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Full text of "A New Translation of Job, Ecclesiastes, and the Canticles, with Introductions, and Notes ..."

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NEW TRANSLATION 



JOB, ECGLESIASTES, 



THE CANTICLES, 



lXTKOIHXTION.S, AND NOTES, CHIEFLY 
EXPLANATORY. 



By GEORGE It. NOYES, D.D., 



FIFTH EDITION, 



BOSTON: 

AMERICAN UNITARIAN ASSOCIATION. 

1874. 



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CONTENTS. 



Introduction to Job 3 

Job 37 

Introduction to Kcct.e.hiastes 103 

Ecclesiastes 125 

Introduction to the Canticles HI 

The Song of Songs (i. g. The Canticles) .... 171 

Notes on Job 185 

Notes on Ecclesiastes 283 

Notes on hie Canticles 329 



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Til K ISO OK OF JOB. 



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INTBODUCTION TO JOB. 



TW wort, which it is the design of the present volume to illus- 
trate, is in many respects one of tin: most remarkable ]i!'(j(iii<:ti<>iis 
of any age Or eoimlry. Jt is, wit lion t doubt, in its geiuinl plan, 
as well as in the rhythmical construction and high poetic character 
n E" its language, the elaborate work of a skilful artist, Deep 
thought and long-continued sti.uiy must liave been united with 
genius in its production. Yet lias it, hi a much higher degree than 
most composition-:, die freshness of an unstudied effusion of the 
soul of the author; a soul full of the sublimit conceptions of 
the l'arciil; of nature ami bis glorion- works, and of true antl deep 
sympathy with all that: is great and amiable in the character, and 
adecthig in I be. condition, of man. The imagination of the author 
seems to have ranged freely through every part of the universe, 
and 10 have enriched itself front almost every department of na- 
ture and of art. Whether he attempt to describe the residence 
of Jlini "who niainlaiiH'l.h pence in bis high places," or "the 
hind of darkness and the shadow of death ; " the passions ami pur- 
suits of man, or the nature and features of the animal creation ; 
the phenomena of the air and the heavens, or the dark operations 
of the miner, — he is ever (ami liar '.villi liis subject, ami seem- to 
tell us what his eyes have seen and his cars have, beard. And not 
more remarkable are the richness and vigor nf his imagination 
than his power in representing the dee]) emotions and the tender 
affections nf the soul. Admirable, loo, iti a poem of so high anti- 
quity, is the skill with vhich Ik; makes all the delineations of the 
human heart, and all the descriptions of externa! nature, subservi- 



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4 INTRODUCTION TO 

out tf) the illustration of urn- iniporlant. moral subicci ; I In is uniting 
the attributes ol' thu pool and philosopher. Jl is true- that wo 
lilies this perfection til' Grecian art in the structure of the work of 
a Hebrew }ioi't who wrote more than a century before .Kschyhis ; 
and his ])Siin required hi in to set lb rib the general workings of the 
human lit!:!! 1 !, t-jir jii-j' than to delineate tin' r.ici r .'hades of human 
character. Jl. was iu barn iom with ihe ethical nature of the Com- 
position, ilial his characters siie.dd make speeches, rather than 
converse. Yet no one tun fail to pereeive the unity of design 
which pervades the work, and the adaptation of the various parts 
of it to its c(!Lii|i!e:iii;i. 

The first plaee among the Hebrew poets has usually been as- 
signed to Isaiah. 15ut in what respect the Croat Unknown, the 
author of the .Book of Job, can be regarded as interior to any 
Hebrew poet, or any other poet, unless perhaps we except Shaks- 
peare, I am at a loss to conceive. In comprehensiveness of 
thought, and in richness and strength of imagination, he seems to 
me to be unsurpassed; and in dupt.li and tenderness of feeling 
to be incomparable, when we consider that (cina'c loveliness con- 
.st.it.ut.es no part of the interest of ihe wni'k. Alnu.ist e\ery Chris- 
tian poet lias felt his inllueuce in respect, both to thought and 
expression, lint to delineate ihc excellences and beauties of the 
liook of Job is a tusk far beyond my capacity. They must be 
understood ami felt, rather than described. 

There has been much discussion in furnicr times, in regard to 
the particular department of poetry and literature, under which 
the l.'.ook of Job should be classed. Undue importance has with- 
out doubt been attached to this question ; and the scope and spirit 
of (.he work have in a degree been lost sight of, in the eagerness 
with which different writers have sought to establish its claim to 
[he appellation of epic or dramatic, or its plaee in a particular 
department of poetical composition. The truth is, that there is 
nothing which boars an exact resemblance to it in Grecian, Ro- 
man, or modern literature. It has something in common, not 
only with different forms of composition, but with different 
departments of literature. Those who have given it the appel- 
lation of an epic poem have applied to it a term the least 



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BE BOOK OP JOB. 5 



a work of ait. They have made unimportant c 
regard tii its Ciirni, of more consequence than its sibslamial char- 
acter, spirit, ami design. Nothing can bo more evident than Oie 
tact, that to e.\cke interest iii (In: personal fortunes of J oh, as 
the. hero of a poem, was not the principal design of the writer. 
Slili less was it his design to nniiilil characteristic traits in tlio 
dllier personages introduced inio the Murk. Home, indeed, have 
discovered, as they suppled, striking characteristic trails in Kli- 
pliaK the 'J'emanite, liildad tlie Shuhite, and Zophar tlie Naama- 
thite; and have pointed out the different degrees of seventy which 
they exhibited towards their friend in his distress. It appears to 
ir.ii that these writers have drawn largely on their own imagina- 
tions to make their' opinions probable. There is, no doubt, some 
diversity in the manner anil substance, of (he discourses of the 
friends of Job. The author may have put the longest and best 
speeches into the mouth of an inhabitant uf a city so famous for 
its wisdom as Toman; * and to Klihn, whom some regard as 
thrust into the place he occupies by n later writer than the author, 
lie certainly assigns, at least in the beginning of Eiihifs speech, 
and in the preambles in chap. xxxiii. T-l.L ill.-;!:;, xxxiv. 2-4, xxxv. 
2-4, the language of a young" man who has made rallier an extrav- 
aganl, estimate 1 of bis anilities and ills consequence. lint I seek in 
vain for evidence that the author made It. a principal object to 
excite an int.ere.st in the actions or characters of the personages 
whom he introduces. lie had linle dramatic power. 

There is more plausibility in the views of those who have 
regarded and named the .Book of Job a dramatic poem. For, 
undoubtedly, the character of, lob lias a tragic interest, and reminds 
one of the most interesting cliaraelers of C.reeian tragedy, suffer- 
ing by tile will of llie gods or llie necessities oi' (ale, e-pecially 
the Prometheus Vinetus of JEschylus. In regard to its form, 
there is something that resembles dialogue, — though the per- 
sons taking part in it make speeches rather than converse, — 
and something !hai bears a distant resemblance to a prologue and 
an epilogue. The author has also skilfully introduced into vari- 
ous parts of (lie work hinis having reference to the final issue of 

* Jer. Jtlis. 7. 



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t> INTRODUCTION TO 

the fortunes of Job, similar Lo those which occur in the best of the 
Greek tragedies, such as the (Edipus Tyraimus. (See chap. viii. 
IS, 7; xvi. 19; xix. 25, &o„ compared with chap, xlii.) Stili, 
to give the name of a drama or a tragedy to this production is to 
give it a name from what is incidental to it, rather than from its 
pervading spirit and prominent design. To call it a poem of any 
kind fails to suggest the characterisiic feature of the work, though 
it contains poetry, which perhaps iias never been surpassed. 

If we have regard to the main design, the substance and spirit 
of the work, we shall refer it to the department of moral or reli- 
gious philosophy. It contains the moral or religious philosophy 
of the time when it was produced. It is rather a philosophical 
religious discussion in a poetical form than an epic or dramatic 
poem. It is more nearly allied to the Essay on Man than to Para- 
dise Lost, or Prometheus Vinctus. it is the effusion of the mind 
and heart of the author upon a moral subject which has agitated 
the human bosom in every age. Still, the author was a poet as 
well as a religious philosopher . In the mode of presenting the 
subject Lo his readers, he aimed, like other poets, to move the 
human feelings by exhibitions of passion and scenes of distress, 
and to please the taste by the sublime (lights of bis imagination. 
He aimed to give the highest interest to his subject by clothing 
his thoughts iu the loftiest langmige of poetry, and arranging them 
in the measured rhythm which is one of the characteristics of He- 
brew poetry. 

It might be interesting to analyse liie pare: religious doctrines 
which the author held, and, with wonderful liberality for one of 
the Jewish nation, ascribed to Arabians; but such an analysis is 
hardly necessary in an introduction to the book. It seems par- 
ticularly remarkable that lie should ascribe Divine inspiration to 
Eliphaz the Tetnanite. (See chap, iv. 12-21.) 

The special subject of this unique production is the ways of 
Providence in regard to the distribution of good and evil in the 
world, in connection with the doctrine of a righteous retribution 
in the present life, such as seemed to be contained in the Jewish 
religion. It sets fbt-tli the struggle between faith in the perfect 
government of God, or in a righteous retribution in the present 
life, and the various doubts excited in the soul of man by what it 



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THE BOOK OP JOB. 7 

feels 01 sues of human misery, and by what it knows of the pros- 
perity of the contemners of God. These doubts the author 
expresses in strong and irreverent language from the lips ol Job; 
whilo the received doctrine of an exact earthly retribution, which 
pervades the Jewish religion, is maintained and reiterated by the 
personages intruding! as the friends of Job. 

The subject is one which comes home to men's business and 
bosoms. Even under the light of Christianity, perhaps there are 
few who have not in peculiar seasons felt a conflict between faith 
in the perfect government of God, and various feelings excited m 
their minds by what they have experienced or witnessed of human 
suffering. The pains of the innocent, — of those who cannot dis- 
cern their right hand from their left hand, —the protracted calam- 
ities which are often the lot of the righteous, and the prosperity 
which often crowns the design.- of the wicked, have at times ex- 
elted wonder, perplexity, and doubt in almost e\-<.:vy thoughtful 
mind. We. as Christians, silence our doubts, and confirm our 
faith, by what experience teaches us of the general wisdom and 
benevolence of the Creator, by the consideration that affliction 
comes from the same merciful hand which is the source of all the 
good that we have ever enjoyed, by the perception of the moral 
and religious influences of adversity, and especially by the hope 
of the joy to be realized in a better world, which is set before 
those who endure to the end. The apostle could say for the con- 
solation of himself and his fellow-sufferers, » For I reckon that 
the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared 
with the glory which shall be revealed in us." And every Chris- 
tian knows that the Captain of his salvation ascended to his throne 
of glory from the ignominious cross. The cross is the great 
source of the Christian's consolation. But let us suppose our- 
selves to be deprived of those sources of consolation which are 
peculiar to a disciple of Christ, and we may conceive of the state 
of mind of the author of the Book of Job, upon whom the Sun of 
righteousness had never dawned. Is it strange that the soul of a 
pious Jew, who lived before "life and immortality were brought 
to light through the gospel," should have been agitated by the 
conflict between such a faith in temporal retribution as his religion 
seemed to require, and the doubts and inn runnings excited by what 



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» INTRODUCTION TO 

he felt and saw of the calamities of the righteous, and witnessed 
of the prosperity of tlie wicked? One of the most enlightened of 
the Romans, wben called to mourn tie early loss of the children 
of his hopes, was led, as he says, almost " to accuse the gods, 
and to exclaim, that no Providence governed the world." An 
Arabic poet, quoted by Dr. Foeoeko,* writes: — 

Qui'! hitdli'dn pra^fand-s in aii^usliris n-dE^iLiilur, 
¥.!. simune stoUilis invents (im-pere agentesl 
TToc ust i;niid animus perplexos i-olJii r L iiit. 
I'il e^re^'ic dod-os jiadiliicicus reddit. 

11 How many wise men are reduced to distress, 
And how many fools will you lind in prosperity! 
II is this that leaves the mind in perplexity, 
And makes Sadducee, of very learned men." 

We think thai, many have stated loo strongly the argument for 
till: immortality of the soul, drawn from the apparent ineipialitie-i 
of the present state. To maintain that there is little or no retri- 
bution in this part, of lim Creators dominions, appears to me not 
the best way of proving that there will be a perfect one in another 
part of them. Nor is such a representation true. To a very 
important extent, "we still have justice here." But tho senti- 
ments referred to above, respecting the limited retributions of the 
present life, may serve to illu.il rate tin: mental condition, of a pious 
man of exalted genius, who appears to have had no conception, 
or at least no belief, of a slate after death that was desirable in 
compari-on with the preen! life. 

In Ps. lxxiii. we have the thoughts which passed through the 
mind of another upon the same subject: — 
" Yet my fin:!, nhnnst gave way; 
My steps had well ni-ii -iipp^it: 
For I was envious of the profane, 
When I saw the prosperity of the wicked," &c. 
Ps. xxxvii. may also be considered as being upon (.lie same sub- 
ject, and so likewise the Book of Kcclcslastes ; though a more 
sceptical spirit seems to pervade the latter than either of the 
psalms above mentioned, or the Book of dob. 

* Not. in Port. Mob. c. vii. Opp. p. an. 



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THE BOOK OP JOB. 9 

Such being the subject which filled the mind of the author of 
this book, the question arises, how he lias treated it, or what he 

aimed to accomplish in regard to it. That in his own view he had 
solved all the difficulties which embarrass the human understanding 
in regard to the subject is not very probable. But that he pro- 
posed to establish some definite truths in relation to it, as well aa 
to inculcate the duty of entire submission to God, and unreserved 
faith in him, is, I think, clear. I do not believe, with Do Wette, 
that he meant to leave the subject an utter mystery, and merely 
to bring man to a helpless consciousness of his ignorance. The 
prologue and epilogue, which this writer admits to be genuine, to 
say nothing of the speech of Elihn, refine such an opinion. The 
most prominent part of the author's design is, indeed, to enforce 
the duty of unqualified submission to the will of God, and of rev- 
erential faith amid all the difficulties which perplex the understand- 
ing in relation to the government of God. But a part of it is also 
to illustrate the truth, that moral character is not to be inferred 
from outward condition (see chap, xxxiii. 19-28) ; that afflictions 
arc designed as liir trial of piety, anil as means for its advance- 
ment ; and that they lead in the end to higher good than would 
otherwise be obliiiued ; and thus to assert eternal providence, and 
justify the ways of God to man. And, while he enforces the duty 
of entire submission to God, he incidentally intimates that un- 
founded censures and unkind treatment of a friend in distress are 
more offensive to the Deity than those expressions of Impatience 
which affliction may wring from the lips of the pious.* 

The author aims to show, that, in the distribution of good and 
evil in the world, God is sometimes inllucnced by reasons which 
man can neither discover nor comprehend, and not solely by the 
merit or demerit of Ills creatures ; that the righteous are often 
alllielcd, and the wicked prospered : but that this course of provi- 
dence Is perfectly consistent with wisdom, justice, and goodness 
in the Deity, though man is unable to discern the reasons of it; 
that afflictions are often intended as the trials of piety and the 
means of moral improvement ; that man 1; an incompetent ledge of 
the Divine dispensations ; that, instead ot rashly daring to peno- 



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11} INTRODUCTION' TO 

trate or to censure the counsels of Lis Creator, it is his duty to 
submit to his will, to reverence his character, and to obey his 
laws ; and that the end will prove the wisdom as well as the obli- 
gation and the happy consequences of such submission, rever- 
ence, and obedience. 

In this view, I have taken the whole book, as we now have it, 
to be genuine. I think this supposition is attended with the 
(bwest difficulties. Those who discard the speech of Elihu, the 
twenty -eighth chapter and part of the twenty-seventh, and the 
prose introduction and conclusion, must give, of course, an ac- 
count of it somewhat different. They imagine that by the exclu- 
sion of these portions they give greater unity to the composition. 
But where did they learn that every poeni must have perfect unity, 
or even perfect consistency ? 

In order to accomplish the design, or express the views, winch 
I have exhibited, in sucli a manner that his work should possess 
the highest interest for his readers, the author employs a form of 
composition resembling that of the drama. lie brings forward a 
personage, celebrated probably in the traditions of his country 
on account of the distinguished excellence of his character, and 
the marvellous vicissitudes through which he had passed. In the 
delineation of the character and fortunes of this personage, lie 
uses the liberty of a poet in stating every thing in extremes, Or in 
painting every thing in the broadest colors, that he might thus the 
better illustrate the moral truth, and accomplish the moral pur- 
pose, which lie had in view. 

He introduces to the reader an inhabitant of the land of Uz, 
in the northern part of Arabia, equally distinguished by his piety 
and his prosperity. He was pronounced by the Searcher of 
hearts an upright and good man ; and he was surrounded by a 
hippy family, and was the most wealthy of ail the inhabitants of 
the East. 

If virtue and piety could in any ease be a security against calam- 
ity, then must Job's prosperity have been lasting. Who ever had 
more reason for expecting continued prosperity, the favor of men, 
and the smiles of Providence P "lint, when he looked for good, 
evil came." A single day produces a complete reverse in his 



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THE BOOK OF JOB. 11 

coniiilien, and reduces lilm fnim the Iit-iylit of prosperity to tliu 

lovvesl depths of misery. Ill: is stripped of his possessions. Ilia 
children, a numerous family, for whom he had imviii' forgotten to 
offer [.) God a moiuin:: sacrifice, are buried under the ruins of 
ihem houses, whieb a hurricane levels wit.li the ground ; and, finally, 
lie is aitlicted, in his own person, ivitli a most, loathsome and dan- 
gerous disease. Thus tin.' best man in J.hu world lias become the 
most miserable man lu the world. 

The reader is made acquainted in the outst-t with the cause of 
lh(j alllictions of Job. At an assembly of the sons of God, — that 
is, thy inhabitants of heaven, — in the presence of the Governor 
of the world, an evil spirit, Satan, the adversary or accuser in the 
court of heaven, had come, on his return from an excursion over 
the earth, to present liiniself before God, or to stand in readiness 
to receive liis commands. Jehovah puts the question to Satan, 
whether he had taken notice of the model of human excellence 
exhibited in the character of his servant Job, and sets forth the 
praise of tins good Juan in terms so emphatic as to excite the envy 
and ill-will of that suspicious accuser of his brethren. Satan inti- 
mates Ihat selfishness is ihe sole motive of Job's 
it was with views of profit, and not front sentiments o 
toward God, that lie paid him an outward service ; that, if Jehovah 
should take away (he possessions of him whom lie helievetl so 
(aithliil, he would at once renounce his service. " Doth Job fear 
God for nought?" To establish the truth of what he had said in 
commendation of his servant, Jeliovali is represented as giving 
permission to Satan to put Ihe piety of Job to the lest, by taking 
away at once all ins possessions and all his children. But the 
evil spirit gains no triumph. Job remains true f.o his allegiance, 
lie sins not even with his lips. '1'bere is yet another assembly 
of the heavenly spirits ; and liere the hateful spirit, the disbe- 
liever in liu man virtue, | ices isis in maim timing i!iat it is the love of 
life, the dearest of all possessions to man, which retains Job in 
his allegiance. Satan therefore is represented as having per- 
mission to lake from -lob all that can be called life, except the 
mere consciousness of existence and the ability to express his 
sentiments in the condition to which he is reduced, by the inflic- 
tion of a most loathsome disease. And yet the good man, in this 



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12 INTRODUCTION TO 

lowest point of depression, is represented as remaining patient so 
long, that when his wife, whom Satan appears Id have spared to 
him for no good purpose, tempts him to renounce his. allegiance 
to God, he calmly answers, " Shall wo receive good at the hand 
of God, and shall we not receive evil P " Thus Jar he did not sin 
with his lips. 

But when the fame of Job's sufferings had spread abroad, and 
had drawn around him a company of his friends, who had lull 
their distant homes to sympathize with him in his calamities, lie is 
represented as giving vehement utterance to his long-repressed 
impatience, and pouring out liis complaints and doubts in rash 
language, with which (he reader would hardly be able to sympa- 
thize, were it not for the account which lias been given of the 
cause of his afflictions in the introductory chapters. 

lint tticj friends of .loli, who of course are not aefpiai'f.cd ivilb 
the cause of liis sufferings in the occurrences of the heavenly as- 
sembly, are thrown into ama/euiout at the condition in which thev 
find their friend, and the. expressions uttered by him whom they 
bail heretofore looked upon as a wise and good man. They are 
silent while timy witness only his dreadful sullcrings ; but, when 
they bear the vehement and rash complainl.s which are extorted 
from him by the severity of his distress, they refrain no longer 
from expressing their sentiments respecting the cause of his calami- 
ties. They ascribe them to his sins. Thus commences a discussion 
respecting the causes of human sufferings between Job and liis 
friends. They are represe 

and perfect retribution in the present life: as maintaining that 
misery always implies guilt 
comfort and consolation, t 
misfortunes by secret wick 
auec, as if lie iverc a great, sinner snUoving the just punishmci 

Job repels their inslnuati 
tains his innoeenco. He 

plains of severe treatment, and asserts that God afflicts equally 
the righteous and the wicked. His friends are offended with the 

sentiments to which he gives utterance, and undertake to vindicate 
the conduct of the Deify towards him. They repeat will; greatel 



oiding 


&ed< 


■etrine o 


sent lifl 




maintaii 




itead 


of brinj 


ie him 


of ha 


ving me 


They i 


jadwwi 


i him fa 


snfferii 


,gthe 


just pu 


indigni 


ttion, 


and flrn 


Dtwhy 


he en 


fiera. : 


.■rts. tba 


t Goc 


1 afflicts 



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THE BOOK OF JOB. 



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asperity their charge* of wickedness and impiety, and even go so 
fin- -i- to accuse liiia of particular crime*. But the more tlioy press 
their accusations, the more confident is be in his assertions of Ins 
innocence, or of the justice of his cause. He avows his conviction 
that God will one day manifest himself as the vindicator of his 
character. He appeals to him as the witness of Ins smccr.ty ; 
denies the constancy, and even the frequency, of his judgments 
upon wicked men; and boldly asks for an opportunity of pleading 
his cm.se with his Creator, confident that he should be acquitted 
before any righteous tribunal. His friends are reduced to silence ; 
Bihlud closing their remarks by a few general maxims respecting 
the greatness of God and the frailty of man, and Zophar not un- 
dertaking to say any thing. 

The spirit Of Job is somewhat softened by their silence ; ami he 
retracts some of the sentiments, which, in the anguish of Ins spirit, 
and the heat of controversy, he had inconsiderately uttered. 
'■ He proceeds with calm confidence like a lion among his defeated 
enemies." He shows that he was able to speak of the perfections 
of God and to express all that was true in the positions of his 
opponents, in a better style than any of them. He now admits 
what before he seemed to deny, that wicked men are often visited 
by severe punishment. But from his main position he does not 
retreat, that misery is not always the consequence of wickedness, 
and that Cod has a hidden wisdom in regard to the distnlmiion of 
happiness and misery, which it is impossible for man to fathom. 
He then proceeds with a melting pathos to describe his present 
in contrast with his former condition, and to give a most beauti- 
ful picture of his character and life, very pardonable in one of 
whom the reader knows what has in the prologue been said by the 
Governor of the world before.the angels of heaven. From this 
retrospect of his past life, he is led to renewed protestations of 
his innocence, and of his desire to have his cause tried before the 
tribunal of his Creator. 

In this Stage of the discussion, a new disputant is brought for- 
ward, probably for the purpose of expressing some thoughts of (lie 
author on the "design of afflictions, and for the purpose of forming 
a contrast in respect to style and manner with the manifestation of 
the Deity which follows. Elihu is represented as a young man 



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14 INTRODUCTION TO 

coming forward with an air of groat conl'idence, though in uurili 
lie ascribes the burden with wliich his breast was laboring to the 
inspiration of God. He doc-, indeed, bring forward some thoughts 
on tin- moral itillucnec of nrilletlons which hail not been uttered by 
tlit! friends of Job; maintaining tlnit, though tliey may not be the 
punishment of past, oflbnccs. nor evidence of guil!, (hey may oper- 
ate as preventives of those, sin- which tin: bust of men sometimes 
commit, and as a salutary discipline for the correction of those 
faults of which a man may be unround mis unt.il his attention is 
awakened by adversity. Thus he offers a more rational conjec- 
ture than the three friends of Job, in regard to the cause of his 
aliliftions ; anil, in fact, gives nearly t.iie same account, of it which 
is regarded as true by the writer, and is implied in Ihe prologue 
and epilogue of the poem. .Miliel.iuu, according to Elihu, is 
designed for the in oral benefit of the sufferer. His view of the 
design of human sufferings is, therefore, nearer the Christian doc- 
trine than that of any speaker in the book. Of eour.se, like all 
others, he fails of completely solving all the dillicnUies, which, 
even under the liglu of the CI iris: inn dispensation, are connected 
with the subject of the amount of evil which exists In the world, 
and the dislribtition of good and evil in it, under the govern- 
ment of (rod. Thus an appropriate place remains for the 
sublime speech of the Deity relating to the unsrarchableness of 
his counsels and his ways. 

Human wisdom, the learned -wisdom of age, and the unbiassed 
genius of youth, having now been exhausted upon tin; subject, 
at length the Supreme Being himself is represented as speak- 
ing from Ihe midst of a tempest, and putting an end to the con- 
troversy; the dignity of his introduction being rendered more 
impressive by the sell-confident egotism with whieb Kliliu had com- 
menced his part in the contest. 

The Creator decides Ihe controversy, to a certain extent, in 
favor of Job. Jehovah does not, however, condescend to explain 
to him the ways of bis providence, or to reveal to him the reasons 
which intiucuce hi- eondtu't; tint, in a series of forcible ques- 
tions relating to the Divine operations in the realms of nature, 
he convinces him of his inability to fathom the Divine counsels, 
demonstrates the necessity of faith in a wisdom which he cannot 



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THE BOOK OP JOB. 15 

comprehend, produces in Mm a sense of his weakness ami igno- 
rance, and leads him to profound repentance, on account of thu 
rashness of his language ; and thus | ire join's (in: way for the final 
vindication of bis faithful servant. In a -train of sublime .rimy, 
he requests him, who had spoken with such confidence and bold- 
ness of On: ways of < I Oil, to give uii explanation of some of the 
phenomena which ivi.'i'e constantly presented to bis view, — ol thu 
nature and structure of the earth, the sea, tin: light, and tho ani- 
mal kingdom. If ho be unable to explain any of the common 
phenomena of nature, how can he expect to comprehend the 
secret counsels and moral government of the invisible Author 
of nature ? 

But, having shown tin: reasonableness of entire confidence in his 
unsearchable wisdom, ami of submission to his darkest dispensa- 
tions, the Supreme Judge does, in tlie main, decide the contro- 
versy in favor of Job. He declares that be had spoken thai which 
was right : that is, in maintaining that, bin misery was not the con- 
sequence of his guilt, or that eharaeter is not to lie inferred from 
external condition ; and that the IHemls of Job had not spoken 
that which w:t~ right in condemning him as a wicked man on ac- 
count of bis misery, or in maintaining thai, su fibre ig uhvay- implies 
guilt. (Chap. xlii. 7, 8.) The cause of Job's afflictions, which was 
unknown to the di-puiunts, has already been communicated to the 
reader in the introductory chapters; namely, that they were ap- 
pointed as a temporary trial of his virtue, in order to vindicate 
the judgment of Jehovah concerning him, and to prove against 
all gainsayors the disinterestedness of his piety, i'inally, Jehovah 
is represented as bestowing upon Job double the prosperity which 
distinguished him before Itis affliction, and thus as compensating 
him for the en bin lilies in: had si i fibred ; thereby showing, for the 
consolation of ail who endure aillielion, that the end of the good 
man Will prove that he was also wise, 

If the general design of (his wonderful production be such as 
I have described, (he question whether .lob was a real or a ficti- 
tious character becomes almost, loo unimportant to be discussed. 
Truth was illustrated and duty enforced by parable as well as by 
history, in the teaching of him who spake as never man spake. 



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16 INTEODUCTION TO 

Certainly some of the circumstances of the life of Job have thfl 
air of fiction, and may have been invented for the promotion of 
the moral and religious design which we suppose the author to 
have had chiefly in view. 

That the sentiments of .fob and of the different disputants, as 
well as those which .ire represented as proceeding from the lips 
of the Creator, must all be regarded as l.he effusions of the poet's 
own mind, is also too plain to need argument. The whole struc- 
ture and arrangement, thoughts and language, form and sub- 
stance of the work, must all have proceeded from one and the 

The supposition, that so beautiful and harmonious a whole, 
every part of which bears the stomp of the highest genius, was 
the casual production of a man brought to the gates of the grave 
by a loathsomo disease, and of three or four friends who had 
come to comfort him in his affliction, all of them expressing their 
thoughts in the language of rhythm and poetry ; that the Dcitv 
was actually heard to speak half an hour from the midst of a 
violent storm; and tbat the consultations in the heavenly world 
were actual occurrences, — is too extravagant to need refutation. 
On the other band, it is against probability and against analogy 
to suppose that no such person as Job ever existed, and that the 
work has no foundation in fact. The etymological signification 
of his name, persecuted, has a very slight bearing on the subject. 
The epic and dramatic poets, ancient and modern, have usually 
chosen historical rather tlian fictitious personages as their princi- 
pal characters, as being better adapted to secure the popular 
sympathy. It is probable that tradition had handed down the 
name of such a person as Job, distinguished for his piety and its 
trials, his virtue and its reward. This tradition the poet used 
and embellished in a manner adapted to promote the chief object 
of his work. 



A more important question, at the present day, relates to the 
integrity of the work ; whether we have it as it came from the 
author, or whether various additions have been made to it in 



s of the introductory and concluding chapter 



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IHE BOOK OF JOB. 17 

in prose, of chap, xxvii. 7-axviii., and of the speech of Elilui, lias 
been denied with yreut confidence hy several Cerman scholars, 
upon what I cannot but regard as very insufficient gvouuds. Woll 
knowing tin; array of learned critics from whom 1 differ on tlus 
question, 1 have some distrust in my own judgment. But I will 
endeavor to examine with iiiiruess the arguments wlii(;h have been 
adduced against the genuineness of the above-mentioned parts of 
Job. 

Aoaiiist the prologue and epilogue it it urged, '•thai, the per- 
fection of the work requires their rejection, because they solve 
the problem wliieh is the subject of the work by the idea of trial 
and compensation ; whereas it was the design of the author to 
solve the question through the. idea of entire submission on the 
part of man to the wisdom and power of God." Thus, from a 
part of the work it is concluded what was the whole design of 
the author, and then whatever is inconsistent with this supposed 
design is rejected. But there is no necessity for the supposition 
of such an entire unity of purpose- us this objeclion supposes. 
Much more probable is it, that the author designed not only to 
establish the necessity of unhesitating faith and unwavering sub- 
mission, but also to throw all the light in his power upon the 
subject, considered as a problem for intellectual inquiry. If he 
has not completely solved the question which forms the principal 
subject of discussion, it does not follow that he did not undertake 
to do it ; or, at least, to remove from it all the difficulties which 
he could remove. If it were even admitted, which I do not 
assert, that there is not a perfect consistency and unity in the 
views of a poet writing upon a very deep subject, he would not 
be the only one who has written inconsistently on the origin and 
design of evil. What author has written with perfect consistency 
on the principles of the government of the Infinite One? Would 
it be reasonable to reject as uugenuine all those parts of Soame 
Jenyns's work on the origin of evil which Dr. Johnson points out 
as inconsistent with its main design, or with other parts of the 
composition? It seems, indeed, singular, that a writer who has 
made such pathetic complaints of human suffering without appar- 
ent cause should recur so easily to the doetiiue of compensation, 
which is contained in chap. xlii. But to deny, on this account, that 



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18 INTRODUCTION TO 

lie wrote (lie latter, is arbitrary ami absurd. Perhaps, in tlie Qua 
case, the writer expressed what Ar; /i;W to be true ; in the iiiin.tr, 
what lie wished til be true, or what was in con fbrmily with the 
prevalent Jewish belief respecting Divine, retribution. We Lave 
a similar phenomenon in the Book of Eccleslastes. But no one 
has thought of rejecting large portions of this book. 

Far more reasonable is it to gather (In: author's design from a 
view- of tin: whole work: especially as there is no inconsistency 
in the supposition that lie endeavored to clear up the. dllliculties 
which the subject- pi'esenl.s to the human linilerst.a.ndiHg, as well 
as to illustrate the necessity of tin; entire .submission of the heart 

to God's will. 

Besides, the prologue is important, not, only as containing, in 

part, the writer's solution of the subject, but also as a preparation 
lor (.lie reader in estimating the character and language of Job. 
We could hardly .-} uipa(bi/e w ith the imprecations with which lie 
commences-, or with his Irreverent hi.egaae,c toward the Deity, or 
even with his bold assertions of his own innocence, unless wo 
were assured upon higher authority than his own. that he was, 
what la: professed to bo, an upright and good man. The whole 
takes a far deeper hold upon our sympathy, when we know that 
he wdio is in a state of such extreme depression, suffering re- 
proach and condemnation from fallible men, has a witness In 
heaven and a record on high, having received the praise of an 
upright and good man from the Searcher of hearts before the 
angels in heaven. 

The objection lo the genuineness of chap, sxvii. and xxviii. is, 
that an apparent itii.-iitislslemy o>.is(s between the language, here 
assigned to Job, and wdiat he has uttered in chap. sxi. This 
inconsistency k obvious, ami was long ago observed by Kennl- 
eott. See. his note on chap, xxvii. 7. And, if the object of the 
poet was to represent merely a jierseverin^, unbending character 
like the Prometheus of /I'schylus, there might be some force in 
the objection. But, if the design of iSie work be, as we have 
represented if, to throw all possible light upon a moral subject, it 
is well iha.t Job should be represented as retracting what be had 
uttered in the beat of passion, and admitting all that he eould 
admit with truth, and cu:i-i.stently v.kh Ids- main posiliuii, that lit 



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THE BOOK OF JOB. 19 

was innocent, or that misery is not always a proof of guilt. The 
great object of the poem is in fact advanced by such a course, and 
by Job's antieipating in some measure, in chap, xxviii., the argu- 
ments of the Supreme Judge. All that Job admits is not realty 
inconsistent with what he says in chap, xxix., xxx., xxxi., and 
does not bring the subject to a crisis too soon. 

In regard to the speech of Elilm, it h objected, that it differs 
in style from that of the other speakers ; that it is weak, prolix, 
studied, obscure; that it is distinguished from the genuine, parts 
of the book by the use of favorite expressions, and by reminis- 
cences from the thoughts of some of the other speakers. That 
there is some difference between the language, of Elihu and that 
of the other speakers is conceded, especially when he is repre- 
sented as speaking of himself. But, when he has entered upon 
the subject, his thoughts are as weighty and as well expressed 
as those of the other speakers. The superiority of other parts 
of the book to the speech of Elihu appears to me to be stated 
by Davidson in very extravagant terms. 1 should be glad to be 
informed why chap, xxxiv. 16-30, xxxvi. 5-33, and xxxvii. 1-24, 
are not equal in poelic beauty and sublimity to many other parts 
of the work. But the true answer is, that this difference was 
designed; that a different style was assigned to Elihu by the 
author. There is some difference of manner in the speeches of 
the other adversaries of Job. It is more marked in tiie speecli 
of Elihu, because lie was a young man. Youthful forwardness 
was more inconsistent with Eastern feelings and mumicr* than with 
ours. (See chap. xxix. 8.) And it is not strange that the poet 
should represent a young man appearing upon such an occasion 
as giving indications of youthful confidence in matters of theology. 
The author, however, soon ibrgels the character in winch he is 
representing Elihu, and speaks in his own vein. It is evident 
that he had very little power to delineate character, or to go out 
of himself into the person of another. 

It is rather evidence of skill in the poet, that he render" the 
sublime manifestation and the impressive language of the Deity 
more striking by contrasting with them the egotistic flourish and 
self-confidence with which young Elihit commences his discourse, 
and which he occasionally manifests in other parts of it. In 



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20 INTRODUCTION TO 

regard to favorite expressions, am] tin- reminiscences, of the lan- 
guage nf tin; other speakers, I think they are circumstances '.if 
very little importance. They may, at any rate, be the result 
of design, as part of l.he manner of Elihu ; or they may be the 
result of inadvertence. 

It is objected, secondly, that the speech of Elihu weakens the 
speeches of Jo!) and of the Deity, in chap, xxix., sxs,, xxx't., 
xxxviil., &(•.. : obscures the relation in which those .-(and lo each 
ether; and, in part, ariticijiat.es the thoughts which that of the 
Deity contain-. We have already made some reply to this by 
the observation, that the majesty of the Divine appearance is 
heightened by eoulrast with Ihe language of Elihu. It may be 
observed, too, that all the speakers luive more or less anticipated 
Ihe argument of the Deity, and could not well -ay any thing of the 
Creator or liis works without, doing it. I1s.it, as a whole, the speech 
of Ihe Deity is remarkably distinguished Irnm those of the other 
speakers. As to the interruption of the t^onnec.tion between the 
speech of Job and that of the Deity, it is not a very important 
clrcumsi.anee. Let it be eonecded, for the sake of argument, that 
Ihe omission of the speech ol Elihu wosdd contribute to the per- 
fection of the work, or that it is in iNi-.lf somewhat inferior to 
other parts of it. What then? Why is il assumed that this poem 
must be a perfect production? Do not modern critics and re- 
viewers imagine, that they enn improve many of the productions 
ol' genius In Ihe addition of a part here, or the subtraction of 
a part there? Some portion- of ■•l'aradise Lost" are inferior in 
strength and majesty to others, and the inferiority of " Paradise 
Regained " is generally recognised. Bui no one thinks of doubt- 
ing Iheir genu i tie ne.-s on this account. Ilesldcs, the author does 
give in Elihu's diseoui.se one view of Ihe cause of human sober- 
ing which is not distinctly stated elsewhere. (See chap, xxxiii. 
14-28.) He might be expeeted lo give it. For the doctrine of 
the beneficent design of ailllction is found in parts of the Old 
Test anient older loan the Book of Job. 

It is objected, in the next place, that Elihu perverts the lan- 
guage of Job: a tiling which would have been dune only by a 
person who was not the author of the work. To this it may be 
replied, that, though the particular passages, which Ellin; pre- 



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TUti BOOK OP JOB. 21 

tends to ipiote, are somewhat misstated, yet ho hardly ascribes to 
Job morn objectionable sentiments than lie bail elsewhere i.s- 
pressed, as in chap, xxi. Besides, it is not untiidural in a disputant, 
especially a young one. to misapprehend a (|iios;iuii, or to mis- 
state the language of an opponent. 

It, Is (said, again, that Elihu receives no answer. I apprehend 
that it was agreeable to Eastern fueling that sntli a forward 
young man should receive no answer. At any rate, this objection 
has little weight. h'or answers must come to an end at some 
time or other. It is said also, that Job is mentioned by name 
in [lie speech of Iilibu, and not elsewhere. But surely so un- 
important a circumstance, occurring in a speech where difference 
of manner was to be expected, allbnis very slight ground lor 
suspecting its genuineness. 

Again, it is said, Elibu is not mentioned in the prologue and 
epilogue. It is sufficient answer to this to say, that the author 
thought it proper to have hul. three speakers in the principal part 
of the debate, and to give a special introduction to Elihu in chap. 
xxxii. His judgment on ibis point may not have been as good as 
that of his modern critics ; lint I see. not why we should alter the 
plan of his book on this account. As to the faet that Elihu is not 
mentioned in the epilogue, it may have been for trie reason above 
assigned for his receiving no reply from Job ; or because nothing 
occurred to the author which was' particularly appropriate to be 

said to him. 

Lastly, it is asserted by Davidson, exaggerating what has been 
adduced bylleiligstei.lt, that '■ expressions, word-forms, modes 
of speech occur, for which others are as uniformly found in the 
older work." If this broad statement were well supported, it 
would undoubtedly form a strong argument against the genuine- 
ness of Elihu's speech. But the instances which he cites are 
Ycry far from sustaining it. In the first place, the whole bcok 
contains peculiar forms Inclining to (ho Aranneau, as has been 
remarked by Gesenius,* l)e Wette,| and others, so that they 
have referred the whole book to the Chaldce period. J In ita 

* GfiMh. d. I-Icb. Spr., § 83. f Einleit., § 291. 



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22 INTRODUCTION TO 

Arauuean character, gen erally, the: speech of Elilin agrees wif.Ii 
the whole Look. Secondly, the particular inslances adduced by 
Davidson are of very little weight. Tim? 31, kwmletlqe, instead 
of n»5. But Elilm uses the latter word in chap, xxxiii. 3, and 
Xxxiv. 35. So t-liiiJ: t.Iio '.line argument, will prove the speech of 
Elihu itself to hare had two authors. It is not improbable that 
"J~, i;ty knowtedya, was used for ""P19T. lor the salcl! of euphony. 

Another iustance is "IS5, used in the singular to denote youth. 
But the word is not used in the plural in any part of the hook. 
Of course it proves nothing. It is also found in the singular in 
Ps. Ixxxviii. 15. 

Another instance is "£s, but, in chap, xxxii. 8. But the word 
is used in this sense in Ps. xxxi. 23, lxxxii. 7, and Isa. xlix. 4. 
How this instance proves any thing, .1 am unable to see. 

Another instance is lis, said to he used for "£]?, in chap, 
xxxiv. 10. But the same form is found in Ps. vii. 4, liii. 2, and 
Y.iC.li. iii. 20. So one form of the root, denoting inli/iuty is used 
in Job v. 1, 6 ; and another, in xi. 29. Tims there is no reason 
whatever why Elihu should nut, have used JjS, or ""?, at pleas- 

Another instance is the use of tin; singular rp~, to denote life, 
in chap, xxxiii., instead of the plural C""n, which occurs two or 

three, limes in other parts of the book. It occur-, however, in 
Ey.ek. vii. 10. As this is a familiar word, it must he admitted 
that its constant use in the singular in the speech of Elilm is 
something which could hardly be expected from the writer of the 
oilier pans of the book. Hut stranger [Kings than this are found 
in writings all the parts of which are of undisputed genuineness. 
I can by no means allow to this instance a conclusive force. 

I have examined all the instances brought forward by David- 
son, and cannot find any of tliem lo be more conclusive agaho'l 
the genuineness of Whim's speech than the preceding. It seems to 
mo that, i.hey are of no great significance. Generally speaking, 
an argument of this kind should be founded on very familiar 
phrases, which a writer Las livipicnt occasion to use, rind which 
lie uses from habit. An author may use one word here, and 



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THE BOOK OP JOB. 23 

another there, to express tint same meaning, either for the sake 
of variety or of euphony, or without any particular motive. 

On the whole, if it were even admitted, what I have no inclina- 
tion to deny, that the style of Elihu is so diverse from that of tho 
rest of the poem as to be somewhat remarkable, or not wholly 

r.vplaincd by what lias been said, yet, wlien we consider the strong 
presumption that such a work as the Book of Job would not be 
tampered with by his countrymen, and especially by a poet of no 
mean pretensions, 1 cannot help doubting whether (here is suOi- 
cicnt reason for rejecting the passages under consideration. I 
I'sn well conceive, of additions being made to annals or history. 
Jt is also true that some whole compositions, or independent por- 
tions, of the Old Testament are ascribed to those who did not 
write them. This was the case with many of the Psalms, Ecclesi- 
astic, the Hook of Daniel, and with several prophecies in tho 
Book of Isaiah. But this is a very different thing from introduc- 
ing so largo an addition into the midst, of one poetical composition. 
It is easy to conceive that compositions should be ascribed to 
Homer, Virgil, ^lilum, ts!in.k Hpeu.ro, which, they did not write. 
But that one should undertake to make an interpolation of many 
pages into the very midst of one of tin; best poems of either 
of these writers, is much more improbable, both on account of 
want of sufficient motive, the difiicuhy of executing the design, 
and the obstacles in trie way of the reception by his contemporaries 
of such an interpolation. Jt appea.es to me that a Jew, and espe- 
cially a .Jewish poet, must have had too great a reverence for this 
noble production to undertake to improve, it by such an addition, 
and that the early renders (if the work would not have given it 
a universal reception. While, therefore, I readily concede some 
degree of inferiority, in parts (if Klihn's speech, to other portions 
of the booh, in respect to poetic merit, I think it: is not of so 
very extraordinary ii.iu! marked a nature, so diiferent from what 
occurs in the works of other poets, as to be tmaeeouul.ablc except 
on the supposition of the spuriousness of the speech. I well 
know what a weight of modern critical authority is against me 
on this point. This consideration, I am free to acknuwiedge, 
weakens, in what is partly a matter of teste, niy confidence in 
my own view of the subject, but does not destroy it. At any 



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24 INTRODUCTION TO 



rate, as tho current of modern criticism is against tin.'- opinion 
here expressed, I. shall not regret, in a matter of very little 
moment, to have Bl.iti.ed tlie reasons for holding fast the iiitcgrily 
of tire book, even if they shcmlJ bo deemed unsatisfactory. 

As to the country of Job, or, in olJjcr words, the scene of the 

poem, there lias been a diversity of opinion amongst distinguished 
scholars, I was formerly inclined to adopt I In; opinion of Lhose 
lvlui supposed it to bo Idunuca. T now think, that Lam. iv. 21, 
which at iirst view seems to favor tins supposition, in fact indi- 
cates that the land of V.x was not a pari ui" Idutua'a, and that Ihe 
prophet speaks of the Kdoitiit.es as having gained possession of u 
country which did not belong to them. It. appears to me, too, 
that .lor. xxv. 20, is aiso'dceisivc of the question ; else why does 
the prophet speak of the kings of the laud of Vx and of h'doni, in 
the next verse, as separate nations, to whom he was to extend the 
cup of indignation? 

I now think it more probable, that the land of Uz was in the 
nonb-easl.orii pari of Arabia 1 lose via, between I'alcstiuc, li hi tinea, 
and the Euphrates. J.'toleniy speaks of a tribe in this region, 
called 'Ainiura;, which may perhaps have been written 'Avuirai (see 
Eos. Com. in Job, p. SO) ; and the Scptnagint renders Uz, 'Ahottic. 
This country would then be near the Ch.aldie.aus and Sab;cans, by 
whose incursions the property of Job is said to have been iost. 
It is more properly entitled to the. appellation of the East than 
Idumasa, which was nearly south of Palestine. The beautiful 
valley of Damascus, which Jahn supposes to have been the country 
of Job, could hardly have been so extensive as to account for the 
expression, " ail the kings of the land of Uz," in Jer. xxv. 20. 

A more interesting <uics'ion remains to be spoken of; namely, 
in what country and in what age did the author live? 

J sliii.ll not enter into a discussion of the various eoe/eelures 
which have been offered in regard to the author of the book. 
Whv should we seek to lbrm an opinion, where there tire abso- 
lutely 110 data on which to ground it? To me it seems highly 
probable, thai: the author of this incomparable production was one 
of whom we have no records and no other remains. The opinions 



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THE BOOK OF JOB. 25 

of those who have undertaken to name the author arc widely 
diverse. Lowlh attributes it to Job himself; Ligbtlbot and 
others attribute it to Elihu ; some of the Kabbinieal writers, as 

also Kcnnieou, Micbaelis, Dalbe, and Good, to Moses; Luther, 
lirotius, and 1 )ci tie rich i, to Solomon; while Warbiirlon ascribes 
it to Ezra. 

Respecting the age in which the author lived, it might seem, 

at first view, that some judgment could be formed on internal 
grounds. .But. in consequence nf oiir imperfect acLpiain lance with 
the state of civilisation, knowledge, opinions, and manners in 
ancient times, it is dillieult io lbr:n a satisfactory opinion On the 
subject. 

Some eminent scholars, as Lowth, Eiehhorn, and Ilgen, haye 
supposed (hat the author lived before I be settlement of the Israel- 
ites in the hind of Canaan. The principal argument in favor of 
Ibis opinion is the absence ( . : .f allusions to the institutions, rites, 
and ceremonies introduced by Moses, and to remarkable events in 
the history of the Jewish nation. This argument would be more 
.subs factory, if the characters, as. well as the author, of the work, 
had been Hebrews. But as they were Arabians, who bad nofbing 
to do with the institutions of Moses, it is p'.ahi that a writer of 
jjouius would not have been guilty of the absurdity of pulling the 
sentiments of a Jew into the mouth of an Arabian, at least so tar 
as relates to such tangible matters as insduitions, positive laws, 
ceremonies, and history. To me it seems that the author has 
nianifesl.ed abundant evidence of genius and skill in tiie structure 
and execution of (be work, to account for his not having given to 
Arabians the obvious peculiarities of Hebrew; who lived under 
the institutions of .Moses, at whatever period it may have been 
written. Even if the characters of the book bad been Hebrews, 
the argument under consideration would not have been perfectly 
conclusive; for, from the nature of the subject, we might have 
expected as little in it that was Levitical or grossly Jewish as in the 
Book of Proverbs or of Eeele.siastes, or in several of the Proph- 
ets. A poet mac nominally belong to a church of forms and cere- 
monies, and yet. give very little evidence of it in Ids compositions. 
The argument for the Antemosalc origin of the book seems, tbcre- 



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fore, wholly ili-.-r [rinc of weight. On tl»*_' contrary, we find ;i voj'j* 
strung aiguimiii, agaiusl licit opinion in (he abstruse nature of its 
subject, and it- speculative and philosophical spirit, which seem 
to imply a stage of civilization and a slate of society ditfcrcul, 
from what wc suppose to have existed among- the wandering 
Jens to whom Musi's gave I hi; law upon Sinai. It is to he ke}it 
ill mind that the poet wrote lor his contemporaries, and that 
the spirit of the reader as well as of the writer must he reflected 
from the work. It was agreeable to the spirit of Moses to say, 
Thus snith Jehovah. l"e shall do this, and. Ye shall not do that.; 
and to accompany these commands and prohibitions with the most 
tenable sanctions, rather than to indulge in such hold speculations 
as are contained in this book.* A i cry (ill fe rent kind of poetry, 
if any coidd have existed at thai: time, seems also to he proper to 
the circumstances, of the Jews m and before the age of Moses. 
There is move uncertainty In regard to particular religious con- 
ceptions. Those respecting angels, contained .in the following 
verses, are supposed by !>e W'et.te l.o he inconsistent with those 
of the Mosaic age: iv. 18 ; v. 1 ; sv. 15 ; xxi. 22 ; xxxiii. 23, &c. ; 
xxxviii. 7, conip. i. 7, ii. 2, &C. But it may be doubted whether 
this argument is valid. The manners and condition of society 
re [erred to or implied in some, al leasl, of the Col lowing passages, 
adduced by lie YVette, seem to point to a much later period of 
Jewish iusiory ihan the Aul.eiuosaic or the Mosaic age. It strikes 
me as rather inconsistent with the simplicity of (lie patriarchal age, 
that -lob should he represented as the ruler or judge of a city, 
chap. xxix. 7, 8, ; that, there should be an allusion to the writ- 
ten, sentence of a judge, chap. xiii. 26 ; to the signing of a bill of 
defence or complaint, to be brought into court, chap. xxxi. :i5 ; 
to the recording of facts in a register or book-ro'd, or upon tab- 
lets of stone, chap. xk. ii\i, 21; to the custom of' holding courts 
in the gates of walled cities, chap. v. 4, xxix. 7 ; to desolate 
cities, chap. sv. L*S ; to cities, chap. xxiv. VI. xxxix, 7; to vari- 
ous kinds of armor, chap. *x. 21, 25, and to the war-horse, chap. 
xxxix. 21-25 ; to splendid palaces or tombs, chap. iii. 14 ; to the 
deposition of kings, chap, xii. IS; to the kying-:ip of wealth in 



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THE BOOK OF JOB. 27 

the form of money, chap. sx. l-j, .\\ : .i. 21, xxlii. 10, xxvll. 10, 
xxxl, 24; and to mining operations, in chap, xxviii. These allu- 
sions may not be perfectly conclusive. Modern discoveries re- 
h=j)c?t-Liii"^- 1 1 ■. c. ■ ancient Egyptian ci\ ili/aiioii lessen in some degree 
their conelusivcness; but t.'ney certainly do not well harmonize 
with our notion- of tin: life ami maimers of tins Hebrew patriarchs 
before the time of Moses. They suggest to us a later age. 

In regard to the age. of Solomon, or the period which inter- 
venes between Solomon ami the captivity at llabylon, which is 
a -signed t.o it by some writers, there is no ven decisive objection. 
Even if Hie work is supposed to have a national object, or 
to have been designed for the encouragement and consolation 
of the Jewish people as a nation, while in a state of calamity, 
there are several periods before the captivity when such a work 
would have been appropriate : for instance, tlie period of Habak- 
ki:k, whoso cxposudaliou with the Deity, and what follows ill his 
prophecy, have a resemblance to the subject and sentiments 
of llie IiooA of .iub. There 1- tin necessity, however, fur suppii-- 
iiig the work to have a national object. Tf this had been the 
ease, 1 think it would have been made more distinctly to appear 
by the author. 'J'he subject is one which the vicissitudes of 
individual experience render a.s interesting ami pertinent in llie 
highest period of national prosperity as at the lowest point of 
national depression. 

There is one consideration, however, which lias inclined the 
best Hebrew scholars, of late, to assign the period of the cap- 
tivity a: Babylon as the age of the author of Job ; namely, tins 
Chald;u?iug character of the language; for instance, ffl?i to 
•m-tirta; applied to one who begins a discourse. The plural form 
of n^S, Via ; DilDIJ), the holy ones, applied to angels ; "tr/ifo, xvi, 
19 i S|B?. J"v. 20, xv. 24 ; fen, m SI, xxii. 3 ; hi?, yii. 3 ; n», 
no(,xvi.6(eomp.xxxi.l); i23p. for " , Sp,xviii. 2; fn for 1ft, xli, 
4; B* as a prefix, xix. 29, &e, ; "ISS, to command. From (hose ami 
oilier instances, Gesenins, lie Wette, and Umbreit have referred 
the Book of dob !o the time of the cap! icily : a period assigned to 
it by Le Clere, War-burton, Heath, Garnet, and Rabbi Joohanan 



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28 INTRODUCTION TO 

among the older critics. But from tins few remains of Hebrew 
literature which have come down to as, and our inipcrlccl acquaint- 
ance with the history of the language, il, follows, that it is by no 
moans certain thai [lie words ami Ibrnis above mentioned may not 
have been in use in sonic parts of Judea before l.Iie lime of the 
captivity, ffi as a prefix occurs in the Book of Judges. (See 
vi. 17.) 

The introduction of Satan, in die historical introduction in 
prose, is certainly a strong argon ic id iigainst the high antiquity of 
the work. 1'or there is no mention of such a being, by tin: name 
of Satan, in any of the Hebron' writings composed before the 
exile in Babylon ; and there is some reason, though not absolutely 
conclusive, lor believing that it was from ihe ChabUoans that the 
Jews derived the conception of such n being. This argument, if 
founded on correct premises, seems to be conclusive against l.hc 
high antiquity of the work. 1'or it is hardly credible that the 
Hebrews should have laid the. conception of an evil spirit, before 
the time of Moses, and that it should not once occur in iiie writing" 
which preceded Ihe exile. But it may lie doubted whether this 
argument be conclusive against the suppo-iiion that the Book of 
Job was written a short time before the exile. As to Ihe opinion 
of Sehullens, Herder, Bathe, Eichhorn, and others, that the 
Satan of the Book of Job was a good angel, it is now universally- 
rejected as untenable. 

The question maybe asked, whether the perfection of the work 
is not inconsistent with the stale of Hebrew literature during the 
captivity. Notwithstanding the strung language of Ihshop Lowt.h 
on this point, 1 think it may Justly be inferred from the psalms 
composed during tin's period, and from the ungennine Isaiah, that 
this question should be answered in the negative. (See Ps. 
exxxvii.; also Tsa. xl.-lxvi.) 

On the whole, it appears to me. that there are no data upon 
which one can form a very confident opinion in regard to the pre- 
cise age of the Boole of Job, The latest period assigned for it 
appears to me far more probable than the earliest, and indeed the 
uiusL probable; but that il. may not have been written some time 
between Ihe age of Solomon und the captivity is more than any 
one, who has surveyed the subject carefully, will with confidence 



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THE BOOK OP JOB. 29 

assert. Jf ii time of national distress is deemed [>]-o!i;i.l >1 1.: , why 
sLould not the period of the Assyrian invasion, or that ivl.ich 
followed it, have given birth to the work? 

One more point remain.! to lie considered ; namely, the country 
of tin? author uf the Lions of Job. For it has been maintained 
that lie was not a Hebrew, hut an Arabian ; anil that the work is :i 
translation from the Arable. 

in opposition to this opinion, it is to be observed in the first 
place, that thee is r.o external evidence in favor of it. The work 
is now found in Hebrew alone, in the collection of what remains 
of ancient Hebrew literature ; a collection which has been held 
sacred by the Jew.- as far bin; I; as we can trace, their sentiments 
respecting it. Nor is there any history or tradition which inti- 
mates that the work ever existed in a different language. 

It is found, too, in the sacred literature of a people peculiarly 
proud of their religious prerogatives, and regarding with cold- 
ness or jealousy, and often with aversion or haired, all other 
nations. It is extremely improbable that any Jew would have 
had (lie inclination to transfer Hie production of a heathen into 
the Jewish literature, or that, he would have been permitted to 
do it. 

In the next place, (he work is not only in l.'ie Hebrew language, 
but in the best style of Hebrew composition. The parallelism is 
uniform and well sustained ; the sentences are pointed : the style 
is fresh and vigorous, and bears not, in its general characteristics, 
the slightest mark of a translation. 

In opposition, then, to the external evidence, arid to the gen- 
eral style of the composition, what are the reasons which have 
induced some distinguished men in modern times to regard the 
work as the production of an Arabian, and as translated from the 
Arable ? 

They are, in the first place, the words, occurring in it more 
frequently than in other books of the Old Testament, which are 
regarded a.s Arabic in a Hebrew dress, or which may be illustrated 
from the Arabic. But these words are very few in relation to the 
whole work, and are not the less Hebrew because they may he 
ill est rated from the Arable. With the exception of the few forms 



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30 INTBODCTCTION TO 

which resemble lln: Aranuean, (he jiook of Jul) is in as pure 
Hebrew as any other part, of the Scriptures. It appears to me 
that the remark of Jahn i- pei'lcotly just and satisfactory in regard 
In this topic: " It is mil: at all surprising, that in a Jolty poem wt 
find many of the less common words ami ideas, which the He- 
brew, through 1.1m poverty of it.,-, literature, ha- lost: wliih: they 
Lave been preserved by the. Arabic, the richest of the sister dia- 

It has been said, that, if the author had been a Hebrew, moro 
of a Levitical or ritual eharacler would have been found in the 
book. This consideration seems to me to have a satisfactory 
answer in what has been said in pp. 23-27 against the high 
antiquity of tie poem. 

The other argument, in support of the opinion that an Arabian 
was the author of the poem, is drawn from the various allusions 
to Arahiun maimers and customs w'liich are scattered through it. 
In regard to this argument, there are two things to be observed. 
First, we have reason to believe, thai the manner; of the Jews, in 
some pans of Palestine, very much resembled those of the Arabs. 
As they sprung from t'.ie same stock, why should this not be the 
case, except so tar as the Jews were distinguished by their reli- 
gious institutions? 

We are apt to form our conn virions of the -■■-hole Jewish nation 
from what we. learn, in the Scriptures, of the inhabitants of cities, 
of Jerusalem in particular. It is to be recollected that the He- 
brews were originally and "essentially a nomadic people; their 
lathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, had ever been so ; they were 
emtiiiarictdly Ijcdouhis, removing with their Hocks and herds from 
place to place, ;is occasion might require, in Egypt they had 
ever been shepherds, — their province of Goshen was adapted to 
pasturage, ami not lo tillage: ami now, when they had come out 
into the deserts, with their (locks ami herds, they were still the 
nomadic race they had ever been, — a people resembling those by 
whom these desert plains and valleys and mountains are pos- 
sessed to this day." -f It is not singular that the 1 



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IHE BOOK OP JOJi. 31 

Bedouins should have been in a measure retained by those 
Hebrews who dwelt out of cities. 

Ii follows from (he preceding consideration, that the author of 

Job, having determined to make his characters Arabians, and to 
lay the scene of his work in Arabia, would find no diflicully in 
suiting the- manners and sentiments of his characters, and his 
local iLJHisions, to the scone which he- iunl cbosen ; si: lliat. his only 
diihcuhy would i>e to exclude from hi- work obvious rclereners to 
tlie Jewish history and religion. If, in addition to this, we sup- 
pose, wliat is j)C!'ii:cily reasonable, tiiat tin) Hebrew philosopher 
had, like Plato, (ravelled into Egypt and through Arabia for the 
purpose of enriching his wind with all the knowledge of those 
countries, I think we shall find no dillleuliy in the supposition, 
lime, it Hebrew, of such genius and said a« avo manifested in this 
work, might have been tin; author of it. A recent commentator 
on Job, Ilirzel, has conjectured tbiit the author was a Hebrew 
captive, carried into "Egypt by Pharaoh Necho. (See '2. Kings 

But this is not all. ft seems to me, that though Arabian man- 
ners and scenes are She snpei'lioial characteristics of the work, 
yet, iu its general spirit, and in many less obvious characteristics, 
the author has manifestly shown himself to be a Hebrew poet. 
The very subject of the work is just what might have been ex- 
pected to arrest the attention of a Hebrew philosopher, educated 
in the religion of .Moses. Jt is similar to that of other Hebrew 
compositions, as has been observed before.* Tn (act, if we regard 
tho spirit and scope of the- work", the remark of Do Welle appears 
not too strong, that it is Hebrew through anil through. 

There are also many particular .sentiments which we know to 
be appropriate to a Hebrew, possessing an acquaintance with the 
Hebrew literature, and religion, and which we do not know to 
have been appropriate to an Arabian. Such are the following', 
which are more, or less satisfactory. Chap. ix. o-i) ; xii. 10; xv. 7 ; 
xxvi. 5, &c.; xxxviii. 4, &c;—_ iv. 19; x. 9; xxvii. 3;— iv. 17, 
&c; viii.9; ix.2; xiii.26; xiv.4; xv. 14; xxv. 4, 6; — iv. 18; 
i. 1; xv. 15; xxi. 22; xxxviii. 7 j — xxxi. 26, 27; — vii. 7, &c.j 



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32 INTRODUCTION TO 

x. 21, See. ; xiv. 10, &c. ; xvi. 22 ; xxx. S3 ; xxxviii 17. Add to 

these the mention of the Jordan as an instance of a great stream 
(chap. xl. 2,'!), mill the use of the name of Jehovah in the intro- 
duction and. conclusion of the work. The sentiments and some 
of the expressions which are contained in (lie preceding rclei - 
in other parts of the Scriptures. Some of 
is true, havr been held by the Arabians in 
i with the Hebrews ; but we do not know it. The pre- 
sumption, therefore, is, that they proceeded from one wdio was 
familiar with Hebrew literature; that is, from a Hebrew. 

The following instance of resemblance to passages in the 
Psalms and Proverbs are also of weight with these who do not 
believe that the work is of very high autiipiity, and translated 
and incorporated into the Hebrew literature so early that the 
authors of the Psalms and Proverbs borrowed from it. To me it 
seems more probable, that these common thoughts and peculiar 
expressions indicate only that the books in which they occur 
belong to a common literature, the literature of the same nation. 
Chap. v. 16, xsii. 19, comp. Ps. cvii. 42. Chap. xii. 21, 24, eomp. 
Ps. cvii. 40. Chap. xiii. 5, comp. Prov. xvii. 28. Chap. xv. 16, 
xxxiv. 7, comp. Prov. xxvi. (i. Chap. xxii. L'9, eomp. Prov. xvi. 18, 
xviii. 12, xxix. 23. Chap. xxvi. 5, comp. Prov. ii. 18, xxi. 16. 
Chap. xxvi. 6, comp. Prov. xv. 11. Chap, xxvii. 16, &c., comp. 
Prov. xxviii. 8. Chap, xxviii. 18, comp. Prov. viii. 11. Chap, 
xxviii. 28, eomp. Prov. i. 7. njfflWl, chap. v. 12, vi 18, xi. 6, xii. 16, 
xxvi. 3, xxx. 22, comp. Prov. ii. 7, iii. 21, viii. 14, xviii. 1. tm, 
chap. vi. 2, xxx. 13, comp. Prov. xix. 13. Siizjp?!, chap, xxxvii. 
12, comp. Prov. i. o, xi. 1-1, and often. 

On the whole, it appears to me that the internal evidence alone 
makes it more probable that the author was a Hebrew than that 
he was a foreigner; and, when we also add the external evi- 
dence in favor of this conclusion, there seems to be very little 
room for doubt. 

It may seem remarkable, that the author of a work, which, for 
reach of thought, richness of imagination, depth and tenderness 
of feeling, and skill in its plan and execution, surpasses any pro- 
duction of Hebrew literature which has come down to us, should 



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THE BOOK OF JOB. 33 

yet be unknown. Hut. when we consider the vicissitudes through 
which the Jewish nation has passed, the wonder is [.hat we retain 
tlie work itself. 

"But who," says the eloquent Herder, "shall answer our 
inupirios respectim;; him i i> whose meditations we arc Indebted for 
tliis ancient book-, this justification nf tin: ways or God to man, 
anil sublime exaltation of humanity ; who has exhibited ibem, 
too, in tliis silent picture, in the fortunes of an humble sufferer 
clothed in saekehnh ami silting in ashes, hut lived with the sub- 
lime inspirations of liis own wisdom? Who shall point us to the 
grave of him whose soil kindled with these divine conceptions, 
to whom was vouchsafed sneh lioness to the counsels of God, to 
angels, and the souls of men ; who embraced In a single glance 
the heavens and the earth ; and who could send forth his living 
spirit, his poetic [Ire, and his human affections, to all that exists, 
from the laud of the shadow of death to the starry firmament, and 
beyond the stars? Mo cypress, nourishing in unlading green, 
marks the place of his rest. With his nnultcred name he has con- 
signed to oblivion all that was earthly, and, leaving his book for 
a memorial below, is engaged in a yet nobler soup; in that world 
where the voice of sorrow and mourning is unheard, and where 
the morning stars sing together. 

"Or, if he, the patient sulferer. was here the recorder of his 
own sufferings anil of hi.s own triumph, of his own wisdom, first 
victorious in eonllict, anil then humbled in the dust, how blest 
have been his afflictions, how amply rewarded his pains ! Here, 
in this book, full of imperishable, thought, he slil! lives, gives 
the sorrows of his heart, and extends his triumph 
i and continents. Not only, according to his wish, 
did he die in his nest, hut a phceuix has sprung forth from his 
ashes; and from his fragrant nest is diifused an incense which 
gives, and will for ever give, reviving energy to the faint, and 
strength to the powerless, lie has drawn down the heavens to 
the earth, encamped their hust.s invisibly around the bed of lan- 
guishing, and made- the afflictions of (he sufferer a spectacle to 
angels ; has taught that Coil, too, looks with a watchful eye upon 
ee, and oxppses them to the trial of their integrity for 
e of his own truth, and the promotion of his own 
2* 



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34 INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK OP JOS. 

glory. 'Behold! we count them happy which emhiro. Ye have 
lion ill of the palienec of Job, ami have: seen the end of the Lord 
[the happy end which the Lord appointed for him], that the 
Lord is very pitiful and of tender mercy.""* 

In regard to the use of this booit, it is lianlly necessary, after 

what has been said uf its eliaraeier and design., Lo remind tin) 
reader that the insinuation wluuli it, contains in to be derived from 
its general spirit and design as a whole, and not from particiilar 
vfiraus or passages. Job was censured by (he Daily for the rash- 
ness of his language ; and bis friends were eondeinned by the same 
unerring Judge, as not having spoken that which was right. If 
we regard independent, sentences or speeches, those ottered by 
the friends of Job must be regarded a-; more consilient with the 
Je.wifih revelation, and more respectful to God, than much of the 
language of the aillieted sullcrer. It was in the absoluteness of 
the. application of their general maxims that, they we.re wrong; in 
endeavoring to prove by tliem that Job was a bad man because 
he was miserable ; ur, in general, tliat misery is a proof of guilt. 
1'erhiips the best lesson to be derived from [lie houi; is (liat whie.1i 
is enforced in the speech of the Deity ; namely, humility in view 
of the limited vision of man, and Mibmi-siou to the nil! of God 
in view of the misearehablonoss of his wisdom, 
Camhhuhje, Oct., !■!, lfiSS. 

* Iltsrclcr's Spirit (if Hebrew Poetry, Marsh's Translation, vol. i. p, 120. 



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SYNOPSIS. 



I. Historical Introduction in Prose. Chap. I., H. 
II. Controversy in Terse. Chap. HI.-XLH. 7. 
The speech of Job, in which he curses his birth-day, is suc- 
ceeded by — 

(1) The First Series of Controversy. Chap. rV.-XTV*. 

1. Speech of Eliphaz. Chap. TV., V. 

2. Answer of Job. Chap. VI., VH. 

3. Speech of Bildad. Chap. VIII. 

4. Answer of Job. Chap. IX., X. 

5. Speech of Zophar. Chap. XI. 

6. Answer of Job. Chap. XIL, XIV. 

(2) Second Series op Controversy. Chap. XV.-XXI, 

1. Speech of Eliphaz. Chap. XV. 

2. Answer of Job. Chap. XVI., XVII. 

3. Speech of Bildad. Chap. XVIII. 

4. Answer of Job. Chap. XIX. 
6. Speech of Zophar. Chap. XX. 
6. Answer of Job. Chap. XXI. 

(3) Third Series of Contkovetisy. Chap. XXII.-XXXI. 

1. Speech of Eliphaz. Chap. XXII. 

2. Answer of Job. Chap. XXIII., XXIV. 

3. Speech of Bildad. Chap. XXV. 

4. Answer of Job. Chap. XXVI.-XXXI. 

(4) Speech oe Elihu. Chap. XXXII. -XXXVII. 

(5) The Speech of the Deity, which terminates the 

Discussion. Chap. XXXVIH.-XLII. 7. 

III. The Conclusion in Prose. Chap. XLII. 7 TO rae end 
[35] 



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JOB. 



Job's trial. — Chap. I., n. 

I In the land of TIz lived a man whoso name was Job, 
He was aa upright :ind good man, fearing God and depart- 

9 ing i'wuit evil.. ll(s had seven sons and three daughter.-. 

3 His substance was seven thousand sheep, three thousand 
camels, live hundred yoke of oxen, live hundred she-asses, 
and a great number of servants ; so that lie was the greatest 
of all the inhabitants of the East. 

1 Now it was the custom of his sons to make a feast in. 
their houses, each on his day. and to send and invite their 

5 three sisters to eat and to drink with them. And when 
the days of their feasting had gone round, Job used to 
send for them and sanctify them, and to rise up early In the 
morning and offer bund-otTcniigs aeeording to the number 
of them all ; lor Job said, It may be (hat my sons have 
sinned, and have renounced God in their hearts. Thus did 
Joli rontiuually. 

6 Now oil a certain day the, sons of God eame to present 
themselves before Jehovah, and Satan also camo among 

7 them. And Jehovah said to Satan, Whence eomest. thou '? 
Then Satan answered Jehovah, and said, From wander- 
ing river the earth, and walking up and down in it. And 

8 Jehovah said to Satan, Hast- thou observed my servant 
Job, that there is none like him in the earth, an upright 
and good man, fearing God and departing from evil? 

H Then Satan answered Jehovah, Is it for nought that Job 

10 feireth God ? J.lasi, thou not plaeed a- hedge around him, 

and around his house, and around all his possessions? 

Thou hast prospered the work of his hands, and his 

[37] 



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38 JOE. [CKAP. II. 

11 herds are greatly increased in the land But only put 
forth thy hand, and touch whatever he possesseth, and 

12 to thy face: will he renounce thee. And Jehovah said to 
Satan, Behold, all that he hath is in thy power; but upon 
him lay not thy hand. So Satan went forth from the 
presence of Jehovah. 

13 Now on a certain day the sons and daughters of Job 
were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother's 

14 house, when a messenger eunie to Job. and said, The oxen 
were ploughing, and the asses feeding beside them, and 

1.5 the Saba-ans fell upon them, and took them away; the 
servants also they slew with the edge of the sword; and 

16 I only am escaped alone to tell thee. While he was yet 
speaking, there came also another, and said, The fire of 
God hath falien from heaven, and hath bnrned up the 
sheep and the servants, and consumed them ; and I only 

17 am escaped alone to tell thee. While he was yet speak- 
ing, there came also another, and said, The Chaldeans 
made out three hands, and fell upon the camels, and 
carried them away ; (he servants also they slew with the 
edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell 

18 thee. While he was yet speaking, there came also 
another, and said, Thy sons and thy daughters wore eat- 
ing and drinking wine in their eldest brother's house ; and, 

19 lo! there came a great wind from the desert, and smote 
the four cornet's of the house, and it fell upon the young- 
men, and they are dead; and I only am escaped alone to 

20 tell thee. Then Job arose, and rent his mantle, and 
shaved his head, and fell down upon Ihe ground, and wor- 

21 shipped : and said, Naked came I forth from my mother's 
womb, and naked shall I return thither. Jehovah gave, 
and Jehovah hath taken away ; blessed bo the name of 
Jehovah! In all this Job sinned not, nor uttered vain 
words against God. 

1 Again there was a day when the sons of God came to 
present themselves before, Jehovah ; and Satan came also 
among them to present himself before Jehovah. And 

2 Jehovah said to Satan, Whence comest then? Aad Satan 
answered Jehovah, and said, From wandering over the 

3 earth, and walking up and down in it. Then said Jeho- 
vah to Satan, Hast thou observed my servant Job. that 



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chap, in.] JOB. d'J 

there is none like him upon the earth, an upright and goocl 
man, fearing Goil and departing from evil ? And still he 
holdeth fast his in testify, although thou didst excite ine 

4 against liim to destroy him without a cause. And Satan 
answered Jehovah, and said. Skin for skin, yea, all that a 

5 man hath will he give for his life. But put forth now 
thy hand, and touch his hone and his flesh, and to thy 

6 face will he renounce thee. And Jehovah said to Satan, 
1'ehold, lie is in thy hand ; hut spare his life. 

7 Then Satan went forth from the presence of Jehovah, 
and smote Job with sore boils from the sole of his foot to 

8 his crown. And he took a potsherd to scrape liimse.lt' 
withal, and sat down among the ashes. 

9 Then said Ids wife lo him, Dost thou still retain thine 

10 Integrity? lleuonuee God. and die. Hut he said l.o her. 
Thou talkest like, one of the foolish women. "What! 
shall we receive good at the hand of God, and shall we 
not receive evil? In all this, Job sinned not with his 

11 Now three friends of Job heard of ail (.his evil that 
had come upon him. and came each one from his home; 
Ellphaz the Temanitc, and "Riklad the Shuhite, and 
Zopliar the Naamathite ; for they had agreed to come to 

12 mourn with him, and to comfort him. And they lifted 
up their eyes at a distance, and knew him not; then they 
raised their voices and wept, and rent each one his man- 
tle, and sprinkled dust upon their heads toward heaven. 

13 And they sat down with him upon the ground seven days 
and seven nights, and none spake a word to him; for they 
saw that his grief was very great. 



1 At length Job opened his mouth, and cursed the day 

2 of his birth. And Job .spake and said: 

3 Perish the day in which I w 

And the night which said, " A 



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40 JOB. [en*P. in. 

i Let that day lie darkness: 

Let not God seek it from above ; 

Yea. list not the- light shine upon it.! 
5 Let darkness and tlie shadow of death redeem it; 

Let a cloud dwell upon it ; 

Let whatever rfarkeneth the day terrify it! 

As for that night, let darkness seize upon it; 
Let it not rejoice among the days of the year; 
Let it not come into the number of the mouths ! 

7 O Jet that night be unfruitful 1 
Let there be in it no voice of joy ; 

8 Let them that curse the day curse it, 
Who are skilful to stir up Ike leviathan! 

D Let tke stars of its twilight be darkened; 
Let it loos 1 foi' light, and have none; 
Neither let it see the eyelashes of the morning! 

10 Because it shut not up the doors of my mother's womb, 
And hid not trouble from mine eyes. 

11 Why died I not at my birth? 

Why did I not empire when I came forth from the womb? 

12 Why did the knees receive me, 

And why Hie breasts, that J might suck? 

13 For now should T lie down .and be quiet; 
1 should sleep ; then should T be at rest, 

14 With kings and counsellors of the earth, 
Who built up for themselves — ruins ! 

15 Or with princes that had gold, 
And filled (heir houses with silver; 

10 Or, as a. hidden untimely birth, l had perished; 
As infants which never saw the light. 

17 There the wicked cense from troubling; 
There the weary are at rest. 

18 There the prisoners rest together; 
They hear not the voice of the oppressor. 

19 The small and the great, are there, 
And the servant, is free from his master. 



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CHAP. IV.] JOB. 

El "Who long fiir death, and it, cometh not. 
Ami dig tbr it move tlnui for hid treasures ; 

22 Who rejoice exceedingly, 

Yea, exult, when they can find a grave? 

23 Why is light given to a man from whom the way is 
And whom Gk>d hath hedged in ? 

24 For my sighing comcth before I eat, 
And Jiiy groans are poured out like water. 

25 For that which I 'hand oveitaketh mo; 
That at which .1 shudder eometh upon me. 

3G I have no peace, .nor tjiiiei, nor respite: 
Misery cometh upon me continually. 



First speech of Eliphaz. — Chap. IV., V. 

1 Then spa Tin Eliphaz the Tema.nitc, and said: 

2 If one attempt a word with thee, wilt thou be offended? 
Rut who can refrain fri.ua speaking? 

3 Behold, thou hast admonished many ; 
Thou hast strengthened feeble hands ; 

i Thy words have- upheld liiiri that was falling, 
And thou hast given .strength to feeble knees. 

5 But now it is come upou t.lieo, and ihou faintest; 
Tt, toiieheth thee, and iiiOLi art confounded 1 

6 Is not thy fear of God ijsy hope, 

And the uprightness of thy ways thy confidence? 

7 Remember, 1 pray thee, who ever perished being innocent? 
Or where have (lie righkimis been cut off? 

8 According to what I have seen, (.hoy ivho plough iniquity, 
And sow mischief, reap the same. 

9 By the blast of t.iod they perish, 

And by the breath of Ins nostrils they arc consumed. 
10 The roaring of the lion, and (he voice of the fierce lion, 

And the teeth of the voting lions are broken. 
It The fierce lion pcrishet.h for lack of prey, 

And the whelps of the lioness are scattered abroad. 



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42 JOB. [CHAP. V. 

12 A word was once secretly brought to me, 

And mine Oiir caught a whisper thereof. 
i;j Air.iil thoughts from virion.-; of the niglit. 

When deep sleep falleth upon men, 
14 A fear and a horror came upon me, 

Which made all my bones to shake. 
l.-'i Then a. spirit pn-sed before my face . 

Tlie hair of my ilcsh rose on end; 

16 It stood still, but its form 1 could not discern ; 
An image was before mine eyes ; 

There was .silence, and I heard a voice: 

17 " Shall mortal man be mure just than God? 
Shall man be more pure than his Maker? 

IB Behold, he puf.teih no trust in his ministering spirits, 
And his angels he chargeth with frailty. 

19 What then are they who dwell in houses of clay, 
Whose foundation is in the dust, 

Who crumble to pieces, as if moth-eaten ! 

20 Between morning and evening are they destroyed; 
They perish for e\ cr, and none rcgardeth it. 

El The excellency lint is in them is torn away; 
Tiiey die before they have become wise." 

1 Call now, see if any will answer thee ! 
And to which of the holy ones wilt thou look? 

2 Verily grief destroyeth the fool, 
And wrath consurneth the weak man. 

3 T have seen an impious man taking root,, 
But soon I cursed his habitation. 

4 His children arc far from safety; 

They are oppressed at, the gate, and there is none to 
deliver them. 
C His harvest the hungry devour, 
Carrying it even through the thorns ; 
And a snare gapeth after his substance. 

6 For affliction comcth not from the dust, 

Nor doth trouble spring up from the ground; 

7 Behold, man is born to trouble, 
As the sparks fly upward. 

8 I would look to God, 

And to Cod would 1 commit my cause, 



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9 Who doeth great things and u 
Yea, marvellous things ivitUoti t number; 

10 W'liii giveth rain upon t.he earth, 
And sendct.li water upon the fields ; 

11 Who plaeeth the, lowly in high places, 
And res tore tli the afilieled t.o prosperity ; 

12 Who disappointeth the devices of the crafty, 

So that their hands cannot perform their enterprises ; 

13 Who taketh the wise in their own craftiness, 
And bringeth to nought the eonnsel of the artful. 

11 They meet with darkness in tin: daytime ; 

They grope at noon as if it were night. 
15 So he saveth (lie person tod from their month; 

The oppressed from the hand of the mighty. 

10 So the poor hath hope, 

And iniquity stoppeth her mouth. 

17 Behold, happy is the man whom God corrected; 
Therefore despise not, thou the chastening of the Almighty 

18 For he brui^'th, and hindeth up; 

lie woiindelh. and his hands make whole. 

19 In sis troubles will he deliver thee ; 
Yea, in seven shall no evil touch thee. 

20 In famine lie will redeem thee from death, 
And in war from the power of the sword. 

21 Thou shalt lie safe from the scourge of the tongue, 
And shalt not be a/raid of destruction, wlion it cometh. 

22 At destruction and famine thou shalt laugh, 

And of the wild beasts of the land .shall thou not he 
afraid. 

23 For thou shah, bo in league with the stones of the field ; 
Yea, the beasts of the forest shall lie at peace with thee, 

24 Thou shalt find that thy tent is in peace; 

Thou shalt visit thy dwelling, and not he disappointed. 
23 Thou shah, see thy descendants numerous, 

And thine offspring as the grass of the earth. 
2R Thou shalt come to thy grave ill full age, 

As a shock of corn gathered in its season. 
27 Lo ! this we have searched out ; so it is : 

Hear it, and lay it up in thy mind ! 



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Answer of Job. — Coir. VI., VII. 
1 TllEN Job answered and said : 

'I that my grief wens weighed thoroughly! 

That my calamities were put together in (he balance! 
3 Surely they would be heavier than the sand of the sea; 

On this account, were iny words rash. 
1 For the arrows of the Almighty have pierced me ; 

Tlieir poison driuketh up my spirit; 

The terrors or God set themselves in array against me. 
B "Doth the wild ass bray in the midst of grass? 

Or lowelh the ox over his fodder ? 
6 (Jan thai which is unsavory be eaten without salt ? 

Is there any taste in (be white of an egg? 
I That which my soul abhoneth to touch 

lLitli becoi.uc my hiathsomc food. 

8 that I might have my request, 

Aud that (led would grant me that which I long for! 

9 That it would please God to destroy me ; 

That he would let loose his hand, and make an end of mel 

10 Yet it should still be my consolation, 
Yea, in unsparing anguish I would exult, 

That I have not denied the commands of the Holy One. 

11 What is my strength, that. I should hope? 
And what mine end. that I. should he patient ? 

12 Is my strength Ihe strength of stones'; 
Or is my flesh brass? 

13 Alas, there is no help within me! 
Deliverance is driven from me! 

14 To the aiilictod. kindness should be shown by a friend; 
Else he casteth oil' the feat' of the Almighty. 

15 But my brethren arc faithless like a brook ; 
Like streams of Ihe valley that pass away; 

l(i Which are turbid by reason of the ice, 
And the snow, which hidel.li itself in them. 

17 As soon as they flow 7 forth, they vanish ; 

When the heat eomeih, they are dried up from their p]ace. 



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CRAP. VII.] JOG. 45 

IS '1 lie caravans turn aside to ilicoi on 1 Tic l j- way ; 

They go up inio the desert, and perish, 
is) The caravans of Tenia, look for them ; 

The companies of Sheba expect to see them; 

20 They arc ashamed that they have relied on them; 
They come to their place, and are confounded. 

21 So ye also are nothing; 

Ye see a terror, and shrink back. 

22 Have I said, Bring me gifts ? 

Or, Give a present for me out of your substance ? 

23 Or, Deliver mo from the enemy's hand ? 

Or, Rescue, nn; from the hand of the violent? 

24 Convince me, and T will hold my peace ; 
Cause me to understand wherein 1 have erred. 

25 How powerful are the words of truth ! 
But what do your reproaches prove? 

26 Do ye mean to censure words ? 

The words of a man in despair arc but wind. 

27 Truly ye spread a net for the fatherless ; 
Ye dig a pit for your friend. 

28 "Look now upon me, 1 pray you ; 

For to your very face can .1 speak falsehood ? 

29 Return, J. pray, and lot there be no unfairness ; 
Yea, return ; — ■ still is my cause righteous. 

30 Is there iniquity on my tongue? 
Cannot my taste discern what is sinful ? 

1 Is there not a war-service for man on the earth? 
Are not his days as the days of a hireling ? 

2 As a servant panteth for the shade, 
And as a hireling looketh for his wages, 

3 So am I made to possess months of affliction, 
And wearisome nights ai'c appointed for me. 

4 If I lie down, I say, 

When shall I arise, and the .night be gone? 

And 1 am full of restlessness mild (.be dawning of flieday. 

5 My flesh is clothed with worms, and elods of dust; 
My skin is broken and become loathsome. 

6 My days are swifter than a weaver's shuttle; 
They pass away without hope. 



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7 remember that my life is a broni h ; 
That mine eve shall no more see good! 

8 The eye of" him that hath seen me shall see me no 

Thine eyes shall look for me, but I shall not be. 

9 As the cloud dissoheth and wasteth away, 

So lie that gocth down to the j;r;ivi! shall arise no more; 

10 No more shall, he return to his house, 

And his dwelling-place shall know him no more. 
LI Therefore I will not restrain my mouth; 
I will speak in the anguish of my spirit; 
I will complain in the bitterness of my soul. 

12 Am I a sea, or a sea-monster, 
That thou settesf. a watch over me? 

13 When I say. My bed shall relievo me, 
My couch shall ease my complaint, 

li Then thou scares t me with dreams, 
And terrifies t me with visions; 

15 So that my soul chooseth strangling, 
Yea, death, rather tha.ii these my hones. 

16 I am wasting away ; I shall not live alway : 
Let me alone, for my days are a vapor ! 

17 What is man, that thou shouhlst make great account of 

And fix thy mind upon him? — 

18 That thou shouldst visit him every morning, 
And prove him every moment? 

19 How long ere thou wilt look away from me, 
And let me- alone, till 1 have time to breathe? 

20 If I have sinned, what have I done to thee, O thou 

watcher of men ! 
Why hast thou set me up as thy mark, 
So that 1 have become a burden to myself? 

21 And why dost, lliou not pardon my transgression, 
And take away mine iniquity? 

21! For soon shall .1 sleep in (he dust; 

And, though thou seek me diligently, I shall not be 



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first ?}ikc1i of liilibd, Mjc filmliicc. — Chap. VIII. 

1 Then answered liihhid the Shuhite, and said: 

2 How long wilt thou speak such things ? 

How long shall the words of thy month be like a strong 

3 Will God pervert judgment ? 

Or will the Almighty pervert justice? 
i As thy children sinned against Mm, 

He hath given them up to their transgression. 

5 But if thou wilt seek early to God, 

And make thy supplication to die Almighty, — 

6 If thou will be pure and upright, 
Surely he will yet arise for thee, 
And prosper thy righteous hab!:.ur.i™ : 

7 So that thy beginning shall be small, 
And thy latter end very great. 

S For inquire, i pray time, of the former age, 

And mark what hath been searched out by their fathers; 

9 (For we are of yesterday and know nothing, 
Since our d:iy-i upon the earth are but a shadow ;) 

10 Will not they instruct thee, and toll thee, 
And utter words from their understanding? 

11 " Can the paper-reed grow up without mire ? 
Can the bulrush grow without water? 

12 While it is yet in its greenness, and is not cut down, 
it ni;hcretit before any other herb. 

13 Such is the late of all who forgot Cod ; 
So perisheth the hope of the ungodly. 

14 His confidence shall come to nought, 
And his trust shall prove a spider's web. 

15 He shall lean upon his house, and it shall not stand } 
He shall lay fast hold on it, hut it shall not endure. 

IB He is in full greed before the sun, 

And Ws brandies shoot forth over his garden; 
17 His roots arc entwined about the heap, 
And he seeth the place of stones ; 



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18 When he shall In; destroyed from his place, 
It shall deny him, saying, ' I never saw thee.' 

10 Lo ! audi is the joy of his course! 

And others shall spring np iium his place." 

20 Behold, God will not cast away an upright man 
Nor will he help the evil-doers. 

21 While he iilleth thy mouth with laughter, 

And thy lips wil.il gladness, 

22 They that, bate thee shall be elothed w ii.li shame, 
Aiid the dwe:li]iL. r -plaee of the wieked shall i. 

IiOught. 



Answer of Job. — Chap. IX., X. 

1 Then Job answered and said: 

2 Of a truth, I know that it is so : 
For how can man be just before God ? 

3 If he choose to contend with him, 

He cannot answer him to one charge of a thousand. 
1 He is excellent in wisdom, mighty in strength: 

Who hath hardened himself against him, and prospered? 

5 He removed i the mountains, and they know it not; 
He ovcrtui'iieth them in his anger. 

6 He shaketh the earth out of her place, 
And the pillars thereof tremble. 

7 Ho commandeth the sun, and it riseth not, 
And he sealeth up the stars. 

B He alone spreadeth out the heavens, 

And walketh upon the high waves of the sea. 
9 He made the Hear, Orion, and the Pleiads, 

And the secret chambers of the South. 
\0 lie doetli great things pa^r finding out. 
Yea, wonderful things without number. 
11 Lo! he goeth by me, nut T sec him not; 
He passeth along, but I do not perceive him. 



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chap. «.] JOB. -la 

12 Lo! Iii! seizeth, and wIki tan hinder him? 
Who will say to him, What i.loii^t thou ? 

13 God will not, turn away Lis anger; 

The proud helpers are brought low before him. 

14 How much hiss shall 1 answer him, 

And choose out words to contend with him ? 

15 Though I were innocent, I would not answer himj 
I would cast myself on the mercy of my judge. 

Jii Should 1 cull, and he make answer to me, 

I could not. believe that he listened to my voice, — 

17 He who falleth upon me with a tempest, 
And multiplieth my wound; without cause ! 

18 Who will not suffer me to take my breath, 
But filleth. me with bitterness ! 

19 If I look to strength, " Lo ! here am I ! " [saith he,] 
It' to justice, " W'iio shall summon me to trial? " 

■20 Though I were upright, yet must my own mouth cou- 

Though I were innocent, lie would prove me perverse. 
2: Though I were innocent. I would not care for myself; 
I would despise my life. 

22 It is all one ; therefore I will affirm, 

He destroyed! the righteous and the wicked alike. 

23 When the scourge bringeth sudden destruction, 

lie laughetb at the sufferings of the innocent. 

24 The earth is given into the hands of the wicked; 
He coverefil the face of the .judges thereof; 

If it be not He, who is it? 

25 My days have been swifter than a courier; 
They have fled away ; they have seen no good. 

20 They have gone by like (he reed-skiffs ; 
Like the eagle, darting upon Ins prey. 

27 If I say, I will forgot my lamentation. 

I will change my countenance, wid take courage, 
2S Still am .1 in dread of the multitude of my 

For I know that thou wilt not hold me iinu 

29 I shall be found guilty; 
Why then should I labor in vain ? 

30 If I wash myself in snow, 
Anil cleanse- my hands with lye, 



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31 Still wilt thou plunge me into the pit, 
So that my own clothes will abhor me. 

32 For He is not a man, as I am, that I may contend with 

And that we iu;iy go .together into judgment ; 
S3 There is no umpire between us, 
Who may lay his hand upon us both. 

34 Let him take from me his rod, 
And not dismay alio with his terrors, 

35 Then I will speak, and not lie afraid of him: 
For I am not so at heart. 

1 I am weary of my life ; 

I will let loose within me my complaint; 
I will speak in the bitterness of my soul. 

2 I will say unto Hod, Do not condemn me ! 
Show me wherefore thou contend est with me ! 

3 Is it a pleasure to thee to oppress, 
And to despise the work of thy hands, 
And to shine upon the plans of the wicked? 

i Hast thou eyes of flesh, 

Or seest thou as man seeth ? 
5 Are tliy days as the days of a man, 

Are thy years as the days of a mortal, 
li That thou seekest alter my iniquity, 

And search est after my sin, 

7 Though thou knowest 1-hat I am not guilty, 
And that none can deliver from thy hand? 

8 Have thy hand; completely fashioned and made me 
fn every part, (hat flam mighlst dusiroy me? 

9 O remember that thou hast moulded me as clay! 
And wilt thou bring me again to dust? 

10 Thou didst pour me out as milk, 
And cardie me as cheese; 

11 With skin and flesh didst i.hou clothe me, 
And strengthen me with bones and sinews ; 

12 Thou didst grant me life and favor, 
And thy protection preserved my breath: 

13 Yet these things thou diilst lay up ia thy heart! 
I know that this was in thy mind. 



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14 If I sin, then thou markcst me, 

And wilt not acquit me of mint in'.ty.cy. 

15 If I am wicked, — then woe unto me! 
Yet if i'i gilt cou.'„ I dans not lift up my head ; 
I am full of contusion, beholding ray affliction, 

lij If I lift it up, like a lion thou huntest me, 
And again showest thysuif* iornblc unto me. 

17 Thou reuewest thy winiesses against me, 
And increase.st thine anger toward me ; 
New hosts continually rihi; up against me. 

18 Why then didst th">u bring me furlli from the womb? 
T should have perished, and no eye had been me ; 

19 I should he as though I had not been ; 

I should have been home from the i'-omli to the grave. 

20 Are not my days few ? O sparo tkeo, 

And let me alone, that I may be at ea.se a b'ttb while, 

21 Refb.ru .1 go- — -whence I shall not return — 
To the land of darkness and death -shade, 

22 The laud of darkness like the blackness of death-shade. 
Where is no order, and where ihe li^ht is as darkness. 



First speech of Zopnar the Naainathite. — CHAP. XL 

1 Thex answered Zophar the N^innat.hite, and said: 

2 Shall not the multitude of words receive an answer? 
Shall the man of words be justified? 

;! Shall thy boastings make men hold their peace? 
Shalt thou mock, and none put thee to shame ? 

4 Thou sayest, My speech is pure ; 

1 am clean in thine eyes, [O God !] 

5 But that God would speak, 
And open his lips against thee ; 

S That he would show thee the seerets of his wisdom, — . 
His wii-doni. which is unsearchable ! 
Then shouldst thou know that God fovgiveth thee many 
of thine iniquities. 



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52 JOB. [CHAF. XII. 

7 Canst tliou search out ilic deep tilings of Gi.nl ? 
Canst thou find out the Almighty to perfection ? 

8 'Tis high as hea.veu, what canst thou do? 
Deeper than hell, what canst thou know ? 

9 The measure thereof Js longer than tlie earth, 
And broader thiin the sea. 

10 If be apprehend. ;ind hind, and bring to trial, 
Who shall oppose him ? 

11 For he knoweth tin; unrighteous ; 

He seeth iniquity, when they do not observe it 

12 But vain man is without understanding; 
Yea, man is born a wild ass's colt. 

13 If thou direct thy heart, 

And stretch out thy hands, toward him; 
11 If thou put a\i'n.y mhjimy from thy hand, 

And let not wickedness dwell in rliy habitation, — 
15 Then shalt thou lift up thy face without spot; 

Yea, thou, shall- he slca-dili-i, ;iud have no fear. 
1H For thou shalt. forget tiiy misery, 

Or remember it as waters that have passed away. 

17 Thy life shall be brighter than the noon -day ; 

Now thou art in dark-new. thou shalt then be 33 the 
morning. 

18 Thou shalt be secure, bceau.se there is hope; 

Now thou art disappointed, thou shalt then rest in safety. 

19 Thou shalt lie down, and none, shall make thee afraid ; 
And many shall make suit unto thee. 

20 But the eyes of the wicked shall be weaned out ; 
They shall find no refuge ; 

Their hope is — the breathing forth of life. 



VI IT. 
Answer of Jub. — Chap. XII., XIII., XIV. 

1 Then Job answered and said: 

2 No doubt ye are the whole.people ! 
And wisdom will die with you! 



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chap, sn] JOB. 

3 But I have unclccslanding as well as you ; 

I am not inferior to yon : 

' Yea, who knowoth not such tilings as these ? 
i I am become a laugh in;; -stock to my friend,- — ■ 

I who call upon Clod, that, he would answer me ! 

The innocent find upright man is licld in derision. 
5 To calamity belongeth contempt in the mind of one : 

It is ready for them that slip with the feet. 
(i The tents of robbers are in prosperity. 
And they who provoke God are secure, 
Who carry their God in their hand. 

7 For ask now the beasts, and they will leach thee, ; 
Or the fowls of the air, and they will tell thee ; 

8 Or speak to the earth, and it will instruct thee ; 
And the fishes of the sea will declare unto thee. 

9 Who among nil Hi we doth not know 

That the hand of Jehova.li docth these things? 

10 In whose hand is the soul of every living thing, 
And the breath of all mankind. 

11 Doth not the ear prove words, 
As the mouth tasteth meat? 

13 With the aged is wisdom, 

And with length of days is understanding. 

13 With Him are wisdom and strength ; 
With Him counsel and understanding. 

14 Lo ! he pulleth down, and it shall not he rebuilt j 
He bindeth a man, and lie shall not be set loose. 

15 Lo ! he withlioldeih the waters, find they are dried up ; 
He sendeth them forth, and they lay waste the earth. 

10 With him are strength and wisdom ; 
The deceived and the deceiver are his. 

17 He 1 Oilcloth counsellors away captive, 
And judges he miikolli foots. 

18 He looseth the authority of kings, 
And bindeth (heir loins with a cord. 

19 He leadoth priests away captive, 
And overthroweth the mighty. 

20 He removeth speech from the, trusty, 

And taketh away judgment from the elders, 



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54 JOB. [CIIA1VX1IL 

21 He poureth contempt upon princes, 
And loosetJi the girdle oi' the mighty. 

22 He rcvealeth deep things out of darkness, 
And bringeth the shadow of death to light 

23 He exalteth nations, and destroyeth them ; 

He cidargeth nations, and leadeth t.hem captive. 
21 lie laketh away the unders^miling of this great men of 
the land, 

And causeth them to wander in a wilderness, where is no 
25 They grope in the dark without light ; [path ; 

lid mnkoth thorn i^faggiT like a drunken man. 

1 Lo! all this minu eye hath seen ; 
Mine car bath heard and understood it. 

2 What ye know. I know also; 
I am not inferior to you. 

3 But O that I might speak with the Almighty ! 
that I might reason with God ! 

i For ye are forgers of lies ; 

I'liysdeunis of no value-, id) of you ! 
5 that ye would altogether hold your peace! 

This, truly, would be wisdom in you. 

B Hear, I pray you, mj arguments ; 

Attend to the pleadings of my lips ! 
7 Will ye speak falsehood for God? 

Will ye utter deceit for him ? 
3 Will ye be partial to his person ? 

Will ye eontend earnestly lor God? 
3 Will it be well for yon, if lie search you thoroughly? 

Can ye deceive him, as one may deceive a mani* 

10 Surely he will rebuke you, 

If ye secretly have respect to persons. 

11 Doth not his majesty make you afraid, 
And his dread fall upon you ? 

12 Tour maxims are words of dust ; 
Your fortresses are fortresses of clay. 

13 Hold your peace, and let me speak ; 
And then come upon me what will ! 

11 Why do .1 take my iiesh in my ieelh, 
And put my life in my hand? 



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1,5 Lo ! he slayeth me, and I have no hope 1 
Yet will I justify my ways before him. 

16 This also .shall be my deliverance; 

For bo unrighteous, man will come before him. 

17 Hear attentively my words, 
Ami give ear to my deelaration ! 

18 Behold, I havf* now set in order my cause ; 
.1. know that I am innocent. 

ID "Who is he that can contend with me? 
For then would I hold my peace, and die ! 

20 Only do not unto me two things, 

Then will I nut hidt! myself from thy presence; 

21 Let not thy hand be heavy upon me, 
And let not thy terrors, make me afraid: 

22 Thou call upon me, and 1 will answer ; 
Or I will speak, and answer thou me. 

23 How many are my iniquities and sins? 

Make me lo know my i'auhs and transgressions. 

24 Wherefore dost then hide thy face, 
And account me as thine enemy ? 

25 Wilt thou put in fear the driven leaf? 
Wilt thou pursue the dry stubble ? 

2<> For thou writer, bitter tiling against me, 

And makest me inherit Ihe sins of my youth. 
.; V- i iii>» |-iiiif i in. }'■•■ in lli> •< ■■ L . 

And walchest all ray paths ; 

Thou hemmest in the soles of my feet. 
28 And I, like an abandoned thing, shall waste away; 

Like a- garment which is moth-eaten. 

1 Man, that is born of woman, 

Is of few days, and full of trouble. 

2 He eometh forth as a flower, and is cut down; 
Ho fleeth also as a shadow, and continueth not. 

3 And dost thou fix thine eyes upon such a one? 
And dost thou bring me in io judgment ivil.li Mice? 

^ Who can produce a clean thiii^ from an unclean ? 

Not one. 
5 Seeing tha.t his days are determined, 

And the number of his months, with thee, 



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56 JOB. [CHAP. 

And that tliou hast appointed him bounds which ho ( 
not pass, 

6 turn thine eyes from him, and let him rest, 
That he may enjoy, as a hireling, his day! 

7 For there is hope for a tree, 

Tf it he cut. down, that it will sprout again, 
And that its tender brandies will not fail ; 

8 Though its root may have grown old in the earth, 
And though ir>; trunk he dead upon the ground, 

9 Through the scent of water it will bud, 
And put forth boughs, like a young plant. 

10 But man dicth, and he is gone ! 
Man expirei.h. and where is lie? 

11 The waters fail from the lake, 

And the stream wusici-h and drieth up; 

12 So man l.ielh down, and tiseth not ; 

Till the heavens lie no more, he shall not awake, 
Nor be roused from his sleep. 

13 that thou wouldst hide me in the under-world .' 
That thou wouldst conceal nie till thy wrath be past! 
That thou wouldst appointing a time, and then remi 

14 If a man die, can he live again ? 

All the days of my war-service would I wait, 
Till my change should come. 

15 Thou wilt call, and I will answer thee; 

Thou wilt have compassion upon the work of thy hand 
11} But now thou numberest my steps; 

Thou watchest over my sins. 

17 My transgression )S sealed up in a bag; 

Yea, thou addest unto my iniquity. 

18 As the mountain falling cometh to nought, 
And the rock is removed from its place ; 

19 As the waters iveav away the stones, 

And the Hoods wa-.li away the dust of the earth, — 
So thou destroyc-.t the hope of man. 



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ram?, xy ] JO b. 57 

20 Thou prevailosl against hhn continually, and lio |>or:^]itstli ; 
Thou chango.st his countenance, and sendest him away. 

21 His sons conic to honor, hut lit! knowcth it not ; 
Or they a:'e hrought h>w, hut lie perceiveth it not. 

32 But his flesh shall have pain for itself alone; 
For itself alone shall his soul mourn. 



Second speech of Eliphaz the Temanite. — Chap. XV. 

1 Then answered Eliphai; the Ttmauius, and said; 

2 Should a m ise man answer with arguments of wind, 
Or iill his bosom with, thn east wind ? 

3 Should In.' argue with speeeh that helpe-th him not, 
And with words which do not profit him ? 

i Behold, thou mnkest the fear of Cod a vain thing, 
And discourages t. prayer hefore him. 

5 Yea, thy own month proclaimeth thy iniquity, 
Though thou choosest the tongue of the crafty. 

6 Thy own month comiemneth tiiee, and not I; 
Thy own lips testify against thee. 

7 Art thou the first man that was horn ? 
Wast thou thru u;d hoicue the hills ? 

8 Hast thou listened in the council of God, 
And drawn all wisdom to thyself? 

It What dost thou know, that we know not also ? 

What do.-t thou understand, that is a secret to us? 
JO With its are (he- aged and hoary-headed ; 
Much older than thy father. 

11 Dost thou despise the consolations of God, 
And words so full of kindness to thee ? 

12 Why hath thy passion taken p 
And why this winking of Ihine eyes? 

13 For against God hast thou turned thy spirit, 
And uttered such words from thy mouth. 



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58 JOB. [CHAP. IT. 

14 What is man, that he should be pure, 

And he thai is born of woman, iha.t. he should ho innocent? 
13 ISehold. He putleth no trust, in his ministering spirits, 

And the heavens are not pure in his sight; 
18 Much less, ahoniinable and polluted man, 

Who drinketh iniquity as water. 

17 Hear me, and f will a how thee, 

And that which I have seen will I declare; 

15 Which the wise men iiavc told, 

And not kept concealed, as received from their fathers; 
10 To whom alone the land was given, 

And among whom not a stranger wandered. 

20 " All his days the wicked man is in pain ; 

Yea, all the years, that arc laid up for the oppressor. 

21 A fearful sound is in his ears ; 

la peace the destroyer corner h upon him. 

22 He hath no hope thai he shall escape from darkness ; 
He is set apart for the sword. 

23 He wandeveth uliout, seeking bread; 

He knoweth thai, a day of darkness is at hand. 

24 Distress and anguish fill him with dread; 

They prevail against him like a king ready for the battle. 
23 "Because he streiehed forth his hand against God. 

And bade defiance to the Almighty, 
20 And ran against him with cut stretched neck, 

With the thick bosses of his hucklers ; 

27 Because he covered his face with fatness, 
And gathered fat upon his loins, 

28 And dwelt in desolated cities, 

In houses which, no man inhabited-), 
That are ready to become heaps. 

29 He shall not, he rich ; his substance shall not endure, 
And his possessions shall not be extended upon the earth. 

30 Ho shall not escape from darkness, 
And the flame shall dry up his branches; 

Tea, by the breath of His mouth shall he be taken 

81 " Let not man trust in vanity I he will be deceived ; 

For vanity shall he ilia recompense. 



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CHAF. XTI.] JOB. 

32 He shall eome to his cutl before his time, 
And his branch slin.ll not. be green. 

33 He shall shake on" his unripe fniit like the vine, 
And shed his blossoms like the olive-tree. 

3* The house of the unrighteous shall be famished, 
And fire slia.ll consume the touts of bribery. 

35 They conceive mischief, and bring forth, misery, 
And their breast deviseth deceit/' 



Answer of Job. — Chap. XVI, XVn. 

1 But Job answered and said: 

2 Of such things as these I have heard enough! 
Miserable comforters are ye all! 

3 "Will there ever be an end to words of wind? 
What stirreth thee up, that thou answerest? 

4 I also might speak like you, 
If ye were now in my place ; 

I might, string together words against you, 
And shake my head at yon. 

5 Bat I would strengthen you with my mouth, 
And the consolation of my lips should sustain you. 

6 If I speak, my grief is not assuaged; 
And if I forbear, it doth not leave me. 

7 For now He hath, quite exhausted me; ■ — 
Thou hast desolated all my house! 

8 Thou hast seized hold of me, and this is a witness against 

My leanness riselh. up and t.es*iiiet.h rtgani.sl. me lo my face. 

9 His auger tearelli my tle.-h, and pursueth me; 
He guashefh upon me with his teeth; 

My adversary sharpeneth his eyes upon me. 
in They gape for nie with llieir mouths ; 
In scorn they smite me on the cheek; 
With one consent (hey assemble against me. 



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60 JOB. [CHAP. XVII. 

11 God hath given mo a prey to (lie unrighteous, 
And delivered me into the hands of the wicked. 

12 I was at ease, but lie hath crashed me; 

He hath seized me by the neck, and dashed me in pieces; 
He hath set me up far his mark. 

13 His archers encompass me around; 

Tie piereeth my ruins, and doth not spare ; 
Tie ponreth out my gall upon the ground. 
1* He breaketh me with breach upon breach; 
Tie rushef.h upon me like a warrior. 

15 I have sewed sackcloth upon my skin, 
And thrust my horn into the dust. 

16 My face is red with weeping, 

And upon my eyelids is deathlike darkness. 

17 Yet is there no injustice in my hands. 
And my prayer hath been pure. 

18 earth ! cover not thou my blood, 

A_nd let there be no hiding-place for my cry! 

19 Yet even now, heboid, my witness is in heaven, 
And lie who knowcth me is on high. 

20 -My 'friends brtve me in derision, 

But my eye ponret.li out tears unto God. 

21 O that one might contend for a man with God, 
As a man contender!) with Ids neighbor! 

22 For when a few years shall have passed, 

I shall go the way whence 1 shall not return. 

1 My breath is exhausted ; 
My days are at an end ; 
The grave is ready for me. 

2 Are not revilers before me ? 

And doth not my eye dwell upon their provocations? 

B Give a pledge. . I. pray thee; bo thou a surety for me with 
thee ; 

Who is he that Tviil sdike hands with me? 
4 Behold, thou h;tst. blinded their understanding; 

Therefore thou wilt not. sailer them to prevail, 
fl He who dclivereth up bis friends as a prey, — 

The eyes of his children shall fail. 



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chap, xvm.] JOB. 61 

fi He hath made "ic 1.1 ie by -word of the people ; 
Yea, I have l.ieeome l.lmir abhorrence. 

7 My eye therefore is dim with sorrow, 
And ;dl my limbs are as a shadow. 

8 1,'pright men will he astonished at tills, 

And the innocent will nmse themselves against the wicked. 
The righteous will also hold on his way, 

Ami ho that hath clean hands wi'l gather strength. 

10 But as for you all, return, T pray! 

I find not yet among you one wise man. 

11 My days arc at an end ; 
My plans an: broken off; 
Even the treasures of my heart. 

12 Night hath become day to me ; 
'The light bordereth on darkness. 

13 Yea, I. look to Lite grave as my home ; 
I have made ray bed in darkness. 

14 I say to the pit, I'bon art my father ! 

And to the worm, My mother! and, My .sister I 

15 Where then is my hope ? 

Yea, my hope, who shall see it? 
lii It must go down lo the bars of the under-world, 
As soon as there is vest for me in the dust. 



Second speech of H:iu.i;l the Slmliitis. — Chap. XYIIL 

t Thek Bildad the Shuhit.e answered and said: 

> How long ere ye make an end of words? 

ITi.derstancl, find then wo will speak! 
) "Why are we accounted as brutes, 

And reputed vile in your sight? 
1 Thou that tearest thyself in thine anger I 

Must the earth be deserted for thee, 

And the rock removed from its place? 



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62 JOB. [chap, xviii 

5 Behold, the light of the wicked shall be put out, 

And the flame fit' his fire ahull not shine. 
C Light shall become darkness hi his tent, 

And his lamp over him shall go out 

7 His strong steps shall be straitened, 
And his own plans shall cant him down. 

8 He is brought into the net by his own feet, 
And he walketh upon snares. 

9 The trap layeth hold of him by the heel, 
And the snare holdeth him fast. 

10 A net is secretly laid for him on the ground, 
And a trap for him in the pathway. 

11 Terrors affright him on every side, 
And harass iiim :it his heels. 

12 His strength is wasted by hunger, 
And destruction is ready at his side. 

13 His limbs are consumed, 

Tea, his limbs arc devoured by the first-born of death. 

14 lie is torn from his tent, which was his confidence, 
And is borne away to the king of terrors. 

15 They who are none of his shall dwell in his tent; 
Brimstone shall be sent tenor i upon his habitation. 

]{i His roots below shall be dried up, 

And his branches above skill lie withered. 

17 His memory penshcth from the earth. 
And no name hath he in the land. 

18 Ho shall be thrust from light into darkness, 
And driven out of the world. 

ID He hath no son, nor kinsnum among his people, 

Nor any survivor in his dwelling-place. 
30 They that come after him shtdi lie amazed at his fate, 

As they that were before them were struck with horror. 
21 Yea, such is the dwelling of lite unrighteous man ; 

Such is the place of him who knowctli not God ! 



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CHAP. SIX] JOB. 63 

XII. 

Answer of Job. — Chap. XIX. 
1 But Job answered and said : 

S How long will ye vex my soul, 

And break me in pieces with words ? 

3 These ten times have ye reviled me ; 
Without shame do ye stun mc! 

4 And be it, indeed, that I have erred, 
My error abidcth with myself. 

5 Since, indeed, ye magnify yourselves against me, 
Ami plead against, me my reproach, 

6 Know then that it is God who bath brought me low; 
lie hath encompassed me with his net. 

7 Behold, I complain ol wrong, but receive no answer; 
I cry aloud, but obtain no justice. 

8 He hath fenced np my way, so that I cannot pass, 
And hath set darkness in my paths. 

9 He hath stripped me of my glory, 
And taken the crown from my head. 

10 He hath destroyed mc on every fide, and I am gone ! 
1 1c hath lorn up my hope like a tree. 

11 He kindleth his anger against me, 
And connteth me as his enemy. 

12 His troops advance together against me; 
They throw up for themselves a way to me, 
And encamp around my dwelling. 

13 My brethren lie hath put far from me, 

And my acquaintance are wholly estranged from me. 

14 My kinsfolk have forsaken me, 

And my bosom li-iend; have forgotten me. 
1.5 The foreigners of my house, yea. my own maid-servants, 
regard mo as a stranger; 

I am an alien in their eyes. 
IB I call ray servant, and lie maketh no answer; 

With my own mouth do I entreat him. 
1? My breath is become strange to my wife, 

And ray prayers also to my own mother's sons. 



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64 JOB. [chap. 

la Even young children despise me; 

When I rise up, they speak against me. 

19 All my bosom I'netid.s abhor me, 

And they whom I loved are turned against me. 

20 My hones cleave to my flesh and my skill, 

Aid I have scarcely escaped with the skin of my teeth. 

21 Have pity upon me, ye my friends ! Iiave pity upon n 
For the hand of God hath smitten me ! 

22 Why do ye persecute tue like God, 
And are not satisfied with my flesh ? 

23 that my words were now written ! 

<) that (hey were, marked down in a scroll! 

24 That with an iron pea, and with lead, 
They were engraven upon the rock for ever ! 

25 Yet I know that my Vindicator livetli, 
And will hereafter stand up on the earth ; 

26 And though with my skin this body be wasted away, 
Yet without my flesh shall I see God. 

27 Yea, I shall see him. my friend; 

My eyes shall, behold him, arid not another: 
For fJiis, my soul pnntet.li within me. 

28 Since ye say, " How may we persecute him, 
And find grounds of accusation against him '( " 

29 Be ye afraid of the sword ! 

Frit' malice, is a crime for tin: sword; 
That ye may know that judgment coineth. 



XITI. 

Second sjwi'di uf Znii!:;ir ttn; Naiminthitc. — ClIAP. XX. 

1 Then answered Zophar the Naatnatliite, and said: 

2 For this do my thoughts lead me to reply, 
And for this is my ardor within me. 

3 I have heard my shameful rebuke ; 

And the spirit, from my understanding, answereth for i 



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ciiAr. xx.] JOB. 65 

4 Knowest thou not, that from the- da.ys of old, 
From the time when man was placed upon the earth, 

B The triumphing of tin; wicked lisith been short. 
And the joy of the impious but for a moment? 

G Though liis greatness mould; up to flits heavens, 

And his head reach, to the clouds, 

7 Yet shall he perish for ever, and be mingled with dust ; 

They who saw him shall say, Where is he? 

8 He shall ileo away like a dream, and shall not bo found ; 
Yea, he shall disappear like a vision of the night. 

9 The eye also which saw him shall sets him no more, 
And his dwelling-place shall never more behold him. 

10 His sons shall seek (he favor of the poor, 
And their hands shall give back his wealth. 

11 His bones are full of his youth, 

But they shall lie down with him in the dust. 

12 Though wickedness lit.' sweet in his mouth, 

Though he hide it. under his tongue, 

13 Though ho cherish it, and will not part with it, 
And keep it fast in his mouth, 

14 Yet his meat, shall bis changed within him, 
And become to him the poison, of asps. 

15 He bath glutied hhnseif wit's riches, 
And he shall throw ilioii up again! 
Yea, God shall east them out of his body. 

Ifi lie shall suck (ho poison of asps ; 

The tongue of the viper shall destroy him. 

17 He shall never see the flowing streams, 
And the rivers of honey and milk. 

18 The fruits of his toil he shall give back, and shall not 

enjoy them : 
It is substance to be restored, and he shall not rejoice 
therein. 

19 Because he hath oppressed and abandoned the poor, 
And seized upon the house which he did not. build; 

20 Because he knew no rest in his bosom, 

He shall not save that in which he debghteth. 

21 Because nothing escaped his greediness, 
His prosperity shall not endure. 



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66 job. [Cttip. xil 

22 In the fulness nf his abundance Iks shall be brought low ; 

Every hand of 1 1n- wretched shall come upon bim. 
2:5 He (.hall, indeed, have wherewith to lili himself : 

God shall send upon him tin: fury of his anger, 

And rain it down upon him for his food. 
2i If he fleeth from the iron weapon, 

The bow of brass shall pierce him through. 

25 He drawelh flic arrow, and it cometh forth from his body; 
Yea. the glittering steel eometh out of his gall. 

Terrors are upon him ; 

26 Calamity of every kind is treasured up for him. 
A fire not blown shall consume him ; 

It shall consume whatever is left in his tent. 

27 The heavens shall reveal his iniquity, 
And the earth shall rise up against him. 

28 The substance of his house shall disappear; 
It shall flow away in the day of His wrath. 

39 Such is the portion of the winked man from God, 

And the inheritance appointed for him by the Almighty. 



XIV. 
Answer of Job. — Chap. XXL 

1 Bct Job answered and said : 

2 Hear attentively my words, 
And let this be your con so! ;i lion. 

3 Bear with me, that I may speak ; 
And after I have spoken, mock on ! 

i Is my complaint concerning man ? 

Why then should I not be angry ? 
6 Look upon me, and be astonished. 

And lay your hand upon your mouth! 

6 When I think of it, I am confounded; 
Trend. i ling taketh hold of ray flesh. 

7 Why is it that the wicked live, 

Grow old, yea, become mighty in substance? 



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OUAF.XXl] JOB. 67 

8 Their children (ire established jn their sight with them, 

And tlieir offspring before t.heir eyes, 
fl Their houses are in peace, without fear, 

And the rod of Cod eomelh not upon them. 

10 Their bull gendereth. and iaileth not; 
Their cow calve th, and casicth not her calf. 

11 They send forth their little ones like a flock, 
Anil their children dance. 

12 They sing to the timbrel and harp, 
And rejoice sit. the sound of the pipe. 

13 They spend their days in prosperity, 

And in a moment go down to the under-world. 

14 And yet they say uuio God. " Depart from us ! 
"We desire not the knowledge of thy ways ! 

15 Who is the Almighty, that we should serve him? 
And what will it profit us, if we pray to him?" 

IS [Ye say,] " Lo ! their prosperity is not secure in their 
hands ! 

Far from me be the conduct of the wicked 1 " 

17 How often is it, that the lamp of the wicked is put out, 
And that destruction come ill upon them, 

And that lie dispensei.h to them tribulations in his anger? 

18 How often are they as stubble before the wind, 
Or as chaff, which the whirlwind enrrieth away ? 

19 "But" [say yc] "God layolh up bis iniquity for his 

children." 
Let him requite the offender, and let him feel it 1 

20 Let his own eyes see his destruction, 

And let him drink of the wrath of the Almighty ! 

21 For what concern hnt.h he for his household after him, 
When the number of his own months is completed ? 

22 Who then shall impart knowledge to God, — 
To him that judgcth the highest? 

23 One dietli in the fulness of his prosperity, 
Being wholly at ease ajid quiet ; 

2-1 His sides are full of fat, 

And his bones moist with marrow. 
25 Another dicth in bitterness of soul, 

And hath not tasted pleasure. 



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(i Alike- they lie down in the dust, 
And the worms cover them. 



27 Behold, I know your thoughts. 

And l.lic device.- by wliidi yn wrong me. 

28 For ye say, " Where is the house of 1-1 ie oppressor, 
And where tilt' dwelling-phiees of the wicked?" 

29 Have ye never inquire.1 of travellers, 
And do ye not know their tokens, 

30 That the wicked is spared in the d.n.y of destruction, 
And that he is Lome to his grave in the day of wrath? 

31 Who will charge him wit.li his conduct to his face, 
And who will requite liini for the evil lie hath done ? 

32 Even this man is borne with honor to the grave; 
Yea, he watcheth over his tomb. 

33 Sweet to Mm are the sods of the valley: 
And all men move after him, 

As multitudes without number before him. 

34 Why then do ye oiler your sain consolations ? 
Your answers continue false. 



Third spei'tfi of Klijjiiaz the Tcmaiiitc. — Chap. XXII. 

1 Then Eliphaz the Temanile answered and said; 

2 Can a man, then, profit God ? 
Behold,- the wise mini proliieth himself. 

3 Is it a pleasure to the Almighty, ihii.t thou art righteous; 
Or a gain to him, (but thou walkest uprightly? 

& Will he. contend with thee because he fearcth tliee? 

Will he enter with (lice into judgment r 
6 Hath not thy wickedness been great? 

Have not thine iniquities been numberless? 

6 For thou hast taken a pledge from thy brother unjustly, 
And stripped the poor of their clothing. 

7 Thou hast given the weary no water to drink, 
And withholden bread from the hungry. 



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CRAP. XIII.] JOB. 

8 But the man of power, his was the land, 

And i.ho honorable man dwelt in it. 

9 Thou hast sent widows away empty, 
Anil broken the arms of the fatherless, 

10 Therefore snares are round about thee, 
And sudden far conibnndet.h thee; 

11 Or darkness, through which thou canst not see, 
And floods of water cover thee. 

12 Is not God in the height of heaven ? 
And behold thi: stars, how high they are ! 

13 Hence thou sayest, " What doth God know? 
(■an he govern behind the thick darkness ? 

14 Dark clouds are a veil to liiin, and ha cannot see; 
And he walketh upon the arch of heaven." 



15 'Wilt thou take the old way 
Which wicked men have trodden, 

16 Who were cut down before their time, 

.And whose foundations were swept away by a flood? 

17 Who said unto Cod, " Depart from us!" 
And, " What can the Almighty do to us ? " 

18 And yet he, filled their lion mis with good things! — 
Far from me lie the counsel of the wicked ! 

19 The righteous see their tale, and rejoice ; 
And the innocent hold litem in derision. 

SO " Truly our adversary is destroyed, 

And fire hath consumed his abundance ■ " 

21 Acquaint now thyself with him, and be at peace: 
Tims shall prosperity return to thee. 

22 Uceeive, .1 pray thee, instruction from his month, 
And lay up Ids words in thy heart, 

23 If thou return to the Almighty, thou shalt be built up ; 
If thou put away iniquity from thy tent. 

24 Oast to the dust thy gold, 

And the- gold of Ophiv to the stones of Ihti brook: 

25 Then shall the Almighty he thy gold, 
Yea, treasures of silver unto thee; 

26- For then shalt thou have delight in the Almighty, 
And shalt lifi up thy face unto God. 



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70 job. 

27 Thou shalt pray to liim, and lie shall 1) 

And thou shsilt perlbnn Lhy vows. 
23 The purpose which thou formest shall }: 

And light shall shine upon thy ways. 
29 When men are cast down, thou shalt say, 
lifting up ! " 

And the humble person he will save. 
SO He will deliver even him that is not innocent. 

Tin: purity of thy hands shall save him. 



Answer of Job. — Chap. XXIII., XXIV. 

1 Then Job answered and said : 

2 Still is my complaint bitter; 

But my wound is dueler than my groaning. 

3 that I know where i might find him ! 
That I mighi go before his throne! 

4 I would order my cause before him, 
And fill my mouth with arguments ; 

5 I should know what he would answer me, 
And understand what hi; would say to me. 

6 Would he contend with mo with his mighty power ? 
No ! he would have regard to me. 

7 Then would an upright man contend with him, 
And I should be fully acquitted by my judge. 

a Bui, behold, I ;:o eastward, and he .is not there; 

And westward, but L cannot perceive him ; 
9 To the nortli, where he worketh, but I cannot behold 

He hideth himself on the south, ami I cannot see him. 
1.0 But he knoweth the way which is in my liuwt. ; 

When he trieth me, I shall come forth as gold. 
11 My feet have trodden in Ids steps; 

His way I have kept, and have not turned asid» f«>j» 



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12 I have not neglected (be precepts of his lips; 

Above my own law have I esteemed tlie words of his 
mouth. 

13 But he is of one mind, and who can turn, him? 
And what he desireth. that he doeth. 

14 He performeth thai which is appointed for me; 
And many such things .are in his mind ! 

lo Therefore I am in terror on account of him ; 

When I consider. 1 am afraid of him. 
lfi For God makoth my heart faint; 

Yea, the Almighty terrifieth me ; 
17 Because .1. was not (aken away bef >re darkness came, 

And he hath no: hidden darkness iVoni mine eyes. 

1 "Why are not times treasured up by the Almighty? 
And why do not they who know him see Iris days ? 

2 They remove landmarks ; 

They take away dorks by violence, and pasture them. 

3 They drive away the ass of the fatherless, 
And take the widow's ox for a pledge. 

i They push the needy from lite way ; 

All the poor of the land are forced to hide themselves. 
r. Behold, like wild a.^os of the deser:, they go forth to their 
work; 

They search for prey ; 

The wilderness suppliolh tJicm food for fheir children. 

6 In tho fields they reap the harvest, 

And gather the vintage of the oppressor. 

7 They lodge naked, without clothing, 
And without covering from the cold, 

8 They are drenched with the mountain showers, 
And embrace the rock for want of shelter. 

9 The fatherless are torn from the breast, 

And the garment of the needy is taken for a pledge. 

10 They go naked, without clothing, 
And carry the sheaf hungry. 

11 They make oil witbbi their walls, 

And tread the wine-vat, yet suffer thirst. 



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12 From anguish the dying groan, 
Ami tin: wounded cry aloud ; 

And God regardeth not their prayer ! 

13 Others hate the light; 
They know not its ways. 

And abide not in its paths. 
1-1 With the light uriselh the murderer; 
He killeth the poor and needy ; 
In the night he is as a thief. 

15 The eye of the adulterer watcheth fov the twilight ; 
He saith, " No eye wiii see me," 

And puttcth a mask upon Ins face. 

16 In the dark they break into houses ; 

In the daytime they shut themselves up ; 
They are strangers to the light. 

17 The morning .is to ilium the very shadow of death; 
Tliey are familiar with the terrors of the shadow of death, 

18 Light are they on the face of the waters ; 
They have an aeeuiscd poriion in the earth ; 
'J.'hey come not near the vineyards. 

19 As drought ami heat consume the snow waters, 
So doth the grave the wicked. 

20 His own mother forgetteth him ; 
The worm feedeth sweetly on him ; 

He is no move remembered, 

And iniquity is broken like a tree. 

21 He oppie-seili the barren, r.liat hath not borne, 
And dooth not good to the widow. 

'22 .He takeih away the mighty by his power; 

He riseth up, and no one is sure of life. 
23 Godgiveth them security, .so that they are confident; 

His eyes are upon their ways. 
21 They "are exalted; — in a little while they are gone! 

They are brought low. ami die, like all others; 

And like the topmost cars of corn a.re they cut o'X. 
20 If it be not so, who will confute me, 

And show my discour.se to he worthless ': 



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Third speech of Bildad the Shuhile.— Chap. XXV. 
i Then answered Bildad the Sliuhito, and said: 

2 Dominion and fear are with Him; 

Ho maintainet.h peace in his high phiee*. 
;i Is there any numbering of his hosts ? 

And upon whom doth not his light arise? 
'I How then can man lie righteous before God? 

Or how can lie be pure that is born of woman ? 

5 Behold, even the moon, it shineth not; 
And the stars are not pure in his sight. 

6 How much less, man, a worm ; 
And the son of man, a reptile ! 



Answer of Job. — Chap. XXVI. 

1 Then Job answered and said ; 

2 How hast thou helped the weak, 
And strengthened the feeble arm ! 

3 How hast thou couiisoile'l the ignorant, 
And revealed wisdom in fulness ! 

i For whom hast thou uttered these words ? 
And whose spirit spake through thee ? 

5 Before Him the shades tremble 

Beneath the waters and their inhabitant:-;. 

fi The under-world is linked before him, 
And destruction is without covering. 

7 He stretcheth out the north over empty space, 
Anil huii^eth the earth upon nothing. 

8 He bindeth up the waters in his thick clouds, 
And the cloud is not. rent under them. 

He covereth the face of his throne, 
And spreadeth his clouds upon it 



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71 JOB. [CHAP. ! 

10 He hath drawn a circular bound upon the waters, 

To the confine; oi' light and darkness. 

11 The pillars of heaven tremble 
And are confounded at his rebuke. 

12 By his power he s tills-; th the sea, 

Yea. by his wisdom he smiteth its pride. 

13 By his spirit he hath garnished the heavens; 
His hand hath formed the llccing Serpent, 

14 Lo! these are but the borders of his works; 
How faint the whisper we have heard of him! 
But the thunder of his power who can understand? 



Answer of Job to all three of his opponents. — Chap. XXVII., XXY1II. 

1 Moreover Job continued his discourse, and said: 

2 As God liveth, who hath rejected my cause, 
And the Almighty, who hath alllicted my soul} 

3 As long as my breath is in me, 

And the spirit of God is in my nostrils, 
■1 Never shall my lips, speak falsehood, 

Nor my tongue utter deceit. 
5 God forbid that. I should acknowledge yon to be just : 

To my last breath will. I assert my integrity, 
t'i T will hold fist- my innocence, and not list it, go ; 

My heart reproachelh me for no part of my life. 
T May mine enemy be as the wicked, 

And he that rise ill up against mi-! as the unrighteous ! 
S For what is the hope of the wicked, whsui God cutt.s-th off 
his web, 

Anil (aketh away his life? 
!) Will he listen to his cry, 

When trouble cometh upon him? 
10 Can he delight himssdf in (he Almighty, 

And call at all times upon God ? 

H I will teach you concerning the; hand of God; 
That which is with tin: Almighty I will not conceal. 



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CHAP. ZXVIU.1 JOB. 75 

12 Behold, ye yourselves Iiavi) nil seen it ; 
Why then do ye cherish such vain thoughts? 

13 This is (.lie portion of.' the wicked man from God, — 

The inheritance which oppressors receive from the Al- 
mighty. 

14 If his children lie multiplied, it is for the sword ; 
Ami his off spring shall not. he- satisfied with bread. 

15 Those of them i.h:it escape shall he buried by Death, 
And their widows shall not bewail them. 

1(5 Though lie heap up silver as dust, 

And procure raiment as clay, — 
17 He may procure, but the righteous shall wear it, 

And the innocent shall share the silver. 
is, Tie bnildet.h his house like the moth, 

Or like the shed which the watchman maketh. 

19 The rich man lieth down, and is not buried; 
In the twinkling of an eye lie is no more. 

20 Terrors pursue him like a flood; 

A tempest si.ealof.li him away in the night. 

21 The east wind carrioth him away, and he perisheth ; 
Yea, it sweepeth him away from his place. 

22 God sendct.h his arrows at !mn, and doth not spare ; 
He would fain escape from His hand. 

23 Men clap their hands at him, 
And hiss him away from his place. 



1 Truly there is a vein for silver, 
And a place for gold, which men refine. 

2 Iron is obtained from earth, 
And stone is melted into copper. 

3 Man putteth an end to darkness ; 
lie searchcth to the lowest depths 

For the stone of darkness and the shadow of -death. 

4 From the place where they dwell ihcy open a shaft ; 
Forgotten by the feet, 

They hang down, (hey swing away from men. 

5 The earth, out of whieh eometh bread, 
Is torn up underneath, as it were by fire. 

e Her stones an; the place of.' sapphires, 
And siie hath clods of gold for man. 



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76 job. I 

1 The path thereto no bird knoweth, 
And Uio vulture's eye hath not seen it; 

8 The fierce wild beast hath not trodden it ; 
The lion hath not passed over it. 

9 Man layeth his hand upon the rock; 
lie upturned! mountains from tlioir roots; 

10 lie oleavelh out streams in the rocks, 
And his eye scct.li every precious thing; 

11 He bindeth up the streams, that they trickle r 
And bringeth hidden things to light. 

12 But where sliii.ll vallum be found ? 
And where is the place of u 

13 Man knoweth not the price thereof, 
Nor can it be found in the land of the living. 

11 The deep saith, Tt i.s not in me ; 

And the sea saith, It is not with me. 
15 It cannot be gotten tor gold, 

Nor shall silver be weighed out as the price (hereof. 
10 Tt cannot bo bought with the gold of Ophir, 

With the precious onyx or the sapphire. 

17 Gold and crystal are not to be compared with it ; 
Nor can it be purchased with jewels of fine gold. 

18 No mention shall be made of coral or of crystal ; 
For wisdom i.s more precious (ban pearls. 

lit The topaz of Ethiopia cannot equal it, 
Nor can it be purchased with pure <;-<iid. 

30 "Whence then cometh wisdom ? 

And where is the plitee of understanding ? 

21 Since it is hidden from the eyes of all living, 
And kept close from the fowls of the air. 

22 Destruction and Death say, 

We have heard a rumor of it with our ears. 

23 God knoweth the way to it ; 
He knoweth its dwelling-place. 

24 For he seeth (o the end's of the earth. 

And snrveyeth all things under the whole heaven. 

25 When he gave the winds their weight, 
And meled out the waLei's by measure ; 



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CHAP. XXIX.] JOB. 

2G When he prescribed ;i law to the rain. 

And a pat.li to the thunderflash, — 
27 Then did he see It, ami make it known; 

He established it, and searched it out. 
2if But he said unto man, 

Behold, the four of the Lord, that is wisdom, 

And to depart from evil is understanding. 



XX. 

Job's review of his past life. — Chap. XXIX.-XXXI. 

1 Moreover Job continued his discourse, and said: 

2 that I were as in months past, 

In the days when Cud was my guardian ; 

3 When his lamp shined over my head, 

And when by his light .1 wulkod through darkness ! 
i As I was in (he .autumn of my days, 

When the friendship of God was over my tent; 
5 When the Almighty was yet with me, 

And my children were around me ; 
ii When .1 "bathed my steps in milk, 

And the rock poured me out rivers of oil ! 

7 When I wont forth to iho gale by the city, 
And took my scat- in the markct-placo, 

8 The young men saw me and hid themselves, 
And the aged arose and stood. 

9 The princes refrained from speaking, 
And laid their hand upon their mouth. 

10 The nobles held their peace, 

And their tongue cleaved to the roof of their mouth. 
It When the ear heard me, then it blessed me; 

And when the eve «iiv me, it gave witness to me. 

12 For I delivered the poor, when they cried ; 
And the fatherless, who had none to help him, 

13 The blessing of him that was ready to perish came upon 

And I caused the heart of the widow io sing for joy. 



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78 JOE. [cHiP. xss. 

14 I clothed myself with righteousness, and it clothed itself 

Ami justice was my robe and diadem. 

15 I was eyes to the lilinil, 
And feet was I to the lame ; 

16 I was a father to the poor, 

And the cause of liiiu 1. knew not X searehed out ; 

17 And I broke tin; teeth o!' tin: wicked, 
And plucked Llit spoil from his jaws. 

IS Then said I, " I shall die in my nest ; 

I shall multiply my days as the sand. 
19 My root is spread abroad to the waters, 

And the dew abidoth on my branches. 
BO My glory is fresh with me, 

And my bow ga there th strength in my hand." 

21 To me men gave ear, and waited, 

And kept silence for my counsel. 

22 To my words they made no reply, 

When my speech dropped down upon them. 

23 Yea, they waited for me as for the rain; 

T'inn' opened, (heir moulds wide as for the latter rain. 
2i If I smiled upon them, they believed it not; 

Nor did they cause the light of my countenance to fall, 
25 When I eauie among lliem, .1 sat as chief; 

I dwelt as a king in the midst of an army, — 

As a, comforter among mourners. 

1 But now they that ore younger than I hold me in de- 

Whose fathers I would have disdained lo set with the 
dogs of my floek. 

2 Of what use to me would be even the strength of their 
To whom, old ;ige is lost? [hands, 

3 By want and hunger they are famished ; 
They gnaw the dry desert, 

'The darkness of desolate wastes. 

4 They gather pi.n'slaiu among the- bushes, 
And tlie root of the broom is their bread. 

5 They are, driven from the society of men ; 
There is a cry after [hem as after a thief. 



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CHAP. XII.] JOB. 

They dwell in gloomy valleys, 
In caves of (.lie earth ami in rocks. 

7 They bray among the hushes ; 
Under the brambles are they stretched out. 

8 An impious and low-born race, 
They are beaten out of the land. 

II And now I am become their song ; 
Yea, I am their by-word! 

10 They abhor me, they stand aloof from mo; 
■ They forbear not to spit before my face. 

11 Yea, they let loose the re.iiis. and humble me ; 
They cast off the bridle before me. 

12 On my right Lain S risei.li up the brood; 
They thrust away my feet ; 
They cant up agninst i;:e their destructive ways. 

13 They break up my path ; 
They hasten my fall, — 
They who have no helper! 

11 They e<>mo upon me as through a wide breach.; 
Tiinmgl] !ln: ruins r.hey rush in upon me. 

15 Terrors are turned against me ; 
They pursue my prosperity like the wind. 
And my welfare passeth away like a cloud. 

16 And now my soul pourcth if.sol!' out upon me; 
Days of affliction ha.vo taken hold of me. 

17 By night my hones are pierced; they are torn from n 
And my gnawers take no rest. 

IS Through the violence of my disease is my garment cl 
It bindeth me about like the collar of my tunic. 

19 He hath cast me into the mire, 

And I am become like dust and ashes. 

20 I call upon Thee, but thou dost not hear me; 

I stand up before, thee-, but thou regardest me not. 

21 Thou art become cruel to me; 

With thy strong hand dost thou lie in wait for me. 

22 Thou liftest me up, and causest me to ride upon the 

Tlioii meltest me away in the storm. 

23 I know that thou wilt bring me to death, 
To tiie place of assembly for all the living. 



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80 JOB. [CHAP. XXXI 

24 "When He stretchelh out his hand, prayer availed) nothing; 
"When He bringotli. dcslnietion, vain is the cry for help. 

25 Did not I weep for him that was in trouble ? 
"Was not my soul grieved for the poor? 

2G But when I looked for good, then evil came; 
When I looked for light, then came darkness. 

27 My bowels boil, and have no rest ; 
Days of anguish have come upon me. 

28 f am black, but not by the sun ; 

I stand up, and niter my cries in the congregation. 

29 I am become a brother to jackals, 
And a companion to ostriches. 

30 My skin is black, and iiillot.li from me, 
And my bones burn with heat. 

31 My harp also is turned to mourning, 
And my pipe to notes of grief. 

1 I made a covenant with mine eyes ; 
How then could 1 g:i/c upon a maid? 

2 For what is tho portion appointed by God from above, 
And the inheritance allotted by the Almighty from on 

3 Is not destruction for the wicked, | high ? 
And ruin for the workers of iniquity? 

4- Doth He not see my ways, 
And number all my steps ? 

e If I have walked with falsehood, 
And if my foot hatli hasted to deceit, 

6 Let him weigh me in an even balance ; 
Yea, let God know my integrity I 

7 If my steps have turned aside- from the way, 
And my heart gone after mine eyes, 

Or if any stain hnr.li cleaved to my hand. 

8 Then I may sow, arid another eat ; 
And what I plant, may it be rooted up ! 

i) If my heart hath bcc'i ciiticcd by a woman, 
Or if I have watelied at my neighbor's dour. 

10 Then let my wife grind for another, 
And let other men lie with her ! 

11 For this were a heinous crime, 

Even a transgression to be punished by the judges; 



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13 If I have refused justice to my man-servant or maid- 

servant, 
When they lin.il :i. controversy with me, 

14 Then what shall I do when God risetli up ? 
And when lie visiret.Ii, what shall I answer him? 

15 Did not He that made me in the womb make him? 
Did not one fashion us in the womb ? 

16 If I have refused the poor their desire, 
And caused the eyes of the widow to fail; 

17 If I have eaten my morsel alone, 

And the fatherless hath not partaken of it; 
13 (Nay. from my youth he grew up with me as with a 
father, 
And I have helped Ibis widow from my mother's womb;) 

19 If I have seen any one perishing for want of clolhbig, 
Or any poor man without covering; 

SO If his loins have not blessed me, 

And he hath not been warmed with the fleece of my sheep; 
31 If I have shaken my hand a;;ainsi the fatherless, 

Because I saw my help in the gale, — 

22 Then may my shoulder fdl irom its blade, 
And my fore-ana be broken from its bone! 

23 For destruction from Hod was ■■• terror to me, 
And before his majesty I could do nothing. 

2i If I have made sold my trust, 

Or said to the tine gold, Thou art ray confidence; 

25 If I have rejoiced, because my wealth was great, 
And ray baud bad found abundance; 

20 If I have beheld the sun in Ids splendor, 
Or the, moon advancing in brightness, 

27 And my heart hath keen "ecretly enticed, 
And my mouth hath kissed my hand, — 

28 This also were it crime to be punished by the judge; 
For I should have denied the Cod who is above. 

29 If I have rejoiced at the destruction of him [bat haled me. 
And exalted when evil came upon him; 



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82 j o n. [chap. xxxa. 

30 (Nay, I have not suffered my mouth to sin, 
By asking with curses his life ;) 

31 If the meu of ray tent have not exclaimed, 

" Who is there that hath not been satisfied with his meat? " 

32 The stranger dirt not lodge in the street; 

1 opened ray doors to tin- traveller. [sion, 

33 Have 1, after the manner of men, hidden my trail ,sgr es- 
CoueealiMg ray iniquity in my bosom, 

34 Then let me l>e confounded before the great multitude! 
Let the contempt ol' families cover me with shame! 
Tea, let me keep silence ! let me never appear abroad ! 

35 that there were one who would hear me ! 

.lieliol.d my signature ' let the Almighty answer me. 
And let mine adversary write down his charge! 

36 Truly I would wear it upon my shoulder; 
1 would bind it upon me as a crown. 

37 I would disclose to him all my steps;- 
J would approach him like a prince. 

33 If my laud cry out against me, 
And its furrows Ln-wa.il logeilier ; 

39 If I have eaten of its fruit-; without payment, 
And wrung out the life of its owners, — 

40 .Let thorns grow up instead of wheat, 
And noxious weeds instead of barley. 

The words of Job are ended. 



XXI. 
Speech of Elihu. — Chap. XXXII.-XXXVir, 

E So these, three men ceased to answer i 

1 was righteous in his own ey^s. Then was kindled the 
wrath of Elihu, the son of Karachel, the Buzitc, of the 
family of Ra.m : against Job was his wrath kindled, be- 
cause he aeeouuted himself righteous rather than God. 

5 Against his three friends irtso was his wrath kindled, be- 
cause they had not found an answer, and yet had con- 



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CHAP. KXXII] JOB. 83 

t demned Job. Now Elilm had delayed to reply to Job, 

5 because they were older than himself. But when Klihu 
saw that there was no answer in the mouth of these three 

6 men, Ids wrath iv;is kindled. Then spake Elilm, the son 
of Barachel, the Buzite, and said; 

I am young, and ye arc very old; 
Therefore I was afraid, 

And durst not make known to you my opinion. 
J I said, " Days should speak, 

And the multitude of years should Leach wisdom." 

8 But it is the spirit in man, 

Ever, the inspiration of the Almighty, that giveth him un- 
derstanding. 

9 Great men are not always wise, 

Nor do the a.sod ;dnays understand what, is right. 

10 Therefore, I pray, listen to me : 
1 also will declare my opinion. 

11 Behold, I have waited for your words, 

f have listened to your arguments, 
Whilst ye searched out what to say j 

12 Tea, I have attended to you ; 

And heboid, none of you hath refuted Job, 
Nor answered his words. 

13 Say not, then, " We have found out wisdom ; 
God must conquer him, not man." 

14 He hath not directed Ids discourse tigainst me, 

And with speeches like yours will I not answer him. 

15 They were confounded ! they answered no more ! 
They could say nothing ! 

1G I waited, hut they spake not ; 

They stood siill ; they answered- no more! 

17 Therefore- will 1 answer, on my part; 
I also will show my opinion. 

18 For [ am full of matter; 

The spirit within me constraineth me. 
j;> Behold, my bosom is as wine that hath no vent; 

Like bottles of new wine, which are bursting. 
20 I will speak, tlii.it- .1 may he relieved; 

I will open my lips and answer. 



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84 job. [osir. is 

21 I will not be partial to any man's person ; 
Nor will I flatter any man. 

22 For I know not how to flatter ; 

Soon would my Maker take me away. 

I Hear, therefore, my discourse. I pray thee, Job 
And attend unto all my words ! 

1> .lWxitil, 1 tun opening my mouth; 

My tongue is now speaking in my palate. 
3 My words shall bo in the uprightness of my hea' ; 

My lips shall utter knowledge, purely. 
i The spirit of God made me, 

And the breath of the Almighty gave me life. 
6 If thou'art able, answer me; 

Sot thyself in array against me ; stand up ! 

6 Behold, I, like thee, am a creature of God; 
i also was formed of clay. 

7 Behold, my terror cannot dismay ihee, 
Nor can my greatness he heavy upon thee. 

8 Surely thou hast said in my hearing, 
I have heard the sound of thy words: 

it "I am pure, and without transgression; 

I am clean, and there is no iniquity in me. 
it) Behold, He seeketh causes of hostility against me; 
He regardeth me as his enemy. 

II He putteth my feet in the stocks ; 
He watehelti all my paths." 

12 Behold, in this thou art not right; I will answer thee 
For God is greater than man. 

13 Why dost thou contend with Him? 

For he giveth no account of any of his doings. 

14 For God spcaketh once, 

Yea, twice, when man regardeth it not. 

15 In a dream, in a vision of the night, 
When deep sleep falleth upon men, 
In slumber upon the bed; 

16 Then openetli he the ears of men, 
And sealeth up for them admonition ; 

17 That he may turn man from his purpose, 
And hide pride from man. 



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38 Tims he snvelh him J.Vom die pit, 

Yen, liis life from perishing by the sword. 

19 He is chastened also with pain upon his bed, 
And with a continual agit.atiun of Ins bones, 

20 So that his mouth abhorruth bread, 
And his taste tlie choicest food ; 

21 His flesh is consumed, that it cannot be seen, 
And his bones, that wore invisible, are naked ; 

2'A Yea, his soul draweth near to the pit, 
And his life lo the destroyers. 

23 But if then: ho with liiin a messenger, 
An interpreter, one of a thousand, 
Who may show unto man his duty, 

24 Then will God lie gracious to him, and say, 
" Save him lroni going down to the pit: 

I have (bund a ransom." 

25 His flesh shall becitme fresher than a child's ; 
He shall return to the days of his youth. 

26 He shall pray lo God, ami he will be favorably to h 
And permit him to see his face with joy, 

And restore unto man his righteousness. 

27 He shall sing among men, and say, 
' L I sinned ; I acted perversely ; 
Ye.;, hath he not requited me for it: 

28 He hath delivered me from going down to the pit, 
And my life beholdeth the light," 



30 That he may bring him bark from the pit, 
That he may enjoy the light of the living. 

31 Mark well. O Job! hearken to me! 
Keep silence, and I will speak. 

32 Yet if thou hast any thing to say, answer me ! 
Speak! for I deaire to pronounce thee innocent. 

33 Jjut if not, do thou listen to mo ! 

Keep silence, and I will f.e;:eh i.hee wisdom ! 



And Elihu proe; rdud, and said: 



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2 Hear my words, ye wise men! 

Give ear lo me, y« that have knoiylcilge! 

3 For the ear trieth words, 
As the mouth tasteth meat. 

& Let us examine for ourselves what is right; 
Let us know among ourselves what is true. 

5 Job hath said, "I am righteous, 
And God rcfuseth me justice. 

6 Though I am innocent, I am made a liar ; 

My wound is incurable, though J am five from transgres- 

7 "Where is the man like Job, 
Who (Iriiikotli impiety iike water; 

S Win) goet.h in company with evil-doers, 

And walketh with wicked men ? 
9 For he hath said, " A man hath no advantage, 

When ho delight.ctli himself in God." 

10 Wherefore hearken to me, ye men of understanding ! 
Far be iniquity from God; 

Yea, far bo injustice from the Almighty ! 

11 For what a man hath done he will requite him, 
And render to every one according to bis deeds. 

12 Surely God will not do iniquity, 

Nor will the Almighty per vert justice. 

13 Who hath given him the charge of the earth? 
Or who hat.ii created the whole world? 

H Should he set his heart against man, 

Should he take back his spirit and his breath, 

15 Then would all flesh expire' together; 
Yea, man would return io the dust. 

lii If thou hast understanding, hear this ! 
Give ear to the voice of my words ! 

17 Shall he, that ha.i.eih justice, govern ? 

Wilt thou thou condemn the just and mighty One? 

18 Is it fit to say to a king, Thou art wicked ; 
Or to jinnee*, Ye are unrighteous? 

19 How much less to him that is not partial to princes, 
Nor regardeth the rich more than the poor? 

For they are all the work of his hands. 



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chap, xxxn-.] JOE. 87 

20 In a moment they die; yen., fit. midnight 
Do the people singer mid pass away, 

And llic mighty are destroyed without handi 

21 For his eyes are upon the ways of man ; 
He seeth all his steps. 

22 There is no darkness, nor shadow of death, 
Where evil-doers may hide themselves. 

'a lie iieedeth not attend long to a man, 

That he may go into judgment before God ; 

24 He dasheth in pieces the mighty without inquiry, 
And setteth up others ill their stead. 

25 Therefore he knoweth their works, 

And in a night he over throw eth them, so that they are 



2(5 On account of their wickedness he smiteth them, 
Tn the presence of many beholders ; 

27 Because they turned away from him, 
And had no regard to his ways, 

28 And caused the cry of the poor to come before him; 
For he heareth the cry of the oppressed. 

20 When he giveth rest, who can cause trouble ? 
And when he hideth his face, 
Who can behold him ? 

30 So is it with nations and individuals alike 1 
That the winked may no more rule, 

And may not be snares to the people. 

31 Surely thou siioiddst say unto God, 

"I have received chastisement ; I will no mOTe offend ; 

32 What I see not, teach thou me ! 

If I have done iniquity, I will do it no more." 

S3 Shall he recompense according to thy mind, 

Because thou refuses!, or because thou choosest, and not 
he? 

Speak, if thou hast knowledge! 
M Men of understanding, 

Wise men, who hear me, will say, 
sr, "Job hath spoken without knowledge, 

And his words are without wisdom/' 
36 I desire that Job may he tried to the last, 

For answering like wicked men. 



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S7 For he addelh impiety to Ilis sin ; 
He clappetli his hands among us, 
And inultiplit: Lli ivm'us :i^:i:ust God. 

1 Moreover F.hhu proceeded, and said: 

2 Dost thou then think thir to he right ? 

Thou hast said, " I am move righteous than God." 
a For thou askest, " What advantage have I? 

What have I gained, more thwi if I had sinned?" 
4 1 will answer thee, 

And thy companions with thee. 

6 Look up to the heaven*, and seel 

And behold the clouds, which are high above thee! 

6 If thou sitmest, what doest thou against Ilitn. ? [him ? 
If thy transgress en 3 ho multiplied, what doest thou to 

7 If thou art righteous, what dust thou give- him : 
Or what rece:vei.h ho at thy hand? 

8 Thy wickodne-^ injureih oidy a man like thyself, 
And thy rigbl.oou.Mie.ss prolileth only a .son of man. 

9 The oppressed <:vy out on account of the multitude of 

wrongs ; 

They cry aloud on account of the arm of the mighty. 
JO But none saith, " Wheie is God, my Maker, 

Who giveth songs in the night ; 
11 Who teaeheth us more than th.o beasts, of the earth, 

And maketh us wiser than the birds of heaven?" 
13 There they cry aloud on account of the pride of the 

.Hut lie giveth no answer. [wicked; 

13 For God will not hear ihe vain supplication, 

Nor will the .Almighty regard it ; 
j4 Much less when thou saves t thou canst not see him : 

Justice is with him, — ■ only wait thou for him 1 
15 But now, because he halh not visited in his anger, 

Kor taken strict note of transgression, 
IS Therefore hath -Job opened his mouth rashly, 

And multiplied words without knowledge. 

1 Elihu also proceeded, and said r 



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CHAP. XXJCVI.] JOB. St) 

2 Bear with me a little while. Unit 1 miiy show thee! 
For I have yet words in behalf of God. 

3 I will bring my knowledge from afar, 
And assert the justice of my Maker. 

i Truly my words shall not be false : 
A man of sou ml knowledge is before thee. 

G Behold, God is great, but, despise th not any; 

Great is he hi strength of understanding. 
B He suffercth not the wicked to prosper, 

But rend eve ill justice to the oppressed. 

7 Ho withdrawer.ii not. his fives from the righteous; 

But establish (sili them for ever with kings on the throne, 
That ihey may bo exalted. 

8 And if they be bound in fetters, 
And holuen in tho cords of affliction, 

Then showeth he them their deeds, 

And how they have set him ;it defiance by their transgres- 

10 He also openeih flieir oars to admonition, 

And commandeth them to return from iniquity. 

11 If they obey and serve him, 

They spend their days in prosperity, 

And their years in pleasures. 

12 But if they obey not. they perish by the sword ; 
They die in their own folly. 

13 The corrupt iu heart treasure up wrath; 
They cry no! to God, when he bindeth them. 

II They die in their youth; 

They close their fives with the unclean. 
15 But he delivei'eth tho poor in their distress; 

Ifo openeih their ours in affliction. 
j(i He will bring tliee ;ilso from the jaws of distress 

To a broad place, where is no straitness ; 

And the provision of thy table, shall he full of fatness. 

17 But if thou art. full of the judgment of the wicked, 
.!-.!■ i;;-.i M i.l. and jusiioe shall Jake hold of thee. 

18 For if wrath be with him, beware lest he take thee away 

by his stroke, 
So that a great ransom shall not savo thee! 



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90 JOE. [CHAP. IXXVU. 

19 Will he esteem thy riches ? 

No I neither thy gold, nor ;ili the abundance of thy wealth. 

20 Long not thou for that night 

To which nations arc taken away from their place, 

21 Take heed, turn not thine eyes to iniquity ! 
For this hast thou chosen rather than affliction. 

22 Behold, God is exalted in his power i 
Who is a teacher like him ? 

23 Who hath prescribed to him his way? 

Or who can say to him, " Thou hast done wrong " ? 

24 Forget not to magnify Ins work, 
Which men celebrate with songs. 

25 All mankind gaze upon it; 
Mortals behold it from afar. 

26 Behold, God is great ; we cannot know him, 
Nor search out the number of his years. 

27 Lo I he draweth up the drops of water, 
Which distil rain from his vapor ; 

28 The clouds pour it down, 

.And drop it upon man in abundance. 
2!> Who can understand the spreading of Ins elotids, 

And the rattling of his pavilion ? 
;;■:) Heboid, lie spreadetli around himself Ids light, 

And he clotbeth himself with the depths of the sea, 

31 By these he punislieth nations, 

And by these be givetb toed in abundance. 

32 His bands he eovereth with lightning; 

He givoth it commandment against an enemy. 
63 His "thunder maketh him known; 

Yea, to the herds, as he ascendeth on high. 



1 At this my heart ti 

And leapeth out of its place. 

2 Hear, hear, the thunder of his voice, 

And the noise which goeth forth from his mouth ! 

3 lie direclelh it under the whole heaven. 
And his lightning to the ends of the earth. 

4 After it the thunder roareth ; 

He thundereth with his voice of majesty, 
And restrained! it not, when his voice is heard. 



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CHAf. XXXVII ] JOB. 91 

5 God thunderclh with liis voice marvellously; 
Great things doeth ho, which we cannot comprehend. 

6 For he saith to the snow, " Be thou on the earth I " 
To tils-; shower also, even tho showers o: ; his might. 

7 He sealeth up the hand of every man, 

That all men whom he hath made may acknowledge him. 

8 Then the beasts go into dens, 
And abide in their caverns. 

S Out of the south cometh the whirlwind, 
And cold out of the north. 

10 By the breath of God ice is formed, 
And the broad waters become narrow. 

11 Yea, with moisture be bnrdeneth the clouds; 
He spreadeth abroad liis lightning-clouds. 

12 They move about by his direction, 

To execute all his commands throughout tho world ; 
IS Whether he cause them to come for nmrMnnent, 
Or for the land, or for mercy. 

1* Give ear to tliis, Job ! 

Stand still, and consider the wondrous works of God! 

15 Dost thou know when God gave commandment to them, 

And caused the lightning of his cloud to flash? 

16 Dost thou understand the- balancing of the clouds, 

The wondrous works of llim thai- is perfect in knowledge? 

17 How thy garments become warm, 

When lie ma.keth the earth .still by the south wind? 
IS Canst thou like him spread out the sky, 
Which is firm like a molten mirror? 

19 Teach us what, we shall say to him ! 

For we cannot set iu order our words by reason of dark- 

20 Shall it be told him that I would speak ? 
Shall a man speak, that he may be consumed? 

21 For now men do not look upon the light, 
When it is bright in the skies, 

When the wind hath passed over them, and made them 

22 From the north Cometh gold; 
But with God is terrible rr 



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92 job. [ciiai.. 

23 The Almighty, we cannot find Mm out ; 
Great is he in power and justice, 

Abundant in righteousness ; he doth not oppress. 

24 Therefore let men fear him ! 

Upon none of the wise in heart will he look. 



XSIL 

Jehovah's reproof of Job.— CnAr. XXXVIII., XXXIX. 

Then spake Jehovah to Joh out of the whirlwind, and 



2 Who is this that darkeneth counsel by words without 

knowledge ? 
8 Gird up thy loins like a man 1 

I will ask thee, and answer thou me I 

4 Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the 

Declare, if thou hast understanding! 

5 Who fixed its dimensions, that thou sh.ouldst know it! 
Or who stretched out the line upon it? 

Upon what were its foundations fixed? 
And who laid its corner-stone, 

7 When the morning sNirs sang together, 
And all the sons of Cod shouted for joy ? 

8 And who shut up the sea with doors. 
When it hurst forth y,« from the womb ? 

9 When I made the clouds its mantle, 
And thick d;irkni'ss its swaddli unhand ; 

10 When I appointed for it my bound, 
And fixed for it bars and doors ; 

11 And said, Thus far shalt thou come, and no farther, 
And here shall thy proud waves be stayed ! 

12 Hast thou, in thy life-, given lihar^e to the morning, 
Or caused the day-spring to know its place, 

13 That it should lay hold of the ends of the earth, 
And shake the wicked out of it ? 



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CHAP. XXXVIII.] JOB. 

11 It is changed as clay by the seal ; 

And all things stand forth as in j-Ictn apparel. 
15 But from the (ricked their light is withheld, 

And (ho high-raised arm is broken. 

15 Hast thou visited the springs of the sea, 
And walked through the. recesses of the deep? 

17 Have the gates of death been disclosed to thee, 
And hast thou seen the gates of the shadow of di 

18 Hast thou surveyed the "breadth of the earth? 
l)eelare : if thou knowest it all : 

19 Where is the way to iho abode of light? 
And darkness — where is its dwelling-place? 

SO That thou shouldst load it to its boundary, 
And that thou shouldst know the paths to its 

21 Surely thou know est ; for thou wast then horn ! 
And the number of thy years is great ! 

22 Hast thou visited lite storehouses of the snow, 
Or seen the treasuries of the hail, 

23 Which I have- reserved against the lime of trouble,— 

Against the day uf l>fit tie and war? 

24 What is the way to where lieht is distributed, 
And the east wind spread abroad upon lite earth ':' 

2fi Who hath prepared channels for the rain, 

And a path for the thunder-flash, 
28 To give rain to the land without an inhabitant-. 

To the wilderness wherein is no man ; 

27 To satisly the desolate and waste ground, 
And cause the tender herb to spring forth ? 

28 Hath the rain a father ? 

Or who hath begotten the drops of the dew ? 

20 Out of whose womb came the ice? 

And who hut] i gendered the boar-frost of heaven? 
30 The waters are hid as under stone, 

And the face of the deep becometh solid. 



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94 JOB. [chap, xxxix, 

32 Canst thou lead forth the, Signs iu their season, 
Or guide the Bear wilh her sons ? 

33 Knowest thou the ordinances of the heavens? 

J last Ihou appointed their dominion over the earth? 

34 Canst thou lift up thy voice to the clouds, 

So that abundance oi' wilier? will cover thee? 

35 Canst thou send forth lightning, so that they will go, 
And say to thee, " Here we are"? 

B6 Who hath put understanding in the reins, 
And given intelligence to the mind? 

37 Who numberoth the clouds in wisdom? 
And who pooreth out the bottles of heaven, 

38 When the dust tiowetb into a molten mass, 
And the clods cleave fast together? 

39 Canst thou hunt prey for the lioness, 

Or satisfy the hunger of the young lions, 
10 When they couch in their dens, 

And lie in wait in the thicket ? 
41 Who provide th fur the raven his food, 

When his young ones cry unto God, 

While they wander about without food? 

1 Knowest thou the time when the wild goats of the rock 
bring forth? 

Or canst thou observe when the hinds are in labor? 
3 Canst thou number the months they fulfil, 

And know the season when they bring forth ? 
3 They bow themselves ; they bring forth their young ; 

They cast forth their pains. 
i Their young or.es are strong : they grow up in the fields; 
They go awav. and return not to them. 

5 Who hath sent forth the wild ass free? 

Who hath loosed the bands of the wild ass, 
8 To whom I have given the wilderness for his house, 

And the barren land for his dwelling-place? 

7 He scorneth the tumult of the city, 

And heedeth not the shouting of the driver; 

8 The range of the mountains is his pasture-, 
He seeketh after every green thing. 



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*■] 



job. 95 



9 "Will the wild-ox consent to serve thee ? 
Will lie pass the night at tliy crib ? 

10 Canst thou bind the wild-os with the harness to the fur- 

row? 
Or will he harrow the valleys after thee? 

11 Wilt thou rely upon him because his strength is great, 
And commit to him thy lahor? 

12 Wilt thou trust him to bring home thy grain, 
And gather in thy harvest? 

13 The wing of the ostrich moveth joyfully; 
But is it with loving pinion and feathers? 

14 Nay, she layet.h her eggs en the ground; 
She warmeth them in the dust, 

15 And forgetreth that the foot may crush them, 
And that the wild beast may break them. 

lfi She is eruel to her young, as if they were not hers ; 
.11 1.' r labor is in vain. yet sin- feareth not ; 

17 Because God hath denied Iter wisdom, 
And hath not given her understanding. 

18 Yet when she lashelb herself up on high, 
She laugheth at the horse and his rider. 

19 ■ Hast thou given the horse strength? 

Hast thou clothed his neck witii his trembling mane? 

20 Hast thou taught hiin 10 bound tike the locust. ? 
How majestic his snorting! how terrible! 

21 Ho paweth in the valley ; he exulteth in liis strength, 
And rusheth into the miilst of arms. 

22 He laugheth at fear; lie trembleth not, 
And turncth not kick from the sword. 

23 Against him rattle the quiver, 
The (laming spear, and the lance. 

24 With rage and fury be devoureth the ground; 
He will not believe that the trumpet soundeth. 

25 At every blast of the trumpet, he saith, Aha! 
And sijutleth the battle afar off,— 

The thunder of the captains, and the war-shout, 

26 Ts it by thy wisdom that the hawk ilieth, 

And spreadeth his wings toward the south ? 



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96 job. 

■27 Dol.li l-lic en !^1 :• pour ill i.lty ooiiimruid. 

And build his nest on high ? 
28 lie dwellelh ami lod^olli upon the rock, 

Upon the peak of the rock, and the 
ay From thence he spieth out prey; 

His eyes discern it from afar. 
30 His young ones suck up blood ; 

And where the slain are, there is he 



xxin. 

Jehovah's qutstimi :iinl .I«l> : .- ™>>Ty. — Chap. XL. 1-5. 

1 Moeeovek Jiilioviib spake lo Job, and said; 

2 Will the censurer of the Almighty contend witli him ? 
Will the reprover of God answer? 

8 Then Job answered Jehovah, and said: 

i Behold, I am vile ! what can I answer thee ? 

I will lay my band upon my mouth. 
5 Once have I spoken, but I will riot speak again ; 

Yea, twice, but I will say no more. 

XXIV. 

Jehovah's continued reproof of Job. — Chap. XL. 6-XLI. 



7 Gird up now thy loins like a man ! 

I will ask (lice, ami do thou instruct me I 
a Wilt thou even disannul my right? 

Wilt thou condemn ui«, that thou mays t be righl 
Hast thou an ai'm like God's ? 

Or canst thou thunder with thj voico like him? 
10 Deck thyself ivit.lt grandeur and majesty, 

And array thyhclf in sjiii/iidor and glory! 



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chap, w] job. 97 

11 Send for tli the fury of tiiy wrath! 

Look upon every proud one. and aba.se him! 

12 Look upon every proud oue, and bring him low; 
Yea, tread down the wicked in (.heir place ! 

13 Hide them in the dust together; 
Shut up their faces in darkness ! 

H Then, indeed, will I give thee the praise, 
That thine own right hand can save thee. 

15 Behold the river-horse, which I have made as well as 
He fcedeth on grass like the ox. [thyself; 

10 Behold, what strength is in his loins ! 

And what force in die muscles of his belly! 

17 U.o bondctb his tail, like the cedar, 

And the sinews of his thighs are twisted together. 

18 His bones are pipes of brass, 
And his limbs are bars of iron. 

1!) lie is chief among (lie works of God ; 
I Ic that made him gave him his sword. 

20 For the mountains supply him with food, 
Where all the Leasts of the field play. 

21 lie lieth down under the loto-phtuls, 
In the coven, of reeds, and in the fens. 

22 .The lote-plunts cover him with their shadow, 
And the willows of the brook compass, him about. 

23 Lo! the stream ovorHowcih, hut he starteth not; 

He is unmoved though Jordan rush forth even, to his 
mouth. 
21 Can one take him before his eyes, 
Or pierce his nose with hooka ? 

1 Canst" thou draw forth the- crocodile with a hook, 
Or press down his tongue with a cord? 

2 Canst thou put a rope into his nose, 
Or pierce his cheek with a hook? 

3 Will he make many entreaties to thee? 
Will he speak soft words to thee? 

i Will he make a covenant, with thee? 

Canst thou take him for a servant for ever? 
c Canst thou play with him, as with a bird? 

Or canst thou bind hint tor thy maidens ? 



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e Do men in company lay snares for him? 

Do they divide liini among the merchants? 
7 Canst thou fill his skin will) barbed irons, 

Or Lis head with li sh -spears ? 
B Do but lay thy hand upon him, — 

Thou wilt no more think of battle ! 

9 Behold, his hope is vain ! 

Is he not cast down at the very sight of him? 

10 None is so fierce that he dare stir him up; 
Who then is he that can stand before me? 

11 Who hath done me a favor, that. [ must repay him? 
Whatever is under the whole heaven is mine. 

12 I will not be silent concerning his limbs, 
And his strength, ami the beauty of his armor. 

13 Who can uncover the surface of Ins garment? 
Who will approach his jaws ? 

li Who will open the doors of his face? 
The rows of his teeth are terrible ! 

15 His glory is his strong shields, 

United with each other, as with a close seal. 

16 They are joined one to another, 

So that no air can come between them. 

17 They cleave fast to each other, 

They hold together, ami cannot be separated. 

18 His sneezing sendeth forth light, 

And his eyes are like the eyelashes of the morning. 

19 Out of his mouth go flames, 
And sparks of fire leap forth. 

20 From his nostrils hsucih smoke, a.s from a heated pot, or 

caldron. 

21 His breath kmdleth coals, 

And flames issue from his mouth. 

22 In his neck dwelleth strength, 
And terror danceth before liim. 

23 The Hakes of his flesh cleave fast together; 
They are Arm upon him, and cannot be moved. 

24 His heart is solid like a stone ; 
Yea, solid like the nether millstone. 



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25 ■ When ho riset.Ii up, the mighty are afraid; 
"Yea, they lose themselves for terror. 

26 The sword of him that assaileth him doth not stand, 
The spear, the dart, nor the habergeon. 

37 He regardeth iron as straw, 
And brass as rotten wood. 

28 The arrow cannot make him flee ; 
Sling-stoncs to him become stubble ; 

29 Clubs are accounted by him as straw ; 
He laugheth at the shaking of the spear. 

30 Under him arc .sharp potsherds ; 

Tic spread* tli tint a lhi\ishiug-sh-dj:e upon the mire. 

31 He maketh the deep Lo boil like a caldron; 
He maketh the sea like a pot of ointment 

32 Behind him he leaveth a shining path ; 
One would think the deep to be hoary. 

33 Upon the earth (hero is not his master; 
lie is made withoi.it fear. 

31 He lookelli down upon all that is high ; 
He is king over all the sons of pride. 



Job's entire subiiilssJim Ui .IuIiovjlIl. — Chap. SLII. 1-6. 

1 Then .Job answered Jehovah, and said: 

2 I know that thou canst do every thing, 
And that no purpose of thine can he hindered. 

3 Who is he that darkencth counsel by words withou 

knowledge ? 
Thus have I uttered what T understood not; 
Tilings too wonderful for me, which I knew not: 

4 Hear thou, then, I beseech thee, and I will speak! 
I will ask thee, and do thou instruct me ! 

B I have heard of thee by (he bearing of the ear; 

But now hath mine eye seen thee. 
6 Wherefore I abhor myself, 

And repent in dust and ashes. 



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Jehovah's vhulu-.uiu" n:' J -J.;. :\::r. 'he hiifipi- issue of his trials. 
Chap. XLII. T-17. 

7 And wlicn Jehovah had spoken these words unto Job, 
he said to Eliphaz the Temanite ; "My wrath is kindled 
against thee, and against thy two friends ; for ye have not 
spoken concerning nic that, winch is right, as hiltll my ser- 

B vant Job. Take ye, therefore, seven bullocks and seven 
rams, and go to my servant Job, and offer tor yourselves 
a burnt- offering, and my servant Job shall pray for yon ; 
for to him alone will 1 have regard ; that I deal not with 
you according to your folly. For ye have not spoken 
concerning me that width is right, as hath my servant 
Job." 

9 So Eliphiw the Temanite, and T'dldad the Shuhite, and 
Zophar the Maamaihilo, went and did as Jehovah com- 

11) manded them; and Jehovah had regard to Job. And Je- 
hovah turned (lie captivity of Job, ivhen he prayed tor his 
friends, and Jehovah gave him twice as much as he had 

JI before. Then came to him all his brethren, and all his 
sisters, and all his former acquaintances, and ate bread 
with him in his house ; and condoled with him, and com- 
forted him over all the evil which Jehovah had brought 
upon him ; and every tine gave him a piece of money [a 
kesita], and every one a ring of gold. 

12 Thus Jehovah blessed lire latter end of Job more titan 
the beginning; for he had fourteen thousand sheep, six 
thousand camels, a thousand yoke of oxen, and a thousand 

13 she-asses. He had also seven sons, and three daughters. 

14 And he called the name of the first, Jemima, of the second 
]j Kesiia,, and of the third Keren happueh. And in all the 

land wore no women found so fair as the daughters ef 

Job; and their father gave them an inheritance among 
Hi their brethren. And Job lived after: this a hundred and 

forty years, and saw his sons, and his sons' sons, even four 
17 generations. Then Job died, being old and salisiied with 

days. 



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ECCLESIASTICS. 



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INTRODUCTION TO EOCLESIASTES. 



1'i.w books of ibc Ojil Testament Iiiik: given rise lo greater 
diversities of opinion than that which is called Eeclesiastes, or tbe 
Preacher, In regard to its form and. its spirit, its subject and 
ils meaning, its scope anil design, its age and author, widely dif- 
ferent opinions have been entertained, and defended with confi- 
dence and ingcuuhy. jiy different critics the author has been 
regarded as an Epicurean, a Saddncee, a sire] ilk, a fatalist. By 
other- Ills chief' aim if supposed to be to prove and maintain the 
doctrines of the immortality of ihe human son], and a future sliik: 
of retribution, Some of fin; ancient Jew.-, according to St. Je- 
rome, entertained objections against (bis book, saving, that, " as 
some books, which Solomon v,-rote, had been lost, this loo ought 
to lie old iterated; because it asserted that the creatures of God 
are vain, and regarded all tilings as worthless, and preferred meat 
and .drink and delicacies to every tiling else ; yet they said that 
the twelfth chapter alone, which summed tip all he had writ-ton 
iii the preoepl. to tea!' Hod and keep his command men!.-, gave It a 
sufficient claim to be placed among the sacred hooks."* So in 
the Tahnnii we read, "Some of the wise men desired to hide, 
n-j'z, that is, to forbid the public reading of, the book Coheleth. 
bodies'- there wore found in ir words tending to heresy." j Others, 
because his language was contradictory. 

* See Comment, on Eccles. xii. IS, Jerome's Works, vol. ii. p. 787, eilit. 
MartianoY. 

t See Pesikto Kabbati, fob 33, e. 1 ; Mktrash, Colic!., fob 311, c. 1 ; Ta- 
jik™ tinti., § a?, ibl. 161, c. 2; Tr. Scliabb., fob 30, c 3. 



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104 INTRODUCTION TO 

A c on si deration of the objections vvliit-li hai e been made to the 
book in ancient :lik! modern (hues, anil of the apparent contradic- 
tions which perplex tin; reader, seems to be (irmauded as a part of 
tlic hi trod motion to this book. 

Li regard to the class uf compiisuion to which the book belongs. 
it seems to conn: nearest to what, in modem lime*, would be called 
an ethical or moral essay. I do not, with some writers, regard it 
as a poem, though parts of it run into the region of poetry, and 
have a degree of rhythm in the construction. It is, however, 
written with the freedom of poetry, without regard to logical cou- 
necliou of thought, and wiihuut any strict, ami regular plan kept 
in view throughout. Not that the work is wholly destitute of 
method. There is, at any rate, a unity of subject pervading it 
from beginning to end ; interrupted, it is true, but not destroyed, 
by digressions and the introduction of moral maxims. The au- 
thor evidently throws out freely the thought;- which occur to him 
on a general subject, rather than under! akes to prove any particu- 
lar point, or to accomplish any precise plan, to which all ihe parts 
should have a definite ami intimate relation. 

If I were to express (lie subject of the work in a single sentence, 
which might serve a^ a titlepage to it, I should call il " Thoughts 



J THE liEST MANNER, AX"I> TO OUTA1S Till; 

The main doctrine, or speculative, view, of the author is the vanity 
of hi; man things, that is, of human striving, and of (tic nan fortunes 
and experiences ; and his most pcomineul. practical precept is, that 
men should enjoy the present blessings of lilo as they come, with- 
out anxiety and over-siren notts exertions relating to distant ami 
future good. But there are many observations, and many practi- 
cal precepts of prudence, virtue, and religion, scattered through 
the work, as having an independent value, ami not having a par- 
ticular and obvious relation to any general plan or design, of the 
author. 

In regard to the objectionable 'on time ills and inconsistencies 
which have been charged cpuu the l'rea.chcr, it appears to ine that- 
much may be said in (.he way of explanation. One important ojii- 



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ECCLESIA.STES. 105 

shloralmn is lbs. 1 general (-li^i-ai-lcr of (In 1 cumpOHtio'i, which does 
not aim at metaphysical accuracy of expression, or precise state- 
ments of doctrine ur principles. I'll' 1 - writer throws o.it thoughts 
and views, which occur to him as the results of his various experi- 
ence, without making a! Lin; Linn; the limitations ami ipialiiirations 
which a more careful ami logical writer would have placed in im- 
mediate connection with lln; former. We are not, therefore, to 
take all the thoughts which he expresses, while contemplating 
things in certain points of view, as his final and ,501 lied convictions. 
We are to consider whether, in the course of bis essay, lie lias not 
limited, or modified, former statements, if not formally and ex- 
pressly, yet by solemn addiiiojia! declarations, which in iiu-t qualify 
the [(inner; whether, in the one ease, he lias not told us what, he 
thought when considering things under certain aspects, and, in the 
other, what lie believed on the whole, and taking all ei re u instances 
into the. account ; whether, in the one ease, he has not boon stating 
facts which perplexed his mind, and, in the other, expressed his 
habitual Colli in the religion of the Old Testament, to which he 
clung not.withs'n.ndiug these filets. It is very doubtful, however, 
whether he intends to contradict, or has in fact contradicted, any- 
one proposition which be has laid down, in bio same sense and de- 
gree in which he asserted it. 

it is probable that nolhing advanced iiy the Preacher has given 
greater occasion fur the charge of inconsistency or contradiction, 
than the simlimcuts which fie expresses in relation to a relributioti 
for sin. The difficulty occasioned by his statements in relation to 
(liis subjecf is the. greater, if, as seems to be most probable, he 
had not attained tri faiih in a life after death, or a future state of 
ivi.iibuliiin. The doctrine of a retribution after death alt'ords the 
easy solution of the difficulty, which satisfies many readers. But, 
if the writer did not believe in the doctrine, we need a different 
oxphmafiou of the tads. Some of the passages relating io this 
subject are the following: In chap. viii. 14, lo, the Preacher 
says, " There is a vanity which (aket.b place upon the earth, that 
there are righteous men to whom it happened, according to the 
work ei" the wicked, and that there are wicked men to whom it 
bappcni'th according to the work of the righteous. I said, This 
also is vauily. Then 1 commended jny ; because not long i> good 
6* 



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106 INTRODUCTION TO 

for a man, except to cat, anr) to drink, and to lie joyful ; for it is 
this 1 1 nit. abide ill ivillj Li in Ilji- hi- labor during I lie (lays of his life 
which God giveth him under tin: sun." So, chap. ix. 2-5, "All 
things [come lo lliem] as to all. Tliere is one event to the right- 
eous urn) to the wicked ; to the good, to the clean, and to the un- 
clean ; to him that saorilicclh, and to him thai, sacrifiecth not ; as 
is the good, so is iiie sinner; lie that swearcth [falsely], as he 
Unit fears an oath. This is an evil among all things which take 
jihu.-e under the sun, that there is one event to all ; therefore also 
the heart of the sons of men is full of evil, and madness is in their 
heart while [hey live, atid afterward they go down lo the dead. 
For who is tliere that is excepted? With all the living there is 
hope; lor a living dog is better than a dead lion, Tor the living 
know that they must die ; hut the dead know not any thing, and 
there is no more to them any advantage ; fur their memory is for- 
gotten. ... Go thy way, eat thy bread with joy, and drink thy 
wine with a cheerful heart." Other passages of similar import 
might be quoted ; but these arc sufficient. 

On the other hand, we read, in chap. iii. 17, " Then I said in my 
heart, God will judge ihc righteous and the wicked. ]?or there 
shall be a time tor evioy employment and for rvi-ry work [to be 
judgedj.'' And in chap. viii. \2, lo, "Hut though a sinner do 
evil a hundred times, anil have his days prolonged, yet surely I 
know that it shall be well with litem that fear God, that fear be- 
fore him. But it shall not be well with the wicked ; he shall be 
like a shadow, and shall not prolong his days ; because iie fcareth 
not before God.'' And in chap. xi. 11, " Know that for these things 
God will bring thee into judgment." And in chap. xii. 14, "For 
God will bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, 
whether it be good, or whether it be evil." (See also chap. v. 
3-7 ; vil. 17, 18 ; viii. 8.) 

Now, the first remark-, whieh nmy be made upon these seeming 
inconsistencies respecting She doctrine of retribution for sin is., 
that they are not peculiar to the Hook of Eeclesiasles. We find 
similar represent;) lions in the Psalms, in the Hook of .lob, and in 
Habakkuk. (See Ps. txxiii. ; Hab. i. 12-17.) The Book of Joo 
contains strong representation* of the pro>peri[y of the wieked, 
and I he misery uf the righteous : which representations (he write) 



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ECCLESIA.STES. 10< 

i-i'-: fitii-iu_'S vvith faith ill a rigliieous retribution ■'in' sin, and that, 
too, in the present world. That these representations are gener- 
ally put into the mouths of dil'len nt speakers Is a mere matter of 
form, adopted by die author in order 1.0 present different views 
of the subject. But this is not always the case. Job himself is 
made to utter seul.ii is en;* apparently so diverse in ehap. xxiv. and 
xxvil., that some critics have niade arbitrary alterations in the 
text to meet tlie supposed dillioulty. It is probable, therefore, 
thai the alleged inconsistency in the cafe of the Preacher is to be 
explained in the same way as the passages referred to in the 
Psalms, Job, and Habakkuk. 

'2. It is to be remarked, that the fuels asserted by the Treacher 
are, to a considerable extent, at least, what ive till know to be 
true. Physical events do take- plant; according (o physical laws. 
The sun rises on the evil anil lite good, and the rain descends on 
the just and the unjust. When a tempest rages, it. does not spare 
the fields and dwellings of the righteous. When the pestilence 
lays waste, it, does not pas- by (lie innocent and devout. If there 
be any exaggeration in the Treacher's statements, if he, places the 
diilicuhies which occur to his mind respecting the. moral govern- 
ment of God in a very strong light, this is to be referred io the 
bold, lun-pialificd way in which he expresses all his thoughts, and 
to his desire to give a st kiting iliusi ration of the vanity of human 
things. He does not make his siateini'iils as deciding l.bc question 
against a retribution for sin, but only as presenting dilhcultics. 
lie is expressing thoughts which occurred to his mind jii. the time, 
not giving his view on the whole. He is complaining (led the 
wicked escape for a long time, though lie may yet have believed, 
as he has expressly asserted, that judgment would at some time 
overtake them. iVot withstanding the extent k) which all things 
happen alike to all, he niny have believed in the doctrine of a rigiu- 
e.oiis retribution, a.s established by the general consequences of 
human actions, as required by the justice of God, and as certainly 
contained in the religious boohs of his nation. 

For it will be conceded by all, that the ilo.-irine of a righteous 
retribution in the present, life is the doctrine of die Old 'Testament. 
it is [band thron-hunt the i'euraieueh ami the lluok of Proverbs. 
It was lirniiy held by the I'sabnists, by Habakkuk, and the author 



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108 INTRODUCTION TO 

of Job, notwithstanding tin: uiilleulties presented by the prosperity 
of llii! wicked, and Liie su tie dugs ot' the righteous. Their faith in 
retribution was not shaken by their observation, that "the un- 
f;-oilly prospered in the world, and increased in riches," while the 
righteous -'have been smitten every day, and dm stoned r.vc.vy 
morning." Tht.iy had lailh, that, though "judgment against an 
evil work was not executed speedily," the wicked "' stood in slip- 
pery places ; " and that in some way, and at sonic time, the ways of 
1 1 .ii-.-- =_l" i ■ i - --. r- ■ i l -.-h would Lo found to be bard, and that, too, in this 
world. Why, then, should we seek a solution of (be difficulty in 
K..rl'.'i:i-|i'.- di lie rent from that which is applicable to other writers 
of the Old Testament? What more is necessary than to suppose, 
that, Jn the one elass of passages, the Treacher states his faith, and 
the iisith of his nation, in tile doctrine of temporal reifinuLion ; 
whilst, in the other class, lie only states facts in regard to the tem- 
porary distribution of good and evil in the world, especially in re- 
gard to the occurrence of the same physical events to all without 
distinction of character, which, though they perplex his mind and 
occasion embarrassment, and impress it with the vanity of human 
things, yet do not shake his faith. In the one case, he declares 
what is true on the whole, in the long-run, and all things consid- 
ered, and what may be expected bom the eternal, justice of the 
Almighty. In the other, he is .stating what fell under his own 
observation and experience in a given time, and which occasioned 
him so much embarrassment, thai he exclaims, " Then I saw the 
whole work of Cod, that a man cannot comprehend that which is 
done under ihe sun; how much soever be may labor to search it 
out, yet, shall he not comprehend it ; yea, though a wise man re- 
solve to know it, yet shad he not lie able to compreheucl it." 

We Christians believe in the moral government of God, and in 
a retribution for sin to a certain extent in the present world, 
though we are sometimes inclined to wonder that a sorer and a 
swifter punishment dues not overtake cvil-iloers. We cannot deny 
tbe facts which the Preacher has staled, and which, at first view, 
seem inconsistent with bis doctrines, however we might qualify the 
statement of them. We think we bring those facts into more por- 
ted- harmony '.villi our t'ahh in the. moral government of God by 
extending the rcirihutioiis of sin into the iiiture world. The mind 



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ECCLESIASTES. 1G9 

of the, P!-t'-ai:Jn~r i:in.y have l;i. : i'!i more embarrassed than that of the 
Christian. It would be strange if it were not. He may not have 

been so able to account for flic phenomena of human life, as (he 
Christian, to whom life, ami immortality have been brought, to light, 
jbii. hi- f'ailh was not shaken, though his understanding was jksi-- 
plexed. Me admits, like an honest man, all the difficulties of the 
subject, and believes sl.ill, (hut thonyjli for a Lime the sinner goes 
unpunished, yet that at some lime, and in some way, he is brought 
hi!.) judgment by the Supreme "Ruler. 

It is true that the Prcacfie:' docs not limit and qualify all his 
statements, like one who weighs all his words with the accuracy of 
l;ishop liullcr. Tt is rather his manner to give bold, uu'jualil'ied, 
and, as it were, paradoxical stutenicnts of the results of hi* experi- 
ence and observation, as ivell as nf the course of conduct which he 
thinks it advisable to pursue. But if. we make due allowance for 
the style of the writer in tliis respect, and tor bis Use of iigurnlive 
and hyperbolical language, we are not eonipelled to believe, not- 
withstanding bis strong statement,- rospoc'Ju;; llie cipial condiiion 
of the righteous and the wicked,, that doubt on the subject of 
retribution was the prevailing habit of his mind. 

It may appear singulai to some readers that I have spent so 
much time on this topic, when the supposition, that the writer be- 
lieved in a stale of retribution after death, "would aiford so obvi- 
ous a solution of the difficulty in question. 15i.it, in several notes 
on various passages in Ihe book, 1 have given reasons which make 
it appear to my mind most probable tint the Preacher had not 
faith in a desirable future life, nuieli less in a. future state of retribu- 
tion. It appears to me, thai he has himself intimated (hat this was 
not the way in which he viewed the subject. Thus, in chap, vim 
l;'l, be says, " liut it shall not be well with the wicked, noUher shall 
he prolong his days, which are as a shadow; because he fearoth 
not before God." I think, too, that if he had had faith in the doc- 
trine of a retribution after death, it, would have pervaded the whole 
book, and given an entirely d ills: rent complexion to it. The prac- 
licai inferences, or recommendations, especially, which (he Preacher 
makes in view of the vaiiily, perplexities, and shortness of life, 
would, it seems to me, have been entirely different, if he had en- 
tertained the ('lnislian liiii.li in immortality and retribution. (See 



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110 INTRODUCTION TO 

chap, ii. 24; Jii. 12, 13, 22; v. 18-90; vii. 14; viii. 15; ix. 7-10, 
&c.) I have already mentioned the pro Liability, that no other 
solution of [lie iliihrultles in Ecclesiastes is lo be sought, ;ti:m tha: 
which applies to the Book of Job, to Habakkuk, and to the 
Psalms. 

With regard to the Preachers tillc^ffl tendency to fatalism, it 
may lie admitted that the sentiments uf chapters iirst and second, 
and of such passages as chap, iii. 14, vi. 10, vii. 13, if taken by 
themselves, and pursued Lo their consequences, without regard to 
other statements and sentiments contained in tin; bock, may seem 
to give pome plausibility In the charge. But what author is not 
liable to the same charge, if treated in the same way! 1 Calvin, 
lli\ Priestley, Ur. Emmons, might receive the same :i|ex]lat!ou. 
Would not even the do'trine of our Saviour and of the Apostle 
Paul, respecting the dependence of all things upon Uod and the 
unlimited extent of the Divine providence, be liable to the same 
charge? The Preacher lias amply .jnalidcil Ins statements respect- 
ing I be impotence of hiunan exertion, and the inevitable course of 
events, and the dependence of all things upon Cod, by the doe- 
trine of a righteous n't filiation, and by iiirions passages, which 
imply faith in human freedom and aecountableuess. In respect 
to this point, as to others, we must keep in mind the <■ [i.i :■: : i . ld-i T.- 
of the writer to give a strong', I might almost say paradisical, 
view of the condition of human tilings, which is immediately before 
bis mind. The necessary limitations ami (nullifications are not 
given at the. 'time. At any rate, if some expressions indicate a 
tendency to fatalism, it is certain that the Preacher was not 
a fatalist. 

It may, however, be admitted, that the author gives a stronger 
view than any other Biblical writer of the circumscribed limits of 
human effort-., and their subjection to a higher, established. Inevi- 
table course- of things, or ordination of Divine providence, which 
man can neither resist nor control. (See chap. iii. l-l.j, especially 
14, 15; vi. 10; vii. 13; ix. 1, 11.) The great theme of the book, 
llie vanity of liiiniii.n things, is made to consist clucily of the vanity 
of human effort or striving, as being either wholly fruitless, or 
fruitless in relation l.o its express object. But, if we interpret the 
language of the author by other parts of the book, we must tome 



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ECCLESIASTES. Ill 

fit the conclusion, that he by no moans designs to encourage inac- 
tivity or neglect of our yioweys, but only an an\ions. ntnl .itiu n-, 
ami over- strenuous jjiirfiiit of future and distant good. If, in one 
j i.i -: >- i i Li. ■ , lir- asks. " What profit hath a man of ill! his labor ? " he 
say;, in another, " Whatever thy hand hndeth to do, do it with thy 
might." However strong is the -vvri ; i i'.j representation of the in- 
fluence of a higher power over his concerns and actions, lie has 
en forced doctrines and duties which imply faith in human freedom 
and acoouulableuess. .is or liii ^ any one a right I: charge liim with 
inconsistency, unless lie is able to prove that the doctrines of the 
Ilnine foroknow'irdge, providence, and government arc inconsist- 
ent with human freedom and aceoimtableness. 

As to the opinion, that (he author of Ke.clcsiastes was a Sad- 
ilucoe or sceptic, in the sense of settled unbeliever, it appears 
to me to be unfounded. He had doubts, indeed: but he did not 
abandon himself to them. lie goes on with his speculations, till 
lie clears some of them up. Jt is true that he has not faith in a 
future lifts of ret ri hi i lion. But this doctrine, it must be remem- 
bered, formed no part, of the Jewish religion. In this respect, (he 
Preacher docs not ditler essentially from the author of the iiook 
of Job, and other writers of the Old Test anient, lie lived, indeed, 
as is probable, :tt a later period, when the faith in a future lite of 
retribution may have begun to prevail : but lie had hurt no authori- 
tative assurance of it. It was a mere question of speculative 
philosophy, wiieu speculation on the subject commenced. (See the 
note on chap. iii. 17, 19, 21; sii. 7.) As to the charge of Sad- 
diicceism, it is at least inconsistent with the author's alleged ten- 
dency to fatalism. .For the Sadducee-, according; to .loseplius, 
"tiiltc away fate, and say there is no such thing, and that the 
events of human affairs are not at its disposal ; but they suppose 
that all our actions are in our own power, so that we are our- 
selves the causes of what is good, and receive whal is evil from oui 
own folly."* 

As to the charge of I'.pienrism, if by this is meant that the 
Preacher recommends sell-indulgence, - — that is, the pleasures of 
sense, or pleasures of any kind, without regard to the obligation; 

* Whiston'e Josephus, Antiu., xiii. », 9, 



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112 INTRODUCTION TO 

ofilul v in ill religion, — il, appears to nit! l1i.ii. it is end rely false, as 
I shall show in tins notes upon those passages which have been sup- 
posed lo _ij 1 1 j= C- i" J ji il. T!ir foundation of this epiuiim is a too literal iu- 
t (■]']) ]'(.:! -a ti on of certain figurative and |joinU'd expressions, in which 
the author recommends a quiet, enjoyment of the. good that one 
possesses, In eonlradisdnrtiou from excessive earnestness, anxiety, 
11 alter distant and future, snort. No sound moralist 
i, that the pleasures derived from the eye, the ear, or 
even the palate, are to be regarded ns sinful, and denounced as 
Epicurean. The Preacher is careful to tell us, that a man cannot 
have the quiet enjoyment of life, namely, " wisdom and hnowl- 
edge and joy," e.\c:ept by " the gift of God to those who are good 
in his sight," that is, who discharge the duties of morality and re- 
ligion. (Chap, ii, 26.) It is idle to say that he recommends the 
pleasures of sense as constituting a happy life without. " wisdom 
and knowledge and joy." 

There are some other topics tui which the Preacher has bean 
supposed to utter sentiments irreconcilable with each other, when 
he is, in fact, only giving the results i>f hij various experience, and 
speaking of the subject in ililferciit relations. Thus, he often 
S| leaks id praise of wisdom, and of the advantages which it coolers 
on its possessor: whilst, in other passages, lie give-, an impressive 
view of its insufficiency to guard its possessor from many of the 
calamities ami trials which flesh is heir to. Then: is no inconsist- 
ency here, lie also uses the won 1 , isi diflbvent senses. When he 
says that " in much wisdom is liuu-h vexation, and he (hat increase* 
kinr.i I, ■. I lj;(- increases sorrow," he is speaking of mere speculative 
knowledge. His moaning is, (hat the more one knows of the world, 
Ihe more he knows of its vanity, and that mere speculative knowl- 
edge cannot confer trite sntisiacliou or happiness. In other pas- 
sages, he commends that practical wisdom which enables its 
possessor to avoid the consequences of lolly. 

In order to explain (be seeming inconsistencies which have been 
considered, die .hypothesis has been ad\ aimed by some critics, -ecu 
as Herder and Eichhoru, who were never at a loss for an hypothesis 
on any subject, that the Hook of liecle-ia-tes consists of a dialogue, 
in which the speakers olii-r diflercnl sentiments on fie subject un- 
der discussion. It' our views are correct, such an hypothesis is 



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BCKLESIASTES. 113 

unnecessary. 1 * i it. jf (In; e.-dgeuey lor It were Ion limes greater 
that] it is, tlit' diflicully of dividing and arranging the book, so as 
to make iL Ibi'ni a natural dialogue, is. such, ttiist list; hypothesis 
must lift regarded as forced and arbifrnry in i.hti highest degree. It 
lias met ivct.li very little favor, and is too improbable to dcsci've a 
particular examination. 

Tin; groat fault id' (In? inlerprotcrs of this book lias been that of 
ascribing to it more depth of thought, mom logic, minx: method, 
move consistency, greater deliuitoness of statement, and greater 
particularity of design, than rftally belong to it. Stuart, though 
not consistent, is liable to this charge. (See his introduction, 
p. 34.) The bold, indelinite, imprecise language of tin; author 
has given great opportunity to tile commentators of attaching 
their tuecglils to (lie writer's language, insieail of extracting from 
it bis own thoughts. Thus, Pcsvoenx, in his Commentary, makes 
the hook eonlain a logical and well-arranged argument to prove 
tin; immortality of flic soul and a future state of retribution. Um- 
breif regards it as a philosophical inquiry relating to the attmiiwm 
boim-ia, or chief good. * Martin Luther says: "The nature and 
design of tbis book is to teach us fU.it. we should with tliar.klidness 
euioy present tilings, and l.uo orcalures which tiod lias abundantly 
bestowed upon us, and not bo anxious about tin; future; keeping 
a tranquil, quiet spirit, anil a mind full of joy, being contented 
with the word" and works of (lod.'-f Jahu coincides in opinion 
■with Luther. " Tim author,'' says he, "does not dwell upon the 
Vanity ami vexatioiisiiess of human all'airs more than upon an 
agreeable use of Ihe jileasures of liie ; and thereibre his intention 
evidently was to repress the. restless and eager efforts of men, 
which hum them on in heaping up wealth, in securing pleasures, 
and acquiring honors ; and, at the same time, to Instruct them not 
to increase the tronhles of lili; by denying themselves the enjoy- 
ment of hanule-s, though uncertain and fleeting, pleasures." J 
Oil this opinion of Luther and Jahu, the remark may be made, 
lieu it is (us! to a certain extent. Tins practical design which they 

v Kvhvlcih Sccpiicas do .51111111111 Bono. Cominciilatie uliilosophicon'iiica. 
Gotting., 1820. 

t Pref. in Eccfesinstem, in Opp. Lat., edit. YVittenb., torn. iv. p. 2. 
X J aim's bilrod. to 0. T., J 212. 



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114 INTRODUCTION TO 

ascribe to the author was, without doubt, entertained by him; but 
whether it ought to be regarded a- the chief and special design of 
the whole "book may bo doubted. On the contrary, the practical 
recommendation of the Preacher, as stated by Luther and Jahn, 
occurs in the book as an inference from the general view of tlio 
vanity of human things which lie undertook to illustrate. 

Various other designs have been assigned to the author; among 
which is that of Kaiser, who supposes the work to be. an historico- 
didaetie poem, in which (he, characters of the Jewish kings, from 
Solomon to Zedekiah, are set .forth and censured, so as to show 
what was the cause of the ruin of the Jewish nation.* The chief 
objection to this theory is, that the author of the work Lias given 
no intimation, directly or indirectly, of any such design. 

There is also the theory of Kwald, who supposes the book to 
have been written when Palestine had become a province of Per- 
sia, and the Jews were suffering under l.liu tyranny and violence 
of the Persian satraps. In this state of tilings, some of them liail 
become weary of life and indiilcrcnl to all tilings; some plunged 
themselves into pleasures; and some openly inveighed against: 
their oppressors, and thus exasperated their minds the more 
against them. In such times, says Ewald.f the Preacher under- 
took to compose a book In which he exhorts Lis countrymen "to 
bear present evils with patience, to be cautious and circumspect 
in speech, and, above all, to fear God, who would at some time 
bring all tilings into judgment, ami set all things right, lie 
exhorts them, therefore, not to sink under their calamities, but to 
enjoy, with a grateful and cheerful mind, the goods which had been 
placed within their reach.'' 

The objection to this theory, too, is, that it is mere theory; 
that, even if the book was written in the circumstances of national 
distress which the writer suppose-, of which, however, there is no 
evidence, there is no such necessary allusion !.o national allairs as 
this theory implies. There are no sentiments in the book which 



:, lias Iluhdiiid 



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the vicissitudes of human life may not have led the author to 
express in any circumstances of ihe Jewish nation. A similar 
theory was proposed l>y Warburl.ou, with inference to tlie Book of 
Job, and with as Utile iUiudLttion. 

Hie only proper wiy of coming at the truth in relation to this 
subject is to consider the author as having designed to do what In; 
lias actually done; not to ascribe to him any greater unity or 
speciality of purpose than appears In Lis work; not to make the 
thoughts on various topics, thrown off as they arose freely in 
the mind of the author and eonticctcd by casual associations, the 
parts of a logical argument, or the means of accomplishing an 
elaborate plan, which may never have existed in his mind. 

If we gather the design of tin; author from what he has done, 
we must conclude that lis purpose was to p'case, to instruct, and 
to improve his readers, by making known to them his thoughts on 
the vanity of human life. The illustration of this topic is, and is 
regarded by the common reader, the prominent aim of the author, 
"Vanity of vanities, vanity el' vanities, a]] is vanity," Ls the begin- 
ill)):*, the middle, and the end of the essay. It is the chain which 
binds the whole together. And yet all parts of it do not conspire 
merely to illustrate this one topic. Throughout the work are 
interspersed advice ami proverbial maxims respecting the conduct 
of life and the discharge of duty in relation to man and God. 
'The author springs from one topic to another, Ix) which he is 
drawn by some casual association, pursues the latter ibr a time, 
and then returns to the former. The vanity of human things 
being regarded as the main doctrinal view of the author, tho 
general subject of the book, what Luther maintains to be its chief 
design, may be regarded as his prominent practical inference; 
namely, that men should, in the discharge of duty, enjoy with 
gratitude the blessings of life as they conic, without t.li stressing 
aiiNiely and over- -trcn nous exert ions after distant and future good. 
Yet the practice of virtue and the fear of God are enjoined as 
of the first importance in regard to the enjoyment of such happi- 
ness as may be attained in a world of vanity ; and while the young 
and the old are encouraged to enjoy lile as it passes, and to lose 
none of its pleasures through a spirit of asceticism, or of anxiety 
ami ambition about, the distant ai.d the tittitrc, yet only such an 



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116 INTRODUCTION TO 

enjoy 1 11 lint of tire good tilings of li f 

sisteiit, with the constant remembrance of the Creator, anil of tho 

judgment which is appointed for all. 

That tho preceding account of Uic subject and design of the 
hook Is correct, may appear from a Mum paiticub.r analysis of it, 
and from tho commentary which follows it. 

Tbe principal thought is first laid down, that all is vain and 
unprofitable. (Chap. i. 1, 2.) This view the Preacher illus- 
trates, — 

1. By the wear it; in no, cvcr-recurriug changes which are taking 

place without bringing to pass any thing tici, or leading to 
any new result which is adapted to give satisfaction to the 
mind of man. (Ver. 4-11.) 

2. By the dissatisfaction attending tho pursuit of wisdom or 

knowledge. (Ver. 12-18.) 

3. By the imsu.Li-IhriuriiU'SSi of the p!ea-mvs of lily ;!inl of striv- 

ings after them, cv^ii when united with the pursuit of knowl- 
edge and iiliihisuphy. (( : hap, ii. 1-11.) 
i. The author then compares the pleasures of knowledge and 
the pleasures of sense with one another, and passes judg- 
ment on them; and roeoniniemis it as the bust course which 
a man can pursue, in order to make the best of a vain world, 
to give lip anxious raves about, distant, objects anil perplexing 
subjects, and to enjoy with a tranquil, contented, cheerful 
mind the blessings of hie, as lie goes along in its paths. 
(Chap. ii. 12-26.) 

5. The -vanity of human tilings is illustrated by their established 

changes and periods, their lined course, all tilings having 
their limit- and time appointed by a higher power than man's. 
Hence the folly of anxiety, and the vanity of over-strenuous 
exertion, since man cannot alter the fixed and established 
course of tilings ; and hence the wisdom of taking tilings as 
they Come, and making the best of them, in obedience and 
submission to the l.b'vinc will, which controls and disposes 
all things. (Chap, iii, 1-15.) 

6. The vanity of human things is illustrated by the prevalence of 

injustice and violence among men, and the rescudilanre 



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ECCLESIASTES. 117 

of man to brutes in respect to hardships and death. Hence, 
too, the Preacher derives the conclusion, that it is best to 
take a cheerful enjoyment of tin; good things of life, without 
anxious cares ix-sperling tin. 1 future. (Chap. iii. 10-22.) 

7. The vanity of human tilings is next illustrated by reference to 

tlie sufferings; of the oppressed: the envy which is excited 
toward the prosperous ; the evils of avarice and of solitude ; 
the evils attendant on royalty, arising from the infirmities 
of its possessor and the fickleness of tlie people. (Chap, iv.) 
Then follow some proverbial maxims rcsp fa-ting the worship 
of God (chap. v. 1-7); ilii-ii proverb; recommending the 
quiet pursuit of agriculture, in preference to the agitating, 
avaricious pursuit of wealth (8-17). These are followed by 
the advice before given ; namely, to enjoy the good tilings of 
life as they come, -without anxiety or wearisome efforts after 
distant and future good (18-20). 

8. The vanity of human tilings connected with wealth boarded rip 

without being enjoyed or used (chap. vi. 1-6), and with 
insatiable desires (7-9). Then follows an obscure passage, 
apparently intended to illustrate, tin' vanity of human things 
(10-12). 

9. Then follows a series of maxims and precepts respecting the 

guidance, support, and consolation of men in their passage 
through life, recommending righteousness and piety, witli 
occasional remarks on tin; vanity of human tilings, such as 
tho vanity of striving after wisdom, the certainty of death, 
&e. (Chap. vii. 1-viii. 18.) 

10. Then follows a new illustratieu of tho vanity of human tilings, 
drawn from the prosperity of the wicked and the sufferings 
of the righteous, and the impossibility of comprehending the 
ways of Providence ; closing with the practical exhortation, 
which he lias given so tunny times before, to a quiet and 
cheerful enjoyment of life, while hie lasts, as "his portion," 
as "all that abideth with him of bis labor," without indulg- 
ing in vain grief for what cannot be helped, or in the anxious, 
restless pursuit of that which cannot be attained, or which, 
when attained, yields no satis faction. "Go thy way," says 
he, after giving )he uio-t melancholy picture of life which ha 



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118 INTRODUCTION TO 

has' yet presented, " cat, (by bread with joy, and drink tliy 
wino with a cheerful heart; fur now is God pleased with 
thy works. Lei ihy garments be always white, and let not 
fragrant oil be wan tin<: upon thy Lead. Enjoy life with tho 
wife whom thou Invest, all the days of thy Tain life, which 
he hath given thee under tho sun, all thy vain days." — 
(Chap. Tin. 14-ix. 10.) 

11, A new illustration of the Tanity of human life, drawn from 

the circumstances, that success does not always answer to a 
man's strength, wisdom, or other advantages; and that wis- 
dom, with all it.; benefits to the public, often brings but little 
consideration to its possessor. Then follow various prover- 
bial maxims, showing tho advantage; of wisdom and pru- 
dence, and the evil of rulers unfit for their station; and 
designed to regulate the conduct in private and publie. 
This section closes with a recommendation of liberality to 
tlie poor, and of diligent exertion in our appropriate pur- 
suits, without an over-anxious solicitude respecting the issue 
of our labors. (Chap. ix. 11 -si. 6.) 

12. The Preacher now exhorts to a cheerful enjoyment of life as 

it passes, and the purling away of rare and sorrow, in view 
of that portion of life's vanity which consists in the evil 
days of old age, and of the long period of darkness in 
prospect. (Chap. si. 7-xii. 8.) Then follows a repetition 
of the chief truth which has been illustrated in the work, 
namely, the vanity of human tilings; and the final recom- 
mendation of the Preacher, as the conclusion of the whole 
discourse, and the duty of every man; namely, "to fear 
God and keep his commandments." (Chap. xii. 9-14.) 

From this view of the contents of the Book of Ecclesiastes, it 
may be inferred lhal the author was a man of wisdom, virtue, and 
religion, according to the light which he had. He was not a 
fatalist, or a sceptic, or an Epicurean, in any offensive sense of 
those terms, lie may be regarded as of a free, speculative, and 
somewhat sceptical turn of mind, but still holding last the funda- 
mental principles of the Jewish faith. If he had doubts, they 
related to subjects upon which he found no certain light. In thu 



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ECCLESIASTES. 119 

religion of his fathers and his country. If he recommended 
the enjoyment of lift:, it was such an enjoyment as was consistent 
with virtue and religion. A deep sense of religion is evidently 
habitual to liim, notwithstanding the difficulties which perplexed 
his understanding. He luis ji living failh in a wise and benevolent 
God, and a rigbleous government of the world, though the princi- 
ples of this gin eminent ace regarded li v him as being beyond the 
comprehension of man. 

On the other hand, it may be conceded that he has given a 
more melancholy view of human life than is consistent with the 
spirit of Christianity, or of a comprehensive philosophy. Many 
Christians have taken just such a melancholy view of human life, 
and lite no hymn better than the one beginning, "I would not 
live alwiiy." I'iui. the l.'reaciii.'; liad never heard (ho glad tidings 
of great joy to all people. The light of the Sun of Righteousness 
had not arisen upon his mind. 

It may be admitted, too, that the subject of enjoyment occupied 
a more prominent place in the mind of the author than in the 
mind uf.lesus Christ. A higher, mure (ii-intereslod, more devoted 
spirit pcrviides I he teachings of Him who spake as never man 
-oiike man we can find iu any of the writings of (he Old Testa- 
ment. The Christian is fauglit (o do his duty, and let enjoyment 
take care of itself. '* Seek first, the kingdom of God and his 
riidi'.cousiiess, ami all these tiling* shall be added unto you,'- is the 
language of him who came to perfect the law. I do not mean 
tliiti.-t.Iie Book of Kt.'clesiasfes contains any particular precept 
absolutely inconsisfcnl with the Sermon on the Mount. But in 
respect to its tone, spirit, ami the prominence it eives to certain 
topics, it most be allowed to he far behind it. A spirit of self- 
sacrifice for the good of others is certainly not so congenial to the 
mind of the author as to the mind of Christ. 

Finally, if it be coo ceded that the 1'i'eacher expresses occa- 
sional doubts, where Paul or John would bo rejoicing in hope and 
confidence, this should not lead us to give the ancient Hebrew 
essayist the name of Sadducoe, sceptic, or Kpiciireaii, but rather 
to thank Cod, wdio lias raised up Jesus to show us the nature an'l 
design of our present existence, and " to bring life and Immor- 
tality to light." 



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120 INTRO DTJOTI ON TO 

Perhaps it may be well to say :i few won"- on the authorship 

of jioclesiasie-, (bough, in a work of its didactic: character, this is 
not a very important question. That by " the Preacher, the son 
of David," in chap. i. 1, is denoted Solomon, there can be no 
doubt. But ibis by no mean.- prove:- tli;;l. Solomon was (in: auLlior 
of the composition; but only that the author, whoever lie was, 
adopted Iho plan of introducing into the book one so celebrated 
throughout the Kast for wisdom and for prosperity as Solomon, 
for the purpose: of giving weight to the- sentiment- which are put 
into his mouth. Tn adopting this plan, it is not probable that lie 
intended to deceive hi- (.'outeiuporavir-. but only to uiahe use of a 
literary ih-tiou, such as is common in modern time- : it fiction 
which is not \i:.ry carefully supported, '['he prevalent belief. It is 
true, has been that Solomon was the author of the book. The 
first commentator, so far a.s 1 know, who failed (be received 
Opinion in question, was the accomplished scholar and. jurist, 
Hugo Grot ins. " 1 think," says lie, "the work is not, a produc- 
tion of Solomon, but one written in the name of that king, as 
heing led by repentance to the composition of it. It contains 
many words which cannot be found, except lit Ezra, Daniel, and 
the Chaidee paraphra^r.-." In c\pn -.-m^ his opinion, Grot-ins, 
with Itis usua! sagacity, has mentioned by far the :dronge-t argu- 
ment in Its support; namely, the characteristics of the language of 
Ecch.'-ia^tcs, e-pi chilly i hose which give it an Arannran completion. 
These are so scattered throughout (he work, thai it is sufficient to 
refer the Hebrew scholar to die whole Hebrew original.- lie 
cannot read the first- chapter of it, without having strong doubts 
whether it was written by the principal author of (ho Book of 
Proverbs.* 

The Book of Proverbs, if not wholly composed by Solomon, 
must be regarded, to a great extent, as his production, and 
undoubtedly belongs (o his age, to the nourishing period of tiic 
Hebrew bmptaee and literature. lint, whoever will proceed from 

* For on emuneratkni ef the pcL-.uharili;:- of lie;: language of Ecdesiastaa, 
the critical reader is referred to De Wettc's IntralucliMi to the Old. Te.if-n- 
mont, or to a still more complete view of them in Knobel's German Com- 



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ECCLESIASTES. 121 

tin', perusal of the Proverbs of Solomon to that of the Bool; of 
Kivlt'i'iaiti's 1111.1st receive from tiie diction of ihe latter a strong 
conviction that it is not- only the production of a different author, 
but of a later age. In fact, there lias been no greater opposi- 
tion to this opinion than was to lie expected from the natural 
prejudice in favor of the received tradition. The best scholars 
since tlie lime of G toiius, who have given a; i call on to the subject, 
have adopted his opinion. .Kvcn the Komunist, .Talm, who is very 
slow to ml opt an (ipiiiiuii not in accordance with the tradition of 
the church, is unable to resist the evidence against (he opinion that 
Solomon was the author of Eoclesiastes. Such critics as Dathe, 
Diiilerlein, mid l'nreim are of the same opinion. Dathe observes, 
that "i.loiierlein and J'iichliorn Lave established their point by 
arguments so weighty, that, none except very stubborn defenders 
of ancient traditions can deny it." * 

Even Professor Stuart, in his recent work on the canon of the 
Old Testament (p. !).!!.!), admits, though the admission is hardly 
consistent with the general argument of his book, that- "the 
diction of this book differs so widely from that of Solomon in 
the Book of Proverbs, that it is difficult to believe that both emtio. 
from the same pen. Chaucer docs not differ more from Pope, 
than Kcelesiasl.es from Proverbs. It appears to mo, wdien I read 
('oiiiJctb, !:iat it present;; one of those cases which leave no room 
for doubt, so striking and prominent is the discrepancy." 

Knobel, the author of one of fhe best critical commentaries on 
Eeclesiastes with which we arc acquainted, says, "^Jo point in 
the criticism of tiie Old Testament is Letter established limn that 
Eeclesiastes was not written by Solomon, but in a later age." 
More recently, hlit/lg and lieiligsledl agree in the same conclu- 
sion. It ought to he mentioned, however, that there are those 
who maintain a different opinion. Whoever wishes to seo the 
argument- on the other side of the question may find them 
well slated in a preliminary dissertation to Ecelesiasi.es., by Ceorgo 
Hoidcn, London, 1822. They will not pass lor much with those 
who are in the habit of weighing, rather (.ban of counting, argu- 



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122 INTRODUCTION TO 

There are also other considerations, which, (hough they may 
not be in the highest degree conclusive when standing alone, yet 
(■tnihrin tin; cuuclusiuu drawn from the diction of lO.i!. -i:, -i ■■-. 
it appears to nie, that the Ihigii-h reader may perceive, in the 
general style, character, and topics of the Look, reasons for 
supposing that ii tame Ironi another author than that of the 
Book of Proverbs. The style of the latter is coneisc, terse, 
elevated; thai of the former is (plite diil'use, vague, prosaic. 
The instruction oS' the one is preceptive and positive, having no 
reference to speculative doubts ; that el" the other is in the way 
of philosophic discussion, presenting (lie dilferenl aspects in which 
a subject may be viewed, and what, on the wholes is to be re- 
garded as the truth. 

There are several topics, introduced into the hook, which seem 
not very appropriate, to the reign of Solomon, and which, if they 
had been so, that wise monarch ini^ht have- been expected to pass 
over in silence. Among these are the complaints of the oppres- 
sion of unjust rulers (chap. hi. lli ; iv. 1) , of the ex tortious of 
provincial magistrates (chap. v. 8), and of the elevation of infe- 
rior men to high stations (chap. .v. d-7). In tact, whenever the 
author speaks of king- ami governors, lie speaks in the tone of a 
subject rather than a king: of an observer, rather than of a holder, 
of kingly power. (See iv. 13-16; v. 8, 9; vili. 2-5; ix. 18-18; 
i. 4-7, 16-20.) 

The fiction, according to which the scniiments of the book are 
put into [lie mouth of Salomon, is so unskilfully sustained, that, it 
appears to be only a fiction. If the book were written by Solo- 
mon, why does he say, "I was king"? A living king would bo 
mure likely l.o my, " 1, the king," &c. Why should Solomon say 
to his contemporaries thai he was king in Jaru$ftUi>t-$ Before the 
separation of the (en tribes, it was a suneriluous expression. No 
one had been king In Samaria. Especially, why sliouid he say 
that be had gained grealcr wisdom than all hi- piederc-sors at 
Jerusalem (chap. I. Id), when be had only one predecessor in that 
city; namely, David. All these expressions, however, might 
easily have escaped from an author not careful to maintain a 
literary fh tinn. In chap. i. 1(1, ii. '■), 1">, 1!). Solomon is repre- 
sented as praising his own wisdom, and relating his own experi- 



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ECCLESIASTES. 123 

cnce in a manner not- very natural to a real, living person. 
Finally, flu; author, in chap, xii. I), socius to drop the fiction, ami 
to speak of Solomon in the third person. 

It is j ll i ii.lt more ihilimit to tbrm a confident opinion as to flic 
time when tlisi Hook of Eoclesiastes was written, than it is to 
decide tliat it belongs to a much lati.'f age ttimi thai of Solomon. 
From tlie Aramir.an complexion of this language, from the religious 
and literary character of tlie book, and from its spirit and tone, as 
lining soiled to times of calamity and oppression, one may feel 
considerable confidence that it was '.vritten alter the return of the 
Jews from the exile at liabylon ; and there seems f.o be nothing 
to object l.o l.ho prevaleni opinion of the German critics, sue!) as 
De Wette, Knobe.l, and Ewaki, who date the composition of it 
near die fill of the 1'et'sian monarchy, or at (he beginning of the 
Macedonian domination under Alexander; 1hat is, about three 
hundred anil thirty years before the (.'hristian era. iint it may 
have been written somewhat, later. The oeenrrenee of two words 
of Persian origin, ~~~^ and -3"?, in chap. ii. 5, viii. 11, in eon- 
nection with the argumeuis which have been mentioned for the 
late origin of the book, seems to favor this supposition. There 
are no reasons of any weight for supposing the Jewish canon of 
Scripture lo liave closed before this period. We are inclined, 
however, to adopt, the date above mentioned, rather from the 
absence of more valid arguments in favor of any other opinion, 
tbnn from the conclushenes.s of the reason? urged in its support." 
A3 to the opinion which has been advanced, that traces of an 
acquaintance wifii Grecian philosophy are found in Jicclosia-U:.-, 
wo can only say (hat we have not been able to discern them. 

Whoever wi-me- lor a iisl of ihe eooinientatoi's 00 Ercicsia-les 
will fed one long onoogh to satisfy him in I!o sen in idler's Introduc- 
tion to this; book. Of those which he has not mentioned, I have 
seen— An Attempt to illustrate the Hook of licolesiastes, by ihe 
Rev. George Holiicn, "M.A., London, IS^L 1 : Lfeberse.t/img des 
Kobclelh ne'isl (jrnineiuti-rh exegclbcheiu Continental', von .Moses 
Heinemann, Berlin, 1-m1 ; and Commentar iiber das Bueh Kohe- 



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124 INTRODUCTION TO B C CLES I A STES. 

leth, von Angus'. ICzloI h-.I , l.v'py.'<s, 1S;1!j. In iji-'Jjjl^llij; fliiii edi- 
tion, I have also, On tlie move mmoii.am ]):lJSii.S'('-a, I'onaultoil till! 
( 'i::Hii!('n(;ii-ii.-s of H.it/i.Li, 1 k'ilij.'-vTijdr, Sti::;ii", and (iin-b-.ir^ (Lou- 
don, 18(51). A few changes in the vei'~ion, and some additional 
notes, have been made. 

CAJIBRIDfiB, Nov. 14, 1S66. 



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ECCLESIASTES. 



1 The words of (he Preacher, the son of David, king in 
Jerusalem. 

2 Vanity of vanities, sahh the Preacher, vanity of vani- 

3 ties, all is vanity. What profit balh a man by all his lnbnr 

4 with which he wearieth himself under the sun? One 
generation nassoth away, and another generation cometh ; 

B while the eaHh abidoth for over. The sun riseth, and the 
sun gooth down, and hasteneth to the place whence it 

6 arose. The wind goeth toward the south, and turnei.li 
about to the north ; round and round goeth the wind, and 

7 returneth to its circuits. All the rivers run into the sea, 
yet the sea is not full ; to the place whence the rivers 

8 come, thither the)' return. Alt words become weary ; man 
cannot express it ; the eye is not satisfied with seeing, nor 
the ear filled with hearing. 

9 The tiling thai hath been is that which shrill be, and 
that which hath been done is that which shall be done; 

10 and there is no new thing under the sun. Is there any 
thing of which one may say, " Heboid, this is new"? 

11 It was long ago, in the times which were before us. There 
is no remembrance of former things, and of things that 
are to come thero shall be no remembrance to those who 
live afterwards. 

13 I, the Treacher, was king over Israel at Jerusalem. 

13 And I gave my mind to seek and to search out with wis- 
dom concerning all tilings which are done under heaven; 
an evil business, which God hath given to the sons of 
[125] 



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126 ECCLESIASTES. [chap. ii. 

14 men, in which to employ themselves. I saw all the 
things which arc done under the sun ; and, behold, it was 

15 all vanity, and striving al'Ler wind. That which is crooked 
cannot be made straight, and that which is wanting cannot 

16 be numbered. I communed with my heart, saying; " lie- 
hold, I have gained more and greater wisdom than ail who 
have been before me at Jerusalem; yea, my mind hath 

17 seen much wisdom and knowledge." And I gave my 
mind to know wisdom, and to know senselessness and lolly ; 

IS J perceived that this also is striving alter wind. For in 
much wisdom is much vexation, and he that mcreasetli 
knowledge incroasetli sorrow. 

1 I said in my heart, " Come, now, I will try thee with 
mirth ; therefore enjoy pleasure ! " But, lo ! this also 

2 was vanity. T said of laughter, " It is mad ; " and of mirth, 

3 " What availeth it ? " I thought in my heart to strengthen 
my body with wine, and, while my heart cleaved to wis- 
dom, to lay hold on folly, till I should see what was good 
for the sons of men, which they should do under heaven 

i all the days of their life. I made mo great works. I 

S huilded me houses ; 1 planted me vineyards. I made me 

gardens and parks, ami planted in them fruil.-trees of every 

8 kind. I made mc pools of water, with which to water the 
7 grove shooting up trees. I got mc men-servants and 

maid-servants, and had servants horn in my house. I had 
also great possessions of herds and flocks, more than all 
S who were in Jerusalem before me. I heaped me rip also 
silver and gold, and the wealth of .kings and of provinces. 
I got me men-singers and women-singers, and the delight 
of the sons of men, a chosen woman and chosen women. 

9 So I became greater than all tha.t were before me in Jeru- 

10 salem. My wisdom also remained with me. And what- 
ever mine eyes desired I kept not from them; I withheld 
not my heart from any joy. For my heart rejoiced by 
means of all my labor, and this was my portion from all 

11 my labor. Then I looked upon all the works which my 
hands had wrought, and upon all the labor which I had 
toiled in performing: and, behold, it was all vanity, and 
striving after wind, and there was no profit under the 



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chap, ii.] ECCLEBJASTES. 127 

12 Then I tu mod myself to behold wisdom and senseless- 
ness anil folly. For what can the man do that cometli 
after the king? uvea that which hnt.li bono already done. 

13 I saw, indeed, that wisdom oxeellptli folly, as fai- as light 

14 excclleth darkness. The wi.se man's eyes are in his head, 
but the fool walketh in darkness ; yet I perceived also that 

15 one event happened! to litem all. Then .1 said in my heart, 
"As it happeneth to the fool, so it. Ji.ippeneth to me. 
Why, then, became T wiser titan others ? " Then I said in 

16 my heart, "This also is vanity." For there is no remem- 
brance of the wise man more than of the fool for ever ; 
for in the days to come shall all have long been forgotten ; 

17 and, alas 1 the wise man diet.h, as well as the fool. There- 
fore I hated life, because what is done under the sun 
appeared evil to me. For all is vanity, and striving after 

18 wind. Yea, I hated all my labor which T had performed 
under the sun, because I must leave it to the man that 

IB shall be alter me. And who knowelh whether he shall 
be a wise man or a fool ? Yet shall lie be lord of all 
the labor with which I have wearied myself, and in which 
I have shown myself wise under the sun. This also is 
vanity. 

20 Therefore I turned to give up my heart to despair in 
regard to all the labor with which I had wearied myself 

21 under the sun. For there is a man whose labor has been 
with wisdom and knowledge and skill; yet to a man who 
hath not labored for it must he leave it as his portion. 

22 This also is vanity and a great evil. For what hath man 
of all his labor, and the striving of his spirit, with wluch 

£3 he weariei.h himself under the sun r For all his days arc 
grief, and his occupation trouble; even in' the night his 

2i heart taketh no rest. This also is vanity. There is noth- 
ing better for a man than lo cat. and drink, and let his soul 
enjoy good in his labor. Pint this, as 1 have seen, cometli 

25 from the hand of God. For who can cat, or hasten t.here- 

2-6 unto, more than I? For to a man who is good in his sight 
God giveth wisdom anil knowledge and joy ; but to tho 
sinner he giveth the wearisome business of gathering and 
heaping tip, to give it to him who is good before God. 
This also is vanity, and striving after wind. 



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128 ECCLESIASTES. [chap, iil 

1 For every tiling (.here is a (i\ed period, and an appointed 

2 time to every thing under heaven;. — -A time to be Loi-n, 
and a time to die. A time to plant, and a time to pluck up 

3 what is planted. A lime to kill, anil a time to heal A time 
1 to breaking down, and a time to build np. A time to weep, 

and a time to laugh. A time to mourn, and a time to 
5 dance. A time to clisL stones asunder, and a time to gather 

stones together. A time to embrace, and a time to refrain 
ti from embracing. A time to seek, and a time to lose. A 

7 time to keep, and a time to cast away. A time to rend, 
and a time to sew. A time to keep silence, and a time to 

8 speak. A time to love, and a time to hate. A time of 
y war, and a time of peace. — What profit hath lie who la- 

boreth from that with which he wearieth himself? 

10 I have seen the business which God hath given to the 

11 sons of men to exercise themselves therewith. God niakoi.li 
every thing good in its time; but he hath put the world 
inlo the heart of man, so that he unde rs taiideth not the 
work which God doeth. from the beginning to the end. 

12 I know that there is nothing better for a man than that 

13 he should rejoice and enjoy good his life long. But when 
a man eateth and dnukedi, and enjoyeth good through all 

M his labor, this is the gift of God. I know that whatever 
God doeth, that shall lie for ever. Nothing can be added 
to it, and nothing taken from it; and God doeth it that 

IS men may fear before him. That which is. was long ago ; 
and that which is to be, hath already been ; and God recall- 
eth that which is past. 



v under the nun (hat in the place of jus- 
tice there was iniquity; and in the [ila.ee of righteousness, 

17 iniquity. Then said [ in my heart, " God will judge the 
righteous and the wicked For there shall be a time for 
every matter and for every work. 

18 I said in my heart concerning the sons of men. that God 
will prove them, in ord.er that they may sec (hat the.y are 

10 like the beasts. For that which bcfalloth the sons of men 
bofalleth beasts : one lot befallef.h both. As the one dictli, 
so dieth the other. Yea, there is one spirit in them, and 
l hath no pre-eminence above a- beast ; for all is van- 



ity. All go to one place ; all are from the dust, ; 



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CHAP.IT.] ecclesiastes. 129 

21 turn to dust again. Who knowelh the spirit of man, 
whether it goeth upward, and the spirit of a beast, whether 

i'i it gooth downward to the earth '! And so I saw that there 
is nothing belter than that a man should rejoice in his 
labors ; for that is bis portion. For who shall bring him 
to see what shall be after him ? 

1 Then I turned and sa.w all the oppressions which lake 
place under the sun; and, behold, there were the tears 
of the oppressed, and they had no comforter; and from 
the hand of their oppressors Lltere was violence, and they 

2 had no comforter. Therefore I praised the dead, who 
have been long ago dead, more than the living, who are 

3 yet alive. Yea, bettor than both of them is he who hath 
not yet been, who hath not seen the evil work which is 
done under the sun. 

4 And I saw all labor, and all success in work, that for 
this a man is envied by Ins neighbor. This also is van- 

5 ity, and striving after wind. The .fool fol.lelh his hands 

6 together and eateth his own flesh. Better is a band full 
of quietness, than both hands full of weariness and striv- 
ing after wind. 

7 Then I turned and saw other vanity under the sun. 

8 There is one who is alone, and no one with him ; yea, he 
hath neither son nor brother ; yet i^ there no end to all his 
labor, and his eye is not. satisfied wilh riches. " For whom, 
then [saith he], do I labor and deprive myself of good?" 

H This also is vanity ; yea.it is an evil thing! Two are 
better than one, because they have a good reward fol- 
io their labor. For if they fall, the one will lift bis fellow 
up ; but woe to him who is alone when he falleth, and hath 

11 not another to help him up ! Again, if two lie together. 
then they have heat; but how can one be warm alone? 

12 And if an enemy prevail against one, two shall withstand 
him; and a threefold cord is not (piiekly broken. 

13 Better is a child poor but. wise, than a king old and 
It foolish, who will no more be admonished. For oui of prison 

come tli forth such a one to reign ; for in bis own kingdom 
15 lie was born a poor man. I saw that all the living, who 

walk under the sun, were with the child who stood up in 

Hi his stead. There was no end to all the people before 

6* 



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130 ECCLESJA5TES. [chap. v. 

whom he went forth ; yet they tint, come afterwards shall 
not rejoice in him. This also is vanity, arid striving after 

1 Look well to thy feel, when thou gocst r.o the house of 
God, and draw nigh to hear, rather than to oiler sacrifice 

2 as fools. For tliey consider not that they do evil. Be 
not hasty with thy mouth, and let, not thy heart be swift 
to utter any thing before God. For God is in heaven, 
and thou upon earth. Therefore let thy words be few, 

3 For a dream cometh with much bustle, and a tool's voice 

4 with a multitude of words. When thou vowest a vow to 
God, delay not hi pay it ; for he hath no pleasure in fools. 

5 Fay that which lliou hast vowed. Bettor is it, that thou 
shouldst not vow than that thou shouldst vow and not pay. 

6 Sutler not thy mouth to bring punishment on thy flesh, and 
say not before the angel, "it was a mistake." Whore- 
fore should God be angry on account of thy voice, and 

1 destroy the work of thy hands? For in a multitude of 
dreams is a multitude of vanities; so also in a multitude 
of words; but fear thou God! 

S If thou seesl oppression of the poor, and justice and 
equity perverted in a province, be not alarmed at the mat- 
ter. For over the high there is a higher, who wateheth, 

9 and there is one higher than they all. An advantage to a 

10 land in all respects is a king over cultivated ground. He 
that loveth silver shall not be satisfied with silver; and 
lie that loveth riches shall have no profit from them. 

11 This also is vanity. When goods increase, they are in- 
creased that eat them; and what advantage- hal.h the owner 

Yl thereof, save the beholding of them with his eyes ? Sweet 
is the sleep of a laboring man, whether he have eaten little 
or much ; but the repletion of the rich will not suffer him 

13 to sleep. There is a sore evil which I have seen under the 

14 sun, — riches kept, by the owner thereof to his .hart. For 
those riches perish by some calamity, and, if he have a 

15 son, there is nothing in his hand. As he came forth from 
his mother's womb naked, so shall be go away again, as 
he came, and shall take away nothing of his labor which 

16 he may carry in his hand. This is also a. sore evil, that, 
in all points as he came, so shall he go. And what profit 



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chap. VI.] ECCLESIASTEB. 131 

17 is there to him who toiklh for wind? Also all his days 
he ate in darkness, and lnu! much grief and anxiety and 

18 vexation. Behold, what I have seen is, that it is good and 
proper for one to eat and drink. ;ind to enjoy the good of 
all his labor which he lakclli under the sun all the days 

Id of his life, which God idveS-h him ; for it is his portion. To 
whatever man also God liiit.Ii given riches and wealth, and 
hath given him to enjoy tlteiu, and to take his portion, and 

20 to rejoice in his labor; this is the gift of God. For he 
will not much remember the days of his life; for God 
answeretli him with the joy of his heart 

1 There is an evil which I have seen under the sun, and 

2 it lieth heavy upon men ; a man to whom God hath given 
riches, wealth, and honor, and nothing is wanting to him 
of all which he desireth, yet, God giveth him not to taste 
thereof; but a stranger eiijoyeth it. This is vanity, yea, 

3 a grievous evil. Though a man have a hundred children, 
and live many years, and though the days of his years be 
many, if his soul be not satislied with good, and ho have 
no burial, I say that an untimely birth is better than he, 

4 Tills, indeed, eoineth in nothingness, and gocih down into 
r, darkness, rind its name is covered with darkness ; it hath not 

seen the sua, nor known it ; yet hath it rest rather than 
the other. Y"ea, though he live a thousand years twice 
told, and see no good, — do not all go to one place? 

7 All the labor of man is for his mouth, and yet his de- 

8 sires arc not satisfied. For what, advantage hath the wise 
man over the fool ? What advantage hath the poor, who 

i) knowcth how to wall, before the living? Better is the 
sight of the eyes than the wandering of the desire. This 
also is vanity, and striving after wind. 

10 That which is was long ago ended by name; and It was 
known that he is a man, and that he cannot contend with 

11 Him who is mightier than lie. Seeing there are many 
things which increase vanity, what advantage hath man 

12 [from them] ? For who knoweth what is good for man in 
life, in all the days of his vain life, which he spendeth as a 
shadow? For who ean tell a man what shall be after Mm 
under the sun ? 



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132 ECCLESIASTJ5S. [chap. vii. 

1 A good name ia bettor than precious perfume, and the 

2 day of one's death than the day of his birth. It is better 
to go to the house of mourning ili;m to go to the house of 
feasting; for that is the end of all men; and the living 

3 will lay it to heart. Sorrow is better than laughter ; for 
by the sadness of the countenance the heart is made better. 

4 The heart of the wise is in the house of mourning; hut 

5 the heart of fools is in the house of mirth. It is better 
lor a man to hear (he rebuke of tin; wise than to hear the 

song of fools. For ns the crackling of thorns iimlcr a pot, 

7 so is the laughter of a fool. This also is vanity. Surely 
the gain of oppression makeih a. wise man foolish, and 

8 a gift corrupt el h the understanding. Bettor is the end of a 
thing than its beginning. Better is tlto patient in spirit than 

!) the proud in spirit, .lie not hasty in thy spirit, to bo ungry ; 

10 (or anger restoth in the bosom of fools. Say not, " What 
is the cause that the former days wore better than these?" 

11 For thou dost not inquire wisely concerning (his. Wisdom 
is as good as an estate ? yea, it Iia-t.li an advantage over it 

12 lor them that see the sua. iM>r wisdom is a defence, and 
money is a defence. But knowledge bath the advantage. 

13 For wisdom giveth life to them that have it. Consider 
the work of God! Who can umke straight that which 

11 he hath made crooked? In (he day of prosperity be joy- 
ful ; but look for a day of adversity ! for this also, as well 
as the other, hath Cod appointed, to the end that a man 
should not iind out any tiling which shall bo after him. 

15 All this have I seen in my days of vanity. There are 
righteous men who perish in their righteousness, and there 

18 aro wicked men who live long in their wickedness. Be 
not righteous overmuch : neither make! thyself over-wise! 

17 Why si lou hist thou destroy (hyself? Be not overmuch 
wicked; neither be tliou a tool! Why should.^, thou die 

IS before thy time? It is good that thou shouldst take hold 
of this ; yea, also, from that withdraw not thy hand. For 

13 he that feareth God shall escape all (bo.se (kings. Wis- 
dom strengthened the wise more than ten mighty men 

20 who aro in the city. Truly there is not a righteous man 

at upon the earth who doeih good and sumeth not. Give no 
heed to all the words which are spoken, lest thou hear thy 

22 servant curse thee! For many times thine own heart 



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CHAP, viii.] ECCLBS1ABTES. 133 

knoweth also that even thou thyself hast cursed others. 
23 Ail this have I tried by wisdom. I said, "I will bo 
2* wise ; " but it wits tar from mo. That which is far off 

and exceeding deep, who can find it out? 
35 I applied ji.iv mind earnestly to know, and to search, 

and to seel; out wisdom and intelligence, and to know 
20 wickedness and felly, yea, foolishness and madness. And 

I found more bitter than death llie woman whose heart is 

snares and nets, and her bands bands. He that pleaseth 

God shall escape from her ; but the sinner shall be caught 
27 by her. Behold, this have T found, saith (lie Preacher, 
2s [Hilling one tiling to another to find knowledge. That 

which my soul hni h hitberio sought, and I have not found, 

is this: a man among a thousand I have found, but a 
29 woman among a thousand have I not found. Lo, this only 

have I found, that God made man upright, but they have 

sought out many devices. 

1 Who is like flu: wise man, and who knoweth the expla- 
nation, of a thing? A man's wisdom brighteneth his 
countenance, and the harshness of his face is changed. 

2 I counsel thee to keep the king's eounna.ndrnent and th:tf. 

3 on account of the oath of God. lie not in haste to depart 
from his presence; persist not in an evil thing; for what- 

1 ever pleaseth him, that he doeth. For the word of the 
king is powerful ; and who can say to him, " What doest 

6 thou?" He that keepol.h the commandment shall experi- 
ence no evil ; and the heart of the wise man hath regard 

6 to time and judgment. For to every thing there is a time 
and judgment For the misery of man is great upon him. 

7 For no one knoweth what shall be; for who can tell him 
a how it shall he? No man hath power over the spirit to 

retain the spirit, and no man hath power over the day of 
death; and there is no discharge in that war ; and wicked- 
ness shall not deliver those (bat are guilty of it. 
D All this have I. seen, n.nil 1 have given heed to nil things 
that are done under the sun. There is a time when man 

10 ruleth over man to his hurt. And SO I saw the wicked 
buried, while the- righteous came and went from the holy^ 
place, and were forgotten in the city. This also is van- 
ity. 

11 Because sentence against an evil work is not executed 



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13-1 ECCLE8IA3TES. [chap. is. 

speedily, therefore doth flit! heart ol' the sous of men be- 
13 come bold within them to do evil. But though si sinner 
do evil a hundred times, and have his days prolonged, yet 
surely I know that it shall he well with them that fear 
13 God, that fear before him. But it nhn.ll not be well with 
the wicked: he shall be tike a shadow, and shall not pro- 
long his days, because lie leareth not before God. 

11 There is a vanity which iakeih place upon the earth, 
that there are righteous men to whom it happcnelh ac- 
cording to the work of the wicked, arid that there are 
wicked men to whom it bappeneth according to the work 

15 of the righteous. I said, "Tin's also is vanity!" Then 
I commended joy; because nothing is good for a man 
under the sun, except to eat and to drink and to be joy- 
ful; for it is this that ahideth with him for ids labor 
during the days of his life which God giveth him under 
the sun. 

16 When I applied my mind to know wisdom, and to see 
the business which is done upon the earth, — that one 

17 seetli no sleep with ids eyes by day or by ni-;ht, — -then I 
saw the whole work of God, that si man esi.iiot compre- 
hend thsif which is done under the sua; hod much soever 
ho labor to search it out, yet sha.il lie not comprehend it; 
yea, though a wise man resolve to know it, yet shall he 
not be able to comprehend it. 

1 For I gave my mind to sill this, even to search out all 
this, that the righteous and the wise and their works are 
hi the hand of God, and yet neither his love nor hatred 

2 doth any man know. All is before them. All [cometh to 
them] si.s to all. There is one event to the righteous and to 
the wicked ; to the good, to the clean, ami to the unclean s 
to him that sacrificeth, and to hiin that sacrificed! not ; as 
is the good, so is the sinner; he that sweareth, as he that 

3 feareth sin oath. This is an evil among all things which 
take place under the sun, that there is one event to all ; 
therefore also the heart of the sons of men is fill of evil, 
and madness is in their heart while they live, and after- 

i ward they go down to the desid. For who is there that is 

excepted? With sill the living i.\\<<v<: is hope; for a living 

e dog is better than a dead lion. Kor the living bow thai 



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□hap. s.] ECCLESIASTES. 135 

they shall die; but the dead know not any thing, and 
there is no move i.o them a-ny advantage, for their memory 

is forgotten. Their love also, and their haired, and their 
envy, is now perished; neither have they a portion any 
more for ever in any thing which Utkelh place under the 

7 Go thy way, eat thy bread with joy, and drink thy wine 
with a cheerful heart.; for Ions: since hath tied been 

8 pleased with thy works. Let thy garments he always 
white, and let not fragrant oil be wanting upon thy head. 

1) Kujoy life with the wile whom thou lovest, all the days 
of thy vain life which he hath given thee under the sun, 
all thy vain days. For this is thy portion in life, and in 
thy labor with which then weariest thyself under the sun. 

10 Whatever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might! 
For there is no work- nor device nor knowledge nor wis- 
dom in the under-world, whither thou goest. 

11 I turned and saw under the sun, that the race is not to 
the swift, nor the battle to the strong, nor yet bread to the 
wise, nor riches to men of understanding, nor favor to men 
of knowledge; hut lime and chauee happen lo theiu all. 

12 For man knowelh not his time. As fishes that are taken 
in a destructive net, and as birds that are caught in a 
snare, so are the sons of men snared in a time of distress, 
when it fallelli suddenly upon them. 

13 This also have 1 seen ; even wisdom under the sun, and 
l-l it seemed great to me. There was a little city, and few 

men within it; and a great king eroiie against, it, and 
]j besieged it. and built great bulwarks against it. Now 

there was found within it a wise poor man ; and he, by 

his wisdom, delivered the city ; yel no man remembered 
Hi that same poor man. Then said T, "Wisdom is better 

than strength ; " and yet the poor man's wisdom is des- 

17 pised. and his words lire not b'card. The quiet- words of 
the wise are sooner heard titan the shouting of a foolish 

18 raler. Wisdom is better than weapons of war. But one 

1 offender destroyed! much good. Dead dies make the oil 
of the perfumer loathsome and corrupt; thus doth a little 

2 felly weigh flown wisdom and honor. A wise man".-' mind 
8 is til his right hand ; hut a feel's mind is at his left. Yea, 



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136 ECCLESIASTES. [chap. si. 

even when the fool walkel.h in the way, Ins understanding 

failcth him, and lie saith to every one that lie ia a fool. 

4 If the anger of a ruler rise up against, thee, leave not 

3 iliy place ! for geutlcne.-s padhefh great, offences. There 

is an evil which I have seen under the sun ; an error 

which proceedelh from a ruler. Folly is set in many high 

7 stations, and Lite noble sit iti a low place. I have seen 
servants upon horses, and princes walking; as servants on 

8 foot. He that diggoth a pit shall fall into it; and whoso 
<.i breaket.h down a wall, a serpent shall bite him. Whoso 

remove tli stones shall be hurt therewith, and he that 

10 clcavofh wood shall be endangered thereby. If the iron 
be blunt, and one do not whet the edge, then must he put 
forth more strength ; but an advantage for giving success 

11 hath wisdom. If a serpent bite before ho is charmed, then 

12 there is no advantage to the charmer. The words of a 
wise man's mouth are gracious ; but the lips of a fool are 

13 his destruction. The beginning of the words of his month 
is folly, and the end of his talk is mischievous madness. 

14 A fool also multiplied) words, though no man knowelli 
what shall be; and who can tell him what shall be after 

15 him? The labor of the foolish man wearieth him, because 

16 he knoweth not how to go to the city. Woe to thee, 
laud, when thy king is a child, and thy princes feast in the 

17 morning! Happy thon, O hind, when thy king is a noble, 
and thy princes cat in due season, for strength, and not for 

IS drunkenness! By much slolbi'nhicss the building deea.y- 
eth ; and by the slackness of the hands the house leaketh. 

19 A feast is made for laughter, and wine makes merry ; but 

20 money answereth all things. Curse not the king; no, not 
in thy thought; and curse- not the rich in thy bed-ehamber! 
for a bird of the air shall carry the voice; and that which 
hath wings shall tell the matter. 

1 Cast thy bread upon the waters ; for after many days 

2 thon shalt tind it. Cive a portion" to seven, yea, to eight ; 
for thou knowest not what evil shall be upon the earth. 

3 When the clouds are full of nun, they empty upon the 
earth ; and when a tree falleth to the south or the north, 

4 in the place where the tree falleth. there it shall be. He 
that watcheth the wind wili not sow, and he that gazeth 

r> upon the clouds will not reap. As thou knowest not the 



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chap, xii.] ECCLESIABTES. 137 

way of the wind, nor how the bones are formed in the 
womb of her that is with child, so lliou canst not know 

6 the work of God, who doeth all things. In this morning 
sow thy seed, and in the evening withhold not thy liiinil ! 
For thou knowest not whether \.h\- shall prosper, or thai, 
or whether hot it of them s!i;l1I he alike good. 

7 Truly th« light is sweet, and a pleasant thing it is for 

8 the eyes to behold (lie sun. Yea, though a man live many 
years, let iiini rejoice in them all, and let him think of 
the days of darkness; for they shall be many. All that 

11 Cometh is vanity. Rejoice. () young mini, in thy you!b, 
and let thy heart cheer thee in the days of thy youth, and 
walk in the ways of thy heart, and in the sight of thine 
eyes! but know thou, that for all these things God will 
10 bring thee into judgment. Therefore remove sorrow from 
thy heart, and put away evil from thy body 1 for childhood 
and youth are vanity. 

1 Remember, also, thy Creator in the days of thy youth, 
before the evil days come, and the years draw nigh, of 
which thou shalt say, "I have no pleasure in them;" 

2 before the sun, rind the; light, and the moon, and the .stars 

3 become dark, and the clouds return after the rain ; at the 
time when the keepers of the house tremble, and the 
strong men how themselves, and the grinders cease be- 
cause they are few, and those that look out of the windows 

4 are darkened; when the doors are shut in the streets, 
while the sound of the mill is low; when they rise up at 
the voice of tins bird, and all the daughters of music are 

r, brought low; when also they are afraid of that which is 
hi«'h, and terrors are in the, way, and the almond is des- 
pised, and the locust i.s a burden, and the eaper-berry is 
powerless; since man goeth to his eternal home, and the 

(i mourners go about the streets; — -before the silver cord 
be snapped asunder, and the golden bowl be crushed, or 
the bucket broken at. the fountain, or the wheel shattered 

7 at the well, and the dust return to the earth as it was, and 
the spirit return to God who gave it. 

B Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher; all is vanity! 

9 Moreover, because the 1'reaeher was ' wise, he still 
taught the people knowledge; yea, he considered, and 

10 sought out, and set in order, many proverbs. The 



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138 ECCLESIASTES. [emir, m. 

Preacher sought, to find out. .accqi table words, and to write 

31 correctly words of truth. The words of the wise are 

as goads ; yea, as nails driven in are the words of mem- 

12 bers of assemblies, given by one shepherd. And, more- 
over, by these, my son, be warned ! To the multiplying 
of books there is no end, and much study wearielh the 

13 flesh. Let us hear the end of the whole discourse ! Fear 
God and keep his commandments ! For this is the duty 

14 of every man. For God will bring every work into the 
judgment winch there is upon every secret tiling, whether 
it be good, or whether it be evil. 



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THE CANTICLES, 

THE SONG OF SONOS, 

BY SOLOMON. 



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INTRODUCTION TO THE CANTICLES. 



The title of this book could not have been prefixed to it by its 
author. The Song of Songs is undoubtedly jm instance of the 

Hebrew superlative, meaning tin' finest or most bcn.iit.iful of songs. 
It is, moreover, improbable that the title implies a eoir.pirnson of 
the work with other poetry written by Solomon. The moaning 
of the person who gave tin.' bonk its title- was, that it contained 
the moat beaut iiiil of songs, and that Solomon was its author. 

The first and most interesting fpiestioit (iial presents itself in 
relation to this work is, What is its subject? If the Song of 
Songs had been found in any book except the Bible, I presume 
there would have been great nnaniiuily in answering the (piestion. 
It won hi be s:iiii that li; w co:i:posi',:ons existed, (-very line uf which 
revealed so fully the subject occupying the mind of the author. 
It would be said that one sentiment pervaded the whole, and 
that that sentiment was love. In iaot, there is now no dispute 
respecting the subject of the book, so lis r as it can be expressed 
in a single word. It is allowed by all lo be love, reciprocal love. 
The '[uestion is, What kind of love is here represented:' Is it 
spiritual, or is it sentimental love ; that is, the love of the. sexes, 
as represented in poetry? Is it that love which exists between 
God and man, or Christ and the Church; or that which exists 
between man and woman ? 

Since the time of Origcn, the opinion has prevailed, that the 
work is designed to set forth the mutual love of Christ and the 
Church. This distinguished allcgonst exerted his great talents, 
as we are infonui-d by .St. Jerome,' 1 in illustrating the book. In 
his other works, says lie, Origen surpassed other men ; in this ha 

* Optra, torn. ii. p. £07, edit. Mart:;iii;Ly. 



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142 INTRODUCTION TO 

sn;'['i!. i= ril himself; so [hat in Iiim may seem to have been fulhlled 
thai which is said, " The king has led me to hii chamber." The 
unbounded intlueuce of Orison gave the allegorical interpretation 
pre valence in [.lie Church ; so that, when Theodore of .YLopsueslia, 
a man of great learning and talent, defended the literal sense of 
the Canticles, he was excommunicated for this aud other causes 
alter his death, by an assembly of fanatical bishops mid monks, 
the second council oh Ooustautineple, in the year o.">:'." 

Since the time of the condemnation of Theodore, the prevalent 
Yielief of Christendom has been, that the hook contains a repre- 
sentation of the mutual love of Christ and the Church. This 
would seem to he the most general view at the present day, if 
we may judge of the opinion of the Christian Church Try what is 
expressed in the popular commentaries. J.t is contained in the 
captions to the chapters in the common version. 

Among the modern .lews, too, the allegorical sense of the book 
has prevailed, according to which it, has heen supposed to set 
forth the dealings of God with the .Jewish people. Thus, tha 
Tai-gumist on this book applies it to Jehovah and the Jewish 
nation, in their journeyings f'n.ni Kgypt to the laud of Canaan. 

As the mystical interpretation of this hook commenced and 
advanced with llio jn.-nerai prevalence and progress of the alle- 
gorical mode of interpretation, so it has declined in proportion as 
that mode of interpretation has been understood to be without 
foundation. Since the lime of Grolius, the prevailing opinion of 
the learned critics who have examined the work has been, that the 
subject of it is nut spiritual or religious love, hut dint which 
exists between man and woman. 

The peculiar view of Grothts hits found few supporters. Ho 
supposes the hook to contain a dialogue, between newly married 
persons, in which very gross Ideas are veiled by decent expres- 
sions, f But since his time, — that is, since the principle, of inter- 

* See BoEenmiilleri Hi-tnriiL I:^i''|jO'tiiti™ir, vol. iii. pp. 251 and 202. 
f "Est iopfOriir (i.e. ^anit-s c ' 1,,! J 1: o MT11 " l " r f '') '" ter Salomonem et 

tiliiiiu re^is Ejrypti, hileiluiineiilil.us eiiam clieris iliiobin, bun jricmura turn 
virc.'iuuui, ci.i •■. puc-canis tlciliiiuo toeis ex.i:iiljul>aiit. K uptiiii'iini arcana 
sub tuiiH'stis vi-i-1i(ii-uili -nvcluiTis lik- hilcisl ; qu:c eiliuiL ciinsii ,.-i cur licbniii 
vutarfis bene : 1 1 ii-niii lc-i nc.lucL-iiit, ni.-i a jam conjayie pi-excais." 



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THE CANTICLES. 143 

prefation has been generally acknowledged, that language can 
have no other meaning than that which exists in the mind of 11 it.' 
writer,- — the mystical sense ha- been given up by most critics on 
the Continent, and by many in F.ngland ; such as Michaelis, Her- 
der, Kichhorn, Db'derh.an, Iliil.he, Sciler, Jalm, I)e Welle, l.im- 
breit, Ewald, lleillgsledi., Ilitzig, and tnu-iiv others. In England, 
the distinguished Methodist, Adam Ckti'Ite ; tin: Cah-inislie dis- 
senter, John I've Smith; and the Biblical translator. Dr. Booth- 
royd, who is also an Orthodox dissenter, — have also abandoned 
the ntysiical explanation. 

There are those, however, in modern times, who yet hold fast 
this allegorical inietpi'oiai.ion. Anion*.' these is the l.iomanist 
Hug, who supposes the bonk- to lie of a political nature. Under 
the image of a spouse, as he thinks, is set forth a part of the. ten 
tribes, which, being left in their country after ihe destruction of 
Samaria, sought to be re-united to the Jewish nation under the 
reign of He^ckiah. Tin' Jews, renroseuled by the brothers of 
the Shulamite, are unwilling that the union should take place. 

Rosenmiiller adopts 1hc theory, thai ihe work sets forth the 
love of Solomon for wisdom. It is not a little remarkable, 
however, thai while Iioscuiuuller avows this to he his view in 
the introduction to his commentary on the book, he makes not 
the slightest allusion In it in Ihe commentary itself, extensive as 

In England, Bishop Percy and John Mason Good avow their 

belief in the mystical interpretation. Like Rosen niiiller, however, 
they do not apply their theory to the interpretation of the hook, 
but comment upon it as if the literal were the only sense. 

In this country, the old notion, that the nook sets forth the 
mutual love of Christ and the Cluti'ch, is probably the most preva- 
lent. But Professor Kobiuso.n. in his Bible Dictionary, adopts 
the view, that the subject of the book is the mutual love of Jeho- 
vah and the Jewish nation, 

Professor Stuart, of Aji'Iov.t, has also avowed his faith in the 
mystical exposition of the Canticles, in his hasty work on the 
canon of the Old Testament. He has adopted the view, that 
the subject, of the book is the relation of Cod to the individual 
sonl, ami the asp;ca'.:oi!s of the soul to he united to the. Creator. 



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144 INTRODUCTION TO 

I might mention several other theories. But it would answer 
no LiiKiii | >i.li[ si>-h i- , as 1 du iiiit intend In examine them one by one, 
in order to show which is the most, or the least, tenable. I 
believe 1.Ii:l(. there is not tlie ;'i;'.:u ;■-! li.'.;iii!uiio:i (in- uny one of 
them; that, not one of them can be accepted, n-itlioi.it setting at 
i.l yii a mil! all just views of the nature of language, and all solid 
principles of interpretation. 

The decisive objection, which applies in nearly an equal degree 
to all these theories. is, that there is no mention, or oven intima- 
tion, in the work itself, of that which they make its great and 
principal subject. These interpreters tell us, that the work ex- 
presses ibe mutual hue of Jeliovah and the Hebrew nation, or of 
Christ and the Church, Or of God and the individual soul. In 
opposition to this, it is enough to say, that it is more la I icy ; tliat 
there is not tiie slightest allusion to God, to Christ, to the Church, 
or to the son! of man as related to God. in the whole book. The 
only persons introduced into it are human. There is not a sen- 
tence, or part of a sentence, which, according to (he common use 
of .ciiignage, expresses any religious idea. This with me is the 
decisive consideration. The author has in no way indicated (hat 
he uses language in any but the ol.c inns anil u-ual sense. In all 
allegory, it is necessary that Ihe principal subject should be in 
some way indicated. II' allegory U a long-continued comp:; risen, 
it is necessary that the author should decidedly make known to 
us the subject compared. Hut in tile J look of Canticle,; this is 
not the case. The principal subject, as understood by the alle- 
gorists, docs not appear in it. The. book i> all comparison, and 
nothing to be compared ; all ilius(ra(ion, and nothing to be illus- 
trated. Tlie thing to he illustrated comes from without, — from 
the mind of the interpreter, arbitrarily imposing a sense on the 
author's words in consequence of some imagined necessity, nhich 
is wholly independent of any tiling in tlie work itself. In the 
parable of the Prodigal Sou, who would have known that it was 
intended to illustrate the disposition of God towards men, unless 
our Saviour had indicated such an application of it ? So in the 
allegory of the Vine which came out of dlgypt, it is expressly 
Staled, '"The vineyard of the Lord of hosts is the house of 
Israel." So every writer of common sense, who makes use of 



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It has been said, to favor of 


the mystic. 


ther writers of the Scriptures 1 




clesis used; that Jehovah is 


called the 


nd the people represented a; 


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THE CANTICLES. 145 

metaphor, comparison, or allegory, will in ?(mn: way indicate (be 
principal sublet t.(. in; illustrated. I'm I. it is not pretended that. 
the author of the Canticles has iIoik; this. Tin; only just conclu- 
sion, then, is, thai, he has not made use of allegory ; that he de- 
signed ids language to be understood in its eonimon and obvious 
sense. 

.1 interpretation, that in 
nilar to that in the Can- 
husband of his people. 



Canticles and the comparisons (list referred to, there is one 
obvious difference which deprives this reference to such com- 
parisons of any force as an argument. It is, that the subject 
compared is always prominent in those illustrations of the He- 
brew prophets. Thus, in Isa. liv. 5, " Thy Maker is thy husband ; 
Jehovah of hosts is his name," Such illustrations, therelbre, if 
they resembled the language in the. Canticles much more than they 
(lo, would only show how its lau'.'ua^e miff/tt U<;t:e been, not hoiv it 
w, used. Because an adulterous woman, in the writings of the 
prophets, represents (he. Jewish pisi'ifilo in their rebellion against 
Jehovah, it surely does not follow that every woman or maiden to 
the Scriptures, does, hi' may, denote die Jewish people. Because a 
lender husband sometimes denotes a compassionate Cod ill rela- 
tion to his people, it surely does not follow that every husband or 
lover in the Scriptures denotes (.he Supreme Being, iiceause the 
Church is compared to a chaste virgin, it does not follow that 
every virgin denotes the Church. Before wo can admit that any 
writer intends to denote the Supreme Being by such expressions, he 
must himself indicate it by express declaration or intelligible hii|ile- 
eal.iou, as the prophets have done in the eases to which reference 
has been made. Now, the author of the Canticles has not inti- 
mated to its in any way, that in his songs he had in view any 
oilier characters than man and woman, or any other hind of love 
than hitman or sentimental love. "We have no right, then, to go 
beyond this meaning. Those who have adduced this illustration 
from the prophets have at bn«i: only shown what miyht be, not 
what is. There is no part of the Old Testament, or at least no 



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146 INTRODUCTION TO 

difficult part, which may not be allegorized with as. much reason 
as the Canticles. 

But, in the second place, T deny that the language, of the 
prophets, in tliu eases rclcrred to, is at all analogous to that 
of the Canticles. Those passages in the prophets whieli set 
(iii-l.li the Ingratitude of [lie In. use of Israel to Jehovah under the 
image of a wile faithless to a tender hnsoand, are wholly unlike, 
any tiling in the Boo!; of Canlieles. In the former, the Supreme 
Vicing alwa) s a|i[iears as Jehovah, the most holy governor of tlie 
world, the eomparison being used incidentally to illustrate his 
own fondue!, or that of his peop'o. In tlie latter, we find only 
lovers and maidens ; the praise of personal beauty anil passionate, 
expressions of love ; lovers conversing with eaeli other, placed in 
different scenes, eating, drinking, sleeping, embracing, running, 
climbing, visiting gardens, iceding docks; in fine, all that is 
usually found in erotic poetry. Who ean fail to perceive the 
difference, between such iv presentations and any views which 
the sublime licljrew prophets give of the character and conduct 

of God ? 

It seems to me wholly inconsistent with the reverence for 

Jehovah which e\lsied in the Hebrew mind, that one of their 
writers should compose such a book as Canticles to illustrate the 
feelings which should exist between man and bis Creator. It is a 
monstrous supposition. There is nothing in the Hebrew literature 
to justify it. Who is there nmong us that would dare to use ranch 
of the language of she Canticles hi reference to the high and loil.y 
One that Inhabitetu eternity? Had not the Jews as great a. 
reverence for f.be venerable name as Christians? Let us conceive 
of tlie author of the fortieth chapter of Isaiah — -after lie had 
spoken of the Supreme J.ieing as having "measured the waters in 
the hollow of his hand, and meted out the heavens with his span, 
iiud gathered the dust of the earth into a measure, and weighed 
the mountains in scales, and the hills in a balance," as the Being 
"before whom all naiions are nothing, and accounted less than 
nothing and vanity " — as addressing himself to bis devotions. 
Would he have commenced with, " Let him kiss me with one of 
the kisses of his mouth; for thy caresses are belter than wine"? 
Would he have applied to the Huprenie licing the language, " My 



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THE CANTICLES. 147 

ueloved spul; n and salil unto mo, 'lti.se up, my love, my fair one, 
and come away' "? Would Solomon, who, in his prayer at the 

dedication of [lie temple, used tin. 1 sublime language, "Behold, 
the heaven, even the heaven of lion vims, cannot contain thee," 
have jitldri'ssi-il lii- Creator in the language, "The voice of my 
beloved! Behold, lie eonielh, leaping upon (he mountains, bound- 
ing over the liilla. Like a gazelle is my beloved, or a young 
bind," &c. ? 1 might proceed with interrogations (.if this kind; 
but there is. language in (he Canticles whiuh I could not apply to 
the Infinite Spirit in the mariner rei|iiired by the, mystical theory, 
without feeling guilty of blasphemy. 

In support of the mystical intcrprolallon of the Canticles, 
reie.vence lias been made to the pantheistic mysticism of the reli- 
gions sect called .Sniis, which lias long existed in the East, and 
especially to the songs of Ilaliz, a Persian writer of ibe fourteenth 
cenl.ut'y, who has been supposed to teach mystic religions ri.io 
Lines under the images of love, wine, &o. But it is doubtful 
whether Italic himself attached a religious meaning to many of 
his songs. It is certain, that must of them relate only to senti- 
mental love, Unibreit. uho appears in have given considerable 
attention to the subject, says, "The love-poems of Nisami, 
Leila and Mcdschmu], and Jussuf and Suleicha, have been ex- 
plained allegorleally, iilihongh, according to the evident intention 
of the poet, they require a literal interpretation."* Sir William 
Jones observes, "It has been made a question, whether the 
poems of Hafix must be taken in a literal or in a figurative sense ; 
but the question dues not admit of a general and direct answer: 
for even the most enthusiastic, of his conunenl.al.ors allow that 
some of then! are to be taken literally."! The. " Conversation ?- 
Lexicon," or "L'ncyclop:ediii Americana," which may lie supposed 
to represent the opinion of the. learned in Germany, says, "The 
songs of Ilaii? were collected Into a div-ria, after his death, which 
was published complete. (Calcutta, 17111) and translated into tier- 
man by the celebrated Oneutalisl, Von Hammer ("J vols, Stutt- 
gart!, 1812-1815). The "poems of liana are distinguished ibr 



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148 INTRODUCTION TO 

spriglitliiiess and Anacreontic festivity. He is not uniivqui'iillj 
loud in praise of wine, love, and pleasure. Swim mri/a-n fa tee 
son-jlil a mystic mammy in, ihr.se. ei::\ii-,i. I'oridoun, Snruri, Sadi, 
and others, have attempted to explain what they supposed to be 
tlie hidden sense." 

Before what appear to be love-son;;* I" any nation can afford 
any confirmation ol' a mystical sense in the Canticles, it must be 
shown that there an- some intimations m them tiiat their sensual 
expressions are designed as images of spiritual things. If this 
cannot lie shown, it is reasonable lo conclude that they" have no 
allegoric meaning. Hut if there are in them decided intima- 
tions of a spiritual meaning, then they art: unlike the Song of 
So'.oitKin. 

In the literature of several nations, an allegorical sense has 
been given to t.bc [nod ui: Lions ol' distinguished poets by their ad- 
mirers. The Iliad of Homer, the songs ol' Ihiiin, and the Canti- 
cles ascribed to Solomon, have met with the same fortune. From 
tlie allegorical use ol' them made in an age subsequent to that in 
which they were written, we cannot in fin* what was the original 
design and meaning of either. 

I have no disposition to deny, however, that among the pro- 
ductions of the Sufi pods aj-e found poems in which sensual 
images are used for the purpose of expressing devotional feelings. 
Tlii; might he expected from the obscene symbols of the Still 
religion, as deseribed by Tholuek. " Voluptatcm c.x um'one [i.e. 
cum Deo] captain, liirpeni. adscisi-emes ligurain, assiuiilaverunt 
turn coitu maris et tcminn;, pneeiinl.ilius Tudis quorum in Upnek- 
hato, t. i. p. 241, conjuiictio mystics eum Deo comparatur cum 
c.oncubitu mulieris pncdllocl.ie, inter quem nulla in mariii annuo 
lirma oogi(alio permaneat ant Imaginationis species, scd uuivcrsiu 
n anltnique vires imuierste sini, in suavtsslmam jucunditatis 



I do not profess a Ihoroiigli ac"[i;a:ii!anec with these writings, 
lint, having examined the specimens found in the writings oi Sir 
William -Jones, anil in Tholuck's Selections t from the mystic peels 

* TlnJuck's Siiii'is-iei-, p. 9i. 

t Bliithcn sain in lung aus tie; 1 ^ To i-^r:.- 1 1 1 i L n ■: 3 : - e 1 lh ■ 1 1 Mystik, von F. A. Q. 
Tholuek. Berlin, 1825. 



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THE CANTICLES. 149 

or the East, I am convinced that none of them bear much resem- 
blance to the Canticles. They are -evidently prod notions of a 

[lillerent nature, acid connected with a religion as different (nun 
the Jewish as darkness from light. 

Among the specimens most favorable to the opinion of those 
who form their judgment of the nature of a Hebrew poem from 
the productions of mystic Sufi pantiici-ts or the mdi^ of Mahome- 
tan dervishes, are the two given by Mr. T.ane in his work on the 
"Modern Egyptians," contained in the Library of Entertaining 
Knowledge. The-e specimens I shall quote entire for the. satis- 
faction of the reader, the more especially because they appear to 
have bad great influence ou the mind of fYutcstur Stuart, and are 
quoted by him as the principal support of the opinion which lie 
adopts, that (lie t'anuoles " c.\pres- the warm and earnest desire 
of the soul after God, in language borrowed from that which char- 
acterises chaste alfectiori between tiie sexes." 

" The durweesh," says Mr. Lane,* " pointed out the following 
poem as one of those most connnnii at zikrs, and as one whicli was 
sung at the zikr, which T have begun to describe. I translate it 
verse for verse, and imitate the measure and system of rhyme of 
the original, with this difference only, that the first, third, and fifth 
lines- of eaclf stanza rhyme with each other in the original, but not 
in my translation: — 

" ' With love my heart is troubled, 

Aral iiiiixi oyeliJ lihuU'ietli deep: 
My vitals are dissevered. 

While with si reaming teais I weep. 
My union seems far distant: 

Will my love e'er meet my eye? 
Alas! did not csoviii^emeut 

Draw my tears, i ivunlil ma sh-ii. 
I!y dreary nights I 'm wasted: 

Absence makes my hope expire: 
My tears, like pearls, are dropping; 

And my lieart is wrapt in lire. 
Whose is liku my cuiirtiiiim? 
Scarcely know I remedy. 

Alas ! (liil In! r.-U. I II ;■'.■■:■! !!■.■ Ill 

Draw my tvats, I wmild not sigh. 
* lliidcrii Egyptians, vol. ii. p. 195. 



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150 INTRODUCTION TO 

turtle-dove ! acquaint me, 

Wherefore thus dost thou lament ? 
Art thou so stung by absence? 

Of thy wiu;;s deprived and pent; 
He aaitli, " Our crisis are i-ciual-; 

Worn away with love, I lie." 
Alas ! did not estrangement 

Draw my tears, ! would not sigh. 

First and Everlasting! 

Show thy favor yet to me ; 
Thy slave, Alih'mad Kl-liek'rec* 

Hath no Lord excepting thee. 
By TV-ha',f fie groat pmphet! 

Do thou net his wish deny. 
Alas! did not estrangement 

Jlraw my [ears, 1 would not sigh.' " 

" I must translate a. fow more lines," says Mr. Lane, " to show 

more sl.rnnirly tin- similarity (if i bese son^s to that of Solomon ; 
and, lest it should be thought that I hive varied the expressions, 
i shall not. altenipt l.o render tliein into verse. Tri tbe same col- 
lection of poems sung at zikra is One which begins with these 

" ' O gazelle from among the gazelles of El-Ycm'cnl 

I am thy slave, without cost : 

O thou small of age, and fresh of skin 1 

thou who art scares pa;,! Ilm iitnt; of dnn!;ing milk ! ' 

"In the first of these verses, we have, a comparison exactly 

airreein^ with that in tin: eonciuillu^ verse of Soiiuiion's Hoii<>- ; 
for the word which, in our Bible, is translated a 'roe' is used 
in Arable as svnonvnious witJi ^-lia/al (or a pi^elle) ; and the 
nioiirif.il ins of El-Yetn'et] are 'tin; nioutii.uins of .spices. 1 This 
poem ends with the following lines : — - 

'"The phantom »f l!iy limn visi1i.il me in slumber; 
J said, " tl phantom uf slu.mb...r! vim writ thco ? " 
lie -aid, ; - lie .cur mi; wlmm ihon knowest; 
He whose love occupies thee." 

* The autlior of the poem. f A name of Mahomet. 



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THE CANTICLES. 151 

'I'll.? lv:lfivor.l of my heart visited me in tin. 1 darkness of iii{j!ii ; 

I stood, tn show him honor, until he sat down. 

I said, ' : O tlni:i my |K:iiii'm, ami nil my desire! 

ITast thou come at mitlnijrlil, and nof feared the watchmen? " 

He said to Lue, "I feared; but, however, love 

Had taken from me my soul and my breath." ' 

Compare the. above Willi tin: sworn! ami five; folii. living verses of 
t.lie fifth chapter of Solomon's Song." 

Now, as to the first of these religion.- love-songs of tin} Mahom- 
etan dervishes, whatever slight resemblance it may have to any 
part of the Canticles, it diU'ors essentially from any of them in the 
circumstance, that tin; Supreme. JSeiug is expressly introduced as 
the. object of worship. Without this essential circumstance, no 
oik; could tell whether if were uriginalh. composed lor a love-song, 
or a religious hymn expressing a Ionian;; for ,1 union of the soul 
With God, according to the Mufi philosophy anil religion. 

In the second poem, quoted by Mr. Lane, it is to be regretted 
that he did not quote the whole of it. For I can by no means 
admit the circumstance that it. was sung by the dervishes in their 
morning devotions to he conclusive in regard to 1.1 ic original design 
of the hymn. Mr. Lane expressly tells us, in a note, that he 
(bund the last six lines inserted, with some slight alterations, as 
a common love-song, in a portion of the "Thousand and One 
Niuhts,'' printed at Calcutta, vol. i. p. 42o ; Lane's Translation, 
it. p. 349. Whether the whole was originally composed as a 
love-song or a devotional hymn does not appear from the parts of 
it which Mr. Lane gives us. If, in the parts omitted, there Is any 
clear reference to the Deity, it is unlike any of the Canticles. If 
there is no such reference, the meaning of the hymn is too doubtful 
to allow any inference to he drawn from it. For we might as well 
allow the singing of Dr. Waf.f.s's version of the Canticles to be an 
argument for their original design, as to admit the singing of the 
mystic dervishes to l>e an evidence of the original de-sign of the 
hymns, which they sung. 

Before making some general remarks on this whole subject of 
attempting to show the character of the- Canticles by reference to 
the pantheistic poetry of l.he Mahometan Sutis, it may be well 
to mention thai, reference has been made even to the poets ofllln- 



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152 INTRODUCTION TO 

dorian lor the same purpose; especially to Ihe Ciiai<o\T.nla,* (Ik? 
production of ji celebrated Hindoo poet, named Jayadeva. This 
appears tu be a mystical poem, designed In celebrate the lows of 
C'ristmaand Hadha, or the reciprocal attraction between tin: Divine: 
goodness and the human soul. Xow, whatever may lie the resem- 
blance between llie Oilagovinda and [.lie Canticles in some of their 
imagery, there is this essentia! dillercnee, that, in the .former, 
Cvishun w;is the chief incarnated god of the Hindoos : \ and that 
there are in it references to other gods, anil to various superstitions 
of the .1 iiiidoo mythology, whilst in the Canticles there is no refer- 
ence to any but human eharaeters. Besides, the author of the 
Cilagoviuda clearly intimates it. religions character in the conclu- 
sion of the poem. 

We have, seen, then, that there are material differences "between 
the Canticles and the religious love-song* to which reference has 
been made. But, supposing the resemblance to be much greater 
than it is, those eoslical songs do not in any essential respect re- 
semble the Canticles more than they do the odes of Anaereon, or 
some of the eclogues of Virgil, and the Idyls of Theocritus. And 
it is not easy to see why the rnseuiblunec does not prove the re- 
ligions character of the odes of Anaereon as much as that of the 
Cant ides. 

But, after all, the great objection remains to any conclusion 
drawn from the. pantheistic mystic poets, whether of Persia or 
India, whether Mahometans or Hindoos ; namely, that their pro- 
ductions are founded on a religion and philosophy entirety differ- 
ent from the Jewish, The Canticles are. productions of a different 
cDuulre, and separaled from any of the songs of the Sufi poets by 
an interval of nearly two thousand years. The Jewish religion 

* It may be found appended to [>t. Ailnm Clarke's Commentary on the 

Canticles. Also in tlic Asiatic Researches, eel. iii. 

t "Crishiin continues tu this [111111- tin: dailiaa; (;■■■■: 1 of the. Indian wnmpii, 

The sect, of Hindoos, who adore turn with entluejhrsth: and almost exclusive 
devotion, iiave l,n>:,eheil ;i do.lrine n-hieh rlnvv tniumiiiii v.'ilh eagerness, and 
which serins general in !ln'.-,e provinces : [hat lie wan distinct from all the 
A-mttiirs. ii-!!') had only ar. ims'i or per! ion of liis divinity: uhiie Crlshna was 
the person of Vishnn liimwli' in a human form.-' — Sir \V. June', in Asiatic 
ttesea 'dies, v.il. i. ]i. iiiO. 



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THE CANTICLES. 158 

has nothing in common with tlif! pantheistic mysticism on which 
those songs ;iro founded. There is nothing in tin; Old Testament 
of a similar character. Ii' any productions similar (o those mystical 
luvi:-sim!:.'i hud existed ill the volitions litcvati ire of the Hebrews, 
undoubtedly we should have found some of them ill the Book of 
I'.-rdms, which comprises cunipii.-itiuus from the age preceding that 
ei' David to a period long after the refiirn of the Jews from 111.: 
captivity at Babylon. But in the most fervent psalms, l.lio forty - 
second for instance, nothing of the kind is found. Neither is any 
thing similar to these mystic ^mgs ascribed to the Jewish sects, as 
described by Josephus and Tliih.i. Nothing of the kind is laid to 
the charge, of the Essenes. it is needless to say that nothing ap- 
proaching to a like character is found in the. New Testament. 
Nothing similar is discovered even in the allegorical paraphrase of 
the. Targumist* on the Canticles. All those religions love-songs 
are founded on the .Sufi religion, or rather religious philosophy, 
which, wdiethei' il. was borrowed from India, as, Von Hammer sup- 
poses, or arose independently among the .Mahometans, according 
to the opinion of Tholucli.t has no connection with, or resemblance 
to, the Jewish. It is as different from the Liter as darkness (rem 
light. The argument, therefore, which is drawn from the. mystical 
songs of the iilahoniolan devotees fin' ascribing a mystical character 
to the Canticles is without foundation. 

To me also it appears singular, that any one should think it to 
be for the honor of the. hook, or of the Jewish religion, or of the 
Bible, to regard the Canticles as designed to be a book of devo- 
tion, a guide to the Jews in the expression of their religions feel- 
ings to their Creator, If it be regarded as a specimen of the erotic 
poetry of the Hebrews, it will be treated with nidi lie rence by most 
readers, and consequently do them no harm. But, if regarded as 
an inspired model and help fir devotion, its direct tendency is in- 
jurious to morals and religion. That such is its tendency, when 
so understood, is too plain to need argument. Even Professor 
Stuart, who professes to believe ii an inched composition, de- 

ioii's Srrag may lie found translated, appended to 



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154 INTRODUCTION TO 

signed " to express the warm and ardent desire of the soul allor 
Q-od," is compelled by his morn.] feelings to express the strangely 
inconsistent opinion, I hat "it i- t!iL- .-:i.f't:r and better conr-c to place 
the Canticles, as the -Tows did, anion"' the j"'T"-a, or books with- 
(.Irawn from ordinary Hie ; " and, again, that those who neglect to 
rend the book " are to be commended rather than blamed. 11 * He 
a! tempts, indeed, to show that. what, would be dangerous to US in 
the Western world might be. sate for [lie Orientals, on account of 
the secluded state in which females were kept among them. But 
it is not easy to .see why sensual imagery should have less influence 
fin the imagination and feelings of an Oriental on account of any 
difference between Eastccn and Western society, or why the lan- 
guage of love-songs, used as tin; vehicle of devotion, should have 
less influence to corrupt and debase the religion of an Asiatie (ban 
of an American. "It seems to lie at least probable, that what could 
not with decency be sung in a mixed assembly in this country was 
never designed by Heaven to be sung or said as a. religious exer- 
cise in any country. On general principles, I should suppose that 
the safety was on the side of the colder temperament of the West- 
ern world, and that the freer social intercourse between the sexes 
in tin? West was less likely to intlame the imagination and the pas- 
sions than that guarded seclu-inn of female; through which they 
arc presented to the mind only as objects of sensual love. 

It may be that some of the Sufi devotees sing their religious 
love-songs with devotional feelings. lint that the. tendency of 
such a mode of worship is bad is almost self-evident. iS'o one can 
be surprised when Professor Tholuek, who in general gives the 
most favorable aspect of the Orienlal iny.slicisai, inform* us con- 
cerning the dissoluteness ami sensuality of the dervishes and 
Sufis, whose devotional exercises con-ist of language and images 
borrowed from sensual love, " Proinde, si ijim dissolutions vita?, 
quln etui.ni veneris pnnuiseun: criminationos adversns Derwisehios 
el; Ssulios facta? sunt, earuui uie repellciuhirum Ofpiidcin hand 
pareni orederem."t 

* Stuart on the Canon, t 
t See Thohick's SsLilisro 
Jitriiii, isai. p. SS. 



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THE CANTICLES. 155 

On the injurious eifert of a religious use of t.lic- Canticles, ths 

testimony of Dr. Adam Clarke, "who us a travelling .M.ethodist 
preacher Lad {Treat opportunities for observation relating to ihe 
subject, is as follows, Speaking of those who attach a spiritual 
meaning to the book, lie say?: "Their conduct is dangerous : 
and tlm result of their well-intentioned labors lias been of very 
little service to the cause of Clirisl.ianil.y in general, or to the 
interests of true, morality in particular. By their mode of inter- 
proration, an undignified, not to say mean and carnal, language 
lias ljeen propagated among many well-meaning religious pee pie. 
that has associated itself too mueli with stilish and annual alfe.r- 
tions, and treated feelings that accorded little- with the dignified 
spiriluibiy of ihe religion of ihe Lord Jesus. I speak not from 
report; 1 speak from observalion :md experience, and observation 
not. hastily made. The oonvh-liou in: ini moid, and the conclusion 
to which I have conscientiously arrived, are the result of frequent 
examination, careful reading, and close thinking at intervals, for 
nearly fifty years; and, however I may be blamed by some and 
pitied by others, 1 must say, and I say it as fearlessly as i do 
conscientiously, that in this inimitably fine, elegant Hebrew ode 
I see nothing of Christ mid his Church, and nothing thai appears 
to have been intended to be thus understood; and nothing, if 
applied in this way, thai, j/er ite, can promote the inte.ivsls of 
vital godliness, or cause the simple and sincere not to know 
Christ after ihe flesh. Here 1 eon-cientiously stand: may God 
help me."* 

Indeed, the history of religion in all ages and in all countries 
is full of examples of the danger that excited religions feeling 
may unite itself with sensual feelings, and express itself In sensual 
images. Witness the representations of some of the Hindoo 
gods, and the religious rites of various heat!. en nations. Even in 
Christendom, hymns have been sung as religious, which full 
below any heathen addresses to Phallus or I.Yiapns. Jo proof of 
this may be adduced the obseene language used by the early 
Moravians, in their hymns and other acts of worship. Examples 
of language of this kind, indecent beyond coueepiion, are quoted 

« See his Inrrodud ion lo tlm Song of Soloinon. 



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156 INTRODUCTION TO 

by Ilimius, * in his writings relating to the Moravians. Fortu- 
nately, those sincere but misguided Christians were taught by 
their assailants to correct their dangerous error. Rut lot it be 

generally believed that the Cau.ioles were inspired ami designed 
"to express the warm ami earnest desire oi' the soul alter God,"' 
and we shall be likely to have the error ol' tin; early Moravians 
repeated in all ils disgusting oll'ensii cue*-, its direct influence 
will In: to debase religion ami promote, immorality. Let it not be 
said there is no danger, in a community in which _M.illc.rijm and 
.vforinonism have found so many proselytes. 

The opinion, then, that the Canticles were designed as helps 
to the soul in its devotions, is more discreditable (o the hook 
itself, to the Script lire s, and to the., ewish religion, than that which 
regards them as relit.:.'; of the amatory poetry of the Hebrews. 
That, which is noxious is more discreditable than that which is 
merely indifferent. The odes of Anacreon, while they arc read in 
our schools as amatory poetry, have but little influence of any 
kind. But if they were taught as helps to devotion, to be repeated 
day after day as religious exercises during one's whole life, the 
oll'oct would be very different. 

One other argument has been urged of late in favor of the 
mystical interpretation of the Canticles, which T should think 
unworthy of notice, were it not for the respectability of those 
who oiler it. it is drawn from the dtlfereuco of opinion, in regard 
ii i Li: object., plan, and design of the Catdieles, among those who 
reject the allegorical interpret iil.iou, lint t.iits difference of opinion 
relates not to tin- .'n-uet.d e!iir:i'-ter of the bo.ik, or to the meaning 
of its language, but to the author's special plan and design, it is 
not strange that there should iiave been a difference of opinion on 
these points, since no special object or plan may have existed in 
the author's mind, lint, .siier all, there is no greater difference of 
opinion in regard to (lie Canticles than in regard to Eoclcsiastes, 
Job, and some other hooks of the Old 'Testament. And this 
argument, if it proves any thing, proves that, we may fasten an 
allegorical sense upon ;my dillictilt pas-age or boo 1 ; of the l.iiblc. 



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THE CANTICLES. 157 

resides, iiir every two difR ire nl, opinions expressed by those who 
reject the mystical sense of tin.- Canticles, it will be very easy to 
find four expressed by those who hold it. 

Why, then, says the friend of the allegorical interpretation 

of I] it; Canticles, is [lie book I'm mil in tin; Scriptures, if it lias net 
:i religions moaning or a moral value ? This, after all, is, I appre- 
hend, the only argument which has much real weight even with 
the allegorists. Tin; booh is found in the Scriptures ; therefore it 
cannot be understood in its obvious sense ; therefore it must have 
an allegorical sense; and, since the author has not said or inti- 
mated what the religious sense of his words is, the reader must 
supply it. tor him. 

Now, suppose that, we were wholly unable to answer the ques- 
tion, how an amatory poem, or a collection of mniiiory poetry, 
came into the Jewish canon of the Scriptures. Is our ignorance 
on a point like this a reason for assigning to a man's words a 
sense which was never in his mind, and which, according to the 
usage of the language in whieh he wrote, and of the authors of 
th« same nation, in his oivn age. or bclore or alter bis lime, his 
words are not adapted to express? 

Bo one knows, or has good reason l.o believe, what, individuals 
or body of men made the collection of the writings of the. Old 
Testament. Of course, we do not know on what judgment, it' 
any, the admission of a writing into this collection rests. For 
aught we know, all the Hebrew works extant at a particular time 
may have been included in the collection. The incredible and 
contradictory Jewish traditions on the subject all go to show that 
absolutely nothing is known respecting it.* One may find abun- 
dance of conjecture and of strained inferences relating to it, but 
no genuine history. The [look of Canticles, then, if placed in 
the collection of Hebrew literature by an act of judgment, may 
have been placed (here by those who supposed it a production, 
possessing much poetic- beauty, of a person so celebrated through- 
out the Eiint as -Solomon. rdrn.-h uncoriainly exi-ia in regard to 
the time when the books of the Old Testament began to be 

» See De "Wette's Introduction to (he OH Testament, § 14, and his 



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158 INTRODUCTION TO 

regarded as holy writings. That, they were so regarded when 
this book was added to the number cannot be proved. It may 
then have been regarded as only a collection of national writings: 
of all that was esteemed valuable in Hebrew literature. That a 
gveal part of the Old Testament lias a religions character may be 
accounted lor by the predominant religious spirit of the Jews, and 
the existence of their theocratic institutions. 

Or, if we suppose (he collector or collectors to have regarded 
the collection of the Hebrew writings as possessing a moral or 
religions ckirarfer when the Canticles Merc introduced into it, 
why may not the book have been regarded by them as having a 
good moral tendency in its literal sense : as designed to recom- 
mend monogamy, as some modern expositors suppose; or as 
designed to show "the reward of fidelity and constancy in affairs 
of the heart," as others imagine; or that its object was to prove 
"that love, as llie freest and fairest gill of [he heart, can no more 
be destroyed than called [iirlh by outward power," as a third 
class lias maintained: or that the author's design was the general 
one of setting forth " the pleasures of virtuous love" P These or 
other reasons may have influenced the collector or collectors 
in giving it a place in the volume afterwards held sacred by the 
Jews, without supposing that ii possessed a religious or mystical 
character. 

But, even supposing that the allegorical interpretation pre- 
vailed at so early a period as that of the completion of the Canon 
of the Jewish Scriptures, mid that the Canticles wf.rf. admitted 
into it by (hose who regarded it as an allegory expressive of reli- 
gions ideas, it by no means follows that such is the. fact. There 
is abundant reason lor distrusting the judgment as well as the 
Information of the collectors of the books of the Old Testament. 
Witness (.he false captions to many of the Psalms, the confused 
state, of the prophecies of Jeremiah, the mode in which the 
prophets were arranged, the ascription to Isaiah of much which 
he eotild not have written. In the judgment not. merely of ration- 
alists, but of the most Orthodox critics. If he or they who placed 
the Canticles in {he Old Testament, hundreds of years after It was 
written, regarded ii as a religious or even an inspired hook, tins 
is nut a sufficient reason why we should so regard it. 



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THE CANTICLES. 159 

In respect tii tin: mere question, whether the "book was con- 
tained iu tin.! Jewish canon, that is, whether it was generally 
received liy the Jews as a part of their sacred writings iljr 'nearly 
two hundred years bolero the Christian era, I entirely agree with 
those win) regard i! as canonical. Ibtt whether any book has iti 
reality a claim on my faith or practice depends en very different 
considerations from that of ils general reception, whether by the 
Jewish nation or the Christian Church. T must satisfy myself, 
first, whether the writer ever laid ehiim to Divine authority ; arid, 
if lie did, whether he gave any proof of his elaim, internal or 
external. If 1 admit the antliorit.y of tin! Church, that is, of a 
majority of it, as settling conclusively what I am to receive as of 
Divine authority, I must admit the authority of the Church in 
other matters, anil adopt the eived uf Romanism at once. The 
Church, that is, the majority of the Church, the Roman Church, 
regjinls the books commoith called apocryphal as canonical. 
Such is the decree of the Council of Trent. 

The only way in which a critical and historical inquirer can 
satisfy himself as to the Divine authority of any book of the Old 
or the .New Testament is to take it up separately, and consider 
what it claims to be, and bow far ils claims are supported by 
internal and external evidence, and then accept it for what it is. 
If in the Canticles, ibr instance, we find no mention of God, of 
duty, or of tin; (lesi.ma.tiou of man. no doctrine of any kind requir- 
ing the faith, or duty requiring the practice, of mankind, let. us 
take the hook for what, according to the received use of lan- 
guage, it purports to lie, — a collection of amatory songs; and 
award to it, as a work of tasle, that portion of praise to which we 
consider it entitled. This would .seem to be ail that duty requires 
of us. 

There are some, it is true, who maintain that Jesus Christ and 
bis apostles have given the sanction oi" Divine antliorit.y to tin; gcu- 
>s and inspiration of all the books contained in the Jewish 
In regard to the particular question which I have been 
discussing, T might urge that, tin: Canticles arc nowhere alluded to 
in the New Testament, as would naturally bare been the case if 
they had been regarded as setting forth the umitial love of Christ 
and the Church, or of Jehovah and the Jewish people, or of God 



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160 INTRODUCTION TO 

and the human soul. l'>ut ( have, no laith in tin- proposition, that 
Jesus (Jhnsl nu ■unt Id extend jiis authority and aj>] cobat km lo all 
that was contained in the Jewish .canon in liis time. I do not 
believe thai it was a part of liis mission, even if it were within (lie 
compass of his knowledge, to decide questions of criticism ami 
interpretation more than of astronomy or geology, or the causes 
of disease. He referred to the books of tin; Old Testament, just 
as lie used die phraseology concerning demoniacs, according lo the 
received opinions of the .lews. If lie livid (liese opinions himself, 
.he did not inculcate them upon oilier-, lie had ample work to 
employ all. 1:1- time during his short inini.-l ry on earth, in establish- 
ing, as God's prophet, (.lie fuuiiamental doctrines of Ills religion, 
without entering into coi ir.ro vcrsy with I he Jew„ oh mailers of crtli- 
eisin and interpretation. If his mission was to settle, by Divine 
authority, all tiie various quest ions which have arisen in regard t.o 
the character, criticism, and meaning i.if the Old Teslamen!, llien 
one object of his coming into the world was to set hounds to criti- 
cism, the ineviialile consequence of which would he lo put a slop 
to that mental improvement ami that exact knowledge which are 
the result of eriiieism. For il is idle to pretend that we have a 
light to study the Old Tcs(anicul critically, unless we have a right 
to judge of its contents according (o (he laws of erilieal and histori- 
cal investigation. J cannot believe that the design of Christ's 
coming into the world was lo put a slop to any sciotiliiio investi- 
gation. Nothing, it appears to me, is more likely to promote the 
cause ofseepl.icisu: lh:tu alleuiols lo re.-train historical and critical 
inquiry by dint of authority, whatever the authority may be. 

From the references made by our Saviour to the Old Testa- 
ment, we may conclude lliat in his view ii contained much that 
is Divine. Dut that lie intended lo sanction all that is contained 
in it, or to settle critical questions in regard (o the genuineness 
and aulborUy of every book in il, is in the highest degree improba- 
ble. The arguments which have been adduced in support, such a 
proposition tall very far short of their aim. How could he who 
gave the command, "hove your enemies, bless (hem that curse 
you, and pray for thein that despilefully use you anil persecute 
you," have supposed that the. barbarous cxienni nation of the 
C'anaanites was by express Divine command! 1 Or how could'hc 



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THE CANTICLES. 161 

who died praying (or his enemies, "i'alher, forgive ttn.-in, for they 
know not what they do !" have sanctioned the hon'ible improcrit- 
tions in the hundred an i.l ninth Bsahu, or other pussiigos of the 
t>hl Testament having ;i similar character? (Sec also Matt. xix. 
8,9; til. 31-34, 38, 39.) 

These -views, or those which have a ^.i 1 1± j [;l l~ hearing on the Old 
Testament, have been expressed by divines of diflevciit denomina- 
tions. The late Dr. Arnold, of Llii: Church of England, who.se 
praise as a scholar and a Christian is high wherever the English 
language is spoken, regarded it as perfectly consistent with the 
acknowledgment of the Divine aulhorily of (.'hrisl. Id pronounce 
the Book of Daniel u- forgery.* Doe of Ihe most distinguished 
orthodox dissenting divines in England, after expressing the opin- 
ion i.l ml, Ihe Son!; of .Songs is "a pastural eclogue, or a succession 
of eclogues, representing, in the vivid colors of Asiastie rural 
scenery, with a splendor of artificial decoration, the honorable 
loves of a newly -married bride and bridegroom, with some other 
interlocutors," writes tints : "It is, I deeply feel and acknowl- 
edge, an iiwfi-,1 thing to appear to go in contravention to the gen- 
erally assumed position, Ibat our Lord and his iipostlos recognized 
the writings received as sacred by the Jews at Ibat time as the 
exclusive and entire canon. But T humbly request that it may be 
considered what is meant by tbe term canon, or rule ; and whether 
that meaning can be attached l.o a eomposiiion which has not in 
it a sentence, or a single word, possessing [be nature of a rule, 
directory, standard, or proscription whatsoever, in reference to 
facts or doctrines or precepts, or any thing at all of a religious 
kind, except upon a plan of IrmisluUng its terms and ideas into 
tai.'fUia- kind, Hi' i-ithjerf.i, of which not ihe shadow of intimation is 
given in the composition itself, and against wliicli I am bound 
to protest, as de-triictivc of the certainty of language, and by 
inevitable consequence inflicting a deep injury upon the records 
of revealed truth. If we cannot depend upon the definite and 
constant meaning of words and references of sentences as drawn 
out by honest, philology, we may as Well shut our books, resign 
ourselves to impious indifference, or fall back into the bosom of 

* See Arnold's Life and Wilting?, Letter 218, p. 360, Amei. edit. 



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162 INTRODUCTION TO 

the pretended infallible Church. When I rolled upon the diffi- 
culties, using the mildest term, which arise from an endeavor 
to convert passages containing nuilu:i- merely genealogical, topo- 
graphical, numerical, civil, military, — fragments of antiquity, do- 
mestic or national, presenting no character whatever of religious 
matter, —into a rule of faith and manners, I feel it impossible 
to accept the conclusion; 1 can find no end to my anxiety, no 
rest for my faith, no satisfaction lor my understanding;, till I 
embrace, the sentiment, that this (polities of sanctity and inspira- 
tion belong only to tin) rdi-ginii.i and iLi-.nhi'ji'-.'A chimnt, which 
is <lij>'ii--:cd ihrav.j/h the Old Testament; and that, where this 
element is absent, where then; is nothing adapted to eomniimicale 
'doctrine, reproof, correction, or instruction in rigbteimsnes-s,' 
nothing fitted 'to make the man of tiod perfect, thoroughly fur- 
nished unto every good work,' — there we are not called to ac- 
knowledge \\n\ inspiratiun, nor warranted to assume it. Thus, 
I regard as inspired Scripture all that refers to kvlti UUnys, all 
that can hear the character of ' oracles of God ; ' ami admit the 
rest as appendages, uS the nature of private, memoirs or public 
records, useful to the antiquary and the philologist, but which 
belong not to the rule of faith or the directory of practice. To 
litis e.\tent, and to this only, can I regard (be sanction of the 
New Testament as given to the iiittpindUin of the Old. In Other 
words, the quality of inspiration, forming; the ground of frith and 
obedience, inheres in every sentence, paragraph, or book, which, 
either directly or by implication, contains religious troth, precept, 
or c:cpc elation. This, .1. humbly think, leaves us every i long that 
a Christian can wish for; ami it liberates us from the pressure 
of difficulties which have often furnished the. enemies of revealed 
truth with pretexts for serious objections. Inspiration belongs to 
religious objects ; and (o attack it to other things is to lose sight 
of its nature, and misapply its design."* 

To other theories, which assign a ini sliral meaning to the Can- 
ticles, some of the argument- which 1 have used against the view 
adopted by Trotes-or Sluarl apply with equal, others with less, 

* Scripture Testimony to the Messiah, by John Pye Smith, D.D. Lon- 



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THE CANTICLES. 163 

force. All of thorn arc liable- to the decisive objection, that, they 
an: in op position to (lie received use of language. At a time when 
all the books of the Scriptures were interpreted in the allegorical 
mode, as by the Church lather.", it was a matter of course that tin : 
Canticles should be treated in the same way. But now that just 
principles of interpretation have been applied to the eNplamiiien 
of most parts of the Bible, it is time to give up attempts to alle- 
gorize the Canticles. To the popular theory, that Christ and the 
Church im; denoted, may be urged the additional objection, thai. 
there is not in the book the least appearance of prediction. Tt 
implies throughout a state of things then existing or past. This 
theory is also, if possible, more arbitrary, and more completely 
destitute of support, from the use of language and the state of 
religious knowledge among the contemporaries of the writer, or 
among the Jews bcibrc llie time of Christ, than any one of the 
principal theories which have hei-n mentioned. Againsl this view, 
too, it may be justly urged thai the book is nowlicre alluded to in 
the New Testament. If the .subject of it: had been supposed to be 
Christ and the Church, it is reasonable to suppose that allusions 
to it would have been wry frequent, both in the Gospels and 

Epistles. 

Since, then, there is no reason for supposing a mystical re- 
ligions meaning in the Canticles, and since their whole tenor and 
completion are in opposition to such a meaning, the hook must 
he- interpreted according to the received use of language. Thus 
interpreted, its principal subject, as all will admit, is the recip- 
rocal allccl.ion between (he sexes, as set fbi'tli in poetical repre- 
sentation. There may he some doubt as to the relation in which 
the parties stood to cadi other, whether in thai of lovers before 
marriage, or in that of the head of the harem to one of its mem- 
bers, or in that, of husband and wire. That the last supposition 
is not true througho-.il seems to he obvious from (he general char- 
acter of the. representation, as well as from particular passages. 
It is also nor anaiogo is to similar compositions by writers of other 
count L'ics to suppose the affeclion of married life lo be I he subject 
of the work. 

We have, then, in the Canticles the remains of the amatory ol 
erotic puutry uf the Hebrews. Whether the book is to be regarded 



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164 INTRODUCTION TO 

a; on 1 ,' whole:, ;i regular dramatic poem, or as ii collection of sev- 
cr.il amatory songs or idyls, in a rpicsl.ion which may he considered 
as somewhat doubtful. Without going into a full discussion of the 
subject, I adopt: tin; latter opinion, which was iiie opinion of Kieli- 
ard Simon, Horde}', Diidorieui, Mielihoni, lie 'Welle, Kir "William 
Jones, and Dr. Good, — for the reason that there is not sufficient 
evidence in favor of a general plan or course of dramatic action. 
Those who have maintained tlie other opinion have been obliged 
to make some very arbitrary suppositious, ami !o draw largely on 
their own imaginations, in order to make out any plausible course 
of action, or any general design which the writer intended to ac- 
complish, or has accomplished. I have supposed the book to con- 
sist of twelve songs. 

Thus, while Bossuet and Percy suppose the work to be a pas- 
toral drama, designed to celebrate the marriage of Solomon with 
the daughter of the king of F.gypfc, several of the most recent of 
the German maters* on the book suppose llutt it is designed to 
set forth (be praise of true love in humble life, and how an innocent 
country maiden resisted all the arts of King .Solomon to seduce 
her from her faith to her shepherd lover. Respecting' the first of 
these theories, it. may be remarked that there is very little in tho 
book which seems suited to tbe occasion of royal nuptials: that 
there arc no allusions (o Solomon which imply licit he was the sub- 
ject of the composition, except in chap. in. C 11, and perhaps 
chap. i. 9 — ii. 7; and that there is too much of rural iiie In it to be 
suited to the scene of a royal court. The objection to the second 
theory is, that it comes more from the imagination of til e inter- 
preter than from the language of the author. Dr. Good remarks: 
■• Tbe Song of Songs cannot be one connected epi thai ami urn, since 
the transitions are too abrupt, for the wildest flights of the Oriental 
muse, and evidently imply a variety of openings and conclusions ; 
while, as a regular drama, it is deficient in almost every requisite 
that could give it such a classification: it has neither dramatic 

* Lied dor Lick', (las alt'isie unci sehenste am <\-:m MinVfcnUinde. Ueber- 
Ketzt und astbeiifuh srklart von t'ricsdviuh Wimclm Carl Ibubmt- Heidel- 
berg, 1828. 

Das Hohdicd Salmmi's iibersctnv, ctu., von Dr. Goero; Ilcinrich Aligns! 
Ewald. fjottingen, 1836, 



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THE CANTICLES. 165 

fable nor action, neither involution i . ■ j : ■ eataslropbe ; It is without 
a beginning, a middle, or an end. To call it such is to injure it 

essentially ; it is to rahe expectations which i.-jiii never be grati- 
fied, and to fon;e parts upon pans which have no possible con- 
nection."* 

Haying thus given the view which seems to mc most probable, 
.1 admit that there arc some indications of unity in (he Canticles, 
sitclt as the refrain? in chap. it. 7 : iii. ■') ; viii. I : and the recurrence 
of similar thoughts or expressions in various parts of the hook. 
There, arc also some indications tint the work possesses a dramatic 
character, being designed, however, only to be read, not to be 
acted. This is undoubtedly the most prevalent opinion in regard 
to the book. The subject and design of it, according to most of 
those writers who adopt this opinion, may be stated as follows : A 
country maiden, called the Shtdauiitc, who had engaged her a flec- 
tions to a shepherd lover, and who was perhaps betrothed to 
hint, litis been carried io tin: interior of Solomon's palace. This 
monarch trios to win her affeclions by praises, blandishments, ami 
entreaties, btti wit bo tit -ucecss. She is constant, and faithful to her 
lover in humble life, anil rejects till the overtures of royalty. Sho 
is c.ots-latilly thinking of her beloved, declaring her attachment to 
him, and desiring to return to the place where he is. After Solo- 
mon had tried in vain to alienate her affection from the shepherd 
and fix it upon himself, she is set free fioin the liareni, and hastens 
to rejoin her beloved shepherd in the country. The design is said 
to be, to set forth the praises of fidelity in love, or the praises of 
that love which is only to be preserved by innocence and virtue. 

Kespeciing the number of sections, or ads, scenes, and speak- 
ers, there has been, as might be expected, a wide difference of 
ope tini: among those who assign io (ho whole book a dramatic form, 
as one poem. Kenan has gone farthest, in reditcmg it to lite form 
of a modern drama in five acts, and ibe appropriate scenes. Dr. 
Davidson's analysis of lite book,! which, considered as a mere the- 
ory, is as sathfo-.tory as ani which has been given, is, with a lew 
slight abbreviations, as follows: — 



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166 INTRODUCTION TO 

11 The poem may iie divided into six sections'.— 

"1. (Chop. i. 2-ii. 7.) — After (he inscription, the Shulamite. appears in tha 

mv.il tone in Che country into which she bad been carried, full clothe. I in tier 
rustic robes, but thinking only of her absent shcplioni-lnver. The court 
ladies attendant on the king limit curiously ai her, on aeeoiiiit »f the swarthy 
color of her face; but she informs tiiem that it was caused by exposure in 
tin- sun: lor her brothers bud obliged her to keep their i in ''yards. Continu- 
ing ber soliloquy after this, she asks her lover, as if fhe were already tree, 
when- she may lind him. The ladies bid licv go and feed lie: sleep ji. 1-S). 
Solomon now steps forward, [ir:ii»mg nee beauty, and promising to adorn 
her with a beautiful chain (i. 9-11). Bat she prai-es brr beloved, and is in- 
sensible In the monarch's words. She then implores the women around her 
1.0 grant her leisure to think of her friend ji. 13-14, Sbubimile; la, Solomon; 
16, IT— li. 1, Shulamite: ii. 2, Solomon ; ii. 3-7, Shulamite). 

"2. (ii. 8-iii. &.) — Here the place is mil changed; but the lime i- sup- 
posed to lie considerably prior (ii thai, in ii. 7. The Shulamite refers (o the 
oecasion of her Lung first separated fnau ber beloved, whn invited her out 
into the tie.Ms in the spring. The fifteenth verse gives the words of her 
brothers, wl'.ieli led to tin.' scparil ion. She eon-olcs herself, however, with 
the inseparalilcuoss of tiieiv hearts, bidding him ba-aen to her side (ii. S-171. 

" The. espoused one now relates n dream winch si e i ad respecting her lover, 
saving lltal. she ]]ad soaght but did uol tiud him; thai she bad risen up and 
gone through tbo streets (of Shnnem) ; and when she met with the wad htm n 
of the city, and asked tbeni if they had seen her beloved, they had hardly 
passed by ber when she laid hold of him, and took him to the. house of her 
mother (iii. 1-6). 

"3. (ili. 6-v. 1.) — Solomon is now deer: b. at returning to Jerusalem from 
his royal castle [n the country, with great pomp and splendor. The people 
admire the magniticeui palanquin in which the Mhnhiinite is conveyed (iii. 
8-11). Wishing In procure her favor by his ilatteries, the monarch praises 
hoi irraecfulness. and greaily desires to gain the love of one so beautiful (iv. 
1-7). In iii. 6-11, spectators looking at the procession from the country are 
supposed to speak. Solomon is represented us having all propuraliims ueiili! 
lor his marriage. He is crowned, but she is not. Tie appears resolved to 
overcome her inclination. 

:l T1ic language of iv. J-', r is suiiieii u; to show that. Sol.. u is :::e speui-.er 

here, not the shepherd- lover. The hitler, who is suddenly introduced, assarcs 
her tbal be would athaupi e.erv tiling to resi.ue :o.r I'rcm her oei;i..us :io-[. 
tion. He then praises her chastity, fidelity, and modesty; employing the 
figure of on enclosed garden (iy. 8-15]. 

" The Sbubriiite reiiiics in iv. Iii: and the shopiicrd respond.- in v. 1, giving 
utterance to his deli ; ,lil. in her ehnrnis. The poet addresses tliein both: 
'Eat, O friends ! Drink, yea, drink abundantly, O beloved! ' 

"4. (y, 2-vi. 8.) — The Sbi.lainiie relates a dream ^hi: saw respecting her 



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THE CANTICLES. 167 

shepherd to the court ladies. The purport of this was, that he came to her 
dwelling a( nigh!, and asked her to h-r him in. At first she was reluctant to 
do so; but when be put ids hand i.hrongh the window, atu.l bogged more 
earnestly tii:ir lie might be admitted, she rose up and opened tlie door, but 
found him gone, and called him in vain. In set-king him, she met wilh the 
watchmen of fin; oily, who wounded and shamefully tiealed her. She then 
beseeches these Indie.-, t lint, if they J'ound her friend, they would tell him how 
si eh of love she was. When Ihoyask wdiat bis al1racthms urt: more than 
those of nil ordinary lover ( v. Si, the Sludniniie describes his personal appenr- 
auee and beauty. After the i]i-.-.4-r[) iLfuii. the daughters of Jerusalem iii<|iiiro 
whither be is gone ;vi. 1), j . j-- ■ : V - - .- i 1 1 ^r tin ir williug,;os.-; io go wilh her to seek 
him out. She answers that he has gone 10 his garden, and declares that (heir 
affection is mutual mid inseparable. 

"6. (vi. 4 — viii. 4.) — Solomon ii:iw;q.[!o:,y, ;:ii:1 .■oldi-e.-sos the Shulamite in 
nattering terms, allii-nting ihat in: \m lets Iter to all his wives ar.d conoid lines. 
In vi. 10 he cites the encomium of the court ladies upon her. The Shulamite 
exp'aii'S how she had fiilh n in with the royal cortege; al Hie slfvlii of whicb 
she was at first n-iglii.ered, and hastened away, till by (ho advice of the court 
ladies she remained (vi. 13), and so came to be seen *by the king, wdio 
tries to induce her to love bun, and therefore celebrates her beauty (vi. 
4-vii. 9). 

'' The Shulamitc declaring that she is wholly dcvoled to her bridegroom, 
iU.i.l so showing Unit -lie steadfastly rc-isls nil the arts of Solomon, spi'aks 1.0 
her shepherd as if she were already tree, inviting him Io go to 1 he eountry 
wilh her, and oajnv the pleasure of lite there. She wishes tlint he were a 
Ivothor to her, thai -lie mijrhl. manifest her attachment, to him in public, in- 
troduce bim into Io-; mother's house, and give him the m-ist dolphins drinks. 
Then, o.vhau-lcd wilh the strength of hoi affection, she wishes for the pros- 
enee and embraces of iter lover, ami beseeches tin: court ho Lies not to attempt 
to turn away her atl'cetinn from him (vii. 10-viii. 4). 

"6. (viii. 6-11.) — The shepherd is supposed to have been at ihe palace; and 

pany wilh the bridegroom, she ledums !o her native place, and visits the 
apjde-tives where they had tirst pledged thi:r vows. Speaking of her virtue 
and innocence as tiling, invincible io Iciuptation, she reminds her brothers 
nt' what they ha 1 said abo it hot 1 |i'oio. io-- or Ins'ug h, i- , ha-' it' before .-he 
was man-ingeabai. in idlndin;' Io her temptations, -he says, [bat though 
Solomon was a very rich man, having a most valuable vineyard, yet lhai see 
de.-pisod all his posscs-iotis, eonleot In pn-serve iter inuocenee. In conclu- 
sion, the shepherd, with his companions, rei[ucsts of her a song. With this 
-he ci implies, a- she si Is in iter garden invisible, ami repeats Ihe. words she had 
already sung ;ii. 17 i : ' Malic hash?, my bc.loi cd; and be thou like to a roe, 
or Io a young hari, upon the niuuiilaius of spices.' The mountains of sep- 
ara'.be: . :.i-t r.o iciigjr: nocma'::-, I'rngL.tiLt widi.-pioc.-. take their place." 



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168 INTRODUCTION TO 

Parts of this theory appear to me to imply immense improba- 
bilities; .is Seems to be conceded by Dr. David -on. il' ihs; existing 
arrungemsml. of lbs; Hebrew text cuius; from the author. How in- 
congruous, for mstiincc, is chap, viii. ti-iM, in its present position, 
wit]] a si ram ;itis; pint nf which lbs 1 sister there mentioned it llie 
heroine! It is like laying the (ijiiiifl.it ion after the house is 
built. 

As to the number of speakers i;i tin; Canticles, regarded as con- 
sisting of Separate songs, 1 have indieatsal in lbs; margin those 
which sesaned lo mi'; to be required. If any reader thinks that 
nun's 1 . speakers are necessary, lio can supply them according to I lis 

That this book, whs; (her consisting i if one dramatic poem Or of 
several separate song- or poems, proceeded from out: author, is now 
so general an opinion of tin.' best critics', that it, is in.it necessary 
to discuss tlic subject. Wluithor this author were Solomon aslmita 
of greater doubt. "When we consider how many of the inscriptions 
in the I'.nok sit" I'sa'nc are atvarians'u with tlicir contents, we can- 
not attach iniieb imporlance to the litis; of this book. The dic- 
tion,* in its Aratiuean character, iarii-s so much from that of lbs: 
Proverbs, that many modern critics have, with greiit reason, con- 
cluded that it proceeded from a different author. There arc also 
passages whii;h do not well harmonise with the supposition that 
Solomon vr.i» the author ; such as chap 1 , i. 4, 5 ; iii. ti-11 ; vii. 5 ; 
viii. 11, 12. Tf Solomon is censured in the book, according to the 
slramatii.; theory, of course be could not have been the author. 
On the other band, there seem to be several allusions to the cir- 
cumstances and historical relations of the age of Solomon, or that 
immediately succeeding it. (Ss;e i. 4, , r >, 9, 12; iii. 7, &c. ; iv. 4; vi. 
4,8, 9; viii. 11, 12.) The spirit and character of the poetry- seeiu 
also to iigres; will with tile most lloa risking period of Hebrew lit- 
erature. The peculiar diction is supposed by I)e Wette to be 
susceptible nf explanation by maintaining that these songs ivr.ru 
preserved orally in the mouths of lbs; pcoph;, and were thus in 
some measure altered. Others seek an explanation of this pecu- 
liarity in the pro vines! of Palestine, to which the writer may have 

• On this topic, sue the Introductions of Jalni, De Wetto, or Davidson. 



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THE CAKTICLES. 169 

helonged. Either of these SLiiiousiiious spears to me more proba- 
ble than tluit (he ai.tthov wrote Ions sLtt isi- the Captivity, and trans- 

tijlTed himself ll.Li'k [0 lilt! a-'O lil" iiolijlll'ill. .1 tllUlvif.irO SII|ll)i.);C 

tlio CiintJck'3 to have been written by some Jewish poet, either in 
the reign of Solomon or soon after it. 

For a list of interpreters of tlie Ouitirles, see the introduction 
to this book in lies em miner's Hclioliii. Of those which he lias not 
i lie i) (:(:■] l i'.([, I have sist-n tin: translations and notes of. I iishup L'utcn , 
Thomas Williams, and John Mason Coed. In this edition, I have 
also had access to the translations and commentaries o: lieiiipstndt, 
iliLzIjr, and Renan. 

CameeieQe, Jan. 10, 1867. 



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THE SONG OF SONGS. 



The Song of Songs, which is by S 



2 \_M."\ that lie would kiss rac with one of the kisses 

of his mouth 1 
For thy Jove is hetter than wine. 

3 Because of the savor of thy precious perfumes, 
(Thy name is like fragrant, oil poured forth,) 
Therefore do the virgins love thee. 

i Draw me after thee ; let us run ! 

The king hath led me to his chambers! 
■We will he glad :md rejoice in thee"; 
We will praise thy love more than wine. 
Justly do they love thee ! 

6 I am black, b:;t comely. < ) ye damrhlcrs of Jerusalem, 
As the tents of Kedar, as the curtains of Solomon. 

G Gaze not upon me because i am black, 
Because the sun hath looked upon me! 
My mother's sons were angry with me ; 
They made me keeper of r.iie vineyards; 
My vineyard, my own, Iiave I not kept. 

7 Tell rue, thou whom my soul lovclh, where thou feedost 

thy flock, 
Where thou Icadost it to rest at noon; 
For why should I he like a veiled one by the flocks of th y 
■ is? 

[171]. 



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THE SONG OF S O R Q 9 



t [Aorf.] If thou know not, I) thou fairest anion 
Trace thou thy way by the tracks of the flock, 
And feed thy kids beside ;he shepherds' tents! 



Oi!iivi:i;;i'.ioii bo-voni :i lava fi::i; niiiiilmi.- -Chap. I. 0.— II. 7. 

9 [_ZiM\] To tlu'i horses in [lie chariots of Pharaoh 

Do I compare thee, my love ! 
10 Comely arc thy cheeks' with rows of jewels, 

Thy neck with strings of pearls. 
u Golden chains' will we make-ibr thiuj, 

With studs of silver. 

12 [jJf.] While the king recline th at his table, 
My spikenard sendeUi lbit.lt its fragrance. 

13 A bunch of myrrh is my beloved to mo; 
Hi! shall abide between my breasts. 

14 My beloved is lo me a cluster of hernia-flowers 
From the gardens of Engedi. 

15 \Lov.~] Behold, thou art fair, my love ; hehold, thou art 
Thino eyes are doves. 

18 [Jf.] Behold, thou art fair, my beloved, yea, lovely ; 

And green Is our bed. 
IT The cedars are the beams of our house, 

And its roof the cypresses. 
1 I am a rose of Sharon, 

A lily of the valleys. 



2 £iou.] As the lily among tliorns, 
So is my love among the daughters. 

3 [j!£] -As the apple- ..,,,. 

So is my beloved among the s„..„, 
In his shadow I love to sit down, 
An! his fruit is sweet to my taste. 



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chap, n.] THE SONfi OF SONGS. 1 

* He hath brought mc to his banquet lug-house, 

And his banner over me is love. 

Strengthen me with raisins, 
s Refresh mo wiih apples! 

For I am sick with love. 
B His left hand is under my head, 

And his right hand embracoth me ! 

7 [Z<w.] I charge you, ye daughters of Jerusalem, 

By Ihi- gazelles, ;iiii.[ bv I he hhnls of the field, 

That ye stir not up, nor awake my love, till silo ph'ase ! 



Tlii; maiden's miiotlri™ will] her lover in the vineyard. — Chap. II, 

8 £M] The voice of my beloved! 
Behold, ho cometh, 

Leaping upon, the mountains, 
Bounding upon the hills. 
I) Like a ga/clio is my beloved, 
Or a young hind. 

Behold, he standeth behind our wall ; 
He is looking through the windows ; 
He glanceth through the lattice. 

10 My beloved speake.th, and saith to me, 

" Else up, my love, my fair one, and come away ! 

11 For, lo, the winter is past, 
The ruin is over and gone; 

12 The (lowers appear oil the earth; 

The time of the singing of birds is come, 

And the voice of t lie lui'i le is hoard in our land ; 
l;.; Tliii lig-lree is spicing its green fruit; 

The vines in blossom give Forth fragrance. 

Arise, my love, my fair one, and come away! 
14 my dove, that art in the recesses of the rock, 

In the hiding-places of the steep craggy mountain, 

Let me see thy face, 

Let me hear thy voice ! 

For sweet is thy voice, 

Anil thy face lovely." 



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174 THE SONG OP SONGS. [chat. in. 

15 Take ye for us the foxes, 

The J eI.-t.Io foxes that spoil the vines; 

For our vines are now in blossom. 
1ft My beloved is mine, and I am his; 

lie i'ecdeth among the lilies. 
17 When the <l;iy breathes, in id the shadows flee away, 

Come again, my beloved, like ;i gazelle, or a young hind, 

Upon the craggy mountains. 



The tjiiiiilcii's search tia' her lover. — Chat. III. 1-5. 

1 [J£] Upon my bed, in tlie night, 

J sought, him whom my soul loveth; 
I sought him, but found him not. 

2 I will arise now [said I], and go about the city; 

In the streets and tlie broad ways will I seek him whom 

my soul loveth ; 
I sought him, hut found him not. 

3 The watchmen who go a.bouv, the city found me ; 

" Have you seen [said IJ him whom my soul loveth ? " 
i I had but just passed them, 

When 1 found him whom my soul loveth; 
I held him, and would not let him go, 
Till I had brought him into uiy mother's house, 
Into the apartment of her that bore me. 

5 \_Lov.~\ I charge you, ye daughters of Jerusalem! 
liy iho gazelles, and hy the hinds of the field, 
That ye stir not up, nor awake my love, till she please. 



i "Who is this that eonuu.1) up from the wilderness, 
Like pillars of smoke, 

.Perfumed with myrrh and frankincense, 
With all the powders of the merchant? 



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haf. iv,] THE SONG OF SONGS. 

I Belwld, the carriage of Solomon ! 

Threescore valiant men are around it, 

Of the valiant men of Israel. 
I They all wear swords, 

Being skilled in war. ■ 

Every one hath li Ess sword girt upon his thigh, 

On account of danger in the night. 
9 King Solomon made for himself a carriage 

Of the wood of Lebanon. 

Tlie pillars thereof he made of silver, 
The railing of geld, 

The seat of purple, 

Its interior curiously wrought by a lovely one t 
daughters of Jerusalem. 

1 Go forth, I) ye daughters of Zion! 
And behold King Holomon 

In the crown with which his mother crowned him, 
In the day of his espousals, 

In the day oi" the giadnus.s of hi,; heart. 



Cfj::v..:r~atMn Ix'tuvon il lnvt-r ntul miiiili'ii.— CiiAr. IV. -V. 1. 

1 [Z«v-] Behold, thou art fair, my love! behold, thou 

art iair ! 

Thine eve.-, an; doves behind thy veil ; 
Tliy locks are like a tlocls of goats 
Which lie down on mount Gilo ad ; 

2 Thy teeth are like a jloek of .shorn sheep, 
Which come up from the washing-place, 
Of which every one beareth twins, 

And none is barren among them ; 

3 Thy lips are like a thread of scarlet, 
And thy month, comely ; 

Thy cheeks are like a divided pomegranate behind thy 
veil ; 

4 Thy neck is like the tower of David, 
Built for an armory, 

In which there hang a thousand bucklers, 
All shields of mighty men ; 



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1TG THE 30NG OP SONGS. [chai.iv 

S Thy two breasts are like two voting twin gazelles, 

That iced iim<>»^ the lilies. 
G When the clay breathes, and the shadows flee away, 

I will betake me to the mountain of myrrh 

And the hill of frankincense. 

7 Thou art all fair, my love; 
There is uo spot in thee ! 

8 Come with me from Lebanon, my spouse, 
With me from Lebanon ! 

Look from, the top of Amana, 
From the top of Senir and Harmon, 
From the duns of the lions, 
From the mountains of the leopards. 
Thou hast taken captive my heart, my sister, my spouse ; 
Thou hast, taken captive my heart with one, of thine eyes, 
With ono chain of thy neck. 
ly How sweet is thy love, my .sister, my spouse! 
How much 1110:1'. precious thy caresses than wine. 
And the fragrance of thy perfumes than all spices ! 

11 Thy lips, my spouse 1 drop the honeycomb; 
Honey and milk aie under thy tongue, 

And the fragrance of thy -garments is as the fragrance of 
Lebanon. 

12 A garden inclosed is my sister, my spouse; 
A spring shut up, a fountain sealed; 

13 Thy plauts are an orchard of pomegranates, with choicest 
Henna and spikenard, [fruits, 

H Spikenard ami saffron, 

Sweet cane and cinnamon, 

"With all trees of frankincense; 

Myrrh and aloes, 

With all the chief spiees; 
13 A fountain of the gardens, 

A well of living water, 

A stream that floweth from Lebanon ! 

16 [J£] Awake, north wind, and come, thou south! 
Blow upon- my garden, 
That its spiees may flow out! 
May my beloved come to his garden, 
And eat his pleasant fruits. 



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hap. v.] THE SONG OP SOKGS. 177 

I \_Lov.~\ I am come to my ^ardeji, my sister, my spouse! 
I gather my myrrh with my balsam, 
I eat my honoyew.mli ivit.li my honey, 
I drink my wine with my milk- 
Eat, friends ! 
Drink, yea, drink abundantly, my loved companions 1 



(1 praise of his beauty. 



2 [J/".] I SLEPT, bit my heart was awake ; 

J.t was the voice of my beloved, who was knocking: 

" Open to me, my sister, my love, 

My dove, juy perfect one I 

For my head is filled with dew, 

And my locks with the drops of the night." 

3 " I have taken oil' my vest [said I] ; 
How shall I put it on? 

I have washed my feet ; 

lion- shall I soil them?" 
i My beloved put in his hand by the hole of the door, 

And my heart was moved for him. 
5 I rose up to open to my beloved, 

And my hands dropped with myrrh, 

And my fingers with self-flowing myrrh, upon the handles 
of the bolt. 
ti 1 opened to my beloved; 

But my beloved Uriel withdrawn himself, and was gone. 

I was not in my senses while he spake with me! 

I sought him, but could not find him ; 

I called him, but he gave me no answer. 

7 The watchmen that go about the city found me ; 
They smote me, they wounded me ; 

The keepers of the walls took away from me my veil. 

8 I charge you, O ye daughters of Jerusalem J 
If ye should Jir.d ir.v beloved,— 

What will ye tell him? — 
That I am sick with love. 



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178 THE SONG OF SONGS. [chap. 

■ a [Z«(7.] Wha.i. is thy bolmod more than, another belov 
O thou fairest among women ! 
What is thy beloved more than another beloved, 
That thus thou dost charge us ? 

10 [M.~] My beloved is white and ruddy, 
The chief among ten thousand. 

11 His head is as the most hue gold ; 
His locks waving palm-branches, 

12 His eyes am doves by streams of water, 
Washed ivlUi j-l'IU. (swelling in fulness ; 

13 His cheeks are like a bed of balsam, 
Like beds of spices ; 

His lips are lilies 

Dropping self-tloiving myrrh; 

14 His hands arc gold ring* set with chrysolite ; 

His bijdv is ■vvi'ijr.'jiit.-ivurk of ivory, overlaid with s; 
phircs; 
IB His legs are marble pillars, resting on pedestals of £ 
gold ; 

His aspect is like Lebanon, 

Majestic like the cedars ; 
hi His momh is sweetness; 

His whole being, loveliness. 

This is my beloved, 

This my friend, 

ye daughters of Jerusalem ! 

1 \Lad.~\ Whither is tliy beloved gone, thou fairest amo 

Whither hath fhy beloved bctitken himself? 
That we may seeli him with thee. 

2 [■'K] l\Ty beloved is gone down to his garden, 
To the beds of balsam, 

To feed in the gardens, 
And to gather lilies. 

3 I am my beloved's, and my beloved is mine; 
He fee i.lc lb among Lhc lilies. 



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THE BONG OF SONGS. 



The lover's praise of the o'jjeti. of his attachment.— Chap. VI. 4-9. 

i Beautiful art thou, my love, as Tirzah, 
Lovely as Jerusalem ; 

Hut. terrible as an iinuv with banners. 
3 Turn away thine eyes from me 1 
They overpower me ! 

Thy locks are like a (lock of goats, 
Which lie down upon Gilead. 

6 Thy teeth live Like a flock of sheep, 
Which eome up from the washing-place. 
Of which every one hath twins, 

And none is barren among fJ'icm. 

7 As a divided pomegranate 

Are thy checks behind thy veil. 

8 Threescore are the queens, avid fourscore tlie concu- 

And the maidens without number. 
ii But my dove, my imdeiiled, is tlie one ; 
She is the incomparable one of iter mother, 
The darling of her that bore her. 

The daughters saw her, and blessed her; 

The queens ami concubine*, and they praised her. 



Conversation het^e™ a lover ami inahlr.n. — Chai*. VI. .10- VIII. 4. 

[Zo!.-.] Who is this that lookeih fnnh like the morning, 
Fair as tiie moon, bright as the sun, 
And terrible as an army with banners? 

.1 . [_M.~] I went down into the garden of nuts, 
To see the green plants of tlie valley, 
To see whether tlie vine blossomed, 
And the pomegranates budded. 



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180 THE SONG OF SONGS. [chap, vn 

12 Or ever I was aware, 

My soul had made me like the chariots of the prince's 
[train. 

13 [Lad.~] Rot urn, return, Shulamite 1 
Return, return, that we may look upon thee ! 

[JK] Why should ye look upon the Shulamite, 
As upon, a dance of the hosts ? 

1 [X«i.] How beautiful are thy foot jn sandals, prince's 
daughter ! 
The foundings of thy hips are like neck ornaments, 
The work of the bauds of the artificer ; 
S Thy navel is like a round goblet, that wnntcth not the 
spiced wines 
Thy belly like a heap of wheat, inclosed with lilies; 
3 Thy two breasts lifts like two young twin gazelles ; 
* Thy neck is as a tower of ivory; 

Thine eyes are like the pools ut Ileshbon, by the gate of 

Bath-rabbiin ; 
Thy nose is as the Lower of Lebanon, which looketh toward 



5 Thy head upon thee is like Carmel, 

And the hair of thy head like purple ; 

The king is captivated by thy locks. 
t> How lh.ii', liow pleasant art thou, love, in delights! 

7 This thy stature is like the palm-tree, 
And thy breasts like cluster* of dates. 

8 I will go up, say I to myself upon the palm-tree ; 
I will take hold of its houghs, 

And thy breasts shall be as clusters of the Tine, 
And the fragrance of thy nose like apples, 

9 And thy mouth like the best wine — 

[JK] — thai goeth doivu smoothly for my beloved, 
Flowing over the lips of them that sleep. 
io I am my beloved's, 

And his desire is toward me. 

11 Come, my beloved, let. us go forth into the country ; 
Let us lodge in the villages ! 



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chap, viii.] THE SONG OP SONGS. lol 

12 Then will we go curly to the vineyards, 
To see whether the vine nutlet U ibvtli, 
Whether its blossom oponeth, 

And the pomegranates bud forth ; 
There will I give thee my love ! 

13 The love-apples give forth fragrance ; 

And at our doors :iri! all kinds of precious fruits, new and 

old: 
I have kept them for thee, my beloved 1 

1 O that tlioi.i wc,vt as my brother, 
That sucked the breast of my mother! 
When I found thee- abroad, 1 might kiss thee ; 
And for it no one would deride me. 

2 I will lead thee, and bring thee into "my mother's house, 

that thou mayst teaoli me ; 
I will give thee spiced wine to drink, and the juice 0? my 
pomegranates. 

3 His left hand is under my head, 
And his right hand emb^acelh me. 

i [Zov.] I charge you, O ye daughters of Jerusalem ! 
That ye stir not up, nor awake my love, 
Till she please ! 



Cliorus of Tailins, mniilsu, nurl lover. — Chap. VIII. 5-7. 

i [_Lad.~\ Who is tins that cometh up from the v,i'der< 

Leaning upon her beloved ? 

\M.~] Under: the a|>f)le-tree .1 awakened thee; 
There lliy mother brought lliec forth ; 
There she that bore thee brought thee forth! 
' set me as a seal upon thy heart; 
As a seal upon thine arm ! 
For love is strong as death ; 
True love is firm as the grave : 



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182 



SO.XG OF SONGS. 



[CI, 



Ti.s dames arc flames of fire, 
The fire of Jehovah. 
7 Many waters cannot quench love, 
Nor can floods drown it. 

Would a man give all the wealth of his house for love, 
It would Ije utterly coi-Jenmed. 



i [.Bj 1 .] We have a sister who is yet young 

She is yet witlmal breasts. 

What shall we do with, our sister, 

When she shall be spoken for? 
i If she be a wall, 

We will build upon it a silver tower ; 

If she be an open gate, 

We will inclose her with plunks of cedar. 

[■Sfo-j I am a wall, ami my breasts like ti 
Therefore am I become in his eyes as or 



that lindeth 
[peace. 



11 Solomon had a. vineyard at Eaal-liamon; 
He let out the vineyard to keepers ; 

Every one was to bring a thousand shekels of silver for 

12 My vineyard is before my eyes. 

lie thine llie ih.oiisaiid, Solomon! 

And two hundred to the keepers of its ft'uit! 



— Chap. Till. 13, 14, 
the gardens ! 



XII. 
The lover sent away. A fragmen- 
I \_Lov.~\ Tetotj that dwellest i: 
Friends listen to thy voice ; 
Let me hear thee 1 



t Fly, my beloved ! like a jra/ello, or a young hind, 
Upon the mountains of spices. 



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NOTES. 



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NOTES ON JOB. 



I. 

In the first two chapters is cciiifn.inc.il a brief account of the excellent 
character and nourishing condition of Job; — of the afflictions dec iced in 
heaven to be sent upon hiiu, :ind the design of those nulictions, namely, to 
prove the disinter es ted ness and firmness of ins intogi itv and piety; — of 
the actual occurrence of these afilk-tions, and of Job's conduct undor 
them; — and of Ike \ isit cf clirec cf ids friends to mourn with hira and 
comfort him. 

The character of tliis introduction, so far as it relate? to the upper 
■world, is thus given by Scott : " This is not history, but. a piece of allegori- 
cal scenery. The nohlo instruction which it veileth is, that Cod governs the 
world by the instrumentality of second causes, that I lie (nils of human life 
are under his diicetitm, and that the auctions of good ceil are appointed 
by him for the illustration of their virtue, and for advancing, by that 
moans, the honor of religion." The learned Mr. l'oole also observes: 
" You must not think that, these things were ti.-m1!j. done ; . , . bul 
it is only a parabolical rcpresot: 'at ion of that great truth, that God, by his 
wise and holy pro* iilez.ee, (loth govern ail the actions of men a.nd devils to 
his own ends." Considered a.s a part of the whole vvor!-t, the design of 
these chapters is to suggest the subject of discussion, and, in part, to 
illustrate it; and also to dispose the reader to a favorable opinion of Job 
Pee introduction, p. 18. 

Ch. I. 1. — Job. The most prcbah'e meaning of the name is -pa-suc-.-U-i, 
haraswL See ties, ad verb. 

8. — three thousand camels. The Arabs used these animals in war, in 
their caravans, and for food. One of their ancient poets, whose hospitality 
grew into a proverb, is rep.crr.cd !■■ have killca yearly, in a certain month, 
too camels every day, for the entertainment of his friends. Scoff, from 
Sehtdlens and koeoeke. IVu have here the description of the wealth of an 
Arab ruler, or chief, similar to [hose who at the present day are called 
Emirs. 

[186] 



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186 BOTES. 

4. — each on his day ; i e. on the day in which it fell to him in couiue 
to give a feast. 

o. — sunci'fj : by ablutions ari-.I other observances. See Exod. sis. 10, 
14; Josh. vii. 18. — renounced- God in their hearts: i, e. been unmindful 
:.,f him, dismisso 1 hi.in from their thongiiis, or w'-iliiii-M the reverence and 
horn age which are his due. It is hardly credible that Job suspected his 
children of cursing (Sod. He was only up prehensile lest the gayety of a 
festival had made them forget God, and neglect bis service and worship. 
The terin ipa generally siguiiies to bless, It 'va; the term of salutation 
between friends at meoling and pari in jr. See Con. xxviii, 3, xlvii. 10. In 
the latter use of it, it, corresponded to the English phrase to bid farewell 
to, and like that, came to bo u>cd in a l;ad -en so tor (o renounce, to aban- 
don, to dismiss front, the mind, to disregard. It may imply disregard, 
neglect, renunclal'nn, or titrnorri-.nr.c, according to I be ei.mneet.ion in which 
itisused. Xavjar in Greek, and vtiterehi l.aliu, are used in the same way. 
Thus Eurip. Med. 1044.: Oi! dqr' tyuiyi' -/«ir>irv po-ui.crfi.a-ra. And Cicero, 
in aletter to Attietts (VIII. 8 ), in which he coinpiaiiis of the disgraceful 
llight of l.'ompoy, applies to him a quoin-lion from Aristophanes : mUg 
Xatntiv tliiii* rii hm/.Si, bid-ling fai-r.wcH to imnor, he tied to Brundusium. 
Another instance of this use oiivaUre, is in Ter. And. IV. 2. 14.: Valeant, 
qui inter nos dissidium volunt. Also in Cie. de Nat. Door. 1. 44. near the 
end : Delude si maxime talis est Deus, at nulla gratia, nulla hominum 
earitate teneatur, volenti 

(i. — sons of God : i. e. the angels. See ch. s 

— Satan. There has been a question nholln 
natcd liatan in this chapter is denote:! r.hc malig 
God and man, otherwise called the Devil; or < 
faithful, but toe s'.:spie. : .oe:?, servant of Jehovjih. 

This latter opinion has been defended by s 
could not easily account for the presence of trie 
. the angels of God, ami for bis free conversation 
because they regarded the belief in the Devil as having had no existence 
amongst the Jews until their return trim the Babylonish captivity, and, 
consequently, as inconsistent with their opinion of the high antiquity ol 
the book. Bur the disposition ascribed to Satun in the narrative is not 
■very consistent with this view. Nor is there a ay strong argument to show ^ 
that a belief in evil spirits may not ho.ie arisen amor,;; the .loirs at. least a 
short time before the captivity, in consequence ofiheir intercourse with 
foreigners. Snt'ui a.ppoars, in this pa-sie.'o, in the office indicated by his 
name, that of the n.-tcer.^ary, the n.cc.HMr, the cilice uniformly ascribed to 
him by the later Jews. See Zeoh. iii. 1 2; Rev. xii. 10. See also Christian 
Examiner, for May, 1833, p. 236. It is observed by Rosenmiiller, that 
In the life of Zoroaster, (see Zcndavesra, by J. (}. Kleukuer, vol. iii. p. 11,) 



ill 7; Dan. 
y the perso 

: spirit, the 
of the sons 


n denomi- 
enemy of 
of God, a 


il in heaven amongst 
i Jehovah; by others, 



Hosteaoy G00gk 



the prince of the evil demons, the angel of death, called Eniji\meniiish, is 
Bail! to go about the carAi for tbe purpose of oppasiu;;- anil injuring good 

11. — will he renounce thee. The phrase if flniuger litre than in verse 
5. It imports an Utter and public renunciation of religion as a vain thing. 
Seott. 

15. — Salenns : inhabitants of Sheba, a 
iug in spices, gold, and precious stones. 
Ixxtf. 10, 15. 

16, — fire of Godi i. e. Ughtmng ; which has a similar appellation in 
Eui'ip. Men. 144 : 

Ai, at- bid fioa KsdJiAris- <ji\o£ ovpaviQ 
Bai V . 

Alas! alas! May the fire of heaven 
Strike through my bead ! 
\7. — (I!<iiido.ti<v : a iierec ami warlike people, who ori^ir.iilly inhabited 
t)io Carduehinn mountains, north of Assyria, anil flits northern part- of 
Mesopotamia, portions of whom settled in Babylonia ami founded a mighty 
empire. They arts described in Hal. i. 6-11. 

20. — rent hk mantle, ami slian-rl his lipid. Tlie enstnm of rending the 
mantle, as an expression of grief, is said to prevail at tbe present day io 
Persia, and, like thai of shaving the heaii, lo have been common amongst 
several nations of antiquity, llemiloliis (U. 26) remarks, that tlie hitter 
was tlie practice of all nations except -.ha Egyptians, in eases of mourning, 

21. — my mother's womb: i. e. the womb of tbe earth, tbe universal 
mother; for he speaks of returning iJii'iW. The same [inure is found in 
several languages. See Cic. de Nat. Denr. II. 26. — blessed be the name, 
§v. Here the contrast is observable between tbe object of .Satan, which 
was to induce Job to renounce God, and the issue of the temptation, in 
which Job' Messes God. 

Ch. JI. 4. tffa'fi for shin, #c. This is a proverbial expression, im- 
porting, as is general I y supposed, ifiai any man will give, the skin or life 
of another, whether animal or man, to save his own. The observation of 
Satan will then imply that Job gave up all, without complaint, from tbe 
selfish fear of exposing bis own life to danger. Others understand the 
term "skin"to denote "the life." The proverb will then he, " Life for 
life"; i. e. Nothing is so precious as life. All other calamities are light, 
compared with those which threaten one's own life. Others, like for Hire, 
i e. what a man holds as dear as Ms skin, i. e. his life, he will give for his 
life. 

7. It is generally supposed that J:ib was ai'li-rcd with that species of 
leprosy culler! elephantiasis, the elephant disease; so ''ailed from its cov- 
ering the skin with dark scales, ami swelling the mouth, legs, and feet to 



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188 NOTES. 

an enormous she., a.lliiouoli the body at the same lime is emaciated. See 
Deut. xxvlii. 35. The pain is said not to bo very great, but there is a 

great debility of die system, iui:l groal uoeasinoss and grief. Sec Jahn'a 
Archaeolngy, § 189. 

9. Renounce God, and die : i. e. since you must die. Since your 
exemplary pio'y has hem; of oo use to you, give it up: renounce God; de- 
sist from your idle prayers and pr.i.ises, :i-n:l lock lo death as the only ter- 
mination of your miseries, the only fruit of your virtue which you will 
ever receive. Schaltens. See i. 5, and the note, 

-Cut, porha.ps, the common moaning of the verb "p2, (<J Krss, lias some 

claim to eonaideration. According :o thin remkring, .Toil's wife ironically 
exhorts him to go on 'ilcssiui.' God, -ioce lie received such precious returns 
for it. Bliss Clod, and die : i. e. Bless God ever so much, thou wilt die 
after all. lam inclined to believe, however, that the term means here 
what it does in the nearly connected passages , tec 5 and 11. 

10. In all this .ltd: sinned ■nut with iiii li.-s. The author repeats this 
circumsta.uee a weond time, in order io excite the attention of the reader 
to what, follows, \W„, the conduct of Job with respect to his reverence for 
the Deity, and the changes which accumulate I misery iiiijjht produce in 
his temper und behavior. .Aeoonlingiy we I'nni that aiU'thcr still more se- 
vere trial of his patience yet awaits iihts, and which, iodeed, as the writer 
seems to iiitiioa.t.e, lie scarcely a.ppears to have sustained with equal firm- 
ness; namely, the unjust suspicions, ihe bitter repiroa.chos, and the violent 
ahrrcal.ions of 'ti- friends. .Louth. 

11. — - Temaaile. 'Pieman was one of the principal cities of Edom, Or 
Idumea, distinguished for its.wi.se met!. See Jer, xlis, 7; Obad. 8,9. 
Amos. i. 12. — Shuhite. Shu ah, a son of Abraham by Keturah, was 
sent by him into the East country. Geo. _xxi". 2, 6. From him may have 
descended the Shiihites. Gesenius observes that the country of the 
Shuhites was not. improbably the same with the ^nxxaUi of l'tolcmy, 5, 
15, eastward of Batauea. — JVaamatLite an inhabitant of Naamah, a 
place whose situation is unknown. It could io.it be Ihe same which is men- 
tioned, in Josh. xv. 41. 

12. 13. "When they saw him, at the distance at which they could for- 
merly recognize him witlmctt diliieu'sy, disca.se had su altered his appear- 
ance, that at firs! right tliey knew him not. The expression of his griet 
resembles, in several eircumslauces, that of Achilles, when Informed of (he 
death of Patroclus. Iliad, xviii, 21 - 27. 

Seven days was the cusloma.ry time of mourning among the Orientala. 
See Gen. 1. 10; 1 Sam. ixxi. 13; and Ecclesiastical s, xxii. 13. " Seven days 
do men mourn lor liim That is dead." It is not memil that they remained 
in the same place aii'.l posture fur the space of seven days, but that they 
mourned with him during llmr time, in the usual way. — and none spalte 



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job. 189 

a nW to him. Tool? remarks that the meaning probably is, that no one 
spake a word to liim about, his alliictious, and ;he causes of them. But as 
this is not in the text, it SL-iiius more probable that tho seven days' silence 
is only a poetical or oriental exaggeration, designed 10 express ilia pro- 
found amazement of the friends of Job, on account of the condition in 
which they found him. It may be compared with Ch. xlii. 12, 13, 14. 



At the end of the ft: von days of mourning, when no hopes of recovery 
from his atniole.d condi-ion worn cni.crtiunc.il by Job. and not n word of con- 
solation had been offered by his'friends, he unburdens his heart in the 
strongest language of nimpiaiui. lamentation, an.1 despair. He curses the 
day of In* birth, aiul longs for di ath, a-. Ilif only rcfage iVooi bis miseries. 

The poor, has secured ilie sympathy of the reader in favor of Job l.y the 
introductory chapters upon the cause of his afflictions, and by the. declara- 
tion of Jehovah, that he was "an upright and good mar) ; " so that in this 
place, and throughout the poem, we are more inclined io pity him for his 
alllict.ions than (0 eensuni him for Ids irreverent language. 

Ch. III. 2. spake. The verb nj;', used of a person beginning to speak, 
appears, says Geseviias, !o be preuiiar to the later Hebrew. 

3. — -ilif. do >i, rj'c. The birth of a son was one of three great occasions 
of festivity among the Arahians. The other two were the birth of a foal 
of a valued, race, and the rising up of a poetical genius in any of their 
tribes. When an Arabian gave his daughter in marriage to a person whom 
ho approved, he used the benediction, " Faeilis sit. til ii partus, ct masculos 
parias, non fuiminas ! " Pawfo. Spec. Hist. Arab. pp. 160,337. — And 
lite night, Jj-e.; i. e, which was privy to my conoepiion ; a hold personifica- 
tion, as in verse 10, and ssi. 17. The Arabic posts delight to personify 
the d (iy and the night in tins way, as is shown by various quotation* in 
Kchultoris ad loo. See also liunh-r's Oriental Customs, No. 490. 

4. — seekit. This is the primary meaning of lhe won! avt, and admits 
of a good explanation. The poet seems to conceive of the day as sunk 
beneath the horizon, or io the deep waters hy which he supposed the earth 
to be surrounded. He prays that God may not seek it, and bring it from 
its dark abode. The secondary meaning, fijanl. cam for, though perfectly 
allowable, is less poetic. 

5. — diadmo of di-.o'J,.: I. o. thick tl.irhii-m ; or, a black anil dark shadow, 
like that of the dead. — redeem it: i. e. resume their dominion over it, 
excluding the light. Thus the common meaning of Ssi gives a highly 



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190 NOTES. 

poetical sense to tilt' lino. — u:ha!etier darl:ens the il:.y : lit. nbscn? alio/il 
of the day. By ol'ieitr.itio.is if the. dtty, L sui.pese lie understands eclipses, 
dreadful storms, &«. I.oss probi-ilily, d.e.adl.y heats of ike day; i. e. In— 
tolerable sultriness, which causes pestilence. Sonic wrireis suppose that 
there is a reference hero to the poisonous wind Samum, or Samiel, which is 
feared in the hotk'St months of summer. But. it aupour:; from the testi- 
mony of modern travellers that the injurious effects of this wind have been 
very much esajyeraie'.!. See Kobaison's (ill met, Art. Wind. Other- 
wise, the bitterness, or (he. misfortunes of the. day • 2 being considered only 
as Ihe particle of emphasis, as it is often used. 

7. let that night he KifruitjVI. ! i. e. May there be no births in that 
night ! Sao Ch. sxs. 3, and the note. — no voice of joy : i. e. on account 
of the birth of a son. See note on verse 8. 

8. Who are skilful la stir nil the leriathun I In a!" other parts' of the 
sacred writings, in which the word IfViS occurs, il denotes an animal. 

Nearly all the ancient i ersions, arid nearly a'! ihe modern critics, consider 
it as the name of an animal here. It seems tube a common name to denote 
monstrous auima's of uiifcre-it kinds, as a huge seimetit, the crocodile, Se, 
Here it may denote amonstrons serpent. In Ch. xli. 1, the crocodile. See 
Ges. ad verb. The verse probably refers to a class of persons who were 
supposed to hare the power of makbiiv any day ["■■■'. a riate or unfortunate, 
to control futu re events, and even to call forth the most torrifio monsters 
from impenetrable forests, or from the deep, foi' the gratification of their 
own malice, or that of others. Balaam, whom Balak sent for to curse 
Israel, ailbvds evidence of ihe e\:s-oiiee of a class of persona- who were 
supposed to ho capable of nuiiuieiao- evil by their imprecations. See 
Numb. xxii. 10, 11. Job calls upon the most powerful of these sorcerers 
to assist him in earning 'he :iay of his birth. 

9. Neither let it .v'c the. e-ijel-ishes of Ike morning ! This is the literal 
version, and contains an image too beautiful to be thrown away. So Soph. 
Antig. 104. i 

lip&rirqc net', J govoiaf 

uuitias jiflqititjo:, Aioxal- 



" ere the hi^h lawas appeared 

Under the fuicriing eyelids of the dawn, 
We drove afield." 

y the pocta the eye of day ; 
e the eyelids, or eyelashes, of 



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30B. 191 

the morning. Schiiitcns observes, that, the Aiii.liiii.i] poets compare the sun 
fo an eye, and attribute eyelashes to it. See ad loc. 

12. WAy did the knees receive me? Why did the officio us midwife 
receive me, and lay me upon her lap, and not suffer me to fall to the 
ground and popish > Or it may tefor to (ho father, its it was usual for him 
to take the child upon his knees as soon as it was. Lorn, and thus to 
declare Ihat it was Lis own, and tlial no In'.eaidu.l to bring it up. Gen. 1. 
23. See Jahn's Archaeol. § 161. 

14. Who built a:' for tii-'!!i->f!f-fs ■ — ruins! i. o. splendid palaces, or, 
perhaps, tombs, destined soon to fall into ruins. See Is. xliv. 26. In the 
form of expression, the line is similar to Hub. ii. 13 ; Jer. li. 58. 

That nations shall labor for Are, 

And kingdoms weary theiii.;e'ncs for nought. 

i. e. for that Which shall be burnt up, &C. Otherwise, The repairers of 

BL-si»/.-iii-(i ;i;.'i£vs ; sl oircii^isMime nientioneii Id fe!iOW tiieir wealth, grandeur 
and glory. See Is. Iviii. 12, lit. 4 ; Ezek. sxxvi. 10. 

20. The name of the Supremo Being is often omitted in this boot, and 
the pronoun made te supply ils place. In. such cases the pronoun is 
printed, in this version, with a eapital letter. This corresponds to the 
custom in Scotland, where they say, " May His will he done ! " "May 
His name be praised ! " without an antecedent to the pronoun. So in 
Scott's Black Dwarf, near the end of Chap. VII. i 

" 0, my child, before you tun on dan^o:' lei me hem' yen but say, ' His 
will be done ! * " 

" Urge me not, mother — not now." lie was rushing Mil, when, looking 
back, he observed his grandmother make a mute attitude of affliction. He 
returned hastily, threw himself into her arms, ami said, •' Yes, mother, T 
can Say, ' His will be done ! * since it will comfort you." 

" May He go forth — may He go forlh with yon, my dear bairn : and 0, 
maj He give yon cause to say. en your return, ' His name he praised ! ' " 

23. —from inluiin. the way is hid, l(c. ; i. e. who knows not which way 
to turn himself ; who can see no way of escape from the miseries, which, 
inthe.Lntercl-ui.se of (He vevso, are represented as surrounding him, \m 
with a high wall or hedge. 

24. — mi/ sighing Cometh tyferi leal : i. e. it Cometh on when I begin to 
cat, and prevents my taking :ry necessary jioui'i-limenl. So Juv. Sat. siii. 
211. : 

Perpetua ansietas, nee mensf-8 tempore eessat. 
. 25. for that which J dread, <$'«■ I understand this as referring to con- 
tinual fears cause'.! by the disease, which tears are said not to be greater 
than Lis actual miseries. See note on ii. 7, where uneasiness and grief are 
laid to be caused by the disease. 



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Ill 

Iv the fourth a:.d ihih chaplors, r!i|.':a/ ; one of the throe friends who had ■ 
come to comfort Job, is represented as constrained by his intemperate 
language to express those scnrimcr-.ts, «::d vl-ii1. these suspicions, which the 
view of his mi sol 1 able condition had. suggested, and which, from pity and 
delicacy, had been hlthcrt" s upy. vested. The inhumanity of Elinhuz and 
[lie other f t-iciids of Job, which by many is though: mi natural, sei'ves lo 
introduce and help forward itio discussion of tlio moral ouestion which it 
mas the main design of the poem to illustrate. 

lie reproves Job's impatience, e.;v.i cohorts Iiini r.ot to give way to grief 
and despondency, but to put in practice those lessons which ha hud so 
often v coo in m ended to others, lie then aavances loe de-chine which lie and 
his friends maintain throughout the poem, that misery implies guilt ; and 
insinuates Lhni the wickedness of Job ws the cause of Ins present atilic- 
tions. Ch. iv. 2-11, In support of his views he brings forward a 
revelation which bo professes to have Ibnuerly received in a "vision. This 
revelation asserts [he execcaiug imper&clion of human virtue, the absohiio 
rectitude of God, and the impiety or' arraigning the justice of his mural 
government. The oracle itself is therefore excellent. Il is I he application 
of it in which Eliphaz is mistaken. He lias erroneous notions of what the 
Justice of God requires. He supposes that it implies that all suffering 
must be the punishment of sin ; and he seems to condemn Job not only 
for his actual complaints, but also Cor not regantlng and aehvfovle.lging 
his a ill let-ions to be the merited punish inent of his transgressions. 12-21, 

In the fifth chapter he is more direct, as well us more severe, in his 
censures, and exhorts Job to hum- Jo himself before God, and repent of his 
sins. He assures him that, by such a course, he may regain his former 
prosperity. 

Ch. IV. 5. But now it, i. e. calamity, $c. 

6. Is »ol thy fear, §r. These words may be undo', 'stood as a friendly 
admonition lo Job !o recollect his ioiiga:us ufineinies, and to support him. 
self by the clearness of his conscience. On the other hind, they may im- 
port that no gnod man would fill into i/jispair under affliction, as he had 
done. There is an appearance of art in this ambiguity. Scnft. 

As the substantive verbis understood, some critics prefer to render it 

Was not ihy fear of God thy hope ? 

And the uprightness of thy ways thine expectation ? 
i.e. Did not thy piety and integrity spring from ihe hope of reward, 
from a regard to thine own interest, rather than from the love of God ! 
So Mercier, and Gastallo, whoso version is, 



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Nimirum 1-ititnm velighmis, rpiiinium eTpes.-.-itiimis; 
Quantum spei, tnutuiu hibebas iotca;rUalis muriim. 

This corresponds iv ilk tke question of Satan, " h it fur nought t'ud Job 
ftareth God?" 

7, 8. Those expressions, ako, may be understood us a eunsolntory argu- 
ment to confirm tilt kopo whkdi eonseions inlcgi i-v should inspire : " Goo J 
men are sometimes chushsed severely fur tliuii- crimes, but not destroyed; 
cala-iiLiticH width oni.i in destruction are t.Eio portion of the wicked only." 
On the other hand, his moaning may ho: " Calamities iiko yours being 
the lot of iviclici.l men only, tiooe "ivio^odoess ui' yours must needs base 
brought those cala initio- npnn you." Here, then, we have another in- 
stance of nrtful ambiguity. Scott. 

10. Unjust, ami rapacious met! urn in Heript-.iro .'re;:i.ei;l!y called lions. 
Bee Ps. xxxW. 10; lviii. 6. 

19. Who crumble to pieces, as if moth-eaten ! Lit. They crumble 
th.nn to pieces, us the. moth a garment. So Itos., who remarks, after 
Selinlt-eiis ami jV.ddius, thai 'lie purtielc , ].^"? often lias the meaning, as, 

like, tttuqnam. Thus, 1 Sam. i. Ki, '• Kego/d m;t thy servant ten a (laugh- 
ter of Belial." The Sept. has it, ij.im; ; ;„'),■,„,■, and the old Vulg., tanquam 
ti.niio. ; the Vulg., stent a tinea. Comp. ch. xiii. S8; Is. i. 9, li. 8. 

2i>. Bet-wee:: iiiorniito and ev-eniixj, .ye. The meaning is, They Jive 
Boarwly a single day. See Ex. xviii. 14; Isa. xxxviii. 12. It is not the 
frequent oceurrcneo of death in the eourse of a day, but the shortness u f 
man's life, that is uioaut to he expressed. So Pindar, 1'ylti. viii. 135. : 
'En&pw r! tit t ,;iOf off rte; 

Zxii/q SrfijJ arStjoafOi. 



— and none regardetk it. The desrr notion i,{ munk'nd by death is not re- 
garded, or minded, by the rest of the creation. This is only a rhetorical 
lvay of representing how insiarimeiLol a creature man is, compared with 
tbe higher orders of beings. 

Ch. V. 1. See if any one, $C. i. e. will take thy part, and advocate 
thy cause. 

— to which '.if tit'- hoty ones mill thou h„-,k? i. e. vrhi.m mnongst the 
heavenly host wilt thou persuade to 1><> lliine advocate, or to take thy part, 
in a controversy with the Almighty? Tho words call and answer are 
used in this judicial sense in ch. siii. 22, xiv, 15, and in other places. 
Another less probal.de meaning is that of G reikis and others, who suppose 
that Eliphaz, having triumphantly produced a'divinu revelation in support 
of his views respecting the conduct of .Toh, calls upon him to bring for- 



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194 BOTES. 

ward something of the simi kind in his ■-.li.-fl.iuoc, if he could, — to Call and 
see if any of the litiwij spirits wool. I answer i/iui, and give a revelation 
in /lis favor. 

2. Verily grief deslroyell: ike foot . (Irief ami wrath hasten the destruc- 
tion of tin; lbol!sh 111:111, cither by meying "i-ion Is is spirits, or by drawing 
down upon him severe punishment i'rom the Almighty. His sufferings are . 
the fruit of his own criminal passions. The terms foolish and weak are 
often, in Scripture, applied to impious ami nicked men. 

3. — I cursed his iiahihdiori. This may mean, I |nvdioted his downi'ill 
See Gerard's Inst, § 882. Or, I actually witnessed the sudden ruin of 
his fortunes, and pronounced )rs habitation accursed. 

4. — at the gate : i. e. in the courts of justice, which used to be held at 
the gates of cities, fee Jahms Arolneol., 5 217. 

5. — the thorns : i. e. the hedge of thorns. 

6. For affliction comtth not, §c. The meaning appears to be. The 
■1 AUctions. of iife arc not to he ascribed to chance, or to merely natural 
causes, but to the will of Heaven. 

7. Behold, v'kdi :'.!' born to trouble : i. c. riion are horn under a Ian, or 
with a constitution, y.'bich .suijeet.s tliem to sorrow a.s soon as they bo- 
come transgressors, liisliop 1'alrick's paraphrase is, " (hid hath made it 
as natural lor man to suffer, (haying olton led him,) as it is for the sparks 
to fly upward." stBh U3, sons of flame, or of lightning, may denote 
sparks, or birds swift as lightning. As birds Im ie not been mentioned, the 
former teems (ho closest rcmiermg. 

15. — oppressed. This version is obtained by airering Hie. points 2T\^ 
(from the sword) lo I!"ST2> huphal |.i;irtieiple from 3TI. 'I'his amendment 
of the lest is aduptcd by "Unroll, .Mchaelis, Pal'ie, I'aeioiiciu, I'iickhorn, 
and others. 

l(i. — iniquity sloppeth her mouth: i. e, unrighteous and insidious op- 
pressors are confounded and struck dumb, when they see thoir schemes 
frustrated, and find themselves cntring'ed in the snares which they have 
laid for others. See Ps. evil. 41, 42. 

23. For titou dial! be. in league with, the stones e,f the field; i. e. thou 
shall lie secure IVcio injury from tlie stones in iva Iking, journeying-, &<! 
See Ps. xei. 11, 12. Dr. Shaw observes: "The custom, which still con- 
tinues, of walking either iiare.i"..(:t or with slippers, requires the ancient 
compliment of bringing water, upon the arrival of a stranger, to wash 
his feet," — " The feet, being thus unguarded, were every moment liable 
to be hurt and injured ; ami from tbeime noih.i us tin.- danger, without the 
divine assistance, which ever protects us from the smallest misfortunes, 
of dash in j Ihr-iri ay/tinst ii. stone, I's. mi. 12, which perhaps may further 
illustrate that difficult test. Job v. 2o, of beimj in tewjue with the stows 



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job. 195 

ef the field." Shaw's Travels. &c. Vol. l.p.42B. Or, Thy field si mil be 
free from stone?, which would make it barren. 

E4. — tent. There is some doubt whether ^ni* should be rendered lent, 

according to its primary meaning, or /'•:. , '^v, '^'^■^,■. , ,■'•:.■;, i:s seeoiuhiLy menu- 
ing. For in eh. xxix. 7, and other pas-ages, Job is i-'spn-sunnjj as dwelling 
in it city. — m/J jjo( dc tlifi/iMiiiileti. Lit. miss; used of stingers, Jnrtg. 
xx. 16 : i. e. thou fluiEt find nil ihy hou^-ao'id affnirs in such a condition 
as meets thy best wishes, and expeetations. nj here rendered thy durtl'iiig, 
may denote thy fold or pasture. It occurs in the Scriptures in both senses. 
But as it is parallel with tent, and occurs in verse third of this chapter in 
the sense of habit -.U-n -i, I £ i n.- 1 V. r the- latter sense here. 



Im reply to the harsh censures ami insinuations of Elipli.n, job jusducs 
the boldness of hi- complaints by the- severity of iho attlieiions which ex- 
torted them from him. Ch. vi. 2- 13. He complains of the nnkindnoss of 
his friends in pronouncing him guilt)- because ho was miserable, and in 
coming to him '.villi reproaches instead of encsolntious. 14-28. He re- 
quests Ihein to treat him with fumes. ; to examine his case, and not to con- 
demn llim on account of his miserable condition. 21 -.HO. lie proceed, to 
speak of the miseries and of the shortness of human life, from which he 
passes to his own condition, nod expostulates wi:!i [he Deity upon the 
greatness of his afflictions, and their 



Ch. VI. 2. — my grief: i. e. my distress or my ojlidion. He wishes 
that his nfflictlons, together with the distress of mind caused by them, 
might be put into one scale, and weighed against the sand of the sea in 
the other. This is only a poetical way of saying tliat they were insup- 
portable. 

3. — rash. See Gcs. Lexicon, upon njf'j. 

4. For the arrows. His distress, arising from Irs caber afflictions us well 
as bis disease, is compared to that of a person shot with poisoned arrows, 
lie exiiggerat.es his distress by the circa nisianec that, these arrows ore Irarled 
by the arm of the Almighty. 

5. Doth the wild ass bray, frc. As the lower animals do not complain by 
braying and lowing, when they have plenty of food, so neither should I 
Complain, were it not for the ir.snpuurtaalo weight of my afflictions. 



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196 NOTES. 

f>. Can thai tdiidi is [imusory, §-c. Men usually complain of their 
food, when it is unsavory; but how much greater reason have I to com- 
plain, when I Kin obliged to hoar those afflictions at the very thought of 
which I used to shudder '■ Some critics, however, suppose that lie here 
lashes 11! i pi i« i. tut- his harangue <;ti the blessings of na.fieuce, ami charac- 
terizes his discourse as insipid, imperiinenl, ;i nd . 1 1 ~ _j.- i-L-isi.u:. — while of an 
egg. It iimy be that the term rviDbn, which occurs Jiijt elsewhere in the 
Scriptures, rather denotes /iiirrtuiii, an herb which was proverbial for its 
insipidity among the Arabs, Greeks, and Romans. The literal meaning 
Will then be, Is there any taste in purslain saliva 1 a contemptuous 
expression for jmrslitin broth. But as the comparison in more expressive 
to the English, reader according tc the common version, and has the 
support t.f the .Rabbins and Targums, I retain it. 

7. What my soul, §c. In order to justify this roudor'me;, which in 
sense is that of the Common Version, it is not necessary io decide whether 
there is an ellipsis of the relative l;ix or not; or whether such an ellip- 
sis is an a.l'ow-able i lioiu nf Hebrew Crammar, or nor., ft is certainly most 
probable that {rail refers to the calamities or sidle rings, expressed in 
verses 2-4. My vorsion snllideutly e\ presses this reference without ad- 
tlitifj; anything \Nhic.h is not imidied in the connection. 

9. — let loose Ms hand. Lit. loosen his hand, which, whon inactive, is 
liguratively regarded as /nnin.-l, ami when exerted, as .«( free. — make 
an- end of me .' a metaphor, wliieh seems tn lie borrowed from the practice 
uf a weaver, who cuts off the web, when il is finished, from the thrum, 
by which it was fastened to tlie beam. 

10. — I would exult : lit. leap. "iSd occurs only once in the Scriptures, 
except as a proper name. I now prefer the rendering e.rull, as better 
supported by tradition, and rnther better suited to the parallelism and the 
connection, than the former romloriuc;, l,c c--ni-'-ii.i»eil, lit. burn. The Sept- 
has it ^Uiuijr ; the old Latin, suliebam- ; the Cliald. exultarem.. It is 
also supported by a similar wonl in the Arabic. Sec Ges. Lei. in verb. 

11. — fin&vmtd mine end, thai I should be -patient? i. e. How distant 
mine end > How long have I to live ? Or, since my end, threatened by my 
disease, is so near, why should I not prefer to die at once, anil invoke 
destruction, vathcr than hear continued ealaniitics with patience? Ami 
not so much oxhaiis-ed, ami brought so near my end, as to have reason io 

13. DXTl is used its an ad ier<:i of exclamation io this and oilier passages. 
See Ges. In the Vulg. ecee ! Vol- the rendering drliaernnce, see Ges 
Bo the Sept., p<>'',.')nu bl in' Ijtov UTrianr. Arab, solus. 

14. Else: The particle 1 is so rendered in the common version, in 



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joe. 19T 

Ps. II. 10 : Thou ilp.sti-osL not sacrifico, else would I give it. — he: 1. e. 
the friend who docs 11 ■. ■ t show kindness to the afflicted. 

15-20. Bui mj brethren, $0. This simile is exquisitely beautiful, 
considered as a description of a scene ef nature in the deserts of Arabia. 

lint its principal, hoanty lies in iho e\\::'. correspondence of m.1] its pans lo 
the tiling it is iniended to represent. Tin; fulness, strength, and noise of 
those temporary streams in winter answer to the largo professions made to 
Job in his prosperity r . y his friends. Tho drying up of tin: miters, at the 
approach of summer, resembles the laihire of thi'ir friendship in his 
affliction. And tho eimtii.-ion of tho thirsty caravans, on finding the 
streams vanished, strongly i!i us: rates his ii-clings, disappointed as ho was 
of the relief ho expected in these men's friendly counsels. Scott. 
Scluiltfliis observe-', fait, the Arabs compare a treacherous friend to one 
of these torrents, and hence say, "I put no trust in the flowing of thy 
torrent ; " and, " torront, thy lowing subsides. " — I'm! jwss aiviiy ; 
Com. zi. 10. 

16. — the ice: i.e. which molts oil tho hills anil flows into them. 
— hides itself in them. : i. e. melts and flows into them, ■ Scott observes that 
these streams arc first fnrraeil by the nn/uiiimtl rains. The warmth and 
rains of the sp.n.iir, melting ihe ice i:id snow un tin.' moiiotains, increase 
them. They then rush down into the valleys, in a large body of turbid 
Water, and assume the appe:ira.nee of deep rivers. The finds of these 
■winter rivers are also called for rents. Hishup l\icnel;e saw several of them 
perfectly dry, in his journey to iMinnil jiiuai in the moulh of April. See 
Foeoeke'a Description of the Hast, Vol. I. pp. 139 - 111 . 

17. — flow forth: i. 0. as soon as the snowwater is exhausted, (lie 
streams disappear. The contrast is between streams from natural peren- 
nial fountains, and those which proceed from torrents of melted snow and 

18. The caravans, tyc: i. e. The caravans turn aside to them with the 
expectation of finding asnpnK'of water. but are disappointed, and obliged 
to porsno their jonnioy without a sopply in l.be desert, where they perish 
with thirst. Thus it agrees, in its general moaning, with the following 
verses — go up in in tt:s d':.wrt : winch, like the sea-, see: as to rise to him 
that beholds it. 

20. — their place : i. e, the- place or channel of Ihe streams, where they 
flowed before they wove dried up. 

21. — terror ; i. e. my tenable f ulferings. 

22. —a present ; i. e to the judge, to secure his good-will by a bribe. 

25. — what do _>,'(i !<■:■ reprimch-s prove ? i. e. what guilt do they convict 
me of? 

26. Do ye mean to censure words ? i. e. Do ye thin!; it reasonable to 
carp at mere words, extorted from mo by extreme misery ? You ought to. 



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consider that a man in the extremity of misery niters ;;miv inconsiderate 
egressions, which ought not to be severe', y censured, but minor laid to 
rlii.- a.ccount of human inarmity, and regarded us idle iviiul. 

27. Tiidy ye spread, fyc. The expressions in this verse are proverbial, 
and refer to (lie cruelty of his friends in bringing unlbunded charges 
against his moral character. 

!28. Jjuu/c «9it it/i-.m sic, I pray yon. He [inly be understood literally, 
ns requesting tiiijiu tu look Lli his fi.eo, ami see if lie betrayed any sign: of 
falsehood ur guilt ; or ticurarivcly. an rcqucsrug thoio to be mom favora- 
ble to him, and (o give him a hearing ; to judge from his appearance 
whether ho was false or guilty. 

2'J. Return, t}c. : i. c. to the discussion. 

30. 7s there iniquity, §c. : i. e. Is there any falsehood or wickedness in 
what I have said, or am about to say ? Have not I the capacity of dis- 
tinguishing right [Vom wrong, and truth from falsehood, as well as your- 
selves ; and if I had said or done anything wrong, should I not be 
conscious of it! 

Ch. VII. 1. h there not a war-service. The word K3S is rendered 

warfaie, in Is. si, 2, in the common version. The Vulg., Syr., and Arab. 

render it so in this verso. But the expression has particular reference to 
the hard and wearisome service wdiieli Mir- mili'ary life required, and to 
the longing of the soldier to see the end of it, 

5. My jlf-'h, §c. Mauudrell, describing ten loners whom he saw in 
Palestine, .say; ; " The nho'c .: : sLein]:er, '■•:. - 1 ■ ■; ■ I, as it toce anpea.red, was 
so noisome, that it mlgbi. well pass £i.r the utmost corruption of the human 
body on this side the grave." Mnundrell's Journey, p. 'Zii2, Jtc. Amer. 
edit. 

7. remember, SfC. He here turns to the Deity, and nhaids the short- 
ness of life, as a reason why he should be relieved from his sufferings. In 
rev. 9, 10, he urges, for the same reason, the certainly that lie should not 
return to life. 

8. Thine eyes shall look for me. See note on ver. 22. 
0. —(.'if grace, fat. tiiske.nl, the underworld, 

12. Am la sea. f,-c. lie eomrilains that God treated him as though he 
were some furious tyrant, whom only the most severe inflations could 
restrain from exceeding the bounds of justice, and spreading destruction 
among mankind. "Am I as tier™ and dangerous as (he ra.giug sea, or as 
some strong a.ud ungovernable .soa.-::ionster, both of which must be re- 
strained by great exertions, and w atrln- I with unaeaslng vigilance, lest 
they should spread destruction and death?" Michachs thinks that by 
the ea Job meant the JSile, which, when it rise-; beyond a certain height, 



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job. 199 

becomes an iiii.milfit.iiir., and causes imraeine damage. BohnHens quotes 
Aviibsjah, im Arabic poet, who (;:i.tls Tamerlane '■ a \ a^t sea, swallowing un 
everything. " Harder observes : " Crocodiles ai-e ve?y terrible io the in. 
habitants of Egypt > '''."lieu, therefore, liny appear, limy watch the::] with 
great attention, and like jji-ojjl'-i* premiums lo secure them, so tliat they 
may not be able to avoid the deadly . weapons afterwards used to kill them. 
To these watchdogs and those deadly ailer-assaults I aoprehend Job 
refers. ' ' 

15. —ratter iiian !.!><: s~. my lioncs. I. it. raliu-r Una: my bones $ i.e. 
than the wretched skeleton, which is nearly all that is left of me. 

16. lam. toasting ti'iiiij. The Hebrew word, thus rendered, is transla- 
te! nie.lt away, in tin: common version, in Vs. Iviii. 7. Tins Arab., accord- 
ing to Walton, is, Jam virions drfeetiis sum. 

17. 18. Job suggests that it His beneath vlio character of the infinite 
God to bestow so much tirno and attention, and snob \ inlaid inspection, 
upon so insieaiilienut a Sit-in.^ a:' man ; and this I'm: no other purpose (tian to 
mark and punish all his defects and failures. 

10. — look away from, me: i. e. torn fiwriy thine angry countenance 

from combatants, who never t:ike (.heir eyes oil' from their antagonists." 
ScltuWms. — till I have time <o bteodh". I ha\o substituted this for the 
proverb, which is liter, i!!y rendered in the common version, ami which has 
been retained in Arabia M i.lie. present dny, ly which i.hey understand, 
"Give me leave to rest after my IMigne." 'there are two iustiinees 
(quoted by Schult. in loo.) in Hariri's JVarri'lives, entitled the 
Assembly. One is of a person who, when eagerly pressed to give an ac- 
eount of his travels, answered with impatience, "Let me swallow flown 
my smith;, for my journey hath fatigued me. : " The other instance is of a 
quick return made to one who used that proverb ; ' ' Sutler me," said the 
person importuned, " to swallow down my spittle;" to wdiioh Ins friend 
replied, "You may, if you please, swallow' down oven the Tigris and 
Euphrates ; " that is. You m ty take what time you ple;iso. Murder. 

20. If I have sinned, §£. : i. e. " Suppose, for a moment, that I have 
sinned, yet as T can have ihjiie thee no injury, as my sins cannot have 
affected thy safety or happiness, 1 see not why I. shnulfl be treated with 
pitch severity, and oven set up for it mark itr wuioh thou mayst shoot thine 
arrows." 'The particle DX, if, is often understood. The Sept. has supplied 

it here: t! lyw ^hiiotov. So the Arab, and Syr. Sec Gos. Gram. § 152. 4. — 
what hare I don'- !o thee? i. e. what injury hare I done to thee? The verb 
riE'i' signifies to do an injury, in J'i-rod. xtv. 11; Gen. sis. 8, xx ii. 12. This 

sentiment agrees better with the content, and is also found iuch.xxxv. 6. — 
th.nu watcher of men .' i. e. O thou thai watche-it men strictly, audmarkest 



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all their sins. The word is undoubtedly used in an invidious sense, and 
uot merely to express t.'-.c general ir.itJs that ('Jijil takes notice of human ac- 
tions. Sett ver. 12, ami xiv. IS. Dr. Kcuuicolt tenders it, U llwu spy 
upon men ! The word ">:n, inspector, is rendered iaili-lnwii, in 2 Kings 
xvii. S)j in the eornm.-.n version ; mid hi eh. xxvii. IS, of this poem, it de- 
notes ik watch 1:111 n of a vineyard. The Sept. has it, i> iirinrumvo; tiiy tovr 
Tr3» ae&QtiiiisDv. The same sentiment is expressed in eh, x. 6, xiii. 27, and 
elsewhere. The word mi^ht be rendered prefer rer, in nnother connection, 
since a, person sometimes w-ttciies a. thine: for its preservation; but not 
properly here, where tlie Deir.y is represented as the avenger of sin. — So 
that I kave become a burden to nvpelp The Sept, renders the two last 

Why ha.st then set me up for thy ma.rk, 
And wliy have I become a burden to thee ? 
The Hehrew copy, from which they translated, had T-Sj? instead of '^p, 
'file Masm-iles also place this anion^t the. eighteen passages whiuh they 
say were altered by Incise r (frees. In this case the rending preserved by 
the Sept. may have been altered by some transcriber who supposed the 
sentiment which il conveyed to be. irreverent to the Deity. But, as the re- 
ceived text is supported by all the. versions except the taj.t., and by all the 
Hebrew ruauusei'ipls hillierto eviioirLOa, it may be retained, notwithstand- 
ing the intrinsic probability Mi at I bo Sept. bus presort. I I be true reading. 
22. Sunn shall I sleep in th( dust. Me urges the si airiness of the term 
of life which yet remained to him, as a i-l-i.-=:)ii why he should be relieved 
from his afiliotums; and he intimates, in the latter clause of tho verse, 
that death would, as it wove, put it. out of die power of (he Deity to favor 
hi m, should he relent and be inclined !o oicrcy, since he should be no 
longer in existence. So Citstalio explains it : " Nisi mihi in hiic vita bene- 
facias et condone>, non erit peat nuiitem locus." So Foolo : " "When thou 
sliait dUigently wok for aie, that thou maysl show favor to me, thou wilt 
find that I am de:e.l and gone, and so wilt lose thy opportunity. Help, 
therefore, speedily." 



fv ehatilereighlh, FiiMud, :i:iother of Job's pi.'olcssed friends, comes for- 
ward as a disputant, interrupting him in his discourse, and reproving 
him with severity for the boldness „f his language in regard to his atllio- 
tions, and for his firm protestations of his innocence, as if he had thereby 
culled In ijuoscion the justice of the Pelty. Mo holds the opinion that, un- 
der the government of a heme: infinitely w : se and goo I. allllotiims cannot 
take place, unless for the purposes of vi: dicive jietico. lieueo lie asserts 



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JOB. 201 

iha,t the children of Job Hi = i : T pei-idied mi account uf their wdokedn ess ; 
although he lin.il no grounds for the assertion, but that of their vuin. Ha 
tolls Job that if ho wore in ve.-il.ity the ilomu.l and upright man he pro- 
fessed tu bo, ho would ai'iin bo restored to prosperity. Ho quotes a pas- 
s.ige from an ancient [in'.::, representing by -t i-iknig images the miserable 
condition of tho wicked, and holds out to Job tho hope of the renewed 
favor of God, as the reward of repentance. 

Hi oho eshorlatio.is to repent nice, ad Iressod, as l':;ey "novo, to one whom 
Jehovah hud pronnuime 1 an upright it:id gund man, are to be regarded as 
an indirect mode of char-in;; him. with perverseness ;ind guilt. Thug it 
appears that Bildad agrees with Eiipiiaz in tho opinion that misery is a de- 
cisive proof of wickeduess. 

Cli. VIII. 2. — like a strong wind? The same figure is found in 
Avistopli. Hall. 872. : Ti tt<lt y'u'i izinlmr -.ii/;;o':/f.,',:"iMi' Jl tempest cf 
words is preparing to burst, forth. So in Sil. Italians, XI. 581. : 
— qui tanto euperbo 
Facta sonas ore, et spnmauti turbine perfias ' 

G. — tkij rijftd'.oits hibitalion : i. e. the abode whore iheni shalt dwell, a 
righteous man, Tliidiial insinuates, says t-c'-.'ibeus, thai Iho dwelling of 
Job hod hitherto boon tho abode of wickedness. 

7. So that thy bcsinabii; skull im small ■ i.e. tby former prosperity 
shall appear small, compared with tbat which thou shalt hereafter enjoy, 
if thou art pure ami righteous. So the Sept., "Eoroi ili ,uiv rcjiwra oou 
nXlya. 8o Castalio, Ada) vt /'•lerit tun prior rond.ilio tenuis, pra v.t 
posterior amjiHfiaiJiili.tr. Thus oho poet pins in hi the month of Bildnd a 
reference, undesigned on his pari, to wdial Is afterwards recorded to have 
taken place in tho fortunes of Job : ,: Jeknvnh lilessed the /.utter end of 
Job more than the b; gin nitty." xlii. 12. Bildad had no prophetic an- 
ticipation of Ibis, imt ineivly utters a ^cnernl promise, naturally suggested 
liy the subject; while Iho writer intended that it should refer to the subse- 
quent history of Job. The skill of the poet is manifested in this way in 
several passages, and reminds one of the admirable use made of this ex- 
pedient tu give interest and pathos t.o tiieir compositions by the most cele- 
brated Greek dramatists, as by Hopiioole.s, for instance, in his (Edipus 
Tyraunns. 

1 1. — jiape.r-ried : -a.', i to'ii, Sep!. See tics. Wo are entertained bore, 
suys Mr. Soot.t, with a specimen of the uniuner of con veyin;,' moral instruc- 
tions in the oldeni times of tin: woi'l 1. They couched their observations in 
pithy sentences, or wrapped them !u concise similitudes: and east them 
into metre to fix them in the memory'. Up. Lowth mentions the words of 
Lameoh to his two wives, (Gen. ii. US, 21,) as the oldest esninple of this 
kind on reeord. 



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202 NOTES. 

17. — heap. I now prefer this render!;.;;, ms f.ivored by tHo u:ir:i!lel';in, 
and by its connection with the verb entwined.. — JJnd iie stclh the place <if 
stones; i. e. takcth deep root in the earth. Thus tin: verse denotes the 
nourishing, and apparently durable, condition of the wicked man. So 
Meroier, Doed., Ges. See Pa. i. 3, xxxrii. 35; Jer. xrii. 8. 

18. The particle 3K, t raicdale i if in the common version, is often 
used for emphasis, or asseveration, and. aoeoi din;;; to the connection, may 
be rendered, truly, indeed, yea, yet, behold! lo ! &o., or occasionally 
omitted. Sou Noldius in verb. 

19. — from his place. Lit. from the earth or stjji from which llio treo 
nits removed. Tims others shall fill the place and euii;y the wealth of the 
wicked man who is taken away, iec xxvii. Hi, IT, and I'.celes. ii. 18. So 
Mere., Eos. But Dathe and Eiehhorn, ad aiiiitlu-r tluill spring up in 
Ids place! i. e. other wicked moo, uul dororrei! by id- dreadful fate, shall 
take his place, mid fidlow his example. 

21. Instead, of -\y, it is better to alter the point, and read -fy. So 
Jlutib., Machaelis, Ik Wot.te. 



VI. 

In reply (o Hilda:!, who hud charged liim wiih i iii.ually denying the jus- 
tice of God, .Tali iciaarks llii.l fio kmivvs full v.od tin: greatness and holi- 
ness of God, and tin: weakness mul sinfuinc-s at' man; inliiua.ting that he 
dues not. pretend ;o be free from the infirm il:o> ami sin- which are common 
to the human race. But these, in his view, arc incident to the best of 
men, so that, no one o:tn answer to one charge, of a. thousand in a contro- 
versy with God. Admitting litis, however, it by no means follows tlrnt 
one whom Gad pleases to afflict is a v. ; ckcl man; or, thai lie is a great sin- 
ner who sutlers groat affliction. Ch. i\. 1-3. He maintains that in the 
distribution nfliapmucss mill misery Gail is an absolute sovereign, in flu 
enced by no consideration but that of his own inscrutable and irresistible 
will; that his afflictions, therefore, ought not to be attributed to the jus- 
tiee of God, but. rather lo be raniicd wiili (hose acts of Providence which 
confound all our reasonings, i- 1J. He say-, that though lie is conscious 
of no guilt which should draw down upon him the afflictions which he suf- 
fered, yet lie will not a I.I oi apt. io defend him -ell' before the majesty of Cod; 
that lie is weak; that the ooulo-t is unci, mil: that, were his cause ever so 
just, he oould not hope to prevail; that, (hough lie is conscious of inno- 
cence, he would not enter into a coul rovorsy with God in order to save his 
life. 15-21. | ft may lie nbsorved here. that, when .Tub asserts hi.s inuo- 
eeD'.f, ho does not lay claim hi entire IVoedom fsom fan!'. He means oiry 



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JOB. 203 

thai lie is innocent of ike oh irges of sej:vt crime; brought against hitu by 
his friends; that lie is free from unooiniiiiiii gaiit, winch his friend3 held 
lo be the cause of lm great misery ; thai, bo if, in fine, a sincere, upright 
man.) Ho affirms flint tnisety, far fnan bemg :i proof of uncommon guilt, 
is equally ike per: am of tlie eight-cmis and of the nicked. !_'■_' -"24. Passing 
lo the ei;iitem|il::Uiiu of his own misery, be ussctd.s that 5 1 5 .=-? righteousness 
avails liiiu nothing; tii it hi- cause cannot bo bitni^-it. io a fair trial; ami 
that the majesty and power of Got I reduce liim to silence. 25 - 35. Then 
with groat earnestness ami path'!;! lie expostulates with the Deity on ac- 
count of liis severity lo fie work of his own hands, continues to assert his 
iimccenoe, and urifcs the. slioi tuoss i..l' the term of hie viiich yet remained 
to him, as a reason why lie should be relieved i'ruiu his miseries. Ch. x. 

In regard to apparent ineomjistencics in tin; language of Job, it may be 
observed here that, he is represent;;..! as agitated by various contending emo- 
tions. Pear and hope, despair :md conl'idcma', the spirit, of submission and 
of bold eonii.ilaini, by turns have possession of his mind; and, as either 
predonh nates, it gives, of course, a eiiavaeter to his language. Truth in 
the exhibition of opiiosiie fediugs a-. J pa-sinus reijiiiros smite inconsistency 
hi language and serdiine.nt. LUL-egiird ■ .■ I ' this obvious truth led Dr. Kcnni- 
cott to propose some a-tcealious of t lie !r\t, which, if adopted, would great- 
ly injure the poem. 

Ch. IX. 3. if he choose : i. d. If God choose to mark strictly the sins of 
which nil men are guilty, and accuse them of these sins; or, if man 
choose to oeier info eonl rnversy with God. 

5. He removclli the uioitiiLtiii*, and. l!n:;i know U not. This is a Hob. 
idiom, meaning, He remortlh Ike;;: m :dde ■':';; or :;:iej:nei:ledlji ; ns it were, 
before they, i. e. the mountains, are aware of it. So in l's. xssv. 8, where, 
in the llcbreiv, l!ie expression " at iinuvrures " is " le.' kbit not know.''' 
Sdiultens remarks finit tno same idiom occurs frequently in the Koran. 

6. —the pillars thereof. The earth is represented as an edifice, sup- 
ported by pillars, resting on foundations, having a corner-stone, &c. See 
eh. xxxviii. -1-6. Earthquakes seem to mnlto these pillars tremhle. Ac- 
cording to the same node of concept on vo.-poctiug the earth, it is repre- 
sented as .'landing ibrovor, lie. 1. 4, and as reeling like a t\ ni n karcl , and 
moving like a hammock, in Is. xxiv. 20. 

7. He cOTamandtth, #c. Some suppose the allusion is to the effects of 
an eclipse ; others, to those of a continued storm, as in Acts xxvii. 20: 
and others, that he asserts that light and darkness depend upon God; that, 
if he forbid, the sun ami the stars cease to shine. To seal up, or to shut 
up as with a seal, I suppose to he a figurative expression, denoliiig great 
or total obseuralion. The expression lo seal up is u..ed wiih great latitude 
of signification. See eh. xxxiii, 16, xxxvii. 7. 



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204 MOTES. 

8. — spreadeth out, fyc. Comp. Is. si. 2'>. Otherwise, howeth down the 
heavens. Sec Ps. xviii. 9-15. This latter vcrsiun wuuld denote the 
descent (if black, heavy clouds, in a. groat storm. ■ — wttlktlh upon the 
high wave). The Kgyptian Itieroglypiiio fur nhat »; nut possible to be 
lone was a man nalidng on the water. Burder. 

9. — Me Seor, Orion, and tits Pleiad*. Thu Hebrew names are Ash, 
Chesil, and Chimah. See note upun cli. xxxviii. SI, ?,'>. —secret chambers 
tfthe South : i. c. the remotest, regions of tlits South, Hie couslell.Uiims of 
which are invisible to !he 'uhabi'.au'.s of the jiui them hemisphere. 

1"J. seizeth : as a lion his prey. 

18. Gad mil nut turn tiway Ids rt'igt-r : i. e. on ner-unm of any ep posi- 
tion which may be made to it. Did irrwocahilU irci est. Castalio. 

15. — / would not a/isieer hint. The word is used in a judicial sense, 
Und means, I would not undertake to make my defence. 

16. Should I call, and he make answer to me. The words top and nip 
are supposed by Schultsns, and by most critics since his time, to be used 
in a judicial sense Si in jus viicurem, nt. actor, W eexp.iTtderft mihi com- 
pellar.us, serine sisteret If, as plirulilY, 1 should summon him to trial, 
and ho should make answer, and consent to stand as defendant, I eould 

uearcely lie-lien; it; tin- «"i-l 1 1 ir "; i i a:.; ciui.eii.iLs i,i' ii|ivii;lilne;s, yet, fcrm 

Hie severe afflictions u:nu'i- wdiiuh I si i Her, 1 have reason lo conclude thai- 
lie will act no other fart towards me than that, of an absolute sovereign 
who will give no account of his doings. 

19. If I look to strength. Lit. If to, or ewiceniins. Hie slreiiyth of 
the mighty : i. e. if it be a question of strength, &c. See Jcr. slii. 19, 1. 
44. [f wo adopt the variou.s reading, (buiul in t-hc Sept. and Syr., i instead 
of , , we may translate, 

If I look to strength, lo, he is strong ! 
If to jtistioe, who shall summon him to trial ! 
Tims Datlie and Iliehhom render the verse. 

20. 21. Though I were upright, t)r,. The meaning probably is, Though 
I am conscious of no guilt, and though my cause is just, yet were I as 
pure as an angel, I sbuuJd :>■:,! be able to sustain myself, and make good 
my defence before the brightness of the divine majesty; notwithstanding 
She testimony of ruy eon science, 1 would give up all care for myself, every 
effort to preserve my life, rather than enter into a vain controversy with a 
Being infinitely above me, so superior in strength. 

22. It is all one. The meaning may be either, All tilings are now 
alike to me; I am indiiferent as to what may happen to me; or. It is all 
one whether a person be righteous uv wicked, so far as his fortune is con- 
cerned. Some suppose, huwCicr, !liat KTiTTIS should be rendered. He i.i 



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job. 205 

Heane; wnieusesl: i. e. He is unlike all others; he stands alone; he ia 

bound l.iy no rules, anil gives no account «f his mailers. Comp. ver. 32. 

24. — co ver eth On fact ■;/' tim ju.'li/s. Hither, God (rents thorn as con- 
demned malcfacluir, overwhelming (hem Willi calamities, disgrace, and 
ruin, Job himself in-in.^ Line example of tms melancholy [ruth. Scott. 
See 2 Sam. iv. 30; Esth. vii. 8; Jer. xiv. 3. Is. ixii. 17; Mark siv. 65. 
Thus Hit meaning uf l he verse will tie, God eoiorr.oniy advances wicked 
men to honor and power, and casts down men of ti-tii: worth and virtue 
from their scats. Or : fo sirtf lit ,'mi if Hie juiij'-.s may have the same 
meaning as the phrase, to blind their ejr;s, so tiiat they arc partial, un- 
just, and oppressive. — If it be not he, who isiir Su the Sept., il ii p)) 
a&iit ia-i:,i!g itniv ; If it be not liod who doeth the si ran;/;: things which 
1 ha.', e meniioueil, who is it. that doetii lliem ? 

25. JU'y t'titji iiitee been, iai/tcr than a courier, $c. Time and enjoy- 
ment, that are sneceedod by jrroat misery, appear as an instant [hat ia 
past. The depth of his present alliietion tmikos him forget his former 
prosperity, and to say thai he hud seen no food daring his life. "The 
common pace of travelling in the Easl is very slow. Camels go little more 
than two miles an hour. Those who carried message* in haste moved very 
differently. Dromedaries, a. sort of camel which is exceedingly swift, are 
used for this purpose; and Lady M. W. .Muuiiieue assorts that they tar 
outrun the swiftest horses. Lett. II. 65. There are also messengers who 
run on foot, and who sometimes go an hi mil red ami fifty miles in less than 
twenty-four hours; with what energy then might Job say, ■ Aly day:; are. 
slcifte.r than n courier ! ' Instead of passing away wilh a slowness of mo- 
tion like thai of a caravan, my days of prosperity have disappeared with a 
swiftness like that of a messenger carrying dispatches." Harmer. 

26. — reed-skiffs : i. e. " boats or skiffs made of the papyrus of the Nile, 
in common use among t'-e I'lgypthins ami Iv.hiopiaas. and famous for their 
lightness and swiftness. Thus Pliny, siii. 11, Ex ipso qnidom papyro 
navigia texunt ; vi. Si!, Iltiam mine [naves] in Iiritannico oceano vitiles 
eorio circnmsi'he sunt ; in Nilo ex papyro, et soivpo, et aruudine. And 
Luean. Pharsal. iv. 136, Couseritur Itibula Memphitis eyniba. papyro. 
Ileliodorus, ./Kl.liiop. x. -lb", speaks of such boa.ls, nr>uftu.el»ts i'. zuiMimr 
nennTgUnut, «a having heen very swift, o|uiuo/i«TuTH. They maybe 
compared in this reaped to Indian canoes." 

27. 28. If I say, #e. ; i. e. If I resolve within myself that I will cease 
complaining, and endeavor to he more cheerful, I lind all siu-h endeavors 
vain ; for if my griefs be suspended for a short time, yet my fears con- 
tinue , for thou, God, wilt not clear my innocence, by removing those 
afflictions which mike them judge me guilty of some great crime. Poole. 

29, Ishall be found guilty, fyc. : i. e. Whether I he holy or wicked, if 
I dispute with thee, I shall he found guilty. Why then should I trouble 



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200 KOTES. 

myself with clearing mine iiiuoconey : Pool':. Or, I must pass for t 
wicked person ; I. am treated as such by fi.iil, mid «■ .udemncd by man. 
All ray labor, therefore, to men- myself will bo to no purpose. 

30. If I icntli, $e. I'jy m,i.<hi-iy himself, fyr., and fi-w;,*/ his hands, 
§-!:., he assorts the parity of his heart, mid inuor.enee (if his life. Thus 
Zn pilar understood him : " TiiO'tvtycst, ' Jliij sp- ten is pure ; I am clean 
in thine, eyes.' " The I'.-in'.tiiist also declares hi* own integrity in terms 
somewhat similar r il 1 have cleansed :ny heart in vain, anil washed my 
hands in insioeciicy." Ps. liitiii. 13. 

31. Still wilt lima jilm-i/c mc, &-c. The meaning is, tint his calaminc- 
would cause liim to be looked upon by all his intimate friends as an 
abominable wretch, simiuai of God, ami uecursed, JS"o protestations of in- 
nocence, no appeal,, nu defend! whutevor. emd I overcome t.hut prcjodiee 
against him. — my omn rlat!w$. This oiroumstat™ is added, I imagine, 
asa heightening of the imago of impurity ; In s'oprosonl more strongly ti.e 
infamy with which his character was blackened by his overthrow. Scott, 

33. For He is not, $c. : i. e. He is infinitely superior to me in majesty 
and power, so thai I eanuot venture tn contend Kith him .- i e. to debate 
my eause with him, or to answer his allegations against me ; neither can 
we i/o io : >etl,.er into judgment: i, e, moot each other face te face, and plead 
upon equal terms be Cure a super or ami indifferent judge. 

33. Who may lay hi.- hi ml vjion. us hoik : i. e. who may have authority 
and power to coiitro! e:Uior of us who shad exceed ilie limits of propriety 
in the controversy, and also tn oblige sis In stand to his decision. 

34. — his rod : i. e. my present allliotions. — his terrors : i. e. the 
terror of his majwtj and power. 

35. —and not be if raid, if him, .* 1. e. as an opponent in a. judicial con- 
troversy. I should nut lea-r but that I should he able to make good my 
eause, and prove my inunceime. — For I inn not so ul heart : i, e. as to 
have any reason to fear the resnlt of debating my cause with him upon 
equal terms. So Schult., be Clove, lies. Or ;"'-'t' «ii"nimufiat fuavria 
S&xor* Sept. : / am not conscious lo myself of unrighteousness. But 
this is paraphrastic. 

Ch. X. 2. — Do not condemn mc: 1. e. Do not. pronounce sue guilty and 
punish mc wi:h such severity, without -lio'.vinj; mc wherein 1 have offended, 
and what I liavu done to deserve my sufferings. 

4-7. Hast thou eyes, fro. : i. e. Seesr. thou us imperfectly as man? or 
dues thy life pais awry as .-.v.-ifily as diaS of a man •} One might suspect this 
from thy searching after sins in me so thoroughly and so suddenly; i. e. 
from thy indicting upon me. siicb heavy blows and in such quick s 
to bring use to a confession of sin. Uoibreit. 



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8. Have thy Ju/tidi cr,n,]4*ti!y fa.-iiyin ni-A , Jyr.-, Ills argument now is, 
that it looks like caprice tu bestow great skill and labor >m a work, and 
then on a sudden, and without just cause, d;ish it iu pieces. This is what 
Iii! meant also In verse 8, " /s it a pleasure to thee . . . to despise the 
work of thy hands ? " Scott, 

9. remember, t/c. Here ho pleads the common mortality. He must 
soon die, as all oilier men ; what occasion then for so nineh torture to dis- 
patch him ? SeoK. 

10- 12. The sii'iiuiiiL-i: in these verses Is taken fVom G nil's crealing Mini 
providential goodness towards liim, as not being consistent with Lis present 
treatment ol' hini. Scott. 

13. Vet these things thou /Lit! if lo.i/ up in thy heart. By these Ihi.tys he 
means his e dimities ; and insinuates that Go 1 had given him being with 
a secret purpose to make him inferable; and hod ud\aueed liiin so high 
in order to render his fall the more terrible. Scott, —in thy mind: lit. 
with thee; a [ihnse repeatedly used In this book, and in other parts ol 
Scripture, to denote what was in the mind of God, i. e. what was his in- 
tention, or (jui-pu.-iO. See oh. xiv. a, ssiii. 14 ; Ps. 1. II ; John xvii. 5. 

15. If lam wicked, as- my friends suppose nie, then ani 1 indeed un- 
done ! yet though I am righteous, I derive no benefit from it. It is all 
one, woollier f am guru! or bad. 

lft. —like a Hon th hi ht-ntaft m«. The .ilii.i-.niin, in this irad the follow- 
ing verse, is to that manner of hunting the lion, wherein the hunters, 
armed with spears and jiveiins, formod themselves in a ring about the 
beast, and threw their weapons at him one after another. Uy this intake 
Job represents, iu lively colors, the violent and rapid succession of his 
calamities. Seoit. Another esj plan alio n, and perhaps the best, is, Thou 
huntest me, as a furious lion pursue? his prey : tmt, whereas the lion 
tears his prey speedily, and so eu:is its tocrneii'.s, ihu.i roue west loy calam- 
ities again and again. 

17. Tliou rennets! thy v:t/.:e ■!■.--- .- i. e. (by judgments — my allliet.iotis, 
which my friends, regard as an evidence of wickedness. — ,J\"eu; hosts : lit. 
e!utn:rc.s and rr lui.il, by the figure hen liadys., for hosts rtmsitinllij recruited. 
Or, changes may mean afflictions ; and the sense may be, a host of afflti- 
l.-oili. According to the lio-me.r rendering, item U-mU Ihrnraiively denote 
miseries consfaii'iy suoocodhig etch ot-ier. Ejtescitus intmutus contra 
me. Arab, and Syr. 

18, 19. Wliy then, fyc. But. for thine agency T should have perished, 
unseen and unknown, and have avoided my present misery and disgrace. 
So in Euripides, Troad. fi37, Andromache utters similar sentiments. 

20. Are not my d:iys few ? £,-t:. : i. e. My lire in shorl , mei hastens 
epacc to an end. Do not then continue my alii ctiom; to the last moment 



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208 NOTES. 

df my cxi.Jt™ :■;;. V.i'i Ike \wy short ierm .if life, v.iii.:!-. n 
a season of vest and enjoyment 

21 j 22. Before I go — irhp.ii.cc I shall not n 
contain a dcserLpiion 'if .-lien], in- link's. the under-ivorl:!. the place of all 
the dead. So Sea. Hero. Jj'urens, 861. : 

Star c-tinns dfiisiiru, tenebraiqne I urpes, 
Et oolor noctis mains, ac gilcntts 
Otium mundi, vaoiu!_'<iue imbes. 
Sera nos illo referat seneetus ! 
Nemo ad id sero veuit, unde nunquaiu. 
Cum semel venit, potuit rei crti. 



Ik the eleventh chapter, Zophar the Kaamaihitc, the third of Job's 

friends, come.; tfirwiii'd in reply to him. lie oen.-ure* him y,i(h severity, as 
guilty of usirtLr vain, arrogant, and irreverent l.ir;«n-t^i; in his hold pro- 
testations of his innocence, and in his loud complaints of unkind treatment 
from tho Almighty. 1 -4. Ha speaks of the unfathomable counsels and 
infinite knowledge of the Jtoity, .and, like his predecessor; in the contro- 
versy, intlrnat.es plainly tli:il i-lie sullfcnnijs of .loh neve (he punishment- of 
wickedness whioli lliu Unity hud teen in him, and of which he might easily 
convict him. 5- li He as-ures him tint, if lie woidd put away his 
wickedness, he miahl hope to regain hi; former prosperity ; at the same 
time threatening him with severe judgments if be should continue in hia 
sins, 13-20. 



■ Ch, XI. 3. Shtill. '.',;;,' hiuit.liiitjs: i. e. thy fake assertions respectins rhino 
innocence, and concerning the ways of Providenee. 

■I. Thou stijiist, M;i .-.pencil, or discourse, h pine : For thou pretendesd 
not to have ottontkd in word or deed, and that Ooil himself can find no 
h'ikoti to condemn tine. Patrick. See ch. s. 7. 

(S. His wisdiiM, which, is unsearchable < This rendering expresses the 
sense, whether we regard C ''122 as signifying com plicated, intricate, ov 
double, i e. manifold. See Gos. in verb. — Gml funjivcth, thee many of 
thine iniquities. With Ros. and Gos., I take riL"J in the sense to for yet, 
God caitseth t'icc to/uroe.t of thine iniq'tilie*, i. o. fire/i vetk a part of them, 

7. — Ihe deep Ihingi of God? See Tpri in Gas. Secretutn. Dei, Arab. 
Inqiiisitio/ieai Dei, Syr. 



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job. 20S 

8. Deeper than hell : i. 0. than sheol or hades, the place of tlio dead 
without distinction of character. Sen 110(0 upon oh, Kxvi. 6. 

10. # fte appn-htaul, ait-l bring: to trhd. The judgments of God upon 
the wicked are hero represented by iigiii'ai.ivo language drawn from the 
arrest, imprisonment, and trial of a criminal. The word Vnp'l, rendered 
and briny to trial, means, literally, "it'l ij':lh':r Inyifiuf, as in the mmmmi 
version ; it refers to the ancient custom of gathering an assembly of the 
people for the trial of a oriminal. See Prov. t. 14 ; Hzek. xvi. 39, 40, 
niii. 46. — Wh<i Mail npp'KP. him? i.e. "Who shall, by entering into an 
argument with Hie All-wist, defend (.he criminal will) any prospect ol 
delivering him ? or, Who shall by force deliver aormiiniil from his hands 'I 

11. He seeth iniquity, when they do not observe it. The words p'arr itSl 
have been explained in a groat, variety of ways. I suppose (he verb 
to refer, by an enallage of number, to the ttii-rizhtajiis, i« the preceding 
line, or to man understood ; anil that the meaning is, thai God sees in- 
iquities of which the though tless and wicked person who commits them 
has no knowledge. In Mils, as in the next verse, [ s up] ■use Znpliar to make 
general remarks '.villi particular reference to the ease of .Tub, who had so 
boldly asserted his innocence. Another mode of understanding the line, 
which has perhaps ennal claims wilh I hat which I line adopted, is that of 
Coceeius : He sciti: iniip.tihi, Lhw-rli he attend -not h ii : i. c, without an 
effort of attention ; '.villa, .ait looking wire fully for It, 

12. But vain mini is without ■ui-.lcrshiiuliiu*, §c. zJt seems to be 
used in a privative souse, as the word is used in l'iel in Cant. iv. 9 : 
" Thou hast deprived me of my heart ;" as it were Thou hast hearted 
me. It has been said (hat (hero is no instance in ivliieh (lie privative 
signification of Piel is transferred to Niphal. But, in the last edi- 
tion of his lexicon, Geseuius observes that in Arable there are instances in 
which other forms of the verb are used in the same way. It is therefore 
probable that a similar usage prevailed in the Hebrew, although from 
the paucity of its remains no other instance occurs, i-rhu't 1:11s and llathe 



And the wild ass's colt become a man. 

Ascovding !o this version, the v:ild <.'<■'-■: colt is used figuratively for n 
perverse «»■/ ubrtirmle. man. 

15. Then shall thou lift v.p llnj face without m-t. He describes the 
happy change of his condition ay its e lies la in bis eomiionanee 1 contrast- 
ing his present dejected face, sullied anil disngurcd hy terror, grief, and 
tears, with the look he shall (hen assume, erect, firm, and clear as th« 



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210 NOTES. 

polished inlt'i'dr. lie may rotor to the words of Job, S- 15, " Idare not 
lift up my head-" Scott. 

17. JVlui tkov art in darkness. So Mere., Sohult, Gos. Ch. s. 22 ; 
^tnos iv. 13. The t'haht. ha? it, O/w.'Kri.'ds ^'.leifani.'n (/.wsi iin- hijiIu- 
tina eril. Tho i*yi\, /i( r.aihjo sir.nl. aurora eril. 

18. Thou shalt be secure, $c. : i. e. Thou Shalt feel secure that thy 
prosperity will be permanent, on HOC' mnt of the br';-ht hopes which present 
themselves. — .ttit iiwii />,■( dUttpiiohilH, $c. The Sept. lias it, t* ji 

iifjV,? -Aut. (ftiii-riMue U .«[,;uvf(V«l l/j^l-l). 

19. TViou. sftai! Zis dawn, #c. A metaphor borrowed tV.au nooks lying 
down in the pastures. As in I's. xsiii. 2, " lie maket.h mi; to lie down in 
green pastures." 

20. Unlike ri/di (;/' Mr ici'c. ■■■,-(■■/ ;/:■//; ?,<; u.i(airiY.7 i.nl ; i. 0. !iy anxiously 
looking En- relief from t.horr miseries. — 57ieir ftopc is — //it hretithing 
forth nf life: i. e. They e\poot no deliverance from their miseries, but in 
death. Or, Death shrill be llie issue of their hopes. 



Jon begins li is reply to Zoplnir, and his other friends, with a severs 

sarcasm upon the airs of sriporiurity which they ]i. : n) assumed ; and com- 
plains thru he had become tin.' ohiix-l of I heir o;ii tempi, lor no other reason 
(hail ill? miserable condition. Ch. lii. 1-5. He reasserts his opinion re- 
specting the point in dispute, maintaining dial the worst of men, fir from 
veeoivin;; the puuidiiueul which ihoy deserve, often live in the enjoyment 
of ease and prosperity, fi. They had spoken to him of the wisdom and 
power of Slid, as if be were entirely ignorant on the subject. Hence he is 
Icil to say that whirl Ihey bad advanced on this topic is trite and obvious ; 
and to discourse upon the power and providence of God, in a style ot 
eloquence well sailed to make them ashamed of their pretensions to supe- 
rior in* el licence. This discourse may be dosi-rmsl to illustrate generally 
the power and wisdom uf God, as contra*' ed willi rhe nearness of man ; and 
also to show that, in the disl.ributioii of good and evil. God acts from his 
sovereign will and pleasure alone, rim! not, as the opponents of Job eon tended, 
from a regard to the merit, or demerit of men; Unit he t rears the righteous 
and the wicked alike ; and consequently, that nothing which he or thi.y 
mi all t advance on the sulrjccl. of the wisdom and power of God could prove 
him guilty, or that bis misery was t.ho. punishment of his sins. 7 - liii. 2, 
He longs to transfer his cause from partial and misjudging man to the 
omniscient and ridrtenus Jiuke, coaiidov.t that, if he could have an oppor- 
t unity of pleading his cause before him, he .should not tail to vindicate his 



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JOB. 211 

lie accuses his friends of partiality and injustice j of 
taking part against Sum from .Hellish, motives ani a slavish fear of God's 
power, rather than from li^rnvst. oijjj i-i:-uoi: ami di-:ll-i :it ntc-ti:-.l regard to God's 
honor. 4-11. Willi the most earoest p;'cieH:ul[ousof innocence, the most 
fervent appeals to tlni Deity in regard to the justice of his cause, and the 
most pathetic description of his sufferings, he closes oh. siii. He then 
proceeds to give an aileeting view of (lie miseries of human life, especially 
insisting upon the shortness of it, as a reason why man should be exempted 
from constant and extraordinary sullerings. ,\iv. 1-0. He complains 
that man's condition >6 worse thin that of the vegetable: creation ; since 
the plants, when the lined o.f dentil das airareuf.y been upon them, come 
forth again with renovated beauty ; I j lit. that to puss from a life of wretch- 
edness to the never-ending sleep of death is a condition too hard to be 
borne. He intimnt.es that, if he had the hope of a second life, lie might 
be encouraged to bear with patience his heavy load of afflictions, in the 
hope that, at some future lime, a favorable change in his condition might 
take place. But not entertaining this hope, he implores the .Deity to grant 
him a trial, so that his trne character may appear before he dies ; and 
earnestly expostulates ivI1.ii Hie Deity on lie-count of his dealings towards 
him. 7-22. 

This chapter, as well as many passages scattered through the poem, 
renders it highly probable, cither that .lob had no belief in the resurrec- 
tion of the dead, or in a future state of existence equally desirable with the 
present life ; or that the author of the poem excluded from it all regard to 
a future stale, as inconsistent with its general plan and design. Tt con 
tains several assertions nf man's ceasing in exist, so far as real desirable 
life is concerned, ft is true, that, if we make sonic allowance for the lan- 
guage of strong emotion in which he expresses himself, we may suppose 
that lie hat! some mane notions of the existence ef i-lie disembodied spirit, 
in a- half-conscious, inaelice state, in the interior of the earth, such, for 
instance, as pre vail e 1 aiming tiie a.ncieut Greeks, hut more gloomy and less 
definite ; an existence wholly undesirable, and olferiug no equivalent for 
the loss of present enjoyments and of t'ae present life. See ch. x. 21, 22, 
and the note. It is aliuosi impossible for the human soul to conceive that 
its consciousness will iic wholly lost. See nolo on xlv. 22. The separate 
existence of the soul seems also to be imii'ied in the distinction which is 
wa.le between sIk.hI. and lite -'ivik ; the firmer being represented as a vast 
subterraneous cavern, where all tie; spirits of the deal dwell together. 
The belief in some sort of existence of the suul after death seems also to be 
implied in the credit which the ancient. Hebrews gave to the art oi 
necromancy See 1 Sam. xxviii. o- 10. But the language of this chap- 
ter appears to be wa.o'.y inconsistent with the supposition that Job had any 
n of a ik-tifabtt: existence after death. It was reserved for the 



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212 NOTES. 

Prince of life, the author and linisher of our fiiiJi. to bring the glad 
tidiogs of j;vc:!t joy to tin: aching hearts of men - to bring liie ami iai- 
iooi-tnlity to light. 

Some critics have endeavored !o lessen the ti iva of Job's er. press deuials 
of a future life, in this chapter, by tin: remark ih-it he wiAy meant thut he 
could not hope to lr. c again in thf. prwut world ■ but that he might still 
have believed that ho should exist hereafter in ft better world. I admit 
thut a second life in this world was what he intended to deny ; but I 
think if, was bejausohe was secp'.Lonl id regard to a happy sLitoof existence 
after death, ilea von he evidently regards as the abode of Jehovah and 
his angels alone ; sir id lilies, of the mrler-woi-Id, as a place of gloom and 
horror. If, its he asserts, the hone of living again in this world would 
have afforded him coi isolation and comfort under his anliotions, then surely 
the hope of a happier state of being than tlie present life might have 
ados-Jo. I him still fjj-uinoi- oomlbrt ami consolation. How eun it possibly be 
accounted for that he should sink into despair, because he could not hope 
to enjoy the doubtful good of living again in this world of sin and misery, 
whilst at the si me time he believed in the existence of it world of happi- 
11 ess and purity, to which the righteous were tube admitted ! See note 
upon eh. six. 25. Inch. x. 21, 22, we have ft description of the place 
whoie.Joli expected to be sifter death. 

Ch. XH. 2. — the whole people? i.e. yo have engrossed all tho wisdom 
ia the world, and all others are mere brutes or fools ! 

i. I, who call n/A-.H C'id, that he \':i,:il : l answer mel i.e. I, who am 

so conscious of iny uprightness, I hat 1 as:i r.ot ;UVaid to appeal to God, and 
to desire that my cause may be brought to trial, and that the Deity would 
bring his charges against mo, and show mo the reasons of my afflictions ; 
the words call and answer, or sit least the latter, being used in a judicial 
sense, as in is. IS, siii. 22, xxiii. 5, xxxi 35. Castiilio and Dathe, how- 
ever, give the same translation sis the raociilioc, bui understand the words 
in their common uccepMtion. which is less suited to the connexion. 

6. Who carry their God in their hij.mi : i. e. Who trust to their strength 
n:l their weapons, and have no regard to the Supreme Being. Sec Hah. 

7-9. These verses are probably- to he regarded sis a continuation of 
verse 3 ; the hileiaaeaa^o verses being parcrlhotioal. In reference to the 
discourse of Zophao, who had spoken, with considerable parade, of the 
wisdom of God, ami had sid'eotcd lo consider Job sis ignorant of it, or as 
having called it in question, he remarks that what Zophar wished (o teach 
him wiis so obvious that it might be learned from the lower animals. They 
made It evident, by theiv properties, actions, ami modes of life, that (.hid 
treated the world by his nisiion-, said that he governed it with absolute 



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JOB. 213 

dominion ; so thai it was nol necessary to ascend (o heaven, or lo go down 
to (he under- world, I- 1 ubtaiu such knowledge, doe si. 7-ti. Others suppose 
the meaning to be, that, in the distribution of happiness and misery, God 
is so fiiv from having a regard to moral distinctions, that even of the 
lower animals tin. 1 - mischievous and rapacious favo weli, while the useful 
and gentle meet with harsh treatment from man, or are the prey of the 
rapacious of their own kind. 

9. — among all these: i. e, these irrational creatures, which are repre- 
sented in the preceding verses us ti'aehi.'i::, d.e.da ring, if/:., ;«id in this verse 
in the way of poetic! exaggeration, as kiiun-iii./ the wisdom and power of 
the Deity, which they so plainly declare, it is said that " with the Hin- 
doos, he who refund instruction, and will not he convinced, is told to ask 
the cattle." Or, in reference t.u tlie sec and exposition of verses 7-9, these 
things, tuny refer to sueii things as arc referred to in ver. 6. See Is. xxii. 
11. Otherwise — hath mud-, these, iltiir/s : i.e. the beaveu and earth and 
all things therein, to w hicli .Job nmy he supposed to have directed the at- 
tention of his hearers by tlie motions of his hands, or of his eyes. So 
Sehult, and Coco. Thus Job declares (bat the wisdom of God Is so plain, 
that all nature, as it were, feels ami aokr.ow lodges it ; ln.it he means to 
deny that this has anything to do with the question of his guilt or in- 

11, 12. Doth not the car, 1,-c. .- I. o. As the palate distinguishes (lie 
sweet from the bitter, so the ear, or rather the mind by the ear, discerns 
truth and falsehood in discourse : and wi-di.nu is the attribute of age and 
experience. The connection and application of these proverbial max i ins are 
by no means so clear as their general meaning, it is probable that lie 
means by them to censure bis friends tor not hearing and weighing bis 
observations with more attention, camior, aval impartiality, instead of 
despising anil rejecting them at once. 

14. Lo ! he paileth down, fyc. None can repair what He tears down, 
whether bouses, castles, or cities. — He biri-dtth, fir, : i, e. None can 
extricate the man whom he casts into difficulties and straits. Patrick. 
Seeoh-xxxvi. 8. 

15. Lo '. he w -il .'. .■'■ ■!.'■ !,:!■■ tk.r ■tenters : whether IV: mi the clouds or springs. 
—* and they are dried -up. The waters may be said, in a popular sense, to 
be dried up, when they cease to exist in their fountains, and when the 
heavens seem (o be changed into brass, and tlie earth into iron, according 
to the expression in .Dealt, xxviii. 23. — He sendeih them forth. This 
clause describes an immdiitinn, such as might happen, in .lob's country, 
from the torrents caused by 1ml, grea! an abundance of rain. Scott. 

16. The deed-red and ike dce.eicer. A proverbial expression, says 
Gesenius, denoting erf ry de.se ri /din n of man. — ore his : i. e. all alike 
depend upon him for their powers ; the subtle and the weal; are alike sub- 
ject to his control, and subservient t'j the purposes of his providence. 



Hosted oy GOOgk 



214 solus. 

17. He hadetk counsellors au-iiy capt.it-e. Statesmen, who promised 
themselves success a.w.l victory, as the result of their plans, lie dis:i]ipo.tiU 
:m<l lt'fitl s 1 mo t;.-i,i it: v ity ; !iiid/tf./g;'s he deprn cs >:l' their peculiar nttribnic, 
reason ov discernment. Of j'.«/->r:s may denote rolers. woom lie hiiiituntes, 
and leads to the adoption of hum?;:] res n liiidi end in their own mill. 

18. He loosed., $c. : i. e. He dethroned kings, ami leadcl.h them, 
bound in chains, into sei",itude. So Her., Sehuit., Gcs. But Dathe 
vet; ha- i!ie verse, 



a belt: 

i.e. Retakes away t'leiv antiim-ity, and he invests therewith it. But 
usage does not Knot' this explanation, us llos. observes. See Gen. xlii 
24 ; Judg. iv. 13 ; Ps. cslix. 8. 

l'J. Aitdove>thru;n>.lk1h.c mighty ■ i.e. the mighty men of war, in battle. 

20. He sealcth up the lips ; lit. He. taketh atoms the lips. — the trusty ; 
\. e. persons of tried wisdom ;iud loo;; oiocriciiee, to whom the people are 
wont lo repair for ndvicc. 

21. And loose.th the yirdleof the. uiiyhty. As the Orientals wore long and 
(lowing robes, they were uiijii L-.--1- lighting, ■u' tbr M.tty kind of act ire service, 
until tliey had girded up choir loins. Hence to hm,e the girdle of a per- 
son is fo take ilna.y his strength, or power of resisting an enemy. Soluti- 
ons and others suppose the girdle to he a ha [gc of ufiioe, and that to loose 
it menus to deprive rhese who wore it of their dignity and honors. 

22. He re.ctale.th deep things out of ttarkitess. Some understand this as 
a general reiii.it'!-:, setting forth the infinite knowledge nod power of find, 
who em living to light the most secret tilings ; as in Matt. s. 2-6. So 
Hero. Others suppose particular scotets are icfcvrcd to, siieli as plots, 
conspiracies, ov the deep-laid plans of princes. Others, the hidden designs 
tif God himself, which in course of time are hroiight to light. 

24, '15. He talce'h away, fyc. Divine inlitti.intic.ri of the governing 
powers is here describe. I in forcible language and striking resemblances. 
In their confusion, mistakes, perplexity, and distress, they resemble 
persons who have lost them -elves in the Arabia:! salamies, without a path, 
without a wayiuark, without a light to guide them ; and their irresolution 
nii'l unstable counsels arc like the reeling motions of a drunken man. 
Scott. 

C!i. XIIL 4. —forgers of lies: i. e. in maintaining that great afflic- 
tions are peculiar to the wicked ; and that I am guilty because I am 
miserable. 



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job. 215 

8. Wilt ye be. partial t-.t his parson 1 I. c. Will ye utter fa] sell nods from 
partiality to him? The phrase to receive or accept -persons was probably 
borrowed from this practice of corrupt i ulti's or judges, who received or 
admitted to their presence those who came with gifts, and favored their 

it. Will it be. null for yon, if In: starch j/.-m Ihoroajhly ? i. e. If he 
«earch you thoro ughly, will lie not find that your condemnation of me has 
sprung not so much from honest conviction, as from the sellish desire u f 
ffinnlog his favor I 

11. Doth not his ■maj'-.flij make yea tifr<ud '! i.e. Is it not a slavish 
fear of what Cod can do L> you tlnit induces you to condemn me without 

14. Wliy do I lake my flesh in my Icelh • nn J 7J'- " To take the flesh in 

tha teeth," and " lo put tin: life in the hun.1," evidently mean " to risk 
the life," as what is carried in the teetli or thehand is liable to bo 
dropped. See X Sam. xxriii. 21 ; Ps. cxix. 109. The meaning is, Why 

do I risk my life by assei ting my integrity before Got, unless because I 

15. — I have 'no hope ! This is the literal rendering of the received 
toit The common version adopts the various rending i'S, in him, instead 
of that of the test th, not. I prefer the latter, aa the more difficult 
reading, and yet nude as well suited to the eon text, and to the general 
plan of the book. 

10. This also thai! be vnj ddiceranec. An opportunity of appearing 
before God, and pleading my cause, "■ill lead to my deliverance, i. e. to 
my vindication from Llie charges of wic!;oduess and guilt which have been 
brought against me. — ■ Fur no unrtShUons man will come be/bit: hint : 
i. e. For I shall not go before liim an unrighteous man. Others suppose the 
meanini; to bo, My readiness to anpear lietore God. arid to plead my Cause 
before him, ought to be considered a proof of my innocence ; for no un- 
righteous man would dare to do it. 

18. — that I am innocent : i. e. that my causa is just ; or, that I am in- 
nocent of the charge ■■[' gross ■.yicl;eune>y, which is alleged against me as 
the cause of my calamities. 

19. — contend with me: i. e. maintain the cause successfully against 

'I'l. Th'it call upon me, &e. These eiprossious import that he aimed tn 
dispute his cause, not merely before God as a judge, but with God as a 
party. Scott. 

36 For thou lerifest : A judicial term, referring to the custom of writing 
the sentence of a person condemned, i. e. decreeing Lis punishment. See 
l's. exlix. 9 j Jer. xxii. 30 ; John six. 22. So the Greeks used the ex- 



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216 no red. 

pressiun y^irtun,!/ Mxi/i ; and ataovigst the Arabs a writing is a term 
commonly used I". v 1 ■ :; judicial sentence. 

'17. Thou, na.lckt.il all my paths : i.e. all the pn.T.h.a liy wi;leh T might 
escape. The allusion is to a- prisoner who is nol only fettered, or in the 
slocks, hut closely vvalchisl by Hont.inels. - ■ Than iunnnest in the. solm of 
my feet : i. e. by a trench, beyond which thou nil! nut ,-ulfcv mo to pass ; 
i. e. thou hast stopped my way. See six. 8; 'Lain. iii. 8, 9. 

28. And I : l'\t. .-Indhe. Upon this change of persons in the Hebrew, 
see Ges. Heb. Gram. 5 217. ; Starr's Observ. § 23. The Greek idiom, by 
which -rriiif m-.-hi is used fur iuui, has some roscmhlance to it. 

Cb. XIV. 1, — iorn of woman : This is said in conformity with the 
Oriental senlirueuls in re^a.nl to tho irijeriuiity of the female sex, in 
ancient and modern times. Bee ch. xv. 14, xxv. 4. 

8. And d,od thou jl.c thine, eyr.i v.pon saf/i ra ow: ! This e^pres-ion 
denote.?, in Zech. xii. 4, tolwik angrily at another, Scott, It refers here 
probably, to vigilant inspection for the sake of discovering; faults. — And 
dust thou bring me into judgment icith time. ' i. e. Dost thou treat me as a 
criminal, and decree against nic severe punishments ; 

4. Who canprodv.ee a, clean thing from nn unclean? He now pleads 
for lenity on account uf the natural weakness of man's mora! power-. 
Who can expect so frail and weak a being as man to be without faults I 
Who can expeet frail man to lie a; pure as an angel? Vitiis sine nemo 

0. That he may enjny, us a hi riding, ki^ day .' i. e. That he may enjoy 
his term of life, at least to that degree in which the hireling enjoys his 
term of service. The Sept. favors tins mode of translating the verse : 
'Aaiiniu in' ji.TBii, ira ion/'iOr., xal ivSur.,'i<r. a'-liAi j'iiv /liar, iinitiQ a 
i.ioflujrit. Otherwise, Until hi .ihii.lt, as a h ircli /■■;/, ka-re. completed iii* day. 
To compkle or accomplish is a less common meaning of nSI, but not 
without support. See Lev. xxvi. 34, 41, 43 ; 2 Chron. xxxvi. 21 ; Is. xl. 
2. Others vendor, Until, as a hireling, he. shnll. rejoice in his day; i. e. 
the day of his death. Let- him be exempt iVoiu afflictions during the com- 
mon short term of human life, until, weary and worn with service, he 
shall rejoice in the day of bis death, as a hireling rejoices in the day of his 
release from service. 

7- 12. Compare toe v.ell-ki.oivn pa.s:io;e r.i' M':i-cki;-. liaitaph. Ijiun. 105 

The meanest herb we trample in the field, 
Or in tba garden nurture, when its loaf, 
At Winter's touch, is blasted, and its place 
Forgotten, soon its vernal buds renews. 



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job. 217 

And, from short slumber, wakes to life again, 
Man wakus no more ! — man, valiant, glorious, wise, 
When death once chills Mm, sinks in sleep profound, 
A lung, unconscious novcr-euling sleep. Gisbi/rne 
See also in I>r. Beattic's Hermit : 

'T Is night, an i.l the la.ndseape is hv.ely no move ; 
I mourn, but, ye woodbinds I mourn not for you ; 
For morn is appro aching, your charms to restore. 
Perfumed with fresh fragrance, and glittering with dew. 
Nor- jet for Ore ravage of winter I mourn ; 
Hind nature the embryo blossom will save ; 
But when shall Sfu'ing visit the nuailaorii:;' lira ? 
when shall it dawn on the nighl of the grave ? 

10. — a ad he is gone! t^bm. This word means lobe so tiitiri-hj pros, 
trilled, orer-hrotai, or ms-.tkencil, as not to he able to recover. Man, when 
dead, has no strength or vital principle remaiiiiug in him, by which he oan, 
like a tree that is felled, return to life. A iau:'c literal rendering, such as 

pass uiviiy, ivtiste tnvay, is, by dinglidi a-;, go. «■■■ ■. s with death. 

Gesenius renders it, i'«.V;"n isl, it is id! oc-er -with him. 

VI. Till the heavens be no more: i.e. Never. For things unchange- 
able and eternal are io rieiipture C'-ijiarCil in duration to the heavens. See 
Pa. lxxiL 6, 17, bxziz, 29, 86, 37, oxlviii. 6 ; Jer. xxsi. E5, 86. Dr. 
Good supposes that the phrase refers to a. definite period, that of the gene- 
ral resurrection. But. this supposition is inconsistent with Scripture usage 
and with the contest, and is not countenanced by the most res pec fable of 
those critics who suppose tin- general resurrection to be referred to in eh. 
xix. 25. 

13. Q that thou ivonh'Ut hide nin in the under-writ! ! i. c. in skeol or 
h'ldes. Schultcns takes great pains to show Unit Job, by this expression, 
does not wish fur death, but only to be slur, up alive in hades, liut if we 
understand him to nisi: far a. (eiii;jorary death, trie connection of this verse 
with the 14th will be closer. Under the influence of passionate emotion 
he expresses the thought, that, if he were by death removed out of the 
sight of the Deity Ibr a time, his wrath might subside, like man's resent- 
ment, which time and the absence of the c-l'J.cjt at" it. weaken or extinguish. 

14. If a man die, can h': lice again ? Mere he checks his wish fur 
death by a question which is equivalent to allegation. A man once dead 
tannot live again. Eisc, or if it were so, I might have strength and 
patience to endure ail my present aillicfiians, until ir-.y c!,a»irl. shonlU come, 
I. e. until I should be relieved frcco niy hard scrviae by new recruits, or 
from my wearisome station by a fresh guard ; i. e. until a favorable 

10 



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218 NOTES. 

change in raj condition should take pla.cc-. Or, w-w-wrvice may relate io 

hi.-; wishcd-for residence in the lower world, ver. Io, and /it's clunige to hia 
restoration to the upper world, wdien his oharaoter should La vindi- 
cated, and his haps/iucis restesvl. Tin' p'njL- prois-abiy means lici'c to make 
mother allusion to the actual history of Job :u the clo.so of the poem. 

15. CaH «■;»« me, and I will 0.7.5 IMS' fe .' So La Clero, Schultcns, Ros., 
De Wette. Unable :..:■ hear the t'aouLihtof gi:ing cat of the world under auch 
:i io.i'I of infamy, mi. I having no isopo of cooon;; ba-ilt into it agsiin to clear 1 
his innooesice, ho eataiestly begs of '.!■.:■ I to re'eni. towards his creature, and 
to bring him to immediate trial. The terms call and answer ought Surely 
to be taken in the same judicial sense as in eh. is. IB, xiii. 22, xxsL 14 ; 
the former denoting t.iie anion of brhigitijf i lie oosnplaint- ; the latter, tlie 
part of the defendant in replying to it. Scott. 

16, 17. As a contrast to the ro^as-d which in- pleaded fin- in the favegmng 
verse, and as a reason for his urging an uuiuc.Jiato ivial, he here acts forth 
tho severity with which God treats him now. 

16. — thou numberest my steps : i.e. thou makest strict inquiry into my 
actions, that then, sua.yst find out all my errors, and punish them. 
— Thou walchcsl aver my sins: i.e. Thou watcbest for my huttings or 
mi sea -.ai ages, as if thou wert glad nf an occasion to punish me. Poole. 

17. My transgression is si-o't-^ ■.//> in a bay : i.e. as writings, .money, 
or other choice things, that they m-iy be .safely kept, arid brought forth 
upi.ni occasion, and that nut one of them may he tbrgoltcu or lost. See 
Hos. xiii. 12. " The money, that is (solicited together in the treasuries of 
uiistmi princes, is told up- in certain equal sums, pat into bagt, and 
sealed." Ckardin. — thou, addest unlo my iniquity. Either, thou 
addest one Bin to smother, the tins of ray yantii to rhase of my riper age, so- 
as to Swell the number laid up against sue, and Ihus to increase my pun- 
ishment ; or, thou makest- ray iniquity greater than it is. Gescniuf 
renders it, perhaps correctly, (sec in the Hebrew, siii. 4 ; Ps. cssix. 61),) 
thou invenhst (falsehood) unlo mine iniquity : i. e. thou ehargest me with 
i::iij:ijt!jj'u!ii:i)j. 'I'll.-! renderi si;; which L have sL-b ;ito:l may be considered 
as a milder way of expressing fae same idea. It is that of I he old Geneva 
version, i. e. the llnglish version made in the time of queen Eliiaheth ; 
which, in scverii! passages of this poem, is more correct than the oommon 
version. ' The Chal.i. has if, <tiy.:yi?n>il:!s super inii/uitulrs mens. 

lit. So tlwa d.stroiied tin-- hop: of man : i. e. the hope of living again 
after death. 

22. Buthis JUs'n skull h<:/:c -pal-:, tyC- liy a bold, but not uniiaiiivat 
personification, the dead man in his grave is represented as conscious of 
his own miserable condition, and of that alone. He knows not of the 
miseries of his living relatives, bat his body consumed by worms fools its 
own pain, and the soul In the underworid mourns its own ssid combtiun. 



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IX. 

Eliphaz begins his reply to Job with bitter sarcasms and reproaches. 

He censures particularly iho assertions of Job respecting llio indiscrimi- 
nate distribution of happiness and misery, as lending to undermine 
religion, and to encourage men hi the neglect of prayer. He says that tha 
assertion of such opinions is sufficient evidence of his guilt. Ch. xv. 1-6, 
He then lashes him severely for pretending to understand the ways of God 
better than those who wore. Lis elders ; and for bis pass innate complaints 
concerning God's dealings toward him. He repeats, tor liis admonition, 
the substance of the oracle which lie hid bronchi forward in his former 
discourse. 1 - 16. He proceeds to give, as a quotation from an ancient 
poem, a highly wrought description of the misery which in various ways 
pursues the wicked man. The drift, of the whole is to vindicate Providence, 
to condemn Job as ;m obicot of divine wrath on noo. unt of his wickedness, 
and to terrify hi::], if possible, into a u . ■ ; i tV ■ ^ ~ I : . : , of his guilt. 17-35. 

Oh. XV. i. And. di:,r>:;ray : .'!,! ■p-rii.ijur lefo/e Mm, Literally, \ use nut 
prayer. The meaning is, that Job, by maintaining that God treated the 
righteous aitd the wicked alike, supped the very foundations of religion ; 
sinoe, in that case, the wicked ivoul I have no thing to fear, and the righte- 
ous nothing to espect,from him. 

5. Thou/jh Ikon ckiiosett the- tongue of the crafty. He gives this Invidi- 
ous turn to Job's protestations of innocence, [irayei.'S, aed appeals to God ; 
whieli he represens as an artful aadcess to the passions of his hearers, in 
Order to blind their ji lament, and deceive them into- it favorable opinion 
of his piety, 

7. Art thou flic first man, $c. : i. e. Hast thou lived ever since the 
creation of the world, and treasured up the experience of all ages in th. 
own breast, that thou speakest so arrogantly, and with such contempt o 
other men? Poole. 

8. Rast thou lidr.iii-J in the council of God; i.e. in such a council as 
is described in the first and second chapters of this poem, where the 
angels are represented as assembled around Jehovah for the purpose o 
giving an account of their ministry, and of receiving orders respecting 
the government of the world. Wiphaz sarcastically inquires, whether,in 
consequence of being admitted into God's council, he, of all men in the 
world, is acquainted with his purposes. I 1 ' or tris'l'mi- seems here, as in ch. 
xsviii., to have special, though not exclusive, reference (o the wisdom or 
purposes of God, by which he governs the world. For the rendering 
drawn all wisdom., sec Gea. Thes. adjTU. 



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220 



NOTES. 



11. — consolations of God. Eliphaii may litre refer to (lie oracle, ch. iv. 
17-21. —words to fvtt afldndnts*! So Cocc., Schult., Gea. By their 
consolations, and uWs <j/" kindness, lie means their distant intimations of his 
guile, their warning.-! insinuated in the way of examples, and their cxhorta- 



?0 /M 



J IM.IV, 



best iiilnihitauts of 


the country. Le Ciere. El 




■ speaks like a gen- 


HuSreif. 

20. yiu, a/J f/ifi wmi's r.'uri ((«■ /«/(/ '.■;) yuc the oppressor 
tlaiil fear of death. He is not secure of his life For a i 
f So^rioneu eon ti nn ally conjuring up fears of assassinat.' 
••*iW» kind. He if in the situation of Dionysius of Sicily 


d his pure blood. 

noment, his guilty 
on or violence of 




Districtns ensis cui super impia 
Cervicc pendet, tion Sicula; dapes 

Dulreni eliiiiMi-iilinni sap ore m ; 

Xilli avium r:llin!:ii;ue CantUS 
Somnum redueent. 

Eor. Carm. III. I. 17. 


With this description of the condition of the 
lial, Sat. xiii. 192. 

21. In peace the destroyer cometh '.ipim him. 


ivi:-ki:ii 1!0! 


nparc that of Juve- 


Schultfins 


and others undcr- 
icntinii destruction 


Hjlii:1 1:iis, When "' 

igainst him, his dis 
lo him. Post eqnil 
22. — darkness: 
Sespair of escaping 
scribed here. A'cii 
So, in substance, tli 


turbed imagination is contii 


i ualtv otto 


; some unhappy end, assai 
o Sept., brcraxTm yap ^Sij 


xprcssion for calamity. His 

destined to a violent death. 
fit x f ~lp as CTlBlJjjnv. 



2fi. And ran agnhist Lin, in'iih ihitstnl'Jwil vecl: i.e. with hi- neck stooping 
ami fitrctehe.l out, the altitune of a combatant nuniing upon his adversary. 
— With ttie thick boast' of his btirjrirrs. Scliulteni hits shown that to turn the 
boss of one's tmoirlcr against u person is a proverbial expression among the 
Arahs, meaning to biamr-. Lis daidii/ enemy. These metaphors drawn from 
the single combat, which was mueh in practice in the ancient wars, are 
intended to express I'm. niosi daring ini;:ie:_v, a-,r'jc"uuj violation of God's 
laws, and contempt of his vindictive justice. 



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job. 221 

27. Because he covered his face with fatness. This is a. graphical des- 
cription of a, luxurious a in I ':i'!:',ri(ius person. 

30. — darkness : i. e. ruin, destruction. — his branches: i. e. his 
wealth, poivcf, glory, nil ivil.li wliio'n !io was adorned, us a, tree" with its 
branches, — by tin briiith uf IL : .s <;i '.)■;;'( : i. o. of God's month. The des- 
truction of the wicked man seems to lie rep l-c sou ted under the image of a. 
tree destroyed by a buruisig wind, (see note upon oil. iii. ■"),) or by light- 
ning-; or torn up by a tempos! soul: '■;■' ;li« L'i-l'.v, Hue eii. iv. 9 ; Ps. sviii. 
10 ; Is. xL 4. 

81. — vanity. The term ii'f/<;7y has two meanings, and therefore well 
represents the original. In tin: first ike of [lie verse- it ■:!■:■:: oil's tidcl:e,l iiess ; 
in i!:e si'Lunal, the conscpio'iccs of '-,ickeiiiie>s, or misery. 



Tim speech of EVphnz nasa.ilruirah'y fitted to carry on the design of the 
poem, by in-haling I lie passions of Job, noil infl inning his discontent with 
tho ways of Providence. In his reply lie gi i es a pallietic representation of 
the inlramanity of his fi-icmliJ, and of his other sevei'oaltiior.ions. He then 
makes the most solemn protestations of iuimcoeee, and expresses an 

earnest desire thai his cause may lie tried, anil his i jCeoce vindicated, 

before he goes the way ivlience he shall not return. Ch. xvi. He dwells 
upon nearly the same tonics in eh. xvii., and ends his reply with the 
strongest expressions of grief and despair. 

CI). XVI. 4. — siring together : lit. tie together ; neuter p. verba. Some 
prefer tbe rendering, m-::k< a league v.ith monk: i.e. raise a host of 

7. For now He, fyc. : i. e. God, whom he addresses in the next line. 

8. Thou hast seized hold of me : iJBOBn. Sen cb. xxii. 16, and Ges. 
Lex. The meaning of both clauses of [lie verse is. Hint the altlictions of 
Job made his friends believe tlci.t lie was a bad man. 

9. His anger: i.e. God's. The image is dr.-nvn from a wild beast 
(earing tho flesh of :i person ivhom he is pursuing. —My ml m'.rsnry .* i. e. 
God. See ch. xiii. 2t, xix. 11. ■ — shurpenetli his ryn : he. darts pierc- 
ing looks at ine, or !oo!;s upon mo wkli fierce and spuridiue; eye*. 

10. Tkey gape: i. o. My friends, the instruments of God's aogtr. 
- (fey assemble : i. e. like conspirators, to effect my ruin. 

15. And thrust re y horn. See Ges. Tiosoniinllier supposes the meta- 
phor to be borrowed from some stio-ag and noble animal lying dead, with 



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its horn thrust into the ground ; ami t-ljat the meaning is, My wealth, 
power, and glory are prostrate in the dust. See Dent, xxxiii. 17; Ps. 

18. — deathlike darkness. See note on eh. iii. 5. 

18. O earth, cover not thou my blooi. He compares his accumulated 
miseries to b loud unjusliy slied,aud prays Hut his injuries may not be 
concealed from niuii or Heaven, imr remain unavenged. - — And let there 
be no hiding-place for my cry ? i. e. May nothing hinder my ery for 
redress from ascending to heaven ' See eh. six. 7. In the height of his 
emotion lie forgets that it is God who huLh laid him low. 

. 19. And ha that kaowelli me : 'iri'i', lit. my witness : T paraphrase it to 
avoid repetition. Tho Sept. has it, 6 avrltiTuxj mv, probably for the same 
reason. Craumors liiide, ..lad hi: that knowcth me is ah-ve in the heiijhl. 

21, O that one might contend: i. e. in a judicial controversy. His 
meaning is, that if the Deity would bring his charges against him, he 
should he able to clear himself, and vimlioato his integrity. See ch. 



Ch. XVII. J?. Gu-e a phdi/n, S,r. The terms it. this verse are obscure, 
on account of our ignorance of the ancient forms of trial. Job seems 
again to Challenge the Deity to enter into a judicial contest with him in 
regard to the uprightness of his character ; and desires the Deity to give 
a pledge that he would not avail himself of his almighty power in the 
contest, but deal with him upon fair and equal terms, so that the cause 
might be decided aoeordiug to strict Justice, arid without regard to tho rank 
of the parties concerned. — Who is he that ii:i!> strike hands with me ? 
i. e. Who, by the usual furm of strains; lianas, will agree with me to be 
surety for thee ? See Prov. vi. 1, xvii. IS, xxii. 26. This challenge, says 
Mr. Poole, savors of too much boHucss and irreverenee to God ; yet see- 
ing Job expresses the same desire, ah^ost in the same manner, in ch, is. 
39, 33, and is sharply reproved by God for contending with him, in xl. 2, 
1 see no ineuuveuience -;i ^ci'iii'mrr the same thing to him here. 

4. Therefore thou wilt not suffer them to prevail; L e. to gain tho 
victory in this contest. Thou wilt rather pronounce me innocent, and 

5. He that delivers up his friend us a -prey. rhvh. fur a, prey. So 
used in Gen. xiv. 24 ; 1 Sam. xxi. 2*. 

6. — their nbluirresicc ; ,13 r. from the Guild. t»n, to spit Oat. r.al 
lurtpil* btJtoTs yilwt. Sept. 

8. — at this: i. e. at seeing so good a man oppressed with such a heavy 
ijai of afflictions. — And the innocent, $<-.. : i. & the innocent will 



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JOB. 228 

ri?.;.j]i!rck oppose the wicked, when he judges the worse of piety because o( 
niy alliictions. Patrick. 

10. — return : i. e. to the debate. 

11. Even the treasures of my heart; i. e. what most occupied my 

12. Night hiihhccow. day tn vie : i. is. T have sleepless nights. I ilia 
as muck awake by night us by day. — The li:h! itirikrrfh an darkness ; 
i. e. The day seems very short. Hie daylight scorns to g i ;ts soon as it is 

13. Fea: DK, a particle of asseveration. Hos. xii. 11 ; Prov. joaii. 18. 
See Ges. ad verb. — I have mad:: my hid in darkness; i. e. the darkness 
at the grave. J shall soon lie do an in t!i:j giavc, I ho only place in which 
I ean expect repose. 

14. I say to the pit, Ac. iiy those si roog einicsslou; he jiiliiinin'o Ik.'W 
noac lie believed himself to be to de;illi. I have already made so nciii- si-ri 
alliance with death, that iuy father and mother and nearest kindred are 
nothing so near lo me. as the grave and norm-. Others suppose h'ni to 
express a strong desire of death in this verse. 

16. — bam of tin: un-ler-ia/i-ltl : Shoo 1 , ilie g-5tos i.i' which are fastened 
by massive bars, so iliai. thesi! who have entered it cannot return. See eh. 
Kxriii 17; Is. ixxviii. 10; Ps. ix, 18, ovii, 18. Some render tq solitudei 
or wistes, with less p rob alii Iky. See TTus. xi. 6. When, toijetlier there is 
rest, <§'C. Otherwise, Via, ire skull lUic-nd l^./fthti- into 'he dust! i.e. I 
and my hopes shall be buried in [he same grave. So the Sept. , '•} h„„«v- 
(iteVir ini ^wuhtiic XHrupijtiAutSa, This is a figurative ivoy of saving that 
all his expectations would end in misery, death, ami corruption ; or that 



these were all he bad to expect. 



In the eighteenth chapter Gibhul agdn comes forward, full of resent- 
men:- against Job, on account of the low ostinojtion in which he held tlieic 
discourses. He accuses Mm of pride arid nrrognuce. lie reasserts the 
general doctrine, main tamed by the friends of Job, that, misery implies 
guilt, by giving a hig'a'.y wrought- liescriplion of the calamities which, as 
he contends, are the portion of too wicked. This description contains 
some particulars closely adanlcd to the oirc:imslancos of Job, and was, 
without doubt, designed to intimate that Job must resemble in character 
those w. ! to:n he so much reseiu'o'od in Condition. 



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Ch. XVIIL 2. Hn\o lory trcye )»nl-«, $-c. Though (he pronoun is in the 
plural, therecan be little doubt that Job is tho purlin addressed. — Under, 
stand; i. e. Consider and weigh our arguments. 

o. lie refers to ivlni;. Job had said in oh. Jtviz. 4, 10. 

4. r/w« thai feared thyself: lit. Be teareth, $c. Tins is a common 
Hebrew idiom. See oh. sii. 4, xvi. 7, svii. 10, jlkku. 15, sli. 9.— JUiicf the 
earth be deserted fur tlm-. ? £c. When the Orientals would reprove tho pride 
or arroganee ot' my person, it is oomnion fur them to desire him to call to 
mind how little and eoutonipubie lie and every mortal is, in -diesoor similar 



Wind, though Mohammed were dead ? 

His Imams (or minister-) condueled the affairs of the nation. ■ 

The universe shall not fall for his sate ; 

The world does not subsist ;br one man alone. 

Lowth, LeoL 84. 

Most critics, however, suppose the verso to have a move definite meaning. 
" These are prove rival Ibrr.is of speech fur altering what is f j soil and un- 
changeable. The inclining is, if .1 mistake not, that- Cijil must give up his 
moral kingdom among men, or vii.late the immutable laws of justice by 
which it is administered, if snob a man as JoJi oseimed tniuisliuient. This 
interpret -din n makes an easy transitiiai to tho either part of the. discourse, 
which is designed to prove [but, by an unchangeable rule of Providence, 
the signally ivi;l,''l - : b.:"': -.igioiily perish." Scott. 

5. Behold, the U'jh< : — the jlanie, Src. These metaphors denote, in 
general, splendor, prosperity, glory, or festivity. There is an allusion, in 
the latter clause of the verso, to what the Arabian poet, calls the fires of 
koHjiibility : dieso were betoous ligiued upon do tops of tdl's by persons 
of distinction among the Arabs, to direct and invite travellers to their 
houses and tables, Hospitably was ibeir national glory ; and the loftier 
and larger these lires were, the greater was the mngiiiueenee thought to be. 
Sec I'ooocko in Carol. 'I'ograi, p. iii. A wioked rich man, therefore, would 
alfeot this pieee of state from vanity and oslcul-ation. Another Arabian 
poet expresses the permanent prosperity of U!h famiiy almost in the very 
words of our author : " Neither is our lire, lighted for the bonciit of tho 
night-stranger, extinguished."' llamasa, p. 473. Scott. Pee also the 
note on eh, sxsi, 17. 

6. — lamp : lie refers to (lie lamp v.'iieli hung from the ooiiing of the 
apartment. The Arabs are fosid of this image. Thus tliey say: "Bad 
fortune hath Oitingnislied my lamp : "' and onncornlng ji man whose hopes 
are remarkably blasted : ,: lie is like a lamp, ivhioh is immediately e\tiii 
guished if you let It sink into tiie oil." See Pchnlt. 



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job. 225 

7. His strong steps slall .'.," slndlcneJ. : i. p. TnfleT.il of advancing freely 
and firmly, in a wide path, he shall he reduced lo the necessity of going 
timidly, in ft narrow way, full of ubslaules, whore there is great dinger of 
stumbling. This ia a very eommou metaphor in Oriental poetry to denote 
the loss of power, pros|ievisy, &•:., as B.jisilteus lias sliow'u by numerous 
'.potations. Straus: .itrjis an: iVi'o, I "i i ■ 1 1 1 , unhi!neje:i steps. 

11. Terrors are here represented us sdLogoricnl persuns, like the Furies 
in the Greek poets. 

13. His Hntbs : flip H3 : lit. The limbs of his sldn : i. e. of Ida 
body. — the first-born of dmih : \. e. the most terrible death. 

14. — the king of terrors. This is probahiy to Ik: regsLrded as a poet- 
ical persojiiliealiori of ■.li.-atU, considered is a resident- of die underworld, 
comp. ssi. 23. It ia not to lie considered sis a mythical person. For there 
are in the Hebrew w risings no dcrir truces of n king of Hades, corrospond- 
ing la) the king of the infernal rog : ons iu Grecian raj liornan mythology. 

■ — Otherwise, Terror p/irsvdk kirn, like a king. But the rendering 
" pui-sueth" does not an pen r to have ssillicient support from usage. 

lo. Jlrimstniic is sr.'.dtereA npnn his hi! ihdi'in : i. o. it is destroyed, like 
Sodom ami (Joniorrha, by lire ar.s! brim=tone from lieavsm. Grotius, Le 
Hero, Sehult., sind Ros. think that light -rug i: eofesred to both in thin 
passage and in Gen. six. 24 ; Deut. xsix. 23 ; Pa. xi. 6. Pliny aaya, 

(Hist. Nat. xxxv. 1 ■">,} Fulmiiia ct fid gum (| \v«: sulphnris odor/cm habent 

lie lux ipsa cor sim sulpliurea est. And Persists, Ssit. ii. 24, 25. : 

At sese non ol;im--i J u ]■■"'. a- : p-'' ■ 

Ignovisso putas, quia, cum toimt, ooyus ilex 
Sulphure discuiitur sisiro, quim tuque domnsque ! 

graves hsilantes sulpliuris auras, 

Lwcret. VI. 222. 

Rmlad may refer to the circiiiiishinco Ihaf. a part, of Job's property was 
consumed by lightning. Ch. i. IS. 

13. Aid driven aid of the world : i. e. He is not conducted out of life, 
as Plato expresses it, with funeral porno, by si numerous train of relatives 
and citizens, but is esist out. of human society like a iiuilerhcfor, and thrown 
under ground with i ■ i.'i.::v> I execration. (Scatt. 



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Jon begins tils reply t.i. the harsh and passionate invective of liildad wi!h 
pathetic complaints id' the inhumanity of Ills IVlends, in regarding his 
atHiet.ed condition as uunuostbinaMo evidence of guile, lie maintains that 
his sutferin-gs are not lo bo (.'barged upon himself, bill- upon God, who bud 
overwhelmed Iilm with calamities, though he had done nothing; to deserve 
them, mil though 111- had often desired lo l.n: brongbf to trial. Perceiving 
that the representation of his misery hud no etfect upon his harddicartod 
friends, ho suddenly turns from them, and expresses the earnest desire 
that nil ivhich ho hud snid in his defence might be recorded upon some In sl- 
ing monument, so Unit posterity, at least, might, do him justice ; or that it 
might remain uueiT;i';ed I ill tin: event -lemhl justify it, 1'ut. his oonseious- 
ness of innocence does not allow him to stop litre. lie is not wit i shod 
IV i Hi Hie tardy justice w hioh posterity may render to his memory ; and he 
gives utterance to the finu end triumphant cuuvioiiou. that, low as lie is 
reduced by sorrow ami disease, he shall yet live to see the Deity stand up 
in his favor, ami vindicate him from the unlonuded charges which have 
been brought against him. He also warns his friends tiiat the time will 
come, when they shall bo put to sb^me fur their injustice and cruelty to- 
ward him. 

Ch. XIX. '2. — break me in pii-c.er. : a metaphor drawn from the pound- 
ing of kernels in a movlar, or from, breaking L'ncks in nieces by repeated 
blows of the hammer. 

4. My error abih-lh with ihijscij: i.e. T alone shall bear the con- 
Esquences of my error. 

Mihi dolebit, r:ou tlbi, si::uM stnlto feoero. 

Plant. Memseh. ii. ">. 

ft — my reproach : i.e. my calamities, which being re- ueoach nnd dis- 
grace upon me. 

7. Behold, 1 coiajHaia of wrong, lie certainly means wrong or violence 
flone to him by God. This language is extremely harsh, and utterly in- 
excusable. It is, however, nothing inure Ihtu nhal he had already said in 
effect, in ch, is. 17, s. S, xvi. IS. Imlonil if such rash speeoiies as these 
had not come from his lips, what ground would there have been for 



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job. 227 

those cutting reproaches in si. 8 : " Will thou coeu disannul my judg- 
ment? Will th:i'i condemn ;.>;(!, that ikon in uj.st appear riykh'oas ? " 
Scott 

9. And taken She crown- from, my head .* i. 6. deprived me of all my 
dignity and honors. See Prov. iv. 0. 

10. — I am gone t i.e. I am near death. See x. 21, sir. 20; Gen. xv. 
2 ; Vs. xssix. IS. — like a tree: which, bring plucked up by tlie roots, 
docs not grow again. 

12. His troops, fyc. Ho represents Ins calamities by metaphors drawn 
from tin: siege of ;i city. 

15. —foreigners, §c. ; or sojourners .- i. c. servants not born in his 
house ; or, perhaps, clients, oersons who looked to him for protection ; 
persons connected with iiis family, hut not residing under Ms roof. 
SehuUens says that the S;l)oo word is nasi by t.iio Arabian pnets to denote 
the deuendonts of a groat man, who are udeotod into his family and lakcii 
under his protection, lli.it the iivtt, meaning seems to agree bettor with 
the connection. 

17. My breath is beeoine itrniiy:, S;c. i.e. My wife denies me her 
company on account of my onensho breath and tores. Otherwise, My 
spirit is become a stranger : i. e. / aoi become, a stnm./er. — children 
of my own mother ; lit. children of mij womb ; i. e. of the same womb 
from which I came. 

20. And I have srarceLj escaped wiih. the sliia of my teeth. A proverbial 
csprcssion, denoiiog the utmost <■::;:■ --■-". i i f- 1 -. -- ■ fiom disease. 

'22. Why do ye i>erse.s<dc ine like Ood '! i. e. without giving any reason 
or account of yonr conduct, accusing mc of crimes without proof, and 
condemning mo without trial. — And. u'.t rest sati.fh.d. v:.il!i vnj jtesh : 
\. e. with the consumption and torment of my whole body, but add to it 
the vexation of my spirit, by your grievous reproaches and calumnies. 
Or, according to Seoiiltens, Why are ye not satisfied with the reproaches 
and slanders with which ye have already tormented me I 1 Sdmltens 
iv i narks that to e.-it. the jl-:sh of mini her is -m A'abinn phrase (v,\- culum nlat- 
ing him. One of their poets has Iho lino. " 1 am not ad'licted to slander, 
nor am I one who ilovcurs the ilesh of his friend. " Another, speaking of 
his calumniator, says, " Who wairries my iiesii, and yet has. not satisfied 
his avidity." The plu\;scalogy is taken from a wild boast rending his 
prey. 

23. that my words : i. e. all my discourses, all that I have said in my 
defence, my proieslaiions of innocence, my appeals to God, &c, bo that 
all ages may be able to judge between me and my accusers, and to know 
the justice of my cause. 

34. — and with lend: i.e. infused into the letters engraven in the 
rock, in order to make tke.a plain ani Legible. See Jet. syii. 1. 



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228 NOTES. 

25.-27. The design of ibis ;,:!ss:.e;e appears to ho the sn.rnewlth that of 
xvL 19, where Job exclaims, " .Wy witness is in heaven, and he that 
kiioiveih me is on high : '■' ;i.in.l of the numerous pn.ssa r i;cs in which he de- 
sires imd. pi-u;-.-; that his lmvihu may be brought f,, (vial, and iluit the Deily 
m:iy pronounce .1 : -■ I _l. . . ■ ■ ■ i " :--.-| -.=■:■; ; ■ ■ . ■_■ b-o intercity nf his character. This 
design is, to express, in a striking Hi mile; 1 , the ■. 1 ■ ■ | ■ L 1 1 and sincerity o Nub's 
conviction of his own hiuoeeuoe. Si> strong an-1 clear la the testimony of 
his conscience in his fiver, that what has herehd'ore been the object of his 
ardent wishes and pfayovs is now become i!ie object oi' his confident ex- 
pectation ; and he e?o:irc.-ses the lirtu pei'snnsinn ilia.t God will lie the 
vindictitor of his integrity from the ehacgos of his friends ; that he will 
stand up on the eu-rtfi, as a juujzc, a.tal decide the cause in bis fiivor ; that 
liumgh his body be. tatsU-d uiiunj to a mere strict oil, -yet ii~iliion.thisfiesk,l.t!. 
in his emaciated state, !,g .<hn'i ■>(?■■ Gad, interposing in his favor and tilting 
his side in the controversy. I have, in this edition, preferred to give the 
sense ioithoul (o jo, as ihc particle is used in xi. 15, \\i. '■). The render- 
ing of the Common Version " iis my flesh" nnty be defended, as to its 
sense, by taken [n in its usual meaning of from, and understanding Job 
tii say that he, looking out from his tlcsh, idioub.l sec God. Whichever 
render! tig be preferred, Iho expectation of dob refers to a time bcl'erc Ids 

ft appears more consistent with Job's character, a.nti with the design 
of the poem, to suppose that the titnin object of his confident expect- 
ation was, not restoration to general prosperity, 1ml the vindication of his 
diameter from false imputations. He has the conviction that a just and 
good God will yet make it appear that his misery is no proof of his guilt. 
Throughout the poem iie seems to regard all. other evils light, in compar- 
ison with the loss of character ; and to desire not so amch deliverance from 
misery, as from the imputation of guilt ; and thus he refutes the insinua- 
tion of Satan, that his piety was founded in selfish motives. 

Whether Job connected ;be recovery of his health, and his restoration in 
general prosperity, wb.h the vindication of his character by the Deity, it is 
not very important to decide. One objection to this supposition appears to 
be very futile. Job eould riot have hoped lor recovery from his disease, or 
for restoration to prosperity, say some critics; for he had said, more than 
once, that he had no hope, and thai be was lie.'.r his grave. As if it 
person, wdio is represented as agitated by the must vio'ent and opposite 
s, could bo expected to be consist.™ t. in his senthoents and ku- 
What can he move natural than that dob, ill a state of extreme 
ing from the thought of his wrongs, the severity of his 
ions, ami the natural tendency of his d'seiise, ehcidd epics.-- himself 
• !.iu 'en^e of despnir, :tnd yet lhal he should In: animated, soon isflor, 



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job. 229 

5 innocence, an J the thought if G'd's jo slice, goodness, and 
power, to break forth ini.o the language of hope and confidence? 

But, for the reasons before oosnlioned, it is proliahfo iha.t the main, if 
not the solo, object of Jub's confident txpcctaiiou was the vindication of 
his clmrnctar by the J)vily. 'I'ae writer, howc-vi-i', without doubt, intended 
that the whole ji: i m -= ; i ii-ti should have relation to the concluding part of the 
poem, where the Deify is represented as apc.enring and vindicating tbo 
character of Job by culling bini font- times his servant ; by rebuking his 
crJutnniators, and pardoning them (heough bis intercession ; by declaring 
that he, anil not his friends, bad spoken that which was right, i. e. in 
regard to the question whether misery was a proof of guilt ; and by 
giving him teoipora.l blessings in Iwo-fohl greater abuodance than before 
his affliction. This interposition of the Deity appears to have been kept 
in view by the writer throughout the poem, :ni:l thus the mind of the 
reader is prepared for it. 

Of the objections to the supposition that .Tub hem expresses bis confident 
expectation of a resurrection to a life of happiness, a low will be briefly 
mentioned. They are entirely independent of die ipicstion, what was the 
general belief of the Hebrews in regard to the state of the son! after 
death. The author of the poem may have been iiki sceptical Than 

1. The supposition is inconsistent with the general design of the poem, 
and with the course of argument. The belief in a future state of retribu- 
tion would have, in some measure, solved the difficulty respecting tho 
afflictions of the good, and the prosperity of the wicked. But no one of 
the speakers alludes to it in the course of the poem. Tf it be a deotara- 

single independent declaration of it, in a 
■e of the subject, it might have been expected 
to moid' upon every page. 

2. It is inconsistent with (lie noiiiectkm of (lie discourse. Zophar, 
who replies to Job, makes no allusion to it, but goes on to assert tho 
temporal miseries which are the portion l; f the wicked and of their child- 
ren. So, too, verses 113 and 2i lose thoir force, if we suppose the state 
after death to be referred to in the passage. 

& It is inconsistent with several express declarations i>f Job in other 
parts of the poetn. See eh. vii. 7, S, x. 20-22, xiv, throughout, and xvli. 
11 - 16. When he wishes for death, he speaks of it as the termination of 
his miseries, and not as the introduction to a life of happiness. Ch. iii. 
It is, moreover, too much to suppose that the in'hieuee of feeling would 
have led him to deny so important a dnetrbie, Inol he 1 elieved in it. Under 
the influence of opposite elections, one may be oipceled to express 
different opinions respecting bis condition, prospects. So , but not to deny 
so important an article of his faith. Su good a man as Job-wouU naturally 



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230 NOTES. 

have been led, in Lis affliction, to cliog the more closely to the doctrine of 
a. future life of happiness, JkllI lie bclluvcil in it- ; or raider, hud he been 
represented by the poet as believing in it. 

4. It is nut urged :;s a topic of coi:sohiti;.in ;>y cither ui' the three friends 
of Job, nor even by Tllihu, who acts tin; part of an umpire in the contro- 
versy, and who gives a more philosophical aociiunt than either of the 
speakers of the design of afflictions. Nut- is it alluded to by God himself 
in the dceLsion of the controversy. 

5. The Jewish eouimentiitors, who sought for every shadow of proof of 

the doctrine of a future life in the Old Test- out, do not consider this a.- 

one of the passages 1 >_y which it. in -unpolled. The «u:u remark applies to 
most Of the Greek fathers, t.u.ryscs'.oni speaks expressly of Job us " a 
righteous man, who knew nothing of the resurrection. 7 ' £p. ii. ad Olymp., 
&e. The supposition that lliis doctrine is contained in the passage 
derives its chief support fretn the mistranslation or misapplication ot 

it. See also the prefatory remarks to eh. xii., siii., 



6. Ewald, in his notes on the passage, being convinced that it cannot 
refer to tho resurrection of the dead , brings forward a new hypothesis, 
uaroety, that Job's hope is in the happy existence of ihe disembodied 
spirit, after death ; tlio nimmrtaaty of his soul in Sheol, the underworld. 
l'o us this view seems still raoie contrary to the c.'pressi'd opinions of the 
whole book, than that which supposes a reference to a resurrection of the 
body. It is liable to the preceding objecrious to a ln.-lily resurrection, and 
is more specialty contra die I eii by llio author's representation of tho state 
of the disembodied soul in Sheol. We have already stated, p. 123. thai 
the author of Job cuieei.ainod the coiomou belief of the Hebrews in a cer- 
tain future existence of the soul in Sheol. But it was as a mere shade ot 
its ibrmei' existence in llie upper world. It- was wiliiout hope. xiv. 19, 
xvii. 11-18, xxi. 26, and ha<l a mere consciousness of existence, without 
activity or enjoyment, z. 21, 22, siv. 11-14. Bo in Fs. vi. 6. 'In Sheol, 
who can give thee thanks !" Is. xiv. 10. "Art- thou also become weak as 

No doubt it would be agreco'do to every Qristiin. interpreter to find the 
doctrine of a blessed immortality lieyoml the grave in every ancicct book. 
But why be.ievers in Christ, should wish to force it into books where it 
does not exist, it is not easy to perceive. 

25. — my Vindicator : ^XJ. This term, in its primitive sense, was 
applied to the person wluise dm y it was to maintain the rights, interests, 
and reputation of a near relative, either by repurchasing his nnntgagod 
inheritance, by manying lii^ widow, out saving his family from extinction, 
by redeeming him from servitude, oe by avenging his blood. Ill this 
passage it is hguratr.ely applied to the L'eity, as taking tho part and 



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job. 231 

vindicating the character of Job against the cruel treatment and false 

accusations fit' his friends. It, is elsewhere a.iplicd io the Deity in the more 
general sense of a deliverer from calamities of any kind. The term 
redeemer might be retained, 113 a figurative expre-sion for a deliverer 
from reproach and i:a,'iuuny ; b-.it ;l would be le j s intelligible than tlie 
term vindicator, and more likely to be misapplied. That there is no 
allusion to Christ in the term, nor io the resurrection to a II to of happiness 
in the passage, has boon the opinion of the most judicious and learned 
critics for these last three hundred years ; such as Calvin, Mercier, 
Grotius, LeClere, Patrick,'' Warburtim, lturo!l, Heath, Kennieott, Doeder- 
lciu, Datho, lachhorn, daim, I)u iVulte, jk'i'ijistcd:, ilirzel, and many 
others. — And ii:ill stand up : i. e. appear or interpose tu decide Ilia ooji- 
truversy. Ps. xii. u, "For the sighing of the needy cow will I arise, 
(or stand tip,) said the Lord." xliv. 26, " Arise, (or stand up,) for our 
■ help, and redeem us." xeiv. lti ; -Tor. ii. 27. — hereafter, or, at last'; 
or, at length, ; tandem, Bathe ; postremo, Cast, ; posihac, Hoed. |i"inx is 

used adverbially, 3 or 4 being omitted. See In. viii. ii", sxs. 8 ; Numb, ii. 
81 j 1 Sam. xxix. 2 ; Prov. xxis. 11, xxxi. 25. The rendering of tho 
common version is entirely unsupported by usage. — on the earth. 
■SJJ-Sjf. See oh. xxxix. 14, ill. 25. Lit. upon dust. Possibly the ex- 
pression dust is emphatic, us oontra.stod with heaven, the usual residence 
of the Creator. 

'IS. And thouah u-l-fk -m.y shin this hody he va-ded ti-uaiy. So Kos., 
Eioh., and Do Wette. Or, the pronoun f\$\ m;iy agree with 'Tjp, and tlie 
line ho rendered, .lad aj'ler this .•I:in, or .'.'(■'•■'j/, e. f mine is wasted au-ay. 
According to either rendering, the mraniji;; r.ill be, Although I should be 
reduced by disease and sorrow to a slid lower rendition than lam at 
present. The rendering which Coscnins adapts in his Thesaurus does not 
strike me favorably : Mud after ii,y l,ody ii watted, ami y, this- — supply 
shall happen. Tlie expression wasted a-u-nij does not imply the deaih of 
Job, but only that he sln.aiM be extremely reduced ay disease ; — without 
an) flesh, i. e. reduced to a skeleton. 

27. — my friend : '4. lit. for mc, or on my side. It is so rendered in 
l's. esxiv. 1, " If it had not been tlie Lord, who was on our side," &c. — 
and not another,$c. i. e. in my absence, after 1 am dead. An emphatic 
expression of Job's confidence (hat before his death lie should sec the 
favor of God. — Far this my soul ,■« ii.'t.'.'i within me : lit. miy reins are 
consumed : i. e. with desire to see that happy day. So Patrick, Datlie, 
Roa., He Wette, Ges. See Ps. Lusty. 2, cxix. 81, 82, csliii. 7. 

28. And, find- aruiinds of accusation, agiiitis' kirn ? £0 the Pept. and 
I'ulg. £0 Cos, and Ges. 



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Zophab, no! softened jj.v tho earnest, and pal lirtic appeals of .Toll, nor 
convinced by his solemn protojtathms of innocence, but rather provoker! 
hy the impres-nvo wnrnhie; with which he had closed his last, discourse, 
proceeds io portray, l,y noiv images and mcvIKihl: examples, the calamities 
which in nil ages had boen Llic lot of tiro wicked, lie infers that Job re- 
sembles these in ohara.cter whom ho rescmijles in iioji'.lilLun. 

Ch. XX. 10. His sratu shall seek the favor of ike poor : i.e. the poor 
whom their father bad plundered, and who may it quirt satisfaction or 
reparation. Or it may mean, ;?one rally, that they r-lialt be so much 
reduced a? to a-.-t the gnud-will ami assistance nf the must (iesiUnte ami 
abject : a stronger expression than if lie hail mor.dy -aid that they should 
become poor. It is ulaoimj; them below poverty itself — Avjl their hamls : 
i. e. the hands of the children of the oppressor : lit. his hands. 'Che 
singular pronoun is in llcnrew no! unfrerptently Ihus used. So Dent, ssi. 
10, "When thou s.'-ost forth against thine enemies, and Goil gives kun 
into thine hand." See Gesenius' Gram. 5 143. 

11. ifis bunes arc fill if youth: i. e. of youthful vigor. So Ges. 
The same word is used in ch. xxxiii. 25 ; l's.b\x.i\. 15. The meaning is,' 
He shall ho cut off in Mb youth — in the fulness of his strength. So the 
Sept. The Syr. and Arab, have U marrow. The Child,, strength. 

12. 'J'koii'ih ndr.kfil.ness, §-c. The wickedness in which he takes so 
much pleasure is avarice, with its accompanying crimes, oppress ion, in- 
justice, and cruelty. The pleasure wdiich a de.praveil mind has in tho in- 
dulgence of its criminal iucliuath.m is compared to an epicure's enjoyment 
of some delicious morsel. 

14. Yakis men I shall, be chnnj/e-l, a-i thin hiiii : I. e. changed htto some- 
tiling of an opposite nature as from sweet to hitter, from nutritious to 
poisonous. lits iiiCi.il is riches acquired by impression ; hut it is poisoned. 
A ciivse is oonneeicd with uuq nitons acquisition. This Is tin: poison if asiis 
to hiio, even the Divine vengeance. Scott. 

15. He hath glutted, fyc. The original word is very forcible. Tho 
metaphor iuelu :1c :l in it. is drawn from n, ravenous beast devouring his 
prey, denoting great voracity. — And he shall throw them up again : ns 
an epicure dees that which he 1ms drunk '■:■ r swallowed wiili greediness rind 
delight. The sudden loss of his ill-gotten wealth, and the intolerable 
anguish of his mind in sullering such loss, are involved in this strong 



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job. 233 

metaphor. The curse or vengeance of God will bri.'ig tills [■■utii.Hlmirsit ; 

God tJiull ca>i them, i/nt of him. 

16. Heshall suck die poison of nsps. That which he greedily swullowod, 
as plcjiKiirsi sin! rimont, shsilL bo as destructive to him us (lie poisi.ui of asps. 
'17. — rfuers of honey ami mil.'.:-. Tlicso sire Orienlal emblems of 
abiuulaiiee mill! felicity. The wicked man shiill not have that fECufc ami 
perm uncut enjoyment of t'i« *:(«! [hings of ihis life which lie evpected, or 
which is promised to the good. 

18. II is suli.st-.niee to be restored. See Ges. upon fTllBJV So Do 
Watte. T ! 

20. Because he knew no rest, Sic : i.e. because his cupidity was in- 
satiate. 

21. Because nothing cseaprd his yet. ediness : i. a. his rapacity. So 
Heath, IttiB., and Da Wette. — Bis prosperity shall -not endure. JVon 
dnruliit honv-.n ejus. Syr. JVihil jiennanehil de bonis ejus. Vulg. 
ml* irSjjou a&toB rli aya-S'u. Sept. 

22. Every hand of !h". wrelr.he.d : i. e. Bvcry Mow or wound which comcth 
upon the wretched. So in eli. xxiii. 2, "My ico-irat is deeper," eye., is, in 
([«! ordinal, ,!/i/ /,■.■(;,(? « dnp'.r, ,\>. ; [he irnuiiiiicu: lif:h:« used for Ihc effect. 
Omnia dolor. Vulg. no<ra awiynj. Sept, 

23. ffe shall, indeed, lure wherewith to fill himself. This is Said 
sai'dsueally. The nest line show* what sort of food lie bus to have, 
—/or Ms food. fBwVra. s ° Sclmlt., Ges., and Ros. Sen Ps. si. 8. 
Simihir images occur in the Koran. Thus : Qui oeeultant quod Ileus 
l'cveliuit, illi nun edent, in vcjitribus suis nisi ignern. 

2i. He fieeth, fyc. This was iivobably si ijnr.orbia.l. expression, liko 
that in Latin, Iimidit in Seyllnin, cuiiicns vitare Oliarybdim. 

28. — is treasured, up for him: lit. is hidden, or laid up, for his 
treasures. See Horn. ii. 5. — A fire, not btoum ; i. e. not kindled by man, 
but sent from heaven : i. e. lightning. 

21. The. heavens shudl recent his iniipiit.y : i.e. by lifihtnitiK, ibr In- 
srsinoc, such as destroyed the herds of Job, .:i ■ ■ l.iy -tones of wind, such sis 
destroyed his children. — And ike. earth, shall rise up against him .* i.e. 
when iv ill I beasts, venomous soipenis, cr b.uuls o? ru'ibers shall destroy 
his substance. 



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Tub opponents of J jl; h:;i] pi rsisred in n.nbi raining that great cnl:ii;:iii(:H 
■were a proof of uncommon guilt ; Hint they were flic portion of the 
wicked, and of them only. This position J ■: b overthrows, by adducing 
instances of impious men who pa^s their lives in east: and prosperity, enjoy 
ti oomtbr table ultl age, and are favored wlt-li an easy death. Ch. xii. 6 -15. 
l'hey might object, that tlie fear of reverses must mar the enjoyment of 
the guilty ; but lie contends t- 1;l ' s ' 1; '' 1 ''ev^rses hnppen *o seldom, that 
the bad have not more reason lo fear them than t lie good. 16 - 18. They 
might say that the children of the impious nun sulicred, if he did not ; 
but he assorts, with justice, that this is no punishment to the i/fte-tnlev who 
is numbered with the dead, l'J-21 lie maintains, that, of two persons 
Of the same character, one might be soon onioying uninterrupted prosper- 
ity, and the other sulVeriug misery wiiheut. cessation : ami that hotli came 
to the same end. 22-26. Perceiving by their looks that they were not 
satisfied, but still regarded his nii.-t'vnl.ie ci'ii.rton as evidence of his guilt, 
he appeals to the testimony of travellers, who would mention instances of 
great oppressors who had escaped in a time of general destruction, and 
il! in I a peaceful death ; who had been buried with great pomp, and had 
had so splendid a monument erected to tbeir moinwiy that they almost 
seemed to flourish and live again in [heir scry tombs. 27 - 34. 

Ch. XXI. 2. JJnd let this be your consolation : i. e I will regard your 

candid attention as an equivalent for [hose consolations winch. I had reason 
to expect from you. 

4. 7s my oomphrLit tionreritiiii; iiui-n ? The preposition 7 means of or 
coiicerii-i/itc. In Gen. .«. 13, a.ni.l elsewhere. .See Gcs. He seems to in- 
timate that he had not so much reason to eo::: plain of man or of his friends, 
as of the severe ait!ietions whicb lie received from God, whilst so many 
wicked men enjoyed ptosiiority. — Why Ike.n should ! not be angry? 
Jiuii ml SnnciHi-iioiiiii ; Sept. lie seems to Consider ihc fact that his 
misery was sent up<m luni by God, iiotwitbstunding bis endeavors lo please 
him, as a sufficient reason Ibr his ini]ialience nnd complaints, 

5. Look iipvn me, 3"C. Silent astouishmenl, ii;-te:id nf censure, shouid 
be the effect of beholding a man of integrity and piety in my afflicted 
condition, while so uoiny contemners of God, and oppressors of his crea- 
tures, are happy in life and fortunate in death. 

6. When I think of it : i. e. of what follows, viz., the prosperous 
condition of the wijked. 



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12. They sing, #c. -into 1 , soil, -jip, atMluut nocem. Seels, xlii. 2. 

13. -3n(f in a moment, fyc. This assertion is opposed to Zophar's re- 
presentation of the terrible death of such men, in ch. si. 24, 25. See also 
eh. xviii. 12, 13. This is that sudden and cissy death, in a green old age, 
Without pain, without lingering sickness, and while tlieiv families are 
flourishing around them, whloh 'iV.i-fsLaf predicts M h'iysses in the shades : 
" Death shall come to thee from the sea. It shall be a gentle death. It 
shall come when thou art subdued by a happy old ae.e, !iinl thy peopic 
about thee are happy." Odyss. xi. 138, ka. Scott. So Suetonius, after 
describing (he death of Augustus, S;iys : Sortiius est exitum fiiuLleiu, ct 
^ualem semper optaverat. Nam fere, quiitios audi^set eito ac nullo 
;i'.i^i.dn de.iLTicl'.irii (poiapimn, s : bl et suis f . '.'■ :> n'.j'.iv shnnem (hoc. eji'iii; ct 
verbo uti so'.ebut) precabatur. Life of Augustus, § 99. 

16. Thou eayest, fyc. There can be no doubt Unit, in the first line, nt 
least, of this verse, Job refers to the sentiment advanced by Ids upuOnents, 
and probably in both. Some suppose Unit the first line is ironical ; and 
that, in the second, Job oxorcs~es his obhi.::-:eii:'o of wickedness, notwith- 
standing the prosperity which often accompanies it, 

17. How often happens it, fyc. Thia question is equivalent to the 
assertion that the wicked are seldom in adversity and misery. It is thus 
an answer to the asse'tiuu in the preceding verse. 

21. — is completed: i.e. according to Cooccius, is reckoned in fall 
tale : i. o. when he has lived out the whole term of human life. 
■ 22. Who fen shall impart knowledge lo God, fyc. Shall we be so bold 
as to instruct God how to govern the world, and to toll him that he is not 
just, unless he punish the wicked when we expect it! He judges tho 
highest beings, and therefore surely knows how to govern us. Ho that 
rules the world of spirits surely knows how to manage the little concerns 
of mankind. 

2i. His sides, &e. Otherwise, ITi* pi>-;\:n:.* me full if mVh. Sec 
Gea, upon ray. Lattm ejus plena adipe. Arab, and Syr. ii di iyxma 
w-iov :-ii:,''ji, : (tifKff.;. Sept. Viscsra eju-i plant sua! iuH/iv. Vnlg. 

28. Fur ye say, #c. Although those questions relate to tyrannical 
pliuces in general, and to orher wicked men in high stations, they are in- 
tended to ho applied to Job's overthrow in pari icnl fir. His adversaries 
s'.iil insisted that J est motive calamities are the usual portion of the wiel;ed: 
and that, such calamities being his portion, there was wanting no other 
evidence of his guilt. But the testimony of travellers, as he tells them, 
s'ar.v.s the falsity of their premises, ainl therefore of the conclusion drawn 
from them. Scott. 

80. That the wkke I is spared in the. day of desirurtion : i.e. when 
destruction comes upon ether men. So Merc , Sshult , 1'at., Res., and 



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236 NOTE 3. 

Ges. Ind that he is borne to Ms grave in He 'l/;.ij of wrath. See Ter. 

32, ami x. 10. lie dies a natural, peaceful clt^irh. 

1)2. Even lids man, §c. lie is too powerful to be called to account by 
man, and, not meeting with chastisement fi mo God, Ho goes to I He grave 
with all tlie honors of interment a^nnlly nuid to personages of the highest 
rank. Sco«. — Fca, h« still viakhr-s over hit tomb. So Dathe, Iios., 
Jliehhorn, and Pe Wctie. lie eujiys, as it wore, a second life upon his 
tomb, ia the honors paid to his memory, his splendid monument, and the 
fame he leases behind him. xai ovt'os hit am^ior ^[iJuupsi'. Sept. 
El super cangeriKai cii/ilaiiit. Ciui'.d. E! in conys-fU wartiifir a m viyila~ 
bit. Vulg. 

33. — the suds of Ike valley, fyc. Those words also seem to suppose 
that the person who is buried in-iy parta.ke, in some respects, of the pros- 
perous state of the tomb which contains him. See the note on eh. xW. 
22. Sitch an idea asms to hare l>een indulged l>y Julian Amurath tha 
Great, who died in M.50. " Presently afc.cr his death, Mahomet his sonno, 
for fcare of some innovation to lie made at home, raised the siege, and re- 
turned to lladriauoplc : and aflerwurds ivitii giv.ot suiemmt.ie buried his 
dead body at the west side of I'rusa, in the suburbs of the eitie, where he 
now licth, in a i:l nrj .r>it! without un.y roofc, his jnut botbuig differing 
from the maimer of the common Turks ; which, they say, he eommunded 
to be done, in his last will, that the mercio ami blessing of God (as he 
termed it) might come unto hioi by Iho shining of the Sonne and moone 
and (ailing "f r.lie rcinc and dew of heaven upon his grave." Knolles' 
Hist, of the Turks, p. 832. Burder's Oriental Customs, No. 507. — And 
all men, fyc. In going down to the grave, lie does but >hare the common 
lot of mortals. Innumerable multitudes lone gone thirher before him, 
and the succeeding generations of men shall follow hint to the same place 
of assembly for all the living. Oihei's suiijv.se a funeral p 



IIiTO! begins the third series of controversy, .Eliplri/. unable to refute 
I he reasoning in Job's las! discourse, founded as it was on undeniable fiiet", 
proceeds to misrepresent bis soiLlinier.ts, and even to charge him with par- 
ticular crimes. He begins with an attempt to o\pu.-e to ridicule Job's com- 
plaints respecting hi- afflictions, his assertions of his innocence, and Ids 
appeals to the Deity, as if he had set up arrogant cliims upon the divine 



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job. 237 

justice, and had demanded a reward for his goodness. Ch. xxii. 1-5. 
He goes on to assort that .lob's wiekcdm:;.-', umi not injustice on the pari 
of tin: Deity, was the cause of hip misery, and ohiirgcs him with a variety 
of enormous crimes. G- 11. He also accuses him of ii-iYiv,^ adopted tin: 
oorrupt principles of those impious men, who, in former times, had 
perished by !i flood, and warns iiim not to pursue their cuurso, and thus 
incur their punishment. 12-20. In conclusion, ho exhorts him to re- 
pentance, and gives a splendid picture of ilic prosperity lo which he ini;ihl. 
look as a reward, lil -SO. 

Ch. XXIL 2. Behold, the wise man profiteth himself. Comp. xsxv. 7. 

Prov. is. 12. "Whatever wisdom or goodness a man has, he has the becelit 
Of it, not God. 

4. Will he contend, 4'C. 1 i. e. in a judicial oiaLrrovorsy. Is he afraid 
that his character will suiter by thy complaints, unless, in obedience to thy 
citation, he submit to a trial, sn I argue his im'I: ia-foro some tribunal : 

7. Thov. hast given, ij-c. Among the Eastern nations hospitaliry was, 
and still is, regarded as a duty of llie most .4= : ^ :.- ? -f 1 1 ob'i Ration. 

8. Bat ike man of power had the land: i. o. The rich wove always 
welcome to Job ; his h'.uis;' was open to theni, and his hind before them, 
while the poor were driven away trur-i his hnu>e. ami lerritovies. Or per- 
haps it is a more general proverbial expression, deimtini; the partiality 
and honor with which Job rcgardoa the great ami powerful. Or the 
moaning may be, Through your connivance, or influence, the great were 
sure to gain their cause, when tiny sot up a claim to the hind tit' ihe. poor. 

3. And broken the arias : i. e. thou hast taken away a'J 'heir support. 
All the ancient \ersions render x;ii in 'he second pers. sing., which 

makes it probable that (Gin was formerly in the test. 

10,11. — snare::. This was a common metaphor hit' thinger .md des- 
tructive calamities ; as ■.!.tr!;<\<:<-: and fluids af uiufer for overwhelming 

12-20. What Job had said, in the preceding chapter, of the general 
impunity and prosperity of the wicked, was matter of fact. But this 
Calumniator misrepresents his aisecurse. as a denial of a divine providence 
grounded on most absurd notions of the Supreme IHng, as though he 
were limited in his presence, and could not see win 1 .', passeth in our world. 
— The ioirneti.se distance of heaven, the habitation of Cod, is represented 
by its being far above the stars. Scott. 

13. Can he govern behind Ike thick darkness? Can lie see, through 
the thick clouds, the crimes that are committed on earth, and thus inflict 
the punishment which they merit * 



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2S8 HOTBB. 

14. And he icxI'ctHi upon the wcl o/' iirn-ven : i. c, Jlc 13 at :ni immense. 
distance, from the earth, and wholly occupied in the concerns of the 
heavenly world. So Lucretius, Lib. II. 646. 

15. Wilt thou take the old way, fyc. : i. e. Are you Trilling to adopt 

(be principles of those impious men who lived nj the time of the deluge f 

16. — cu! duurn. Lit. seized, hurried away. 

17. By describing the impiety of these men in the very terms used by 
Job hi oh. xxi. 14, 15, he confronts their cxeinpliuy destruction to Job's 
Mssenimi of tin? immunity and i.'olioitv of soldi characters. Sco/t 

18. — eoujise/ .- i. e. purposes, plans, ceo 

24. Casttu the dust thy ijold, $c. : i. 0. Whim thou shall regard gold as 
of no account, und ooaso to place thy depend mice upon earthly treasure, 
us thou hast done, und slialt, place thy trust upon Or*. 1 ;ilouc, then, &e. 

27. Jlad t.huu shall perform thy cmrs . i.e. Thou slsait obtain those 
blessings for which thou didst make thy tows, nmi accordingly perform 

28. And light shall shine upon thy ways: i. e. Thou shalt have 
success nnd prosperity in nil thy pursuits. 

2'J. When men arc at ft domn, $c. The meaning probably is, When 
men are in affliction, or in 5--.iv chvmo'ti.tjjcs, such shall be the edioacy u( 
liiy prayers, taui (id will raise them up. 

HO. — /u"»i tt«i! is no/ innocent. The f.'rriie.'o '8, remiorcil Maud in 

rendered liore, in the Ciia'd., and by l.e Clove, Puis., Gen., and Iks Welle. 
The same sentiment is found in Gen. xvlii. 24 ; Jizck. sxii. SO ; Jer. 1. 1. 
Has, also observes, that it may be designed to refer to eh. xlii. 8, &c, 
whore it appear; that Jehovah forgave the friends of Job oil account of 
hi-i intercession. Ea: ill!: Jioto en. oh. viii. 7. 



'I'uis reply of Job is the effusion (if 0. nlii'd unitaicd by various stroue. 
emotions ; by deep <<ricl' s oh, xxiii, 2 ; by an earnest desire to argue his 
cause wilii God, sir'.ce be could nhr.iio neither .justice nor mercy from ids 
friends, 3-1 ; by distve-s, thai he could nut ebl.aiu Ins desire, 8, 9 ; )iy 
consolation in the testimony of his conscience, 10 - 12 ; and by consterna- 
tion and despair, arising fro::i ihc thi.iight of Gmi's obsolete dominion, 
and the immutabiJiiy of lien liesi^us. iol - 1"'. I hiving in some measure 



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job. 239 

relieve! hi a mind by the foroftoina; effusion?, he m:;I;os one effort more to 
convince his adversaries V.y re.nsouine; ivi'.h tlium. lie denies the constancy, 
and even the frequency, of the judcuionts of tJtxT upon wicked men. He 
produces a catalogue ot' enormous crimes, such as theft, oppression of the 
poor, murder, adultery, and lyt'auny, at whieh, as he thinks, the Gover- 
nor of the world seems to connive, by forbearing to punish the authors of 
them ; by suffering [lie':, to flourish during lift?, ami (o lie fortunate acid 
hippy in the time and oiroamstanoea of their death. Ch. miv, 

Ch. XXin. 2. — my wound: lit. my hand; i. e. the hand of Cod upon 

3. O that I knew, §■;. He desires to go before the tribunal of God, as 

a man, whose character has been assailed, may demand a trial at an 

(J fVvul'j he contend, &c. f i. e. lie would not oveiviwo me, or put me 
down, by his superior power, but would rather lisien to what I might offer 
in my defence. — would have regard ; DIP', i?h being understood. See 

7. Then would an uprigid man, ^e. lie speaks of himself in the 
thild person. 

8, 'J. Those words are designed to express, not the mere invisibility of 
the Deity, bill the earnest desire of .Tub, conscious, as he was, of hia in 
noeence, to obtain sott'e visible man iteration of the Deirv, and to expos tu 
late with him, face to free, upon ins unmerited sulleiliigs. Scoit. The 
Hebrews, like some other of the Oriental nations, in speaking of the 
different quarters of the heavens, regarded themselves as facing the Bast, 
the rising sun. Backward would then he West ; the left, North ; and the 
-ight. South. See Ges. Thes. ad "ijrw — where hi trorketh: Some 
suppose that God is represented as working in the places northward from 
Job, because mankind were there most numerous, and most attentive in 
observing the works of God. Hut may (here r.ot. here be an allusion to 
an opinion, which is known io have prevailed imou^st the ancient, eastern 
nallous, that in the farthest regions of the north was a high mountain, 
Borreaponding to the Olympus of the Greeks, whero was tho seat ot 
peculiar resilience of God, or the Gods >. See Is. xiv. 13 ; Ezek. i. 4, and 
the notes, and the dissertation on the subject or' the Oriental opinion above 
referred to, ap,pendcd ro Gescnius's t. 'eminent, on Isaiah, vol. IIL p. 316. 

10. But ke knowtik, fyc. But my eon sola lion is, that God seelh my 
heart and my conduct. — he t> .% n.t : i. e. he esamineth and proveth 
my character. 

12. Jlbove my Hum tino : i. 0. atiovo what my own desires dictated. 

14. He perfoTmeth, §c. .■ i.e. without regard to my expostulations, 



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pleading.-, ami pvolestatiniis, be p"'eee;Is lo infliut uiion ti:e v.hit he Ind 
purposed lu ijifUiii. (Jump. uli. s. IS, 14. — such tliintm : i. c. proceedings 
of God's providence, as dark and unaocoun table as his dealings, toward 

17. — darkness: i. e. alllidion, misery. 

Ch. XXIV. J. If Vii.i ui'c '('■■( I'Bii, l^c. — ilaiM ; i. e. such a? those of die 
deluge, the destruction ui Sodom, i"c. (ii((;i of God are days when lie 
manifests liim-ioSi' in rotributmn or judgment for sin. Why are not the 
wicked visited with signal pi.mi.sl ; ]its. wdiich die righteous may recog- 
nise as such '. For the meaning given to Jtj', see Is. xiii. lii? ; J or. xxvii, 
7; Eiek. xxx. 8; Eoo. is. 11, 12. 

2. -~ and pasture them. They are so shameless, that they pasture, ill 
public view, the flocks which they hive stolen from die helpless. 

4. — from tht way. The pioud rich men push the pour from the way, 
when they meet, and oblige them to retreat, as it. were lo hide themselves. 

5. — they go forth to their work: i.e. the poor nnd needy, of the pre- 
ceding verse, who ffi forth io their daily toil of seeking sudi roots and 
vegetables us the woods ami mountains alford lui' doiir miserable subsis- 
tenec. fki ('ueeeius ias.1 *c;i'.;ini;s, who refer to rocleslasi.hais xiii. 19. 

G. — the harvest: lit, his liarwst, referring to oppressor, in the next 

7. Dr. Shaw tells us that iu Arabia Petriea, tlie day is intensely hot, 
and the night intensely cold. Travels ; p. 438. 4to. Scott. 

8. And embrace the rock. This exactly agrees with what Niebohr says 
of the niudern wandering Arabs, near Muuut i^iii;'.i, Vnna^e en Arable, 
torn, I. p. 187. : "Those who cannot afford a tent spread out a cloth 
upon four or si\ sta.kcs ; and others spveaii their el nth near a tree, or 
endeavor to shelter themselves from the heat, ami die rain in the cavities 
of (he rooks." Burdcr. 

10, II. So Addison, in his Letter from Italy : 

The poor inhabitfiiit beholds in vain 
Tar I'iit.leuing oraago ai:d ihe spoiling gva^n ; 
Joyless he sees the growing oils ami wines. 
And io the myrtle'* tVa^rum shade repines ; 
Starves, in the midst of nature's bounty curst, 
Am! in the loadeii vineyard dies for thirst. 

12. And Gadrcgardethno! their prayer ! <3>ir, for aS tyO'!?'. to lay 
toheaTt, to regard. Ps. 1. 23. And, by altering the paints, nSaPh folly. 



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becomes n^3n, a prayer; which is the reading of two manuscripts, 
and of the Syrian version. So Doud, and Dathe. Others, And God 

regarded not the wickedness. 

13. Other* hah: the light, ^C. : lit. These, i. e. the following, *re 

among those who hate. At. So !li:re, This is a description of criminals 
\vllO practise their dions of viululice Jnil mjm-liee Ulidc the pl'OttCtiuIl of 

darkness. 

14. With the light, fyc. : 1. o. Very early, by day-break. Micah ii 1, 
" Wo to them lhat devise iniquity, arid work evil upon liieir beds ! in the 
light of the morning they practise it." 

15. And jmtteth a mink upon- his face. So Juv. Sat. viii. 144. : 

si nocturnus adulter 

Tempera Sunt™-™ mvis a:loperta eucidlo. 

10. In the daytime tltey shut ihemteJva up. See Gcs. upon DTIR 

iaip&yiaar lavtovg. Sept. 

17. The morning, which discovers their evil deeds, is as terrible and 
hateful to these criminals :.i- the sh:t<!--iw of den Ik, or the grossest d.o,kni\.>s, 
is tii other people. — Tiu.y arc familiar with : i.e. They like ami desire 
the terrors of midnifd darkness : i. e. mi;L::kfht davkness which is terrihlc 
to others. So Merc, Poole ai:d Rob. 

18. XV arl> they, i}e. : This line expressed the speed with which he 
is hurried aw.iy as a retrihul.inn for his crimes. like a li.udit. subst.aiieo, or 
a stream ; or the speed with which the person esi.-apcs iifer the commission 
of a crime. ■ — accursed portion, &c. .- i.e. They dwoli in desert and un- 
cultivated places, —till' vineyards: i.e. the abodes of civilized men, 
lest they be apprehended. The explanation of this ami the following 
dllhV.il? verses is that adopted by Meroior, 1'alrick, and Ens. 

20. And iniquity, $c. i. e. The unrighteous man is deslrovo:! as 
completely as a tree, which, once broker- or col donn, cannot jrrow ujrain. 

21. He epprcsseth tke barren, §c. lie ad. Is a'ilictinn to one who has no 
children to help her, and who is already nillleted with that which in those 
days was regarded as a curse and reproach. 

22. He taketh away ; i. e. destroyeth. See Pa. isviii. 3 ; Ezek. xssii. 
20. He risith up : i. e. iiirainst die mighty, ami every one of them fears 
for hi; life. Ros. 

23. Gad giveth : lit Hegivetk. See noteon ch. iii. 20. tndhheyes 

ore upon their ways; i. e. God seems (o smilo upon them and prosper 
them in ail their enterprises. 

24. They are exalted, $e. The complaint is, 1. that the wicked are 

11 



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242 NOTES. 

advanced to great imrminaK:!: ; '1. !(;;it they are favored with a death 
quick and easy, which is preceded by no reverse of their prosperity, is 
brought on by no disci™, and is embittered by no sharp and lingering 

pains. 'Ibis indulgent eirour-istiuioo h lnip;ii:_t iili»u;iied by the beautiful 
simile which closes tlic period. Scolt. 



Thk short reply of Bildad, in the twentv-fifth chapter, asserts, in a 

Icily strain, the a« ,'al majesty, snpren-.e ■li:niL::L.:[; , ni;d intiiiiie perfection 
of the Deity. Hence he infers did eites*ive :.ithmi^o of justifying cue's 
Self before God, and impeaching the rectitude of his government, ilia 
remarks are directed against the conduct of Job in calling upm (led for a 
trial, and in using arguments which seemed to cull in ([tuition God's 
justice. He docs not attempt to answer (he assertions of Job, in the last 
chapter, ros[ie;:t:n ; _" the prosperity of tin: wicked. Those were founded mi 
facts which could nut bo denied, and which could not Lc explained on the 
principles of Job's opponents. It is, therefore, probable that the poet 
assigned ibis last ibebie oil\;rt to .ISiUIn i, r^creiy id order to give occasion 
to the triumph of Job in the chapter f.jl.ov.'i.ng. 

Ch. XXV. 2. He ■aiain.lainelh peace in Iris high places : i.e. He ruleth 
all the inhabitants of heaven in peace mid harmony. Ch. ssi. 22, 

8. — his hosts? i. e. the stars, as is probable from ihe j. K mil lei line ; or 
his angels. See Han. it. oO- — And itw '.-', o .i,- .■/.■ Hi i.ul kis light arise '.' 
Some suppose that tins line is intended to set f.,rth the glory of God in 
general, as manifested in the universal diffusion of light ; as, in ell. 
sisvi. 80, he is said in spread areimit hi/n-v 1/ ids light, and, elsewhere, 
to cover himself with Ugh!, as with a garment, and to dwell in the light 
which no ihnn cu it a/ijiroaeh unto. Others, that il oppresses flic omnis- 
cience of God ; that, it represents ids lijilii ;is penetrating every thing, and 
making cveyvthi'ig knov.'ti. Others, that his !i::l:i here denotes kis sun. 

5. Behold, even the 'moon, fyc. So the Vulg., Ecee, luntt eiiain iion 
splcmlbt. Comp. Is. isiv. 2S. 



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J 0=1 beiri::s b's reply w illi sarcasms upon his hist opponent, as havirg 
oSerod nothing relevant to the subject in dispute, lie then endeavors to 
show that, if the question related to tin: power and perfec lions of The 
Ueitj, lie could speak in as lofty n sryle as hi.- oppi.neois of the ellecl.s of 
the divine iunver in heaven, earth, ami the rod. .us miner the earth. His 
purpose is to shoiy Unit his confident asser;ie.ns of his innocence are by no 
menus inconsistent with the most exalted views of the wisdom and power 
of the Governor of the world ; flint he adores the pcrteat.h.ns of God, and 
yet denies lhal. his misery it :i proof of his guilt. 

Ch. XXVI. 2. — the weak. There has been a doubt to whom this 

ironical expression is to be applied ; whether to Job, lo the other two 
opponents of Job, or to tiie Deity. .From the connection, verse 4, and 
from the design ami tenor of the whole chapter, it seems most probable 
that Jolj refers to himself. 

4. For whom, tfc. : i. e. Do you think nm i it r i ■ ■ i-; 1 1 l L- of (he perfections 
of God, that yon address me on the subject with such a magisterial nil' ? 
or By whom., i. e. by whose aid, ka. — And n;hriM spirit .f/iaJtc through 
thee? i. e. To what e\iraor iioary inspiration canst thou pretend? 

5. — the shades: \. e ghosts, departed spirits, the inhabitants of Hades, 
or the under-world, whom the ancient Hebrews conceived of aa without 
strength and with little sco.si tiou, mere shail,iv,s nf wiial ihey once were ■ 
ttiai* xap&rtmr. See Ps. lisxviii. 10 ; Prov. ii. 18, ii. 18, xii. 16 ; Is 
xiv. 9, 10, xivi. 14, 19. — tremble; i.e. at the majesty mul power o. 
God. The verb 4lt1 is often used ill this sense, and i.J so rendered in th* 
common version, in Hab. in. 10. — the waters, $c. .- i. e. the seas and ali 
the monsters tlnst inhal.il their lowest depths. 

B. The wider-world— Destruction. These are diuoront words, ex- 
pressing the same thing, via. the abode of departed spirits, which was 
supposed to be a vast cavern, fir in tie; interior of the earth. See tht 
pussnges referred to in the preceding note, anci J...hn's Archeology, §§ 203 
and 207. With this i.ieseripiion of the llebivw poet, eonmaro die passage 
on the same topic, i^u-ted by Janiginii" fr;uu Homer, a. oi.e of mirivalie'l 
sublimity. Iliad, xx. 61. 

7 He stretcheth out the JVW'a • '.. t. the nort'jerj hemisphere, or tlie 



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244 note a 

whole visible hosi-i en, like a canopy or ten!. Is. si. 22. — upon no lung: 

j. e. Without :LT1 vlllhlir to SUppol'l it. 

And e,irt.h self-'oal.LLiccd from her centre hung. 

8. He biadetk, fyc. : i. e. He coltectet.h the waters into the clouds, as 
it were, in bottles or vessels, which do not Ml tliem tall until he is pleased 
to send them, drop by drop, upon the earth. 

9. —the face of his throne: i. e. the cleav sky, v/hich is sometimes 
covered with clouds. Is. livi. 1, " The heaven is my throne." 

10. He hi'th drawn a circular hound, $c. The ancients seem to have 
believed that only the northern hemisphero enjoyed the !ij;ht of the sun, 
and that iill below the horuou was in perpcMci! ua.i'krjess.. They also 
supposed that the earth was surrounded by water, upon whkdi the concave 
of heaven seeineii to rest, mid iionee the idea of a circular bound, drawn, 
iis it were, by eoinpas-.es at the cxtieuie verge of the celestial hemisphere, 
where the hght was supposed to end, and the darkness to begin. Bee 
Virg. Georg. I. 247. 

11. The pillars of li.cn.nen Ireiiihle. Some suppose that the mountains 
of the earth, upon which tin' sky seems to rest, are intended ; but it is 
more probable that the vault of heaven is represented as an immense 
edifice, supported <nt lofi.y columns, like a temple. — his rebuke; i.e. 
thunder, li^htnine;, and tempestuous winds, which were supposed to be 
tokens of God's dlspmisino. 

12. — he smiteth its pride; I. e. he restrains its rage, and turns a 
storm into a calm. So Is. li. 15. 

11!. — the fleeing Serpent: i.e. the fiti/'tcio'tii, fazi'tice serpent; an 
epithet, borrowed from the living serpent, but re fc nine; to the constellation 
of the great Serpent or Dragon in the Northern hemisphere. The reader 
will remark the coincidence of this epithet with the word elabilur in 
Virgil, Georg. I. 244. 

14. Lo ! these are '"<' the larders of tiia works : i. e. We are acquaint- 
ed only with the suidhc-rr ami outlines nf the ivurks of God. — How faint 
the whisper, Src. : i. e. Mow va; little do we know concerning the divine 
operations ! — But the thunder nf his pmrer. By this expression I under- 
stand the hiijher exertions of his pnaer, as opposed to its ordinary opera- 
tions, with which we are in some measure acquainted. The meaning thus 
will be, that what is known of God's works is to that, winch is unknown 
as a whisper to a peal of thunder. Others suppose that the thunder of 
his power means the louderl aod. n,r,st terrible thunder. But it is not 
probable r.hal lie referred lo literal thunder, as :i special mystery among 
the works of God. 



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Til]', three friends ul! Ji.b n™ give up tin; discussion. Cildad, hiis Just 
opponent, had said but a few words, and those in the manner of a retreat- 
ing adversary. He hud jliso heou irlumphatitly driven, a.s it were, from his 
ground by Job. Zophar, therefore, is represcnioil a; I bin king it prudent 
to make no reply. From this discomfiture of his opponents, Job, taking 
courage, goes mi to express his feelings, and \iev,s,iua more calm, but 
not 'ess decided maimer than bciore. Ho begins with a renewed and 
solemn declaration of his innocence, and express the nio.it resolute 
determination to assert, it against all who may call it in question, to the 
very last moment of his life. Ch. xxvii.2-7. On account of what he 
hud said of the prosperity of the wicked, liis opponents had accused him 
of approving iheui, and of envying their condition, lie therefore es- 
presses his abhorrence of a vicious chaiaetfr, and speaks of the satisfao- 
tijiis arising from viruie and piety, to n hirh the wicked man is a stranger. 
8-10. He had ail along maintained, in opposition to his friends, that 
tills world is not the scene of n regular distribution of good and evil; that 
virtue is often oppressed, and vice triumphant ; ami [hat the greater part of 
wicked men go unpunished, grow old in ease and afiiueiice, and at length 
die in peace. But now, Inning reduced his opponents to silence, he 
frankly owns tiiat there are some examples- of divine vengeance, such as 
they had asserted ; that the ei ils which i<ii>,tliinii, though not attcuys, as 
they contended, are the. can sequel ices of guiil, are suiiioieut (o deter him 
from envying the condition of the wicked, and from following their evil 
courses. 11-23. The inconsistency of Job is only apparent, proper 
allowance being made for strong expressions elicited by the heat of con- 
troversy. He concedes not his main position, viz., that die innocent often 
suffer. He holds fust his innocence, and will not let it go. He admits not 
tbe main conclusion of his opponents, viz., that human suffering always 
implies guilt, or that he is wicked because he is a sufferer. His present 
deliberate position is, that, as the virtuous do Buffer, there is some 
mysterious cause of human saiVering besides the vices of men while he 
admits the correctness of the represent ;it : ons of his opponents respecting 
the ordinary consequences of sin. Thus the dispute is brought to a crisis. 
Without this concession, cumproiiiise, or apparent inconsistency in the 
language of ,'oh, liiere cmiht have 1 ecu no end to discourses on the miseries 
of sin, on the one Land, and the prosperity of the wicked, on the other. 



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2J6 NOTES. 

The difficulty, therefore, which has puzzled to many critics, and led Dr. 
lvennioott to propose an important alteration in the text, proves, to lie a 
necessary parr. i:i' tin: ohm of the [u'ofuund and ingenious author of the 

The suhject o(' the nest chapter is wisdom : i. e. that high, absolute 
Divine wisdom, which funned the pluti, and directs ail the concerns,of 
the Universe. Job had allowed, in the tuvtoer chapter, that God makes 
examples of some nicked men. He had maintained, in oh. xxi., that 
others equally guilty esoapo with impunity, lie had also asserted, in eh. 
is. 'ii, that general calamities involve the best and the worst men in one 
common destnietion. These ure pei-plevnu; appearances. Hence Ms 
thoughts are naturally led up to those impenetrable 01 uom\s which direct 
all this seoiniujf confusion. The powers of the human tuiud have made 
surprising di -co verier in natural things. Man lias penetrated the bowels 
of the earth, and suMUijiiuted the greatest, obstacles tor the purpose of 
obtaining the treasures, hidden lu those regions of darkness. But all the 
riches of the world eannnt purchase, nor the Irghest genius and industry 
of man attain, (he knowledge of the whole plun of Providence in the 
ail ministration of the world, or the reasons fur ivhieh he sometimes sends 
taiamities upon individuals. .Only He can comprehend the whole to 
whom are known all his work- from the beginning. The inference is. that 
inslead of prying into mysteries ublch lie ciiuiiui. understand, the duty of 
mart is to adore his Maker, and obey his commandments. This is the 
wisdom propel- to man. 

Oh. XXV1L 2. — tufco hath rejected my came : i. e. who hath refused 
me justice. 

4. —deceit: i. e. the deceit of confessing guilt, of which he is cot 



6. / will hold fast, $c. 1 will continue to assert it, or I will not 
acknowledge that I am guilty. I will be as tenacious of it as a good 
soldier is of his shield. The original term for hold fast is the same as 
that used in Ps. iisv. 2, in connection, with a shield. —My heart, $c. 
ml y'e<! <i<!n»<J<* ;»ano «ronu ,i(«i;cs. Sept. JV"e.j«s e/ii/ii reprdwndit mt 
cor mcam in omni viti mea. Vulg. 

8. —catteth off his web, $c. This metaphor seems to be drawn from 
the weaver, who, when his web is finished, outs it olT from the thrum by 
which it was fastened to the beam. See vi. 9 ; and la. ssxviii. 12. 
Otherwise, when he hath gotten plunder. — takclh uumy his life. lit. 
draieelh nut his life: i.e. as a sword from its sheath. Schnurror con- 
jectures that Sii"' is contracted fur 'ifC-i'". in which case the meaning will 
be, dcm.aaJcth his life. 



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job. 247 

12. — vain ihoa:;hls : i. n. sueh as they had e-qiressed, when they main.- 
tained Hull sulferiog was a sure proof of gnili, or that. .Job was suffering 
the punishment of a grossly wicked i-jnn , such as lie gees on to describe. 
Set the introductory remarks to this chapter. 

13. The passage frooi this verse to the eiul of the chapter presents a 
difficulty ; sines, at first view, Job seems to renounce his termor senti- 
ments, and to adopt thiisc. of his opponents. One method of espiaiuhig 
it, satisfactory to mo. is given in the introduction to this chapter. 

14. — if is for ike sword : i. c. they shut! be slit in in v.ar. 

15. — shall be bwUi by Death .- i. o. they shall have no ;>;rave-d : .;s:er 
hut Death; or, 'hey shall lie unburied. Sec Jcr. svi. 4. Others render it, 
thall be brow/h! i-i the yfaue bij the prstiitiict. ft.'::ui.^ sometimes has 
this naming in (tie Apocalypse. 

16. And procure raiment as day. It was the custom of the ancients 
to lay np raiment in their treiL-iarics as well, as; gold and silver. So Virgil 
of Messapus, .1'lti. is. 26. : 

Dives equflm, divea pic-tal vestis et auri. 
It is en sf oi nary through all the East, says. Sir J. Cl.ar.lin, to gather to- 
gether immense quantities of furniture and ckliiss : fin- their fashions 

18. — iike ike moth. The house and family of the oppressor shall not 
be more durable than the slight fahrie which the moth makes in a garment, 
and which is destroyer) when tbe garment is moved or shaken. Sec Dr. 
Harris's Nat. Hist, of the Bible, p. 2(17. — Or like the shed, §-c. : which 
was made for the. watcinuan of a garden, who-'e business it was to defend 
the fruit from birds and beasts while -it was ripening, and which was 
taken down when the fruit was gathered. Pee Is. i. 8. Niebuhr, in hia 
Description of Arabia, p. lit!), says, " In the mountains of Yemen they 
have a sort of nest in l!ic trees, where the Arabs sit ro watch their field? 
after they have been planted. But in the Kcbania, whore there are but 
few trees, they huihl a light kind of scaffolding for this purpose." Mr. 
Southcy opens the fifth part of his Cur'se of Kelm—.a with a similat 
allusion, quoted by Dr. Good : 

Evening comes on : arising from the stream. 
Homeward the tall flamingo wings his flight ; 
And where he sails athwart the setting beam, 
His scarlet plumage glows with deeper light. 
The v.-oi.'-bnmu, nt the wkhea approach of night, 
Gladly forsakes the field, where ho, all day, 
To scare the winged plunderers from their prey, 
With shout and sling, on yonder clriy-buili height, 
JTath borne the sultry ray. 



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248 NOTES. 

19. The rich man lieth down: 1. e. dies. — and is not buried: lit. no! 
gathered: i. e. us the slain are gathered in battle for burial. — /n (Ac (lyinfo 
imk/ «/"(!« eye Ae is n'j more; lit-. //■■ ™,'n :.■.'/< /'tis ty. i, o».l is- sio more. So Merc., 
Goa., and Ros. 



Cli. XXVIII. 2. ^nu" stone it melted into copper. So Pliny, Nat. Hist 
xxxiv. 1, 22, and xxxvi. 27, 66 : Ms fit ex Inpide ajroso, qnem vocant Cad- 

ltiinm ; tit ignv iapide.s in svs so'.vunuir. 

3. jl/™ puttelk an end to darkness: i.e. The darkest recesses of the 
eiirth are made light by torches, carried thither by man. — For tht 

slant, of darkness. Scluillens supposes the centre of the earth to he 
denoted by this expression. Others, the metallic ore in the darkest parts 

ol' the earth. 

4. From the pktce where theij dwell: 13 QJja. Following Sehultens, 
who assigns to "ij a meaning from the Arabic, I formerly rendered these 
words, Front the fool, of the. jnnipitfii.it. The present rendering is according 
to the common meaning of the Hebrew terms. (Jesenius supposes the ex- 
pression to be elliptical for DW 11 ~i first Oyn, lit. From there where one, 
dwells: i. e Jfrom rlie surface of the earth, the aboilc of man. Tills cor- 
responds with the last line of the Terse, thy aping turn/ from men. — a 
shaft; i. 'i. a passage leading into a mine. — Fmyvi.ten b/j the feet: i.e. 
unsupported by the feet. They do not descend liy llieir I'cet, but are lei 
down b? ropes or baskets. 

5. - torn up, cf v. -■ i.e. Elfeets are jirxnl ui:i-rl by man. in excavating the 
earth, similar to those produced by subterranean fires. So Pliny: Perse- 
ipiiriur omnes'ejus (icine) libras, vivimu.smie super exeavatam. . - . Imus in 
\iscera ejus, et in sedo .iUanium ope.s qua'rimus, tauijiumi parnm bentgna 
kitili'jiic. i;u:iqu;i calcalur j perhaps, seciif.ir'i. Hist. Nat. xxxiii. 1. 

*. The putt: therein ; i. e. to rbe place of sapphires, gold ore, &c. Verses 
7 and 8 arc probably d^.-dgocd to illustrate the inrropiiliiy of man in penc- 
r rating these dangerous regions of darkness. The most far-sighted birds 
could not see them, or Jin.] their way to l.bem. The mo-t daring beasts of 
prey would not venture into them. Vulture: I think it better to rely on the 
Sept. and other ancient versions as to this meaning, than on uncertain 
etymological conjecture. 

1). Man hiyelh his hand, S:c. This and the following verses describe tin; 
immense labor and difficulty of working a mine. Man overcomes every 
■disiacle which nature his placed in bis way. 

10. Be cleaueth out. streams, $-c. Tins was done either for the purpose of 
■J rawing off the water which Iiaiic.lcl llu-lr operations, or of washing the 
impure ore. 



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job. 249 

II. — bindeth >■';> the streams, S/-c. : i. e. tlic water which trickles duivt] 
the shaft of tho mine. 

li. Hut inhere shrill iirisdnrri lit found? Having given mi imposing 
view of the powers, of man in regard lo natural things, ho prnceeds to 
five as emphado a. rcpri'scmadon of ]ii= itsnii'ility lo iadioiii die counsels of 
God, or to understand die reasons which direct liiiu in the government of 
die world, p.iriieuiarly in [tie ill-trilaitiou of liiippiness nml misery. 

13. Man knowethnot the price thereof; i.e. Ho hath no means or 
ability tn obtain it. 

21. And kept clou ffom the fowls of the air : i. e. The residence of 
wisdom is heyond the (liidit of die swiftest a.od siroutrcst. birds. This is 
saying, in a poetical and perhaps n proverbiid manner, llmt this wisdom 
is not to be Annul within dm liioirs of our world. Scott. 

22. Destruction and Death: i. e. the onder-world, Hades.. — We 
hace heard a rumor, e}e. ; i. e. It is at such an immense distance from ua, 
that we have otiiy hoard a. rumnr rc.-peetin;; it. 

23. God lenowetk the way tn it : i, e. God only ];no-.vc-lIi tho reasons of 
his dispensations to men. 

27. — and make it knoi.cn: i. e. to his unlets. Or, He made his 
wisdom visible in his works. 

28. — - that is wisdom : i. e. The wisdom of man does not consist in 
the knowledge of the reasons of the divim: government, but in piety and 
holiness. 



JVrij now retnrns to his own ease, as a striking i"n.dr--i.(ioti (f llio mys- 
terious ways of 1'ivi ■donee, of which he lia.il spe.ken in the lust chapter. 
ilis aim is to show thai nil his plantings and complaints wore well founded. 
He beautifully (""'cants upon his former prosperity, eh. zzix.« and 
exhibits the striking contrast between it and his present affliction and de- 
basement, oh. xis. Lastly, in answer to the unfounded insinuations and 
false charges of his friends, he relate (be principal transactions of his 
past life, asserts his integrity, as displayed in the discharge of all his 
duties rehUiiiff to Cod and m-1.11, ad attain appeals to the omniscience and 
justice" of God in attestation of his sincerity. Cli. xxxi. Luu-lh. 
11* 



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Ch. XXIX. 3. When his lamp shone oner my head, 'i'ho houses of 
Egypt, according to Maillot, are never without lights in the night-time. If 
such were llit ancient custom, nut only of bgyp!, but of the neighboring 
countries of .ludea and Ara.bin, it will :-; i-i.^ij-I;/ iiicstrate Ihis passage. 
Mr. Scott, however, tiiinks tint liiere is ( ; - 1 ■>. ■ ; t i ■ 1 _y :ui allusion to the lamps 
which hung from the ceiling in the banqueting rooms of the wealthy 
Arabs. — walked through darkness, lien: is ivi'iut'i™ |-vo':.i;j.bly to the tires, 

UC Other lights, which IV i ■!■!: i: i.M'U-l helbrc iluiOi'.V:LV;l!!n ill their UlJJjht-lrslvCLH 

through the deserts. ".11:0 extraordinary favor of (J-.rA an;! his protecting 
care art denoted by iho metaphors iu both nans of this verse, 

4. The autumn of mif ttuijz, »■ o. the ripeness, the maturity- of my 
age. Comp. the Greek &n£,$a. Or autumn may refer to the time of hia 
greatest outward prosperity ; of the ripest fruits of lift. 

6. When I bathed, ej-c.: i. e. When streams of milk met me, as it were, 
wherever I went. (Hive groves and abundance of cattle made the prin- 
cipal wealth of the Arabs. The best olive? gray,' upon the rocky 
mountains. Hence tin: bold figure* by which the . Arabs express a condi- 
tion of unwmmon felicity. See Deut. xxsii. 18,14. Scotl. 
■ 7. — to the gate. : i. e. the forum, or place where the courts were held, 
— And took, mi/ lea', <)■'.■- " Jab here speaks of himself as a civil rnagis- 
trate, who had a seal erected for him to sit upon whilst he was hearing 
and trying causes ; and this was set up in the at reef, in the open air, 
before the gate of the city, where great im labors might be convened , a in I 
hear and see justice done. The Arabs, lo this day, hold their courts of 
juBtiocina.il open place under the heavens, a.s in a held, or a market- 
place/' li\inkr's lhaeatiil Customs, No. in 5, 

8. The. yuan// men, eye. Savary, in his betters on Egypt, Vol. I. p. 
149, saya, " The children are educated in the woman's apartment, and do 
not come into the hall, espcninHy when strangers are there. Young 
people are silent when in this halt; if men grown, they arc allowed to 
join the conversation ; but when the Sheik begins to speak, they cease, 
and attentively listen. If he enters an assembly, all rise : they give him 
way iu public, and everywhere show him est cum and respect." — And 
the aije.il arose and stood. This is a most elegant description, and exhibits 
most correctly the great reverence and re'pect which was paid, even by 
the old and decrepit, to the holy mac in pa-sing along the streets, or when 
he sat in public. They not only rose, which iu men so old and infirm was 
a great mark of distinction, but they stood ; they continued to do it, 
though the attempt was so difficult. Loieth. 

14. / clotlterl myself, fye.. i, c. i to clothed with rights 



Hosted ny GOOgk 



JOB. 2i>-l 

righteous within and without. This meaning is mode probable by t!io 

paronomasia of Hie 1 Hebrew, ami also by such expressions as Judges vi. 
St. "The spirit of Jehovah put on Gideon." By altering the vowel 
points so as to change t.iic conjugation from kal. to hiphil.one might sustain 
tie rendering of the common version. — robe, and diadem. A proverb 
still in use among tha Arabs is, "Knowledge is a diadem to a young 
person, and a chain of gold about his neck.'" Scott, referring to 
Schultens. 

18. —I shall dh in my nest. Schultens remarks that the image is 
taken from the eagle, ivho builds his nest, on the summit of a rook. 
Security is the point of resemblance intended. See ch. sxxix. 27,28; 
Numb, xxiv, 21 ; Obad. vex. i. 

19. My root h spread, Ire. A tree planted by the rivers of waters, 
and bringing firth its fruit, in its season, is a beautiful emblem of pros- 
perity. See Ps. i. 3. The dews, which fall very plentifully in the night, 
contribute! L-rivit.ly to the nourishment, of vegetables ill those hot. climates 
where they have scarcely any ruin during the summer. Scott, 

20. My glory is fresh. A flourishing evergreen was the image in the 
preceding ver-e, and is carried on in (his. — And inij bum yitlhen: sln-./oJh. 
in my hand. By the state of the weapons common -y iw.1, the Orientals 
express the condition, si to strength or weal; lies?, p-'osp( rity or adversity, 
of the person who uses them. See (Jen. x'.Lv. '2.', 24. The figure is very 
common in Arabic poetry, as may be scon in Schnlt.ns' note upon this 

22. When my tyrrcii. dmp)vd duam itpmi them. So llout. xxiii. 1, 
"Sly dootrino shall drop as the rain." So Homer speaks of i\ ester's 
eloquence, Iliad, I. 249. : 

Ton xal ana yitLaays fi/hret yXuxtw $iir ailty 
Words, sweet as honey, from his lips distilled. Pope. 
So also Milton, Par. Lost, II. 112. : 

■ though his tongue 

28. Tlteij wailed, fyc. : i. e. They waited fur my opinion with the same 
eager desire with which the husbandman doiii the showers after he hath 
sewn his seed ; they gaped for it. as the thirsty earth doth for the latter 
rain to plump the corn. Patrick. Among the Egyptians, the heavens 
pouring down rain or ..leu - was the hieroglyphic of leaniing and instruc- 
tion. Burdtr. 

2i. If I smiled a pun tkem, liu-y brltei-rd it not. The reverence in 



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252 ROTES. 

which I was held was so groat, thai, if I laid aside my gravity and wag 
familiar with ihom, lliey oouM srareely believe Hut Ibey were so big<i'y 
honored ; my vury smiles were roecived with awe. — ,W JiJ /dry cumi! 
(Ac //y/ii o/ jmj cattntenfince to fall, In the Scriptures to /i/V up the light 
of the. countenance meat's to show favor. The- '.'p;nis : .(c expression, there- 
fore, to cause Ike light of Ike eiointenanee In full, must mean to provoke 
displeasure by unbecoming bolus iuL' ; to bring a cloud upon the oouuto- 

25. Wksa I came among them : lit. I chose their way; the particle 

□« being understood. Or rather it is a com n idiom of the Hebrew tij 

omit the conditional partj.'le, .just a; when in English one puts the verb be- 
fore the pronoun. Smiled I upon them, than /■■!■■;,■■ ,';. !<eccd it nut. Came 
I among them, then I sat, #c. 

Ch. XXX. 1, —younger than I. The veneration paid to the aged by 

the Orientals quiokened their .sensibility with respect to contempt and iu- 
dignitie- oi.Vered by ihe young. 

2. Of what use, $c. : i. e. If I have a mind to employ them, they are 
so reduced mid enfeeble:! by their wretched condition as to bo in capable of 
rendering me service. Did oge, ere. : i. o. who are so rnuoii emaciated by 
famine, as to have no hope or prospect of old age. 

3. — famished : "Khl, primarily, hard; arid is applied to a dry, 
stony soil ; and ln-nce it donotcs, lui.rren, 'hi,-, em.ori.ni, d, according to the 
connection. It ooours in eh, xv. S4, and Is. xli.x. 21. — The darkness of 
desolate wattes .' move literally, Jlurki/e.-ss, masting, and d.cse/alion ; or. 
The night of vjoding and dilution. See note on oh. iii. 7. See Merc, 
or Ges. upon ffQX. 

4. — parslain. It is most probable that it denotes the plant ulri/ikx 
haliuins, or sea-orach, or pnrslain, which Itioscorides describes as a kind 
of brabble without thorns, the leave,!! of which used to be boiled an'l 
eaten. It has a, saltish taste, ftfad is a denominative from rhli, salt. 

Bo wo have in English salad, and in French, German, Italian, salads, 
salat, insalata. See Harris's Nat. Hist, of the Bible, p. 285. — Die 
broom. This is a plant abounding in the desert and Bandy plains of 

Egypt and Arabia, lis root is very bitter. See Bos. 

8. — beaten : i. o. driven out with blows. 

10. — spit before my face. The associaiion between spilling am! shame 
is such now in the Mast that we can scarcely conceive of it. Monsieur 
d'Arvieus tells us, "The Arabs are sometimes disposed to think, that, 
when a person spits, it. is done out of contempt ; and they never do it 
before their superiors." But Sir J. Chsrdin's MS. goes much farther. 



isteany GOOgk 



JOB. 



258 



He tells us, in a noie on Numb. xii. 1 I, tlnii " spitling before any one, or 
spitting upon til*: ground In spe.akiiig of any one's actions, is, through the 
East, an expression of extreme lick'sUilam." It was p"t.. L.-ibty nil that (.lie 
law required in l)eut. sxv. 0. 'J33 oflen Jciiolin^ f<]/'nj-« one, in one'i 



presence. See Josli. xxi. ■!■!, sxiii. U ; Est!), is. 2. See Harm. 



s Oksorv. 



eh.: 






1 1. They let loose the reins, and humble we. Thr.y insult nmi alllier me 
without restraint, and in an unbridled manner. Thus the meaning is the 
same as that of the oilier clause of the Terse. 

12. — the brood. The youth are thus called by way of reproach. They 

east up tifi'iinst me tlifii destnuiive iimi/s. The metaphor is drawn from the 
advance of a oc-i.'giug army against a city. 

13. Titty break up my path : i. c. Thoy oppose all ray plan*, and hinder 
mo from taking any course for my relief or bor.ciit. — T/it-u that have no 
helper! Sehulrens has shown that l.he phrase, oue. who hits no helper, was 
proverbial amongst the Aral:.-., anil denoted a worthies- poison, or one of the 
lowest class. It is probably so used here. 

15. They pursue, mi/ prosperity .* i. e. They come upon me with unrelent- 
ing violence, destroying my peace. The image is borrowed from a person 
buffeted by a violent slorm. 

16. — poured itself out upon me. So in Ps. xlii. i. In our language wa 
say that one is dissolved in grief. The foundation of the metaphor is, that 
in excessive grief tin! mind lose*, as it were, all consistence. The, Arabians 
style a fearful person one. mho his a ™i.tj l,e.a;t, or whose heori. nulls away 

iil.e ,('<ff, r. 

17. — my gnawers : i. c, my gnawing pains. El ■/u.i me. coiiic.iu.nt von 
dorniinnt. Vulg. 

18. — is my tfarir-ey/t chuv/ed : i. e. his skin wire!] whs alTeered by the 
leprosy, so that he ooir'd scarcely be recognised. Some, however, suppose 

the meaning to be that his oarer garment. Hie utle, had become close 

like the tunic. Schultens renders it, ii (pain) foil!; become my garment. 
lie has .shown licit it is a common motnphor in .Arabic, poetry. It agrees 
well with the parallel clause. — like the er.lUir of my tunic. The 
allusion probably is to that kind of Eastern tunic which was seamless, and 
nil of a piece, and had an opening; at the top, with a sort of cellar which 
war; i'lsuaieil close around the neck. Comp. Exod. xxvili. 82. 

19. — lam, become like, e}c. .' i. e. more '.ike, a ma;.s oi" inanimate natter 
than a living man. See oh. is. 81, and note. 

20. Island up. Standing being thensuil posture of n rover amongst the 
Hebrews, to stand, or stand up, is sometimes used for to pray, as Ootins 
remarks in his note on Matt, vi. 5. See (Jen. sviii 22; der. sv, 1. Scott 



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254 NOTES. 

•2.2. Thou liftr'st me up, ij-n. Tin represent; ] j i h miseries under the image 
of a person caught up into the air by n Sempest, ami driven like stubble, or 
like a cloud, by the wind. — T/iwi im-At/si v.u- <nt:<u: : i. c. my strength of body 
and mind. Thou leavest nothing solid or firm in me. Some think this to 
be a continuation of the metaphor in the lir.s; clau-r, referring to a cloud, 
which, having been driven about by the wind, melts away and disappears, 
— i'n the storm: or more literally, tin: lali'n.y, or rinj-hhiij, or noise of the 
tempest. With considerable hesitation I have concluded to adopt tins ren- 
dering, proposed by Stuhlmann. in his Translation published in Hamburg, 
1804, as being on the whole more probable than r.uy of the various mean- 
ings assigned to the Hebrew in ancient, m modern versions. It is obtained 
by altering the vowel points so as to rend n-.:;'.", and regarding this as 
equivalent to HStfri, or MX'L"P, which is found in the plural in jssv. 29, 



i of Jehovah's tabernacle, 



o the shoutings of tl 
e, and in Zech. is. 7 



2fi. But when I hioke.d, ,yi:. He expected lo he made hnppy ai! his liie, 
through the tlii me. benediction, on account ni' his ch:;,hy nnd other virtues ; 
hut, instead of thai, he. was made most miserable. 

27. Mi/ hornets boil, #c. These expressions, in their liiern! meaning, de- 
scribe the violent inward heat caused by his i n flan im at ury disease. They 
may likewise include the ferment of his mind ever since his ulllietions came 
upon him. The heart and the mi"*, in the Oriental figurative style, dt-nole 
the thoughts and passions. Scott. 

29. I urn Uai:!c, but not by 'he sun. His disease bad made his complexion 
as swarthy as that of the poor laborers in the Held, who arc exposed to the 
scorching sun in that hot climate ; and so sharp were his pains, that he was 
obliged to shriek out, even in a puliiio assembly. 

29. 2" am become a brother to jackals : i. e. I am like the jackal with 









Hosted oy GOOgk 



hideous howling in the night. Dr. Poeocke observes, in his note upon 
Mieah i. 8, " TIil.'. ancient Syriac desiu-jbc; it, by a word, which, in that 
language, as their own authors toll us, signifies a kiiul of wild beast, 
between a dog and a fox, or n wolf and a fox, which the Arabians cull, 
from the unite they make. FArsi A-,i-i, or u-nu-i, and our English traveller,! 
and ether Europeans, by a, name borrowed from the people of those 
countries, whoro thoy are more known than in KnrujiB, ju-cliates, "which, 
abiding in the fields and waste places, make in the night a lamentable 
hnwling noise, insomuch that [r;t> e'dors, unacquainted with them, would 
think lhat a company of people, women or children, were howling one to 
another, as- none Ibtc have travelled in those pails uf Svvia, &c, can he 
ignorant. This translation seems to carry more reason with it than the 
rendering it drumms ; became of tfo' hitting of dragons, as of other 
serpents, we hear and read, hut nowhere in any credits hie author of their 
howling, or making such a noise as may be called ■mailing, or like to it." 
Bee also m in Ges. Lex., and llama's Nat, Hist. p. 118. — And a com- 

■panion lo oslrichi'S. Cnmp-miun is used like brother in the preceding iine, 
in denote resemh lance. See Ges. upon PJf . " During tlic lonesome part 

of tint night.," says Dr. Shaw, " they (the ostrich os) make vorv doleful and 
hideous noises ; which would sometimes be like the roaring of a lion ; at 
other times it would bear a nearer resemblance to the hoarser \oiet of 
oilier quadrupeds, p-u-'ticiilaviy of the ba'.l and the ox. ! haie often heard 
them groan as if they were in the greatest ugijuies." Shaw's Travels, 
Vol. II. p. 34S. 8vo. 

30. — is black, and. fulittk from >.ic : lit. is llavlr from vpoa me. 
Construct, Praig. 

31. My harp, Src. Those were probably p-cnefhinl expressions, 
deii'-'tiiig a choreic from happiness to misery. 

Ch. XXXI. The apology of Job in this chapter, says Mr. Scott, which 

turns chiefly on his behavior in private life, is net [lie eifusion of vanity 
and self-applause. It is, in regard to his antagonists, necessary seif- 
de'i'.n-e and solid refutation. Yet I think, from its connection with the 
foregoing account of his sufferings, and from verses 35 - 37, bis favorite 
design evidently is to show that God had. ninM/iIir-d his icvunds million! 
came. In this view he is chargeable with justifying himself more than 
God ; that is, with making his own cause to he more just than that of 
Providence. If we except this fault, however, the picture which lie has 
drawn is a masterly piece of moral painting. Nothing can be more 
finished and amiable than the character here represented. It is an 
exernp! ifb'.at' on ( the most disinterested virtue, iuspiicd and ennobled by 



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256 N T E 3. 

the moat rational ml exalted piety. In short, this apology may be justly 
styled a line epitome of morality and religion. 
1. How then, /;<:. : or, That I would not, fyc. 

6. Let hi in weigh, me, c]-e. Si. ; suppose this verse tn be pnrentbetienl, 

and that the imprecation in verse 8 relates to verse 5, as well as to verse 
7. Others, thai, this verse incudes a tucit. imprecation : Let Mia weigh 
me, <§-c, and if I am found guilty, .)/«;/ he do so lo me, and more also .' 

7. — front the way : i. e. of rectitude. — Or if any stain : i. e. any 
unjust gain. If I have taken the property of others by fraud or violence. 
The Kept, renders the elan™, If ! hn.ee touched gifts tilth my hands .* i. e. 
taken bribes. 

9. —a tinman. .9 woman here means a married woman. It stands 
opposed to a maid in verse 1, and is rendered wife in ver. 10. — watched, 
fyc, to see when the husband was absent, ana ivlira there was an oppor- 
tunity for committing adultery. 

10. Then let. my isii'c grind, for another : i. e. let her be liis abject 
slave. The ancients grnuud their com witb hand-mills. This was the 
work of female servants. See Es. xi. 5 ; Is. xlvii. 2 ; Matt. xxiv. 41, 

■ 12. Yea, it were a fire, $c. The commission of such a o rime would 
have provoked God to send destruction, like a consuming lire, upon my 
fiimily and white. See l's. lxxxiii. 14. 

14. — riseih up : i. e. ;is a judge, to imvuire into in id punish the sins of 

13. Or canned :h- eye of the widow lo fail ; i. e. If I refused her the 
relief which she implied of me with earnest eyes. 

17. Have lea-en n\y morsel alone ? " No sooner was our food pre- 
pared, whether ii, was potted iiesh, boiled wli.h rice, a lentil soup, the red 
pottage, Cen. xxv. 30, or unleavened cukes, served up with oil or honey, 
than one of the Arabs, after having |.ilaeod hiin-cll' on the highest spot of 
ground in the neighborhood, culls out thrice with a loud voice to all their 
brethren, the norm of the failtifiil, to come and jiarbi.kc of it, though none 
of them were in view, or perhaps within a hundred miles of them." 
Shaw's Travels, Vol. I. p. xx. Burokhai'iU informs us that in Kerek, a 
city in Arabia, " when a si-ran^er (.'nuts the Idwn, tlie jic-oplu almost come 
to blows with one another, in their eagerness to have him for their guest; 
and there are Turks who every other day kill a goat for this hospitable 

lc\ — helped the >ji!d---ic : lit. assisted her, the au:o: indent being in verse 
18. 

21. Because, Jm»; m.:j h.lp in the gate: i.e. IV lien, on account of 
my influence in tin: courts i f Justice,, T could ciuniuit any not of injustice 
with impunity. 

22. And my fore-arm, $c. There is a striking grandeur in this im. 



Hosteany GoOglC 



: lifted up to threaten an orphan 
; bone : i. e. from the upper arm, 1 



precation on the arm that w 
of justice. Scott. — from ■ 
was appended. 

28. If I kes bkhtld, tfc. See Dent. Iv. 10. Saltiism, or Hib worship 
of t-lie beavenly bodies, i™ doubrless the most ancient spoeios of idnlatry. 
The Ariiba wen: early into it. They adored the sun a i i ■ 1 moon, the planets, 
and the fised stars. See jjieyelop. Amer.Ai-t. Saiwi'sai. 

27. And my mO'/lli knee. kUstl. my knrni. Kissing the idol was an act 
of religions homage. Trie Mahometans, at Ike present o* 



.t Moo :■■>,. kiss tin! blue'.: 
the BBat-Allah, as often as they p 
sajired building. If they cannot 
it with their hand, and kiss the 
ancient idolatry, though not pr: 
bodies, being at too great a distil 
shippers substiluiod lassing rhcii 
Scott. Minuting Felii (De Soe; 
Cieeilius observed the statue of S 
superstitious vulgar, he moved hi 
hi- iip=." 

32. The stranger, tyc. See note on ver. 17. 

83. — after the manner of men. See Is. Yin. 1 ; Ps. Isssii. 7. Other- 
wise, Have I, like. Jldu-m, hidden nil trimsi/ressions. 

31. I have follov.vd fichulk-ns, J);t;lio, and Keott. in rendering tin 
ver.se in I '.is imprecatory form. Seine confine the impri 

85-37. Job here renews the wish, which he had expressed in ch, XV 
IS, ami elsewhere, lii.al God would color into judgment with him. He 
convinced that the result of a trial would bo honorable to him. " Bold. 
ivinds tlom these Jdh Iim.iJ nut uttered i:i liie whole disp 
yoked Klihn to renew the debate, and these are the exprt 
lliij Almighty chielly reju-imanded him, in cii. si. '2, S, I, 



ne, which is fastened in the mmcr of 
by it, in their rapid wa.lks round that 
no near Enough to his; it, they touch 

sed nf such by them. The heavenly 
lijr a inline of the uioiitii, their ivor- 

wn hands in place of that ceremony. 
cap. 2, ad fin.) remarks, that, when 

pis, " according to the custom of tlie 
land to his Miauli, and kissed it with 



:-'.-l 



These pi\>- 
J for which 
iiit.ks ur no 



aelh, 



35. - 



• signature, in. This 



j the 



e Met.. 



has the form of a cross in the Phoenician Alphabet, 

the Maccabees. See in Stuart's Grammar the Hcbn 
mark, or cross, was used, probably, to denote the nan 
used it, when he was unnUe to write his name. He 



rew letter n, which 
.nd on the coins of 
I coin-letter. This 
of the person who 
;e it denotes a sub- 



writing itself, as in 
iifenoe, rather than 
s.i far as to offer to 1 

probable that he offers a bill of dofu 



■ deft 



, by r, 



■ f complai 



understand it here a hill of 
plains it. Job hardly goes 
t against God, It is more 
invites She Deity to answer 



isteaoy G00gk 



258 N0TE8. 

him, i. c. to refute what he has said in his defence, if hi: can, and to bring 
what charges he i;nn nnjiiisjat him. — Jlmi IH mine adversary, fyc. : i. e. 
Let tin,- .Wiighly. a- adversary or opponent in court, charge me with any 
liitis ou aocouutof whioli I sutler my oxlraevdinary alircticns. 

38. Truly I vxinld lef.ar it upnn my siinuliier, §c. : i. e. Instead of 
being ashamed of it, ur endeavoring to conceal it. I would wear it as an 
(!i'iiiL:iienl. about my person. 1 wint'id glory in it, as aifording me the long 
desired opportunity of vindicating my character. 

ST. — all my steps: i.e. the whole course of my life.' — / would ap- 
proach him. like a prince : i. e. with ciuitiaencc ami cheerfulness, as be! 113 
coiisuiuus of in 1 licence, and not us a self- condemned malefactor, 11s I imi 
rcgne'h d by my friends. 

88-40. It is not improbable that thea: verses have aeciden tally been 
transferred from their original place in the chattel 1 , and that (he speech 
of Job ended with verse 37. The natural place for the passage, according 
lo mi id em idea 5 of an an gem out, would lie a.ller verso 23 or '2». 

38. — cry out against me: i. e. to God for vengeance, because I have 
obtained it from its rightful owners by fraud or violence. See Gen. iv. 10; 
Hal), ii. 11. — bficail together : i. e. of my hiju^iec in keeping the hind 
dishonestly acquired. 

u'J. — without, pnym.nd : i. e. without paying the price which I promised 
to give the owner of the land. Or, without paying the laborers their 
wages. — And wrung out the life of it: n<. -itr* : Li (oral )y, cay:; ft. the life 
0!' the owners lo breaths forth: i. e. by dopi'iung ihem of their land; 
drained their life-blood, as we should say. The common version gives the 
literal meaning of tin: words, lint tlie cvpn-ssioii is piubably hyperbolical, 
meaning lo inflict great diatri-ss. 

40. — noxious weeds : nE'&a , from tfta, to have a bad smell. So the 
Chald. 



With chapter thirty- second commences a new division of the poem, the 
design of which seems to be to prepare the way fur (he appearance of the 
Deity in the latter part of it. A. new speaker is introduced, of whose 
action, and of whose motives fur renewing the debate, nn account is 
n in the first Ave verses. In the last chapter Job had triumphantly 
•d his defence against the accusations of his friends, and they are 



isteaoy G00gk 



job. 259 

3 renouncing il.e discussion with him, " because he 
.s righlcous in liis own tw| : ' that is, because ha contended that he 
ti:id been guilty i.'f no wickedness which could call down upon him Ihe 
hoary vengeance of God. Elihunow steps forward, ftfl a sort of mediator, 
or arbiter in the controversy. He I'spi'S'i his dissatisfaction with 
both parties ; with ,foh, " because ho !i;ul pronounced himself riehleosiH, 
rather than God," tli.it is, because ho hud defended so vehemently Iho 
justice of his own cause, Unit lie scorned in sont measure to arraign the 
justice of God ; and with the three friends " because they had not fi.iiud 
an answer, and vol had condemned Job: ; ' that is, they hud concluded, in 
their own minds, that Job was impious! and winked, a! though they had 
molding specific to object solium bis assertions !:f his iraii innocence, or 
U2'en which they iiiLdil saiely around their aoonsa-ion. 

Elihu professes, after a slight prefatory mention of himself, to reason 
with Job, unbiassed either ley favor or rosentnient. lie therefore reproves 
Job from iiis ow n mouth, because ho hi- 1 attril'iited ".■ o iniich to himself ; 
because lie had insisted tuo strongly uper. his freedom from guilt and de- 
pravity; because he had presumed to contend with God, and had not 
scrupled to insinu.aio that the Deity was hosiiie tu him. Ho asserts that it 
is not necessary for God to explain and develop his counsels to men; that 
lie takes many occasions of admonishing them, not only by visions and 
revelations, but also by the visitations of his providence, by sending 
calamities and diseases upon them, in order to repress their arrogance, and 
turn them from those e -. II purposes which would end in their ruin. He 
seems to regard afflict ions, not as punishment for past o (fences, nor as 
evidence of a eaiiky character; but rather as preventives of those sins 
Which the best men sometimes commit, and as salutary discipline for the 
correofion of those faults of which a man may he unconscious, until his 
attention is awakened by adversity. Ch. sixiii. He nest rebukes -lob, 
because he had pronounced himself innocent, and affirmed that God had 
acted inimiearly. if not unjustly, towards him. lie brings forward various 
considerations to show that the Governor of the world can do nothing in- 
consistent with justice and benevolence, i'rom these considerations he 
infers the duty of a man in Job's situation. Ch. xxxiv. He then objects 
to Job, that, from the miseries of the. good and the prosperity of the 
wicked, he has falsely oral pci-.-crsely concluded that there is no advantage 
to be derived from the practice of virtue. On the contrary, he affirms, 
that, when the afflictions of the just continue, it is because they do not 
place a proper confidence in. God, ask relief at his hands, patiently ex peel- 
it, nor demean themselves bctbre him with boc.ooing humility and sub- 
mission. This observation alone, he adds very properly, (sxxv. 4,) is at 
once a sufficient reproof of the contumacy of Job, and a full refutation of 
the unjust suspicions of his friends. Oh. xxsv. I.astiy, be explains the 



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5260 NOTES. 

purposes of the Deity in chastening men, which are, in general, to prove 

nud amend them, to repress their arrogance, lu uSlbrd him nn opportunity 
of e\empb tying his justice upon the obstinate and rebellious, and of show- 
ing favor to the humble ami obedient. He supposes God to have acted hi 
tiiis manner towards Job; oil this iu:i;lhuiI In; exhorts him to humble him- 
self «)jiiii-c his rijvKrKiiitH Judge, to beware of appearing obstinate or con- 
ttiaiaeious in iiis sight, and of roliinsing inlo a repetition of his sin. He 
entreats him, from the contemplation of the divine power mid majesty, to 
endeavor to retain a proper reverence tin: I'm; Aimighly, and to submit to 
liis mysterious allot morns. Ch. xxxvi., xxxvii. To these frequently in- 
termitted and often repeated isd nitonis of j.'ilihu. Job makes no reply. 

Loieth. Bouillier observes that Elihu did not hit upon the precise cause 
of Job's atlliciiuiis, t.hungli lie gave a more ra.iiotia.l conjecture than the 
three friends of Job. Thus one purpose of the poet is answered, -viz. that 
of sboiviug, tl'oit it is belter to submit to the wisdom of i'rovidence than 
curiously to pry into it 

Ch. XXXtl. 2. Then twras kindled the wrath. These expressions do 

not mean that lie was in a passion. 'I liny ore the strung Oriental manner 
of do no ting high disapprobation. At most, limy signify no more than a 
becoming warmth. Scott. — Elihu . . . the Buzite. We know nothing 
more of Elihu liu-u is here meni.ii ml. Buz was the sround son of Nahor, 
the brother of Abraham; and the city of this name, probably derived 
from ihe same family, is mentioned in Jer. ssv. 22, in conjunction with 
Dedan, which we know to have been in Idumeea, Good. 

■1. — till J-Ji hud sp-jken : Supply, aim' , : ti.i three friw-i.t. 

8. — the spirit in man. By supposing fUT to mean ihe divim spirit, 

so as to be synonymous with ihe. inspuiiH.-H o/ ihe Jllmi-^kly, in the other 
clause of the verse, the parallelism is preserve 1, am! a sense well suited 
to the connection allbi'doJ. Having sail], in Ihe preceding verso, that lie 
had expected to lind wisdom i.u age and in experience, he now intimates 
that he is disappointed ; that he finds thai wisdom is nil: the attribute of 
age or station ; that it is the gift of God ; and that what is denied to the 
great and the aged may be found in a youth. The expressions. the 

spirit, and the. inspirnHna. uf tin .'llmi'jhly, may dr. te tire divine gifi of 

natural genius a.ud endowments, oc extraordinary illumination from the 
Father of lights. The connection seems to be in favor of the latter sense 
here. The ancients used to as ■rihe all extraordinary endowments to divine' 
Thus in Homer, a person is wise by the assistance of Minerva, 
has s, similar sentiment in the prel'e.v to tin; Reason of Church 
, urged n-jniii!-, 1 . t'reluty : "And if any man think I under- 
take a task too difficult I'uf my years, 1 trust, through the supreme eii- 



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JOB. ZBi 

lightening assistance, far otherwise ; for my years, bo they few or many, 
what imports itl So they bring reason, let that be looked on." Some 
reader the verse thus : 

There is, indeed, a spirit in man ; 

Bnt it is the inspiration of tho Almighty that giveth understanding. 

13. God must conquer him, not muu : \. e, Do nut excuse your ceasing 
to reply, by alleging [hat, the wisest course which can be taken with Job 
is to leave him to be humbled by God, as being too obstinate to be re 
daiim- 1 by mi.u. S-.i Ho-ntt, r.iijiL^h n,it ivitii the best taste. 

Say not, " "Tia wisdom that wo leave to God 

To humble this stiff sinner with his rod ! " 
Otherwise, God hitit thrust Itbn down, not man: i.e. Say not tlintye have 
goue to thB root of the matter, and proposed mi unanswerable argument 
against Job, and proved him to be a bad man, by the assertion that his 
misery is intlieted by a just God. So Merc. 

14. And wiilt speeches lilts yours will I not misuser him. Their 
speeches were leveled against his ivholc mova! character, aiming to prove 
him a wicked man from the simi'.nri'y of his sufferings to those of noto- 
riously wicked men. JJliUu lakes :iri;ithor course, lie. limits bis censure 
to Job's answers in this d : smile, lie fixes upon some of the most olr.os- 
ions passages, such a.s seemed to l:clr;iy ton hirdi conceit of his own virtue, 
want of respect to Gud, ami dishoiimm'olc sentiments i:f Providence, and 
takes occasion from these pas-agos iu i indicate the divine goodness, equity, 
and justice. Seotl. 

15. They were confounded ! fyc. Elihu here ridicules the fviemls id' 
Job, because they we re unable to answer him. Some suppose that. Elihu 
hero addresses an audience who were liBionai;; to the discussion, and de- 
sires t&em to observe 'ho cm fusion of the three friends. There is no 
objection to this explanaiion, e.veopr that it is unnecessary. For the third 
person is often used f.u- the first or secoml in Hebrew poo try, and particu- 
larly when censure or contempt is expressed. See eta. xiii. 2S, sviii. 
i, sli. 9. 

18. The spirit within : i. o. My soul, which is full of ardor, and 
p.. no I'r'.i l".y iiipcih' I :<> taako ,;:iown my views. 

19. Like bottles of new wine: literally, new bottles. These bottles, 
being made of skin, were liable to burst, when they had become old, arid 
were filled with new wine. See Mat. ix. 17. 

21. / will not be partial, frc. : i. c. f will deliver my Hcntimonts with 
freedom and impartiality. 

22. — take me away ; i. e. destroy me. 



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Ch. XXXIII. 3. — hnrm-le/tje purd-j : This may mean that he utter? 
what lie knows sincerely, or that he gives a true view of the subject, 

i. The spirit of God made me, $c. : i. e. I am thy fellow-oreature, de- 
pendent lilic thee upon God, and l.hevelbro fit iu discourse with thee upon 
equal terms. 

6. Jefto/i/, J, like thee, am a creature of God. Lit. I, like thee, am 
by God, i. e. created by God. This meaning accords with that of the 
parallel chaise. He infinities dial Job might eng;igo him upon equal 
term:;, having nothing to fear but the strength uf his arguments. 

7. Behold, my terror, #e. ; i. e. You are in no danger of being con- 
founded by the terror of my appearance, or of being borne down hy the 
weight of my authority. In order to see (lie farce of this declaration, we 
must call to mind the bold challenge of Job iu ch. ix. 84, 35, siii. 2i>-22. 

9. lam pure, and without transgression. Job had not used those 
very expressions, hut he had used others equivalent to them, in eh. is. 

10. Behold, he sceketh emm of hostility ugo.i.-ist. me, $c. See Ges. 
upon ntf!3P, and lies, lie refers lo the language of Job in ch. slil. 24, 

25, xiv. 16, 17, sit 11. 

11. He putleth my feel, Itc. See ch. siii. 27. 

12. Behold, in this thau art not rigid : i. e. Your language to (lie 
Deity is wholly inexcusable. If is inconsistent with Ihe reverence which 
is due to so great a Being. — God is greater than man. " This is one 
of those cxprcssaais which imply loach more than is csprcsscd. There is 
a kind of ironical casligation in it. As if ho had said, '■ You talk to God 
as an equal ; but nicthiuks he i= sun^ew-at superior fo us." Scott. 

13. Why dost thou, §c. To convince .lob how culpable his behavior 
is, Elihu argues that it is irreverent and fruitless, God, says he, will 
never stoop to defend his measures against muni Hirers, nor will he com- 
municate the reasons of them to those who cavil at !i!s dispensations. 
Scott. 

14. For God speakeih, #c. He alleges ai-.otiier argument against 
striving with God, There is no just cause for it. God has sufficiently 
manifested liis gooilness ami oa.ro (if maekiad, by tins nioihods which be 
takes to show them their duty, to recover them from their wanderings, 
and thereby to save theoi from dost ruction. Seott. 

l!i. — seiilctli up, §e. .* i. e. secretly admonishes them. 

17. And hide pride from man. Pride may comprehend insolence 
towards God and towards man. Hut- T apprehend that Elihu had his eye 
on the former ; am! that he glances at Job's ioo high opinion of his own 
rectitude and merit, which gave rise to his complaints against God. 



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JOB. 263 

18,22. —his life — kit soul. Tiicse words denote the jtor^jn himself, 
and are etjuiviiliiut to tliu iiiii-auim-l pronoun he. See Stuart's Gram. § 186. 

22. — the destroyers : i.e. unguis of deaLh, or the instruments or causes 
ofdoatli generally. 

28. — a messenger, an interpreter.- yha "jsrtO. Some render these 

words a mediutiny angel, so called from being thu medium of communic a- 
lion between God anil man. As Satan is. re ore; on led as going round the 
earth, and accusing too pious bciorc Hod, it is said to be natural that 
good annuls should bo employed on emmls of mercy. This may be the 
true meaning. But as a prophet or religious teacher is often called by 
this name, (see Eool. v. 6 ; Hag. i. 13 ; Mai. ii. 7,) and is the usual per- 
son employed for the instruction of men, it is most probable that such a 
person is denoted here. Jililiu moy refer to himself, and to the office 
which he was then performing towards Ji b. Throughom his speech he. is 
represented as thinking very highly of himself, and I am persuaded thai 
ho was thinking of himself here. — tin interpreter : i. e. a, tcueher, one 
who makes known the will of God. — one of a thousand : i. e. a rare 
person, one well qualified to be a religious monitor. Sao Eocl. y'a, 28. 
— his duty : i. e. what reason and religion require of a man in his situa- 
tion ; repentance, submission, and prayer to God for pardon. In Cran- 
mer's, llible, to show hiuitj,e right bb. The instruction is supposed to 
be effectual, as appears from the following verses. 

24. — and sat/, Save him.: i. e. he shall be saved. — J have found a 
ransom : i. e. I am satisfied with bis rcpeiiUrice ; he has been sufficiently 
humbled by bis afllietions. Whatever is a means of averling punishment, 
or of procuring deliverance from c--.il, and cone Niacin;; tlic divine fai r or, is 
termed in Scripture a ransom, or atonement. The intercession of Moses 
and the act of l'hincas :'.ie so eil'.cd, dnd bore (lie sick man's repent usicis. 
See Ex. xxiii. SO ; Numb. ssv. 13. So Ecclesiasticus xsxv. 3, " To 
depart from wickedness is a thing pleasing lo the Lord ; and to forsake 
unrighteousness is a propitiation " (t Silastic). 

26. — (o see his face, ^c: i.e. to enjoy his favor. The expression Is 
borrowed from Oriental ideas respecting kings and great men; to be 
admitted into wlmse presence, or to see kjioso foces, wa» esteemed a mark 
of favor, a privilege. — Jin d restore onto man !,ix innocence : i. e. regard 
and treat him as innocent. 

27. He shall sing. See Ges, upon TI0. 

29. Time after time i lit. Twice and thrice. The Sept. renders it, 
mW; tnsie, three '.coys, referring to Ibree ways in which men are said to 
be admonished, viz. by dreams, ver. 15, by sickness, ver. 19, and by a 
religious teacher, ver. 23. 



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st>4 NOTES. 

Cli. XXXI V. IS. — / rtm fare's a liar ,• i (. I am regarded aa a nicked 
raan on aooount of my misery, not with scan ding my innocence. See eh. 
xvi. 8. — My wound, fyc. See oh. ix. 17. 

8. WAd i/outt ■;".'( cornp'iiiij. Jj-c - '■ e. Who speaks like the wicked 
men, who call I'rovidenee in question. 

" .Marinor-co luruiilu l.iiciuus jaect, at Oato millo ; 
Ponipeius parvo. Quia putet esse Deos ? " 

9. JL man hath nn adeaiita-'e, Ijc. Job had not used this lan^tiaey ; 
but in oh. ii. 22, and eh. xii., he had expressed nearly the same senti- 

13. Who kalli. t/irr.n him the. ckarije, lye. Elihu's first argument, to 
prove that. God cannot be unjust, is taken from his independence. Wore 
God a subordinate governor, he might be tempted to commit injuries, to 
gratify the avarice or vosrmtui-raa. ui' tils superior. Scott. 

11. SiiovJ.il lie set his ke-nl naa.iml man. : i. e. i-ilo'aM ';e deal severely 
with him. His sec. ii'l argument in fnau the dh ine benevolence. If God 
were unjust, revengeful, and cruel, the earth would be n dreadful scene 
of universal desolation. So In Wisdom of Sol. xi. 24-26, "For thou 
lovest all things that are, and nlihorrost viufhing wliieli thou hast made ; 
for never wouldst thou liave made anything, ii' thou hadst hated it. And 
how could anything have endured, if it had not been thy will ; or been 
preserved, if not called hy thee ? Jiut thou spiire.it all; for they are thine, 
Lord, thou lover of souls ! " Others render the line, If he. had regard 
for himself alone. 

17. Shall lie, Unit kahili jinliee, irossrn '■ Tie ui'jsuuutit is similar to 
that of Abraham, " Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?" Gen. 
xvii. 25. If God were unjust, there would he nothing but disordci' and 
confusion in the world. 

19. How much less, fyc. So Wisdom of Sol yi. 7, 8, " For he who is 
Lord over all shall fear no man's person, neither shall he stand in awe of 
any man's greatness ; for he hath made the snia'l and great, and careth 
for all alike. But a sore trial shall come upon the mighty." 

20. — yea, at midnight, $c. The allusion seems to he to soma capita] 
city overthrown hy tin earthquake. - anil, pans uia:.y : i. a. into the grave. 
-- u:\ti\nui hand : i. e. by no human hand ; Ijy the imisihle power of God. 
See Lam. iv 6 ; Dan. ii. 34. 

23. He needeth iaA attend- Italy to a man: lit. Hi- doth not fix his 
mind long upon a man; ia 1 ? being understood alter D'jt\ So Ges., 

Datlie, and Itos. The circumstance is mentioned to illustrate the omni- 
science of God, and the suddenness with which he often inflicts punish- 
ment. He, in whose sight all things are naked and open, haa no need of 



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job. 265 

it long anil forma! examination into u man's character before lie proceeds 
to punish hi mi 

21. —without inquiry: i. e. without judicial invesiigalion. such us must 
he resorted to by men. . 

2«. In the presence, fyc. .- lit. In the place of spectators. 

28. Jlnd caused, fyc. Others render. .S'r> that he ((wd) eaiist.il. tht cry 
of the. poor to com-: upon them. 

2a. And wlten he kidetk his face, who can behold hint ? i. e. When he 
withdraws his favor, who can expect or obtain help f 'mm him.' 

81, 82. It is observed by Scott that the petition ami confession, which 
Eliha recommends to .lob, would ho highly improper .'or one who knows 
himself to lie guilty of heinous crimes, hut highly fit for it person who, 
though good in the main, hits reason to suspect somewhat amiss in his 
temper and conduct, for whi-i-lj. God is displca-oil with him. It appears 
plainly that Elihu did not suppose Jot) to bo a wicked man, suffering for 

Iiis oppressions, bribery, iuliu miy, find iuipii ty, with which his three 

friends had charged him. 

33. — and not he: lit. and not I; by Mimesis. See Glass, p. BIS ; 
Stuart's Gram. § 212 ; oh. xviii. 4; sssv. 3. 

36. — i. o. that he may not-oease to be tried with afflictions, until he is 
humble lit' penitent. 

Ch. XXXV". 2. I am more righteous than God. Job hail not used 
these words ; but this was I lie aumniii of his complaints against God, and 
his justification of himself See oh. is, BO -35, s. 15. 

3. He had already brought the charge contained in ibis verse, in eh. 
xxxW. 9. But there lie censured the complaint of Job, as an arraign- 
ment of the justice of God. Mere it is considered as implying that God 
was under obligation tn him. The charge is, that .Job mid in ellcct said : 
I have been more just to God than he hath been to me. I have discharged 
my duty to him, but h:i\e not niel with a ore. per roiiivn from him. .My 
innocence bath been of no advantage to mo. Elihu replies, first, that so 
groat a .Doing cannot possibly he hurt, by the sins, or benefited by the 
services, of men; and, secondly, that our vice and virtue ean harm or 
profit our fellow-mortals only. Scott. 

i. — thy companions: i. e. those who cnlecia'n the same unworthy 
sentiments of God and his providence. 

6. Look up to the heavens, i§-(\ This is a sublime sentiment in a plain 
dress. One view, says he, of the inaguitieent scenery of the lofty sky will 
extinguish ail low conceptions of its almighty Author. It will strike the 
mind with a vast idea of his ir.linite superiority to all ether beings, and of 
the impossibility nl his gaining or sullcnug by the good or had behavior 
of his reasonable creatures. Scott. 

12 



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266 NOTES. 

0. The oppressed cry out, %c. He now passes tit another topic, viz. 
Job's complaint of Ood'a disregard of the numerous oppressions committed 
in the world, the authors of which he suffers to escape with impunity. 
Elihu replies, that when God iuoages lift die oppres-ied it is owing to their 
wan t of piety. lie neglects IJiem, I, ".■■.: i :-:■ -U-.-i i : ■. ■ ;_i- : i ■ : ■ : him. They mur- 
mur, but they do n:.'l pray. They hvu c! orous, but they are not humble. 

This seems an oblique hint to Job that the continuation of his sufferings 
was owing to his u a submitting behavior. Scott. 

10. Who giTKtii, so.'ij'S in Vie. ni^ht. Songs are thanksgivings to God 
for deliverance. The term ni:;id metaphorically denotes atllictmn, as in 
ch. sssiv. 25. 

14. Much less : i. c. shalt thou be heard. He alludes to tin:' complaints 
of Job in oh. \iiii. 8, &e. — Justice is -with him, fyc. : i. e. Although 
thou oomplaicest il'iir. fiod decs nor. apnear to tlioe f..r thy dehvc ranee, yet 
be assured that thy cause is known to him, and that thou shalt receive 
juMiee fr. .;;: him, if 1 lie a wilt 'ally commit thyself re him. 

15. transgressions. See ties, upon t3. ,■',<',:<'<■' re m.-, Sept. and Theodo- 
tion ; Ticujumi.uti!!!, Symimielms ; sctUu, Vulg. Dr. Dui-ell thinks 
K»32 to be a corruption for j,'K'i33. Homo suppose that he refers to the 
transgressions of Job by this expression, particularly to his irreverent 
speeches, &c. Others, that lie refer.? to tlie transgressions of the wicked, 
which Job U;ii( asserted to be Corimiiaed v.ith impunity. 

Ob, XXXVI. 3. I will bring my knowledge fr„m afar : i. e. from 

remote times, places, and things. T will not confine my discourse to thy 
particular ease, but will justify God by declaring his great and gioeinus 
works of creation unit providence, both in heaven anil earth, and his 
manner of dealing wilii men in ether puns anil ages or' the world. Poole. 

i. A man of sound knoii:l'.'.-/;;c. riiilin refers to himself, anil means 
that he is unbiassed by prejudice, and will not seek to baffle Job by 
sophistical arguments. 

5. — but despiseth not.any. He may refer to Job's expressions in eh. 
i. S, See. 

12. — the sword .- i.e. the sword of divine justice. 

18. — treasure up wrath. This may mean that they retain anger, or 
persevere in the cxerc:s<' of angry feeiiiigs, or that (hoy treasure up the 
wrath of Crod against them. See Rom. ii. 5. — vihen he bin-Ielh than : 
i. o. bringcth .■dillclion 1411:01 them. See verso 8. 

14. with the unclean. B'$132. See Ges. ad verb. 

20. — that night: i. e. the night of death. Ho warns him against 
impatient wishes for death, aod murmuring against God. 

21. But let thy suu'ei-ings teaeii tins: caution, ami make thee afraid to 



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J of. 267 

go on to provoke offended justice ; toy thou hast doue it too much already, 
in choosing rather to aeeuse dkitio Vvtt\ iiicin'e I ban (o submit pal'ujuK' to 
his chastisements. Patrick. 

22. Who is a teacher like him '! n; y'ao inn xur' w'ciiv tur&nrr.; ; 
Sept. Etnullus ci similis in hgislirforibus. Vulg. The object of the 
remilining portion of lililm's discourse appears to be to convince Job of 
his ignorance of Ihc n-.i-ys ol' Pro\idcnce, bv his ign rauce of the works of 
creation, and to humble, him for finding fault with what he did not and 
could not understand. 

21.- ■ — his war/:. : i. e. that v/aidi he dees in the natural world, accord- 
ing to the following description, —celebrate with m>i$s. Tfyi/. Bee eh. 
■ sxxiii.; 27. de ijuh r.eciv-.riud riri. Vulg. qi/ud LttnLivcntnt viri jusli. 
Cliald. Sec Schult. and Ges. 

27. — draweth v.p the drops of imUr : i. e. by mean? of [ho inn, which 
changes water into viipoi', ami causes ii to ascend in(o tlie air. — Which 
distil rain : i. e. These minute pa. t tides ol water, drawn up by the sun 
in the form of yn.por,fnr:i>, or, more literally, pour out, rain. 

%). And the rulUinir of his pavilion: i. e. the thunder. By hia 
pavilion, or talir.rattct- , the clouds arc in (ended. See Ps, sviii. II. 

30. — his light See Pa. civ. 2. — And he cluiheth himself with the 
depths of the sea : i. e, which he draws up to heaven, ami forms into tho 
dark clouds wliich are hi* habitation. l'Sj' is to bo supplied from the pre- 
ceding lino. Comp. ver. 32. Oihcvwise, And he covercth the bottom of 
the sea : i. e. with darkness. The power of God in the highest and the 
lowest regions is denoted. 

31. By these : i. e. the clouds, rain, &c. 

33. Ths thunder, <J-c. Lit. His noise makc:li knov-a concerning 
him. Yea, to the herds rmir.r.riring him, who ascendeth on high. 1. e. 
the thunder proclaims God oven to the herds as he ascends In the tempest 
This rendering adopted by Cos., Il.i(/'g, and Do Vetfe, Bonus closer to til 
original Urin any previous (me. Though not entirely satisfactory, i 
may be accepted as the most probable. 

Ch. XXXVII. 1. At this, i. e. tho thunder, lightning, &c, of whieh 
bo was speaking. 

2. Hear, ftc.- Sonic suppose, that, while Elihn was spcaidng, thunder 
is represented as being heard, and the tempest as begi.i:i ; from whieli tho 
Deity was about to address Job. 

■3. And reslryineth it not .- i. o. The lightning. 

7. He seuleth up, §t. .' i e. The labors of the Hold are interrupted in 
consequence of these heavy and continual ruins, anil (lie husbandmen 
remain at home, with iheif haiois, sis itwc.re, in their bosom. — men whom. 



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268 NOTES. 

he hath made: lit. in.cn of his work. — may acknowletlge him.; or may 
have kiiotelrilijn ; viz. of their dependence upon the mighty power of God ; 
or, that it is lie who commands the snow, &o. 

9. — the South .* lit. Hie secret i-iuvm'er. See is. 0. 

10. — breath of God. The air seems to have been regarded as put in 
motion by the breath of God, and hence thin appellation is given to the 
wind, hen 1 a cold wind. When tin: ice is formed, (lie iiiiih' is vegan led as 

"contracted ; or what remains of it- is brought into a narrowei' compass. 
Cut some rogai-d Ihe parallelism of this verse as aiili'diet.ieal, and suppose 
the meaning to lie that the breath of God forms ice by cold winds, and 
dries up the waters by hot winds, like the Simoon. 

12. They move about : i. e. The clouds, rain, lightning, &c. 

13. Offer the land: i. e. what is necessary, in the course of nature, 
for fertilizing the earth. 

16. — Ihe balancing of the chm/is : i. e. how the cloud* are suspended 
in the air in such a variety of forms, and .lie not. borne to the ground by the 
weight of Winer which limy contain. From our ignorance of the works of 
nature, Elihu infers our incapacity of judging of t':ie divine counsels. The 
same kind of reasoning is pnrs'.ied in the Essay on Man : 

Presumptuous man ! the reason woiif.br. thou find. 
Why formed so weak, so little, and so blind! 
Ask of thy mother earth, why oaks were made 
Taller or stronger than the weeds they shade ; 
Or ask of yonder argent fields above, 
"Why Jove's satclli-.es are less than Jove. 

18. —firm Hke a molten mirror. Tt must lie recollected that mirrors 

in ancient times were made of metal highly polished. It may be ashed, 
what conception the author of Job entertained respecting the sky, which 
■led him to describe it as firm like a molten mirror. It lias been thought 
that in the book of Genesis the firmament, or blue vault of heaven, is 
represented as a solid snrlaec, in which the stars are lived at equal dis- 
tances from the earth. The chief support of thnt opinion is. 1 think, to be 
derived not so much from the Hebrew term itself, as from the circum- 
stance that a body of waters, [ike a sea. or ocean, seems to he represented 
as resting upon the firmament, which find made. Cotnp. Ps. cxlviii. 4. 
The Hebrew tet'm J''j5"S ftniiiiniciit, may denote n sola! body, as it were, 

hammered out, or, secondarily, any substa.noc tnrettd out. S^cc Ges. l.e*. 
ad verb. 

19. Teach us, ^o. This seems to be addressed to Job ironically, by 
way of reproof for his presumption ; as if he hid said. Via should like to 
learn from you, you are so well acquainted with the character and pur- 



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job. aey 

poses of God, in what manner we shonld address him or discourse with 
him. — darkness ; i. o. the darkness of our minds, or of the subject, 
or both. 

20. If I should speak, £-c.; i, e. Will any one venture to repeat to him 

my discourses, if I undertake Hi complain of the ways of Providence? If 
uny one should cany my complaints to his car, he would certainly be de- 
stroyed for his rashness. 

21. If the splendor of the firmament, illuminated by the sun, is too 
bright for man to behold, how can he endure the glorious majesty of its 
Author! 

22. From the North comelh gold. This is the literal rendering; and, 
us the [indents regarded the reeioiis of the Xorth as the peculiar place for 

' gold, Herod. III. 116, Plin. Nat. Hist. 6, 11, 33, 4, we need not seek a 
figurative sense,' however well such a sense might meet ttie connection. 
It ia rather harsh to use go'd :o denote qnliloi hay/line™ : harsher still to 
make Me North denote the Northern hemisphere, or iky. The idea is 
that men can find out where iio'.d is even in :oe most instant regions, and 
procure it; hut cannot comprehend God, or endure his majesty. Comp. 
ch. xxviii. 

23. The Alm\if,i!j, ^n. This sentiment seems ro he Ihc conclusion of 
Ihe whole discourse in vindication of God. We know lint very little of his 

■ nature and designs, and it is wi.iiij; lo censure what we do not understand 
in his tils pen siuions ; especially, since we have abundant proof of his jus- 
tice and goodness. — he dull: hot ojiirms : otherwise, hi: ifvelh no account 
of his doings, §v. Instead of r\l y; some ancient anil valuable manuscripts 
read my\ See xxxiii. 13. 

24. Upon none if the wise ii. litvrl. will he lor,!.-: i. e. who confide too much 
in their wisdom. I prefer the present rendering of this ambiguous line, 
because it better suits the parallelism. Otherwise, Whom none of the wise 
in heart am hkoldi i. e. they cannot endure :::u bikhliicss of his majesty. 
See Itos. ad loe. 



Whilst Elihn was yet spcaki::;-, Jcaovah kknse'f is represented as in- 
terposing, and addressing Job from the midst of a tempest. He docs not, 
however, at firsr, address him in Ihc Innjjiia-.-e of encouragement and ap- 
probation, which .loVs conseioasiLcss <-,t imegrhy hail le;i him to anticipate. 
Job had defended a good cause hi an improper tnanuer. The disigii of 
this discourse of the Almighly is, therefore, to reprove his complaints re- 



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270 NOTES. 

specting the ways of Providence; to bring liini into a proper Lemper of 
ininil, and thus tu prepare Llie way for liis iinnl vindication. Jehovah 
lines not condescend l.o explain or viinliciiru the ways of his providence, 
hut aims to convince .Job of his inability to judge of {hem. He requires 
him, who hail spoken so rashly of [lie divine counsels, to give an explana- 
tion of some of the works of nature which arc constantly presented to his 
view; of the nature and structure of the earth, the sea, the light, and the 
animal fcmi_'dom. Jf he were unable to explain any one of the most com- 
mon phenomena of tenure, i: followed that he was piilty of great presump- 
tion in linding ("alii: ivit.li the secret counsels ami moral government of God. 
He then pauses for an answer from Job. 

Ch. XXXVIII. 2.— that darkeaetA counsel: viz. my counsels or pur- ■ 
poses, i. e. speaketh of them in an obscure, erroneous, and improper milli- 
ner. Gesenius supposes ihnt to darken is a nietaphorieal expression for to 

7. When the. moriant/stars, fcc. It was (he custom to celebrate the 
laying of the corner-stone of an important building with, mnsic, songs, 
shooting, &c. See Zeeh. iv. 7 ; Ezra iii. 1(1, II . Hence the morning-stars 
are represented as celebrating the laying of the corner-stone of the earth. 

They are called mc-M'i (./-stars on aceonnt of the {.'renter brightness wlm-h 
lliey have just before the dawn. Sonic suppose that iiioriiim/stiirs iletiole 
ant/fin, and that the cNprcssioti has Illc same meaning as sons of Cud in ilia 

12. Had thun, (.'■. tl-i; life, yo-.-ii i-liariy. l.o tin rnoihiiut, .(■('. The transition 
from the sea to the morning is not so abrupt as it appears. For the an- 
cients supposed that, the sun sots in the ocean, anil a: bis rising comes out 
of it again. The tnoniiui/ ami duii-s/irii-y seem to mean the same thing; 
and the regularity of the appearance of the morning in the east is here re- 

13. That it should % hold, frc. The first light of the sun, cs it strikes 

upon the verge of the boii/o-, is reproseiiicd ns laying hold of the ends of 
the earth, and shaking the nicked out of ii, as dust from a sack ; light being 
hostile W thieves and malefactors of every kind, as darkness is favorable to 
them. See ch. xxiv. 14 - 17. 

14. /( is changed, frc.: i. e. The earth, which In (he darkness of nigln is 
a mere blank, but which, when ilimniiialcil by the sun, exhibits a great vari- 
ety of beautiful ohpcls, and appears libc scaling- el r.y winch bus received the 
stamp of the seal. — And ail thin/;* stum! for: it u~ in riih omiard. Sec Coee. 
Comment., and ties, upon r^nS. Otherwise, And they (the morning and 
ilay-sprinj.') iomr fort.!, us a ijii.rniriJ upon it. 

15. —their light is iriililnild. Darkness is the ligh: of the wicked, i. e. 
that which enables them to accomplish their evil designs. Tims the 



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strength and courage of the ivicked rare pies (in ted by '.he light, which 
iiscovers their evil practices. 

17. — gate) of death : i. e, of hades, the under-world. 

19, 20. For similar conceptions see Hesiod, Theog, 718. 

21. — light : i. e. the light of (lie rising tun, which, in a moment, as it 
were, pervades mid iaiiininntes the whole hemisphere. 

27. The word NYD probably denotes growth, not itui, and may be 
emitted in the connection. Literally, And causa the growth, of the tender 
herb to spring forth. 

SI, —fasten the b-.inds, .ye. Here ryui"" is ">] ["JSe'.l Lfl l)( * ,lv metathe- 
sis the sititio asnnifO, from TJj?, (o (if, io bind. In support of this ven- 



— /iip I'leim/s (iri Hebrew, (.'himiih : i. e. o /wa-jJ, a t 
to what we call a duster) are a constellation in the sieai Taurus, und make 
their appearance early in the spring ; honoo they were called by the Ro- 
mans Vergitiie. — Orion ( Chi'sil, in Heb., i. v.. the fool, ur impious one) 
made its appearance curly in (he n'inler, mil mis considered the precursor 
of storms ami tempests, mid is lumen called by Virgil niiitfwjts Orion. 
Ma. I. 685. A coord in;;; to the nendoi big -in.- ■ ■■'■.;.■■ '■■;■■■■■:■■■■;. us in the com- 
mon version, the nienuiin: is, Canst thou forbid the sweet llowers lo eunie 
forth, when the Seven Stars arise in the spring ! or open, the earth for the 
husbandman's iahor, when the winter season, at (he rising of Orion, ties 
up their hands '. Patrick. But the purport of the questions evideuf.lv is 
to ask Job whether hi? power could do what is actually done by the 
Almighty. 

82. — the Signs. ni"HD, equivalent to n)Vo, lodgings, vix. of the sun, 
in the twelve successive months of his course ; thus denoting the twelve 
signs of the zodiac. — the Bear iriih hit sons. Hear is not the literal 
meaning of the Hebrew £'^\ which rather denotes n bier, which Is the 
name given by the modern Arabians tn the constellation of the Great 
Bear. They also call the three stars in its tail daughters of the bier. Here 
these three stars are called soma. See Jil.ebnhr's Desori piion of Arabia, 
pp. 113, 114. 

33. —ordinances of the heavens; i. e. the laws regulating the places, 
motions, and operations of the heavenly bodies. — their dominion: i. e. 
the influence which (hey have in producing the changes of the .seasons. 

38. The transition from the phenomena of the heavens to the mind of 
man appeared so great, (hat in the first edition I deparled, with others, 
from the usual meaning nf the wcr Is, rendering this verse, Who hath im- 



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272 NOTES. 

jmrlerl :n\ifcist«m!ii,g to <:hndi, ai,d iiiem In im-tmrs i:,!v'lUjawef the words 
being supposed to denote i.hc regulariiy of the clouds iu coming and 
going, and affording (he dun proportion of rain to the earth. 1 now regard 
the rendering ij;ndi ami meteors far too uncertain to be adopted. For 
nitlfl plainly denotes reins, in Ps. li. 8. Besides, if wo suppose tho ref- 
erenco W be to tho mind of Job in particular, the. intelligence with wliieli 
he was able to sco and admire all the phenomena which had been recounted, 
the transition will not appear so ve:y violent, ^cc Ges. Lex. ad verb. 

nfnp and iy#g. 

37. Who numhereth the clouds, &c. The collecting and arrangement of 

the clouds are expr; s--: :1 by a metaphor taken from a civil or military enrol- 
ment. See Ps. cxlvii. 4 ; 2 Sam. xxiv. 10. Tho clouds are metaphorically 
called bottles, as containing rain. 

38. — flows into a molten mass; i. c. when, in account of the copious rains, 
the i.l iy dust melts, a-, it were, into one mass. 

41. — the raven. Bochart observes that the raven expels bis young from 
the nest as soon as rliey arc. able- to fly. In this condc.iiin, biding unable to 
obtain foot! by their own exertions, tbc.y make a cioakin^ noise; and God is 
said to hear it, and to supply their wants, 

Ch. XXXIX. 1. — wild goats: i. c. the ibex or mountain-goat. It is, 
no doubt, the same kind of goat as that described by Burekhardt, in his 
Travels in Syria, p. 571 ; " As we approached the summit of the moun- 
tain, (St. Catherine, adjacent to Mount Sinai,] we saw at a distance a 
small flock of mountain-goats feeding among the rocks. One of our Arabs 
left us, and by a widely circuitous route endeavored to get to the leeward 
of them, and near enough to lire at them ; ho enjoined us to remain in 
sight of them, and to sit down in order not to alarm them. He had nearly 
reached a favorable .-pot behind a rod;, when tbo goal-, suddenly took to 
flight. They could not have seen the Arab ; but tbo wind changed, and 
thus they smelt him. The chase of the beden, as the wild goat is called, 
resembles that of the chamois of the Alps, and requires as much enterprise 

3. — their pains : i. e. their ynuiig, v.iiiti: caose Mich pain;. 

5. The following account of the wild ass is given in Kobiuson's Calmet, 
on tho authority of tho Russian professors, Pallas and Gmelin: "These 
animals inhabit the dry and mountainous (wilts of the descria of Great Tar- 
tary, but not higher than about bit. -ts". T! icy are migratory, and arrive 
in vast troops to feed, during the summer, in the tracts to the east and 
north of tho sea of Aral. About autumn they collect in herds of hun- 
dreds, and even thousands, and direct their cour.-e southward towards 
India, to enjoy a warm retreat uurmg tin: winter. Hut they more usually 



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retire to Persia, where they sire found in the mmin Iritis (if Casbin, and 
where pari of i'iit::;: remain the whule year. . . . They :iw=emLilc in troops 
under the conduct of a leader or sentinel, and arc extremely .shy and -vigi- 
lant. They will, however, stop in. the midst of their course, and even 
suitor tin? approach of man for an instant, and then dart off with the 
utmost vapidity. They have been at all times celebrated for their swift- 
ness. Their voice resembles that of the common ass, but is shriller/' 

■' Xenon lion says, Cyrop. Lib. [., that lie bus lona ic-s, is very rapid in 
raiding, snitl as a v,hirdiviu:l, having strong and sioiil li'jufs. . . . Martial 
gives the epithet handsome to the wild ass, ' Piileher adest onager,' L. 
xiii., 1'ipig. li'tll : ana l Ippiati describes it as ' liatLd~o!!!0, large, vigorous, 
of stately gait, and his coat of a silvery color, having a biaok band along 
the spine of his back ; and e.n bis llaiilis patches as white as snow.* Mr. 
Morier says, ' We gave chase to tw'u wild asses, ivhieii 'had so much the 
speed of our horses, thai, when they had pot at. .some distance, they stood 
utiJ! anil looko;! behind :>.t us, sniirtlng with their noses in the air, as if in 
contempt of their endeavors to ealeh them.' " Robinson's Calmet. 

a. — the wild-ox : m, reem. Otherwise, the rhinoceros. Pec Harris's 
Nat. His. p. 421. According t.e others, the a-ild oryx, lii.it it is probable, 
from the nature of the description, that an animal of the beeve kind is 
intended ; i. e. one which appears, from its form and strength, to be 
qualified to do the business of Ihe tame m. -So the nild ass is, by impli- 
cation, compared ivitli Uie tunie, iu verse 7. In otlier passages where it 
occurs, it is pavii.il el with animals of the beeve kind, and is mentioned as 
bavin; boras, whereas the rhinoceros has but. one short one. See Numb, 
xxiii. 22, xxiv. 8 ; Dent xxxiii. 17 ; Ps. iiii. 21, xxix. G, soil. 10 ; Is. 
xxxiv. 7. For other arguments, sec a iofg and highly satisfactory article 
in llobinsoa's Calmet. 

13. Tic wing of ihe ostrich movelh joyfully. Fur an excellent de- 
scription of the ostrich, see Harris's Nat. His. p. 318. Dr. Shaw ob- 
serves : " When I was abroad, T had several opportunities of amusing 
myself with the actions ami behavior of the ostrich. It was very divert- 
ing to observe with v.-iml dexterity and ci[iiipoi~o of body it would play 
and frisk about on all occasions. In the heat of the day, particularly, it 
would strut along the stmny side of the house with great majesty. It 
would be perpetually fanning and priding itself with its quivering, ex- 
p<<n:!>A ;i.-i:iL-t. and seem. a 1 , (•very turn, to admire a:,,! he in love with its 
own shadow. Even at other times, when walking about, or resting itself 
on the ground, the whips would continue their fanning and vibrating 
motions, as if they were designed to mitigate and assuage that extraor- 
dinary heat wherewith their bodies seem to he naturally affected," —But 
is it with loving pinion and feathers ? This is the most literal meaning, 
mid now most generally received by com in cut ate is on Job. The allusion 
12* 



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274 NOTES. 

is to the stork, which nas ea'fed the ujfcctiunale or /r)t'i«;j bird on account 
of her extreme devotcilncss to her young. She was called n.vis jiiu by 
Ihe Romans. But because pia is a good representative of the Hebrew 
ITI'Dn, it does not follow that pious is; as some translators render it 
Xbo point of the ai'usion is, ihut the ostrich, which resembles the stork 
so much in the structure of her body and the color of her wings, should yet 
be destitute of affection for her young. 

14. — she layetk her eggt on the ground. The verb nijjn here means, 
I suppose, to cotnmit to or to deposit vpon, not to abandon in. The 
meaning is, that the ostrich, instead of building ber nest on some high 
rock or tree, like other birds, deposits them upon the ground, whore they 
are exposed to the view of every traveller, ami the hint of every wilt! beast. 
— She warmelh Ikeiii in the dust. 1 do not understand the meaning lobe, 
that she abandon* her eggs, to be hatched by the warmth of the sun 
beating the sand or ilusi; but riwher that she broods over them in so ex- 
posed a- place. The fact is, that [he nsi.iich usually sirs upon her eggs as 
other birds do ; "but then the 50 o'ten wanders, and so far, in search of 
food, that fi-ecjueudy the at**, are ;i 1 He by me u;s of liei' long absence from 
them. To this account we may add, when she lias left her nest, whether 
through fear, or to seek food, if she light upon the eggs of some other 
ostrich, she sits upon them and is unmindful of her own. The Arabian 
poets often allude to this peculiarity of the ostrich. The follow ins is 
(■noted from Sanalng by Schultens : 

There are, who, deaf to nature's cries, 
On stranger tribes bestow their food; 
So her own eggs the ostrich Hies, 
And, senseless, rears another's brood. 

" Xiitwith standing Ihe stupidity of ilils animal,'' says Dr. Shaw, " its 
Creator hath amply provided for its safely, by endowing it with extraor- 
dinary swiftness, ami n surprising apparatus ibv escaping fVom its enemy. 
'They, when they r:iise themselves up for tligbt, laush at the horse and 
his rider.' They ulibvdod bins an opportunity only of admiring at a dis- 
tance the extraordinary agility, and the s<ui.cliuoss. likewise, of their 
motions, the richness of their plumage, ami the great propriety there 
was in ascribing to theut an fxiiaud'd, ijuii-ering wing. Nothing, 
certainly, can be mere entertaining than such a sight; the wings, by 
their rapid but unwearied v lb rations, equally serving them for stils anil . 
oars ; while their (bet, no less assisting in conveying thorn out of sight, 
are no less insensible of fatigue." Travels, 8vo. Vol. II. p. 343. 

"The surprising swifine.s of the ostrich is expressly mentioned by 
Xenophon in his Anabasis; for, sneaking of the desert of Arabia, hj 



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j on. 275 

slates that tin 1 oslnich is frequently seen there ; that none could take 
them, the horsemen who puisne them scon giving it ever; fur they escaped 
■far away, ranking use both of their feet to run, and of their wings, 
when expanded, as a sail to waft th'.'in along " Jia'jj. ■,•.«),■('.* ' 'uliinl. 

in regard tu the proverbial h 1. ■. i p M i ty of the ostrich, [);: Sliiiw observes, 
that, in addition to her neglect of liuv young, " she is likewise incon- 
siderate and foolish in Iter private capacity, particularly in the choice of 
foud, which is L'rri;".i.'ii- ly h ; ghly detriment al and pernicious to it ; for site 
swallows everything greedily :ui;l indiserlminiii.ely, whether it, be pieces of 
rags, leather, wood, stone, or iron. When 1 was fit Oran, 1 saw one of 
these birds swallow, without any seeming uneasiness or ir.eonveniency, 
several leaden bullets, as they wi.ee thrown upon (tie door, scorching hut 
from the mould." Shaw's Travels,' 8vo. Vol. 11. p. 345. 

16. She is cruel, §r.. " On the least noise or trivial occasion, " says 
Dr. Shaw, " she forsakes her eggs, or her young ones, to which perhaps 
she never returns; or if she dues, it may he loo late either to restore life 
to the one, or to preserve the lives of the others. Agreeably fo this 
account, the Arabs sometimes meet with ivholo nesls of these eggs undis- 
turbed 1 ; some of them are sweet and good, others are addle and corrupted; 
others, again have their young ones of dilli-rcnt growth, according t.i the 
time, it maybe presumed, they have been forsaken of the dam. They 
often meet with a few of the little ones, no bigger than well-grown 
pullets, half-starved, strangling and muaning ahout, '.ike so many dis- 
tressed orphans for their muther," Trarelt, Kvo, Vol. IF. pp. 844, U45. 
This want of affection is alsu recorded in Lam, iv. 3. — Her labor, fyc. •' 
i, e. in laying her eggs. The ostrich is naturally a timid bird, but it is 
here said that she fearttk nul : i. e. she lias no affectionate fear for her 
young; she abandons her nest without fears of what may happen to it. 

17. — hath denv'd Iter wisihnt. The Arabs have the proverbial expres- 
sion, More foolish than an ostrich. 

18. —liftcth herself up: i. e. lifleth up her head and body, ami spread- 
cth her wings, in order to escape the pursuer. The expression dues not 
imply that her feet 'pi. I ihe gr ,.n:.i. 

19. — horse. The wbole description refers to the horse as ho ajipo.irs 
in war. — Hast thou eluthed hia inch: irilii his trcmfttiiicc 7/iane'! I am 
now convinced that the rendering thun.-li'r is untenable. The neck of the 
horse must be regirdc I as ehiike-l with what, is addressed to the sense of 
sight- It is not a natural melanin a- te represent I lie neck us clothed with the 
si.iund of neighing whii.-h cniLus from the mouth. The noise made by the 
horse is referred tu in ai miner line m;'1 u.euolos tre ml/liny, quivering, 
and is used nnetieally tu denote the mane of a 
(jULver on the neek ui' a high-bred one on aitcm 
is erect ami trembles in tile eicltement of run 



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horse or lion is in. Greet culled ifo,fy. Bee Ges. Lei. ad niajTt. Some sup- 
pose trembliny to denote tii.U. which cruise troubling iii tlic spectator, 
i. e. terror. But this is hursh, :::)■! wholly ii^ninst Hie nsus loquendi in 
Hebrew. Umbreit renders the line, Ihist Vina clothed hit neck with lafti- 
iifss 't supposing the word rr;jH (o be Ibinojd from the Child. 0JT1> equiva- 
lent to the Hebrew W\. But this is conjecture. 

20. How majestic iik s:iortiti$! horn terrible ! There may, at first -view, 
appear Boniethiug ludi.L-rous in sr.eakii-.LT i;i' ;Uo tn:ijii.stic snorting of a 
horse. But let dull eoneeive of the wiir-hoi^e, n-:A suppose, moreover, that 
h« has, or Witt, come :s {ft hist him in war, and the !\ssoeiations will be dif- 
ferent. It is to be 1 ■ coo 1 koto d, lou, ih:H the horse w:l.h pi-ontiai'ly an object 
of terror t« the Ik-brews, oji noLLount of their iirnorLiLiee of hiirsem;ui^hip. 
See Is. Kxsvi. 8, am! the note, .ievcminh snys, eh. viii. 16, 

From Dan If heivd the smiviiii.s of their hLO^es, 

At the sound of the neighing of their steeds the whole land 



See Virg. Georg. III. 85, &o. JEn. XI. 496. 

24. — he devoureth the //round. This oii.iression is still u?e>I in Arabia 
to denote prodigious swiftness. See also Vice:. tieoi 1 ^. III. 1415. He will 
not btlieve, $c, i. e. he is so full of .joy when he hears the sound of the 
trumpet that tie so:tivoly tcusts Ills (sirs. Corny, ix. Ifi; xxix. 24. 

20. —towards the south. Most of the species of hanks are sib I lo be 
birds of passage. The instinct which tisiehcs such birds to know the 
proper time tbi' mi;; rating bi seai'ch of (bod, or of a warmer climate, or 
b-jcli, is probably referred to. 
29 — discern it from afar. See Iliad, xvii. 674 : 
— Sin' m'ni?, on yii si ijiaatv 
'OjuTorof JV'jj?i'>.9i.ir i';.t (,].i.uriioi' nc!ir : vo,i: 
As the bold bird, endued waii. sli;(Tpe : . : ! eye 
Of all tluit wing the mid aerial sky. Pope. 



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XXIII., XXIV. 



T;i:-: Almighty is now represented as pr,u-iug, and demanding; of Job nn 
answer to Lis questions, and jjiiiili^- him to defend his cause. Bat the 
admonitions of Elihu and of the Almighty have pia'dneed their proper 
effect; Job is impressed with tin: most prnfound reverence of the majesty 
of God; he bus lust that boldness and presumption with which lie once 
challenged the Al-.d^'iiiy to a controversy; and he ucknow ledges bis v.eak- 
ness, and the rashness of his complaints, and hold appeals to God. But 
to jjifiku bis submission ii.nd penilenee more complete ami impressive, the 
Almighty is represented as iiil.ii.vwin;; liini in a still feverer tone of re- 
prehension. In reference t.i, his boldness iii iksiriiij* to enter into a con- 
troversy with him, [ho Deity challenges him to emulate a single exertion 
of the Divine power, lie iinds '.be dosci-ipum. of (he river-horse and the 
crocodile, by which bis power is strikingly illustrated. From the whole 
discourse it follows, that it is bettor for man to submit without murmuring 
to the will of so great a- Being, than le em: I end with him, and require him 
to give an account of his doings. 

Ch. XL. 15. ■ — ll\i riuer-hnrse. This animal it usually mentioned by 
the ancients in connection with the crocodile, which is supposed to le 
denoted by the leviathan. The description seems to apply to the river- 
horse rather than to llio elephant, in seieral particulars, which are well 
stated by Herder." " In genera!, the description is undoubtedly that ot 
an animal whose usual resoet is the- river, since it is intrnducod, as some- 
thing singular, that be eatetb irrass like the ox, that il.ii mmiiitiiins bring 
him forth food, and the lionsrs of the field play around him. He sleeps 
among tin: reed", and lies eu 1 1 coal i» I aiming II le mai'siios on the shore of the 
river, which clearly does not suit a description of.' the elephant. He goes 
agnin.-t the stream, as if lie would drink rip the river with his enormous 
mouth, a character no: well Pill in.r a land-animal. His strength too is in 
his loins, and his force is in the n;i vol of his hell y, wliero, on the contrary, 
the elephant is weakest. He that made luoi has furnished him with a 
sword; for the sharp-pointed and projecting tusks of the hippopotamus 
may be considered bis weapons; and the language applies better to tbeso 
than to the weapons of the clcutiairr. Since, more over, the name behemoth 

* Spirit of Hebrew Poetry, Vol. I. p. 107, Marsh's Translation. 



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278 NOTES. 

itself is probably the Egyptian num..! l( f this animal, p-ch e-mouih , (liver. 
us.) lie re modified, us nil foreign wor In were by the Hebrews and Greeks, 
to suit than' own forms, and since, in company with ■ Hie crocodile, it is 
placed apart 1'iurn tin:- laud-animals, which also arc managed in u separate 
discourse iiy ill e;i:scl ■■it-, aad represented, as nil creatures of ilie watery 
realm are by the Orientals, as something foreign and monstrous, it seems 
tu me that this opinion hits lit lease a balance of ] mil. ■abilities in its favor, 
an J will soim become tiie ] ten tailing one." Sec R.-Ainnoii's Calmet, Art. 
Hehcniolii, where is nil interest.!'.;; description, c.uracled from the Travels 
■if fiuppell, the Gen 1 1 m natuivuist. ...1' the capture of one of these animal-., 
which measiireil from the snout to the einl of the tail ■ifieen feet; and his 
tusks from the root to the point, a'ong the external curve, twenty-eight 
inches. See also, in Dr. Shaw's Travels, Vol. ii. p. 291, or Montfa neon's 
Antiquities, Vol. vii. p. i-71i, an engraving of the mosaic pavement at Prre- 
neste, in which the river-horse ami crocodile are piaced in company, the 
former being in the mUst of reels a-t-dj'c.-is, am. I plants, which correspond 
to the descriptions of the Egyptian lotus. 

17. — like the eedar. " The tail of the hippopotamus, although short, 
is thick, and may be compared with the eedar for its tapering, conical 
shape, and its smoothness, thickness, ami strength. But although it is 
thick, short, and very firm, yet he moves and twists it at pleasure; which 
is considered, in the sacred test, a proof of his prodigious strength." 
Schcuchscr. 

19. — his sword. This refers to the long, bonding toi.tli of Ihe animal, 
with which ho, as it were, mows the grass. The «a.tt;, i. e. the sickle, or 
scythe, "as ascribed to this animal by some of the ancient Greek writers. 
Thus Xicander, Theriae. ver. yfifi, quote! by Ros. : 

"H iJEJttro, iir ff««o ( ™J( ZtSiv al&atitOoat 
Boaxst, ao(n ; e;|OM- fli r.axi,v inrjSuiUi-TBi 5i>.Tl,T. 

In the nest verse the reason of his being Nicni-hca with it is given, Tin. 
that, although he was mi arpiatic animal, he procured his feed, net from 
the rivers, hut from the grassy mountains. 

21. It has been douhtel whether a ,L :^j,' denotes the hdr.-trce, Uhamma 
lotus, Linn., or lite htp-plant, the Egyptian water-lily, which grows in 

Wilkinson's Customs and Manners, So. Vol. III. p. 71. 

23. — Jordan : i. e. a river as large ns the Jordiui ; on- the river-horse 
could not have liied upon the Jordan. Umloulitedly. the. author under- 
stood, that, like the crocodile, he was (bund upon the Nile. He mentions 
the Jordan as an instance t f ti great i ivcr ; and it seems to be an ai'gu- 



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mont that the writer was a native of Palestine, and wrote for those who 
were familiar with the Jordan, that he mentions it as an instance of a 
gre.it stream. The overflowing of it wen Id not frighten the river-horse, 

Ch. XLT. 1. — the crocodile- See note on eh. iii. 8, The crocodile is 
hero described in [he hyperbolical stylo of Eastern poetry. See Harris's 
Nat. Hist., p. 245. The following description of the crocodile is from 
Shaw'B Zoology, Vol. III. p. 18* : "The crocodile, bo remarkable for its 
size and powers of dcst-ruci-ion. has in all ages boon requited as one of the 
most formidable animals of the warmer region.-!. It is a native of Asia 
a ad Africa, but seems to be most common in the latter: inhabiting large 
rivers, as the Nile, the Niger, K,..:.., and preying principally on fish, but 
oueirsional'.y seizing on almost every animal which happens to be exposed 
to its rapacity. The size to which the crocodile sometimes arrives is pro- 
digious. ; specimens licit, p; frequently seen of twenty feel hi length; ami 

instances are common -ated of .some whieis have exceeded the length of 

thirty feet. The armor, with which (he upper part of the body is covered 
may be numbered aiivoig the most elabo-.ue pieces of Mam re's mechanism. 
J u the full-iirewn animal it. is so strong and thick a.- easily to repel a 
musket-ball, 'the whole animal appears as if covered with the most 
regular and curious carved work. The mouth is of vast width, the gape 
having a somewhat Itcxuous outline, and both jaivs being furnished with 
very numerous, sharp-pointed teeth. The number of leetli in each jaw is 
thirty or more, and Ihey arc so disposed as (o alternate with each other, 
when the mouth is closed. The le^,- are short, but si rung and muscular. 
In the glowing regions of Africa, where ii arrives at its full strength 
and power, it is justly regarded as the cios; firrchialjle inhabitant of the 
rivers. It lies in wait near the banks, arid snatches dogs and other 
animals, swallowing them instantly, and then plunging into the flood, and 
s-el;ing some retired part, where it may be concealed, till hanger again 
invites it to its prey." — Or press down, fyc. : i. e. Canst thou put a cord 
into his mouth, so as to draw him with it as with a bridle > See Ges. upou 

ypiP. 

2. — a rope — a ring : i. e. by which he nii;:ht he .Paste nod r.o the lamb 
after he was caught. 

5. — for thy mail-ens : i.e. for their amusement. 

S. — lay snares/or him ? $c. : l e. Do the fishermen in company catch 
him, and sell him like fish ? 

8. Thm wilt no more think of bailie: i. e. thy first attack on the 
monster will have such an issue, that thou wilt not dare to try a second, 

9. Behold, Ms hope .- The third person for the second. The meaning is, 



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Thy hope (of taking him) is vain. See oh. sxsii. 15, and note. See also 
(Jlnss. L'Siil. Sii(!. pp. 318, 047. EJ. Dath. 

13. — Mi garment: i. e. his akin. — hisjnws: lit. his double bridle, 
which hia jaws resembled. 
1 5. — shieldi : i. e. scales. 

IS. — eyelashes of the morning. This may happen, saya Sehuheris, 
when the crocodile iiliM hia head above water in the night. Hiaatariug 
eyes, which are the lirsi. olijeet. tlint strikes tin; beholder, may then be com- 
pared to the dawning light. The eyes of the Drooodihi arc .said to be small. 
But, aa liochari climes, they are so renm.r liable, that, when the 
Kgyptians would represent [lie morning by a hiorogiyimie, Ihey painted a 
orooodile's eye. 

19-22. Here [tie crocodile is described as in pursuit of his prey on 
land. His mouth ia ihon open, Lis. blood inllamed, hia breath thrown out 
with prodigious vehemence, like volumes of smoke, and heated to snob a 
degree aa to seem :i flaming tire. Siren irlh and Terror are represented na 
animated beings, the one seated on his neck, and the other bounding 
before liim. 

20. — heated .■ Lit. blown up. 

23. — Jlakei: i. e. the pendulous parts of hia flesh. 

26. — dolh not hold : i. e. will not pierce him and remain fixed in him, 
tint ia repelled : i _ ■ ■ l bealiML back by the excessive ha:ilnes; of his skin. 

30. — potsherds. His scales are compared to fragments of broken 
earthen vessels. — tlirashitir/sle'lge. ypn. His outer skill, or coat of 
mail, is represented as rt'ii-li and puintel like a thiushiiiir-slcdgo. This 
iv as an instrument for rubbiu;; or bcatin.j; out grain upon the thrashing- 
floor. It consists of three or four rollers of Mui.nl, iron, or stone, made 
rough, and joined lo^ether in the Ibnn of a aledge or druy; and is drawn 
by oxen over the grain in order to separate the kernels from the ear. 
Woo ties, ad verb. 

32. — shining path: viz. the ivhite foam which he stive up in his 
passage through the water. 

34. He. hoketh down, fyc. : i. e. Although :i reviti'e, be is not afraid of 
the fiercest wild beasta. 



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XXV., XXVI. 



Jon is now ropiT.-cuol as irr'.pi'ossod will) a deep sen-:: of his pro-u op- 
tion and irreverence in his former diHiMurses, and es ;;: usMiri^ liis penitence 
in the strongest terms of self-condemnation. Tin; way is thus prepared 
for the vindication uf tin.' integrity ami piety of .lob !.iy the Deity, and 
consequently for the decision of die ipiestion which In J boon [lie great 
subject of controversy. The Almighty decides that the friends of Job 
had i/ol spoken thut which ;r«s ■.■/.■.■.'(/, in contending I hat the misery of .Tub 
was hnlioted by God us the punishment- of liis sins; Mini that Job had 
spoken the truth, in maintaining that no Man's character can be ascertain- 
ed by his external condition. He confirms his decision by restorin;; him 
to his former prosperity. 

Ch. XLIL 3. Who is he, $c. This ia repeated from oh. xixviii. 2, 

where the question is a-.kod by flie.llcity. As if Job hart said, Alas ! who 
is it, as thou sayesi, that hldeth, lY.c. f ant tho presumptuous man. 

i. I will ask thee, S/c. I will no more dispute ami eniieavor lo con- 
tend with thee with the pride of an equal, but inquire uf thee with the 
humility of a se hoi a r. The words which .Jehovah had spoken to Job by 
way of challenge, ch. "xxxvhi: 3, and si. 7. Job uses in the spirit of deep 
sjbmis.ion, 

6. — hearing of Ike ear — ey; seen. This may mean only, that Job 
had a much more perfect Aiiowicdge of the Deity than before, as knowl- 
edge which is gained by seeing is proverbially more aeeiiraie and thorough 
tluui that which comes to us liy the report of others. It is said that 
Jehovah spui;e from tlie whirlwind, but no visible ibrni is mentioned. 

8. — I abhor myself: i. e. on account of my former rash speeches 
respecting thee. The genera? meaning will not be altered if we supply 
" it " instead of myself as tlie object of the verb. 

7. — ye have not s;>n.'i> n concent in a inc. Hint u-hirh is rlrhl, lis htit.it. iity 
servant Job. This language is to he understood comparatively, for dob 
has just been censure:! for rashly complaining of the ways of find; and it 
is to he understood relatively, i. e. with rotcrenee to the main subject of 
discussion. They had not spoken right, in maintaining that inisory ia 



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2o2 NOTES ON JOB. 

alivnys a proof of guilt, and in coiiaenuiing an iirjrjiiiTiitlj' upright and 
good man, merely Ij:-l: u-? Ill: was iittliet.od. They had not spoken so well 
)!i supporting such a |iro]:".tfiiion, aiai in helping iiiinji'ritud veproani] upon 
a good man, as Job had in denying the propmili'in, and in maintaining 
his innocence. See Introduction, p. 15. 

10. — turned the captieily, tjo. : i. o. delivered hi in 1'i'^in his distress, 
and restored to him his former prosperity. 

11. — a ketita — a ring of gold ; i. e. as tokens of regard. This pro- 
bably denoted a, lump ol' silver of a certain weight, tiesenius, from a 
comparison of Gen. xxxiii. 1'J, xxiii. 10, supposes it lo bo aoout i shekels. 

14. The names of Job'H daughters have referenda to their loveliness; 
Jemima denoting dove, or', as some sit f. pose, /«ir "* the diiy ; Ke/ia, cwrniu.; 
a n:l lverenliiippii-.:li, h-.ira of IkiihU;'-./! jjr.int, ';. e. beair.ifi.l as those whoso 
persons are au'jrne:l to t!ie nl most extent. 

15. — among their brethren. Tiiis, being contrary to custom, is men- 
tioned for the purpose of showing the extent of Job's wealth, aa well aa 
the excellence of his daughters. See Nuuib. sivii. 8. 



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NOTES ON ECCLESIASTES. 



1. The terra Eixl'sia.-ites is the Greek translation of the Hebrew 
r';ri> Kohakth, which is the title of the book. The word Preackei 

conveys tin: meaning of the original as well as imy Euclish term. 
Tin: Greek rendprm-r, Aix-.'-jfiiita-, if the more literal, as the Hebrew 
nmm lei derived from a verb siendy ing In rtil! Ihi/i-iIht, U> "wiil-i.e ; ami 
!.;■<? secondary nieaninr;, pi^mi-ln-r, hidic- :Vu!ii The pnrpu.e !i>r' which the 
:i..wii'.l]lv in called, namely, to lie addresse:!. As no son of David was 
kin™ at Jerusalem except So'.onnai. there can be no reasonable doubt 
that he is designated as the Prcuelier, in reference to the contents of 
the book which i". liere ;i -<-::> .ui I to liim, At to the ibrnirnnc form, Kola-.- 
/•:'!:, it is supposed by Jlituig. Fiirsi , and othes, tu Imc been urisrmnily 
a.pn'ii:!! Ui ii:is,liiu, iVjiareed us calling around her tlie Invers of instnie- 
tion, as in Pro v. i. 20, rili. 1, ix. 1, and trans (erred !ci Solomon as tlie 
emOiiiiin-eiLt of v. '.-'!■■ an. Gesenlus tc .cards the term, thus [)ut in the 
lemhiiue, as a name denoting olliee, jucoi'diuji- to a common Ilehrew 
idiom. Tlie Ibimer view is not so satisfactory as il would bave been if 
any instance bail beer, adduced in which wi^bau was aalnalhi cidkd 
Eoheleth. I leave the matter doubtful. 

In ch. i. 2-11, the Preacher announce-; the principal subject of bis 
book, tiie vis oily of lor nan thin us, a: id ilhulrates il by the miprorliake- 
ness of Inimaii stm-in:; and labor, rer. 8 ; ami by the instances of per- 
pi'uiil chance and wearisome vicissitude in the naturae worbi. wbilo 
nothing new is brought to pass, and no rest is attained. In endeavm- 
hiLr to illustrate the idea, that (he mind of man receives no satisfaction 
from his labors and experiences, the writer seems to impart liis own 
fueling* to inanimate nature, and to represent it as wearying itself with 
i:i::cssiint chance, wiliioul ellcetiaji- any tiling new ; us it. wore, witbotlt 
satisfying itself, or gaining any tiling by its labors. All is perpetual 



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284 NOTES. 

change, wearisome labor, and no rest. The sea is not made full by the 
streams, and the mind of man is not sritisiied by nil wii.ieh it learns or 
enjoys in the world. 

Knobcl regards the reference to the sun, the wind, and the streams 

as designed lo show Hie fruhlessr.es- of human eilbrls, in consequence 
of (lie uncliatigcablenos? of nature's operations, iind tim iuipe^sibiiiiy 
of man's altering w Lit is fixed by an established law of nature. Bui 
the author seems lo describe, not -.lie ( onsianey of nature, but of her 
changes. Huskies, tin; mere constancy of outward nature docs not 
soon] to present- a slrong rcat-on against fiiimini striving in general, 
but only against, striving in opposition to natural laws. ■ 

2. Vanity ni 'vurdiks ; i.e., move vanity, extreme vanity. 

3. What profit; i.e., what advantage which can compensate him 
for his labor, and leave a balance in his favor? Or, what advantage 
which he would not have had without anxious and laborious striving? 

i. One generation, Sec. Some connect this verso with the preceding 
one, supvios:i;.; it io illustrate the vamly of human exert ions, from the 
car.juioratiun thn.t man at death must leave tlie results of them. It 
appears t-:> mi: more natural to snpiiose, t:i:n II. e wrkor adduces the fact 
of the continual iy eluioging generations of men as an iilustration of the 
vanity of human things. 

7. — to the place, Sc. ; i.e., by subterraneans passages and channels, 
or by evaporation and ruin, they return to thotbuutains and streams. It 
is memioned as an instance of tlie vanity of unman I'liugs, that the 
waters, wben 1hey have arrived at Ihc sen, where liioy had so much 
desired, as it were. 1o arrive, iutstei! hack to liicir springs, where again 
the}' do not rest, but return again to the sea. "Thus all things in the 
world are movable and mutable, and subject to a continual toil and 
t.i)!-s, constant in nothing but iucimstsr.e.y, si Ml going, never resting." 

8. All words become weary. This is the most literal rendering, and 
most probable from the connection. Otherwise, Ail Ih.hnjs are. full of 
bilfjf. all olher things, as wed as the sun, the wind, and the streams, 
are in perpetual oioiiou and wearisome agi'alion. There is no rest to 
material tilings, and no satisfaction lo the mind of man. — express it ; 
i.e., tlie subjeet of the meec-iiing am: following verses, namely, [he per- 
petual changes of tilings without novelty or improvement. 

it. Tlie t.ltini: iimt hn'k ben,, ate. The writer seems to regard it as an 
additional :l!i;s'.rn:k:n of the vanity of human things, Ibat, while then- 
is perpetual change, there is no novcliy ; (hat there is a perpetual re- 
currence of the same thing.,'. The passage seems to express tlie feeling 
of Siiiiery a:i:l disgust with which human life is sometimes regnrdea. 



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ECCLESIASTES. 285 

Tin: Iidk>iving passage iiijUL Seneca. J L i >i h L . XX. IV., is i;uo;cl! by .Rosen- 
niiiller lo illustrate these verses: " Quosdaiu suidt cadcm laeieuai 
viili:i:'l!i|i;e satie-.as, ot v:uo ncu odium, sod I'asiidimn ; in quod jivli- 
labhuur, ipsa jm | : (j 1 i trl i lu riluk.ijnphia, i!;ini c I i ;■: Li i iif : Qnouscae eadem ! 
A T ejnpe expevgiscar, ilninrkuu, sal labor, esm'iiiin, algi-iio, resluabo ; nul- 
lius roi finis est ; sed h; orbe:ii iit-_\;i sunt omnia ; faainnt a (J fii'iruuntiir. 
Diem nox premit, dies noctem ; tustus in aulunmum desinit, an turn no 
hyeins instar, qure vcre compfaeitur. Omnia transeuut, ut rovertan- 
tur; nihil novi video; nihil novi faoio. Fit alin.na.ndo et hujus rei 
nansea. Multi sunt qui non acerlimu judiceuf vivcre, sed super- 

10. It hath been, &c. ; i.e., if any one supposes any tiling which tak-ca 
place to be new, he is deceived. For it certainly lias occurred long 
before. 

11. — no remembrance. A reason seems to be assigned here why 

some esli.-i.Tii things now which arc reidiy old; namely, ignorance of 
ancient times, want of records of" the past. 

12-18. Having illustrated his declaration, that all was vanity, by 
jjeiara! arguments, dra«r; t'ro.u ll:e phenomena of the world, the au- 
thor now represents Solon ion as appealing (o Lis own experience as an 
additional ill tist ration of what lie had said. Aral, first, from ver. la to 
the end of the chapter, lie aims to show how vain and imsmisfinariry 
are the pursuit and aiji:nisi:len of knowledge. The fame (jf fo'iiiiiim 
for wisdom makes liis crumple a striking idustriitioii of the si 
which it is brought to illustrate. 



parent of sorrow from its very nature, as being -the instrument and 

mind; for, as nothing delights, so nothing troubles, till it is known. 
The merchant, is not. troubled as soon as his ship is cast away, but as 
soon as he hears of it. The a!l;drs and objects that we converse with 
have most ot them a fiiness in nt'lict and disturb the ir.ind. And, as the 
colors lie dormant and strike not the eye till the light actuates them 
into a. visibility, so those afllieiive mntlitics never oxen their siing, till 
knowledge displays them, and slides them into the apprehension." 
But if good predominates over evil in the universe, (and who can doubt 



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286 NOTES. 

it?) then knowledge, regarded In this light, mtist be the source of more 
pleasure than pain."' 

14. — all the things, &c. ; i.e.. 1 saw thai all I. a man pursuits, all the 
lms.irii.-isa in which men emmao. an;! ail ill o objeeis from which they ex- 
pect happiness, wore vain. misulmlaiilia], incapable of yielding; satis- 
faction to file mind. In tact, the desire and endeavor to catch and 
possess something so iu'.aiurble an:; ur.siihsPmrial as air represent llie 
vanity of human actions and pursuits. — xtiwinii n/M-wind. This ren- 
dering is preferred hy Gcsenius, Ik' Welle, Host unrulier, and Knobcl. 
(Comp. ver. 17, and, in the Hebrew, eh, ii. 22; iv. IS.) 

15. The design, of the provcr'ahd expressions in this verse seems to 
he to assign a. reason way human striving .-lain Id iic vain, and human 
pursuits should hi: so incapable of a fii ailing siilisisctiou ; namely, the 
perversenoss of human nature, anil tlie imperfections of human things. 
As that which is by nature crooked cannot by human endeavors be 
straightened; as the vine, tor instance, cannot be made to grow up 
straight, like the poplar ; and as that which is naturally wauling to any 
thin.!* cannot lie supplied by human cxcrlioii; tin' instance, as man 
cannot be male to possess whin;*, like a bird, or more than two hands 
or two feet; so there are incongruities, discord,, imperfections in hu- 
man liie and the course of luuuao [hings, wliicii iire irremediable, 1 

rtaidcr it impos-ilae for man to jiini complete satisfaction. Hence, the 
knowledge of tin: things Lbat are done under tlie sun gives pain. 

17. — senselessness and Jbl.li/! i.e., to observe senseless and foolish 
conduct, and its consequences. 

18. See the note on vet'. l;i. lleniy closes his notes upon this chap- 
ter with the follow; a-; good remark : "Let its not be driven off from 
the pursuir. of any usi::.'ul knew ledge, but put on patience to break 
through the sorrow of it; yet let us despair of lira lie.;* true happiness 
in this knowledge, ami expect it only in the knowledge of God, and 
the careful discharge of our duty to him. lie that increases in heav- 
enly wisdom, and in an experimental acquaintance with the principles, 
powers, ami pleasures of tlie spiritual and divine lite, ii-.'-rwis joy, such 
as will shortly be consummated in everlasting joy." 

Ch. II. 1-26. Not having found happiness, or the chief good, in 

the pursuit and acquisition of knowledge, Solomon is represented 
in this chapter as seeking it in the pleasures of sense, unite;! with the 
pursuits oi 'km™ ledge ■<" philosophy. Tlie result of this pursuit, 1-11. 
He then compares wisdom and tolly, and, while usscrlirsf* the infinite, 
superiority of the former, yet perceives ils msulliciency it: regard to the 



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ECOLESIASTES. Z07 

it of happiness. Tor die wise man and the fool have a com- 
mon lot, ami a idol often enjoys that for which a wise man fatigues 
himself, 12-23. Ho then recommends the tranquil, contented, cheer- 
ful enjoyment of life's blessings, without anxiety and tare about dis- 
tant objeets and perpiexiue- subjects, 24-26. " 

2. It is mad; i.e., it is an indication of madness ; more appropriate 
to a madman than to a rational being. — What uaiileth it? i.e., what 
sii ind does it do '! what happiness rices it conn!*'.' At first view, there 
may appear siirjic- inconsisioney between this and ver. 24. But here 
the author is speaking of trie pleasure which is pursued and striven 
for; but, in ver. 21. of that which ciimes unsought. 

5. — strengthen, &c. So Geseuius. If, with Fiivst in his Lexicon, 
we suppose ~7{~" to mean in bcHnis ;,rni, ,vi,.d one i,pon, or to nurse, 
the sense will he nearly the same. - in. He my iicvrt r't'ieeil <e in'.-il/im, 
(Comp. ver. 9.} Some suppose the meaning lo be, that he was wise 
in the ehoiee of pleasures, anil in the decree lo ivliieh he pursued Ihem. 
1 rather think tlie meaumg lo lie, that he united the pursuits of wis- 
dom or philosophy with the pleasures of the senses. — see inu.il. in is 
ijihuI, &c. ; i.e., till I should Hurt out by trial whether that supreme good 
which men ought, to propose to themselves ami piosceute in life con- 
sisted iu the pleasures of sense ; i.e.. in pleasures derived from objects 
addressed to the senses, 

6. — pools of water. "At about an hour's distance to file south of 
fiethlchcm are the peels of Solomon. They are three in number, 
of an oblor.f? ti,;u-e, anil are supported hy abutments, '''he aiit : :|iihc 
of ihoir appearance oiifides them. Dr. liieliardson thinks, to bo con- 
sidered as the work of the .Jewish monarch." Modern Traveller. 
(See more in Hush's illustrations ad loe.j Mrnmdrcll observes: 
"As to the pools, it is probable enough they may he the same with 
Solomon's ; there not being the like store of excellent spring-writer to 
be met with anywhere e'.-e throughout all Palestine. Hut, for the gar- 
dens, one may safely affirm, that, if Solomon made them in the rocky 
ground which is now assigned for Ihein, he demonstrated greater power 
all 1 1 wealth in i'r.i-hkig his design, than he = 5. i «. I w isaoni iu choosing the 
place iiir it." Travels, p. Ifil, Amor. O'lit. — (.'it 'trove lleii j„wlur.dh 
trees; young plantations, or perhaps nurseries, may he intended. 

8.. — adiose.it weman, and rltos*,; ii-->,,--:;i. The words thus rendered 
do not elsewhere occur. From their proha.hle derivation, as well aa 
from the ei rerun stance ikr.it the harem is miwbere ulludert to as a 
source of pleasure, if not here, we think we have given the words their 



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true meaning. The singular probably refers to tile queen, arid the 

[ilmal to the king's other wives and Ida concubines. (Sec Goseii. ad 
verb. fTJffi'.) 

10. — mj portion, &c; i.e., the present temporary enjoyment of 
them was all the benefit I could expect or receive from all my kiwi's. 
There was no permanent, ahidisisr stood. 

11. All tliat he did was pertnnued wi;h 'alov ami preserved willi 
' anxiety ; and, above all, the pleasure arising from it was transitory. 

After tin: free^. ihujo ysiu'nt ol'whii.t is oaue;! pleasure, he loir the in w aril 
thirst and torment still. 

12. Having tried what salis'actJon w:i to be tbund, first in knowl- 
edge and then in the pleasures of sense-, he bete compares these two 
sources of happiness one with another, and passes judgment upon 
them. — conieth ajler the hiiijt; i.e., succeeds me in tills inquiry or trial 
respcctitiN- hsippiness. "No mere private man can be expected to hsive 
si. lareer experience tliisii so pear :i iiiu;;, or bo belter able to form a 
judgment rcspeutiny: the subject of which he is ircaline;. — already 
done, I.e., in the way of experience and discovery as to what is true 

14. — in his hw.l; where -hey ought to he, in order that he msiy 
jvaard as-ait'-St dancer or airesee advantages. The eyes of the lijol are, 
as it were, in his heels, or in the ends of the earth (l'rov. xvii. 24), so 
that be is likely to stumble, or fail of advantages. — « ennui, &c.; i.e., 
both are subject to n.iaiiy of the same -calamines, ami especially to death 
and oblivion. 

15, — miser than others; i.e., to what pm-pce htive 1 taken so much 
pains to sic([!iire wisdom. — This aim is ami/it : i.e., Although wisilom 
excels folly, yet it is liable to the charge of vanity, since it has no 
power to secure its possessor from many of the calamities to which 
the fool is subject. 

18. — leave it; i.e., what was obtained by my labor, my posses- 

24. — to eat. and drinr, and h:t Ids sou,' <i\l-ni .,■<;■;■</ in his labor. The 
drift and meaning of this tiingnsuie is very diilcrent from that of eh, 
ii. 1, &a. It is no Epicurean indulge; ice, no sualiotioi) (o the mere 
pleasures of sense, which the author here pronounces to be the best 
course a man can pursue in order to make the besl of a vain world. 
But, in opposition to the anxious and strenuous pursuit of wisdom or 
pleasure or wealth, he advises to siive up anxious cares lor distant, 
objects and about perplexing subjects, and to enjoy, with a tranquil, 



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ECCLESIASTE9. 289 

contented, cheevi'ui 1 1 1 i ; i ', The blessicgs '■>-' life, as In: gws along. And 
(his '. i ri i n i . i b I . l ■ 1 1 i . r h_- i l - 1 = : i . cheerful sjiirit, he says, is the gift of God, i.e., 
" to those wiiii are jiinjil in his s-ighl," ver. -ij ; i.e., it nanni.it be had 
without religion and virtue. This is an important sentiment of the 
book, and recurs repeatedly as the result- of the author's meditations 
upon life. (See ch. Hi. 12, 13, 22; v. 18-20; vii. 14; viii. 15; ix. 7-10; 
ii. 9.) From a comparison of these passages, toother with ch. v. 
1-7, and the whole of ch. xii., it is manifest that it is not mere sen- 
sual or selfish indulgence which the antlior commends as the best thing 
which a man can attain in a world of vanity, but only such a cheerful, 
joyful participation of present blessings as is consistent with the 
thought of God and roiribuiion, or witli obedience to the commands 
of the Creator. The cheerfulness and the joy which he commends is 
in opposition to anxious cures about the future or about unavoidable 
evils, or to the ambitious, eager pursuit of distant good. 

'2ii. Fui- who can mt, &e. The mcauitig seems to lie, iluit Solo- 
mon, from his large experience, could tell as well as any one 
whether "to eat ami drink, anil let one's soul enjoy good in his 
labor," did or did not come from (he bund of God; whether those 
who were not "good in his sight" could have such enjoyment. 
Instead of more than I, "33:3 fatl might be translated mept I; 
i.e., I who have labored for it. — viho van hieir-i [thcrcualo], &e. 
The plain and common meaning of BTi is to liaslcn, and licnee ta 
he cay*}-. It is elsewhere used to qualify another word. (See Ph. 
xxii. 20; exix. 60.) I cannot find that in the later, more than in the 
ancient Hebrew, it means in i-njnj "«('- .irif, or- -n tvij-y/ plrasn"-, as Stu- 
art and others have it. Buxtorf, in his Lex. C ha i da; cum et Talmudi- 
cum, says that it means simply In f,e,x<-hr, au:l that the noun T'-in de- 
notes the /ice senses. Rut to perceive pleasure or enjoyment is another 
thing. The conjectural reading, ^'j in place of "•r.^'-i as making the- 
meaning to he, W,:i run <■"<, itc, urilhnn! hin-., i.e., without Clod, is unne- 
cessary, and therefore inadmissible. 

26. Fur — Gvdyiueth,&c. " For this is a blessing which God reserves 
for htm whom he loves ; whose sincere piety he rewards with wisdom 
to judge when, and with knowledge to uudorsland how, he should 
enjoy and take the eunit'oft of all that, he bath ; especially with inward 
joy, satisfaction ofheai't, and Irampiilhty ■>( mind, in (his favor of God 
to him, whereby the troublesome aflairs of this life are tempered and 
seasoned : but he delivers tip him that regards uol God to the most 
13 



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cruel tormentors, which arc his unsaliable desires ami anxious cares, 
Willi busy labors and incessant pains to increase his cstiiti? without end, 
and to he;!.p up vast treasures, wliicli Cud disposes after ward to those 
who approve themselves to jiiin in a pious, just, and charitable life, 
with co i it on ted minds," Patrick. — good in his sight, &c. That this 
refers to the mir.nl character is evident, nut only from its contrail with 
KtlTT' which usuiif] v moans finncr, and novo; simply ndii.ns or iijfni~iri ; 
hut also from \ii. 2G. ami especially viii. 1?, IS, wliere the same two 
characters are contrasted, and where jWjTI, sinner, is defined by 
JH ~~"> fi-i'l-awr, and contrasted with fwni ir-kj fnir Hod. (See also 
ix. 2.) To say with Smart, following Hilzig, that " good in his sight " 
here means" one who is regarded witii favor,"' .seems to me quite 
arbitrary. — TIA tt/no is vanity; i.e., to the sinner, to get rii'lies for 
those ibi' whom he never designed them. Some suppose the meaning 
to be, that "to eat and drink, and enjoy good from all bis labor," 
jrer. 24), is " vanity, and sU-iving after iviml." This seems to ma 
harder titan to refer it to a subordinate part of tiie sentence, as I have 

Ch, III, 1-15. The design of this passage seems to be to show 

the vanity of human efforts and anxieties respecting the future, in con- 
sequence of the fixed course anil established, unavoidable changes of 
human tilings. A higher power tha.n man's controls human elfbrts 
and destinies. Hence, a quiet enjoyment of life is recomraended as 
true wisdom. 

1. — u fixed jieriotl, fit:. — apjioinkd iim?. This does no! mean a./:'' 
season, an npproiiri'j'e time, when men may and ought to do the things 
therein mentioned, and ivbich. if neglected, will not again recur. ]for 
this moaning will not apply to several of the subjects which are enu- 
merated in the following verses. What, for instance, is the appropriate 
time In liii or !•/ /.v.'* i The author is speaking, I conceive, not of a jit 
time, an appropriate, opportune season, bul of a necessary Bhangs, a pe- 
riod that in.i^i recur. Kve:y Iking remains hut Ibr a time. 'Every run- 
dilion soon passes away, ivolhiug is stable and cm luring. The- 
thought is soinewhul similar In that which is contained in Urn prover- 
bial expression, that " all things have their (%." 

3. — to kill. In ver. 1, natural death was spoken of; here, that 
which comes by violence, as by robbers, assassins, or by course of law, 
or by accident. — n, !.i,- <.».(■ dmat, &e. At one lime, buildings are lie- 



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ECCLESIASTBS. iiyi 

strnyed in war, or Ivy hurricanes, 1'ioods, or conuajyvauons ; :it another, 
new edifices are erected in their place. 

4. — to weep, fie. There are changes in life, such its sickness, loss 
of relations, &('., moving us to (ears, which are succeeded hy others 
effacing liie memory of trouble, ail leading to joy. — to mourn, &c. 
This may bo distinguished from weeping, as being a formal, publiu 
expression of grief, as dancing is of .joy. 

5. — to cast atones asunder; as in the case of cdilices, forliiicntions, 
fie, which full into ruin; or they are brought, together for building 
new walls, fie. — to embrace, fie. ; i.e., a time when we embrace our 
friends after a long absence, and a time when they are again absent 
from us. Or, possihiy, a linn: when we live in friendship with any 
one, and a time when, by change \>i pursuits or character. v.e become 
estranged from him. 

6. — to keep, fie. ; i.e., from attachment to the object, or expecta- 
tion of benefit from it. — to cast, auray ; i.e., as worthless. 

7. — to read; as in great and sudden grief, as (ion. xxxvii. 29; Joel 
ii. 13, — to sew; i.e., when the grief is over ; or, perhaps, making new 
garments on sonic occasion of joy. — silence; when men will keep 
silence through grid', sickness, fie. 

8. — to love. Love is often followed by haired. 

9. What profit, fie. What can his utmost efforts to obtain good 
or avoid evil avail, while there is such a syslem of vicissitude and 
change by the appointment of Providence 'i 

10. ■ — the labor; i.e., ihe labor of the human mind in endeavoring 
to explore the ways of Hod in Ihe government of the world, and the 
appointment of the various vicissimdes of human life, 

11. — inaki.ti: :nri; liiii-o oo'id in its time. The meaning scorns to he, 
that every thing which Lakes place in the course of providence, by 
Divine appointment or permission, is right; so ihal, all things consid- 
ered, it con Id not have been done belter, vcr. 11; and would appear 
so, if viewed in relation lo its season, tendencies, and relations ; — 

' : Ami spier, of prule. in m-aif re: ismi's -]>it.i', 
One Iriiili ii dtiir, Whiituvi-r is, is right." 

— but. For tins use of tins Hebrew particle, see eh. iv. 16. — but 

/,■■■ hiJh ji-il t!ie in/id into tin: i.eitrt lit man. so that !,i: understand: ■'/: no!, fie. 
The translation and interpretation of this passage are attended with 
much ditbeuhy ; lirst, on account of the ambiguity of the Hebrew term 
r;S, rendered Kvrhl, and, secondly, on account of the Hebrew negative 
panicles; whether both haie their separate force, or whether they 



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i NOTES. 

e their force to form one negative, 'Hie Hebrew term, in all othel 

a which i( omus in trie tv-riptures, denotes duration., indefi 
nitc duration, whclher past or lulure, and sumctimes elernal duration ; 
but in tlis C'haidec ami Kabbmu: iisnjii-, ;;,,■ ;r .rid. .!■■.;./';; j/ir'iw, like the 
Greek a/iii-, in Eph. ii. 2; Heb. i. 2; xi. 3 (see also Biutorf's Lex. 
('bald, et Talm., c.-peciady on z'X'J), i.e., things which exist in a 
jjivuii period of duration, more or less definite. If we suppose ibis, 
rendering colt eel, and that there is hot one negation in the sentence, 
accon ling to the Common Version, which 1 foilmv. 1 1 - ■. meaning will lie, 
tiuit, according to (lie same idiom by whioh ho is raid to liarden the 
heart of Pharaoh, (Sod has put (he cares, or iholovo,of the world into the 
hearts of men ; so that they cannot discern the propriety and the beau- 
tiful harmony of his dispcnsaiinns, and cmnot understand the whole 
that ho ih.es in his providence from lie.n-intiirs.is lo end, iiut only a part 
of it. Others give to the tcrui e;3 a signification more nearly allied 
.to the common meaning, and render the passage, And God hath put 
fiilni-ili/ or liitrntiim into llw. hetirt of man; i.e., the capacity of looking 
back upon the past, ami forward into (he future, i-xnpt. Ih/U he cannot 
ninirrnl.ni.fi t/if irork irhirh i'nd do, l!; /.!■.■,,.., //„ .■'./,,■■/, .;,<'/;// to tin- n,J ; i.e., Cod 
has given man the capaoily of locking hark upon [he past and Jbrivnnl 
into the future, bat not in such a measure or ik'jjrtc- that he can under- 
stand (he work of (foil (ruin beginning !o end. 'I.'his seems to me t? 
bo strained, to make i.t, ria'ty mean a rn/inrilii in A«t >'.■■.'■> rkfnily. Cithers 
resort to the Arabic, milking ZZ- menu ii:-d-:;t/<j;\dii<<i or rmson ; 
translating, " ile iiinh y.'.v. in'elii^enee in 5 heir heart, without which no 
man tan iiud out the work wliioli (.Iml ■ J : ><_: r "- ■ hom beginning lo end." 
So Stuart and "Tiirst, following llii/ig. Cut to this there are two 
ohjeriioiis, of which the first is decisive with me. 1. Tliere is a great 
abii!i:!ani.:e of words in Hebrew lo denote iiiU'd't^rjicc, in;ii : :!ii, ■mi*oa 
.Why, (hen, slnmh! (lie writer nse an Arabic word '. L\ Though T am 
not such it reader of Arabic as to be able to affirm that Cii> never 
means reason or iiiHIi.jt-ncf: in that language, I. can say that there is no 
such meaning assigned lo ii. in I'Yeylag's Lexicon; but only that of 
le.aiiiiiiij, art, and rrdtr.r.f, in the objective sense, as the seience of phys- 
ics, theology, &.v.. (See Preying, iii. p. 213.) As to the double nega- 
iive couiained in :i; T.TN ~*~Z~Z, every one knows the general rule in 
Hebrew to be, thai two negatives strengthen the negation. (See 
Gesen. Grammar, § 152.) It seems to me that Ililzig's remarks are 



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by no moans conclusive against list- coiislniot : on which 1 huvc adopted, 
being iliat of tin; Common Version arid of most scholars. I'osidcs, the 
Irauslation of Ililsdg ;iu!.i Air. Sloan, gives n. sentiment in opposkiou to 
Ihe current of the whole book and of other writer? of the Old Testa- 
ment. According to these ciiiics, the meaning is. that without intsdii- 
gouec or reason " no man can lind out the work which God docih from 
beginning 10 end," Surely it needed no Solomon to fell ns that, lint 
is it the doctrine of the Preacher, or of the Book of Job, or of any 
sacred writer, (hat with reason " a man can find out the work that God 
doetli firm beginning to aid" J (See viii. 17, already cited; i. 17, 18; rr. 
1-3; Job xsxvii.; xxxviii.) 'J'he main design of the passage, which- 
ever ( xpiaualion may be adopted, i- illustrated by oh. viii. 17 : " Then 
I saw the whole work of God, that a man cannot comprehend that 
winch liikcth place under the sun : how much soever he labor to search 
it out, yet shall lie no'. comprehend it ; yea, ; ho ugh u wise uuio resolve 
to know it, yet shall he nol he able to comprehend it." 

12. — enjoy 'jumi, (Comp. oh. ii. 21, and the note.] 

13. — gift of God; i.e., "to him thui if good in his sight. (Sec tlie 
note or, eh. ii. 24.) 

14. — whatever Gad ilnetJi. The contest seems to require tilts (o be 
understood as referring to the course of thins;.-; under the Divine gov- 
ernment, rather than to the works of creation. It sets forth the per- 
fection and uniformity of Ids conduct in the govern incut of tin 1 world. 
— Jin- e.urr; i.e., is unallcrabb.!. l'a trick lias given a good paraphrase of 
the verse : " It is not only very .foolish and vain, but a grunt plague, to 
he di sooin ei iled that shines go otherwise, than \ia desire ; tor certain it 
is, God hath settled theni iiy such an eternal and imnintabto law, in 
that course and order before described, ver. .1 --•.', &c., in wdiioh nothing 
is superfluous, nothing wauling, that ii is not tn she power of man to 
make (he least, altoraliou one way or other; therefore we must alter 
ourselves, and not murmur tiiat we e.auuol change the course of things, 
which God hath thus immovably fUed, not to make us miserable, by 
fie sting at. it. hut happy, by reverent so! i mission ;o tiie Divine govern- 
ment, and huiuhle patience under these troubles vvhieh we cannot hon- 
estly avoid, and a due care not to offend tiie Divio,! majesty, whose 
will shall be done, one way or oilier, if not by us, yet upon "us." 

15, — recalleth that which is pasl; i.e., lie repeats it; makes the 
future resemble the oust, and substantial!}- -.he .sumo with it, so that 
(here shall lie '■" nothing now under the stio." ■' This alone is sollieicuf: 
to silence all our unprofitable, as well as mKlmiiiil, complaints about 
that which hath always been and ever will be. Tor we, in Ibis present 



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204 NOTES. 

age, are subject lo no oilier laws than those by which God hath gov- 
erned the world bom the beginning; nor will Die next produce any 
orln-r method (han Dial wherein ho Imtli already proceeded : lint, 
though that which succeeds thrusts out wluiT wijnt be'ia'u. it brings Ike 
very tame filings about again, as constant 'y as sluing ami rail, sum- 
mer and winter, rcliiru i:i their seasons." Patrick. 

16-22. The vanity of Imman tiling is illustrated in tins passage 
from lilt prevalence of injustice, and tin.- resemblance of men to brutes 
in respect to hardships and dealb. Hence the usual inference of the 
writer, that man should lead :i quit-!, : ■ I li.-i_ : rfi i ' lite, without: anxiety con- 
cerning th,e unknown future. 

10. — in the place of jastii-R; i.e., where justice ought specially to 
be, where rulers or juege- probssod to admin is ler j a- lice. The mean- 
ing may, however, bo more general, referring 10 justice between man 
and man. The fact to which he refer* seems to be introduced as a 
new instance of the vanity of human things. 

17. — a lime; i.e., of judgment. ■ — hath he appointed. This ren- 
dering is obtained merely by changing Ike diaerilic point, reading 
IS for E. (Comp. ch. xii. U; si. 9; Dan. vii. 9, 10; Job six. 29) 
It is a question whether the judgment or retriluition here spoken of 
was expected by the writer to take place in the present or in the future 
world. From the context, ver. 18-21, and from other passages in the 
book, 1 think it most probable that the present lire was exclusively in 
Si is view. The passage in Daniel, above referred to, is a good illustra- 
tion of a time of judgment ; for undoubtedly it rekilcs to a judgment in 
the present world. So the liook of Job, eh. xix. 29, contains men- 
tion of a judgment, although the plan and the contents of that work 
exclude the idea of a retriluition after death. If the 1 'roach it had held 
a belief in a i-ialo of retribution alter iSeiiili, Ids taith must have been 
manifested in oil no- parts of [ho work, and applied to [be sole, lion of 
the doubts and difri cullies relating to the course of human things which 
perplexed liitn. It seems to me certain that, if the Preacher had be- 
lieved lit a future state of righleoos rclribiiliuii, he could never have 
written such a hook as this, ".Life and immortality were brought lo 
light by the gospel." The phrase, in"/ Jmhi: tin- riylii'-o'ts ■tut! the nicleii, 
means will acquit and deliver the righteous, and eundemn and punish 
the wicked. 

19. — one spirit in than: i.e., the spirit of life. (Comp. ch. viii. 
8; xii. 7; Judges xv. 19; lSam.xxs.12; Ezek. xxxvii. 8; Hab. ii. 
19.) Sometimes this vital i:i>irit is called tin: siiiit. or iimith of God, as 
having been imparted by him, bteaihed by him iulo ihe nostrils of 



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ECCLESIASTES. JMb 

men, and as returning to him again. (See Job xxvii. 8.) In Job 
xxxii. 14, lit! is said i-i» :<:!.<: hirk his sj.irit, when men (lie, (Clomp. Ps. 
civ. 29, SO.) Ifroin a comparison of ilio prcccda!;;' references, it will 
appesir, Unit, a wording to Hebrew usage, the return of the. spirit to 
God denotes simply W, and nut :l rctni'ii to a st;uc of happy existence 
with God after death. 

21. — - wheiber it gaeth upward, &c. This is the rendering of the 
Heptwu-iiit and nil the ancient versions, as also of the < k'lieva Version, 
Slid of Luther. It appears to agree better with the Hebrew idiom, and 
with the connection, than that of the. common version. The term spirit 
in this verse is (lie same in the original as in ver. ].ii, where it. is said 
that one s/'iiil is in men and brutes. In both cases, 1 understand il ns 
denoting the animal or vital spirit. It seems to me improbable, thai, 
in a sentence so closely connected with ver. I 1 .), there should be any 
change in the meaning of the term sjiiril, especially as it is here ap- 
plied Lo brutes as welt as to men, and us the spirit of all mankind, the 
bail as well .'is I he stood, seeing to be spoken of in companion wilh thai 
of brutes. The Preacher seems to me ioopressa dunht, whether man, 
whom he represen u to be like ilie brules in many res peels, diders from 
them in this, i-ial ihe spirit of men ascends upward, or returns to God, 
and that of brutes goes downward, or mingles wil.h dust. I do not un- 
derstand lii in to refer to the personal, conscious immortality of either ; 
for, in ver. IB, lie says, " One lot befalls both. As the one dies, so 
dies Ihe other. Yea, there is one spirit in them, and a man has no pre- 
eminence above :i. beast." The doubt is, whether the vital spirit of 
man is more honorably disposed of after death than that of a brute. 
In ch. xii. 7, it is true, he positively affirms that the spirit of man 
"shall return to God," But it. is oof very probable that he doubts iiere 
what lie alfirms Ihe re. Tins doubt is, wborher any different disposition 
is made of the soni of a man and that of a Unite ; whether the latter 
may not go iinu ard as well .'is the former. Tko Ibregoing exposition 
of Ihe passage seems lo he confirmed by Ihe miercuoe which is drawn 
from it in vor. 22. If the writer had believed that man was distin- 
guished item heasis by a destiny to an immortal, conscious, desirable 
existence, and to a state of righteous retribuiion, and hail, as many 
suppose. iuLcnded lo express his surprise I hat so lew regarded, as the 
writer did, the diilerent destiny of the spirits of men and brute., would 
bis inference from the passage have been exactly what it is in ver. 
22'! Is not Ibis iniereneo radier drawn fioin what the wriler considers 
as the rcsembkini.'C of man lo Ihe brutes in all the points in which lie 
coisijicics Iheri) 1 It ought not io appear stramjc :o any one, that the 



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296 NOTES. 

writer dill not believe in doctrines which had cover been revealed te. 
him or to his countrymen. The oilier mode of understanding the 
verse is expressed in ilie paraphrase of l'iitrkrk : "As lor the spirit, 
which makes iiU Ihe dificrcneo between !lie beasts and us, that is invisi- 
ble; and where shall we find a nun, especially union;; those great 
persons lijKikeii of bcaire, who seriously considers it, and believes thai 
the souls of all mankind so to Cod that gave them, to tie judged by 
liim, whereas the souls of beasts perish with them V If we were to 
allow that irim knotm may here denote irki cesser* or rnittrrk, the verse 
as thus expounded seems to he quilt; inconsistent with the writer's 
train of thought. (See the note on oh. xii. 7.) 

22. And therefore, considering that sneh is the vanity of human 
life, and that man in his condition and his end so much leseuiblcs the 
brutes, "I was confirmed in my former opinion," eh. ii. 23, "that it 
is best for a man herein also to imitate the beasts, by enjoying frec.Y 
the good Ihings Chid has blessed him withal, and taking all the com- 
fort he can find in them at present, without solicitous care about the 
future ; for this is all lie can be sure of: he shall not enjoy that here- 
after whieh he makes no use of now ; nnieli less, when he is dead, can 
he be brought buck again to lake any pleasure in the fruit of all his 
labors, or see what becomes of them." Patrick. (See the note on 
ch. ii. 24.) 

Cli. IV. In this chapter, the author goes on to illustrate the vanity 
of human things, or tin; obstacles which prevent a tranquil and happy 
lite, by referring to the sufferings of the oppressed ; to the envy which 
is excited towards the prosperous ; to the evils of avarice and of soli- 
tude ; and those which attend royalty, arising from the infirmities of 
its possessor and the fickleness of the people. 

1. Then I turned; i.e., from the preceding subject of contemplation 
and remark to that which follows. 

2,3. (Comp. Job iii. 11-23.) 

4. This rdsa is vanity : namely, that an industrious and successful 
man should meet with envy and obloquy instead of good-will and 
applause. 

&. — eatt-.th hi.; out jlisii. This may mean that tin; fool is so tor- 
mented with envy, that lie is, as it were, consumed or devoured by ii. 
Wo, St' Svu'jv Kari&iv, Horn. II. vi. 202 : " Quisnam illic homo est, qui 
ipsus sc comest, tristis, oeulis malis 1 " {Plant. Trucul. ii. 7, 38.) Ge- 
senitis observes that sneh a man is called by the Arabs a ckronrer of 
lisiitrlf; but he does not, as he ought, produce the proof of this asscr- 



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ECCLBSIASTES. SiST 

tion. Another meaning of the verse may tie, lhat the foul, perceiving 
lliiif. diligence is ; 1 1 1 1- l : f ]<_■■: ! will] i.'iivy, goes to the opposite extreme of 
folding iiis hands and doing nothing, and thus is reduced to such pov- 
erty, that he is ready to eat his own flesh through extremity of hun- 
ger. Tliis seems holier suited to ilie connection. 

6. Heller, He.; i.e, in reference to ver. 4, "Better is a moderate 
estate, gotten hmieslly with moderate diligence, ami enjoyed hand- 
somely with perfect coiik'ntnient, than the greatest treasures, gotten 
by oppression or with iidinile loll, and enjoyed with anxious Ihouehls 
and frctling cares, and cxjiosiiig; a man either lo Iho baked or the envy 
of others." Patrick. 

7-12, In these verses is described the vanity of avarice, especially 
in one wdio lives in solitude, and has no near friend to whom he may 
leave Ids wealth. The male of solitude is then contrasted with the 
advantages of social and married life. 

8. [sailh he]. The ellipsis of these words, for the .sake of vivid repre- 
sentation, is not very unusual. The miser who is without descendants 
is represented as speaking. 

8. — good rciatnl ; i.e., profitable ''results, I'.y mutual counsel and 
assistance t.hey efleet much more than they could separately. 

12. — threefold curd, &c. Ko more than a bundle of arrows or 
Btieks; though each single thread, arrow, or stick may easily he 
broken. 

13. Better, &c The author draws a new illustration of the vanity 
of human life from the conlempl of royalty, when mental vigor is 
wanting in the possessor of it, nod from Lilt: general uncertainty anil 
inconstancy of popular favor towards kings. 

11. — out of prison; i.e., from a very low condition, as was not un- 
common in the despotisms of the East, and has not. been uncommon in 
I node il i limes. — such a on::; i.e., one poor hut wise. — for in his otvn 
kingdom, &£■ ; i.e., that in which lie afterwards reigned. 

15. — with the child : i.e.. following bins, paying their court to him, 
worshipping Lhe rising ralher than Llie senilis; sen. — in his stead; 
i.e., instead of the old and foolish king, ver. 13. 

10. ■ — went forth; i.e., as a leader. ■ — not rejoice in him; i.e., by rea- 
son of the love of novelty, the flattery of human hopes, and other cir- 
cumstances, they will he as weary of the successor, though a wise and 
worthy prince, as their parents were of his foolish predecessor. 

Ch. V.- XII. The remainder of the book is chiefly preceptive, 

rather than speculative. The author seems to he giving his advice as 



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298 NOTES. 

to the way in which we may best oass through the Jill- of vanity which 
lie has described. 

1. ioot inert to thj fai, &c. ; i.e., Walk circumspectly. Make sure 
and straight steps. Engage in the services of religion with attention, 
seriousness, deliberation, anil sincerity. The metaphor seems to be 
drawn from the condition of one who is walking in a very slippery 
path, in which raw' than ordinary e:ave is necessary to keep him from 
falling. Tin: expression will thus be similar to thai of tutiiw hnl to 
one's U'tttjs. Some, however, suppose the metaphor to ho drawn from 
tin: impropriety of entering the houses of (he great with dirty feet; 
others, from the practice of putting off the shoes on entering a sacreil 
place. — to liear. To hear is oft™ used in the sense of to obey. (Sec 
1 Sam. xv. '22.) In this place, it denotes to vln-.i/ the law which is read, 
rather than simply to hear it, though the latter is implied, — as fools; 
who offer splendid obliixions as substitute's of piety ami obedience. 
This does not imply that the writer regards the offering- of sacrifice as 
itself folly, but only irreverent sacrifice, with no desire " to hear" or 

2. — words liffi.iv. As you would riot, if ii.iiniltei! to the presence 
of a king, ifse many words, words which are jiol weighed nod chosen, 
much less should you multiply word-, without care, thought, and rev- 
erence, in the presence of him who is higher than the highest. 

8. —witJt much laisihr, i.e., thoughtless and profitless activity. This 
rendering of the verse is strictly literal ; and the meaning is, that as a 
dream is attended with, sets forth, or brings forward, many thoughtless 
nnd trifling matters, so a fool utters many thoughtless and trifling 
words. {Comp, ver. 7.) The objection to tho common version is, 1, 
That it requires too much to he supplied ; ami, 2, That it neglects the 
studied antithesis of the original. It makes business the cause of the 
dream; btit the multitude of words is not the cause, but the conse- 
quence, of folly, la the Hebrew idiom, to '.vim: with is often used to 
denote la bring forward, to set. forth. Ps. Ixvi. 13, lxsi. 16, n here / wilt 
come with thy nii'/lr.-/ dfj-Js, means, / iciii n-.t fi'i'th , rck'ir'iic, iliij mi.ilit;/ 

4, 6. (Comp, Numb. xxx. 2, &o. ; Deut xxiii. 21, 22.] 
6. — to bring punishment, &c. So Ilitzig, according to a Hebrew 
idiom, which is common in the noun. (Comp. in the Hebrew, Isa, 
xxix. 21.) The mouth, by uttering inconsiderate: or false vows, might 
bring punishment on the body, on the whole man, — bfore On, aiwi; 
possibly before ihe priest, regarded as the messenger of tied, Ihe an- 
nouncer of his will. (Sec Mai. ii. 7.) It may be. however, that there 



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ECCLESIASTES. 291} 

is reference to soma Jiiwl, supposed id preside ovor tlie temple. 
[Comp. "jsnyol of thfi Church" in .Rev. hi.) Sou Christian ]v\ani- 
iner for November, 1838, pp. 210, 211. — /( was a mistake; i.e., I 
made :i mintnltf! ; 1 acted foolishly and incousidcralely in iiiahio;; such 
a vow, and therefore hope God will excuse rap from paying it. — the 
m>,-i: of tlii/ hands; i.e., the product of the work of thy hands, thy 

J. — fear tlieu God; i.e., manifest tliy 'bur of God by abstaining 

from rash mid inconsiderate vmvs. 

8. — alarmed at the metier: as ibaugli mju-lhv would be finally tri- 
umphant, and sentence ivmud never b.i canited apahisl the evil work. 
— it hiiilter, who >i:ii!i-hi:tk ; i.e., over subordinate mairislralcs there is a 
higher, or the tiny, who will call them ;o iiiihiiiii; and tiver them ail 
is God, who nil! b:-i]iu r every work of the kiuc as wcU as of Hie sub- 
ject, into judgment. 

9. — a king over cultivated t)roititd ; i.e., one who does not make his 
country desolate and barren by oppression. So the Sept. iianiAci:c -liO 
i/, ■.'.■!■.■'■ mi; (.■(r,v ! !■:.'!.'. I:.:;:' doiiole.s tiUeil. in Y.y.i'k. xxxvi. '), lii; Dent, 
xxi. i. (See burst's Lex.) The rendering adopted by me in the for- 
mer edii.ion, "honored by the land," seems to be run suliieiently saue- 
lioned by .Hebrew nsage. 

11. — Uiat eat them. " The more meat, the more mouths. The 
move men hsi.ve, the heller boose they 7 inusl keep; the mure servants 
employ, the more unesls ei Pertain ; I be fio'e give to I he poor, anil the 
more will they have hanginc 1 on them ; for where the curcass is, the 
cables will he. What we have mure than food and raiment, we ba.ve 
for others ; and then what good is there to the owners themselves, hut 
tfic pleasure of beholding tliein with [heir eyes* And ji poor pleasore 
it is ,' an empty .specula: ion is sill the diiirieiiee in 1 '. ween the owners 
and Ibe sharers." Heart/, 

; ' P. What fichus ;««!■ us, [ct m thon inquire; 



te pictures, they were formed to please." 



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12. — repletion ; i.e., of liis stomach with various delicacies, mora 
than can be digested. Tliis is the Ilu.-l-;i1. renderiu;;. Some, limy ever, 
understand abundance oi' wealth, which brings cares and fears. 



13. — to his hurl ; by exposing him to (Inn;:!]' from thieves, as repre- 
sented in tin; las' ^notation from Horace ; or, by pausing mental dis- 
tress when he loses them, as described in the next verse. 

14. — in his hand. There seem 3 to lie 110 consideration which de- 
eides conclusively whether 7. is refers to the father, who, !iy calamity, 
is deprived of the power of leaving any thing to tlie Hon for whom he 
endured all his labors, or whether it relets to the son, who has nothing 
in his possession after hi* liilhei"'s death. 1 incline to the former sup- 

15. These thiols, indeed, 1I0 not always happen; but it is at least 
certain, thai, though he died possessed of all that he has acquired, yet 
he cannot carry one thrilling- a way with him. (See Johi. 21; 1 Tim. 
vi. 7.] So Proper tius, 1. iii, Eleg. 3, vs. 13,14: — 

" liana ihbK ii'jrla'-iiii r,p,?. At-hei Yirjr.i^ :i.l tirulafl, 

16. — for mind; i.e., for riches, which aie empty and till satisfying, 
uncertain and transitory, which no man can retain more than ho can 
wind. (Comp. Prov. xxiii. 5.) 

U, —lie ate in duv/.-.'i.'vs ,' i.e., livcl in disquietude, venation, and 

18. (See the note Oil ch. ii. 24.) — hit portion; i.e., the use and en- 
joyment of one's possessions is all that can bo truly called his own; 
all the good which he can receive from them. 

19. —gifto/God; i.e., to the gooa man. (Seech, ii. 26.) 

20. — will not much ramiiiiier. So. lie does not torment himself 
with useless yrici ah. ml -,'ne jmst misfortunes of his lite, which he can- 



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not remedy, nor with vniii nn.^ely about :\uorc ones, which be cannot 
avoid. — awnef.rf.Lk him with; i.e., bestows upon liini joy, as it were, 
in answer to his desires. Otherwise, cKcuiiidii him with, &c. 

Ch. VI. 1-6. The folly and misery of avarice; of hoarding, with- 
out enjoying or using. 

1. — Iklk hf.ai-i/. (Set' viii. 6.) — Gvl i/irr/h l-iin vol in iiati-. &<.:■ ; 
on ni.' count of his avaricious mind, his ttinijtoi- ever anxious about the 
future, liis disposition \r> neglect the present use and enjoyment of his 
weal tli. 

3. — his soul be not aitiffurl with void; i.e., if he have not a cheerful, 
contented mind, it; lie do not enjoy li if. property, &.<J. — <ti«l h: liui:e ni 
hntii.it; either because the strangers to whom his property is loft have 
grudged !iim Hie espouse of a, decent buri.i.l, or because lie lias died 
in foreign hinds, or drowned in a foreign sea, whither lie liad gone 
in quest, of wealth. How much importance the Hebrews attached (o 
a decent burial appears from J'sa. xtv. 1'j, 20; Joh xxvii, 19; Ps. 

4. — comctk in )if/(N!>, , ;/i. , ' : *s : i.e., I lie abortion has no real existence as 
a human being;. — ■ ijikjIi doii-n hiio iIih-I;i-i-sk: i.e., is inimediafely buried, 
put out. of sight. — its mime is coeerrtl. &*:. ; i.e., no mention is made 
of it. 

6. — and see no j/tW, Kc. ; i.e., enjoy no good, have no enjoyment 
of the good things of life. — to our pirn-it ; i.e., the grave. And if tiiey 
iv lie live long have no c!ij"j men! of lite, it follows that tliey who die 
soonest have tin: most rest. " Unices oodctn eogiintu'." (Hot. Caitu. 
ii. 3, 25.) 

OvM. McIbio. i. S3, 34. 

7. — for his mouth, &c. Although all that a man can get by his 
labors is (bod necessary for the support of life (see eh. v. 11, and the 
note), yet such is the vanity of the world and the tolly of mankind, 
that the desires of men are insatiable. 

8. For what advantage, &e. The most natural meaning of this verse 
seems to be this : Since the support of life, or meat, clothes, and lire, 
is the chief ad tanlago of wealth, what advantage lias the wise man 
over the fool, or what advantage lias the poor man who knows how to 
wall; bel'ore the living, i.e.. who is ingenious, enterprising, knowing 1 
how to gain the litvor of the rich over the poor man who is destitute 
of these advantages, who does nor know how to wall; bolero trie living '! 



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302 NOTES, 

"I'm- tin! most foolish, and the most ignorant and rude of (lie pom', can, 
by the labor (if their hands, find bread to ■'ill (licit mouths, So. 

9. ■ — sight of the eyes, So. ; i.e.. the enjoyment, (lie malting the best, 
of «-kit is present is -belter than the wandering of 11 le soul a iter things 
a.r a distance, and siilbetuig ;l variety of imaginary gratifications which 
usually end in vexation, 

10. That which is; i.e., relating to man. — twos long ago called by 
name. The meaning of this sentence is not very obi ions. It seems, 
however, to intimate ll.nl: this condition and fortunes of every man arc 
known and appointed by the Almighty ; thai they depend more upon 
an established course of tbin^s than upon his personal striving. (Conip. 
Oh. iii. 1-9.) Hence the folly of excessive exertion and anxiety. 
Others supnose the meaning to he, Man is- frail, earthy, mortal, ae- 
cording to the name Ail.un. which God gave him when he formed him 
out of the dust; Ad" hi being supposed to denote earth. (Gen. ii. 7.) 

11. — increase vanity, &c. Ver, 11 and 12 seem to be added as a 
conclusion of all that be has said respecting the toil, cave, and anxiety 
which what are called the good tilings of ibis lire bring with them. 
(Conrp. ver. 8 and the note.) 

12. — after him under the. sun ; i.e., he knows not who shall possess 
his acquisitions, or 1 wiiethei' the future owners of ids possessions will 
use or abuse ihcm. Whence it follows, tluif it is best for a man to live 
a tranquil, una.nibiLious lilij, agreeably to ver. 7-9. (See ii. 18; iii. 
22 i xii. 14.) 

Ch. VII. 1-TOI. 13. The design of this portion is to give cer- 
tain proverbs or precepts tin- the guidance, consolation, or support of 
men in their passive through the world, whose vanity lie has de- 
scribed, anil continues to set forth by incidental remarks. The gen- 
eral purport of these piece] us is to inculcate the necessity of teen latin a 1 
our thoughts, d is po-i lions, desires, even to an extent "inch may seem 
paradoxical to die mass ot mankind, an-: I conforming- L'ocln to the course 
of things, or the appointments of die Creator. For precepts, just, com- 
prehensive, si ml comuhec, having a certain resemblance to those of the 
Preacher, sec the Sermon on the Mount. 

1. — precious perfume; such as was used in the East, as a part of 
persona) comfort, elegance, stnd dress. "Tim custom of anointing with 
oil or perfume was also common mining the Greeks and Romans, es- 
pecially the anointing of guests at. feas's and oilier enteruiinments." 
(See Potter's Grec. Ant,, vol. ii. p. 8Sf> ; Adam's Rom. Ant., p. 144; 
Hor. Od., ii. 7, 11 ; iii. 2B ; Joseph. Ant., six. 4, 1, and 9, 1 ; Iliad, xiv. 



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ECCLESIASTES. 303 

171.) The same custom is still prevalent in tho East. Ta vernier says, 

that " among this Arabs olive oil is rf-fj:inlt;il as a very agreeable pres- 
ent. When any one offers it. to them, they immediately take off their 
turban, and anoint their head, fane, and heard, raisins; their eyes to 
heaven at tlie same time, and exclaiming, ' Thanks In; to God.'" (Ho- 
seiimul. A. ii. A". Morgenland, vol. iv. p. 117.} — day of ow.'a death. 
Sinew litis is so i'ujl of vexation ami misery, it is a more desirable tiling 
for a man to go out of it than to rami 1 itiro it. although it is tin- prac- 
tice ot almost sill mankind to celebrate their own or children's ]>irtjii(js y." 
with solemn feasts ami rojuieuigs. iirni Their death- with nil expressions 

2. ■ — forttial; i.e., iloatli. In S;d:u)teuy',s Arnliologiit,&c., is the fol- 
lowing sentiment of an Arabic poet : — 



liar, if Similar: Ltirin;.! tu a. Juast, !;i'»-iuu : :: 

See Ros. ad loc. 

i. The heart of tlie wine, &c. ; even when tlieir bodies are absent. 
There is no inconsistency between this remark anil those passages 
which inculcate the enjoyment ot' the present ; because, by tho enjoy- 
ment of the present tiie writer means not sensual or riotous pleasure, 
bol this grateful use of tlie good wliieh Heaven sends, in opposition to 
excessive striving and anxiety about the future. 

5. — songofjbok; i.e., the music, songs, and jests: of merry compan- 
ions, which are, commonly regarded as delightful. 

6. — crrwkting of thann ; which make a grenl noise and blaze, as if 
they would produce a mighty heat, but leave the water as fold as they 
found it. — lamjhter of a fool; i.e., quickly passing away, doing no 
good, but rather terminating in a sad silence. 

7. — the yarn of o/ipri ■ssioii. I'rorii speaking "f fools, the Preacher 
is led to a particular instance of folly, namely, tlie grasping at unjust 
gain, bribes, &a., which take away from wise men their judgment and 
reason. (Comp. Exod. xxiii. 8 ; Dent, xvi. 19 ; Prav, xv. 27.) 

8. Better is the end. If this verso is connected in sense with tlie pre- 
ceding, the meaning is, that the end of the practice of bribery will show 
that he who lakes it is not a gainer by it. But as there is often no con- 
nection between one proverb and the preceding, tlie meaning may be 
general, that we cannot judge well of tilings till they are brought to a 
conclusion. Some things, which are pleasant and promising at first, 
end in ruin; and some things, difficult and painful at first, have a 
happy termination., — patient in spirit ; who quietly watts for the end 



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of thing?, —proud in b/»V;'.' ; pride being Ibo chief cause iJ' impa- 
tience. Or tliis last line may in 1 understood more '/cut' rally. 

9. — anna- restet.lt. ; i.e., dwells, has its abode; is ever at hand on all 



10. In this verse tlie Preacher condemns a querulous, repining 

spirit, which indulges itself iu una v:i.ili-i^: wi-hes (hut it had lived in 
what it regards the good nlil times, instead of accommodating it-elf to 
the present, stale oflhines.. Perhaps com plaint.-, evi ti against the Gov- 
ernor of the world may he referred to. This spirit has been common 
in all ages, (Cotnp. llor. Ars Poet,, 173.) 

So pviero, com™ cnstieKordue minorum." 

The iioi ion of the siuierioiUy of former ages is ss Li 11 prevalent in the 
East. " The Hindoos hate four si ■res, which nearly corrosiiontl with tlie 
golden, silver, brazen, and iron ages of the Western heathen. In the 
first age, called AVo'/.'g they say tlie corn sprang u;i spontimcou-ly, 
and required no intension : in the seenn.l. name:! Tn-n/li-i, the justice 
of kings and the blessings of the righteous caused it to grow ; ill the 
third, called Taeara, rain produced it; but in this, the fourth ago, 
eailed A>"ij, many works Ita.ve to he done So cause it to grow. ' Our 
fathers, ' say they, ' hail throe harvests in the year ; She trees a No gave 
mi abundance of fruit. Where is now (lie cheapness of provisions '; 
trie ahiuidaine of fish'.' the fruitful flocks ( the rivers of milk? the 
plenty of water? Where the pleasures? Where the docility of ani- 
mals? "Where the righteousness, the truth, and afleetiou? Where 
the riehes, tiie peace, tlie plenty ? Where the mighty men ? Where 
the chaste and beautiful mothers, with (heir fifteen or sixteen children I 
Alas, alas 1 they are all lied.'" (Roberts's Illustrations ad loe.) 

11. — as good, &•:.; it is as desirable to possess wisdom as to in- 
herit a fortune; yea, even more so. — that, srjt the stw ; i.e., thai live. 

12. — ■yii;/J.li life, &.<;■ ; literally, i-ii-ijii-l.lt ; i.e., makes them flourish- 
ing, cunlenSeil, happy. So the noon life is used in 1'rov. jv. 22, 23; 
xii. 28, and many other places. " It marveliou-ly supports, revives, 
nod condiiits Ihe souls of those who are owners of it, under all the 
evils which it could not help them by honest means to avoid." Pat 

13. From the praise of wisdom the Treacher passes fo the principal 

exercise of it, namely, the contemplation of the providence of God. 
— lite tauk of Gad : i.e., 'vital God doctk ; i.e., in the circumstances and 
events which we witness. We are m.-trueied in this ver^e. to regard 



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ECCLESIASTES. 30& 

fiii; 1 condition us appointed by Cod, ami to suit, our minds to it; for »-f 

( not bring filings to our minds, iiml therefore it. is host to strive to 

conform our minds to our condition, whether it bo one of prosperity or 
adversity. 

14. —be joyful. (See the note on ch. ii. 24.) —loohfor a day of 
adixrxi'ii/. So I translate, because I doubt whether the verb flS'l, 
which literal!;, mentis to siv, is ever used to denote what we understand 
by the term <:om'«l<-t , ]( Mould he against the author's views to reconi- 
moud anxiety ahoul the future ; but ii is not anxiety to remember iu 
tbo day of prosperity ilia! it nsny not always last. IV e are the better 
prepared to endure Lbe storm, when it comes, if we remember tliat 
sooner or later it will come to all. — mhd shall be. n/ter him; i.e., Goil 
lias ordained llial prosperity and adversity v- J ui 1 1 succeed each other in 
the course of men's lives, so that they eavinot foresee what shall take 
place it) the future, or after they have left the world, and thus may live 
in constant dependence upon Cod, and submission to his will. (Comp. 
vi. 12.) 

15. Alltkis; i.e. All lhat I have mentioned, and am about to men- 
tion. — my do'/.t of vaiutij; i.e., my vain life. — in their r'g/.v. (i. ■«;;.?.« ; 
or, hj their righteousness. 'The meaning assigned to ver, 15, 16, and 
1.7, by Patrick, in his paraphrase, seems to me its probable as any; 
" Ii seen is very bard thai, a just man's integrity should nut be able to 
preserve him, but be is therefore perhaps destroyed because be is bet- 
ter than others, when a wicked man escapes, nay. is countenanced ar.it 
encouraged, or sullered to prolong his days in (and perhaps byi his 
wickedness. Hut besides other tilings which may be replied to this 
(us that good men are sometimes removed from, and wicked reserved 
unto, fill ure evils), it must be noted aiso, that some pious men are 
more strict and rigid than they need be, and not so prudent as they 
ought to be, but necessarily expose themselves to danger. Ami there- 
loro it is good advice, in order to a sate and ipiiet pa-sage through Ibis 
life, (o be temperate in thy ze:ti, ami not to overdo, either by extend- 
ing thy own duty beyond tin- divine eoumiu.niinu nt, or by correcting 
the inveterate vices of others, and opposing the vulgar opinions too 
severely or unseasonably, whereby they are only exasperated and en- 
raged, hut not at all amended ; for why should a man bring a mischief 
upon himself without any benefit unto others '<. And, on the other side, 
let not impunity tempt any man to presume to grow so ■ 
wicked and foolish as to emfira.ee and follow the lewdest 
this may itivn'wn the public justice against him, even tor t 



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306 NOTES. 

safely; or Ike divine vengeance, nay. his own excessive wickedness, 
may cut him oil' before lie come to liic natural term of his lite." 
lluscomiiller supposes those pivoenis to have partienlar reference to 
jiuheos and rulers in iho administration uf laws. Hut this supposition 
does ni)l seem to he suppor;ed by verse 17. 

18. — take hold of this ; i.e., the counsel alum I avoiding wickedness 
and lolly, vor. IT. — ./ram iV;/: i.e., Ike advice in ver. 16. — escape, 
&c. For t*^ with the accusative, see Gen. xliv. 4 ; Exod. ix. 29, 83 ; 
Amos iv. 8 Tlie rendering shall mate his «■«//, i.e., order his life, 
which Stuart adopts from Hit/iji. seems to me more forced than the 
somewhat unusual construction which il aims to avoid. To walk 
means to order the life ; but to rvwr: mil. has not tliis meaning. — all 
than- things; i.e., the extremes which ha.ve been mentioned, and their 
evil consequences. 

21. Give no heed, &e. Lord Jiacon. as quoted by Patrick ad loo., 
thus remarks on this verse : " it is a mutter nlmos; beyond belief, what 
disturbance is created by unprofitable i.-urio.-ily ahoin tho~o tilings thai 
concern our personal interest ; that is, when we make a too scrupulous 
inquiry after suck secrets, which, ooce disclosed a.od thund our, do but 
cause ii disquiet of mind, and nothing conduce to Ike advancing of oar 
designs. I'or, first, there follows vexation and disquiet of mind; 
human a [lairs I .em;;- si. fall of treachery and ingra'itude, that, if I here 
could be procured a mistical glass in whioh we might heboid the 
hatreds and whatsoever malicious contrivances arc anywhere raised 
up against us, il would lie better for us if such a glass were forthwith 
thrown a. way am! broken in pieces, k'or things of ihis nature are like 
the murmurs of the leaves of bees, which in a. short time vanish! 
Secondly, This curiosity ioaiis the mi ml loo much with suspicions and 
ungrounded jealousies ; which is the most eapitnl enemy to counsels, 
and renders tiieiu inconstant and involved. Thirdly, The same curi- 
osity doth sometimes fix Ikose evils which otherwise of themselves 
would pass by as and fly away. for il is a dangerous tiling to krititte 
the consciences of men ; who, if they think themselves to lie undis- 
covered, are easily charged tin- the belter ; hut, if they- perceive them- 
selves lo lie detected, drive out one mi-chief by another. And there- 
fore it was deservedly esteemed (lie highest wisdom in l'ompey Ike 
Groat, that, lie instantly burnt all Scrturius's papers, tmpcru.sed by him- 
self, or sutli'red to he seen by otkers.'' ■ - " lie not solicitous or- inqnis: ■ 
live to know what people say of thee: if they speak well of Ibec, it 
will feed thy pride ; if ill, it will stir up thy passion." Henri/. 



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ECCLESIASTES. 307 

23. — it teas far from me; i.e., I fell far short of the perfection ol 
wisdom to which I aspired. 

24. — far off, &c. ; i.e., perfect wisdom, a knowledge of the reason* 
of nil that occui^ in the world. (Corap. eh. i. 18.) 

25. — wickedness ami fill';/, &e. Otherwise, to 1»» ivivkedrtess as 
fully, nml /'Jig as minimus. This could scarcely bo said to be the pur- 
pr-s.e, though it would bo tliij certain rvsnli, of diligent investigation. 
The result of tins Preacher's iuvosti^-ati.im »'i;:ns to ho in the next 

27. — to find out ki-.t-irle-l-/'. ; perhaps. '.'■(: •■„,ujii:!niiott l result, or conclu- 

28. — is this; namely. :i wise mid virtuous woman. This is spoken 
in conformity with the Oriental notions of liic- female sex. (See Job 
xiv. 1, and the note.) 

29. — God vtw.lv. unlit, iipi-ijlit. That mat, is used ill the collective 
sense, denoting all mankind, including especially the men and women 
who are just before mentioned, is evident from the plural verb, they 
h.ai-e ■••"■.fill. out. — divines ,- i.e., perverse mnl evil pursuits. Jerome 
remarks on this passage : " No videretur omumunoni homlnnm dam- 
nare namram, et l.leuni uuotorem laoerc ruali, dtim tulium eondirnr est 
qui milium vitare uon possint, argute piajeavit, et ait, bonos nos a Deo 
creams ; sod quia, liboro ramus ar'aitrio dcrcheli, vitio nostro ail pejora 
lahi, dum majora qiuorinius, or. ultra- vires nostras varia eogitamus." 

Ch. VIII. 1. — Ireiijhienflh his comituumce; i.e., enlivens it, makes 

it cheerful and mild, beaming kindness. (Coilip. Ps. Ixxx. 3, 7, 19.) 

2. — oath of God; i.e., the oath of allegiance to (he king, which you 
called Gud to witness, 

5. — to depart from his prrsaiea; i.e., in dislike or discontent, quit- 
tins his service or obedience. - - pvrsiit. ni-t, &c. Less probably, xtui-.J. 

i, — powerful; i.e., he has instruments enough u> execute all- ho 

commands, and (here is none to call him to account for his conduct. 

6. —time and judtjmcn.t. Most modem interpreters translate time 
and nuiiiiiff : i.e., a wise man will attetnpi to correct what lie sees to be 
wro!ig in government, only at a lit time ami in the best way. lie wall 
not lie rush and violent, in opposition lo the powers thai bo. The pas- 
sage rims has a good meaning, lint .it is doubtful whether tins signi- 
fication, «)-nna:r, be justified by the usage of the term CSi'". in the 
Scriptures. In tins book it has a diltctvut sense in ail orbe.r passages 



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308 NOTES. 

in wliicli it occurs. The v.- tin I time seems also lo be u-ed in a peculiar 
■way. Tims, in ch. jii. 17, "For there shall be a lime lor every em- 
ployment iiml for every work." Hove tin: connection seems t:i require 
us tij understand a time of ' j-id-iiwiU. So, in oh. ix. 1'2, " Man knoweth 
nor his time: " i.e., I 111' time when calamity or deaiii si mil come upon 
him. So, ill Job xxiv. 1, the term denotes the time when one may 
experience the evil no 11 s topic 11c es of imju'iidcnce, rashness, or mis- 
conduct. Ju'h/.'utid, it. is well known, often ut.-noles retribution or 

I ishiueut. 

6. For to even/ tiling there is " lime- tw'l jiuh/iwiil. ; i.e., time when the 
oonsropteuccs ui' it shall be experienced, and retribmion take place. 
(See the tiote on Ike preceding terse.) Otherwise, t.iu-e mid mmiiicr, 
in Ike sense above referred to. —lite mistri/, S.e. Otherwise, the 
i/;i.i:I,:t</ii'-*s, lie. 

8. We need not seek for any clnsor eoiinectiou of this verse with 
the proce'din" 1 than to -appose it an illustration of liuiuan misery, men- 
tioned in ver. I>. or of man's ignorance of the future, in his being nimble 
to predict the (lay of his death. — the spirit; i.e., his vital spirit, 
breath of life. (See eh. hi. IS!.) Otherwise, tlie uiud. ■ — ilixehiiri/e, 
&c ; in the conliicl between life ami deaiii, all nw.it engage, anil oil he 
subdued. 

9. — to Ms hurt; i.e., to iko injury and oppression of the governed. 
Man oppresses his iellow-ruan. 

10. — the tricked buried; i.e., I saw those who ileson ei! infamy ob- 
taining an lmnuriihle bo rial. 'J'he 1 lebrews bold the burial of I lie dead 
to be a subject of the uluiosl importance. To he cast out. unburiod 
was considered as in the highest degree ignominious and terrihle. 
(Isa. .xiv. 19, 20; Jer. vii. 33, xxii. 19.) — came and went jh.im the hot// 
place; i.e., came into lilt and went out of it, from the snertd city of 
Jerusalem, or perhaps from the royal palace. The verb si enl'.y in- 
to 1/0, in Hebrew, as in Ike Oreek, Meglish, and other languages, is 
oflen used as a euphemism to deuole death. — win- jhnptuu ; i.e., did 
not receive that, place in the memory of their fellow-citizens which 
their virtue- deserved. (Cotnp. Isa. Mi. 1.) The sentiment of the 
verse I understand to be similar lo thai in ver, 14. In regard to the 
rendering. '.'■<■ li.ihteou.-,. literally, ih'ii who did rir/hr, the Hebrew word 
""■ means rnjiii , or so, according to the connection. (Com ft. Numb. 
jexxvii. 7; 2 Kings vii. 9.] Those who prefer the latter rendering 
will regard lite whole verse as relating lo the wicked. It will then 
refer to ill-gotten or ill-used honor and power. They who possess 



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the highest degrees of either will soon come to the grave and bo for- 
gotten. 

11. Because sentence, H.C.; i.e., of retribution, punishment. (Comp. 
Ch. xii. 14.) The sentiment of thin verse is of universal :t]iplli.^:i i j:i 
in regard to evil-doers, bill, jirolmlily refers in this place more pariicii- 
lnrly to tyrants. 

12. — and have hii tin:/n pivimynl ; i.e., in or by his wickedness. 
(Comp. eh. vii. 15.) Or, though no evil happen to him for a long 
time. The verso evidently refers to retribution in this life, as appears 
from tlie next verse. 

13. — s/iatt not jm,lo,y bis rhii/s ; i.e., ho shall come to a sudden and 
violent end. (Comp. l'rov. x. 27; l J s. Iv. 23.) Some understand (his 
verse as mi imprecation, in order lo avoid a seeming: inconsistency be- 
tween it and the last. Hut the wicked may have his nays prolonged 
for a lime, and jot come to an untimely end. (Comp. pp. 105-109.) 

Oh. VIII. 14-IX. 10. In this section the Preacher goes on to 

illustrate the vanity of earthly things, as exhibited in the apparently 
equal prosperity of Ibc righteous and the wicked, and i In- difiieulty of 
understanding the Divine proceedings in the allairs of the world. He 
repeats ami farlhoi illustrates these ideas, and proceeds lo reeonnnenil 
the present enjoyment uf life's blessings as ■.visor than to live in anxiety 
about distant good, or perplexity aboil', the m_v stcvios of human a "airs. 
(Seep. 117.) 

14. On the consistency of lids seniiment with the preceding verses, 
see pp. 105-109. 

15. Then IcomxRended joy, &c. Some understand this as the cavil 
- of an objector, bat without reason. The meaning is, Since a man has 

so little power over his conditio!), sinee he ean understand so little of 
the reasons upon which llio outward condition of the righteous and 
the wicked i« allotted, it is Lest lor him not lo perplex and torment 
himself about these seeming disorders of the world, hut to live in 
cheerful lie..- ami iraiiquiUily, freely enjoying the present good things 
which are allotted hhn, without anxious earns respecting the distant 
future, or painful efforts to discover the reasons of the Divine proceed- 
ings. (Comp- eh. ii. 24, and the note.) — it it this that abidclh with 
him, &c. ; i.e., the use and enjoyment of what a man obtains by his 
labor IS all that trail properly be called his own. Whatever estate, 
possession, £c, in' may acquire will be left to others. The use and 
enjoyment only are his own. 

16. — to know ■ wisdom , nod t<, tak !!m business, S-c. ; i.e., to advance 



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310 NOTES. 

myself ill wdsdom, n:id to ob~c;-ve tiie vain, sum! wearisome labors of 
men. I suppose lluil wn-dom, in (his verso, refers particularly to a 
knowledge nl tlit causes ami reasons of tiie Divine proceedings ; and 
that to we '/.I- /jijsiiifss »■/..''■* /*■ win- is pursued tin- the purpose of tindiiu; 
out the work of l!ud, as mentioned in the next verse, and the mysteries 
of bis government of [lie world. — doth mm see sleep with his eyes. The 
restless, anxious activity of men in ueuera! is denoted. Some iiii.us- 
late, (^' , .■'' if, i.e., ilie mind, stt deep uiih ds eyes ; but lliis seems to lie too 
harsh a metaphor. 

17. —tie whole work of God; i.e, the method and reasons of his pro- 
cocdinirs in luluiliiiiteriiisr die alliiirs of the world; why, liir instance, 
lie sutlers II ;e wicked to prosper and tbe virtuous to bo oppressed, us in 
ver. 9, 14. This [he 1'reaehor maintains to bo beyond the comprehen- 
sion of man. — is done, namely, by l.iod in his providence. 

Ch. IX. 1. ■ — in the hand of God. This phrase detioles sometimes, 
to he in the j-iieer of (,'ixi ; some dines, to he itnikr his peotee.iity ran, Jiolll 
senses are applicable here. — ipj i-j-lihee hi., in.-,-. „■„■ hatful ilni.ii moj »ra 
know; i.e., from tiio good or bud outward condition of n man it cannot 
he determined whether God lows or hates him. — ail is bijoee thmi ; 
reserved in the dark, uncertain f'ulure. 

2. All [cometli to theinj as to alt; i.e., to the righteous as to all Other 
men. "For there is no certain and constant distinction made between 
one man and another in the distribution o: [nines in this world ; but 
they all fare alike, especially in public cal; unities. A righteous man, for 
instance, parishes in a battle as well as the wicked; he that, keeps 
himseli' |iui-e aii'l tuideliled dies in a pestilence as well as the tilthy and 
uneieati ; he that worships God in sincerity and truth suffers by 
storms, si dp iv rooks, and Inundations, &«., as well as a profane person 
or a. hi poorito : and, on the contrary, ;t iilasplicuier of God, nay, a per- 
jure. 1 wit:: eh. prospers ami (.li rives as much as lie (hat d reads [he holy 
name of (J ml, an:i dare not rashly, much less falsely, take it into his 
mouth." Patrick. The renderine: of Stuart, "ail are like to all." 
does not well accord with the meanine 1 of ivjsls, literally, uecorditm to 
vhiii. that iiihich, is to all. In regard to the seeming inconsistency of 
the L'reaelior, see the Introduction (pp. 105, 10G, &c). — to the clean, o.ml 
to the via/lean. There is probably reference here to legal purity or im- 
purity, according to tin: statutes of tin: Mosaic code. Of tiie ditlicuky 
iii veeur-d to the Divine government nri-ini: from the facts which he 
here slates, the author proposes no solution. He says expressly, that 



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ECCLESIASTES. Sll 

he cannot iiii'I onl or comprehend ihe work of God in regard to it. 
The solution which occurs to the mind of tin- Christian does not appear 
to have occurred to him. He seems rather to deny ;i future lite in tlio 
following vtrsi-t, namely, 5 and li. A Christian, stating such tacts, 
would naturally be led to speak of a retribution after death, and to 
excite his reader., to look to it, as a motive to no ['severance in well- 
doing, and a relief to his doubts or di hi cullies relaiiug to the govern - 
nient of God, The only inference which the author seems, to draw 
from the perplexing faets which he states is, that it is best to give up 
all anxiety about sueli dark and difficult subject-;, and to enjoy the 
■rood things of life while they last. From what the writer asserts, and 
from what he omits in the first ten verses of this chapter, it. seems very 
doubtful whether lie had a.uy belief in a desirable future life, or a state 
of retribution after death. Some writers among tin' Jews and Chris- 
tians have supposed those verses to be spoken in the character of an 
impious I Epicurean. Tint, there seems to ho no ground for this supposi- 
tion. The writer is -]:e;:ld:ig of what he Ikrnseif soar;' he.; out jver. 1 ;, 
and not of what an ohjeotor might say. On the difficulty presented 
by this passage and similar ones, in relation to the mode in which the 
author reconciles the sentiments contained in it with his own doctrine 
of re t rib it I ion as else w here expressed. " thai it shall be well wit It them 
that fear God," and that " it shall not he well with the wicked," and 
that " God will bring every work into the judgment, which there is 
upon every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil," 
eh, viii. 12, 13; xii. 14, — see the Introduction (pp. 105-109). 

3. — madness, &c; i.e., great wickedness. The sentiment of the 
verse is the same as that in eh. viii. 11. — and afterward; i.e., after 
the vicissitudes of life. -- fi<- : y ip u't,ic>i io ihe deaa. This may be added 
to illustrate the vanity of human things, or to illustrate the sentiment, 
that a common lot happens to the righieoas and the wicked; both being 
under the necessity of godig down to the dead. 

4. For who is there that is excepted; i.e., exempted from death. 
— there is hop?. However miserable may be a man's condition while 
living, he has this advantage over the dead, that he can hope for a 
change for the better, ((.'oiup. Job vii. o-Ut. ] 

5. — know thai Ukii shall die. They know thai, tl.ey must (lie, and 
of course they know and feel that they are alive, and may have inueli 
enjoyment hclhre death arrives. — ad.im.ta'j,:; i.e., from their pos- 
sessions, ,y.c., all of which are left io their heirs. — Jhr their im-uiorg is 
Jhriiiiittn; i.e., so far are they from having any enjoyment of their pew 
sessions, that it is altogether rorgmten by their successors that such 
persons ever lived. 



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312 NOTES. 

6. — which tah\th plue.e inula- Ihe sun. Some hare erroneously sup- 
posed that llii;. expulsion is used in eon trad isii notion to another world, 
in which the (lend might Iihvi- a portion, lint the phrase is nut used 
in tliis emphatic Reuse. Tims, in cli. i. II, the author says, "There is 
no now tiling miller (111- sun." (See also eh. ii. IK.) "When T consider 
thai tliis description of dearth, as the end of man's activity, fiiciillics, 
feeling, ami enjoyments, is made without any qualification ; that it 
follows the statement of ihe mysterious conduct of S'ro\i deuce in allot- 
tiiii: lue con 1 1 it ion of ihe righteous and the nicked ; nod thai, i listen d 
of behn_; followed by any rc:creTa.-e to :i future lite, hy way of encour- 
agumeut lo the virtuous, or of terror to the wicked, or of explanation 
of the Divine proceedings, it makes the certainty of death only a motive 
tor enjoying the present life, while it lasts,—- it is very difficult tor me 
to believe, that the doctrine of a desirable future life, or of a retribution 
after death. »n; a part of the liiil.h of the I'leacher. (Set 1 the caption 
toJobxii.) 

7. Go thy way, &<:. "And therefore, shahiue; of!' both all anxious 
cares, mm also all porplcxine: Ihoupbls abom floe's providence (ver.l), 
excite thyself hy the remembrance til' death to a eheerhtl enjoyment 
of those pood things present, which t.liou justly possesses!; use them, 
while thou hast them, with a well-pleased, contented, nay, joyful 
mind." PatrkL (Comp. cli. ii. 24, and the note] — jbr Itrny s'mee 
hath Got! liijm jih-tt.-iid with thy works; i.e., with thy labors, and given 
them success; and, by giviui; you the mentis of cheerful enjoyment, 
shown his, intention that you should use them. 

8. — garments be always white. This is an exhortation to cheerful- 
ness and joy ; as it was the custom for the rich and powerful to robe 
themselves in white cotton, especially on festival days. (See Jahn's 
Archieolopy, § lltj ; also Esther viii. 15; Rev. iii. 4, 5; vi. 11. Sea 
also Hor., Sat. ii. 2, 60.) 



— fmip-md <>il ; which it was the custom of tin: Hebrews to pour upon 
their hoalls on (lavs of rejoicing and festivity. (See Isa. Isi. 3; Amos 

vi-6; Pa. xxiii. 5.) 

9. Enjey iiii with ti'ie wife trhuin c/mii herd. " Seek for such a wife as 
thou canst love ; and, when thou hast her, delight thyself in her com- 
pany, with such unalterable kindness us may help to sweeten the 
afflictions to which we are subject." Pa/riil: — thy portion; the en- 
joyment of what you obtain by your lalior is all that you can call your 



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ECCLESIASTES. 313 

own. You can lake notion:; with vmi n hen von gn J<ntn to the l; r : l ■, ■_■ . 
(Sec ch, viii. 15.) " Here is a new proof that this is not the speech 
of voluptuaries; lot liiey love not. to lie coniined to u wife, as tin; 
1'reaoher litre advises tins happy man to lie; making her his purlner 
in all the joys and comibrts he liath, its she will te in his grief and 
sorrc-wa." Patrick. 

10. — % Mad Jimhl.li. to do; i.e., what thou hast opportunity anil 
abiliiy lu do at present, v.ithon! sf.ilieniLiiy and anxiety respecting the 
future. Here tl if 1 'teacher makes ir L/vident. that he Joes mn persuade 
men Lo an idle and sensual lite, but only to :i. sober enjoyment of their 
r/ossin;;s i:i an industrious prosecution of thi-ir vocations. 

Ch. IX. .11- XL 6. The Preacher now addncea a new illustration 

of the vanity of human hie in the circi.imstanocs, that success does not 
nhvLiys aimvur to a man's strength, wisdom, anil other aihantaces ; 
and that iridium, with ail its benefits to the public, often iiritiys but 
little consideration to its possessor, lie ml. Is rations proverbs showing 
the advantages of wisdom and prudenee. lie speaks of the evil or' 
rulers unfit for their stations, and gives various maxims for the regu- 
' lation of conduct in private and public. This scetion closes with a 
]-C(iiir.iiiie:i:Uiti'.i][ '■>< liberality to the poor, am! dilieeut oveition. wilhout 
an over-an.\ions solicitude icspeetiny ihe issue of our. labors. 

11. — nor /«!::»■ lit men i;/' htotclfdrje ; i.e., the esteem and respect of 
mankind are not always gained by the wise. Sometimes neglect, 
envy, and hatred are their portion. — time and ehti.ee.. In this con- 
nection the author has in mind a time of misfortune, an unfortunate 
chance, or occurrence. Lord liacon, as ((noted by Patrick, remarks 
upon the maxim, ^1'aber (misiiue ibrlume sua', "Every man makes 
his own fortune," that we ought to look upon it as "an insolent and 
unlucky say hi!*, except it he uttered as an hortative or spur to correct 
sloth. For otherwise, if it he believed as it sounds, and a man enters 
into a Inch unaijuialion that he can compass and iatliom all accidents, 
and ascribes all successes to his owti dril't. and reaches, and Ihe con- 
trary to his errors and slipping, it is a pro'imc speech ; and it. is com- 
monly seen, that the cveuina; fortune of that man is not so prosperous 
as of him that, without slacking his industry, ntmhuteth much to 
felicity and providence above him." 

12. — -knoweth not his time. We need not con hue Ibis reaia'k exclu- 
sively to the time of one's death. It more probably refers lo Ihe lime 
of any misfortune or calamity. Some understand it in the sense of 
wikibk time or oppuiimiitij ; evsaiptav. 

14 



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314 NOTES. 

13. — even wisdom ; i.e., I have observed the nature and effects of 
wisdom, and estimated its exceeding value. 

15. — yet no man remembered, &c. ; i.e., no man thought of him after 
the danger was past. Thus the remark in ver. 11 is illustrated, that 
lavor is not always to the wise. 

17. — are sooner heard; i.e., ill time.-: of danger and distress, though 
tin; j' may be disregarded in times of prosperity. — fivtif.it : literally, 
icho is (iaiuti/j funis. So in I's. exviii, 7, t)io literal rcndcriiiL; is, .hiiovuh 
is ttimiiin mi) /.i ;'/;•' if ; i.e., Jeiomh is my /.<■;',■ ur. (See (instil. Lex. on the 
preposition £.) 

18. Bui one offender; i.e., again*;, (he rides of wisdom and prudence, 
as the eon nee (ion seems fo require. One man, by his rashness and 
imprudence, may bring ruin, not Only upon himself, but upon many, 
even upon whole nations. 

Ch. X. 1. — nauseous; more Stricfly, fetid, —a little folly. The 

'['readier seems in this verse lo intend to ilia-irate the evil which a 
foolish man may occasion to the eause in which be is engaged. He is 
a nin.rplol, and often decs mere mischief liiao maoy wise counsellors 
can remedy. Otherwise, a little tolly in the wise man destroys the 
fruits of bis own wisdom, and ruins Ida reputation. Tbc rendering el 
the t.'oinuiuu Version, which has no i.ici;er support troiu the Hebrew 
than mine, is less agreeable to the connection. 

2, — mi.se mini's mint! ; literally, i.-iifL wliicb was regarded as the seat 
of (he mind by the Hebrew-, as the l.-i-iiin is by the moderns. — at his 
ritjid land; i.e.. he can use his mind fo some purpose, can exercise a 
ready judgment on every occasion ; as men in Licncrai can readily and 
efficiently use their right hand, but not their left. 

3. — walketh in the may. 1 should understand this literally of the 
put, behavior, and talk of a person, as lie. passes through the streets. 
— sailh, &c, ; i.e., by his behavior, that he is himself a fool. Other- 
wise, stiilli of easy out, &c, he thinks anil declares that all are fools 
except liimself. 

4. — fence ?jn( l.li;/ -place. : i.e.. in an eer and discontent. Do not aban- 
don his service hastily and rashly, but continue in the faithful and quiet 
discharge of the duties of thy station. (Coinp. ch. viii. 8.) — great 
offnie.es; i.e., such as ho supposes Ihon bast committed against him. 
Let not, therefore, a lake opinion of implacability make thee des- 
perate, and draw thee into rebellion. 

5, — from a ruler; in appointing; unworthy and incapable persons 



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tfi places of honor and power; or iii suiHiriEiL; them lo rise to such 
placet. 

B. — set in many high stations; i.e., raised to honorable stations. 
— tin: voile : in character, birth, and iidvantuges of possessing wisdom, 
wliieii it is litre presumed thai they have used. " '.Many kings," says 
liroiius, "suspect those who iin.: distinguished liir nobility or visdum 
or wealth." "Aliena illis virtus formidolosa cat," "The virtue of 
others is feared by them." Salltist. 

1. — £<iri;u.utsuf,0H horns: i.e., !=hivfs who hail been raised from theil 
servile condition lo such eminent .stations, [hat they rude upon horses, 
biding upon horses was regarded as the pri vilcge of the higher ranks 
in the East. (See Jer. svii. 25; Ezek. xxiii. 23.) —princes; i.e., 
persona of high rank ami former opulence, who have been depressed 
by tho injuslice of the ruler. It lias been observed by several writers, 
that persons' of nigh rank and opulence in the 1'hist, at the present day, 
are distinguished lion) their interiors by riding en horseback when Ihey 
go abroad ; while those of meaner stations, if not on loot, are obliged 
to content themselves with the ass or the mule. 

8. He that diggeth a pit, &c. The proverbs which follow (to ver, 
2<>) have been supposed lo lie eamiuns against sedition mid rebellion 
against kings, having reference to ver. i. But such an application of 
them is rather forecd and arbitran . It seems nuiie probable that they 
are general maxims tor the wise coudnel of life, in the midst of the 
vanities and dangers of the world, which the Preacher has described. 
(See Prov, ssvi. 27.) — hreobih domi a u-all; i.e., with the design of 
stealing fruits. — n. niv/n-Ht ; such as is usually tunnii in hedges. Tho 
proverb shows the cv.il eonscipiences of dishonesty to him that prac- 
tises it. 

9. Whoso remoceth stones, &c. ; i.e., from their earth-bed great stones, 
lor the handling of which their strength is insufficient. The design of 
both the proverbs io this, verse is to show that rash and imprudent 
men, who engage in dliiiculr. and da.ngereus undertakings, often injure 
themselves thereby. — cwcf'/* .oW, in. This proierb amounts lo 
the same thing with the common one, -lira it is dangerous to meddle 
with edge-tools. 

10. If the trait be blind, fee. " This is siillicieiit to show how unprofit- 
able all our en i:ea vi us are » itbollt line judgment. Per as a rusty tool, 
Lbough managed by the strongest mar., is so tin- from cllcotieg his de- 
sires that it. iinly tires his arm, unless he file and whet it to recover ila 
edge ; so all the power in the world rai'ier hurts than advantages him 
that has it, unless it be guided and directed by prudence." Patrick. 
(Seech, is. IB, 18.] 



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816 NOTES. 

11. If a serpent bile., &c. This pcoveib is in commendation of wis- 
dom. As tliu poison ui" ilif serpen! is avuidi d only uy [he inmost can) 
ami circinuspecliou. so is if iviih the dangers arising from intercourse 
with men. It is equivalent to the common one, that an ounce of pre- 
vention is worth a pound of cure. It is too late to begin to enchant 
when (lie poisonous bite is given. Perhaps there may be reiorenci; to 
the avoiding of danger from ibe po-ivorful l>y turning away their wrath 
whh conciliating language. (See llu> next v,:r«.i — ,7c chumer, liter- 
ally, M-! /«.(/ <;/' (/iB toi/», lias iii this case no advantage from his art, 
but rather severe injury. (Comp. Siraeh xii. 13 ; Ph. lviii. 4, 5 ; Jcr. 
■viii. 17.] For some very remarkable accounts given by travellers in 
Egypt ami the Kast, respecting the power which certain persons pos- 
sess of charming serpenr-. and depriving them of the linwcr of poison- 
ing by music ami other means, sue Uobiu-.ui's (,'ulmi't. art. " Indian t- 

12. — gracious; i.e., mihl, kind, agreed ile, and thus conciliate favor; 
while those of the fool are karsh ami ulfimsive, and bring evil upon 

IS. The befuiirimj, ii.ii. ; i.e., All his (all;, from beginning to end, is 
fully, and be i.e-ocecds from bad io itura'. Imni fully to rage, ivhioh ends 
in mischief to himself or to others. 

14. — mullipUdh words, &c. The Preacher seems to allude to the 
folly of those great, talkers wdio speak with conlideneo of their inten- 
tions and plans for the future, or who arc find of predict in;; what will 
happen in time to come, — ichiit sliml !»■ njhr lain. This phrase- seems 
to mean, what shall luippen to him in future. (Comp. vi. 12, viii. 7.) 

15. — hioweth not how to go to the city. This language probably had 
the emphasis and poim uf a proverb. '{'•> .ye ■'.■■ t!m eiti: is no ins lance of 
what ought to ho Skmihur and well known. The meaning is, that the 
foolish mini, in his labors and pursuits, is like a traveller ignorant of 
the road, who, in going to a eily, takes difficult, trouble so me, or 
dangerous circuits, which bring him no nearer to the end of his 
journey. 

16. — Icing if a child. This maybe understood Ikorally, us setting 
forth the evils of having a child lor a king. Ihn I should rallies 1 under- 
stand it of a king: resembling a child in dt.posilkiii, eharaeler, and 
conduct; one who gives himself up to amusements, and neglects ll.o 
weigh iy concerns of government. Rosenm idler quotes i';uiii the Arabic 
Anthology a similar proverb : " The blow of an axe upon the head is 
lighter than (he government of one of the young colts." — feast in the 
morning. Jillin, in his Archeology, § lie, says, " Jsot only the iuliabi- 



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ECCLESIASTE8. 317 

tants of the East generally, but the (irecks and Romans also, were in 
the habit of taking a sligkt dinner about ten or eleven o'clock of our 
time, which consisted of fruits, milk, cheese, &e. Their principal meal 
was about six or seven in the allernoon." Ileneo, to <at, i.e., to feast, 
in tin: iiiunmir/ wan regarded as intemperance, and as eons inning the 
time wliic.li ought to he devoted to affairs of government. (Comp. 
[sa. v. 11; Acts ii. 13-15.) 

17. — (i unfile; i.e., resembled those who are mily nohle in disposi- 
tion and character, according to a well-known Hebraism. 

19. — monty tinsK-wr 1 1, all iliini/n; i.e., procures, supplies, all things. 
From the condemnation of idleness the I'tvnehcr passes to the mm- 
inundation of that which is procured by diligence, i.e., money; affirm- 
illg that, while of other good filings one procures one advantage and 
another anotlier, money procures all. .So llor., Epist. i. 6, 36: — 

Kc jscntif, ot -..I'niiiv.i, re.cao iitcunin douat." 

20. There is probably no allusion fere to Ike custom of sending let- 
ters by ]iigenns, a.s some suppose. The idea is, that the king will get 
intelligence of what is said against him in some unknown anil unsus- 
pected nay, as if a bird of the air was passing by (he w liuIow anil car- 
ried it. There are in English the proverbs, ''Hodges have ears;" and 
" The walls will speak." 

Ch. XI. 1. Cast ihj bread upon Ike waters. There can be little doubt 

tli lit this verse is a recommendation of liberality in giving in Ike needy ; 
but, respecting the explanatinn of the proverb, there are diderent opin- 
ions. Some suppose the allusion is to the planting of corn or rice upon 
wet places, or such us are even covered with water, which yield an 
abundant harvest. The objection to this is, trial, it" there he an allu- 
sion to any custom of (his kind, it would not be practised without the 
confident expectation of a harvest; in which case the precept would 
relate to industry rather than to generosity, llesides, the language is, 
" Cast % Imud," &«., not thy grain. It may not he uiniss to observe, 
that the cubes of the Hebrews were thin and light, such as would float 
for a lime on the water. "The cakes when made were round, and 
nine or ten inches in diameter. The unleavened cakes were not 
thicker than a knife, bu: the leavened were as thick as a man's little 
finger. Henee they were not out with a knilo, but broken." (Jahn'u 
Aid neology, § 140.) Thus the meaning of the proverb may bo. Be- 
stow thy gifts with the utmost lihcialiiv, even upon those who, by rea- 
son Of their ingratitude or their extreme poverty, may seem to be as 



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818 NOTES. 

unlikely to make, any returns to thee as tiio water upon which it might 
Ire east. Win the good- will of nil, even of the lowest, by acts of kind- 
ness. You may receive a return from them ; if not, you will be re- 
warded I iy (id! I. Ilnsemniillei' oh-eiwos Ilia! Il.o Arabs have a similar 
proverb ; " Do good ; thruw bread into the water; it will one (lav be 
repaid thee." 'Die Turks have borrowed it from the Arabs, with a 
slight nl to rati on : ''lln good ; throw bread into the water; even if the 
lifili does not Know, yet (he Creator knows it." 

'I. — a portion ,- i.e., a part of iliy good things or provisions. — to 

seven, w.o ; i.e., ti> many, limiting your henciiocncc, except by your 

ability. (Comp. Mic, v. 5.) — Ihm bwwnt. not what evil, &c.; i.e., 
s:auc calamity may ship thee ul" iliy properly, ami main: thee ;m object 
of charity, when rlion ma.vst receive niil fr'oni mine one of those "hose 
good-will then hast secured hy thy heneliecuce. 

3, When the elands, &c. A; botli clauses of Ihis verse seem designed 
to express the same thought, the meaning •eeius to he, that calamities, 
referred to in ihe preceding verse, will certainly conic ; that ihey can- 
not be prevented hy any Ibrcuiglil, or remedied by human care; and 
that what cannot he cure:! must he endured. When the cioud is full, 
the ra.in will tall, wilhout rc5n.nl to our wishes; and where the tree 
lias fallen, there it will stay, whether we like it or not. (Comp. 
ver. 6.) 

i. — watchetk the aim!, Ac. This proverb may imply fl recommen- 
dation not to be overscrupulous in Ibe exercise of charity. But it is, 
perhaps, more probable (hat it. relates !o human conduct, in general, 
in relation both to business and daiy. Hi! Ihal is deterred from any 
undertaking by ever;- appearance of iuix<ivd or inconvenience will never 
accomplish a.ny thins I as he that will no; sow till Ihe wind cones from 
exactly the right quarter may let the seed-time pass by ; am! he that 
will not reap because be is afraid of every cloud that threatens rain 
may lose Ids harvest, 

5. — the way of tit? wind; i.e., whence it comes imd whither it goes. 
(Coil)]). John iii. 8.) I.olh of the images in this icrse are designed to 
set (brlli Ihe incomprehensibility of lb-evidence, or the uncertainly how 
thai will order the course of things, what evi! ho will send, or wiiat 
good, whether storms or sunshine, ruin or drought, or whether life 
itself will he continued. The inference seems to he, that we are to be 
active in duty and business, and leave events to the care of Provi- 

6. — ■ whether this shall pras/iei; or tint' ; i.e., that which is sown early, 
or that wliicli is sown late. (See the note on ver. 4 and 5,) 



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ECCLESIASTES. 319 

Ch. XL 7-XII. 8. In this portion of the book the Treacher passes 
to a new topic, and exhorts to a cheerful enjoyment of.' lite while it 
lasts, in the participation of pleasures which in their nature ami degree 
are consistent with 11 ir thought of retribution and the remembrance of 
the. Creator. The consider! it km of the long night of death and the 
grievous infirmities of age are urged its a reason !itr dispelling anxiety 
and sorrow while the* nppurtnmty for enjoyment lasts, [Conip. ch, ii, 
21, ami the net--.) 

7. — tJie. tight, &c. ; i.c., life is dear to all. To see the light, to be- 
hold the sun, is liguraiivo language for to live. 

8. — let him rijuiiv. hi than all: i.e., let him not indulge in anxiety 
anil gloom, but lake all the enjoyment which life eau give, since it is the 
only opportunity for enjoyment, {(."(imp. iii. \'l.) ■ — thi: ihjiis uf <lnd- 
ihws ; i.e., the long night of deafh which succeeds life. (Comp. Job x. 
21 ; Ps. Ixxxviii. 12.) All thai, rmm-.ik is nullity. The connection seems 
lo show the meaning to he, Ali the fnnire, after tlie present life is 
closed, is vanity or nothingness, (Comp. eh. ix. 4-6.) 

!l. Rejoice, tpimi} uuui ■' in ti-fi >/'i:i!,'i : i.e., in the time of thy youth. 
'("lis verse is ooeiuiniily understood in nti ironical sense, tiki 1 the lan- 
guage of Elijah to the priests of ISaal, " Cry aloud, for he is a god." 
liul from the connection in which the verse stands, anil from a com- 
parison of it willi other passages in (he hook, in which the writer 
recommends ,■,.■■,■«.«.( ..,i. .>,/;,■,</,■', in oiiposi'ion in anxious care, as a man's 
only portion in the midst of (lie vanities and uncertainties of life, it is 
far more probable that the exhortation is serious. (See eh. ii. 10, 24; 
iii. 12, 18, 22; v. 18 ; vi. 9 ; vii. 14 ; Viii. 15; ix. 7-9.) So tlie Terse is 
understood by Jerome. Alartiu Lmhor. Bishop .Patrick., and other in- 
terpreters. The Treacher regards the season of youlh as the peculiar 
season of enjoyment ; but he ivouM have all the- pleasures of yonJ.h con- 
secrated by the rcnicnihrniee of Ihe Creator, being innocent in their 
nature, and pursued only lo such an extent as, is consistent with ihe 
Creator's laws, a ml with the retribution which abends (he viola! ion of 
them. The expression, " Walk in the ways of thy heart, and in the 
sight of thine eyes." lo one accustomed to the Christian sentiment of 
faith in a future hie, would seem a', first to be li-eii in an ironical sen*!*. 
15m it is susceptible of a good one, namely, Tursuo such things as wili 
uratity your ilcsircs ;n:d delight } our senses ; and the necessary tjuali- 
tiea.tinn is immediately added, namely, r'nil the pursuit of enjoyment 
is to he in cons iste i icy wiih the thought of judgment or ret rihn lion from 
t.(od; that- be will bring us into judgment in relation to the virtuous 
use or sinful abuse of our blessings. The laws of the Creator, and the 



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320 NOTES. 

pem'tics or consequences annexed to their violation, arc io be kept in 
mind. In Numb. xv. S'J, " to seek after one's own heart, mid one's 
mm eyes," is used in express opposition f'j " leniemhcring the com- 
mandments of tin: Lord,'' am! of course should bare no influence 
on tint explanation ol" these phrases when used in a dilitront cou- 

10. — snirae/rom % heart, — evil f, -cm thy to%, Tlie connexion, as 
well as such pu.ssn;res as di. ix. 7-0, and others referred to in the pre- 
ceding note, seems to require us to understand the verse as an exhorta- 
tion to bullish auxtely and sorrow from tin.' iniiiil, and from the body 
whatever is painful or noxious ; ;u other words, io recommend u checr- 
i'ul enjoyiuent of life, iiooi trie oonsideriiiiun, that the season of youth 
is transitory, passing away like a vapor. 

Oil. XII. 1, Jlcmi-m'ii'r. S.c. This senliinent is to he connected wild 
what goes before. Youth is no', only the season of enjoyment, but of 
religion. In that bitctcsimg period ol' life, cheerfulness a.ml joy are to 
lie cherished, the pleasures, of life are to be enjoyed, sorrow and pain 
are to be banished ; hut t.iie whole eontluet in relation to these things 
is to be regulated by the remembrance of the Creator, of the intimate 
relation in which I be ereuture s lands to him, of '.lie blessings v. hi eh lie 
has received from hirn, of the duties which be owe; to tiini, and of the 
judgment appointed b; hint, into which in: is to be brought. 

2. In iter. 1, the Preacher lias exhorted the young to remember the 
Creator in the peculiar season of their enjoyments and capacities, which 
is also the season of their temptations, be lore die tumbles and infirm- 
ities of age should arrive. He now proceeds to give, in figurative or 
what may be culled enigmatical language.:! more particular description 
of th(! troubles, decays, and inlirmilics of old age. — sun, <iml thi. U-jU, 
&c. I do not understand this of the dim-sighteduess of men, which 
Is alluded to in the next -verse. The images in this verse rut her set 
forth the gloom and sadness 'which belong to old age, wdien overy 
IhiiUf looks dark and cheerless. — mid tin: rlomh rctnai uihr t!„\ ruin ,- 
i.e., when one trouble seems to tread upon ihe heels of another, caus- 
ing continual sadness ; when after the rain no sunshine succeeds, hut 
only perpetual clouds. 

B. Here ihe decay and infirmities of the human body ia age are com- 
pared to a house decayed and falling into ruin. (Comp. Job iv. 19 ; 
2 Cor. V. 1.] — kiXjKi-.t r,f the i,:a:v.; i.e., the arms, which guard the body 
from injury, defend it from assault, supply it with tiled, i.e.. and which 
ave subject to weakness ami trembling in age. — strong mm; i.e., the 



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ECCLESI&STES. 821 

thighs and legs, (in which the body rests for support, but which in old 
niBii become feeble, font in walking, and unfit lor their office. — nnJ 
7/ie grinders erase. The image is drawn from gi hiding by the band' 

mill, which was perfor: i by Hebrew sen ants in the house, (lixoil. 

xi. 6.) — cease; i.e., cease to grind. It rejiresciits the teeth of Hie ■ 
aged man, which arc loo I'tiv lo discharge their olSiijL' of prepariog ihe 
food for the stomach. — thus.'. ihalio-jh on! of ike windows: i.e., the eyes j 
which look through the cavities of the head hi which they arc placed, 
us it were through tlie window? of a house. Thoy are said to be 
darkened, in reference to thu dimness of sight common, to the aged, 
(Comp. Gen, xxvii. 1 ; xlviii. 10.) 

4. — when the. doors tin: shut iii '.'■<: sirrtts, &c. Some understand this 
literally of thu doors of the old man's habitation, in vc'eroticc to his 
remaining al home, lh.it il seems host to understand it alleguricaily 
of his lips, which arc elsewhere in ihe Scriptures nailed doors. (See 
Job xli. 14; Mie. vii. 5.) — sound of the, mill, &0. The, mitt seems 
to denote the inner part of the mouth, which gives forth a low sound 
when the old man speaks. The meaning is, that the old man seldom 
opens his month to 'peak, as his voice is weak and faint, — rise tip at 
tin-, uj irnuf lln: bird. The aged man's restlessness or diilicully oi enjoy- 
ing i.ninii aod lone sleep is here described ; lie is awaked by the earli- 
est, chirping of birds in the morning, and mi compelled to rise. The 
pronoun tin;/, which I have used tor lie or one, to make it conform to 
the iblhuving verses, is implied in the previous description of old age. 
The rendering, "it riselli to the voice of the bird," seems to ine much 
less probable. — :<U tin: ihtinilUrs of miisir ; all songstresses, all the 
women who sing, or perhaps all musical voices, sounds, or songs. 
— are broiwld low; i.e., sound low, are not heard by him, in conse- 
quence of his deafness. So old Barzillai, in '1 Sam. xix. So, says, 
"Can I hear any more the voice of singing men and singing 

5. — thei/ are afraid of that which is high ; i.e., on account of their 

weakness, or shorl bie:i:h : or dizziness, Ibey are afraid to ascend stairs, 
hills, &c. — and tenvrs are in the way ; i.e., tenors for them. Thoy 
are afraid of walking in a common way, lest they should stumble, or 
meet with some accident, ■ — tunl tin- almoin! is tiispisn! ; i.e., so rich 
anil deiicale a fruit as the almond is rejected by the toothless old man. 
Others, with '.he I oi anion Version, tin: nhmnn-lrrr- ../,■!/.' tlonrish ; reicr- 
ritig to the white hairs of the old man. This does not agree so well 
with what follows; and, besides, it is said that the blossoms of the 
almond-tree are not while, but rose or flesh -colored. (See Pliny, Hist. 
14* 



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322 NOTES. 

Nnt. Ill, 25.) — and Iht. focud is a hiinlm : i.e.. the locust, which was 
;i dm [i im in food wnh the Orientals, ami uhich may have been regarded 
as of easy digestion, cannot he eaten or digested by the old man. I'lio 
locust would hardly b.i mentioned us an instance of a very lighl thing 
resting upon the old man. I! would bo a disagreeable tiling, at least, 
lighting upon any one. — aid tlie captr-hmij fill* : i.e., to excite appe- 
tite, or other natural desire. See Gesen. Lex. ad verb., who refers to 
Plutarch, Qtiicst. Symp. 6, 2, and to Pliny, Hist. Nat. 13, 23, ib. 20, 10, 
as showing that the caput- 1 >er i:y was regarded by the ancients an a 
provocative of appetite ami hist. Tlio translation nrij.-nr-La-ni is sup- 
ported by the Sept., Vulg.,and Syr. Versions. The Common Version 
expresses (he sense, but not the literal meaning. — since man r/i«-i.«. 
■&c. • i.e., the aged man is on the point of being earried to the grave, 
his everlasting borne (oouip. Tub. iii. 0), with the usual mourning 
solemnities. liy nu,iirn?rii may be understood not onlj Ibe relatives, 
but such hired mourners as are mentioned in ,Ter. ix. 17, Amos v. 16, 
upon which see the note. 

(i. — bi'fiirn tin: sii'rer '"'id in: B.njjfli ii.iioa.Vr, iind ilur iji'h's-ii i.-m! be 
ci-iish-d. From plain language (he Preacher now re l urns, u that which 
is allegorical, scliing forth the decline and loss of the vital powers in 
man by new images. Tlie exhortation, " kctncniber thy Creator,'" is 
to be regarded as repealed at the bed inline; of this verse. Tlie meta- 
phor, by wliieb loss of life, is denoted, is borrowed from a lamp sus- 
pended from a eeilin;; by a silver eord. The golden bowl is the bowl 
or reservoir of oil, from which il is distributed into the blanches, in 
which the wicks are placed from which the light proceeds. (See 
Zecli. iv. 2, and the note; Job xxix. 3, mid tlie note.) The Cord hy 
which this golden howl or reservoir of oil is suspended hem;! deeayed 
wi(h age, giving way, ami so sunering the howl of oil to fall upon the 
floor and be broken, and thus extinguish the lamps, affords ji striking 
image ol'the breuking-up of the human machine, and the extinction of 
iis liie, whieii, by a very eon mi on nlehi]>boi'. is sail I to bo su -ponded upon 
a hriltlu thread. H'e netil not inquire what internal pari of the body 
is denoted by the silver eord or tlie golden howl j whether by the 
former is deooled Ibe spinal marrow, the nerves, the veins, or an erics ; 
or whether by the golden bowl is cienofed she heart, the brain, i.e., or 
by -V.'-! bucket the lungs; since it is extremely doubtful whether the 
Preacher relets to either. The general image presenled by the break- 
ing of the lamp, and of the silver eord which held if up, sutliclenlly 

illtisf rates Ibe extinction of life. >r the bwixt Inol'/i til i/ic fmi./ain, 

or tin; mini broken lit the in!!, liy .'/•■:■ j'viinlain here is denoted a place 



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ECCLESIASTES. 626 

from which Ihe water con::! he ohlaioci only !iy beiog drawn up liyu 
bitcfoi: an tsurlliOii one indeed, and used lor carrying water as weil as 
drawing il. lint origin;, liy for drawing it, us appear;, from Hie deriva- 
tion of the Hebrew Icrm. The water could not. !io procurer! when the 
bucket. hsuI the wheel, liy which [lie water was drawn J:-i>:n [lie well by 
n line and hncket appended to it. were broken. Water-wheel* arc -till 
used in the East: Kiebuhr has given a pie I live of one in his '.He tc. rip (ion 
of Arabia. Ind< ed, waijcr-wbeels are not uncommon in this country, 
liy 'lie images of Ike broken bucket and wheel, in consequence of iviiidi 
no water could be procured, are scl fur til the decay and dissolution of 
the human body through age, by reason of which the life cannot 
he veiained in it. Some have un (lev la ken to point oat w ha: internal 
part of the body was deno!ed by the bucket., the [ouidain, the wheel, 
and the ei-torn. I do not think (he I'lcacher intended such a par- 
Licnlar appiicalion of Ike terms; but anv one can conjecture as be 

7. — and the. '.lu.it, &<:. This is the most literal i-onlcring; and being 
the translation of the Hebrew conjunction ". ■ — mid tin; spirit n-tm-ji to 
f,W ivli> ijiii-i- it. (See ihe notes on eh. iii. ID, 2] .j Tn those mires 1 have 
given reasons air the sunposilion, thai liy spirit the author understands 
tlie vital spirit, which was breathed into uiau by the Almighty when 
lie hail lornied iiini out of dust, ami not, the soul, considered a; having 
a conscious am: ilesirab.e personal existence. In view ofilie consiiler- 
aliens presented ill those ooles, it seems hnprobahlc that this verse 
ex'prcssos the doctrine of toe immortality of the conscious soul hi a. 
slate of retribution. Ii is more nrolcihlc that the expression lias Ihe 
same meaning as in Job xxxiv, 14, 15 1 — 

Ha woul-ltakc tack !ii.< snirit and his urcnili, 
'I'lir'll -vi.w-.W :ilj i'csli .'[.i.^ I.i.^i . tiler ; 

This conclusion is s' lengthened by tlie verse which follows. When 
the Apostle I'nul proclaims the Christian iloefvino. rFi.it ibis covrnpiibie 
shall put on incomiption, and this mortal shall nut on immortality, lie 
adds, " death! where is thy sting '< O gravel where is thy victory '! " 
If the Preacher bail expressed a similar sentiment, would he have 
added in the very next verse, Vanity of canities, 'all is vanity 9 If by 
the velum of the spirit to God he had amleisiood what a Chvis'.ian 
would now expvoss by the language, would no joy have been awak- 
ened by llie Ihougbr '< Would he nol have made use o! l.iie doctrine Jor 
consolation, in a discourse upon the vanity of earthly things ? Would 



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824 NOTES. 

tin? only way in which In 1 -poke of Ihc return of (Ik- spirit to God he 
that olTcganlin.g if as the co iisoaiier.ee of I in. 1 break iug-up of ilic 1 in inn il 
system, ttie last net of Hie sail drama of lire, rather than us tlie tom- 
lueneemeiitofa happier existence ; A review of llu: pa-sa.^es in which 
tin; Preacher alludes to the condition of man after death is, on the 
whole, jticfiTiMirftoiit with his iiiii.ii in :i. rcrriliutivc immortality of the 
conscious soul. In eh. iii. J.^--V, lie complains ol' the sail condition of 
man, in that Hie sun ic iol helalis him which be falls the brutes, the body 
;il' each returning lo Hie iln.it out of w'iiiob it was formed ; and in vcr. '11 
lie asks, " Win) knnweth the spirit of man, whether it goclh upward, 
■ind the spirit of a least, whether it gooth downward to the enrth ! " 
'tins is the rendering which the Hebrew idiom demands. It seems to 
imply that Homo hud maintained !kc;o was a diilereui residence lor the 
spirit of a man after dentil from that which was allotted to brutes, but 
thut 1 1 m wrirev doubled the eorreetiiess of the opinion. In the next 
verse the same doubt is reiieated : " I'm who hhall Siring him to see 
what shall be after Iiim'?" In ch. "vi. 12, the writer expresses the 
fame doubt in nearly the same words. In eh. viii. 6-0, the l'renelier 
reminds the wieked of a day of judgment which he canno; escape; 
but he evidently lias in view retribution on earth. In eh. ix. 4-6, we 
have a no i her stroll. a; expression of tin: writer'.- views, which can hardly 
he reconciled H'ic-ii iiiiih in the soul's immortalily in a stale of conscious 
retribution. The freipieul recurrence of his doubts on this subject, and 
llu- practical cxhortatiuiis which arc rounded on Ihem, indicate thut ho 
hud no faith in such an immortality of the soul. In eh. si, '.1 and \ii. . 
14, it is most consistent with the tenor of the whole book to regard the 
judgment spoken of as occurring in the present world. It is also to he 
observed, licit language similar to that of the ver.-e on which we are 
i ■ . j : 1 1 1 : 1 1' l •_ t L ; l l^- is used by the ancient philoophers. wdio had no belief in 
the soul'.- conscious immortality. Tims Luerotius, — wdio, in lib. iii. 
■lit?, ic., argue- a I .ureal length that the -..nil i- mortal like the body, — 
says, lib. li. Ofjy, &e.t — 



" b'oi that which was from the earth goes back to the earth ; and that 
which was sent from the regions of the air, being conveyed back, is 
again received into the temples of heaven." (See also the interesting 
pa-sages from Greek wrhers quoled by Le C'lerc ad loe.) Similar ex- 
pressings might lie used by Orientals, who now bold the doctrine of 
tilt absorption oi' the soul into tho Deity. I do not mean to intiniale, 



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ECCLESIASTES. 325 

however, lliat llcclesiastcs liel-.l tliis mystical doctrine of absorption. 
(See tlie note on ch. iii, ly.) I adduce the passage merely to show 
that the return of Ibij sfiiri t to Co;l, iis author, dues no: necessarily im- 
ply a conscious, much less a retributive, immortality. It would give 
any one pleasure, without doubt, ami perhaps strengthen his faith, to 
iiiid ihe doctrines of lac Christian revelation anticipated by the I hi lire w 
writers and by all other writers; but no good is permanently gained 
by disguising or sacrificing the truth. More worthy ot' a man and a 
Christian is it to mark (lie providence of Cod in the progress of reli- 
gious knowledge. 

Ch. xii . 9-14. This epilogue, on account of the character of its 

sentiments, is supposed by some critics to lure been added to the book 
by a later writer than the author. l!ut there does nut apaear suthcicra 
grou:nl for snob a supposition. Knoko! regards vor. 14 as referring to 
a retribution in a future lite, and therefore inconsistent with the gen- 
eral sentiment of Ihe book. On Ibis account he rejects it ;>< spurious, 
lint, if we consider the broad anil indefinite mode of expression winch 
is cliaracierisiie of the l'roaclier, ami have regard to Ihe oilier pas- 
sages in which he refers to a judgment tin' evil-doers, there will he 
no diflicuUy in supposing thai he refers, in vor. 14, to temporal retri- 

11. — are as gotuk; i.e., they have the same power to stimulate 

men to the acquisition of wisdom and tin: practice of virtue as tlie 
goa.d has to e.xeile the dull ox to put forth more strength, or to go 
in the right track. — us nails driven in: i.e., they make a deep and 
abiding impression, slick as last in the mind as nails or peas when 
driven into boards and beams. Huberts informs ns that such expres- 
sions are common in llimlostan. It is said, " The word; of that judge 
are quite certain ; they ii'V like the driven nails." — '■ 1 have heard all 
he has to say. and Ihe elfoct. oa my mind is like a nail driven home." 
— " What a speaker ! all ids words are units ; who will draw them out 
again?" (See lioberts's Illustrations ad loci — niaiiiias of assan- 
Ki'r-s ; literally, iosils or maslns of as.=<;nti;ii:s. So, in Judges ix. 51, the 
Common Version correctly translates, " they of the city," where tlie lit- 
eral rendering would be " masters of the city." So Joshua xxiv. 11, 
" the men of Jericho," instead of " the masters of Jericho." These 
assemblies wee probably composed of the most wise ami learned men 
of a place, who met together to disenss questions of religion, morals, 
philosophy, kc. I.'evliaps (hey had some connection wills synagogues.. 
The Jewish doctors of the (emple, anion- whom Jesus was f.uind by 



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32fj NOTES. 

his parents, jiiiiy ji'ivf us :m idea of them. (See Lighltbol. I lor. lleb. 
el Talmud., on Matl. iv. 2;), anil lie Synnyojjiis.j Otherwise, nicies, 
i.e., makers, «/' ro!iatii;-.s. — i/i-tn bit •nm ii/>!'j'/n:i-il: i.e., teacher. The 
words of Hie wise, or members of assemblies, such as are uttered by 
such members among themselves, are said 10 be <;;';<■«, i.e.. spoken, or 
written and published, l:_v one leacher, like the .['readier or the anllior 
of the book of F.cclesiastos, i.e., one who feeds the people, with knowl- 
edge, as a shepherd feels his Hindi. (Ciimp. 1'rov. x. 21.) Some sup- 
pose thul, by one sheolj-rd, Coil, Ihe iuspher of wisdom, is intended. 

12. To the mtihiplyiry of bunks, &c. The design of this sentiment 
probably is lo urge men lo be satisfied w ilb a Jew e/ood books of the 
wise, whose words arc as goads and driven nails, rather than !o perplex 
themselves with ro;idmg many books or making new ones. Dr. Chan- 
ning has a .similar sentiuient in his Lectures on (be I'.levatiou of the 
Laboring Portion of the Community- : " We need not many books to 
answer the great, ends of reading. A few are killer than many ; and a 
little time given to a thithful study of the few will be enough lo quicken 
thought iind enrich the miuil." — "Lew of the books read among us 
deserve to be read. Most of them have no principle of life, as is 
proved by the I'ael thai they die the year of their birth. They do not 
come trem thinkers, and lam ./an loci- awaken thought > " 

13. — the end. This word is used literally, where il elsewhere 
oeeurs in Ibis hook. (Ch. iii. 11 ; vii. 2.) The meaning may he thus 
expressed : Mi discourse lias come to an end. I have nothing more to 
say except Ibis, the most important thing which cun bo said, Fair (kid, 
&C; — of evert/ matt. Others Iran.? hue, (/■■■ irJ'iv r\f nvii ; i.e., his whole 
business or duty. Hut such a form of expression is hardly met Willi 
in Hebrew, or in other languages. 

14. — into the judgment, &c. (See the notes on ch. iii. 19, 21 ; ix.2; 
xii. 7.) To those who are iiiniiiiai with the Christian doctrine of retri- 
bution after death, tin; L'reaeher may seem to allude to it here. A 
Christian could mean noihiiig else by such an utterance. lint, for the 
reasons which have been given in the notes reierrcd to, it. is fin- more 
probable that he rflhr* to retribution in this world. (Oomp. iii. 17: 
viii. 5, 6 ; xi. 9 ; I 3 a. ii. 12 ; iii. 14 ; xxvi. 8 ; IxvL 1G ; Jer. xxv. 31; 
Itaek. xrii. 20; xx. 35; xxxriii. 22; Ps. i. 5; vii. 8; ix.4, 8, 19; xxxv. 
23 ; 1. 4 ; oxliii. 2 : Job xiv. 3.) So Luther nudei'stond it. " He does 
not spoilt of the. Inst judgment, 'oat according to Scripture usage, and 
generally, of any judgments whatever, whether those by which heretics 
are judged and destroyed, or any oilier ungodly men." (See Luther's 
Comment, in loo. Opera, vol. iv. p. 4b, edit. VViUenb.) — u-hhh three 



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ECCLESIASTES. 327 

is upon. Upon is the strict rendering of the Hebrew J)S. I doubt 
ivh ether it ivili hear the rend win;; >'.•■;- ■'.'■.■.- u-ii/i in ihis or n .inilhir con- 
nection. It is true, on the other hand, Hint (he omission of the relative, 
IfcS, is rather hard. 



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NOTES ON THE CANTICLES. 



Cn. I. 2-8. This sons; iwins to set forth the desire of an innocent 
country aiaidoii lo see linr fkenliord lover, whom slit: prefers in follow 
Willi his (looks rather (ban lo dwell In the abodes of royally. I do not 
see how ver. 7, " Tell inc. where thou feodest,'' ean ho reconciled with 
11 io supposition, tlisit Solomon, ur ;my kinir, wits the object of Ihe 
maiden's iit.tnehinent. It seems rather to he her desire to escape 
from iht! palace, anil to he wish the [nimble shepherd, fending Ids 
flocks. 

2. — one of the. /.■»'.««; li I orally, /™n the kisses; i.e., with one or some 
of those po.enhitv kisses which uome frnm his mouth. Sept. oihjnuru 
fie am tpih/itiruv, &c. — lli/i hi:::; i.e., as it is expressed in kisses, 
caresses, love-lokeus, fie. The word is in the plural in the Hebrew. 
The ehanse of person, by wdiieli the absent object of aileetion is ad- 
dressed as present, belongs to the vividness of poelie representation, 
and is probably more eommon in Hebrew than in other poetry. — la- 
ter than Ki'iiti. The Ens turn poets, and oven those of Greece, make a 
1'reipient use of this comparison. (See Bion, Itiyl. A. 1'J.j The siiuiHs 
in the song of lien Jonson is well known: — 

Ami I rt 111 si]i-!iigfl witll lllilLH ; 



•or, &e. The loudness of the Orientals fur fragrant odors 
a with their dress is well known. (Conip. I's, xlv. 8; 
t:\-xxiii. 2; t'rov. vii. IT; Amos vi. ii ; Lane's Arabian Xiahts, vol. i. 
405, 530.} lint, as the lover is represented as ji shepherd in ver. 7, the 
savor of his perfumes may he a figurative expression, denoting the 
isfceptableiiess of his person. — thj mime. In the Hebrew there is a 
resemblance in sound between the words signifying >!iii>::\ and /•■tujrant 



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330 NOTES. 

oil, 31!) ami ~f:'-, which forms what id called in Hebrew frt-LLiiiiruLi- a 
jniri;uiHii!i:.in, mid accounts for tin: remark on tin' name of the lover. 
The meaning 1 is, ilint such is Ike reputation of the lover, or ll«- regard 
ill which he is held, dial the very mention of his iiamt is as grate- 
ful as the fragrance of perfumes just poured forth. (Couip. Secies. 
vii. l.j 

i. Draw me, &c. The maiden woks sume encouragement from llic 
lover, or ahl in her ilicdit from the king, who had taken her to his 
harem. — we vtiii /ti-uise, &c The maiden speaks of herself and her 
fcniaie companions. 

5. —of Kedar ; the name of an Arabian tribe, probably so called 
from being descended from Kedar, the sou of lshmael (Gen. XXV. 13). 
The tents of the Bedouin Arabs are said by many travellers, quoted by 
Thinner, Observ. xxili., to bo still covered with blaek goat'sdiair doth. 
D'Arvieux says, " The Arabs have no other lodgings hut their tents, 
which they call houses. They arc all black, of gnal'sdiair eunvas, 
which the women weave and spin too." (Travels in Alalia, eh. xii. 
p. 181.) — curtiiim r,f Saltation ; i.e., of Solomon's tent. That persons 
of distinction oUen made use of tents for pleasure may be seen in 
Harmer's Observations, xxviii. Such tents were often very splendid 
anil costly. (.See Itobinsou's C.'ahnet, art. "Tent") In regard to the 
comparison, the meaning evidently is, that the mai'len is black as the 
tents of Kedar, but comely as the curtains of Solomon, llarmor 
quotes from H'.Arvieiix, Voy. dans la J'aie-i., \t. 21 i, a passage which 
illustrates the injury to her beamy wbicl: l!ic maiden kail suite red by 
exposure to the sun ; ''The princesses and the other .Arab ladies, whom 
t.liey slioweil me from a private place of Ihe tent, appeared to inc 
beautiful and well-shaped : one may judge by these, anil by what thoy 
told tne of them, that the rest are no less so. They are very fair, 
because the; are alw ays kept from the sun. The women in common 
are extremely sunburnt, besides the brown and swarthy color which 
they naturally have." (See Harmer's Outlines, &c, ad loc.) 

6. Gaze not, &e. Addressed to the. daughters of Jerusalem, i.e., the 
ladies who were in company with her, who arc supposed to look with 
wonder upon her presumption, or to assume looks of surprise ami 
doubt. ■ — my mother's sons; i.e., my stcp-br others. — my riaeytt.-d, 
mtj own, &■<!. ; i.e., my most valued possession, my personal benut.y, lias 
been impaired by watching tiie vineyard of others. 

7. — like, a Bci'iftt one. This is the lheral rendering and best sup- 
parted by usage. It is in (he margin of the Common Version. Sept. 
iTEpffiaW.Q/iei'i?. A veiled one denotes a harlot. (See Gen. xxxviii. 15.) 



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TIIE CANTICLES. 331 

The maiden expresses lier fears, lest, it' site should bo obliged to go 
about seeking her lover, unacquainted with the piaee where he was 
pursuing his business, she might lie taken for a harlot. The Custom 
of reposing in the slunk during the heat of noonday is thus referred to 
by Roberts, a missionary in Hinrlnstiin ; " lietbre noon, the shepherds 
and tlieir flocks may tie scon slowly moving towards souk.', sliaily tree, 
where they recline during the heal of the day." The custom was not 
confined to the East. Thus, Virgil, Georg. iii, 331 : — 



S. If thus know- wA; i.e., where he is to tie found, lake care lo feed 
thy kid.s by the tents of the shepherds, and lie "'ill readily be found 
there with his flock. In the simple style of pastoral poetry, the pre- 
paration for a meeting of the lovers at i""ui with their flocks is of suf- 
ficient importance to form the conclusion of the idyl. 

9. To ike horses, &c It seems- to me that "flDD may be regarded 
as a collective noun with - pavagogie, as in Lam. i. 1; Isa. i. 21, 
Otherwise. Ta imj W.«, or iwmrs.- In this comparison the resemblance 
is founded on the splendor of the bride's dress and ornaments, as much 
as on her personal beauty. (Seethe next verse.) On this comparison 
Thinner remarks : " Jf we may believe Maillet, the hor.-es of Kgypl are 
remarkable for their beauty and state I mess, and arc sent, as presents of 
great value, to the great men of Constantinople ; but that ,-tra ne'er- can- 
not procure them, and that lie himself, t'toueh consul-general, could 
obtain permission to transport only two of lhcui; ami that it appears 
from the Old Testament they wore not less valuable aueieiiiiy, being 
eagerly sought for by the kings of Syria. (2 Chron. i. 17.) On the 
other hand, I would remark, that the Eastern people arc excessively 
attached to their horses, particularly the Arabs, who are fond of them 
as if they were children. D'Arvieux, ill particular , gives a diverting 
account, of the affectionate caresses an Arab used to give to a mare of his 
he liad sold to a merchant at Earn*. When he came to see it (which 
■was very frequently), be would weep over it for tenderness, kiss its 
eves, and, when he departed, go backward.-, bidding it adieu in the 
most tender manner." It is also observed by Williams, that "the 
Easterns, so highly valuing their horses, spare no expense to ornament 
them with the most costly trappings of gold, enriched with pearls 
and precious stones ; and' it is very observable that the Arabian and 



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332 NOTES. ■ 

Tutiiish ladies decorate themselves in a very similar mannc-r, weurin;; 
rows ill' pearls or precious stones rotmd the head-dress and descending: 
over their checks; gol'l t;luiins, also, upon their nooks and bosoms," 
(Wiliiams ail loo.) In Wilkinson's Manners and Customs of the 
Ancient Egyptians (vol. i. p. 106), is a plate representing a royal 
chariot anil horses, l'rom the graceful appearance uf Ihe horses, and 
their Lj-iiy ;mil rich ornamcnrs, one may conclude iliut rho comparison 
of an Orion I a I liiily in full dress to the horses in a royal chariot, was not 
unnatural. Wilkinson says (vol. i. p. HiVi), "On grand occasions, 
the hgyplian horses wore decked ivit.li fancy ornn molds : a rich-striped 
or checkered housing, trimmed with a broad border a.nd large pendent 
tassels, covered the whole body ; and two or more feathers, inserled in 
lions' heads or some other device of go Id, formed a crest upon the 
summit of the. headstall." Theocritus, speaking of Helen, makes a 
comparison somowhar similar, hut less direct (Idyl. 18, i.'.Oj, — Hjiuart 
6eatra5.de Zttttoc. 

10. — % checks. In Robin sun's Cahnet (p. 270) may be seen a 
rcpresei nation of tin: dress of an iL-ash'rn lady, which illustrates this 
Terse. " The J'ersiai: ladies," says * He-arias (R( Iscbcscrem.. p. 5HS1, 
" nnikc use of*f,vo or three rows of pearls, which are not worn there 
about the neck, as in orher places, but. round the head, beginning on 
the forehead and descending down the cheeks and nnder' ihe chin, so 
that their faces seem to he set in pearls.'" U'Arvieux also describes 
the Arab women a.s wearing pieces of gold coin hanging down the 
sides of the face; and adds that they ha.ve chains of gold about their 
nocks, which hang; down their hroasls. (La 1'toqne, Voy. dans la 
Talest., p. 219. See Harmer's Outlines, &c„ p, 206.) 

12. li'/ih:'': the kin;! rn-Jii-i:!h, Si'..; literally, is in /-.is eirde ; i.e., of 
friends. It is customary for the bumedieie iitloudants of an Oriental 
ruler to stum I in. a socmen t- of a circle at a small distance before their 
lord, as ho is soured in the corner of the divan. 1 Sam. xvi. 11, " We 
will not sit down" is literally, " We will not surround." It would 
seem to be too harsh a figure to suppose my siiil.nv.u-d to mean " my 
personal charms and graces," though such a supposition is favored by 
the next verse. (See eh. iv. 12, 16.) 

13, Abanch of myrrh : wdiich was probably suspended from the neck 
by mi elegum c'aaiu, as being th.e most fragrant of novfmnus. " There 
was some inconsistency," says Lie sett ins, "in the accounts of the 
myrrh-bearing lice, cutii Karenhcrg (hscovoreii and described it. It 
is now estllia! h::i.v.th,oi!niii,m: nh/nhn." The myrrh is a substance dis- 
tilling- in heard from a 'roe growing 1 in Arabia, which tears burden into 



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THE CANTICLES. 666 

ft bi tier, aromatic [1111:1, which was highly prized, mid asial in iuccose. 
— abide: lie shall he cherished as the most fragrant perfume, winch is 
constantly in the bosom. It is not so agreeable to the use of language 
to understand a bunch of the loaves or blossoms of the myrrh-tree to 
he denoted; for, in eh. v. 6, mention is made of tin; self-flowing myrrh, 
i.e., that which distils from the tree in its season, when it is not cut 
or punctured, 

14. — henna-flowers. Tliis flower is the r.aws:mia iners of Linnams. 
The Arabic name of this plant is tdktava, or, without the article, 
henna. Tlie best description of it is given by Sonnim, who has also 
furnished an engraved representation of il. (See Voy. dans la Haute 
et Basso Egypie, tuin. i. pp. lilii— 302.) "The henna is a tall shrub, 
endlessly muliiplied in I'igypt; the leaves are of a lengthened, oval 
form, opposed to each other, und of a fain; green valor. The flowers 
grow at the extremity of the branches, in lone: and tufted bouquets. 
In truth, this is one of the plants the most grateful to both the sight 
and the smell. The gently deepish color of its bark ; the light green 
of its filiate ; the softened mixture of white and yellow with which the 
flowers, collected into lung clusters like the lilac, are colored ; the red 
lint of the ramifications which support them, — form a combination of 
the most agreeable effect. These flowers, whoso shades are so deli- 
cate, diffuse around the sweetest odors, and embalm the gardens and 
the apartments which they embellish. They accordingly form the 
usual nosegay of beauty ; the woioeo take pleasure in decking them- 
selves will: these beautiful clusters of fragrance, in adorning their 
apartments with tbeni. ir: earn ing tiieir. to the hath, in holding them in 
their hand, — in a word, in perfaiuiug [heir bosom with thorn." (See 
also Shaw's Works, vol. i. p. 113, &e.) It is by tho powder obtained 
from the dried leaves of the henna, and diluted in water, that the Ori- 
entals tinge their nails and other parts of the body with a reddish or 
deep orange hue. (rice Lane's .Modern rgyntians, vol. i. p. 51; Hob- 
bison's l.'almcl, art. "Camphire.") — Eiiiiali ; a city near the Dead 
Sea, fertile in vines and palm-trees, (rimy, Nat. Hist., v. 17.] 

15. — are doves. This rendering is rather nunc in conformity with 
grammatical usage, and is that of the Se|ituagiul Version. It is 
adopts il by Hodgson, Kivalil, ami others. That of the (Joan nun Version 
is, however, allowable. The eoniparison bus reference to the bright- 
ness, beauty, and quick motion of the dove. So in eh. vii. 4, " Thiuo 
eyes are like the pools at Ileshbon." So in the Gitagovinda, part vii., 
as in Clarke's ('.'nnnmairary, ''His passion was inflame;! by the glances, 
of her eyes, which p:a\ i.-d iiko a pair of water bird; with blue plumage. 



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334 NOTES. 

that sport near a fu!I-blawn lotos on a pool in the season of dew." In 
the satllo poem tin; eye; are frequency ooumared to blue water lilies. 
Am! near the enl occurs the sentence, " Whence the antelopes of 
thine eyes may run down and sport at pleasure." 

17. — cedars, &e. They were not in a house, but a grove, where 
the trunks and spreading heads of the cedars and the cypresses are 
poetically called the beams and the roof of their chamber. Thus Mil- 
ieu, describing Adieu's bowort-r- 

Offli™ and fragrant laif." Ear. Lost, 1>. 092. 

Ch. II. 1. — the rose, As the name hh-jiiIim: >•,■![/;■„:; would be thud to 
the poetic beauty of the verse, T iiuve remmed the Common Version, 
rixw, although it is probable that a Hewer of the crocus specks is 
denoted, namely, Coklit'-iaii itiiluiiin<t-':>, or meadow saffron, a bulbous 
plant, wilh large and delicate flowers of white and violet. (See 
Gesen. Thes. on tijjKgfl,. The maiden does not mean to extol her 
personal charms, but rather to represent her beauty as nothing 
extraordinary. The flower arises immediately from the bulb, upon 
a long, naked tube. A description of the plant, with a colored 
representation of both the bulb and (lower, may be seen in Wood- 
vilie's Medical Botany, vol. iv. p. 759. 

8. — apple-tree. The corresponding word in Arabic denotes not 
only the apple, hut orange, quince, citron, peach, and apricot trees. 
The Hebrew word may have been used in the same general sense. 
But perhaps the apple, though not so beautiful and fragrant as the 
citron-tree, may have had a poetic value from the comparative rarity 
which Torskiill ascribes to it. An apple-tree, loaded with fruit among 
the barren trees of the wood, would be a sufficient foundation for the 
comparison. IT. 15. Tristram, in his Travels in the Last, London, Iti'Vi; 
p. iiOO, gives some weighty, but, not decisive, reasons for supposing that 
the apricot, rather than the apple, tree is denoted here. — shadow. 
It is to be recollected Ihat shade is an essential article of Oriental 
luxury. Dr. l'ococke tolls us, " when he was at Sidon lie was 
entertained in a garden, in the shade of some anrieot-trecs, and tho 
fruit- of Ihem was shaken upon him." (Description of 'die lilast, 
vol. ii. p. 96.) 

4. — baaqi.i':IJ.!iii-iuA!i'- : literally, house. r./V/i.v. (Comp. Esth. vii, 8.) 
There seems, however, to he good reason for the opinion of IXiderloiu, 
who ! i riders taods the expression, to laid to (ii bai,iji!rthig-ku\is?, in a fig- 



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THE CANTICLES. 660 

Uralivc sense, as denoting that the beloved is, :ih it were, intoxicating 
the maiden with love. Compares similar metaphor i:i lsa. xxix. 'J; 
li. 21. So Umbreit, Gesemus, and Kosemniiller, " ILxjicriri mo 
tech ddcetus mens, quam suavis sit," The verse following seems to 
iavor this explanation. 1/.-j\is>: if vu",v: may, however, denote i-iitcyurd. 
— banner oi:er me, &c. ; i.e., 1 follow the banner or standard of hive 
which iriy be.h.iveil holds up before me, us soldiers follow the randan! 
of l.tieir (;oii)i]i;m:!er and never desert it. — Siftmjtbu i* <■<;("(« T/ii.n'iix; 
or, more strictly, mishi-ailvji. They are mentioned, in 1! Sam. vi. 10, 
and 1 Chron. xv'i. 3, as delicacies wilts which the weary and languid 
are refreshed ; also, in Flos. iii. 1, a.s offered in sacrifice. Tiie mean- 
ing i\il;.-n is expressed in most, of the ancient versions. 

li. Ills left hand. In this situation the spouse is represented as 
reclining upon a divan, where sin: tails into a quiet slinnbet', supported 
by her beloved. 

7. — by the tjazett.es. It is common for different classes to swear 
by thai which is most dear to them, — the warrior by his sword, the 
prophet by Ids soul, &<:. ; so the daughters of rlerusalciii are adjured 
by what is dear to them, namely, beauty, as it is manifested in the 
gazelles and the hinds. The Hebrew term denoting I he i/tizciic origi- 
nally denoted .-■,■ .:V ?,</■ ir or ■'■■in/-/./; and the animal is used by the Arabs, 
as well as the Hebrews, as the emblem of what is extremely elegant 
and Ik autiful, To be said to have, the eyes of a gazelle is the highest 
eom]il::no;tl itiat ear. be paid to an Eastern lady. (See Gesen. on 
13S.) — nor. awake, &e. "In the East," says lioberls, "it would be 
eonsiiiered barbarous in the extreme lo awake a person out of Ilia 
sleep. How often, in going to the house of a native, you ate saluted 
with, ■ .Vittera tiuila-kaear,' i.e., ' He steeps.' Ask them io arouse him ; 
the rejily is, ' Koodalha,' i.e., ' I cannot.' Indeed, to re<iuest sueb a 
thing' shows at once that you are a griffin, i.e., a new-comer. ' Only 
think of that ignorant .Knglisbmaii : lie went into the honse of our 
chief, and, being told he was asleep, made such a noise as to awake 
him, and then laughed at, what he had done.'" 

8. The voice of my beloved, &c. Some suppose that these aud the fol- 
lowing words urn too substance of a dream, which the fair one had in 
the sleep mentioned in the last verse; but it is a mere supposition, 
and not very probable. As there is no connection between the train 
of thought in this passage and the close of the last chapter, wc conclude 
that it forms a distinct idyl or soul'. It adds to the liveliness ei the 
description, that the lair one is represented in a listening attitude, hear- 
ing tlie voice of her be'.ovod before he appears in sight. 



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33(3 NOTES. 

9. — gazelle, &0. "These animals are elegantly formed, active, 
restless, timid, shy, and astonishingly swift, running with vast bounds, 
and - 1 :■:■ : 1 1 l; i ] [ l; hi 1 leaping with surprising elasticity. They frcipicntly 
stop for a moment in the midst of their course lo gaze at their pur- 
suers, and then resume their night.'' (See Itobinsou's Caltuet, art. 
"Antelope") 

12. — tune of tiif. siiv/irii/, Sic. Ah Hit word "St dctioles ••utiiivj or 
'jf.-o.iii.rir/, as well as sinmn;/, most, of the ancient versions understand the 
line, "The time for pruning I' 1 '- Y '"e s ,1!ls come." Geseuius also 
adopts this rendering. Hut the common rendering is favored by the 
parallelism, (he voice if the. turtle, i.e., the turtle-dove, &c, also by the 
circumstance thai there is an alhisioti to the vine in the next verse. 
As to the objection, that "p-pT, where it. denotes siiyiiw elsewhere in 
Hie Old Testament, rolcrs Lo the uiTdicial singing of men, the answer 
is, first, that the sinking of birds is not often relcrred to in the Old 
Testament by any expression ; secondly, if it does usually denote the 
artifioinl singing of men, the lerni may yet he used iu a figurative sense 
by a pool to denote the singing of birds. Nothing is more common in 
liu«iisli poetry; lor instance, " wood-vi«'rs wild," "the cock's shrill 
clarion." — tunic, itc. The turtle-dove is mentioned as a bird of pas- 
sage (Jer. vizi. V j. lorskiill, the oompaiLioti of \iobohr, meotici.s ii as 
one of the birds of passage which appear at Alexandre, about the end 
of April or beginning of -May. (See his De.criptjo Animal., p. it.) 

IS. — is spicing, &c. The Hebrew term rran is used in Gen. 1. 2, 
3, 2C, to denote tlie fmini,niut} of :i dead body ; hence it seems io me 
n tore prokib'.c that it denotes here t'i J:!i viih rule ffiujmnt juice, rather 
Hian, generally, to rijicn. So Itoseimiliher, Uinbreit, and De Wette. 

14. mi/ doce, &a. Here ttie wild dove, which hides itself from 
birds of prey, on from the approach of man in dills of rocks, is used as 
an emblem of the fain one, unwilling to leave her house to meet her 
lover. (Seder, xlviii. 28; Horn. II., xxi. 404 ; Virg. Ma., v. 318.) 
*I2ore mi/lEia, 



15. Take ye fir ws the foxes, &v. Tlie maiden having come forth to 

enjoy the s firing, the i iiioytmls. He... it is tui.tural for her now to give 
directions to have Ike \:ei-yi;rd made as pleasant as possible by the 



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THE CANTICLES. 337 

removal of noxious animals. A similar a.ilu-ion to fo\t.s is ibund in 
Theocritus, Idyl. v. 112: — 

ii'.l^.i'-' ~':'J d-.ict.'u '','.. 'in :.'•■ r'; A u.vt "'■?;-, a? rti MfKWVOf 

" I hate those brush-tilled foses, that each night 
Spoil Myoo:i".i v:ucvcr.l= ivitli their ili-inlly sj:i:i-. : - 
— nowinttaem. Sept. '.i : •■•■'. rvji-n. So Gosenius. i "in ore it, and Fiwakl, 
(Comp. ver. 18 and vii. 12.) 

16. — he feedeth, &c. The Hebrew verb ft$~\ lias the same ambi- 
guity as the Englisli/i:'^. It may int>:tii lo feed a finds, as in cli. i. 7, 
or it may mean to Iced one's self. ) am inclined lo iindetslniid it of 
feeding a (kids, i'erhaps the flock may have been in an enclosure 
in lilt garden or nark. .1: is a recoomieiidation of the beloved to 
the maiden, that lie is i: geiule shepherd :i:edii:,; his tleeis among the 

17. When t7w dni/ (ireiitlibi. This is understood Iiy many of the 
m on dog ; hut the n-.oiv recent eouniieir.a-.ors, as lieseuiiis and i.'osen- 
miillcr, refer it io sunset or the evening. This is most proliublo; fur 
a axateful, cool hree.w is snhl to spring up at that time. At that time, 
loo, the shadows Ji'.c met;;/, i.e., couiinuidiy lengthen themselves, till 
they are lost in the darkness of the night. So, Gen. Mi. 8, the coo/, 
literally, l.lic hrrw, of the dny seems to bi: in contrast with the. i\/:nt of 
Hie day, eh. sviii. 1. So here, after the still sultry heat, the day is 
Baid to breatJte. The particle IS, hem translated idiot, seems to be 
equivalent to "lip's "IS, eh. i. 12. • — i.n ';,'.',;/ nmintitiiii ; literally, niniiii- 
tains of iVrii-i'ni ; i.e., by a ""oil known Hebrnisin, nil) 1:1:1.1 ins divided or 
01st up, c.]v% A«. So !Ue Sept. i\>>; ii'>:>.(.,i.Ji-:>v, mountains of eavities. 

Ch. III. 1. This, is evidently the beginning of a new song. There 
seems to he no appearance of a dream ; and in ancient times a dream 
was rcgaeded of so muoh importance, thai the author would have 
mentioned it if he had intemled lo describe one here. Aa to any 
thin;; hieonsi stent iviih probability or propriety, which some have 
alleged in favor of ils being understood us a dream or us an allegory, 
it appears to me that the author would not be move likely to violate 
pvoiiabiiily or projuieiv in a uociie dream or hi an allegory than in 
the ordinary products of his imaginaxion. 

3, Have yoa seen him, &e. It is a natural circumstance, that the 
maiden takes it lor granted that all the world knows the ohjeet of her 
attachment, though she does not locution his name. 
15 



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838 NOTES. 

4. — hild mi) aiflhi's hti\a:c, Ac. Iloseinmdler sjtys, " It is impi-hi- 
ble that a modest remain among the Ik-brews would do such a tiling, 
and thi.-retm'o it is to bo understood allegoncaliy." lint it is us im- 
ptuhaliSc that !i Hebrew pool would represent a modest ftmiule as doing 
what .is improper Sir an alio juried purpose, as for any other. The 
passage is, indeed, obscure ; hut the supposition of allegory does jioi 
make it- clearer, llodason remarks on this verse : " It hath been sup- 
posed Unit tliis poem iv us written by Solomon on [lis mnrri;i:;c with 
the daughter of Pharaoh. Hut this passage scorns to prove that the 
person here married was nut Pharaoh's daughter ; lor, if she liad been 
Pharaoh's daugiitei', her mother's house woiilil iaiie been in Kgvpt: 
whereas tills scene lies at Jerusalem ; for in [lie next line she add: esses 
tin: daughters of Jerusalem, and desires litem not to disturb her sleep- 
ing husband." 

Cb. TIT. 6-11. The design of this song is camnmrily supposed to 
lie that of describing a otiptial procession, in which the bride of Solo- 
mon is led to the palace, in company with himself, in his sedan or 
carriage. According to Hie theory of one dramatic poem, Solomon is 
riding with the Shtdamilo, 

6. Who is this, So. The poet speaks, or perhaps a choir of the 
tlaugblc.YS of Jerusalem, — //••mi /k/: iri~i.il/ r/ii-.v:. M"!" denotes, not 
merely a desert, hut wlmf. we call I he country in distinction from I he 
city. (See Gesen. Lex.) Otherwise, /him Ike aiikkmess may denote 
thai, the person was coming from Ihe direction of llie wilderness. 
— j/'il'n/i-s iff smuLv. It is commonly supposed, that llie slender and 
graceful form of the bride, gradually increasing in tidiness as she eamc 
nearer, is compared to the light una hcaulifnl column of smoke which 
ascends from a burning censer (if incense. Mereier observes that "it 
is a tradition of ihe Jews, that the smoke of incense should go up 
perpendicularly, and lhat arti.-ts were called from Alexandria to 
make the smoke of incense ascend as straight us possible." He 
does not give Lis authority. Hut, as the sedan of Solomon is men- 
tioned in the next verse, is il probable Unit the bride was on foot '! Is 
it not more prohable lhat the dust caused by the approach of the sedan 
and its attendants is compared to columns of smoke'! Or might not 
the pillars of smoke actually ascend from censers borne in front of the 
procession I "The use of perfumes at Kti-tcm marriages is common, 
and upon grand occasions very profuse. Not only an: the garments 
scented, till, in the Psalmist: language, they smell of myrrh, aloes, 
and cassia, hot it :s customary lor virgins hi nice! and lead ihe procos- 



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THE CANTICLES. 339 

sion with silver-gilt ]tots of perthmcs ; anil sometimes even the air 
around is rendered fragrant by Mil' Imrnin^ of arontalios hi the win- 
dows of all tlm houses in tlic streets through which tho procession is 
to pass, in the present- insiance, mi liherally were Mi cm: rich peri'inncs 
burnt, LijiiL ill a distance a pillar or pillars ol' smoke arose from them ; 
and the perfume was ho rich as to exceed in value anil Ira^ianey all 
the powders of Hip merchant." iVill-iuuts. Kotbing is said of the 
bride. It is possible, then, tliat Solomon alone may have been in 
the carriage. — pnmki-a ; i.e., aromatic powder?. 

7. — carriage; i.e., a kind of open vehicle, now usually called a 
pubictpiin, in winch tin: siteat men nl' Mie Kast are carried, sometime) 
upon elephants or camels, and at other times on men's shoulders. 
Niobuhr says a pu!ainphn, completely ornamented with silver, covered 
willt rich studs, and suspended on a handsome bamboo, will cost alinui 
two hundred pounds sterling. (Travels, vol. ii. p. 410.) 

10. The ratting. The hack and side railing, on which to lean Or 
recline. — by a body one. (See eh. ii. 7, hi. 5.) So Ewald. 

11. — in the crown, &c. It was usual wilh many nations to pul 
crowns or garlands on Ihe heads of new-married persons. The Mishnu 
informs us Lhat lliis custom prevailed anions the Jews ; and it seems, 
from the passage before us, that the ceremony of putting it on waa 
performed by one of the parents. Anions,' the (irecks, the bride was 
crowned by her molher, as appears from Mio instance of Iphigcnia, in 
Kuripidcs, i it. h'.M. "In the (.ireel; Church in I'ijiypl," says Maillcr, 
"the parties are phiceil be line a rcadinji-desk, on which is the book nf 
t:io (Gospels, having two crowns upon it of flowers, cloth, or tinsel. 
The priest, after benedictions and prayers, places one on the bride- 
groom's, liie other on the hri'le's, head, covering both with a 'veil." 

(See Roseiouiiikir, Allei 1 Nenes Morjjenland, vol. iv. ]i. 1'Jii. Sel- 

den's Uxor Hebraica, lib, ii. cap. 16,) 

Ch. IV.- V. 1. This cautkle seems to include eh. iv. and the first 
verse of ch. v. It appears to contain a lover's praise of his. mistress, 
and her replies. 

]. — behind lb/ r-iii. .So llaliz : "Thy checks sparkle even under thy 
veil." Sir W. Jones's "Works, vol. i. p. 4l>L>. Another I'ersinn poet 
says, " It is dillieiilt to giiKe upon the son without the medium of a 
cloud. View, tberefore, 1) Saicl) ! the lovely face of thy mistress 
through her veil." Orient. Coll., vol, i.i. p. 23. — fa:h nf tion/.i, &e. 
Her hair was black and tiiick, like a dock of eoats showing itself on 
the top of a mountain to one in the distance below. 



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340 NOTES. 

2. — teeth; for whilcoess, brightness, fulness, and soundness, llicy 
are Compared to a shorn (look ju-t coming clean i'roiii the ■wfi-sliiny- 

3. — divided pomcgfinuii:; which, in its prime, says Rosenmiiller, 
has a bcumiful re J color, i.e., when cut in two, equalling or surpassing 
that of the rose. So Camoeus, Lusind, Cant, ix. a'J, tninslaied by 
Miekle : — 

uby's bluie." 

4. — tlie tower of David; which wes prohaciy l;ui!t. of white marble, 
high and olegnut. l7]:-i]i tins outside of towers it was the- enslom to 
3i;i r:;; shields, ]irtjt>;iTjl v u- ;i terror- to enemies. (See E/ck. s.-ivii. 10, 
11.) To the splendid shields and anus Willi which the timer of David 
was ad.oriied, are compared the j le e k la ce s and jewels wuich adorned 
the neck of the maiden. 

B. — gazelles. (See the note on cb. ii. 7.) Probably the reference 
is to their general beauty and loveliness. 

5. — day breathes, &c. See tlie note on eh, ii. 17. — nwuntain of 
myrrh, So. ft is sain" of boiupcy Lho then!, that, when lie [iassed over 
Lebanon and by Damascus, be passed through sn-ecl-sniolling groves 
nnd woods of frankincense and balsam. i'lm-iis, Kpuoiue liennu 
Rom., lib. iii. C. 6: "Per neinora ilia odorata, per thuris et balsaroi 
nylvsis." This quotaiion is brought !o show, not that the bride was 
actually on a hill of myrrh, lie., but thai such bills of myrrh and 
incense were supposed to exist, and might ullbrd a sulijeet for com- 
parison. The bride seems to be here compared, as respects her gen- 
eral charms, to a mountain of myrrh, &e, to whom the lever says he 
will return a* tlie antelope Hies to the mountain. Wo Ewald. So 
tome of the basic: l: poets represent an gel - as huving boib.es of amber 
and musk Tims ihc poet Assail: says, " feiidomi and Farrakb were 
not angels; their bodies were made neither of amber nor must;; it 
was their justice and liberality that made ihem cole lira ted." (See 
Ilarmcr's Outlines, p. 2<JU.) Grotius, who is followed by Dr. Good, 
supposes the comparison to be someu-hat more definite, referring to 
her bosom alone : " Sie vocat mammas ob suavissimum odorcm." 
Grot. The meaning may he, however, that the lover would return to 
the jtiitrf. where she was, where the odor of her charms was diffused. 
So Ddderloin. 

8. Come with me from Lebanon, &c. Verses 8 and 9 seem to he intro- 
duced very abruptly, an;L their import in this connection is not very 



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THE CANTICLES. 341 

obvious. Dodcileiu and others si;p;iosc t:ic-m to he an invitation to 
the "bride to lake atl excursion with him, in order that they might 
admire together all that was ^rand aad beautiful in scenery. Others 
suppose them to be an invitation to tJic maiaon to come from a place 
of danger to a place of complete security in tlie arms of her lover. 

U. — tub:u i-a.itiiY: mij iiatil ; lilorally. I,n irU-d -ae ; .'n.x'orilitirr to the 
Euij'sit iiiioni ! <> n!.--n l fa' in i'li.e. (;;/' ihi: d-iii. UiLeis su;i|iosc ihe word 
/.' : i l i :■ i i l i . 1 h<r-i A- 1-.:. .,■,■'.■■■ >:■■■'■.■■:■', >;r .>'.■,..'.>-■ .■■.t'/ i..., — - .-w.s/'jr- ; a term 
if endearment. So the Romans. (Comp. Tilndl. iii. 1, 26.) — one of 
thine eyes. How powerful must be both united when only one does 
Mich execution! (Comp. oh. vi. 5.) It has been remarked, that, 
'■ supposing the royal bridegroom to have had ii profile, or side-view, 
of his bride in the present instance, only one eye, or one side of her 
necklace, would he observable ; yet this charms and over (lowers him." 
I'robiibly. however, the Hebrew pool in'cmled what others mean to 
express by out ipjaicc of the eye. &i:. l'mallel passages might, be 
m.otcd from ntiuiy Eastern pools. The son:; of Ibrahim says, "One 
dart from your eyes has pierced JIji-uiilt'l my heart." And, in the 
songs of Gitago villi la, we liiiil one acl.no» lodging himself " bought as 
n slave by a single glance from thine eye and a toss of thy disdainful 
eyebrow." (Asiat. ^Research., vol. iii. p. 203.] Tcrtidlian, however, 
mentions a custom in tlie East of women unveiling only one eye in 
emivereMtinn, while they keep lie other covered ; and Niobul.r men- 
tions si similar custom as proiahnig in tuine p:i: Is of Arabia. (Travels 
iu Arabia, vol. i. p. 262.) 

11. Thy lips, &«. Here the sweetness of her voice rather than her 
kisses is denoted. ( Comp. Prov. v. 3.) So Horn., II. i. 249 : — 

T'i,"' Kai r'.-.O y/.^o/yf/c I'fXtToc yAvaiuv {teev avdq. 
And Theocritus, viii. 82 : — 

'A/>i> T( Til trrt'i/tri rot, Kill Idiiiicpoc, u Aiufwt, fuvfa 
Kiif.nnou BMsii(iEi« Ti-ij iW'ivificv ■/! fii'/i a«jsyu." 

12. A garden enclosed, &c. Tlie bride is compared to a fragrant 
garden, ji refreshing spring, in respect to her damns ; and to a garden 
enclosed, a jbnoktin .v/dtd, in respect to her chastity ami fidelity. That 
fountains or wells, as well as gardens, were sometimes locked up in 
tiie East, seo Harmer, Obs., vol. i. p. 113. That this kind of distant 
imagery is common in the East appears from (lie following passages ; — 
'■ Feirou/, a \ izier, having divorced his wife upon suspicion of infi- 
delity, her brother? apply for redress iu the following figurative terms ; 
'My lord, we have rented to Feirouz a most delightful garden, a tor- 



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842 NOTES. 

re=li:i! nm-.uli^e ; he took ;io-se-S:ioo e.i' it, eueomTinsscd it with high 
h-;l1?k, mid planted it w:i':i ike most beautiful trees Mini: bloomed with 
Dowers and fruit, lie has broken down ll:i.i walk, plucked the tender 
Mowers, devoured T-lio finest fruit, and would now restore us tliis gar- 
den robbed of every tiling that contributed to render it delicious when 
we gave him admission to it.'" (Miscell. of Eastern Learning, vol. i. 
p. 12.) In a famous Persian romance, a princess assures tier lms.ljn.inl 
Of her fidelity ill his absence, in these terms : " The jewels of tlie 
treasury of secrecy are sliil the same as lliey were, and tins casket is 
sealed with the same seal." (liahnr Danush, vol. iii. p. 65, See Wil- 
liams's Sol. Song, p. 278. See also 1'rov. v. 18.) 

13. Th/ plants; or sioote. I do not understand this of children, as 
do most of the counncnlators, but el' the graces and charms of the 
bride. In the hist verse she was compared to a garden. In pursuance 
of the same metaphor, her charms are compared to odoriferous plants, 
— llama-, &e. Woe the note on eh. i. 14. 

16. A fountain oftiie-gtinlnts; i.e., a spring that waters many gardens. 

16, Awake, O north wind, Se. By calling on the north wind at the 
same time with the south, the maiden expresses the wish that the 
united influence of the principal winds that blew might shake the plants, 
and cause the fragrance of Ike garden to be exhaled and diffused. 
Having keen compared to a garden, site saj s, in substance, " I) thai; 
Ihe garden were more fragrant," &c. 

Ch. V. 1. — my ajHiu.-m; i.e., betrothed. — Jioiiegaomb, otherwise, 
l:r/!>:$-!-'iy--iii>i'j l &.C.. ; i.e., that which spontaneously overllows or drips 
from the comhs or hives. (See ties, and ITurst on "IS' 1 .) — drink 
ri!iit>!r!iiiii!u, my lu-hnd . The Ilclirew admits quite as well of the render- 
ing, ilr'ait iiliiiiiihiiiiii/ iy !;a>., or ii-nh- ;,■■)■■.■, ■.>!.,■' <■.■.< ilnink- v:iih low. So 
King James's translulors in the margin. But the parallelism and the 
connexion seem most favorable to Ike Common Version. 

Ch. V. 2- VI. 3. The circumstances introduced into this piece are 

undoubtedly imaginary ; bill i perceive no decisive indication that the 
pool designs to narrate a dream. There is considerable resemblance 
between this piece nod the third ode of Anaercon, beginning, Meffrj«*-,\uif 

2. 1 slept, &c. The meaning is, that though the body was asleep, 
yet the mind was awake and filled with the object of her aflcciion, so 
that she koariL ami recognized l'ie knock (if her beloved as soon as it 

8. I Itave taken off mij vest. The frivolous and coquettish excuses 



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THE CANTICLES. 843 

which she gives for not welcoming tier lover are here represented. 
She had prepared herself, and yet prolanded she did not like lo rise. 
— vest; i.e., the inner garment, reaching to the knees, worn next 
llif skin, commonly with sleeves. 

4. — by tlie hole of the door, &a. Le Olerc lias a long and learned 
note on the ancient mode of fastening :i door. In this case, the door 
v.MJ probably secured by :l crossbar i>!' ludt, which at night was fas'.oncd 
by a little button or pin. In the tipper part of the door was left a 
round hole, through which any person from without might thrust his 
arm and remove the hur, unless t!ie si eurit.y of the pin were super- 
added. 

G. — self-flowing myrrh: ie., that which spontaneously flows from 
the tree, without euttntg or puncturing tl.e linrk. This was consid- 
ered the most valuable kirn!. The myrrh which dropped from her 
hands wits that which her beloved had left upon the wooden bar of the 
door. This may be understood figuratively, that tins moisture of 
the beloved's hands wet with dew was like fragrant myrrh, perfuming 
every thing which came in contact with it ; or a custom may have 
prevailed in tiie East similar to that which is mentioned by Lucretius, 
lv. 1171: — 

Floribua et sortia oporit, poaLcsnuc supurlics 

6. I was not in mi/ si-urn's ; literacy, ifi/ sn,tl ims «r,ne. from me. The 
meaning- must mi ted to Hie eoiiiieetion is, that she. ueted insimely in 
not admitting her beloved at his request. It seems lo denote that 
bewilderment uf the faculties caused by fear, as in Gen. xlii. 23, or by 
any other passion ; here, by the passion of love. 

7. The v-itt.rhr,.oi-—wt>iitidirf me, &c. ; i.e., treated me as a lewd, 
abandoned wonum. The same thing is intimated by taking away the 
veil, in the nest line. (Conip. Isa. xxii. 8; Nahuui iii. 5.) So Ilatiz, 
in a passage quoted by Dr. Cood, speaking of the wife of 1'otipliar 
tinder the name of Zuieikhaii : -- 

O'nf ri:-.i-| l:'^ :\:i-i- tliat i/ny. 
Her veil of fliiisrity at lcngl.il 
Zuleikhah dings away." 
11, — fine </o?</; referring to gene::!! siileudor and beauty. So 
Theocritus. Idyl. iii. '2S, -peaks of :lie go. den Helen. — palm- 
branches. So in Amrolioiis, Moallakah, vev. Sfi, quoteil by liostamiul- 
ler, a lover describes the luiir of bib mistress : "Et capilli, qui tergum 



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ornant, iilgri. earboiiis in.-tar, donsi si<:ut raeemi ];;ilzi:jt- implicit!." 
Any one who will look at it Rood representation ni' the palni-tree — for 
insiancc, that in llii' work of Labor: ie on Arabia Pctrtea — will per 
ceive it foundation Sir this comparison. 

V2. Washed toi'k mi.fi:. This is conunwilv supposed to denote their 
niilk-tthiie color. In Job _\.vi\, (j, oi wash Lhe ste;is in milk denoies hi 
have great abundance of it; and we aro lok! by Poberts, tin 1 mission- 
ary, that tu bo washed iviLli milk is now a proverb in llindosran, 
denoting to he in h good and happy condition. (See Roberts.) But 
the former o.vpkuia-ion seems most suitable to this passage, — dnxll- 
in,;/ in /"i/.'ii'.M. "Si-^'~S riss;". I have rendered ibis nhvusc liter- 
ally, because I consider [lie meaning as quite doubtful. It seems most 
probable that it refers to the pigeons, imd'not to their eyes, arid illus- 
trates their pliiuip appearance, arising from their dwelling near full 
'streams or Call fields. .So the Sept. and Vuh;. The transition of (ho 
Common Version seems forced, it supposes an alh1.5i.1n to a diamond 
act in the foil of a ring, denoting I hat the eyes mi.' neither roo much 
depressed nor too pruiuiuem, but well fillingr the sockets. (See the 
note on eh. i. 1&.) 

13. — a bed ofbulmm. Thus paraphrased by Bishop Patrick: 
"The lovely down upon his cheeks is no less grateful; rising there 
like spices when they first appear out or.' dioir beds ; or like the young 
buds of aromatic flowers in the para.Ji.se before described ; where the 
purple lilies are not more beautiful than his lips, from whence flow 
words more precious mid more pleasant than the rieliest and most fra- 
grant myrrh." The dropping u-,' :.ho lips may, however, refer to the 
sweet breath. Sadi, the Persian ;ioel, describing" a young man, says, 
"He had just, arrived at ti.e opening blossom of youth, and the down 
had but newly spread itself over the llowcr of bis cheek." Sullivan's 
Pa bins from lluhstau, p. -, quoled liy Wdbams ml ■'<*■. It is possible, 
however, that there may be some reference to the beard, which was 
regarded with almost religious reverence in the East. D'Arvieux 
says, in eh, vis. of his Travels in Arabia, '■ tine of the principal cere- 
monies in important visits is to throw some sweet water upon the 
beard, and then to perfume it with the smoke of lignum aloes, that 
sticks to ibis moisture ami gives it an agreeable smell." And, in tho 
same chapter, " The women kiss their lms! mud's beards, and the chil- 
dren their falher's, when they gn to salute them ; the men kiss one 
another's reciprocally, when they saline one another in the streets, or 
arc come from some journey." 

14. His hands oi'i ij'J.d leys- This eo'r.pur\-.ou lias reference to the 



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THE CANTICLES. 345 

general beauty of his hands and fingers, and the brilliancy of their 
ornaments. Some suppose toere is a re:eveneo to tin; nails, -liibiisd 
nilli hensia, accord in a 1 to the oii-r.om of tin? Arabiaos. (Heethenofo 
on ch. i. 14.) ■ — sn/sjuVras. The Urhnnal sapphire is transparent, of a 
tiae sky color, .=*■_■ 1 s -i i.- 1 i ? 1 1 «. - =-= variegated with veins o!' a while sparry snli- 
stance, and distinct, separate spots of a gold color. Hence the prophet 
describes tiiu torooe o!' Co'l ai like sapphires Kisek. i. 2ii; s. 1. Pliny, 
Nat. Hist, xxxvii. <J, sayi, " Coaadcia, interduin earn purpura, qua: et 
aureis puiiotis eolluceni, ae e;rli s;ieeLoni reforuur." 

15. — like Lebanon. In the manly dignity of liia appearance he is 
compared to the beautiful but majestic Lebanon, with its proud cedars. 
Volney says, in bis description of Lebanon (Travels, vol, i, p. 233), 
" At every step we meet with scenes in whieh nature diiplars either 
beamy iir grandeur." — like the. cedars ; i.e., prc-euiriieui- among, men 
a.s the cedars among this tree; of the lijrcst. Gabriel s-ionila, ipr-ili'd 
by Dr. Harris, in his Nat. Hist, of the Bible, says, " The cedar grows 
on the most elevated part of the mountain, is taller than the pine, and 
so ihiek. thai tive men i-i-x-thc!' co;ild scarcely faT-cau ■nu-. " 

16. His rnoulli; literally, /.■■'.< /'.a/.j ■',■■, which in. my suppose to be used as 
the instrument of speech, as in Prov. viii. 7, Job xxxi. 30. But, com- 
paring the word with ch. v LI. ',1 ( 10), it seems (| ill; is as probable that it 
is a euphemism, dcoMing the moisture ur saiiva of a hiss. (See Gescu. 
Thes. on tjn, and the note on eh. vii. 9. It is the same word as is 
here in the Common Version rendered month, and, in eh. vii. 9, roof of 
Ms mouth.) 

Ch. VI. 4. Tirzah, The word itself denotes pleasantness, a name 
given to a city which was the Capital of the kingdom of Israel from 
the time of Jeroboam to that of Oniri. It was probably beautiful in 
regard to its situation as Midi as its buildings. — as Jerusft/tui. Ho, 
Lain. ii. 15, "Is ibis tiic ciiy that men called loo iiiclceiion of beauty, 
the joy nj" the whole eariii ? " -- le.rrlhh us an arm}/, ,*ie. (Comp. ch. 
ii. 4.) The loved one is represented as eon ojue ring, waundiug, tifking 
isiiptivu tiie hearts of '.overs with her <:\\'<, &e. Tl.i idea is carried 



Ti oiv; oidwm kiMo; 
'Air' atrKtSuv faiaGuv, 



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And again, Ode xvi. : — 

Ohx' ItitoE HKcoiv fie, 
Ob ire&C, nitf rifar 

i! Terror it nasi ■',;■ ,;?.?.«[.', 
'Aft' bji/unav ;«■■ .jiS/.u!'. 
la (lie same %Viiy, the Arabian pcet.- oomiKiro the eyes of ^ ii -:i:i~ to 
swords and darts, their eyebrows to bows, Sr, with which they wound 
and kill. In luet, [lie same representation is common hi jil! ]ang'.i.i;;os. 
(.'lipid is armed with his bow and arrow- And yet "Dr. Good makes 
the tasteless ternnrk, that the epithet twi'Ji is obvhm.ly iniLojiniprhite, 
and gives the term "j"K the forced mea-iiing, dazzling. 
6-7. (See oh. iv. 1^8.)' 

8. — queens, — !»)»'»», — maidens. Solomon is said, in 1 Kings 
xi. 3, to have hud seven hundred wives and three hundred concubines. 
Hence sonic who regard this piece, as written by Solomon, suppose it 
to have been written a! rm earlier period of i i: h reign than ilmi rcl'errcil 
to in Kings. Jfosei toddler, however, supposes an indefinite use of 
numbers; and this seems most probable, 

9. — the one; i.e., the matchless one. For this use of the term ClHSt, 
eee Ezet. vii. 5, and Gesen. Lex. ad verb. 

10. —like the morning. So Theocritus, Idyl, xriii. 23 : — 

WC'i; uyri/.'/.oitJa ko'Aov 6:($aiV£ r:iictTi.<7rav, 

norma n>£ fc , Jaww fcyj ,-rev.™™.- inh'roe, 

'iUi: Hal k jpuoi'a 'Eacto dtc^afpfr' tv ifyur. 

— as the moon. So, in Lane's Avalnan Nights, vol. i. p. 29, "When I 

beheld her, I thought that the moon had descended to the earth." 

12. — made me like the chariots, S.c. The meaning seems to ho, (hat 
her strong de-ire conveyed lief thither as svvit't as the chariots, ive. 
■ - of the jirinc/.'s limn. (See (.e-oti. Thcs. on t™.) Otherwise, p h ice<l 
me among the chariots of mi/ ntble people. 

13. Return, return.. This seems to ho spoke:) iiy a chorus of women 
who reg^e-lod her spivdy departure. - - n» -if.in a. dance if the hoits ; 
i.e., with eyes an fixed and earnest as upon some very uncommon 
exhibition or spectacle. This may be the. hnigitage of one of the com- 
pany. As to what is meant by n ditm-j- if tin he.sls, it is ililfienh to form 
a decided opinion : Gesenius, who is followed by lie Welti!, supposes 
the angelic host to he denoted, to whom dancing is ascribed, as else- 
where singing. [Comp. Gen. xxxi. 2; Job xxxviti, 7.) Otherwise, 
as upon a. dunce if '.tec coiiijiiinici ; or, as in a ihiiic.c. of lire, c-.mj-.tiiici,? 



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THE CANTICLES. 



Ch. VII. 1. — ii.iiu.hJ.'. Uow important an article of dress 
sandals to an Easiorn lady is shown in Judith xvi. 9, where w 
that the sandals (if Judith i-iviriiioil the eyes of Itolopbevne:. ■ 
ornaments; i.e., bosses or knobs, of which a necklace w 
She is also represented as itaM,mvyos. 

2. — the, spked win*:; mentioned merely to set off the beauty and 
richness of the cup. — hcnii of iclu-at, &c. Perhaps a heap of wheat 
enclosed with lilk-s was chosen as an illustration, not merely for its 
appearance, init as mi emblem oi fertility. " Wheat, and hurley, " says 
Seidell, " were, among the ancient Hebrews, eniiilenis of i'erlility : and 
it was usual for standers-by to scat-tor these grains upon the married 
couple, witli a wish that t-hc-v might increase arid multiply." (Uxor 
Hebrniea. lib. ii. cap. 1-j.i II has been coojeciu-e:), thai [he heaps of 
when- were, during [)ic joyous time of harvest, covered with flowers, 
especially with lilies. 

4. — ivory. So a neck of ivory, ImqiIvkvo.! Tpi'ixi?.os, is ascribed 
by Auacrcon to Llathyllus, Ode \-xi v. — /»./> at llrxkbon ; i.e., moist, 
dark, and bright. linr;:u liar.lt thus spends of '.lie re i nil ins of this city : 
" At six hours and a quarter [from El Aal, probably the Elealeh of 
the Scriptures] is Heshbon, upon a hill bearing southwest from El Aal. 
Here are the ruins of a large ancient town, together ■.villi the remains 
of sunn: odiiier.s kiilt wi:h small Mooes ; a few oruheii -hails of columns 
are still standing, a number of wells cut in the rock, and a laryc resa-- 
voir of vxit.n- for the summer supply of the inhabitants." (Travels, 
p. 335.) — tower of Tsixmon. The nose may have been compared to 
that tower lor its height, siruinhtnoss, and good proportions. The 
allegorisis suppose loai t.i:o rower-like nose denotes (he judgment :cid 
discernment of the doctors, of the Church. 

5. — Canael; with its beautiful and verdant snmniit of oaks and 
pines, (See tlio article in Hohinson's Calmet under this word, with 
its copious extracts from Oriental travellers. Comp. Isa. xxxv. 2.) 
— ti.h; jutrjiie. As there can be little doubt of the correctness of 
this translation, ) suppose the point of comparison is the glossy 
brightness of the loeks rather than the eolor of thorn, lilack was the 
beautiful color for the liair. 

7. —palm-tree. This tree received its name ISn from its st-:e t :'ii, 
upr>h: grow'.h. It is ooe of I lie lollies i of trees, some times rising- to 
the height of a hundred feet. It is one of the most celebrated trees 



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