y Saint, 
says he was slain in the isle of Gerwyn ; but as it is also 
recorded that there was another Gerwyn, the son of Brynacb 
Wyddel, by Corth one of the daughters of Brychan, it may 
be concluded that they were the same person, and that the 
latter account is the true one, thus adding one more to the list 
of grandchildren. Gerwyn, the eon of Bryuach Wyddel, is 
said to have had three sisters — Mwynen, Gwennait, and 
Gwenlliw, who in one MS. are all called daughters of J3ry. 
chan,\ affording another instance of the confusion of two gene- 
rations, though their names do not appear in the list of 
children in the Myvyrian Archaiology. 

9. Cadog, the son of Brychan, is said to have been buried 
in France, which identifies him with Rheidiog in the Cognacio 
and Llewelyn Offeiriad. He is not to be confounded with 
Cattwg the abbot of Llancarfan, who was a descendant of 

• History of Brecknockshire, Vol. I. p. 61, sad Vol. II. p. 17*. 
t Mys. Archaiology, Vol. 11. p. SB. 
t Compare "May-nun" in Ihe My v. An-liaiology, Vol, II. p. W. with It 
inn names " G.>rwyn" in tlic Cambrian Biography. 

FROM A. D. 433 TO A. D. 464. [43 

Brychan in the second, if not in the third, degree. The dis- 
tinction did not escape Cressy, who falls into a great part of 
the confusion, though he warns his reader against it. Ac- 
cording to this author, he died A, D. 490, and is commemor- 
ated in the Calendar Jan. 24. The churches founded by him 
are — Llanspyddyd, Brecknockshire, subject to which is the 
chapel of Bettws or Penpont ; and Llangadog Fawr, Carmar- 
thenshire, under which are Llanddcusant (St. Simon and St. 
Jude,) Capel Gwynfai, and Capel Tydyst now in ruins. 
There was formerly a chapel in the parish of Kidwelly dedi- 
cated to Cadog, and perhaps one or two churches, which have 
been confounded with those attributed to Cattwg, ought to be 
added to the number. 

10. Mathaiarn was a saint in Cardiganshire, or, according 
to the Cognacio and Llewelyn Offeiriad, in Cyfciliog, Mont- 
gomeryshire, where there is a place still called Mathafarn. 
hi the list of Llewelyn this saint is called Marchai. 

ll. Pasgen, Neffai, and Pabiali, according to Bonedd y 
Saint, were all of them sons of Brychan by a Spanish woman, 
"•d they went to Spain, where they became saints and legis- 
*tors; but as the distance of Spain renders this story un- 
"kc-ly, those authorities are more probable which say that 
**8gen was the son of Dingad, and therefore a grandson 
°f Brychan." 

X'2, Neffai is not mentioned in the Cognacio and Llewelyn's 
■»t8. unless he be the same as Dedyn or Neubedd, the son 
°f Clydwyn. 

* It has been suggested that a stone, which formerly existed in the 

^^Mwh-yard of Tywyn, Merionethshire, having on il the letters PA8- 

^"^ NT without any further explanation, was a monument to the memory 

■ the bob of Dingad; and though the circumstance of other persons, 

**»ed Pasgen, occurring in Welsh history, may so far render the fact 

Uncertain, the coincidence that Gwenddydd, a daughter of Brychan, is re- 

***»"«ied as one of the Saints of the place, seems to offer a strong eon. 

r *«»»ttcm of the supposition. 


13. Pabiali is called Papai by the Cognacio and Llewelyn. 
He is described as the son of Brychan, and it is added that 
the Irish call him Fianno, Pivannus, and Piapponus. 

14. Llecheu lived at Tregaian in Anglesey, or, as others, at 
Llanllecheu, in Ewyas, Herefordshire.* 

15. Cynbryd was the founder of Llanddulas, Denbighshire, 
and was slain by the Saxons at a place called Bwlch Cynbryd. 
His commemoration is March 19. 

16. Cynfran, the founder of Llysfaen in Rhos, Denbigh- 
shire, where, according to Edward Llwyd, there is a well 
called Ffynnon Gynfran, at which offerings used to be made 
to the saint to procure his blessing upon cattle. 

17- Hychan, the saint of Llanhychan in the vale of Clwyd, 
No further particulars are known of him ; but as neither this, 
nor the three saints preceding, are to be found in the lists of 
the Cognacio and Llewelyn Ofteiriad, it may be suspected 
they were grandsons of the Brecknockshire chieftain. The 
festival of Hychan is Aug. 8. 

18. Dyfrig; the Truman MS. says, with the appearance of 
correctness, that he was Dubricius, the Archbishop of Llandaff, 
atid the time, in which the latter flourished, agrees with the 
probable date of the grandchildren of Brychan ; but the parti- 
culars of his life must be reserved for the nest generation. 
Another authority ,t which says he was a saint in Cardigan- 
shire, appears to have mistaken him for the saint of Llan- 
dyfriog in that county, who was the son of Dingad ab 
Nudd Hael. 

19. Cynin, according to the Cognacio, was the son of Tudwal 
Befr by a daughter of Brychan. He was the founder of 
Llangynin near St Clears, Carmarthenshire. J Aehau y C 

•Jones's Brecknockshire, V 
tMytyriati Arch Biology, Vi 
t Llangynin is now a clittpel subji 

of Norman dedication, tiie chapel a 


p. SO. 

: lo St. Clears, but is the latter i« 
, church Imve probably changed 

I- ROM » 

J TO A. I). JBl. 


the church, which 

'j U'eision neu a'i 

r that he was a bishop ; and 
he founded, has been called Llangynir, 
Feibion,* the additional designation of 
sons" may mean the clergy in attendance upon him. 

20. Dog tan, according to the Silurian HISS, was slain by 
the pagan Saxons at Merthyr Dogfau in Dyfed, or Pembroke- 
shire, where a church was consecrated to his memory] the 
particular situation of which is at present unknown. He is 
also the patron saint or founder of Llanrhaiadr ym Mochnant, 
Denbighshire, to which are subject — Llanarmon Mynydd 
Mawr(St. Germanus,) Ltangedwyn (St. Cedwyn.) Llanwddin 
(St. Gwddin,) and Llangadwaladr (St. Cadwakdr.) His 
commemoration is July 13. 

21. Rhawin, a son of Brychan, whom Llewelyn Offeiriad 
calls Ehwfan, and states that he settled in the lale of Man, 
where there was a church dedicated to him ; but the Silurian 
MSS. record that he, and one of his brothers named Khun, 
were slain on a bridge called Penrhun at Merthyr Tydfyl, 
while defending it against the Saxons; which, if both ac- 
counts were true, would imply that he had returned from the 
Isle of Man, and that persons, who have obtained the honours 
of sanctity in Wales, occasionally took up arms in defence of 
their country. 

22. Hhun, a son of Brychan, of whom the Cognacio records 
that he was a saint near Mara, or Llangorse Pool, Brecknock- 
shire, and the Silurian MSS. state that he was slain together 
with Rhawin by the Saxons at Merthyr Tydfyl. He appears 
to have had two sons, Nefydd and Andras, both of whom 
"ere saints; and the surname of Dremrudd has been occa- 
sionally given him, apparently by confounding him with 

Hhain already mentioned. 
23- Cledog or Clydog, "it is agreed by all the MSS. was 
°"Hed at Clodoek in Herefordshire,"'* of which church he is 

* Cynio iu Hie MyryrUn Aiehoiology, Vol. II. p. 35. 
+ Jones'! Rrec knocks hi re. Vol. II. p. 69. 



supposed to be the founder. The Cognacio and Llewelyn 
mention that he was the son of Clydwyn and grandson of 
Brychan; he appears to have had a brother, whom different 
MSS. call Dedyn or Neubedd, and a sister, St. Pedita. Cressy 
states that he suffered martyrdom A. D. 492, and is comme- 
morated in the martyrology on the nineteenth of August. The 
chapels to Clodoek are — Llanfeuno (St. Beuno,) Longtown 
(St. Peter,) and Cresswell (St. Mary.) 

24. Caiati, perhaps a grandson of Brychan, as his name is 
omitted in the Cognacio and Llewelyn's MS. Tregaian, a 
chapel under Llangefni in Anglesey is dedicated to him, and 
his festival occurs in the Calendar on the twenty fifth of Sep- 
tember.* The Silurian catalogue of Spirits omits this name, 
and inserts in its stead, Nefydd, who was the son of Rhun 
nb Brychan. 

It is recordedt that Nefydd, in his younger days, collected a 
party of followers, and put to flight the Saxons who had killed 
his father at Merthyr Tydfyl. He was afterwards a bishop in 
North Britain, where he was slain by the Piets and Saxons. 
Andras, a son of Rhun and brother of Nefydd, is also des- 
cribed as the founder of St. Andrew's or Dinas Powys near 
Cardiff, and should therefore be considered as its patron saint 
instead of St. Andrew the Apostle. 

The alleged daughters of Brychan are the following : 

1. Gwladus, the wife of Gwynllyw Filwr ah Glywys of 
Glywyseg or Gwynllwg in Monmouthshire. From the dates 
of her husband and children, which are easily computed, it 
would appear that she was a grand-daughter, rather than a 
daughter, of Brychan. 

2. Arianwen, called by Llewelyn OfleirJad, Wrgren, pro- 
bably another grand -daughter, married Iorwertli Hirflawdd of 
Powys, son of Tegonwy ab Teon. She was tile mother of 

"Sir Harris Nicolas's ('limnology uf History, 
t Achaii y Saint. 

I'ROM A. I). I 

! ro .1 

D. 164. 


liig-caciiog in Denbighshire 

Caenog Mawr, to < 

3. Tanglwst, Tudglyd, or Gwtfil, married to Cyngen, the son 
of Cadell Deyrnllug. She was mother to Brochwel Ysgythrog ; 
and without bringing the life of her son down to A. D, GOO, 
about which time he is alleged to have commanded the Britons 
in the battle of Bangor Iscoed, the era of her husband would 
render it necessary to consider her a grand- daughter of 
Brychan. She had two other sons, Maig and Ieuaf. 

4. Mechell, according to some MSS. the eldest daughter 
of Brychan, was married to Gynyr of Caergawch near Me- 

5. Nefyn, probably a grand- daughter, was married to Cynfarch 
Oer, the father of Urien Rheged; and may perhaps be ac- 
counted the founder or patron saint of Nefyn.J Carnarvon- 

6. Gwawr, seemingly a grand-daughter, was the wife of 
Elidyr Lydanwyn, by whom she was the mother of the bard 
Llywarch He*. 

7. Gwrgon, daughter of Brychan, was married to Cadrod 
Calchfynydd, who flourished about A. D. 430. 

8. Eleri, daughter of Brychan, married to Ceredig ab Cun- 
edda, of the same generation as the preceding. She was the 
paternal grandmother of St. David, 

9. Lleian, the wife of Gafran ab Dyfnwal Hen, by whom 
she was the mother of Aeddun Krudog, who after his defeat in 
the battle of Arderydd, in North Britain, was compelled to 
fly for safety to the Isle of Man. The Cognacio soys that 
Lleian herself settled in that island, and the era of her son? 

• Myv. Archaiologv *u6 rocr Arianwen. 
t Cambrian Biography, 

; The modern saint of this church is St. Mary the Virgin. 
$ " On the death of Coual, king of the British Scots, la the j ear 572.3, 
Aidan, the son of Gauran, succeeded to the throne; and il Is mentioned as 



which is determined hy the concurrent testimony of the Irish 
and Welsh authorities, would indicate that she was one of the 
youngest of the grand-daughters of Brychan. There is a 
chapel subject to Llanarthne in Carmarthenshire, called Capel 
Llanlleinn, and probably named in honour of this person, unless 
the words be taken to mean simply " the chapel of the n 

10. Nefydd, daughter of Brychan, and wife of Tudwal Befr. 
One of the authorities in the Myvyrian Archaiology says she 
was a saint at L lech gel yd don in North Britain ; but this state- 
ment arose probably from confounding her with Nefydd, the 
grandson of Brychan, already mentioned, and it is, perhaps, 
the same mistake which led Llwyd to say that Tudwal was "a. 
prince of some territory in Scotland,"" The connexions of 
Nefydd and her husband appear to have been confined to 
Wales. The churches ascribed to Tudwal have been e 
ated already, and to Nefydd may be attributed the foundation 
of Llannefydd in Denbighshire. Besides her son, Cynin, who 
was the founder of Idangymn in Carmarthenshire, she appears 
to have had another, called I for ab Tudwal, of whom nothing 
more is recorded than that he was a saint. The Cognacio 
confounds Nefydd with Goleu or Goleuddydd. 

11. Rhiengar, or according to others, Cyngar, is said to 
have been a saint at Llech in Maelienydd, and to have been 
the mother of Cynidr, a saint of Maelienydd ;+ but there 
are no means of deciding whether she ought to be placed 
in the list of the daughters, or the grand -daughters. 
Maelienydd is the ancient name of a district in Radnorshire, a 
subdivision of which, or of the adjoining district of Elfael, was 

■ proof of Ihe general veneration, in which Column* was llien held, a: 
well by soTereigns as by the clergy and Ihe people, thai he wan the per- 
son selected to perform the ceremony of inauguration on Ihe accession of 
the new king."— Moo re*a History of Ireland, Chap. XII. The defeat of 
Acddan at Arderyild prohnhly look place lome years before his elevation 
In Ihe kingdom of Ihe Scots. 

+ Jones's Hrerk nock -hire. Vol. I f ,.5S. 

J TO A. D. 464. 

I -I 

once called Llecli Ddyfnog ;* and though the situation of the 
latter is uncertain, the statement on record t that Cynidr was 
buried at Glasebury, may assist in determining it. Llan- 
gynidr.J and Aberyscir, two churches in Brecknockshire, of 
which Cynidr may have been the founder, are dedicated to 
him jointly with the Virgin Mary ; and under the former of 
them there was once a chapel called Eglwys Vesei. 

12. Goleuddydd, a saint at Ltauhcsgin in Gwent, the mo- 
dem designation of which place is unknown ; and it would 
appear from the Cognacio and Llewelyn Oifeiriad, that Goleu- 
ddydil was only another name for Nefydd, the wife of Tud- 

13. Gwenddydd, a saint at Tywyn in Merionethshire^ but 
r authorities, who give her the name of Gwawrddydd, 

lethal she was the wife of Cadell Deyrnllug,|| and conse- 
willy the mother of Cytigen, who is already described as 
••ring married one of the grand-daughters of Brychan. 

14. Tyd'i'e, a saint " yn y Tri gabelogwar,"* which the His- 
n of Brecknockshire interprets to mean that she lived at 

'pel Ogwr or Ogmore Chapel, formerly subject to St. Bride's 
■jor, Glamorganshire. 

»5. Elined, the Almedha of Giraldus Cambrensis, who says 
t she suffered martyrdom upon a hill called Penginger near 
:!tnock, which the Historian of that county, so often 

' Ancient Surveys of Wales in tlie My v. Archaiology, Vol. II. 

i's Brecknockshire, Vol.1, p. 47, & 345. 
; Called Ltanfair a Chynidr, or the church of St. Mary and Cynidr, in 
**»*; liit uf Parishes in Wales in the The double dedi- 
^»i«B uf Ahcryscir may be learnt from Jones's Brecknockshire, Vol. I. 
■*- **i where it may be observed lliat Cressy and others have confounded 
* > "i'lr with Cenydd or St. Kenneth. 
* 8 e« Cadfan, infra 
1 My,. Archaiology, Vol. II. p. 43. 
' 'hid .Vnl. II. p. 64. 

1 50 


quoted, identifies with Slwcli. "Crug gorseddawl,"* mentiot 
after the name of Elined in the Myvyrian Arcliaiulogy, 
been taken for Wyddgrug or Mold in Flintshire ; but it may 
be no more than a descriptive appellation of Slwch, on which 
there were lately some remains of a British Camp.t Cressy, 
speaking of St. Almedha, says " This devout virgin, rejecting 
the proposals of an earthly prince, who sought her in mar- 
riage, and espousing herself to the eternal king, consummated 
her life by a triumphant martyrdom. The day of her solemni- 
ty is celebrated every year on the first day of August." 

16. Ceindrych, or according to Bonedd y Saint, Ceindreg, 
lived at Caergodolaur, a place at present unknown ; but the 
Cognacio states that Kerdech lived at Llandegwyn, which is 
the name of a church dedicated to another saint in Merion- 

17- Gwen, grand -daughter of Brychan, and wife of Llyr 
Merini, by whom sjie was the mother of Caradog Fraichfras. 
Llewelyn Offeiriad says she was buried at Talgarth, Breck- 
nockshire, where according to the Truman BIS. she was mur- 
dered by the Saxons. Ecton calls her St. Gwendeline. 

18. Cenedlon, "a saint on the mountain of Cymortb." It 
does not appear where this mountain is situated, but from the 
association of Cenedlon, Cymorth, and their sister Clydai. it 
may be looked for in the neighbourhood of Newcastle in 

19. Cymorth, from whom the mountain just mentioned de- 
rives its name, was a daughter of Brychan, and is said to have 
lived in Emlyn, J a district divided between the present 
counties of Carmarthen and Pembroke. In the Cambrian 

the hill of judicature."— Dr. Pughe's Welsh 

castitatis marivnzat.i 


* Crug gorseddi 

+ "Elyiiod in montc Gorsuvael, 
est." — Cognacio, in Jones's Brecknockshire. 

J " Cyroortli \-h Brychan a'i chwaer Clydai gydn hi yii Ei 
Archaiology. Vol. II. P . 35. 

THiiM A. [>. -US TO A. D. Ki. 


Biography* she is called Corth, and stated ti> have been the 
wife of Brynncli Wyddel. by whom she was the mother of 
Gerwyn, already mentioned, together with his sisters, Mwyn- 
en. Gwennan, and Gwenlliw. 

20. Clydai, the sister of Cymorth and Cenedlon, and the 
reputed founder of a church, called Clydai, in Emlyn. Her 
festival is Nov. 1.+ 

21. Dwynwen, the founder of a church in Anglesey called 
Llanddwynwen or Llanddwyn. By the Welsh bards she has 
been considered the patron saint of lovers. Her commemor- 
ation occurs on the twenty fifth of January. 

22. Ceinwen, a saint to whom the churches of Llangeinwen 
and Cerrig Ceinwen in Anglesey are ascribed. As this and 
the preceding person are omitted in several of the lists of the 
children of Brychan, it may be presumed they were his grand- 
daughters. The wake of Ceinwen was observed on the eighth 
of October, which is also the feast day of Ceneu, another 
member of this redoubtable family. Llangeinwen has one 
chapel, Llangaffo (St. Caffo.) 

23. Tydfyl, a daughter of Brychan, is by some authorities 
confounded with Tanglwst already mentioned. She suffered 
martyrdom at a place, which from that circumstance has been 
called Merthyr Tydfyl. According to the Cambrian Biogra- 
phy^ upon the authority of the Truman MS. she met her 
father, when he was an old man, attended by some of her 
brothers, whereupon they were beset by a party of Saxons and 
Gwyddyl Ffichti, and she, her father, and her brother Rhun 
Dremrudd, were murdered; but Nefydd the son of Rhun, 
then a youth, exerted himself in raising the force of the 
country, and afteTwards put the enemy to flight. — Such is the 

• Voet Gerwyn. 

+ Ttio list in Bnnedd y SjinI is corrupt in lliin place, and omits Clydni, 
which is restored from n MpUt-U nutiic In the HM record, thcrvhy In— 
cruising the number of reputed cliildreo to fifty. 

I I "urrTydM 



brief account; but it is remarkable that no memorials hav< 
been preserved of these early inroads of the Saxons into South 
Wales, except a few scattered notices in the Welsh genealogies. 
They appear to have been repeater' at various intervals from 
about the year 400 to 500, during which time it is generally 
agreed that the Saxons and Picts were in alliance ; and the 
former, whose piratical character is acknowledged, were not 
unlikely to land on the western coasts of die island, where the 
Gwyddyl Ffichti, or Irish Picts, would aid their progress into 
the interior. But this is merely a suggestion in support of 
accounts not inconsistent in themselves ; and if it be too much 
to insist at once that the notices alluded to are authentic, the 
possibility of their truth is a subject worthy of investigation. 

I The day of the commemoration of St. Tydfyl is the twenty 

! third of August 

24. Enfail, a saint at Merthyr Enfail, which a writer in t 
Cambro Briton states is in Carmarthenshire; and if his a 
sertioo be correct, the place in question may be the church o 
Merthyr near Carmarthen. 

25. Hawystl — lived at Caer Hawysll, supposed by the 1 
torian of Brecknockshire to be Awst in the county of ( 

20. Tybi'e, a saint, of whom it is recorded that she wai 
murdered by pagans at a place in CarmarthenshJ 
there is a church still called Llandybie. Her festival ii .'..■ 
uary 30. 

The last specified terminates the lengthy catalogue of t 
children of Brychan according to Bonedd y Saint. The C 
nacio, however, mentions two names which cannot be id< 
Ped with any of the preceding ; — " Keneython at Kidwelly c 
the mountain of Kyfor," and " Keurbreit at Caslogwr."' 
first has reference to Llangynheiddon, an extinct chapel ii 

I (oonlG Kyfnr 

FROM A. 0. «3 TO A. D. 404. 153 

parish of Llandyfaclog, Carmarthenshire, near to which is a 
hill called Mynydd Cyfor; and the other is perhaps the saint 
of Lloughor, or, as it is vernacularly called, Casllwchwr, 
Glamorganshire, the church of which place is generally under- 
stood to be dedicated to St. Michael. Upon this authority 
they may both be regarded as belonging to the family of th" 1 
Brecknockshire chieftain ; and Llewelyn Offeiriad, who, calls 
the former " Rhyneidon of Cydweli," says she was his 

To such a length has the practice been carried of ranking 
all the members of this tribe as the immediate offspring of its 
founder, that in a short list of Saints, published in the Cam- 
brian Register," two sons, Gwynau and Gwynws, and two 
daughters, Call wen and Gwenfyl, are added to the number. 
It is quite enough to suppose they were descendants without 
enquiring into the degree of their descent. The festival of 
the first pair ia Dec. 13, and that of the second Nov. 1. 
Gwynws is the saint of Llanwnws, Cardiganshire, and may 
be deemed its founder ; a chapel, now extinct, subject to 
Llanddewi Brefi in the same county, bore the name of Gwen- 
fyl; and another in the parish of Defynog, Brecknockshire, is 
dedicated to Callwen. 

Cressy, the Catholic writer, treats his readers with a won- 
drous tale of "St. Keyna the daughter of Braganus," evidently 
the same person as Ceneu, which appears in some of the lists, 
but her identity with Ceinwen already mentioned is doubtful- 
He relates that "when she came to ripe years, many nobles 
sought her in marriage, but she utterly refused that state ; 
having consecrated her virginity to our Lord by a perpetual 
vow ; for which cause she was afterwards by the Britons 
called Keyn wiri.f that is Keyna the virgin: at length she 
determined to forsake her country and find out some desert 
place, where she might attend to contemplation. Therefore 

t Cein-wyryf. 


directing her journey beyond Severn, and there meeting 
woody place, she made her request to the prince of 
country, that she might be permitted to serve God in that 
solitude. His answer was, that he was very willing to grant 
her request, but that the place did so swarm with serpents 
that neither man nor beast could inhabit it : but she constantly 
replied, that her firm trust was in the name and assistance of 
Almighty God to drive all that poisonous brood out of that 
region. Hereupon the place was granted to the holy 
who presently prostrating herself to God obtained of h: 
change the serpents and vipers into stones ; 
the stones in that region do resemble the windings of serpents 
through all the fields and villages, as if they had been framed 
so by the hand of the engraver," — From the appearance of the 
fossils, called by geologists, "Ammonites," Camden identifies 
the place with Keynsham in Somersetshire, and describes a 
specimen from that neighbourhood which he had seen. — It is 
related afterwards that " her nephew St. Cudoc, performing a 
pilgrimage to tile Mount of St. Michael, met there with his 
blessed Aunt St. Keyna, at whose sight he being replenished 
with joy, and being desirous to bring her back to her own 
country, the inhabitants of that region would not permit him ; 
but afterwards, by the admonition of an angel, the holy maid 
returned to the place of her nativity ; where, on the top of a 
hillock, seated at the foot of a high mountain, she made a 
bttle habitation for herself, and by her prayers to God ob- 
tained a spring there to flow out of the earth, which by the 
merits of the holy virgin afTordeth health to divers infirmities, 
She is said to have departed this life on the eighth day of the 
Ides of October, A. D. 4fl0, and to have been buried in her 
own oratory by her nephew St, Cadoc." — The latter part of 
the story has reference to certain places on the borders of the 
Principality. The Mount of St. Michael is the name of a hill 
near Abergavenny, which still maintains its sacred characl 
In the same neighbourhood is the parish of Llangeiv 




FROM A. D. 435 TO A. I). 4 


which, according to Mr. Theophilus Jones, is to be found the 
well of the saint, and the situation of her oratory may yet be 
traced. The St. Cadoc here mentioned was Cattwg, the son 
of GwynJIyw Filwr and founder of Llangattock CrickJiowel, 
of which Llangcneu is one of the subordinate chapelriea. 
From the omission of Ceneu in several of the lists, it may be 
inferred that she was a grand -daughter, and in that case 
Cattwg would be her sister's son ; but if she were a daughter 
of Brychan, and Cattwg were her great nephew, it would by 
no means violate the unity of the story ; and it is obvious that 
Cadog, the son of Brychan, was not the person intended, as he 
must have been either the brother or uncle of Ceneu, and not 
her nephew, The oratory alluded to was situated on a hill at 
some distance from the present church of Llangetieu ; and if it 
were founded by the saint herself, as the legend would imply, 
ita subordinate condition, for its modern representative is only 
a ehapelry, would seem to violate the principle laid down in 
the first section of this Essay, namely, that upon the institu- 
tion of tithes, and consequent division of the country into 
parishes, every primitive religious edifice received a separate 
endowment. It is clear, however, that the legend is a fabri- 
cation, for it does not appear why an oratory, of such high 
antiquity and honoured with so many sacred recollections, 
should afterwards be neglected, and its very name transferred 
to a church in another situation; but the following passage 
from the tale, in the words of Cressy, will explain that it was 
of late erection, and built by some foreign devotees who pre- 
tended to discover the burying-place of the saint. — " Some 
lime before her death she had a prospect of her eternal happi- 
ness in a future world in a vision, being ministered to and 
comforted by angels, when she thus prophesied to her nephew 
St. Cadoc; — this is the place of all others beloved by me, here 
my memory shall be perpetuated, this place will I often visit 
in spirit if it may be permitted me, and I am assured it shall 
be permitted me, because the Lord hath granted me this place 



as a certain inheritance. The time will come when this place 
shall be inhabited by a sinful people, which, notwithstanding, 
I will violently root out of this seat. My tomb slmH Hi. n l/mif 
time unknown, until the coming cf other ptopie, whom hij mg pragera 
I shall bring hither ; them will I protect and defend, and in 
this place shall the name of the Lord be blessed for ever." 

According to Jones's Brecknockshire 1 , Ellyw or Ely w, whose 
name is not mentioned in any of the lists, was a grand-daugh- 
ter of Brychan. With her may have originated the establish- 
ment of Llanelly, Carmarthenshire, subject to which are Llan- 
gennech and the extinct chapels of Dewi, (St. David,) Ifan, 
(St. John,) and Berwick or Dyddgen chapel. The church of 
Llanelieu, Brecknockshire, is called after her ; and she is also 
the patron of Llanelly, subject to Llangattock Crickhowd in 
the same county, where her wake is held on the Sunday nest 
before the first of August O. S. and renders it probable that 
her name is only an abbreviation of Elined, already noticed, 
upon whose festival the wake depends. * 

The legendst relate that the spiritual instructor of Brychan 
was Drichan or Brynach, who is called in the Triads Brynaeh 
Wyddel or the .Irishman, and is said to have married Corth or 
Cymorth, one of the daughters of Brychan, by whom he had 
four children already mentioned. He is considered to be 
the founder of Llanfrynach, Brecknockshire, Llanfrynach 
alias Penllln, Glamorganshire, Llanboidy, Carmarthenshire, 
and Llanfernach, Dinas, and Nefern, Pembroke shire. J It 
may also be inferred, from the analogy of similar cases, that 
Henry's Moat, and Pontfaen, in the neighbourhood of the 
three latter, which Ecton ascribes to St. Bernard, should t 

• History of Brecknockshire, Vol. II. p. -I 
+ The Cognncio, an Knglisli legend c 

niK'ksliire, Vol. I. 

* Eglwys Fair Lan Taf. (Si. Mary,} cli 
g wyn, (St. M»ry,} chipel lo Nefern. 


attributed to Brynach, whose parishes would thus form a 
continuous endowment which was afterwards disturbedby the 
Norman Lords of Cemmaes. The parish of Clydai, and the 
localities of Cymorth and Cenedlon, are immediately adjoin- 
ing, if not partly included in, the district. Cressy states that 
** St. Bernacli" was an abbot, and that lie is commemorated in 
the Church on the seventh of the Ides of April. 

According to the t'ognacio, the spiritual instructor of Cy- 
nog, the eldest son of Bryehan, was a holy man named 
Gastayn, to whom the same document attributes the church of 
Llangasty Tal y Llyn, Brecknockshire. This name may con- 
clude the connexions of a family of saints, which for its ce- 
lebrity has been styled the third holy family of Britain. 

It is stated in the Triads that Bryehan educated his children 
and grandchildren to qualify them " to show the faith in Christ 
to the nation of the Cymry where they- were without faith ;"* 
and upon this statement an argument has been grounded to 
show that there were parts of VWes which had not yet em- 
braced Christianity. Evident proofs remain that the Britons 
bad not entirely emerged from heathenism, and Druidical 
superstitions were rooted in the minds of the people until late 
in the following century, which the foundation of churches 
about this time must have tended mainly to eradicate; still 
the allegation, that the Welsh race should have been converted 
by missionaries from a family whose origin was Irish, is so 
lingular as to demand some inquiry into the correctness of the 
original assertion. The question may be determined by con- 
sidering the districts in which the churches and chapels dedi- 
cated to the family of Bryehan, including those of Brynach 
and Gastayn, are distributed. They are about fifty five in 
number, out of which twenty two are in Brecknockshire, or 

• " Bryclian Brycheiniog, u lidug ci lilant a'i wyrion arddvsg a bnnedd, 
I'd y gal lent ddangos y Ffydd yng Ngtiriiii i Geiiedl yt'ymry, lie ydt! 
•e&lyul yn ddiffydd." Triad IS, Third Series. 



immediately upon its borders. Those situated in Carmar- 
thenshire and Pembrokeshire, at that time occupied by the 
Gwyddyl Ffichti, are sixteen. Five more are in Anglesey, 
and three of the family settled in the Isle of Ulan, both occu- 
pied by the same tribe. Most of the remaining churches ore 
situated together in Denbighshire; and as parts of North 
Wales are said to have still continued in the possession of the 
Irish,* it may be judged by analogy that this was one of the 
districts so retained. The conclusion presented by a consider- 
ation of these localities, is, that the people without the faith, 
who from their settlement in Wales have been mistaken for 
the nation of the Cymry, were not Welshmen but Irish. The 
latter race had not received the truths of the Gospel, for this 
was the age in which St. Patrick was employed in imparting 
Chiistianity to their countrymen in Ireland, and in Wales the 
hostility of the native inhabitants would prevent them from 
obtaining that blessing: but upon the family of Brychan they 
could prefer the elaim of a kindred origin ; and to this, to- 
gether with the teiritorial influence of Clydwyn, it may be 
added, that Brynach, who was adopted into the family, and 
who for a single member seems to have founded the greatest 
number of churches, was himself an Irishman. 

Saintship in Wales was already a profession, and those who 
belonged to it were persons, who, in the character of eccles- 
iastics of various grades, devoted their lives to the service of 
religion. In the next generation it will be discovered that 
many of them belonged to an order of primitive monks, such 
as flourished in Gaul in the fifth century ,+ and the foundation 
of several monasteries will soon be noticed. But it is remsrk- 

• Cumbrian Biography, tub race Meigyr, from Achttu y Saint. 

■> •' That there were monks in Gaul long before the time of St. Bene- 
dict is etirleot from the unquestionable authority of Gregory of Toura. 
Il is, however, certain Hint prior to the sixth century there was nn com- 
mon observance among them; mid lluil though the men, who Bed from 
I he world to practise unusual austerities were held in reverence, the new 

FROM A. D 433 TO A. D. ML |g() 

able that no nunnery is known to have been established in the 
Principality for several hundred years later than tile period 
under consideration. It is, therefore, an interesting inquiry — 
what rank did female saints hold in the Church of the ancient 
Britons? They were not numerous compared with those of 
the other sex, and by far the largest quota seems to have been 
furnished by the progeny of Brychan. A review of the list 
will show that only half the reputed daughters of that prince 
have received the honours of sanctity. No churches bear the 
names of the remaining half, no festivals have been kept to 
their memory, and they are known only ns the wives of chief- 
tains. Some, even of those particularized as saints, are des- 
cribed as having married, and become the mothers of children ; 
but it does not appear whether they afterwards renounced the 
marriage state, or whether, as is more probable, they devoted 
themselves to religion upon the death of their husbands. A 
few individuals, however, are specified in the legends as 
having made a vow of virginity in their youth ; and from the 
contemporary practice of Gaul it may be learned that, before 
the institution of nunneries, they were consecrated by bishops, 
and led religious lives in the society of their kindred. The 
fact on record, that St. German ub, while proceeding upon his 
mission, was a party to a consecration of the nature described, 
leaves a fair inference that he introduced the custom into 
Britain.* On the other hand, it was by no means uncommon 
tor men, in this age, to exchange the state of matrimony for 

"ode of life did not ris-> tu the dignity of an institute, nor obtain any 
•kffreeof organization." — Europe in the Middle Ages, hy 8. A. Dun- 
*«*». Esq. Vol. II. Chip. II. 

• "'In Gaul, bs 'mother parts of the Christian world, women, previous 
10 the Mtibllshment of nunneries, were consecrated to God by bishops; 
««cl they led religious lives in the houses of their parents or nearest kin- 
dred. Tlicrc is something peculiarly striking in the manner in which 
Qenovie^e, when in liei fifteenth year, a.ssunmd the irremeable obligation. 
he *■» among the Inhabitants of Paris who went forth to receive the two 



thut of monacbism ; and St. Lupus, after lie had been married 
seven years, became an inmate of the monaster}- of Lerins ; 
but celibacy formed no part of the discipline of the SCTiWnr 
Welsh clergy as late as the thirteenth century. 

The natives of Wales may be surprized to find that Leland 
lias given, out of the life of St. Nectan, a list of the children 
of Brychan, twenty four in number, two only of which, or at 
most three, can be identified with the names in the Welsh 
lists. They are as follow :— 

" Nectanus, Joannes, Endelient, Menfre, Dilic, Tedda, 
Maben, Weneu, Wensent, Merewenna, Wenna, Juliana, Yse, 
Morwenna, Wymp, Wenheder, Cleder, Keri, Jons, Kananc, 
Kerhender, Adwen, Helic, Tamalanc. All these sons arid 
daughters were afterwards holy martyrs and confessors in 
Devon and Cornwall, where they led an eremitical life," 

It is perhaps sufficient to decide the fate of this list to say 
that it depends solely upon the authority of one or two monk- 
ish writers, and the compiler has forgotten to explain why all 
these saints should have quitted their country in a body, and 
settled in Devon and Cornwall. In Wales, with the exception 
of the two or three who may be recognised in spite of their 
disguise, tbey have left not even a memento of their ex- 

saints, Germnnus and Lupus, then on n mission to Britain. Her devotion, 
during the exhortation of the former, and tin- enthusiastic xeitl which there 
was in her countni.m.v. pi inci pally attracted his tint ice. He caused her 
to approach him; and, on enquiring into her sentiments and feelingj, 
found thut she was resolved to consecrate her virginity to God, ■ resolu- 
tion which he was not backward to strengthen. They entered the church, 
and joined in certain prayers and hymns suited to the occasion; but Gcr- 
maniis would not give her the veil until she had passed the night i 
in self-examination." Europe in the Middle Ages, Vol. II. Chap. II. 


The Welsh Saints from the Accession of Vortimer A. D. 464. to the 

Death of Ambrosius A. D. 500. 

The founders of new families which appear for the first 
time in this generation, are Cadell Deyrnllug, Gynyr of Caer 
Gawch, Ynyr Gwent, Tewdrig ab Teithfallt, Emyr Llydaw, 
and Ithel Hael. Cadell's descendants are as follow : — 

[Table XL] 

CADELL DEYRNLLUG married Gwawrddydd, daughter of Brychan 

r - ' i 

Cyuan Glodrydd Cj/ngen Sant m. Tanglwst, grand-daughter of Brychan 

Cleddyfgar Malg Ieuaf Mawan Brochwel Yagythrog m. Arddun, daughter of 


Pabo Pout Prydaln 

Caranog YUyffan Tyailio Cynan Uurwyu Llyr 

Geralnt Gvvedrog Selyf Engkencl 

i I i 

Eldad Ytteg GwTydr Drwm MaelMynun Dona 

I I 

Egryn Beli 




Cadell, obllt A. D. 804. 

I 1 1 

Neat, mother of Mcrfyn Fryeh. Cyngen, murdered at Borne A. D. 854* 

Cadell Deyrnllug flourished partly in the preceding genera- 
tion, and the legend of his accession to power has been already 
related. He married Gwawrddydd, one of the daughters of 
Brychan, and his domains lay in the Vale Royal and the 
upper part of Powys. Before the close of this generation he 
appears to have been succeeded by his son, Cyngen, who is 
distinguished for the patronage which he afforded to the 
saints, and for the liberal endowments which he gave to 
the Church. 


The order of birth would also determine Gynyr of Caer 
Gaweh to belong to the preceding generation, but he is intro- 
duced in the present in order that he may be placed with his 
family. He appears to have been the chieftain of a district in 
Pembrokeshire, since called Pebidiog or Dewsland, in which 
the town of St. David's is situated ; and he probably rose into 
power upon the reduction of the Gwyddyl Fficliti by Clyd- 
wyn. His first wife was Slecliell, daughter of Brychan, by 
whom he had issue a daughter called Danadlwen; whose 
husband, Dirdan, is included in the catalogue of saints, but uo 
churches are ascribed to him. The second wife of Gynyr was 
Anna, daughter of Gwrthefyr Fendigaid, or Vortimer, king of 
Britain ; and the fruit of this union was a son, named Gist- 
lianus,* together with two daughters, Non, the mother of 
St. David,t and Gwen, the mother of St Cybi. From con- 
founding Anna, the' daughter of Gwrthefyr Fendigaid, 
with Anna, the daughter of Uther Pendrngon, arose probably 
the legendary storv that St. David was related to king Arthur, 
but this tale is at variance with all the pedigrees. 

Gynyr of Caer Gawch, is said to have embraced a religious 
life, having given all his lauds to the Church, lor which reason 
he has been enrolled among the saints. It may be learned 
from Giraldus Cambrensis that his son, Gistlianus, was a 
bishop at Mcnevia some time before the elevation of St. David 
to that dignity, and his residence or see, which was perhaps 
the particular establishment endowed by Gynyr, was situated 
at some distance from the present cathedral. It was after- 
wards removed by him to the valley of '"Uosina," where the 
cathedral now stands, at the instance of St. David ; who, as 
the legend relates, had received a warning from an angel to 

■ccorditig to the orthography of Itirtmnrchus; the Welsh 
is not preserved. 

iid Vortimer to St. Dnvid is rapid, and allow. 
than twenty years to a generation. 

FROM A. D. IH TO A. D. 500. \Sf\ 

the effect, that the place first chosen was nut accepted by the 
Deity, for lie foresaw that little or no fruit would be produced 
from it; but there was another place, not far from thence, 
more suitable for devotion and the purposes of a holy congre- 
gation-* — This brief narrative, the miraculous part being set 
aside, is not unlikely to be true ; and if, as the same author 
asserts elsewhere, a monastery hnd been founded by St. Patrick 
in the valley of Rosina, thirty years before the birth of St. 
David, t it would have furnished Gistlinnus with a more 
obvious reason for changing his residence; but an appoint- 
ment less than divine would ill become the hallowed glories of 
a spot regarded by the Welsh as the most sacred in Britain. 

It would appear from the "Genealogy of the Saints" that 
G^'tiyr bad a grandson, Ailfyw, the son of Dirdan by Danadl- 
wen, who might have flourished about the end of this genera- 
tion <ir the beginning of the following ; and a church near the 
tovm of St. David's, called Llanailfy w or St. Elfeis, is considered 
to be dedicated to bim. He derived his name most probably 
from St. Albeus or Ailbe, bishop of Munster in Ireland; who 
visited this district, and is recorded to have baptized St. Da- 
vid, the other grandson of Gynyr. 

JJon, the daughter of Gyny r, was married to Sandde the son 
°*" Ceredig ab Cunedda ; and the following religious edifices 

•'■Pott long* tam disconcli jirimti, qunm postoa quoque docentli tem- 

&*>n, id locum uwli! discessernl, Menoviam scilicet, demum vir sanctus 

COatidj rcpalriavil. Erat autom eodeni tempore ibidem Ejdscopus avari- 

"■"•^"iqus, vir venerubilis, cui nometi Giatlinnus. Hpic igitur Angelica, 

** u *j»ln susceperal, mnnilo nepos in Imiic inoduin rectlaviL Locus, inquil 

"*elu5, iii quo Deo scrvirc proponis, nun csl ei acceptus. Modicum enim 

*' nullum sih ' fnturum fructuui inde providil. Verunuuuen est alius non 

**"* >c u| liiuc locus, osleadens Vallein Rusimm, ubi sacrum twdio Cimiler- 

**** exwi,long<> religioni et aancue congregation! compclentior." — Qlraldus 

**"»l»riMWisde VrtftS. Davidis. opud Wharton, Tom. II. 

"*~ "flip residence of Si. Patrick :it iHcncvia, though noticud by Gwyn- 
^ L ***» W at variance with chronology and the most approved histories of 



have been dedicated to her memory: — Llan Uweh Aeron, ■ 
church in Cardiganshire ; Llannon, a chapel under Pembre, 
Carmarthenshire , St. Nun's chapel in the parish of St. Da- 
vid's, Pembrokeshire; and Llnnnon, formerly a chapel i 
Llansanflraid, Cardiganshire; all of which are situated i 
immediate neighbourhood of churches ascribed to St. Davi 
The festival of St. Non was kept on the third of March. 

The next founder of a family, that may be noticed, is Ynyi 
Gwent. who married Madrnn, another daughter of Gwrtbef 
or Vortimer. His territories consisted of a part of the pres 
county of Monmouth, and he is considered a saint, probably 
on account of having founded a college or monastery at Caer- 
went under the superintendence of St. Tathan. His wife, 
Madrun, in conjunction with Anhun her handmaid, is said to 
have been the foundress of the church of Trawsfynydd, 

Tewdrig, the son of Teithfallt ab Nynio, was a prince, or 
king as he is called, of Glamorgan ; the sovereignty of which 
was retained by his descendants until it was wrested from 
them by the Normans in the eleventh century. The era of his 
life belongs to the past generation, but the first particulars, 
which are known of him, occur in the present. According to 
the most consistent authorities his pedigree commences with 
his grandfather, Nynio, whose age immediately precedes the 
departure of tile Romans; while others, who state that hii 
grandfather's name was Mynan, derive his descent 

• For iho children of Ynyr, see Tahle X. p. 132 

FROM A. D. 464 TO A. D. 500. 


Emyr Llydaw was the prince of a certain territory in 
Annorica, and nephew to St. Germanus. He flourished in 
the early part of this generation, and is noticed here on ac- 
count of his descendants, whose names appear conspicuous in 
the catalogue of saints. 

Tablb xiii. 

GwenteLrbron, dr. 
m. to Eneas Lydewlg 

Cad/an Hywel 

Amwn Ddu 

i H 1 

Tyiecho Samsom Tathan 





Other* as below 

Derfel Dwywau Criitiolu* Rhyttyd 



Pedredin or Petrwn 

Padarn Lleuddad 




-J — 


Llonio Llynab. 








Hyuryn Trinio 

Tewdwr Mawr 
Canna, dr. 




Ithel Hael o Lydaw was another Armorican prince, whose 
children in this and " the following generation accompanied 
Illtyd and Cadfan to Britain, and became saints of the Welsh 

To return to the older families, the distinguished hero of 

the line of Cunedda, during this period, was Caswallon Law- 

hir. His history as related in Achau y Saint, under the head 

of Meigyr, is as follows : — " Meigyr, with his brothers, Cynyr 

and Meilyr, accompanied Caswallon Lawhir, their cousin, to 

drive the Ffichti out of Mona,* to which island they had 

retreated from the sons of Cunedda, and had strengthened 

themselves there. After cruel fighting they drove the Gwy- 

Odelians out of JMona, in which Caswallon slew Serigi, the 

Gwyddelian, with his own hand. This Serigi was the leader 

* Anglesey. 


of the Gwyddelians and the Ffiehti that had overrun Gwyn- 
edd* from the time of Hwsen Wledig. And after driving 
the strangers out of Mona, die Cymry took courage, and 
chased them from every part of Gwynedd, bo that none re- 
mained in the country but such of them as were made 
slaves."+ — This account is important as it records the final 
expulsion of the Gwyddyl Ffichtl from North Wales ; and 
though the precise time of tile event is not mentioned, there 
are reasons for supposing that it took place near the close of 
the century. There was formerly a chapel near the church of 
Holyhead, called Eglwys y Bedd or Llauy gwyddyl, which, as 
reported by trailition, had been erected over the grave of 

Meigyr was the son of Gwron ab Cunedda ; he and his 
brother, Meilyr, are included in the Silurian catalogue of 
saints, though there are no churches which bear their names. 
The same may also be said of Sandde ab Ccredig ab Cunedda, 
who married Non, the daughter of Gynyr of Caer Gawch, by 
whom he became the father of St. David. The only remaining 
saint of the family, for this generation, was Gwenaseth, 
daughter of Rhufon ab Cunedda, who was married to 
Pabo Post Prydain: but in connexion with the tribe 
may be mentioned, Tegwedd, the daughter of Tegid Foel 
of Penllyn, Merionethshire. She was married, first to 
Cedig ah Ceredig ah Cunedda, by whom she became the 
mother of Alan of Buallt ; and secondly to Enlleu ab Hydwn 

• North YVnlea. 

t Translated in the Cambrian Biography. 

J Tlie author of a "History of Anglesey," London, 177j, says,—" The 
ruins of it a few years ago were removed in order to render the way to the 

church mora commodious. Here formerly was the shrine of Sirigi, who 
was canonized by Ihe Irish. Il seem in hue ln.-f.-ii held in exceeding groat 
repute for several verj wonderful qualities and cures: but according to an 
old Irish cliroiiiclii, it was carried off by some Irish rovers, and deposited 
in the cathedral of Christ Church, in Dublin." 

FROM A. D. 464 TO A. D. SOU. 


Dwn ab Ceredig, by whom she had Teilo, bishop of Llandaff. 
A church in Monmouthshire, culled Llandegfytb, is ascribed 
to her, at which place, according to Achau y Saint, she was 
murdered by the Saxons. 

It appears that upon the progress of the Saxon arms in the 
south of Britain, the families of Cocl Godebog and many 
others retreated to the north,* where, as in Wales, the Britons 
endeavoured to concentrate themselves. Here, however, they 
were obliged to maintain an unequal contest with the Picts on 
one side and the Saxons on the other. And though the 
Britons of Cumberland, and more especially those of Strath 
Clyde, maintained their independence for some two or three 
centuries, the chieftains of other districts were not equally 
fortunate; and when stripped of their territories by the con- 
tinual iggresaioiis of the invaders, their practice was to seek 
an asylum in Wales, and, in several instances, to devote their 
lives to the service of religion. Of the latter description was 
Fabo Post Prydaiu, the descendant of Coel in the fourth 
degree. He first distinguished himself as a brave warrior, but 
eventually he was obliged to give way and leave his territory 
in the north. He sought refuge in Wales, and was hospitably 
received by Cyugen ab Cadell, the prince of Powys, by whom 
he had lands given to him. He afterwards lived a holy life, 
and was accounted a saint of the British Church. To these 

"The cause of this migration, which is more probably due to internal 
warfare, is here gi\en in accordance ivilh popular opinion, as the subject 
requires a more extensive investigation than could be included within the 
limits of this Essay. The slow progress: of the Saxons has been well 
•ilescribed, according to their owo authorities, by Mr. Sharon Turner; and 
St is remarkable that the Welsh records of the sixth century allude to but 
few instances of conflict with that people. Between them and the Cytnry 
•Trom whom I he Welsh nri: descended, another race of Britons, alike hostile 
*■■ both, intervened. They were called I.lecgrwys, and appear to have 
^>een incorporated with lite Saxons upon the i:>t;iblishmeul o( the kingdom 
«f Mercia. 


particulars may be added, from the Cumbrian Biography, that 
he married Gwenaseth, daughter of Khufoii of Rhufoniog ; 
which is more consistent with chronology than the statement of 
others who assert that Gwenaseth was the wife of 9a wyl, hi* MB." 
Pabo is considered to be the founder of Llanbabo in Anglesey,!' 
where a stout' still remains, bearing his effigy, with die follow- 
ing inscription,— HIC JACET PABO POST PKUD COR- 

PORS TE PRIMA. The author of Mona Amiqua is 

of opinion that he was the earliest saint in that island, though 
it is clear from other authorities that some of the children of 
Bryehan must have preceded him. His commemoration is 
November 9. 

Talhaiarn, the son of Garthwys of the line of Coel, was a 
celebrated bard and saint of the congregation of Cattwg. " He 
composed a prayer which has always been the formula used in 
the Gorsedd Morgonwg or Session of the bards of Glamor- 
gan. "J His residence was originally at Caerleon, where he 
was chaplain to Emrys Wledig or Ambrosius, king of Britain; 
but when that prince was slain, he lived as a hermit at a 
place in Denbighshire since tailed Llanfair Talhaiarn, where a 
church was founded and dedicated to him in conjunction with 
the Virgin Mary, S 

In another branch of the family of Coel, occurs the name of 
Cynfarch Oer, a chieftain of North Britain ; but who after- 
wards became a saint in Wales. He is said to have been the 

• Cumbrian Biography, rocr Gwenaseih; mid "Asaph" U Bonedd j 
Saint, Myv. Archaiology, Vol. II. 

+ As Llanbabo is now a chapel subject 1o Llonddcusnnt, it must be sup- 
posed thnt some change bos taken place ia the relative condition of these 
edifices if Pabo was the founder of the first of them. Il is possible, how- 
ever, that the chapel was built over his grave at a later period, and dedi- 
cated to him. The stone monument alluded to was discovered, in the 
reign of finite* I he Stroud, by tile sexton while digging a grim'; and an 
engraving of it is given iu Rowlands'* Mona Atilitiua, Second Edition. 

\ Cambrian Biography. 

FROM A. D. m TO A 


founder of Llangynfarch in Maelor, Flintshire, which was 
destroyed by the Saxons in the battle of Bangor Orchard 
A. D. 603 j* and he is associated with the Virgin Mary as the 
patron of Llanfair Dyflryn Clwyd.t Denbighshire. His wife 
was Nefyn, a grand -daughter of Brychan, by whom he was 
the father of Urien Rheged. 

Llyr Jlerini, of the line of Coel and father of Caradog 
Fraich Fras, is classed among the saints. Llanllyr, now called 
Llanyre, a chapel to Nantinel in Radnorshire ; and Llanllyr, 
formerly a nunnery in Cardiganshire, are dedicated either to 
him, or to another saint of the name of Llyr, a virgin, whose 
commemoration was kept Oct. 2], Llyr Merini married 
Gwen, a grand-daughter of Brychan. 

The last saint to be mentioned, of the line of Coel, was 
Madog Morfryn, whose life must have extended into the 
following century. He was a member of the congregation or 
monastery of Illtyd, where he is said to have distinguished 
himself as a teacher ;J but he is more generally known as the 
father of the bard, Myrddin Wyllt. 

In the line of Cystcnnyn Gorneu occurs Geraint ab Erbin, a 
chieftain of Dyfnaint or Devon, who is called a saint. It does 
not appear how he merited the distinction ; for he was not an 
ecclesiastic, and it is recorded that he fell fighting at the head 
of his men in the following century. It is said that there was 
a church dedicated to him at Cuerfl'awydd or Hereford, An 
elegy to his memory by Llywarch Hen is published in the 
Slyvyrian Archaiology ; and the following passage, ac- 
cording to " Owen's Translation," describes his death : — 

In Llongbortli I saw hard toiling 

Amidst the stones, ravens foasting on entrails, 

And on the chieftain's brow a crimson gash. 

* Cambrian Biography. 

t Bunetld y Saint, Myv. Archaiology.— Qu. Is not St. Kinenmrk**, 
Moum,, mi,.,!, in', dodicatcd to tyofarch 1 
X TrUd 99, Third Series. 


la Llongbortli 1 saw a confused conflict, 
Men striving together and blood to tin; knees, 
From the assault of the great son of Erhiu. 

At Llongbortli was Geraint slain, 

A strenuous warrior from the woodland of Dy fount. 

Slaughtering his foes as he fell. 

Ysgin ab Erbin, brother of the preceding, is mentioned in 
Bonedd y Saint ; and to him, perhaps, the name of Llanhes- 
gin, Monmouthshire, may be traced. 

To this generation belongs Gwynllyw Filwr, the son of 
Glywys ab Tcgid ab Cadell, and chieftain of Gwynllwg or 
Gwentloog in Monmouthshire, which is supposed to take its 
name from him. He is called by the Latin writers of the mid- 
dle ages St. Gundleus, and according to John of Teigmnouth he 
was the eldest of seven brothers, who, in compliance with the 
custom of gavel-kind, divided the territories of their father 
between them, the six younger paying homage to Gwynllyw 
as the elder. He married Gwladus, a grand -daughter of 
Brychau ; and was the father of a large family of children, 
most of whom resigned their temporal possessions and em- 
braced a life of religion. From the epithet attached to his 
name it may be judged that he was originally a warrior, but 
in course of time he surrendered his dominions to his son 
Cattwg, and built a church where he passed the remainder of 
his life in great abstinence and devotion.* The church alluded 
to is supposed to be that of Newport, Monmouthshire, situated 
in the hundred of Gwentloog, and dedicated to him under the 
name of St. Woolos. His festival was held on the twenty 
ninth of March. 

All the family of Brychan for obvious reasons were des- 
cribed in the last generation, except Dyfrig or St. Dubricius, 

•"Regno Cadrico lilio mo comincndnta. Ecclesiam conslruxit, tbique 
In magiifi abstinent) II el vita; sanctimonilk viv ere cccjiit."— Johannes Tia- 
muthensis, ajiud Usher. 


i TO A. D. 500. 


who for his celebrity deserved a more particular notice. Two 
localities rather ill defined contend for the honour of his 
birth, namely the bonks of the Gwain near Fishguard, Pem- 
brokeshire,' and the banks of the Wye in Herefordshire. On 
the part of the former it has been contended that he has been 
called " Dyfrig of Langweyn, Gwaynianus, and Vaginensis," 
— vagitia being the Latin translation of the Welsh name 
" Gwain." On behalf of the latter, the Life of Dubricius by 
John of Teignmouth, and another by Benedict of Gloucester, t 
affirm, that he was bom at Miscrbdil on the Wye, and that 
the name was afterwards changed by Dubricius to Mochros. 
The claims of either place would be equally consistent with 
the idea that he was a grandson of Brychan, but the Welsh 
genealogies are silent upon the subject. The weight of evi- 
dence is in favour of the latter, as there happen to be in a 
part of Herefordshire, called Erehenfield, a church (Whit- 
church) and two chapels (RaUinghaiii and Hentland, subject 
to Lugwardine,) which are dedicated to Dubricius, all of 
which are situated near the Wye.} While in Pembrokeshire 
there is not a single church which bears the name of the saint. 
As for the translation of Gwain into Vagina, it should not be 
forgotten that the Latin name of the Wye was " Vaga," from 
which in the corrupt state of the Latin language there would 
be no difficulty in forming the adjective Vaginensis. John of 
Teignmouth says that his mother was EurdilaJ the daughter 
of Peiban, a certain regulus of Cambria, but that his father's 
name was unknown. One of the Warwick chroniclers says 
that his father was a king of Erging or Erehenfield, by name 

• Cambiinti Register, Vol. It. p. 809. 

t Benedict was a monk of Gloucester, anil liis Life of St. Dubricius, 
written about A. D. 1120, is published in Wharton's Anglia Sacra. 

X Qu. Is mil St. DeTereux, Herefordshire, a Nnrmau rendering of Du- 
toicios? * 

§ Eurddyl. 



Pepiau ;* and an old commentator upon the Book of LlandarT 
asserts that the same statement originally appeared in that 
document, but that a later hand, wishing to make a correction, 
had mutilated the manuscript.t If these authorities can be 
depended upon, the unknown person is discovered, for Pa- 
biali, the son of Brychan, is also called Papai ; and the 
hypothesis that Dyfrig was a grandson of Brychan is satisfac- 
torily explained. It is said that he founded a college at Hen- 
llan on the Wye, where he remained seven years before he 
removed to Mochros on the same river ; and in support of 
the assertion it may be said that Ilentland in Erchenlield, 
where on a farm called Lanfrother traces of former importance 
were lately remaining, is dedicated to St. Dubricius. The other 
place is supposed to be Moccas, in the same district and not 
many miles distant. John of Teignmouth gives a list of his 
most distinfrui-licil disciples at Ilenllan, which it is needles* 
to transcribe as it is not chronologically correct. According to 
Acfaau y Saint he was consecrated bishop of LlandarT by St. 
Gennanus, which can hardly be admitted, for Germanus died 
A. D. 448, and Dubricius was living in 520, so that he must 
have held his episcopal honours for the improbable period of 
seventy years. The utmost that can be granted is to suppose 
with Archbishop Usher, that he was appointed bishop of 
Llandaff about A. 1). 470, which however is rather too early ; 
and that he was raised by Ambrosius to the archbisboprick 
of Caerleon, upon the death of Tremounus or Trcmorinus, 
in 490.J 

• Uslier dc Primordiis, Cup. XIII. 

+ De Jure el Fundalione Landavensis Eeclcsia: a Regislro I.andavensi. 
— "Supra diclus re* Ergic, POpiau nomine, fuit paler Sancti Diibricil ; 
ptoul habelur in Chronicis opud Collegium de Warwick; et supra noinen 
dicti Regis pntris Sancti Dubricii priiis reclA scnhehalur antiquQ maiiii, el 
quidam nojellus voluit corrigere, sed HiiptnnUB antiquam corripuit el 
malefecil." (Adili lament urn n-ccntius.) Wharton's Anglii Sacra. 

t Usher de Primoidiis, Cap. V. et Index Chronologicus. 

FROM A. D. -161 TO A. D. 500. 


In this part of the Tubjcct, it is necessary to pause awhile to 
consider the genera! state of the Church. It does not appear 
that the Principality of Wales was in this age divided into 
dioceses, or that there were any estahli.-heil bishop-;' sees ; for 
it Is generally agreed upon that the bishopricks of St. David's, 
Llanbadarn, Bangor, and St. Asaph, were not founded till 
some time in the following century." The archbishoprick of 
Caerleon was the only exception, and its permanency de- 
pended upon tile importance which that place had maintained 
from the time it was occupied by the Romans. The juris- 
diction of its archbishop, according to the rule observable in 
other parts of the Empire, would be co-extensive with the 
Roman province of Britannia Sccunda ; and his suffragans 
were so many " C/iwijj>.voj,i" without any settled place of re- 
sidence ;+ thus the names occur of Tudwal in Carnarvonshire, 
Cynin at Llangynin, Gistlianus at Menevia, Paulinus at Ty- 
gwyn, all of whom are called bishops, and to their number 
may be added Dubricius, bishop of Llandaff. The influence 
of the latter, together with the liberality of Meurig ab Tew- 
drig, king of Glamorgan, was the means of making the see of 
Llandaff 1 permanent ;J whence Dubricius is said to have been, 
its first bishop. It appears, however, that after his promotion 
to the archbishoprick of Caerleon, he still retained the bishop- 
rick of Llandaffj and that he mostly resided at the latter 
place, from which he is called archbishop of Llandaff. § But 
that the title still belonged to Caerleon, is clear from the fact 
that St. David, his successor in the primacy, was appointed 
archbishop of Caerleon ; and though the bishoprick of Llan- 

* In strictness the see of St. David's may be said to have commenced 
"With Gistlianus, but as it had no diocese until it is was formed into an 
archbishopric k by St. David, ils existence is usually dated from that event. 

t Bingham's Antiquities of the Christian Church, Book II; aud Bttl- 
lirtjfleet's Origines liri tannine. Chap. II. 

X Registrum Landavensc npud Godwin el Usher. 

§ Achnu y Saint, Registrum Landavcase, and Godwin's Bishops. 



duff merged into the arch hi shop rick in the person of Dubri- 
dus, it was not extinguished ; for, upon his resignation of the 
primacy, Teilo was appointed bishop of Lkndaff, as if the 
title had been kept distinct. St. David, after hi* election, re- 
moved tiie arch i episcopal see from Caerleon to Menevia, 
where he had lived before as Chorepiscopus. His successor 
was Cynog, who was translated to Menevia from Llanbadarn.' 
The third primate after Dubricius was Teilo, who, having 
appointed a Buffragan at Menevia, continued his residence at 
LlandiLffjt and is therefore styled its archbishop ; J but the 
migratory nature of the primacy seems to have weakened its 
stability, and it is not certain who was the next metropolitan. 
The partisans of the church of Llandaff, at a later time, con- 
tended that St. Oudocens, its third bishop, succeeded to the 
archi episcopal honours of Teilo ;§ while the clergy of Jlene- 
via, who exhibit the name of Teilo in their own catalogue, 
maintained that Ceneu, their fourth archbishop, transmitted 
the primacy to a long list of successors. From a comparison 
of a variety of testimonies, it appears that upon the death of 
Teilo, the dignity sunk between contending parties ; and at 
the time of the conference between St. Augustine and the 
British bishops it does not seem to have retained its ex- 
istence-H The title was, however, occasionally assumed by 
the different prelates who contended for it; and in the year 
809 there were no less than three candidates for supremacy, a 
claim having been set up by the bishop of Bangor.* The 
bishops of Wales, ae well as its princes, were jealous of each 

• Girnlilus Cambrensis. 

t Usher de Primordiis, Cap. XIV. p, 560. 
J Godwin. Usher, Cip.V. 
§ Usher, Cap. V. p. 84. 

|1 Bede, Lib. 1. Cap. 27, Lib. II. Cap. S. — Giraidi Ret metal i ones, apod 

• "Oed Crist 809, y bu farw Elfod Arclicscob Gwyoedcl, ae y bu diffyg 
or yr haul, nc y bu lerfysg mm yui nililiih y Gwjt Eglwysig acliawt j 

FROM A. D 164 TO A. D. 500. I75 

other's ascendancy ; and it is clear that a title so ill defined 
could be only a dignity of assumption, but the preponderance 
seems generally to have inclined in favour of Men e via or 
St. David's. These irregularities, though perplexing to the 
antiquary, are important as a proof of the independence of 
the ancient British Church; for had it been subject to the see 
of Rome, an appointment from the Pope would have settled 
all disputes; and Giruldus Cambrenais, upon referring the 
question to that tribunal in the twelfth century, was unable to 
prove that any Welsh prelate had ever received the pall.* The 
constitution of an archbishoprick, in the first instance, was a 
continuation of the plan established under the Roman govern- 
ment ; but when its authority was once shaken, the intermi- 
nable commotions of the people would prevent its effectual 
restoration : and in the register of the Catholic Church, exhi- 
bited by the Pope to Giraldus, the names of the four Welsh 
bishoprieks are given simply, without explaining that any one 
of them had authority over the rest, or that they were subject 
to*a foreign metropolitan. t The gradual reduction of Wales 
bv tile English, obliged them to submit to the jurisdiction 
of Canterbury. 

Pasc, eanys ni fynnoi Escohion Llaudaf a Mynyw ymroddi dan Arcbescob 
Gwynedd lie yr oeddynt eu hunain ya Arctiescobion lijn o fraint."— Myv- 
Jrian Archaiology. II. p. 174. 

• The whole controversy may lie *ecn in Wharton's Anglin Sacra. The 
story of Samson, archbishop of Si. David's, arid the pall, which was vir- 
tually surrendered by Ciiraklu-. in hi-. ['Ii;ijiIlt i>I" Bo L rati inns, is completely 
«>erthrown by Archbishop Usher. Pi iiiinrilia, Cap.V. 

+ The account of this particular must be given in Giraldus's own words, 
■1 tbe force of the argument depends upon the construction of Latin. — 
"■' Aecidil aulem, ul vesperl ipiadain, cum ud Papain in camerl sua Giraldus 
acccssisset ; euro semper eum benignum satis et benevolum, ut videbatur, 
Sovenire ennsucverit ; tunc forte prater Bollturn aitiicabiltii] magii et 
affabileiu ipsum iuvenit. Inter primos igitur affatus, cum de jure Mene- 
"Tensis Ecclesitt Mclrnpnliticu nii-iilm facta iV.i-M 1 ; |ii.ioi [pii I'apa Regis. 
■»rum afferri, ubi de uni verso udelium orbe singulurutn regnorum. Mm 


Dubricius is distinguished as the founder of colleges; and 
besides those, already mentioned, on the banks of the Wye, it 
is more rational to suppose that Iir, and not St. Germanus, wa» 
the founder of the colleger of Llancarfan, Caerworgom, and 
Caerleon. At any rate, if the origin of those institutions be 
referred to this generation, which it is necessary to do to avoid 
anachronisms, they are situated so closely under the juris- 
diction of Dubricius that they could not have been founded 
without his concurrence. The first principal or abbot of 
Llanearfan was Cattwg, the eldest son of Gwynllyw Filwr, of 
whom it is recorded that he chose a life of religion and learn- 
ing rather than succeed to his father's principality. On 
account of his wisdom be is generally known by the appella- 
tion of Cattwg Ddoeth, or the Wise, and a large collection of 
his maxims and moral sayings, both in prose and verse, is 
preserved in the third volume of the Myvyrian Archaiology. 
^His college, like all the rest founded in Wales in the infancy 
of monastic institutions, seems to have partaken of the charac- 
ters both of a monastery and a place of education ; and several 

Metropoles per ordinem, qunm earum quoqite SuflYaganeie numerantur 
EcclesiiE Pontificates. El cum vertcretur ad regnuio Anglorum, MrivH 
in nunc modum ibidem et ledum fuit. " Cantuaricitrit Metropolis Sirf- 
ragaiwat kalicl t'cctcsiai istas, Rnjfinscm, Lowlonientcm," ct ckIciU 
per ordinem. Enumeralis autem singulis Suffraganeis Ecclesiaslieii 
Anglln>; interposila Itubricn tali !)■ Wallia, prowqnitor in hone nioduin. 
"In H'utliu Mtiti'i'ciiiis h'cilciiti, Laixturentis, Kangoricntis, tt de 
>ancto Ataph." Quo audito. subjecit Pupa quail insultando et subri- 
dendo. Ecce MeMTenili Ecclesia connumcratur. Reipoodit 1 Giraldui. 
Bed non Co modo connumemtur ista fc\ aliie de WalliJl pur accusatiiunj 
scilicet, sicut Suffraganeie de Anglifl. Quod si Beret, tunc revcra reputari 
posscnt subjects. Cui Papa. Hone, irup.iil, line iinlli-ti. Sed est et iliud, 
quud similiter pro vobis et Ecclesifi teslrll licit, de Rubrics sc. inteqiositi; 
qua: quidem In Rcgistro misqiiam append tur, nisi ubi transilus Bt, de regno 
ad regmim, tel Metropoli nd Metwpolim. Venun est. inquit Giraldusi 
Et Wul Ma quidem portiii est rogni Anglican! ct non per so regnum. Ad 
quod Papa. Uimiu scialis, quod non est contra vos Registnuo nostrum. 

FROM A. D. 464 TO A. D. 500. 


of tlie moat eminent of the Welsh hards anil clergy were 
ranked among its members. Though it is said to have been 
situated at Llancarfan, the particular spot on which it stood 
was called Llanfeithin, for which reason the names are used 
indiscriminately. It is said that Dubricius was so partial to the 
society oFCattwg that he made him hit companion in his travels; 
and, that they might be more constantly together, Dubricius 
continued to live at a place, near Llanfuithin, called fiarn- 
llwyrl, after lie was appointed bishop ; but the statement must 
be received with some qualification, as bis usual residence was 
at LkmdafT or Caerleon. Cattwg was an attendant at tile 
court of Arthur; and though for the sake of convenience the 
particulars of his life are detailed in this generation, his history 
belongs more properly to the following, as he is said to have 
lived to the patriarchal age of a hundred and twenty years," 
and the assertion is in some measure borne out by the great 
discrepancy in the ages of persons who shared his instructions. 
He is considered to be the founder of several churches, of 
which the following is a list. 

Llangattock Criekhowell, K. with 2 chapels, Llangeneu (St. Ceueu) 
and Llam'lly (St. lillj w) lliviknockskire. 

Portehiion, 11. Glamorganshire. 

Gelli Gaer, II. — I chapel, Brithdir, Glamorgan. 

Cadoxtoti juxta Barry, 11. Glam, 

Llancarfan, V. — 2 chapels, Llaitfeithin, Liege Castle, Glam. 

Pendeulwyn, V. Glain. 

Pentyrch, It. Glam. 

Lla unities, It. Glam. 

Cadoitun juxta Neath, V. — 2 chapels, Cretnaiit, Abcrpergwm, 
Glunorgaiish i re. 

Llangattock near Usk, R. Monmouthshire. 

Ltongattock Lcnig, V. Monm. 

Llangattock Liugned. V. Monm. 

Llangattock Feibion Afel, V.— 1 chapel, St. Moughan's (Qu. 
Meugan I) Monm. 

Caerleon upon Usk, V. Monm. 

Besides the foregoing, Penrhos, subject to Llandeilo Cref- 
, Monmouthshire, and Trefethin under Llanofer, in the 

• My vyciaa Aictmiulogy, Vol. 111. p. 8. 


siime county, are dedicated to him. None of these require 
any particular notice, except Caerleon, which, from its situ- 
ation, might be suspected to have been the metropolitan 
church of Cambria. The cathedral must, however, have been 
some other building, as the archbishop rick was founded before 
the time of Cattwg, and those who titled the see must have 
possessed a church from which they derived their title. 
(JeoiFrey of Monmouth, who, for want of better authority, may 
be followed in this instance, says* the etithedral was dedicated 
to St. Aaron, the martyr ; but it was not in existence in the 
time of that writer, and all traces of it have been forgotten. 
The epithet of Doeth, attached to the name of Cattwg, hu 
induced certain flomish writers to confound him with St, 
•Sophias, bishop of Benevcntum in Italy, and the accumulated 
history of these persons may be seen in Cressy. Cattwg is 
commemorated in the Calendar, Feb. 24.+ 

The next college is Caerworgorn, the first principal of 
which was Illtyd or St. Iltutus, from which it was called Cor 
or Bangor Illtyd. The place at which it was situated is now 
known by the name of Llanilltyd Fawr, or Lantwit Major : 
but with respect to the age of Iltutus some uncertainty pre- 
vails ; for while one account says that he was appointed to 
this college by St. Germanus,J and therefore before A. D. 
450, another account states that he was a soldier in the train of 
Arthur, and that he was persuaded by Cattwg Ddoeth to 
renounce the world and devote himself to religion.J The 
last statement would bring down the date of his appointment 
to A. D. 520. The first date has been already shown to be 
wrong, and the last depends upon his legendary life. His 

• According to tlic Lalin copy, as quoted by Uslier- 

t Mr Shiroii Turner cites ■ latin Life of Citing under the i 
radwus, from Ihe Cottonian MSS. Vesn. A. 14 and Thus D. *i. 

* Achnu y Saint. 

> Johannes Timuuihensis, npud libber. 

FROM A- D. 4G4 TO A. D. 500. 179 

position in his own genealogy, and the age ot* persons said to 
have been members of bis college, would show that his 
appointment took place before the close of this century." He 
was by birth an Armoriean, being the son of Eicanys by a 
sister of Emyr Llydaw, whom John of Teignmouth calls Rien- 
iguilida; and was therefore the great nephew of St. Ger- 
manus.t As the Welsh authorities cull him Illtyd Farchog, 
or the knight, he was probably distinguished for his military 
career before he left his native country. Like Cattwg he 
attended the court of Arthur, and though both of them are 
said in the Triads to have been knights there, the title must 
have had reference to their past achievements, for it is immedi- 
ately added that they were devoted to the law of God and the 
faith in Christ.J According to the Regcstum Landavense,§ 
ritutus, having built n church, and afterwards a monastery at 
Lantwit under the patronage of Meirchion, a chieftain of 
Glamorgan, opened a school, which was filled with a large 
number of disciples. But as some of those whose names are 
enumerated, are also known to have studied elsewhere, it may 
be inferred that it was not an unusual practice to migrate from 
one college to another. There appears to have been no ap- 
pointed age at which members were admitted. Besides the 
youth who resorted to these institutions Cor instruction, old 
men often passed the remainder of their days in them, de- 
voting their time to religious esercises; and these contin- 
gencies being borne in mind, much apparent contradiction 
will be obviated. 

The name of Illtyd is connected with several churches, 
besides that of Llanilltyd Fawror Lantwit; he may be consider- 

• The Regestum Londavense says he was appointed by SI. Diibricius. 
t In another account it is said that his mother was Gweryla, daughter of 
Tewdrig-, king of Glamorgan. 
J Tri«ds 131 * 188, Third Scries. 
t, Apad Usher, Cap. X11I. 



ed the founder of Penbre, Carmarthenshire,* IUton, and New- 
castle, Glamorganshire ;t and also of Llantrisaint in the Utter 
county in conjunction with St. Tyfodwg and St. Gwynno, 
from which ei re u instance tlie church derives its name, imply- 
ing " the church of the three saints."J Ecton records llltj-d 
as the patron saint of Llanhary, and Llantryddid, Glamorgan- 
shire, as well as of Llanhileth, Monmouthshire, and Llantwood 
or Llantwyd, Pembrokeshire. The following chapels are de- 
dicated U) him, — Llanilltyd Faerdre under Llantrisaint, and 
Lantwit subjeet to Neath, Glamorganshire, Capcl I lit vd sub- 
ject to Dyfynog, Brecknockshire, and Llanelltyd under Llan- 
fachratth, Merionethshire. Independently of the churches 
which he founded, the memory of Illtyd is honoured by the 
Welsh on account of his having introduced among them an 
improved method of ploughing: before bis time they were 
accustomed to cultivate their grounds with the mattock and 
over- trending plough (aradr nrsang,) implements, which, the 
compiler of a Triad upon husbandry observes, were still used 
by the Irish. § Mr. Owen says he died about A. D. 480, but 
it is evident his life extended through a considerable part of 
the sixth century, which may more properly be said to be the 
age in which he flourished. According to Creasy his com- 
memoration was held Feb. 7, but the year in which he died 

• Chapels to Penbre, — Llannon (St. Non) and Llandtirry. Theie ap- 
peals also lo have been a chapel dedicated to St. Nod in the parish of 

t Chapels to New castle,— Bell ws (St. David,) Laleston (St. David,) and 
Tithegston (Si. Tudwg eb Tyfodwg.) 

J Chapels to Llantrisaint, — Llanilltyd o 
Yslrad Dyfodwg (St. Tyfodwg,) Llnnwor 
John the Baplist,) and St. John's chapel 
dedications of the foregoing chapels, son: 
traced. Four of them sceni to refer lo the fuel, that St. David, who was 
the son of Non, was a pupil of St. lllutus, and ilireo others have n 
lo the founders of the mother church. 

$ Triad 60, Third Series. 

r Lantwit Faerdre (St. Illtyd.) 
no (St. Gwynno,) Aberdar (St. 
(Si. John the Baptist.) In the 
ie historical Bag I - t . 

FROM A. D. 164 TO A. D. I 


was uncertain. Tradition affirms that he was buried near the 
chapt'l that bears his name in Brecknockshire, where there is 
a place Killed Betid Gwyl Illtyd, or the grave of St. Illtyd's 
eve, from its having been a custom to watch there during the 
night previous to the saint's day.* In the church-yard of 
Lantwit Major a large stone may be seen with three several 
inscriptions, one of them purporting that it was the cross of 
Iltutus and Samson, another that Samson raised the cross for 
his soul, and the third that one .Samuel was the carver.t 

The last college, the foundation of which may be attributed 
to Dubricius, was fit Caerleon ; and, according to some copies 
of Geoffrey of Monmouth, it contained two hundred philoso- 
phers who studied astronomy and other sciences. 

The British monastic institutions require further notice. 
Little is known respecting their internal regulations, but it 
would appear that choral service formed an important part of 
their arrangements. The Welsh terms, which have been 
generally rendered " college or congregation," and by Latin 
writers invariably " monaster! um," are C6r, choir ; and Ban- 
gor, high choir.}. According to the Triads, the three societies 
of die first class, of which Bangor Illtyd was one,§ contained 
no less than two thousand four hundred members ; one hun- 
dred being employed every hour, in order that the praise and 
service of God might be continued day and night without 
intermission. The number, however, in other establishments 
varied exceedingly; and the magnificent scale of those alluded 

* Jones's Brecknockshire, Vol. II. p. ftS3. 

t Gibson's Camden, Vol. II.— There i, a Life of St. Bitot, abbot, iu Hie 
Cottonim MSS. Vespnsian A. XIV. ' 

J Sixteen communities in Wales, which bore these appellations. are 
enumerated by the intelligent author of the Ilora: Br [tannics. Vol. II. 
Chap. VII. 

§ The oilier iwo were Cor Emrys yng Nghaer Caradawg, probably at 
Old Sirum; and Bangor Wy drill at Glastonbury. Triad 80, First Series, 
and 8* Third Scries. 



to would be thought incredible, if it were not for the authentic 
testimony of Bede, who flourished about a century after the 
destruction of the monastery of Bangor Iscoed. That author, 
whose accuracy is universally admitted, says that the number 
of its monks was two thousand one hundred, who were di- 
vided into classes, of three hundred each, under their res- 
pective superintendents; and, that his readers might not be 
ignorant as to the manner in which so vast a society was 
supported, he adds that they all lived by the labour of their 
own hands." Compared with this, the assertion thai Du- 
bricius had upwards of a thousand pupils at Henllan.t will 
will not appear strange ; and it if said that Cattwg, who re- 
tained apart of his father's territories for the purpose, was 
wont to maintain a hundred ecclesiastics, as many paupers, 
and the same number of widows, besides strangers and g'lests, 
at his own expense. J The traces of extensive ranges of build- 
ings still observable at Bangor Iscoed and Lantwit Major 
confirm the asseverations of ancient writers ; and an old manu- 
script, extant in the reign of Elizabeth, affirmed that the saints 
at the latter place had for their habitations seven halls and 
four hundred houses. § The abbots of these institutions are 
sometimes styled bishops, and it is not improbable that they 
exercised chnrepiscupal authority in their respective societies; 
hut it is agreed that they were all of them subject to the 
bishop of the diocese ; and there is an instance on record of 
St. Duhricius interfering to correct certain abuses and jealousies 
which had broken out at Lantwit Major. || Some of these 

• Eccl. Hist. Lib. II. Cap. 2. 

+ Johannes Tiniiiulliemis, n[iu<f Usher. 

I Ibid. 

ij Hora BrilanDictB, Vol. II. p. 355. 

||"Vir benUe memoris Dubricius visitavit locum Sti. Ilduli t 
quadragCMinali,ulquiE tin end undo emit corrigeret, CI servanda consoiidel.— - 

ibidem ctiim conversabantur nmlli sanclissimi viri, quodam livore de ' 

cepti."— Liber Landavensis, as quoted in the Hone Britannia*. 1 . 

FROM A. D. 464 TO A. D. 500. 

establishments were not of long continuance, and appear to 
have declined upon the death of their first abbot; while 
others, which were endowed with lands, remained for a longer 
time, but even these dwindled away, or were re-modelled 
up. 'ii the introduction of monasteries of the regular orders in 
the middle ages. The primitive British institutions followed 
no uniform rule, and may in some degree have resembled the 
monasteries of Gaul before the adoption of the rule of St. Be- 
nedict ; but in burrowing analogies from the continent, to 
supply the lack of positive information, allowance must be 
made for the secluded situation of the Britons, and their more 
partial advance in civilization. The monasteries of Walea 
appear to have borne a closer resemblance to those of Ireland,* 
for which reason the writings of Irish historians may be con- 
sulted with advantage by the Welsh antiquary. 

The abbots of Llancarfan and Lantwit exercised great 
influence in the diocese of Llandaff; and the records of that 
see associate with them a third dignitary, the abbot of Do- 
eunnus, but the situation of the monastery of that name is at 
present unknown. It is said to have been founded by Cun- 
garus, who is also called Docwinusjt and in Achau y Saint it 
is stated that Cyngar founded a congregation at a place in 
Glamorgan which, in the time of the compiler, was called 
Llatigenys. But wherever this place may be situated, there is 
Mine uncertainty in the accounts which have been received 
respecting the founder of the community, as in the pedigrees 
there are two persons of the name of Cyngar ; and both of 
(hem are distinguished from Dochdwy, who might be thought 
to i>e the same person as Docwinus. 

Tewdrig ab Teithfallt has been considered a saint, and is 
classed with Gwrthefyr and Cadwaladr as one of the three 

lonastery of Bennchor 
Btnd monks under I In- c 
* «»ligr»vein Vili S, Cungari. 

lister is reported to bate contained 
e of Si. Comgallus. 



canonized kings of Britain. The history of this person and 
his family is involved in confusion. One Account identifies 
him with an ancestor of Brychan Brycheimog, while other* 
make him contemporary with St. Oudoceus about the close of 
the sixth century ; but the only position, that can be assigned 
him consistently with his genealogy, would show that he 
flourished' between A. D. 440 and 470; and this arrangement 
is the one best supported by collateral testimony. It is said 
that in liis old age he resigned the government of Glamorgan 
into the hands of his son, Meurig, and retired to lead a re- 
ligious life in the solitude of Tinteym, Monmouthshire. He 
was afterwards induced to appear once more in defence of hii 
eountry against the Saxons, and, receiving a wound in battle 
which he expected to be mortal, he requested that a church 
should be raised upon the spot where he should expire. His 
request was performed accordingly. The church was called 
from the circumstance Merthyr Tewdrig, and is now known 
by the name of Mathern.* 

Meurig ab Tewdrig, by whom the church just mentioned 
was built, was also the prince under whose protection the 
bishoprick of LlandafT and the monastery of Llancarfan were 
founded. If reliance can be placed upon certain record! 
of Llandnlf, lie endowed that see with lands and churches, 
from the situations of which it would appear that he held 
paramount authority over a tract forming the principal part of 
the present county of Glamorgan, the whole of Monmouth- 
shire, and so much of the county of Hereford as lies to the 
south-west of the river Wye. Citations from grants securing 
these endowments, and other privileges and immunities, to 

* "His hones lie entoombed, uppon I lie North side o[ (tie sayde Church 
And his sonne not contented (herewith*!!, guns moreonet the lands »ihI 
territory ailiacent unto the sume lo the Bishopric, whose Succestors iMa 
processe of time built a house there, lo wide ■! Merthcrne or as now *^m 
tearme it Mat heme, beciug the only mansion house now left unlo him.*— — 
Godwin, Bn. of Llaiidan" in lOlfi. 

FROM A. D. 461 TO fl 


the bishop and his successors, are still extant,* But whatever 
may be the antiquity of these documents, they certainly do 
not belong to the fifth century, and seem to describe the 
diocese of LlandaH" and principality of Gwent at a later era. 
They should not, however, be rejected without examination, 
a- they supply important links of history, which would other- 
wise have been wanting ; and it should not be forgotten, that 
such grants and charters as were fabricated in the middle 
ages, were, in every practicable case, palmed upon real per- 
sonages in order to obtain credit for genuineness. 

A proposition has been advanced in the Cambrian Biogra- 
phy, which has been copied into other publications, that the 
real Uther Pendragon, the father of Arthur, was no other than 
ileurig ab Tewdrig.t It is, however, no more than a genea- 
logical mistake, arising from the supposition that Arthruis.J 
or Arthwys, a Bon, and Anna, a daughter of Meurig, were the 
same persons as Arthur and Anna, two of the children of 
Uther. The history and connexions of both the families are 
so different as to render it surprising that such an error should 
have been committed, were it not for die fact that Bleurig and 
Uther were contemporaries, and that Arthur is reported to 
have held his court at Caerleon in the territories of the Silur- 
ian chieftain. From a comparison of the most ancient author- 
ities extant upon the subject, including the oldest of the Welsh 
remains, it may be collected that Arthur was a native of 
Devon or Cornwall, and that his connexion with the Cymry of 
Wales and North Britain was almost entirely of an intrusive 
kind. He appears, indeed, to have obtained the chief sover- 
eignty of the Britons, but it was by usurpation, and he was 

• Wharton's Anglia. Sacra, Vol. II. and Godwin's Bishops. 

t Cambrian Biography vociliut Anna, Arthur, Meirig, and Utbyr. 

t Reg i strum Landaveiise, and Godwin's Bishops. He is called " An- 
il roi" in the Cambrian Biography, page 40; and "AUras" in Triads US 
■Qd US, Third Series. 



more often engaged in conflict with his own countrymen than 
with the Saxons. The documents,* which exhibit Meurig as 
the paramount ruler of Gwent, imply that there were seven! 
chieftains subordinate to him. He was succeeded by his son, 
Arthruis, who was the father of Morgan Mwynfawr ;t but the 
acts and territories of the family are on a scale too small, eren 
for the limited description of Arthur which may be drawn 
from Nennitis and the poems of the Welsh bard-. J 

The name of Gwrtheyrn, or Vortigern, is more implicated 
with the Welsh genealogies than that of Arthur ; and it is re- 
corded that Edeym, one of his sons, who was a saint of the 
congregation of Cattwg, established a religious community of 
three hundred members at a place in Glamorganshire which 
was afterwards called Llanedeyrn. Two others of his sons 
have obtained the reputation of sanctity in the same county ; — 
Aerdeym, to whom it is said there was a church dedicated in 
Glamorgan ; and Elldeym, who is the patron of Llanelldevm 
or Llaniltern, a chapel under St. Fagan's. Nennius, who does 
not mention the three preceding, relates that Faustus, one of 
his sons, built a large place on the bank of the river Renis, 
which remained till the time in which he wrote. No further 
mark of locality is added, and as the Welsh name of Faustus 
is unknown, it has been conjectured that he was the same per- 
son as Edcyrn, and that the Rhymni which passes by Llan- 
edeyrn is the Renis.J Faustus was born in his father's old 
age ; which it is presumed was the case with the other two, or 
it may be three, persons, as they are not noticed in the current 

• The records of UandafT. 

+ Godwin's Bishops, and Triads 113,118. 

J This question is discuss.-d liy Mr. Sharon Turner in bis" Anglo-Saxi 
Booh HI. Chap. III. and by Mr. Rilaon in his "Life of Slag Arthur 
but It it to ho lamented that the Jailer person, with all his erudition ir 
talenl, should, in his desire to maintain a favourite position, deform 
work with unfair criticism and tech less abuse. 

■: Notes to Uunu's Neon i us,— and Usher, p. 1002. 


FROM A. D. m TO A. D. 300. )g7 

accounts of the lite of Vortigern ; and their date is therefore 
referred to this generation. 

Paulinus, or Pawl Hen, was originally a North Briton, and I 
it may be inferred from one or two manuscripts that he re- 
sided for some time in the Isle of Man.* The cauee of hia 
removal is not stated, but his next residence that is known 
was at Caerworgorn, where he became a saint of the monastery 
of Iltutus. He afterwards founded a similar institution at 
Ty-gwyn ar Daf, or Whkland, in Carmarthenshire, of which 
he was himself the first abbot, and where he was also styled a 
bishop,t though it does not appear that he had the care of a 
diocese. His institution soon became famous as a place of 
religious education; and as Paulinus was eminent for his 
acquaintance with the sacred Scriptures, David, Teilo, and 
other distinguished saints removed to Ty-gwyn to share his 
instructions. J It is said that he placed at the head of his 
fociety two persons, named Gredifael and Ftlewyn, who as 
they held ollice jointly were probably superintendents of 
classes, similar to those described by Bede in the monastery of 
Bangor Iseoed. He is the patron saint of the church of Llan- 
gors, Brecknockshire, and of Capel Peulin,§ a chapel sub- 
ordinate to Llandingad, Carmarthenshire. As he lived to 
attend a synod held at Llanddewi Brefi,[| the date of which is 
generally assigned to the year 519, his life must have reached 
to a considerable part of the sixth century ; and it is remark- 
able that the most lasting traces of his memory remain in the 
neighbourhood of that place. Capel Peuh'n, which bears his 

* Cambrian Biography. 
+ Life of St. David hy Giraldus Carobrensis. 

J Life of St, Teilo written about A. D. 1 120 by Oalfriilua alias Stephan- 
as, brother of Urban Bp. or Llandaff, and published in Wharton's Anglia 

Ij Called " Capella Sancti Partial" in one of tlie charier* of the abbey of 
StnUa Florida. 

| Ufa of St. David by Giraldus. 


name, is on the borders of the pariah of Llanddewi Brefi ; 
in the parish of Caio, adjoining the latter, still exists a 
with the following inscription : — ■ 


The localities being considered, it would appear that tl~^ ^*» 
stone commemorated the interment of Paulinus the saint, m*..^ B| id 
not that of a Roman general as has been supposed.* The e ^^^1- 
pression " Servator Fidei" implies that the person interrv "ft/ 
was a Christian ; and the whole inscription consists of fF^^WiJ 
Hexameter lines which belong to a period when Latin versi- ■£• 
cation was more corrupt than at the time of the departure -^of 
the Romans from Britain. + Paulinus was commemorated cz>n 
the twenty second of November under the name of Polio, 
Esgob, or the bishop. J 

• Cambrian Register, Vol. Ill, p, 38 anil 39. 

t A facsimile of the inscription may be seen in the account of Car 
tbenshire in Gibson's Camden; and the words when placed i 
proper form are: 

Servator fidei, pnlrircque semper nmntor. 
llic Paulinos jncet, cultor picntissimus tequi. 

The last syllabic of patrinquc is an error in prosody, unless theai 
intended the « for a vowel, and so formed the end of the word ii 
dactyl. In the second line he appears lo have had for his model Uie p 
before the Augustan age, who frequently omitted the final *, i 
the vowel preceding lo assume its natural quantity ; the last H in Pautii 
is theiefoiu short. The n in plentitilmas must have been quiescent, i 
which case the vowel before il would be ihort, as in '* pietas" from when 
the word is derived. This interesting relic of antiquity lay originally at 
place called Pant y Polion, obviously a corruption of Pant Polin ; and to 
now removed for preservation to Dolau Colhi, the aeat of J. Johnes,Esq. 

; Cumbrian Register, Vol, p. 920. 

ROM A. D 404 TO A. D. 500. 189 

t would not be proper to close thia genaration without 

vme notice of Ffraid, for though she was not a Welsh saint, 

er memory has been held in great respect in the Principality. 

jhe is more generally known by the names of St. Bridget or 

St. Bride, and, according to Llyfr Bodetilwyn,* the was the 

daughter of CadwrthaJ, an Irishman ; but other MSS. state 

that she was of Seottisht parentage, being the daughter of 

Dwyppws ab Cefyth or Dwpdagws. The Latin life of this 

»int says that her father, Dubtachus, was an Irishman, and 

that she was born at Fochart, in the county of Lowth ; and 

Archbishop Usher places the date of her birth in the year 453, 

The Welsh and Irish accounts agree in describing her as a 

nun, and it is said that she received the veil from Maccaleus, 

nw of the disciples of St. Patrick. In her native country her 

Ctltbrity appears to have been exceeded only by that of the 

great Apostle of Ireland himself, and in Wales no less than 

eighteen churches and chapels are dedicated to her, as may be 

•ecu by the following catalogue. 

Dinerth. C. Flintshire. 

Uansanffniii! Glyn t'onwy, K. Denbighshire. 

hhnsanffraid Glvn CViriog, V. Denb. 

Usnsanti'raiti in Meehain, It, — New Chapel, Montgomeryshire. 

hbjisanflraiil Glyndyfrdwy, It. Merionethshire. 

CajW Sanffraid, in ruins, b ehape.1 to Holyhead, Anglesey. 

St. liriili-*, H.— i chu/icl, in ruiiiH. Pembrokeshire. 

J-Uiisariffratd, V.— ] chapel, I.laitnou (St. Noil.) Cardiganshire. 

LUnsanflraid Cwmrawd Deuddwr, V.— 2 chapels, Llunfadog (St. 
wdog.) B ,„l NfiDtgwyllt. Radnorshire. 

UiiuanlFrairf in Elt'nel, V. Rudn. 

"Mwnffroid, R. Brecknockshire. 

St IJriilc* Minor upon Ogmor. R. Glamorganshire. 

&. lit i lies Major. V. — 3 .lni]nls. Wick. (St. James,) Llamphey 
(St F»itli,| and " capella de I 'i/nnor," Glaui. 

fcBrid« super Elai.R. Gram. 

tt. Brides, alias Llansan ffraid, R. Monmouthshire. 

■L .■.IMh, or YsgynlVaith. V . Monm. 

St Brides, in Netherwent, R. Monm. 

St Brides Wentloog, C. Mourn. 

• A manuscript cited in ttie My v. Arcliaiology, Vol. II. p. 51. 
t "O rieni Yscoiiiid," meaning of coarse the Scots of Ireland. 



From the extent of the parishes attached, it may be inferredSri»-=d> 
that the foundation! of several of these churches are of con si- £ ^ si- 
derable antiquity, and seem to belong to the class rrf ilm-w it i — it 
dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter. There is a vagu* *-* -^ue 
tradition that St, Bridget visited Wales, which m;iy in mhih r «~ » nil: 
degree account for the homage she has received; but ves» -^i-e. 
neration for this holy person has, for some unknown can- ^- i mat 
of preference, been diffused so widely, that she deserves to b«J be 
called pre-eminently the saint of the British Isles; fno" 7 *: for 
churches have been consecrated to her memory throughout*- «=»out 
England and Scotland, in the Isle of Man, and especially ix - in 
the Hebrides. Her remembrance, however, was in no ptscr* *iice 
cherished with more fond assiduity than at Kildare in Irelant* «^»d, 
where a sacred fire kindled by her own hands was kept pe«- ^per- 
petually burning, and according to Giraldus Cambremis ha-»=s^ ad 
not been extinguished for six hundred years. Her death z '« 

supposed to have happened about A. D. 525, and the fir= si 
of February was held as a festival in her honour. 

, saint who flourished in Ireland about t 
e time as Ffroid. Llangohnan, subject to Macnclocho^^', 
and Capel Colmon, subject to Llanfihangcl Penbedw, both L » 
Pembrokeshire, are dedicated to him, but it is not km 
■whether he hud any personal connexion with that 
He is sometimes called Colman the elder, to distinguish 1 
from another Colman, the third bishop of Lindisfarn. 



The Welsh SaiDts from the Accession of Ulhw Pcndnigon A. D. 600, 
to the Death of Arthur A. D. 642. 

The saints of this generation are exceedingly numerous, 
and tbe history of one or two already noticed remains to be 

Dubricius still continued to preside over the see of Caerleon, 
and it is said that he had the honour of crowning king Arthur. 
In his time the Pelagian heresy, which for a while had been 
•uppressed by St. Germanus, had increased to such a degree 
that it required an extraordinary effort to check its progress, 
*nd, if possible, to extinguish it. Accordingly ;i synod of the 
whole clergy of Wales was convened at Llanddewi Brefi, in 
Cardiganshire, and the following is the account given of it by 
Giraldus Cambrensis in his " Life of St. David."— 

" The detestable heresy of the Pelagians, although formerly 
raSognished through the labours of Germanus of Auxerre, 
*nd Lupus of Troyes, when they came over to this island; 
*his pestilence, although once suppressed, sprung up anew, 
**«! gave occasion for convening a general synod of all the 
churches of Wales. All the bishops, and abbots, and religious 
°f different orders, together with the princes and laymen, 
*ere assembled at Brefi in the county of Cardigan. When 
many discourses had been delivered in public, and were in- 
*Tettual to reclaim the Pelagians from their error, at length 
™»ulinus, a bishop, with whom David had studied in his youth, 
'«y earnestly entreated that that holy, discreet, and eloquent 
aun might be sent for. Messengers were therefore despatched 
to desire his attendance ; but their importunity was unavailing 
with the holy man, he being so fully and intently given up to 


contemplation that urgent necessity alone could induce him tMK 
pay any regard to temporal or secular concerns. At last, tw^K: 
holy men, namely Daniel* and Dubricius, went over to liiiiw . 
By them he was persuaded to come to the synod ; and afte -w 
his arrival, such was the grace and eloquence with which he 
spoke, that he silenced the opponents, and they were utterly 
vanquished. t But Father David, by the common consent of 
all, whether clergy or laity, (Dubricius having resigned in his 
favour,) was elected primate of the Cambrian Church." — 

This is the account generally received, and it is said that Si. 
Dubricius, worn down with years and longing for retirement, 
withdrew to a monastery in the island of Enlli or Bardsey, 
where he died A. D. 522. He was buried in the island, where 
his remains lay undisturbed till A. D. 1120, when Urban, 
bishop of LI and an", through the favour of Radulphus, archbishop 
of Canterbury, obtained the permission of David, bishop of Ban- 
gor, and Griffith, prince of North Wales, to remove them.t 
They were accordingly translated to Llandaff, where they 
were interred with great pomp and solemnity in the cathedral, 
which had been rebuilt a short time before from its foundation. 
But the most remarkable feature in the history of the pro- 

* Intended for Daniel, the first bishop of Bangor, whose life, to avoid 
an anachronism, should be placed a full generation later. 

t Tradition points to the site of the church of Ltanddewl Brcfi is the 
spot where this memorable sermon was preached, and Cressy relates, with 
a devout faith, I h;ii the fullnwiii!; mi nit Its, place hjh.ii r hi? occasion. — 
"When all the fathers assembled enjoined David lo preach, ho commanded 
n child which attended, and had lately heen restored lo life by him, to 
spread a napkin under his feet, and standing upon it, he began to expound 
the Gospel and the Law lo the auditory: ull the while that this oration 
continued, a snow-white dote descending from heaven sot upon his shoul- 
ders i mid moreovei the earth on which lie slond raised itself under him 
till it became a hill, from whence his voice like a trumpet was clearly 
heard, and understood hy all, both near and far off; on the top of which 
hill a church was afterwards huill, and remains to this day." 

J Life of St. Dubricius in Wharton. 

FROM A. D. 5U0 TO A. D. SM. 193 

e fact that the bones of the saint were discovered 
with great difficulty. Inquiry was made into the monuments 
of the past, and the oldest writings were searched in order to 
ucertiin where his body had been deposited; by whom, how, 
iud« what time it was buried. The passage of the Book of 
LLrodslF, which records these particulars, though written when 
the Romish religion was at its highest ascendency, has there- 
fore, in making this admission, betrayed the inference, that in 
whitever esteem the Britons of the primitive Church might 
hire held the memory of their holy men, they could not have 
worshipped their relics. The body of the great archbishop of 
Cierleon, whose reputation for sanctity was almost equal to that 
of St. David, lay unenshrined for six centuries. His example, 
however, in retiring to close his life in Bardsey,was so extensive- 
Ij fallowed, that according to the exaggerations of after ages, no 
las than twenty thousand saints were interred in the island, 
iheeatire surface of which was covered with their ashes ; but 
hii remains were so little regarded that other bodies were 
buried over him, and how his relics were afterwards dis- 
tinguished from the general heap is a problem which the 
lothor of the record has left unexplained.* His death was 
Coram em orated on the fourth of November, and his translation 
on the twenty ninth of May. 

The most eminent saint of Wales must now be introduced 
tothe reader; David, or, as his countrymen call him, Dewi, 
wu the son of Sandde ab Ceredig ab Cunedda, by Non, the 
^tighter of Gynyr of Caergawch. To repeat all the fabulous 
kgends invented respecting him, would be to heap together a 
"•sa of absurdity and profaneness; for the monks, in the 

*"Quod vero postmodum invostlgatum est,et adquisitu 
•"oiuraic, et antlqniHlmli icriptSi literaram, quo loco sepulius est Infra 
*Nlur»m sanctorum yirorum Enlli ; quoquc situ firniilcr liumatus est ; 
w *lw, et qualiler, quorumque [irincipum lein pore."— Lib. Landai, MS. 
" looted in Roberts's Chronicle of the Kings of Britain, p. S38. 



excess of their veneration, have not scrupled to say that his 
birth was foretold thirty years before the event, and that he 
was honoured with miracles while yet in the womb. But to pass 
by these wretched imaginations of a perverted mind, it will be 
sufficient to notice only those statements of his history which 
have an appearance of truth. It is said by Giraldus that he 
was born at the place since called St. David's, and that he was 
baptized at Forth Clais in that neighbourhood by yElveus, or 
rather Albeus, bishop of Munster, " who by divine providence 
had arrived at that time from Ireland." The same author 
adds, that he was brought up at a place, the name of which, 
meaning "the old bush," is in Welsh "Hen-meneu,"* and in 
Latin " Vetus Menevia." — The locality of Hen-meneu is un- 
certain, and a claim has been set up on behalf of Henfynyw in 
Cardigan shire,t which answers to the name, and its church is 
dedicated to the saint; but it is clear that (iiraldus and Rice- 
marchus, from whom the information is derived, intended to 
designate some spot near the western promontory of Pem- 
brokeshire, possibly the Roman station of Menapia, for the 
latter writer intimates that the " Old Bush," as he cuills it, wis 
the place where Gistlianus resided before he removed to the 
valley of Rosina.J 

St. David is reported to have received his religious educa- 
tion in the school of Iltutus; and afterwards in that of Paulinus 
at Ty-gwyn ar Daf, where he is said to have spent ten years 
in the study of the Scriptures, and where Teilo, the second 
bishop of Llandaff, was one of his fellow-students. It would ap- 
pear from Giraldus that he was ordained a presbyter before he 
entered the school of Paulinus, and the same author states that 

* His etymology of the word is borrowed from two languages, Ml 
being Ihe Welsh (or old, and tnvni, as he says, is tbe I 

t Carlisle's Topographical Dici 

. D. SOO TO A. D. 512. 


David, Padarn, and Teilo, visited Jerusalem together, where 
they were consecrated to the order of Bishops by the Patri- 
arch. Whether this event should be considered to have hap- 
pened before, or after, the time that David became principal of 
the monastery in the valley of Rosina is of little consequence, 
as the story is so improbable that it may be rejected entirely. 
From its construction it appears to have been borrowed by 
Giraldus from one of the lost Triads, and it was probably in- 
vented by some bard who wished to show that the Welsh 
bishops traced their consecration to higher authority than that 
of the Pope. It is, however, admitted that St. David founded 
or restored a monastery in the valley of Rosina," which was 
afterwards called Jlenevia ; and as the abbots of similar re- 
ligious societies were in those days considered to be bishops in 
the neighbourhood of their respective communities, St. David 
enjoyed the dignity of a ('horejihciipvs before his elevation to 
the a' chbishoprick of Cambria. In the retirement of Mene- 
via, he appears to have lived with hia disciples, practising 
those religious austerities which were sanctioned by the super- 
stition of the times. He denied himself the enjoyment of 
animal food, and his only drink was water. Except when 
compelled by urgent necessity, he rigidly abstained from 
every interference in temporal affairs, all his time being de- 
Voted to prayer and spiritual contemplation. It is not stated 
how long he continued to practise these exercises; but he is 
aaid to have experienced considerable molestation from a 
chieftain of the Gwyddyl Ffichti, named Boia.t who with a 
band of followers had occupied the surrounding district. 
Such, however, was the patience with which David and his 
associates endured this persecution, that the chieftain rclin- 

• lis Welsh name is Rh6s, and Giraldus, who occasionally indulges 
in ■ pun, snys there were no rmes in Ihe valley, — roilna no* roiea. 

f Riremarchus cells him a Scot ; Galfriuus, a Pict ; and Gwyofardd in- 
Vunates tlitt ha was an Irishman (Gwyddyl;) the name Gwyddyl Filcht! is 
»do|ilcd above, as being applicable lo thn three in coanaoa, 



quished hta hostility, and was at last converted and baptized.* 
St. David was first roused from his seclusion to 'attend the 
synod of Brefi in the manner already related. It is recorded 
that he accepted the arch hi shop rick with reluctance ; but after 
his entrance into public life he wag distinguished for his 
activity. As the Pelagian heresy was not entirely suppressed, 
he convened another synod, which it would appear from the 
Annates AlenevenseB was held at Caerleon. His exertion* 
upon this occasion were so successful that the heresy waf 
exterminated, and the meeting has been named, in consequence, 
*' the Synod of Victory." 

After these councils he is said to have drawn up with his 
own hand u code of rules for the regulation of the British 
Church, a copy of which remained in the cathedral of St 
David's until it was lost in an incursion of pirates. Under his 
presidency the cause of religion attained to great prosperity, 
and, to use the words of Giraldus: — "In those times in the 
territory of Cambria the Church of God flourished exceedingly, 
and ripened with much fruit every day. Monasteries were built 
every where ; many congregations of the faithful of various or- 
ders were collected to celebrate with fervent devotion the sac- 
rifice of Christ. But to all of them, Father David, as if placed 
on a lofty eminence, was a mirror and a pattern of life. lie- in- 
formed them by words, and he instructed them by example; 
as a preacher, most powerful through his eloquence, bat 
more so in his works. He was a doctrine to his hearers, a 
guide to the religious, a life to the poor, a support to orphans, 
a protection to widows, a father to the fatherless, a rule to 

• Life of Teilo by Galfridui. Giraldus's version of the story is. that 
Boia, attempting- to molest tho saints, suffered the vengeance of heaven, 
, Ijeing himself afflicted with a fever, and his cattle perishing- by dinette; 
opoii which he soliciied the peace of the holy men.iuid through Iheir inter- 
cession obtained a removal of Ihe judgment, his citlle being restored to 
life ; but his wife, miking a second attempt at molestation, was deprived 
of her reason, and Boia was soon afterwards slain by an enemy. 

FROM A. D. 500 TO A. D. 542. 197 

monks, And a path to seculars, becoming all to all, that he 
might gain all to God." — This character is, of course, over- 
charged; but it is recorded in the Triads that the three blessed 
visitors of the Isle of Britain were Dewi, Padarn, and Teilo. 
— " They were so called because they went as guests to the 
houses of the noble, the plebeian, the native and the stranger, 
without accepting either fee or reward, or victuals or drink ; but 
what they did was to teach the faith in Christ to every one 
without pay or thanks. Besides which, they gave to the poor 
and needy, gifts of their gold and silver, their raiment and 

After his elevation, St David appears to have resided for a 
while at Caerleon, the proper seat of the primate;* but his 
stay was not of long continuance before he obtained the per- 
mission of Arthur to remove the see to Menevia. No reason 
k alleged for this proceeding, and probably it arose from the 
mere desire of dignifying a place to which he had become 
attached from early association s.t The churches founded by 
him have been enumerated already, J and the list is worthy of 
another consideration as it serves to point out the country 
"Which, though archbishop, he held under his peculiar juris- 
diction. It is generally agreed that Wales was first divided 
into dioceses in his time, and local indications are exceedingly 
Aral u able wherever they are sufficiently numerous to establish 
W inference upon inductive principles. The diocese of St. 
David, therefore, as may be judged from the foundations at- 

• Triad 7, First Series. 

+ The Latin copy of Geoffrey says that he loved Menevia above all 
^>ther monasteries of his diocese, because St. Patrick, by whom his birth 
"bad been foretold, had founded it ! Bp. Godwyn suggests : " It seemeth 
lie mi sliked the frequency of people at Caerlegion, as a meanes to with- 
draw him from contemplation, whereunto that hee might be more free, hee 
made choice of this place for his See rather than for any fitness of the 
same otherwise/* 
{Page 52. 



of Pem- 
boundary in Cardigan- 

tributed to him, extended over th 
broke and Carmarthen ; its north' 
shire included the parishes of Lianddewi Aberarth, and 
Lianddewi Brefi ; from whence it seems to have followed the 
course of the Irfon through Brecknockshire,' and in Radnor- 
shire it included the parishes of Cregruna and Giascwm. 
North of this line was the diocese of Llanbadarn, in which 
there are no churcli-ftmndations attributable to St. David; 
and the three chapels dedicated to him, as mentioned before, t 
date in all probability subsequent to the time when this dio- 
cese merged into that of Slenevia. From Giascwm the boun- 
dary of St. David's seems to have passed southwards to the 
Wye, and to have followed the course of that river to its 
junction with the Severn, including the districts of Ewyas 
and Ercbcnfield in Herefordshire, and the whole of Mon- 
mouthshire with the exception of the lordship of Gwynllwg. 
The southern boundary seems to have commenced, as at 
present, between the rivers Neath and Tawe, and afterwards 
to have passed along the hills which naturally divide Breck- 
nockshire from Glamorganshire, as far as Blaenau Gwent; 
from this point it followed the present limits of Gwynllwg to 
the mouth of the Usk, South of this line was the original 
diocese of Teilo; in which the only edifices, dedicated to St. 
David, are the chapels of LalcstonJ; and Bettws, subject to 
Newcastle, Glamorganshire, and Bettws, subject to Newport, 
Monmouthshire ; but they appear to be of modern origin. 
The Lordship of Gwynllwg was co-extensive with the present 
deanery of Newport, and until the Union of England and 

•There were formerly nut less linn si* churches and chapels ascribed or 
dedicated lo SI. David in the Hundred of Ruilth, Brecknockshire, and it ii 
remarkable iliat they were all on the south side of the Irfon. File of 
tii>:m mill remain. 

+ Llauddewl Vstrad Enni, Hej*op,and Whitton. 

IBulll about A.D. 1 1 1", by Laics, archilecl lo Richard Gram 
of \o.,lh. 

FROM A. D. 500 TO A. D. 542. 199 

Wales it was considered a part of Glamorgan.* It is singular 
that the parishes of Caerleon and Llanddewi Fach, though 
west of the Usk, do not form part of this district ; and they 
remain to this day a confirmation of the arrangement which 
would place them in the diocese of St. David's. They are at 
no great distance from the town of LlandafF, but David 
might have weakened his authority, as archbishop of Menevia, 
had he surrendered the place from which he originally de- 
rived the title of Metropolitan ; and he is, by some writers, 
called archbishop of Caerleon to the time of his death. 

As it was the custom in the early ages of Christianity for 
the bishop to receive a share of the offerings presented in all 
die churches under his superintendence, the boundaries of his 
diocese would soon be determined with considerable precision; 
md he could not intrude into the diocese of another without 
an infringement of rights. The tract described includes all 
the churches, named after St David, in Wales and the ad- 
joining counties. There are, however, three churches and a 
chapel in Devon and Cornwall, of which he is considered the 
P*tron saint :t and though none of his ancient biographers 
we noticed that he passed any portion of his life in that 
Gentry, the circumstance that he visited it, probably in the 
^y part of his life, is intimated in the poetry of Gwynfardd,$ 
who says that he received ill-treatment there at the hands of a 

# Description of Wales, by Sir John Price. 
f bacon's Liber Regis. 

J "A goddef palfawd, dyrnawd trameint, 
Y gan forwyn ddifwyn, ddiwyl ei deint, 
Dialwys, peirglwys pergig Dyfneint, 
A'r ni las llosged " 

He endured bufferings, very hard blows, 
From the hands of an uncourteous woman, devoid of modesty, 
He took vengeance, he endangered the sceptre of Devon, 
And those who were not slain were burned.— 

Myv. Archaiol. Vol.1, p. 27(Uand Williams's Pelagian Heresy. 


female, on account of which the inhabitants suffered hii 
geance. The edifices alluded to are the following.— 

Tilbnige. alias Thelbridge, R. Devon. 
Ashpririeton, R. with the oliapelry of Painsford, Devon. 
St. David's, a chapel io Heavitree, in the city of Exeter. 
Dewstowe, alias Davidstow, V. Cornwall. 


Some of these w ere possibly founded by the saint; but d 
may, at least, be thought to confirm the tradition of his t 
sence, which ia further strengthened by the existence, i 
same quarter, of the following, dedicated to St. Non, his 

Bradstone, R. Devon. 

Flenynt, alias Pelj nt, alias Flint, V. Cornwall. 

Altemon, V. Cornwall. 

There are three religious edifices dedicated to St. David in 
the rest of England/ so few and far between, that no historical 
inference can be deduced from them, except that they were 
consecrated to his memory long after the conversion of the 
Saxons. The county of Devon remained in the possession of 
the Britons so late as the year 900. 

' Geoffrey of Monmouth states that Dewi, archbishop of 
Caerleon, died in the monastery which he had founded at 
Menevia, where he was honourably buried by order of Mavl- 
gwn Gwynedd. This event is recorded by Geoffrey as if it 
happened soon after the death of Arthur, who died A. D. 542, 
According to the computations of Archbishop Usher, St 
David died A. D. 544, aged eighty two, which is certainly 
more probable than the legendary accounts of Giraldus and 

i others, who assert that the saint lived to the patriarchs age 
of a hundred and forty seven years, sixty five of which he pre- 
sided over Ida diocese. But it must be allowed that the dates 

» Barton David, V. Somersetshire ; Moreton In the Marsh, a chipel io « 
Bourtoa on the Hill, Q Unices tarsia re ; and Armin, a chapel to Sn.iih. M 
Yorkshire. _ 

FROM A. D. 500 TO A. D. 5«. f>0| 

quoted by Usher are very uncertain, and depend upon the 
authority of writers who lived many centuries after the events 
which they record. The order of generations, and the names 
of contemporaries, render it necessary to place the birth of 
David about twenty years later than it is fixed by Usher ; and 
his life may be protracted to any period short of A. D. 566, to 
which year the death of Maelgwn Gwynedd is assigned in the 
Annates Men even sea." 

He was canonized by Pope Calistus about A. D. 1120, and 
his commemoration was held on the first of March, the anni- 
versary, according to Giraldus, of the day on which he died. 
It has been lately observed, that the reputation which be has 
acquired of being the patron saint of Wales, is of modern in- 
troduction ; and the observation is certainly true in the sense 
of the words '■ tutelar saint," as understood by those who 
compiled the romances of the " Seven Champions of Christen- 
dom," It may also be said that the story of the leek, and its 
adoption as a national emblem, is not noticed by his early 
biographers. But these remarks should not be made with a 
view to disparage his memory. He has long maintained the 
highest station among the saints of his country ; and whether 
the number uf churches attributed to him, or his exertions in 
the overthrow of Pelagianism, be considered, he professes the 
fairest claim to such a distinction. Since the twelfth century 
his pre-eminence has been undisputed; and the poem of 
Gwynfardd, written in that age, lauds him in terms as if he 
"**ere second only to the Almighty. So famous was bis shrine 
*t Menevia, that it attracted votaries, not only from all parts 

• Liies of St. David have beeu written— l>y Riceroaichus about A. D. 
1 ufli.1, a copy of which is preferred in the British Museum. Cotton M5S, 
"Vespasian A. XIV; by Giraldus Cambrensis about A. D. I MO, published 
I □ Wharton's Anglia Sacra; by John of Teignranulh. a contempnr»ry of 
Oiraldus. inserted in Capgrave's collection ; and by Leland, in the reign of 
Woarj Vni, which is published in his « CoJ^anea.-' There h 
ancient Welsh Life in the British MuseM^^h MSS, Titui D. XXII. 

ilection; and by 
I,;-,,,,,,, f^t,.,, ."> 

2 W 



of Wales, but also from foreign countries ; and even three at 
the kings of England* are recorded to have undertaken the 
journey, which when twice repeated was deemed equal to one 
pilgrimage to Rome.t 

To take a short notice of temporal affairs ; the Gwyddyl 
Ffichti, who were conquered by Clydwyn, the son of Brychan, 
are in this generation found to be independent. According to 
an authority,! cited ' n Jones's History of the county of Brecon, 
Dyfnwal, a Pictish or Caledonian prince, had exterminated 
the race of Clydwyn and assumed the soveignty. In conse- 
quence of which, Caradog Frnicbfras, the son of a grand- 
daughter of Brychan, appears to have marched westward from 
the Severn, and to have recovered the principal part of 
Brecknockshire, which he transmitted to his descendants. 
The Irish were also in possession of Car mart hen shire, and the 
names of Liethali, and Ceing or Ceianus, two of their chief- 
tains )n that county, have been recorded ;§ but about the 
same time, Urien Rbeged, whose father, Cynfarch Oer,|| had 
been obliged to leave his territories in North Britain and seek 
a refuge in Wales, undertook to dear the country of these 
foreign settlers. He was successful ; and accordingly was 
allowed to take possession of the district lying between the 
rivers Towy and Neath, which his descendants continued 
to inherit after him. These events took place in the early 

» William the Conqueror, Henry II, and Edward I; the Utter of ■ 
was ac co in pun i l'iI lij tii» i|inun, Eleanor, Not. 2fl, 12S4. 
t Tliis opinion was expressed by the monks in (he verse, — 
" Roma semel quantum, dat bis Menevia tantuin." 
and more especially in the following couplet; 

"Meneviaia si his, et Roioam si semel, itiis, 
Merces ,iqua tibi reddilur die ct ihl." 
^ Gunn'j \ennius 
|| Of the line of Coel C 

1 ■<<«A Bsid 

FROM A. D 500 TO A. D. 542. 203 

part of this century, and they seem to have afforded to St. 
David the opportunity of establishing a number of churches 
in the country thus recovered,* in which none are found of 
older date, except those which were dedicated to the children 
of Brychan. Urien, after performing these services in Wales, 
appears to have proceeded to North Britain, where he re- 
gained his father's dominions ; and with the assistance of his 
•MM, supported a long and well contested struggle with Ida, 
the Ving of the Angles. His exertions against the invaders 
in this quarter, which entitle him to be considered one of the 
most illustrious Britons of his age, would have succeeded in 
their expulsion, had he not been embarassed with the dissen- 
>ions of his countrymen; and he was at last treacherously 
slain while besieging Deoric, the son of Ida, in the inland of 
Lindisfarne.t It has been said that he was a saint of the con- 
gregation of Cattwg, but the assertion is inconsistent with his 
character as a warrior, which he maintained to the close of his 
life. He was the patron of the bards, Llywarch Hen, and 
Taliesin ; and his heroic deeds have been celebrated in some 
of the best effusions of the Welsh muse.f 

The name " North Britain" is here used indefinitely for any 
part of the country reaching from the Humber to the Clyde, 
M the writer is unable to determine the location of its princes. 
This tract was occupied by the Cymry, or Britons of the 
tame race as those who now inhabit the Principality of Wales, 
and whose name may be traced in the modern appellation of 

• That it was nol orlginilly under Ms jurisdiction la strongly implied in 
«*n abrupt passage in his Life by Riceniarchus, which says (hat Boducat 
■indMailrun, two saints of Ihe province of Kidwelly, submitted themsalves 
t-o him. — "Duo quoque Sanct). Boducat et Maitrun, in provincil Cet- 
Rueli. dederunt iltrl mantis." 

t Nennius, and Poems of Tallesiu and L' ■■ lien. 

J Urien Rhoged U the Sir Urienee of M of Arthur, and Car- 

•dog Fraiehfns Is Sir Carsikw bns *• 



the county of Cumberland,* Their history, though involved 
in obscurity, is capablt- of investigation ; and it is to be hoped 
that the Welsh traditions, which throw light upon the subject, 
will not long be left unexamined. Meanwhile the following 
extracts from the pagest of a living historian, having reference 
to this people at a later period, may be read with interest. — 
"The Britons of Cumbria occupy a tolerably large space on 
the map, but u very small one in history ; their annals have 
entirely perished; and nothing authentic remains concerning 
them except a very few passages, wholly consisting of inci- 
dental notices relating to their subjection and their misfor- 
tunes. — From the Ribble in Lancashire, or thereabouts, up to 
the Clyde, there existed a dense population, composed of 
Britons, who preserved their national language and customs, 
Hgrci ing in all respects with the Welsh of the present day. 
So that even in the tenth century, the ancient Britons still 
inhabited the greater part of the western coast of the island, 
however much they had been compelled to yield to the politi- 
cal supremacy of the Saxon invaders. • • *The'Regnum 
Cumbrense' comprehended many districts, probably governed 
by petty princes or Reyuli, in subordination to a chief Monarch 
or Pendragon. Reged appears to have been some where in 
the vicinity of Annandale. iSVrw/A-ClydeJ is, of course, the 
district or vale of C'lydes-oWc. In this district, or state, was 
situated Alcluyd, or DutUirilton, now Dumbarton, where the 

• The portion of Britain to the south of the H umher and east of the 8*. ■ 
vera, was inhabited by annllier rnce of Britons called " [.luegiwys." The • 
name by which Ihe Welsh have invariably called themselves io their own M 
language Is "Cytnry." 

t Sir Francis Palgrave's History of the Anglo Saxons; a work whicbard 
displays great research, »i"i is illustrated with maps of the Icrriloiies oaf « 
the Britons and Anglo-Saxonl at different eras. 

J The word itralhli still universally Used over all Scotland, liighlinta- 
Biid lowland, for ralley. ^Baravc.) The corresponding word In Waki = 
U ytlrail. 

I still universal 

FROM A. D. 500 TO A. D. MB. 


British kings usually resided ; and the whole Cumbrian king- 
dom was not unfrermently called ' Strath- Clyde,' from the 
ruling or principal state. — Many dependencies of the Cum- 
brian kingdom extended into modern Yorkshire, and Leeds 
was the frontier town between the Britons and the Angles ; 
but the former were always giving way, and their territory 
was broken and intersected by English settlements. Carlisle 
had been conquered by the Angles at a very early period ; 
and Egfrith of Nortbumbria bestowed that city upon the see 
of Lindisfame. • * " The Britons of Strath-Clyde, and Re- 
ged, and Cumbria, gradually melted away into the surround- 
ing population; and, losing their language, ceased to be 
discernible as a separate race. Yet it is most probable that 
this process was not wholly completed until a comparatively 
recent period. The 'Wallenses' or Welsh, are enumerated by 
Duvid the Lion amongst his subjects, (A. D. 1124—1153;) 
and the laws or usages of the Brda or Britons continued in 
use until abolished by Edward I. at the period when Scotland, 
by his command appeared, by her representatives, in the 
English parliament at Westminster; (A. D. 1304.) In the 
bishoprick of Glasgow, comprehending the greatest portion of 
the ancient Cumbrian kingdom, the ' barbarous' British speech 
generally gave way to that dialect of the Saxon English, 
which is usually called lowland Scottish, about the thirteenth 
century ; but in some secluded districts the language is 
thought to have lingered until the Reformation, when it was 
possibly destroyed by the ministration of the Protestant 
clergy. In our English Cumberland and the adjoining 
Westmoreland, a few British traditions yet survive 
among the people. Pendragon Castle reminds the traveller 
of the fabled Uther. Some of the mountains which adorn 
the landscape retain the appellations given them by the 
original population ; and ' Skiddaw' and ' Helvellyn - now 
rise, as the sepulchral monuments of a race which has passed 
away." — ^ L 



One of- the chiefs of North Britain, contemporary with 
Urien Bheged, was Dunawd or Dunod Fyr,' the son of Pabo, 
of the line of Coel Godebog. He appears to have gained some 
distinction as a warrior, and in the Triads he is called one of 
the three pillars of his country in battle. It ti uncertain 
whether he accompanied his father, whose retreat to Wales 
has been already described ; but in this generation he is found 
engaged in the north, where he disgraced his arms by fighting 
against the sons of Urien.t A reverse of fortune, however, 
obliged him to leave his territories, and to place himself under 
the protection of Cyngen al> Cadell, the prince of Powys, who 
had afforded his father an asylum. He afterwards embraced a 
b'fe of religion ; and under the patronage of Cyngen, he be- 
came the founder, in conjunction with his song, Deiniol, Cyn- 
wyl, and Gwarthun, of the celebrated college or monastery of 
Bangor Iscoed on the banks of the Dee in Flintshire.! Th" 
institution, over which lie presided as abbot, was one of the 
most eminent in the island ; and, according to Bede, such was 
the number of its monks, that when they were divided into 
seven classes under their respective superintendents, none of 
these classes contained less than three hundred persons, all of 
whom supported themselves by their own lobour.§ It fur- 
nished a large proportion of the learned men, who attended 
the Welsh bishops in their conference with St. Augustin, at 

• Sometimes called " Dunawd Fawr" and " Dunawd Wr ;" but it is un- 
certain which of the three epithets is the right one. The Latin name is 
" Hiiniiliii. ;" and In Bede, " Dinoot Abbas." 

t Poems of Lly warch Hen. 

J Achau y Saint, Silurian copies. The monastery has often been styled, 
Bangor in Maelor. from its situation in a district of that name ; and Bangor 
Dunod ftntti its founder. 

§ "Tantua fertur PbIim numeral Moouhornm, ut cum in septcm portio. 
nesesset cum prBposltti liblBMtorfbni Monasteriumdi visum, nulla harum 
portio minus quant trcccntoa homines habere!, qui omnes de labore tiunu- 
•un suarura liieie sulcbj.nt.'VBtoL Eccl. Lib. II. Cap. 2. 


FROM A. D. 300 TO A. D. 512. 


which time Dunawd was still it- abbot, though he must have 
been far advanced in years, for the earliest date assigned to 
that event is A. D. fl'JQ. The destruction of the monastery by 
Ethelfrith, king of Northumbria, soon followed, and it was 
never afterwards restored. Dunawd is the patron saint of the 
present church of Bangor in Flintshire," and his festival was 
held on the seventh of September. Ilia wife, Dwywe, the 
daughter of Gwallog ab Llenog, has been classed with the 
saints, but there are no churches which bear her naine. 

Cyngen, the son of Cadell, in whose territories the monas- 
tery of Bangor Iscot'd was situated, is said to have endowed 
it with lands, for which he has had the reputation of sanctity, 
snd there was once a church, dedicated to him, at Shrews- 
bury. One of his sons, Mawan ab Cyngen, whose life belongs 
to this generation, has also been deemed a saint, but nothing 
further is known respecting him. 

Sawyl Benuchel, the brother of Dunawd, is described as an 
overbearing prince; and on account of his oppression, his 
party joined alliance with the Saxons, with whom they became 
oue people.f He afterwards devoted himself to the service of 
religion, which appears to have been the common practice of 
the British chieftains upon the loss of their dominions, and the 
growing superstition of the age was favourable to such a 
custom. He closed his life in the monastery of Bangor Is- 
coed, and is the patron saint of Llansawel, a chapel under 
Cynwyl Gaio, Carmarthenshire. 

Carwyd, another brother of Dunawd, was also a saint, and 
an inmate of Bangor Iscoed, where he likewise ended his 

Arddun Benasgetl, the sister of Dunawd, was married to 
firochwel Ysgythrog, a son of Cyngen ab Cadell The Cara- 

• Chapels lo Bangor, — Wnrthenbury (St. Deiniol ob Dunawd.) and 
Orerton or Ortnn Madnc (SI. Mary.) 
+ Triad 74., Third Series. 


the welsh unm 

brian Biography says that some Welsh churches are dedicated 
to her. but it does not appear where they are situated. Her 
husband, Brochwel, succeeded his father in the principality of 
Powys, and lived till after the time of St. Augustin, when he 
commanded the reserve left for the protection of the monk* of 
Bangor upon the advance of Ethelfrith. The Northumbrian, 
however, instead of directing his first attack against the main 
army of the Britons as had been expected, proceeded again*! 
the monks, who were praying at some distance ; and Broch- 
we], unprepared with a force sufficient for such an emergency, 
was defeated." 

To proceed with the line of Cocl ; Gwendclolau, Cof, and 
Nudd, were the sons of Ceidio ab Garthwys, a chieftain oC 
North Britain. They were all instructed in the Christian 
faith in the college of II tutus, but no other reason is alleged 
why they should be enumerated among the saints. Gwen- 
driolau was the patron of the bard, Myrddin the Caledonian, 
and was slain at the battle of Arderydd, A. D. 577- 

Cynwyd Cynwydion, the son of Cynfilyn ab Garthwys, was 
a saint of the congregation of Cattwg. and is presumed to be 
the founder of Llangynwyd Fawr, Glamorganshire. + 

Tangwn, the son of Talhaiarn ab Garthwys, was the founder 
of a church in Somersetshire " which is now called Tangi 

The saints of the line of Cunedda, besides David, 
bishop of Menevia, were : — 

Afan Buallt, a son of Cedig ab Ceredig, by Tegwei 
daughter of Tegid Foel of Penllyn ; and, therefore, i 
brother to Teilo. He was the founder of Llanafan Fawr in -* 
the county of Brecon, and Llanafan Trawsgoed in Cardigan- — 
shire ; and was buried at the former place, where his t 

• Bede Historia Ecclesiastic*, Lib. II. 

t One chapel, Bayden. 

J Cambrian Biography. Qu. Taunton .' 

FROM A. D. 500 TO A 

still remains, with the following inscription, from which it 
may be learned that he whs a bishop : — 


As there are reasons for extending his life into the next 
generation, it is not improbable that he was the third bishop of 
Llanbadarn; and his churches are situated in the district 
which may be assigned to that diocese. Llanfechan, one of 
the chapels under Llarmfan Fawr, is dedicated to him," and 
his memory has been celebrated on the sixteenth of Nov- 

Doged, sometimes styled Doged Frenhin, or " the king ;" 
he was the brother of Afan, and founder of a church in Den- 
bighshire called Llanddoged. 

Tyssul, a son of Corun ab Ceredig ; the founder of a church 
in Cardiganshire, called Llandyssul,+ and of another of the 
same name in SI ontgomery shire. His festival is Jan. 31. 

Carannog, in Latin " Carantocus," a brother of Tyssul, and 
the founder of the church of Llangrannog, Cardiganshire. 
The day of his commemoration is May \<>.% John of Teign- 
tnoutli makes him to be a son, instead of a grandson of Cered- 
ig, and the following extracts from that author, as translated 
by Cressy, may be taken as a fair specimen of the manner in 
which the lives of saints were written in the middle ages. 
After stating that St. Carantac was " by descent and countrey 
« Brittain, son of Keredic, Prince of the Province of Cardigan, 
Ceretica lleyionis;" the translator proceeds: — A certain prince, 
named Keredic, had many children ; among which, one was 
called Carantacj a child of a good disposition, who began early 

r the oilier chapels, see page 22. 
+ Chapels to Llfmilrssul, all in ruins, 
«ju.) Ltanfair (St. Mary,) Faerdre, Capcl 
(St. Bridget.) and Cupel Porlhln. 

; Then H ■ Life at St. «. 
MBS. Vesp. A. XIV. 

-Llandyimlfctl (St. Sylrester, 
hwi(8L David,) Copel Ffraid 

i the British Museum, Colic 


to do those things which he thought would be pleasing to God. 
Now in those days the Scotts did grievously vex Brittany,* so 
that his father, unable to sustain the weight and troubles of 
government, would have resigned the province to CaranUc. 
But he, who loved the celestial King tar more than an carthlj 
kingdom, fled away; and having bought of a poor nuui * 
wallet and a staff, by God's conduct was brought to a eertiin 
pleasant place, where he, reposing, built an oratory, and there 
spent his time in the praises of God. From his childhood he 
embraced purity and innocence. At last he passed over into 
Ireland, invited by his affection to St. Patrick. Whither being 
come, by common advice they determined to separate them- 
selves, and that one of them should travel in preaching the 
Gospel toward the right hand, the other toward the left. In 
their company there were many Ecclesiastical persons attend- 
ing them ; and they agreed once every year to meet together 
at an appointed place. Whithersoever this holy man weut,« 
angel of our Lord, in the likeness of a dove, accompanied him, 
who changed his name from Carantac into Cernach, which *** 
an Irish appellation. All along his voyage he wrought great 
miracles for the confirmation of the faith preached by hi'"' 
and healed many thousand. — The wonderful Gests of this holj 
man, Cernach or Carantac, are to be read in Irish historian*. 
and how the grace at first given to the Apostles was ple»"* 
fully given to him. He was an admirable soldier and ch***** 
pion of Christ, a spiritual and devout abbot, und a pati*?" 1 
teacher, not refusing to preach saving truth to every i»»' e - 
During many years spent by him at that Island, he brought *" 
incredible number to wash away their sins by Penance, M* 1 " 
botli day and night he offered innumerable prayers to GS*'d- 
Alter he had converted much people to our Lord, v*" " 
wrought many miracles by him, he at last returned to hia t»"** 
native country in Brittany, where he retired to his fori* 1 ' 

• Cicssy invariably uses the words — ''Britlaiu" for Brilon, an 
Inny" for Greut Britain. He styles Armories " Lesser Brittany." 


FROM A. D. MO TO A. D. Mi. g[ | 

cave, accompanied by many disciples. There having built a 
church he determined to abide. But not long after, being 
again admonished by a voice from heaven, lie returned to 
Ireland, where in a good old age, and full of holy works, he 
rested in peace on the seventeenth of the Calends of June,* 
and was buried in his own city, which from lit in was called 

Pedrwn, brother of Tyssul, enrolled among the saints, but 
there is no church at present called after his name. 

Pedr, brother of Tyssul ; his churches, if he founded any, 
cannot be distinguished front those which arc dedicated to 
St. Peter, the Apostle. 

Tyrnog, or Teyrnog, brother of Tyssul, a saint, but there arc 
no churches ascribed to him. Llaudyrnog, Denbighshire, is 
attributed to another person of the same name. 

Cyndeyrn, a son of Arthog nb Ccrcdig; a saint to whom 
Llangyndeyrn, formerly subject to Llandyfaclog, Carmar- 
thenshire is dedicated. His festival occurs on the twenty 
fifth of July. 

Cyngar, the brother of Cyndeyrn ; it ia said that he " es- 
tablished a congregation in Glamorgan, at a place now called 
Llangenys;"t but perhaps the statement is an error, arising 
from confounding this person with another Cyngar, who is 
said to have founded the college of Ctmgarus in the diocese 
of Llandaff. 

Dogfael, the son of Ithel ab Ceredig, was the founder of St. 
Dogmael's in Cemntacs, St. Dogwel's in Pebidiog, Monachlog 
Ddu, and Melinau, all in Pembrokeshire; and has been ac- 
counted the patron saint of Llanddogwel under Llanrhyddlad, 
Anglesey, Festival, June 14. 

• BefTMpoodlug t« May Id; eleven days after which, or 011 (he twenty- 
seventh nf the same month, being the festival of St. Carnntoc, Old Style, 11 
fair is held at I.I an gram iug in I'urdigansliire. 

t Cambrian Biography. 



Einion, sur named Frenhin, or the king, was the soi 
Owain Danwyn ab Einion Yrth ab Cunedda ; and was the 
(bunder of a church in the district of Lleyn, Cariisrvoash in, 
which has since been called Llanengan, or Llaneingion Fren- 
hin. He also established the college of Penmon in Anglesey, 
over which he placed his brother, Seiriol, as the first princi- 
pal ; and in conjunction with St. Cadfan, he founded a moms- 
tery in the Isle of Bardsey, of which that person was the finl 
abbot. There was an inscription, now effaced, upon the Viva 
of the church of Llanengan, the latter part of which, aailt- 
cyphered by the author of Mona Antiqua, asserted that the 
founder of the edifice was a king of Wales: — 


The title, however, must be received with some limitation, 
as the presence of contemporary chieftains would show tint 
the sovereignty of Einion most have been confined to the 
neighbourhood of Carnarvonshire. The form of the letters, " 
represented in the Mona Antiqua, is not ancient, and the 
name " Wallia" was not employed to describe the territories <» 
the " Cymry" until the middle ages. The festival of th' s 
royal saint is February the ninth. 

Seiriol, the brother, or according to other accounts, ***' 
nephew, of Einion Frenhin, was the first president of *** 
college of Penmon, which became so celebrated that " the n* en 
of Llychlyn," or the Scandinavian rovers, resorted there * 
religious instruction. Subordinate to this institution w»* 
cell in the island of Glanach, or Priestholm, ofl" the coast a< 
jacent, of which Seiriol has been deemed the patron saint. 

Meirion, another brother of Einion Frenhin, was a s»* n ' 
and Llanfeirion, formerly a chapel of ease under Llangad''*'* 
adr, Anglesey, has been dedicated to him. His wake **^ 
been held on the third of February. 

Cynyr Farfdrwch,* the son of Gwron ab Cunedda, lived f 
Cynwyl Gaio in Carmarthenshire, and was the father of SI 
• He is also colled Cynyr Farfwyn, and Cynyr Ceinlarfog. 

FROM A. D. 500 TO A. D. 51*. 213 

sons, five of whom were saints. The names of the five saints 
were Gwyn, Gwynno, Gwynnoro, Celynin, and Ceitho ;• and, 
according to the fable reported of them, they were all pro- 
duced at one birth. There was formerly a chapel of ease in 
the parish of Caio, called Pumsaint, which, as well as Llan- 
pumsaint, still existing, subject to Abergwyli, Carmarthenshire, 
was dedicated to them. Their festival is said to have been 
held on the day of All-Saints; but no further information can 
be obtained respecting them, except that Ceitho is presumed 
to be the founder of Llangeitho in Cardigan shire, and his fes- 
tival was kept on the fifth of August. 

Between the commencement of this century and the synod 
of Brefi, may be dated the arrival of Cadfan at the bead of a 
large company of faints from Armorica. He appears to have 
been a person of distinction, being the son of Eneas Lydewig, 
by Gwenteirbron, a daughter of Emyr Llydaw, one of the 
piinces of that country. Among his companions are men- 
tioned, Cynon, I'adarn, Tydecho, Trinio, Gwyndaf, Dochdwy, 
Mael, Sulien, Tanwg, Eithras, Sadwrn, Lleuddad, Tecwyn, 
Maelrys, and several others. As most of these were men of 
princely family and relatives of Cadfan, the analogy of other 
cases suggests that the reason, which induced them to leave 
their country and devote themselves to religion, was the loss 
of their territories : for the Armoricans struggled hard to 
maintain their independence against the Franks, who, under 
Clovis, were at this time establish tug their dominion in Gaul.t 
Cadfan, after his arrival in Wales, became the founder of the 
churches of Tywyn'J Merionethshire, and Llangadfan, Mont- 

» The oilier son was Cai, who possibly gaie name lo the district in 
which be lived. 

■f The Welsh accounts do not mention this cirrunis Inure, hut the chro- 
nological coincidence is remarkable. Paris was made the capital of the 
dominions of Clovis in the year 510. 

t Chapels.— Llanfihangel y Pennant (St. Michael,) Pennal (St. Peter,) 
and T«l-y-llyn (St. Mary.) 



gnmeryshirc; but he is known more especially as the firn( 
abbot of a monastery, founded by him in conjunction with 
Einion Frenhin, in the Isle of Bardsey, off the western pro- 
montory of Carnarvonshire. It was, probably, the establish- 
ment of this institution that induced St. Dubricius to make 
choice of the spot, as the place where, remote from the world, 
he might end his days in the uninterrupted practice of de- 
votion. Other holy men retired thither for the same purpose; 
in consequence of which, the soil of the island at length ac- 
quired a sacred character, and it was deemed meritorious to be 
buried there. Its narrow limits, scarcely exceeding three 
miles in circumference, were said to enclose the bodies of 
twenty thousand saints. Pilgrimages were made to it for the 
sake of obtaining the intercession of the departed ; and as the 
voyage was often attended with danger, several of the bardj 
have employed their verse in describing its difficulties, not 
forgetting to celebrate the guardian influence to which the 
faithful owed their protection amid the waves. Nor has the 
church of Tywyn remained without its eulogy ; in a poem* 
written between the years 1230 and 1280, the author assert* 
that it possessed three a!tars,+ and was furnished like the 
church of David, meaning that of Llanddewi Brefi, where, 
according to Gwynfardd, the number of altars was five. He 
proceeds to praise " its choir, and sanctuary, and its music, its 
warriors, and its waters of grace;" and maintains that it was 
not right to pass over the place in silence, for its dwellings 
were equal to the mighty mansions of heaven. { — There wer^^ 

" Gum I Gaduan, I.lywelyn Vsrt as emit, Myv. Arch. Vol. p. 300. 
+ The first belonged lo St. Mary, the second to St. Peler; otid the thlra 
"happy was tlio town in its privilege of possessing it, Tor it was sent by 
hand from heaven," was dedicated to St. Cadfan. 

I Cadr y ceidw Cadfan glan glas weiigi, 
Cadr fab Eneas, gwanas gwedd), 
Cadr frvn y w Tywyn, nid iawn tcwi ng ef, 
Cadr addef off ail ei alhtefi. 

TO A. D. 512. 


*oiw years ago, in the church -yard of Tywyn, two rude 
pillars, one of which, of the form of a wedge, about seven feet 
high, and having a cross and inscription upon it, went by the 
name of St. Cadfan's stone, and was thought to have been a 
part of his tomb. Engravings of the inscription, as copied at 
two several periods in the last century, * are given in Gough's 
Camden, from which it appears that the letters resembled 
tbose used by the Anglo Saxons, but the only word legible 
was the name of Cadi'an. As there is a tradition that the 
iiint was buried in Bardsey, which an obscure passage from 
the poem just quoted, would seem to confirm, it may be judged 
Att the stone was merely a rude cross of which similar 
specimens, bearing the names of sainted persons, may be found 
in other parts of the Principality. He has been considered to 
be the patron of warriors, which countenances the supposition 
that he led a military life in Armorica; and his festival has 
been celebrated on the first of November. His mother, 
{■■'enteirbron, is mentioned as a saint in one of the catalogues, 
"ut no churches have been erected to her memory. 

(-jiion accompanied Cadfan to Bardsey, where he was made 
chancellor of the monastery; but whatever was the nature of 
■Ilia and other offices occasionally attributed to the primitive 
''aristians, it may be said that the compiler of Achau y Saint 
"** chosen to call them by names which were familiar in his 
*O time. Cynon is the reputed founder of the church of 
r *gynon, J lontg ornery shire ; and Capel Cynon subject to 
^•wndys&ibo Gogo, Cardiganshire, is dedicated to him. 

Padarn, the son of Pedrwn, or Pcdredin, ab Emyr Llydaw, 
v ' sited Britain, according to Usher, in the year 516; and 
*«ough no ancient authority is given for the date, it may be 
presumed upon as the time when Cadfan anil his companions 
Arrived in this country. According to Achau y Saint, Padarn, 
^fter his arrival in Wales, became a member of the college of 

ByLliuyd before 1 7*, and by Dr. Taylor i.. 1701. 

• By Lliuyil t 



Illtyd. He afterwards established a religious society, con 
ing of a hundred and twenty members,* at a place in Ca 
ganshire since called Llanbadarn Fawr ;t where he 
founded an episcopal see, of which he became the first bishop. 
He was the founder of the churches of Llanbadarn Trefeglw 
or Llanbadarn Fach, and Llanbadarn Odin, Cardigan shir.: . 
of Llanbadarn Fawr, Radnorshire. The chapels of Llanbadam_^H 
Fynydd under Llanbister, and Llanbadarn y Garreg undei — — 
Cregruna, both in Radnorshire, are named after him ; and tin i 
situations of some of these places serve to point out the estenn^i»w 
of his diocese to the southward, along the limits which have^^ 
been assigned to the diocese of St. David. To the north it=-» 
extent is uncertain, but it probably included a con si dei ablets 
part of Montgomeryshire. How long Llanbadarn continued*^ 
to be the capital of a bishoprick cannot be ascertained, as rrr -* 
little is known of its history, and the last notice of it, undeMcr 
i that character, in the Welsh Chronicles, is in the year 720^: 
1 when it is recoided that many of the churches of LlandafL, 
Mynyw, and Llanbadarn, meaning the three dioceses of Soutt^m 
Wales, were ravaged by the Saxons.J It is reported, however^, 
to have lost its privileges through the turbulent conduct o»^ 
its inhabitants, who killed their bishop i and the diocese was 
in consequence annexed to that of Menevia. From the Latimn 
Hexameters of Johannes Sulgenus,|| it may be learned th;*-"* 
Padarn presided over the see twenty one years, during whic^^fct 
time he spent his life in the practice of such religious exercise— — • 

* John of Teign mouth differs from the Welsh accounts, in saying lh» 
this institution contained eight hundred and forty seven monks, a ho cat^r" 
with St. Palernus from Armories; and adds that il was governed by 
<e conomus, a provost, and a dean. 

t Its Latin name in Mauritania, which Archbishop L'sher observes- 
derived from Mnwr, grrul, an epithet added merely for the purpose of d^*- 
languishing Ihis Church from others of less importance. 

J Brut y Ty wysogion, Myv. Arclialology, Vol. II. p. 472. 

', Sop of Sullen, or Saigon, Bishop of St. David's in 1070, 

FROM A. D. 500 TO A. D. 542. 2]7 

as were approved in the age;* and the Triads assert that he 
went about the country preaching the faith in Christ without 
jiay or reward to all ranks of people, for which reason he was 
counted one of the three blessed visitors of the Isle of Britain. 
It is mentioned by John of Teignmouth that he built monas- 
teries and churches throughout the whole region of Ceretica ; 
and that he rebuked Maelgwn (iwynedd, from whom he had 
received certain injuries in an excursion of that prince into 
South Wales: but no other incidents of the time spent at 
Llanbadarn are recorded, upon the truth of which any reliance 
may be placed. At the expiration of the twenty one years he < 
returned to his native country, where he was made bishop of 
Vannes. A dissension, however, broke out between him and 
the other Armorican bishops ; upon which a syuod was con- 
vened, and a reconciliation effected. Notwithstanding this, 
he continued to dread their hostility, and retired to the 
Franks, among whom he remained till the close of his life. 
He subscribed the decrees of the council of Paris, t which was' 
held in the year 557, and is commended both as an abbot and ' 
a bishop in the writings of Venantius Fortunatus, a Latin 
poet of Gaul, who was his contemporary. J One of his early 
biographers, quoted by Usher, says that three days were held 
sacred to his memory ; April In, being the anniversary of his 
death; June 20, in remembrance of his consecration as bishop; 
and Nov. 1, on account of his reconciliation with the prelates 
of Armorica. 

• They are thus summed up by Sulgenus:— 

»"Orans, jejunans, vigilsns, lachryinnnsque, gemensque, 
Esuris alimenta sitnul, nexlsque leiiinen, 
Hospilibus panders atljlmn, sitientibus haustum, 

Prudens queque gerens, perfecit cuucla patenter ." 
+ Usher, Cap. XIV. 

J Crwsyi »ho gives the following references, — 1,7. Epig. 3. and I. S. 
Epig. 52. 


Tydecho, the son of Affl*n Ddu ob Emyr Llydaw, and 

cousin to Cadfan, left Armorica, and settled in company with 
his sister, Tegfedd, in the district of Mawddwy, Merioneth- 
shire, where he founded the church of Llanymmawddwy, to 
which the neighbouring churches of Mallwyd and Garth- 
beibio, both dedicated to him, were formerly subject." In 
this retreat he is said to have suffered from the violence and 
oppression of Maelgwn Gwynedd, the prince of North Wales ; 
upon whom, as the legend relates, he retaliated with such a 
host of miracles, that the tyrant was glad to make amends, and 
grant him several immunities. Tegfedd also was forcibly 
carried away by another chief, named Cynon, who in hke=- 
manner was compelled to restore her unhurt, and purchase the 
peace of the saint by a grant of the lands of Garthbeibio-t Her- 
is considered to be the patron of Cennuaes, Montgomery shire, 
and n ebapel was consecrated to his memory in the parish off" 
Llandegfan, Anglesey. His festival is Dec. 17- 

It is uncertain whether Amwn Ddu, the father of the pre- 
ceding, left Armorica at the same time with Cadfan, but it is 
recorded that he quitted that country, where he had been 
sovereign of a district called Grant": and settling in Wales, 
he married Anna, a daughter of Meurig, the prince of Glamor- 
gan, by whom he had two sons, Samson and Tathan, who were 
afterwards eminent for their sanctity. % It is said that he 
enjoyed the friendship of Dubricius, as well as of Iltutus of 
whose institution he became a member; and that he resided 
in a small island near Llantwit Major, until he removed to « 
desert on the shores of the Severn, where he seems to ha»e 
passed the remainder of his life. The locality of this desert ia 
not well defined, but it would appear that Anna settled in the 

• Thoy now form separate ticnefircs. liut are described as chapi 
IJaiivmmiiwdtlwy in Ihe Taxation of Pope Nicholas. 

+ See a Welsh poem inscrlcu in Ihc Cumbrian Register, Vol. II. I 
J Artuu y Saint, Silurian cooies. 

FROM A. D 500 TO A. D. 542. 0|;} 

same quarter, ami built ■ church there, which was consecrated 
for her by Samson." 

Gwyndaf Hen ab Emyr Llydaw, an Armorican and brother 
of Amwn Ddu, married Gwenonwy, another daughter of 
Meurig, by whom he was the father of St Meugan. He was 
a confessor or chaplain in the monastery of Illtyd, and after- 
wards superior of the college of Dnbricius at Caerleon In his 
old age he retired to Bardsey, where he died. He may be 
deemed the founder of Llanwnda in Carnarvonshire, and of 
another church of that name in Pembrokeshire. 

Hywyn, the son of Gwyndaf Hen, is said to have accom- 
panied Cadfan from Armorica, which makes it probable that 
lie was the issue of a former marriage. He was confessor to 
the congregation of saints assembled in the Isle of Bardsey, 
and the foundation of Aberdaron, on the opposite coast of 
Carnarvonshire, from whence pilgrims generally crossed over 
to the island, is ascribed to him. 

According to the Life of St. fllaglorius.t Umbral'el, another 
brother of Amwn Ddu, married Afrella, a third daughter of 
Meurig. He is not noticed by the genealogists, but the 
"Book of Llandaff" states that after having been ordained a 
priest, he was appointed abbot of a monastery in Ireland, by 
his nephew, St. Samson. J 

Trinio, the son of Difwng ab Emyr Llydaw, was a saint 
who emigrated with Cadfan, and afterwards settled in the Isle 
of Bardsey. He was the founder of Llandrinio, Montgomery- 

Dochdwy, whose genealogy is unknown, accompanied Cad- 
fan to Bardsey, where he was ordained u bishop : it does not 

• Liber Laniiaiensis. :i- . | ihin.-.I hy L'?iher. 
t Auud Surium, turn. 5. Oct. 24. 
J Usher, cap. XIV. 

$ Chillis— I.lanclyssi Mo (St. Tyssilio,) Melverley (SI. Peler,) ,n„l New 
Chtjicl (Holy Trinity.) 



appear that he derived the title from any particular see ; bui 
it is recorded that he was entrusted with the care of the 
diocese of Llandaff during the absence of Teilo, who was in- 
vited to Bardsey to regulate the affairs of the monastery upon 
the death of Cadfan. He is, perhaps, the founder of two 
churches in Glamorganshire, called Llandoch or Llauducha.* 

Mael, a companion of Cadfan ; he is the saint, in conjunc 

tion with Sulien, of the churches of Corwen, Merionethshire, _ 
and Cwm, Flintshire, and their joint festival is May 13. 

Sulien, called also Silin, a sort of Ilywel ab Emyr I.Jy.Uw 
is said to have settled in Bardsey. He was the founder ot_"^^ 
Llansilin and Wrexham, Denbighshire, and of Eglwys Sulien,__ 
Cardiganshire. The chapels of Capel Silin under Wrexliam__ 
and Capel Sant Silin in the parish of Lknfi hanged Ystrad„ 
Cardiganshire, both in ruins, were called after him. Ili*- 
commemoration is Sept. 1. which led Browne Willis to con- 
found liim with St. Giles, whose festival occurs on the same 

Cristiolus, another son of Hywelt ab Emyr Llydaw, and 
cousin to Cadfan, is reputed to be tile founder of Llangrist- 
iolus, Anglesey, and of Eglwys Wrw, and Penrydd, Pem- 
brokeshire. Ecton attributes also to him the church of Clydai, 
Pembrokeshire, of which, however, he must have been the 
restorer, if it be true that the original founder was Clydai, the 
daughter of Brychan. Festival Nov. 3. 

Ehystud, a brother of Sulien arid Cristiolus, was the found- 
er of Llanrhystud, Cardiganshire ; and it is said that he wm 
for some time bishop of Cnerleon upon Usk ; in which capa- 
city he must have served as suffragan to the prelates of Me- 
nevia or Llandnff; tile expression, however, may mean no 
more than that he was abbot of the monastery established 

• .iHffllcc Llamlouith. 
t According lo some »ccount», lie was 
m*l, lb Emyr Llydaw. 

11 of Hywcl Fyckan null)- 

FROM A. D. WO TO A. D. 54«. 


there by Dubrtcius. His wake was held on tie Tuesday 
before Christmas. 
Derfel, called also Derfel Gadarn, a brother of the pre- 
the founder of Llandderfel, Merionethshire; from 
s, his image, made of wood, was taken, and burnt at 
ifield at the time of the Reformation. His festival oc- 
curs on the fifth of April. 

Dnywau, another brother of the preceding, is the patron 
Mint of Llanddwywau, a chapel under Llanenddwyn, Merion- 

Abn, an Armorican find one of the sons of Emyr Llydaw, 
ippears to have left his country and become a saint in the 
college of IUtyd or Iltutus. The three following were his 

Lleuddad ab Alan, a member of the college of IUtyd ; after 
the death of Cadfan he was appointed abbot of the monastery 
W Bardsey, in consideration of which dignity be was also 
Ivied a bishop. Nest to his predecessor, he has been es- 
teemed the guardian saint of the island ; and there are poems 
e *lant, in praise of the protection, which he afforded to pil- 
8*1 nw on their passage to the sacred cemetery." 

Uonio Lawhir ab Alan was a member of the college of 
'"tyd, and afterwards dean of the college of Padarn at Linn- 
** a darn Fawr. He was also the founder of Llanddinam, 

"ontg ornery shir 
dedicated to hii 

■"•lb the modern 

I-landdewi Brefi. 

Lly nab ab Alan act 
*>'* brothers, he becarr 
* l1 * old age he retired I 

^aint, that he was archbishop of Llandaff, is probably a mis- 
**Ke, as it is inconsistent with all other accounts of that see. 

mil it is said that there was a church 

Cardiganshire, which, if it be identified 

ne " Llanio," must have been a chapel to 

:companied Cndfaii to Britain, where, like 
i member of the college of IUtyd. In 
) Bardsey. The statement, in Achat 

• Mjv, Archaiolngy, Vol. I. p. 360, and Ccmbrian Hvgie 



Meilyr, and Maelerw, or rather M;ielrys, sons of Gwyddnn 
ab Emyr Llydaw, anil cousins to Cadfan, were saints who 
settled in Wales ; the latter of whom resided in the Islr of 
Bardsey, and is the patron of LIunfuelry?, a chapel under 
Aberdaron, Carnarvonshire. His commemoration is Jan. 1. 

Sadwrn, a son of Bicanys of Armorica, called also Sadwrn 
Farchog, was the brother of St. Brutus, and nephew of Emyr 
Llydaw. He accompanied Cadfan to Britain in his old age, 
and is presumed to have been the founder of Llansadwm in 
Anglesey. The church of Llansadwrn in Carmarthenshire, 
formerly a chapel under Cynwyl Gaio, is called after his 

Canna, a daughter of Tewdwr Mawr ab Emyr Llydaw, 
was the wife of Sadwrn, to whom she was related before 
marriage, but she appears to have been a generation younger. 
She accompanied her husband from Armorica; and is consi- 
dered the founder of Llangnnna, commonly called Llnngan, 
Glamorganshire, and Llangan, Carmarthenshire. After the 
death of Sadwrn she married Gallgu Rieddog, by whom she 
became the mother of Elian Geimiad. 

Crallo, the son of Sadwrn anil Canna, probably came over 
to Britain at the same time with his parents. He was the 
founder of Llangrallo, otherwise Coychurch, Glamorgan- 

Besides the tribe of Emyr Llydaw, the children of Ithrl 
Hael, another Armorican prince, are said to have joined io 
this migration, and taken upon them the profession of sanctity 
in Wales. Of these, Tauwg may be deemed the founder of 
Llandanwg," Merionethshire. 

Gredifael and Fflewyn, sons of Ithel Hael, were appointed 
superintendents of the monastery of Paulinos at Tygwyn »r 
Daf, Carmarthenshire. Gredifael, whose festival is Nov. 13, 

• I.lntibedr (SI, Peter,) ami llarltch (SI 

Mary Magdalen,) chapelt <• 

FROM A. D. f>00 TO A. D 542. 223 

may be considered the founder of Penmynydd, Anglesey ; 
and Fflewyn is the saint of Llanfflewyn, a chapel subject to 
Llanrhyddlad in the same county. 

Tecwyn ab Ithel Hael, the founder of Llandecwyn, Merion- 
ethshire.* Festival Sept. 14. 

Trillo ab Ithel Hael, the founder of Llanclrillo in Rhos, 
Denbighshire, and Llandrillo in Edeyrnion, Merionethshire. 
Festival June 16. 

Tegai ab Ithel Hael, the founder of Llandegai, Carnarvon- 
shire, which place it would appear was at one time called 
called Maes Llanglassawg. 

Twrog ab Ithel Hael, the founder of Llandwrog, Carnar- 
vonshire. He is also the patron saint of Maen twrog, a chapel 
subject to Ffestiniog, Merionethshire, and his festival has been 
held on the twenty sixth of June. 

Baglan, a son of Ithel Ilacl, has obtained the credit of 
sanctity ; but as there was another saint of the same name, it 
is uncertain to which of them the patronage of the two chapels 
following should be ascribed ; — Llanfaglan under Llanwnda, 
Carnarvonshire, and Baglan subject to Aberafon, Glamor- 
ganshire. t 

Llechid, a daughter of Ithel Hael, was the foundress of 
Llanllechid, Carnarvonshire, and has been commemorated on 
the second of December. 

Tyfodwg was one of the associates of Cad fan, but the pedi- 
gree assigned to him in the Cambrian Biography is inconsis- 
tent with chronology. He was the founder of Llandyfodwg, 
Glamorganshire, and one of the three founders of Llantri saint 
in the same county. There is also a chapel under Llantri- 
saint, called Ystrad Tyfodwg. 

• Chapel, Llanfihangel y Tractliau (St. Michael.) 

t Rhychwyn is said in one MS. to have been a son of Ithel Hael, appa- 
rently by mistake for one of the sons of Helig ab Glanog. Myvyrian 
Archaiology, Vol. II. 



liar, sometimes styled Ilai 
was the founder of Llanila 
other churches now thought 

Ust and Dyfnig accomp; 
the joint- founders of Llanwr 

Bysgottwr, or "the Fisherman," 
, Cardiganshire, and probably of 
a be dedicated lo St. Hilary, 
lied Cadfan to Britain, and were 
Montgomeryshire. * 

Eithras, Llyivan or Llywyn, and Durdan, were companion) 
of Cadfan, of whose lives no particulars can be traced ; except 
that the last mentioned settled in Bardsey, and has been con- 
sidered one of the presiding saints of the island. 

The foregoing list is thought to comprise the entire num- 
ber of holy persons who emigrated from Armories in this gen- 
eration, and it may be interesting to enquire how far the 
situations of their churches illustrate the history of their 
settlements. Before the close of the present period, another 
large emigration is reported to have been made by the chil- 
dren of Caw, who were obliged to leave their dominions in 
North Britain, and become saints in Wales under similar cir- 

Caw was the lord of Cwm Cawlwyd or Cowllwg, a district 
in the North, but its particular situation is uncertain. t Ac- 
cording to Achau y Saint, he was deprived of his territories 
by the Gwyddyl Ffichti, or as the general term may be inter- 
preted, by the Picts and Scots; in consequence of which he 
and his numerous family retired to Wales. He titled it 
Twrcelyn in Anglesey, where lands were bestowed upon him 
by Maelgwn Clwynedr! ; and it is also said that lands «eK 
granted to some of his children by Arthur in Siluria. flii 
name is enrolled in the catalogue of saints ; and his children 
are, in one record,{ styled the third holy family of Britain; 
an honour, to which they are fairly entitled if the accounts *f 

•Mjv. Archaiology, Vol. II. 

t A Life of Gild as, from Ihe.Monsstcrj of Floury in France, published bj 
Johannes a Boscd, and quoted by Usher, says thai Caunui (Ciw) li«d " 
Afecloti, or SI null Clyde, 

; Llyfr IJndcul wyn, Myv. Archniolog; , Vol II. p. SB. 

FROM A. D. 500 TO A. D. 512. 225 

Bran ab Llyr, to whom the first place in the Triad is usually 
assigned, have been proved to be without foundation. 

Hywel, the eldest son of Caw, was slain in a civil war by 
Arthur ;• an event which probably took place before the emi- 
gration of his brothers. 

Ane ab Caw Cowllwg was a saint, and Coed Anc, a chapel 
under Llanelian, Anglesey, is called after his name. 

Aneurin, a son of Caw, was engaged in the battle of Cat- 
traeth, the disasters of which he deplored in a long poem, 
called " Y Gododin," still extant, and deemed to be a com- 
position of great merit for the age in which it was written. 
Out of upwards of three hundred British chieftains who 
entered the field, only four, of whom the bard was one, es- 
caped with their lives. He was afterwards taken prisoner, 
loaded with chains, and thrown into a dungeon, from which 
he was released by Ceneu a son of Llywarch Hen. Upon his 
deliverance he appears to have retreated to South Wales, 
where he became a saint of the congregation of Cattwg at 
Llancarfan, but nothing further is known of him under the 
name of Aneurin, except that his death was occasioned by the 
blow of an axe from the hand of an assassin. It has, however, 
been suggested by two eminent antiquaries, t to whose re- 
searches the present writer acknowledges himself greatly 
indebted, that Aneurin was no other person than the cele- 
brated Gildas. The reasons alleged are : — " Aneurin, as well 
as Gildas, is reckoned among the children of Caw in our old 
manuscripts ; but both do not occur as such in the same lists; 
for in those where Aneurin is said to be the son of Caw, the 
other is omitted ; and on the contrary, where Gildas is in- 
serted, the other is left out."} — Besides which, the name Gildas 
is a Saxon translation of Aneurin, according to_a practice not 

* Caradocus Lancarbancnsis in Vita S. Gil die. 
+ Mr. Edward Williams (Into Morganwg) and Dr. Owen Pughe. 

% Cambrian Biography. 



uncommon with ecclesiastics in the middle ages ; and even the^- 
various ways in which the names are written — " Gilda, Gilda* 
y Coed Aur, Aur y Coed Aur, mid Aneurin y Coed Aur" — all 
of similar signification, confirm their identity. Cennydd, a son^. 
and Ufelwyn, a grandson, of Gildas, are sometimes called the 
son and grandson of Aneurin.* So far, therefore, the point is* 
clear; that the Welsh genealogists have always considered the 
names Gildas and Aneurin convertible. The monkish writers* 
of the Life of Gildas also state that he was a native of Nortfx 
Britain, and tile son of Cau,+ a king of that country. But 
here the agreement ends; for they mention nothing of the 
battle of Cattraeth, and instead of showing that their saint was 
originally a bard and a warrior, they assert that lie embraced, 
the sacred profession at an early age, and was employed in 
Ireland, preaching the Gospel, until he heard that his eldest 
brother had been slain by Arthur ; upon which he came over 
to Britain, and was reconciled to the king, who had solicited 
his pardon. He then removed to Armories, where, after i 
residence of ten years, he wrote his " Epistle" arraigning the 
kings of Britain for their vices. Upon his return, he abode 
for some time at Llancarfan, and was requested by St. Cadocut 
to direct the studies of the school at that place for one year; 
which he undertook, and performed to the great advantage of 
the scholars, desiring no other reward than their prayers. 
After this the two saints withdrew to two small islands, not 
far distant, intending to spend their days in retirement. Gil- 
das, however, was disturbed by pirates, and in consequence 
removed to Glastonbury, where he wrote his " History of the 
Britons," and remained to the close of his life.J — Such is a 
brief summary of their narrative, divested of several fables and 

• Compare Cennydd and Ufelwyn in the Cambrian Biography. 

+ Call, Capgrave; Caunat, Florineeusis ; Sau, Carsdocus Lancarban- 

J The ^supposition, that there were two persons called Gildas, the oW 
*urnamed Alunnins, and ihe other Badooicus, is apparently a modem di»- 

TO A. D. 542. 


inconsistencies, for these writers differ in several particulars 
■with each other; and uncertain as the authority of the gene- 
alogists may sometimes appear, it is better supported by 
external evidence than that of the monks, who have framed 
their account to suit the life of the author of the reputed 
works of Gildas; which, though ancient," are not likely to 
have been written by Aneurin, or indeed by any one of British 
race. Their spirit is an ti- nation ill, and their design is obvious- 
ly to depreciate the Britons. It is not improbable that they 
were intended to pass for the productions of the bard, for 
they contain no invective against the princes of the North; 
hut while Aneurin laments that the confederated chiefs should 
have entered the field in a state of intoxication, which he 
seems to regard more as a misfortune than a crime, he dwells 
upon the praises of his heroes, and treats his countrymen 
throughout with a friendly feeling. 

Caffo ab Caw, a saint, and the patron of Llangaffo, a chapel 
under Llangeinwen, Anglesey. 

Ceidio ab Caw ; Rhodwydd Geidio, subject to Llantri- 
saint, Anglesey, and Ceidio, Carnarvonshire, are dedicated 
to him. 

Aeddan Foeddog, a son of Caw. With respect to the name, 
Archbishop Usher observes: — ^Idanus, the bishop, is called 
by the Irish "Moedhog and Miedog," and by Giraldus Cam- 
brensis " ilaitlocus." — John of Teignmouth says: — This holy 
person is named " Aidanus" in the Life of St. David, but In 
his own Life "Aldus;" and at Menevia, in the church of 
St. David, he is called "Moedok," which is an Irish name, 
and his festival is observed with great veneration at that 
place. — All the legends agree that Aeddan was a disciple of 


" Tliuy w 
if Ihey won 

, for the older biographm uitribute both tillcs to 1 


St. David at Menevia, from whence he passed over into Ire — 
land, and was appointed the first bishop of Ferns. It wa.s 
doubtless a reference to this circumstance that induced the 
clergy of Menevia, in a later age, to assert that the bishoprick 
of Ferns was once subject to the archbishopric k of St. David'-, 
a proposition which Usher is not willing to admit. Giraldm 
tells a marvellous story of the manner in which St. Aeddao 
carried over a swarm of bees to Ireland ; for such creaturei 
were never seen in that country before, and have never been 
seen at Menevia since ! ! Traces of his memory are still re- 
tained in Pembrokeshire, as he is the reputed founder at 
Llanhuadain or Llawhaden in that county, and the churchel 
of Nolton and West-Haroldston are ascribed to him under the 
name of Madog. His festival is Jan. 31. 

Cwyllog, a daughter of Caw, was the wife of Medrawd or 
Mordred, the nephew of Arthur ; and is thought to have 
founded the church of Llangwyllog, Anglesey. 

Dirynig, one of the sons of Caw; to whom it is said t] 
was a church dedicated at York. 

Cain, daughter of Caw ; a saint, and the patroness of Llaa- 
gain, Carmarthenshire. 

Eigrad, one of sons of Caw ; a member of the society of 
Ultyd, and the founder of Lfaneigrad, Anglesey. 

Samson, a son of Caw, was a saint of the college of IHtyd, 
and had a church at Caerefrog or York. — This person has 
been magnified by certain legendary writers into an arch- 
bishop of York ; and they relate that when the Saxons took 
the city, and destroyed its cathedral, the prelate saved himself 
by flight; and carrying with him the ensigns of his dignity to 
Armoriea, he was, by virtue of their possession, constituted 
archbishop of Dole in that country, a see which he continued 
to hold until his death, when be was succeeded by another 
Samson, who had arrived in the same country from Wales. 
The history of the two persons is frequently confounded ; but 
if the circumstances related of the archbicliopriek of the e. 

i there 

. D. 50(1 TO A. D. 5«. 


n were true, it 
should have omitted 
his station, they merely 
vance of the Saxons, and thn 

kable that the Welsh authorities 

; for without allusion to 

p!y that he retired from the ad- 

ke several of his hrothers, he 

passed the latter part of li is life in the college of Illtyd. There 
was, however, another Samson at that college about the same 
time, the son of Amwn Ddu, who is recorded in AdiM.ii y 
Saint to have passed over into Armorica, and to have been 
elected bishop of Dole. His history, which is better attested 
than that of his namesake, is reserved to the next generation. 
But the question of the dignity, as well as the identity, of the 
elder Samson derives importance from its having been the 
subject of an appeal to Rome, grounded on the assertion that 
he had carried a poll into the country of his exile ; in consi- 
deration of which, it was alleged, palls were likewise granted 
to his successors at Dole, who exercised a re hi episcopal author- 
ity until their privileges ceased through the intervention of 
the archbishop of Tours." In the twelfth century, the clergy 
of St. David's maintained, that the pall, which was taken to 
Armorica, belonged to their church, and that it was carried 
over, not by an archbishop of York, but by Samson, the 
the twenty- fifth archbishop of Menevia; they, therefore, ap- 
pealed to the Pope for the restoration of the dignity, and 
claimed to be independent of the jurisdiction of Canterbury. 
Their cause was advocated with ail the learning and ability of 
Giraldus Cambreusis, who made three several journeys to 
Rome in its behalf; but after a long hearing, the prerogatives 
of Canterbury were confirmed; the evidence, adduced upon 
the occasion, not being sufficient to prove, that a pall had been 
sent from Rome to Menevia, or to any bishop in Britain 
before the mission of St. Augustin. 

•"Contjgil ut ub Pallii graliani quod Samson Uliie attulerat, succe- 
dsntei Ibi Episenpi usque ad nostra lisecfere tempore (ijiiibuB prajvalenle 
Tdrimoruiii Archipitesule, advent itia dignitas evanuil) pallia semper ol>- 
llnuenint." — Giraldus in Dialogn de EcclesiS Meiicvunsi. 



n of Cai 

s stated to have founded a church 

Eigron, the 
in Cornwall. 

Gwenafwy, Peillan, and Peithien ; daughters of Caw, and 
saints, but there are no churches which retain ihcir names. 

Gallgo ab Caw, a saint, to whom Llanallgo, a chapel sub- 
ordinate to Llaneigrad, Anglesey, is dedicated. Feativil, 
Nov. 27. 

Peirio ab Caw, a member of the congregation of liltyd, 
after whose death he was elected principal of that society ; 
but he is said to have died on the following dav, and to havt 
been succeeded by Samson ab Amwn Ddu. Rhospeirio, sub- 
ject to Llanelian, Anglesey, is dedicated to his memory. 

Cewyddab Caw was the founder of Aberedw, and Diserth, 
Radnorshire, and of Llangewydd, an estinct church near 
Bridgend, Glamorganshire. 

Maelog ab Caw, a saint of the congregation of Cattwg. 
The following curious notice of him occurs in the Life of 
Gildas from the Library of Fleury:' — "Caunus, the father of 
Glides, is said to have had four other sons ; namely, Cuillus.t 
a man of great prowess in arms, who, upon the death of his 
father, succeded to his kingdom; next, Mailocus, who was 
destined by his father to the study of sacred literature, in 
which he was well instructed ; he left his father, and bidding 
adieu to his paternal estate, came to ' Lyuhes' in the district 
of ' Elmail,' where he built a monastery, in which, after having 
served God incessantly with hymns and orations, with watch- 
ings and fastings, he rested in peace, illustrious for his virtues 
and miracles. Egreas, moreover, with Alla-cus, his brother, 
and Peteona, their sister, a virgin consecrated to God, in like 
manner leaving their father's estate ; and renouncing all 
worldly pomp, withdrew to the farthest part of that country, 
where, not far from each other, they built their several monas- 

• For the original, MS Usher, Pi i morel i.i, |mgc(>75. 
t Hywel, »s he is called by oilier HtUlQfttlM. 

FROM A. D. 500 TO A. D. ! 


terics, placing their sister in the midst." — In this extract 
"Lyuhes in the district of Elmail" is obviously Lluwea in 
Elfael, Radnorshire, which according to Ecton, is dedicated 
to St. Meilig. EgrcaSj Alhecus, and Peteona, are Eigrad, 
Gallgo, and Peithien ; and " the farthest part of the country" 
is the Isle of Anglesey, where Llaneigrad is situated with its 
chapel of Llanallgo, and another chapel called Llugwy,* which 
possibly may be the one intended for Peteona or Peithien. 
Maelog is the reputed founder of Llandyfaelog Tref-y-Graig, 
and another Llandyfaelog, Brecknockshire, and Llandyfaelog, 
Carmarthenshire ; the syllable Hij in names being either 
epenthetic, or borrowed from the Norman rfe.t Llanfaelog, a 
chapel under Llanbeulan, Anglesey, is an instance where the 
syllable is omitted. 

Meilig ab Caw, a saint to whom no churches are ascribed, 
except Llowes, Radnorshire, attributed to Maelog in the pre- 
ceding notice. It is not improbable that the author of the 
Life of Gildas supposed that Muelng and Meilig were merely 
two modes of pronouncing the name of one individual ; but it 
would appear that they belonged to different persons from the 
circumstance that Maelog is commemorated on the thirty-first 
of December, and Meilig on the fourteenth of November.^ 
The latter appears to have been the founder of Llowes, as 
there is a place in the parish, called Croes Feilig, or St. Mei- 
lig'? cross. 

Gwrddclw ab Caw, a saint who is said to have had a church 
at Caerleim upon Usk. 

Gwrhai ab Caw, the founder of Penystrywad in Arwystli, 
Montg omery sh i r e . 

* Ertoti nanus Si. Michael its the patron of Llugwy. 

t In the Taxation of Pone Nicholas, Llangndock, Carmnrllie us dire, i< 
spelled " Lnndekndok." 

J Sir Harris Nicolas'* Chronolng- j of History .— The compiler of a « His- 
lory of Anglesey" snys thai ihe festival of Si. Maelrg is J ml, 30. 



Huail all Caw distinguished himself as a warrior in the 
service of Arthur. He passed the latter part of his life in the 
monastery of Cattwg ; and it is said that there was a church 
dedicated to him in Euas, Herefordshire. 

In this list of the family of Caw, the names of nine sons, 
who devoted their lives entirely to war, are not recounted; 
but the number of children assigned to him is too great to be 
received with credit, exeept upon the supposition that it in- 
eludes his grand-children, and, perhaps, other relatives, who 
were his followers and composed his clan. The death of Ger- 
aint ab Erbin, one of the princes of Devon, who was slain, 
■while fighting under Arthur at the battle of Llongbotth, has 
been noticed already, 1 Four of his sons, who seem to have 
imitated the example of tlie children of Caw, were, Selyf, 
Cyngar, Iestin, and Cado or Cataw, all of whom were saints of 
the college of Garmon. 

Selyf ab Geraint was the person who is called, in the le- 
gendary accounts, Solomon Duke of Cornwall. There are no 
churches in Wales which bear his name. 

According to Capgrave, Cungnrus, the founder of a monas- 
tery or college in the diocese of LlaiidafF, came from Cungres- 
bury in the county of Somerset ; which suggests the opinion 
that the founder of the college of Llnngenyst was Cyngar ab 
Geraint, and not Cyngar ab Arthog ab Ceredig. He is the 
patron saint of Badgworth, and Cungresbury, Somerset; and 
of Hope, Flintshire, and Llangefni, Anglesey. 

Iestin ab Geraint was the founder of Llaniestin in Lleyn. 
Carnarvonshire; and also of Llaniestin in Anglesey, where a 
stone was seen in the last century with an inscription pur* 
porting that he was buried there.J 

Cado or Cataw ab Geraint, a saint, but there are i 
churches ascribed to him in Wales. 

fPago \SSant 
r, Archniology.Vol.ll.p.W. 

FROM A. D. 500 TO A. D. S12. 


Of the sons of Gwynllyw Filwr, chieftain of Gwynllwg, 
Hon mouth shire ; Cattwg, the eldest, was the first president of 
the college of Llancnrfan ; the rest, who have had the credit 
of sanctity, were : — 

Cammarch ab Gwynllyw, the founder of Llangatmnarch, 

Glywys Cerniw, the founder of a church at Coed Cerniw in 
Gwynllwg, Monmouthshire. 

Hywgi, otherwise Bugi, the father of St. Beuno. He gave 
all his lands for the endowment of his brother's college at 
Llanearfan, where he spent the latter part of his life. 

Cyfyw ab Gwynllyw, an officer in the college of Cattwg, 
and patron saint of Ltangyfyw near Caerleon. 

Cynfyw, or Cynyw ab Gwynllyw; possibly another pro- 
nunciation of the preceding name, as Llangyiyw is written, 
by Ecton, " Llangyniow," There is a church, called Llan- 
gynyw, in Montgomeryshire, of which he may have been the 

Gwyddlew, Cyflewyr, and Cammab; sons of Gwynllyw, 
and saints, but nothing farther is known respecting them. 

Maches, a daughter of Gwynllyw, suffered martyrdom at a 
place since called Merthyr Maches, or Llanfaches, in Mon- 
mouthshire. " She gave alms to all who asked ; and a pagan 
Saxon, who appeared before her as a mendicant, stabbed her 
with a knife."' 

The children of Vnyr Gwent by Madrun, daughter of Gwr- 
thefyr Fendigaid, were another Silurian family that flourished 
about this time. Caradog, the eldest, lived at Caerwent, and 
succeeded to his father's territories ; he married Derwela, one 
of the sisters of Amwn Ddu.t 

Iddon ab Ynyr Gwent was a chieftain, who afterwards de- 
voted himself to religion. It is said that he made a grant, to 
the see of Llandaif, of— " Llanarth with all the landes there. 



and Lantelio Porth-halawg with tlie territory unto the same 
belonging, and certaine landes at Lnntelio Crissenny ; all hi 
thankfulnesse to God for a victory obtained against the Sax- 
ons." > It is also stated that lie made a grant of " Lancoyt;" 
and the charters conferring these donations are cited from the 
register, or " Book," of LlandafF;f but without attempting to 
assert their genuineness, J it is right to observe that the alleged 
date of these grants is misplaced by Godwin, who says they 
were made in the time of Comegern and Argwistill, the eighth 
and ninth bishops of the see. The prelate, contemporary will 
Iddon, was Teilo ; the second on the list, and a principal 
witness to the grants in question. § 

Ceidio and Cynheiddion, sons, and Teglwg, a daughter, of 
Vnyr Gwent, were saints of whose history no particulars have 
been recorded, except that Ceidio was a member of the monu- 
tery of Llancarfan. 

The period between the years 500 and 550 is believed to 
include the date of a calamity on the coast of Wales, of which 
the most exaggerated and mystified accounts have reached 
posterity :|| for it is asserted that an irruption of the sea broke 
in upon a large tract of country, which it has since continued 
to cover, forming the whole of the present Cardigan Bay. It 
is not necessary to dwell upon the proofs, that such a calamity 
could not have occurred to the extent related ; as the testi- 
mony of Ptolemv, the geographer, is, so far, conclusive against 

• Godwin's English Bishops.— These churches, which still retain Iheif 
names, are situated in Monmouthshire, mid acknowledge Tcilo for their 
patron saint. 

f This record, one or two transcripts of which are reported to be extant, 
Is still unpublished. 

J See pp. IP4, IS5 of this Essay. 

§ In Cbartll Donution mil Idonis regis, ftlii Ynir Guent. inter ti 
Cleric!*, primo loco cornitur Teliaus Ardhiepircopus. — Ushor, p. 86. 

|| Triad 37. Third Series— See also Davies'a Mythology of the E 
page 3*2, and Camhro Briton, Vol. I. p, 301. 

FROM A. D. 500 TO A. D, 542. 235 

the tradition. That author, who lived in the second century, 
marks the promontories by which Cardigan Bay is confined, 
and the mouths of the rivers which it receives, in nearly the 
same relative situations which they retain at present ; giving 
the latitude and longitude of each place according to his mode 
of computation. It is not unreasonable, however, to suppose 
that an event took place, similar to that which laid under 
water the lands of Earl Godwin on the eastern coast of Eng- 
land. A tract of low land along the coast of Cardiganshire 
and Merionethshire, of which some vestiges still remain,* was 
overflowed ; and as it had been called Cantref y Gwaelod, it 

* « Submarine Forest in Cardigan Bay.**— (From the proceedings of the 
Geological Society in London.) At a Meeting of the Society, held on the 
7th of November, 1832, a notice of a submarine Forest in Cardigan Bay, 
by the Rev. James Yates, M. A., F. G. S. and L. S. was read. The Forest 
extends along the coast of Merionethshire and Cardiganshire, being di- 
vided into two parts by the estuary of the river Dovey, which separates 
these counties. It is bounded on the land side by a sandy beach and by a 
wall of shingles. Beyond this wall is a tract of bog and marsh, formed by 
streams of water, which arc partially discharged by oozing through sand 
and shingles. The author argues that as the position of the wall is liable 
to change, it may have inclosed the part which is now submarine, and that 
it is not necessary to suppose a subsidence effected by submarine ageucy. 
The remains of the forest are covered by a bed of peat, and are distin- 
guished by an abundance of Pholas Candida and Teredo Nivalis. Among 
the trees of which the forest consisted, is the Pinus Sylvcstris or Scotch 
Fir; and it is shown that this tree abounded anciently in several northern 
counties of England. The natural order of the Con{fera? may thus be 
traced from the period of the independent coal formation to the middle of 
the seventeenth century, although the Scotch Fir is excluded from the 
native Flora. The amentaceous wood presents matter for reflection in 
consequence of the perfect preservation of its vascular structure, while the 
contents of its vessels are entirely dissipated. The tract is known to the 
Welsh under the name of CantreJ'y (lira clod, i. c. the Lowland Hundred. 
The author refers to the Triads of Britain, and to the ancient Welsh testi- 
monies, which prove that it was submerged about A. D. 520, and ascribe 
the disaster to the folly of ' Seithenyn the Drunkard,* who in his drink let 
the sea over Cantref y Unaelod." 



was probably of no greater extent than a "Cantref," or "H^M 
dred," in any other part of Wales. This district had b^aas 
divided between two chieftains, of the names of Seithenyn sm~ji 
Gwyddno, whose children, in consequence of the loss of tW «/; 
inheritance, were induced to embrace a religious life. I ~i ( 
sons of Seithenyn, who were all of them, except Arwy stff 
GIdff, members of the college of Dunawd at Bangor Iscoed, 
were the following : — 

Gwynodl ab Seithenyn, the founder of Llangwynodl, Car- 
narvonshire. Festival, Jan. 1. 

Merin, or Merini ab Seithenyn ; presumed to be the found, 
cr of Llanferin, or Llaiifetherin, Monmouthshire. Bodferilt, 
the signification of which implies tile place of his residence, ii 
the name of a chapel under Llaniestiii, Carnarvonshire. I 
tival, Jan. 6. 

Senefyr, or Senewyr ab Seithenyn, a saint. 

Tudglyd ab Seithenyn. 

Tudno ab Seithenyn, the founder of Llandudno, Carnarvon- 
shire ; his commemoration occurs on the fifth of June. 

Tyneio ab Seithenyn ; Deneio, or Pwllheli, a chapel under 
Linn for, Carnarvonshire, is supposed to be named ifter 

Arwystli Gloffab Seithenyn, was an inmate of the momv 
tery of Bardsey, and is said to have been the founder of a 
church, but its situation is not known. 

Elffin, the only son of Gwyddno whose name is preserved, 
was a saint of the college of Illtyd. A story, which, however, 
is confessedly a fable, relates that Gwyddno had a fishing wear 
on the sands between the Dovey and Aberystwyth, the annual 
profits of which were very considerable. But Etflin was the 
most unlucky of men and nothing prospered in his hands, 
insomuch that his father was grieved at his ill successes, and 
feared that he was born in an evil hour : wishing, however, to 

• Myv. Arcliaiology, Vol. II, pp. 30,55. 

FROM A. D. WO TO A. D. MS. 237 

give the fortunes of his son a further trial, he agreed to allow 
liim the profits of the wear for one whole year. On the mor- 
tof, Elfh'n visited the wear, and found nothing, except a 
leathern bag fastened to one of the poles, lie was immediate- 
ly upbraided for his ill luck by his companions, for he had 
ruined the good fortune of the wear, which before was wont 
to produce the value of it hundred pounds on May eve. Nay, 
replied Elffin, there may yet be here an equivalent for the 
value of a hundred pounds. The bag was opened, and the 
face of a child appearing from within, "What a noble fore- 
head," exclaimed the opener. " Taliesin be his name," re- 
joined Elffin," and commiserating the hard fate of the infant 
exposed to tbe mercies of the sea, he took it in his anna, and 
mounting his steed, conveyed it to his wife, by whom it was 
nursed tenderly and affectionately : from that time forward, 
his wealth increased every day. — Such is the story of the dis- 
covery of the chief bard of Wales, committed by his mother to 
the chances of the tide, and saved in the manner described. 
In return for the kindness of his benefactor, adds the tale, he 
composed, while a child, his poem, entitled the " Consolation 
of Elffin," routing him from the contemplation of bis disap- 
pointments and cheering with the prospect of blessings which 
still awaited him ; and afterwards when Elffin was imprisoned 
in the castle of Dyganwy by Maelgwn Gwynedd, Taliesin, 
through the influence of his song, procured his release.t 

The children of Pawl Hen, or Paulinus, of Ty-gwyn ar 
Daf, were : — Peulan, the founder of Llanbeulan, Anglesey ; 
Gwyngeneu, to whom Cape! Gwyngeneu under Holyhead was 
dedicated ; and Gwenfaen, a daughter, who was the foundress 
of Rhoscolyn, Anglesey. The festival of St. Gwenfaen is 
Nov. 5. 

• Admirable phrenologists; — the English reader ttnisl understand lliat 
"noble forehead" is the translation of" TJtl-iesin." 

t From the Mabinogion or Welsh Romances; — Cambrian Quarterly 
M.gsz'mc, Vol. V. ami My v, Archaiolo ? y, Vol. I. 


The only saint of the family of Brychan, who belongs to 
this generation, is Nefydd, a son of Nefydd Ail ab Rhun 

About this period lived Tegfan, the son of Carcludwys of 
the line of Cadrod Calchfynydd, and though the number of 
generations between him and his ancestor exceeds the usutl 
allowance for the interval of time, it does not exceed the 
bounds of probability. lie was the brother of Gallgu Rhi« 
eddog, and is said to have been the founder of Llandegiim. 

According to Achau y Saint ; Teon, and Tegonwy ab Teon, 
were members of the college of Illtyd ; but the statement cm- 
not be admitted without incurring a great anachronism. It" it 
be true that Iorwerth HhfiawcUl, a son of Tegonwy, married 
one of the daughters of Brychan. The mistake seems U 
have arisen from confounding Teon, who stands at the head of 
a long pedigree of Welsh chieftains,* with Teon, who, ao 
cording to Geoffrey of Monmouth, was bishop of Gloucester 
about A. D. C>42, when he was translated to the arch bishop rick 
of London ; but, unfortunately for Geoffrey, London was ill 
the possession of the Saxons before the year 542. 

Bedwini, another bishop mentioned in the Welsh account!, 
is said to have been the primate of Cornwall in the time of 
Arthur, and to have resided at a place called Celliwlg. 

Stinan, or Justinian, according to his Life by John of Teign* 
mouth, was born of noble parentage in Lesser Brittanv; and 
having spent his youth in the study of learning, he received 
the order of priesthood, and was, by a divine oracle, com- 
manded to leave his country. After wandering for a. while, 
he came to the coast of Wales, and landed in a certain island 
called "Lemeney," where he led a religious life in 
with Honorius, the son of king Thefriaucus. Cressy says: 

• It would appear, from llie dales of his desccodants, dial lie flourii 
•boui A. D. 400. 

FROM A. D. 500 TO A. D. G42. 239 

" The authour of his life relates at large the envy and malice 
with which the Enemy of mankind impugned the devout and 
mortified life of this Holy man, seeking to interrupt it by 
severall and frequent illusions, and by suggesting scandalous 
lyes concerning him. But in conclusion, when he saw him- 
self every way vanquished by the Holy man, and that neither 
by violent assaults nor malicious suggestions he could withdraw 
him from the service of God : he attempted other arts and 
guilefnll machinations: For he infused the poyson of his 
malice into the hearts of three of the Holy mans servants : In- 
somuch as they having been reproved by him for their idlenes 
and mispending the time, they were inflamed with fury against 
him, insomuch as rushing upon him, they threw him to the 
ground, and most cruelly cutt off his, head. But in the place 
where the sacred head fell to the ground, a fountain of pure 
water presently flowd, by drinking of which in following 
times many were miraculously restored to health. But mi- 
racles greater than these immediately succeeded his death. 
For the body of the Blessed Martyr presently rose, and taking 
the head between the two arms, went down to the sea shore, 
and walking thence on the sea, pass'd over to the port call'd by 
his name : and being arrived in the place where a Church is 
now built to his Memory, it fell down, and was there buried 
by Saint David with spirituall Hymns and Canticles." — Cressy 
next proceeds to explain that the island Leniency — " hath in 
English obtain'd a new name being callcl Ramsey ;" and that 
" It lyes opposite and in sight of Menevia the Episcopall seat 
of St. David." The church, mentioned in this most out- 
rageous legend, is evidently the chapel of Stinan in the parish 
of St. David's, Pembrokeshire; as the church of Llan stinan, in 
the same county, is too far distant to answer the description. 

Ffinian, an Irish saint, is said to have visited St. David at 
Menevia about A. D. 530, and to have remained in Britain 
thirty years, in which time he built three churches, but their 
Barnes are unknown. There was another Irish saint, and con- 



temporary, ealled Ffinati, whose Welsh name, according to 
Usher, was Winnin. It is uncertain to which of them, Llan- 
ffinan, subject to LI an fib an gel Ysgeifiog, Anglesey, is dedi- 

Senanus, an Irish saint and bishop, who waa intimately 
acquainted with St. David, died A. D. 544. Llansannan, 
Denbighshire, and Bedwellty, Monmouthshire, are under liij 
tutelage; and his festival is March 1.* 

In ascertaining and verifying the com mem or at ion a or saints' 
days, great assistance may be derived from the list of fairs 
now held in the Principality ; it being an opinion generally 
received among antiquaries that parochial wakes were the 
means of assembling people, who afterwards converted the 
occasion into an opportunity of buying and selling. Many 
of the village fairs in Wales are held on the saint's day Old 
Style, or rather ehxen days later than the proper time accord- 
ing to the Gregorian Calendar ; for the Welsh peasantry have 
seldom taken into account, that since the year 1800 the dis- 
crepancy between the Old and New Styles has increased to 
Uoehe days. Thus it may be learned from a list of saints 
printed in the Cambrian Register,t and also from the Alpha- 
betical Calendar of Sir Harris Nicolas,{ that the festival of 
St. Gwenog should be held on the third of January ; eleven 
days being added to that date will point out to Jan. 14, the 
day upon which, according to the Welsh almanacks, a fair is 
held at Llanwenog in the county of Cardigan. By inverting the 
computation, a satisfactory method is obtained of deciding 
between contradictory statements ; for instance the list in the 
Cambrian Register states that the festival of St. Tyssul was 
kept on the third of February, while according to Sir H. Ni- 

• "Einleni tempore quo Dn»lcl Mencveiisis pritsiil, cui conjOM 
visit, Inels hauc usur»m reddidit tradiiur."— Usher, p. 874. 
t Vol. HI, p. 211). 
J Inserted in bis Chroiiuliigy of Hist, u v. 

FROM A. D. 500 TO A. D, 542. 241 

colas's authorities it was held Jan. 31. A fair, however, is 
held at Llandyssul, Cardiganshire, Feb. 11 ; and eleven days, 
reckoned backwards from that time, will bring the calculation 
to Jan. 31, proving the last of the two statements to be the 
correct one. Sir H. Nicolas assigns the festival of St. Caron 
to March the fourth or fifth, as if his authorities were doubtful 
as to the precise time ; but eleven days, counted backwards 
from a fair at Tregaron on the sixteenth of March, will show 
that the commemoration of the saint ought to be kept March 
5. The other day, March 4, was fixed apparently by some 
person, who followed the inverted mode of computation, but 
reckoned twelve days from the fair. In some villages it has . 
been the custom to hold the fair on the vigil, or eve, before 
the festival ; which is easily ascertained, as in that case the 
difference of reckoning is only (en days. The saints of Llan- 
gynidr, Brecknockshire, are Cynidr and St. Mary ; one of its 
fairs is kept on the fourth of April, or ten days after the 
twenty fifth of March, the feast of the Annunciation of the 
Blessed Virgin. In like manner St. Mary is the patron saint 
of Nefyn, Carnarvonshire, and three of its fairs are held, ac- 
cording to Carlisle's Topographical Dictionary, on the fourth 
of April, the twenty fifth of August, and the eighteenth of 
September, being ten days respectively after the feasts of her 
Annunciation, Assumption, and Nativity.* 

In the large families, included in the period of this gener- 
ation, there must be great disparity of age, and the lives of 
many of the persons named may be found to extend through 
the period assigned for the next generation. 

♦.The festivals in this Essay are given principally according to Sir 
H. Nicolas, but they have not been compared with the fairs in every 



The Welsh Sainis from the Accession of Cyslcnnyn Ooronog A. D. * 
to the Death of Maelgwn Gwynedd A. D. 560. 

Tars period includes the reigns of Cystennyn, Cyi 
Wledig, Gwrthefyr or Vortimer the Second, and JIaelgwn; 
who are popularly styled kings of Britain, though it would 
appear from the writings ascribed to Gil tins, that three, at least, 
of them were contemporary princes, reigning at the same time 
in separate provinces,* which is more consistent with the view 
of affairs presented by the bards and genealogists. 

The second bishop of Llanbadarn was Cynog, who was 
raised, upon the death of St. David, to the arch bisho prick of 
Menevia. He appears, however, to have presided but a short 
time at both places, as no particulars of his life have been re- 
corded, and his parentage, churches, and festival, are alike 
unknown. The short duration of his presidency at AlencvU 
is shown by the fact that he was in turn succeeded by Teilo, 
who had been the associate and fellow-student of his pre* 

Teilo.t the second bishop of LlandafF, was the son of En- 
lleu ab Hydwn Dwn ab Ceredig ab Cunedda, by Tegfedd, 
daughter of Tegid Foel of Penllyn. His Latin name was 
Teliaus, and, by a sort of monkish trifling with the sound of 

• Namely; Co n s tan 1 in us, llie lyrant, as lie is called, oflhe Damnnnii, 01 
people or Devon and Cornwall ; Vortiporius, th.; lyrant of the Dimeue, nj 
Inhabitant! of the western part of Souih Wales; and Maglocunni, th* 
tyrant of North Wales. 

t "N»i, fab Cefnder i Ddewi."— My*. Archeology, Vol. II. p. 63. 


of the word, he was also called HXio* and Eliud.* He was 
born at a place once called " Eccluis Gunnian," or " Gunniau," 
in the neighbourhood of Tenby, Pembrokeshire. It is said 
that he studied first under Dubricius, by whose assistance he 
attained to great proficiency in the knowledge of the Scrip- 
tures ; his next instructor was Paulinus, under whom he pur- 
sued the same study, and in whose school he was the associate 
of St. David. Under the patronage of Dubricius, he opened a 
college at Llandaff, which was called Bangor Deilo ; and his 
settlement at that place may serve to account for his appoint- 
ment to fill the see of Llandaff upon the retirement of his 
patron to the Isle of Bardsey. The idea that he was made 
bishop of Llandaff* at the time Dubricius was raised to the 
archbishoprick of Caerleon is irreconcilable with chronology ; 
and the assertion that he succeeded Dubricius as archbishop, 
without the intervention of St. David, t is contrary to all re- 
ceived history, unless it be supposed that Llandaff was an 
archbishoprick independent of Caerleon, a position which is 
certainly untenable. The original diocese governed by Teilo, 
as ascertained by the absence of churches founded by St. Da- 
vid, was coextensive with the ancient Lordship of Glamorgan, 
containing the present rural deaneries of Groneath, Llandaff, 
and Newport. How long he continued to preside over this 
limited district is uncertain; but in the reign of Maelgwn 
Gwynedd, a plague, called " Flava pestis," and in Welsh " Y 
Fall felen/' is recorded to have desolated the Principality. 

* u Post incremcntum sctatls, virtutum et sapientie, congruo nomine 
Helios a sapientibus nuncupatus est. Eliot autera Greece Latin £ Sol inter- 
pretatur. Fulget enira ut Sol ejus doctrina, fidelium illustrando cord a. 
8ed ill ite rati s hominibus extremum vocabuli corrupt e profercotibus, ad- 
olevit quod non Helios sed Heliud appellatus est."— Life by Galfridus. — 
u Non Elios sed Eliud."— John of Teignmouth. 

t The assertion was made in the Regestum Landavense, at a time when 
the clergy of Llandaff wished to show that their diocese had never been 
subordinate to the primacy of Mcnevia. 



Upon this occasion, T'ilo, with several others, retired to Corn- 
wall, and afterwards to Armorica, where he was honourably 
received by Samson, the bishop of Dole. After he had re- 
mained seven years and as many months in Armorica, he 
returned, with seiiTsl of his disciples, to his native country; 
and upon his arrival was elected to the- ;irc' biahopriok at' 
Menevia, then vacant by the death nf Cynog. Li!. 
however, he retained a predilection for the seat of his original 
bishoprick, and, appointing I.smael to the situation of bishop 
of Menevia, he removed the arch bishoprick to LlandalF." In 
order to maintain his title to the primacy undisturbed, he 
appears to have kept under his immediate government the 
whole of the diocese held before by St. David, with the ex- 
ception of the part north of the river Tivy, which was hence- 
forth attached to the diocese of Liunbadarn.+ In support of 
this view it may be explained that churches founded by Teilo 
Still exist throughout the whole of the country specified, and 
that one of them, Llandeloi, is situated within a few miles of 
the cathedral of St. David's; but north of the Tivy, no i luirch 
of this description is to be found. The proof, however, does 
not rest solely upon the analogy of existing monuments; for 
the records of Llanilaff show that its bishops continued for 
several centuries to claim the whole of the countrv from the 
mouth of the Taradr, or extreme point of Monmouthshire, to 
the mouth of the Tivy,J including, of course, lYinbr.ike- 
shire and ho much of Herefordshire as lay to the west of the 
river Wye. It does not appear that any separate district was 
apportioned as a diocese for Ismael, who must have been no 
more than an assisting suffragan, and his name is not inserted 

* Bcseatum Landavense; Life by GnllYitlus; and Usher pp. ( 

+ The extension of the diocese of l.lanhadirn confirm* the supp 
nl iis bishop at this time Wal Afdn, the brolher of Tello. 

* There is abundant evidence of this in the foimulre of the Com 
,aiiil:itf, which are inserted al length in Spdniaa's Cuncilia. 

FROM A. D. 543 TO A. D. 566. 245 

in the list of prelates of St. David's. In his time, therefore, 
the diocese of Menevia was united to that of Llandaff; and 
the circumstance may account for the claim afterwards made 
by the bishops of Llandaff, which, if maintained, would have 
involved the existence of the bishoprick of St. David's, which 
it went to deprive of its entire territory. But in effect it was 
little better than nominal, thuugh attempts were not wanting 
to enforce it There is reason to suppose that Oudoceus, the 
successor of Teilo at Llandaff, retained Monmouthshire and 
the adjacent part of Herefordshire under his jurisdiction ; but 
he did not succeed to the bishoprick of St David's,* the 
affairs of which were administered by Ceneu ;t and though the 
extent of its territories at the time of its separation, and for 
two centuries afterwards, is not determinable, it is clear that 
from the ninth century, or the establishment of the princes of 
Dinefwr of the line of Rhodri Mawr, it has maintained, with 
an occasional intrusion from the bishops of Llandaff, nearly 
the same limits as at present 

The churches founded by Teilo, or dedicated to him, which 
still exist, are the following : — 


Llandeilo Fawr, V. — 3 chapels, Taliaris (Holy Trinity,) Capel yr 
Ywen, and Llandyfaen, Carmarthenshire. 

Brcchf'a, C. Carm. 

Llandeilo Abercywyn, C. Carm. 

Trelech a'r Bettws, V. — 1 chapel, Capel Bcttws, Carm. 

Llanddowror, Ii. Carm. 

Cilrhcdin, II. — 1 chapel, Capel Jfan (St. John,) Carin. and Pem- 

Llandeilo, C. Annexed to Macnclochog, Pcmb. 

Llandeloi, V. — 1 chapel, Llanhy wel (St. Hywel,) Penib. 

Llandeilo Graban, C. Radnorshire. 

Llandeilo t Fan, C. — I chapel, in ruins, Brecknockshire. 

• Usher, p. 1155. 
t Giraldus, and Records of St. David's quoted by Godwin. 


I hllllliilll Talybont, V. Glamorganshire. 

Bishopston, alias Llaiideilo Ferwallt, It. — 1 chapel, Caswel, Glani. 


LlandarT Cathedral, (St. Teilo and St. Peter.)— 1 chapel, Whit- 
church (St. M»rv.) Glamorganshire. 

Merthyr Dylan, R. Glain. 

Merthyr Mawr, C. — St. Roque's Chapel, in ruins, Glam. 

Llaiideilo Cressenny, V. — 1 cliBpel, Penrhos (St. Cattwg,} Mon- 

Llarmrth, V. Monm. 

Llaiideilo Berthuleu, or Porth-halawg, V. Monm. 

The foregoing list, so far as regards the diocese of St. Da- 
vid's, may be compared with another which is curious tor its 
antiquity. Between the years 1022 and 1031, in the reign of 
Canute, king of England; Rhyddcreh ab lest in, a prince of 
Glamorgan, obtained the sovereignty of South Wales,* and 
taking advantage of the opportunity, made an endeavour to 
restore the ancient diocese of Teilo. He therefore granted to 
the church of id; ill', all such churches in the counties of 
Carmarthen, Pembroke, Brecon, and Radnor, as bore the name 
of that saint, together with several manors, lands, and village*, 
according to the following schedule ;+ extracted literatim from 
" Godwin's Bishops." 


cum suis duob. 3 Lanteliau garth teuir. 

4 Lsnteliau niaur brumiir. 
teru. 5 1 noli linn In i linn in ililTiiiiliiiii 

• Welsh Chronicles in the My v. Archainlog-y. 

+ Its heiding, according to the first edition of Godwin, is: — De oatntbW 
lubioriptle festita fnit ecclc.-ia Landauensis, siniul el epUcopua Joseph, 
pace (juielfi et tran<|uilia tempore regnant if Rilberfch per lotam Gualiim, 
et admonitione vKlnnd Archiepiscopi Can lua reus is simul cum Uteris com- 
mendatltils Cnut regnantia Anglian). 

\ The Hundreds of tVmond Cat beta log, In t inmirtlieiish ire, between Ibe 
rlveri Tow; and Tivy. The nuinct of some of Hie places In Inii 

FROM A. D. 5W TO A. D. 56G. 247 


6 Lanteliau landibr guir main- 16 Menechi arglann ritec iuxta 

aur. penal un. 

7 Lantelian treficerniu. 17 Pull arda iuxta mainaur pir, 

8 Lantoulidauc icair. villa tan turn. 

9 Lanteliau aper coguin. 18 Luin teliau, villa tantum. 

10 Lanteliau pcnn tiuinn. 19 Eccluis Gunniau, vbi natus est 

11 Lanteliau luin {piaidan, villa S. Teliaus. 

tantum, in euiltre. 20 Porth medgtm, villa tantum 

IS Lanrath. 21 Porth manacli mainaur mam- 

13 Lanconguern cum trib. terri- ithiel. 

torijs. Finis illarum Ofruit 22 Din gucnhalf inlonian, villa 
Gurcant Lutglanrath. tantum. 

14 Tref earn, Villa tantum, sine 23 Lantelian litgarth in findou- 

ecclesia. cledif hache mei mainaur. 

15 Laythty teliau, villa tantum su- 24 Lantelia cil retin in emm- 

per ripam ritec iuxta penal un. lim. 


25 Lan issan mainaur. 27 Langurfrit. 

26 Bronu lann. 28 Telich eluuuan. 

ment are disguised by its orthography, and others have been changed by 
lapse of time ; those that can be recognised, are as follow, according to 
their numbers. 1, Llandeilo Fawr; 2 & 3, one of these probably repre- 
sent! the church of Brechfa. 4 Llandeilo Rwnnws, an extinct chapel in 
the parish of Llanegwad; it is called " Llanteilan Brunus" in a charter of 
the Abbey of Talley. 

* The western part of Cannarthenshire with a large portion of Pem- 
brokeshire. 6, Llanddowror. 7, The relative position of this church 
agrees with the locality of TrelOch. 9, Llandeilo Abercywyn. 11, Llwyn- 
Gwaddan near Llanddewi Felffrc ; the name indicates that a church once 
stood there, which appears to have been in ruins at the time of the grant. 
14, Trefgarn, now the name of a church and parish. 15 & 10, Penalun 
may be recognised in Penal y near Tenby. 17, Mainaur pir,— Maenor B£r, 
vulgo Manorbeer. 18, Written—" Lwyn Teilau"— in the second edition 
of Godwin. 22, Lanion, near Pembroke. 23, Lege Llandeilo Lwydgarth, 
in fin Daugleddyf a Chemmaes maenor ; intended for Llandeilo, near Maen- 
clochog, on the borders of the Hundreds of Dungleddy and Cemmaes. 24* 
Cflrhedin in Emlyn. 

f The Hundred of Rhos, Pembrokeshire. 


9 Ciltutuc. 30 Penclccir 

31 Mainaur mathru. 32 Ccnarth maur. 

33 Languruact mainaur. 

34 Lancoit. 


35 Langors. 37 Lan idoudec scith. 

36 Laumihacgel meuion gratlann. 


38 Lan meilic bab gueir. 39 Lanteliau iciliou idiffrin mach- 


* Part of the Hundred of Castle Martin, Pembrokeshire. 
f Pebidiog or Dcwsland, Pembrokeshire. 31, Mathry. 

X Qu. Brycheiniog, Brecknockshire, as the place now called Brechfa was 
included in Cantref Mawr. 33, This manor, probably has reference to 
Llandeilo'r F&n, the only existing church of Teilo, in the diocese of St. 
David's, which is not mentioned in this list. 

§ Cantref Selyf, Brecknockshire. 34, Llangoed, in the parish of Llrs- 

|| The Hundred of Talgarth, Brecknockshire. 35, Llangors. 36, Pro- 
bably Llanfihangel Cwm Du. 

* The rural deanery of Elfael, Radnorshire. 38, LI owes, dedicated to 
St. Mcilig. 39, Lege Llandcilo y ciliau yn nyffryn Machawy,— intended 
for Llandcilo Graban. 

FROM A. D. Mi TO A. D. H6. 249 

It* tins grant ever took effect, it was only for the short reign 
of Rhyddereh ab lest in ; for the Dimetian princes, consider- 
ing him to be an usurper, took up arms against him, and a 
battle ensued in which he was slain, leaving his principality 
to be divided between the conquerors.* Subsequent events 
prove that they did not confirm his benefactions; and his 
reason for bestowing these possessions upon the see of Llan- 
daff, if grounded upon tile supposition that they once belonged 
to Teilo, must have rested upon a false foundation, for that 
prelate was also the acknowledged archbishop of Menevia. 
That the grant was reckoned invalid, is evident from the cir- 
cumstance that, about a century after the period in question, 
Urban, bishop of Llandaff and a zealous assertor of its privi- 
leges, claimed to his diocese only so much of Carmarthenshire 
as lay to the south of the river Towy, together with the south- 
ern part of Brecknockshire, and that portion of the county of 
Hereford which lay on the western side of the Wye. He rested 
his claim, mainly, upon the right of former occupation, contend- 
ing that his predecessor had exercised authority and instituted 
several persons to benefices in the disputed country. Upon 

( appealing to the Pope, an inhibition was issued to the 
bishops of St. David's and Hereford, commanding them to 
■with-hold the exercise of their authority in the districts then 
called Gwyr, Cydwely, Cantref Bychan, Ystrad Yw, and Er- 
ging ; which were committed to the care of the bishop of 
Llandaff, until the other bishops should prove their title. t 
The remainder of the history of this controversy is lost; but 

» Welsh Chronicles in the Myv. Arcbaiology, Their compilers, though 
■gieeing generally us lo facts, sometimes betray the bins of llieir respective 
provinces; Brut leuan Brechfa, written hy a Diinetinn, asserts that Rhy- 
ddereh was an usurper ; while- Brut y T> wy*ogion, written by Cnrntlotr, 
■ Silurian, contends that he was entitled to the sovereignty of South 
Wales by inheritance. 

■f WbsrtorTs Anglio Sacra, Vol. II. tud Godwin's Bishop!. 




it* hwne may be inferred from the fact, that the earliest notice* 
of these districts subsequently, exhibits tbem included ia die 
diocese of St. David's and Hereford, in the state they ire 
{bond at present. 

The grant contains the names of one or two chapels, which 
must have been erected after the institution of parishes, and 
therefore at a later period than the era of Teilo. But as the 
bishops of St. David's were not likely to consecrate such 
edifices to the memory of a saint whose name implied sub- 
jection to the rival see ; it may be gathered tliat the bishops 
of Llandaft" had, upon some occasion, obtained a transient 
ascendancy before the time of Khydderch. This appears to 
have been the case about the end of the eighth century, when 
fllaredudd was king of Dyfed or Dinietia ;f for it is recorded 
that he gave sis churches to Llandaff in the time of Guodloiu, 
its eleventh bishop.} 

Teilo lived to an advanced age, and most of the churches 
which perpetuate his name must have been founded by him 
after he succeeded to the honours of Cynog ; but the account, 
which asserts that he was living .it the time St. Augusttn 
visited Britain, can hardly be adtnittcd.j It is said that he 
died at Llandeilo Fawr, and the following legend is related 
respecting his body. Three places put in their claims for the 
honour of his interment; Llandaff, where he had been bishop; 
Llandeilo Fawr, where he died; and Penalun,|| where his 
ancestors had been buried. The dispute was not likely to be 
settled, when, by a miracle, three bodies appeared in the room 
of one, so like that the real one could not be distinguished ! 
It was therefore agreed to bury one body at each of the three 

• The Taxation of Pope Nicholas. 
t Obilt A. D. 79a. Welsh Chronicles. 
J Godwin; who snys that Mnredudd was a 

§ Usher, p, ll». 

|| Pensly near Tenby. 

FROM A. D, 542 TO A. D. 566. 


places, trusting to the chance which of them might be the iden- 
tical corpse of the saint!!* lie was commemorated on tile 
ninth of February, anil has been recorded in the Triads as one 
of the three canonized saints of Britain ; the two others were 
Dewi and Cattwg. 

Mabon, the brother of Teilo, called also Mabon Wyn and 
Mabon Hen, was a saint ; and Llanfabon, a chapel subject to 
Egiwys Ilan near Llandaff, is dedicated to him. It is worthy 
of remark that in the parish of Llandeilo Fawr, there are two 
manors, the one called JMaenor Dcilo, and the other Maenor 
Faboti ; affording an example of the mode in which names of 
places frequently bear reference to historical associations. 

It would appear that Teilo encouraged the poetic genius of 
his countrymen. Gwrhir, one of his bards, was a saint and 
the founder of Llysfaen, Glamorganshire. 

Ystyffan, another of the bards of Teilo, was the son of Maw- 
an ab Cyngen ab Cadell.t He was the founder of Llanstyftan, 
Carmarthenshire, and Llanstyftan, in the county of Radnor ; 
both of which churches have others attributed to Teilo in the 
parishes adjoining.J A collection of stanzas, composed by 
him, is inserted in the third volume of the Myvyrian Archai- 

According to the " Life of St. OudoceiiH,"§ Budic, a native 
of Cornugallia in Armorica, and related to its chieftains, was 
forced to leave his country; and putting to sea with a fleet, he 

eles done al (he place of his burii 
: the true body lyeth."— Jjodwi 

■ "Howbeit by diuers mir 
dafff, it oppearoth that thei 
Liber I.nndatensis. 

f P«ge 207. 

* Llaiideilo Abercywyn, Carmarthenshire, and Llamleilo Gmbnn, Rad- 
norshire i which would imply that their association is due to the friend- 
ship of their founders. 

^ Quoted by Usher p. .50 1 , from the Regettnm T.andnveuse. The names 
* Bodic" aiid " Anaunied" are here given in their Latin orthography, us 
Ibey have not been seen in any Welsh writer. 


boded in Dyfed, or Pembrokeshire, which ni at that time 
under the government of ■ prince, named Aercol Lavitir. 
He was hospitably received, and making hi* abode in Dyfof, 
be married Ananmed, the daughter of Enak or EnHen, by 
wbom be bad two sons, Ismael already mentioned, and TifeL 
Both the children were devoted to the service of religion br 
their mother, who was the niter of St. TeUo; and in coarse cf 
time Ismael receired from his ancle the appointment of suffra- 
gan bishop of Menevia- He was the founder of St. I jhmael'i 
near Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, and of Camros, Usmastou, 
Rosemarket, St. Ishmael's, and East Haroldston, Pembroke- 

Tyfei, the brother of Ismael, was accidentally slain, when a 
child, by a person named Tyrtuc,* and has therefore been styled 
a martyr, though it is difficult to understand how a ease of man- 
alaughter could be construed into a death in testimony of the 
faith of the sufferer. He was buried at Pennly, Pembroke- 
■hire ; and is the patron saint of Llampheyt in that county. 
A church near Llandeilo Fawr is called Llandyfeisant ; and 
tbe relationship of Teilo, who died in the adjoining parish, 
would justify the suggestion that the name means — "the 
church of St. Tyfei," and not "the church of St. Dewi"ai 
Commonly supposed. 

While Budic continued to reside in Dyfed, ambassadors 
came from Cornugallia, announcing to him the death of their 
king, and that the people, wishing to elect a successor of the 
same family, had made choice of him, and were desirous that 
he should undertake the government. The proposal was ac- 
cepted. Budic, taking with him his wife and family, returned 
to his native country, and had the good fortune to establish 
his dominion ever the whole of Arroorica. Soon after bis 

• Gndwln\Bislji>p%. 

t Written " Lanlerei" by Girnliliis C*nibrci»is, mil by Brnwnc Willi) 

" I.lmHiffl." 

FROM \. D. 5« TO A. D 566. J 

■rrival he had another son, named Oudoceus, who, in com- 
pliance with a promise previously made to Teilo, was. like his 
brothers, destined for the profession of religion. From his 
childhood, Oudoceus excelled in learning and eloquence, as 
well as in the purity and holiness of his life; and when Teilo 
visited Armorica, his virtues were shining as a burning light.* 
He attracted the especial notice of his uncle, whom he accom- 
panied on his return to Wales ; hut the time when he suc- 
ceeded him as bishop or archbishop of LI anthill", belongs to 
the next generation.* 

Among the companions of St. Teilo, after his return from 
Armorica, are named Lunapeius, Gurmaet, Cynmur, Toulid- 
*uc,, and Fidelis.J The orthography of their names is 
corrupt, and only three of them can be recognized. Toulid- 
auc was the saint of a church, once called Llandeulydog, in 
the southern part of Pembrokeshire^ which was bestowed by 
Rbyddcrch nb Iestin on the bishoprick of Llnmlnif, probably 
on account of the connexion subsisting between Teilo and 
its founder. Gurmaet was the saint of a church called, in the 
grant of Rhydderch, " Languruaet," which was also given to 
the bishoprick of LlandafT, apparently for the same reason; 
its situation corresponds with tli;it of Llandeilo'r Fan, Breck- 
nockshire. Luhil was the saint of Llywel, a parish adjoining 
Llandeilo'r Fan, and which had three saints ; the two others 
being David and Teilo. 

Samson was the son of Amwn Ddu ah Emyr Llydaw by 
Anna, daughter of Meurig ah Tewdrig. As he was born in 
Glamorganshire, || his birth may be dated after the general 
emigration of the Armorican saints under Cadfan ; and as 

t Vila S. Oudocel n Regesto Lands venal. 

I Regeslura Lnndavense. 

' Godwin'* Bishops, and My v. Archaiology, Vol. HI. p. 350. 

|| Regent urn l ■ I ii>: ■■<■- 



e of the before-mentioned children of Amwn Ddu* are des- 
cribed to have been children of Anna, it may be concluded that 
Anna was a second wife of Amwn Ddu, married to him after his 
arrival in Britain. The Life of this saint, in the Regestnm 
Landavense, contains several inconsistencies ; but it may be 
learned from Achau y Saint that he was a member of the 
college of Illtyd, and that upon the death of Peirio he suc- 
ceeded to the presidency of that society : he afterwards went 
over to Armoricn, where lie was appointed bishop of Dole. 
This last circumstance, as already shown ,+ has been attributed 
to two other persons of the same name ; and the confusion 
thence arising has thrown an appearance of doubt upon the 
history of the son of Amwn Ddu, for whom some writers have 
claimed the rank of archbishop. The existence, however, of 
Samson a bishop, whose age corresponds with the present, if 
maintained upon authentic testimony ; since it is shown by 
Usher, from the Concilia Galliie, that a prelate of that name 
subscribed the decrees of the Council of Paris in the year 567. 
That this was the person who held the see of Dole is generally 
acknowledged, and the traditions of that place agree with the 
Welsh authorities as to his family and connexions. But he wa» 
only a bishop, as appears by his signature, though it is pro- 
bable that he was appointed without the consent of bis metro- 
politan ; for the church of Tours, which claimed a superior 
jurisdiction over Armorica, was in the country of the Franks, 
and the Armoricans were at this time struggling for political 
independence. Such was the view of the question given by 
the clergy of Tours to the Pope, at the time Giraldus demand- 
ed the restitution of the pall to Menevia;| and the explanation 

•Fife SIS. 

+ Pngc 3S9. 

JThc statement mode by tbc clergy uf Tonrs w«s »« follows*— 
"Cum nlim tola Britnnnin (Minor) fiil'sel Turcinenni eccUsiB tutiquim 
melropnli tun subjects.; Briliuuls tandem con spirant I bus contra te gen 
Fnuicuruw, ei proprium iibi coiistitucnHbus tegem, occn.'iotie Bciti Sim. 

FROM A. O. MS TO A. D. 5G0. 


is supported by the authenticated fact that a council was held 
at Tours A. D. 5*37, in which the archbishop of Tours was 
acknowledged to hi; the metropolitan, and it was decreed that 
no one should presume to ordain either a Briton or a Roman 
to the office of a bishop in Armorica, without the consent and 
permission of the metropolitan or the other bishops of the pro- 
vince." The independence of Armorica seems to have been 
asserted by Biulic, who was the friend of Samson ; but there 
appears also to have been another chieftain, named Iudiiul or 
Juthael, who was deprived of his dominions by an usurper 
named Communis, and sent a prisoner to Childebert, king of 
tlie Franks, when the intercession of the bishop procured his 
release, and he was restored to his possessions.-!- The Welsh 
accounts proceed to say, though the reason is not explained, 
that Samson returned from Armorica to the college of llltyd, 
where he died ; and in the church-yard of Lantwit Major, 
two large stone crosses still remain, one of them having three 
several inscriptions, the first purporting that it was the cross 
of Iltutus and Samson, the second that Samson erected the 
cross for his soul, and the third that one Samuel was the 
carver; the other cross ha:- but one inscription, which, how- 
ever, is longer and more legible than those on its neighbour, 

joois qiioodain Eboracensla archiepiscopi, qni ilura in pnriibus BrilaooiiB 
patorctur exilium, in Dokvisi eccksiS rum aicliio[ji-Ci'[i;i!i!ui» insignibus 
mil) ist rant. Dolcnsis ecdesin contra Turonenscin superciljum etalionis 
assumpsit : Brilannis volriiiiliiis >il)i nomm arcliii'jiisrujiiiiii, Meat noTUui 
regetn cicnvernnr, suscilnrc." — I'slier, from the Register of Pope Innocent 
III. A. D. 1190. The only error in this explanation seems to hive been, 
th»l Samson was an archbishop of York. 

• In Turonensis II. hisce temporibus (anno videlicet DLXVII.) habiti 
Canone IX. Metropolitan! ncriiinf iii-n alium .jiiam Tiironciiscni nrctiit-pis- 
eopum desi gnat urn consletj ubi can turn est, tuqmU It rifa union out lio- 
maH*m in Armaria, tine mttropott'tani ant cmu)irtiri«e!<ilium rolantatc 
a»t titrrii, tjiiicopum ordiiutrt- praitimal. Usher, page lul I, 

t Uiher,pp. 1013,1111. 



and state that it was prepared by Samson for his soul, and for 
the souls of Juthacl the king, and Arthmael.* 

Tathan,in LatiriTathci'us,anothersonofAmwuDduandAnui| 
was a member of the college of Illtyd, after which he settled 
at a place in G lam organ slii re where he founded a church, 
since called Llandathan or St. Athan's. From hence he was 
called away to be the first president of a college or monastery 
at Caer-Went in Monmouthshire, under the patronage of 
Ynyr Gwent, to whom he became confessor. In his old age 
he returned to the church which he had founded, and wis 
buried there. From the "Life of St. Tatho?us" by John of 
Tcignmouth it appears that he was patronized, not by Ynvr 
Gwent, but by Caradog, the son of Ynyr, which is more con- 
sistent with the chronological arrangement here adopted. 

Armorica, from whence a large number of saints had emi- 
grated in the past generation, seems now to have received i 
supply from Wales. The successor of Samson in the bisliop- 
rick of Dole was St. Maglorius, whose parents were Umbrafel 
a brother of Amwu Ddu, and Afrella a sister of Anna; he 
was therefore doubly related to his predecessor, whom he ac- 
companied to that country, after having been brought np 
together with him in the school of Iltutns. In like manner, 
Machutus or Mnclovius, a son of Caradog ab Ynyr Gwent bj 
Derwela a sister of Amwn Ddu, is recorded to have passed 
over, and become bishop of Aletha, now St. Main's, To tbc 
number may be added, Paulus and Leonorius, members of the 
college of Iltutns, the former of whom was appointed bishop of 
Leon. Their lives have been written by the biographers of 
the Galilean saints, a reference to whose works may be of ser- 
vice in authenticating Welsh traditions. t 

* A facsimile of t lie last inscription, with an interesting account of the 
manner in which the cross u a* discovered by the late Mr. Edward Willi ami, 
may be seen In Turner's Vindication of the Ancient British Poems. 

f The names of the four saints in this paragraph are in their LaliB 
m On ■.]■■)•' j ■ 

PROM A. D. SliTO A. D. 56fl. 


Iran, a saint of the college of Illtyd ; his genealogy is not 
given, but as he was a contemporary of Samson, his date may 
be assigned to this period. He was the founder of Llanishen, 
Glamorganshire, and Llanishen, Monmouthshire. 

Cennydd, a son of Gildas ab Caw, was at first a member of 
the college of Cattwg, and afterwards the founder of a re- 
ligious society, called Cor Cennydd, at a place in Gower, 
Glamorganshire, where the cluirch of Llangennydd is now 
situated. It is said that be founded a church above Cardiff, 
which gave name to the district of Seinghennydd,* but it has 
not been identified with any of the churches at present ex- 
isting in that neighbourhood. 

Madog ab Gildas was a saint of the college of Cennydd, and 
the founder of Llanfadog, a church in the vicinity of Llan- 

Dolgan ab Gildas, a saint of the college of Cattwg. 

Nwython, or Noetlion ab Gildas, a member of the society of 
Cattwg. It is said that there were formerly chapels dedicated 
to him and his brother, Gwynnog, under Liang wm Dinmael, 
Denbighshire, t 

Gwynno, or Gwynnog ab Gildas, a member of the society of 
Cattwg, and the patron saint of Y Faenor, Brecknockshire. 
Under the name of Gwynno, he is considered to have been 
one of the three founders of Llantrisaint, Glamorganshire; and 
Llanwynno, a chapel under Llantrisaint, is dedicated to him. 
Llanwnog in the county of Montgomery claims him for its 
founder under the name of Gwynnog; and in the chancel 
window of this church be is delineated in painted glass in 
episcopal habits, with a mitre on his head, and a crosier in his 
hand; underneath is an inscription in old English characters, 
inctns Gwinocus, cujus anima? propitietnr Deus. Amen."f 

■ Cambrian Biography. 

t My»yri«D Arehoiology, Vol. II. 

I Cimtirian Quirterly Magazine, Vol. I. 



\ His festival is Oct. 26; and he is not to be confounded » 
Gwenog, a virgin, the saint of Llanwenog, Cardiganshire. 

Tydecho ab Ctldas appears in one catalogue of saints, p 
bably by mistake for Tydecho, the son of Amwn Ddu, 

Dolgar, a daughter of Gildas ab Caw. 

Garci, the son of Cewydd ab Caw; a saint to whom it ii 
said there was a church dedicated in Glamorganshire. • 

Ttidwg, the son of Tyfodwg, was a member of the insti 
tion of Cennydd. Llandudwg, or Tythegston, subject t 
Newcastle, Glamorganshire, is dedicated to him. 

Daniel, who has been mentioned as being present at t 
Synod of Brefi.t was no other than Deiniol Wyn, the s. 
Dunawd Fyr by Dwywe, a daughter of Gwallog ab Lie 
He assisted his father in the establishment of the monastery ot 
Bangor Iscoed ; and it is said that in 516 he founded a 
monastery in Carnarvonshire, called Bangor Deiniol and 1 
gor Fawr, of which he was abbot. Soon afterwards this place 
was raised by Maelgwn Gwynedd to the rank of a bishop's 
see, of which Deiniol was the first bishop ; and as it is stated 
that he received episcopal consecration from Dubricius, tht 
event must have occurred before the end of the year 523. 
1 According to Geoffrey of Monmouth he died in 544. — Such i* 
the chronology of his life as arranged by Usher, but it depends 
on the authority of writers comparatively late, and is sur- 
rounded with difficulties which are fatal to its reception. It 
appears from the authentic testimony of Bede that Dunawd, 
the father of Deiniol. was living at the time of the conference 
with St. Augustin about the year 600, a circumstance incom- 
patible with the supposition that the son could have flourished 
so early as 516. The poems of Llywnrch Hen, a contem- 
porary, prove that Dunawd was engaged in battle with the 
sons of Urien Rheged, whose age is determined by the cir- 

• Cambritn Biog t»phy. 
t PigelM. 

FROM A. D. 542 TO A. D. 566. 259 

cum stance that their father was living so late as the year 560.* 
Dunawd, therefore, was not a saint till near the close of the 
past generation, about which time he might have founded the 
monastery of Bangor Iscoed. The monastery of Bangor 
Deiniol was founded afterwards ; and the situation of Domini 
in his own pedigree assigns him to the present generation, 
which agrees also with the time when Maelgwn Gwynedd, his 
acknowledged patron, was at the height of his power. Stress 
Is laid upon this point, as it involves the date of the foundation 
of the present bishopriek of Bangor ; but the churches attri- 
buted to Deiniol are few, and not disposed in such a way as to 
afford a criterion for ascertaining the extent of his diocese. 
He was consecrated, probably, by St. David, as there is reason 
to assert that he and his relatives lived for some time under 
the protection of that saint at Llanddewi Brefi,+ where 
churches still retain their names ; but the synod of Brefi and 
the death of Dilbricius were events which must have happen- 
ed when he was a child. Few particulars of his life can be 
collected, for tradition and the legendary writers have been all 
but silent respecting him. It is said that he was a bard, 
though none of his poems remain. He was buried in the Isle 

* He survived Ida, the kins <>f ll'« Angles, whose death is placed la 
458 — Compare Nenoius with the Saxon Chronicle. 

+ Gwynfardd, enumerating the privileges of St. David El Brefl, says, 
that he hail Ihe happiness — 

To have around him, about his plains, 

Men liberal anil kindly disposed, and fair towns; 

Ho ensured protection ro a quiet people, 

The tribe of Daniel, highly exalted, their equal 

Exists not, Tor lineage and morality and courtesy. 

A bod o'i gylchyn, cylch ei faesydd, 
Hielon. n thirion, a theg drefydd ; 
A gorfod gwared lliwed llonydd, 
Llwyth Daniel oruchel, en hefelydd 
Nid oes, yn cadw oes, a mues, a uiynudydd. 



of Bardsey, and his memory lias been celebrated on the tenth 
of December. The churches founded by him were, Llan- 
ddeiniol in Cardiganshire, which is perhaps due to his con- 
nexion with St. David at Llanddewi Brefi ; Lland deiniol, or 
Itton, Monmouthshire ; Hawarden, Flintshire ; and Lian- 
uwchlyn, Merionethshire : and the chapels under his tutelage 
are, Worthenbury, Flintshire, formerly subject to Bangof 
Iscoed, but now a separate benefice;* and St. Daniel's, sub- 
ject to Monk town, Pembrokeshire. 

Cynwyl, a brother of Deiniol, appears also to have lived 
under the protection of St. David, and has been deemed the 
founder of Cynwyl Gaio, the church of a parish adjoining that 
of Llanddewi Brefi. Another trace of this family may be found 
in the name of Llansawel, a chapel subordinate to Cynwyl 
Gaio.t which is dedicated to Sawyl.J the uncle of Deiniol. 
ThechurchesofCynwylElfed, Carmarthenshire, and Aberporth, 
Cardiganshire, have likewise been attributed to Cynwyl, and 
according to Ecton he is the patron Baint of Penrhos, a chapel 
under Abererch, Carnarvonshire. He assisted at the estab- 
lishment of the monastery of Bangor Iscoed; and his wake or 
saint's day is April 30. 

Gwarthan, another brother of Deiniol, assisted at the estab- 
lishment of the monastery of Bangor Iscoed, but nothing 
further is known respecting him. 

Cynfelyn, a son of Bteiddyd ab Meirion of the line of Cun- 
edda, was the founder of Llnngynfelyn, Cardiganshire ; and of 
a church at Welsh Pool, Montgomeryshire, which was pro- 
bably connected with the religious society established there by 
his brother, Llewelyn ab Bleiddyd. 

• Ssparated by Act of Parliament in tlic secoad year of William and 
Mary.— B. Willis. 

t The Oidnance map notices aa upright stnne in this neighbourhood, 
which it calls " Crossgonnell," i. «. Croes Gynwyl, or Si. Cynwjl't 

J Page W. nnfru. 

FROM A. D. 542 TO A. D. 66G. 261 

Llewelyn ab Bleiddyd ab Tegonwy ab Teon, by mistake for 
Llewelyn ab Bleiddyd ab Meirion ab Tibion, is said to have 
founded a religious house at Trail wng, now called Welsh 
Pool. He ended his days in the monastery of Bardsey. 

Mabon, a brother of Llewelyn, is presumed to have been 
the founder of Rhiwfabon, Denbighshire. 

Cynudyn ab Bleiddyd ab Meirion, was a dean of the college 
of Padarn at Llanbadarn Fawr. Lewis Morris suggests that a 
stone in the churchyard of Llanwnws, Cardiganshire, with 
the inscription " Canotinn" was a monument to the memory 
of this person. 4 * 

Gwynlleu, the son of Cyngar ab Arthog of the line of Cun- 
edda, was probably the founder of Nantgwnlle, Cardigan- 

Eurgain, daughter of Maelgwn Gwynedd and wife of Elidyr 
Mwynfawr, was the foundress of Llaneurgain, or Northop, 

Cyndeyrn or St. Kentigern, according to Bonedd y Saint 
was the son of Owain ab Urien Rheged and Dwynwent the 
daughter of Llewddyn Lucddog of Dinas EiddynJ in the 
north. According to John of Teignmouth he was born in 
North Britain, where lie was placed under the instruction of 
Servanus, an Irish saint ; and it is said that he earned the 
esteem of his instructor to such a degree that he was styled by 
him Mwyngu or " amiable," which later writers have rendered , 
into St 3Iungo, a name by which he is frequently known, j 
When he grew up he founded the bishoprick of Glasgow, or, 
as the Welsh writers term the place, Penryn Rhionydd ; but 
after a time the dissensions of his countrymen forced him to 
retire to Wales, where he was kindly received by St. David. 

* Myv. Archaiology, Vol. II. — This stone is not noticed in Meyrick's 
t John of Teignmouth calls her "Tanen." 
£ Dinas Eiddyn is almost a literal translation of Edenburgh. 


While he remained in Wales he founded another bishoprick 
at Llanelwy* in Flintshire about A. D. 550; and though in 
its establishment he experienced some opposition from Maelgwn 
Gwynedd, that chieftain was eventually reconciled and became 
one of Ilia patrons. After a few years he was recalled to hi) 
native country by " Rederech" or Rhydderch Hael, chief of 
the Strath Clyde Britons ; and resigning the see of Llanelwy 
to Asaf, one of his disciples, he resumed the bishoprick of 
,. Glasgow, at which place he died at an advanced age.t He 
has been a great favourite with the legendary writers, who, in 
order to enlist his name in behalf of the prerogatives of Rome, 
have asserted that, being dissatisfied with the mode of his con- 
secration, he applied to the Pope intreating his Holiness to 
rectify its irregularities. The following is Cressy's elucidation 
of the subject: — 

"When he was come to an age wherein he might dispose 
his own actions, the man of God, Kentigern, went from hii 
Master (Servanus) to b place called Glashu.t where he lived 
alone in great abstinence, untill the King and Clergy of that 
Region, calkl then Cumbria, (now Galloway) together with 
other Christians, who were but few, chose him for their Pu- 
tour and Bishop, notwithstanding the utmost resistance he 
could make. And sending for one single Bishop out of Ire- 
land they caused him to be consecrated after the then usual] 
custome among the Brittains and Scotts. For at that time ■ 
practise had gott footing to use no other Ceremonies in the 
Consecration of a Bishop, but onely the infusion of Sacred 
Chrism on their heads with invocation of the Holy Spirit, 
benediction, and imposition of hands. For those Islanders, 

- Qu. Glasgc 

several churches dedicated to St. Kcn%ern in Cumberland, 
as monuments of Ihe accup«tion of llii! country by tl 

FROM A. D. SUTO A. D. S66. 

removed as it were from the World, by meanes of their conti- 
nuall infestations by Pagans, were become ignorant in the 
Ecclesiastical! Canons. For which reason the Law of the 
Church condescended to them, and admitted an excuse in this 
regard, so that Ecclesiastical] censures did not touch them. 
* " " But a more authentic proof of the respect and depend- 
ance which the British Churches had of the Roman cannot be 
imagined, then the behaviour of S. Kentigern himself. For 
being afterwards afflicted in his mind for the foresaid defects 
in his Ordination, he did not seek for Counsel or remedy from 
am ■ .Metropolitans in Brittany, Ireland, or France, but onely 
from Rome and the Supreme Bishop thereof, to whom the 
Custodv of Ecclesiastical] Canons was by the Church com- 
mitted, and who had authority to enjoy n. the observation of 
them, to punish the transgression, and to supply or dispence 
with the defects either by negligence or necessity occurring 
in the execution of them. This is expressly declared by John 
of Tinmouth in his prosecution of the Life of S. Kentigern : 
where he tells us, ' That the Man of God went seaven several! 
times to Rome, where he simply and particularly layd open 
bis whole life, his Election, Consecration, and all the accidents 
wliicb had befalln him to S. Gregory the speciall Apostle of 
the English. Upon which the Holy Pope perceiving that he 
was a sincere man of God and full of the Grace of God's holy 
Spirit, confirmed his Consecration, knowing that it came from 
God, Moreover at his often and earnest request, yet with 
great nnwillingnes, he condescended to supply those small 
defects which were wanting in his Consecration, and having 
done this he dismissed him to the work of the Ministry which 
was enjoy ned him by the Holy Ghost.' — Hence appears that 
in the Ordination of S. Kentigern nothing was omitted that 
was of any necessity, since it was only upon his importunity 
and for satisfaction of his Scrupulosity that S. Gregory sup- 
plied the omission of certain Rites required by the Canons. 
The greatest fault that the Holy Bishop could impute to him- 



self, was his being consecrated by one onely Irish Bishop, 
against the Expresse Canon of a General Council." But con- 
sidering the unquietnes and danger of the times, and the wont 
of Bishops, though there was a transgression of the words of 
the Canon, yet there was none of the mind of it, which cer- 
tainly does not oblige to impossibilities." 

The only authority for the narrative part of this dissertation 
is that of John of Teignmonth, who lived in the twelfth cen- 
tury ; but granting that his assertions, so far as they related 
to St. Kentigern, were correct, it would still remain, that the 
mode of consecrating bishops in the British and Scottish 
churches was different from that practised in the Church of 
Borne, and that the opinions of St. Kentigern as an individual 
were at variance with those of his brethren. No change could 
have been effected by his example, for in the next century the 
Britons are found resolutely adhering to their peculiar cus- 
toms, and refusing to hold intercourse with the Bomish clergy> 
But it is not necessary to make so large a concession, Thl 
silence of St. Gregory and the writers of the following age, 
upon so important a subject, affords a strong presumption 
that no communication passed between him and St. Kenti- 
gern ; and evidence of this kind, though negative, is of'grealrr 
value than tile assertions of a legend written six hundred 
years after the events which it pretends to describe. As for 
the statement upon which Cressy, presuming upon the truth 
of his author, lays so much stress, that the saint was conse- 
crated by one bishop instead of three; the number would not 
have been so much the ground of objection as the fact that the 
Britons and Scots were out of the pale of the Church of Rome, 
that the consecrations of their bishops, and consequently tb( 

• "The first Canon of Ihe Apostles, confirmed by many Councils"' 
joyn'd that every Bishop should bo ordained by at leaal Iwo or Ohm 
Bishops: Whereas s. Krnligern was consecnled by one (ingle Biihop. 
and him,« siranf cr of a forraln Nation." — CreMf. 

FROM A, D. S« TO A. D. 566. 265 

titles of their inferior clergy, were not considered valid by the 
Catholics. Between the years lilii unci ()(!!!, St. Chad, a bishop 
of the Anglo-Saxons, was consecrated by a Romish, or as it 
was then termed, a canonical bishnp, assisted by two British 
bishops ; and the reason for this expedient was the circum- 
stance that there was at that time but one Catholic bishop in 
all Britain.* It was afterwards determined, that in conse- 
quence of the British bishops assisting, the ceremony waa 
invalid ; and St. Chad was prepared to resign his office, when 
in consideration of his humility and submission, Theodore, 
who bad then been appointed archbishop of Canterbury, con- 
sented to grant him a fresh consecration.+ In the same inter- 
val, Wilfrid, archbishop of York, undertook a journey to 
Gaul, "rather than be consecrated by prelates not in com- 
munion with Rome as the Britons and Scots, or by those who 
■greed with schismatics. "J 

Asaf was the son of Sawjl Bemichcl and Gwenaseth daugh- 
ter of Rhufon Rhufoniog. He was the disciple of Cyndeym, 

" •' Dlverterunt ad provindsni Occidental i urn Saxonuro, uhi ernl Villi 
Episcopus; et ab lllo est vlr prsfatus (Ceadda) consecralus Autistes, 
ftdiuinijilis in -"Cicliileiii nnliiutiunis dunlins ,li; Itri n< miim genie EpiseopU, 
qui Domini cum I'asclur diem, ut SHtpius dictum est, scnus moreni cnniini. 
curo a quarts dceimu usque ad vicesimani Lunam celebrant. Non enim 
rral tunc ullus, excepto illo Vine, in loll BrilanniS canonice wdinatus 
Episcopus."— Bede, Lib. III. Cap. 28. 

♦ "Itaquc Thendorus perlustrans unlversa, ordinabat locis opportmils 
EpUcopos, et ea quit minus perfects repent, Ids quoque juvautibns corri- 
geuat. In quibus et C'caddn Episcopum cum argucret non fuisse rite con- 
secratum, respondent ipse voce Inniiillimfi : "Si me, iiii|iiit, nosti Episco- 
patum non rile suscepisse, liiienter al> oltic !<■ disced" : tjnippc qui neque 
u>e unquara hoc es<e dignmn arbitrator; scd obediential causH jusaus 
lubire hoi-, quamvis indigmis consensi.' At tilt; aujiens humilitalem res- 
ponsionis ejus, diiil, non euni Episcopatum diraillere deuere; sed ipse 
ordinal ioueui ejus denuo Catholic! ralionc cuiiiuminavil." — Rude, Lib, IT. 
L'»p. •>. 

X EdJius, Vila Wilfrid!, apud Galo. 


whom he succeeded about A. D. GOO in the bishoprick of"^ 
Llanelwy, which from this circumstance has ever since beenfc- 
known in English by the name of St. Asaph, though in Welsh— ^ 
it retains its original appellation. Asaf is also known as th^=» 
founder of the church of Llanasa in Flintshire. 

Pedrog, according to Bonedd y Saint, was the son of Cle- 
ment prince of Cornwall ; but Cressy insists that he was born 
of princely parentage in Wales. Usher makes it appear that 
he was contemporary with St. Kentigem. He was the founder 
of the churches of Llanbedrog, Carnarvonshire, St. Petrol, 
Pembrokeshire, and of several others in Cornwall and Devon, 
of which counties he may be considered the tutelar saint. He 
was buried at Bodmin, where, according to some authorities, 
he had established a bishoprick. 

Cybi was the son of Selyf ah Gcraint ab Erhin, and as bii 
mother was Gwen, daughter of Gynyr of Caer-gawcb, he mast 
have been a cousin and contemporary of St. David, though ap- 
parently some years younger. If the verses, said to have been 
written by Aneurin or Cattwg Ddocth, upon the departure of 
the saints for Bardsey, can be trusted, Cybi was present at the 
Synod of Brefi ;* and it may be said that the memory of hi 
presence is preserved in the name of the church of Llangjbi 
in the immediate neighbourhood of Llanddewi Brefi. He wu 
also the founder of Llangyhi near Caerlcon, which confirms 
the probability that he was acquainted with St. David. Bui 
he is more especially distinguished as the founder of a religioui 
society at Caergyhi or Holyhead in Anglesey, near to the spot 
where Caswallon Lawhir had slain Serigi, over whose graves 
chapel was afterwards erected. As Cybi was the president uf 
hia society, he was, according to the usual practice of the 
times, stvled a bishop, though he never held jurisdiction over 
a diocese. The anachronism which places him in the fourth 

• SeeMyT. Archaiology, Vol I. p. 181, and Vol. lit. p. 3. but the t<w> 
e loo modern for the authors assigned. 

KROM A. D. 51S TO A. D. 566. 


century and makes him acquainted with St. Hilary, Bishop of 
Poictiers, may be attributed to the circumstance that one of 
his contemporary saints in that island was called Elian, a name 
which the Welsh give also to St. Hilary. Besides the churches 
already mentioned, Cybi was the founder of Llangybi in Car- 
narvonshire. Festival, Nov. 6. 

According to tradition Cybi and Elian used to meet at a 
place called Handy fry dog, between Llanelian and Holyhead, 
to confer upon subjects of religion. A similar story is told of 
Cybi and Seiriol of Penmon, who used to hold weekly meet- 
ings at Cloracb near Llnnnerch y Wedd. " From the circum- 
stance of Seiriol travelling westward in the morning and east- 
ward in the evening, and Cybi on the contrary always facing 
the sun, they were denominated ' Seiriol Wyn a Chybi Felyn, 
— Seiriol the Fair, and Cybi the Tawny." These stories, 
though obviously fabulous, are chronologically consistent, as 
the three saints, according to their genealogy, were living at 
the same time. 

Elian Geimiad was the son of Gallgu Rierldog ab Carclud- 
wys of the line of Cad roil Catch 1'ynydd, and )] is mother was 
Canna, a daughter of Tewdwr JIawr o Lydaw and widow of 
Sadwrn. The epithet Ceimiad (pilgrim) has by one writer* 
been changed into Cannaid (bright) to correspond with the 
Latin Hilarius; but the conjecture was unnecessary, as the 
sound of the name Elian, which the Welsh have thought con- 
vertible with Hilary, t is sufficient to account for the confusion. 
Elian is celebrated in the superstitions of the Principality ; 
miraculous cures were lately supposed to be performed at his 
shrine at Llanelian, Anglesey ;$ and near to the church of 
Llanelian, Denbighshire, is a well called Ffynnon Elian, 
which is thought by the peasantry of the neighbourhood to 

• The author of a "History of Anglesey." 

t In the Welsh Calendar, St. Hilary is called Elian Esgob. 

I History of Anglesey, 1774. 



be endued with miraculous powers even at present. His wake 
is held in the month of August, while the festival of St. Hi- 
lary occurs on the thirteenth of January. 

Beuno was the son of Hywgi or Bugi ab Gwynllyw Filwr 
and Perfleren daughter of Llewddyn Luyddog of D'mu 
Eiddyn in the North. He was, therefore, nearly related to 
Cattwg and Kentigern, with the latter of whom he was con- 
temporary. Few particulars of his life are known, though it 
must have extended into the following century, as it is recorJ- 
ed that he founded a religious society at Clynnog Fawr in 
Carnarvonshire in 016. The land, upon which the college or 
monastery of Clynnog was built, was granted by Cadfan, the 
reigning prince of North Wales, to whom St. Beuno gave i 
small golden sceptre as an acknowledgement for the donation. 
He was in his old age one of the instructors of Gwenfrewi or 
St. Winefred ; his festival is April 21 ; and the churches am) 
chapels dedicated to him are the following: — 

Berriew. alias Aber-rhiw, V. Montgomeryshire. 

Bettws, V. Mont. 

Llanycil, R. Merionethshire. 

Gwj'ddelwL'Hi,* R. Merioneth. 

Clynnog Fmvr. R. Carnarvonshire. 

Carngiwch, a rliapol to Ed.-vrn (St. Edeyrn.) Cnrn. 

Pistyil, aclmfx-l to Edej rn (St. Edeyrn,) Corn. 

Fcnmorfa, R. — 1 chapel, Dolbenmaen (St. Mary,) Cam. 

Abcrtfraw, R. — I chapel, Cape! Mair (St. Marv.) Angloey. 

Tretdraeth. R.— 1 chap**], Liang* > l.;ii (St. Cwjtuii.) Angkwf 

Unuleuno, uchajiel to Clodotk iSt, Chdog.) Herefordshire. 

Cannen, the son of Gwyddlew ab Gwynllyw Filwr, is p 
sumi-il to have been the founder of Llanganter 

Gwodloew, the son of Glywys Cerniw ab Gwynllyw I 
is said to have been at first a teacher in the college of C 
And afterwards bishop of Llandaff; but the last i 

' I-,,, i >:■ SL Beuno on land granted lo him by Tynan «b B 
»yi.— Cambriin Rsgiflet, Vol. I 

FROM A. D. 542 TO A. D. 566. 269 

incorrect, as " Guodloiu" in the catalogue of bishops of Llan- 
daff* must have lived at an age too late for the son of Gly wys 

Meugan or Meigant, a son of Gwyndaf Hen ab Emyr 
Llydaw and Gwenonwy the daughter of Mcurig prince of 
Glamorgan, was originally a member of the college of Iltutus, 
from whence he removed to the college of Dubricius at Caer- 
leon, of which society his father was the president. In his 
old age he retired to Bardsey, where he died. He may be 
deemed the founder of Llanfeugan, Brecknockshire ; and the 
chapels consecrated to his memory are St. Moughan's under 
Llangattwg Feibion Afel, Monmouthshire ; and Capel Meu- 
gan, formerly subject to Llandegfan, Anglesey. Two poems, 
composed by Meugan, who is thought to have been the same 
person as the saint, are inserted in the Myvyrian Archai- 

Melangell, the daughter of Tudwal Tudglyd of the line of 
Macsen Wledig, was the foundress of Pennant Melangell, t 
Montgomeryshire. She was a sister of Rhydderch Hael of 
Strath Clyde ; and her mother was Ethni, surnamed Wydd- 
eles or the Irish-woman. Festival, May 27- 

Dingad, the son of Nudd Hael of the line of Macsen 
Wledig, is called a saint, but no churches are ascribed to him. 
His wife was Tonwy or Trefrian, a daughter of Llewddyn 
Luyddog of Dinas Eiddyn.J 

Llidnerth ab Nudd, a brother of Dingad, and a saint. 

• lie is the eleventh bishop in Godwin's list, and is mentioned as con- 
temporary with Marcdudd, king of Dyfed, about A. D. 700. 

f '* It is distinguished from other Pen Xants by the addition of Melangell, 
i. e. Monaecfla, the patron saint, whose Latin Legend is still extant; her 
history is also rudely sculptured on the gallery of the church; and several 
of her relics are still (1811) shown to the credulous, who happen to visit 
this sequestered spot. The cell of Diva Monacella is in a rock near the 
church." — Carlisle's Topography. 

J Page 261, antea. 



Clydno Eiddyn, Cynan, Cyntelyn Drwsgl, and Cadrod, sons 
of Cynwyd Cynwydion of the line of Coel Godebog, were 
chieftains of North Britain, who are said to have embraced a 
religious life,* 

Cawrdaf, the son of Caradog Fraichfras of the line of Coel, 
succeeded his father as sovereign of Brecknockshire, and is 
distinguished in the Triads for his extensive influence, far 
whenever he went to battle the whole population of the 
country attended at his summons.t He is said to have em« 
braced a religions life in the college of Illtyd ; and Llnngonl, 
a chapel subordinate to Idaniestin, Anglesey, is dedicated to 
him in conjunction with his brother Tungwn. It has been 
suggested that the name of Llunwrda, Carmarthenshire, is 
derived from Cawrdaf, J though the more obvious meaning of 
the word is "the church of the holy man," without intending 
to describe any particular saint. The festival of St. Cawrdtf 
is Dec. 5 ; while the wake of Llanwrda depends upon Nov. 
12, or All Saints' Day, Old Style. 

Cadfarch, n brother of Cawrdaf, was the founder of PenegM, 
Montgomeryshire, and Aberereh, Carnarvonshire. Festiral, 
Oct. 24. 

Tangwn, brother of Cawrdaf, was one of the saints to whom 
Llangoed, Aitglcsev, is dedicated. 

Maethlu or Amaethlu, brother of Cawrdaf, the founder of 
Llanfaethlu, Anglesey, and possibly of Llandyfalle, Breck- 
nockshire. The syllable dtj is introduced into the last name 
upon the same principle as Llandyfaelog is formed from 
Maelog ; both the names so formed occur in Brecknock shirt, 
while the corresponding appellations in Anglesey omit it.) 
Festival, Dec. 26. 

• Cambrian Biography, voce Cynwyd Cynwydion 

■: Triad 41, Third Series. 

; Jones's Brecknockshire, Vol. I. p. 70. 

S Page SSI, antea. 

FROM A. !). MS TO A. D. S66. 


Tewdwr Brycheiniog, the son of Nefydd ab Nefydd Ail ab 
Khun ab Brychan, a saint of whom nothing more is known 
than his pedigree. 

Ciwg, the son of Aron ab Cynfarch of the line of Coel, was 
the founder of Llangiwg, commonly called Llanguke, in Gla- 
morgan shire. 

Elaeth, sometimes styled Elaeth Frenhin or "the king," was 
the son of Menrig ab Idno of the tribe of Coel, and Onen 
Greg, a daughter of Gwallog ub Llenog. In the former part 
of his life he was a chieftain in the North, from whence he 
was driven by a reverse of fortune to spend the remainder of 
his days in the college of Seiriol in Anglesey, and he is also 
considered to have been the founder of the church of Amlwch 
in that county. He was a bard, and a few religious stanzas 
attributed to him are preserved in the Myvyrian Archaiology. 
Festival, Nov. 10. 

Saeran, a saint, is said to have been the son of Geraint, sur- 
named Saer, or " the artisan," of Ireland. He was buried at 
Llanynys, Denbighshire, from which circumstance that church 
has been thought to have been dedicated to him ; but its 
original founder, according to Llywarch Hen, was Mor ab 
Ceneu ab Coel. According to Usher, Kieranvs Jiltus orlijiaf 
was an eminent saint who founded the bishoprick of 
Cloyne in Ireland between the years 520 and 550; and the 
similarity of the names suggests the idea that he was the same 
person as Geraint S:ier, the father of Saeran, in which case the 
Welsh appellation ought to have been written Geraint ab 
y Saer. 

The period just passed ovi 
the lives of Anenrin, Taliesin 
four bards, of whose compos!' 
hag remained to posterity; 
poems may seem to a modern 
with the indulgence d 1 

includes the principal part of 
Llywarch Hen, and Myrddin, 
ins a very considerable portion 
id rude and obscure as these 
;ader, they should be received 
their antiquity, for they are p 
earliest specimen of a vernacular literature possessed 



by any of the existing nations of Europe. They are, however, 
not destitute of the spirit of poetry, ami their violation of the 
rules of criticism is amply compensated by their value as his- 
torical records ; for they abound in allusionB to passing events, 
and when their scattered noticea are collected together and 
embodied, an interesting dissertation may be written upon the 
history and manners of the times. The names of several other 
bards of this date are preserved, whose works are entirely lo«t. 
But the question more deeply interesting to the ecclesiastical 
historian, as well as to the best feelings of the Christian, is — 
Did the Welflh at this early age possess, in their own language, 
a version of any part of the sacred Scriptures? Without an- 
swering this question absolutely in the negative, it may be 
said that no tracts of such a version have yet been discovered, 
and it is to be feared that in this respect the British Church 
was not so highly favoured ns the Anglo-Saxon.* But the 
disadvantages of the former will appear much lessened when it 
is remembered that the Latin language must have been known in 
Wales to a considerable extent; for the Britons had formed a part 
of the Roman empire, from which they had not been separated «. 
full century before the establishment of the monastic institutions 
so often noticed ; and if the system of instruction adopted iam 
those communities was conducted in Latin, as was the case ii -~- 
similar institutions on the continent, it must have had ^M 
powerful tendency to preserve the kuowledge of a languagi 
in which the government of the people had so lately 

"S ua S== — ' 

» About the year "OG, Aldhelm, the first bishop of Sherborne, t 
the Psalter into Saxon- and al his earnest persuasion. Egbert or EMM— <*> 
bishop of Lindisforno, or Holy Island, soon afterwards executed a Smu=^^"' 
lersion of the four Gospels. Not many years after this, the learned and leta^^ 1 ' 
erable Bedc, who died A. D. 735, translated Hie entire Bible into that li^^" - 


The Welsli Saints from the Death of Maelgwn Gwynedd A. D. 866 to the 
close of the Sixth Century. 

Tub princes of North Wales in this interval were suc- 
cessively llhun ah Maelgwn, Bcli ab Bhim, and lago ab 
Bell ;• but according to Geoffrey of Monmouth the sovereignty 
of the Britons was assumed by Ceredig, a man of turbulent 
disposition, who was perpetually engaged in feuds with other 
chieftains, by which the nation was so much weakened that it 
could oppose but a feeble resistance to the Saxons, from whose 
ravages it suffered to a degree unprecedented ; and though the 
bards and genealogists mention nothing of Ceredig, sufficient 
evidence may be gathered from their testimony to show that 
their countrymen were at this time harassed with intestine 
warfare. The Saxons also, as may be learned from their 
own accounts, had pushed their conquests so far as the Severn, 
and founded the kingdom of Mereia, the last and most exten- 
sive of the states of the Heptarchy. Under these circum- 
stances it cannot be surprising that the saints of this period 
are few, and the information to be gleaned respecting them, 
though at all times meagre, is henceforward exceedingly 
tcanty. Tradition loves to dwell on the events of prosperity, 
and nations, like individuals, are not fond of recounting their 

• Maelgwn Gwynedd must linve lived to a great age, for his genei 
properly belongs to Hie commencement of the century. Bhun, Bell, 
lago, {who are respectively his son, grandson, and great- grandson.) fol- 
lowed in rapid siicct"iun, and it is agreed that Cadfan, his descendant in 
the fourth degree, commenced liis reign soon nflcr the year 600. 



The bishop who presided over the see of LlandafT vu 
OudoceUB, of whom it was asserted in the middle ages, that be 
made an acknowledgement of submission to St. Augustin, 
archbishop of Canterbury, and received consecration at his 
hands ;• but the legend, for it deserves no better name, is so 
contrary to authentic history and inconsistent with the state of 
the Welsh Church for two centuries after the time of Oudo- 
ceus, that it does not require a serious refutation. Had the 
early Catholic writers of this islandt been able to prove that a 
Welsh bishop had submitted to Canterbury, they might have 
gained a political purpose and terminated an important eccles- 
iastical controversy ; but they invariably describe the British 
Christians as holding no communion with the Anglo-Saxons, 
and celebrating the passover without fellowship with ths 
Church of Clwist.J The memory of Oiuloecus Ims been helil 
in great reverence at Llandaff, where he has had the honour of 
ranking with Dubricius and Teilo as one of the patron sajnu 
of the cathedral. His com me mo rati on is July '2. 

Ceneu, the bishop of Jlenevia contemporary with Oudoeeus, 
was the founder of Llangeneu, a church which once existed in 
Pembrokeshire, but the settlement of the Flemings in that 
county has obliterated nil traces of its situation.^ 

Lleuddad, called also Llawddog, the son of Dingad ab Nuild 
Uael and Tefrian or Tonwy a daughter of Llewddyn Luydd- 
og; he ended his days in the Isle of Bard Bey, and is sometimes 

• Li her I.nnJavensia. 

+ AIJliL-lm, Eildius, and Bede. 

J The first instance of submission to Canterbury, Ihnt can he authenti. 
catcd, happened but ween the years S71 »nd 669, when Lwmbert or Hubert 
Sals, bishon of St. David's, and Cimeliauc or Cyfeiacb, bianep of 1.1m- 
dnff, were consecrated by Ethelred, its eighteenth arrhbishop. The 
second iiislance ofaiibmlaaioa ou the part ol" IBs bishops of St. David'* did 
not occur before' the elevenlh cenlury. — Compare the Welsh Chronicle! 
with Hie notes lo the Latin cdilion of Godwin's Bishops. 

§ It is noticed iu the Laws of Ely wel Dda. Mjrv. Archaiolofry, Vol. III. 

FROM A. D. 566 TO A. D COO. 


confounded with Lleuddad, the companion of Cadfan, who 
was at least half a century older. The chapel of Llanllawddog 
under Abergwyli, Carmarthenshire, is dedicated to the son of 
Dingad, who was also the founder of Cenarth, and Penboir, 
Carmarthenshire, and Cilgerran, Pembrokeshire. Festival 
Jan. 15. 

Baglan, a son of" Dingad, was the saint to whom Llanfaglan 
under Llanwnda, Carnarvonshire, and Baglan under Aberafon, 
Glamorganshire, are dedicated. 

Gwytherin ob Dingad, the founder of a church called 
Gwytherin tn the county of Denbigh, at which place Gwen- 
frewi or St. Winef'rcd was afterwards buried. 

Tygwy ab Dingad, a saint to whom Llandygwy or Llan- 
dygwydd, Cardiganshire, is ascribed. 

Tyfriog, otherwise Tyfrydog, ab Dingad, the founder of 
Llandyfr'iog in the county of Cardigan, which has also been 
called Llandyfrydog. 

Eleri, daughter of Dingad, a saint who lived at Pennant in 
the parish of Gwytherin, Denbighshire. 

Aelhaiarn, a son of Hygarl'ael ab Cvndrwyn of Llystin- 
wennan in Caereinion, Montgomery shire. He was the founder 
of Llanaelhaiarn, Merionethshire, and Cegidfa or Guilsfield in 
the county of Montgomery. Festival, Nov. 1. 

Llwchaiam, another son of Hygarfael ; the patron saint of 
i and Llanmerewig, Montgomeryshire, and of 
and Llanllwchaiarn, Cardiganshire.* Festival, 

Jan. 11. 


l, brother of Llwchaiam, a saint to whom Ynya 
a chapel under Cruccaith, Carnarvonshire, is 

• Llanmerewig was formerly a chapel to Llanllwcimiam, its neighbour; 
and LlanjclniiBi-u, Cardigmisliire, was subject In Llnnbadara Fnwr In llic 

uae count; - 


Tyfrydog, the son of Arwystli Gloff nb Seithenin and Ty- 
wynwedd daughter of Amlawcld Wledig ; he was the founder 
of Llandyfrydog, Anglesen. Festival, Jan. 1. 

Twrnog or Teyrnug, brother of Tyfrydog; Llandyrnog, 
Denbighshire, is attributed to him. 

Tudur, brother of Tyfrydog, a saint to whom Darowain, 
Montgomeryshire, is attributed. Mynyddyslwyn, Monmouth- 
abire, is ascribed by Ecton to St. Tudur, but it ia doubtful 
whether the same person is intended. Festival, Oct. 15.* 

Dier or Diheufyr, a brother of Tyfrydog, and founder of 
Bodfari in Flintshire. He is called Deiferus in the legend of 
St. Winefred. 

Marchell, a sister of Tyfrydog, the foundress of Ystrad 
Marchell in Montgomeryshire, where an abbey was afterwards 
built, called Strata MarcelU. Capel Marchell under I.Lmr »■: 
is called after her name. 

Ufelwyn, or as he is styled in Latin, Ubilwynus, the son of 
Cennydd ub Aneurin y Coed Aur, was the founder of a church 
in Glamorganshire called LUnufelwyn ; the situation of which 
seems to correspond with St. George's near Cardiff, as in tit 
division of the county upon the settlement of the Norman*, 
the lordship of St. George, which was granted by Robert 
Fitzhammon to John Fleming, is sometimes called the lordship 
of Llan ufelwyn. t Ufelwyn succeeded St. Oudoceus aa bishop 
of Llandaff.J 

Ffili, the son of Cennydd ab Gildas§ y Coed Aur ; a saint 

* The wake at Dnmwniii U held eleven days afterwards. See page 910. 

f Myv. Archaic-logy, Vol. II. p. 62(1. 

J U h not known who was the successor of Ufelwyn, at, according W 
the Chronicle of L'aradi'g. Aidun, 1 he next bishop in Godwin's list, wu 
slain by the Saxons in the year 720, a full century after the age of Ifel- 
w j n ; but llie list* of bishops of Llandnff and St. David's are very corrupt 
between the sixth and ninth centuries. 

■-■ "Gildas" — the siruc person as Aueiirin in the notice of the pi 
saint.— See page 226. 

e praeedkl 

FROM A. D W56 TO A. D. fiOO. 


to whom it is said the church of Ilhos Fflli in Gower, now 
known by the name of Bhos Sili, is dedicated.* 

Tyssilio, the son of Brochwel Ysgythrog nb Cyngen ab 
Cadell and Arddun daughter of Pabo Post Prydain, is said to 
have been bishop of St. Asaph ; and according to the situation 
which he occupies in his pedigree he must have been the im- 
mediate successor of Asaf, to whom he was cousin in the first 
degree. His father, Brochwel, was the reigning prince of 
Powys ; and Cynddelw, a bard of the twelfth century, adverts 
with pride to the circumstance that the saint was "nobly des- 
cended of high ancestry."+ The life of Brochwel, which 
extends beyond the usual period, was protracted to the next 
generation, but the military affairs of the province were al- 
ready administered by Cynan Garwyn, one of his sons, who 
shared largely in the feuds of the times, and a poem of Tal- 
SesinJ describes his victorious career along the banks of the 
Wye, in the Isle of Anglesey, on the hills of Dimetia, and in 
the region of Brychan ; chieftains trembled and fled at his 
approach, and he slaughtered his enemies with the gory blade. 
On the other hand, the pursuits of Tyssilio, independently of 
his profession, were of a peaceable nature. He was a bard, 
and is reported to have written an ecclesiastical history of 
Britain, which is now lost, though it is alleged to have been 
preserved in manuscript so late as the year 1C00.J It has 
been said that the fabulous Chronicle of the Kings of Britain, 
edited by Walter de Mapes and afterwards amplified by Geoff- 
rey of Monmouth, was originally compiled by Tyssilio; but it 
is now generally agreed that the statement is unfounded, and 
the Chronicle contains a heap of extravagant fables respecting 

• Cambrian Biography. Qu. From 

In- 111 

i Caerllili derive its 

+ " Mat genet o genedyl voned."— My v. Archsiology, Vol. I. p. S44. 
J Truwsgnnu Cynan Garwyn. Myv. Archaiology, Vol. I. p. 168. 
§ Correspondence of the laic Rev. Enn Evans (Prydydd Ilir,) published 
in the Cambrian Quarterly, Vol. I. p. 396, 


Arthur which no historian would have ventured to publish as 
belonging to an age immediately preceding his own, when 
existing facts and the memory of persona living might have 
contradicted him. According to Browne Willis, the churches 
aDd chapels, which own Tyssilio for their patron saint, are: 

Meifod, V. Montgomeryshire. 

Llandjssilio, a cbmpel to Llamlrinio (St. Trinio,) Mont. 

Llaudyssilio, C. Denbighshire;. 

Hryu fcglwys, C. Denb. 

Llandysailio, a chapel to Llanlhir Pwll GwyngvU (St. 

Lhuid\ssilio vn XvIl'iL \'. C.irmnrtlienshire. 

Llandjssilio Gogol', V.— 1 chapel, Cujiel Cynon (St. Cynou.) C 

Sellack, V. (in the Diocese of 1 lerdord.)— 3 chapels, King's .. 
pel (St. John tlie Baptist,) Maratow (St. Martin,) and Pencoed (: 
Dennis,) Herefordshire. 

To these should be added Llansilio near Longtown ii 
county of Hereford, as shown by tlie obvious signification o 
the name, though it is commonly said to be dedicated to S 
Peter; but this is one of the numerous instances in whi 
British saints have given way to others approved of by tl 
Saxons and Normans. The bard Cynddelw, enumerating tl 
churehes founded by Tyssilio, says — 

A church* he raised with his fostering hand, 
Llanllugyrn, with a chaucel fur the offertory; 
A church beyond die floods, by the glassy streams ; 
A church filled to overllowing, by the palace of Dinorben; 
A church in Armorica, through the influence of his liberality ; 
Thu church of Peugwern, the best upon the earth ; 
A Church of Powys, the paradise of bliss; 

The church of Cuuimarcli (he raised) with a hand of respect fc 
its owner. 


* wnMlh 

n'l lawfieth lo 






dr« Jlj] Dlnor 

n Llydaiv gin llfdifcdd walKD , 

FROM A. D. 566 TO A. D. G 


e bard then proceed." to celebrate the praises of Unfed, 
jut which h<? is more diffuse but equally obscure." Llan- 
Uug-yrn, literally — the church of war-horns, is probably Llan- 
llugan in Montgomeryshire: of the church in Armoricat 
nothing is known: Pengwern is the ancient name of Shrews- 
bury, where Broehwe! is said to have resided, and which town 
was long afterwards considered the capital of Powys: the 
church of Cammarch is LI an gam march in Brecknockshire, of 
which Tyssilio may have been the second or assistant founder, 
as it is acknowledged that Cammarch was already its owner : 
and the other churches, which are vaguely described without 
their names, may be some of those included in the list from 
Browne Willis. Tyssilio seems to have founded religious 
edifices beyond the limits of his diocese, taking advantage 
probably of his brother's conquests ; and there is an unusual 
proportion of saints from Powys in this generation, which in- 
dicates the ascendancy of that province; its prosperity, how- 
ever, was reduced upon the defeat of the Britons by Ethelfrith 
at the battle of Bangor Iscoed. The memory of St. Tyssilio 
has been celebrated on the eighth of November. 

Gwrnerth, the son of Llewelyn ab Blciddyd of Trallwng or 
Welsh Pool, is said to have been a saint; and a religious 
dialogue in verse between him and his father, Llewelyn, is 
inserted in the Myvyrian Archaiology, the composition of 
which is attributed to St. Tyssilio. 

•One of Ihc designations', which lie applies to Meifoi), is — "the abode 
of the tliree saints" (irefred y triseinl;) and it is singular that its church- 
yard once contained tliree churches, nil standing at Ihe same time, the 
oldest was named after St. Ciwyddfarcli. the next after St. Tyssilio, and 
Ihc Itiird, which was consecrated In Ihc year Duo, was dedicated to St. 
Mary. — See also Cambrian Qmiricily Magwtliie, Vol. I. p. 391. 

+ The expression— " Llyduw" in the original, here translated Armories, 
may perhaps bean appellative, meaning maritime, at explained in Dr. 
Plight's Dictionary ; and if so, ilie llWHlllyOwi U applicable. tu Llandyssiliu 
Oogo in Cardiganshire. ■ 


Mygnach, the son of Mydno of Caer Seont or Carnarvon!-*; 
wnB for sonic time the registrar of the college of St. Cybi «l^& 
Holyhead, anil afterwards became the principal of that sowzr*. 
eiety.* A dialogue in verse between him and Taliesin is pubefl 
lished in the Myvyriiirt Archaiology. 

Cedwyti, the son of Gwgon Gwron ah Peredur of the Yt\im 
of Coel ; he has been accounted the patron saint of IJangi iF= — 
wyii, a chapel under Llanrhaiadr, Montgomeryshire. 

Gwrfyw, the son of Pasgen ab Urien Rheged; a saint, ^^m<> 
whom it is said there was a church dedicated in Anglesew^- r 
there was also a chapel called after his name at Bangor Uwc^r.4 
Conwy in Cam ar von shire, t 

Mor, another son of I'asgen ab Urien; a saint, who vtu 
buried in the Isle of Bardsey. 

Mydan ab Pasgen ab Urien, a member of the congregi 
of Cattwg. 

Lleminod Angel ab Paagen ab Urien, a saint. 

Mechydd, a saint, was the son of Sandde Bryd Angi 
Llywarch Hen. 

Buan, the son of Ysgwn ab Llywarch Ht-n, was the f 
of lSodl'uan, Carnarvonshire, and his festival has been held in 
the fourth of August. 

Cathan or Cathen, the son of Cawrdaf ab Caradog ] 
fras, was the founder of Llangathen, Carmarthenshire. 
Hundred of Catheiniog in the same county is supposed t» 
derive its name from him. Festival, May 17. 

Medrod and Iddew brothers of the preceding, have b 
ranked among the saints; the resemblance of the ti 
duced the compilers of the Triads to confound thei 
Med rod and Iddog Corn Prydain, the leaders of the c 
racy which proved fatal to Arthur. 

Elgud, a saint, the son of Cadl'arch ab Caradog Fraichl 

* Cumbrian Biography. 
ichaioloBj', Vol. II. and Cambrian Biography. 

FROM A. D. 566 TO A. D. 600. 281 

Cynddilig, a son of Cennydd ab Gildas ; his memory has 
been celebrated in the parish of Llanrhystud, Cardiganshire, 
on the first of November. 

The last holy person, whose life may be assigned to this 
generation, is Deiniolen, or Deiniol ab Deiniol Ail, called also 
Deiniol Fab. He was a son of Deiniol, the first bishop of 
Bangor in Carnarvonshire ; and a grandson of Dunawd, the 
founder of the monastery of Bangor Iscoed in Flintshire. It 
is recorded that he was a member of the society of Bangor Is- 
coed under the presidency of his grandfather, and after the 
destruction of that institution he retired to Bangor in Car- 
narvonshire, where he became the president of a similar society 
which had been established by his father, and of which his 
father had been the first abbot;* — the younger Deiniol, there- 
fore, succeeded to the monastic honours of the elder, but 
whether he succeeded also to his father's bishoprick is left 
unexplained. It is stated that he founded the church of 
Llanddeiniolen in the county of Carnarvon in the year 616.t 
His festival has been celebrated on the twenty third of No- 
vember ; and Llanddeiniol Fab, a chapel under Llannidan, 
Anglesey, has been called after his name. 

If the Welsh Church, in the period just concluded, was 
depressed by adverse circumstances, it is a gratification to 
learn that the Churches of the Scots were flourishing. St. 
Columba had already founded the monastery of Iona,J and 
his disciples were now engaged in diffusing the blessings of 
Christianity to the dark corners of the Highlands and West- 
ern Isles. The light of the Gospel had also dawned upon the 
Saxons. St. Augustin had landed in Kent,§ and laid the 
foundation of a mission, one of the most successful that have 
appeared since the age of the Apostles ; for in less than 
a century after its commencement, the whole nation of 

• Page 258, antea. f Cambrian Biography. 

X A. D.505. § A. D.597. 



the Saxons and Angles became, at least nominally, Christian. 
The instruments, however, in effecting the principal part 
of this conversion were the monks of Iona,* the conflict 
between whom and the clergy of Rome is an irrefragable proof 
of the independence of the primitive Churches of Britain; 
and it is not unreasonable to suppose that from this source 
the Anglo-Saxons derived their notions of religious liberty, 
for they never acknowledged an entire submission to the 
Pope before the Norman Conquest, and even afterwards their 
allegiance was badly sustained, t 

• Bede, Lib. III. 3, 4. 
fSoames's Anglo-Saxon Church,— and Southey *s Book of the Church. 


The Welsh Saints from A. D. 600 to the Death of Cadwallon A. D. 634. 

Iaoo ab Beli, the last prince of North Wales mentioned in 
the preceding period, was killed in the year 603, when he was 
succeeded by his son, Cadfan ab Iago, who, upon the departure 
or expulsion of Ethelfrith from Powys, became the Pendragon 
or chief sovereign of the Britons, but the duration of his reign 
and the year of his death are uncertain. His honours were 
continued to his son, Cadwallon* ab Cadfan ; who, soon after 
the assumption of his power, was defeated by Edwin, king of 
North umbria, driven from his dominions, and forced to seek 
an asylum in Ireland, where he remained seven years. Upon 
his return, be formed an alliance with Penda, king of Mercia ; 
and joining their forces, they marched to Northumbria, where 
Edwin was totally routed, himself slain, and most of his army 
destroyed. Cadwallon continued his victorious course ; several 
of the princes of the Angles fell into his hands, and were put 
to death ;t such indeed were his successes, that it was believed 

• This name has been variously written; Bode spells it Caedualla; 
Nennius, Catgublaun ; the Saxon Chronicle, Ceadiralla; and the Welsh 
writers, Cadwallon and Katwallawn: and though the identity of the per- 
son may be clearly proved, it is necessary to observe these particulars to 
distinguish him from Cadwaladr, and from another Caedualla or Cead- 
walla, a king of the West Saxons; all of whom, inasmuch as they lived 
within a short time of each other, have been frequently confounded to- 

f That Cadwallon struck terror into the nation of the Angles is evident 
from the manner in which Bede describes the havock which he committed, 
as if he ravaged the country, slaughtering its inhabitants without regard 


the time had arrived when the Britons should expel the Saxons 
and Angles, and be restored to the entire possession of the 
island. Their good fortune, however, received a sudden eheck. 
Cadwallon was defeated by Oswald the Bernician, and killed 
in battle." The return of tile Britons to their ancient pos- 
sessions never became probable again. 

St. Augustin bad gained a firm footing in Kent, and was 
extending his mission to other parts of tile island, when he 
undertook the design of bringing the Britons to a conformity 
with the Church of Rome, and reducing them under his own 
jurisdiction. The following is the narrative of his attempt, *» 
extracted from the works of Bede:+ — 

"In the mean time, Augustin, availing himself of the assist- 
ance of king Etlielbert (JEililberrl,) summoned to a conference 
the bishops or doctors of the nearest province of the Briton?, 
at a place which is still called in the language of the Angles 
Augmlinacs nc, or the Oak of Attg*istin,t on the confines of the 
Huiccii and West Saxons: and he began to advise them with 
brotherly admonition, that they should enter into a Catholic 
peace with himself, and undertake for their Lord the common 
labour of preaching the Gospel to the heathen. For they were 
not accustomed to celebrate the feast of the Passover of our 
Lord at its proper time, but from the fourteenth to the twen- 
tieth day of the moon, a computation which is comprised in a 

lo age or sex. putting women and children to a cruel death with tlie feroci- 
ty of a brute. Pi'iiiln, that nulliur lays, had not embraced tihrislianily ; but 
Caedwalla, though B Christian, was a barbarian more savago than • 
pagan.— Lib. 11. 20, and HI. I. 

• Beds, Nenulus, and the Triads. — Caradog of Ltancarvan, and the fol- 
lowers of Geoffrey of Monmouth, whose account of Cadwallon is a) 
fabulous as any pait of his history, place the death of that nriiuc f n GOO. 
while Hcde, who was almost a contemporary, fixes it iu the vent 631 — 
See also Tamer's Anglo-Saxons, Book HI. Chap. VII. 

t Hist. Eccl. Lib. II. Cap. II. 

* Situated apparently, within Ibe modern county of Worcester. 

FROM A. D. 600 TO A. D. 631. 285 

cycle of eighty four years ; and they were wont to perform 
many other things also contrary to the unity of the Church. 
Who, after holding a long dispute, were not willing to give 
assent to the entreaties, the exhortations, and the rebukes of 
Augustin and his friends, but preferred their own traditions 
rather than those of all the churches which throughout the 
world agree in Christ. The holy father, Augustin, therefore 
put an an end to this laborious and long debate, by saying : — 
€ We pray God, who hath made men to be of one mind in the 
house of their father, that he vouchsafe to signify to us by 
signs from heaven, which traditions must be followed, by what 
way we must hasten to the entrance of his kingdom. Let 
some sick person be brought ; and by whosesoever's prayers 
he shall be healed, let the faith and service of that man be 
acknowledged as devoted to God and be followed by all.' — 
To which proposal, when the adversaries, though unwillingly, 
had agreed, a certain person of the nation of the Angles, de- 
prived of the sight of his eyes, was produced ; who, when 
presented to the priests of the Britons, obtained no cure or 
recovery by their ministry, until Augustin, forced by the 
necessity of the case, bent his knees to the father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, praying that he would restore to the blind that 
sight which he had lost, and by the bodily illumination of one 
man would kindle the grace of spiritual light in the hearts of 
many believers. Without delay the blind receives his sight, 
and Augustin is proclaimed by all to be the true herald of 
light from heaven. Then indeed the Britons confessed that 
the true way of righteousness was that which Augustin 
preached, but they could not renounce their ancient customs 
without the consent and permission of their countrymen. 
Whence they demanded that a second Synod should be held, 
at which a greater number of persons should meet." 

" Which being appointed, there came, as they relate, seven 
bishops of the Britons, and many very learned men, prin- 
cipally from their most famous monastery, called in the 



language of tilt' Angles Bincorriabiirii* over which Dinoot,t 
the Abbot, is said to have presided at that time ; who, being 
about to attend the Council just mentioned, came first to ■ 
certain holy and prudent man, who was wont to lead the life 
of an anchorite in that country, to consult him whether they 
should Forsake their traditions at the preaching of Augustin. 
He answered, ' If he be a man of God, follow him.' They 
said, ' Whence shall we prove this ?' He replied, ' The Lord 
hath said, Take my yoke upon you and learn of me, for I am 
meek and lowly in heart. If therefore Augustin ia meek and 
lowly in heart, it is to be expected that, because he bears him- 
self the yoke of Christ, he will offer it to be borne by you ; 
but if he is not meek but proud, it is clear that he is not of 
God, his speech is not to be regarded by us.' They said 
again, 'And whence shall we discover this also?" He said, 
'Contrive that he come first, with his friends to the place of 
the Synod ; and if he shall rise when you approach, hearken 
to him obediently, knowing that he is the servant of Christ ; 
but if he shall despise you, and be not willing to rise in your 
presence when you are more in number, then let him be des- 
pised by you.' — They did as he had said, and it was brought 
to pass, that when they came, Augustin continued to sit in his 
chair. Seeing which, they were soon moved to anger, and 
charging him with pride strove to contradict every thing 
which he said. But he told them, 'Since in many things ye 
act contrary to our custom, and even to that of the universal 
Church, yet if ye will obey me in these three points ; that ye 
celebrate the Passover at its proper time ; that ye perform the 
service of Baptism, by which we are born again to God, after 
the manner of the holy Koman and Apostolic Church; and 
that ye preach with us the word of God to the nation of the 
Angles : as for the other things which ye do, although con- 

FROM A. D. GOO TO A. D. 634. 287 

trary to our customs, we will bear them all with patience/ 
But they answered that they would perform none of these, 
neither would they have him for an archbishop ; considering 
among themselves, that if he would not rise up to them at 
that time, how much more would he despise them if they 
became subject to him." 

"To whom, Augustin, the man of God, is said to have fore- 
told in a threatening tone, that because they would not have 
peace with brothers, they should have war with enemies ; and 
if they were unwilling to preach to the nation of the Angles 
the way of life, by their hands they should suffer the vengeance 
of death. Which, by the agency of divine judgment, was so 
performed in all respects as he had foretold." 

** Since after this, Ethelfrith (Aedilfrid,) the most powerful 
king of the Angles, having collected a large army, made a 
very great slaughter of that perfidious race, at the city of 
Legions, which is called by the people of the Angles Legacaes- 
Hr,* but by the Britons more properly Carleyion. And when, 
being about to give battle, he saw, standing by themselves in 
a place of greater safety, their priests who had come to pray 
to God for the soldiers engaged in the war, he enquired who 
were those, and for what purpose they had come thither? 
But most of them were from the monastery of Bancor, in which 
the number of monks is said to have been so great, that when 
the monastery was divided into seven classes, with superin- 
tendents set over them, none of those classes contained less 
than three hundred men, all of whom were accustomed to live 
by the labour of their own hands. Most of these therefore, 
having performed a fast of three days, had come together, with 
others, to the before-mentioned field for the sake of prayer, 
having a defender, by name Brocmail,f to protect them while 
intent upon their prayers from the swords of the barbarians. 

9 The present town of Chester, which the Welsh still call Caerlleon. 
+ Brochwel Ysgythrog. See page 208. 


When king Ethclf'rith understood the cause of their arrival. 
he said, ' Then if they cry to their God against us, surely even 
they, although they do not bear arms, right against us when 
they oppose us with their hostile prayers.' He then ordered 
his arms to be turned against them first, and afterwards des- 
troyed the other forces of that impious war, not without gre«t 
loss in his own army. They relate that there were killed in 
that battle about twelve hundred men of those who hail come 
to pray, and that only fifty escaped by flight. Brocmail and 
his troops, upon the first approach of the enemy, turned their 
backs, and left those, whom he ought to have defended, un- 
armed and naked to men who fought with swords. And thus 
was accomplished the prediction of the holy pontiff Augurtin. 
although he had long before been raised to a heavenly king- 
dom ; so that by the vengeance of a temporal death the per- 
fidious people might perceive, that they had despised the 
counsels of everlasting salvation, which had been offered to 

Such is Bede's description of this memorable controversy, 
the several clauses of which have been variously interpreted 
according to the bias of different commentators ; some Pro- 
testants, in their zeal against Popery, contending that the 
Britons differed from the Romish Church in doctrine, as well 
as in discipline and ecclesiastical government; while certain 
Roman Catholic writers insist, that not only was there no 
difference in matters of faith, but that the apparent refusal of 
submission to the Pope extended merely to their rejection of 
Augustin for their archbishop, as if they were unwilling to be 
subject to Rome through him as an intermediate prelate.* The 
question may however be fairly balanced. t The points in 
dispute regarded only discipline, rituals, and ecclesiastical 
government; for no difference in doctrine is mentioned, and 

• Butler's Book of the Human Catholic Church, Letter I V. 
i Soames's Anglo-Saxon Church ; unit Europe in the Middle Age*, by 
8. A. Dmiliiiiii, Vol. 1(1. 

FROM A. D. 600 TO A. D. 634. 289 

if any had existed to a material degree, Augustin would not 
have desired them to join him in preaching to the Saxons.* 
Bede is not explicit as to the reason why the Britons refused 
to accept Augustin for their archbishop, nor does it appear 
how this point was introduced to their consideration ; but the 
differences in discipline and ritual are the proof that they did 
not acknowledge the jurisdiction of the Pope. No fact is 
more clearly asserted than that the Britons were not in com- 
munion with the Catholic Church, for it is repeated through- 
out the Ecclesiastical History of Bede, who was himself a 
Catholic. The Catholics treated the British people as schis- 
matics and heretics, and maintained that the consecration of 
their bishops was invalid; while the Britons on the other 
hand regarded the Romish clergy as unclean, and refused to 
eat or hold intercourse with them until they had first under- 
gone a purification ;t and it is a singular argument in con- 
firmation of British independence, that whenever terms of 
reconciliation were offered, the Britons refused them, proving 
that their separation was the effect of choice, and not an in- 
voluntary exclusion. 

It is to be regretted that the Welsh have not preserved any 
authentic detailed account of these Councils, by which the 
question of the archbishoprick, which Bede has not sufficiently 
explained, might be placed beyond dispute. The chronicles 
of Walter de Mapes and Geoffrey of Monmouth have en- 
deavoured to supply the deficiency ; and a speech, alleged to 
have been taken from an ancient manuscript, has been repeat- 
edly printed, purporting to be the reply of Dunawd, the 
Abbot, to Augustin ; in which the supremacy of the Pope is 

* Milner, in his Church History, treats the case of the Britons most un- 
fairly ; and in his eagerness to shew that the doctrine of Gregory and 
Augustin was orthodox, he insinuates that the former retained some of the 
leaven of Pclagianism. Their opponents, and Bede amongst the rest, 
would not have been slow to advance the charge if it were true. 

f Aldheliu's Letter to Geruntius. 

2 M 



positively denied, and it is declared that the Britons acknt 
ledged no spiritual ruler under heaven superior to the bishop 
of Caerleon. Unfortunately the language and ityle of this 
speech,* as well as the manne- in which its subject is treated, 
are too modern to allow its genuineness; and the preservation. 
during many centuries of Catholic ascendancy, of a document, 
in which the claims of the Pope are so openly impugned, 
presents a difficulty not easily overcome. Walter and Geoffrey 
state that Dunawd was the leader of the apposition to Au- 
gustin, and, without alluding to the Pope, assert that the 
ground of the refusal of the Britons to submit to the juris- 
diction of Canterbury, was the circumstance that they had an 
archbishop of their own at Caerleon. These authors, however, 
whose testimony is always of little value, wrote when the papal 
power was at its height ; and the only authority, upon which 
any arguments relative to the subject can be founded, i_-; that 
of Bede, who lived while the separation alluded to still con- 

• II ! ■ Ihus prinled in Spelman's Concilia, from the MS. of Peter Mot- 
tyn, Gent. — '■Bid ysjiys a diogel i chwi, yii bud ni tioll un ac mil ya 
utydd ac ynn oslyngcdlg- i Eglwys Duw oc IV Paah o Rucain, ac i booh 
kyur grissdion dwyuol, i garu pawb yn i radd mewn karind pcrfTailb, ac i 
belpiopawb o honaunt n gair a gweithrcd i fod ynn blant i Uduw : Ada- 
genach ufudddod no hwn nid adwen i vod ir neb ir yddych chwi yn henwi 
ya liaab nc yn Duad o daade, yw gleiroio ae jw ovunn: Ar uvjdddod 
turn ir yddvm ni yn barod jw roddi ac yw dalu iddo cf, ac i bob Krisdioo 
yn ilragwyddol. Hevyd ir ydym iu dan lymodracih Esgob Kaerllioa ar 
wysg yrhwn jsydd yn olygwr don Ddnw arnom ni y wnculhud i ni gidwyr 
Bordd yibrydol."— Translation. Be it known nnd certain to yuu, thil 
we are, all and singular, obedient and subject to the Church of God, aid 
to the Pope of Rome, and to every truo and pious Christian, to love every 
one in his desrei- with perfect charily, and to help every one of them by 
word and deed to becomo the sons of God i and other obedience than this 
I do not know that he whom you name the Pope, or the father of fathers, 
can claim and require : bnl this obedience we are ready to pay to him and 
to uvery Christian for ever. Moreover we are under the government of the 
bishop of Caerleon upon L'sk, mho ib superintendent under God otci nsto 
make ns keep the spiritual way. 

FROM A. D. 600 TO A. D. 634. 291 

tinned, and who could not in his time foresee the 
effect which his admissions might have upon the question of 
the supremacy of Rome as maintained at a later age. He says 
nothing of an archbishoprick of the Britons ; the claims of 
Augustin are rejected without noticing the rights of a rival 
metropolitan; and the inferences presented by the Welsh 
records would show that the dignity once assumed by the 
prelates of Caerleon and Menevia had become extinct, if indeed 
it had ever been firmly established.* Its continuance at the 
time of the Council must have produced a collision with the 
pretensions of Augustin, which it would have been disingenu- 
ous in Bede to pass unobserved, and its extinction is the most 
obvious mode of explaining the incidental manner in which 
the subject is introduced. The plea, upon which submission 
was refused, is therefore incorrectly stated by Walter and 
Geoffrey. It was not a dispute respecting the rights of two 
intermediate prelates, but the rejection of an archbishop sent 
by the Pope. 

That St. Gregory designed that the jurisdiction of Augustin 
should extend over the bishops of Wales is indisputable, for in 
answer to one of the questions of his missionary he says :— 
« We commit to thee, our brother, all the bishops of the pro- 
vinces of Britain, that the unlearned be instructed, the weak 
be strengthened by persuasion, the perverse be corrected by 
authority ."+ — Here is no recognition of the rights of a British 
metropolitan. It was the intention of that Pontiff* that there 
should be two archbishopricks in the island, London and York, 
the archbishops of which places should take precedence of 
each other by priority of consecration ; but in reference to 
Augustin, with whom this ecclesiastical polity should com- 

• See page 174. 

t " Britamriarum vero omnes Episcopos turn fraternitati committimus, ut 
indocti doceantur, infirmi persuasione roborentur, perrersi auctoritate cor- 
rigantur."— Bede, Lib. I. Cap. «7. 


mence, he says, as his words may be literally rendered ;— 
"And thou, our brother, sh alt have in subjection, not only 
those bishops whom thou shalt ordain, nor those only who shall 
have been ordained by the archbishop of York, but also all 
the clergy of Britain, by the authority of our Lord Jesus 
Christ"" — These were the commissions to which the bishops 
and clergy of Wales refused to submit, and the same inde- 
pendence was maintained by the Christians of Cornwall and 
Scotland. Augustin had asked whether his jurisdiction ex- 
tended to Gaul, a concession which St. Gregory declined to 
grant, because the Popes, his predecessors, had from ancient 
times sent a pall to the archbishops of Aries, who by virtue of 
its possession were the metropolitans of that country ;t but as 
there was no i-imihir reasuii for abridging the authority of that 
prelate in Britain, the inference remains, that none of the 
British Christians had received that emblem of dignity; the 
prerogative of their Churches had never been sanctioned i 
Rome; and now, when it was intended they should merge ii 
the Church of the Angles, they maintained their separate t 
istence in spile of a papal decree. 

The names and titles of the seven bishops who attended tl 
second Council are not specified, and later writers,;); who d 
considerably with each other, have endeavoured to point i* 
the seven dioceses to which they belonged. The hisnoprii 
regularly established in Wales were five, Menevia c 

• "Tub vcro fraicrnitas non solum cos Eplscopns quo* ordltiarcrit, M 
quchos tun to mm oil o qui per Eburaca! Episcopum fuerinl oidinati, « 

eliam onirics Hriii in- Sin't-rili'ic liulicitt. Den Domino JesuCi 

aoolore. sutijectos." — Mede. Lib, I. Cap. 80. 

+ " In Galliarum Kpi.icujiin nullum lilii nuctoriiatcm Iriliui s : 

antiquis produces so rum meorum temporlbus Pallium Arelntensis I 
copus nccopil, q'icm non prlvncc nuctoritale percept! minimi debcmui.™- 
BcoV, Lib. 1. Cap. 27. 

I Roger Ilovtiltn, Bale, and llie Archive* of Menevia. — Tlicy ■ 
pored willi Cacli other in Hpclmnn'a Concilia, and Usher. Chap. V. 

FROM A. D. 600 TO A. D 634. 293 

vid's, Llandaff, Llanbadarn, Bangor, and St Asaph. To these 
may be added Gloucester, where according to the Welsh gene- 
alogies a British bishop resided about this time. The seventh 
must be left to conjecture ; but as the Cornish or Western 
Britons must have had several native prelates in this age, and 
it has been asserted that there was a British bishop in Somer- 
set so late as the reign of king Ina,* the distance of their 
country from the place of meeting is not too great to suppose 
that some one of them was present. The most probable date 
of the two Councils, for both are believed to have been held in 
the same year, is 603. Augustin died in 605 ; and the battle 
of Chester, or as the Welsh have named it " the battle of the 
Orchard of Bangor," appears to have been fought in 607. 
Several modern commentators have charged Augustin with 
instigating the inhuman slaughter of the monks which ensued 
upon the last occasion, and to minds impressed with this idea 
it would seem as if the assertion of Bede, that he was dead 
long before, t arose from a solicitude to clear the archbishop 
from a suspicion which that author knew was attached to him. 
But the text warrants no such uncharitable inferences. The 
solicitude of Bede, who does not regard the slaughter of the 
monks as a crime, but rather applauds it as the just judgment 
of heaven, was merely to establish the credit of Augustin as a 
prophet, by proving that he was not a party to the fulfilment 
of his own predictions. The threat of the archbishop was 
only the ebullition of disappointment ; the invasion of Wales 

• A. D. 688 to 725.— The authority for this statement is a Chronicle of 
Glastonbury quoted by Usher, who says it was written in 1259.— Brit. 
Eccl. Primordia, Cap. V. 

t " Ipso jam multo ante tempore ad celestia regna sublato.*'— As there 
is nothing answerable to these words in King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon trans- 
lation it has been conjectured by some that they are an interpolation; but 
Dr. Smith, the editor of Bede, observes they are to be found in all the 
Latin MSS. extant, and that the work of Alfred, being a paraphrase, has 
other similar omissions. 


by Etiielfrith was one of the casual operations of war ; and 
the massacre of the monks was owing to the accident of 
their appearance on a neighbouring hill ; for had the invasion 
been made for the purpose of exterminating them, would 
Etiielfrith have inquired ignorant! y who they were, and what 
were they doing ? He then puts them to the sword, because 
they were praying to their God for his defeat. Ethelfrith was 
a pagan, and therefore could feel no interest in a religious con- 
troversy between Christians; he was n Northumbrian, and 
came from a province of the Anglo-Saxons the most remote 
from the influence of Augustin ; in short, he was the chief of 
the only province in the nation which refused to acknowledge 
the sovereignty of Ethelbert,* the patron of the archbishop. 

The destruction of the monastery of Bangor Iscoed followed 
the massacre of its members, and the calamity must have 
caused a great diminution in the number of the Welsh Saints; 
but the national Church soon afterwards underwent a more 
general depression owing to the conquests of Edwin, who for 
a short time reduced the whole of the Britons under his 
sway ;t and Wales, which had so often afforded an asylum to the 
religious of other parts, wa« in turn exposed to the ravages of 
the Saxons. From these the re-appearance of Cad wall on 
procured a short respite, but the interval was spent in retal- 
iation, and little attention appears to have been paid to the 
duties of religion and peace. The few holy persons of this 
generation, whose names have reached posterity, must now be 

Grwst, the son of Gwaith Hengaer ab Elffin ab TJrien Rbe- 
ged, and Euronwy the daughter of Clydno Eiddin ; he is the 

• Tills faci, which Bede (Lib. II. Cup. V.) discloses without referent* 
to the disputed question, overthrows (he assertions of Wilier and Geoffrey 
thai Ethel bert was the person who inCueuccd Ellielfrilh to invade and 
murder the Rriti*li ecclesiastics. 

f Bede, Lib. II. Cap. V. ft IX. 

FROM A. D. 600 TO A. D. 634. 295 

reputed founder of Llanrwst, Denbighshire, and his festival 
has been held on the first of December. 

Nidan, the son of Gwrfyw ab Pasgen ab Urien, was an 
officer in the college of Penmon, Anglesey ; and the church of 
Llannidan in the same county was named after him.* Festival, 
Sept. 30. 

Cadell, the son of Urien Foeddog ab Rhun Rhion ab Lly w- 
arch Hen ; a saint to whom Llangadell, a church formerly in 
Glamorganshire, was dedicated. 

Dyfnog, the son of Medrod ab Cawrdaf ab Caradog, was 
probably the second saint of Dyfynog, Brecknockshire, 
which was originally founded by Cynog ab Brychan. Festi- 
val, Feb. 13. 

Cynhafal, the son of Elgud ab Cadfarch ab Caradog Frai ch- 
fras and Tubrawst daughter of Tuthlwyniaid ;t he was the 
founder of Llangynhafal, Denbighshire, and has been com- 
memorated on the fifth of October. 

Gwenfrewi, or St. Winefred, owes her celebrity more to the 
well that is called after her name than to any thing that is said 
of her in Bonedd y Saint ; for even her parentage is not men- 
tioned in the Welsh accounts, and the time in which she lived 
is ascertained only from the names of her contemporaries 
which occur in her legendary Life. The Legend says that 
" Theuith," a powerful man, the son of t€ Eluith," gave Beuno 
a spot of ground for the erection of a church, and appointed 
him to be the religious instructor of his only daughter, Wine- 
fred. Caradog, the son of Alan, a neighbouring chieftain, 
endeavoured to force the chastity of Winefred, upon which she 
fled towards the church of Beuno. In her flight, however, 
she was overtaken, when — " the young man mad with lust and 
rage presently strook of her head :$ and immediatly in the 
place where it fell to the earth a most pure and plentifull 

• Cambrian Biography. + Bonedd y Saint. 

X Literatim from Cressy. 



Spring gushed forth, which Howes to this day, and by the 
Holy Virgins merits gives health to a world of diseased per- 
sons. It being in the steep descent of a hill where the Virgin* 
head was eutt of, it lightly routing down to the bottom, slidd 
into the Church: whereas the body remaind in the place 
where it first fell. The whole congregation there attending 
to Divine Mysteries were wonderfully astonished to see the 
Head tumbling among their feet, detesting the crime of the 
murderer, and imprecating divine vengeance on him. But 
the parents of the Virgin broke forth into tears and sad com< 
plaints. They all went out, and found the murderer near the 
li veh's body, wiping his sword on the graase." — Beuito takes 
the head of the Virgin in his hands and pronounces a curse 
upon the young man, who immediately gives up the ghost and 
his corpse vanishes out of sight. — " But the man of God often 
kissing the head which he held in his hands could not refrain 
to weep bitterly. Afterwards loyning it to the body, and 
covering it with his mantle, he returned to the Altar, where 
he celebrated Masse." — He then preaches a sermon over the 
body, and intreats the congregation to unite with him in 
prayer for the restoration of the Virgin. — " This Prayer being 
ended, to which all the people cryed aloud. Amen : the Vir- 
gin presently rose up, as if from sleep, cleansing her face from 
the dust and sweat, and filled the Congregation with wonder 
and ioy. Now in the place where the head was reioynetl to 
the body there appeared a white Circle compassing the neck, 
small as a white thread, which continued so all her life, shew- 
ing the place where the Section had been made. And the 
report in that countrey is that from that white circle she had 
the name of Winefrid given her, whereas at first she had been 
called Breuna: Por in the British language Win signifies 
White. And moreover the Tradition is, that after her death 
whensoever she appeared to any, that White mark was always 
visible. The place where her blood was first shed was not 
much distant from a Monastery in North Wales calld I 

FROM A. D. KtO TO A. \). 031. 297 

werk : The name of it formerly was, The dry vale, but after 
her death to this day it is called Saint Winefrids Well. The 
Stones likewise, both where the spring gushes forth, and 
beneath in the Current, having been sprinkled with her blood, 
retain the rednes to these times: which colour neither the 
length of so many ages, nor the continuall sliding of the water 
over them, have been able to wash away, and moreover a 
certain Mosse which sticks to the said stones, renders a 
fragrant odour, like Incense."* — The Legend proceeds to 
relate her interviews with Diheufyr, Sadwrn, and Eleri ; and 
to say that she became abbess of a convent at " Witheriacus" 
(Gwytherin in the county of Denbigh,) where she died 
and was buried near the graves of the saints Cybi and 
Sannan. The eldest authority for this nonsensical fable is 
Robert, Prior of Shrewsbury, who says that the body of 
" Wenefreda" was translated from Gwytherin to the church of 
St iEgidius at Shrewsbury in the reign of King Stephen.t 
But it is remarkable that in the survey of Domesday Book, 
which includes the county of Flint, neither church, chapel, 
nor well of St. Winefred arc mentioned, affording a pre- 
sumption that the story and celebrity of the saint are of a 
later date than the Norman Conquest. J Festival, Nov. 3. 

Enghenel, grandson of Brochwcl Ysgythrog ; a saint to 
whom Llanenghenel under Llanfachraith, Anglesey, is dedi- 

Usteg, the son of Geraint ab Carannog, of the line of Cadell 
Deyrnllug, is said to have " officiated as dean of the college of 

* Creasy. f Lei and, Vol. IV. Appendix. 

% This argument, the want of ancient testimony, did not shake the faith 
of Cressy, who says — *'It ought uot to be esteemd a prciudice or ground 
of suspicion of the Truth of these Gcsts of Saint Winefride, that Saint 
Beda and some other of our ancient Saxon Historians have not mentioned 
her among the other Saints of this age ;"— for no intercourse passed be- 
tween the Britons and Saxons who were continually at war. 

§ Cambrian Biography. 



Eldnd, a brother of Usteg, was a saint of tlie society of 
Illtyd, and afterwards bishop of Gloucester, where he was 
slain by the Saxons. 

Another Etdad, the son of Arth ab Arthog Frycb, and a 
descendant of Cynan Meiriadog, was a member of the college 
of Ilityd about the same time. 

Egwad, a son of Cynddilig ab Cennydd ab Gildas ; he was 
the founder of Llanegwiid and Llanfynydd, Carmarthen- 

Edeyrn, the son of Nudd ab Beli ab Rhun ab Maelgwn 
Gwynedd, was a bard, who embraced a life of sanctity, and 
the chapel of Bodedeyrn under Holyhead is dedicated to him. 
Some pedigrees say that the father of Edeyrn was Beli, 
omitting Nudd. Festival, Jan. 6. 

Padrig, the son of Alfryd ab Goronwy ab Gwdion ab Don ; 
a saint of the monastery of Cybi at Holyhead, and the founder 
of Llanbadrig in Anglesey. 

Idloes, the son of Gwyddnabi ab Llawfrodedd Farlbg Cocli ; 
the founder of Llanidloes, .Montgomeryshire. 

Sadwrn, who is mentioned in the Legend of St. Winefred, 
is considered to be the patron saint of llenltiiii in the county 
of Denbigh, but his genealogy is not known. 

Helig Foel, the son of Glanog ab Gwgan Gleddyf Rhudd 
ab Caradog Fraichfras. was the chieftain of a tract of low 
land on the coast of Carnarvon si lire, called Ty no Helig ; 
where a calamity similar to the reported submersion of Can- 
tref y Gwaelod* is said to have happened, and the lands 
overflowed form the present Lafan Sands in Beaumaris Bay. 
After the loss of his property Helig embraced a religious life, 
and has in consequence been classed among the saints, but no 
churches are dedicated to him. His grandfather was engaged 
in the in the battle of Bangor Iscoed, A. D. 007- 

* Poru 834. 


The Welsh Saints from the Death of Cadwallon A. D. 634 to the Death 

of Cadwaladr A. D. 664. 

Cadwaladr, whose reign is commensurate with this interval, 
was the son of Cadwallon, and was the last of the Welsh 
nation who assumed the title of chief sovereign of Britain.* 
His power, however, was narrowly circumscribed, and in the 
early part of his reign he must have held the situation of a 
dependent prince ; for Oswald the Bernician, upon the con- 
quest and death of Cadwallon, is said to have extended his 
government over all the Britons as well as the Saxons.t After 
a few years Penda the Mercian revolted, and Oswald was slain 
in battle; upon which occasion it would appear the Welsh 
recovered their independence, as it is not recorded that Oswy, 
who succeeded Oswald as Bretwalda or chief sovereign of the 
Saxons, exercised the same authority over the Britons. It is 
generally agreed that Cadwaladr was of a peaceable diposition ; 
his life passed without any remarkable events ; and the vener- 
able historian of the Anglo-Saxons, who lived in the next 
generation, does not mention his name. In the year 664 a 
plague broke out, which spread desolation over Britain and 
Ireland, and in the latter country, where it lasted three years, 
is swept away two thirds of the inhabitants. J In Britain its 
continuance was much shorter, but great numbers perished, || 
and Cadwaladr was one of its victims. § 

* " A Phrydein dan un paladyr 
Goreu mab Kymro Katwalatyr." 

Kyyoesi Myrdin : Myv. Arch. Vol. I. page 140. 
t Bede II. 5, and III. 6. J Annals of Ulster. || Bede, III. 27. 

§ Nennius apud Gale. 


The chronicles of Walter and Geoffrey terminate with the 
death of this prince and the appointment of his successor, bill 
they terminate in a way worthy of their previous character ; 
for having begun and continued a course of fable, which hw 
too long usurped the place of history, they end in a blunder. 
According to them the plague lasted eleven years, and mis- 
placing the age of Cadwaladr they assert that to avoid its 
ravages he retired to the court of Alan, the king of Armories. 
He was hospitably received, and after a while was preparing 
to return, when an angel appeared, commanding him to re 
linquish his purpose and undertake a pilgrimage to Ituroc. 
Resigning his kingdom, therefore, in favour of Ii'.r, bis sun. 
he proceeded to Rome, where having been admitted among 
the saints by Pope Sergius, he died on the twelfth of May. 
IUK!.« — Persons acquainted with the history of the Anglo- 
Saxons will immediately perceive that Walter and Geoffrey 
have confounded their hero with Ceadwalla the king of WcMS^ 
who resigned his kingdom, and making n pilgrimage to Koine 
was baptized there by Pope Sergius, where he died on the 
twelfth of the calends of May, 680. + — The story is true as 
regards Ceadwalla, for it is related by Bede, who was his con- 
temporary and who could not have mistaken a circumstance 
affecting the government of one of the most powerful of the 
Saxon states. Walter and Geoffrey were deceived by the 
sound of the name ; and three other chroniclers in t lit- Hyl vr- 
ian Archaiologyt have followed in the wake of the error, by 
assigning the true history of Ina, the king of Wcbom 
successor of Ceadwalla, to Ifor, the supposed successor of 
waladr. A notion prevailed in the beginning of the tw< 



" MvT.Areli»iologY,Vol. II. page 388. 

t So in the Saxon I'liriniele. IttJt i- mure precise, (in J thong li hi 
that ('eadwnlla resigned tits kingdom in H8K, lie says be dU no) Ittttl 
It iiinu till the year following, when, after receiving buplism, lie died on ihc 
ihii of Dm month above staled. 

J Vol. II.,,. 17(1 

FROM A. D 634 TO A. D. 604. JJOl 

century, and is embodied in certain fictitious prophecies of 
Myrddin,* that Cadwaladr should re-appear and expel the 
Saxons from the island, restoring the Cymry to their ancient 
possessions ; but nothing is said of his visit to Rome or even 
to Armorica, and if the words of Nennius,t the oldest author- 
ity by whom he is noticed, be rightly interpreted, he must 
have died of the plague in his own country. He has had the 
credit of sanctity, an honour apparently of modern growth, 
and the epithet of " Bendigaid" or " Blessed" is frequently 
attached to his name. In the Triads he is called one of the 
three canonized kings of Britain. According to tradition he 
rebuilt the church of Eglwys Ael in Anglesey, where his 
grandfather, Cadfan, had been buried, and which after its 
restoration obtained the name of Llangadwaladr. He is 
deemed the patron saint of Llangadwaladr alias Bishopston, 
Monmouthshire, and of Llangadwaladr under Llanrhaiadr in 
Mochnant, Denbighshire, and his festival occurs on the ninth 

of October. J 

The inundation which formed the Lafan Sands, already 
alluded to,|| appears to have occurred in this generation, while 
Helig was still living ; his sons, upon the loss of their patri- 
mony, embraced a monastic life in the colleges of Bangor 
Deiniol§ and Bangor Enlli ;* their names were : — 

* Myvyrian Archaiology, Vol. I. p. 145. 

-t "Verba ejus ha?c sunt:— «Osquid (Oswy) filius Eldfrid (Ethelfrith) 
regoavit XXVIII annis et VI mensibus ; dum ipse regnabat, venitmor- 
talitas hominum, Catgualat (a/. Catgualitcr) regnante apud Britones post 
patrem suura, et in eft periit.'— Si autem hate verba—* in eft peri it, '—ad 
Cadwaladrum referenda sunt, omnia plana erunt. Oswius enim vixit 
anuius V (recfius VI) post A. D. DCLXV (rectius DCLXIV) in quo mor- 
talitas ilia accidit."— TErte Cambrobritannica?, accurantc Mose Guliclmo, 
published at the end of Humphrey Llwyd's Britannicse Descriptions Com- 
mentariolum. London, 1731. 

% Alphabetical Calendar in Sir (I Nicola^'s Chronology of History. 

|| Page 29ft. 

^ Bangor in Carnarvonshire * 'Po Monastery of Rardbcy. 


Aelgyfarch, and Bods, saints. 

Brothen, the founder of Llanfrothen, Merionethshire. Fes- 
tival, Oct. 15. 

Bodfan, the patron saint of Aber, or Abergwyngregyn, 
Carnarvonshire. Festival, June 2. 

Bedwas, possibly the person from whom a church so called 
in Monmouthshire lias derived its name. 

Celynin, the founder of Llaiigclynin, Merionethshire. 
tival, Nov. 20. 

Brenda, Euryn, and Gwyar ; sons of Hclig, and saints. 

Gwynnin, the patron saint of Llandygwynnin, Carnar 
shire; com in em orated Dec. 31. 

Peris, described as " a saint and cardinal of Rome ;" — the 
description is probably a mistake, but it is the only instance ad- 
mitted in Bonedd y Saint of connexion with tile papal see. He 
was the founder nf Llanberis, Carnarvonshire ; and Llatigiaii, i 
chapel under Llanbedrog in the same county is dedicated to 
him in conjunction with Cian, who was Ins servant. 
The memory of Peris has been celebrated on the twenty 
sixth of July, and that of Cian on the eleventh of De- 

Bhychwyn ab Helig, the patron saint of Llanrhychwyn, a 
chapel under Trefriw, Carnarvonshire. Festival, June, 10. 

Other holy persons, who flourished about this time, 
were: — 

Dona, the son of Selyf ab Cynan Garwyn ab Brochwel ; 
the founder of Llanddona, Anglesey. His wake is Nov- 
ember 1. 

Collen, the son of Gwynog of the line of Caradog Fraich- 
fras ; or, according to some, the son of Petrwn ab Coleddog ab 
Rhydderch Hael. He was the founder of Llangollen, Den- 
bighshire, and has been commemorated on the twentieth 
of May. 

* Cambrian Register, Vol. III. 

FROM A. D. 634 TO A. D. 664. 303 

Ed wen, a female saint of Saxon descent, who has been 
allowed a place among the saints of Wales. She is said to 
have been a daughter or niece of Edwin, king of North- 
umbria ; and the statement derives probability from the cir- 
cumstance admitted by the English historians, that Edwin 
was brought up in the court of Cadfan, king of North Wales, 
at Caerseiont or Carnarvon.* Llanedwen in Anglesey is de- 
dicated to her, and her festival has been kept on the sixth 
of November. 

* Bonedd y Saint. Myv. Archaiology. 


The Welsh Saints from the Death of Cadwaladr A. D. 664 to the End of 
the Seventh Century, including those of uncertain date. 

Little is known of the history of this time, and it forms 
almost a blank in Welsh tradition. The nominal sovereigns of 
Wales were successively a son of Cadwaladr, named Idwal 
Iwrch, and Hywel ab Cadwal,* the latter of whom was suc- 
ceeded by Rhodri Molwynog in 720. 

The saints who may be assigned to this generation are : — 

Egryn, the son of Gwrydr Drwm ab Gwedrog of the line of 
Cadell Deyrnllug. He was the founder of Llanegryn, Mer- 

Cwyfen, the son of Brwyno Hen ab Dyfnog ; a descendant 
of Caradog Fraichfras, and the founder of Llangwyfen, Den- 
bighshire. Tudweiliog, Carnarvonshire, and Llangwyfen a 
chapel under Trefdraeth, Anglesey, are dedicated to him. 
His mother was Camell of Bodangharad in Coleion, Den- 
bighshire. Festival, June 3. 

"Baruck," a saint who is not mentioned in the Welsh 
accounts, but according to Cressy he was — " a Hermite, whose 
memory is celebrated in the Province of the Silures and 
region of Glamorgan. He lyes buried in the Isle of Barry, 
which took its name from him." — " In our Martyrologe," adds 
that author, " This Holy Hermit Baruck is said to have 
sprung from the Noble Blood of the Brittains, and entring 
into a solitary strict course oflife, he at this time (A. D. 700) 
attained to a life immortall." Festival, Nov. 29. 

' 7 ■ ■"**•' 

* Kyvocsi Myrdin. Myv Archaiology, Vrfl. I. p, liO. ' ' 

■'■'•.■ ■■ ■ - . ;■' ;.".! ls£i< ^rst *ta:' : 



Degeman, in Latin Decumanus, a holy person, of whom 
Cressy says that he was " born of Noble parents in the South- 
western parts of Wales, and forsaking his countrey the more 
freely to give himself to Mortification and devotion, he passed 
the river Severn upon a hurdle of rodds, and retired himself 
into a mountainous vast solitude covered with shrubbs and 
briars, where he spent his life in the repose of Contemplation, 
till in the end he was slain by a murderer," — According to 
Camden, he was murdered at a place called St. Decornbe's in 
Somersetshire, where a church was afterwards raised to his 
memory. He is the patron saint of Rosecrowther in the 
county of Pembroke ; and of I»lan degeman, an extinct chapel 
in the parish of Llanfihangel Cwra Dii, Brecknockshire. He 
died A. D. 706, and has been commemorated on the twenty 
seventh of August. 

The Primitive Church of Wales continued to maintain its 
existence, but the above are its last saints of whom any account 
has been preserved. In the latter part of the next century the 
Welsh were forced to adopt the Catholic computation of 
Easter, and thereby to join in communion with the church of 
Rome. Since that time, only five Welshmen have obtained 
the honours of sanctity, including Elfod or Elbodius, the pre- 
late through whose exertions the change alluded to was 
effected.* The other four were :— Sadyrnin, bishop of St. 
David's, who died A. D. 832; his name is borne by the church 
of Llansadymin in Carmarthen shire : — Cyfelach, bishop of 
Llandaff from about the year 080 to 92" ; he probably gave 
his name to the church of Lkiigyfetach, Glamorganshire, the 
original founder of which was St. David : — Caradog, a hermit 
of Haroldston East, Pent broke shire, and patron saint of Law- 
renny in that county ; he was canonised by the Pope at the 
solicitation of Giraldus Cambrensis:+ — Gwryd, a friar, who 

* Sec pngo 00 oTlliis Essay, 
t Wli art oil's Anglia Sacra, Vol, 


lived about the end of the twelfth century and has been < 
memorated on the first of November.* There are, however 
several saints whose genealogy is lost or imperfect, and therefore 
their era cannot be determined ; but it may be presumed that 
they belonged to the Primitive rather than the Catholic Church, 
as the names of only two Welshmen, who can be proved to 
have lived alter the conversion of their country to Catholicism, 
have been given to religious edifices on the score of saintship; 
Lawrenny does not appear to have borne the name of St. Ca- 
radog, though dedicated to him, and no churches have been 
called after Elbodius and Gwryd. The following is an alpha- 
betical list of the saints of uncertain date, with their 
and festivals.+ — 

Aelrhiw; Rhiw, Carnarvonshire ; Sept. 9. 

AmoorAnno; Llananno, Radnorshire ; and Newborou; 
anciently Llananno, Anglesey.} 

Bach ab Carwed, a chieftain ; reported to have be< 
founder Eglwys Fach,§ Denbighshire. 

Caron, a bishop ; Tregaron, Cardiganshire, March 5. 

Cedol ; Pentir chapel, alias Llangedol, subject to Bang" 
Carnarvonshire, Nov. 1. 

Celer, a martyr; Llangeler, Carmarthenshire. 

Cennych; Llangennych, Carmarthenshire. 

• Cumbrian Register, Vol. III. p. 231 ; where it is said that he relit' 
Elnion ab Gwakhmai of some oppression. probably uicnUl, which hi 
afflicted him Tor st-Tcn years. Einioti ab Gwolcbmai Wis I 
flourished between A. D. 1170 and 1220. 

f Some of the uames in ihe Myvyrian Archniology, which ■ 
ported by a reference to M88. hut seem to be conjectured from the m 
Of churches, arc omitted in this list. Some of the names in the Cainbr 
Biography are also omitted, which appear lo he various readings of IV 
through the carelessness of transcribers. 

J Myv. Archaiology, Vol. II. p. BB. 

$ The compiler of Boncdd y Saint in Ihe Myvyrian Archaiolopy ■< 
"if the slory be (rue" fos gwir y chwedl;) the obvious signiualh 
Eglieyt Fach is •• the small church." 

FROM A. D. GGJ TO A. D. 700. 307 

Ciwa; LI an giwa, Monmouthshire. 

Cloffan ; Llangloffan, Pern brokesh ire. 

Cofen ; Llangofen, Monmouthshire ; anil St. Goven'a cha- 
pel, Pembrokeshire. 

Curig Lwyd, a bishop, probably of Llanhailam Fawr ; he 
was the founder of Llangurig, Montgomeryshire, and his 
crosier was preserved in the neighbouring church of St. Har- 
mon's in the time of Giraldus Cambrensis. There was another 
Curig or Cyrique, a saint of Tarsus in Cilieia, who was mar. 
tyred while an infant at the same time with his mother, Juliet 
or Julitta. Llanilid a Churig,* Glamorganshire, and " Capel 
Curig a'i fam Iulita,"+ Carnarvonshire, are dedicated to Juliet 
and Cyriquc together. Juliet is also the saint of Llanulid 
under Dyfynog, Brecknockshire. It is uncertain to which of 
the persons named Curig, the churches of Porth Curig, Gla- 
morganshire, and Eglwys Fair a Churig, Carmarthenshire, are 
* dedicated. The festival of Juliet and Cyrique is June 16. 

Cwyfyn, the son of Arthalun of the vale of Achlach in 


Cynfab; Capel Cynfub formerly in the parish of Llanfair ar 
y Bryn, Carmarthenshire. Nov. 15. 

Cynfarwy ; the son of Awy ab Llenog, a prince of Corn- 
wall ; Llechgynfarwy, Anglesey. Nov. 7- 

Dwyfael, the Bon of Pryderi ab Dolor of Deira and Bcr- 




iddwyn; Llanenddwyn, Merionethshire. 
Eurfyl; Llaneurfyl, Montgomeryshire. July G. 
Gartheli; Capel Garlheli, Cardiganshire. 
Gwenllwyfo; Llanwenllwyfo, Anglesey. 
Gwenog, a virgin ; Llanwenog, Cardiganshire. Jan. 3. 

Gwenog, a virgin ; 

My v. Archaiology, Vol. II. p. Q2A. 
lliid. p. 86. 


Gwrthwl; Llanwrthwl, Brecknockshire; and Macstlan- 
wrthwl in Caio, Carmarthenshire. March 2. 

Gwyddelan ; LI anw yd del an, Montgomeryshire ; and Dol- 
wyddelan, Carnarvonshire. August 22. 

Gwydrffarch ; the son of Amalarus, prince of Pwyl. He 
was one of the saints of Meifod, Montgomeryshire. 

Gwynen. Qu. Llanwnen, Cardiganshire. 

Gwynio ; Llanwynio, Carmarthenshire. March or May 2 

Gwyrfarn ;— Trinity Sunday. 

Hlog ; Him ant, Montgomeryshire. August 8, 

"Issni or Ishaw,"t a martyr; Partriciu or Partriahaw, * 
chapel under Llanbedr, Brecknockshire. October 30. 


Ltibio; Llanllibio, Anglesey. February 28. 

Llwni; LI anllwni, Carmarthenshire. August 11. 

Llwydian ; Heneglwys, Anglesey. November 19. 

Llyr, a virgin ; Llanllyr, Cardiganshire ; and Llanllyr i 
Rhos, now written Llanyre, Radii or shire. October 21, 

Machraith ; Llanfachraith, Anglesey; and Llanfachra 
Merionethshire. January 1, 

Mechell or Mechyll, the son of Echwydd ab Gwyn Go- 
hoyw. He was the founder of Llanfechell, Anglesey ; and 
was buried in the church-yard of Penrhos Llugwy in the same 
county, where there was lately a stone with the following 

Mordeyrn ; Nantglyn, and Mordeyrn's chapel formerly 
in the parish of Nantglyn, Denbighshire. July 25. 


Morhaiarn; Trewalchmai, Anglesey. November 1. 

Mwrog; Llanfwrog, Anglesey. Jan. 6, or Jan. 15. 

Myllin ; Luuifylliu, Montgomeryshire. June 17- 

r H. Nkolas's Chronology of History. 
tncl orthography of lab name ia unknown. 

I Rowland*'? Moon Actiqus. 

., D, 661 TO A. D. JOO. 

Rhediw; Llanllyfni, Carnarvonshire. November 11. 

Rhian ; Llanrhian, Pembrokeshire. March 8. 

Rhidian, a member of the college of Ccnnydd at Llangcn- 
nydd in Gower ; — LlunrhJiiiun, Glamorganshire. 

Rhuddlad, a daughter of a king of Leinster in Ireland ;* 
Llanrhuddlad, Anglesey. September 4. 

Rhwydrys ; a eon of Hhwydrim or Rhodrcm, king of Con- 
naught. Llanrhwydrys, Anglesey. November 1. 

Samled ; Llansamled, Glamorganshire. 

Tudwen ; Llandudwen, Carnarvonshire. 

Ulched ; Llechulched, Anglesey. January C. 

The foregoing list concludes the series of Primitive Christ- 
ians, whose names have been collected from various authorities 
but principally from the records of the Welsh genealogists ; 
and on a comparison of these records with each other, and 
with collateral testimony wherever accessible, has been founded 
the present attempt to bring order out of confusion by tracing 
the history of the saints, as nearly as possible, according to 
their chronological succession: — with what success, the reader 
must judge for himself. At first sight the Welsh pedigrees 
present the appearance of an entangled maze, but when un- 
ravelled and adjusted they form a regular tissue, the figures 
interwoven in which are consistent, and by their analogies 
clearly demonstrate where the threads are broken, and how 
far the ravages of time may be repaired. The clue to the 
arrangement is that the web should commence about the de- 
parture of the Romans, and, this being attended to, its several 
pieces will agree together. One objection, however, to the 
testimony of the genealogists, as regards the saints, must be 
obviated. From their representation it would appear that 
large crowds of people, chieftains with their families and 
dependents, renounced together the pursuit of arms, and be- 
coming inmates of a monastery, devoted themselves to religion, 

• iluwlnnds's Moua Auliqun 


This it might be urged was a practice unusual in other 
countries, and that the representations of the genealogists were 
therefore improbable ; but the objection is overthrown by 
Bede who declares that a similar practice prevailed in North- 
umbria, where it had degenerated into open abuse ;" for 
chieftains uncontrolled by ecclesiastical discipline founded 
monasteries, the government of which they assumed to them- 
selves, inviting together nil sorts of persons and especially 
their dependents, many of whom retained their wives and con. 
tinued to have children.t In their lives they differed little 
from laymen, and Bede in his Epistle to Egbert, archbishop 
of York, earnestly intreats him to interfere and put an end to 
such irregularities. The abuse of the system is not charged 
against the Britons, who also differed from the Northumbrians 
in another particular, — they had no nunneries ;{ while those 
in Northumbria were numerous, and in many instances their 
government was irregularly committed to the wives of 
chieftains. § 

To the churches founded according to the peculiar mode of 
consecration practised by the Britons, || succeeded in due 
course those of the second and third foundation, upon which 
it is not necessary to enlarge, as sufficient has been said al- 
ready. Both these classes were Catholic, the second being 
founded chiefly by native princes, and the third by foreigners. 
But as it must be a source of gratification to Welshmen, to 
reflect that their churches of the first and most important 

• " Adridenic pnec nc screniiatc teaiporum, plures in gente Norduihym- 
bronim, Urn nobiks ([nam privati, se suosquo Uberos, dcposilis ■ 
stUgunl migU accepla tonsuiD, monaster! ili bus adscribete votis, i 
bellicin exerccru studiis. Qua re* quem sil liabilura Enem posterior 
vidobil."— Bediu Hist. Eccl. A. D. 731. 

t Epistola ail Ecgbcrctula Aiitistilcm 

X Pago 160. 

§ E pistol a ad Ecgberclum. 

II Page 81. 

FROM A. D. 664 TO A. D. 700. 


class were established at a time when their i 
acknowledge the authority of Rome, it may 
to adduce some positive evidence as to the degree of separa- 
tion which existed between the Britons and the Catholics, and 
euch may be found at the period where these researches ter- 
minate. In the year G!)2, Aldhelm, a priest who was after- 
wards bishop of Sherborne, was deputed at a general s3'nod of 
the Saxons to write a treatise against the Paschal cycle and 
form of Tonsure adhered to by the Britons. He accordingly 
wrote an epistle to Geruntius, king of Cornwall, which is still 
extant, and is important as it proves, that though the points in 
dispute were in themselves of little consequence, the division 
amounted to an entire separation of communion. The fol- 
lowing extracts are given according to the translation of 
Cressy. — 

"But besides these enormities (the Tonsure and Paschal 
cycle) there is another thing wherein they doe notoriously 
swerve from the Catholick Faith and Evangelical Tradition, 
which is, that the Preists of the Demetn?, or South-west 
Wales, inhabiting beyond the bay of Severn, puffed up with a 
conceit of their own purity, doe exceedingly ahhorr commun- 
ion with us, insomuch as they will neither ioyn in prayers with 
us in the Church, nor enter into society with us at the Table : 
yea moreover the fragments which we leave after refection 
they will not touch, but cast them to be devoured by doggs 
and unclean Swine. The Cupps also in which we have drunk, 
they will not make use of, till they have rubbed and cleansed 
them with sand or ashes. They refuse all civil salutations or 
to give us the kisse of pious fraternity, contrary to the Apos- 
tles precept, 'Salute one another with a holy kisse.' They 
will not afford us water and a towel for our hands, nor a vessell 
to wash our feet. Whereas our Saviour having girt himself 
with a towell, washed his Disciples feet, and left us a pattern 
to imitate, saying ' As I have done to you, so doe you to 
others.' Moreover if any of us who are Cutholicks doe goe 



amongst them to make an abode, they will not vouchsafe to 
admit t us to their fellowship till we be compelled to spend 
Forty daj-s in Pennance." — (Addressing- Geruntius and his 
subjects, Aldhelm says:) — " Since therefore the truth of these 
things cannot be denyed, we doe with earnest humble prayers 
and bended knees beseech and adjure you, as you hope to 
attain to the fellowship of Angels in Gods heavenly kingdom, 
tliat you will no longer with pride and stubbornes abhorr the 
doctrines and Decrees of the Blessed Apostle S. Peter, nor 
pertinaciously and arrogantly despise the Tradition of the 
Roman Church, preferring before it the Decrees and ancient 
Ritea of your Predecessoiirs. For it was S. Peter, who having 
devoutly confessed the Son of God, was honoured by him with 
these Words, 'Thou art Peter, and upon this Rock will I 
build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevayle 
against it: And to thee will I give the keyes of the kingdom 
of heaven, and whatsoever thou slialt bind on earth shall be 
bound in heaven, and whatsoever thou shah loose on earth 
shall be loosed in heaven.' If therefore the Keyes of the 
kingdom of heaven were given to S. Peter, who is he, who, 
having despised the principall Staluts and ordinances of his 
Church, can presumingly expect to enter with ioy, through 
the gate of the heavenly Paradise ? And if he by a peculiar 
Priviledge and happines received the power of binding and 
the Monarchy of loosing in heaven and earth, who is he, who, 
having reiected the Rule of the Pascliiill Solemnity, and the 
Rite of the Roman Tonsure, will not rather apprehend to be 
indissolubly bound than mercifully absolved from his sins."' 

Than the above, no greater proof of separation can be re- 
quired, the arguments for the supremacy of the Pope being 
precisely the same as a modern Catholic would employ against 
a Protestant; and in the following observation, Aldhelm 
seems to allude to the Welsh saints : — " What proffit can any 

• Crosay, Book XIX, Cbap. IT. 

FROM A. D. 661 TO A. D 700. 3] 3 

one receive from good works done out of the Catholick 
Church, although a man would be never so strict in Regular 
Observances, or retire himself into a desart to practise an 
Anachoreticall life of Contemplation." — The priests of the 
Demeta?, or Diocese of St. David's, are noticed, probably 
because they were those with whom the writer was best ac- 
quainted,* for no other author has observed a distinction 
between them and the rest of the clergy of Wales ; and the 
charge brought against them may, therefore, be extended to 
their brethren generally. According to Bede, the exertions of 
Aid helm were able to reduce to conformity, only so many of 
the Britons as were subject to the kingdom of Wessex ;t from 
which it may fairly be presumed that they owed their con- 
version to the influence of their conquerors : those who main- 
tained their independence as a nation, continued to adhere to 
the religion of their fathers.} The manner, in which Catholi- 
cism was afterwards introduced, has been already explained.§ 

The evidence that the Britons, at this time, rejected with 
indignation the spiritual authority of Rome is the best that 
can be desired, for it rests upon the testimony of contemporary 
writers, who themselves were Catholics, and who were not 
Britons but Saxons. || These researches, therefore, close, 
leaving the Welsh in the possession of a National Church and 
in the enjoyment of religious liberty. Why they were per- 
mitted to lose these valuable privileges is best known to the 
Ruler of events, who disposes all things for good. Posterity, 
however, cannot fail to observe a species of historical justice. 
To the descendants of the ancient Britons the Reformation 
was not only a restitution of blessings, which He who gave had 

* The explanation— <4 inhabiting beyond the bay of Severn," added after 
Deraetae, applies equally to the Dioceso of Llandaff ; and South Wales 
taken as a whole, was the portion of Wales nearest to Wessex where 
Aldhelm resided. 

t Hist. Eccl. V. 18. % Ibid. II. 20 ; et V. 23. 

§ Pages 65, 66, and 805. || Aldhelm, Eddius, and Bede. 




every right to take away, but it brought an overwhelming 
recompense in a translation of the Scriptures, which until that 
time the Welsh do not appear to have possessed ; and while 
it may be argued on the credit of history, that the Pope has 
no prescriptive claim to the supremacy of the Church in this 
island, for the religious liberty of the Britons may be asserted 
upon an older title, yet the Bible is the great charter of Pro- 
testants. Upon this record moat they ground their reasons 
for refusing to join in communion with Uomanists, and so long 
as an unrestricted perusal of the Sacred volume is permitted to 
the people in their own language, a safeguard against error is 
established, which had the Britons possessed, they might have 
resisted the aggressions of Popery with better success. May 
their descendants, therefore, appreciate the gift; and so long 
as they adhere faithfully to doctrines derived immediately 
from Scripture, they are assured their privileges shall never 
be taken away. The word of God remaineth for ever. Dis- 
tant ages may look upon Catholicism as a short episode in the 
annals of the past, but the Bible, rendered into the vernacular 
tongue, unfolds to the illiterate n prospect far beyond die 
merits and the duration of contending Churches, displaying, 

doe?, to the weakest understandings, the 

i and the glot 

1 happy immortality. 




1. Joseph of Arimathea ; apostle of the Britons and founder of a 
church at Glastonbury. Commemorated March 17. Died at Glas- 
tonbury July 27, A. D. 82. 

2. Mansuetus, a Caledonian Briton; disciple of St. Peter at Rome, 
and afterwards bishop of Toul in Lor rain. Comm. Sept. 3. Died 
A. D. 89. 

3. Aristobulus, a disciple of St. Peter or St. Paul; sent as an 
apostle to the Britons and was the first bishop in Britain. Comm. 
March 15. Died at Glastonbury A. D. 99. 

4. Claudia, supposed to have been a daughter of Caractacus, and 
the wife of Pudens. Comm. Aug. 7. Died at Sabinum, a city of 
Umbriain Italy A. D. 110. 

5. Beatus, converted in Britain, afterwards a disciple of St. Peter at 
Rome. His first name was Suetonius. He became the apostle of the 
Helvetians. Comm. May 9. Died A. D. 110, at Underseven in 

6. Phagan ; successor to Joseph in his Prefecture at Glastonbury. 

7. Marcellus, a Briton ; bishop of Tongres and Triers ; the first 
British martyr, but he suffered out of the island. Comm. Sept. 4. 
Martyred A. D. 166. 

8. Timotheus, a son of Pudens and Claudia, and born at Rome ; 
apostle to the Britons. Martyred at Rome A. D. 166, and com- 
memorated March 24. 

9. Theanus, the first bishop of London, about the year 185. 

10. Elvanus, successor to St. Theanus. Cressy mentions his com- 
panion Medwinus, but does not call him a saint. 

31(J APPEM1X, No. I. 

11. Lucius, king of Britain, "the first among king* which re- 
ceived the faith of Christ." Converted in his old age A. D. 1S2, and 
his baptism is commemorated by the Romish Church May 36. After 
having established Christianity over the whole of his dominions he 
became the; apostle of Bavaria, Rfurtia, and Yindelicia. He was slain 
near Curia in Germany A. D. 201. His martyrdom is comm. Dec. 3. 

12. Emerita ; sister of Lucius, and his companion in Germany ; 
martyred at Trim as near Curia, A. D. 103. Com in. Dec. 4. 

13. FugotiusorPhngaiiusi— and 

14. Damianus or Diruvianus; — Legates sent from Rome by Pope 
Eleutherius to baptize King Lucius. They both died in the year 
191, and are commemorated together May 21. 

16. Mello, Mallo, Melanius, or Meloninus, a Briton; bishop of 
Rouen in France. Coram. Oct 22. Died A. D. 280. 

16. Albanus of Verolam, the first martyr in Britain. 1 1 is memory 
is celebrated in the English Martyrology on the twenty second of 
July, and in the Gallican on the twenty second of June. Martyred 
A. D. 287. 

17- Amphibalus, a native of Caerleon, and the instructor of St. 
Album Martyred at Rudburn A. D. 287. His translation is comm. 

18. Julius; — and 

19. Aaron ; — natives of Caerleon, at which place they were mar- 
tyred together, soon after the martyrdom of St. Amphibalus. Comm. 
together July 1. 

80. Stephanus t— awl 

21. Socrates; — "two noble British Christians" and disciples of 
St. Amphibalus, martyred in the persecution of Diuclesian. 

22. Nicholas, a bishop of North Britain, for his piety styled Gul- 
dens. Mart. A. D. 806. 

23. Stephanos, the seventh bishop of London, is called a martyr. 
though he died a natural death, A. D. 300. 

24. Augulus, eighth bishop of London. Died in the year 305. 
and comm. Feb. 7. 

25. Helena, wife of Constantly emperor of Rome, and the mother 
of Constatitine. Died A. D. 326; comm. Aug. 18. 

26. Constantine, emperor of Rome. Died A. D. 337; comm. 
May 21. 


27. Gudwal, a bishop of Britain. In the latter part of his Hie lie 
lived in Flanders, where he died June 6, A. D. 403, on which day 
he is also commemorated. The feast of the translation of his body to 
the monastery of Ghent is celebrated on the third day before the 
Nones of December. 

28. Kebius, a son of Solomon duke of Cornwall, and disciple of 
St Hilary bishop of Poicticrs, He was consecrated a bishop by 
St Hilary, and he placed his see in the Isle of Anglesey, where he 
died A. D. 370. 

29. Moses, apostle of the Saracens ; said to have been a Briton. 
Comm. Feb. 7. 

30. Regulus, a native of Greece ; missionary to the Picts. Comm. 
August 28. 

31. Melorus, son of Melianus duke of Cornwall. Martyred A. D. 
411. Festival August 28. 

32. Palladius, a Roman; apostle to the Scots. Died in 431. 
Comm. January 27; He had two distinguished disciples, Ser- 
vanus, bishop of the Orkneys, and Tervanus, successor to St. Nin- 
ian or Ninianus. 

33. Carantac or Cernac, son of Keredic prince of Cardigan ; a 
disciple and attendant of St. Patrick. Died at Chernach in Ire- 
land on the seventeenth of the Calends of Juue. 

34. Luman, a British saint and companion of St. Patrick. Founder 
of the church of Trim in Ireland. 

35. Winwaloc, a famous British saint, who settled in Armorica. 
His death A. D. 432 is commemorated March 3, and his translation 
to the Blandin monastery at Ghent is celebrated August 1. 

36. Ninianus, a Cumbrian Briton; the first bishop of the Southern 
Picts. He died A. D. 432. 

37. Germanus, bishop of Auxerre ; — and 

38. Lupus, bishop of Troyes ;— deputed by Pope Celestine to 
reform the British Church in 429. St. Germanus visited Britain a 
second time A. D. 435, accompanied by Severus, bishop of Triers. 

39. Briocus, a Briton of the province of Corticia ; a disciple of St. 
Germanus, and bishop of Brieu in Armorica. Cbmm. April 30. 

40. Bachiarius, — "by Nation a Brittain and Disciple of Saint 
Patrick ; he addicted himself to the study of litterature at Caer-leon." 
Obiit A. D. 460. 


.lift APPENDIX, No. I. 

41. Ursula, daughter of Diutintus prince of Cornwall. Martyred 
with the eleven ihousjnd virgins, A. D. 453. Coram. Oct. 21. 
12. Cordulo, one of the eleven thousand virgins ; Oct 22. 

43. Voadinus, archbishop of Loudon i martyred by Ihe 
A. D. 457, Comm. July 3. 

44. Patrick, the apostle of Ireland. Born A. D. 361 in « valley of 
tile country of the Demote, called " Rossina," where tlie cathedral of 
St. David's was afterwards built. Died at Glastonbury A. D. 47i, 
aged 111. 

45. Brigit, an Irish saint and disciple of St. Patrick i she visited 
Britain in 488. Died at Down in Ireland A. D, SOB. Com- 
memorated Feb, 1. 

46. Sophias, Ihe son of Oullleictu prince of Ihe Ordovicea. "He 
was by another name called Cadocus." Co nse< rated bishop of Bene. 
ventnm in Italy. Died A. D. 430; couirn. January 24. (Creasy 
says this person ought not to be confounded with another St Ca- 
docus, who was an abbot) 

47. Keina, "daughter of Bragarms prince of Brecknock." She 
died on the eighth day before the Ides of October, A. D. 400. 

43. Almedha, a martyrs sister to St. Keina. Commemorated 
August I. 

4B. Canoe, eldest son of Bragamis. Coram. February 11, Floruit 
circa 102- 

60. Clitanc or Cliutanc, " King of Brecknock and Martyr. A. I> : 
482. Comm. August 10, 

61. Richard, born in Britain A. D. 465. Consecrated bishop of 
Andria. The first converted Saxon. Comm. April 9. 

62. Gutileus, ■' Prince of the Southern Brittains." Comm. 
March 20. 

63. Cadoc, abbot of Llnncarvan : son of St. Gunleus. Died about 
A. D. 500. Comm. February 24. 

64. Tathni. a Brilish saint ; president of a college at Caerwent,»nd 
tutor to St. Ciidoe the abbot. 

65. Dogmaelor Tegwel. "A famous Abbey in Pembrokeshire 
took its name from him." He died about the year 500. Commem. 
orated June II. 

68. Bemach, an abbot: commemorated on the seventh of the 
Ides of April. 


67. Petrock, born of princely parentage in Wales. He lived some 
time in Ireland and afterwards settled in Cornwall, where he died 
A. D. 564. 

68. Meven, patron of a monastery in Armorica. He was born in 
Britain, but the time when he lived is not mentioned. "Judicael, 
Prince of the Armorici or Lesser Brittany, who descended from our 
Brittany, built the said Monastery. " 

59. Gildas Albanius, son of Can the king of Albania. Died on the 
fourth day before the Calends of February A. D. 612. Commemor- 
ated January 29. Not to be confounded with St. Gildas, abbot of 
Bangor, who is styled Sapiens, Historicus, and Badonicus. 

60. Daniel, the first bishop of Bangor. Died A. D. 514, and is 
commemorated December 10. 

61. Justinian, a native of Armorica, who suffered martyrdom from 
the hands of his own servants in the island of Ramsey. Commemor- 
ated August 23. 

62. Paternus, a native of Armorica ; he visited Wales in 516, and 
was the first bishop of Llanbadarn Fawr in Cardiganshire. Comm. 
May 15. 

63. Darerca, born in Britain ; sister of St. Patrick. Died A. D. 519. 

64. Mel, a son of St. Darerca. 

65. Itioch, a son of St. Darerca : — " by Nation a Brittain, 
near kinsman to Patrick, by whom he was ordained a Bishop in 

66. Menni, a son of St. Darerca. 

67. Sechnallus or Secundinus, a son of St. Darerca. 

68. Auxilius, a son of St. Darerca; consecrated bishop of Leinster 
by St. Patrick. 

69. Dubricius ; consecrated bishop of Llandaff by St. Germanus in 
436, and raised to the archbishoprick of Caerleon in 492. Died in 
the Isle of Bardsey A. D. 522. His remains were translated to Llan- 
daff on the Nones of May, 1120, and buried there on the fourth day 
before the Calends of June by Bp. Urban. 

70. Theliau. He succeeded St. Dubricius as bishop of Llandaff — 
'•and if the authority of the English Martyrologe fayle not, he dyed 
not untill the coming of S. Augustin the Monk into Brittany." He 
died on the fifth day before the Ides of February, but is commemor- 
ated as a martyr November 26. 

320 APPENDIX, No, I. 

71. Panlens or Panlinns, a disciple: of St. Germanus, and instructor 
of St. David and St. Theliau. 

72. Nennion, a bishop of North Britain, successor to St. Ninianu*. 
Floruit circa 520. 

73. Kincd, an anchorite of We-tcrn Qowert probably tlic same 
as St. Kcnctli. He was contemporary with St. David. 

74. .£dnn, a disciple of St. David and tin? first bishop of Ferns, 
He is called by the Irish St. Maidoc or Moedhog. 

75. David, tlic first archbishop of Menevia. Died March 
A. D. 514, aged S3. 

76. John, a British saint in France. Obiit 537; comm. 

77. Mochta or MocIitus, a British saint in Ireland; 
bishop of Lowth by St. Patrick. Died in 537 ; commemorated 
the thirteenth day before the Calends of September. 

78. lltutns, a saint in Glamorganshire, contemporary with St 
docus. The year in which dii'il i- uncertain. Comm. November 7. 

79. Sampson, a disciple of St. II tutus, and afterwords archbishop of 
Menevia and of Dole in Brittany. Obiit A. D. a!)9; conim. July 29. 

80. Piro, nn abbot of a monastery not from far that of St Iltutu-, 
with whom he was contemporary. 

81. Cooaid, culled by the French St. Moin or Mcvemiius. (Qu. 
the same an No. 58.) He accompanied St. Samsou to Bretngne, 
where he died in 590 ; comm, June 15. 

82. Malo. Moclovius, or Mochutus, a native of Glamorganshire i 
he was a kinsman of St. Sampson, and went with him to Bretagne, 
where he was appointed bishop of Aleth. He died in France A. D. 
564; commemorated November 16. 

83. Doc, "a Holy British Abbot," who flourished about the 
year 510. 

84. Kcutigern, a North Briton; bishop of St. Asaph in Wales 
and of Glasgow in Scotland. Obiit A. D. 601, Oitatis sua- gj ; comm. 
Jan. 13. 

85. Theodoric, prince of Glamorganshire. He died at Merthyr 
Teudric, now called Mcrthiru. 

B6. Oudoceus, successor of St. ThcHau in the Eee of Llnndaff; com- 
memorated on the sixth day before the Nones of July. 

87. Gildas Badouicus; the historian, and second apostle of Ireland. 
Obiit A, D. 583 1 coinm, Jan. 28. 

ch 1. 


88. Columba, a native of Ireland, and missionary to the Picts. 
Pied A. D. 597. 

89. Beuno, a monk of North Wales, and instructor of St Wine- 
fridc. Died A. D. 660 ; comm. Jan. 14. 

90. Senan, another instructor of St. Winefride. Obiit 660; comm. 
April 29. 

91. Winefride, a holy virgin of North Wales ; comm. Nov. 3. 

92. Deifer, the successor of St Beuno in the tuition of St. Wine- 
fride. Died A. D. 661; comm. March 7. 

93. Elerius, abbot of a monastery in the Vale of Clwyd. Ho 
flourished about the year 650. 

94. W iuoc, a son of J udicael king of the Britons : he and three of his 
brothers, Kadanoc, Ingenoc, and Madoc, were monks of the monas- 
tery of St Sithiu under St Bertin. Obiit 717; comm. Nov. 6. This 
saint founded the monastery of St. Winoc on the confines of France 
and Flanders. 

95. Judoc, another brother of St Winoc ; he flourished about 650. 

96. Baruck, a hermit. Buried in the Isle of Barry, Glamorgan- 
shire, about the year 700. 

97. Decumauus, a hermit, born of noble parents in the South- 
western parts of Wales. Murdered A. D. 706; comm. Aug. 27. 

98. Juthwara, a devout British virgin, martyred in some part of 
South Wales, A. D. 740 ; comm. Dec. 23. 

99. Eadwara,— 

100. Wilgitha,— and 

101. Sidwella; sisters of St. Juthwara. 

e died A. D. G<12. Jeffrvyitim. 
lie county of Salop but in the 

Oswald, king of Northumbrit 
Pembrokeshire ; and Oswestry, 
diocese of St. Asaph. 

Ina, king of Wessexi he died at Rome in the year 737. and is 
commemorated on the seventh of February. Llauina, Card igansh ire. 

Tccla, n female saint, born in England ; abbess of the monastery of 
Kirzengen at Ochnatbrt in Germany. Obiit A. D. 750; comm. 
Oct, 15. Llandeglu, Denbighshire ■, and Llnndegle, Radnorshire. 

Tctta, abbess of Winburn in Wesscx about A. D. 750. Llon- 
ddetty, Brecknockshire. 

Milburg, a virgin; abbess of Wenlock in Shropshire about the 
middle of the seventh century. Comm. February S3. Llnnfilo, 

Kenehn, king of Mercia and martyr. Obiit A. D. 819. Rock- 
field, Monmouthshire. 

Edmund, king of the East Angles, murdered by the Danes A. 1 
870 ; com memo rated November 20. Crickhowel, Brecknockshire 

Edith or Editha ; Five Soiton saints of this n; 

Edward, king anil martyr, A. D. 971). Comm. February I 
March 18, and June 20.— Do. king and confessor ; Obiit A. D. i 
Commemorated Jan. 5, and Oct. 13. Knighton. Radnorshire. 



Including the County of Monmouth and part of the County of Hereford, 
arranged with reference to their subordination. 

N. B. The names at the head of each group arc those of parent 
churches, or such as are not known to have been chapels ; and wherever 
the names are printed in Italic, the church or chapel is extinct or in ruins. 
The name of the patron saint is placed after that of the edifice. 


Abebffraw, Beuno. Eglwys y Daili. Capel Mcrir, St Mary. 
Amlwch, Elaeth. Llanwcnllwyfo, Gwcnllwyfo. Liang adog, Cadog. 

Hcneglwys, Llwydian. Trcfwalchmai, Morhaiarn. 
Holyhead alias Cacrgybi, Cybi. Llanygwyddyl. Capel y Llochwyd. 

Capel y G or las. Capel Sanffraid, Ffraid. Capel Gwyn- 

geneu, Gwyngeneu. Bodcdeyrn, Edeyrn. Bod-Twrog, Twrog. 

Llandrygarn. Gwndy. 
Llanbadrig, Padrig. 
Llanbeulan, Peulan. Llechulched, Ulched. LJanfaelog, Maclog. 

Tal-y-llyn, St. Mary. Llannercli-y-Medd, St Mary. Ccirchiog 

or Bettws-y-Grog, Holy Rood. 

* This county contains more chapels dedicated to Welsh saints than any 
other; but it was, at an early age, considered to be the most populous 
and fertile part of Wales ; and according to Bedc, it contained, in the 
eighth century, nine hundred and sixty families, or about three times tho 
population of the Isle of Man. 


AI'lTSniX. No. III. 

Llni«Wiiusant, Sts. Marccllus and Marecllinus. Llanhabo. Pab". 

Llanfair Yngliornwy, St. Mary. 
Llandduiia, Dona. 

Llanddwyn or J.landdivi/ntren, Diei/nwtm, a parish church in ruin*. 
Llanddj In. in. Dyfuan. I -I.=. i il ■■ -■ 1 1- Goch, St. Peter. Llanfair j»n 

Mathalarn Eithaf, St. Mary. Pentraeth or Llanfair Bcttw« 

Goraint, St. Mary. 
Llandogl'an, Tegfan. Capet Mtitgaa, Mengan. Capel Tydecho, 

Tydecho. Llanfaes, St, Catherine. Heaumaris, St. Mary. 

Chapel in the Caslle of Beaumaris. 
Llandyfrydog, Ty fry dog. Uaofihaogel Trc'r Beirdd.St. Iffirhfii 
Llaneigrad. Eigrnd. Llanallgo, Gallgo. I.hujinj, St. Mithu,!. 
Llandiaii, Elinn. Coed Aiic Anc. Ithos Peirio, Peirio. Bodi'wryi 
Llaufachrailh, Machraith. Llanengheiiel, Enghenel. Llanfiyet. 

St. YigiliiiH. 
Llaufaethlu, Maclhln. Llanfwrog, Mwrog. 
Llanfair Pwll Gnyngyll, St. Mary. Llandyssilio, Tyssili 
Llanfetln'il, Mechell. IJtmddot/fael, Doyfael. 
Llanfihangel Ysgoiliog, St. Michael. Llanlfinan. Ffinan. 
Llaiigadnaladr or Eglwys Acl, Cadwaladr. Llanfeirion, Mciricm. 
Llangefni, Cyngar. Tregaian, Caian, 
Llangeinwcn, Ceinwen. Llangaffo. Caflb. 
Llangmtiolns, Cristiolus. Cerrig Ceinwen, Ceinwcn. 
Llangwyllog. Cwyllog. 
Llaniestin, Ieatin. Llangoed, Cawrdaf and Tangwn. Llanfihangel 

Tinaylwy, SI. Michael. 
Llannidan, Nidan. Llanddeiniul Fah, Deiniolen. Capet fnilwutf 

adr. Cadtcaladr. Llanedwcn, Edwcn. Llunfair y 

mwd, St Mary. 
Llanrhuddhul, Hhuddlad. Llaufflcwin, Fflewin. Llanrliwyi 

LlaiiBadwrn, Sadie rn. 
Iiluiitrisoiit. Sanuan, Al'rini. and Icuan., lAiiii). 

gynfarwy, Uynfarwy. Ilhodnydd Geidio, Ccidio. G*»ai 

St. Man. lk'tlwa Bwchwdw. 
Ne»borouf;h in it it'll tly Llananno,* A mo or Anno, and bt. l',-t. 



• Mi lyriaa Arclia. lofty. Vol 


Pcnmon, Sciriol. A Chapel in Priestholm Island. 

Pcnmynydd, Gredifacl. 

Pcnrhos-Llugwy, St. Michael. 

Rhus Colyn, Gwenfaen. Llanfihangcl yn Nhywyn, St. Michael. 

Llanfair yn Neubwll, St. Mary. 
Tref-dracth, Beuno. Llangwyfen, Cwyfen. 


Aberysgyr, Cynidr and St. Mary. 

Brecon, St. John the Evangelist. Do. St. Mary. Battle, Cynog. 

Slwch Chapel, Elined or St. Almedha. Llanywcrn or Monkton, 

St. Mary. A Hospitium, St. Catherine. 
Brynllys or Brwynllys, St Mary. 
Cantref, St. Mary. Capel Nant Du. 
Cathcdin, St. Michael. 

Crickhowel, St. Edmund. Llanfair Chapel, St. Mary. 
Devynock or Dyfynog, Cynog and Dyfnog. Llanilltyd, IUtyd. Capel 

Callwen, Call wen. Llanulid or Crai Chapel, St. Julitta. Ystrad 

Fellte, St. Mary. 
. Y Faenor, Gwynno or Gwynnog. 
Garthbrengi, Dewi or St. David. Llanddcw or Llandduw, Holy 

Trinity.* Llanfaes, St. David. Christ's College, Holy Trinity, 

formerly a church of St. Nicholas. 
Glasbury, Cynidr and St. Peter. Aberllyfni or Pipton. Velindre 

Hay, St. John K Do. St. Mary, now the parish church. A Chapel 

in the suburbs. 

* Jones in his History of Brecknockshire supposes Llanddew to be an 
abbreviation of Llanddew i ; but as the parish wake is held upon Trinity 
Sunday, the true etymology appears to bo Llandduw ** the Church of 
God," which was once the name of Llandrindod, or the Church of the 
Holy Triuity, in Radnorshire; there is also a church in Glamorganshire, 
dedicated to the Trinity, the name of which is generally written "Llan- 



Llanal'an Fawr, Atan. Llonfcchan, Alan. Llaufihaugel Biyn Polu 

St, Michael. Llan lib angel Abergwesin, St. Michael. 

Alltmawr. Uysdinam. GelU Talyarth or tthos y C.i/W 
Llanbedr Ystrad Vw, St. Peter. Partrishow, Usui or Ishow. 
Uauddetty, St. Tetta. Tnf-twhari Chapel. 
Llamldulns or Tir yr A bad. 
Llatideilu'r Fan, Tcilo. Capel Maes y Bwlck. 
Lltuidyfaelog Fact], Maelog. Llannhungcl Fechau, St. Michael. 
Llandyfalie, Maethlu. Crug-cadarn. St. Mary. 
Llaneigioii or Llaneiiigion, Eigion or Eingiun. Cilonw Chapt 

Capel y Ffin. 
Uanclyw, Ellyw. 
Llanfeogan, Meugan. Capel Glyn Collwyn. A Free Chapel in 

Castle ofPenccili, St. Leonard. 
LUuifilmiigel Cwni-di, St. Michael. Llandeyeman, })eyemon or 

Decumanus. TretwT Chapel, St. John. 
LlannhwigelTal-y-llyii, St. Michael. 

Llanlilo, St. Milburg. Llandytaclog Tret'y Graig, Maelog. 
Llatifrynach, Brynach Wyddel. 
Llangam march. Cam march, Llanwrtyd, St. David. Llat 

AbcrgweHtn, St. David. I.landdewi at Llwyn 

St. David. Llansanffraid Cwmmwd Dciidilwr, Ffraid. 
fadoy,. Madoy. Naiitgwyllt Chapel. (The lost thrt« are ii 

county of Radnor.) 
Llanganteu, Cannen. Llangyuog, Cynog. 
Llangasty Tal-y-LIj", Gastnyn. 
Llangattwg Crug-hywd, Cattwg. Llatigcncu, Ceneu. Lionel 1; 

Ellyw. Oratory of St. Keyna, Cenett. 
Llangors, Pawl lien or St. Paulinas. 
Llangyiiiilr, Cynidr and Mary. Eylwys Vesey. 
Llaiihamlech or Llanamwlcli, Illtyd and St. Peter, l.lechf 

Llansauffruid, Ft'raid or St. Bride. 

Llanspyddyd, Cadog. Capel y Bettws or Penpont Chapel. 
Llanwrtliw), Gwrthwl. Llanlieoiifel. 
Llywel, David, Teilo, and Liywel. Trallwng, St. David, Rhydj 

briw Chapel, Dalhytrcl, St. David. 


Macsmynys, St. David. Llanynys, St. David. Llanddcwi'r Cwm, 

St. David. Llanfair in Builth, St. Mary 
Mcrtliyr Cynog, Cynog. Llanfihangel Nant Bran, St. Michael. 

Capcl Dyffryn Honddu. 
Penderin, Cynog. 
Talachddu, St Mary. 
Talgarth, Gwcu. 
Ystrad Gynlais, Cynog. Capel Coelbren. 


Abcrporth, Cyuwyl. Llanannerch. 

Bangor, St David. Henllan, St. David. 

Bettws Bledrws. 

Blaeiiporth, St. David. 

Cardigan, St Mary. Trcmaen, St. Michael. 

Caron or Tregaron, Caron. Ystrad Fflur or Strata Florida, St. 

Cellan, All Saints. 
Ciliau Aeron, St. Michael. 
Dihewyd or Llanwydalus, St. Vital is. 

Henfynyw, St David. Llanddcwi Aberarth, St. David. i\^y '.A" \r^> 

Llanafan, A fan. Llanwnws, Gwynws. Ysbytty Ystwyth, St. John 

the Baptist. Ystrad Meurig, St. John the Baptist. 
LJanarth, St. David. Llanina, St. Ina. Capel Crist, Holy Cross. 
Llanbadarn Fawr, Padarn. Llanychaiarn, Llwchaiarn. Llanger- ~ 

waen. Yspytty Cenfaen, St. John the Baptist. Aberystwyth, 

St. Michael. 
Llanbadarn Odin, Padarn. 

Llanbadarn Trefeglwys, Padarn. Cilcennin, Holy Trinity. 
Llanbedr Pont Stephan or Lampeter, St. Peter. St. Thomas's 

Chapel. Capel Ffyrmon Fair, St. Mary. 
Llanddeiniol or Carrog, Deiniol. 
Llanddewi Brefi, St. David. Blaenpennal, St. David. Capel Bettws 

Leuci, St. Lucia. Capel Gartheli, Garth el i. Capel Gwenfyl, 

Llandyfriog, Tyfr'iog or Tyfrydog. Llanfair Tref Helygen, 
St. Mary. 

.llTENOIX. No. Ill 

Llandygwy or Llandygwydd. Tygwy. Pare y Caput. A Cht, 

near Cenarth Bridge.\iid\ sMlio Cjugo, Tyssilio. Capel Cynon, Cynon. 
Llandyssnl, Tyssul. Llandyssulfed, St. Sylvester. lAanfair, ! 

Mary. Faerdre. Capel Demi, St. Daoid. Capel Fj'raid, I 

Bride. Cajiel Borthin, St. Martin. 
Llanfair y Clywedogau, St. Mary. 
Llaiii'Bir Orllwyn, St. Mary. 
Llanfihangel y Creuddin, St. Michael. Llantrisaitrt. Eglw, 

Llaufdiangel Genau'r Glyn or Llanfihangel Castell G walker, St 

Michael. Eglwys Fach or Llautih angel Cs|iel Edwin, St. 

Llanfihangel Lledroed, St. Michael. 
Llaufih angel Ystrad, St. Michael. Llanllijr, l.lijr lurayii. 

Sant Silin, Silin. 
Llangeitho, Ceitho. 
Llangoedmor, Cyiillo. Llechryd, Holy Cross. Mount, Holy Cro 
Llangrannog, Carannog. 
Ltangybi, Cybi. 
Llangyiil'elyii, Cynfclyn. 
Llangynllo, Cynllo. 
Llanilur, liar. 

Llanlluchaiarn, Llwchaiaru. 

Llannerch Aeron or Llaii Uwch Acron, Nun mam Dcwi. 
T nil) llj dull. Rhyshnl. Ca/iel Cynddiliij, Cynddilig. 
LlausaiittVaid, Fl'raid or St. ttride. Llannon, Non. 
Llanwonog, Gwenog. Capel fVhfil. Capel Santesau. Llanfeci 

Capet Bryneylwys. 
Llaiiygweryddon, Si. Uisida and the- Eleven Thousand Virgins. 
Nantgwnlle, Gwynlleu. 
Penbryn i>r Llanfiliangel Peiibryu, St, Michael. Dcttws linn, : 

John. Bryngwyn, St. Mary. Capel Gwnda, Gwymlaf. 
llliosdeiau, St. Michael. 

Silian or Limit. iliuu, Sulieii. Lluiiwiien, St. Lucin. 
Tielilan, SI. Hilary. 

Trocd yr Aur, St. Michael. Capet Tur Hiriiii. 
Verwkk, Pedro:;. 



Abergwyli, St. David. Llanpumsant, Celynin, Ceitho, Gwyn, 
Gwynno, and Gwynnoro, Llanllawddog, Llawddog. Llan- 
fihangel Uwch Gwyli, St. Michael. Bettws Ystum Gwyli. 
Henllan. Capel Bach. Capel Llanddu. 

Abernant, St. Lucia. Cynwyl Elfed, Cynwyl. Capel Troed y 

Bettws, St. David. Pentre'r Eglwys. 

Brechfa, Teilo. 

Carmarthen, St Peter. Do. St. Mary. LAangain, Cain. Llanllwch. 
Newchurch or Llannewydd. Capel y Groesfeini. The Rood- 
church, a Free Chapel in the Castle of Carmarthen, Holy Cross. 

Cenarth, Llawddog. Newcastle in Emlyn Chapel. 

Cilrhedin, Teilo, in Pembrokeshire. Capel Ifan, St. John, in Car- 

Cil-y-Cwm, St. Michael. 

Cilymaenllwyd, St. Philip and St. James. Castell Dwyran. 

Cynwyl Gaio, Cynwyl. LAansawyl, Sawyl. Iiansadwrn, Sadwrn. 
Llanwrda. Pumsant, Celynin, Ceitho, Gwyn, Gwynno, and 
Gwynnoro. Maesllanwrthwl, Gwrthwl. Henllan or Bryneg- 
Iwys. Cwrty Cadno. Aberbranddu, 

Egermond, St. Michael. 

Eglwys Cymmun, St. Margaret Marios. 

Henllan Amgoed, St. David. Eglwys Fair a Churig, St. Mary and 

Kidwelly, St. Mary. Llangadog, Cadog.. Llanfihangel, St. Mi- 
chael. Capel Teilo, Teilo. Capel Coker* St. Thomas's 

Laugharne, St. Martin. Cyffyg. Marros, St. Laurence. Crase- 

Llanarthne, St David. Llanlleian Chapel. Capel Dewi, St. David. 

Iianboidy or Llanbeudy, St. Brynach. Eglwys Fair Lan Taf, 
St. Mary. 

Llandawg, St. Margaret Marios. Pendjn. 

Llanddarog. An old Chapel, St. Bernard. Capel Bach. 

* Named after Galfridus de Coker, Prior of Kidwelly in 1301. 




b Chanel. Holy T 
A Chapci in Carrey i 

Llanddowror, Teilo. 
IJandeilo Abercywyn, Teilo. 
IJandeilo Fawr or Uandilo, Teilo. 

Llandyfaen. Capcl yr Ytven. 


IJandingad, Tingad or Dingad. Uanfair ar y Bryn, St. Mnry. 
Capel Peuliii, St. Paulinus or Pawl lien. Capel Cytifab. Cyn- 
fab. Eylwys Sewydd. 
Llaudybie, Tybie. Capcl yr Jlendre. Glyn yr Henllan. 
Lknd) Taelog, Maolog. Llaiiifynhi-i'tdi'ii, Cynheiddou, Lkuigyndeyra, 

Cyndeym. Capel Jfan, St. John. Capcl Dyddyen. Bellies. 
Llandyfcisunt, Tyfoi. A Chapel in Dinefwr Castle, St. David. 
Llandyssilio yn Njfod, Tyssilio. 
Llaiiedy, St. Edith. 
Llancgwad, Egwad. IJandeilo liicmiirs, Teilo. Llanhirnin. Capri 

Gwilym Fvethus. Dolwyrdd Chapel. 
Llunelly, EUyw. Llangeuuych, Cennych. Capel Dewt, St. David. 

Capel Ifan, St. John, Bewick Chapel. 

Utmliliciiisrci Aberbythyofc, Sf. Michael. 
Llanfihangel or Artli, St. Michael, Pencadatr Chapel. 
Llanfihangel Ciliargen, St, Michael. 
Lliinfyii; ihl. Egwad. 
Llangadog Fawr or Llangadock, Cadog and St, David. Llauddt 
aunt, St. Simon and St Jude. Capel Gwynfai. Capet Tyd$ 
Llaugan, Camia. 

Llangntlicn, Catlmii. Capel Penarw. 
Llangeler, Celer. Capel Mair, St. Mary. 
Llanglydwyn, Clydwyn. 
Llanllwiii, Llwni Lknifihaiigel Rhoa y Corn, St. .Michael. 

Maesnoani. Ffynnony Capel. 
Llmisinlj ruin. Sad y rii in. 

Llaustoplian, Ystyttiiu. Llaiigynog. Cynog. Llanybri, St. Mar 
Llanwynio, Gwyoio. 
Lhuiybyddair, St. Peter. Abcrgorlech. Capel logo, 

Capel flfaiV, St. Mary. 
Llanycrwys, St. David. 


Meidrym, St. David. Llanfihangel Abercywyn, St. Michael. 

Merthyr, Enfail. 

Myddfai or Mothvey, St. Michael. 

Penboir, Llawddog. Trinity Chapel, Holy Trinity. 

Penbre, Illtyd. Llan-non, Non, Llandurry. 


St Clare's. Llangynin, Cynin. 

St Ishmael's or Llanishmael, Isinael. Llansaint, All Saints. Ferry 

Side, St. Thomas, 
Talley or Tal-y-Llychau, St. Michael. Llanfihangel, St. Michael. 

Capel Mair, St. Mary. Capel Crist, Holy Trinity. Capel 

Cynhwm. Capel Teilo, Teilo. 
Trelech a'r Bettws, Teilo. Capel Bettws. 


Aber or Abergwyngregyn, Bodfan. 

Abe'rdaron, Hy wyn. Llanfaelrys, Maelrys. Eglwys Fair, St. Mary. 

Abererch, Cawrdaf. Penrhos or Llangynwyl, Cynwyl. 

Bangor Fawr, Deiniol. Pentir or Llangedol, Cedol, Capel Gwrfyw, 

Gwrfyw. King Edgar's Chapel, St. Mary. 
Bardsey or Ynys Enlli, Cadfanand Lleuddad ; now Extra- parochial. 
Beddgelert, St Mary. Nant Hwynen Chapel. 
Bodfuan, Buan. 
Caer-rhun, St. Mary. 
Ceidio or Llangeidio, Ceidio. 
Clynnog Fawr, Beuno. 
Conway or Aberconway, St. Mary. 
Cruccaith, St. Catherine. Ynys Cynhaiarn, Cynhaiarn. Treflys, 

St. Michael. 
Cyffin, St. Benedict. 
Dolwyddelan, Gwyddelan. 
Dwygyfylchi, Gwynnin. 

Edeyrn, Edeyrn, Carngiwch, Beuno. Pistyll, Beuno. 
Eglwys Rhos, St. Hilary. Penrhyn, a Free Chapel, St. Mary. 
Llanaelhaiarn, Aelhaiarn. 

Llanbeblig, Peblig. Carnarvon, St. Mary. Do. St. Helen. 
Llanbcdr y Ccnnin, St Peter, 


Llanbcdrog, Pedrog. Llangian, Cian ami Peris 

Llanlihangcl Bnchellactli, St. Michael. 
Uaubcris, Peris. 

I-lamldeiniokn, DeinUilen. Dhian Ortrrtf Cliaprl. 
Llandegai, Tegni. Capol Curig, Curig. or C'yrique and Ju- 

Llandudno, Tudno. 
Llandsvrog, Twrog. 

Llanengan or Llaneiugkm Fn'iiliin, F.inion. Ynys Tudieal, 1 
Uonfsir Fechan, St. Mary. 

Llunlair Isgncr, St. Mary. Bettws Gannon, St. Geruiamis. 
Llanfihaugel y Pennant, St. Michael. 
Uanfor, Mor. Pwllheli or Egltiys Dynoio, Tyneio. 
Llaiigelyuin. Celynin. 
LlangwyiiotU, Gwynodl. Tudiveiliog, Cwyfen. Bryn Croe 

Llangybi, Cybi. Llnnarmon. St. Germanus. 

Llaniestin, Iestin. Llundygwymiiu, Gwyiitiin. Iludleriii, 

or Merini. Penllech, St. Mary. St. Julian's Chapel. 
L! an Her hid, Llcchid. 
Lkmllyfni, Rhedyw. 
Llanrliug, St Michael. 

Llanwuda, Gwyndai* lien. Llanl'aglan, Baglan. 
Llanystyndny, St. John tlie Baptist 
Meltdeyrn, St. Peter ad vincula. Bod-twnog, Beuno. 
Nantg; ndanyli, Deiuiol. 
Nciyn, St. Mary. 
Ponmachno, TydJud. 

Penmorfa, Beuno. Dolbenmaen, St. Mary, 
Rhiw, Aelrhiw. Llandudwen, Tudwun. 
Trefriw. St. Mary. Lluurhychwyn, Rhychwyn, Bctlus 

St. Michael." 



Abergele, St. Michael. A Chapel in the Church-Yard of Ditto, St. 
Michael, Bettws Abergele, St. Michael. Llangystennyn in 
the County of Carnarvon, St. Constantine. Llanwctdin, Gwddin. 

Bryn Eglwys, Tyssilio. Llandyssilio, Tyssilio. 

Cegidog or Llansansi6r, St. George. ft. . 

Cerrig y Drudion or Llanfair Fadlen, St. Mary Magdalen. 

Chirk or Eglwys y Waun, St. Mary. 

Clog-caenog, Caenog. 

Denbigh, St. Marcellus. Do. St. Hilary. A Free Chapel in the 

Derwen yn Ial, St. Mary. 

Efenechtyd, St. Michael. 

Eglwys Fach, St. Martin. 

Erbistock, St. Hilary. 

Gresford, All Saints. A Chapel at Rosset Green. Holt, St. Chad. 
Iscoed Chapel. 

Gwytherin, Gwytherin. 

Henllan, Sadwrn. The Abbey Chapel. 

Llanarmon Dyffryn Ceiriog, St. German us. 

Llanarmon yn Ial, St. Germanus. 

Llanbedr, St. Peter. 

Llanddoged, Doged. 

Llanddulas, Cynbryd. 

Llandegla, St. Tecla. 

Llandrillo in Rhos* or Dinerth, Trillo. Llanelian, Elian. Llan- 
sanffraid Glyn Conwy or Diserth, Ffraid. Capel Sanffraid, 
Ffraid. Llysfaen in the County of Carnarvon, Cynfran. 

Llandyrnog, Tyrnog. 


Llanfair DyfFryn Clwyd, Cynfarch and St. Mary. 

Llanfair Talhaiarn, Talhaiarn and St Mary. 


* " Llanelian, Llansan ffraid. and Llysfaen are supposed to have been 
Chapels of Ease to this paiisli, because the Rector and Vicar have a share 
of the tithes in each.**— Edwards's Cathedral of St. Asaph. 


Llanfihaugel Glyn y Myfyr, St. Miehael. 

Llatifwrog, Mwrog. 

Llangerniw, Digain. Marthaled or Capel Foela-', 

Llangollen, Colleu. Trefur laaf Chapel. 

Llangwm Dinmael, St. Jerome. 

Llangwyfen, Cwyfen. 

Llangyniinfal, Cynhafal. 

Llanhyi linn, Hychan. 

Llonnefydd, Nefydd. 

Llanrhaiadr, Dyfnog. 

Llanrhaiadi in Mucliii 



iwddiu in the County of 
Mynydd Maur, St Ger- 

M.riil^iirin'ry. G«ddin. Llanai' 

manus. LlangedMyn, Cedwyn. Llangadivalndr, (,'jduulmlr, 
Llanrhydd, Meugan. RhutUin, St. Peter. 
Llaiirwst, Grwst. Capi'l Gartnon, St. Gormanus. Cajn-l Marr:hcl 

Marchell. Capcl Rhydityn. Gwydir Cliapel. 
LlansanflVaid Cilyn Ceiriog, Ffrnid. 
Llaiisaiman, Snnnaii or St, Seiianus. 
Llamilin, Silin or Sulien. 

Llanynj'B, Mor and Saeran. Cyftylliog, St. Mary. 
Nantglyn, Mordeyrn. Mordeym's Chapel, Mordeyrn 
llhiw Fabon, Mabou. 
Wrexham, Silin or Sulien. Capel Silin. Silin. M 

Berse Drelincourt Chapel. 
Ysbylty Ifan, St. John the Baptist.* 


Bangor Istoed or Bangor in Maelor, Dunawd. Worthenbury . 

Deiniol. Overton or Orton Madoc, St. Mary. Marchwiai 

the County of Denbigh, Deiniol. 
Bodfari, St. Stephen. Hwlktos Chapel. 
Caerwys, St. Michael. St MichueTs Chapel near the Well. 
Cilcain or Kilkcn, St. Mary. 
Cwm, Mael and Sulien. 

: BmiRor Iscocu, Flinliliirr. 


Diserth, Ffraid or St. Bridget. Rhy wlyfnwyd. 

Dymeirchion, Holy Trinity. 

Estyn or Hope formerly Llangynfarch, Cynfarch. Plds y Bwl 

Gwaunesgor, St. Mary. 
Halkin or Helygen, St. Mary. 
Hanmer, St. Chad. 
Hawarden, Deiniol. 

Holywell, Gwenfirewi or St. Winefred. A Chapel over the Well. 
Iscoed, a Chapel to Malpas (St. Oswald) in the County of Chester. 
Llanasa, Asaf. Capel Beuno Yngwespyr, Beuno. 
Mold, St. Mary. Nerquis, St. Mary. Treuddin, St. Mary. Capel 

y Spon. 
Nannerch, St Mary. 
Northop or Llaneurgain, Eurgain afterwards St. Peter. Flint, 

St. Mary. 
Penley in Maelor, StJ Mary, a Chapel to E lies mere (St. Mary) in 

the County of Salop. 
Rhuddlan, St. Mary. A Chapel at Cefn Du. 
St. Asaph, Cyndeyrn or St. Kentigern and Asaf. 
Whitford, St. Mary. Capel y Gelli. Tre'r Abad Chapel. 
Ysgeifiog, St. Mary. 


Abeoafon, St. Mary. Baglan, Baglan. 

Barry, St. Nicholas. A Chapel in Barry Island, St. Baruck or 

* Barrog. Another in Do. 
Bishopston or Llandeilo Ferwallt, Teilo. Caswell Chapel. 
Bonvilston, St. Mar}*. 
Britton Ferry, St. Mary. 
Cadoxton juxta Barry, Cattwg. 
Cadoxton juxta Neath or Llangattwg Glyn Nedd, Cattwg. Creinant, 

St. Margaret. Aberpergwm. 
Caerau, St. Mary. 



Cardiff,* St. John the Baptist. Do St. Mary. St. Peniu'i Ciojit't- 

A Chapel near Miskin Gate. 

CilybebyLl, St. Jolm the Evangelist. 
Coetty, St. Mary. NoltoD Chapel, St. Mary. 
Cogan, St. Peter. 
Colwinstoii, St. Michael. 
Coy church or LlangTallo, Crallo. Peterston super Monte in 

bedr ar Fynydd, St. Peter. 
Eglwys Brcwys. St. Brise. 
Eglwys Han or Eglwya Elian, Elian. Llanfabon, Mulion 

lfili, St. Murtin. 
Ewenny, St. Michael. 
Flemiugston, St. Michael. 
Gflligaer, Catlwg. Brithdir Chapel. Cupel Gwladus, Gmlwh 
Gileston, St. Giles. 

Gkiieonvg, St. Jolm the Baptist. Capel Blaengwracb. 
ilston or Llanilltyd, Ultj-d. Llannon, Son. 
Kenfig. St. Mary Magdalen. Pyle, St. James. 
Lantwit Major or Llanilltyd Fawr, Ultyd. The Lady's CIu 

St. Mary. 
Lwitwit juxta Neath, Illtyd. Neath, St. Thomas.t- Resol 

Yiiijs Vach Chapel. 
Leckwitli, St. Jamas. 
LLanbleiddiun, Blciddian or St. Lupus, afterwards Si. John 

Baptist. Llanddunwyd or Welsh St. Douat's, Dtuiwyd. L'u»- 

bridge, St. Mary. 
Uaucarl'aii, Cattwg. Llaafeilhin. Llangadell, Cadefl Lirqe 

Llandaff or Llandaf, Dyfrig, Teilo, and Oudoceus, afterwards St 

Peter. Whitchurch, St. Mary. 

•"Tlu-r be 9 Paroche Cbircbea in the Towne, wlier.'f the pfhttl 
lying sumwhat by Est in one, ilic other of our Lady is by 
Water side. There is n Chapelle beside in Shoemaker siri.-ai of S. Ptrinc, 
ami a notlier hard within Mcskin Gate side." — f. eland. 

f Neath, now a Reclory, U called n Chapel in the firmil uf Richard 
firainiille lo the Abbey of Snvigny. — Dugdnle's Monastic' 



Llanddewi in Gower, St. David. Knelston, St. Maurice. 

Llandeilo Talybont, Teilo* 

Llandough or Llandocha near Cardiff, Dochdwy. 

Llandough or Llandocha near Cowbridge, Dochdwy. 

Llandow or Llandduw, Holy Trinity. 

Llandyfodwg, Tyfodwg. 

Llandymor, an extinct church in Gower. 

Iianedeyrn, Edeyrn. 

Llanfedwy, Medwy or Medwinus. Llanfihangel or Michaelston 

Fedwy in the County of Monmouth, St. Michael. 
Llanfihangel y Bont Faen, St. Michael. 
Llanfrynach, Brynach WyddeL Penlllu. 
Llanganna or Llangan, Canna. 
Llangeinwyr, Ceneu or Ceinwyry'. 
Llangennydd, Cennydd. 
Llangiwg, Ciwg. 
Llangyfelach, St. David afterwards Cyfelach. Llansamled, Samled. 

An old Chapel, St. Mary. Morriston. 
Llangynwyd Fawr, Cynwyd. 

Llanhary, Ultyd. [Sts. Julius and Aaron. 

Iianilid, Ilid a Churig or Sts. Julitta and Cyrique. Iianharan, 
Llanisan, Isan. 
Iianmadog, Madog. 
Llanmaes, Cattwg. 

Llanrhidian, Rhidian. Llanrhidian Chapel. Llanelen, St. Helen. 
Llansannwr. Brigam Chapel. 
Iiantrisaint, Illtyd, Tyfodwg, and Gwynno. Llanilltyd or Lantwit 

Faerdre, Illtyd. Ystrad Dyfodwg, Tyfodwg. Llanwynno, 

Gwynno. Aberdar, St. John the Baptist. St. John's Chapel, 

St. John the Baptist Talygarn. 
Uantryddid, Illtyd. 

Iiaverhock, (Qu. Llanfyrnach?) St. Laurence. 
Llysfaen, Gwrhir afterwards St Dennis. 
Llyswerni, Tydfyl. Nash. 
Loughor or Castell Uychwr, St. Michael. 
Marcross, Holy Trinity. 
Margam, St. Mary. Eglwys Nunyd. Hafod y Porth. Trisaint. 

Craig y Capel. 


APPENDIX No. 111. 

Mcrthyr Dyfau, Dylan and Teilo. 
Mcrthyr Mawr, Teilo. St. Boque's Chapel. 
MerthyrTydfyl. Tydfyl. 

Micliaebtori upon Afon, SI. Michael. 

Michaelston upon Elai, St. Michael. 

Michaelston le Pitt or Llanfihangel yn y Gwaelod, St. Michael. 

Monk Nash, St. Maty. 

Newcastle, Illtyd. Llangewydd, Cewydd. Bcttws, St. 

Laleston. St. David. Tithegston, Tndwg. 
Newton Nottage, St. John the Baptist. 
Nicholaaton, St. Nicholas. 
Oiwith, Illtyd. 
Oyster mo uth. All Saints. 
Penard or Periarth in Gowcr, St. Mary. 
Pcnartli near Cardiff, St Augustine. 
Pendeulwyn, Cattwg. 
Penmaen, St. John the Baptist. 

Penmark, St. Mary. East Aberddme. Rhos ChajiiL 
Pcnrice or Penrhys, St. Mary. 
Pentyrch, Cattwg. 

Peterston upon E(ai or LlanbGdr ar Fro, St. Pafct 
Porlhcurig, Curig. 
Portbeinion, Cattwg. 
Radyr, St. John the Baptist. 
Reynoldston, St. George. 
Rhosili, St. Mary. 
Rooth, St. Margaret. [Andrew the Apt 

St Andrew's Major or Llanandras, Andras nb Rhun, afterward* S 
St. Andrew's Minor, St. Audretv the Ayostle. 
St. Bride's upon Elai, Ffraid, St. Bridget, or Bride. 
St Bride's Major, Ffraid. Oijmore Chapel Llamphcy, St. Faii 

Wick, St. James. 

St. Bride's Minor, Ffraid. 

Si. Donat's, Dunwyd. 

St. FagaiSs, (in rains,) Ffagan. St. FagBii's, (the present Chiur 

St. Mary.* Llanelldeyrn, Elldeyrn. lloHjatr, St. Mary. 

• u ThcP«rocliCr.irc.hofS.FnsiinisTiiiwc.r our Lady . 1 (Ml « | 

tlie Village a Chapelle of S. Fagaa sumliiue the Paroch Chiroh."— 


St George's or Llanufclwyn, Ufelwyn or Ubilwynus, afterwards 

St. George. 
St. Hilary. Beaupre Chapel, St. Mary. 
St. Lythian's or Llanfleiddian Fach, Bleiddian or St. Lupus. 
St. Mary Church or Eglwys Fair, St. Mary. 
St. Mary on the Hill or Eglwys Fair y Mynydd, St. Mary. 
St Nicholas. 
St Tathan's, Tathan, 
Sully, St. John the Baptist 

Swansea, St. Mary. Do. St. Thomas. Do. St. John. 
Wenvo, St Mary. 
Ystrad Owain.* 



Abbey- Dore, Holy Trinity and St. Mary. 

Acornbury, St. John the Baptist, 

Allensmore, St Andrew. 

Arcop or Orcop, St. Mary. 

Bacton, St. Faith. 

Birch Magna or Much Birch, St: Mary and St. Thomas a Becket. 

Birch Parva or Little Birch, St. Mary. 

Blackmere, St Leonard. 

Bredwardine, St Andrew. 

Bridstow, St. Bride or Bridget. A Chapel in Wilton Castle. 

Bullingham, a Chapel to All Saints in the City of Hereford. 

Clehonger, All Saints. 

Clifford, St. Mary. 

Clodock, Clydog. Llanveyno or Llanfenno, Bcuno afterwards St. 
Peter. Llanwynnog, Gwynnog. Longtown, St. Peter. Cress- 
well, St. Mary. 

Cusop, St. Mary. Pen Henllan. 

Dewchurch Magna or Much Dewchurch, St David. Little Dew- 
church, St. David. Kilpeck, St. David afterwards St. Mary. 
Dewshall, St. David. Callow, St Michael. 

* For Rhydri, see Bed was, Monmouthshire. 


Llanddowror, Teilo. 

Idandeilo Abercywyn, Teilo. 

Llandeilo Fawr or Llandilo. Teilo. Taliaris Chapel, Holy 1 

Llandyfaen. Capel yr Ywtn. A Chapel in Carrey I 


Llaiulhignd, Tingad or Dingad. Llanfair ar y Bryn, St. 
Capel Paulin, SI. Paulinua or Pawl Hen. Capel Cynfab. < 
fab. Eylieys Newydd. 
Llandybie. Tybie. Cupel yr ffendre. Glyn yr IlctiUan. 
Llandyfitelog, llji'lug. Lltiiiyuiilu iddott, Cynheiddon. Llangyndey 

Cyndeyrn. Capel Jfan, St. John. Capel Dyddjen. Bcttin 
Llandyfeisant, Tyfei. A Chapel in Dinefwr Castle, St. David. 
Llandyssilio yn Nyfed, Tyssilio. 
IJanedy, St. Edith. 
Llanegwad, Egwad. Llandeilo Rwnnws, Teilo. Llanhirniii. 

Gwilym Foelhus. Dolwyrdd Chapel. 
Llauelly, Ellyw. Llangeimych, Ccnnych. Capel Dewi, St. I 

Capel Jfan, St. John, Berwick Chapel. 

Llanfihnng'.'l Aberbythych, St. Michael. 
Llanfibangel or Artli, SL Michael. Pencadair Chapel. 
Llanfiliangel Cill'argen, St. Michael. 
LlaufynydU, Egwad. 
Llangodog Fawr or Llangadock, Cadog and St. David. Llandcb 

sant, St. Simon and St. Jude. Capel Gwynlai. Cqpel M 
Llaiigati, Cnmia. 

LI nu gallic [i, Cutlian. Capet Penarw. 
Llaugolcr, Celer. Capel Mair, St. Mary. 
Llanglydwyn, Clydwyn, 
Llanllwiii, Llwni. Llanfihangel Rhoe y Com, St. Michael. 

Maesnontii. Ffynnony Capel. 
Llanaadyrimi. Sadyrnin. 

Llatistcphan, Ystyffan. Llangynog. Cynog. Llanybri, St. Mar 
Llanivj ni.i, Gwynio. 
Llanybyddair, St. Peter. Abefgorled), Capel logo, St. Jan 

Capel Mow, St. Mary. 
Llunycrwys, St. David. 


Meidrym, St. David. Llanfihangel Abercywyn, St. Michael. 

Merthyr, Enfail. 

Myddfai or Mothvey, St. Michael. 

Penboir, Llawddog. Trinity Chapel, Holy Trinity. 

Penbre, Illtyd. Llan-non, Non. Llandurry. 


St. Clare's. Llangynin, Cynin. 

St. Ishmael's or Llanishmael, Ismael. Llansaint, All Saints. Ferry 

Side, St. Thomas, 
Talley or Tal-y-Llychau, St. Michael. Llanfihangel, St. Michael. 

Capel Mair, St. Mary. Capel Crist, Holy Trinity. Capel 

Cynhwm. Capel TeHo> Teilo. 
Trelech a'r Bettws, Teilo. Capel Bettws. 


Aber or Abergwyngregyn, Bodfan. 

Aberdaron, Hy wyn. Llanfaelrys, Maelrys. Eglwys Fair, St. Mary. 

Abererch, Cawrdaf. Penrhos or Llangynwyl, Cynwyl. 

Bangor Fawr, Deiniol. Pentir or Llangedol, Cedol, Capel Gwrfyw, 

Gwrfyw. King Edgar's Chapel, St. Mary. 
Bardsey or Ynys Enlli, Cad fan and Lleuddad ; now Extra- parochial. 
Beddgelert, St Mary. Nant Hwynen Chapel. 
Bodfuan, Buan. 
Caer-rhun, St. Mary. 
Ceidio or Llangeidio, Ceidio. 
Clynnog Fawr, Beuno. 
Conway or Aberconway, St. Mary. 
Cruccaith, St. Catherine. Ynys Cynhaiarn, Cynhaiarn. Treflys, 

St. Michael. 
Cyffin, St. Benedict. 
Dolwyddelan, Gwyddelan. 
Dwygyfylchi, Gwynnin. 

Edeyrn, Edeyrn, Carngiwch, Beuno. Pistyll, Beuno. 
Eglwys Rhos, St. Hilary. Penrhyn y a Free Chapel, St. Mary. 
Llanaelhaiarn, Aclhaiarn. 

Llanbeblig, Peblig. Carnarvon, St. Mary. Do. St. Helen. 
Llanbcdr y Ccnnin, St. Peter, 


Truwsfynydd, Madrun and Anhun. 
Tywyn Merioneth, Cadfan. Llaiifih angel y Pennant, Si. Mictu 
Pennal, St. Peter ad vinculo, Tal y Llyn, St. Mary. 


Al>crgavcnny, St. Mary. St. John the Baptist's Chapel. 

Basaleg. Uandderfel, Derfel Gadarti. Hcnllys, St Peter. Ris- 

ca, St. Peter. 
Bedwas, Barrog or St. Bnruck. Rhydri in the County of GtaitK 

gun. St. James. 
Bedwcllty, Sannan. 

Bkknor Wallica or Welsh Bicknor, St. Margaret. 
Bryngwyn, St. Peter. 

Caerleon, Cottwg. St. Julius's Chapel. St. Aarolt'i Do. 
Caerwcut, St. Stephen. 

Chnjiel Hill or Tiuteyrn Magna. 
Chepstow, St. Mary. 

Christ- Church or Eglwys y Drindod, Holy Trinity. 

Coedceriiiw, All Saints. 
Cwm Yoy or Cwm lau, St. MartiD. 
Dingatstow or Llnuiogad, Dingad afterwards St. Mary. Troga 

St. Mary. 
Ductal), St. Peter. 
Goldcliff* or Gallteurin, Tlie Blessed Saviour, St. Mary 1 

and St. Mary the Virgin. Nash, St. Mary the V irgin. 
Goytre or Coed-tre, St. Peter. 
Grosmond, St. Nicholas. 
Gwernesey, SL Michael. 

Kemniys or Ccmmaes, St. Michael. 
Kemmys Commander, All Saints. 
Langs ton. 
Lknarth, Teilo. Bettws Newvdd. Clitha Chapel 

■ Founded by Itoboi t ■ 

Canoe* A. D. I 



Llanddcwi Fach, St. David. 

Llanddcwi Ysgyryd, St. David, Llanddcwi Rhydderch, St. David. 

Llandefdd. Llanbedr, St. Peter. 

Llandegfedd or Llandcgwedd, Tegwedd. 

Llandeilo Bertholeu or Llandeilo Porth-halawg, Teilo. 

Llandeilo Cresscnny or Llandeilo Groes Ynyr, Teilo, Penrhos, 

Llandenny or Llandenfi. 

Llanelen, St. Helen. 
Llanfabli, Mabli. 
Llnnfaches, Maches. 
Llanfair Cilgydyn, St. Mary. 
Llanfair Disgoed, St. Mary. Dinam Chapel. 
Llanferin or Llanfethcrin, Merin. 
Llanfihangel Crug-corneu, St. Michael. 
Llanfihangel in Nether Went, St Michael. 

Llanfihangel Lantarnam or Llanfihangel Tan y Groes, St. Michael. 
Llanfihangel Pont y Moel, St. Michael. 
Llanfihangel Tory Mynydd, St, Michael. 
Llanfihangel juxta Usk, St. Michael. 
Llanfihangel Y stern Llewern, St. Michael. 
Llanfoist, St. Faith. 

Llangadwaladr or Bishopston, Cadwaladr. 
Llangattock or Llangattwg Feibion Afel, Cattwg. St. Moughan's 

Chapel, Meugan. 
Llangattwg Lenig, Cattwg. 
Llangattwg Lingoed, Cattwg. 

Llangattwg Dyffryn Wysg or Llangattock juxta Usk, Cattwg. 
Llangiwa, Ciwa. 

Llangofen, Cofen. Penclawdd, St. Martin. 
Llangwm Ucha. Llangwm Isa. 
Llangybi, Cybi. 

Llangyfyw or Llangynyw, Cyfy w or Cynyw. 
Llangynog, Cynog ab Brychan.* 

* There is a place near the site of this Church called" Cwrt Brychan." 



Llauhunog or Llanhynog, St. John tile Baptist. 
Llmiliiletli or Uauhyledd, Illtyd. 
Llnnisuii or UaniAaa, ban. 

Llailllywel, Llywel. 

Llanmartin, St. Martin. 

Llanofer, St. Bartholomew. Mamhilad. TWfrtilfn, Cattwg. 

Llansanft'raid or St. Bride's near Abergavenny. Ft raid or St. Brid,' 

Llainanffraid or St. Bride's in Nether Went, Ffraid. 

Llansauffraid or St. Bride's Wentloog, Ffraid. 


Llantoni or Llanddcwi Nnnt Hoiuldij. St, David afterwards St. Jot 

the Baptist. 
Llaiitrisaint, St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. John. Bertha leu Chapel. 

St. Bartholomew. 
Llanwenarth, St. Peter. Aberystruth or Blaenau Gwent. St. Peter. 
Llanwern, St. Mary. 
Machen or Mixbain, St. Michael. 
Magor or Magwyr, St. Mary. Red wick, St. Thomas. 
Malpas, St. Mary. 

Matbern or Mcrtlieyrn, Tewdrig. Crick. Runaton. 
Merthyr Geryn, Geryn. 

Monmouth, St. Mary. Do. St. Thomas. 

Mynyddyshvyu, Tudur ab llywel. 
Neweliurth or Eglwys Newydd ar y Cefn. 
Newport alias St. Woolos, Gwynllyw Filwr. Bettws. St. David. 
Oldcastle, St. John the Baptist. 
Pant-teg, St. Mary. 
Penhow, St. John the Baptist. 

Pctenrton Wentloog or Llanbedr Gwyidlwg, St. Peter. 
Purtskeivet or Porth; sgewydd, St Mary. Sudbroot or Son 

Holy Trinity. 

Ragland, St. David. Trostrey or Trawsdre, St. David. 


Itocklield. St. Kenelm. 


Rumney or Rhymni, St Augustine. 

Shire-Newton or Trenewydd Gellifarch, St. Thomas a Becket. 

Skenfrcth or Ysgynfraith, Ffraid or St Bride. 

St. Arvan's. Porthcaseg. 

St. Kinemark's, Cynfarch. 

St. Melan's. 

St. Pierre's, St Peter. 

Tintern Parva, St Michael. 

Tredonock or Trefrhedynog, St Andrew. 

Treleck or Tryleg, St Nicholas. Penallt. Treleck's Grange. 

Troy, Michel Troy, or Llanfihangel Troddi, St Michael. Cwm- 

carfan Chapel. 
Undy or Gwndi. 
Usk, St. Mary. 
Wilcrick or y Foelgrug. 

Wolves-Newton, St. Thomas a Becket 
Wonstow or Llanwarwg, Gwynno. 
Ytton or Uanddeiniol, Deiniol.* 


Aherhafesb, Gwynno or Gwynnog. 

Berriew or Aber-rhy w, Beuno. Bettws, Beuno. 

Carno, St, John the Baptist 

Castell Caer-Einion, Gannon or St. Germanus. 

Cemmaes, Tydecho. 

Chirbury in the County of Salop, t St Michael. Church Stoke, 
St. Nicholas. Forden. Hissington. Montgomery, St. Ni- 
cholas. Snead. 

* For Michael ston Fedwy* see Llanfedwy, Glamorganshire. The Com- 
piler is unable to determine the situation of the following, from a list in 
the Myyyrian Archaiology :— Llaniau, Llanirwydd, Llanwnell, Ilywig 
Fach, Cam, Tredelerch, Llanrhyddol, Meiryn, and Llanleirwg. He 
suspects there were Churches formerly at Dewstow near Caldicot, and 
at Llanwyny, Llanfair, and Llanardil near Llangofen. 

t Its Chapels are in the County of Montgomery. 

2 T 

APPENDIX No. 111. 

Crugeon, a Chapel to Alberbury (St. Michael) in the County of Salop. 
Darowain, Tudnr. Llanbrynmair, St. Mary. Talerddig Chapel. 

Guilsfield or Ci'gidla, Aolhuiarn. Llunfechan. 

llil'llilllt, Illog. 

Kerry or Ceri, St. Michael. Gwernygo Chapel. 

Llnnddinam, Llonio. Benhnglog Chapel. 

Llandrinio, Trinio. Llandyssilio, Tyssilio. Melverley. 

Chapel, Holy Trinity. 
Uandyssul, Tyssul. 
Llaneurfyl, Eurfyl. 

Llanfair Caer-Eiuion, St. Mary. Ciltjri/ch Chapel. 
LI an fuel win, Gannon or St. Germanus. 
Llannhangel y Giv\nt> SI. Michael. 
Llaufyllin, Myllin. 
Llangndfaii. Cadfan. 
Llangurig, Curig. 
Llangynog, Cynog. 
LJangynyw, Cynyw. 
Llanidloes, Idloes. 

Llanllwehakm, Llwchaiarn. Llanymercwig. Llwchaiarn. 
Llanlugan or Llanllugyrii, Tysailio afterwords St. Mary, 
Llansanflraid in Mechain, Ffraid. 
Llanwnog, Gwynnoor Gwyuuog. 
Llanwrin, Ust and Dyfuig. Pencgos or Penegwest. Cadfan 

Machynllaith, St Peter. 
Llanttjdddan. Gwyddclan. 
Maiialbn, St. Michael. liolgyufelyn Chapel. 
Meifod, Gviyddfarch. Do. Tyssilio. Do. St. Mary. 
Moughtre or Mochdref. All Saints. 
Newtown, St. Mary. 
Pennant Melangell, Melangell. 
Penystrywad, Gwrhai. 
Trefeglwya, St, Michael. 
Trcgynon, Cynon. 
Welshpool. Cynfelyn afterwards St. Mary. Buttington in 

County of Salop, All Saints,* 

* For Llnnwddln, see Llanrliaiadr in Mortmain, Denbighshire! ai 
Mollwyd and Gartbbeiblo, see Lian yin Mawddwy, Merionethshire. 



Ambleston or Tref Amlod, St. Mary. 

Amroth, Elidyr. 

Angle or N angle, St. Mary. 

Bayvil, St Andrew. 

Begelly or Bugeli. Williamston. Reynoldston. 

Bosheston or Stackpool Boscher, St. Michael. St, Governs Chapel, 


Camros, Ismael. 

Carew, St. John the Baptist. Redbert 
CasUe Beith, St Michael. 
Castle Martin, St Michael. Flimston. 
Cilgerran, Llawddog. Capel Bach in the Castle. 
Clarbeston, St. Martin. 
Clydai, Clydai. 
Cosheston, St Michael. 

Cronwear, Elidyr. 
Dale, St James. 
Dinas, Brynach. 

Eglwys Erw, Cristiolus. Pencelli Chapel. 

Grandston, St Catherine. 

Haroldston East, Ismael. 
Haroldston West, Madog. 
Hasguard, St. Peter. 

Haverford West, St Mary. Do. St: Thomas. Do. St Martin. 
Hays Castle or Castell yr Haidd, St. Mary. Forde Chapel. 
Henry's Moat or Castell Harri, St. Bernard. 
Herbrandston, St. Mary. 

Hubberston, St. David. 
Jeffrey 8 ton, St Oswald. 

$48 APPENDIX, No. Ill 

Jordanston orTref Iwerddon. 

Lambston or Lammerston. 

Lampeter Vclfrey- or Llanbedr Felffrc, St. Peter. 

Lampbcy or LlaniJyfei, Tyfei. 

Lawreiiny, Caradcig. 

Utterston or Trelctert, St. Giles, Llanfair Kant y G6f. St n 

Little Newcastle, St. Peter. 

Llanddewi Felffre, St. David. Llandclto i./wi/ngwadilaii. 

Llandeilo, Teilo. 
Llandeloi or Llandylwyf. 
Llantihaiigel Penbedw, St. Michael . Capel Colmttn, St. Column. 
Llanfymach, Brynach, A Chapel in ruin!:. 
Lhiiigulinan, St. Column. 



Llaurliian, Rhinii. 

Llaiiatadwel, Tudwal. 

Llanstinan, Stinan or St. Justinian. 

Llnntwjd or Lantwood, Illtyd. 

Llunuclillwydog, St. David. Llanychaer, St. David. 

Llaniist, Ust. Llaafartin, St. Martin. Capel htanjl/limgt 

Michael : all included in the modem parish of Fisl 

St. Mary.* 
Llanwnda, Gwyndaf. 
1. 1 ai j y Cefn. 
Llawlmdcn, Uanhuadain, or Llanneddan, Acddan. Blethers to 

St. Mary's Chapel. 
Llya y Fran, Meiiyr. 

Ludchureh or Fglwys Lwyd, Elidyr. 
Mae nc loch og, St. Mary, 
Maenor I)$r or Maiiorbeer, St. James. 
Maenor Deifi, St. David. Bridell, St. David. Cilfywyr Chap,!. 
Macnor Owain or Maenor leuan. St. Mary. 

■ Carlisle's Tnpogriiiili 

c Fi shau piil. 


Marloes, St. Peter. 

Martletwy, St. Marcellus. Coed Canlas, St Mary. 

Mathri or Merthyri, The Holy Martyrs. 

Melinau, Dogfael. 


Monington or Eglwys Wythwr, St. Nicholas. 

Morfil, St. John the Baptist. 

Moylgrove or Trewyddel. 

Mynachlog Ddu, Dogfael. 

Narberth, St. Andrew. Robeston Wathan. Mounton or Monkton. 

Nash. Upton. 

Nefern, Brynach. Cilgwyn, St. Mary. 
New Moat, St. Nicholas. 
Newport, St Mary. 

Nolton or Knowelton, Madog. Druidston Chapel. 
Pembroke, St. Nicholas, alias Monkton. Do. St. Mary. Do. St. 

Michael. St Daniel's Chapel, Deiniol. St. Anne's Chapel. 

St. Mary Magdalen's Do. 
Penaly. A Chapel in Caldey Island or Ynys P$r. 
Penrhydd, Cristiolus. Castellan. 
Pontfaen, St. Bernard. 
Prendergast, St. David. 
Puncheston or Castell Mai, St. Mary. 
Pwllcrochan, St. Mary. 
Robeston or Robertston West. 
Roch, St. Mary. Two Chapels in ruins. 
Rosecrowther or Rh6s Gylyddwr, Degeman or St Decumanus. 
Rosemarket, Ismael. 
Rudbaxton, St Michael. St. Catherine's Chapel. St. Leonard's 

Slebech, St. John the Baptist 
Spittal, St. Mary. 

Stackpool Elidyr or Cher i ton, Elidyr and St James. 
Stainton, St. Cewyll afterwards St. Peter. A Chapel near Pille. 

Milford, St. Catherine. 
St. Bride's, Ffraid or St Bride. " The Chapel." 

360 APPENDIX, No. HI. 

St. David's Cathedral, St. David and St. Andrew. Whitchurch, 

St. David. Brawdy, St David. Capel y Gwrhyd, St. David. 

Capel Non, Non. Capel Padrig, St. Patrick. Capel y Pistyll. 

Capel Stinan, St. Justinian. St. Mary's Chapel adjoining the 

St. Dogmael's or Liandudoch, Dogfael afterwards St. Thomas. 
St. Dogwel's, Dogfael. 
St. Edren's or Llanedeyrn, Edeyrn. 
St. Elveis or Llanailfyw, Ailfyw. 
St. Florence. 
St. Ishmael's, Ismael. 
St. Issel's or Llanussyllt. 
St Laurence. 
St. Nicholas. 

St. Petrox or Llanbedrog, Pedrog. 
St Twinel's. 
Talbcnny, St. Mary. 

Tenby, St. Mary. A Free Chapel, St. John the Baptist. 

Uzmaston or Osmundeston, Ismael. 
Walton East, St. Mary. 
Walton West 

Walwyn's Castle. St. James. 
Warren, St. Mary. 
Whitchurch or Eglwys Wen, St. Michael. Llanfair Nantgwyn, 

St. Mary. 
Wiston, or Castell Gwys, St. Mary. 
Yerbcston, St. Laurence.* 


Aberedw, Cewydd. Llanfaredd, St. Mary. 

Bleddfa, St. Mary. 

Boughrood or Bochrwd, Cynog. Llanbedr Painscastle, St. Peter. 

Bryngwyn, St. Michael. 

Bugeildy, St. Michael. Velindre Chapel. 

* For Cilrhedin, sec Carmarthenshire. 


Casgob, St. Michael. 

Cefn Llys, St. Michael. 

Clyro, St. Michael. Bettws Clyro. 

Cregruna or Craig Furuna, St. David. Llanbadarn y Garreg, Pa- 
darn. Llannon, Non. 

Diserth, Cewydd. Bettws Diserth, St Mary. 

Gladestry or Llanfair Llethonw, St. David. 

Glascwm, St. David. Colfa, St. David. Rhiwlen, St. David. 

Knighton, St. Edward, a Chapel to Stow (St. Michael) in the County 
of Salop. 

Llanbadarn Fawr, Padarn. 

Llanbister, Cynllo. Llanbadarn Fynydd, Padarn. Llananno, Amo 
or Anno. Llanddewi Ystrad Enni, St David. Llanfihangel 
Rhydeithon, St. Michael. Caerfaelog y Maelog, Llanfair 
Trellwydion, St. Mary. Abbey Cwm Hir, St. Mary. 

Llandegle, St. Tecla. Llanifan, St. John. 

Llandeilo Graban, Teilo. 

Llandrindod anciently Llandduw, The Holy Trinity. Llanfaelog, 


Llanfihangel Nant Melan, St. Michael. 

Llangynllo, Cynllo. Pilleth, St. Mary. Llanbrynhir. And pro- 
bably Heyop, St. David. Whitton, St. David. 

Llansanffraid in El fuel, Ffraid or St. Bridget. 

Llanstephan or Llanstyffan, Ystyffan. 

Llowes, Maelog or Meilig. Llanddewi Fach, St. David. 

Michael-church upon Arrow or Llanfihangel y Dyffryn, St. Michael, 
a Chapel to Kington (St. Mary) in the County of Hereford. 

Nantmel, Cynllo. Llanfihangel Helygen, St. Michael. Llanyre or 
Llanllyr yn Rhos, Llyr Forwyn. Rhayader Gwy, St. Clement. 
Pant yr Eglwys near Rhayader. 

Newchurch, St Mary. 

New Radnor,* The Old Church. Do. The present Church, St. 

•"There is an olde Churche stondynge now as a Chapel 1 by the 
Castle. Not very farre thens is the new Paroche Churche buildyd by 
one William Bachefield and Flory his Wyfe."— Leland. 


Old Radnor, St. Stephen. Kinncrton, St. Mary. Ednal. Llamago, 

St. James. 
Presteign or Llanandreas, St Andrew. Norton, St. Andrew. • Dis- 

coed, St. Michael. Lingen in the County of Hereford, St. 

Michael. Kinsham Ford in Do. Byton in Do. St. Mary. 
St. Harmon's, Gannon or St Germanus. Drysgol Chapel.* 

* For Glasebury and Llansanffraid Cwmrawd Deuddwr, see Glasebupy 
and Llangammarch, Brecknockshire. 


Aaron .96 

Aeddan Foeddog . 227 

Aelgyfarch . 302 

Aelhaiarn . 275 

Aelrhiw . 306 

Aerdeyrn 186 

A fan Buallt . .208 

Ailfyw . .163 

Alan . .221 

Alban . .06 

Amacthlu or Maethlu . 270 

A mo or Anno . 306 

Amphibalus . .06 

Amwn Ddu . .218 

Andras ab Rhun 146 

AneabCaw .225 

Aneurin or Gildas . 225 

Anhun . 164 
Anna, daughter of Meurig . 218 

Anno or Amo . 306 

Arddun .207 

Arianwen . . 146 

Art hen . .141 

Arwystli Gloff . 236 

Arwystli Hen . 75, 81 

Asafor St. Asaph 262,265 

Bach ab Carwcd . . 306 

Baglan ab Dingad . 275 

Baglau ab Ithel Hael . \ 223 

""Bariick" .304 

Bed was . 302 

Bedwiui . 238 

Beuno . . 268 

Bleiddian or St. Lupus 119, 126,160 

Boda , . .302 

Bod fan. , . 302 

Bran ab Llyr . , .76 

Brenda , 302' 

Bride, Bridget, or Ffraid . 189 

Brynach Wyddel . .156 
Buan .... 280 

Bugi or Hywgi . 233 

Cadell . 295 

Cadfan . 213 

Cadfarch . 270 

Cadfrawd 92, 100 

Cadgyfarch . . 102 

Cado or Cataw . 232 

Cadog .142 

Cad rod . , % 270 

Cadwaladr 299,301 

Caffo . .227 

Caian . .14* 

Cain . .228 

Callwen . .153 

Cammab . . 233 

Camraarch . . 233 

Canna . . 222 

Caradog . 305 

Caranoog . 209 

Caron . . . 306 

Carwyd . 207 

Cattwg Ddoeth 155, 176, 233 

Cathan or Cathen . 280 

Cawrdaf . 270 

Cedol . . 306 






Ceidio ab Caw 



. 144 

Ceidio ab Ynyr Gwent 







. 281 



Cyndeyrn ab Artbog 

. 211 



Cyndeyrn or St Kentigera 

. 261 





Olynin ab Cynyr 



. 188 

Celynin ab HHig 






Cynfelyn ab Bleiddyd 


Cencu, a^bnbop 84 

S, 374 


. 270 

Cencu ab Coel 1C 

2, 104 


. 144 

Ceneo or Si. Keyns 


Cynfyw or Cynyw 




Cyngar ab Artbog 

. 211 



Cyngar or Docwinus . 

. 183 



Cyngar ab Geraint 

. 232 

Cian . 


Cyngen ab Cadell 

181, 207 

Ciwa . 



. 295 

Ciwg . 






Cynheiddion . 




Cynheiddi™ ab Ydyr Gwe 

1 - 234 

Cljdoo Eiddyn 






Cynin . 

. 144 




18, 133 




. 253 

Cufrti . 


Cynog ab Bryrhan 

. 138 

Collen . 


Cytiog of Llanbadarn 

241. 2 14 

Col man 



. ' 215 

Constantino tin- Great 



. 28 1 

Crallo . 



20H, 270 




'206, 200 

Ciirig Lwyd , 


Cynyw or Cynfyw 

. 233 

Curig or Cyriqiie g 


Daniel or Dciniol 102 

200, -258 



David or Dcwi 43, 102 

191, 193 




. 140 







Deiniul or Daniel 102 

200, 258 

Cybi . Ill 

2, 2<i(i 

Deinioleo or Deiniul Fab 

. 281 

Cyfeladi . . 50, 27 

i, Lioa 

DOM Gailnrn 

. 22 1 



IJcivior St. David 43, 102 

101, l!13 



Dirr or Dilicufyr' 

. 27H 







Diheufyr or Dier 

. 270 



Dingad ab Bryrhan 

. 110 



Dingad ab Nudd Hael 

. 269 

Elfod or Elbodius 

66, 305 


. 162 

Elgud . 

. 280 


. 228 

Elian . 

. 267 

Dochdwy . 183, 219 


. 149 

Docwinus or Cyngar . 

. 183 


. 186 


. 209 


. 156 


. 211 

Ernyr Llydaw 

. 165 

Dog fan 

. 145 


. 307 


. 257 


. 152 


. 258 

Enghenel , 

. 297 


. 302 


. 134 

Dubricius or Dyfrig 144,170,176, 191 


. 307 

Dunawd Fyr . 

. 206 


. 261 


. 224 


. 302 


. 307 

^ e i 


83, 84 


. 221 

Ffili . 

. 276 






. 207 
. 142 
. 224 
. 295 




Ffraid or St. Bride 

•' Fidelia" 

. 24o 
. 239 
. 222 
. 189 
. 253 

Dyfrig or St. Dubricius 144,170, 176, 


. 230 



. 258 

Garmon orSt.Germanus 119,129, 159 

Edetrn ab Gwrtheym 

. 186 


. 307 

Edeyrn ab Nudd 

. 298 


Gasty or Gastayn 

. 157 

Edi /fed 


Geraint ab Erbin 

. 169 


. 303 

Germanus or Garmon 

119, 129, 159 


. 304 


. 142 


. 298 

Gildas or Aneurin 

. 225 

Eigen . 



. If! 


. 228 

Glywys Ccrniw 

. 2$3 


. 230 

Goleuddydd . 

. 149 

Einion Frenhin 

. 212 


• 222 


. 224 

Grwst . 



. 271 


. 253 

Elbodius or Elfod 



. 260 

Eldad ab Arth 

. 298 


. 147 

Eldad ab Geraint 

. 298 


. 150 


. 307 


. 230 

Eleri, daughter of Brychan 

. 147 


. 166 

Eleri, daughter of Dingad 

. 275 

Gwenddolau . 

. 208 

Elfan . 

83, 87 


. 149 

Elffin • 

. 236 


. 237 



Gwenfrcwi or St. Winefred . 295 

Gwenfyl , 153 

Gwenlliw . . 142 

Gwenllwyfo . 307 

Gwennan . 142 

Gwenog 258, 307 

Gwenteirbron 215 

Gwerydd . 102 

Gwladus . 146 

Gwodloew . 268 

Gwrddelw . 231 

Gwrfyw .280 

Gwrgon .147 

Gwrhai . 231 

Gwrhir . . 251 

Gwrmael . 102 

Gwrnerth . 279 

Gwrthefyr or Vortimer . 134 

Gwrthwl . 308 

Gwryd . 305 

Gwyddelan . . 308 

Gwyddfareb . 308 

Gwyddlew . 233 

Gwyn . 213 

Gwynau 153 

GwyndafHtn . 219 

Gwynen . . 308 

Gwyngcneu . 237 

Gwynio . . 308 

Gwynlleu 261 

Gwynllyw Filwr 170 

Gwynnin 302 

Gwynno ab Cynyr . . 213 

Gwyimoor Gwynnog 257 

Gwynnuro .213 

Gwynodl . 236 

Gwynws 153 

Gwyrfarn . 308 

Gwythcrin . 275 

Gynyrof Caer Gawch . 162 

Hawystl . . 152 

Helen 07 

Hdig Foci • 298 

Huail . 232 

Hyelian .144 

Hywgi or Dugi 233 

Hywyn . 219 

Iddew . . 280 

Iddon . 233 

Idloes . . 298 

Iestyn ab Cadfan .102 

Iestyn ab Geraint . . 232 

IforabTudwal . . 148 

liar . .224 

Hid 76, 81 

Hid or Julitta 82, 307 

Illog . .308 

Illtyd or St. Iltutus 125, 178 

Isan . . 257 

Ismael 244, 252 

"Issuior Ishaw" . 308 

Julitta or Hid 82, 307 

Julius . 96 

Justinian or Stinan 238 

Kentigern or Cyndeyrn 261 

"Keurbreit" . . 152 

Keyna or Ceneu .153 

Leonoriub 256 

Llawdden . 308 

Llawddog or Lleuddad . 274 

Llccheu .144 

Llechid . • 223 

Llcian .147 

Llcminod An^cl .280 

Lies ab Coel or Lucius 83 

Lleuddad ab Alan . 221 

Lleuddad or Llawddog . 274 

Lleurwg or Lucius 8*2 

Llewelyn . . 261 

Llibio . 308 

Llidnerth - 269 

Llonio Lawhir . 221 

Llwchaiarn 275 

Llwni . 308 

Llwydian 308 

LI y nab . . 221 

LlyrForwyn 161,308 

LlyrMerini . 169 

LI > wan . 224 

Llywel 253 


Lin-inn, Lie*, or Lleurwg 


Neffai . 

. 143 

'• Liitupciu*" 


Ncfyiid, daughter of Brychan 148 

Lupus or Blciddian 1 19, 126, 100 


. 238 

Nefvdd ab Rhun , 

. 146 

MaboH all Blriddyd 


Nefyn . 

. 147 

Mabmi lib Eolleu 


Nuibedd or Dedyu 

. 146 




. 205 




. 1B3 

Marhului or Macloriu* 



. 208 

Madog ab Gil J a! 



. 267 

Madog Miirfryn 



213 271 

Madog al> 0»ain 


Owaio ab Macaco ■ 

' 108 





P.iBiAi.i or Pupai 

. 144 



Pabo Post Prydain 

. 167 




197, 214 

Maethta or Amaelhlu 


Padrig ab Alfryd 

. 298 



Padrig or St. Patrick 

. 128 



Papai or Pubiili . 

. 144 

Ma I h a i am 



. 143 



Paul de Leoo 

. 266 

Mawaa ab Cyngen 


Pawl Hin or Paulinos 

187, 191 

Mrcbrll, daughter of Brycha 


P'blig . 

. 115 

Mechcll ab Echwydd 


P.'dila . 

■ 146 




. 211 

Medrod ab Cawrdaf 


Pedrog . 

. 266 



PedrwO . 

. 211 



Peillan . 

. 230 



Peirio . 

. 230 

Mrilyr ab Gwron . 


Peithien . 

. 230 

Mcilyr ab Gwyddoo 



. 302 




. 237 

Melange 11 
Meriii or Mcrini 
Meugiin or Mripuit 
Mmrig ab Tewdrig 



Hhaim Dremrudd . 
Rbediw . 

. 141 
. 145 

. 300 

Hut ab Oneii 

. 309 

Mor ab Pasgen 


Rhidian . 

. 300 



. 148 

. 309 



■ 145 

M.rog . 


lihwydrys , 

. 300 




■ 220 



Saowrh Farchog . 

- 222 



Sadwrn of Henllao 

■ 298 

My 11 in 



. 305 


INDEX, &c. 

Saeran . 118, 271 

Samled . . .309 

Samson ab Amwn Ddu 228, 253 

Samson ab Caw . • 228 

Sandde . .166 

Sannan . ♦ • 240 

Sawyl . . .207 

Seiriol . • .211 

Selyf . . .232 

Scnefyr or Sencwyr . 236 

Silin or Sulien . . 220 

Stinan or St. Justinian . 238 

Sulien or Silin . . 220 


Tangwn ab Caradog 

Tangwn ab Talhaiarn 













Tewdrig ab Teithfallt 

Tewdwr Brycbeiniog 

Teyrnog or Twrnog 

Teyrnog orTyrnog 




. 147 

. 270 

. 208 

. 222 

. 256 

. 223 

. 223 

. 238 

. 218 

. 234 

. 236 

. 167 
195, 197, 241 

. 238 

. 256 

. 138 

. 271 

. 276 

. 211 

. 233 

. 219 

. 236 


. 236 

Tudur . 

. 276 

Tudwal Befr 

. 133 

Tudwen . 

. 309 

Tudwg . 

. 258 

Twrnog or Teyrnog 

■ 276 


. 223 

Tybfe . 

. 152 

Tydecho ab Amwn Ddu 

. 218 

Tydechoab Gildas 

. 258 

Tydfyl . 

. 151 

Tyclte . 

. 149 


. 252 

Tyfodwg . 

. 223 

Tyfriog or Tyfrydog 

. 275 

Tyfrydog ab Arwystli Gloff 

. 276 

Tyfrydog or Tyfriog 

. 275 

Tygwy . 

. 275 


. 236 

Tyrnog or Teyrnog 

• 211 

Tyssilio . 

. 277 


. 209 


. 309 


. 219 

Urien Rheged 

. 203 


. 224 


. 297 

Vortimer or Gwrthefyr 
Winefred or Gwenfrewi 

Ynyr Gwent 

Ysgin ab Erbin 
Ystyffan .