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Moft Eminent Perfons 


From the Earlieft Accounts of Time to the prefent Period, 

W H X R X I N 

Their remarkable Actions and Sufferings, 
Their Virtues, Parts, and Learning, 


With a Catalogue of their Literary Productions. 

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Universal, Historical, and Literary 


KEPLER (John), the greateft aftronomer perhaps 
that any age has produced, was born at Wiel in the 
dutchy of Wirtemberg, the 27th Dec. 1751. His 
father, Henry Kepler, was defcended from a .family, which 
had raifed themfelves under the emperors by their military 
fervices, and was himfelf an officer of rank in the army ; 
but afterwards, experiencing ill fortune, was obliged to fell 
all he had, and fupport himfelf and his family by keeping 
a public-houfe. He died in 1590, and left his fon John wddlcri 
to take what care of himfelf he could. His education had hift * »ft«> n * 
been hitherto negle£ted, as may eafily be imagined; but, ca P** v * ^ 
having a very great genius, and as great a deflre to cul- 
tivate it, he entered upon his ftudies in philofophy at 
Tubingen, immpdiately upon his father's death,' and, two 
years after* purfued the mathematics in the fame univer- 
sity, under the famous Michael Mbeftlin. He made fo 
great progrefs, and became fo famous, that in 1503 he was. 
invited to Gratz in Styria, to teach the mathematics, Gaflenci. la 
there. JHe then applied himfelf entirely, to aftronomy,. Vlc - T J- 
and publifhed from time to time feveral works, the prin~ chot ** 
cipal of which fliall be mentioned immediately. In 1597* 
he entered into the married ftate, which at fifft created 
him great uneafipefs, from a difpute which arofe about 
his wife's fortune; and, the year after, he was banifhod 
from Gratz on account of his religion, but afterwards re- 
called, and reftored tQ his former dignity. However, the 
crowing troubles and confufions of that place inclined 
liirp to think of a refidence elfewhere ; and as Tycho 
Vol. VIII. B Brah?, 


Brahe, having fettled in Bohemia, and obtained from the 
emperor all forts of conveniei>ces for the perfe&ing of 
aftronomy, was paffionately defirous of having Kepler 
with him, and had often folicited him by letters, he left 
the univeriity of Gratz, and removed into Bohemia with 

GaCcnd. in his family in 1600. In his journey he was feized with a 

chon. quartan ague, which continued feven or eight months ; fo 
that ail that time he could do Tycho but very little fer- 
vice* Tycho and Kepler did not agree very well with; 
eich other, .as little a tiitoe as they contifmed together*' 
Kepler was offended at Tycho, for refufing fome* feryices 
to his family, which he had occafion for : he was alio s 
difiatisfied with his refervednel$ ; for Tycho did .not com- 
muni£ate to him all that he knew; and, as he died in 
• 1 60 1, he did not give Kepler time to be Very ufeful to 

him, or to receive any considerable advantages from him. 
Before his death, hpwever, he introduced him to the 
emperor R6dolphus at Prague ; for it was upon this con- 
dition that Kepler had confented to leave Gratz ; who 
received him very kindly, and made him his mathematician, 
upon condition that he fhould ferve Tycho as an arith- 
metician. From that time Kepler enjoyed the title of 
mathematician to the emperor all his life, and gained more 
and more reputation every year by his works. Rodol- 
phus ordered him to finifh the tables begun by Tycho, 
which were to be called the * Rodolphine tables ;* and he 
apptied himfelf very vigoroufly to this work : but fuch 
difficulties arofe in a fhort time, partly from the nature of 
it, and partly from the delay of the treafurers, that the 
tables were not finifhed and publifhed till 1627. He com- 

Ikltfr plained, that, from 1602 and 1603, he was looked upon 
by the treafurers with a very invidious eye ; and when, in 
*6og, he had publifhed a noble fpecimen of the work, 
and the emperor had given orders that, befides the expence 

• ' of the edition, he mould immediately be paid the ar- 

rears of his penfion, which, he faid, amounted to 2000 
crowns, and Iikewife aooo more; yet, that it wa§ not 
till two years after, that the generous orders of Rodbl- 
phus, in his favour, were put in execution. He met 
with no le'fs difcoqragement from the financiers under the 
fcmperor Matthias, than under Rodolphus ; arid therefore' 
after ftruggling with poverty for ten years at Prague, began 
to think of quitting his quarters again. He was then 
fixed at Lints by the emperor Matthias, who appointed 
him a falary from the ftates of Upper Auftria, which- was 






it£ PL Eft. ' g 

jftid for fixteeh years* In 161.3, he went to the affembly 
- at Ratifbon, to affift in the reformation of the calendar ; 
but returned to Lints, where he continued to 1626. Nov* 
that year, he went to Uhn, in order to publilh the " Ro- 
" dolphin tables ;" and afterwards* in 1629, with, the em- 
peror's leave> fettled at Sagart in Sileiia, where he. pub- 
lilhed the fecond part of his " Ephemerides ;" for the firft 
had been publilhed at Lints in 16 17. In 1630, he went 
to Ratifbon, to folicit the payment of the arrears of his 
penfion ; but, being feifced with a fever, which, it is faid, Gaflend. m 
• was brought upon him by too hard riding* he died there v *- T i~ 
in Novmbcr, in his 59th year. 

His •« Tabulae Rodolphinae" and " Ephemerides'* have 
been mentioned alreadv. We will now take notice of 
fome, the principal, or his other works, which will give 9 

a farther idea of this very extraordinary man, and won* 
<ierful aftronomer. In 1595, when he was only five and 
twenty, he publilhed at Tubingen a work, under the title 
of " Prodromus diflertationum cofmogifcphicarum, conti- 
*' nens myfterium cofmographicum,,de admiranda propor- 
" tione orbium cceleftium, deque caufis coelorum numeri, 
4< magnitudinis, motuumque periodi, & genuinis, & pro- 
*' priis, demonftratum per quinque regularia corpora geo- N 
«* metrics." This, of all his works, he is faid to hare 
efteemed ftioft. He was fo charmed with it for fome time, 
that he declared, he would not renounce the glory of the 
difcoveries contained in it to be made ele&or of Saxony. 

In 1609, he published at Prague his " Phyfica cceleftis* 
4€ tradita commentaries de motibus ftelbeMartis :" in which 
he difcovered fo many great and wonderful things relating 
to the heavens, that, if he had publifhed nothing eife, he , 
mighty from this fingle work, have claimed the honour, ©f 
being the firft who laid a folid foundation for phyfical 
aftronomy. He labours here to demonftrate, from Tycho's 
obfervations* that the planets do not move in circles, but 
in eilipfes, in one of whofe foci i$ placed the fun; and 
that their motions are regulated according to thefe two 
Jaws : firft, c that they defcribe equal areas in equal times ; 
* and, fecondly, that the fquares of their periodical times 
4 are as the cubes of the diftances ;' both which are well 
known to be fundamental principles in the Newtonian aftro- 
nomy. In the " Introdu&ion" to his " Commentaries," 
be difcovers plainly enough, that he had a very tolerable 
notion of gravity ; for he compares the fun to a naagn^* 
whofe power diffufed carries round the ojherplaiatets. ife 

B a " fuppofes 

I K E P L E R. 

• . - , 

fuppofes alfo the moon's atttaftion. to tye the caufe of the 
. tides : * Orbis virtutis trattoria?,' fays he, * quae eft in luna, 

* porrigitur ufque ad terras, et proleftat aquas fub zonam 

* torridam ; quippe in occurfum fuum quacunque in ver- 

* ticem loci incidit, infenfibiliter in maribus inclufis, fen- 

* (ibiliter ubi funt latiffimi alvei oceani, aquifque fpaciofa 

' reciprocationis libertas.' # ' 

In 1618, he publifhed at Lints his " Epitome aftrono- 
" miae Copernicaniae," in which he difcovers fome very 
" lingular notions." He fuppofes there an anima raotrix 
to refide in all parts of the earth, to which he imputes a 
perpetual fubterraneous heat, by which minerals, vegeta- 
bles, and even fome animals, are formed ; and he inculcates 
the lame notion in his " Libelli tres de cometis," publifhed 
in 1719, where he fays alfo of comets, that they are ge- 
nerated in the aether, as fifties are in the water ; and that 
the aether, or univerfal expanfe, is as full of comets as the 
fea is of fifties ; but only that, for certain reafons, they are 
not always vifible. Gaflendus obferves that, according to 
i. P p r . a 6i°c? Kepler, * all the ftars are animated ; and that, as all ani- 

* mals move by means of their mufcles, the earth and 

* planets have alfo mufcles proportioned to their bulk, 

* which are the inftruments they move with. He gives 
' the fun alfo a very noble and aftive foul ; and afierts, 

* that his rays put into aftion the fouls of the planets/ 
Agreeably to this notion of an anima motrix, he exprcfies 
himfef f thus in thefe books of comets : * The faculty of 

* the fublunary world perceives, and is terrified at the 

* comet, and, together with it, ' the other faculties of all 

* fublunary things.' And afterwards : 4 The faculty of 

* the earth being terrified at the unufual appearance of the 

* comet, in one part of the furface of the earth, fweats 

* out a great quantity of vapour, according to tlae quality 

* of that part of its body ; hence proceed great tains and 

* floods.' Thefe Angularities in ICepler have made thofe 
of his order, who have not yet been backward to acknow-* 
ledge his great merit, cenfure hjim with fome degree of fe- 

Aftr.Phi- verity. Thus Bullialdus fays, * he abounds with fi&ions, 
dni4- 2 * * figmentis tllmpt; , and Schoockius, though he owns that 

* no pcrfon performs bettir or more fubtilly than Kepler, 

« where he writes as a mathematician-/ yet adds, * that 

* where he afts the natural philofopher, no one perhaps 

* writes more abfurdly ; and is forry, that fo excellent a 

* man fhottld difgrice the divine fcience of mathematics 

* with his phyficS abfurdities : for,* fays he, * what could 

* an 



**an old woman in a fever dream more ridiculous, than 
4 that the earth is a vaft animal, which breathes out the 
'winds through the holes of the mountains,, as it were 

* through a mouth and noftrils ? Yet he writes expreflly this worlt 

* thus in his " Harmonica Murtdi," where he endeavours *a«puMiih- 

* like wife ferioufly to prove, that the earth has a fympathy»* n 16x9?" 
.' with the heavens, and, by a natural inftinft, perceives 

* the pofition of the ftars.' In his book " De montibus 

* Martis," he alfo aflerts, ' that the fun is a great magnet 

* or magnetical body, carried round upon its own center 
' in a diurnal motion ; and, by a certain difFufed power, 

' carries round the reft of the planets.' Kepler was a man De fcept!- 
of a very great and uncommonly fertile genius, and did cifm# » ^ 
not, it is acknowledged, always confine: himfelf to the 4 * p * * '* 
bounds of mathematics ; however, by Schoockius's leave, * 

we will not fuffer this laft-mentioned notion, ' of the 
6 fun s being a magnet, and carrying, by its difFufed power* 

* the planets around it,' to be ranked among the dreams 
of old women in fevers, becaufe it is fo nearly conform- 
able t6 the notion of gravitv, on which a true fyftem 
of the planetary motions has fince been founded^ 

There are qther works of Kepler, of a fmaller nature, 
which we have omitted, that we might not be tedious. 
One more however we will mention, -for the fake of 
forne remarkable incidents which attended the publica- 
tion of it; and that is his " Somniiim aftronomicum; de 
" aftronomia lunari, five de iis, quae acciderent lunap inco- 
u lis, quam luminis et dierum diverfitatem experirentur, 
" aliifque aftronoi$icisph«nomenishujufmodi." In thisv 
work he began to draw up that fyftem of " Comparative 
*' Aftronomy," which was afterwards purfued by Kircher, 
Huygens, and Gregory ; but he had not the fatisfaftion 
of publifhing it, for he died while it was printing, Vpon 
this, Bartfchius, his fon-in-law, and follower in his agro- 
nomical opinions, undertook the care of this book, and 
continued the impreffion ; but he was alfo interrupted in 
this employment by death. , Lewis Kepler, his fon, who 
was then a phyfician at Konigfberg in Pruflia, was So 
ftartted at thefe incidents, that he was with great difficulty 
prevailed upon to undertake the care of this book. He 
was afraid of lofing his life, as his father and brother-in- 
law had done ; and his mother-in-law, the widow of John t 
Kepler, who appears from hence to have been twice mar- ' 
ried, being in very narrow circumftances, and burthened 
•with children, was obliged to ufe many intreatjes to en- 

B 3 gag* 

6 K' E PL E R, 

gage him \n that work. At laft die Succeeded :* Lewis 

Kepkr undertook it, and finifhed it ; though, as it is faid, 

not without fome apprehenfions, that it might occafion 

his death. It is ftrange, that a mail of fenfe fhould be 

frightened at thefe circumftances, lingular as they were ; 

but is it not as ftrange, that a learned profeflbr at Utrecht, 

from whom we have, this account, mould make ufe of 

them to explode Kepler's do&rine concerning a world in 

Vrie* rd, in de t * le moon ? Mean while we may obferve„ that a cafe of a 

diflerta- fimilar nature happened here in our own country, when Lu- Addifon's works were firft colle&ed and publifhed toge-s 

ni?oiw, P . ther j n q U ^ rto Addifon himfelf wrote a dedication, with 

a defign to prefeiit them to his friend Mr. Secretary 
Craggs ; but both the author and the patron died before 
the impreffion was finifhed. "~ The work then fell into 
Tkkell s hands, who "chofe the earl of Warwick for the 
new patron ; but this eairl died alfo before they were pubr 
Epiftoiary lifhed. Upon which, fays Atterbury, ' I cannot but 

d c °nce, f vol.1. * **** il a vei 7 odd kt ot incidents, that the book fhould 

p. 84/ * t be dedicated by a dead man to a dead man ; and evex^ 

*■ that the new patron, to whom Tkkell chofe to in-* 

* fcribe his verfes, fhould be dead alfo before they were 

* publifhed. Had I been in the editor's place, I fhould have 

* been a little apprehenfive for myfelf, under a thought 

* that eyery one who had any hand In that work was txt 

* die before the publication of it.' 

We muft not clofe our account of Kepler without ob-* 
ferving, that the higheft deference has been paid to his 
authority, and the higheft elogiums to his memory* by 
the greateft genii in phyfical knowledge and aftronomy, 
who have flourished fince his time. Des Cartes owns his 
obligations to him upon many occafions 5 and fo does 
our own immortal countryman fir Ifaac Newton. The 
celebrated profeflbr of aftroriomy at Oxford, David Gre-r 
g or y> te ^ s Us > * n ^ preface to his Aftronomia, &c. that 

* ^Kepler's "Rationes archctypicae," " Concinnitates geo- 
" metricae," and " Prbportiones harmonica, v whatever may 
> be faid of them, whenconfidered mathematically, yet difi 

* cover a force of genius, which we fhall look for in vain in 

* the writings of other aftronomers . ' And laftiy, the young, 
but able aflronomer, Jeremiah Horrox, was fo ftruck 
with the admiration of Kepler, that he break's out into 
a rapture,, not natural to the coolnefs of a man of fcience : 

* Licet rnihi Keplerum fupra mortales admirari : licet 
'.egregium, diviniffimum, aut & quid majus appellare : 

1 • ' ' licet 

K E P LE $. . .. . V 


* licet denique fupra totam philofojfliaatimn fcholam vel 

* unicum Keplerum aeftimare. Hunc folum canite, poetse: Aftron.' 

* hunc folum teVite, philofophi : de illo certi, habere iftum {^"j^ - 

* omnia, qui habet Keplerum.' Yet, notwithftandirig ' 
all thefe fine things, it is worth remejnbering, becaufe 

it may be ufeful to men of other profeffions as well as 
aftronomers, that Kepler lived and died poor. Will it 
be faid, that * fua cuique pofteritas rependet* ? Be it fo ; 
yet fome will always be found captious enough to aflc, 

* what a dead man can be the better, for what the living 
1 fay of him?' 


_ r _ 

KETTLEWELL (John), an Engliin divine, re- 
markable for piety and learning, was born at North- Aller- 
ton in Yorkshire, March the ioth, 1653. He was grounded The life «c. 
in claffical learning in the free-fchool of that town, an ^ ^uJeweil 
fent to St. Edmunds-hall, Oxford, itt 1670, Five years pr tfi xc d t#* 
after, he was chofen fellow of Lincoln-college, through the folio 
the intereft of Mr. George Hickes, who was fellow of the £? itiofl ° f 
fame, where he became a very coniider&ble tutor. He ? 18 * f 
entered into orders as foon as he was of age fufficient, and 
dHlinguiflied himfelf early by an uncommon knowledge in 
divinity. He was very young, when he wrote his cele- 
brated book, intituled, "Meafures of Chriftian obedience •?* 
he compofed it in 1678, though it was not publifhed till 
168 1. Dr* Hickes, to whom he fubmitted it for cor- 
rection, advifed him to dedicate it to bifhop Compton, in- 
tending, by that means, to have him planted in London; 
^nd, accordingly, it came out at firft with a dedicatioiv 
to his lordfhip : but, when that prelate appeared in arms 
againft James II. Kettlewell gave orders to have the dedi- 
cation razed out of the copies unfold, and alfo to have it 
omitted in the fubfequent editions. Mean while this boot 
occasioned him to be fo much taken notice of, that the 
old countefs of Bedford, mother of the unfortunate W illiam 
lord Ruflel, took him, on that account, to be one of her 
domeftic chaplains ; and a greater favour he received, upon 
the fame conhdejration, from Simon lord Digby, who pre-* 
fented him, July 1682, to the vicarage of Coleihillj in 
Warwickfhire. After he had continued above feven years , 
at. this place, a great {alteration happened in his condition 
and circumftances ; for, at the Revolution, "being one of 
thofe confeiencious men who refufed to take the oaths of 
allegiance and fupremacy to king William and queeii Mary, 
he was deprived of his living in 1690. However, he did 

B 4 not 


not fpend the remainder of his days in a 'fallen and inglo- 
rious indolence ; but, retiring to London with his wife* . 
whom he had married in 1685, he continued to write; and 
publifh books, as he had done during his refidence in the 
country. There, amongft other learned men, he was 
particularly happy in' the friendfhip of Mr. Nelfon, with 
whom he concerted the " Model of a fund of charity for 
" th: needy fufFering,that is, the Nonjuring, clergy :" but 
bzm* naturally of a tender and delicate frame of body, 
and inclined to a confumption, lie fell into that diftemper 
in his 42d year, and died of it April the nth, i6gSr 
at his lodgings in Grays-Inn lane. He was buried three 
days after, in the fame grave where abp. Laud was be T 
forc interred, in thcparilh church of All -hallows. Barking; 
whpre a neat marble monument is ereftcd to his memory. 
Mr. Nelion, who mult needs have known him very well, 
has given this great and noble charafter of him, in a pre- 
face to his " Five difcourfes," &c. apiece printed after 
his deceafe : * He Was learned without pride ; wife and 

* judicious witftout cunning ; he ferved at the altar with- 

* out either covetoufnefs or ambition; he was devout with- 

* out afFe&ation ; fincerelv religious without morofeneis ; 
.' courteous and affabla without flatery or mean* compli- 
• ' anc6s ; juft without rigour • charitable without vanity ; 
•* and heartily zealous for theintereft of religion without 

* faftion.' His works were collected and printed in 17 18, 
in two volumes, folio : they are all upon religious fuhjefts, 
untefs his "Meafures of Christian obedience," and fome 
tra&s upon M New oaths," and the " Duty of allegiance," 
&c. fhould be rather coniidered as of a political nature, , 

K-v(W"« . KEYSLER (John George), a learned antiquary, 

fi ifC d pf h* °^ Germany, and Fellow of the Royal Society in London, 

Travtiii was born in 1689, at Thournau, a town belonging to the 

. throat* Counts of Giech. His father, who was of the Count's 

Cjeiiaany, council, took an extraordinary care of his education; and, 

,: c " aftea a fuitable preparation, fent him to the univerfity of 

Hall, where he applied himfelf chiefly to the civil law ; 

not neglefting, in the mean time, the Latin, Greek, and 

. Hebrew languages, hiftory, antiquity, and the fciences. 

' Soon after he left Hall, he was called to be precfeptor to 

Charles Maximilian and Chriftian Charles, Counts 

of Giech -Buchau : with whom, m 171 3, he returned 

thither, and afterwards attended them- in their travels. 

Th$ firft pl&ce of note they viiited, was Utrecht, where he 



became acquainted with the learned Reland; who, dif* 
cerning his uncommon capacity and particular turn, put 
him upon projefting an accurate hiftoiy of the antiqui- 
ties of his country. Keyfler vifited the chief cities of Ger- 
many, France, and the Netherlands, with his two young 
Counts ; and gained great reputation among the learned, 
by illuftrating, as he went along, feveral monuments of 
antiquity, v particularly fome fragments of Celtic idols,. . 
then lately difcovered in the cathedral of Paris. 

Having returned fafe with his pupils, and acquired 
great honour by his care and management of them, he 
was afterwards pitched upon as a proper perfon to under- 
take the education of two grandfons of Baron Bernftorf, 
firft minifter of ftate to his Britannic Majefty, as Eleftor ; 
and, accordingly, he went to Hanover in 1 716, and en r 
'tered upon his office. However, in 1718, he obtained 
leave to go over to England, where he diftinguiihed him- 
felffo much jn the antiquarian way, that he was compli- 
mented with being elefted Fellow of the Royal Socriety. 
This honour he particularly owed to a learned eflay, " De 
" Dea Nehalennia numine veterum Walachrorum topico/* 
He gave an explication alfo of the Anglo-Saxon monu- 
ment of antiquity on Salifbury Plain, called Stone- 
he nge ; and like wife a " Diflertation on the confecrated 
" Mifieltoe of the Druids. " All thcfe detached eflays, with 
other feleft difcourfes on the Celtic and Northern anti- 
quities, he published foon after his return to Hanover, in 
Latin, tinder this title, " Antiquitates fele&ae feptentrio- 
" nales et Celticae, quibus plurima loca conciliorum et ca- 
" pitularium explanantur, dogmata theologiae Ethnicae Cel- 
•■■*' tarum gentiumque feptentrionalium cum moribus et in-*' 
" ftitutis majorum noftrorum circa idola, aras, oracula, 
" templa, lucos, facerdotes, regum elcQiones, comitia, 
" et monumehta fepulchralia, una cum reliquiis Gentilifmi 
" in coetibus Chriftianorum, ex monumentis potiffimum 
* ha&enus ineditis fafe perquiruntur, cum figuris seri in* 
M cifis. Hanov. 1720." i2mo. 

When the two young barons Bernftorf had been tea 
years under his care, it was time for them to go abroad : 
and, accordingly, he went with them to Tubingen, at 
which univerfity they ftayed a year and a half. Then they 
fet out on a grand tour : they vilited the upper part of 
Germany, Switzerland, and took a particular view of 
Italy ; and then returned to Vienna, where they {pent 
three months. Their next progrefs was in Upper Hun* 

• gary r 

io XL I D D E R - 

gary, Bohemia, and otter parts of Germany. In I7$i#/ 
they palled through Lorrain into France, thence crofled the 
Channel into England, and made rfolland the. laft ftage 
of their travels. From this tour proceeded a large and en- 
tertaining work, which has been translated into Englifli* 
in four volumes 4to, and published under the following 
title : " Travels through Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, 
" Switzerland, Italy, and Lorrain : giving a true and juft 
" defcription of the prefentftate of thqfe countries ; their 
" natural, literary, and political hiflory, manners, laws, 
V commerce, manufactures ? painting, fculpture, architec- 
*' ture, coins, antiquities, curioiities of art and nature* 
** &c. illuftrated with copper-plates engraven from draw- 
c{ ings taken on the fpot. By John-George Keyfler, F. R. S. 
* 6 Carefully tranflated from the fecond edition of the Ger- 
?' man/ Lond. 1756." 

Keyfler, after his return, fpent the remainder of hi& 
days under the patronage and prote&ion of his noble 
pupils, who committed to his care their fine library and 
iriufeum, and allowed him a very handfome income. He 
%Xed a happy tranquil life ; declining all public employ- 
ment, keeping himfelf fingle that he might not be in* 
"cumbered with family-affairs, and chiefly converting with 
the illuftrious dead, who were the companions of hk re- 
tirement. He died in his 54th year, June 26, 1 743* of 
an afthma ; after viewing with intrepidity the -gradual ap- 
proach of death. , 

FaftiOion/ KIDDER (Dr. Richard), a very learned Etiglifh 
bifhop, was born, as Wood fays, in Suffex, but, as others 
fay, in Suffolk. In 1649, he was fent to Enfimanuel col- 
lege in Cambridge, where he took his Bachelor and Matter 
of Arts degree at the regular times. He was prefented by 
his college to the vicarage of Stanground, in Huntingdon- 
fliire.; from which he was eje&ed, for nonconformity, in 
jennet's ^1662, by virtue of the Bartholomew att: but^ conform- 
P^ g,ftc g *ing foon after, he was prefented, by Arthur earl of Eflex, 
to. the reftory of Raine, in Eflex, 1664. Here he con- 
tinued till 1674, when he was prefented to the reftory of 
St. Martin's Outwich, London, by the Merchant-Tay^ 
Jors company. Sept. 168 1, he was inflalled into a pre- 
bend of Norwich; and, in 1689, made Dean of Peter- 
borough, in the room of Simon Patrick, prompted to^ 
. the fee of Chichefter. Upon the deprivation of Ken, 
JJiihop of Bath and Wells, for not taking the oaths to 


V. II. 


*• » «■ 


fciftg ^iUiam and Queen Mary, and Bevferidge's refufal 
of that fee $ Kidder, to Whom it was offered next, did 
tiot prove fo fcrupulous; but, being nominated thereto 
in June 169*, was coufecratcd the Auguft following. In 
1693, he preached the le&ure founded by the Hon. Robert 
Boyle, being the fecorid that preached it. His fcrmons 
Oil that occafion are inferted in, * Demonftrafion of the 

* MeifiaSy in three parts ; tiie firft.of which was publifhed 
in 1694, the fecond in 1699, and the third in 1700, 8vo. 
It is levelled againft the Jews; and the author makes in 
it an excellent ufe of his great knowledge of the He- 
brew and Oriental languages, for Which he had long 
been famous. He wrote alfo, " A Commentary on the 
* l five books of Mofes ; with a difiertation concerning the 
* 4 author or writer of the faid books, and a general argu-r 
** ment to each of them." This Commentary was pub-r 
lifhed in 1 694, in, two volumes 8vo ; and the reader, in 
the preface, is thus acquainted with the occafion of it; 

* Many years are now pafled fince a confiderable number 
4 of the London clergy met together, and agreed to pubV 

* lifh fome fhort notes upon the whole Bible, for the ufe 

* of families, and of all thofe well-difpofed perfons that 

* defired to read the holy fcriptures to their greateft ad- 
4 vantage. At that meeting, they, agreed upon this worthy 

* defign, and topk their feveral fhares, and affigned fome 

* part to them who were abfent. I was not prefent at 
-* that meeting; but I was foon informed, that they had 

€ affigned to me the Pentateuch. — The work was oegyn 
4 with common confent; we did frequently meet; and 

* what was done was communicated from time to time to 

* thofe that met together and were concerned. The me- 
f thods of proceeding had been adjufted, and agreed to ; a 
' fpecimen was printed, and an agreement was made when 

* it fhould be put to the prefs. 1 finiflied my part in order 
4 thereto ; but fo it fell out, that, foon after 'all this, the 

* clouds began to gather apace, and there was great ground 

* to fear, that the Popifh party were attempting to ruin 
4 the Church of England.— Hence it came pafs, that the 

* thoughts of purfuing this defign were laid afidc ; and 

4 thofe that were concerned in it were now obliged to - 
4 turn their ftudies and pens againft that dangerous enemy. 

* -—During this time aifo, fome of the perfons con4 

* cerned in this work were taken away by death ; and 
4 thus the work was hindered, that might elfe have been 
4 finiihed long fince.— 1, having drawn up my notes upon 

* this 


c this occafion, do now think myfelf obliged to makfe ' 
* them public,' 1 &c. Xo the firft volume is prefixed a 
diflertation, wherein the bifhop fets down, and anfwers,. 
all the objeftions made againft Mofes's being the author of 
the Pentateuch : and having confidered, among the reft," 
S^coiTf " one °bJ c ^* on drawn by Le Clcrc, from Geji. xxxvi. 31, 
neiic. in and fpoken in pretty levere terms of him, fome letters 
Fentatcuch. pafled between them, which were printed by Le Clerc* 
in his '" Bibliotheque Choifee," wherein fatisfoftion is 
made for the cenfure that had been pafled upon him. Dr. 
Kidder had likewife borne a part in the famous Popifh 
controverfy, during which he publifhed the following 
trafts : 1. "A fecond dialogue between a new (iatholic 
" convert and a Proteftant ; fhewing why he cannot believq 
" the doftiine of tranfubftantiation, though he do firmly 
** believe the do&rine of the Trinity." 2. " Anexami- 
" nation of Bellarmine's thirtieth note of the church, 
** of the confeffion of adverfaries." 3. " The texts which 
" Papifts cite out of the Bible for the proof of their doc- 
'•• trine, "ofthefacrificeofthemafs," examined." 4. "Re- 
•* fleftions on a French Teftament, printed a Bourdeaux 
•' 1686, pretended to be tranflated out of the Latin by the 
*' divines of Louvain." He publifhed alfo feveral fermons 
and tratts* which we need* not be particular abput here. 

This prelate died, Nov. 1703, in his palace at Wells, 
and was privately buried in the cathedral. Through a 
moll unhappy accident, in the night between the 26th 
and 27th of that month, he was killed in his bed, with his 
. lady, by the fall of a Hack of chimnies, occafioned by the 
great ftorm. He was a very clear, elegant, learned writer - $ 
and one of the beft divines of his time. 

"KILLIGREW, an Englifh riame for many inge/ 
nious perfons of both fexes, and of the fame family too. 
The firft we meet with, is Catharine, the daughter of 
'Sir Anthony Cooke, who was born at Giddy-hall, in Eflex 
about 1530 ; and married to Henry 'Killigrew, Efq; 9. 
Cornifh gentleman of good abilities, who, for the fer- 
vices he did his country in the quality of an ambaflador 
Was knighted. This lady, having the advantages of ai> 
excellent education, joined to an elegant natural genius 
became, like many other ladies her contemporaries, very 
learned. She underftood the Hebrew, Greek, and'Latia 
. tongues, and was famous for her flcill in poetry ; a fmall 
fpecimen of which is preferved by Sir John Harrinoton 


in his notes to the tranflatiori of Ariofto, and by Fuller 
in his " Worthies." 

KILLIGREW (William), defcended from thisAthen. 
family, was the eldeft fon of Sir Robert Killigrew, knt.O*m.v.i* 
and born at Hanworth in Middlefex,* 1605* &e became 
a gentleman commoner of St. John's college, Oxford, 
in 1622 ; where continuing about three years, he jtravelled* 
abroad, and, after his return, was made governor of Pen- 
dennis clftle, and of Falmouth haven in Cornwall. After 
this, he was called to attend Charles I, as one of the 
gentlemen ufhers of his privy-chamber; in which em- 
ployment he continued till the breaking*-out of the civil 
, wars, and then had the command given him of one of 
the two great troops of horfe that guarded the king's 
perfon. ■ He was in attendance upon the king when the 
court refided' at Oxford, and was created doftor of civil 
law in 1642; and, when the king's affairs were ruined* 
he fuffeped, as the other Cavaliers did, and compounded 
with the Republicans for his eft^te. Upon the Restoration 
of Charles II, he Was made gentleman-ufher of the privy- 
chamber again ; and, on that king's marriage, was created 
his firft vice-chamberlain, in which ftation he continued 
twenty-two years. He died in 1693, an( * was buried in 
Weftminfterr-abbey. He was the author of four plays, 
which were printed at Oxford, 1666, in folio, and have ' 
been applauded by men very eminent in poetry; parti- 
cularly by Waller, who addreflfes a copy of verfes to him,. 
upon his altering his " Pandora," from a tragedy into a 
cditiedy, becaufe hot approved on the ftage. There i* 
another play afcribed to him, called -" The Imperial Tra- 
" g£<ty> I 699>" folio. There is aha a little poem of his 
extant, which was fet to mufic by the noted Henry La wes. 
Wood fays, that after he retired frorp court, in hi6 de- 
clining age, he wrote "The artlefs midnight thoughts 
• " of a gentleman at court, who for many years built on 
" fand, which every blaft of crofs fortune has defaced, but 
; ** now has laid new foundations on the rock of his falva- 
" tion, .1684." 8vo; of which the 2d edition, with addi- 
tions, was dedicated to Charles II : arid another work, 
intituled, ", Midnight and daily thoughts,' in profe and 
" verfe, 1694/' 8vo. ' 

KILlllGRE W (Thomas), brother of the former, 

was born in j6n f and diftinguifhed alfo by uncommon 

j natural 


*» T 


natural parts. He was page of honour to Charles I, aqd 
'groom of ; th« bed-chamoer to Charles II, with whom he 
had fuffered many years exile. During his abode beyond 
fea, he took a view of France* Italy, and Spain ; and was 
honoured by his majefty with the employment qf resident 
at the ftate of Venice, whither he was fcnt in Aug, 1651. 
In this abfence from his country, he applied his leifure 
•hours to poetry, and the composition of fevoral plays ; of 
which Sir John Denham, in a jocular way, takes notice^ 
in his poem on our author's return from his embaffy to 
Venice. Though Denham mentions but fix, our author 
wrote nine plays in his travels, and two at London \ all 
which were printed, with his pifture before them? in one 
volume folio, at London, 1664. There is, befides thefe 
plays of his, " A letter concerning the pofleffing ai*d dif- 
'* pofleffing of ftveral nuns in the nunnery fit Tours, in 
" France ;" dated Orleans, Dec. the 7th, 1635, and printed 
in three fheets folio. He died in 1682, and was buried \x\ 
; Weftminfter-abbey. He had been twice married. He was 
a man of very droll make, and had an uncommon vein of 
humour, with which he ufed to divert that merry monarch 

• Charles II ; who on that account was fonder of him than 
' of his beft minifters, and wouM give him accefs to his 

• prefence, when he denied it to them. It was ufually fa$ Qf 
hini, that, when he attempted to write, he was nothing 
near fo ftnart as he was in converfation : which was juft 

'the reverfe of Cowley, who fhone but little in company* 
though he excelled fo much with his pen. Hence Denham, 

• who knew them both, has taken occafion thus to charag- 
terife their refpe&ive excellences and defe&s : 

■ s * Had Cowley ne'er fpoke, Killigrew ne'er writ, 
* Combin'd in one, they'd made a matchlefs wit/ 

KILLIGREW (Henry), brother of thq former,, 
was born in 1612, educated ia grammar learning undec^ 
the celebrated Farnaby, and fent to Chrift-church, Oxford, 
in 1628. In 1638, having taken his degrees in arts,, he 
went into orders, and became a dhaplain in' the. King's 
afmy^ In 1642, he was created do&or of divinity; and 
the lame year made chaplain to James Duke of York, and 
prebendary of Weftminffer. Afterwards he fuffered, as an 
adherent in the King's caufe]; but, at the Reftoration, was 
made almoner to the Duke of York, fujferintendant to the 
affair of his chapel, re&or of Wheatainfteai, in Hertforrf- 
' ihire, 





Aire, and mafter of the Savoy hofpital in Weftmuifter. He 
wrote, when only feveh teen years of age, a tragedy, called 
" The Confpiracy," which was admired by fome wits o£ 
thofe times •, particularly by Ben Jonfon, then living, * who 

* gave a teftimony of it (fays Langbaine) even to be en- 
4 vied/ and by Lord Falkland. An imperfett copy of this 
getting out in 1638, he afterwards caufed it to be republifhed 
in 1652, with the new title of " Palhntus and Eudora." He 
publifhed a volume of fermons, which had been preached 
at court in 1685, 4to ; and alfo two or three occafional 
fermons. The year of his death does not appear. 

K.ILLIGREW (Anne) <a Grace for beauty, and 

* a Mufe for wit', as Wood fays, was the daughter of Henry 
Kilfigrew, juft recorded ; and born in London, a little 
before the Reftoration. She gave the earlieft difcoveries of Atfcra. 
genius ; which being improved by a polite education, ihe 
became eminent in the arts of poetry and painting. Dryder* 
feems quite lavilh in her commendation ; but Wood affiles 
us, that he,has not faid any thing of her, which Ihe was 
not equal, if not fuperior to. She was a great proficient in 
the art of painting, and drew the duke of York, afterwards * 
James II, and alfo the duchefs, to whom fhe was a" maid 
of honour ; which pieces are highly applauded by Dryden. 
She drew feveral hiftory-pieces, alfo fome* portraits for her 
diverfion, and likewife fome pieces of ftill-life. Mr. Becket 
did her pifture in mezzotinto, after her own painting, 
which is prefixed to her poems, Thefe engaging and 
polite aqcomplilhtnents were the leaft of her perfe&ons ; 
for fhe crowned all with an exemplary piety, and unble- , ,. 
mifhed virtue. This amiable woman died of the fmall- 
pox, June 1685, when Ihe was no more than in her 25th 
year : upon which fad occaffion Dryden's Mufe put on th^ 
mourning habit, and lamented her death moft movingly, 
in a very long ode. The year after, were printed and 
pubfifhed her " Poems," in a large thin quarto : which, 
befides the publilher's preface, and Dryden's ode, con- 
tains an hundred pages. She was buried in the Savoy 
chapel, where is a very neat, monument fixed in th* 
wall, with a Latin inlcription pn it, fetting forth he* 
beauty, her accomplishments, her virtue and pisty* 

KIMCHI (Rabbi David)* a famous jewiih qoi&- 
mentator upon the Old Teftament, who lived at the end 
of the I2th and beginning of the 13th ccixtury. He was 


16 KING. 

by birth a Spaniard, fon, of the rabbi Jofeph Kimchi, and 
brother of rabbi Mofes Kimchi, botli men of eminent 
learning among the Jews : but he himfelf far exceeded 
them both, being the beft grammarian in the Hebrew 
language the Jews ever had. This abundantly appears, 
not only from his Commentary on the Old Teftament, 
which gives great light into the literal fenfe of the Hebrew 
text, but alio. from a grammar and dictionary, which he 
wrote of the Hebrew language ; both, by many degrees, the 
beft in their kind. The firft of thefe he calls Michol, and 
the other SepherShorafhim, that is, " the book, of roots.-' 
Buxtorf made«his " Thefaurus Linguae Hebraeae" out' of 
. the former; and his " Lexicon Linguae Hebrarae" out of 
the latter. David Kimchi was a violent adverfary of-the 
* Chriftjans, < magnusChriftjanorumadverf2tor, > asGrotius 
fays ; .and therefore had aright to be called a good Jew, in* 
the fame fenfe as we call thofe good Ciiurch-of- England 
men, who are veliemenent oppofers and perfecutors of 
Diflenters. Kimchi, ^however, was not only remarkable 
for his ^zeal, but alio f<?r his uncommon abilities and learn- 
ing; and his writings have ever been held in iuch efti- 
mation among the jews, that none can rife to any degree 
of reputation for letters and theology, who have not r^ad 
and uudied them. 

KING (John), a learned Englilh bilhop, was born at 
Wornal about 1559, educated in We#minfter-fchool, and 
feht, to Chrift-church, Oxford, in 1576; where he took, 
in due time, his degrees in arts. He was afterwards 
chaplain to queen Elizabeth ; archdeacon of Nottingham 
in 1 590 ; doctor of divinity in 1 60 1 ; dean of Chrift-church 
in 1605; and bilhop of London in 161 1. "Befides his 
** Leftures upon Jonah," printed inr 1594, he published 
feveral fermons. James I. ufed to ftyle him " the king 
44 of preachers ;" and lord chief juftice Coke often declared, 
that " he was the beft fpeaker in the ftar-chamber in his 
tfuiUr'5 «« time." He was fo conftant iu preaching, after he was 

hift fC B. X a bi ^°P> that he , never miffed a Sunday, when his health 
' ■ ' permitted. He died, March 30, 1621 ; and, foon after* 
the Papifts reported, that he died a membeT of their church : 
but the falfity of this ftory was fufficiently expofed by his 
fon Henry, in a fermon at St. Paul's crofs ; and by bifhop 
Godwin, in the appendix to his " Commentarixis de Pr#t 
fulibus Angliae." . 

KING. 17 

KING (Henry), fon of the preceding, was born at 
Wbrnall, in January 159 1 ; educated partly at Thame in 
Oxfordshire, and partly at Weftminfter ; and elefted ftu- 
dent of Chrift-church-Oxford in 1608. After taking his 
degrees, and entering into orders, he became chaplain to 
James I. afterwards archdeacon of Colchefter ; then resi- 
dentiary of St. Paul's, and canon of Chrift-church -, doctor 
of divinity in 1625 ^afterwards chaplain to Charles I; deart 
of Rochefter in 1638; and bifhopLof Chichefter in 1641k 
Though he was always efteemed puritanically affe&ed, and 
had been promoted toChichefter in order to pleafe that party'; 
yet, upon the breaking out of the civil wars, and the diflblu* 
tion of epifcopacy, he was treated by them with great 
feverity. At the Restoration he recovered his bilhopric ; 
and Wood tells us, that '-he. was efteemed, by many per* • 

* fons of his diocefe and neighbourhood, the epitome of 

* all honours, virtues, and generous noblenefs, and a per- 
' fon never to be forgotten by his tenants and the poor/ He 
diedOftober 1669, after having publifhed feveral works : 
viz. 1. " Sermons," printed at different tinier. 2. " Ex- 
"pofition of the Lord's Prayer, ^628," 4*0. 3. " Thfe 
" Pfalnis of David, from the new tranflation of the Bible, 
" turned into metre, &c. 1651," nmo. 4. "A deep groan 
4 * fetched at the funeral of the incomparable and glo- 
rious monarch king Charles I. 16^9," in one fheet. 
5. Poems, elegies, paradoxes, fonnets, 1657," 8vo* 

6. Divers Latin and Greek poems, "publifhed in feveral 
books* 7> There is a letter of his to Mt. Ifaac Walton, 
concerning the three imperfeft books of Hooker's Eccte- 
fiaftical polity; dated at Chichefter, Nov. 17, 1664, and 
prefixed to Walton's life of Hooker* 

* ■ 

KING (Edward),, an excellent youth, whom WeNfefcdJs's 
here mention rather with a view to gain than to give in- Seic& Col-J 
formation, was a fellow of Chrift's College,. Cambridge, in p^ of 
1632 and 1633* He was unfortunately drowiled in his vol. vil. 
pauage from Chefter to 'the Irifh fea3 ; a circumftanCc p 7** 
which gave birth to the admirable " Lyddas'Vof Milton. 
How weU 

—"He knew 

Himfelf to ling, and build the lofty rhyme," 

may be feen by the admirable fpecimens exhibited in the 

" Colte&ion" which furnifhes this brief memorial. It is 

hot eafy to determine whether his Hexameters, his Alcaic 

Vol. VIII. C Odw, 


Odes, or his Iambics, have the greater fhare of merit, 
Even his Epigrams, allowing the method of them to be 
truly epigrammatic, fhew the hand of a mailer ; and the 
whole of his performances prove him to be poflefied of a 
genius which was by no means over-rated with the atten- 
tion and. the friendfhip of Milton. 

Life pre- KING (Dr. William), an ingenious and humou-» 
KinV° rous ^nglifh writer, was born in London 1663, fon of 
Works, by Ezekiel King, a gentleman. He was allied to the noble 
KichoU, families of Clarendon and Rochefter [ a ] . From Weftminfter 
177 fchool, where he was a fcholar on the foundation under 

the care of Dr. Bufby, he was at 18 elefted to Chrift 
Church, Oxford, and admitted a ftudent there in Michael- 
mas term 1681. 

Early in life, Mr. King became poflefied of a fmafl 
paternal eftate in Middlefex. From his occasionally men- 
tioning " his tenants in Northampton and Leicefterfhire," 
his Biographers ' have fuppofed him to have been a . land- 
holder alfo in thofe counties; but there is little autho- 
rity for fucha fuppofition. However, from his going out 
Compounder when he took his firft degree, it is plain that 
he had ; a tolerable fortune, which enabled him to indulge 
his genius and inclination in the choice and method of his 
Studies. He took his firft decree in arts, Dec. 8, 1685; 
proceeded regularly to M. A. July 6, 1688 ; and die lame 
year commenced author. A religious turn of mind, join^l 
to the warmeft regard for the honour of his country, promp- 
ted him to refcue the charafter and name of Wickliffe, 
our firft Reformer, from the calumnies of Monf. Varillas. 
* The thing had been publicly requefted alfo, as a proper un- 
dertaking for fuch as were at leifure, and would take the 
trouble. Mr. King, therefore, deeming himfelf to be thus 
called forth to the charge, readily entered the lifts ; and, 
with a proper mixture of wit and learning, handfomely ex- 
pofed the blunders of that French author, in " Reflec- 
tions upon Monf. Varillas's Hiftory of Herefy, Book I. 
" Tom. I. (6 far as relates to Englifn matters, more efpe- 
" daily thofc of Wickliffe [b]." About this time, having 
fixed on the Civil Law for his profeflion, he entered upon 
that line in the Univerfity, 

[a] In his Adverfaria, p. 26 r. [b] Mr. Edward Hannes, another 

of volume I, he calls lord Harcourt' young ftudent of Chrift Church, had 

. " hit couirn j" and fee what he fays, alfo a hand in this tract, which is the 

f A 144, of his " great grandfather." firft in the collection. 


- <c 

t I N G. i$ 

In 1690, he tranflated, from the French of Monfieur 
and Madame Daeier, " The Life of Marcus Aurelius 
*' Antoninus, the Roman Emperor; together with fome 
4i fele& Remarks pn the faid Antoninus 's Meditations con- 
. w cerniog himfelf, treating of a natural Man's Happinefs, 
"&C. as alio upon the Life of Antoninus." About the 
.fente time he "wrote " A Dialogue fhewing the way to Mo- 
-" dern Preferment ;" a da>H iatire, which contains fome 
.folid truths, under the difguife of a converfation between 
.three iiiuftrious perfonages ; the Tooth-drawer to Cardi- 
nal Porto-Carero ; tbe Corn-cutter to Pope Innocent XI -, 
and, the Receiver General to an Ottoman Mufti. July 7, 
xbyXy he teokhis degree , of B. and D. LL. and Nov. ia. 
that year, by the favour of Abp. Tiilotfon, obtained a Fiat ; 
which, admitting him an advocate at Do&ors Commons, 
enabled him to plead in the courts of die civil and eccfo- 
fiaftical Law. In 1693, ^ e publifhed a translation of 
' " New Manners and Characters of the two great Brothers, 
" the Duke of Bouillon and Marefchal Turenne, written 
** in French by James de Langlade, Baron of Saumieres." 
^ Either in this, or eariy in the following year, appeared a 
. yery extraordinary r under the title of " An Anfwer 
" to a Book, which will be published next week, intituled, 
" A Letter to the Reverend Dr. South, upon occafion of a 
. *' late Bpok, intituled Animadverfions on Dr. Sherlock's 
. *' Book, intituled, A Vindication of the Holy and Ever- 
. " bkfled Trinity. Being a Letter to the Author." In 
Auguft 1694, Mr Molefworth publifhing his " Account 
" oi Denmark as it was in the year 1692/' our Author 
took up his pen once more in his country's caufe, the 
. honour of which was thought to be blemifhed by that ac- 
count.; Mr. Scheel, the Danifh Minifter, having prefented 
a memorial againft it. Animated with this fpirit, he drew 
. up a cenfure of it, which he printed in 1694, under the 
. title of " Animadveriions on the pretended account of 
" Denmark." This was fo much approved by Prince 
- 'George, confort to. the Princefs Anne, that the Doftor 
- was foon after appointed fecretary to her Royal Highnefs. 
In 1697, he took a fharc with liis fellow -collegians at 
Chrift Church, in the memorable dispute about the ge- 
. nuinenefs of Phalaris's Epiftles. Has firft appearance in 
that corvtroveriy was owing to his .being accidentally 
prefent at ? converfation between Dr. Bentley and Mr. 
. Bennet the boakfeller, concerning the MS. of Phataris in 
the King's Library. Mr. Bovk, when anfwering Beat- 

C 2 ley's 

to K ITS G. 


ley's Diflertatibn, applied to our Author for the particular* 
of what palled on that occafion ; which he received in the 
fhort but expreffive Letter which Boyle has printed in hrs 
K^ngJ* book, in 1698, with the teftimonies of Mr. Bennet and 
\oih' Mr. Gibfon (who had been employed as the Collator). 
j>. 114. Stung by thefe ftubborn fads, Dr. Bentley, in the en- 
larged edition of his Diflertation, 1699, endeavoured to 
invalidate their force, by an attempt to weaken the credi- 
bility of the witnefles. On Dr. King, in particular, be 
has condefcended to bellow near eight pages of his Preface, 
a fhort fpecimen of which is annexed to the Letter wc 
have laft referred to. In a fecond letter to Mr. Boyle, our 
author, with great modefty, refutes the grounalefe ca- 
lumny, and proves that Dr. Bentley himfelf has confirmed 
his teftimony in every particular, except having omitted 
the great Critic's beautiful fimilitude of " a fqueezed 
** orange." 

In the progrefs of the controverfy, Dr. King publifhed 
his " Dialogues of die Dead," written (as he fays) " in 

' " felf-defence," and replete with that fpecies of banter 
which was his peculiar talent, and which muft hav« 
greatly mortified his ^dverfary. How much Dr. King had 

. this controverfy at heart, may be feen by the various 

. memoranda concerning it which are fcattered up and 
down in his works. At the end of 1698, or early in 
1699, came out Uv A Journey to London in the year 1698, 
" atter the ingenious Method of that made by Dr. Martin 

- " Lifter the fame year;" which he defigned as a vindication 
of his couiitry. This was a fpecimen x>f that particular 
humour in which he excelled. Dr. King thought it better 
than .any of his former works, as he frequently wrote 
, afterwards under the name of *' The Author' of the Jour- 
*' ney to London." 

It has been pretty generally allowed, that Dr. King* 
though he could not endure his bufinefs as an Advocate, 
made an excellent Judge in the Court of Delegates, as 

• often as he was called to that Bench. The fatigue, how- 
ever, of a Civilian's duty was too great for his natural indo- 
leiice ; and he retired to his ftudent^s place at Chrift Church, 
to indulge his predominant attachment at better leifure. 

From this time, giving way to that fuga negetii fo in- 
cident, to the poetical race, hepafied his days in the purfuit 
of the fame ravilhing images, which, being aptly moulded, 
came abroad in manufcript, in the form of pleafant tales. 

• and other pieces in verfe, at various times, as they hap- 


KIN d. 21 

|>ened to be finifhed. Many of thefe he afterwards col- 
lected, and publifhed, with other pieces, in his " Mifcel- 
" lanies." 

In 1700, he publifhed, without a name, a fevere fatire 
on the credulity of Sir Hans Sloane, intituled. "The 
" Tranfaftioneer, witKfome of his Philofophical Fancies, 
* c in two Dialogues." The irony in this traft is admira- 
ble ; and it muft be acknowledged, notwithftanding the 
defervedly high cliarafter of Sir Hans as a phyfician and^ a 
naturalift, that our Author has in many places difcovered 
the vulnerable heel of Achilles, and that his fatirical obfer* 
vations are in general well founded. 

Early in 1701, Dr. King was re-called to the bufy fcenes 
Df life. His friend James the third earl of Anglefca (who 
had fucceeded to that title April 1, 1690), married, Oft. 28, 
1699, the lady Catharine Darnley, natural daughter to 
King James If, by Catharine countefs of Dorchefter, and 
had by her one daughter. After living together little more 
than a year, a dilpute arofe between them, which ended 
not but in a feparation. Lord Anglefea folicited the affif- 
tance of Dr. King , and the force of friendfhip prevailed 
pver his natural averiion to the wrangling of the bar. He 
complied with the requeft ; took abundant pains for his 
old friend, more than he was ever known to do; and 
made fuch a figure in the Earl's defence, as fhewed him to 
have had abilities in his profeflion equal to any occafion 
that might call for them, and effe&uaUy eftablifned his re- 
putation in the charafter of a Civilian, as he had already 
done \n tb&t qf a polite Writer [b J. 




£cj Dr< King's Biographers having ceive her, and, upon fa*r fubmiffion 

been regularly miftaken in mentioning and good behaviour, would treat her 

this circumflance, by fuppofing it to with kindnefs; and that, in all cafes, 

have happened after his return from fhe fhould be fa/e from any violence. 

Ireland in 1708 5 we iball exhibit a March 3, the earl of Rochefter gave 

few dates, to afcertain the precjfe pe- the hout'e an account if their friendly. 

xiod. Feh. 35, 1700 1, the countefs negotiation; which in the end proved 

petitioned the upper houfe of parlia- fruitlefs. The fame day, leave was 

ment, '« that her lord might waive given to bring in a bill for their fepa* 

" his privilege, or that Ihe might have ration ; againft which lord Haverfham 

" leave to bring in a biljl of Tepara- fingly entered a fpirited pioteft,- from 

*< tion, for his cruelty.*' Two days arguments fuggefted by the Civilians } 

after, their lordlhips were plea fed to moft probably from Dr. King, on 

direct the. earl of Rochefter, lord Fer- whom lord Anglefea fo much depend- 

rers, lord Haverlham, and lord So- ed. The bill was brought jn March 6; 

mers, to go to the lady Anglefea, and and, after repeated hearings of coun- 

endeavour to perfuade her to return-to fel, civilians, and witneiTcs, and a fo~ 

her hulband, and to let her know that lemo declaration from the courrefs, 

the earl detUrcd he was ready to re* " that ihc thought Ijer lifp would be 

22 KINC 

Notwithftafiding flic reputation acquired by Dr. King 
in this caufe, he never afterwards attained any linking 
eminence in a profeflion where conftant afliduity and a? 
long courib of years are req'uiiites For the acquisition of 
fame. Captivated by the Mufes, he negie&ed bufinefsy 
and, by cjegrees, as is natura} to fuch tempers; began tt> 
dread and abhor it. Heedlefs of thofc nccefiary fupplies 
which a due attention would actually have brotight to hia 
finances, they were fo much impaired by his lieglcS^ and 
by the gay courfe of life whicli he led, that he gladly ac- 
cepted the offer of preferment in Ireland ; a fure fign that 
his practice was then not very confiderable, as he is perhaps 
the only Civilian that ever went to refide in Ireland* after 
once having experienced the emoluments of a fettleriieut 
in Doftors commons. The exaft period of his quitting 
this kingdom cannot now be ascertained. It has been gene- 
rally fuppofed that he went with the earl of Pembroke, wht> 
was appointed lord lieutenant in April 1 707. But he was 
fccttainly in Ireland much earlier, as we have a con^St 
copy of " Mully of Mountown," in 1704* from the 
Author hirnfelf, with a ©otaplairit that, before that time, 
fome fpuriotis copies, had 'crept into the world. It is pro- 
bable, therefore, that his preferment was owing to the 
united inter-efts of the earl of Rochefter, his relation, 
(iord-lieutenant of Ireland ffom Dec. 12, 1700, 'to Feb. 4, 
1702-3), and his noble patron the earl of Pembroke, 
{lord high admiral of Etxgland and Ireland from Jan. tfl, 
1701-2 to May *i 702). If this conje&ure be allowed, the 
date is fixed clearly to the beginning of 1702, and the 
thread of the hiftory is properly connefted. Dr. King; 
was now in a new fcene of a£tiqn. He was judge of the 
high court of .admiralty in Ireland, foie commiffioner of 
the prizes, and keeper of the records in Bermingharri's 
Tower. The latter, indeed, was rather a matter of ho- 
nour than a ^profit ; the falary being at that time but ten 
* pounds a year, though afterwards advanced to 400. He was 
likewise appointed vicar general to the lord primate, Dr, 
Narciffbs Marfb. -With thefe honours he was well re- 
ceived and countenanced by perfons of the higheft rank, 

*' in danger if fhe fhouM again live John Sh^nVtfl, duke of Buckingham 

« with the earl/' it wasp»(Tfd,Apr»l-29, and Normaoby, who had before bad 

17017 agrred to by the commons, twowives. ShediedlWarch. 13, 1742- ja 

May 141 and receivi d the royal af- her character, which i* fomewhat «x» 

• fent, Jane 12. The earl «Hed Jan. ai, traordinary, and is fai'd'to havebeea 

1701-2; and his lady was a fee on d writreii by herfeif, may be feen ia 

tirfce m^rricc^ iftarcl* j, 1705, u> Mr. Pope's work*, vol. VIII. 


KING. *3 

and might have made his fortune if the change of climate 
Could hare wrought a change in his difpoiition. But fo 
far was he from treafuring up the money in a manner 
thrown into his lap, that he returned to England with 
no other treafure than a few merry poems and humou- 
rous eflays. 

"* It is vain to put wealth within the reach of him Dr. John- 
" who will not ftretch out his hand to take it. King* * 
" foon found a friend as idle and thoughtlefs as himielf, 
" in Upton, one of the judges, who had a pleafant houfe, • 
*< called Mount-town near Dublin,, to which King fre- 
*' quently retired ; delighting to iiegleft his intereft, for> 
** get his cares, and delert his duty. Here he wrote Mully 
*' of Mountown, &poem, by which, though fanciful readers 
" in the pride of fagacity have given it a political inter* 
" pretation, was meant originally no more than it expref* 
fi fed* as it was di&ated only by the author's delight in 4 the 
" quiet of Mountown." 

. Nov. 25, 1708, the Earl of Wharton was appointed 
lord lieutenant. His fecretary, Mr. Addifon, imme- 
diately on his arrival in Ireland, was made keeper of the 
records; and Dr. King returned to London, where 
he almoft immediately gave the world thofe admirable 
mftances of the humour fo peculiarly his own, by pub- 
lifhing " Ufeful Tranfa&ions in Philofophy and other 
" forts of Learning [d]. The laft of thefe, containing - 
" A Voyage to the Iflarid of Cajamai in America," is one 
of the fevereft and merrieft fatires that ever was written 
in profe. 

He next employed himfelf in finifhing his " Art 
** of Love," with a preface, " containing the Life of 
** Ovid." The Doftor's virtuous difpoiition is no where 
more remarkably diftinguifhed than in this piece ; wherein 
both the fubjeft and the example fo naturally lead into 
fome lefs chafte images, fbmeloofer love which {lands 
in need of a remedy. It is divided into fourteen books, 
moft of them ending with fome remarkable fable and in- 
terefting novel. In J709, he alfo publifhed, " The Art 
" of Cookery, in imitation of Horace's Art of Poetry ; 
u with fome Letters to Dr. Lifter and others, occasioned 
44 principally by the Title of a Book publifhed by the 
** Doftor, being the Works of Apicius Ca?lius, concern- 
" ing the Soups and Sauces of the Ancients. With an ' 

[d] From January to Ai^guft, 1709, 

C 4 " Extr^a 

24 K I n a 

«* Ex trad of the greateft Curiofities contained in that 
** Book.'* Neither the Poem nor any of the Letters has 
a date ; nor has " The Art of Love," Whether we 
fliould impute this to our Author's indolence, or to affec-r 
tat ion (for he has treated fuch exa&nefs in his ** Dialogues 
** of the Dead" with fome comtempt), is . uncertain ; 
but he carried it to great excefs. Even'S^^Nfcir^.of 
44 Mifcellanies," which he collected himfelf, is without a 
date, either in the general title»page, or in that of any pai> 
ticulartraft. % ' 

•Aug- 3> J 7 I0 » appeared the firft number of " The 
*' Examiner, the abieit vindication of the «meafures of 
the Queen and her new Mmiftry [e]» .-. . 

Swift began with N° 13, and ended by writing part of 
N° 45 ; when Mrs. Manky took it up, and finilhed the 
firft volume : it was afterwards relumed by Mr. Oldifworth, 
who compleated four volumes more, and publifhed nine- 
teen numbers of a fixth volume, when the Queen's death, 
put an end to the work. The original inliitutors of that 
paper feem- to have employed Dr. King as their Pub-* 
lifher, or oftenfible Author, before they prevailed on their 
great Champion to undertake that talk. It is not clear 
which parts of the firft Ten numbers were Dr. King's ; 
but he appears pretty evidently the writer of N Q n» 
Oa. 12; N° 12, Oft, 19: andN°i3, Oa. 26 01; and 
this agrees with the account given by the publiiher 
of his Pofthumous Works, who fays, he undertook that 
paper about the 10th of O&ober. On the 26th of O&ober, 
no Examiner at all appeared; and the next number, which 
jvas publifhed Nov. 2, was written by Dr. Swift. Our 
Author's warm zeal for the Church carried him i>aturally 
on the fide of Sacheverell ; and he fyad a hand, in his dry 
farcaftic way, in many political eflays of that period. He 
publifhed, with this view, *♦ A friendly Letter from honeft 
*• Tom Boggy, to the Rev. Mr. Goddard, Canon of Wind-* 
44 for, occasioned by a Sermon preached at St. George's 
" Chapcl ? dedicated to her Grace the Ducheis of Marlbo- 

[e] " About a drscn of tbefe pa- " that I fliould continue it, which I 

f pe»s," Swift tt lis us, M written with f' did accordingly eight months. But, 

*• much fpirit and (harpnefs, fome by '* my ftyle being foep difcqvercd, and 

'* Secretary St. J«>hn, fiiue lord Bu- « having contracted a great number 

«' lingbioke; otruis by Dr. Auerbury, " of enemies, I let it fall into other 

** fiuc»*bi(hopof Rocheflrr ; and others 4t hands, who held >t up in fome man- 

*' again by Mr. Prior, Dr. Fieind, &c. ** nt'r imp) her majetfy's death." 

** were publiAied with great applaufr. [r] Whtn Barber collected the 

•' Bn thtfe gentlemen hiring grown Examiners into a volume, this num. 

'* weary of thr work, or otherwife bet v*as omitt'til. 
f employed, the determination was, 


• 6 


^ rough, iyio ; M and " A Second Letter to Air. Goddard; 
** occafioned by the late Panegyric given him by the Re- 
■•• view, Thurfday, July 13, 1710." Thefe were fuc- 
ceeded by «' A Vindication of the Rev. Dr. Henry Sa- 
** cheverell, from the falfe, fcandalous, and malicious 
4t Afperfions, call upon him in a late infamous Pamphlet, 
" intituled, * The Modern Fanatick:' Intended 
chiefly to expofe the Iniquity of the Fa&ion in general, 
without taking any confiderable Notice of their poor 
*' mad Tool Biffet in particular. In a Dialogue between 
" a Tory and a Whig [g]." This mafterly compofition 
had fcarcely appeared in the world, before it was followed 
by ** Mr. Biffet's Recantation; in a Letter to the Rev. 
'• Dr. Henry Sacheverell ;" a Angular banter on that en- 
thufiaftic madman ; whom our Author once more thought 
proper to lafh, in " An Anfwer to a Second fcandalous 
44 Book that Mr. Bifiet is now writing, to be pubjifhed 
44 as foon as poflible," Dr. White Kennet's celebrated 
Sermon on the death of the firft duke of Devonfhire, oc* 
cafibned, amongft many other publications, a jeu (Fefprit 
of Dr. King, under the title of " An Anfwer to Clemens 
" Aletfandrinus's Sermon, upon * Quis Dives falvetur V 
$t What Rich Man can be fayed?' Proving it eafy for a 
*• Camel to get through the Eye of a Needle." In 17x1, 
Dr. King very diligently employed his pen, in pub*, 
lifhing that very ufeful book for fchools, his " Hiftorical 
44 Account of the Heathen Gods and Heroes, neceflary 
** for the underftanding of the ancient Poets ;" a work 
ftill in great efteem, and of which there have been feveraj 
editions. About the fame time he tranflated 4f Political 
44 Confiderations upon Refined Politics, and the Mafterv 
44 ftrokes of State, as pra&ifed by the Ancients and Mo- 
44 derns, written by Gabriel Naude, and infcribed to the 
44 Cardinal Bagni-;" At the fame period alfo he employed 
himfelf on 44 Rufinus, or an Hiftorical Eflay on the Fa- 
*' vourite Miniftry under Theodofius and his Son Area- 
44 dius ; with a poem annexed, called 4 Rufinus, or the 
44 Favourite." Thefe were written early in 171 1, but not 
printed till the end of that year. They were levelled againft 
the Duke of Marlborough and his adherents ; and were 

[c] Dr. King was undoubtedly " Deifm, truly reprefen ted. and fet in. 

affiled in this fevere treatife by " a clear Light. In Two D alogoct 

Charles Lambe, M. A. and by Sache- " betwern a Sceptick and a Dei ft, 

vercll himfelf 5 and there is good rea— " 170S," 8vo; an admirable defence 

fon to believe that they were alfo both- of Natural anfi Revealed RelU 

jointly Authqrs «f " The Pfiociples of |i«c. 

•' ' '' ' ' '' ' ' T written 





*rcittfcn with iwich afperitjr. Towards the cfefe of 171 r, 
lu» fortunes begat* to re-affume a favpurable afpeft j and 
he was recommended by his firm friend Swift to an office 
*mder the government. " I have fettled Dr. King," fcy* 
that great Writer, " in the Gazette ; it wili be worth two 
" hundred pounds a year to him* To-morrow I am to 
*' carry him to dine with the Secretary." And in another 
letter, tie tells the archbiihop .of Dublin, M I have got 
* 4 poor Dr. King, who was fome time in Ireland, to bc~ ' 
" Gazetteer ; which will be worth two hundred and fifty 
** pounds per annum [h] to him, if he be diligent and * 
*' fbber, for which I am engaged. I mention ibis, be- 
>* caufe I think lie was under your grace's protection in 
"'Ireland.'* From what Swift tells the arehbiihop, and 
z hint which he has in another place dropt, it ftoutd 
fcem that our Author's finances were in fach a ftate as tp 
render the faiary of Gazetteer no contemptible objeft to 
him- ftC Patrick k gone/' fays Dr, Swift, ." to the burial 
"of an Irtfh footman, who was Dr. King's fervent*, he 
** diod of a confumption, a fit death for a poor ftarving 
" Wit*s footman!" The office, however, was beflowod 
on Dr. King in a manner the moft agreeable to his natu- 
ral temper ; as he bad not eyen the labour of foiicHing 
, for it. On the laft day of December, 171 1, Dr. Swift, 
-Dr* Freind, Mr. Prior, and fome other of Mr. Secretary 
'St. John's irjends, came to vifit him; and brought witli 
them the key of the Gazettcer's-ofice, and another 
. key for the u& of the paper-office, which had juft be- 
fore been made the receptacle of a curious colle&ion oF 
mummery, far different from the other contents of that in- 
valuable rcpoiitory [ i\ On the firft of January, our Author 
had tlie honour of dining with the Secretary; and of 
thanking him for his remembrance of him at a t^e vrhen 
. he had aknolt forgotten hifl&feif. He e.ifotered on his office 
the fame day ; but the extraordinary trouble he met with 
in difchargwag its du*ie£ proved greater than he could long 
endure. Mr. Barber, who printed the Gazette, obliged 
him to attend till three or four o'clock, on the mornings 
when that paper was publiflied, to correft the errors of 
the prefs; a confinement which his verfatility would ncv,er 

[n] It wii worth three buftcfoed Pope, Cardials, SjchevereNj&c.which 

pounds » yen* to his predeceflex, Mr. were intended to have been carried- in 

Steele ; .and was much more coafide- proceffton ^»n Queen Elizabeth's day, 

r»bly augmented in favour of Mr. bur ware feezed by order of tJie $ecre- 

Fqrd, who fucccede^ Pr, King. tary of State. See Swift's Journal to 

[ij The 6gurcs of the, &e 5«Ua, $pv, *7 aa4;J$, 1711. 




KING* 9% 

hkve brooked, if has health would have allowed it, which 
At this time began greatly to decline. And this, joined to 
his natural indifpofition to the fatigue of any kind of 
buimefs, furnifhcd a fufficilnt pretence for refignirtg his 
office about Midfcutimer 1712; as we find, on the firft of 
July, his fucceilbr thus pointed out : "" I have made Ford 
** gazetteer ; and got two hundred pounds a year fettled oa 
* 4 the employment by the fccretary of ftate, befides the 
** perquifites. Jt is the prettieft employment in England 
4C of its bignefs; yet the puppy does not feem fatisfied with 
it ! I think people keep fome follies to themfelves till 
they have occauon to produce them. He thinks it not 
genteel enough, and makes twenty difficulties. It is 
* l imporlibdc to make any man eafy. His falary is paid 
h4 him every week, if he pleafes, without taxes or abate- 
ment. He has little to do for it. He lias a pretty office, 
with coals, candles, paper, &c. ; can frank what letters 
he will ; and his perquisites, if he takes care, may be 
** worth one hundred pounds more." Such was the office 
which our Author thought proper to give up, through 
indolence rather than from any real grievance he felt in its 
execution. The late hours were a temporary inconve- 
nience, arifing from an infolvent aft having beeft at that 
time palled, which for a little while fweiled the Gazette 
enormoufly with advertifements. But this, the Doftor 
muft have forefeen, could not be of long duration. On 
quitting his employ, he retired to the houfe of a friend, 
in the garden-grounds between Lambeth and VauKhall , 
where he enjoyed himfelf principally in his library ; <fr, 
amidft feleft parties, m a fometimes too liberal indulgence 
of the bottle [k ] . He {till continued, however, to vifit liis 
friends in the metropolis, particularly his relation the earl 
of Clarendon, who refided in Somcrfet-houfe. 

" One of his amufements at Lambeth, where he relidecf, Dr. Jokar 
** was to mortify Dr. Tenifon, the archbifhop, by a fon * 
%t public feftivity, on the furrender of Dunkirk to Hill ; 
** an event with which Tenifon's political bigotry did not 
«' fvrffer him to be delighted. King was refoived to coun- 

[k] *Mr. Pope, in that remarkable Pitt, in his Epiftle to Mr. [fince Bo.] 

letter to lord Burlington, which de- Lowth, has put the fame idea int* 

feribes his journey with Lintot, puts verffc : 

iliis lingular chiraftcr of Dr. King «t »r was from the bottle, Xing derif'd 
into the mouth of the bookfeller: i% I c< n - is w ; t . 

w remember Dr. King could write ti DraDfc tiu bc ^ uW not f pC ak, and 
*' veries in a tavern, three hours « ^ cn nc wr jt t '»» 

•'after he could not fpaak." And 

3 u tcra & 

jtft -* , KIN O. 

*' tcraft his fullennefs,and at the expence of. a few barrels 
" of ale filled the neighbourhood with honeft merriment." 
We have two publications of Dr. King, in the courle 
of this year, betides his ** Rufinus" already mentioned. 
One was, " Britain's Palladium ; or Lord Bolingbroke's 
** Welcome from Prance." This was publifhed Sept. 13* 
1 712. The other piece was, 4t Ufeful Mifcellanies, 
" Parti. 1 7 12." He feems to have intended a contw 
nuatiori, if his life had been prolonged* As autumn acU 
vanced, the Doftor drooped infenfibly, and then neither 
cared to fee, or to be feen by, any one : and, winter 
drawing on, he fhut himfelf up entirely from his neareft 
friends ; and would, not fo much as fee his noble relation, 
till his lordfliip, hearing of his weak condition, fent his 
lifter to fetch him in a chair to a lodging he had provided 
for him oppofite Somerfet-haufe in the Strand, where, 
next day, about noon, being Chriftmas-day, 17 12, he 
yielded up his breath, with the patience and refignation of 
a Philofopher, and with the true devotion of a Chriftian 
Hero : but would not be perfuaded to go to reft the night 
before, or even to lie down, till he had made fuch a will 
as he thought was agreeable to the inclinations of Lord 
Clarendon. After his death, this noble ^ord took care 
of his funeral ; and had him decently interred in the North 
Cloyfters of Weftmirffter-abbey, where he lies next to his 
mafter Dr. Knipe [l , to whom he had a little before 
dedicated his " Hiftorical Account of the Heathen Gods.'* 
In 1732, his " Remains," with an Account of his Life 
and Writings, were publifhed. They were re T publifhe4 
in 1734, under the new title of •♦ Pofthumous Works," 
and with the addition of the Editor's name, " Jofeph 
Brown, M. D." who purchafed the original mahufcripU 
from Dr f King's fitter ; and again, with a title to the fame 
purport, in 1 739. They are incorporated in a complete edi- 
tion of Dr, King's " Original Works in Verfe and Profe, 
*' 1776," 3 vols. 8vo, in fuch places as were moftfuitable to 
the connexion of the refpeftive pieces. — The moft ftriking 
parts of our Author's chara&er ^re thefc ; In his morals, 
he was religions and ftri&ly virtuous. He was a man of 
eminent learning and lingular piety, ftriftly confeientious 
in all his dealings, and jealous for the caufe rather than 
the appearance of religion. His chief pleafure confifted in 
trifles ; and he was never happier than when he thought 
he was hid from the world : yet he loved company, pro- 

[ L ].$ec Dart's Weftriinfte*, vol. 1L p. 139. There is no mobsmen*, or 
£i aYe-fteRe, f his armory. 


K I tf G. z 9 

Tided they were fuch as tallied with his humour (for few 
-people pleafed him in converfation.) His difcourfe was 
-chearful, and his wit pleafant and entertaining. His phi- 
Iofbphy and good feme prevailed over his natural temper, 
which was fallen, morofe, and peevifh ; but he was of a 
timorous difpofition, and the leait ilight or negleft would 
throw him into a melancholy ftate of defpondency. He 
would fay a great many ill-natured. things, but never do 
one. He was made up of tendcrnefs and pity^ and tears 
would fall from him on the fmalleft occafion. 

He has defcribed himfelf in the following verfes, found 
in his pocket-book at his death, being then frefh written 
with a lead pencil : 

* ' I fing the various chances of the world, 
" Through which men are by fate or fortune hurl'd ; 
€< *Tis by no fcheme or method that I go, 
** But paint in verfe my notions as they flow ; 
** With heat the wanton images purfue ; 
€t Fond of the old, yet ftill creating new; 
. 4< Fancy myfelf in fome'fecure retreat ; 
** Refofve to be content, and fo be great !'* 

KING {Dr.Wi.LtiAM), archbifhop of Dublin, ivas L if eo f 
defcended of an ancient family, and born at Antrim in King, pre* 
Ireland, May the i ft, 1650. At twelve years of age, he** x ? d . lohli 
was fent to the grammar-fchool at Dungannon, in the W ork s ?o 
county of Tyrone; and, at feventeen, .to Trinity-college verfe an<i 
near Dublin, where he took the degrees in arts, as he be-Ki^h'^ 7 
came of .proper ftanding. In 1674, he was admitted into , 77 $. * 
prieft's orders by abp. Parker of Tuam ; who, taking him 

• for his chaplain* in 1676, prefented him the fame year to a 

• prebend, and afterwards to the precentorfhip, of Tuam. 

. In 1679, k e was promoted by his patron, then abp. of 

• Dublin,, to the chancellorship of St. Patrick, and to the 
. parifli of St Warburgh in "Dublin. He had the reputation 

of uncommon abilities and learning ; anck a feafon was: 
now approaching, wbidlj gave him a fair opportunity of 
. difplaymg them. Accordingly, \n the reign of James II, 
when Popery began to raife her head, he, following the 
example of his Englifh brethren, boldly entered the lifts ; 
and undertook the froteftant caufe in Ireland, againft 
. Peter Manby, tke,dean of Londonderry, who had lately 
. gone aver to the Catholic faith. In 1687, Manby having 
yubli&cd a pamphlet in vindication of his cdnduft, inti- 


go KING. 

toiled, " Confiderations which obliged km to embrace the 
44 Catholic religion," our author drew up ," Aja Anfwer," 
and printed it at Dublin the fame year in 4X0. Manby, 
.encouraged by^ the court, and aflifted by the jjioft learned 
champions of the church of Rome* .published a reply, 
called " A reformed cathechifm, &c ;" and our authpr 
foon after rejoined, in " A vindication, of .the anfwer tp 
**the confiderationB, 1688," 4*0. Manby dropped $he 
controversy, but difperfed a fheet of paper, artfully written, 
with this title, " A letter to a friend, mewing the vanity .of 
this opinion, that every man's feofe and jraajTon arp to 
guide him in matters of faith :" but our author did CfaQt 
fuffer this to pafs without confuting it, in " A' VindioajiQii 
•' of the Chriuian religion and Reformation, againftthe at- 
" tempts of a late letter, &c. 1688," 4to. 

" The deanery of St. Patricks becoming vacant at til is 
time, Dr. King was elefted to it ; and appeared fo a&ive in 
Supporting the Revolution, which had now taken place, 
that, after the landing of king James in Ireland in 1689, 
he was twice, confined in Dublin-caftte. He was attacked, 
not long after, in a weekly paper, called " The Abhor- 
*' rence," with an intent to render him more obnoxious ; * 
and was alfo. afiaulted in the ftreet, where a mufket with a 
lighted match was levelled at him. He was iikewife dif- 
turbed in the performance of divine fervke at his church 
feveral times, particularly on Candlemas-day ; when feven 
officers who were there fwore aloud, that they would cut 
his throat. All this did not difcourage him ; but he fttil 
perfifted, and took his doctor's degree this, fame year, 
1689. . Upon king James's retreat to France, after the 
battle of the Boyne in 1690, he preached a thankigiving fer- 
mon on that occafion in November; and, January follow- 
. ing, was promoted to the bifhoprk of Deny, la 1691, Jie 
pubKftied at London, in 4to, " The ftate of the Pko- 
V teftants m Ireland, under the late king James's govexn- 
u ment : in which their carriage towards him is jwftifisd, 
. M and the abfolute neceffity of their endeavouring to be 
" freed from his government, and of Submitting to their 
** prefent rnajefties, is demonftrated. ,, The third. edition, 
with additions, was printed at London, the year after, in 
8vo. JBurnet fpeaks of this book in the followmg terms : 
-.-.., : " This copious hiftory is fo well received, and fo univer- 
f , .. V fally, acknowledged to be as truly as it is finely written, 
* <,.- *{ tha&f refer my readers to the account of thole matters, 

" which is fully and faithfully given by *hat learned and 

** zealous 

*« i 


kin a, } f 


CUDCS, ▼•!• 

t* fcealous prelate*" It was attacked however tfcc ferae year Hli«y <rf 
\>j Mr. Charles Lefley ; who, with his ufual aeal, iays> k ~ """ 
*faat "there is not one fingle faft he has inquired into» 
^ but he has found it faHe in whole or in part, aggravated 
" or mifreprefented, fo as to alter the whole face of the 
«' ftory, and give it perfe&ly another air and turn ; ittfi>- 
iC much that,, though many things he fays were true, yet 
*' he has hardly fpoke a true word, that is, ttxld truly and 
" nakedly, without a warp." Though few, as we imagine, Anfwo* 
will form their judgment of King's book from this**" 10 * 
account of it by Lefley ; yet all may allow, that there is a 
kind of colouring peculiar to, and chara&eriftic of, each 
jsarty, and that the very fame fa£ts, when related by an " 
hiftorian of different political principles, fhall have a very 
different appearance, and alio make a very different im- 
prefRon upon a reader. 

The public tranquillity being flow perfe&ly rcft^rcd, 
the bifhop applied himfelf more particularly to the duties 
of his pauoral case ; and, reviewing the ftate of his dio- 
xsfe, prefendy difcovered, that, by the great number of 
-colonies lately traafported, from Scotland, many of his 
people were Diflenters from the eftablifhed church, which 
.they oppofed with as much zeal as the Papifts* As he 
.had therefore employed his pen againft the Papifts, when 
r danger was apprehended from them ; fo now he took it up 
againft the Prefbyterians* whom he endeavoured to per- 
fuade to conformity, in a piece intituled, " Adifcburfe coo- 
4i ceiming the inventions of men in the worfhip of <VodL 
" Dublin, 1694," 4to. But, inftead of perfuading tliem to 
a compliance, the attempt only ferved to engage him in a 
fecond controverly 'with thefe Diffenting adverfaries , 00c 
. of whofe mimfters, Mr. ( Jofeph Boyce, prefentiy pub- 
iUhed ** Remarks, &c>" 'm which, however, he allows, 
that the bifhop's difcourfe was written with an air of feii- 
. #uinefs and gravity, becoming the weight of the fuhjed, 
. as well as the dignity of his character. Upon this, the 
bilhop returned an anfwer, under tlie title of " An adnao- 
" nition *o the Diffenting inhabitants of the diocefe #f 
44 Dewy, concerning a book lately pubiifhed by Mr. J- B- 
44 intituled, Remarks, &c." 1 695, 4*0 : to which Mr. Boyce 
. replying, tliebifliop rejoined in " A fecond admonition to 
** the Diffenting inhabitants, &c." pubiifhed the fame 
year at Dublin, in 4*0 : and fo the controverfy tnicd^ 
having wrought as much effeft as coritroverfies ufually do. 

In y 

5 t KIN G. 

In 1702, he piiblifhed at Dublin, in 4*0, his celebrated 
.1 treatife " De origine mali ;" which was republifhed the 

fame year at London in 8*0 ; wherein our author makes it 
his bufidefs to fhew, how all the feveral kinds of evil, with 
Which the world abounds, are confiftent with the good* 
itefs of God, and may be accounted for without the fup-» 
pofition of an evil principle. We do not find that any 
exceptions were made to this work' at home ; but it fell 
• ' under the cognizance of fome very eminent foreigners. 
Mr. Bernard having given* an abridgment of it in his 
•* Nouvelles de la republique, des lettres" for May and 
June 1763, that abridgement fell into the hands of Mr. 
Bayle ; who, obferving his Manichean fyftcm to be iri 
danger therefrom, did riot ftay till he could fee and confult 
the book itfelf, but examined the hypothefis of our author, 
as it was reprefented in Bernard's extracts, and in a 
Btyle,IU- parage c * te< * ty the writers of the ** Afta eruditorum 
ponfeaux " Lipfiae," which had been omitted by Bernard. Bayle 
qucftions ^ as blamed for this by Bernard, Mid not without reafori, 
▼inciai r ° as ^ c had manifeftly miftaken the prelate's meaning if* 
tom. *• many particulars, and attacked him upon principles which 
he would have denied ; but the difpute did not end fo : 
Bayle afterwards replied to Bernard ; &nd, having pro- 
cured the bifhop's book, made feveral new bbfervations 
upon it, which were published in the 5th tome of hii 
Reponfe, &c. Leibnitz alfo Wrote " Remarks- ■' on this 
work,, which however he ftyles Ha work full of elegance 
•' and learning." Thefe remarks, which are! in French* 
were publifhed by Des Mai zeaux, -in the third volume of 
the •* Recueil de diverfes pieces fur la philofophie, &c. 
"par Meff. Leibnitz, Clarke, Newton, &c." at Amfter* 
dam, 1720, in three volumes nmo. In the mean time 
the bifhop, though he did not publicly and formally reply 
t& thefe writers, yet left a great number of manufcript 
tpers, in which he confidered their feveral objeftions to 
lis fyftem, and laboured to vindicate it from every the 
leaft cavil. _ Thefe papers were afterwards communicated 
to Mr. Edmund Law, M. A. fellow of Chrift's-college in 
Cambridge, who had translated the bifhop's book, arid 
Written notes upon it ; and who thereupon printed a fe- 
corid edition of his tranflation, in the notes to which he 
inferred the fubftance of thofc papers. The whole came 
out with this title, " An eflay on the origin of evil, by 
M Dr. William King, late lord archbifhop f of Dublin : 
♦* fcranilated from the L^tin, with notes, and a diflerta- 
2 . " tion 

KING. 33 

** liott cbncerning the principle and criterion of. virtue, and 
*■• the origin of the paffions. The fecond edition. Cor* 
" refted and enlarged from the author's manufcripts. To 
" which are added, two fermons by the fame author ; die 
•* former concerning Divine prefcience, the latter on the 
" Fall of man." Lond* 1732, in two volumes 8vo* A 
third edition was publiflied in 1739. 

The lame year alfo, that he publiflied his book " De 
*' origine mali," viz. 1702, he was tranflated to the arch- 
bifhopric of Dublin. He was appointed one of the lords 
juftkes of Ireland in 17 17, and held the fame office twice 
afterwards in 1721 and I72g. He, died at his palace in 
Dublin, May the 8th, 1729. Befides the works above* 
■frientioned, he publiflied feveraLoccafional fermons. That 
€i concerning Divine preference," which was printed by 
Mr. Law, was preached and published in 1709, with this 
title ; " Divine predeftination and fore-knowledge con- 
** fiftent with the freedom of man's will :*' and as' the 
bifhop, in this difcourfe, had ftarted a do&rine concerning 
the moral attributes of the Deity, as if different from the 
moral qualities of the fame name in man, he was attacked 
upon this head by writers of very unlike complexions : by 
Dr. John Edwards, in a piece called " The divkie pcrfec- 
•* tions vindicated, &c :" and by Anthony Collins, Efq : 
in a pamphlet, intituled, " A vindication of the divine 
*' attributes, &c„" both in 17 10. The archbifhop did 
not enter into a controverfy, yet endeavoured to remove 
all obje&ions to his general fcheme, with which this wag 
intimately conne&ed, in thofe papers; the fubftance of 
which, as we have obferved, was printed in Mr Law's 
xiotes, after his death*. 

KING (Peter), chancellor of England, and famous P 
fox his ecclefiaftical learning, as well as his knowledge iri 
the law, was born in 1669 at Exeter, Devonfhire. His 
father was an eminent grocer and falter in that cjity ; and, 
though a man of, confiderable fubftance, and defcended 
from a good family, was determined to bring up his fon to 
his own trade. With this view, he took him into his 
bufinefs; and kept him at his (bop-for fome years : how- 
ever, the fon's inclination being -ftrongly bent to learning, 
he took all opportunities of gratifying his paflion. He 
laid out all the money he could fpare in books, and 
devoted every moment of hi& leifure hours to ftudy ; fo 
that he became, in reality, an excellent fcholar, before 

Vox,. VIII. D the 

54 fclNA" 

the world fufpefted any thing of the matter. His acquain- 
tance with Mr. Locke, who wa& his uncle by his mother's, 
fide, and who left him half his library at his death, was of 
vaft advantage to him. That gentleman, after fome dif- 
courfe, being greatly furprifed and pleafed with the pro- 
digious advances his nephew had made in literature, ad- 
vifjd him to go and perfefl: himfelf at Leyden : and it is 
. faid to have been by his advice, that Mr. King afterwards 
entered himfelf a ftudent at the Inner Temple, and applied 
himfelf to the law ; in which profeffion his great parts 
v and indefatigable induftry, for he was remarkable for both, 

foon made him famous. 

In the mean time, he gave a proof of uncommon learn- 
ing, by publifhirig, when he was rio more than twenty- 
two years of age, the firft part of a work intituled, " An" 
** inquiry into the conftitution, difcipline, unity, and 
44 worfhip of the primitive church, that flourifhed within . 
*' the firft three hundred years after Chrift ? faithfully 
* f colTeflecf out of the extant writings of thofe ages," 
1691', 8vo, This W2s written with 2L view to promote 
the fcheme of a cdmprehenfion with tlie Difienters ? and! 
the Author has abundantly fhewn that fpirit of peace, unity, 
and moderation, which he recommends in a very power-* 
ful manner to' all the parties concerned. He afterwards 
, publifhed the fecond part of the " Enquiry into the con- 

" ftitution, &c.^ Having defired in his preface, with a 
true air of modefty, arid in a' very unaffedted way, to be , 
fhewn either publicly or privately any miftakes he might 
have made, that requeft was firft complied with by Mr. 
Edmund Elys ; between whom and our author there paffed 
feveral letters upon the fubjeft in 1 692, which were 
publifhed by Mr. Elys in 1694, 8V0. under the title of 
** Letters on feveral fubje&s." 

Mr. King had not been many years at the 4 Temple, 
when he had acquired as high a reputation for his know- 
ledge in law, as Lc had before forjiis knowledge in divinity; 
fo that in 1699, he obtained a leat in the houfe of com- 
mons, as tepreferitative for the borough, of Beer- Alfton in 
DevonfhLr :• : and the fame honour was continued to himy 
not onlv in the enfuing, which was the laft parliament of 
King William, but alfo in the five fucceeding parliaments ' 
of Queen Anne. In the mean time, as if loth to quit his 
old pursuits* the more beloved perhaps for having been 
1 the firft, he "completed fome collections he had aire idy 
■ made from ecclcfiailical antiquity,* and, having dig. fled 


KING; 3$ 

tiiem into proper order, and made alfo proper remarks upon 
them, hepublifhed them in 1702, 8vo, under the title of 
u The hiftory of tlie apoftles creed, # with critical obfervations 
*' on its feveral articles." This treatife is written with 
furprifing judgment and fearriing ; and Peter de Cofte, 
who»fent an abftraft of it in French to Bernard, to be pub- 
lifhed, as it accordingly was, in his Nouvelles de la repub- 
lique des lettres- for Nov. and Dec. 1702, has related a 
1 very remarkable particular concerning it. He tells us, 
that an Englifti 'prelate; diftinguilhed for his erudition; 
being perfiiaded it could hardly be any thing better than a 
wretched rhapfody out of feveral difcdurfes ori the fub- 
je& before printed, and efpecially Pearfon's " Expofiti&n 
"of the Creed," who feemed to have exhaufted that matter j 
took it lip, and began to read it with this difadvantageous 
prepofleffiori : but that he was quickly convinced of his 
miftake, and furprifed to find to many curious things, 
;> hot to be met with in Pearfon^ without perceiving any 
thing borrowed froni that writer's " Expofition." 

Henceforward our author found hirnferf under a neceffity 
of dropping all farther purfu its in this way. The great 
bufinefsj which his abilities,, as a^lawyeri brought into his 
hands, left hirri rk>' time to fpare ; arid in a few years his 
taerit in the law was diltinguifhed by the highelt honours. 
»• July 1 708, lie was chofen recorder of London ; and 
knighted by queen Anne, September following. In 1709, 
he was appointed one of the managers of the houfe of com- 
mons, at the trial of Sacheverell. Upon the adceflion of 
George I. he was appointed lord dhief juftice of the court 
of common-pleas* and foon after fworn of the privy- 
council. He was created a peer, May the 25th* 1725, by 
the title of ldrd King, baron of Ockham in. Surrey ; and 
the great feal, being taken from Lord- Macclesfield, was 
delivered to him -the fifft of June following. He is not 
fuppofed to have made that figure as chancellor, as was 
expe&ed froni the cMra&er that raifed him to it ; and it is 
faid, that more of his decrees were repealed by the houfe 
of lords* than of any other chancellors in the fame fpace ' 
of time. However, he took extraordinary pains in tlia 
thfeharge of his office, which, impairing his corlftitutidn 
by degrees* brought him at laft into a paralytic diforder ; 
and, his diftemper increafing, he refigned the feals ,the 
26th Nov. 1733, arid his life July the 2 2d following, ^ 

He died at his leat at Ockham, leaving behind him four 
fons and two daughters, to4 a widow* the daughter of 

t) i • , Richard 


Richard Scys, of Boverton, in Glamorganfhirc, *fljw 
The motto under his coat of arjns is, " Lzbor ipfe to*- 
" luptas," which has been thought to be chofco by bin* 
with great propriety, as being the chara&eriftie quality of 
his nature ; although* .as we hove, ohferved, he iiad very 
uncommon parts. 

KING (Dr. William), fpn» of the Rev. Jtyegrinr 
King, was born at Stepney, in Middlefex, in l£$5 •; w4 r 
after a fchool education at Saliftwry* was entered of B^crf 
College, Oxford, July 9, 170*. Proceeding pn the law 
line, he took his doflor's degree in 1715; was fecretary tp* 
the Duke o£ Ormond and the Earl of Arran, when chan- 
cellors of the univerfity ; ai>d was made principal of St^ 
Mary Hall in 1 7 1 8. When he was candidate for ,tfoe uai— 
verfity, in 1722, he refigned his office of fecretary; but 
his other preferment he enjoyed (and it was all he did en- 
joy) to the time of his deatlu Dr. Qlaxke, who oppofeifc 
him, carried his ele&ion; and, after this difappointment, 
in 1727, he went over to Ireland*. With what defiga he* 
went thither is to us unknown > but hi* enemies Ay, it 
was for the purpofes of intrigue, and to expofe hknfelf to- 
fale. But he fays himfelf, and there ^re no faela aitedgrf' 
Dr. King's to diforove it, " At no time of my life, either in Englsugd 
Apology, " or Ireland, either from the prcfen* or any former go- 
^ao. 410. « verament, have I afeed* or endeavoured by any means 
55# " to obtain, a place, penlion, or employment of any kind* 
" I could affign many reafons for my condu&; b\it pnc 
" anfwer I have always ready : I inherited a pftt^rkoony* 
" which I found fufficient to fppply all mv wants,* apd to 
*' leave me at liberty to purfue thole liberal ftudie$, yvjtt&h 
** afforded me the moft folid pleafures in my youth, and 
lb. p. si* " are the delight and enjoyment of my old age- Befides, 
" I always conceived a fecret hosror of aritate of fcrvility 
* " and dependence : and I never yet few a placeman or a 
" courtier, whether in an higher or lowet clafey whether 
*' a prieft or a lay-man, wbo was his own »after. ,r 
Letter to During his ftay in Ireland* he is faid to h*ve written an* 
Dr. King, epic poem* called " The Toaft [ a ]," bearing the name pf 
by C hU°Apo- Scheffer, a Laplander, as its author, and of Peregrine 
logy, Loud. O Donald, E% as its tranilator; which was a pojiticjat 

Svo. 1755. 

[a] It now fells for an extravagant the notes and obfenratiooa, in AlmoVfr 
price; and has been re-printed, but «* New Eouadliag Hofjpit,*! of Wit." 
without (one of it! principal beauties) 




KING. 3 > 


Sfafirt, artel wfcs printed atnd given away to friends, but 
*ievef firfd. ' 

Oil tfc* dedication of Radcliffe's library, 1749, he fpoke in svo. 
a Latin oration in the theatre at Oxford, which was re- 
-reived with the higheft acclamations by* fplendid audi- 
tory. Mr. Warton, in " The Triumphs of His," pays 
him a very great compliment on that* occafion, in the 
.following Unes ; 

$» on yon Sage "how all attentive ftand, 
To catch his darting eye and waving hand. 
Hark ! x he begins with all a Tully's art 
To pour the diflates of a Cato's heart. 
Skill'd to pronounce what nobleft thoughts infpire, 
fJe blends the fpeakef's with the patriot's fire. 
Bold to conceive, nor timorous to conceal, 
.What Ikitoos «dare to think, he dares to tell. 
*Tis bis alike the ear and eye to charm, 
To win Ttfith aftion, and with fenfe to warm. 
• "Untaiaght'in flowery diftion to difpenfe 
The lulling found of fwcet impertinence ; 
In frowns or fmiles, he gains an equal prize, 
Nor nteaslly fears to fall, nor creeps to rife : 
JJids happier days no Albion be reftor'd, 
Bids ancient juftice rear her radiant fword : 
^rom me, %s from my country, wins applaufe, 
Apd makes an Oxford's a Britannia's caufe. 

But this oration, which was foqn after printed, did not 
♦meet with fmch favourable reception from the public ; for 
he was attacked in,feveral pamphlets on account df it, in 
which he was charged with writing barbarous Latin, with 
ieing difaffe&ed to the 1 government, and that h? inftigated 
.the younger members of the «niverfity to fedition and 
Jicentioufnefs : very heavy accusations, if we may not 
candidly fup^ofe them dictated by the fpirit of malevolence • 
and party^eal. 

Again, in 17$$* when the memorable conteft happened 
in Oxfordlhire, his attachment to the old intei;eft drew on- 
. him the rcfentment of the new. He was libelled in news 
papers and in pamphlets, and charged with the following 
particulars, viz- that he was an Irilhman ; that he had 
received fubferiptions for books never publifhed to the 
amount of 1 500 1. of which fum he had defrauded his fub- 
fcribcrs ; that he had offered himfelf to faie both in 
England and Ireland, and was not found worth the pur- 
chafe ; that he was the Writer of " Tl>e London Evening 

I> 3 « Poft y " 

38 KING, 

u Poft ; M the author of a book in queen Anne's reign, in* 
tituled, " Political Confiderations, 1710/* in which 
there was falfe EngHlh ; and of a book then juft-publilhcd, 
called, " The Dreamer, I754," 8vo. At this timehepub- 
lifhed his " Apology" in 4*0, and plaufibly vindicated 
himfelf from the feveral matters charged on hirn, except, 
only the laft article, of his bejng author of " Tfce Dreamer ;*' 
and warmly retaliated on his adverfaries, 
^"b^T" Befides feveral curious works of hisf own[s], he publifhccj 
by Nichoi*, the five firft volumes of Dr. South's fermons, — He was 
p. 594- known and efteemed by the firft men of his time for wit 
and learning ; and muft be allowed to have been a polite 
fcholar, an excellent orator, and an elegant and eafy writer 
fc ..: both in Latin and Englrfh. The late Mr; Cole of Milton 

had often feen him at .St. Mary's church, Cambridge, 
when he ufed to be on a vifit to Mr. Mackenzie. He 
was a tall, lean, well-looking man. Mr. Cole was in-* 
^ formed that he lies, buried in Ealing church, as lord of the 

manor, or leflee of the great tithes. There is no monun 
ment or epitaph for him ; but the Doftor himfelf, not 
long before his death, which happened Dec. 30, 1763, 
drew up the following very curious one, in order to be en-? 
graved on a filver cafe, in which he dire&ed his heart 
iTiould be preferved, in fome convenient part of St. Mary 
H*1L , 

Epitaphlum Guiuelmi KlNQ, 
A fiipfo fcriptuty prldie nonas J *unii , 
Die natali Gcorgii HI. MDCCLXII. 

« Fui 
Guilielmus Kin e, LL. EL 
Ab ajino mdccxix. ad annum mdcc — . 
Hujus Aulae Praefe«5ius. 
Literis humanjoribus a puero deditus * 
# , Eas ufque ad fupremum vitae diem colui, 

r Neque vitiis carui, neque virtutibus ; 

. Imprudens et improvidus, comis et benevolus ; 

Saepe aequo iracundior, 
Haiid unquam ut effem implacabilis. 

« C?^f« n 5 th€re /f rCf I# M,hqnl rf Se eligendo; 8. Euloglum Jape! 
J>»olaad Polhonem (LordPolwarth) ; Elonenlis ; 9. Aviti Epiltola ad Peril- 
%. Sermo Pcdcftns ; 3 . Scamnom, Eclo- Urn, virginetn Scotam, &«. IO , " Or»- 
ga; 4. Templum L.bcrtat.s, in three << tiuncula hahita in dprao Convoca- 
1 «J' " ° ratlu, ; cu, ? e 5 6. Epi'f- «• tionis Oxon. cum Epiftola dedicato- 
ry » Ob,i,rga«>ri« : 7. Amonietti Do- «< ria, i 7 „ » He alfo was the author 
M. Corfcorym EpiAoJ* ad Co.icos de of <♦ Eoitaphiuoi Richardi Nafc.'* 


KIN G. * 39 

A luxuria pariter ac avaritia 

(Quam non tarn vitium 

Quam mentis infanitatem efle duxi) 

Prorfus abhorrens. 

Cives, Jiofpites, peregrinos 

Oi,nnmo liberaliter accepi, 

Ipfe et cibi parous, ct vini parciflimu$. 

£Jum magnis vixi, cum plebeiis,,cum omnibus, ■ v 

jjt homines nofcerem, ut me ipfum imprjmis : 

Neque, eheu, novil 
Perm\xltos habui amicos ; 
At verps, ftabiles, gratos, 
(Quae fortafle eft gentis culpa) • 

Plures habui inimicos ; 
Sed invidos, fed improbos, fed inhumanos. 
Quorum nullis tamen injuriis . 
Perinde commotus fui 
Quam deliquiis meis. 
Summam, quam adeptus fum, fene&utem 

Neque optavi, neque accufavL 
Vitae incommoda neque immoderate ferens, j 

Neque commodis nimium contentus* 
Mortem neque contempfi neque metui. 

i Deus optime, ' 

Qui hunc orbem et humanas res curas, 
Miferere animae noftrae !" 

Thsre is a ftrUting likenefs of Dr. King in Worlidge's 
[ - view of the installation of I-ord Weftmoreland as chan-* 
I xellor of Oxford in 1 761, 

j K I R C H E R (Ath anasitjs), a famous philofopher 

and mathematician, and withal a mbft learned man, was 
born at Fulde in Germany, 1601. He entered into theJJIceroT^c 
fociety of Jefuits, 161 8; and, after going through the Tom - xxvu# 
regular courfe of ftudies, during which he fhewed moft 
amazing parts and induftry, he taught phiiofophy,, ma- 
thematics, the Hebrew and Syriac languages, in the uni- 
verfity of Wirtfcburg, in Franconia. The war, which 
Guftayus Adolphus of Sweden made* in Germany, di- 
'^fturbing his repofe here, he retired into France, and fettled 
in the Jefuits college at Avignon, where he was in 1635. 
' He was afterwards called to Rome, to teach mathematics 
in the Roman coHege ; which he did fix years. Hefpent 
$Jxe remainder of his life in that city ; and, for fome jtime, 

D 4 profefled 

\ - 


profefled the Hebrew language. He died in 1680, after 

having published as many books as, one would think, 

might employ a good part of his life even to tranfcrjbe ; 

- for they confift of twenty »two volumes in folio, eleven in 

quarto, and three in oftavo. His works are rather curious 

than ufeful, oftimes favouring much of vifion and fancy ; 

^nd if they are not always accompanied with the greateft . 

exaftnefs and precifion, the reader, we prefume, will not 

be aftonifhed. His principal work is, M Oedipus jEgyp-* 

*' tiacus : hoc eft, univerfalis hieroglyphicae veterum doc- 

♦ r trinae temporum injuria abolitae, inftauratio. Romae, 

** 1652, &c." in four volumes, folio, Kircher was more 

than ordinarily addicted to the ftudy of hieroglyphical cha-* 

rafters; and, if he could not always find a true meaningibr 

them, he contrived the moft plaufible in his .power. As 

his rage for hieroglyphics was juftly eftcemed ridiculous, 

fome young fcholars, it is faid, had a mind to divert 

themfelves a little at his expence. With this view, they 

engraved fome unmeaning rantaftic characters, or figures, 

% ' • upon a fbapelefs piece of {tone, and had it buried in a 

place which was ihortjy to be dug up. Then they carried 

ft to Kircher, as a moft Angular curiofity in the antique 

way; who, quite in raptures, applied himfelf inftantly to 

explain the hieroglyphic, and made it, at length, the moft 

intelligible thing in the world. If this ftory was not 

true, there is no doubt but it pight have been ; and if 

Kircher had been made a dupe in the fcience of antique^, 

fo have ten thoufand befides him. The making of an*: 

tiques is a trade which Has been conftantly praftifed in all 

ages, and upon good foundation ; fince nothing is fo 

feparable as a fool and his money. Among Kircher's " 

other worjis are, f< Ars Magnelia;" «'* Lingua Egyptiaca 

" reftituta ;" " Obeljfcus Pamphilius ;" " Iter ext^ticum 

u coelefte ;" " Iter extaticum terreftre ;" '*'* Mundus fub- 

" terraneus, in quo unlverfa naturag majefUs & divi^ia* 

« demonftrantur ;" " Arcae Noe;" " Turris Babel ;'* 

" Organon mathernaticum ad diibiplinas mathematicas 

u fecili methodo addifcendas ;" '* Ars magna fciendi in 

" duodecim libros digefta." For this laft work he was 

Commended by the fanatic Kuhlman, Who was as great a 

viiionary in religious, as Kircher was in learned matters, 

jmd therefore ratliej* more ridiculous v ' " 4 

|dA^ HL " Thcrc was alfo Conr a d K T R C H E R ," a Protectant, 

' pf Augfburg> who diftingniihed himfelf by a Greek con- 

y.«' . •■ " . • • v co;dancc 

K I R C H E R. 41 

eordtnce of the Old Teftament> publifhed, in two volumes, 
at Frankfort, m ^607. This wprk is ufeful, and ferves 
for a Hebrew lexicon ; the author having put the Hebrew 
wprds on one fide, and the Greek of the Septuagint on the 
other; and having alfo cited thofe paifages where they 
differ from each other. The author has followed the 
Complutenfian edition of the Septuagint. 

KIRCHMAN (Johk), a ^earned German, was 
born, 1575, atLubeck, where his father was a merchant. < 

He ftudied in his native place till he was eighteen years Bayle'i 
of age ; and then went to Frankfort on the Oder, . where D * a * 
he continued four years, in a conftant attendance upon . 
leftures, and clofe application to his books. He afterwards 
ftudied in the univerfity of Jena, and then in that of 
Strafburg. He had a great mind to travel, but he was 
not rich enough to bear the expences of ir: however, not 
long after, a burgo-mafter of Luneburg, who had received 
a great character of him, chofe him to accompany his fon 
into France and Italy. He returned to Germany in 1602 ; 
and, flopping at Roftock, gave there fuch proofs of his 
learning, that the next year he was appointed profeflbr of 
poetry. The work which he publifhed in 1604, " De 
<* funeribus Romanorum," gained him the reputation of 
a very learned man. He afterwards publifhed another 
work, " De annulis," which .was alfo much efteemed, as 
it illuftrated antiquity very well in that particular. He 
married a wife the fame year that he commenced author, 
namely, in 1604; and the compofer of his funeral oration 
tells us, that he did it purely for the propagation of his 
fpecies ; for, " as he endeavoured to improve literature by 
44 the offspring of his mind, fo he defigned to increafe 
" mankind by the offtpring of his body." He did not 
mifs his aim, for he had a great many children. Being 
looked upon as no lefs careful, than fkilful in the education 
of youth, he had a great many fcholars fent to him from 
the other cities of Germany. The magiftrates of Lubeck, 
wanting a new principal or reftor for their college, defired 
him to take that office upon him ; and he was accordingly 
inftalled into it in 1613. He performed the funftions of 
it the remainder of his days with the utmoft application j 
though the decline of the college, which happened in his 
time, was falfely afcribed by fome to his negligence. He 
died, March 20, 1643 ; and, the 4th of May, his funeral 



4 « KiRCHMAN, 

oration was pronounced at Lubeck by James Stolterfhotj 
who. had married his eldeft daughter. 

The two works already mentioned are his principal per- 
formances ; yet he t was the author of other things ; of 
treatifes upon logic and rhetoric, and funeral orations. 
He publifhed alfo, in Latin, " The horofcope of the firft- 
* ' born fon of the rnoft illuftrious prince, Adolphus Frederic,* 
*? duke of Mecklenburg, 1624," * n quarto. He was a man 
of a good deal of luper&ition, and had a great deal more 
learning than parts. 

KIRSTENIUS (Peter), a profeflbr of phyfic at 
• Upfal, and phyfician extraordinary to Chriftina queen of 
Sweden, was born, Dec. 25, 1577, at Breflaw, in Silefia, 
where his father was a merchant. He loft his parents 
when he was very young, but his guardians took good 
care of his education ;• and, as they intended him for his 
father's profeffioh, had him well inftru&ed in arithmetic, 
and fuch other knowledge as might prepare him for it. 
But Kirftenius's turn did not lie this way ; he had a paf r 
lion for letters, which, as they did not think proper to 
controul, he was left to indulge at full length. He learned 
the Greek and Latin tongues, to which he alfo joined a 
little Hebrew and Syriac. As phyfic was his intended 
objeft, he cultivated natural philofophy, botany, and 
anatomy, with the greateft care, in his native place. 
Afterwards he went to vifit the uniyerfities of Leipfic, 
Wittemberg, and Jena ; ■ and having made a great pro r 
grefs, during four years, under the profeffors there, he 
took a journey into the Low-Countries, and into France. 
He had been told, that ? man cannot diftinguifh himfelf 
in the praftice of phyfic, unlefs he underftands Avicenna; 
and, knowing the tranflation of that phyfician's works to 
' be very bad, he had a ftrong inclination to learn Arabic. 
To this he was urged by Jofeph Scaliger and Ifaac Caufa- 
bon, who judged him proper to do great fervice to the re- 
' public of letters in that way ; and he refolved to read not 
only Avicenna, but alfo Mefue, Rhafis, Abenzoar, Abu- 
kafis, and Averroes. This paffion did not hinder him 
from gratifying the inclination he had to 'travel, in which 
he fpent feven years from home. He took a do£lor of 
phyfic' s degree at Bafil, in 1601 ; and then he vifited, 
Italy, Spain, England, and even Greece, and Alia. Soon 
after his return into S.ilcfia, he went to Jena, and married 
a wife there, by whom he had eight children. In 1610, 

a be 


he Was chofen, by the maghtrates of Breflaw, to have th« 
direftion of* their college and their fchools ; but he after-; 
wards reigned that difficult employment, being obliged to 
it by a fit of ficknefs, ai}d applied himfelf intirely to the 
ftudy of Arabic, and to the pra&ice of phyfic. He fuc^ 
ceeded greatly in his application to that language, and was Co 
. zealous to promote the knowledge of it, that he employed 
.all the money he could fpare in printing Arabic books. 
We are not told why heremoved into Pruffia ; but he had 
reafons to be well fatisfied with this removal ; for it gave 
him an opportunity of entering into the family of chan- 
. cellor Oxenftjern, whom he accompanied into Sweden ; 
.where, jn 1636, he was appointed, profeflbr of phyfic in 
. the uniyerfity of Upfal, and phyfici^ri to the queen. His 
.confutation, however, was much broken, and he did not 
enjoy thefe advantages above four years ; for he lived only 
till^the IJtfi of April, 1640. He was oqe of thofe few, 
who joined piety to the pra£Hcfc of phyfic. It is obferved 
in his epitaph, that fye underftood twenty-fix languages. 

He publifhed fey^ral works, for which divines are as 
much obliged to him, as thofe of his own faculty : as, 1. 
*' Grammatica Arabica, 1608," 2. <4 Tria fpecimina cha- 
44 ra&erum Arabicorum, &c. 1609," fol.' 3. " Decasfacr^ * 
44 Canticorum & Carmin'um Arabicorum ex aliquot MSS. 
44 cum Latina ad verbum interpretatione, 1609," 8vo. 4. 
44 Vitae quatuor evangeliftarum ex antiquiffimo codice MS* 
44 Arabico erutse, 1609," fol. 5. " Liber fecundus ca- 
44 nonis A y icennae, typis Araoicis ex JVJSS. edirus, & ad 
44 verbun> in Latjnum tranflatus", notifque textum concer- 
** nentibus illuftratus, i6iq," fol, 6 Liber de vero ufu &c 
. 44 & abufu medicinae, 16 10," §vo. 7, " Notae in evange- 
44 Hum S. Matthaei ex collatione textuum Arabicorum, Sy- 
•' riacorum, iEgyptiacorum, Graecorum, et Latinorum, 
44 i6u,"Jfol.. 8, " EpiftolaS. Jud* ex MS. Heidelber-r 
44 genfi Arabico ad verbum tranflata, &c. 161 1," fol. and 
a " Latinoration," delivered when he was inftalled reftor 
of the lege at Breflaw, in 16 10, 

___ *. 

KNELLER (Sir Godfrey), an eminent painter, was 
born at Lubeck, a city of Holftein in Denmark, about * 648. 
. His grandfather enjoyed an eftate near Hall, in Saxony, 
where he lived in .great efteem among feverai princes of 
Qermany ; his father was educated at the univerlity of 
J^eipfic j whence he removed into Sweden, being em- 


4* KNE-L L1R, 

ployed T>y* the* dowager of GuftilVtiS Adblphutf; after wfialfe 
death, he* married and fettled art Ltfbetk, 

His fon Godfrey was fenf to Leyden, after hating tteeft 
fbffieiently inftrufted in the Latin tongtae ; where he ap- 
plied himfeif to the mathematics, particularly to fortifica- 
tion, being at firft defigned for fome tftilhary employ- 
ment; but his genius leading him ftroftgly to drawing fi- 
gures after the hiftorical manner, he foon made great iitf- 

• provements in it, fo as to be sfflklf taker* notice etf and 
encouraged. From this city he was remtovedttf Amfterdart*, 
and placed tftider Remhrant : but, rtot contented with that 
gufto of painting, where exaft defign and traeproportioit were 
wanting, his father fent him into Italy at the age of feverr? 
teen. He ftudied 9t Rome «nder Carlo Marat and fief- 
nini, and began to acquire feme in hiftory-painting, hav- 
ing firft ftudied archite&ure and anatomy ; the latter aptly 
difpofing him to reliflt the antique ftatuea, and to* improve 
duly by them.- He then removed to Venice, inhere hafd 
great marks of civility from the Denati* Gartoiti, atfd 
many other noble families, for whom he drew fevertd his- 
tories, portraits, and family pidures, by which Mis faotc 
was confidently mcreafed m that city. This, however, 
could not detain him there : by the importunity of foftle 
friends, be was prevailed on to come into England, where 
his flrill and merit foon made him known. He drew the 
pifture of Charles II, by the recommendation of the duke 
of Monmouth, more than once; and his majcftywas fo 
taken with his flcill in dtfingit, that he ufed to come and ~ 
fit to him at his houfe in the piazza of Coveiit Garden* 
He was fent by this prince into France, to draw the French 
Jung's piftvf re, where he had the honour Kkewife of draw- 
ing moft of the royal family ; But this did not influence 
him to ftay long in that kingdom, although it happened 

. at the death of his great patron Charles II. 

At his return, he was well received by king jfames and 
' his queen, and conftantly employed by them, tmtil the Re- 
volution ; after which, he qontinued principal painter to 

* king William, who dignified him with the honour of 
knighthood. Neither the king nor queen ever fat to any 
other perfon : and it is very remarkable of this painter, that 
lie had the honour to draw tten crowned heads ; four kings 
of England, and three queens ; the caar of Mufcovy ; 
Charles III, king of Spain, afterwards emperor, when he 
was in England ; and the French king, Lewis XIV, &e- 
fides feveral ele&ors and princes. By this means, his re- 

fWtgtioa became fo umvesfel, that die emperor Leopold 
dignified Jb^ixxx *p 9 ftobleman aod knight of the holy Ro- 
man empire, 4>y fi patent, which he generoufly fent him 
by. wwt Wratiftw* jhi» ambaflador in England, in 1 700 ; 
and in which there is an acknowledgment made of the fer- 
vkes -of his spoceftors to the hpufe of Auftria. King WH- 
liam fent him to drajw the ek&or of Bavaria's pi&ure at 
Brufiels, and .prefem<?d him with a rich, gold chain and 
medal. Fiwi feeing and ftudymg many noble works of 
Rubens, he began to change his ftyle and manner of co- 
louring ; iig&acipg that great mailer, whom he judged to 
have come neaxesft to nature of any other. Moft of the 
jwbBfy 3$d gentry of England have had their pictures 
drawn by him : from which a great .number of ntez>zo* 
tiato prims and others ejagrawd have been made, which 
4p*ak : for him by the:high..efteem they are hi all over Eu- 
rope. Hia draught tsmoftexaft : no painter ever excelled 
him in * fo"? out -line .and graceful dilpofal of his figures, 
nor took a better reXcmblance of a face, which he fekfom 
failed to exprefs in the moft handfbme and agreeable turn 
of it ; ;ajyGr2)s$ adding to ka mien and gftee r iuitable to 
the character and peculiar to the peribn he reprefented. 
He always lived in great efteem and reputation, abound- . 
mg W jefs in wealth than fplendor, and in both far fur- 
pq5ii^ any of his predeceflbrs> He fpent the latter part of 
his hfe at Whitton, near Hampton-court ; where he built 
£ houfe after a complete manner, and furnifhed it in all 
lefpe^s accordingly. 

Befides £he honours already mentioned, Sir Godfrey 
Kneller was, o*t of the great regard paid to him by the 
WUTOE&y of Oxford, prefented by that learned body with 
the degre? 0/ doctor of the civil law. He was alfo ad- 
mitted gentleman of the privy-chamber to king William, 
to queen Anne, and to king Gsoige I. (who created him a 
baronet) ; and was honoured in feveral reigns with being a 
deputy-lieutenant of the county of Middlefex, and in the 
commiffion of the peace for that and other counties. He 
died Oclr. 27, 1723; and was buried, at Whitton; but a 
monument by Rylbrach was erefted for him in Weftmin- Anecdote* 
fter Abbey, with a flattering epitaph by Pope. Several «**«"*»€* 
curious inftances of his vanity areproducea by Mr. Walpole ; iuI^Vm. 
who very juftly aiks, " Can one wonder a nlan was vain, 
" who had been flattered by Dryden, Addifon, Prior, 
" Pope, and Sleek l" 


4& K N £ L L £ : R< 

His piftures, in public places, arc thefc which follow i 
% King William on a white horfe, at Hampton-court. 

The celebrated beauties of his. time, there alfe. 

The king of Spain, afterwards emperor, at Windfor. 

A Chinefe convert, there ; a whole length. 

The duke of Gloucefter, at the lower houfe, thfcre- 

King George x at Guildhall, London. 

Dr. Wallis, and his own picture, at Oxford. 

His own ftair-cafe at Whitton, moil part of it* drawn by 
himfelf, the reft by La Guerre. 

A family-piece for the duke of Buckirtgharii. 
' Queen Anne and the duke of Gloucefter. 

The Kitt-cat club, at, Mr. Tonfon's feat at Barn-Elms. 

Sir Ifaac Newtor^; and Lady Mary Wortley Montague. 

Asa proper concJufion to this account* we will fubjoin 
the following copy of verles, which were written by at 
friend and admirer of this celebrated painter: 

Kneller, whofe hand by power fupreme was taught 

To reach the higheft images of thought ; 

To imitate what gods themfelves had made, 
And paint their works in vafy'd light and ihade ; 
By art ev'n nature to preferve alive, 
And make, mortality itfelf furvive : 

. "Whofe hand from envious Time catch'd ev'ry graces 
Baulk'd his keen fcithe, and fav'd the matchlefs face ; 
The tree of life held out before the view, \ 

And beauty's paradife wherein it grew, - V 

With all its p leafing charrqs its lovelieft features drew. J 
Whofe fkill, not only to the looks confirt'd, 
UnveilM to fight the beauties of the mind : ' 

W hen now he had finifri'd all this world rould ihow,* 
Whate'er Was fair, or greats or good below ; 
\V hen now his day was done, Kneller is gone. 
His funis fetto rile in worlds unknown; 
Though gone to thofe, on earth his alhes lie* 
Glorious remains of what could onlv die i 
Whofe fame ne'er c<h*, --whole works fhall ever raife 
His own, the nobleft monument of prajfe. 

Anccaotet j£ N I G H T (Samuel D. D.), a native of London, 
ofBowyer, f vv j iere hj s fatlier was free of the Mercers company) re- 

Vf Nichols* s . , , , r i i ,_■ o -n i> r i \ \ 

*. gj. ceived the early part 01 the education at bt. Paul s lchool ; 
' and was thence admitted of Trinity-college, Cambridge; 
where having taken his degree of M. A. he became chap- 
lain to Edward earl of Orfofd, who prefented him to the 
reftory of Borough-green, in Cambridgemire* to which 


K,t* I G H T. 41 

■ i 

$c was inftituted Nov, 3, 1707. He afterwards was col? 
lated by Bp. Moore to a prebendal flail in the church of Ely, 
June 8, 1 7 14 ; and prefented by him to the reftory of Blunt- 
teiham in Huntihgdonfhire, June 22 following ; . was made 
chaplain to George II. in Feb. 1730-1 ; and promoted by 
Bp. Sherlock to the archdeaconry of Berks, .1735. He 
publifhed the lives, of Erafmus and Dean Colet, 1724, 
1 726, 8vo ; died Dec^ 16, 1 1646, in the 72^ year of his age ; 
and was buried in the chancel of Bluntefham churchy Mier© 
a neat monument of white marble is erefted to his me- 
mory, with an infcription written by h*s friend Mr. Gaftle # 
late dean of Hereford, who knew liim well, and has^iven 
him a charaflter, which all who remember Dr. Knight will B*nttiam*s 
readily allow to be a juft one : ' Hie juxta fitus eft Samuel Ely, p. 264. 
4 Knight, S. T, P. ecclefiae Elieniis praebendarius, com. 
. * Berkenfis Archidiaconus, et hujus ecclefiae re£tor : Rei 
1 Antiquariae cujufcumque generis cultor ftudiofus ; prae- 

* cipue vero famae virorum. ingenii, . virtutis et literarum - • 
4 laude maxims infignium, fautor eximius ; prout ea quae 

' fcripfit de viti rebufque geftis celeb. Erafmi et Coleti, 

* palan* teftatum faciunt. Concionando affiduus ; rebuf- 

* que gerendis fedulus, praefertim iis quibus aut amorem 
'. inter amicos, longinquitate diffitos, fovere, -aut publicum 
4 Ecclefiae commodum promovere, aut quamplurimis pror 

* defle potuerit: adeo ut pofteris jure commendetur* tan- 
4 quam humano generi amicus. Laborious, ftudiis, ne- 

* gotiis tandem confeftus, in hoc loco placidam invenit 

* quietem, beatam expe&ans refurre&ionem. Ob. Dec. 

* 10, 1746, aatat. 72. Hoc monumentum, reverentiae et 

* pietatis ergo, pofuit filius un-icus/ 

Dr. Knight was once poflefTed of a MS. " Life of Bifhop whifWs 
" Patrick," written in the Biihop's own hand, which he Memory 
lent to Mr. Whifton. And in a letter printed in the " Re- p " 295 * 
" liquiae Galea!!*," he mentions Mr. Strype's having re- 168. 
commended it to him to write a Life of Archbilhop Ban- 
croft. Mr. Nichols hasfeveral of his original letters to Dr. 
Zachary Grey. — Dr. Knight's fon now (-1784) lives in the 
parilh of* Milton, near Cambridge, being lord of the manor 
and re&or of the church,, as alfo Stan wick, in Northamp- 
tonihire, and of the finecure of Fulhain near London. 

KNOLL,ES (Richard) an Englifhman, who has' 
written a good hiitpry of the Turks, was born in No?- 
. thamptonfhire, and educated at Oxford, where he was ad- 
mitted about 1560 ; but we are not told of what college, Athen.- 
though it is faid he was, after taking- his degrees, chofen Qxoa. • 


4 8 

K N O L i E S, 

fellow of Lincoln -college. When he had continued thdte 
fbraetime, Sir Peter Manhood, of St. Stephen^ near Can- 
terbury, * minding to be a favourer of his ftudies/ fay* 
Wood, * called him from the univerfity, and preferred 
4 him to be matter of the free-fchool at Sandwich, in. 
4 Kent/ It was an odd way of favouring a iron's ftuxjies, 
to call him from an univerfity, and make him a fchool- 
mafter : but no matter ; he did much good in his profef- 
fion, and fent many well-grounded fcholars to the univtr- 
fities. He compofed " Grammatical Latins, Grcecae, &He- 
" braiaecompendium 9 cumradicibus.Lond«i6oo: ,> andfo 
far he a£ted properly, within his fphere, and in a manner one 
fhould have expefted ; but he did more : he projected 
great works, extremely foreign to the genius and cb&ra&er 
of a fchool-mafter : he wrote hiftory, and wrote it well 
too. His " Hiftoryof the Turks," which was firft printed 
in 1610, folio, and which he fpent twelve years in com- 
pofing, has immortalized his name. In the latter edition? 
of this took, for there have been feveral, it beareth this 
title: " i he general hiftoryof the Turks, from the .fidi 
•*' beginning of that nation, to the rifing of the Ottoman 
44 family," &c. Some have fuggefted, that KnoHes was 
not the fole author of this hiftory, becaufe there appear i*i 
it feveral tranflatiom from Arabic hiftories, which lan- 
guage fome have again affirmed him not to have been con- 
. verfant in : but this is mere furmife, and infufficient to 
deprive him of the leaft mite of that credit, which juftlv 
attends the work. It has been continued, fincc Knolles s 
death, by feveral hands. One continuation was made 
from the year 1628, to the end of 1637, collected out of 
the difpatches of Sir Peter Wyche, knt. ambafiador at 
Conftantjnople. But the beft continuation of the Turkifh 
hiftory is made by Paul Ricaut, Efq. conful of Smyrna, 
-from 1623 to 1677, printed at London, |68o f in folio. 
Ricaut began his "Hiftory of the Turkifh empire," from a 
period earlier than Knolles had left off: for he tells us, 
in his preface to the reader, that * the reign of Sultan 

* Amurat, being imperfe&ly wrote in Knolles's hiftory, 

* confiding, for the moft part, of abrupt colleftions, he 

* had thought fit, for the better completing the reign of 

* that fultan, and the whole body of our Turkilh hiftory, 

* to deliver all the particular tranfaftions thereof with his 

* own pen/ 

Knolles wrote alfo, " The lives and conquefts of the 

* Ottoman kings and emperors, to the year ibio" which 

4 was 


K N O L L E S. 49 

was not printed till after his death, in 162 J > to which 
time it was continued by another hand. And, laftly, he 
wrote M A brief difcourle of the greatnefs of the Turkiih 
" empire, and wherein the greateft ftrcngth thereof confiftr 
"eth, &c." He died at Sandwich in 1610, and left be- 
hind him the character of a judicious, learned, and Wor? 
thy man. 

KNOTT (Edward)., a Jefuit, whofe true name was v 
Matthias Willfon, and memorable for his having given 
occafion to Chilhngworth's famous book, called " The Rc T 
4< ligion of Proteftants," was born at Pegfworth near Morr 
peth in Northumberland, 1580. He was entered among 
the Jefuits in 1606, being already in priefts orders ; and 
is reprefentedinthe u Bibliotheca patrum focietatis Jefu," 
as a man of lowftature, but of great abilities : ' vir magnif 
* animi dotibus humili in corpore praeditus.' He taught . 

divinity a long time in the Englilh college at Rome, and fe * ,., "ft 
was a rigid obferver of that difcipline himfelf which h? of ChiMng- 
as rigidly cxafted from others. He was then appointed w<*t*»jp-44- 
fub-provincial of the province of England ; and, after he • 
had exercifed that employment out of die kingdom, he 
was fent thither to perform the functions of provincial. 
He was twice honoured with that employment, tie \vas 
prefent, as provincial, at the general aflembly of the bir- 
ders of the Jefuits, held at .Rome in 1646, and was ele&» 
ed one of the definitors. He died at London, January 4, 
Z&55 '69 &nd was buried in the church of St. JPancrafs, 
near that city. 

This Jefuit was the author of feveral works, in all which 
he has fhewn great acutenefs and learning. In 1630, he 
publiihed a little book, called " Charity miftaken ; with . 
" the want whereof Catholics are unjuftly charged, foir 
44 affirming, as they do with grief, that Proteftancy, un- 
" repented, deftroys falvation." This book was anfwered 
by Dr. Potter, provoft of Queen's-college, Oxford, in 
1633, by a piece intituled, " Want of charity juftly charged 
" on all fuch Romanifts, as dare without truth or mo*- 
" defty affirm, that Proteftancy deftroyeth Salvation.? 
The Jefuit replied, in 1634, under this title, " Mercy and 
"Truth; or, charity maintained by Catholics ;" which 
occafioned Chillingwprth to publifh the work above-men- 
tioned. The Jefuit, in the preface to his /* Mercy and 
" Truth," had fpoken contemptuoufly of the learning of 
the Englifh divines, as confifting only in * fome fupqrfici^l 

Vol. VUI. E « talent 

1 talent of preaching, languages, and elocution, ant( lifot 

* in any deep knowledge of philofophy, especially of 
•"metaphyiics, and much Iefs of that moft folid, pro-' 
*fitable, fubtile, and fuccinft method of fchool-dm- 
*nity/ * In this/ feys Chillingworth to him, * yoir 

* have difcoverei in- yourfeif the true genius- and fpirit of 

* detra&ion. For, taking advantage from that, whereii* 

* envy itfelf cannot deny but they are very eminent, and 

* which requires great fufficiency of fubftantial learning, 

* you difoarage them as infaffitient in all things elfe. As* 

* if, foriooth, becaufe they difpute not eternally, utrum ' 

* chimara tombinans in vacu* pojfit cotnecUrc fecundas inten- 

* tiories ? whether a million- of angels may not lit upon a 

* needle's point? becaufe they fill not their brain with no- 

* tions that fignify nothing, to the utter extermination of 

* all reafon and common fenfe, and fpend not an age in. 
€ weaving and unweaving fubtile cobvwebs, fitter to catch 

* flies than fouls ; therefore they have no deep knowledjge 

* in the acroamatical part of learning,* &c. 

Areftee to Mean while, Knott being informed that ChtlKngwortk 
ProtSintl was preparing an anlwer to hrs book againft Potter, could? 
not bear with patience, that the fame perfon, who was 
S« irt. oncc accounted a glorious accjuifition to their party, fhould 
Chiiibg* now become ar champion for the ^roteftants. This did* 
*o*th. f a ffe£l him, that he would not wait for the publication* 
6f the faid book, but attempted to prejudice the public* 
"both againft Chillingworth and his work, in a vile libel, 
Called, " A direftion to be obferved by N. Nv if he meat* 
" to proceed to anfwering the book irttituled r * Mercy and 
•Truth, or charity maintained by Catholics, &c.' 1636.'*' 
Nor did Knott'9 aftivity in this affair ftop here ; for, lurk- 
ing about Oxford, when he heard that ChillingworthV 
anfvver was printing, he found means to have the fheets 
as they were wrought off from the prefs. Abp. Laudy 
having information from Dr. Potter, fent a letter to Dr. 
Baylie, the vice chancellor, in which he tells him,, that 

* he cannot have too careful an eye, 'either over Pullirty 

* or the reft ; for certainly fome are about that place, to' 

* feduce as many as they can : and, particularly Dr. Potter 

* writes me word, that Knott is now an Oxford (I woufct 

* you could lay hold of him v ) and hath Ae' fheets* from* 

* the prefs, and as thtf are done ; that he pays five 
•fhiilings for every Iheet^ and that yoii are acquainted- 

.* with this rumour; I pray be very careful in this alfo,- 

r fori kn$w the Jefuits tfrc very- cunning at thefe tricks : 

'* * ■■ "* - * **lwt 



* but if you have no more bold of your printers, than 
-* that the pref& . muft lie thus open to their corruption, I 
4 ihall take a fouler courfe than perhaps is expedted. For 
f though perhaps they go fo cunningly to work, as that I 

* Hull not be able to make a legal proof of this foul n*i£- 
' demeanor; yet if \ find that Knott makes a more fpeedy 
' anfwer than is otfoerwjfe poflible without fuch feeing of the 

.* fleets, I lhall take thatfor proof enough, and proceed to taiuftRf 
4 difcotomiffion your printer, and fugprefs his prefs. And, "^ *• 
'■' I pray* fcit «ot to let him know fo much from me.' 
This letter is dated Groydonfc^Sept. 15, 1637. 

Knott, feeing that by all his arts he had not been able 
*o deter Chillingworth from publifhing his Anfwer, tried 
once more to prejudice the public againft it; and for 
that parpofe* in .1 638* the fame year that the Anfwer was 
pubdilhed, put outa pamphlet, intituled, " Chriftianitymain- 
" tamed : or, A difcovery of fundry do&rjnes tending to 
.-** the overthrow of the Chriftian religion % contained in 
*' the Anfwer to a book intituled Mercy and Truth, or 
" Charity maintained by Catholics." Here, we fee, he 
-charges Chillingworth with thc^overthrow of the Chriftian 
religion, becaxde he oppofed the principles of the Church 
of Rome; but, -after all, he fays no more here, than what 
be had affirmed in his former pamphlet, that ' the infal- 
Mible authority of the church of Rome being denied, no 
•* man can fee aCured, that any parcel of fcripture was 

* written by divine infpiration ; and that none can deny v 

* that infallible authority, ,but he muft abandon all infufed 
4 faith and true religion ".' which, as Chillingworth pb- 
ferves, amounts to this, that < all Christians, befides the 

4 Papifts, are ape$ fools, or concealed adieifts/ The truth I'll^i*.*" 
is, this pamphlet is but a paraphrafe of the firft : the fame 
. -accufations are brought over and over again, and little or 
no notice is taken of Chillingworth" s anfwers. Knott had 
xather applied himfelf to the little arts of diminifhing-Chii- 
lingwortns credit, than to hU proper bufinefs, which was 
a fclid confutation of his book : and, witli this view, he 
affirmed, that * fo many alterations had been made by the 

* cenfors in NfrvChillingworth's man,ufcript, that the book 

* was quite another thing, from whaj it was firft drawn up by 

* the author.' This he pretended to know from feeing the Chriftunitjr 
iheets as they tetae from the prefs. Wh# alterations were ^^ wnt- * 
made is not, ^as we know of, apy where faid. • CbilCng- 

4ffortb him&£mforaas us,, that 4 his book had palled the 
■ *.feiy trill: tf£,the £xa£t cQnfujes . b£ juany understanding 
*... * . E % " judges, " ' 


5* KNOTT. 


* Radges* wh6 were very careful to let nothitig flip contrary 
4 to truth and found orthodox doftririe;* bat very well ob- 
ferves^ that * therefore, whatfoever caufelefs jUaloufics may 
preface *c* ^ entertained' concerning his perfort, yet his book, in 
§.4. ' ** reafon and common equity, ought to be free from them;' 
As : for Knotty he was himfelf fenfible, that this pam- 
phlet of his could never be looked upori as a fatiaia&ory 
* * anfwer to Chillingworth's book ; and therefore he pro- 

mifes a larger work. * I would riot have the reaefcr con- 
"* ceive,' fays he, * that in this little volume I have touched 

• all this man's do&rines which tend to the overthrow of 
4 Chriftianity, but only fuch as were moft obvious. Nor 

•• is it" mypurpofe, at this time, exaftly to confute hfe 

* grounds, or anfwer his objections, which may be done 
' hereafter. My main bufinefs is to demonftrate, that, 

• under the name of Chriftian, he undermines Chriftianity, 

* and fettles Socianifm : which is the caufe, that moved 

* me to fet forth this fhort treatife for a prefent antidote, 
Preface to ' till a larger anfwer can be publilhed/ This larger anfwer 
maintltnT k° wever did not come out till 1652, when* it was printed 
top.* 1 "/. ' at Ghent, and called " Infidelity unmaflced ; or, ThcCon- 

" futation- of a book publifhed by William Chillingworth, 
" under this title, The Religion of Proteftants a fafe way 
"to falvation." It contained 949 pages in quarto, befides 
the preface and index ; fo that nothing at leaft was want- 
ing in point of bulk. Knott's anfwer coming o\it four- 
teen years after the publication of Chillingworth's book, 
; rand nine years after Chillingworth's death, it might have 
"been expe&ed, that his heat and animofity were over ; but 
nothing, it feems, could bring him to a better temper : 
and as, in his laft pamphlet, he had accufed Chillingworth 
of overthrowing (Jhriuianity, fo in this book he dire&ly 
charges him with infidelity. The learned Mr. Thomas 
«■ Smith, fellow of Chrift's-college in Cambridge, publifhed 
iri 1653, an Englifh tranflation of '* Daille's Apology for 
*' the Reformed churches, with the preface containing the 
" judgement of an university man concerning Mr. Knott's 
" laft book againft Mr, Chillingworth.' It may not be 
amifs to produce this judgment of Smith, as it wrH 
convey a very adequate idea of Knott's . performance* 
4 The chief book,' fays Smith, * that is now extolled by our 

• Romanifts, is one lately fet forth by Mr. Edward Knott, in- 

* tituled, " Infidelity unmaflced, or The confutation of Mr. 

• Chillingworth, &c." Wherewitli if any wavering Pro- 
. * teftaht chance to be fhaken in his belief (whereof though 

- * € the. 

KNOTT. " si 

4 the Romanifts generally boaft 'much, I feeno danger, 

* beeaufe I have, after much enquiry, not heard of two in 
4 England that have had the patience to read it over, 'tis fo 

* fall of'monftrous tenets and impertinencies) I fliall intreati 

* for his fetisfa&ion, to read likewife over Mr. Chillirig- 
« worth's book, againft which it was writ ; and he (hall 

* find Mr. ChiUingworth's a fufficient anfwcr to it, if he 

* pleafe to compare fc&ion tofe&ion,. from the beginning 

* to the end of each. For he will perceive that the mon 

* weighty arguments of Mr. Chillingworth are pafled by, as 
.'* the fick man in the highway was by the Jew, without 

* notice taken ; and the reft fo jejunely handled, and fo far 
4 from a complete anfwer, (though 'tis fufficicntly known, 

* that Mr. Knott, being in fuch-high pla<!e, and dividing 
'* part of the talk arnong many of his inferiors, ahd mat'- , 

* ing ufe of thofe three folio's writ -by Mr. G. H. againft 

* Mr.' Chillingworth, had all the human advantages thit 

* could be had) that methinks he iriay unchriften his book 

'a little more, and recall that tviyj*$n, The confutation j**"*** 
*oPMr. Chillingworth's "book, refer vihg only the reft, 

* Infidelity unmaiked : and that in relafioh to himfelf.' * 

Knott, befideS' the performances already mentioned, 
wrote " Monita utififfima pro patribus miflionis Angli- 
** canae," that is, " Moft ufeful advices for the fathers of 
" theEngliihmiiEon:" but this work was not printed, for 
political reafons, which are eafy enough to be conceived; 

.- KNOWLER (WiLtiAM,LL.D0baptifedMay9,f f n ^t, 
1690/, was the third fon of Gilbert Knowler,- gent, of by Nichols, 
? Hernd in Kent, and uncle to the prefent Gilbert Knowler, pp- 44*» 
' Efq. the laft of a family which Fhilipott mentions as being Hif,^ 1 ** 
fettled in that parifh in the reign of queen Elizabeth. Dr. Her»c, p. 
Knowler was educated at St. John'sr College, Cambridge ; ,0 5* 

- and was chaplain to the firft Marquis of Rockingham, who 
prefented him firft to the reftory of Irthlingborow, and af- 
terwards to' the tti6re valuable one of Boddington, both 
in Northamptonlhire- He was editor of " The £arl of 
Strafforde's Letters and Difpatches, 1 739," folio'; and in 
1766 had prepared for the prefs an Englifh tranflation of 
Chryfoftom's " Comment ion St. Paul's Epiftle to the' 
** Galatians ;" in the preface to which he introduces this 

- judicious obfcrvation on the Fathers : *' Some have thought 
"nothing too much to be (aid in their praife ; others have 

'■ " denied them a lhare of common ienfe. The prefent cry 
, ** is againft; them > and if it continue a fevy years, they inuft 

E3 "be 

S\ K NOW L E R. 

u be a prey to moths a&d Wortns, to th^e -great detfii»ef*t 
" of young ftudents. in divinity, no*t to fay to the ©ubfic 
' * in general. I think they have not had a fair trial. Their. 
<c works are locked up in the learqed lankgwges; many 
"pieces have been alcribed to 'then;, which, were they 
" alive, they would difown and be afhamed of* Hence 
" they arc fwoln %o an enormous bulk. Then comes aa 
f l enemy, and culls out of thefe fpuriqus pieces exception* 
" able paflages, produces them before a packed juryj tjiei 
* l laugh goes round, and they are condemned in thejlutnp. " 
, The tranflation he reprefents to be "a plain and lateral 
-'• one;" and acknowledges tha.t the beauty of Chryfoitem's 
original " mud fufFer greatly in the garb a country divine 
*' has given him, who has refided fix tod twenty jreatfi 
44 on his cure, ani feldom been abfent from his parifh/* 
He then prpceeds to give a good account of his author ; 
*nd alfo of Jeroni> who was contemporary with Chry- 
: foftom. ' - • \ 

KNOX (John) an eminent Scottish minifter, and"^ 
chief inftrument and promoter of the Reformatidn in his 
Country, was defcended of an ancient and honourable fa- 
mily, and born 1505 at Giffard, in the* cotinty of -Eaft 
Lothian, Scotland. After paifing through '* 'gramipar- 
fchool, he was fent to the oniverfity of St. Andrews, and 
placed under Mr. John- Major ; vvho, though a very acute 
Fchooiman, and deep in theology, was in time but-done 
by his pupil. ' Knox,, however, CKartrifiSng the works of 
Jerom and Auftm, began ttf difrelifh this fubtiliziog fife- 
thod, altered' his tafte, and *pphed : himfelf fo plain 3rtd 
iblid. divinity. At his ..entrance /upon this new courfe of 
. fludy, he attended the preaching of Thomas Guilliam, a 
black-friar, whofe fermons were 0f extraordinary fervicei 
to him : and Mr. George Wi$iar$ fo touch celebrated in 
the hiftoryof- this time, coniing from England in 1554,' 
wfth commiffioners from king Henr^ y HI ; Knox, be- 
ing of an inquifitive nature, learned from hini theprin-» 
ciples of the Reformation; with which he was fo well 
pleafed, that he renounced the Romifh Religion, and be-* 

. came a zealous Prbt;eftatit. < : He had taken his degrees long 
ago, and was in r -psrieits orders ; fo that his renouncing of 
Popery made him particularly obnoxious to the- clergy ; and 

. the bifhop of St. Andrews; profecuted Mm with fuch fe- 
verity; that be was, obliged to abfeond, and fly ■ from place 

, to place. Thi^raade him retold, to retire to Germany, 
-"•••; •? where 

«tf here the Reformation w*s gaining ground , knowing that, 
4ii England, though the pope's authority was fupprefled, 
yet the greater part df his do&rine remained in fall vigour. 
-He was however diverted from his purpofc, and prevailed 
*>nto return to St Andrew^, Jan. 1547 ; where he foon. 
after accepted a preacher's place, though forcly againft his 


He -now let openly, and in good earneft, about the bu- • 
-^iaefs of the Reformation. His iirft fermon was upofi 
Dan. vii. 23— 28 ; from which text he proved, to the fatif- 
'faftion of his auditors, that the Pope was Antichrift, and 
that the doctrine of the Romifh church was contrary to the 
doftrine of Chrift and his apoftles; and helikewife gave 
.the notes both of the true church, and of the antichriftian 
-church. Hence he was convened by his fuperiors ; he was 
,alfo engaged in'difputes ; but things went profperoufly on, 
.and Knox continued diligent in 'the difcharge of his mi- 
nifterial function, till Jury 1547, when the caftle of St. 
Andrew's, in which he was, was furrenderedto the French,; 
-and then. he was carried with the garrifoa into France. 
He remained a prifoner on board the galleys, fill the latter 
end of 1549* when, being fet at liberty, he paffed intp 
.England; and, going to London, was there licenfed, and 
'appointed preacher, firft at Berwick, and next at Newcaftle. 
^During this employ, 'he received a fumrnonj , in 155 1 , to arj- 
pearteforeCuthbertTonftall bifhop of Durham, forpreach- 
ing againft the mafs. In 155a, he was appointed chaplain 
yo Edward .VI ; it being thought fit, as Mr. Strype relates, 
-that thjb kjng ihould retain fix chaplains 'in ordinary, who 
ihoulii not only wait on him, but be itineraries, and preach 
the gctfpel all. the nation over. The' feme year 4ie came Hiftory, 
into feme trouble, on account of a bold fermon preached book iy. 
upon Chrrftrrias-day, at Newcaftle, agairift the obftinacy of p * ***" 
the Papift$. ,In 1552-3, he returned to London, and was 
Appointed to preach before the king and council at Weft- 
'minfter; who put Cranmer abp. of Canterbury upon giv- 
ing him the living of AHhaUpws in London, which was 
[accordingly offered him ; .but he rcfufed it, not caring to 
conform to the Englifli liturgy, as it then flood. Some 
Hay, that king Edward would Jhave ^promoted him to a 
ibifhopric ; tut that he even fell into a paffifm when it was 
offered him, &nd rejected £t ^s favouring too much of An- 

JSe continued however his place of itinerary-preacher till 
ji^j-4, when crueea Mary came to the throne ; but then, 
./•"'.■■' E^, ' • leaving- 


leaving England, he orofied over to Dieppe in France, and 
Vent thence to Geneva. He had not been long there, when. 

• "he was called by the congregation of Englifh refugees, then 
cftablifhed at Franckfort, to be preacher to them ; which 
vocation he obeyed, though unwillingly, at the command 
of John Calvin. He left Frankfort in 1755 ; and, after a 
few months flay at Geneva, refolved to vifit his native 
country, and went to Scotland. Upon his arrival there, 
he found the profeflbrs of the Reformed religion much in- 
creafed in number, and formed into a fociety under the in- 
fpeftion of fome teachers ; and he affociated with them, 
and preached to them. He converted familiarly with fe veral 
noble perfonages, and confirmed them in the truth of the 
Proteftant doctrine. In the winter of i$SS* ^ ^^ght for 
the moft part in Edinburgh. About Chriftmas he went 
to the welt of Scotland, at the defire of fome Proteftant; 
gentlemen ; but returned to the eaft foon after. The Po- 
piih clergy, being greatly alarmed at the fuccefs of Knox* 
in promoting the Proteftant caufe, fummoned him to ap- 
pear before them at Edinburgh, May 15, 1556; but, fbvend 
noblemen and gentlemen of diftinftion fupporting him, 
the profecution was dropped. This very month he was 
adviled to write to the queen regent an earneft letteri to 
' perfuade her, if poffible, to bear the Proteftant do&rine ; 
which, when the queen had read, fhe gave to James Bea- 

* ton, abp. of Glafcow, with this farcafm : " Pleafe you, my 

J -" lord, to read a pafquih" 

While our Reformer was thus occupied in Scotland, he 

' received letters from the Englifh congregation at Geneva* 
earneftly intreating him to come thither ; accordingly, July 
1556, he left Scotland,, went firft to Dieppe in France, and 
thence to Geneva. He had no fooner turned his back, 
than the bifhops fummoned him to appear before them ; 
and, upon his non-appearance, pafled a fentence of death 
upon him for herefy, and burnt him in effigy at the Crofs 

~ in Edinburgh. Agairift this fentence, he drew up, and 
afterwards ' printed at Geneva, in 1^58, " An appellation 

<; *' from the Cruel and unjuft fentence pronounced againft 

: " him by the falfe bifhops and clergy of Scotland, &c." 
He had a call to Scotland in 1556-7, and it was Calvin's 

' judgment' that he fhould obey it; upon which, he pro- 

' ceeded in 1 his \fray thither as fat as to Dieppe, and there 

.. received letters to ftop his progrefs. . It teems there was 
much ihconftancy among the Proteftants in Scotland; at 

; which Knox, being offended,* fenttliem letters of admo- 

KNOX. 57 

nation, and then returned to Geneva. There, in 1558, 
he printed his treatife intituled " The firft blaft of the trum- 
*' pet againft {he monftrous regiment of women." His 
chief motives to write this, were 1 the cruel and bloody go- 
vernment of queen Mary of England, and the endeavours 
of Mary of Lorrain, queen regent pf Scotland, to break 
through the laws, and introduce tyrannical government. 
He defigned to have written a fubfequent piece, which 
was to have been called " The fecond blaft :" but queen 
Mary dying, and he having a great opinion of queen Eliz- 
abeth, and great expe&ations to the Proteftant caufe from 
her, went no farther. » 

April 1559, he determined to return to his native coun- 
try, and would have vifited England in his way, but queen, 
Elizabeth's minifters would not fufFer him. He arrived at 
Scotland in May, and applied himfelf with great aftivity 
to promote the Reformation there. In order to have the 
Reformed doftrine preached throughout the kingdom, a 
divifion was made thereof into twelve diftritts ; and the dif- 
trift of Edinburgh was affigned to Knox. Thefe twelve 
minifters, one afligned to each diftrrift, compofed a con- 
feffion of faith, which was afterwards ratified by parlia- 
ment : they alfo compiled the firft books of difcipline for 
that church. Auguft 1561, the queen arrived frorri France, 
and immediately fet up a private mafs in her own chapel ; 
which afterwards, by her protection and countenance, 
was much frequented. This excited the zeal of Knox, 
who exprefled great warmth againft allowing it: and* 
an ad of the privy-council being proclaimed at Edin- 
burgh the 25th of that month, forbidding any diftur- 
bance to be given to this praftice, under pain of dead}, 
Knox openly, in his fermon the Sunday following, de- 
clared, that " one mafs was more frightful to him, than ten 
" thoufand armed enemies, landed in. any part of the realm,.*' 
This freedom gave great offence to the court, and the queen 
herfelf had a long conference with him upon that and other 
fubje&s. In 1563, he preached a fermon, in which he ex- 
prefled his abhorrence of the queen's marrying a Papift ; 
and her majefty, fending for him, exprefled much paftion, 
and thought to have punilhed him ; but was prevailed on to 
defift at that time. The enfuing year, lord Darnley, being 
married to the queen, was advifed by the Protcftants about 
the court to hear Mr. Knox preach, as thinking it would 
contribute much to procure the good-will of the people : he 
accordingly did fo ; but was fo much offended at his fer- 

k? KNOX. 

j^on, that he complained to the council, who filenced'Kmwc 
for fomc time. His tcxtwps lfaiah xxiv. 13 and 17 : "O 
** Lord, our Go<$, other lords than Thou have reigned 
" over us*" From thefe -words he took occafion to fpeak 
•of the government of wicked princes, who, -for the fins of 
the people, are fent as tyrants and fcourges to plague them ; 
iiid, among other things, he laid, that " God fets over 
V tliem, for their offences and ingratitude, boys and women." 
I11 1567* Knox preached a fermon at the pronation of 
^ames VI. of Scotland, and afterward* the lit of Great- 
Britain ; and alfo another at the opening of the parliament. 
He went vigoroufly on with the work of ReforDpiatioo ; but* 
in 1572, was infinitely offended with a convention ofmi- 
nifters at Leith, where it was agreed, that a certajr* kind of 
Vjpifcopacy fhould be introduced into the church. At thk 
time his conftitution was quite broken ; and what feems t<o 
haverfven hirnthe finifhing ftroke, was the dreadful news 
tuf t^e ijmafiacre of the Proteftants at Paris afyaut this time. 
He had ftrength enough to preach againft it, which he de- 
fircd the French arabaffador 1. light be .acquainted with; but 
3*eiell fick.foon after, -and died Nov. £4, 1572, after haying 
fpent feyeral days in the utmoft devation. He was interred 
at Edinburgh, feveral lords atfeading, and particularly the 
'earl of Morton, that <fay chofeu regent: who, as Toon. ,$s 
he was laid in his grave, faid, " There Kes a man, who in 
** his life never feared the face of a man, who hath been 
*' ofte'R. threatened with dag and dagger, but yet hath enck4 

* *' his days m =peace and honour. For he -had GocFs provi- 
* 4 dence watching over him, in a fpecial jnannejr, when hfs 
Ac very life was fought.*' , 

As to his chara&er, he was, 'Eke Luflier, <meiof thofe ex- 
traordinary perfons, of whom few, if any, are ohferved tfr 
fpeak* with fuftcicnt temper. All t^at w r e r find of him, in 
, I this wiy 7 is either evtravagant encomium or fenfelefs in- 
veftiVe ;. and, therefore it can be no entertainment -to con- 
cern ourielycs with either. As to his family, he was twice 
married, and -had children by both his wives : two fons by 
thefirft, who 'Were educated at St. JohnVcollege in Cam- 

• fridge, and choi en fellows of the fame. He requefte^l the 
'general affembly.* \vhicfr' met at Edinburgh in 1566* for ' 

leave to vifit thefe fons inErxgUiKl ; but tfcey were only at 
fchool then, bejhg fent t^'thf un u-erjfcy after hisdeath. 
A« to his writings, they were neither -numerous nor large: 
' I. " A faithful admonition to the poflTeffors of the gofpeJ 
** of Chrifi. within the kingdom of Errand, 1554," 2, " A 

KNOX. 5$ 

f* lettertoqijeen Mary, r^gentof Scotland* J5$6-" 3. "Th^ 
** appellation of John Knox, &c," mentioned above, 1558^ 
4. " The firfi blaft, &c." mentioned above, 1558. 5. " A 
V brief exhortation to England, for the fpcedy embracing 
}* of Chrift's golpel, heretofore, by the tyranny of Mary, 
** fupprefled and baniftxed, 1559." After his death, came 
put, 6: " His i^iilbry of the reformation of religion" within 
"the realm of Scotland,". &c. at the end *>f the fourth 
edition of which, at Edinburgh, 1732, in folio, are fub- 
joined all the jforementioned works. . He publilhed alfo a 
Jew pieces in thie contrpverfial w^y, againft .the Anabap- 
tifts, as well as Papifb j and alfo Jbi$ fermon before lord 
l)arnley. ' [. 

* * 

K N U Z E N (Matthias), a celebrated Atheift, born Bavie't 
in the country of Holfteita. He carried his madneis to fuch Dl $* 
a height, that lie publickly maintained Atheifm, and un- 
dertook long journies on purpofe to make profclytes. He 
was a turbulent man, and had firft broached his impious 
notions at Koningfberg, in Pruffia, about 1 6.7 3. He boaft- 
id, that he hid a great many followers in the chief cities 
bfJELuirope; at Paris, at Amfterdam, atLeyden, inEag-' 
had, ^t Hamburgh, at Copenhagen, at Stockholm, at 
Rome j .and that he had evenfeVen hundred at Jena. His 
followers wer$ called Confcientiajies ; becaufe tney afferted, 
that there is no other God, .no other religion, no other 
- lawful magiftraicy, but conscience. He .gave the fubftance 
bf;his fyftem in a fhort letter, dated from Rome.; the con- 
tents of which may be reduced to the, following heads : 
*' Firft,' there is neither a God«nor a -devil; fecondly, ma- 
* c giftmtes are not to be valued, churches are to be defpifed, 
** and priefts rejefted ; thirdly, inftead of magiftrates ajid 
V prje^ls, we' have learning and reafon, Which, joined 
*' with conscience, teach us td live hoheftiy, to hurt tio 
" man, arid to give every one his due ; fourthly, matri- 
" mony does hot differ from fornication.; fifthly, there is 
*' hut one life, which is this, after which there art neither 
*' rewards nor puniihm&nts ; fifthly, the holy fctipture is 
" iaconlifteht with itfe^.' ■ . The letter may be^bundin thfc 
fcditioaof " M&wliifyntagmahifto 1699." 

*Knuzen difperfed alfo fome writings -in the German tongue* 
But all the above was refuted, in the fata* language, by a 
jAtthferati profeflbrjftamea John Muf«us|- who undertook 
that work, in order to remove the fufpicioxu that might be . 
*a*ertamcd to the jgrej^udice of the uni verfity *f Jena. 
*i- i--. , ..-. . . •■ ; ....•*■-. b . •' .■ The 


fe knuzen: 

The impertinences of this German (if we take his own 
account) fhew us, that the notions of natural religion, 
the ideas of honeJium y the impreffions of reafon,. and 
even the inward light of confidence, may continue in the 
mind of a man, even after the notion of the being of God, 
and the belief of another world, are entirely rooted out. 

r/? f S? ^ ^ M P F E R (Engelbert), an eminent German, 
Scheuchzer was bom Sept. 16, 1651, atLemgow in Weftphklia, where 
hi*utnfla- his father was a minifter. After ftudying in fcveral towns, 
tor ;. pr jJ. Jcci and making a quick progrefs, not only in the learned 
Joryof ja- languages, but alfo in hiftory, geography, and, mufic 
>«o, Lond. vocal and instrumental, he went to Dantzick ; where he 
17*8, fol. made fome ftay, and gave the firft public fpecimen of his 
* % proficiency, by a diflertation " de divifione majeftatis," 
in 1673: He then went to Thorn, and thence to the 
univerfity of Cracow ; where; for three years,, ftudying 
philofophy and foreign languages, he took the degree of 
do&or in philofophy ; and then went to Konihgfberg, in 
Pruffia, where he ftayed four years. All this while he 
applied hhnfelf very intenfely to phyfic and natural hiftory. 
He nexttravelled to Sweden, where he foon recommended 
himfelf to 'the univerfity of Upfal, and to the court of 
Charles Xt, a great encourager of learning; infomuch 
that great oilers were made him, upon condition that he 
would fettle there. But he chofe to accept the employ- 
ment of fecretary of the embafly, which the court af 
Sweden was then fending to the fophi of Perfia ; and in 
this capacity, he fet out from Stockholm, March ao, 
1683. He went through , Aaland, Finland, and Inger- 
manland, to Narva, where he met Fabricius the am- 
. baffador, with whom he arrived at Mofcow the 7th of 
July. The negotiations at the Ruffian court being ended, 
they proceeded on to Perfia; but had like to have been 
loft iji their paflage over the Cafpian fea, by an unexpefted 
ftorm and the unfkilfulnefs of their pilots. During their 
ftay in Georgia, Kcempfer went- into fearch of fimples, 
and of all the curiofities that could be met with in tliofe 
, parts. He vifited all the neighbourhood of Siamaclii ; 
and to thefe laborious and learned excurfions we owe the 
• many curious and accurate accounts he has- given us in 
. his " Ameenkates exoticaeJ" . . 

Fabricius "arrived at Ifpahrfn in Jan. 1684, and ftayed 

there near twt> years ; during all which time of his abode, 

in the capital of the Perfian^mj4rc t Kcempfer -made evfcy 

7 poffible 

K (E M P F E IL 

poffibk advantage. The arabaflador, having ended his 
negotiations towards the dofe of i68$, prepared to return 
into Europe ; but Koempfer did not judge it expedient to 
return . with him, revolving to go further into the Eaft, 
and make ftill greater acquifitions by travelling. With 
this view, he entered into the fervice of the Dutch Eaft- 
India company, in the quality of chief furgeon to the fleet, 
which was then cruiiing in the Perfian gulph, but fet out 
for Gamron Nov. 1685. He flayed fome time in Sijras, 
where he viiited the remains of the ancient Perfepolis, and 
the royal palace of Darius, whofe fcattered ruins are ftill 
an undeniable monument of its former fplendor and great- 
nefs. As foon as he arrived at Gamron, he was feized 
with isl violent fit of ficknefs, which was near carrying 
him off; but, happily recovering, he fpent a fummer in 
the neighbourhood of it, and made a great number of 
curious obfervations. He did not leave that city till June 
1688, and then embarked for Batavia; whither, after 
touching at many Dutch fettlements, in Arabia Felix, on 
the coafts of Malabar, in the ifland Ceylon, and in the 
gulph of Bengal, he arrived in September. This city 
having been fo particularly defcribed by other writers, he 
turned his thoughts chiefly to the natural hiftory of the - 
country about it. He poflefled many qualifications necef- 
fary for making a good botanift : he had a competent 
knowledge of it already, a body inured to hardfhips, a 
great flock of induftry, and an excellent hand at defigning. 
May 1690, he fet out from Batavia on his voyage to Japan, 
in quality of phyiician to the embafly, which the Dutch 
Eaft India company fends once a year to the Japanefe 
emperor's court , and he fpent two years in this country, 
njaking, all the while, moft diligent refearches into every 
thing relating to it. He quitted Japan, in order to return 
to Europe, Nov. 1692, and Batavia Feb. 1693. He 
ftayed near a month at the Cape of Good-Hope, and arrived 
at Amfterdam in Oftober. 

April 1694, he took a doctor of phyfic's degree at Ley- 
den, on which occafion he communicated, in his thefes, 
fome very lingular obfervations, which he had made abroad. 
•At his return to his native country, he intended immed^ 
attly to digeft his papers and memoirs into proper prdcr; 
but, being appointed phyfician to his prince, he fell into 
•too much practice to purfue that defign with the vigour he 
defired. He married the daughter of an eminent merchant 
%t Stolzenau, in 1700. The long courfe of travels, the 

• Ai fittgu* 


fatigue of his profeffion, and feme femily-uneafineffe, 
arifang (as it is fakl) from the debts he had contracted; 
had very much impaired his cortftitution ; fo that, after 
a variety of ailments, he died Nov. 2, 1 7 1 6. His " Hiftory 
*' of Japan" is in great efteem. 

It O N I G (George Matthi as), a learned German, 
was born at Altorf in Franconia, 1016; and afterwards 
became profcflbr of poetry and of the Greek tongue, and 
library-keeper, in the umverfity there. He fucceded hid 
father in this laft office. He was well verfed in the belles 
lettres, in divinity, and in the oriental languages. He 
was extremely deaf fome years before he died ; fo that he 
was a good deai hindered in the difcharge of his academi- 
cal functions. He died Dec. 29, 1699, aged S3 yeafs ; 
having furvived a wife, whom he married in 1648, and 
four children. He gave feveral public fpecimens of hi« 
learning, but is principally known for a work, inritled, 
4< Bibliotheca vetus et nova," printed at Altorf, 1678, 4*0. 
This is a bigrophical dictionary, which, though it abounds 
with defects, and has been feverely cenfured by fome, is 
neverthelefs very ufeful ; to biographers particularly, who 
, , ought therefore, if only out of gratitude, to give its au- 
thor's name a place in their dictionaries. ' 

KORTHOLT (Christian), a learned profeffor of 
divinity at Kiel, was born Jan. 15,1 633, at Burg, in the Ifle of 
Femeren, near the Baltic fea, in the country of Holftein. 
He was fent ftrft to the fehool at Burg, where he conti- 
nued till he was fixteen : hence he removed to Slefwick, 
where he purfued his books two years more ; and after- 
wards ftuaied in the college of Stetin, where he gave 
public proofs of his progrefs by fome thefes. Going to 
Koftoch, in 1652, he affiduoufly frequented the tenures 
of the profeflbrs ; but his fjtther's death obliged hin* to 
leave that unjverfity in a year. He afterwards returned to 
it, and took the degree of doflor in philofophy, in 1 656. 
'Theij he went to ftudy in the univerfity ef Jena, 
where he gained great reputation by the academical 
4&s, an ^ *M° by private leflures read on philofophy, the 
«aftern tongues, and divinity. He left Jena in 1660, 
and vi6ted the universities of Leipfic and Wittemberg, 
He afterwards returned to Roftoch, where he was mads 
Greek profeffor in 1662 ; and took a doctor of divinity^ 
degree the feme year, - -He married in £664,- t.nA : next 
v • • 6 year 


roftfHOLl s% 

yk&c was invited to be fecbnd profeflbr of divinity in die 
mmverfity juft founded set Kiel. He was to zealous for the 

{rolperity of that new univerfity, and fo grateful for the 
indnefe of the duke of Holftein, his mafter, that he re- 
futed all the employments, though very beneficial and ho- 
nourable, which* were offered him in feveral places. The 
prince beftowed upon him, in 1680, the profefiorfhjp of 
ecclefiaftkal antiquities ;. and declared him vice-chancellor 
f>f the tMiirerfity for life, in 1689 : and he difcharged the 
«hity of thofe offices with great ability, application, and 
prudence. His death, which happened March 31, 1 694, was 
a great lofs to the univerfity of Kiel, and to the republic of 
letters. He. was the author of feveral works, one of which 
we will give the title of, becaufe two great Englifhroen are 
mainly concerned in it. It runs thus : " De tribus- im- 
** poftoribus magms liber, Edvardo Herbert, Thom« 
** Hobbes, & Benedi&o Spihozae oppofitus. Coi addita 
appendix, qua Hieronymi Cardani & Edvardi Herbert! 
de animalitate hominis opinionis philofbphice exaini- 
* natar, *68o/' 8vo. 

KOTTERUS (CHRisTOPHfeA) was one of thefeeTO^ 
*hree fanatics, whofe virions were published at Amfterdam BiCIi:i ~ 
in 1657, with the following title, " Lux in tenebris," 
He lived at Sprottow in Silefia ; and his virions began in 
June i6r6* He fancied befaw an angel, under the form o£ 
a man, who commanded him ta go and declare to the magi- 
fixates, that unlefs the peaple repented, the wrath of God 
wbuld make dreadful havock. His paftor and' friends 
kept hira in for fome time, nor did he execute his coni- 
nsiffion, even* though the angel had appeared fix times ; 
tmt in 1619, being threatened with eternal damnation by 
the feme fpirit, there was no reftraining him any longer, 
Kotterus' was laughed at ; neverthelefs his vifions con- 
tinued, and were followed, by extafies and prophetic 
dreams. He waited on the elector Palatine^ whom the 
^roteftants had declared king of Bohemia, at Breffaw, in - 
1620, and* informed hira of his commiiion. He went to 
ether places, and, in 1625, at Brandenburg. He got ac- 
quainted* the fame year, with Comenius, who became a 5 . eroMJ*- 
gfeat favourer. of his prophecies. As they chiefly prefaged Niua. 
fctppinefs to the elector Palatine, and the reverie to the 
€fflperor, fo he became at length obnoxious, and, in 
1637, way clofely imprisoned, as a fedttious impoftor. 
He efcaped better than was ex p* ft ed; bu£ he was let on 


6 4 KOT T E R U S. 

the pillory, and banifhed the emperor's dominions, not to 
return upon pain of death. Upon this he went to Lufatia, 
then fubjeft to his electoral highnefs of Saxony ; , and lived 
there unmolefted till his death, which happened in 1647. 
He was fixty-two years of age. Whether this man was 
more fool, madman, or knave, is hard to fay : probably 
a mixture of all three. He was not difcouraged from 
prophefying, though his predi&ions were continually con- 
victed of faliity by the event : but there is nothing equal 
to the impudence of a fanatic. 

KOULI KHAN (Thamas, alias Nadir), was 
born, in 1687, at a village in the province of Cherafan, 
in Perfia. His father was a fhepherd, and the fon in his 
youth followed the fame occupation. He was foon weary 
however of that humble life. He ftole 700 fheep from 
his father, wliich he fold at Mefched ; and, with the 
money he made of them, got together feveral lawlefs 
fellows, put himfelf at their head, and began to rob the 
caravans. He continued this method of life feven years, 
and acquired great riches by his robberies. He had under 
his command 6000 refolute fellows, well armed, well dis- 
ciplined, and pra&ifed to (laughter. Be;ng thus become 
formidable, he carried his views beyond the plunder of de- 
fenfclefs peafants. He offered his fervices to the Schah 
Tharnas, whofe throne Efchref an ufurper now pofletfed, 
to deliver his country from her enemies the Aghwans, who 
,had lorded it over the Persians for five years^with the ut- 
mofi: barbarity. The Sophi gave him the command of his 
army. The new general entirely defeated the numerous 
army of Efchref, conducted Schah Thamas in triumph 
to Ifpahan, and eftablifhed him upon the throne of his 
anceftors. Efchref, having got together all his treafures 
and his women, tied towards Candabar with 10,000 men. 
Kouli Khan, at the head of 15,000 men, went in purfuit 
ThePerfian f him. He recommended itto the king to go againft the 
J!'izk*L Turks with the reft of his army, alluring him, that, as 
fa|, foon as he had fecured Efchref, he would fly to his aflift- 

ance. Kouli Khan at laft came up with the ufurper, and 
prepared for an engagement, which was very foon decifive. 
The Aghwans furrounded were either cut in pieces or taken : 
Efchref was among the prifoners, and all his treafures fell 
into the hands of the vittor. Kouli Khan ordered both 
eyes to- be put out, and fome days after had him beheaded. 
The jewels, which were of ineftimable value, he took to 




hlmfelf. The money, whicrl amounted to fix millions in 
fpecie, he distributed among the foldiers, and fecured 
their affeftions by this liberality. 

He compelled the province of Candabar to return to 
their obedience, and obliged th6 Great Mogul to reftore 
all that he had taken during the troubles of Perfia. He 
then haftened back to fuccour the Sophi, whom he fup- 
poled to be engaged with the Turks. But he was fur* 
prifed to find, when he came near Ifpahan, that he had 
concluded a peace with the Porte, difbanded his army, 
and fenf him orders to do the fame. Thefe orders he 
received with indignation, exclaimed againft the ignomi- 
nious peace, and his effeminate prince, lnftead of dif* 
banding his army, which now confifted of 70,000 men* 
he marched with it to Ifpahan ; feized the Schah Thamas* 
imprifoned him in a ftrong fortrefs ; and in an aflembly 
of the chief men of Perfia got him depofed, and his fon* 
an infant of fix months old, proclaimed Schah, by the 
name of Schah Abbas the Hid. In his name Kouli Khan 
aflumed to himfelf the fovereign power, and prefenrly 
iflued a manifefto difclaiming the late peace with the Turk*. 
In confequence of this manifefto he marched towards the Hanway't 
Turkifh frontiers. This war continued three years, in hiftorical 
which he difplayed the greateft military talents, and oh- *£ Brit^fh 
tained the raoft fignal victories that are to be met with in trade over 
fyiftory. After having recovered all that had been taken theC « f P i " tt 
from Perfia, he concluded a peace with the Ottoman Porte fca > vol ' lv * 
in 1736. The following year -the young Schah Abbas 
died. Kouli Khan convoked an aflembly of the chief men 
of the kingdom. He enumerated to them the great fer- 
vices he had done to his country, enlarged on the difguft 
he had met with, and the fatigues he had undergone, ac- 
quainting them with his defign of refigning the regency, 
and fpending the remainder of his days in retirement : he 
recommended to them to chufe a new Schah or King, en- \ 

dowed with fuch qualifications as might prevent the mil- 
fortunes they had experienced in former reigns, and main- 
tain the glory of their monarchy. 

As foon as he had retired, fome* of His creatures pro- 
pofed to petition him to accept of the Perfian diadcrh. 
This propofal, we may believe, was readily agreed to, as 
they were furrounded by an anrry of 100,000 men entirely 
devoted to their general. Not one offered any objections 
but the high prieft, which were foon filenced by a bow- 
ftring ; and the next day Kouli Khan was proclaimed with 

Vol. VIII. F all 



all tcftimonies of public joy. As he thought war would 
be a better prop to his throne than peace, he immediately 
carried his vi&orious arms againft the Mogul, and in one ' 
fingle battle conquered almoft that whole empire. In this 
expedition he killed 200,000 people, and brought away a 
treafure worth above 145 millions, in which was the 
Imperial throne fet with diamonds of an immenfe value* 
He now thought of chaftifing the Ufbec Tartars, who had 
been his fecret enemies during all his .wars. He twice 
defeated them, though fuperior in number ; and took their 
capital, Buchara, by ftorm ; upon which, all the. country 
fubmitted to the conqueror. By taking from the Mogul 
all that lay between the former limits of Perfia and the? 
Indus, and by fubduing the whole country of the Uibeck, 
he vaftly enlarged the bounds of his empire. But he fell 
into a ftate, which feemed to border upon diftraftion. He 
attempted to change the religion of Perfia to that of Omar; 
hanged up the chief priefts ; put his own fon to death ; and 
was guilty of fuch cruelty, that he was aflaffinated in I747 f 
in his 60th year, having reigned above 20 years over one 
©f the moft powerful empires on the globe. 

KRANTZIUS (Albertus), a famous hiftarian, 
and native of Hamburg, had no fooner finifhed his claflical 
ftudies, but he fet out upon his travels. He vifited feverai 
parts of Europe, and fo ftudioufly cultivated the fciences, 
1 that he became a very able man. He was doftor of divi- 
nity and of the canon law, and profeflbr of philolbphy 
and divinity in the univerfi>y of Roftoch ; and was reftor 
there in 1482. He went from Roftoch to Hamburg, 
and was elefted dean of the chapter in the cathedral there 
in 1508. He did rhany good lerviccs to the church and 
city of Hamburg; and was fo famed for his abilities and 
prudence, that, in 1500, John king of Denmark, and 
Frederic duke of Holftein, did not fcruple to make him 
umpire, in a conteft they had with the Dithmarfi. He 
died in 15 17, after* having written fome very good works, 
which were afterwards publilhed : as, 1. *< Chronica reg- 
•» norum Aquilorum, Danise, Sueciae, Norvegige. Ar- 
" gentorat. 1546," folia. 2. " Saxonia, five de'.Saxo- 
" nicoe gentis vetufta 'origine, longinquis expeditionibus 
** fufceptis, et bellis domi pro libertate diu fortiterque geftis 
" ljiftoria, libris 13 comprehenfa, et ad annum 1501'de- 
"dufta. Colon. 1520," folio 3. " Vandalia, five hif- 
** toria de Vandalorum vera origine, variis gentibus, ere- 

f« bris 



* l bris e patria migrationibus, regnis item, quorum ycl 
li autores fuerunt vel averfores, libris 14 a prima ebrum 
4 * origine ad A. C. 1 500 dedufta. Colon. 15191" folio. 
4. '* Metropolis, five hiftoria ecclefiaftica Saxoniae, BafiL 
u 1548/' folio; and fome fmaller works; 

KUHLMAN (QiHrinus), a celebrated fanatic t aSeepRA- 
fhort account of whom we will here extraft from Bayle^ ^q^te- 
becaufe the Englifh reader cannot, at this prefent time, rus. 
1784, fee fanaticifm in too great a variety of lights. He 
was born at Breflaw in Silefia 1651, and gave great hopes v 
by the uncommon progrefs he made in literature ; but this 
progrefs was interrupted by a ficknefs he laboured under it 
eighteen years of age. He was thought to be dead on the 
third day of his illneis, but had then, it feems j a moft terrible 
Viiion. He fancied himfelf furroiinded with all the devils 
in hell, arid this at mid -day, when he was awake. This 
vifiori was followed by another of God himfelf, fur- 
rounded by his faints,, and Jefus Chrift in* the midft ; 
when he faw and felt things ine^preftible. Two days 
after, he had more vifions of the fame kind ; and when he 
was cured of his diftemper, though he perceived a vaft 
alteration with regard to thefe fights, yet he found him«* , 
felf perpetually eiicompafled with a circle of light on his 
left hand. Hb had iio longer any tafte for human learning, 
nor anY value for univerfitv- difputes or left u res ; he would 
have no other mafter but the Holy-Ghoft. He left his 
touritry at nineteen years of age. His defirc to lee Hol- 
land made him haften thither, even in the midft of a very 
terrible war; and li'e landed at Amfterdam, Sept. 3, 1673, 
which \vas but three davs before the retaking the city of 
Naerdert. He went to Leydch a few days after, and met 
with Jacob Behrhen's works, the reading. of which Was like 
throwing 6il Into the fire. He was furprifed to find, that 
Behmeii had prophefied of things* of which he thought 
nobody but himfelf had the leaft knowledge. There was 
at that time in Holland one John Rothe, a prophet like- 
wife ; for Whom Kuhlman conceived a high veneration, 
and dedicated to him his " ProdromuS quinauenr^i mira- 
" bills," printed at Leydcn in 1674. This' work was to 
"be followed by two other volumes, iil the firft of which he 
intended to introduce the fttidies and difcoveries her had 
made fince his firft vifioh \ill 1674. He communicated his father Kircher; and, commending fome books 
Which that Jefuit had ptiblifhed, he let him know, that 

F 2 h<5- 

68 K U H L M A N. 

he had only fketched out what himfelf intended to carry 
much farther. It is diverting enough to fee how Kirchcr 
managed him; he wrote him civil anfwers, in which he 
did not trouble himfelf to defend his works, much lefs to 
vie with Kuhlman in knowledge : no ; he ftruck fail before 
him* and declared, that, having written only as a man, he 
did not pretend to equal thofe who wrote by inipiration. 
" I frankly own myfeif, fays he, incapable of your fublime 
" and celeftial knowledge : what I have written, I have 
" written after an human manner, that is, by knowledge 
/'gained by ftudy and labour, not divinely infpired or 
" infufed. — I do not doubt but that you, by means of the 
" incomparable and vaft extent of your genius, will pro- 
" duce difcoveries much greater and more admirable than 
" my trifles. — You promife great and incredible things, 
" which, as they far tranfcend all human capacity, fo 
" affirm boldly,' that they, have never been attempted, nor 
" even thought of, by any perfon hitherto; and therefore 
44 1 cannot but fufpeft, that you have, obtained by the 
" gift of God fuch a knowledge, as the fcriptures afcribe 
" to Adam and Solomon : I mean, an Adamic and Solo- 
" monjc knowledge, known to no mortal but yourfelf, 
" and inexplicable by any other." Our fanatic took all 
this for ferious compliment, not perceiving that he was 
ridiculed ; and carefully publifhed Kircher's anfwers, ufing 
capital letters in thofe paflages where he thought himfelf 
praifed. The Jefuit, however, gave him good advice, 
when Kuhlman confulted him about writing to the pope : 
he told him how nicely, and with what circumfpeftion 
and caution, things were condu&ed at Rome ; and afiiired 
him, that his great work, which he propofed to dedicate 
' to the pope, would be applauded and admired, provided 
: he left nothing in it which might offend the cenfors of 
: books, and took care not to afcribe to himfelf an infpired 
.- knowledge. 

When Kuhlman left Holland, does not appear ; but it 

. is related, that he wandered a long time in England, 

France, and the Eaft, and at laft was burnt in Mufcovy, 

Oftober 3, 1689, on account of fome predi&ions which 

were a&ually feditious.- This fanatic was riot ayerfe from 

women : he married more than once, if \ye may call a 

marriage, and not concubinage, that commerce between 

a man and a woman which wants the formalities of the 

civil and canon law. He was not fo removed /from the 

. things of this world*- but that he would "ufe even arts to 

2 get 

K U HJL MAN. 6 9 

get money. He ufed to write letters to people, in which 
* Jie denounced terrible judgments, if certain mms were not 
advanced for the promotion of the new kingdom of God. 
The celebrated Van Helmont received one of thefe letters, 
out was not fo fimple as to be terrified with it, or to pay 
the leaft regard to it. Another particular concerning this 
fanatic is worth obferving : which is, that, while he was 
ready to write refpeftfully to the pope, for the good of 
Chriftianity, he was comforting himfelf with Drabicius's 
prophefies relating to the deftruftion of the papacy ; and 
at that very time wrote to his friends letters full of hopes, 
that it was then approaching. Moft of thefe fpiritual x 

madmen have a ftrong mixture, not only of carnality 
and worldly-mindednets, but ajfp of a genuine knavery, 
* in their compofitions, 

KUHNIUS (Joachim), a learned German, wasNictwn,. 
born in 1647 at Gripfwalde, a town of Pomerania, where * e ' tom,l * # 
his father was a merchant. Great care was taken of his 
education ; and, after he had finifhed his juvenile ftudies 
in his own country, he was fent to Stade in Lower Saxony, 
In 1668, he went to the univerfity of Jena, where he ap- 
plied himfelf to divinity and the belles lettres. Travelling 
making one part of the education of a German, he vifited 
the moft celebrated towns of Franconia. His high repu- 
tation engaged Boccius, a minifter of Oetingpn in Swabia, 
to employ him as a preceptor to his children ; which office 
he difcharged with fo much credit, that he was in 1669 
made principal of the college in this town. He held this 
poft three years, and then went to Strafburg ; where, in 
1676, he was elefted Greek profefibr in the principal col- 
lege. Ten years he acquitted himfelf honourably in this 
profeflbrfhip, and then was made Greek and Hebrew pro- 
fefibr in the univerfity of the fame town. His uncom- 
mon fkiil in the Greek language drew a vaft number of 
fcholars about him, and from places and countries very 
diftant. He died Dec. 11, 1697, aged 50. 

He publifhed himfelf, 1. " Animadverfiones in PoIIu- 
?* cem, 1680," i2mo. This was a fpecimen of an in- 
tended edition of Pollux's " Onomafticon," which he was 
prevented by death from executing. His labours, however, 
were not loft, but inferted in the folio edition of that 
author at Amsterdam, 1706. 2+ " iEliani variae hiftoriae* 
" libri xiv. Argent. 1685," 8vo. His notes on this au- 
thor are very exaft and learned, and not only critical, but 

F 3 explanatory. 

,70 K U H N I U- S. 

explanatory. 3. " Diogenes Laertius de vitU philofoi 
" phorum, &c. Amft. 1692," in 2 vol. 4'to. This is 
. Menage's edition, in which the fhort notes of Kuhnius, 
£s well as other learned men, are inierted. Thefe in his 
life-time. After his death were publifhed, 4. " Quaef- 
44 tiones philofophicae ex facris Veteris et Novi Teftament} 
" aliifque fcriptoribus. Argent, 1698;*' 4to t 5. " Pau- 
*' faniae Graeciae defcriptio, &c. Lipfiae, 1716," folic*, 
Kuhnius took great pains with this author, whole text was 
much corrupted ; and his ecjition is juftly reckoned a 
good one. 

KUSTER (Ludolf), a learned critic, was born in 
1670 at Blomberg, a little town in Wcftphalia, where his 
father was a magiitrate ; and learned polite literature tinder 
his elder brother, who taught it at Berlin. He diftin- 
guilhed himfelf early in life ; and, upon the recommen- 
dation of baron Spanheim, was appointed tutor to the two 
foils of the count de Schwerin, prime minifter of the king 
of Pruflia. He had the promiie of a profefforihip at 
Berlin ; but, till that mould be vacant, Kufter, who was 
then but ahout five and twenty, relblved to travel into 
Germany, France, England, and Holland. He went firft 
to Franckfort upon the Oder, where he ftudied the civil 
* law for fome time ; and thence to Antwerp, Ley den, . 
and Utrecht, where he ftayed a confidcrable time, and 
wrote feveral works. In 1699, he paffed over into Eng- 
land ; and the year following into France, where his chief 
employment was to collate Suidas with three manufcripts 
411 the king's library. About the end of this year he re- 
turned to England, and in four years finifhed h'is edition 
of Suidas, which he had fet his heart much upani He 
related himfeif, that, being one night awaked by thunder 
and lightning, he was feized with fo dreadful an appre- 
henfion for this work, that he role immediately, and car- 
ried it to bed with him, with all the affeftion of a father 
for an only child. It came out at Cambridge in 1705; 
BiM'soth. and Le Ok re tells us, that it is very correct and beautiful 
ehoif. «o«'? \ n a ll refpe&s, and that the univerfity furnifhed part of 
«• P- x • t ] ie e xpence of it. He was honoured with the degree of 
dodlor by the univefiity of Cambridge, and had feveral 
advantageous offers made him to continue there ; but was 
obliged to waive them, being recalled to Berlin, to take 
pofleffion of the profeflorfhip, which had been promifed 
him.- He afterwards refigned this place, and went* to 

Amfterdam, j, 


Amfterdam; where, in 17 10, he publifhed an edition of 
M Ariftophanes," which the public had been prepared fome 
time to expeft by an account as well as a fpecimen of that 
work, given by Le Clerc in his " Bibliotheque chbifie" 
for 1 708. He gave an edition alfo of " Mill's Greek Tef- Tom - XT - 
" tament" the fame year ; in which he had compared the text p# x ° 9# 
with twelve manufcripts, which Mill never faw. Of thefc 
twelve there were nine in the king of France's library ; 
but, excepting one, which has all the books of the New 
Teftament, the reft contain no more than the four Gofpels. 
The tenth manufcript belonged to Carpzovius, a minifter 
at Leipfic, and contains the four Gofpels. The eleventh 
was brought from Greece by Seidel of Berlin ; but it l«\s 
not the four Gofpels. The laft, which Kufter laid the 
ftrefs upon, was communicated to him by Bornier, who 
bought it at the public fale of the library of Francius, pro- 
feflbr of rhetoric at Amfterdam. After Kufter's pretace, 
follows a letter of Le Clerc concerning Mill's work. 
From Amfterdam he removed to Rotterdam, and went 
fome time after to Antwerp, to confer with the Jefuits 
about fome doubts he had in religious matters : where he 
was brought over to the Roman Catholic religion, and 
. abjured that of the Proteftants, July 25, 1 7 1 3, in the church 
of the Noviciates belonging to the Jefuits. The king of 
France rewarded him with a penfion of 2000 livres ; and, 
as a mark of diftinftion, ordered him to be admitted 
fupernurnerary aflbciate of the Academy of Infcriptiohs, 
But he did not enjoy this new fettlement long; for he 
died Oft, 12, 1 7 16, of an abfcefs in the pancreas, aged only 
46. He publifhed fcverai works of a frnaller kind, which 
we have not thought it neceflary to dwell upon ; among 
the reft, " Jamblichi de vita Pythagorae liber, cui accedit 
** Porphyrius de vita Pythagorae," and fome pieces, Which 
were inierted in the collection of Greek and Roman an- 
tiquities, published by Gr'aevius and Gronovius. His 
chief excellence was his ikill in the Greek language, to 
which he almoft entirely devoted himfelf. He thought 
the hi'ftory and chronology of Greek words the moft folid 
entertainment of a man of letters, on which account he 
dcfpifed all other parts of learning, as men are too apt to 
defpife what they know nothing of; and it is reported of 
him, that, one day, ta^kjng up Bayle's " Commentaire Phi- 
** lofophique," in a bookfeljer's fhop, he threw it down, and 
faid, " This is nothing but a book of reafoning : non fie Memoirs it 
•' ityr ^d afUV' There is, in the General Diaionaiy,^**; 

F 4 , under 


& Noovel- nndcr this article, a letter from Mr. Jofcph Waffc, thfc 
da ltt Dc# * earne( * editor of Salluft, containing feveral curious par- 
1716* & duticulars relating to this critic ; of which we will here give 
. 9 J an - an abftraft, fince it is quite to our purpofe, and cannot 
,7I ^ # fail of entertaining : 

" Dr. Kufter, a tall, thin, pale man, feemingly unable 
#< to bear fatigue, was neverthelefs indefatigable, and of 
" an uncommon application to letters. I£e formed him* 
u felf under Graevius. I was acquainted with him from 
M 1700 to 1 7 14, Upon my collc&ing the remains ,of 
" Anacreon for Mr. Barnes, about 1702, he introduced 
*' me to Dr. Bentley. You muft be known, fays he, 
** to that gentleman, whom I look upon, not only as the 
firft fcholar in Europe, but as the beft of friends. I 
only hinted to him the difficulty I lay under, in relation 
to the officers of the cuftoms ; and prefently after he 
accommodated that troublefome affair to my entire fa- 
*' tisfaftion, without fo much as once letting me know 
*' he had any hand in it till near a year after : unde fans 
" compertum mihi Bentleium cfle re officiofum, non 
"verbis. Many an excellent emendation upon Suidas 
*' have I received from him. I the rather mention this, 

V fays Mr. Wafie, becaufe, when that Lexicon was in the 
** prefs, Kufter with indignation fhewed me an anony- 
♦' mous letter in Latin, addrefled to him, wherein he was 
*' advifed not to treat the doftor with that diijinftion, 
" if he intended his book fhould make its way in the 
" learjied world. But to proceed; when he came to write 
" upon Suidas, he found himfelf under a neceffity of 
"making indices of all the authors mentioned by the 
" ancients ; Euftathius particularly, and nineteen volumes 
■ * of Commentaries upon Ariftotle, &c. of the hiftory, - 

geography, and chronological charafters occafionally 
mdntioned. Dr. Bentley prevailed upon me to give 
" him fome affiftance. Thofe that fell to my lot were 
" chiefly Euftathius on the Odyflfey, feven or eight Scho- 
*' Hafts, Plutarch, Galen. You may judge of Kufter's 
** difpatch and application, when I tell you, I could by 
'* no means keep pace with' him, though I began the laft 
*' author Jan. 9, 1703, and finifhed him March the 8th 
" of the fame year, and in proportion too the remainder. 
.?« Though I corrected all the fheets N of the firft- volume, 

V yet I never perceived he had omitted fome. lefs material 
«« words, nor ever knew the true reafon. I have heard 
f'-hira blamed too for mentioning the names of one or 

" tWQ 



M two pcrfons, who fent him a few notes ; but this was 
44 occafioned, I am confident, by the hurry he was always 
•* in, and the great number of letters, memorandums, 
44 and other papers he had about him. As I remember, 
"he tranflated denw9 % )n a manner five or fix fheets a 
44 week, and remarked upon them ; fo that the work was 
44 haftily executed, and would have been infinitely more 
44 perfect, had he allowed himfelf time. Some people 
44 thought they affifted him, when they did not. A per- 
44 fon of figure took him into his clofet after dinner, 
44 and told him he would communicate fomething of 
44 mighty importance, a *«/*»»*»•», which in all difficulties 
44 had been many years his oracle. In an ill hour I met 
44 Kufte,r tranfported with delight. We found it was , 
44 Budg»us's Lexicon, large paper, with only the names 
44 of the authors he quotes writ in the margin, without 
44 one fingle remark or addition. Kufter, the beft-natured 
44 man alive, was terribly put to it how to treat one, that 
44 meant well ; and continually enquired what fervice it 
" did him, and triumphed that he was able to contribute 
44 fo largely to the worthy edition of Suidas. Towards 
44 the clofe of the work, Kufter grew very uneafy, emaci- 
44 ated to the laft degree, cold as a ftatue, and juft as much 
44 alive as a man three parts dead. Sure I was to hear, 
44 every time. I called upon him, 4 O utinam illucefcat ille 
44 dies, qu6 huic operi manum ultimam imponam!' It 
44 may now be proper to acquaint you, in what manner 
44 this gentleman ufed to relax, and forget his labours 
• 4 over a bottle, for even Scipio and Laelius were not 
44 fuch fools as to be wife always ; and that was gene- 
rally in the poetical way, or in conversations that turned 
upon antiquities, coins, inscriptions, and obfeure paflages 
of the ancients. Sometimes he performed on the fpin- 
44 net at o\jr mufic club, and was by the connoifleurs ac- 
44 counted a mafter. His chief companions were Dr. Sike, 
44 famous in Oriental learning ; Davies and Needham ; 
46 Mr. Oddy, who writ Greek pretty well, and has left 
44 notes upon Dio, and a verfion of Apollonius Rhodius, 
44 which are repofited in lord Oxford's library ; he is the 
44 perfon, wfyofc conjeftures upon Avienus were printed 
; 4t by DK Hudfon, at the end of his Geographers : and 
44 Mr. Barnes the Greek profeflbr. — r-Upon the publica- 
44 tion of his Suidas, Kufter in a little time grew very fat ; 
• 44 and returning into Pruffia, foun4 his patrons retired 
| 4< from court, and his falary precarious. What is more, 
i "his 





44 his principles, which inclined to what is now called 
44 Arianifm, rendered him not very acceptable to fome 
•• perfons. In a little time meafures were taken to make 
44 him uneafy, and he retired to Amfterdam. — Here he 
44 reprinted Dr. Mill's New Teftament, and publifhed 
44 Ariftophanes, and fome additional remarks upon Suidas 
44 under Mr. Le Clerc's cover. But his banker failing, he 
44 was reduced to extreme poverty : and happening at that 
44 very jun&ure to be invited to Paris by his old friend 
44 l'abbe Bignon, was unfortunately prevailed upon to join 
44 himielf to the Gallicari church. He defired me to write 
44 to him as ufual, but never on the article of religion ; 
44 declaring, at the fame time, how he had not been obliged 
44 to make a formal recantation, or condemn the Reformed 
44 by an exprefs aft of his, but merely to conform. How 
44 far this is true^ I know not ; what is certain is only 
44 that he was promifed all the favour and diftinftion any 
44 convert could expeft. He was prefently admitted a 
44 member of the Royal Academy of Infcriptions ; and ia 
44 1 7 14, ill return for a paper of verfes I fent him, made 
44 me a prefent of his book, De vero ufu verborum me- 
44 diorum [ a] ; ^v<t%<x x***iu». The laft 1 had from Kuf* 
44 ter contained only queries upon Hefychius ; on whom, 
44 before he left England, he had made about 5000 emen-. 
44 dations. His queries were not over difficult ; and from 
44 i thence I guefled his health much impaired. And it 
44 proved fo indeed ; for we heard foon after, that he had 
44 been blooded five or fix times for a fever, and that, 
44 upon opening Jiis body, there was found a cake of 
44 fand along the lower region of his belly. This, I 
44 take it, was pecafioned by his fitting in a manner 
44 double, and writing on a very low table, furrounded 
44 with three' or four circles of books placed on the 
44 ground; which was the fituation we ufually found him 
44 He had a clear head, cool, and proper for debate ; 
44 he behaved in a very inoffenfive manner ; and, I am 
" perfuaded, the laft error of his life was almoft the oilly 
** one, and by charitable perfons will be placed in a good 
44 meafure to the account of his deplorable circumftanccs ; 
44 for if oppreflion, which only affefts a part, will, why 
44 (hall not the lofs of all one's fortunes, purchafed with 
44 fo'much labour, 4 make a wife man mad?' Let thofe 

£ a] Of which two good editipns rlched with hii own very viloablc 
vm publfhed bj Mr.- lawyer, em- ObfervattonSi 1750, and ^'775. 

* 4 only 

KU8 T E R. 75 

* % only cenfure him, who in plentiful circumftances have 
*' tlie lpirit to ferve their country without place or title/' 

' KYMSTON (John), fon of Humphry Ky-G«t.M*. 
aafkon, "citizen of Chefter (defcended from a younger 17 ** - 
branch of the Kynaftons of Bronguin, in the county 
of Montgomery). He was born at Chefter, Dec. 5, 
1728 ; admitted a commoner in Brazen Nofe College, 
Oxford, March 20, 1 746 ; elefted fcholar on the foun- 
dation of Sarah dutchefs dowager of Somerfet, in the 
laid college, Aug. 1. of the fame year; took the de- 
gree of B. A. Oft. 16, 1749 ; was elefted fellow June 14* 
1 75 1 ; and took the degree of M. A. June 4, 1752. He 
obtained no fmall reputation by an Oratiuncula, intituled, 
4 * De Impietate C. Cornelio Tacito falso objeftata ; Ora- 
** tio ex Inftituto Viri cl. Francifci Bridgman [a], Mili-< 
-*' tis, habita in Sacello Collegii ^Enei Nali Oxon. Fefto 
* 6 Sanfti Tkoma?, Decembris 21, A. D. 1761, a J. K. , 
** A. M. Coil, ejufdem Socio ;" in which he ehdeavoured 
to disprove the falfe allegations (for fuch he really thought 
them) of Famianus Strada (the excellent critic, and moil ele- 
gant writer) ^gainft Tacitus, on that very hackneyed topick, 
his daring impiety and fovereign contempt of the Supreme. 
— On the apprehenfion of the notorious Mifs Blandy, 
Mr. Kynafton took an aftive part, from the time of her 
conviftion till her body was fecured from indecent treat- 
ment. In this bufinefs he barely fteered free from cenfure. , 
* His method was, to be with her as much as poffible whea 
the Ordinary (the learned, well-known, but credulous Mr. 
Swinton, whom fhe gained to countenance her hypocrify) 
was abfent; and- was fufpefted to have given hopes of 
pardon, in concert with another perfon, alfo of Brazen- 
nofe college, to the morning of her execution, when flie 
appeared in that ftudied ' genteel drefs and attitude fhe 
could not poffibly have put on, had fhe been watchfully at- 
tended by a firmer-minded inftruftor. — In 1764, he pub- 

[4.] " The founder of this orarjon, harangue on an,y of the liberal fciences, 

Sir Francis Bridgman, bequeathed or any other literary* topick. — We, 

Twenty pounds a year for ever for happily, fecured the pofTeffion of the 

a. Panegyric tq be fpqken annually foundtr's Gratuity, and the oration 

(in Brazen Nofe College, by a Fel- is fpoken, regularly, in rotation, upon, 

low) on King James — the Second!!! whatever fuits the turn and tafte of 

By an application to the Court of the fpeaker. It it a pretty addit'.i 

Chancery, about the year 17 11, I to the income of one year's ft'.. '- 

think, the College was (I doubt not) Ihip j to prevent one from iv::..: :.£ 

well pieafed to have the fubjett one's Latia CO grow ruflv." 
changed; and was left M liberty ta Jdr. Ky .-.a .V ".r. 


7 6 ^ KYNA8TON, 

lifted i$ A collection of papers relative to the proiecution 
" now carrying on in the Chancellor's court in Oxford, 
" againft Mr. Kynafton, by Matthew Maddock, clerk, 
** reftor of Cotworth and Holywell, in the county of 
" Huntingdon, and chaplain to his grace of Manchefter, 
".for the charge of adultery alledged againft the faid 
" Matthew Maddock." 8vo, From the datp of this pub- 
lication (the caufe of which operated too feverely on his 
high fenfe of honour and ingenuoufnefs of heart) he rer 
fided, in not the beft ftaje of health, at Wigan principally, 
Joved and refpe&ed by a few feleft friends, On the 27th 
of March, 1 783, Mr. Kynafton had the misfortune to break 
his left arm, near the lhoulder; but, the boner having* been 

Eroperly replaced, he was thought out of danger. It 
rought on his death, however, in the June following. 

LAB AD IE (John), a French enthufiaft, was born 
Feb. 10, 1610; and, being fent to the Jefuits college at 
Bourdeaux at feven years of age, he made fo quick a pro- ' 
grefs in his ftudies, that his mafters refolved to take into 
their fociety a youth, who gave fuch promifing hopes of 
being an honour to it. The fpirit of piety, with which 
he was animated, brought him eaiily into their views : 
but, being oppoied therein by his father^ who was gentle- 
man of the bed-chamber to Lewis XIII. he could not 
then put the defign into execution. Afterwards he en- 
1 v tered into the order ; and, having finiftied his courfe of 
rhetoric and philofophy in three years, he took upon him- 
felf the office of a preacher before he was ordained prieft. 
He continued among the Jefuits till 1639 ; when his fre- 
quent infirmities, and the defire he had of attaining to 
greater perfe&ion, engaged him to quit that fociety. This 
is his own account of the matter ; while others aver, that 
he was expelled for fome Angular notions, and for his 
hypocrify. However that be, he went immediately to 
Paris, where he preached with great zeal, and procured 
the friendfhip of father Gondren, general of the oratory 2 
and Coumartin, bifhop of Amiens, being prefent at one 
of his fermons, was fo much pleafed, that he engaged him 
to fettle in his diocefe, and gave him a carionry in his 
, cathedral church. 

. He was no fooner fixed at Amiens, than he fet up for a 
dire&or of confciences, and prefently £aw himfelf at the • 
head of avaft number of devotees : but it is pretended that, 
beginning by the fpirit, he fin'ifhed, as often happens among 



thefe gentry, with the flcfh ; and that the difcoverjr of* fome 
love-intrigues in a nunnery obliged him to feek a retreat 
elfewhere. For that purpofe he chofe firft Port Royal • 
but his ftay there was fhort, for the Solitaires of that place 
were too well inftrufted to be impofed on by him. He 
therefore removed to Bazas, and afterwards to Toulbufe, 
where M. de Montchal, archbifhop of the city, gave hiiri 
the direftion of a convent of nuns. To thefe ladies he 
prefled the neceffity of recollefting, two or three times a 
week, the " ftate of innocency:" to which end, they 
were to ftrip ftark-naked, and remain fo, while he preached 
to them in the fame condition. The profefled intention 
was that of imitating Adam and Eve, and* the ceremony 
was performed with tHe doors fattened. A great number 
of his female difciples did not fcruple to fubmit to this : 
but, the affair reaching the ears of the bifhdj>, he, appre- 
hending the confequences of fuch a converfe, diiperfed 
thofe who had been feduced into different convents, to be 
better inftrufted. He played the fame religious pranks 
elfewhere , but, defpairing at length to make difciples any 
longer among the Catholics, by whom he was too well 
known, he betook himfelf to the Reformed, and refolved 
to try if he could not introduce among them the doftrine 
and praftice of fpirituality and mental prayer: with which 
view, he publifhed three Manuals, compofed chiefly to fet 
forth the excellence and neceffity of that method. But 
the attempt he made upon the chaftity of Mademoifelle 
Calonges loft him the efteem and protection of thofe very 
perfons for whofe ufe his books were particularly written. 
The ftory is -not a little entertaining, and therefore did 
not efcape Bayle, who relates the faft as follows. Having 
direfted his damfel to the fpiritual life, which he made to 
confift in internal recolleftion and mental prayer, he gave 
her out a certain point of meditation ; and, having ftrongly 

* recommended it to her to apply herfelf intenfely for fome 
hours to her objeft, he went up to her when he believed 
her to be at the height of her attention, and put his hand 
into her bofom. She gave him a hafty repulfe, exprefted 
much furprize at the proceeding, and was even preparing 
to rebuke him ; when he, not the leaft difconcerted, and 
with a devout air, prevented her thus: "I fee plainly, 

« " my child, that you are at a great diftance from perfect 
" tion; acknowledge your weaknefs with a humble fpirit, 
"afk forgivenefs of God, for your having given fo little 

, " attention to the myfteries upon which you ought to have 

. " meditated. 




€t meditated. ■ Had you bellowed all neccflary attention 
* 4 upon thofe things, you would not have been fenfible of 
44 what was doing about your breait : but you were fo* 
4C much attached to fenfe* fo Uttie concentered with the 
44 Godhead, that you were not a moment in difcovering 
44 that I touched you. I wanted to try, whether your 
44 fervency in prayer had raifed you above die material 
44 world, arid united you with the Sovereign Being, the 
44 living fource of immortality and a fpiritual ftate • arid I 
44 fee, to my great grief, that you have made very fmall 
progrefs, and that you only creep on the ground : may 
this, my child, make you afhamed, and move. you for 
46 the future to perform the fanftified duties of mental 
*' prayer better than you have hitherto done !" The 
young lady, who had as much good feiife as virtue, was 
iio lefs provoked at thefe words, than at the bold d&ions 
of her ghoftly inftru&or ; and could never after bear th# 
name of fuch a holy father. 

Some time afterwards, information was made at tlie 
court againft him, for railing a feditiori on account of a 
dead body* This was the corpfe of a woman which the 
curate of Montauban thought proper to inter , in the 
church-yard of the Catholics, becaufe fhe had changed 
her religion* Labadie denied the prieft's right to the 
corpfe, and his party appeared in arms to difpute it- But 
the caufe being brought before the court, it was there de- 
cided in favour of the Catholics, &nd Labadie condemned 
t6 quit the church of Montauban as a feditious perfoii. 
His banifhment however caufed a dangerous divifioh; 
D'Arbufiy, his colleague, was charged with pro'rnotihg his 
condemnation, out of a fpirit of jealoufy. Two parties 
were formed in the town, almoft wholly confiding of th£ 
Reformed. They proceeded to the laft extremities, though 
the chieftains of each party bore fo bad a cha rafter, as to 
be equally detefted by all who had followed theiri*. Labadie, 
thus driven out of Montauban, went to feek an afylurri A i 
Orange ; but, not finding himfelf fo fafc there as he ima-f 
gined, he withdrew privately to Geneva, in June 1659- 
Mean while, his departure was much regretted at Orange* 
whe$e lie had impofed upon the people by his devout j 
manner, and by his preaphirig: however, lie Was riot 
long at Geneva without caufirig great cornmotions. Thofe 
that joiried him built a large rrianfiori, in which proper 
cells were provided for his moft zealous fdllowers - r whiW 
the reft of the citizens » cbrifultirig how td git rid of him, 



contrived to procure him an invitation to Middlebdrg, 
which was accepted : ancl accordingly he repaired thither 
in 1666, and prefently began to declare his opinions more 
explicitly than he had ever done before. 

His peculiar tenets were thefe : 1. He believed that 
God could and would deceive, and that he had fometimcs 
a&uaily done it; 2. He held the holy fcripture not to be 
abfolutely neceflary to falvation, fince the Holy Spirit 
aflted immediately upon the foul, and gave it new degrees 
of revelation ; and, when once ftruck with that divine 
light, it was able to draw fucH confluences as would 
lead to a perfeft knowledge of the truth. 3. Though he 
did not deny the lawfulnefs of infant baptifm, yet he 
maintained that it ought to be deferred to riper years* 
4. He put this difference between the old and new co- 
venant : The firft, he faid, was carnal, loaded with cere- 
v monies, attended with temporal bleffings, and open to 
the wicked as well as the good, provided they were de- 
scendants of Abraham; whereas .the new covenant ad- 
mitted only fpiritual perfons, who were freed thereby from 
the law, from its curfe, and from its ceremonies, and put 
into a ftate of perfedl liberty. 5. He held the obfervation 
of the fabbath to be an indifferent thing; maintaining, 
that, in God's account, all days were alike. 6. He dif- 
tinguifhed the church into the degenerate and regenerate ; 
and held, that Chrift would come and reign a thoufand 
years upon earth, and aftually convert both Jews, Gentiles, 
and Chriftiajis, to the truth. 7. He maintained the 
eucharift to be nothing more, than a bare commemoration 
of Chrift V death; and that, though the figns were nothing 
in themfelves, yet Chrift was received therein fpiritualiy 
by the worthy communicant. 8. He taught, that the 
contemplative life was a ftate of grace and of divine union 
in this world, the fullnefs of perfeftion, and the fummit 
of the Chriftian mountain, elevated to that height, that it 
touched the clouds, and reached up very near to heaven. 
9. That a perfon whofe heart was perfeftly content and 
calm, was almoft in pofleffion of God, difcoyrfed familiarly 
with him, and faw every thing in him : that he took all 
things here below with indifference, beholding the world 
_ beneath him, and whatever pafled therein ; its mutability 
not touching him ; all the ftorms, to which the world is 
fubjeft, forming themfelves under his feet, juft as rain 
and hail form themfelves under the tops of mountains,, 
leaving upon the fummit a conftant calm and quietude. 

xo. That 

86 L A B AD I E. 

to. That this ftate was to be abtalncd by an entire felf- 
denial, mortification of the fenfes, arid their objefts, suid 
by the cxercife of mental prayer. 

It was owing to this practice of fpirituality, accompanied 
With an apparent feverity of manners, that Labadie ac- 
quired a very'great authority in a little time. Thofe Who 
charged him with hypocrify were looked on as worldlings, 
fold to the prefent liti? ; while his followers were efteemed 
as fo many faints. Even Mademoifelle Schurman, fo femous 
in the republic of letters, was perfuaded, that fhe chofe the 
better part, in putting herfelf under his directions ; fh* 
became one of the moft ardent chiefs of his feft, fo that 
(he drew into it Elizabeth, princefs Palatine, who opened 
an afylum to all the wandering and fugitive difciples of 
that preacher, efteemed it an honour to colleft what ihe 
called the true church, and declared her happinefs in being 
delivered from a mafked Chriftianity, with which Ihe had 
till then been deceived. She extolled Labadie to the ikies* 
He was the man, fhe faid, who talked to the heart. 

The followers of Labadie, who were now diftiriguifhed 
by the title of Labadifts, became fo numerous, and fo 
many pcrfohs of each fex abandoned the Reformed to clofe 
with them, that the French church in the United Pro- ' 
vinces fet themfelves in earned to ftop the defertion, 
which was daily increasing. But Labadie, perceiving 
their defigns againft him," aimed to ward off the blow, by 
turning it upon them. Mr. de Wolzogue, profeflbr and 
minifter of the Walloon church at Utrecht, had lately 
publifhed a piece, feveral paflages of which had given great 
offence to the Protectants [a]. Labadie therefore took 
this opportunity to accufe him of heterodoxy, in the name 
of the Walloon church at Middleburgh, to a fynod which 
was held at Naerden. But, upon hearing the matter, 
Wolzogue was unanimously declared orthodox, 
• of Middlcburg Cenfured, and Labadie condemned to make 
a public. cdnfeflion before the fynod, and in the prefence 
of Wolzogue, that he had been to blame in. bringing the 
accufation, \fy which he had done him an, injury. This 
judgement reaching the ears of Labadie, he refolved not to 
hear it pronounced ; and, for fear of having it Signified 
to him, he withdrew privately from Naerden; and, re- 

[a] A piece came out in 1666, tituled " De fcripturarum inferprete 

intituled) "PhUoToj>hiaf.fcriptur« in- " adverfus exercitatorem, &c. 1667;^ 

u terpres, exercitatio paradoxa." This but he managed fo unluckily, as to be 

was thought a pernicious book, and more inveighed againft than the book 

' refuted by Wolzogue, in a piece, in. he endeavoured to refute. 


LAB-AD1E. . 8? 

turning to Micfdleburgh, raifed fuch a fpirit againft the 
fjmbd in Jlis church, as even threatened no lefs than a 
formal fcfyifm. Several fynods endeavoured, by their 
decrees, 1 to cut up the mifchief by the root; but in fomc 
of thefe Labadie refufed to appear ; he difputed the authority 
of others, and appealed from the definitive fentences whicn 
they pronounced againft hirri. At length commiflaries 
Were nominated by the fyhod, to go and determine the 
aflair at Middleburgh ; and they repaired thither accord- 
ingly: but the people rofe againft them, poflefled them- 
felves of an aflembly-houfe; and lqcked the church-doors 
to keep theifi out. The magi ft rates fupported Labadie, 
and the eftsftes of the province contented themfelves with 
|>ropofing an accommodation : which being haughtily re- • 
je&ed by Labadie, the States were fo provoked, that they 
confirmed the fentence pafled by the commiflaries, by which 
he was forbidden to preach, &c. And becaufe Labadie ex- 
claimed loudly againft being condemned without a hearing, 
the decifion of the fynod to be held at Dort was fent to 
him, fummoning him to appear there. Labadie was depofed 
by this lyriod, and cut off from all hopes of mercy on any 
other condition, except that of thorough repentance, which 
he never gave any proofs of. 'On the contrary, he pro- 
cured a croud of devotees to attend him to Mi4dleburgh : 
wrjere they broke open the church doors ; which done, he 
preached, and diftributed the eucharift, to fuch as followed 
nitn. The burgo -matters,, apprehenfive of confequences, 
Fent him an orfler to quit the town and the boundaries of 
their }'urifdi£tion. He obeyecl the order, and withdrew -to 
Ter- Veer, a' neighbouring town', * where he had fome * ' 

zealous part Han£,, who held out their arms to him. Thefe 
were rich.rperchants and traders, who had fettled there, 
and drawn a large fhare of commerce thither. They 
received him joyfully, and procured him a proteftion •• 
from the magiftrates. However, the States et Zealand, 
being refolved to 'drive him from this fort, made an order 
td e*pfci hitri the. gr^nce. ; The rha^ftrdt^crf^Tet-Veer 
todk.his paii.agamft the. States, allecigirig, three reafbris, ia 
his favour: fi^/Tllat he lived peaceably iin their town, 
arid had done hothjn^ \vrjrrthy of barlMhmeht; fecdndljr, 
That it was enougfi to r irrterlifit hilm from preaching in 
public 5 and, faftly, •That i <th*y fcad, reafon to apprehend 
danger from the po,^tilacie, jy 2whb : \?duld #6t<juletiy ' 

prived of fo edifying a peffoh. 1 The province was obliged 
te have reqpurfe to the prince of Orange, who was marqui* 


L A B A D I E, 

of .Ter-Veer * and who ordered Labadie to fubmit, for- 
bidding at the fame time any of the inhabitants to harbour 
him. ' 

In this, exigence, he returned the attempt he had vainly 
made before, of aflbciating with madam Bourignon in 
Noordftrand ; but Ihe happened rtot to think hin\ refined 
enough in the.myftic theology to become her colleague, 
nor fupple enough to be put iii the number of her/ difciples ; 
fo that, meeting with a rebuff on that fide, he formed a 
little fettlement betwixt Utrecht and Aitifterdam, where he 
fet up a printing- prefs, which fent forth many of 'his works. 
Here the number of his followers increafed, and would 
have grown very large, had he riot been, betrayed by fome 
Jeferters ; who, publifhing the hiftofy of hi$ private life, 
and manner of teaching, took care to inform the public of 
t the familiarities, he took with hk female pupils, under pre- 

tence of uniting them nlorc clofely to God. From this 
retreat he fent his apoftles through the great towns in 
Holland, in order to make pfofelytes. especially in the 
i icheft houfes ; but, not being able to lecure any refidence 
, ' where he might be fet above the fear of want, nel Went to 

j ■ Erfurt; arid, being driven thence by the Wart, Was obliged 

\i ; to retire to Altena in Holftein, where a violent colic 

carried him off, 1674, in his 65th year. He died in the arms 
of Mad^moifelte Schurman, who, as a faithful companion, 
conftaritly attended him wherever he Went* .This is the? 
frioft generally received account of his death (B) : yet 
others tell us, that he went to Wievaeft (c), a lordfhip 
of Frizeland, belonging to the houfe of Sommerfdyck ; 
where four ladies, fitters of that family, provided him 
a retreat, arid formed a fmall church, called *• The 
" church, of Jefus Chrift retired from the world/* His 
taoreri, works are numerous, amounting to upwards of thirty arti- 
«iit! x'740. . C ^ es ' ^ ut ,^ re 'y not worthy t0 b e recorded. 

* * * 

[is] Bayie*sl)i&. in M. Schurman's being affe&ed with the 7 Galons de- 
art lde. ' . clamation of John de Labadie, againft 

[cj I^iscesuia^thA oui-author'r the dead, and formal chtrches of the 
chief difciple tvonwis pah* or of this world,' and awakened to leek after a 
. Church in 167^, 'When ft was vifitcd more • fpiritual fclloWfbip *nd fociety. 
Jjy Sir* William, Pwm the ; Bnglilh feparatjcd from the* common Calrinift 
Qtij)ftr> ; who,- hating obierfed . that churches, and followed him in tho 
"wievaert was the manfibh-nouft _ of way' of 4 reformed Independency, 
tiie Sommer-dycks, daughter* te ; « : Vvon the chief ptfibr gare Us the 

pobUoiaR^afe the Jfagwe, - pfcpplfc *>L:ti$pry of J. de Labadie'a education, 

great, breeding and inheritance, . tells &c. Penn's life, prefixed to his works, 
315, that thele, with fever al others/' p^.90 and 91. , 

1 • . ' J.. - ..". •• « • . 

z ;,.-../. •.•••„.. : .:< ^ >••;-.:«, ' "LAB AT. 



LAB AT (John Baptist), a Celebrated traveller of 
the order of St. Dominic, wag bom in 1663 at Paris, and ' 
taught philofophy at Nancy. In 1693, he went to Ame* i 
rica in quality of miiuonary ; and, at his return to France, .' 
in 1705, was fent to Bologna, to give an. account of his . 
million to achapter of th«Dominicans. He continued feveral * 
years in Italy ; but, at length returning Home, died at Paris," * - 
Jan. 6, .1738* His principal works are, " x. Nouveau . 
^ voyage aux ifles de i'Amerique," 6vol. 8vo. 2. *' Voyages 
" en Efpagne & en Italie," 8 vol. 121x10. u 3. Nouvelle * 
" relation de I'Afrique Occidentals," 5 vol. i2mo. As 
Labat was never in Africa, this work is compiled from 
the relation of others. He alfo pubfiihed, 4. " Voyage 
" du chevalier des Merchais in Guinee," 4 vol. X2mo; 
and, 5. " La Relation hiftorique de l'Ethiopie Occiden* 
" tale," tranflated from the Latin of father Cavazzi, a 
Capuchin, 4 vol, in i2mo. ) 

LABERIUS, an ancient Roman knight, who ex* . 
celled in writing Mimes, or little fatirical produ&ions for 
the ftage. Though men of birth made no fcruple to 
furnifh out fuch entertainments, yet it was Ijjghly diigrace-r 
iag to reprefent them in their own perfons. Nevertbe-. 
lefs, Julius Caefar would have Laberius a ft one of his own 
Mimes ; and, though Laberius made all the opposition he 
could, yet Caefar compelled him. The Prologue to the 
piece is ftill extant, and Rollin thinks it one of the moil 
beautiful morfels of Antiquity. Laberius bemoans him- 
felf for the ncceffity he was under in a very afFefting man- 
ner, yet preferving a very refpeftful obfervance of Cafar ; 
but in the courfe of the piece, glances feveral ftrokes of 
fatire at him, which touched him fo fenfibly, as to turn 
the eyes of the fpeftatw? upon him. Cafar, by way of 
revenge, gave the preference to Publius Synis, who was 
his rival upon the fame theatre ; yet, when the Mimes 
were over, prefented hifh with a ring, as if to re~eftablifh 
him in his rank; for Laberius, in. the Prologue, had la- 
mented^ that from an Eques he Ihould now become a 

" Eques Roxnanus e* lare egrcflus meo 
" Donium reverter Mimus : nimirum hoc die 
: ** Uno plus yixi, mihi quam vivendum fuit." 

. . .The very fmall fragments, which remain of Laberius* 
have been often collefted and printed, with thofe of En- 
xtius, LudUus,' PuWitts Syrus, &c. 
* r: Gt L ABO 17- 



LABOUHEUR (John lb), was bom in 1623 at 
Montmorency near Paris, <*f which city his father wa* 
bailiff.* He had fearceiy attained his 18th year, wheirhe 
became known to the literary world by the colleftion of 
monuments of iilnftrious perfons buried in the church of 
tH« Celeftines at Paris, together WtSi their, eldges, genea- 
logies, arms, and : mottoes. This work appeared in 1642, 
4to ; and, although difciaimed by the author on account 
of its impetfeftion, yet was fo well received by the public, 
that a fecond edition -came out the following year. In 1 644, 
he was at court in "-quality of a waiting genflemaft, when 
he was chofen to attend tjie marihaJefs de Gucbriant, 
charged with conducing the princeft Mary de Gonafagfr 
into Poland, in order to her marriage with Ladiflau* IV. 
Our author returned! with the ambafiadrefs the following 
y$ar, and printed, in 1647, at his own expence, a rela- 
tion of the journey, which was very entertaining. 

Having taken orders in the church, he was made 
almoner to the king, and collated to the priory of Jtrvignfe. 
In 1664, his majefty, out of his fpecial &v©ur, made Tiira 
commander of the order of St. MichaeL He had many 
years before begun a translation of the hiftory of Charles 
VI, written by a monk of St Denys, and coiftinued by 
John Le Fevre, called of St. Remy : but» thougR this 
tntnflation was finifhed in 1656, it was not publilked till 
1663 ; and then too came out with a very fmali p&rt of thofe 
commentaries, which, according t*> his promife, were to 
have filled two volumes [a]. He had alfo publilhed, in 
1656, the hiftory tf his miftrefs the marfhalefs of Gue- 
brant with the genealogy of Budos, and fome other 
houfes of Brrtarty: and gave the public an excellent 1 
edition of the memoirs or Mafchael de Caftelriau, with 
feveral genealogical hiftories, 165^, in 2 vol. fol. [-b]/ 
He continued to employ himfelf in writing other pieces in 1 
% the feme way, fome of which Were ptiblifhed afte* ; his death 
{e], which happened in 1675. He had a brother narried 
Louis Le Laboureur, who was bailiff of Montmorericy, 

[a] He took no notice oF this de- in the fale of l&r. Colbert's Ufa** 

few 5 nor is it known what became of ry. 

hi« Coile&ions, onVytbit all his p». [ c ] le Menetriefr m ie?i »«fe» 

pew, found after hit death, came ioto liftied • « Tableaux genealogies^ ou let* 

the hands of Mr. Clarimbaut, genea- « TeUe quartiers des Rois d» Fr«*c ede- 

logift of the order of the Holy Gboft, «< puis Sc.Coim." 2. Hh treatife « ©et 

who applied himfelf to that ftudy, « origine dea Armoiries came o»* ia 

byoiitaBthors^vtoa. u l6% ^. There half* of hi* WriW 

[»] Tbi4 edition ; is very carious « At*iJWof bbrpd^MTdf S^mlMtt,^ 

and force, tt fold for 180 lirrcs preferred* th*ro^lifc*m 

liABOUREiUR; « $ 

*nd author of fatral pieces of poetry [n]. He died in 
1679. Tbeft alio had an uncle, Ckuide Le Laboimnt, 

I*D*oft*>f the abbey of I/ifle Bailie, upon the Seine, neas 
.yons, who, in 1643, puWUhed 4 i Notes and Corrections 
♦' upon the Breviary of Lyons *" and, in 1665, 1681, and 
1682, " Les Mefares de I'lile Barhe," i. e. an hiftorical ac- 
count of every thing relating to that abbey : but the little 
caution which he obferred in fpeaking of the chapter $f 
St. John at Lyons,, obliged him to refign his provoftihip, 
and railed him an enemy in the perfon of Befian d'Arroy, 
a prebendary of the church, who in 1 644 refuted his " Notes 
"and Coiii&ions," and his M Meafures" in 1668 [e]. 
Dom. Claude publlfbed '* A treatife of the Origin of arms, 
" againft Menetiiirt'' and *• A genealogical hiftory of the 
44 houfe of Su Colomhe," which wa9 printed in 1673. 

[b] Vie. Ini€»47, « Les Ceoquetes fc] The firft wts intituled, "L* 

" au due d'Anguipn;" in 1(64, " Le " Apologie de Peglife de Lyori," and 

"porme de ph>rlemagne ;" in 1669, the other " Hiftoire de l'abbftie de 

"Lea wantage* de 1* langoe Fran- <• l'ifle Barbe." 
<*cojfe fa* la Latwej" and " Let 
*' ppneaodes dp .St. Germain." 

h ACARR Y (Giles), a French Jefuit, who was born 
ia 1605, and died in 1684. He was fucceffively profeflbr 
of pplite literature, philofophy, and theology ; performed 
xqmlons \ and went through feveral departments of bttfi- 
nefs in his fociety. Neverthelefs, he foupd tieae to be the 
author of feveral ufeful works ; ufe/ul efpeciaUy for un- 
derftandang the hiftory of his country.; the mod consi- 
derable of which are as follows : ,1. " Jliftoria Galiiarujn 
" fub Pr«fe&is Praetojrii Gallionjm, 1672," in .4tp. 
2* " Hiftori^ CoUojiiarum a Gallis in exteras stationes 
*' mif&nwn, 167 7," in 4to. 3. "De regibus Frfeneiae^t 
" lege Salica." 4. " Hiftoria Promana, 167 1" in j#p. 
This includes the period from Julius Csefar to Conftantine, 
and is fupported and illuftrated by medals and other inonu* 
jnet$ts of antiquity. ,5. " Notitia Provinciaruin Imperii 
" xjtriufque cum notis, 1675," * n 4*0- He gave alfogofcd 
editions of " Vdkiufc Paterculus," and u Tacitus de Q*x* 
M mania." 

C^LIUS (Fxrmianus), an eminent father of the 
church, was, as fome fay, an African, or, according to 
others, a native of Fermo, a town, in the marche of An- 
cona, whence he is fuppofed to have taken his furname. 
Aonobius was his preceptor. He ftudied rhetoric in 
Africa, and with fo great reputation, that Conftantine the 

G 3 Roman 

86 LA C T AN T I U S. 

. 4 

, Roman emperor appointed him preecptcn) to his fort Cliff* 
pus. This brought him to court ; but he was fo far from 

^giving kito the pleafares or corruptions incident to thsrt 
fiation, that> amidft very great opportunities of amalfing 

. riches, he lived fo poor as eyen frequently to want necef- 
iaries. He i* the mod eloquent of all the ecciefiaftical Latin 
authors. He fbrcsed himfelf upon Cicero, and wtote in 
fuch a pure, fmooth, and natural ftyle, andfo much in the 

. tafteand manner of the Roman orator, that he is generally 
diftinguifhed by the title of " TheChriftian Cicero." We 
have leveral pieces of his, the principal of which is his " In- 

/** ftitutiones divinsr," in 7 books: he compofed them 
about the year 320, in defence of Christianity, againft 
all its oppofers. Of this treatife he made an abridgement, 
whereof we have only a part, and added it to another 
tracfr, " De Ira Divina." He had before written a book 
**De Operibus Dei'/' in which he proves the creation of » 

' man, and the divine providence. St. J erome mentions other 
works of our author; as, " Two books to JEfclepjades :" 
" Eight books of letters ;" a book intituled " The Feftin,*" 
compofed before he went toNicomedia ; apoem in hexameter 

•verfe, containing a defcription of his journey thither ; a 
treatife intituled " The Grammarian," and another " De 

■'**■ Perfecutione [ a] :" but all thefe are loft. Several others 
have been falfely attributed to him ; as, the poem called 

•* ** The Phoenix," which is the produftion of aPagan, and not 

* of a Chriftian. The poem " upon Eafter* indeed appears 
to have been written by a Chriftian, but one who lived after 
the time of La&antius : that " Of the Paflion of Chfift'* 
is- not in his ftyle. The " Arguments upon the Metamor- 
** phofes of Ovid," and the " Notes upon the Thebaid of 
** Statius," have for their true author La&antius Placidius 
the grammarian. 

The character of Laftantius as a Chriftian writer is, 

- that he refutes Paganifm with great ftrength of reafoning ; 

- but is not fo happy in eftablifhing Chriftianity upon a folid 
■ foundation. He treats divinity too much as a philofopher. 

- 'He did not underftand thoroughly the nature of the Chrif- 
tian myfteries, and hath fallen into feveral errors. His 
works have gone through a great number of editions, the 

[a] T-he piece, firft poblifhed by century, as is fliewn by father Nxmrri, 

Baluze,"DeMorte perfecutorum,"was who put otjt a new edition in 1710. 

not written by Laclantius, but pro- The defign of it is to fhewj that alt , 

bablyby Lucius Csecilius, who flou- the perfecutors of Chriftianity came 

laJhtd in the beginning of the fourth to * -miferablo cod.. 


L A C T A N I I;U S. £f 

firft of which was publilhed at Rome, in 1468, folio ,- and 
the laft, which is the moft ample, at Paris, 1 748, ia 2 vols. 

LAD V G OAT ( Johk Baptist), a learned French- 
man, w*is librarian and a profeflbr in the. Sorbonne, and 
died in 1766. He was the- author of, i. ". DicHonnaire 
fi Gcogr^phique Portatif," in 8vo : an ufefuL work, and 
often printed; and, what may.feem curious to us, the 
author .publilhed it under the fictitious name of Volgieu* 
and pretended it to be a tranflation from the Engliih, in 
order tp give credit to it. Nay, he even printed the 
Engliih along with it, as if the original. 2. " Di&ionnair? 
" Hiftorique Portatif," in 2 vols. 8vo. This is little 
<more th?n an abridgement of Moreri, with additions. 
3. " Hebrew Grammar," for the ufe pf hi* pupils, 1 744, 
in 8vo. 

LAET (John j>e), an Indian direftof, and dtftin* 
. guiihed by his knowledge, in hiftory and geography, was 
born at Antwerp, and died there in 1640 ; leaving fome 
very ufeful works behind him. 1. " Novus Orbis, 
" Leyden, 1633," in folio. He tranflated it himfelf into 
French; and it was printed again at Leyden, 1640, in 
folio. 2. " Hiftoria naturalls Brafilir," in folio, with 
cuts. 3. " De Regis Hifpaniae regnis et opibus," in 
:8vo. 4. " Refpublica Belgarum." 5. " GaUia." 
6. '* Turcici Imperii Status." 7. " Pcriici Imperii 
41 Status." The four laft little works, printed by Elzevir 
in 24to, treat in a general way of the climate, produce, 
religion, manners, civil and political government, of 
theie fevf ral Hates ; and h?ve (crved at leaft as a good 
jnodel for future improvements. A more considerable 
work employed the laft years of I*aet',s life ; rjid that was 
an edition of " Vitruvius," which was printed alfo by 
Elzevir, 1649, iq folio; accompanied with the. notes of 
learned men, and pieces of other writers upon the fame 
fubje&, , 

L-ffiVINUS (Torb.entikus), commonly called 
Vahder Beken or Torjientin, a very learned man, 
was a native of Ghent, and bred in the univerfity of Lou- 
vain, where he ftudied law and philofophy. He afterwards 
made the tour of Italy, where his virtues obtained him 
the fpendibip of the moft Uluftrious perfonagus of that 

G 4 time* 

*? L JE V I If V $. f 

.time, is the cardinals Sirlet, Borromcus, and Moton, as 
alip Manutius, dc Gambara, kc. -On his mum into 
the Low Countries, he was made canon of Liege, a^d 
afterwards became vicar-general to Erneft de Bavietse, the 
bitfiop of that fee. At length, having executed an am- 
triage to Philip II. of Spain, with fumble abilities, lie 
. was deemed worthy of the oifhopric of Antwerp, • in which 

. he fuccceded Francis Sonnius, the firft prelate of that fee. 

.Hence he was translated to the metropolitical church of 
Mechlin, and died there in 1595 ; having founded a college 

. or Jefuits at Louvain, the place at his education, -to -which 

-he left his library, .with feveral medals and other cur iofities. 

•• Laevinus conlpoied feveral poems, fome of which,- dedicated 
to pope Pius V, procured him the charader of being, after 
Horace, prmoe of the Lyric poets ; and alfo published an 
tditioa of ** ; Suetonius," with excellent notes. 

LAFITAU, a 1 French Jefuit, diftinguifhed by his 
-tafte for belies lettres and hiftory, died about 1755.* He 
was a miffionary among the Iroquois ; and his work in- 
tituled " Moeurs des Sauvages Atnoricains, comparees 
44 aux Mceurs des premiers temps," and printed at Paris 
1723, in .a vols. 4*0, is much eneemed. * 

. LA FONTAINE. See Fontaine. 

L A I N E Z (Alexander), a good French poet, was 
born 'in: 1650 at Chimay in Hainault, and was of the 
lame family with father Lainez, fecond general of the 
jefuits. He was educated at Rheims, where Ae vivacity 
and pleaiantry of his wit procured him an acquaintance 
with the chief perfons of the town, and- an admittance 
among the beft companies. At length he came to Paris, 
and attended the chevalier Colbert, colonel of the-regiment 
of Champagne, to whom he read le&ures upon Livy and 
Tacitus. Several other officers of the army attended thefe 
lefture*, making their remarks, and propofing their dif- 
ficulties, which produced very agreeable and ufeful con- 
verfations. Some time afterwards Lainez travell/d into 
Greece, and vifited the ifles of the Archipelago, Conftanti- 
nople, Alia Minoi* Paleftine, Egypt, Malta, and Sicily. 
Thence he made a tour through the principal towns of 
Italy ; and, returning through Switzerland into France, 
arrived at Chimay in a very bad equipage : fo that he was 
conftrakted • to liyo obfcurely, and had done fo for two 


LAINE Z. 0, 

y^.rs, mhcn d^e abW Faukrier, intendant of Hainault, 
having received orders from the king to feize fome fcandft- 
lour libels that were .handed about upon the frontier of 
Flanders, forced hioafcflf fey violence into his chamber. 
There he found Lainez wrapped up in an aid morning* 
gown, furrounded with a heap of papers, ail in the greateft 
cotrfufipn. , He accofted him as a guilty penfen, ahd 
feized his papeift. Lainez anfwered with modo&y, proved / 
the injufiice of the fufpicion, and the examination of his ' 
papers added cGnvi&ion to his arguments. The abba 
Faultrier was much pleafed to find him innocent ; and, 
having had this occafion of knowing his merit, took him 
home with him, -got him new rigged (for Lainez kid 
t^en no deaths, ip the world befides the aforefeid tattered , 
night-gown), gave him both lodging and diet, and treated 
him as* a friend. - Foiir months after, Lainez followed 
hk benefactor to Paris,' and lived. with him at the arfenal : 
bat, in half a year's time, finding the diftle reflraint this 
laid him under hot at ail agreeable to hisJpirit, he obtained 
leave to retire. This being grafted, he made an excurfion 
to Holland to vifit Bayle, and then crofted the water 
to England; whence, at laft, he returned to fettle at Paris, 

• where- he pafled his days betwixt ftudy and pleafure, 
efpecially that of the table. He- was a great poet, a great 

.elaffic, and a great geographer, and r if poflible, a ftill 
greater drinker. Nobody exadly knew where he lodged. 
When he was carried homeward in any body's chariot, he 

' always ordered' himfeif >to be fet down on the Pont-oeof, 
whence he went on foot to his lodgings, fiis friends, 
who we*e vety numerous, and among them feveral 
perfons of diftinguifhed birth as well as merit, never gave 

• liim any trouble on that head. They did not ca*e where 
tie lodged, if they could often have the happinefs of his 
company. His converfation at once charmed and itt- 
ftraeted them. He was lively, agreeable, fruitful, and 
brilliant. He tallked upon all kinds of ftibjeds, and 
talked well upon att. He was a perfed matter of Latih, 

' Italian, and'Spaniih, and of all the beft authors in eaehx>f 
thttfe languages. The gr^ateft part of the day he ufually 
devoted to his Audies, and the reft was pafied in pleaftrre. 
As one of his friends exprefied his Airprize to fee him in 
the kingV libraty at eight in die morning, after a rcpaft of 
twelve hours the preceding evening, Lainez anfwered him 
in this dHHeh extempore : 

" Regnant node call*, volvuntur biblia mane,< 
€ * Cum Phcebo Bacchus dividitimperium," 


<#> LAI MI 7L 

He dictfat Paris, April 18,171 q. Although he compofcd a 
great deal of poetry v yet we have little of it left became he 
fatisfied himfelf with reciting his verfes in company 4 with- 
out communicating them upon paper. The greateft part of 
his. pieces were mad? in company, over a bottle and ex- 
tempore: fo that they are fhort, Jsut Iprightly, eafy,.full 
of wit, and very ingenious. Almoft all his papers came 
.\into the tends- of Dr.: Gbambou, his* phyfician. 

. — < ■ «.» . • *» 

« h A I R E S SE (Gerard ), an eminent Flemifli painter, 
was born at liege, ? in 1 640. Hi& father, who was a .tole- 
rable painter, put his fon firft to ftudy the. belles lettre?, 
poetry, and mpfic ; to the fell of which Gerard dedicated 
.a day in every week : but at length taught him to defign, 
.and made him copy die bed: piftures, particularly thofe of 
. Bartholet Flamaei, a. canon of that city. At the age of 
fifteen, Gerard began to paint. portraits tolerably ; fome 
. hiftorical pieces which he did for. the electors of Cologne 
land Brandenburgh contributed ta. make him known, and 
gave him great reputatkm.- The.eaie with which he got 
his money tempted him to part with h as eafily, and run 
t into expence. He was fond of drefs, and making a figure 
t in the world ; he had alfq an ambition to pleafe the ladies, 
the liveiinefs of his witeompeniatmg, in tome degree, for 
* the deformity of bis perfon. But one . of his miftrefie*, 
. whom he had abandoned, to. revenge his contempt, 
...baying wounded him dangeroufly with a knife, majk him 
refolve to avoid fuch fcrapes for the future, and, by maj> 
, tying, to put an. end to his gallantries. \ Being fettled.. at 
. Utrecht, and very low in purfe,. he was feized with a con- 
tagious deftemper ; and his wife lying-in at the feme. time, 
he was reduced to offer a picture to fale for prefent fyppoft, 
whkh, in three days time, was bought by a Hollftqder bf 
fortune, who engaged him to go to Amfterdaiji. Accor- 
dingly Lairefle fettled bimfelf there,; and hi* reputation 
. rofe to fo high a pitch, that the Hollanders efteetfi him 
the beft hiftory-paijater of their country, and commonly 
call him their fecond Raphael ; Hemfkirk xi their firft. 

His manner was grand and poetical ; he was* a p£rfed 
mafter of hiftory, allegory, and fa,ble ; his invention was 
' quick, nor had his tafte of defigning any. thing of the Fle- 
mish qaanner. His pidures are diftmguiftted by thegran- 
. deur of the compofition, and by the back grounds, rich 
in architecture, an uncommon circumftanc* i$ that country. 
Yet, it is certain, his figures are often too fhort, and 
7 . : fometimes 

L AT-R--£~8 S E, jfi 

fometimei want gracfttil Ads; "Laireffc vfas fond of Ponf- 

fih*s3uid Pietrb Fella's manner. A voyage to Italy would 

haye given his figures more delicacy and digrttty-. : With 

inch great talents, nobody 4 hid it more in his power to 

♦arrive at perfe&ion than he* Ai length, borne down with 

infirmities, aggravated by the Jofs of his eye -fight, he fr- 

niflied his days f at Amfterdam,- in 1711, at the age of 71*. 

He had three fons, of wh#m two were painteYs and, his 

difciples. He had alfo three brothers, Erntft, James, and 

John ; Erncft and Jobft paihted animals, and James was 

a ftowe*fi-paiater. He engraved a great deal in aqua-fortia. 

Bis work confifts of 256 plates,* great and final], more than 

the half of which are by his own- hand ; the others are er>- 

' graved by Poole, Berge, Glauber; &c. Laireffe Wrote an 

excellent book upon the art, which has been tranflated into 

EngUih, and printed both in 4*0 and 8vo at London". 

> t r » « j 

.LAPS; a courtezan of foch renown and ahtlqtihyv *bat, 
like Burner, it is faid feverai cities claimed the glory of her 
birth ; but that honour is moflr generally given to Hyccara, 
a city of Sicily. However this be, it is agreed-an all hands 
- that ihe was taken from her native ptece when young (about 
fevetl years of age) by Niciaffi the Athenian general ; who 
plundered it, and, among 'Other* fpoils, carried her away 
into Greece. Thus tranfplmted; r lhc fettled at Corinth, 
which was the fitteft plade in tie world for af woman who 
refolved to fet up as a lady of pleafure [a] ; and fhe ma- 
naged her bufinefs fc well, and obtained fitch a reputation 
in it, that itt> one of her profeffion ever fucceeded better. 
The temple of Venus feems to have been the place of ren- 

[a J According to Plutarch, fhe was « firiefs to perfection." Lais, accord- 
Ibid amongft the reft of the inhabitants, ipgly, became one of xhe molt celebrat- 
and carried into Peloponnefus, to Co- ed courtezans of the age. The painters 
rinth, being ftill a virgin. It has been frequented her hojfe, in order to taie 
faid, that (he was firrt debauched by a copy of her line breafr; and Ape lies, 
the famous Apclles, She was but a as a painter, no doubt made ule of the 
young girl, fays this ftory, when that fame original. Arhehxus, lib. 13. ;. 
prince of painters, feeing her return 588. Bayle indeed difcredits this (lo- 
from the wall, was ft ruck, with her ry, on account of the feeminganachro- 
fccaotys and prevailed on her to go mCras of the age of Apelfcs j but this 
along with him to a ft aft, where he perhaps will not be thought fufficient 
was to meet feverai of his friends: and reaibn, when we «onfider the uncer- 
that thefe raillicd hi rn for bringing' a taintyof the ancient chronology; .how- 
raw girl in Aead of a courtezan to them, ever that be, it is certain the ftory is 
u Do not you trouble yoorfelvcs about entirely in character, the painters at 
u that,** replied he; " I (hall inftrucl her this day hiring the moft beautiful prof- 
'* in foch a manner, that; before three titutcs fot the fame purpofe. 
" years^are Daft, lhc (hall fcaow her bu- 


4* L AlS. 

ttovous, where thefe ladies ft*e4 **fce hired. It is und& 
puted, that they bad a confidemMe fhare in the public w^f- 
fl«p of that temple ; there being an ancient law at Corinth, 
hf which it was enatted, that, when the city ihould snake 
puWick application to. Venus for any important favour, 
they fhctald gather up a* imny courtesans^ as c<*uid be 
found, to affift at the proceflion ; and, praying to that god* 
deft, r that they fhould *0iu«&uo<the laft kiiher temple. It 
was alfo an. article of their creed, that the courtesans had 
>cry much contributed to the preservation of Greece^ by 
jthe prayers they offered up to Venus at Xerxcs's invafipn ; 
and the citizens ufed to promife a certain ntuoher of thofe 
creatures to that goddefs, if ihe granted their petition [b]. 
,La* knew how to turn liwa^roflig^einpeiilitioa to her 
-own advantage ; lhe gaye out, how k was revealed t& her 
by Venus, that fhe fhould fignaliae faerfctf and acquire <*on- 
fiderable riches. The goddefs having appeared to her in a 
dream at night, and infcronod* her of the arrival o£ fpme 
Jovers who were immenfely rich,, this device brought in 
.enftomers of all ranks and occupations ; the moft iUuftri- 
ous orators, as well as the moft unsociable philofophers, 
fell into the fciare, and hecameher rnamoratoea* - Heisce, 
• upon the fame principle,, and with the fame trading <a*tt f 
as foon* as ihe found ?t he demands incrcafe, file, imediwr 
price, f© that file got a great dsal of money ; for a vaftmtai- 
ber of the ricbeft men locked to her from all parts*f 
Greece, nor would ihe admit any man who dad dot cone 
tip to the extravagance of her .demands : ibis gave nfe to 
the proverb among the Greeks, :" It is not im eyejiy Jraan's 
"power to. fail to Corinth." Her demands were generally 
complied with ; yet fometimes there happened a mortify- 
ing'difappokitment. The feraousorator DeiQofthenes went 
on purpofe to Corinth, to pafs a night with her: Lais 
afked him t«ft thoufand drachms, or about 317I. The 
orator was ftruck with amazement ; and, perfectly fright- 
ened at her faucy extravagance, left her, confoling trimfelf 
with this fententious piece of philofophy* " I will not b^y 
" repentance at fo dear a rate." 

JBut Ariftippus, the'founderof theCyrenaic philofophers, 
was of a different way of thinking. In reality, that phi- 
fa) Xenophon, the Corinthian, to the fervice of Venus, and offered 
made fuch a promife in cafe he (bould them during the ceremony of the fa- 
be conqueror at the Olympic games; crificc, which he made to, that god- 
and, having gained the via orv, -per- defs,after hu*etan> from the Olympic 
formed his promife very pun. **»ft <r \ /-'v t 

He ctfnfecratcd twenty -f* * * . 

4 ' lofopher 

LAIS* 9| 

ldfopber was the fittseft perfon in the tforld to b6 a keeper 
of fuch an unreftrained harlot as Lais. He was quite eafy 
with regard to* the fidfeHty of his miftifcfles ; he entertained 
no tfoublefcme jealouiies about them, not at all caring what 
feVdurs they beftowed elfewhere. The courtezan accorf- 
irtgjy indulged her fancy to the utmoft. Thefe creatures, 
it 5 is obferved, while they proftitute themfelves for 'hit*? 
where they have fto affeftion, are not without their amo- 
rous itttercourfes, to which love, pure love, is the fole tm- i 
adulterated motive, Diogenes enjoyed this delightful en- 
vied happinefs* That Cynic became fenfiMe of the power 
of her charms, and found her very kind ; (he felt a parti- 
cular relifh in his naftinefs, fo that his poverty was no bir 
to his pleafure ; as (he admitted hhn, without a fee f for her 
own gratification. This was reprefented to Ariftippus by 
his fetvant, who could «ot bear to fee his mafter fpend 
fuch large fums as he dM upon our harlot : but it was to 
ii6 purpofe. Ariftippus amwered, u I pay her well, no* 
*' to prevent others from enjoying her, but that I may tri- 
4i joy her myfelf. " Neither was this enjoyment at all dif- 
tfltbed by being told, that Lais had no love for him : ** 1 
4i do not imagine/' replied he, " that the wine I drink, or 
44 the fifh I eat, love me, and yet I take a: pleafure in liv- 
ing upon, them." Even Diogenes made fpoit with his 
brother pltilofopher on the occafion : * ' You lie with a com- 
44 mon whore,** fays the Gynic ; u either forfake her, or • 
41 be a Cynic like me." " Do you think it ridiculous," 
rfeplied Ariftippus, u to embark on a flnp, v which has car- 
4 * ried feveral other pafiengers [c] ?** 

Taffoni gives us a very diverting defcription of the drefs, 
in which thefe two philofophers ufed to rairibte about Lais's 
houfe. What a pretty thirig,' fays that authot, Was. it to 
fee Diogenes the Cynic, with a cloak of xoarfe cteth; all 
ragged and patched, with a dirty face, without a fhirv 
rtany and loufy, fetting up for t lover, and walking befote 
the famcros Lai$*s door ; and,, on the other hand, to fee his v 
tttal, Ariftippus* all perfamed, neatly dreffed, fpitting 
civet, looking with an evil eye upon the other, and climb- 
ing upoh the Wall -, while the lafdy ftanda at her Wfridpw, 
delighted not a little with their walking in the dew [d]. 
Ariftippus however, w& no flatre to this paffibn; hrdidf 

fc} AtWxui «Si fopra. ^tylc Brach, of Bovrdeux. . 

layt there », in Du Vcrdicr's Bibtfo- . (p] Taffoni 's Fenficri duetf, U> 

«heq. Franc, p; 9S9, a very pretty pc* c,*i.> tlS. 
tm »fon thit fttbjcft, by P*$er <ft 


90. L, A I S. 

not indeed efcipe that icflcxion amotig the gibers, Vut ft* 
anfweretf very appoiitely, " I keep Lais, am not kept by 
" ber» I go to Lais's houfe, I have a right to do it, but 
" ibe does, not govern or rule over me ; I am the mafter of 
" this correfpondence, and can put a Hop to it whenever I 
*' pleafe*" The report of her afpiring at uoiverfal mo- 
narchy, by the force of her charms, is entirely in chara&er ; 
and greatly.countenanced by the few exceptions to it, which 
we meet with in ancient writers. Bayle, with all his di- 
ligence, was able to find but one inftance, in which lhe 
fuffered a defeat : which was in attempting to fubdue the 
continency of Xenocrates. . It feems (he laid a wager, that 
(he would oblige that philofopher to divert himfelf with 
her at the fport of love : to which end, (he feigned to be 
frightened, and, with that pretence, took fan&uary in his 
houfe, continuing there all night; but he did not touch 
her. When the wager was demanded, " I did not pre- 
" tend," faid fhe, " to lay a wager about a mere block, but 
" about a man." .\ 

. It is not doubted but fhe had a monument raifed to her 
by the Oreeks : Tatian charges it upon them, and men- 
tions the fculptor's name, Turnus [e]. Such an inftance 
of devotion is agreeable enough to the debauched manners 
of the Corinthians. It is much more remarkable, that a 
woman, who had followed the trade of a proftitute all her 
Me, fhould hcrfelf preferve ftill a heart fufceptible of real 
love; and to that degree, as to. leave Corinth, where (he 
had always a crowd of lovers, and pafs into Theflaly, to 
meet a young man called Hippolochus, with whom (he was 
paflionatciy in love. f In this ftep (he departed notorioufly 
from her charafter j and in this country (he fell a fecrifice 
to the envy and jealoufy raifed by her beauty. Her rivals 
here, feeing themfelves fo much eclipfed, became defperate, 
' and refolved to get rid of her at any rate ; cruelty is the 
proper food of revenge : , th$fe furies, having conduced her 
into the temple. of Venus, there ftoned her to death. The 

, temple afterwards carried a mark expreffive of that crime, be-.. 

' ingcalled " The temple of Venus the manflayer ;" or, " Ve- 
" nus prophaned [f ]." A tomb was alfobuilt to Lais, on 
the banks of the wver Peneus, where (he was interred, on 
which an infcription was put, to the following purport : 

[e] Whence Bayle infers, that writer. 

Turn™ muft have been a very famous ' [* ] The firft of thefe names is gives 

aaa0ei ih his art ; and yet no mention byTlutarcb, the other by Athenaus. 
ia made of him by Pliny, of any other 

u Proud 


... ^«p» 

" Prond Greece, invincible by her copaage,- has beto van- 
u quifhed by the heavenly beauty o£this Lais, whom Lov* 
" begot, and Corinth educated. Here fhe lie* in the ce- 
" lebrated fields* of Theflaly." The Corinthians alfo, in 
the fuburbs of that city, ere&ed a, monument to her, on 
which was engrayed the figure of a lionefs, refting her fore 
feet on a ram. This is the account of this courtezan's- 
death* which is given by Plutarch. However, this opu 
nion has not been univerfally embraced ; fome authors a£« 
ferting, that fhe was choaked with an oljve ftone, in/ which 
cafe; as Bayle obferves, her death bad happened much like 
that of Anacreon. Others pretend, that fhe died in the 
venereal aft. This was a glorious death, continues Bayle, 
for a perfon who had confecrated herfelf to the Service of 
Venus ; it was dying in the bed of hojiour, and when fhe 
was giving fignal proofs of her loyalty. Lais * in her pro- 
feffion, did what Vefpafian required from the emperors in 
theirs. There are authors who differ from Plutarch alio 
with regard to her age when fhe died, and tells us that 
Lais lived to be old, and turned bawd. This fhe is re- 
proached with by Claudian : " Thus the Corinthian Lais," 
fays he, " grown rich by the love of young men, and 
" the fpoils of two feas, when old-age came upon her, 
•* when the crowd of lovers forfook her, when fhe was ob* 
** liged to lie alone . all night, and there was feldom any 
u knocking at her door, when fhe was frightened at her 
" own face feen in the glafs ; yet fhe would continue her 
" ancient trade; fhe turned bawd, and though a decrepit 
u old woman, fhe could not leave her beloved flew • her 
inclinations were ftill the fame, though fhe could not 
gratify them, This laft mifery is the natural confequence, 
%i and therefore furely a mbfl providential punifhment of 
" this vice.'* The truth of this .ftory muft reft upon the 
author, and perhaps may be nothing more than a poetical 
piece ofimagery. The oircumftarice of being frightened 
at the fight of her face in the glafs was apparently borrowed 
from an epigram of Plato, tranflated into Latin by Aufo- 
ttius, wherein flie is reprefented making the following 
i lpeech: '* I Lais, now grown an old woman, confecrate 
my looking-gIaf/5 to Venus. Let her, whole beauty Is 
everlafting,' ufe it everlaftingly ; it is a fuitable piece of 
furniture for her, whofe everlauing beauty muft be pleafed 
with uflng it Everlaftingly ; for my part, I have no longer 
any occafion for it., fince I do not care to fee myfelf in 
'*' it as I am now, and I cannot fee myfelf as J was for r 
i*' merly." 

L A M- 

1 « 



96 L A MB E CIVS. 

L A^ B E C I U S (Peter ) a learned Gentian Wtiterf 
Was born in 1628 at Hamburg : but went, white very 
jerorig, into Holland, by the dire&ion of Lucas Holile- 
Aiu9, keeper of the Vatican library, who was his material 
wide, and defrayed the expence of his education. From 
Holland he removed to Paris ; and made fo quick a pro- 
ficiency in literature, that at nineteen he obtained a good 
reputation in the learned world, by a work itifiruled " I-u- 
•* cubrationum Gallianarum ProdromuS [ a]." After this, 
Ire was retained by Charles de Montchal, archbilhop of 
Thouloufe, in whofe houfe he refided for eight monfths, 
and was two years' m Rome with cardinal Barberini. He 
had taken his degree of do&or of law in France fome years 
before ; and being appointed profeffor of hiftory in 1652, 
at Hamburg, he returned to his native place, fettled there, 
and was made reftor of the college in 1660. But in this 
ftation he met with a thoufand vexations, being accufed of 
heterodoxy, and even of atheifm ; and, While his labours 
and writings were bitterly cenfured, his fcholars riotoufry 
refufed all obedience to him. *to provide a comfortable 
refource againft thefe troubles, he married a perfon with 
a large eftate ; but this match proved die completion of 
. his misfortunes. His wife was # bid, and fo covetous* thai 
lhe^ would not fufFer her hufband to touch any of her pelf. 
She declared her mind fo foon upeh this fubjeft, that the 
nuptials had not been celebrated a fortnight, when L'atn r 
becius, difgufted, and weary of his condition, left his 
houfe and his native country, with a refolution never tp 
return. Herein he did no more than follow the advice of 
the queen of Sweden, who fuggefted this retreat to him.. 
The firft route he took was to the court of Vienna,* wher^ 
he had the honour of paying his refpefts to the emperor of 
Germany ; but he haftened thence to Rome, and there 
publicly profefled himfelf a Ronun Catholfc. It was this, 
at the bottom, that had been the fource of all his persecu- 
tions at Hamburg. The truth is, that he had been man jf 
iears a convert to the Roman faith. The work was begun 
y Nihulius, a famous prcfolytfe to that religion,, whb na& 
the direftion of his ftudies in Holland; after which Sir.- 
xnond the Jefuit completed the buffnefs at Paris, fo early 
as 1647 : and, though he kept his conversion & fecret, con- 
tinuing outwardly to pfofefs LutheraniTm, yet the cdurfr 

J*A] This is an effay of ©bfemticm tn Aulus Gellius. It w*i printed ft 

» « « 


b( his education abroad made it more than fufpe&ed by 
his countrymen at home, who could not be impofed upon 
by the malic which he put on of conforming to the eftabliih- 
ed religion. Returning towards the end of 1 662 to Vienna, 
the emperor received him gracioufly, and, for a prefent 
fubfiftencTe, made him his fublibrarian i and, May 1663, 
he fucceeded to the poft of principal library-keeper, to- 
gether with the title of courtfellor and imperial hiftoriogra- 

He held this place as long as he lived, and acquired a 
great reputation by the books he publifhed [b]. He died 
in 1680, and upas fucceeded in the librarian's place by 
Daniel Nepelius, who lays he died of a dropfy [c J. Moreru 

[a] Betides the cflay on GelUui , he " Leonis Imp. oracula, Paris, 1665/' 

publithed «« Origines Hamburgenfes, fol. He alfo publifhed Come oration* 

" five liber rerum Hamburgenf. pri- in 1660, and a catalogue of the MSS 

u onus — ab and. SoSadann. 1*25, fcc. in the emperor's library at Vienna. 

" Hamb. 1652/' 410. He defigned tp This was divided into 8 vol. folio ; bat 

bring down the hiftory to his own time ; was left, incomplete. It was done in 

but he publifhed only '* Liber fecuodus a critical and hiftorical manner, and 

" Rer. Hamb. ab A. C. 1225 ad A. contains many curious particulars. In 

f< C. 1292, &c. Hamb. 1661," 4to. th,is he diftinguilhed hlmfelf from other 

To which is added, among other curi- compilers of catalogues j and has been 

o6ties, u A diflertation upon an afs copied lately among ourfelves, in the 

"playing on the harp, which is en- catalogue of the Harleian MSS. in the 

M graved on a tomb ftone in the ca- Britidi Mufeum, which treafure waa 

" thedral church." He difplayed great firft opened for public ufe in 1759. 
learning in his " Animadverfiones ad [c] Mollorus in lfag. adhift. Cher* 

u Codini Origines Conftantinopolita- foaenf. Cimbriie, torn, iii, p. 540. 
" ou et ad Anonymi exerpta, et ad 

LAMBERT (Anne Therese, Marquife de), a 
moft ingenious French lady, was daughter of a Mafter of 
the Accounts, and born at Paris in 1647. She loft her 
father at three years old ; and her mother re-married to the 
ingenious Bachaumont, who took a lingular pleafure in 
cultivating the happy talents of his daughter in law* She 
was married to Henry Lambert, Marquis of S. Bris, in 
1666, and loft him in 1686. After this, (he had long and 
painful law-fuits, where her All was at ftake ; but, fuc- 
cceding at length, fhe fettled in Paris, and kept an houfe 
where it was an .honour to be admitted. All the polite 
among the lettered tribe reforted thither, for the lake of 
couverfation ; for, it feems, hers was almoft the only houfe 
that was free from the malady of gaming, and Fontenelle 
has taken notice, that the d^mquents in this way would 
frequently glance a ftroke at Madame de Lambert's. This 
lady died in 1733, a S e( ^ 86 ; having been the authorefs of 
fome very pleafing produftions, which have been colk&ed 

Vol. VIII. H srfid 


and printed in 2 vols. 12 mo. The principal are, 1 " Avis 

" d'une mere a fon fils, & d'une mere a fa fille." Thefe 

are not dry precepts, in a dida&ic way, but the eafy and 

elegant effiifions of a noble and delicate fpirit. 2. " Nou- 

" velles Reflexions fur lesfemmes." 3. "Traite dePAmi- 

" tie." " Her treatife upon friendfhip," fays Voltaire, 

Effai fur <c fhews that me deferved to have friends." 4. " Traite 

rHift.Gcn. ccj e la Veillefie." 5. "La Femme Hermite :" and 

torn. 7. f evera i f ma ll pieces of morality and literature. Fine fenfe, 

fine tafte, and a fine fpirit, run through all her works. 

L A M B I N (Deny s), a noted commentator upon the 
claflics, was born in 15 16 at Montrevil in Piccardy, a pro- 
vince of France. Applying himfelf with indefatigable in- 
duftry to polite literature, he made an extraordinary pro- 
grefs therein, efpecially in the critical knowledge of the 
claffic authors. After Tome time he was taken into the re- 
tinue of cardinal Francis de Tournon, whom he attended 
into Italy, ^nd where he continued feverai years. On his 
return to Paris, he was made king's profeflor of the belles 
lettres, which he had taught before at Amiens. He pub- 
lifhed commentaries upon Plautus, Lucretius, Cicero, and. 
Horace ; he translated into Latin Ariftotle's morals and 
politics, and feverai pieces of Demofthenes and ^Efchines. 
He died, in 1572, of grief, forthelofs of his friend Peter 
Ramus, who had his throat cut, in the grand maffacre of 
the Proteftants, on the famous, or rather infamous, vefpers 
of Su Bartholomew. Lambin was not without apprehen- 
fions of fujFering the fame fate, notwithftanding he was 
otherwife a good Catholic. He was married to a gentle- 
woman of the Urefin family, by whom he had a fon, who 
furvived him, and publifhed fome of hrs pofthumous 

The character of his genius is feen in his writings, by 
which he acquired the reputation of a great fcholar ; but ' 
the prodigious heap of various leftions, w r ith which he 
loaded his commentaries, render them very tedious. That 
upon Horace is generally moft efteemed ; and that 'upon 
Cicero the leaft, on account' of the liberty he has taken to 
change the text, without any authority from the manu-r 
fcripts, and againtt all the printed editions of that author. 
A lift of his works is inferted in the note [a J. 

LA Mr 

[a] Thefe tr<», u Commentarii In " Nepotem ; in Horatium ; in Plau- 
« j£milium Probum feu Coraeliuoi « tun ; ia Lucrctium: in Cicerenem ; 



c De otilitate linguae Grarcae & re&a, " tonirs" " Viti Cxeroors exejus ope- 

*' Grascorum I+atineJnterpretandorum " ribus collc&a ;" «' Epiftotae praefa- 

H rakionc;" "Oratio de rationis prin- '* toriaC ;" lt Epiftolae familiare* ;" 

" cipata&re&a inftitutioncj" " Ora- " Ariflotelis politica & liun de pio- 

u tio habita pridie quam lib. tert* *i ribus, Lambino interpretej" " Ad- 

"Ariftotelis de republica explicaret ;" " verfari* Demofthenis tc JEfchinis 

" De philofophia cum arte dicendi " orationcs in linguam Latin am traaf- 

"conjarigenda oratioj" u Annotati- "lata*; &c." 
*' ones in Alcinoum de do&riua Pla- 

LAMBRUN (Margaret), deferves to be recorded • 
for her courage, as much as any of the heroines of ancient 
Rome. SJie was a Scotch woman, one of the retinue of 
Mary queen of Scots, as was alio her hufband, who dying 
of grief for the tragical end of that princefs, his wife 
took up a refolution of revenging the death of both upon 
queen Elizabeth. For that purpofe, (he put on a man's 
habit ; and, affuming the name of Anthony Sparke, re- 
paired to the court of the queen of England ; carrying al- 
ways with her a brace of piftols, one to kill Elizabeth, and 
the other to ihoot herferf, in order to avoid the hands of 
juftice ; but her defign happened to mifcarry, by an acci- 
dent, which faved the queen's life. One day, as flie was 
pufhing through the crowd to'comeupto her majefty, who 
was then walking in her garden, fhe chanced to drop one 
of the piftols. This being feen by the guards, fhe was 
feized, in order to be fent immediately to priibn ; but the 
queen, not fufpefting her to be one of her own fex, had 
a mind firft to examine her. Accordingly, demanding her 
name* country, and quality, Margaret replied with an 
unmoved fleadinefs, " Madam, though I appear in this 
" habit, I am a woman; my name is Margaret Lambrun ; 
" I was feveral years in the fervice of queen Mary, my 
" miftrefs, whom you have fo unjuftly put to death ; and by 
" her death you have alfo caufed that of my hufband, who 
" died of grief to fee fo innocent a queen perifh fo iniquit- 
" oufly. Now as I- had the greatcft love arid.affe&ion for 
" both thefe perfonages, I refolved, at the peril of my 
life, to revenge their death by killing you, who are the 
caufe of both. I confefs to you, that I have fuffered 
many ftruggles within my breaft, and haye made all 
poflible efforts to divert my refolution from undertaking 
fo pernicious a defign, but all in vain : 1 found myfelf 
neceffitated to prove by experience the certain truth of 
that maxim, that neither reafon nor force can hinder a 
woman from vengeance, when fhe is ifnpelled thereto 
by love." As much reafon as the queen had to be en- 
»|ed with this difcourfe, fhe heard it with coolnefs, and 

H a anfivcrei 

r \ 









4 4 


anfwered if calmly : " You are then perfuaded, that, frl 

** this a&ion, you have done your duty, and fatisfied the 
demands which your love for your miftrefs and for your 
fpoufe indifpenfably required from you ; but what think 
you rtow is it my duty to do to you ?" This woman 

replied, with the fame unmoved hardinefs : " I will tell 
your majefty frankly my opinion, provided you will 
pleafe to let me know, whether you put this queftion 
in the quality of a queen, or in that of a judge ?" To 

which her majefty profefling that it was in that of a queen; 

** Then/' faid Margaret, "your majefty ought to grant me a 

^pardon." " But what affurance or fccurity can you give 

me," fays the queen, ** that you will not make the like 

attempt upon fome other occafion?" Lambrun replied* 

" Madam, a favour which is given under fuch reftraint, 
is no more a favour ; and, in fo doing, your majefty 
would aft againftme as a judge/' The queen, turning 

to fome of her council, fays, " I have been thirty years 
a queen, but don't remember to have had fuch a lefture 
ever read to me before :" and immediately granted the 

pardon entire and unconditional, againft the opinion of 

the president of her council, who thought her majefty ob* 
Mcmoirs liged to punifh fo daring an offender- And, this confider- 
fr»ra Greg. C( ^ Lambrun gave an excellent proof of her prudence, in 
la reineEli- begging the qtieen to extend her generofity one degree fur- 
zabeth. ther, and grant her a fafe conduft, till fhe fhould be fct 

upon the coaft r France; which Elizabeth complied 


LAMIA, a celebrated Grecian courtezan, was daugh- 
ter of one Cleanora, an Athenian. Being bred to mufic, fhe 
followed the bufinefs of a player on the flute, an occupa-- 
* - tion far from reputable. She was at firft indeed efteemed 

for her fkill in it, being no contemptible performer : but 
this trade foon led her to that of a courtezan— -facllh de- 
Jcenfus Avirni : the defcent from one to the other is very 
prone and flippery : however, fhe managed her affairs very- 
well in it, to that, after feveral proftitutions, fhe became 
the concubine of Ptolemy I, king of Egypt. With hifrr 
being taken prifoner in an engagement at fea r near the 
ifland of Cyprus, where Demetrius Poliorcet gained the 
viftory of Ptolemy, fhe changed her mafter : for, being 
brought to Demetrius, he was fo much captivated with 
her, that though fhe was much older than he, and then in 
the decline of. her beauty, he took her into his trai i, .and 



LAMIA. i3i 

fte was ever after the moft beloved of his miftrefles [a]. 
This was the more remarkable, as he foon grew difgufted 
with his wife and her declining age ; nor did his other 
miftrefles fpare their railleries on this occafion. He once 
at dinner aiked Demo, one of thefe ladies, what (he thought 
of Lamia, who was playing on the flute while they were 
at table? ".She is an old woman,'* anfwered Demo. 
When the defert was brought, " Do you fee," faid he to 
Demo, " how many things Lamia fends roe ?" " My 
" mother," replied Demo, " would lend you a great 
" many more, if yop would alfo lie with her/' The truth 
is* Lamia fupplied the decays of beauty by other equally 
*jFe£Ung charms ; and, among many ft range arts to enchant 
the king, is &id to have bitten him frequently in the 
neck [b]. 

What wonder, that a prince, fo abandonedly lafcivious, 
became the fcorn and contempt of the graver part of his 
court, and that all were not able to conceal their indigna- 
tion ? We are told, that, his ambafladors coming from 
him to the court of Lyfichamus, this prince, at his leifurc 
hours, fhewed them the marks of a lion's claws in his arms 
and thighs, and gave them an account of his fight with 
that wild beaft with which he had been (hut up by king 
Alexander; whereon the ambafladors anfwered with a 
(mile, that " their king had alfo been feverely bit in the 
'* peck by a wild beaft called Lamia [c]." All this while 
the miftrefs balked and revelled in the funlhine of the royal 
bounty, which flowed fo liberally upon her, that no kind 
of magnificence was fpared in her manner of living. Did 
the miftreffes of kinga ufe to take delight in immortalizing 
their names by ftately buildings ? Lamia copied the exam- 
ple ; and, among other edifices, built a very beautiful por~ 
tico atLycone [d]. To fupport her extravagances, the 
Athenians were loaded with taxes ; and none vexed them 
more, than the order Demetrius gave them, to find him 
immediately two hundred and fifty talents. The money 
was raifed with feverity and hafte ; and, when it was ready, 
he commanded them to fend it to Lamia, and to the other 

[a] He was a lover to her alone, [c~\ Plutarch in Demetrlo. 
though he was beloved by- his other [d] A defsription of it was pub- 
women. - Athenaeus, lib. 13, p. 577. liihed by one Polcmon Athen*us ubi 

[■] Sive puer furens x fupra, » 

Imprcffit memoretn den te lahris notam. 
» Hoi". Ode 13, lib, 1. 

H 3 courtezans 



courtezans who waited upon her: " It is for foap," faid 
he. This fpeech, and that ufe of the money, chagrined 
the Athenians. more than the Iofs of it. Yet Lamia was 
not fatisfied : over and above thefe fums, fhe obliged fe- 
veral peffons to furniih her with money for an entertain- 
ment, (he was preparing for Demetrius ; upon which the 
jpent fuch a prodigiox\s fum, that a writer of comedies not 
unjuftlyftyled her "Helepolis," i.e. The conqueror of cities. 
Notwithftanding thefe moft tyrannical oppreffions, the 
enilaved Athenians adored the tvrant, and carried their 
adulations to that extravagant height, as to build a temple 
to this courtezan, under the name of Venus Lamia. De- 
metrius himfelf was furprifed at it, and declared publickly, 
that there was not then one citizen at Athens, who had 
anv courage [e]. Thefe are the chief particulars recorded 
of this famous cpurtezan, but we have no account either 
of her birth or her death. As to the reft of her chara&er, 
it is faid, fhe excelled in witty fayings and fmart repartees, 

Tf"] To this parpofe, Tiherus fs by, that he himfelf, who would not 

fa'd, wh never he came from the fe- foffcr the nations tnler h : s govrr. - 

ntte-ho (e, to cry out in the Gr*-»-k ment to be free, was yet a'hameJ or* 

tongue, "Oh, how ready thtfe men ihe bale patience of thofc Haves. Plut. 


are for lUvory i ' luggeliing nitre- Dcmetr, aod Tacitus. 

Vomos <?e 
hill. Latin. 
1. 2. 

LAMPRIDIUS (^Elius), a Latin hiftorian, who 
flourished under the emperors Dioclefian and Conftantine, 
in the fourth century. We have of his writing the lives 
of four emperors, viz. Commodus, Antoninus, Dia- 
dumenus, Heliogabulus ; the two laft of which he dedicated 
to Conftanline the Great. The firft edition of Lampridius, 
which was printed at Milan, afcribes to him the lite of 
Alexander Sevcrus ; though the manufcript in the Palatine 
library, and Robert a Porta of .Bologna, give it to Spartian. 
As they both had the fame furname, yElius, fome authors 
will have them to be one and the fame perfon. Vopifcus 
.declares, that Lampridius is one of tl;e writers, whora 
he imitated in his Life of Probus. 

LAMPRIDIUS (Benedict), of Cremona, a cele- 
brated Latin poet in the XVI th century. He followed John 
Lafcaris to Rome, and there taught Greek and Latin. After. 

# the fieath of pope Leo X. in 152 1, he went to Padua, where 
he alfo inftrufted youth r »"more for the profit than the repu- 
tation of that employ. Then he was invited to Mantua by 
Frederic Gonzaga, who appointed him tutor to his fon. 

_ Lampridius 

L A M P R ID I U S. 103 

Lampridius is faid to have been of fo timid a nature, that 

his friends could never prevail ©n him to fpeak in public. ' 

We have epigrams and lyric verfes of this author, both in 

Greek and Latin, which were printed feparately, and alfo • 

among the '* Deliciae" of the Italian poets. His odes are ob- 

ferved to be grave and learned. In them he aimed to imitate P«»i Jo™» 

Pindar ; but he wanted the force of that unrivalled poet. * nd B * lllct> 

L AM Y (Bernard), a learned French Proteftant di- 
vine, was born at Mans in 1640. His rather Alan Lamy* lord 
of Fontaine, though in no very eafy circumftances, yet re- ' 
folved to give him a liberal education, and for that purpofe 
provided particular mafter^s to inftrucT: him ; but under 
thefe he made no great proficiency. The method they 
pra&ifed, of obliging their pupils to learn the rules of Syntax 
' by heart, did not fuit his genius, and gave him a diftafte for 
the Latin language : which was however cured by the plea- 
fure he took in the elements, of Roman hiftory and geo- 
graphy, taught him by one of his mafters. Hence, as foon 
as his age permitted, he was fent to the college of Mans, to 
ftudy under the fathers of the oratory ; and here made an 
extraordinary progrefs, not only in his humanities, but alfo 
in piety. The way of life, which thefe new mafters led, 
pleafed him more than their left ares, and he refolved tcf 
make it his choice. To that end he went to Paris in 1658 ; 
and, entering into the inftitucion, immediately applied 
himfelf with an ardent zeal to all the duties of it. He had 
a great tafte for the fciences, and went through them all. He 
knew how to reconcile the amufements of the belles lettres, 
and the flowers of rhetoric and poetry, with the ftudy of 
the languages; the profound meditations of mathematics 
with the thorns and briars of criticifm ; Pagan philolbphy 
with Chriftian morality, and liberal arts with the ftudy of 
the holy fcriptures ; together with rabbinical and theolo- 
gical literature. 

After he had completed Ijis courfe of philofophy at Sau- 
mur, under the father of Fontenelle, he went, in 1661, 
to Vendofme, in order to go through his humanities ; to 
perfeft which, he was fent to Juilli in 1664. He entered 
invo the priefthood in 1667, and afterwards had the care of 
inftrufting the youth, in the college of Mans".. Hedif- .j 

charged this office for two years, and then returned to Sau'- 
nvur to ftudy divinity. The fathers Le Port and Martin 
-were his mafters in this fcierice ; and as foon as he had fV- 
niihed his courfe under them, he taught philofophy in the i 

H 4 fame 

104 k A M Y. 

fame place, and afterwards at Angiers. His attachment 
to the new philofophy difgufted feveral perfons who con«" 
tinued (till under the yoke of Ariftotlc, infomuch that they 
* procured an order from court obliging him to quit An-* 
giers. In 1676, he was fent to Grenoble ; where cardinal 
Camus, having' an opportunity of knowing his merit, con* 
ceived a great efteem for him, would have him near his 
perfon, and drew confiderable fervices from him, in rela- 
tion to the government of his diocefe. After affifting tna» 
ny years in that diocefe, he went to refide at Rouen, where 
he died Jan 29, 1715. His works are very numerous ; 
v written in French and Latin, but chiefly in French ; an4 
upon almoft all fubje&s, as well in fcience as religion. 
His charafter is that of a modeft man, and a lover of 
peace, who attacked nobody, and defended himfelf, when 
there was occafion, with a fpirit of moderation and candor, 

ffBowTr LANCASTER (Nathanael), D.D. wasmany 

WNichoU y c ^ rs reftor of Stanford Rivers, near Ongar in^Eflex ; and 

^335. / author of the celebrated " Effay on Delicacy, 1748-" In 

fpeaking of Dr. Lancafter, Mr. Hull the comedian, wha 

* was his nephew (in a note on " Seleft Letters between the 

u late Dutchefs of Somerfet, Lady Luxborough, &c. &c, 

* ; 1768," 2 vols. 8vo.)f fays, " r^e was a man of ftrong na-» 

'* tural parts, great erudition, refined tafte, and matter of 

" a nervous, and at the fame time, elegant ftyle, as is ob-. 

" vious to every one who has had the happinefs to read 

the Efiay here fpoken of. His writings were fewer in 

number than their author's genius feemed to prpmife to 

" his friends, and his publications lefs known than their 

" intrinfic excellence deferVed. Had he been as folicitous^ 

" as he was capable, to inftruft and pleafe the world, few 

** profe-writers would have furpafled him; but in his lat* 

* c ter years he lived a reclufe, and whatever he compofed 

*' in the hours of retired leifure he (unhappily for the pub- 

" lie) ordered to be burned, which was religioufly (I hac| 

* 4 almoft faid irreligioufly) performed. He was a native of 

Cheshire ; and, in his early years, under the patronage 

and friendship of the late earl of Cholmondeley, mixed 

*♦ in all the more exalted fcenes of polifhed life, where 

M his lively fpirit, and brilliant converfation, rendered 

him univerfally diftinguifhed and efteemed ; and even 

till v^ithin a few months, of his, deceafe (near 75 years 

of age) thefe faculties could fcarce be faid to be impair» 

ed. The Eflay on Delicacy (of which we are now 

z- " fpeaking), 






" fpeaking), the only material work of his which the edw 
" tor knows to have furvived him, w*s firft printed in the 
" year 1748, and has been very judicioufly and merito- 
'* rioufly preserved by the late Mr. Dodfley, in his Fugi- 
tive Pieces." Notwithftanding Mr» Hull's affcrtion 
that his uncle wrote nothing but the " Eilay," 4 Sermon 
of his, under the title of " Public Virtue, or the Love of 
«' our country," was printed in 1746, 4to. He was alfo 
author of a long anonymous rhapfodical poem, called 
** The Old Serpent, or Methodifm Triumphant," 
The Doflor's imprudence involved him fo deeply in debt, 
that he was fome time confined for it, and left his parfon- 
3ge houfe in fo ruinous a condition, that his fucceflbr Dr. 
Beadon was forced entirely to take it doyrn. He- died June 
20, 1775, leaving two daughters, one of whom married 
tothe Rev, Thomas Wetenhall, of Chefter, chaplain of 
& man of war, and vicar of Walthamftow, Eflfex, from 
1759 till his detfh 1 776, 

LANCELOT (Claude), born at Paris in 1616, had 
a principal hand in fome Very ufeful works, which the So- 
litaires of Port Royal proje&ed for the education of youth. 
He* taught the belles lettres and mathematics in their fchool 
at Paris. He was afterwards charged with the education 
of the prince of Conti ; but, being removed upon the death 
of the princefs his mother, he took the habit of St Bene- 
dict in the abbey of St. Cyran. Certain inteftine troubles 
arifing within thefe walls, he became a vi&im among 
others; and was banifhed to Ruimperlay, in Lower Bri- 
tanny, where he died in 1695, aged 79. His principal 
works are, i, " Nouvelle, Methodepouf appendie la Lan- 
" gue Latine, 1644," 8vo. This has been looked upon 
as a judicious extraft, from what Valla, Scaliger, Sciop- 
pius, and above all Sanftius, have written upon the fub- 
jeft. Lancelot is faid to have been the firft, who threw 
off the very ridiculous cuftom of giving boys rules to learn 
Latin in the Latin language. 2. " Nouvelie Methode pour 
♦* apprendre le Grec, 1656," in 8vo. Thefe two gram- 
mars h*ve been translated into Engliih, under the*title of 
*' Port-Royal Grammars ." " If thefe Grammars,." fays my 
voucher, " be compared with other grammars that pre- 
14 ceded them, it muft be owned, that nobody before Lan* 
" celot had the art of fcattering flowers over the dry barren 
t* fields of grammar." He was alfo author of, or at leaft 




affifted in, other grammars, as *• Grammaire Italiennc, 
«*■ Grammaire Efpagnole, Grammaire generate & raifon- 
**• nee :" but thefe are upon a lefs extended plan .than the 
Greek and Latin* 

r * 

L ANC1SI (John Mauca), was born at Rome, 
Oft. 26, 1654. He went through his claffical ftudies ear- 
ly; after which he completed his courfe in philofophy in 
t':e R o nah college,- and ftudied divinity for fome time ; but 
having, from his earlier years, had a turn to natural hif- 
tory, that tafte engaged him to ftudy medicine, to which 
he applied- with great vigour. Anatomy, chemiftry, and 
botany, were equally at firft the objeft of his attention; 
he alfo ftudied geometry, which he thought might be of 
ufe. In 1672, he was created doftor of philofophy and 
phyfic ; and, in 1675, obtained, the place of phyfician in _ 
ordinary to the hofpital of the Holy Ghoft in Saffia. Here 
he made new improvements, by attending the patients, and 
writing the hiftory of their feveral cafes. He quitted this 
poft in 1678, when he was admitted a member 6f the col- 
lege of St. Saviour in Lauro, where he fpent five years in 
reading the beft authors upon phyfic. In 1684, he was 
appointed profeffor of anatomy in the college of Sapientia, 
which office he difcharged for thirteen years with great re- 
putation. In 1668, pope Innocent XI. chofe him for his 
phyfician and private chamberlain, though he was not 
above thirty-four years of age. This pope alfo, fome time 
after, gave him a canon's ftall in the church of St. Lau- 
rence and St. Damafcus ; but this he held only during the 
life of that pontiff, after whofe death he refigned it. In 
1699, pope Innocent falling fick, Lancifi.was ordered, 
among others, to attend him : accordingly, he never left the 
pontiff's bed-fide during his whole illnefs. After Innocent's 
death, he was chofen phyfician to the conclave 5 and Cle- 
ment XI, fucceeding to St/ Peter's chair, made. Lancifi 
his firft phyfician and private chamberlain. 

The reft of his life was employed in the practice of his 

profeffion, and in writing books. He died Jan. 21, 1720, 

aged 65. He had collected a library of more than twenty 

thoufand volumes, which he gave in his life-time to the 

hofpital of the Holy Ghoft ; for fhe ufe of the public, 

* particularly of the young ftjrgeons and ' phyficians, who 

; attended the patients in that hofpital. Tins' noble bene- 

faftion was opened in 17 16 ; the pope, attended by a great 

I num- 

L A N C I S I. • 107 

namber of cardinals, being prefent, We fhall give a ca- 
talogue of his principal works below [a]. 

f A J " Johan. Mar. Lancifi archia- u re&a medicorum fludiorum inftito* 

u tri pontificii Opera, quae ha&enus " enda j" " Humani corporis anato- 

*' prod if runt omnia, &c. Genevje, " roica fynopfis;" * f Epiiiol* ad J. 

•'1718," % vol. 4to. The firft vo- tl Baptiii. Biauchi de humorum fecre* 

lume contains the following pieces : '• tionibus et genere ac prfceipue bills 

** De fubitaneis mortibus ; DiiTertatio *' in hepatefeparatione;" «« Amacidum 

f* de nativis deque adventitiis Romani " ex fanguine extrahi <jueat ;" (the 

" cceli qualir?t:bu5 ; De noxiis Palu- negative had been maintained by Boyle) 

** dom clBuiriis." The contents of tfee " Epiltolseduae de triplici inteftinorum 

fecood volume are, «* DiiTertatio hif- " p«lypo;de phyfiogno«nia," ami many 

" torica de BoyiUa Pcfte ex Campaniae fmall piec s, in Italian as well as J*>r 

" finibus, an. 17 13;" " Lario impor- tin. 
** tata, &p. 1715;'* " Differtatio de 

LANCRET (Nicholas), a French painter, was 
born at Paris, in 1690, and had great part of his education 
under Jillot, v which was compleated by Watteau. He 
always propofed nature for his object, applied itrongly to 
bis profeffion, and tried to follow Watteau's ta'fte; but 
could Aever attain to the neatnels of that mailer s pencil, 
nor to the delicacy* of his defign : yet his compositions are 
agreeable. He was of the academy of Paris, and died 
there in his 53d year : there are a great many prints after 
his paintings. . 

s LANCRINCK (Prosper Henkicus), an excellent. 
painter in the Englifh fchool-, though of German extrac- 
tion, was probably born about 1628. His father, being 
a foidier of fortune, came with his wife and this only fon 
into the Netherlands ; and, that country being then em- 
broiled in a war, procured a colonel's command, which 
he enjoyed not many years, dying a natural death at 
Antwerp. His widow, being a difcreet woman, fo ma- 
naged her fmall fortune, as to maintain herfelf fuitable to 
her hufband's quality, and give her fon a liberal education, 
defigning him for a monaltery ; but, early difcovering a 
natural genius to painting by his continually fcrawling on 
paper, ihe was obliged to comply therewith, though with 
the greateft reluftancy. She put him to a painter, from 
whom, it is likely, he learned the rudiments of his art ; 
but his chief preceptor were the city-academy of Antwerp. 
His advances in the fcience was prodigious, and his natural 
genius, being for liberty, led him to landfkip ; wherein 
. he had the advantage of Mr. Van Lyan's collection, 
which was very large and full of enrious pieces of all the 
eminent mailers of Europe, Lancrinck made his principal 



ftudy after Titian and Salvator Rofa, and was foon taken 
notice of. 

His mother dying, he came to his fortune young ; and, 
being admired for his performances, raffed over to Eng- 
land, where he met with a reception luitable to his great 
merit. Admiral Sir Edward Sprag, being a great lover of 
painting, became his patron ; and recommended him to 
feveral perfons of quality, and virtuofi of that time, 
Among thefe was Sir William Wiliiams, .whofc houfe 
was finely adorned with his matter's pi&ures, but not 
long after unfortunately burnt ; fo that, of this great 
painter, there are but very few finifhed pieces remaining, 
he having bellowed the greateft part of his time, while ii* 
England, on that gentleman's houfe. He was alfo much 
courted by Sir Peter Lely, who employed him in painting 
the grounds, landfkjps, flowers, ornaments, and fome* 
times the draperies of thofe pictures, he intended to gain 
efteem by. As to his performances in landikip only, 
they were wonderful, both for the invention, harmony, 
colouring, and warmth ; but, above all, furprizingly 
beautiful and free in their ikies, which, by general confent, 
excelled all the works of the mod eminent painters in this 
kind. This may appear by fome pieces of his, yet to be 
fcen in the cuftody of Mr. Henly, Mr, Trevpx, and 
Mr. Auften, the father of which laft was his great friend 
and patron. His views are generally broken, rude, and 
uncommon, having in them fome glarings of light well 
underftood, and warmly painted.. He painted a cieling at. 
the houfe of Richard Lent, Efq; atCaufham in Wiltshire, 
near Bath, which is worth feeing. He pra&ifed moreover 
drawing after the life, and fucceeded well in fmall figures, 
which were a great ornament in his landikips, and wherein 
he imitated the manner of Titian. Lancrinck was of a 
debonnaire temper; but was thought to fhorten his days 
by a too free indulgence in the pleafures of Bacchus 
and Venus ; for he died in Auguft 1692. No one of 
. his time fhewed greater love to, and a greater knowledge 
in, painting, than Lancrinck ; witnefs a noble and well* 
chofen collection of pi&ures, drawings, prints, antique 
heads, and models, that he left behind him : raoft of which 
he brought from beyond-fea. 

LANFRANC, an archbifhop in the *KIth century, 
was by birth an Italian, and a native of Pavia, being fon 
of a counfellor to the fenaje of that town ; but, lofing his 




father in his infancy, he went to Bologna. Hence, having 
profecuted his ftudies for fome time, he removed into 
France in the reign of Henry I, and taught fchool fame 
time at Avranches : but being robbed, and tied to a tree 
on the road, in a journey which he made to Rouen, he 
continued in that condition till next day, when being 
releafed by fome paflengers, he retired to the abbey of Bee* 
lately founded, and there took the monks habit. He was 
ele&ed prior of this religious houfe in 1044; 2nd, in 
1049, nla d e a journey to Rome, where he declared his 
fentiments to pope Leo IX. againft the do&rine of Be- 
renger : for Berenger had wrote him a letter, which gave 
room to fufpeft Lanfranc to be of his opinion. Soon 
after he affined in the council of Verceil, where he ex* 
prefery oppofed Berenger's notions [a]. He returned a 
fecond time to Rome in 1059, and affifted in the council 
held at the Lateran by pope Nicholas II, in which Be- 
renger abjured the doftrine that he had till then maintained, 
Lanfranc now obtained a difpenfation from the holy father, 
for the marriage of William duke of Normandy with a 
daughter of the earl of Flanders his coufin. On his return 
to France, he rebuilt his abbey at Bee; but was foon 
taken from it by the duke of Normandy, who made him 
abbot of St. Stephen's at Caen in that province. This 
duke, coming to the crown of England, fent for Lanfranc, 
who was elefted archbifhop of Canterbury in 1070, in 
the room of Stigand, who ha4 been depofed by the pope's . 
legate. He was no fooner confecrated to this fee, than 
he wrote to pope Alexandrer II, begging leave to refign 
it; which not being complied with, he afterwards fent 
ambafladors to Rome to beg the pall; but Hildebrand 
anfwering, in the pope^s name, that the pall was not 
granted to any perfon in his abfence (b), he went thither 
to receive that honour in 107 1. Alexander paid him a 
particular refpeft, in riling to give him audience : this 
pontiff had a fpecial regard for him, having ftudied under 
him in the abbey of Bee : and kified him, inftead of pre- 
fenting his flipper for that obeyfance. Then Alexander, 
not fatisfied with giving him the ufual ordinary pall, in- 
verted him with that pall which he himfelf had made ufc 

[a] He wrote a book atfo againft [b] Rapin, in his " Hiftory of 
Berenger, which is (till extant, under " England," obfenres, that Hilde- 
the title of " De corpore & fangnine brand had forgot that the pall was fent 
u Domini noftri." to England both to A a ft in, Tuftus, and 

Honorius^archbilheps of this see. , 



of m celebrating mafs. Before his' departure, Lanfranc! 
defended the metropolitical rights of his fee, againft the 
claims of the archbilhop of York ; ahd procured them ta 
be confirmed by a national council inio75, wherein feve- 
ral rules of difcipline were eftablifhed. At length pre- 
fuming to make remonftrances to the Conqueror upon 
fome oppreflions of the fubjefts, though he offered them 
with a becoming refpeft, the monarch received tliem with 
difdain ; and aiked him, with an oath, if he thought it 
poflible for a king to keep all his promifes. From this 
time our archbilhop loft his majefty's favour, and was ob- 
ferved afterwards with a jealous eye. 

Some years, before this, Gregory VII. having fum- 
moned him feveral times to come to Rome, to give an ac- 
count of his faith, at length lent him a citation to appear 
there in four months, on pain of fufpeniion : Lanfranc, 
however, did not; think proper to obey the fumaions. He 
died May 28, 1089. He has the charafter of a great ftatef- 
HHtory «f man, as well as that of a learned prelate. He rebuilt the 
'^P^ cathedral of Canterbury, re-eftablilhed the chapter there, 
Bibtiochcca founded the hofpitals of St. Nicholas at Herbaidown 
Topogra- anc [ St. John at Canterbury, repaired feveral churches 
P klc ** and monafteries in his diocefe, obtained, a reftoration of 
the eftates of the church which had been alienated, and 
maintained the ecclefiaftical immunities. A remarkable 
fuit, which he carried againft Odo, bifhop of Bayeux 
and earl of Kent, put him in pofieflion of five and twenty 
eftates, which bad beeh ufurped by that prelate. Lan- 
franc, befides his piece againft Berenger already mentioned, 
wrote feveral others, which were publifhed in one volume, 
in 1647, ^ father Dom. Lac D' Aerie, a BenediAine 
monk, of the congregation of St. Maur [c] 

[c] This collection contains Com- (ian ; a book of letters; Sec. to which 
mentarics upon St. Pad's Epiftles ; is prefixed our archbishop's life, 
notes upon fome conferences of Caf- 

LANFRANCO (Giovanni), an eminent Italian 
painter, was born at Parma, on the fame day with Dome- 
riichino, in 158 1. His parents, being poor, carried him 
to Placenza, to enter him into the fervice of the count 
Horatio Scotte. While he was there, he was always, 
drawing with coal upon the walls, paper being too fina^l 
for him to fcrawl his ideas on. The count, obferving his 
difpofition, put him to Auguftus Caracci ; efter whofe 
death he went to Rome, and ftudied tinder Annibale, 



who fet him to work in the church of St. Jago,- and 
found him capable of being .trotted with the execution of. 
his defigns : in which Lanfranco has left it a doubt ■ 
whether the work be his or his matter's. His genius lay- 
to painting in frefco, in fpacious places ; as we may 
perceive by his grand performances, efpecially the cupola 
of Andrea de Laval, wherein he has fucceeded much better 
than in his pieces of a letter fize. The guft of his defign- 
ing he took from Annibale Caracci ; as long as he lived 
under the difcipline of that illuftrious matter he was 
always correct ; but, after his mailer's, death, he gave a 
loofe to the impetuofity of genius, without minding the 
rules of art. He joined with his countryman Siftp Ba-. 
dalocchi, in etching the hiftories of the Bible, after Ra- 
phael's painting in the Vatican; which work, in con- 
junction with Badalocchi, he dedicated to his matter 
Annibale. .. Lanfranco painted the hiftory of St. Peter fox 
pope Urban VIII, . which was engraved by Pietro Santi. 
He did other things in St. Peter's church, and pleafed the 
pope fo much that he knighted him. 

Lanfranco was happy in his family ; his wife, who was 
very handfome, brought him feveral children; who, being 
grown up, and delighting in poetry and mufic, made a 
fort of Parnaflias in his houfe. His eldeft daughter fang 
finely, and played well on feveral inftruments. He died 
in 1647, aged 66. His genius, heated by ftudying Cor- 
reggio's works, and, above all, the. cupola at Parma, 
carried him even to enthufiafm. He earneftly endeavoured 
to find out the means of producing the fame things ; and 
that he was capable of great enterprizes, one may fee by 
his performances at Rome and Naples. Nothing was too 
great for him : he made figures of above 20 feet high in 
the cupola of St. Andrea de Laval, which have a very 
good effeft, and .look below as if they were of a natural 
proportion. In his pi&ures one may perceive, that he 
endeavoured to join Annibale' s firmnefs of defign to Cor- 
reggio's guft and fweetnefs. He aimed alfp at giving the 
whole grace to his imitation ; not considering, that Na- 
ture, who is the difpenfer of it, had given him but a fmall 
portion. His ideas indeed are fometimes great enough 
for the greateft performances ; and his genius could not 
ftoop to correft them, by which means they are often 
unfinifhed. His eafel pieces are not fo much efteemed as 
what he painted in frefco ; vivacity of wit and freedom of 
hand being very proper for that kind of painting. Lan- 
3 franco's 



franco's guft of defigning refemblcd his matter's ; that is, 
it was alwa/s firm and grand: but he loft ground, at 
length, in point of correftnefs* His grand compofitions 
are foil of tumult : examine the particulars, and you will 
find the expreffions neither' elegant nor moving. Hi* 
colouring was not fo well ftudied as that of Annibale ; 
the tints of his carnations and his fhadows are a little too 
black. He was ignorant of the claro obfeuro, as well as 
his mafter; though, as his matter did, he fometimes 
pra&ifed it by a good motion of his underftanding, and 
not by a principle of art. 

Lanfranco's works came from a vein, quite oppofite -to 
thofe of Domenichino ; the latter made himfelf a painter 
in ipite of Minerva ; the former was born with a happy 
geniusl Domenichino invented with pain, and afterwards 
digefted his compofitions with judgement : Lanfranco left 
all to his genius, the fource whence flowed all his pro- 
ductions. Domenichirtb ftudied to exprefs the particular 
pafiions ; Lanfranco contented himfelf with a general ex- 
preffion, and followed Annibale's guft of defigning. Do- 
menichino, whofe ftudies were always guided by reafon, 
increafed his Rapacity to his dearth ; Lanfranco, who was 
fupported by an exterior praftice of Annibale's manner, 
diminilhed his every day after the death of his matter. 
Domenichino executed his works with a flow and heavy 
hand ; Lanfranco's hand was ready and light. To clofe 
all, it is hard to find two pupils, born under the fame 
planet, and bred up in the fame fchool, more oppofite on6 
to the another, and of fo contrary tempers ; yet this op- 
pofition does not hinder, but that they are both to be- 
admired for their beft productions. 

£Aem LANGBAINE (Gerard ), a learned Englifh writer, 

was fon of Mr, William Langbaine, and born at Barton- 
kirke in Weftmoreland about 1608. He had the firft part 
of his education in the free-fchool at Blencow in Cum- 
berland, whence he was removed to Queen* v c °U c g e in 
Oxford in 1626; ^vhere, being admitted a poor ferving 
child, he became afterwards a tabarder, or fcholafr upon 
the foundation, and thence a fellow of the college. He 
became B. A. in 1630, M. A. in 1633, and D. D. in 
1646. He had acquired a good reputation in the uni- 
verfity, fome years before he appeared in the literary 
republic ; when his edition of Longinus was printed at 
Oxford, 1636,^ in 8vo. This was followed by feveral 
. ' ' other 


LAN-GBA-iH E. xt« 

other publications, which were £b many proofs of his 

' loyalty to Charley T 9 after the breaking but of the civil 

warsj; and of liis zeal for the Church 47' England, in op- 

pofition to the covenant [a]. Thefe writings, withhia 

Btepry riierit, made hijn very popular in thaf univerfity ; 

, fo that, i#. j] 644, he. W*s unanimously elefted keeper qf 

their archives, arid, ip x 64. jj • jprovoft of his college :' botji 

wjjiich glares lie helj} 'till -jn^ death Feb. io, 1657-$. 

He. was interred ajiout jhe jniddle of the inner chapel ^f 

Queen's-college ; iiayipg, a, litde, before, fettled 24^ P* r 

' ahri.' on a treerfchool at the place pf his nativity. 

. % , Our aftpior was ijitich, eftpemed by feveral learned nwn 

<>f W$ time, and helda literary correfoondoice with Uflj$r 

'jjnJi Spla?n [ 3I . fey. the i'n$ereft of Seideny he was fcreen$d 

p^.ffic jp£rf$cupo^. of the then prevailing ^powers ; %o 

wl^ppi T ng fo fair /\$rfyt£&cT as to continue guiet, without 

them : e^nl^ying himfelf in promoting learning 

pie 4i|oipline of the univerfity, as well 


•TOtries; as rtiey ftbod 1* the , Te%ii of «■ univerfity of Oxfofd," Zee. publifhed 
w J&w, VI." by way of { preface to a by James Harringtop, &c. 1690, 4*0. 
bqokp intituled, " The, true fubjed to " pro more folenni in Ve/p. 

4t fie rebel, or tbe hurt of fedition," *• propoiitaeann. 16 51. 1658," 

*6. wrkteo by Sir JonfrCReeV, lint, lifhed by Thomas Barlow, afterwards 

*$4** 4 ( o« To *his I^ngbaife, pre-, biihopof X«i*co}n, among federal little 

§**A tj« ^ife of §ir Joh$ £Kfej£. pieces of learned men. " Platonicoru,m 

fyllab«s ; al- 

2. * Epifcopal inheritance, &c. ioli. *' aliquot qui etiamnum fuperfunt Qr*~ 
fieT U which it added, « A deicJnl*. « cortfiri-lft- . Latinbraar fyllabu 

ifiSo. .^. «? A fetietf of ihe <cove-* C&urch* ^Thefoondatibnof theeni- 

*' nao^" ,t*c» pranced, j- wi^out bif '^yerficy of Oxford, with a catalogue*) f 

. akine, ip 1644, and again' in i66r; "all the fpunders and principal bene- 

| "W,Jrn art adVertifement, importing the « factors of all the colleges, and total 

rctioa>of his riot owning it in tht firft <" number of ftadents, &<3. 17514 frdro, 

"liturgy of the timttrch/of'Eogland, «« the former." He likewife laboured 

'* Ice. 1645, jid." / f, , . vctymuchiniini&ing.Uiher's "Chro» 

][■] Sooae of nis letters to Uiher are ,'• nologiafacraj" but died when he had 

* printed in the Appendix to bU life, by almoft brought it to an end : Barlow 
*tol 3M eieten others; to 8«Wen, completed it. Our author lifeewffc 

- bwe been pobljtijbfd by Hearae, in translated into Latin '.'Ileafons of .the 

tbc firft part «f his Appepdix to Le- ** p re fent judgement of the univerfity 

J«ftd , t ColleAaiiea, vof. V.' < f concerning the folemn league an4 

[c] This appears from the books he "covenant:" an3 amfted Sanderfon, 

• JPblijheAj whichr befides thofe already and Zooch in drawiog up thvfe reafona. 
.I&enujniedf are,f* Anfwer qf thechan- . He alfo translated into Englih, from 

.^f^Soj, mailers, and fc^olars of the the French, " A Teview of the counci 1 
* oaivofity of Oxford, to the petition, , *« of Tj*Xh &&>[ f, 9 lio ^ 
. *• fcc of tit city -of Osford. prefemed 

Vol. VIII. . I at 

,1 *' 

r*4 tANGfi'AlNE. 

: as that of hrs own college, with what fpirit he did this** 
" is beft feen in the following paflages of two lettres - 7 oiie to 

* Ufher, and the other to Selden. In the firft, dated from 
'Queen's-college, Feb. o, 1646-7, he gives art account of 

himfelf as follows : " For myfelf, I cannot tell what ac- 

**' count to make of my prefent employment. I have 

«' ihany irons in the fire, btkt of np gteat confequence. I 

*' do not know how fooa I (hall bfe called to give up, and 

. '* im therefore putting my houfe in order; digefiing the 

4i confufed notes and papers left me by feveral predeceflbrs, 

iC both in the university and college, which I purpofe to 

1 ; *' leave in a better method than I found them. ' At 

** Mr. Patrick Young's requeft, I'have undertaken, the 

** collation of Conftantine's Geoponics, with two MS5. 

** in our public library, upon which lam forded to 

4t beftoW fome vacant hours. Ifi Otlr colfege ll ram ex 

-*• officio to moderate divinity-difptftations once a week. 

•* My honoured friend Dr. Duck has given mfe occafi'on 

4i to maker^ fome enquiry aftef the Jaw [»}*• And the 

* 4 'f opportunity of an ingenious yourig man, come lately 

. '' from Paris, who has put up a private courfe of anatomy, 

** has prevailed with me to engage myfelf -for his auditor 

*' and fpeflator three days a week, four hours each time. 

44 But this 1 do ut exploratory nan ut transfuga. For 

* •*' though I am not fohcitous to engage myfelf in that 
m ic great and weighty calling of the rniniftry after Axis new 

44 way, yet I would be loth to be xamwwtrm as to divinity. 

** Though I am very infufficfent to' rnake a mafter-buildtr* 

1 ■ ' yet I could help to bring in matejrials from that public 

*' ftore in our library ; to which I could willingly con- 

: ** fecrate the remainder of my days,- and count it no lofs 

ic to be deprived of all other accommodations, To I might 

. V be permitted to enjoy the liberty of my confciencc and 

** ftudy in that place. But if there be fuch a price fet 

** upon the latter, as I cannot reach, without pawning the 

** former* I am fefolved. The Lord's will be done." The 

tother letter, to Selden, is dated Jtfov. 8, 1653: " I wis 

' di not fo much troubled to hear of that fellow, who latdy, 

"in London*' maintained in public, that learning is a 

; ** fin, is to fee fome men, who would be accounted none 

:*' of the irieancft among ourfelves here at home, under 

J>] Duck was thch eftgftge* in Wood* the labours of Dr. =Ger. L«ofc- 
( fcotapofing his book <r De ofo & tmhori- Wine were fo much, that he deferatf 
* *' tate juris cirilV *c. which 6ame * th« name of co-aiathar. Ath'. Oxorf, 
#ut in l#5J> 8ro4 m wfefcfa* fayt 

' ' ** pretetice 



lA^bfiAlNE. 115 

** pretence of piety, go about to banifh it the univerfity. . 
" I cannot make any better conftru&ion of a late order 
*.' made by thofe whom we pall vifitors, upon occafion of 
41 an ele&ion laft week at All-fouls college, to this efFed, 
"that, for the future, no fcholar be chofen into any 
f* place in any college, unlefs he bring a teftimony under 
?* the hands of four perfons at leaft (not eleftors) known 
f to thefe vifitors to be truly godly men, that he who ftands 

V for fuch a place ii himfelf truly godly ; and, by arrogating 
** to themfelves this power, they fit judges of all mens 

" confidences, and have reje&ed fome, againft whom v 
'*< they, had no other exceptions, (being certified by fpch, 

V to whom their conversations were beft known, to be . 
" unblameable, and ftatutably elected, after due ex* 
* amination and approbation of their fufficiency by that 
** fociety) merely upon this account, that the perfons 
*' Who teftificSd iA theif behalf are not known to thefe 
u vifitors to be regenerate. I intend (God willing) ere 
**long to have. an efe&ion in our college, and have not 
*' profeifed that I will hot fubmit to this order. How' I 
** fliall fpeed in it, I do not pretend to forefee ; but, if I 
" be baffled, I fhall hardly be filent." Dr. Langbaine 
yas married, and furvived by his wife, who brought him, 
among other children, a fon ; an account of whom is 
given in the fubfequent article. 

LANGBAINE (Gerard), fon of the former, w** 
born in Oxford, July 15, 1656; and, after being edu* 
cated in grammar learning, was bound apprentice to a 
l>ookfeller in St; Paul'? church-yard, London, But he 
was foon called thence on the death of an elder brother, 
and entered a gentleman-commoner of Univerfity-college 
in 1672 ; where, by his mother's fondnefs, it feems he 
became #idle, a great jockey {a], married, and ran out 
a good part of his property * but, being a man of parts, 
he afterwards took up, lived for fome years a retired life 
near Oxford, improved much the natural and gay genius 
he had to dramatic poetry, and at firft wrote little things, 
without his name fet to them, and which he would never 
own. Aug. 1690, he was elected inferior beadle of art* 
in the univerfity of Oxford , and, foon after fuperior 
Ixadk of law. About this time, he publiflied " An ap- 
" pendix to a catalogue of all the graduates in divinity, 

[a] He jrrott a piece on that fuh- of " The Hunter ; a dicourfe of horfe- 
je&j -which W*t printed with the titi* " manffcip. Qxon. 1685/' SVo. 

' * ; ♦Maw, 


Lin guar. 
Vctt. Sep- 
cap. zi. p» 


<« law, and phyfk," &c. written by R>. Peers, iuperknr 
beadle of arts and phyfic. Langbaine's appendix contain* 
the .names of all who proceeded from the 14th of June 
1688, where Peers left off, to the 6th of Auguft 1690*. He 
did not fervive this long, fome diforder carrying him off 
in June 1692. Befides the pieces already mentioned, he 
.publiflied " Momus triumphans, &c. 1688," 4*0, and 
again- with the title of *' A new catalogue of En|lifh 
" plays," &c. 1688 : and this is the ground-work of ano- 
ther book, much better known, " An account of die 
44 Englilh dramatic poets, &c. Oxford, 1691," 8vo. 

LANGELANDfi (Roberts), atjthor of " The , 

. " Vifions of Pierce Plowman," of whofe family we fcave 
no account, was one of our moft ancient Englifh poete r « 
and one of the firft difciples of Wickliff. According to 
Bale, he compleated his work in 1369, when John 
Chichefter was mayor of London : fo that feventl of 
Gower's and Chaucer's pieces m^de their appearance 
before it. It is divided into twenty parts (faffus f as he 
ftyles them), and confifts of many diftinft viiions, which 
have no mutual dependance upon each other ; fo that the 
poem is not a regular and uniform whole, confifting of 
one adion or defign. The author feems to have intended 
it as a fatire on almoft every occupation of life, but more 
particularly on the clergy, in cenfuring whom his matter 

^Wickliff had led the way. The piece abounds with 
humour, fpirit, and imagination ; all which are dreft to 

; great difad vantage . in a very uncouth verification and 
obfolete language. It is written without rhyme, an or- 
nament which the poet has endeavoured to fupply, by 
making every verfe to confift of words beginning with the 
fame letter. This pra&ice has contributed not a little to 
render his ptfem obfeure and perplexed, exclusive ^of its 
obfolete ftyle ; for, to introduce his alliteration, he muft 
have been often neceflarily compelled to depart from the 
natural and obvious way of exprefiing himfelf. Dr. Hickes 

'obferves, that his alliterative verfification was drawn fcy 
Langelande from the praftice of the Saxon poets, and that 
thefe viiions abound with many Saxonifms. " Haec 
" obiter ex Satyrographo noftro (Langelande) cui Angio- 
" Saxonum poetae adeo familiares fuerunt, ut not folum 
" eorum verbis verfus fcripfit, fed tinnitum ilium con- 
" fonantem initialium apud eos literarum imitatus eft, & 
" nonnunquam etiam verfus tanturri ndn Saxonict con- 
" didit." From this it appears, that the example of 






Gower and Chaucer, who fought to reform the nroghnefs 
of thbir native tongue, by naturalizing many new words 
from the Latia, French, and Italian, and who introduced 
the feeen-lined itautza from Petrarch and Dante into our 
poetry, haul Ikrie influence upon Langclande, who chofe 
other to .go back tm our Saxon models, bofh for language 
and form of verfeu 

The curious reader may perhaps not be difpleafed with 
afpeck&en of the introduction to the vifion. " The poct.OMcrri- 
" (fhadowsed by the name and chara&er of Peter or Pierfe, ^ n r S j on !he 
a pfowmaa) reprefents himfelf as weary of wandering, <£ e ™ of 
on a May->morning, and at laft laid down to fleep by the Spcnfcr, by 
**fide of a brook; where in a vifion he fees a ^tely™ '^"*" 
•* tower upon a hill, with a dungeon, and dark difmal g° vo '. L©nd! 
"dtoches belonging to it, and a very deep dale under the J754-p«9 » 
** hilk Before the tower a large field or plain is fu^pofed, 
** filled with men of every rank or occupation, all being 
u refpe&ively engaged in their feveral purfuits ; when fud- 
u denly a beautiful lady appears to him, and unravels to 
' u him the myftfcry of what he had feen : 

4C In a fummer feafon, when hotte was the fun, Par. i. V.i. 

' * 1 fhoupe me into the ihroubes as I a fliepe were $ &c - 
u In habit as a hermit, unholie of werkes, 
" Went wide into jthe world wonders to hear, 
. " And on a May-morning, on Malvern-hylles, 
■" Me befell a ferly, a fairy methought 
Ai I was wery of wandring, &c." 

Before every vifion the ipanner and circumftances ofib. 9 i. 
his felling afleep are diftin&ly defcribed ; before one of 
them in particular, P. Plowman is fuppofed, with equal 
humour and fatire, to fall afleep while he is bidding his 
Wads. In the courfe of the poem, theiatire is carried on 
by m^ans of feveral allegorical perfonages, fuch as Mede, 
Simony, Confcience, Sloth, &c. Selden mentions this Notes 00 
author with houour; and by Hickes he is frequently P©iy«ib.s. 
ftyled, " Celeberrimus ille Satyrographus, morum vindex 11, 
" acerrimus," &c. Chaucer, in the " Plowman's Tale," 
feems to have copied from our author. And Spenfer, in 
liis Paftorals, feems to have attempted an imitation of his Bj>iik to 
vifions; for, after exhorting his Mufe not to contend Shcp.Kd. 
with Chaucer, he adds, 

" Nor with the plowman that the pilgrim playde awhile," 

. L ANGHOR'NE (John), D. D. was bom at Kirbyaiofrapiii* 
Stephen, in Weftmoreland. His father *was the Rev. Jofeph Dr*»atic» 

I 3 Langhorne, 


Langhorfie, of Winfton, who died when his (6ft vtz% 
young. After entering into holy orders, he became tutor, 
to the fons of Mr. Cracroft, a Lincolnfhire gentleman,, 
whofe daughter] he married. This lady in a fhort time 
died* and the lofe of her was very pathetically lamented 
by her hufband in a monody, and by another gentleman, 
Mr. Cartwright, in a poem, intituled, '** Conftantia." 
Dr. Langhorne held the living of Blagden, in Spntedet- 
flxire, at the time of his death, which happened April I, 
1779, and is imputed to his ufual fubititute for the 
Caftalian fountain, rather too frequent draughts of Burton 
ale at the Peacock in Gray's-Inn-Lane. He was the au- 
thor of feveral literary produ&ions ; amongft others, of 
" Poems" in 2 vols, 1766 ; " Sermons" in a vols,- 1773*; 
" Effufions of Fancy," 2 vols ; ** Theodofius and Con- 
" ftantia," 2 vols ;■/* Solyman and Almerta*" "Frederick 
*« and Pharamond, or the Confolations of Humafi Life,* 
<c 1 769 ;" a diflcrtation, ** on the Eloquence of the Pulpit ;*' 
and another, " on Religious Retirement;" and editor of 
the " Works of St. Evremond," of the " Poems of Cot* 
** lins," and fome other articles. , 

i^L^oio LANG'IUS (John), of Lawenburg in Silefia, was 

Rwov*to! l0 ^ ori1 * n t ^ it j ea r 1 4%S J anc * ftudied phyfic at Pifa in Tuf* 

cany, where he had his dbftor's degree. After this he prac- 

tifed at Heidelberg, and was fucceffively prime phyfician to 

four feveral Electors Palatine : among whom he attended 

Frederic the Second above thirty-feven ' year* through 

Spain, Italy, France, and the greateft part of Europe { 

and died at Heidleberg in the year 1565,' aged 80. He 

publifhed at Bafil, 1554, in 4to, certain mifcellaneous 

medical Epiftles ; which a very abk judge declares 

Aftrocde « to be penned with great erudition, to contain many cu-% 

Lib. v . cner ' " rious matters, and to be well worth the perufal." 

CodwinU LANGTON (Stephen), was born in England, but; 
Biih llh educated in the univeriity of Paris, and efteemed by th$ 
•r»nnert king anc ^ a ^ t ^ ie nobility of France for his great learning! 
Bibiiotheca, He was chancellor of Paris, a cardinal of Rome, and made 
* e ~ archbifhop of Canterbury, by the pope, in the reign of king 

John. The monks of Canterbury, according to cuftom, 
chofe a prelate, and fent him to the pope for his approba-* 
tion. Some difputes arofe among them upon the occa^on, 
which the pope artfully laid h6td of to difafihul "the* eIec-< 
tion; fubftituted Stephen Langton; and with his own hands 
gaveiiim confecration at Viterbium/ He immediately wrote 

•* t > * " * lettefs 



fetters, to the; king, to induce him to confirm what he had 
don^. v But the king, in great indignation, banifhed all the 
xoonks of Canterbury, feized their efFe&s, anil forbad Ste. w 
phen Langton .entpuice into this realip. The pope, hearing 
of this, font his mandate to three htfhops, vi*. London, Ely, 
and-\Vpjcgfter, to admonilh. ajad perfuadethe k&g-to re- 
ftore the monks, and give the arcfrbifhop poficflion of his 
temporalities * which if he refilled to do in a limited time f 
they had- orders to interdift the whole realm. Finding 
the king rpfolute.iii his (determination, they published the 
pope's i^terdiftion at the time appointed. This being 
ineffectual, the pope proceeded to a particular ^xcommunir 
cation of the king, deprived him of all regal authority, and 
abfoived his fubje&s from their allegiance. But all this 
fpiritttal artillery would have beeji to no purpofe, if the king 
had not$prceived a defefUpn amongft his owi* fybje&s, and 
jthe French making great preparations to invade his domir 
uuons. Uponthis account, he found it neceffary to fubmit 
to. the £e of Rome, to receive the arqhbifhop, and reftore 
the. monks. Soon afterwards Stephen went *o Italy to atr 
jend a general council, and in the time oi his abfence king 
John -died. At his return, fie made ufe of all arts to ingra-. 
-xiate himfelf with his fucceflbr Henry III. He removed tl}e 
jcorpfe of Thomas of Becket from the place of his interment, 
jand inciofed it in a ibrinp of gold, fet with precious ft ones. 
At this ceremony the king, the pope's legate, and all the 
nobility attended, and v^eie entertained at the archbifhop's 
^expence, in a moft magnificent manner, iex^eeding,. it is 
£ud, even a royal feftival. . He called a invocation at Ofney 
near Oxford, wherein many .things were decreed, which are 
for the moft part to be feen among the principal conftitv? 
tions. Here an impoftor appeared, who pretended to be 
Jefus Chrift, and mewed marks in his hands, feet, and 
:fide. A woman alfo perfonatcd the Virgin Mary, and both 
of them were condemned by tjiis fy$od to he immured be* '' 
tween fpyr walls till they died. 

He was archbi&op 12 years, died Jwly% 122S, an4 was 
buried in the Ghapel of St Michael at Canterbury. He 
was one of jhe moft illufttious men of the age in which 
he lived, for his fcaraii^g and his writings; a catalogue of 
which is given by Bale an4 Tanner* 

. LANGUET (Hubert), an eminent ftatefinan, was 
a native of France, minifter of .ftate to Auguftus ele&or of 
Saxony, and gained a great reputation by his. uncommoi* 

"14" par^ 


120 L AN GV ET. 

$ parts and learning. He tfas born at Viteaiix in i$i$; ttd 

having paflcd through his ftodies at hotne, went to -Italy 

in 1547, to complete his knowledge in the dvil Mfofj ted 

„ Commenced doftor in that faculty atifcdu* [a]. From 

thence going to Bologna, he met with a took of Philip 

Melahdhon; which rtifed in him fo ftrong a defire to 

be acquainted with the author* that he made a tour 

into Germany, on ptirpofe to vifit him at WiftaSbfeig hi 

Saxony. He arrived there in 1549 {b], arid ftortly aftef 

_. embraced thp Proteftant religion. From this time the*4 

commenced a ftrift friendship between htm and Me* 

lan&hon, fo that they became infeparable companions. 

Languet cptild not leave Melknfthon, and Melan&hoii 

was equally charmed with Languet. He found in Lan- 

gtiet a perfon Who difcotirfed pertinently upon the interdft 

of princes, and was perfectly acquainted with the htftory 

of illuftrious men. He was wonderfully delighted with. 

his converfation, wherein he gave him an account of 

feveral important affairs, /tarhich he remembered Very 

. exaSly ; and with his difcotfrfes concerning kings arid 

princes, and other men of thefe times, eminent for their 

wifdom, virtue, and learning. His memory never failed 

him, with regard either to the circumftances of titrie or 

v to proper names ; and he penetrated into the inclinations of 

men, and forefaw the even t c*f things, with fiirpr ifing fagaatlr. 

This connexion with Melan&hon did not, however, 

extinguifh the inclination which Languet had to travel. 

In 1 55 1, he took up a refolution to vifit fome part o£ 

Europe every year, for ^hich he fet apart the autumn 

feafon, returning to pafe thfe Wirier at Wittenberg. Ih 

the c6tirfe of thefe travels, arftorig other placed, he made 

the tour of Rome in- 1555, and that of Livonia arid 

Laponia in 1558. During this laft tour, he became 

knpwn to Guftavus king- of Sweden, who conceived a 

greiat affe&ion for him, aiid engaged him to go into 

France, in order to bring him thence fome of the btflft 

fcholars and artifts : for which ptirpofe his majefty gave 

him a letter of cfredence, dated Sept 1, 1557. Two 

years after,' Languet amended Adolphus count of Naflau 

itrid prince of Orange into Italy ; and at his return 

[a] After a year's (tudy, according peing thoroughly fatisfied with what 
to the ltfc^of ©or author written by • he obferved, . tljere . concerning the 
Del,* Mere. ~ r . - aulfiariift,>ic waiJWerrainedtogo and 

. £ pf] Melao^hoa's . book was His t eonfultthe author htofelf, andt faw him 
f'.Body of tf'iviTvity :" Languet tells us ,fn 1549. Languet, epift. i5a<lJoach. 
I himfclf,hr read-it in 1547; and, not Camcrar. 

■ ' „ palled 


pifled tbrdngh Paris, to make a vifit to Ac celebrated 
Tnmefeus : N whilp he was in thai city, he heard the 
melancholy news .of the death of his dear friend Me* 
lan&hon [c]. • ^ 

in 1565, Auguftus elector of Saxony invited him to 
Ms court, and appointed him envoy to that of France 
the fame year ; after which he fent him his deputy to the 
diet of the empiie, which was called by the emperor 
Maximilian in 1568 at Augfaifg. Thence the fame 
matter dispatched him* to Heidelberg, to negotiate fome 
bufinefs with the eledor Palatine ; and from Heidelberg 
he went* to Cologne* where he acquired the efteem and 
confidence of Charlotte de Bourbon, princefs of Orahge. . 
The elector of Saxony fent him alfo to the diet of Spires ; 
and, in 1570J to Stetin, in quality of his plenipotentiary* 
for mediating a peace between the Swedes and the Mufco- 
vites, who had chofen this elector for their mediator. This « 

prince the feme year font Languet a fecond time into . 
France, to Charles IX, and c the queen-mother Catharine 
of Medicis, in the execution of which employ he made 
a remarkably bold fpeech to the French monarch, in the 
name of the Proteftant princes of Germany [d]. He was 
at Paris upon the. memorable bloody feaft of St. Bartholo- 
mew, in 1572, when he faved the life of Andrew We* 
chelras, the famous printer, in whofe houfe he lodged: 
and he was alfo very instrumental in procuring the efcape 
of Philip de Mornay, count de Pleffis ; but, trufting too 
much to the refpeft due to his character of envoy, was 
•obliged for his own fafety to the good offices of John die: 
Morvillier, who had been keeper of the feais. Upon his 
recall from Paris, he received orders to go to Vienna, 
where he was, in 1574; and, in 1575, he was appointed 
one of the principal arbitrators for determining of the 
difputes, Which had lafted for thirty years, between the 
haufes of Longueville and Baden,* about the fucceflion of 

At length, in the controverfy which arofe in Saxony N 
between the Lutherans and Zuinglians, about the eii- 
charift, Languet was fufpefted to favour the latter; fo 
that he was obliged to Beg leave of the elector, being 
then' one of his chief minifters, to retire : which favour 

|c] MclanftKon died April t?,' . [i>] It is in j^int, is appear* byflie 
1560. See bit lift in Latlti 1>j lift of his wofts. 
Cimerariuj. "'' ' 


in? L-A'N-GJU Et 

tfas granted, *ith a liberty to go whereever be pleafed [a j r - 
. He chofe Prague for his place of the refidence y where he 
was in 1577 : and in this fituatiotf apf4ied himfelf to John 
Cafimer, count Palatine, and attended him ft) Ghent, ia 
Flanders, the inhabitants of which city had chofen hira 
for their governor. This count quitting the government^ 
our minifter accepted an invitation made to huo by WiU 
Ham prince of Orange, whofc femce he entered into at 
Antwerp ; but had not been there long, when the ill ftaffie 
of his health obliged him to feefc fome relief. With this 
view he went, hi 15799 to- the wells of Baden; and, 
While there, fell into the acquaintance of ThrJanns. That 
celebrated hiftorian came thither from Strafburg ; and* 
meeting with Languet, who was difcngaged from all bufi- 
nefs, was infinitely pleafed with his conversation, and fhick 
fo clofely to him for three days, that it was thought he 
ftiould never 'he able to part from&im. He tells us him- 
felf, that he was particularly ftruck with, Languet's «mir 
nent probity, and with his great judgement^ not only m 
the fciences, but alfo in public affairs, wherein he had bee* 
engaged all his life-time, having fcrved federal princes 
Very faithfully* He was, efpecially, fo well acquainted 
with die affairs of Germany, that he could inftxufit the 
•Germans themfelvelB in the affairs- of their, own country. 
After Thuanus had left that place, he received fipm him 
fome Memoirs, written in his#own hand ; containing an 
account of the pnefent ftate of Germany, of the right of 
the diets, of th6 number of the circles, and of the order 
or rank of the different councils of that country ; which 
Memoirs he ftill Ipept by him [»]. 

[a] Thuinusfays, he-wwfufpefted qteftion, made no onfwer. Wltoife* 

to beoae of thofe.who nkifedGafper upon Languet explained the whp^c 

JRevoer to pobliffcr an exposition of (he mygtcry, and told him, that the Ger- 

doclrine of the Euchanft, agreeable to man lord was the count of Ifemboirfg, 

"the TJenera confeffion of fahh : HrSt. who'nstd lately rejlgoed the arch- 

anno 1581. The Geneva exposition of bifhopric of Cologne, to marry Jac 

the doctrine of the Eucharift was^ub- de Xvgnes* fount d'^remperg's lifter, 
lifted in t 5 73. v He * added, that the fuppreflian of ce- 
[b] Thefc are the words of Thu- • ttbacy was burthenfome to the. great 
anus him (elf, in his own life-} who Protcftonf jords in perm any s for* 
alfo relates, that Languet made hin> whereas in the times of Popery they 
take notice of a German lord, at a nfed to put their daughters into man- 
window with his wife, and afterwards nerits, with certain hopes to fecthtm 
afkedhicnfmiling: « If you were put to foon raifed to the dignity of abbeffei, 
•your choice, would you prefer a woman thoy were* now obliged to provide huf- 
a's beautiful as ihe if, before the arch- bands for them, though they lived in 
bifhopric of Cologne ?" Thuaniis; who ' a country where people were very pio- 
<ljd not underhand the defign of this lific. Ibid. 

6 * 

L A N; G U E T. p r 

Languet returned to Antwerp in 1580 ; and, irt 1581, 
the prince 'of Orange fent him to Frince, to negociate k 
reconciliation between (Charlotte of Bourbon, his confort, 
and her brother Louis, duke of Montperifier • which h& 
effe&ed. He died at ^ntwi^rp, 'Sept. 20/ 1581,'ahdwaJ 
interred with great funeral folemnity, the prince of Orange* 
going at the head of the train. During his illnefs he was 
vifited by Madam Du Pleffis, who, though lick herfelf, 
attended him to his laft moment. His dying words -were : 
that " the only thing which ^grieved him was, that he had. 
** tiot freen able to fee Monf. Du Pleffis again before he 
€< died, to whom he would have left his very heart, had it 
** been in his power : that he had wilhed to live to fee the 
** world reformed ; but, fince it bepame daily worfe, he 
r< had no longer any bufinefs in it : that die princes of 
*V thefe times were ftrange men : that virtue had much to 
*' fuffer, and little to get :. that he pitied Monf. Du Pleffis 
?* very muck, towhofe fhare a great part of the misfor— 
*' tunes of the time would fall, and who would fee many 
y unhappy days ; but, that he muft take courage, for 
" God would affift him. For the reft, /he begged one 
u thiifg 'of him jn his laft farewell, namely, that he would 
" njentitfn fomething of their friendfhip in the firft book 
** hfc fliould publifli." This requeft was performed by Da 
JPleffis, foon 4fter, i$ a ihort preface to his treatife " Of 
" the* truth of the Chriftian religion ;" where he makes 
the following eloge of this friend in a few comprehensive 
vrords; 4 **Is fuit tjualis multi videri volunt ; isvixitqua- . 
i* liter optimi mori cupiunt.?' This eloge, with others 
publifhed on the fame fubjeft, have been carefully col* 
Jeded \>f. Voetiijs [cj. He died intcftate; and, being neve* 
married, he left no iffue except that of the brain, a 
lift of which is inserted in the note [d]. The family 
Jiowever fubfifts, even to this day, with honour. 


fc] Viz.'Jn his Difputat. theolog. a very lingular friendfhip. He (peak* 

▼ot W. ft a$S, ct fatfr ••'- of the Commotions in the Low Conn- 

tb] jhcfc coofift of three volumes l tries, with the caufes of them, and 

uters. The firft contain* thole he points out the means of appealing 

wrote to the ele&or of Saseny, during them. Betides, they contain fe- 

the couri«*f hiar ftreral negotiations, yerai remarkable things; particu- 

printed in 17011 the fecond,thbf*to larly excellent- advice to a young 

Camerarios, father and, fon, printed man, who enters into ft ate affairs, a. 

in 1646 ; and again, with additions, His harangue in French to Charles 

in 1685: the third to .Sir- PMip Sid- IX. in 1570. 3. That extraordinary 

ney, printed in 1633 hy Elzevir. No- pieco, intituled " Vindiclar contra ty* 

thing can be more tender than tttefe •« ran-nos";*' which apeafed a little af- 

letter s to Sir Philip, for whom he had ter Languct's death, under the name 





of "Stephen** JfanMN Brwns," pm- 

tendeo'ly printed at Edinburgh in 1579* 
This republican treat! fe, one of the 
mdft violent of the .kind that we have, 
*pt attributed for feveral yean to di- 
vers authors ; but it has been anerted 
to be Langoet's by Bayle, in a long 
aad laboured dtffeRatiDa annexed to 

kit Dtitionary. +. To Twnfuet is «f- 
cribed, "The apology of William 
** prince of Orange, apiinfr the king n€ 
« Spun, in 1581/* And 5. « A dif- 
«' caaife of the empire, already meet- 
" tioned." This U not printed J hut 
the MS. was preferred a long time in 
rise library of Ttraanufr. 

LANGUET (John Baptist Joseph), do&or of the 
Sorbonne, the celebrated vicar of St. Sulpice, at Paris, and 
one of thofe extraordinary men whom Providence raifes up 
for die relief of the indigent and wretched, for the good of 
fbciety, and the glory of nations, was bom at Dijon, Jttne 
6, 1675, His father was Denis Languet, procurator ge- 
neral of that city. After having made feme progrefs in 
his ftudies at Dijon, he continued them at Paris, aid 
lefided in the feminary of St. Sulpice. Ho was re- 
ceived into* the Sorbonne, Dec 51, 169ft, an< * t0 °^ kk 
degree with appiaufe. He was ordained prieft at Vienna 
in Dauphiny; after which he returned to Fans, and 
tndk the degree of doftor Jan. 15, 1703. He attached 
hhnfelf from that time to the community of St. Sulpice ; 
and M. 4e la Chetardie, who was Vicar there, chofe hiiti 
for Ins curate. Languet continued in that office near ten 
years, and fold his patrimony to relieve the poor. Daring 
this period, M.delaSt. Vallier, bifhop of Quebec, being 
prifoner in England, requefted of the kirtg, that Latigtaet 
might be his affiftant in North America, Langnet was 
about to accept of the place, prompted to it by his seal for 
the converfion of infidels ; but his patrons and friends ad- 
vifed him to decline the voyage, as his constitution was by 
no means fttong. He fucceeded Monf. de Chtferdie, 
vicar of St. Sulpice, in Jtme, 1714. 
- ' His pariih church being out of repair, and, like that of 
a poor village, firarce fit to hold 1200 or 1500 perfons^ 
Whereas the pariih contained 125,000 inhabitants, he con- 
ceived a defign to build a church proportionable -to them ; 
and fome days after undertook this great work, having no 
greater fund to begin with than the fttm of one itin-dred 
crowns, which had been left him, for this defign, by a pi- 
ous and benevolent lady. He laid out this money in 
ftones, which he can fed to he carried through all tile ftreett, 
to ihew his defign to the public. He foon obtained con- 
siderable donations from, all parts ; and the duke of Or- 
leans* regent of the fcHrgdom, granted hito a totter?. 


1 • 

Thatpjace likewife laid . the ikft ftone of the -pouch in 
1718; and JLanguet fparctf neither labour nor expence, 
, during his life, to make, the church one of the fir*e£ in the 
wortd, both for archite&ure aad ornaments. It was con- 
fecrated in 1745,. FithjCj) muqjti fpkndqr, that.hia prefeflt 
majefty of Pruffia wrote the vicar a letter, which we-he»e 

Sir, - Potfdam> Oft. 4, 1*748. 

I have received with ftaftfvte die account of the c<m- 
fecration of yoyr church. This order and magnificence 
" of the ceremonies «&nftot foil to give one a great idea e-f 
" die beauty of the building which has been the objeft pf 
" them, and arc fuffici^nt to charafterife your good taftf . 
" but that which I am petjfiiaded diftinguj&es much more, 
" it the piety, te&tfi&nce,. and zeal, which you havedif- 
" flayed throughout the* whple undertaking ; qualities, 
" whkb, however neceflary in a man of your function, ^Jo 
" not, qjbl that account, the Jefs merit; file eiteem and at- 
" tention of all mankind : jut is to thefe, Sir, that you owe 
" the teftimony which I am defirous to give you of my 
w j*purd. I pray God $0 have you in his holy protection. 

Another work, which 4oe$ j»o lefs honour to Languet, 
is the houfe de Pecans Jtfus. The eft£blifh}ne»t of this 
houfe, fo aivant^cogs ( to the community, will beft evince 
tbe piety *nd the talents: of our divine* ;Jt <#mfifts pf two 
parts ; the firft is composed of 35 poor ladies, defcended 
from faafcilie* iUuftrious from the year 1535 to the 
pfcfent time ; the /eqond of moire thaft four huji- 
deed poor women and children of tflwjft wd country. 
Thole young ladies whole anceftors have been in the king's 
ferviee *re preferred to all others. An education is givjen 
them fuited tp the dignity of their bi^th. They are ein- 
fiofpii by turns* in jnfpe&gig the bakehoufe, the poultry- 
yard, the dairies, the laundries, the gardens, the labors 
tery, the linen warehoufes, the fpinning-rooms, and ol£er 
places .belonging tfo the hqufe. By thefe means they be- 
come good hpufewives, and able to relieve their poor re- 
lations in the country. ^Ser^ices thefe, »far more import- 
au$ than if they paged their time in finging and embroide * 
ry> ..Befidej, tifeie ^cejBfiy l^iey are under to fupcour, rby 
a thoufand little kind orates, jthe poor women arid girls 
who work: there, . renders them m^re condescending* kind 
.W^hu^le^mo^eferyi^a^tp/o^ietK, than if they fcad 
only converfed with perfons of rank. and diftinftion. Ac- 
'4 ' r ' cordingly,* 

:n6 L A ft G U fe f . 

fcordirfgly We feti he5re hone! of ftofe airs of preemine&ec an4 
•difdain, which are met with in other places. When they 
leave the houfe, thdy cany wi A them to their relations linen, 
tloaths, and money. If they chufe to enter a convent and 
lead a religion life, a fuffitierit fam is allotted to them for 
-thit purpofei • • 

Languet ufed befides to grant great fums bf mortey to 
iuch ladies as were examples of oeconomy, virtue, and piety,, 
in thofe religious houfos wkfch he Had the goodnefs to 
fuperintend. "The poor women and children, who forth 
the fecond part, ire provided with food every day, and work 
at the fpinning wheel. They make a great quantity 6f 

• Jinen and cotton. Different rooms are affignedto them. 
They are urtder different claffes. In each room are two la- 

- dies of the fociety of St. Thomas, of Ville Neuve, of which 

- Languet was fuperior general. Thefe ladies are pladed 
there to overfee the work, and to give fuch inftru&ions as 
they think proper. They never leave the room till others 
come in their places » < The women and the girls who find 
employment in. this houfe hivfe, in a former period of 
their lives, been licentious and difiblute* and are generally 
reformed, by the Examples of virtue before their eyes, and 

♦ by the falutary advice given to them. They have the 

- amount of their work paid them in money whert they 
leave the houfe. They become induftrious and exemplary, 
and, by this eflabliftiment, are reftored to xh6 community, 
and to religion. There were in the houfe de Pmfans J*f*s 9 

- in 17419 more than 1400 women and girls of this fort ; and 
the vicar pf St. Sulpice employed all the means in his pow- 
er to make their ntuation agreeable. Although the land 

• belonging to the houfe meafured only 1 7 arperts [ A ], it has a 
j ' -large dairy, which has given milk to more than 2000 children 
' belonging to the parijh, a menagery, poultry of all forts, a 
" bakehoufe, fpinning rooms, a very neat and well cultivated 

garden, and a magnificent laboratory, where all forts of me- 
dicines are made. The order and ceconomy obferved in this 

* houfe, in the education, inftruftion, and employment of To- 
many people, were fo admirable, and gave fo great an ideal 
of the vicar oFSt. Sulpice, that cardinal Floury propqfed to 
make him fupefihtendant general of all the hofpttals in the 

*.. kingdom : but Lauguet ufed to anfwer him, with a fmile, 

"I have always faidj my Lord, that it was the bounty of 

' ** your highnefs led me to the hbfpital." The expense of 

- this eftablifhment was immenfe. He fpent his revenue 

. [a] Ap arptn U a French meafure of ;oo perches (j^urc, every perch iS feet. 


1 A N G ti £ T. 'Hi 

' oil it ; an inheritance" which cgme to him'fiy the' death of 
the baron of Montig^ii'hfe brother, and the eftatc of the 

"abbe de Barrtay, grahted him by the king. 

Languet was not Iefs ttfrbe efteemed for his beneficence 
and his zeal in aiding the p60r of every fort. . Never man 
took niore "pains thart he 1 did in procuring donations and 

' legacies, which he diftribured with admirable prudence and 

"difciretion. * .He enquired 'with care, if the legacies which 
were left him were to'flie difadvantage of the poor rela- 
tions of the teftatof jYflie found that to be the cafe, he 
teftored to thenTftot ^bnly the legacy, but gave them, 
when 1 wanting, a large fuiri'of his owrt/ Madame de Ca- 
mois, as illuftrious for. ti^e : benevolence of her difpofition 

' as for her rank in life; having left him* by her laft will, 
a legacy of more than 600,000 livres,, he only took 30,000 

' livres for the poor, and returned the remaining fum to her 
relations. It is laid, from good authority;' th&t he dif- 
burfed near ^ million of livres in charities eVery year. He 
always chofe noble families reduced to poverty, before all 
others : and, we have heard from perfons who knew him 
well, that there were fome families of diftinftion m 
his parifh, to each of whom he has diftributed 3Q,ooo livres 

!)cr aiinum. " Always willing to* ferve mankind, he gave 
iberally, and often before any application was made to < 

him. When there was a general dearth in 1*725, he ibid, 
in order to relieve the poor, his houlhold goods, his pic- 
tures, and fome fcarce and curious pieces of furniture, 
which he had procured with' 'difficulty. * From that time 
he had only three, pieces of plate, no tapeftry, 4 and' but a 

'piean ferge bed, which madame de Camois had lent him, 
having fold before, for the poor, all the prefents fhe had 
made him at different periods, His charity was not con^ 
fined to his own parim. At the time that the plague *aged 
at Marfeiltes, he feht lafrge fums into Provence to affift the 
diftreflfed. ;; He ihterefted himfelf with great zeal in the 
promotion of arts and commerce, and in whatever con- 
cerned the glory of the nation. . In times of public cala* 

' mity, as conflagrations, &c f his prudence and affiduity 
have^ been much admired.' He underftobd well die dif- 
ferent dipofitions of men* He knew hpw to employ evefy 
one according to his talent or capacity. In the mou intri-> 
cate and perplexed affairs he decided with a fagacity arjd 
judgement that furprifed every one. Languet refufed tfto 
bifhopric of Couferans "and that of Poiftiers, and fcveral 
#thers which were offered him by Lows XIV. and Loots „ 


XV. under the miaiftry of the duke of <Orlean$ and car* 
. dinal Fleury. He refigned his vicarage to Monf. l'Abbc 
da Lau, in 1748, but continued to preach every Sunday, 
according to- his cuftom, in his own parifh church ; and 
continued alio to fopport the houfe at fenfans y*fiis 9 till 
his death, which happened Oft. 1 1, 1750, in his 75th year, 
at the abbey de Bernay, to which place he went to i»aUe 
fome charitable eftalplifhments . Bis piety and continued *p- 

Elication to works of bene&ence ; <Jid not hinder him frorn 
eing lively and chearful. He nad 4 fips genius* which 
fliewed itfelf by the agreeable repartees and feqfibie re- 
marks he made in convention. . 


LANIER, a painter, well flailed in the Italian hand?. 
He was employed by Charles I. beyond-lea, to purchafe 
the collcftiop iriade by him. He gave a particular mark, 
by which we diftinguiih all the things of tnis kind which 
he brought over. By reafon of fhe troubles that enfued, 
we can give no. account of his death ; but that, before he 
died, he had the mortification to fee that royal colleclion 
, diiperfed. , 

LARGILL.IERE (Nicholas de), an eminent 
French painter, was born at Paris in 1656, and intended 
at firit tor £Ofhmerce ; but his father, having taken him 
on a trading voyage to England, found his genius folely 
bent upon painting, and placed him under Francis Gobeau, 
a painter of fome note. He fpent fix years in clofe ap- 
plication to his objeft, and then went to London. l Here 
he gained the friendfhip and countenance of Sir Peter Lely, 
who exprefled much etkeem for his works ; and he at laft 
was fo far honoured, as to be made known to. king Charles 
II, for whom he painted feveral pi&utes. At his return 
to Paris, Vander Mulei> and Le Bruri, having feen fome 
of his performances, encouraged him to continue in hh 
own country : they procured him friends by their recom- 
mendation, fo that his reputation was generally fpread 
'through Paris ; and Lewis XIV. fat to him for his por- 
trait, as did king James II. and his queen* He was ac- 
counted to have had a good genius, to compofe well," to 
be correft in his deiign, and to diftribute his draperies ju^ 
djcioufly: his principal excellence, however, corififted in 
his colouring, and particularly iri portraits, of which the 
heads and hands were remarkably well executed, .with a 
^ t light and fpirited pencil. His tint of colour was clear and 



fcclh ; and by his manner of laying on ius colours* with- 
out breaking or torturing them, they have lpng retained 
their original frefhnefs and beauty. The rooft capital 
work of this mailer is a grand composition, reprefenting 
the crucifixion of Chrift. He was appointed dire&or of 
the Academy, *s a public acknowledgement of his merit. 

L AS.CARI S (Constantine), one of thofc learn- £££// u 
ed Greeks who quitted Constantinople, upon its being luftnbaa,* 
taken by the Turks in 1453, anc ^ t0 °^ reftigc in Italy. He ** p. 14*. 
taught the Greek language and polite literature, firft at Milap, 
and afterwards at Meffana ; whither many Uluflrious per- 
fons from Italy, and even from Venice, among whom was 
Peter Bembus, reforted, for the fake of being taught the 
Greek language by him. He died old at Mefiana, about 
the end of. the 15th century; and left his library to the 
Xcnate, who erefted a marble monument over him. He 
was author of a " Greek Grammar," which was printed by 
Aldus Manutius ; and other fmall works of a Similar kiqd. 
Erafmus, in his piece " de ratione ftudii," prefers him to 
all the Grammarians among tbofe Greeks, excepting The- - 
odorus 'G^za. He had a fon, John Andreas Lafcaris, 
difiinguifhed afterwards in his own way, and whom foqie 
have confouned with him. 

LASKt or LASKO, or LASCO (John de), 
was defended from a family of di(tin£Hon in Poland, in 
which country he was educated, and afterwards travelled 
abroad. Coming to' Zurich in Switzerland, he became acj 
fjuainted with Zuinglius, who brought him to a gopd 
liking for the Reformation. Upon his return home, he 
was made provoft of Gnefna [a], and afterwards bifhop of 
Vefprim in Hungary : but thefe two dignities did not hin- 
der him from declaring himfelf openly of the Reformed 
religion. This charge foon brought upon him the fen— 
tence of herefy, of which he complained to the king of 
Poland, alledging that he had been condemned without a 
fufficient hearing : but this appeal to his native prince pro- 
ved of no avail, and he was loon obliged to q&it Hungary. 
In this exigence he retired, 1542, to Embden in £aft-Frief- 
fend, and was made a minifter of a church in that town. 

[a] Erafmus ftyle* Him "Pr«j»ofuus who was alfo of both hiinamfcs; to 
Goefeeaiu" in Ep. 86*. He was ne- whom Erafmus dedicated his edition 
pbcw to the trchbifhop of that place, of St. Ambiofc's work*. 

Vo*. VIU, K Aftpr 


r After he had refided almoft ten years in Eaft-Frieriand, not: 
caring to venture into Germany, by reafon of the war of 
Smalcalde, he refolved to go to England; having receiverd 
an invitation thither from archbifhdp Cranmer [b]. Her 
arrived there at the time when the publication of the: 

• Interim [c] drove the Proteftants into fuch places as woufd 
grant them a toleration; and fuch they found in England r 
where they had feveral privileges granted diem by Ed- 
ward VI. Three hundred and eighty were naturalized, and 
erefted into a corporate body, which was governed by itsr 
own laws, and allowed its own form of religious worfhip, 
without being fubject to the Englifh liturgy. A church m 
London was alfo granted to them, with the revenues be- 
longing to it, for the fubfiftence of their minifters, who 
were either exprefsly nominated, or at leaft approved, by 
the king ; his majefty alfo fixing the precife number of 
them. According to this regulation, there were four mi- 
nifters, and a fuperintendant ; which poft was held by Laiki, 
who, in the letters patent, is called a perfon of illuftriQas- 
birth, of lingular probity, and • great learning. In the 
midft of thefe favours, he was imprudent enough to write a 
took againft the ceremonies of the Englifh church, arid 
particularly againft the habits of the bifliops and prefby- 
ters, and receiving the eucharift kneeling. 

However, this book made no noife ; and Lafki with his 
company lived undifturbed till the death of king Edward ;. 
but, upon the acceffion of queen Mary, in 1553, they 
Were all fent away. De Lafki embarked in September, 
with many of his fociety, and all his colleagues, except 
two, who ftayed in England concealed ; together with the 
reft of the German Proteftants, who were ftripped of their 
churches, and had all their privileges taken away. TRey. 
arrived on the coaft of Denmark, in the beginning of a fe- 
vere winter ; but, being known to embrace the doftrihe 
of the Reformed church of Switzerland, they were not 

• fuffered to difernbark, or to be at anchor more than two* 
days, without daring to put their wives and children on 
fhore. They were treated in the fame inhofpitable man- 
ner at Xubec, at Wrfmar, and Hamburgh, fo that at laft 
they refolved to go for Embden, where they did notrar- 
rive till March 1554. Here they were kindly received, 
and permitted to fettle in the country. In 1555, Lafki 
went to Frankfort upon the Maine, where he obtained 

- -v 

£»]5tryf>c*slifeotfCraiiBW. [c} It w*« publM*!! in 154*. 


L A S K I. 12 1 

' leave of the Senate to build a church for the kefbf rned 
ftrangers, and particularly for thofe of the Low Countries. 
While he w&s at this city, he wrote an apologeticai letter 
to Sigifmortd king of Poland, againft fome who had ac~ 
cufed and treated him as a vagabond. This letter was 
written in 1566 ; and the fame year, with the cohfent 6fT 
the duke of Wirtenberg, he maintained, a difputation 
againft Brentius, upon the fubjeft of the euchariih Brea> 
tins afterwards published an account of this difpute, in 
which our author was charged with many falfhoods. 

Lafki at laft, after an abfence of twenty years, returned 
to his native country ; and, notwithstanding the bifhopa 
and other ecclefiaftics did their utmoft to drive him away, 
yet ail their efforts proved ineffectual, he being in great 
favour with Sigifmond, who employed him in the moft 
important affairs. He died Jan. 13, 1560. The histori- 
ans of his time fpeak greatly in his praife ; and he was 
much efteemed by Erafmus, who declares he had learned 
fobriety, difcretion, and many virtues, of him ; although* 
being then old, and Laiki yet a young man, he ought to 
have been the mafter, and not the fcholar. We have, o£ 
his writing, " De coena domini liber ; Epiftola continent 
" fummum coritroverfiae de ccena Domini, &c." 

LA SENA or LASCENA (Peter), was bora 
at Naples, Sept. 25, 1590. In compliance with his fa* 
ther, he flrft cultivated and praftifed the law ; but after-* 
wards followed the bent of his inclination to polite litera- 
ture ; applying himfelf diligently to acquire the Greek lan- 
guage, in which his education had been fhort. He alfo 
learnt French and Spanifli. From Naples he removed to 
Rome ; where he was no fooner fettled, than he obtained 
the prote&ion of cardinal Francis Barberini, befides other 
prelates ; he alfo procured the friendfhip of Lucas Hoifte- 
nius, Leo Allatius, and other perfons of principal rank 
in the republic of letters. He made ufe of the repofe h* 
enjoyed in this fituation, to put the laft hand to fome 
works which he had begun at Naples : but his continual 
intenfe application, and too great abftinence (for he made 
but one meal in twenty-four hours ), threw him into a fever* 
of which he died, Sept. 30, 1636. At his death, he left 
to cardinal Barberini two Latin difcourfes, Which he had 
pronounced before the Greek academy of the monk's of St* 
Bafil, " de lingua Helleniftica ;" wherein he difcuffed, 
with great learning, a point upon that (ubjeft, wfcichthea 

K 2 divided 

,i$i t A S K I. 

divided the literary world. He alfo left to cardinal Bran* 
caccio his book, intituled " Ginnafio Napolitano," which 
was afterwards published by that prelate : it contains a dav 
fcription of the fports, fhews, fpe&acles, and combats* 
which w*re formerly exhibited to the people of Naples. 
-. Some other pieces of our author are mentioned below [a J* 

fa] Thefc are : " Homert Ncpen- wrecked on the coaft of Italy In 1635. 

* ** tnes, fen de abolcnda lufia liber. The work was in the prefs at his 
< u 16*4/' 8to. «« Cleombrotus, five death,, and was finhhed afterwards* 

"dc lis qui in aquis pereunt." Thia purfuaot to his will. He published 
was occafioned by the lofs of fome alfo a mifceUooy of Remarks npoxt 

- friends and relations, who were fliip- the Italian poets. 

LATIMER (Hugh), bifhop of Worcefter, one of 
the firft Reformers of the Church of £ngland, was defcend- 
cd of honeft parents at Thurcaftfta in Leicefterflure ; 

- where his father, though he had no land of his own, yet, 
by frugality and induftry, and the advantage of 2 good 
Take, brought up a family of fix daughters, beiides this 

,fon [a]. He was born in the farm-houfe about 1470 ; 
and, being put to a gracnmar-fchool, he took learning fo 
well, that it was determined to breed him to the church. 
With this view, as foon as fit, he was fentto Cambridge, 
where, at the ufual time, he took the degrees in arts ;. and 
entering into prieft's orders, behaved with remarkable 
2eal and warmth in defence of Popery, the eftabliihed re- 
ligion. He was violent againft the opinions, which had 
lately difcovered themfelves in England; heard the teachers 
of them with high indignation, and inveighed publicly 
and privately agaihft the Reformers. If any read: le&ures 

< in the fchools, Latimer was fure to be there to drive out 
the fcholars; and, when he commenced bachelor of di- 
vinity, he gave an open teftimony of his diflike to their 
proceedings, in an oration againft Melan&hon, whom 

- he treated mod feverely for nis, impious, as he called 

them, innovations in religion. His zeal was fo much 
taken notice of in the umver&y, that he was elc&ed crols- 

[a] In one of hie court fcrmons, in fie had ititocked with a hundred" {beep 

Edward's tune, Larimer, inveighing and" thiaty cows ; that he found the 

agiinlt the nobility and gentry, and king a man and horfe, hirafelf re- 

• fpealing of the moderation of land- numbering to have buckled on his 
. lords a few years before, and the plen- father's * harnefs, when ho went ta 

ty in which the ir^ tenants lived, tells Black-heath; that he gave his daugh- 

his audience, in bis familiar way, that ters five pounds a-piece at marriage ; 

' upon a farm of four pounds a year, at that he lived hofpitabry amoug his 

. the utmoft, his father tilled as much neighbours, and was act -backward in 

i ground as kept half a dozatmen ; that hi* alm» to the poor. 

^ bearer 

±* .. 





bearer in all public proceffions ; an employment which he . 
accepted with reverence, and difchargcd with folemnity. 

Among thofe who favoured the Reformation, .the moft. 
confiderable was Thomas Bilney, a clergyman of a moft 
holy life, who began to fee Popery in a very difagreeable 
light, and made no fcruple to own it. Bilney was an inr 
timate of Latimer's ; and, as opportunities offered, ufed to 
foggeft to him many things about corruptions in religion, 
till he gradually divefted him of his prejudices, brought 
him to think with moderation, and even to diftruft what 
he had fo earaeftly embraced. Latimer no fooner ceafed. 
from being a zealous Papift, than he became (fuch was his 
conftitutipnal warmth) a zealous Protectant; aftive infup- 
porting the Reformed do&rine, and affiduous to make 
converts bojh in town and univerfity. He preached. in 
public, exhorted in private, and every-where preffedthe 
necefflty of a holy life, in oppofition to ritual obfervances. 
A behaviour of this kind was immediately taken notice of i 
Cambridge, no lefs than the reft of the kingdom, was en- 
tirely Popifh ; every new opinion was watched with jea^ 
foufy. Latimer foon perceived how obnoxious be lad 
ft&de himfelf; and, being a preacher of eminence, the or- 
thodox clergy thought it high time to oppofe him openly < 
This tafk was undertaken by Dr, Buckingham, prior of 
the Black-Friars, who appeared in rhe pulpit a few Sun- 
days after ; and, with great pomp and prolixity, fhewed the, 
dangerous tendency of. Latimer's opinions; particularly* 
inveighing againft his heretical notions of having the 
fcriptures in Ehgljftu The Protectant party, ncverthelefs, 
of which Bilney and Latimer were the heads, continued to 
g&iii ground ; and great was the alarm of the orthodox 
cletgy; ofvrtiich fort were the heads of colleges, and ie- 
hior part of the uhiterfitv. Frequent convocations were 
held, tutors were admonifned to have a ftri& eye over their 
£upHs, and academical cenfures of all kinds were infiiftcd* 
But academical cenfures were found infufttcient. Latimer 
continued to preach, and hercfy to fpread. The heads of 
the Popifh party applied to the bilhop of Ely, as their dio- 
cefan ; but that prelate was not a man for their purpofe j 
he was a Papift indeed, hut moderate He came to Cam - 
bridge, however, examined the ftate of religion, and* at 
their intreaty, preached againft the heretics ; but he would 
do nothing farther ; only indeed he filenced Mr* Larimer* 
But this gave no check tath*> Reformers : for there hap- 
pened at this time to be a Pmteftaht prior in Cambridge, 

K 3 Dr, 



%v Dr. Barnes, of the Auftin-friars ; who, having a jnonaf- 

tcry exempt from epifcopal jurifdiftion, and, being a great 
admirer of Latimer, boldly licehfed him to preach there. 
Hither his party followed him ; and the late oppofition 
having greatly excited the curiofity of the people, . the friars 
chapel was foon incapable of containing the crowds that at- 
tended. Among others, it is 1 remarkable that my lord of 
Ely was often one of his hearers, and had the ingenuity to 
declare, that Mr. Latimer was one of the beft preachers he 
had ever heard. 

The principal perfons at this time concernd ixx <eccle- 
fiaftical affairs were cardinal Wolfey, Warham archbilhop 
of Canterbury, and Tunftal bifhop of London ; and asHen- 
fy VIII, was now in expectation of having the bufinefs 
of his divorce ended in a regular way at Rome, be was 
careful to obferve all forms of civility with the pope. The 
cardinal therefore erefted a court, confiding of bilhops 
and canoniftfr, to put the laws in execution againft he- 
refy : of this court Tunftal was made prefident ; and Bilney, 
Latimer, and others, were called before him. Bilney was 
<oiifidered as the herefiarch, and againft him chiefly the ri- 
gour of the court was levelled ; and they fucceeded fo far, 
that he was prevailed upon to recant : accordingly he bore 
his faggot, and was difmifled.. As for Mr. Latimer, and 
the reft, they had eafier terms : Tunftal omitted no oppor> 
. tunities of (hewing mercy ; and the heretics, upon their dif- 
miffion, returned to Cambridge, where they were received 
with open arm6 by their friends. Amidft this mutual joy, 
tftlney alone fcemed unaffected j he fliunned the fight of 
his acquaintance, and received their congratulation* with 
confufion and blufhes. In fhort, he was ftruck with re- 
morfe for what he had done, grew melancholy, and, after 
leading an afcetic life for three years, revived to expiatQ 
his abjuration by death. In' this refolution he went to 
Norfolk, the place of his nativity ; and, preaching publicly 
againft Popery, he was apprehended by order of the bifhop 
pf Norwich, and, after, lying a while in the county gaol, 
Was executed in that city [ b ] . 


[b] The Popifh party would have " I have known Bilney," fays he, 

H believed that he died in their « a great while; and, to tett you 

faith i and S.r Thomas More, partis " what I have always thought of him, 

colarly, took great pains to propagate « 1 have knowa few fo ready to do 

fheftory; but thefe .die tales are fuf- "every man good after his power ; 

gently refuted by Fox and Barnet. « noifome, wittingly, to noJ; and 

in » fetter to a fr^d by J^atimer ; « reconcile, ji I be fcort, he was 

it a very 


. iHis. fufferings, far from, fhocking the Reformation at 
Cambridge, infpired ,the leaders of It with new courage. 
Latimer began now to exert himfelf more than he had 
yet done; and fucceeded to that credit with his party, 
which Bilney had fo long fupported. Among other in- 
ftances of his zeal and refolutipn in this caufe, he gave one 
very remarkable; he had the courage to write to the king 
againft a proclamation then juft published, 'forbidding the 
life of the JJible in Snglifh. He had preached before his 
majefty once or twice at Windfor, and had been noticed 
t>y him in a more affable manner than that monarch ufu- 
ally indulged towards his fubjefts.. But, whatever hopes 
of preferment his fovereign's favour might have raifed in v 
him, he chofe to put all to the hazard,, rather than omit 
what he thought his duty. He was generally confidered as ' 
one of the moll eminent who favoured Proteftantifm, and 
therefore thought it became him to be one of the moft for- 
ward in oppofing Popery. His letter is the pifture of an 
liQrieft and fincere heart : it was chiefly intended to point 
out to the king the bad intention of the bifliops in procuring 
*the proclamation, and concludes in thefe terms : " Accept, 
** gracious foverelgn, without difpleafure, what I have 
46 written*, I thought it my duty to. mention thefe things 
*' to your majefty* No perfonal quarrel, as God fhall 
■* judge me, have I with any man ; I wanted only to in- 
** duce your majefty to confider well what kind of per- 
*• fons you have about you, and the ends for which 
"*' they counfel. Indeed, great prince, many of them, 
" or they are much flandered, have very private ends. 
" God grant, your majefty may fee through all the defigns 
" of evil rrien, and be in all things equal to the high office 
4 * with which you axe intrufted. Wherefore, gracious 
" king, remember yourfelf, have pity upon your own 
«' foul, and think that the day is at hand, when you 
*' fhall give account of your office, and of the blood that 
44 hath been fhed by your fword : in the which „ day, that 
" your grace may ftand ftedfaftly, and not be alhamed, 
44 but be dear and ready in your reckoning, and have 


•«* a very fimpte good foul ; nothing a mifordered himfelf in judgement, 

u meet for this wretched world, whole "I cannot tell, nor will I meddle 

«' evil flate he would lament and be* " withal ; but I cannot but wopder, 

" wail as much as any man I ever " if a man living fo merciful.Jy, (b 

** knew. As for his lingular learning, "charitably, fo patiently, fo .con- 

•* as well in the holy fcriptures as in " flantly, fo Audioufly, and fo vir- 

*< other good letters,. I will not now " tuouily, ihould di« an evil death, 
«* fpeak of it. How he ordered or 

K 4 "your 


" your pardon fcalcd with the blood of our Saviour 
" thrift, which alone ferveth at that day, is my dail^ 
** prayer to him who fuffered death for our fins. The 
•* writ of God preferve you !" * 

Though the influence of the Popifli party then prevailed 
fo far, that this letter produced no efFea : yet the king, ha 
way difpleafed, received it not only with temper, but with 
condefcenfion, gracioufly thanking him for his well-in- 
tended advice. The king loved fincerity and , opehneTs ; 
and Latimer's plain and (imple manner had before made it 
favourable impreflion upon him, which this letter coritri- 
, tmted not a little to ftrengthen ; and the part he afted iii 
promoting the eflablifhment of the king's fupremacy, in 
1535, riveted hirh in the 'royal favour. Dr. Butts, the 
King's phyfician, being fent to Cambridge on that occafion, 
began immediately to pay his court to the Proteftant party, 
from whom the king expe&ed moil unanimity in his 
favour. Amortg the firft, he mad? his application to La* 
timer, as a'perfon molt likely to ferve him; begging that 
he would colleft the opinions of his friends in the cafe, 
and do his utmoft to bring over thofe of moft eminence, 
yrho were ftill inclined to the Papacy. Latimer, being a 
thorough friend to the caufe he was to folicit, undertook 
it with his ufual zeal, and difcharged himfelf fo much to 
the fatisfaftion of the do&or, that, when that gentleman 
returned to court, fye took Latimer along with him. 

About this time a perfon was rifing into power, who be? 
£ame his chief friend and patron. The lord Cromwell, 
who, being a friend to the Reformation, encouraged of 
courfe fuch churchmen as inclined towards it. Amorjg 
thefe was L#imer, for whom his patron very fpon ob* 
taif.ed a benefice in Wiltihire, whither he refolved, as fooji 
as poffible, to repair, and keep a conftant residence. His 
Friend Dr. Butts, furprjzed at this refolution, did what he 
could to diftuade him from it: ♦' You are defbrting/* 
faid he, " the fairetl opportunities of making your fortune, ; 
" the prime minifter intends this only as an earneft of his 
" future favours, and will certainly in time do great 
," things for you. But it is the manner of courts to con- 
'" fider them as provided for, who leem to be fatisfied j 
•*' and, take my word for jt, an abfent claimant ftands but a 
*' poor chance among, rivals who have the advantage of 
*' being prefent." Thus the old courtier advifed. But 
thefe arguments had no weight. He was heartily tired of 
£he court ; and, leaving the palace therefore, entered im». 


LATIMER. i 3 7 

mediately upon fh$ duties of his parifh. Nor was he fatis- 
fied within thofe limits ; he extended his labours through- 
out the county, where he tbferved the paftoral care moil: 
negfc&ed, having for that pupppfe obtained a general li- 
cence from the uuiverfity of Cambridge. v As his manner 
of preaching was very popular in thofe times, the pulpits 
every -where were gladly opened for him ; and at Briftol, 
where he often preached, he was countenanced by the ma- 
giftrates. But this reputation was too much for the or- 
thodox clergy to fuffer, and their oppofition firft broke 
out at Briftol. The mayor had appointed him to preacfy 
there oh £alter-day. Public notice had been given, and 
all people were, pleated; when fuddenly there came out 
an order from the bifhop* prohibiting any one to preach 
there without licence. The clergy of the place waited up? 
oh Latimer, informed him of the bifhop's order ; and, 
knowing he bad no fuch licence, were extremely forry 
that they were thus deprived of the pleafure of hearing him. 
Latimer received their compliment with a fmile ; for he 
had been apprized of the affair, and knew that thefe very 
peribns had written to the bifhop againft him. Their 
oppofition b&ame afterwards more public and avowed ; 
the pulpits were ufed to fpread their inve&ives againft him ; 
and fuch liberties were taken wtth his character, that he 
thought it necefiary to juftify himfelf. Accordingly, he 
called upon his maligners to accufe him before the mayor 
of Briftol; and^ with all men of candour, he was juftified ; 
ior when the, parties were convened, and the accufers pro- 
duced, nothing appeared againft him; but the whole ac- 
cu&tion was left to reft upon the uncertain evidence of 
hearfay information. 

His enemies, however, were not thus filenced. The 
party againft him became daily ftronger, and more in- 
flamed. It confirted in general of the country priefts in 
thofe parts, headed by fome divines of more eminence. 
Thefe perfons, after mature deliberation, drew up articles 
againft him, extra&ed chiefly from his fermons ; in which 
he was charged with fpeaking lightly of the worfhip of 
faints ; with laying there was no material fire in hell ; and 
that he would rather be in purgatory than in Lollard's 
tower. This charge being laid before Stokefley bifhop of 
London, that prelate cited Latimer to appear before him ; 
*nd, when he appealed to his own ordinary, a citation 
was obtained out of the archbifhop's court, where Stokefley 
and other bilhops were commilBoned to examine him. 
'^ An 

X3* . LAT.IM^Rt 

An archiepifcopal citation brought him at once to. a com-' 
' pliancc. His' friends would haVe'had him fly for it; but 
their perfuafions were in vain. He fet out for London in 
the depth of winter, and under a fevere fit of the ftone and 
colic ; but he was more diftrefled at the thoughts of leav- 
ing his parifh expofed to the Popifh clergy, who would 
not fail to undo ill his abfencewhat he had hitherto done. 
On his arrival afrLondon, he found a court of bifhops and 
canonifts ready to' receive hiin ; where, inftead of being 
examined, as he ^xpe&ed, a^bout his fermons, a p&per was 
put into his hands, which he was' ordered to fubferibe, de- 
claring his belief in the efficacy of mafles for the fouls in 
purgatory, of prayers to the dead feints, of pilgrimages to 
their fepulchres and reliques, the pope*s power. to forgive 
fins, the dofti ine of merit,, the feven facramehts, and the 
worfhip of images : and, .when he, refufed to fign it, the 
archbiiiiop with a frown begged he would confider what 
he did. " We intend not," fays he, " Mr. Latimer, to 
44 be hard upon you ; we difmifs you for the prefent ; take 
44 a copy of the articles, examine them carefully ; dnd 
44 Cod grant that, at our next meeting, we may -find each 
44 other in a better temper/' The next and ieveral fuc- 
ceeding meetings the fame fcene was acted over, again. 
He continued inflexible^and they continued to diftrefs him. 
Three times every week they regularly fent for him, with 
a view either to draw fomethmg'irom him by captious 
queftions, or to teaze him at length into compliance. Of 
one of thefe examinations he gives the following account : 
44 I was brought out,** fayshe, *' to be examinedin thejfame 
4< chamber as before ; but, at this' time, it was fomewhat 
** altered : for, whereas before there- was a fire in the chim- 
ney, now the fire was taken away,' and an arras hanged 
over the chimney, and thetable ftood near the chimney's 
end. There was, among* thefe bifhops that examined 
me, one with whom I have been very familiar, and 
whom I took for my great friend, an aged man ; and he 
fat next the table-end. Then, among other q«ieftions, 
he put forth one, a very fubtle and crafty one ; and when 
Ifhouldmake anfwer, I pray you, Mr. Latimer," faid 
he, " fpeak out, I am very thick of hearing, and there 
be many that fit far off. I marvelled at this, that I was 
bidden to fpeak out, and began to mifdeem, and gave 
an ear to the chimney ; and there I heard a pen plainly 
Scratching behind the cloth. They had appointed one 
* there to write all my anfwers, that Ifliould not.ftart 

44 from 





L. : A~T. I M E R. 130 

** from them. God was my good Lord, and gave me an- 
" fwers ; I could never elfe have efcaped them." 
' Thus the bifhops continued their perfecution, till their 
fchefnes w^re fruftrated by an unexpected hand : for the 
king, being informed, raoft probably by lord Cromwell's 
means, of Latimer's ill ufage, interpofed in his behalf, 
and refcued him out of their hands. A figure of fo much 
Simplicity, ,and fuch an apoftolic appearance as his at court, 
did hoi fail to ftrike Anne Boleyn ; who mentioned him 
to her friends, as a perfon, ip. her opinion, well qualified 
to forward the Reformation, the principles of which fhe 
Sad imbibed from her youth. Cromwell raifed our preacher 
ftill higher in her efteem ; and they both joined in an ear- 
fteft recommendation of him for a bifhopric to the king, 
who did not want much felicitation in his favour. It hap- 
pened, that the fees of Worcefter and Salifbury were at 
(hat time vacant, by the deprivation of Ghinuccii and 
Camfcegib, two Italian bifhops, who fell under the king's 
difpleafure," upon his rupture with Rome. The former 
of thefe was offered to Latimer ; and as this promotion 
caine unexpectedly to him, he looked upon it as the work 
of Providence, and accepted it without much peifuafion. 
All hiftorians inention him as a perfon remarkably zealous 
in the difcharge of his new office ; and tell us, that, in 
overlooking the clergy of his diocefe, he was uncommonly 
aftive, warm, and refolute, and prefided in his ecclefiaftical 
court' in the fame fpirit. Thus far he could aft with au- 
thority ; but in other things he found himfelf under diffi- 
culties. The Popifh ceremonies gave him great offence : 
' et he neither durft, in times fo dangerous and unfettled, 
ay them entirely afide ; nor, on the other hand, was he 
willing entirely to retain them. In this dilemma his ad- 
drefs was admirable : he inquired into their origin ; and 
when he found any of them derived from a good meaning, 
he inculcated their original, though itfelf a corruption, 
in the room of a more corrupt praftice. Thus he put the 
eople in mind, when holy bread and water were diftri- 
uted, that thefe elements, which had long been thought 
endowed with a kind of magical influence, were nothing 
more than appendages to the two facraments of the Lord's - 
"Supper and Baptifm : the former, he faid, reminded us of 
Chrift's death ; and the latter was only a fimple reprefenta- 
tion of being purified from fin. By thus reducing Popery 
to its principles, he improved, in fome meafure, a bad 
ftock, by lopping from it a few fruitjefs excrefcences. 





While his endeavours to reform were theie in his dioceiey 
he was called upon to exert them in a more public manner, 
by a fummons to parliament and convocation in 1536* 
This feffion was thought a crifisby the Proteftant party, 
at the head of which ftood the lord Cromwell, whofe favour 
with the king was now in its meiidian. Next to him iri 

Jower was Cranmer, abp. of Canterbury, after whom the 
ifhop of Worcefter was the moft confiderable man of the 
party - r to whom were added the bifhops of Ely, Rochefter, 
Hereford, Salifbury, and St. David's. On the other hand, 
the Popifh party was headed by Lee abp. of York, Gar- 
diner, Stokeffey and Tunftal, bifhops of Winchefter, ten- 
don and Durham. The convocation was opened as ufual 
by a fermon, or rather an oration, fpoken at the appoint- 
ment of Cramner, by the bifliop of Worcefter, whole elo- 
quence was at this time every -where famous. Many warm 
debates pafled in this afiembiy ; the refult whereof was, that 
four facraments out of the feven were concluded to be in- 
significant : but, as the bifhop of Winchefter made no fi- 
gure in them, for debating was not his talent, it is befide 
our ptirpofe to enter into a detail of what was done in it* 
Many alterations were made in favour of the Reformation; 
artel, a few months after, in 1537, the Bible was translated 
into Englifh, and recommended to a general perufal. 

Mean while the bifhop of Worcefter, highly Satisfied 
* with the profpeft of the times, repaired to his diocefe* hav- 
ing made,a longer flay in London than was abfolutely ne- 
cefiary. He had no talents for ftate- affairs, and therefore 
meddled not with them. His whole ambition was to dis- 
charge tlie paftoral functions of a bifhop, neither aiming to 
difplay the abilities of a ftatefman, nor thofe of a courtier. 
Gardiner, bifhop of Winchefter, was juft returned from 
Germany, having fucccfsfully negotiated forae commiffions, 
which the king had greatly at heart ; and, in 1539, a parlia- 
ment was called, to confirm the feizure and furrendry of the 
monafteries, when that fubtle minifter took his opportunity, 
and fucceeded in prevailing upon his majefty to do fbme- 
thing towards reftoring the old religion, as being moft ad- 
vantageous for his views in the prefent fituatioh of Europe. 
tn this parliament pafled the famous a&, as it was called, 
of the fix articles, which was no fooner publifhed than it 
gave an univerfal alarm to all favourers of rhe Reforma- 
tion [c] : ; and, as the bifhop of Worcefter could not 


fc] Thefc article* were, t. In the Iteration there remains aofeMraBceef 
facmacut ot the altar, after the can- bread and wine, but the natural body 


LATIMER. i 4 t 

give his vote for the aft, he thought it wrong to hold any 
office. He therefore rcfigned his -biihopric [d J, and retired 
into the country ; where he refided during the heat of that 
persecution which followed upon this aft, and thought of 
nothing for the remainder of his days but a fequeftered life. 
He knew the ftorm which was up could not foon be ap- 
pealed, and he had no inclination to truft himfelf in it. 
But, in the midft of his fecurity, an unhappy accident 
carried turn again into the tempeftuous weather that was 
abroad : he recieved a bruife by the tall of a tree, and the 
contufion was fo dangerous, that he was obliged to feek 
out for better affiftance than the country afforded. With 
this view he repaired to London, where he had the misfor- 
tune to fee the fall of his patron, the lord Cromwell ; a lofs 
qf which he was foon made fenfible. Gardiner's emiflariea 
quickly found him out ; and fomething, that fomebody 
had fomewhere heard him fay againft the fix articles, being 
ulledged againft him, he was fent to the Tower, where, 
yrithout any judicial examination, he fufTered, through one 
pretence or another, a cruel imprifonmeot for the remaining 
fix years of king Henry's reign. 

Immediately upon the acceffion of Edward VI, he and 
all others, vyfro were imprifoned in the lame caufe, were 
fet at liberty; and Latimer, whofe old friends were now in 
power, was received by them with every mark of afFe&ion. 
He would have found no difficulty in difpofieifing Heath, in 
every refpeft an infignificant man, who had fucceeded to 
his bi&opric : but he had other fentiments, and would net* 
ther make fuit himfelf, nor fuffer his friends to make any, 
for his reftoration. However, this was done by the par- 
liament, who, after fettling the national concerns, fent up 
. an addrefs to the proteftor to reftore him : and the prote&or 
was very well inclined, and propofed the refumption to 
Latimer ; but Latimer perfevered in the negative, alledging 
his great age, and the claim he had from thence to a private 
life. Having thus rid himfelf of all incumbrance, he ac- 

and blood of Chrift. z. Vows of chaf- his lodgings, lie threw off his t*ofces ; 
city ought to be obferved. 3.' The and, leaping up, declared to thofe 
* »fe of private matTes ought* to be con- about htm, that he found himfelf 
tinned. 4- Communion in both kinds lighter than ever he found himfelf he- 
is not oeceJTaty. 5. Prirfts m«ft not fore. The (lory is not unlikely, as 
anarry. €. Auricular confeffion is to k is much in character j a vein of 
he retained in the church. pleaiantry and good humour accompa- 
[o] It i* related of him, that when nving the meft feriaus acVians of his 
became from the pa* lumeat-houfc to life* ' 



cepted an invitatton from Cranmer, and took up his resi- 
dence at Lambeth, where he led a very retired life, beirfg 
chiefly employed in hearing the complaints and redreffing 
the injuries of poor people. And indeed his charafter for 
fer vices of this kifid was lb univerfaliy known, that ftran- 
gers from every part of England would refort to him, fo 
that he had as crouded a levee as a minifter of ftate. In thefe 
employments he fpent more than two years, interfering as 
little as poflible in any public tranfaftion ; only he. affifted 
the archbiihop in compofing the Homilies, which were let 
forth by authority in the firft year of king Edward ; he 
was alfo appointed to preach the Lent fermons before his 
majefty, which office he performed during the three firft 
years of his reign. As to his fermons which are ftill extant, 
they are indeed far enough from being exact pieces of com- 
pofition: yet his Simplicity and low familiarity, his humour 
and gibing drollery, were well adapted to the times ; and 
his oratory, according to the mode of eloquence at that day, 
was exceeding popular. His aftion and manner of preach- 
ing too were very aflFefting ; and no wonder, for he (poke 
immediately from his heart. His abilities, however, as an 
orator, made only the inferior part of his charafter as a 
preacher. What particularly recommends him is, that noble 
' and apoftolic zeal which he exerts in the caufe of truth. 

Upon the revolution which happened at court after the 
death of the duke of Somerfet, Latimer feems to have re- 
tired into the country ; and made ufe of the king's licence 
* as a general preacher in thofe parts where he thought his 
labours might be moft ferviceable. - He was thus employed 
during the remainder of that reign, and continued in the 
fame courfe, for a fhort time, in the beginning of the nexr; 
' but as foonas the introdu&ion of Popery was refolved on, * 
the firft ftep towards it was the prohibition of all preaching 
throughout the kingdom, and a licenfing only of fuch as were 
known to be Popifhly inclined: accordingly, a ftrift in- 
quiry was made after the more forward and > popular 
preachers, and many of them were taken into cuftody. 
The bifhop of Winchefter, who was now prime minifter, 
having profcribed Latimer from the firft, fent a meflage to 
cite him before the council. He had notice of this deiign, 
fome hours before the meffenger's arrival, but made no ufe 
of the intelligence. The meflenger found him equipped 
for bis journey : at which expreffing furprize, Latimer told 
him, that he was as ready to attend him to .London, thus 
called upon to anfwer for his faith, as he ever was to take 


LA TtMt rtt. HI 

any journey in his life ; and that he doubted not but God, 
who had enabled him to ftand before two princes, wouM 
enable him to ftand before a third. The meflenger, then 
acquainting him that he had no orders to feize his perfon, 
delivered a letter, and departed. Latimer, however, open- 
ing the letter, and finding it contain a citation from the 
council, refolved to obey it. He fet out therefore imme- 
diately ; and, as he palled through Smithfield, where here- 
tics were ufually burnt^ he (aid chearfully, " This place 
" hath long groaned for me." The next morning he 
waited upon the council, who, having loaded him with 
-many fevere reproaches, fent him to the Tower. Crari- 
mer and Ridley were alfo prifoiiers in the fame caufe wifh 
Latimer ; and, when it was refolved to have a public difputa- 
tionat Oxford, betwen the moff eminent of the Popifh and 
Proteftant divines, thefe three were appointed to manage 
the difpute on the part of the Proteftants. Accordingly, 
they were taken out of the Tower, and fent to Oxford, 
where they were clofely confined in the common prifon, 
and might eafily imagine how free the difputation was likely 
to be, when they found themfelves denied the ufe even of 
books and pen and ink. 

Fox haspreferved a conference, afterwards put into wri- 
tingj which w&s held at this time betwen Ridley and La- 
timer, and which fets our author's temper in a ftrong light* 
The two bifhops are reprefented fitting in their prifon, ru- 
minating upon the folemn preparations then making for 
their trial, of which, probably, they were now firft inform- 
ed. " The time," faid Ridley, " is now come; we are now 
41 called upon, either to deny our faith, or to fuffer death in 
" its defence. You, Mr. Latimer, are an old foldier oi Chrift , ' 
41 and h&ve frequently withftood the fear of death ; whereas I 
"am raw in the fervice and unexperienced " With this pre- 
feee he introduces a requeft, that Latimer, whom he calls 
44 his father," would hear him propofe fuch arguments as he 
thinks it itioft likely his adverfaries would urge againft him,. 
*nd affift him in providing himfelf with proper anfwers to 
them. To this Latimer, in his ufual ftrain of good hu- 
mour, replied, that " he fancied the good bilhop was treating 
M him, as he remembered Mr, Bilney ufed formerly to do ; 
•V who, when he wanted to teach him, would always 66 it 
44 under colour of being taught himfelf. But, in the prefent 
4 * cafe," faid he, "my lord, lam determined to give them very 
11 little trouble : I (hall juft offer them a plain account of my 
44 &ith, and (hall fay very little more ; for I know any thing 
i " more 


•44 LATilflU- 

11 more will be to no purpofe." However, he anfweted their 
queftions, as far as civility required ; and in thefe anfwef s, * 
it is obfervable, he managed the argument much better 
than either Ridley or Cranmer: who, when they were 

. prefled, in defence of trarifubfcurtiation, with fome pafla^es 
from the fathers, inftead of difavowing an infufScient au- 

. thority, weakly defended a good caufe by evafions ajad 
diftin&ions, after the manner of fchoolmen* Whereas, 
when the fame proofs were multiplied upon Latimer, he 
told them plainly, that " fuch proofs hao no weight with 
" him ; that the fathers, no doubt, were often deceived; and 
" that he never depended upon them, but when they de- 
•' pended upon fcripture." " Then you are not of St. Chry- 
" foftom's feith," replied they, " nor of St. Auftin's :" " I 
44 have told you," fays Latimer, " I am not, except when 
" they bring fcripture for what they, fay/* The difpute 
being ended, fentence was palled upon' him ; and he and 

, Ridley were burnt at Oxford. This was in 1554. Such 
was the life of Hugh Latimer, one of the leaders of that 
glorious army of martyrs, who introduced the Reformation 
in England. He was not efteemed a very learned man, for 
he cultivated only ufeful learning ; and that, he thought, lay 
in a very narrow compafs. He never engaged in worldly 
affairs, thinking that a clergyman ought to employ himfelf 
only in his profeffion. Thus he lived, rattyer a good, than 
what the world calls a great man* 

LAUD (William), archbifhop of Canterbury, was 
fon of Willianv Laud, a clothier, of Reading, in fcexfelhire, 
by Lucy his Wife, widow of John Robinfon^ of the feme 
place, and fifter to fir William Webbe, afterwards lord- 
mayor of London. He was born at Reading, Oft. 7, 1573, 
and educated at the free-fchooi there, till July 1580 ; when, 
removing to St. Tohn's-college in Oxford, he became a 
fcholar of the houfe in 1590, and fellow in 1593. He took 
the degree of A. B. in 1594, and that of mafter in 1598 ; 
being efteemed at this time, it is faid, a very forward, con- 
fident, and zealous perfonl He was this year chofen gram- 
mar k&urer ; and, being ordained prieft in 1601, read, the 
following year, a divinity leflure in his college, which was 
- 4fcen maintained by Mrs. Maye. In fome of thefe chapel- 
***™ fes hc maintained, againft the Puritans, the perpetu al 
Tifibility of the Church of Rome till the Reformation ; by 
which he incurred the difgleafure of Dr* Abbot, then vice- 

LAUD. 145 


Chancellor 6f the uqiverfity [a]. In 1603, Laud was one 
of the proftors, and the fame year became chaplain to 
Charles Blount, earl of Devonfhire, whom he incqi}- 
fiderateiy married, Pec. 3§, 1 605, to Penelope, then wife 
of Robert lord Rich; an affair that e^pofed him after- 
wards to much cenfure, and created him great* uneafinefs : 
in reality, it made fo deep an irapreffion upon him, that fye 
ever after kept that d^y as a day of failing and humilia- 
tion [bJ. 

He proceeded B« D. July 6, 1604. In his exerqfe fqr 
tiiis degree he maintained thefe two. points, The neceffity 
of bapfefm ; and that there eould be no true church with- 
out diocefap bifliQps. Thefe were levelled alfo againft the 
Puritans, aijd he was raillied by the divinity profeflbr. FJe 
Ukewife gave further offence to the Calvinifts, by a fexmon 
preached "before, the uniyerfity in 1606; infomuch that it 
Was made ai^ herefy for ^ny to be feen in his company, and 
a mifprifton of herefy to give him a civil falutation. Hojw-, . 
ever, his learning, parts, apd principles, procured him foipe 
friends* His firft preferment was the vicarage of Stanford, 
in North^mptonfl^ire, \v\ 1607 ; and, in 1608, he obtained 
the advowfon q{ North KUworth, in Leicefterfhire ; he 
wa$ no fooner invefted in thefe. livings, but he put the x 

parfoiiage hoijfes in good repair; and gave twelve poor peo- 
ple a conftant allowance out of them ; which was his 
Conftant praftice in all his fubfeqjuent preferments. This 
fame year he com^nenqed D. D. and was made chaplain 
to Neile^ bifhop of Rochefter ; to be near his patron, he 
exchange^ North Kilworth for the reftory of Weft- 
Tilbury, in Effex, into which he was included in 1 609. 
The following year the biihop gave hinj the living ,<?f 
Cuckftone, indent, whereupon he reigned his fellowship, 
left Oxford, and fettled at Cuckftone : but the unhealftj^i- 
nefs of that place having thrown fym irtfoan ague: ha ex- 
changed it fpon after fpr Norton, a benefice of lefs valye, 
bpt in a better air. . . 

Dec. 1610, Dr. Buckeridge, prefident of St. jQhn's,' 
being ptomqted to the fee of Rochefter, Abbpt, newly 
made archbilhop of Canterbury, ret^iniqg fqftie grudge 
againft Laud, complained of him to the jprfl chancellor El- 
lefmere, chancellor of the \miverfity -, ^Jlc^gjng that he w*s 

[aJ Abbot traced this Ttfibrltty [«] She Was divorced by the ecc^;- 

from the Berengtxiaft* to the Alb\- J6aftfcal jndg$,ftSr adultery ; and Laod 

genfes, from them to tl)e WicfcUtifis, yielded to »tbe iniUnces o£<frfs gatrqn, 

from thefe to the Suffices, and from m the opinion, that, in cafe of a di- . 

the Hoffitet to Luther and Calvin, vorce, both the innocent and guilty 

Heylin's Cyprian. Annl. p. 49. may lawfully remarry. 

Vol. VIII. L * 

y f.V- 

146 LAUD. 

at leaft a Papift in his heart, and cordially addi&ed to Po- 
pery. The complaint was fuppofed to be made, in order 
to prevent his fucceeding Buckeridge in the prefidentlhip 
of his college ; and, the lord chancellor carrying it to the 
king, all his credit, intereft, and advancement, would pro- 
bably have been deftroyed thereby, hadj not his immoveable 
friend bifliop Neile effaced thofe ill impreflions. He was 
therefore eleftcd prefident, May 10, 161 1, though then 
lick in London, and unable either, to make intereft in.per- 
fon, or by writing to his friends ; and the king not only 
confirmed the election, but, as a further token of his favour, 
made him one of his chaplains, upon the recommendation 
of bifhop Neile. Our ambitious and afpiring doftor, 
having thus fet foot within the court, flattered himfelf 
with hopes of great and immediate preferment ; but, abp* 
Abbot {landing always in his way, no preferment came : lb 
that, after three years fruitlefs waiting, he was upon the 

i>oint of leaving the court, and retiring wholly to his col- 
e^e, when his friend and patron Neile, newly tranflated 
to Lincoln, prevailed with him to ftay one year longer. 
Meanwhile, to keep up his fpirits, the bifhop gave him a 
prebend in the church of Lincoln, in 1614, and the arch- 
deaconry of Huntingdon the following year. 

Upon the lord chancellor Ellefmere s decline, in 16x6, 
Laud's intereft began to rife at court; fo that, in November 
that year, the king gave him the deanery of Gloucefter ; and, 
as a further inftance of his being in favour, he was pitched 
on to attend the king in his journey to Scotland in 1617, 
Some royal direftions were, by his procurement, fent to 
Oxford for the better government of the univerfity, before 
he fet out on' that journey ; the defign whereof was to 
bring the church of Scotland to an uniformity with that 
of England ; a favourite fcheme of Laud and other divines. 
- &ut the Scots were Scots, as Heylin exprefles it, and re- 
folved to go their own way, whatever fnould be the con- 
. fequence : fo that the king gained nothing by that char- 
- geable journey, but the negleft of his commands, and a 
conten\pt of his authority. Laud, in his rerurn from 
Scotland, Aug. 2, 1617, was indufted to the re&ory of 
' Ibftock in Leicefterfhire ; and Jan. 22, 1 620-1, inftalled 
into a prebend of Weftminfter. About the fame time 
• there was a general expeftation at court, that the deanery 
of that church would have been conferred upon him: 
but Dr. Williams, then dean, wanting to keep it in com- 
mendam with the biihopric of Lincoln, to which he was 


LAUD* *47 

Bomoted, got Laud put off with the. bilhopric of St. 
avid's. The day before his confecration, he refigned 
fixe prefidentfhip of St. John's, in obedience to the col- 
lege-ftatute ; but wai permitted to keep his prebend of 
Weftminfter in commendam, through the lord keeper 
'Williams's intereft, who, about a year after, gave him a . 
living of about 120L a year, in the diocefe of St. David's, 
to help his revenue ; v and, in January 1620, the king gave 
liim alfo the reclory of Creeke in Northamptbnfhire. The 
preachers of thofe times meddling with the doftrines of 
predeftination and election, and witli the royal preroga* 
tive, more than was agreeable to the court, the king pub- 
lifhed, Aug. 1622, directions concerning preachers and 
preaching, in which Laud was faid to have a hand ; and 
which, being aimed at the Puritans and le&urers, occa->- 
fioned great clamours among them. This year alfo, our 
prelate held his famous conference with Fifher the Jcfuit, 
before the marquis of Buckingham and his mother, in 
order to confirm them both in the Proteftant religion, 
wherein they were then wavering. The conference was 
printed in 1624, folio, and brought an intimate acquain- ' 

tance between him and the marquis ; whofe fpecial favou-* 
rite he became from this time, and to whom he is charged 
with making himfelf too fubfervient : it is certain, this 
minion left him his agent at court, when he went with 
the prince to Madrid, and frequently correfponded with 
him from thence. 

About Oft. 1623, ^ ie lord-keeper Williams's jealoafy 
of him, as a rival in the duke of Buckingham's favour, 
and mifunderftandings or mifreprefentations on both fide* 
from tale-bearers and buf/-bodies, occafioned fuch violent 
quarrels and enmity between thefe two prelates,, as were 
attended with the worft confequences* Archbifhop Abbot 
alfo, refolving to keep Laud down as long as he could* 
left him out of the rugh-commiffion ; of Which he com- 
plained to the duke of Buckingham, Nov. 1624, and 
then was put into the comfciifiion : however, he oppofed 
the defign, formed by the duke, of appropriating the en* 
dowment of the Charter-houfe to the maintenance of an 
army, under pretence of its being for the king*s advan- 
tage, and the cafe of the fubjeft, Dec. this year, he 
presented to the duke a traft, drawn up at his requeft, 
under ten heads,- about doctrinal Puritanifm. He cor- 
refponded alfo with him during his abfence in France, 
about Charfcs the Firft's marriage wkh the princefs Hen* 

La J ri«tta' 

rietta-Maria , and that prince, foon after his acceffion W 
the throne, wanting to regulate the number of his chap- 
lains, and to know the principles and qualifications of the 
moft eminent divines in his kingdom, our bifhop was 
ordered to draw a lift of them, which he diftinguiihod 
fcy the letter O for Orthodox, and P for Puritans. At 
Charles's coronation, Feb. 2, 1625-6, he officiated a* 
clean of Weftminfter, in the room of Williams, then in' 
difgrace ; and was charged with altering the coronatioa 
oath, but without any good foundation. In 1626, Jie was 
translated from St. David's to Bath and Wells ; and, if* 
1628, to London. The king having appointed him dean? 
of his chapel-royal in 1626, and taken him into the privy- 
council in 1627, he was likewife in the commiffion for 
cxercifing archiepifcopal jurifdidion during Abbot's fe- 
queftration. In the third parliament o£ king Charles, 
which met March 17, 1627, he was voted to be a favourer 
of the Anniniahs, and one juftly fufpe&ed to be unfound 
in his opinions that way ; accordingly, his name was in- 
ferted as fuch in the Common remonftrance; and, becaufe 
he was thought to be the maker of the king's fpeecbes, 
and of the duke of Buckingham's anfvrer to his impeach- 
ment, &c. if raifed a very great damour againft him, and 
fo expofed him to popular rage, that his life was threat- 
ened [c]. About the fame time, he was put into an unv 
gracious office; namely, in a commijEan for railing monies 
by impofitions, which the Commons call Exoifes*: bat fc- 
ieems never to have been executed. 

Amidft all his employments, his care did not flacken 
towards the place of his education, theuniverfity of Ox* 
ford. In order to flop and reftify die fe&ious and fcumul- 
fuary manner of electing pio&ors, he fixed them to the 
feveral colleges by rotation; and caufed to be put into 
©rder the broken, jarring, and imperfeft ftatutes of that 
univerfity, which had lain confttfed tome hundreds of years. 
April 1630, he was elefted their chancellor 9 and he made 
it his bufinefs, the reft of his life, to adorn the univerfity 
with buildings, and to enrich it with books and MS&. 
In the firft defign, he began with his own college, St, 
John's ; where he built the inner (juadrangle (except part 

[c] A" paper was found m the « thou be taken out of the worM, Ice. 
tfeau a yard of St. Paul's to tbs e&& : « A »d a&re thyfeif, wither G*d nor 
" L * ,£ ?°7 to * h y felf « bc »«wb*--« the world can endure fuch a nit 

« thy life is fought. As thou art the « aounfellor, or fceh a whifperer, or 
« foumam of all wuAednefs, repent "fcthwcifca/* Laufa Diaiv. d. ^ 


•STrfftassftB: H ^ kts ^" *-*y*&** 

L A U . D/ X4f 

,of the~ fouth-fide of it, which was 'the old library) in % 
folid and elegant manner: the firft ftone of this defign was 
Ijiid in 163 1 : he gave alfo feveral MSS» to the library,. 
and 500I. by will to the cdllege. In the next place* 
he erefted that elegant pile of building at the well-end 
.of the divittity-fehool, well known by the name of the 
t Convocation-houfe below, and SeldenVlibrary above [d]. 
In the latter refolution, he gave the univerfity, at feveral 
times r , 1300 MSS, in Hebrew, Syriac, Chaldee, Egyptian* 
Ethiopian, Armenian, Arabic, Perfian, Turkifh, Ruffian, 
Chliaeie, Japa#efe, Greek, Latin, Italian, French, Saxon, 
Englith, and Irifh; a$ jnval^a^le polkftion prpcured at 
a prodigious expence. 

After the duke of Buckingham's murder, our bifhop 
became chief fovourite to Charles I, which augmented 
indeed his power and intereft, but at the far#e time in r 
creafed the envy and jealoufy againft him, which were 
already too ftrong,. Upon the decline of abp, Abbot'* ' 
health atjd favour at court, Laud's, concurrence, if not 
^over-forwardnefs, in the very fevere profecutions carried 
on, in the High-coJnmiffion and Star-chamber '.courts* 
3gainft preachers and fcpbblers, did him great prejudice 
with rttoft people c however, his profecution of the king's 
printers, for leaving out the word ' not' in the N fe>venti> 
commandment, could be liable to no juft obje&ion. 
May 13, 1633, he fet out from London to attend the 
Jung, who was going to be crowrjecf in Scotland : he was 
fworn a privy-couniellor of .that kingdom June 15, an4 
on the 26th came back tp Ftilham. During his ftay ia 
Scotland, he formed a refolution of bringing that church 
to a conformity with the Church of England ; but the 
king committed the framing of a liturgy to a feleft number 
of Scottifh bifhops, who, inferring therein feveral varia- 
tions from the Englifh liturgy, were oppofed ftrenuoufly 
by Our bifhop, but in vain. Having endeavoured to fupr 
plant Abbot, *« whom he could not be contented to fuc- 
peed [eJ ; m upon his death, in Auguft this year, he was 
appointed his fucceflbr. That very morning, Aug. 4, 
there came one to him at Greenwich, with a ferious offer 

f o] He had alfo projected to clear tiorfs, the lower for t walk or place of 

Che great fquare between St. Mary's v conference, &c. Bat the owners 06 

church and the fchools, where now the houfes not being willing to part 

ftatods the Radclifte- library. His dc- with them, the defign was fruftrated. 

. fign Was to raife a fair and fpacions Heylin, pr 379. 
room upon pillars, the upper part to [e] This is the expreffion of Fulter, 

£epr$ for convocations and congrega- in his Church-Hi ftory, _p. ix. 

% ' * ' • L 3 (an4 

i 5 o 


(and an avowed ability to perform it) of a cardinal's hat ; 
which offer was repeated on the 17th: but his anfwerboth- 
times was, " that fomewhat dwelt within him which would 
** not fuffer that, till Rome were other than it is." Sept. 14, 
he was elected chancellor of the univcrfity of Dublin. 
One of his fjrtt atts, after his advancement to the arch- 
bifhopricj was an injunction, Oft. 18, purfuant to the 
king's letter, that no clergyman fhould be ordained prieft 
without a title. At the fame timte came out the king'4 
declaration about lawful fports on Sundays, which Laud 
was charged with having revived and enlarged ; and that, 
with the vexatious profecutions pf fuch clergymen as re- 
fufed to read it in their churches, brought a great odium 
upon him among the Subbatarians ^nd other Puritans : 
though, as he obferves, " At Geneva, after evening 
** prayer, the elder men bowl, and the younger train ; 
" and our good Puritan neighbours, the Dutch, profane 
** the Sunday with plays and interludes, and coupt thera- 
*' felves blamelefs [f]." In 1634, arid 1635, the abp., 
by his vicar-gener&l, performed his metropolitical vifita- 
tion : ^herein, among other things, the church-wardens 
in every parifh were enjoined to remove the communion-* 
table from the middle to the eaft-end of the chancel, altar- 
wife, the ground being raifed for that purpofc ; and to 
fence it in with decent rails, to avoid proranenefs ; and 
the refufers were profecuted in the High-cominiffiori or 
Star-chamber courts. In this vifitation, the Dutch and 
Walloon congregations were fummoned to appear; and 
fuch, as were born in England, enjoined to repair to the 
feverai parifh churches where they inhabited, to hear 
divine fervice and fermons, and perform all duties and 
payments required ,on that behalf: and thofe of them, 
minifters and others, that were aliens born, to ufe the 
Englifh liturgy tranfhjted into French or Dutch.' Many, 
rather than comply, chofe to leave the kingdom, to the 

great detriment of our manufactures. ' ' K ' 

This year our archbifhop did the poor Irifh clergy a 
very important fervice, by obtaining tor them, from the 
king, a grant of all the impropriations, then t-emaining in 
the crown. He alfo improved and fettled the revenues of 
the London clergy, in a better manner than before. 
Feb. 5, 1634.5, he was put into the great committee df 
trade, and the king's revenue ; and appointed one of the 
commiffioners of the treafury March the 4th, tipon the 

[p] His trial, P . 343, 


LAUD, 151 

death of Wefton, earl of Portland. Befides thfc, he was, 
two days after, called into the foreign committee, and had 
likewife the fole difpofal of whatfoever concerned the . 
church; but he fell into warm difputes with the lord 
Cottington, chancellor of the Exchequer, who took all 
opportunities of impofing upon him [g]. After having 
continued a year commiffioner of the treafury, and ac- 
quainted himfelf with the myfteries of it, he procured 
the lord-treafurer's ftaff for Dr. William Juxon ; who 
had, through his intereij, been fucceffively advanced to 
the prefidentfhip of St. John's -college, deanery of Wor* 
cefter, ,clerkfhip of his majefty's clofet, and bifhopric of 
London ; but this was highly difgufting to many of the 
laity. For fome years he had fet his heart upon getting 
the Englifh Liturgy introduced into Scotland; and fome 
of the Scottilh bifhops had, under his dire&ion, prepared 
both that book and a colle&ion of canons for public 
fervice; the canons were publifhed in 1635, but the 
liturgy came not in ufe till 1637. On the day it was firft 
read at St. Giles's church in Edinburgh, it occalioned a 
moft violent tumult among the people ; fpirited up by the 
nobility, who were lofers by the reftitution of Epifcopacy, 
and by the minifters, ''who loft their clerical government. 
Laud, having been the great promoter of that affair, was" 
reviled for it in the moft abufive manner ; and both he 
and the' book were charged with downright Popery [h]. 
The extremely fevere profecution, carried on about the 
feme time in th<j Star-chamber, chiefly through his infti- 
gatiqn, againft Prynne, Baftwick, and Burton, did him alfo 
infinite prejudice, and expofed him ^o numberjefs libels and 
reflections : though he endeavoured to vindicate his conduft 
inafpeech delivered at their cenfure, June 14, 1637 ; which 
was publilhed by the king*s command. Another rigorous 
profecution, carried on, with his concurrence, in the Star- 
chamber, was againft bifhop Williams ; an account of which 
may be feen in his article, as alfo of Lambert Ofbaldifton,' 
matter of Weftminfter-fchool. , 

In order to prevent the printing and publifhing of what 
he thought improper books, a decree was puffed in the 

fo] As Cottington was the mod both agreed to diffuide his maiefty 

artful courtier that perhaps any time from attempting, may be feen in Cla* 

has produced, Laud's open honefty was rendon's Hift. of the Rebellion, 
an eafy p re y t him. An inflance of [h] Spotfwood. Heyliu. Burnet** 

ti»«, with regard to the firit enclosing memoirs of the duke of Hamilton, 

•f Richmond-Park, and which they p. 29, Jc fe^. 

■ L4 Sur * 

ip. h A U D, 

Star-chamber, July u, 1637, to regulate die trade of prints 
ing; whereby it was enjoined, that the mafter^printers 
ihould be reduced to a certain number, and that none of 
them fhould print any books, till they were licenfed cither 
by the archbifhop, or the bifhop of London, or fome of 
their chaplains, or by the chancellors or vicechancellors 
of the two univerfities. He fell under the queen's dif- 
pleafure, this year, by fpeaking, with, his ufual warmth, 
to the king at the council-table againft the *increafe of 
Papifts, their frequent refort to Somerfet-houfe, and tteir 
inlufferable mifdemeanors in perverting his majefty's fub- 
jefts to Popery. Jan. 31, 1638-9, he wrote a circular letter 
to his fuffragan bifhops, wherein he exhorted them and 
their clergy to contribute liberally towards raifing the army 
againft the Scots. For this he was called an incendiary ; 
but he declares, on the contrary, that he laboured for peace 
fo long, till he received a great check ; and that, in the 
council, his councils alone prevailed for peace and for- 
bearance. In 1639, he employed one Mr Petley to 
' tranflate the liturgy into Greek ; and at his recommenda- 
tion, Dr. Jofeph Hall, bifhop of Exeter, compofed his 
learned treatife pf " Epifcopacy by divine right afiertpd.** 
Dec. 9, the fame year, he was one of the three privy- 
counfellors who advifed the king to call a parliauaejat 
in cafe of the Scottiih rebellion : at which jime a re-r 
folution was taken to affift the king in extraordinary ways> 
if the parliament fhpuld prove peevifh and refufe Supplies. 
A new parliament being fummoned, ' met April 13^ ' 1649 ; 
and the convocation the day following : but the commons 
launching out in complaints againft the archbifhop/ and 
infilling upon a redrefs of grievances before they granted 
any fupply, the parliament was unhappily difiblved May 5 1 
The convocation, however, continued fitting ; and certain 
canons were made in it, which gave vaft offence. Or* 
Laud many laid the blame and odium of the parliament^ 
diflblution : fo that the famous John Lilburne caufed a 
paper to be pofted, May 3, ;upon the Old Exchange, ani- 
mating the apprentices to lack his houfe at Lambeth 
the Monday following : and on this day above 5000 of 
them affembled in a riotous and tumultuous manner ; but 
the archbifhop, receiving previous notice, fecured the 
palace as well as he could, and retired Xx5 his chamber ' 
^t Whitehall, where he remained fome days ;' and one of 
the ringleaders was hanged* drawn and quartered j on the 
2 1 ft. Auguft followiftg, a Jibel'was found in Coventi- 
-•.. • " ' - 4 Garden, 

r r 

LA U D. 

G^rdtfl, excitjng the apprentices and fiddlers to, fall upon 
him in the king's abfence, upon his fecond expedition 
into Scotland. The parliament that met Nov. 3, 1640, . 
not being better difpofed towards him, but, for the raoft 
part, bent upon hi* ruin, federal angry-4peeches were, 
made againft him in the hoiife pf commons \ 

No wonder that his ruin fhould be fought fcnd refolved 
upon, when he had fo many and fo powerful enemies ; al- 
raoft the whole body of the Puritans ; many of the Eng- 
lish nobility and others; and the bulk of the Scotch 
nation. The Puritans refuted and called him the fole 
author of the innovations, and of the profecutions againft 
tiiem: the nobility were difobliged by his warm and^ 
imperious manner, and by his grafping at the odious 
office of prime minifter ; and the Soots were driven to a 
pitch of fury and madnefs, by the reftoring of epifcopal 
government, and the introduction of the Eqglifh fervice- * 
book among them. In this ftate of the times, he was 
not only examined, Dec. 4, oh the earl of Strafford's 
cafe, but, when the commons came to debate upon the 
late canons and convocation, he was reprefented a* the 
author of them[i]; and % committee was appointed to 

[1] tTpon the attack made upon " me to preferre the pnblick peace, 

aim for thefe canons, he wrote the " rather than that ad of ours fhould 

fcUbwing letter to Selden, an a&ive ° be thought a pablick grievance, 

nan in the commons againft him : " And upon m/e creditt With you, I 

" To my much honored frend Mr. " had moved for thifs licence at the 

« Selden thefe. Sal. in Chrifto. Wbr- * verye firft fittihge of thifs parlia- 

" thy fir, tonderftand that the byfi- « mfent* hut that both myefelf and 

J* nefs about the late Canons will bo •' others did feare the houfe of com- 

** handled againe in your houfe to- " mons woald take offence at it (as . 

" taorrowe. I ftiall never a&e any *' they did at the laft) and fayde, wee 

u unwonhie thinge of you ; but give " did it on pnrpofe to prevent them. 

" me leave to fave as' foUowes : If "I andarftand you metne to fpeak •€ 

fj wee have erred in anye point of le- " this byfinefs in the houfe to mor- 

. gtlitye unknowneiihto us, wee /hall " rowe, and that hath made me 

" be bartilye fprrye for it, and hope " Wright thefe lynes to yon, to letc - 

' that error (hall not he made a " yon knbw our mcaninge and de- 

"crymc. Wehearethat fliip-monye «* lyres'. And I ftiall take it Tor a 

? is layd slide, as a thinge that will tX great kbdnefs to me, and a great 

1 dye of rtfelf 5 and I am glad it will " fervice to the church* if by your 

bave foe quiett a death. Mayt not u means the houfe will be fatiified 

'thefe unfortunate canons be fuf- u with thils, which is heare offered, 

?*fer«dto dye as quyetlye, without *• of abrogatinge the canons. To God's 

1 Meat fliinge the church, which hath H bleffed protection I leave yon, and re$ 
to roanje enemies both at home and " Your loving poore frend, 

j 1 abroad > and if thifs may be, I « Lanibeth, tfon 29. W. Cant. 

u heare promife you, I will prefentlye lt 1640. 

" ham Wy e befeeche his majeftye for u I mean to move the king thifs 

. * licence to reyiewc the canons and C( daye for a licenie as is within men* 

' abrbgat them ; afltiringe myefelf <• tioned." 
• ^hat all my brethren wUl joyne with 



i«4 LAUD. 

enquire into all his aftions, and prepare a charge againft 
him, on the 16th. The fame morning, in the houfe of 
lprds, he was named as an incendiary, in an accufation 
from the Scottish commiffioncrs : and, two days after, 
2$ impeachment of high-treafon was carried up to the 
lords by Denzil Holies, defiring he might be forthwith 
fequeftered from parliament, and committed , and the com- 
mons would, in a convenient time, ' refort to them with 
particular articles. Soon after, the Scotch comxniffioners 
prefented alfo to the upper houfe the charge againft him, 
tending to prove him an incendiary : he was immediately 
committed to the cuftody of the black rod. After ten 
weeks, Sir Henry Vane, junior, brought up, Feb. 26, 
fourteen articles againft him, which they defired time 
to prove iti> particular, and, in the mean time, that he 
be kept fafe. Accordingly, the black rod conveyed him 
to the Tower, March 1, 1640-1, amidft the infults and 
reproaches of the mob. 

His enemies, of which the number was great, began 
then to give full vent to their paffions and prejudices, and 
to endeavour to ruin his reputation. In March and April 
the houfe of commons ordered him, jointly with all thofe 
Jhat had pafied fentence in the Star-chamber againft Bur- 
tpn ? Bafbrick, and Prynne, to make fatisfa&ion and re- 
paration for the damages they had fuftained by their fen- 
tence and imprifonment ; and he was fined 20,000!. for 
liis a&ing in the late convocation. He was alfo condemned 
by the houfe of lords to pay 500 1, to Sir Robert Howard 
for falfe imprifonment. June 25, 1641, he refigned his 
chancellorship of the univerfity of Oxford ; and, in Oftober, 
the houfe of lords fequeftered his jurifdi&ion, putting it 
into the hands of his inferior officers ; and enjoined, that 
he fhould give no benefice without firfb having the houfe's 
approbation of the perfpn nominated n by him. Jan. 20, 
1 64 1 -2, they ordered his arms at Lambeth-palace, which, 
had coft him above 300I. to be taken away by the fheriffs 
of London. Before the end of the year, all the rents and 
profits of the archbifhopric were fequeftered by the lords,* 
fpr the ufe of the commonwealth ; and his houfe .was 
plundered of what money it afforded, by two members of 
the houfe of commons ; and what was very hard, when 
Re petitioned the parliament afterwards for a maintenance, 
he could not obtain any, nor even the leaft part of above 
two hundred pounds worth of his own wood and coal at 
Lambeth, for his neceflary ufe in the Tower. April 25, 



1643, a motion was made in the houfe of commons, *t 
the inftance of Hugh Peters and others of that {lamp, to 
fend or tranfport him to New-England ; but that motion 
was reje&ed. May 9, his goods and books m Lambeth- 
houfe were fefeed, and the goods fold, for fcarce the third 
part of their value ; all this before he had been brought 
to any trial ; which was condemning him unheard. Seven 
days after, there came out an ordinance of parliament, en- 
joining him to give no benefice without leave and order 
of both houfes. May 31, W. Prynne, by a warrant from 
the clofe committee, came and fearched his room, and 
even rifled his pockets ; taking away his diary, private 
devotions, and twenty-one bundles of paper, which he 
)iad prepared for his own defence. Prynne promifed a 
faithful reftitution of them within three or four days, but 
he never returned quite three bundles of the papers. 
Mean while, the abp. not complying exaftly with the 
ordinance above-mentioned, all the temporalities of his 
archbifhopric were fequeftered to the parliament June 10, 
and he was fufpended from his office and benefice, and 
from all jurifdi&ion whatfoever, 0£l. 10, more articles 
were carried up againft him to the houfe of lords , fo, 
after he had been kept prifoner [k] above three years, 
he was brought to his trial March 12, 1643-4. Twenty 
<feys| werq fpent in it, fo that the whole proceedings were 
not finished till the 29th of July ; and nothing was proved 
upon him, which was trealon by law. Recourfe was had 
to the fame method as had been taken againft the earl 
of Strafford ; a bill of attainder was firft read in the houfe 
if commons Nov. 13, pafled the 16th, and immediately 
fent up to the lords ; there it ftuck till Jan. 1644-5, 
when, by the violence of the earl of Pembroke and the 
mob, threatening to force them, it was pafled, the 4th 
of that month, in a very thin houfe. The archbiftiop, 
by die cbnfeflion of his enemies, made a full, firm, and 
gallant defence, without the leaft acknowledgment 0/ guilt 
in any thing ; and his* behaviour was fuitaHe on the 
fcaffold [t], with great compofure. It plainly appears 


Jk] So little care was taken to dc- ohfemd, that the treafon chained 
tain him, that he thought they in- upon him confuted of two parts; an 
tended he ihould make his efcape. endeavour to fubvcrt the laws of the 
[l] In his fpeech, he declared him- land, and a like endeavour to over- 
felt a true member of the church of throw the Protefrant religion efta* 
England, and that he had fuffered for blifhed by law. Betides my anfwers, 
endeavouring an uniformity. He next fays he, to the fcveral charges, I pro- 


• ! 

15$ L A U D, 

that he Fell a facrifice to the Scottifh nation : for hif 
trial was hastened or retarded according to the motions 
of their army jn Engla/id ; and Ludlow frankly owns, 
that he was beheaded for the encouragement of the Scots r 
nor did he obtain the favour of beheading, but by re- 
peated petitions. He fuffered Jan> 10, on Tower-Hilly 
aged 71 years. His eorpfe was depofited in the church 
of All-hillowsrBarking, London; but afterwards taken 
up, and interred in the chapel of St. Jdhn's-college, 
Oxford, July 24, 1663. Such was the tragical end of 
Dr. William Laud, archbifhop of Canterbury ! As to his 
perfon, he was low of ftature, but Well and ftrongly fhaped, 
and of a ruddy and chearful countenance : in his temper 
and natural difpofition full of fire and vivacity, which to<> 
, often degenerated into choler and paffiort. He was a mart 
of ftrift integrity, fincere and zealous ; but, in fome re- 
fpefts, was indifcreet and obftinate, eagerly purfuing mat- 
ters not very inconsiderable or mifchievous. The rigo- 
rous profecutions in the Star-chamber and High-cornmif- 
lion courts are generally imputed to him r and he formed 
the airy projeft of uniting, the three kingdoms in an tmir 
formity of religion ; anri the paffing of fome ceremonies iri 
this laft affair, brought upon him the odious imputation 
pf Popery, and fcf Being Popiihly affefted, without any- 
good grounds, He was more bufy in ternporal affairs and 
jnatters of the ftate, than his predeceffbrS in the fee of 
jGanterbury had been in later times ; and even thought he 
could, manage the office pf prime minifter, for which per* 
haps no man was ever more unfit. Lord Clare&doii, who 
had a good deal of his ftifF temper and contemptuous 
Carriage, concludes his character with this candid ob r 
fervation : " That his learning, piety, and virtue, have 
!" been attained by very few, and the grcateft of his infir- 
*' mities are common to all even to the beft of men/* 

teftcij myinnocency in }>oth Jioufe*. ipembtjrthis jrrotefr of mine, for n»T 

It was fa id, protections at the bar innocency ,in this, and from all trca- 

muft not be taken. I can bring no fons whatfoeyef, fie j>ro*eeds to take 

witnefs of my heart and the intefi- notipe of the charge agginft him of 

jions thereof; therefore I muft come being an enemy to parliaments, which 

to my protection, not at the bar, but he denies; but intimates, that the pre- 

'my proteflation at this hour and in- fent parliament was mi fin formed an4 

iftant of my death, that I never en- mifgoverned,'which was fo much the 

deavoured the fubverfion of law or worfe, as the fubjeft was thereby left 

kcligion. And I defire you all to re- without all remedy. 


'. .IX ■. »;■*.» v. -X _,» 



t A tf ft 

Hrf wfc the author of feyeral productions, an account of 
which is inferted in the note £ m }« 

[it] Thefe arc, 1. "Seven fermons '« &c* 1700," fol, 6. " Officiant quo- 1 

# preached ami pridted on feveral oc- «• tidiannm, or A manual of private 

V cations, and reprinted in 165 1 ," frro, 4i devotions, 1650/' 8 to. 7. " A fum- 

g. "Short annotation uj>pn the llfe4pd " m«y of devotions, 1667," urno. 

w death ofthemofrauguft king James.** There are about 18 letters of his to 

Yhey were "drawn up at thedefire of Gerard- John Vof&us, pYioted by Coto- 

Geopge duke of Bucks, 3. " A,b&nsi matins id hi6 edition of Voifai EpiftoX. 

M to the remon ft ranee made by the Lood. 1696^ fol. Some other letters 

«' hoafe of commons in 162$. " 4. <, Hb of his are puMUhed at the end of 

" Diary by Wharton in 1694; with 6 Ulnar's life by 3>r. Parr, if*6, foL 

>' other pieces, and fevecal letters, -ef- And a few move by Dr. Twclis, ia 

« pecially one to Sir Kenetm Digby, his life of Dr. Pocock, prefixed to 

•* on his embracing Popery.'* ' 5. " The that author's theological works, 1645, 

"lecond volume of the Remains of in 4 ?oU folio. 
u aicabifliop Laud, written by aimfalf* 

LAUDER (Wjuum), a native of Scotland, was Anecdote* 
educated at the univerfity of Edinburgh, where he finifhed of B°wy«» 
hU ftudies with great reputation, and acquired a con- ^jf^ 
fiderable knowledge x?f the Latin tongue. He afterwards 
taught with fuccefe in the clafs of Humanity [a] ftudents 
who were recommended to him by the Profeflbr thereof. 
May %z % J 734> be received a teftimonial from the heads of 
the Urnvernty, certifying that he was a fit perfon to teach 
Humanity in any fcjiaoi or college whatever. In 1739 
he puhliihed at Edinburgh an edition of " Johnfton's 
" Pialms." Iiiv 1 742, he was recommended by Mr. Patrick 
Guming and Mr. Colin Maclaurin, Prpfeflbrs of Church 
Hiftory and Mathernaticks, to the Mafterfhip of the Gram- 
mar School at Dundee-, then vacant- .Whether ha fuc- 
ceeded in his application or not, is uncertain j but a few 
years afterwards we find him in London* contriving t^ 
nwutbe reputation of Milton .; an attempt yrhiqh ended in 
the deftnjdion of liis own. His reafon for the attack pro*- 
fcably fprung from the virulence of a violent party fpirit, 
which triumphed over every principle of honour and 
honefty. He bejan firft to retail part of his design in The 
Gentleman's Magazine, 1 747 ; and finding that his for- 
geries were not detected, was encouraged in 1751 to 
colleft thern, with additions, into a volume, intituled, 
" An Eflay on Milton's. Ufe and Imitation of the Mo- 
, *' derns in his Paradife Loft," 8vo. The fidelity of his 
8»Ptetions had been doubted by feveral people, and the 

, . [a] S* tfae Latin tonga* Is called £&*ft or form where chat language is 
*ft Scotland from the £atin pl^aA tavghu 
" Clafis huj*iaioriiin littrajum," tbe 



falfehood of them was foon after demonftrated by Mr. 
\ (now Dr.) Douglas, in a pamphlet intituled " Milton 

** vindicated from the Charge of Plagiarifm brought againft 
" him by Lauder, and Lauder himfelf convi&ed of feyend 
4< forgeries and grofs impofitions on the publick. In a 
<c Letter humbly addrefied to die Right Honourable the 
41 Earl of Bath, 1751," 8vo. The appearance of this 
detection overwhelmed Lauder with confttfion. He fub- 
fcribed a confeffion, dictated by a learned friend ftill 
living, wherein he ingenuoufly acknowledged his offence, 
which he profefled to have been occasioned by the injury 
he had received from the difappointment of his expecta- 
tions of profit from the publication of " Johnfton's 
Pfalms." This misfortune he afcribed to a couplet in Mr. 
Pope's Dunciad, book iv. ver. iii. and from thence origi- 
nated his rancour againft Milton. He afterwards imputed 
his conduct to other motives, abufed the few friends who 
continued to countenance him ; and, finding th%t his 
charafter was not to be retrieved, quitted the kingdom, 
and went to Barbadoes, where he fome time taught a 
fchool. His behaviour there was mean and defpicable; 
and he palled the remainder- of his life in univerfal con- 
tempt. " He died," fays Mr. Nichols, * A fome time about 
" the year 1771, as my friend Mr. Reed was informed by 
" the gentleman who read the funeral fervice over him.". 

n!iir U « LAUNOI (John de, or Launoius), a moft learned 
*JLvii! man, and a moft voluminous writer, was born about 1601, 
and took a deftor of divinity's degree in 1636. He made 
a journey to Rome, for the fake of enlarging his ideas and 
knowledge ; and there, procured die efteem and friendfhip 
of Leo Allatius and Holftenius, Upon his return to Paris, 
he (hut himfelf up, and fell to reading all forts of books, 
and making collections, upon all fubjefts as hard as he 
could. The conferences, he held at his houfe every 
Monday, were a kind of academic fchool, where the 
learned met to inform and exercife each other. The dis- 
cipline of the church, and particularly the rights of the 
Gallican church, were common topics with.them. They 
attacked vehemently Ultramontain pretentions ; as thfey 
did Legends and Canonizations. The apoftolate of St. 
Dionyfius the Areopagite into France, the voyage of La* 
zarus and Mary Magdalene into Provence, and a multi- 
tude of other traditions and faints, were all profcribed at 
this tribunal. Launoi was called the banifher of faints ; 



L A U N O I. 159 

and Voltaire records a curate of St. Euftachiusf, as faying, 
I always make the mod profound obeifance to Mr, Lau- 
noi, for fear he fhould take . from me my St. Eufta- 
" chius." Nothing could foften the critical rigour of this 
fege doftor: he not only did not feek, but he even re- 
fufed, benefices. He lived always in fimplicity and po- 
verty. ,He died in 1678, after having published writings 
which made many volumes in folio. A Catalogue of 
them may be feen in Niceron's " Vies," &c. torn. 32. 

LAUR (Filippo), an eminent painter, was born at 
Rome in 1623. His father Balthafar Laur was originally 
of Antwerp, but fettled in Italy, where he had two fons 4 : 
the eldeft, Francifco, became an able painter by the in- 
ftru&ioa of Sacchi, and died when he was but 2.5 years 
old ; Philip was the fecond. Balthafar, who was a good 
painter, and a difciple of Paul Bril, perceived with joy 
that his fon Philip, without learning to draw, when he 
went to .fchool, took the feces of his playfellows. So 
remarkable a difpoiition was an earneft of his becoming a s 
great painter. His father placed him under his fon 
Francifco, who taught him the firft elements of his art. 
-The premature death of his brother obliged him to pafs 
into the fchool of Angelo Carofelli, his brother-in-law, 
who had acquired fome reputation in painting. Philip's 
progress was fo great, tnat he foon furpafled his mailer in 
every kind. In the mean time he loft his father; and 
foon after his mailer, who was fo fond of him, that he 
brought all the curious ftrangers that came to Rome to fee 
him. Philip, who had ftudied much, foon quitted his 
firft manner, and applied himfelf to paint fmall hiftorical 
ftibjefts, with back grounds of landlkip, in a lively beau- 
tiful manner. He alfo painted feverai large pi&ures for 
churches, but did notfucceed fo well in them as in fmallcr. 
works* He left feverai pieces unfinifhed. 

Nature, who had not bellowed her graces on his perfon, 
endowed his mind with many accomplilhments. He was 
mailer of perfpe&ive, had a turn for poetry, and a know- 
ledge of hiftary and fable. His chearful temper, and the 
lively fellies of his wit, rendered him dear to his friends. 
His barber, hearing he had prefented his apothecary with 
a pi&ure for the care of him when he was ill, flattered 
himfelf with hopes of the fame favour, and begged a 
pi&ure of him. Philip, who knew his intention, made 
»i$ caricature, imitating the ridiculous gellures Jie ufed in 


t A V & 

talking to him : he wrote under the pifture, '* Xh|s ffciri 
'* looks for a dupe, and can't find him ;" and fent it to the 
barber's at a time wheti he knew feveral of his friends 
would meet in his (hop. Every one of them was ftruck 
with the oddnefs of the chara&er, and fell a laughing and 
joking the poor barber, whom they prevented from vent* 
ing his rage on the pifture ; and, though Philip diverted 
himfelf at his expence, he never ventured to come under 
his hand afterwards. One cannot fay that Laur was one 
of the firft painters of Rome, yet he defigned well .and 
gracefully. His landfkip was fchearful and in good tafte 3 
his colouring varied, being fometimes too faint. The 
fubjeds he generally painted were metamorphofes, bac- 
chanals, and often historical fubjefts, which he treated 
with great judgement. Hie pieces of this fort *re fpread 
all over Europe. 

He would never marry, nor give himfelf the trouble of J*v 
forming difciples. His pleafure was to amufe himfelf with 
his friends. He would, on public holidays, diftjnguifh 
himfelf by playing off fireworks. He was always diverting 
himfelf with one merry prank or other, the fellies of his 
lively imagination. He loved expence ; and, by his mirth 
and good humour, feemed to forget he grew old, till a 
diftemper furprized and carried him off at Rome in 1694* 
at the age of 7 1 . His torpfe was attended to St. Lawrence 
in Lucina, his parilh church, by the academy of St< . 
Luke, who had received him into their body in 1652* 
He left a considerable fortune to his great nephews, befidqs 
feveral legacies. 

The Four Seafons are engraved on four plates, after him* 

H?^? * " ^AWES (Henry), an Englifhman, eraineijt in 
Mufic?iv. m ufic, was the fon of Thomas Lawes, a vic^r-chpnd of 
47> &c« the church of Salifbury, and born there about 1500. In 
1625, he became a gentleman of the chapel royal; and was 
afterwards appointed one of the private rriufic tp Qharles L 
In 1653, were publiihed his " Ayre$ and Dialogues," 
&c. folio, with a preface by himfelf, and commendatory 
verges by the poet Waller, Edward and John J?hiUips 
nephews of Milton, and others. In the preface, fpe^king 
of the Italians, he acknowledges them in general to be 
the greateft mafters of mufic ; yet contends, th# this 
nation has produced as able muiicians as any in Europe. 
He cenfures the fondnefs of his age for fongs in a 



fcnepage, *hkh *bc hcarcFS do not under ftand; and, V> 
rigfctk >it, -mentions at long of his own competition* 
printed xr the et%d of the book, which is nothing but an 
jndex containing the initial words of fome old Italian 
ftngsqr rnadrijpls : and this index, which read together 
nude * dbahge medley of nonfenfe, he fays, he fet to a 
varied air, and gave out that it came from Italy, by whjch 
it ptfflid -for an Italian fong. In the title-page of this 
book is a very fine engraving of the author's head by 

years before, in 1635, Lawes had been made 
of «o ttHk in eopapofing the airs, leflbns, a^d /ongs 
of a ma%ue, presented at Whitehall on Candlemas -night, 
before the king and queen, by the gentlemen of the four 
inas of court, under the direction of Noy the attorney 
general, Hyde afterwards Earl of Clarendon, Selden, 
fWUtadoek, and afters. Whkdock has giten an account 
of it in his "Memorials;'* Ac. Lawes adfo compofed 
tunes to Mr. Gedtw&aAtfys'e " Par^phrafe on the Pfaims/' 
published In 165s: and Milton's A< Coinus" was origi- 
nally fee by him, and published in 1637, with a dedjeatipp 
to Lord Braely, fen and heir of me Earl of Bridge- 
water. j©£ the hiftory of this elegant poem little more 
is known, than that it was written for the entertainment 
of the above noble -Earl, and reprefented as a mafejue 
by his children and others ; but the feft is, fays Haw- **>"*• P- 5* 
ms, that k is -founded on a real ftory ; for the Earl of 
Bridgewater being president of Wales, in 1634, had his 
tefidence at Ludlow Caftle in Shropfhire; when Lord 
Brady and Mr. Egerton his fons, and Lady Alice 
figerton his daughter, paffing through die Hay- Wood 
for«&, in Herefbtfifeine, were benighted, and the l^dy 
for feme ifoort time left. This accident furoijQtied Miltofl, 
wkh the ftibjeft *f his* poem ; and, being, a drarjga, was 
reprefented, 1634, at Ludlow .Caftle, Lawes hrmfelf 
performing in it the- charafter of the attendant fpirit. 
The mafic to ** Comus" was never printed ; and there ,i$ ' * 

nothing in any of the printed copies of the poem, or in 
the many accounts of Milton, to ascertain the form ill 
which it was competed. 

Lawes taught mufic to the family of the Earl of Bridge - 
water: he was intimate with Milton, as may be ccinjec- 
tared from that fonnet of the latter, " Harry, whofe 
u tuneful and well-meafured fong." — Peck fays, that Mil-. 
ton wrote his mafcue of " Comus" at the requeft of Lawes; 

Vol. VIII. M who 


162 h a w e a 

who engaged to fet it to mufic. Moft of the fongs of' 
Walkr are fet by Lawes ; and Waller has acknowledged 
his obligation to him for one in particular, which he had 
fet in 1635, in a poem wherein he celebrates his ikill as & 
rnufician. Fenton, in a note on this poem, fays, that 
the beft poets of that age were ambitious of having their 
verfes fet by this, incomparable artift; who, having been 
educated under Signor Coperarid, introduced a fofter 
mixture of Italian airs than before had beer* praflifed iri 
lb. p. $5. our nation. But, as Hawkins informs us, Coperario 
was not an Italian, but an Englishman; who, having 
vifited Italy for improvement, upon his return Italia- 
nized his name, and affected to be called Signor Gio- 
vanni Coperario, inftead of Mr. John Cooper, And 
for Lawes, we have feen above, that he intimated little , 
•lefs than an actual diflike of the Italian flyle. 

He continued in the fervice of Charles I. no longer, 
than till the breaking out of the*Civil Wars ; yet jetajned 
•his place in the royal chapel, #nd compofed the anthem 
for the coronation of Charles II. . Hef-died Oft*. 21, 1662, 
and was buried in Weftminftdr Abbey. "' If,'* feys 
Hawkins, " we were to judge of the merit* of LaSves as a 
.*■* Mufician from the numerous teftinfonies of authors ia 
'!' his favour, we fhodld rank him among the. firft that 
" this country has produced ; but, /; fetting thefe afide, his * 
, . „ : •.•: " title to fame wjll appear to. be but ill grounded. • Not- 
" withftanding he was a fervanf of thcxhurch, he con- 
*' tributed nothing to the increafe of its ftorcs: his talent 
il lay chiefly in the compofition of fongs for a fingie voice, 
" and in tncfe die great and almoft only excellence is the 
K exact correfpondence between the accent of the mufic 
" and the quantities of the vcrfc; and, if the poems of 
** Milton and Waller in his commendation be attended 
"to, it will be found that bis care in this particular is his 
ct chief praife." 

Henry Lawes had a brother William Lawes, who was 
. .45. p. 47, alfo eminent iri mufic. He was firft of the choir at 
Chichefter, and then, in 1602, became a gentleman of 
the royal chapel. In 16 11, hp was made one of the 
private mufic to Charles t. ; and fuch was his attach- 
ment to his Matter, that he took up arms for him againft 
the parliament. To keep him out of the way of dan- 
ger, he was made a commifiary ; yet the activity of his 
tpirit difdamed that fecurity, and at the fiege of Chefter, 
ia 1645, *l c l°ft his life by a cafual Ihot. The^Kmg. was 


& A W£ 4. 

i fo affefted' with* tto lofs of him, that he is faid to haVe 

| worn a particular mobrning for him. • His brother Henry i 

| in the 'preface to a joifit work of theirs, aflerts, that he 

; competed above thirty ftveral forts ofmufic for voices and 

instruments j and that there was not any hiftrument of 

ufe in his time, bpt he compofed fo aptly to it, as if he* 

had only ftudied that. • 

# • * - 

LEAKE (Sir John)> a brave and fuctdsfiil Englifh 
admiral) was cfeibended from the Leakes of Derbyfhire* 
i ahd born -in 1656 at EUrtherhithe in Surrey. His fathef 
[ inftrutfed him both in mathematics and gunnery, with a 
view to the navy, «and entered him early into triat fervice 
i as a midshipman ;« in Which ftation he diftinguifhed him- 
| felf* under his father, at- the memorable engagement be- 
tween Sir.Edward Sprag and Van Trump in 1673^ being 
then no more than feventeefl [a]* Upon the conclufiori 
of that war foon after, he engaged in the merchants 
fervice, and had the Command of a fhip two or three 
voyages* up the Meditetfanean : but, his inclination lying 
to the navy, he did not ftay long but of it. He had 
indeed fefufed a lieutenant's commiflion ; but this was 
done with a view to the place of a mafter-gunner, which 
was"then a place of much greater efteem than it is at 
prefent. When his father was advanced, not long after* 
to the command of a yacht, he gladly accented the offef 
of fucceeding him in the poft of gurmer to the Neptune, a 
fecond-rate man of war. This happened about 1675 j 
and, the times being peaceable, he remained in this poft> 
without any promotion* till 1688; Then James II. 
having jefolved to fit out a ftrong fleet, to prevent the 
invafion. from Holland, Leake had the command of the 
Firedrake firefhip, and diftinguifhed himfelf by feveral 
important fervices ; particularly* by the relief of London* 
derVy in Ireland, which was chiefly efrefted by his means ; 
-for it^is to be noted, .that he was m this flap in the fleet 
under lord Dartmouth, when the Prihcc of Orange landed \ 
after which, he joined the reft of the Proteftant officers 
in an addrefs to the Prince* The importance of reftuing 
Londonderry from the hands of King Jamts tailed him 
in thfr navy ; and, after fome removes, he had the com- 
mand given him of the Eagle, a third rate of 70 guus, 

f aJ Sir Jacob Ac k worth, lace fur- $ r John Leake, in the pofleflion of 
v *y<*r ^(" the navyi had a painting of Si an. I*Wival, Efoj (ecrctary to clue 
this a&ion* taken from a drawing of Bary. 

Ma Jn 


IB 16929 tife diftinguiihed figure be mSuie in the fitraow* 
battle off La Hogpe> procured him the particular friend-* 
fhip of Mr. (afterwards admiral) Churchill Jb}* brother 
to the Duke of Marlborough ; and he continued to be- 
have on all occafions with great reputation, till 'die end of 
the war; when, upoi> concluding the peace of Ryfwick* 
his (hip was paid dff t)ec. 5, 1697* Mem while, he had 
loft his father in 1696 ; when, though abfent, his friend? 
had procured for him his. father's pkieefc of naaJter gnnher 
in England, and ftore-keeper of Woolwich. But he de~ 
clined thefe places, having fixed his eye upon a conimifc 
goner's place in the, navy : and, iiq doubt, he might hav* 
obtained it, by the irtfereft of adfaifal ftnfiel, Sir George 
Rooke, and Sir Cloudefly Shpvel, who were all of then* 
his friends, befides admiral Churchill ; but, itpoa open* 
ing his mind to thi* laft, that gentieiWn prevailed -with 
him not to think of quitting th* fe*, and foon brought 
him into a&ion there again, procgriftg him a comaaiflion 
for a third rate of 70 guns, which he. entered upon, May? 
1699.. Afterwards, upon the pr^fpeft of a new war, he 
was removed to the Britannia, the firteft ftrft-rate in the 
navy ; of which he was appointed, Jatx. 1701, firft captain 
of three under the earl of Pembroke, newly made lord* 
high-admiral of England. This was the bigheft ftation 
he could have as a captain, and higher than any private 
captain ever obtained either before or £nce. But, upon 
the earl's removal, to make way for prince George of 
penmark, foon after queen Anne's accefnon to the thwmei 
Leake's commiflion under hi» becoming void*. May ^7^ 
1-702, he accepted of the Association, a lecond rate, tUI 
an opportunity offered for his farther promotion. This 
was not long ; for, upon the declaration: of war againft 
France, he received a commifliofr, June the 24th that 
year, from prince George, appointing him commander it* 
chief of the flups defigned againft Newfoundland. He 
arrived there with his fquadf^n in Auguft, -and,, deftroy- 
ing the French trade and Settlements, reftored die Engliib 
\o the pofleflion of the whole ifland* . This gave him art 
opportunity of putting a conitderable fum of money » 
his pockety by the £de of the capture* [c], at the fame 
( time 

J"lJ Captain Leake bravely fof- [c] In this expedition 61 fliiptwere 

ft'iaed Mr. GbqrcliUl, after the (hiy taken and defttoyed, whereof 19 vera 

fret ween thejn hittf bcett beaten otot of taken, amounting to 313 5 toot, and ina> 

t*e iine. $P*H *■*«* thca* tfc wqm Wwjbt 


LEAKE. t6 5 

time that it gained hiita the favour of the nation, by doing 
it a figfcal fcrvice, without any great danger of not fuo 
eroding; for, in. truth, ail the real faille he acquired 
thepeby arofe from his extraordinary difpatch and dili- 
gence in the execution. 

Upon his return home, he was appointed rear-admiral 
of the Blue, and vice-admiral of the fame fquadtoft ; but 
declined the honour of knighthood, whkh h6Wever he 
accepted the following year, when he was engaged with 
admiral Rooke in taking Gibraltar. Soon after this, he 
particularly diftinguiflied himfelf in the general engage*- 
.meirt off Malaga ; and, being left with a winter-guard at 
Lifbon for thofe parts, he relieved Gibraltar in 170$, 
which the French had befieged by fea, and the Spaniards 
by land, and reduced to the laft extremity. He arrived 
Q&. 49, and £0 opportunely for the befieged, that two 
days would, in all probability, have funk them btfy&nd 
hope. For the enemy, by the help of roptf-ladders, 
found means to climb up the racks; and got upon the 
taountains through a way that was thought inacceffible, 
to the number of 500 Spaniards, where they had remained 
feveral days. At the fame t'ime they had got together 
a great number of boats front Cadiz, and other parts, to 
land 3000 men at the New Mole. Thefe, by making a 
vigorous aflault on the fea-fide, "were defigned to dra# 
the garrifon to defend that attack, whilft the 500 con- 
cealed men rulhed into the town; there being alfo a plot 
(as was difcovered fome days afterwards) for delivering 
it up ; all which was prevented by Sir John's feafonable 
arrival. Feb. 1705, he received a commifiion, ap- 
pointing him Vice-admiral of the White ; and, in 
March, relieved Gibraltar a fecond time. March 6, he fet 
fail for that place ; and, on the icth*, attacked five fhips 
of the French fleet coming out of the bay, of whom two 
were taken, two more run aihore, and were deftroyed; 
and baron Pointi died foon after of the wounds he re- 
ceived in the battle. The reft of the French fleet, having 
intelligence of Sir John's coming, had left the bay the 
day before his arrival there. He had no fooner anchored, 


to England, 6 were fent to LiAon, cargo** that efcaped, who were gl#d 

5 fpM at Sr. John's at Newfoundland } to gat away halt' Wen,, or any how, 

J**, of 120 tons and 12 guns, was to avoid the fact of the reft, ftefidea 

kft for the fecurity of the harbour, the burning and destroying Trenaffy, 

*od the others font to France with St. Mary's, CoUonet, Great and Little 

the prifoacrs. The remainder, to the St. Lawrence, , and St. Peter*st ail 

somber of 22, were burnt with their very con^ideratta ftttta&c&tt of the 

U *V**$ u well as great fart of their French* , 

M ^ but 


ut ne received the 'letter inferted below from the prince of 
Hoflc [d] : his highn^fs alio prefented him with a gold 
^cup on the Qpcafion. This blow ftruck a panic all along 
.the whetta coaft, of which Sir Jolin received the following 
account, in a letter from Mr. Hill, envoy to the court c? 
Savoy i**I can tell you," lays lie, " your late fuccefs againft 
-"■Mr. Pointi put all the rrench coaft into a great con- 
-"itarnation, as if you were come to fcour the whole 
*' Mediterranean- All the (hips of war, that were in the 
*' road of Toulon, were hauled into die harbour; and 
" nothing durit look out for fome days." In fhort, the 
cfFe& at Gibraltar was, that the enemy, in a few days, 
entirely railed, and marched off, leaving only a detach- 
ment at fomc diftance to obferve the garrifon ; fo that 
' this important place was fecured from any further attempts, 
of the enemy. We have hardly an inftance, where tbe 
fea and land officers agreed together in an expedition ; but 
none, where an admiral and a general have agreed like 
the prince and Sir John, who facrificed all private views 
and paffions to a difinterefted regard for the public good. 
Jsfo difficulties, dangers, fatigues, advantages, or punftilios, 
could difunite them ; but they a&ed as by a fympathy of 
nature, arifing from a like generofity and bravery of 
mind, It was this that crowned their endeavours with a 
glorious fuccefs, which will be remembered (with thofe 
of Elliot in 178.2) while Gibraltar remains a part of the 
JBritilh pofleffions ; and that, it is hoped, will be as long 
as trade and navigation continue to flourifli [e]. 

The fame year, 1 705, . Sir John was engaged in the re- 

.duftion of Barcelona : after which,, being left at the head 

; of afquadron in the Mediterranean, he concerted an ex-* 

pedition ,to furpri^e the Spanifh galleons in the bay of 

Cadiz ; but this proved unfuccefsful, by the management 

, -of the confederates. In 1706, he relieved Barcelona, re^ 

duced to the laft extremity, and thereby occafioned the 

£d] m Sir, I exposed with great " owr, fo many great and happy con* 

*« impatience this good opportunity tp •• fequrnces of'tt : and I in parncu|ir. 

♦« exprefs my hearty joy for your "cannot express my hearry thanks 

, M great aod good fuccefs at this your «.< and obligations I lie under. 1 am, 

«« tecond appearing off this _ pl'^ce, " with great fjneeritv and tcfpeA,&c. 
u which, 1 hope, hath been the firlfc •* George, prince of HelTe." 

<< tfroke towards •ur relief; the enemy, fr] This important aAxm is at- 

*« JSWce five days K having begun to tr'buted to lord Peterborough by Dr. 

,•« wtthiraw their heavy cannon, being Fretnd, in hir account of that earl's 

•'the effefts only to be afcr bed to conduct in Spain ; which i* corrected 

'f* your conduct and care, 'lis only bv Mr. Boyerj in his " Life of queen 

H sa yba the publickowes, and will "'Anne/' p. aio. 

. * ■■ . ' . . ■ - H e 

LEAKvE. i6f 

fiege to be raifed by king Philip. This was fb great i 
deliverance of his competitor, king Charles, afterwards 
emperor of Germany* that he annually commemorated it 
by a public thankfgiving on the 26th. of May, as long as 
he lived, The railing of the fiege was attended with a 
total eclipfe of the fun, which did not a little increafe the 
enemy's confirmation,, as if the heavens, concurred to 
defeat and fliame 4 the defigns of the. French, whofe 
monarch had aflumed the fun for his devices in ailufion 
to which, the reverfe of the medal, ftruck by queen Anne 
on this oceafion, reprefented the* fun in eclipfe over the 
city and harbour of Barcelona. Prefently after this 
^uccefs. at Barcelona, Sir John reduced the city of 
Carthagena ; from whence, proceeding to thofe of Alicant 
and Joyce, they both fvibmitted to him ; and he con- 
cluded the campaign of that yeaj: with the reduction of the 
city and ifland of Majorca. Upon his return home, 
prince Geo,fge of Denmark prefented him with a diamond 
ring of 400I, value; #nd he had the honour of receiving 
a gratuity, of iqpqI. from the queen, as a reward for his 
fervices. Upon the unfortunate death of Sir Cloudefly 
Shovel, 1707, he was advanced to be admiral of the 
White, and commander in chief of her majefty's fleet. 
In this command he returned to the Mediterranean, and 
furprizing a convoy of the enemy's corn, fent it to Bar- 
celona ; and thereby faved that city and the cpnfederate 
*rmy from the danger of famine, in 1 708 : foon after this, 
convoying the new queen of Spain to her confort, King 
Charles, he was prefented by her majefty with a diamond . 
ring of jool. value. From this fervice he proceeded to 
the ifland of Sardinia, which being prefently reduced by 
him to the obedience of. King Charles, that of Minorca 
was foon after furrendsred to the fleet and land forces. 

Having brought the campaign to fo happy a conclufion, 
he returned home ; where, during his- ^bfence, he had 
been appointed one of the council to the lord -high-admiral, 
and was likewife elefted member of parliament both for 
Harwich and Rochefter, for the latter of which he made 
his choice. Dec, the fame vear, he was made a fecond 
time admiral of the fleet. May^oc), he was conftituted 
rear-admiral of Great-Britain, and appointed one of the lords 
of the admiralty in December. Upon the change of the 
/niniftry in 17 10, lord Orford refigning the place of firft 
commiflioner of the admiralty, Sir John Leake was ap- 
pointed to fucceed bim ; but he declined that potl, . as too 

M 4 hazardous,, 

t*$ LEAKE. 

hazardous, on account of At dftifidfis it Aaf jurf£K2rre. 
In 1710, he was ehofen a fecond ffcne meihbt* of jhfr< 
liament for Rochefter ; and made adittira! of the ffcet £Bd 
third time in 1711, aAd again in tjtt, whefc h£ con* 
du&ed the Englifh forces to take pbfleffion of iMftkifk. 
Before die expiration of f!ke yeaf , the commiffion of 
admiral of the fleet was given to him* a fifth time. He 
#as alfo thofen repirefetitfre for Rochdter a third time. 
Upon her majefty'f deceafe* Aug. 1, 17 14, hii poft of 
rear-admiral was determined j and he tfttf foperTedea as ad- 
miral of the fleet by Wtathew Aylmer* dij. Nov. 5. In tfte 
mtiver&l chance that was made in evety puMic departm^m, 
upon the accemon of George I, admiral Leake could nof 
expeft to be excepted. After this hfe lived privately; 
and, building, a little box at Greenwich, fptefct part of his 
time there, retreating fontttiities to a couAtry'-ftoufe h6 
had at Beddington m Surrey. When a young man, he 
had married a daughter of captain Richard Hill of Yar- 
mouth ; by whom he had one fon, an only child, whofe 
mifconduft had given him a great deal of tfae*4inefs» 
Aug. 17 19, ht was ft i zed with an apdple&ic diforder; 
trot it went off without any vifible ill ceniequente. Ujton 
the death of his fon, which happened in March following, 
after a lingering incurable diforder, he discovered a more 
thah ordinary affli&ion : nor was he hiinfelf ever right 
well after; for he died in his houfe at Greenwich, Aug. 1, 
1720, in his 65th year. By his will, ht devifed his 
eftate to truftees for the ufe of his fon* duf ing life ; and, 
upon his d^ath without iffue, to captain Mattyn, who 
married his wife's fitter, arid his heirs. By this meahs it 
calme to that captain's fon, Stephen Martyn Leake, *% 
Garter king of arms ; who, ingratitude to his memory, 
wrote an accurate account of his life, collected from 
original letters and papers [f]. 

Anecdote. LEAKE (Stephen Martin, Efq;) fonofCaphdn 
Vy Nkh3b, Martin, went through different ranks in the Heralds Office 
p. 105. till he came to be Garter. He was thfc firft perfon who 
wrote profeffedly on our Englifh coins, two editions of his 
" Hiftorical Account" of which were publifhed by him 
with plates, under the title of " Nummi Britannici Hit 
"tbria, London, 1726," 8vo ; thfe fecdhd* tench im- 

*"%Z ' t L r ° ndof1 ' ! 745t «vo. He prihted, in 1750, 
" 1 he Life of Sir John Leake, knt. Achxlit^l of thfc 

a Tf r ,L'l/i r l° f Slr J?>\ LealL *» b y S *P h «* Maityn L c»kc, CUrencieut 
« King of Arms, 1750." 8vg. -. - ' 

T . " Fleet" 

\ ! 

L E X It E. 169 

** l*1eeV* fee. ; to whom he was indebted for a confi- 
defeb}d€ltate; which fh« Admiral devifed to truftees for 
tti6 ufe of his foil for life; and won his death to cap- 
tain IVlartih (whe married lady Leake's filler) and his 
helf s ; by which means it came to the captain's fon, who> 
ift gratitude to the memory of Sir Jonit Leake, wrote 
atfi sfceurafe* account of his life, of which only 50 copies 
W6r6 printed. In 1766, he printed alfo 50 copies of 
** The Statutes of the Ofder of the Garter," 4*0. He 
died, a$ bis houtfe. called Leake's Grove, at Mile*End f M«r«nt'» 
Miadletex, March 24, .1773 ; and was buried the 31ft in ^^ *• *• 
bis chancel ih.tbci parjili church of Thorp in Eflex, of p# 4 ~* 
Wjlich manor. he was lord. 

LEE [Nathaniel), .an Englifh dramatic poet, was 
the fon of a clergyman, and bred at Weftminfter-fchool 
tinder t)r. Bufby, whence he removed to Trinity-college 
in Cambridge, and became fcholar upon that foundation 
in 1668. He proceeded 18. A. the fame year; but, not 
fucceedihg to a fellowship, quitted the univerfity, and 
came to London, where he made an unfuccefsful attempt 
to become an a&or in 1672. The part he performed was 
Duncan in Sir William Davenant's. alteration of Macbeth, 
Failing in this de£gn[A], he had recourfe to his pen for 
fupport ; and, having a genius for the drama, compofed a 
tragedy called " Nero- emperor of Rome," in 1675 ; which 
being wellreceived, he pu&ed on the fame way, producing 
a new play almoft every year, till 1 68 1 . He read his pieces 
to the a£tojrs with an elocution which was fo much ad- 
mired by them, that he. was tempted to try his talents for 
afling ; but the trial foon convinced him, that he ihould 
never fucceedin that chara&er [b]. This mortification 
muft needs be very fenfibly felt ; for Lee was not only 
careJefs in his ceconomy, a foible incident to the poetic 
race, but rakifhly extravagant to that degree, as to be frc* 
quently plunged into the foweft depths of mifery: his 
wit and genius Were alfo of the fame unlucky turn, turgid, 
unbridled, and dpt to break the bounds of feiife. Thus 
gifted by nature, he left the reins loofe to his imagination* 
till at length indigence and poetical ehthufiafm trartfpofted 
him into madnefs; fo that, Nov. 1 684, he was taken 
into Bedlam, where he continued four years under care of 
the phyficians. He was difcharged in April 1688, bemg 
fo much recovered, as to be able to return to his occupa- 

[a] Set the * Bedfcation to Nero." J>] Gibber's " Aptfogy," p. 95. 


170 LEE.- 

)t ~ - 

tjoa of writing for the ftage : and he produced twp pfcy* 

afterwards, " The Princefs ofCleve," in 1689; and 

** The Maflacre of Paris," in 1690. However, notwith* 

Handing the profits arifing from thefe performances, he 

was this year reduced to fo fow ah ebb, that a weekly 

ftipend of ten (hillings from the theatre royal was his chief 

dependance [c J. He was not fo. clear of his phrenzy, as 

not to fuffer fome temporary, relapffes ; and perhaps his 

untimely end might be occasioned by one. He died thi$ 

year, 1090, as it is (aid, in a drunken frolic, by night in 

the ftreet, and was interred in the parifh of St. Clement 

Danes, near Temple-Bar. He is the author of eleven 

plays, all afted with applaufe [n*] ; and printed as foon a§ 

finifhed, with dedications of moftof them to the earls "of 

Dorfet, Mulgrave, Pembroke, the duchefles of Portf- 

mouth and Richmond, as his patrons. Addifon declares, 

that, among bur rpodern Englifh' poets, there was none 

better turned for tragedy than Lee-; if, inftead of favouring 

the impetuofity of his genius, he had reftrained and keb$ 

it within proper bounds. * His thoughts are wonderfufiy 

fuited to tragedy ; but frequently loft in fuch a cloud of 

words, that it is hard to fee the beauty of them. There 

is infinite fire in his works, but fo involved in finoke, 

that it does not appear in half its luftre. He frequently 

fucceeds in the paflionate parts of the tragedy ; but more 

particularly where he flackens. his efforts, '&nd cafes the 

ilyle of thofe epithets and metaphors with which he fo 

much abounds. His " Rival queens" and " Theodofius" 

ftill keep pofleffion of the ftage. Thefe plays excel in mov- 

iiig the paffions, efpecially that univfcrfd orie, love. He is 

faid to be particularly a mafter in. that art ; and for that 

reafon has been compared to 'Ovid among the ancients, 

and to Otway among the moderns. Dryden prefixed a 

copy o f commendatory verfes to the " Rival queens ;" and 

Lee joined with that laureat in writing the tragedies of the 

♦' Duke of Guife" and "Oedipus." 

[c] Cibber's '< Apology , ,f p. 95. . « force of love," at the duke's theatre. 

[1] Thefe are, 1. " Nero'emperor 7. " Csefar Borgia, 1680." 8. " Lu- 

*< of Rome, acled in 1675." 2. "So- " cius Junius Brutus, in. 1681." 9« 

" phonifba, or Hannibal's overthrow, " Conftantine the Great, in 1684." 

M in 1676." 3. " Gloriana, or the 10. "The Princefs of Cleve, in 1689" 

"court of .Augustus, in 1676." 4. 11. " The maffacreof Paris, in 1690." 

" The Rival Queens, in 1677." 5. All his plays are tragedies, except the 

*• Mtthridates king of Pontus, in Princefs of Cicve> which is a tragi- 

*' 1678 : M this is, by fome, faid to comedy. 
|e his beft tragedy. " Theodofius, or 


L E IB<N I T Z. 171 

LEIBNITZ (Godfrey William de), was born 
at Leipfic, July 4, 1646. His father, Frederic Leibnitz, 
was profcflbr of moral philofophy, and fecretary to that 
univerfity ; but did not furvive the birth of his fon above 
fix years. His mother put him under Meff.'Hprrifchucius 
and Bachuchius, to teach him Greek and Latih ; and he 
made fo quick a progrefs, that, great as his matter's hopes 
were, he furpafled them all. Returning horne, where 
.there was a well-chofen library, left by his father, he read 
with attention the ancient authors, and especially Livy. 
The poets alfo had a fhare in 'his ftudies, particularly 
.Virgil ; and he had himielf fo particular a talent for ver- 
fifying, that he is faid ta have compoled, 'in one day's 
time, a poem of three hundred lines without an elifion. 
He entered upon his academical ftudies at fifteen ; and 
to that of polite literature- joining philofophy and the 
mathematics, he ftudied the/ former under James Tho>- 
mafius, arid the latter under John Kuhnius, at Leipfic. 
He afterwards went to Jena, where he heard the ledtures 
of profeflbr Bohnius upon.ptolite learning and hiftory, and 
tliofe of Falcknerius in the law: At his return to Leipfic, 
in 1663, he maintained, under Thomafius, a thefis u De 
'* principiisindividuationis." In 1664, he was admitted 
mafter of arts ; and, obferving the ufe of philofophy in 
illuftrating the law, he maintained feveral philofophical 
queftions out of the " Corpus/juris.* 7 At the fame time, he 
applied himfelf particularly to the ftudy of the Greek phi- 
losophers, and engaged in the talk of reconciling Plato 
with Ariftotle; as he afterwards attempted a like recon- 
ciliation between Ariftotle and Des Cartes. He was fo 
.intent on thefe ftudies, . th&t 'he fpent whole days in medi- 
tating in a foreft. near :Leipfic. .: 

Howeyer, his views were chiefly fixed upon the law,- 
whicly was his principal object. He commenced bachelor 
in that faculty in 1665, arid the year after fupplicated for 
his doftor's degree; but was denied, as not being of 
fufficient ftanding. It is true, he was then no more than 
twenty ; but -.this objection, has been thought a mere pre- 
tence to cover the true reafon, which, it is faid, was his 
rejefting the principles of Ariftotle and the fchooimen, 
againft the received doctrine of that time. Refenting the 
affront, he went to Altorf.; where he maintained a thefis, 
44 De cafibus perplexis," with fo much reputation, that 
.he not only obtained his doctor's degree, but had an 
offer of being made profcflbr of law extraordinary. Thi?, 


however, wis declined; and ha went from Afattf to 
Nuremberg, to vifit the learned in that Timverfity. He 
had heard of fome literati therfe* who were engaged m the 
purfuit of the philofopher's ftotte ; and his curiofity was 
raifed, to be initiated into their myfteries. For this 
purpofe, he irtsw up a letter in their jargon, extracted 
out of books of chemiftry ; and, unintelligible as it was to 
himfelf, addiefled it to the director of that fociety, defiring 
to be admitted a member. They were iatisfied of his 
merit, from the proofs given in his letter ; and not only 
admitted him into their laboratory, but even requofUd 
him to accept the fecretaryihip, with a ftipend. His 
office was, to rcgifter their proceffes and experiments, 
and to extra& from the books of the beft chemifts fach 
things as might be of ufe to them in their purfuits. 

About this time, baron Boinebourg, firft minifter of 
the ele&or of Mentz, paffing through Nuremberg, met 
our virtuofo at a common entertainment; and conceived 
(o great an opinion of his parts and learning from his 
conversation, that he advifed him to apply himfelf wholly 
to law and hiftory : giving him at the fame time the 
itrongeft afiuranCes, that he would engage the clefto?, 

iohn Philip Schonbom, to fend for him to his cotirt. 
.eibnitz accepted the kindnefs, promising to do his ut- 
nioft to tender himfelf worthy of fuch a patronage ; and, 
to be more within the reach of its happy effefts, he 
repaired to Francfort upon the Maine, ana in the ncigh- 
,bourhood of Mentz. In 1668, John Cafimir, king of 
Poland, religning his crown, the eleftor Palatine, among 
others, became a competitor for that dignity ; and, while 
baron Boinebourg went into Poland to manage the elec- 
tor's interefts, Leibnitz wrote .a treatife, to fhew,»that 
the Polonnois Could not make choice of a better perfon 
for their king. This piece did him great honour : the 
cleftor Palatine was extremely pleafed with it, and iiKr 
vited our author to his court. But baron Boinebourg, 
rcfolving to provide for him at the court of Mentz, would 
not fufier him to accent this laft offer from the Palatine ; 
and prefently obtained for him the poft of counfellor of 
the chamber of review to the ele&or of Mentz, Baren 
Boinebourg had fome connexions at the French cotirt ; 
and, although he had a fon at Paris, yet that foil was 
not of years to be traded with the management of his 
affairs there : he therefore begged Mr. Leibnitz to under- 
take that charge. 



'Oiir yoianjg ftatefipaii w^ charmed wibb riii^ oppor*. 
fcmity of {hewing litis gratitude to fq zealous a pttroq* 
tndttt out for Paris in ifoa. He .alfo propofed Jevcr^ 
w&er luiyiritages to ^imfeff in this tour, *fid 'his view* 
lr«t not difeppointed. He faw all fte literati in tjUat 
inetropolis, made an acc<juaintance wit]i fte >reate$: ,p&rj; 
of them ; and, befidefc, applied himfelf with vigour .tp ft* 
Mathematics in vsfoijch ftudy he had not tJien rna<)c.any 
j&nfi&rable progtefsl. ^e tells us himfelf, that he Owed 
his advancement therein principally to the 'wqf^s of P&fi- 
^t Gregory > St. Vincent, and, above at/, "ft* the' ex- 
cellent treatife of Huygcns, " De horologio pfciflatoriq." 
In this eourfe, having obfeftred the imperfect jori pf Pafcal'j 
likhraetical maciune, Which however ¥%{<&l djkd not Jiv^ 
tbfimfh, he ihverfted a new one, as he caJLedlt; tRe u/c? % 

©f Which 'he explained to Mr. Colbert a 'wjio w$s**ex.trerncly 
pleafed with it ; and,' the invention being approved likj&r 
wife by the- academy .of fciences, he was offered a fe^ there 
as penfionary member. In (hort, he mjgbJ haye'fsttlea 
very advantageoufly at Paris, if he would have Jturne4 
Roman Catholic ; but he chofe to ftick tp. the Lutheran 
teKgion, in which he was born. In i^73? be loft hi* 
patroh, M. de Boinebourg ; $nd, being zi liberty by hi$ 
dearth, topic a tour to iTngfcirtd, where he became ac- 
quainted with Oldenburg, Secretary, and. John CoHins t 
febtfw of tfce foyal fociety, from whom he received forac 
hftrtj of the invention 6f the method of fluxions, whicJi 
b«d been 4ifcovered, m 16&4 or 1665, by Sir Ifeac 

" Wiuje 

[a] The right to this Htweptiet is other t>H Ju*e if 77: and this was <» 
fe ratereftihg to box country, that we year after a letter of Newton's, oon- 
■aft not otsnt this occafiontrf affcrt- tailing a faflfkrient defcription of toe- 
ing it* The £»tt of die dilate she* Mttfert of the method^-hae 1 been fent to 
twecn toe comactUoie, J-erboJia ••o' Pons, to he communicated to him. 
Kewjan, it as follows: Newton dif- However, nothing of it was printed 
covered ia 1665 «mj i«66, a»d com- bySirlfaat; which beinj obferved by 
sannicated itjto Dr. Barrow in 1669* the ether, he fir It printed it, under the 
^bnittftjd,hehtvd fone ^HtnpCesof name of the Differential, and fome- 
It ta>*6y*, before he had teen any times the Tnfiriitefimai method, in'th* 
hint of tfevton's prior dtfeovery, «* Afta ErudfVortim LTpfise, for the 
»hich was eoasnonicatcd by Mr. * year 16^4." And as he ftfll ferfiirei* 
CoHills to.fereFal foreigners in 1673 1 in his claim to the" invention. Sir flaac, 
in the beginning of whioh year Lelb- at the reooeft of George I, gave his 
Wz mm Hi Ejs^aad, aad ^osan)enced taajefty an aceoant of the whole »ff*it> 
an ao^oaiatance with CoUku, bat at and fent Leibnitr a cfdiance in cxpre^ 
that Uasjeonly claimed the invention terms, to ^>rove his affertion, Thia 
of another differential snechod, pro- was anfwered by Leibnit?, in a letter 
petty & called, which indeed was whkA^efairhyMr.Reraond atPacis, 
Xswtoa's iaTCntioa ; mentioning no to be comraunicaud to Sir X/aac, after 


174 LEIB»M-;Z, 

While he was in England, he received ad account of 
the death of the ele£or of Mentz, by which he loft hi& 
penfion; and, upon this, returned to France, whence; he 
wrote to the duke of Brunfwick Lunenburg, to inform 
him of hjs cifciimftances. That prince fent him a very 
gracious anfwer, alluring him' of his favour,, and, for the 
prefect, appointed him counfellor of his court, with a 
falary : but gave him leave to ftay at; Paris, in order to 
complete his arithmetical machine [b]. . In 1674, he 
went again to England ; whence he jpafied,. through Hol- 
land, to Hanover, where he defigned to fettle. From 
his firft arrival there, he made it is bufinefs to enrich the 
library of that prince with the belt books of all kinds* 
That duke dying in 1679, his fucceflbr, Erneft.Auguftus, 
then J)ifhop of Ofnabrug afterwards George I, f hewed 
our counfellor the fame favour as his predeceflbr had done, 
and dire&ed him to write the hiilory of the houfe of 
Brunfwick. Leibnitz undertook the talk ; and, travelling 
through Germany and Italy to collefl: materials, returned 
to Hanover in 1690, with an ample harveft. While he 
was in Italy, he met with a pleafant adventure, which 
might have proved a more ferious affair. . Pafling in a 
fmall bark from Venice to Mefola, there arofe a ftorm ; 
during which the pilot, imagining he was not underftood 
by a German, whom being a Heretic he looked on as the 
caufe of the tempeft, propofed to ftrip him of his cloaths 
and money, and throw him overboard. Leibnitz hear* 
ing this, without difcovering the leaft emotion, pulled out 
a fet of beads, and turned them over with great feeming 
devotion. The artifice fucceeded; one of the failors ob- 
ferving to the pilot, that, finc6 the man was no Heretic, 
he ought not to? be drowned. In 1700, he was admitted 
a member of the royal academy of fcicnces at Paris, The 
fame year the eleflor of Brandenburg, afterwards king of 
Pruffia, founded an academy at Berlin, by the advice of 
Leibnitz, who was appointed perpetual prefident of it j- 

a a 

he had (hewn it in France: declaring, but, at foon as lie heard of Leibnitz's 

that he took, this method in order 10 death, which happened &» months 

have indifferent and intelligent wit* after, he. published Leibnitz's letter, 

nefics. That method being difliked with his own remarks, by way of fup- 

hy Sir Ifaac, who thought that Lin- plement to Ralphfon's " Hiftory af 

don, as well as Paris, might fornifh fluxions." - 

fuch witneiTes,herefolved to carry the [b] But it was not fioifhed till 

difpute no farther ; and, when Leib« after his death, and that too not be* 

nitz's letter came from France, he re- fore a. great deal of money bad been 

fufed it, by remarks which he comma- ipent «|>on it# 
incited only to fome of his frieadsf 


&EI&KITZ* i 7 5 

*it<f, though his other affiurt (fid hot permit him to refidd 
conftaatly upon the iji^tVyethe made ample amends by 
the treafures wfth Irtfcich' fce x enriched ,<Heir memoirs, in 
festal differtatibns W6h,%epmetry, polite learning, na- 
tural philofoplty, ; afttf phyfictf He alio pi ojefted to efta- 
blifh at t)kfderi andth^r • academy like that at B^rlinj 
He communicated 1 hii ; dfefigil to the*. Ring of'JPoIarfd ip. 
1703, who was'WeH'pTeaffed 1 t^ith it; /but* the troubled, 
which arofd ftortlV-afj&r -liff-fliat kingdom, hindered it 
fironi being carried Wto^xecutioh,. 1 ' * 

Befides thefe proje&s J to promote* learning,- there h 
another ftili behind of a rhfctfe extenfiye'View; 'both in its 
nature' and nfe* heTetMiMfelf to irrVenta language fo eafy 
and (b perfpifcudtiSj as td'Secbnlcf the dorhmbh fcnguage of 
allittfiolis Of the WrM.* Tfiis is whites called"" The 
" u^ivarfel language-* and tfie dfefign octtfjttetf the thoughts 
of ottf philofopher *a long time,' 1 l^e'thtng Had been at- 
tempted before hy d' Algarrhe, " and Dr., Wilkins; but 
Leibnitz-did tiot J approve of their method,' 'arid therefore 
attempted* a neW'ohe./* His'predeceflbrs, 1 ht'his opinion, 
had not reached the point: .they might, indeed enable 
nations, who did not jmteitbnd 'each other, tq correfpond 
eafily together 1 ;' Sut they had not attained the true real 
chara&ersv which would te the beft. inftruments of the 
human mihd, and extremely afiift both the reafon and 
memory. ^hefe : characters, he thought, ought to re- 
femble r fcs attach as poffible, thofe 6f algebra, which are 
fimple and expreflive,' «hd never fuperflu8u^ or equivocal, 
but whofe varieties are grounded on reafon. * Iri order to 
haften the execution of this v&ft proje&j he employed a 
young- perfon to put into a regular order thi definitions of 
all things whatfoever j - but, though he laboured in it from 
1703, yet his life did not prove fufficrettt to complete it 
[c]. In the mean time, his name became famous all 
over Europe; and his merit was rewarded by other princes, 
befides the eleftor of Hanover. In 171 1, he was made 
aulic counfeHor to the emperor ; and the czar of Mufcovy 
appointed him privy-counfellor of juftice, with a petition 
of a thoufand ducats [d]. Leibnitz undertook at the fame 
time to -eftablifh an academy of fciences at Vienna; but 

[c] He fpeaks, in fome places, of " Recueil de literature," prioted at Am- 

tn alphabet of ho man thoughts, which fterdam in 1740; which alio fays, that 

be was contriring, which, it is very Leibnitz refuted the place of keeper of 

probable, had fome relation to his uni- the Vatican library* ottered him bjr 

Verfal language. cardinal Cafauaci, while he was at 

£&] The particular we have in the Reme, 



U$ I, E I B H I T fc 

ffc* projea mifcmkd ; a *hfgam*mmt w hi rfe fe» 
have afcnbcj Id tfacplni. However daft te» jt * ji*> 
jaia be only had the kmr of attevqcjpg k, jv*4 4fcr 
emperor rcwasdtd him for k wish a fmfam cf imp 
forms; pmmifing him to doable die npp, if fat *wW 
come ana tcfide at Ykjuu; which b? wmM haj* com- 
olied wish, bat doth did not pre him ao 4fP8f$§n*y. 
Meanwhile, the fliftory of B nrnfww k be*g i»»U»pN» 
by other worits which he wrote oomfiom% , fet fouftd, * 
bis return to Hanover in 1714* <fa* *b? «fe$jpr bid 9fe 
pointed Mr. Lccaid for his coUry ia -qnitoC *M 
biftory. The ckftor was then ratfcd to $g Jhfoa? *f 
Great Britain; pod, foon a6er ins amval, jfe ffe&mt 
princels, dwA prioeds of Wafcs, and ^crvir^ 4|QAm 
Caroline, eng^eed Leibnitz ip 2 j&Mte wi$ l^.&HPitf 
Clarke, opoo me £abje& of free^ii the malitgr afjpece, 
and other philofophiral fnbjcfis. This coMrtttHf ^ 
tarried on by kttew, which pafi«l &ro«gfe :h*r rav«t 
highnefs's hands ; and coded only wish tbt <dp> tfi ;gf lafl* 
nit?, Nov. 14, 1716, ooctfooed by tbc«ut^ ftaoc, 

As to his character and perfo% ha w§s pf * middle 
jftatuie, aod of a thin habit. IJe had a ftu4*P«$s #*r, and 
? fweet aipe&, thougbih^-ffcfrted. He w^s injjfftt^ptMy 
induftrious, and fo continued to die end <rf his lifr. 
He eat and dtaak littk. Hunger *ioae m*rf:ed tfce time 
of his meals, and his diet was plftn and ftcqp*. He loved 
travelling, and diffident cliipafes never jd£?$fid fai» fcmkb. 
Jn order to impreft upon his memory what bfchjfed^jnjod 
to* remember, he wrote it down, tad joeyer jE$ad it.afisrr 
wards. His temper was naturally chotak, aod ite fo£ 
motions were very hot ; but, after that was ovor , bcigener 
rally took care to reftiain it. He b*d *he gk>ijr of psffing 
for one of the greateft men in Europe, mi be was fu£ 
ficicntly ftpfibk of it. He was (olkkoui m procwricg the 
favour of princes, which he turned $0 bis own advantage* 
as well as to the fervicc of learning. He was affable aod 
polite in converfation, and greatly averfe to-difputcs* He 
was thought to love money, and is- faid to have left ftxty 
jhoufand crowns, yet no more than fifteen or twenty 
thousand out at intereft ; the reft being found in crown- 
pieces and other fpecie, hoarded in corn-Jacks. He always 
profefled himfelf a Lutheran, but never went to fermons ; 
tnd, in his kft ficknefs, being defired by his coachman, 

who was his favourite fervant, to lend for * minjfer, he 


L'EIB.NI.T Zi . - .. 177 

*wraulinot hear of it, laying he had no occalion for one. He 
•Vas never married,*and never attempted it but once, when 
lie was about fifty years old; andthdla'dy, defiring'time to 
Cpftfider of it, gave him an opportunity bf doing the fame : 
«tahieh produced this conclufton, * " that marriage was a 
** gbod*t]iing; but z, wife man bu£ht to consider of it all 
** hislifev" Mr.-'Loeflery fon* of his lifter, was his'fole 
lieiiy Whole wife died 'fuddenry with joy at the light of fo 
much money left them* "by tneir uncle. It is faidTi'e had * 
a natural fori in his yotttfa, "who afterwards lived With him, 
•was ferviee&ble to him in marry ways*,'ahcLhad a confider-; 
-"able fhate in his cori-fiderice'. He "went. by the name of 
WiHiam Dihmnger,- 1 and extremely refembled his father. 

•perplexis :*' -** Specimen encyclo 
" 4r paediae in jure;, feu qua?ftibnes ^hilofophiatf amceniorcs 
•** ex jure coHeftae:" " Specimen ceftitudinis feu de- 
** manftrationum nv jure exhib'irum in '^dftrina condi- 
«** tiohum:" '* Specimen dhTerratiomim politicarum pro 
i<44 eKgendb rege Polohorunr:" "Nova methodus di- 
t if fce-tidae doceitdaeque jurifprucferifiae :" u Corporis 'juri$ 
••• recx>ncinrtandi T^id:'*' " Marii Nizblii de veris pr,ia r 
••' cipiis et vera ratione philofophandi contra philofophos, 
cufA prafefatione & notis G»\G. Leibhitzii :*' " Sacro- 
fanftd Trininis per nova ihventa Iogfcae deferifa :'* Thi$ 
wlw Written agaihft the Socinians. *'" Confeffio naturae coiv- 

* •**»» Alhteos :'* ' 4 ^*Nova hypothefis phyfica— feu thcbria 
•*'" rilotus-eoncreti abftrafti :" " Notitia optica promote :" 

it contains a new' method of pbliming telefcope glafle§ ; 
►is addreflfed fo'Spm-oia,. and publimed in the pofthunSou^s 
•works-of that author. c * Caefarini Furftiierii de jure fupK- 
*- ** mtrtaS ac Jegationis principunr Germaniae :" *« Entre- 
• t * tiens de ^Philarete '& Eugene* fur h, queftion du terns 
•** agitee a Nimigue, touchant le 'droit d*ambafla3e des 
•*' ele&eurs & princes de ^empire :"* an abridgment o£ the 

* preceding.-. De arte combinatory^: * De la tolerance 

* •*« des religions";*' " Lettres de M. de Leibnitz, f & Refpohfes 

4 * de Peliflbn :" he is for toleration, and PelhTon againjt 
it. ' " Codex juris gentium diplomaticus, in quo tabulae 
" authentic© aftorum publicbrum pleraque ineditae vel 

% ** feleAae continentur :" thefeveral pieces, which are d{- 

•gefted in wder^of time, begin with trie year id^6, and 

.. end-in 1499V * Out: author alfo publifhecJr in 1693, afmall 

•traft cowe-rriing, the. Rate of Oermarfv, filth as it may be 

H .Vol. VIII. N * fuppofot 

i ? f t Elfitf IT 5% 

ftffpofcd to Iwfcye fcs^befer* *fe four* **y w«owt fc JtfftpqFf 

tp which he gave tlie title or " Protfsgca," ** Nyyi&ft* 

* Sit>kat hiftoriam noftri tempori^ jUuftraftpft ?" i( !**&? 

41 for 1» connexion des maifbos fie Bjmfcici # 4'£&f ;? 

V Awffiones biftoriar, qaibus milia f\|prr^>rw^ hjft^# 

41 iUuftraxdis fcripta ifconuioentetp* nQf^W fc|&9P*£ 

1 * 4 indite inq»e its inferiptorps dhj jfe£dfxatt continf n^f tf 

^ Acceflxou* hiftoftc. t,omu$ fecund*** 4*#tis$9# apfjt* 

44 fjrpucp chrojticoa AlBenct jponach* tnurn fe#ti*t»:" 

44 Spe.eiii^i} feiftpriwe atcaoae, jfiwp *iw4pt? rfc v#a Ar 

41 Wxand. VJ. tw»-" '"'Mwifi co4ki« }W« g^wp 

••• iiplopatipi r " Scrijflpres jparjflp $rprfy#m&?** flr 

" hjflrationi infejrvwjw rotiqpf; Q?nqt$ fc feiigipftis R;- 

41 formative prions?, H*#ot, ?7P? : " feL 5^4 * Ef- 

• 4 fa; de Theodicari for la bonfip d$ Dteu, fur la Jittfrtf #i* 

•• de Humim*, & fur rorigjncdu radf A«#- *?J9r' * 
jobk ;2mo. la this work oar atgfip? appear tt> be* fo- 
t*lifL agreeable to tfce principles of Spinoff; it waf »*- 
dertaken at the requeft of ti?e qoeei^ of Pniffia f fffeffe? VJtfP «f 
tnfwf ring Bayle, whic^i he complied ^kb j but Wf #$ fpld if 
M.. Pfaff, tb# otlr author wap pf fj>G fappe opinion ga ffcylt ; 

* ~j?bHe, on tbp other band, firtW Twfi^in^ ?$wf w, 
that owe author, in this piece, wrpfr fcjis om} {jspfWKnts* 
•' pe origipe Fraowwi difipitftlo :* '* V^PH^ J^^iw, 
*' 4 *7i$J '•Refponfe de barofi 4e 1* Hwtfm ? teJ* tt#e 
44 4'uGfc ptfrtkfcliftr oppafc'e aw utfoufefte A? g* Kf . If w? 
fl dc la Grand fcretajne, coajs#e relci^eur $*f}&? hf S*¥t »* 
•' CoUefl*rtea etymologic* UUiAfai^nt l\ng$%p&$ ve^m 
4< Celtic*, CjerJpanic^, Gallkw, alj^ufiiQ^ |^^jf«?tb, 
44 cum ptefatiotte GcorgM Epkfrdi :" 4A fi^f 9«eil 4*J 4J¥ WS 
41 ecrite cpippofe? pgr fru M- J-ciMt? ft Mr. C^fte> ip 
' 4< 1 7 1 5 & x 7 16, fof 4e la phylJ9¥« & de la religm W»^» 
f « en AnglQis & Franyois, Lop^rc$ f 171 7j" &vo, ^4 in Q&* 
*• man V Frjujcof, i7ga 8vo, ?> 4I 0;roia Ha^ovfaiuiB, 

44 Leibnitz, Clarke, Newton, fie aitft^i eefebrc? ^ufgursr 

44 Amft. 1720/' 2 torn. 8yo. to which W*$ ^44^4 a third 

afterward$/ £<?ibnitz ajfo wrQ^ ih* Hftovj of-IWflS m i 

\ in ^feicb h> endeavours to prove, that Whai |s i»l^tod rf 

thjt propbet did ftcft happ^p T^Uft bpt io ft d?«W- 

]& " M- Q. Hanfchiiis colleft^d, vifb gre%t QMe, ^?f rjr tbii\f 

r ;*Mt tcibiiit? Iwd feid/ ir^ difjof sitf p#a^ vf iife WfVf* 

L E 1 6 K t T 2. i 7 $ 

*p*i tlit principles *f pbifofo|>hy ; and formed a complete 
fylktn Wilder the title of " G. G. Lfcibnitzii principia phi- 
u k>fophise jfcore geomttrico demonftrata, tec. 1748," 4*6. 
Ttast came oat KoUtftion of cmr author's letters in 1754 
and 17359 tinder this title " Epiftohe ad dlverfos theolo* 
«' gkt* jtridki, ittedki, philofophki, tnattem&tfci, Blf- 
*' toricit & phitologki atgurtieiiti e MSS. atiftores * cum 
44 aanotationibus fcta primudL. diviilgsmt Ghritiaa Cor* 
** *holttts/* 

LEI OH (Sir £bWAftc), a veiV learned Ehgjiflirtaft, A***™* 
mis botti at Shawell, in Leicefterfhire* and educated at ^ NkhoU^ 
Magd&len Hall, Oxford. He was a member of the Long P . 45©. 
tai&artieat* and on* of the members of the Houfe of Corrt- 
ttont who were appointed to fit in the Affembly of Di- 
vines. , He was *tt&«ds colonel of a regiment for the 
Parliament; but in 1648 was numbered among the Ptef- 
byteriattt who wefe tutned otit ; arid in December he was " 
impiifoned. From this period to the Restoration he em- 
ployed himfelf in writing a coniidtrable number of learhed 
ami v&to&bte books, \fhitl> fhewed profound learning, a 
knowledge of the languages , and much critical fagacity ; 
and of which a lift will be found below, as arranged by 
s&fcthofiy Wood [A J. Sir Edward died at his, houfe cal- 

Ia] m SoU& 4ol choice Obfefva* parts tnfol. *$6su In which book, the 

* tioni concerning the twelve mft author expreffing his great flail in tfcc 

,r C*tars, fcc.Oxon.lG35, 1 * irttt To languages, was tlie reafon why th* 

wfcieh he added tit Hiwe, <*akto$ up teertted UihUr primate of Ireland hid 

the number. 1 8, which were printed « rfefpelt at>d krndnefs for him. 4^ 

With the former, in another edition. fi Supplement to the Critica Sacra* 

The otiertrttkmi eh the t*k fhtt fol- «• Land. 1 66i," fol. 5. « A treatife 

lowed avefe node by Henry Leigh, u «*f Divinity, in flirte b«ok£, londt 

the author's cideft fon, M. A. of « 1*46," 4W. 6. " The Sainftt ten- 

Mfcg&lan Hall, which being printed " couragemem in evil times \ or oh* 

WiA th« foVmer «t Ldrtd. 16^7, 8*0. « fervtfttons CSnMffiJhg (he Martyrs 

had this Htfeydt to ibMi! " Atfalett* * id general, Laid* 1*48, 10 « 1/' gfo. 

"C*.far«m Romanorotn." Aftgr- 7. " Annotation* oti all the New Tdf- 

Wifds the*? were iltuflrated with their " tament, Loml. 165c/' foi. j. * ( A 

ftffigt* avid torn*, Loftd< 7*64, 8 to. « nViiologteal Codrii*Atafy t of, aft U* 

and in another edition that cane ont « luftrtttftn of the ihdft ebtioas H± 

U t$7*, 8»o. they bad obfervations «» ufcfolwerdlHi the la'W ,Wlth their d*£ 

of the Creek emperort added to them *' tin^tions and divers acceptations, *s 

fcythe fitftt hand. %. « Treaiife of * the jr ate fdtfnd a» Well trt Repott« *fcr 

«« Divin«frOaitfc«> in 5 books, Load, " %$evt Mdmodern^ a* in Sftdfds iM 

"wotda-of tfce Old, an^on the Creek, coram HEaners «f t&t gteat ^1 of 

"oftho Now Tdra«ent, Lond. 16^9 England* tt$i. o. «« A Syftem of 

' " thd |6,** 4(0. Tfitte igakk in t«6 w bod^ ot Divinity m to bopks, tond. 

180 lei :g h. 

•Jed RuthairHaH, in StafibtxUhire,' June 2, 1671 f andwtt 

. -buf ipd ia the chancel of- Rufhall churdi.* A copy of his 

." Critica Sacra," full of .valuable notes by the late learned 

.Mr. Bowyer, is now in the hands #f the Rev. Dt* Owen. 

" 16 c.4 aod i66a," fol. 10. '« Treatifeof ' ' ties and Shires thereof briefly h»«4- 

***! !*_?___. J T f__ !_£! I. _ «« I.. 1 T--.1 _*__.» o • • J _A 

had this title put to it in 1663. *' Fae- " land j from the Saxons to; the«Dearii 

*• lix confortium : or, a fit coojunc- " of K. Charles I. Lond. 1 661," 8vo. 

"tore of Religion and Learning, in 15. " Three Diatribes, or Difcoorfes, 

• one entire Volume, connftiBg af^fix »« w Of Travel, £. Of Mo*ey, - 3. Of 
.'* Books, &c." From which treatife, «* Mcaftfting, ite. Loud. 1671/* Svo. 
' William Crowe of Suffolk', ' matter of This book is called, in another edition, 

the free-fchool at Croydon to Surrey, ' 1680, *' The Gentleman's guide, ia 

. took tqauy tbiags whin he compofed • " three difcouWes, tic,*'" '-' 16 He 

his " Elenchus Scriptorum in facram alio publUhed «* The MagtftrajteVAn- 

«' Scripturam, &c. Lond. 167*,*"* 8vo. *'thority, in two lermons, Lone 1 . 

: 1*1. "Choice French Provetbt, Lond.' «* 1^47,*' 410. ferfned-by Chriftopher 

. •• 1657, 1664, 8*0.". "Annotations Cartwr^hr, B. D. and fiainifter at 

tl on the five Poetical Books of the York ; to which Our author Leigh 

u oldTeflament,viz. Job, Pfa lms, Pro- put a preface, to vindicate himfelf 

*• verbs, Ecclefiaftcs, and Canticles,- again ft a lying pamphlet, as* he calls 

(l Lond. 1657," fol. k i2, " Second . it, which entitles him, " a man of a 

'< considerations of the J^igh Court of a fiery difpoiition-, and one generally 

:ti Chancery, hcc. Lond. 1657," 4t6. ki made chair-man upon any bufiacfc 

. 13. " England dtferibed t or, the Coon- n that doth concern the clergy:" 

LEI.GHTON.(Robert), an eminent Scotch ditms, 

,• was minilter of a church near Edinburgh, in the dif- 

trafted times of Cromwell's ufurpation ; and exhorted .his 

• parifhioners to live together in charity, anil not to trouble 
' themfelves with religious and political jdifputes. When 
: the minifters were called over yearly in the fynod» it was 

. commonly aiked, *> whether they had preached to the times ?" 

• *' For God's fate," anfwered Leighton, "when all my bre* 
% " jhren preach to the Times, fuffer one poor prieft to preach 
. ** about Eternity." His moderation gave offence, and find- 
ing his labours of no fervice, lie retired to a life of privacy. 

. By the unanimous voice of the magiftrates, he was called 

• foon after from his retirement to preiide over the college 

• of Edinburgh ;\ where* during the fpace often years, he 

• difplayed all the talents of a prudent, wife, and learned go- 
-vernor. -Soon after the Rcftofation, when that. ill-judged 
% bufinefs, tlie introduction of epifcopacy into Scotland, was 

, 1 refolved on, Leighton was conlecrated bifhop of Dunblane. 
. At his entrance upon his office, he gave an early inftance 
' of moderation. Sharp, and the other bifliops, intended to 
; enter Edinburgh in a pompous manner. Leighton re- 

• monftratcd againft it ; but finding what he laid had no 



L Jrm'H'T-CfN. t"8r 

weight; 4fe, left thfetir«tM6rpeiH, : And WenVto^anfttwgfi ' 
alone; ..Hefoon faw the violent turn, which* the councils 
<>f die times 'were taking ; and did all in his power to bpi 
pofe it.** " How can thefe men," faid Sharp, with his 
wfual' vehemence*, **• expett moderation from us, when 
"..they themTelves impbfed their covenant with fo mucli 
f zeal and, tyranny on others ?V ":For that very redbn,'* 
infwered LeSghton mildly, " let us treat thetn with geri^ 
*J tlenefs; arid fhew them, the difference -between- their 
" principles sand ours." .. ' • •< • • •-' ' - 

In his own diocefe 'Leighton fet the example ; tohere* he 
was revered even by the moft rigid of the opofite patty; 
He went about preaching, without any appearance of pomp? 
gave all he had to the poor; and removed none of tne mW 
nifters, . however exceptionable he might think their po^ 
titical principles. But, finding this contributed very little* 
to the promotion of the great fclieme that was carrying on, 
and that his brethren would not be induced to join as he 
thought properly in the work, he went to the king, and 
refigned his biflioprick; telling him, that " he would not 
" have a hand in inch oppreffive meafures, were he fare to 
M . plant the Christian religion in an infidel country by thent ; 
V much lefs, when they tended-tmly to alter the form of 
" church government. " The king "and council, partly in- 
duced by the rerhonftrances of this good bifhop, and part- 
ly by their own obfervations, refolved to carty on the bu- 
finefs in Scotland on a different plan : and with this view 
Leighton . was* perfuaded to accept the archbifhoprick of 
Glafgow. In this, ftation he made one effort more, but 
found it was not in his power to ftem the violence of th<> 
times. In little more than a year, he rdigned his arch- 
biflioprick, and retired into Suflex ; where he devoted- 
himfelf wholly to religion, and afts of piety. He died in 
1684. He was a man of a moft amiable difpofition ; ftrifS 
in his life; polite, chearfiil, and* engaging in his manners ; 
of excellent parts, and profoundly learned. He has left 
many fermons and ufeful tracts, ' which are in very great' 
ffteem. ' - ' 

LELAND (Jo«n), the firft and laft antiquary- 
toyal in England, .was a native, of London, and bred at St'. * 
Paul's fchool there under the famous William Lilly.'* 
Having loft both his parents in his infancy, he found a 
fpfter -father in one Mr. Thomas Myles, who both main-; 
tained him at fchool, -and fent him thence to CnrjftV 
, • > N'3 'college' 

4** % K I* ▲ W ft. 

toUigt ip Cw&ridgf. Qf rtuafoeiot^ it is fed, Vie tame 
fellow [a] ; yet, it is certain that he afterwards remove* 
to Oxford, and fpeat feverai years, in AhMbot&-«oHege * 
there purfuing hit ftudie* with groat ahSduity, efixcialty 
in the Greefc language. Foe farther ifl aproveio ent, he 
travelled to Paris, where he had the conversation andb in- 
fLru&\iwi Bwtotm, Faber, Paalua jEmiHus, JfcuoHius, 
and Frances Sylviys ; by whpfo afiftance he pcrfoftc4 
himfelf fo the Latin and Greek tongue*. He atfa lcacmcd 
French, Italian., and Spanifh, before his return home; fo 
that he wa?/eifceeroed an aecomplifhed fchohrv Going 
fata orders, king Henry VIII. made him one of hi* 
^teplains* gave bin* the re&qry of Polling in tho 
marche* of Calais appointed him hi* library -keeper, an4 
dignified him with the title of his antiquary. In eonfe* 
fuence whereof hi* majefty, in 15 33, granted ham a com* 
miffion under the great leal, to make fcarch after Eng* 
land's antiquities; and ptruffe the libraries of alt ca* 
Ibedrais, abbies, priories, colleges, and places, where re* 
ford*, writings, and; fecrete otf anfcqpjfcy were reported [.*]; 
For this. purpofe, having obtained, in 1536, a difpenfa^ 
tipn for nonrrefideqee upon bis living at PopeJing, he 
fpeqtr ai)Qve fix years in travelling about England an<f 
Wales, and collecting materials for the* hiftovy and an- 
tiquiries of the nation, He entecedupon hia journey witl* 
the greateft cagernek; and, in, the execution of hiade* 
fon, was fo inquifitive, that, not content with, what the 
libraries of the refpc&ive houfes aflbntodt nor* with what 
was recorded in the windowa and* other monuments, be-* 
longing to cathedrals and monasteries. &c. he~v*anden4 
from place to place, where he thought there were any 
fcotfteps of Roman, Saxon, or Danifh buildings, and* tools 
particular notise of all AetumuJi, coins, inferif*ions, be* 
Ijfc.ihort* he travelled every- where, hoth by^the»fea-coaft$ 
^nd the midland parta, fparing neither pains no* coftj 
ififomuch that thero w»s fiweely either, cape or bay* ha* 
Tecjn, creaks or pier, river, or confluence of rivers* broaches* 
wafhes, lakes, meres, fenny waters, mountains, rallies, 
rtioors, heaths, forefts, chaces, woods, cities, boroughs* 
<^e*> principal inanor-plaees, monafteries* and colleges, 
W* h« had not feen # and noted a whote-worfd ofthinf» 
Y*ryr memorable [>]* ' ■ 

[a] Pollfr'* Hift. of CambTifee, P . r? , 1fh 

f^W Jfe^year's gift, to thekmenur* n 

f r f %**,*- t« Itinera toJT|. ,Hf ' wa ^' 



£4»«4 dfcl j%et only fofrck o«r and rejku* airfigiB mo* 
Tsimtetttfr erf" Irtetatufe from the deftra&ive hands of time, 
by a £i&fct copy and regiffer 6f t9km, but fikewife foved 
rtpay from being defpoiled' by the hateds of men. la 
thoftdajfe the Eftgltih vf ere very indifferent and 1 negligent 
iti this pdrtifcula* : thdy toot Iflttte heed and WV care about 
thefe precious monuments of teaming.; .whkh being, per* 
edived by foreigner*, efpeciallfy MGermttoy, young ft^ 
de-At» ^«w frequently fenf ftoftt thence, w&o* cut theAi . otkt 
of the books m the l&rafiefe ; afcid then, returning hotne^ 
jtaWtfhed tkeru a* Htonumeftts of their pwA« country. 
Tbi* pilferage; together with the havock made of diem at 
the dissolution of the nfonafterig?, was obferved by ou# 
antiquary ttflth gjcat regret; whereupon he wrote a letter, 
fb Cromwell, then fecretafy of ftate, begging, his artiftanco 
in bringing to light many ancient authors buried in duft, 
and fending, them to the ktngfs library. His majefty y htf 
knew well, had rio little efteem for them ; and his highr' 
Aefs ajfbgavtf very agreeable proofs of his having no left 
4ft*em fo* their prelerver, who, pfrefently after the finifh- 
ing of hi#» travels* was prefented by his royal matter, in 
1544-' tfo- the rich re&ory of Hafely in Oxfordfhire. TM 
fame patron* in ijf43* preferred him to a canonry of 
King's* college, now Chrift-chutfch, in Oxford; and, 
about the (ami time, collated him to a prebend in the 1 
<Shrtcl* of Sanmt; and, though he loft the canonry of 
ChrifWchiHfeh in 154S> upon die furrendry of that col- 
Ifgtt to the kittg, and had rio perilion allowed him in the 
lieu of itv aft- othetf canons had, yet it was made up to 
iim in preferment elfewhere[n]. In 1545, having di- 
gested into four books that part of his collections, which 
contain* an account of the iliuftrious writers in the realm, s 
#itfr their* live* arid monuments of literature, he prefentcd 
ft to his majetfy,. under die tide of " A Newe year's 
" gifte ;" With a fcheme of what he intended to do fur--- j 

dier ££]. For that purpofe he retired to a houfc of his : 
oVn* in the partfh of St. Michael le Querne, London ;• 
whete he had (pent near fix years in compoiing fuch books, 
&c. as he had' proitiifed to tlie world, when either too 

£d] Vint J«. lvelaodl, prefixed to antiquities or civil hiftoryofit, in a*/ 

Anthony Hill Y edition of Leland. many book*' as there are (hires in 

. [t] Thtr was, to give a map of England and Wales, viz* fifty : A' 

EngUrfd oil a filrerplater a defcrip-' Airvey of the Britifh iiles, rn fix 1 

tton of the fame within twelrc months ; books ; and, finally, an account of the 

*feerctn wotfld be rettored the ancient 1 . nobility of England iu ihrce books. 
of pl&acs in Britain; with the" 

N 4 hard 


hard ftufly, or feme other caufe unknown'; depfitreel fiini ■ 
of his underftanding, and * threw him into a phren^yl 
Upon this, Edward •• VI, by letters patents, dated March 
5» 1 SS°i granted the Cuftody of him, by the name of 
John LayJond, junior, of* St. Michael's pafifh in IC 
Querne, cleric, to his brother John La^lond, fenior ; and, 
for his maintenance to receive the profits: of Hafeley, Pope- 
ling, Eaft-Knole and Weft-Knole" above-mentioned. In 
this diftra&ion he continued, without ever recovering his 
fenfes, two years, when the diforder put a period to his 
life, April 18, 1552, He was interred in the church 
of St. Michael le Querne, which ftood at the weft-end of 
Cheapfide, between the late conduit there 'and Paternofter- 
row; but, being burnt in" the great fire of 1666, the fit* 
of it was laid out to. enlarge the ftreet. ' * 

As to his charafter, we are afliired that he was* an ex- 
traordinary perfon, having (befides a great mafteffhip in 
poetry and oratory) attained to a good knowledge in the 
Greek, Latin, Welfh, Saxon, Italian, French, and 
Spahifh* languages ; fo that he was born for the fervicc and* 
honour of his country. And one of his contemporaries 
boldly affirms, that England never faw, and he believes 
ihould never fee, a man to him in all things to be com- 
pared, with regard to his flcili in* the antiquities of Bri- 
tain ; for that he was undoubtedly in thefe matter's Won- 
derful and peerlefs ; fo that as, concerning them, England 
had yet never a greater iofs. Upon tha whole, he may 
riot unjuftiy be ftyled the father of Englifh antiquaries, 
fincc his works, a lift of which is infected below [f], 


[f] Thcfc are, 1. " Naeni* .in the 9th volume of the Itinerary* S» 

«' mortem Thorn* Viati ,(Wyat) coui- " Eyxw^vn^ E?gwi;> Laudato Pacify 

•' tis incomparibilis, 1542," reprinted " 1546," 4to, reprinted in his '* Qol* 

at the beginning of the'fecond volume (l le&anea," by Hearne, vol. 5th. ^ 

of his Itinerary, by Hearne ; a I*atin " Ntw -year's - gifte/* printed with.' 

poem of a fheet and a half in 4to. 2. notes by John Bale, 1549, 8v©> fcPdj 

'• Gcnethliacon illpirriffimi £dwardi reprinted in his Itinerary, vol. i. .by 

*f principis Camfrriae, fcc. 1543 j" a Hearne. 7. " Principum ac illufrriurn 

Latip poem in four lheets, 4to. re- u aliquot & eruditorum in Anglia-^i* 

printed in the 9th vol. of his Itinerary. " rorum encomia, 8pp." printed Vf, 

3. " AflTertio inclytifltmi Arturii regis Mr. Tho. Newton of Chefhire, in 

«' Britanni* Elenchus antiquornm no- 1589, 4to. 8. " The Itinerary of J. 

*' minuro, 1544" 4*0. tranfUttd into " Leland, in Oxford, 9, vol. 17IQ>*" 

Eoglilh, and publiihed under this title, 8vo, by Hearne, • and reprinted in 

«? Anciept order, focietie & unitie 1745. 9. " Colle&anea, &c. Oxford, 

"laudable, of prince Arthur, &c." " 17 15/' by Hearne, in 6 vol. 8row 

„ by R* Robinfon in 158a.. 4. " K-jxv«ov The fourth volume had been publhW,' 

'*, Ao*/.a, ; Cygnea cantio, &c. 1545,". before, with the title " Commentarii 

4to. reprinted in 1658, izmo, and in " de.fcriptoribus Britannic j$, auitortf 



L ^* L, ,A JTOM ■ ." iZ$ 

fcav*i>eea'fife<k*ufe M bff Bale, jfc hisMSrtatog!ae' # oFthft» 
Englift? writer? -\ by* Gamden, in hffe]frkuin& ;oby Bar*-* "' 
ton* in his " Dcfcriptibn of LeafeefterfhiTe*?" byDugdaky 
in his " Antiquities of Warotckihire^and Baronage of* 4 
" England ;" and by mbft of oitr ' other learned antiqua* 


pieces: •' Nasni* in mortem Hertrici " fri<tt Arturii- Monumetenfis con- 

« Dudylei equkis,? primed by Hearoe, « tra Polyd, Virgilium,'' in the « f CoU? 

in hit edition of John Rofle; f Bo- '** lecHneaj" V, by Hearoe. 

LELAND (John), well known, by his writings in Some pm*. 
ddfence of CKriftianity, was born at Wigan in Lancafhire,. ^ llrlo J| hf . 
in 1691, of eminently pious and virtuous parents. They j hnLeUo4 
took the earlieft care to feafon his mind with proper inftruo of Dublin, 
tions \ but,' in his iixth'year, the fmall pox deprived hinv^L 1 '* **- 
of his uriderftanding and memory, and expunged all his € ' 
former ideas.,. He continued in this deplorable ftate near 
a twelvemonth, when his faculties feerried to fpring up 
anew ; and though he did not retain the leaft traces of any 
impreffions 'made on him' before the diftemper, yet he now 
difcovered a quick apprehenfibn and ftrong onemory. In 
a few years after, his parents fettled in Dublin, which fitu- 
alion gave hirn an eafy introduction to learning, and the^ 
fciences. When he was properly '-qualified byye^ri and 
ftudy, hie was called to be pallor to a congregation of pro-' 
teftant diflenters in tfiat city. He was an able and accept-^ 
able preacher ; but his labours were not confined to the pul-; 
pit.' The many attacks made 011 Chriftianity, and by 
lbme writers of no contemptible abilities, 'engaged him to 
confider the fiibjeft with the exafteft care, arid the mftflf 
faithful examination, Upon the moft deliberate enquiry,, 
the truth and divine original as well as the excellence anct 
importance of Chriftianity appearing tx> hhn with great 
hiftre, he publifhed anfwers to feveral authors who fuccef T 
fively appeared in that caufe,' He was indeed a'mafter in 
this controverfy ; and his hiftbry of it, ftyled, " A View of 
" the Deiftical Writers that hav? appeared in* England in 
" the laft and prefent Century, &c. is very greatly and 
" defervedly efteerned. ,J ' ' In the decline of'Jife he'publilh-' 
ed another laborious wort, entitled, " The Advantage* 
" and Neceflity of the. Chriftian Revelation,, {hewn from 
4 * the State of Religion in the ancient Heathen Worlds 
M efpecially witli relpeft to the Knowledge and Worlhip- % 

« <>f < 

*S6 LltAK^ 

« of the om t*oe Oo4; m Ktrir af tfvrtt t^m ait* 4 

««• State of force Howards ami Panfrtrrtieft* ; fly wfckii i* 
•* prefect a long pirfarimry Dsfcoinft oft N^Oxial 48# 
♦« Revealed Rt^oo^ tmre> toU. 4*5. Tlife rttfteie ar*J e*« 
teafive tabbed, the fo*rat pans rf wlrid* have fomiRghr- 
ly and occafionally handled by other writers, Leland Sfi& 
treated at large with the greateu care, accuracy, and can- 
Arar. And* in his «• View of A* Ifcfflfei* WrfteiV 
Ala cool and difpal&oxiate manner of treating their argu- 
ments, and his fblid canfttattafr of thea^ have tiOfttritni~ 
ted more to> deprefr the caufe of Atheifcfcafftf fnfl&fi'ty* 
than the angry zeal* of warm difputants. #ut not only 
his learning, and abilities, but bis amiable temper* gneat 
flaodefty % aacf exemplary life, recommended fit* memory tei 
general c^ecrn and affeftioa. 

LELY (Sir Fetek)* an excellent pamterof the 
. Bngjiflv fchool* was born, t6tj, at Wefiyjiafia In Ger- 
many » He was bred up* for fbme tunte at the Hague P au<£ 
afterward* committed to the care of one de GieSSer. The 
great encouragement which Charles f . gave to the polite 
arts, and painting, in particular,, drew him to England* 
ia 1 641 1 whem he followed his natural" gpnins at firffc* 
auA painted" lakdffiijp,. with finalt figures, as fikewife hi£ 
torical lompofitkm* ^ but* after a wHUe*. finding, face- 
fainting, more encouraged, he turned his (Judy that way* 
and', in a^ihort time* fucceeded fo well m it, that he fm> 
parted all his contemporaries. By this merits he becaancf 
perpetually ihvolved in Bufinefc,. fb that he was thtrefey 
^revetted from going inttv Italy, to.finilR tlic oouxfe ofc 
Bis ftudies, which in hi$> younger days He was very de- 
sirous of: however, he made EimielF amends,, by getting 
the Bert: drawing,, prints, and* paintings, ^f the moftce* 
fcbratfcd Italian hands. This belaboured fo ihd'ufbiouflyy 
tfeat he- procured the beff chofen collision of any one of 
his time ^a J: and the advantage, lie neaped from it,, ap« 
pears from that admirable ftyle wfiiich he acquired by daily 
converting with the works of diofe great ina{&rs, la hi* 
correft draught and' beautiful colourings but more efpe* 
cjialyin* the graceful airs of his heads,- and the. pleatag 
variety of hispoftures, together with tHjef gentle and loofe 
management of the draperies, he excelled moft of'&s-pre-. 

TaT Amaflg theft were the better werefoM,, »t his-dcatV, at nrtdtgiou* 

CftoFtte ArumfcrCdle&fea, which rattt, betrinr' upon' tfonr hi* tffuti 

' - * 5 dcccfforSp 


L EL Y. rtfy 

Aeeffiirs; aivl wtll be a laftkig |>attem to all fucccolrng; 
att&s. Yet the critics remark, that he preferved, in al- 
seicrftalihi* feces, a languifhmg air and ? drowfy fWer-? 
nefe peculiar to himfetf; for which they reckon him a 
Kanoerift ; and he retained a little of th«j grecmfb caft: hr 
his. cwratexioiw, not cafily forgetting the colour? he had? 
wfed* in his- laragfeips ; which feft fault, how trtie fbever at 
*rft; it is well known he left off in his tatter dkys. But 
whatever pf this kind may he objected to this great paii^ter^ 
it is certain his works are in grear efteem hi other parts, 
*s welt as in England; and are both eqtraQy valued and 
envied*; for, at thait time, no country exceeded his per* 
fe&ions, as the- various beauties of tfte* age*, reprefented by 
bis hand, fufficientiy evince. Hfe fwapentfydid the- fend-* 
fkifs iw his ow4 pt&ures alter' a different* manner fremt 
all others; and' better than mod could db* Re wa«r like- 
wife a good- hiftory-painter, ar many pieces' now among 
ws can fliew. His crayon draughts were alfo admirable, 
a*ut thofe are commonly reckoned the molt valuable- of his - 
pieces, which were all' done entirely by his own hand, 
without any other affiftance. Philip earl of Pembroke, 
then lord^-chamberlain, recommended him to Charier L 
whofe piAurehcdrew, when prifoner at Hampton-courfc 
I£fe» was alfo much favoured by Charles If, who made 
fciai his* principal- painter, knighted hjm> and woukhfire* 
quentfy convene with him, as a perfon of good natural 
parts and acquired ltaowledge-. He was well known to, 
juitfmuch rcfpected ( by, perfons of the greateft eminence 
jn thd kingdom. He became enamoured of a beautiful 
Eagffifclfrajs to whom he was; fome time-after* married ;" 
wkF he* purchaftd an- eftate- at Kew, in the cdumy of 
Surrey [bJ, t6 which he- often retired in the latter part of 
his me. fie died of an apoplexy in 1680 at London, 
^tid*was buried* at Covcnt-garden church, where there is* 3 
marbfc monument crofted to his memory, with hifrburft; 
curved by Mr/ Gibbons, and a Latin epitaph, written, at 
is feidj by Mr; Flatman. 

E EMMERY (Nicholas); a celebrated*chemift, wasDiapottn. 
bom Nor. 17-, 164& at- Rouen irt Nortnandy, of which £ ei ^ oor « 
parliament his* father was a pro&or, and of* die reformed ; fobw *J£ ae# 
jteJigibnt Nicholas, having received a fuitable- education. 
m the place of his births was put apprentice there to an 

\ apothecary* 

U8 LEME.H.r. 

apothecary,' •wlio was a telatiotij bift, finding in -tf Ihorfc - 
time that his matter knew little of chemiftry, he left him 
in i666 9r ,and went to improve himfelf-in that art <at Paris, 
where he applied to Mr. Gla*zer, then* demonftrator of 
cheiniftry in the royal gard*ens. This, however, did not 
^nfwer his purpofe ; Mr: Glazer was one of. thofe profef- 
fors w}io are full of obfeure ideas,- and was alfo far from 
teing cpipmunicative : : Lemery therefore ftayed with him 
only, two months, and then proceeded to travel through- 
France ,in* queft of fome better m^fters. .In this resolution 
lie went to .Montpelier, where he continued three years 
with Mr.. Vernant,- an apothecary, who gave him an op-* 
portunityof performing feveral chemical operations, and 
of reading le&ures alfp to fome of hisfcholars. Thefe 
Jeftures.were very ufeful to him; and he made fuch ad- 
vances iix chemiftry, that in a little time, he drew a!^ the 
profeflbfs. of phylic, as well as other curious perfohs at 
Montpeiier, . to hear him ; having always fonie ney*r. dif-r 
coveries to inftruft and entertain the raoft able ; among 
them. This raifed his reputation fo high, that he prac- 
tifed phyfic in that univerfity without a dolor's degree. 

In 167 a,. having made tlie tour of France, he returned 
to Paris, where he commenced an acquaintance with Mr. 
Klartyn, apothecary to monfieur the prince ; where making 
ufe of the labor^toiy which this apothecary had in the . 
Hotel de^Conde,. lie perfionned feveral courfes of che- 
min^ry, whicl* brought him into the knowledge and ef- 
• teem of the prince. At length lie provided himfelf with 

a laboratojy pf,hi$, own, .arid might have been pnade a 
doftor of phyfic, bu$ he chofe to be an apothecary, by 
reafon of his attachment to chemiftry ; in which lie. pre*? 
fently opened public le£ture$, and had fo great an affluence 
of fcholars, that Jie had fcaj^ce ropm to perforin; hi$ opera-* 
jions. -Chemiftry till this time had beeq. a fdience in 
which thefe was little truth, .and that fo buried under a 
multitude of faifities, as to \>e utterly undifcernabje. Le- 
mery was the fi'rft that diffipated {hefe affe&ed obscurities* 
reduced the fcience to clear and fimple ideas f abolifhed 
,. theienfelefsJargQn t)f barbarous ferms, prfd promifed no- 
thing which 1 he. did. *not actually perform ; fit the fame* 
» time he found put fome chemical fecrets, which he fold to 

good profit. Bpt, in i68i 9l hk, life began to, be difturbed, 
on account of his religion, . and bo received orders, to. quit 
his employ. At this time the ele&or of Brandenburgh, 
by Mr. Spanheira, ihis envoy, in France, wjnade him a pro-* 

pofal to go id Berlin,' with'a promise ; 6f ejreftiitg k pro* 
feflbrfhip in chepai^ry. for ftim therfc" ;* but the?' trouble of 
transporting his family 'to fuch af<Jiftance f added to .the 
*hopcs "of* fomc exception that would be obtained .'in his 
.favour, hiridettd hirti frorfi accefrtirfg that offer, and he 
•Was* indulged tdfeadf^me ;courfes after the tfme limited 
by the order was expired: but at length, this* tiot being 
fuffered,, hecrofledthe England* ia 1683, wherahe 
was well received by Charles II, who 'gave lym great en- 
•couragemehf . Yet, as the fece of the publifc affairs^thsre ap^ 
peared j*ot more prbmifing.of quiet thaii hi France,, he 
■refolded to return thither, though without biing able to 
determine what courfe he fhohld then' ^take. » * •' 
s Itithefe difficulties, imagining that' the quality ,crfi 
•doftor of phyfic might procure him forme tranquillity, 1 hfe 
•took that degree at' Caen about the cndoftHe year ^ and 
: itpalfihg to Paris, had agreat dtaLof tufihefs'for a wbile^ 
but did not find that tranquillity he defired. On the con- 
trary, the ftateof the J Refortned religion grew daily virorfej 
•and- "at laftj the edift of Nantz being revoked in 168.^ 
■ he was forbid to p¥a&ice his profeffionj a$ vrell as other 
: Protcftants. However, he read two cburfes of chemilftry 
afterwards, tinder Tome powerful protections V one courf* 
being for the two ydung brothers of the marquis de $eg- 
nelai, feeretary of ftate, and the other for my lord Sklifbury. 
At length he funk -under the perfection, iand entered 
! into the Romifh church, in the beginning of '1686. This 
change procured him a full right to pra&ife phyfick : but 
'lie was obliged to have the king's letters for holding his 
cbtirfe of cheiriiftry, and for the fale of hi* medicines, as 
•he was nor now ah apothecary ; however, ' thefe letters 
■Were eafily obtained : and what wijth his pupils/ his pa- 
tients, and the fale of his chemical fecrets, he made con- 
•fiderable gains. 

Upon the revival of the royal academy of fciences, in 

1699, he wade aflbciate chemift, and at the end of the 

; year became a penfionary. In 1707, he .began to feel the 

• infirmities of age, and had fome attack of an apoplexy, 
which were fucceeded by fome degree of an hemiplegia ; ^ 
but not fo fevere as to hinder him from going abroad, fo 

• that he attended the academy for a confiderable time, but 
at' length w&3 obliged to discontinue his attendance ; and 

• being confined to his houfe, he refigned his penlionary's 
place.. He was ftruck with-the laft ftroke of the apoplexy 



1)9 t £ M £ R V. 

in 17 J£ which after feven days put a period to kk fife 

Jiirtb io # at Ac qge of JO. 
Wr have die following books puhlifhed by him. *• " Jl 
Courfe of Chemiftrjr. 2. " An univer&l Pharmacol 
pceia." %. " An ttniverfal Treatife of Drugs." 4. 

44 A Treafeie of Antimony* ..containing the Chemical 

•• Analysis of that Mineral." 

LEKCLOS (Nikon dh), airery diiiinguiftusd cha- 
rafter, was born of a ^ood family at Paris in 161 c. Ha 
mother would have made a religious of her; but her 
father, who was a man of wit and gaiety, fncceeded much 
better in making her a woman oc plealure. She became 
her own mifbtls, and was left to form herlelf, by the 
death of her parents, at .fifteen^ and, having before been 
diligently read in the works of Montaigne and Charron, 
was known even then at Paris for her fans rm^ her foe 
underfiandiog, and philofophic fpirit. She cultivated npufk, 
slid played well on feveral inftmments ; fung in groat ttfte, 
and danced with inimitable grace. With foch accom- 

fiifhmenis, ihe could not want either lover or hujband; 
ut, for the fake of liberty, or rather licenrioufnefc, kept 
hcrfelf from matrimonial connections. She had a iaqge 
income, yet lived with ceconomy as well as dignity. She 
had a ftrange Angularity of taftc and humour, and her plan 
of life was perhaps without example. She never mack any 
fcandalous trai&c of her charms ; but delivered harfelf up 
to thofe who pkafed her beft, and continued to be theirs 
(6 long as the humour lafted. Volatile iji her amoufl, 
conftant in friendship, fcrupuloufly juft % , equable in tem- 
per, charming in convention, and beautiful even to old 
age ; this extraordinary woman wanted nothing, but what 
in woman is called Virtue ; yetpieferved the feme dignity 
and decorum as if fhe had poflefled it. On this very ac- 
count, and notwithftanding her known character for gal* 
laotry and intrigue, the molt amiable and moft isfpedahle 
women of her time fought her acquaintance. Madam de 
Maintenon would fain have had her tfith her at Veriailks, 
to have, confoled her under the tirefomenefs of grandeur 
and old' age ; but Ninon preferred a voluptuous, obfeufity 
to the brilliant flavery of a court ; yet, what is extraordi- 
nary, tins amorous lady is laid to have held the paffion of 
love in contempt. She called it a fenfatioii, rather than a 
fentiment; a .blind impulfe, purely fenfual; a tnmfieat 
illufibn, which pleafure produces, and fatlety deftroys. $Be 
would reafon like Socrates, . though fhe a£te4 like Lais* 


T*u*, vfaik t he gnoat Coade, j£he Villareeaux, the&yra- 
*c$, the RociKk*cauks ; enjoyed her as a miftrefc, the 
i&rntdxQQfoA&d tor a* a philefopher or a critic; for her 
&o«6 ww a fioflimpm iW<iejt»oiW to the learned, a* well a* 
# &* £»e genfoww of the World. Scarroo coofulted 
Jieriippfito* 4< Cowc*J Romance," St. Evremend upon 
Jto Vf rfe?, Mofare ppon hi* Comedies* ami Froteaelk 

Tto? Iiewte&ing wojjwi dW in i?o6 f aged 90, She 
Jtft f<W*e chtfd**n. One of her fcas died, before her, a 
*try tragical ,<foath imbed* Not knowing her to be hi* 
HK*fc$r <fpr *U Jwr operation* were conduced with fecrecy 
^^gy&K?)? he *W^Uy fcJI in love with her ; and when, 
*e fif* #4 i* bi# ^^fti *he difcovercd herfelf to him, 
*tw*>*gb J8w»e and defpair he poigniarded himfclf in her 
fwf<mcf , The We of this heroine in jpallamry has been 

Wfttte& MM? than we* letters alio m her name to the 
JVt^rqflJs 4e jtevign* have been pabltfbod; hut theft* 
-though *cry ptegaf* and amufing, are a fpurious produc- 
&»&. T3i$ few genuine letters we have of hers arp to b« 
fourid & the werfa of St, Evfcroond. 

tSNFANtT {Jane*), a Part eftant Minifter, torn 
in \b^x i and w*ch diHiogwUbcd at S^rmir and Geneva, 
where he w« educated* He removed to Heidelberg in 
1683, ?n4 Jbecame mwiftcx ot the French church there, 
and §ht pfcw to the eWfcrefc dowager Palatine. The in- 
v*{jQ&*Hfifcf Palatinate by the Freneh, in 1688, obliging 
him fo ie$ir e to JtoUn* he was made preacher to the queen 
of Pr*$fe - and ohaplain of the king her fon» a member 

eftfri A«ademy t a#d cOiurfeUor of the Superior Con* 
fiftofy r He died of a patfy in 1728, aged 07. He was 
author of th^e capital works in their way, and whkh 
wet* w*U exee&ted : " Hiftoire du Concile de Genftance;** 
" Hiftoire du Concije de Bafle i" « Hiftoire do ConciJe 
44 df Pife ;" each in % vol*. 4to. Befides thefe, he pub- 
liflwd the N** Teftament traaflated into French from 
the Original G*eek, with literal notes, in conjunction 
with B^ufobrc. This verfion was much efteemed by the 
ftfttdtartc. He pubJiftttd, alio, " i'hiftoire de la Pa- 
*'/peft Jeanne ;" " Poggeana ;" 4i Sermons, &c* He 

ii repreAnted as a man of a moft amUble as well as moft 
ekcfllfnt ehatafter. 

LENGtET (NrcKO^AS nu Fresnoy), a very 
veluaiocMHS, but incorreft, French writer, was born at 


tj* i £ N 6 £ E f ; 

• * * . 

fieiuvois in 1674. He 'was defigried for theology^ Dtrf 
Giiitted it for ' politic*. In , j 765V the .Marquis de Torcy 
lent him to Lrile,' tfhefrfe he was'at'ln^ftcreiarjr td the 
: ftiinifter at the courtctf th'e fteOxtr^af Gologn/ He was at 
the faine time dharg£d with'tfye* fcreign corrdftohdence 
'between Bfuflete arid Holland, ^nd ih'hfs/depi^bneht is 
; faid to hVe'*ni6wn inudi fe^ch^in'difcqvering/a'plotj 
to deliver up the town of fylons to the Duke of Marlborough*. 
Ht knew prince Eugene alfo,.| after the taking o£ Lille, in 
: iy6%'; tod; oft a jdurriey to-Vienrta in iytf; few hini 
'again, wfieh the prince made hint his4ibtariah. - But Lenglet 
had no' idea t)f making hjs fortune/from connfc&i&ns, how;- 
'ever advajitage6\is i his fole paflldn was independence and 
^liberty; Hfe only defined to think, wriWj and' do as hfc 
would. ItVtfyte manner he fpeht bis- latter year*, tod pro- 
educed many works ;* which howfcvfef ire not^held in any 
' high repute. His " Method* pour etudier Hiiiteiitj," &c. 
•feenis to have teen thought nis beft prbduftioii: ; He lived 
'82 years, but his* erid was very -tragical: for, falling afleep 
% as he was teadtfig^by the' fire, he Fell into it- arid* his head 
was nearly burnt off'before the accident was perceived. 

" ; LEQ X; pope of Rome, it ever to be remembered 
' fey Protectants; ars'having been the caufe of the Reforma- 

• tion begun* ^' Luther-, oh' which account? we will here 

• Jnfert a few" particulars concerning' him; He* "was de- 
scended from the ancient arid illuftrious femiiy of : the Me- 

• died, and was* called Johhxte Medicis. He was born at Flo- 
rence in 1475, and inftnifted in Greek and Latin litera- 
ture by the beft matters ; 'by the celebrated Angelus Po- 

'litianus; in particular. At eleven years of agd, he was 
'made an' archbifhop, by L^wis* XL of Frahce; and, at 
fourteen, a: cardinal, by pope Innocent VliL Politian 
^ wrote a letter upon this, oictafion to that pop£, in which 
'is given 4 the higheft charafter of Leo: " This youth," 
"fays he, ** isfo formed by nature and education, that, as 
he was not inferior to any one in genius and natural 
abilities, fo he did not yieM to his equals in applica- 
tion arrd induftfy, to his ■ preceptors in learning, to old 
** nien in v gravity. He wtis* naturally h6neft- and fincere, 
" and educated in fo ftrift a manner by his father, that 
from his' mouth never dropped *a loofe expreffion, or a 
light one. • No aftion, gefturev "gait, or any other cir- 
" cumftance of behaviour, ever diftinguifhed him fo as 
" to create the leaft ill opinion of him. Though he be 


leo x. m 

* ettiefttely young, y$t his judgement appears fo mature 

u and firm, that, when old men hear hin> talk, they re- 

+ % vert hiftias aparent. Together with his narfe's milk, 

4 * he fucked in piety and religion; preparing himfelf, 

'* even from his cradle, for the holy offices." It is eafy Politic. 

to conceive, that the pi&ure here given is a good deal ^pift. 5.1ft. 

beyond the original : fteverthelefs, Leo wa* very aecottf * 

ptithed, and very promifing. 

The Medieei being overthrown and drjvpn from Flo?; 
rente by Charles IX. of France, he fpent many years ig 
exile; but, returning to Rome in 1503, he found gte# 
favour with J alius if, Some years after, he was invefte4 
with the dignity of legate by that pope ; and Was in thay 
tjaalkv in the army, which* was defeated by the French 
twar Ravenna, in' 151s, He was taken piifoner there, 
%«d, during his captivity, is faid to have made a won- 
derful experiment of the afcendant which fuperftition has 
wet the mind* of the foldiers ; who, when they had over- 
come hitn, ihewed him fo'much veneration, that they 
•fleed his pardon for gaining the viftory, befoughthim t? 
jpve tkem abfclution for it, and promifed never to Ijeaf 
arms againft the pope. He was raifed to the pontificate 
March it, 1313, when he wasno.mone than thirty~feven, 
*ftd fome tery odd circumftances are 1 faid to have con-* 
tribtrted to it. A Popifc, author writes thus : ♦• Cardinal Vtriilit, 
•* de Medicis was not returned three months to Florence* SJ^J 1 * 1 ** 
•* when the death of pope Julius II. obliged him to leave a*™*** 
*' it. He caufed himfelt to be carried to Rome in a litter, 
becaufe of an impofthwije in thoie parts which modefty 
will not fuffer me to name; and travelled fo flowly, 
that the pontiffs funeral was over, iand the conclave be- 
gun, by the time he arrived thither. — The conclave ha4 
*' not ended fo f6on as it did, the young and old cardinals 
u perfifting in contrary opinions with equal obftinacy, had 
<c not an odd accident brought them to agree. Cardinal 
de Medicis having hurried about prodigioufly, in vifit* 
ing the cardinals of his feftion. his impofthume or ulcer 
u broke ; and the matter which ran from it exhaled 1q > 

" great a ftench, that all the cells, which were feparated 
4i only by tjiin partitions, were poifoned by it. The old 
" cardinals, unabfe to bear the malignant influence of fo 
** corrupted an air, confultcd the phyficiatis of the con^ 
*' clave to know what they muft do ; who, being bribed, 
** as Vanillas relates, by Leo's party, gave it as their opr-> 
*' nion, that he could $pt live a mouth longer, and fo 
V«l. VIH f O ' "drc* 




in ,.L E O 

• * 

il drew -them in to eleft him/' Paul Jovius,* in his lift* 
Lib. Ui; of tjiis pontiff, relates the fame thing, as then rumoured 
at Rome, yet does not fix the ulcer in the fame part as Va* 
rillas, but in the anus, which would not fuggeft an igno- 
minious origin: and both Jovius and. Gtricciardini affirrny 
that, from his youth to his acceffion to the throne, he was 
in high reputatiQn for his chaftity. The. fame Guicciar«*~ 
dini, however, reprefeftts him as a prince,; " who greatly 
€< deceived the • expe&atio A entertained of him, when he 
, *J was raifed to the pontificate ; fincfe he then difplayed 
" more wifdom, and much lefs goodnefs, than the world 
£ib. xiv, " had imagined of him." And, indeed, if he was really 
fo good as he was thought, we nftift needs conclude that 
the pontificate was the ruin of his morals*; and that he 
grew vicious, where he ought to have grown virtuous > 
for, at fetting off, he fpent prodigious funis on the day 
of his coronation. He would be crowned the fame day 
' 6ri which he had loft the battle of Ravenna and his liberty 
the year before ; and he rode the Turkifh horfe he had 
mounted the day of that battle ; for he ranfomed him from 
the French, conceived a particular affection for him, and 
had him kept and pampered very carefully to an extreme 
old age. As his imagination was filled with the magni- 
ficence of ancient Rome,- and the triumphal days of the 
ancient confuis, he endavoured to revive thofe fpe&acles ; 
and he fucceeded fo well^ that,- from the irruption of the 
Goths, there had never been any fight at Rome more 
*' " magnificent than his coronation* He afterwards Ied»a 
life fuitable to this beginning, not a life fuitable to 
a fuccefibr of the apoftles, but a life wholly voluptu- 
ous and extravagant. Paul Jovius cannot be accufed of 
having been too lparing of his encomiums upon Leo ; yet 
he expreffes himfclf with fo much plaintiefs on the vices 

tfn vita Leo- °^ ^ lis P ont iff> as *l ot t0 ' eave an intelligent reader in doubt 
ins X. or fufpence. The pleafures, he fays, iri which he too frc* 
quently immerfed hinifelf, and the lewd aftions obje&ed 
to him* fullied the luftre of his virtues. He adds, that a 
difpofitidn, more cafy and complaifant than corrupt, threw 
him- down the precipice ; lie having been furrounded witli 
/ a fet of people, who, iiiftead of admonilhing him of his 
duty, were for ever proposing fome party qf pleafure. He 
c6nYefles alfo, that this pope- was accufed of fodomy; 
though lie affects to treat the cenfure as a calumny. Since 
LeoV morals were fo very bad, it will not be furprizing te 
hear him charged with impiety and atheifrfr, and with ridi- 
culing the* whole Chriflian do&riiie as fabulous. Once, .] 

upen j 

L E 6 X. lg$ 

tapon his fecretary Bembus's quoting fomething from ths 
laofpel, tie is reported to have anfwered, " Quantum* nobis 
u noftrifque ea de Chrifto fabula proftlerit, fatis eft omn-i- 
€ * bu$ foeculis notum :*' that is, " It has been fufficiently 
" known iri all ages ? How profitable a thing this fable of 
* l Chrift has been to us and durs." This ftory- is related 
in Mornay's " Myftere d'iniquite," and in many other 
books 5 ahd there U certainly nothing in Leo's chara&er to 
hinder us frond believing it, fuppofing it to be vouched by 
proper authorities. 

Having been educated by preceptors, who had taught hirri 
perfectly the belles lettres, he loved ana protefted men of 
wit and learning; The poets were chiefly happy in hi;s 
munificence ; and the pleafures he ufed to indulge, himfelf 
in with theni; degenerated fometimes into buffoonery; 

Quernus, Who had been crowned in a folemn manner, and 
raifed to the honoiit of poet laureat, might be confidcred as 
his merry-aridrew. He ufed to corhe where Leo was at 
dinner, and eat at the window the rriorfels which were 
handed to him. He was allowed to quaff liberally of the 
pope's wine ; but it was 6n condition, that he fhould make* 
iome extemporary verfes on any given fubjeft ; lie ,was ob- 
liged to compofe two lines sit leap: y and, in caCe of failure, 
or if His verfes were good for nothing, he was fentenced to 
drink a large quantity of water with his wine. Sometimes ( 
tod the pope would make extemporary verfes with his lau- 
teat, at which the company would burfl: out in a laugh* 
It was not obfefvirtg alfo the decorum, which the dignity T OV im ' * 
of pontiff required, toiffue out,, as he did, a bull in favour Eiogus. 
jdf Aridftd's poerrls ; threatening to excommunicate thofe 
who fhould cenfure them, or any way impede the printer's 
profit-; and this tdo almoft at the fame time that he was 
thundering out anathemas againft Martin Luther. In 
fliort, it may be faid, that men of learning and buffoons 
fhared equally his friendfhip ; and his greatefl advocates al- 
low, that he had but little affe&ion for thofe. who excelled 
in theology and ecclefiaftical hiftory* although he wrote* 
very civil and encouraging letters to Erafmus, who dedi- 
cated fome of his greatelt works to/him. It muft be own- 
fed, however, that the literati, as well as the profeffors of 
arts and fciences, of what religion or country uiey maybe, 
ought to refleft upon this pope's memory with gratitude. 
He was a lover and patronuer of leajtied men and learning; 
he fpared neither care nor expence in recovering the rhanu- 
fcripts of the ancients, and in procuring good editions of 

O 2. theni; . 

j 9 6 t, E O X. 

fMm ; and hft ifjualty favoured arts and fciences, bcin^ 
hirrifelf & man of tart c. Fbr all this he has been often ce* 
Effty «n febrafed, and bj bur countryman Pope in particular : 
criticifm, '* fiut fefe ! each Mufc ih Leo's golden days 
*«*97« " Starts front her trance, and trims her withcr'd baiys; 

*' Rbme's artcient genius, o'er its ruins fpread, 
Ci Shakes off thfe duft t and rears his rev'rend head* 
*• ^hen fculpture arid her fitter arts revive ; 
4< Stones lfeap to' form, and rocks begin to live : 
*' With, tweeter notes each rifing temple rung ; 
" A Raphael painted, and a Vida tang. 
But the mort memorable particular relating to this pop* 
#as, his very tindefigriedly giving birth to the Reforma- 
tion ; tthith hdjfpfened on this wife. Leo being of a rich 
and powerful family, ahd withal of a high and magnificent 
Ipirit, entertained i purpofe of building the ftunptuous 
church of St. Peter, tthich, was begun by Julius tl, and 
required large Hurls to finifh. The treaiure of the sroof- 
tolifc chairiber Was fexhaufted, arid the pope was fo far from 
being enriched by his family, that he haul contracted im- 
ihenfe debts before his advancement to the pontificate, 
. fohich he bid increafed by his profufe manner of liying 
fince. Fihdin£ hlirifeif therefore in no condition to bear 
trie charges of fufch an edifice, he was forced to have re- 
tourife to extraordinary ( methods ; ahd none \vas To ready 
arid cfte&ual ii the publication of indulgehces, which the 
fcourt of Rbrtie had often experienced to her advantage, 
ih railing troops and money againft the Turks. Leo there- 
fore, in 15I 7, JJUbiiiftied general indulgences throughout 
Europe, in favour of tliofe who would contribute any fum 
to the building or* St. Peter's ; and fet perfoiK ih each, 
-country to preach them up, and to receive money for 
them. Ih, Germany, the Dominicans were preferred to 
the Aiiguftine friats, who had hitherto been employed in 
that pffece : and this, together with the barefaced merce- 
nary manner of doirtg it, provoked Martin Luther, who 
was of the order of St. Auguftin, to preach againft them. 
s*e LU- And fo the Reformation began : nor could all the bulls of 
THER, Le arl( i ^ IS fucceflbrs againft Luther and his adherents, 
nor all the various policy of the court of Rome, ftbp its 

Leo died, Dec. 2, 1521, in the 45th year of his age, 

and 9th of his pontificate : and his death was occafioned 

. . by a piece of good news, according to fome, but, as 

••jhers %, by poifon. Several of his letters arc preferred. 

■ by 



L E O X. iff 

fey various authors, befides the fixteen books written in 
his name by his fecretary Bembqs, and printed in the 
works of that cardinal. One fiogularity qf this pope we 
have not yet mentioned, which is, tb^t he was executively 
fond of hunting ; and it is faid, that, his eye, though he 
Was very fhbrt-fighted, was furprizingly quick at thelport. 
Only hear Paul Jovius upon this he$d : M He was foun- , ?*£ aI ' e ** 
" finitejy Relighted with hunting and hawking/' fays that 01 ? 
hiftorian, " that he would often contemn the fouleft 
" ftorms, the moft gjiwholfome wind?, and the gneateft in* 
*' conveniences that cbuld be met with in travelling. — But 
u in hunting, as he obferved very ftri&ly the laws of that 
u exercife, To he was extremely fevere, though otherwife l 

*' of the moft gentle difpofition, on thefe occafions ; .par* 
" ticularly towards thofe who by noify and tumultuous 
behaviour gave the game an opportunity of efcaping, 
infomuch that he would frequently inveigh bitterty 
againft perfons of quality. But whenever it happened, 
either through ignorance or miftake of the fpommen, 
or that the game unexpectedly efcaped, or could not be 
forced from its coyer, fo that the chace proved unfuc- 
** cefcful, it is incredible/' fays Tovius, "haw grieved, as 
M well as exafperated, he would appear. And therefore 
c< his intimate friends were extretnely careful not to iue 
for any favour $t this t#ne : whereas if he was fuccefsful 
in tfye, and efpecjally if it was ' diiHngui&ed by 
the greatnefs of the toil, he would heftow the inoft cori- 
" fiderable favours with prodigious .liberality/* Would 
any one imagine, that all this related Jto a pope of Rome ? 
To no lefs a man than Leo the Xth ? \ 

We will conclude our account with a pafiage from Va- 
rillas's " Anecdotes de FloreiKe;" which, fays Bayle, con- 
Jains a pretty juft charter, though in a copcifc way, qf 
Leo X. . It fhews him too in a light, in winch we have 
not yet considered ^iim ; that is, in his. political capacity. 
The paflfge wy be foujod in the preface .to the Anecdotes, 
and is as follows : " Guicciardini, in the twelve firft arti- 
" cles of his tyftory, exhibits this pope to us as a perfect ; » 

" model of modern politics, and the greateft ftatefman of 
" his age. He makes him fuperior to king Ferdinnad the 
u Catholic ; and caufes him to triumph, in his younger 
v years, over the artifices of that old ulurper. It is to 
him he afcribes tlie fecret of cauiing all his defigns to 
be feconded by the council of Spain, whether they 
" would or no. After having eftablilhed thefe principles, 

O 3 «« &cre 






-tcff L E O X. 

V there arc no'fhining virtues, but what heighten and 1I7 
luftrate the pifture of Leo X. He formed, at but 14 
years of age, when he was created a cardinal, thofe vaft 

'/ projefts which he afterwards put in execution, when he 

V was raifed to the pontifical chair. He negociates with 
«* the ftates of Venice, to fave the ruin of his houfe, 

V which had not been able to withftand our Charles VIII- 
** The feeing his brother drowned, as he was crpfling a 
*' river, had not the .power to make him change his refo- 
*'' lution. He thought of nothing but the bringing xip of 

an only fon, then in the cradle, whom this brother hro 
left ; and thereupon he returns to Rome, where, by 
f his intrigues, he gains the favour of pope Julius II; 
*' and they occafioned his being' appointed legate in the 
army defigned to drive the French out of Italy. He 
is taken prifoner at the battle of Ravenna, but makes 
his efcape in a happy juncture, Julius II. expiring juft 
" at that time; He goes into the conclave, where he 
*' takes fo much advantage of the caprice of the young 
" cardinals,- who had flattered tKemfelves with the hopes 
*' of ele&ing a juvenile pope, that he caufes them to give; 
". their votes in his favour. He joins with th6 Spaniards, 
€i and is tender of their friendihip,, fo long ad it is of fer- 
** vice to fettle his houie in the chief employments of ma- 
giftracy in Florence : but the inftant fortune frowns on, 
them, and that he finds their council does not care to 
*'. let him ufurp the dukedom of Urbino, in order to in- 
vert Ins nephew with* it,' he treats with the French on 
that condition. He draws up the famous concordat, 
in which he eludes 'the ftratagems and long experience 
of the chancellor du Prat : he difcove'rs the higheft 
frichdfhip for Francis J, fo long as that monarch is a- 
'.- *' ble to do him fcrvice; but the inftant he has obtained 
* s his defires, he abandons him, in order to be reconciled 
. *' to Charles V. He projects a league with this monarch, 
. i( _ m order to cftabliih the Sforza's in the dukedom of 
- " Milan.- He lucceeds in it .foonc'r than he/expe&ed, 
*' and is fired with fuch an excels of. joy, as kills hini 
" at the receiving this news. " See MEDICt 5 
^ .(Laurknck of).' ; 

V»T l L I-EONICENUS (Nicholas), an eminent phyfician 

Wit °* * ta! > % was bom in M^8, and was- a profeffor pf phyfic 
at Ferrara for more than fixty years. It is to this phy- 
fickn, that we owe the firft tranflation of any of Gulen's 


L E O & I C E N U S. i 99 

tirades, which he alfo illuftrated with commentaries. Me 
.'• jtranilated alfo the "\ Aphorifms of Hippocrates.* Another 
work of his is, " Plinii et plurium aliorum Medicorunji 
in Medkina erroribus." He made alfo ah Italian tranf- 
Jatkm of Dion Caffius, and another of Lucian. By thefe 
diffimilar produ&ions we fee, that Leonicenus was not fo 
confined to phyfic, as to be inattentive to the other depart- 
ments of literature^ Indeed, he was not greatly attached 
' to the praftice of phyfic: " I do more fervice," fays he, 
** to the public, than if I vifited patients, by inftru&ing 
** thofe^who are to cure them;" meaning by his le&ures' 
and literary labours. This phyfician preferved a " viridis 
fene£tas" to a very great age ; for his perfon was ftout 
. ;and upright, and his faculties cleaf ar>d ftrong, when he 
jlied in 1524, agecj 96, ♦ ' 

LEONTIUM, an ancient courtezan at Athens, fa* 
jnous firft for her lafcivioufnefs, and afterwards by her 
application to the ftudy of philofophy. Bayle thinks, 
that his laft profeflion would have made amends for the 
difgrace of the former, had Leontiunji renounced Love, as 
foon as fhe embraced Philofophy : but it is pretended, 
that fhe did not abate a jot of the fonner; and that, when 
fhe ftudied under Epicurus, fhe proftituted herfelf to all 
his difciples. She was either the wife or the concubine of 
Metrodorus, by whom fhe had a fon, whom Epicurus 
recommends to the executors of his laft will and teftament. , 
She [applied herfelf however ferioufly to philofophy, and 
ventured, with fo much confidence to be an authored, as 
. even to write agairift Theophraftus. . It is pleafant to ob- 
ferve, how peevifhly Cicero exprefies himfelf upon this : De N*t. 
. ** not only Epicurus, Metrodorus, and Hermachu$, wrote Deor.i-- 
*' againft Pythagoras, Plato, and Empedocles, bqt even , - 

* c that litde whore Leontium had the aflurance to write 
" againft Theophraftus :" " fed meretricula etiam Leon- 
. " tium contra Theophraftum fcrib^re aufa eft." He 
allows, however, that fhe did it " in a polite and elegant 
*' ftyle," *' fcitq quidem ilia, ferine et Atticol" 

LEO WICQ_(Cyprian or Leovitius), a Bohe- 

.rnian aftronomer, was born of a noble, family in 1524. 

He publifjied " Ephemerides" and other things, and 

was diftinguifhed as an Aftronomer : but we record him 

Jxere, becaufe, mixing aflrological predictions with real 

- ' O4 . fcience % 

aoo LEaWKR 

fcience, he exhibits an iiiufiriom irtfttnce of that folly to 
which mankind are fa much addifted. He foretold as a 
certainty, that the Emperor Maximilian would be anooerch 
of all Europe, which did not come to pa fa : bit he did 
not foretell what did come to pafs the year after this 
prophdy; that the Sultan Soliman would take Sigeth, a 
town of Hungary, in the prefeike of the Emperor and 
Imperial army, without moleftation or let*. He an- 
nounced the end of the world to happen 1^1584, and 
alarmed the people fo, that the churches and monafttries 
- could not contain the crowds which ran thi&er for fal- 
vation. When will mankind be cured of tfccfe fellies, or 
is it not vain to attempt to cure them ? He had a con- 
ference with Tycho Brake upon aftrohoroical matters in 
1569. He died in 1574. 

LESLEY (John), the celebrated biftiop of RoE in 
Scotland, was defcended from a very antient family , and 
born in 1517. He had his education in'the univrrfity of 
Aberdeen; and, in 1547, was made canon of the cathedral 
church of Aberdeen and Murray* After this, he travelled 
into France ; and, purfuing his ftudies in the universities 
of Thouloufe, Poitiers, and Paris, he took the decree of 
doftor of laws at his laft . He continued abroad till 1 554 ; 
when he was commanded hom& by the qaeeu>regeat^ and 
made o&cial and vicar-general of the dtocefe of Aberdeen; 
and, entering into the priefthood, he becaofce parfon of 
tine. About this time the Reformed dodrirje* bediming 
to fpread in Scotland, was fcealoufly oppofcd by o«r au- 
thor ; and, a falemn difpute being held between the Pro- 
teftants and Papifts in 1560, aft Edinburgh, Lirffey was a 
principal champion on the fide of the latter £ a ] • However, 
this was fo far from putting an end to the divifinns, that 
they daily inareafed; which occasioning many dfftutfeances 
and commotions, both parties agreed to invite hone die 
queen, who was then abfent in France. On this errand 
~Lefley was employee! by the Roman Catholics ; -aod made 
fuch difpatch, that he came feveral days before lord James 
Stuart, fent by the Proteftants, to Vitri, where queen 
Mary was then lamenting the death of her Jwiib&nd, the 
king of France. Having delivered to her has credential, 
Jie told her majefty of lord James Stuart's [®] coming 

' £a] Among others, he had a par- £b] He was nitprsti brother "to tkt 
tictilar dilute with the fxguras Xpox. <ptfco, 


LESLEY. *ot 

ffom the Covenanters, and of his defigns againft the Roman 
Catholici^eligion ; and advifed her to detain him in France 
By feme honourable employment, till fhe could fettle her 
jaffairs at home : but the queen, not at all diftrufting the 
nobility, who had fent lord James, defired Lefley to wait, 
till fhe conk) confiilt with her friends upon the methods 
moft proper for her to take. At firft, the court of France 
oppoled ner return home : but, finding her much inclined 
to it, they ordered a fleet to attend her ; and Lefley em- 
barked with her at Calais for Scotland, Aug. 1561. 

Prefently after his arrival, he was appointed one of the 
fenators of the college of juftice, and fworn into the privy- 
council. The abbey of Lundores wa6 conferred upon 
him afterwards ; and, upon the death of Sinclair bifnop 
of Rofs, he was promoted to that fee. This advancement 
was no more than he merited from the head of the Roman 
church in Scotland ; in whofe defence he was always at 
hand, an able difputant with the new Separa tills. His 
learning was not inferior to his other attainments ; nor was 
his attention fo entirely abforbed in ecclefiaftical matters, 
but that he found time to confider and improve the civil 
"ftate of the kingdom. To this end, having obferved that 
all the ancient laws were growing obfolete, for want of 
being collefted into a body, he represented the thing to 
the qtieen, and prevailed with her majefty to appoint 
pFoper.perfons for the work. Accordingly, a commiffioa 
•was made out, eApowering our bifh'op, with fifteen others, 
prtvy-counfellors and advocates in the law, with authority 
to print the fame. Thus it is to the care principallv of 
the bifhop of Rofs, that the Scots owe the firft imprelfcon 
of their laws at Edinburgh, in 1566 ; r commonly called 
" the black a&« of parliament, from their being printed in 
the black Saxon charaifter. Upon the queen's nying into 
England from the Covenanters, queen Elizabeth appointed 
comajiffiaaers at York to examine the cafe between her 
and her fubje&s ; and our bifhop was one of thofe ehofen 
by his queen in 1568, to defend her caufe. He did fp 
with great vigour and ftrength of reafoning : and, when 
this method proved ineffectual, appeard afterwards in the 
chaiafler of ambaflador at the Englifli court. He was fent 
to complain of the injuftice done to his queen ; but, find* 
ing no notice taken of his public foljcitations, formed 
feveral fcheraes to procure her efoape privately. With r 
that view, among other proje&s, he negotiated a fcheiqe 
for her marriage with the duke of NprfQli: \ which being 

#fcovered f 

?92 LESLEY. 

• discovered, the duke was convided of treafon, annexe- 
cuted. Lefley, however, being examined upon it, pleaded 
the privileges of an ambaffador; alledging, that he had 
done nothing but what his place and duty tied him fav for 
procuring the liberty of his princcfs, &c. but, his pleas 
• not availing, he was fent prifoner to the ifle of Ely, and 
thence to the tower of London. 

Jn 1573, he was fet at liberty ; but, being banifhed 
England, he retired to the Netherlands. The two follow- 
ing years he employed in folic* ting the kings of France 
and Spain, and all the German princes, to ihtereft them- 
fclves in the delivery of his miftrefs ; but, finding them 
(low in the affair, he went to Rome, to fee what influence 
the pope might have over them. In the end? perceiving 
all his efforts fruitlefs, he had recourfe to his pen, and 
publifhed fcveral pieces, to promote the fame defign [c]. 
In *5?9» he was made fuffragan and vicar-general of tlje 
archbifhopric of Rouen in Normandy, and, in his vifita- 
tion of that diocefe, was apprehended and thrown into 
prifon, and obliged to pay three thoufand piftoles for his 

[c] His writing* are, 1, *' AfJI cti •' renaefis ad nobilitatem populumqoe 
•« animi confolationes, & tranquillt 'f Scotorum:" and, 4. <f Rcgionumet 
** am mi confervatio. Paris, 1574," " infulafum Scotia- defcriptio." 5? 
Jvo. £. " De origine, Biorifcus, it re- u Defence of the honour of Mary 
•/ busgeilis Sector urn. Roma?, 1578/' " queen of Scotland; with a declara- 
4to. It con lifts of ten books, whereof " tion of her right, title, and intereft 
the three laff, making half the vo- " to the crown of England. Liege, 
. lorae, are diftin&ly dedicated to queen . «* 1571," 8vo, 6. «« A treatife fliew- 
.Mary ; to whom they had been pre- " ing, that the regimen, of women is 
fented in F.nglifh, feven years b.fore " conformable to the law of God and 
the flrft publication in Latin. There "nature." Thefe two taft are afcribed, 
are feparate copies of them in fever at by Parfons the Jefurt, to Morgan Phi- 
libraries* See Catalog. MSS. Oxon. lips. Conference about the next fuc- 
This hiftory is carried down to the ctifion, part $, c. J. But Camden 
queen's return from' Fiance in 1 561. afierts them to be our author's. Anoal. 
It is a moft noble apology whxh he Eliz. fub. ann. 1569. 7. " Detitolo 
makes, in the breaking otf, at the be- " & jure Marias Scotorcm regie*, q«Q 
ginning of his admired fovereign's " Angliae fuccemonem jure lib i vendi- 
troubles; for, betides the prejudices n cat. Rheims, 1580," 4to. 8. There 
which the world might think him un- is a MS. upon the fame fubjeft ia 
der, in his re fp eels to fo kind a tniltrefs, French, intituled, " Remonfirancc a« 
'he makes this further reflection upon *< pape, &e." Cotton library. Titus, 
the undertaking: "Some things," c»ii, t. and F. 3. 14. 9. '«' An ac- 
„ fays he, " favoured fa much of ingra- " count of his embartage in England, 
♦« titudeand perfidy, that although it " from 1568 to 1572.'* MS. ia the 
' «« were very proper they Jhould be advocates library in Scotland. Cataj. 
- « known, yet it were improper for me of Oxford MSS. to. " An apology 
. ff t* record them: becaufe often, with «• for the bifhop of Rofs, as to wbac 
«{ the danger of my life, I endeavoured « is laid *o his charge concerning the 
«• lo put a dop to them ; and I ought. «« dukeofNorfolk.*' MS. in the library 
« to do all that ia in me, not to let of the lord Longueville. 11. " Seie- 
" them be known unto Grangers." «f raUetters in the hands, of Dr. George 
With this work are publiilied, 3. ««Pa- « Mackenzie." * •' 

a ranfoniji 

LESLEY, * 9% 

jranfom, or elfc to be given up tp Queen Elizabeth. He 
remained unmolefted under the proteftion of Henry III. 
pf France : but, upon the acceffion of Henry IV T a Pro- 
teftant, who was fupported in his claim to that crpwn by 
Queen Elizabeth, was apprehended, in his vifitation 
through his diocefe, in 1590 ; and, being thrown into 
prifon, was obliged to pay three thoufand piftoles for his 
ranfom, to fave himfelf from being given up to Elizabeth. 
In 1593, he was declared biftiop of Conftance; witli licence . 
to hold the bifljopric of Rofs till he fhould obtain peace 7 
able pofleffion pf tne church of Conftance, and its revenues. 
Some time after this, he went and refided at Bruflels : and, 
at laft, feeing ^11 hopes cut off of his returning home, to Macten* 
his biihopric of Rofs/ by the eftablifhment of the Refor- *«*•* i»y«$ 
ination under King James, he retired into a monaftery at JJjJ^jJJ* 
Guirtenburg, about Wo jniles from Bruflels ; where he moft «ni~ 
* pafied the remainder of his days, an4 died in 1596, ncotScotck 

His charafter is reprefented much to his advantage, by ^"i^k-* 
feveral writers, both at home and abroad : and, indeed, all dinb. 171 i f 
parties agree in fpeaking of him as a man of iricompar- fol "^fx 
. able learning, an able ftatefman, a zealous churchman, xSatEY. 
and of his fidelity to his queen as admirable and exem- 
plary. • • • 

LESLIE (Dr. John), bifhop of Clogher in Ireland, 
was defcended from an ancient family, and born, in the 

. north of Scotland. The firft part of his education was at 
Aberdeen, from whence he removed to Oxford. After? 

. wards he travelled into Spain, Italy, Germany, and France, 
he fpoke French, Spanifh, and Italia^, with the fajne pro- 
priety and fluency as the natives ; and was fo great a mailer 
6f the Latin, that it was faid of him, when in Spain, 
§olus Lejlcius Latine loquitur* He continued twenty-two • 

years abroad ; and, during that time, was at the fiege of 
Kochelle; and the expedition to the ifle of Rhee, with 
ihe dijke of Buckingham. He was all along converfant 
in courts, and at home was happy in tliat of Charles I, 
who admitted him into ]ns privy-council both in Scotland 
and Iceland ; in whicji ftatjons he was continued by 
Charles II, after the Reftoratjop. His chief preferment ' v 

in the church of Scotland wa§ the biihopric of the Ork* 
hey, whence he was tranflated to Raphoe in Ireland, ii| 
1633; and, the fame year, fworn a privy-counfellor iri 
' tha^kingdohl. s He built a ftately palace in liis diopefe : it 
was. built in the form and ftrength of a callle, ope of 

ac4 L E S I* I 5» 

the fifleft cpifcowl palaces in Ireland, -and prgyaj t» 
|>e ufeful afterwards in Ac rebellion of 1641 f *>y prc- 
ferving 3 good part of that country. The ffood^bifijop 
exerted himfelf, fo much as he could, in defence of tip 
royal cade, and endured a fiege in his cafiie of Rfphflf* 
before he would furrender it to OKver CrorawdJ ; peijjg 
the Jaft which held out in that country, f? e then reared 
to Dublin, where he always ufed the hopgy pf tbe church 
of Ireland in this family, *nd even had frequent con- 
firmations and ordinations, After the Reft(?rarien, fee 
came over to England; and, in i66i p was tranflated Jo 
the fee of Ck^her, He died in 167K mA above iqo 
years, having "been above 50 years a pimop; aijd yr& 
then reckoned the aneiejyteft bimop in the world* 

LESLIE (CHAHLt:s},thcfecoiidfoo oftheprccedi^ 
*nd a very diiVijigpifhed perjfbnage, wjis born in Ifffend, 
we know not what year; agd admitted a fellpw-Qoronipner 
in Dublin-college, where he continued tjll he cpmmertcfd 
inefter of arts. Then he "eaine to England, and entered 
kimfdf in the Temple at London, where he ftjjdjed the 
few for fome yej*rs • but at length grpwing wary of 
• 4t, Telmqutfhed it, and applied himfelf to divinity. In 
1680, he entered himfelf into holy orders ; and, in 1687, 
'becarqe chancellor of th$ cathedral chjufb ? ox diofefe, 
of Connor* About this time lie penden&d himfelf j>ar- 
ikfcfody obnoxious to the % Poptfh party in Jrelanyd, by 
his zealous opposition to them, which w«js thus called * 
&rth. -*Roger Boyle, bjflipp of £iogber, dyii|g jn 1687, 

- Patrick Tyrrel was irjade titular Popijfh biilbop^ and had 
the revenues of the fee affigned him by iting |ajmes ? Me 
' &t *p * convent of friars in Mon^ghan ; artd ; &*}**£ .hi* 
habitation -there, feeld 3 public vrfitatioji of jlis cfergy, 
with great folemnky : when, forge ftfbtle logicians at- 
tc tiding him, he wa^ fo infole#t as to challenge ,the ffp- 
tcftant clergy to a public difputetion. JLeflie ufi(^enq^k 
tiie "talk, and* performed it to the feti^fa&jon of the Pro- 
tenants ; though it happened, 33 it generally does at fuch 

y comefts, thar both ^fides claimed the viftory He after- 
wards held another public deputation with two* celebrated 
" Popifh divines, in tfte chunfh of Tynan, in the d^ocefe 
of Armagh, before a very numerous aflerjibly of perfqns 
of both religions ; the KTue of which "was, that Mr- Jojin 
Sfccwart, a Popifli gentlemsm, jfojernnly renounced the 
errors of tjie church pf Rome, ' Y \* - 

• y "*' ' * ' 'A* 

L t S L I E. 505 

As the Papifts had got poffefltorl of mi tyiicopa! fte 4 that 
engrofed other offices too j And a Popifli blgh-fheriff wai 
appointed for the eotihty -<tf Monaghaii. This proceeding 
alai-foed tte fceitflemen in that country ; who^ depending 
sadeh 4n Lfcflie's knowledge as ft jfefticfc bf |?eac** repaired 
to hial» then boafiiied, by tbe gout, a* hid hbufe. Hfc 
told them, that it wodld be as illegal iti them to permit 
toe (Wiff to aft, as it^wottid be in hiifc to* attempt it 
fiat they inMed that himfelf ftould appear in peribri on 
$kc bcfttk, at the approaching quarter-feffions, and all 
promifed to a& a* be did ; fo he was carried then: *it*i 
xnuch difficulty, and in great pain* Upon the tjueftion, 
whether the fheriff was legally qualified* he anfwered 
pertly, " TLat he #as of tbe kihg's own religion, and it was 
*' hua^je%^w.iUthathcflioiiWbe(hei-iff. ,t Leflie replied* 
* * *f feat they wfece abt inquiring into his niajefty's religion, 
*' pat whether fee (die pretended (heriff) baa qualified hitit- 
44 ieif according to laW^ lor A&ing aa a proper officer , that 
** {he kw wis the king's will* attd nbtiiiftg elfe to be (deemed 
** fach ; that his fohje&s hid #10 other way of knotting hi* 
u will* bat as it k revealed to them in his laws ; and it mull: 
* 4 always be thodgkt to continue fo* tM the contrary is tt»- 
ik tiSed to &e& ia the. ftme authentic iteahner". Where- 
upon tlie heath uftaninlbufly agreed to commit the pre- 
tended fberijff, tpt his intrusion arid arrogant contempt tt> 
the eburt. Lefiie alio conkriaitted foiwe officers of that tA- 
*hfcuo«s army which tbe Lord Tytcoanel unfed, for , 

robbing tbe counfcry. 

Hitherop keflie had afted as a divine and good m*~ 
giftrate. Mean whiter he rievcr aippfroved of catryirtg 
ithefe priiacipies *>f refinance fo fa¥, a* to deprive the king 
of tbe fupreOse power; and, perfevering fteadify in that 
opinion, jhe continued, after die Revolution, inwegiAnee 
to king. James* In 'confequehefc, refufing to take the 
new oaths appointed upon that change, he loft all his pre- 
ferments ; and, m i6S$, Mrhen. the troubles began to arife 
B Ireland* 'withdrew* with his family, into England. 
ere he fet about writing political j«eces, in fapport of. 
•the caufe he had embraced ; *nd, being a perfon of extra- 
ordinary wit and learning, was efteemed a chieftain among 
the No^jjirots, His firft piece, ift this catafe, was Jin Aft~ 
fwer to Abp. King's " State of the Prpteftants in Ireland, 
'* Wider t3te ffcte Cing James's government ," wherein he 
Shewed himfelf as averfe from the principles and practices 
*f *he ilrifli, and other Papifts, as he was from thofe of 


ii$ LESLIE. 

« • *- '* 

refiftance. Neither did his fufferings mal^e Ijim forget 
his duty to the' church of England ; in defence of which he 
Ihewed Jiimfelf a ftreriudus champion againft the Quakers*, 
many of whom were converted by him. But, as all his 
converts were defirous of returning to Prefbytery, from 
whence they had laft fpruiig, he was obliged to treit the 
fubjeft of cHurch-gdVernriient in defence of epifcopacy.' 
He likewife ertiploycd his pen in the general caufe of the 
Chriftian religion, kgainft Jews arid Deifts, and againft 
the errors of Socinians and Papifts. Mean while, his 
writings, and frequent vifits to the courts of St. Germains 
and Bar le Due, rendered him obnoxious to the govern- 
ment ; but he became more fo upon the publication of 
the " Hereditary right of the crown of England aflerted ;" 
6f which he was the reptited Author [a]. Finding himfelf, 
on this account,. under a neceffity of leaving the kingdom, 
he repaired to the Pretender at Bal le Due ; where he was 
allowed to officiate in a private chapel, after the rites of 
the church of England ; and he took much pains to con- 
vert the Pretender to the Proteftant religion, but in vain. 
However, to promote the faid Pretender's intereft, when 
k great ftir was made about him in England, he wrote t 
letter from Bar de Due, dated April 23, 17 14, which 
Was printed and difperfed among his adherents, replete with 
the moft fordid flattery : wherein, after giving a fine dc- 
fcription of the Pretender's perfon and chara&er,* his grace* 
ful mien, magnanimity of fpirlt, devotion free from bigo- 
try, application to bufinels, ready apprehehfion, found 
judgement, and affability, fo that none converted with 
him, but what were charmed with his good ferife and 
temper ; he concludes with a propofal, " on condition hi 
" his being feftored to his crown, th&u for, the fecurity of 
" the church of England as by law eftablifhed, he would 
■" fo far waive his prerogrative, in the nomination of 
** bifhops, deans, and all other ecclefiaftical preferments 
" in the gift of the crown, that five bifhops fhould be ap 
" pointed ; ' of which the archbifhop of Canterbury ror 
*' the time being always to be one, who, upoft any va- 
M cancy, might name .three perfons to him, of whom he 
" would chufe [b]." Many other propofels of the Hfc^ 
nature were made foon after, and feveral projects were; itol 
1 only laid in England, but an aftual infurrefltion tfegun in 

[ A ] Buyer's hift.of queen Anne, [»]. Id. j>, $57, finfefc C00U* 

V 65S. " • of &apitt. 


L £ & L f E. i$ 

Scotland, by his party, in 1715 : all which ended in the 
Crufhirtg and difperfing of the rebels, and in the Pretenders 
being obliged tb leave the French dominions. 

In this exigence lie withdrew to Italy, whither Leflie 
attended him, notwithftalidirfg the ill ufage he met with at 
that court. He was a firm Proteftant, and iro unable 
champion of that religion ; and was encouraged t6" hope* 
that he irtight make -a convert of his prince. Ht bald been 
fent for efpeciaily by himfelf, with a prcnxitfe diat he 
fhould celebrate the church of England fervfce in hiis 
family; artd that he \#ould hear what he fEould reprefent 
to him on the fabjeft of rligton. But the Cha'valier was 
far from keeping the word he hdd gft£ri, afrd oh the faith 
of whidh our divine had come over : for, tftotfgh hfe al-, 
lowed him, for form's fake, to celebrate the church of 
England fervice in his family, yet he never was prefent 
there; and not only.refufed to hear Leflie himfelf, but 
fheltercd the ignorance of his priefts, or the badnefs of his 
taufe, or both, behind his authority, and abfolutely 
forbad all difcourfe concerning religon [cj. However, 
Leflie put up with every thing, in dutiful fubffiiffion to his 
avowed fovereign, till the year 1721 ; when, having 
undergone many difficulties, and finding nothing but dif- 
appointments, he funk under thepreffure; and, returning 
to his native country, died April 13, 1722, at his owa 
houfe at Glailough in the county of Monaghan. 

As to his charafter, Bayle ftyleS him " a man of great 
*' merit and learning ;" and tells us, that he was firft who 
wrote, in Great Britain, againft the errors of Madam 
Bourignoi* [i>]. His books, adds he, are much efteemed, 
and especially his treatife of *' The Snake in the graiV* 
Salmon obferves, that his works muft tranfmit him to 
pofterity as a man thoroughly learned, and truly pious [e]- 
Another writer informs us, that Leflie made feveral con- 
verts from Popery; and fays,' that, notwithstanding his 
miftaken opinions about government, and a few other 
matters, he deferves the higheft praifc for defending the 
Chriftian religion againft Deifts, Jews, Quakers, and for 
admirably well fupporting the dofhines of the church of 
England againft thofe of Rome [if]. The author of the 
*' Freeholder's Journal/' immediately after the death of Mr.. 

f c] Bol'mghtokc's letter to Wind- [e] Chrcn. hi ft. p. 442. • . 

kam. / . £?J Harris's Con;inuation of Sir 

[v] BayleVDift. uader, tfii*.iadv'$ James Ware, p. -£3, 2 £4. 

'Leflie, / 

*o$ LESLIE. 

Leflie, obferved, that when the Popifh emifiaries weft 
moft afltive in poifoning the minds of the people, Mr. 
Leflie was behind no man in diligently expofing, both in 
publick and private, the errors and absurdities of the 
Romifh do&rines. Yet, upon the abdication of king 
James, he refigned his livings, followed his fortunes, and 
adhered firmly to his interefts ;, and after his demUe, to 
Vhofe of the Pretender. Notwithftanding his well-known 
attachment to the Jacobite intereft, and his freqneftt vifita 
to the court of St. Germains, he was not much molefted by 
the government till a little before Sachevereirs trial, when 
. he attacked Bp : Burnet pretty warmly, in a pamphlet, 
called " The good old Caule, or lying in Truth**' 
wherein he would prove, from the bifhop's former work$> 
the truth of that do&rine for which the doftor Was profc- 
cuted by the commons, and violently inveighed againft 
by the bifhop himfclf. To avoid the ftorm that threatened 
him for this pamphlet, he fled out of England, ami re- 
mained abroad till 172 1, when he returned hither, with a * 
refolution, let the confequences be what they would, of 
dying in his own country. Some of his friends acquaint- 
ing Lord Sunderland with his purpofes, and imploring his 
J>roteftion for the good old man ; his lo/dfhip readily and 
generoufly promifed it. Mr. Leflie had no kroner arrived 
in London, than a member of the houfe of oomntons, 
officioufly waited on lord Sunderland with the news; 
but met with fuch a reception from his lordfhip as the 
malice of his errand deferved. 

Befides the political t rafts which he {battered, 'Mr. hefifc 
left two volumes in folio of theological works ; in which 
he has difcufled well nigh all the controverfies which now 
difturb the peace of the Chriftian church. Confumtnatt 
learning, attended by the loweft humility, the ftrifkeft piety 
•without the leaft tin&ure of morofenefs, a oonvefjafjiod 
to the laft degree brifk, lively, and fpirited, yet to the laft 
degree innocent, nude him the del : ght of mankind, aad 
leaves wliat Dr. Hickes fays of him unquestionable ; that 
he made more converts to a found faith and holy life* 
than any other man of our times. 

A catalogue of his books is inferted below [g]. 

\ ' I/ES- 

[a] We flhafl divide tliefe into hii &c. already mentioned. 2. "Caflln- 
V*bt!cri and religious worts. Of the " dra, concerning the ucw affocia- 
fprmer, Ke wrote, i. '< Anfwerto the «« iiriui, Sec. 1703,° 4to. 3. 4t R*" 
«• aate of ihe Protectants of Ireland," « h«arfa!s » at firft a weekly papf. 


L E S t I E. 


ptthliibdl afterwards twice a week in 
ft folio half-(heet, by way of dialogue 
on the affairs of the times : begun in 
1fo4, and continued for lis or feven 
years. 4. " The wolf ft ripped of his 
P mepherd't cloathing, in anfwer to 
'• Moderation a virtue, 1704." 4*0. 
The pamphlet it anfwers was written' 
iy James OWen. $. « The hiihop of 

* Sarom'a [Sornet'sJ proper defence, 
from a fpeech fa id to be fpoken by 
" him again ft occafional conformity, 
" 1 704," 4*0. 6. " The new aflo- 
""ciation of thofe called Moderate 
u churchmen," Ice. occafioned by a 
pamphlet, intituled, «« The danger of 

• * 4 prieftcraft, 1705," 4X0, 7. « The 
M new afTociation, part 2, 1705," 410* 
8. ** The principles of Diftemers cqn- 
%t cerning toleration and occafional 

* conformity, 1705," 4(0. 9. ** A 
44 warning for the church of England, 
" 1706,*' 4C0. Some have doubted 
whether thefc two pieces were his. 
lo. " The good old caufe, or lying in 

% u troth 1 being a fecond defence of 
" the bijbop of Sarum from a fecond 
** fpeech) be. 17 10." For this, a war- 
rant Wat iflued out againft Lcflie, 11. 
14 A letter to the bifhop of Sarum, in 
41 anfwer to his fermon after the queen's 
11 death, in defence of the Revolution, 
*■ «7*5 " «• u Salt for the leectr." 
|j. *• The anatomy of a Jacobite.*' 
f if* " Callienus rcdivivus.'* 15. " De- 
« lenda Carthago. 1 ' 16. « A letter to 
" Mr. William Molyneui, on bis cafe 
" of Ireland's being bound £yf the 
" Englifh afts of parl ; ament.*\ uj. ■« A 
** letter to Julian Jofcnion." <$. " Se- 
** vera* iractf agaiuft Dr. Hjgdcn and 
44 Mr. tfoadly.* 

His theological traces are, firft, 
againft the Quakers; as, 1. " The 
•• Snake in tlie^rafs, Ice. 1607," gvo. 
i. * 4 A difcourfe proving the divine 
44 inftitution of water baptifm, &c." 
«id. 410. ' |. .«• Some feaJbnable reflec- 
44 lions upOo the Quaker* fo^emn pro- 
44 teftation again ft George Keith, ice. 
ta 1697." 4. " Satan airbed from 
"his difgoife of light, 1698," 410. 
5. " A defence of a hook, intituled, 
44 The Snake in the graft, 1700," fcvo. 
6. " A reply to a book, intituled, ** An- 
, H gois flagdjatns, or a f witch for the 
l4 fnake — being the la ft part of the 
u Snake in the g*!tfi ; 1 704/* tvo. 
% ** Primitive herefy revived in the 
u faith and practice of the fakers. 
Vol. VM. 

w 1698," 4to. %. * fheprefent flate 
44 of Qnakerifm in England, 1701.** 
9. 44 Eftay concerning the diyine right 
** of tythes, 1706," fro* 

II. Againft ^he Prelbyterians i 
TO. '* A difcourfe^ Jhewing who they 
" are that are now qualified to admit 
"nifter baptifm,*' fcc. 11. " fh* 
94 hiftory of fin and herefy, fee. 169S.* 

III. Againft the Deifts j 11. " A 
44 ttiort and eafy method with the 
44 Delfts, &c» t6$4," 8vo. ij. "A 
w vindication of the ihort and eafy 
44 method " 14. " The truth of Chrif- 
u tianity demon (rrated, in a dialogue 
44 between a Chriftian and a Deift, 
« 17 if," 8vo. 

IV. Againli the Jews i 15. 4< A fiiort 
44 and eafy method with the jews/ 
This dated at the end, 44 Good* 
Friday, 1689;*' and the 4th edition 
was published in 1715- 

V. AgainfttheSocinians: 16. 4 * The 
44 Sociman Controverfy di feu (fed, &c 
44 1708." 17. * 4 An anfwer to re- 
€l marks on the firft di ilogue againft 
41 theSocinians." 18. 4< A reply to 
44 the Vindication of the aematksV' 
19. " An anfwer to the examination 
" of the laft dialogue," &c. 20. 4< \ 
44 fupplemeiit in Anfwer to Mr. Glen* 
44 don's Tra&atus philofophic* theo* 
44 logicus de perfoaa," &c. 2 ?. 44 Thi 
44 charge of Spcinianifm againft t)r, 
41 Tillotfon considered, &c. by a* true 
u fon of the church." 

VI. Againft the Papifts t U. 44 Of 
$i private judgement and authority in, 
" matters of Faith." 23. " The cafe 
44 ftated between the church of Rome 
44 and the church of England, &c. 
44 1713 " 24 4I The true notion of 
44 the Catholic church, in anfwer to 
" the bjihop of Meaux's letter to Mr* 
44 Nelfon," Sec. 

Befides thefe. he publimed the font 
following traits. 15. 4 ' A fermon 
" preached in Cheflrr, againft mac- 
'* r 1 ages in different communions, 
44 1702,** 8vo. This ftrmon occa(i« 
oned Mr. Dod well's difcourfe* vpotk 
the fame fu^a. i6« 44 A diflerta- 
44 tioo concerning the ufe and autho- 
44 rity of ecclefiaftical hiftory." 27. 
44 The cafe of the rrgal and the po*\- 
u tificate." 28. •' A fupplement* in an- 
44 fwerto a book, intituled, 4 * The re- 
44 gal fupremscy in eccle^aftical affairs 
* affcrttd," kc. Thefe two lait pieces 
P were 

cio LESLIE. 

were occasioned by the difputc about was Leflie, on the other* Ail hip 

the rights of eonrocation, between theological pieces, except that agtiaft 

Wake, Uc. on one fide, aod Alter- Tillotfon, were p ollected and pobjoffyf 

bury and his friends, among whom fcy bimfelf in twpvoiames fo^to, yii, 

L* ESTRANGE (Sir Roger), was defcended from 
an ancient and reputable family, featcd at Hunftanton- 
Hall, Norfolk; where he was born Dec. 17, 161 6. He 
was the youngeft fon of Sir Hamond L'Eftrange [a], 
bart. a zealous Royalift during the difputes between King 
Charles and his parliament ; who, having his eftate fequef 
tered, retired to Lynn, of which town he was made Gover- 
nor. The. fon had a liberal education, which was com- 
pleted probably at Cambridge ; and followed his father's 
principles with extraordinary eager neis. He was about 
two and twenty, when King Charles entered upon his ex- 
pedition to Scotland in 1639 ; and he attended his majefty 
on that occafion. This was the leading ftep to the en- 
fuing troubles; and he ever afterwards ftuck fall to the 
Royal caufe, for which he was a remarkable fufferer, and 
once in imminent danger of lofing his life. This happened 
in 1644; when, according to his own account, he was 
betrayed by a brace of villains (Leman and Hager) upon 
a treaty to furprize Lynn-Regis : the former of whom had 
been at Oxford, and there obtained a promife of command 
at fea ; and both of them were bound by an oath of fecrecy 
and fidelity, as ftrong as words could make it. Upon 
this fcheme Sir Roger received a coramiffioft from the 
king, conftituting him governor of the town in cafe of 
fuccefs : but, being feized, and his majefty's commrffion 
found upon him, he was carried firft to Lynn, thence to 
London, and there tranfmitted to the city court-martial 
for his trial ; where, after fufFering all manner of indigni- 
ties, he was, as Whitlock fays, condemned to die as a fpy, 
coming from the king's quarters without dium, trumpet, 
or pafs. 

His fentence being pafled, he was caft into Newgate; 
whence he difpatched a petitionary appeal to the lords, 
the time appointed for his execution being the Thurfday 
following : but, with great difficulty, he got a reprieve for 
fourteen days, and, after that, a prolongation for a farther 
hearing. In this condition of expe&ancy he lay almoft 
four years a prifoner, with only an order between him and 



[a] This title defcended to him from who was created a baronet June ts« 
his father, Sir Nicholas L'Efirange, xft, 15 Carol, I. 

6 the 


the gallows; publifliing, in the mean time, " An appeal 
*' from the court-martial to the parliament 2" but, about 
the time of the Kentiih infurre&ion* in 1648, he flipt 
out of prifon, with the keeper's privity, and went into 
Kent* He retired into the houfe of Mr. Hales, a young 
gentleman^ heir to a great eftate in that county, and fpi- 
rited him up to undertake an infurreftion ; which mif- 
carrying, LTLftrange with much difficulty got beyond fea. 
Here he continued till 1653^ when, upon the long parlia- 
ment's bejng outed by Cromwell, he returned into Eng- 
land, and prefently difpatched a papetf to the council at 
Whitehall to this effect ; " that, finding himfelf within 
" the a& of indemnity [b],' he thought it convenient to 
" give them notice of his return." Soon after this notice, 
he was fummoned .to that board, which he attended ; 
and from this time matters began to look a little in his 
favour. Being told by one of the commirHoners, that his / 

cafe was not comprehended in the aft of indemnity, he 
concluded his beft courfe would be to fpeak to Cromwell 
himfelf, as he did at laft in the Cockpit [c] ; and, fhortly 
after, he received his difcharge by the following order* 
dated Oftober 31, 1653: " Ordered, that Mr. Roger 
" L'Eftrange be difmiued from his further attendance 
" upon the council j he giving in two thoufand*pounds 
fecurity to appear when he fhall be fummoned do, 
and to aft nothing prejudicial to the commonwealth, 
Ex. JohnThurloe, fecretary." 
This appearance at the court of Cromwell was much 
objefted to him, after the Reftoration, by fome of the 
Cavaliers ; who, having heard of his once playing in a 
concert where the Ufurper.was prefent, nick-named him 
" Oliver's Fidler." He was charged alfo with having bribed 
fome of the Protector's people, but utterly difavows it ; ' 
averring, he fiever fpoke to Thurloe but once in his life 
about his difcharge ; and that, though during the depen- 
dency of that affair he might well be feen at Whitehall, 
yet he never fpoke to Cromwell of any other bufinefs, or 
had the leaft commerce of any kind with him. After his 
difcharge, to the Reftoration, he feems t6 have lived free 
from any difturbance from the then governing powers ; 

[i J This a& was pafled in tbe long him, '< that t bey would do well ro gi?e 

parliament, being carried chiefly by ** fome teftiraony of. their quiet and 

Cromwell's intereft, juft before he dil- " peaceable intentions;" and adding, 

Jbtred them. *' that rigour was not at ail his iocli- 

[c] Cromwell then talked to him .•< nation, but that he was but one man, 

•f the rcftleffacfs of his party j telling *' and could do little by himfelf." 

P 2 and 


%x % • L^B STRANGE. 

ind was taken little notice of by Charles II. or his iai- 
nriftry, on that prince's recovering his throne. This ufage 
Was greatly refented by him, as is evident from his warm 
expollulation to the earl of Clarendon [d]; where he 
joins himfelf with other negle&ed cavaliers, who had fuf- 
, fcred f6r their attachment to the royal family during the 

civil wars and the fucceeding ufurpation. In fetting forth 
their complaints, he made ufe of the prefs : but his wri- 
tings feem to have produced' no great effect to himfelf 
then, though afterwards he was made ltcenfer of die prefs ; 
X profitable poft, which he enjoyed till the eve of the Revo- 
lution. This, however, was all the recompence he ever 
received, except being in the commiffion of the peace; 
after more than twenty years, as he fays, fpent in ierving 
the royal caufe, ' near fix of them in gaols, and almoft four 
under a fentence of death in Newgate. It is true, he hints 
at greater things promifed him from lord Clarendon ; and 
in thefe hopes exerted his talents, on behalf of the crown 
in pubiiflniig feveral pieces. In 1663, for a further f-jn 
port, hefet up a paper, calfed *' ThePuWic Intelligencer, 
?* and the News ;" the firft of which came out the ift of 
Auguft, and continued to be publilhed twice a week, till 
Jan. 19, 1665 ; wheri he laid it down, on the deiign then 
concerted of publiihing the " London Gazette," the firft 
of which papers made its appearance on Saturday 
Feb. 4 [e ]. 

After the diflblution of Charles's fecond parliament, in 
3679, he fet up a paper, called ** TheObferrator;" the 
defign of which was to vindicate the measures of the court 
and the chara&er of the king, from the charge of being 
popifhly affefted. With the fame fpirit he exerted him* 
felt in 1 68 1, in ridiculing the Popifh plot} which he did 
with fuch vehemence, that it raifed him many enemies, 
who endeavoured, notwithftanding his known loyalty, to 

[d] In the dedication to that mi* her 7, 1665, the king *»d o^»een, with 
nilier of hi* Memento, p»bl*lhcd ta the court, being thetv at Oxford; but, 
1662. Dpon the remotal of the court to hoa- 

[e] This paper fuccecded "ThePar- don, they were called «* The London 
, «* hanncntary Intel ligencer"aod " Mer> * Gazette," the firft of which wa« p«b> 

" curiusPublicus/' publilhed in defence lilhed in February following, 90 a5a» 

of the government, agiinft the "Mer- turday, the Oxford one having been 

•'curiusPqliticus." L'Eflrangedefifted, publifhed cm a Tcefday; and thefe 

becaufe, in November preceding, the have been the days of pubji&iog that 

Oxford Gazette began to be publilhed paper ever fince. Heafck'sChroniclc* 
twice a week* in a folio half-lheet: , and Athec.Qxon. 
the firft of which came oat Novcm- 


L'E STRANGE. ,z\% 

render him obnoxious to the government. Btit he ap- 
peared with no Iefs vehemence againft the Fanatic plot, 
in 1682 ; and, in 1683, was particularly employed by the 
court to publifh Dr. Tillojfon's -papers exhorting lord 
Ruflel to avow the do&rine of non-refiftance, a little be* 
fere hi* execution. . So that he weathered all the florins 
railed agamft him during that reign ; and, in the next, was 
rewarded with the honour of knighthood, accompanied 
wkh this declaration, " that it was in confederation of his 
" eminent fervices and vmlhaken loyalty to the crown, in 
* f all extremities; and as a mark of the lingular fatisfac- 
" tjoa of his majefty, in his prefent as well as his pa£ 
* f fprvkeg." In 1687, he was obliged to fey down his 
*' Obfervator," now fwelied to three, volumes; as he could 
not agree with the toleration pj/opofed by 1 his majefty, 
though 9 in all other rcfpe£ts, he bad gone the utraoft 
lengths. He had even written ftrenuoufly in defence of 
the difpenfing power, claimed by tliat infatuated prince:; 
and, this was probably one reafon, why fome accufed him 
of having become a profely te to the church of Rome. 
However that be, it is certain the accufation gave him 
much uneafinefs, which- was heightened by his daughter** 
defe&ion to that church; and 2aenefore r to clear himfelf 
from this afperfion, he drew up a folemn declaration, 
jlirefted to his kinfma?i, Sir Nicolas l/£ftrange f on the 
truth of which he received the facrament at the time of 
p\ibli(hing the fame, which is iuppofed to be in 1690 [r]. 
By this declaration we find he was married ; but who hfc 
Jadjr was, or what iflue he had by her, befides the juft- 
mentioned daughter, has not coirte to our -knowledge. 
After the Revolution, he feems to have beea left out of , 
the coramiffion of the peace ; and, it is faid, queen Mary 
fliewed her contempt of hi * by the following anagram 

fp] The letter runs in thefe terms : ■' continue in the faove to my life's 

*■ Sir, the lute departure of my daogb- " end. Now,* it ffcoold pleafe 

u tcr, from the church of England to " God in his providence to fuffer this 

" the church of Rotroc, wounds the very €( fcandal ro be revived upon my me- 

u heart of me ; for I do folemnty pro- ** mory when I am dead and gone, 

" teft, a« in the prefeoce of God AJ- M makeufe. I belwcn you. of this pa- 

** mighty, that I knew nothing ol it : * per in my juftification, which I de- 

* and, for your further' fatisfaftion, " liver as a iacrcd truth. So help me 
" I take rtwe liberty t* aflure you, *< God. 

" upon the faith of a mat of honour " Roger L'Ertrange. 

<* an<f .conscience, that a* 1 was born " Signed in the presence of us, 

M and brought up in the communion " u Jnhn l/Eftrange, 

* of the church of England, fo I have * Richard Sure. 
«* b^an trwj to it ever fioce, w'uh a firm «* To Sir Nicholas L'EftrangCjbart.*** 
"srcfulutioiij with God's aifillaucc, to 

P 3 . ftie 


fhe made upon his name, " Lying-Strange Roger :" it i* 
certain he met with fome trouble, for the remainder of hi* 
life, on account of hi9 being a difaffe&ed perfon. 

He died Sept. n, 1704, wanting only five days of 
eighty-eight, and having in a manner furvived his intel- 
lectuals. His corpfe was interred in the church of St. 
Giles in the Fields, in the county of Middiefex, where 
there is an infcription to his memory. He was author of 
many political trafts, and tranflated feveral things from 
the Greek, Latin, and Spanilh, which are as follow: 
** Roger L'Eftrange's Apology ?" " Truth and Loyalty 
"vindicated, &c." " The Memento ;" "The Reformed 
'* Catholic ," " The free-bora Subjea ;" " Anfwer to 
"the Appeal, &c." "Seafonable Memorial;" "Cit and 
** Bumkin, in two parts ;" " Further Difcovery ;" " Cafe 
v "put;" " Narrative of. the Plot;" " Holy- Cheat," 

** Toleration Jifcufled;" " Difcovery on Difoovery," 
" L'Eftrange's Appeal, &c." " Collections in Defence of 
*' the King ;" " Relapfed Apoftate ;" " Apology for Pro- 
** teftants ;"* 4 « Richard againft Baxter ;" " Tyranny and 
" Popery;" " Growth of Knavery;" " L'Eftrange no 
•" Papift, &c." •« The Shammer (hammed;" " Account 
" cleared;" •* Reformation reformed ;" " Diffenters Say- 
.'* ings," two parts; "Notes on College, i. e. Stephen 
'•College;" «.* The Proteftant Joiner;" " Zekief an4 
" Ephraim ;" " Papift in Mafouerade ;" «* Anfwer to the 
.«* fecond Charafler of a Popirfi fucceffor ;" «« Confidera- 

* tions on Lord RufieTs fpeech." All thefe were printed 
in 4to. " Hiftory of the Plot ;" " Caveat to the Cava- " 
" liers ;" " Plea for the Caveat and its author." Thefe 
were in folio. His tranflations were, " Jofephus's Works;" 
" Cicero's Offices ;" " Seneca's Morals ;" " Erafrofls's 
:•' Colloquies ;" ** Efop's F:* les ;*' " Quevedo's Virions;" 

" Bon^s Guide to Eternity;" and ** Five Letters from a 

• " Nun to a Cavalier." Befides thefe, he wrote feveral 
riews-papers, and occafional pieces. 

The; chara&er of his wit and language is varioufly cen- 
fured ; but Mr. Gordon, the author of the " Independent 
** Whig," has, upon the whole, given the trueft account 
of thejr*. This writer, having obferved that eafy writing 
. had been ftudied to affe&ation ; a fort of writing, where 
the thoughts $re not clofe, the fenfe ftrong, or the jphrafe 
genteel ; goes on thus : " Such are the produftions of 
. "Sir Roger L'Eftrange, not fit to be read by any who have 
ft taftc pr goo$ breeding. They are full of technical terms, 


L'E STRANGE/ " tij 

* c of phrafes picked up in the ftreet, from apprentices and 
* "porters; and nothing can be more low and naufeous. 
*' His fentences, befides their groflhefs, are lively nothings ; 
** which can never be translated (a fare way to try ]an- 
" g^ a g e ) an ^ w iU hardly bear repetitions. * Between hawk 

" and buzzard;' * clawed him with kindnefs ;' * alert and 


44 firiiky ;' * guzzling down tipple ;' 4 would not keep touch ; » 
44 *aqueerput; > 4 laycurfed hard upon their gizzard;' *crant 
"his gut;* * conceited noddy ;* 'old chuff;' and the like ^ < 
44 are fome of Sir.Roger's choice flowers. Yet this man was 
44 reckoned a mafter ; nay, a reformer of the Engliih Ian- 
** guage; a man who writ no language, nor does it appear 
44 that he underftood any; witnefs his miferable tranflatiohs 
44 of Cicero'9 Offices and- Jofephus : that of the latter is i 
44 verfion foil of miftakes, wretched and low, from an eafy 
44 and polite one' of Mohf. D'Andilly. Sir Roger is 
** among the feveral hands who attempted Tacitus, and 
44 the third book of the hiftory is faid to be done by him. 
44 He knew not a word of it but what he has taken from 
44 Sir Henry Saville ; and him he has wretchedly perverted 
44 and mangled. Sir Roger had a genius for buffoonery and 
44 a rabble, and higher he never went. His ftyie and his 
44 thoughts are too vulgar for a feniible artificer. To put 
his books into the hands of youth or boys, for whom 
<£fop, by him burkfqued, was defigned, is to vitiate their 
44 tafte, and to give them a poor low turn of thinking ; 
not to mention the vile and ilavifh principles of the 
man. He has not only turned ^Efop's plain beafts from 
44 the fimplicity of nature into jcfters and buffoons ; but out 
44 of the mouths of animals, inured to the boundlefs. free* 
44 dom of air and deferts, has drawn do&rines of fervitude, 
44 and a defence of tyranny f g]." > 

[g] Gordon's T«cit»s, difc. I. feA. 13. p. 5%. 

LETHIEULLIER (Smart), efq. gentleman com- Anecdotei 
moner of Trinity College, Oxford, was the fecond fon f^Sf^7 e . r 
of John Lethieullier, efq. of Xldcrsbrook in Effex, where «f I0 6, °*' 
he had a noble collection of M.SS. choice hooks, medals, 
and natural curiofities, which he had colle&ed in his tra- 
vels through France, Italy, and Germany. His father 
dying Jan, i f 1736-7, and his elder brother being dead 
before, he became heir to the paternal eftates, which were 
very confiderable. He married, Feb. 6, 1725-6, Marga- 
ret daughter of William. SJoper, Efq. of Woodhay in 
Bcrklbirc; but died Aug. 27, 1760, *t, 59, without 

P 4 ifluc 



iffue [a]. He was fueeeeded in hit dfc»te* f towhi&hs 
had added the manor of Bircb~Hall In Theydon B^k, bf 
Mary only daughter of his next brother Charles Ltthktt* 
lier, IX. D. fellow .of the All Souls College, F- A. S.*ni 
eounfellor at law, who died the year before niiQ- He was an 
excellent fcholar . A polite gentleman and universally efteeawi 
by all the learned naen of his time. Some papers of his an 
printed in Phil. Tranf. N°497- and Areh«ologia, I. p« 26* 
Sh 73* 75» H. 291. His library w4s fold by a&ion 17601 
1 he following doge was written by the late Mr. Collin* 
fon immediately after the death of Mr. Lethic«Uief ; " H« 
•* was defcended from an ancient feraily frqm France in 
*' time of perfecution, and a gentleman everyway eminent 
*' for his excellent endowments. His defire to improve 
" in the civil and natural hiftory of his country ted him 
♦* to vifit all parts of it ; the itineraries in his library, and 
'* the difcoveries he made relating to its antiquities, with 
" drawings of every thing remarkable, are evidences ef his 
u great. Application to Tefeue fo many aaeieat remains 
«*from mouldering into bblivion. His happy, turn of 
# * mind was ndt confined fokly to antiquities, but in thefe 
" journeys he w*s indefatigable in collecting all. the variety 
" of Etiglifti foffils, with a view to inveftigate their origin : 
*' this great colle&ioft, which fc*cells moft o&eis, is de*- 
" pofited in two large cabinets* dif^ofed under their pro- 
. " per clafle*. The moft rare are elegantly drawn* ana. 
** defcribed in a folio book, with his observations on them* 
*' As the variety of ancient marbles had engaged his atten^ 
" tion, and hfc found fo little faid. on them with fe/peft w 
4 «' their natural hiftory » it. was one of his motives in vifit* 

*< ing Italy, to.fiutnifh, himfelf with fuch materials as he 
" was able to procure from books, and learned uk& re- 
" lating to them. Ho collected ipecimens of the moft cflri- 
" ous, and had drawings, finely painted, of the moft re- 
♦' markable monuments of .the *aeiem marbles* they arc 
" bound up in a folio volurne, with all the ©Wervatidns 
" he could gather relating to tfielr natural hiftory and antj* 
" quity. His cabinet of medals, his colleflion of antique 
" ties of various kinds, and moft elegant books of the ftneft 
V engravings, are inftanees of the fliie taftewitfi which he 
** has enriched his library and cabinet with the fpoilsW 
♦* Italy. This ftiort but imperffea ' memoir ft candidfv 
♦ f QfFered as a tribute due tcf 2l long friendlhip. U is wiflild 

[A] See Vis ppittph i4 the 8yo WMxy pf Eflfex, IV. *J7* 

' •' ' ' * *A 

L E T H I EUL L IE R- ai? 

14 it ri&y excite an. abler pen to do nWre jaftice to tht 
** memory of this great and good man. But it is humbly 
*' hoped that thefe hiftts will be accepted not only as a 
•' teftimony of refpeft, but may alfo inform am inquifitive 
%t genius in thefe branches of fcience where he may . bf 
" affifted with fuch valuable materials for the profecution 
♦'of his future fhxHes." ; 

His coufin Col. Williaiti LethieuUier, who was alfo 
F. A. S. travelled into Egypt, and brought over & very 
perfeft mummy, now in The Britifh Mufeum[fi] with 
molt of the Colonel's colle&ions, the reft having been 
in Mn Smart Lethicullier's hands. 

\*1 A committee o( the truftees thicnllier, Efaj nephew to the co!o- 

Waited en the Cftlooefs execusbrs, »el, p lefented them with ItVeral a*t»* 

Ftifc. *?, 1756, to return thanks for quities, which he hiotfelf had collecV 

the valuable legacy of afi rve mummy » ed daring his rcfidence at Grant 

and a carioui collection ef SngliOi an- Cairo, 
tiouities. On this occafion Pitt Le- 


LET I (Gregqrio), author of feveral works in 
Italian,, was born at Milan in. 1630, and trained among 
the }ef*its. Then he travelled; and, being of a liveljr 
ipirit and. warm in his temper, was curious to hear what 
cou|4 be laid upon *v*yy thing, and, efpecially religioft* . 
Hit happened upon a Calviriijt at Genoa, who made a 
ftrong impreflion upon him : and prepared him to embface 
the Reformed religion, wliich he did* and made a folemn 
profeffion of it at Laufanne- Etai married a phyfician^ 
•Jaughter here, and then went, to Geneva, where he lived 
twenty years, and wat»made a citizen gratis ; which was 
leckoned a moil extraordinary favour, as having neveir 
been conferred on any pne before, from Geneva he went 
to London, and received encouragement from Charles II ; 
^evecthelefs, in fome time he left London, and finally 
fettled at Amfterdam* where he died in 1701, with the 
title of " Hiftoriographer" of that town, John le Cleixr 
married his daughter, who died in 1 734. 

Leti was a writer of hiftory : he wrote the " Hiftory of 
11 Lewis XIV," of " Philip II. of Spam," of" Charles V." 
*f out " Queen Elizabeth," o£ " Oliver Cromwell," of 
* Pope Sixtus V " a " Hiftory of Geneva," arid other 
jballer things in a iimilar way. Neceffity put him upon 
.jfcr&biing; and he is faid to have offered his fervice to molt 
#f the potentates in Europe. His books are all in Italian, 
jway of them traaflatsd into frendi, and fome into 

2i8 t E T I. 

Englifh. He has been generally regarded as die VariBas 
of Italy ; yet, though not altogether to be depended on, as 
luring recorded things upon flight foundations, many 
curious matters of fa£k are to be found in him, which are 
read no where elfe. * 

LEUNCLAVIUS (Joannes), a learned German, 
was defcended from a noble family, and born at Amcl- 
brun in Weftphalia, 1533. He travelled through almoft 
all the countries in Europe. While he was in Turkey, 
he collected very^good materials for an " Hiftory of the 
ic Ottoman Emprre;" which-he published, and alio feveral 
.other pieces concerning it, in Latin. He gave Latin 
tranflations alfo of " Xenophon," " Zofimus," &c. To 
a knowledge of the learned languages he added that of the 
Civil Law. He died at Vienna in 1593, aged 60. 

LEUSDEN (John), very diftinguifhed for Biblical 
learning, and his knowledge of Oriental languages, was 
born at Utrecht in 1624; became Profeflbr of Hebrew, 
and died there in 1699. He was the author of many ufe- 
Jfid works ; as, " Onomafticon Sacrum ;" " Clavis Hebraica 
" et Philologica VeterisTeftamenti;" " Novi Teftamenti 
u Clavis Grseca;'* " Compendium Biblicum Veteris Tcfta- 
"" mentij" " Compendium Gratcum Novi Teftamenti," &c. 

* LEUWENtfOEK (Antony de), a very celebrated 
-phyfic'ian, was born* at Delft in Holland, 1632; and 
became famous all over Europe by his experiments and 
discoveries with Microfcopes. His Letters to the Royal 
Society of London, of which he was a member, and to 
others of the learned in this way, were printed at Leyden, 
1722, in 4to. They gave an account of thefe difcoveries; 
of animals, particularly, fubje&ed to the fenfes, which 
' we cannot contemplate without wonder and amazement. 

He died Aug* 26, 1,723, aged ox. 

* * u.*« 

BritiftTo. LHU YD (Edward), keeper . of the Mufeum atOx- 

iof r ii! 7t ^ on *> was a J lat i ye °f South Wales, the fon of Charles 

r ,486. Lhuyd, fcfq. of Lhanvorde. He was educated at JefiA 

College, Oxford, where he was created M. A. July 2/, 

1 70 1, He was bred under Dr. Plot, whom he fucceedei 

as keeper of the Afhmolean mufeum, had the ufe of al 

"Vaughan's collections, and with inceflant labour and gre£ 

cx^&ncfs employed a confideTable part of jiis life in feared 




LHUYD. 119 

ing into flic WcMh antiquities, had perufed or collected a 
great deal of ancient and valuable matter from their MSS. 
tranfcribed all the old charters of their monafteries that he 
. could meet with, travelled feveral times oyer Wales, Corn- 
wall,' Scotland, Ireland, A rmoric Bretagne, countries in* 
habited by the fame people, compared their antiquities, 
and made observations on the whole ; but died in July, 
1709, before he had digefted them into die form of a 
difcourfe on the antient inhabitants of this ifland. The 
untimely death of this excellent Antiquary prevented the 
compleating of many admirable defigns. For want of «... ; 
proper encouragement, he did very little towards under- 
ftanding the Britifh bards, having feen but one of thofe 
of the fixth century, and not being able to procure accefs 
to two, of the principal libraries in the country. He com- 
municated many obfervations to bifhop Gibfon, whole 
edition of the Britannia he revifed ; and publifhed " Ar- 
" chaeologia Brkannica, giving fome account additional to 
what has been hitherto publifliejd of the languages, hif- 
" tories, and cuftoms of the original inhabitants of Great 
" Britain, from colleftioris and obfervations in travels 
" through Wales, Cornwall, Bas Bretagne, Ireland, and 
"' Scotland. Vol. I. Gloffography|>]. Oxford 1707, "fol. 
He left in MS. a Scottifh or Irifti-Englifh diftiohary, pro- 

Efcd to be publifhed in. 1732 by fubfeription, by Mr. 
avid Malcolme, a minifter of the church of Scotland, 
with additions ; as alfo the elements of the faid language, 
•with neceflary and ufeful informations for propagating 
more effectually the Englifh language, and for promoting 
the knowledge of the antient Scottifh or Irifh, and very 
many branches of* ufeful and curious learnihg. Lhuyd at 
the end of his preface to the ArcharcJogia promifes an 
hiftorical diftionary of Britifh perfons and places men- 
tioned in antient records. It feems to have been ready for 
prefs, though he could not fet the time of publication. 
His colleftions for a fecond volume, which was to give 
an account of the aptiquities, monuments, &c. in the 

[a] His « Gloffography" is di- " tibnary." 6. « A Cornifh Gram- 
Tided into ten titles : i. « The Com- « mar." 7. " MSS. Britannicorura, 
" parariveEciraology.'? 4. "The Com-- <« Catalogus." 8, "A Britifh Eri- 
u parative Vocabulary of the Original " mologicon, by Mr. Parry, wirh an 
'* Languages of Britain and Ireland." " Appendix.',' 9. " A brief Intro- 
3. M Aft Armoric k Grammar, tranf- «' du&ion to the Irifh or Ancient 
•Mated out of French by Mr. Wil- « Scottifh ' Languages." 10. « An 
" Hams, the fublibrarian of the Mu- " Irifh Englifh Dictionary ;" and 
** feom." 4. €l An Armorick Eng- lafllv, " A Catalogue of Infh mano* 
«« lifh Vocabulary." «;. « Some Wrlfh " toipct," 
" Words omjttcd in Pr. Pavici's Pic* 


szo l;h u t a 

principality of Wales, were numerous and well dbofen ; 
trot, on account, of a quarrel between him and Dr. Wynne, 
jhea fellow, afterwards principal of the college, and bifhop 
of St. Afaph, he rofofed to buy them, and they were pur- 
chafed by Sir Thomas Seabrigbt* of Beacbwood in Hcrt- 
fordihire, in whofe library the greateft part ftill remain, 
but fo indigefted* and written with (o many abbreviations, 
that nobody can undertake to pttb&Eh them [*]. They 
***** confift. Qf above. 40 volumes in folio, 10 in quarto, ami 
2uE" »b°™ 100 finswller, and' all relate to Irifh or Welfhanti- 
^479^ quities, and chiefly in thofe languages. Carte made ex* 
tra&s from them about or before 1756; but thefe were 
chiefly hiftorical* Sir John Seabright has given Mr. Pen- 
nant ayof Lhuyd's MSS. Ltbn aad Engltfli. Many of 
his letters to Lifter, and other learned contemporaries, were 
given by Dr. Fothergill to the university of Ofcford, and 
sue now in the Aflunolean mufeum. I Jiuyd undertook 
xiore for illuftrating this part of the kingdom than any 
tme man beiides *ver did, or than any one man can be 
equal to. 

To this account of fo eminent an antiquary we ftail 
fubjoinfome loofe Memoranda of the rev. Mr. Jones, a cu- 
rious colkfior of anecdotes, and eurate to Dr. Young at 
/ Welwyu 5 

*• He was certainly a very extraordinary mao, both for 
natural abilities, fedulous and fuccefsful application. He 
deferred more encouragement. 

.♦• This little flory of him was told me lately by a very 
knowing perfcft, who had k from good hands ; vix* *' That 
" during his travels in Bretagny, in the time of our wars 
•• with France^ he was taken up for a fpy, confirmed for a 
. *' few days to prifon, and all his papers feiacd. The 
*' pipers being examined by the pnefts and jefuits, and 
found to be to them unintelligible, raifed the greater 
** fufpicion. But the principal managers againft him, re- 
«' ceiving afiurances by letters from karaed and refp*£table 
" men in England, that he was only purfuing inquiries 
♦< relating to the antiquities of Britain, and had not the 
" leaft concern with ftate affairs, honourably difraiffed 
" him." I wifh I had more little anecdotes of this kind 
to add, relating to that truly great man. He would have 
done wonders, if he had lived to complete his defigns; 
and pofterity would have wondered, and thanked him. 

W U(* •£ E. Uiy4, in Owcn> BritHh Readies, i j7 S/' 8*o. 



" I ntm en ibcr I was told formerly at Oxford, by a gen* 
tjeman that knew and honoured him, " that his death was 
" in all probability haftened, partly by his immoderate ap- 
'* plication to re£earches into antiquity, and more fo by his 
chufing, for fome time before his deceafe, to lie in a room 
at the Mufeum, which, if not very "damp, was at kail 
not weU~aired, nor could be/' This, it Jeems, wad 
then the current opinion; for he was naturally, as I have 
heard, of a very robuft conftitution. It would probably 
have been better, if he could have contented hjmfelf with » 
chamber or two in his college, though only a fojourner 
there, and paying rent. He well deferred to have lived 
rent-free in any part of Great Britain ; though I do not 
know thai his college denied him thi6 piece of fraall re* 
Ipeft 4b evidently due to his great merit. 

"The ingenious and learned Mr* Thomas Richards {for- 
merly a member of that college, and afterwards the moft 
worthy ic&or of Lhanvyllin in North Wades) told me, in 
the year 1756, " that, in a year or two after his admiffion 
44 inta the univerfity, a confutation was held by the fellows 
" of Jefiisoollegc, about a proper perfon of that college (or 
44 iny -Other native of Wales, though of another college) to 
44 anfwerthe celebrated 4 MufcipuTa, , then lately published 
44 by die ingenious Mr. Hoddfworth of Magdalen college, 
44 at the requeft, aad by the dire&ion, of Dr. SacheverelL 
44 Thofe who knew, and had often obtewed, <the collegiate 
44 exercifes of Mr. Richards, were pleafed to propofe him, 
44 though of fo low ftandwig, as the fitteft perfon that they 
44 could think of for fuch an undertaking. Mr. Lhuyd, 
44 being pnefent, alked, 4 Has he the caput poHkumf* They 
" affuriag him that he ufually wrote in a ftrong Virgilian 
** vserfe ,, (an exprdSon, by the way, not mentioned to me 
by Mr. Richards himfeJf, but by a worthy fellow of the 
college, then prefent) ; " Then," faid Mr. Lhuyd, " I 
44 wJU give him a plan," whidi was that of the " Hoglan- 
44 dia,^ fince pubhihed and weU known. Mr. Richards, 
as he told me (and a friend of bis faid the fame), retired 
with leave, for about ; a week, out of coHege, taking lodg* 
ings at St. Thomas's, and completed the poem. When 
finifhgd, and corre&ed by 'Mr. Lluydj ahdMr. Anthony 
Alfbp of lOhlift Church, Mr. Lluyd drew "up a preface, or 
dedication, in very elegant Latin, but in terms by much 
too feyerej which made Mr. Richards vtty tineafy, fo{ 
he muft obey. Before the poem was fent to the pref^, 
*Mr ; Ltayd died ; Richards was then at liberty, He con- 
5 v ■"••- fuked 



fultcd with his friend Mr. Alfop (who was greatly offended 
with Dr. S's haughty carriage), and both together drew up 
the dedication as it now ftands. 

44 A fi iend of Mr. Richards informed me, "that, upon the 
i; publication of the • Mufcipula,' Dr. a. gave a copy of it 
44 to Mr. Lhuyd, with thefe haughty words : 4 Here, Mr. 

Lhuyd, I give you a poem of banter upon your country, 

and I defy all your countrymen to anfwer it.' This 
provoked the old Cambrian, &c. 

" He had prepared many other valuable materials, but 
did not live to linifh and publish them. His apparatus, in 
rough-draughts, are now in the pofleffion of the family 
of the Seabrights at Beach- wood, in the county of Hert- 
ford. . I wifh they were beftowed upon the firitim Mufcum 
in London, or the Afhmblean Mufeum in Oxford, of 
which latter the faid Mr. Lhuyd was keeper. 

44 In fome blank leaves of my printed copy of the afore- 
faid Archaeologia, I have minuted 4own fome particular 
anecdotes relating to this extraordinary perfon. The laid 
copy I intend to beftow for the ufe of the public academy 
at Caermatthen, in South Wales, to be preferred in the 
library there, amongft my other poor donations to that 
feminary of ufeful learning and religion. 

44 The ftory of SacheverelTs indecent affront to Mr.Lhuyd 
is there fet forth more at length, from an authentic ac- 
count, which 1 had from a perfon who -well knew the 

44 At evenings, after his hard ftudy in the day-time, he 
ufed to refrefh himfelf among men of learning and in- 
quiry, and more particularly Cambro-Britons, in friendly 
converfatioiis upon fubje&s of Britifh antiquity ; commu- 
nicating his extenfive Juiowledge therein, with much good 
humour, freedom, and chearfulnefs, and, at the fame time, 
receiving from them farther and more particular informa- 
tions, fubfervient to his great and laudable defigns. This, 
I have been informed by good hands, was his general 
manner. His travels furnifhed him with many more ma- 
terial^ for his work, and he knew how to make the befit 
ufe^f them all. 

44 In the Afhmplean Mufeum at Oxford, is a Latin ca^- 
talogue of the curiofities there, in his own hand-writing : 
a$d t;he ftatutes of that place were drawn up by him under 
Jae diretfions of the truftets thereof. 

44 There are many valuable MSS. of his ftill remaining 
in private hands. See tie anecdotes before-menticmed, 

jprefixed to my printed copy of the Archaeologist 

" The 

' LHWYD, jt ?3 

* u The remaining printed copies of the fame book, lie 
mouldering in tfie aforefaid Mufeum at Oxford. I wifti 
they were purchafed by fome worthy antiquary, and dif- 

LHWYD or LHUYD (Humphrey), a learned * a«. 
antiquary, was the fon of Robert Lhuyd of Denbigh. He °* oa " 
was educated at Oxford, but in what houfe doth not ap- 
pear, till 1547, when he is found a graduate in Brazen- 
nofe College; He applied hirafelf to phyfic ; and retiring 
afterwards to his native place, lived moftly within the 
walls of Denbigh caftk, and pradifed as phyiician. He 
died about the year 1570. He was a perfon of great elo- 
quence, an excellent rhetorician, a found philosopher; 
and, in Camden's judgement, one of the belt antiquaries 
of his time : and we have the authority of a living or- B»rnngt<4f 
nament to literature to aflert that Lhuyd is generally on the 
very accurate in what relates to the Hiftory of Wales. p. t a t ^9? ,, 

His writings are, 1. " An Almanack and Kalendar; 
" containing the day, hour, and minute, of the change of 
" the moon for ever, &c." 8vo. 2. " Commentarfoli 
" Britannicae Defcriptionis fragmentum. Colon. Agfip. 
" 1572 ;" of which a new edition was published by Mr. 
Mofes Williams, under the title of " Humfredi Llwyd, 
" armigeri, Britannicae Defcriptionis Commentariolum : 
" necnon de Mona Infula, & Britannica Arce five Arma- 
" mentario Romano Defceptatio Epiftolaris'. Accedunt 
" JErx Cambro-Britannicae. Accurantc Mofe Gulielmo, 
"A.M.. R. S. Soc. Lond. 1731," 4to. This was tran- 
flated into Englifh by Tho. Twyne, who entitled it, " The 
" Breviary of Britain, Lond. 1753/' 8vo. 3. "DeMoni 
" Druidum infula, Antiquitati fua; Reftituta ;" in a letter 
to Abraham Ortelius, April 5, 1568. 4, " De Arma- 
" mentario Romano." Thefe two laft are printed at the 
pnd of " Hiftoriae Britannicae defenfio ; written by Sir 
"John Price, Lond. 1573," 4to. 5. " Chronicon Wal- 
" has, a Rege Cadwalladero, ufque ad Ann. Dom. 1294," 
MS. in the Cottonian library. 6. '* The Hiftory of. 
"Cambria, now called Wales, from Caradoc of Lancaf- 
*' Yan, the Regifters of Conway and Stratflur ; with a 
" Continuation, chiefly extrafted from Mat. Paris, *Nic. 
41 Trivet, &C." But he died before it was quite finifhed. 
However, Sir Henry Sidney, ldrd prefident of Wales, 
having procured a copy of it t employed. Dr. David Powel 
to- fit it for the prefs, who publifhed it under this title, 



L H W Y D. 





The Hiftorie of Cambria, now called Wales ; * part 
of the moft famous yland of Briraine ; written in the 
Brytifh language above two bundled yens paft : tran- 
flated into Englilh by H. Lhoyd, gent, correfted, 
augmented, and contimied out of records and heft ap- 
proved authors. By David Powel, D.E. Lond. 1584." 
Our author tranflated alfo, 7. ** The Treafure of 
Health; containing many profitable Medicines, written 
by Peter Hifpanus." To which were added, " The 
Caufes and Signs of every Difeafe, with the Aphorifms 
of Hippocrates. Lond. 1585.*' 


•*• LIBANIUS, a celebrated Sophift of antiquity, was 

MUn, tr b° ra °f an ancient and noble family at Antioch, on the 
jfr D«o- Orontcs, in the year 314. Suidas calls his father " Phaf- 
4hoabc <i ganius ;" but this was the name of one of his uncles j 
the other, who was the elder, was named Panolbius. His 
great-grandfather, who excelled in the art of divination, 
had publifhed fomc pieces in Latin, which occafioned his 
being fuppofed by fome, but falfely, to be an Italian. His 
maternal and paternal grandfathers were eminent in rank 
and in eloquence : the latter, with his brother Brafidas, 
was put to death, by the order of Diocletian, in the year 
303, after the tumult of the tyrant Eugenius. Libanius, 
.of bis father's three fons the fecond, in the fifteenth year 
of his age, wifhing to devote himfelf entirely to literature! 
xomplains that he met with fome " fhadows of fophifts/ 1 
Then, affifted by a proper mafter, he began to read the 
ancient writers at Antioch, and thence, with Jaiion, a 
Cappadocian, went to Athens, and, refiding there for 
.mora than four years, became intimately acquainted with 
. Crifpinus of Heraclea, who, he fays, " enriched him after- 
•' wards with books at Nicomedia, and went, but feldom, 
" to the fchools of Diophantus." At Conftantinople he 
. ingratiated himfelf with Nicocles ot Lacedaemon (a gram- 
marian, who was mafter to the Emperor Julian), and 
the fophift Bermarchius. Returning to Athens, and foli- 
. citing the office of a profeflbr, which the proconful had 
before intended for him when he was twenty-five years of 
age, a certain Cappadocian happened to be preferred to, 
him. But being encouraged by Dionyfius, a Sicilian, who 
had been pr*fc& of Syria, fome fpecimens of his eloquence, 
that were publifhed at Conftantinople, made him fo gene- 
rally known and applauded, that he collected more than 
eighty difciples, the two fophifts, who then filled the chair 


LIfi'AtfltiS* t*$ 


there, raging in vain, and Bemarchius inefre&ually op- 

pofing him in rival orations, and when he could not excell 

him, having recourfe to the frigid calumny of magic. At 

length, about 346, being expelled the city by his competi~ 

tors [a], the prsefeft Limenius concurring, he repaired 

to Nice, and foon after to Nicomedia, the Athens of 

Bithynia, where his excellence in fpcakirig began to be 

more 'and more approved by all, and Julian, if not a 

hearer, was a reader and admirer of his orations. In the 

fame city, he fays, " he was particularly delighted with 

'* the friendfhip of Ariftanetus;" and the five, years, 

which he pafled there, he ftyles " the fpring, or any thing 

•* elfe that can be conceived pleafanter than fpiing, of his 

" whole life." Being ifivited again to Conftantinople, 

and afterwards returning to Nicomedia, being alfo tired of 

Constantinople, where he found Phoenix and Xenobius, . 

rival fophifts, though he was patronifed by Strategic, 

who fucceeded Domitian as praefeft of the Eaft, not daring 

on account of his rivals to occupy the Athenian chair, he 

obtained permiffion from Gallus Caefar to vifit, for four 

months, his native city Antioch, Where, after Gallus was 

killed in 354, he fixed his refidence for, the remainder or* 

his life, and initiated many in the facred rites of eloquence. 

He was alfo much beloved by the Emperor Julian, who 

heard his difcourfes with plcafure, received him with 

kindnefs, and imitated him in his writings. Honoured 

by that prince with the rank of quaefltfr, and with {everal 

Epiftles of which fix only are extant, the laft written by the 

Emperor during his fatal expedition againft the Perfians, 

he the more lamented his death in the flower of his age> 

as from him he had promifed himfelf a certain and lading 

fupport both in the worfhip of idols and in his own ftudies. , 

There was afterwards a report that Libanius, with the 

younger Jamblichus, the mafterof Proclus, enquired by 

divination who would be the fucceflbr of Valens, and in 

confequence with difficulty efcaped his cruelty, Irenseus 

attefting the innocence of Libanius. In like manner he 

happily efcaped another calumny, by the favour of duke 

Lupicinus, when he was accufed by his enemy Fidelia, or 

Fiduftius, of having written an elogium on the tyrant 

Procopius. He was not, however, totally neglefted by 

Valens, whom he not only celebrated in an oration, but 

[a] The jcaloufy of his rivals, who which Libaniasoftetifiiioufly i'SpUjcd ^ 

persecuted him from one city to ano- of his Inferior merit. ~ v '~ 

ther, confirmed the faronrible opinion 

Vol. VIII. Q, obtained 

•» » 


fctfi.A N IU S. 

obtained from him a.cqpiirrnanon of the law againft en- | 
{ixely excluding ijlqgiumate children from the inheritance 
of theih parternal eftates, which he folicited from the 
Emperor, no doubt, for a private reafon, firice, as Euna- 
pius informs us, he kept a miftrefs, and was never married, 
♦jf he remainder of ins life he.paned, ^s before-mentioned^ 
at Antioch, to an advanced age, amidft various wrongs 
and opprefiions from his rivals and -the time?,- which he' 
xopiouily relates in his Life, though, tir^d of the manners 
t o£ that city, he had thoughts, irV his- old age, of changing 
Ep. 554.0?. his abode, as he tells Eufebius. . He continued there how- 
Woif, «ver> and on various occalions was very ferviceablc to the 
fcjtv, either by. appealing feditions, and Calming the dis- 
turbed minds of thp citizens, or by reconciling to them 
'the Emperors Julian- and Theodoftus. That Libanius 
lived even to the reign of Arcadiu?, that, is, beyond the 
JP^h .year of his age, the learned colled from his oration 
xon Lucian and the tcftimony of Cedrenus ; and of the 
^fame. opinion is* Godfrey Glearius* -a man not more 
-,refpe£hiblc ior hi&exquifite knowledge of facred and politt 
j.Jitjecature, th^n for hi? judgement and probity, in his MS. 
** pra^leftions, : in which, When he was profeflbr of both 
l^ftguages in the ..univerfity of his own country, he has 
^venaa account, of the life of this fophift. 
ir',-.T^ e writings of Libanius [bJ are numerous, and he 
rcompofed and delivered various orations, as well demon- 
j J^tijVe as deliberative, and alfo many.fictitious declamations 
fc 3P<^djfputations. Of theie Frederick Morell publifhed as 
jajuny as he cpuk^cpJlecT: in two volumes folio, in Greek 
'/jwdjLavn.. In the 1 ft vol. Paris,' r6o6, are XIII "Ex- 
♦ arcifes (Prag%mnafmata)" XL1V "Declamations;" and 
*lli " Moral jpifieitatipns," srictin the 1 id vol. Paris, 
^1627, are the " yfe of iLibaniusy" and XXX VL other ora- 
, tions, molt of them long and on ferious fubjefts. 
n : Ik-fides what are Contained in thofe volumes, and his 
^Epiftles, ten other works of- this fophift have been fepa- 
: ratdy published, moft of them- orations, and in the <c Ex- 
.,;' ccrptaRhetoiirjm v of Leo Altetius, Greek and Latin, Rom; 
r ;6«H,:,8vo.-are. XXXIX " Narrations*" VII "Defcrip- 
-prions," and Y.I1 more " £xercifes of Libanius, with: 
•r-^' Allatius;" . His unpubliflied works are, 

?: : [*]. T^ e J"T^on*noui writings, of fludent,, vrhofe mind, regardleft of 
I.ibanius ftill ex. ft ; for the molt part his contemporaries, was ir.ceflantlf 

* ftey *rethe«aiirarhHdtecerapolit/ous 'fixed on th<* Trojan war, and'ibe A- 
of an orarcr, who cukhatejlche fcience il cnltn commonwealth. G i pbon. 
oi words j the productions of a rccluft » ... 

: . >. M2ny' 

hi B A N I tl 3.- W 

,. i, ftf any hundred ** -Epiftles" yet concealed in various 

libraries, a mode of writing in which it appears he exj- 

fcelled by the teftimony even of the ancients, particularly 

JEunapius and Pho'tius ; and ©f that the "perufal of thern 

.will eafily convince the intelligent reader; for they abound 

with Attic wit and humortrj and every where recommend 

themfelves by their pointed concifenefs^ ho Iefs than by 

their elegence and learning [cj. 2. Several "Orations,"* 

as in a MS., of the Barberihi library, of excellent charafter, 

inaft correfltly written on vellum, from y which Allatius 

aflerts^Vthat all die publifhed works af Libanius might alfo 

be given muclr more correft and perfect.. 3. Various 

" Declarations, " in the above MS. and alfo in the 

Vatican' library. And that there are many MS. Epiftles* 

.Djcations, and Declamations of Libanius, \ in the Imperial 

J^bj^ry at Viemia,. Neflelius has obferved, affirming alfo 

.tfyat feyeral Greet: fcholia are frequently mferted in the 

margin. Though fo many of the writings of % tliisf6phlfk 

ire pueferved, there is no doubt t^at many both of his 

. " Epiftles'* and " Orations" have heen lofL *. 

[c] The critics may pratfe .their "pedant, Vith* his olfoyr upon jrhe 

labile and elegant brevity; yet Dr. " delk." P^o^iu*^ judgoie^t of If^ba- 

Bentley (Diflertation upon Phalans, nius as a writer is, th#\, ' rt whiU h© 

' p. 487.) might joftly, though quaintly, « affefts to-be rery fcwe And eutffcus, 

obferve, that «« you' feel by the emp- " be/defiroys theVfippiicity ,zt>4 Jble- 

" tinefs and dcadnefs of them, that " gance of r Jangiiage^ a^d becojnes 

u you coiiverfe with fome dreaming' < f obfeure." Cod.!xc . • -* • ♦ 

L I C E T U S, a celebrated phyiiciarr of A lt%, vf as born M*ngen 
arRappollo, in theftate of Gejioa, 1577;* He came, it^ 1 ^ 1, 
feems, "into tlie world, before his motheT had compleated 
the .feventh month of her pre'griancy ; but his father, bding 
• an ingenious phyfician, wrapped, him^tfg in cotton, ind . 
nurtured him fo, that he lived to -be jfyt&tfhf age. ; He 
was trained with great care, and became a tery'diftingurfjied 
man in his profeffion ; and was the author t>f a great num.- - 
ber of works : his book " de monfrjis^'pefy body mult 
havelieard of. He was profeflbr of pliilofbphy aiidphyfic 
.at Padua, where he died in 1655. 

LTGHTFOOT (John), a mo$' learned Eiifiifli 
divine, was the fon of a divine, and born on the 29m o£ 
March 1602, at Stoke upon Trent in Staffordshire. After 
having finifhed his ftudies ar a fchool on Morton-green 
near Congleton in Chefhire, he. was removed in 1617 to 

CL2 Cambridge, 



Cambridge, and put under the tuition of Mr. William 
Chappel, then fellow of ChriftVcollege there, and after- 
wards bifliop of Cork in Ireland [a]. At college he ap- 
plied himfclf to eloquence, and fuccceded fo well m it, as 
to be thought the beft orator of the under-graduates in the 
imiverfity. He alfo made an extraordinary proficiency m 
the Latin and Greek; but negkaed the Hebrew, and 
even loft that knowledge be brought of it from fchool 
His tafte for the Oriental languages was not yet excited; 
and, as for logic, the ftudy of it, as managed at that tune 
among the Academics, was too quarrelfome and fierce for 
his quiet and meek difpofition. 

As foon as he had taken the degree of B. A. he left the 
univerfity, and became afliftant to a fchool at Rcpton m 
Derbyfliire. After he had fuplied this place a vear or wo, 
he entered into orders, and became curate of Norton under 
Hales in Shropfhire. This curacy gave an occafion of 
awakening his genius for the Hebrew tongue. Norton 
lies near Bellaport, then the feat of Sir Rowland Cotton i 
who was his conftant hearer, made him his chaplain, and 
took him into his houfe. This gentleman, being a 
pcrfeft mailer of the Hebrew language, engaged Lightfoot 
in that ftudy ; who, by converting with his patron, loon 
became fenfible that without that knowledge it was if 
poffible to attain an accurate underftanding of the Scnp- 
ture*. He therefore applied himfelf to it with extraordinary 
vigour, and in a little time made a great progrefe in it.' 
and his patron removing, with his family, to rcfidc ifl 
London, at the tequeft of Sir Alland Cotton his aacto 
who was lord-mayor of that city, he followed his precep* 
tor thither- But he did not ftay long there : for, having 
a mind to improve himfelf by travelling abroad, he went 
with that intention down into StafFordfhire, to take 
leave of his father and mother. Paffing through Stone in 
that county, he found the place deftitute of a mintfier: 
and the prefling inftances of the parishioners prevailed 
lipon him to undertake that cure. Hereupon, tyH 
afide his defign of travelling abroad, he began to turn bis 
thoughts upon fettling at home. During his refidencM 
, ' Bellaport, he had fallch into the acquaintance of a gentle* 
woman who was daughter of William Crompton of Stone- 
park, efq ; and now, being in poflemon of that livingi 

t A JH* w «*Tery eminent tutor; Morc,JbhnMiiron,acc.<5irhi«p¥ /l ' 
***, Wdci Lijliifoot, hid Henry Bltfh'p Ufc of Milt«a. 



he married her in 1 628. But, notwithftanding this fettle* 
meat, his unquenchable thirft after rabbinical learning 
would not fufrer him to continue there. Sion-colkge 
library at London, he knew, was well (locked with books 
of that kind. He therefore quitted his charge at Stone, 
and removed with his family to Hornfey, near the city ; 
where he gave the public a notable fpecimen of his advance- 
ment in thofe ftudies, by his " Eruhhim, or Mifcellanie* 
" Chriftian and Judaical," in 1629. He was now only 
27 vears of age, and appears to have been well acquainted 
with the Latin and the Greek fathers, as well as the 
ancient heathen writers. Thefe firft fruits of his ftndies 
were dedicated to Sir Rowland Cotton; who, in 163 1, 
prefented him to the re&ory of Alhley in StafFordfhire. • 
He feemed now to be fixed for life : accordingly, he 
built a ftudy in the garden, to be out of the noife *>f tbp 
houfe; and applied himfelf with indefatigable diligence 
in feacchjng the Scriptures. Thus employed, the days 
pafifed very agreeably ; and he continued quiet and unm(v- 
lefted, -till the great change, which happened in the publi/e 
afiairs, brought him into a fhare of the adminiftratiop 
relating to thjp church ; for he was nominated a member 
of the memorable alterably of divines, for fettling a new 
form of ecclefiaftical polity. This appointment was purely 
the effett of his diftinguHhed merit [b] ; and he accepted 
it purely with a view to ferve his country, as far as lay in 
his power. The non-refidence, which this would necef* 
faiily pccafion, apparently induced him to refign his re&ory ; 
and, having obtained the prefentation for a younger 
brother, he fet out for London in 1642. He had noyr 
fatisfied himfelf in clearing up many of the abftrufc^l 
paflages in the Bible, and therein had provided the chief 
materials, as well as formed the plan, of his " Hanpqny ;*• 
and an opportunity of infpe&ing it at the prefe was* no 
doubt, an additional motive for his going to ;the capital ; 
where he had not been long, before he was <chpfen minifter 
of St. Bartholomew's, behind the Royal Exchange. Tfce 
aflembly of divines meeting in 1643, our author gave his 
attendance diligently there, and tjftjufe a diftinguifhed figure 
in their debates ; where he ufe.4 great freedom, and gave 
£gnal proofs of his courage at wdl as learning, in oppofiftg 
many of thofe tenets which the divines were endeavouring 

[j] He btd t ftrovtaUt epifrioti of rertiment, as ipptirs from bis debate* 
f$e rrdbytcriia forpi of church- go- in thtt *fffcn}>!jr, " * 

<l3 * 

*3# L'lXTH T FO 6 T. 

to e-ftabllfb. - His learning recommended him to the parlia- 
ment, whole vifitoi*s, having ejected Dr William SpurftoW 
frotii the mafterfhip of Catharine- hall in Caiiibriage, put 
Li^htfodt iii his room, this year 1653 ; and he was alfq 
prefented to the living of Much -Mun den in Hertfordfhire, 
void by' the death of Dr. Samuel Ward, Margaret-pro - 
feflbt of divinity in that univerfity, before the expiration 
of this year. Mean while he* had his tarn with other 
favou rates 'in preaching before the houfe of ' commo'ns, 
tnoft of which ftrmons were printed ; and in thbtit ^fe fee 
liim warmly preflmg the fpeedy fettlemerit qf *ttfe church 
in the Ptfsftyterian form, which he cordially belreved to 
he according to the pattern in the Mount. He was* all the 
while employed jn preparing and publifhiftg the feveral 
tranches of his Harmony; all which were fo many ex- 
cellent fpecimehs of the ufefulnefs of human learning to 
true religion : and he met with great difficulties and dis- 
couragements 'of that vtork, chiefly from that antieruditional 
fpirit, which prevailed, and evert' threatened the destruction 
-of the unive^ities: In 165 c,* he entered upon the office 
~iof vice- chancellor of Cambridge, to wnich ne Was* chofen 
"that year,, having taken the degree of doftot of divinity in 
"1652. He performed all the regular exetcifes for his 
degree "with" great applaufe [c],' and executed the vice- 
-chancellorV office with exemplary diligence and fidelity ; 
'.Snd, particularly at * the ctfmmenccmfciit. iupplied the 

* place of profeflbr of divinity, theii undfifpored dr, as an aft 
wKich was kept for a doctor's degree ih that profefEon [d]. 
At the feme thnfc he Tvas engaged, with others, interfer- 
ing the PoWgl6ttBiHe,*then in the prefV) wfrch being 

. encouraged bV'OHvet Croqiw:eD,' the protector, became 

\ :mothe£ fybjecV of -gteirt joy 'fo bur vice-chancellor, who 

dofes not'fpart; to deda'te it,' even' frith trahfport, in his 

* fpeech' at this commencements He allb takes occafionto 

* coibmiferate the' opp raffed 'ftate offtie' cfcrgy of the chnrdi 
" of 'E^Vaiid/ : aiid't6'igitbl'tiie^ zeal,' and confi- 

i. . t c 3 Wir rhe(isy«s».upon t'hisqucf-. 

** r.on : " ?oIl Cahonem' Scripture con- « Y tfier the flare of innoe'epey Was a 
' •« figtt*fwm.««vT«*n^ novV revel ationV's -« of immortality^ 2.*«*WhttVer 
~"**^*&^lfa\m***K*tam\\\- '*na\ tt*isi*c 

'•<*' '1* *** M« ctfn?™. that, thdVffuAiati* 

*- fcStiS e v? ***"** ^.s^,^ «,l*iJQ*tv4Kte .ff^h^prUrtcdin 

lenptuhe, there was . neither pro- . ln.^orkB.. vol. lII- 

rpl-ThequeftiaR* were, i, " Whe- 
- J '• ' r "■ ' M ' * ft,te 

it y i !! 2 .- •* VV trttfcrr erer- 

lHomtf«<l irxthf Qltf Tcfi- 

Eoj-i^ vyhich,be rp^inniaed ia 

•^ifts jn the church. ■ . . « /* 

phecy, miracles, 


6fQ-RTF;QOT. ?3 < 

• At the Reftor,ajtktf*, he offered to *efign,the rnaiterfbif 
/of Catliarinerhall to Dr. Spurftow; and, upon his refufal, 
& grarit of it was rjpade to a fellow of fome college in Cam- 
bridge, from the crown, in which the right of presentation 
Jay* But, as wjhat ^iglitfoot had xione had, been rather 
in compliance wirJ^ the neceffity of the times, than from 
any zeal or fpirjt of oppofition to the king, and gbvern- 
ment, fo upon this occaiion he was not without friends- ' 
Sheldon, abp. of Canterbury, readily and heartily en- 
gaged to ferve him, though perfonally unknown; anal, 
having prevailed with the lord chancellor to flay the pro- 
ceedings in his oiB&ce, for the making out his cornpetitQ,z;'s 
patent, procured him a confirmation from the crowij, 
-both of the place, and of his living. : Soon after this, l^e 
.was appointed one of die affiliates at. the conference upqn 
^jhc liturgy, which was held in the beginning of i6#j ; 
but amended only once or twice [f] -, probably difgufted 
at the heat with which that confere iicq was managed. 
However, he fluck clofe to fys deflgn of perfecting Kis 
" Harmony.;'' and, being of a ftrong and healthy cpriftifci- 
iion, which was-aflifted by an exaft temperance, he prosecuted 
his ftudies with unabated vigour to the laft, and continued 
to publifhy notwithftanding* the many JifficultieV he met 
with from the expence of it [o»}*. 'However, not loi^g 
before he died, fome bookfellers gQt-a promife from him. to 
•x:olle£t and methodize his- works, in order to print them ; 
but the execution was prevented by his death,, which 
happened Dec. 6, 1675. , . ;,... ■ ^y . 

As to his learning in die rabbinical way, he was exceed 
. by none, and had few equals ; info much, that fpreigaers, 
• who came \q England for affiftance in their rabbinical 
ftudies, ufually made their addrefles to him, as one of ,jhe 
moll eotinent fcholars therein. .Among thefe were Frede-r 
tic Miege and Theodore Haak, who were peculiarly recom^- 
o^ertded alfo $9 Dr. Pocodk, witii whom our author U^d 
a correfpondence : as alfo Dr. Marfhal, of Lincoln-college f 
in Oxfqiid> -9afl*u§l Clarke, keeper q£ tjie Bodleian library, 


£f] Rennet's Jtegifter and CbronU V .them at his own expence:" and [fre- 

* cle. There were twelve bilhops and deric Mi''gr, in a letter, [informed him , 

as many Prefbyters and minifters, with "that there was not a boolcfeller in 

nine afiftante on each fide. 4t Germany, who would freely dnder- 

[q] In a letter to Buxtorf, he dc- " take the impreiTion of his Comnfen- > 

dares, t( that he could fcarce find any " tary bpon the firft Epiille to the 

''book fellers in England who woal* u Corinthians." See thefc letters i* 

" venture to print his worlds, and that his works, vol. III. at the end * 
"he was obliged to print Tome of 

QL4 ' D'.. 


ms % L I G H T F O O T. 

Dr. Bernard of St. John's, and the famous Buxtorf, were 
all correfpondents of his. It is true, he is charged with 
maintaining fome peculiar opinions [h], yet thefe are 
fuch as are harmlefs ; and of them he fays himfelf ** Inno- 
" cua, ut fpero, fertiper proponens ;" and it is certain 
that, notwitmtanding his miftakes, if they be fuch, he is 
in general the moft ingenious as well as learned of our 
Englifh commentators, and has furnished all his fucceflbrs 
in that way with a great part of the fubftance of what w# 
find in their remarks. 

The doftor was twice married ; his firft wife, already, 
jnentioned, brought him four fons and two daughters. 
His eldeft fon, John, who was chaplain to Bryan Walton, 
bifhop of hefter, died foon after that prelate. His fecond 
was Anaftafius, who had alfo thefe additions to that 
name, Cottonus Jackfonus, in memory of Sir Rowland 
Cotton and Sir John Jackfon, two dear friends of our 
author ; he was minifter of Thundridge, in Hertfordshire, 
and died there, leaving one fon. His third fori was 
Anaftafius too,x but without any addition ; he was brought 
up to trade in London. His fourth fon was Thomas, 
who died young. His daughters were Joice and Sarah, 
the former of whom was married to Mr. John Duck- 
field, reftor pf Afpeden, in Hertfordfhire, into whofe 
hands fell the do&or*s papers, which he communicated 
to Mr. Strype. The other efpoufed Mr. Coclough, a 
Sraffbrdihire gentleman. This wife of Dr. Lightfoot 
died in 1656, and was interred in the church of Munden 
in Hertfordfhire. The doftor's fecond wife was likewife 
a widow, and relift of Mr. Auftin Brograve, uncle of Sir. 
Thomas Brograve, Bart, of Hertfordfhire, a gentleman 
well verfed in rabbinical learning, and a particular ac- 
quaintance of our author. He had no iffue by her. She 
atfo died before him, and was buried in Munden church » 
where the do&or was himfelf likewife interred near both 
his wives. 

Dr. Lightfoot's works were collt&ed and published firft 
in 1684, in two volumes folio. The fecond edition wa* 
printed at Arnftcrdam, 1686, in two volumes foliQ, pqn- 

[h] The principal of thefe are per- and loofinjj related not to difciplinr, 

haps his belief, that the fmalleft points but to dpclrine. Add to thefe, his 

|n the Hebrew text were of divine in- mean opinion of the Septuagtnt w 

flitmion j that the k*ys were given to iion ; and Strype reckons th*t of the 

Prt-r alore 9 exclusive of the other utter rejc&ion of the Jew*. 
*• tfQ#le»; (h|K the power of binding * 



taining all his Latin writings, with a Latin translation of 
thofe which he wrote in Englifh. At the end of both 
thefc editions there is a lilt of fuch pieces as he left unr 
iinifhed. It is the chief of thcfe, in Latin, which make 
jip the third volume, added to the former two, in a third 
edition of his works, by John Leufden, at Utrecht, in 
1699. fol. They were communicated by Mr. Strype, 
who, in 1700, publifhed another collection of thefc pa* 
pers, under the title of " Some genuine remains of the 
** late pious and learned Dr. John Lightfoot [1]." 

[i] Account of his life, prefixed to his works in 1684, and preface toll* 
** Genuine Remains." 

LILBURNE (John), a remarkable Englifti en- 
thufiaft, was defcended from an ancient family in the 
county of Durham, where, his father was poffefled of a 
handfome eftate [a], efpecially at Thickney-Purcharden, 
the feat of the family, upon which he refided, and had 
this fon, who was born in 161 8. Being a younger child, 
he was defigned for a trade ; and, with no more learning 
than was requifite in that way, was put apprentice, at 
twelve years of age, to a wholefale clothier in London, of 
the Puritanical fe£t, in which he had been bred. I his 
was early ; but the youth hrd a prompt genius, and a 
forward temper above his years, which mewed itfelf con- 
fpicuoufly, not long after, in a complaint to the city 
chamberlain, of his matter's ill ufage : bv which, having^ 
obtained more liberty, he purchafed a multitude of Purita- 
nical books, and fpent feveral days in a week in reading 
them ; and became at length fo confiderable among his 
party, as to be confulted upon the boldeft of their under- 
takings againft the hierarchy, while an apprentice [b]. 

Thus gifted, he could not think of following his 
trade; and, in 1636, being introduced, by the teacher 
of his congregation, to Dr, Baftwick, then a Star-chamber 
prifojier in the Gatehoufe, Baftwick ealily prevailed with 
bin* tq carry a pfece, he had lately written againft the 

[a] It is worth notice, that he was the king's inftance, hy parliament, thyit 

the laft perfon who joined IfHie in the a bill Jhould be brought it) to take ' 

ancient cuftont of atrial by battle. It away that trial, in 1641. JU(h- 

was with one Ralph Aoxtoa, for lands worth « Collections,*' vol. I. 
of the value of 200 1. per ann. The [■] A pamphlet called "Thefamera 

, two champions appeared in the court, famed/* by J. Shephcard; who fay % 

armed cap-a-pie, with fand-bags, tec. he was eftceaed by them ^ a* a perfoa 

when the trial was put off by the iafpire4» 
podges ; tiJJ at laft it was ordered, at 

I bUhopv 

pjf L I L BURN E.- 

fcifhops, to Holland, am! get it printed there. ' LilbUrnc 7 
Jlaving difpatched the affair, returned to England irt a few 
months, freighted with Baftwick's '*• Merry Liturgy,'* as 
if: was called, and a cargo of other pieces *of a fimilar kind. 
Thefe he difpetfed privately in di%uife, till being betrayed 
!>y his affociate, a fervant of one Wharton [c], he wks 
apprehended ; and, after examination before the Council- 
board and the High-cornmiiSoh court, to whofe rules he 
j-efufed to conform, he was found guilty of printing and 
publifhing feveral fcditious books, particuhriy Air. William 
Prynne's " News from Ipiwich" [d]. He was, condemned, 
Feb. 1637, to be whipt at the cart's tail from the Fleet- 
prifon to Old Palace- Yard, Weftminfter ; then fet upon 
the pillory there for two hours; afterwards to be carried 
tack to the Fleet, there to remain till he conformed to die 
rules of the court ; alfo to pay a fine of 500I. to the king; 
and, laftly, to give fecurity for his good behaviour. He 
underwent this fentence with an undifmayed obftinacy, 
uttering many bold fpeeches at the cart's tail againft the 
tyranny of the bifhops, and toiling many pamphlets from 

. the pillory, where, after the Star-chamber then fitting 
had ordered him to be gagged, he ftamped with his feet. 
*The fpirit he mewed upon this occaiion procured him 
the nick-name of * r Frcc-bbrn John" among the friends 
to thq goverment [e], and, among his own party the 
title of Saint [f]. However, he was loaded with double 
irons on his arms and legs, and put into one pf the bafeft 
wards ; yet, being fufpefted as the author of a fire which 
broke out near that ward, he was removed into- a better, 
at the earneft folicitation both of the neighbours and pri- 
foners, urged thereto from the confideration of their own 
fafety : and by this removal he found means to publifh 
another piece of his own writing, intituled " The Chriftian 

~ *' man's trial,'* in 4to, the fyme year. 

He wrote feveral other pamphlets, before the Long-par- 
liament granted him the liberties of the Fleet, Nov. 1640. 
After this he appeared, May 3, 1 641,. at the head of the 
mob at Weftminfter, clamouring for juftice againft the 
carl of Strafford : and bein<r feized and ananmed the next 

» • * o - • • o •*. 

* • • . 

[c]" Wood fays, he was fervant to fn] He w« Lilburtte's felJow-fuf- 

'Prynne, and lord Clarendon, that he ferer in the Star-chamber, for refilling 

was a honk-binder 5 both erroneoufly. t* anfwer interrogatories, as reqoircS 

See a piece of our amhm't, Jmitett <I, by the oaths ex officio, Ruihwortfi. 
* FancfcmciU&l liberties,'' •&#. 1*49, £e] Rufhwoftfe.. . 

4to, . <• . [rj «' FatMrifaifted," qfejtfe. 

< •,, , 


L I L B U R N E. ±$$ 

day, at the tar of the houfe of lords, for an aflault upon* 
colonel Lunsford, the governor of the Tower, was dif- 
inifled. The fame day a vote patted in the houfe of com- 
mons, declaring the fentence of the Star-chamber illegal 
and tyrannical, and that he ought to have reparation for 
his fufferings and lofles thereby ; but nothing was done 
towards it, till a decree pafled in the houfe of lords for 
giving him two thoufand pounds, April 7, 1646, out oF 
the eftates . of lord Cottirigton, Sir Banks Windebank. 
and James Ingram warden of the Fleet. Yet neither had 
this any efFeft before 1648 ; when, upon a petition to the 
lioufe of commons, to enlarge the fum, and change the 
fecurity, as insufficient, he ' obtained an ordinance for 
30001. wortfy of the delinquents lands, to be folcl to him at 
twelve years purchafe; and, in confequence thereof, a 
grant for fome part of the fequeftered eftates of Sir Henry 
Bellihgham and Mr, Bowes, in the counties of Durham 
of Northumberland : from which he received about 1400; 
and Cromwell foon after his return from Ireland, in May 
1 650, procured him a grant of lands for the remainder. 
*This extraordinary delay was occafioned entirely by him- 

At firft he engaged on the fide of the parliament, entered 
a volunteer in their army, was a captain of foot at the battle 
'of Edge-hill, and remarkably diftinguifhed himfelf in the 
engagement at Brentford ; where being taken prifoner^ he 
was exchanged very honourably above his rank, and re- 
warded with a purfe of 300I. by the earl of Eflex [g ] . Yet, 
" when that general began to prefs the Scots covenant upon, 
his followers, Lilbume quarrelled with him, and by 
.Cromwell's intereft, was made a major of foot, Oft. 1643, 
in the new-raifed army under the earl of Manchefter. In 
this ' flation he behaved very well, and narrowly efcaped 
with his life at raiiiqg the fiege of Newark ' by prince 
Rupcut ;' but, at the fame time, he quarrelled with his 
colonel [King], and accufed him of feveral mifdemeariors 

• to the' earl ; whereupon the earl promoted him to be lieu- 
tei}ant-qcloncl to his. .own regiment of dragoons, May 
J644*' This ppft he fuftained with fignal bravery at the 
battle of Marfton-ttioor, in July; yet he had, before that, 
quarreiled with the earl, for hot bringing colonel King to 
a trial 'by a court-martial ; and upon Cromwell's accufing 

■ his lordfhip to the houfe of commons, Nov. 1644, Lil- 

• ' fc] si Legal and fundamental liberties," as before; and lord Clarendon's 
« Hiftory of the Rebellipa." ' » 

• ' "* * burne 

* 3 6 LlLBURNE. 

burne fvvore heartily before the committee in fupport of 
that charge. Nor dM lie reft there ; for, having procured 
an impeachment of high crimes and mifdemeanors to be 
exhibited at the houfe of commons, in Auguft this y«ur, 
againft colonel King, which was neglcfted, he firft offered 
a petition to the houfe, in 16469 to bring the xolonel to 
his trial upon that charge ; and, receiving no fatisfkftion, 
caft fomc reflediions in print upon the earl of Manchefter, 
in 1646. For this being called before the houfe of lords, 
where that nobleman was Speaker, he not only refufed to 
anfvver the interrogatories, but protefted againft their 
jurifdi&ion over him in the prefcnt cafe ; fo that he was 
Jirft committed to Newgate, and then fent to the Tower. 
Hereupon he appealed to the houfe of commons ; and, 
upon their deferring to take his cafe into consideration, he 
charged that houfe, in print, not only with having done 
nothing of late years for the general good, but alio with 
having made many ordinances notoriously unjuft and 
eppreffive. The impreilion of this piece [h] being feized, 
he printed another in 1647 > declaring, that the prefent 
parliament ought to be pulled down, and 2 new one called, 
to bring them to a ftrift account, as the only means of 
laving the laws and liberties of England from utter de- 
ftruition [ij. This not availing, he applied to the 
agitators in the army; and, at length, having obtained 
liberty every day to go, without his keeper, to attend the 
committee apointed about his buiinefs, and to return every 
Right to the Tower, he made ufe of that liberty to engage 
in fome Seditious pra&ices. For this he was re-committed 
to the Tower, and ordered to be tried ; but, upon the 
parliament's apprehenfions from the Cavaliers, on prince 
Charles's appearing with a fleet in the Downs, he procured 
a petition, figned by feven or eight thaufend perfbns, to bp 
prefented to the houfe. 

Upon this, an order was made fo difcharge him from 
imprifotunent [k], and to make him fatisfi*&ioi> for his 

r»} It i* imltulod, « The ©pprrf- be applied, with Angular a*Vreft, » 

** - -1 V^ W , * fion >"' *«• the jury, that in them alone wai in- 

Fr J ImitnW, " The refohed oun'i berent the judicial power of the law, 

•• toMmiM," In. ai welt at toft In the fame print, 

fit J See the trial, wfc.cfc was over hit bead, appear the two face* 

prime* by him under the name of «f » med*l, upon one of which were 

i 1. "• I t 1 *""—»*■ »" »«• •• ana ine integrity or hisjury, who iff 
/opfofciAMflaUtfriftfdoaxinc which " z 6, i6ji/' ' 

L I L B tJ R> N E. »3 j 

fidfcritlgs, Aug. 1648. This was not eompafied, however, 
Without a ferics of confli&s and quarrels with Cromwell : 
who, returning from Ireland in May 1650, and finding 
LUburne in a peaceable <lifpofition, with regard to the 
parliament, procured him the remainder of his grant for 
reparations above mentioned. This was gratefully ac- 
knowledged by his antagonift, who however did not con- 
tinue long in his peaceable difpofition ; for, having un- 
dertaken a difpute in law, which his uncle George Lii- 
burne happened to be engaged in, he petitioned the par- 
liament, on that occafion, with his ufiial boldnefs in 1051 : 
and this aflembly gave a judgement for fining him in the 
Jinn of 7000I. to the ftate, and banifhing him the king- 
dom. Upon tikis* before the aft which patted Jan. 30, 
1651-2 for the execution of that judgement, he croflfed the 
water to Amfterdam ; where having printed an apology 
for himfelf, he fent a copy of it, with a letter to Crom- 
well, charging him as the principal promoter of the a& 
of his banilhment [l]. He had alfo feveral conferences 
with fome of the Royalifts, to whom he engaged to reftore 
Charles II, by his intereft with the people, requiring no 
more than io,oooL to compafs it [m] : but little heed was 
paid to the propofal, fo manifeftly the effeft of chagrin 
againft Cromwell, as well as an ill-grounded euthuliaftic 
confidence. So that he remained in exile, without hopes 
of re-vifiting England, till the diflblution of the long par- 
liament: upon which, not being able to obtain a pais, he 
returned without one, June 1657 ; for which, being 
feized and tried at the 01d*Baily, he was a fecond-time 
acquitted by his jury. Cromwell, incenfed by this con- 
tempt of his power, which was now become defpotic, had 
him carried to Pojtfmouth, in order for transportation : 
but the tyrant's wrath was averted, probably, by Lil- 
burne's brother Robert, one of his major generals ; upon 
whofe bail, for his behaviour, he was fuffered to return. 
After this, he fettled at Eltham, in Kent ; where he pafled 
the remainder of his days in perfect tranquillity, equally 
undifturbed and undifturbing his triumphal competitor. 
In this temper he joined the Quakers, and preached among 
that feft iii arid about Eltham till his death, which hap- 
pened in that town Aug. 29, 1657 in his 39th year. He 

[t] This letter it publirtied in Win- " fiotis taken again ft John Lilburnc, 

JUnfley's" Lives of Englith Worthies" u Ihewing his apoftafy to Chad/ 

JTmJ A new pamphlet, intituled, «' St#art, fee. Lond. 1653/' 410* 
11 Several iaJecnutioju and azamint> 


239 L I,L B- ]3- * J* Ef 

was interred in th$ Jhen new-burial-place in Maorfields, 
, near the place now called Old-Bedlam ; four thoufand 
perfons attending his burial. 

Wood gives him the following juft charafter : That he 
was, from his youth, much addicted to contention, no- 
velties, oppefitiori of .government; and to violent and 
bitter expfeffiohs ; that, growing up, he became for £ 
time the idol of the factious people, being naturally a great 
trouble-world in all the variety of governments ; that he 
grew to be a hodge-podge of reHgion, the chief ring-leader 
of the Levellers, a great propofal- maker, and a modeller 
of ftatc, and publisher of feveral feditious pamphlets, aijd of 
fo quarelfome a difpofition, that it was appofitely faid of 
46 him, that, if there was none living buthjai, John would 
" be againft Lilbunie, and Lilburrie againft John." Lord 
Clarendon having obferved, that he was a perfon of much 
more confiderable importance than major Wjldtrian, and 
that Cromwell found it abfolutdly neceflary to his own 
dignity effectually to crulh him, concludes his account of 
Trim in tbefe terms : " This iriftance of a perfon, not 
" otherwife confiderable, is thought pertinent to be in -- 
€i ferted, p.s an evidence of the' temper of the nation ; and 
" how far the fpirits at that time (in 1653) w?re ^ ro . rn 
*' paying a fubmiflion to that power, when pobody had 
il the courage to lift up their hands againft it.'* 

LILLO (George), an excellent dramatic writer, was 
by profeffion a jeweller, and was born in the neighbour- 
hood of Moorgate in London Feb. 4, 1693, in' which 
neighbourhood he purfued his occupation for many years 
with the faireft and moft unblemifhed chara&er. He was 
bred up in the principles of the Proteftant Diflenters : but 
•let his religious tenets have been what they would, he 
would have been an honour td any feft he liad adhered 
to. He was ftrongly attached to the Mufes,. yet feemed to 
have laid it down as a maxim,, that the devotion paid to 
them ought always to tend to the promotion of virtue, 
morality, and religion. In purfuance of this aim, Lillo 
was happy in the choice of his fu'bje&s, arid fhewed great 
power of affefting the heart, by workiftg up the paflions 
to fuch a height* as to render the diftrcfles of common and 
domeftic life as equally intferefting to the audiences as that 
of kings and heroes, and;, the ruin brought on ,private 
families by an indulgence of avarice, luir, &c. .as the 
havock made in ftates and empires by ambition^ cruelty, or 


h i l- l a 

tyranny. His, " -Geoige Barnwell," " Fatal Curiofity," an£ 
*' Arden of Feverfham, ,, are all planned on common and 
well-known flories ; yet they have perhaps more frequently 
drawri tears from an audience, than the more pompous 
tragedies of " Alexander the Great," " All for Love," &c: 
particularly the firft of them, which being founded on a 
well-known old ballad, many of the critics of that time, who* 
went to the firft reprefentation of it, formed fo contempti- 
ble an idda ©f the piece in their expcftations, that they 
purchafed the ballad, fome thoufands of which were ufed 
m one Jay on this account, in order to draw comparifons 
between that and the play. . But the merit of the play foon 
got the better of this contempt, and preferited them with* 
fcerxes written fo truly to the heart, that they were com- 
pelled to fubferibe to their power, and drop their ballads 
to take up their handkerchiefs. 

Lillo, as has been already obferved, was happy in the 

choice of his fubje&s ; his conduft in the management of 

them is no lefs meritorious, and his pathos very great. 

If there is any fault to be obje£led to his writings, it is 

that fometimes he affefts an elevation of ftyle fomewhat 

above the fimplicity of his fubjeft, and the fuppofed rank 

of his characters ; but the cuftam of tragedy will ftand in* 

forae degree of dxctffe for this ; and a ftill better argument 

perhaps may be admitted in vindication, not only of our 

prefent author,. but of other writers in the like predicamepty 

which is, that even nature itfelf will juftify this conduft, 

flnce we find even the moft humble character's in real life, 

when under peculiar circum-ftarices of diftrefs, or a&uated 

by the influence of any violent paffions, will at times be 

elevated to an aptnefs of expreffion and power of language, 

not only greatly fuperior to themfelves, but even to the 

general language of converfation of perlbns* of much higher 

rank in life, and of minds more perfeilly cultivated. 

In the Prologue to " Elmeriek," which was not aftcd 
till after the author's death, it is faid, that when .he 
wrote that play h£ " was deprefied by want," and afH;c- 
ted by difeafe ; but in the former particular there appears 
to be evidently a miftake, as lie died poueffed of an eftjttc 
6f 6ol. a year, bfcfides other effefts to a considerable value* 
The late editor of his works (Mr. T. Darvies), in t>vo 
volumes, 121110.. 1775, relates the following ftory of Jiisr 
author, which however we cannot think adapted to con- 
vey any favourable impreffion of the perfon of whom it is 
told : " Towards 'die' latter prat of his life, Mr. Lillo, 

f " whether 



240 L I L L O, 

4i whether from judgement or humour, determined to ptft 
•* the fincerity of his friends, who profefled a very high 
• c regard for him, to. a trial. In order to carry on this 
€i defign, he put in practice an odd kind of ftratagem : he 
€< aiked one of his intimate acquaintance to lend him a 
*' considerable fum of money, and for this he declared he 
would give no bond nor any other fecurity, except a 
note of hand; the perfon to whom he applied, not 
•• liking die tenns, civilly refufed him. 

** Soon after, Lillo met his nephew, Mr. Underwood, 
** with whom he had been at variance for fome time. He 
put the fame queftion to him, deiiring him to lend him 
money upon the fame terms. His nephew, either from 
€< afagacious apprehenfion of his uncle's real intention, or 
•* from generofity of fpirit, immediately offered to comply 
" with his requeft. Lillo was fo well pleafed with this 
" ready compliance of Mr Underwood, that he. imme- 
** diately declared that he was fully fatis£ed with the love 
" and regard that his nephew bore him ; he was con- 
" vinced that his friendfhip was entirely difinterefted; and 
affurcd him that he fhould reap the benefit fuch ge- 
nerous behavour deferved. In confequence of this pro- 
" mife, he bequeathed him the bulk of his fortune." 

The fame writer fays, that Lillo in his perfon was lufty, 
but not tall, of a pleafing afpeft, though unhappily de- 
prived of the fight of one eye. 

Our author died Sept. 3, 1739, in the 47th year of his 
age ; and a few months after his death, Henry Fielding 
printed the following chara&efof him in " The Cham- 
*' pion :" " He had a perfect knowledge of human nature, 
*' though his contempt of all bafe means of application, 
" which are the neceflary fteps to great acquaintance, re- 
*' ftrained his converfation within narrow bounds. He 
** had the fpirit of an old Roman, joined to the innocence 
" of a primitive Chriftian ; he was content with his little 
** ftate of life, in which his excellent temper of mindgave 
*•" him an happinefs beyond the power of riches ; and it was 
" neceflary for his friends to have a (harp infight into his 
** want of their fervices, as well as good inclination or 
** abilities to ferve him. In fhort, he was one of the beft 
" of men, and tliofe who knew'him beft will moft regret 

Whincop (or the compiler of the lift of plays affixed to 
his Scanderbeg) has indeed fpoken but flightingly of his 
genius, on account of fome little fort of rivalfhip and pique 


tT"~' *» 

L I L L a £4t 

Ibbfifting between that gentleman and our author with 
refpeft to a tragedy of the latter's, intituled, " TheChriftian 
•*■ Hero*" written on the fame ftory with the " Scanderbeg" 
of the former* Notwithflanding which, under the fano 
tidn not only of the fuccefs of his pieces, but alfo of the 
commendations beftowed on them by Pope and other 
indifputable judges* it may be affirmed that Lillo is far 
from ftanding in the loweft rank of merit (however he may 
be ranged with refpeft to fame) among other dramatic 

.\ LILLY John, (fee tYLLY). , , 

LILLY (William 1 )/ a famous Englifh aftrologer, 
was born .at Leicefterihire in 1602, and was put to fchool 
at Alhby de la Zouch, in the fame county ; but, his 
father not being hi circumftances to give him a liberal 
education, after having learnt writing and arithmetic, he 
was, obliged to quit the fchool. Upon this, being of a 
forward temper, *%nd endued with fhrewd wit, he refolved 
to pufh his fortune in London ; where he arrived in 162O, 
And, for a prefent fupport, articled himfelf as a fervant to 
a mahtua-maker, in the parifh of $t. Clement Danes. 
But he got a ftep higher iii 1614, ^ n ^ fervice of a mafter 
of the Takers company in the Strand; who, not being 
able to write, employed him (among other domeftic offices) 
as his book-keeper, He had not beefi above three years 
in this place, when, his matter dying, he addrefled and 
married his miftrefs, with a fortune of ioool. As this 
match made him his own matter, he gave way to his 

fenius, in frequenting fermons and le&ures among the 
'uritans. In 1632, he turned his mind to the bafe part 
of aftrology; and applied to one Evans, a debauched 
Wehh parfon, who, after prafiifing that craft many years 
in Leicefterihire, had come to London, and at this time- 
refided in Gunpowder alley £ a]. Here Lilly became his 
pupil, and made fuch a quick progrefs, that he underftood 
now " to fet a figure" perfeftly in feven or eight weeks ; 
and, continuing his application with the utftioft afliduity, 
gave the public a fpecimen of his attainments and feilt 
therein, in an intimation that the king had chofen an un- 
lucky horofcope for the Coronation in Scotland, 1633. 

In 1634, hiving got into his hands a manufcript, witli 
fome alterations of the " Ars Notoria" of GoraeliusAgrippa, 

(▲] Atlien. Oxon. r. i. col. 579, where frnne account of Evans may be (Va. 

• Vot. VIII. R h« 



t t L L Y. 

he dunk the doftrine of the magical circle, and the invoc*^ 
tion of fpirits, with unquenchable grecdinefs; and becan*c 
fo much intoxicated thereby, as not only to make ufe of 
at form of prayer prescribed therein to the angel SaljnoiMe**, 
ar>d to fency himfelf a favourite of great power and in* 
tereft with that uncreated phantom, but even to claim / 
knowledge of and a familiar acquaintance with the parti- 
cular guardian angels of England, by name Salmaei and 
Maichidael[» After which, he treated the myftery « 
recovering ftolefi goods* &c. with great contempt, chri^ 
ing a fupematural fight, and the gift of prophetical pre-* 
di&ions ; all which lie kttew Well how to tttrn to goad ad- 
rantage. He was prelefttfy grown into fo ixmch fi*rae« 
'that, when oric Ram%* the king's clock-^aker, being hv 
formed that there was a great treafure buried in the cloyfter' 
of Weftminfter-abbey, obtained the dean's (Dr. Williams, 
bifhop of Lincoln) leave to fearch for it vih\\ the divirnqg 
or Mofaical rods, he applied to Lilly fof his affiftancf. 
Lilly* with one Scot who pretended to the ufe of the faid 
tods, attended by rUmfay and above thirty perfons mar?* 
Went into the cloyfter by night, and, obferving the rods to 
tumhle over one another on the Weft fide of the cloyfter* 
concluded the treafure lay hid under that fpot : bv£, A<s 
. ground being dvrg to the depth of fix feet$ aad nothing, 
fourld but a cofflta, which they found riot heavy enough 
for their purpcj&'tbey proceeded, yrijhout opening it, 
. into the abbey Bete tl^ey Were alarmed by a • ftoW* 
" Which fuddenly role, and increafed to fueh a height, that 
they were afraid the Weft end of the church Would have 
been blown down upon them ; the rods would not move 
at all \ thfc candles .and torches, all but one, were exthv 
. guifhed, or burtted Very dirnly. Scot was ar$a$ed, Ipokcd 
pale, and knew riot; what to think or do ; uiitil Lilly pvc 
] directions to difmrfs the demons, which whe;n dope, %U 
' Was quiet again, an^I each r^an retujriied honie. However* 
c that method of divination was never after, made ufe of ij 
" our conjurer ; though he was cunning enoug h to afciyfc 
* the mifcarriage, not to any defeft in the art itfelf* but to 
' the number of people who were prefent at the operation 
and derided it ; fhrewdly laying it down for $ rule, utyt 
fecrecy and intelligent operators, with a ftrqng confidepf* 
. And knowledge, of what they are doing, are nccel&ry re- 
„uuiiitss to fucceed in this work. 

£s] See hit " Media Angticu*, o* Alfuwackj fee l$4J. ,f 

Mean while, he had buried nis firu \VifeV purchased a 
ifroiety of thirteen hoirfes in the Strand, and married a fe- 
cond wife, who, joining to an extravagant iemper a tcr* 
magarit fpirit, which fie could itot lay; made him pnhappy, 
and greatly reduced his circurrrftanceS. With this coiit- 
fbrta&le yoterrfate he removed, in 1636, Aq Herfhamiu 
Surrey, where he confirmed till Sept. 1641 ; when, fee- 
ing a profpc?£f of rilhirig iii troubled witters, 1 he returned to 
London., -Here having ptfrchafed feveral curious books itt 
fiiis art, which were round on pulling down the Jioule of 
jfaothef Aftrologef, he perufed them with iriqeflSht dili-*" 
gencfc, finding put feerets contained in thefri, which tfrere 
written in sfi imperfect Greek ctiaractcr ; and, in 1644, Atiieft. 
published his u Merlinus Anglicus junior*" and feveral other 0von - *• ^ 
aftrotqgkal books. ^ Hie Rad dojfitrs#ecf aft intimacy, the coL i8o# 
preceding year, with Bulftrode Whitelocke, efq; who 
was afterwards his ffieiid arid patron; ahd, in 1645, de- 
moted himfelf entirely to the infereftti of 4 the parliament, 
after the battle (Jf Nafeby* though he had before rather in-" 
iliried to the king's party. In 1647, upon the breaking 
out of the quarrel betweetf the parliament arid army, whofe 
Lead quarters' w^re af Wiridfor, hp wa5 lent' for, together 
* with Booker, ariother ^flrologef, by Fairfax, the general* 
^ who addreifled them fn theft fefpas : u That God* hact 
r< felefled the army wHth.ljtfiny figh'al victories, and yet 
u thefr work was riot fmiihed; that he hoped God would 
'* go along with them, until this work was done ; that 
** they fought not themfelves, but the welfare and tran- 
** quinity of the good people, and the whole nation, and, 
*"* for that end, were refolved to facrifice both their ownt 
** lives aftd fortunes ; that he hoped the art which they 
u [Lilly arid Booker] ftudied, was lawful and agreeable ttf 
*' God s word ; that he underftood it riot, but' did riot 
u doubt they both feared* God, and therefore haVI a gooa 
u opinion of them.*' To this fpeech LiMy returned the 
. following arifvfer : ** My lord, 1 aW glad to fee, you here 
r< at ch'i$ time j certainly both the r/eople of. God, and alt 
" others of this nation, a i re very ferrfible 6f God's mercy ^ 
f loVe, and favour unto them, in direfting the parliament 
ri *to nominate and ele& you general of their aimies; a 
u perfori fo religious, fo valiant. The feveral unexpe&ed 
u vifltorfes, obtained under yorfr excellency's conduit, will 
** eternize the fame unto ail pofterity. We are confident 
u of God's going alprig with you and your army, until 
* € the great work, for which he ordained you both, is 

- R a ""fully 


JL 1 L L Y, 

" fully periled ; which wc hope will be the conquering 
" and fubverfion of yours and the parliament's enemies ; 
" and then a quiet (ettlement, and firm peace over all the 
«« nation, unto God's glory, and full fatisfeaion of tender 
" confeiences. Sir, as for ourfelves, we truft in God, 
«' and, as Chriftians, believe in him : we do not ftudy 
" any art, but what is lawful and confonant to the fcnp- 
" tures, fathers, and antiquity I which we humbly defire 

,# you to believe." 

This audience, in November; feems to have been occa* 
fioned by a fufpicion of his attachment to the Royal party, 
which he had given fome room for, by receiving an appli- 
cation from the king, then in cuftody of the army at 
Hampton-court ;. for, in Auguft preceding, when his 
majefty had framed thoughts of efcaping from the ioldiery, 
and bbfcuriftg himfelf fomewhere near the city, he lent, 
is Lilly tell* us, Mrs. Whorwood, to know in what 
qudrter of the nation he might be fafely concealed, till he 
thought proper to difcover himfelf. Lilly, having erected 
a figure* faid, the king might be fafely concealed m iomc 
part of ElTex about twenty miles from London, where the 
lady happened to have a houfe fit for his majefty's recep- 
tion ; and went away next morning to acquaint him with 
it. But the King was gone away in the night weftward, 
and furrendered himfelf at length to Hammond, in the 
Ifle of Wight i and thus the projea was rendered abortive. 
However, he was again applied to by the fame lady, in 
1648, for the fame purpofe, while the king was at Carif- 
brook caftle ; whence having laid a defign to efcape by 
fawing the iron bars of his chamber window, lady whor- 
Wood came to our author, and acquainted him with it* 
t,illy procured a proper faw, made by one Farmor an 
ingenious lockftaith, in Bow-lane, Chcapfide, and fur* 
nifhed her with aqua-fortis befides ; by which means his 
majefty did the bufinefs, and was out with his body, till 
he came to his breaft, when his heart failing, he proceeded 
jio farther. About September, the fame lady came a 
third time to Lilly, on the fame errand. The parliament 
commiffioners were now appointed to treat with his majefty ; 
upon which, our aftrologer, after pei^ifing his figure, told 
the lady the commilfioners would be there fuch a day; 
clefled the day and hour when to receive theni j and 
directed, as foon as* the propositions were read, to fign 
them, and make hafte with all fpeed to come up with th# 
compoiffioners to London ; the army being then far diftant 
6 from 

L I L L Tft 245 

from London, and the city enraged ftoutly againft them. 
The king promifed he would do fo, but was diverted from 
It by the lord Say. 

All this while our aftrologer continued true to his own 
intereft, by ferving that of the parliament party ; from 
whom he received this year, 1648, fifty pounds in cafh, 
and an order from the council of {late for a penfion of 
100I. per ann. which was granted to him for furnifhing 
them with a perfeft knowledge of the chiefeft concernments 
of France. This he obtained by means of a fecular prieft, 
with whom he had formerly been acquainted, and who 
now was confeflbr to one of the French fecretarie&: he re- 
ceived the penfion two years, when he threw ij yp, yrith 
the employment, in dilguft on fome account or other. 
Mean while, he read public leftures upon aftrology, in 
% 648 and 1649, for the improvement of voung ftudents in 
that art ; and, in fliort, plied his buiinefs to well, that we 
.find him, in 1651 and 1652, laying out near 2000I. for 
lands and a houfe at Herfham. During the fiege of Col- 
chefter, he and Booker were fent for thither, to eqcouragf 
the feldiers ; which they did by affuring them that tho 
town would be foon taken, which proved true in the 
tvent. Having, in 1650, wrote publicly that the parliament 
Ihould not continue, but a new government arife, agreeably 
thereto, in the Almanack for 1653, he aflerted that the 
parliament flood upon a ticklifh foundation, and that the 
^commonalty and foldkry would join together againft them* 
Hereupon he was now called before the committee of plun- 
dered minifters ; but, receiving notice thereof before the 
arrival of the mefienger, he applied to fpeaker Lenthal, al- 
ways his friend, who pointed out the offer\five pailages. 
He immediately altered them; attended the cotrimittee 
next morning with fix copies printed, which fjix alone he 
acknowledged to be his ; and, by that means, came off 
with only being detained thirteen days in cuftody of the 
ferjeant at arms. This year he was engaged in a difpute 
with Mr Thomas Gataker ; and, before the expiration of 
the year, he loft his fecond wife, for which he flied no 
tears, but fung Gloria Patri, &c. and married a third iix 
O&ober following. In 1655, he was indifted at Hicks'st- 
hall, for giving judgement upon ftolen goods, but acquitted : 
and, in 1659, ^ c received, from the king of Sweden, 9 
prefent of a gold chain and medal, worth above 50I. on 
account of his having mentioned that monarch with 
£reat refpe& in his Almanacks of 1657 and 1658. 

R 3 After 


ILL L Y f 

After^ the Reftoratjon, in 1660, bejjig taken jatocoftodj^ 
rfhd examined by a committee of the houfe of common^- 
touching the execution of Charles f, he <|eclared, that 
Robert Spavin, {hen fecretary to Cromwell* dining with 
him foori after the faft, affurcd hini it was done by cornet 
Joyce. This year, he fried out his pardon under the 
broad r feal of England, and continued in tondon till 
166$ ; \vhen 1 upon the raging of the plague there, h£ re- 
tired to his efla,te ait Herfham. Here Jje arpiied hirofelf to 
the ftudy of phyfic, havings by means or uii friend Elia_§ 
Afhroole, procured frojn aitjioifhop Sheldon a licence tq 
5praftife U[c>; andOft. i67Qhe exercifed both the facufties, 
pfphyfic andaftrology, till his death, whicfy was occaiioned 
by a dead palfy, in 16&1, 4t Herfliam. He was interred 
in the chancel of the church at "VYalton; and a black, marbte 
ftone > with a Latin inscription, vas placed over his grava 
foon after: by Mr. Afhjnole ; at whole reqi»eft alfo Dr. 
Smalridge, biihop of BriftoJ. then a Scholar at Weftminftef.- 
fchpol, "wrote a Lajjn ancl En^lifh elegy on his death, 
which are annexed to the hiftory pf our author's life au4 
times, from which this memoir js ^xt;afted. 

Lilly, a little before his death, adopted one Henry Coley, 
s tavlor, for his fpn f by the name of Merlin Jucior, and 
made him a prefent of the imprcfiton of his Ahuanackt 
which had been printed fix and thirty 'years fucceffivcljf : 
but he bequeathed his eftate at Herfham to one of the fons 
of his friend and patrpn fiulftrode Whitelock; and his 
magical utenfils came all into, the hands of Dr. Caufin, his 
iucceflbr, pf famous memory. See a lift of his boo^s be- 
low [b], 

. [c] Founder ©f tfc« Afljmoleao. Mu r " ftoYerurnent of the world, by previa* 

feum at Oxford. « angels.** See Porruilnjs Agri^pfr's 

[d] Th«*fe are, J. " Merlim>* An- book wirh the fame title. Thefe three 

" glicus Junior/' a. «.* Supernatural \4ifc were printed together in one i» 

*t fight.'* 3. " The \^hite kin^ pro- lurne.;, the. xma. firlt being tfaoilawd 

f« phecy." 4. " England's prophetU jnto Encliih by £lias Afbmolc, £fqj, 
f* cal Merlin ;*• all printed in 1 644. '" ' : '" * " 

the ftajrry meifc.nger, i*4<;. " 



14. rt A trcatife. of the three funs fetn. 

f* iji $h« winter^ of t>4.7>" irrintf d in. 

i$4&« i.e. *' M OR arch y or no mon*> 

u chy, 1651/' to,. '• Observations pn 

*f th* lUc and death of Charles, h* 

_. , €k kin&Qfi^^aitd,'* ib. *gd a^rin ift 

" StraffAid," ib. 9. " Chriftian A'iifo- ifc X r, t|ich tbp til,lc qf Mr.. W^f* 

«« logy, 1647:' upon thjs piece he Lilly's "•«. Ttue hiftory qF fcrngjAmes 

6. '* Cpllg&ion pf prophecies, 1646. 

7. "A comment on the white king's 
" prophecy/* lb. %. «? THe naji»itr«»9 
f of archjiifliop La*|d and Toombs cagrl 

read his Inures ip 1648, mentioned- 
in the text. 10/". The third book, pff 
*« oanvitlfs," ih. ii. " Th'r world's' 
f* catflftr«ipbe y " ib. 12. •« T?hp pro- 
*« phecips of Ambrofc Merlin, with a 
f'key,"ib. 15. <« VtUhcmiu^ or U^ 

V and king Charts I,'* &c. •>- 
" Ann*^. Tenebrofus; of, the .|tfac£ 
"year." This, drev^ bLm t|\to tbfi 
dilputc wirh Gata^ker,. -which our au- 
thor can led on in his Almanack in 

j 65 


L I L Y. 

L I' L' t i47 

'•LILY (WiLXiAit), ad Englifh Grarftmariaiii was Arhen. 
born at Oldham, in Hamfhire, about 1466. After a ° xoft ' 
gttod foundamfcri of fchool learning, be was feat to Magda- 
tfcn-colkge^ Oi&rd, , and admitted 3 demy there at the 
ag6 of eighteen. Having taken the degree of A. B. he 
tfuftted the uniterfity, and went, for religion's fake, to , 
•ferufalem \ arid, in his return, ftayed feme time at the 
iHe of Rhodes, to fttidy the Greek, language ; fevcraj 
learned men, having refuged themfelves under the proteftion 
of the kaigins there', after the taking of Conftantinople, 
He Ttfetrt thence to Rome; and improved hhnfelf further 
in tfra Latin and Greek tongues under John Sulpitrus 
and Pomptennas Sabinus. On his arrival in England, in 
1509, he fettled in London, and taught grammar* poetry, 
and fhet&ric, with good fiiccefs, and fo mutch reputation, 
that? h£ wats appointed firft mafter of St. Paul's fchool by 
thfe fattadier, Dr. Colet, in 15 10. This laborious and 
"ttfefoi employ he filled for the fpace of twelve years ; and 
in that time educated a great many youths, fome of whom 
prorvedthe greateft men in the nation [a]. He died of ths 
plague ft London in 152a, aged 54, He is highly praifed 
by Erafmus, who reviled the fyntax in his grammar, fo? 
his uncommon knowledge in the languages, and admirable 
fltilt in tbe inftrwftion ofyouth [b]. He was very intimate , 

With Sir Thomas More, rd whofe Latin tranfktibns of 
fcveral Greek epigrams are prefixed fome d6ne by Lily, 
printed with this title, " Progymnafmata Thomae Mori 
** & Gulielmi Lilii, fodaliunu BafH, 151 8," by Fro- 
benius ; and again in 1673, *bW» O ur ^author's other 
pieces are mentioned below [c], Lily, by his wife Agnes, 
pad two ions ; and a daughter, who was married to hi? 
uiher Jolm Ritwife, who fucceeded his father-in-law in 
the mafterflVip of St, Paul's fcliool, and died in 1532. Of 
q**f author's two fons, the eldeft, 

[a! For inflance ; Thon&as Lupfet, we have, u In iEnygnnaticpm Boflt 

Sir Anthony Denny, Sic William Pa- " AniiboiTicon primum, fecuiidum, 

get*, Sfr Edward North, John Leland, " tertium, ad G. Horm annum, 1511," 

&c.. Knight's 4i Life of Dean Colet," 4to: '**Poemata varia." printed with 

#» £7*1 3^9- theft Antiboflicons ; " Apologia ad R. 

pi j See an ^eptftle of Erafmus, «' Whittvngtonurp ;" '« Apolrnjia ad 

printed iia t 5*15,. fr>t. '< J. £te Icon una ; de laudtbuaDeipara 

, [i*] Ek&k* hii Grammar, a famous " V»rgini»;" ** Super 1'hihppi Arc lu» * 

ediMon of which was published in " duos ap^ull'u ;" " De CaroliV. C»» 

I732.* whh irnf>rovrrro»w*s by Ward, « fari» adventu." 
iMfotftf pwtflflbf ai.Gtfc&am*coikg«, 


a 4 S LILT., 

LILY (George), was born in London, and bred at 
Magdaien-college, in Oxford ; but, leaving the univerftty 
without a degree, went to Rome, where he was received 
into die patronage of cardinal Pole, and became eminent 
for feveral parts of learning. Upon his return, he was 
made canon of St. Paul's, and afterwards prebendary of 
Canterbury. He publiihed the firft exa£t*map of Bri- 
tain [a], and died in 1559. He wrote fome books [b]. 

f*l NicoKbo't Htft. library, vol. I. *• tiones, & regum Angliae genealo* 

bJ Thefe are, u Anglorom regum " g»«l" " Elogta tirorum iUaftriaaif 

** chronices epitome, Venice, 1548. " 1559/' Svoj *< CataJogus five feriea 

•' Francf. 1565. Bafil, 1577." To u pontificum Reman ora in," Befidet 

which are aided, « Laocaflriae k Ebo- the " Life of bimop Fiiher," MS. in 

•• racenfis [Famil#] dp regoo comen- the library of the Royal Society. ' 

LILY (Peter), fecond fon of William, was a 
dignitary in the church of Canterbury, and father of 
another Peter Lily, D. D. . This other was fome time 
fellow of Jefus*collcge in Cambridge ; afterwards a brother 
of the Savoy ^-hofpital in the Strand, London;, prebendary 
of St.. Paul's, and archdeacon of Taunton, He died in 
1614, laying a widow; who publifhed fpnic of his Sermons 

[a] The titles arc, 1 . M Condones ** LWit to core fouls, on Mark xfu 6" 

-< dux, ana inferipta Pax Lilian*, ia and the other, u How to leek, and fiat 

" Ad. xv. 39 ; altera Columba fccl*> 4« Chrift, on Lake »hr. 5.*' both in 

*' fiat in Johan. xix. 9, to." a. Two 1619, 4to : with commendatory verfeft 

fcxmoQS j the firft, «' A preparative jrefued by the widow Ydaugbier Mary, 

LIMBQRCH (Philip), a celebrated profeffor of 
divinity in Holland, was of a good family originally of 
Maeftricht, and born at Amfterdam June 19, 1633, 
He paffed the firft years of bis life in his father's houfe, 
going thence daily to fchool ; and then, attending the 
public le&ures, became the difciple of Gafpar Barlseus in 
ethics, of Gerard- John Voffius in hiftory, and of Arnold 
genguerd in pjiilofophy. This foundation being laid, he 
applied himfelf to divinity under Stephen Curceil#us ; whg 
fucceeded .Simon Epifcopius iq that chair, among the Re- 
monftrants. From Amfterdam he went to Utrecht, and 
frequented the le£hjres of Gifbert Voetius, and other 
divines of the Reformed religion. May 1654, he returned 
fo Amft^dam, and made his firft probation- fermon there, 
Q&. following [a]. He paffed through ^n examination 
jn divinity, Aug. 1655 5 and was admitted to preach pub? 

r*3 Hi* text was Ephcfiaos, ▼. 14, 

i... i. 


L IM : RGR CB. *j& 

Jkljr, at a probationer, which he did firft at ftaerlem [b]. 
The fame year, he was invited to be ftated minifler of 
Aicmar; but declined it, not thinking himfelf yet qua- 
lified to fulfil the duties of a minifler of the gofpel. !How* 
ever, he publifhed a courfe of fermons, in Low Dutch, 
of Epifcopius, his great uncle by the mother's fide, which 
came out in 1657 [c] ; and the fame ;year was invited to 
be minifter of the Remonftrants at Gouda, where there 
was a numerous congregation of that feft of Christians; 
He accepted this vocation, and exercifed the.vminifterial 
function in that town till he was called to Amftcrdam. 

Having inherited the papers of Epifcopius, he found 
among them a great number of letters relating to the affairs 
of the Remonftrants ; and, communicating thefc to Hart* 
feckar, minifter of the Remonftrants at Rotterdam, they 
joined in difpofing them into a proper order, and then 
publifhed them under the title of " Epiftolae praeftantium 
" It eruditorum virorum, &c." at Amfterdam in 1660, 
8vo. Thefe being well received by the public, Limborch 
collc&ed more letters, and publifhed a fecond edition, 
corrected and enlarged, in 1684, fol. After which, the 
(copy coming into another bookfeller's hands, a third 
edition came out, 1704, at Amfterdam, in folio; with aa 
Appendix, by Limborch, of twenty letters more : fo that 
we haye here almoft a complete feries of every thing which 
relates to the hiftory of Arminianifia, ,from the time' of 
Arminius to the fynod of Dprt, and afterwards. In 166 1, 
our author publifhed a Jittle piece, in Low Dutch, by way 
of dialogue upon the fubjeft of toleration '■ in religion, 
Curcellaeua having printed, in 1650, the firft volume of 
Epifcopius's works, which had been communicated to 
him by Francis Limborch, our author's father, the fecond 
volume was procured by Philip the fon in 1661 ; to which 
he add^d a preface in defence pf Epifcopius and the Remon*- 
ftrants [d]. In 1667, he became minifter at Amfterdam, 
where Pontanus, the pr$feffor of divinity, whofe talent 
lay chiefly in preaching, appointed Limborch his deputy ; 
firft for a year, and then refigned the chair abfolutely to 
him in 1668. From this time he turned ail his ftudies 
that way, and acquired 4 great reputation, not only among 

[•] His firft fcrmon here wit upon " Matthew,, in 35 lemons, by Simon " Epifcopius. Ratt. .1657." 

[c] The title is, in Engliih, "An [d] The title is, " Simonis Epif- 

f* tsffication of thefjfch phfptcrof Sfe " copii apcrum theologicorum tomut 

*i ft^M, (fend*, tf $J f " fd. . 

*5» limborch; 

thofe of his awn party at horfte, but afno«g fc**igh*t3 **i 
to which Che fflildnefs and fttodefty of his tempt* contri- 
buted not a little. Soon aftfct, hfe publifhed, in FltfnUb, 
faretal fermons of Epifcopiul* which had ntitdr bcert 
printed before [e]. ; 

- In i66o f he had married; and* his Wiffe b^iftg ifeatfc 
in 1674 he engaged in a fecdnd marriage afld hfld two 
children* The enfuing year, ho procured ax* 4dffio* ©f 
all the works of his matter Cufcelhtus* fcrera! of #hfcJ* 
had never appeared before [p). But, ad neither Epifeopitt 
nor Cureellarus had leifure to finiflv a complete iy&em rf 
the Remonftrant theology, Limbotch refolded to itfkfer- 
take the tafle, and to compofe one which fhovrid bd entirety 
complete; fome diforders, however, aftdfevetala*ocafierfci 
hindered him from fmiftmig it btffor* 1684, »ad it did 
not come out till 1686. This was the flrft fyfem of divk 
mty, according to the do&fine of the Reritonflraftts, dot 
had appeared in print. The work, was Undertaken at &eft 
sequeft, received with all eagernefs by then*, *nd prfW 
through fcmr edition Tg}. The fatf** yfe&r, i6S6v hrf bad 
a difpute, at flrft Wva «wf, and afterward* fci wflringi 
iwrth JCaac Or6bk>, a Jew of Seville in Spat**; Who* fea4 
made his ©fcape out of the faqwfifion* 'artd retired ** 
Amsterdam, where he praftifed ptofy** with great reput* 
tion. This difpate produced a pie** by ofc# $ttthoW f int^ 
taled " Coilatio arnka de v*ritate reHgioril* Ch*Jf $ #n#cu*H 
" erudtto Jwteo," « A friendly eoafettftte* *$fo a turned 
♦' Jew!, concerning the truth* 6ft1bClb»Aittlv^etigklft. , ' In 
it he ihewed, that a Jew cart fcriiigf no atfgptai*M, of aAt 
force, in favour of Jtrtaiffli, which 4to89 nofhoktwita 
ftrong- reaibft in ftWiir of Chi iftvamty. The fttfbbora 
ijew would. rw>t yi*W, but carried it fo far a& to fay, that 
avery body* ought «fr continue in the religion, bfe Whaur* 
would, whidi' he profcifed> fififee it was eafler to bSfprove 

[i]TH>EigH(h title it, "Thirty* «<mto Btflgi* *r pr«*eftoi*tMW. 

f* two fermons upon different texts, by " TraAarus pofihunwu." ' Jiiis pofl* 
••5imon Epiicopius, Amfl-. i66o, ,, ^to. 'humoh* piece w§* printed feflarateljT 

[f ] Thcmle :s *• Stepnani Cwrcel* rW fame year at Amtfer&mi, 8*0, 
** l*i opera ^heoiogica; omnia* Asa& < itv Lorn Botch or JFlemifr 1 with » 
.*' 167 5,*' fol. loug preface, in defence .of the Rempft- 

Id] Tfve title of the Mi ft edition 'is, * ffrtmts, agiinrt a piece in^lUw Dutch, 

" TKcoJogia Chriftiaoa ad praxim pie- under the title of the "Combats of 

^' talis ac fnatnbrio.ienv OhrtHUnafe ' **S.wii by Jwne^Frohfcr.'* ^ Their is • 

« unice direaa, Awfl. i«S4/* 4*0*. long extradt of the "Th*ologfa Chrif 

tlie fouttb,, i 7 i ;57 M. to whieh is tiin^i." by Lc Cierc, in Bitil. Uaiv. 

.added. . " Relatto hiftnrica de orient ctfndu |I. p. 21, & feq. 
f* & pro^reiiiCawntww^ajfBto i» f** 


LIMB OR OH. *5* 

j&& trutfr of ^nothsr religion, than it was to prove hk own* 
Upon that principle Jie averred, that if it had been his lot 
to be born of parents who worshiped the fun, he faw &q 
reafon why he fhould renounce their religion, and embrace 
anpther. 'Jo this piece, againft Qrobio, is added a fmaH 
jrafit againft Uriel Acofta,- a Portuguefe Deift; in which 
Limbprch, anfwers very folidly his arguments, to fhew 
that there is no true religion betides the religion of na- 
ture [h], Shortly after, Limborch publiihed a little 
piece of Epifcppius, in FIcmiflv containing an account of 
a difpute between th«\t Remonftrant and one William Bom, 
p Romifl} prieft ; fhewing, that the Roman church U not 
exempt from errors, and is not the ibvereign judge of cpn- 
troverfies. In 1692, the book of fentenees pafled in the 
jncjuiiition at Thouloufe in France, coming into the hands 
of a friend, and containing all the fentences/pafled in that 
Court from, 1307 to 1323, Limborch refplved to publilh 
k i as' it furnilhed him with an occafion of adding the . 
jiiftpry of th# dreadful tribunal, drawn from the writings 
of th? inq^ifitors themfelves [1]. In 1693, our author 
had the care pf 3 new edition, in one large folio volume, of 
the fermons of Epifcopius, in Low Dutch ; to which he 
added, not on}y 3 preface, but alfo a very long hiftory of 
the life pf Epifcopius, in the fame language ; this has been 
£nce t^nflated into Latin by 3 yQung inan, and printed in 
£vp at Ainfterdam, 1701, 

In 1694, there was a young gentlewoman at Amfter- 
£am, of %% years of age, who took a fwey to learn Hebrew 
pf a Jew ; and was, by that opportunity, fpduced into a 
jefolutipn of quitting the Christian religion for Judaiiift. 
As foon as her mothei underftood. this* flie employed 
feveral divines, but all in vain; becaufe they undertook to 
^rpve Ghrifti§knity fron^ the Old Teftament, omitting the 
authority of the New : to which Ihe, returning the conn- 
pion ^nfwe^s fee had learned from the Jews, received no> 
reply that gave her fatisfaftion. While the young lady ? 

[hJ AcoflVsbrtolc is intituled " Ex* 4to; to which the tranfl»t«r has pre? 

f* eraplar virqp hqmanae." Tni^Por- fixed a large introduction, concerning 

pogtfcfe aftQnyart}? killed himftlf at the rife a«id progreft of pei&cution, 

^trnfterdam. and the r«al and pretended caufes of 

ft] The title 15, M Hiftoria Inqui- it. In this 7 edition, Mr, Chandler hajl 

* fitionis, cui ftjbjungitur liber fen- the aififtance of forne papers of our 
*• tenriaram inquifitionis Tholofamx author, communicated to him by An*- 
f* *b anno 13P7 ad 1313*. Arnfte}. thany Goliips, JUip and the correc- 

* r^i," fol. It was tranflated into tions and additions of Francis a Lim- 
Englifh by Mr. Sam. Chandler, and borch, a. relation of qui author* See 
primed it London, J 731, in z yols, Chandler's preface. 



«who was othcrwifc miftrefs of fenfe enough, was in the 
midft of this perplexity, Dr. Veen, a phyfician, happened 
to be fent for to the houfe ; and, hearing her mother 
ipeak, with great concern, of the doubts which difturbed 
• her daughter* he mentioned jLamborch's difpute withOrobio. 
*This put htr upon defiring that Limborch might difpute 
with her daughter; in hopes that he would be able to remove 
her fcruples, and bring her back to the Chriftian religion. 
Litnborch accordingly camp to her, and, proceeding with 
her as he had done with Orobio, quickly recovered her to a 
better judgement. In 1698, he was accufed of a calumny, 
in a book concerning the \6y*t in St. John's gofpel, by 
Vander Waeyen, profeflbr of divinity at Franecker ; be- 
eaufe he had faid, that Francis Bur man, a divine and pro- 
feflbr atLeyden,had,inhis "TheoiogiaChriftiana,"rnerely 
tranferibed Spinoza without any judgement. But Lira- 
borch, producing paflages from both, made it appear, that 
he had (aid nothing which was not ftriftly true : he alfo 
confuted other notions of Vander Waeyen in the fame 
piece. This being printed at Amfterdam in 1699, the 
two Burmans, one profeflbr of hift.ory and eloquence at 
Utrecht, and the other minifter at Amfterdam, publifhed 
a book in vindication of thpir father's memory, intituled, 
4 * Burmannorum Pictas," " The piety of the Burmans :** 
<o which Limborch made no reply. In 1 700, he publifhed, 
in Low Dutch, at Amfterdam, a book of piety, containing 
Snftru&ions for dying perfons, or means for preparing 
them for death ; with a difcourfe upon the death of John 
Owens, minifter of the Remonftrants at Gouda. At the 
fame time he began a Commentary upon the Afts of the 
Apoftles, and upon theEpiftles to the Romans and Hebrews, 
which came out in 1 7 1 1 . 

Having been perfe&Iy temperate through life, he pre- 
fcrvedthe vigour of his mind, and health of his body, to 9 
confiderable age. But in the amtumn of 171 1, he wa^ 
feized with the St. Anthony's fire ; which, growing more 
violent in the winter, carried him off, April the 30th, 
1712. His funeral oration was fpoken by John Le Clerc, 
who gives him the following chara&er: " Mr. Limborch 
had many friends among the learned both at home anii 
abroad, especially in England, where he was much efteemed, 
particularly by abp. Tillotfon [kJ and Mr. Locke* With 
the latter of thefe he firft became acquainted in Holland, 

f k] ttis Hi&ory of the In^u'ifidoft i« dedicated tp that trchbi(hop. 


L I M ^ OR CR *£f 

and afterwards held a correspondence by letters j in which, 
among other things, he has explained trie nature of human 
' liberty, a fubjeft not exaitly underftood by Mr. Locke [l].^ 
He was of an open fincere carriage, which was fo well. 
tempered with humanity and difcretion, as to give no. 
•fFence to any body. In his inftru&ions, when profeflbr* 
he obferved the greateft perfpicuity, and the jufleft order, 
to which his memory, which retained whatever he had. 
written, almoft to a word, contributed very much . and, 
though a long courfe of teaching had given him an autho- 
rity with thole about him r and his advanced age had added 
a reverence to him, yet he was never difpleafed witfy, 
Others for differing from him, but would both cenfure, 
and be cenfured, without chagrin- Though he never, 
rirqpofed the underftanding of languages as the, end of hi$ 
itudies, yet he had made large advances in them, and read 
aver many of the ancient and modern writers ; and would. 
have excelled in this part of literature, if he had npt pre- 
ferred that which was more important. He had all. the 
qualifications fuitable to the character of a divine. Abovt 
ill things, he had a love for truth, and purfued the Tearch 
of it by reading the Scriptures with the beft commentators* 
As a preacher, his fermons were methodical and folid, 
rather than eloquent. If he had applied himfelf to the 
mathematics, he would undoubtedly have excelled therein i 
but he had no particular fonduefs for that ftudy, though 
he was an abfolute matter of arithmetic. He was fo 
perfeftly acquainted with the hiftory of his own country, 
especially for 150 years, that he even retained the raoft 
minute circumftances, and the very time of each tranl* 
a&ion ; fo that fcarce any one could deceive him in that 
particular. In his manner, he was grave without pride or 
fullennefs, affable without affeftation, pleafant and face- 
tious, up6n occafion, without finking into a vulgar low- 
nefs, or degenerating into malice or ill-nature. By thefe 
qualifications he was agreeable to all who converfed with 
him : and his behaviour towards his neighbours was fuch, 
that all who knew him, or had any dealings with him, ever 
commended it." 

LIN AC R E (Dr Thowa s), a very learned Englilh 
phyfician, was defcended from the Linacres, of Linacrc* hall 

I L ] $ ec Familiar letters between Locke tad feteral ©f hi$ firicfidt. 


*54 -LfNA-CRfc 

in Detbyflilrd [a] ; but born at Canterbury about 1466. 
He was educated in the king's fchool ther£, under the 
learned William Selling, alias Tilly; and, being fent 
thence to' Oxford* was chofen fellow of All-Souls-college 
in 1484 [b]. He made a great progrefs in learning at the 
dniverfity [c];.hiit, for further improvement, travelled 
to Italy, with his matter Selling, who was fent ambaffadof 
to Rome by Henry VII. At Florence lie was much re-, 
fpefted by Lorenzo de Medicis* one of the politeft men of 
Ks age* and a gfeat patroft of letters : that duke favoured 
him with the advantage of having the fame preceptors wMt 
His own fons. By this lucky Opportunity, \\t acquired * 
ferfeft knowledge of the Greek tongue, under Demetrius 
Chalcondylas, a native of Greece* who had fled to Italy* 
ifeith other learned men* upon the taking of Gonftanfino^ 
£le by the Turks ; and he improved himfelf under his La* 
firt matter Ang. Politian, fo far as to arrive at a greater dor* 
feftnefs of ftyle than even Politian tiimfelf. Having thui 
laid in an uncommon ftock of claflical learning* he went tot 
Rome, and ftudied natural philofophy and phyfic [d]* 
tinder Herftiolaus B&rbarus. Upon his return home, he 
applied himfelf to the pra&ice of tfeis laft art at Oxford ; 
Where he was created M. D ; and, being made public pro- 
feffor of his faculty, read medicinal fe&ures [e]. But he 
had not been long at Oxford, before he was commanded to> 
Court by king Henry, who appointed hifri preceptor and 
phyficiari to his foil, Prince Authur ; and he was after-* 
*rards made phyfician to that king, as alfo to his fucceflbr, 
Henry VIII. and to the princefs Mary [f"J* 

After receiving all thefe honours, as atteftations and* re- 
wards of fupreme merit in his profeffion, he refolved ta 
change it for that of divinity. To this ftudy he applied 
himfelf in the latter part of his life [gJ; and, entering 

[a] Fuller's Worthies, in Derby- [e] Sir John CheVe, in eenfurirfg 

Aire, p. 35. this charge, obfefves, that he did not 

4 [ B J Selhngbad alfo beeen a fellow begin this tfudy, till he was broker! 

©f A 11- Souls-college. LeUnd, Com. by age and infirmities; and tbaf.' 

de fcript. Brit. "Wood's Antiq. of upon reading the 51I1, 6th, abo* 7'tK 

Oxford, where fome further account chanters of St. Mat hew, be tnrtw && 

of him may be feen. hook away with violence, and fwore 

,[cj Goodall'* Hijr. of ijie Col- that this w at either not the Goipc]* or 

fcge of Phyficiani. £ref. we were not Chnftians. Cheke, * t>e 

- f> J tfreind'a Hlftory of Phyfic, «« pronu«c. Grsea ling**?-" How- 

ih>] 2. ever, he flill had his thoughts upoa 

[e] Goodall and Wood, as be- frbyfic, as appears from hi»,proj«aing 

* orp - 1 he college of phyficiaas, arrd being 

[rJFreind, &c. prefident' there titf bis death. 


fe t N A C R& #|f 

Jitto the prieflhood, obtained the reiiory trfMerihain, O&. 
1 509 : bqt, refjgnmg it within a month, Ee was inftallcd 
into aprehend of WeHs, and afterwards, in ?ci8> into an- 
Other of York : he w^ alio prapcerito* in the fatter church* 
but refigned it in half a year. He bad other preferments 
in the cnurcbi force of wniqh fee received from archbifhop 
Warhaxo, as he gratefully acknowledges iita letter to tha£ 
prelate [w]. pr Knight [i] informs us* that he was * 
prebendary of St« Stephen's* Weftminfter; arid biihop Tan- 
fcer writes [k]> that be was alfo re&or of Wigan, in Lah- 
cafturc. He died of the ftqne, in great pdia and torment* 
Gdfc, 20, 1534* ^nd was buried in St. Paul's cathedral ; 
where a handforne iponnrn^nt was ere&ed, in 15571 to his 
memory^ wit?h a Latin ini^ription upon it, by the famous 
X)r. Cains.. Cay gives him the cnara&er of the rnoft 
_ learned roan of nis age, \*qUi in Greek and Latin, as well 
3s in the art of phyfic. He further adds, that he had a& 
, utter detection of every thing trickifli or difhottourablc; 
that he was a rnpft, faithful friend; and by all ranks of men 
Valued a.nd belavecl, Fuller copies Cay, \tt tellii>g us, that? 
. Linacre was efteerned the ornament of his age," for hi* 
Accurate fltiil iri the Greek and Latin tongues, and ijt 
"other fciences as well as his own profelBon ; and that he 
left it doubtful whether he was a better Latinitt or Grecian* 
9 better grammarian or phyficjanj a better fqholar oj mart 
for his moral (juadificationSi ' " , 

Freind enlarges further; arid iays, that if we confider 

kim with regard to his jjkill in, the two learned languages, he 

was much the moil accorrtplifhed fcholar of that age ; that 

it is paying no conlpliment to him to lay, that he was one 

of the firft, in conjun&ion with Colet, Lily, Grocyn, and 

. Latittwr, ait of whom got their knowledge of the Greek 

; tongue abroad, who revived the learning of the ancienu 

. in this iflaud [l). He made it his bufinefs in ftudying 

phyfic, and he was the firft Englishman that ever did fo, 

to be well acquainted with the original works of Ariftotle 

and Gakn. No one of the focuhy had marc at heart the 

honour and advancement of it than Linacre ; ©f which hi* 

donation of two phyfic le&ures, founded one in each uni- 

£«] Maittaire, at the end *of [l] tinacwi was the firft perfon, 
£rien4's '* Hiilofy.*' Who taught Greek at Oxford* Life 

{if In the Life of Colet, p. air. . of Eraf nuts', ». ipj. 

>J InBiMtoth. Brit/HibcrtU 


«5« t I N A C : R t. 

vetfity I m], arc a confpicuous proof. But Tic had ftfll far- 
ther views for the advantage or his pfofeffion. Obfcrving 
how the praftice of phyfic was then managed, and that it 
Was moftly cngroflea by illiterate monks and empirics, wh6 
in an inf&ious manner impofed upon the public, he faw 
there was no way of redreffing this grievance, but by giv- 
ing encouragement to men of reputation and learning, and 
placing the power of licenfing in proper hands. Upon 
thefe motives, he prqjeftcd the foundation of the college 
of phyficians ; and he was the firftprefident after its erec- 
tion, and held that office for the feven years he lived after- 
wards. The aflemblies were kept in his own houfe, which 
he left at his .death to that community, and which they ftill 
continue in pofleffion of. *' The wifdom of fuAi a plan," 
continues Freind, " fpeaks for itfelf. Linacre's fctieme, 
" without doubt, was not only to create a good underftand- 
*' in? and unanimity among his own profeffion, which of 
" itfelf was an excellent, thought, but to make them mom 
" ufeful to the public ; and he imagined, that by fepar&ting 
" them from the vulgar empirics, and fetting them upon 
€< fuch a reputable foot of diftin&ion, there would always 
*' arifeafpirit of emulation among men liberally educated, 
" which would animate them in purfuing their inquiries 
•* into the nature of difeafes, and the methods of cures, for 
" «* the benefit of mankind ; and perhaps," concludes the 
doftor, " no founder ever; had the good fortune to have his 
" defigns fucceed more to his wifh." We (hall give a lift 
of his tranflations and other works below [n]. 

[m] That at Oxford was left to of the flyte, guefs it to have beta 

Me r ton college, and the Cambridge written in a claffical age. %. «« A. 

ie&ure was given to St. John's-collegc " Latin tranflation of ProcluVs fphere, 

there. Wood and Knight inform " Venet. 1499/' ao< * X 5°P» withoaC 

vsi that Linacre iiudied for fome time the dedication to prince' ' Arthur 1 

in this laft univerfity. which has been fince printed fepa- 

[n] His tranllations are, 1. The rately by Maittaire, in ** Annal. Ty- 

fol lowing pieces of Galen : " De tem- w pogr." 3. " Tbe rudiments of 

** pera mentis & de inequali temperie, u grammar, for the ufe of the princefs 

*« &c." « De tuenda fanitate, Sec." * Mary." This was tr an Hated by 

«* De methodo medendi, fee.*' u De Buchanan into Latin, and printed 

" naturalibus, &c." M De pulfuum with the title of " Rudimenta Gram* 

" ul"u; M " De fymptomatibus, &c M " maticis Thomae Linacri, Paris, 

Dr. Freind declares, that any one, pe- u apod Rob. Stephan. 1536." 4. «« De 

rufing the preface of the book " De " emendata ftru&ura Latini fermonis, 

•* meihodo medendi,** without know- " libri fe«." This, fays Dr. Knight, 

ing it to be a translation, would, per- has been had in the higheft reputatmm 

baps, from the ciaitaeft and propriety asadafiic* 


1 t N t) S A f . 257 

LINDSAY (John), a learned divine* of St. Mary's AnceoW 
Hall at Oxford, officiated fpr many years as minifter of by^hois, 
the Nonjuring fociety in Trinity Chapel, Alderfgate-ftreet ; p. 529,. 530* 
#nd is faid to have been their laft minifter; He was al fo 
for fome time a correftor of the prefs to Mr. Boivyer the 
printer; . finiflxed a long and ufeful life, June 21 - 9 1768* 
at the age of 82 ;, and was buried in Iflington church-yard, 
where the epitaphs below [a] remain to his and his wife's 
memory. Mr. Lindfay publifhed " The Short Hiftory 
" of the Regal Succeflion, &c. with Remarks on Whif- 
*' ton ? s Scripture Politics, &c. 1720," 8vo ; which oc- 
curs in the Bodleian Catalogue. His valuable Tranflatiort 
©f " Mafon's Vindication of the Church of England, 
*' 1726*" (reprinted in 1728) [b] has a large and elabo- 
rate iPreface, containing "• a full and- particular Series 
*' of the Succeflion of our Bifhops, through the feveral 
*\ Reigns fince the Reformation," &c, He dates the fecond 
edition from " Iflington, 13 -Dec. 1727. " In 1747 
he publifhed, in the fame fize, " Two Sermons" preached: 
" at CouK in.. 162CV by Francis Mafon;" which he re- 
commends, " as well for their own intrinfic value, as to 
** make up a .complete Collection of that learned Author's 
M Works." He had a nephew, who died curate of 
Waltham Abbey, Sept. 17, 1779. 


f A l ^ n a ^ at ftonc Anirao in sdverlis »<{uo magnoque* 

" Hie requiefcit in Domino Sinceia fide, nudaqur veritate 

Maria uxor Johannis Lindsay, HonosPotteris effallit. 

Ecclefiae AnglicanaePrdbyteri, Eruditione infuper cximius, 

De qua Vitae integer, propofitiquc tcnax, 

Nil diccrt non fas eft, fatisnon tutum. Spe&ata pietate infignis, 

Via' verbo dicam ? Morefque prxcipue ingenuus, vixir. 

In ilia omnis enitui| Curfu tandem bene perac'to, 

Qoae fcemimam optirtiam ornaret Fortlter diuque pro fide certando cmc- 

Virtus, ritus, 

Cujus ad exemplum fi vixens, Obdormientis mote, benedicens, obi it 

Amice Leclor, Jun. 21, A. D. 1768, atiat. 82. 

Mori non eft quod timeas. En Virtus ! En prij&ca Fides !** 

Vale. [b] In a letter to Pr. Z. Grey, 

Qbiit in Fefto Omnium Animarum, May 27, 1728, Mr. Lindfay fays : 

A. T>. mdccxxvh, "You give me great -fatisfaction by 

JErar. fuae 43." ".telling me that my poor endeavours 

On an upright ftbne adjoining t " '" are favourably cenfored by yourfel£ 

" Hie etiam reftaot Exuviae " and other friends at Cambrid re: bur 

Reverend! J. Lindsay, Aulae Marije, " I (hall not grow prnud on that ac- 

Apud Oxonienfes dim Alumni, "count, becaufe I know how mucJl 

Qui Ecclefi* Anglicans exindeMinifter, " more is due to your candour than to 

(Beueficiis cujus, op u lent is licet,' "my«wn abilities. Your promoting 
Inter iori Jltmdo, AJUfa caufa, recU- 

9ATIS) * 

VoL.Vill. S "iU 



*» iw fale will he a great obligt- a I am ftiU a dealer in the former, ydt 
44 tion to me y for you know the ** may perceive by thefe propofafe. 
44 hookfcllers will cot promote any '< You know I publifhed the greateft 
u thing which is Hot their own pro- " part of Mafon's Works federal yean 
•• party \ and this is a very ^eighty " ago J bat had not then the whole. 
" burthen for my weak ihotUders. I * Now, hating luckily procured the 
** heartily thank you for your kind " laft Sermons, which I had been fo 
"invitation to Houghton; which I " long in ^neft of, I hate printed them. 
** pleafe my&lf with the hopes of an " on the fame paper and letter with the* 
" opportunity of accepting r for I am " reft, which makes the Collection com- 
•^now, by the Doctor's dire&ion, to u plete. There are a good many co* 
" ride moderately and frequently ; in ** pies of the former (till on my hands ; 
** purfoancc of which, I am looking u which I hope may go of now. Thofe 
jf out for* a borfc able to carry my •* who have the reft already, may have 
** weight eafy journeys. Whether X 4g thefe Sermons by themfelvet. I pre* 
« can difengage myfelf with the good " fume, Sir, upon the favour of jouf 
44 old Lady Fanfhaw, without getting " intertft to promote this method of 
" a curate, I cannot tell. I am every " distributing them. All I need to ob*» 
44 day at her ladylhip's houfe in Little " fenre to you is, that they will cojk nw 
** Ormond Street." And in a fubfe- *« more than five farthings per (jicet. 
quent letter, Mav 14, 1747, " I ro> « 1 4hall begin to pubhfh the firft week 
44 moved laft Chriftmas from the Tern- " in June. Whatever encouragement 
" pie, and took a fmall houfe in Pear- " yon procure me, (hall be placed t» 
* tree-ftreet, near St. Luke's, Old- " the lorig accouBt of former e*hl£- 
** ftrect, where I fjpend my time chiefly u gations* 
m among books, ox 1 in my garden* That 

LINGELBACK (John), a German painter, was 
born at Francfort on the Main, 1625 : the name of hi? 
matter is not known. At the age of fifteen, he went to 
Holland to improve himfelf; and his piftures there ac- 
quired a degree of perfe&ion, which even then prpduced a 
great demand for them : his fmall figures were fo true, that 
they feemed to be formed by nature ; and they were like- 
wile accompanied with a frefh and delightful landikip. 
Lirigelback paffed into France, in 1645 : *&** voyage in- 
creafed the number of his admirers, and die price of his 
works. The able men he found there delighted him, and 
infpired him with an emulation to make, the tour of Italy ; 
and, having made a fufrjciettt purfe for it in two years at 
Paris, he fet out for Rome, where he renewed his'ftudies, 
with great application". Nothing efcaped his inquiry in 
the neighbourhood of that city: the fea-profpefts, veffels, 
antiquities, fountains, fairs, the mountebanks, and preach* 
ers, that are feen there in public places, were the fubje&s 
•f his beft pi&ures. 

But whilft his art feemed to engage his whole attention 
love broke in upon his ftudies. A young woman, daugh 
tcr of ai* architect, was continually at her window, which* 
was over-againft his : tender looks, expreflive geftures, 
and billet-doux, became at length his whole employment, 
and thefe produced rendezvous in churches and ori walks, 

i \ At 

t INGE t BACK, 159 

Atlaft tfic damfel found means to introduce her lover into 
her father's houfe ; whence, as he was retiring one night, 
he Was furprized by two brothers of his miftrefs, who at- 
tacked him brifkly ; but he defended himfelf with fo much 
bravery, that he wounded them both, and got off with a 
flight fcratch, ' happy to have efcaped fo well ! This prov- 
ed a warning to him, to bid adieu to intriguing, fo general^ 
but fo dangerous in that city. He applied himfelf afrefh to 
his ftudies, which, by his fuccefs, made him amends for 
the lofs of his miftrefs. He continued in Italy till 1650* 
and then returned, through Germany, to Amfterdam ; 
where the proficiency he had made in France and Italy 
footf difplayed itfelf in ample form. His pictures are ad- 
orned with ruins of antiquity, animals, waggons filled 
with beautiful figures ; his distances are of a clear blue * 
tad his ikies, which arc lightly clouded, have a chearful 
6ir, and give a ftren£th to his foregrounds ; nor can any 
thiag be better underftood than the degradation of his co- 
lours. His genius Was fo fertile, that he never repeated 
the fame fubjeft in his pi&ures. He engraved fome land- 

" The tim£ of Lingelback's death, fettled fortune* chil* 
dren, or difciples, we know not. J His merit alfo, though 
Very real, is little known, fays my author, in France : his 
works have difcovered it at Paris* and begin at length to 
find a place in colleftions. They poflefs a fine tone of co- 
louring, a pleafant and lively touch* a lightnefs of pencil, 
fend a neatnefs very uncommon. This defcription gives 
but a flight idea of the talents of Lingelback, whofe pic- 
tures are not yet come quite into fdfhion ; for there is 2 
feihion in painting, as well as in cloaths. Teniers has had 
a long feign ; Polemburch, Wouverman, Gerard Dow, 
' Mieri, and Schalken, fucceeded him; At prefent it is A. 
Oftade, Metzu, Potter* Vandervelde, Vinderhuyfum, 
and Vanderwerf. The curious not only fet thefe matters 
now above the former, but eagerly bid above one another 
for them at files, and run them up to an extravagant price ; 
though thefe forts of preferences are not extraordi- 
nary in Holland and FJanders, where they love only the? 
painters of their own country, (hewing little regard to tha 
Italian or French mailers. 

L I N N JE U S (Ch a rlsVon), the father ©f modern Tram Life, 
botany, was the fon of a Swedifh divine, and bdrfc May* fc y *> r - 
2 4> 1707, at E.oelhult, in the province of Smaikjpwi, in wl " n5?y ' 

S a Swedea? 

« 6o LINN^US. 

Sweden; of which place his father had the cure wh/eiVthfs 
fon was born, but was foon after preferred to the living of 
Stenbrihult, in the fame province, where dying in 1748, 
at the age of 70, he was fucceeded in his cure by another 
fon. We are told, in the commemoratiorL-fpeech on this 
celebrated man,"delivered in his Swedifh majefty's pretence, 
before the Royal Academy of Sciences at Stockholm, that 
the anceftors of this family took their furnames of Linnaeus, 
Lindelius, and Tiliander, from a large lime-tree, or lin- 
den-tree, yet (landing on die farm where Linnaeus was 
born ; and that this origin of furnames, taken from natu- 
ral objefts, is not very uncommon in Sweden. 

This eminent qaan, whofe talents enabled him to re- 
form the whole fciencc of natural hiftory, accumulated, ve- 
ry early in life, fome of the higheft honours that await the 
moft fuccefsful proficients in medical fciencc ; fince we 
find that he was made profeffor of phyfic and botany, in 
the univerfity of Upfal, at the age of thirty -figur * zud^x 
years afterward ;, i-Ii;,iiciau- to his i.neieign, tfocflate Kmsr 
Adolphus; wh •-., hi the year 175s, honoured bun u'^t 
farther, by;; him knight o? The order "of the Poiur 
Star. His honou;-. did not tcnnin:}?e hefte, for in 1757 
"he was ennobled , :aui. f :p t 1776. the prufent king of Swv.\ 
den accepted the tieffgnation of his office,. and rewarded his 
declining years by doubling his penfion, and by a liberal 
donation of landed property^ fettled on him and his 
It feems probable that his father's example firft gave 
Linnaeus a taftc for the ftudy of nature ; who, as he has 
liimfelf informed us, cultivated, as his firft amufement, a 
garden plentifully (lored with plants. Young Linnaus 
foon became acpuaintLd with thefe, as well as the indi- 
genous ones of his neighbourhood. Yet, from the ftraight- 
• nefs of his father's income, our young naturalift was on 
the point of being deftined to a mechanical employment : 
fortunately, however, this defign was over-ruled. In 1717, 
he -was fent to fchool at Wexfio, where as his opportu- 
nities were enlarged, his-progrefs in all his favourite purfuits 
was proportionally extended. At this early period he paid 
attention, to other brandies of natural hiftory; particularly 
to the knowledge of infefts : in which, as is manifeft from 
his oration on the fubje&, he muft very early have made a 
great proficiency,, fince we find that he was not lefs fuc- 
. cefefiiHicrein, than in that of plants, having given them an 
arrangement, and cftabliflxed fuch characters of diftin&ion, 


L I N N & V S. *Gt 

as have been univerfally followed by fucceeding entomo- 

The firft part of his academical education Linnarus re- 
ceived under profeflbr Stobaeus, at Lund, in Scania, who 
favoured his inclinations to the ftudy of natural hiftory. 
After arrefidence of about a year, he removed, in 1 728* to 
UpfaT! Here he foon contrafted a dofe friendfhip with 
Artedi, a native of the province of Angermannia, who had 
already been four years a ftudent in that univerfity, and, 
like himfelf, had a ftrohg bent to the ftudy of natural hif- 
tory in general, but particularly to ichthyology. He was 
moreover well lkilled in chemiftry, and not unacquainted 
with botany, having been the inventor of that diftihft ion 
m umbelliferous plants, arifingfrom the differences of the 
involucrum. Emulation is the foul of improvement, and, 
heighteijed as it was in this inftance by friendship, proved 
a moft powerful incentive. Thefe young men proiecuted 
their ftudies together with uncommon vigour, mutually 
communicating their obfervations, and laying their plans 
fo tis to aflift each other in every.branch of natural hiftory 
and phyfic. 

c Soon after his residence at Upfal, our author was alfo 
happy enough to obtain the favour of feveral gentlemen of 
eftablifhed charafter in literature. He was in a particular 
manner encouraged in the purfuit of his ftudies by the pa- 
tronage of Dr. Olaus Celiius, at that time profeflbr of divi- 
nity, and thd reftorer of natural hiftory in Sweden ; fince 
fo diftinguMhed for Oriental learning, and more particularly 
for his " Hierobotanicon, or Critical Diflertations on the 
** Plants mentioned in Scripture/' This gentleman is 
faid to have given Linnaeus a large lhare of his efteem, and 
he was fortunate enough to obtain it very' early after his 
removal to Upfal. He was at that time meditating his 
u Hierobotanicon ;" and being ftruck with the diligence 
of Linnaeus, in defcribing the plants of the Upfal garden, 
and his extenfive knowlege of their names, fortunately for 
hin* at that time involved in difficulties, from the narrow 
circumftances of his parents, *Celfius not only patronized 
him in a general way, but admitted him to his houfe, his 
table, and his library. Under fuch encouragement, it is 
not ftrange that our author made a rapid progrefs, both in 
his ftudies, and the efteem of the profeflbi's : in faft, we 
have a very ftriking proof of his merit and attainments, in- 
afniuch as we find, that after only two years refidence, he 
Was thought fufficiently qualified to give le&ures occa- 

S3 fionally 

?6* L I 9 N <fi -U & 

fionally from the botanic chair, in the room of profeffor 

Linmeus was foon afterwards appointed, by the Royal 
Academy of Sciences of Upfal, to make the tour of Lap*. 
Jand, with the view of exploring the natural hiftory of that 
arftic region. This tour had been made, for the firft time, 
by the elder Rudbeck, in 1695, ** ^ e command of Charles? 
XI. but, unfortunately, almoft all the obfervations which 
that traveller had made perifhed in the terrible fire at Up-i 
fal, in 1702. Linnaeus fet out from Upfal, on this jour- 
ney, about the middle of May, 1732 ; equally a ftrangerta 
ijie language and to the manners of the Laplanders, and 
without any aflbciate. ■ He even traver fed what is called the 
Lapland Delbrt ; a tra& of territory deftitute of villages, cul- 
tivation, or any conveniences, and inhabited only by a 
few {haggling people. In this diftrift, he afeended a no- 
ted mountain called Wallevary, ia fpeaking of which he 
has given us a pleafant relation of his finding a lingular an4 
beautiful new plant {Andromeda tetragond) when travelling 
within the ar&ic circle, with the fun in his view at mid- 
night, in fearch of a Lapland hut. From hence he crofle4 
the Lapland Alps, into Finmark, and traverfed the Ihores 
©f the North fea as far as Sallero. 

Thefe journics from Lula and Pitha, on the Botrmiaq, 
gulph, to the north fhore, were made on foot, and our 
traveller was attended by two Laplanders ; one his inter* 
preter, and the other his guide. He tells us that the vin 
gour and ftrengtH of thefe two men, both old, and fuffici-* 
ently loaded with his baggage, excited his admiration, fines 
they appeared quite unhurt by their labour, while he him- 
, ftlf, although young and robuft, was frequently quite ex-r 

haufted. In this journey he was wont to fleep under the 
boat with which they forded the rivers, as a defence againft 
rain and the gnats, which in the Lapland fummer are not 
Jefs teazing than in the torrid zones. In ^efgending oris 
of thefe rivers* he narrowly efcaped perifhing by the over T 
letting of the boat, and loft many of the natural productions 
which lie had colle&ed. 

Linnaeus thus fpent the greater part of the fummer in ex-? 
arqiriing this ar&jc region, and thpfe mountains, on which, 
four years afterwards, the French philofophers fecured im- 
mortal fame to fir Ifaac Newton. At length, after having 
fiiffered incredible fatigues and hardfhips, in climbing pre- 
cipices, paffing rivers in miserable boats, fuffering repeated 
yiciaitudesf of extreme heat and cold, and not unfrequently 
hunger and thirft y he returned to Tornoa in September.' 

■ :■■■/ W 

L I N N M U S. 2^3 

He arrived at Upfal in November, after having per> 
formed, and that moftly on foot, a journey of ten degrees 
fit latitude in extent, exclufive of the many deviations which., 
jthe acconjplifhnjent of his defign rendered neceflary. The 
j-efult of this journey was not publifhed till feveral years 
afterw ards ; but he loft no time in prefenting the Academy 
with a catalouge of the plants which he had difcovered ; 
which, even fo early as that period, he arranged Recording 
to the fyftem fince denominated xbyzfexual: 

In 1 733, we find this great naturalift vifiting and examin- 
ing the feveral mines in Sweden ; where he formed his 
firft lketch of his Syftem on Mineralogy, which appeared 
in the early editions of the*' Syftenja Naturae," but was not 
exemplified till 1768. 

The next incident in the hiftory of this celebrated perfon 
was his being fent, with fevferal other naturalifts, by the 
governor of JDalekarlia, into that province, to inveftigate 
its natural produ&ions. After acconqtplifhing the purpofe 
of this expedition, he refided fome time in the capital of 
JDalekarlia, where he taught mineralogy, and the docimaf- 
tic art, and praftifed phyfic In 1735, he travelled ovet 
many other parts of Denmark and Germany, ajid fixed in 
Holland, where he chiefly refided until his return to Stockr 
holm, about the year 1739. Soon after he had fixed his 
refidence at this place, he married one of the daughters of 
Dr. More, a phynrian at Fahlun, in Dalekarlia, with wfyoiri 
he became acquainted during his ftay in that town. 

In 1735, the year in which he took the degree of M. D. 
he publiihed the firft iketeh of his " Syftenja Naturae," iif 
the form of tables only. It thence appeals that, before he 
was twenty -four years old, he laid the balls of that great 
ftru&ure which he afterwards raifed, and which will per- 
petuate his fame to the lateft ages of botanical fcience. 

In 1 736, Linnaeus vifited England, where he formed ma- 
ny friendfhips with men at that time diftinguifhed for their 
knowledge in natural hiftory : but though Boerhaave had 
furnifhed him with letters of recommendatioi\ to fir Hans 
Sloane, we are told, that he met not with that reception 
which he had reafon toexpeft [a]. For this treatment, 
Dr. Pultoaey, with great probability, affigns the follow- 
ing caufe. ' 


[a] Di> Boerhaaye'i letter to fir Hans -." Linnaeus qui Has x\h\ dabit llteras 9 

JHoane, on this occafion, it preferred w eft unice dignus re videre, unice dig-- 

ia the Britiih Mufeum, and runs thus " nos a tcvideri ; qui vosvidejbit firaul, 

* S.4 x "videbif 

264 LI N N M tj Sk . 

In 1738, this great naturalift made an excurfiou to Paris* 
tvherc he had the infpefting of the Htrbaria of the Juffieus, 
at that time the firft botaniits in France ; and alfo the bo- 
tanical collections of Surian and Tournefort. He intended 
going thence to Germany, to vifit Ludwig, and the celebrar 
ted Haller, with whpm he maintained a clafe, correfpon- 
dence ; but he was obliged to return to Holland without en- 
joying this pleafure [3]. 

About the latter end of 1738, or the beginning of the 
fubfequent year, Linnasus returned to his native country, 
wheic he fettled as a phyiician, at Stockholm. It is. faid, 
that at firft he met with considerable oppoiitiou, and was 
-oppreffed with many difficulties ; but at length he fur- 
mounted all, and acquired extenfive pra&ice. The iu- 
tercit of count Teflin, who became his zealous patrori, pro- 
cured him the rank of phyiician to the fleet, and aflipend 
from the citizens for giving Je&yres in botany. The es- 
tablishment of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Stockholm, 
of which Linnaeus was appointed the firft pieiident* ferved 
not a little to favour the advancement of his fame, by tlie 
opportunity which it afforded of displaying his abilities. 

" videbit hom'nuai par, cuiiimile vix yMy Infer the exalted- idea that 
*• dabitorb'V'—Thisfcncomium, how- Lmnaees had of England, as a land 
ibevcr quaintly expreired, yet was in eminently favourable to the knprove- 
lomemealurc prophetic of Linnams's ment of-fcience, from that coBnpli-: 
future fame and greatnefs, and ment which, in "a letter to a friend, 
proTCs how intimately Bocrhaave had he afterwards paid to London, when, 
penetrated into the genius and abi. ipeaking of that city, he called it^ 
lilies of our author; and. ftrained as Pun£turn faliens in vi'tello orbi^." 
ih:3 parallel might he thought, it is [b] Dr. Pultcrcy gives an account ci" 
likely however that the opening of the feveral fcient fie productions which 
lb* Uxual l'yfttm, fo different from Linnaecs publi&ed prerions to this 
Ray's, by which Sir Hans Sloane had time. Thcl'e are, the «• Syfletna Na- 
always known plants, and parti- " turx," " Fundamenta Botanica," 
tularly the innovations, as they «» B.bfiotheca Botanica," and u Ge- 
were then called, which Linnaeus «' ncra Plam^rum." The laft ofthofc 
had made in altering the names of is juflly conlidcred as the mod valuablf. 
lp many genera, were rather the of all the works of this celebrated au- 
caufe or* that coolnefs with which he thor. What immenfe application had 
was received by our excellent natu- been beftowed upon it, the reader ma/ 
raliir. Probably we have reafon to eafily conceive, on being informed, 
regret this oircumftancej for other- that, before the publication of the 
wife Linnaeus might have obtained firfl edition, the author had examined 
an eftahliihment in England, as it the characters of eight thoufand flow- 
. has beep thought he witbed to haye crs. The latl bock or'JLinnaeus's corn- 
done; and doubtlefs his opportunities potirlon, pubMhtd during his flay in 
in this kingdom world have been Holland,' was the '« Clafles Plau- 
fntich more favourable to his de- «' tarum ;" which is a copious illultra- 
ligns, than in thole arftic regions tion «f the fecond part of the " Fuu- 
tvherc he fpent the remainder of his «J tUaurnU." 
^ays. }a the mean timej we, may ' 

L I N N JE U S. a^ 

In 1741; upon the resignation of 'Roberg, lie was confti* 
tuted* joint profefibr of.phyfic, and phyfician *to the king, •' 
with Rofen, who had been appointed the preceding 
yeair[c]. » ..*/.• 

In 1755, Linnaeus was honoured with a gold medal by 
the Royal, Academy of Sciences of Stockholm,- for a paper 
on tjie fubjeftof promoting agriculture, and all branches 
of xural oeconomy ; and in 1760, he obtained a premium 
from the Imperial Academy of Sciences at Peteriburg, for . 
a paper relative to the doftrine of the fexes of -plants. 

We are told that Linnaeus, .upon the whole, enjoyed a 
good constitution ; , but tliat he was fometimes feverely a£» 
rli&ed with a hemlcrania, and was not exempted from the 
gout. About the clofe of 1776, he was lei zed with an 
apoplexy, which left him pa.ra.lytk <: and at the beginning of , 
the year 1777, he fufFered another . ftroke; which very 
much impaired his mental powers. But the difeafe, fup- 
pofed to have been the more immediate caufe of his death, 
was an ulceiation.of the urinary bladder; of which, after 
a tedious indifpofition, he died Jan. 1 1, 1778, in the 71ft 
year 'of his* age* 

[c] Dr. Puiteney in this plwe gives treatifes was the <* IVUntifla Altera,** 

ao account of the " Iter Oclandicum 2f publ'iihed in . 177.1. The remaining 

«• Gotlandicum," "Iter Scanicudi,*' part of Dr. Pulteney's volume contains 

4 * Flora Sijecica," " Fauna Suecica/' an account of the ** Amcenitates Aca- 

«« Materia Medica," and " Philo- «« -denlicae ;" with obfervation?, tend- 

*' fophia Botamca ; the hiftory and ing to ihew the utility of botanical 

-nature of which works he briefly ex- knowledge in relation to agriculture, 

plains $ and afterwar4s gives a largo and the feeding of cattle: accompanied 

analysis of the «« Syfteroa Naturae," with a tranflation of Linnxus's u Pan 

and. of the. " Genera Morborum ;" "Sulcus/' accommodated to the Eng- 

■with a fhort account of the paper* writ- lilh plants, with references to authors', 

tpn by Linnaeus, in the X( Aft a Upfa- and to figures of the plants. 

*' lienuV The laft of this great man's 

LIPSIUS (Justus), a moft acute and learned critic, 
was a Lpw-country«man, and born at Ifcanum, a country- 
feat of his father's, between Bruflels and Louvain, Oct.Lipfii vita, 
the 18th, 1547.. He v was,defcended from an ancient and^T**** 
rich 'family; his anceftors had been, as his father was, LugdL 1613, 
among the principal Inhabitants of Bruflels ; and he had afel* 
great uncle, Martin Lipsius, who diftinguifhed himfelf 
in the republic pf letters, was well acquainted with Erafmus, 
and publifhe4 learned notes, upon Hilary, Auguftin, . Je- 
rome, x Symmachus, Macrobius, and other ancient authors, ' 
whom he collated with the beft manufcripts. This learned 
. perfpn died ii> 1555. Qur Lipfius was fent to the public 


£*& .1/1 FS 1 U S/ 

fchool at Bruflcb, at fix years of age ; and he fdbri gav* 
fuch proofs of uncommon parts, that, according to thi 
ftories related of. him, he might very well be deemed a kind 
of prodigy. ' It is faid, and indeed he tells us himfelf iii 
oAe of his letters, that he acquired the French language, 
without the afirftanc* of a matter, fo perfectly, as to bfe 
able to ^rite in it, before he was tight years old. In the 

Ceat. m|f-; ferae letter, he relates three miihaps, which befel hkfc chir? 

rciiAQ. iii. jj^ t jj C li^te- of childhood, by one of which he was very 
7 " near pcriflring : lie fell, in the firft place, from * rock at 

ifcanum, into a fno-sfr -drift, from whence he wafc taken by 
a maid-fervant, who accidentally faw him; almoft foffocatcd* * 
then he fell from the fcaffold of a hoyfe that was repairing 
at Ifcanum, whither he had climbed With One oif his play- 
fellows, who, falling likewife, had the misfortune to break 
his leg, while Lipfius's girdle, catching upon fomething 
by the way, preserved him from much hurt ; and, laftly, 
at Brufiels he fell into the river, and was fo near being 
drowned, that, when he Was taken out, he was, ir^ 
appearance, lifelefs. 

Prom Bruffels he was fent, at ten years old*, to Aeth ; 
and, two years after, to Cologne, where he was taught by 
the Jefuits. We fhail have occafion here&ftei* to fpeak par- 
ticularly of his religion. At fixteen, he was fent to th«j 
univernty of Lou vain ; where, being already well fkilled in 
the learned languages, he applied himfelf principally to tlip 
-civil law. • THe belles-lettres, however, and ancient litera- 
ture, were what he moft delighted in ; and therefore, loliilg 
his parents, and becoming his own mafter before he was 
eighteen, he projected a journey to Italy, for the fake of 
cultivating them to perfection. He executed what he pro- 
jected ; but, before he fet out, he publifhed three bdoks of 
various readings, " Variarum leftionum libri tres," which 
i he dedicated to cardinal GranVellkn; a' great patronizer of 
learned men. This was attended with very happy effe£ts ; 
it put him firft upon the wings of fame, and opened his way 
to the Cardinal, when he arrived at Rome in 1567. H* 
lived two years With the cardinal, Was nominated his'fecre- 
tary, and treated by him with the utmoft kindnefs anc| 
generoiity. He was here in as v firie a lituation as could 
poffibly be defired ; for though the cardinal honoured him 
with the title of fecretary, yet the trouble and bufinefs of * 
that office waV left to others. His time Was all his own, 
and he ufed to-employ it juft as he pleafed : the Vatican, 
the Famefianrthe- Sfortian, and other principal libraries, 


L I P S I U S, z$f 

were opto to him ; and there he fpent much time and / 
psuns , La collating the manufcripts of ancient authors, of 
Seneca, Tacitus, Phuatws, Propertius, &c. His leifur* 
hows be ufed to employ in traverfing the city and neigh- 
boturhood^ in order to infpeft and animadvert upon the 
moft remarkable antiquities. There were alfo at this time 
fevetal men in Rome, very eminent for their abilities and 
karnhag ; , as, Antonitfs Muretus, Paulus Manutius, Ful* 
vius Urfinus*, Hieronymus Mercurialis, Carolus Sigonius, 
Petcaa Vi&orius, and others, with whom he became 
well acquainted and from whoin he reaped •great ad- 

in 1569* he returned to Louvain, and there fpent onp 
year in a very gay manner, as he himfelf ingenuoufly con- 
fefles. He ufedto frequent balls, afiemblies, taverns, and 
to mix in every fcene of mirth : however, he pleads the. 
heat of youth in his excufe ; and, the more* eafily to break 
off his engagements of this nature, he refolved upon a jour* 
ncy to Vienna. He was near jumping out of the frying- 
pan into the fire, as the faying is ; for flopping at Dole, 
which is an univerfity in the Franche Comte, they made 
llim drink hard, and had like to have killed him. The 
cafe was thus : he delivered there an oration in public, to 
the honour of Vi&or Gefelihus, who was taking his degree 
of doftor of phyfic ; upon which he was invited to a great 
entertainment, where, as the cuftom of the country then 
was, the guefts ufed to provoke one another to drink plen- 
tifully. Lipfius complied ; but, being unequal to the talk, 
was fuddenly feized with an unufual fhivering, and went 
home with a fever. " This ftory," fays Bayle, " would not D*a. LIP- 
" have been furprifing, had Lipfius been an Italian or a slus * 
" Spaniard ; for to fuch people ah entertainment, at taking 
*' a degree in fome northern univerfities, is as dangerous 
" an aftion as a battle to a colonel, unlefs they get a dif- 
** penfation for not pledging at every turn ; but he was a 
** Fleming." 

As foon as he was pretty well recovered from his illnefs, ' 
he fet forwards to Vienna, and there fell into the acquain- 
tance ofBufbequius, Sambucus, Pighius, and other learned 
men, who ufed many arguments, and arguments built too 
upon good conditions, to induce him to fettle there : but 
the natale folum, the love of his own native foil, prevailed, 
and he direfted his courfe through Bohemia, Mifnia, and 
Thuringia, in order to arrive at it. But being informed, 
that the Low-countries were QYer-run with the wars, and 


a68 L I P S I U S. 

that his own patrimony was laid Waftc by fbldiers, he halted 
at the univerfity of Jena, in Saxony ; where he was invefted 
with a profcfibrfhip. He di£ not continue here above a 
year *, but decamped for his own country, as foon as it was 
a. little fettled. He arrived at Cologne, Where he married a 
widow in 1574. He did this, as he fays, rather in com- 
pliance with his own inclinations, than by the advice of his 
friends ; but fo the gods decreed it. Some fay, that fhe 
was a very ill-natured woman, and made bim a bad wife. 
We learn from himfelf, however, that they lived very peace- 
ably together, although they had no children. He conti- 
nued nine months with his wife at Cologne, and there wrote 
his " Antiquae Le&iones," which chiefly confifb of emen- 
dations of Plautus : he alfo began there his notes upon Cor- 
nelius Tacitus, which were afterwards fo univerfaily ap- 
plauded by tlic learned. 

He then retired to his own native feat at Ifcanum, near 
Bruflcls, where he determined to live at a diftance from 
the noife and the cares of the world, and to devote" himfelf 
intirely to letters ; and there, is a fine epiftle of his extant, 
to i hew the great advantages of a country over a city life. 
But he was 'difturbed by the civil wars, before he was well 

Ct«*- 1. fettled ; and went to Lou vain, where he refumedthe ftudy 
m c. epi . Q £ t ^ e c j v jj j aw ^ an j too k U p t j je ^ e Q £ a ] a ^y Cr j n f orm ; 

though with no intent to, praftife or concern himfelf with 

buiinefs, which he never could be prevailed to do. He 

publifhed, at Louvain, - his * fc Epiftolicse Queftiones/' and 

ioine other things ; but at length was obliged to quit his 

refidence there* He went to Holland, and fpent thirteen 

years at Leyden ; during which timfc be composed anc^ 

publiflied what he calls his beft works, Thefe are, 

Cent. in. " Ele&orum libri duo," " Satyra Menippaea," " Saturna- 

Mrfe. epift. " Hum libri duo/' " Commentarii pleni in Corneliuiii 

* 7 \ " Taciturn," " De Conftantia libri duo/' " De amphi- 

*' theatro libri duo," " Ad Valerium Maximum notae/* 

*' Epiftolarnm Centurioe duae," " Epiftoliczi inftitutio/* 

" De 're'&a proriunciatione linguae Latinae," " Animad- 

" verfiones in Seneca? tragcedias," " Animadverfiones 

in Velleium Paterculum," *' Politicorum libri fex/* 

De una religione liber.'* Thefe he calls his beft works, 

becaufe they were written, he fays,, in the very vigour of 

•his age, and when he was quite at leifure ; " in flore aevi 

f & ingenii, in alto otio ;" and he adds too, that his health 

conti nned good till the latter part of his life j 4> nee valetudo, 

** nili iub extte/nos annos, titubavit.'* ' ~ 


lipsius; *t 9 

Me withdrew hinifetf fuddenly and privately from Ley-- 
den, for a rcafon that will be mentioned by and by, in 
1590 -, and, after fome ftay at the Spaw, went and fettled 
at Louvain, where he taught polite literature, as he had 
done- at Leyden, with the higheft credit and reputation! 
He fpent the remainder of his life* at Lou vain, though he 
had received powerful felicitations, and the offers of vaft 

, advantages, if he would have removed elfewhere. Pope 
Clement VlIL Henry IV. of France, and Philip II. ©f 
Spain, applied to him by advantageous propofak. Several v 

. cardinals would gladly have taken him under their protec- 
tion and patronage : and all the learned in foreign countries 
honoured him extremely. The very learned Spaniard, 
Arias Montanusj who, at the command of Philip IL, 
fuperintended the re-printing the Complutenfian edition of 
the Bible at Platin's prefs, had fuch a particular regard and - 
affe&ion for him, that he treated him as a fon, rather 
than a friend, and not only admitted him into all his con- 
cerns, bttt even offered to leave him all he had. All this 
notwithftanding, Lipfius continued at Lou vain, and # 
among .others, wrote the following works : " De cruce 
** libri tres ;" " De.. militia Roinana libri quinque;** 
-*' Poliorcetic*n libri quinque ;" " De magnitudine Ro- 
** xnana libri quatiiBr;" " Diflertatiuncula &: commenta- 
" rius in Plinii panegyricum -," " Manuduftio ad Stoicam 
** philofophiam," &c. All his works have been colle&ed 
and printed together, in folio, more than once. His criti - 
cai notes upon ancient authors are to be found in the befl: 
editions of each refpe&ive author ; and feveral of his other 
pieces have, for their peculiar utility, been re-printed fepa- 

Lipfius died at Louvain, March 23, 1606, in his 59th 
year; and left r fays Jofeph Scaliger, the learned world 
and his friends to lament the lofs of him. There is the 
following judgement pafled upon Lipfius and his works 
in the '* Scaligerana Pofterior :" ' The third century of 
4 his mifccllaneous epiftles is the worft of all his works;- 

* the heft are his " Commentaries upon Tacitus," his 
" Orations de concordia," and " upon the death of the 
*' duke of Saxony." His "Elefta" and ". Saturnalia" are 

* very excellent books. He was a Greek fcholar fuffi- 
f ciently for his own private ufe, and no farther. How 

* unhappy a judgement he makes of Seneca the tragedian'** 

* He was perfectly ignorant of poetry, and every thing re- 

* lating to it/. He wrote a bad Latin ftyle in his later 

compofitions ; 

*7* t IP s I tr Si 

compositions; for which he feems * little incfceuftble, 
fince, from his " Varie Ledione*," the firft bo.ok h* 
printed, it is plain he could have written better. Bad 
however as it was, it found a 'tribe of imitators, who ad- 
ipired it as a model, and grew numerous enough to form a 
left in the republic of letters. He wrote likewife an un- 
commonly bad hand. His converfatidn and mien did not 
anfwer people's expe&ations of him. " He was," fays 
Albertus one w } 10 has written his life, " fo mean in his countenance* 
*itf Tipfii. n " his drefs, and his converfation, that thoft who had ac- 
" cuftomed themfelves to judge of great men by their out- 
x " ward appearance, afked, after having feen Lipfius, wlie* 
li ther that was really he. And it is certain, that fome fo- 
" reigners, who came from the remoteft part of Poland to 
*' fee him, as fome did formerly from foreign parts to fee 
*' Livy, did often aik for Lipfius, even when they had him 
*' before their eyes." 

But the moft remarkable particular . relating to Lipfius, 
and one of the greateft faults for which he is cenfured, is 
his inconftancy with regard to religion. This ceufure is 
grounded upon the following particulars : namely, That, 
being born a Roman Catholic, he profeffed the Lutheran 
religion, while he was profeflbr at Jena. Afterwards re- 
turning to Brabant, he lived there like% Roman Catholic; 
but, having accepted a profeffor's chair in the univerfity of 
Leyden, he publifhed there what was called Calvinifm* 
At laft he removed from Leyden, and went again into the 
Low Countries, where he not only lived in the Roman 
communion, but even became a bigot, like a very weak 
woman. This he fhewed by the books he publifhed ; one 
of which, written in 1603, was intituled, " Diva Virgo 
" Halienfis," &c. another, in i6o4, " Diva Sichemienfis," 
&c. with an account of their favours and miracles ; in 
which works he admits the moft trifling, ftories, and th* 
Xnoft uncertain traditions. Some of his friends endea* 
voured to diflude him from writing thus, by reprefenting 
l}ow greatly it would diminifh the reputation he had 
acquired; but he was deaf to their expoftulations. Thtf 
verfes lie wrote, when he dedicated a filver pen to thtf 
Holy Virgin of Hall, are very remarkable, both on ac' 
count of the elegies he beftows on.himfejf, and of theex^ 
prbitant worfiip he pays to the Virgin, " By his' laft 
will, he left his gown, lined with fur, to the image of the 
lame Jady. We muft not forget to obferve, that Lipfius 
* as fuppofed, by fome, to have eompofed fuch works* 


LIPSItJS. iyi 

<mly to pcrfuadc the world, that he wa? not fg cpld and 
indifferent, with regard to religion, as Jje fojmcf he was 
fufpefted to be ; for it fyad beep, faid,. that all religions; or 
none, were the fame to him, and that he made jio 
difference between Lutheranifm* Calviniffn, an4 Popery- 
But there feems no juft ground for fuppofing this, fince 
bis conduft may be explained very well without it. It 
may naturally be refolvecf into the wpak and unfteady ftate 
pf his mind, unlefs we will fuppofe that every great jichola* 
muft needs think and aft like a philofopher and man of 
fenfe, which, we prefume, is very far froip being the 

But what appeared yet firanger in his behaviour, and 
Jtfas never forgiven him, is, that while he lived at Leyden* 
in an outwara profeffion of the Reformed religion, he yet 
approved publicly the perfecuting principles which were 
exerted, throughout all Europe, againft the profeflbre of it. 
What Bayle has faid of him, with regard to this point, 
tnay ferve for a proper conclqfion of the prefect article i 
*' This man," fays he, " having been ruined in his fortune, Comment. 
«' by the wars in the Low Countries, fled to Leyden, p^ty"^ 
•'where he found an honourable retreat ; and was chofei> *" 
g * a profeflbr, making no fcruple of outwardly abjuring the 
Popifli religion. During his ftay there, he published 
fome pieces concerning government, in which he ad- 
4€ vanced, among other maxims, that no ftate ought to 
** fuffer a plurality of religions, nor fhew any mercy 
** towards thofe who difturbed the eftabliflied worftiip, but 
-I* purfue them with fire and fword ; it being better that 
?* one member fhould perifh, rather than the whole body : 
*' * Clementiae non hi,c locus ; ure, feca, ut membrorun* • 
** potrus aliquod quam totum corpus corrumpatur.' This 
" was very unhandfome in a perfon, kindly entertained by 
" a Prqteftant republic, which had newly reformed its 
V. religion ; fince it was loudly approving all the rigours of 
f * Philip the lid, and the duke of Alva. It \yas, befides, 
•' an exceffive imprudence, an abominable impiety ; fince, 
•' on the other hand, it might be inferred from his book, 
•* that none but the Reformed religion out to be tolerated 
"in Holland, and, on the other, that the Pagans were- 
" very right in hanging all the preachers of the gofpeL 
tl He was attacked on this head* by one Theodore Corn- 
" hert, who prefled him fo clofely, that he put him into 
J* the utmoft perplexity. He was obliged, in his anfwtr, 
'** to ufe many fhifts and evaliong; declaring that thefe two 
2 ' " words* 


172 L I P S I U S. 

* fc words, Ure and feca, were only terms borrowed from 
* c fchirurgery, not literally to fignify fire and fword, " but 
'* orily fome fmart and effe&ual remedy. Allthefe evafions 
** are to be met with in his treatife * De una relig/one/ 
*' It is indeed the moft wretched book he ever wrote,* ex- 
.*' cepting the ftories and filly poems, written in his old 
€c age, concerning fome chapels of the Bleffed Virgin : for 
" his understanding began about this time to decay; as 
** formerly Pericles's, fo far as to. fuffer himfelf to be 
" tricked out, neck and arms, with amulets and old wo- 
*' men's charms, and being perfeftly infatuated in favour 
" of the Jefuits, to whom he gave himfelf up. When he 
" fourid the wretched perfomance we are now fpeaking of 
*' likely to be cenfured in Holland, he fneaked away 
privately from Ley den. v 


LISLE (Guillaume de)v a great French geogra- 
pher, was born at Paris in 1675. ^ c began at eight or 
nine years of age to defign maps, and his progrefs in this 
way was even rapid. In 1699, he firft diftinguifhed "him- 
felf to the public, by giving a map of the world, and 
other pieces, which procured him a place in the Academy 
of Sciences, 1702. He was afterwards chofen geographer 
to the King, with a penfion ; and not only fo, but had the 
honour of teaching the King himfelf geography, for whofe 
particular ufe ne drew up feveral works. De Lille's repu T 
tation was fo extended and fo well eftablifhed, that fcarcely 
any hiftory or travels were publifhed without the embellifh- 
inent of his maps. He was labouring a map of Malta 
for the Abbe Vertot's hiftory, when he was carried off by 
an apoplexy in 1726. The name of this geographer was 
no lefs celebrated in foreign countries than his own, 
Many fove reigns attempted to draw him from France, but 
in vain. The Czar Peter, when at Paris upon his travels, 
went perfonally to fee him, in order* to communicate; to 
him fome remarks upon Mufcovy ; and Hill more, fays 
Foriterielle, to learn from him, better than he could any 
where elfc, the fituation and extent ofjiis own dominions. 


« v. - 

LISTER (Martin), an Englifh phyfician, and 
natural philofopher, was born in Buckinghamfhire [a], 
about 1638 ; and educated under his great uncle Sir 
Martin Lifter, knt. phyfician in ordinary to Charles I, 

[a] From tht regifter of St. John's- ihirc-man, of which county too. hi* 
college; but Wood fays he was a Yerk- great flncte was a native. 


LISTER. 27 $ 

and prefident of the College of phyficians. He was after* 
"Wards lent to St, JohnVcoliege in Cambridge, where he 
took his firft degree in arts in 1658 [b] ; and was made 
fellow of his college by a mandate from Charles II, after 
his restoration in 1660. He proceeded mailer of arts ii> 
1662; and, applying hirafelf clofely to phyfic, travelled 
into "France in 1668 [c], to improve himfelf further in 
that faeulty. Returning home> he fettled in 1670 at 
York [d], where he followed his profeffion many years 
with good repute. At the fame time he took all oppor- 
tunities, which his bufinefs would permit \ of profecuting 
refearches into the natural hiftory and antiquities of t^ie ' 
country; with which view he travelled into feveral parti 
of England, efpecially in the North. 

As this ftudy brought him into the acquaintance of Mr. 
Lloyd, keeper of the Afhmolean mufem at Oxford, he en- 
riched that ftorehoufe with feveral altars, coins, and other 
antiquities, together with a great number of valuable 
natural curiofities. He alfo fent feveral obfervations and 
Experiments, in various branches of natural philofophy* to 
the fame friend ; who communicating fome of them to the 
Royal Society [e], our author was thereupon recommended 
and elecled a fellow thereof. In 1684, refolving, by the 
advice 9f his friends, to remove to London, he was created 
do&or of phyfic, by diploma, at Oxford ; the chancellor 
fcimfelf recommending him, as a perfen of exemplary 
loyalty, of high efteem among the moft eminent of hip 
profeflion, of lingular merit to that univeriity in particular* 
by having enriched their mufeum and library with prefents 
of valuable books, both printed and manufcript ; and of 
general merit to the literary world by feveral learried books 
which lief publifhed [f]. Soon after this, he was eleftcd 
fellow of the college of phyficians. 

In 1698!, te attended the earl of Portland in his embafly 
from kiag William to the court of France ; and, having 
the pleasure to fee a book he had publifhed the preceding 
year, under the title of " Synopfis Conchyliorum," placed 
in' the king's library, he prefented that monarch with a 
fec'orid edition of the treatife, much improved, in 1699 [g],' 
iiot long after his return from Paris, Of .this journey ^e 

_ftf] From the Regifter of St. John's [rj] Introduction to his Exercitar* 

C611<f«'. Medic. 

[fc] Jofirfley toPins by ©*r flthor, [El.Ph'it Tr»nf. No a$. 

p t ^5. [f1 Wood as before. 

• f a J Journey to Paris, p. 104* 

-Voi. VIII. T had 

274 LI S T.E R. 

had publi flied an account* containing obfervations on the 
1tate and curiofiti'es of that nictropolis; which, as a trifling 
piece, was travelled by Dr. Wm. King in another, in-. 
tituled " A Journey to Loridori." In 1709 [h], /upon. 
the indifpofition of Dr. Hannes, he was made fecond phy- 
fician in ordinary to queen Anne; in which poft he con- 
tinued to his death, Feb. 1711-12. Bcfides the book* 
already mentioned, he publifhed others £1]. * 

[h] Brfyer's Life of Queen Ance. " ciutio anatemica, in qoa decoch- 

1] Tbefc arc, i» «« Hillorie ani- «« lets agitur, &c. 1 694," 8vo. 6, 

« malum Angli* tres traclatus, &c. " Cochlearum & Limacum'exercitatio! 

**'i6?8." s. *' John Gaedartius of *• anatomic*; acceditcvariolisexeerci- 

'< iafeAs, fcc. 1681," 410. 3. The «« tatio, 1695," i woh %ro. 7. "Coo- 

fanoe book in Latin. 4. " De fonti- «• chyliorumBivaWiara utriufqueaqux 

"bus medicalibus Anglix, Ebor. « excrci tatio an atom. tertia,*cc. 1696," 

" 1681." There is an account of otoft 410. 8. " Exercirationei cnedicioales, 

of thtrfe traces ia Phii- Tianf. No. « *c. 1697/' 8?o. 
I39. 143, 144. and 166. 5. «* Excr- 


the celebrated Englifh judge, was defcended of an ancient 
.family y and born, about the beginning of the 15th century, 
at Frank ley in Worcefterfhire. Having laid a proper 
foundation of learning at one of the universities, he re- 
moved to the Inner Temple ; and, applying himfelf to the 
law, became very eminent in that profeflion. The firft 
notice we have of his diftinguifhing himfelf therein, is 
from his learned lectures on the ftatute of Weftminfter, 
" de donis conditionalibus," of conditional gifts. He 
uras afterwards made, by Henry VI. fteward or judge of 
the court of the palace, or Marfhalfea of the king's houf- 
hold; and, in 1455, king's ferjeant, in which , capacity 
he went the Northern circuit as judge of the affize. JJpon 
the revolution of the crown, from the houfe of Lancafter 
to that of York, in Edward IV, our judge, who was now 
made fheriff of Worcefterfhire, received a pardon from 
that prince; was continued in his poft of king's ferjeant, 
and alfo in that of juftice of affize for the fame circuit. 
This pardon pafTed in the ad year of Edward IV ; and, in 
the 6th, he was appointed one of the judges of the court of 
Common Pleas. The fame year, 1466, he obtained a writ 
to the commiffioners of the cuftorm of London, Briftol, 
and Kingfton upon Hull ; to pay him a hundred and ten 
marks annually, for the better fupport pf bis dignity, a 
hundred and fix Ihillings and eleven-pence farthing, to 
inrniih him with a furred robe, and fix fhillings and fix- 
pence more, for another robe called Linunu, In the 15th 



off the fame reign, 1475^ he was created, among others, 

knight of the Bath, to grace the folemnity of conferring 

that' order upon the king's eldeft fon, then prince of 

Wales, afterwards Edward V. The judge continued irt 

tke favour and efteem both of his fovereign and all others, 

for his great lkill in the laws of England, till his death, 

which happened Aug. 23, 148 1, in a good old age. He was 

honourably interred in die cathedral church ox Worcefter, 

where a marble tontb,with his ftatue thereon, was ere&ed „ 

to his memory ; his pifture was alfo placed in the church 

of Ftankley ; and another in that of kales-Owen, where 

his delcendants purchafed a good eftate [a]. He married, 

and had three Ions, William, Richard, and Thomas. 

Richard, being bred to the law, became eminent in that 

profeffion : it was for the ufe of this fon, that our judge 

drew up his celebrated trearifeon tenures, or titles by which 

all eftates were anciently held in England': this was writ* 

ten in the latter end of his life, and printed probably in 

1477 [b]. The judge's third fon, Thomas [c], was 

knighted by Henry VII, for taking Lambert Simnel, the 

pretended earl of Warwick. His eldeft fon and fuccefibr, 

Sir William Lyftleton, after living many years in great 

fplendor at Franklev, died in 150B : and from this branch 

of the judge the famous lord Lytteltori of Frankley in !£• LYT- 

Worcefterinire, who was created a baroa of Great Bri- TELT0 «* 

tain, Nov. 1756, derived his pedigree. 

(a1 Coke's preface and comment Th] Preface to the 1 2th edit, of 

on the 381ft (e&. of Littleton's Te- CoWs Inftitutes* 

•ores, and PogdaVs Chronica feries, fc] He left no legitimate malt 

*• 651 67, 6S, iffue. 

• LITTLETON (Adam), a learned Englifbman, was 
defcended from an ancient family, and born, Nov. 8, 
1627, at HaJes-Owcn in Shropshire ; of which place his 
father was minifter. Being educated under Dr. Bufby at 
Weftminfter-fchool, he was chofen thence ftudent of 
Chrift-church, Oxford, in 1647 ; but ejefted by the par- 
liament-victors the next year. However, he became 
ufher of Weftmiafter-fchool foon after; and, in 1658, 
was made fecond mafter, having for fome time in the in- 
terim taught fchool in other places, and after the Reftora-* 
fion at Chelfea in Middlesex, of which church he was adr 
mitted reftor in 1674. He was made prebendary of Weft- 
minfter the fame year; : and had likewifc a grant from 
Charles H," to fucceed Dr. fiulby in the jaafterlhip of 
, 1 ■ T a ' ' ^ that , 

■ 1 


thtt fchool, for Which he was highly qualified. He had 
been fame years before appointed king's chaplain, and it* 
1670 accumulated his degrees in divinity, which wa$ con* 
ferred upon him without taking any in arts, on account of 
his extraordinary merit : in the atteftation- whereof h* 
brought letters from Henchman, bifhop of London, re- 
commending him to the univerfity as a man egregkmfly 
learned, of lingular humanity and fweetncfe of manners, 
btamelefs and religious life, and aMb for his raquifiter 
genius and ready faculty in preaching. He was for feme* 
time fob-dean of Weftminfter, and, in 1687^ licen&d to 
the ch&rch of St. Botolph Atderfgate, Loncbn^ which ho 
held about fotfl- years, and then refigned it poffibly on frc~; 
count of fome decay in his constitution. 

He died June 30, 1694, aged 67 years, and was buried 
in his church at Chelfea;. where there is a handfomc 
monument, With, an epitaph" to his memory. He was. 
an excellent philofegift and grammarian ; an indtfetiga- 
ble reftorer of die Latin tongue, as appears from his 
Latin " Dictionary [a] ," and an excellent crhic in the 
Greek, a " Lexicon" in which he laboured much in com- 
piling,' but was prevented from finishing by death. He 
Was alfo well {killed in the Oriental languages,. and in 
Rabbinical learning ; in profecutiem of which he exhaufted 
great part df his fortune, in purchasing books and manu- 
scripts from all parts of Europe:, Aiia, and Africa. Some 
time before his death, he made a fmall eflay towards 
facilitating the knowledge of the Hebrew, Chaldee, and 
Arabic tongues ; which, if he had had time, he would have 
brought into a narrower compafs, and freed from the uir-* 
rieceffary load of radixes, with which the common Lexicons 
are incumbered. He was farther verfed in the stbftrufe 
parts of mathematics, and wroie a great many pieces con-t- 
eeming ntyftical numeration* which raftie into the hands 
of his brother-in-law Dr. Hcrfkirt He was TOftHBHely 
charitable, eafy of accefs, communicative, afi&bie, feedtious 
in converfation, free from paflidn, of a ftre-ng conftkution; 
and a venerable countenance. Beftde? his Latin Dictionary* 
he publiftied the books mentioned below [a] 


Ia] The fie ft jdition of it was pub- (beet, 4*0. doubtful, %, « paJortime- 

lifhed in 1678, 4to; and^, again in « ricn», kc. 16 fa" quy. Gtfex int 

X*Z$, with additions. Lathi. 3. "datfibam »fe> trWEttm 

[a] Thcfcurc, i.«TragUoAoidia « Jiftributa," Ice, printed witk tfcfi 

"Oxonienfis, a Latin, poem on the orn4r. 4. «' £lamcnta religiowt, 

v pariitatMtiftoiay 1*4*,° mangle «« fife fm«»* feffe* <a^hccic*t«£ 

.- * «deta 

f-n * r* <"j 

h'i *t T L E T O N; iyt 

^^mlittruii'icfcfiptt ift uflitn fcho- With this were primed three other 
*♦ Urum, IP«V Stfeto*hi*h I* added, tracts of Sdftn, tf *. his " Treatifi- of 

<« ehorch, &c. i66ft»'* •*©. Perhaps « The life ef TheaUbcIes, from the 

8. « Afecmon ft i.fofemn meeting of •« laris dc juramento medic orum q*4 

•* the nativ$*flf tl»e city **4co*imj> of " 0P&QZ < mnqKPAtxm4icitur,&^ , J 

«* Wbrcejler, in Bow-church, London, as alfo '< A Latin infeription in prole 

** 24ti of June i68b," 410. 9. ''.Pre- M andrerfc, inrentfed fdrthe monument 

4* fae&fcD Ciceirn**_wqrJcs, J*0Bd. i6&iV* " of the fire of London, in Sept. \ $6&?t 

1 T9L foU iq. A translation of " 8el- This is pr/ated »* thp end of his Die* , 

** den's Japi A n g' orum facies; altera," tionary j as is likewifc a« eleMntepi(" P 

with notes, pafcKfhed under the name tie to D*. Baldwin Hamey, M. u. 
of Rodman WeAcote, 1683, foL. 

■s . . . . • 

• * * . * - * 

.. LITTLETON (Epwam)), LL.D, was educated Life h y Dr. 
$pon the rojtl fo*nd«*tipn at Elan fchooi* under the qtfoHf ?££& to 
tbatk^rnedaad excellent mafter Dr. Snape; whenever faiteclv Littletons 
by prpper culture and *neQuragement, to give agejuim like Sermons, 
r>ur author's fair play, and brighten it: into ait poffibie 
^erfe^iw. Hi* fchool-^wcifes were friudb arfiahed; and, 
taheft hii turn c%me* he was tranfphutted: fcopljjng's Cotfagtf, 
.Cwpbridg*» in *7<6» with equal appiaufe. A talent -far 
;poefty> kidom refta uj^mpJoycd ; it will break out and 8*ew 
itfejf upon fame oceafion or other. Our author had natb«*li 
JfeQftg M the univerfity* before he diverted a i^hodtfelte**, 
whom he had left at Eton, with an humourous poeai, 
wherein he defcribes his change of ftudies, and hints at 
*$be prQgrefs he had. made in academic*!* Teaming. This ; '" 
was followed by that celebrated one on a 'Spider- And as ' " * ' 
.both thefopot ms h%ve fqfreptitioufly cfept irate Mifcellanies, 
in ^ very imp^rfeft. condition; and, though undoubtedly 
(aa the author was very young when be wrote them) fonte 
of thfr lines might have been improved, yet, on the con- 
.ttary* they have fuffere>d in the attempt, and names have 
been introduced altogether unknown to the author : Dr. 
Morell gave a genuine copy of them [ a ]; as tranferibed by - 

a gentleman then at Etpn fchool, from the author's own ; 
writing < with fuch remains as could be found of a Paftoral ,' 
Elegy, written about the fame time by Mr. Littleton, on 
* the death of R. Banks, fcholar of the. fame college. 
Whether; as our author fays, his academical ftudi<js 
checked i\is poetical Sights, and he rejected theie trifles 


[a] Thafe varies are roferted corre&ly ia an edition, of « Dodfley's 
*' rotms," enriched with notes, 17S2. 

T 3 for 


for the more folid entertainment of philofophy, is un- 
known, nothing more of this kind was met with. Dr. 
Morell found a poetical epiftlefent from fchool to Peny- 
fton Powney, Efq; but as this was written occafionally> and 
fcarcely intelligible to any but thofe who were then atEtoa, 
he has not printed it. In 1 720, Mr Littleton was recalled 
to Eton as an affiftant in the fchool ; in which office he was 
honoured and beloved by all the young gentlemen that 
came under his direction j and fo eiteemeil by the provoll 
and fellows, that, on the death of the Rev. Mr. Malcher 
in 1727, they elefted him into their fociety, and prefented 

, him to the living of Maple Derham in Oxfordfhire. He 
then married Frances, one of die daughters, of Barnham 
Goode, Efq; an excellent lady. June 9, .1730, he was ap- 
pointed chaplain in ordinary to their maje&es ; and in the 
lame year took the degree of LL. D. at Cambridge. But, 
though an admiced preacher and ail excellent fcholar, he 
&ems to have been as little ambitious of appearing in print, 

- as the great Mr. Hales, formerly of the fame college ; not 
having printed any thing, that is known of, in his life- 
time ; . and probably, like Hales too, never penned any 
thing till it was abfohitely wanted. He died of a fever in 
1734, and was buried in his own parifti-church of Maple- 
Derham ; leaving behind him a widow and three daugh- 
ters, for whofe benefit, under the favour and encourage- 
ment of Queen Caroline, his " Difcourfes" wcre.firft 

poRCitxs LI VIUS (Titus), the beft of the Roman hiftorians, 
'.as he is called by Mr. Bayle, was born at Pataviuta, or 
, Padua. There is a line in Martial, " cenfetur Apona Livio 
fuo tellus ;" on the authority of which, fome moderns have 
contended, that Aponus was the birth-place of our author; 
but it does not appear, that any fuch town was then in 
being, Aponus being a celebrated fountain in the neigh- 
bourhood of Patavium; whence Martial, by poetic licence, 
Voffwi a« here ufes Apona tellus for Patavium itfelf. He was fprung 
Hift. Latin, from an illuftrious family, which had given fcveral con- 

ipte'fo. ^ u * s . to ^ omc » Y ct was himfelf the moft illuftrious perfon 

lib. x. of his femily. We know but few circumftances of his life, 

. none of the ancients having left any thing about it ; ahd fo 

referved has he been with regard to himfelf, that we fhould 

be as much at a lofs to determine the time his hiftory was 

<, written in, if it were not for one paflage which accidentally 

Reaped him. He tells us there, that " the temple of Janus 

" had 

L I V* I' tf''s.' 279 

* * had been twice fhut fincc the reign of Numa ; once in the ' N 
*' confulfhip of Manlius, after the firft Punic war Was ' 
*' ended; and again, in his own times, by Auguftus' 
** Caefar, after the battle of Aftium.*' Now, as the temple UK 1. 
of Janus was thrice fhut by Auguftus, and a fecond time*- *9* 
in die year of Rome 730, Livy muft needs have been cm- ' 
ployed upon his hiftory between that year and the battle of 
Aftium. It appears, however, from hence, thathefpent* 
near 'twenty years upon it, fince he carried it down to 
beyond 740. • • 

He was then come to Rome, where he long refided ; 
and fome have fuppofed, for there is not any proof of 
it, that he was known to Auguftus befqre, by certain* 
philosophical dialogues, which he had dedicated to him. 
Seneca fays nothing of the dedication, but mentions the 
dialogues, which he calls hiftorical and philofophical ; ' ' * 
and alfo fome books, written purpofely on the fnbjeft of 
philofophy. Be this as it will, it is probable that he began Smfc. 
Ilis hiftory as foon as he was fettled at Rome ; and he fyiit. *©•• 
feems to have devoted himfelf fo entirely to the great 
work he had undertaken, as to be perfe&iy regardleiV of 
his own advancement.' The tumults and diftraftious of 1 
Rome frequently obliged him to retire to Naples ; not only 
that he might be lefs interrupted in tlie purfuit of his 
deftined tafk, but alfo enjoy that retirement and tranquillity 
which he could not haVe at Rome, and which yet he feen s 
to have much fought after : for he was greatly diflatisfiec 
with the manners of his age, and tells us, that " he fhould 
™ reap this reward of his labour, in compofing the Roman ' 
** hiftory, that it would take his attention from the prefent 
€< numerous evils, at leaft while he was employed upon Pr*f»t. u 
* the firft and earlieft ages." lib - ** 

% He ufed to read parts of this hiftory, while he was com- 
, ppfing it, t;o Maecenas and Auguftus ; and the latter con- 
ceived fo high an opinion of him, that he pitched upon 
him to fuperintend the education of his grandfqn Claudius, 
who was afterwards emperor. Suetonius relates, that 
Claudius, at 'the exhortation of Livy, compofed feveral 
volumes of Roman hiftory : he adds indeed, that Sulpicius 9 4t. »n 
Flavius affifted him; otherwife we might reafonably won- Vl1, Clandl 
der how fo ftupid a creature, as the emperor Claudius is 
reprefented to have been, fhould ever have been able to 
write hiftory, or any tiling elfe. After the death of Au- 
guilds, he returned to the place of his birth, where he 
was received with all imaginable honour and refpect ; and 

T 4 . there 



there he died, in the fourth year, of the reign of Tiberius, 
aged above feventy. Some fay, he died on tfye fame daj 
Kith Ovid ; it is certain, that he died the fame year* 

Scarce any man was ever more honoured, alive as well as 
dead, than this hiftorian. Pliny the younger relates that a 
gentleman travelled from Calgs in the extremeft parts of 
Spain, to fee Livy; and, though Rbuoe abounded with, 
more ftupendous and curious fpeftacles than any city in 
the world, yet he immediately returned ; as if, after having 
fecn Livy, nothing farther could be worthy of his notice. 
B^i*. & A monument was erefted to t)iU hiftorian in the temple of 
*• Juno, where was afterwards, founded the monaftcry of St. 
Juftina. There, in 1413, was difcovered the following. « 
epitaph upon Livy : " Ofla Titi Livii Patavini, omnium 
•* mortalium judicio digni, wjns prope invifto calamo 
" invidi populi Romani res geuae confcribercntur :'* that . 
is, M The hones of Titus Livius of Patavium* a man 
" worthy to be approved by all mankind, .by whofe almoft 
" invincible pen the afts and exploits of the invincible 
" Romans were written." Thefe bones are faid to be pre- 
ferved with high reverence to this day, and are ihewn by 
the Paduans as the molt precious remains. In 14519 
Alphonfus, king of Arragon, fent his ambaflador, Anthony 
Panormita, to defire of the citizens of Padua the bpne of 
that arm with which this their famous countryman had 
.written his hiftory; and, obtaining it, caufed it to be con- 
veyed to Naples with the greateft ceremony, as a moll in- 
valuable relic. He is laid to have recovered from an ill 
ftate of health, by the pleafurc he {bund in reading this 
1 hiftory ; and therefore, out of gratitude, put upon doing 

B ' ie> D^a extra P r< ^ nai y honours to the memory of the . writer* 
pa nor- Panormita alfo, who was a native of Palermo in Sicily, and 
mita.— one of the ableft men of the 15th century, eftatc to 

I° ff Tft e P urc ^ la ^ e *i s hiftorian. 

The hiftory of Livy, like other great works of antiquity, 
is tranfmitted down to us exceedingly mutilated and imper- 
feft. Its books were originally an hundred and forty -two, 
of which are extant only thirty-five. The epitomes of it f/ 
from which we learn their number, all remain, except 
tbofe of the 136th and 137th books : and many have been 
ready to curfe the epitomilers, fbppofing them to. have 
contributed not a little to the negleft firft, and then to tfte 
lofs of their originals, Lord Bolingbroke, ^peaking of 
epitomifers, fays, that « They da neitheir hpnoijr to, 
♦» thernfelvcs, nor good to mankind ; for finely the abridgcr 

>• is 

" is in * fenu below the . tyasfotor ; and tftf . t?pok, qt Jq*ft . 
M the hiftory, that wajtf£ to be abridged* does not deferv* 
" to he read. They have done anciently ^ great deal, of, 
*' Jiurt» by fubftituting niany a bad book in the place of a. 
" gpod Qne ; ^ giving occafion to rpen, who conr 
** tented thepifelves with extra&s an4 abridgements, to, 
" negle&, and through their negleft to lofe the invaluably 
" orig-inais." JUyy's books have been divided into cle- *£" erswi 
cades, which fomc will have to have been done by Livy. Lc l tt ^y # 
himfelf, becaufe theje is a preface to, every decade; while. 
others fuppofe it to be a modern contrivance, fince np«> 
thing about it can be gathered from the ancients.' The* 
firft decade, beginning with the foundation cf Rome, it* 
extant, and treats of the affairs of 460 years* The fecond. 
decade is loft ; the years of which are. feventyrfive. Th* 
third decade is extant, a$d covins the feconil Jpunic war£ 
including eighteen years. It is reckoned the moft excellent 
part of the hiftory, as giving an accounj: of a very long, 
and fharp war, in v^udi the Roffi&ttS gained fa many axU 
vantages, that no arms could afterwards withftand them. 
The fourth decade contains the Macedonia^ war agaiaft 
Philip, and the Afiatic war againft Aptio^hus, which. . 
take? up the fpace of anoint twenty-three yeajs. The fiv* 
firft books of the fifth decao^ were found at. Worms, by- 
Simon Grynams, in 1431, but are very.o^fe&ivo; and tjm 
remainder of Livy's hiftary, which reaqheth to the death of 
Drufus in Genpany, in 7461 together with tl^e fecojod, 4e»-. 
cade, are fupplied ^y F?eu*ftamius. 

Never man perhaps was furniflied with greater ^|2|KB& 
vantages for writing a ty^ory, than Livy. Befides his own 
great genius x \vhi9f1 was m every refpeft admirably fojcn*e4 
for the pwppfe, h* w as trained as it were ifi a city, at that> 
. time the emprefs of the' world, and, in thp politefl; reigg, r * 
that ever was ; having fcarpely had any cither fchoql thai* tfa 
coi|rt of Auguftus. He had accefs to. the very heft mate-n 
r^als, fuch as the *' memoirs of Sylla, Oefar, Labienus^ 
" PoUio, .Augyftus, ai#l others,?' written by fhemfeives./ , 
" What writers of memorials* fays, kord. Bolingbjroke^ 
" w^ajt compilers of the. materia hijlori^a^ were ttjeie \ 
" Wh^t genius was neceflary to finiffi up. the pictures th*A 
Much racers h^4 iketcb>ed? Rome aHp^ded men that, 
u were equal, to the talk* the remains the precious 
"remains, of SaUuft, of Livy, and of Tacitus, witne&i 

" this . truth- Whaf a fchool of pubjic and private 

M vktue, ha<t been opened to \j$ & the, refurre&ion 0$ 

M learning, 

rife L~ I V I u' s.- 

49 learning, if the latter hiftorians of the Roman common ~ 
** wealth, and the firft of the fucceeding monarchy, had, 
44 come down to us entire ! The few that are come down, 
** though broken and imperfeft, compofe the beft body of 
i **.hiftory that we have; nay, the only body of ancient. 
** hxftory, that deferves to be ah objeft of ftudy. It fails t 
.** us indeed moft at that remarkable and fatal period^ where; 
** our reafonable curiofity is raifed the higheft. Livy em- 
. , «* ployed forty-five books to bring his hiftory down to the 
" end of the fixth century, and the breaking out of the 
44 third Punic war -> but he employed ninety-five to bring 
44 it down from thence to the death of Drufus : that is„ 
44 through the courfe of 120 or 130 years. Appian, 
44 Pion Caflius, and others, nay, even Plutkrchi included* 
** make us but poor amends for what is loft of Livy." 
Speaking then or Tully's orations arid letters, as the beft 
adventitious helps to fuply this lofs, he fays, that ** the 
"age in which Livy flourifhed abounded with fuch 
•* materials as thefe : they were frefli, they were authentic : 
44 it was eafy to procure them, it was fafe to employ them* 
44 How he did employ them in executing the fecond part of 
his defign, we may judge from his execution of the firft ; 
and, I own, I fhould he glad to exchange, if it were 
poffible, what we have of this hiftory. for what we have 
** not. Would you not be glad, my lord, to fee, in one 
** ftupendous draught, the whole ptogrefs of that govern- 
44 ment from liberty to fervitude?. the whale feries of 
" caufes arid effe&s, apparent and restf, public and pjir— * 
Utter IV. *« vate?" &c. 

The encomiums beftowed upon Livy, by both ancients 

and moderns, are great and numerous. Quintilian fpeaks 

of him in the higheft terms, and thinks that Herodotus 

Qsiat.iiift.need not take it ill to have Livy equalled with him : we 

•Mt.iib.xn. tkjj^ fo tOQ ^ an( j ^ Lj vy ^ould even ^ e preferred to 

him, fince he feems to us, in almoft. all refpe&s, his 
. iuperior. Herodotus is an agreeable ftory-teller, .fit to 
entertain in an idle hour : Livy entertains too, but that is 
not all ; he inftrudls and interefts in the deepeft manner/ 
But the great probity, candour, and impartiality, are what 
have diftinguifhed Livy above all hiftorians, and very 
defervedly lurely : for neither complaifance to the times/ 
nor his particular connexions with the emperor, could 
reftrain him from fpeaking well of Pompey ; fo well, a& to 
make Auguftus call him a Pompeian. This we learn from* 
Cremutius Cordus, in Tacitus, who relates aMb, mucVto 




•L I- V- I. U ft 283 

the emperor's honour, that this gave no interruption to T«cit. An- 
their friendship. ; 34. 

But whatever elogies Livy iriay have received as an hi- 
ftorian, he has not efcaped cenfure as a writer. In the age 
wherein he lived, Afinius Pollip charged him with Pata- 
vinity ; which Patavinity has been varioufly explained by 
various writers, but is generally fuppofed to relate to his 
ftyle. The moft common opinion is, that this noble 
Roman, accuftomed to the delicacy of the language fpoken 
in the court of Auguftus, could not bear with certain 
provincial idioms, which Livy, as a Paduan, ufed in 
divers places of his hiftory . Pignorius is of apother mind, 
and believes that this Patavinity regarded the orthography 
of certain words, wherein Livy ufed one letter for another* 
according to the cuftom of his country, writing " fibe" 
afnd *' quafe" for " fibi" and *.' quafi" ; which he attempts 
to prove by feveral ancient irifcriptions. Che vreau main- 
tains, that it does not concern the ftyle, but the principles , 
of the hiftorian : the Paduans, he lays, preferred a long 
and coiiftarit inclination for a republic, and were there- ; 

fore attached to Pompey ; while Pollio, being of Casfar's * 
party, was naturally led to fix upon Livy the feritirnents of 
his countrymen, on account of his fpeaking well of Pom- 
pey. . But we may reafonably wonder, that this* point 
could ever have furnifhed occafion for fuch difference of 
opinions, when Quintilian, who muft needs be fuppoled 
to have known the tnle import of this Patavinity, has 
delivered himfelf in fuch explicit terms upon it. Speaking 
of the virtues arid vices of ftyle, he remarks, that Veftius 
had ufed Tufcan, Sabine, and Praeneftine words and 
phrafes in his writings ; for which, fays he, he has been 
cenfured by Lucihus, as Livy has for his Patavinity by 
'Pollio, " Taceo de Tufcis, & Sabinis, & Praeneftinis 
" quoque : nam ut eorum fermone utentem Veftiuin Lu- 
" cilius infeftatur, quemadmodum Pollio depreheqdit in 
" Livio Patavinitatem ; licet omnia Italica pro Romanis 
" habeam* ,> Can it be doubted, after this that the Patavi- 
nity of Livy relates to his language? Yet the learned 
Morhoff has written a very elaborate treatife to prove it. j,tL \. c . 5. 

Is it worth while to mention here the capricious and 
tyrannic hiimour of the emperor Caligula, who aefcufed 
Livy of being a negligent and wordy writer, and refolved 
therefore to remove his works and ftatues out of all libraries, 
where he knew they were curioufly preferved ? or the fame 
humour in Domitian, another prodigy of nature, who put 


tS4 ii, i ^ t v s. 

to death Metius Pfompofianus, beciufe he made a collec- 
tion of fopie orations of kings and generals out of Livy's 
s»etoo.m hift^ry? Pope Gregory tfie vfreat, alfoV would not fuffcr 
c»ir g 54.& Livy in any Chriftian library, becaufe of the Pagan fupex- 
in Dorait. ftitibn wherfewith he aboiinded : but the fame reafon held 
,3 * - good ' againft all anci6nt authors; and indeed Gregory's 
zeal was far from being levelled at Livy in particular, 
thepontiff having declared war againft all human learning. 
* Though we know nothing of Livy's family, yet wc 
learn from Qtjintilian, that he had a fon, to whom he 
addreffed fome excellent precepts in rhetoric. An ancient 
infeription ipcaks alfo of one of his daughters, named 
Li via Quarta; the fame, "perhaps, that efpoufedthe orator 
Lucius Magius, whom oeneca mentions : and obferves, 
th&t the a£pkuft;s h$ ufualljf received from the public in 
his harangues, were not To much on his own account* as 
for the fake of his father-in-law. . 
*r*mlam Our author's hiftory has been often publifhed with 

Opcixoreri: an( * w i^ 10Ut *? fupplemeht of Freinfhemius, The beft 
editions are, th^t of Gronavius^ " cum Qotis variorum 
. * ** & fuis, Lugd. Bat. 1679," 3 vol. 8vo; that of Le 
Clerc, at " Amfterdam, 1709," 10 vol. iamo; and that 
of Crevier, at " Paris, 1735," 6 vol. 4to. Th$fe haye 
the Supplements. Livy's hiftory has been tr^nflate4 into 
almoft all languages ; and Erp'enius affures ys, that the 
Arabians have it entire \n theirs. If tftis be true 4 it is a 
Or»* point worth attending to; for, certainly, Livy'$. hiftory 
jc ling. eiitire would be a valuable agquifition, in whatever, Ian- 
Anecdote* g^ a g c it might be found. . ' A lately difcovered fragment of 
©♦Bnwyer, it was publifhed in 1773, \>y Pr. IJruns. 

by Nichols, ♦ " 

P . 448. LLOYD (William), a very learned EngUfli hifliop, 

: was originally of Welfh extra&ton, being. grandfon of 
David Lloyd„ of Henblas, in the ifle of Anglefey ; but he 
was born at Tikhurft in Berkihire, in 1627, x of which 
place his father, Mr. Richard Lloyd, was then vicar, and 
reftor likewife of Sunning, in the fame county, fte took 
care himfelf to ihftruft his fon" [4] in the, moments of 
grammar and claflical learning; by which means he came 
to underftand Greek and Latin, and fomething of Hebrew, 
at eleven years of a^e ; and was entered, in. 1638, a ftudent 
of Oriel college in Oxford^ whence, the following year, 

Pa] Src his epicaph in Willis's furvey of the cathedral of York, fcc. 


L.LOT'D; xt$ 

he wai tc Jftpved to a fchdlarfhip of Jcfus college. In 1 642, 
he proceeded bachelor of arts, which being completed by 
determination* he left the araro rfi ty , which was then gar- 
rifohed for the ufe of the king j but, after the furrender of 
it to the parliament, he returned, Was chofen fellow of his 
coHege, and commenced mailer of arts in 1646. In the 
year of king Charles's martyrdom* our author took dea- 
con* orders from Dr. Skinner, bilhop of Oxford, and 
afterwards became tutor ta the children of fir William 
Backhoufe, of Swailowfield* in Berkshire, In i$54* 
*pQU the ejection of Dr. Pordage by the Prefbyterian ccm- 
mittee, he was prefented to tht re&ory of Bradfield, in the 
feme county, by EHas Aihmole, efq; patron of that liv- 
ing in right of his wife {b}. Accordingly he was exa- 
mined by the tryers, and pafled with Approbation; butde- 
figns bfcing laid againft him by Mr. Fowler and Mr. Ford* 
two miniftcrs at Reading, who endeavoured to bring in Dr. 
Temple, pretending the advowfon was in fir Humphrey 
Forfter, he chofeto refign his prefentation to Mr. Aihmole* 
rather than undergo axonteft with thofe bufy men. In 
'i 656, he was ordained prieft by Dr.* Brownrig, bilhop of 
Exeter, and the fame year went to Wadham college in Ox- 
ford, as governor to John Backhouie, efq ; who was a gen- 
tleman commoner there ; with him he continued till 1659. 
Sept. 1660, he was incorporated mailer of arts at Cam- . 
bridge [c] ; and, about the fame time, made a prebendary 
of Rippon in Yorkihire. In 1666, he was appointed king's 
chaplain ; arid, in j 66 7, was collated to a prebend of Sa- 
lisbury, having proceeded doctor of divihity at Oxford in 
the a A preceding. In 1668, he Was prefented by the 
crown to the vicarage of St. Mary's in Reading; and the 
fame year was inftalied archdeacon of Merioneth, in the 
church of Bangor, of which he was made dean in 1672. 
Thi9 year he obtained atfd a prebend ift the chutch of St. 
Paul, London. In 1674, he became refidehtiary of Salif- 
bury; and, in 1676, he fccceeded Dr. Lamplugh, pro- 
moted to the fee of Exeter, in the vicarage of St, Martin's 
in* the Fields, Weftftiinftet ; upon which occafion he re- 
figaed his prebend of St. Paml's. 

t«l fte tran Hated int6 Lfitift ArA fitians of the Eaftern Chriftialhs; It 

Ehglifli, a Greek cfiltle of JereMiy h efcfatii in fat Alhmolcan library,* 

tricft, t>o&<>r of the Eaflerri chardf, "ft* 1113. 

to Mr. Atiiftiole, coacefpitfg th£ life f c] Kenny's fctgtfter and Cfhro- 

of St: George, alccotfinj to M tr*- bide, p. 250. 


t86 LLO Y D. 

Our author had fhewjti his zeal in feveral trafts againft 
Popery [d] , and in the fame fpirit he published, in 1677, 
" Confederations touching the true way to fupprefs Popery 
" in this kingdom, &c." on occafion whereof is inferted an. 
hiftorical account of the Reformation here in England; but 
his defign was mifreprefented, and himfelf charged with fa- 
vouring the Papifts. The faft was thus : in this piece he pro- 
pofed to tolerate fuch Papifts as denied the pope's infallibili- 
ty T and his power to depofe kings, excluding the reft ; a 
method which had been put in pra&ice both by queen Eli- 
zabeth and king James, with good fuccefs, in dividing, and 
fo by degrees ruining, the whole party. However, he was 
fufpe&ed of complying in it with the court ; and the fuipi- 
cion increafed upon his being promoted to the bifhopric of 
- St. Alaph, in 1680 ; infomuch that he thought it neceffary 
to vindicate himfelf, as he did [e] efFe&ually, by (hewing 
that, at the very time he made the juft-mentioned propofal* 
the, Papifts thcmfelves were in great apprehenfioh of the 
thing, as being the mod likely to blaft their hopes, and to 
preferve the nation from that ruin which they were then 
bringing upon it [f]. 

At length the fufpicion intirely vanifhed in James IL 
reign, upon his being one of the fix prelates who, with 
archbifhop Sancroft, where committed to the Tower, in 
June 1688, for fubferibing and prefenting the famous peti- 
tion to his majefty, againft diftributing and publifhing in all 
their churches the royal declaration for liberty of confeience* 
The iflue of this affair is the fubjeft of general hiftory, and 
well known : and, about the end of the fame year, our bi- 
lhop, having concurred heartily in the Revolution, was made 
lord almoner to king William III. In 1692, he was tranf- 
lated to the fee of Litchfield and Coventry, and thence to 

[d] See the Catalogue of his works, " to perfecute the reft of them with 

Hi note [m].. *' more appearance>of juftice, and ruin 

[c] In a dedication to the lords, of " the one half of them more eafily 

his fermon on the 51b of November « than the whole body at once.'* And 

1680. - cardinal Howard delivered it as their 

[f] Coleman at that time wrote to judgement at Rome : " Divilion/jf Ca- 

the pope's internuncio thus : " There " tholics, fays he, will be the'eafieft 

*• is hot one thing to be feared (whereof « way for ProteftanU to dettroy them." 

u I have a great apprehenfion) that Collection of letters fct out by order o€ 

*< can hinder the fuccefs^ of our de- the houfe of commons., There is ft 

" figni ; which is, a division among virulent fatire upon him on this occa- 

«« the Catholics themfelves j by propo- fion, in a poem called " faaion difplay- 

"-ficions to the parliament to accord « ed, M fuppofed to be written by the 

** their conjunction to thofe that re- late W. Shippen, efq; many years a 

•« quire it, on conditions prejudicial remarkable member of the houfe of 

."to the aothority of the pope, and fo commons* 

7 Worcefter 


LLOYD. *£y 

.Warcefter in 1699. In this bifhopric he fat till the 91ft 
year of his age, when, without lofing the ufe of his under- 
handing, he departed this life at Hartlebury-caftle, Augufl: 
Q, 1 7 1 7. . He was buried in die church of Fladbury, near 
1 vefham, of which his fon was re&or ; where a monument 
is crefted to his memory, with a long infeription, fetting 
him forth as an excellent pattern of virtue and learning, of 
quick invention, firm memory, exquifite judgement, great 
candor, piety, and gravity ; a faithful hiftorian, accurate 
chronologer, and fkilkd in the holy fcriptures to a mira- 
cle ; very charitable, and diligent in a careful difcharge of 
his epifcopal office [o]. 

Cardinal Noris ufed to fay, " That when he confulted 
<€ other learned men upon any difficult points, he generally 
V failed of fatisfaftion ; but that whenever he applied him- 
" felf to Dr. Lloyd, he was fure of having aU his diffi- 
** culties folved." But, above all, Dr. Burnet, who knew 
him well, ftyks him " a perfon mod indefatigable in his 
4< induftry, and the moft judicious in his observations, of 
" any that he knew, and one of the greateft mafters of ftyle 
" then living." " He was," adds this reverend hiftorian* 
"a great critic in the Greek and Latin authors, but chiefly 
*' in the fcriptures, of the words and phrafes of which he 
" carried a perfect concordance in his head, and had it the 
• 4C readieft about him of all men that I ever knew. He was 
** an exa& hiftorian, and the moft punftual in chronology 

* * of all our divines. He had read the inoft books , and with 
** thebeft judgement, and had made the moft copious ab- 
** ftrafts out of them, of any in that age ; fo that Wilkins 
* € nfed to fay, he had the moft learning in ready cafh of an/ 

* * he ever knew. He was fo exaft in every thing he fet about, 
*' that he never gave over any part of ftudy till he quite 
" mattered it; but when that was done, he went to another 
'" fubjeft, and did not lay out his learning with the diligence 
% * he laid it in. He had many volumes of materials upon 
" all fubje&s, laid together in fo diftinft a method, that he 
** could, with very little labour, write on any of them. 
" He had more life in his imagination, and a truer judge- 
." ment, than may feem confiftent with fuch a laborious 
" courfc of ftudy. Yet, as much as he was fet on learning, 
," he had never negle&ed his paftoral care. For feveral 
" years he had the greateft cure in England (St. Martin's), 
y which he took care of with -an application and diligence 


£aj Willis at before. 

** beyond 

*w . t l 6 V d. 

11 beyohd Any akdut him, to whom he i^as aA Example, dr 
*' rather a reproach. He was a holy, • htimble, and patient 
** mah, ever ready to do good when he faW a proper oppor- 
4i trinity; even his love of ftudy did not divert him from 
" that bleffed employment [h]." 

Such is the panegyric offered with a liberal hand to otir 
author's memory by Dr. Burnet. It was indeed a debt of 
gratitude to this friend, who had not only put him upon 
writing* butfurnifhed moft of the materials, and afterwards 
revifed every iheet, of his " Hiftory of the Reformation [ t J," 
that corner-ftone of Burnet's fame. Befides, there Was 
another motive, which may, perhaps, be thought to work 
fomewbat updh him. Biihop Lloyd, for we muft not c6n 7 
eeal it, was, with all his acknowledged worth in othef re- 
fpefts, a zealous party-man, and of thr fame fide with hit 
brother Burnet ; ho wonder, therefore^ that we find the latter 
patting over in filence, what may be deemed an imperfe&ion 
in the chara&er of the former. The fim£le fa&, withotit any 
colouring, is this : in 1702, biihop Lloyd and his fern hav- 
ing too warmly interefted themfelves in the elfe&ion of 
knights of the (hire for the county of Worceftfe*, and en- 
deavoured to hinder fir John Packihgton from beihg chofen, 
a complaint was made . to the houfe of eomftiohs, who 
thereupon came to the following refolutions. u fcefolved, 
* 4 That it appears to this houfe, that the proceedings of 
" William lord bifhop of Worcefter, his fon and his agents, 
" in order to the hindering of ah eleftion of a ttieftibef for 
" the county of Worcefter, has been maiiqidus, urithriftian, 
*• and arbitrary, in high violation of the liberties and- 
V privileges of the commons of England* kefolved, That 
" an humble addrefs be prefented to hfcr majefHr, that fhe 
41 will be gracioufly pleafed to remove William lord bifhop 
" of Worcefter from being lord-almoner to her majefty, 
" and that Mr. attorney-general - do prbfefcnte Mr. Lloyd, 
•' the lord bifhop of Worcefter's fon, for his faid otfetfce, 
4 * after his privilege as a member of the lowfcr houfe of c6n- 
** vocation is out [k]." In purfuance to thefe votes, ari 
addrefs being prefented to the queen,- her majefty complied 
With it, and difmftfed the bifhop from hi* place of ahtifoer 
£l ]. Below is a catalogue of hiS works [ m}. 



r [»] Burnet's HMory of his own FKlTotetrf «Mfbbtife/ofeo*i*oiifc 
tim c s - . t L 3 Beyer's Life of queen Anne. 

[ij Preface to hisHift. of the Re- |m! Befides the M ConfiJerations, 
formation. . « &c."ihenti©ne<Ulx>ve l thcrcftare. f. 


LL O Y D* 

«-Ute tfoSbfjun feehalfbf PapHN re* irotogy of Sir I(aac. Newton. I©. 

" printed and anfwered, in behalf of the "An expofition of Daniel's prophc- 

«*.Royali*fcs, 1667," 4to. 2, " A ica- ( " cy of 70 weeks," left printed icnpcr- 

* r fbnable difconrfr, (hewing the tie-"" fe£r, and. not publiih-d. ir. "A* 

*\ cefikyjof maintaining the; efrablifhed letter upon the faihe ftbjeA, printed 

€i religion, in oppofitioa to popery> in- the " Life of Dr. Humphrey PrU , 

" i$7j/* .4«J ; there Was a" fifth ddi- «« deaujc," p. 28*8. edit. 1758, 8vo. 12, ' 

1 Km IthfaYyfeift 3. " A reafrriable de- « A fyfteih of chronology," left imper-' 

•• fence of thf^ feaftnafclt difcottrft* fecV but out of it his chaplain; Ben- V 

* c ©cc* 1074," 4*0 Thefe were an- jamin Marfhal, compoied 'his " Chro- 

fwered 'fey the earl of Caftlterriaih. 4. " rtological tables/' printed a t Oxford, 

«* *THe difcreace between the chtfrch 1711, 1^x3* 13. A A Harmony of 

t€ aj^dthe court of Rotate." "5. Tm* Fol- < c the Gofpeh," partly printed" in 4to»- 

lowing fermons : '• ,A fermon before but left imperfect. 14. " A* cbrouo^. 

/« <Ae 'king} 't 665.* " At the funeral « logical account of the Life of Py- 

'«« oftttf^Wjlkiits,*^^' 1 "Before *« thagoras, &c. 1699." 15. He is 

H the^ing,T674." ** At th* fuberil of fuppofcd to have had a hand in a book. 
€t Sir Eoniundbury Godfrey, 1678, 

*« Afc$tt1M^ttmVintteFiel<fe,frov.the 
'* ych, 1679V* *' before rhrfcivi*, Nov. 
«« 04th, ihid." " Before king WiUiara 
" and q^ueen Mary, Nov. 5, 1689." 
** Before th© king and qaeenj 1690." 

published by his fon at Oxford, 1706^ 
in folio, intitledi " Scries chronologic* 
*' Olympiad utm ilthmiadum Nemiadurn§ 
"&c/' 16. He affifted Dr. Wilkin* 
in his " Eflay coward a real character, 
&c." -17. "He wrote fome explication*" 

♦*** A ktur to Dr; Wtlhant Sherlock, - of fdme of the prophecies iu the Re- 
«' in viDdieaLtjonqf that part ofjofephus's vclatUns. See Whifton's Eflay 01L 
*'"H*iftory, which gibe's ah account of that* book, and his life, p. 31. fecond 
** Jadddsthe* high prieiTs fobmittingto edit. Vol. i. r8. He added the chrono- 
* Alexander the Great* 1691.*' 7. \ k A . logy, and many of the references and 
'« Difcoucfe of God's ways of difpofiirg parallel places, printed in mad of the 
" k'ingddnis, 1^91." 8. ** The pretences Englilh Bibles, particularly the edi- 
««<xfthieflFr#nch ittVafkhn examined, &c. tions in 4to. 19. He left a Bible in* 
•' 1632." 9. ■*' A -dlflertatibn upon terlifted -with notes in fliort hind, 
«' Dao|e('s 70 weeks,'** printed under which was in the ^ofieffioa of Mr, 
his artteie in the General Dictionary, Marfhal, his chaplain, who married 
the* fubfiance infected into the chro- his relation. 


. kLO'YD (Rctbert), M. A. fon of Dr. Pierfoh Anecdote 
Lloyd; fecond mailer of Weftminfter fchool [a], whereof Bowycr, 
Robert was educated, and whence he was' admitted 6f Tri- p^^ holf ' 
nity College, Cambridge, and took the degree of M. A. 
At • the w University, as at Weftminfter, he diftinguiflied 
hinafelf by . his poetical genius and his irregularities* He 
was for fome time fcmpioyed as one of the' ufhers of Weft- 
minfter fchool, where h« wrote his celebrated poem called 
"The Aftor, 1760 ;" which not only gave proofs of great . 
judgement in thd ftibjeft he was treating of, but had alfo , 

tlie mqrit of fmooth verification and great ftrength of Po- 

* • 

. {-a} Afterwards chancellor of York, had a penfion from his Majefty of 400I. 

aiad oortionift of \Vaddefdon, Bucks; which ccafed with, his life, Jan. 5, 

whofeitfarnirig/jadgertie'ntj and*nocfe- 178*1. A fmaller penfion has frnce 

ration endeared him to all who partook been granted to his widow and to carl* 

of his inftroclions, during a courfc of of his daughter?. A literary porta t 

a I mo ft- 50 years fpent in the fcrvLe of of Dr. Lloyd may be found in the 

thcptfWick at \VefTimnfteT School. He " Life of Bp. Newton." 

Vol.' VIII. ' U . ctry. 

290 LL OYD; 

ctry. In the beginning of the poetical war which for 
fome time raged among the wits of this age, and 
to which the celebrated " Rofciad" founded the firft 
charge, Mr. Lloyd was fufpe&ed to be the author 
of that poem. But this he noneftly difowned, by an 
advertifement in the public papers; on which occafion the 
real author, Mr. Churchill, boldly ftepped forth, and in 
the fame public manner declared himfelf, and drew on that 
torrent Qt ** Anti-Rofciads," " Apologies," «* Murpbiads," 
" Churchilliads," " Examiners, &c. which for a long 
time kept up the attention, and employed the geniufes, of 
the greateft part of the critical world. After Mr. Lloyd 
quitted his place of ufher of Weftminfter fchool, he relied 
entirely on his pen for fubfiftence ; -but, being of athought- 
lefs and extravagant difpoiition, he foon made himfelf lia- 
ble to debts which he was unable to anfwer. In con- 
fequence of this iituation he was confined in the Fleet Pri- 
fon, where he depended for fupport almoft wholly on the 
. bounty and generofity of his friend Churchill, whofe kind- 
nefs to him continued undiminished during all his neces- 
sities. On the death of this liberal benefador, Mr. Lloyd 
funk into a ftate of difpondeiKy, which put an end to his 
exiftence Dec. 15, 1764, in lets than a month after he was 
informed of the lofs of Churchill. Mr, Wilkes fays f 
that " Mr. Lloyd was mild and affable in private life, of 
gentle manners, and very engaging in converfation. He 
was an excellent fcholar, and an eafy natural poet. His 
" peculiar excellence was the dreffing up an old thought m 
" a new, neat, and trim manner.. He was contented to 
" (camper round the foot of tarnafius on his little Welch 
" poney, which fecms never to have tired. He left the fu- 
" ry ot the winged fteed, and the daring heights of the fa- 
cred mountain, to the fublime genius of his friend 
Churchill." A partial colle&ion of his poetical works 
was made by Dr. Kenrick, in two volumes 8vo, 1774; 
and a good imitation by him, from " The Spectator/* may 
be feen in the Seventh Volume of the •• Seleft Colleftion 
" of Mifcellaneous Poems, 1781," p. 213. He was alfo 
the author of " Th$ Capricious Lovers," a comic opera, 
vSSSSl ! ? 6 ^ 8v ° ; ^doffour other dramatic works. His imi- 
tation of Theocritus, on the King's going to the Houfe, 
deferves much praife. 

LOCKE (John), a very celebrated philofopher, and 
one of the greateft men that England ever produced, was 
defcended from a genteel family in Somerfttfhire, once 


LOCKE* 191 

poflefled of a hindfome eftate, but mucli impaired when it 
came into his hands from his father, who was br$d to the 
law, and who followed it till the breaking out of the civil 
war under Charles L When he entered into the parliament's 
fervice, and was made a captain. However, his fon being 
born long before at Writigton near Briftol in 1632, he 
bred him up with great ftriclnefs in his infancy, and then 
fent him to Weftminfter-fchool. Hence he became ftudent 
of Chrift-Church in Oxford in 1651, where he made a 
diftinguifhed figure in polite literature [a] ; and* having 
taken both his degrees in arts in 1655 and 16589 he entered 
on the phyfic line, Went through the ufual courfes prepa- 
ratory to the practice* and got fome bufinefs in the profeffion 
at Oxford. But his constitution not being abJe to bear 
much fatigue of this fort, he gladly embraced an offer that 
was made to him, of going abroad in quality of fecrctary to 
fit William Swan, who was appointed envoy to the 
elector of Brandenburg, and fome other German princes, 
in 1664. 

This employ continuing only for a year, he iteturned to 
Oxford, and was profecuting his medical ftudies there, When, 
an accident brought him acquainted with lord Aihley, af- 
terwards earl of Shaftefbury, in 1666. His lofchhip being 
advifed to drink the mineral waters at A Aon, for an abfeefs 
in his brcaft, wrote to Dr. Thomas, a phyfician at Oxford* 
to procure a quantity of thole waters to be ready at his com- 
ing there. Thomas, being called away by other bufinefs, 
eafily prevailed with his friend. Mr. Locke to undertake 
the affair ; who, happening to employ a perfon that failed 
him, was obliged to wait upon his lordfhip on his arrival, 
to excufe the difappointment. Lord Afhley, as his manner 
was, received him with great civility, and was fatisfied 
with his apology ; and, being much pleafed with his conver- 
fation, detained him to fupper, and engaged him to dinner 
the next day, and even to drink the waters, as he had fome 
defign of having more of his company, both this and the 
next fumtner of 1667. After which he invited him to his 
houfe, and followed his advice in opening the abfeefs ift 
his breaft, which faved his life, though it fiever clofed* 
That cure gave his lordfhip a great opinion of Locke's fkill 
in phyfic ; yet, upon a further acquaintance, he regarded 
. this as the leaft of his qualifications. He advifed him to 
. .turn his thoughts another way, and would ndt fuffer him 

[ VJ See a copy of verfes, addrefled with the Dutch* in I 6 53, printed 5a 
- to Ohrct Cromwell, upon hit peace State Poems, vol. I. edit. 1699. * 

U a to 

t9* LOCKE 

to praSifc phyfic <rot *f hi* hcmftt «Ktf£t among feme ot 
his particular fritrnd*. . He urged him. to apply himfelf to 
ri* ftudy of political fubjec>, bo/Jiccclefiaftical and civile 
This advice prov«4 Tery agree&bktfr Locke's temper, and 
be qaickty made fi> coafidorabte a frogrsfs in it> that lie 
. Was confuted by his patron upon all occasions, wh«> like- 
wife introduced him, into the acquaintance of the doke of 
Buckingham, the earl of r}aiiiii*t and feme ^ottoer of the 
mod eminent perfons at that timsv About 1669, he at- 
tended the countefs of Northumberland into France, with 
her hufband; but the earl dying. at Turio* in May 1670, 
Mr- Locke, who was. left m France to* attend thecoontefs* 
returned with her ladyftip to England. On his return, ht 
lived as before, at lord.Afhley's, thsnchaticeflorof the e*» 
chequer ; who having, jointly with fovnt other lords, obi- 
tained a grant of Carolina, employed our author to "draw 
up the fundamental conftitutions of that province. He ftill 
retained his ftudent's. place in Chrift-Church^ whither he 
went occafionally to refide, for the fake of books and ftudy, 
as well as. the air, that of London, not agreeing with his 

He had conceived an early difguft againft tfte method of 
Ariftotle, and had a particular averfion to the fchoiaftic dif- 
putations. In this difpofition he read Des Cartes's : ptailofo- 
phy witli pleafurc ; but, upon mature cnfifkhcration, fkiding 
it wanted a proper ground-work ih experiments^ hexrfblved 
to attempt fomcthing in that way. . Accordingly, hiving 
now get lome lcifure, he began to form the plan bf his- ' ' £ffay 
" on human underftanding" in 167 1 ; but was hindered 
from making any great progrefs in it by other employment 
in the fervice of his patron, who* being created earl' of Shafted 
kury, and made lord chancellor the following year, ap- 
pointed him fecretary of the prefenftatione. He held this 
place till Nov. 1673, when the great-feal being taken from 
his maftcr, the fecretary, who was privy to his moft fecret 
affairs, fell into difgrace alfo* and afterwards affifted in 
fome pieces the earl ^ procured to be publifhed, to excite 
the nation to watch the Roman catholics, and oppofe their 
defigns. However, his lordfhip being ftill refident at the 
. board of trade, Locke alfo continued in his poft of fecretary 
, to a commiffion from that board, which had been given 
him by his matter in June this year, and was worth 500 1. 
per annum, and enjoyed it till Dec 1674, when the com- 
miffion was diilblved. 



>' tec!!* 

3** LOT QUA./ 

• LOYOLA (Ignatius of), the founderof the Jefuks, 

was born of a confiderable family in 149 1, at the caftle of 

Loyoia f in tlie province of Guipufcoa in Spain, He was 

brought up in the court of Ferdinand and Habella ; and, .as 

foori as he was of age, took upon him the profeflion of a 

foldier. He was addidedto allthcexcefies too common to 

that ftate ; neverthelefs he behaved like a good officer, and 

fought for occafions to fignalizc himfelf. He difcqvered 

great masks of valour at Pampeluna, when it was befieged 

by the French in 1521 ; and was even wounded with a 

cannon-ball, which -broke his right leg. While this 

wound was healing, he formed a refolution of bidding 

adieu to all terreftrial vanities, of travelling to Jerufalem, 

and dedicating himfelf to God. He is faid to have been 

converted by reading the legends of faints, as Don Quixote 

began his errantry from reading the old romances; though 

In ▼itt f ome have wondered how he did to read them., for MafFeius 

Igiutii. bribes him as one who had hardly ever learnt his 

letters. He was as much moved with the ftories of St. 

Dominic and St. Francis, as ever Don Quixote was with 

* the adventures of former knights ; infomuch that, before 

he took up a firm refolution of religious errantry, he would 

figure to himfelf the difficult enterprifes of thofe two illuf- 

trious heroes. 

The inftant he was cured, he fet out for the holy Lady 

of Montferrat ; and, being arrived there, hung up.his arms 

•over the altar of the bleffed Virgin, devoting himfelf to 

. her fervice in the night of the 24th of March,. 1522 ; for 

he imitated the laws of ancient chivalry as nearly as pof- 

-" .'fible, when he enlifted himfelf under the ftandard of his 

Spiritual warfare In the way thither, he had a difpute 

' with a Moor, who allowed the -virginity of the. bleffed 

- Mary till the time of her delivery, but no longer : upon 

"] which, Loyola, 'confidering whofe knight he was about to 

be, began to be fo. enraged, that the confequences might 

/ have been fatal, if tljie Moor had not retired. Having 

watched all night at Montferrat, fometimes ftanding, 

fometimes kneeling, and devoting himfelf with all his 

"might to the blefled Virgin, he fet out before day-break, 

'put on a pilgrim's habit, and travelled to Manrefa, Here 

# he took his lodging among the poor of the town hofpital, 

' . and pra&ifcd mprtifications of every kind for abtyve a year. 

He let his hair and nails grow, begged from dopr to ^loor, 

yet felled fix days in the week ; whipped himfelf thrice a 

day, was feven hours every day in vocal prayer, lay bare 

idroL'A. 323 

upon the, gfoiihd, and' all to /prepare, bimfelf for his advent 
tures to. Jerufalem. \\ was here aifo that iie wrote hi$ 
l>ook of*' Spiritual ExerxnfesV' in Spanifh ; a Latin tranf- 
latioh of , which, by Andrew Erufius, . he publifhed at 
Upme in 1548, when It... was favoured with the approbar 
tiori of pope Paul Til. If Any wonder,., how the illiterate 
'Loyola, who could hardly read,, fhoufd yet be able to write 
a. book of any kind ; they may pike, if , they pleafe, # the 
foiutum of this affair from father Alegamb£,- who, in; the 
firft page of his " Bibliotheca focictatis lefu," delivers 
himfelf in the following manner: " Lev/is de Ponte, a 
** perfon of undoubted credit, relajes, how faithful tradi-* 
" tion had handecTit down to father Lainez, general of 
**\the Jefuits, that thefe exercifbs "were revealed to our 
u holy, fathef (Ignatius of Loyola) by God himfelf; and 
** that Gabriel the archangel had declared to a certain per- 
" foh, in the frame of the bleffed Virgin, how flie had 
** ; beeji '.their patronefs,' their founder, and "helper; had 
4 * prompted Loyola to' begin this work, and had dictated 
%i \o him what he mould write." If this account Ihould 
favour too much of the miraculous for a Proteftant reader, 
he need only' fiippofe, that Loyola fVole the fubftance of 

- his book, of was affifted in compofing it by fome other 
perfon. ' "' 

ttavifig embarked on board a fhip at Barcelona, in order 
to go to Jerufalem, he arrived at Cajeta in five days, and 
would not proceed in his enterprife till he had received 
the pope's benedi£tion. Accordingly he came to Rome 
oh Palm'-funday, 1523; from whence, after paying his re- 
i*pefts tb Hadrian VI. he went to Venice. He embarked. 

. there the 14th of July, 1523, arrived at Joppa the laft of 
Auguft, a.iid at Jerufalem the 4th of September. Having 
gratified in that country his devout curiofity, he returned 

. to Venice, where? he embarked for Genoa ; and from 
thence tame to Barcelona, . where he flopped, as at the 
moft convenient place with refpeft to the defign. he had 
of ftudying the Latin tongue. The miraculous adven- 
tures', the . eytatic virions, which he' had during this 
voyage, . were innumerable ; and it would be endlefs to 
tra'nfcfibe, from his hiftorians, on thefe occafions. Biihop of ,he JJ °- 
Stillingfleet has drawn a good proof from them, that the ? r *J ? r *^ 
inftitutioa of the Jefuits, as well as other monks, is church of 
founded originally in fanaticifm. He began .to learn the R °me, in 
rudiments' of grammar in 1524, and foon came to read the | ]lp 5 V°." 
*' Enchiridion militis Chriftiani of Erafmus ; a book, in J™£ 9# h,s 

Y 2 which 




tt, ittTlU 

c. \y 


Wnicri a purity of ftyle is joined with the moft figc itiks of 
Chriftian morality. But this did not fuit with Loyola ; 
and therefore he laid it afide, and applied himfelf to the 
^ ftndy of Thomas a Kempis. It was like fo much ice, 
JfcnatU **" which abated the fervour of his devotion, cooled the fire 
fe>7°!*» of divine love in him';* for which reafon be took an aver** 
5 l *«'* fi° n to **> scn ^ would never read the writings of Erafmus, 
nor evenfufler his difciples to read them. 

Loyola was thought in two years to have made a progress 
fufficient for hft being admitted to the led ores of philofo-* 
hy ; upon which he went to Alcara de Henares is* 1526* 
is mendicant life, his apparatus, and that of four com-* 
(anions,* who had already efpoufed his fortune, together 
with the inft ru&ions he gave to- thqfe who flocked about 
him, brought him ar length under the cognizance of the 
inquifition* {Inquiries were made' concerning his life and 
doctrines ; and it being obferved, that a widow with her 
daughter had undertaken a ptigrijnage on foot, as beggars* 
under his direction, he was ftrongly inveighed againfi, ar^l 
thrown into prifon. He obtained his releafe upon pro- 
knifing not to vent his opinions for four years ; hut, this 
reftraint not fuiting at all with his defign, he determined 
not to comply with it; and, therefore, going to Sala- 
manca, he continued to difcourfe on religious matters, as 
before. He was thrown again into .prifon, and was »oC 
difcharged till he had made fomc promifes, as at Alcala 
de Henares, Then he refolved'to go to Paris, where he 
arrived in Feb. 1528, with a firm refolution to puriue bis 
fiudies vigoroufiy; but the wretched ctrcunrnances ta 
which he was reduced, he being forced to beg about the 
ftreets, and to retire to St. James's hofpital, were prodi- 
gious obftacles to his defign ; not to mention, that he wa$ 
ti\en impeached before the mquHition. Notwithstanding 
trKfe difficulties, he went though a courfe of philofophy 
and divinity, and won over a certain number of compa- 
nion^ who bound therafelves by a vow to lead a new way- 
of lift;. They did this in the church of Montraartse, the. 
15th of Auguft 1534 ; and renewed their vow twice in the- 
feiine plftce, and on the fame day, with the like ceremonies* 
At firft \hey were but fcven in number, including Loyola; 
bur were at laft increased to ten. They agreed, that 
Loyola fhould scrum to Spain to fettle fome affairs, that* 
afterwards he fhould proceed to Venice, and that they 
fhould all let out from Paris, Jan. 25, 15.37, to.njeet.. 

LOYOLA. frs 

Me went into Spain in 1535, preached repentance there, 
and drew together a prodigious crowd of auditors. He ex~ , 
claimed, among other things, againft the fornication of 
prieft?, which was almoft grown to be no fcandal at that 
time. Alter tranfa£ting the affairs whiph his aflbciates 
had recommended to his care, be went by feato Genoa; 
and travelled from thence to Venice, where they met 
him Jan. 8, 1537* This was foniewhat fooner than the 
time agreed on ; neverthelefs, he was there before them, 
and had employed his time hi winning oyer fouls ; and, 
what Was of muth greater confequence to the forwarding 
his grand fcheme, , he had got acquainted with John Peter • 
Garafia, who was afterwards Pope, by the name of Paul HE 
As they had bound tbemfclves by a vow to travel to Jerp~ 
Jalem, they prepared for that expedition ; but were firft de't 
termined to pay their rpfpe&s-to the Pope, and obtain his 
benediftion and leave. Accordingly they went to Rotn^ 
and were gratified in their defires. Being returned . to 
Venice, in order to embark, they found no opportunity ; 
the war with the grand feignor having put an entire ftop 
to the peregrination of pilffriins by fea, They refolved 
however not to be idle, and therefore difperfed themfelvea 
up and down the towns in the Venetian territories. It 
was < refolved at length, that Loyola and two others, Fabef 
and Layoez, fhould 'go to Rorne, and reprefent to the 
Pope the intentions of the whole company ; and that the 
reft, in the mean time, fhould be diftributed into the moft 
femous universities of Italy, to plant and insinuate piety 
among the young ftudents, and to incrpafe their own num- 
ber with fucfi as God fhould call in to them. But before 
they feparated, they eftablifhed a way df life, which they 
were all to conform to ; and bound thetnfelves to obferve 
thefe following rules : " Frft, that they Ihould lodge in 
" hofpitals, and live only upon alms. Secondly, that 
♦•* they fl^ould be fuperiors by turns, each in his week, left 
•* their fervour fhould cHry them too far, if they did not' 
'* prefcribe limits to one another for their penances and 
" labour. Thirdly, that they fhould preach in all pub* 
" lie places, and every other place where they could be 
*' permitted to do it ; fhould fet forth in their fermons the 
** beauty and rewards of virtue, with the 4eformity and 
M punifhments of fin f and this in a plain, evangelical 
manner, without the vain ornaments of eloquence, 
Fourthly, that they fhould teach children the Chriftiari 
*\ do&rine, and the principles of good rnanners': and, 

X 3 * <« Fifthly, 

az6 ro*Y o l a;. 

Boohoors, « Fifthly, that they fheuld take no money for executing 
n«cr i?t. " t ' 1 ^ r functions ; but do ail for the glory of God, and ho- 
^j. '' l ' *' thing elfc." They all confentord to tbefe, articles ^ but as 
they wcte often aiked, who* they were, and what was their 
mftitute, Ignatius declared to them in precife terms what 
they were to^anfwer : he told them, that being united to 
fight a^ainft herefies and rices, under the ftandard of Jdfbs 
Cbrift, the only name which anfwered their deugn was, 
V The Society of Jefus." 

Ignatius, Faber, andLaynez, came to Rome .about the 
end of 1537* and at.their firft arrival had audienccwof his 
holinefs Paul III. They offered him their fervice ; and 
Loyola undertook, under his apoflolical authority, the 
reformation of manners,' by -means of his Spiritual exer- 
cifes, and of'Ghnifthui inftra&ibns. Being difmh%d for 
the prcfent, but not without encouragement, Uoyola pro* 
pofed foon after to his companions the founding of a new 
<nder; and; after conferring with Faber and Layncz. about 
it, fent for the reft of his companions,. who were difperfed 
through Italy; The general fchcrac being agreed on, he 
next conferred with his companions about his inftrtute ; 
and at feverar aflemblies it was refolved, that, to the vows 
uf poverty and chaftity, whicli they had already I taken, 
they ihould add that of obedience ; that they fhould elec~fc 
a luperior general, whom they muft obey as God himfelf ; 
that this fuperior Ihould be .perpetual, and his authority 
abfolute ; that wherefoever they Ihould be fent, they 
fhculd inftantly and chearfully go, even without any via~ 
ticum, and living upon alms, if it fhould be fo required ; 
that the profefled of their focicty Ihould poflefs nothing, 
•either in particular or in common; but that in the uni- 
yerfities they might have colleges with revenues- and rents, 
for the fubfiftence of the ftudents.. A peifecution in the 
mean time was raifed againft Loyola at Rome, who how- 
ever went on with his great work, in fpite of all oppcii- 
tion. Some of his companions were employed upon great 
occafions by tlie Pope; and two of them, Simon Rodri- 
guez and Francis Xaveriusi were fent to the Indies, with 
no lefs than the title of " Apoftles of tlie new world." 
Loyola had already prefented the Pope with the plan of 
his new fociety; and he now continued his; application 
with more warmth than ever, to have it approved by the 
holy fee. Accordingly Paul III. confirmed it in 1540, 
P.i condition, that their number Ihould never exceed three- 
score i and, in 1543, without any reitridions, Loyola 


L O Y O LA. 327 

was created general of this new order 1541, and made 
Rome his head quarters, while his companions difperfed 
themfelves over the whole earth. He employed himfelf 
in fqveral occupations, as the converfion of the Jews, the. 
reforming of lewd women, the affifting of orphans. Rome 
was at that time full of Jews, who were, many of them> 
leady to come over to Chriftianity, but for fe&r of poverty ;. % 
upon which Paul III. at Loyola's requeft, enafted, that 
they ftiould preferve all their pofleffions ; and that if any 
of them, who might befell born, fhould turn Chriftians, 
contrary to their parents confent, the whole fubftance of 
the family fhould devolve to them. Julius III. and 
Paul IV. added a new ordinance, namely, that all 1 the 
fynagogues in Italy fhould be taxed every year at a certain 
fum, to be applied to the maintenance of his profelytes. 
Proftitutes alio, and* lewd women, then abounded in 
Rome ? and thefe were another great object of Loyola's 
zeal and care. There was, indeed, at that time, a con- 
vent of Magdalenifts, into which ' fuch diflblute women, 
as were defirous of leaving their infamous courfe of life, 
were admitted, provided they would oblige themfelves to 
lead a conventual life for the reft of their days, and take 
all the vows of their , order. But" Loyola, thinking this 
condition and fome others too fevere, founded a new 
community of this kind of penitents, where maids and 
married women might be indifferently admitted. It was 
called, * The community of the grace of the blefled Virgin/ 
He caufed apartments to be built in St. Mary's church ; 
and he frequently conducted them thithet himfelf. He 
was fometimes told, that he loft his time, for that fuch 
women were never heartily converted ; to which he. re- 
plied : " If I did hinder them but one night from offend - 
*** ing God, 1 fhould think my time and labour well 
" employed." * - 

Calumny levelled all her artillery at him from every 
quarter ; notwithstanding which, he employed his utmoft 
endeavours to heighten the glory of hjs order, and fettle it 
on a firm foundation. Some women would have fubmit- 
ted to his difcipline ; but the great trouble, which the 
fpiritual direction of three of that fex had given him, 
oblige^ him to free his fociety for ever from the per~ 
plexing tafk. Having got his order confirmed by pope 
Julius III. in 1550, he would have refigned his employ- 
ment of general; but the Jefuits not permitting him. he 
'continued in it till his death, which happened July the 

: *-■. \ Y 4 31ft. 

31ft, 15569 in his 66th year- He died thiftj^Sire ?ttp* 

after his conversion, and fixfeen after his iocifity WM 
founded, He could not be faid to die immaturely, with 
regard to his glory ; for he lived to fee hi$ follower* 
fpread over the face of the whole earth, and giving laws* 
under him, to alrnoft all nations* He wa^ of a middle 
ftature, rather low than tall , of a brown CQrnple*k>o, 
bald-headed, his eyes deep let and full of fire, hi* lore? 
head |arge, and his nofe aquiline. He halted a little, by 
feafqn of the wound he received at the fiege of Painpeluna % 
t»ut Jic nonaged himfelf fo well in walfyng, that it wa$ 
hardly perceived. It was not pretended at firft, that* 
Loyola wrought any miracles ; but when his canonization 
began to be talked of, his miracles became innumerable, 
and were confirmed by. all forts of witnefles, Paul V, 
beatified him in 1609 ; Gregory XV. inferted him in th« 
catalogue of faints in 1622; Innocent 2£. and Clement DC, 
increafed the honpurs that were paid him. 

But whatever honours might he paid Loyola, nothing 
can be more furprifing fn his hiftory, than the prodigious 
jpower which his prder acquired in 10 few years in the ol4 
world, as well as in America. It is furprifing how much, 
this order multiplied in a fho.rt time, after it was oncq 
cftablifiVd. In 1543, the Jefuits were but eighty in all* 
}n 1^45, they had but ten houfes ; . in 1549, they had twq 
provinces, one in Spain, anQther in Portugal, aiid twenty 7 
two houfes. In 1556, when Loyola died, they had twelve; 
great provinces; in 1608, Ribadeneira reckons twenty- 
nine provinces, two vice-provinces, twenty T one profefle^ 
houfes, 293 colleges, thirty T threc houfes of probation, 
ninety-three other residences, and 10,581 Jefutfs. Ana 
in the iafli catalogue, which was printed at Rome- In 
1679, they reckon thirty-five provinces, two vice-pro-: 
vinces, thirty-three profeifed houfes, 578 colleges, forty-* 
tight houfes of probation, eightyTeight feininaries, }6o 
residences, 106 millions, and in all 17,655 Jefuits, of 
whom 7870 were priefts. What contributed chiefly tq 
the prodigious increafe of this order, in. fo Ihort a time^ 
was the great encouragement they received from the popes* 
*s well 3$ firorn tlje kings of Spain and Portugal. They 
received this encouragement for the ufe it was fqppofed 
they relight be^of tq both fhefe powers. Va/ious fe&s qf 
religion were at that time infulting Popery ; in Gernaany 
Specially, where Lutheranihn was prevailing iQightily. 
""lie jekijti. were thought a proper order to oppofe thefc 


;XlO r YOL A* # f 

iaftdto and isc4ifioci& ; and fo fyt migjht be ufe&l to tbe. 
pope. The Spaniard found bis account in fending them 
jao the Indies, where, by planting Christianity, and incul- 
cating good manners, they might reduce barbarous nations 
into a move civilized form, and by that means make them 
better fobj«&s. The Jefuits were very likely perfons to 
foocred in thefe employment?, whether we jzonfider their 
manners, difcipline, or policy. They carried a great ap* 
po&raace of holinefe, and obferved a regularity of conduit, 
\n their lives and convocations, which gave them great . 
influence over the people; who, on this account, and 
•especially as they took upon them the education of youth 
without pay or reward, conceived the higheft opinion of,; 
and reverence far them* Th«ir poliey too, within them* 
ifelvea, was wifely contrived, and firmly eftabiifhed. They 
admitted none into their fociety, that were not perfe&lr 
qualified in every refpect. Their difcipline was rigicf f 
their government abfohtte, their obedience moft fubmimvf 
pad implicit. 

They met however, from time to time, with the 
ihongeft oppofition in feveral countries ; in Spain, and 
particularly in France. No fociety ever had fo many 
jmemies as the Jefuits have had ; the very books, which 
Jiave been written againft them, would form a consider- 
able library. Nor has this oppofition been without the 
jufteft foundation* How ferviceable foever to the ief 
of Rocae, to which they have always been moft devoutly 
attached, they have been very pernicious in other coun- 
tries ; and by that means have brought an odium upon 
their fociety, which nothing will be able to remove. 
/They have induftrionfry propagated doftrines, which have 
expofed fovereign princes to flaughter, and Hates to re- 
volutions; witnefs the murder of Henry IV, of France, 
the gun-powder plot in England, ore. &c. They have 
corrupted morality by mental referves and logical diftinc- 
tions to fuch a degree, that, according to them, the vileft and 
moft profligate wretches in the world may do juft what 
they pleafe, yet not offend againft its rules ; and for this • 
they have often been thoroughly expofed, more efpecially 
in the " Provincial Letters" of M. Pafca]. Their powet 
has been upon the decline for fome time ; and the at* 
tempt upon the king of Portugal's life, in which they 
were not concerned a little, gave a fatal blow to it, which 
Jjas fince beer* fpllowe4 by an almoft total extirpation. 




LUBIENIETSKI (Stanislaus), i^ Latin Lu- 
bieniecius, a gentleman of Poland and celebrated Socinian. 
minifter, was defcended from a very noble family, related to 
the houfe of Sobiefki, and born at Racow in that kingdom, 
in 1623. His father, a minifter, bred him up with great 
care under his own eye ; and, even while he was a fchool- 
boy, brought him into the diet of Poland; in order to intro- 
duce him to the acquaintance of the grandees, and inftruct 
him in every tiling that was fuitable to his birth. He lent 
him afterwards to ThjorjV in.. Saxony, in 1644; where, 
young as he was, he joined the two. Socinian deputies, at 
the conference then held in that city, for the re-union of 
different religions among the Reformed. He continued 
uere, and drew up a diary of the conference; and then at- 
tended the young count of Niemjrycz ire his travels, as go- 
vernor. This employ gave him ah opportunity of vifiting 
Holland and France, where he acquired the etteem of feve- 
ral learned men, with who_m he canferned an fubjefts of 
religion, without difguifing his own, or miffing the leaft 
opportunity to defend it. Upon the death of his. father, in 
1648 [a], he returned to Poland. 

..In 1 652, he married the daughter of a zealous Socinian, 
and was appointed coadjutor to John Ciachovius, minifter 
pfSiedliefki ; and, giving daily frefh proofs of his learning 
arjtd prudence, the fynod of Czarcow admitted him into the 
painiftry, and made himpaftor of that church : but, on the 
§wedifli invafion in 1655, he retired to Cracow with his 
family, where he employed himfelf in failing, prayer, and 
preaching ; fometimes in Latin, for the ufe of the Hunga- 
rian Unitarians, who were come thither with prince Ra- 
go tiki. At the fame time he infinuatcd himfelf fo much 
into the king of Sweden's, favour, that he had the hpriour 
of dining at his majefty's tafyle ; and the city coming again 
under the dominion of Polknd in 1657, he followed the 
Swediih garrifon, with two otfc^er Socinians, in order to pe- 

1 * 

[a] His name was Chriftopher, as mAer, and performed them in fever*! 
was alfo that of his father, who died place?, at his own expence. He died 
in 163^, at the age of feventy -five, in ^623, aged feventy-two. He had 
His fire, Andrew Lubieneiiki, made two brothers, who followed his ex- 
a great figure at court ; when falling ample, Staniflaus, who died in 1633, 
hito the opinion of Socinus, he re- at the age of feventy- five 3 and Chrif- 
&>Wed to mike a fieri fice of all hopes topher, who died at Racow, in 1624, 
of future preferment, in order to make leaving his fon Chtiftophcr, our avi- 
an open profeffion of that feet* He thor's father, who was a miniitcr of 
eren mgaged fo deeply, that, after the Socinians at Racow and -Lubin, 
he had born the office of a deacon, he Bibiiotheca Antitrimt. p. 89.' & feq. * 
entered upon the functions of a mi- 

'-•-** tition 

L U B I E N 'I E T S K 1. 331 

tition that prince, that the Unitarians, who had put them<- 
felves under his prote&ion, might be c6mprehended in the 
general amnefty, by the treaty of peace with Poland. He 
arrived at Wolgaft in <3ft. this year, and was well re- 
ceived by the Swedifh monarch, who admitted him, as be- 
fore, to his table. He alio convcrfed intimately upon liis 
religion with fome Swediih lords, which gave great iinea- 
finefs to the divines, who endeavoured in vain to hinder it. 
But when the peace was concluded at Oliva, he had the 
mortification to fee the Unitarians excepted out of the 
general amnefty granted to all other diflenters from Po- 
pery. ' x J " ' ' ' 

' Under this difappointment df returning into Poland, he 
embarked for Copenhagen, ih order to feek a fettlemen( * 
there for his exiled brethren. He arrived in that city Nov. 

1660, and made himfclf very acceptable to the Dauifh mo- 
bility. . He had an extenfive epiftolary correfpondence, 
which' furnifhed him with many particulars from foreign 
countries. With this news he entertained the nobility; 
and, when it was read to the king [b], he was fo delighted 
with it, that he created a new place for him, whereby he 
was made fecretary for tranferibing thefe news-letters' for 
his majefty's ufe,.and he was promifed an annual penfibri 
for it. * The king never faw him at court, but often heard 
him difcourfeon religious fubjefts. He engaged his con- 
feffor in a controversy with Lubienietfki, and was prefent 
at it himfelf. So much favour alarmed the Lutheran di- 
vines, who giving out that the Polifh minifter feemed to be 
in a fair way of making a convert of their prince to Arianifm, 
Frederick found it necefiary to tell him privately, that all 
he could grant him, in behalf of the Unitarians, was to con- 
nive at their fettling at Altena. Hereupon he returned, in 

1661, to Stetin in Pomerania [c]. "But the perfecution 
. followed him ; fo that he was obliged to retire from that ci- 
ty, and go to Hamburgh, whither he fent his family the 
next year 1662. He had now three feveral conferences 
with queen Chriftina, upon points of Socinianifm, in the 
prefence of fome princes ; and the king endeavoured to 
perfuade the magiftrates to fuffer him to live quietly : but 
his interceffion did not prove fufficient. The Lutheran 

Is] Frederic III. -before, and, though he retired himfclf . 

cj His wife *and .family were in on that occafion to Elbing, yet his 

this town, when it was befieged by the wife and family continued ar Stetin. 

Miperor : he was tfjerc a little time Bibl. Antit. ' • 


$j* h U B I E N I E T SKI* 

mlnifters petitioned the i nagi ft ratts fo often, and fo eaiv 
neftly, to barufh him, that he was feyeral times com** 
manded to retire. In vain did he reprefent, that his Da- 
niih majefty honoured him with his proteftion, and thai 
he was innocent ; he wa$ forced to give way to the ftorm ; 
and he accordingly retired to the lung at Copenhagen* in 

His next remove was to Frederickfburg, where he ob» 
taiped Leave to fettle with his banifhed brethren, and a pro-* 
mife not to be difturbed in the private exercife of their rc-r 
ligion. He (acquainted the brethren with this news, and 
fpared no pains nor coft, even to the impairing of his own 
eftate, that he might fettle them there; he alfo fupported 
them at his own expence. But neither did they enjoy this 
happiriefs long. The duke of Holftein-Gottorp, without 
whofe knowledge it had been done, at the perfusion of 
John Reinboht, one of his chaplains, and the Lutheran 
iuperintenclant, banifhed them both from that city, and 
from all his dominions. In this exigence he returned to 
Hamburgh, by the advice of his friends, who imagined his 
enemies would now have abated fomething of their qnimo* 
fity. They had alfo procured him the title of fecretaxy tQ 
the king of Poland, in hopes thereby to oblige the magift 
grates to let him live quietly in that city : the king of Den? 
mark Hkewife interceded again for him. Thus Supported, 
he kept his ground a long time, againft the minifters ; but* 
at lau, the magiftrates fent him pofitive orders to remove, 
This injunction was obtained by the infligation gf Edfard~ 
hius, a licentiate in divinity, who, being joined by the or- 
dinary minifters, laboured the point with an indefatigable 
zeal : and, before he could obey their order, he had poifon 

f^iven him in his meat, of which he died, May 18, 1675? 
laving lamented in verfe the fate of his two daughters, who 
fell a facrifice to the fame poifon two days before [d]. . Hi* 
body was buried at Altena, againft all the oppoiition thai 
the Lutheran minifters. could make. He had obtained a 
retreat for his banifhed brethren a*t Manhcim iq the Pala- 
tinate, that eleftor being a prince of latitudiaarian princi- 
ples in matters of religion. 

Lubienietfki was composing his Hiftory of the reforma- 
tion of Poland at the time of his death, which hindered 

[d] His. wife alfo, who Wa* eat "but meat by his maid feramr, fo,boroe4 

trry little of the meat, very narrowly for the parpofe. Hift. Reform. Polocu 

efcaped death. Bihl. Ant. fbl. 6. It lib, iii. cap. 17. p, ȣ&. 
U faid the poifon was put iaxo his ' 


L U B I £ N I E T S K 1. *3$ 

him from tiorapleating it AH that was found atftorfg i*3 
manufcripts was printed in Holland, in 1685* 8vO.. with 
an account of his life prefixed, whence the materials of 
this memoir are taken. He wrote feveral books* the greatest 
part of which, however, have hot been printed: the title* 
of them maybe feen in " Bibliotheca Antitrinitariorum^* 
p. 1 65. The moft considerable of tKofe which have beet* 

Subliihed Is his " TheatrumCometictfm," printed at Am- 
:erdam, 1667, folio [e]. They who had the care of the im* 
preffion committed fo many rogueries, that he was obliged 
to take a journey to Holland on the occafion. He had a 
very great literary correfpondence throughough* all £u^ 
*ope£F]. \ ■ % 

The Socinians, who look upon him as a fault, if t>ot a 
martyr, pretend, as is ufual in moft religions feels, that he * a 
was favoured with a very remarkable revelation doling tfct 
fiege of Stetin. Two powerful reafbns, fay they, *i)g4ge4 
JLubienietiki to pray, that God ^votild be pleafed to canfe the 
fiege to be raifed : his wife and children were ia thfl town J 
jmd there was a^Swedifll count, who promifedthat he would 
turn Sociftian, in cafe Lubienietflu could by his prayesw 
prevent the .taking of it. This minifter, animated by the 
.private intereft of his family, and by the hopes of gaining 
aniQuftiiousprofelytetohis religion, continued thnee .weeks 
failing and praying; after which he went to meet the count, 
and aflured him that the town, would .not be. taken* The 
count, and the perfons about him, treated this a$ the ef- 
fect of a delirium ; and were the more confirmed m thai 
opinion, as Lubienietfki fell tick the moment he left them* 
But they were all extremely furprifed, when r at the: end of 
fix days, there came* news that the liege was raifed ; finoe it 
was itapoffible that any perfca fhould have acquainted Lift* 
bieniedki with that good news, when he firfl: told it« How- 
ever, when, the count was called upon to perform his pro? 
mife, heanfwercd, *' That he had applied to God,, in order 
** to know whether he fhould do well to embrace that qu- 
" nifter's religion, and that God had confirmed him iu 
" the Augfburg confeffion/' • " 

[e] This contains, among other "Comet.'* (hews, bis corrcfpondcoc? . 

things, the * f Hiftory of Comets from with the moft famous men ia Europe 

** the. Flood to 1665." - concerning comets. i * .- 

£t J The firft part of Kis « Theat/ 

L U BIN (Nicholas), an Auftin friar, and geographer 
t» the French king, was bor^at Paris, Jan. 29, 1624* took 

' . ' v i "•,'.. the 

$ 3 4 ' L 1TB IK. 

the monk's habit early, paflecf through all the offices of his 
Order, became provincial-general of the province of France, 
and at laft aiftftant-general of the Auftin monks of France 
at Rome. He applied himfelf particularly to the fubjecVof 
the benefices of France, and of the abbies of Italy, and 
acquired that exaft. knowledge therein, which enabled him 
to compofe, both in France and at Rome, ' f t lhe gee- 
•** graphical Mercury;" u Notes upon the Roman marty- 
*' rology, defcribing tlie places marked therein;" La 
** Pouilhe of the French abbies;" " The prefent ftate of 
" the abbies of Italy ;" " An account of all the houfes of 
•**. his order ; with a great number of maps and defigns, en- 
" graved by himfelf." He alfo wrote notes upon " Plu- 
#< tarch's Lives ;" and we have geographical tables of his, 
printed with the French translation of Plutarch ^y the ab- 
be* Tallemant. He alfo prepared for the prefs notes to 
archbiftiop " Ufher's Chronology;" "A Defcription of 
4 * Lapland ;" and feveral other works ; efpecially " A Geo- 
**.graphy of all the places mentioned in the Bible," which 
Js^refixed to " Ufher's Annals." He likewife wrote notes 
ttpttn " .Stephanus de urbibus." He died in the convent 
of 'the Auftin fathers in St. Germain, at Paris, March 17, 
1695, aged 71, > 

LUBIN (Eilhard), one of the moft learned Pro- 
teftants of his time, was born at Wefterfted, in the county 

- of Oldenburg, March 24, 1656, of which place his father 
was minifter, who fent him firft to Leipfic, where he 
profecuted his ftudies with great fuccefs, and for further 
improvement went thence to Cologne. After this he vi- 
fited the feveral univerfities of Helmftadt, Strafburg, Jena, 
Marpurg, and, laft of all, Roftock, where he was made 
profefibr of poetry in 1595. Having read there leftures 
with great applaufe for ten years, he was advanced to the 
divinity chair in the fame univerfity, in 1605. In 1620, 
he was feized with a tertian ague, which he laboured 
under for ten months, before it put a period to his life in 

• June 162 1. He has the character of having been a good 
Grecian, and well fkilled in the Latin tongue, in which he 
made good verfes. He was both a poet and an orator, a 
rnathematician and a divine. ' He publilhed feveral books, 

. the titles of which are inserted below [a]. 


- " [a] Thefe are* 1. *' Antiquarian, « terpretiti*.** 2. « CU^k. Gurca? 
w five prifcoruro & minus ufitatorum " linguae." 3. " Anacreon, Javtnai, 
* Tpcabulorum brews * & diluciUa la* " and PeifitK, wkh note? ;''" Horace 

L*U. B IN. 


. Bnt that which made. the. moft noife-was his "• Phof- 
" phorus dc prima cauia & natura xnali, tractatus hyper- 
" metaphyficus, &c« printed at Roftock in. 1596," and re- 
printed there in 8vo* and 1 ,21110,, in 1600 ; M Phofphorus ; 
" or an hypermetaphyficaL treatife concerning the origin 
" and nature of fin." In this piece he eftablifhed two co- 
eternal principles (not matter and a vacuum^ or void, as 
Epicurus did, tjjjt) God and the nihilunv or nothing.. 
God, he fuppoftd, is the good principle, and nothing the 
evil principle. He added, that fin was nothing elfe but 
a tendency towards nothing ; and that, fin had been necef- 
fary, in order to make known the nature of good ; and t 
he applied to this nothing all that Ariflotle fays of the 
firfl mattar. This being anfwered by Grawer [b], our 
author publifhed a reply, intituled, " Apologeticus quo? 
\ l Alb. Graw. calumniis refpond. &c. i. e. A defence, in, 
** anfwer to Grawer's calumnies," printed at Roftock* 
and reprinted therein 1605 [c]. He likewife publifheq 
the next year, " Traftatus de caufa peccati, ad theologo*, 
" Auguftinae confeffionis in Germania ; i. e. A traft pn; 
" the caufe of fin, direfted to the divines of the Aufburg, 
" confeffion in Germany." But, notwithftanding all 
thefe works, pofterity takes him to have been better ac-u 
quainted with polite literature than with divinity [d]. 
* He was twice married, had no iifue by his firit wife, **? yle * 
who lived with him feven years ; but his fecond, who »waa 
daughter of William Lauremburg, an .eminent phyfician, 
brought*him nine children. 

€t and Juvenal, with a parapfrrafe;** " norura." 

the *< Anthdldgia, with a Latin ver- [b] In apiece, intituled, " Anti- 

u lion ;" u Epiftolae veterura .Grceco- " Lubinu;, fiv« Elenchus paradoxal 

" rum, Graeci 9c Latine, cum me- u rum Lubini, &c. de prima caufa 

" tbodo.confcnbeHdjjrum-epiftplarum, ft & uaturamali, Magdeburg, i6o8>'* 

" Grjece ScLatine;" "Commentaries 410. 

u upon £bme of the Epiftles of St. [c] Grawer anfwered him, in a \ 

u Paul ;'• *' Monoteffaron, five hif- piece, intituled, " Refponfio ad etum- 

* tor ia evangelic a, &c, &c." " Non- " hem Lubini apologetic urn," printed 

" nus Dionyfius, in Greek and Latin, by way of appendix to his Anti-Lu- 

." at Francfort, .1605," 8vo. u Latin binus. 

"Poems," inferted in the third vo- [d] Baillet, vol. I. of the Aat. p. 

lume of « Delicix poet arum Germa- 397. 

; LUC AN (Marcus Ann^us), a Latin poet, was 
born at Cordova in Spain, about A. D. 39, being the fon 
of* Annaeus Mela, brother of Seneca the philofopher. He 
was educated under the preceptors Polemon, Virginius, 
and Cornutus j the firfl: an able grammarian, and the others 



eminent maftcfS of pontc Irteratttre and pfhilofopny/ JLft* 
6m made fo qttiek a proficiency under their inftro&fonsv 
that he compofcd excellent declamations, both in Greek 
and Latin, at the age of fourteen, fcftd became die rival of 
Perfitrs. With thefe accomplishments, be grew fo mtteh 
into the favour of die empetbf Nero* that he was railed to 
the pofts of aogur and qrweftor before tbe age' prefcnbed 
by the laws. He manned Poflia Arfentari^ a lady not left 
jttoftriotM for her erudition, than for her birth and beauty $ 
as we learn from Statins, Martial, Sidortius Apolliftaris* 
and others* He incurred the emperor's difpleafare, by 
his poem of ** Orpheus's defcentinto hell,* Which carried 
ftte crown of poetry in Pouipcj's theatre* He alledged, 
that die Poet had a&ed heron tontraiy to his commands, 
by which he was direfted to pronounce another poem* 
Upon the fubjeft of Niobe, on that occafion. In fhort* 
Kcro was highly incenied, and treated Lucan To 21 after- 
watds, as tof force him into. the confpiracy of Rib; which 
Being discovered, he was con d e mn ed to death, and bad 
his veins cut, after the example of his uncle Seneca. He 
died anno 65, in the tenth year of Nero^ and was interred 
in the gardens at Rome. Some perfons teH 11s, there 
\ Is the following infcription to be leen at this day, in the 
church of St. Paul at Rome : " Marco Annseo-Lucantf 
** Cordubenfi poetae beneficio Neronis fama fervata." He 
Wrote feveral befides his " Pharfalia [a]," whichr indeed i* 
rather a hiftory of the civil wars, than a true poem, none 
of the rules of poetry being obferved in it: fo Yhat he has 
obtained thereby the character of a great and elevated ge- 
nius, but irregular and uneven. His ftyle is raifed, .and 
hi* thoughts brilliant, but often without iolklky. 


I a] W!f tiaye already talren notice heVrote "Saturnalia/* "ten boob of 

•f his •' Orpheus;" mention is alfo " woods," feveralepi ft les, and jr*«fpeec& 

ihade of a *< poem upon the burning of u againft O&aYiiA Sagitta." *rhom he 

"'Rome/' and another " in praiie of had condemned to death for Arc nmrr 

* his wife Pollia." We are alfo told that der of Pontio, Src. 

LUCAS (Richard), a learned English divine, of 
Wellh extraction, was fon of Mr. Richard Lucas, of 
Prefteign in Radnorshire, and' born in that county in 
1648. After a proper foundation of fchool learning, he 
was lent to Oxford, and entered of Jefus college, in 1664. 
Having taken both his degrees of arts, he entered htt6 
holy orders about 1672, and was for fome thneina&er df 
tfcc frte-feftool at Abergavenny ; but being nrach eftteiried 


LUC AS; 337 

for hi* talents in the jrtilpk, he was chofeh vicar 7 bt St. 
Stephen's Coleman-ftreet London, and lcf&urer of St, 
OkVc South wark, in 1683. He took the degflee of doc- 
tor in divinity afterwards, and was inftajled prebendary of 
"WeflSminfter in 1696. His light began to fail him in w«©d & 
his youth, but he loft it totally about this time. He Moreru 
died in June 17 15, and was interred in Weftminfter ab- 
bey ; but no ftone or monument marks his grave there 
at prefent. However, he was greatly efteemed for his 
piety and learning, and liis writings will preferve his 
fame to late pofterity [a]. He left a fon of his ow'ft 
name, who was bred at Sydney ^college, Cambridge, wherfe 
he took his matter, of arts degree, and publifhed fome of 
"his matter's fermons. 

[a] Theft ate: « Pfa&ital Chri- « day of the week;" "A guide to 

fiianity |" •« An enquiry after happi- « heaven;" " The duty of fqnrwts}'* 

*** nef«|" u The morality of the gof- and federal other " Sermon*/' in fifrie 

^« pci; M "Chrift ism thooghts for every Volnmet. 

LUCAS (Paul), a great French^teveller, ^vas the 
fon of a merchant at Rouen, and born there in 1664. 
From his youth he felt a ftrong inclination for voyaging ; 
and it ifiould feem as if he had had ample opportunity 
of gratifying it ; for he went feveral times to the Levant, 
Egypt, Turkey, and feveral other countries. He brought 
home a great number of medals and other curiofkies for 
the king's cabinet, who made him his Antiquary irt 
1 7 14, and ordered him to write the hiftory of his travels 
Lewis XV; fent him again to the Levant in 1^23, Whence 
he brought abundance of rare things for tie king's li- 
brary ; partictdarly medals and rhanufefipts. His paf- 
fion for travelling rifing again in 1736, he went to Ma!- 
drid; arid died at Madrid 1737, after an illners of eigrrt 
months. His travels confift of feveral volumes : they 
are pat&bly written, and amufing enough; yet not of thfc 
firft authority, as being fuppofed to fet forth fome tilings 
bigger than the life, and fome that are contrary to it. 

LUCI AN, a Greek author, was born at Samofata, the 
capital of Cornagenia; the time of his birth is uncertain, 
though generally fixed in the reign of the emperor Tra- 
jan [a]. His birth was mean; and his father, not being 


[a] Moreri. But Mr. Moyle fays age of Luc i aft; and it appears that 

he had taken fome pains to adjuft the he had fixed the fortieth year of his age 

Vol. VIII. Z to 

? 3 8 LUC I AN. 

Alt to give him any learning, refolved to breed hifti an 
engraver, * and in that view put him an apprentice to his 
brother in law. Being ill ufed by his uncle, for breaking 
a table which he was poliihing, he .took a diilike jo the 
bufinefs, and applied himfelf to the ftudy of politg learn- 
ing and philofophy ; being encouraged thereto by a dream, 
which he relates in the beginning of his works ; a dreara, 
which evidently was the product of his inclination to let- 
ters. He tells us alfo hknfelf, that he ftudied the law, and 
pra&ifed fome time as an advocate; but growing out of 
conceit with the wrangling oratory of the bar, he threw 
off this gown, and took up that of a rhetorician. In this 
chara&er he fettled himfelf firft at Antioch ; and pacing 
thence into Ionia in Greece, he travelled into Gaul and 
Italy, and returned at length into his own country, by 
the way of Macedonia. He lived four and twenty yefcrs 
after the death of Trajan, and even to the time of Marctfs 
Aurelius, who made him regifter of Alexandria in Egypt 
[b]. He tells us himfelf, that, when he entered upon this 
office* he was in extreme old age, and had one leg in Cha- 
ron's boat [c]. Suidas will have it that he was torn to pie * 
ces by dogs. 

Lucian was not only one of the fineft wits of his own 
time, but of all antiquity. He was a perfeft matter in the 
great art of mixing the ufeful with the entertaining, We 
fee every where thstf fire and delicate raillery, which is the 
charafteriftic of the antique tafte. He perpetually throws 
fuch a ridicule upon the gods and philofophers of paganifm, 
and upon their follies and vices, as infpires a hatred and 
contempt of them* Thofe who reprefent him as an ;m- 

!>ious perfon> without any religion, have reafon enough 
or that accufation, if religion be made to confift in the 
theology of the pagan poets, or in the .extravagant opinion 
of philofophers. But if there is no ground to accufe him 
of impiety or atheifm with refpe£t to the exiftence or wor- 

to the 164th year of Chrift, and the certain ; fome fay he was an afTefTor, 

fourth of Marcos Antoninus; and con- others a procurator) and Mr. Dodwell, 

fequently, his birth to the 124th year in his Lectures, will have him to be 

of Chriir,. and the eighth of Adrian, praefeflus auguftialis, or governor of E- 

Differration upon the age of the Phi- gypt: but this la ft mull be a mi flake, 

lopatris in ** Moyle'a pofthumous Hnce Lucian himfelf, in his " Apo* 

" works," vol. i. p. 363. edit. 1726, " logia pro mercede conduces,*' fays, 

- $vo. that the poft he was then in was a 

M Valerius's notes on Marcellinu*, Itep to the government of a pro- 

p. 398 ; and on Eufebius, p. 147 ; his vince. 

word in Latin is " hypomnematogra- [cj Lucian 1 * Apologia) 6c c. 
phut." This however is not abfolutely 


L U G I L I U Si 339 

ihip of the tnie God, fince he hath no where in his writ- 
ings denied cither the one or the other; fo, on the other 
fide, the notion ftarted by fome perforis, that he was a Chrif- 
tian, has no better foundation. Indeed, if the dialogue " De 
'? peregrinis" had been written by him* it would have been 
probable enough that he was initiated into the Chriftian : 
myftejifcS:; but that piece is riot of his compofition* being 
written by a perfon who had feen'St* Paul [dJ. Lucian's. 
right to this piece* however* is not difputed by a late writer 
of our own, who* at the fame time, queftions his title to 
the Dea Syria, becaufe the author, whoever he was, feems 
to have been a pagan, who gave credit to prodigies, oracles* 
and the power of the Gods, which was not Lucian's cafe 5 
yet he is allowed, to be a monkey, that could affume any 
fhape, imitate any perfon* and write in any dialed: that ferv- 
ed his pupofe [e]. , 

♦ * * » 

[d] Monti* : £e] Remarks upon EccL HI& p. 147, to J 58, firft ed. | 

LUCflLIUS, an ancient Latin Poet, and a Roman 
Knight, was born about the year of Rome 665. He 
ferved under Scipio Africanus in the war with the Nu- 
mantines, and was very much efteemed by him and. 
Laelius. He wrote thirty books of f ' Satires," in which he " 
lafhed feveral perfons of quality by name, and in a very 
fliafp manner. It is pretended, that he was the firft in- 
ventor of that kind of. poem. The opinion is grounded 
chiefly on thefe words of Horace : Sat.i. 

" Qitid , cum eft Lucilius aufus 
** Primus in hunc operis componere carmine morem ?" 

They quote alfo a paflage from Qairitilian ; and thefe 
Words fr6m the elder Phny, " fi hoc Lucilius, qui primus 
"condldit ftyli nafum, dicendum fibi.putavit." Quuw InP * fet ' 
tilian's words are, " Satira quidem tota noftra eft, in qua 
*' primus infignem laudem adeptus eftLucilitis." , Never- x ' *• 
thelefs,' Monf. Dacier has maintained* with a great 
deal of probability, that Lucilius only gave a better 
turn to that; kind of poem ; and wrote it with more 
wit and humour, than his predeceflbrs Ennius and ~ 
Pacuvius had done. There is nothing extant. of all ££ £££ 
his works/ but fome fragments of his " Satires," tier's Ho-" 
which Bayle thinks ar coniiderable lofs, becaufe they racc# 
Would have acquainted us with a great many curious ' ' la 

Z 2 particulars* 



particulars. Thefe fragments have often becrr prfiiftcE 
with die fragments of Enrtius, Accius, Publios» Syras r 

LUCRETIUS (Trrira Carus), an ancfent Ro- 
man poet, was descended of an eminent family; bora" in 
the 2d year of the 171ft olympiad, probably at Rome ; and 
educated at Athens, under Zeno [a. J, and PhwLrus, at 
that time the ornaments of the Epicurean fett. He was 
much efteemed for his learning and eloquence, and is cota- 
mended by Cicero and Velleius Patetculus ;. in reality, his 
reputation was fo great, that there is room to believe he* 
would have left posterity only the defire of imitating his 
produdioiis, and the glory of following him, if he had liv- 
ed longer ; but he died in the flower of his age, of frphrenzy, 
occasioned by a love philtre given him by Luciti* his wife, 
who was fond of hixs to diftra&ioru However, he had 
fome lucid intervals, in i^hich, to divert himfelf, he 
wrote his fix books, " De nature. rerum [&].**. Itisfaid, 
that he difpatched himfelf in the 181ft olympiad, that is* 
in the year of Rome 700 [c], and the 43d of his age. 

Though nobody ever wrote bolder againft a providencey 
yet he is faid to have been an honeft'man; ancf his poen*is 
interfperfed with feveral beautiful maxims againft immoral- 
ity* His poem has been tranflated into French bv the abbot 
<fe Mazolen, and into EngKfh by Mr. Creech. The former 
Moreri. verfion is as generally condemned, as the latter is generally 
** efteemed. An Engiifh tfanflation of it in profe was pub* 
lifhed in 1743, a vols. 8vo. wkh plates by Guernier. 

[a] This was Zeno the Sidonian a fc] Sir Thomas Pope Blount fays, 

different peffou from 2edo rtiaftcKCt he B«a rifted in the-parof iUnpe 646, 

Jcufiqs 4e fcript. pttilofeph. p. 1 is* and therefore foppoiea. him to be bom 

' [■] Cicero ad Qtaint. trait. Lib. ii. about 620; a great difference from the 

tpiit. xi. Patereulu* in lib. H. c. 36. common opinion. 

LUDLOW (Edmund), a chief of the republican 
party in the civil wars of England in the laft century, was 
descended of an ancient and good family, originally <rf 
Shroplhire, and thence removed into Wiitftiire, in which 
county he was borti, at Mayden-Bradiey, about 1620. 
After a proper foundation in grammar, he was lent to 
Trinity-college in Oxford, took the degree of bachelor of 
arts there in 1636, and removed to the Tempfe to ftudy 
the genteel part of the law, in the view of fcrving his coun- 
try in parliament, where his anceftors had frequently rc- 


LUDLOW; 341 

prefented tiie county. His father, fir Henry Luilow, died 
in the long parliament, which met Nov* 1640 ; and, being 
warmly againft the court, he encouraged his fon to engage 
as a volunteer in the earl of Effex's life-guard. In this fta- 
tion he .appeared agairift the king, at the battle of Edge- 
Hill, in 1642 ; and, having, raifed a troop of horfe the next 
fummer, 1643, he joined fir Edward Hungerford in be- 
*&£&&$£ Wardour-Caftk. This being taken, he was made 
governor of it; but being retaken the following year, 1644, 
by the king's forces, he was carried prifoner to Oxford, 
whence being releafcd by exchange, he went to London* 
and was appointed high-fheriff of Wiltshire by the parli- 
ament. After this, refilling a command under the earl of 
.Eflex, he accepted thepoft of major in fir Arthur Haflerig's 
regiment of horfe, in the army of Sir William Waller, and 
inarched to form the blockade of Oxford ; but being pre- 
fently fent from thence, with a commiffion from fir Wil- 
liam, to raife and command a regiment of horfe, he went 
Into Wiltfhire for that purpofe, and fucceeded fo far in it,. x 
that he joined Waller with about five hundred horfe, and 
was engaged in the fecond battle fought at Newbury. But, 
upon new modelling the army, he was difmifled with Wat* 
ler, and came not intb play again in any poft, civil or mi* 
Iitary, till 1.645, when he was chofen a knight of the fhire 
. in the parliament for Wiltfhire [a]. 

Soon after the death of the earl of Eflex, Sept. 1646, by 
a converfation with Cromwell, who exprefled a diffike to 
, the parliament, and extolled the army, our colonel was 
perfuaded, that the arch-rebel had then conceived the do- 
fig'n to deftroy the civil authority, and let up for himielf, 
wherein Ludlow always oppofed him. In which fpirit he 
gave a No in the houfe, as loud as he could, againft the 
vote for returning Cromwell thanks, on his fhooting Arncll, 
the agitator, and thereby quelling that fotfian in the army. 
In the fame republican fpirit, he joined in the vote See art. 
for non-addreffing the king, and in the declaration for bring- ^ I *.- 
ing him to a trial. And foon after, at a conference with 
Cromwell and the grandees of the army, he harangued up- 
on the neceflity and juftice of the king's execution, and, 
after that, the eftablifhment of an equal commonwealth 
[b]. He alfo brought the Wiltfhire people to agree % the 

[a] In the room tf his father, who home, who wt* forocw modelling the 
iittfin 1643. parliament firft, andthea putting the 

[a J la this hi i'tfSatd froea Lil-* king to death, lhtd. 

Z 3 raifirtg 

34* LUDLOW. 

ntiflng of two regiments of foot, and one of horfe, againft the 
Scots, when they were preparing to releafe the king from 
Cariibrook-caftle, After which, he wfent to Fairfax* at the 
fiege of Colchefter, and preyailed with him to oppofe the 
entering into any treaty with the king; and in - the fame 
lpirit, when the houfe of commons, on his majefty's anfwer 
from Newport, voted, that his conceffions were ground for 
a future (ettlement, the colonel not only exprefled : his 
diflatisfa&ion therewith, but had a principal {hare both in 
forming and executing the fcheme of forcibly excluding all 
that party from the houfe by colonel Pride, 1648. Agree- 
able to all thefe proceedings, he fat upon the bench at the 
trial and condemnation ot the king, concurred in the vote 
that the houfe of peers was ufelefs and dangerous, and be- 
came a member of the council of ftate. 

When Cromwell fucceeded Fairfax, as captain-general 
of the army, and lord-lieutenant of Ireland, he. nominated 
Ludlow lieutenant-general of horfe in that kingdom ; which 
being confirmed by the parliament [c], Ludlow went thir 
ther, and difcharged the employ with diligence and -fuccefs, 
till the death of Ireton, lord -deputy, Nov. 1651 [d J •, up^ 
on which he afted as general, by an appointment from the 
parliament commiflioners, but without that title, which 
Cromwell, of whofe ambitious views he conftantly exprefled 
a jealoufy, as conftantly found one pretext or other to keep 
from being conferred upon him ; and in the following year, 
1652, Fleetwood went thither with the chief command. 
Soon after this, the rebellion being fuppreffed, a good part 
of the army was diibanded, the pay of the general and 
other officers reduced, and neceflarv fteps taken for fatifr- 
fying the arrears due to them, which Ludlow fays fell heavier 
upon him than others, as, in fupporting the dignity of the {ra- 
tion, he had fpent upwards of 4500 1. in the four years of 
his fervice here, out of his own eftate, over and above his 

Whilft thefe things were fettling in Ireland, CiomwelJ 
was become fovereign, and had taken the title of proteftor. 
This being cileemed an ufurpation by Ludlow, he did all 
that lay in his power to hinder the proclamation from * 
being read i#i Ireland ; and being defeated therein, he dif- 
pe^d a treafonable paper againft him, called, f *>The me~ 
"* mento :" whereupon he was difmified from his poft in the 
army, and ordered not to go to London by Fleetwood, 

[c J This if reckoned one of the moft a ftaunch republican, in his Memoirs, 
renncd pieces of Cromwell's politics. • and rui.s out into the highefteulogicm 
[p] He laments lreton's death, as ~ of him. 


LUDLOW. 34* 

whom the *proteftor had lately made deputy of Ireland. 
But being fuccecded fhortly after by Cromwell, and lefs 
narrowly watched, he found means to efcape and crofs the 
water to Beaumaris ; but was feized there, firft by an order 
from Henry Cromwell, and then by another from White- 
hall, till he fub'feribed an engagement, never to aft againft 
the government then eftablifhed. But this fubfeription 
being made with Come referve, he was preffed, on his 
arrival to London, Dec 1655, to make it abfolute ; which 
he refufed to do, and endeavoured to draw major-general 
Harrifon, and Hugh Peters, into the fame opinion. So 
that Cromwell, after trying to prevail upon him to fub- 
fcribe, in a private conference, to no purpofe, had him 
ferved with an order from the council of ftate, to give 
fecurity in the fum of 5000I. not to aft againft the new 
government, within three days, on pain of being taken 
into cuftody. Not obeying the order, he was apprehended 
by the president's warrant ; but the fecurity being given 
by his brother Thomas Ludlow, though, as he fays, 
without his cohfent, he went into Eflex, where he con- 
tinued till Oljver was feized with his laft ficknefs. He was 
returned in the new parliament, which was called upon 
Richard's acceffion tQ the proteftorate ; and, through the 
eonfufion of the times, fuffered to fit in the houfe with- 
out taking the oath required of every member, not to aft, 
or contrive any thing, againft the proteftor. He was very 
aftive in procuring the reftoration of the Rump parliament; 
in which, with the reft, .he took pofleffion of his leat 
again, and the fame day was appointed one of the com- 
mittee of fafety. Soon after this, he obtained a regiment, 
by the intereft of Sir Arthur Haflerig ; and in a little time 
was nominated one of the council of ftate, every member 
of which took an oath to be true and faithtul to the 
commonwealth, in oppofition to Charles Stuart, qt any 
fingle perfori. He was likewife appointed by parliament 
one of the commiffioners for naming and approving officers 
in the army. 

But the Wallingfoi;d-houfe party, to remove him out of 
the way, recommending him to the parliament, for the 
poft of commander in chief of th6 forces in Ireland, in the 
room of Henry Cromwell, he arrived, with tha^ com- 
mand, at Dublin, in Auguft 1659 ; but in September, re- 
ceiving Lambert's petition to parliament, for fettling the 
government under a reprefentative and feleft fenate, he pro- 
cured a counter petition to be figned by the officers of th« 
army near Dublin, declaring their refolution of adhering 

Z 4 clofcly 

344 LUDLOW. 

clofcly to the parliament; and foon after, with die con* 
fent of Fleetwood, fet out for England. On his ajyival 

• at Beaumaris, hearing that the army had turned the 
parliament out of the houfe, and iefumed the fupreme 
power, he hefitated a while about proceeding on his jour- 
ney, but at length refolved upon it ; and on his arrival at 
Chefter, finding an addition made to the army's fcheme of 
government, by which all the officers were to receive new 
commiffions from Fleetwood, and that a committee of 
fafety was appointed, confuting of twenty-one members, 
of which he was one ; and that fee was alio continued one 
of the committee for nomination of officers; he fet out 
for London the next day, and arrived there 0&. 39, 
1659. However, the Wallingford-houfe party prevailing 
to have a new parliament called, Ludlow oppofed it with 
all his might, in defence of the Rump, and propofed to 
qualify the power of the army by a council of twenty-one 
under the denomination of the Confervators of liberty ; 
which being turned againft his defign in it, by the influ- 
ence of tfce Wallingford-houfe party, he refolved to return 
to his poll in Ireland, as he accordingly did ; but had the 
fatisfaaion to know, before he left London, that it was at 
Jaft carried to reftore the old parliament, which was done 
two or three days after ? viz. Dec. 25. But lie was fo far 
from being well received in Ireland, that Dublin was 
barred againft him ; and landing at Duncannon, he was 
blockaded there by a party of horfe, purfuant to an order 
of the council of officers, who likewife charged him with 
feveral crimes and mifdeajxieanors againft the army. He 
wrote an answer to this charge ; but, before he fent it away, 
received an account, that the parliament had confirmed 
the proceedings of the council of officers at Dublin againft 

' him ; and, about a week after, he received a letter from 
thence, figried William Lenthall, recalling him home. 

Upon tpis, he embarked for England ; and, in the way, 
at Milford-Comb, found, by the public news, that Sir 
Charles Coote had exhibited a charge pf high-treafon 
againft hini. This news quickened his diligence to reach 
London, and on his arrival there he took his place in the 
houie ; and, obtaining a copy pf his charge, moved to be 
heard in his defence, but never was. This motion was 
rnade Feb. 1, 1660, according to pur preient reformation 
of ftyle ; and Monk, marching into London two days after, 
was waited upon by Ludlow, who, in a conference with 
that artful Inftrument of the king's reiteration, was re- 


L U D L-0 W. 345 

markably out-witted by him [e] ; and, in another vStft 
foon after, was perfuaded; that Monk intended to fettle 
the nation in the form of a republic. But being foon un- 
deceived, he firft applied to Sir* Arthur Haflerig, to draw 
their {battered forces together to oppofe Monk j and! that* 
propofal not being liftened to, he endeavoured, with the 
other republicans, to evade the dhTolution of the Rump, by 
ordering writs to be iffued to fill up the vacant feats ; but 
the fpeaker rufufed to fign the warrants. He alfo prefled 
very earneftly to be heard concerning the charge of high^ 
treafon, lodged againft him from Ireland, tq no purpofe ; 
fo that when the members, fecluded in 1648, returned to 
the houfe, with/Monk's approbation, he withdrew himfelf 
from it ; and being now convinced that Monk's detign 
was to reftore/the king, he began to provide for his own 
fafety, and to guard againft the evil day, which, with 
refpe& to him, he found approaching very faft. 

However, Being elefted for the borough of Rindon 
(part of his own eftate) in the convention parliament, , 
which inet the 24th of April, 1660, he took his feat foon 
after in thte houfe of commons, in pursuance of an order 
he had received, to attend his duty there. He now alfo 
fent orders to collect his rents, and difpofe of his effects in 
Ireland ; but was prevented by Sir Charles Coote, who 
feized both, the flock alone amounting to 15001. [f}* 
and on the vote in parliament, to feize all who had figned * 
the warrant for the king's execution, he efcaped, by Shift- 
ing his abode very frequently. During his reeds, the 
houfe was bufy in preparing the bill of indemnity, in 
which he was, more than once, very neaf being- infcrted, 
as one of the feven excepted perfons ; and a proclamation 
being iflued foon after the king's return, for all the late 
king's judges to furrender thernfelves in fourteen days 
time, on pain of being left out of the faid aft of indemnity, 
he confulted with his friends, whether he fhould $et 
furrender hiififelf, according to the proclamation. -Several 
©f thefe, and even Sir Harbottle Grimfton., the fpeaj&er, 

[e] Ludlow telling him, that he " mao of honour, he feared he would 

haul lately njet with one Mr. Court- u he as good as his word" " Y e V* 

ney, who faid he was his relation,- faid Monk, " if there were nothing in 

%nd btufted in his, liquor "ihat his '< it but that, I rauft oia\c good my* 

" eottfin Monlf would do great things, "word, a pel will too." £udJow*« 

«' for the king:*' but, upon Ludlow's Memoirs. , 

objecYtngthecouGi/spabiicdeclaruions £f] #ii eftate lay ajt Bally f nja^;«. 

to the contrary,' he began to doubt, fcbi4» 
and (aid, " That his coofln being a 


34* L UrD L O W. 

advifed him to furrender, and engaged for his fafcty ; but 
he chofe to follow the friendly council of lord Oflbry, fon 
to the marquis of Ormond, and determined to quit Eng^ 
land. He inftantly took leave of his friends, and went 
over London-Bridge in a coach, to St. George's church in 
the borough of Southward where he took horfe, and 
travelling all night arrived at Lewes, a fea-port town in 
Suflex, by break of day the next morning-. Soon after, 
lie went on board a fmall open veflel prepared for him ; bxt* 9 
, the weather being, very bad, he quitted that, and took 
ftxelter in a larger, which had been got ready for him, but 
{truck upon the fand* in going down the river, and lay 
then a-ground. He was hardly got aboard this, when 
forae perfons came to fearch that which he had quitted, 
without fufpe&ing any body to be in the bent which lay 
afhore, fo that they did not examine it, by which means 
he efcaped ; and waiting a day and a night for the ftorm 
to abate (durirfg which the matter of the veflel aiked him, 
whether he had heard that lieutenant-general Ludlow was 
confined among the reft of the king's judges), the next 
morning he put to fea, and landed at Dieppe that evening, 
before the gates were (hut. 

Soon after his going off, a proclamation was publiihed, 
for apprehending and iecuring him, with a reward of 
3Q0I ; one of thefe commg to his hands, in a packet oi 
letters, wherein his friends earneftly defired he would re*, 
move to fome place more diftant from England, he went 
firft td Geneva; and after a Ihort flay there, paffing td 
Lauianne, fettled at laft at Vevay [g], in Switzerland, 
though not without feveral attempts made to deftroy him, or 
deliver him to Charles II. There he continued under the 
jM-oteftion of thofe ftates [h], till the Revolution in 1688, 
in which he was earneftly defired to have been an af lift ant, 
as a fit perfon t6 be employed to recover Ireland from the 
papilis. In this defign, he came to England, and appeared 
fo openly at London, that an addrefs was prefented by 
King William, from the hdufe of commons, Nov. 7, 
1689, that his majefty would be plcafed to put out a pro- 
clamation for the apprehending of cojonel Ludlow, at- 
tainted for the murder of Charles I. upon which he re- 

[o] Mr. Addifon was fhewn his M verfe in Ovid, as tlie laft is a cant 

lioofc, over the, aoor of which he read " of his own." Trareb, &c. 

this infeription, «« Omne folum forti [h] See a particular account of 

"patria, c^ia patris." "The firft thafc in his memoirs. 
* §m," lays Addifon, u is a piece of 


LUDLOW- * ' 347 

turned to Vevay, where he died in 1693,' in his 73d year. 
Some .of hjs laft words were wiflies for the profperityv 
peace, and glory of his country. His corpfe was interred 
in the beft church of the town, in which his lady erre&ed 
a monument in her conjugal affefHon to his memory £1]. 
His chara&er is feen in the fulleft light, by contrafting 
him with his antagonift Cromwell ; it being very clear, 
that, if we except their bravery, there could not be two 
more different men in the world. Ludlow was lincerely 
and fteadily a republican ; Cromwell not wedded to any 
kind of government, but of all kinds liked that the Ieaft. 
Lndlow fpoke his mind plainly, arid was never taken for 
any other than he profefled hjmfelf to be ; Cromwell valued 
himfelf . ypon afting a part, or rather feveral parts, and all . 
of them equally well : and when he performed that of a 
£ommonwealthVman, he performed it fo admirably, that 
though Ludlow knew him to be a player by profeflion, 
yet he now thought he had thrown off the made, and ap- 
peared what he really was. Ludlow was entirely devoted 
to the parliament, and would/ have implicitly obeyed their 
orders upon any occafion whatfoever, efpecially after it 
was reduced to the Rump ; Cromwell never undertook any 
bufinefs for them, but with a view principally to his own. 
After his death, came out the " Memoirs of Edmund 
*' Ludlow, efcj ; &c. Switzerland, printed at Vevay, in 
" the canton of Bern, 1698," in 2 vols. 8vo. and there 
was a third Volume, with a colleftibn of original papers, 
publifhed in 1699, 8vo. The fame year a French tranf- 
lation of the two firft volumes was printed in the lame fize 
at Airifterdam. Another edition of the whole was printed 
in folio, at London, 1751 [k]. 

' £ 1] This is iftferted in bis Me- «« &e. Amfterdsiw." Mr. Wood ob- 

mow. ferves, it was printed at London, and 

fjc j The two firft volumes were at- was written by way of preface of a 

jacked in 1698, in a pamphlet, inci- larger work to come, to juftify the 

tilled,** A modeft vindication of Oliver murder of king Charles I. not by Lud- 

** Cromwell ;*' the author of which low, but by fome malevolent perfon in 

publifhed another pirce againft the England : in anfwer to which, there 

third volume of theMemoirs, intituled, came out " The Plagiary expofed, &t. 

" Regicides not Saints." And, in *' Lond. 1 691," 4*0, faid to be written 

169 1, " A letter from major* general by Mr. Butler, the author of Hudi- 

« Ludlow to £4 S. (Edward Seymour) bras. * 

LUDOLPH (Job), the celebrated Ethiopia hif- 
torian, was defcended of a family, feveral of whom were 
fenators, at Erford, the capital city of Thuringia, where 
he was born, June 15, 1624. Hfc difcovered in his in- 

34* L'VtoOlVti. 

fancy the happieft difpofitions, which indeed inWll need*' 
have been very ftrongly rooted in his nature, ~ to enabief 
him to refift the bad education and contagious examples 
of his time. He was only five years old, when there arofe 
in his country feveral civil commotions, whole continu- 
ance was long and bloody. The war was every body's 
bufinefs ; and the fciences lay in fuch riegleft, that the' 
magic of Hildebrand, or other vifions of the like fort, 
were the only ftudy of the youth. But thfe unlucky con- 
joa&ure did not, however, draw Ludolph from fol- 
lowing a better courfe. He diligefttly joined himfelf to 
the frnall number of learned men that compofed the uni- 
versity of Erford, and took at leaft a tin&ure of all the 
different branches of fcience, which, were cultivated by 
them. Iij the extreme thirft which he had for knowledge, 
nothing appeared ufelefs or indifferent. Mufic had a ftiarc 
of his attention, as well a9 other fciences. He did riot 
even omit learning to write a good hand. 

As there was a celebrated profeflbr of the law at Erford, 
named Muller Lodolphus, he learned the firft principles of 
Jurifprudence under him; but foon quitted [that ftudy for 
the languages, to which he had a particular turn ; among 
thefe the moft difficult, and leaft known, tatfed his curio- 
fity moft. It was a fmall matter for him, at twenty years 
of age, to underftand Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic : he had 
a ftrong fancy for the Ethiopkr language ; and although he 
found little affiftance among the learned, yet he made, in 
a ihort time, fuch a proficiency in it, that he compofed an 
Ethiopic grammar. At length he refunded the ftudy of the 
law, under Muller ; and having acquired a mafterly know- 
ledge therein, he refolved to travel abroad for further im- 

In this fpirit, he went firft to Holland, and thence tm. 
France, where he ran through the principal towns, fpent 
two months at Saumur, and refided fome time at Paris ; 
but, being driven thence by the civil wars, he went to 
Rome, and at lafl; to Sweden, in the view of vifiting queen 
Chriftina, much celebrated for her virtues, and her patro- 
nage of the learned. After fix years travels, he returned 
to Erford, where he paid the laft duties to his father, who 
died abo'ut this time. As foon as he had fettled his private 
.affairs, he became ufeful to the public, in the bufinefs of 
wunftllor of ftate ; he fuftained that charafter for the 
{pace of eighteen years, during which he was often deputed 
to affift at the diet.s that were held for reconciling the 


I/UDOLPHi 34$ 

differences between the dofae of Saxony aftd the af<$h- 
bi&op of Mentz. 

Thcfe troublefome occupations drew him with ro 
lu&ance from his ftudies ; he difired impatiently t» 
retire from buiinefs in order to devote himfelf wholly 
to literature. The difficulty was to bring his prince ta 
confentto it; at laft, however, he prevailed* Frederic III. 
ill confideration of his long fervkes, granted his requeft, 
mad at the fame time made him. an honorary counfeUor* 
a fuitable efoge. Thus matter of himfelf, he chofci 
his refidence the city of Francfort, which, by the grea* 
number of inhabitants, and its extenfive commerce, feemed 
to facilitate the teamed correfpondence which he propofed 
to keep up in feveral countries. But he was no foone? 
fettled here with fais family, than the de&or Palatine put 
him at the.head of his adminiftration, and made him his . 
treafurer. This change of fituation carried him abroad 1 
fecond time. He was font twice into France, and, during 
Ids refidence there, vHked the libraries at Paris, and made 
«fe of ait the helps he could find in them for a perfe& tin* 
derftandihg of the Oriental languages. At length he re* 
turned to Francfort, where, following his firft defign, he 
pafled the remainder of his days, wholly and folely em- 
ployed in revising arid methodizing the works he had 
compofed for the public [a]. He died there April Sy 
1704, at alxnoft fourfcore years of age, univerfally la- 

[a] Kit worb are a* follow, l€ 1694*" fol« " Grammttici Amh#» 

*« Schola Latinitatis, &c. Goths, " ric» lingua; qua* eft rernacula He- 

* 1671 * 8re. « Hiftoria Etlkiopica, « byhtnoram,ibid. i6a8, M f©!. « Van- 
M flee. Franc. 1681," fol. " Epiftola " con Amharico-Latinaoi* Set. H>v*. 
•* Ethiopice fcripta, i685»"foL « De « .1698," fet " lexicon EUiiopico- 
•* bellflf Turcica fc lie iter conficiendo, " Latinam t ioid.editiofecunda, 1699," 
** tec. Franc. 1686," 4to. "Remar- fol. «' Grammatica linguae Ethiopia*, 
a otrea fur lea penfiSei en jouez & feri- '« cditio &cim4a, ibid. 170a," M- 
«* en*, tec Leipiic, 1689," 8vo. <* E- il Pfalterium Davidis, Ethiopia* & La- 
*'piftolas Samaritans Sic h em et arum " tine, &c. ibid. 1 701," jfto. '• Thea- 
44 ad Jobom Ludolnhum, &c. Lipf. " tre hiftorique de ce que s'eft pa(& 
" t6%%" 4to. Specimen commentarii •« en Europe, pendant le xrii uecle," m 
** in hiftoriam Echiopicain, 1^87." German, u avec des figures de Romain 
** Comxnencariu* in htftoriam Ethiopi- " deHoog," ibid, two vols. fol. '* Con- 

* cam, &c. Franc. 1691," fol. « Ap- « feffio&ieiClaadii Regit Ethiopicaf," 

* pendiK ad hift. Ethiopicara illiufque ' &c. in 4to. The Ethiopic hi Tory w<» 
44 cammentariom, &e. ibid. 1693," found fault with by the abbe Ren au- 
fok « Jugement d'un anonyme fur dot, THerenot, INf. Piques, the abbe 
•*«ne lettre k un ami touchant une Le Gund j of which fee more in 
^ fffteme d'etymologiet Hebmique." art* Rixaudot. . 

,* Dificnatio «k locuftia, &c. Franc* 

3?o LUDOLPtt 

tie uiiderftood five and twenty languages : Hebrew* 
and that of the Rabbins ; the Samaritan, Chaldee, Syriac# 
Arabic, learned, literal, and vulgar ; Greek, learned and 
vulgar ; Ethiopia learned and vulgar, called Amharic ?. 
Coptic, Perfiari, Latin, French, Italian, Spaniib, Portu-». 
guefe, German, Flemifh* Engliih, Polifh, Sclavonic* 
and the ancient language of Sclavonia, and of the Finnes., 
He was equally efteemed for his manners, as for his 
talents ; very knowing and very communicative ; hardy 
and indefatigable in painstaking* and fo much inured to 
ftudy* that he had always a book open before him at his: 
ordinary repafts. Adroit in bufinefs, as a connfellor ;. 
expert, both in the thorny and tumultuary affairs of 
ftate, and in the laborious refearches of learning.- He left 
& fon, Chriftian Ludolph,* who was the only child he 
had, and was councilor and fecretary to the duke of Saxe- 

iTrfsind LUDOLPH{He»ry William), wks a native of 
tnfcfnwft Erfurt, a principal town of Thuringia in. Germany, and 
fifoftrioM born in 1655. He was fan to George Henry Ludolph* 
perfons, a counfellor of that city, and nephew to the famous Jobr 
for^l * nd Rudolph, who had fome fhare in the care of his education* 
Jhodied in arid the regulation of his iludies. He thus became quali-- 
the year fied for the poft he afterwards enjoyed, of fecretary to 
17 11, 8*0. j^ Lenthe, envoy from ChriftianW. king of Denmark, 
to the court of Great Britain. This gentleman, . for his 
faithfulnefs and ability, recommended him afterwards to 
Prince George of Denmark, and in 1680 he became his 
fecretary. This office he enjoyed for fome years, till hq 
was feized with a violent diftemper, which entirely inea** 
pacitated him for it. On this account he was difcharged, 
with the allowance of a handfbmc pennon. After his re- 
covery, he took a refolution to vifit fome foreign countries * 
but he did not make the cotnmoft tour, as his defign was- 
to fee thofe places, and underftand thofe languages that 
were uncommon* Mufcovy at that time, was hardly 
known to travellers : he therefore determined to vifit it; ; 
and, as he had fome knowledge of the Ruffiian language 
before he left England, he eafily became acquainted with 
the principal men of that northern country. He met with 
fome Jews here, with whom he frequently converfed : he 
was fo great a matter of the Hebrew tongue, that he could 
talk with them in that language ; and he gave fuch un- 
common proofs of his knowledge, that the Mufcovite 
priefts took him for 9 conjuror. 
5 Ludolph 


Ladolph underftood mufic, and could play very Well 
t>n many forts of inftruments. He had the honour t6 
play before the Czar at Mofcow ; and the Mufcovites were 
then fuch ftrangers to mufic, that he exprefled the moft 
yronderftkl furprize, as well as the moft cxquifite delight 
tet it-. This prince, by his travels afterwards kito feverai 
parts of Europe* rendered himfelf very knowing* and ac* 
complifhed in many arts, of which he and 'his Country 
were before extremely ignorant. Ludolph returned to 
London in 1694, when he was cut for the ftone* A** 
foon as his health Would permit, in return for the civilities 
he had receded in MufCovy* he fet himfelf to work to 
write a grammar of their language ; by which the natives 
might be taught their own tongue in a regular form. This 
book Was printed by the univerfity prefs at Oxford, and 
publifhed 1696. This eflay, as he fays in his preface, he 
hoped might be of ufe to traders and travellers ; as it was 
an introdu&ion to the knowledge of a language, which was 
fpoken through a vaft traft of country, from Archangel afa 
far as Aftracan, and from Ingermania as far as the confines 
of China. . • . 

Ludolph did not end his travels with feeing Muicovjr 
and the adjacent countries. He had a great defire t6 go 
into the Eaft, and to inform himfelf of the ftate of the 
Chriftian church in the Levant. He began this journey 
in March 1698, and, Nov. following, arrived at Smyrna. 
Hence he travelled to Jaffa, from Jaffa to Jerufalem, from 
Jerufalem to Cairo ; and made all ufeful obfervations re- 
lating to the produftions of nature and art, to the govern* 
ment and religion, of the countries through which he 
patted. The coi^verfation he had with the commander of 
a Turkifh (hip in his paflage to Alexandria is not the 
leaft remarkable thing in his travels. While he was on 
board, he was reading our Saviour's fermon on the mount 
in the New Teftamenft in Arabic, which was printed in 
that language at the charge *of Mr. Boyle. The captain, 
having liftened fome time, afked, " what book that was ?** 
to which Ludolph anfwering, ".that it was the fyftem of the 
" Chriftian religion," he replied, "that could notpoffibly 
" be, fince they pra&tfed quite the contrary." To this Li • 
dolph rejoined, " that he was miftaken ; and that he did 
44 not wonder at it, as the Turks had little opportunity of 
converting with any other than failors and merchants, 
few of whom they reckoned to be good Chriftians, &c." 
The Turk fecmed to be very well fatisfied, and thence- 
forward was extremely kind to him. 


05* .fctfDOXPH. 

• The deplorable ftate of Chriftianity, in the eotifflfey* 
through wnich he travelled, undoubtedly moved bam to 
attempt after his return the impreffion of the New Tefta- 
meat in vulgar Greek* and to make a charitable prefer* 
of it to the Greek church. He providentially came by the 
original, which had been printed divers years before in 
two* volumes in Holland. Being one day on a vifit to the 
.bifoop of Worcefter* his lordfhip informed him, that an 
.ordinary man, dreffed like a feaman, came to his door, 
.deiired to fpeak with him, produced thofe volumes, and 
offered them to fale ; and that, after the mam had given 
fome plaufible a&couftt how he came by them* he had 
purchased them. Thefe two volumes were, by the in- 
dufjxy of Ludolph, and the generous contributions of the 
bifliop and their friends, printed id one voltjrae ismd. ft 
London ; and afterwards diftributed among the Greeks by 
Ludolph, by means of his friendship and corfefpoftdenot 
with fome of the beft difftofed among them. He would 
often exprefs his wiihes* that the Proteftant powers i& 
Europe would fettle a fort of college at Jeru&iera ; and in 
fome degree imitate the great zeal of the Paptfti* who 
ipare neither eoft nor pains to propagate thefir ifeMgion 
.every where. He wifhed aifo, that fuch men aa wereide- 
iigrred to live in that college might be acquainted with tfee 
vulgar Greek, Arabic, and Turkish languages, and might 
by univeffal love and charity be qualified to propagate 
gemiiae Chriftiamty : " for many," fays he, •* propagafe 
*' their own particular fyftemfr, and take this to be die 
" gofpel of Chrift." 

In 1709, when a vaft number of Palatines tame over 
juto England, Ludolph was appointed one of the com- 
raiifioners by her majefty to manage the charities of her 
fubje&s to thefe unhappy ftrangers, and to find out ways 
% to employ them to the beft advantage. He died Jan. 25, 
1709-10, aged 54. 

His works, befides the Mufcovite Grammar already 
mentioned, are, 1. <* Meditations on Retirement from 
" the World." 2. Alfo " Upon divers Subje&s tending 
"■ to promote the inward Life of Faftb* &c." *§, " Cdri- 
•* federations on the Intereft of the Church Univerfal." 
4. " A Prepofal for promoting the Cattfe of Religion in 
" the Churches of the Levant." 5. " Refle&ions on the 
" pre3ent State of the Christian Church." 6. " A Homily 
* fc of Macariu*, done out of Greek." Some of thefe were 
printed fingly, and all of them together in London 1712 ; 

LVDO LP ti. 

afr jHb his funeral fermori, by Mr. Boehm* chaplain to th* 
late prince George of Denmark* 

LUGO (Toh»), a' Srknirti jrfuit diid ordinal, was. 
born Nov. 20, 1523* at Madrid. His wit began to ap-' 
J>ear fo early as three years of age, when he was able tp read 
iiot bniy ptfnjed books, but manufcripts. He maintained 
thefes at fourteen, and was fent to nudy the law, foaa- 
after, at Salamanca ; where he entered into' the Jefuits 
order in 1603, agaiiiftTiis father's mind. He finilhed bit 
courfe of philofophy among the Jefuits of Pampeluna, mxi 
ftudjed divinity at Salamanca. After the death of Jbi$ 
father [a], he was fent to Seville by his Superiors, to take, 
poifeffion of his patrimony, which was very considerable ,;. 
£h$ he divided it among tlie Jefuits of Salamanca. tie 
Taught phiiofophy five years; after which, tit was pro* 
fcflfor of divinity at Valladolid. The fuccefs with which 
he,fUled this, convinced his fuperiore that he was worthy 
of a cjrair of more eminence : accordingly he received 
orders, in the fifth year of his profefforlhip, to go to Rome, 
to teach divinity tfiere. He fet out in March 1621, and 
arrived at Rome in June the fame year, having met with 
many dangers in travelling through the provinces of France* 
He taught divinity at Rome for twenty years, and attended 
* wholly and fblely to that employ, without making bi$ 
cocrrtto the cardinals, or vifiting any ambafladora. 

Heiiad no thoughts of publimiqg any works, but wai 
brdered to do it; and his vow of obedience would nof 
fiiffer him to refufe that order .' accordingly he publiihei 
feven large vcflumeS in folio [b], the fourth of which h* 
dedicated to Urban VIIL Upon this occafion he went to 
)pay his refoe&s to the Pope, to whom he had never 
(jpoken. ne was very gracioufly received j and from that 

M He Jiad a pretty honoorbbte *< Ibid. 1641 and 1652." The fi«h # 

MS tc Serttk, called m Spaniih " De tirute divine fidei* Ibid. 1646 

Joradb*, in Latin J»t«U, J»cats, ** and rt 56." This is called in «-^ 

tnajpftrates of the fecond rank. cellent piece by Maimtoorg, in (t Me* 

]*] The Arft, which treats « -De thode p^cifique, p. 80. edit. 3. 168a.* 

w wcamatione dominica," was printed The feventh, which is a colk&rmr, 

at Lyons, in 1633 and i'8fej. 'The 4< Refponfofum moralium* Ibid. 1651 

fccood, M De facramentis in gpnere " and 1660." He alio wrote note* 

*« & de trcn. eucbariftiat (acraracittp Ic " In privilegia vivo vocis oracalocon- 

« facrificio, Ib'-d. 1636." Tbi third " ceffa focictati, Rome, 1645/' "»<>• 

" DetirUiteic facratnentopcenitentrfe, And he tranilated out of Italian intp 

« Ibid. 163I, 1644, and 1651." The Spantth, " The life of the bleff«4 

fourth and fifths ♦' De juftitia & jore, «• Lewis de Gonzaga* 

Vol. VIII. A a tunc 




L U 6-0. . 

time Urban made ufe of him on feveral occafions, and 

teftificd a particular affection for him; infomuch that he 
made him a cardinal, Dec. 1645, ' without giving him any 
previous notice, of it. -. As- he had never entertained- any 
thoughts of the pope's defign, he was greatly furp :ifed» 
With the news ot his promotion, and did not give the 
tfiefienger that brought it the ufual prefent, becaufe he , 
was not pleafed with the meflage; .nor would he, for the. 
feme realon, permit the Jefuits .college to difcover any 
figns of joy, or grant the fcholars a holiday.. He looked 
upon the coach, which cardinal Barberini fent him, as his 
coffin ; and when he was in the pope's palace, he told the 
officers who were going to put on his cardinal's robes, 
that he was refolved to represent firft to his holinefs, that 
the vows he had made as a Jefuk would not permit him 
to accept of a cardinals hat. He was anfwered, that the 
Pope had difpenfed with thofe vows- " DiCpenfations," 
'" replied he, " leave a man to his natural liberty ; and, if I 
am permitted to enjoy mine, I will never accept of the 
1 purple." Being introduced to the pope, he a&ed whether 
his holinefs, by virtue of holy obedience, commanded him. 
ia accept the dignity : fo which the pontiff anfwering, that 
he did ; Lugo aCquiefced, and bowed his head to receive 
the hat. Yet he constantly kept a Jefuit near his perfon, 
to be a perpetual witnefs of his actions. He continued to 
drefs and undrefs himfelf ; he would not fuffer any hang- 
ings to be put up in his palace/; and eftablifhed fo ex- 
cellent ail order in it, that it was a kind of feminary [c]- 
He died Auguft 20, 1660, leaving his whole eftate to the 
Jefuits college at Rome ; and was interred, by his .own 
directions, at the feet of Ignatius Loyola, the founder of 
the order. 

*■• While he tiras cardinal, he was very charitable ; and be- 
llowed the Jefuits bark, which then fold for its weight itt 
gold, very liberally to .perfons afflifted with agues [d]. 
lie. was the firft that brought this febrifuge fpecific into 
France in 1650, when it was called cardinal de Lugo's 
powder [e]. He was undeniably a learned man, and had 
all that fpbtilty of genius which is the charafteriftic quality 

* * 


„ Fc] Sotueir* Biblioth. vfcript* foe. [d] This bark, the tree of which is 

Jetu, p. 427 ; and Nicholas An- about the fize of a cherry-tree, was not 

,ton- Biblioth. Hifpan. torn, i. p. known in Europe till 1640; and the 

£5,4. Father Maimbourg tells us he jefuits of Rome brought it into* rogue 

•vfas Lugo's difciple there. Maim- in Italy arid Spain, in 1649. 

fcourg, ubi fupra. [EJ'Fureticre's Dictionary, under 

the worp Quinquina. 

- " ' ' - ; of 

L..U GO, - 355 

ot the Spanifh divines ; and is faid particularly to be the 
firtt that difcovered the philofophical fin, and the juftice 
Gf punifhing it internally. His folution of this difficulty 
is fomewhat extraordinary arid entertaining ; for, having , 
alTerted that the favages might be ignorant of* God incul-. 
pably, he ©bferves that the Deity gave them, before their 
death, fo much knowledge of himfelf as was neceflary to " 
be capable of finning theologically, and prolonged their ^ 

life till they had committed fuch fin, and thereby juftly , I 

, incurred eternal damnation [f]. We fhall not be Tur- < 
prifed to hear that fuch a genius invented the doclrine of 
inflated points, • in order to remove the difficulties in ac- ' 
counting for (he infinite divisibility of quantity, and the 
exiftence of mathematical points. It was a received opi- 
nion, that a rarefied bodffctakes up a greater fp^ce than be-» 
fore;* without acquiring any new matter : bur cardinal ap- 
plied this to a corpufcle, or atom, without parts or exten- Moreri cj 
. fion, which he fuppofes may fwell itfelf in fuch a manner B *yl«- 
a$ to fill feveral parts of fpace [g]. 

, [f] See his treatife " De incarna- phyficae, feel:* 9. p. 4*1, &. feq. edit*. 
-< tione." ' * Paris, 1639 ; where his do&rine is 

fc] Rod. de Ariaga, difputat* 16. refuted. 

' 1 ' ■' 

LUGO" (Fr anc 1 s ) , elder brother of the preceding, 
was born at Madrid in 1580, and became a Jcfait at Sala- 
manca in 1600 ; where* out of humility, he employed him- 
felf in teaching the rudiments of grammar .* but he after- 
wards taught philofophy, and was fentto the Indies, to 
teach the catechifm and grammar to the infidels. He was 
alfo employed there in higher matters. They gave him 
the divinity chair in the town of Mexico, and alfo in 
Santa Fe. However, thefe pofts not being agreeable to 
the humility in which: he defired to live, he returned to 
Spain. In the voyage he loft the beft part of his com- 
mentaries upon the "Sums" of T. Aquinas, and narrowly 
cfcaped being taken prifoner by the Dutch. He was 
afterwards deputed to Rome by the provine of Caftilc, to 
affift at the eighth general afiembly of the Jefuits ; and, , 
upon the conclufion thereof, he was Retained there by two 
employs, that of cenfor o£ the books publifhed by the 
Jefuits, and that of Theologue general. But finding him- Morer ; be courted more and more, from the time (hat his * 

brother was made a cardinal, he went back into Spain, 
where he was appointed reftor of two colleges [a]. 

1 [a"| That is, fchool-mafter of afchool confining of two divilions, at is that 
H Wcftminfter. 

35* ^ U G O. 

Itc died in 1652, after writing feveral books, as may be 
fcen below £fe]. » 

fs] They are as follows: " Com- « 165ft," 410. " Difaurfes ftmvlbt 

u aaeotarii in primadi partem S. Tho- M ad theologian momlem, ice. M*- 

•* mat 4e Deo, trmiftace, fc tngelts, " drM, 1643," 410. Qdgftfrxits mo- 

•* f.yoas, 1647," 2 vols, folio. « De « rates def*crt»entis,Graiadi, 1644," . 

44 facramems in genere, Ice. Venice, 410. 

H"wkin» % i LULLY (John Baptist), fuperintendant ofmufic 
SmV* iv. *° Lew* 8 XIV* was born at Florence in 1634, of obfeure 
p.*!*'. * parents: but an ecclefiaftic, difcovering his propehilty to 
toufic, taught him the pra&ice of the guitar* At ten years 
of age he was fent to Paris, in order to be a page of Mad* 
de Montpenfier, a niece of Lewis XIV. ; btit the lady not 
liking his appearance, which was mean and unpromifing, 
• he was removed into the kitchen as her under-fcullioiu 
This degradation, however, did not affeft his fpirit, for 
he uied, at his leifure, to fcr&pe upon afcurvy fiddle ; and, 
being heard by fomebody who had difcetnment, wak men- 
tioned to his ihiftrefs as a perfon of both talents and a 
hand for mufic. She employed a mafter to teach him the 
Violin; and in a few njonths he became fo good a profi- 
cient, 'that he was fent for up to the chamber, and ranked 
among the muficians. 

Being for. fame offence difmifled fronl the princefs's fer* 
vice, he fpt himfelf entered among the king's violins ; 
and in a little time became able to cortipofe. Some pf 
his airs being noticed by the King, he called for the 
author ; and ilras fo ftruck with his performance of them 
on the violin* of which Lully was now become a mafter* 
that be created a new band, called Les Petits V&kmsj and 
placed him at the head of it This was about 1660. He 
i*/as afterwards appointed fur-inundmnt de la mufique de la 
thambrt du Rpy 9 and upon this afibciated himfelf with 
Ruinault, who was appointed to write die operas ; and* 
being now become compofer and joint director of the 
ppera, he did not only detach himfelf from the former 
band, and itiftituted one of his .own, but, what is, more 
extraordinary, ntgte&ed the violin fo much, that, he had 
aoteven one in his houfe, and never played upon it after- 
wards, except to very few, and in private. On the. other 
hand, to the guitar, a trifling instrument, he retained 
throughout life fuch a propensity, that for his amufe- 
naenr he*r eforted to it it voluntarily ; and to perform on 
it, evenjbefore ftrangers, needed no incentive. The rea- 
(oa of this feeming perverfenefs of temper is thus accounted 


LULLY. 357 

ijor :- ** ther guitttr is an inftniment of finall estimation 
V among periods ikiUed in mufic, the power of perform*- 
♦* ingon ij ; bring attained without much difficulty; and, 
" fo far as regards the reputation of the performer, it is ©F 
** ftnall moment whether he plays very well on it or no : 
'* bat the performance on the violin is a delicate and an 
** arduous energy; which Lully knowing, fettoo high a 
*' value on the reputation he had acquired when in con- 
*' ftant practice, to rifque the lofing of it." 1 ^ 

Irt 1086, the King was feized with an indilpefition ibM. p. 240* 
which threatened his life ; but, recovering from it, Lully 
was required to compofe a Te Dtum upon the occaflon^ 
He did compofe one, not more remarkable for its excel* 
knee, than for the unhappy accident which attended the 
performance of it. He ^ad neglefted nothing in the com- • 
pofition of the mufic, and the preparations for the execu- 
tion of it; and, the better to deffionftrate his zeal, he 
J^imfelf beat the time ; but with the care he ufed for this , 
purpofe, he gave himfclf, in the heat of a&ion, a blow 
upon the end of his foot ; and this ending in a grangrene, 
which baffled all the ikill of his furgeons, put an end to 
his life March 22, 1687. 

A pleafant ftory is related of this mufieian m his laft 
illnefs. " Some years before, he had been clofely engaged 
♦* in competing for the opera ; from which his Confeflbr 
*' took occafion to infiauate, thatunlefs, as a teftimony of 
4i fiheere repentance, he would throw the laft of his com- . 
♦' portions into the fire, he muft expeft no abfolution." 
He contented : but, one of the young princes coming to 
fee him, when he was grown better, and fuppofed to be. 
out of danger, " What, Baptifte," fays the Prince; " have 
" you thrown your opera into the fire ? You were a fooi 
** for giving credit thus to a dreaming Janfenift, anjl burn* r 

* x inggood mufic." '* Hufh, my Lord," anfweted Lully, 
44 I knew very well what I was about ; I have a fair copy 
" of it." Unhappily this jll-timed pleafantry was fol- 
lowed by a relapfe : the gangrene increafed, and the prop- 
ped of inevitable death threw him into fuch pangs of re* 
mode, that he fubmitted to be laid upon an heap of 
alhes, with a cord about his neck. In this fituatjetn he 
expreffed a deep fenfe of his l^te tranfgreffion ; and, being 
replaced in his bed, he, further to expiate his offence,, 
fung to an air of his own compofing, the following words : 
Jl faut mourir 9 f>icbtur % il faut mwrir* 


' 4 


L U:T H ER.: 

Sfckcodorf LUTHER (Martin), an illuftrious German A- 
|V Uon *ir yine and reformer of the church, was the fbn df John 
Meichior Luther and Margaret JLmdeman, and born at Iileben, a 
Ad«m, iii town of Saxony, in the county of Mansfield, November 
'"^bfbL IO ,» H83. His father's extraction and condition were 
dc» auteurs originally but mean, and his occupation that pf a miner : 
cvtkiiaft. however, it is prpbable, that by his application and in- 
duftry Jiq improved the fortunes of his family *, for - we 
find him afterwards raifed t» a magiftracy of : a con- 
fiderable rank and dignity in his province. He was initi- 
ated into letters very early ; and, having learned the rudi- 
ments of grammar .while he continued at home whir his; 
parents, was, at the age of thirteen, feat to a fchool at Mag- 
deburg, where he itayed only one year. The circumftances 
pf his parents were at that time fo very low, and fo infuffi- 
cient to maintain him, while he was at Magdeburg, that 
he was forced, as Meichior Adam relates,' ^Mefidicato 
- " vivere pane," tp beg : his bread for fupport. From 
Magdeburg he was removed to a fchool- at Eyfenach, a 
city of Thurjngia, for the fake of beinjg among his mo- 
ther's relations : for his mother was defcended from an 
ancient and reputable family in that town. Here he ap- 
plied himfelf diligently to his bbqks for four years ; and 
pegan tp difepvej all that force and ftrength of parts, that 
acutenefs and penetration, that warm and rapid eloquence, 
which afterwards produced fuch wonderful effects * 

In 1 501, he ^yas fent to the univerfity of Erfprd, where* 
hie went through the ufual courfes of logic and philofophy. 
But Luther did not find his account in thefe ftudies ; did 
not fe$l that ufe and fatisfafltion ariiing from fuch wordy 
' and thorny fciences as logic and phiioiophy then were, 
which fye wanted and wifhed to feel. He very wifely, 
jhereforc, applied himfelf to read the beft«ncjent writers, 
fuch as Cicero, Virgil, Livy, &c. and from them laid in 
fuch a fund of good fepfe, as enabled him to fee through the 
nonfenfe of the fchQols., as well as the fuperftitions and 
errors of the church. He took a matter's degree m*the 
univcril.ty, when he was twenty ; and then read lectures 
• upon Ariftotle's phyfics, ethics, and other parts of phi- 
lofophy.' Afterwards, at the inftigation of his parents, 
he turned himfelf to the civil law, with* a view of ad- 
vancing himfelf to the bar ; but was diverted from this 
*M<h. nurlu.t by the following accident. Walking out into the 

p^»o ? &c* ^ cIc ! S ° ne **?' he vvas f ftruck with lightning', fo as to Ml 
0^^ c. tQ t « ic g roun ^ w hilc a companion was killed by his fide ; 

• r . ' 1 and 


and this affe&ed him fo fenfibly, that, without commq* 
nicating his purpofe to any of his friends, he withdrew 
himfelf from the world, and retired into the order of the 
iiermits of St. Augiaftine. 

Here he employed himfelf in reading St. Auguftine an4 
the fchoolmen ; but, in turning over the books of the lir 
brary, he fell accidentally upon a copy of the Latin Bible, 
which he had never feen before. This raifed his curiofity 
%6 a high degree : he read it over very greedily, and was 
amazed to find what a fmall portion of the fcriptures were 
rehearled to the people. He made his profeffion in the 
monaftery of Erford, after he had been a novice one year ; 
and he took priefts orders, and celebrated his firft mafs in 
1507. I he year after, he was removed from the convent 
of Erford to the univerfity of Wittemberg ; for this uni- 
Verfity being but juft founded, nothing was thought mors 
likely to bring it into immediate repute and credit, thai* 
the authority and prefence of a man fo celebrated for his 
great parts and learning as Luther was. Here he read pub- Mcfch. 
iic leftures in philofophy for three years ; and he read Adam,'*c f 
' them not in that fervile, creeping, ' mechanical way, that 
, leftures are ufuaily read ; but with fo much a&ive fpirjt 
and force of genius, as to make it prefaged, that a revo- 
lution might one day happen in the fehools, under his di- 
jre&ion and management. 

In 1512, feven convents of his order having a quarrel 
with their vicar-general, Luther was pitched upon to go to 
Rome, to maintain their caufe. He was indeed a proper 
perfon for fuch employments as thefe ; for he was a man 
of a moft firm and fteady temper, and had a prodigious 
fhare of natural courage, which nothing could break or 
daunt. At Rome he faw the pope and the court, and 
had an opportunity of observing alfo the manners of the 
clergy, whofe hafty, fuperficial, and impious way of cele'- 
brating mafs, he has feverely noted. *f I performed irjafs," jj,;^ 
lays he, '* at Rome; I faw it alfo performed by others, 
*< but in fuch a manner, that I never think of it without 
** the utrnoft horror;'' He often fpoke afterwards with 
gleat pleafure of his journey to Rome ; and ufed to fay> 
that he " would not but have made it for a thoufand florins.'' 
As fbon as he had adjusted- the depute* which was the bu- 
iinefs of his journ&y, : he returned to Witterhberg, and was 
created doftor of divinity, at the expence of Frederic, 
jele&or of Saxony ; Who had often heard him preach, was 
perfectly acquainted with his merit; and reverenced hirrv 

AM highly, , 

3 *e LUTHER. 

highly. Luther, it kerns, it firft declined the hftttint af 

this degree, on account of his being, in his own opinion; 

' too young, for he was only in his 30th year ; but it was 

Mtich. told him, that " he muft fuffer himfelf to be dignified, for 

Adam, *c " that God intended to bring about great things in the 

" church by his means : which, though it was certtialy 

faid in jeft, proved at length a very ferious truth. 

He continued in the univerfity of .Wittembcrg, where* 
as profeflbr of divinity, he employed hijnfelf in the bu&» 
neis of his calling. The univerfity, as we have oMerved, 
was lately founded by Frederic, elector of Saxony, who 
was one of the richeft and moil powerful princes at that 
time in Germany, as well as one of the moft magnificent 
and bountiful ; and who brought a great many learned men 
thither, by large penfions and other encouragements, audi 
amongft the reft Luther. Here then he now began in good 
earneft to read lectures upon the fftcred books : he ex- 
plained the epiftle to the Romans* and the P&lms, which 
he cleared up and illuftrated in a manner fo entirely new, 
and different from what had been purfned by former com* 
men ta tors, that, " there feemed, after a long and dark 
IW. " night, a new day to arife, in the judgement of all pious 

" and prudent men." He fettled the precife difference 
between the law and gofpel, which before had been con- 
founded ; refuted many errors, commonly received both 
in the church and the ichools ; and brought many necef- 
fary truths to light, which might have been vainly fought 
after in Scotus and Aquinas, The belter to qualify him- 
felf for the tafk he had undertaken, he applied brouelf at- 
tentively to the Greek and Hebrew languages; to which, 
we are told, he was particularly excited by the writings of 
Erafmus ; who, though he always remained in appear* 
ance a 'Papirft, yet contributed as much, or perhaps more, 
to the difpellingof monkifh ignorance, and overthrowing 
. the kingdoms of darknefs, than any of the Reformers.^ 
In the mean time, Luther, while he was a&ive in pro-" 
pagating truth and day-light by his leftures and fermons, 
maintained a prodigious feventy in his life and convex 
fation, and was a moft rigid obferver of that difeipline, 
which he as rigidly enjoined to pthcrs. This gained him 
yaft credit and authority ; pnd made all he delivered, 
though ever fo new and unufual, go the readier down with 
tjink who heard him. 

In this manner was he employed, when the general in- 
dulg«nccjj werq fubliftfd, in 1517, Lm X. who fuc- 


LU THE Ri & 

ceefcd JtfUu* II. in March 1513, formed a defign of build* 
tog the magnificent church of St. Peter's at Rome, which 
was indeed begun by Julius, but ftill required very large 
films to be finished ., The trcafure of the apoftolic Chamber 
was much exhausted; and the pope himielf, though of a 
rich and powerful family, yet was far from being able to do 
it at his own proper charge, on account of die exceifive 
debts he had contracted before his advancement to the 
popedom. The method of raifing money by indulgences 
had formerly on feveral occafions been pra&ifed by the 
court of Rome; and none had been found more effedual. 
Leo therefore, in 1517, published general indulgences 
thoughout all Europe, in favour of thole who wovtW con*- 
tribute any fum to the building of St. Peter's; and* ap*- 
pointed perfons in different countries to preach up thefe 
indulgences, and to receive money for them. Albert of 
Brandenburg, archbifhop of Mentz and Magdebmg, who 
was foon after made a cardinal, had a cotamiffion for Gen* 
many ; and Luther affures us, that he was to have half the 
money that was to be raifed, which does not feern impro- 
bable: for Albert's court was at that time very luxurious and 
fplendid; and he had borrowed 30,000 florins of the Fug- 
gers of Augfburg, to pay the pope for the bulls of his arch- 
bifhopric, which fum he was bound to repay. Be this Dupin, *c. 
however as it will, Albert gave out this commimon to John Seckciriorf, 
Iccelius, a Dominican friar, and others of his order. ** 
Thefe indulgences were immediately expofed to laic ; and 
Iccelius boafted of " having fo large a commiffion from the 
** pope; tliat though a man fhould have deflowered the vir- 
*' gin Mary, yet for money he might be pardoned." * He 
added farther, that " he did not only give pardon for fins Meich. 
*' paft, but for fins to come." A book earner out alfo at Adam, *e. 
the fame time, under the fan&ion of the archbifhop, in 
which orders were given to the commiflioners and co lienors, 
to .enforce and prefs the power of indulgences. Thefe per- 
fons performed their offices with great zeal indeed, but not 
with fufficient judgement and policy. They over-afted 
their parts, fo that the people, to whom they were become 
very troubiefome, faw through the cheat; being at length 
convinced, that, under a pretence of indulgences, they 
only meant to plunder the Germans ; and that,, far 
from being folicitous abput faving the fouls of others, 
- their only view was to enrich themfelves. 

Thefe ftrange proceedings gave vaft offence at Wittent* 
berg, and particularly inflamed the moos zeal of Luther' ; 


36* L U T H E R; 

who, being naturally warm and'aftive, and in the prefent 
cafe unable to contain himfelf, was determined to declare 
againft them at all adventures. Upon the eve of All -faints, 
therefore, in 151 7, he publicly fixed up, at the church next 
to the caftle of that town, a thefis upon indulgences ; in 
the* beginning of which, he challenged any one to oppofcit 
either by writing or difputation. This thefis contained 
ninety -five proportions ; in which, however, he did not 
. direftly oppole indulgences in themfelves, nor the power 
9«pio, &e. of the church to grant them, but only maintained, " That 
the pope could releafe no punifhments but what he in- 
fli&ed, and indulgences could be nothing but a relaxa- 
•* tion of ecckfiaftical penalties ; that they affe&ed only the 
i4 living ; that the dead were not fubjeft to canonical per 
* 4 nances, and fo could receive no benefit by indulgences j 
** and that fach as were in purgatory could not by them 
** be delivered from the punifhment of their fins ; that in r 
44 deed the pope did not grant indulgences to the fouls of 
' 4 the dead, by virtue of the power of the keys, but by way 
•* of fuffrage; that indulgences feldom remit all punifh- 
44 ment ; that thofe, who believe they fhall be faved by 
" indulgences only, fhell be damned with their mafters ; 
Vbat contrition can procure remiffion of the fault and pu-r 
nifhment without indulgences, but that indulgences can, 
do nothing without contrition; that, however, the 
pope's indulgence is not to be contemned,' becauie it is 
the declaration of a pardon obtained of God, but only 
to be preached up with caution, left the people fliouk} 
44 think it preferableto good works 5 that Chriftians Ihould 
** be inftru&ed, how much better it is to abound in works 
of mercy and charity to the poor, than to purchafe \ 
pardon^ and that it is a matter of indifference either to 
buy, or not to buy, an indulgence ; that indulgences are 
not to be trailed to ; that it is hard to fay, what that 
*' meafure of the church is, which is faid to be the founda~ 
44 tion of indulgences ; that it is not the merits of Chrift 
44 or his faints, becaufe they produce grace in the inner 
44 man, and crucify the outward man, without the pope's 
44 interpofing ; that this trealure can he nothing but the 
44 power of the keys, or the gofpel of the glory and grace 
44 of God ; that indulgences cannot remit the leaft venal 
44 fin in refpeft of the guilt; that they remit nothing to 
? 4 them who by a fincere contrition have a right to a per-. 
44 fetf remiffion ; and that Chriftians are to be exhorted to 
44 feek pardon of their fius by the pains and Jabour of pe- 

44 nance a 




lut¥er; S 6s 

*' nance, ratlicr than to get them difcharged without 
*« reafon." ' '. i 

This is the dottrine of Luther's thefis ; in which, if h$ 
does hot, as we fay, attack indulgences dire&ly, he cer- 
tainly might as well have done it :. for he reprefehts them f 
we fee, as ufelefs and ineffectual. He alfo condemns in it 
Teveral propofitions which he attributes to his adverfaries, 
and inveighs againft feveral abufes of which he affirms them 
guilty, as for example : " The referving ecclefiaftical pe * Luther, 
nance for purgatory, or commuting them into the pains °P«« 
of purgatory ; teaching, that indulgences free men from ^* eIM,orf > 
all the guilt and punifhment of fin ; preaching, that the 
4 * foul, which they pleafe to releafe out of purgatory, flies 
$i immediately to heaven, when the money is call into the 
'** cheft; maintaining, that thefe indulgences are an inefti- 
mable gift, by which man is reconciled to God $ exact- 
ing upon the poor, contrary to the pope's intentions ; 
caufing the preaching the word of God to ceafe in other 
churches, that they may have a greater concourfe of peo*. 
1* plelnthofe where indulgences are preached up; advanc- 
ing this fcandalous aflertion, that the pope's indulgence*, 
have fuch a virtue, as to be able to abfolve a man, though 
he has ravifhed the mother of God r which is a thing im- 
pofBble ; publifhing, that the crofs with the arms of the 
ff pope, is equal to the crofs of Chrift, &c. Such po- 
** fitions as thefe,". fays he, "have made people afk, and 
** juftly, why the pope, out of charity, does not deliver all 
fouls out of purgatory, fince he can deliver fo great a 
number for a little money, given for the building of a 
** church? Why he fuffers prayers and anniverfaries for the 
*< dead, which are certainly delivered out of purgatory by 
** indulgences? Why the pope, who is richer than feveral 
•* Crcefufes, cannot build the church of St. Peter with his 
'?* own money, but at the expence of the poor ? &c." In 
thus attacking indulgences, and the commiffioners appointee} 
to publifli then), Luther feerned to attack Albert, the arch- 
ki(hop of Mentz, under whpfe name and authority they 
wejre publifhed. This he was hi mfelf a ware of; and, there- 
fore, the very eve on which he fixed up his theiis, he wrote 
a letter to him, in which, after humbly reprefenting to 
him the grievances juft recited, he befought him to remedy 
and correft them : and concluded with imploring pardon 
for the freedom he had taken, protefting that what he did 
was out of duty, and with a. faithful and fubmiflive tempej 
of mind. 7 

+ v f . 

564 LUTHB/R. 

Lather's propQfitions about indulgences were no foQBCT 
{mbiiftied, than Tecciius, the Dominican friar and cqx4t 
miflloner for felling them, maintained an4 published at 
Francfert a thefis, containing a fet of proportions <Jire#ly 
contrary to them. Tecciius did more : he ftirred up the 
tlergy of his order againft Luther j anathematifed him from 
the pulpit, as a moil damnable here tk; and burnt his thefis 
bublicly at Francfort. Tecelius's thefis was alfo burnt, in 
return, by the Lutherans at Wiftemberg ; bnt Luther him* 
felf difowned having had any hand in that procedure, audi 
in a letter to Jodocus, a profeilbr at Ifenac, who had for- 
merly been his mafter, afked him, " If Jhe thought Luther 
•• lb void of common fenfe, as to do a thing of that kind i» 
*' a place ifrhere he had not any jurifdiftion, and againft ? 
•* divine of fo great authority as Tecelius ?" On tne conr 
trary,. it is certain, that Luther, although fye perceived that 
his proportions were very well liked, and entertained as 
perfectly found and orthodox, yet carried himfelf at firft 
with great calmnefs arid fubniiflipn. He propofed them to 
be difcufled only in the way of difputation, till the church 
fhould determine what was to be thought of indulgences. 
He wrote to Jerom of Brandenburg, under, whoft? jurifdic«- 
tion he was, and fubmitted what he had written to that bir 
iriop's judgement. He entreated him either to fcratch out 
with his pen, or commit to the flames, whatever fhould 
feem to him unfound : to which however the bilhop replied, 
that he only begged him to defer the publication or hk pror 

Sofitions ; and added, that he wilhed no difcourfe had ncea 
w .v». arted about indulgences. Luther complied with the bir 
Ad*o\, Ac.fhop's requeft; and declared, that "it gave him more plea- 
" fure to be obedient, than it would to work miracles, if he 
" was ever fo able." And fo much jufticemuft be done ta 
Luther, even by thofe who are not of his. party, as to ac- 
knowledge, that he was willing to be filent, and to fay no^ 
thing more of indulgences, provided the fame conditions 
might be impofed «pon his adverfaries. 

But the fpirit of peace deferted the church for a feafon; 
and a quarrel, begun by two little monks, ended, as we 
fhall fee, in nothing Iefs than a mighty revolution. Luther 
was now attacked by adverfaries innumerable from all fides: 
three of the principal of whom were John Eecius, divinity 
profeflbr and vice-chancellor of the univerfity of Irjgolftadt, 
who wrote notes upon his thefis, which Luther anfwerei 
by notes ; Sylvefter Pricrias, a Dominican, and mafter of 
the holy palace; and one Jacobus HQgoftratus*, a friar- 
' *• preacher, 

LtJT'ttE^ jtfj 

prea^hcr f whp fiugled Quit, fi>l&e of hi* proportions, aad 

advlfed . thc^ pppp to eQnc^ipn^adWmmin, iffynvoulji 

not itrimedltfely ' retract them, Luther onxtefl*e4- himklf « * 

with fmkliihing a kind Qf manifeihj agajilil Hogofrratu* f - 

in, whiph h% reproaches him with cruelty arid ignorance; .. 

bqt frierias he treated with a little more ceremony, ^ri- « 

erias had drawn up his anira^dverfions in die form of a dia-*- 

logue, to which was prefixed a dedication to the pope; . 

arid had built all he had advanced againft Luther upon tfye 

principles of* Thomas Aquinas. Luther, in an epiftk *° ^ 

the reader* bppofed holy fcripture to the authority of this j^ m ^ 

faint; and declared, amonj; other things, that " if the 

** p*>pe.and the cardinals were> like this Dominican, tjpfet 

€% up ahy authority againft that of fcripture, it could no .. 

** longer he doubted that Rome was itfelf the very, feat of 

" Aatjchrift ; and then happy would Bohemia, and all other 

** countries be, who Ihould feparate themfelves from it as. 

44 fbon as pofible;^ 

In i $ i §, Luther, though ditfuaded from it by his friends, . . . • 
ypu to fhew his obedience to authority, went to the mo- ; 
nauery of St, Auguftinc at Heidelberg, while the chapter^ , 
was held ; and here maintained, April 26, a difpute con- - 
cerning. " juftification by faith ;" Which Bucer, whq wa». 
prefect at it, took down in writing, and afterwards com- 
municated to Beatus Rhenanus, not Without the highefl 
commendations. Luther has given an account of this dif- 
pute, and fays, that " the doctors there op^ofed him withlbii. 
*' fuch moderation and good manners, that he could not. 
" but think the better of them for it. And although the 
** do£t*ine he maintained was perfe&ly new to them, yet 
*' they ill acquitted themfelves very acutely, except one of 
u the juniors ; who created much mirth and laughter by ob* 
ferving, That if the country people were to hear what • 
ftrange portions were admitted, they would certainly 
ftone the whole a&mbly." 

In the mean time, the zeal of his adverfaries grew every 
day more and 'more a&ive againft him; and he wa$ at 
length accufed to Leo X. as an heretic. As foon as he re- 
turned therefore from Heidelberg, he wrote a letter to that* 
pope* in the moft fubmiffive terms ; and fenthlm, at the* 
laqxe time, $m explication of his proportions about indul- 
gences. He tells his hoiinefs in this letter, that " he was 
greatly troubled at being reprefeated to him as a perfoa 
who oppofed the authority and power of the keys and 
pope ; that this accufation amazed him, but that he / 

" trufted 




3 66 















opera* torn. 4< 
,ip.*34- «* 












" trailed to bis own innocency." Tbco he fct$ forth tho 
matter of faft ; and fays, that «• the preacher^ of the ju- 
bil'ee thought all things lawful for the hi under the pope 9 ? 
name, and taught heretical and impious propositions, to 
the fcandal and 'contempt of the ecclefiaftical power, and 
as ;f the decretals agamft the abufes of collectors did not 
concern them : that they had publifhed books, in which 
they taught the fame impieties and herefies, not to ifcen- 
tion their avarice and exa&ions ; that they had found out 
no other way to quiet the offence their ill conduft had 
given, than by terrifying men vyith the name of pope, 
and by threatening with fire, as heretics, all thofe who 
did not approve and fubmit to their exorbitances'; that,, 
being animated with a zeal for Jpfus Chrift, and pufried 
on by the heat of youth, he had given notice or thefe 
abufes to the fuperior powers ; whole not regarding it had 
* f induced him to oppofe them with lenity, by publifhing 
a poiition, which he invited the moft learned to dif- 1 
pute with him. This," fays he, " is the flame, which they 
fay hath fet die whole world on fire. Is it that I have 
not a right, as a doftor of divinity, to difpute in thfr 
public fchools upon thefe matters r Thefe thefes were 
made only for my own country : and I am furprifedto 
fee them fpread into all parts of the world. They were 
rather difputable points, than decisions ; fome of them 
obfeure, and in need of being cleared. What (hall I 
do ? I cannot draw them back, and yet I fee 1 am made 
odious. It is a trouble to me to appear in public, yet I 
am conftrained to do it. It is to appeafe my adverfaries, 
and give fatisfaftion to feveral perfons, that I have pub- 
lished explications of the difputes I have engaged in; t 
which I now do under your holinefs's prote&ion, that it 
may be known how fincerely I honour the power of the 
keys, and with what injuflice my adverfaries ha^erepre- 
fented me. And if I were fuch a one as they give out, 
the eleftor of Saxony would not have endured me in his 
univerfity thus long." He concludes in the following 
words : " I caft myfelf, holy father, at your feet, with 
all I am and have. Give me life, or put me to 
death ; confirm or revoke, approve or difapproye, as 
you pleafe. I own . your voice as that of Jefus Chrift, 
who rules and fpeaks by you : and, if I have deferved 
death, I refufe not to die." - This letter is dated on 
Trinity-funday 15/8, and was accompanied with aprptef- 

tation ; wherein h'e declared, that " he did not pretend to 
2 :....•' .«i advance 

L U THE R; ^ 3 «7 


u advahce or defend any thing contrary to the holy fcri$- 
" tore, or to the doctrine of the fathers, received and ob^^ 
" ferved by the church of Rome, or to the canons and de- 
" cretals of the popes : neverthelefs he thought he had the :• 
". liberty* either- to approve or difapprove theopinons of* 
" St. Thoma^ Bonaventure, and other fchoolmen and ' 
41 canonifts, which are not grounded upon any text."' 

The emperor Maximilian was equally felicitous with the ; * 

pope* about putting a ftop to the propagation of Luther's*, 
opinions in' Saxony; fince;the great number of his follow- 
ers, and the refolutions with which he defended them; < 
made it evident, beyond difpute, that if he were notim-.; 
mediately checked, he would become troublefpnie both to • 
the church and eirapire. Maximilian, therefore, applied 
to Leo, in a letter, Aug.' 5, 15 18, and begged him to for- 
bid, by his authority, thefe ufelefs, rafh, and dangerous dif* 
putes ; affurmg them withal, that he would ftrifltly execute 
in the empire whatever his holinefs fhould * enjoin. The 
pope on his part prdered the bifhopof Afcolij auditor of 
the apoftolic chamber, to cite Luther Jo appear at Rome, 
within fixty days, that he might give, aa Account of. his 
doftrine to the auditor and mafter of the palace, X6 whom 
he had ccanmittedihe judgement of that carafe. He wrote, 
at the fame time, ito the elector of Saxony, to pray him 
not to proteft Luther ; and let Jiim know, that he had 
cited him, and had given cardinal Cajetan, his legate in' 
Qermanyvthe neceltary inftruftibns upon that occasion. 
He exhorts, the elector to put Luther into the hands of 
this legate, that he might be carried to Rome ; alluring 
him, that,- if he were innocent,, he would fend him back ab~ 
folved, and if he were guilty, would pardon him upon, 
his repentance. This letter to Frederic was dated Aug. 
23, i^iS, and it was by no means unneceflary; fof 
though Luther had nothing to truft to at firfl: but his own 
perfonal qualities, his parts, his learning, and his cou- 
rage, . yet he was afterwards countenanced and fupportcd 
by this elector. At the fame *time alfo the pope fent aDupin, k^ 
brief to cardinal Cajetan, in which he ordered him to 
bring Luther before him as foon as poffible ; and, to hinder , .-#> 
the princes from being any impediment to the execution ■* 
of this order, he denounced the putiiihments of excom- 
munication, interdiftion, and privation of goods againft 
ail who mould receive Luther, and ; give him protection j 
and promifed a plenary indulgence to thoie ^wbo fhould 
affift in delivering him up. . .. ~, *~ . ' 

; In 


In die mean time Luther, as f6on as he underftowi vA&t 
was tranfacting about him at Rome, ufed ail imaginable 
meant to prevent his being carried thither, and to obtain 
a hearing of his caufe in Germany. The univeriky of Wit-' 
tembcrg interceded for him, and wrote a letter to the pope, 
to excufe him from going to Rome* becaofe his health 
would not permit it ; and affiared his hofinefe, that be had 
r averted nothing contrary to the do&rine of the ehwch, 

. and that all they could charge feim with was hk laying 
down fomc propofitions in difputation too freely, though 
without any view of deciding upon them. The elector 
alio was againft Luther's going to Rome, and differed of 
cardinal Gajetan, that he migiit be heard before feim, ar 
his legate in Germany, Upon thaefe addrefles y the pope 
confented, that die caufe flioald be tried before car* 
dinal Cajetan, to whom he had given power to decide 
it. Luther, therefore, fet off immediately for Augfburg, 
and carried with him letters from the eleftor. He ar- 
rived here 0<S» 15 1 8, and, upon un affisvartce of his Safety* 
was admitted into the cardinal's prefence, The legale tofd 
him, that he did not intend to enter into any drfpate with 
him, but fliould only propouhd three things to him, on the 
port's behalf; and he did admonhh him, ** Firfly T* 
** become a fpund member of the church, ami So recant 
** his errors; fecondly, To promife, that fce would hoc 
" teach fuch pernicious doctrines for the fbtw« ; and, 
*• thirdly, To take care that the peace of the church was na* 
** barken by his means." Luther ibefeeched the legate soac* 
quaint him what his errors were ; who thereupon attedged 
to him a decretal of Clenseht VI. wherein " the aaeritsof 
14 Jeius Chrift are affirmed to be a treafore of indulgent 
M ccs," which, he the laid Luther denied ; and oibje£ted 
to him al& his teaching, that 4 * faith was neceffifry for ail* 
* who fhotfld receive the fectannent, fo as to obtain any 
" benefit by it." Luther replied, that w he had Head the 
u decretal of Clement, whioh the legate aMedged ; but did 
humbly conceive, that it was not" of fufficierit authority 
to retracl any opinion, which he believed to fee con* 
afelcb. "forrdable to holy fcripture.'* The legate had then re* 
Aiam, k& courfe to the authority of the pope, who, he faid, ♦* <ovM 
" ordy decide upon the fenfe of fcripture ;" iipon which 
Luiher defired tame to deliberate upon what the legate had 
pftfpofed to him, and fo the difpute ended for that day. 

The next day, which was 0&. ix, Lutther returned to 
a fecond conference with the legate, accompanied with four 



i u f M i K; 0$ 

£6tnlfeU6rs of the empire, and a notary; and brought with 
him * protection* in which he declared, that " he ho* 
u noured and wouM obey the holy church of R6me in all 
u things ; that, if he had faid 6i dorie any thing contrary 
** to its decifionsj he defired ft might be looked upon as 
** never ford or done," And for the three propositions 
loader hira by the legate, he declared, " That, having 
«* fought only the truth, he had committed no fault, 
#t and cotald not retract err'ors; of which he had not beeil 
«* convinced, nor even heard ; that he w& firmly per- 
« 4 fuaded of his having advanced nothing contrary to 
" fcriptufe arid the do&rines 6f the fathers ; that, ne- 
** verthelefs, being a man, and {vfyjefy to error, he 
<* would ftibmit hirtffelf to th6 lawful determinatron of the 
'* church ; and that he off* red, farther, to give reaforis, r 
i% in this place, and elfe where, of what ne had afierted, 
<4 ^nfwer the objefiifoip, and hear the opinions of the 
u doctors of. the famous unitferfitres of Bafil, Friburg, 
** Louvain, he." The legate only repeated whit he hadr 
fald the day before about the authority of the pope, and 
exhorted Luther again to retrafiL "Luther aftfwefed 
nothing, 1 but preferred a wri&hg te^ the legate, which, htf 
faid, committed aH lie had to inf#e¥. The legate recehredt 
ihe writing, but paid no regard to it: he prefled Luther 
to retraft, threatening him with the cenfuris of the church, 
2f he did not ; : and commanded him not to &ppe&r any more" 
in his prefehce,* ufrfefs he brought his recantation with! 
him\ Luther was now convinced, that he hid' more* 
to fear from the cardinal's power; 'than from deputations 
tf any kind; arid, therefore, apprthen6ve of being feized* 
Jf he did not fubmit, Withdrew from Augfbtfrg upon the 
aoth* But, before his departure* he publilhed a formal 
jfppteal to. "the pope, in which tit declared, that " though 
** he had fubmitted to, be tried by carditis:! Cajetafi, as his 
* legate, yet he hid beeft & borne down and injured by 
4 * him, that he was conftrairied, at length, to appeal to'. 
4i the judgement of his halinefs!" He. wrote likewife a* 
letter to the cardinal, and told him, that il he did not 
*' thinfc himfelf bound to continue ariy longer at Augf- 
" burg; that he would retire after he had made his ap«* 
44 peal ; that h& wtfuld always fubmit himfelf to the 
**" judgejntnt of the church ; but, for Ms ceniuretf, that as 
** he had hot' deferred, {6 he did not valu* them." 

Thctagh T,tfth£r wtfs a ttfen of invincible courage, yet he 
was animated: in&ratiweafore, to tfcefo firm atxd Vigorous 
. touYStis B V . pro-" 

370 LUTHER. 

proceedings by an aflurance of proteftion from Frederic 
of Saxony ; being perfuaded* as he fays in his letter to the 
legate, that an appeal would be more agreeable to that 
ele&or, than a recantation. On this account,' the firft 
thing which the legate did, after Luther'? departure, wasr 
to fend an account to the ete&pr of what had paffed at 
Augfburg- And here he complained, that Luther left hint 
without taking leave, and without his knowledge ; and al- 
though he had given him hopes that he would retraft and 
fubmit, yet had retired withou/ affording him the leaft fa-' 
tisfa&ion. He acquainted the ele&or* that Luther had ad- 
vanced and maintained feveral proportions of a moft dam-' 
nable nature, and contrary to the doftrine of the holy fee.- 
He prays him to difcharge his confeience, and to keep un- 
fpotted the honour of his illuftrious houfe, by either fend- 
ing him to Rome, or banifhing him from his dominions. 
He aflured him* that this matter could not continue long 
4s it was at prefent, but would foon be profecuted at Rome i 
fnd that, to get it out of his own hands, he had written 
to the pope about it. When this letter, Oft. 25, 1518,- 
was delivered to the eleftor, he communicated it to Luther,* 
who immediatelety drew up a defence of himfelf againft it. 
la this defence, he offers to the ele&or, to leave his coun- 
try, if hishighnefs thought proper, that he might be more 
at liberty to defend . himfelf againft the Papal authority, 
without bringing smy inconveniences upon hrs highnefs 
fey that means. But his friends advifed him ve*y wifely 
to (lick ciofely to Saxony, without ftirring a foot ; and the 
univerfity of Wittemberg prefented an addrefs to die 
ele&or, praying him to afford Luther fo much favour and 
proteftion, -that he might not be obliged to recant his 
opinions, till it was made appear that they ought to be 
condemned. But this addrefs was needlefs ; the ele&or 
was refotved not to defert Luther, and told the legate in 
Metctu * a an ^ wer » Use. the 18th, that he " hoped he would haw 
Admm, &c '* dealt with Ltidxer in another manned, and not have 
i>opio, &c. #« obliged him to recant? before his caufe was heard and 
" judged ; and that there were feveral men in his own 
" and in other univerfities, who did not think Luther'i 
. f * doftrine either impious or heretical ; that, if he had be-' 
" lieved it fueh, there would have been no need of ad- 
•* moniftunghim, notto tolerate it j that, Either not being 
" convi&ed of herefy, he could not banifh him' from his 
i€ Hates, nor fend him to Rome ; and that, flnce Luther 
".offered to fubmit himfelf to the judgement of the unw 

" .verfitics, 

LUTHE R. $7x 

€i vcrfitics, he thought .thay ought to hear him, or, at Ieafly 
<% ihew hint , the errors which he taught in his writings." 
1/uther, feeing tiinifelf thus fupported, continued to teach 
the fame da&rines at Wlttemberg, and fent a challenge to 
all the inquifitors to come and difpute with him ; offering 
them not orily a fafe conduft from his prince, but affuring 
them alfo of good entertainment, and that their charges 
ihould be borne, fo long as they remained at Wittemberg. 
^ Whiie thefe things palled in Germany, Leo attempted 
to put an end to thefe dilputes about indulgences, by a do- 
cifion of his own ; and for tliat purpofe, Nov. the 9th, pub- 
fifhed a brief, direfted to cardinal Cajetan, in which he de- 
clared, that " the pope, the fucceffor of St. Peter, and vi- 
* k car of Jefus Chrift upon earth, hath power to pardon, 
*? by virtue of the keys, the guilt and punifhment of fin, 
* the guilt by the facrament of penance, and the temporal 
puiiifhments due for aftual fins by indulgences ; that 
thefe indulgences are taken from the overplus of the 
** merits of Jefus Chrift and his faints, a treafure at the 

f>ope*s own difpofal, as well by way of abfolution as 
uffrage; and that the dead and the living, who properly 
and truly obtain thefe indulgences, are immediately freed 
from the punifhment due to their aftual fins, according 
*' to the divine juftice, which aflows thefe indulgences to 
u be granted and obtained." This: brief ordains, that 
* r all the world (hall hold and preach this doftrine,' under 
the pain of excommunication referved to the pope ; and 
enjoins cardinal Cajetan to fend it to all the archbifhops 
* c arid bifhops of Germany, and caufe it to be put in exe- 
i4 cution by % therau** Luther knew very well, that, after 
this judgement made by the pope, N he could not poffibly 
efcape being proceeded againft, and condemned at Rome ; 
and, therefore, upon the 28th of the fame month, pub- 
lifhed a new appeal from the pope to a general council, in 
Which he afierts the fuperior authority of the latter over th« 
former. The pope forefeeing, that he (hould not eafily 
manage Luther, fo long as the eleftor of Saxony continued 
to fupport and proteft him, fent the eleftor a golden rofe, 
fuch an one as he ufed to blefs every year, and fend to fe* 
Veral princes, as marks of his particular favour to them. 
Miltitius, his chamberlain, who was a German, was in- 
trufted with this commiffion ; by whom the pope fent alfo 
letters, Jan. 1519, to the elector's counfellor and fecretary, 
in which he prayed thofe minifters to ufe all poffible intereft 
with their matter, that he wouM ftop the progrefs of Luther's 

B b % errors, 






371 'L.UtftER. 

Hiftoria Errors, and imitate therein the piety of hi* ajtfeftor*. ft* 
i(ml acc.°" Spears, by Seckendorf s account of Miltitius 1 s rtegptiatioji*. 
that Frederick had long foliclted fof this bauble from th* 
pope ; and that three or four years* before, when his elec* 
toral highnefs was a bigot to the court of Rome, it had pro- 
bably been a moft welcome prefent. But pofi e/t occajio cal- 
va: it was now too late!. Luther's cohtefis with the fee of 
Rome had opened the elector's eyes, and enlarged his mind 5 
and, therefore, when Miltitius delivered his letters* an<T 
di (charged his commiffion, he was received but coldly by th* 
elector, who valued riot theconfecra ted rofe, rior would re- 
ceive it publicly and in form, birt only privately and by fei* 

As to Luther » Miltitius had orders to require die ele&or, 
to oblige him to retract, or to deity fiim his protection : 
but, alas ! things were not How to be carried with, fo &g& 
a hand, Luthet's credit being too firmly eftabli&ed* Be- 
fides, the emperor Maximilian happened to di$.<upon th* 
1 2th of this month, whofe death greatly altered the face of 
affairs, and made the elector more able to determine Lu- 
ther's fate. Miltitius thought it heft therefore to tfy wh# 
could be done by fair and gentle means, and to t]^t end 
came 16 a conference with Luther. He poured forth many 
+ commendations upon him, and earneftly entreated Ijirri, tha{ 
he would himlelfappeafe that tempeft,which,c^uldiiotbu{ 
be deftru&ive to" the church. M6 plamed, at ths fam$ 
time, the behaviour and conduct of Tecelius, : and feprovecfc 
him with fo much fharpnefs, that he died eff p^elanchqly % 
fliort time after. Ltfther r arrived at allthis civil treatment % 
which he if ad never experienced before,- connnettded Milti-r 
tius highfy ; pwned, that, if they had behaved to Jum fa at 
firft,* all the troubles* occasioned by tjiefe difput<?s f had 
been avoided ; mA did not forget to- caft the ^larr^e. uporjt 
Albert archbvfhop of Meritz* wfip had inc?eafep; tftefe trput 
bles by his feverky, Miltitius alfo made fpti^e cojioeffipos ; 
is, that the people had been fedtfeed by falfc dpir$iPirs about 
indulgences, that Tecelius had giver* the oe'cffipn,, $iat the 
archbiftop had fei on Tecelius to get money, fE^t ; Tdce- 
Kus had exceeded the bounds of hu cqmmiiJipn* &c. ; Thi$ 
mildftefs and ieemirig canctor, on the; pajf of ifiK^itus^ 
gained fo wonderfully upon' Luther,, thyt fce.wfote S-Jpaoft 
fubmfffivc letter to, the frt>p$, March 13^, i$ig, MUt^ 
tius,- however, taking for granted, tjiat they would not t* 
contented at Romte" with this letter of Luther's, Written^ 
ate it was,- iii gcpsr*l terms only, propped to; ji^fey ^ jaattcf 

tUTHER, $73 

tb fettle otter judgement ; and it wa$ agreed between thehi, 
that tht ele£tor of Trier s fhould be the judge, add Cob- 
lentz the place of conference : but this caine to nothittg ; 
for Luther afterwards gave fome reafons for not going to 
Cobkntz, and the pope would not refer the matter to the ^ 

cleft or of Triers. 

• During all thefe treaties, the doftrioe of Luther, fpread, 
tad pttvailed greatly; and he himfelf received great theou- 
. ragementathome and abroad. The Bohemians about this 
time fent him a book of the celebrated John Hufs, wh© had 
&llen a martyr in the work of reformation ; and alfo letters, 
in which they exhorted him to conftancy and prefeverance, 
owning, that the divinity which he taught was the pure, 
the found, and orthodox (divinity. Many great and learned 
pien had joined themfelves to him : among the reft Philip 
Mclandhon, whom Frederic had invited to the univerfity 
of 'Witteniberg in Auguft 151S, and Andrew Caroioftadius 
archdeacon of that town, who was a great linguift. They 
defired, if poffible, to draw over Erafmus to their party ; 
and to that end we find Melan&hon thus exprefling himfelf Er*fm. 
in a letter to that great man, dated Leipfic Jan. 5, 1519 : e p ,,k p- 
*' Martin Luther, who has a very great eueerti for you, \\^ 
** wiihes of all things, that you would thoroughly approve 
** of him." Luther alfo himfelf wrote to Ejafmus, in very 
refpeftful, and even flattering terms : *• Itaque, mi Erafihe, jbid.p.348. 
44 vir amabilis, fi ita tibi vifum fuerit, agnofce & hunc fra- 
" tefculum in Chrifto ; tui certe ftudiofiffimum & artiantiffi-. 
44 mum, cseterum pro infeitiafua nihil meritura, quam ut 
*• in angulo fepultus effet." The ele&or of Saxony was 
iefirous alfo to know Erafmus's opinion of Luther, and 
might probably think, that as Erafmus had mod of the 
monks for his enemies, and fome of thofe who were warmeff 
jgainft Luther, he might eafily be prevailed on to come over 
to their party. And indeed they would have done fome.:' 
thiifcg, if -they could have gained this point ; for the reputa-r 
tion of Erafmus was fo great, that if he had once declared 
for Lather, almoft all Germany would have declared along 
with him. 

But Erafmus, whatever he might think of Luther's opi? 
nions, had neither his impetuofity, nor his courage. He 
contented himfelf therefore with afting and fpeaking in his 
vfaal ftrain of moderation, and wrote a letter to the elector 
Frederic, in which he declared " his diilike of the arts, 
** which were employed to make Luther odious ; that he 
♦'did not know Luther, and fo could neither approve nor 

B b 3 condemn 

374 LUTHE 

4t condemn his writing bccaufe indeed he had n#t ftadh 

" them; that however he condemned the railing at hup 
44 with fo much violence, becaufe he had Submitted himfttf 
44 to the judgement of thofe whofe office it was to deter* 
44 mine, and no man had endeavoured to convince him of 
44 his error; that his antagonifts feemed rather to feek hi* 
44 death, than his falvation; that they miftook the matter 
44 in fuppofing, that all error is herefy ; that there are er- 
44 rors in all the writings of both ancients and moderns ; 
44 that divines are of different opinio nsj that it is raorepru«*. 
44 dent to ufe moderate, than violent means ; that the efec** 
44 tor ought to proteft innocency. ancl that this was the* 
44 intent of Leo X " Erafmus wrote alfo a friendly letter- 
in anfwer to Luther's, and tells him, that " his books had 
44 raifed fuch an uproar at Lou vain, as it was notpoffible- 
44 for him to defcribe ; that he could not have believed di* 
vines could have been fuch madmen, if he had not been 
prefent, and feen them with his eyes ; that, by defending? 
him, he had rendered himfelf fufpe&ed ; that many 
44 abufed him as the leader of this fadion*' fo they call it ; 
44 that there were many in England, andfome at Louvain,. 
44 no inconfiderable perfons, who highly approved his opi-* 
44 nions ; that, for his own part, he endeavoured, to carry* 
44 himfelf as evenly as he could with all parties, 1 that he 
might more effectually ferve the interefts of learning and 
religion; that, however, he thought more might be done 
by civil and model): means, tnan by intemperate heat and 
44 paffion ; that it would be better to inveigh againft thofe 
44 who.abufethe pope's authority, thanagainft the popes 
44 themfelves ; that new opinions fhould rather be promoted 
4< in the way of propofing doubts and difficulties, than by: 
44 affirming and deciding peremptorily ; that nothing fhould 
be delivered with faction and arrogance; but that the 
mind, in thefe cafes, fhould be kept entirely free from 
anger, hatred, and vain-glory. I fay not this, fays 
Erafmus, " as if you wanted any admonitions of this kind/ 
44 but only that you may not: want ..them hereafter, any 
IbU.p;34 8 - " more than you do at prefent." When this letter was 
written, Erafmus and Luther had never feen each other : it 
is dated frtfm Louvain May 30, 15 19 ; and it is hardly po£« 
fible to read it without fufpe&ing, that Erafmus was en- 
tirely in Luther's fentiments, if he had had but the courage 
to have declared it. Only obferve, • how he concludes it : 
44 I have dipped; into your commentaries upon the Pfalms ; 
" they pleafe me prodigioufly, and I hope will be read with 
4 . t " great 



HITHER. 375 

■?■* great advantage. There is a prior* of the monaftery of 
*.* Antwerp, -who fays he was formerly your pupil,, and 
** loves ypii moft alre&iqnately. He is a truly Chriftian 
u man, and alrhpft the orjly qrje of his fociety who preaches 
** Chrift, jthe reft being attentive either to the fabulous tra- 
ditions of men, or to their own profit. I have writtea 
to Melandhon. The Lord Jefus pour upon you his 
fpirit, that you may abound more ancj more every 
day, to his glory and the fervice of the church. Faie- 

<«Wii.?r'- . 

v But to go on wijh Lujther. In 15J9, he had a famous 
difpute at Leipfic with John Eccius. Eccius, as we have 
obferVed, wrote notes upon Luther's thefes, which Luther 
•firtf, and afterward^ C^/otoftadijjs, anfwerecj. The dif- 
pute thus depending, a conference was propofedat Leipfic, 
with the eoijfent of George duke of Saxony, who was 
coufin-german to Frederic the eleftor; and accordingly 
Luther went thither at the end pf June, accompanied by 
Carolbftadius ajid Melanfthpni Melcfyior Adam relates, i n v ; r# l«- 
that Luther could not obtain leave to difpute for fome time, ti«r. 
but was only a fpeflator of what pafled between Caroloita r 
dius and Eccius, till Eccius got at laft a protection for Imp 
from George. However, it is certain, they difputed upon 
the fnoft delicate points, upon purgatory, upon indulgence*, 
and efpecially upon theauthority of the pope. * Luther de- 
clared, that it was difagreeable and uneafy to him to meddle 
with this laft, being an invidious ^nd unneceflary fubjeft ; 
and that he Would not have done it, if £ccips had not put 
it among the'propofitions to bedifputed upon. Eccius an- 
swered, ar^dit muft be owned with fome reafon, that Lu- 
ther had firft given occafior^ to that queftion, by treating 
upon it'himfelt and teaching feveraj things contrary to the 
iuthority of the holy fee. In this difpute, after mai^y texts 
of fcripture, and many paflages from the fathers, had been 
cited and canvafled by bpth fides, they came to fettle the 
fenfe of tile famous words, " Thou art Peter, and upou 
4t this rock will t build my church." Luther aflerted, That 
by rock is to be understood either power or faith; if power., 
then our Saviour hath added to no purpofe, " and I will 
** give thee the keys, &c." if fai$h, as it ought, then it is 
3H0 common'to adlother churches, and not peculiar to tha^t 
of Rome, ' Eccius replied, That thefe words fettled a fu- 
premacy upon St. Peter; that they ought to be underftood 
of his perfon, according to the explication of the fathers ; 
that the contrary opinion was dne of the errors of Wickfilf 

Bb4 and 

37$ iUtHIR, 

and John Hulk, whjch were condemned ; and that be fair 
}owed the opinion of the BoKemians. Luther was not to 
be fileneed with this, but faid, That although all the far 
thers had underftood that paflage of St. Peter in the fcnfe 
of Ecciys ? yet he would oppofe them with the authority of 
St. Paul and St. Peter him(df; who fay, that Jcfus Chnfi 
is the only foundation and corner- flone of his church. An4 
as to his following the opinion of the Bohemians, in main- 
taining a propofition condemned with John Hufs, that 
?* the dignity of the pope was cftablifhed by the emperor," 
though he did not, he faid, approve of the'fchifm of. th* 
Bohemians, yet he fiiould inak£ no fcruplc to affirm, that, 
among tfye articles condemned with John Hufs, there were 
Tome yery found and orthodox. This difpute ended at 
length like all others, the parties not the leaft qearer in 
lfe)ch. opinions, but more at enmity with each others pcrfons. It 
4.<Um, Sec. is however, it feems, granted on all tides, that Luther did 
pupb, &c. not ^q^ij'e j n this difpute that fuccefs and applajife which 
he expe&ed ; and it is agreed alfo, that he made a conceit 
{ion to Eccius, which he afterwards retraced, that the 
pope was head of the church by human though not by 
divine right; which made George duke of Saxony fay^ 
after the difpute was. over, " Siye jure divino, five humano 
f* fit papa, eft tamep papa:" " Whether he be pope by 
** divine right or human, he is neverthelefs pope." 

This fame year 1519, Luther's books about indulgence? 
jras formally cenfured by the divines of Louyain and 
Cologne. The former having confulted with the cardinal 
pf Tortpfa, afterwards Hadrian, VI, paffed their cenfurc 
upon the 7th of November; and the cenfure of the latter, 
which was jpade at the requeft of the diyines of Lo\jvain ? 
was dated upon the 30th of Auguft. Luther v r °te imme? 
diately againft thefe cenfures, and declared that he valued 
them not : that fevcral great and good men, fpch as Occam, 
Picus Mirandula, Laurentius Valla, and others, had 
been condemned in the fame unjuft manner ; jiay, he 
' would venture to ad4 to the lift Terom of Prague an$ 

John Hufs* He charges thofe umveriitfcs with rafhnefs,, 
jn being the firft that declared againft h\n\ % and accufes 
them of want of proper refpeft and deference to {he holy- 
fee, in condemning a book prpfented to the £ope, on 
* jarhich judgement had not yet been pafled. About th$ ei*4 
pf this yejir Luther publifhed a book* in which he co% 
fended for the communion*s being celebrated in both 
.jpnd§* This was condemned by the btfhop of Mifnia^ 

L U T H B BU 377 

J*n. 24, 1*520. Luther, Joeing himfclf fo befet with z&- 
yerfkrues, wrote a letter to the ijew eiftperOr, Charles V. 
of Spain, who was not yet cotpe into Germany* and alfo 
^mother to the eleftor of Mentz; in both whieh he 
humbly implores prote&ion, till he (heuld he able to gite 
*q account of himfelf and h« opinions; adding, that he 
4id not defire to be defended, if he were convi&ed of ira* 
§>ietj or herefy, but only that he Height not be condemned 
without a hearing. The former of thefe letters is dated Lmk<li # 
Jan. 15, 1520 ; the latter, Feb. 4. We muft not omit 9 **'" 10 
to obferve, that the ele&or Ffederick fell about this time 
into a dangerous illnefs, which flurtg the whole party j£f f 
into a great confternation, and occasioned fotjfe appre*- 
henfions 3* Wittenberg : but of the ilinefs he happi|y re* 

While Lather was labouring to ex&ufe himfelf f& the 
emperor and the bifhops of Germany, Hccius was gon$ 
to Rome,- to follicit his condemnation : which, it may 
eafily be conceived, was now become not difficult to be 
obtained, He aAd his whole party were had in abhorrence 
there ; the ek&or Frederick was out of favour, and ail his 
jtffairs. ruined in that court, on account of the preteftiob 
which he afforded Luther. The elector excufed hirafetf 
to the Pope, in a letter dated April 1 ; which the Pope 
anfwered, and-fent him at the fame time a copy of a bull, 
in which he was required " either to oblige Luther to 
f' retract his errors, or to imprifon him for the difpo&i of 
I* the Pope." This peremptory proceeding alarmed at 
firft the e^urt of the elector, and many German noble* 
who were of Lather's party : however, their $n*i refoluv 
vtion was, to protect and defend them. In the mean time, 
though Lather's condemnation was determined at Rome 1 , 
Mihitiu* did not ceai^to trfctf: in Germany, add to propoft 
jneaas of accommodation, Tp this end he Applied to the 
chapter of the Auguftintf friers there, and prayed them to 
Interpol tijfcir *uth<)ff fty, and to beg of Luther that he 
would writ* a fetter to the Pope, full of fubmiflion and 
refpe#. Luther counted to write, and his letter bears 
flats April the 6th; bt#, alas ! things were carried too 
far on both fides, ever to admit of a reconciliation. 'The 
mifchief Lather had done, and continued daily to do, to 
jthe papal authority, was irreparable ; and the rough ufege 
and perfections he had received from the Pope*s party 
bad n6w inflamed his leonine fetrit to that degree, that it 
was tytt poffiMe to ^pfK^e 1£ t *w* by naeaiures which the 

37* IUTHER. 

Pope and the court of Rome could never come into. It is 
ho wonder, therefore, if the letter he wrote at this junc- 
ture was not attended With- any healing confequences ; arid 
we are almoft tempted to think," that he did not intend it 
Ihould be, when we confider the mahnef in which it is 
Lctheri written : for he fays, 4C that among the monfters of th« 
•fcr.tom. i. '* age, with Whom he hatf been engaged for three year* 
" paft, he had oftcri called to mind the blefled father iJeo : 
44 that now he began to triumph over his enemies, and to 
44 delpifc them : that, though he had been obliged to ap~ 
44 peai'from his holinefs to a general council, yet he had 
44 no averfion Jo him: that he had always wifheti and 
44 prayed for ill forts of bleffings upon his perfon and fee ^ 
44 that his defigtt was only to' defend the truth : that he 
44 had never fpoken difhonourably of his holinefs, but had 
44 called him a Daniel in the midft of Babylon, to denote 
44 the innoccrtcc arid* purity he had pteferved ; among {6 
44 many corrupt men': that the* court of Rome Wfcs vifibly 
44 more corrupt, that* either Babylon or Sodom ; and that 
"his holinefs was as a lamb amidft wolves, a Daniel 
44 among liens, 'iind an Eiekiel among fcorj>ioris: that 
44 there'were $ot above three or four cardinals of anj 
ii learning or t>jety': that it was igdinft thefe difoiders of 
44 the trourt or Rome he Was obliged to appear t that car- 
44 dinal Cajetan, who was ordered' by his holinefs t6 treat 
44 with him, had fhewn no inclinations to peace : that hii* 
44 huncio Miltitius Had indeed conie to two" conferences 
44 With him, and that he had proifciied Miltitius to be 
4i filent, and fubmit to the decifion of the atchbilhop off 
44 Triers ; but that the difpute atLeipfic had hiiidered the 
44 execution of this project, and put things into greater 
44 confufion : that Miltitius had applied a third time to the" 
44 chapter df his order, at whofe inftigation he had written 
44 to his holinefs : arid that he now threw himfeif'it hife 


44 nor prefcribe him rules for the irtterprewtion bf thfc" 
44 word of God, becaufe if ought n6t. to lie limited. 
44 Then he admonifhes the Pope not to fuffer himfelf to1>e 
44 feduced, by his flatterers, into a' perfuaiion that he can 
44 command and require all things, that he is above a coun- 
44 til and the universal church, that he alone has a right to 
44 interpret fcripture ; but to believe thofe rather Who de- 
44 bafe, than thofe who exalt -him." •* * * ■ '• ? ; * •* 
7 The, 

LUTHER. 379 

•• The continual importunities of Luther's adv*rfarie$ $*&***•*€, 
with Leo caufed him at length to publifh a formal con- * c ' 
d&nJQAtion of hhn ; and accordingly he did fo> in a bull 
dated Jane 15, t<zo. In the beginning of this bull, the 
Pope dire&s his fpeech to Jefus Chrift, to St. Peter, St: 
Paul, and all the faints, invoking their aid, in the moft, 
Jblenm expreffiohs againn the new errors and herefies, and 
for the prefervation of the faith, peace, and unity of the 
church. Then he exprefles his great grief for the Jate 
propagation of thefe errors in Germany; errors, either 
already condemned by the councils ' and confutations of 
the Pope, or new proportions heretical, falfe, fcandalous,* 
apt to offend and feduce the faithful. Then, after enu- 
merating forty-one propofitions collefied from Luther's 
, writings, he does, by the advice of his cardinals, and after 
matuce deliberation, condemn them as refpe&ively here- 
tical ; and forbids all Chriftians,- under the pain of excom- 
munication, and deprivation of all their dignities, which 
they ihould incur tpfo fdifo^ to hold, defend, or preach 
any of thefe proportions, or to fuffer others to preach 
them. As to Luther, after accufing him of difobedience 
and obftinacy, becaufe he had appealed from his citation 
to a council, though he thought he might at that inftant 
condemn him as a notorious heretic, yet he gave him fixty 
days ; to confidcr ; affuring him, that if in that time he 
would revoke his errors, and return to his duty, and give ' 
him real proofs that he did fo by public afts, and by burn* 
ing hi? books, he ihould find in him a true paternal affec- 
tion : otherwife he declares, that he ihould incur the 
puniihment due to heretics. • 

; Luther, now perceiving > that all hopes of an accommo- 
dation were at an end; no longer bbferved the leaft referve 
or moderation. • Hitherto he had treated his adverfaried 
with- fome degree of ceremony, paid them fome regard ; 
and; not being openly feparated from the* church, did not 
quite abandon the difcipline of it. 'But now he kept no 
meafures -with them, broke off all his engagements to the 
church,' and publickly declared, that he would no longer 
communicate in it. The firft ftep he took, after the pub** 
lication of the Pope's bull, was to write againft it ; which 
he did in very feverc terms, calling it, , " The execrable 
" bull of antichrift." He publifhed likewife a book, called, 
V The captivity of Babylon V* in which he begins With a 
proteftaiion, *< That he became every day more knowing: 
? that he was aihamed and repented of what he had writ- 
iv - • * -;•»-*•. .*i-*. "ten 

3#* LUTHER. 

44 ten abort indulgences two yeats before, when hfiras *v 
44 flave to the ftitttfftitiens of Rome : that he did not m* 
44 deed then rejeft indulgences, but had fince difeoveitsd,' 
44 that they are nothing but impofturea, fit to.raife-mdHfiyv 
* 4 and to deftooy the faith : Ait he was then content with 
** denying the papacy to be jtr* dinm*> but had, lately 
44 been convinced that it Was the kingdom of Babylon «: 
44 that he then wifhed a general council would fettle the 
44 communion in both kinds, but now plainly faw, that 
44 it was commanded by fcripture : that he did abfclutely 
44 deny the feven (acraments, owning no more than thrfcc, 
44 baptifm, penance, and the Lord's fopper, &t*" About 
the nunc time alfo, he published another treattfe in the 
German language, to make the court of Rome odious ta 
the Germans j in which " he gives a hiftory of the war* 
44 raifed by the Popes againft the emperors, ayd reprefents 
4< the miferies Germany had faflfered by them. He itrim 
44 to engage • the emperor and princes of Germany t» 
41 efpoufe his party againft the Pope, by maintyfnkig, 
** that they had the fame power over the cietgy as they had 
44 over the laity, and that there was no Appeal from their 
44 jurifdi&ion. He advifed the whole nation to {hake off 
the Pope's power; and propofes a reformation, by 
which he fubjecls the Pope and bifhops to the power «f 
SeckenJorf, " the emperor, &c." Laftly, Luther, that he might not 
** . be wanting in any thing which fltouid teftify his abhor* 

SSteh-**" rence °* t ^ it Pleadings in the court of Rome, was 
ilia*, *c. determined to treat the Pope's bull and decretals in the 
ftme maimer as they had dnkrd his writings to be treated : 
and therefore, calling the ftuderits at Wittemberg together, 
he flung them into a fire prepared for thatpurpofe; faying, 
44 Bccaufe thou haft trtfubled the holy one of God, fet 
• 4 eternal fire trouble thee*" This ceremony was peN 
formed* Dec. io, 1520. 

The bull of Luther's condemnation was carried into 
Germany, and publiihld there by Eccius, Who had foil- 
eited it at Rome; and who, together with Jerom Aieartder, 
i perfon eminent for His learning and eloquerice, was in- 
trufted by the Pope with the execution of It. In tke 
jnean time, Charles V. of Spain, after he had fet things 
to rights in the Low Countries, went into Germany, and 
was crowned emperor, Oft. the 2 iff, at Aix-kuChapelle. 
He ftayed not long in that city, because of th<? plague 
Which was there ; but went to Cologne, and appointed a 
djet at Worms, to- mset Jan. the 6th, i$ai. Frederic, 
-• ' elcftor 

. S 


eifftrc •* Sftxcny, coujd not be pfefcnt at the co^iittkxv, 
tint was left fclc at Cologne, where Ateander, who ap- 
coaipaijied the emperor* preferred him vrhh the brief* " ;■ 
whiea.t&e Pope had fent by him, and bv which hi? hoii- 
utfr& $ave bku notice of the decree he had mad?, agaxnft the 
fcrf ots of Luther. Aleanider told the ele#©r, that the . Pop*, 
bad intruded himfelf and Eccius with the a#air of Luther* 
which was ef the kit confluences %o the whole Chriftiajfc 
wprldt and* if-fhetg. wftft'jpt a xpttdy fbp put to it* 
Would undo the empite: that he did notdpubt, but tha* 
the eleftor would imitate Uie emperor, and other princes, 
of the empire, who had received the Pope's judgement re* 
fpectfuliy* And he informed his highnefs, that he had 
two things to recpieft of him in the name of the Pope v 
€i Fi^ft, That he would eaufe all Lvuhei^s books to b4 
" burnt; and* fecondly» that he would cither put Luther 
" tq death* or imprHbrj hint,, or fend him to the Pop*,** 
The Pope fent aifo a brifcf to the univerfity of Wittembergy 
to exhott them to put his bull in execution again il Luther > 
but nek to the eleftiQr r>or the uniyerfity paid any regard 
to bis briefs* Luther, at c the fame time, rewwed hi* 
appeal to a future council, irti terms very fevere upon ill© 
Pope, calhng him tyrant* -heretic, apo#ate, antichrift* 
and Hfefpherr^r: and in it prays the empejror, dec^ors^ 
txinces and lords of the empire, to favour his appeal, not 
luffer the execution of the bull, till he Ihould be lawfully 
(uipiaoaedt heard, and* convi&ed, before impartial )udges»i 
This appeal is dated Nov- 17% Indeed Efafmuj, an4 
ether German divines, were of opinion that thirds ouglit 
not tQ he carried to this extremity, nor mens fpirits fticred 
Up-; forefeeirtg, that the fire which confuuifd J*uthrrff - v 
books would foon put all Germany .into a flam*. Tbtjt -. 
pjopofed, therefore* to agree upon arbitrators, q$ to refei. 

the ; whole caufe to the firft general epupciU Bvn theft 
pacific prqppiak came too late ; and Eccius and AkancUtf 
prefled the matter io vigoroufly both to the emperor and 
the other German princes, tha; Luther's book* ymv^- burnt • ' 

l|l feveral cities in Germany, Aieaftdcr alio evneftly £n* 

fjortuned the emperor for an edict agai#fl kvfther ; out, Jie 
bund 'many and great obftacles. Luth$r*& parfy waa v«ry 

powerful; and Charles V. wa$ notwUlfag tp gw ifof»b« 
lie an offfiice tp the ele&or of Saxoay* ^«h& hid fefely *et 
fnfed the empire, that he might have it; 

To overcome thefe difficulties, Aba&fat «g%iwd a nttf 
Wliom RotBt, whicii declared, tha^ L^h«f had im 



etirred, by obftiiiacy, the penalty denounced jri the firft 
He stlfo vi^rote to the court of Rome for in affiftance jot 
money and friendsi to be ufed at the diet of Worms : 
and, becaufe the Lutherans irififted that the cpnteft was 
diiefly about the jurifdi&iori of the Pope^ arid tlie abufes 
of the court of Rome, and that they were only perfecutecl 
for the fake of delivering up Germany to the tytanny of 
that court ; he undertook to fhew. That Luther had 
broached many errors relating to the mvfteries qf religion, 
and revived the herefies of Wickliff ana John Hiifs. . The 
diet of Worms was held in the beginning of 152 1 : where 
Aleander employed his eloquence and intereft fo fuccefs* 
fully, that the emperor and princes of the empire were 
going to execute the Pope's bull againft Luther with 
feverity, and without delay. The only way which die 
cle&or of ; Saxony and Luther's friends could invent to 
ward off the blow, was to fay, " That it was not evident, 
*' that the propofitions objeaed to were his ; that his ad- 
€% verfaries might attribute them to him falfely ; that the 
** books from which they were taken might be forged ; 
<* and, above all, that it was hot juft to condemn him 
without fummoning and hearing him." The emperor 
therefore, with the confent of the princes of the diet, fent 
Sturtnius* an officer, from Worms to Wittemberg, tof 
condud Luther fafely xp the diet. Sturmius carried with 
him a " fafe-conduft* to Luther, figned by the emperor 1 
and princes of the diet; and alfo a letter from the emperor, 
jated March 21, 1521, and direfted, "To the honour- 
** able, beloved, devout doftor> Martin Luther, of the 
u Order of St. Auguftine ;" in which he fummoned hini 
to appear at the diet, and aflured him, that he need not 
fear any violence or ill treatment. Neverthelefs, Luther's 
« friends were much againft his going : fome telling him^ 
that, by burning his books, he might eafily Issio'k what 
cenfure would be pafled upon himfelf ; others reminding 
him of die treatment they had, upon a like occafion, fhewn 
•ecketniorf, to John Hufs. But Luther defpifed all danger* ; and, itf 
J^ooh. a «r*in Which is extremely like hrm, declared, that ** If 
▲Jam. ice. " he knew there were as many devils at Worms as tiles 
•• upon the houses, he would go.* 
• He arrived it Worms April 16, whithef- a prodfeibui 
multitude of people were got together, for the fake of fee- 
ing a man who had made fudh a noife in the world. Wheti 
he appeared before the diet, he had two qtieftiotis put to 
him by John Eccius ; «* Firft, tr hether he owned thofe 

" books 

L U T H E* to ■ $6$ 

*' Books for his that went under his name ; And, fecondly, 
** Whether he intended to retraft or defend what was con- 
u tained in them," Thefe queries produced an alterca- 
tion, which lafted fohxe days ; bt*t which ended at length 
in this fingle and peremptory declaration of Luther, that 
" unlefs he was convinced by texts of fcripturc or evident' 
" reafon (for he did not think himfelf obliged to fubmit to 
u the pope or his councils), he neither could rtOr would re- 
u traft any thing, becaufe it was not lawful f :>r him to aft 
u againft his confcience." This being Luther's final re- 
solution, the emperor declared to the diet, That he war 
determined ta proceed againft him as a notorious Heretic ; 
but that he intended* neverthelefs, he fhould return to 
Witterriberg, according to thef conditions laid down in his 
u fefe-corf<hrfi." Luther left Worms April the a6th, 
conducted by Sfurmius, who had brought him ; and bein{£ 
arrived at Frtbutg, he wrote letters to the emperor and 
princes of the diet, to commend his caufe to therti, and! 
to excufe himfelf for not fubmitting to a recantation. • 
/Thefe letters were conveyed by Sturmius, whom 'he fent 
back, upon a pretence that he" wafc then otft of danger ; but 
ki reality* as it h fuppttfed, that Sturmius night not be 
prefent at the execution of a fcheme which had teen con- 
certed before Luther fet Otfif from Worms; for the 
*le£tor of Saxony forefeeing that the errfperor was going to' 
make a bloody edift agairtft Luther,* and finding it im- 
poffible to foppoft arid protect hurl any longer Without 
bringing himfelf into trouble, refolved to' have him taken 
away, and concealed. This Was propofed to* Ltrtherj and m^. 
accordingly done : for when Luther went from Eyfehac,' Adam, *c 
May the. 3d, through a wood, in his way to Wittemberg f 1>n ? l *» <tc * 
he was fuddenly fet upon by fome horlemen in difguife, 
deputed for that purprte, who, throwing him down, took 
him in appearance by force; aftd carried him fecretly inter 
the cattle of Wittemberg. Melch&r Adairi relays, that 
there were only eight nobles privy to this expedition, 
which was executed with fo much addrefs and fidelity, that 
no man knew what was become of him, or wMre he 
was. This contrivance wrought two effe&s in favour of 
Luther: as, firft, it caufed people to believe that he 
was taken away by the intrigues of his enemies, Which 
made them odious, and exafperated mens minds againft 
them ; and, fecondly, it fecured him againft the pro- 
fecution which the Pope and the emperor were making 
againft him. . 




\ ^ - 

Before £he diet of Worms wa* de^olred, Charles V/ 
canfed an vA\& to be drawn up, which was dated the JFthr 
Of May, and folemnly puhlifhed the 26th in the afiecnblf 

SccVeadorf, of the ele&ors arid princes, held m his palace. In this? 

■* edict, after .declaring it to be the duty' of aft emperor, notr 

only to defend the limits of the empire, but to maintain' 
religion and the true faith, and to fextinguifh herefies m their* - 
original, he commands, That Martin Ltither be, agreeably* 
to the fentence of the Pope, henceforward looked upon asr 
a member feparated from the chtirch^ a fchiftaatic, and art 
obflinate and notorious heretic. He fprbidS all pcrfcns,' 
under the penalty of high treafoft, loft 6f goods? ancf 
being put under the ban of the empire* to 'receive of defend* 
maintain or protect him, either in conversation or irf 
writing; and he orders, that, after the twenty-one daysr 
Allowed in his " fafe-condutt," he fhould be proceeded 
agairift according to die form of the ban of the empire, 
in what placet foever he fhouM be? or, at lezrft^ that he? 
/hould be feizedand imprifoned, till his infyerial majefty V * 
pleafurc fhould be further known. The fame punifhments 
are denounced againft all the accomplices, adherents/ 
followers, or favourers of Luther; said tflfo all perfons* 
aire fbrhid to print, fell, buy, or read any of his books- 
And, bfccaufe there had been publifhed feveral books: con- 2 
cerning the fame doctrines* without his name, and feveral 
pi&ures drfperfed triat were injurious to the pope, cardinal/ 
and bilhops, he corntriarfd$ the mggiftrates to fcite and 
burn them, and to puniih the authors aftd printers of thofc 
tifitures.and libels- Laftly, it forbids m general the prints 
mg of ariy book concerning matters of &tb, which hath 
hot the approbation of the ordinary, And forae neighbour* 
ing university* 

While the bull of Lei6 X. cttectrted by Charles V. wa* 
thundering throughout the empire, -Luther was fafcly 
fliut up in his cattle, which he Afterwards called his Her^ 
mitage, and fiis Patmosr. Here he. held a conftant corre-* 
iponderice witli his friends at Wittemberg, and was cm* 
ployed in compofing books iff favour of his own, caufe/ 
and againft his adverfaries. He did not htujtovcr fo clofely 
confine hirftfelf, b\it 'that lie frequently made exewrfions* 
into the neighbourhood,* though always, under 4 £o4b difr 
fcuife or other. One day he affumed die title and appear* 
ance of a nobleman: W we fuppofe he did not a& hfc 
part very gracefully ; for a gentleman who attended hint 
-under that character, to an inn upon the road* was, ii 
> feemsy 

LUTHER* 384 

- • 

feems, fo fearful of a difcovery, that he thought it necef- 

fary to caution him againft abfepce ; bidding him,/' keep Melch. 

** clofe to his fword, without taking the leaft. notice Qf Aa * m > * c * 

" books, if by chance any ihould fall in his way." He 

ufed fometimes even to go out n-hunting with thofe few 

who were in his fecret ; which, however, we may imagine, 

be did more for health than for pleafure, as indeed may be 

collected from his own curious account of it. . " I was," lather. 

(ays he, ** lately two days a-hunting, in which amufement ° p |£ tom ',£ 

*' I found both pleafure and. pain. We killed a brace of cpi * 

" hares, and tookrfome unhappy partridges ; a very pretty 

** employment, truly, for an idle man ! However, . I 

"'could not forbear theologizing amidft dogs and nets ; 

" for, thbught I to myfelf, do not we, in hunting innocent 

" animals to death with dogs, very much refcmble the 

*' devil, who, by crafty wile? and the instruments of • ^ 

*' wicked priefts, is perpetually feeking whom he may 

" devour? Again. We happened to take a leveret alive, 

" which I put into my pocket, with an intent to preferve 

•* it ; yet we * were not gone far, before the dogs feized 

V upon it, as it was in my pockety and worried it. Juft 

" fo the pope and the devil rage furioufly to deftroy the 

<c fouls that I have faved, in fpite of all my endeavours to 

" prevent them. In fhort, I am tired of hunting thefc 

** little innoceift beafts ; and had rather be employed, 

** as I have been for fome time, infpearing bears, wolves* 

" tigers, fpxes ; that is, in oppofing and confounding 

** wicked and impious divines, who refemble thofe fava^C 

*' animals in their qualities." 

Weary at length of his retirement, he appeared pub- 
licly again* at Wittemberg, March 6, 152a, after he had 
been abfent about ten months. He appeared indeed with- 
out the elector's leave, but immediately wrote him a let-" 
ter, to prevent his taking it ill. The edift of Charles V. 
as fevere as it was, had given little or no check to Luther's 
doctrine ; for the emperor was no fooner gone into Flan- 
ders, than his edift was negleftcd and defpifed, and the 
doftrine feemed to fpread even fatter than before. Caro- 
loftadius, in Luther's abfence, had pufhed things oh more 
vigoroufly than his leader, and had attempted to abolilji, 
the ufe of mafs, ox remove images 6ut of the churches, to 
fet afide auricular confeflion, invocation of faints, the, 
abftaining from meats ; had allowed the monks to leave 
their monafteries, to negleft their vows and to marry; in 
ftort, had quite changed the doftrine and difcipline of the 
Vox,. VIII, C c church 

3845 LUTHER. 

church at ^Vittc.mbcrg t, all which, though not againft 
Luther's fcntiments, was yet blamed by liim, as being 
raflily and unfeafonably done. Lutheranifm was {till 
confined to Germany: it was not got to France ; and 
Henry VI IL of England made the moft rigorous a&s td 
hinder it from invading His realm. Nay, he did fome- 
thing more : to fhew his zeal for religion and the holy 
fee, and perhaps his flrill in theological learning, he wrote 
a treatife " Of the feven facrarnents," againft Luth&r/s book, 
" Of the captivity of Babylon j" which he prefentpd to Lep 
X . in OA .1521. The Pope received it favourably, arid was 
fo well pleafed with the king of England, that he compli- 
mente4 him with the title of " Defender of the faith," Lai-* 
fcljer, however, paid no regard to his kingfhip, but 
anfwered him with great fharpnefs ; treating both his per- 
fon and performance in the moft contemptuous manner, 
l>«pin, fce. Henry complained of this rude ufage to the princes of 

Ad«n' ice ^ axon y » anc ^ Fiftier, bifhop of Rochefter, replied, in 
' ' behalf of Henry's treatife : but neither the king's com- 
plaint, nor the hifhop's reply, were attended with any vifi- 

Luther now inade open war with the pope and bifhops ; 
and, that he might make the people defpife their authority 
fcs much as ppflible, he wrote one boqk againft the pope's 
bull, and another againft the ofder falfely called " the 
44 order of bifhops." The fame year 1522, he wrote? a 
letter, July the 29th, to the aiTembly of the itates of Bo* 
hernia, in which he affured them, that he was labouring 
to cftablifh their doftrine in Germany, and exhorted them 
npt to return to the communion of the_chiych of Rome ; 
and he publifhcd aMb this year a translation of the " Ne\y 
" Teftamcnt*' in the German tongue, which was afterwards 
corre&ed by himfelf and Meian&hon. * This tranflation 
having been printed feveral times, and being in every- 
body's hands, Ferdinand archduke of Auftrja, the em- 
peror's brother, made a very fevere edict, to hinder the 
farther publication of it, and forbade all the fubje&s of his 
Imperial majefty to have any copies of it, or of Luther's 
pther books.. Sorne other princes followed liis example; 
and Luther was fo angry at it, that he wrote a treatife 
" Of the fecular power,"- in which he accufes them of 
tyranny and impiety. . The diet of the empire was held at 
Nurenburg, at the end of the year ; to. which Hadrian VI. 
lent his brief, dated Nov.' the 25th: for Leo X. died ' 
i £>ec. 2, 152 1;, and Hadrian had been ele&ed pope 

' tltf 

LUTHER* |8r 

the 9th of Jan. following. In tins brief, among othfer 
things, he obferves to the diet> ho\r he had heard, with 
grief, til at Marti A Luther, after the fentence of Leo X. 
which was ordered to be executed by thfc edift of Wantis, 
continued to teach the feme errbrs, and daily to publilh 
books fuM of herefifcs: that it appeared ftrange to him, 
that {q large and fo religious a nation could be deduced by 
a wretched apoftate friar : that nothing, however, could 
be more peniclous tb Ghriftendom : ind that therefore ha 
exhorts thefti to ufe their ntmoft endeavours ~to make Lai- 
ther, a&d the authors of thefe tumults, return to then 
d^ty ; or, if they refute and continue ofaftinate, to proceed 
againft them according to the laws of the empire, and the 
feverity of the laft edict. ^ 

The refolution of tfcis diet was published in the form of 
an edi&, March 4, i|2j j but it had no effeft in checking 
the Lutherans* who ftill faent on in the fame triumphant 
manner. This yeaf Luther wrote a great many pieces : ^ ,ch ' ^ 
among the reft, one upon the dignity and office of the * m ' 
fupreme.magiftratc; which Frederic eleftor of Saxony is 
feid to have been highly plcafed with. He fent, about the 
lame tin#, a writing in the German language to the 
Waldenles* ot Pickards, in Bohertiia ind Moravia, who 
had applied to him " about worihiping thfe body of Chrift « 

•' in th* eucharifti" He wrot6 alfo another book, which - 
fee dfedidated to the fenate and people of Prague, " about 
" the inftitution of miriifters of the church." He drew u£ 
a form of faying ftiafs. He wrote a piece, intituled, " Ah 
*' example of popifti doftrihe and divinity ;" which Dupifi 
calls a fatire againft nuns, and thofe who profefs a monaftic 
life. He wrote alfo againft the vows or virginity, in his 
" preface to his commentary on 1 Cor, vii." arid Kis ex*' 
hortations here wtfe, it feems, followed with efFefts ; for 
foon after nine nuns, among whom was Catherine de Bore* 
eiopetftfrom the nunnery at Nimptfchen, and were brought^ 
by -the affiftance of Leonard Coppeh, a burgefs of Torgau, 
to Witjemberg; Whatever offence this proceeding might 
give to the Papifts, it was highly extolled by Luther 4 ; who, 
in a book written in the German language, compares the 
deliveraftce of th^fe nuns from the flavery of a monaftic life, 
. to that of the fouls which Jefos Chrift has ddivered by 
his death. This year he had occafion to canonize two bf 
his followers, who were burnt at Bttrffels, and weffc the 
firft who fuffered martyrdom for his doctrine,* He wrote iua. 
alfo £ condolatory epiftle to; three nable ladies at Miftiia, 

C c 2 wh* 

406 LUTHER. 

** courage, with his ardent zeal for the truth, with, that 
44 conftancy be ever manlfefted, he -could hxw 
44 fhe wed a greater reierve and moderation^ « But thafe.fkuita^ 
44 which are moil commonly complcxionaL,- prevent notrow 
*** efteem of men, when in other' refpe&i we perceive in 
44 them a good fund of piety and virtues, fperfe&ly heroic, 
44 fuch as were fecn to fnine in Luther. :.fon«e catu^otre- 
44 fufe to praife: the zeal of Lucifer bbhop of Cagliari, or to 
44 admire the great qualities of St. Jerom, though wc dif* 
44 cover too much' keennefs and paiSon in. their ftyle. And 
44 perhaps too there was fome particular neceflity, at the 
44 time of the Reformation, to employ the ftrongeft expref- 
44 fions, the. better to awaken men from that profound 
V (lumber in which. they had lain fo long* However, I 
grant, that Luther ought to have been more referred, iij 
his writings; and that, if our antagontfi: had only-corn- 
" plained of the acrimony of his ftyle, wo (houfcd have- been 
44 content, as a full anfwer, to defire him for the future, 
" not to imitate himfelf What he condemned in another." 
As Angularly qualified,<howerer, is Luther may feem to have 
been for the work of the Reformation, he could not have ef- 
fected it, if he had not been favoured with a happy concur- 
fence of circuraftanees. WioklifF, Hufs> and feverai others, 
had attempted the feme thing, and had* no left merit and 
abilities than Luther; but they did not facoecd. They un- 
dertook the cure of the difeafe before the crifis ; Luther, oh 
die contrary, attacked it in a critical time; and it muft-be 
acknowledged, that feverai circumftances concurred to 
favour him. Learning flourifhed at that time among 
the laity; while, churchmen not only {tuck clofe to 
their barbarifm, but persecuted the learned,- and gave 
offence to all the world by an unbridled and bareftced 
extortiqn. . 

' His works were colle&cd after his death, and printed 
at Wittemberg in feven volumes folio. Catherine de Bore 
Survived her hufband a few years, and continued the firft 
yearof her widowhood at Wittemberg, though Luther had 
advifed her to feck another place of refidence. She went 
from thence in 1 547? when the town was fufrendered to 
the emperor Charles V. Before her departure, fhe had re- 
ceived a prefent of fifty crowns from Chriftian III. king of 
Denmark ; and the eleftor of Saxony/ and the counts of 
Mansfelt, gave her good tokens of their liberality. With 
thefe additions to what Luther had left her, fhe had where- 
withal to maintain herfejf and her family handfomely. She 


LOTffER. 407 

returned to Wittcmfcerg, when the town was reftorcd tcf 
theelectar* where file lived in av^^ow; and pioue 
tawnier) till the plague oitfigfed> hfcr to feave-itbgairi fc* 1-552 1 
She fold wiut Hie. had at Witt^mfeerg; arid Retired to Tor- , 
gau, with a lefolurion to end her life there: " Ati unfotttt- 
nata mifchance befel her in her journey thither, which 
proved iatal to her: The horfes* growing unruly, and at- 
tempting to run away» flke leaped' out of the vehicle ftie wa» 
conveyed in; and, by leaping, got a fall, of which fhecficd 
about a quarter of a year after, at Torgau, -Dec.- 20-, 1552^ 
Stie .was* famed there in^hc great church, where her tomb 
and enltapb are ftifl to: be (eon; and the university of Wit- ' 
terabergj* which was then at Torgau becaufe the plague 
raged at "Wittetnberge, made a public programmaconceraing 
the fftp^raL pomp. * ~ .:? 1 

-. LUTTI (BfiNfiiMtTo) y an Italian painter, wasbon* 
at Flosfcnoe, in 1566* Be was the dHeiple" of Domimcd 
Oabiani^ to whonrhe was Committed by his father; J*kj»* 
Lutti; and, at twenty-four, his merit wks judged equaHo 
that efhis mailer. Theiarnous paintings at Rome tempted 
him to that city, whete the grand duke furftfihed him with 
the means of purfuing his ftudies, giving him an apartment 
in tfeer Camp© Mahio. . Bis defign was to have worked un- 
der Cyro Ferri ; but, on hi® arrival, lie found that mafter 
dead, wfoich gave&itn the grcateft concern; yet hepurfued 
-his ftudies with great application^ and foott 1 acquired fuch 
an efteem for his ability in his art, that his Works became 
much valued and fought for, in England, France, and Ger- 
many. The "emperor knighted him ~, and the eleftor of 
Mentz fent, with his patent of knighthood, a crofs fet with 
<hamonds. Lutti was never fatisfied with himfelf; yet, 
though he often retouched his pictures, they never appeared 
laboured; he always changed for the better, and his laft 
thought was always the beft. He fat flowly to work; 
but r when once lie was engaged, he never quitted it but 
with difficulty. His pencil was frefh and vigorous ; his 
manner, which was tender and delicate, was always well 
considered, and of an' Excellent gotit ; union and har- 
mony reigned throughout his pictures ; but, as he at- 
tached himfelf chiefly to excel in colouring, he is not nicely 

He was acquainted with all the various manners of the 
different matters ; he was fond of ancient pictures, and feme- 
times dealt in theov, he has hardly painted any but eafel 

D d 4 piecoe^ 

408 ..XUTTI. 

pieces, which are fpread through moft countries; ThStfe 
are only three public works of his known at Rome, viz. a 
Magdalene in the church of St. Catherine of Siena, at Monte 
Magna Napoli ; the prophet Ifaiah, in an oval, St. John 
de Lateran ; and St. Anthony of Padua, in the church of 
the Holy Apoftles. There is.likewifeat the palace Albani, 
it the four fountains, a miracle o£ St. Pio, painted by his 
hand, which is his mafternpiece; there is likewife a cieling 
of his in a room at the conttable Colonna's, and another in 
the palace of the- marquis Caroli. < 

Lutti was not able to finifh a pi&ure of St. Eufebkts, bi-p 
fhop of Vercelli, defigned for Turin, for which, he had . 
received a large earneft, and pronjifed to get it ready at a 
fet time. But feveral difputes happening between him and 
thofe who befpoke the pi&ure, brought on, through cha-r 
grin, a fit of ficknefs, of which he died at Rome, in 1624* 
aged 58. His executors were obliged to return the earneft, 
and the pi&ure was afterwards finilhed-by Pietro Bianchi, 
one of his difciples, who died foon after, having acquired a 
great reputation by his tafte of defign, and the corre&nefs 
of his figures. There are alio reckoned among his dif- 
ciples Gaetotto Sardi, Dominico Piaftotini, and Placido 

Lutti is. blamed for not having placed his figures advan- 
tageoufly, but in fuch a manner as to throw a part of the 
arms and legs put of the cloth. This fault he poflfeffes in 
common with Paul Veronefe and Rubens, who, to give 
jpore dignity and grandeur to the fubjeft they treated, have 
introduce^ ii>to the fore-ground of their pi&ures, groups of 
perfons on horfeback, tops of heads, and arms and legs, of 
which no othgr part of the body appears. 

Lutti was lively in cpnverfatipn ; he had a politenefs in 
his behaviour, which, as it prompted him to treat every 
body with proper civility, fo it a.l(p procured him a return 
of efleem and jefpeft. He fpoke well in general of all his 
contemporary painters, but contracted no particular acquaint 
' tance with any, though he was principal of the academy of 
St. Luke; nor did he court the prote&ion of the great, 
whom he never vifited, and who very feldom vifited him; 
convinced, that the true prote&ioi* of a painter is to do 
. . In the gallery of the eleftor Palatine at Dufleldorp, is a 

pifture of this painter, reprefenting St. Anne teaching the 
Virgin to read. There is a communion of the Magdalene 
engraved after Lutti, and another Magdalene penitent, in 
the Crozat qojle&jori. * 



-LYCQPtiRON, a<5reek poet arid grammarian, was 
a native of Chalis in Euboea, called at prefent Negropont. 
Hfe was killed by a Ihot with an arrow, according to Ovid. 
He flourifhed in the 1 19th olympiad, about 304 years before 
Chrift, and wrote a poem intituled ** Alexandra," containing 
a long courfe of predictions, which he fuppofes to be made by 
Cafiandra, daughter of Priam, king of Troy. This poeirf 
hath created a great deal of trouble to the learned, on ac- 
count of its obfcprity ; fo that he is charafterifed with the 
diftinftion of ** the tenebrous poet". Suidas has prefervcd the 
titles of twenty tragedies of his compofing ; and he is rec- 
koned in the nufriber of the poetical conftellation PleiadesY 
which flourifhed underJPtolemy Philadelphus, king of EgypL 
p, The beft edition of " Lycophron" is that at Oxford, 1697, 
by Dr. (afterwards archbifhop) Potter, re-printed there in 
1701, folio. '■ 

r . t 

LYDE (fee Joiner J. ,: 

LYDGATE (John), an Auguftin monk of S£ ' 
£dm&nd's Bury, flourifhed in the reign of Henry VI. He 
was" a dffciple and admirer of Chaucer; and, according 
to fome critics,' excelled his mafter in the art of versifica- 
tion. Having fpent fome time in our Englifh univerfities-, 
he travelled through France and Italy, and improved him- 
felf in the languages and polite art$. After his return, he 
became tutor to many noblemen's fons, and for his excel*. 
lent endowments was held in great efteem. He died in his 
60th year, 1440, and was buried in his own convent at 
Bury. Pitfeus fays, he was not only an elegant poet, and 
an eloquent rhetorician, but alfo an expert mathematician, 
an acute philofopher, and no mean divine ; that he wrote* 
partly in profe and partly ill verfe, many exquifite and learned 
books, amdB£ which are ** Eclogues, Odes, and- Satires. " 
.His verfes were fo very fmooth, that it was faid of him by 
his •contemporaries, that his wit was framed and fafhioned 
by theMufes thcmfelves. But whoever perufes his works 
at prefent, will be apt to conclude that his contemporaries 
were very partial to him. We fhall quote a few lines from 
the conclufion of his u Fall of Princes," which give us 
at once an account of his learning, and a fpecimen of hi* 

Out of the French I drough it of entent, 

Not word by word, but following in fubftance 
• And from Paris to England it fent, 

Only of purpofe you to do pleafance. 



Have m*«$cufe?d I. my naips i* J6to;tyr4t*f«* 'i:J 

Rude oflanguage, I lya^ *ot bpapi, ir\ Jfrw&c*; , •:*.. 

» Her curious mitres ia English, to traftflat*! .- _ 

Of other totague, I have. sm> fu#j4a#ccu 

* j» *«. 

LYDIAT (Tho/has), an eminent English chfio* 

j*ologer, was bo*n t at Qkerton,ifl Q*fcf4titox$,.. !£%*«. *£* 
fathej;, obferving the- pregnancy, q£ his^parts, .feft ^igk t& 
Wjnchefter ichool, wberethe.wa^'actef^ed^b^^^.th^ 
foun^ion, at thirteen ; and ? being elejftqd thewe-to N*«f 
college in Oxford,, was put uwte thej£uiti*n of JQ?. (^fter^ 
wards. Sir) Henry ft^arten [a]*'*!*! .be-ea^e jrobaj&QnejT 
fellow there in 1591. . Two years after, he v^a^enr^lted 
fellqw ; and, taking his degree, in 'arte, applied hiMel£ *> 
aftronomy^^athwiatic*, and 4mti<ty, itt.the laftof wbkh 
ftudies he was, very defirous of continuing ; bu$ t finding a 
great defeft in his memory and , utterance, he chofe- ra ther 
to refign his felldwfhip, which was appropriated to divinity, 
and live upon his fciaH patrinporvy.; Thif was s in j6©3 i 
anjd hp fpentthe feven years in- finishing ai*d prinfiBg,fjuc^ 
book^ as he* had begun in the college* efp^cially ^h a 5. wt P« 
*\ eiaqndatione tcmporum," dc^icajtepV to prince Ssnuy, 
cjdeft. fon of James \ f) He-yya^ ^r<?Aop^h^and^fr 
rnogrfpher to that prince, wWhada^eatrefpeft far hia^ 
and, had ha Jived, would certairily : hay^ rnade a proyifioa 
for him. In i6oq, he jwcajaieaeqfiajnted with Df. Uiher, 
afterwards archhiihop of Armagh, who -took him into. 
Ireland, an4 placed him in jthe college- at Dublin, where 
feecoritinusd two years.;, and fjien purpofing to (return, to 
England, the lord-deputy and chancellor of Ireland.fipa^e 
him, at his requeft, a joint proipife of a competent Sup- 
port, upon his coming back thither {♦&]. 

t But when he came to England, the re&oqp of Okerton 
falling void, was offered to him; and though, while he 
was fellow of New. college, he had refufed the offer of it 
by his father, who was the patron, yet lie now accepted it, 
and was instituted thereto in 1612. Here he feems to 
have lived happily for many years : but being unwarily en- 

• [a] This gentleman afterwards be- [b] Thisfcems to ba*e been a pro. 

came one of the chiefs of the Level- tnife of the fchool at Armagh, ee- 

lers in the civil wars. His character dowed with 50L per annum in land, 

and conduct is none of the leaft enter- Appendix to Ufher's Life by Parr, lctu 

taining paitt of lord Clarendon's Hif- 5, 6, and 7. 

, gaged 

L YD I; AT.. 4i» 

gaged |[c} for die debts, of* near relation, which he. was 
unabfeto pay, he was thrown* intoprifon at Oxford, the 
King's-bench, and elfewhere, in 1699, or 1630, and re- 
mained a prifoner till Sir William BoiweH, a great patron 
of learned men, joining with Dr. Fink, warden of New 
college, and Dr. Uiher, paid the debt, and'itleafed him ; . 
find archbiihop Laud alfo* at the requrft of Sir Henry 
Marten* gave- his affiftance 00 this occafion [i>]. He had 
no fooner got his liberty, than, out of an ardent zeal to 
promote ' literature and the honour of his country, he pe- 
titioned Charles I. for his majefty's protection and en- 
couragement to travel into Turkey, Ethiopia, ajid tlio 
Abyffin&n empire, in fearch of manufcripts relating to 
civil or ecclefiaftical hiftory, or any other branch of learn- 
ing, and to print them in England : but, alas ! the king . 
had other affairs to mind) and Lydiat's petition was treated 
with negfeCt « 

However,, tb# rebuff did not diminifh his loyalty, for* 
which he was a great fufferer on the breaking out of the 
civil wars % 1642. In thofe trying times, he talked fav- 
. quently and warmly in behalf both, of the king and bifhops, 
tefufedto comply with the demands* of money made upon 
him by the parliament army^ arid ftoytly deferided his book$ 
and papery againft their attempts to feue them. For thefs 
■offences, he was four times' plundered by fome troops of the 

{larliament; at Corapton-hoijfe in Warwickshire* to the va- 
ue of at leaft 70I ; waa twice carried away from his houfe 
at Oberton, once to Warwick, and another time to Ban- 
bury ; he was treated infamoijfly by the foldiers, was ex* 
ceedingiy hurt in his perfon, and fo much deharred from 
decent necefiaries, that he was forced to borrow a lhirt 
to fhift himfelf for a quarter of a year together. At length, 
after he had lived at his parfonage feveral ^ ears, very poor 
and obfeurely, he died April i> 1646, aid was interred 
the next day in the chancej of 6kerton church, which had 
been rebuilt by him. A ftone was laid over his grave iq 

[c] His minufcript treatife upon which Mr. Seldeo was alfo folicited 

Brerewood's ireatife of the fabbath to contribute, bat refnfed, lor what 

begin 1 thus : " TheYe was brought to reifon is not certainly known : bar \t 

u me, being a prifoner in the King's- was remembered on this ocqafion, thai: 

«' bench, on Friday evening, 3 Decern- Lydiat had (hewn fome mi (rakes in 

•' bar* 1630, &c." his Marmora Arondeliana, and gave 

[»] Our author wrote, in 1633, him only the character of an induf- 

'? A Defence of Laud in fetting up al- trious author. This (lory of Mr. 

" tars in churches, &c." and dedi- Wood is cen fared by Dr« Wiltins, in 

caced it to him, in gratitude for his his life of Scldcn. 
tfiftancc in procuring his releafej to 



" QrigjQaloftheGueif andGhibilinfadtions;" and"Dif- 
'*' courfes upon the firft decade of Titus Livnis," which are f 

fuH of moral and political inftruftiori. This extraordinary- 
man died of a medicine, be took by way of prevention, in 
1530. I-Je is faid, at the latter end of his life, to have 
lived in poverty, and contempt of religion. Paul Jovius Ejog.p.aoj£* 
calls him irrtfor & athtos, a lcoffer and an atheift. Some 
fay, that they were obliged to ufe the public authority, to 
force him to receive the facraments ; and many ftrange 
ftories are told of his irreligion, one of which we will re- 
late, to fatisfy the reader's curiofity, for it would be endlefs 
to* relate them all. When Machiavel was juft dying, Binet <je 
fays the author of the following anecdote, he was feize4 ;Saluuro " rI " 
with this fancy. He faw a fmall company of poor fcoun- gcne,p ' 35 * 
drels, all in rags, ill-favoured, half-ftarved, and, in fliort, 
in as bad plight as poffible. He was told, that thefe were 
the inhabitants of paradife. of whom it is written, " Beatl 
''bauperes, quoniam ipforum eft regnum cceiorum." 
Atter thefe were retired, an infinite number of grave 
majeftic perfonages appeared, who feemed to be fitting in 
a fenate-houfe, and canvaffing the^moft important affairs of 
ftate. There he faw Plato, Seneca, Plutarch, Tacitus, 
and others of the like characters ; but was told, that thofe* 
venerable perfonages, notwithstanding their appearance, 
were the damned, and the fouls of the reprobated ; for 
** Sapientiahujusfaeculi inimicaeftDei." After this he was 
afked, to which of thefe companies he would choofe to 
belong ; and anfwered, "That he had much rather be in 
" hell with thofe great geniufes, to converfe with them 
" about affairs of ftate, than be condemned to the company 
"of fuch loufy fcoundrels, as they had prefented to him 
" before." Others relate this fomething differently, as, 
fhat he " would rather be fent to hell after his death, than 
"go to paradife ; becaufe he fhould find nothing in heaven, 
" but a parcel of beggars, poor monks, hermits, and 
" apbftles ; whereas m hell, he fliould live with popes, 
" cardinals, kings, and princes." 

This, and many other ftories of the fame kind, was re- 
lated of him ; which, it is more than probable, are all falfe, 
and nothing more than the fiftions of bigots, to defame 
the man, becaufe they difliked his books. Be this how- 
ever as it will, Machiavel was certainly, what Harrington* 
the author of the "Oceana," has obferyed of him, " a very 
" ingenious man ; and the beft flailed in matters of policy 
M and government, perhaps, of all who have written upon 

F f 3 " Ihefc 


u thefc fubje&s." An Englifh tranflation of " Machiaver$ 
" Works," with Annotations, DiiTertations, &c.waspub- 
lifhedby Mr. Farneworth in 1761, 2 vols. 4to; i775> 8vo. 

Mack«- MACKENZIE (Sir George), an ingenious and 
^refixcdto ^ earnc ^ Scots writer, and eminent lawyer, was defcended 
hi% works, from an ancient and noble family, his father Simon Mac- 
in two to- kenzie being brother to the carl of Seaforth, and born at 
j£" f ^Dundee, in the county of Angus, in 1636. He gave early 
proofs of an extraordinary genius, having gone through 
his grammar, and the ufual claffic authors, at ten years of 
age ; and was then lent to the univerfities of Aberdeen and 
St Andrew's, where he finished his ftudies in logic and 
philofophy before be was full fixteen. After this, he 
turned his thoughts to the civil law ; with a view of per- 
feSing himfelf in which, he travelled into France, and 
ftttied himfelf a clofe Itudent in the univerfity of Bourges, 
for about three years. Then returning home, he was call- 
ed to the bar, and became an advocate in 1656. He gain- 
ed the chara&er of an eminent pleader in a few years : fo 
that, in 1661, he was chofen to plead the caufe of the mar- 
quis of Argyle, who was beheaded at Edinburgh that 
year, for high-treafen. In pleading this cafe, be dropped 
fome unwary expr;eflions in favour of bis client, for which 
he was reprimanded ; but he replied with great quicknefs, as 
well as boldnefs, that " it was impoffible to plead for a trai- 
, " tor without fpeaking treafon." 

In the mean time, though he made the law his profeflion 
and chief ftudy, yet he did not fuller his abilities to be con- 
fined entirely to that province. He had a good tafte for po- 
lite literature ; and he gave the public, from time to time, in- 
conteftablc proofs of an uncommon proficiency there- 
in. In 1660, came out his "'Aretino, or ferious romance," 
yvherein he flievved 'a gay and -exuberant fancy. In 1663* 
he published his " Religio Stoici ;'/ or a fhort difcourft up- 
on feveral divine and moral fubje&s, with a friendly addrefs 
to the fanatics of all feels and forts.- This was followed, 
in 1665, by " A moral efTay," preferring folitude to public 
employment, and all its appanages i iuch as fame, com- 
mand, riches, pleafures, converfation, &c. which efTay 
was- anlwered by John Evelyn, efq ; in another, prefer- 
ring public employment to folitude. In 1667, he printed 
his m Moral gallantry ;"• a difcourfe, wherein he endea- 
vours to prove, that point of honour, abftrafting from all 
other ties, obliges men to be virtuous; and that there is 

■ " nothing 


nothing fo mean and unworthy of a gentleman, as vice : 
to which is added, a confolation agjainft calumnies ; (hew- 
ing how to bear them eafily and pleafantly. Afterwards 
he publifhed, " The moral hiftory of frugality," with its . 
oppofite vices, covetoufnefs, niggardlinefs, prodigality, 
and luxury, dedicated . to the univerfity of Oxford ; and, 
" Reafon," an eflay, dedicated to the Hon. Robert Boyle, 
efq. All thefe Works, except 4< Aretino," were collected 
and printed together at London 17 13, in 8vo. under the 
title of " Eflays upon feveral moral fubje&s:" and it is 
but doing them jultice to fay, that they abound in good 
ienfe, wit, and learning; and are as fitted to entertain, as 
to inftruft the reader. Betides thefe Eflays, which were 
the production of fuch hours as could be fpared from 
the bufinefs of his profeflion, he was the author of a play 
and a poem. The poem is intituled, " Caelia's country- 
44 houfe and clofet ;" and in it are the following lines upon 
the earl of Montrofe : 

" Montrofe, his country's glory, and its fhame, 
" Caefar ia all things equalPd, but his fame, &c." 

which we quote principally to fhew, that Pope himfelf, in- 
finitely fuperior as his talents in poetry were, did not difdain 
to imitate our author, in his " Eflay on criticifm :" 

44 At length Erafmus, that great injur*d name, 

44 The glory of the priefthood, and the fhame, &c." 

But to go on with Mackenzie. Soon after his public! 
pleading for the earl of Argyle, he was promoted to* the 
office of a judge in the criminal court; which he difcharg- 
ed with fo much credit and reputation, that he was made 
king's advocate in 1674, and one of the lords of the privy - 
council in Scotland. He was alfo knighted by his majefty. 
In thefe places he met with a great deal of trouble, on ac** 
• count of the rebellions which happened in his time; and ^ 
, his office of advocate requiring him to aft with feverity , he 
did not efcape being cenfured, as if, in the deaths of feme 
particular perfons who were executed, he had ftretched 
the laws too far. But there does not fcem to have been 
any juft foundation tor this clamour againft him : and it is 
generally agreed, that he acquitted himfelf like an able and 
upright magiftratc. Upon the abrogation of the penal 
laws by James II. our advocate, though he had always 
been remakable for his loyalty, and even cenfured for 
hjs zeal fegainft traitors and fanatics, thought himfelf 

F f 4 







obliged to refigrvhis poft; being convinced, that lie coiitd- 
not difcharge the duties of k in that point vvifh a good ; coiy- 
fcience. He was fucceeded by fir John Dalrymple, who, 
however, did not long continue in? it : for that unfortunate 
rince, being convinced of his error, reftored fir George to 
lis poft, in which he continued wati-1 the Revolution, and 
Jthen gave it \if>. He could notcoine into -the mcafores 2nd 
terms of the Revfclution : he hoped, tlut the princeof Orange 
would have returned to his own country, whsen matters 
were ad jufted between the king .arid his Jfubje£t£; and, tip- 
On its proving othefwife,- he quitted all cmjHoyiatents hi' 
Scotland, and retired to Engktnd, refolviiig to. (pent! -the 
remainder of his days iu the tihivcrfity 6f Oxford: He ar- 
rived there in Sept. 1689, and prafe.cutedhis -fttidifes in the- 
Bodleian library, being admitted a ft t*dent there^ by st.gracd 
pafled in the cofigregatio'n, June 2, 1690. in tbcffrritng 
following,, he went to London, where he fell irrto 3 diforder, 
of which he died the 2d of May, itkj 1. Hi< corjyfe wssr 
conveyed by land to Scotland, and interred \*ith great pomp 
and folemrtity at Edinburgh; where, 'as vvc are. told, his 
funeral was attended by alf the council,* nobility; college 
of juilice, college of pjiyficians,'. uhiverfitvv elcrgv, gent rv/ 
and fuch a concourle of people as never -was* faen o'n th«fr 
like occasion.. . - . •> . 

Befides the moral pieces mentioned above, he wrote fe- 
veral dther works, to illtritrat'e the laws aiid ciVlldins of his 
country, to vindicate the rhonarehy from the reftleis con- 
trivances afnd Attacks of thofe whorti he cfteenred i*s encniies, 
und to ftiaintain the .honour and glory of Scotland* To 
illuft rate, the laws and euftorns of his couotry, he publiffn 
ed, " A difcourfe upon the lavvs arid cuftorns .of Scotland 
* 4 in matters . criinrrral, 1674," 4*0. k ' Idea eloquentia* 
V forenfis hoxfiernae, una cum a£liorie forenfi ex.unaquaque 
*' juris parte, 1681," 8vo. *' , Inftitutions of the la^rs of 
*' Scotland, 1684," ,8vo. . " Obfervations upon the afts 
**. of parliament, 16&6," folio. Befides thefe* feveralothefr 
frearjfes of la$r are inferted in his works* printed at Ediri* 
burgh 1 7 16^ in 2 vol. folio. In vindication of monarchy* 
he wrote his " Jus regiuiti; or the juft and £bhd founds 

tions of monarchy in general, \tind more efpee rally of the 

monarchy/of Scotland; maintained againft .BtrtttianaiH 
*' Naphthali, Doleman, Milton, &c. Lond, 1684," 8vo, 
This book beirig dedicated, and prefented by the author, 
to the univerfity of Oxford, the members thereof afiembled 
}n convocation ordered a; letter of thanks to he ferit to him 

/ for 



for the faid book, and his worthy pains' therein, &c. With 
the feme View, he published his " Difcovery of the fanatic 
"*plt>%" printed at Edinburgh 1684, in folio; ^d his 
** Vindication of the government of Scotland during the 
" reign of Charles II." Alfo the " Method of proceeding 
" agaifnft criminals and fanatical covenants, 1691," 4to. 
Tile pieces, which he -published in honour of his nation, 
\yere as follow: " Observations on the laws and cuftoms of 
*' nations as to precedency, with the fcience of heraldry, 
<-*• fteated a* a part of the civil law of nations; wherein 
*> reafons are given for its principles* and etymologies for 
4 *-rrt$ harder term»* 1680," folio; ** A'defence ofthean- 
** tkfuity of the? royaHine of Scotland ; with a true account 
" when the Scots were governed by kings in the ifle of 
'*. Britain, 16*85,'% 8 to. This was written in anfwer to 
IS Aft Hiftorical aecou-nt of church government, as it wa* 
44 in Great Britain and Ireland, when they firft received the 
** Chriftian religion," byLloyd,bp. of St. Afaph. SirGeorge's 
dufenee wa& pubHfl^d in June 1685: but, before it came 
Wife- it Was animadverted upon by Dr. Still ingfleet, whq 
h4d feen it in maftufcript, in the preface to his book inti- 
tinted, ** Origines Butannice." . Sir George replied the 
year following, in a piece intituled, " The antiquity of the 
" royal line of Scotland farther cleared and defended, againft 
!', the- exemptions lately offered by Dr* Stillingfleet, in his 
" vindication of the bifhop of St. Aiaph;" after which no 
more was heard of the" controVcrfy. It is remarkable, how* 
ever, thfet fir George's books were turned into Latin, 
printed at. Utrfcht in 1689, and then prelented to William* 
Xlcuryprince^ of Orange, who thereupon wrote two very 
obliging letters of thanks to him for his performance. 
. Afnong the iriftancfes of our author's zeal for his country, 
it is neceflary to mention his* founding of the lawyers li*? 
brary at Edinburgh, in 1689. This goes by the name of 
the Advocates library, and was afterwards ftored with va- 
riety of mariufcripts, relating particularly to the antiquity 
pf the Scotifli, and with all forts of books, in all 
the feience's, clafled in that excellent order, which he pre*. 
feribed in an elegant Latin oration, pronounced upon the 
opening of it, and printed among his works. 

We will clofe our account of fir George Mackenzie 
with what Wood and Burnet have faid of him. Wood re- Fafti,voUu, 
preffents him as " a gentleman vvell acquainted with' the 
'* beft authors, whether ancient or modern; of indefatigable 
"■ indtjftry in his ftudies, great abilities and integrity in 

•• his 




44 his profeflion, powerful at the bar, juft on the hatch* 
" an able ftatefman, a faithful friend, a loyal fubjeft, a. 
" conftant advocate for the clergy and universities, of ftrift 
" honour in all his ad ions, and a zealous defender of piety 
** and religion in all.piaces and companies. His converia- 
" tion was plea&nt and ufefol, fevere againft vice and ioofe 
*' principles, without regard to quality or authority. He 
" was a great lover of the laws and cuftoms of his country, 
** a contemner of popularity and riches, Frugal in his ex- 
•* pences, abftemious in his diet, &c.** Burnet fays y that 
Kj» o^ ° 4i he was a man of much life and wit, but neither equal 
ta»o»voi;.i. " nor correct in it. He has publifhed many books, fome 
" of law, but all full of faults ; for he was a flight and fuper- 
" ficial man.** 

Sir George was twice married, and had children by both 
his wives. A daughter by his firft wife was the grandmo- 
ther of the prefent earl of Bute. 

MACLAURIN (Colin), an eminent mathematician 
and philofopher, was the fon of a clergyman, and born at 
Kihnoddan in Scotland, Feb. 1698. He was fent to the 
univerfity of Glafgow in 1 709, where he continued five 
years, and applied himfelf to ftudy in a moft intenfe man- 
ner. His great genius for mathematical learning <Ufcovered 
itfelf fo carry as at twelve years of age; when, having, ac- 
cidentally met with an Euclid in a friend's chamber, he 
became in a few days mafter of the firft fix books without 
any affiftance: and it is certain, that in his 16th year he 
had invented many of the propositions, which were after- 
wards publifhed under the title of, " Geometricaorganica." 
In his 15th year, he took the degree of mafter of arts; on 
which occafion he compofed and publicly defended a theiis, 
** On the power of gravity,*' with great applaufe. After 
this he quitted the univerfity, and retired to a country-feat 
of his uncle, who had the care of his education j for his 
parents had been dead fome time. Here he fpent two or 
three years in purfuinghis favourite ftudies; but, in 1717, 
he ofFered himfelf a candidate for the profeflbrfhip of ma- 
thematics in the Marifhal college of Aberdeen, and obtained 
it after a ten days trial with a very able competitor. In 
1 6 1 9, he went to London, where he became acquainted 
with Dr. Hoadly, then bp. of Bangor, Dr. Clarke, fir 
liaac Newton, and othejr eminent men; at which time 
alfo he was admitted a member of the royal fociety: and 
in another journey in 1721, he contrafted an intimacy 


lACLAUR'IN. 44^ 

'With Martin Folkes, efq; the prefident of it f which lafted 
to his death. 

In 1622, lord Polwarth, plenipotentiary of the king of 
Oreat-Britain at the congrefs of Carabray, engaged him to 
go as tutor and companion to his eldeft fon, who was then 
to fet out on his s travels. After a fliort flay at Paris, and 
vifiting other towns in France, they fixed in Lorrain ; where 
Maclaurin wrote his piece " On the percuffion of bodies,'* 
which gained the prize of the royal academy of fciences, for 
the year 1724. But, his pupil dying foon after at Montpe- 
lier, he returned immediately to nis profeffion at Aberdeen. 
He was hardly fettled her.e, when he received an invitation 
to Edinburgh ; the curators of that univerfity being defiroua 
that he fhould fupply the place of Mr. James Gregory, 
ivhofe great age and infirmities had rendered him incapable 
of teaching. He had fome difficulties to encounter, arifing 
from competitors, who had good intereft with the patrons 
of the univerfity, and alfo from the want of an additional 
fund for the new profeflbr ; which however at length were 
aill furmounted, upon the receipt of two letters from fir > 

Ifaac Newton. In one, addrefied to himfelf, with allow- 
ance to Ihew it to the patrons of the univerfity, fir Ifaac 
exprefies himfelf thus: " I am very glad to hear, that you 
** have a profpeft of being joined to Mr. James Gregory, 
. . ** in the profeflbrfhip of the mathematics at Edinburgh, 
44 not only becaufe you are my friend, but principally be- 
44 caufe of your abilities ; you being acquainted as well with ■ 
-* 4 the new improvements of mathematics, as with the for- 
4 4 mer ftate of thofe fciences . I heartily wifh you good fuc- 
44 cefs, and (hall be very glad to hear of your being elected." 
In a fecond letter to the lord provoft of Edinburgh, he 
writes thus ; " I am glad to underftand, that Mr. Maclaurin 
44 is in good repute amongft you for his lkill in mathematics, 
44 for I think he deferves it very well: and to fatisfy you 
44 that I do not flatter him, and alfo to encourage him 
i{ to accept the place of affifting Mr. Gregory, in order 
44 . to fucceed him, I am ready, if you pleafe to give me 
" leave, to contribute 20 1. per annum towards aprovifion 
" for him, till Mr. Gregory's place becomes void, if I live 
44 fo long, and I will pay it to his order in London/* 

Nov. 1 725, he was introduced into the univerfity : as was 

at the fame time his learned colleague and intimate friend, 

Dr. Alexander Monro, profeflbr of anatomy. After this, 

the mathematical clafles foon became very numerous, there 

/ being generally upwards of 100 young gentlemen attending 



his le&ures every year; who being of different ftan<JiQg3 
and proficiency, he was obliged to divide them into four 
or five clafles, in each of which he employed a full hour 
every day, from the firft of Nov. to the firft of June. In the 
firft clals, he taught the firft fix books of " Euclid's Ele- 
ments ," plain trigonometry, practical geometry* die elements 
of fortification, and an introduction to algebra- The fe- 
cond ftudied algebra, the nth and 1 2th books of Euclid, 
fpherical trigonometry, conic feci: ions, and the general prin- 
ciples of aftronomy. The third went on in aftronomy and 
perfpective, read a part of fir I faac Newton's " Priricipia,"and 
had a courle of experiments for illuftrating them performed : 
lie afterwards read and demonftrated the elements of fluxi- 
on*. Thofe in the fourth clafs read a fyftem of fluxions, tlie 
dbdrine of chances, and the reft of Newton's 4 * Principia. 1 *' 
Keiides the labours of his public profeflion, he had frequent- 
ly other employments and avocations. If an uncommon ' 
experiment was faid to have been made any where, the cu- 
rious were defirous of having it repeated by him : if an eclipfe' 
or comet was to be obferved, his telefcopes were always in 

He lived a bachelor to the year 17-33 ; but being very- 
much formed for fociety, as well as contemplation, he 
then married Anne, the daughter of Mr. Walter Stewart, 
folicitor-general to his late majefty for Scotland. By this 
teily he had feven children, of which, two fons and three 
daughters, together with his wife, furvived him. . In I734» 
F>i i koley, bp. of Cioync, published a piece called, " The 
44 Analyfty in which he took occafion* frorn fotrie disputes 
that had arilen concerning the grounds of the fluxionary 
method, to explode the method itfeif, and alfo to charge 
mathematicians in general with infidelity in religion. Mac - 
-Iruuin thought himfelf included in this charge, and began 
;m anfwer to Berkeley's book: but, as he proceeded, to 
manv difcovcries, fo many new theories and problems oc- 
curred to him, that, inftead of a vindicatory pamphlet, his 
work came out, " A complete fyfteni of fluxions, with 
44 their application to the molt confidetable problems in ge- 
" o met 1"%' and natural phiiolbphy." This work was pub- 
lifhed at Edinburgh in 1742, 2 vols. <; and as it coft 
him infinite pains, fo it is the moft considerable of all his 
works, and will do him immortal honour. In the mean 
ti mc, he was continually obliging the public with fome per- 
formance or obfervation'of his own; many of which were 
published in tlie fifth and fixth volumes of the •" Medical 
-z * i eflavs 


t€ eflays" It Edinbtii'gh, Some of them were HkewafepuhEfli- 
*d hi * 'The Philofophical Tnutfe&ion* ;" as the following : 
** *« Ofth%fco«ftHr£ti^ No. 356, 

2. "* A new method ofdefcribing all kinds of curves," No. , 
SS9* 3. *' A letter *o Martin Folkes, rfq;t>n equations witfi 
impoffibfc roo&,May<i 736," No. 394. 4. "Gomitraatsim 
of the feme, Mitch 1729," No. 408. 5. " December. 
the -it* ft , 173a, On the defcription of curves ; with an 
'* account of fetther improvements, and a paper dated at 
44 Nanfcy, Nov. 27, 11722," No. 4,39. 6. " Amaccoutit 
*' of the treatife of fluxions, Jan. 27, 1742," No. 467. 
7. *' The (a*ne fcotttkiued, March 10, 1742/* No 469. 
S+ " A role for "fending the meridional parts of a fpheroid 
** with the ferae exa&nefs as of a fphere, Auguft 1741,'' 
No. 461. 9. ** Of the bafis of the cells, wherein the 
** bees depofite their honey, Nov. 3, 1734," No. 


In the midft of thefe ftudies, he was always ready to lend 

his affiftance in contriving and promoting- any fcheme, 
which might contribute to the fervice, of his country. When 
the «arl of Morton fet out, in 1739, for Orkney and Shet- 
land, to vifit his eftates there; he denied Mr. Maclaurin 
to affift him hi fettling the geography of thofe countries, 
Which is very erroneous in all our maps ; to examine their 
natural hiftory, tofurveythe coafts, and to take the urea* 
fore of a degree of the meridian. ' Maclaurin's family affairs, 
and other conneftions, would not permit him to do this : 
he drew, however, } a memorial of what he thought neccf- 
fery to be obferved, furniflied tlie proper inftiuments, and 
recommended Mr. Short, the famous optician, *as -* fit ope- 
rator for the management of diem. He had ftili another 
fcheitie for the improvement of geography and navigation, 
of a more etttenfive nature; which was, the opening a paf- 
fege from Greenland to the South Sea by the North pole. 
That fuch a paflage might be found, he was fo fully per- 
fuaded, that he has been h&Crd to fay, if his fituation could 
admit of filch adventures, * he \vot*ld -undertake the voyage-, 
tfveh at his own charge. But when fche/nes for finding* it 
were laid ^before the parliament in 1744, and himfeif con- 
ftrleedby ieveral petfons of high fank concerning them, be- .'" 

fore he could £nfth the memorials he prbpofed to fend, die 
-premiuni Was limited to the difcovery of. a North-weft paf- 
fage :, and he ufedtoragrefc, that the word Weft was inferted, 
becaufe -he thought ^that pafiage, if:atailto be found, nrnft 
lie i*©t far from the pole. / 



In 1 745, having been very a&ive ia fortifying the city 6f 
Edinburgh againft the Rebel army, he was obliged to fly 
. from thence to the north of England ; where he was invited 
.by Herring, then abp. of York, to refide with him during 
' „ his ftav in this country. " Here, 9 ' fays he, in a letter to 
one of his friends, , " I live as happy as a man can do, 
" who is ignorant of the fiate of his family, and who fee$. 
" the ruin of his country." In this expedition, however, 
being expofed to 'cold and hardships, and naturally of a 
weak and tender conftitution, he laid the foundation of 
an illnefs, which put an end to his life. It was a dropfy 
in the belly ; and he died of it June 14, 1746, aged 48. 
There is a circumftance recorded of him during his laft 
moments, which fhews him to have poflefled great philo- 
fophic ferenity, as well as ftrength of reafon ; and this 
was defiring his friend Dr. Monro to account for a phe- 
nomenon he then obferved in himfelf, viz. " flafhes of 
•* fire feeming to dart from his eyes, while in the mean 
* ; time his fight was failing, fo that he could fcarcely dif- 

• " tinguifh one objeft from another." 

Mr. Mauclarin is laid to have been a very good, as well 
as a very gre v at man, and worthy of love as well as admira- 
tion. His peculiar merit as a philofopher was, that all his 
fludies were accommodated to general utility ; and we find, 
in many places of his works, an application even of the 

. raoft abftrufe theories, to the perfefting of mechanical 
arts. He had refolved, for the fame purpofe, to compofe 
a courfe of pra&ical mathematics, and to refcue feveral 
ufeful branches of the fcience from the bad treatment they 
often meet with in lefs fkilfiil hands. But all this his 
death prevented ; unlefs we fhould reckon, as a part of 
his intended work, the tranflation of Dr. David Gregory's 
44 Practical Geometry," which he revifed, and publifhed 
with addtfons, 1 745. In his life-time, however, he had 
frequent opportunities of ferving his friends and his coun- 
try by. his great fkill. Whatever difficulty occurred con- 
cerning the conftru&ing mr perfe&ing of machines, the 
working of mines, the improving of manufactures, the 
conveying of water, or the execution of any other public 
work, he was at hand to refolve it. He was likewife em- 
ployed to terminate fome difputes of confequence that 
had arifen at Glafgow concerning the gauging of veffeis ; 
and for that purpofe jyefented to the commiffioners of 
excife two elaborate memorials, with their demonftrations, 
containing rules by which the officers now aft. He made 



alfo calculations relating to the provifion, now eftablifhed 
by law, for the children and widows of the Scotch clergy, 
mnd of the profellbrs in the universities, intitling them to 
certain annuities and fums, upon the voluntary annual 
payment of a certain fom by the incumbent. In contriv- 
ing and adjufting this wife and ufeful fcheme, hebeftowed 
a great deal of labour, and contributed not a little towards 
bringing it to perfe&ion. It may be faid of fuch a man, 
that " he lived to fome purpofe ;" which can hardly, be 
faid of thofe, how uncommon foever their abilities and 
attainments, who fpend their whole time in abftraft fpe- 
culatioris, and produce nothing to the real ufe and fervice 
of their fellow-creatures. 

Of his works, we have mentioned his " Geometrja 
•' organica," in which he treats of the defcription of curve 
lines by continued motion. We need not repeat what 
has bepn faid concerning his piece which gained the prize 
of the royal academy of fciences in 1724. In 1740, the 
academy adjudged him a prize, which did him ftili more 
honour, for folving the motion of the tides from the the- 
ory of gravity ; a queftion which had been given out 
the former year, without receiving any folution. He had 
only ten days to draw this paper up in, and could not find 
leiftire to tranfcribe a fair copy ; fo that the Paris edition 
of it is incorreft. He afterwards rcvifed the whole, and 
inferted it in his " Treatife of fluxions ;" as he did alfo the 
fubftance of the former piece. Thefe, with the " Treatife of 
" fluxions," and the pieces printed in the " Philofophical 
" Tranfa&ions," of which we have given a lift,, are all the 
writings which our author lived to publifh. Since his death, 
-two volumes more have appeared; his " Algebra," and his 
41 Account of Sir Ifaac Newton's Philofophical difcove- 
" ries." His " Algebra," though not finifhed by himfelf, 
is yet allowed to be excellent in its kind ; containing, in no 
large volume, a compleat elementary treatife of that fci* 
ence, as far as it has hitherto been carried. His " Ac- 
" count of Sir Ifaac Newton's Philofophy" was occafioned 
in the following manner: Sir Ifaac dying in the begin- 
ning of 1728, his nephew, Mr. Conduitt, propofed to 
publifli an account of his life, and defired Mr. Maclaurin's 
afliftance. The latter, out of gratitude to his great bene- 
faftor, chearfuily undertook, and foon finiflied, the hiftory 
of the progrefs which philofophy had made before Sir 
Ifaac's time : and this was the nrft draught of the work in 
hajid, which not going forward, on account of Mr. Coart- 

4 duitt's 

U* M A C L A V R 1 M. 

thrift's death, was returned to Mr. JVIfuJftttrin. T<o*this 
he afterwards *oade gteat addition mA. left k in the ftate 
in which it now appears. His maiu,<ie£ga dfeems ite iWc 
been, to explain ouly (hole parts pf Sir $a&c*6 j^fo&phy 
which have been, and (till are, icon&evortod : ,and,$hi3 is 
iuppofed to he die reafon, why his j^adtdMfovqp^ <&&-- 
earning light and colours are hut :ttaafieQtly and gtjpsi^Hy 
touched upon. For it is known, *hat >ever fince the ea- 
perimeots, on which his <lo&rine*rf light and colours is 
founded, have been repeated with due gare, this do&riae 
.has not beenoontefted ; whereas his aopoun&ng jfcr itjie 
cekftial motions, aod tte other grgat ^npepsanses ^of } ng- 
ture, from gravity, is mifunderftood, and .even ridiculed 
to this day . The weak charge of occult qualities has been 
frequently repeated.; foreign pfqfeflbrs Hill amufe *hem- 
felves with imaginary triumphs ; and even -the polkeaud 
% . ingenious cardinal de .Polignac has been feducqii <tp dtend 
them the harmony of his numbers. 

To the latter of tjiefe works is prtffijsed, " J\n account 
<4 -of -the life and writings of ,Mr. IVladaurin :" :from>whjeb, 
as it is very authentic, we have taken the foMlai^ce o£the 
prefent memoir. 

MAC R O B I U S (A*ibrosius.Aur;Elhjs Th^oqo- 
sius), an anciefct Latin writer, .who 'nourished towandsi-tfae 
latter part of the fourth century. Wh&t-cowntiyman>he was, 
is not clear : Erafmus, .in his "Ciceronianus," feems ;to 
think, he -was a -Greek; and he himf elf tells us, intheipre- 
/face to his " Saturnalia," that,he was not a Roman, hut 
Jaboured under the inconveniences of waiting in. a lan- 
guage ^hich wasnot:natural to him. Of what, religion he 
was, Chriftkn or :Eagan, is uncertain. ?Barth*us ranks 
him among the iChciftiaris ; but Spanheim and 'Fahrjckis 
fuppofe .him -to have been a .heathen. Slhishosvewr is 
certain, that he was a man of confular dignity, .andone*of 
the chamberlains, or matters of the wardrobe?to Theodo- 
.fius ; as appears from a refcript dirked to Fiorentius, 
concerning thofe who were to obtain that office. Be /wrote 
" A Commentary upon Cicero's Somtiium Saipioms/Vand 
feven books of " Saturnalia ;" which treat of various fab- 
je#s, and are an agreeable .mixture of criticifmattdaati^ 
quity. He was not aboriginal ..writer, /but.maiie g??eat tifc 
otether^pcopje's tworks, borrowing not only their materials, 
but even their language ; aad for this &e ;has. b$en jfati- 
rfcaUy rallied. by Jtome modern authors. iEraiinus com- 

MAC R O BIl/S. 449 

pares him to flop's raven, who made himfelf fine with the 

feathers of other birds ; and fays, that he prates Latin 

like a little Greek, "^fopicam corniculam mihi no- j n Ciceron. 

** minas," fay