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or THt 



ASKAKCED according to the S\'STEM of LDJN.€IIS. 



IN TilltKE VOUPfsa. ■38^ 

THIRD i:Dmow,^^«yc£OR2j 

Kira comozRABis AJiDirtoxi ^d oonjtacnoin. 

VOL. lit, 

fmtwna Wi RICHARD PICILUPS, No. 6. Btioai-iTSKBT 





B. T*i LOk and Co- Priourt, 
livSS,' Sho»-XAU, ncct-Stnet. 


Under this title, as living occasionally both on 
land and in \vater, Linnseus has arranged the ovipa- 
rous quadruped*, usually denominated Rtf/ifei, and 
Ihc Serpents. It is true that it may be cotipidcrcd ex- 
ceptionable on account of some individuals being con- 
fined to only one of those elements : these arc, how- 
c^-cr, so very few, as not, with any propriety, to af- 
fect the general denomination. 

Towards these animals mankind have ever cnler- 
tairieii a great degree of abhorrence, originating in a 
dread of their sii|)posed, and in some instances their 
undoabled poisonous properties, in the unpleasant 
aeosstion of tnuclnngcold animnU, and in their often 

I ugly and atjuBJid forms. Tliis abhorrence is so ge- 
neral, in all coontrics, and amongst all cla.'^i'ea of 
pedplc, that, even where the species arc in tbcmsclve'* 
innoiious and beautiful, it is not without mucli dif- 
liculty to be overcome. To the philosopher, how- 
crer, the various tribes afford an inexhaustible fund 
of iuMniction and delight t the form, destination, 
and importance of these animals in the grand scheme 
of nature, arc truly admirable, and have been found 
TDl,, Jf/, B 

a ^^^^^ 


amply to repay the care, tbc danger, and trouble of 
their inve:?ttgatton. 

By far the preater part of the species live ia retired, 
watery, and shady places, where they seem stationed 
to prcK^cnt the euxssive multiplicalioa of water ani- 
maiS and insects; and themselves, in many tn- 
stances. to <erve as food for &hes and birds. They 
f)o not cbcw their (ood, but swallow it whole, the 
throat and atonucbbeingcapable of great distention, 
somctioKs receinog animals of greater thickness 
than tbeoksdves in a natural state. Some, ba[ not 
taxay of tbcm, live on plants or flesh. They hare 
a |iow«r of enduring absuncoce chat wuuld ioullibly 
procc iaXai to mc^t caber orders of antma-'s* Serezal 
of the specie^ haw been known to exist, aod in Mp- 
parcnt beilth and nvadtr. for manj months without 

They arc abio. fan the peculbr scractiure of ;be^ 
orgazts. ;o >usf>cnd resfinnaa at pwcastue ; aod :h^> 

It is gcnci'xiv Asj^frtcd, and EieiaenDd, t&bt :ibe 
iMsns of tbe A3^.^ua xrt f.^BtfdKd wici odIt coe 
vcMr>rje : joate x^^inn^ rin^^oui^iiSs acv. b^Mnnter. 
ofi' ocuiiA. :ha; «« eugb: rA^t^r » »( ifeat diex 
bcve ivc wc.tridles viLh -as ioHMduse oarnaiar.t- 
caacm hcswec% tSem. TV ioiui is ar4 ^^ <uai. 

The hi^ ooas^. ur :)it iBCitS par;. <tf a »jr 
«f faqge WaiMfT* or nemh»awaM> TWtfCarJCN. 


Manjr of the animals possa«is a high degree of 
reproductive (wwcr; end when their feet, tail, &c., 
.ine by any accident destroyed, othcn will grow in 
their place.— Their bodies are somelimes defended 
by a hard horny .shield or covering; andfiomctimes 
by a coriaccotiH intcgnment. Some specien have 
scales ; and others soft pu^^ular wartu, or protubc- 
raace^.— Their bonea ara more cartitaginoiiK than 
those cither of quadrupeds or birds. — Several of the 
epecies nre destitute of ribs. — Some arc fiirnUhcd 
with formidable teeth ; whilst others are entirely 
without : soDie tgain arc Herce and predacious ; and 
other; perfectly inoffensive. In general, however, 
they are of a m ild and peaceful d!s]KMit ion. — The bo- 
L-diesofthe amphibious animaU arc cold to the touch. 
"This circumfitance, and their usually squalid an< 
Ugly form, have excited so great a disgust us partly' 
to hare founded the notion of ail of them being vc- 
inomous. Very few, liowcver, except among the 
=nt tribes, and even of these not more than one- 
'fiixth of the species, possess this dreadful rjuality.— 
They are all extremely tenacioun of life, ami some of 
ihein will continue to move and exert animal func 
lions even dcslitotc of their head or heart. — ^Tlieir 
colours are of^en livid snd disgusting; though some 
re decorated with most splendid skins. Many of 
them exhale a loathsonK odour, owing perhaps to 
the foulness of their abode, or the substances on 
which ihcy feed. — ^Their voices arc cither harsh and 
unmusical, or eliu the animal.s arc entirely dumb. 

Most of the Amphibia arc oviparous. The 
ReptJJc>j therefore, or (hose that \va\e four \e^» 


are denominated oviparous quadrupeds, to distin*- 
guish them from the Mammalia, or viviparous qua- 
drupcfb. They are usually very prolific. The cgg« 
of some species ire covered with a hnrd calcnreoua 
shell ; whiUt those of others have a sofl lough skin 
or covering, somewhat resembling parchment : ihe 
eggs of several nrc perfectly gelatinous. ^Vs soon as 
the parcnt-nnimali! have deposited their eggs in a 
proper pUicc, they take no further care of them, hut 
leave them to be hatched bythc sun. In those few 
apccics that arc viviparous, the eggs are regularly 
fonncd, but hatched tntemally : this is the ca>e with 
the Viper and some others. 

In cold and temperate climatcii, nearly all the Am-t 
phibta pass the winter iA a torpid state. During 
this season they are often found perfectly stiff, in 
holes under ice, or in n-atcr, They continue thus 
till revived by tho reluming warmth of spring. 
They then become reanimated, change ihcir skin, 
and ap[>c^r abruad in a new coat. Many of ihcm 
cast their skins frequently in the year : tho^ Rep. 
tiles, however, that have an osseous covering, as the 
Tortoises, never citangc it. 

The Amphibia, though they are sometimes found 
in great numbers together, canuot be said to con- 
gregate, since they do nothing in common, and in 
fact do not live in » stale of society. — The flesh and . 
<^SK^ ^^ somp pf thp spccit> forin 9. (uilatablc and 
liutriliouK food. 

The Amphibia arc divided by Linnaeus into iwp 
prdcr^ ; viz. Reptiles imd Serpents. The H'^ptifes 
[ijcpishcd vi[h Ifgjj. They have fl^l .naked c 





witbout auricles. The principal tribes are ; the tor- 
taises, lizsrds, and frogs. — Serfmts arc destitute of 
feet, but move by the assistance of scales and their 
general powers of contortion. Their jaws are di- 
latable, and not articulated. They have DUthef 
fins nor ears. 

[ 6 ] 


1 HIS is one of the dulloit and most sluggrnb of 
all the aninwtetl tribes. TTiosc species that live 
on land ^ubsirit on uormri and >na\U ; the others, 
that inhsbtt the ocean. Iced principally on sea- 

Their bo<ly r> defended by a bony covering, coatod 
with a horny, scaly, or a cartiIaginou> integument. 
This consislrt of two plates ; the one above, and the 
other bdow, joined tu^jctlicr at the edges. The 
upper one is convex, :«ttd, in general, is made up 
of thirteen pkitts in the middle, surrounded by a 
margin containing twenly-four. The ribs and back- 
bone arc ossified Into this, and the other, the breast- 
plate, cofltains the brenst-bones or sternum. At 
each end of the two united shells is a hole ; the 
one for the head, neck, and fixe-fcet to pnss through, 
and the other, at the opposite end, for the hind-feet 
and tail. From these shells the animal is never 
disengaged, and they defend it sufficiently from 
every enemy but man. 

The head is small, and, in the place of teeth, 
has hard and b<«iy ridge*. The tip})er jaw closea 


Over the ' lower, like the lid of a box, and (heir 
stfcngtb U said to be so great that it i^ impossible 
to open them vihcn once Ihey have fai^tcncd. Even 
vhen the head is cat off the tnasclcs retain a sur- 
priaing degree of rigidity. 

The legs are nhorl, but inconceivably strong : 
ooc of the larger tpecics has been known co carry 
fire men, all at the same time, on his back, with 
gtcfl apparent ease and unconcern. 

However clumsy and awkward these animals may 
appear in tbcir nwnncrj^ they arc, for the most 
p«rt, cxucmcly ^iitlc and {>eaccublc; and few, 
eicepi the Loggerhead and Fierce Turtle^ make 
•oy TCBStance when taken. No animals whatever 
are more tenacious of life: even if their he^d be 
oat off, and tbeir chest opened, they will continue 
lo live for several days. — ^They pass the cold seaeon 
in a torpid slate. 

The Marine Tortoiws, or TttriUs, arc distinguish- 
ed from the others by their large and long fin- 
shaped feet, in which arc Inclosed the bones of the 
toe« ; Ibc first and second only of each foot having 
vwible or projecting claw?. The shield, as in the 
nihcni, consists of a strong bony covering, in which 
are embedded (be ribs : in one or (wo species this is 
much thicker and more fitrong thnn that of Land 

Of ibcic animals, there iirc in the whole about 
/J^«r/^-/ir K|)ccteft ; four murine, eighlven inhabiting 
the fre&b waters, und the rc9t ru&iding oa laud. 

I 8 

The Common Tortoise is found in most of the 
cuunlrjes near the Mediterranean aca, in Corsica, 
Sardinia, And some of the islands of the Archipe- 
lago, as well as in many parts of the North of 

The length of its shell h seldom more than dght 
or nine inches, nor docs its weight often exceed' 
three pounds. The shell, which, as in nrtost of ibe 
other spccicd, is composed of thirteen middle [nccc9» 
and about twenty five marginal ones, is of an oval 
form, extremely convex, and broader behind than 
before. The middle part is btacki^^h brown varied 
with yellow. The under part or belly of the shell 
is of a pale yellow, with a broad d4irk. line down 
each side, leaving the middle part plain. The head 
is not large, nor does (he opening of the mouth 
extend beyond the eyes : the upper part Is covered 
uith somewhat irregular ^cale5. The legs arc short, 
and the fixt moderately broad and covered witb 
frtrong ovale scalo. The tail is somewhat shorter 
than the Icj^st; it is alAOOovcred with scales, but tcr- 
mitialcs in a homy tip. 

Thin s(>eeiai resides principally in burrows that it 
forms in the ground, where it sleeps 'the greatest 
part of its lime, apjK^ring abroad only a few hours 
in the mIddJv of the day. In the autumn it hides 

*Stw»itmi. — ^TeMuila GnMi. Ltmi. Common Land Tor. 
Greek Tc^ow.-^—Stavfi Gta, Zv*!, vft. 3. tei, 1. 



itseirfiw the vvinlcr, remaining torpid for four or 
fire mofitbs, snd not again mxktng its appearance 
till the spring. About the beginning of Jane, the 
female scraichw a bole in some warm situation, in 
which she deposits her four or fi\e eggs. Thtrsc arc 
bslcbed in Sq>tCTnber, at wbicb lime the joung are 
not larger than a walnut*. 

The Common Tortoise is an animal that, (or the 
csirenoe slowness of its motions, has been ever noto- 
lioiu, both in aotient and modem times. Thi» 
seems principally uccasioncil by the position of the 
legs, which are thrown very much to the sides of Uic 
^ody, and arc considerably spread out from each 
gtber. It may likewise be in some degree caused 
by Ibe grcal weight of the nhell pressing on this 
unfatourablc position of the legs. — In walking, the 
j/Sawti of the fore-feet arc nibbed separately, and 
ifter another ogain^ the ground ; when one of 
lbt> feet M placed on the gmund, the inner claw 
fint bearft (he weight of the body, and ra on along 
(be clawK in succc^^ion to the oulcimoit. The foot 
in this manner acts some^vbat tike a wheel, as if the 
animal wiitlicd scarcely to misc its fevt from the 
earth, and endeavoured to advance by means of a 
succession of partial steps of its toes or daws, for 
tbe purpoK of uiore firmly supporting the great 
wdgbl of its body and shdif . 

Tlicsc-ininuls have often been brought into Eng- 
land. The Rev. Mr. While, of Sclbome, attended 
accurately to tbe manners of one that was in posses- 

• La Ccpe^. i. I9J. 

t lb. t. 184. t86. 



sion of a lady of hU acquaintance upw.ird» oi llu'rfy 
years. It rcgubrly rclircd under ground about the 
lUHklle of November, from whence it did not 
cincT|^ till the tntddtc of April. lu appetite was 
almost most voracious in the height of summer, eat- 
ing very little ctlhcr in spring or autumn. Milky 
plants, such as [cituccs, dandelions and sovrthisltoK, 
vcre ilH principal food. In Acrsping the ground to 
form its winter retreat, it used its forofeet, and t brew 
up the earth vritb its hinder ones over its back; 
but the motion of its legs was so sJow as ikcarcely to 
esceed the tiour-hand of a elock. It worked with 
the utmost assiduity, both night and day, in scoop- 
ing oat Ihc earth, and forcing ils great body into the 
cavity ; notwithstanding which dtc operation occu- 
pied more than a fortnight before it was completed. 
It was always extremely alarmed when surprised by 
a i^uddcn shower uf rain during itit peregrinations fo| 
food. Though it3 ahcll would have secured it frc 
injury, even if run over by the wheel of a loaded 
cart, yet it discovered as much solicitadc about rain 
«s a lady dressed in her most elegant attire, BhuC* 
iling away on the first sprinklings, ami always, if 
poftnihle, running itn head up into a corner.— When 
the Tortoise is nttcntkd to, it becomes ait excellent 
barometer : when it walks date, and, as it were, on 
tiptoe, feeding with great eamcstncaf, In a monting, 
it vill> almost invariably, be found to rain before 
atgbt, — Mr. While was much pleased witli the 
gadty of tbc ohoxx animal, in distinguishing ihosa' 
from whom it wait accuMomed to receive allentton^ 
whenever the good old lady came in sifj^t, who bac 





r wailed on il for more llian thirty years, it alwajB 
bofablcd with awkuard alacrity, towards its benefac- 
(rc*i, wbiirt lo stnuigers it was entirely inattentiv^. 
Thus did the inoftt abject of torpid crcaturuit diiitin- 
guiftb Ihc hand that Ted it, and exhibit marks ofgra- 
titude not always to be found in superior orders of 
auiniat being. It was a diurnal animal, never stir- 
ring out after (lark, and vciy Irequcnlly nj/pcaring 
abroad even a few houn only in the middle of the 
day. It always retired to rest fw every sboftrr, and 
in wot dny& nev«;rcanu; at all from itt> retreat. iVl- 
though he loved wami weather, yet Jie carefully 
avotdcd the hot sua, since ht« thick »b^l, when once 
bait«d, must have become extremely pfunru), aod 
probably dangerouH lo him. He therefore speot 

»tbc more Miltry hours tinder the 'umbrella of a large 
cabbage leaf, or amidst the waving forests of an «s- 
pciripis bed. But, as he endeavoured lo avoid the 
heal in tlic aummer, tie improved the faint autumtui 
beimit by getting within the reflection of n fruit-tree 
wall I and though he had certainly never read that 
pbnes inclining to the horizon receive a greal(T 
afanro of Wflrmth, he frequent1]r inclined his aIkII^ 
by lilting it ngainj4 the wall, to collect and admit 
every feeble ray •, 

Veiy ample evidence has been produced of this 
animara Ii\ing ro a moat extraordinary age, fre- 
|ucntly exceeding cv'Cn the [Kriod of a century. 
>nc that ViM introduced into the garden at Lam- 
beth, in the time of archbishop JLaud, was living in 

Whiu'i Selbome. 



ihc year i753> a hundred ami (wcnty years bCict* 
wards ; and at lasf it perished from an unfortunate 
neglect of the gardener*. — In ihc year i 765, aTor- 
toint waa living in the garden of Samuel Simmons, 
Esq. at Sandwich in Kent, which was known to 
have been there from about the year 1679, but bow 
long before that period no one could say with cer- 
tainty. There is, however, good reason fur sup- 
posing it to have been brotight thllhcr from tha 
West Indies by s gentleman of the name of Boys, 
who was otvncr of the premises several years before 
the first period. This animal died in the winter of 
1767. It appeared that It had endeavoured (ac- 
cording TO ii8 annual cu!«tom) lo burrow into the 
ground ; but having selected for Ibis purpose a spot 
near an old vine, its progress was obstructed by the 
fools^ and it probably had not Mrength enough (o 
change its silaation, as it was found dead with only 
half iti body covered. About thirty years before 
ita du^th, it got out of the garden, and was much 
injured by the wheel of a loaded waggon, which 
vent over it, and cracked its upper shelt-^. 

The horrid experiments of Rhedi, to provo the 
extreme vital tenacity of the Tortoise, are a di^race 
to the philosophic page. In one instance he made 
a large opening in the skull, and drew out all the 
brain, washing the cavity, so as not to leave the 
Mnallcrt part remaining, and then, with the hole 
open, set the animal at liberty. It marched ofF, as 

• Bib, Topog. Brit. Ko. irvH. 
f Gcnllenitn'H Migaiinc, tuI. It. p. 453. 



be S3J-S, without seeming lo have received tho 
stighlwt injur)', save from the closing of its eyes, 
u'hich it never afteru'attl!) opened. In a short time 
the bole was oU<«rved to close, and in about three 
(Ujrn a cotnplele skin covered the u-ound : in this 
manner liic animal lived, without the brain, for sik 
oionthsj walking about, and «iill moving its limbs as 
it did previously to the operation*. 

Tlic [nnlof of l\m species arc suld to fight very 
oficn- Thifi ia (lone by butting .it cacli other, and 
vilh such force that the blows may be heard at ■ 
ooosidcrnblc distance t> 
]o Greece these Torloise^i form an srlide of 
The inhabitants sl^re i^wallow the blood 
rithout any culinary prepanlion^ and are very par- 
tta] to the eggs, when made palatable by boiUng. 
Id tbc gardens of some part of Italy, there are 
fonned for the purpose wells, in which the inhabi- 
tanU bury ihc eggs of the Tortoise, These remain 
till the ensuing flpring, when, hy the natural wannlh 
ibc climate, they arc hatched, and the young', 
come forth. Tlie Toitoist.' arc kqil in bank^ 
_of earibf. 

THE 9NAK& TOItTOIili: ^. 

This animal inhahit^ ihr ^1:ig:iant waters ofNorlb 

* la Ccpcde, u xSp. ^ Shaw't Crn. Zuol. tn. p- 

I &ki|>fX>n'sTnvels: CbiiutiiU'vCuI). vi. 501. 

f Stsokth*.— -TciiliiiJo Mtpcntinn. Linn. SemiedTonoise.' 
^tau. Snipping Tottoiier ID foffle |>aii» of Amcrirj, Sntk«Tur- 
fAirw.^— ££du/j Gfti. Zxt. aw/, j. tuh 19. 



Amerka, one! when full grown weighs from fifteen 
to Iwenly pounds 

The sbteid is oval, and sornewhit depressed : the 

[middle pieces, which are thirteen in numljer, each 
ri-% into a kind of obtuse point. The margin, near 
the tail, is deeply serrated. Tlic head Is large, flat, 
triangular, and covered with a warly skin. The 
tnoulh in wide, and the mandibles are sharp. The 
Dcck, timugh it af^tears short and thick, \rhcn the 

lanimat is at rest, b capable of being stretched out 
to a third of the length of the shell. The loes are 
connccte^l by a web, and the claws a^e long and 
stout. The tail Is straight, and about two-thirds of 
the length of the shell. In its general colour this 

fftpccios ii of a dull chestnut brown, paler beneath 
than above. 

It preys on fish, young water-fowl, Stc which 
it seizes with great force, at the same time atrctch- 

.ing out its neck and hissing. ^Vhatevcr it once 
Bcises in its mouth it holds so tenaciou^ily, that 
it vrill liuffcr itself to be raised up rather than quit 

tits hold. It lies concealed in muddy \i-aterA in 

[such a manner a« to Icflpc out only a part of its back, 
ippcaring like a ^tone or rough piece of woo<l -, 
3y which mains it is enabled the more easily to 
lay hold of such snimuls as unguardedly venture 

[pear it. 

[ >5 ] 

^77tf two follawiifg Species art Marine T'ortoisfj, w, 
as th^ are usually Jtnotninateii^ ^urt/fj, 


ThU Species is found in great quantities on the 
COBSU oTal) the isliindsand conLtnent-; on the Torrid 
7Mi\f, bolh in ilwolri and new woridH. Hie shoals 
wbitti (iurround (hcse iHtand?, and border the whole 
coa^t^ of Ihcse continent?, produce vast quantities of 
affa, and other marine plants, -wiiich, though co- 
vered by the water, arc near enough to the surface to 
be rcadil; seen by the naked eye during calm wea- 
ther. Amid these submarine pastures, a number 
of marinL- enimal'; are (bund ; and, among thcmj 
prodigious multitudes of Turtles. In these mea- 
dows, as they may be called, the Green Turtle ig 
often seen, in vast numbers, feeding quietly on the 
pUnt.s which they produce -f-. 

As the Turtles find a constant abundance of 
food on the consts which they frequent, they havo 
DO occasion to quarrel with animiils of their own 
kind for that which i? afforded in such plenty to 
ihem all. Beings able, like the other species of 
Amptiibia, (o live even for many months without 

*STxoirrxf. Tiartudo Myda*. Uhb. Common Creca Tuf lie. 
t^ommon Tunle. £icu1«ut TunJe. Gteen Tattle. Sbaw-^-^ 
Sitw'i Gfn. Zeol. vti. 3- '•>£• ^a- 

t La Cepeile, i. 8a 



food, they flock peaceably together. They do not 
bovever^ppear, like many other herding animals, 
to have any kind of association together : they 
merely collect, as if by accident, and Ihey remain 
without dintarbance. 

Their U-nglh is is oftca five feel or upwards; and 
Uicy Kometiincs exceed (ive or six hundred pounds 
in weight. Their shell is broader before than be- 
hind, where it is somewhat pointed. It conat&ts of 
thirteen brownish divisions, surrounded by twenty* 
five tnarginji ono. The mouth ia bO large as to 
open bcvond the cars on each side. This is not 
armed with teeth, but the bones of which the jaws 
arc cotnpofed arc very hard and fitrong, and fur- 
nished with points or asperities that serve in some 
degree the same purpose. With these powerful 
jaws tbey browse on the gTa.s9, sea- weed, and other 
plants which grow on the shoals and siind-bnnks, 
and with them they are likewise able to cru^h the 
shell-fish on which they sometimes feed. 

AAcr having salifilied their appetites with ma- 
rine plants, they often retire to the fresh water, at 
the month of the great rivers, where they float on 
the surface, hohling their heads above water, appa. 
rently for the purpose of'brealhiug the fre*h air. 
Kul as Ihey are surrounded with many dangers^ 
both from th(yir natural enemies, and from mankind, 
Ihey arc neccs^italed to use great precaution, in 
thus indulging themselves with cool air, unJ with 
the refreshing .sircamii of river water. The insloiU 
they perceive even the ?hadow of any object, fnjiii 



fthkli tbey su^Kct ditog«r, they dive to th« bot- 
tom for security*. 

The atreoglh of tbts animal U so great as fo 
allow it to move along with a^ many men on its 
back «9 can slittd there. It sleeps upon its back 
w the fftr£ice of the water. — The legs arc so far 
fio-afaiped 33 to be of little other use than to swim 

Tbo inbabitznti of tbe Bahama Ulands arc pecu- 
liar]/ dexterous In catching the Turtles. In tbo 
month of April, they go in their boats to the coasta 
of Cobn, and some of the neigbbounng tslandsj 
irhcrc, in the evenings and moonlight nights, they 
watch tbe going and returning of the animals to 
Rid from tbe «hor«, where they lay their eggs. 
Xbey turn them on their backa on the land and 
ibca leave thcni, to |)crfurui the Mime operation on 
as many others as they can meet ; for wbcn once 
turned, they arc unable again to get on tlieir feet. 
Many arc liken in the sea, at soni« di.stance from 
llie shore: these are struck, with a kind of spear, 
whoeesb&Jl \a about four yai-Js in length. For this 
woric two men usually set out in & small light boat 
or canoe, one to paddle it gently along and steer, 
artd the otbtr To stand at the head with his weapon. 
Sofnetimcs the Turtles are discovered swimming 
with tti«ir bead and back out of water, but mo^t 
comiDonly lying at tbe bottom where ic is a fathoic 

roL. 111. 

L» Ccpcdc 6;, BS. 


THE onsEN TrxTLi:. 

or more ticcp. If the animal sees llial he is dis- 
covered, lie immediately allcmpls lo escape: llie 
men pursue and endeavour \u keep liiiti in ^ig()t ; 
and, in the thaix, gcuerally so far tire him that, in 
Ihe course of half an hour, he sinks to the bottom, 
which afibrds an opportunity to strike him with ibc 
jtpcar through the shell. The head of the spear, 
which now slips ofFand is left in his body, is fast- 
ened with a string to the pole; and, by means o( 
this apparatus, tbcy arc enabled to pursue him, if 
he should not be sufTioicntly spent without : if, 
hoivcrcr that is the ca£e, he lamely submits to be 
taken into the boat or hnulcd ashore.— There arc 
men who, by diving (o the bottom, will gel on the 
backs of the animaU; and then, by prcf^siDg them 
douTi behind, and raining their fure part, bring 
Ihcm by force to the surface of the water, where 
some person U in wniiing lo slip a noose round 
Ihcir neck. 

Thoy very seldom go mliore, except for the pur- 
pose uf (lc[io»iting their cggn in the sand : thi<< ii 
done in April Th(-7 dig a hole at high-water 
murk, about two feci deep, and drop into it above 
a hundred c-^s ,- and al this time they are so intent 
on the operation that ttiey do nut notice any one 
that approaches llicm, and ihcy will even drop the 
t-ggi into a hat if held under theui. If, boucver, 
Ihey are disturbed before the commencement of 
their business, they always forsake the place. They 
lay tbdf (^g* at three, and iomotimes four different 
times, fourtt-eii day^i asunder, so that the young are 
hatched and come forth al^o at different times. 




Aflrr having deporited the e^^, they scratch the 
bole np with sand, and leave them to be hatched by 
the heat of the suit) which is generally done ia 
oboul three vrccks. The eggs are each about the 
oraleniii.s<biitl, round, while, and covered with 
parehoient-likc skin*. 

Sir Hans Sloane has informed us that the inha- 
Mtanta of Port Royal in Jamaica had formerly no 
fewer than forty vessels employed in catching these 
afltmoU ; their marketfl being s^upplied with Turtle, 
a« ouHk arc wtlh butchers meat. 

llie introduction of the Turtle, as an article of 
Jusury, into £)ngbnd, appears to have token place 
rithio the hft seventy years. Wc import ibcai 
(xincipally, if not entirely, from the West India 


This ts one of the largest specie*, and in its ge- 
[itenl appearance ha? a great resemblance to ihe- 
IsBt : the head however is larger, the shell broader, 
Btid the number of scgnienis of the di^tk is fifteen, of 
wiitch the middle range is gibbous or protuberant 
tuwardv their tip<;. The fore legs ore large and 
strong, and the hind ones broad and tihorter. The»e 
Tunics inhabit the seas about the West India 
islands and they are found in the Mcditcrr»neun, 

• CaiMtjf. ii. 58. 
f Tutude cirelu. Line. ShMv'i Gtn.2e»U wl.i.ta^. 13, 

a C 



but particularly about ihc coasts of Italy and 

TUey are very slrong and fierce, defending 
IhenuelrM witti great vigour with their legs, and 
being able la divide very strong substances with 
Ibeir mouth. Aldroraodua S9&urc« w, that on 
offufing 3 tbict: walking-stick to the grip« of one 
tlial tio saw publicly exbibiled at Botogna^ the 
sniaial bit it in tm> ia an inslant*.— Their prin- 
t'ipa! fovd U shdl-fi^h} which ibcir strong beak 
enables them to break Gvm tbe rocks. But their 
voracity, it is said, uvcn lead:* them to attack young 
Crocodiles, which they often mnlilatc of their limba 
or tail. Wc arc informed that, for this purpoje, 
ibey froqueutly lurk in the bottom of CreLks along 
the shore, into which the Crocodiles somctimei retire 
backwardii, because the length of their body pre- 
vents them from turning readily ; and, taking adv'an- 
tflgcof lhi.s posture, the I^ggcrhend seizes them 
by the tail, having then nothing to fear from their 
formidable tccth-t". 

They range, very lar over the ocean. One of 
ibcni w3'> 6ixn io latitude 30° uorth, sleeping on 
the surface of the water, apparently about midway 
between the Azon-s and the Bahama Islands, and 
tbe*c were the oeaicsl possible land. Tins circum- 
stance was Ihc more remarkable as it happened to 
the mouth of Aprit.Jui^l at their breeding time|. 

• Shiw't GcB. Zool. liL S7. f L» Ccpedc, L ij». 

; Cauibr, ii. 40. 


Rondcletias, nho was a native of Langucdoc, 

JnGxms us tli^t he kept one of this epccics, which 

bd been caiighc on the coast of Provence^ for a 

conudffniblctiaie. It emitted a confused kind of 

noisft, «nd fre<]uciitly sighed*. 

Like the last <cpe<!ies, they lay their eggs in the 
[Mod. Their flesh i* coarse and rank; but their 
: afford a coflsidt^rable qunnltly of oil, which may 
be iwed far rarious purposes, particularly for burn- 
ing! or for drcfitiiiig leather. The plates of the shell 
are not luHicienll)' thick to be of great use. 

The substance that we call Torloisi'ibell \i the 
'prodactton of the Imbricaled Turllcf, » 8|)ecic8 
coiulderably allied to the present, that i^ fuund in the 
Atitlio 8od American seas, and sometimes in 
ihe Mediterranean. The plates of this species are 
iar more strong, thick, and clear, than in any other, 
ftnd these con>litute the m^n value of the autiiial. 
They arc &eini-transpnrcnl, bcaulihilly rnricgitted 
with different coloors, and, when properly prepared 
and polished, are used for n variety of ornamental 
purpofieH. Thoy arc firBt softened by steeping in 
boiling water, oAer which they may be moulded 
into simost any faring. 

; Shiw's G«n, ZwI. lit. 8^ 

C 24 ] 


THE animals ihat compose this tribe feed on iiv. 
Kclsanti worms, residing principally on the ground, 
or partly In water, in dark and unfrcquwitcd places, 
from whence (hey crawl forth only in the night. 
Muny of thein have on nspect vcr>' diigusiing and 
unplca^innt. Some, hovrcver, lesiS unpleasant to tbu 
sight, arc furnished ivilh slender limbs, and have 
their toei terminated by flat circularly cxpnded 
tipii, which enable them to adhere at pleasure lo the 
surfaces; of even the smoothest bodies: these reside 
generally in the trees, where they adhere to the lowtrr 
sides of the leaves or branches. None of Ihcra 
drink, but all (he species ab^rb moisture Ihrotigta 
the jkin. 

They arc all oviparous, and the cgg» arc perfectly 
geltlinouit. From the egg proceeds a tadjxitc wilh- 
out feet, but furnished with a tail to aid its moiion 
in the water: (his drops nfT as the tegs become 
protruded. In this imperfect stale, the animals 
have also a sort of gills or subsidiary lungs ; and 
several of them a small tube on the lower lip, by 
meansof which tlicy can fix themselves to bodies to 
eat, or perform other functions. They all arrive at 
maturity about their fourth year, and very few outlive 
the age of let) or twelve. 

The full-grown animals have four feet, and their 
''tio</j' is not covert^ with either plates or scales, but 



is entirely naked. They have a sternum or breasl- 
phtc, but nu ribs. They are destintic ul* tails, and 
rhcir liiiicl legs arc longer ihan Ihc othcr.s. 

The number of species liilherlo described is about 
j5/)r. These arc divided into three seelions: namely. 
Frogs, which have innoolh bodice, ioogi»b legs, 
and discbiLTge their eggs io a mass. 

IhUj or Tree FrogSj that Iiavc their hiiiU legs very 
loaX) ooJ the toes unconnected ; uiid 

Tentfjt which have their bodies puAcd uji .ii)d 
covered with tvarls- Thc>c have short It-gs, and do 
^aoi leap. They discharge Ibcir rggs in a very long 
Jacc-like string. 


The CoinmoH Frog is found io great quantilie* 
in moist &ituatiotis throughout Eurofie. Its colour i& 
olive brown, variegated above with regular blackii^li 

Lepot^. Beneath i^eh eye there ts a patch or inurlc 
tbal reaches to ibesclting-on of the Ibic-Icgs. 

lie appearance is lively, und its form on the whole 
by no means inelegunt. The limb* are well calcu- 
Uted for aiding the peculiar motions of the animal, 
ind its TTcbbed biud-fcet 06^i^t it$ ]»t>grc5f in tbc 

f^-..!..- Io which it occasionally retires during ihc 
1 i summer, ami again tn the frosts of winter. 

During the latter period/ aud till the return of 
warm weather, il lies in a state of toqior, either 
deeply plunged in the soil mud at the bottom 

-* SvtroNTWf. — Rina lemporari*. lA Rowm, Ii Muette.— /.« 



of stagnant waters, or in the hollows beneath their 

Its spiwn, which is cast generally in (be inonlh 
of March, consists of a clustered ina« of gelatinous 
transparent and fipherical fgg^, front &ix hundred la 
a thousand in number, tn the middle of e«<:h ufwhich 
is contained tbc embryo or tadpole, in the form of a 
black globule. The spawn lies a month or five weeks, 
accordrog to the heat of the weather, before the 
lanjB or tadpoles are hatched. 

The tadpole* a.s in several other species, is fur- 
nished with a kind of sinolt tubular sucker beneath 
the lower jaw, by means of which it hangs at plea- 
sure to the under Rurface of aquatic phnlit. The 
interior organs, when clo&ely examined, are found 
to differ in many respects from those of the future 
Frog. Tbc intestines, in particubr, arc coiled into 
a flat spiral form, sotncwhat rrjombling a cable tn 
•aninialure. When the uoiinal is about six wcckn old,, 
the htnd-Icgs appear, and in about a fortnight these 
are succeeded by tha fore-lega : in this xtale it seems 
to have alliance both to the Frog and Lizard. Not 
loagaAerwords the form is completed, and it, forihe 
fint lime, ventures upon Und. Frogs are at this 
period often Ken wandering about the brinka of tbc 
water in such multitudes a& to aslonitth matikind, 
and induce a hdicf, among the vulgar, of Ibeir hav. 
in^descended in showers from the clouds. 

They now surrender their regelable food for the 
smaller species of snails, worms, and insects ; and 
the structure of (heir tongue is admiiabty adapted 
to seize and secure this prcy : tbc root is attached 


to the fure-pnrt oTibc moulti, so thai, wheit uoenv 
popsif il lies with the tip towards the throat. The 
animal by thbsin^Iar contrivance ie enabled to bend 
H to a considerable tlistancc out of ils mouth. Wheft 
il is about to seize on any object, it darts it out witti 
peat Bgiliiy, ind the prey is secured on its 
broad and jogged glutinous cxtremiiy. This it 
«willoirs with to instantaneous a cnoiton that ibe 
cjc can scanidy tbllow il^t 

Nothing can appear more awkward and ladU 
ihnn a Frog enjjaged wiih a large Worm or a 
cnalce t for nntura seems to have put a rs* 
ftraint upon the voracity of these animals, by form* 
injflbcm very unaptly fur adzing and holding their 
larger prey. Dr. Townaon bad a Itige Frog dint 
one day ira'nlloued in hia ftrccencc ■ blind w-ormf 
itear • span long, which in ils btrug^^lcs frequently 
got half iu body out sgain : when completely swal- 
lowed, ils cnntoriiunt were very visible in the flaccid 

Wilh respect to the popular superstition that 
Frogi freqiianlly descend froin the clouds Mr. Ray 
inibrmK us ibot, as he was riding one aOcnioon in 
Berkshire, he was much f-urpri^cd at seeing an im- 
mense multitude of Frogs crossing the road. On 
farther examtnation lie found two or three acres of 
ground nearly covered with ihuiii { Ihey were all 
proccetling in the same direction, toivarda aome 
woods and ditches that were before them. He 



howwcT traced ihcm hack lo the side of a very 
large pond, which in spawning>lline he was ia- 
formcd nlways abounded su inuc:h with Frogs that . 
tlieir crositing was ircqucntly heard lo a great di- 
stance; and he therefore naturally concluded that 
itistead of being precipitated frofn the clouds, ihey 
Iiad been bred there, nnd hail hcco invited by a re- 
frcsliing »howcr, which had )ust before f:«IIen, lo go 
oulcilhcrin pur&uitgflboc] or ofu more cotivcnicat 

Frogs arc numcrousin ihe parisof Amcricai about 
Hudson's Bay, as far north as latitude 61°. They 
frequent there the margins of \akcs, ponds, rivers, 
and »u-ainps : nnd as the uinler appronchos, tbey 
burruw under the mo&s <it a considerable dlslanei; 
from the water, whcr^lhey remain in a frozen ftflce 
till spring. Mr. Ilcarnc sa)-s, he has frequently ^cn 
ihem dug up with the moss frozen a!> hard as ice. 
In (his siatc their lfg« are o» easily broken off" as the 
stem of ft t(ibacco>|)i[K;, withoiit giving thctn (he least 
sensation : but by \vnip[nng them up in warm skins, 
and expoiung ihem lo a ^Imv fire, they soon come to 
life, and the muiilatcd aiiimiils gain their usual acli- 
viiy: if, however, (hey arc permitted lo freeze again, 
Ihcy arc past all rccuveryf. 

Tht? inudc of respiration In lhc.% animals, iti 
coiniijon wilh many uf (he olliiir n-piiles, titexceiid- 
■ngty ctirious. The organs adapted to ibib use ore 
DOC placal in the belly, nor in the lungs themselveii. 

• Raj'i Wonder* of the CnKian, ifrj. 




}>„. :^ iT.g inouth. Behind (he rOol of the longiic Is 
i; ke opening of the trachea: and at ihcrront*" 

of die upper p;irt of Ibc head arc two nostrils, 
through which the animal always draws the air, 
nirrcr opmuig ils moulh for thiit purpose. Indeed 
•he jaws dtmntr this action are kept closely locked 
into each other tiy grooves ; for if the mouth is kept 
open it cnnnot respire at all, and the ;intmal will 
prcaeotijr be jcen stragglirig for breath. When we 
' it carefully, we perceive a frer|uent dilatation 
"and contraction in the skinny bng-like part of the 
moulh which covert the under jaw. From this it 
wQuM aj.{>ear, at first Mght, n» if the creaiure lived 
all the while on one mouthful of air, which it seems 
to he playing backwards and forwards betwixt ita 
mouth and lungs. But for each movement in the 
jaw, a corresponding twirling movement may be 
obKcrrcd tn the nostrils. The mouth sccmsi llicre- 
(on: to form a sort of bellows, of which the nos- 
iriUarcthe air-holes, and the muscles of the jaws 
by their contracfioo and dilatation make (he draught. 
7'hcno&trilH are so siluaced that the least motion on 
ibcni enables ihcra to perform the office of a valve. 
By the twirl of the nostril the air is let into the 
in'>iith, when a dilatation of the bag takes place: it 
:hcn emptied from (he mouth, through the slit 
behind the tongue, into the lungs, when there is a 
■:h\ motion in the sides of the animal, and the 
of the abdomen airahi expel it : and Roon 
'-" ^ second twirl in the nt>slnl.-i takes place, 
: motions lullow. Thus it appears that 

THE EDIBI.S rnoa. 

tbelongf iie filled by Ibe working of Ihe jaws, or, 
is oiber words, that Ftd^a f wallow air much in tho 
smw tnaDHT that «e swailow food. 

Frogs Cflit their tkins at certain pcri<Mls — They 
Brrive tt full nge in ahout five yc»ai7, and arc stip> 
poKd to live to twelve or fifteen.— Their voice U 
hoarse and unpleawnt,— They arc so tenacious of 
life ftft to survive even the lou of their head for 
Mvent hours. 

Thii species is not so much in request for food at 
the following, noc being so white, nor altogether so 
pfllfltable. The hind>ie(p(. however, arc eaten, and 
the fore legs and livers often fonn an ingTvdicnl in 
the continental ftoupa. 


Tlic Edible Frog h cantidcrably larger than tho 
common species t tnd though nuitiewhat rare in 

ij^Und, is found in plenty in Italy, France, and 

lis colour t« an olive graen, distinctly inariccd 
h(h black patches on the back, nnd on its limba 
hlh transverse bars of the same. From the Irp of 
be nose, three diMifiet stripes of psle yellow ex* 
M to the extremity of the body, the middle one 
lightly depressed, am] the lateral ones Coosidcr- 

Z; .1' Ram tKulmti. tiin. L* Crtnoutltc cofRmme. 
ti D" ^ /« C<f4^». EkuIciiI Pfog, G««i Frog, iiaiy. 

t.Xli Frcf. /■/««.•— •^^jw'l OfM.Zatl.9vl. i-ldt.}*. 


TUB £DtBLe PROd. 99 

3^\y ele?ale<l. The under parts arc of a pate whitish 

colaar tinged wilh green, and marked with irregultf 

brown spotS' 
The spawn of ihe present species is not often de- 
nied before the month of June. During this sea* 

'ion the male is said to croak so loud as to be heard 

I to a grent distance. In some particular places, where 
these aninialf arc numerous, their croaking is very 
oppce« wv e to persons imnccustomcd lo it^— The 
giobulea of rpnwn arc smaller than those of the 
G>mnu>n Frog, and the young are coi^sidcrablyi 
longer in attaining their compivte s!ate, this scli^om 
tiking place till November. They arrite at their 
fall growth in about four ycirs, and live to the age 
of >ixt€en or seventeen. They arc excessively ro- 
ncioos, frequently Mixing young birds, and even 
I iTucc, which, like the rc&l o( their prey of snails, 
' nomu, &c. they swallow whole*. 

These creatures are brought from the country, 
Ihifly or ibrty thousand at a time, to Vienna, atvd 
told lo the great dealers, who have conservatories 
br thctn, which are large holes, fbor or five feet 
deep, dug to the ground, the mouth covered with 
a board, and in severe weather with straw. In 
these cooscrralorics uvcn during a bard frost, the 
frags never become quite torpid. When taken out 
and {jlaced on their backi^, tbcy nrc always tenable 
of the change, and have strength enough to turn 
dicniiclns. Tbey gcc together in heaps, one upoa 



■iiolbcr, instinclivcly, ami thereby prevent ihc eva- 
poration of their humidii} ; I'ur no water is ever put 
to llicm. In Viciinu, in the year 1793, (here were 
only three great dealers, by wlwm mobt of those 
persons were souplicd who brought then) to tba 
market ready for the cook*. 

From their spawning-time teing very late in llie 
year, it i^ !:u|)[>oscd that those animals that are 
brought to market before the month of June for the 
Edible Frog, are cither Common Frogs, or somt^ 
times ibcy are even Toads. 


This is nn animal (hat frcfjiiently mennircs from 
Ihe ni)M? to Ihc hind-feet a foot nnJ a half, or up- 
ttnrdfi. The colour of its body is a diisky olive or 
bruwn, marked with numerous dark ?|x>t8, lighter fl 

lii^fifffitn than nr^tr*« ^^i^ tt^tj^mai itit^mnpnnttm /If ^^ 

Lcncutb than above. The external nicmbrsncs of 
ihc cars are large, round, artd of a brownijh red, 
surrounded by a ) diom&b margin. 

The interior p.iris of America arc the principal 
residence of this species, where, at the springs, or 
fmall rilb, (hey arc»aid to sit in pairs. In Virginia 
they nre in such abundance that (here is scarcely a 


" Tc«rBfoti*t Tni»tb, 14. 
fSYNovYMt — Itani. ritubtiant. JfttfU'. Rana oullata. lita f 
tA nui^iuaiiie. oil CretutilUe Tiurcao. La Cffidt. Btill f rof 
Citttij.'^—SbMu', Cm. SM.vnt. 3. t^h. 31,, 

Dr. ?liaw u «f opiniim tlial I,in"a;u» hu ifciuilxd lli« Aigs* 
frog ef UfiKTol ZooUgj under th< name of Rana onlbLL. 




Single spring lliat has not ■- pnir of tlium. Wben 
soddenly surprised, by a long leap or two they enter 
!lic hole, at the bottom of ivhich ibey lie perfectly 
ttcure. The inhabitants Taney that they purify (he 
water, anc! respect them as genii of the fountains*. 
— Kaltn inlbnns u^ that tlicy frc(]vit'nt only uonds 
and mar^ht^s. 

Their croaking is said somewhat to re5cniblc the 
bonne lowing of a bull ; and whcnj in a calm 
nighr, in.tay of them arc making a noise togc- 
ihtT. tht-y miiy be heard to the distance of a 
mtlc and a half. Tlic night is the time when they 
croak, and they are said lo do it at intcn'al^. In 
thii net they arc either hidden among the grass or 
rwhoi, or they are in the w.iler, with their heads 
obove the surfnrel. Knim informs us that, as he 
wtii one dny riding outj he heard one of them 
muiog before him, nnd atipponed it to be n bull 
hidden in ihc bushes at a liillc di&lancc. The 
^\tHix WM indcfil mure hoarse than that of a bull, 
it vas much too loud for him to conceive that 
"mi couM be eJidilcd by so smalt an animal as a 
'rog, and lie wai in considerable alarm for his 
ifeiy. He was undeceived a few hours afierward* 
by a party of Swedes, to whom he* had commuot- 
catrd his fbarr.^. 

When alarmed, they leap to a most surprising 
■' '»ncc at each exertion. A full-grown Bull-Frog 
.^1 sometimes leap three yarrU. The following 

CilMl«T,U. ja, t LaHeolin. : Kalm, ii i;o. 


Story rcspccitDg one of t!icm is well authcaticaltN). 
The American Indiana arc known to be excellent 
ruDoers, being almojt able to equal the bc:it borsc 
in t»3 swiftest course. In or(ier» ilicretbrc. Id iry 
bow welt the Bull Frog^ could leap, some Sncdn 
bid a wager with a young Indian that he could not 
overtake one of tlicin, provided it had two leaps 
beforehand. They carried a Bull Frog, which ibcy 
bad caught in a pond, into a field, and burnt Us 
tail. Th« Bre, and the fndian who endeavoured to 
get up to the frog, had together such nn effect upon 
the aatmal, that It made Its long leaps across the 
field 03 f^st 8s it could. The Indiun pursued it 
with all his might. The noiso he made in running 
frightened the poor frog : probably it was afraid of 
bring tortured nith Rrc again> and iherefora it re* 
iloiiblcd ill leapfi, and by that mcjins reached the 
f)On<l, urtiich tva^ iixcd on as their goal, before (he 
Indian could overtake it*. 

The wnm«n arc no friends to lbe«e frogs, becauw 
they kill und eat }-oung ducks And goi^lings ; aiid 
aomclimcs tlioy carry off chicken? that VL-nttire too 
near liic ponds. — During winter llury rcmuin in ■ 
torpid state under the mud : and in spring they 
cotnmence Ihcir bellowing;*. 

Tbcy are edible?, and h.nvc frc<)ucnlly as much 
meal on Ihcin ttts ii young fowl.— A few years ago 
some of them were brought alive into this country* 

t »3 3 


The Tree Prog ts a native of America, of France, 
GcmuiDy, Italjf and niaay other European regions, 
hot is not found to Britain. — It Is small, aD<l of a 
slender and vcrj- elegant shape. Its upper parts are 
greeoy aod the abdomen is whitish, marked by numc- 
Tous granules. The under surface of the limbs 19 
reddbh i and on each side of the body there ts a lon- 
gitudinal blacki^ or violet-coloured streak. The 
body i& imooth shore, and the bind legs are very 
long wid blender. At the end of each toe U a round, 
Qedty, concave apparatus, not unlike the mouth of 
% leech, by nieans of which the animal is enabled to 
klbcre e>-eo to the most polished aurfacesf. 

During the Aimmcr mooths it resides pnoclpally 
OD the upper branches of the trees, where it wan- 
den among tbe foliage in quest of insect.^. These 
« Cliches with great dcxtcrrty, stealing softly to- 
nnk ifacm as a cat does towards a mouse, till at a 
prcper distance, when it makes a siidden spring 
upon them, of fre<]ucnlly morctbana foot in height. 
— Il often sospeods itself by its feet, or abdomen, 
to the under parta of leaves, remaining thus con- 
cealed aoioag tbe foliage. 

The skin of the abdomen is covered with small 

* SraOsTMj.— RuuarbOK*. Zjfln.— RanabiliaeaU. SAjw.— 
La Atine imc. on oommmtt. La CrfdJt.-^itnaT€':€ Vn^. 
CtUtty, St*vf't Ga. Zttt. v*l. Bi. M^. j8. 

vol. 111. D' 



g^landular granules of such a oature as to allow the 
ariimnl to adhere as well by these as by ihc toes. 
It will even stick to a glass by pressiag its belly 
against it. 

Although daring summer it inhabits the woods, 
jet about the end of autumn it retires to the 
n'ater?! and lies concealed in a torpid stale in the 
'mud or under the banksj till the spring ; when» on 
the rclum of warm weather, it emerges, like the rest 
of the genus, todeposit its spawn in the water. At 
this period the male inflates its throat in a surprising 
ninnner, fonning a large spliere beneath its head. It 
niso exerts n rcry loud and sharp croak, that may be 
hcird to a vast distance. The tadpoles bceome 
perfcetcd about the beginning of August, ond they 
soon afterwards begin to ascend the adjacent trees. 

During their rcisidcncc in the trees, these frog? arc 
particularly noisy in the evenings on the apfjroach 
of rain. They are indeed so excellent as baromo- 
tcrs, that, if kept in glasses in a roum> and supplied 
with proper food, Ihcy afford sure presage of ehanges 
of the weather^. 

In order to make some observations on the respi- 
ration of the Reptile tribe, Dr. Townson had among 
others some Tree Frogs, tic kept them in a win- 
dow, and appropriated to their use a bow! of water, 
in which they lived. They soon grew quite tame ; 
and to two that he had for a considerable length of 
time, and were particular favourites, be gave the 



Dfttnci of Dimon and Musidora. In the hot weather, 
whcocTer they descended to the floor, they soon be- 
CMDC lonk and emaciated. lo thccvcningthcy wU 
dom fojlcd lo go into the water, unle&s the weather 
»as colcj and damp ; in which case Ihey would sonc- 
ftimes remain out acoujjic ofiLiys. When they were 
out of the water, if a few drops were thrown upon 
the board, they always applied their bodies as close> 
la it a$ Ihcy could ; and from this absorption through^ 
the »kin, though they -were flaccid before, Ibey soon 
again appeared! plump. A Tree Prog that had not 
been in the water during the night was weighed, and 
then immersed : after It had remained about half an 
boor in Ibc bowl it came out, and was foimd to 
hare absorbed nearly half it:i own weight of water. 
Fttxn other experiments on the Tree Frof;:?, it \vas 
discorcred that they frequently absorlx^ nearly their 
whole weight of water ; and that, as was clearly 
provoc^ and is very remarkable, by the under sur- 
face only of the body. They will even absorb 
noiUure from wetted b)olting>p3per. Sometimes 
they eject water with a considerable force from their 
bodies, to the (|uanlily of a fourth part or more of 
Ihor own weight*. 

Both Frogs and Toads will frequently suffer their 
natural food to remain before them untouched, yet 
on lhc&mallc!St motion it makes they instantly seize 
it. A knowledge of this circumstance enabled Dr. 
Towcoon to feed bis favourite Tree Frog, Musidora, 


rntt TaKt iroo. 

through the winter. Before the flien, whicli wcM 
her usual food, had disappeared in aniamn, he col. 
lected for her n great quantity, as winter provision. 
When he laid any of them before her, she took no 
flotice of Ihem» but the ttiotnetit he moved them 
with his breath she sprung upon and ate them. 
Once, when (lies were scarce, the Doctor cut some 
jlesh of a lortotse into small pieces, and moved 
them by the i^ame tnfians. She wized then)) but the 
ittHtant ancrwardx rejected them from her tongue. 
After he had obluincd her confidence, bhc atCf from 
his ringcr.->, dead as wcJI as living flics.— Frogs will 
leap at a moving shadow of any Amall object ; and 
both Frogs and Toads will soon become sufiicicnily 
familiar to sit tin the hand, and be carried from one 
side of a room to the other, to catch fltes as they 
settle on the wall. — At Gotiiogen Dr. Towoson 
made them his guards for keeping these troublesome 
creatures from his dessert of fruit, and they acquitted 
Themselves fully to his satisfaction. — He has even 
>ecn the small Tree Frogs eat bumble bees, bat this 
w^r^ never done without somi^ contest : they arc in 
general obliged to reject them, being incommoded 
by their slings and hairy roughness ; but in each 
attempt the bee is further coveted with the viscid 
matter from the frog's tongue, and when pretty 
Hclt coated itnth this it is easily swalloivcd*. 

A Tree Frog was kept by a j^urgeon in Germany 
fur nearly eight year*. He had it in a glasa vessel co- 


^ TH£ TKjy PROG. 

■ vmai wiHi a net, arul during the summer lie (cd it 
I yriUi fiks ; but in winter U probably did not cat at 
all, u only a (cvf insects, with grass and moistened 
haf, were put to it. inuring tbi^ scasOQ it was 
very lean and cmiLciatcd : but in summer, when its 
I favourite food could be had in plenty, it soon again 
frffnfnv* fat. In the eighth iviotcr it pined away by 
degrees, as was suppo»d, on account of no insects 
whatever being to be had. 

As Captain Stcdmun was aaiting up one of the 
nver;^ of Surinam in a canoe, one of the ofHcfirs who 
was with him observed, in the top of a maogrove 
tree, a battle between a Snake and a Tree Frog. 
^Micn the captain first perceived them, the bead 
and ahouldcr» of the frog were in the jaws of the 
foakc, which was about the size of a large kitchen 
poller. This creature had its tail twisted round a 
tough limb of the mangrove ; while the frog, which 
appeared about the ftize of a man's tist, had laid 
hold of a twig with his hind feet. In thiii pO(>itton 
they were contending, the one for life, the other 
for hi« dinner, forming one straight line between 
the two branches ; and thuM they continued for 
KKne time, apparently stationary, and without a 
Mnrggle. Still it was hoped tbnt the poor frog 
might extricate biimctf by bin exertions; but the 
reverse was ilic case. The jiwn of the snake gra- 
dually relaxing, and by their elasticity forming an 
incredible oritice, ihc body and forelegs of the frog 
by little aod little disappeared, till finally nothing 
Ipore was seen than the hinder ft^l and clawR, 



which were at last disengaged from the twig, »ni 
the poor creature was swallowed whole by suction 
down the 'throat of bis formidable adversary. He 
{josscd sooic incbc-s further down the alimentary 
cbrbI, and at la»t ftliick, forming n knob or knot at 
least six limes as thick as the snake, whose jaws 
and lliront immediately conlnclcd, and re.nssuined 
their former natural shape. The snake being out 
of reach of musket shot, they could not kill him 
10 m.tkt! any further examination, but left him, 
ctmtinuittg in the same altitude, motionless, and 
twisted round the branch*. 


The load is an animal known to every one ; and 
by his livid appearance, and tJuggiKh and disgusting 
niOTcmunlf, is easily recognized. 

In some counirics, as ai Carihagena, and Porlo 
Cello in America, Tuaila arc nO cKtrcmely numerous 
that, in rniny w-cather, not only all the marshy 
gruund.s but the gardens courts, and streets, arc 
almost covered with them ; to much 60 that many of 
the inhabitants believe that ever)- drop of rain h 
converted into a Toad. In ih&<« countries this ani- 
mal of a considerable size, the smallest individuals 
mbisuiing at least six inches in length. If it ba|>- 
,pen to rail) during the mghJ, all the Touds quit their 

• Stedman'^SuriMim. 
t Stkohtiu. — Ran* Bufo. Li^n.—tt Craj'nud commuD, id 
CiffJe. — Sttv'i Gia. Ztvl veL iii. tai. 40. 



huliog- places, and then crawl about In such incofi' 
cdrable numbers as almost literally to touch each 
other, and lo hide the surface of the earth : on such 
occasions it is impossible lo stir out of doorb without 
trampling Ihcin under tuot at uvcry step*. 

The feoiale Toads deposit their 6j>awn early in 

the spiring, in the form of nccklace-like chains oc 

Mftngs of beautifully tran-^prcnt gluten> three or 

four feet in length, incloiiing the ora in a double 

sencs tbrougbout. Their« have the appearaticc of 

so many jet-black globule-; i hey arc, huwevcr, no- 

thingmorc than the larvx or ladpolca lying in a ^\o- 

balarform. These break from their conlincmcni in 

about A fortnight, and allcru'ards undergo changes 

\CTy similar to the tadpoles of the frog. Tlicy be- 

cooie complete about the beginnin^r of nuiumn, when 

the young animsiis are frequently to he seen in 

iimncnse mullitadcs. 

VVben it is irritnled, the Toad emits from various 
parts of il5 fkin a kind of frothy fluid that, in our 
climstc, produces no further utiplea^atit symptoms 
than slight inflammailon, from its weakly ncrimo- 
nious nature. Dogs, on .seizing these animaU, ap- 
pear to be affected with a slight swelling in their 
mouth, accompanied by an increased cvacuntion of 
^a^^va. The limpid fluid which the Toad suddenly 
ejects from his body, when disturbed, ha^ bcm 
asecrtained to be perfectly free from any nonihus 
qualities whatever : it i* merely a watery I(<juor, 
the contents of n peculiar reservoir, that, in case 

* La Cepfdf, ii. iio. 



df aliirnt, Appears to be emptied in order to lighten 
ibc body, that the animal may the more readUy 
eecspe*. It » its extremely fofbidding aspect only 
ibol has obtained for the Toad its present uiguet 
character of hang a dangerously poisonous aoimai. 
He is pcTvecuted and murdered wherever be ap- 
pears, on the 8uppO!utidn merely that because he 
is ugly be must in con^qnence be venomoug. Its 
eyes are, however, proverbially bcflutifu), having a 
brilliant reddish go)d.coloured iris surrounding tlia 
dadi pupil, and forming a striking contrast with 
tbe remainder of its bodyf. Hence Shakespere, in 
Romeo and Juliet, remarke : 

Seme uy Ibe Lkik and loathed Toad change tytt. 

1(8 reputation as a poisonous animal obtained 
far h, among the superstitious, many pretemalura! 
powera; and the reputed dealers in magic art arc 
reported to hare made much use of it in their com- 
pounds. This circumstnnce cauKed it to be inserted 
among (he ingredients adofiled by tbe wtU^tCA in 
Macbeth^ to rai^: tlie sfurits of the dead : 

TcaJ that under the coM itoae 
Htji awl nigfcl* bu ihirty-oiM 
SwellefM rtnom, tlfe(ringgot, 
Uoil thoti fini i* th'ctunned pot. 

It is no diflicutt task, singular as it may appear 
to those who have never attended to this animal, 
to render it quilc tame, so that it may be tiken in 

* TcvDioii ft Tnets. f Bbam'a Gtn. ZtxA. Ui. i jS. 



tW hood, and caccied obaot a raooi to catcb the 
flies fhat ftligbt dd ilie waUs. A corrcapoudcot of 
Mr. Pcnnaut ^ve him some rjirious particulan of 
a ckiniotic Taad> which was rcmarkod to continue 
in the same place for upwards of thirlysix yean. 
It fre'^ueoicd ibc steps before the haJUdwir of • 
geollemaB's house in Dcivufidlire. By being con> 
atsRtly led, it was rendered so tame as always to 
come out of its bole in an evening when a candle 
iw brottgbt, and look up, an if expecting to be 
cairicd into the hou»e, where it was frequently (ed 
with iosccts. An animal that in so geocrally de> 
tmed, being so much noticed and befriended, ex- 
cited the curioBity of all who came to the bouse ; 
and even females so far conquered Uie horrors in- 
stilled mlo them by tlieir nuracR. ss generally to 
n({iK»t lo «cc it fed. It cppcarcd most p^irttal to 
fleih maggots, which were kc[it for it io bran. It 
would follow tbem on the table, and, when within 
« profier diatanor, would Ss. its cyce aod rcmalo 
motionless for a little while, apparently to prepare 
for the stroke, which was iii<;iuntaneou». It threw 
out its tongue to a grc'Jit distance, and the insect 
stock by the glutinous niaiicr lo its tip, aod wati 
swatloved by a motion quicker than the eye could 
follow. This it WK enabled to do from the ;root 
of the tongue (as in the Frog) being attached to 
tbc fofe-parl of the motith, and lying, when at rest, 
wilh the tip toward-: the throat. After being kirpt 
above thirty-six years, it was at length destroyed 
by a tame raven, which one ihy, seeing it at the 



moutli of its hole, pulled it out, and so wounded 
it that it died not a great while afterwards*. 

The Spider was formerly consiikred an love- 
terntc enemy to the Toad ; and it has been »aid that, 
whenever these animals met, a conteM always took 
pliice, in which, from its superior dexterity antl ad- 
drwv, ilic former oRcn proved victorious. If this 
relaies lo ti.e E^irojjcan S[ti<ier3 and Toads, it is, 
most 8urely, altogether devoid of foundation. 

In the eonctui^on of this article it may be ex- 
pected that I sliould not leave entirely unnoticed 
the observations that have been made respecting 
living Toads being found inclosed in folid sub' 
stances. — Though it is necessary that same allow- 
ances should he made for that natural love of the 
marvellous which pervades the great mass of man- 
Itindt }CT \vc have too many respectable aulhoriticn 
to vouch (or the fact, and too frequent instances of 
its fftiirrcncc, lo allow us to doubt that these ani- 
mals have been d:>iovcred alive in blocks of stone* 
and in the solid trunks of trees. 

To account for so extraordinary a phaenomcnonj 
a French writer, M. Lecat, says that bomc philoso- 
phers have U-cn of opinion that the eggs of these 
snimnU, created at the beginning of the world, and 
floating ahoni on the watery cxpauw, have 5ince 
that time continued inclosed in the inlenor parts of 
rocks. But he contnidicis ihjs opinion by remark- 
ing that the creation of an egg is not anificient ; 

Penn. BriU Zool. App. vol. lU. p. 3B0. ;j88. 



Hx) that it must be hatched in Ofder to produce a 
livicg creature. He considers it also as impossible 
that sDch animals can be as old as the stones or sub- 
stances in wbich they arc found ; and rather thinks 
that a hatched egg, in all the cases mentioucd* may 
have fallen by cliance into &omc small cavity where 
it was secured from petrifaction. He remarks that 
cggif when rubbed over vrilh varnish, 90 as to be 
defended from llic effects of the air, may be prc- 
jcrvcd fruitful for years ; and, therefore, believes 
thai nn egg, so secured in the centre of a rock, 
might retain its activity for thouRandR of yctii's : 
hence he concludes that the egg is of great antiquity, 
but not the animal*. 

At a period like the present^ when so many 
lUngs arc made (he subject of experiment, and 
nature is comiK'lled as jt were to discover her most 
hidden secrets, it in Fomcwhat surprising that she 
bas not been put to the proof in this respect. Such 
aperimcTit^ would require litllcor no cspcnse : it 
vitratd only be necessary tn make a <leep bole in a 
itone, inclose some animal in it, and pi-cvcnt the air 
from penetrating it ; or eggs only might be put into 
the jione. As most of the animals found in sioncs 
are of the amphibious kind, it would be proper to 
stttdy the habits, rtalurc, and mode of living peco- 
tiar to that class ; and it would be Attended willt 
mnst advantage if several experiments were made 
3t the same time, in order that the state of the ani- 

* M£tugcid'Hi»tMieNalnrdl«,Tol. ir. 

«4 TUB FirA> 

■nala at diffcrenl periods mi|^ht be examined. Uy 
Oiese lucaot alopc aouic certain coiicluaians might 
be drawn rea)>ectii)g a circumstance wbicb, at pr&- 
fcntt liccms u> fiurpsMi tUc powers oC ooiupicbcD- 

The Pipa is a native of Surinaiu, and at firj^t view 
appears ao extremely hideous and deformed oni- 
jnal. It is considerably larger than our Toadj has 
a flatlisb body, and n Aomewbat triangular head. 
The mouth is very wide, and furnished at the 
edges or comers with a kind of cutaneous ap- 

The forefeet have four long and thin toe.<i, each 
•divided at the tip into fonr distinct parts, which, 
when iniipccled vntb a magnifier, arc found to be 
each again olrscurdy tiubdividcd almost in a ^imilv 
manner. The hind-feet have five toes united by a 

This CTcaturet hi the production of its joung, 
affords a very singular deviation from the usual 
course of nature. On the back of the fcroale are 
formed certain cavities, opening outward, and 
EiOincMbat reNcmbting the cells of a bee-hive. 
They arc of a circular form, a)>out b;ilf an inch 
deep, and each nearly a qiurlcr of an indi in dia- 
nivler. They arc at a little di&taace from each 

* SmoxTMs^ — Viaa* Pipa. Liar-^Lc Pipi, ouCofum. ta 
Ci^iiA.— Suriiam I'tnii.—Sbaw'i Gis. Zeei. vol. iii. /a*. 50, J 1. 





rati nrA. 4J 

oi^cir, «wl soitifiwhat irregularly ranged. At a cer- 
tain f^eriod of Incubation, If it mny be so called, in 
eicfa of these shells ts found a little live Toad, an 
cxKt miniature in all rcHfiects of its parent t but 
bow it finds subsistence there (for the creature has 
no idhcifion to the parent, but may he easily taken 
out, as from a case, and again replaced without in* 
jury) does not seem as jet to be fully ascertained. 
Mr. Ferman, who has described this animal, de- 
clares himself to have been an eye-wtlness to the 
procedure. The eggs ere generated within the fi> 
male, who, when they have attained the proper 
d^ree of maturity, deposits them on the gn^und, 
TIm male amasses together the bca^^ and deposits 
them, with great care, on the back of the fcinoJc, 
where al'icr impregnnlion they arc pressed Into the 
cellules, which arc at that period open for their re> 
ceptiofi> and afterwards close over them. The ova 
rcmMH in the cellulw* till the second birth, which 
take* place in somewhat ien than three months, 
when the young emerge fram the back of tl>e pa- 
rent, completely formed. During the time of con* 
— alment they undergo the usual change of the rest 
of the genus, into the tadpole stale, which they en- 
tirely put off before their final cxtrusfon. 

In this singular production of young, the Pipa 
seems to bear considerable analogy to the (liflcrcnl 
species of OjKissum. 

Fcrmin nays thnt the Plpa is only calculated for 
havingone breed. The number of young produced 
by a female that he ob«en'«l wa^ scTcnty-five j and 



they vere all perfected in the spice of five days after 
the first appeared*. 

It would seem that the flesh of ibis Toad is not 
unwholesome, ii% according to Madame Merian, 
the negroes ufSurinam eat of it with pleasure, and 
ntiSer no inconvenience from ita usef. 


THE Lieardfi, from, in many instances, an un- 
pleasant appcanmce, have, like the Toad, obtained 
the repole of being venomous. The whole tribe 
however is j)crfectly destitute of poison ; and, except 
in three or four of the enormously large species, al* 
together inoOen^ivc to mankind. 

'l"hcy arc chiefly inhabitants of the warmer re- 
gions, and in general possess confiidcmblc agility. 
The larger ones live on animals, which (hey «ize by 
straiagem, and the smaller ones on inixcts. Many 
of them serve mankind for food. The aquatic spe- 
cies undergo a metamorphosis, being first in a larva 
slate. Most of them arc produced from eggs ex- 
temally, but some arc brought forth alive. In this 
genus are found nearly the largest and the smallest 
animals in the creation. 

* A(i<l<not)'« Recrcatiom, ii.32. — Sttaw'i Ccn. Zuol. itt. ifi;. 
■f DiMcit. de Gencrxt. st Mcumorpli. ItiKct. Surlium. quoted 
in LaC«pede, ii. J15. 



- The body is elongated, nuketl, and farnisbed 
with 3 toil and ruitr ctjua) Ifgs. 


The Crocodile is an animal perhaps too com- 
tnonly found near the large rivcM in virions parts 
both of Asia ond Africa, where it attains the amaz- 
ing l«ngih of twenty-tive feet and tipxvanis. The 
armoar, unih which the upper part of the body itt 
cotted, may be accoutite<[ among the most elnbo- 
rale {Hcccs of Nnturt^'s mcchanifm. In the full- 
grown animni ti is so strong ae e:tsiiy to repel 3 mus- 
ket ball : on the lower part it is much thinner and 
more lilinblc. I'hu whole aniinal appears as if co- 
vered wilb the most regular and curioiiit carved 
work. Tbe colour of the full-grown Crocodile is 
blackish -brou'n above, and ycUowiKh-white beneatU. 
The upper parts of the legs and sides are varied 
wilb deep yellow, and in i-omc parts linged with 
green. The eyes are provided with a winking 
membrane, ah in the bird tribes. The momh is of 
vsst width, and furnished with numcmns sharp- 
pointed teeth, thirty or more on each side of the 
jaws i and these arc so disposed a^, when the mouib 
id closed, to 61 allurnatety abo%eand bdo^v. 

The Crocodile and Alligator bare tbe largest 

* Stnoxvh*.— Liceita Crocodilos. JJxn, — h< CmcnJilc fin- 
pr«iDEiit dir. Im CfftJ*.—Ctymaa. Apiaid*.— Nilotic Crocodile. 
Cmh^r CrooodiU. Siato. Statu'j 6f». Zw/^-M/.iii. tat. 5j> 


4ft flM tn^e&Dttt. 

ntouthis af nFfliMt any animatr). It hix been a^ 
scrted, by \-arious wrjfer?, that both rK«ir jaws arc 
moveable. A single glance, however, attlicirstc- 
lc*on will afford sufficient proof that the up[>er jaw 
is fixed, and that ibc motion is altogether confined 
1o the under jaw. They are also get)crally Iwrltcvcd 
to have no tongue : thii again is an error, for the 
tongue in both Apecies \% larger than erven thai of 
llie Ox : but il is so connected with the sides of the 
lower jaw as to be incnpable of being stretched 
far forwards, as in other animals. 

Except n-hcn pressed by hunger, or wilh a view 
of deponting ttA eggs, lht« enormous crent ore ael- 
dom leave!) the water. Im usnul method h to float 
along upon the Curtice, and sciz<: whatever ani- 
malft come within it» reach; but, when this mt' 
thod fail?, h then goes closer to the bunk. There 
il waits in patient cipeclalion of 5oinc land animal 
Ihut may come lo drink.; the dog, the bull, the 
liger, or man himself. Nothing is to be seen on tbc 
Approach, nor is its retreat discorcrcd till it is too 
late fot safety. It wrzcs the victim with a spring, 
and goe4 at a botmd much &rthcr than such an 
unttieldy animal <»uld be suppoK^I to do, Tlicn 
having Mcured the prey, it drag^ it into the water« 
in&taiiily sinks with it to tbc bottooii and in this 
manner quickly drcTwns it. SQmetimr5 it happer 
that the crtnturc wounded by the Crucodilc maXes 
ita escape ; in which case, the latter pursues with 
liomc celerity, and oflcn takes it a i^econd time. 
He selduin moves far front rivers, except in covert 
and marshy places; so that, in many parts of tbe 



tst, it a very dangerous lo walk careJcsaly on tbc 
faaoJu of unknown rivers, or among ecdgy groiinde; 
Hid itill more so to bathe, without the utmost cir* 
nmspectton, in upfrequcnted places. The Croco- 
dile ftcldom pursues bis prey far on shore ; and al- 
tbougb his pice is lolembly rapid in a direct line, yet 
he ill not sufRcienlly amft to overtake an active tnao 
mboprciervts hta presence of mind. 

All the rivers of Guinea arc pc«tcrcd with vast 
•hoal5 of Crocodiles. On %'ery hot d-nys, great num- 
bers of tbcm lie- basking on tbc banks of' rivers, and 
a^ HKKi as ihcy observe any one approach their plaue 
they plunge into the water with great violence. 

Bounan sajs, very quainl'y, " As for ibeir cry- 
" ingiod subtleties to catch men, I believe ibcin us 
" much as the Jews do the Gosjiel •." 

They »k excessively voracious, and swallow nil 
their food whole ^ for their mouth is neither fur- 
nbhed with grinding (celh, nor have the jaxe9 any 
lateral motion. They are said to s-.vallow stones to 
aid digestion, in tbc manner of tl>c ^ced-eaiing 
birds ) and ibcy arc able to sustain abstinence fur 
many weeks logcthcr. 

The young are produced from vgps deposited in 
Ihe und, and hatched by ihc brat of the &un, near 
the bank of some river or lake. The female is said 
lo be extremely cautious in depositing ihcm unob- 
■erved. The general oumbcr is from eighty to a 
hundred. lliey arc not larger than those of a 
Goose, and are covered with a tough while skio. 



She fills up (he hole carefully before 'she leave: 
them. In each of the Xxro succeeding days she lays 
as many marc, which she hides in the same manner. 
The cggi arc hatched generally in about thirty days, 
when the young immediately run into the water. 
Theive young are devoured by variou:^ kinds of fish, 
and their numbers arc also lessened by supplying 
food to their own species. It is however io the de- 
struction of their egg? ihnt the most material ser- 
vice is cHcctcd. The Ichneumon * and the Vul- 
tures, which in (he hot climates collect in immense 
numbers, seem peculia.iy appointed by Providence 
to abridge their enormous fecundity, and in this ca- 
pacity devour and destroy millions of ibe eggs. 

Crocodiles are frequently seen about ibc rivers in 
Java in great numbers. The Javanese aomctimes 
catch them ivith a hook and line; a circumstance 
that at first wmild seem almost incredible, since 
Ihey are able, with great case, to bite asunder the 
strongest rope. These people therefore nse a very 
loosely twisted cord of cotton, at the end of which 
a hook is fastened, baited with raw flesh. When 
the Crocodile, af^cr having swallowed the hook, 
endeavours lo bite the cord asunder, bis teeth only 
separate the fibres, and all hts attempts arc uf no 
avail. When he is found lo be faslencd, his anta- 
gonists come ujxjn him in great numbers, and, with 
Ibe weapons they have fur the purpose, soon de> 
siroy himf- — In other ports of the world these toi- 


* Vivcira Ichneumon c/ LiDiurui. 

f Thnnbcrgi ii> ; 







nulsire hunted by means of &trong dogs properly 
Matncd, and aimed with spiked collars. 

The natives of Si«m take Crocndilcs hy plaeing 
tfiree or four strong nets across a river, at proper 
distances from each other ; m that, if the animiil 
bmbs through the HrM, he may be caught in some 
of iheothcra. When he finds himself fastened, he 
bsbes every (hing around him with great violence 
with ht:i eoormous tail. After he has struggled 
some lime and is become exhausted, the men ap- 
proach in boats, and pierce him in the most tender 
ports of his body with spears. 

Lsbat nsaures us, (but whether his assertion is 
to be trusted or not I cannot say,) that a negro 
tamed only tvith a knife in his right hund, and 
having his left wrapped round with thick leather, 
will venture boldly to attack the Crocodile iti hi« 
own element. As soon as he observes his enemy 
ncAT, chc man puts out hi» left arm, which the 
beast immediately seizes in its mouth. He then 
give* it several stabs below the chin, where the skin 
is very tender ; and the uatcr coming in at the 
tooulh, thus involuatarily held opcn^ the crcuture 
iiioofl destroyed. 

The Crocodile, from its immense size and voni- 
dous habits, is certainly an object of fear ; and, 
by no very uncommon transition of sentiment, has 
also gradually become an object of veneration ; and, 
offerings are in some eouniries made to it as to a 
deity. The inhabitants of Java, when attacked by 
disease, will sometimes build a kind of coop, and 
fill it with such eatdbles ai they think most agree- 



place th< 

able to the Crocodiles. Tl 
the b;>nk of a river or canal, in perfect confidence 
ihiil, by the mean!* of such oflerings, they shall get 
rid of their com(jIaint8 ; and persuaded that, if any 
persoo could be so wicked ait to take away those 
viands, such person would draw upon himself the 
malady for the cure of which ihc offering waa 
made. The worship of Crocodiles was indeed a 
folly among men of anlicnt date ; as Herailotiu 
exjircssly says that " among some of the Egyptian 
" tribes the Crocotlilo arc sacred, but that they 
" arc regarded as cneroics among others. The in- 
** habitant!, in llie environs of Thebes, and the lake 
" Mocris, are 6rinly persuaded of their sanctity; and 
" both these tribes bring up and tame a Croco- 
" dilc, adorning his eart" with rings of precious 
" stones and gold, and putting onmmentat chalrvs 
" about his fore feet. They also regularly give 
" him victuals, offer victims to him, and treul him 
" to the most respectful manner vrhilc living, and, 
" when dead, embalm, and bury him in a coasc- 
« crated coffin." 

It is said that even at this day Ci-oco(tile<; are oo 
casionally tamed in many parts of Africa, where 
they are kept ia large ponds or lakcR, as an article 
of magnificence with the monarchs of those r^ 
gions. The Romans frequently exhibited these oni- 
mals in their public spectacles and triumphs. 

The eggs of the Crocodile are numbered among 

* Nooe of the Atnptubia tuivc cEtcttul an. 



tl»e delicacies of aon>e of lb* African tribe*, and 
«fc »id to form one of ihcir tnost favourite re- 

One of the greatest curiosities in the fossil world, 
which the Ute ago hare produced, is the skeleton of 

^1 large Crocodile, almost entire, that was found at 
i great depth underground, bedded in stone. This 

"m in the possession of Liiikiuti, who wrote many 
tncts oa natural history, and particularly an accu- 
nte descriplion of this cunouii fossil. It was found 
io the side of a large mountain in the midland part 
oT Germany, in a stratum of black fossil stone, 
somewhat like our common slate, but of a coarser 
te&ture, the same wiih that tn which the fossil fUU 
in many parts of the mirld aa* found. This skcle- 

|too bad the hack and ribs very plain, and vras of a 
mach deeper black than the re^t of the stone. The 
!of the utone where the head lay was not found : 
was irregularly broken off just at the shoulder, 
fts, howerer, in one place, to leave part of the 
back of the head in its natural form. The two 
shoulder.bonea were very perfect, and three of the 
■fcet well prescnred ; the legs were of their natural 
ihape and size, and the feet preser\-ed, even to the 
<7tfemities of the five toes of each. 


The principal distinction betwixt the Alligatorj 

*9tkontmi.— L«ceitft Alli^ior. Linn. — Jt»re. Mar^^avr^— 
Cneodilc La Utatju. — Lcccftui muimui. Cji^iy, ^AtatnoA 
Croco dB fc " Stav/'i Cta. Zoti. ml, iij.. la^. 59. 



and the Crocodile is, that it has its head sncl part 
of the neck, more smooth than the other, and that 
the snout is considerably more wide and flat, as well 
as more rounded at the extremity. The length of 
the full-grown Alligator is seventeen ,or eighteen 

The Alligators arc natives of the warmer parts of 
America ; and had it not been for an accident, ihese 
inhabitants of the New World would never have 
been known by any other name than that of Croco- 
dile : for, had the first navigators xcn any thing that 
more resembled their form than a Lizard, Ihey would 
have adopted ihac by which the Indians call thcm» 
the Cay)ftait; but the Spanish sailore rcmarting thdrj 
great resemblance to that little rcptde, they calle 
the first of them which they saw Lagario, or Lizard. 
When our countrymen arrived and heard that name, 
they called the creature O'Lagario^ whence wa 
afterwards derived the word Alli^atQ or Alligator. 

They are oAen seen floating on the surface of the 
water like logs of wood, and arc mistaken for such 
by various animals, which by this means ihcy sur- 
prise, and draw down to devour at leisure. They 
arc said also sometimes to form a hole in the bank, 
of a river, below the surface of the water, and there 
to wait till the (ish, that are fatigued with the strong 
current, come into the smooth water near to rest 
tbctntclvc», when they iinmediat(;!y seize and devour 
ihem*. But since they are not able to obtain a re- 
gular supply of food, from the fear in which they are 

• Du Piitt, afi?. 

held by all aDunaIs,aDd tbe care with which these^ in 
graernl, avoid Ihcir haunts, they arc able to sustain a 
privation of it for a great length of lime. When 
kiUed and opened, stones and other hard substances 
«re generally found in their stomach, hi many that 
Mr. Catc&by examined there was nothing but muci- 
I^snd large pieces of wood, some of which weigh- 
ed seven or eight pounds each : the angles were so 
worn down that he fancied they nimt have lain there 
fcr several months*. Two Alligators that Dr. Brickell 
uw )Lillc<l in North Carolina, had tn their bellies sc- 
xtTdl sorts of snakes, and some pieces of wood j and 
in one of them was found a stone that weighed about 
four poundsf . 

The voracity of these animals is so great that they 
do not spare even mankind when opportunity offers. 
\ short lime before M. Navarcttc was at the Manil- 
las, he was told that, as a young woman was washing 
her feet in one of the rivers, an Alligator seiaed and 
ctrritd her ofT, Her husband, to whom she bad been 
but that morning married, hearing her screams, 
threw himself headlong into the water, and with a 
digger ID his hand pursued the robber. He over- 
took and fought him with such success as to recover 
his wife: but she, unfortunately for her brave re- 
scuer, was found to be dcad{. 

Tbe Alligators deposit their eggi«, like the Croco. 
iJilc and the Turtles, at two or three different periods. 

* Cuabj, H. 6j. Bfowm'x Jamaica, 461. f firkk«U, i;4. 

J NiT4reiie*«Tra«l». Cliurebill'sCoU, ii. 163. 



Itymg 'friSm Iwcnlv to about iwenty<fbur al each 
lime. It is utd thiit those of Cavcnrtc and Surinam 
raibC a little billock on the bank of the river ihej 
frcqoenl, aud, hollowing this out in the mitldl^ 
amtw tc^ther a henp of leaves and other vege* 
tabic fcfuscvin which they deposit their eggs. Thcie 
being also covered op with leave*, a fcrmcnlaiion 
ensues, by the heai of which, in addition to that of 
the alim)S[iI)cre, ibe eggs are hatched. — They gfr 
nrrally lay their eggs in the month of April*. 
Mithitudes nf these arc destroyed by the Vultures, 
and immense numbers of (he young animals are de- 
voured, as soon as they reach the water, by the va* 
riou$ species of tish. 

It appears (hat the Alligator, when caught very 
youn^. may be in some measure domesticated. Dr. 
Brick.c]l iaw one that was caught not long aOer being 
hatched, nod put into a large pond before a planicr*B 
hoii<^. It remained near half a year, during which 
time it wns regularly fed with the cntrailR of fowls, 
and raw meat, h frequently came into the house, 
where it would remain for a short time, and then 
FL-lurn again to it» shelter in the pond. It was sup- 
posed at Idsl lo »leal away to a creek near (he plan> 
tation ; for it was one day missing, and from that 
time was never pfcrwards scent- 

The voice of these auiiiiuU i» very loud and dread- 
ful, being stronger than the roar of a bull. They 
have an un|?tr-a!>nnt »i>d very powerful musky scent : 



f Brickxll, 1 54- 


M.PBg£i«]'Stbat, orar one of tlie rivers in AmCTica, 
wbeicthc Alligniors wtrrc very nuincrousj the efilq- 
via wu so slrong ns to itnyrcjrtute hif: provrsiofls, 
Utlevca to give ihcm the oauseous tasleof rotten 

The teeth arc ss white as ivory ; and snuff-boxes, 
cktrges for giitis, ami several kinds of toys, are made 
wiltilbcni. Thoee persons who have eaten of their 
fie^i say thai it is white and i-ery dcJicious ; many of 

^tbe Afiierican tribes are in a great measure sap. 
portiid by it. 


This is an animal that frequently occurs iti Ame- 
rica, and both the West ond East Indies, where tt 
grows to four or five feet in length. The tail k 
long and round ; the bncK serrated ; and the crcM 
denticulated. The indisiduals vary greatly in colour, 
but their prevailing tinge is a broa'nish green. Un- 
der the chia they have a pouch capable of great 

The Guana inhabits the rocks, and hides Itself 
in cliffs or hollow trees. Its food is almost entirely 
coo6ned to vegetables and insects, which it srval- 
lows whole; and the fat of the abdomen assume; 
ll»c colour of whatever the animal has last eaten. 
Its appearance is disgusting, and Its motions very 

t&TMQNTm. — LacerU iguins. Linn, — L'tgiuoc La CffeJt.—^ 
Lcfnuta. ^(n.— Great A n)<rican Gu>n>- ComRioo Gnan*. Sto'J/. 
~— Shaw' J Cen. XmI. vtJ. Hi- tji. 61. 



slow; "their holes," says Catesby, "being a grealcr 
security Ihan their heels." Though not naturally 
amphibious, it will on necessity continue long under 
water ; in swimming, it keeps its legs close pressed 
to its body, and urges itself forward by roenns of 
the tail. 

The females usually quit the ii\-ood.s or mountains 
about two months after the end of winter, for 
the purpose of depositing their eggs In the sand of 
the sea-!)hore. These eggs are alw;iy$ unequal in 
number, from thirteen to twenty-five. They are 
longer, but not ihickcr, than pigeons' eggs. The 
outer corering is while and flexible. Most travellers 
say that these eggs give an excellent relish to sauces, 
and that their ta.<>tc is preferable to that of poultry 


The flesh of the animals constitutes a principal 
support of the natives of the Bahamas, who go out 
in (heir sloops to other islands to take them, nhich 
they do by means of dogs trained for the purpose. 
As soon as caught, their mouths are sewed up, lo 
pre\'ent them from biting, and iomc arc carried uUve 
from hence to Carolina for sale ; others arc salted 
and bflrrclled for home eonsumplion-f-. 

Father Labat speaks highly of their delicacy and 
fine flavour, and describes i lie mode in which he, 
and some others that were along uiih httn, saw 
one of them taken. " We were attended (be says) 
by a negro who carried a long rod, at one end of 

• LiCeptie.i.j^t. 

t Cale»by,ii. 64. 

*--- ■ 


which was fastened a piece of whipcord, wilh a 

ruaaing Lnol. AOcr bcaiing the bushes for some 

time, the n^ro discovered our game, basking 

taihe 5UD, on the dry limb of a irve. On ihis he 

Ugao wbi^ttin^ with all his might : to which the 

Ooana was wonderfully attentive, stretching oat 

his oeckj and luminx his head as if to enyty it 

more ftitljr. The nc^ro now iip]>roached, still whisc- 

lingi and, advancing hi^ rod gently, began tickling 

with ibccndof it the side? and thtoat of the Guana, 

which iccmcd mightily pleased with the operation ; 

Ibrbe turned on his bat^k, and stretched himself out 

like a cat before the fire, and at length fairly fell 

arieep. The negro, perceiving this, dexterously slip. 

ped the noose over his head, and wilh a jerk brought 

Win to the ground." 

The flesh is someltmcs roasted, but noore usually 
bc»Ud, the fat being first taken out} which the na- 
tites melt and clarify. 

The Guana is an animal cosily tamed if taken 
young. Pr. Browne kept a full-grown one about 
bii bouse for more than two months. At first it was 
Kij fierce and iU-nalurcd ; but after some days it 
£ictt more tame, and would at length pass the 
gicalcsl port of the day on the hvd or couch : but it 
always went out at night. As it walked along it 
frequently threw out its forked tongue ; but Dri 
flrownc says that, during all the time he had it, he 
DWer observed that it ale any thing*. 

C 60 3 


The Nimble IJzanI is one of the British species. 
lis general length, from the nose lo ihc ciid of the 
tail, is about six inches and a half. The upper 
part of ihc hc»<l is light brown, and the hack- and 
tiiil nre vnrtotisly striped and spotted with light 
brown, hlnck, white, and dark brown. The under j 
parts of the body arc of a dirty while, ■ 

This dcgant little creature, which ia known to 
almost cvcrj- one in ihc temperate regions of Eu- 
rope, «ems to be the most gentle and inoffcnsiTC, 
and at the same time the most useful, of all the 
iJKard tribe. Its motions are so nimble, and it 
fuiu with Euch swiftness, as, when disturbed, toi 
disappear in a moment. It is fond of b<isking tnj 
the 300 ; yet, unable lo bear excessive heat, in the 
holiest weather it seeks shelter. In spring, during 
fnc wcjilber, it is often seen luxurioasljr extended J 
on a sloping green bunk, or on a wull expo&cd to9 
Ihe sun. In these situations, it enjoys the full 
effeclsof the reviving heat [ expressing its delight 
by gently agitating its slender tail ; and its lively 
and brilliant eyes are animated with pleasure. 
Should .iny of the minute animals appear on 
which it fccdit, it springs upon them with thfi 
quickness of Ihought ; and if any danger occurs, it 

• Stmdkyus.— {.iccna igilii. Liim-^—Lt Latxd grii. La 
Ciftit. — I.itilo browti Liunf. B^toardi. — Scaly LizinJ. raaif 
Nimble Uurd. AWf Xj C.ftJt.'^Pam'i Brit. Zttl. iW. iii^ 
Uh. 3. 



•ecSu a more secure retreat with equal rapidity. 
On ihe leist noise it turns fcuddenly rouml, falls 
dotra. ftixi sceais, for some moments, i>crrcctly stu- 
pefied by its fall : or el^e it suddenly slioots away 
imoag Ihe bushes or thick grass, and disappears. 
lit wonderful rapidity of motion is chiefly to be 
observed in warm countries, for in the (emperate 
rtgion* its evolutions arc much more languid. 

This gentle and peaceful animal excites no sen- 
nlions of terror; and, when taken into the hand, 
makes not the smallest attempt to bite ot ofTend. 
Id aotne countries children use it as a play-lhing ; 
and, in consequence of its natural gentlenesjt of 
(li^iosHtoii, it becomes, in a great measure, lame 
tod £imi1iar. 

The tail is nearly twice Ihe length of (he body, 
and tapers from the root to the cxtrcfKity, where it 
ends in a sharp point. This, from the weakness of 
the TCrtcbrEC, is so brittle as often to snap off on 
tbeleait roughncra in handling. In this case it is 
wnctttnea rciiroduced. When the tail has bccti 
split or divided lengthways, it has been known that 
each of the portions, in lieuling, has rounded itself, 
and thua the animal has had a double tail. One of 
tbcse has contained the vertebrae, and the other 
only a kind of tendon in ihe centre. 
For the purpose of seizing the irsccts on which 
u it (eeda, this Lizard darts out, with astonishing 
H vdocUy, iti large forked tongue. This is of a red- 
H diih colour, and beset with asperities thai are 
~ icarccly acnwbic to the Bight, but which assist rcry 
materially in catching its nitiged prey. — Like most 





Other oviparous (juadrupeds, it i» capable of existing 
■ long time without food. Some of them have been 
kept in bottles, without any nourishment, lor up- 
wards of sis months. 

In the ^ouIhe^n countries of Europe, the Nimble 
Lizard revive.s, very early in the Kpring-, from the 
torpid »lalc in -which it had passed the cotd wea- 
ther of the winter; and, recovering its activity, be- 
gins it* sportive evolutions, which increase in ngilily 
in proportion to the heat of the nlmosphero. In the 
beginning of May, the female deposits her egg:*, 
which arc nearly spherical, and about five tines in 
diameter, in some warm Mtuaiion ; as, for instance^ 
at the foot of a wall fronting the south. Hero they 
arc hatched by tbc heat of the sun. 

Previously to laying the t^gs, both male and fe- 
male change their i^kins, which they again do about 
Ibc beginning of winter.— They pass that season in 
3 state of torpor, more or less cotnplele, according 
to the rigour of the season, either in holes of trees, 
or walls, or subternineous places. They quit these 
retreats on the 6rst appearance of spring*. jl 

This little animal seems occasionally to Uy aside ™ 
the gentleness and innoccnct.- of disposition which 
is attributed to it; still, however, no further than 
for the purpose of obtaining food. Mr. Edwards ■ 
ODcc surprised one of them in the act of fighting 
with a small bird, as t^hc sale on her nest in a vine 
against the wall, with ocwly-liatchcd young. He 

L»C<pcde, I. j;o. 



npposnl the Lizard would have made them a prey, 
could be but have driven the old Inrd from her ne^. 
Heu^lched thecoiilest for aomc time ; but, on hU 
sear approach, the Lizard dropped to the ground, 
and the bird flew ofT*. 


The Chamxicon h a native of India, Afrioi, and 
ICKDC of the n-nrmcr parts of Spain and Portugal. 
Tbe a<ual length of its body h about ten inches, and 
ibat of the tail nearly the same. 

Though an animal extremely ugly and disgusting 
in il-i appearance, it is perfectly harmless, feeding 
VQ\y 00 insects, for which the stmcture of its 
(oogiK is peculiarly adapted, being long and inisiiilet 
■lid fum■.^hed with a dilated, glutinous, and soinc- 
wtiit tubular tip. By means of this it sdzzs in- 
KCts »i:h the greatCAt case, darting it out, and 
KbUntaocoasly rctrauting it, with the prey secured 
on lis tip, which it swallows whole. The skin is 
ccRcrcd with smalt watls or granulations, and down 
the middle of the back it is serrated. The feel have 
five toes united three and two, lo enable it to lay 
firmly hold of the brancf,^i of trees, in which it 
principally reside-) ; and to this end also its tail is 
pfYfacDinile, and ii> aU^'ays coiled round the branch 
fill tbc animal has secured a firm fooling. Its mor 

* Edvirds, i. .44. 
t LkuU Cbainzleon. Lini;. — Lc CaiDcleon. La Crftit.— 
Si4^'tjGtH. ZtJ. iw/. ii). til. ;6. 



tkwis arc very sW. The limgs are » large as td 
allow it to ioflale lh« body lo a vast sixe. Tbe 
structure and inolion<} ofits eyes arc singular : these 
arc large and globular, and so formcal that at the 
satnt instant it can look in different dirfctlons. 
One of Ihctn may rre<]uently be 6ci.'ri to move kIicd 
the otiicr is at rost ; or one will oAcn be directed 
forwards, while the other is attending (o some ob- 
ject behind, or in (he same mAnner upwards and 

The: Chamslcon i^ principally celebrated for the 
singular property that it has of occat>ionally chan- 
ging Its colour. Not having myself witnessed this i 
opeEBtk>n« I shall present the reader with the ao ■ 
counts of three persons who hare : there appears 
a consiilerablc difference in the relations; this, 
however, he must reconcile as well as he is able. 
The writers I allude to are D'ObsonvJite, Hasscl- 
qui&t, and Dr. Russcl. 

The colour of the ChamsDicon, says D'Obi»n- 
ville, is nattimlly gr«en, but it is susceptible of 
many shades, and particularly of three very distinct ■ 
ones ; Saxon g^cn, deep green, and a shade bor- i 
dering on blue and yellow green. When free, in 
health, and at case, it is a beautiful green, some j 
parts excepted, where the akini being thicker and f 
more mogh, prtKluccs gradations of brown, red, or 
light gnty. When the animal is provoked, in open ■ 
fiir, and well fed, it, becomes blue-grcea ; but when 
feeble, or dcprii-cd of-free air, the prevailing lint 
is the yellow-green. Under other circunutancca, 
nnd especially at the api>roach of one of iti owq 




aperies, no matter of which sex, or when surrounded 
lod tcflied by a num'bcr of insccls thr m-n upon him, 
be then, almost in a rnoineni, liikcs iiliemately the 
thnx ^t€enn\ linis of grccn. If he is dying, par- 
ticuUrlT of hunger, ihe yellow is at fir»:t predomi- 
nant ; but in the first stiige of pulrufactioii this 
chnnges to Ihe colour of dend leaves. 

It »ceirs lh:it the catii*C5 of ihcsc difTcTcnl varic- 
lic* ore sevcnil : and fint, the blood of ihc Chamw- 
Icon i.t of a violet blue, which colour it %^'itl preserve 
(or some minutes on Itncn or paper, especially on 
nuchas have Iieen steeped In alum-waler. In (he 
lecond place, the diflereni tunicic*; of the vessels nre 
fellow, as well in their lrunk.3 as in their ramifica- 
The cpidfrmts, orciterior skin, when sepa- 
■ted from the other, is transparent, without any 
colour; and the »ccund skin is yellow, as well as 
all ibe liitle vessels that touch it. Hence it is pro- 
boWc thai the change of colour depends upon the 
uitiires of blue and yellow, from which result 
Fcrcnt shades of ^rcen. Thus, when the animal, 
bcallhy, and well fed, is pn^voked, it^ blood is car- 
ried in greater abundance fron^ the heart towards 
the extreniittes ; and, spelling the vessels thnt are 
id over the skin, its blue colour subsides the 
cTlow of the vet^eW, and produces a blue green 
is seen Ihrmjgb Ihc epitltrmls. When, on (he 
f«onlrary, the anitnal is i-npoveriihrd and deprived 
of free air, the exterior vessels being more empty, 
tiieir colour prcraiM, and the animal becomes a 
ycUow.grecn till it recovers its liberty, is «e'l nou- 
fwbcd, and without pain, wh^n it regains the co- 
VOL. lil. F 



lour; tbis being (he consequence of au cquiliWiuii» 
in (lie liquids, and of a due proportioQ of tbem m 
the vessels*. 

Hasaclquist says, ibat he never observed the CbS' 
neBlcon assume the colour of an exlcmal object 
presented to ils view, althougb he made several 
exiKrimenis for the purpose. He !<a)'s ils natural 
colour is an iron gray, or black mixed with a little 
gray. This li sometimes change^^, and becomes 
entirely of a brimstone ycMow, which, except the 
former, ts the colour it most frequently assumes. 
It sometimes takes a darker or grcenisli yellow, and 
sometimes a lighter. He di<l not observe it assume 
any other colours; such as bluc^ red, purple, &c. 
When changing from black to yctlcw, the soles of 
its feet. Its head, and the bag under its throat, were 
the first tinged: and then, by degrees, that colour 
spread over the rest of the body. He several time^ 
saw it marked with large spots of both colours all 
over its body, which gave it an elegant appearance. 
When it became of an iron gray it dilated ils skin, 
and became plump and handsome; but as soon as 
it turned yellow, it contracteil itself, and appeared 
empty, lean, and ugly : and the nearer it approached 
in colour to white, the more empty and ugly it ap- 
peared; but its shape was always the most unplea- 
sant when it was speckled. — Mr. Has';elqnist kept a 
Charoaeleon for near b month ; it was, during the 
whole lime, very nimble and lively, climbing up and 

XA}l>i«nTill(. 35. 


^OMTfi its cage, fond of being near the light, and 
coattantly rolling about its lurgc eyes. It took no 
food during the whole of this time ; &o that, at last, 
it became lean, and evidently suffered from hunger. 
It could no longer hold fast hy the grating of the 
age, but fell through weakness, when a turtle, that 
was in (he same room, bit it and hastened its death. 
From this antmars being able to bUjiport long ab- 
ttiacnce has an>«n the vulgar notion of the ChamEB- 
Icon's living only on air'. 

W*bcn the Chamxicon is removed fram its ptacc> 
Dr. RusscI also infonns us that it docs not imme- 
diately change colour^ nor does it coiistantly^ in 
chaaging, at>sume that of the ground upon which it 
islaid. Thui, if put into a box lined with white, 
or with black, it will sometimes in the black be- 
eome of a lighter colour than before, and TtfVc 
•vfffS; and sometimes will assume a brimstone 
toloor. When the experiment was made upon .1 
cloth of various colours, but where the animal bad 
a larger field to move about, ihc event was the 
Moe. — It frequently goes thmugh a succession of 
aioan before taking that of the body nearest to it. 
Wtien laid on the grass it will, perhaps from a 
JigtJt earthy colour, first become darker, then blaek, 
yellow, again darkish, and, last of all, green. At 
oilier times it becomes green at once ; and so of 
other colours when laid on other grounds: whence 
)t bns been hastily conjectured the transition was 




always sudJcn. But, notwithstanding thif> irrega- 
larity in its chsngc, c^peciallj when hurried or djs- 
torbed, its most permanent colour, in repose, was 
Ihflt of the ground on wliich it lay; jirovided the 
gTonnd wasnnt ofoneof IhecoIiHirs thalit nwerdocs 
asisiiiTie, of red or blue. LJltlc material difference 
was ob*crvaWc» whether the exjjcriments were made 
in tbc tihsde or in the »un j but the animal appeant 
duller at sonic times than others, and captivity 
seems to abate its alacrity in changing*. 

Mr. Barrow says, that " previously to the Cha- 
meleon's assuming a charge of colour it makes 
long inspiration, the body swelling out to twice it? 
usual size ; and, as this inflation suUide-s the change 
of colourgraduaily takes place. The only perma- 
nent marks are two small dark lines passing along 
ihc sides f. 




No animal of the present tribe, except the Cro- 
cothle, has been more frequently spoken of than 
the Salamander. It is found in shady woods in 
many parts of Germany, Italy, and France, and U 
easily distinguished by its short cylindrical tail, and 
deep shining black colour, variegated with large 
oblong and Hiniewbat irregular patches of bright 


• Il«»er* Natural HUtofjr of AIvppo, 
t Birmw's Travels in Africa. 
) Lkcerta Galanindn. Lian^—^no't Gtn. Zm/. tnoJ. iit. tab. I 


orioie-yeUow. lis genera! length is eevcn or eight 
inches, ibough sometimes it bcconus much larger. 

Whilst the harilcsc bmlJes are unable to resist the 
action of fire, the ffcncrality of matikiiid hnve giveti 
full credit to (he ridictilous stories that have forages 
beea circulated, of this tittle Lizard's not only being 
tAAe lo withstand its clTcct^ but even to extinguish 
<' So small an animal, po^isesaing such very supe- 
rior prn-ileges, that fornJiihcd so many objects of 
ipansoii to poct-y, so many pretty emblems to 
IPC, and so man} brilliant devices to valour, «cems 
to have agrccnbly laid hold on Ihc iniagiiintions of 
men in such a manner that they were unwilling to 
retract their belief, and therefore contented ibem- 
»dven with the tradition-:, without having their cu- 
tviottily sufficiently roused to satisfy themselves by 
nutncdinle experiment. The anlicnts, pretending 
iial it owed its existence to the purest of elements, 
callcii it the Daughter of Fire, giving it, at the 
wnc lime, a body of ice. The modems adopted 
p^ ridiculouH tales of the antienlH ; and, as it is 
difficult to slop when once Ihc bounds of probabi. 
lilj have been passed, some writers have gone so fer 
tt to Hsert that the most violent fire could be ex. 
(inguisfaed by the Salamander : in Ihe most raging 
coDflagratioo, it has been said, if one of these small 
l/Mrds was but thrown in, its progress would be 
immediately checked. It was not till after the 
light of science vvas diffused abroad that the world 
began to d(scrc<lil this wonderful property. Expe- 
riment then proved what reason alone raigbt, loog 
before, have demonstrated. 

In addition to this, the Salamander was esleemed 
^tt poisonous reptile, and has been generally held in 
terror ; but this opinion has been refuted by nume- 
rous experiments. M. de Maiipcnuis, who minutely 
Gtudicd the nature of thi-; Lizard, in order to dis- 
cover what might be its pretended poison, demon- 
strated also experimentally that tire acted upon it 
in the same manner as upon all other animals. He that it was scarcely upon the fire before 
it api>cared to be covered with drops of a kind of 
milky fluid, which oosed through all (he pores of 
the skin, and immediately became hard. It is 
needless to say that this fluid Is oot suiHcicntly 
abundiint to extinguish even the smallest fire : it 
possesses some degree of acridity ; for, when put upon 
Ihe end of the tongucj it causes an unpleasant burn- 
ing sensation*. 

Shady woods, high mountains, or the banks of 
unfrequented rivulets, are the usual retreats of thcK 
animals; and they are not often ^ecn except during 
vet vrenlhcr. la the winter, (bey He concealed Ja 
1k41ow» about the roots of old trees, in subterra- 
neous recesses, or the cavities of old walU, where 
several of them have been sometimes discovered, 
follecled, and twisted together. They are oAcn to 
be seen in the water, where they are able to lis*c 
as well as on land. Their principal food is insectSi 
snails, Sec. Their pace Is slow, and irj manners 
ihej arc very sluggish, 


Their young arc brought into ihe world alive, 
bxvtng been first hatched from eggs within the 
pueot animal. The females are said to retire (o 
ihr water to deposit th«in : at their first exclusion 
6om the body, these are furnished with fins on each 
lide of the neclc^ which, on the nnimat's bc(x>ming 
perfect, dropoff. The number of young produced 
by one Salamander is said Eometimcs to nmount to 
llwly or forty. 


This lizard, which is very common \n .>;(ngnant 
and muddy waters in this country, h six or sfvcn 
incbn in length, and entirety covered, except on 
the belly, with small warts. The under parts arc 
of a bright yellow colour, and the upper mostly 
Wsct broun, spotted with black, ll resides allo- 
gcilier cither in the water, or in very damp places, 
«id its tail, being flattened perpendicularly, serves 
it as a rudder in swimming, ll is usually seen 
cnwiing along the bottom, but it now and then 
mcj, with a wriggling motion, lo the surface. 

Al certain periods these animals, like many other 
•pities, change their ekins. Mr. Baker kept some 
''f ibcm in a large jar of water for many months, and 
found that ihey generally performed this ojicration 
8t Ihe end of every fortnight or three weeks. 

A day or cwo before the change, the animal always 



* Syvowtms. — t,3cena patmstra. Lina. — Ll Sitamandrt i 
^up1st«. /,« CtftJt.—fUV in ScoUaod. 



appeareJ more f^luggish ihan itsual, taking no no- 
lice of the U'onns tliat were given If) it, which at 
other limes it greedily devoured. The &kin in GOina 
parts of (he body appeared loo&e, and ita colour not 
so lively BIS I)crorc. Ii began the operation of caM- 
ing the skin, by luosening lliat [nrl abovii the jaws ; 
it iticn piLshcd it backward gently and gradually, 
both above and below the head, (ill it was able to 
slip out first one U-jand then the other. With ihese 
1^ it proceeded lo thrust the skin as far backwards 
aft they could reach. This done, it was under the 
necessity of rubbing its body against the gravel, till 
it was more than half freed from the skin, which ap- 
peared doubled back, covering the hinder part of the 
bo<l)' and the tail. The animal now bent back Its 
head, taking the skin in its mouth, and, setting 113 
feet upon ii, for firmer hold, by degrees drew it en- 
tirely oif, the bindOcgs being dragged out in the 
same manner (hat Ihc fore ones were before. 

On examining the skin it was, in every Instance, 
found to be turned with its inside outwards but 
without any breach except a I the jaws. Thesecrea- 
ture» do not, however, like some of the snakes, put 
ofT the coverings of ihc eya along with the ikin t 
for tM'O round boles always appear where ibe cyei 
have been. 

Thi5 upcniiion iwineiimcs occupies near half sn 
hour : and after it i« finished ibc L'Z4rd appcan full 
of life and vt;:our. If the skin is not taken away 
wry shortly atier it is ca*t, the animal usually swal- 
lows it wbule, as il does other food. Sometimes U 





begins with ttie head part first ; and tbe tail being 
filled with air and wnicr becomes like a blown blad- 
der, and proves so unmanagcfiblc that it is very 
diverting ui sec the pains it costs lo discharge these, 
tnd to rcdticc it lo a condition (o be got down the 

Dr. Towttwin, nho bad several of these Lizards 

ii « jar fur the pur|>cKe of trying experiments on 

their tespirafion, twys that he fed ihem with worms^ 

and thai if ihev •x&tv in the greatest slillnc&t, and a 

•ofm was dropped ever *> gently anwng tlicm, they 

all immediately bcf^n to fight, each attacking bis 

neighbour, and seizing it by the he^d, foot, or tail. 

Tins he remarked lo be not a contention inimcdi- 

a»dy for the worm, for that often lay for a short 

time unnoticed, but it seemed to originate in a great 

acateflesa of smell (which in a moment informed 

tbem of the pre$ence of their food), and in a sin- 

golar dulln&ts of their diecriminaitng powers f. 

Being ne\'er seen In winter, these UzanU are aup- 
pMed to retire into boles or mod, and become tor- 
pid. They deposit their spawn towards the cad of 
Ut)r or beginning of June, in small cluster;!, consist- 
ing of several peliab yellow-brown globules included 
in lurrounding gluten. The larv£ are furnished 
rith &ns on each ^idc of the brc^ist, which fail off 
'vbcn ihc animals atiaio a perfcol slate. 

* Paper of Mr. B«kerin Phtl.Tran. to). xli«. p. 53^ 
f Towmoa'a Tract >, p. 113. 


THERE is much geometrical elegance, in ihe si. 
nuous motions of the Serpent tribe. Their bnck- 
bonc cofihisls of moveable arttculatioos, and run* 
tbroogh the whole length of Ihcir body. The hreant 
and abdomen are surrounded with ribs. Some of 
the species can make ibcir bodies stiff, and by this 
means ai'c enabled to spring with great force ftod ve- 
locity on their prey. 

Tbc bodies of most of the tribes arc covered with 
scales; ami Linnaeus has endeavoured to mark the 
species by the number of scaly plates on the abdo- 
men and beneath thctnil ; the former he denomi* 
nates scu/a, and the Utter subcaudal sqnf2m^: but 
Dvery day's eipericncc tends to prove that titcsc arc 
too uncertain nnd variable to be depended on. 

The head is connected to the trunk without the; 
intervention of a neck. The jaws arc so formed 
that the animaU arc able to swallow bodies as 
thick and frequently even thicker than themselves. 
Thefonguc is Mender and cleft. 

The ;to«oMow Serpents differ from the others in 
having long tubular fangs en each &ide of the head, 
calculated to convey the venom from the bag or re- 
ceptacle at the base into the wound made'by their 



bite. Tlic principal distinguishing rule in these 
iribes Uj Ibat the venomous Serpents have only two 
nm of true or proper tcclh (that is, such as are 
not foogs) in tlie upper jaw, wliilst all others bavo 

A head entirely covered with xnall scales h also 
msomc degree n character, but by no means an unU 
«cml one, of poisonous species ; as are also scales oa 
tbetiead atnl body furnished with a ridge or (jn>nii- 
oest middle line. The number of poisonous Ser- 
fcnls is very few when compared with the u-hoJe 
fHitnber of the species. Out of about ajo species 
dcicribed in Systema Nature there are not 40 that 
flare bcco diacorcicd to pos:^ tbc potsonoiu 

All ihe species cast their skins at certain periods ; 
and those of cold and temperate climates lie con- 
ceded in 3 torpid state during winter. The flcsb of 
wvcra) of the Serpents is innoxious, and even eaten 
^J ihc natives of many countries. Some of them 
deposit eggs, which are connected in a kind of chain; 
others produce their young perfectly formed 
leggsbptpbct) wi(bif> their toadies, 


The animals of (his tribe, which arc veiy few, are 
•11 furnished with poisonous fangs, but their bite is 
pot fatal unless they happea w be much irntatcd,— 



They arc confined to the wamtcr parts of Amprici, 
where they prey on the smaller bird», ItEiirds, and in- 
sects, I'licy give notice of their npprooch bjr thcj 
rattle at the end of their tail, which is couipo««d of 
hoHour membranaceous urticulalion^, iliat annually 
tDcrcat>c in number till thry amount to nbt^uc forty. 
The head is broaJ, and covered with lurgc airinatcU 
scales, or sucli as have a prominent mtdUle line : the 
snout is rounded and obtuse. 

TbeirLinnean generic chnracter is, that tht;y hatt 
Bcuta on the nbdomcn ; scuts .inH s(]uamii! beneath | 
the tail, and the tail terminated ntth a rattle. 


This, the most dreaded ofall the Seqwnis, is found 
both in North and Scmth America, where it U!<tnl)y 
grows to about five or fix feet in length. Its colour 
is yellowish-brown al>o\'c, marked with brojd trans- 
ycrse bars of black. Both the jaws are furnished with 
small sharp teeth, and the u|}[icr om: \y.\>> four Inrgo 
incuniitcd and pointed fungs, At iheboi-c of each is 
around orilice, opening into a hullow, that appears 
again near the end of the tooth in (he form of a small 
channel : these tcelh may be raised or compressed. 
When the animals are in the act ofbiiing.ihcy force 
out of a gland near the roots of tht; teeth ihc fatal 
juice: thiij is received into the round orifice of the 
(t.'Clh, conveyed through the tube into the channel, 

• Stmokimi. — Ctotaltu botridu** Imh. — Boiqui™. /-« Cffntr. 


and fmfD ihcncc wilh unerring' direction into the 
woowJ. The tail i« fiirnished wilh a mtdc, con^t- 
in^ofjoints loosely con neclcd : the number of these 
H uncertain, depending in some measure on ihcage 
ef the iinimnl, being siippo^ed to increase annually 
by an oddiiional joint. 

Providence hm kindly gn-m to manltind asecuritjr 

>U the bile of this dreadful reptile ; for it renc- 

;_ -J warns ihc passenger of i(s vicinity by tlie rat- 

iliogof its tail. Ill fine wcatbcrihc notice Is always 

^iren, but not always in rainy weather ; this inspires 

Ibc Indians with adread of travelling among the woods 

m wet se^tRons. In addition to this circumstance, (he 

odour of lijc Rattle-snake is so extremely fctkl, that 

vtKn it bask-t in the san, or is irritated, it Is often 

dacoi'tred by the scent, before it is either seen or 

hord. Horses and cattle frequently discover it by 

Ascent, and escape at a distance ; but when the 

wpent happens lo be to leeward of their course 

'bey sometimes nin into great danger*. 

Tlic Rattlc-snakc usually moves with its head (in 
tlicground; bnl, if alarmed, throws its body into a 
orcle, coiling itself with its head in the centre erect, 
OTd with its eyes flaming in a most terrilic manner. 
Ha-^pily it in:iy be easily avoided : ii is slow in pnr- 
">'', and has not the power of springing at its assait- 

The tongue, a« in many other serpent!", is com- 
posed of two long and round bodies joined together 

* LlCapcde, iv. aVS. f Pcnn. Arcl. ZugLiJ. Jj6. 



from the root to :iboat half its Icoglh. This is frti 
cjoenlly daiicH out and retracted with great agility. 
There i«, besides the fangs with which the Rattle^ 
snakes kilt their pnry, another kind of teeth, much 
smaller, and situated in both jaws, which >;crvc for 
catching and retaining it. There are no grinders j 
for they do not chew ihdr food, but alnrays swallonr 
it whole. 

It is not very uncommon for this creature to come 
into honses ; but the moment any of the domestic 
onimals ^ee or hear it ihcy lake alarm, and wntle in 
giving notice of its (jrescncc. Hog«, dogs, and 
poultry, all exhibit the utmosl. consternation and 
terror, erecting their bristles and feathers 8nd ex- 
prevsiog by their diD'ercni notes of a!arm t)iat a dan- 
gerous enemy is near. Mr. Catesby says Ibat, in a 
gctitlcman's house of Carolina, as the servant M-as 
making the bed, on the ground dour, that he had 
himself left but a few minutes before, he disco- 
vered a Rattle snake lying coiled between chc sheets 
in the middle of the bed*. 

When the Rnille-:;nake has been irritated, or the 
weather is exceedingly hot, its poison, on being in- 
scrtwl into a wound, often proves fatal inavery*bort 
time. In the Philosophical Transactions wc have an 
account of several experiments that were made by 
Captain Hall, in South Carolina. A snake was tied 
down to a grass-plot, and made to bile a healthy 
cur-dog: immediately ancmards the poor animal's 



tycs wcic fixed, his tcelb clewed upon his tongue, 

»hidi was hanging ou(, his lips iverc drawn up so 

as to learc his teeth and giim^ bare, and In a quar- 

tcroTa minute be died. Tbe hair was then taken 

off* by flMftns of hot water, and only one »mall 

puncture appeared, between his fore-lcgit, with a 

bluetsh-green colour round it.— A second dog was 

brought about half an hour afienrards, and the 

make bit his car : he cxlitbilcd signti of violent sick- 

nesSf staggered about for suine time, then fell down 

„ cootalsed, and two or three limes got up9gain : be 

Hltred near («ro hours. — Four days aftei- this two 

■ dogs, as lar]ge as common bull-dog?, were bitten by 

Vitn; the one in the inside of his leA thigh, which 

died exactly tn halfa minute; and the other on the 

outside of the thigh, which died in four minutes.— 

PGptainllalt, aHcr some other experiments, w!9hc<l 
»t last to try whether its poiaon would prove mortal 
(0 itself. He therefore himg it up in such a manner 
that it bad about half its length on th(;grotind> and 
tnilaled it by two needles fastened lo the end of a 
ilick. Tlic creature made several attempts lo seize 
tbe stick, and then bit itself. It was let down, and 
iii eight or ten minutes was found to be lifeless. The 
I' fnake wis nfterwards cut into 6vc pieces, which 
*wc succca»t«ly devoured by a hog, but without 
j nfedving any injury in consequence. 

U'c arc lold by an intelligent American writer, 
i iliat a farmer was one day mowing with hid negroes, 
. *bcQ be by chance irod on a Rattlc-snakc, ihiit im- 
H ovcdiatcly turned upon bim and bit lus boot. At 
" "'fihr, when he went to bed, he was sttackcd with 



a sickness: he quelled, and berorea physician coaU 
be called in, he died. All his neighbours were sur- 
prised at lhi4 sudden death, but Ihc corjise wan in- 
terred without examination. A few days after one 
ofihe sons |}nt on his father's boots, and at night 
when he pulled iheni off be u'as seized wiili 
the same symfitoms, an.l died on the following 
morning. The doctor arrived, but, unable to di- 
vine the cutise of so singular a disorder, acnotisly 
pronouiircti buth the father and the son to have been M 
bewlirhcd. At iKesale of the eft'ccts, a neighbour" 
purchase'! the boots, and on pulling ihcm on cxpc- 
rienced the like drcudful syinpioms with the father 
and son : a skiUul .physician, however, being sent , 
for, who had heard of the preceding affitir, m»-I 
pected the cause, and, by applying prnjier reme- 
dies, recovered his piiiienf. The fatal boots were 
now carefully examined, and the two (iings of the 
snake were discovered lo have been leil in the lea- j 
ther, with the poison bladders adhering lo them.— I 
They had penetrated entire))^ through, and both the 
father and son bad iirpcrt-cptibly scratched (hem* 
selves with their points in pulling ofFlhc boots*. M 
Dr. Brickell says he was a witness (o an encoiin-^ 
Icr between a Dog, and a Raiilc-snake which was 
fastened to the ground by a tolerably long string. 
The snake coiled np and rattled its tail; and the 
dog being let Irwse seized, and nitcmpled to shake itfll 
out at full length, but from the weight wits pT«. 
vented from doing it, and in consequence it bil him 

* KcslorSt. JobiifJiS. 





mtliear. He seemed somewhat stunned, and left 
lh< pbcc, bat returned on being encouraged by ibe 
cotDpooy. In the second encounter he received a 
rfe in his lip, after which the snake bit himself. 
Tbc dog from that momenl appeared senseless of 
trery thing around him, eren the caresses of his 
bnitual itiasler had now no effect, and in less than 
hilf an hour both the animals were found dead*. 

A Rattle-snake which had been highly irritated 
byan Indian Dog, that had both cunning and agi- 
lity enough always to keep out of his reach, was 
observed at tbc time to contract the miiscJcs that 
moved his scales, in nuch a manner as to make bis 
body appear extremely bright : but immediatel] 
after he had bitten himself all bis splendour was'' 

Iflhey ire not proTOketl. these animals are per- 
fectly inoffenfiive to mankind, being so much alarm- 
ed at the si^t of a man as always, if po-isiblc, to 
avoid them, and never commencing an attack. Their 
tnger is said to be easily known from tlie noise 
oflhelr rattle, uhich in this stale is always loud 
and distinct J but when ihey are pleased tt is said 
tD sound like a dtstanl trepidation, in which no- 
tbing distinct can be heard. Negroes and others, 
flflm have bccti bitten by them, have also frequently 
recovered without any assistance ; and indeed the 
Indian nredicines are mostly so fanciful, that na- 
ture recovers many whose cure is attributed only 


THE sak&i:d rattle-srake. 

Mr. St. John oitce »aw a taiiied Rattle. snilu: M 
gcttllc ac U is possible to conceive a reptile to be. 
It uYHt In iho water and vwHtn whenever it plcMed ) 
Hnd when ihe boxf^, to whom it belonged, called 
)t back, their summons wan readily obc}ied. It hod 
been (feprived of its fiings. They often 3trokt<l il 
with a 6o{x brush ; and (hi* friction sctttncd to oaa*c 
ihe most ple:ising lensalions, for it would turn on 'at 
buck to enjoy it, as a does before the tire*. 

Rattle-snakes arc viviparous, producing^ their 
young, generally about twelve in number^ in the 
monih of June ; and by September these acquire 
the Jonglh of ta^elve inches. It has been well 
attested that they adopt the tame mode of pro- 
fecrvlng their voting from danger as that attributed 
to Ihe European Viper, receiving them into their 
mouth and swallowing them. — M. de Boauvois de- 
clares that he vras an oyc-mtnoss to the procosf. 
[fc saw a large Ratllc-Knakc, which he had di3< 
turbcil in hia nralks : it immediately coiletl itself 
up, opened its jaws, and id an instant fivesnull oow 
that were lying by it rushed into its mouth. He 
retired in order to watch the snake, and in a quar- 
ter of an hour nw her ngain discharge them. He 
then approached a wcond time, when the young 
riihhcd into its mnuth mure quickly than before, and 
the animal Immcdintely moved ofi" and e.srspcd'f*. 

The Ruttlc-snukc is knou-n to devour several or 
the smaller animal«, and tt has generally been be- 
lieved that it is cndoiYcd with ihc power of tnaci- 



• Kcetoi S;, John, 339, 

t Phil. T«n. wJ. W. 




haling or charming its ymy lill they even run into 
1(9 jawa. Mr. Pcnnanl, from Kaln>, says that the 
sookc will Trequenily lie at the bottom of a tree 
OQ which a squirrel is seated. He fixes his eyes 
upon (be little animal, :tnd from that moment it 
cannot escape t it begins a doleful outcry, which is 
so well known thai a person passing by, on hearing 
it, immediately knows lliat a snake is present. Tlie 
tquifTcl runs up the tree a little way, comes do^tn- 
wards again, then goes up, and afterwards comes 
»fill lower. The snake continues at the bottom of 
ibc tree with bis eyes fixed on the E<]uirre1 ; with 
which hi» attention is »o entirely taken up, that a 
penon accidentally approaching may make a consi- 
derable noi^: without so much as the snake's turo- 
itigabuul. The squirrel comes lower, and at last 
leaps down lo the snake, whose mouth is already 
wide open for its receplron. The poor little animal 
then, with a piteous cry, runs into his jaws, and is 

Some colour is given lo Ibis by M. I*c Vailtant, 
who isay» that he saw, on the branch of a tree, a 
bird trembling as if in convulsion?, and at the di- 
stance of about four feet, on another branch» a targe 
fpecie^ of snake, that was lying with out-sfrctchcd 
occk, and fiery eyes, gazing steadily at the poor 
tnioial. The agony of the bird was so great that it 
was deprived of the power of moving away ; and 
wbcD one of the parly killed the snake, it was found 



<lea<l upon the spot — and that entirely from fear — 
for i>n txiimiiiation it a(>)H:nrcd not to have received 
the 5hghtc^t wound. 

The same gentleman informs us, that a short time 
afieru'ardt he observed a siniill rnou!«, in similar 
«goniziiigconvu!8ionfi,al)Oiit Iwo yards distant from 
a snake, w liose eyes wtrc intently tixed upon It ; 
and on frightening A^^.1y the reptile, and taking up 
the mouse, it expired in his band. 

The Hottcntuls who were with him sai'1 ihat 
this was very common ; and the fact was confirmed 
by the assertions of all to whom he mentioned these 

JJr. Barinn of rhi'adc'lphia, however, after having 
examined with some care into the subject, is of opi- 
nion that the rejwri of this fascinating property has 
had its ^i^'etn nothing marc than the fears and cries 
of binU imd other animals in the protection of their 
nests and young. Mc sjiys thai •' the result of not 
II little :iiteiiiii)ii h:is t:inght him that there Is hut 
one wonder in the business ; — the wonder that 
the sKiry fth<titld e\er have been believed by any man 
of umlcr>iandtng and observaiion-t-." But the above 
facts, if they arc such, and, till they arc proved 
otlicrM'iw, wc mtist esteem tlicrn such, apply so ill 
(o Dr. B-irion's «mcliisiun, as to induci* u supposi- 
lion that hts opinion is not 90 well fottndcil as it 
might appear to be from the iitintsal of hi:i pa- 

* Le VaiUani'* NVw Tn»*fl», i, ^j — ^jj. 
■f Jimv. I'bil, Trail- it. ^4 — 114, 



pcf only, and without comparing it with other ac- 

In suoicncr tlic Ralllu-^nakoN nrc generally foiinrl 
in pairs : in niiiler they collect in mullitiulcs, and 
retire into ibe ground, bcyund the reach of the 
fmt. Tempted Uy the wnrinth of a spring day, 
they are often obHencd In creep out in a weak and 
tangtiid state. Mr. Pennant mcitiJuns that a persob 
has seen a piece of ground cuvcrcd with them, 
and thnt he iilled, with a rod, IkHhccii sixty and 
levcQty ; till, ovcquwcred with ibe stench, he was 
obl^;ed to retire*. 

The .American Indians often regaleon the Rattle- 
inake. — ^VV^hen ihcy tuid thcin a^lcup, they put a 
small forked stick, over their necks, which they keep 
immovcably fixed tn the ground, giving the snakes 
[»cce of leather to bile ; and this they pull back 
levcnil limes with great force until they obMTvc 
tbl the [loisonous fangs are torn out. They then 
cut off the, skin the body, and cook it as we 
do eels ; and the licsh is said to be extremely white 
sod good f. 

* Ttaa. Arct. Zool. -J HecKw Si. John.— Brick ell, 145. 


THIS is 8 Doble tribe ofaoiinala, ihc largest 
strongest of the Seri)trnt race. 'I'hey arc altogether 
desatme of vcnoDD, never aliHck but from necessity^ 
Always eogage with open courage, and conquer only 
by superior strength. 

Three of the species arc found in Asia ; the r6&t 
ate oonfinad to the warmer parts of the new con- 

The Boas are readily distinguished fium other 
serpents in the under surface of the toil being co- 
vered with &cuta or undivided plates, like thow on 
the belly, and in their body not being terminated 
by a rat lie. 


This is a most immense animal, the largest of at 
the Serpent tribe, being frcijucntly from thirty to 
foily feet in length, and of a proportionate thick- 
ness. The ground colour oi' the body is ycllowish- 
gray, on which ii> distributed, along the back, s 
fieries of large chain-like, reddish-brown, and some- 
times perfectly red variegations, with other smaller 
and more irregular marks and spots. It h a native 
of Africa, India, the larger Indian islands, and South 

^Sykontki. — Boa Constrictor, /jen — L<i>e*iii. La Ce^ifi.— 
CODsiTictor Boa. Sktw.-'^^Sbaw'i Gnt.Zotl.v^. \a.lab. 91*9]. 






Amenca, u-tiere it chief1}r resides in most retired 
ftitMlioiu in wootlRiind mareiiy rutreate*. 

A ^ntlcmait, who liad some large concerns in 
America, aMurcs us of the enorinou^ length of 
lltece animala, and infomfi u» that he one dny st-ni 
out a soldier with an Indian to kitt some wild 
foul ; and in puTSUing their g&ine, the Indian, who 
gcaerally vrcnt before, beginning tu tire> sat doun 
npon what he iup|xisc(l (o be the fallen trunk of h 
tree. But the monster beginning to move, the poor 
fdlow perceived whnt it was that he hiid thus .-i)]- 
proacbed, and dropped down in an agony. The 
»3ldier, who at some distance saw what had hap* 
pcned, levelled his piece at the e%rpenl*d head, aniK 
bya luclty aim, shoE it dead ; nnd, going np to the 
rdicf of his companion, found be was bI$o 
dead from his fright. On his return he related 
wb3t had happened : the animal was ordered to be 
brought, and it was found to be thirty-six feet long. 
The skin was stutl^WI, and sent to the cabinet of the 
Prince of Orangfc. 

In ihc island of Java we aro sstiired that one of 
these monsters haa been known to kill and devour 
a bu0blo. In a letter printed in the German 
Ephcmeridcsi wc have an account of a combat bc- 
tveen an enormous serpent and a buffalo, by a per. 
Km who asitures ua that he was himself a spectator. 
The serpent had, fur some time, been waiting near 
the brink of a pool, in exncctation of \ts prey; 
Vfhen a bufl'alo was the Urst animal that appeared. 



Ilavmg darted upon iheafFrlghted besBt, it instantly 
began to wrapbim round with its voluminoua twist- 
ing« ; and at every twist the bones of the buffalo 
were heard to crack almost as loud as the report of 
m gtin. It was in vain that the animal struggled 
and bellowed I its enormoui; enemy entwined it 
!io clusely thiit al length all its bones were crushed 
to pieces, like those of a malefactor on the wheel, 
and the whole body reduced to one uniform mass : 
the M;r[>cnt then untwined itii folds, to swallow its 
prey al leisure. To prepare for this, and also lo 
make i( slip down the throat the more smoothly, it 
was seen to lick, the whole body over, and thus 
cover it with a mucilaginous substance. It then 
bcg-in lo swallow it at the end that afTurded the 
least resistance; and in (he act the throat suffered 
80 great a dilatation, that it look in at once sub&lanca 
that was thrice its oun ihlckne!^. 

According to the Bombay Courier of August jr, 
1799, a Malay prow was making for the port of 
Amboyna ; but the pilot, finding she could not en- 
ter it before dark, brought her to anchor for the 
night close undor the island of Celebes. One of 
the crew went on ihore in quest of betel nut in the 
woods, and on his return lay down, as it is supposed, 
to sleep on the bcacb. In the course of the night 
he was heard, by his comrades, lo scream out for 
Msislaiicc. They immediately went on ihore, but 
it waBtoo late ; for an immense snake of th)t» spe- 
cies had crushed him to death. The attention of 
ihc mon&ler being entirely otxupied by his prey, 
ibe ;«opte went boldly up to it, cut off' its head. 



itnil took both It and the bcxly of the man on board 
their boat. THl- &nak.i: had sci?^ the poor fellow 
b)' the right wrist, where the marks uf ibc fangs 
wen: vcr)* distinct ; and the mnnglcd corpse bore 
evident signs of being crushed by the monslcr's 
iwcttng itself round the bead, neck, breast, end 
thigh. The length of the snake was about thirty 
feet ; its thirkncsR equal tu that uf a moderalc 
sized man ; and, on extending ils jaws, ibcy were 
found wide enough to admit at once a body of the 
size of a man's head. 

Wc have been a«wircd by travellers that these 
animals arc sometimes fuund with the body of a 
sJ^ in their gtdlet ; while the horns, which they 
arc unable to swallow, are seen sticking out at 
ibcir mouths. 

I( is bap]iy for mankind that their rapacity is 
often their own punishment ; for, whenever Ihey 
lisw gorged themselves in this manner, they be- 
DM1C torpid, and may be approached and destroyed 
vilb Knfvty. Patient of hunger to u surpriitiug 
e^rcc, whenever they seize and swallow their 
pit}*, they seem, like surfeited gluitonn', unwieldy* 
siiiptJ, hcl|jlcss, and sleepy. They at that time 
wk for some retreat, where they may lurk for 
tncral days together, and digest their meal in 
stfety. The smallest ettbrt then will destroy them ; 
'lify Mrarccly can make any rt-sistancc ; and equally 
utKjualified for flight or opposition, even the naked 
Indiana do not fear io a$isail them. But it isoiher- 
«ise »hen this sleeping interval of digestion is 
Over J ihcy tlien ibsuc, with famished up[]clit<.-s, 



from llicir retreats, and with nccumulaled terron, 
white every Btiimal of tbc forest ii'ics from tbcir 

When captain Stedman was oa board one of his 
bnat't on tlie river Cotlicn in Siirinim, he wasi tR" 
Ibrnieil, hy one of his slaves, that a large snake was 
l)ing among the brush-wood on the beach, not far 
^iftlnat ; and, after some persuasion, he was induced 
tn land, in order to sheet it. On the fintt fthot (he 
ball, niis^inf^ the head, went Ihrotigb the body j 
uhcn the animal i^truck roand, and ^^ilh such asto- 
nishing force as to cut away all the tiiidervrood 
around bim with the facility of a scythe mowing 
gragftj and, hy flouncing bi» lail, caused the mud 
and dirt in which he lay, lo fly over the men's 
heads that were vilh him, to a considerable di- 
atance. They sturled back SDine way, but the snake 
was quiet again in a few minutes. Captain Sled- 
man ag.iin 6rcd, hut with no belter succe&s than 
lieforRt and the animal sent up Mich a cloud of 
dust an«l dirt ns tic bad never seen but in a whirl- 
wind ; which cauacd them once more suddenly ta 
rdfrat. Afier eoinc [rersuasions he was induced, 
though muLh against bis inclination, being excccd- 
rnf;ly weak from illness, lu make a third attempt. 
Havinp^t ihercforc, once more dtM:ovcred the snakci 
they discharged their pieces at once, and shot him 
ihmirgh the head. The negro brought a boat-rope 
to drag hitn tu the canoc which was lying on the 
bank of (he river. This proved no onsy uitdcrtak* 
inj^, >inee ihc huge creature, notwithstanding his 
biing uii>iiully wounded, still continued lo writbg 

tns bAiAt BOA. 

And twist about ih sach it tnalincr iA fo feitder U 
<Ua|?rons for any ptrsofi to ft|>[)roSch hlln. Thti 
oc^ made a ronning tio<ii* drt tlift rO|jd, and, afie^ 
mnerriiitlcss uttempts to make aft upproftcb, thrc^v 
it ovrr his head with inuoh dcxieriiy, and now, nil 
taUng holil of the rope, Ihey dragged him to tht^ 
teach, and lied him to the diern of the canoe lo 
tike bim in low. Being, however, kitll ativf, ht there 
kepi afrimminglike an ee). 

The length of this animal, which the negwea 
decUircd to be only a young one, and but arrived at 
lialf its growth, was upwards of twcnty-two fcc( J 
2nd its thickness about that of a boy near twelve 
years old, as was proved by nieasuring ihe crea- 
ture's skin round the body of the boy that was 
viih them, 

Wlien they came to one of their slalions, tliey 
hauled him on short; to skin hirn and take out the 
oil. To eltect this purpose, one of the negroes, 
baring climbed up a tree with the end of a ro|W, 
}et it doiph over a strung forked hnitich, and the 
othen hoisted up the snake and suspended him 
from the tree. This done, the former negro, with 
a tharp knifb between his teeth, left the branch, 
and clung fast upon the monster, which was stitl 
i^lbtng, and began his operations by ripping ft 
up, and stripping down the akin as he descended. 
" Though I perceived (*ays the captain) that the 
" animal wis no longer able to do him any in- 
** jury, I confess ( could not, without emotion, se6 
" a man stark naked, black and bloody, clinging 
*^ with his arms and legs round the slimy and yet 


" llvtug uiomlcr." This labour, however, was not 
withoul its use ; sinc« be not opiy Ucxlcrously 
Hoibtied the operation, but saved from the animal 
above four gallons of fine clarilicd fat, or rather 
oil, which proved of much ux to the surgeons at 
Ihe hospital. As much again as this v,d% also 
supposed to have been uavlcd. The negroes cut 
the animal in pieces, and would have eaten it, had 
they not been refused the use of the kettle to boil 
it in. — The hite of this snake is not venomous ; nor 
is it l>clicve(l to bite at all from any other impulse 
than that of hunger*. 


THIS tribe containfi a gceat number of species, 
(nenr two bmuireJ,} which differ from each other 
very greatly both in size and habit. About one- 
tifth of the whole have been discovered to be pen- 
sonous: these are, in general, to be distinguished 
from the rest by ihcir large, flatli&h, and sumfwhat 
hcart-^apcd heads, and rather short than long bo- 
dies and tails. The harmless species have, for the 
nin§i iiart, small heads, with more extended bo> 

All the species have scuta, or undivided plaica, 
under the abdomen; and broad alternulc squainn*. 
or scales, beneath the tail. 

* Sudoun's Aci'Ouot oTSuriiun. 



In the iovMtigation of this tribe, it is to be rc- 
imrtHl that the subcaudal scales, although alter 
Mle, are reckoned by pairs ; so thiit the immbiT 
marked by Lintiaus for the respective species al- 
ways means be number of pain*. 


Vipers arc pretty generally dispersed over the 
old Continent, and are by no means uncommon in 
our own island, pirticularly in the dry, slony, and 
chalky counties. 

They do not often exceed the length of two feet, 
thoogh ibey are sometimes found above three. The 
{Touiid colour of their bodies is a dirty yclto#, 
iJctper in the female than in the male. Tlic back 
li marked throughout with a series of rhomboidnl 
black spots joining each other at the poinU ; and 
tiie rides have triangular ones. The belly is entirely 
black J, — They are chiefly distinguished from the 
Common Snalte by their darker belly ; their head 
much thicker than the body, and in particular by 
the tail ; which, though it ends in a point, does 
Dot run tapering to k> great a length as in the 
Snake. VVheOj therefore, other di.«(inctIons f;iil, the 
iJiflcrcncc of the tall may be distingul^ihed at a 
single glance. 

• Shaw's Ger.. ZwI. »«1. HL 
f Stnovyu*. — Coldbef htnt. Lims. — Viptre, La Ct^edt.-^ 
Vipw. /■oM.—Eoglish Viper, AdJw. Rjiy^—^^avfi Qtn. Z««i. 
W-iiU lith. XQif—Ptw. But. '/.<»!, wt, lii. tah. 4, 
; Peon. Btit. ZuoLi. ij. 


rut coMuoH viriK. 

The apparatiu nf poison in the Viper ts vety 
nmiiar to ibat of tlie Batilc-snake, snd all the other 
jxMsoiious Ktpents. The syinptoms thai fbllotv tfac; 
bite »re an scute pain in tbc tvoimded port, n*iih a 
swelling, at first red, but tfterwarde li^id^ which, by 
degrees, f[>rcads to the adjoining parts ; with a great 
hmxacss, and « quick, though low, and sotnctiiiic9 
interrupted puhe : great sicKncss at ihc stomach, 
with bilious, convolsirc vomilings, cold ^wcala, and 
aonvetimcs pain aboot the oavcl. The mosi esteemed 
remedy is common sallad-oil thoroughly rubbed on 
tha wounded pan. This is always used by the viper- 
catchers, and seems far more cilicacions than any 
volatile alkali, as formerly recommended. The bite 
of the viper in this country, although it produces a 
pninrul and troublesome swelling, b rarely attended 
with any other bad c<jn?cquencc. 

The poiwn, according to Dr. Mead, when diluted 
ivilh a little warm water, ;md aiiplicd 10 the lip of 
tbc longuc, is very »harp aird fiery, a sensation taking 
place as if the tongue had been struck through witb 
Etomctliing scalding or burning. This, he s.iy.s, gocn 
oifin two or three hours. One person, mentioned 
by Dr. Mead, tried a large drop of it undiluted : in 
con8C[)ucncc of which his tongue swelled, with a 
little inflammation ; and tbc sorcntss lasted twro 
days. Other persons, on the contrary, assert it lo 

ive no particular acrimony of tasic, t>uE thnt, in 
Ibis reapcct, it rather resemble* oil or gum. Con- 
tradictions nearly equal have taken pliicc relative 
lu the cfrcct of vipci ine pcHSon taken into the '>to- 

ntaob. Boerhuvc affirms it to produce no ill ofTuot 
whalcvcr; and ihe abb^ Fonlana, tbst it is not lo 
beswalloued witb impunit)' — 'alihougb he is one oT 
ihoic whoasicrt ii!> Ixring devoid of any ihing un- 
pleannt to the taste. We arc loltl, however, ibitl 
in Ibe presence of tbe Grand Duke of TuM:any, 
irhtle tbe philocopbers uerc making ctaborale dis- 
•utatioTU on the danger of the poi&on tukcn inr 
virdiy, a viper^atcher, who happened to be pre- 
sent, ret^uested that a quantity of it might be put 
tiiloa vei^9ct,iind then, witb the utmosl conlidence, 
and to tbe astonishment of the whole company, he 
drank it off in tbeJr presence. £rcry one expected 
the man instantly to drop down dead t bat they 
•onn pcrccin-d tlicir mistake, says the rcJalcr of the 
slor)-. and found tbaCj taken inwardly, the poison 
Was as harmless as water. 

In onticnt limes, (he poison of the Viper was 
CDlIecled by many of the European nations as • 
poboQ fur their arrows, ub that of other serpents is 
uwd, by tbe iiibabttants of savage nations, at Ibe 
fKtent day. 

The V^per ib tlic only one, eilberof the Reptile or 
Serpent iHIm^, in Great Britain, from whose bite 
«e have any thing lo fear. All the others are either 
«itinely dc*li1ulcof poison ; or, iflhcy po»^css any. 
It is Dot injurious to mnn. 

Thesf animals arc vivi|>aroit5, and prwlticc their 

.young towards the close of eummor. The eg^, 

lidi nre batcbed in the womb, arc usually ten or 

ia^Eue oidy in number, and chained together som^ 

»bat like* string of beads. When tjie young bavc 


burst the she)\_, Ihcy are said to creep, by Ihcir own 
efforts, from their contincnicnt inio l!ic ojjen air, 
where they continue for several days without Inking 
any food. The Rev. Mr. White, of Selbomc, in 
company with a friend, surprifed a large female 
viper, which seemed very heavy «nd blojited, as she 
lay on the gras<<, basking in ihc sun. The)' killed 
and cut her up, and found in the abdomen fifteen 
young ones about the sise of fall-grown earlb- 
worms. This little fry issued into the world with 
the true viper spirit about tlicm, showing great nlcrl- 
ncss as soon as d'rsengaircd from ihe belly of the 
dam. They twisted and ivrigglcd about, set ibem- 
«lvcs np, and gapetl very wide when louehcd with a 
tticlc; exhibiting manifest tokens of menace and 
<lcfiance, though as yet no fangs were to be disco- 
vered even with the helpof gias.se8'- 

Thal the young, (or some time after their hrrth, 
retrcac, when suddenly alarmed, into the mouih of 
Ihc female, in the same manner as the young of the 
Opof^um do into Ihc- abdominal pouch of ihcir 
pamt, seems to be a fact satisfactorily a-sccriatnefL 
^Vipers arrive at their full growth in about seven 
years, and produce at the end of their swroiid or 
third. — ^Thcir food consists of reptiles, worms, or 
young hirdft, which ibcy swallow whole, tbou^ 
il wriietitnes happeuR thai the morsel is thrice the 
thickness of their own body. 

They nre capable of supjwrting long abstinence, 
one of ihcm having been kept above six months in a 

Wbi'.c'fl Kitunl Htttory of Sclbome. 

box without food ^ during which time its vivacity 
woi oot tcMcncd. — When at liberty ihey remain 
torpid throughout the winter ; yet when cotifinud 
they bive ncvt-r l>een observed to take their annual 

Tlicy arc usually caught with vooden tongs by 
the end of the tail. This is done without danger; 
far while tbey are held in that position ihey cannot 
wind themselves up to injure their enemy. 

Their flesh was Jomierly in high esteem as a 
remedy for various diseases, but particularly as a 
mtoretivc. It has however, of late years, lost much 
ofitsanlicnt credit, and 13 very rarely prescribed by 
modem practitioners. 


The Common or Ringed Snakes are well-known 
inhibitnnlfl of moist and warm woods, on the dry 
htnksof which they arc often aeen during the sum- 
mer, either sleeping or b.isking ihcmsclveF. They 
■fc J)armle« and inoffensive animals, being totally 
destitute ol'cvery means ofinjuring mankind. 

'She fcnmic deposits her eggs in holes fronting the 
touih, near stagnant waters ; but more frequently 
in dunghills, in the form of a chain of ova, connected 
by bunchei^ofa gluey matter, to the number of from 
tvtlfe to twenty. Tliese are about the sizcofibo 
eggi ofihc blackbird, of a whitish colour, and cover- 
(•1 with a parchment-like membrane. The young 

• Btitowtim. — Colnbrr imtri*. iiffn.— Riogwl Stolu. Prtw. 
PrmK. Brit. 2vV. ■»•/. iii. M*. 4. 

vex. rjj. H 



ones are rolled up spirally within the middle oi 

fluid, which greatly rcirCinWes the wbiicof a fowl'a 

egg. They are not hatchc<l til) the itpring follijwing 

the time wrhcn they are laid*. 

In winter these Snakes conceal themselves, and 

become nearly torpid ; re-aptHjaring- in spring, M'hen 

Ibey unifurinly ca^^t their 6lci^^. This is a process 

tiiat they also seem to undergo in the autumn, ^r. 

White soys, *' About ihe middle of this month, 

(September) we found in a field, near a hedge* the 

sloQgh of u large $nalte> which g<-cnicd lo have 

bden newly cast. From circumstances it appeared 

as if turned wrong mJc outward, and as if it had 

been drawn uii' backward like a stocking or wo- 

man'« glove. Not only the whole skin, but the 

scale* from the very eyes, were peeled ofi; and 

appeared in the head of the slough like a pair of 

spectacles. The reptile, at the lime of changing 

his coat, had entangled himself intricately in the 

gTHRs and weeds ; so that the friction of the stalks 

and blades might promote this ciinons shifting of 

hii exuviae. 

— ■ — ' - '* Lubrica icrpeiK 

' Exuit ui spiaii venicia.' Lucrel, 

*' It \<fouIdbca most entertaining sight could a 
person be an cye-witncsa to such a feat, and see the 
soake in the act of changing bis garment. As the 
convexity of the eyes in the slough is now inward, 
that circumstance alone is a proof that the skiu has 
been turned; not to mention that now the present 

• UCc^fde, Jli.35r. 



Inside is much darker than ihc uuler. If you look 
through the sca\t:s of ihc snalie's eye« from the con- 
csTc Mde, viz. as ihc reptile used Ihem, tbcy lessen 
objects mu*:^. — ^Thus it appears, from what has been 
ukI, that nunkcs craul out of the moulli of ihcir 
own sloughy nnd fguit the tail pan la<>t, just as eels 
irc skinned hy a cook-maid. — While the scales 
of the ey«s are Rowing loose, und a new skin U 
fimntng, the crciture, in apjicarancc, must be bltnd> 
•nd feci iiselt in a very aukward and uneasy situa> 

The earliest lime of the siuikes making their 
ippenmnce is in the month of March, from whi:h 
period till the middle of May they arc to be found 
ill vast iiumbcra on warm bnnks, in moist and shady 
places, among thickets and bru«huoo<l. Prom thU 
time, probably on :iccoiiot of the great heat of siiO* 
OUT, they are not so ofUti seen. 

Several iniitances have occurred of the Common 
Soake being in a great degree domesticateif. Mr. 
While saya that he kncn* a gentlemao who bad one 
in his house quilc tame. Though this w» usually 
sw(!el id its person as any other animal, yet 
whenever a stranger, or a dog, or cat entered, it 
«oald begin to hiss, and soon filled the room with 
aa effluvia so nauseous a» to render it almo»t in* 

An iotimate friend of mine \ had a Commoo 

• WhiM'i Naiimliit'* Cikndar, 
f While's Kkiuidl Hiiiot; of Seiboroc- 
t Ut. Rerett Shrppaid, F- L. S. gf Gonvill aad Csiua CoiUigt, 





SnaVc in his rooms at Cambridge near three months 
H« kept it in a box of bran ; :ind, during all that 
(imc, be never could discover that it ate any 4bin^, 
although he frequently put both eggs nnd Troga, ibe 
fivouritc food of this spocics, into the box. When- 
ever he vra.s In ihc room he used to let the animal 
out of its priwn : it would first crawl several liniea 
round Ibe floor, nppnrenity with a desire to escape ; 
and, when it found ita attempts fruitless 't would 
climb up (he liibles and chairs, and not unfrequcnilf 
even up the chair of its owner as he sat at his table. 
At length it became to ftimiliara^ to lie io a serpen- 
tine form on the upper bar of his chair: it would 
crawl through his fingers if held at a little distance 
bc/brc its head, or lie at full length upon hi? table* 
while he wa.s writing or reading, fur an hour or moro 
at a time. When first bruught into the room, it 
used (o hiss and dart out its forked tongue ; but ia 
no instance emitted any unpleasant vapour. It was 
in all its actions remarkably cleanly. Sometimca it 
n-aa Indulged with a nm upon the grais, in the court 
of the college ; and sometimes with a swim in a large 
bason of water, which it seemed to enjoy very much* 
When ihia genilctnan left the UiiivcrsUvi be gave 
his bcdmakcr orders to turn it out into the fields i 
which} he believes, done. 

The!« oniirials prey on frogs, insects, worms, and 
mice ; for the former of which ibey often go into the 
water, where they swim with great elegance. AAcr 
a snake has devoured a tolerably large frog, or a 
Email bird, its prey will be seen to Ibrm A knot in its 
boiiv ; snd it then becomes so stupid and inactive as> 

Tttt eo^fuaN srake. 

easily <o be cflugfat.-^Tbe gentleman who favoured 
me wjlh tlic preceding account ofa tume snake was 
witness to one of ihcsc animals seizing a frog. It 
laid lioI<J of it by surprise, by one of the legs, and 
immediately began to swallow it. He watcbed (licm 
for near a quarter of an hour ; when the poor frog 
criod out so piicxiusly ih»L he determined to release 
it; but is the struggle the leg and thigh had bc^n 
mm off and devoured. — The Common Snakes are 
nid to be particularly fond of miik> so much so, that 
tbey will occasionally creep into dairies to drinit the 
milk, from the vesseU. It is even said that they wil) 
twin* themselves round the legs of cows to reach 
their udders, and that chcy will sometimes suck iheio 
till the biood follows*. 

|i is supposed to be of a species nearly allied to 
this, called the Freacb Smkr^ that an interesting 
mccdote is related by Boinare. He says that one 
of these had been so completely lamed by a lady 
as to come to her whenever she called it, to follow 
bcr in ber walks, writhe itself round her armi>, and 
sleep in her boiiom. One day when she went in a 
boat to 9ome distance up a large river, she threw 
tbcanakc into the water, imagining that lis lidcliiy 
would lead it to follow Iter, and that, by swimming, 
ttwouid readily overtake the boat. The poor ani- 
mal exerted all its etlbrls; but the current proving 
at that juncture untisunlly strong, owing to the ad- 
TSQCc of the tide, in spile of all its struggling lo 




effect its purpose, it was borne down the stream, and 
was unfortunately drowned*. 


This dreadful serpent is very common in many 
parts of India. Its general length is three or four 
feet, and thickness somevihat more than an inch. 
The head is rather small ; and a little beyond it 
there is a jaieral dilatation of the sicin, which is con- 
tinued to the length of about four inches down- 
wards, where it gradually sinks into the cylindrical 
form of the rest of the body. 

This part is capable of being extended hy the 
animal at pleasure. It is usually marked on the 
top hy a very large and conspicuous patch resem- 
bling a pair of s^xclaclcs. The usual colour of the 
Hooded Snake is a pate rusty brown above, and be- 
neath a blucish while, tinged with yellow. The tail 
ta{Mrs to a slender and sharply-pointcd entremity. 

When it is Irritated or prepnring to bite, (his ani- 
mal erects its body, bends down its bead, and seem*, 
«a it were, hooded by ilie expanded skin of the 
neck : hence its name of Cohra tii Ca/>eIIo, or Hooded 
Serpent. It opens its mouth, exhibiting its sharp 
poison fangs; then springs on its enemy with great 

From its frequently moving along with great part 

* IKetiDnnairc RaJsoud^ DaiT«n«l d'Hiitoire NalurciU. 

f StkontmA' — Co)ul>cr Najs. Lma. — Col>r« di Capclio. f^ 

— SiMCtMk hOMkt. SAmv.-— £Adw'j Gen. Ztol. wl, uL tii. ttt; 




or lift body erect, and with its head in continual 
acticKij as if looking around with great circumspec- 
tion, this species Is in India esteemed the emblem 
of prudcnrc. It is aI>o an ol^cct nf sii[)erslitit>iis 
vcoeration among the Genloo Indians, Ibundcil on 
aotDC trails of legendary mylhology : ibey seldom 
name il vitbout addmg some epithet, such as the 
imaU the j!ood, the holy. Some of them arc happy 
when ihey t-ee it running about thoir houMs ; from 
whence many have received irreparable injuries ; for 
it is very possible lo hurl it unintentional ly, cither 
withoat seeing it or during sleep, and il immcdi- 
•tely revenges itself with fury, lis bite is someli nc? 
mortal in two or three hours, ^specially if the poison 
ba» penetrated the larger ve8»el8, or muscles.— A 
dog bitten by one of them died in twenty-scvrn mi> 
nate&i and another, larger, survived fil'ij-six minutes, 
A chicken died in less than half a minuir, though 
others survived a couple of hour*, depending pro- 
bably on the heat uf ihe weather, and the condition 
of the tierpeni at the time. 

In India the H^xidcd Snake is carried about in a 
basket to be publicly exhibited as a show, being {\ni 
deprived of its fangs to secure the men from the 
(laager of ilfl bite. Ai (he swmd uf a lliigcolcl it is 
taught lo assume a kind of dancing altitude and mo- 
Iton<i, which it conlintie^aslongas its ma?terconliDiies 
his music. 


The Black Snake 'm a North American serpeat, 

' Stiiomriiis— Culubet C«»Mnc(or. /iiwi.— Kncrt. Kerr^i La 
W-— L« Lien, la C'ffJi. JJlick Sa»ke,\n ^B»tt'«».- 



that groves lo a great length, but possesses no poi- 
sonous quahtics. It 19 very smooth anrl slender, 
black on the upper parts, and of a pale blue beaeath, 
exeept the ihroHt, which is white. 

It& activil}' is a'^lonishing; nnd in »pced it will 
sometimes cqtial a horse. I1>c difT^retit moltons of 
these creatures arc very divcrling : they will at tiroes 
climb the trees in quest of the Tree Fix>g8 ; orj for 
other prey, gliilc at full length along the ground. On 
some occasions Ihey present (hem.selvt& half erectj 
and in Ibis posture their eyes ami (heir heads appear 
to great advantage. 'J'lie former display a 6ery 
brightness, by means of which we arc told Ihey arc 
able lu fascinate birds, and the smaller quadrupeds, 
in a manner similar to the Rattlc-Snakc. Their body 
is said to be so brittle that if, when pursued, lh«y 
get their head into a hole, and a person seizes bold 
of thelail,thi8 will often twist itself to pieces*. 

The Black Snake is sometimes bold enough to 
attack a man, but may be driven off by a smart 
stroke from a stick, or whatever other weapon be 
may chance to have in hi:* hand. When it orcr- 
takes a person who has endeavoured lo escape (not 
having had courage enough to oppose it), it is 
said to wind itself round his legs in such a man- 
rKr as to throw him down, and then to bile him 
several limes in the leg, or wherever it can lay 
hold of, and run off* again. 

During profei»or Kalm's residence at New York, 
Doctor Colden told him that, in the spring of 1748, 

Bikkel), 1 52. 



Pne bad several workmen at his cotmtry-seat, an4 
among them one just arrived Trom Europe, who of 
course knew but ]iltle ofthc qualities of the BUck 
Snake. Tbc other workmen, who obser\*ed h male 

P and lema]c lying logctbcr, cngngrd their new nont* 
pantOQ to kill one of tlicm. He accordingly ap> 
pronched them wtih a slick in his hand: ihis the 
male obscn-ed, and made towards him. The man 
linlc eipccted (o tind &uch coiinige in tlie reptile, 
and, flinging «way his Mick, mn off as f:ibt as he 
was able. The Snake pursued, overtook him, and^ 
Cwisting scvernl times round liis legs, threw him 
down, and .ilmoi^t frightened the poor fcllovr out o( 
bis MOMS. lie could not rid himself of the animal 
tviihout cutting it through in two or three plnces 
with a knife. The other workmen laughed heartily 
at the incident, witiiout ever offering to help their 
companion, looking upon the whole afTatr only as a 
scene of the highest amusement. 

K This Snake, which is altogether I)armles«, ei- 
ccpt in the spring, is very greedy of milk, and it is 
diiScult to keep it out when onec it is accustomed 
to get into a cellar where milk is kept. U has been 
seen eating milk out of the same dish with children, 
without biting them, though they oOen gave it 
blows with their spoons upon the head, when K 
v/aa too greedy. 

It is said to be found extremely useful in America 
in clearing houses oT rats, which it pursues with 
wonderful agility, even to ihcvcry roofs of barns and 
out'boufiCB; ibr whicb good services it is cherished 
by the gCDcrai/fy vC the Americans, who we. tvV ^tcA 




pains to prei^ervc and multiply the breed. It ts 
also said to defiiroy ilie riJltlc-Miiikes hy IniKting 
round tlieir bodies, and sufibcating them by tbr 
violence of its contractile force. It Is so swlfl 
tba( there Is no escnping its ptirHiit, but its bite 
has no more cfffCl iban a M^ralcb «'ilh a ptn. Atl 
the mischief this species does is lo the farmen* 
wives, in skimming the milk-pans of the cream, and 
robbing the bcn*roo8ts of iheir fggfi. It is not very 
uncomuion lo 6nd it culled up in a nest under a 
Ditiing hen*. 

The following description of a contest between 
the Black Snake, and another species, is extracted 
from the Letters of an American Farmer : '* One of 
my cons^tant walks when I »m at leisure (^ays this Is in my loM-lands, where I have tbe 
pleasure of feeing my cattle, horses, and colts. 
Exnberaut grass replenishes all my fields, the best 
rrpresriilaiive of our wealth. In the nitddle of that 
trad, I have cut a dirch eight feet wide. On each ' 
side of this I carefully sow every year some grains | 
of hemp, which rises to the height of fil'teen feet, so 
strong and full of limbs as lo resemble young trees tM 
I once fli;ccndcd one of Ihcm four tect above the 
ground. Thc^e produce natural arbours, rendered 
often still more compact by tbe assistance of an an- 
nual creeping ptani, which we call H vine, that 
never fails to entwine itself among the branches,' 
and always produces a very desirable sha<le. As 
was UMcday sitting, solitary and pensive, in this pr 


tnitivc arbour, my atlrnlion wascngrtged by a s(ran(re 
MKf of mslling iioiw, at some paces dislanrc. I 
looted all oround niihout (tisiinguUhinf; any (hin^t 
until 1 climbed up one of my great hcmi>->tallcs ; 
when, to my al^tonl^h[nct^t, I beheld two snakes of 
cofHiilcrable length, the one pursuing the oiber with 
peat celerity ihroiigfa a hemp stubble field. The 
tggre-isor was of t he black kind, six feet long ; the 
fiigitiw was a Water Stmke, nearly of equiil dimen- 
They toon met, and, in the fury of their 
it encounter, appeared in an instant firmly twisted 
t<^licr; and, whilst their united tnrls beat ihe ' 
)pou»d, itvey mutually trie.l nt'ith open jnws to lac^ 
ntccarh other. W'bal a fdl as}>cct did they present ! 
Theirheid* were comprcsH'rf to a very small size, 
Ihttreyes B»Nhed Arc; and after this conilict had 
iiRcd about 6ve minutes, the seeond found mcnns u 
<bxngige itself from the lirst, and hurried towards 
thf il;tch. l\s Antagonist intttantly asAiimed a new 
(»rtufe, nnd half rrec|iing, half erect, wiih a majes- 
lie iMcti, orefiook and attacked the other again, 
which i)l:icc<t it*clf in a similar attitude, and prc- 
t«"nl to resist. The scene was uncommon, and 
dutiful, for thus oppoMrd they fought with their 
jiva, biting each otlurr with the utmost rage; but, 
■■olwith&tandiog this appearance of mutual courage 
•nd fiiry, Ihe water snake still seemed desirous of 
Rtfcating towards the ditch, its naiuml clement. 
This was IH) sooner perceived by ihc kccn-eved 
Wackooc than, twisting its lail twice round a stalk 
oniL-mp, and seizing its adwrsory by the iHoaf, 
'»ot by means ©fits jaws, but by Iwisling ita owo 


TUZ eL&CK, &«.)«£. 

neck twice roond that of the water snake, he pulled 
it back from ibc ditch. To prevent a defeat, the 
Inttcr took bold likewise of b sulk on the bank, and» 
by the acquisition of that point of resistance, be- 
came a match for tits fierce antagonist. Strange was 
this to behold : tvfo great enokcs strongly adlierinc 
to the groiuid, mutually fastened together by meanti 
oC the wrtthiiigs which lashed them to each other, 
and stretched at their fuU length, the}' pulled, but 
pulled in vatD ; and, in the momentfi of greatest ex- 
enion, that part of their bodies which was entwined 
teemed extremely small, while the rest appeared 
inflated, and now and then convulsed with strong 
undulations rapidly following each other. Their 
eyes appeared on fire, and ready to start out of their 
tieatb. At one lime the conflict seemed decided g 
Ibe water snake bent itself into great folds, and by 
that operation rendered the other more than com- 
monly outstretched -, the next minute the aew strug. 
glcs of the bUck one gained an uncii|>ccicd supc< 
riorily, it acquired two great folds likewise, which 
noccssarily extended the body of its adversary in 
|>ropurtion as it had contracted its own. These eC< 
^orts were alternate, victory seemed doubtful, in- 
clining eomelinies to one side, sometimes to Ibc 
other; until at last the stalk to which the black 
snake was fastened, suddenly gave iray, and, in 
consequence of this accident, they both plunged 
into the ditcli. The water did not extinguish their 
Tindiclive rage, for by their agitations 1 could still 
trace, iJiough I could not dietinguish, their attacks. 
The^ soon re^^ppeared on the surface, twisted toge- 




ttw, as ID their first onset : but the black snake 
«tt(bed fo retain itft fronted superiority ; for its bead 
VIS exactly fixed above that of the other, which ic 
incessantly pressed dovirn under the water, until it 
ihs stifled, and sunk. The victor no sooner per- 
cdved its enemy incapable of further resistance 
fttn, abandoning it to the current, it returned to 
Ac shore and disappeared *.** 

* Hector St. ^obn, 144. 


WERE wc acquainted with no other anitniiU ihai^ 
Ihofc that inhabit the land, and breathe the air of 
our utmosphere, it would appear absurd to be told 
that any race of beings could exist only in ibc 
waters; we should naturally conclude, from the ef- 
fect produced oo our own bodies when plunged 
iuiD that clement, that ihc ]>owcrs of life could not 
there lie sustained. But we find from experience 
that the very depths of the ocean arc crowded with 
inhabitants, that, in their construction, modes of 
life, and general design, are as truly wonderful as 
those of the land. Their hi-tory, however, must 
al«.iys remain very imperfect^ Siincc the clemeni ja 
which (hey live is beyond humun access, and of 
such vast dimension* as to throw by far the greater 
part of them altogether out of the reach of man. 

That they arc in eviTy respect, both of cxierior 
■ml interior conformation, well adapted to their 
element and modes of life, we are not permitted to 
doubt, llicir shape is not unlike that of the lower 
part of a vessel. The body is in general slender, 
flattened on the sides, and always somewhat poinleil 
at the head. This enables them with great cast: lo 
col through the resisting medium which they in- 
habit. Some of them are endowed with such ex- 
traordinary powers of progressive motion, that they 



nble not only to overtake the fastest sailing ves- 
sels, buf> during their swiftest cuursc, to play round 
\hcni without any .ipfmrcntly cxlraorditiary efforts. 

Tbeir tx>dlcs arc in general covered with a kind of 

borny tc^is, lo keep them from being injured by 

P itie presMirc of the nater. Several .ire enveloped 

virh a fat and oily imbstance, to preserve Ihem from 

polrelaction, and to guard them from OLlreme 


They bre^ibe by means of those comb-Iikcorganis 
(iliccd on each side of the Dixrk, called gilli$. In 
doin^ this they till their month with water, then 
Jmc it backwards with so much force as to lift open 
tbe great (lap, and force it out behind. And in the 
jasMgc of ihi*, among the feather-like processes of 
the gills, all, or at least the greatest part, of tbe air, 
coBtained in it, is left behind, and carried inio the 
body to perform its part in the animal economy. 
In proof of this fact, it hia been ascertained that, 
if the air is by .my means extracted from the water 
into which lisli arc put, ihey immediately come to 
tbe Mirfacc and gasp for air. — Distilled water is to 
wb wbat the vacuum formed by an air-pump is to 
•wst other aaioiats. — This is the reason why in 
•iaicr, when a fish-pond is entirely frozen over, it 
i*»ecesury to break fades in the ice, not that (be 
fiitimay come to feed, but that they may come to 
«WBe. Without thi*? precauKon, if the pond is 
*w»ll and Ibey arc numerous, ihey will die from the 
Mrropiion of the water. — If a string be tied roiind 
' n^b Jn Such manner that the free piny of his gills 
** tbitructcd, tbe aoimal will become immediately 



convuUed) and will not survive more tlian a few 

Fishes arc nearly of ihc same specific gravily with 
water, and Fu*im by meanR of their fins and tail. 
The musctilflr force of the latter is very great. 
Thcif tJircct motr*>n is obtained by moving the tail 
irom one side to tlic otbcr, with a vibrating motion. 
Wbcti about to move itself^ the £sb (urns the end 
obliquely to the water, and moves it through it io 
that position. The water re-ads obliquely against 
the tail, and move:* him partly forward, and partly 
laterally. The lateral motion is corrected by the 
next stroke (he contrary way, while the progressive 
motion 19 continued. Assisted by Ihetr tail, they 
turn sideways : striking strongly with it on that 
side, and keeping it bent, it acts like the rudder of 
a ship. The fins of a fish keep it upright, especially 
the belly fins, which act like two feet : without 
these he would swim with hit belly upwards, a& the 
centre of gravity lie:! near the back. By contract- 
ing or expanding the fins, these aino assist bim in 
ascending and descending : by inclining his tail ob- 
liquely, and turning it a little irom an erect position 
to one side, it helps him to t\m: and fall. 

In addition to the fins and tail, the air-hladJer is 
of material n»i5itancc lulbe fi<ib in swimming, as it 
18 by means of Ibis that tlicy increase or diminish the 
specific gravily of their bodies. When by their aim 
dominnl muscles they press the air contained in it, 
the bulk of iheir body is dimini^^bcd, their weight, 
compered with that of tlic water, is increased,- and 
tlwy consequently sink. If they want to rise, ihcf 



lax tlw pre<tjure of Ibc muscles, the air-Madder 
again sctjuirci its natural size, the bad)- is rendered 
iiorc baltcy, and they ascend towards the surliicc. 
^This bladder lies in (he abdomen, along the course 
the back-bone : to oime fidh ic ii single, and in 
cKben double ; but in the latter ca<e the tuo pnrts 
cominiinicstc by a smull canaT. Tim :iir appears to 
be conveyed into it from the blood, by means of ves- 
sels approprinit-d to the pnrpoi«, and it can be dis- 
i<j» fgt:d tlicncc either iiitu the stomach orllic moiilh. 
fhot^e fiiU thdt are without air-blndderti have ntuch 
facility in elevating themselves id ihc water. 
Thegrcntcr jmrt oflbcra remain at iheboltuin, unless 
ibo form of iht'ir body ciiiiblc::^ them to strike Ibe 
filer downwards with great force. This the Jiaji 
do with their large pectoral fins, which are some- 
tmw«, and nut improperly, called wings, since the 
mtans which these ftnhca u.-;c in elevating ihemsclvea 
JW precisely the same as those employed by birds in 
flying. — When the bladder of a fnh is burst, it is 
*Crer afterwards able to ri^c. From a knowledge 
of tills fact, the Jl^bermcn, after taking a qiumtiiy 
of Cod-fish, aru able to keep thctn alive for a con- 
hderablc lime in their well-boats. They perforate 
the sound or air-bladdtr with a needle, disengage 
the tnclowrd air, anel then throw tliem into the well, 
wtcrcibey imme<liately iink lo tlic bottom. With- 
out this operation, tbey would not be able to keep 
iheoi Under water. 

The tfffb of fishes are usually situated in their 
Jiwa; •omctimes, however, tbey are found on the 
(ongue or palate, and even in tht tbroat. Th^ are 

,TUL. III. 1 





generally sharp-pointed and immoveable ; but in the 
Carp ihcy are obtuse, and in the Pike so movcjble 

to appear fixed only to the skin. — Tbe tongue isfl 
in general nftotion'eM, obtuse and fleshy ; and in the" 
Herring, and some other spoc'ies, this is fct with 
teeth, to enable them the better to retain their food. 
— Being furnished with nostrils and olfactory nerves, 
there can be little doubt of fi!>hes possessing the sense 
of smelling. 

The bwes are formed of a kind of intermediate 
substance, between true boncti and cartilage^:. The 
baek-bone extends through the whole length of the 
body, and consii^lii of verlebroe, strong and thick to- 
vranl-i the hcAd, but weaker and more slender ns- 
thcy approach tbe tail. Each spcdcs has a deter- 
minate number of vertebrae, which incrcaw in h\nz 
with the body. The ribs are allaehcd to the pro- 
ceases of tbe vertebrae, and enclose the breast and 
tibrlomen. Several fish, as the Rnys, have no ribs; 
and others^ as the Eel and Sturgeon, have very short 
ones. Between the pointed processes of tbe ver- 
ic-brai lie the bone-; that support the anal and dorsa! 
fins, which are connected with the processes by a 
ligament. At the breast lie the sternum, the clari- 
cles, and the scapulic, on which the pectoral fins 
arc placed i the bonct chat support the ventral fins 
arc cnllud the ossa pelvis. Bci^idcs these there are 
of^en other snvdl IxmeslK^Iwcrn the mnscK-s to assist 
their motion. 

The sigki of fiihcs i^ perhaps the most perfect of 


all their scn«e8. 
them, lA covered 


The eye, in the greater part of 
wiib the same iransparPiil skia 




thil covers the rest of the head. The use of this 

is, prolublje, tu defend it in the water, since tbcra 

ire no eyelids. The globe is somewhat depressed 

in front, and it is furnished behind with a muscle, 

*bich serves to lengthen or flatten it, according to 

the animal's necessities. The crystalline humoHr, 

which in quadrupeds is flattened, is in 6shes nearly 

globular. The eyes arc usually ihoughl to be im- 

moreable, but Gold Fish have been observed appa- 

rwtly to turn their eyes m their sockets, as their 

oocasions require. — These dih take litllc notice of 

iligbted candle, though applied close to their heads ; 

but on any sudden stroke against the stand, on 

vltich the bowl containing thetn is placed, they 

fcrnnce about, and seem much frightened. This is 

•ore particularly the ease when they have been mo- 

lionleM, and arc perhaps asleep : from their eyes 

ieing always open, it is not, however, easy to discern 

^•lien they are sleeping and when not. 
In fishes the organ of hearing is placed on tbc 
^des of the skull, or the cavity that contains the 
Wiln ; but, difTering in this respect from that in 
^nidnipcds and birds, it is entirely distinct and 
detached from the skull. In some fishes, b% those 
of ibc Ray kind, fbe organ of hearing is wholly 
■QrTDmided by the parts containing the CAvily of 
<1k skull : in olhefs, as the Salmon and Cod, it is 
iapart within the skull. In structure it is by no 
Xaiu so complicated as in the quadrupeds and 
Mher animals that live in the air. Some genera, as 
lie Rays Iw^'c ibc external orifice very small, and 



Ft SHE*. 

placed on Ihe upper Biirface of tlie head ; but Irt 
otbers there is no exterrtcl opening whatever. 

The /tod of these animals is almoftt utHversftl in 
their own element, fnsects wonnd, or the spawn 
of other fish, nuslatn the smaller tribes ; which, in 
their turn, arc pursued by targtr foe^. Some feed 
on nrad and B<}ualtc plants, but by tar (he greater 
part mibhist on animal food atone ; ami ihcy arc so 
ravenous as often not to ^pan: tboiie of then own 
kind. Those that have the most capactoiH mouths 
pursue nearly every thing that falls in their way, 
and frecjucntly meet in Itcrce opposition. The tish 
with the widest niooth id usually victoriou*, and h* 
has no sooner conquered than he devours his anta- 
gonist. Innumerable shcils of Mtne species pur- 
sue those of another through vast tracts of the 
ocean ; from the vicinity of the pole somettmea 
even to the equator. In these conflict^), and in this 
scene of universal rapine, many species must have 
become extinct, had not nature accurately propor- 
tioned their means of esca|)e, their production, and 
their number:f, to the extent and \*ariety of the 
dangers to which they are expoud. The smaller 
specie:* arc consequently not only more numerous 
and prolific than the larger, but their instinct im- 
pels them to soefc. food and protection near thcshorr, 
where, from the ehaHownc^s of the water, many of 
their foes arc tmabic to puntne ihetn. 

Fishes arc in general oviparouii : some few, how- 
ever, as the Eel, and one of the species of Btenny, 
produce their young alive. Tlie nialefl have the 





vmltj ind the females the roe, but some individuals 
of the Ccxl and Sturgeon tribes are said to contain 
both. Tbe spitvn of the greater number is depo- 
uled in (be sand or grnv<al : many of the fisb, how- 
ever, which reside id the occ&iii attach their ova to 
tea-weeds. The fecundity of these tribes far sur- 
paes that of any other race of aiiiinils. In (he 
•pavn of a single Co<l ujiw.-inU of nine millions of 
<{{9bave becii a^^ertoiiicd^ oiid near a million and 
abairbare been taken from the belly of a Flounder. 
Many other fish arc endowed with a fertility but 
little in^rior. Such an aHtontshing progeny, were 
it 10 arrive at maturity, would soon overstock the 
mers. But the numbers are so lessened that per- 
hifSaot one in a thousand survives the host of foes 
bjr which they arc hesci. 

The longevity of fish is far superior to that of 
Dlher creatures ; and there h reason to siippotic that 
■Ity arc, in a great measure^ exempted from dis- 
«tj. Instead of suf?'ering from (he rigidity of 
^ which tit the cause of natural decay in land 
XiiiDBts, their badiex still continue increasing with 
ftoh iupplies; and, as llie body grows, the con. 
doiiK of life fumit^h their i^torcs in greater abun- 
diocQ. IIow long they continue to live has not 
)^ been osccrtained. The age of man seems not 
ti|aiit lu the life of the most minute species. In 
t!« rojnl ponds at Maril, in France, there ore some 
^bes that have been preserved tame ^ncc tbe time, 
it i* laid, of Francis the Fin>l, and which have been 
individually known to the [xrrsons who Imrc 3ucce«l> 
d to the charge of them ever since that ijcriod. 



Tlie Rev. Mr. White, of Selbome, observed the 
mode in wh'rcb fishes die. As soon as a fi&h sickens, 
the head sinks lower and lower, and the animal 
stands, as it were, upoti it ; till, becoming weaker, 
and losing all poixe, tnc tail turns over, and at lost 
i( swirfjs on the supftce of (he water with its belly 
up\vard5. The reason why fiuhcs, when dead, float 
in that manner is obvious, because, when ihc body 
is no longer balanced by the tins of the belly, tbe 
broad musculftr back preponderates by its own 
gravity, and turns the belly uppermost, as lighter, 
from its being a cavity. 

Fish, like the land animals, are either solitary or 
grrguiious. Some, as Trout, Salmon, &c. migrale 
to deposit their spawn. Of the Bea-fis-h, the Cod, 
the Herring, and many others, assemble in immense 
shoals, and migrate in these shoals through vast 
tracts of the oceaur 

In the Gmclinisn edition of the Spteina Natu 
the Fishes are divided into ah orders : 

I. jipodali with bony gills, and no ventral fina. 

f. Jugular \ with bony gills, and ventral fins 
before the pectoral ones. . 

3. Tboraciei with bony gills, and ventral fins 
placed directly under the thorax. 

4. j^hJam'moii with bony gills^ and ventral fins 
placed behind the thorax. 

5. Briinrhiosie^oui ; with gills destitute of bony 

f>. rf/fntirtpleryffous : with cartilaginous gills. 

[ 119 ] 


THE Apodal t^fh, of which the Eel forms the first 
Llnftxan tribe, m their appcaiancc and manners, 
approach, in some instances, \'ery nearly lo ihc 
Serpints. The)* have a iimocth and slippery skin, 
ingcneral naked, or covered only with sinall, soft, 
snd distant scales. Their bodies are long and slen- 
der, snd they are supposed to live entirely on ani- 
Dul substances. 

The Gels have a smooth head, and tubular nos- 
Irili. Their gill-mcmbranc has ten rays. The body 
ii nearly cylindrical, smooih, and slippery. The 
W3i and the back and anal fins, arc united. The 
ipiracle is behind the head or the pectoral fun. 

There are about nine species, most of which arc 
l*ind only in tht teas. One of these frequents our 
"till waters, atwl three others occasiuually visit our 


The Common Eel evidently forms a connecting 
""k, in the chain of nature, between the Serpents 
•"d the Fishes, possessing not only, in a great mca- 
'T, the serpent form, but also many of their 

Stmoh TM*.-^Mitrmi Aognilti. X.nw.— -L' Angoinc, ta 




It n frequently knoivn to quit i(s dementi, 
to nander, in the evening or night, ewer meadows 
in search of snaits and other prey, or to other ponds f 
for change of habiCAtion. This will account for EcIr 
being found in waters t hat have not been in the least 1 
suspected to contain them. An instance o( lhi» 
rumbling spirit of llic £cU is menlioncd in Plott's 
Natural History ufStanbrdshirct and, from tbe fo]« 
lowing lines of Oppian, it appeari to have betti 
kno^vn to the aniicnts: 

Tbos ihc mail'd TotioiM, and the wiuid*r!ng Ed, 
Oft to ihc neigbbourittg beach vill tian Meal. 

Mr. Arderon, m the Philosophical Tramantions, 
savB, that in June 1746, while he was viewing the 
flood-gates belonging to the water-works of Nor- 
wich, he observed a great number of eels sliding up 
them, and up the adjacent posts, to the height of 
five or six feet above the surface of the water. 
They ascended with the utmost fucilily, though 
many of the |iosls were pcrfccily dr}', and quito 
smooth. They iirst thrust their heads and about 
half their bodies out of the water, and held them 
against the wood-work for some lime; Mr. Ar- 
deron imagines, lilt they found the viscidity of their 
bodies: sufficicnlly (hick, by exposure to the air, to 
sup[XJrl tlioir weight. They then began to ascend 
directly upwards, and with as much apjiarcnt case 
as if they had been sliding on level ground : this 
they continued till ibcy had got into the dam above*. 

* Ardcroo tin the PcqyDdicoUr AKtnl ctf £el«, h lliil. Trvi. 
Tol.nlir. p. 39j. 



[ tbc migralioti of young eels from one part of 
• rircr to another, a singie instance is rclnicd by 
Dr. Andcrwn in his publication cutlcd The Bee. 
" Ilaring occasion (says lliis gt!titleii>:tii) to b« once 
on a viiit at a friend's bou:^ un Dec-side, in Aber- 
deenshire, I often delighted lo walk by llio bunks of 
Ibc riircr. I one dny observed something like a 
Uick siring mming along the edge of the riwr in 
thoil water. Upon closer inspeciion I discovered 
tkal ibis was a shoal of young ecl^, sa closely joined 
logclber as to appear, on a superficial view, one 
tootinocd body moving briskly up against the 
ttnam. To avoid the rctardinent dicy experienced 
hum tbe force of the current, ihey kept close along 
ll)ewater*» edge the whole of tbe way, fullowing all 
lire bcndings and sinuosities of the river. Where 
ibcy were embayed, and in still w.-iier, the shoal di. 
liltdin breadih, 80 as lo be somelimcs near a fool 
brow! [ but when they turned a cape, where the cur- 
not.was strong, ihcy were forced to occupy Icas 
■?*ce, and press close to ibe shore, struggling very 
Ion] till ibey ftsssed it. 

" This shoal continued to move ou night and 
*•), wilJiout interruption, for several weeks. Their 
P^DKrets might be at the rnlc of about a mile an 
W. it waa Ciisy lo cnich Ihc animals, though 
'wy were very active and uimbic. They were ccbi 
P*HccUy formed in every respect, but not cxceed- 
'Dgtwo Inches in length. J conceive Ihal Ihc shoal 
Ad not contain, on an average, less tb;m from 
t»rfre lo twenty in breudlh; so that the number 
'litl passed on the whole, during their progress^ 
t hare btvo rcry great. Whence tVc^" gauw, 



or whither Ihey went, 1 know not. The phicc Ire- 
marked Ihem at was »tx miles from the sea, and I 
am told that the same pltrtinomenon takes place c\'cry 
year about the same season •." 

Tbc u^jb] hauat5 of eels arc in mud, among 
weeds, under roots or Mumps of trees, or in holes 
in the bank* or the bottom of rivers. They are par. 
tial to btill walcr, and parlicutarly to such is is 
muddy hi the bottom. Here ihey often grow to 
an enormous size, sometimes weighing fifteen or 
!ii)i(een pounds. — One that was caught ncnr Pet«r- 
boroiigh, in the year 1667, mea<iurcd a yard and 
three quarters in lenglh-J-. 

When kept in ponds they have been known to 
destroy young ducks. Sir John Hawkins, from a 
canal near h).s house at Twickenham, missed many I 
of the young ducks ; and, on draining In order to 
clean it, great numbers of large eels were found in 
the mud. In the Momachs of many of them were 
found, andigested, the head^ and part of the bodies 
of the victims J. 

EcU seldom come out of their hiding-places but 
in the night, during which time they are taken with 
linc» ihat havcKcveral baited hooks. — In winter they 
bury thcjn«Itcsdccp in the mud, and, like the Ser- 
pent tribe, remain in a state of torpor ; and they are 
K> impatient of cold as eagerly to take shelier in a 
«hi»p of Mraw flung Into pond in severe weather. 
Thiti has somcltrucs been practised as & mode of 
rstchiiig ihem^. 

* Anderno's Bm. xL p. to. i WaJtoo, 185. 

S Note to WiIUiDf i6i. S 9(un.VA.7AyA.ul. 149. 


Eds arc viviparous.— Theyjarc so tcnactous of life 

: their parts w»|l continue to move fur a consider- 

aMe time after tbcy are skinned and cut into pieces; 

and no other tish whatever will live m long out of 

the trater at these. They arc he>*t in season from 

May to July ; but may he caught x^'!th 8 line (ill 

September. When the water is thick with rains, 

tliey may bv (i>hed for during the whule day; but 

ibtbrgesC and best are caught by mght- tines. The 

bati are wa&]>-grubs, or dew-worms, mionows, or 



SOME of the species of Gymnotus inhabit the 
Iretti waters, and oibcre live in the ocean. Thcjr 
«c all, except ibrce, confined to the regions of the 
New Continent. The head is ftirnishtd with la- 
icnl opercula ; and there are two teiitacula ou the 
upper lip. The gill -membrane has five rays. The 
twJy is compressed, and has a fin running along ibe 
■uider [larts. 


This most singular fiKh is peculiar to South Ame- 
^ wbcre it i> found only In the rocky pazX^ o( 
'>ven fti a great distance from the sen. 

* St«oiisx5,— ^ymootuietccLiiau. Li/a.-'-CM Bt\, Smirk. 
—CitnyfliJi, NamWng Eel, by the Enj;l:fh.— Bm^c A*I, by the 
Ihtrt— Electilc £«I. fhU. Trjrs, AnguiUc trtfflbtuile, by 


Oi) a traiuicnt view it bears a great rc^oniblance 
both in shape and coluur to the Common Eel. It 
is from three lu four feci in length, nnd in th« 
tbtckeiit pore of il:> body ten or twelve inches in cir- 
cumference. The head is A^t, and the niouth wide, 
and de-^tilulc of Icclh. A Cm uboul two inches 
deep extends from the point of its tail to within six 
inches of the head; and^ where it joins the body, 
this fin is ahno^t an inch thick.. Across the bod^ 
are Mveral annular dtviition^, ur rather rugae of the 
skin, I'rom wldch the fish should seem to jurtake of 
a vermicular nature, and to have ihc power of con- 
tracting or dilating itself at pleasure. Ii i<k :ibte ID 
swim backwards as well as forwards. 

These fishes possess the singular property of 
giving a shock, similar in its effects to that produced 
from a charged jar, to any body, or any number of 
bodies connected together. In different publica- 
tions, domestic and foreign, we have numerous 
accounts of ex|K:riments on the Electric CcI : the 
best of them seem those inserrcd in the Fhiloso* 
phical Transactions, by Dr. Williamson and Dr. 

The former of these gentlemen pays that, on 
touching an Electrical Eel with one hand, a sensa- 
tion is experienced similar to that arising from touch- 
ing Ihc conductor of an elcclrica) machine: with 
a 5hort iron rod ihc same was felt, but leis power- 
fully. While another person provoked the iwb. 
Dr. W, put his band into the water, at the distance 
of three feet from it, and felt an unpleasant !<eii3alioa 
ia the joints of his lingers. Some small li&b wen: 



IhrnvB into the M-ater, and llic niiimal immcdijilcly 
tViiwI and swatlQwc<l ilicin. A larger fish wai 
(firuwa in, which lie stunned likemse, and attempted 
to awsllow I but, from its size, he could not do it. 
Dr. W. put his hnnd itito the water, and had snothcr 
ii>h throivn iu at some distance. The Eel swam 
up lo it, dtid at first (umed away wiihout offering il 
Kf violence: nfier a little time he returned, and, 
loobng Hiesdfastly at it a lew second?, gave it a 
fiodt, by which it instantly lumed upon its bacic, 
•nd became mmionteas. Dr. W. at that veryinKtant 
Celt Ibe same sensation in his fingers as when be put 
lib hand into the water before, A fish was aftcr- 
VHils struck, but not quite kilKnl : when the EIcc- 
ItfcEH perceived this* he returned, and at a second 
■Iiock, evidently more severe than the former, ren- 
dered it mntiunlcss. On touching it with one hand 
^«o » to pniTOkc it, and holding the other In the 
^^Pnerat a little distance, a severe sliock was felt 
^B^noQ^h both the arms, and acro?=i the breast, Mmt> 
^^pr to that from a charged jar. F.ight or ten pcr- 
^^pat, with ihcir luind!) joined, expcriciieeJ the same, 
Won ihc first touching the hea<l, and the last the 
t«i) of the fi5h. A dog being made a link in this 
t^in, at the instant of contaci uttered a loud yell*. 
When the licl was touchci) with silk, glass, orony 
«hcr non-conductor, no shock wlinlck-cr was felt. 
ftom a long »eric* of espcrinient'i, it appeared to 
Or. Witiuiniion iliat these pruperticH partook so 
aearly of the nature of tilet:lricity, that wbatev<v 

• L« VwllMi'i Xew Tnvct*, i. So. 


would convey tbc electrical fluid would also convey 
the fluid discharged by the Eel ; and "uice versS. 
He, however, was never able to observe that any 
spark was produced on contact. This mode of 
defence the fish never adopted except it was ini- 
loird ; and Dr. W. has passed hi^^ hand along tbc 
buck nnd oidcs from head In tail, and even lifled 
part of its body out of the water, without temptiog 
it lo injure him*. 

Mr. Bryant mentions an inutancc of the shock 
being feic hrough a considerable thickness of wood. 
— One morning, while he was standing by, as a ser- 
vant wascmpiying a tub, in which one of these fUh 
was contaitiL-d, he bad hficd it entirely from the 
ground, and wa^ pouring off the water to renew it, 
when he received a shotk so videiit »n occasioned 
bini to let the tub fall. Mr. B. then called another 
pcritin to his assislance, and caused iheni together 
to lift up the tub, each laying hold only on the out-- 
iide. When they were pouring off the remainder of 
the water, they each received a shock so smart that 
tbey were compelled to desist -I-. 

Prrwns have been knocked down with the stroke. 
One q( tlicftc fi»h being shaken from a net upon 
grass, an English sailor, notwithntanding all ilie per- 
Huasions ih»i were used to prevent him, would insist 
on tiiking it up; but the moment he gras]}ed it be 
dropped down in a fit, his eyes were fixed, bia face 
beciune livid, and it was not without difficulty that 

• Phil. Tran. ml. 1«». p. 91. 
I £ryanl ia Amer. Tbil. IVaq. u. i&;. 


• vases were restored. He said that the instant 
itoocbed it, "the cold ran iViMy up his arm into 
ibody, and pierced him to the heart •." 
A negro, who attempted to grasp 3 large iish 
linnly with his bands, had, in consequence, a oon- 
iirmed paralyitis in both \m armsf. 

Dr. Garden -lays that, for a person to receive it 
ibock from the Electrical Eel, it is necessary lo lake 
bold of the fish with both hand» at some consider- 
able distance from each other, so a» to form a com- 
anaicalton betwixt ihcin. He held ■ larj^ one 
Kwrnl times by one hand without receiving a shock, 
but he never touched any of them with both his 
taods without feeling a smart shock. The remain- 
do of bis experiments, though not so numerous, 
lead to confirm Ihc truth of those that were made 
by Dr. Williamson*. 

The account of captain Stedman difTets from the 
sbvein one material point : he says that it is by no 
'Means accessary to grasp (he anitnal with both 
^>*t^ to receive the shock, having himself ex peri- 
♦"oed the contrary eft'ect. For a small wager he 
'''^pted several tintes to seize an Electntal Ed 
ilh one hand, and at every trial be had a scverr 
ck, which extended to the tcp of his shoulder ; 
vxl after about twenty dilfcrent attempts, lo no pur. 
Po^ he wa^ compelled to desist^. 

* Soitfa'i Nevii, ico, where this aninul is called CoM EeL 
t Mr. Flagyl >b Amer. Phil. Tran. ii. 1 70. 
* 'kil. Tfu. vol. Ut. p. tot. j StoimaA'i Account of Surioim. 


This property seems prtndpally of use to the EIcc- , 
trica) Eds to securing their food ; for, being dcsti-fl 
luteofteetb, Ihey would otbenvise be scarcely able 
(o sciae it. The force of tbt* shock ha» been satis-^ 
ftctorily proved to depend entirely on the will, and^ 
to be escrltd as cirtiiinsiaocc-s require. Their prey 
nrc generally so idunncd by the shock as to appear 
dead ; but when these have been taken into another 
veitsel tbey have been alwa\"6 found to recover.—* 
When the Electrical Eels iirc hungry they arc tole- 
rably keen aOcr thi-ir food ; bat they arc .soon sathi- 
£cd, not being nblc to conuin mtich at one time. 
One of them, three feet and uptvards in length, , 
could not Bwalloiv u sninlt fi»h above thrce^ or «t{ 
most three inches and a half long. 

The organs chat produce this wonderful accumn- 
lation of electric matter constilulc nearly one half 
of that port of Ihe flc^h in which Ihcy are placed^ 
and, jierhape, coid|x>«: mori' than one third of thtj 
whole animal. There are lu-o pairs of th»ie orgaiis,j 
one on caeh side. Tbrtr structure is very simple] 
and regular, eonsibtiiig ouly of flat partition^, with 
cross divisions between them. The partitions are 
thin membranes pLiCcd nearly parallel to one ao- 
Dther, and of dilfcrcnt lengths and breadtba. ThcJr 
distances from each other differ with the «ize of the 
fish : in one uf two feet four inche» tn length tbc^- 
were found to be ^,-1^ of !»'* i"cb aiiiinHcr. They 
appear to answer the same purpose with the columna 
of the Torpedo, making wnlls or biitmcnts ft»r the j 
subdivisions and arcln be considered as forming so I 
maoy distinct orgaiw; tbey are very tender, and 


, wily lacerated. These arc furnished with many pair* 
■of Txv/a Bppro[jriatcd to ihcir msnagemcnt * ; buc 
"bow these surprising effects are produced by mcao^of 
Rich ofganx, in a fluid also cstreincly ill-adapted ta 
At pur|]OSC, bas not }c1 bL>en satisTaciorily explained. 
It has been said thai specimens of the Electric Iu;I 
been seen that were upwards of twrenty feet in 
krtglh, and whose shock would be instant death to 
ijuiy man that unluckily received it. This asscrtioft 
is however conlradiclcd by captain Stedman, whose 
■ longrcsidencein those parts of South Amnica where 
llw Gjrnnotus is principally found, enabled him to 
Dale accurate Inquiries on the subject. 

ITicse EcU are sometimes caught in Guiana when 

my founfj, and preserved in large troughs filled with 

; for amusement. They are usually fed with 

fifJi, earth-worms, orcock-roachc;;, the latter of 

»hk!i Ore the most agreeable of all food to them : 

■ben one of these is thrown into the trough, the fifih 

opens his mouth and sucks it in with great avidity and 

apparent pleasure. — From the skin is excreted a slimy 

^ubbiaiicc, which renders it ncccswrj to have the waRT 

^enehangcd.— When thi: water is out of ihc trough 

liey will lie motionless lor several hours ; but, if 

lORhcd in this condition, they never fail to coromu- 

"laie a violent MitMrk f . 

• Huniirio PW. Traiif.«4.U».p.J55 
t Bincruft, lOo. 

'Bt ,„. 




THE head of Ihc Sword-fish is fumishcd with 
long, hnrrJ, swor(l-sha|wd ii|»per jaw. The mouth 
has no tcetli. The gill membrane is eight-rnyetl ; and 
the body is roimdcd, and hns no apparent .scalar. 

Thcac arc xcry large and powerful mimaU, onen 
growing to the length of twenty feet and upwards. 
Their voracity h unbounded, lor they atLick and d£- 
Mlroya1ir)a<>t every thing living that comc3 in (heir way. 
The larger fish they penetrate with iheir lung snout 
few of which, when wiihin sight of them, can cilhci 
withstand or avoid its shock. There are only two! 
species, one of which only 13 found to tlic European 


ITjfs species of Sword -lis h inhabits the BrastUan 
and East-Itidian Seas, and also Ihc Northern Ocean. 
Thebodyisof a silvery blueish white, except the up* 
per parts of the back, and the head and tail, which! 
arvof a decpbro>vn. The skin issmcrolh, and with- 
out any appearance of scales. From the Ion;; sharp- 
pointed process in front of the, it would seem, 
on a cursory view. Id be allied to the £uro{)ean 
species ; but it differs from this in having an cstrcmdy 
broad back-fin, and two long sharp-pointed nppen-| 
dflgcs proceeding from the thorax. It frequently grows | 

Sword-£»b. Var Braatl-finmd &>irot6-iih.—Sbau/j Xat, Mir. 





totlic Icngtlj of Iwenly feel or upwards, and is a 
very powcrfol fish. 

When Ill's majesty's ship Leopard, afifr licr a-turii 
fnm the coa»t of Guinea and the West Indies, was 
oniercti, in f^A^, lo be cleaned and refitted for the 
Qinniicl service, in Gripping oft' lier sheathing the 
^lipwrighufuutid in hcrbotcoin, pointing in u diruc. 
Iicnrrun) llicstcm l(jw;irJ:i the bead, piirl ofthcsivord 
orwioul of one of these fii-iies. On ths ouiside this 
im rough, iiui unlike »eal-5l;iii, aitd the end, where 
ilm broken ufi', op|)cared like a coarse kind ofivoiy. 
iiK Miy from ihc direction in which the swurd lay, 
utupposed lo have followed the ship when under sail. 
Itbil penclralcd through (be sheathing, which wa-; 
« inch thick, passed through three inches of plank, 
and kyond that four inches and a half into the tim- 
fc«. The force rctjuifile to cfTect this (since the 
ttwl sailed in a direction from the fish) must have 
been escessivelv' great, especially as no shock was 
fdi by rhf pci^ons on board. The workmen on the 
Et«l ilirclarcil it impossible, with a hammer of a 
luartcr of a hundred weight, to drive on iron pin of 
^ sjmc form and size into that wood, and to Ihc 
aifflcdcpth, in less than eight or nine strokes, whilst 
l^iiluH) been cft'ericd by only one». 

And about sixteen ye;irs ago a letter was written to 
sr jo«ph Bjok3, as president of the Royal Society, 
!*>•* the ciptain of an Eiisl-Indiamiin, accompanied 
"iili an account of another instance of the umaziog 


strength nhichthis fislioccssionally exerts — ttie hot' 
tomof hi» ship being pierced through in such a man* 
ncr that the sword w^ completely tmbeilJed, ordnvenl 
through its whole length, and the fish killed by the" 
TJolcnce of the efForl. A part of the hottoin of (Np 
vessel, with the sword imbedded tn it^ is no>v lodged, 
in tbe British Museum*. 

The Sword-fiih and the Whale arc »iid never toj 
meet without coming to battle ; and the former 
the repute of being always the flggre&sor. Somctiroe^^ 
two of them join against one Whale j in which ca 
(he combot is by notncand cquiil. The Whale usexj 
hit tail only in hh defence : he dives ctown into tlic! 
water, head fbrcmotft, and makes such a blow wjth 
thi^, that, if it take effect, finishes the Swonl-fi^af 
a Mrolce : but tbe other, wtra in general i.i sufficiently 
adroit to avoid it, immediately falls upon the Whale, 
and buries bis weapon in his itide!^. Whc-nthe Wbalc^ 
discovers the Sword-fi^h darling upon bim, he dive»| 
to tbe bottom, but is closely pursued by bis anta- 
gonist, who compels him again to rise to the surface. 
The battle then begins afrr^h, and lusts till the Sword- 
fish lo^» sight of the Whale, who ii< at length com. 
pelted to swim off, which bis superior agility allows I 
bim to do. la the Sword-l)»h piercing the Whale'it 
body with the trt-mciidotu weapon at hi» .snout, be' 
seldom docs any great damage lo ibe animal, from 
not being able to penetrate much beyond the blubber. 




THIS is 3 numerous tribe, inhnbiting only the 
iepihsortbc ocean, mid seldom visiting the iVcsh 
wiCTS. They arc in general gregarious, and feed on 
ihcwnallcT fish and other marine animals. The flesh 
of most of iticm is ivhiie, firm, and good eating. 

The head in the DwI-fish is smooth j anrl the gill, 
nwnbrane has seven r.i)s. The body is oblong, and 
cohered with dccidaous scales. The fins are all co- 
verwi with the common skin. The rays of the fins 
3^ unarmed; and the ventral Htis are slender, and 
terminate in a point. 

THE CO»UOK cent. 

"Hicjc fish arc found only in the seas of ihc north- 
Cfl parti of the world ; and the great rendezvous for 
iticm arc the sand-bank'! of Newfoundland, Nova 
Scotia, and New England. The«c shallows are their 
6»narile siiuntions; for here they arc able to obtain 
Bfcit <iuanti(ie3 of wonns, a ftjod that is peculiarly 
piteful to them. Another causeoflheir allachmciit 
to iNcic places is their vicinity to the polar seas, where 
"•ey return to spawn. There they deposit their rocs 
"> fall security, and aftcnvards repair, as soon as the 
ftni more soulliern seas arc open, to the Imnks for 
*^u»btciicc.— Few arc taken north of Iceland, and 

* Thi« tribe cotamncct tbt Mcond ot tbc Limunn ordcii of 
**^ tbr jcauLAi run. 

i Si(9tv»ii. — Catlui Biwhaft' Li^it.—^aiSih er Keeling 
*J-— U Mome, In Pnncr. 


aiifl the shoals never reach 60 far south as the Straits 

Prior to the discovery of Kcwfoundland, Ihp prin. 
cipal fisiie/ics for Cod were in the seas off Iceland, 
and offthe western islands ofScotlaiid. To the for- 
mer of these the English resorted near four hundred 
years ago. In the reign of James the first, we had 
no fewer than 150 vessels employed in the Iceland 

The chief fislicrles now arc in the Bay of Canada, 
on llic great bank of Newfoundland, and off the irfc 
of St. Peter, and the isle of Sahle. The vessels fre- 
fjucnting ihcsc fisheries are from a hundred to two 
hundred tons burthen, and will cittch 30,000 Cod 
or upwards each. The hook and line arc the only 
implements uxcd to take the 6sh j and this in a dqith 
of water cf from sixteen to sixty fathoms. — ^Thc 
great bank of Newfoundland n represented to be 
like a vial mountain, above five hundred miles lon^, 
and near three hundred broad: and the number of 
British seanicn employed upon it b supp0!>cd to be 
about fifteen thousand. 

Tlic best season for fi&hrng i.s from the beginning 
of February to the end of April: and though each 
fisherman takes no more than one fish at n lime, an 
expert hand will sometimes catch four hundred in a 
day. Jbe employment i* cxec^sively fali^otng, from 
the weight of the fish, and (he great coldness of the 

As soon as the Cod are cau|i:ht, the heads are cut 
off; they arc opened, gutted, and salted; they are' 
then stoned in the hold of the vcsiel, in teds five or 



siijsrds square, head to tail, with a layer of salt to 
eacb laj'cr of fish. When tliey have Iain here three 
or four claj'3 to draio off the water, they are shifted 
into a different part of tht; vessel, and again salted. 
Hcfethey remain litl the vi!:fsc\ is loaded. Some- 
times Ihcy are cut into thick piece.", and packed iti 
barrels, for the greater convenience of carriage. 

Cod arc taken by Ihc natives of Norway, oQ'theJr 
on coast, in strong packthread nets. These have 
meshes l^^ur inches square, and arc about a fathom 
Of fifteen mcshc> deep, and twenty fathom long. 
Tbcy use, according to the weather, from eighteen 
to Iwrnty-four of theic nets joined, so that Ihey have 
vnwtimei upwards of tour hundred fathom of net 
Ml at a time. They fish tn from fifty to seventy 
fitboin water, and mark the places of the nets by 
fflnnj of buoys. The afternoon is Ihc time when 
til* net* arc generaily set ; and, on taking thuin in 
*> the fo'Iowing morning, it is no uncommon thing 
tooblain three or four hundred fine Cod*. 

in ihe Newfoundland fisher)-, the soundf or air. 

il(ler»arc taken oul previously to incipient pulrc- 

lion, washed from their slime, and .salted for cx- 
pwiolion. The tongues arc also cured, and brought 
M harrcts containing four or (i\'c hundred pounds 

Pght each. From the livers a great quantity of 
'wis extracted, 

Ift Lapland, and some of (he districts of Norwrav, 
^litCod and Torskf, which are taken in the winter. 

* rooioppiilM, part ii. p. 15B. 
\ Anoihcr fpccici. GtJiti Cal.'jriat of linnxMS. 



are c.irerull>' piled up, as they are caught, in build* 
ings coRBtructed for thv purpose, having iheir »ide» 
open, and exposed to the air. Here ihcy remain 
frozen until the followinff spring, M'hcn.ihe weather 
becoming more mild, tbcy are removed to Another 
building of a like comiruction, In which they we 
jrcp-ircd for drying. The heads are cut off, the 
cnirailfi lalccn out, and the remainder o( ibe body 
is hung up in the oir. Hbh c;iught in the spring are 
in:inedi.itely conveyed to the second hou&c, and 
dried in the above manner. Those Ihat arc caught 
during ihi^ s^umincr season, on account of ibe beat 
of the weather, can only be preserved by the conw 
uaon methods of curing with salt *. 

These fish feed principally on the smaller specicd 
of the scaly tribes, on vvonnsy shcll-fish and crabs : 
and their digestion is sufficiently powerful to dissolve 
the greatest pirt even of the shells wh'ch ihey swal- 
low. They arc very voracious, and catch at any 
smtll body they observe moved by the walcr, even 
stones and pebbles, which arc oflcn found in tbetr 
stomach b'. 

They are so extremely prolific that Leentvcnhoek 
counted above nine millions of eggs in the roe of a 
middling. sized Cod-fish. The production nf so great 
a number will surely baffie all I he ciTcrts of man, or 
the vvracily oflhe inhabitants oflhc ocean, to dimi> 
nish the species so greatly as to prevent \tt, allbrdirg 
an iDcuhauMillc supply of gralefut provision in aU 



ta Iha Euro|Vart seas the Cod begin to fpawn to 

January, and tbcy dc|K»ii ihcir eggs in rough ground 

jmong rocks. Some continue in roc till ihc bcgio- 

nug of A|jril. They recover very quietly after 

ipawnifig, and good ti:h are lo be taken 3II the !!um> 

ner. When they are out of season, they are ihiti- 

lailed and lousy. Cod-fish are cbosen for ihc tabic, 

by iheir |jUirnf)nes3 and roiinJne.^ near the tail; by 

iW depth of the ht^lovv behind the bead, and by the 

rqular undulaled appearance of ihc sides, as if llicy 

«nt ribbed. The glutinous parts about the head 

loK tbcir delicate flavour after Itie Cmh bais been 

iwnty-tour hours out of the water. 

Tlic Cod frequently grow lo a very great size. 
The largest that is known to have been taken in ihii 
Lwgtbai waft al Scrir borough, 111 the year 1773 • ** 
■"CiiUKd five t'cet eight inches in length, and fivo 
iecl in circumference, and weighed seventy -eight 
FOiai]«. The usual weight of Ihcic fish h from^ur- 
*ten lo forty pounds *, 


The Haddock, a tUh lh.u every one is aequaintcd 
•"h, tnigrslM in iminetifie shoals, that arrive on the 
'Oikshirc coasts about the middle of winter. These 
Mmeiinv* kmmn to extend from the shore near 
"i^ miles in breadth, and in length froui Flatnbo. 
"^Ugti bead to Tiomouih casilc, near fifty miles, and 
IRduips even much farther norlhwardji. .\n ides of 
"'Or nuntber* way be bad from the following cir- 
'^'Wwtancc: Three fishermen, within a mile of the 

* fcnn. Biil.^oul. iii, 17:. 


hftrbour orScarboroug^h, freijticnlly loattcd their boat 
with ifaein twice B (lay, taking each time about it ton 
of f\sh. Tbc large ones quit the coa«t ss soon u 
they Arc out o( scnson, antt leave behind (hem great 
plenty of ttmall ones : the former nrc supposed lo 
visit the coasts of Hamburgh nnil Jutland during; the 

Tbc larger ones begin to be in roc in November, 
and continue so for somcabat mure than two inoiith&: 
from this time till May they arc reckoned out of i^cft* 
son, and arc: not good. Tliey then begin to recover. 
The small ones are extremely gtiod from May tiU 
February i and those that arc not old enough lo 
breed, for even two mouths afier-A'anU. 

Haddocks seldom grow to any great size j they 
very rarely become bo large as to weigh twclTC gr 
fourteen pouiidi* ; and they arc esteemed more deli- 
cate eating when they do not exceed three pouadt» 
in weight. 

During stormy weather, these fish nrcsiaid lo take 
shelter in the sand or muti, or among the sea-weeds. 
They feed on various small marine animals, and trc- 
qucntly become fat on herrings. The fcmnles de- 
{)05it their spawn on the Rca-wec<Is near the shore;. 

On each side of the body, juM beyond the glll», 
there h a dark, spot. Su|icr>tition nsscrts that wl>en 
St. PetCB took the tribute money out of the mouth of 
■ fioh of this species, he left the imprct«ion of \m 
fii)p,er and thumb, which has ever since been conti* 
nned lu the whole race of Hiiddocks*. 

* Pcnn. Brit. Zool.tii. 179. 

1S9 ] 


THE Soctrng-fifihca Iiavc a naked, flat, and oilj 
h«ijjsurr«jurn!i;<.i by a narrow miirgin, and marked 
with several transverse streaks or grooves. They 
hitt alw tcu nijs in ibcir gill-mcnibrani" ; and ilicir 
hodj is dc4lilutc of scaler. 

^ There arc only Ihrcc known species: these arc 
ocaDionally seen ta the Mcditcrraiicsn Sea, aitd lite 
hcitlc Ocean. 

This siiigutar anitnal is uiiually about a Toot in 
Itngih, and ba.s sixteen or more furron-s on the lop 
of the head. The back is convex and black, and 
ific belly while. The tail is forked. 

It inhabits most parts of the ocean, and is often 
fiwod RO strongly adhering to the sides of sharks and 
otbtr fish, by means of the BCrncture of its bead, as 
Mllfi be got off without great dilficiiUy. Five of 
Ihtm hare been taken from the body of a single 
«Wk*. St. Pierre says he has put some of tbcm 

* Th< ihini of ihe LiniiKaii orders of &At», ihc Tboiacic 
Fcij|,cofl>>Dtarc with lbi« tribe. 

t SncoRTUii.— EcbnKil retnora. Lrm.— La Renrate, ukI 
^od, in Fnitce. 

; Ci-twW, ii. 26. 



on an even surface of gl3«<:, from wbicTi hv could not 
afWnvartls remove them '. 

The antientf bclicwd that the Sucking-fish, small 
as it is, Hfl<i iln^ power of arresting the progresji of a 
sliipin ils fastest salting, by adhering toiti bottom. 

I The iDckiiis-fiab bcncatbt with MCtct duiiu, 

Clung to Ibe k<el, the swifldt thip dttaine. 
TbcManun nui toa'-uied, oo bbonr ipir'd. 
Let fly ta* ttuets, uiJ boiit ihc toii-mail yard. 
ThMm>i(T bid« then f i*c bcr «ll ibe fi\t. 
To conn, the «tnd«. and uicb Ibe cotniBg gAlci. 
But. though iht Ltnnsi bdlict with ifac blwl. 
And bobicfouf winda bcod dawn the cruking tnut, 
Tb< bark stand* fumiy tnotol in the >», 
Add will, uninor'd, nor winrl* nor wave* obej ; 
Still, » vhen calow have flatted all the plain, 
And inbat mvci Kircc vniaU« oa tba mala. 
No ship id hatbovr inow'J to cskIcw ridct, 
Wb<i) mffltng traier* Idl ihr Aowing tides. 
Appiird, ibc lulon itarc, ifarinigb itrange turprisr, 
Bclice thejrdreani, vtd nib ihcir waking ejeu 
A* «b«n, unerring f<o«i tile buntsnaii'i bow. 
The feathn'd death inni* tbe flying doe, 
&iuck through, the Jying bea>t ^lU loddca down, 
Tbc pan* gTo« ttiiT, aod all ibc moliOQ '« gooc^ 
Sueh (uddtn farce the Uoatinf captive bind*, 
llMHigh beat by wav(&, and urged bj dnving windi f. 

Turning its powers in a very different wnj*, the 
aniieiils also fancied thut, in what manner soever it 
was administered, it was fatal in sOairs of love, 
deadening the warmest aftcctions of both wxes J. 

■ Voyigt to Ihe lile of France, JO. 
t Jt-no'i traulaboB of Oppian. ; Piiny, lib. ik. C* t$. 




Thclniiians of Jamaica and Cuba formerly used; 
Ihc Suckinjj-fisii in ihe catching of others, itoine-! 
what in Ihe Mire m.inner a^ h.i\vlts are empIovc<l' 
by falconer in seizing birds. They ke^it them fori 
ibc purpose, and hjid them rrgulurty fed. The 
owner, on a caTm morning, would carry one of ibcm 
oot to tea, scciia'd lo his canot; by n itnialt but strong 
line, many fathoms in length ; and the moment the 
creature sivv 3 ti>h in the water, though at a great 
distance, it would dart away with the swiftoessj 
of an arrow, and »oon fii»tcn upon it. I'he Indian^ > 
in ll>e mean tiint', loosened and let go the line, 
which WIS |)rovidcd » iih a buoy that kept on ilie sur< 
ufeccof the sea, and marked iIk? course the Siicking- 
'fisb had taken ; and he piir^iwcd it in hi^ canoe, until 
he pcrccivi.-d his game to be nuarly exhausted aa<l 
run down. — He then, taking up the buoy, gmdualty 
drew the line towards the shore -, the Sucktng-tisli 
still adtiermg with so inHexibte a tenacity to bb 
as not ea^^ily to be rcmoveJ. Ovicdo says he 
known tnrtic taken by this mode, of a bulk and 
weight that no Muglc man could >iip|»rt. 

ThcM: f\ih arc often eaten, and in taMe they are 
aid very greatly to resembli: fried arlicUokcs*. 


TUF. pn^tent tribe comprehends those Inh that 
are ui^uatly denominated Flat-Hsb ; m the Plai<e, 

* M, PttiK'i Id* «rFn>i««, ]9. 


THR flAT^VttH. 


IPbundcr, Sole, &c. These are gencralljr confinetl ■ 
to th«: muddy or sandy banks of tbe $ea, where they fl 
have the power of burying themselves as far as the 
head, to escape the dcvaeintions of the moic rapa- 
cious tribes. They selduiii rise fiir from the boiiom, 
since, from the want of au air-bladder to buoy tbcro 
Dp, which mo«t of the other fishes possess, they are 
compelled to ot»e their pectoral fins ibr this purpose, 
in somewhat the same manner as birda use their 
wings to rise in the atr j and thin i^i iml done witb- 
pul considerable exertion : here, iherefiire, theyge^ 
nerally swim with their bodies in an oblique posi- 
tion, and feud on tiuch aquatic wonns^ &c as come 
in iheir way. 

Many of ihcm, as the ITulibut, Torbot, and some 
Qll)ers> grow to a great size. The eyes of the 
U'bole tribe arc situattrd on one side ofibe head. It 
is a curious circumstance, that, n hilc the tinder parts 
of their body are of a brilh:int white, the upper pariK 
are so coloured and specklctl a&, when they arc half 
immersetl in the ^and or mud, to render ihem im- 
jicrccplible. Of this rc?cniblanee ibey are so con- 
scious, that whenever they find themselves in danger 
they sink into the mud, and continue pcrfecOy mo- 
tionless. Tliis is a circumstance so well known to 
flshenncn, tliat witbm their palings on the strand 
they are often under the necessity of tracing fur- 
rows with a kind uf iron .sickle, to dc-tcct by the 
touch what they arc not otherwise able to distin- 
guish. Not being r3[>acious, or furnished with any 
weiiKJns of defence, these fishes owe their peciirity 
%} this stratagem ; while the Thornback. and Kaytf 



that are carnivorous, and armed witli strong spines, 
although fiat-fish of a different class, are marbled 
with lighter colours, that they may be perceived atiJ 
avoided by h^a jx>werful fish. 


The northern parts of the English const, and 
some places ofT the coast of Holland, afford Turbols 
in greater abundance and in greater excellence than 
any other parts of the world. Lying here, however, 
in deep waters, thcyare seldom to be caught but 
by line:?. 

In fishing for Turbot off the Yorkshire coast, 
three men go out in each of the boats, each man 
provided with three lines , every one of which is 
furnished with two hundred and eighty honks, placed 
exactly six feet two inches asunder. These are 
coiled on an oblong piece of wicker-work, with the 
hooks baited and placed very regularly in the centre 
of the coil. When they arc used, the nine are ge- 
nerally fastened together so 3h to form one line with 
above two thousand hooks, and extending near three 
miles in length. This U always laid across the cur- 
rent. An anchor and buoy are fixed at the end of 
each man'ri line. The tides run here so rapidly that 
the fishermen can only shoot and haul their lines in 
the still water at the turn of the tide ; and therefore, 
as it is flood and ebb about every alternate six hoars. 

* SkTHDKTus. — Plenronectes masimiu. Linn. — Le Tuibot, in 
Fnnce.— — Bret, in some counties of England. 



this IS the Iongt.<l time the lines can rcmalo on the 
ground. When the lines arc laid, two of the men 
mii»lly wrap themselycs in the sail and sleep, whilsl 
the third is on wal^ to prevent their being run 
down hy ships, and to observe the wcaihcr ; lor 
somelimes storms conte on so sudden'.; that tltey 
find it difHcuIt (o gain 1 Tic ^ore-even witliotii Ihdr 

The boats used in thU work are each i.boiil a (OQ 
burthen ; some%vhat more than twenty feet in )cngtli| 
and about five in width. They nrc welt constru-Jcd' 
for encountering a boisterous msj, and have three 
pairs of oars, and a sail, to be used as occuatun re< 
quires. Sometimes larger boats than these arc used, 
which carry six men and a boy. When the latler 
come to the fishing-ground, ibcy put out two of the 
smaller boats that they have on bo:iTd, whii:!) fi»h in 
the Mme manner as the three-manned boats do, 
save that each man i& provided with a double qiuin- 
tity of lines ; and ioBtcnd of waiting in these the 
rclom of the tide, they return to the large boat and 
bait their other lines: thus hauling one set and 
shooting another at every turn of the tide. The 
fishermen commonly run into harbour twice a week 
to deliver their fish. 

The bait that the Turbots take most readily is 
fresh herring cut into proper-sized pieces: they are 
also partial to the smaller lampreys, pieces of had- 
dock, sand-wonns, muscles, and limpets ; and u-hen 
none of these are to he had, the tishcrmen use bul- 
lock's liver. The hooks are two inches and a half 
long in the shank, and near an inch wide betwixt 

- "^ 



\\\c ^tik ami ibc point. Thcjr arc faslcnctl to ilie 
{\tib opon sneads of tuislttl horse-hair, hveniy- 
»nsi inches in length. Ttm tine is mndti of small 
ronlinjr, tint] k sUvrty* liiuiicd before it is o<cd •. — 
The Tiirbots are so cvlrcmcly dclicalc in their 
choice of baits, a* not to touch a piece of Herring or 
Hiildock that has been twclvcfioursotitorilie sea. 
The greatest weight of lhc*c fish is about ihirly 

Jainaoy parts of thi« country Tnrbot and Molibul 
"rtscJil iiKhscriniinatcJy for each other, "nicy arc, 
titmn'cr, perfectly distinct, the upper parts of the 
furmcr being niarkcd with large, unequal, and ob- 
ivK tnbcrclcs ; while those of the other are c|uilc 
onootli, and covered with oblong soft scales that 
*Jljcfc (irmly to Ihc bodyf. 

THR sold: J. 

Ii the economy of the Soles wc. have one circiim- 
**"*« llinl i« very rem:irkablc : among vtiriooB olhtT 
"wnnc prnduction!*, they have been known to feed 
^ •hdl-fisb, jlihougli they arc Unni*hetl with no 
'Ppwalu* whniticr in tbc-ir month for reducing thcin 
*•*' rtntc calculated fur digestion. Some that were 
pfcluiscd by Mr. Collinaon had thrir bcllir^ hard 
^ Iiromintnt, appearing to be filled with rows of 
**Heliard substanec, which, on being Ofxmed, were 

* Far Itu Unnlng of atU inJ lioei, («e Ibe tnuilng iccouot of 
tSfXCwVMi. — t*}eurw:taei Solrj. J.f.". Li Sole *nd 


THB BBAKRO cn.CTonoir. 

(bund 10 be »hell-fish. These, from the bulging of 
the shelU and tliu interrcning interalices, gnvc tbe 
intestines Bomcwhat the appeannce o! brings of 
bead!). On further cxamiiinliun, some oflhem wen: 
found nearly dissolved, others partly ?o> Init many 
of them vvholc*. The mo»t u^ual food of the Soles 
ia the spawn and youitg of other fuh. 

So1e» are found on all the British coasts t but 
tirosc of the western shores arc much superior in 
size to what arc taken in the north, since tticy are 
ttomelimcs found of llie weight of mx or seveo 
poumlrt. Thp principal fishery for them is in Tor- 


IK this tribe, nithongh the species arc very nn- 
merouti, there is only one of which I have mut with 
any account in the least degree inturciling. 

The head and mouth of the Chstodonft arc amalt, 
and they have the power of pushing out and re- 
tracting the lips so as to make a tubular orifice. 
The teeth are mostly briatle-shapt;d, flexile, move- 
able, closely «t, and very numerous. The gill- 
membrane has from three to six rays. The body 
is scaly, broad, and ccmprcscd ; and tbe dorsal aud 
anal lins are generally terminuted with prickles. 


The Beaked Chaetodon or Shooting-iuh fTcijucnti] 

* CuIIinionim thePoodofSulu, PhtUTtan. vol.iliii. p. 37. 
t StxDNiMSf— diicinloa nuti4lu«. Liim. — QikUnJdd eiK«<| 
Xulira. Sh.Ki). — Jxculalur oT Shawing-fiih. PhU.Thtn. — Bcakcdj 



ttKifaom and mouihit of rivers in India, and about 
Uwladifln mIuihI^. U ra somewliat mare than sis 
incha in length, and is of a whitish or very polo 
Imvn colour, with commonly (oar or Bve blackish 
baads running acrosH the body, which is ovate and 
compressed. The snout is lengllicncd and C)Iin- 
^dnnd. The dorsal and anal tins arc very large, aud 

Pibe former is a large eye-like spot. 

This HiU feeds principally on Hie^ nnd other small 
winged insects lliat hover about the waters it m- 
btbrbt and (he mode of taking ics prey is very 
mnrishlc. When it 5ccs a i\y m a distance 
■ligKted on any of the plants in the shallow water, 
>lipl«)flchc5 very slowdy, and wtth the utmoet cau- 
liuo, eoming a* much as possible perpendtcniarly 
"nder the object. Then putting its body in an 
fArwjiic d'treelion, with the inouih iuid eyes near ibc 
iuriii:c, it remains a moment immoveable. Having 
"•ftl its eyes directly on the insect, it shoots at it 
)<irtj|ior water from its tubular snotir, but ailbout 
'•'Owing its mouth above the surface, from whence 
Puly the drop scetnc to riaa. This is done with so 
•noch dexterity that, though at Ihe distanee of four, 
S**. or six feet, it very seldom fjils to bring the fly 
Into the water. With the closest attention the 
""Wli could never be discorercd above the surface, 
"•liough the fish has been seen to eject several 
•^f^p?, one afccronoiher, withouc leaving the place, 
*"i ihe smallest apparent degree moving its body. 

This very singular action was reported to ^T. 
'^"^imcl, the governor of the hospital at Batavia, 
War whidi place the species Is sometimes ftjuud -, 


:(1 hU ctirioMty (hat K 

nnd so fir raUcd hU ctirioMty (hat he wm c)etcr« 
mined, if po$6ibIc, to convince hinmclfof its truth by^ 
ocular demonstration. ^ 

For this purpose he ordcTcd a large wide tub to „ 
be filled wtlh sca-wnter ; be then bud some of thcscfl 
lh\i caught and put into it, and the water was 
changed every olhcr day. After a while ihey seeimrd 
reconciled to their eonliiii-incnl ; and be tlieti tried 
the experiment. A slender stick, wiiha lly fa^tenc<II 
at the end, was placed in such a manner on the side 
ofthc vessel, as to enable ibe li^h to strike it; ami 
it was not without ine:(prc5'iiblc dcH(;ht that he daily 
Kiw them exercising their skill in ^hootitig at it wiih 
amnzing force, nnd seldom mL-^sing their mark*. 

The ficab o( this sjKcics i» while and well tasted. 


IN the Siicklehack»lhc head is somewhat oblong 
nnd stnooth, h.iving the jnwit armed nith miiiuic 
teeth. The gill'mcmbronc has cither three, at%, 
or Kcvcn rays. The hoily is kecl-shaijcd toA'nrds 
tail, iind covered with bony plaio. On the bacKt] 
betwixt the dorsal Hn and (he hcadj arc several tha 
, seines. 

Tbc upccies, which arc not very nuait'rc»us» ore, 
dispersed over various parts of the world, aomeii 
habiting the ficsh waters, and others being confined] 
tu ilie ocean. The mauncrs ofibc former may in] 


agTMt measure be collected from those of ihc li>I- 
\awtag species : 


These little (Uh, which seIclo?n exceed two inches 
in length, arc very common in niitny ofonr river*. 
Tliey bare three shaqi spines on Ihcir back, which 
arc their instruinctits both of ofil-ncc and defence, 
arr<] arc always creeled on the lenst np^iecirnncc o4' 
dsngtr, or whenever they arc about lo attack other 
fith. The body neir the tail is somewhnt pf|iinre, 
md the fldes arc covered n-ilh transverse bony 
pljlc>. Tiicir usual colours src ulivc green abore, 
ftKl white on the under parts ; but in some indivi- 
dual ihe lower jaw and the belly arc of a bright 

Bjr feeding «'iih great voracity on the fry anil 
fpiirn of other ti-di, ihcy nrc, notwiihilanding the 
inialliHis.'i of tlieir size, greatly detritnental lo Ihc 
iKtcase of almost all the species among which they 
rthihii. One llnit Mr. Ardcron of Norwich h:id in 
i devoured in tivc hours no fewer than sevcniv- 

nryoang D^icc, each about an inch nnd a hatf 
"Up, nnd of the ihictncs» of a horse-hair, and 
**ol(i have done the sanw every Jay, bud they been 
8"ro Id it. 

Tnc fith yas put by Mr. Anicron into a glass 
J>rof water, with some sand at the bottom ft)r the 

ing. imingbfy't ft*— PfickW.haei, V-kkW 

• Sr. ■ 
^E- fta, TxaM.-~PaiM, Snt. tni. ■wt* iu. lai. jo. 


purpose of trying some experiments on it, as well 
as for the purpose of ascertaining its manners, 
far a» pouible in a confined stale. For a few dayn 
it refused lo cat ; but by frequently giving !( rre«h 
water, and by coming ofren to tl, tt b^an to cai 
the .stnall \vorm« thai were now and then thrown 
into the jar; soon aflcrwards it became so funiibnr 
as to take ihcin from the band ; and at last it even 
became so bold, as, when it was satiated, or did noi 
like what was olTered to it, lo atl up its prickles an 
strike with its utmost strength at the fingers, if pu' 
into the water to it. It would sufter no other fub 
to live in the same jar, attacking whatever were 
put in, though ten tinics its own »i?c. One day, by 
way of diversion, a small fish was put to it. The 
Prickleback immediately assaulted and piit it to 
iltght, tearing otf part of its tail in the conflict ; abd 
had ihcy not been (hen separated, be would un 
doublcdiy hai-e tilled it*. 

Small as these animals are, thoy ore sometimes so 
numerous as to be obliged to colonize, and leave 
their native places in search of new habitations. 
Once in every seven or eight years they appear in 
the river Wclland, near Spalding in Lincolnshire, m 
mich amazing shoals, as, during their progress up 
the stream) to appear in a vii:>t lx>dy occupying the 
whole width of the river. Thcae are supposed lo 
be the overplus of multitudes collected in some 
of ihe fens. When this happens they arc taken as 
manure fur the land ; and an idea may be fanned 

* Phil. Traik. tol. xUt. p. 114, 

"- ■*" 




of their numbers, from the circumstnnce Ih^t a man, 
employed by a farmer to catch tbem, got, for some 
time, four shillingti a day by selling them at a half, 
penny x bushel •. 

The great eiccriions they use, in getting from one 

jilacc to another, where obstacles intervene, are 

\ery extraordinary ; for, though ihc largest among 

them is seldom known to be more than two inches 

■ in length, they have been seen to spring a foot and 
■^ b)r(ntnc time.-i their own length) in perpendicular 

tcigbt from the surface of the water» and in on 
cbliqoc direction much futlhcr. 
r. They sfiavn in April and June on the aquatic 

■ I*nitt( and arc very short-lived, scarcely ever at- 
liining (he third year. They arc too small, and 
pnlups too bony, to be of any essential service as 
food to mankind; but in Eomo parts of the Conli- 
nctiL they ore of cousidcrable in (iiltcQiog duekn 
«od pi^. 


THIS tribe have a smooth body, and seven rays 
ia their gill- membrane. Between the dorsal Ao and 
the tail there arc several small or spurious fins. 


The Mackrcl, when alive, from the elegance of 

■ PtiuL. Brit. ZooJ. i!i. i6t. 
1 St*o»th(. — Sooraber Mombtf. Imuh. — Midcrdl or Maekarel. 
H'i^i. lib.—Paa. Brit. Zaoi. w/. iii. ttk ji.— ^Le Mai)actau, 





its sliapp^ ao'I the cxtrcmr Iirilliancy of iu colotirr, 
i» by tl-e most bcniiiirul fUh that t'reqiit'niii onr 
couAlf. Death in soino measure impairs the colours^ 
but it by no means oblilcrates Ibem. 

It visiM our shores in v«st sboaU; but, (mm 
bein^ very lender uikI unlit fur long carri.igc, if H 
foiinJ less useful than oilier g^egariou^ fish. In ^ 
some places it is tnkcii by line^ fmiri bualS) as du 
ting a frc».h gale of ivind it readily seizes a bait. It 
is ncces«3ry ihat ibc boat should be in motion in 
order to drag the bait alotig (a bit of red clotb, or 
a (tiece of the tail of a Mackrel) near the sur&icft of 
the water. 'I'hc p;reat fishery for Maclcrel is on 
tiomc parts uf iKc ivcbl coai^l of England. I^is 
is of siicb an extent as to employ in the whole 
a capital of near soo.ocol. The fi.ihcrmcn go 
out to the diftlancc of several leagiiea from the 
fiborc, oinl stretch their nets, which nrcsoinettrnw 
several mil« in extent, across the tide, during ibt: 
night. The mesht-'s of these nets arc just Inrge 
enough to admit the beads of tolerably large fiib, 
and calch Ihcm by the gilU. A single boat KaA 
been known to bring in, aik-r one night's tiitbingi 
a caipi that has sold for near 6e\-cnty pountU. — 
Besides tht-M;, there i* nnotlier mode of lUbirig for 
Mackrel in the west of England, with a grownl 
jtitst. A roll of ro]>c of about two hundred fathoms 
in length, with the net fjstcncd tu the cndi i^ lied 
at the other to u jrost or rack, on the shore* The 
boat is then ronrcd to the eitrcniity of this coil, when 
a pole fixed thcru, leaded heavily at the boUoni, is 
thrown overboard. The rowers from hence make 






nrariy as possible a semicircle, two men conltnu- 

sily niid TCgnlarlj' putting tlie net into the wolcr. 

VVIicn ihcy come to ihe oihcr end of the net, wlicrc 

ibcre is aTiotl>cr leaded |x>lc. ihcy llirow ihal over- 

boord. Atioi'icr coil uf ro;ic. <>inutar to tUc flr^t, is 

l)y dqrTL-u* lliroivn into the water, as Ihc bj-itnica 

nuke fur ihe ^hcirc. Tbe boni's crew now Ijtid, and, 

*itlj Ihe asMiiaticc of persons stationed there, haii) 

ineielicnd of llienct liHihev come to the two poles. 

The boat is then again puUic«I off 'owarJslhe cviilrc 

ot the net, in order to prevent ihe more vigorona 

ffb from leaping over the corks- By tlic-s: means, 

ilirce or fuur luuidred Ci^h are often citigtit at one 


Mackn.-] arc said to be fond of human flesh. 
Tonlojipidan infonns os thiit a sailor, bclnnginf; to 
a «hi|i I\ tng ill one of the harbours on ihe coast of 
Norway, went into the water to'vva*ih himself; when 
be wn suddenly mi.^«ed by his rompnnionr. In the 
CTiinc of a few minutes, however, he was seen on 
tilt Surf ice with va*t numbers of these fish fastened 
00 liiui. The people xvent in a boat to his «ssist- 
■"«; and though, when ilicy got him up, ibcy 
forced villi some difKcully the (i.'hcA from him, 
'hcj fband it was loo late ; for the poor fellow, very 
■^ '"ily afterward.^ expired f- 

i'iie roes of the Mackrel are used in the Mcdi- 
toi^ncan for t^viar. The blood and slime are firiit 
""'"'Ahi'd oft" with vincgiir, and the sinews and skinny 

I'or iIm MfnmjD teal ton I am iiulcbKnl lt> tlic kin<l aiieniiuO* 
•'•'cha SutUouK, E»q, F. L. S. of PcnJinriamComw*!!. 
-J PoiiiojiiiiOan, jait ii. IJ5. 



parts taken away. Tbcy are ihcn aprcid opt for a 
short time to cln'« and afterwards salted and hung 
up in a nef^ to drain some of the remaining moisture 
from tbem. Wh^n this is finiiihed they are laid in 
■ kind of sieve till thoroughly dry and fit Tor use. 
In Cornwall, and on icveral parts ofltie Continent, 
llie Mackrel arc preserved by means of pickling stkI 
salting. Ttieir greatest weight i>eldom exceeds two 
pounds, though wme hare been seen that weighed 
more ibon five. Their voracity lion scarcely any 
bounds ; and when they get among a shoal of her- 
rings tbcy mnke such havock as frequently to drive 
it away. Tliey are very prolilic, and deposit Ibeir 
spawn among the rocks near the shore, about the 
month of June. They die almost immediately after 
they are taken out of the water, and foro short time 
exhibit a pbospboHc light. 

In spring their eyes are covered with a white film, 
that grows in the winter, and i> regularlj' cast at 
ihc beginning of summer. During this time they 
are said to be nearly blind. 

The celebrated giirvm of the Romans was a pic- 
kle prepared from this fish. 


T^c Thunny wa.< a li»h bo well known to the 
anlientsas to form one of the great articles of their 

• StKOifYiH.— ^coiDbcr Thjnnua. Liim.— Albicore. fjf.— 

MKkrel-fturc, w Gieat Mackrel, in ScoUvhI. Tunny FUii, 

«» Sfian'uh MicVtcl. WfV/, leh. — Pom, Bril. vtJ. ui.iai. 5s. 
^— 1a Then, In France. 

TtlB Tn«NHT. 


commerce. It is f-iund in most seas and is from 

two to ten feet long. The l>ody is round snd (hick, 

vnd Ispen nurly lo a (loint both ai ihc head and 

UJ. 'I'hc ikiu Kif the b:ick is very thick nnd black, 

and that of the iUks jiiiJ belly silvery, tiiig(.-d with 

Ugbi blud and pale por^jit:. Tite tail is crrucnc* 

stuped, with the tip» tar saniidcr; and the spiiriuns 

6m bctuecn the dorsal fin and ihc tail (which 

nsL the tipecics) un- frum eight lo clevcu in 


Oo the coAsts of Sicily, as well as in sc\'enl 
Otbtr parts of the Mcdilerraoean, there are now 
ittj considerable Thunny Tishcrie*. The nets arc 
tprcad over a large apace of sea by means of cab!e« 
feewd to anchurs, and urc divided into several 
c(ioi|aTtiiienls. A man, placed upon the sLimmit 
of a rock high above the water, givts the signal of 
^tish being arrived ; for be can discern from ihat 
c''^irM) whAl pciRses under the water much better 
lliaii any |ier»in nearer the surface. As soon (ts no- 
txc is giv{!n that n shoal of tish has [«nchBied as far 
Kihe inner comparimcnt of the net, the pas&agcis 
drawn clo>c, nnd the slaughter begins. 

XW Thunny enters ihc Mediterranean about the 
*CTiu| ctjuinux, travelling in a Iridngular phalanx, 
^ OS to cut the waters with its point, and to prei<ent 
■*■ extensive base fur the tides and ciirrciitn to act 
'^S^iitttl, und iinpel lorwarda. 

iTicy repair to the warm seas of Greece to spavrn. 
*'«cripg their course thither along the liurupcan 
wurea; but as they return they approach the 
African coaut : the young fry is placed in tbc van 



of the squadron as ihey travel. They come baefc 
from the East in May, and abooiitl nboul thnt liiim 
on ihe coast!; of Sicily and Cslabrin. In autumn 
Ibcy steer northward, and frequent the neighbour- 
hood ot' iVnialphi and Nnples. They nrc not Uft* 
commoD on the wcitcrn const s of Scoilnncf, where 
they come in pursuit of ihc herrings, and often 
during the night strike into tht: nets un<l do con>i- 
dcniblc damage. Wbcn the (ishcrmen draw These 
up in the morning, the Thiinoy rises at the «aaje 
lime tou-arcU the surface, ready to catch the fuh tltat 
dropout. On its being obscncd, a Iidc is ihroitn 
into the \r,iicr having a &ln>ng hook baited with » 
herring, which it seldom fails to st^izc. As sam a-t 
the fish finds itself ensnared, ii seems to lose all its 
Hctivc powers; and, after very little resistance, Mib* 
ntits to its fate. 

The quantity of these fUh thai is annually con- 
snmct) in the two Sicilies nlmo>l e^cccds the bourtda 
of calculation. When taken in May they are full 
of »pawn, and arc ilicn e^leclned unwhnlesonic, st 
being apt to occasion heachtchii and Tapour» : to pre- 
vent in some mecusurv these bad effects, the luitimt 
fry them in oil, and afterwards snit them. The 
pi«e«, when fre&h, appear exactly hkc raw beef; 
but when hollcd ihey turn pfllc, and have somcwhirt 
the BAt'Our of ^alnlon. The mo^t delicate parte-nre 
those about the muzxlc. Those fish whieh the in* 
habitants are not able to use iintncdiaiely are cut 
intu .'■liccs, called, .ind pri-hcrved in large tubs, cJtbcr 
for sale or winter pro^isionf. 

Tlu: Romans held ihcnt in great csliniatioa. 

[ iJ- 3 


ALL ibc S[Kcic8 of IVrch have jaws ihat an* ud- 
cqiul in length, artncd -n ii I) Hlinri>-potiuctl and in- 
cunwl (cah. Thcgill-tncmbraiic has seven ra>'s ; 
am! ii» cover eonsisl* of ihrceplalis, the tijiiwrmost 
of «'bich ii semtcA. The saHe^ thai covlt ttt« 
body are hard and rough. The first dorsal fin is 
^iaoa'i, nn.l the second (eitcc[)t in a -single <|)ecies) 

Tnn coMMos teiicii*. 
TIwc Pproh arc gregarioiis; and, contrary to the 
nMafu of nearly alt frcsh-\vnicr fish that suim in 
fhoah, they arc so voracious as to attack and dc\'our 
itheir own species. They grow slowly,, and are 
lotn raught of extraordinary k\xe. The largest 
wai* cwr hcaril of in ihii country was caught 
tome years ago in tlic Scrjjcnltitc River in Iljdc 
^it: it weighed nine punds. The U5uat weight 
i'riijr, hottT\*er, more than from half u pound to 

lliey are fonnd in clear swift rivers with pebbly 
w gravcHy botlums, and in those of a ^ndy or 
cinycy soil. They seem to prefer moJcraldy deep 
«Mcr, and holes by the sides of or near to gentle 
I'ams, where there is an eddy > the hollows under 
iks, among weed:?, nnd ruoti of trees ; the piles of 

StNiHiTNB. — Perca fluviaiilis. Lim. — Ptrch. W7//. — /'.•««. 
"''. Znf. ttl. lil. lot. i%.—t* VtidH, bjr tiK Frcncti. 



bridges, or diiclies and back streamti that hare i 
communication with some rii'er. They will alio 
thrive fast in ponds ihnt are fed by a brook or ri- 

Perch are v«ry tcnnciotis of life. They have been 
koown to sun'ivc H journey of near sixty miles, ■!> 
though packed in dry straw. 

It is gfiicrally believed lliat the Pike will not at* 
tack a fulUgrown Perch, on account of theapiny 
fins on its back, which ihts fish alu-ays erects on the 
approach of an enemy. The smaller Perch, how« 
ever, arc frequently used as bail for the Fikc. 

The season of angling for Perch h from April to 
Januar)' ; and the lime from simnse till ten o'clork, 
and from two o'clock till sunset ; except in clotidy 
weatber, with amffiiog »)uth wind, whcit they will 
bite all day. The baits are various kinds of worms, 
9 minnow, or grasshopper. — So voracious are thcw 
fl'h, that, it is said, if an expert angler finds a shoal 
oftticm, he ini sure of caking every one. If, how- 
ever, a single Ush escapes that has felt the hook« aD 
is over ; this fub becomes so rcstlcsn an soon to oc* 
casion the wholtr iihoal to leave the ptitcc. 

In winter the Perch is exceedingly nbstem 
and during that season scarcely ever bites, cxc 
in the middle of a warm aun-ftbiny day. — In clear 
\veather in the spring, sometimes a dozen or mcirc of 
these fish may be observed in a deep hole, sheltered 
by trees and bushes. The angler m.ty then observe 
lhc]n striving which shall Hrst ticize hi» bait, till the 
whole shoot are caught. 

The females deposit Ihcir spawn, fiomciiines to 


^e amount of 28o,ooc ova, betwixt the months of 
February and May. This is usually done during 
the act of rubbing themselves against some sharp 

Perch arc much admired as firm and delicate 
ftsh. They were in high esteem among the Ro- 

In one of the pools of Merionethshire there is a 
singular "j-ariety of the Perch, the back of which is 
hunched, and the tower part of the back-bone next 
the tail is strangely, distorted. The common kind 
are as numerous in this pool as the deformed fish. 
Some of the crooked Perch have likewise been found 
in the small alpine lakes of Sweden *. ' 

* Daniel, ii. 246. Penn. Brit. Zao] iil. 354. 

[ 160 3 


RAPID and stony rivers, where the water is free 
from mud, arc the favourite places of most of the 
Salmon tribe. Some of them do indeed inhabit the 
sea: but tlicy come uj) iht; rivers for the purpose of 
dci>ositing their spawn in the bcd-;of gravel ; and .in 
this instinctive pursuit thcv will sunnoimt wonderful 
obstacles that oppose Ihcir coarse. After spawning, 
ihcy return to (he sea lean and emaciated. The whole 
tribe is supposed to afford wholesome food for man- 

They are distinguished from other fishes by having 
two dorsal fins, of which the hindermost is fleshy and 
without rays. They have teeth both in the jaws and 
on the tongue; and the body ia covered with round 
and minutely striated scales. 


This fish seems confined in a great measure to the 
northern seas, being unknown in the Mediterranean, 
and in the waters of other warm climates. It lives in 
fresh as well as in salt waters, forcing itself in autumn 
lip the rivers, sometimes for hundreds of miles, for 
the purpose of depositing its spawn. In these pcre- 

* This tribe rommenccs the fouitb of tbe Linnxm ordenof 
fiihci, the AsooMiKAL Fish. 

■^ SrsOHTus, — Sulmo catar. Z.ifln.~LeSauiiioD,b;'thcFreDcb. 



grinationi it is that Salmon nre caught in the great 

numbers that supply our markets aiicl tables. Intent 

only on the object of ihcir journey, Ihey spring- up 

cataracts and over otlic-r obstacles uf a very great 

height. This csti-itordin.iry power iicems to be owing 

to ft sudden jerk that the fish gives to irs body from 

abcai into a straight position. Whcti they are un- 

opectedly obfitrucied in their progress, it is said they 

wim a few pacc3 back, survey the object for some 

miaulcs mottotilesj, rctrciil, and return again to thu 

durge; then, collecting all ihcir force, with one 

■Imishing spring overleap every obstacle. Where 

lh« water is low, or sand-banks intervene, they throw 

kihertiiclvesononesidc, and in that position scon work 
l^emielvcsovcr into the deep water beyond. On the 
ntrLiiTcy in Ireland there is a cataract about nine- 
'ten feci high: here, in the salmon season, many 
*i ihe inhabitants amuse themselves in observing the 
Isblcap up the torrent. They frequently fall buck. 
niiDy time* before they surmount it, and baskets 
ttideof twrgaare placed neartheedgc ofthe stream 
I loraich them in their fill. — At the falls of Kilmorack 
' ■ Scotland, whore the Salmon are very numerous, it 
I iiieommon practice with the country -people to lay 
^finches of trees on the edges of the rocks, and by 
tWrncan!! they often take such of Htc Ash as miss 
*!irleap, which the foaming of the torrent not un- 
'^w.titly causes them (o du. And the late Lord 
Utai, who often visited ihcsc (aWa, t:iking the hint 
liooi this circumstance, formed a determination to 
07 > whimsical experiment on the samo principle. 

''OL. III. M 



Alongside one of the falls he ordered 3 kettle full oT 
water 10 be placed over a 6re, and many minotcs 
had not elapsed before a large Salmon made a false 
leap, and fell into it. This may seem incredible to 
those who never saw one of these rude salmon-Icapn zg^ 
but surely there i^ as great a chance of a Salmon fall-^ 
ing into a k«ttle as on any given part of the adjacent 

:k i and it is a thing that would lake place many 
times io the cour% of the season, were but the ex- 
periment tried. M 

When the Salmon have arrived at a proper placed 
fur spawning in, the male and fenialu unite in form- 
ing in the sand or gravel a proix:r receptacle foe ibcir 
bvs, about eighteen inches dcc;p, which they are also 
tiippobcd afterwards to cover up. In this hole tbeova 
lie till the ensuing spring (if not displaced by the 
flood!^), before they arc hatched. The parents, bow- 
ever, immediately after ibcir SjKiwniog, hasten toths 
wilt water, now extremely emaciated. Toward the 
end of March the young fry begin to appear; and, 
gradually increasing in size, become in the beginning 
of May five or six inches in length, when they are 
called Suhmti-smelts. They now swarm in the rircrs 
in myriads ; but the iirst flood sweeps chem down in- 
to the sea, scarcely leaving any behind. About the 
middle of June the largest of these begin to return 
into the rivers: they are now become of the length 
of twelve or sixteen inches. Toward the end of July 
ihey arc called Giht, and weigh from six to nine 
pounds each. 

When the Salmon enter the fresh water, tli^ an- n 



■Iwsys more or less infeMcd with a kind of insect called 
the salmon-louse*: when these arc numerous the fish 
arecKteemed in high season. Very soon after the SaU 
noD hare left the sea, the insects die and drop olf. 

After the tish have become lean at the spawnin^- 
lime, on their rcltirn to the sea Ihcy acquire their 
proper buik in a very little while; having been known 
to be considerably more than double their weight in 
ibout six weeks. — Their food consists of the smaller 
fiikes, insects and worms i for all these are us«d witb 
snctss a^ baits, by the angter^^ for Salmon. 

The principal fisheries in liurope arc in the rivers ; 
QTOntlie sea-coasts adjoining to the large riven of 
^gland, Scotland, and rrcland. The chief English 
rwrs for them are the Tyne, the Trent, the Severn, 
and the Thames. They are sometimes taken in nets; 
udiomctimcs by means of locks or wetri with iron 
or wooden grates, so placed in an angle, that, being 
■pelled by any force in a direction contrary to that 
rftbe stream, they open, let the fish (or whatever else 
Mies against Ihcm] through, and again by the forco 
of the water or their own weight close and prevent 
ihcir n-iurn. Salinor) are also killed in still water, by 
muu of a spear with several prongs, which the fisher* 
men use with surprising dexterily. When this is 
■utd in tlie night, a candle and lantern, or a wisp of 
Uriiv set on fire, i.^ carried along, to the light of 
■Weh the fish collect. * 

In the ri-.-cr Tweed, about the month of July, the 
Capture of Salmon is aMonishing : often a boat-load, 
i wmetimes near two, may be taken at a ttdcj 

* LlTB*a Ssimsxia o( Linnxui. 

M a 



and in one instance above seven bondrcd fish were 
caught at a single haul of the net. From fifty to a 
hundred at a haul is very common. Most of those 
that arc laken frnm before the sctting-in of the warm 
weather are sent fresh to London, if the went her will 
permit. The others arc swlted, pickled, or dried, and 
are sent off in barrels, in quantities sniflicient not 
only to stock the London markoiss but also some of 
the markets of the continent j for the fomier are by 
no means able to Ciikc all thefi^sh that arc caught litre. 

ThcNcaion for fishing commences in thcTwcctlon 
the thirtielhof Novembcr,and cndaaboutold Michael- 
mas day. On this river there are above forty conside- 
rable fisheries, which extend ufnvards about fourteen 
(niles from the mouth ; be>ides many others of less 
consequence. These, several years ago, were rented 
at above the annual sum uften thousand pounds ; and 
to defray this expense it has been calculated that 
more than 2oo,cco Salmon must be caught thercone 
year xvith another. 

The Scotch fisficrifs arc very productive j as are 
also several of those in Ireland, pnrticularly ihM al 
Crannaon the river Ban, about a mile and a half from 
Ojleraine. At this place, in the year 1760, as many , 
as three hundred and twenty tons were taken. H 

A person of the name of Grahiim, who fnrma the 
aea-coast fishery el Whitehavt'iij has adopted ■ sue- ^ 
ccssful mode of taking Salmon, which lie has appro- ^ 
pfiaicly dcooinidiitcd 5o/w5M-^«/rfff. When the tide n 
It oat, and the tisb are left in shallow waters, inter- H 
cepted by »ind-bunks, near the mouth of the river. 

when they are foiind in bon wAe.\* \i^ ihe sbor^ 




vbere theu-nteris not mare tKan from one fool to four 
fees! in any depth, the place where they lie is to be dis- 
covrroJ by tlicir agitation of the pool. This maTi, 
■nned with ■ three- pointed b;irbed spear, with a shaft 
of 6ftccn feet in length, mounts hi:i horee, and plunges 
at a Awilt trot, or moderate gallop, belly deep, into 
Ibc water. He makes ready his spi^ar with both hands: 
when fae overtakes the Sidmon, he lets go one haad, 
indwitb the other strikes the spear, with almost un- 
tmaf; aim, into the fish. This done, by a turn o( 
tbehund bojaiKS the Salmon to the surface of the 
ntcr, turns hb horse's head to the shore, and runs 
Salmon on dry land without dtainounting. Tliiii 
jDsn says, that by the present mode he can kill from 
farty to Hfiy in a day : ten arc however no despicable 
ifajr's work for n man And horse. His father was pro- 
bably the fint man that ever adopted this method of 
lulliog Salmon on horseb.ick. 

Satmoo arc cured by being split, rubbed with aalt. 
Mid put in pickle in tubs provided for the purpoaCf 
wberc they are kept about six weeks : they arc then 
taken out, pressed, and jtackcd in cabks with layers 
of talt». 

Different .-Jijccics of Salmon come in so great abun- 
daoce up the livers of Kamlschatka as lo force 
the water before them, and even to dam up the streams 
intuch a mantierasgomeiimestomake them overflow 
thor banks. In this case, when the water finds a 
s^e, such multitudes arc iHt on the dry ground ;)3 
would, were it not (or the violent winds so prevalent 



in that country, as^ii^ed by the besrs and dog%, soon 
produce a stench sulBciently great to cause a pes. 

Salmon are said to have an aversion to any thin^j 
red, so that the fishermen are generally cJireTuI not 
to wear iackets or caps of that colour. Pontoi>pidan 
t<aj6 also that they have so great a dislike to carrion, 
that, if any happens to be thrown inio the places i 
where they arc, they immediately forsake them : thof 
Norwegian remedy for this, and it is looked upon by 
the inhabitants as an effectual one, is to throw into 
(he water a lighted torch f. * 


The Trout, although a very delicate and at pre- ' 
Kflt well known fish, was in no esteem among the 
antients. It abounded in most of the lakes of the 
Roman empire, jet is only incotioncd by writers on 
account of its beautiful colours. 

Id son>e rivers Trouts begin to spawn in October ; 
but November is the chief month of spawning. 
About the end of September they quit the deep water, 
to which they had retired during the hot weather, 
and make great eftbrts to gain the course of the cur- 
rents, seeking out a proper place for spawning. This 
is always on a gravelly bottom, or where gravel and 

* I^B. Inlrod. toArer. Z«ol. p. cxiiii. 

t foalapfuixa, pttrt ti (jj. 

I StsoNyMi. — Sjltno brie. Lim, — Salu <A tb< anUeat mi- 
ten.— LaTiuiic, uiFiaikc. 



sand are mixed among .stone-;, towards the end and 
vidov of streams. At this period they turn black 
about llic bead and body, and become soft and un- 
wholesome. They arr never good when tliey are 
\ng with roci which h contrary to llic nature of ma^t 
other 6sh. After spawning ihey become feeble, their 
bodies arc wasted, and those beautiful ^poti;, uhicli 
before adorned them, are imperceptible. Their heads 
appear swelled, and their eyes arc dull. In this state 
llicy seek still waters, and continue there ^^ick, ns if 
is supposed, all the winter. There are in all Trout ri- 
vers &ome barren female fish, which continue good 
tbrough the winter. 

In March, or sometimes earlier, if ibt* weather be 
mild, the Tronts begin to lea^-e their winter quartern, 
and approach the shallows and tails of streams where 
they clcxinsc and restore ihcmscii'es. As they aeqairo 
itrcngth they advance still higher up the rivers, till 
they fix on their summer residence, for which they 
generally choosean eddy behind a stone, a log, or 
bank, that projects into the water, and against which 
Ihc current drives. They also frequently get into the 
holes under roots of trees, or into deeps that are 
ibaded by boughs and bushes. 

These fish arc said to be in scavin from M.nrch to 
September. They are, however, fatter from the mid. 
die to the end of August than at any other time. 

Trouts in a good pond will grow faster than in some 
rirer*. And a gentleman who kept them in ponds, 
to ascertain the progress and duration of their lircs, 
asserts that at four or five years old they were at their 
full growth. For threfe years sobicquent to this they 



conttiiued with little alteration in tizc ; two years afier, 
tbe hC'id seemed to be enlarged, and the body wasted^ 
and in the following winter they died. Accoixling (o 
this computation, nine or ten yean seem to be the 
lertn of (bcir existence. 

In several of the northern rivers, Troulsare taken 
aa red and ai well-ta»tcd ns Charr ; and their hones, 
vlten polled, like those *>( Charr, have di&.<tulved. 
These arc oricn very large : one of them was caught 
6ome time ago that measured twenty-eight incbea in 
length.— A Trout was taken in the river Stour, in 
December 1797, which weighed twenty-six pounds, 
and another, some years ago, in Lough Nengh, in 
Ireland, that weighed thirty (loiinds. 

This Hsh is not easily caught with a line, being at 
all limes exceedingly circumspect. The bnils used are 
■worms or artificial flics. The season for fishing t» 
from March till Michaelmas. The angler prefers 
cloudy wcailicr, but he is not particular as to the 
time of day. 

In two or three of (he [inols in North Wale$, there 
is fuund a varifiy of the Trout which are naturally 
deformed, linving asingnlar crookedness near the tail. 
Some of the Pereh in the Mme country have a similar 
deformity. — In two or three of the lakes of Ireland 
llicrc is another variety cnlled tbc GiUareo Trovt. 
The stomachsofthcicTrouts are so excessively thick 
and muicular at^ lo bear 5omc rc^etnblutioc lo tbcor- 
gans in birdii called giszards. These stodincha are 
sometimes scr\Td up 10 table as Trout i" gixzttrds. In 
the CommuD Trout the stomach is uncoaimonly 



Strong ind muscular; for, as well as small fish and 
»qu8^ insects, the animals lire on the fllKJI-tisb of 
the fresh wnicn • and even take into ihcir stomachs 
gravel or small stones, to assist in commimiling the 
testaceous part of their food. 


IN itic whole ofihe Pike tribr the head is somewhat 
flit, and the nppcr jow shorter than llic other. The 
p!!-mcmbp«ne li;i3 from neven to twpjvc rays. The 
bedjris long-, slender, rompre<:vd nt the sides, and 
coTCTtd with h»rd icalcs. The dorsal (in is Biiunlod 
tar the tail, and generally opposite io the oital fin. 


thb common pike*. 

These fi&h nrc found in considerable plenty in most 
of the lakes in Europe, Lapland, snd the norlhcra 
fwrts of Persia, where ihcy sometimes measure up- 
mnl*) of ciglit ^ccl in length. 

There i»«:arcely any fish of its size in the world 
Ihiit in voracity can equal the Pikv. One of them ha» 
been known tucbojik itself in iittcmptingta swallow 
another of ila own species that provnl too large & 
morsel: and it has bt-en well authenticated that, in 
Lord Gowcr's cnnal at I'rcntham, a Pike :^cized Uie 

• Stiohtx*.— Esmtloctni. Utn.—fikeoT Pickef«ll. WiW. UK 
— frtB. Bril, Zitl, vtl. iii. lui- 63.— U Brochcl, in Fnm. 



bead of a swnn &s she was feeding under water, and 
gorged so mnch of it as killed them bolh*. 

" I Imve been assured (*ays Walton) by my friend 
Mr. Scagravc, who keeps tame otters, that he ha» 
known a Pike, in cxlrcme hunger, fight with one of 
Iiis otters for a carp ttiat the oltcr had caught, and 
was then bringing out of the water." 

Boulker, in his Art of Angling, says that bis 
father caught a Pike that was an cll long, ud 
wei;;hed thirty-five pounds, which he presented to 
Lord Cho!niondeIey. His lordship direcled it to 
be put into a canal in his garden, which at that 
time contained a great quantity of fiih. Twelve 
montlis afterwards the vater was drawn off, snd it 
was discovered that the Pike had devoured all the 
lish except a single large carp, that weighed be- 
tween nine and ten pounds^ and even this had 
been bitten in several places. The Pike was again 
put in, and an entire fresh stock of fiah for him (o 
feed on : all these ho dcvoiucd in lest than a year. 
Several times he was observed by workmen, who 
were standing near, to draw ducks and other water- 
fowl unHcr water. Crown were shot and thrown in, 
which he took in the presence of the men. From 
this lime the slnnghtermen had orders to feed him 
with the garbage of the slaughter-house ; but, being 
afterwards neglected, he died, as it is supposed, from 
want of food. 

In Heccmbcr, 1 765, a Pike was caught in the 
river Ouse that weighed upwards of twcnly-eight 

" Peao. £111. Zool. vol, ill p. jai. 


pounds, sad was sold for a guinea. When it was 
opnied, a watch with a black ribband and two seals 
was found in its body. These, it was afterwards 
(Bscovered, had belonged to a gentleman's servant, 
n^o bad been drowned io ibc river about a niontb 

GcHoer relates that a famished Pike in the Rhone 
seized on the lips of a mule, and wfis, io conse- 
(|aencc, dra{:gcd out of ihe walcr ;, and that people, 
while washing their legs, had often been billen by 
these voracious creatures. 

The smaller fish exhibit the same fear of this 
tjrant a> some of llic feathered tribe do of the 
n^cious birds, sometimes swimmini^ round him, 
irhtle lying dormant near the surlacc, in vast num- 
ben, and with great anxietyf. 

The Pike is siipposc-d to have been 
frer seen in this country, was one caught on the 
drnning of a pool at Lillishall limisworks, near 
Kewport, that had not been 6shed in the memury 
of man : it weighed above 1 70 poundsj. 

If the accounts of different writers on the subject 
are to be credited, tlic longevity of the Pike is very 
remarkable. Ge^ner goes so far as to mention a 
Rke whose age was ascertained to be 167 years. 

Pikes spawn in March or April. When they are 
in high season, their colours are very fine, being 

WilloD, nolci p. 1351 from a Lomkm japer of the Kcood of 

f Petir. Biit. Zoo), tol.ui.3j1, 
* Wtlton, note, p. ij6, from 4 London paper of llie ajih of 

I^i-cen spoiled xvilh bright yellow, nod Iwving the 
gills of a most vivid red. When out oTscnjion, iho 
green changes to gray^ and ihc yellow spotx bocomo 
|>ale. The icrih nnr very ^ilmrp, nml «re dispoKd 
in llie upper jaw, oo both sides o( ibc lower, on ibo 
roof of ihc nioulh, and often on ihc longiir. Thty 
are atlogether solitary lisb, never cangregaling like 
some of Ihc otluT tribes. 

Though somewhat bony fiih, they arc in •General 
esteem a^ food; and on Ihe Continent, wheru they 
are caught tn great Abundance, they are dried, and 
eiported to otlier countries for sale. 

They are often taken while lying asleep near the 
surface of ihe water, by means of a snare, at the 
end of a pole, gcolly passed over their head ; which, 
by a sudden jerk, draws close, and brings them to 


THE head is covered with scale;, and the moath 
ift dcsiituceof leclh. The belly is angular, and the 
peclonil Has arc almost as long as the body. 


The Flying-fish, if vrc except its bead and 6it 
back, has, in the form of its body, ■ great resero- 

■ SvHoxTMi.. — Esacffitui voliuns. Linn. — Hirundo, af tbe 
■niicnls.— /'«,'iff. Brif. Z9<}1. v«t. \'a. tai. 67.— Le Ptnatoa voUUi 
In PiMce. 



Want* to the Herring. Tlic Males are large and 
^Ivrry. The pectoral fins are very long^; and thr. 
dorail An is sinaU, and placcfl near the (ail, which U 
ferltcd. — It inhaliii> ihe F.uicux'aii, the American, 
and Ihe Red ioa ; but 19 chiefly (bund bclntxa the 

The wings, with which th«e fish have the [KMvcr 
of raising iheiTiselves tiiio llic air, ane nothing more 
Ibati large pectoral firw, composed of seven or pi^ht 
ribs or rays, conneclcil by a flexible, tran^parcnl, 
and glutinous mcmhrane. They have tbcir origin 
near the gitis, nnd are citi'^ible of considerable mo- 
tion backwards and forwards. 7TiC3C 6ns arc used 
alfo to aid -the motion ot'the fish in the water; nnd 
Ifwe arc In jurlge from ihe great length and surflice 
of (he oars, comjiaratively with the size of the body, 
Ihe fi.ih should he able to cut their way through the 
water with Krcat vclocit)'. 

The i'lying-fi-'h has nimerous eiiernic? in its own 
clement ; the Dorado, Thnnriy, and many others 
piirtiiic atid devour it. To aid it^ escape, it is fur- 
nHlied with these long pectoral fin**, by which it 14 
able to raisu ite^^-lf inlo the air, where it is oHcii 
leized by the Albairos?) or Tropic birdit. Its flight 
is ^horl, seldom mure than sixty or seventy yards at 
one stretch ; b\.M, by touching the surfare at inter- 
vals to muisleo it<i fins, it is able to double or treble 
this distance. The whole flight, however, iiiofso 
short a duration that, even in the hutiest we;ithcr, its 
fins do nut become dry. By touching the water it 
not only wets its fins, but scvtns to tal^c fresh forCfi 
and vigour in anolher spring into an element^ wbcTc 


it is not long able to support it!i weight bjr tbe clumsy 
motion oftlslirts. If Ihc Flying-fishes were wti- 
tary animaU, ihey would not be worth the pursuit of 
soineoftticir larger enemies; they are very seldom 
wen to rise singly from the water, but generally 
appear in lar^c shoals. 

It has been inconsiderately remarked that ** all 
animated nature («cm» combined against this little 
fish, which possesses tlie double powers of swimming' 
and Hying only to subject it to greater dangcrit. If 
it escape its cncniiei) oC ihc deep, it is only to bt 
devoured by lhe'.''i:;i-t'owl, which arc waiting its ap- 
pearance in the air." Its destiny i.s, however, by no 
ind^ms peculiarly severe : we should consider that, a» 
8 fish, it often ef.cajN's the attack of birds ; and, 
in its winged character, the individuals frequently 
ibrow themselves out of the power of fishes. 

The eyes of these fish arc so prominent as to ad- 
mit of their seeing danger from whatever quarter it 
may come; but, on emergency, they are able, in 
addition, to push them somewhat beyond the sock- 
ets, so 88 considerably to enlarge their sphere of 

Tbcy are frequently either unable to direct their 
dight out of n straight line, or cIst: they tiecome 
cvbaufited on a sudden : for sometimes whole shoaU 
of them fall on board ihc ships that navigate the scaa 
of warm climates. 

In the water llx-y have somewhat the manner of . 
the swallow in the air, except that they always sn-im 

• Brown in PhU. Tnn. «il.'t«»iii. p. Jpi. 




ia iimght lilies: and ihe blac);nes5 of their barko, 
the wtritcfKNi of their bellies, and tlielr forked and 
expanded tails^ give them much the same .ippear- 

Tbcy were known to the antienla ; for Pliny 
inenltons chem under ihc name of Ifirwuio, and re- 
late* their faculty of dying. 



THE body of (he Herring is compressed, and 
cofcred wilb scales ; and the belly is extremely 
^Karp, sometimes forming a scrraled ridge. In the 
;pl!-mcmbranc there arc eight rays. The jaws arc 
^mequal, and the upper one is furnished with scr- 
nted mystacc^ or conoecting bones. The tail is 


Herrings are foimd in the greatest nhunilance tn 
the highest northern latitudes. In those inacces- 
ible Mas that arc covered with ice for a great part 
of the year, they fmd a <]U)et and sure retreat frum 
«)[ their niimeioua eneritics. The i^uaiilily of in- 
tccts which thuflc «cai tiupply is iittmcn>«ly great. 

Thu« remotely silunted, uiid defended by the icy 
rigour of the cliinntt, thry live at ca«, and multiply 
bc)'ond expression, coming out from thence in such 

■ SitMOJCYMt CbpcA hKtngti. Lm. — Le HiKitg, 1a 

rfcr. Pfui. Brit. Zoel. tab. 60. 


sho&U, th:it, were all the men in Ihc world to be 
loaded with herrings, they could not carrf o(F the 
thousandth part ot them. Their enemies are, how- 
ever, extremely numerous : all the monsters of tbc 
deep find ihcm an caf-y prey ; and, in zddtlion tb 
these, (he tinmen^ flocks of sea-lbn-l that inhabit 
the polnr rogion^ watch IhcJr outset, and Aprud 
devastation on all sides. 

In their outset, this immense swann of living crea- 
tures is divided into distinct columns of five or ni 
miles in length, and three or four in breadth, and in 
their progrca:) they make even tbc water ripple be- 
fore Ihcm. 

They are found about Shetland in June, from 
whence they proceed down lo the Orkneys, and, then 
dividing, Rurround the islands of Great Britain and 
IreluTid, and uniteagain o>f the Land's End in the 
Britirih Channel in September ; from whence tbc 
great united body steers south-west, and is not found 
any more on that side, or in the Atlantic, until the 
same lime in the ensuing year, but oext apjx^r on 
the American coasts. They arrive in Georgia and 
Carolina aliout the latter end of January, and in 
Virginia in February. From hence they coast east- 
ward toi^cw F.tigtaml. They then divide, andgo 
into all the bays, nvera, creeks, anil even moall 
streams of woler, in iiniazing quantities^ nnd con- 
tinue spawning in the fresh w.iler till the litter end 
of April, when the old fishreUi^n iitlo thtffa, where 
they chaiigclhcir latitudes by anorlbwaid direcltoo, 
and arrive at Ncttibuiidlmd in Mny. A(\cr tbis 
they arc no inotc seen in Aincnoa till tbc following 





K|fnog. Tlieir passing sooner or later up the Ame^' 
nosD rivets depends on thevarmth of the season; 
and cv'co if a few warm days invite ihcm up, and 
cool wcdtber succeeds, Iticir {rassagt: is immcdtalcly 
checked till the heat becomes more powerful. Thii* 
they are fouod in the British Channel in September, 
but leave it wben (he sun is at too great a distance 
from them, and push for a more agreeable ctitnate. 
And when the weather ia America becomes loo 
warm in May, (after having deposited their eggs), 
ibcy 5tcer the course whicli leads to the cooler 
northern seas, nnd, by this careful change of place, 
icrpctually enjoy the temperature of the climate best 
suited t« their nature. 

The )'oitng do not follow the old ones in their first 
migrations t lor they arc to be seen in great shoal» 
in all thi; American bays till the atilumn, when they 
disappear. Since it appears ihiit the Herrings have 
t natura) propensity to keep at a certain distance 
from the Aun, we may conclude that, at (Lis season'* 
of the year, the young arc led in a direction contrary 
to that of the old uiic;<, which they meet about lali- 
tude 13* north, and 70* west longitude. Here ihey 
are Hipposcd to tack about, and follow the ol hers. 
These, being larger and stronger, come firet into the 
American harbours i their numbers, however, are 
then considerably diminished by the dcvastattcnit 
committed among iliem during their absence*. 

TIjc fecundity of the Herring is ostonisbing: it 

* Gilptit on Heitingf, in Anwr. Ptiit Trm. ii. 136. 

/OL. Hi. N 



has htext catculitted that, if the oA^prin^ of a sinf^ 
Herring could be soffored to iniihi)»Ijr iinnH>lc:f>tecI> 
and undtminislicd tor twenty years, ifiey wo«Id ox- 
hibit a bulk of ten timt*^ the si2«! of the eiith, But 
happily Providence has. so exactly conlrivol the bs- 
hnccof nature, bygi%-iag thetn inniimcrabkcncinic*, 
as always to keep them wiLliin (iroper bounds. 

In the year 1773, tbe i)crnng» were in sucj) iin^i 
mensc shoals on the Sratch coasts tur two inontb^'i , 
that it appears frorn tolerably accurate computatioov ■ 
no Ictt than 1650 boat-loads wcro taken in l/xia " 
Terridon every nigfit. These uould amount toncuijn 
lo.oco barrels. -i-i 

Tbey once su-armed so greatly on the west side* 
of the isle of SkyCf that the numbers caught were' 
noEe than coufd possibly . be carried away. Aficn) 
the boats ncrc alt loBded| and the country roaiid<> 
was served, the ocighbouring farmers made Uiemo 
up into composts, and manured their ground witb.i 
them in the ensuing season. This shoal continuodii 
to frequent the toast for many yoasSf but not slwayft^i 
in numbers equal tatbcsc*. 

Sooiewbat moro than thirty years ago, the H«Cn^ 
nng^ cuinc into Loch Urn in such a\navng<{tian^' M 
ties, th»t from the narrows t& the very head, about ' • 
two miles, it wn^ quite full. So many oCthein viiftitl. 
pushed on shore,, that thobeuch for fournitles roun4l'. 
the head was covered wilh thcu from &ix to eightciif^! 
JDchesdeep; and the groundunder watort fts fpr>|>^ 
could beseuD when the tide was out, was equally aowt 



So thtdt ind so forcibte \(bs the stiool as to cnrr^ be- 
fore it every other kiud of li^h ; even ground-fish. 
Aile, tiouudcr, 8tc. were driven on ihc shore nilh 
the first of the Herrings, nnJ perished there. 

The principal of tlvc Eriiish Herring fisheries are 
off the Scotch and Noiiatk coasts; ami in our seas 
the fiijhing is always carried on by nets stretched' id 
the water, one side of which is kept from sinking 
bjf means of buoys fixed to ihem at proper distances ; 
and se iho weight of (he net the sidcsiuk to 
wbicb no htioys arc ftsed, it i» siiHcred tci hang in a 
perpendicular position like .1 screen ; and the &»h, 
ffben they endeavour to pass through it, are enlan* 
^ed in its mcsbes, from »tiich ihey cannot didcn- 
g«ge themselves. There ihey remain till the net ia 
kaalod in, and they arc shnkcn or picked out. 

The nets arc never atrctcht?d to catch I Itfrings 
but during the night, for in (he-dark they »re to be 
idccn in much thcj^rcatest abundance. When the 
n^t is dark, and the surface ofitK water considc. 
nbJy rtiiHcd by itic wind, the tishernicn always 
Msuro tbemselves of Ibe grealeM t^iiccess. Nets 
Mrdched in the day-time arc supposed to frighten 
the lish Bwnv. 

In order to strengthen Ihc nets, and wnder the 
tfatvflds mare compact, ibey are all tanned. For 
ibis purpose a quantity of oek-lNirk is boiled : the 
ftqikor is then stminod olT, and further boitod till it 
baisallained :Hich a consistence iltat, whcti a little ii 
-dropped on the thumb-nnil, it vill become thick fli 
it axis. The -nets arc then put into a large vessel, 
iDd tbi:i liqttnr is poirrpd, u'hilc hot, u^o tUcMV. 



They ore suftened to lie«l-twenty hours, when 
they are taken otit unJ tlriod. Thu same process is 
repeated three time<J. Nets thit have UQiIcfgoac 
tliis operation irre suppo^ to l:i:>t thrice as ]aa^ as 
they .would do without it. 

Herrings die almost llic moment after they are 
taken out ol' the water ; wh<jiicc originated ihc adage, 
in comiitoii vx, us drad as a tkrring. They also bi> 
conic very soon taitiicd nt'icr ihcy arc killed. In mud- 
incr, they arc sensibly wt>i>e for being out ol' the 
wattT only a lew hours; qnd, if exposed but a fcur 
nittiutef CO the rays of ihe sun, ihey aru perfectly 
ustilcs-t, and will not take the salt. 

VVIien tile fishcniicn on the Scotch coast baix 
f)Icnty ol*Kilt, Herrings 6v\\ for about stx shillings a 
l>arrcl. Ah their alt is expended, the price falls to 
Hvc, four, three, t\VD, and one shiilinj; per barrd -, 
&oinctitnce( citjii to ftix-()eiice or cighi-pciKe ; bcJow 
which price-)* the men will seldom ^oot their nct^, 
a« u te<^ pncc is m>t siitlicieot to irKJcmiitly' them for 
the trotihk' of catching lliem. But it ramciiincs 
iiappe:i« that a lunul of dtic fresh I ferrings may be 
ptiiehiwcd f<>r it -ingle chew of tuUteca A barrel 
coninins from six himdrcit to sixteen hanilred fr»b, 
accoolinp to tlicir ^izc•. 

Alter IIh! nciij ore hntiletl, ibe luh jk llirewti 
upon ibcdetk oS ihc ves«I, atid eticb of tliecrcn- 
lias a certain Htk. u-*>'tgncd lo biiu.> iduc part wxna- 
pluycd in opening und ^iciiti^ tttcijftii«iioiiMrr-ai 
cutting, iuid a lltird in p.ekiti; \Uttn in the barnds 

V ■ ' - ^ '' — •- -— 




TtIB PItCnASO. 181 

iirla^VfS of sail. The red ncirings lie iwcnlr-four 
boon iri the brine; they ai-e then taken out, Strang 
b^ the bead on Itttic wrxsdun spits, and hung- in o 
chftnne^ rormcd to receive theiii ; after which a fire 
i/brush-n-oorl, which Y'>i.*)d.s much srnoke, but no 
flame, is kindled under them, ami Ihcy remain there 
till Rnfticicnily smoked »nd dried ; when they are 
put into harrcls for carriage. 

The Herrings arc so]>poscd lo feed on a cmsla* 
iCDos sea insect, eslle<l by Linnaeus Onisms marinus. 
Dtty may be' even ciught mth an art iticial fly : an 
IndictiTitin of their also mmciirncs actzing Ihc wingicd 


About ihc miildle of July, the Pilchards, which 
are a Miiuller s|iecies of Herring, a|){)CBr in vast 
ifaoalti ofi' the PCQhif. of Cori^^ull. These &bo»U re- 
main till tlK ialttur cikI of Oclobcr, when it is proUa- 
blo they reiirc lo rame iiiidislstbed deep, at a little 
dJMBiicc, for the winter. It ba» Ivcn supposed, but 
i»iprQ|K.T)y, th^t, hku llie Herring, they inigniicd 
ioto the iVrcLic rc^ons. If I'llchards perfornicd 
in; migraliun norlhivards, we should certainly have 
bcanl of tlieirbeitigoccji-sionally t>ecn and caught on 
tbcirpasAa^i but of this we have no one Rtiiheii. 
Iic3t«tl iiifiance. I'he uintost range of the Pil- 
chards ^vcms to be the I^lc of Wight in the Britisbj 
andilfracomb in the Bri-''' ! C'!inni]d. , Foity years 


" STMovTSti. — Clnpta pilcaidus' Turlvai /.mi.— Lv Ptl 




bock, Chrlstmns wns ll)c (inj« of their departi 
thitj allcration iii time is a very singulur Titct*. 

\Vc have the foHowing^ account of ibc fishei^ 
from Dr. Borlase: — ^ It employs (be says) b great 
number of men on the sea, training them thereby 
to naval affairs; employs men, vocnen, and chil- 
dren, at land, in sailing, pressing, washing, and 
cleaning; in making bo:i!s, nets, ropes, casks; aod 
in all the trades depending on their construction 
and sale. The poor are fc<l with the offaU of tJie 
capture?, the land with the rcfiuc of the 6sh and 
salt, the mcrrhant finds the gains of commission 
and honest com inerrc, the fi2|)erman the gainaoftbc 
fish. Ships are oficn freighted hither with salt, and 
into foreign coiuicrics wiili the fish, carrying off, at 
the same lime, part ofonrlin. From a statement 
of the number of hogsheads exported cnch year, for 
ten years, from 174.7 10 17^6 incluMvc, from the Ibttr 
ports of Ttiwy, Falmouth, Penzance, and St. Jvtt'j 
it appears thai Tawy has exported j-cur^ 1731 hog»* 
beads; Falmouth, 14,631 hogsfacflds«nd tnolhirds; 
Penzance and Mou,nt«-b.iy, 12,149 hogsheads aod 
one- thin] ; St. Ives, laSa hogsheadfi : in all amoani' 
ing to 2,9,795 hogsheads. Every hogshead, for ich 
years last p'Vl, together with the brHinty allouied for 
each hogshead cxportcil, and the oil made out of 
each hogshead, has amounted, one yc»r uith an- 
other, at an average, to the price of one pound thir- 
teen &htll)ngs and ihrcc-pcncc ; to that the cash paid 

* Malgn't Otmrraiion ■ 00 ihc Western Couniic^, ml. i> p. 140. 




■for Pilchards exported hw, at a medium, aimoally 
amotmted to tbe sum uf 4:9,531!. tos*.'* ' 

When Df. Maton rfiatic (he loitr of the wt^cfh 
caanties, he and a friend hired 3 hotit to go out and 
sec the- Pilchard-fisliing; at Fowy, rrcar Looe, m 
Comwjdl, He says that ihc fishing-boats, ^vhich 
are pntXy nomeroiis^ tTe usuiiily stationed hi ten 
lalhocns waler, and clear of all brftikera. Ijgfrt 
««d>lKMil<t keep out at a little distance before them, 
logivc notice to the fn-hermen of the approach of a 
vhoal. tPorsoHRarc aldo frcqiicntFy stationed on the 
vc^bcHiring rocks to«'.itcb (he course of (he ixAi i 
ibese are called huen, from the circumstance Of thett 
melting up a hut to the iifhermcn. 

Tlic ncl8, which arc Giemc.% arc sometimes two 
butKtred fiilhoms or more in circnmferencc^ and 
about eighteen decfii. Some of them are said to hold 
vpranls of two hundred hogsheads of fish, each con- 
taining about three thousand. About thirty (hou- 
sand hog^^hcads arc here looked upon as a tolerably 
gtKKl produce for one season. But i( happens now 
Kod tticii that the fishery almost entirely fail^ About 
teo years before Dr. Mpton was at this place, the 
&bennca and their families had "been compelled to 
Htc for some time solely on limpet^ and other shcll- 
fisb» vrhich they onnot in any other circumstances 
be pnivailed on to eatf* 

i.Thc Dog-fish J' are great enemies to the Yil- 
tfiharth, often devouring them in amazinq; numbers. 

• BtirtiH, a;3. t Mxon,!. 140. 

'. Sfua^Hi tatnlui of Linnani*. 



The chief difftrence betuTcn the Pilchtrd and 
the Herring m, that (he body of tlw former m more 
rouod and (hick i the now *>bortcr in proportion^ 
turning up i and the under jnw f^borler. The back 
is tnorc elevated, and the belly not so sbarp. The 
scales adhere very ctoscly, whilsl tbo^ of ibe Her- 
ring easily drop off. It is also in general of a conii> 
dcmbly smaller size. But perhaps the situation of 
the dorsal fin is as good a criterioi) 3»sny. Tbi& in 
the Pilchard is so backward, ihat the tish, wheo held 
up by it, dips from fl horizontal line for^rard : when 
the Herring is held by its dorsal fin it rcmutat m 



MOST of the Carp tribe inhabit ihefre&b waters, 
where they feed on worm&f insectSj aquatic plants, 
fish, and clay or mould. Sonic of tbum arc Dtign»- 
tory. They have very small mouths, and no tcetb j 
and the gill-mcmbrane has three rays. Tbe body i^ 
smooth, and generally whitish. On the bi^ck, (b^np 
is only one. 


Thciie fi^It are fonnd id the alow rivers iind stognant 
>valers of Europe and Persia ; and here princt[^ly 



■•br frt 

Fmter Ptfiit. Brit. Z*tK tat^^O.- 



111 drcp tiok'9, under the rools oftrces, hollow banks, 
or great beds of Aag.s, &c. They do not oflcn exceed 
four feet in length, aii^ tivcDty pounds in weight t 
but JovhW mention* same, caught in the Lapo di 
Cofno in Ital)\ thut weighed two hundred pouodji 
each ; and others have been taken in the DncJstcr 
ive leet in length. 

Tboir (onn is Koniewhal thick, and ihcir colaur 
bluet-grceo above, grccoiih yellow mixed with black 
on Ibc upper part of thcJr sides, whitish beneath, 
and .the tail yello^v or violet. The scales are large. 
On each side of the tnoulh there h a single beard, 
nod above this another shorter. The dar«al Cm 
a long, extending fur towards tim (ail, which is 

Curp, from their quick growth and vast increve, 
(far the roe when tnken out has frequently been 
Iband to wctgb mnrc than the fi&h,) nru the most va- 
(uablc of all fish for the stocking of pojids ; and if 
the breeding ond feeding of tbem were better un- 
derstood, and more pracli;acd, the advantages result, 
lag from ihcm would be very grcai. A pond stocked 
with these fish would be<xjme as valuable to its 
au*ner aa a garden. In many parts of IVustiiia C^rp 
arc bml in great quantities and are iIiuk giade to 
form a considerable part of the revenue uf the prin,' 
cipal personages of the country, being s^nt Imm 
ihmce; in \rclI>boats, into Sweden and UuMia, 

ilwy are very soaroo*. 
^'By being constantly led ihcy may bcrciMicred ao 

Albin on EMulcnt Fullj 

•familiar 13 alwnjrs'tn cntnc (otbendoiif (ho pond 
iwbere they arc kcpr, fonfood. Dr. Smilh. speaking 
of (be Prince <^ Condc'ii StvxX at CJlantilly, isja, 
" Tli« most frlcumg ititngs about il were the im- 
■mcnsc eboaifi of v«ry lorge Cnrp, »ilrepcd «vcr wrtlll 
age, like AilvrrhshvUTic) perfcclly ttunej suthat, wiicn 
nny passengers apf>ro;ichcd tlieir wat«y habitotion. 
ihey med to Cfimulo thcfihorcuiftucii numbers a£ lo 
■l)«8ve <tj.ich oiher out of ibe water, hewing Ibr 
Jireaii, of wliicli aqiianiiiy iwos altrays kept at luuid 
on purpoijc tO'focdiiicin. They woitld even allow 
4hen»cKiee lo be banJlc(l*."~^if John iiawkiiu 
wa.4 asstifL-d by a c)vrgi,-iiiai), a friend of hi.<i, thalat 
\\\c abbey of St. Bernard, near Antwerp, he tmw-a 
Cirp come to the edge of \U pond at the whistling 
of'ibc person who fed it. 

Corp flre \'cry long-lived,: the pond in the garden 
nf EmaniMt College, CambiHdgc, contatocd a Carp 
that had been nn inhuliitant more than seventy 
jear>; and Ge^ner hns tnentionL'd nn instance of 
one that was a liiihdrod yvars old. They are olio 
eitremcly tenaciotis of life, and wiil Uvc for a great 
length of time out of water. Ad experimont h^a 
been ntodc by placing a Carp in a net, welt wra|>* 
pcd up in \^-et moss, ((l>c mouth only remaining out,) 
and then hanging it up in a cellar or some coal 
placr.— The ftsh in this »ilu<itioii is to be frequently 
fed with white bmul and tnUk, and is besides lo ht 
pfien plunged in water. Carp thus managed have 
been known, nM only to live above a fortnight. 


* SkctdJ of ftTour to the CWutaant. 







but to have ^uti exceedingly fat, and become far 
superior in twtc to those itninciiialefy taken from tbe 

In their ^MKil msnncfe, Carp exhibit so pi^eat & 
degree of cunning as to be nornetimcs culled by the 
country people fiiverFox. When atleinpted to bc 
taken by b net, they will often leap over it ; or iro- 
mctre themselves so deep in the mad as to sufR^ the 
net to prtss over -wn'thou: totiching them. They arf 
a}.<io %'ery vhy of taking » bait ; but, during' Apatt'nrng'. 
time, so tnlctit arc tliey un the business of depositing 
chetr spawn, that they will Bjfter UiemscWcs to be 
banrficil hv any one -u'bo attempts it. They breed 
three or four time* in Ibc year, but their first spawn- 
ing is in tlic beginning of Mayf. 

These fish were iir^t introduced into tbts country 
about three hundred ycara ago. Of ibcirsound ur 
airbladder a kind of fisb glue is made : and c^greea 
p3iol of their gn!t. 

Ilie Tench is one of those fish that prefer foul 
ind weedy walcrs; and its haunts in rivers are 
elileOy among weeds, and in places well shaded 
lifith nwSes. These fish Ihrire best in alanding wa- 
ten, where tl*ey lie under weeds near sluices and 
plt^d heads. They are much more numerous in 


• I'ena. Bnt. Zodl. iu. i^jj. 
t Walton, Itto. — Peun. Brit. Zool. lii. jjA. 
I Stkontm*.— Cyprioui tincii. Zrfiw. — Tmc*. vfifiwiw* 


tns ftKCH. 

pools nnd piO ifuln in rivers : but lhi«e taken in ih* 
hltt€T ttrc far preferable for ibe table. — Tlicy |jpj*iD 
to Fpwn in June, nnd m;»y 1>e found «pBwinngni 
some waters (ill Septtmbpr. ITw best scasoo !» 
from that time till the entl of May. 

Thi^ do nui often exceed four or live pounds ia 
weight. Mf. Pennarit, ho\rcvcr, ineillions one that 
VKJghcd ten fwands.— The Ta»ch is in great re. 
pole with lis as a tIcUcious and wholesome fimd ; 
hut in Germany it is eonsidcred n hnd H^h, and is 
contempt is called Sebaeniektr. 

It )» angular enough lltai ihe slime of the Tench 
IS stipposrd to pos5cs9 such beating properlios amooj 
the fith that, it is said, ihc Pike, on this sccounl^ 
never liltcmpis i') devoiir it, though iic seizes wi(h» 
tmt exception on all llw othiir ftpectes thai lie U 
»ble to overcome. 

1 he Piltc, fetl Ijrant of itic liquid )tlain, 

Wtih r4««*a(a «a>le licTOuri lii> fellow (rain ; 

Yd. boniue'ct ^ithriging famine ptn'd, 

Ttic Trnch Ik ipairt, a iiiblLitiil Kind ; 
r Fm when by wounJt <lislrti:, Of toie dtwaft. 

He eouTi* tht uluUiy fiih for ntn ; 

Ci>9t> to Mf \n\tt itie kind plijtii-bn ^MAts, 
_ AmI mvcjUs lm^ii)£ tiilaaot fnta bia sMcs- 

* TTj'ia sclf-deivril of lilt: like ina^, liout^c.-, 
«lii-;huted to a more natunil cause : The Tench are 

so fond of liiud as to l>c constantly at the bottom of 

— ■ — - ■ - - • ' ... ,. , ,. 

the waier, wWre prohabl^- ihcy are secure from the 

vpr.icion!i uttacks of Ihcir nelghtioar. 

Tench are sofnclJwe;^ /ound in uulcrs %vhcrc the 
wm) h exccsj-ivi-Iy felid, and the weeds so thick liurif 





j^ liaml-ner can aearcel/ be (hrust down. In tbesr 
8iltiaIion3 the/ grmv to a I^irge size, and Ibctr exler 
rtar becomc^i completely tmgcd by the mud. Their 
favour from this, ifcnukuil iintiie<liau;ly or being 
Jakcrr out, is often vci-y uo[jlcusanl : but, if they arc 
tnumlviTCil ifito clear water, ik-y auun recover Iran 
the oUttuxious taint. 

1(1 Ncn^eaiber t£oi( a Tcncli was taken at Thorn* 
nyllc Rof«), in Yuri^bire, oJ'sucban ctiorntoiis siec, 
and so singular in its shape, as to be accoinitod nt- 
iber a lusut tuHur^e than a regular ^oducl ion. A 
tccc of water u-hic)i had been ordered to be Cl\cd 
up, sod into tvhich wood aiid rubbijft had been 
ttu'0\vn for MMne years, was directed to be cl^'arcd 
out. So tittle vfulcr remained, and in such quantity 
were the wccdn atul muil, lh:it it wna expected no 
Itth wtitdd be foiiitd cscci^t |>cfbsp9 a fcweclsj but* 
jTMlIy to the surprise of the persons e^nploycd, 
ytarty t^vubulldT«9d braee ol' rcuch, and as many of 
hrcli, were d iseovcred. After the pond was sup- 
po&ud 1o be cfuitc cleared, an animal was obccrved 
to lie under ijoitic roots, uhich was conjectured to 
be dn Otter. Tdi: place wa» surrounded, ^d, on 
making an ofwniog, a Tench of most lingular form 
n» found, hnvin^ li^enilly taken the bhape of lite 
bote in whicii lie liud of course bL-<wt many ycfln 
cpntiiicd. His It-iigih wan /no ffcf mm inchss, Ya% 
circumfercDCc itt'o lict three inches, and his weight 
KJT twelve |x)unds. The colour was a1$o singiiLnr, 
hh belty being lin^tul uith vt-rrailion. This ex.ira 
ordinnry fiati, a;;< i l,:ivn!^ liin oKaniincd b^ inatiy 
jc^illeajen, W9S carefully ptil into a pond. At fiist 

nD Tin: CKtrr. 

icmercf)- fioaccd, and afirr a mfiile k nram gently^ 
but with difficulty, away. It i& prdiably ycc alive. 

Tench BTC fuol ish fi^h, and are usually canghc wiUi 
a line wtthoac drilicaliy- Tlie baits generally ado^ 
cedaiv che small ml worms uk.«iiauc of mncn can, 
wt$p maggots, or miv^h worms. The season (ot 
angling is from September to June. The fisfi will 
bite during the greaccr part of the day, but rhe ex> 
pert angler generally actcfids as early and lato a* 

TftE CHUaf. 

Tho Chub is altogether a handsome fish ; but 
nor in esteem Tor ihe isble, being, very coarst, aiwi, 
when out af .<e,-ifion, full of small hairy bones.— Iw 
nsme is derived fivm th« ^lia^ of- its ht-ad, and the 
FVench and halians know it by a name s^'nonymoas 
with oors. 

It$haunt5 arc rirers whose bottoms are of sand «r ' 
clfly^ or wliicft are bounded by clayey banks ) in 
deep hotcs; under holknv baiik:n, shaded by trees or 
weeds. These fish often float on the suhace, and 
are sometimes found in deep wntere, where the cufi.* 
refiti are strong. In ponds fed by n rirole! ihey^ 
gn>w to a grtai size. They seldom, however, exi 
cecd the weight of four or five potinds, ' ' 

Tbcy dc|)osit their spawn in April; and are Itf'' 

—i: '. 

• Daoicl, ii. 359- Peim. Bril. SIooI Hi. j^y. 

•f ^YxoKTii*. — Cfinioua ceph&lui. Lixn. — Chub of ClicVIa. 
jyilt. — Nob at Bolting. Dtrtkt. Pfm. Bnt. Zm9. «/. V&l 

.m \ 11 - • ->*—-■» 



perftrciion (lariag the months o( Dt^ccmbcr^ 
attd JatMary. 

■ When tbe Chub Seizes a bait, he Liles so aigcrly 
Hlhatiliitt j[iw» arc ofiMi iieiird to chop like those ot» 
Vdoj.' He, hvwcfcr, sdltlom Irrenks bis botcl,*atKl^i 
P wbcQ Mice tic is JStrackiTiii-sooB tncd,-— TJic times 
ofaajcitn^ is (rom August to March, liut bo^t in thct 
voter mooihi. in milt! cloudy i \ve:ii har the Chobs 
%il bite all day: in hot wezthdr from sunrise . till i 
^niac o'cl(x:k; and from (Itrcc in the uOcnioon till 
^r ''^DKt. In coltl wcniticr l)tc bc»t time f^ the middle 
I of tbe day. The baits are -various kiiidn of wonrjs 
»ad flies*. 

rH* THE DACef. 

Tbe Dnce is a grcgariou* and xxry lively fiih^^ 
toddunog suajincr i^ fond of pljiviiig near ihc sur- ,- 
&CC of ihe water. It is generally found where the . 
*3ter ii dcc]H and the ^tFcam gcnilc, near the iiilea 
wf bridges. It aho frequents deep bol« that arc 

I^adcd by the tcavcA of the uaier.lily v ^nd uudc/,^ 
ibclbui) on the shallows of &irc-am.«. . 

Ijhe'te fish seldom weigl) niorc thjn a pound atnf ^ 
> jl^f ; Jmtthcy arc exccwiingly i>roli*ic The/,, 
tpiWD VQ , Moiclt j aitd arc in itcason ^ .nbout Ihrctf. 
*ttks afio-wariU,, , Tlicy improve, and are goo^ 
ut .MiehuL'Imas, but are bc^l in I-'clruary. Iir 
moncb, if, when iuiit taken out of the water. 


t.fiTiiaSrK*.— CW""" leiKi«B|. Z.-«a— Umc or l!i:t- 



aie scatciied and broiled, they nre said la Ite evca\ 
more palatable than a Hemrifr. Their flesh, how- 
eircr, is generally insipid and fuU of bones. 

Djccattonl great amusement tolht*>n|rter. Thel 
bail* are various kinds of worms, and ibc ooaimon 
Jltsk-j^ies. . The season of angling is from April (o 
Fefantsry, but bt.HC in the winter. In hot u-ealher,. 
the tin>c is oirlj und late In ihe diiy : in cotd wea>t 
ifacr, (lurint; the fiiidtlle ; aiul in milti cloudjr wea-^ 
tber. tbc w-holc of the &jy*. 


This fish is found chiefly in dtejj ?fHl nver?, \irh( 
it Is often seen in large 6lK>a1s In summer, it fre- 
quents shallows near thctaih of fords ; or lii-s iindcr^ 
banks auKing wt^ed^, ami shaded by trees or her- 
bage, esjicciiilly whtre the water is thick. A* the] 
winter approached, thcM: haunl.-; are changed fiirj 
deep and still waters. 

The RoHch is so silly a fish rhat it has arqulr 
the liiime of the Iftt/er sbff/>, in eon trjdisti notion to' 
Car^, which from il» subtlety i* termed the River-i 
fo%.^S9NaJ as a Rwehf is a proverb that iip]>ear^ bot ; 
inditllrcntlj foumlcd. It ie, however, upcd by the 
Kri'ncli jis well as by os. 

Tliis \& n h.mdsmnc fish, ciiher in ihc walt*r, or^ 
wbcn immediately lakcn nut of il. The flesh, al-^ 
though reckoned very wholesome, Ik in little esteem, 

• Dini^, ill. «3;. Prtin. fltii. Zool. iii, 366. 
-tStKOKVHL — Cypc'iatu iniilut. LntK, — Rocb«. tfUL—ti 
Jfttit. Zed- ftesui.v^. iiL-^— LaUciBcv ill France. 




(be great quantify of bones. When Roach arc 
in eea<(m,«bich U trom Michaelmas to March, th^ir 
scales ire very nmoodx ; but when ihey arc out ot' 

ttetson, these feci hke the rough side of ait oysler- 
vhell. Their 6as also arc generally red wboii fhc 
initnale are tn perfection. They &pawn lou-anls the 
latter end of May, and for three weeks nfler arc uii- 
ftholcsotne. They begin to recover in July, but It 
ii Michaelmas before they are eatable. Tht-y are 
uA to be best in February or March. TJic roc i» 
ptcn, but boiU red, and is peculiarly good. The^c 
fcfadiSer greatly in goodness, according to I he rivers 
ia which they are caught. ICone are good that are 
lept in pondis 

Roach feed on aquatic plants and \*ermc«. Thctr 
tttuit weight is Irom half a pound to two poand^. 
Some, Kowcvcr, have been knoi70 to weigh as much 
vfire pounds. 

The baits used in catcbinp^ Roach artj van'ouf 
fcnrf^ of worms, flies, and pastes. The time for 
iDgting if, in mild cloudy ue.ithcr, all the day ; in 
iw weather only in the mornings and c\*cning« ; nnd 
iocold noalhcr, during the middle oClhed.-iy*. 


Thesecxtremely elegant fish are natives of Chinij 
ind the mod beautiful kinds arc caught in a snull 
late in-,lbc province of Cbe-kyang, at the fool of n 

* DioUI, ii. (40. Pa>n. Sfit. Soot- Hi. 36;. 



mountaia called T»yen-king. They n-cre first iotro- 
diiccd into England about the year 169*, but www 
not generally known till near tbiny years after-j 

In China they are kept in ponds, or large porco>^ 
lain vessels, by almost every person of distinction.^ 
In these they are very lively and active, sportinf 
about the surface nf the water with great viracityt] 
but they are so very delicate that, if great gun^ 
£red,or any sub&tances giving out a powerful anwll, 
as pitch or tar, are burned near 1 hem ^ mimben of 
ihcm will be killed. — In each of Ibe ponds or ba* 
6in& where ilicy are kept, there is an earthen pan, 
with holes in il, turned up»ide down. Under chi» 
ibey retire when, at any time, they find the raya of 
the sun too powerful. The water is changed tbrcofl 
or four tiincH a week. Whilst this is done, it is ne-^ 
ces*ary lo remove the fish into another vessel j but 
they are always taken out by means of a net, fur tt 
IcaBt handling would destroy them. 

When Gold-G&h arc kept \a poods, they ate offer 
taught to rise to the ourlace of the water at the' 
sound ofa bell, to be fed. At Pekin, for three or 
four months vf the winter, or whiltit the cold wea- 
ther lasts, the fish in the ponds aro not fed al all. 
They are able, during that time, to get the siuall j. 
quantity of food they n>quiru in the nntcr. In orders 
10 prcvcnc their being frozen, they are often taken 
into ihe houses, and kept in china vessels, till the 
warm weather of spring allows their being returned^ 
to their pailds with safety. H 

, Iff hot coutitriea, GQl4-fiali majik 


cure be taken to remove ibc spawn, which swims on 
the KiHace of the water, into other pondsj for other- 
wise the BiiimaU would devour the greater pan of it. 
The Toung fry, uben first proJuccd, are [lerfccity 
hlwrk : liut they Dftcrwards change to wlnie, and 
liieo to gold colour. The latter cotours a^jpeor 
Crsl about the tail, and extend upwards. 

The soiallesl fish are fireferred, not only from their 
being more beautiful the larger ones, but be- 
cause a greater number of I heni can be.kept. These 
Bieof a fine orunj^ red, appearing as if itprinktcd 
owr with gold dust. Some, however, arc while, 
^c silver, and others white spotted with red. 
When dead they lose all their lustre. The females 
a? known from the moles by several while spots 
tbt they have near the gills, and the pectoral fins : 
Ilic males have these parts very hiiglit and shining*. 

In China the Gold-fish are fed with balls of puMe, 
and the yolIcK of i-ggs btii!e<l very hard. In England 
many |>en<ons arc of opinion that they need mt nli- 
nient. It is Iroe tliai ihcy will subsist for a long 

hilc without any other food than what they ean 
ect from water frequently changed; yet they 
must draw some support from animalcnics and other 
notu'ishmcnl Mipplicd by the water. Thai they urc 
bcdl plc^iscd Willi such ^lender diet may easily be con- 
fuied, since they will readily, if not greedily, seize 
crumbs that arc thrown i<> ilirtn. Bread ought, how. 
ever, to be given sparingly, le»t, lurniug sour, itcor- 

196 THE GOLD riSK. 

rupt the water. They will also feed on tfae water- 
plaDt called duck's- meat, and on small fry*. 

Gold-fish do not often multiply in very close con- 
finement. If it is desired to have th^m bred, they 
must be put into a tolerably large reservoir, through 
which a stream of water runs, and in which there are 
some deep placest. 

* White's Selborn;;. t Pa HaUe, t. »j. Lc Conte. 


THE fish of this tribe are all inhabitants of tlie 
m, though some of Ibcm occasionally go up the 
mitr rivers. All the species are large, seldom mea- 
»iring,when fulUgrown, \cfa thsn three or four feci 
iatengih. The flesh of the whole is reckoned cx- 
^incly delicious j and to the inhabimnls on the 
t»anb of the Caspian Sea, and indeed of mnny otliur 
jxrtsboth ofEuroiJe and Americn, thc*e fish are very 
uieltitas an article of commerce. Their mual food 
» worms and other fish. 

Tbc head is obtuse ; and the mouth, which i^ 
[^ced quite under the head, is tubular, and without 
'ttlh. Between the end of the snout and the mouth 
*)% four cirri, or tendriU ; anci on each side there 
■a narrow aperture of the gills. The body la long 
I* proportion to its thickness, and usually angular, 
"Om several rows of large bony plates. 


H The body of this fish, which is often found from 
^r* ^o stttecn feet in length, is pentagonal, being 


^lii tctbe OMntDeaces Ibe *ixtb LiniM^n oider, the Cuon- 
^^t%ycnov» PttH. 

■* Stho,«yiii. — Aci]«ii»«r ilrotia lJtm.^L'Eatorgtoia, In , 
*«i^— foot Brit. Z,v:. tv/. ill. uU IQ. 



anncd from head to tail with five rows of Ttrgc bony 
tubercles, each of which ends in a .strong recurved 
tip: one of these is on the back, one on each i^idet^ 
and two on the margin of the belly. The snout isM 
long, and obtu»c at the end, and has the tendrils 
nc&r ihc tip. The niotith, which is beneath the 
head, is somewhat like the (jpening of a pur*e, anda 
is so formed as to be pushwl suddenly out, or rc-^ 
traded. The upper part of the body is of a dirty 
olive colour; the lower part silvery ; and the tuber- 
cica ore while in the middle. Sturgeons arc found 
both in the Buropciiu and Anicrtcaa seas. 

The Icndrili* on the snimt, which art sotnc inches 
in length, have so great a rcM.-inblancc in form to 
earth-worms, that, at first sight, they might be mis- 
taken for ihem. This clumsy toothle* fish is sup- 
pos«l, by (his contrivance, to keep himself in good 
eondttiun, the solidity of hia Hc-sh evidently showing 
him to be a tish of prey. liu is said to hide his 
large body auiong the weeds near the Kca^oaat, or 
at the mtiuitiH of large rivcrH, only exposing his tea- 
driU t thc*e, ttmall n.ob or «ca-in8ccts, mistaking for 
real wonns appronch for plunder, and arc sucked 
into the jawrt of their enemy. He has been sup- 
pa<ed by some to root into ihc soil al the boltom ofi 
the M.>a ur river-i ; but tlie-- tendrils above mentioned, 
whieh hatig from his snout over his mmith, muse 
themselves be very inconvenient fur this pnrpOM -, 
and, as he has no Jaws, be evidently lives by suc- 
tion, and, during his wsirlen'^e in the «ea, marinfe iq- 
scel».ire generally (bnndin lil- Ktumarh*, 


At llie approach of spring, Sttirgeons leave the 
drcp recesses of the sea, and enter the rivers to 
ftpawn : amJ from May lo July the American rivers 
abound with ttivm. Here they arc often observed 
to leap to the Iicigbl of acvcral jrardA out of the 
water, which they do in an erect position, falling 
bade again on tbcir sidcfl with such notse ta to be 
heard in the still evenings to a great distance. 'Vhey 
have often been known, at these times, to fell into 
the smalt boats or canoes of the Indians, and sink 
them. On this account it is often dangerous to 
pn« the places that are much ^qucnted hy them -, 
many instances have occurred of people losing their 
Kves by this mean*). Some of the Indians lake ad- 
Vantage trf this propensity to leaping to catch them, 
by stadoning themselves in tolerably large boats in 
the places where they are Been, and receiving them 
as they fall*. 

In some rivers of Virginia, the Sturgeons are found 
in such numbers that six hundred have been taken 
in two days, with no more Irotitile than putting down 
pole, with H hook at the end, to the bottom, and 
lre»ing it up again, on feeling it rob against a fishi-. 
ey arc, however, chiefly killed in the night witU 
harpoons, nitracied by the light of torches made of 
the wood of the black pine. On the chores arc fre- 
quently seen the bodies of Sturgeons that have btea 
rounded with the spears, and have afterwards died. 

The Indians often fish for ibem in the lakes in the 
day'time. For lhi!» purpose tlieie are usually two 

Cdiesby. vol. ii. p. J j. 

t Biao»>:n , \v 



men to a canoe, one at ibe stem to work it fbnrwd, 
atid the oilier 3t the hend, with apoinlcd spear about 
fourteen feet long, tied to n long cord that is fast- 
ened to oae of the cross timbers of the canoe. The 
uioincnt a Sturgeon U seen within rracb, lite man at 
Ihc hesd darts lii.s upear into the tendcrcst part of the 

Jy that he can reach ; and, if it penetrate, the fi$U 
Iwims off with a^tonUhing velocity, drsgging the 
cunne along the water after it. If, however, the blow 
has been pretty well aimed, the fish does not go 
more than two or three hundred yards before he dies; 
u'hcn ibc men draw up the line and take him*. 
5oinulinios, when Sturgeons ore seen to lie (it the 
bottom of the Mill water near the cataracts, ihcy sre 
biruck with a spear without a rope, their place being 
marked, on their rising, by the appearance of (be 
shaft above the watcrf. 

The Sturgeon annually ascends our rivers, in the 
summer, particularly those of the Eden and Esk, 
but in no ^ccat nuntbcrs. It is so spiritless a fisb 
that, when caught by accident, os it sometimes is 
in the Salmon nets, it scarcely makes any renstance, 
but IK drawn ont of the water apparently lifeless. 
One of the largest ovw caught in our ripers was 
taken in the Esk, about twenty-sis years »go ; ic 
weighed four hundred nnd sixty pounds}. 

The flesh of *U' Sturg<*on is well known to be ex- 
tremely deliciouiii and it was ao mucli x'altted in 
t!m timcof theKmpcror Scverus, that it nas brought 

" Chirlcvoiat, !. »j5. f (Utakf. 




iQtible fay fcnrauU with coronets on dicir head&, anfl 

pretedcd fay muMc Thin oiighi give n» to ins facing, 

iacur country, previued by die Lard NUvur cu ths 

Khij. Al prcscDC the Sturgeons arc caught iii the 

IhaQbcv *'«; Vi>lg:t, the Dun, and olhcr large rivers, 

fer various purposes. The skin makes a good corer- 

iog for carriages ; caviar is prepared tram the spawn : 

*Qd the flesh a pickled, or salted, and scut all over 


To make the caviar, the spawn is freed from (he 

■utle tifarcs by which it is connected, wa»hf-d in while 

M *nae or vinegar, and aficrwards spread out (o dry. 

H It ia dicn ptic into a vessel and salted (crushing it 

iKiWQ with the hand.-'), and arierwartts inclosed in ■ 

canvass b.ig to drain ofi' the morHttirr. It is, last of 

•ll> put into a tub with a hole in the bottom, that any 

nMnuining tnol^ture may run off, prejucd down, aod 

. ctcMed for use. 

H It his been said. Ihnt of the skin of the Sturgeoit 

H '^'^W ia mndc : faut ibis is a mitlnke; for the 

^^^irgcon ift allogclJicr of ko cartilaginous a nature 

'■lat no piirt i>r it will produce isinglass, cicept the 

*'*'*cr co'il of the air-bladder. The isinglass most 

^^''ifnon in otir 6hops i» made from a spcctes of Dol- 

P**»ri, called the Bclogat. 

A^hc Uroes are rc|)Qrtcd to be so hard as to 
'**"vc the Atncrican Indians for rasps and nuimcg- 

The fecundity of these fish is exceedingly great. 

* Note to Daroin'* Botanic Gird«i. 



CatGsb)* 5wiy« ihat th* fenislf<t fre^wntly contain a 
busliel of spawn cich j and E^ccuwenbock fbtind to 
iheroe of one of them no /cwlt iKan 150,000,000^000 


TIIC aninuh that cotii)H^.jhis dreadfulty 
eiou« tribe ar^ culircly marine, and more fns^uent 
in Ibe hui ihiin the lempprAir climates. They are 
in pcncrnl S9)itary> and oDvn wander to vast du 
sLmres ticvotiring almftjii cvtry thing that comes in 
ihcir way, that ibcy arc able to swallow. Some of 
ihem wilt follow vessels ncvernl hundred lo;igaes, for 
the cnrcassc* and filth that are thrown overb>Mrd. 
The size 10 which they grow i« enormous, as they 
oHen weigh from one to four thotittand pouiida each. 
Some few sptcics are gregarious, and live on the 
molluncflB and other nmrinc wormn. Thcj me all 
viviparous; Iheiryoung, whfn finil proinidcd, binng 
inclosed (alive) in aMjnare pellucid horny cnse, tcr- 
ffltnatcil ut ihc four forncrs by very long ulender 
fibmcnl)), which are gcnemlly found twittc<l round 
cor:i!liiic<t, jt'j-wcwl, iind other fixed mbslanco. 

Their fl«h is Bltogrthcr so ixnigh, course^ and of 
?i}ch a disagreeable smell, that even the young ore 
Karcely caiiiblc. Their lH>flir4 emit a phosphoric 
light tn (he durk. The »kiii is rough, aad is in 
general use for polishing ivory, wood, and other sub- 
stances; lbong». and curriagt; trjces arc Hl^o octo* 




sionally miwJe of it. The liver is genetslly found 
lo yield s coasidernble qnanlity oi oit. There are 
up-rnnls ■!' thirty specioi, of which cloven are f>iind 
in the British sens. 

The body is compressed, long in proportion to the 
thlcknasif, nnd tiipers townrda the latl. The hcml is 
obiuw, and on the side of the n«ck there are from 
(bur lo Kvcn breathing uperiiircs. The mouth, 
n-hich is situated in the under part of the head, is 
armed with wvcral r:0*i of serrated sharp-pointed 
let'lh of different furm-s, some of which arc fixed, 
and others moverible. The skin is covered with 
very slender prickles; and the u^^)cr port of the 
tail is generally longer ihiin the luwcr. 


This Shark has six rows o( teeth, hard, sharply- 
pointed, and of a wcdgc-like figure. Tbe^c be has 
the power of erecting and depressing at pleasure. 
When at rest, they are quite flat in his mouth ; bat,| 
when his prey is to be seized, Ihcy arc insianlly 
erected by a set of muscles ihnt j(»in them to the 
jaw. Thus, wilh open jnws, goggling eyes, and large 
and briRtly i\v\%, agitated like the tnniic of n lion, his 
whole tupcct is an emphatical picture of the iiercest, 
deepest, and most Kivagc malignity. 

It i* a fortunate circumstance, for iliosc who wouM 
avoid its aliQcks, that its mouih in »o situjled, under 
the hcfld, ihut h has to throw itself on one aide in 

• Syxohimi. — Squaliu i;arcti»tw. Linn. — Lamm ^ u(lli«*ii- 
Cffltt.-^liC lUqain, in Vtxv^v. 



order (o seize its prey j for its velocity in tlie wilier^ 
19 so ^ai, thai nothing which it was once in pur- 
suit of would otli«rwise be able to escape its Vo* 

These creatures arc the dread of sailors in all the 
hot climates, where they constantly attend the ship^, 
in expectation of what may drop overboard ; and if, 
in thiscasc> any of the rocn have that misfortune, 
Ihcy mutt inevitubly perish. 

laotuiDg still the terrora of the jtomts, 

HU jaws borrifie aim'd nith ibiYcfold fiUt 

Here dwclli the diieful Shaik. Luted tif tbc scenl 

Or»trt«nriingoowd«, ofnnkdiKMc, ind death, 

Bebold! he rushing cuts tbebrinj Hoed, 

Svitt u the gftle cin b«tr th« *hip aloflg ; 

And. (mm the pBrtnen of that craci tnde 

Which t[)otIi unhappy Guinea ofhcr «oni, 

Demaindi hia kharc of prey, dctnKndi thctiiKlro. 

The stormy fitcs dncend, one d«alh ibtuIvcs 

Tyrants and t,\lnt$ i when siroighl, tbeir lungtcd Uailu 

Cnhhin;:; Ht oncc, he <Eycs the purple mju 

With (OR, riota in th« vesstful nul. 

The master of a Guinea ship informed Mr. Pen- 
naut that a rage for suicide prevailed among Wta 
slaves, from an opinion enlertained by the unfortunate 
wretches, that, after death, they should be restored to 
their families, friends, and country. To convince 
them that (heir bodies coiilJ never be rc-antmatcd. 
he ordered tbc corpse of one that was just dead to be 
lic<l by the heels to a rope, and lowered into the sea. 
It was: drawn up again as quickly as the united force 
of the crew could doit- yet, in that very short (imp,- 




^ze ^Ukx had de^*ourcd c^'cry part but the Sxtg 
«U ■»£ secure*,! by tfic end uf ihe cord*. 

FbiDoiy wbtle snimining, liave oficii been ta 
iH dnoored by ttic Sharks. A gentleman DOW 
1:>ia£, i&d vdt koown, in ibii country, wu tome 
jtaa afp sinmmtng nt a little disnncc frooi a tbip, 
<tn be aw a Shark making towanU him. Sinicic 
viiklerrDr at its approach, he immediately cried out 
far adstance. A mpc was instaiilly tbrown i and 
oaldiilt the men were in the act cfdraa-ing bitn 
^tie ship's side, ifae nKraster darted after him, and, 
H I sbjle snap, tore off" his leg. 

In the pearl -(isiicrics of South America, every 
"^n^lo deTend himKcIf against I hcseanimaU, car- 
ies «itb him inio the water a sharp knife, which, if 
tkc&hofTers coosMult him, be endeavours to iitrikc 
»(o ct belly ; on wbicJi it generally dviims offl 
*^ ufHccrs Kho are in tlic vesseU keep a urnichrul 
*ni on these voracious crealurts; und, when they 
'^vne tbem approach, ahalu: the roppx faiiencd to 
^"^ negroes to put thetn on their guard. Many, 
■■*n tlic divers have been in dan^, have thrown 
^''c'nKlscL'into the water, with knivc* in ihcirhandj, 
'"d hastened to their defence : bin too often all tbcir 
^'vterily and precaution have been of no avutl. 
We arc lold tiat, in the reign of queen Anne, a 
rcbani ship arrived «i Barb.'ulues from England, 
:oFlhe men of which were one d.iy bathing in 
'*>c Ka, when a large Shark appeared, and sprung 






/brn-sfd* dirrctiy at them. A person from the abip 
called o-.ii to w-im them of itieir dinger ; on which 
tlicy «)) i mined talelv swam to the vessel, and ar. 
rived in perfect safely, cxcfpl one poor fcUow who 
ua» rut in two by Che Shark almmt wiihin reach of 
the nars. A comrade and moil inlimate friend of 
the unfurtiinale victim, when he obf^rvcd the 
severed irmik of his companion, was seized with a 
degree of horror that words mnnoi describe. The 
innatinble Shark, n-as recn traversing the bloody sar^ 
face in ^curch of the remainder of his \ncyf when 
the brave youth plunged into ihc water, dctcrrnin- 
ing either to make the Shark dingorfre, or m be 
buried himself in the same grave. He held in hii 
hand a long imd shHrp-poiiiicd knife, and thenrpa- 
cioMO unimal pnslKNl furioosly towards him ; he had 
turned on bin side, and opened his cnormouti jawt^ 
in order to seize him, when the youth, diving det- 
tcrou!;!)- under, seized bim with bis \cfi hand, some- 
where beltiw the upper fins, und »(ahbed htm ac- 
vcral times in the belljr. The Shark, enraged with 
|)8in and streaming with bluod, pUmged in all direc- 
tions in urdor to disengage himself from his enemy. 
The crcns of the surrounding vessels nnw that the 
tomt«it was decided : but thcf were ignorant which 
«-as slain, till the Shark, «eiikciud at length by 
I'l&s of blood, mnde rownrdR the shore, and along ■ 
with him tits conqueror -, who, flushed with victor)', B 
pushed his foe with redoubled ardour, and, with the 
aidofan ebbing tide, dragged bim on shore Here 
he rip|Ji'd up the bovrck of iJi<; nnimnl, obtained the 


the M 


Kvcred remsinJcr of his friend's body, and buriirU 
it with the irunk in liic same grave. — 'This story, 
however incredible it may appear, is rclauul in ihc 
History of Barbadoes, on Ihe uiosl satisfactory au- 

The West Indian nogrocs ofien venture to con- 
tend with the Shark in close conibat. They kuo<* 
liis po*ver to be bmited by the pohition of his mouth 
underneath ) and, as soon as iheydiscoi'erbiiTi, ihcy 
dive beneath, and, in H^ng, $t»b him before he ha& 
an opportunity of putting himiielf into a state of do* 
fcQcc. Thus (lo boldness and address unite In tri- 
umph over strength and fcrocilyt. 

The South Sea iitl.indeni arc not in the least afraid 
of the Sharfcii, but will sttim among them without 
exhibiting the ieasit r>i^n« uf fear. " I have Keen," 

I s«y» captain Porllock, " live or »ix Urge Sb-irkft 
swimming about ibc Hhip, when there have bcci» 
upwards of a hundred Iiidinn^ in the wnicr, both men 
and women : they beenn^d tjuile indifferciil tibotit 
iheni, and the Sharks never ottered lo make an at> 
tack on any of ihein, and yet at the same lime would 
seize our bait greedily; whence it is manil'esl that 
they clerii-e I heir confidence ol safely front thuir ex- 
perience, that they Jire able to repel the uilacks of 
those (It^vouring inonalcr^ J.'* 

Au ludian, on the coa^tuf California, on jjlungitij; 
into the 5ea, wa$ seized by a Shark ; but, by ii mo:^t 

I (wimonlinary feat of acnvicy, cieared himsdf, and, 

* HughM't Nuuiol Tliatoty of BirbaJon. 
f Mafchaikl, i. aj. ; IVtlock'* Vftvftjjt, jwi. 



though considerably wouncled, threw blootl and 
water at the animal to show his bravery and con- 
tempt. But the voracious niun&icr seized blm with 
horrid violence a eecotid time, and in a mi>nient 
dragged tiim to the boiiom. (lis cotnpanioiiSi 
though not far from him, and much affected by ibc 
lost, were not able to render him any a&sistaaco 

We are told that, notwilh&laiidiog the voracity of 
these crealures, they will not devour any feathered 
animal (hat is thrown overboard i but thai they will 
readily take a baitufa piece ot* Hc^h (iislencd on aa 
iron crook.. They are so tenacious of life as to niove 
about lotig after their bead is cut oS*!-. 

Their flc»b is somelinic^ eaten by sailors on long 
To>8gcs; and, tb[u:;;h exceedingly coarse and rank, 
it is (generally ihougtit better ibati that of any olhcrs 
of (be tnbe. The skin is tY)ugb, hard, sad prickly t 
anti, when properly nunuracluied, is used in covering 
instrument cnses, ur.dcr Ihc name of ibagre^n. 


This species has derived it6 name from its propen- 
sity to li« 00 the surf.icc of the water, as if to bask 
itfelf in the sun. It possesses (though a very largo 
£&h) none of the vormJcy and ferociotisnesR that 
mark (he generality of the Shark tribe. It will frc- 
qtrently lie motionlchs on ibc surface of ide water, 

• V«n«g»«, ii. 115. 
♦ St. PitTTe'j Voyagf r» ih« Iile of Fraore, :8. 
t SrvasYiit— S<|ua]iu Riaiimus. £jxn.— Sua-fidli. SmUVi 
U't.A tfi—Prm. Srii, 7.t»i. tW. Ui- r«5. j. 



generally on its bcll;^, but sometimes on it9 back ; 
fand ii seems so little afraid of mankind as often to 
suffer itself to be patted and stroketl. 

Its body is slender, and from three to twelve j-ards 
in Iengili» of a deep lead colour above, and white 
below. The upiier jaw is blunt at the end> and 
much longer than the lower. The mouth is placed 
beneath, and furnished with smiill teeth ; those be- 
fore tnuch bent, and the remote ones conicil and 
«harp-poinlcd. On each side of the neck arc five 
bnealhing aperturca. There are twodonal, two pec- 
toral, two ventral finit, and one small anal fm. 
Within the mouth, near the throat, is a short kind 
of whalebone. 

The Basking Sharks frequent our seas during the 
warn) summer months, and arc nut uncommon on 
the Welsh and Sco{ti>ih coasts, coming in sboalH 
usually after intervals of a certain number of years. 
In the intt^rvening Rummem, those that are seen on 
the Welsh coast are generally «inp;le fish, that have 
prubably slraycd from I he rcj^t. They appear in the 
i'irth of Clyde, and among the Hebrides about mid- 
summer, in small droves of seven or eight, or more 
commonly in pairs. Here they continue till the lat- 
ter end of July, when ihey disapjwar. 

Tlieir food seem* to consist entirely of marine 
plants and some of the species of Medii<». Tht-y 
5wim very dclibcralely, and generally with ihejr 
u[)per fms abovfc water. Sometimes they may be 
ecn sporting about among the waves, and leaping 
jevcral feet above the surface. 

TOL. ta. P 



The liver i» of such immense size as rrcf^ticnlly to 
weigfi near a thousand ]>ounds. From thit» a gr«st 
quantity ofgood oil k extracted t which renders thi» 
Sbiirk an antuial of considerable importauce to the 
Scotch lislici-mcn : Tor, according to Anderson, the 
oil of a ^)nglc fitth will sotnctimcs sell iur twenty or 
thirty pounds »terling. 

- '%bo natives of our northern coasts are very alert 
in the imrsuit^ and very dcxterouti in the killing, ot 
these ti^b. When pursued, tbcy do not accelemle 
their motion till tlic boat comes alino&l in contact 
with llicm, when tlio barpooncr Mrikes his weapon 
into I be body u^ near thv gills as he can. Tbcy seem 
not very suMurpliblc of pain i Cos llicy often rctnain 
in the hBOii: pUice till the united strength of cwo men 
is exerted lo turcc the liarfiooa deeper. As soon o» 
Ihcy perceive lhcins>elveN wounded they plunge head* 
long lo the bottom ; and frequently coil the rope 
round their bodies in :igony, utteni|)iing lo disengage 
ibetnaelvcA from the fatal instrument by rolling on 
the ground. Dl^overing that these efforts are in 
vain, tbcy swim off with such amazing rapidity, that J 
one instance; has occurred of a Basking Shark towtng . 
to ^ouie distance a vessel of seventy tons burthen 
apainst a fresh gate. They somclinics nin off with 
two hundred fulhom» of line, and two harpoons in \ 
tliem ; and will employ ibc men from luclvc to 
Iwenty-fbur bours before ihcy arc subdued, 

As soon a^ they are killed, tlte tishennen haul 
them on shore i or. if at a distance from !nnd, to the 
tesscKB wdc, to cut them up and lake out ihc liver. 





id) h the only uscfut pari of llieii* bodies. Tliis 
is m^'llcd into oil in kclllcs provided fi>rthe pnrposej 
and, if the fi*h is .1 large one, it will yield eight bar- 
rels or upwards. 

TUii B.4X TRIBt. 

115 Rnys are entirely fonfinM t« (he se«; nnH, 
from bciirg dcsiilulc of jin air-bladder to buoy them; 
thev live nllogether at the bottom, chiefly in deep 
wBtcr, ebwring thomsdves in winter In snnd or mudl 
Tliey live on Bhell-6»li, or nny animal sitbiitanccs 
tthntevcr that come in their ivojr. Some of them 
become of n size so large ri« to wci^U two hniidrcd 
pounds and iiptrai^lin in which ca-ic ihoy arcsomo- 
limes'ilmgerous cnemie? to man, whom thoyflW 
said 10 de.ilioy by g<^ting: him down, ly'Rg tiponj 
ami devouring him. Thoy wHdotn prndnoe nW** 
than one yoitng M a *mie, which, a* in'ihe Sharks,' h 
mVdoscd in a finiif-comcred hag or ph^II, ending' In 
•iJfchdeT poinl? ; but not (as in those) eitcndtng inlo 
h^nir filament*. 

I:i their fresh state mom of tht species hnvc n 
felid and iinplcasSnt smell, hut ncariy the n^roJe art 
fralabK Thene sre nbont ftvenfv S|)ectes. Thcwe 
vrith which we are btsi arquninJwl nrc theSkale, the 
TlinriiKifJ:, and'the Tnrjwdo or EUs*lric Kay. 

Thiir l-oda-snrft broad, tbin,andfl:ii. The mouth 

is ajlit.-ited hciKath, and ibe eyes abow the bdld^ 

r^c Iireachingapfrturefi are five on <faco side.n little 

>vv the mouth. 'I'hc hca^ 19 in gencriit fttto)! im^ 

"poinlcil, nnd not distinct from lUc body. 



Tlie liver is large, and often produces a greit 
qanntity of oil. 


^ I have selected the Toqjcdo or Electric Ray from 
the rest of the tribe, sine* no accounts of the olhcr 
species have been preserved that are worth m\ab 
nttcntion. — The present species, however, is altoge- 
ther so remarkable as to merit very particular notice. ■ 
It i» found in many of the European sens, and Ibe ~ 
fishermen often di.scover it in Torbay ; and soaie- 
thncs of «uch a size as to weigh near eighty pounds. J 

The head and body arc indi^inct front each other, V 
and nearly of a circular form, two or three inches 
thick in the middle, attcauating to extreme thiuacss ■ 
on the edges. The skin is smooth, of a dusky bronn " 
colour a)»vc, and white underneath. The ventral 
tins form on each $itle, at the end of the bmly, nearly 
a <)ti»rlcr of a circle. The tail i^ short, and the two 
dorsal fins are placed near its Origin. The mouth 
is small, and, as in the other species, there arc on 
each side below it five breathing apertures. M 

The Electric Rays arc partial to sandy boltams,^ 
in about forty fathoms of water, where they often 
bury themselves by flinging the sand over them, by 
a quick flapping of alt the extremities. In Torbay 
they are generally taken, like other flat.i'ish, with the ; and instances have occurred of their seiz- 
ing a bait. 


• SvKOMTM* — Rata Torpedo, Zjjm. — ^Toiptdo, Cramp 6th 
H'itl. W.— EUciiical Raj-. Pow.— L* Toryill*. hi Tnaet.—— 
Ptan. Brit. Zeel. \vl iU. /j}. lo. - " 



TVtifi^h possesses the SAine properly of benumb. 
sag its prey as that which I have before described 
Sn the Electric Eel-, and, when it is in hejiUh and 
vigour, the shock that ii comoiui\irates is often vcn,' 
vcTere : but its powers always decline as llie animal 
declines ia strength, and when it expireti they en- 
tirely cease. In Hcinler these arc also much less for- 
midable than during warm weather. 

Dr. Ingcnbous2 had a Torpedo for some time ia a 
tub of sea-water, which, from its being during winter, 
seemed to be feeble. On taking it into hi« hands, 
tod pressing it on each side of the head, a sudden 
tnmor, which lasted for two or three seconds, passed 
into bis fingers, but extended no t'nrthe-. AAcr a 
few seconds (lie same trembling was felt again ; and 
again several limes, after difTcrcnt inter\'al5. The 
sen»alion was, he says, the same thai he should have 
Iclt by the discharge uf several very small cleccricat 
bottles, one after another, into his hand. The shocks 
sometimes followed each other very tjuickly, and 
incmsed in strength towards the lost. Probably, 
frocn the ucakn&is of the fish, the shock could not 
be communicated through a bmss chain, though the 
vuual contortion wii.-i evidently m.ide. A coated vial 
was applied to it, but could not \x: charged*. 
I From some experiments that were made by Mr, 
Walsh on a very stout and heallliy Dsli, it appears 
that, although it seemed ?o ixwsess many electric 
properties, yet no iipark. ivbnlevcr could be di&co* 
f vereA to proceed from it, nor were pith-balls ever 
found to be affected by it. When it was insulalwl. 

* riiil.Trati. vol. I«v. p.-l* 




*rt '^TC a shock to pcrton? likewise insiilaletl, and 
^'t^en to scvpral Ihnt took holil of e.ich o(hws Ittindit: 
Ihis il did forty or fif'y times sxircewively, nnd wiih 
Verj' lillle dimimitinn of force. If louche*! only with 
*bn* finger, the shwlc wits so gfejil us lo ht fell it» 
both haitde). Each cfTurl \vw accompanied by a de- 
pression of the eyes, which plainly intlicnlcd ihc at- 
tempts that were maOc upon iiun-cotidiicturis. Al- 
though the animid wjis in full vigour, il was not Bble 
to force Ihc lorpcdtna! fltiid across the minulest 
tract of air, not oven from one link of a small dimii 
freely suspended to another, nor through an stino»t 
invii^iblc separation mode by a pcn-knifc in a dip of ^ 
tin-foil pasted on p^aling-wax •. ' 1 

The properties of this fii^h have been descrrb«l by 
Oppian ; bat, with that liberty which poets alWttya 
think thcmscKcs entitled to, he has endowed It with 
the power of hcnumhing the fisherman ihrotfghlbc 
tvhutc length of his line niid rod. 

Tbc haoVM Tur|>«lo iic'cr forgtU Mt ail. 
But ii>ofl tf jttiick bc£mi to play hii pm ^ 
Atid lo ihr line ■j>pli(t \m ihagic ride* i 
Without Oflay ibe subtile power glEdet 
Aloog itic pLanl ibxl and stcsdei haira, 
Thta to tbc tnhtt't liand at swiA R]airi : 
Ariu'iI }ic si.iiiil*. Ilia irmi of Kate htttd. 
Dovn Jrojii lite idle lod, his ptey U left : 
Km Ins ttcnuinbed than had Ik fell the wbolc 
Of Inn'G te*erc*t rzge betinth thi; Arctic po'<i . 

In tbc general siroclnre of its body; the Tofp«fo 
has nut been found lo ditter nialcriallv from the rc^t 

• W*l»h in I*hil. 'Iran. vcl. luii, p. ^^t. 
I Jobeo's TrxnrliHoa of Oj>p!ati. 






■affile Rays. The electric orgrms are placed one <iW 
«uli tide of (be chmium and gills, renching from 
iFieace lo Ihe semicirctilar carlibge** of e.icli great 
iin, and extending loiigitiidlnally from the anteritw 
■extremity of the animal to the transverse cnrtilage 
which divides tlic thorax from the abdomen : and 
within tlicsc limits they occupy the whole space bfti 
iwcet) the skin of the upper and under surfac^'. 
Each organ in Attached (o the stirroonding parts h^ 
a close cellular membrane, and also by *>hort and 
strong tendinous fibres, which pass directly ACro^ 
from its outer edge to the semicircular cartilages. 
They are covered above and below with ihe com- 
mon skin of the animal, under %ibich arc longitui 
dinal fibres spread entirely over them. Kach organ 
is about five inches in length, and at the anterior end 
abo«t three in breadth. They arc composed of per- 
pendicular columns, reaching from the upper (otiw 
under surface, varying in length nocnrding to the 
thicltness of the part;; of the body, from an inch and 
m half to half an inch ; and their diameters are from 
a fourth to a fifth of an inch. 

The coiats of the columns are very thin, and almost 
IrsTuparent. The number of columns in each oi'gan 
varies considerably in difFercnt aniraaU. That of 
one that Mr. Hunter presented to the Royal Society 
ihjts about 470 ; but in a very lar^^c Torpedo the 
nttfober of columns in one or^n was 1 1B2. These 
columnj; were composed of films parallel to the base 
o£ eacl), and the distance between each of ihc co. 
loans was i5olh part of an inch. If we suppose 
these fihns la be charged with electricity, and te be 



ike 50ott} pari of an toch thick, and a mtddliog- 
&izcd Torpedo to contain in both crgsns, on the 
wbolc, loop columns each an inch long, and o.oj 
square inches areu at the base, then looo x i$Q xo.3 
SS45O0 square inches, Now it has been clearly 
proved Ibai tbc capacity of stout glnss is ihirty-a'x 
timeK less than that of these organs; therefore both 
the organs of a middling-si^ed Torpedo will be«qut« 
valent to 4.500 x 36=^162,000 square inches, or 11 15 
square feel of glass. — The ner\cs inserted Into each 
organ arise by three very large trunks from the late. 
ral and posterior part of the brain. These, haying 
entered ibe oigans, ramify in every direction between 
the columos. The number and magnitude arc ex- 
Iremely great ; and it is supposed that they are aub* 
servient to the formation, coltecttoo, aiid manage- 
ment of the torpcdinal fluid*. 

The I'orpedo brings forth its youag in the au<» 

• Hunter in Phil. Tran. vol. Uvti. p. 46i.~Nicboboa*» Ph|lo> 
•ophical Journal. 


Eadi ifcHI, urh ervwlin; idiki, hoUt ■ nkk 
Impuiiiai im ibc pUa u( Him •mho Irisa'i 
m» Kab of bcingi ; hoUi i rink, whkli lotl 
WmiU bruk I&f ckaiD. aDil (rare a pp 
"UMt Nuutc'i wlr vroMld nit '. 

H£ Insect division of the animal world received 

its name from the individuals of which it is composed 

[liaving a separation in ibc middle of their bodies, by 

[which ihey are cul into two parts. These parts arc 

in general connected by a slender ligament or bolluvv 


Insects breathe throxigh pores arranged along iheiri 
sides*; and have a head or bony skin, and many 
feet. The greater part of ihem are furntiibcd with 
wings. They are destitute of brain, nostrils, eari, 
and eyelids. Not only the liver, but all thesccretoiy^ 
glands are, in them, replaced by long vesticis iha 
float in the abdomen. Tbe mouth i& in general 
situated under the head ; and is furnished with trans- 

* TlieCnbandLobsicnribe*f<)m«)eicr|iUoDtO(h\tra)«A 
thtjr nfpire by muo* of gH\r, 



Teree jaws, iviih lips, a kind oftectb, a tongue, and 
palate: it has aho, in most instnnces, foor or kx 
palpi, or feelers. Insects H^tvc also mox-eable on- 
tcnnrc, proceeding generally (mm the front part of 
the hcnd, which are endowed with a very nice senbc 
of feeling. 

In n tninute examination that has lately been 
made in this class by Citvier; one of the most accu- 
rate observers of nature now living, neither a heart 
nor nrlerics hare been detected [ and this gentleman 
says that the whole orgaoiziition of i[i:icciv is luch 
as one would cx|)cct to fmd, if tbcy hnd been actually 
known not to be provided with such orgnns. Their 
iiulriiion, therefore, would teem to be carried on by 
immediate absorption, as is evidently the ca« wiih 
the polypes, and other zoophytes, which are coo^- 
dcmbly below insects in the perTcction of their or- 
ganisation*. J 

NeaHy all inrecti; (cucept Spider?, and b ftn " 
others of the aptertius tribe, which proccfcd ticaHy 
in a perfect statt from the vgg) undergo a nbta- 
MOKPHOsis, or change, at three dilfcrent periods of 
their existcnee. 

The lives of these miiialc creatures, Inlbclr per- 
feet stflte, arc in general so short that the parent-* 
have but seldom an opportunity of seeing tliclr Kving 
oft^pring. Constiejnerrily, ihcy nre neither provided 
with milk, like vivrparous nnimnh, nor ixrt they, lift 
bii<U, impelled 16 «t itpon thtir cgga in ofdfcy tbj 

,, * He Mi-epij the Cnb» mA IjtAuttn, m^eh he ■fttajejlr' > 
cUk bjr thcmsdves, and denomtnatet Cniftaoeoil! antntts. 



ifig their vonngr to pcrf^tion. In ptnec of these, 
Ihfr dll-directifig Power hnr eriHowcd each s{Mcies 
rirfi the aslonisliintr riicultv of being able to discover 
that substance h littnl to aftnrd the moel proper food 
for lis yonnf ; ihougli such food is, for the tnost part, 
so tolally different from that which the parent itself 
tmild car, n« that, in many ta^cs, it wodli prove t 
(!-n:!!y poison to it. Somr of ' -tach their flfju 

^o Ihf bnric, or insert Ihcin im ■ liit: le;u'C3 of iroes 
id otiKT vcjreirible MibMnnrcs; oihci-t lonn ne^is, 
thich they store with iti«Gct« or caierpilbre that will 
attain the esdcl slste in which they are proper (bod 
for their youn^, when they shall awaken into life; 
others biirv them in the bodies of other insect^; smd 
oihcr^, «g.iin, fall upon astonishin* contrivances to 
convey tbcir eggs into the body, or the inlcrnjil vis- 
cera of larger anirnaM. Some drop their e^r^s into 
the water, in which ihey themselves Would soon be 
destroyed, as if they foresaw that iheir progeny, in its 
first stiile of existenc'?, could only subsist in that 
clement. In shiirt, the vnriety of contrivance? that 
are adopted by injects to insure the Bnbsisiencc of 
tbeir young, when tbcy shall come into lit'o, arc bc- 
VonH ennmcrallon. It mny, however, with jrrcat 
tnith be said, thai all lli« ni«ins they ndnpt arc so 
perfectly ndnptcd to nnswcr the purpose intended, as 
to iV n degree of kno»lvdf!;c that tcBvcs tKc 

ba■^^iv,l rtiadomof man at ;m infinite dist.iiicc bo- 

From the ewgs of all insects proceed what ait; 

called larv^, grubs, or cfltcrpillars. TheNe consut 

of & lotig body, covered with a sofl lender skin, 




divided into scg^mcnt* or rings, which are c»|wble 
of being moved towarde each other by inutscular 
bai)(l.i wtuateU wiilijii the bucly. TIte motions of 
many of the tarvGD arc peifonncd on thcK rings only, 
cither in the manner of serpents, or by rcisting alter- 
naldy each segment of the body on the plane which 
supports it. Such is the motion of the larvai of the 
Files, empTialically so called, and of the Wasps and 
Beea. Someiimcs the suifaces of the rings are covered 
by spines, $tifF bmUes, or hooks : tht» is the case in 
Gad-flies, Crane-flies, and aomc others. The bodies 
of the larvae, in some ordersof insects, have Jnfcriorly, 
and towards the head, ^ix fcel» each formed of three 
Mnatl joints; the last of which is scaly, and tcnni- 
nates in a hook : this U usual in the Inrvs of Bcctlci 
and Dragon-flies. The Jarvae of Butterflies and 
Moths, besides six scaly articulated feel, have a vari- 
thle number of other ialsc feet, which arc not jointed, 
but ternninate in hooks disposed in circles and semi- 
circles. These hooks, which are attached to the skin 
by a kind of retractile tubercles, scn-e as cramps to 
a^ist their motion on other bodic^i. llic larvec of 
those insects that undergo only a scmi-mctamor- 
phoitis, as the Crickets, Cock-ronches, and others of 
the order Hemiptcra, and the larvae of the insects 
that have no transformation, as in (he Aptcra (the 
Flea excepted), differ in no respect, as to their feet, 
from the perfect insects. — In this larvae Mate many 
insects remain for months, and others for a year, or 
aomctimcs even for two or three years; increasing 
aomewhat in size frs Ihcy grow older, and oocustonally 
changing their skins. They are, in general, ear 



tremely voracious, often devouring more than theii* 
own weight in tht course of twenty-four hours. 

An soon « all their parts become perfected, and 
ihev are preparftl to aj>pear under a new form, in a: 
pupa or cbrynalis*, they fix opon some convenient 
plaoe, where Ihey are least exposed to danger, for \hc 
perfurmance of the arduous optTation. This is essen- 
tially necessary, wncc, in ibeir Iran>fi>rnTation, they 
have neither strength lore:!"!, nor swiftness to avoid, 
the attack of an enemy. That power, which in- 
«!rueiwl the parents to depo>-it (heir eggs in n propci' 
rerepiacle, at this critical period directs the oftspringf 
in the tno«t secure and appropriate situation for iheli' 
ilurc defenceless stale. Some of them, as in many 
>f the Moths, spin webs or cones, in which they in- 
tkMC themiieJvcs; others undergo their change iti 
['decayed wood; and other*i conceal themselves under 
the surface of the earth. The tarvm of Butterflies 
Itpin a little web, just sufficient to suspend thcmsclrcf] 
[ty, lo the substance ihey fix upon.— Preparatory 
the transform at ion, the lanre cease to take any food,^ 
and, for some days, eoniiniif in a state of inactivity^! 
Daring this lime the organs arc graduaily J 
unfolding iheoiselve*. When the completion is atl 
hand, many of them may be ob»er\-cd alicrnatcty \i 
extend and contract ll»cir bodies, to disengage thcr 
selves from the caterpiltar skin. The hinder part 
arcthoae first liberated : when this is done, the ani*' 
maU contract, and draw the skin up towards their 

* Tbcrtij-tiliitioccMlonally cilln) Aurelii, Bein, CoJ, Cop* 
i( Nynphc. 



head ; and, by slronf; ciTuiis, sooti afterwards ptuli 
it entirely o^ In their chry&alid alate they reiiiaia 
lor some time, to allspgicarancr, |>crfccliy innninistCi 
but this is ouly in appearuace^ Tor, on being taken 
into the band, they will always be found to exhibit 
Eigtis of hfc. It is kingular that, iii the chaugcit of 
insects, the intcsliniil canal is frequenlly very dif- 
(crmt in the same individuals, as they pass through 
ihcir thrc<; 5t;ite«. In the larvm lhi> itt composed of 
two principal tube-:, the one it)H;rtcd into the othivt 
(be cxtcrual tube n cotiipact and fleshy, and the in- 
ternal ooc thin nnd trantiparent. Thelattcr tsalmiy** 
tJtro^vn out of tlii: body prevHotuly to the Iraiithr- 

As ttOOD asthcparlsof the aninitil, within thusboll 
of the chrysalis, havcaci)inred »tFeugth suiHcicot to 
break (he bond:* that surround it, the htllc creature 
eseit^ ilsponcrs, udu appears lo ttie world in Hi ptr- 
feet stale. For a little while It coniiuiie« humid and 
weak; but, as the humidity evaporates* iIh wing^ 
and shell become hardened, und it soon atlerwArcU 
comniils itself in.safifty toitH new element. 

From the mctamorpbusiK of insects I shall proccod 
tu tbc examinatiua o( some of thuirmoru impitrlanl 
members, as observed in the jierfcct state of tb« 

Some writers have conjectured thai the antama 
horns of in>cct-t wcfc thcit oigan^of hearing; fo* 

it is ("viilciil, Tro'ii v.'>ri.j[i-. I-. tir rirru'uls, that iuSCClh 

arcpn icc as exquisite, as 

niost other Animal^ ahhough, from their niicutcpc-^ 




pfCrbaps nuy itcvcr tU^covcr by tvliat means. 
T)ic anivnnx, however, bvcm little likely ta answer 
ifac purpose pf ciii:^. Tttcsc io^tiMtncnt?, o(' .ipp»ix-iilly 
exquwlc !«a<«ibiUly, i^can adapted \o \cry different 
purposes, but la purposes with wtiicb vri: iii.iy remain 
hag unacquainted. 

The ejis arc i'ornicd of a transparent crustaceous 

k; r,r !.-iie*» bO ^utncietiily bard as to require no 

CO to proicct thcin. Thejc, ULc inulliplyinff 

gl .lire innutncrablc surlaa'::, dd every one ^f 

which the objects ntc ilistiocily tbrmcd ; ȣi thac, if a 

c^t^e iri liddop cm, jta[>puar» multiplied 

altnokt to ipnuity on ;;ii:>r -iirfncc-'. Oilier crci)lurct> 

arv obliged tottini itiL-ir c)uit : but insects bavc always 

^oiDcoruiIu'.runiiL'ivc \cm& directed lq^^':t^dl> ubject^i, 

Ironi nhm quarter sficvcr they prcfct'iit lbcm:>«lvc*. 

All these minulc bi:tiu»pbcrc& arc- real eyes, throu^b 

V'hicb tivcry tbiiijT s(>])car» lopfivtuny. 

Mr. Lccuwciiliock loulc-d iliTongli ibe eye of .-i 

I3ragoii-tiy (witb the 1;<'[) of a rnicrosL'o(Jt') a> a (pKw 

acopi;: and viewed tbt- >:'.C|''leol'a eburcb, which wns 

a^ feet bi^li, and ^^o IruinylJic place; be could 

plainly sec t be steeple, though not apparently larger 

tlian the jjoint t.<( a line needle. lie also vicucd a 

bousci ajid could di:-c(;rn tliv front, (!b'>iit)£uii>b ilic 

tloor^ and "iriJi'i^ -. atid pcj'ceivc wlicilirr the win- 

dum-ii were c; :i ' 1 siiut. Mr. iiuuk ctnniHitvd 

14.000 Icnsea in, tbc two eyes of a dionc. ^r, 

Lp:ut<renlioc); reckunsiin Cficheye ofthenragan-lly 

1^,544 lc(rr.-<. The piclun > Ijccts, tlicrefur*", 

Ibal an* tli-iincnted oa tjiesc, ji'U^t be iiiillions of 



times less than those formed on the (nmutn cpf. 
Many Insects stilt smaller bave e>'C£> no doubt con- 
trived soas lo discern objects soine thousands. of 
times Ices than tlicmwlvcs ; far such the minute 
particles on which ihcy feed must cerliiinl)- be 
How astonishing, therefore, must be the ni.ignifying 
power of such eyes! And what cxtraordtnary^dJKO- 
veries might be tnsde, vcre it possible to !obT«n 
glasses through which we could »ce as these little 
creatures do! 

WiLh respect to the «w^j of irwects, the two first 
orders of Linnaeus have theirs defended bj a pair of 
cnislaccons cases called elytra. The three subse- 
quent orders have four inembraosceou^ wingis with- 
out elytra. Alt (he insects of the »xtb order hftU! 
but two wtn^. and under each of these, Bt its bur, 
there is a poise or Usiancer like & little knob. Thee 
poises are commonly little balls, placed on die lop of 
a slender stall:, and moveable every way at pleamrc. 
la some Ihey standalone, bnt in others^ asm the 
nbok Flesh-fly tribe, they have little covers or 
hollmv membranaceous locales, racb orwhiulr name- 
what resembles a spoon wtlhuut a handle : every time 
ibe insect strikes ihc air with its wings, a very qaiek 
motion may be perceived in the balancer j and in tht- 
inc.-fh -flics, when ihi> ntovers it- slnkeii n^psttlMf 
little scale, and thus assists in pn>dticing the well-: 
known buzzing sound that is made by flics trbenon 
the wing. ITic u^e of the balancers to an insect 
seemfi to bu precisely the same an thai of a lon^ pole, 
loaded at each end with lead, i» to a ropc-dnnci»i 


llj^iiOKler the body steady, nod obviste nil itsvacll' 
taiions In flight. Ifoncofthesk bocutoff, i be tar 
sect wiit ttnmcdistcly Hy ill, one side evidently ovcr- 
balsacing the other, till it tails to the grottnd: i( 
both be cut off, it will fly very awkwardly and an-f 
fle»dily> exhibiting an cridcnt defuct of some neccs- 
ury part. 

' The structure of' ihc/ec/ of these diininulivccrca- 
torcs is truly admirable. Those insects that live 
iltogethcr in wjitcr hare their feet long, flat, and 
somewhat hairy at the edges, well adapted to aid 
their motions in that elcmeot. Such ss hare occa- 
non to burrow into the eairth have their legs broad, 
ifaarp^iedged, and serrated. ' Those that use their 
feet oaly in walking ha\-c them lorig, and cylindrical ; 
some of the feet arcfumishcd with sharp hooked 
claws, and skinny palms, by which, from ilic pressure 
«fihe atmosphere upon them, the insects arc enabled 
to walk on gla»^ and other smooth surfaces, ercn 
^ith their backs downward?, as in various ^^edes of 
tlies: others have somewhat like spunges ihat an- 
swer the same end: snd the spider has cnrh foot 
armeil with a kind of comb, probiibly for the pur- 
pote of fe|>aratiDg the iw thrend:) that issue from so 
many orificci of its body, and prevent ihcrn from 
tangling. In the hind legs of insects which have oc- 
euiooally to pnss over spaces by leaping, the (high is 
very large nnd thick, and the shank long nod fre- 
quently arched. 

From the different formations of these, it is not 
ditficult to recognize the habits and modes of life 

TO J., 111. Q 

of ii)sc«3, cren where the specimens exfatLited 
luppen to he dead. The rdaiiire proportioos c4 
the feet dctennne, in 8 certain degree, the mannrrof 
each insect's moikm ta walking. Those speoiert 
that have long legs ({^encnlly speaking) ran very 
qaiciclj, estbe Spiders, the LongJi^ged Spidere, and 
seversi Ktixls uf B^etbs. On the contrary, the ,i»« 
sects thsit hare short tegs, at the Julos, Tiek^ and 
Gell In&ectSr are generntly remarkabJc for (be atow- 
iKtts of tbcir pace. Wh«o the anterior feet irfe th« 
longest, chcj retard the nxHion : this takes pboe in 
the Ephemera, Mantis, and wnu others: the firctof 
these insects arc of little other osc to them than in 
enaUing them to lay hold of any body on which the]> 
wish to alight. The posterior teg.s being loogest, 
give to the ioseels the fiicuhy of leaping. Some in- 
sects hawc\'er Feap, whose posterior legs are not lon- 
ger than the others}, hut they have this feculty in coo- 
:icc]acncc of the tbtgha being rtry thick, astd furnt 
with particular muscles. 

The nngne of insects is a taper and compact instm^ 
incnt, by which they suck their food. Sonw of iho 
animals can contract or expand it i and otfaen, as the 
Battcrflie5, toll it up under their head, somewhat 
like the >pringof a watch. I(umany it iii endosed 
within « Kheath ; and in several, as the flici-, jl is fltshtf 
and tubular. ^H 

. The iMo*f/* is generally placed sonwivbat imderneitli 
the front part of the head ; but in a few of the tribe* 
it tk^Mtuatcd below the breafit. Some insects have tt 
j^raishcd with a kind of fiarccpa, for the porpow ol 





ig and cut<!ng tbeir prex ; and in others it if 
pointed, to pierce SDlmal or vegetable substaoocS} ro4 
nick tbdr juices. In seven) it is strongly ridgtd 
vith jaws and teeth, to gtiaw nnd scrape their food, 
carry barthem, perforate the earlh, nay, the harden 
mod, and even ttooes, for habitations and nests foi 
tbetr youDg. Ifi a lew ibe tongue is so short afi to 
appcsr to us ificapsble of answering the purpose for 
Vrhicb itis formed ; and the Gad-fltes appev to have 
Oo mouth. 

Near the mouth are sUoated xhc pa^i, or figUrj .- 
these are generally (6\tr, but sometimes sis in num- 
ber. They are a kind of thread-chaped articulated 
■ntennK. Their situation, under and at the sides of 
the motttb, renders them, however, sufBciently di- 
«ttnct from the proper antenna. They are in conti- 
Roal nwtion, thi: little animals thrusting them into 
e\'ery thing tikdy toafford tbcm food. Soinc writers 
have considered them as serving the place ofa band, 
in holding food to the mouth, vhtlat the insects are 


IJnnms has divided the aiilmalacl' this dm into 
leven orders*, rit 

I. Coleofittnms bxtcts (derived from the Greek 
Words w>Ms a sheath, and ^rrt^9 a wing,) arc the 
BtaUft or such as hare crttstaceous elytra or shells, 
'ivhtch shut tc^ther, and form a longitudinal suture 

* CDlaDptei«rHcaiip<«i, LcpiJopten, Nraroptfra, Hfioiaa' 
^yttn^ Dif«en sad Apitn. 

do^n the back. Of fbtsorrfer BretbeCbir^ (ribp, 
and several others. 

i-'i., fitifiplfrour htsMi {from if^iirvf hi!f, .ind-n-»^r 
a wing,) have their upper wing* h«lf cnistscC6ufi|. 
-and hairnncmbranaceous, not dirtdcd by a longitu> suturCf bat incumbent on or crossed overcich 
olber I as the Cock- roach, Locust, &c. 

3. Lepiihpierota injects (from >£«if a scale^attd 
«T*p« awing,) are those having four wings covered 
with fine scales in the form of powder or meal ; u 
in the Butterf^cs and Moth?. 

4. Neuroptenui msetti (front nvi-ty a nerve, and 
iTTjpeya wing) have four membrinaceous, transparent, 
naked nings, in which the tncmbranes cross ench 
olber so as to 3pi}car like net-work. The tail bas 
no sting, but Is frequeatty furnished with appendices 
like pincers, by which the males arc distingui^ed. 
The common Dragon-fly is the best example that 
can be brought to iliustrate thisordert and the genus 
Fhryganen furitis an exception with respect to the 
net-work apjieirance of the wings. 

5. Hyn^mftierotit hiseett (froni Jju.»;v a membrane, 
and rsrffe/ a wing). The insects belonging io ■ iMs 
order have gciieralty four membranaceous naked 
wing* : the neuters, however, in .some of the genera, 
and in otlicr? the miiltis or female?, want ^ing«. 
The wir^ do rut so much resemble net-work, at 
thoK of the last order. The tail, eicept in tbc malc^ 
j« armed with a sting. JThc Bee, the \Vasp, and the 
Ant, are of this tribe. 

* ?>. D'fptrnuj iratets (from Ivxhics double, and 



vTipai a wing,) wn those having only two wings, each 
furnished at its base with a poise or balancer. Hie 
xommon House-flies and theGnacarc fainiliar ex- 
amples of this order. 

y^-uifieroiu vutcts (from « without, and xrf^y a 
V\pg\»' : This order cootaips all each insects as 
want wings in both fiexes> a? fbe Spider^Fleajaiid 

.toflMi, ■,-,-.■.-. 


THE antenna: of the Chaftrs have a clavatc or en- 
larged eitremity, which is divided inio Umetts or 
leares. To the raoulS there are Tour Tfelers. The 
feel bavcfivc joints -. and (he shanks of the fora-Iegs 
ire pencraUy too(hed. 

The larv^ or grubs hare six feet. In their gene- 
ral external appearance these creatures arc not much 
unlike thecaterpillarsof some of the butterflies, hav- 
ing their bodies composed Of rings, and bein^ some* 
what hairy. Most of them Hre entirely under the 
surface of the ground, feeding on the roots of plants, 
&c. Their chrysalif generally lies dormant In the 
carib till the perfect insect bursts out. 

Chafers inhabit and feed to vanoiu lituatlons. 
Some are found in the dung of animals, or io the 
earth immediately under the dung. Others livp on 
the leaves of treesj and others on flowers. 


The larrae or grubs of this ftpcciet of Beetln, fid 

• Tht Lini»ean oidcr of CoLtorrilovi IicMCTi or Ettari 

coenmcncrt wiih thU trit«e. 

f SyNo<i-rvt. — Sc«fab«af Mololotiiluu Limn. MtUlantlM 

mlgaru. /^d^fKiuj.— Bfom Ttm Bwtte, Blind Hcetl*. CkaC*. 
Coe1c>cha/er, J«ck-hofDU, itSty-CK'k, Ua)r*l»ga Txcc Aocilc* 
Br«wn Clock, Dor, in vinou puU of Eoglaml. MUler*, fron 
ibeif powdeij while ccloun — Thft Giub It oiled ttw CoonAu^ht 
worm ia InUuS. .■ ■-- rr-, i- 





%cn kno»-n in Eogtand by t[)c name of Cock-chafer, 
■re more voracious, tnd more destructive to vegtv 
(itioD. than those of almost any oT the insect tribc!i. 

The eggs are deposited in the groond by the 
winged inKCt, whoae foni-(c^ are very short, and 
well calculated ^or horroK'tng. From each of tbow 
process, after a «hort timc^ a whiti->U worm witti »\t 
leg?, a red bead, aad strong claws, and about an inch 
and a half long, wtiici) is destined to live in the earth 
uoder tfcat form for four years, aod there unJcgo 
ririoas changes of its skin, uDtil it assiioics its ctiry- 
ialid ^brm. U ^iub^ist?, ditiing its sitbtcrrancotis 
abo^ oo the roofs of trees and plants, committing 
nragcs often of the nw^t depionbte nature. I'bcse 
eteatom^wmctiines in immense numbers, n-oHc be- 
tween (he turf and the soil in ibe richest meadow*, 
devouring the toots of the grass to that degree Ibnt 
the turf rises, and will roU up with almost as much 
CMC OS if it bad been cut wUb a turfing-»padc : and 
underocztb the soil appears turned into a sa(i tnould 
ibr about an inch in depth, like the bed of ■ garden. 
In thb the grubs lie, in a curved position, on their 
fatcksylbe head and tail uppermost, luH the rest of 
Ibe tiod]p buried iu tlie mould. Mr. Ardeion, of 
Norwich, menliotu his hnving seen u whole field of 
fitic Soumfaiag graat, in the summer tinvi, become in 
■ few weeks withered, dry, aad as briltie as hity, by 
tbcae gmfas devoorin|f the roots, and gnawing atvay 
aH (bone fibres (bat fastened it lo the (ground, and 

through vbicb abne itcootd receive nourishment*. 

^ ; . ^ ■ ■■■ ■ •- *\- 

• Phil-Tran. vol. xliv. p. 579. 



- '- The lafT*;* is -f hire lairf, eontinoc four ycarit wi 
the ground; and H'hen, si ibc end ofthift perrod. 
thejr are about lo undergo llicir chnnpc, Ihcv dt^ 
deep into the earth, Mnnetiokes fwe or six feat, And 
Ibcrc spin a smcxMh casr,-ia whicbibev cjungc inio 
-■ cfarysalb. They remain under this form all winier 
Itll the moDth of Fcbroury, whco tbcy become 
perfect beetles, but uUb ibcirbodicsquile soft and 
white. la May the prt> urehsrdencd» and tiua 
then (M)nie forth out of tha eatlb.' This occooflH 
for our otun iind:og> tbc perfect iitEccis io'tbe 
ground. :j. •-.Jii. .. , 

Gock-chofcrs flyin the ■ evening towards sunset, 
and particularly ubout places tptiere there are tree*. 
•Xhey* eat-tbe leaves of the syramore, the limci the 
,beecb, the willow, and thof« of all kinds of > fmit- 
trees. Ifi its winged state this ini-ect exhibits not 
'tcfs voracity on the leaves of tracs iban it before 
did in its grub stale in the cartbi for, such is the 
avidity with which it deraocs it» food, and so im- 
incniic an- sometimes the nombcrs, that, in pnnicuUr 
districts, they hare become la oppressive seotti^ 
which has produced much calamity amonjf tb^ 
people. ■ i . 

In the year i6S8, the Cock-chnfcn appeared on 
iho hedges and Irccs of the soutb-weM coatt of the 
coumy of Galway, in clu:<iers of thousands, dinging 
lo each others' backs in the mannerof bees when 
ibcy swarm. During ibe day I hey continued quier, 
Uol towards sun^wt the whole wer6 in motion : Md 
the humming noise of their wings sounded like di- 
fiiaut dnima. Tbcir nutnbers were so great that, for 



the Apccof tiro orthcee srjnnte mtks^ they enlirely 
darkcjwtlihe air. Persons travelling on the raad«, or 
who frcrc-abroad in the ilrltis, found it difiicult lo 
make tiktir U-3V home, jisihe inscrtHwcreconiiniially 
bcsting^ af^in5t their faces, and cnuscd great pain. 
io a very ihurt time ibc Icnrta of all tbc trees for 
MNiic miles round WL-rc destroyed; leaving the whole 
country, though it was near midsummer, aa' nalccd 
and desolate as it would hokv been ia the middle of 
svinler. 'I'he noise tliat tha^e enormous swarmp 
made in seizing and de\'ouring the Icai-e,-:, u-as ap 
loud as to li<ive been compared lo the distant «uv- 
ing of limber. Swine and poultry destroyed them in 
Ta«t numbers. These waited underthe trees forihc 
ctasters dropping^, and dc\'nured such swarms as to 
become fat (mm them alone. Even the native Irish, 
iirom the insects having eaten np the whole of the 
{iroduce of the ground, adopted a mode of dressing 
tbein, and used tbem as food. Towanit ifac ead of 
summer they disappeared so suddenly tbat>in a few 
(lays there was not a single one left*. ••« 

About sixty years agos^arm near Norwich wdr 
Uf infeiited wjth Cpck-cbufers, that the farmer and 
his servants alHrmcd that they gathered eighty 
bushels of them ; and the grubs bocl done so much 
iojury tiiat tho court of ihat city, in eompasaion to 
the poor fellow's misfortune, alibied him 25!. 

MouffetinfumiAtM, tiiat in the month of f'elmiary 
1574 theje were such multitudes of them in the 
u'Cittern pari6 of Knglaad, that those which tell into 

» I^jf. Traa, xu. p. -j^i. 


THE <!acK>CKAP£lt. 


the Txvtr Severn completely clogged the tt-at^r-whteh 
of' (be mills*. 

The rooks and gulU devour immense numbers of 
the ^ubs of this destructive insect, by which they 
render a mo6t e^cniial srrv-icc to mankiod^ aid 
g^reat care oagbi to be ukcn lo chemh And proteet 
thcin. The sole employ merit ot' rooks, for- ne«rfy 
three months in Ihespring at' the year, U Uj stMtth 
for insects of this sort for food; and the hjivock that 
a numerous flock makes among them mu9t be very 

-^ -A cautious obscn-er, having found a nest of H' 
young jnp, reaiarked that each o( the^ bh-ds, white 
yet very yobng, consancd at least tiftecn of theae 
Aill-sizcd grubs in a day ; and averaging- their sixes, 
it may be said that each consumed cwcnty t this (at 
the five m:ikc3 a hundred : and if we suppobc the 
parents to dcvottr between tticm the aaine number, 
it appears i tmt the whole family con.samod about two 
hundred every day : ibis tn three months amotmts 
to twenty ihouiond.|t)e grub continues 
in the same state for foiiryean, this sin^afwr, with 
their family alone, without reckoning Ihcir descciw^ 
danis after the tirst year, would destroy at many as 
c^hty thousand grubs. Now, suppofting^ that forty 
thousand of these may be females, and that each fe- 
male lays, as is the case,- about ttro hundred eggs, it 
will appear that no Ic^^ than d^it mii/hntof grubs 
have becDi'ckstroycd; or at least prevented fhntf 
being hatched, by this single family of jays. 




U is true (hat m thcss laboars of the rooks jm, and 
4ante ocher birds» they sometimes do mischief to 
mn I ^t there can be little doobt Ihnt the damige 
they thmACommit is amply repaid by the benctJt that 
results from these their unceasing exertions- 
Some &rmcf» plough the ground In order to ex- 
pose the grubs (othc bittU; and others take the peins 
to dig deeper wherever tbe rooks yo'mt them out 
by Ibeir attempts lo reach them.— When the insect* 
arc in their wiiigcd stale* to shaVc tbe trees at noon, 
wbcD tbcy arc nil eitiicr nslcep or in a slate of hv 
actirejlopor, and gather or swcepiiicm up fioin the 
grooodt Becms the most chgible method. One pei^ 
•BO has been known to kill in a daj'> by this raelboil, 
above a ihouaarKi ; by which, though in so shorttA': 
tpte^ of time, at a fair calculation, be preveoled n<» 
fHecr than n hundred (houaand cgga from being laid. 

Tbe dead budicA of t bene tnaeots aflord a vcrj ac- ' 
ccptnble food to ducks, turkies, and other poultry. 
S^^iocj ■» X fanvc before observed, will likewiM gree- 
dily dfVDur ihem. panicularty wbcn bruised and ' 
mixed with ibeir other food*; and cats catch and 
eal tbeto with great avidity. 

A peraoD nr^r Bloiis, in France, employed in the 
year 1785 a number of childi-en and poor persons to 
destroy tbe Cocb-chnlers, at the rate of iwo hards a 
LandretL In a ll-w days fanrlren thousand were 
brotigbt to him. Thus, fur the modemte «um of 
about seven shillinj^and eight-pence sterling, hede- 

*.Uil» bpwcrtr, siid, that vrtiea sirine ba*c mc* Uca (ollj 
HtyAcd vitfc tbrtn, iticy rxrcr care tm theai afurvanii. 


Tire SOSt-caAFEH. 

stroyed, »ceorHinip to his ttilcnlalmn, near a tniJfivn 
and a hatf of the grubs i which, bsd they been si- 
lowed to bs hatched, might, in the ocMifw>of -ftwr 
^ears, have done damage to (he amount at many 

thousand pounds*. 


There are scarcely any of the Englisli Chaftrra 

%»OTe beautiful than Ibis. The upper parli of the . 

■MSftt^'«r« ftF * shining green colotfr, van-ing ac-l 

ettr^g'to the lig'M irt wMfth it is belt!, and ntarlEed 

^ransfrersiily oh th*j ^ving case* with a few 'short 

*hilc oryt'lIowTsh lines. Themale is of a bui^rshetl 

•copper colour >*"iih a greenish ca.^t. These insects 

ifcre somewhat more than an inch in length. The)' 

'irc to be found on^owers, parttciilarly on those of 

"the msc ami peony ; and sometimes in ants* nerts. ■ 

The grubs that produce this bcptle feed under " 

ground, most' commonly at the roots of trres, and 

never appear on the surfsco unlew d)>turbed by 

digging, ors^Tie other accident. They arc thought 

to bo trtjhnoiis lo the gankfierTrom their devouring 

the roots of his plants and trees. The female de- 

po>-tis her eggs in the middle of June. VortMspur- 

poec she burrows into toft light ground, hollowing 

out and forming for them a proper receptacle. 

"Wlnrn the opcratiton is over she returns to the sur- 


• .'i: JcnooMlIccn'ations of Agncu1ivr<( iii."4ibT* 
tSraioicrrtJ. — Scintxrit auraiu*. Vnn. — Ccloni* nuala 
/Vftwof.— Rf*« MayChrfrr, Grmi Brrtle, ixA Brats Beetl^ 


bce^'SMl Aic« oft^-^but seldom livet more than (wo 
tnoQihi ahertnTdi. The grabs are produced in 
about fuurlcca days, and tm mediately E«ck out for 
food, wliich the parent always takes care to liuvc 
near ibc place where she Lys her eggs. A** soon «f 
they hayc Bttatncd mifficient strength, the young 
grubs separate, each burrowing. a diftercnl vrsty in 

-aeucb of roots. They remain four ycart; in thii 
ftate, annually chnngJng ibcir skin tit) ilicy become 
of full growih, whcti ihey arc of a cream ciitour, 
with browD head and feet. During winter ihuy cut 
bat little, if at all, and retire so deep into the grouod 
M to AToid the cf)Mls of the fruet. 

About the moolh. of March, at the end of tbti 
fourth year, the grub rbrmsa use of earth, about the 
lice of a walnut, somewhere near the surface, within 
Khk'b it changes into a chr>ulis. In thii state it 
remains till the beginning of May, when it bursts out 
% pcrftxl Chafer. TbU U at first of a hght gn'en 
ea]o4ir,aiid very tender; but it fioon .acquires its pro- 
per hofdtics-'i and strength. 
W'hcu lbcin.v:ct is touched it emits o fciid m<n&- 

l^^tun;. This i», no doubt, a mode of defence Dgaiust 

llbc aOock.! of ii8 enctnics*. 

THa KL-ILVlSa llKVTL&f. 

This inject e an inhabitant of the d«erts of Tar- 
[t ary , andstevcrBl other parts of the continent, where 

f .SY]co!(TM«.r— Scsrabxtu inofticiiii. Liita. GH/.nScmfaXM 
li J'aHu tc, its. Hint. i.'/,, jljf. t!. 

t *i 





it u ceaeralty Jbuad under carcasses that art dried 
fa tbc sun. Its shells are of on opake black ooloar, 
atriatedt punctured, and aoBiewbal rougfi* 

Tbc best account that I hare mat with of <he 
maanen of thU interesting inMct. b from M. Gle- 
dilsch, a welUknown writer on natural history. This 
gentleman h»d, at dificrent timej, obaerred that 
nxdcs which had fooen Idt iipon the ground afUr 
Xhcy had been killed, 'very unaccoantabfy disappeared- 
He therefore was determined lo asecrtain by e^pcri- 
oicDt, If possible, what could be the cause of thia 
fliagolar occorrcncc 

On the iwcnty-fifih of May, be accordingly ofa» 
tained a dead mote, which he placed on the mfliac 
soft earth of h» g^irden, and in two daya be found it 
amik to the depth of four fingns' bivadtb into tbc 
earth *. it was in the same position in which he had 
placed it, and ila grave corre^mied exactly with 
tbe length and breadth of its body. The day fol- 
lowing, this grave was half €llcd up ; and be deew 
out the mole cautiously, which exhaled a horrible 
stench, and found, directly under it, little boles in 
which were four Beetles of the prrscnl spccitt. Dm- 
covering at this time nothing but these BecUes, Ik 
put tbcm into the hollow, and tboy quickly hid 
themselves among tbe enrth. He then retraced tbe 
mole aft be (bund it, and, having spread a little sofl 
earth over it, left it without looking at it agsin for m 
the apace of six days. On the twelHh of June he " 
again took up tbc saotc carca&t, which he found in 
the higbcst state of corruption, swanning with sowl!, 
thkk« whitish «nnDS, tfatt appeared lo be tbe fiunUy 



nf theBeedci. These crream stances induced him 
to wpp9Ht that it was* the Beetles that bad Xha% bo- 
riaJ (be tnolc^ and iKat tbcy bod dene this for the 
I aake of lodging in it their ofl^prin^. 

'Ml'. C/th(^ ifxMv glusa cucurUt, and half filled 
it with moist earth j into this be put tbc fiiur Bceiirs 
with their young, aod they imincdiatety concealed 
ilMnidvea. I'his cucurbit, covered with a doih, 
wa5|ila^ DD the open pround, and in tbe count 
of fifty days Ihe four Beeilus interred (he bodies of 
/m/t frog!*, ibfK small btrds, two grasshoppers, and 
»fu nKile, besides the entrails of a fiah, and two Small 
pteceft of the lungs of th ox. 

Of tbe moile in which they performed this tcry 
Ugular operation, the following h an account : A 
Etinet that bad been dead six hours was placed in 
ibe nmltUe of the cucurbit; in a few moments tbc 
Beetles t)uittcd their boles, and traversed the body. 
After a few hours, one pair of the beetles only was 
aeen about the bird, the largest of which was auu 
yoied to be the female. They be^n their work 
l^ boUowtag out tbc carlb from under Ihe bird. 
They arranged a cavity the size of the bird, by 
pa^ihing all around the body tbe earth whicb they 
removed. To succeed in these ciibrts:, they leaned 
themaclrvs atioagly upon ibeir collars, aodj bead- 
ing dcran their beads, forced onl the earth -around 
ibe bird like a kind of rampart. Tbe uork being 
fiAMbed, and ttte bird having falkin mtaihehollou', 
ibey covered it, and thus closed the ^rtfie^c^ i -.r 
,!t if appeared as if the bird mu^i altemtfljt iti 
iKid, its tail, its wing9, (».'fe<;t/ntfifetjr<-tiKie thai 




soy of these movements were observed, the ctTo 
that the Beetles mntle to draw ibe body into 
grave, tvhich vas now nearly coinpteled, might 
rcniarked : in efi^eccing this, they jointly drew It b; 
its rcathers bcluw. This opemiion lasted full tw< 
hoars, u-hen the sm:iUe:!it or malti Beetle drove awa 
(he fem&Ie from the grave, and would not allow b 

' to return, forcing her to enter the bole as often 
she attempted to come out of it, 

fi This Beetle continued the work, alone for at Icasta 
Cve houn; and it was truly astonishing to ot>««rva 
the great quantity of earth that he removal in that 
time : but lite surprise of Mr. G. was much aug'^ 

' tncnied ivhca he saw the little animal, stiffening ili 
collar and r.scrting all tU strengh, UA up the btr4| 
make it change its place, turn, and, in some mea* 

; sure, arrange it in tlic grave that it had prepared a 

I which was so ypaclous, and so far cleared* chat ha 

''could perceive exactly under the bird all ibc movM 

menis and r.II the actions of the Beetle. i 

From time to time the BuctlCj coining out of its 

hole, mounted upon the bird, and appeared to tretdj 

[it down ; then, returning to the charge, it drew thci 

lird more and more iiilo the earth, till it wati sunk! 

lo a considixiblc depth. The Beetle, io conse*] 

^(|uence of ihts uninlemipted labour, appeared t 
be tired ; leaning its head upon the cartb, it CO 
linued in that jusitinn near an hour, wilbout n>o^ 
tion ; and it then retired completely underground, y 
Ejirly iu the morning the body wax drawn entirety 

^tinda- ground, to the depth of two lingers' breadth^ 

iu the acme, ]iosjiion that it had when laid on Ihdi 



It so tlut this litlle corpse seemed at if it were 
laid aul on a birr, with a small mount or rampnrc all 
fOuod (or Lhc purprtst of covering it. In the even- 
ing the bird was Minlc abuul half a finger's brcatllh' 
ilMf>ct in the eanh ; und the oneralioit was rontintie^l 
&r near two ilay» mure, when the work obiained its' 
fianl complctioD. 
■ A single beetle was put into the glxv; cticurbit 
" with tht bodj of a mole, and covered, as bi-fore, 
wiib a iinc linen cloih. About seven o'clock in the 
morning, llio beetle had drawn the h«ful of the mole 
belowr; and, in pushing the earth backward^ hfld 
H Ibrmed a tnitirshty high rampart Hround it. The 
H lalmneot ws^ completed in this instance by four 
^uVJock in the afterDOoa, a space of time so short 

hi hat oi>e could scaiciily ha\'e imi'^ined it^ssiblehy 
ho smnM b creature, without any assiitancc, con8ider>. 
*vf: that the bodf of the mule must have exceeded 
a « in bulk and wcighr at least tbiny time$. 

t While engaged in these experiments, a friend who 
ibed to dry n toad iii the shade, fixed it to n stick 
licb be itudc. in>o the ground. When it bugan to 
pMtrei}'. Ilie beetle^ allured by the smrM, having 
IdcMcited the end of ih^ «tick that wiis fixed in (he 
«nih,. brotigbl i^ to the ground, and they then io-^ 
lom^ biiihi the toad and the stick. 

Tlic litlmnciit of iJici<-'RaiDia]i, which generally 

^ takes place from abuut the middle of April co the 

H end of Ociubcr, has been ^utHcienily proved to be 

not metdy for food, but' as a proper nidus for cbe 

>af'lhe iniecta, and is qourish the young family 

rub« thai pnxxeds from them. If tbey wanted 




TUX rtx.1. ciiAren. 

them for iood only, tbcy would no doub( conswroe 
chc in above grounJi but in (he continuaiion of the 
species it is necessary lo have them below, nnoc 
otherwise, tuke^ ravens, kites, and oiber carniruroos 
animals, would seize on the bodies, and along Hith 
titetn would swallow the grubs ot' the Beetles, and 

iie whole species might thus be under the risk ol 


THE riLI/ CII4PB&**- 

The pill Chafer is soincwlial more than an i 
in leiigibj and ol' a dusky black co<our, sometimes 
with u greenish hue iibove. i>nd underneath of a very 
brilliant hluc or greco. The wing cases end Ihomx 
are very snioolb ; the former marked with HeveraJ 
longitudinal streaks, aud tbe latter round, and war* 
gined, having a slight groore in the middle. 

It to found both in Europe and America, and in 
its manners is one ot the most remarkable uf the 
Beetle tribe. It comes forth in April, and is tftbe 
DCen till about September, when it disappears. lis 
almost constant employrocnl, in which indeed it is 
indcfaiigable, Ia in the different operations neccf* 
sarjr to continue its specie:^. It provides a proper 
nidus for its eggs by (urming round pellets of dung, 
in Ihe middle of each of which it deposits an egg. 
These, in September, the insects conwy ro the 
depth of about three feet into the ground. Herefl 
they remain idl The approach of spring, when the ^ 


*SxMOii*Mi.— ScmnbKtw ptlulsriiu. thm- — Atndiiu (liti- 



gnibs burst their shell, and find their way to the 
surface of the earlh. 

*' I have attentively admired ibetr industry, and 
iDUtuol sssisting of each other (s3y<> Catesby) in roll- 
ing these globular balls from the place where they 
made them to that of their interment, which is usu- 
ally the distance of some yards, more or less. This 
they perform breech foremost, by raising tlwir bind 
parts, and forciug along the ball with their hind fecr. 
Tive or three of thcni arc somdimci engaged in 
trundling one bull, which, from meeting with impe- 
diments, on account of the uneven ncsa of the gp'ound) 
is aotnclimcs deserted by ibetn. It is, however, at- 
tempted by ulher» ivith success, u»k»» it happen to 
roU into some deep hollow- or chink, where they.f^f* 
constrained to leave it ; but they continue their work 
by ratling off the next ball that comes in iheir way. 
None of ihcm srem (o know their own balls, but 
an equal care ibr tbc whole appears to afiect alt the 
community. They form these pellets while the dung 
ictnsins moist, and Ivavc Ihcm to harden in the sun 
before tbcy attempt to roll them. In their moving 
«f them faim pLice to place, both they and the balU 
may frequently be seen tumblingabout over the lit- 
tle eminenccit that are in their way. They are not, 
honever,eafiiIy clitcouraged ; and, by re[)ealing their 
aitempti, usually surmount the difHciiltics." 

Catesby $ayi also that '' ihey find out their sub- 
sulencc by the cvccllcncy of their msts,'* which 
direct them in their flight to newly fallen dung, on 
which they immctliaiely go to work, tempering it 
with a proper roixlure of earth. So \t\\tu\. axt vV'CS 


Titt rriKi. 

alwaytt upon their emiiloynient) ihal, thongh han- 
dled or otiicnvisc interrupted, tbey arc not (o be de- 
terred, till, jmmedi»;ely on being freed, penJst in 
their work without any npprcbenston of danger*. 

They ore said to be so exceedingly strong and 
active as tu move obout, wi()i the greatest eue^ 
things (hnt arc many limes their own weight. Or 
Brickell was supping une evening in a pltnlci^A 
bouse of North Carolina, when two of them were 
Conveyed, without bis knowledge, under the candlo* 
sticks. A few blows were struck on the table, and 
to his great surpri.^c the candlesticks began to move 
about, apparently without any agency; and bis lur- 
prtiw was not ninch lenscneil, when, on taking one 
«if them up, he discovered that it was only a Chafer 
that mwcdf. 

Professor Thunberg and Mr. Browne both meo- 
llon the operations of a s|)iTcics of Oiafcr in ibe dif- 
ferent parts of Africa that »hey visited, which ogir« 
in every respect with thoH: of the present spccicfc 
We hove also one in our own country, Siaralma 
htnaris, whose manners are very nearly the same. 

ArtslnphRnes, in bis Ejfijwi, bas introduced one 
of the Dung-ChafcDi, on uhich a cbantcler in the 
play mounts up to Jupiter, 10 petition for peace. 

TlfESE insects have antenna: that are 

• C»l<sty. Apptnait, 1 1. + BKcktU, 


•n equal thickness throughout ; the laal joints, hov- 
cvtT, in mostoflhc spcciet,arc soinenhatla^er than 
• l»cre3l. Ttic thorax is nearly round, unmargincilj 
*s^(j contains the head. 

Tbdr Idrv^ ATc found In the irunks of decayed 
'-■~«e5i among hay, dried leaves, &c. and in collec* 
^ *«3tu of dried plants those of one of the species arc 
•*^rattimcs known to do great mi.*chief. A few of 
^ Ijcai rohabit different ^ccies (^ fiingi. 


The I>c«th-w;)(ch is a dusky and somewhat hairy 

i^ nscct, with irregular hrownisb spots, about a quar- 

"Ver of an inch in leugth. Notwitb&tanding its suiaII- 

xiess, this creature h often ttie cause of serious alarru 

9inong the lower class of people, from the noise that 

it nukeis, at a certain time of the year, resembling 

the licking of a watch. From this it has its name } 

for, whenever this faculty is exerted, it is cstecmc4 

Lportcotivc of death to some one of the family in the ' 

[l)OU»c where it is heard. The philosopher and thfij 

rsaturalisl may smile at a superstition thus absurd; 

yet Sir Thomas Drown bns remaiKcd, with great 

cameiitnc«s, that the man " who could eradicate this 

eiTor from the mindbof the people, would save from 

many a cold sweat the meticulous heads of nuKct 

and grand moth en f.'* 

The weihtt't bell 
Ecforc the droofitng flocit lolln) forth htrkn«U, 
' The Ml«cnn Deith-wilchclick'tl the hour the died. 

* SrvoHirMt.— PliauitcMclatiu. Lim, — Anobiuin tcSMttlum. 
FtJfidBi,'— Ptinut blidiciu. Si^w't A'uf. Mi:. 
'^ Vnlgu Error*. 



It is chiefly in the advanced state of spring thit 
these irusects commence their noise, u-hJch is no^ 
more than a call or signal by which they nre muta-l 
nlly attracted to each other ; and it may be consi- 
dered a» analogous to the call of birds. This nobe 
docs not arise from the x'oicc, but from the insect's 
beating on any hard substance with the shield or 
forepart of the head. The general number of sue* 
cessive difttinct strokes is from seven to nine, ot 
eleven. These are given in pretty quick succession, 
and are repe;ilcd at uncertain intervals; and in old 
houses, where the insects are numerous, they miy 
be heard, if the weather be warm, almost every hour 
in the day. The noise exactly restembles that made 
by beating with ihe nail on a table*. 

The insect being difficult to discover, from its 
obscure grayish brown colour, nearly resembling thit '■ 
of decayed \too<I, it is not always easy to Fa> from 
what exact spot the sound proceeds. Mr. Stack- , 
house observed carefully the manner of il.s beating. 
He says the insect raises itself on its hinder )cg$J 
and, with ihe body somewhat inclined, beats its head! 
with force and agility against the place onj 
which its itands. One of ibcm, on a scdgc-botlomed] 
choir, exerted so much furce that its strokes were 
impressed nnd visible in the exterior coat of the 
sedge, for a space etjiial to that of a silver peony. 
Mr. S. took this insect and put it into a bos. On< 
the (bllawing day he opened the boi, and set it in 
ihe sun. It sccmeJ very brisk, and crept aboutj 



with grcit activity on the bits o( sedge and rotten 
wood, till at, getlii^.tu the end of ihc picce3,^t 
rxtcnilcH its winp, and was about to take leave : 
he shut down the lid, when it withdrew them and 
rein.iioed tjuiet. He kept it bv liim aixjul a forl- 

The idea of taming this Utile ftnimiil mAy appear 
■bsurd : it hft», ho«'cver, been so much familiarized 
as to be made to beat occasionally : by taking it out 
of its confinement, and beating with the nail or the 
point of a pen on a table or board, it will ansu'cr 
the beats very readilv, and will even conlltiue to re- 
peat lift efforts as lung as it is required. 

Dr. Derham kept a male and female together in 
aboi fcr about three weeks; and, b)- imilaling (heir 
noise, he made them beat whenever he pleased. At 
the end of this time one of them died ; soon aflc"" 
which the other gnawed its way o(it and c«capedf . 

This insect, which is the real Death-watch o( the 
valgar, emphatically so called, must not be con- 
founilcd with a wingless insect, not much nidike % 
JoDsc, that makes a ticking nuisc like a watch, but, 
instead of beating ac intervals, conlinuen its noise 
for a considerable length of time without inlermis- 
iion. The latter belongs to n tribe very different 
from this } it is the Ttrmes Puhuloriian of L)nn:mis, 
and will be described in its projier pUice in the pre- 
sent work. 

* Phil. Trin. vol. xxxia. p. 159. 
\ Phil. Trail, vol. Mii. p. 83a.— S« 4»tf a p«i>«r of Mr. All«n, 
In fwl. <i. p. iii. 

c "9*9 ^ 


TFTE /-arvrf o( the Weevils haw. like (hose of tb« 
other coleopieroufi iosectit, six Icgf nnd a scaly bead. 
They bear a rcsrmbhnce to oblung soft worm». 
Some of iheii* inl'csi granaries, where, frum their 
numbers ond voracity, they often comroit fcixat ra- 
\ages among the com : some live in fruilf, (be 
insides of artichokes, ih)<;tles, snd other plnnls t ttqi 
others devour the leaves of trees and vegciablrs. 

The [terfect insects hsve clavate Aiitcnnio EC*)ed 
on the snout, which is horny and prominctit. They 
have also four thread shaped feelers. 

One division of the Weevils feed on trees am} 
sbrubSi inserting their be^k into the tender bmnches, 
and by this means exirncting tbetr juicc». The 
Curcufio aWuri^ has bcrn observed with its beak 
plunged into the twig of a crah-lrcc^ as liir afi the 
|)tace from whence the anienoai arise. Another 
diviMon fixA .•solely on plants. Others live on gratti, 
uood, and on tome of the species of fungi ; and a 
few under ihc surface of the earth. 


Is tt-ell known to most farmers from ihcdev^ta- 
4ioa5 that it oficn makes in their grananes. It « 

'* Sthohtn*. — CnrroliD {ramriut Ihm. — Cslcnda |t^ 
naiu. fii^-MW.— W«vil in nunr pant ©f ibe cooBlrjri 





of a black-brown colour, anJ scarcely more than -a 
tenth of an inch in length. Its stiout h lon^ and 
vmaJI ; snd th«* thorax a punctured, nnd nearly as 
lon^ as the abdomen, 

Tlw parent insect lay* its eggs In grains of com, 
probably one hi each gnin. Here the larviC, on being 
batched, cooiinuc for sonic time to live, and it is 
n!!ry dilTicult to discover ihcm, an they lie concealed 
ttithio. They increase ibctr size, and with it their 
duelling, at the exjieose of the interior or farinaceous 
parts of the gvain on which they feed. Corn-lofis 
are oficn laid waste by these grubs, whose number* 
arc somctinDfs so great as to devour nearly the whole 
of their contents. Whco the grub ha» attained its 
full size, it still remains within the grain, hidden 
under the ctiijity husk. There, being transformed, 
it becomes a chrysalis : and, when it has attained its 
perfect slate, it forces ics aay out. 

It \» no easy mnlter to discover by the eye evea 
tbc grains that are thue attacked, for in exterior ap- 
pearance they are still large and full. If, however^ 
they are thrown into watcr^ their lightness soon dc* 
tocti> them. 

I'o rid a granary of these destructive insects, it 
has bcco recommended to farmers to spread their 
corn in the sun, when they will creep out of their 
boles : and, by often stirring the corn while in this 
situation, it is supposed they may be completely ex- 
pelled. It is al^ said that they may be destroyed by 
strewing boughs of elder, or branches of henbane, 
SJDong the corn. In a late Paris paper, a gentleman 
Bays, that .-^bout the month of ]une, >N\^cuW1eA-^ 


THE KVT V/Ktrjh. 

naries and barna, that hod been miicit iafe^teJ 
Weevils, were a!l empty, he caused a number oi 
the bills of the large snis to be collected in ixigB, 
and pbccd in different parts abnul them. I'he ants 
immediately attacked the Weevils that were on the 
walls and other \jaTl^, and dcslrnycd them so com- 
plctely that, in a very short time, not a single one 
was to be seen , and since that period, he says, tb»y 
have never appeared on bis premisw. 


This insect is [iroJarefl from the white grob that 
Me often find living in the interior of the haeel net. 
Tlie histor}' of its changf: and growth is sing.ilnr and 
interesting: and exhibits a striking instance of fne 
care that has been taken to promote cite comfort und 
convenience of even these diminutive tribes. 

The caterpillar or grub proceeds from a very pmiU 
brown egg that the parent dc)wsits In the vutaide 
of the nut, at a time when it is very soft and len- 
der. When the heat of the scawn his perfected 
the little grub, it eats its way out of the egg, and 
ihrongh the shell Into the nut, without in the least 
injuring the external appearance of the nut. His 
chief food now is the coat of the nut, or that part 
which aAerwards hardt-ns into the shell ; and be 
continues to feed on this, and the interior pulp, 
till such time as (he one becomes loo hard, and (be 
other loo dry for his sustenance. He then bcgini 

* ST)(oxTMt.^X^rculio nnmn. Litai. — rh^ncbitDiu omcuoi. 



on lie kernel, which is now grown so large £s to 
li^mlblm support; and it is to be rcmarki.-d that Inis 
sctnsamost pruviJciitial instinct: for, hnU lie com- 
ncnoed hi.% attnc^^ on the kernel when ic v/as Rmall, 
I>P would hare dc^itroyed that on wbich ;ill bis fu- 
On n-clfoiT defended, and that which is the prin- 
cipal food allotted to him by nniiirc while in s larvs 
s**!*. While feeding, he constantly altfends to ih< 
hole by which he entered, gnawing away the sides, 
K> IS lo make them very round and Fmoolh : for 
^fs not only allows him sufBcient air, and a place 
through which he can enpel the ppticles of his 
(lun^but it is also the passage through which, when 
be ia full fed, and ready lo uudci-go hiK change, ho 
•"aVcs his way out. About the month ofSeiileinber, 
(t perhaps someivhat later, the nut becomes ripe 
w»d fills to the ground. At Uiis time he is gcne- 
i^lly prepared for the change, and works himself 
throunh the hole, which be is some lime in doing, 
u it is much less in circumference than bis body. 
"^ then buries himself in the earth, aud, shortly 
''"**r, changes into a chrysalis, in which slate he rc- 
^*>n$ till the following spring, and about the be- 
?*nning of May assumes bis Beetle form. 

Jn this state the insect is about a quarter of an 
'**ch in length, and of □ gray-brown colour. The 
»ttUj jj) somewhat of an oval shape, ha\'ing the pos- 
extrcinily not rounded ofi', but ending in a 
Qtt The beak, or rostrum, is red, and as long 

[ 252 ] 


THE insects of the present tribe are among the 
most beautiful that arc produced. Their antctinx 
are frequently longer ihan llie boHy. Many of »Iie 
species tlifiuse a strong, but Midom an unpleasant 
smell, perreptibte at a great distance; and some of 
IheiTt, when seized, emit a M>rl of cry produced by 
tbe friclton of the ihorax on the upper part of the 
abdomen and wing-ca$es. 

TbcantcnnaJ arc tapering and articulated. The 
thorax hi>& several [iraminencn ; and the n'ing>CKSCS 
arc long and narrow. To the mouth there arc four 
palpi, or feelers. 

Their lan-^ are found in the inner partK of lrce«, 
through which they bore, feeding on and pitlrcrv 
ling the substance of Ihc wood. Tlicy arc trans. 
formed iolo perfect insects in the cavitic* they thus 
make, and never l^suc from their retrcati till tt:rv 
tiovc attained (heir perfect state. 


TIic bo<!y of this insect i» of a dark violet, some- 
what hairy and punctured. The thorax i« rounded 
and downy : and Ihc antennx are nciirly as long 
as the body. The wing-eves arc narrow, rounded 
«t ibc lip, and bulging towards the base. The head 

• Srvoirrsu.— Cerambfs violaceu*. i^faa.— CBlUdiutn lAuIa- 



and thorax arc aomelitne* greenish. Tt»e body is 

from four iin« and a half to sctcq anH a half ia 


lliis insect, bolh in a perfect and larva state, 
ifcccU principally on ftr timber which bas been felled 
'some time, wiihont hnvin^ had (lie bark stripiied off; 

bat it is oilen found on other wood. Tbouj^h now 

^)oo eomnion in this kingdom, it ii supposed not to 
have been oripnally a nalivc. 

The circumstance of this d«tniclive little animal 
altacktn;; only such timber as has not been strii^ped 
of itA bark, ooght to be attended lo by all persons who 
ive any concern in this article) for the bark b s 
'^teinplation not only to this but to various other tn- 
hMcIs ; and much of the injury done in limber 
Vrntght be prevented, if the trees were all barked as 
J, iu»n as they were felled. 

■ The female is rtirntshrd at the posterior extremity 
'■ of her bo<Iy with a fint retraclile Icibe. ThlsGbc in- 
serts between the bark and the wood, CO the depth of 
about a quarter of an inch, and there deposits asioglc 

By stripping off the hark, it is easy to trace the 

whole progn::^^ of the larva, from (he spot where it 

K» hatched to Chat where it attains its full size. It 

^piritt procreds in a serpentine direction, fiilin^ the 

^hpacc which it le-ives with its excrement. re>c;inblinj 

HkaW'duiit, and so stopping all ingress to enemies from 

without. When i( has arrired at its utmost dimcn- 

oons, it docs not oonBne itself lo one direction, but 

works iu a kind of labyrinth, exiting backwards nnd 

forwords; which gives the wood under l,liii WV * 



vu-ry irregular surface: by iliit inean» ks patKs are 
rendered of considerable widib. The bed of its 
palhs exhibits^ whan closely examined, a eurioiiK 
np])earance, oceasioRcd by ihe erosions of Us jawir. 
uhich exctvate on infinity of liMle ramified cansls. 
When the infect is nbaut lo assume its chr^-itaU 
slate, it twrcj down obliquely into the tolid wood, to 
tlic depth sotnclimes of three inches, and &eldom if 
ever Icjs than two. These holes are nearly scmi- 
cylJndriciil, expressing exactly the form of the grub. 

At tirst ?<ight, one would wonder how m smull and 
seemingly so ncakan animal could have strength lo 
eicavntc so deep a tninc ; but when wc examine its 
jaws our wonder ceases : these are large, thiek, and 
solid seclionsof a cone divided loniJiitudinally, whicb> 
in the act of mastication, apply to each other the 
whole of their interior plane surface, so thai they 
grind the insect's food like a pair of millstones. 

Some of the Uirvje are hatched in October ; and 
it in supposed that about (he beginning of Mtircli 
they assume their chrysalis ftate. At the place ia 
the bark, opposilt- to the hole from whence Ihey 
descended Into the wood, the jierfcct insects gnaw 
their way out, which generally takes place betwixt 
the middle of May and the middle of June. 

These insects are supposed to fly only in the nighf. 
but during the day ihey niny generally be found r«ting 
on the wood from whence they were diwiosed. 

The larvic are deslitule of foet, pale, folded, 3umc 
what hairy, convex above, and divided into thirteen 
scgtncQts. Their head h large and convex*. 

• E-irby in Ufln. Trio. v. i;^- !*''■ '*• 

i S55 ] 


THE antenn:c are thread-shaped. The thorax it 
1 plain, somewhat orbicular, aiirf conceals the head. 
BX'bc segments ttf the abdo(i>ett terminate in folded 

H The Icmatc io oiobt of the species i« destitute of 
^BaringR : niul the hn-x, which feed chiefly oa kavcti« 
^^^crieotty resciubic her in appearance. 


The male Glow-worm is smaller than the female : 
cbcir heads arc of the same sha[>c, aitd ecjually con- 
<»?«Icd by ihc plale of itic thorax. The principal 
tlifiVence between the »:xc$ i», that thcnbdomcn of] 
fbe male Is covered wiili brown wing-cases, sha- 
Kr«5eocil, and marked longitndinatly with two lines: 
li>^«arc longer than the abdoincn. The female »j 
» 5 ctjless. ii 

Xjich Rex U luminous, but in the mnic the light 
lt»s brilliant, and conlincd to four points, two 
'^Hich .ire -NJluateH on each of the two last rings 
tr><r abdomen. Among the rroolccd lanes, in every 
"•Sfigc, ihc Glo^v-worrn lights his gem, and, throiigl 
"^*-' dark, ;i moving radiance twinkles. 

Glow-worms arc frc*iiicncly met with towards 

*^"^*»ing in itic month of June, in woods and mca- 

**^*a,and Ihc boltoms of hedges. The utility of the 

'''gfat light of the females is supposed la consist ia 

^^^actiog the aiicniion of the males during ihedaric, 

* l^mpfin ooctiluct. /Linn. 



when, alone, ihcy arc able to render (herawlvw con- 
siiicuous. Tbey^ ihvays become much more lucid 
when they put themselves in molion. Tfaia would 
seem to indicate that their light is owin^ to their 
respiration ; in which process, it is probable, phoM 
phoric .ncid is produced by the conibinaiton of oxygen 
gas with some part of (he blood, and that a light Is 
given out through their transparent bodies by this 
slow internal combuf^iion. By contracting ihem- 
6elvc5, the inKecls have s power of cnltrely wiihdmw. 
ing it : when they are at rest very little light is to be 
seen. Mr. Templcr, who made many observations 
on ihc^e in^^ccts, says that be never saw a Glow-vrorm 
exhibit its light at all^ wiibout AOtnc sensible molion f 
cither in its body or legs. This gentleman, when 
ibe light was most brilliant, fancied it emillnl a 
sensible heat •- 

If the insect is cru-xhed, and the hnndsor face aru 
rubbed with it, they contract a lumirvous appcarHnee 
similar to that prtxluccd firx>m phosphorus. W hen a 
Glow-worm Js put into a phtal, and the phiul i» im- 
mersed ill ivaicr, a very beautiful irradiation wilt be 
found to lake place. 



THESE insects arc very active and voraciouc, 
devouring the larva of the other tribes, and in- 
deed all the smaller animals they can overcome. 

•Jhil.Tfwi. rol. li. 





THE B0»fiAfl9XBR. 

Their lame ore (bund under ground, or in decayed 

The antenna arc lhrend-shape<l ; and the feelers 
mostly six, (he last joiol of each of u-hicb is obtuse. 
The thorax Is flat, and both this and cbe shells are 


This Iniieet keeps it^f concealed among »tone^ 
and seems to make little use of its wings. When it 
nravcs it is by a sort of jump; and* when it is 
touched, we arc surprised with a noise resembling 
the discbarge of a musket in miniature, during whicb 
blue smoke may be perceived to proceed from its 
extremity. Ibc insoci may at any time be made to 
play off its artillery by scratching its back with it 
needle. If we may believe kolandcr, who first made 
these observations, it can give twenty di&cbargcs 
successively. A bladder, placed near its posterior 
cxlrcmily, is the arsenal that contains Its store. This 
is its chief defence ngainst its enemies ; and the vs- 
pDtir or liquid that proceeds from it is of so pungent 
a nature, that, if it happen to be discharged into the 
eyes, it makes them smart as though brandy had 
been thrown into them. The principal enemy of 
the Bombardier is another insect of the same tribe, 
but three or four times its size. When pursued and 
fatigued, the Bombardier has recourse to thi^ strata- 
gem: he ties down in the path of his enemy, who 
advances with open mouth to seize him ; but, on the 
discharge of the artillcri,', this suddenly draws back. 

VOL. tit. 

* Cinbus ctcpitans. 




ami remains for a while conftiscd, dunng which tlio 
Bombardier conceals hlmsdf'in some neigfabounng 
crevfcc : buf, if oot Utcky enough to find onc^ the 
other relums to ihe attack, take» the insect by ihe 
head, and tears it ofF, 

llic bead, antcnnx, thorax, and fcvt, are of a 
brownish red colour. The eyes are black, and the 
abdomen and wioj^-csses hloe, bordering on black : 
the latter ait marked with t>road hot shallotr stHs. 
This insect is jomctiraes found rn England. 


IN this tribe the aniennai are bristle- shaped ; »od 
the feelers unct|ual and thread-shaped. The wing- 
ca'^es are half the length of the sbdomen, and have 
the wings folded up under them, somewhat in the; 
manner of a fan. The tail is armed with a forceps. 

The Earwigs undergo only a aemi-metamorphosis. 
differing in external appearance very little in the 
three states. 


l9 A well-known insect, and easily distinguishable 
from all the beetles by the forceps or pincers at the 
end of its tail. It is produced from an ^gg, and ibc 
larva differs very little in its external appearance from 
the complete iftscct, except lliat it has ncitticr wingi 
nor elytra, and that the breast and thorax are not 

• Stkomyw. — Forficula auficularia. litiii.— T«riteli,dr1Viub< 
kll. In uMne puu of ifae Nurth sf Eoglanil. 




l^tQgntKhftble. In this stnte it is a very lively little 

tnimal, running about with great tigility, even frnm 

\bQ initnnt it leaves the egg. On ils met«morphoM» 

a |)erfect insecr, a part uf its body bursts bdiind, 

id givei full piny to the wings. 

It n«y not perhaps be known to the gcnernlity of 

fCTij that the Earwig is possessed of wings 

which lire both large and elegant, and that one of 

■^beifCt when extended, will nearly cxivcr ihc whole 
insect. The elytra, or wing-cases, are short, and 
extend not along tlie whole body, but only orer the 
breast. The wings are concealed beneath these t 
they are somewhat of an oval shape, nod, when ex- 
tended, are nine or ten times as laigc as the elytra. 
T^tcrc is a great degree of elegance in ihe manner in 
"trbich the insect folds ihcm beneath. They are first 
dosed up Icnglhuays from a centre close to the body 
like a fan, aud afterwards refolded across io two dif- 
lercnt places Qnc nbout (be mtddlc of the membrane, 
and the other at the centre, from whence the first 
folds proceeded. By this means the wing is reduced 
into a small compass, and proportioned to the size 
of the cose under which it is to lie. 
■ It is a circnmslancc extrcnK-Jy singular, that, att* 
like tho^eof most others of the insect tribe, the eggs 
are batched and the young Ear%vigs fostered by the 
parent. At the beginning of the month of JunCi 
M. de Gccr found under a stone a female Earwig, 
accompanied by many tittle insects, which evidently 
appeared to be her own yowng. Tlicy continued 
dose to her, and often placed themselves imdcr her 
belly as chickens do under a hen. He put the whole 




into a box of fresh earth : they did not enter tbc 
earth, but it was pleasing to observe how they thrust 
themselves under the belly, and between the legs of 
the mother, who remained very quiet, and stifiircd 
them to continue there sometimes for nn hour or 
two together. To feed ihem, this gentleman gave 
them a piece of a very ripe apple ; in an instant the 
old one ran upon it, and ate with a good appetite i 
the young ones also seemed to eat a little, but appa< 
renlly with much !es9 reli*h. On the eighth of 
June he remarked that the young Earwigs had 
changed their skins, and he found also the sloughs 
that they had quitted. This moulting produced 
only a slight change in Ihcir figure, y« it evidenliy 
brought tbem nearer lo the perfect insect. 

At another lime, about the beginning of April, be 
found a female Earwig under some stones, placed 
over a heap of eggs, of whieh ihe took, all the care 
imaginable without ever forsaking them. He took, 
both the female and her eggs, placed her in a box. 
half filled with fr«h earth, and dispersed the eg^ft 
up and down in it. She, however, soon removed 
them, one after another, carrying them between her 
jaw?, and, at the end of a few days, he saw that she 
had eollcctcd them all into one place upon the sur- 
face of tbc earth, and remained constantly on the 
heap, without quilting it for a moment ; so that she 
seemed trtdy to sit for the purpose of hatching bcr 
eggs. The young were produced about Ihethirtcenlh 
of May : in figure they were simil-ir lo those before 
mentioned} but at their birth they were all white 
except tow.irds the tail, where a yellow matter wu 



■^ "g" 



ubsenrablc through the skin, and the eyes and teelh, 
-which were reddish. He kcjit them ta the box with 
ihcir mother, feeding thccn from time to time with 
1>its of nppic, and eaw them grow every day, and 
change their skins more than once. The mother 
died, and her progeny devoured nearly the n-holc of 
her body. The liitle ones that died underwent also 
llic same fate. M. dc Geer, boivcver, conjectures 
that this took place only from want of other fixxi, as 
be bad neglected to supply them regularly with nu- 
triment. On the twenty-third of July one only re- 
mained alivej it v/an full grown, and then in the 
nymph or pupa state. 

This insect, though in its nature extremely harm- 
lew, except in our gardens to our fruits and vegeta- 
bles, has fallen, in a very particular manner, a victim 
to hiiinan cruelly and caprice, onginatingin the idea 
that it introduces itself into the ears, and from thence 
penetrates to Ibe brain, and occasions death. I must 
be permitted to express a wish that females, who but 
too commonly lay aside all ideas of tenderness at the 
very sight of it, would be convinced that the wax 
and membranes of the ears are a sufficient defence 
against all its pretended attacks upon thia organ. 

Our gardeners have, it is true, some room for 
complaint. It lives among flowers, and frequently 
destroys ihem i and, when fruit has been wounded 
by flics, the Earwigs also generally come in for a 
ibire. Id the night they may often be seen in 
amaslng numbers upon lettuces and other esculent 
vegeiables, committing those depredations that are 
often ascribed to snails or slug^. The be&t mode. 



ttMreibrci of destroyiog thom teems »> be, to attend 
the garden now aod then in tbe night, and to seize 
them while they are feeding. 

The bowl of a tobacco>pipe, and the claws of 
IpbBters stuck upon sticks that support flowers, ore 
the Usual methods by which they are caught, as. In 
the dsy-tiiue, they creep into holes and dark places. 
Racing hollow reeds behind the twigs of wsll-trees 
is also i good mode, if they be examined and cleared 
every moriiiogt But at a midnight viae more lAay 
be dobe in an hoar ibftn by any of the other oieaAt 
ia > weeic. 

[ 263 ] 


THE insects composing the present tribe have, in 
general, at a little diitance, so much the appearance 
of leavefi of trees, that, io countricf; where they arc 
very common, travellers have been struck with the 
singular ptianyniciion of what seemed to them ani- 
mated vegetable substances. Their most prevailing 
culpur is A £qc green, but many of the Insects be- 
come broivn ai'icr they are (lead : some of them are, 
howcvcr> decoraced with a variety of lively hiies. 
Tiic (borax Io most of them is very long and nar- 
row, and has the appearance of a foolsialk to their 
large and rounded abdomen. Their manners also, 
ia oddilion to (heir strticture, are very likely to im- 
pose on the senses of ihc uninformed : tlicy often 
xcmaiii on the trees for houT« without motioQ ; thea, 
suddenly rbiag, spring into the air, and, when they 
eetllc, again appear lifeless. These seem to be stra- 
tagcais to deceive Ibe cautious insects which they 
dfeed upoo. Some travellers who have observed 
tbcui have, however, declared that they saw the 
leaves of trees become living creatures.* Many of 
Ihc Indians of South America, wlio have thc^e in- 
Becls very common among Ihem, believe that they 
growKkc the leaves unthe trees, and ibut wben they 

* The LtonciiD order HcmrrBXA cotnmencci taere* 



fciavc arrived at malurily they loosen themselves and 
Fcrawl or fly awsy. 

The Al"ricait8 consider the whole tribe, according 
to some .writcrfe, as sacred; but, according to others, 
only as animaU of good omen. One of the species 
(Mantis fausta) has obtained the name of the Hoti£n- 
tot's God, and u supposed to be worshipped by thii 
people, professor Xbunberg could nui^ however, 
observe any reason for this supposition : he says it 
is held by tUcm in such <;:itccni thai they would not 
willingly injure it i and thaMhey account anjr per- 
son or crcatui'c fortunate on whom it alights ; but all 
this appeared to him to be done without paying it any 
aorl of worship*. 

None of the species have ever been found in this 

The bead in the whole tribe is unsteady, and ap- 
pears but slightly attached to the thorax. The 
mouth is armed with jaws, and bos its feelers fili- 
form. The wings are four, membranaceous, and 
convolute, the under ones plsited. The fore-legs 
are compressed, serrated or toothed beneath, and 
armed with a single claw, and a lateral joint(»J pi 
cess. The four hind legs arc smooth, and fori 
for walking;, and not for Icaiping, as in the n 


This is a very widely difTused species, being foi 

* Tfaunbcr^, iu 66, 


in Africa and Asia, as well as in all the warmer parts 
of Europe Its thorai is snraolh, and wing-cases of 
a bright and unspotted green. 

The Mantis reiigiasa issupfjosed lo be merelys Ta- 
riely of this species, dificring from the rest in having 
a bomewhat keei-shai»ed thorax. This, Iiowever, 
seema to be the insect most generally known of the 
C*'o. It has the name of ova^'re/igitMs, or rupersli- 
tiouif from lis perpeluatly resting on U$ hind-legs, 
and erecting the fore-paws close together, with a 
quick tnoliun, as if in the action of prating. The 
country people, in various parts of itic continent, 
conndcr it almost as sacred, and would not on any 
account injure it, '* It is so divine a creature, (saya 
the translator of Moufiet,) that if a child has lost 
its way, and inquircsof the Mantis, it wilt point out 
the right path with its paw." Dr. Smith, however, 
informs us, in his Tour on the Continent, that he re- 
ceived an account of diis Mantis that seemed to kb- 
Vfiur little of divinity. A gentleman caught a male 
Bud female, and put them together in a glass vessel. 
The female, which in this, as in roost other insects, 
U the largest, after a while devoured first the bead 
end upper parts of her companion, and afterwards 
mil the remainder of the body. 

The young of this Mantis are preserved in the cgg- 
ctatcin a kind of oblong bag, of a thick spung)- sob- 
Btance; this bag is imbricated on the outside, and 
fastened lengthwise to the branch of some plant. As 
the ^gs ripen they are protruded through the thick 
substance of the bag, and the larvfc, which are about 
half an inch in length, bur3C from them. 



Rii»el, wishing to obsa've the gradual progress 
th*sse creatures lo the winged statt, placed the hag 
containing the t-ggs in a large glass, wliicii he claecd 
\o pr*ftenl their ew^ape. From tKe time they were 
iirH Imtchod Ihcy cxttibiicd marks of a savage dispo- 
Mtiun. He put riitiercnt sorts of plaals iaio the 
gltss, but ihey refused ibem (o prey on one anotber. 
ThU determined him to supply tbem with insect food. 
He put sei'criil anl» into ibe gUss lo tbem : but ibey 
then heiraycd as much cowardice lu ttiey had before 
done of bjitbarity i for th« ioslant the Mantes saw 
t bv ants ihc/ attcm(it«d lo excapc in every dlrecttoa. 
Xiiis was evidently on instiucltvc fc^ar of a natorai 
eocmy. Heocxt gave them »otnc some of tbe oom* 
moil hoiiK-Hiefi, which they feiotxl with eageracstt it 
their fore claw^, and tore in pieces. But, nolwith- ^ 
fttatiding tbeir apparent fondness of fliea, they oon* I 
liflued lo destroy eacti ntiier thtY)ugh savage wanton* 
nciis. Dfrsfiainng at last, from their daily decrease, fl 
of rearing any to the winged state, he separated them 
into siitfili parceU in diticrcnt glas'<:.s; but here, m 
beCiHC, the tupongcit of each cummunily dcKtrajq^^h 
Yharc6t, ^^M 

He afterivardsroceiv'cd several pair of Mantcs> io 
the winged Male: profiting by his fanner obserTa- 
tions he now scpainted thrni, a male and a icmalc 
tc^'thor into dilVereitl ;:;1hmws ; but they still exhibited ^ 
vignsof a rooti-d enmity 1oeacholh<.'r, ivhteh neither ^ 
4ige noraex cwdd aoften. I'be instant Ihey vereis 
aijht of vaeh ixher they (brew up tbeir heads, bran- 
diAlicKl llicir ft>rc kga, and each waited an v 
They did not lo 'mm \W ^k^Lw 



botibt, tfarowing open his wings wtih the velocity 
of ligittn'iug, rushed at the other, a Dd often tore it 
in pieces. Roc«el compiirL'S the attack uf iIksc cre»- 
tuRS 10 that of twn huss^irs; fur they dcxteroiuly 
goard anil cut with the etlge of Ihc fore claws a^^ ihuse 
soldiers do with «abres, ami soniclitnc^ utaslroke 
one of ihem cleaves the other through, or severs in 
hcsd from the tlinrax. After this the conqueror al- 
nvs devours his i-Rn(|iii^h<.-(i antagonist. 

Tbe patience of the Mantia in waiting for his prey 
bremarkable, and the posture to which stipcrstilion 
bsallributerl devotion is no other than the means iC 
wes to catch it. When it has fixed its c>es on an 
iDsect, it very rarely loses sight of it, though it niay 
ntl some hours to tske it. If it sees an insect a little 
beyond ilsreach^ over its head, it slowly erects its 
long thorax, by means of the moveable membranes 
Alt connect it to the hndy ; then, resting on the 
pnterbr legs, it gradually ruisca (he anterior part 
■fao. If this brings it near enough to the insect, it 
ftnwfB open the last joint of its fore paws, and 
•wp* i I between (he spines that are set in rows on 
'^Kccond joint. If it is unsuccessful it does not 
'tlract its paws, but holds them otreir.hed out, iind 
iiili again till the insect is within its rcncii, when it 
•prings up and seizes it. Should the insect go fiir 
"Dm the SfXJt, it flies or crawls af\er it slowly on ihfi 
pDuad like a cat ; and, trbcn the insect stops, erects 
'Wf as before. 

TbcK M^intcs have a small black pupti or sight, 

'^hich moves in all dirtclioiis within the parts that we 

"^tally term tbe eyes, so (hat ibej cin see ihcir prey 



in any direction, without having occasion to distm 
it by turning tbeir head. 

The males die in October, and the fdnolcsdo not 
long survive them*. 


This insect in ils shape and colour is so exceed- 
ingly remarkable as lo have uniformly suggested the 
idea of a dr)- or withered [e:if ; and the animal, when 
its wings arc closed, bears so great a resemblance (o 
such that, on a cursory view, it might easily lie mis- 
t;iken for it. 

The specimens (hat are brought to Europe arc ge- 
nerally of a yellowish brown colour. The wings, 
when closed, fonn ihc oval body of the leaf, and the 
narrow thorax and head rcsenibletbc stalk. It i«a 
nalii'c of IiidiaJ. 


THE insects of this tribe feed chiefly on vegetable 
ttubstonces. The Jarva and ehryjaHJj very much rfr 
setnbic the present insects; they ha\"C six legs, are 
voracious and active, and reside principully ia ihc 

Their beads are inflected, and amicd with javn 

* Dononii*( Otiocse Intects. — RjKsel lofeclen Bduittgong. 
f Miniis liccirolia. Lma. 

* Shair'l N>t. Mu. iv. I. i ty. 




that are fiimiiihed with filiform polpi, or feelers. The 
antcnrKE in some species arc taper, in olhcrs (hread- 
sbnpcd. The wings ore four, deflected and convo- 
lute ; tf>e lower ones plaited. The hind 1^ arc 
formed for leaping i and on each of the feet are two 


This little creature is a complete representative of 
the mole, among the Insect tribes. Its fore-feet are 
broad and strong, and in their formation and position 
bear a great resemblance to the fore-feet of that ani- 
mal. They are use<l for precisely the aamc purpose 
of burrowing under the surface of the ground, where 
the insect commonly resides; and soexpcrlly docsit 
use them, that it can iwnelrate the earth with even 
greater expedition than the mole. 

The female forms a cell of clammy earth, about 
the size of a hen's egg, closed up on every side, and 
within as large as two hnzd nuts. The eggs, amount- 
ing to nearly a hundred and fiOy, arc whitc> and 
about the size of caraway comfits ; they are carefully 
covered, as well to defend them from the injuries of 
the weather as from the attacks of one of the species 
of black, beetles, which often destroys them. The 
female places herself near the entrance of the nest, 
and, whenever the beetle attempts to seize its prey, 
the giiardinn insect catches it behind, and bites it 

• Stmoktks. — Gryllm Ctrytlo-faipi. Unn. Ath«a gfylt*- 

ul|>a. Fihiiuiu^^Tcn Cticltet, Chur-worm, Eve>churr, in di/- 
£irc«ii [Mrl» or iti4 kingdoin. 



asunder. Nothing can exceed the care of Ihescani- 
mals in the preftervatton of their young. Whtaxver 
a nest is situated, fortJficarions, avenues, and entrench- 
ments Etirruunt) it : there are also numerous meanders 
which lead lo i[, nnil a ditch encompasws the nbole, 
which few other inwicta arc capable of passing. 

About Ihc niifidle of April, iflhe weather be line, 
and just at the close of day, the Mole Crickets utter 
a low, dull, jarring note, not much unlike the chat- 
tcring of the Goal-sucker. In the beginning of May 
they l;.y their cgg«. Mr. White saj'sthat a gardener, 
Bt a hou^ where he was on n vbil, happening to be 
mowing by the side of a canal, on the sixth of May, 
hi* scythe utrjck too deep, pnrcd off a large piece of 
turf, and luid open to view a curiout> scene of domes- 
tic oeconuiiiy. There were many caverns and winding 
passages leading to a kind of chamber, neatly amoolh* 
ed and rounded, and about the size of a moderate 
snufi-box. Within this secret nursery were depo- 
sited near a hundred eggs of a dirty yellotr colour, 
and cnvcto[>ed in a tough skin, but (oo lately ex- 
cluded to contain any rudiments of young, being 
foil of a viscous substaocc. The eggs lay but shal- 
low, aodwilhin the influence of the sun, just under 
a little heap of fresh mould, like that which is raised 
by ants. 

At the approach of winter, the Mole Crickets 
remove their nest to so great a depth in the earth as 
to have it always lower th:ui the frost can penetrate. 
When the mild season comes on, llwy raise it in 
proportion to the adrancos of that farounbic time, 
and at last elevate it so near to the surface as lo 




Tender it susceptible both of air and sun-shine; and 
if the frost reltirns, they again sink, it tails proper 

depth. A method very similir is prnciiscd by the 

ants with their n«(8. 
I The Mole Crickets are troublesome insects in 

hot-beds, where they make great havock by hacking 
.and gnawing ihc roots of plant$ with their rore-fcel, 

he ends of which arc armed with teeth like a saw*. 
The Rev. Mr. Goidd kept a Mole Cricket alive 

during several of the summer mouths, lie fed it 

on the larvs and chr}S3tids of ani^i, which it seized 

I with great voracity. 
These busy little insects reside altogether in our 
dwclliiigs, and 'inlnide lliernselvcs on our notice, 
whether we wish it or not. They are pariial to 
houses newly hiiilt; for tlic softness of the roorLir 
cnnblcs thcin lo form their rclreats, without oiiich 
difficulty, between the joiuts of the masonry, and 
icnmediaicty to open communications with the diC 
fereot rooms. They arc pariicalarly attached to 
kitchens and bakehouses, as aflbrdtng thenn a con- 
stant warmth. 

" Tender insects that live abroad (says Mr. 
White) either enjoy only the short pcrlotl of one 
summer^ or else doze away llic cold uncomfortable 
months in profound fl umbers ; but these, residing 
as it were in a torrid zone, are always alert and 

• White'* Nalural History of Sellxwne. 
t SvMONtM*.— Crjilui doxcstkus. Liittt, — AcbspitiomcslUa. 



merry : n good Christmas fire js to them wbal the 
heats of the dog-days are to others. — Though they; 
are frequently heard by day, yet their natural lime 
of tnolion is only in the night. As soon as it be- 
comes dufk, ihc chirping increases, and tl>cy come 
running forth, and are to be seen often in great 
numbers from the size of a Ilea to that of iheir full 


Around in ij mpaibctic mirtb 

III liiclii the kitten Inc*, 
The Crickci chimips in ibe htanbt 

Tht crackling hggtA Ria. 


As one would suppose from the burning at- 
mosphere which Ihey inhabit, they are a thirsty race, 
and show a great [iropcnsity for liquids, being found 
frequently drowned in pnns of water, milk, broth, 
or the like. Whatever is moist ihey arc fond of, 
and therefore ofiei> gnaw holes in wet woollen stock- 
ings and apron* that arc hung to the fire. These 
Crickets arc not only very thirsty but very voracious; 
for they will eat the scummings of pots, yrasti rait, 
and crumbs of bread; aiid any kitchen oftal or 

" In the summer they have been observed to fly, 
when It became dusk, out of the windows, and over 
the neighbouring roofs. This feat of activity ac- 
counts for the sudden mnnnerin which they often 
leave their haunts, as it docs also (or the method hf 
which I hey come to house* where ihey were not 
known before. It is remarkable that many sorts of 
Insects £ccni never to osc their wings but when they 
wish to f^Wid their quartern and settle new colooiou 





-When i» the air ihcy move in waves or ciirvcn,, 
like wood-peckers J upciung and shutting their wings 
at every stroke, and thus arc always rising or tiink- 
ijig. — When they increase to a great dcgrw, ibey 
become [x:»l», flying iuto the candles and dashing, 
into people's faces ; but they may be blasted by gun- 
powder dischaigu^l into their crevices and crannies* 
In familiis, at such times, tliey are, like Pharaoh 's 
plague of frogs,— i" in their bed-chambers, and upon 

■ their beds, and in their ovens, and iu their kneading 

" Cats eatt^h hcartb-crickets, and, playing with 
them as they do with mice, devour them. Crickets 
inay be destroyed like wasps, by phials half tilted 
with beer, or any liquid, and set in their haunts; for> 
being always eager to drink, they will crowd iu till 
the bottles arc full*." A popular prejudice, how- 
ever, fnrtjucntly prevents any attempts at their de- 
strnclion, many people imagining that their pre- 
sence is attended with good luck, and that to kill 
or drive them away will surely bring some unfortu- 
nate occurrence on the family. 

■ When ibcsc insects arc running abouc a room in 
« the dark, if they are surpribed by a candle, they 

give two or three shrill notes. These seem a signal 
to their fellows, thiit they may escaiNt to their cran- 
nieiiand lurking-holes to avoid danger. 
H It is said that, in some parts of Afrieii, persons 
~ make a trade of these Crickets. They feed them in a 
kind of iron 01*60, and sell them to the natives, ansong 

* Whitcj Njinral Hiiiarj ef Selbome. 

Yot. III. 


Tim pmb cnYeiiET. 


whom the nDise they make is Ihotight pleasing. 
These i>eopIe imagine Ihat it assists in lulling them 
lo sleep. 

The organ that produces this noise is a memtSra 
which, in contraciinp, by means of « muscle aorf 
ftndon placed nndcr the wings of the inscxt, folds 
dh\vn somewhat like & fan, Thh, » it is always 
dry, yields that shar(> piercing pound that wc so- 
often hear from these anjnialt*. The noise may alio 
be heard after the insect is dead, if the tendon be 
made lo move.— We are told that Crickcis will Ii»"e 
itnd even continue their accustomed noise for 
time afier iheir he.idB are cat oft; 


Towards sun-sftt is the lime when the 
Cricket* begin o nppear out of their sabterrancoo 
habitations. They are, however, so sby afid cavtioo 
that it n no easy matter to get a sight of ib«m; for 
feeling a person's IboUtteps ns he advances, they s 
short in the midst of ihcir sonf, and rclirc back- 
ward nimbly into their burrows, where they lurk lif 
all suspicion of danger is over. The Rev. Mr. 
While, of Sclbortie, who allentively shtdied their 
habiU and mannrri^, at first made an attempt to dig 
Ihem out with a spade, but without any great success; 
for either the bottom of the hole was inaccessible, 
from it^ terminnling under a large Rlone, or else in 
breaking up the ground t)>e poor creature was iotMl- 



^Crlently squeezer] todcatb. Outofonc thus bruis- 
ed, a great number of cgg5 were taken, which were 
lonff and narrow, of a yellow colour, and covered 
"Hfith a very tough skin. More gentle means were 
then used, and these proved siKces^rul. A pitnnt 
slalk of grass, genily insinuated inlo the caverns, 
-will probe tbeir windings to the bottom, and bring 
vut the inhabiianl; and thus the humane inquirer 
miy gntttfy his curiosily without injuring the object 
■ II ii remarknblc that, though these insects arc fur- 
niKhed with long legs behind, and brawny thighs 
adapted for leaping, yet, when dri\*cn from ihcir 
Inles, the; show no sciiviiy, but craul along in ao 
Trfelessa manhcr as easily (o be caught. And (hnngb 
tbey ve provided nith a carious apparatus of ^vings, 
yet ihey never exert Ihcm, even wbcn there seems 
to be the greatest occasion. The males only make 
Ibeir shnll noise, perhaps out of rivalry and cinulii- 
tion I as is the case with many animals, which exert 
_ some sprightly note during their breedings-time, 
t When tbe males meet, they sometimes fight very 
ficTOoIy, as Mr. While found by some that he put 
into the crevices of a dry 9tonc-wall, nhere be 
wished to have them settle. For ihotigh ihcy seemed 
diflrcsscd by being taken out of their knowledge, yet 
the fim that got possession of the cbii^ wizcd on 
•11 that were obtruded upon them, M'ith a vtiM row 
of serrated fangs. With their strong jaws, toothed 
like the shears of a lobster's claws, they perforal* 
snd round their curioua regular cells, having no 
forb-clawn to dig with, like (he mole cricket. When 



taken into the hand, they never atlcmpt to ddcnd 
themselves, though armed with such fbrraitlablt 
weapoiiK. Ofsuch herbs as grow about the mouths 
of their bun-ows, they eat indiscriminately; and 
itovcriti the day-time seem to stir more than two or 
three inches from home. Silling in the enlmnoe of 
their caverns, they chirp all night as veil a$ day, 
from the middle of the month uf May to the middle 
of July. In hot weather, when they arc most vigo- 
rous, they miikr. the hills echo i and, in the mora 
slill hotins ofdarknc-«, may he heard to a very con- 
siderable distance. 

*' Not many summcre agn (sajs Mr. While) I en. 
dcavnitrcd to transplant a colony of these in.sects (o 
the terrace in my garden, by boring deep boles in 
Ifac slo|>ing ttirf. The new inh:ibttants staid some 
time, and fed and sangt but they wandered owray by 
degrees, and were hoard at n greater dinlance everj 
morning : «o it Dpf>carti that on this cmergeiicy they 
nmdc use of tlicir wings in stlempting to return t« 
the spot from which ihcy were taken, 

" One of these Crickets, when confined in a 
p3|)cr cage, set in the sun, and supplied with plaoti 
moistened with water, will fiud and thrive; and be- 
come so merry and loud as to render if irksome to be 
in the same room with it. Ifthc [Jants are not welled 
it will die'.'; 

* Nininl HIR1M7 uf SdbonKi 

[ «77 ] 



Syria, Egyjit, Persia, and aImo^^ all the soulh of 
A«ia> are subject tu a calamity as dreadful ,i^ vofcanocs 
and carlhi|u;ikes arc to other countries, io being 
nvagcd by those clouds of Locti&ls, .so often mcn- 
tbned by travellers. The rjuanlity of these insects is 
incredible to all who have not themselves witnessed 
their astnnlthtng: miinbers ; Ihe whole earth is ca> 
vcrcd with ihcm for the space of several leagues. 
The noise tlu'v moke in browzing on the tree* and 
herbage m:iy be heard at a great dtstancej and ro- 
iL-mbles that of an anny foraging in secret, 'i'lic 
Tartars (hemwlvcsarea less destruclive enemy than 
these animals. One would imagine, wherever (hey 
have been seen, that fire had followed (heir progrcs-s 
Wherever their myriads sjMrcad, the verdure of the 
country dis.ip|)cara, as if a curtain had been removed: 
trees and plants are >irip]>ed of their leaves, and re> 
duceil lu their nakeil boughs and stems i so that the 
drrnr)* iina^of winter succeeds in an instant to the 
rich ^cenery of the spring. — When these clouds of 
locu^l-i take their flight, to surmount any obstacle, 
or to lraver;-e more rapidly a desert soil, the heavens 
may liccriilly be said to be obscured by thcin. 
H.ippily (his calamity is not frequently rc]x:3tcd : for 
it 'a the inevitable forerunner of famine, and all 
the maladies ii occasions. The inhabitants of Syria 
how remarked tbiit locusts are always increased by 
too mild winters, and that they constantly come 

* St:ioiiTiis,wGf)rlliuiDi£Tatonui. Jjinii.*— 



from the desert of Arabia. From this observation 
iscflsy to conceive, thnt.lhc cold not having been i 
rigorous enough to deslruy iheir eggs, tKe^ mut- 
1i(ily suddenly; And, the hcrUigc foiling them in 
ibc immense ]jlaiii» of Ihc desert, rnnurnenible le- 
gions issue Ibrlli. When they make their tint 
appear.'ince on rbe fronliers of ihc cuhivalcdcocinlry, 
iho inhabitants attempt to drive them off', by rais- 
ing large cinuds of smoke: but frequently tbdr 
herbs and wet straw fail ihcm. Tb«y then d^ 
trenches, where numbers of the insects arcburie<l : 
but the most cfncdciouA destroyers arc the south 
and sout h-ciiElerly winds, and (he Locust- eating 
ihrtishcd*. These birds ii.>llow cbem to numcnius 
ilocks like starlings, and not only greedily devour 
IIkip, but kill iLS many as ibcy can: Rccordingly 
they arc much rcspecleil by the peasants, and no- 
body K ever allowed to !>liooi them. As lo the 
southerly and south-easterly winds, they drive with 
violence these clouds of Lccusts over the Mcditcrra- 
ne;in, where such qnantities oi lhv*m Are souieiime» 
druwncd, (hat, when their careas^es are thrown oo 
the bhorc, they infect the air fur scleral days, even 
to« great distance. 

The annals of most hot countries arc filled with 
accounts of the devastations pruduccd by the Locu.sts. 
They seldom now visit Europe in such swarmii as 
formerly j ycl in the warmer parts ihey arc still 
formidable. Tbode that have at uncertain intervals 
viwted Europe, within the memory of man, ore sup. 

* Tardti STylliwnt o( Birraw. 





to have come from Africa. — Some of thciu 
aw at different limes been seen in Briiriin, and 
great miicbicr) have lice ii apprcheudeJ; but, happily 
for us, thecildncss of our clinialc, «nt1 tlie hutni- 
dily of our soil, arc Tcry unfavourable to the^r pro- 
duction: the}' therefore alt perish, wilboul leaving a 
young gcncrstion to succeed (hem. 

Locuslft, when Ihcy lake to flight, &ccni r( adistnncc 
like a dark, cloud, wbicb» a» it approaches, almost 
eidtidot tlic hgbt of day. It ufieu bappcnti (hat Uic 
huslundman sees them pass over without doing him 
any injury; but io Ibis case tbeyonly proceed to 
aetlle on some lc$s fortunate coiiiilry. Wherever 
Ihey alight ihey make dreadful havock among the 
Tegetation. In ihe tropical cJimate^ tlieir presenfic 
<s not attended with cucti destructive consequences 
•ft io tlte SDuibern part:^ uf £uropc; for in those the 
T^etaiire pnwcr k so strong and active, an 
interval of only a f(;w days will sofiietiines repair all 
the damage : but in Europe their ravages cannot he 
(Alilcralcd till the succeeding year'. In ihcir long 
ilights lo (bis part of the woild, from the cstcnt of 
ibcir journey, ihcy are alsu nearly famished, and 

* " Oat tiling whtcb tilw&f i nrpriscd ne,"«sfi Mr Adin'on in 
1m VofBgc 10 Scncgalf " is the imuing ravidit^ with wliici) the 
upotuttt in itiNCUunlly rtf^nany lo^nttic^ hapfxii lotuiialp) 
Alii I tru never mOK ftttuni«hed ihu<«l)cn, lour dayg afio ■ ter- 
«Ht invaiion by the L-ocntti, in nbich every green tliiog tii 
dcnnrcdi I nwtbc ti<w corercd with ntw leaves, snd not ippcar 
Is h4*e>uffernl vecy grcailj'. Tti« herb>M«tu |ilaB[i boicinxrka 
jf Lh4 dcTUUlioA tooncwbat Igtigerj but & flew dtjt wtfC MfBoeal 
ID fcpiir IV7 miKliicf.'' 



Ihcreforc, more voru€iou.s wherever they Imppcn to 

We are toM that nearly as much damngc is occa- 
sioned by what they touch as by what tbcy devour. 
Their bite is thought to cont»minatc the plants, and 
cither to destroy or grenlly to weaken their vcgelniion. 
To «sc the expression of the husbandmen, " They 
burn wherever they loucbs anH in some countries 
leave the markh of their devastation for three or four 
years afterwards." When xlcad, they infect the air 
in such a manner, that the stench is frequently iih 
supportable. Ofosiua tells tis that, in ihc year oftbe 
world 3800, Africa was infested with a mullilude 
of Locusts. After having eaten up ev<^^3• thing that 
was preen, they flew off and were drowned io the 
sea 1 where they caused such a stench as couhl not 
have been equalled by the putrefying careassc:! of a 
hundred thousand men. 

In the yc»r 1650 a cloud of Locusts were seen (o 
enter Russia in three dijTcrenl places j and from 
thence they spread themselves over Poland, and 
Lithuania, in such astonishing muttitudcii (hat Ihe 
air was darkened, and the earth covered with tbeir 
numbers. In some places, they were seen lying 
dead, heaped upon each other to (he depth of tour 
feet ; in others they covered the surface of the ground 
like a blnck cloth : the trees bent with their weiphti 
and the dnmagc that the country stislaincd exceeded 

In Burhary ihcir numbers arc often formidnblci 
and Dr. Shuw was a witness of their dcrasiationft 
there in 1724* Their first apficaraace was in ihQ 





latter end of March, when the wind haJ been soulh- 
crly for some lime. In the beginning of April ibcir 
niimbcis were so increased that, in ihe hcait^ihc 
>)'» '"^* i^n-arms appeared like clouds, and dark- 
ened ibc sun. In ibc middle of May ihcy began to 
|disappear,rctiringrntolhe plains to deposit their egg*. 
In June the young brood c.imc forth, forming many 
compact bodies of fieienl hnndrcd yards sqiinre; 
which, flfierwards marching fonvard, climbed tite 
trees walls, ami honscs, devouring every vt-getablc 
that vfan in Hicir way. The inhabitsnl% to t^tap 
Ibeir progress, formed trenches all over tbeir ticlda 
j^nml gardens, whiL-h thi-y tilled with water. Some 
Bplaced I.irgc qusniiticf of hoalh, stubble, iind other 
combustible miitter, in row% and set Ihcm on tire on 
the approucl) of the Locusts. This, however, was 
oil lo no pnqioic ; for I he trenches were quickly filled 
up, and ihe fires put out, by the immense swarms 
^(hac succeeded each other, 

B A day or two after one of these was in motion, 
others thai were jn^t hatched came to glean after 
Ihem, gnawing oft" the young branches, and the 
K vtry hark of the trees. Having lived near a month 
™ in this manner, ihcy arrived at their full growth, and 
thrcAv oft' their larva slate by casting their skins. To 
prepare ihrmwlvcs fiir thi9 change they fixed their 
binder parts lo sonic hush or twig, or comer of a 
stone; when immciliatcly, by an undulaliog motion, 
their heads would first appear, and soon after ibc 
rrst of ihrir bodies. The whole iransformation was 
perfonnt'd in seven or eight minutes' lime; after 



wlucb Ibey rfmained for a liule while in a weak 
alatc ; but a^ soon as tlie f,un and air had lurdciied 
their wing5, ^ind fined U[) lh« moisture that rcmoiQcd . 
after castlug; their sloughs, ihey rciuiiiod to tbcir ■ 
former greediness, with an adtltlmn both of strcngib 
flQtt rigilily. But ihuy did uoi long coulmue in this 
state before llicy were entirely dispersed. Afwr 
laying ihcir cggtj, ibcy directed (bcir courhc ddU 
ward, and probably perished in lite tea*. 

Of the iniiunierable mullitudcs that iofcslcd the 
interior ofSoulhern Africa, in the year ijy?, acarcbly 
any adeqiiaie conccptioti can be furitied. Mr. Bar- 
row says ihat in the part oflhe country where he tb«a 
was, for an area of r»early aooo square mites, Ibe j 
whole surface of I he ground might literally be said I 
to be covered with ibeni. The water of a \'ery wide 
rircr was scarcely visible un account of ibe dead 
carcasses that Honied on the surface, drowned in the 
attempl lo romc .it the rccds that grew in it. They 
had devoured c\ery bladt of grass, and every green 
herb cxcqH Ihe reeds.— Hiey arc not, lx*wevcr, , 
wilhoiii a choice in their food. Whmy Ihey attack m 
afield of com just come into ear, this gentleman 
says I hey firf^t irtount lo Ihe Himniit, aitd |>ick out 
et'cry grjiiii before Ihey touch the leavcM and stetn. 
The iK^ct McmH to be oonslanlly in motion, and 
filwuys to have tiomc object in view. When the 
Ian JO [for llics: arc much more vomciouft than the 
perfect inM.>cla) are on a march during the day, it is 



QtlcHy impossible to (urn the direction of the troop, 
wbich li generally uilb the wimJ. Towards the 
fitting o1 the sun the march is disconltnued, when 
the troop ttiviiles into cninpnnics that surround the 
email shrubs or tufts of grass, or ant-hills, and in 
such thick patches that tliey appear like so many 
swarms ofbces; and in this manner they rest till day- 
light. At these times it is that the farmers have any 
chanccof destroying them, which tticyarc sometime* 
abfe in a p'cjtt measure to effect, by driving among 
(hem a flnrk of two or three thousand sheep: by 
the rcstluft&ness of these, great quantities of them are 
trampled to death. 

■ The year i797n-38 the third of their continuance 
in Snruffberg ; and their increase, according to Mr. 
Barrow'i accouni, had far ctceeded that of a geome- 

^frical progression whose ratio is a million. 

B For ten year» preceding their present visit tbii 
<IUlrict WHS entirely free from them. Their former 

tewaB somewhat singular. All the full-growa 
cts were driven into the 6ca by a tempestuons 

north-west wind, and were afterwards cast upon the 
beach, where, it is said, they formed ab;mk of three 
or four feet high, that extended a distance of nearly 
fifly English miles: and it is asserted that, when 
Ihis mass iKcame putrid, and the wind was at fouth- 
east, ihc stench was sensibly fell in several parts of 
Sneawbcrg, distant at least a hundred and fifty 

* £air»«'B Tnret*, p. ij;. 



The fcmolc Locitst, when she lays her eggs, whic 
are |;rnenil)y about forty in number, retires lo aomc 
solitary place under gmiind i where, by hcr^agacily* 
•he secures Ihcm from ihe ioleinperance of the wr, 
8S well as from the more iniincdialc clanger of the 
plough or epficle, one fatal blow of %vhtch would 
destroy all the bopesof a ritting generation. 

One would itna^nc that 50 horrid an insect oaj 
the Locust would never have been thought of as roodl 
for man ; and yet it is an un<loubicd fact that, in se-l 
veral part? of Al'rica, tlio pooplt; cat them. They arc 
dressed in ditrcrent ivays : some pound and boil them 
with milk: others only broil them on ibc coats, sadi 
think them excellent food. " There is no dixpn-l 
ting about tastes (says Mf. Adanson): for my part, 
I would willingly resign whole clouds of Locust;^ lo 
the Dcgrocs of Gumbia for (lie ineane»t of their, 
(ishcs •." 


IN this tribe, the head is extended forward, ami, 
K hollow and itillated. The aniennx, cunst5ting 
d( two join Is, the outer one of which is globular, ore 
^catcd Ixlow the eyes. The ros'truin or bcakf is 
four-)omled, and inflected or bent inwards under 
Ihe boiiy. The legs are not formed for leaping. 

• A(Un»on'> Voyage (o Senepl. 
i Thi* b > Joinlcd ihcfitfa. •iluMed iu the mmilh, aH ConNinifig I 
•rat, or bnnilrt, v*td 111 ntnciins Ibe jnicu (mm pUni*, iml for j 
Oftae tuba frni^Kt- 


t S8o ] 

This is the most vivid of all the luminous insects. 
It offorcls a light so great that travellei's, wnlking by 
night, arc said to be cnablctl to pursue iheir journey 
with itufficicnt certainly if they tie one or two of 
them to ■ stick* and carry this before tbetn in the 
manner of a torch. It is common in many parts of 
South America, anil is described by Mad;im Mcrian 
ia her superb work on tlvc insects of Surinam, She 
gives an entertaining account of the alarm into which 
»hc was thrown, by the flashing which proceeded from 
Ihcm in the dark, before she had bcco apprised of 
their shining nature. 

" The Indians once brought me (says she) before 
I knew that they fhonc by night, a number of these 
Laatern-tlies, which I shut up in a large wooden 
box. In tbc night ihcy ni:ide. such a noise that I 
awukc in a fright, and ordered a light to be brought^ 
not being able to guess from whence the noise pro* 
ceeJcd. As soon as I found that it came from the 
box, I opened it, but wat still more alarmed, and 
kl it fall to the ground in my fright, at seeing a 
flame of fire come out of it ; and as many animal:* 
as came out, so many dirt'crent llamc-s appeared.— 
When I found this to be the cau', I recovered from 
my alarm, and again collected ihc insects much ad- 
miring their splendid 8p()Carancc.'* The light, she 

• Stxokvm». — Fulgtin laaurnaiii. /rfi*.— Li fulfocsporte- 
'xaUriic. hj ika Fnncb. 



adds, of one of these insects U so brigbt that ■ ptf- 
son may sec to read a newspaper by it*. 

The lighl coiiticd by this fly proceeds entirely 
from the hollow port, or lantern, of the bead; no 
other part of the animal being luminousl. Dr. 
Darwin conjectures chat the use of this light h 
merely to prevent the insects from flying against 
object<; in the nigbt, and to enable ibein to pro- 
cure their sustenance in the dark. He seems, how- 
ever, not to have considered that very few of the nu. 
nerous train of night-insects possess this luminous 
properly, and yel all the functions of these are per- 
formed with perfect regularity. Its most essential 
use is, no doubt, as in the other luminous tribes, to 
point out the sexes to each other, turning in them 
the same purpose, in this re»pccl, as ttie voice in 
larger animals. 

Tl)e head in this species is large, and somenhat 
oval. The wings arc variegated ; and the lower 
pair is marked each with a large ocellaled or eye- 
like spot. Sometimes the insect is seen of three or 
four inches in length. 


THESE injects are found in various parts botb1 
the new and old continent, where they subsist almost 


vfiotly on the leaves of trees and olhcr vegetable 
substances. The}? are furnished with a hard and 
horny proboscis or tube, in which is contained a 
»ery slender socking pipe. The formeris not mucb 
nntike a gimlet in rorm, nod Is iwed by Ihcm in 
boring through the bark of trees, for (lie purpose of 
extracting their jiilccs. With this probawis ihcj- also 
boTC holes in the small and tender twigs of the ex- 
terior branches, in which they dqiosit ihcir c^gSy 
sometimes to the amount of six or seven hundreds 
Each cell docs not contain more than from twelve 
10 twenty, so that by this) means they often do much 
dimsge to the trees which they fretjucnT. 

The (hryjalids of the« inseclK lire noc toqiid, o» 
hi many others, but hn7e six teg», and differ from 
the parent in having only the rudtmcntit of mugs. 
They ore exceedingly active, and in general run 
and leap about upon the trees with great (tprtght- 

The males of the perfect insects make n chirping 
noise, of use in alluring the females. Some natu* 
nlist» suppose that this noise ia caused by the fla[>- 
fiing of the lamellfr a^inst the abdomen ; others, 
by the rustling of the (fCgmenls of the body in the 
contractile motion of that pari ; and Deckmann, that 
it is caused by the beating of the body and Ieg4 
^nst the uings. The lamellse, on examination, 
do not appear to have suHicient freedom of motiott 
to produce &uch a sound. 

Those of the hottest climates make the loudest 
noise. From (lie papers of Mr- Stncathman, who 


resided 3 considerable time in Africa, it appears thai 
■omc arc so loud as lo t>c heard to the distance of 
half a mile ; and that the singing of one of l!icm in 
a room will immediately silence a tfholc compaoy^ 
Professor Tbunbcrg says that one of ihe Javancta 
species makes a noise s8 tihrill and piercing; a& if it 
proceeded from a trumpet. 

Several of the species were known to the snlienls, 
who made them the emblems of eternal youth. 
They deemed (hem creatures beloved both by Gods 
and men ; and indulged many puciicat fktiuns con- 
cerning them, but pantcularly that they subsisted 
only on dew. The AtbcnianR wore golden GcadiB 
in their hair to denote their nalit)nal anlit^iiity, or 
(hat, like these creatures, they were the Jirst-born of 
the cartb. AnacKon, addl'e^^ing one of them, dc* 
picts, in glowing colours, the felicity thai they were 
universally supposed tu enjoy. 



Hapjiy creiluic ' Vlut IkIow 
Can more hifpy liic ihan ttuto .' 
^atcd OR tby leafy throne, 
^Summer weaves ibe *erdaiitcn>wn) 
Si|>ping o'er ibe pnrif Uwit 
Tb< frngruit nccui cf tiic dawn ; 
I.itlle (ale* ibou lor'tt losing, 
Ttin of raifth — in insMi king. 
Inline the trUMin!) uf the (ickl, 
AW tliy own ihc Kuont juidf 
Malurc p^iiiU lliec for the rear, 
SongBtcr ti> the thqib<nb dear : 
J n nuccoi of placid lame, 
^Vbal of Rian can boait tbe amw ? 


Ttaine (be tavitfa'it voin of pniw, 
Harbingrr of fniitftit dajrt ; 
DaHing of tbe tuneful N>n«} 
Phatbiu it ihr tire (Tivine ; 
Pbabu to ihjr uilts h^i ftii'n 
Malic from ibt tftun* uf hcs**& i 
HsppjF nKM, u first ofearlb. 
All tby bourt an pcacs inel mirth ; 
Carca nor (lAin* lu ibec belong, 
Thou aloD* art ever young t 
IVmt lb< t'*"*^ iminvrt*! tda, 
Ulno'l nut lluli llu life mctain | 
Kkti IB »)f)nt), hciUh ^hjr (ust. 
Tbou'ft a ilcmi god «t IcsN. 

Tlic Ciodo) hnve an inflecled rostrum, and bri$< 
de-sbdpcd antennsB. The wing-cases arc membra- 
noccoufl, And dc-cluic along the sides of th« body. 
[Xlwir leg* ore iii gcticral formed for leaping. 


This is n «ingiitar itisccr, and deserving of some 

|ttltr.itinn, hoti) Ks nil object ofcuriwity nnd from its 

' imporlntire icr doineftic osronomv. It is fbuud both 

in llic En«(urn cotintrics and rn America, Its wing- 

'c«sc5 lire green, rnargined with red, and dcflcxedf 

and ihc iiiicnur uncs sn: spotted with black, fn 

the vnricly figured and do^crtbed by sir George 

Situinton these arc whilish, margined with black, 

and havu a row of black spots on the posterior 

edge. r 

* ffTBiONrK).— Tctligoflii limbil*. Fgintixt.—CKaiii lim* 

VOL. iir. U 



The larvEe are cl^ant and beautiful creamrcsy 
and to their labours the Chinese are indebted for 
the fine white wax (b;it is so much cstecoicd in the 
£3st-lndi«3. Tlu'y form a sort of while grease 
which attnchc» to the branches of trees, hardens 
there, and become wax. It is scraped o(f in the 
nutuniii, melted on the fire, and strained ; it is then 
poured into culd water, where it coagtilales and 
forms into cakes. In appenrsncc it is white and 
glossjr, and, mixed with oil, is uwd to make c«ndl( 
for which ]}urpo!»e it U thought greatly superior tc 
bees- was. 

The instcis arc white when young, and it is thcnl 
that Ihcy make their wax. When old, they areofi 
a bhckisb che^nut colour, and form little pdotom 
on the branches of irt-'c*. These at first are each of I 
the size of a grain of millet ; towards the beginning 
of the spring they increase in hulk and spread ; they 
arc attached to the branches like grapes, arwl, at iir^^ 
aght, the trees that bear them ap|x.-ar loaded wrthS 
fruit. About the beginning of May the inhabt- 
lanls gather them, and, liaving enveloped them in 
the leaves of a species of broad-leaved grass, m; 
pcnd them to the trees. At the end of June, an 
in July, the pflotons open, and the insects c 
forth, crawl about the leaves, and form their wax. 

Sir George Staunton says of these insects, that be 
saw them busily employed upon the small brnnehc« 
of a shrub that, in its general habit, had n consider' 
able resemblance to privet. They did not mud 
■feed the size of (he domestic fiv, ami vvcri.- uf-i 



singular structure. They were in every part covered 
witlia kind ofwhttc pomter: and the branches they 
most freqticnteil were entirely nhitcncd by Ibis sub- 
stance sliewed upon tbum. 


W This species of Cicada is al all times very com- 

moa in Pennsylvania, but at certain periods (gene- 

B rally of fourteen or fifteen years) tbe oumbcrs are 

^ so immeri'-'' thai it has obtained the general appclla* 

tlioii d' I^iciist. 
Towards the end of April these insects «merge 
from iIh: ground ; nnd Iheir appearance is always to 
be predicted by the sivinc searching for them. The 
H swarms arc sometimes so great that, in tbe places 
from whence ihcy have arisen, the carlh appears 
nearly as full of holes as a honey -comb. TTicy 
alwaj > leave the ground' during the night. On their 

I first coming out they are in tbeirchrysalid state ; but 
tery soon aficnvarda the back bursts, and the flying 
in«ecls diiengaj^e themselves from their case. For 
n liitle tt'bilc ihey arc entirely while, with redeyes, 
and 8Ccm very weak and Icmler ; but, by the next 
I day, they atrain ibcir ftdl strength ami pcrfcclion, 
bring of a dark brown colour, with four finely va* 
ried Irimsparent wings. 
They are ver)- active, flying about from (nee to 
tree with greit agility. The female is directed to 
the male by the loud chirping noise that he mokes, 

* Stk ox TMi.— Cicada Mptcndccim. Limi.— Tctii(pnii «t^- 
lendecinir fetfk/MJ. 



5he Uys her eggs about the lalter end of.>MKf^ 
jiiercing for ihU purpose the lender Uvig« df trees 
with the dart from her uiJ. With thl*: she is able 
to penetrate the V'oo<l in a Korpri&ingty Ltpc^tiou» 
mannerf crowding it for the lenglh of two or thrctf 
inches (bll of eggs, ranged in cloee lines, with from 
tvclvo to eighteen in each. She always darts to the* 
pith of the branch, in cN-dcr that the larvse, whctl 
ihcy proceed from tlie cgg5, may fmd food proper 
for ihcTT tender state. When iheee are full grown 
Ihcy drop off, and make their way into Ihc ground 
to prepare (nr a change. Here they arc somelimn 
Jbimd at the depth of two feet or upwards. 

i-'or the sake of experiment, some of the e^ of 
this species, abotit the usual time of hatching, wefe 
taken out and spread upon a table. In about an 
hour they cracked ; and it we$ very entertaining to 
observe how the little in^^ctt contrived to disengage 
themselves from the shell. When they had goe clear 
from all incumbrances, tliey ran about very briskly, 
evidently searching for a repository rn .the earth*. 

Very shortly after attaining their perfect state, 
these insects always spread over the country for 
many miles round. Tbey are excessively voraciooa, 
and do infinite damngc in iheir periodical swarn- 
ings to both orchard and forest trees ; and ware il 
not for (he number and variety of their cncmiea, ant) 
the naturally shurt dumtiorr of their lives, the itiha- 
bitanls would often saHvr from them all th« horrors 
of fuminc. It «cems to hare been of these ituecii 


tbal Mr. Hughes sayn such vast ewarm!) were bred, 
or came into the i&land of ^rl^does, in the jear 
1734.-5, that ibey dcMrojed almost every* green and 
lenckr plant. So great was the destruction that 
chey cau^, cf^Micialty among the potatoc vincs^ on 
who«e roots the poor people chkfl/ subsisted, and 
such the Knrciiy of (uod occasioned b; thein> par- 
ticuiariy in the parish of St. Philip, that a collection 
was made for these sufferers through (he rest of the 

Domc&tie fowls arc fond of (hem } and even «ome 
of the American s<|uirrcJs become fat with ihem at 
the times when they are Tcry abundant. The In- 
diaiit aim pluck ofT dicir nings^ and boil the bodies 
lor food.^It is said that they may be kept from the 
trees by suspending on the branches pieces of tow 
impregnated with a mixture of brimstone and train- 


The larvae or grubs of this insect are well known 
n discharging from their bodies, ui>onlhe branches 
and (eaves of plants, a kind of frothy matter called 
by the coonlry-peoplc in mnny parts of England 
Cuci<>0'S/>it. In the midst of this they constantly re- 
L«dc, probably for bhclter against the rapacity of aucb 
'alrongcr insects as would otherwise prey upon them. 
Nature seems to have afforded this kind of dcl'cnce 

■ * NaiunI Hitiory of Bul»do«. 

t Slt«OKT»M.— CjcDda ipwnmria. JUw».— Ccrcropd ipmmiil*. 
/'^Afwwt.'^— Cuckcw (pit Of Froth -woini. 



to the insccis, as their naked and wU bodies migm 
otherwise very e.isily be injured; perhaps also the 
moiilurc of this foam may serve lo scrcco (hem from 
the sahry beams ofthesun. On removing theibun 
the grub is discovered underneath j but it will not 
remain tang uncovered. It soon emits fresh foAm 
that again hides it from the eye of observation. 

Il is in the midst of its foam that the larva goes 
through its mclnmorphosis to a chrysalis and a 
winged insect. This may be observed by any per- 
SOD who is careful enough to watch when the froth 
b^inn a lititc to subside. At this time he must put 
the ioscct with its leaf under a gla5S. The froth, 
degeiK' riling to a while film, fixes the cncftturc to 
the leaf: soon afier this the lly m;iy be seen first 
putting out its head, and aficrviards by degrees its 
body. As soon as the (brc-part is out, a small pro* 
tubcrance will be pcrceivwl on each tide, which, 
every moment growing larger, will soon appear to be 
the wings of the fly unfolding by degrees. In about 
a quarter of an hour the whole change is completed, 
the jly is liberated, its wings are extended over its 
body, and the fine siU'cr^like cose of the larva, 
with all its legs and other apparoius, will be seen 
left behind. 

The perfect insect is of a brown colour, and bas 
on the up^r wings two Ijlcrnl whilit)h spots. ItU 
very common in meadows and pastures, and is so 
agile that, when Atlcnipled to be cadghl, it will 
sometimes spring to the distance of two or llircc 

[ 295 3 


THE rostrum of Ibc Cimices or Bugs is inflected ; 
ami the antenna are longer than the thorax. They 
have four wings folded cross-wise, (he upper ones 
coriaceous on the upper part. The bjc): it> flat, and 
the legs arc fjnncd for running. 

The Lnje differ Trom the perfect insects in little 
the than the want of wings. Many of them infest 
plants, on which tbey live and ia which they lay their 
eggs. Several of the apccics are voracious, and spare 
searccljr any other insects that they can conquer. 
They glut themselves with the blood of animals; 
(lestroy caterpillars^ flies, and even beetles, the hard- 
ness of whose elytra would sccni lo be proof against 
ill Ihcir attacks ; the incautious naturalist may also 
himself sometimes experience the severity of their 


The Bed Bug, which is a nauseous and irouhle- 
ncne inhabitant of most houses in large towns, is 
I singtilar in having neither wing« nor wing-cases. It 
runs about with cnnsitlerable activity in the night. 
It) rack the blood of persons that arc asleep, hiding 
ilidf by day in crevices and other retired places. 

It is supposed to have been first introduced to 

• Smsosiltt. — Cimcs leclgUriw. Ltm. — Acamliij lectularia 



this country in the fir timber that was brought over 
to rebuild London after it had sufFerwl by the great 
6re I fbr it is getierally ftaid that Bugs were not known 
in EnglnnH before that time : and many of them 
were found almost immcJiutely afterwards in the 
new-built houses. 

Their mosi favourite food i^ blood, dried ptsle, 
size, deal, beech, ostcr» and some n: Ficr kinds of ttnv 
ber, tbe sap of which they auck ; and on anjr of 
these they arc able to exist. They will not feed on 
oak. walnui, cedar, or mahogany ; for several pain 
that, for the sake of cuperiment, were conlined with 
these kinds of wcod soon died, whilst those kept 
with the other& coniinucd to thrive through (h& 
whole year. 

The female generally lays about fifty eggs at i 
time, which are white, ami, when protrudeil, arc 
covered with a viscous matter, which, aftcrwardi 
hardening, sticks them (irmly to the place where 
they are deposited. These are usually batched tn 
ahoul three weeks. The general limes of layingaro 
March, May, July, and St-picnihcr: so that from 
every female Bug that outlives the season, m many 
w two hundred young ni;iy be produced. Thu« a 
the excessive incrc-ave of ihc^c nauseous animals la 
be accounted for, where proper cure is not lukco to 
dcMroy tlicm. 

The yoiiig, fur somo iJuic after they fint cswape 

jgrfcclly wliite, hut llicy generally 

Ihc cpur-c of ahout ihrcc weeks. 

tbcyareai full growth. They are 


ben very watchful and cunning creatures; and su 
ierce, among ibeir own species, that they will sonte- 
imes contetid with the utmost futyst *^^ >n ^'leir 
ombats they seldom leave off till eiiberone or both 
if the auimals arc killed. Spitlcrs src irery fond of 
bem, atid uftvn seize (Ucin for food. 

[n order to clear a house o( Bugs the leadinfc point 

is cleanliness in every respect, fur this is their gn'atcst 

mnoyancc ; and by thtitalonc their increa^ is to be 

nntcriaily checked. The first young begin to horst 

rom the cgg» enrly in spring, frequently even in 

i'ebriinry. At this sciison it is that the greatest at- 

eniion h required, The bed infected by them ought 

be stripped of all its furniture^ which should be 

'Bshcd, and, if linen, even boiled, or if stutf hot- 

^■pe^ Tbc bedstead should be taken in pieces, 

na du8ted, and washed with spirits of wine ia all 

■be joints and crcvicc-s for It is in these parts princi- 

nlly ibal (he females dcpui<it ibeir eggs. This 

one, all (he cavities should be well filled with the 

lest »oft soap, mixt'J up with vcrdigreasc and Scotcli 

nofT. On this eompoeition the young will Imine- 

lately (ted, after leaving the egg (if any escupe the 

earning) and will be destroyed, as will atso such of 

ic old ones as hap^x-n to be IcA. 

Bugs abound in all the hot climates, from whcnee 
lost of our mcrcbant-vessclsarc over-run with them. 
'bis accounts for their c\trrmc numbers in all tha 
taport towns of this country, and [larllcularly in 
K metropolis, being conveyed ibiifacr in clothes, 
■clcages, &c. Hence appeal e the great neceagily of 



examining carefully every thing brought rrom such 
vessels into the houses. 

Dcat nnd t)eccli boards nhoulil fay nil tncan^ be tr- 
moTcd, as should also every thing th»t is fixed to a 
betl by mean* of p^sle, as these atford tbem bolh 
fthclter and food. Onk and mahogany are probably 
ihe be»t kinds of wood to use, ai the closeness of 
Iheir texture allows the animals but an uncDcnforta» 
Ue situation. 

It is t%u[)poi«d that Bugs do no) allogether tie torpid 
during ibc winter, but that in the cold weather 
Ibey rajiiire lew nutriment, and therefore Ibat they 
are not tempted lo come bo oHen out of their r&> 
treats as they do in the wanner seasons of the year. 



That Kingiilar tniicct, the Cimcx paradoxu*, 
which (says Dr. Sparnian,) I have described, and 
of which I have given a drawing in the Swcdi-h 
Transactions, I discovered at this place (the Ca))c of 
Good Hope) as at noon-tide I sought for vbcltcr 
among the branches of a shrub from the iololcrabtc 
bcatofthe sun. Though the airwaanowcitremcly 
slill and calm, so as scarcely lo have shaken an asperi 
leaf, yet I thought I saw a little withered, pale, 
crumpled leafj ealen as it were by caterpillars, flitting 
from the tree. This appeared to mc so very eitra- 
ordinary, that I thought it worth while suddenly to 

* STXoitiitft. — CiRMx paradoxus lana, CmW.— AcaatUa 




ijuil my verdant bower in order to contemplale it; 
nnd I could scarcely believe my eye«, when I saw a 
living insect, in shape uiid colour resembling the fVng- 
tnent of a withered leaf with the edges turned up 
and eaten away, as it were, by caterpillars, and at 
the same time all over lirset with prickles. Nature, 
by this pcculinr form, has certainly extremely well 
defended, and concealed as it were in a musk, this 
insect from birds and its other diminutive foes; in 
all probability with a view to its preservation, and to 
em^iloy it fbr some im[H)runt oflice in the system of 
her occonomy ; a system with which we arc too little 
'ac<)uainled, in general too little investigute, and, in 
ever}* part of it, can never sufticicnily arlniire with 
that respect and aduration which we owe (o the great 
author of nature and ruler of the universe*." 


"HE minute animals that compose this singular 
tribe live entirely on vegetables, aud ibc loftiest tree 
it as liable to their attacks as the most humble plane. 
Their numbers are oficn incalculably great. They 
prefer the young shoots on account of ihcir tender, 
new, and frequently insinuate themselves into the 
very hearts of the plants, doing irreparable mischief 
even before they are discovered. Bui for the most 



|iart they beset the foliage, and are ilwayi fouod uii 
the under aide o( the leaf. This ibcy prefer, not 
only on account of its being the most tender, but 
because it aflords them prorection from the Mxalhcr, fl 
and from various injtirjes to which tbcjr would fae 
otherwise exposed. Sometimes, though very rardj, 
tbe root is the object of their choice; atid the roots 
of lettuces have been observed so thickly beset with 
one of the species thnt the whole crop has been ren- 
dered SFclcly and of little value. They are laFcIy^ 
except one species {aphis sa}ieis, which ieUii^er aaA 
much stronger iban the others), tebc ibundon tbe 
bark of trees. ■ 

Some of the species are constantly and unalterably " 
attached to one or more particular species o}' plaati ; 
bat others feed indiscriiDtoatdy on roost lorts Q^^ 
Tierbagc. .j^H 

These iocects arc sometimes winged, and some- 
limes destitute of wings, without any diislinction of 
sex. In the spring (hey arc viviparous, producing 
the young ulivc ; and in the autumn they are i>vipa- 
rous, depositing their eggs, like inofit other insect^ in ■ 
|)Iaccs whurc they remain e^curcd ihrtnigh the win- I 
ter till the ensuing spring, when they are batched. 
The Aphides afford also another surpriaing dcvialioa 
from the general laws, of nature ; one imprcgiMtton 
of the female is sufficient fur n inc generations. 

Their bciik, the shcatli of which is composed of 
five joints, is inflected. I'he antennae are taperii)^ 
and longer than the thorax. They have cither fijo^- 
n-ings, or arc entirely dcsiicule of thcra, At'ltv^ob- 





pmert ihcrc are two obtuse erect hfiTns j and ihe 
tail 18 sometimes icrminiitcci by a small style. 

The /frv<r, ehrjiiiliiis, and perfect insects, have so 
litllc difference in cxlcrnal appeaniTicc that Ificy 
cannot be distinguished from eiicb other. 


This inst-ctj which i* well I now^o b^ thr name of 
Rtir /ouse, is gtiierally of a green colour; with the 
tip of the nnicnnae nnd IturnJ black. The tail is 
poinrcilt and without n ^tylc. 

Towards the beginning of Febniarj', if the «««- 
thcr be siifBcienlljr warm to nuke the buds of the 
R»e-trec swell and appe-nf preen, the* sijecies of 
A}thH will be found t>n them in cotHriderable abun- 
dance. They arc now produced from small black 
oral eggs, which were deposited in autumn on the 
last year's shoots. If after their appearance the utra- 
ihcT become cold, almost the whole of them suffer, 
•ad the trees nre, for that year, in a great measure 
freed from them. 

"niORC ihat withstand the sevcricy of the weather 
seldom arrive at their futl growth before April, when, 
after twice casting their skins, they usually begin t» 
breed. It then nppears that ihcy sre at! femahs, and 
each of them pfwJuces a very numerous progeny, 
and that without any intercotirMi with .1 male inHecl. — 
These, though themselves produced from r^iy are 
Ttvtparous. Thciryoung, when ibcy first corne from 
tbe ptrrent inifccts, arc each enveloped inalhia mem* 



brane that has the appearance of an oval egg. 11M 
apparent egg atlbercs by one extremity lo llie mother, 
while the young Aphis proceeding from it eitendslhe 
other, by this means gradually drawing the ruptured 
membrane over the head and body tu the hind feet. 
During the operation, and far some lime aficrwards, 
the forepart of the head adheres, by the viscous mat- 
tcrabout it, to the tail ofihc parent. Thus suspended, 
it soon entirely frees itself from its former envelop- 
ment ; and when \\s limbs become a little strength* 
cncd, it is set down on some lender shoot^ and there 
left lo provide for itself. 

In the spring months there appear but theae two 
generations of the Aphis: ihc warnilh of summer, 
bowcver, produces no less than live. One of tbcM 
comes foilh in May, and the months of Juno and 
July supply each two more. The inscctsof ihc May 
breed cast their skins twice, and the othetd three or » 
four times according lo the warmth of the seiuoo. ■ 
When the heal ha<i been sufliciently great, and the 
food in tolerable plenty, tJtt first change hot been ob- 
served to take place in abouc ten days afler their pro* ^ 
duction. " 

Early in June some of the third generation, which r 
were produced about the middle cf May, al'tcrcafit- I 
ing their last coveting, discover four erect wings 
much longer than their bodies. The formation of 
tlic wings ^eems to depend not on sexual distinction, 
nor e\cn on the ori,:;inal t^trnciurc of the insects, to 
much as on the quantity and quality of the nourisb- 
inent with which they are supplied. Few of thox 
oa succulent i^hoois bavc vtxu^'s, while those of tbe 



Hune gcneralton on the less lender branches are most 
of ibcm winged. Some lime before they come it 
Ibeir full growth, it is ea$y lo discern wbich of them 
will have wing!, from a remarkable fullness of the 
breast. When the last covering is rejected, the wings, 
which were before folded in a very narroiv compass, 
gradually e\tcitd in a most bcaiiliriil manner to their 
{iropcr size and dimensions. All the following breeds 
•re winged. 

In the autumn, die ct<;hth, ainth, and tenth ^nc> 

rations are [produced : two in August, and the In^x 

about the middle of Sc;)lcinl)er. The two first re- 

•cmble the summer breeds, but the third differs very 

greatly from all the rest. Thoiig;b all the Aphides 

which have hitherto ai)pcarcd have been females, in 

this tenth generation several maU insects arc found. 

The females have at first the appearance of the mtm^ 

met inacct!> I but in a few dsiis their colour change* 

from grccj) to yellow, and gradually, before their full 

growth, to orange. These yellow females arc dcsti- 

tutcof wings, The males, wheu they tlrst ap}K-ar, 

are of a reddish brown, but have afierwarda, when 

they begin to thicken about the breast, a dark lirie 

alonit the nviddle of the back. They come to their 

full growth in about tlircc wcelcs, and then, endcing 

their last skin, appear in every part, eseopt the wings, 

of a bright yellow. They soon, however, become 

dark brown. The wings bceoinc transparent, and at 

Icnglh arc in appearance not unlike very fine black 

gauzti. The fcmalc5K>on begin todcpo.'iit ihctrcggs. 

which, if pos.\il)lc, is always done near the buds of 

ibc branchc, that the future yountj mvi be \\\t\w«« 


THB fiase kPHii. 

eaMly supplied with nourislifncot.' Some of tbem 
continue laying their ^gK till the bcgrnning' of No 
vember : tbe^ are oval, and wlteii fw»t protrodcd are 
green, but I hey soon become perfectly black. Tbey 
adhere to tim branches on wbich they are deported 
by the viscous mutter tbac at Brst surrounds them. 
Tbe^e rggs remain through the winter till tbc cii- 
tuinjs; spring before tbcy arc hatchol. 

If the Aphides had not many enemtn, their in- 
crease in sumtner would be ra great us, by wnnnding 
and exhausting the tender shoots of the trees, Kome* 
times to supprewi their vegetation. Among their ene- 
mies one of the principal iit a small binck ipccies of 
Ichneumon fly*, which darts ils [minted tail into the 
bodies of the Aphides, and at the same timcdcp<»iU 
in each an egg. This egg afterwards produces a grab, 
which recd.s on the body of the insKxt till it hasac* 
quired ils full growth, when it undergoes ild cbangr, 
and entirely destroys its living ntdus. 

Afier a raild spring most of the 8peci« of Apliri 
becomes ro numerous as to do considerable injury to 
the trees on which they are found. The bett mode 
of remedying this evil is to lop off the infected sthooti 
before the insects arc greatly multiplied, repeating 
the S3nf>e ojwration before the time that the eggs are 
deposited. By the first pruning » very numerous pfo- 
seiit increase will be prevented, nnd by the second, 
the following year's supply m.iy in a great meagre 
be cut offf. 

tBiclianlwnea Aphidei. rtii).Tno.liii,p. iSa. 


riKssare an extremely fertile race, and mauy of* 
Ibem arever)' troublesome in stoves and green-houses. 
The females fix ilicmselvcs and adhere almost im* 
movcably to (be roots, and sometimes to ihc branches, 
of plants. Some of ihcm, having thus fiscd them* 
selves, lose entirely the fonn and apijcarancc of in- 
■ects : their bodies si^-cll, their skin stretches and be- 
comes sinoolh, and they so nitich resemble some uf 
the ^lls or excrescencei, found on plants, as by in- 
experienced persons to be mistaten for such. After 
this change the abdomen scrv&^only as a kind of shell 
or covering under which the egg^ are concealed.. 
Olherg, though they Are likewise thus fixed, preserve 
the fiirm of injects till they have laid tliQir eggs and 

A kind of down or cotton grows out of their belly> 
which bcrvcs to make the nest in which llicy deposit 
their eggs. — Most of the species found in our hot> 
liouses have been brought over with exotic plants 
fmm other climates. 

The be:ik is seated on the bren<it ; and the antennse 
are thrc;id. shaped, or of equal ihicknes& throughout. 
The abdomen is terminated by (bur or six lighl-oo- 
loufed brislle^i. The male bas two erect wings, but 
ihe fcmale« hart none- 

Vol., iii. 


!# * ' 

[ S06 ] 


The head ami trunkoftbisinwct seem to form one 
uniform, ovat, compressed* red boJy, somewhat of 
the shape and siec uf a very small lou>e, conttbling 
of twelve transverse rings. TTiebactiskect-shapcd, 
and the belly flat. The antennxarc half the Icngih 
of the body, filifonn, and diverging, sending off two 
and sometimes three diverging hairs. The tail is a 
Httle vifhttc point, from whence proceed two horizoD- 
tal hairs as long Si the body. 

Mr. ICcrr, who has given a minute account of these 
insects in the Philosophical Transacrions, says, that 
he has often observed their birth, bot could never see 
any of tliem with wings; nor was he c\'cr able to n> j 
mark any distinction in the sexes: mving, he con-flj 
fasses, most probably to the minuteness of the objects, 
and the want of proper glasses. ■ 

They are produced from thewonih of the parent in > 
the monlbfi of November and December. For tome 
tin>c they traverse the branches of the trees upon 
which they are produced, and then fix themselves on 
'the succulent extremities of the young i^huoiit. By 
the middle of January they are nil fixed in ibcir pro- 
per situaiions, and, though they now exhibit no 
marks of life, appear as plump as before. The limbs, 
antcnnBC, and bristles of the tail are no longer to be 
seen. Around the edges of thrir body they arc en- 
vironed with a sub-pellucid gelatinous liquid, which 

• Syhoxtms.— Coccujficuj. IfHi.—Cuta Iac, in lh< Eati Ir 


IS to glue llietn to ihe branch. ITic graduaj ap- 
cumulalion of Ihis liqtiiil ni length forms a complete 
cell for Ihc insect, which takes [ilace about the inU- 
dle of March. The insect is now, in appearance,] 
an oval smootli red bag, wiibout life, about the i\r.< 
of K small American Cochineal inii%ct, cm.irginatcd 
at tlicoblusi; end, and full ofabcnuliful red liqindt 

In October nnd November IwcJJty or thirty small 
oval eggs, or rather young grub*, arc to be found 
within the red fluid of the mother. When ihU fluid b^ 
all consumul, the young initccts pierce a hole through 
the external covering, and walk off one l)y one, leav- 
ing their nidus behind. This nidus Is that white 
menibranarcoiis substance found in the empty shells! 
of the Stick Lnc. 

These insects are found on only four different kind* I 
of trees, the principl of which are the I-iats religi- 
•SA and Fiati Ituiua of Linna-us. 

They generally fix thcmscKes in such pumbers, 
and so ciose to each other, that scarcely more tfwn, 
one female in t^ix has room to complete her cell ; the 
a(her& die, ami become the food of various inscci-!. 
The extreme branches of the above trees appear as if 
they were covered with a red du&l, and their eap is 
frequently so much exbsuslcd that the adjoining parts 
wither awiy. — The sap of the trees seems much allied 
lo the cell of the Coccus, so that it appears to have 
unilergonc very little change by its formation into 
lh_c5c shells. 

These insects, which in the East Indies have the 
name of Gum Lac, arc principally found on (he trees | 
of the uncullivatcd mountains on both aides of tho 

X % 



Ganges where nature has been so bountiiul that, 
were the consumption many times greater than it ( 
now is, the markets wonfd he fully supplied. The 
only trouble is in breathing down the branches and 
carrying them to market. ^ 

The price in the year 17S1 of Gum Lac in Dacca ^ 
was only twelve Khillings for the hundred pounds 
weight, notwithstanding its heing brought from a vefj 
^rcat diiitance, as the greatest part of it is collected in 
Assam, The best Lac is of s deep red colour. If 
it be pale, and pierced at the top, the value diminishes'; 
Ixcause the insects have IcA their ccllsj and conse- 
quently it can be of no use as o dye; though pn>- j 
bahly it may be of more value «s a varnish. fl 

Siki Lac is the n.itural ittalc of this productioh. 
When the cells arc separated from the slicks, broken 
into small pieces, and appear in a granuhited form, 
they are called Sg^J Lac. Thl?, liquified by fire and 
formed into calcw, is jMmp Jmu. When the cells are 
liquified, strained, and formed into thin transparent „ 
'lamins, thesubstnncebas the name of Jp'<&cJ7Zdr. H 

Of the Shell Lac the natives of the Eastern cotrn- 
tries make ornamental rings to decorate the arms of 
the fcmaic3. They also form it into beads, necklaces, 
and other female ornnnicnts. This substance waj^ 
Ibrmcrly used in medicine, but it \% now confined I 
princijwlly to the making of scaling.wnx, and to ja- 
panning, painting, and dyeing^. 


This Cochineal, so useful, when |)rt)pcrly pre- 
pftred, to painters •!»] dyers, is a native of South 
Atncrics, where it is found on several species of 
Cactus, particularly ihe Caclus Opuntui, or Prickly 
Pear-Trec. In Jamaica these insects nrc also now 
p**Ity common, but the)- arc generally umlcrsiood 
to have been introduced from America. The heavy 
rams, however, that the We^t India inlands are sub- 
ject to, c^len render the industry of the natives in 
breedings and rearing Ihem entirely fruitless. 

The Cochineal inndc at the Brazils was observed 
by Mr. Bsrrott', one of the gentlemen who atletulcd 
the late Euibas?<y to China, to be produced from an 
insect eomcwhat differing from the Cocais Oicti of 
Unnxu<>. " I'hc insect of Rio (says thtit gcntlemnn) 
19 convex, with l<^ of a clear bright red in both 
male and female, and the antennic monilifbrm or 
bead-like. The male is n delicate and beautiful in- 
aect, the colour of the whole body a bright red, 
nearly rc&cmbling the pigment usually called red 
lake; the breast is ellipiical, and slightly attached 
to the head. The antennsn are above half the length 
cf the body. The legs arc of a more brilliant red 
than that of the oilier parts. Two fine white fila- 
ments, about three times the length of the insect, 
fjcojcct from its belly or alxlomcn. The wings are 
two, erect, of a faint straw colour, and of a very 

* SrxoyHf.— Cocciii cscii. Lim.^-t* Cochenillc da Nopil, 
tj Uw Fnncb. 



delicate texture. The fcinale has no wing:^, is clfip* 
tic in its form, and convex on both sides but chicGy 
no on ihe back, which is cuvcred with a while downy 
fiubRlauce resembling the lincst cottun. The abdo- 
men ix marked with transverse ruga or furrows. 
The mouth is siiualod in the breast, having a browa 
beak, inclining lo a purple lint, th»t penetrates the 
plant on which the insect feeds. Its ^ix lcg3 arc of 
a clear bright red." 

When the young insects arc arrived at ihcir full 
growth, they adhere to the leaf of the Qiclus in a 
torpid state: and it is nt this period that thejr arc 
taken from the pinnt for use. Tivice or tbrica a 
week, the slaves Appropriated to this employment go 
among the Cnctus phints, and pick ott'carefullv, with 
a bamboo tvvig shnpi^d somewhat inio the fonnofs 
pen, every lulKgrown insect ihey can 6ud, with' 
mnny not yet arrived to their perfect btate; tbccon- 
Wfjuencc of which is, that the plants ire Tiever half 
slocked nith insects, many of the females being ile- 
Biroycd before tliey had dejfcsited their young. The 
natives of Mexico pursue a mcihod very difTerent. 
As soon as the periodical raitis are over» and the 
weather is warmer as well as drier, ihey fix on the 
prickles of Ihe Ootus leaves &mull parcels of (he 
finest moss, ser\'ing as iie?ls to contain, eaehp ten o^ 
a. dnxen fuiKgrov\n female insects. Tbe% in the 
course of a few days bring forth an innumcrrible 
tribe of young, spreading ihem^Ives over the leaves 
and branches of the plant, till they become attached 
to those «pols which \he')- fiod most favourable for 
supplying nuUitious )\i\ce\ viWt, y»w M^iivTO-j, 





Iheir full growth, tbcy remain motionless, and then 
arc gathered off for use ; a sufficient number being 
always Icfc for the pro<!action of new broods. 

The insects are soon converted into Cochineal, by 
a very simple process ; — but if, in corporeal mfferanee^ 
/i* poor btelie feeU a pang as grtal as when a giani 
dUif this procc:>s U not more simple than it is cruel. 
The insect*!, which were collected in a wooden bowl, 
are thickly spread from thence upon 3 flat dish of 
earthenware, and placed alive over a charcoal fire, 
where they arc slowly roasted until the downy cover- 
ing disappears, and the aqueous juices of the nnimal 
are totally evaporated. During this operation, the 
insects are continually stirred about with a tin ladle, 
and sometimes water is sprinkled upon ihom, to pre- 
vent absolute (orrctactlon, which would destroy tho 
colour, and reduce the insect to a coal ; but a tittle 
habit teaches when to remove them from ihe fire. 
They then appear like so many dark, round, reddish 
grains, ami take the name of Cochineal, preserving 
so little the original form of the insect, that thi^ pre- 
cious dye wa.s long known and sought in Europe 
before naturalists had determined whether It was 
Btiimal, vegetable, or mineral subKtance*. 

It seems by no means improbable that a Cochineal, 
more pure than what is produced from the inscel, 
might be prepared from some of the plants on which 
it feeds. There is also no reamn for Mippo^ing, that 
we might not likewise prepare it from some of our 
Eogliah 6pccic5, which bear a grc:3t rc3-.'mblance to 

* Simnfin's Eoilaai)' lu Cluna. 


those of America, if only a proper qnd judicioDS ma- 
nagement was adopted. 

It bag been computed that there are imported into 
Europe; in the course of trade> no less than dgfat 
hundred and eighty thousand pQunds weight of 
Clochioeai aonqal)^. 


[ 3IS ] 


THE present order contains only llirec tnbcsi- 
(hc Butterflies, Moths, and Hawk-Motiis. T^tieso* 
are all (>roducctl from Caterpillars, by a chungc ihat 
' is cornmon to all tlie insect species. The Citcrpillars'' 
proceed from eggs ; and those of the Butterflies, ia 
particulnr, arc 50 numerous that, in the spring of the 
'year, the leaves and tendcrest stems of pinnts are 
sometimes perfectly crowded with Ihcm. 

Their bodies arc composed in general of twelve' 
inembranaceous rings, which sufficiently dislinguish 
them from all such reptiles as bear the least resem- 
blance to them. Their head is scarcely to be dig- 
tinguiiihcd from the body but by ils containing; an 
opening, in which arc two jaws, each armed with 
a large and thick looth. The number of their feet 
varies with their size and form. Along the sidfls 
arc arranged holes or tracbcse, through which thejr 

Caterpillars are in general extremely voraciotis, 
some of them eating more than double their own 
weight in a day, without sufTering any inconve- 
nicncc from it ; for the digestive powers of all ani- 
mals arc proportioned not so much to their size, ai 
to the duration of their lives. 

* Thii i* the thitil of ttK LinnKan orJcn*!' inso^u. 



They often change their skin without materioJIy 
altering their shape, till at Ia».t they put on one very 
different from all the rest. In this slate they hnvc the 
nameof Aurelia or Cbrysalit ; and in it all (he part* 
of their future Turin are visible, but so very soft 
and delicate that the Icnsi touch diwomposfs them. 
Though dormant ami entirely hcJ[)lc»,all their tnctn- 
bers arc now coinplclcly furmcd* and they oidy wait 
Ihe acquisition of a ^hett to defend them from cx> 
ternal injuries, and sulfrr them to commence their 

The production and manners nf these, in lh« 
atate, in>ptir'fecl animals afford much matter both 
for amusement. and instruction. I cannot, therefor^ 
dismiss tjhe subject, without descending somewhat 
further inio the hittory o( the manners of some of 
the species. 

About ihc middle ol' summer a butterfly deposits 
fmm three to four hundred eggs on the leaf of a 
tree^ from each of which, in a few days, a young 
taterpitlar proceeds. Tlieeggs arc no sooner hatched 
than the young begin to form a common habitation. 
They spin silken thrcadif, which they attach to one 
edge of Ihc leaf and extend to the other. By this 
apcralioD they make the two edges of the leaf a|>- 
proach each other, and form a cavity resembling a 
hammocic. In a short time the concave leaf is com- 
pletely roofed with a covcritig of silk. Under thla 
tent ihe animals live togcthcc in mutual friendship 
and harmony. When not disposed to cat or to *pin, 
they retire into their tent. It rctjuires several of 
l/iesc babitalioiis U couvavft \Ve, 'eiV'^t. ^s. the 




anima\s Incrciisc in sIec. Ihc number uf their tents is 
augmented. But these arc nnly temporary and ]jar- 
tial lodgments, constructed for rootuHl convenience, 
till the caterpillar? arc in a condition to build ona 
tnore Epacions which wilt be sufiicient to contain 
the whole. After gnawing onc-halfof the substance 
of Euch leaves as ii:ip()cn to be near the end of soms 
twig or small branch, they begin their great work. 
In constnicting this new edifice, or ncl, the calcr^ 
pillars encrust a ton&idemble part of the twig wilh 
white r*ilk. In ihc same manner they cover two or 
three of such leaves as arc nearest to the termination 
of the (wig. Tbcy then spin silken coverings of 
greater dimensions, in which they inclose the two or 
three leaves together with Ihc Iwig. The nost is. 
now so 9pactou!i that it is able lo contain the whole 
community, every individual of which is employed 
in the common lubour. These ne^ts arc too fre- 
quently seen in nutunm upon the fruit-trees of our 
garderu. They are still more ex posed to observation 
in winter, what the leaves which formerly concealed 
many of them nrc fullcn. They consist of large bun- 
dles of white silk and wiibcred leaves, wiihoul any 
regular or constant form. Sotne of them are flat, 
others roumliiih; but none of tbem are destitute of 
angles. By difforeiit plain coverings, extended from 
the opposite sides of leaves and of the twig, the in- ' 
lemal pari of the nest is divided into a number of 
dift-erent ap.irlmen1s. To each of these, which seem 
to be very icrt-gular, I here arc passages by which the 
caicrpilUrs can cither go out in quest offood^uc 
retire in the evening, or duting ram^y wcavVwt. 'tV«> 


Ltfl nop T£kOVS IKSECTS. 

siTken coverings, by rcpeatet] hycn-, become at last 
fio thick and i^trong llmt they resist all ihc ultncks o( 
the wind, and xll the injuries of the air, during ciglu 
or nine months. 

About the beginning of October, or when the 
frort commences, the whole community shut them- 
selves up in the nest. During the winter they re- 
main immoviible, and Kemiiigly dead; btii. uhen 
exposed to heat, ihcy fcoon discover symploms of life, 
and begin to creep. In this country they seldom go 
out of the nest till Ibc middle or end of AprJ. 
When they shut thcmscli-cs up for the winter they 
are very small; but, after tlicy have fed for some. 
days in spring upon che young and tender tcarcs, 
they fmd the nest itself, and all the entrances to it» 
too small for (he incrcx%d slz^ of tbcir bodicfi. To 
remedy this inconvcn)en(^, these creatures knoiv 
how to enlarge both the ncRt and its pasMgo«", by 
iddiiionul operations accommodated to their present 
state. Into these new lodgings ihcy retire nhen 
they want to repose, to screen thcmwivcs from the 
injuries of the weather, or to cast their iJuns. In 
fine, after cabling tlicir skins several limes, the time 
of their dispersion arrives. From the beginning to 
near the end of June ihcy lead a solitary life. Theii 
social disposition is no lonj^cr felt. Each of the 
(pin.s a )kh1 of coanir brownish sitk. In a few days 
they are changed into chryi^lids, and in eighteen 
or lu'cniy days more arc transformed iolu butter- 

The modes adopted by cnterpillais lo screen^ 
themselves from obscrsaVvon are ■i'i xam^it m. ^^^R:^ 


are int^reslin^. Msnyoflhcm feed enclosed niihin 
the stems of herbaccouH |jlants ; others in the branches 
or tnmk<i of trees ; a few within fruits and the buds 
of flon-crs ; some on the roots of plnnts ; others 
again flonl on the siirOice of the water, between the 
leaves of aquatic vegetHh)(*s, woven around them 
with inimitable art : and a \try great number c«cap« 
our notice, by taking their nourishment only in 
the night. And Ihotigh many feed on the leavei 
of plantft an<l trees in the day-time, jet some, as if 
conscious of the similarity of their colour to that 
of the undersides of the leaves, and of the salciy they 
derive from attaching themselres thereto, are seldom 
to be seen but in that aittiaiion. Man; of the moi)is» 
whose colours be.'ir rcseuihlancti (o tbosc of Itie trunks 
or branches of trees, frequently tix themselves tber«, 
«nd remain motiontasH fur several hours together. 
Id thcM situations, a per<:on unaccu-ttomcd to them 
would not hciiitate to pronounce themj from a little 
distance, the mere rugobilics of ihc bark. 

Thcac various modes of eluding our sight, added 
to the uncertainly of breeding many species when 
procured, have prevented our U:ii)g actjuatnted with 
the hirve of the far greater part of the lepidopieroua 


THESE elegant insects feed on the of 
flowers and the moisture exuding from the planis 
ind trees which \hfy extract by tt«i.\n^ «$ \\tfat X-av.^ 


proboscis or lon^uc. Their caterpilian arc aome- 
limcs smooth, and somclimw thickly covered with 
lEbair; and tlicir cbrysulnlj arc naked, and ailiicticd, 
opporently in a liiclns Mntc, tu trees or other sub- 
■tances, by 61aments proceeding cither from tlic lip 
or the tiiiddlc ofllicir bodies. 

Their antcnnm are thicker towards the tip (ban in 
any oilier part, and geiicriiily end in a knob. The 
wingii, when at rest, tire erect, the upper cdge» 
meeting together over the body. TTiey arc entirely 
dliirn<il aniinnts. 


This is a common species, and often, in its cater- 
pillar state, very destructive to onr cabbage and 
canlifloner plants. The caterpillars seem altnost 
confined p> these vegetables, on which they are 
generally to be found in great numbers from June- to 
October. Tlie Buttcrflic:* (irtt appear on wing in 
tbc middle of Mny, and, about the end of the eame 
month, lay their eggs in clusters on the under sides 
of cabbnge leaves. In nfew days aft cr the caterprllara 
come forth, and continue to feed together till the end 
of June, ulien they are at their full growth. They 
then travcr-^ about in search of convenient placcftto 
fix themselves, where, nftcr their ciiange, the chrysahl 
tna/bc sheltered. When (tuch arc found, they each 
fasten their tail by a neb, and carry a strong (bread 
of the same round their body near (he head ; and, 

* Stkokymi.— FbipUio Brauicx. I^'in.— Ltrgc vliite Butrtiv 

•niz MAUSH rmTTrLtllY. 


ihns firmly Secured, hang a few hoiin, when the 
clirysalis becomes [icrfccity fonned, and Hivcsled bf 
the caterpillar's skin. In fourteen einys nflcr this the 
fiy'is on the win^. The cat«r|iillars of ihi* latter 
brood arrive at full growth, and change to chrysalids 
in September, in which slate they remain througt^ 
the winter till the beginning of the folloxving May, 
During this lime wc often see tlvcin hanging under 
the coping5 of garden walls, under pales, and in 
other places where they have tolerable shctler 
from the incJenjency of the weather. 

The general colour of this Butlerfly is while, but 
the male differs from (he female in having a few ilark 
spots on his wings*. — ^The nwst cfTeeUtal way of 
clearing the cabbage and cauliflower plant? of caler- 
pill^ra is to send children into the g-.irdens, as $oon as 
Ihcy appear in any nninbcrs, to pick them oft* and 
destroy iheni. This may seem a IronWesomc and 
eipen^ivc mode, but it has been found to answer, 

:n to the extent of clcaiing many sen-s of field 



Tlic Marsh Friitilbry is a small butlcHly, not 
more than nn inch and a half ncross the hmadcst 
part (jt^ils expanded wingi. Il$CvIour is a brwvQish 
orange, varie^Itd with ycUow and black, in a small 
paticrn. The under sides of (he wingi arc lighter, 
ind chiefly orange and yellow. It is someiime$ called 

• Lcwiit, (i. l*t. lib. 35. 
t SifironTJi* — Pspilio arcemi^. Fabritiui.—C>ituy Fritlilbrf. 
•r Diifcctodf. fibril, //jiwf /i.— Maiih ?nVi\\\»rf . Uswm. 

8 . 



Greasy or Dishcloiit Frittillary, from these under 
sides having alwnys a greasy appearance. 

The caterpillars are to be seen, in some particular 
Bituations, in September, in great abunilance. They 
keep logclhcr under (he cover of a fine web, vhicfa 
Ihcy spin to defend themscives from the inclemency 
o( the weather; and in ihc protcccioii of this they 
pass tlic winter months. During this time ihe^' are 
BO nearly reduced to a torpid etatc as to require oo 
food, nor do ibey vciktiire out of their general cover- 
ing till invited by the warmth of the spring. As 
they allerward.^ incraise in size, they spread abroad in 
se^irch of food [ but iheir local iittacbmeiit is very 
remarkable, for neither the caterpillar nor eveo the 
butterfly will stray far from ihe place where it was 
bred. Numbers of the latter may sometimes be 
observed on wing in a Bmall .-ipot of swampy or marsh 
land, when not oncof chcm i» to be met with in any 
of ihe adjacent places. As they fly very low, iind 
frequently settle, ihc iialuratisl no difiicnity in 
catching them. The caterpillars are generally at 
their full growth ubtiiil the last week in April : when 
this lakes place ihey sui^pend Ihemsi'lves by the tail 
to change into chrys:djds, in which statcthey reniaiit 
about fourteen dayi:. Their mode of susjiciiNion is 
a singular instance of the extraordinary power of 
inwinct. They first draw two or three smull bhides 
of grms .^^l*»s lowords their lop, and fuslen them 
together by mcms of their &ilk { then hang Ihcin* 
kIvcs bereaih the centre of these, eueh having his 
own litilc canopy. By this means ihcy are not oidy 
bidden IVora the eight of birds, but defended 



in a ■ 

B TH1 




great mea<«urcfrom the damage (hey might otherwise 
sustain from windy and boisterous weather. They 
feed on the Devtl's-bit Scabious (Scabiosa succisa), 
and on various kinds of the marsh grasses; eating 
only the opening leaves as they come up, which ren- 
ders them hometimesdiflicult to find. This they do 
alsoonly while the sun shines ; for if, in the very act, 
the sun becomes hidden by a cloud, they immcdi> 
ately cease, but, on the return of the sun-beams, 
they recommence their operations with great vo- 

If any person wishes to observe the operations and 
change ofthesc caterpillars at his own home, he has 
nothing more to du than to cut a turf from the place 
where they are found, and they will feed as readily 
there as in their former residence*. 


The Upper wings of this well-known insect, one 
of the most beautiful nnd common of the British 
Botterflies, are red, and marked with alternnte bands 
of black and pale orange ; below these are three 
black spots, the inner one of which is square; and 
near the extremity of their upper parts is a white 
Atrtpe. The lower wings arc also red, markc-d with 
a laige black patch at the base. Tbe margins of all 
of them arc black, with blue .spots. 

These Buiterflics are produced from their chrj*- 

* Harris's Aurtlian, p. I«ir. lib. 38. — Leula, p. nxxiw, tab. l$. 

t Stxowvms. — Pi(iilw tJrtic*. Lia«. — NeJtk TonoiK*»hell. 

i«— Tort«J»c-*htll FI7. //arrM.r— Small T«rl&i»e-tbtll. i/4- 



'^- - 




salids, and 6rst make their appearance in a winged 
Gitata about the month of April. They are sbort- 
livrd, lajing their eggs in tlie beginning of the fol- 
lowing month, in great numbers, on the appennost 
stalks of the nettles, and dying vtry shortly ader- 

The eggs adhere by means of the glutinous oiots- 
lure with which Ihcy are covered when fin« pro- 
trailed. About the middle of the month, the young 
caterpillars may be seen of a light green colour OA ■ 
the netilc-tops, enclosed in a web that covers ihc " 
whole upper part of the plant ; and in this they ail 
herd together. They soon cast their first skin, when 
they always remove to a fresh place, learing their 
old coverings hanging to the web. Here> AC a little 
dtslaoce from Iheir former habitation, they Uxm a 
new colony. In their third skin they make anolher 
remove, but still keep together in a n-eb. On chao* 
ging this Ihey al^^o change their colour and becomfi 
black i and as they have now increased too raucb ia 
size to Hvc in one society, they nepamte into compa- 
nies. In ihcir sixth or la»l akin ihcy emirely scpa* 
rate i and in this state they often make such rarageS 
among the nclllci as lo leave nothing but the stalks 
and Hbrcs. Sometimes they are seen so numerooi 
as lo cover all the tops, and six or seven inches of 
the stnlks, giving them the appearance of being en- 
veloped in black cloth. 

About the beginning of June they are orrircd at 
their full growth ; when, fastening their tails by a 
web under the nellie- leaves, or to the sialics, Ihey 
ehunge into chrysallds. These .arc at first green. 



but in a day or two they change (o a brigbt gold, 
or dse to a grcpnish brown colour. They remain 
thut for about twcHty days when they hecoinc Biit- 
terfliea. Some few of this ^cond brood live through 
the winter, being frequently found in a stale nearly 
torpid in that Kcason*. 

These insects, in common wilh some others of the 
■MDc fami))' t, $oon after their enlargement frum the 
cfarytalia state, discharge a few drops of roldi^h fluid, 
which, in places where they have been in great num- 
hen, has had the appearance of a sbotver of hhod^ 
and been recorded by writers as the forerunner of 

^■onne extraordinary event. The first discovery of 
ihis circumstance that has been recorded i<i related 
by M. 6c Reaumur. He says that, in the begin- 
ning of July, 1608, ihc people of the town of Aix 
were in the utmost alarm from what they thought a 
•bower of Wood, that had just fallen In the suburbs, 

.and for stmie miles round the place, M. de Pciresc, 
philosopher, who, among other kinds of know- 

' ledge, had not Dcglccted that of the o]>eration9 and 
economy of insecta, was consulted on Ihc subject. 
He found the walls of a charch>yard near the place,' 
and the walls of several small villages in the nei^ 
bourhood, to be spotted with large drops of a blood-f 
coloured liquid. A little time before this he bad 
happened to pick up a large and l)cauiiful cbryavlis, 
which be had carefully laid in a box. Immediately 
after its transformation into the buiierfly state, be 

HsrrU'i Aurelim, p. i*. tab. i. Lcwiti, p, x. tab. j. 

t PapUiv AttUnU, P. lo, P. Potjrcblgn*, Set. 




remarlccd (hat it had left a drop of blood-colound 
liquor on the bottom of the box~, and that this drop, 
or stain* was as large as a French sol. The red staios 
on the walls, on stones near the highways, and in 
the fields, were found to be perfectly similar to that 
lel't on the bottom of the box. M. dn Peircsc now 
no longer besttalcd to pronounce thai all ibose btood- 
coloured slain!:, wherever they appeared, proceeded 
from the same cause. The prodigious number of 
Bultcrtlies which he, at the same time, saw flying in 
(ho air, confirmed his original idea. He likewise 
objt;rvcd that the drops of ihe miraculous ralrvwerc 
never found in the middle of Ihe town ; that they 
appeared only in places bordering upon the country i 
and that they never fell upon ihe tops of bouses, or 
up«>ti walls more clevaicd than the height to which 
Buticrflies generally rise. What M. dc Tcircsc saw 
bim»clf he showed lo many perMin.s of knowlerlge, or 
of curiosity, and established, as an incontestable fact^ 
(liat the pretended dropn of blood were in realitj' but 
drops of a ret) liquid dcposiled there by Buttcr6ie5. 
It is alw deserving o( remark, that all ihe showers 
of blotid ihal have been recorded lo have happened, 
took place in ti\e warm seasons of the year^ when 
the Butterflies are most numerous. 


THE Moths arc only to be seen flying abroad in 
the evening and during the night, which are their 
times of feeding. "Wit latvas or caier^iHitrs are 



\y smooth, and more or less cylindrical : they are 
veiy active creatures, and prey witli great voracity on 
the leB\'es of various plants. Their cbrysahds ore 
either concealed in the ground, or protected fiwn 
the inclemency of the weather by a silky covering, 
spun by the lar^-ae, round their bodies. In this elate 
they are cilh cr simple, or have a kind of hook at their 
^ extremity. 

H The antennic gradually taper from the base to the 
Bt^ The tongue is spiral, and the wings, when the 
animals arc at rcett, are generally deflected. 



The Silkworm is found in a native state on mut- 
bcny-trccs in China, and some others of the eastern 
counlries, from whence it was originally introduced 
into Europe in the reign of the emperor Justinian. 
It is, however, at this time beconw, in a commercial 
view, one of the most valuable of all insects; affording 
tboae delicate and beautiful threads that are after- 
wards woven into silk, and used in garments in al- 
most all parts of the world. 

In ibc warmer climates of the East the Silkworms 
arc left at liberty upon the trees; where they arc 
hatched, and on which they form their coccoons ; but 
in cooler countries where these animals have been 
introduced, they are kept in a room with a south 
aspect, built for the purpose, and fed every day with 
fnab leaves. 

• Sr*<wrw»— fAj/jwia mori. ijiwv— BonAy* mon. fa- 



Tbc eggs arc of a straw-colour, and each about 
the size of a pin's head. At its birtb the larv* or 
worm is entirely black, and about as long as a smalt 
ant; and it retains thb colour eight or nine days. 
The worms arc put on wicker Rhelves, corercd fint 
with paper, and on this withabedoftheniost tender 
of the mulberry-leaves. Several ranges are pUced, 
one above another, in the sume chamber, about a loot 
and a half apart. Tlie scaObldlng for these rangea 
should, however, be in the middle of the roont, 
and the shelves not too deep. Tlie worm continiiea 
feeding during eight days after its birth, when it be- 
comes about a fourth of an inch in length : it then 
experiences a kind of lethargic sleep fur three days, 
during which it casts its akin. It now feeds for 
about livccbys, and inconsiderably increased in size, 
when a second sickness comes on. In ihe next 
ten days it experiences two other attacks ; by which 
lime it has attained its full growth, and is some- 
what more than an inch in length, and two lines in 
thickness. It then feeds, during five days, with a 
nrost voracious appetite ; ai\er which it refuses food, 
becomes transparent, with a ttnge of yellow, and 
leaves its gitky traces on the leaves that it passes over. 
These signs denote that it is ready to begin its 
coccoon, in which it is to undergo it* change intt 
a chrysalis.— The animals arc then furnished witi 
little bushes of heath or broom stuck upright bet\veer 
the shelves: they climb up the twigs, wheie, aHer 
little while, they begin the foundation of their lod^ 
find are five day5Vfts\>WMn^V.V.teoccoon. They 
oerally rcm&ia \a \\ws aaVt aVi\j\ ^wVi-wwi^ ««.v 




The retreat that tbey thus form is a cone or ball 
trf" silk, spun (rom Iwo longish bags that lie above 
the intestines, and are filled with a gummy fluid of 
a marigold coloar. The apparatus with which the 
animal is furnished for spinning the silky threads 
that principally compose this bag, resembles, in some 
measure, a w ire-dram- er's machine, in which gold or 
nlver threads arc drawn to any degree of fineness i 
aad through this ihc animal draws its thread with 
gr«at asfliduily. As every thread proceeds from two 
gum-bags, it is probable that each supplies its own; 
which, however, are united as they proceed from the 
animal's body. If we examine the thread with a 
microscope, it will be found flattened on one side, 
and grooved along its whole length. Hence we may 
infer that it is doubled just upon its leaving tho 
body, and Ihat the two threads slick to each other 
fcy the gummy quality they possess. 

In a state of nature, the Silkworm, previous to the 

ginning of its web, wcka out some convenient place 

lo erect its cell without any obstruction. When it 

has foand a leaf, or a chink fitted to its purpose, it 

begins lo writhe its head in every direction, and 

fastens its threads on every side to the walls of its 

r«ire3l. These, being continued, form nt length 

the little oval ball in which it is to undci^ its 


The culcrior of the coccoon is composed of a 
Itind of rough cotton-like substance, which is colled 
:£oss; within, the thread is more distinct and wen j 
«Dd next the body of tbc aurelia the apartment KQ:vn% 
iiocd with a substance of the hard\»ts4 o^ yaiyi't* 


TH£ 81LKW0KM. 

lut of a much stronger consistence. The thread 

th'tch composes the coccoon is not rolled regularly 

'round, but lies upon it in a Tcr^ irregular manner, 

and winds off first from one side, and then from the 


In the course of six or seven days all the eocctwnB 
are gcnt'rally formed: they arc then taken off the 
bronchcs of heath, and divided into cIbsscss. The 
best are strong, snd of a pure unspotted colour. 
Some are white, and others yellow. The good ones 
are firm and sound, of a fine grain, and have both 
ends round and strong. Thotic ot a bright yellow 
yield more silk than the others. But the pale ones 
arc preferred bccauM: they take certain colours belter, 
and becuuse, since I hey contain leas gum than the 
others, they lose less than those in boiling. 

Five or six days after the coccoon has been detach- 
ed from the branches, ilm binh of the moth is pre- 
rented, as this vonid atherniAe pierce the shell, 
and thereby render the coccoon useless. To pre- 
vent this the coccoons are put into long shallow 
baskets, covered up, and baked fur about an hour, 
in a heat equal to that of an oven from which the 
bread is just drawn after being baked. 

After the baking Ihey nrc disposed in a pmpci] 
manneron ozier shel vcs, distributed into stories, ivn 
Or three feel distant from cnch other. 

The whole thread, if measured, will l>e foui 
.iboiit three hundred yards long ; and it is so vcrj' 
that eight or ten threads are genernlly rolled oft'ii; 
one by the [nanufacturcrs: For this purpo^ 
corcoons are put into MnuU coppers or bssonil 





water, each over n small fire. The ends of the 
thread;; are found by brDihtng-thpni over gently with 
a whisk made for (he purpow; snd in the winding 
they ure each passed through a hole, in a horixontnl 
bar of iron placed at the edge of the bason, wtiicb 
prevents thrm from becoming entangled- 

It is generally a fortniglit or ihicc week* before 
the insect within the coccoon is changed into z 
moth; bnt no sooner is it completely formed, thaa, 
havinf^ divested itself of its aiirelia .skin, it prepares 
to biirsT throngh its prison. For ih'ts purpose it 
extends its lieiiH towards the point of the coccoon, 
and giiaws a passage through itB cell, small at first, 
but enlarging as the aniinal increases its efforts for 
emanci|Mtion. The liitturcd remnants of its aurclia 
skin are IcA in confu<»ion within the coccoon, like a 
little bundle of dirty linen. 

The nnitnal, thus set free, appears exhausted with 
fatigue, ttnd secmn produced for no other purpose 
than to transmit a future brood. The male (lies 
immediately after its conjunction with the female; 
and ^he only survivcH htm till she has laid her eggs 
«rhich are to be batched into worms in the ensuing 

In many parts of Italy the inhabitants contrive to 
bave tvfo silk harvests in the year. They keep the 
^gs in very cool placets) and, when the mulberry 
liccs (af^T having been stripped entirely of their 
Icavc!* lir former worms) begin to bud 3 second 
time, they cx|K)sc the eggs to be hatched. 

I>uring tiie whole lime in which the animals con. 
tinue ta a norm state, the utmost care and attention 



is necessary, as they are extremely susceptible of 
cold, dampness, and unpleasaut smcUs*. 


The Imvaofthb lillle Moth is well known frcxii' 
the dainngc it commits oii woollen clotb and fun. 
Tbet>e sub^ilanccs coiistilulc tbc principal support 
ot'lhe caterpillar, and therefore the parent is, by its 
natural iaslioct, directed to deposit its eggs in thetn. 
The caterpillar, as soon as it quits the egg, begins to 
form for ilttelf b nest : for this purpose, afler having 
&pun a fine coating of silt: immediately around ics 
body, it cuts the filaments of tbc wool or fur close by 
the thread of the cloth, or by the skin, with its tccth> 
which act in the manner of scissars, into convenient 
lengths, and applies the bits, one by one, with great 
dexterity to the outside of its silken case, to which it ■ 
fastens them by means of its silk. Its covering being ' 
thus formed, it never quits it but in cases of the 
most urgent necessity. When it wants to feed, it 
puts out its head at cither end ofilscase, as best 
suits its convenicncy. When it wishes to change its 
place, it puts out its head, and its six fore-legs, by 
means of which it moves forward, taking care 6rst 
to fix its hind legs into the inside of the case so as 
CO drag it along. 

It li\*es in ibis manner till, by the augmentation of 
its size, its case beconncs too small for the body: when 

* Han mil Skinner oa the Progteu of the Silkwona fran Ibi 
Egg. Araer. Fhil.Trtn, ii. 347. 
t STKONTMS/^Fhalcoa sardulU. Z.(itn.— Tincft urcitalU. 







this ia felt, it beginfl by making a small addition to 
oaeendj then, turningitself within the case, which 
is always wide enough in the middle for lhatpiir|M£R, 
it nukes a little addition to the other end, so as still 
to preserve the widest part exactly in the middle j 
and in the same manner it makes every successive 

The progress of its ojicrations may be easily ro» 
marked, by transferring it from cloth of one colour 
to that of anolbcr. In this case every fresh addition 
will become cons|)ituoiis, by forming a small ring 
of the respective colours at each end as they are 

When the case wants widening, the insect, with 
its scis&ar-like teeth, begins by making a slit length- 
ways, from [he centre to one of the extremities. 
This opening it instantly fills ap with a thin stripe 
of wool externally, and silk internally, in the same 
manner as in the other parts. It afterwards, at a 
little distance from this, makes another slit at the 
lame end, which it also fills up; then, turningitself 
within, it repeats the same process from the centre 
to the other end. 

After changing within its case into a chrysalis, in 
about three week:) it issues asmalUwingcd nocturnal 
Moth, of a sih'ery.gray colour, well Ttnown to 
almost every mistress of a family. 

It may he found useful to point out the best 
mode* of preventing the havock which these insects 
commie in our wardrobes and furniture. — The smcU 
«fotl of turpentine is instantaneous death to them : 
if, therefore* the goods offectcd by them be put into 


a close place, along with a saucer or other opea 
vessel containing oil of turpentine, the warm air rais- 
ing the vapour will immediately destroy them. Some- 
times, if the caterpillars be old and strong, it may be 
necessary to brush the clothes with a brush, the pmnts 
of which have been dipped in the turpentine. The 
Gmoke of tobacco also kills them; and cloth that has 
been steeped in a decoction of tobacco-leaves wil! 
never be affected by them. 

[ 353 ] 


THE Dragon-flics are an extremely rarenous 
tribe, hoveringover stagnant |)0ol», as the hawks do 
over the land, in search of prey. Their /aru* arc 
active inhsibiianls of thu water; and, furnished with 
forcipated jnws, they prey wilh the most rapacious 
ferocity on aquntic inseots. The cbiysalis rescmhlea 
(he larva in every respect except in having the ru- 
ditnenls of wings. 

In both these primary state» the animals reopire 
water by receiving and ejecting it at an apenure at 
the termination of their bodies. They are occasion- 
ally observed to throw out water from thcnc« with 
such force, ' t Ibc stream is perceptible to the di- 
stance of TWO or three inches from their bodies. If 
they be kept some tir»(C )of water, the desire or 
necessity of re-'piration is ftgnicnted : and acconl- 
ingly, when replaced in a vessel filleiifd'''** ,watcr, in- 
spirations and respirations arc repeated .:o unusual 
Circe and frcijiiency. If one of tbem is held in the 
hand, and drop^ of water are applied to the postcriot 
end of its body, it instantly, by an app:iratU4 some- 
what similar to the pinion of a pump, sucks in thc- 
watcr, and the dimensions of its body arc visibly 
augmented. This water is again quickly ihrowrk 

• * Tbe IJnnrsa onler cf NiiUBomiiioL** iKtctiit C«iRBcmc«£ 
witfa Ih-i trihe. 




out by the same instrament. But though this iosect 
thijsrcspircs the water, air srem* to be not the I«5 
necessary to its existence; for, like other insects, the 
whole interior part of the body is amply provided 
with large and convoluted brcaihing-pipcs t and, ex- 
ternally, there are several small openings destined for 
the introduction of the air. 

The mouih of the Dragon-fly is armed with jaws, 
generally more than two in number. The nnlenruB 
are very thin, of ivjtial thickness ihroughout, and 
shorter than the thoran. The wings are expanded, 
and ihc tail of the male insect is furnished with ■ 
forked process. 


The length of this inspect is about four inctic9, 
it is of proporlionatc thickness. The eyes are bhit 
aod large. The tbcrax is variegald with green, 
yellow, and bliick ; and the abdomen generally with 
blue and black; but the colours vary consider. 

Thi« is, in its perfect state, one of the most 
brilliant of the British spocics, and affords a singular 
instance of (he wonderful diversity of form and 
manners between the larva and complete states of the ^, 
same animal. H 

The parent insect, towards the end of Msf, 
when ready lo deposit her eggs* seeks the warm 
and sheltered sides of ponds or ditches. She drops 


* SmorTMi.! Libcllota grandit. Lim.-^ 



Btbem on (he fiurfacc, hox-ering at the same time Dp 
rand down just above. They immediately sink to 
the bottooi, and^ after a Httic wtiilc, arc hatched into 
Ib(te8 of a dirty brown colour with six leg?, and 
bearing do resemblance whatever to the parent. 
Viese arc excessively voracious^ and destroy with 
thdr forcipated jaws multiliideD of the weaker w.-tter 
iosects. This formidable apparatus is so cotislrucled 
u to fold over the face when at rest, and to be siid- 
dcoly thrown fonvards> when in action, to a consi- 
flersUc enlcnl. The chrysalis differs from the 
larni only in exhibiting the riidim(.>ntit of future 
wings, which are enveloped in short cases or pro- 
oeascs on the back of the animal. After remaining 
ia this stale about two year;, the animal ascends the 
stein of aotnc valcr-plant, and, sitting some time in 
the sun>shtnc, gives biriti to the insect in its pcrrcct 
or ultimate form. This generally su disengages itself 
from the skin of the chrysatis, that it leaves it in ex- 
actly its former appearance on Ihe stem. *' About 
ihe beginning of May,"' says Mr. Bartram, in the 
Philosophical Transactions, *' I observed many de* 
formed water iitsects called Hexapecles creep out of 
the water and fix on shrubs and rushes. In this 
situation they continued hut a few hours before their 
backs split open, and from the deformed creatures 
sprung out beautiful flics with bright shining wing«, 
all of wbicb in less than an hour afterwards attained 
ihcir complete dimensions."' At the first exclusion 
of the insect the wings are weak and tender, and 
folded into a very narrow compa&s. During their 
anfoidiog, and till they become perfccVlj dt^^vVec^v 




tiDUC5 almost motionless; but itiey arc no sooner 
completed iban the little aoimal commences ao io- 
habitant of the air, and would now be itscficctually 
destroyed by ooittiRual stibmersion under water, as 
the larva would before have been by cx|)03urc to 
the air*. ^ 

Jn tlicir complete state, the Dragon-flies, ae I have 
already remarked, feed on the smaller insects; and 
they arc also remarkable for the vigour and c<:lcrity 
of their flight. Mr. Rcveit Sheppard informed we 
that, in the summer of 1801, be ttat for some lioie 
by the itide of a poucif to itbscrvc a large Dragon-fly 
as it was hawking back\vards and forwards in search 
of prey, when suddenly a large white Butterfly, 
rapiUo BrMiir^, flew past. The Dragon-fly In- 
stat^lyatiaekcd end caught it in the air, then settled 
on .1 twig, cl(>:«c at bnnd, to eat it at leisure. It bit 
ofFall the wings, and then, in less thsin a minute, 
devoured the whole body. 

These insects, which are very common Id Eng- 
land, (Icligtit in sun^hiac, and are seldom lo bo 
seen abroad in cloudy weiither, hiding [hcni»clvc$. 
during the absence of the .sun, under the le^ivcs aiul 
braudic--* of trees. 


THE Ephemerae difli^ in many rrspecls from nlT 
other insects. Tlicir larvx live in water (whcro 

• Phil. Tnn. vol. M. p. jaj.— Siaw'i f^'ai. Ath. veJ. jyi. 

TliB £rHC3dC».£ OR DAY-ri-ICS. 


cartti and clay seem lo be dicironly miirisliiTXint) for 
three year*, the time dicy consume in preparinf* Tor 
tlicir change, which is performed in a few moments. 
Tbclarvn.when ready to quit llinl slate, flriseslothe 
surface of the water, and, getting instaiit;ineoiisly rid 
of the skin, becomes a chrysalis. This ehrysaJij is 
fumislicd with wing-i, which it makes use of lo fly to 
the nefiresc tree or wall i and there settling, it in 
the same moment quits a iiecond skin, and becomes a 
perfect Ephemera. In this slate all llic species liva 
but 4 very short time, sotne of them scarcely half 
an bour« having no other bnstncfs to pcrfurm than 
(hat of continuing the race. They arc called the 
injcctfc of a d.iy; but very few of them ever sec the 
lighl of Ihc sun, Ijcing produced after sunset, during 
the short nights of summer, and dying long l)cforc 
the dawn. All their cnjnymentslhcreforc sepm con- 
fined cntiretv to their larva Male. 

The Ephemeras arc very trcqocnl near waters, 
and in son.c pinces multiply cnornimteily. AbottC 
Xinz, in Cnrniola, a province in Germany, wc arc 
informed, by Scopijii, that they are so numerous in 
ihe month of June thai thryarciiscd ns mnnnrc, and 
if each farmer cannot oUlain more than tiwnfj fart- 
/«t4tis, i!h.* har^cH is considered a bad one. 

I The hirvu! sroop ont dwellings in the ().in'>:s of 
rivers, which consist of small inbcs-made like 3y. 
pbnns, uiih two huiot, the one serving fur on crv 
tritncff nn'l the other as an outlet j and these are so 
ninncrous that the lianksof some rivers arc observed 
lo I e full of llieni. When the waters decrease, ihcy 
dij fresh holes lower down. TUv fl«a we V-aUV*;^ 
tvi. lit. Z 




nearly all at the same iostant, ia such namben as 
ev'cn to darken the air. 

The females, by ihc help of the threads of (hek 
tails, and ibu nH[i]>ing of ifacir wing>, support 
(bcm>clvcs on the tiurficc of ihe water, and, in «n 
almost upright juultoii, drop Iheir rgg$ in lUtle 
clusters inio tiie water*. A single insect will lay 
sometimeH seven or (right hundred. 

The mouth of the perfect insect has no jaws, bot 
18 furnished with four very short tbread>»hap«l 
feelers. The antcnniearc short and thread- shaped 
and above the eyes there arc two or three large 
stenimata The wings are erect (ihc lower ones 
much ibc shortest) and the tail ia terminated by 
long hairs or bristles. 


M. dt! Reaumur has described very accurately i 
metQmorj)ho(*is of one species, which, except in i 
time of the year when it is produced, aud (be du> 
ration of its fly state, seems very much to resemble 
tbc present species, and is most probably onty a M 
variety. ™ 

On the nineteenth of August, 1738, he waited 
for some lime after Kun-sct on the bank of the Seine, 
to see, as he bad been infr>rmed he might, millionn 
of Ephemerae come otit of the water, and ri^c into the 
air, and was rclnrning diuippointed a^ong with hit 

» Barbiit'j Gcti. Inwrf.aij. 
f SthomVmi.— Epticmeiavutgat). J-iagj^Viptimire mm- 
mane, ia Pnuice. 



scrrants who virL*re carrying a tub containing serenil 
lumps of earth full of ibeir holes and nymjiSx, when 
Bcarcely hul it been set on om of the steps of the 
Htatrs than those who had the charge of it exclaimed, 
B.*' What a vast quantity of Etihcmcrs arc here!" 
M. de Kejumur seised one uf the lights, and ran to 
Ibc tub. Ever)- part nf the earth that was above the 
water was covcrwl with Rpbcmcrni, some of which 
bad jti>i begiiti tn put off their coverings, otJHTs hud 
aitnoHt cflcuicd it, and others entirely completed ic, 
and were about la lake wing. A alorm uf light- 
ning and rain, which had been some time coming on, 
rnotv drove him into the house; but, to prevent the 
Ephemera from (lying away entirely in his absence, 
he had the prtr;:ulion to cover the tub with a cloth. 
1^1'be violence of the rain continued for about half an 
■ hoar, and on its ceasing he returned to the garden. 
On taking off the covering be ft>und the number of 
BEphcmcne very conAtderably augmented, and they 
" continued to multiply for some lime as he stood 
watching ihcm. The number already tnin>forrhcd 
from the cnrih that they had conveyed from the 
I river, unuid have been stil^eicnt (o have fitled the 
fob; but this numhcr was prodigiously augmented 
by the acot-sinn of ■.Irangcrs, which were ntlracted 
hy the light fmin all (jttarlcr^. Ur. ngain spread 

Iihc cloth overihe (ub.lind the light wa* held above 
il: Immedtjitcly the clulb was almost concealed by 
the vast multitudes svhicb alighted upon it. But 
what be had seen about tlie tub wa* aothing to 
what he saw when he went again to the tide of the 
river- •' The ^niitity of EpKemeta" ^t^*;^ ^i 



" which lillc<t the sir, can neither be esprcs^cd nor 
conccivud. When snow falU thickest, and in the 
largest flakes, the air is never so completely fillctl 
with thcin as I hat which surrounded as was with 
Ephcnicrtc. Scarcely bfld I runwiiucd a few mintitcs 
in one place, wlicn the Mep on which I stood W3> 
coi'crcdin every part witit tlicir bodies, to the dep(b 
of two or three, and in some places even of more 
tbnn four inches, i'hc nhole surface of the water, fl 
or mx fcDt At least frfim the hank, was cnlirelv co* " 
vcrcd with a contof Epbcmcinii th(»sc uhich the cur- 
rent carried oH" *vt;-e niorc than rcptacetl by thos* 
wbich (ell conunii-illy in that place. I was several 
unKf corn|K:IIcd lo abandon my siaiiun, by retreating 
to the top nf the »iair, no', beinir aMe io .sustain the 
Mliower of Kphenicr.% ivhich, not lialting so perpcndi' 
cularly as an onlinary shower, or with tin obliquity 
rtumlly con«i:inI, struck tnc utiiiiterrnptcdly, and 
in a very troublesome manner, on all parts of the 
face: tny eyi^S} nus*.*, and mcHith, were lilli^ wilb 
JLphcincnc. It was an unpleasant post tu hold the 
candle on this occasion ; llic man wlto held it bad m 
his irholc body covered with tlicac Hies in an in- ^ 
ttant; they rushed to him front ail parts in Mich J 
i|uanlitic:i a»too[)presiil>im. The lighi of the candle fl 
occaMoned a spectacle altogether ditfercnt from any ,, 
thing that can bcob»crveiP in any kind of mcle- I 
orological sl)owet; it was enchanting when once oh- 
ten'ed. The most unobscrving of my domestics 
could searcelv ever have been tircfl of at! miring if. 
No astlronoinic sphere ever forined fo cotnptv- 
cntcd a» it was, nur furnished with so many ctFcular 




Kones in cvcrv possible direction, having ihc t1«me 
of ihc candle for their common centre. Their 
number aj>|ir:ired to be iniinitc, tiavinjc oil possible 
degrees of oWtqiiity wiili respect to each other.- 
Each m>nc was tbrmul by an uninterrupted Mrittg 
of Ephcincrac, which, as if lied totjcthcr, followed 
each other citjse in the Hamc line ; they seemed to 
form a circular ribbon of silver, deeply indcnte<l on 
its edgtwj a ribbon formed of uqiial triangles put 
end to end, so that ilie angfes of those thai fjJIowed 
were supported hy the ba*c of that which preceded, 
ibe whole moving round with grcalqiiickncss. Ephc- 
mcrse, whose wings only were then distinguishable, 
and which circulated around ibc light, formed this 
appearance. Each of these fWa, after having dc-i 
Kribcd one or two orbits, fdl to the earth, or into 
Ihc water, but without liaving been burnrd by the 
candle." At the end of about half an hour from 
iU commencement, the great shon-er began to 
■bate, and in little more than an hour scarcely any 
Ephemerae could be necn above the river, and no 
more Clime near the candle. This phasnomenon 
M. dc Ueaumur found, upon .:xaminalion, look 
place every evening, commencing usually about the 
Bamc hour, during mo^t of the summer months. 

In this short period of existence, the female ap- 
pears to bawc no otiier'busincss than to lay her eggs. 
These are coninined in two large packets, each con- 
taining from 300 to 400, which are both exinidcd 
from the body at the same time, through two open- 
ings formed for the purpose, and they fall together, 




in OTIC accumulated mas'?, upon the n'ater. To ena- 
ble the creature to extnidc (Iicsct and at Ihc name 
time to fill up the great vacuum in the abdomco, 
that miisi loRtancousIy take placc^tbe fly is provided 
with n couple of !<m.ill bladders, which il hn^ the 
power of lilliig with air. 

The singular quickne.<^san<l ea'c with which ihae 
little creatures Mrtp Ihemselrra of the slough of the 
nymph, in order to become flies, is very surprising. 
We do not draw our arm more quickly from the 
sleeve nf acoal, th^m the Ephemera dr^M-s its body, 
its wings, its Icj^, and the long filauicnts of its tail, 
from that complicated vcstmL>nt which rorms & kind 
of sheath for all thew; parts. No sooner i& a renl 
effected iu the corselet, and the body seen through 
that rent, Dian Ihc rest of the operation U finished 
in an instant. Sometime?, indeed, it hap|>ens that 
the filaments of the tail cannot be so quickly 
disengaged a» the rest of ihe body. In ibis case, the 
insects fly away mth their slough appended : and 
sometimes also tbcsc slender filaments are broken off. 




THE antennae of those insects are about tl 
length of the ihor.ix, and thickest at the lip. TUt 
mouth is armed willi jaws, teeth, and ux feelers. The 
wings are deflected ; and the abdomen of the male 
tenniiiatcs in a forceps composed of two straight 



hairy, witli six feet, and stroog 

The iarv4e nrc 
cxserted toothcil jaws. They jn-cjr wjtii most sa- 
vage fcrocily on nnls, and some of ihc other smaller 
[insects; and, for the purpose uf ensnaring the prey, 
form a kind of funnel or pit in light earth, at the 
bottom of which they lie Luried. The innnncrs of 
most of the tribe greatly rcscnibte those of ihc fol- 
lowing^ spccicf. , 

The (ifrysalit is IncKscd in a little bull of sand or 
earth, the larliclcs of which arc agglutinated toge- 
ther by a viscid matter, which the loiva mixes witb 
it previously to its change. , 


The name of this insect is received from its living 
princi|«i1ly on anis. It is ihc c.iicr])illur of a fly 
somewhat resembling the dragon-fly. In the mode 
of taking its prey, and in the figure of its body, it 

hs not much unlike the »>[)ider. Its body is com- 
posed of several rings, and its colour is a dirty gray, 
marled with black, spots. The head is small and 
flat, and from this proceed two horns, each about 
the sixth of an inch long, hard, hollowj ond hooked 
at the end. 

I In its lar\'a $latc, thi» creature obtainf its food only 
by stratagem. His usual Mtuatioo is in a dry sandy 
M«I, under some old wall or other protection from 
the wind. Here he fonns a pit of the shape of a 
tunnel. If this is only to be MiialU he tbrusti* bim- 

* S¥R03it»s.^4l]rnneltoci fonoicariu!. Liat.—Lt Mj(tn£- 
Ugodca fuuimu, in France. 



self biukward jircKy deep, and artfully ihftnvs out 
the Iooi»c Kind, which has fallen in upon hiin, be* 
yond the edges of (he hollow, nnd at I lie bottom 
he then lies ronccaled. If it is to be of greater ex- 
tent, he hegins by first tracing in Hk: suribcc of the 
sand 11 tolciably large circle, which is (o form ila 
base. He then gels under th* sand neartbc edge,* 
and, procc^-tling backwardti in a spiral directioo> 
carcftdl}' throws tip nil the prltclcs ttmt fall UfMin 
his body beyond ihc circumfcrcnec of the orclei 
thiis he coininMcs dll he arrives nt the Bpcx of the 
cuitc he lia» iIais foriiied, His long ncckt and flat 
head, he unc» a^ a spade ; nnd ihc htn-ngih of thctc 
[>arl» is so gtrut th:il he is able to Ihruw off at once 
a considerable qiuinljty of {;ind to even six inches 

His pit being finished, be buries hin-.sdf among 
the s.ind itt the botlatn, leaving unly bis horns Vim* 
hie. Here he p»t*cnlly wails tor his prey. When 
an ont or any other small in^^cct happens to walk 
over the edges oi' the hollow, its steps Ibrce down 
some of the larticler* ; which gives the Ani-lion no- 
tice of it8 presence. He iinmcdmtely throws np 
the Kind whieh covers Ins licad, to ovcrwheltu the 
ant, nml, with il& returning force, bring it lo ibc bot> 
torn : this be coniinucs to do till ihc insect i» over. 
fome, and fjlls belwet^ii his horns. Every endea- 
vour lo e^enpc, when once the incautious int has 
stepped within ihe verge of the pit, i^ vain ; (or, in 
all its attempts to climb ihc itidc, the deeeptioua 
snnd ^lips from under it» feet, and every struggle 
prcfijiitaics it aiill lower. When within rc£cbj it« 






W enemy pliinec^ ihc prtints of his jaws into its body, 

I and, huvtng stK-.kcl out iill ilft juice;, ihram cue the 

empty sl:in to wjine distoiv.x-, thai ilic den may not 

bi'CiiiTic fripblftil to <>tlicn' hy M-c-ng (licir ftilow 

cnrciijiiiics Htrcw-cd about. I'^is done, tde iiiBcct 

V Tnonntn the wipes of bis pit, und repairs whatcwr 

V iitjtiry i( inny huvc <iiistaincc[ ; And (hen, dcKcndiiig*, 
I again conceals liimiscirat the boilom. 

I Tlic jaws of lilts crojltire nre hollow, nud scire aa 
B pumps lo cltTiw into its stomach the juice<i ot' liiosc 
W insects on wln'ch il fwd* j fur m the head there is 
. no mouth, nor any other organ vhich can answer 
^f ihc ^amc pttqx)se. The hurn^ being thcrct'orc so 
ncccs*nry lo iis Pfe, nature lias provided for therc- 

I storing of tlicni incase of ftccidciit ; for, it'cutolff 
iliey arc found to grow ngaiii. 
The fixid ihis crciiUirc procures by its pic can be 
but little • and as it hzA no power of catching its 
prey in any other way, its motions being very slow, 

»w»tne [wrsons have believed thnt its catchin/j now 
and t^rn an ant by thi* iticiih, was rather an act of 
diversion th:in hunger. But (hough the Ant-lion 
will live a long time withmit foo<l, and even paw 
ibroiigh all its changes when 5hut up in a box, yet 

I It is always rea<!y to cut when food is offered lo it. 
Il ahvu)» appC3r3 stnr>-eda[id ninall when kept thus; 
and if a fly is given ro it in that hungry htnic, it will 
suck mil all it!i juices so ;>crr\.'Cily th:it the rciiiainiiig 
shell may be rubbed lo powder between the lingcni, 
whiLst the boily of the crcalure that has sucked it 
«ppear£ remarkably ^wcllcd and distended, l-'or the 
sake of cxfcriinenf, M. PoojMirt put one of ibein 


THB AltT'LlOTt. 

into a wooden box witb some Mnd, and covered \\ 
with a f^^-'isa, f<o as to exclude every other insect. 
Here it formed its conc> and uatclird as as-un\ for 
prey, tIttMigh in vain. Tiius be kept it for several 
months, while in at) atljoiniog box he kept anochcr 
of the K.imc species, Kiipplie<) with food 
by giving it anta snd flies prcrij- regularly. Ho 
could perceive no dillerencc between the muveinentf 
or setions of tlic two t but when he look them (mm 
Iheir holes, he found the shdom^'n of that wbleh 
had fcccivvd no (ood was &hnink to a very tlimi- 
Tiuilve »ize, whilst the other retained its pru|*cr 

When the Anidion has lived iljt usual time in (he 
)arv3 stale, it leaves its pit, and buries tl>elf under 
llw surface of Ihe ^nd. Here it incloses itself in i. 
fine web, in which it is (o p;is$ in imnJunnaiioa 
into a ringed filalc. This web is nwdc of a sort of 
silk, which the creature spins in the manner of tbc 
spider, and of a quantity of the grains of santi ce> 
inentcd together by a glutinous humour which flov*> 
from itb pores. I'his casc^ however, wuuld be too^h and coarse for the body of the creature, and 
therefore it fervcs onl) for the covering, to defend 
it from external injuries ; the animal spinning one 
of pure and incomparably fine silk, of a beautiful 
pearl coluur, within it, which covers its whole body. 

When if h:& lain some time in ihU case, it throws 
off its outer skin, and becomes an oblong nymph or 
chry«jli:', in which a careful eye may trace the form 
of (he fiy into n-hieb it is lo be minsformcd. This 
tiymph makvi its way about half out of the ahcl). 





and remains in this condition, but wiihout further 
life or motion, till ttie perfect fly comes out at a slit 

■ in the back. Iti this last state, as I have before 
observed, it much resembles the dragon-flie^. 

!■ When (his insect fomis it» pit in a bed oC pure 

^sand, it is made and repaired with preai ease; but, 

where il meets , with other substances among the 

sand, the labour becomes much more cmb:trrassing. 

■ If, fur instance, when the creature has half formed 
it, it COTncs to a stone of some moderate size, it 
iloes not desert the \vork on tlii^ arcoiiut, but goes 
on, intcndinf^ to remove chst impediment the la*it. , 
When the pit is finished, it crawls backward up 
(he side of the place where the stone is ; and, get- 
ting its tail under it, takes great pains and time to 
gcc it on a true poise, and then begins to craw) 
backward with it up ilic edge to the top of the pit 
1o get it out of the way. It is a very comtiion thing 
lo arc the Ant-lion labouring in this manner at a 
£lone four limes as big as its own body ; and as it 
can only move backward, and the poise is difficult 
to keep, especially up a slope of such crumbling 
tnattcr as sand, which moulders away from under 
ats feet, and oecessnrily alters the poiiiion of its 
Wly, the stone very frcqucnily rolls down, when 
near the verge, quite to the boltoin. In this case 

^ihc animal attacks it again in the same w.iy, and is 
not often discouraged by five or six miscarriages ; 
but continues its struggles so long that it at Icngih 
gets it over the verge of the place. When it has 
done this, it docs not leave it there, lest it should 
roll in a£;aLii -, but is alwoys at the painii of pushing 


it further on, till it has removed it to a necessaiy 
distance from the edge of the pit. 

The insect, in a perfect state, is but seldom found ; 
it is, however, sometimes to be met with in saudy 
ptaces and near rivulets. It is marked in Dr. Tnr- 
ton's translation of the Systema Natura^ as a native 
of this country, but [ ha\'e never jpt heard <rf any 
one's discovering it. 

C 349 ] 


ALL l^e Ichr 

parasitical j tlicir U 

ineumoiiA are parasitical j tlicir larvae 

ilcriving support from other insects. The female, 

irhcn about loliiy hcrepgs, perforates with her s(ing 

e'dher the body or the nidus of some other insect or 

'caterpillar, and deposits them there. The sting of 
»nc of the ipecitrs, thotigh cutrcmcly fine, is so strong 
as to penetrate throiifjli mortar and plaster. The 
fixKl of (he family lo Ik produced from the eggs of 
this (1y iii the brvmof w«>:ps or mfison-bees ; for it 
no sooner tli^ovcrs one of those nests thnn it fixes 
on it, and in n moment bores through the mortar of 
which it lit biitll. 

Some species aggTutinatc Ihcir eggs o|x>n eatcr- 
pillnrs i oihcnv {K'netriitc ihcir Imdics, and deposit 
the eggs in their Inside. When the /ar^'.r are 

i Kitchctl, Ihc head is m sitti.ilcd ihal they pierce ihc 
caler|)illjirs, atid pcnetruic lo their very cnlrails, 

r These lonae suck ihc nulrilions juices of the crea- 
tures without allncking their vitals; for iht-y .«com 
to be nil the lime piTfcctly healthy, and even some- 
times arc enabled lo transform thcm'!cli-es into rhry- 
ftdliOs. *• A friend of mine,*' says Dr. Derham, 
•* piit about forty large cateiijilhirs, collected from 
cabbage*, on some brnn and a few Irjn,-c8, into a 
box, and covered it with gauze lo prevent c*cajic. 

** Thr LtMnaanidfilstar'HxMiifiirnaotN Im«cn commences 


AOer a few days we saw, from more tbao ibrec 
fourths of them, about eight or ten little caterpillars 
of I he Ichneumon Hy come out of their hacks, aod 
spin each a small coccoon of silk, and in a few d.iy4 
tbc large caterpillars died," — The Ichneumons per- 
formed sinjjutar service, in the years 1731 aod »-73»t 
by miilliplying in the same pmportion us the caief* 
pillars : their larvx destroyed infinitely more of these 
voracious crenlures than could possibly have been 
done by all the elTurts of human industry*. — 
Aphides orPlant-ltce, and the larva of various other 
itutectfl, are also made (he nidus of the Ichneumon. 
l*he nntennEC of the Ichneumon flics taper to- 
wnrd-t ibcir extremity, uuJ con»i»t of more ibao 
thirty joints or ariieutalions. The mouth is armed 
widi jaws, and has ioar unequal thrcud-aba{)cd 
feelers. At the cxtrrmity of the abtlorncn there is 
a long sting, having, however, no pungent property, 
inclesed in a cylindrical iihcalh composed of |no 


The present species is about an inch in length 
from the head lo tlic c»ilrcmity of ihc abdomens 
the tail mcasurc^i near an inch and a hiiir. and the 
antcnnaa somewhat more than half an inch. The 
body is black, and the leg* are dtisky. The abdo- 
men is cylindrical and sessile, not being connected 

* Bubal's Gen. Inieet. 145. 
t STnoHVMi.— Ithncitmon MuiiffSUlor. Urn. Gmtl. — Viek' 
MinifrttftUur. Ttfvj. 



with the thorax, as in several of the species, by a 

The care and attention pnid by the whole of the 
animal creation to ihe preserv.ilion of ihcirot^spring, 
14 a subject ihat Uoi employed thcallcntiou and ex- 
citeJ the aHmiralion of al) ages ; yd there nrc few 
treatures in which these proprrtie* ore more iiianilcftL 
than in this (limiaulivc uiiimal. 

Thomas MarsJMiin, esij. an nccnratc observer of 
natiiro, ^cem;* to huve bcer\ the first who lias re- 
corded this part of tlie economy of the Icbnetimcn 
Maiiifeslator. fn the inont!i of June 1787, he ob- 
served one of thej:e insects on the top of a post 
in Kensington Gardens. It moved rapidly along, 
hjving its antennae bent in the form of an arch; 
■nd, with a strong vihrntory inniion in 1 hem, felt 
about until it came to a hole mode by some insect, 
into which it thrust them quite to the beatl. It re- 
mained about a minute in this tutualion a|)psiren1ty 
*erv busy, and then, drawing itfi anlennsoui, came 
round to the oppnsiie side of the hole, and agtiio 
thrust ihcm in, and remained nearly the pamc time. 
It next proceeded 10 one side of ihe hole, and re- 
pented the suttie operation there. H»tving now ng:iiii 
dni«'n out its antcnnx, it turned about : and, dcx- 
Tcrotisly measuring a proper distance, threw bacfc t** 
aWomcn over in head and thorax, and projected ihc 
longand delicate tube at ics tail into the hole. Afret 
n:h)aining near two iniiiuic-t in this (X^ition, it dre\t 
out the lube, lurned round, and again applied its 
-anfconiB to the hole for nearly the same lime an Us 
^rti and then t^in inserted «*■ VuVc. 'W'Ros^ 



rnlion was repeated three times; bul Mr. Marshnnt 
approaching too ocar, in order, if possible, to ob- 
Kfvc with a glass what wah parsing in the tube^ bo 
frightened the insect cntlivly nwjiy. 

About a wick iirtcrnnul«t Mr. M. was in Kco' 
singlon Gartlciis, nnd saw several of lhc«: Ichncij- 
moii!; at work. Thvy ;i|>iican;d 1o pierce the soli^l 
\voQt\ with their tubes, which tbcy forced in er^ 
lo half Ihpir length, eon^tantljf passing Ihem bc- 
iwecn the hinilcr thighs, which they closed in order 
CO keep the lubes sirnighlf when over rc««sl*nce 
would olhcrwi^c h.ive funded them to bend. It ap- 
peared truly ourpri^iog (o 5cc fln instrument, appa- 
rently weak and slcndcrt ubic, wiib the i^lrengtb nf 
so £m.ill an iMiiinal, 1(}pit;rcc i<olid wood half or three 
(jnnrlcrs of im inch deep ; but, on |urpcu1ar a:icn- 
lion, it was dibcovcrcd, that all (ho-K: that apf»carcd 
(o pierce ihc solid wood, did it through the centre 
of a small white Pi>ol rt'>cnibliiig mold or mildew, 
which, on minute cx.imiriaiton, fuund tu be 
line white ^ncl, delicately closing up a hole made by 
iheyffis maxii/fsa, and where, no doubtj there were 
joung hccs dr|xisiled. 

Id deep holes that were not closed the insect uot 
only thrust in the uholc tube, but in some comtr tbr 
whole of the iibduinun and posterior legs, leaving out 
only the two fore Tcci itrid wiog.^, which it placed 
in eoutmr); directions like arms., j 'JThc ivrv . caus of 
tht* tube were ^Uti prpjn:ltc;U up lb« back, ,«i|b.UiP 
cndsiitppeuriiignbdvi; the he;td.oui of ihehiil^^. 

From Mr. Marfhrn»'& account it| apjioacfr ibat 
tbvic Jn»rcts ^^^i tiuV aOhD\A «Vk>j Wtb \'udUcTiii)tuAtcly 






[M a situnlton Tor Ihcir eggs ; for. In many instances, 
be saw them thrust their antennre into boles and 
icrctlccs from which they almosi immctliatcly wilh- 
"drctv ihcm, anti proceeded in search of others. 
As the whole of the Ichneumons de|K»it Ihcir eggs 
in the body of some other creature as a nidus, it 
appears |M-ohabIe that in ihesc instances ihey found 
the holes empty, and that they went on in search 
o( thuse in which the young of the 7//>« maxi/Josa 

tWere dcpoiiitcii. 
A particular inMancc of sngaclty in one of these 
Kule animals Is deserving of remark. While it had 
^i(t Uihc inserted, the cat^cs were, a$ usual, projected 
upwards out of the holcj and the wind, being very 
poHTriul, rendered it difficult tor this dclicale animal 
to maintain its situation, as these long cases were 
_wi strongly acted upon by the wind as lo endanger 

■ its being overset several Itmcs. To remedy this in- 
conventeiiec, with a ttotiilciful dcxtoriiy it brought 
Ibe cases down between its tegs, and projected them 

■ forwards under its body luAard the hea<l ; by which 
tncanf it retained its situation securely*. 

I MANY 5f»ecie.s of the Sphcx arc cotnmon in 

■ England. They nit chiefly found in wooda and 


rot, i/f 

• LiniuTnin. iii. 33. 

A a 



hedges ; and their lamt feed on dead msccts* in the 
bodies of which the parent Spbrges by thcHr eggv 

Some of the F^pcciefi dig holes in the earth, hke 
dogs, with tbcir fore feet, in each of which they 
btir^ a dead insect, afler depositing their egg» in lit 
body, and then carefully close them up t^ain with 

No crealurrn vvhatcvur drs]ilay greater nfTcctton for 
their offspring tl>an ilieae; nor are anymore rapa- 
ciotu. They arc excessively fierce, and, mtbout 
hesitalion, attack insects much lai^r than them- 
selves. Their strength is very great ; their }au» are 
hard and sharp, and their stings artned with a poison, 
which suddenly {jroves fatal to oKist of the creatures 
with which they engage. The Sphex seizes xri'h 
the greatest boldness on tbc creature it attacks, giv- 
ing a stroke with amazing force, then falling off* 
to rest from the fatigue of the exertion, and to enjoy 
the victory. It keeps, however, a steady eye on the 
object it has struck till it dies, and then drags it to 
its nest for the use of the young. The number of 
insects that lhi& creature destroys is almost beyond 
conception, fifty scarcely serving for a incal : the 
mangled remains about the mouth of its rctreal 
sufficiently betray the sanguinary inhabitant. The 
eye^, the f)lamcnt that 9er\-c3 -is a bruin, and n small 
part of the contents of the body, arc all tbat the 
Sphcx cats. 

The aiKennie in this tribe co#sist of ten joints or 
articulations ; and the luoutli is armed with jaA-s. 
The wtng«i in both wxesarc extcntied> and do not 





fold together. The sliog is pungent, and conceal- 
ed within the abdomen. 






This inMXt lives in the hatints of men, whom U 
never willingly oftends; but it h the terror of all 
the smaller initecis. It inhabits holes in the earth 
on the sides of hills and clifB, and recesses that it 
fbrnns for itself in the mud-walls of cottages and 
outhouses. The mtid-wall of a cottage in Pclcr- 
borotighf in Northamptonshire, was observed to be 
frequented by these creatures ; and, on cxaminalioni 
it was found to have been wrought into the appear- 
ance of boney-cotnb by (heir operations. 

The q^s, a5 in all the other ^>ccicS} arc deposited 
by (he female in the back part of the cells. These 
arc stort.^ with insects, for food to (be larva: as aoon 
as they come into life^ and then filled up. 

Dr. DerJiam observes that a S[)ecics of Savage 
built lis nest in a little bole of his &tudy window. 
The cell was cooled over with an odoriferous and 
rrsinous gum, collected, as he supposes), from some 
neighbouring tir-trccs. The insect laid two eggs, 
and he soon afterwards obseri'cd it several times to 
carry in mtiggots, some of which were even larger 
than itself. These it wry sagaciously sealed up 
with great carefulness in the neal, and then altoge- 
ther left it. 

[ 355 


THE San(!-wasps were separated from ihc la 
tribe by the Rev. Mr. Kirby ; ihougli, in their man- 
ners and cEconomy, the insects of each bear a near 
resemblance Fn their external appearance there are^ 
however, characteristics »tul1icicnt to admit, with great 
proprietj-, of two genera. 

In these the beak i^ jzooical, tnBeclul, and con- 
tains a retraeiilc tubular tongue that is c1cf> at the 
end. 7'hc jaws form 3 kind of forccpi, and are 
threc-toolhcd at the tip ; and the anlcnnx' in cadi 
«ex are thrcad*sbapcd, with about fourteen Joinls 
or articulations. l*hc eyes are oval, and the wings 
plane. The sling is pungent^ and concealed in lb* 


In this spcciefi the antennae have Ihirtcen arliculs* 
tion?, and are inserted in a hollow on tbe from of 
the htf&A. The abdomen is club<$hapcd, and joined 
to the thorax by a long two-joioled pedicle. Tbe 
wings arc equal, and the colours of the body black 
and ferruginous alternately. 

It is very common about s.indy banks exposed to 
tbe sun, in Norfolk and Suffolk, but rare in ibc 
neighbourhood of London. Itisctisily disliogtiisfaed 

Kiriy in Lhn. Trja. Le Spliti <lu Sable, in Funcc. 


from other insects by the elongated pedicle of its ab- 
domen, and very short wings. When it flies it al- 
ways carries its abdotncn pointing upwards, so ns to 
be oeariy at right angle* with thai part of the tho- 
rax to which it is attached*. 

Its history is interesting, and, in its manners, it is 
greatly allied to the species of the prcccfling genus. 
The mofit pleasing fact is that related by Mr. Ray : 
•* I observed one of them (says he) dragging a 'greea 
caterpillar thrice its onrn t>.ize ; it laid Xhia down ncur 
the mouth of a burrow ihnt it had made in the 
ground; then, removing a little ball of earth with 
which il had covered the orifice, it first went down 
Itself, and, after staying a short time, returned, and, 
seizing the cjilcrpillar iig:iin, dre\r il down with 
him. Then leaving it iherc, it catnc up, and, tnking 
some little globules of earth, rolled them one by one 
itilo the burrow, scraping (In- dtiM in hy intervals 
with its fore-feet, in the manner of a dog, thus alter- 
nately rolling in pieces of earth, and scraping in dust 
till the hole was full ; sometimes going down (as it 
seemed to me) to prc&s down (he earth ; and once 
or twice %ing to n fir-tree which grew near, per- 
haps to get tnrp<*ntinc to glue it down, and mako 
it firm. The hole being filled, and equalled with 
the superficies of the earth, that its enlrsncc might 
not be discovered, it took two fTr-leavc» that were 
near, and laid ihcm by the month, most probably to 
mark the placet." 

[ 3SS ] 


These liitle creatures form for their cells cylindri. 
cjil pipes of ctny, each about the [hicknest and length 
of the litlTc finger, against the timber under iho 
roofs of houses, or under palo* where ihcy may bo 
ftheltercd from ihc weather. They form eight or len 
of them by the side of and joining to each other. 
Each of these tubes is divided by scvem) partitions, 
betwixt every one of which the female lay» an egg; 
and a» ihcy are formed they arc stopped upj but 
none of them without an egg, and the bodies of 
several insecrs to support the future young before it 
can come to light. When one is stopped up an. 
other is begun at its end, and so on till the whole 
work is completed. 'I'hese insects are silent at all 
titncK, except during the plastering and forming of 
(heir ccllsj and they no sooner set about their work 
than they always emit an odd but pleasing sound, 
which is audible at the di»tance of ten ur twelvo 
yards, and seems to render Iherr labour cheerful. It 
is exceedingly diverting to observe the surprising 
HexTerily and the whimsical gesriculations that Ihey 
adopt in prrforming this important business. They 
first moisi en the clay, then temper it intoa little lump 
oftht: &i£c and shape of a s^van-shot, and apply it to 
the walls of their nest. They commence their ope- 
rations ut the uppet: part, and work downwards, till 




the cell is long enough to contain the clirj&alis. — 
Aflcr having spread out cIhs Utile lump in ii praper 
manner, they return for fresh malerialR. They ccaie 
their bumming noise the momenc they depart from 
their cell, but always commence it immediately on 
putting together cbc materials they have been out 
(or. When a cell is finished, they are always very 
careful to render ic perfectly smooth on the inside. 

The insects that this fly secures for ilB young are 
principally spitlers, which will in sotne measure ac- 
count for its generally forming its cell under rcxifs of 
buildings, and other places where spiders arc usually 
found. It docs not kill them, but only in some man- 
ner so disables Ihcm that they cannot escape; by 
which means they arc preserved alive and uncor- 
rupted till the young larva is produced, which is not 
long after the egg is deposited. They sometimes 
6cize and fly off with spiders that are equal in size 
to themselves ; and when one of them proves too 

»ghty to be carried oJF, if it is not at a gnent dt- 
Rtancc, the insect drags it to her nesL Mr. Caicttby 
once saw an exceedingly large spider dragged up a 
wall by one of these Hic^ to it!) neat ; and both of 
them being caught and weighed, ic was found that 
tbc spider was eight timc& the weight of ibe Hy. 

hy the time llic larva has devoured all its provi- 
sion it is ready to undergo im change; and fur this 
purpose ttpins itself up in a fine sofi »Iken case about 
the end of September, and remains in a chrysali.'i 
slate lill (he spring ; when it gnaws its way out of 
(he clayey dwelling, and becomes an inhabitant of 
the air. 



The insect is then about three quarters of an inch 
long, an>l of a dark blue culutir. The padicle con- 
necting the abilomen and thorax is nbout a quarter 
of ati inch ill length. The antenna! arc black, attd 
the wings tinted blue, and tipped with black. — It is 
futind in Carolina^ and varioutt other ports of North 


The nest of this species, as well as ihai of the last, 
is formed witb considerable art and ingenuity. Th< 
inwcb scratches in the steep side of some bank of 
loamy earth a hole, about an inch in 
diameter, and near a foot long, making tt smooth 
within, and pressing the earth so strongly as to se- 
cure it from giving way. She then flies ofF and 
seizes one of the Urge green grashoppers, and lodges 
it safely at the further end ; and, after laying an cgi 
she again goes off and catches tvro others, which s 
dc)K»iic9 u'ith ihe former, and then cIosca up t 
hole, The lar\'a nhcn produced fccdi on the bodies 
of the graAboppcrs rill ics change, into a chry-salis. 
It remains in this state for some timet but when it 
becomes perfected it eats its way out, and flics off. 

The grashoppers caught far the young arc oflca 
much larger and more strong than the parent insect. 



he ^ 

* Phil. Trail, n. +76. p. jCj.— Vol.Kli(i. p. 36J — Citabj, 
App.p. J. 

i Stmokyms. — SpfacK Poinsylvanics. LiimP — AmmopbiU 

Peiwfrlruiica. /Tirfy, Grat Black Wup from PcnoirlncU. 




80 that considerable cars is necessary in attacking-' 
ifacm. She is said to seize them sudtlcnl}-, mid to 
plunge her sting into Ihcir body in such a matiner 
as not to kill, but merely to render them inactivej 
for, as in the la&t species, il is neeessnry diat they 
should be kept alive for some time in the nest, or 
they would otherwise putrefy, and become unfit for 
the purpoitc ihcy were designed to answer'. 

The Sand-wasp is above an inch long, and of a 
black colour, with the wings inclining to violcl. It 
a an inhabitant of North Amci-ica, where it fccd> on 
grashoppers and other insects, aa well as on various 
kinds of fruit. 


THE Wasps arc in general round in large sode- 
ttes like the fico, constructing curious combs or 
nests, in whicli (hey deposit their eggs. Some, 
lowevcr, are solitary, and form for each young a 
'separate nest. Their !tif\'er aru soft, without feet, 
and are fed with the nectar of flowers and honey, but 
of a kind very inferior to that collected by the Bees. 
The tbrysaiii is without motion, and has the rudi* 
menis of wings. 

A distinguishing ix>pular character ofthistribeis 
their having nmooth bodies, apparently without bain. 



and their upper wings when at rest, folded tbrougb 
their whole length. Al the base of each of the^e 
there is a scaly process, [KrronriR the office of a 
ipritig, in prcveoting them from nsing loo high i 
• caution of some importance to these cantivoroui 
insects, which pursue thdr prey on full streicb oT 

The mouth is horny, and furnished with a coin- 
preesive jaw, and four unequal thread-shaped feelers. 
The antcnnec are aUo tiliform, the fir^l joint longer 
than the rest, and cylindrical. The sling it pun- 
gent, and concealed within the abdomen. 


The Common Wasp always forms its nct^t under 
the ^nrfsce of the earth, in a dry soil, and not on- 
fretjucntly occupies with it a (braaken dwelling of 
the nwte. The bole tliut leads to it is about an inch 
in diameter, from half a foot to two feet deep, and 
generally in a zigzag direction. 

When cx|>oscd to the view, the whole nest ap- 
pears to be of a roundish form, and is usually twelve 
or fourteen inches in diameter. It is atrongly for- 
tified all round with walls, tn layem, formed of a 
substance somewhat like paper, the surface of which 
is rough and irregular. In these walls, or rather in 
this external covering, two holes are left for passages 
to the combs, one of which is uniformly adopted 

* Stkohths,— Vttpa ivlguu. Linn^ 
in Fnnce. 

'La Gb^ comrouoi; 




for entrance, and the other as a passage out. The 
Interior of the nest consists of several stories or 
floors of combs, which arc parallel to each other* 
and nearly in a horizontal (Kjsilion. Every story 
is composed of a numerous assemhUgc of hexago- 
nal cells, very regularly construcied, of a mailer re- 
sembling a kind of Rsh-colourcd paper. These cells 
contain neither wax nor honey, but arc solely de- 
stined for containing" the oggs, the worms which arc 
hatched from ihcm, the chrj'wiliJs, and the young 
"Wasps till thfy arc able to fly. The combs arc from 
eleven to fifteen in number. Reaumur computed 
the number of cells in the combs of a middte-sizcd 
nest to be at least ten thousand ; and, as every cell 
tend for no Icsa than three generations, a nest of 
tb'm description would annually give birlh (o iMriy 
thotutiiui young Wasps. 

The different stories of combs are always about 
half an inch high, which leaves free posisagcs to the 
Wasps from one fKirt of the nest to another. Each 
of the larger contbs is supported by about AAy piU 
tars, which, at the same time that they give sdidily 
to the fabric, greatly ornament the whole nest. The 
lesser combs are supported by the same contrii'ance. 
The Wasps begin at llie top and work downward, 
the upjicrmost comb being tirst conslrucled, and at- 
tached lo the superior part of the external covering. 
The second comb is affixed to ihc bottom of the first, 
and in this manner the animals proceed till the whole 
is completed. 

M. de Reaumur, In order to examine some parts 
of the internal economy of these insects, conirived to 



make (hem lodge and n-ork in glass hives like the 
IToney-bccs. Their extreme .iftcction for their off- 
springAidcd him greatly in this ; for be found that, 
although ihcir nests were ctit in vurious directions, 
and even exposed to (he light, they never decried 
it, nor relaxed in their .-ictentionA to the young. 

Immediately after a WuAp':* nest had Lccii Irans- 
ported from xth fkatural ^.ituaiion, and covered with a 
glass hive, the tirst operation of the insects wba to 
repair the injuries it had suffered. Wiih wonderAJ 
activity they csrricd off all the earth and foreign 
bodies that had accidentally been oooTCyed into (be 
hive. Some of them occupied themselves in filing 
the nest to (he lop and sides of the hive by pillars 
of pajier, similar to those that support the dttlcrcnt 
stories or strata of combs; others repaired the 
brcnchcTiil had sustained ; and others forlificd it, by 
augmenting considerably (he thickness of jls cx^ 
lemal cover. 

in (he formation of their nests Wafips differ great. 
ly from the Bees. InMead of collecting the farina 
of flowers, and digesting it into wax, they gnaw smnll 
fibres of wood from the sashes of windows, the poai^ 
and doors of gardens, Sec. which their strong and 
serrated jaws enable them to do with great tasc,^ 
These fibres, though very slender, arc often a tenth 
of an inch in length. After culling a certain num- 
ber, they collect them into small bundles, transport 
them to their nest ; and, by means of u glutinous 
substance furnished from their own bodies, the la> 
bouriug wa<;ps, which arc employed in the nest, form 
them into a mois: and ductile paste. Of this sub- 



slancc Ihey conslnict the cxlemal cover, !bc par- 
titions of the nest, the hexagoniil cells, ami the 
solid columns tliat support ttic several stories of ihe 

In iIjc republic of Wasp?, like that of ibc Bee?, 
there are itirccdiftcrcnl kiinlnof flies males, females, 
ami neuters. TIrc greatest share of labour devolves 
upon the neuters : but they are not, like the neuter 
Bcc», the only workers; for ilicrc is no pare of the 
diOerent opera;iun>> which the females at certain 
limes do not cxcculc. Nor do the males remain 
etttirely idle. The neuters, ho*-cvcr, build the nest, 
feed the males ^be females, and even the young. 
But, while are occupied in dilferent employ* 
mcnls at home, the others are abroad in hunting ]Mir» 
tics. Some of them attack with intrepidity live in- 
fects, which ihcy mmctimes carry entire to the nc&t ; 
but if these aiT: at all large, they transport only Ihc 
abdomen. Others in.ike war on thii Btcs, killing 
tbcm for the honey they hnve iu their bodies, or 
plundering their hives of the fruits of their labour. 
Some rcAort to the gardcnii, and suelc the juices of 
fruit ; nml others, pillage butcher;.' iUilU, from which 
they often arrive with a piece of meal larger even 
than the half of tlicir bodies. Butchers, lioMcvcr, 
frcc|UL-ntIy turn lbc« operaliousof the Wasps to ad- 
vantage, by hanging up before their itliops a calf's 
liver, or any lender meat. The Wasps come in quest 
of this delicate luod, and pursue ihc bluc-boi ile liics, 
from whose eggs are produced the inaggota thai spoil 
meat. When they return to the ncsl iheydislribule 



a part of their plunder to the females, lo Ibc male*, 
Btiil CO such neuters as hnvc been usefully occupied 
at home. As soon as a neuter enters ihc nest, it 
is surroutidecl by several Wasps, to each rif which it 
freely gives » jioriion of ihe food ic has bfoogbl. 
Those that have not been hunting for prey, but have 
been sucking Ibc juices of trutis, tboiigh ihey seem 
to return empty, fail not lo regale their componiontj 
for, after their nirival, they station themselves on the 
upper part of the nest, and discharge from tbctr 
inoulbs two or three drop:i of clear liquid, which are 
immediately swallowed by ihc domcsucn. 

The neuter Wasps are the smallest, the females 
much larger and heavier, and tbe males are of an in- 
termediate size between the two. ]n the hive of tbe 
Honcy-bee,tbe number of females is extremely small; 
but in a Wasp's nest tbey often amount to more than 
Ihree hundred. ^ 

The eggs are white, transparent, and of an ob- ^ 
long shape ; but tbey differ In size, according to the - 
kind of Wasps that arc to proceed from them.— H 
Eight days after they arc deposited in the cells, ihc 
worms arc batched, and arc considerably larger than ■ 
tbe c^gs from which they arc produced. Thewormt T 
demand the principal care of those WasjjB that con- 
tinue always in the nest. Tbey feed them as birdi 
feed their young, by giving them from lime to lime 
a mouthful of food. It ts astonishing to see wilb 
what industry and rapidity a female runs along ibe 
edit of a comb, and diEtribulcs to each worm a 
pottioa of nutriment. In proportion to the ages ai 







conditions of the worms, Ihey arc frtl with solid food, 
mich OS the bellies of insects, or with a liquid sub- 
stance disgorged by their foster pnrent. When a 
worm is so large as to occupy its whole cell, it is 
ready to be melamgrpfaosed into a chrj'salts. It then 
rcTuscK all nourishment, and ccascj co have any con- 
nexion with ihc Wa^ps in tlii: next. It shuts up the 
mouih of its cell with a fine t^tllcen cover, in ibcsame 
manner as the silk-wonn and other caterpillars spin 
Ihcir cticcoons. This opctation i» completed in 
ihrci: or four hours, and the animal rernaitis a chry- 
salis nine or ten days ; when, with its teeth, it de- 
Ktroys the external cover of the cell, and comes Ibrth 
a winged insect, which is either male, female, or neu- 
ter, according lo the nature of the egg from which 
it wa& hatrheJ. In a short time the Wasps newly 
transformed receive ihc food brought into the nest 
by the foragers from the fields. What is Mill more 
wonderful is, llial in the course of even the first day 
afler their transformation the yoiin; Wasps have 
been observed going lo ihe Ijeldit, bringing in pro- 
visions, and dislribuling them to the wornu in the 
celts. — A cell 'u no sooner abandoned by a young 
Wa?ji, than it is dcancd, lrimmcd> and repaired by 
the old one:ij and rendered in every respect pfO[>cr 
for the reception of another egg. 

Cells arc constructed o( difTcrcot diiT>cnsions for 
Ibc neuters, males, and females ; and tt is vcr)' re- 
ntarkabtc, that ihojc of Ihc neuters are nc\*cr inlcr- 
mncd with the cells destined for the others. 

This wonderful edifice, that requires the labour of 
the anitnals for several months, serves them only for 


TUfi COUUON wAsr. 

ayenr; andtnotwithsatanding its populalion during 
the summer, il is almost dt^ecrted in winter, tind '» 
abandoned entirely in the spring ; for, in this last 
seasoDi not a single Wssp is to be found in a ncdt oT 
the preceding year. It is worthy of remark, that the 
finvt combs of a nest arc always accommodated for 
the reception of the neuter or working Wasjw, whose 
care and attention arc 6rst required ; so that it uni- 
formly happens that, before the mates nod females 
are capable of taking flight, every Wajtp's nest is 
|>eopIed with several thousnndtt of neuters oruforkers. 
But the neuters, which are first protluccd, are Iikc- 
Vfisc the first that pcnsh ; for not one of them sur- 
vives the icrminatiun even of a mild winter. 

The female Wasps arc stronger, and support ibc 
rigours of winter better than either tbc males or 
neuters. Before the end of winter, however, seve- 
ral hundred females die, and not ahore ten or a 
dozen in each nest survive that season. Theiic few 
females are deatiaed for the coutiauatiou of tbe 
specie?. Each of them becomes the founder of • 
new republic. With rt^rd to the male Wasps, it 
is uncertain whether any of thcui survive. But, 
though not so indolent as the mal« of the honcj!- 
bee, they can be ol' but little assistance to the female; 
for they never engage in any work of importance^ 
such as constructing cells, or fortifying tbe CKlcnul 
cover of the nest. They arc never broughrfbrth till 
toward!^ the end of Augunt : and Ihctr sole occupa- 
tion seems to be thai of keeping the nest rlean : 
they carry out every kind of filth, and itu: bodies of 
such of their companions as happen to die. Id i>er- 




fbrmtng l\m o;)cra1ion> t*o of tliciii oHcn join ; and 
vtbcTt the li>ad is too heavy, tlicy cut off the bead, 
and transport Ihc dead animal at twice. 

Ei'cfv nest about the beginning of October pre. 
Bents a strange scene of cnielty. Al this sfa<on, ihc 
Waspp not only cease to bring nourishment totlicir 
ytrang, but drag the grubs from their cells, and carry 
ibem ool of the nest, where, exposed to the weather, 
nnd deprifcd of food, they all unavoidably perish, 
if the Wasps neglect, which ihcy seldom do, to kill 
them with their fangs. This mode of procedure 
would at first seem a sirangc \'ioIa[ion of (wrental 
irfTcctioni but thcintentioijs of nature, though they 
often elude our researches, ore never wrong. What 
nppcar-i to us cnicl and unnatural in this instinctive 
dwaststion committed annually by the Wa^^ps, is 
perhopw an act of the grcntesc mercy and compns%!on 
that could poR.-;ibly have cifcen place. Wa^ps are 
not, like the Honcy-bccs, endowed wiih the insrincc 
of laying up a store of provisions for winter subsi^c- 
ciKe. If not prematurely destroyed by their [urcnts, 
the young must nccesMirity die a cruel and lingering 
dcadi, occasioned by hunger. Hence this seemingly 
harsh conduct in the economy of \V«sps, instead of 
affording an exception to the nnivcr^l bencvolonee 
and wisdom of nature, U, \u resKty, a most merciful 
crflbrt of instinct. 

Like the male Iioncy-bcc9, the mali; Wa<ps are 
destitute of flings ; but the females and neuters 
Lave strng?, the poisonoua liquor of which, whcti 
introduced into any part of the human body, excites 
inflammation, and creates a considerable degree of 

VOL. Hi. Bb 



pain. This sting consists of a hoWov and very sliarp* 
pointed tube, having at lis root a bag of pungent 
juice, which, in the act of stinging, is presMd oul, 
and convened through (he tube into our flesh.— ^ 
There are a]:'o two small, ^harp, and bearded fipcara^ 
lying, as in a sheath, wKliin the tube. Dr.Dcrham 
counted eight beards on the side of each spcar> which, 
he iays, were formed somewhat like (he te^rdA of ■ 
fi^-hooks. Tbci^e spcans lie one with its points «H 
little before the other in the «licath, lo be ready, ia 
nil probability, lo be first darted into the flesh ; where 
being once 6xcd, by means of its foremost beard, the 
other then sirikos in also; and they in tbU manner J 
altcrnaEcIy pierce deeper and deeper, their beards H 
taking more aod more hold in the Hcih ; after which 
the sting or sheath follown, in order 10 convey the 
poison info the wound. The hole in (he tube is not 
exactly at the end, for in that case the instr^imcnt 
u'ould not be so well nblc to wound : llic sling is 
drawn to a hard and sh;irp jKtint, and ihc incistori 
through which the spcan^ and poison arc ejected ia^ 
little below it. By means of this mechanism it 
that the sting, even when parted from the body, 
able to pieree and make us smart ; and by means of 
the beards being lodged deep in the flcUi, il in aim 
that these insects l«ivc iheir stings behind them, 
when they arc disturbed before ihcy have bad time 
lo withdraw their 5pears completely into the tube. 

[ 371 ] 


THE Bees, according (o the generic charoclef 
givtn of ihem by Linnaeus, have a horny niouth» 
with Ihc jaws and the lip ineinhrnnaccousnt the end. 
The tongue is inflected ; and ihey have four un- 
equal thread- shaped fccUrfs. Their anleniifl^ are 
»1iort and fitiform, but those of (he fcmnlc some- 
what cluh-shnped. The wings ttrefiat j and the fc- 
iDoIcs and neuters have pungent etings coaccolcd in 
the abdomen. 

The Etighah Bees have undergone an accurate 
investigation by the Rev. Mr. Kirby, who has dis- 
cOTcrcd no fewer than lioo bunJred and twen(j»oM 
distinct species, though fifteen year>. .igo none of our 
books mcnlionctl so many si a dozci>. He divides 
the Linnaean genus into Meliita and Apie, distin- 
guishing them by their tongues t the insects of the 
former having short, flattish, uiiinflccted tongues; 
and those of the other long, cylindrical, and inflected 
tongues, ca&ily examined by raiding them with a pia 
from the sheath in which they arc concealed. 

These insects arc very numerous, and differ con- 
Bidcrably in Ihcir habits. Some arc found in ex- 
tensive communities, constructing, with the utmost 
art, cells for their young, and repositories for their 
food ; while others both dwcl) and work in solitude. 
The whole tribe live on the nectar of flowers and on 
ripe fruit. 

Bh a 


TUB fOri'Y BEL. 

Their /jrt'.r arc sofc and without fret, and tfi< 
cbiyialis resembles the perfect insrct. 


The Popp)' Bee forms her nest id the groanil, 
bBrrowing to the depth of about three inches. At 
the bottom 9bc makes a large sad somewhat hemi- 
spherical cavity, which, after being rendered pciiecUy 
smooth on all sides, she carefully linei with a splen- 
did tnpwirj', selected from the scarlet flowers of the 
wild poppy. From these, with ga-at dexterity, she 
cuts pieces of proper size and form, which she con- 
veyB to lier cell ; and, beginning st the boltoni, 
covers with it the whole interior of this habitation 
of her future progeny. If the piece .the has cut out 
and transported be found too large for the plaoushe 
intends ii to fit, »hc clipH off the xuperfluous pnr|.H, 
and conveys the shreds out of the apnrlmcnt. The 
covering Js even sometimes exteuded a little way 
round the oriHee. The bottom is rendered worm 
by three or four coats, and the sides have never \c$s 
than two. When the little animal h.u completed her 
apartment, she 61t:i it with paste, mndc of polien 
and hone;*, to the height of abojt half on inch ; 
and, after depositing an egg, she pushes down ihe 
poppy-lining tilt it completely covers the cell, and 
then closes up its mouth with earth so nicely oa to 
render it not distinguishable from the atljoiningsoUf, 


• SVKOKTHI — ^ApU PiplTeii*. Lilrdtif Kirhj^ u tit, \ I ^,— ^ 
Abcille Upc«i^. Rfiaitiilir. 

t Ktrby.i. t43.-^RetU9).&Icm.tiKD,Ti.p, ^j— yo. 


This is a little black Bee, about the third of* an 
inch in Icngdi. Its head nnd trunk arc thickly 
covTnid with hairs of a dirly-gray colour ; nnd the 
under partit of its body are clad nilh grayish haint. 
The abdomen h somewbat conical, black, and shin- 

.hjg; bnc its segments arc fringt'd with white hairs. 
The mak is nearly of ihe same lenglli as the female, 
but rather narrower, and somewhat more hairy. Its 
flbdoiTicfl is inflcxcd, and not so hairy underneath as 

^tftxwe. The latit segment lenninates in a fork with 
blont (ccth, and has on each stde of its base a sharp j 
spine or point. 


These Bees construct cylindrical nests of the 
leaves of the ro^e and other frees, which arc some* 
times of the length of six inches, and generally con- 
sist of fax or E<n't:a cells, each shaped like a thimble. 
They arc fomieil with the convex end of one iitting 
into the open end of another. Theporlion^ of leaf 
of which they arc made arc not glued together, oor 
ere they any otherwise faiilenccl than in the nicety 
of their fldjuiitment to each other [ and yet they do 
not admit the Uquid honey to drain through them. 
The interior surface of each cell consists of three. 
|)iec*!5 of Icafj ofctnial size, narrow at one end, but' 
['gradually w'idcning tu (be other, where the width 
fcquala half the length. One side of each of the 

* 6Y10NTH1.— A]>iB ccntiuiail4iu. Z.i]iu.-*^-L'AbciUc c»b< 
pcuacj la France. 



pieces is the scmtcd msr|pn of the leaf from whkh 
it was cut. In furming tTic cell, the pieces of leaf 
are made to lap one over the other (the wrralcii side 
always outennost) till a tnbe is thus formed coated 
tvilb three, four, or more layers. In coaling thew 
lubciv, the provident lillle animal is cnreful to lay 
ttie middle uf cnch piece uf leaf over the marginis 
of others, so as hy this inciiis both lo cover and 
slrcogibcn the junctions. At the closed or narrow 
end of the cell, the leaves arc bent down so u to 
form 1 convex termination. When a cell h formed. 
the ni'xt care of the Bcc is to fill it with honey and 
pollen, which, being collected chiefly from the this- 
tles, form a rose-coloured pa<ile. With these it ifi 
iitlcd to within about half a line of the orifice ; and 
she then deposits in it an eg^, and closes it with 
three perfectly circular pieces o{ leaf, which coin- 
cide 80 exactly with the walU ofthc cylindrical cell, 
as to be retained in tbcir situation wiibouc any glu- 
ten. After this covering is filled in, Iherc still re- 
mains a bolbw,\vhich rcccivca the convex end of the 
succeeding cell. In this manner the palicnl and trv- 
defatigable animal proceeds till her whole cylinder 
of six or seven cells is compleled. This is said to be 
generally formed under the suffice of the groiv** 
in a fistular passage, which it entirely fills esc. , 
the entrance. If, by any accident, (he labour ofl 
these insects is interrupted, or the edifice ia dc- 



rangetl, Ibcjr exhibit afilonisbing perseverance m set- ^ 
ting it again to rights. 

Their mode of cutting pieces oat of the leai'cs, 
for iheir work, deserves particular notice. When 
one of' tb(jc Bees selects a rose-bush with this view^ 
she flies round or hovers over it for some sccondji, as 
if examining /or the leaves best suited to her purpose. 
When she has chosen one, she alights upon it, some- 
times on the upper, and sometimes on the under sur- 
face, or not unfrcqucnily on its edge, so that the 
margin passes between her legs. Her first attack, 
which i* generally made the moment she alights, is 
usually near the foplstalk, with her head turned to- 
wards the point. As soon as she begins to cut, she 
is entirely intent on her labour i nor doe* sfic ccise 
lill bcr work is completed : this is done, with bcrJ 
<trong ji>w», with as much expedition as we couU 
exert with a jxiir of scissars. As she proceeds, she 
keeps the margin of the dclachcd pari between her 
legs, in Mich a manner tbat the section keeps giving 
way to her, and docs not interrupt her progress.— 
She tnaki^ her incision in a curvu line, approaching 
the midrib of the leaf at tirsi ; but ivben she bas 
reached a'Ceriain point, she recedes from this to- 
Wards lite margin, still cutting in a curve. When 
she bas nearly detached the {jortion she has been 
rcaiployed upon from the leaf, she balances her little 
f wings for flight, lesi ils weight should carry her to 
the ground ; and the very moment it parts she fliesi 
ofTmth it in trium[)h,in nbent position between her' 
leg*, and perpendicular lo her body. 



The larvicor the Lcaf-cutling Ikes do not Oiffirr 
in appearance from those of (he Hivc-beea. When 
arrived at llidr full size, they apm a coccocin of silk, 
i\x\ck and wlid, wfaicb they attach to the sides of 
their cell. Those produced fim are froi* the liral- 
laid eggs ; so that, when ready to emerge into the 
air, in |>assing through the Ixjltoftioflbeif cclUthcy 
Jo uot interrupt each other'* progrcit?. TIich: Inrvm 
are expofcd lo the attacks of other iunectc, that 
make their way into the cclU aod defioiit Ihcrv 
their eggs. 

This mode of forming n nest \i not confined to 
ihc present species, as several others pcrlbnn simi- 
lar operations : but they adopt the leaves of ditTer. 
cnt trees for this purfKse ; such 35 the borsc-cbcs- 
nut, the elm, &c. &c.* 


Thi!; singular tittle animal is very common about 
gardens in or near towns. It is from half an locb 
to three quarters in Ictigth ; of a dark colour, and 
Iiniry. On each side of the abdomen are Kverol 
yellow spots. 

It forma its nest in hollow plaec* in •trees, ice. 
applying to this work the down of the Gsrdcn 
Cimpion;};, and some other woolly plants. The 

* KUhf, i. t6z. — RcKuniBr, n. 97. 174. 
f SrwottYut. — Apt* manicit*. iJnii, L'AbciUe i daq 

* /ffmlmma tvmurU at Liaoeua. 



Rev. Mr. Willie, of Selboriie, seems lo have been ■ 
ibe fintt naturalist who discowrcf! this. He i^ys 
ibal '* jt is very pleasant lo sec with what address 
tbis insect strips off the down, rnnning from the top 
lo thr bottom of a branch, ntid sbnvmg it bare vi\\]\ 
all the dexterity of a hoop-shaver. When it has got 

'■ TBst bundle, almost as large as itsftlfl il flic-'i away, 
holding- it secure between its chin and fore legs'." 

Sir Thomas Ciitlotn, in a letter to Mr. Mareham, 
says, " I observed in n lock to one of my gardcn- 

; gates, that the key did not tarn easily round, and, 
upon looking into the!t% I gaw somelhingi 
white. I had the lock lain:n off, and it was com-i 
plclely full of a downy subMuncc, containing the 
piipft of some bee. On examining (his, I am cer- 
Inrn it is the Hne pappus ur down from the /i/sn/taw 
jytvestrh, of «hicb I huvc two plants in my garden. 
I have preserved the whole as I found it, but the bee 
has not yet made its appearance in a perfect state.** 
This nidus wat aficnvjrds sent to (he Rev. Mr. 
Kirby, and five of the chrysalids produced pe.'fect 
in'secia ; oamcly, three male^t, and two females. On 
comparinp the down of which it was compoMd with 
that nf the Campion, Mr. IC. was of opinion that 
Sir Thomas Culluin bad iitistakcn its composiiiun, 
as the down of the Anemone is of a more silky tex- 
ture than (hat used in this nest. This gentleman 
infomia ds thnt (here were severnl cdl.-t or cases ia 
the lock, unconnected with each other except by 

Wbite'ft Nstunlut*» Cslcndar, tog. 



w wool, which was their c3mmon covering. These 
cells were of »n oval form, and had an exterior coar 
of wool* under which iberc was o membrannceoiLt 
cell, covered with a number of small vemirfbrm 
masiies of a brown imbstancc, Rpjarently formed of 
|)oIlen and honey. These were laid, withoul any regu- 
lar order, over the cell j and, by means of theoi, ihc 
wool which formed Its exterior ct>at was (naile lo ad- 
here. At the sutntnil of (his membranaceous case 
there was a small orificc> and within it another ccU» 
somewhat strong and coriaceous, of a brown colour, 
and iiliining in the inHidc ms much as if covered with 
tinfoil. This was supposed lo be the coccoon of 
the lar\'a previously toils assuming the pujia stale. 


The Mason Bcc, which is also one of the solitary 
species, derives its tjamc from the circumstance of 
constructing n nest of mud or mortar. Thi?, on its 
exterior, hatt so little of a regular appearance, thai it 
is generally regarded as a piece of dirt acci<k'ntally 
adhering to a wall. Within, however, il is fumitthed 
will) regular cclLs, each of which affords coatfenienl 
lodgment lo a whitclarva much rcsanbling that of 
the Ilivc-bcc. In constructing thl:> nest, nhicti is 
a work of great lubour and art, the female is the sole 

lowkicb of th« LJniuran t|>cci»ihia becij to be tcrcircd. T 
a<M caIIi it Jfi* mur^ru : but be hu dcicribed lh« ninle U. 
feniLlci aad, v'utvaul, the fomilc for tbc oiik. — i) pa mum 



>l>cnitor, receiving no aiaUtancc whatever from Ibc 

After fiung upon an ongle, slieltcrcd by any pro- 
jection, on the south side of a tilunc wallj or iipoa 
line rough part of its surface, she gocB in quest of 
necesviry malerial<t. Her nest is to be cod' 
icted of a kind of mortar, of wliich sand is to be 
the basis. She is very curiiuis in Iiw ehoice of liiis, 
selecting it with her jaws grain by grflin. To 
shorten lier labour, bcfoic she transports it fur use, 
»hc gtucs together, by means of n viscid saliva from 
bcr body, as many grains »s »hc can carry : these 
form a liiilc miss, about the size of a small shot, 
iTaking this up in her jaws, she conveys it to the 
pbcc she has fixed upon for the site of her house, i 
She Ubour-i incessantly til) her whole work is com* 
plt;lcd, which usually occupies five or six days. The 
number of cells in one nest are from three to fifteen : 
these are all similar, and ncnrly equal in din>en- 
»ion)i, each being about nn inch high, half an inch 
in diameter ( ami, before its orifice is closed, rc- 
K-robling a thinible in .■»h3[je. When a cell U 
rniKtl to somcuhnt more ihun h;df it> hcij;ht, our 
little ma^on hys up in it a store of pollen, seasoned 
witli huncy, fur the sustenance of its future inba- 
bilant. This being done, she dc|KK>iis her egg, 
fini!lhc^aIld covers her cell, and then proceeds to 
the erection of a second, which she furnishes and 
finishes in the same manner; and so on till the 
n't^k 151 completed. These cells arc not placed in 
»ny regular order : some are parallel viith the wall, 
pibers perpendicular to it, and others are incliaed to 



it nl diflcrcnt angles, lliis occasions msny einpff 
spaces between the cells, which (he laburlouit ar- 
chitect fills up wiih the same kind of cement, and ^ 
then bestows on the whole group s oornmon corcr- fl 
ing, made with coarser ^aittt of snnJ ; lo ihsi at ~ 
length the nest becomes a maw of mortar, ' •] 
as not easily to be pciictnitctl even by the i-^...... of 

a bniic. 

These nests, which somciirocs last for acrcml jca- 
sons, arc often the of desperate conflicls.— 
When one iniMxl hns taken pusM:»sinn of a otrsS, and 
is gone abroad in quest of materials to repair it,aa* 
olbcf will frequently come to seize it. Whfo thesu 
two meet, a battle intariably ensues. This is id- 
ways fought in the air. SomelinKS Ibc two bees 
fly with such rapidity and force against each Other, 
that both (aW (o the ground. But iti genera), like 
lirds of prey, the on« endeavours to r)3c abore llic 
other, and to give a downward blow. To avxxA the 
stroke, ihc undermost, instead of flying fnfward, or 
laterally, is frequently observed lo fly backward. 
ThiK rctrogmde fiigbt is likewise pcrfbnned occa- 
sionally by the common hDuse<fly, and botne olber 
insects, though we are- unable to perceive what si U 
mtilates them to employ so uncommon a movement. 

From the hnrdncss of the malcrialfi with which 
Jbc Mason 13<x eonBtrucIs her nest, and from tlic in- 
dostry and dcxlerily she ctnjdoys to protect bcr 
progeny from enemies of every kind, one shonld na- 
Turally iniagiTK: that the young would U: in p* 
safely, mid their ci\<\i: would be imprcguuuiL. 
But, Dolvfithstanding all these prccautiorA, ibcy are 



oflcu devoured by tbc Utvio of a peculiar species of 

icbocumon fly, tbc eggs of which arc deposited in 

the ccllt) before tbc Bcc has completed them. But 

they have an ciiciny even still more formicUblc thaa 

jL tbc ichneumons. A species of ikctlc * in.siuuaie& 

H its egg into an unfinished eel) : from this procecdsi 

■ a strong and rapacious grub, nmied with prodigious 

£iog^, vrbich oficn pierces through every cell in 

the nestj and successively devours sll the inbabi. 


Tbc Mason Boe is about nine lines, or three 
quarter!) of an inch in length. Its body U black, 

*and thickly clad with black hah^. Ttte jan^ arc 
v^ large and promincntj and terminate in two 
bluot tcclb. The wings arc black vii\h a tinge of 
violet. Tfic abdomen h somewhat conical, aod 
bm underneath a pntcli of orange coloured hnir^. 
Tbc terminating joints of the legsure rcddi&b. — The 
ntiile a covered with red hairs. 


ic operations of the Wood-Pierccr'j merit alien- 
two. These Bees arc l;irgcr iban the queens of the 
Honej'-bee. Their bodies are wnuoth, except the 
sides, ubich are covered with bnir. In the spring 
ticy frequent gardens, and search for rotten, oral 

* /JUflaitit jfiarlat of Uanaiu. 
f Kirty, i. 179.— RauTOOf, »ol. vi. p. 57- 88. 
t Stmoatni,— Apb tipIkcb. L/m— L'AbciUc pcr«-tidif 


irHE waott-Tttkcez. 

least for dcsd wood, in order lo make a habitation 
for tlicir young. They usually choose the decaying 
uprights of arbours, espaliers, or the props (^vines| 
but will socnctimet attack garden scat*^, tbicL doorSd 
and wiiuloiv slmUcrs. 

When tbe female of tbU species, for she rcccnw 
no assistance from the mole, has selected a piece of 
wood suited to her purpowr, which is rooil commooly 
such as is pcq>cndicular to the hori20fi> she b^Hu _ 
her nork by boring perpendicularly into it : vlxa H 
she has advanced about half on inch, she changes 
her direction, and then proceeds nearly pArallel 
with its sides for twelve or fifteen inches, making 
the hoUow about half an inch in diameter. If Ihe 
wood be snfficicntly thick, she sometimes forma 
three or four of these long holes in !is interior; a 
labour, uhich for a single insect evcms prodigious; 
but in executing it some weeks arc often employed. 
On the ground, for about a foot from the place in 
which one of these bees is working, Hlllc heap* of 
timber dust are to be seen. These heaps dally in- 
crease in size, ond the particles that compose ibeni 
arc almost as large as those produced by ahand-«w. 
The strong jnws of Ihiit insect arc \ha only instro- 
incnls she emptays in these pcrfomtions. After tbc 
holes arc prepared, tliey arc divitled into ten or twclw 
separate apartments, each about an inch deep, the 
roof of one serving for the butlom of another. Tbe 
divisions are composed of particles of wood, co> 
incntc<i togttlier by n glutinous substance from (bo 
aniraul's body. In making one of these, she con»- 





mences with glueing an annuKir plate of wood-dust, 
abMit the (hickncM of half-n -crown, round tlio in- 
tcnisl circumference of (he cavity : to this plutc aba 
allorhcs a second, to tbc second a third, and so on 
till (he whole floor is completed. Before each cell 
is closed, it is tilled with a paste composed of the 
"arina of flowers mixed with honey, and an egg is 
deposited in it. When (he lar\'3 is hatched, it has 
scarcely room sufiicicnl to turn itself in the cell; 
but as the paste is devoured, the space is enlarged 
so as [o allow it to perform every necessary opera- 
tion towards changing its state. 

Wc arc informed by M. de Reaumur that M. 
Pilot furnifbed him with a piece of wood, about an 
inch and a half in diameter, that contained (he 
cell* of one of these bees. He cut off as much of 
the wood as was sufficient to expose two of the cells 
to view, in each of which was a larva. To pre- 
YOlt the injuries of the air, he closed the aperture 
that he had made, by palling on tt a bit of glass. 
The cells were at that time almost cnlirely filled 
with pasle. The t^vo worms were exceedingly 

itmall, and( of course, occupied but Utile sjucc bc- 
iwccn the walU of the cclU and the mans of paste. 
As thcoaimaltt inercaaed in eizc, ihc pasle daily di- 
minished. He began to obi^eTVC them on ibe islh , 
ot'Junc; and on Ihc 27lh of the ^me nionlh the 
paste in each cell was nearly consumed, and the 
Lwonn, folded in two, occupied the greater part of 
■ its habitation. On the zd of July, the provisions of 
bath worms were cnlirely exhausted. The five or 
iiE (oliowinff days they fasted, wh\cVi ?ccmt^ V(»\ic- 





(luring wbicli tbey 


a necessary absHiiL'nce 
grcntly agitated. 

and elevated and depressed tbdr heads,' Theie 
mox'cnicnls were preparatory lo Ihe great change 
Ihal Ihe animals were about to undergo. Between 
Ihc 7th and Sih of the same montli they threw off 
their ftVins, and were mctamorphoK-d into nymphs; 
and on the 30th of July tbey became perfect in- 

In a range of ccIIp, Ihc worm^ arc necessarily 0' 
dificrent ages, and of counc of JifTcrcut suc9. 
Those tu the lo\^c^ ones arc older than lbo*e in the 
sti|»crk)r; because^ after the bee has filled with 
paste aiid iacloscd tbc iir»t cell, a considerable ItOMr 
is requisite to collect proviaions, and 10 lorn) [>arti- 
tions for every succc3^ve and superior cell. The 
former, therefore, must be transformed into nymphi 
and flies before the latter. ■ These circumstsncta 
n'QuId almoiit appear to be foreseen by the common 
niolher } for if the undermost worm^ which is Ihe 
oldest, and soonest transformed, was to force its 
way upward, which it coulJ cn&lty do, ic would not 
only di&ctirb bitt itif^tllibly destroy all tho.ic lodged 
in the superior cells. But Nature ha.s nisely pro> J 
Tcnted this devastation ; for the head of ihe nymph, ^ 
and conKcqiicnlly of the fly, is always placed in a 
downward direction. Its (lr«t instinctive mnvcmontft 
must therefore be in the same direction. Thai iho 
young flics may- escape from their respective ccUs, J 
the mother digs a hole at ibu boltoni of the lon^ ^ 
lubt-, wliicli innku? a communication bclwccti tbo 
vudcrmobi cell and the open air. Somctiinca a ti- 



milar passage 15 made noir Iha middle of the tube. 
By this conlrivancc, as all the flics inMinclivcly cn> 
dearonr to cut Ihcir way downwards, they find 
an easy and convenient passage ; for tbey hare 
only to pierce the floor of their cdls to make 
their cficape, and this they do with their teeth very 


III the formation of thdr combi, the present in- 
ttcls seen) to resolve a problem which would not be 
a liltle puzzling to some geometrician i<, namely, 
" A quantity of wax being given, to make of it 
" equal and similar cells of a determined capacity, 
" but of the largest size in proportion to the qiian- 
*' tily of matter employed, and disposed in such a 
" manner as to occupy in the hive the least po^^i- 
" ble spBcc." Every part of this problem is com- 
pictcty executed by the bees. By applyinj^ hexa- 
gonal cells to each olliers' sides, no void spaces are 
left between them ; and, though ihe .same end 
niighl be accomplished by other figures, yet such 
would necessarily require a greater (|iiantily ofwax^ 
Besidefl, hexagonal cells, are better fitted to receive 
the cylindrical bodies of thc^e insectH. A comb 
consistii of two strata of cells applied to each other's. 


" Hniunurt totn. <ri 
^ STXciifYHi.— Apt» mcllinca. iJiiA.— Honcy-bte, in Toriuiu 
parti of ibe couniry. — ^The miles are called DrMft, and the femals 
the ^atrt'hff. The ncutcn are called Wdrii«rp-A«j.— L'Abcillc 
3 mie), in France. 

vol.. HI. 




ends. This arrangement both ttvei room in the. 
htvc, and gives a double catry into the cetU of 
which the comb is compoBed. As a further «8ving 
of wax, »ncl for {>revetiting void ^ipavcs, the bases 
of the cell* in one stratum of a comb acn-c tJw fee 
hssa to thu opjiosite stntum. In Hhort, tbc more 
minutely the construction is cKamincd, the more 
will the admiration of ihc observer be cxcilcd. 
The walls of the cells arc so citrcmcly thin that 
iheJr mouths might he thought in danger ofsuflftT. 
ing by the frequent entering and isjuiiig of the 
bees. To jircvcnt tliis disaster, however, they 
make a kind of rim round the margin of e.ich cell, 
and this rim is Ihrec or four limes Ibickur Ihao ibc 

Il is difticull to pcrceii-c, even with Ihc assistance 
of glass hives, ihc mannt-r in which becs operate 
when coiifiructing their cells. They aro so eager 
tn afTord mutual assiii1ai)cc ; and for this purpo^ 
sc» many nf ihcm crowd together, and arc pcrperu- 
ally succeeding each nlhcr, that tlielr individua.' 
operations can seldom be distinctly ob'4cr\xd. It 
however, been plainly discowretl that Ihcir t« 
inws 31-c tlic only insirnmcnts ihey employ in nlc 
dclling and polishing the wat. Willi a little _ 
ticiici^ nnd .ittenilon, wc jxircclve celld just begun-" 
wc likewise remark the ijuickncsi with which a 
moves its Iceth ngainst n small portion of the ccF- 
Thi« |iurlion the animal, by repealed strokes 
each side, smooths, renders compact, :md rcduc 
(oaprqier thiuncM. While some of the liiv 



lenglltCDing their hexagonal tubes, others are laying 
tbe founckitiuns of new ones. In certain circum- 
stances, when extremely hurrie»l, Ihey do not com- 
plete their new cella, hut leave them imperfect till 
tho^ liivc begun a number stiHicicnt for their pre- 
sent cxigincies. When a bee puts its head a little 
wuy ioto a cell> we cu&ily perceive it scraping tb« 
\ra\h with the pdnts of its teeth, in order to detach 
such useless and irre^lar fragments as may have been 
left in the tt'ork. Of these fragment* the bcc fonns 
a ball about tbe size of a pin's bead, comes out of 
(he cell, Hnd carries this wax to another part of the 
work, where it is wanted : it no sooner leaves ibe 
cell, than it is succeeded by another bee, which per- 
forms the same ofHce ; and in this manner tbe work 
19 SDCcesfiiycly carried on till the cell is completely 

Their mode of working, and the disposition and 
dJTi&ion of their labour, when |Uit into an empty 
hive, do much honour to the sagacity of bees. They 
imtnediatcly begin to lay tbe foundations of tbeir 
combs, which they execute with surprbing quick- 
nc« and alacrity. Soon after they begin to con- 
struct one comb 1 they divide into two or three com- 
panies each of which in different parts of the hive 
is occupied in the ume operations. By this division 
of Inbour, n great number of bees have nn oppor- 
tunity of being employed at the same time, and, 
ocNUoquently, tbe common work ia woner finished. 
Tbe combs are generally arranged in a direction 
parallel to each other. An interval or street between 
them is ain-ays icfi, that the bwa mas VxQlVC % ^\«k> 



piseage, snd an eas^ communication with the dif- 
ferent combs in the bive. These streffts arc just 
wide enough to allow two bees to pa»5 one another. 
Beside these parallel strcels, (osliortcn their journey 
when working, Ibey Icavp several cn»s pamges, 
which arc always covcitcl. 

They are extremely soIicitotiB to prevent insects 
of any kind from getting admittance into ihcir hires. 
To accomplish this purpose, and in nrder to shut out 
the cold, when they take po!t»>ciiiiion of a new hivCi 
they carefully examine every p.irt of it ; and if they 
discover any small hotci or chinks, ihcy imtncdialely 
paMe them firmly up with a roiiious substance which 
differs considerably from wax. This subMance was 
known to the anlicnls by the name ofpropc/it or bee* 
glue. Been use the propolis for rendering their hi^-ei 
more close and [lerfcct, in preference to wax, be-- 
cause- it is more durable, and more powerfully resists 
the vicissitudes of weather. This glue is not, lik* 
the wax, procured by an animal procc^. The bed 
collect it from different trees, as the pofjlarsj the 
birches, and the willows. It is a complete prpductioo 
of nature, and requires no additional manufocturt 
from the animals by which it is cniploycd. After a 
bee hai procured a quantity sntlident to Hll the 
cavities of its two hind-legs, it re|Mirs to the hive. 
Two of its companions inntnnily draw out the pro- 
polifi, nnd apply it to fill up such chinks, holes ar 
olher deficiencies as they find in rheir habitntton. 
But ihi.< is nai the only use (o which bees apply the 
prftpolis. They arc extremely .solicitous to retnovo 
jtuch insects ot foroga Nao^<Ki ^ W-^^iwx to get ad- 





mission into the hive. Wben so light as not to ex- 
ceed their powt s, they first kill the insect wiiK their 
stings, and then drag it out with their lecth. Bui it 
sometimes happens that an ill-fated snail creeps into 
the hive. This is no sooner perceived than it 'i» at* 
lacked on all sides, and siting to death. But how 
are l!ie bees to carry out so henvy u burthen ? Such 
■ labour would be in vain. To prevent the noxious 
odours consequent on \t$ puircfaclion, tHcy imme- 
diitcly cmljnlin it, by covering every part of its body 
with propolis, through which no effluvia can ctic»pe. 

. When a snail with a shell gets, to dispose of 
it gives nuK'li Icg« trouble and expense to the bees. 
As soon as it receives the first ground from a sting, it 
nBtumlly rclia-s within 'U% shell. lo this case, the 
bees, instead nfpfliiiiiig it all over with propolis^ con- 
teni themselves with glueing all round the margin of 
shell : which is sulBcicnt co render the animal for 
jmmoveably 6xcd. 
Bui propolis, and the materials fur making was, 
are not the only substances that these industrious 
animals have to collect. As, besides the u-hole win- 
ter, there arc nmny d.iys in »ummcr in which the 
bees arc prevented by the weather from going abraid 
in quest of provisions; ihcy arc, IhcrcrorCf under 
the necessity of collecting and amassing in cells 
destined lor that purpose large quantities of honey. 
This they extract, by means of ihcir trunk, from tlw 
nectariferous glands of fluuers. The trunk of the 
bee is n kind of rough C!irttt.iginou^ tongue. After 
collecting a few small drops of hone^ wA^vVvs-Jcw, 

jioiiaaU^rriestbcm to its moulh, anA ^^nvlWow'^ >^k<svn. 



From the guHet (hey pa»i into the first stomach, 
which is more or less swelled in proportion to the 
quantity of honey it contains. When «nipty, it has 
the appearance of a firte while thread ; but, when 
filled with honey, it assumes the figure of an oMong 
bladder, the membrane of which is so thin and tnms- 
parent ihat it allows the colour of (he liquid it coo* 
tains to be distinctly seen. This bladder is well 
known (o children who live in the country: they 
cruelly amuse [hemsclves with catching bee*, and 
tearing them asunder in order to suck the hooey. 
The bees are obliged to Hy from one flower to an. 
other till they fill their first stomachs. When tbey 
have accomplished this, they return directly to Ibo 
hive, and disgorge in a cdl the whole honey they 
have collected. It not imfrcqiiently hapi>cns, bow> 
ever, that on its way to the hive the bee is accofled 
by a hungry companion. How the one manages lo 
communicntc its wants to the other it is pcriuips im* H 
possible to discoi'cr. But the fact i» certain, that ' 
when two bees meet in this situation they mutually 
stop, and the one whose stomach is full of boncy ex- 
tends its trunk> opens its mouth, and, like o rumi- 
nating animal, forces; up the honey into lhat carity. 
The hungry bee, with the point of its trunk, sucks 
the honey from the other's mouth. When not 
stopped on the roadj the bcc proccoU trt tlic hive, 
and in the some manner offers its hooey to |Ikk« 
who are at work, as if it meant to prevent the iic~ 
cc^sity of quitting their labour in order logo io qticit 
of /bod. In ViaA weavVitr,\W bees tccd on the honey 
/aid up in open cc\h; fe>x\ \Wj titow vtwKift Vwwi 




Ttserv04rs while Ibeir companions are enabled to 

■ supply them wilh fresh honey from tlie fields. But 

the moutlis of those cells which are dci^tined for 

presetring honey during the winter they always cover 

»«-ilh a lid or thin plnlc of wax*. 
How numerous soever the bees in one sivarm may 
appear to be, they all originate from a single parent. 

fit is indeed siirpi i>ing:, that oucsuuill insect should 
in a few mnnihs give btrth to so many yming j but, 
on opening her body at a certain time of ihc year, 
4gg8 to tho number of many thouNind8 are to he 
' fijund contained m it. 
V The qnet-n is ensily distinguished from the rest by 

kche 8i7.c and sI)!I|K: of her body. On her dependii the 
«elfjire of ihc whole community ; ond, by the n1ten< 
(ion Ihut is paid to all her movements, icitt evident 
how nutch tbey depend on her securily. Sl»e is *een 

tM limett >vttli a nutncrotis retinue, marcliing from 
cell to cell, plunging the estrcmily of her body into 
each of ihcm, ond leaving in each an egg. 
A day or iwo sfier (his egg is deposited, the grub 
u excluded trom the shell, havutg the shape of a 
maggot rolled up in ii ring, -ind lying softly on a 
bed of a whitish-coloured jvlly, on which it begins 
lo feed. The common bei*!> then attend \»iih asto- 
nishing tenderness and fln\iety ; they furnl«h it wilh 
food, and watch over it wilh unremitting assiduity. 
H In iibout six djyts the grab arrives at its full growth, 
F «vhcn its .iHl-ctioitjtc atcendnnts l^hut up the moutti 
of its apartment with wax, to secure it frocn injury. 

* Bcaomttr, 



Thus iuclosed, it »oon begins to line tbe walUoT lit 
cell wilb a silken tapeslrjr, in wbicb it undergoes 1)9 
last transforiTiAtion. 

When it first crawls fortb a winged insect* it i* 
very weak and inactive j but in the course of a few 
hounf it acquires bircnglh enough to Ay ofT to itf 
labour. On its emerging from the cell, the oHiciuus 
bees flock, round it, and lick up its mtusturc with 
their tongues. Cue parly bring lioncy for it to feed 
upon i and another h employed in cleansing ihecell, 
and carrying out the filth, to prepare this for a ne» 

Tbe neuter bees In a hive amount to the number 
of 16,000 or 18,000. These are armed withstiogi, 
and form the only labouring part of the commanity. 
It is pica&ant to .sec llicm in the act of collecting the 
farina of flowcra for the basis of their was. Tbey 
roll themselves over tbc stamina* the dust of whicb 
adheres to their hairs ; then, bringing thcJr feet orcr 
their bodies, they fill wiih it two small ba<^ket.<i or 
cavities edged with hairs, appended to IbeJr hind- 
legs. As soon as a bee thus laden appears near tbc 
hive, others go out lo meet it, and, taking tbe fa- 
rina from its legs, swallow tti their siotnachs being 
tbe laboratory where h is converted into genuim; 
wax. l*his operation being over, each individual 
disgorged it in the consistency of dougIi> and thco 
moulds it into proper form*. 

The malc» arc called Dnnet : they are uuarmed, 
and arc always killed by the neuters about the mouth 
of September. 





is the life of these insecls. Tlie least degree 
of cold benumbs thcni ; and in winter, unless Ihey 
arc all crowded together, they perish. Their ene- 
mies arc the VV'^isp and \he Hurnel, who with their 
Icclh rtji them open to sitck out ihc honey contained 
in rhcir bladder. Sparrows have also been seen with 
one in their bill, and anoilicr in each claw. 

! Thcrt is w grc&t a dcprt: of nttachmcDt sub»ist- 
ioff between the n'orking bees ami Ihcir (jiiecn, that, 

I if by any accident she is dc*)iroyed, the labours of 

' the community are at tin end, and the rest of the 
animals leave their hive and disperse. If, however, 
another queen be given them, joy springs up, and 
they crowd around her, and soon again up()ly lo their 
opcrationij. Kven the prospect of seeing a queen 

|Wtll support them : this hat> been proved by giving 
to a hive that had lot^t in own i[uccn the chrysalis of 
another. If a queen be takL-n from a hive and kept 
apart from the working bee?, she will refuse to eat, 
and in the course of four or dvc days will tlic of 

I Iiunger. 

Mr. Wildman, whose remarks on the mnnage- 
ment of bees are well knoAn, jjossru-icd a secret by 
which he conid at any time cause a hive of bees to 
fwarm upon his bead, shoulders, or body, in s most 
surprising manner. He baa been seen to drink a 
g1a«s of wine wilh the bees nil oi-cr hts head and face 
more tli;in an inch deep — several fell into the plnss, 
but they knew him too tvrll toMin^ him. He could 
even act the pari ot a gem-r;d uiih tlicm, by mar- 
Ehalling ihem In hatilr array upon a large tabl«. 



There he divided lliem into regimcntit, battalion^ 
and coinpuniex, according to militiry diKnpliiK, 
waiting only for bis word of command. The mo- 
mcnt he uttered the word rnareb! they bcgta lo 
march in a very regular manner in rank and file, in 
the manner of soldiers. To these, bis Lilliputiaos, 
he also taught so much poljtenest: thai the; neter 
attempted to Kting ^ny of the numerous company 
whicti, at diftercnt times, rextrted lo admire t 
wugular s|)ectacle. 


The Carding Bees nearly all periBh in the tvinieri 
a few of the females only surrivc. These usually 
make their appt-nmnce early in the spring, as soon 
as the calkins of the willo\ts arc in blossom : upon 
which, at this time, ihcy may commonly be seen 
oollectiDp: honey from the female, and poUen Trmh 
the male catkins. 

The nentcrfi do not appear till the sprinp is mme- 
what advanced j and the males arc most comnvjn in 
autumn, when the thistles arc in blossom, upon the 
flowers of which ihey are abundant, sometimes tceni* 
'ingly asleep, or torpidi and, at other times, acting n 
if intoxicated with ihc sweets tbey have been im* 

When l!)»e animals, of any sex, are walking on 
the ground, if a finger he moved lo them, they lifl 
up three legs on one »)ide, by way of defence • whidi 
give?: ihctn a very grotesque ^pcarancc. 





Tbcir ncsrs are tisually formed in tncftflows and 
fustures, somettmeii ia groves and bedge-rows, o-hera 
th« 9oil is entangled wich roots i but now and then 
tlicac arc Tound in heaps of stones. When they do 
not niect with an accidental cavity ready made, they 
excavate one themselves with great labour. This 
tbey cover with a thick convex vault o( mo^s, some- 
times casing the interior aurlace vriih a kind of coarse 
nRK lo keep out the wet. At the Icnvcr part of the 
nrst there is an opening for the inhabilanlK to go in 
Mid out at. Thiii entrance is often ihrutigh a long 
gsllcfy, or covered way, a footer upward* in length, 
by which the nest in mure effectually concealed from 

The inode in which ihey transport the moss they 
Ufte lo ihdr nest is singular. When (hey have dis- 
covered a ilircel fitted lo their pirptwc, and convc- 
nicntlv ailuuted, they place themselves in a line, 
uiih Ihcir back turned lowaniii (hv nest. The fore- 
most lays hold of unnc with her jaws, and clears it 
bit hy bit with her fore feel : when this is sufHcicntly 
disentangled, bhe tl^\'e^ with her feet under her belly, 
and as liir a-* possible beyond, to the R.Teond. The 
second, in like manner, piishc? it on to the thml, and 
BO on. Thus small Uca^n of prepaic^ mofei aic con- 
veyed to the ne^l b)' a lilc of lour ur live insects, 
iwbeio they are wrought and interwoven wiih the 
gtrnicM dHXtcriiy by ihat rcmaiu within. 

The rests are often a\\ orsrven inches in diameter, 
and elevated to the height of four or five inches 
above the Rurtace of ihc ground. When the cover* 
iiig of moss id taken up, an irregular comb present* 



itself, composed of an asi^ctnblage of oval bodic* du 
posed one against another. Somefimei there are 
(wo or three combs, placed on one anothcrj but no* 
united. These combs vary in size : they consbt of 
» number of oblong or oval cells or coccoonx, of a 
silky Mibfiauee, (aslcned together, and spun by the mt 
larvfe when they are about lo undergo tbcJr first ™ 
change; for the Carding Roes do rini form waxen 
cells for their young. The cells are of throe drmeo. 
sions, answering to the three sexes. The void 
spaces between the cells are filled with masses of 
brown pnste, msde of grof-s wax, or pollen mach 
wrowghi, and honey. Besides ihe n«isgc?, they at- 
tach to every comb, particularly the ujjjwnnost, three 
or four cells of the same coarse wax, rn the nliapc of 
goblets dpcn at the top, which they fill with liquid , 
and very sweet honey.— The first stC|) towards fur- m 
ntshing a nest is to make a mass of the brown pastCf 
and one of these honey-pols. The masBCs of pefte 
arc intended lor the food of Ihc larrje, and in them 
the eggs ore deposited. The«e vary tn number, from 
three to thirty being lo be found in one mass, bal 
not all in the sanw cnvily. 

The lan-se arc similar lo those of (be Hive Bee, 
but their tides are marked by irregular Iransverw 
block [ifiots. The^c, after Ihcy are hnlched, separate 
from each other, eating the |jasie that surrounds j 
ibcm. The l)oney«pots may be intended to mupply fl 
honey fur ihe occiisional moistening of the paste in 
Hiiiking repDtre, tte. The pupa in each cell 19 placed 
with it« hcftd dn»vnward«. and mjkes its way out at 
the bottom of its cocl-cxjh. 



"The n«ts seldom contnin more than fifty or siicly 
inhsbitantR. Oftbesc Ihe females {of ^vhich there is 
more than one in a nmt) arc ihc largest. The mnU-s 
3n> of 3 niidUIe etzc, a» is also one description uf 
worlting-bccs or neuters : llic other neuters are the 
smallcsCi and not bigj^r than the Hive Bee, These 
two sons of neuters, it is most probable, are appro- 
priated to (iitfcrcnt kitids of work ; the largest being 
the strongest, nnd the others the most lively, active, 
and expert. In this comnuinity, both the Ii-iralc4 
and males act in concert tvith the neuters in lilting 
up or rep;iiriiig their habitations, — The nests of the 
Carding B<v^ arc exposed to various dcprcdnlor^ ; 
but tield-mice and polecats are tbelr most formidabI« 
enemies *. 


This is one of the largest of the British bees ; but 
'it varies in size, being sonicUtnes half an ini:lj, and 
sometimes an inch in length. Ib body is black or 
dark brown, and bairy ; and the extremity of cht 
abdomen of a bright orange colour. The uingi 
are H^hi brown. 

L Tiic nest constructed by this insect is of a very 
'dejrant appearance, being of an oval form, and com- 
posed of bits of the larger mo-^scs, closely and neatly 
compacted together. A small round hole or en- 
trance is left on one side. These ncsta are about 

* Kitbjr, i. )i. aoi.— fteiumur, torn. ri. 
■f- Syieoximv — A pia lipuUm. Linn. — R((i-uilc(l Bee. Cifut 
Onngc-iailfd Gxrdeii U«. Sbam't Kat. Jt/ii.— L'AbcilU tipj- 
4MUt. Ti^tr;. 


Xn& AKT«. 

four inches in diameter on (be eiilenor, and ate 
generally fonncd on dry shady baoks, in woodi, 
laijcs, or meadows. The food laid up for the larvm 
consislsofa kind of honey of a browiiigh colour, dis- 
posed in somewhat irrc^ulnr ma&'ics or beapfj lor 
thc!4C bees do not form any regulnr cclU or corot 
like tome of ihc oiherii*. 


ALL ihe sixxies of Ants knovvfi in this counf 
are grrgarioufi; and, like the bees, consist of maleSj 
(ctnalus, and neuters, of which the latlcr arc alone 
the labourer;:. These build in the ground an oblong^ 
nest, in which (here arc T»rroii3 pas5ngcs and sfiart- 
mcn(8. Ill the Ibrmacion of thit> nest every indin- 
dual iii occupied : some arc cmfiloycd in securing i 
firm and duntblc ground-work, by niiKing llw eartb 
with a sort of glui'. produciid in their bodies: olben 
oollecl liltic bits of twi;;!* to fieri c ns raficrs, wbidi 
they place over their pasfwigcs, to .^pporl the co- 
vering: others agiiin lay piccc-s acrona (hefte, and 
place on llieii) rushes tvced^, and dried gnus. Tbe 
latter they MN:iire so firmly aR completely to tun* 
ofl'tbc water frout their niiigazincs. 

A ^ciiileinau of Cambridge one day obicrvcd an 
Am druirgiiigalongn halt with respect toilsslrcogth^ 

limber. Othcrt 



were devemlly employed, each in ii5 own way. Prv- 

TflR AST9. 


Ty this little creature came to an aiccnt, where 
tfie weight of the wood sectnwl for a while to over- 
power him : he i\\t\ not remain long (jnrplcxed with 
it: for three or four others, observing hif d>lemtn3) 
came behind and (jushcd it up. Aa soon, however, 
M he hid got it on level ground, (hey left it to hi* 
care, md went to their own work. The piece he 
fras drawing happcneil to be consi'lerabty thicker at 
one end ( ihe other. This soon threw t!ie j-oor 
(dlow into a frc.ih difficulty : he iinlockily tlr»gg«d 
it btrtwecn two bits of wood. After scvernl fniidc^s 
cfTorts, finding it vioutd not go dirougb, he adopti-d 
tiw only merle thut even a tniin in similar circum- 
Uance« cmhl have takoii ; he came behind it, pulled 
it bact again, and turned it on its edge ; when, run- 
ning again to the other end, it passed through svilh- 
cnit the least diAicutty. 
I The same gentleman says that, sitting one day 
after dinner in the garden oT his college, he was 
surprised by remarking a single Ant busily employed 
in some work that caused him to make many jour- 
neys to and from the fame place. This gentleman 
traced him to the entrance of Ihe habitation of .1 com- 
munily, from fthenee he observed him to take the 
6caA body of nn Ant in his fangs, and run away with 

tit- He carried it to a ccrlnin dtfttancc, dropped it, 
>nd returned fc>r another, which by the time of \\\% 
arriral wa* brought to the same hole. This work 
waa continued so long as ihc gentleman had time to 
remain near ibcm*. 

• Brit. MtuMSS. K«T. Mr. A»w«sh**C»talogn«, No.4+j<S. 


THB /KT3t 

In collecting their stores, tliesc crcaluh:s may 
pflcn bcobservixl in full ctnfiluymeill ; one oftheni 
l(*adc4i will) a j;ruin of wheat, another with a dead 
fly, anii several together hauling along the body of 
soinc larger itiscci?. Whenever they meet with 
any food too Ijirg^c to admit of being dragged away, 
Ihcy devour K> much of it ut<on ihc^pot as to reduce 
it to a bulk siiflicicnlly ftinall for ihcm to carry. 

In nil their eicursioos they hiive rainL* object In 
view ; and Ihey very seldom return to ll»: ik'^I willi- 
out either thrmselvcs bcarinj; something, or without 
ne^'^ that soincihing of use hn« l}eon di>cov(red, in 
which joint ]ts»»>tancc i* neccfuary. If int'ormatioa 
is brought Ihat n piece of sugar, or breitd, or any 
kind of fruit} has been d'scovvrcd, even in the 
highest story tifii house, they rungc theni;ji,^U'Cs in a 
line, and foliiiw Ihcir leader to the spot. Of ibis 
the following 15 a remarkable inMance related by Dr. 
Franklin : Believing that these Utile creatures had 
sonic means of communicating their thoughts or 
desires to one another, he tried several ex[)erinuui(8 
with them, all of which tended to conlirm his opi- 
nion ; but one iecmed nwre conclusive than the 
rest. He jjut a Hllle earthen pot, containing some 
treacle, into a closet, into which a number of Ants 
collected, and devoured the treacle very (jutctly. Buti 
on observing this, he shook them out| and lied the 
pot with n thill string to a nail which he had ftslcned 
into thecicltng; so that it hung down by Ihestring. 
A single Ant, by chance, remained in thefx>t : tht« 
Ant ate till it was satisfied i but, when it wanted iu 
get oft', it could not, lor foine time, Hud a way ouU 





m about theboltom of the pot, but in vain: 
at last it found, after mnny alicmpts, the way to the 
cieltng, by going along the string. After it was 
cxxnc there, ii ran to the wsll, and from ihenre to 
the ground. It had scarcely been away half an 
hour when a great swarm of Ants came out, got up 
to the cicling, and crepe along I he string into tlie 
pot, and begin to eat again. This (hey continued 
lill the Ireaclc wss all eaten ; in the mean time one 
fwann running down the string, and the other up. 

The Ants generally lay up a considerable quan- 
tity of different kinds of grain j but» to prevent this 
from taking root from I he moisture of I heir cells, 
tbcy instinctively bite off that end from which th« 
blade ts produced. 

From their eggs the lar\-fe, a small kind of mag- 
gots without legs, are hatched, which soon translbrm 
into white chrj salids. The latter an' generally called 
.^^j* iggSf and are fre<|Ucnliy used ibr the feeding 
€jf )*oung pheasants, partridges, and nightingales, 
When a nest is disturbed, the Anis, with great art, 
collect all the young that are unhurt, and form a 
neat for them again. In their confusion they carry 
off* the eggi and larvx indiscriminiitcly ; but. a& soon 
■a quietness is restored among ihcin, these are care- 
fully srparaicd, and each kind lodged in its own 

.jippTupriaic place. 

f During tlu: warm season of the year they bring 
up the maggots nearly to the surfiicc every morning t 
#o that, from ten in the morning to about five in the 
afternoon, lhc« tray always be fuund lodged just 
under ihc surface of the gronnd. And if ihcir bilH 

TOI,. Ill, 



THS AilTfl. 

be exaininetl towards eight in the cveriliig ihey wUl 
b« fbuiul to h&ve carried (hem all down ; bat. 

rainy wealher be coming 

0.1. it will even be iiec«t^| 

sary to dig a foot or two deeper than usual lo fuid 

Ill tlic last change the little creatnre tesra \U 
iransparciit veil, and then bur»l5 inlo life a perfect 
insect— dcfit it ute of wings if a neuter, and winged if 
male or female. The winged insects arc also kflcnm 
by a smalt erect scale placed on Ibe thread vbidi 
oonncct& ihc body and thorax. 

The males are niucfa Kmalk'r than the Icmolcs, totl 

fcldom frequent the common babitnlion. All (he 

Libour the females undergo is in the laying of eggs ( 

and the cold of the winter season aJH^aya destrojs 

(hem. Tlie nculcr>, or labouring Ant», which ilone 

riirc able lo struggle through the cold months, pat^ 

fthc:>e in a torpid state, ia which tb^ rctnain till 

-spring rciilores to Ihcm lljcir wonted activity. Ttiqr. 

therefore, having ito consumption fur provisions, 

lay up no stores fur winter. 

The labouring Ants pay the niinust atlcntioo lo 
4he fem^ilcd. Mr. Gould, the author of a small 
treatise on English Ant^ placed a female that be 
cMf. a Queen, of the small BUck Ants, in a box, in 
the sliding cover of which there was an opening 
auBicietit for the lahourcis to pass backwards and 
forwards, but so iwrrow as to confine the QutiCn. 
One pariof ihem was constantly in «"ailingand snr- 
founded her, whilst other* went ont in search of 
proviMonii. By some xTiislbrtune she died. The 
Ants ^ if not uppuAcd of tier death, cuntinucd 





their obedience. They even removed her from one 
part of the box to another, and treated bcr with Ihe" 
same formality asifshc bad been alive- This lasted 
aboQt two months ; at the end of which ihe cover 
being 0[Kncd, they forsook Ihe bo», and carried hcf 

AntA frcquenlly swarm on trees, where Ihey have 
been supposed to do much injury. But this seems 
8 very unjust charge against ihem ; for in S*it«er- 
land they are even compelled to remain in the trees, 
in order to destroy Ihe caterpillars. This is done 
by hanging a pouch full of Ants upon a tree, the' 
ffoot of which is smeared with wet ctay or pitch to 
prevent Iheir escape : in consequence of this, they* 
are soon compelled by hunger to seize upon tlic ca- 
terpillars and devour them. 

The females ond neuters arc armed with n sting. 
The males, besides being smaller than the females, 
arc to be distinguished from these by the largen&^s 
of their eye?. 

I We are told that a very grateful acid is to be ob. 
fained from Anis by distillation ; and we have one' 
instance of a person bting fond of eating Ihom alive, 
A« Mr. Consett was walking with a joiing gentle- 
man in a wood near Gottcnburg in Sweden, he says 
beobsen'cd him sit down on an ant-hill, and with a 
great degree of pleasure devour these insects, fii^f 

1 nipping off their beads and wtngs. The flavour, 
according to his account, was an acid somewhat ro 
scmbling, thoogh much more agreeable, than that 

.of a lemon*. ' 

* ConieU, I l9, 


404 THE A?;75. 

It IS said Ihat ihc Ant^ of Ihc tfipieal cTmtatts 
never torpirl ; thai they buiitt ihc'ir nctls %vilh x 
dulerity, lay iip ^roviMOiit<, and submit to rrguU- 
bttons, cmlrcly unknott-n atnong thwc of Europe. 
Tbcy are in every respect a much more formldMbtc 
ncc. Their stings produce iiisujiporlablc pain, tnd 
tbcir (leprcdaiioTis do itifitiile mischtcf. S!iccp,hen)» 
and even rat^i, by loitering loo near ibcir habilaltuns, 
are often destroyed by (hem. Bosman iiifamu u>, j 
thai, white he waa in Guinea, ibey ha\'e often at- H 
tacked one of hia sheep in the night ; in which case 
the poor animal was invariably destroyed : and so 
expeditious were ihcy io tbcir operations thai io ihe 
morning the skeleton only would be Icfl. It some' 
timn hiippcns that ihcy qmt their retreat in a body* 
and go altogether in search of prey, 

** During my Msy (si)« Smith) at Cape Coa±t 
Casile, a body of Aiils came top;ty u3>a vi«it in oor 
(brtificnlion. It was about day-break when ibc 
advanced guard of this fnmitihcd crew entered liie 
chfl|>el, where some negro Kcrvanis were asleep oa 
the flixir. They were quickly alarmed al Ihe inra- 
sion of this unexpected army, aod prepared lu well 
as they could for a defence. While ihe (brcmoft 
battalion hud ali-e.idy taken possession of llic place, 
the rear guard wns more than a quarter of a milu 
distant. The whole ground seemed alive, and 
crawling with immediate destruction. After delibe- 
rating a few minutes on what was to be done, it waa 
resolved to lay a large train of gunpowder along ibo 
path Ihcy had taken. By tbe5« means millions were 
Woivn to p\eccs» anA \\ic tc^v» wsa-w^ >^t in'A'Mft. 


rtion of their leaders, thoaght proper instantly lo re- 
turn to their original habitation." 
Dnmpicr, speaking of the natural proclucttons in 
the Spanish setilentenls of South America, says that 
there were swarms of different species of Ants. 
•* The great Biack Ant siiogs or biles almost as bad 
35 a scorpion; and next to this the small Yellow 
Ani's bite is most painful : for their sting is like a 
jp»rk of fire; and ihcy are so thick among the 
■ boughs ia some places that one shall be covered 
1^ with them before he ia aware. These creatures 
have ncsls un great trees placed on the bwly between 
the limbs: some of their nests arc zs big as a hogs- 
Iicad. This is their winter habitation ■ for in the 
vet season they oil repair to these their cities, where 
tbcy preserve their eggs. 
K ** In the dry season, when they leave their nesis, 
"they iwarm all orer the woodlands; for they never 
trouble the savannahs: great paths, three or four 
inches broad, made by them, may be seen in tbo 
woods. They go out light, but bring bonw heavy 
loads on their backs, all of the same substincc, and 
equal in siic. I never observed any thing besides 
pieces of green leaves, so big that I coulJ scarcely 
see the insect fur his burttien ; yet they would 
mardi stoutly, and so many were pressing forward 
thai it was a x'ery pretty sight, for the path looked 
perfectly green with ihem. 

" There was one sort of Ants of a black colour, 
tolerably large, with long legs. These would march 
in troops, as if they were busy in seeking somewhat j 
they were always in haste, and always followed their 


leaders, let them go where Ihcy woulJ. They baift 
no beaicn paths lo walk in, but rumbled about like 
hunters. Sonieliinus a band of these Ants would 
happen to m»rch through our huts, over our beds, 
pr into our pavilions, nay sometimes into our chcsU, 
and there nin«ack every part ; and wherever the fbre- 
most went the rest all came after. We never du- 
turbed them, but gave them free liberty to seatrcb 
where tbey plca-^d ; and they would all naarcK off 
before niji^ht. They «ere so very nuincrous ttut 
they would sometimes be two or three houn m 
passing, though they went very iast." 

The following is an accouac of three difirreot 
kinds o{ Ants that were observed in New South 
Wale^ by the gentlemen in the expedition under 
captain Cook : 

" Some arc (says the writer) as grccji as a Uaf, 
and live upon iiee:ii, where thry build their oestsof 
various sizes, between that of a man's head and hit 
£st. These nests arc of a very curious fttructure; 
they arc formctl by liendiiig down several of the 
leaves, each of which Is as broad »» a tnan*a hand, 
and glueing the points o£ them together, ao at la. 
form a purse. The mcous matter used for tbia pur« 
pose is an animal juice which nature has enabled 
Ihem to elaborate. Their method of first bending 
down the leaves we bad no opportunity to obKne^ 
but we saw thousands unicing all chcir strength to 
bold them in this position, while other busy multi- 
tudes were employed wiihin, in applying Ibis gluietl 
that was to preveni their returning back;. To «a- 
ttsiy ourselves that the leaves were bent antl bcid 



down by the effort of Ihcsc diminulivc arlificcrs, w* 
disturbed them in their work ; and as suon na they 
were tlriven from their station, the leave* on which 
tbcj were employed sprang up with a forct rnuct) 
greater than we could have tbuiiglil them able lo 
conquer by any combination of tbcir strength. Bui, 
though wc gratified our curiosity nt Ihcir expense, 
the injury did not go unrcvcngcd ; for thou:iitidd 
immediately threw ihcmitclvcH upon us nnd gavo us 
iotoierable pain with their slings, especially ihoso 
which took pssession of our necH and hair, frmn 
whence they were not easily driven. I'hcir stiug 
was scarcely less painful than that of a bee ; but, ex- 
cept It was repeated, the [lain did not lo^l murr. thaa 
» minute. 

" Another sort arc nutic black, and thtnr opora^ 
tions and manner of life are not Icse exlraordioary, 
Their habitations arc (he inside of the branches of a 
Ircc, which they contrive to excavate by working out 
the pith almost to the extremity of the slenderest 
twig ; the tree at the same time fiourishiag as if it 
liad no such inmate. When wc first found the 
tree, wc gathered some of the branches, and wcrei 
scarcely less astonished than we should have bcca 
la find that wc had profaned a consecrated grove, 
where every tree upon being wounded gave signs of 
lifej for we were instantly covered utih legions of 
these animals, swarming fro;n every broken bought 
nod inJlicting ihcir stings with incessant violence. 

" A third kind wc found nested in the root of a 
plant, which grows on the bark of trcc« in the man- 
ner of rolsletoc, Hud which ibcy had vwlwaV':^ Vsv 



that uic. Thu root is commonly as big ax a Urge' 
turnip, aod sometimes much bigigcr : when we cot 
it, vc found it intei^eclcd by innumerable winding 
passages, all filled with these animals, by which, 
however, the vegetation of the plant did not appear 
ID have suffered any injury. Wc never cut one of 
these mots (hat WAS not inhabiledj though some 
were not bigger than a hazel nal. The nnim^ 
themselves are very small, not more than half m b^ 
as the common red Ant in England. They bad 
stings, but Bc;irccly force enough to make them fell : 
tbey, however, a power of tormenting us to ao 
equal if not in a grcalcr degree ; for, the cnoment «c 
bandied the root, they swarmed from inaumerable 
boles, and, running about (hose parls of the body 
that were uncovered, produced a liiillation more ro- 
tolcrabte than pain, except it is increased to great 
violence*. '* 



These Ants, which took their name from their 
ruinous effects on the sugar-cane, first made (berr 
appearance in Grenada about thirty years ago, mi i 
stigar plantation at Pcltt Havrc^ a bay five or six 
miles from the town of St. George. From thence 
tbey continued to extend themselves on all aidcf, 
for several years ; destroying in succession every 
sugar- plantation between St. George's and St. John's 
a bpacs of about twelvp miles. At the san>e lime 

* H&vk«iwar1b*( Acccnint of Cook'i fint Vejtgt. 



culonics oFthem began lo be observed Jn olher ] arts 
'ofthc inland. 

, All aHcmpt» oflbe planters to put a stop to Ibe 
Ta*igca of (Iiesc insects having been fotind iiiefTw> 
tual, an act was pa-sseil hy the legisliiture, by which 
the discoverer of any practicable mct*iod of dvairoy- 
ing tbcm, so as to pcnnit the cultivation of the 
sugnr-canc bs formerly, wbr entitled to iteaitj? ihu- 
saiiJ p(,u«Jiy to be paid from the public trcasur^f of 
, the i:«tand. 

Many were the candidale<i on this occasion, but 
very far were any of them from having any just 
daim. Considerable sums of money were, however, 
granted, in consideration of trouble and expenses irl 
making experiments. 

These Ants, which were also injurious to Ytveral 
sorts of trees, as the lime, lemon, orange, &c. were 
of a middle size, and of a dark red colour. — Their 
numbers were incredible. The roads have been 
aecn covered with them for miles together; and so 
crowxled were they in many places that the print of 
the horses' feet would ap(>car for a moment or two, 
till filled up by the surrounding multitude;;. All tbe 
other species of Ants, although numeroits, wercctr- 
j Cuniscnbed, and confined lo a tuimll spot> in propor- 
iion lo the space occupied by the Sugar-ants, as a 
TOolc-bill to a mountain. 

Their dcstruclion was attempted chiefly by poison, 
ind the application of fire. 

Cor^Ol^iTe sublimate and arsenic, mixed with ani- 
mal subsluiiccs, was greedily dewurcd by them. 
, Myriads were thus destroyed, and \hc movit, to Vtit-j 



were by these applications rendered so furioDiu to 
destroy each other : yet it was Tuund that thctr 

poisons CDitId not belaid in sufncientqaantittcsevcn 
to give the hundred 'thuusaadlh part of IbcfD a 

The iise of fire affbrdcd a greater probubility of 
success. When wo&d was burnt to the stale oT 
charcoal, without flame, and immediately talccn from 
the fire, and hid in their \r.iy, I hey crowded to it in 

:h usloni»>hing numbere a«« sotm to extinguish it, 

:iough with the dcstructibit of Ihoosands. Hola 
were therefore dug at proper distances, and a fiiv 
ni3dc in each of litem. Prodigious quantities pc* 
rishcd in Ibis wsy ; for the places of thove iires, when 
extinguished, a[)|)cnreft in the shape of mule-hills, 
from the numbers of the dead bodies heaped on 
them. Neverllieless ihc Anli^ appeared again as 
numerous as ever. 

This calamity, whicli resisted so long the efforts 
of the planters, was at length removed by anotbcTi 
which, however ruinous to ihc other islarul* in ibe 
West Indies, and In other respect*, was to Grenada 
a very blessing, namely, the hurricane in 1 7S0. 
Without this it '}% probable that the cultivation of 
Ihc < in the tnoat raluablc pAtli of that 
island inu$t have, in a great measure, been thrown 
a&irle» at least for some time. 

ItiCM! AnlFi iniike their nests only under the roots 
of particular pKinls and trees, such m the sug.-ir.cane, 
the lime, lemon, and orange trees, where thi-y arc 
protected from the v\inds and rain; and ibc mt«- 
cliicf done by VWm dot* iwit wwt Ct<wa thc'ir 4<^ 




r\-audng those plants, but from these lodgments at 
tlieir root& Thus tbc roots of tbc sugar<cine are 
somehow or other so injured by ihem as to be inca- 
pable of supplying due itpurUtimciit to the ptaiits, 
which ihtTcforc become sickly and stunted, and coi*. 
aequcntly do not afford juicos 6l for making wgitr, 
cither in any tjuaulity or of any tolerable quabry. 
^ By the violence of the tempest, trees and plants 
(which commonly resist ihc ordinary winds) ucrc 
lorn out by the roots. The canes were universally 
twisted about as if by a whirluind, or loni out of 
(be ground altogether. In tlie lailcr case, bucli tlie 
H breeding Ants and their progeny must have been 
" eiposcd to inevitable destruction from the deluge of 
rain which fell at the same lime. Tbe number •f 
catics^ however, thus torn out of the ground, could 

I not have been adequate to the sudden dimbiution of 
the Sug»r-ants ; but it h easy to conccit-c that tbc 
roots of cane5 which remained on the ground, and 
tbc earth about them, were so agitated and shaken, 
atulal the ^iome time the »cM8wcrc so broken open, 
or injured by the viulcnre of tbc wind, as to admit 
the torrent* of min aocom|iauying it. The principl 
destruction of the Ants is supposed therefore to have 
been thus cffccled*. 

Wi. Tnn. vol, «x. p. J4& 


THE mouth in the Oestrt U mcrcljr a simple 
aperture. They have two feelers, but no beak. Tbo 
aiilenn<e arc short, and consist of three arliculatioos, 
the last of which is nearly globular, and fornisbcd 
with a bristle on the fore-part: they arc placed in 
two hollows on the front of the head. The face i> 
broad, dcpreisscd, vesicular and giaucoutt, and has 
been thought to bear some distant rcsumblance to 
Ihnt of the Ape tribe. 

The larvae arc without feec, short, thick, soft 
and annulate, and arc often furnished with small 
hooks. These lie hid in the bodies of cattle, where 
they are nourished the whole winter. The perfect 
insects arc to be met with inlhe:>ummcr in most 
placcfi where horses* cows, or sheep are grazing. 
Some of thcin lay their egjs;^ under the skin oTcowi 
or oxen, which they pierce for that purpose; Dthcn« 
for the sanfK end, are conveyed into the iniestines of 
liorscs; and others again depoi^il them in the nostrill 
of sheep. In these different habitations the respec- 
tive larvae reside till full gnmn, when ihcy let them- 
selves fall tothcearthj and generally pass the fify- 
saUJ state under cover of the first stone they meet 

THE OX 0*D-Pr-T, 


Ffom the poslenor pnrt ofihc ho<Iy of ihc perfect 
insect issues a wimble of womlcrfiil Mruttiire. It is 
in scaly cjliuHer, composed of four lulics, which 
draw out Itketlie pieces of n Kpying-)!U<is: ihc lost of 
these is artneft with three houks, and is the gimlet 
with which the inject bores through the toii^h hide 
of borncd cattle. When Ihc egg ts hatched, the 
grub feeds on the matter issuing from the wound. 
Xbc nidus (brms upon ihc body of cattle a lump, 
tomctimcs above an inch high. When the larva is 
full grown, it breaks ihruugb ibe tumour, and Klides 
duwn to the ground in the cool of ibc morning. It 
then digs itself a burrow, into which il retires. Ita 
ikin hardens to a very solid shell, wNcrc it is trans- 
formed In a chrys;dis, end nfterward to a winged 
insect. This shell has a sm^iM valve at one end, 
faslencH by a verj- slight |ig.imcni; without which, 
so careful is nature in the preservation of her off- 
spring, ihe insect would not be able to escape trom 
tls conliiicnicnt*, 


Has brown unspotted wings, and tlie abdomen is 
marked with a black band in ihc niiddU-, and has 
dusky yellow hairs al Ihe tip. 1'hc front is %vht(e, and 
covered with down; and the thorat is jelluwish be. 
fore, black in the mi{]dle> ami cinereous behind. 

• BirUii'* G.n. Insert. 2y6. 
f Stvokvmi.^ — Ocsinii bat'it. Uhm —*« cilled B->tt, 
UTermutt, ifmaili, oc H'ar^/a. — L' Ccsiic du fiauff, in 

414 THE OX CAB-PLt. 

The female differs from the male, io havings ft blhci 
style at the end o( the abdomen. 

The insect dcinstu itscggs in the back of the ox| 
and lhr> larva tives beneath tbe skin^ beltveen Ih^ 
and llic cellular membnnc. Ita Mie or alisccs; il 
somcvbat larger than the insect, and, by narrowrng 
upwards, it opens externally to the Air by a ■in;iU 

Tbe larva is smoolb, \ffhitc, and transparent when 
young, bai, when fuH grown, is of a deep brown. 
It ia also supplied in this stale witb innumerable 
mimiie hooks, ranged in cuntrary directions oo its 
bodyt with which, by occasionally erecting or de- 
pressing them, it is moved about in the ab!>4:e4s; and 
from this imlion, and the consequent irritatiofi, a 
rocMi; or less copious secretion of pus takes place for 
its sustenance. ■ 

When the Inrv-ii is full grown, it effects it* escape ™ 
from tbe abscess by pressing ogainsl the external j 
opening. When this becomes of sufficient size, 'A fl 
writhes itself through, and falls from the back of 
the animal tolhc ground; and> scekinga convenicjit 
retreat, becomes a clirysatis. Afler (he exit o( the ^ 
larva, the wound in the skin i.'^ generally closed up n 
and healed in a few days. 

The Ot Gad fly is the largest of the Eumpran 
species, and is very beautiful. When the perfect in- 
sect Icnres the chrysalis, it forces open a very re* ■ 
markablc murginalcd trinngulnr lid, which 13 Hiuatcd ' 
on one side of the small end. 

Tbcr pain it inflicts in depositing its egg b rrtucN 






more sttcrc iliati in any of the olber species. When 

one of the cattle is attacked by this dy. itJs easily 
known by ihe extreme terror ami agitation of the 
whole herd. The unfortunate object of llie attack 
njn4 bellowing from among ihcm to lomu distant 
pftrt of the heath, or the nearest water, while the 
tail, from (he severity of the pain, is held with a 
tremulous motion straight from the body, in tha 
direction of the spine, :ind chc head and neck arc also 
8tretche<l out to Ihcir utmost length. The rest', 
from fear, generally follow to ihc water, or dispcnv 
to different pons of the Held. 

Such ii the dread that cattle tiavc of these flics, 
that, when one of ibem has met a herd, in their 
way home from the labour of the day, ihcy have 
been knowD to turn back in the utmost affright} re. 
gardlcis entirely of the stones, sticks, and noise of 
their drit-ers; and lu proceed, vritbout stopping, to 
unte retreat in 1 he water, where they could be secure 
from its attacks. All il\t:s of this tribe have such a 
dislike to water as never to follow them there. 

When the oxen arc yoked to the plough, the 
attack, of this fly is aliendcd with real danger, as 
they become perfectly iincoiitrollabic, and will often 
run with Ihe plough directly forwards, even through 
the hedges of the licld. To many ploughs there is, 
on this account, a contrivance to set them at liberty 
the moment they arc alarmed. 

The female fly is vcrj- quick in her operation of 
(icpositing the egg ; she docs not remain on the 
back ofthe animal more than a few second*. — ^Thc 
Ur\'3e of this insect are known amouv ' 




(•eop'e by ibe tiamc of It^ormJt, lyiariraJsj IfarbUt, 
or Bots*. 

THE ll6&St GAD-Pt.rf. 

The lon-JC oniiis fly arc tbiwe cxM-looking grubs 
which »rr coinmonly tbund in the sloin.ich of bones, 
liiul somciiinrs, though much less frcqucnily, to Ibe „ 
inicMincs. Here they hang in clusters of from hitf I 
a duzen lo more ihan a hundred, adticring 1o ibe 
inner membrane ofihe stomach, by means of two 
sn all hnoks or ccniacula at thuir heads, whose points 
lunt ouiwnn!. 

When Ihcy are lemoved from the ttomach, tbey 
willatlach thcnioclvcs to any )oo»e memhrancj c\'Cti 
to the »kin of (he hand. To do i his tbey draw back 
ibeiflKwks, which havca join! near (heir basc.alnioit 
entirely uilhin their bkin, lill the two p(»nls cotne 
close lo each other; ihen, keeping them fmrallcl, 
they pierce through the membrane, and immctliateljr 
afterwards expand in a laleral direction, and by ibcK 
means they become perfectly fixed. 

Their food is probably the chyle, ihal while juice 
which is formed in the stomach liy the digestion of 
the fuoti, and nluch is nllcrwards converted mio* 
blood. This they suck in at a small longitBdiiul 
aperture, situated between the hooks. 

From their slowness of growth^ and the very 
small quantity of food ihey require^ it bos bcca 


* Lino. Tran. iii. i9<. lab.:), 
t SiNofvm. — OMinit (i]ui. /.wjt.— F imi-A/. io Himp- 




found extremely difficult to destroy ihem by trif 
medtcine or pol<on ihat could be thrown ioto tba 
sloinich. 'Hicy arc» however, not now considered 
so injurious to horses as they formerly were, and 
therefore the difficulty of their extirpation seems not 
a matter of so much coosequence as [leople Irave 

The mode piirsued by the parent fly to obtain for 
its young a situation itt the stomach of the horse is 
«ry singular: — The fctiialc, when the lime for lay- 
ing her eggs is at hand, apprueches on wing that part 
^ the hor^jc where she intends to deposit the egg, 
tftlh her body nearly Qpright: and her tail, which 
is lengthened out for the purpoee, bent inwards: she 
kcarccly sppcars to settle, but merely touches the 
hair, with llie egg held out on the projected point of 
the abdomen. The egg adhcr'es by means of a 
glutinous liquor eccreted with it. She then leaves 
the horse, goei to a 9mnll distance, and prepares ft 
second egg; then, poising herself before the part, 
deposits this in the same way. The liquor dncS| 
and the egg becomes firmly glued tp the hair: this is 
repeated by various ilies, till 400 or joo eggs are 
sometimes laid on one horse. 

The inside o( the knee is the put on which (be»a 
fitcs pnnci]Killy deposit their e^^i and next to this 
lltcy fix them on the sides, and the back part of the 
shoulder: but always, in places that are liable to be 
licked by the tongue. When these eggs have re- 
mained on the hairs four or five days they become 
ripe, after which the slightest application of wMinth 
and moisture is sufficient tobnng \hen\\Y\\.o\\K^ VI 

rot. tij. £ e 



at this time the tongue of the horse touches the egg^ 
its lid is thrown open, and a small active worm is pro- 
duced, which readily adheres to the surface of the 
tongue, and is from thence conveyed with the food 
tothesinmach. i 

It is however fortunate for the horses, that thw tn-* 
sect is exposed to so many hazards that scarcely one 
in a hundred arrives at the perfect stale of « By. 
The eggs, when ripe, often hatch of thcmsdvet, and 
the l»rviecrswl ahout till they die; others are waihed 
ofFby the waier. When in the mouth of ibc animal, 
they hai'c to unilergo the ordeal of the Iceih and 
^mastication i and many pass entirely through iha 
intestines with the (uod. When the Inrvse arrive at 
full growth, and arc voided alon|t with the dung, 
many are cither dropped into mud or water, oibcn ; 
I are crushed to death by being trod upon, and otheitj 
are picked up by the birds. The perfect fly is very 
tender, and but til sustains the clianges of weather; 
and cold and moisture, in any considerable degree, 
areprobahly ot'ten f;ital to it. 

This Gad.Ry is distinguished from the rest of its 
tribe by having a black band in the middle, and two 
dotsatihe tip ot' itswhilisb wings. The abdomen is 
yellow brown, with black spots at the divisions of 1I10 
segments. Thfifcinalc is more brown than the male, 
and has her abdomen cnlongate^l niih ■ cleft Icnin- 
sal style*. 

t *19 ] 


I tlie mnnner in which the Gud-fly of I he sheep 
de|>osrts its egg has been seldom noticed; nor is It 
easy, from the obscure and rapid motion ofihe in$cct, 

I todiflcerii ihc exact manner in which this is accom- 
plished. The moment the flics touch the nmea of 
the sheep, ihcy shake their heads and strike the 
ground violently with their fore feet: ftt the same 
time holding ihcir noset to the earth, they run away, 
looking about thetn on every side to see if the Hies 
pursue. They also smell the gratis as they go, test 
one should be lying in wait for them. If they ob- 
serve one, they gallop back, or take some other 
direction. As they cannot, like the horses, take" 
refuge in the water, they have rtcourte to a rut, or 
dry dusty road, where they crowd together during 
the heal of I he dny, with Ihcir noses held cto<« to 
the ground. This renders it difficult (or the fly 
conveniently to get at the nostril. It is most pro- 
bably from repeated attacks und the consequent 
rubbing against the ground, that the nostril becomea 
highly inflamed and sore, and occjisions their touch 
to be §o much dreaded by the shcep-f. 


• Stmovtms- — Ocalru« ovi», 
MoatOQf, ia France. 

Lim. — L'OeHre ia aa i]«s 

t Lion. Tran. iii. 3I]. Ub. 23. 


C *20 1 



THE Tipulae, io their gen«ml form, have a great 
resemblance to the Gnat. They buve a very short 
membranaceous {iroboscls, the back oT which is 
groovc4, and receives a brisllc The feelers are two» 
incurved, tiiread-sbaped, and longer ihnn ibc hcuii 
and the antenna arc, for the most part, filifonn. ^ 

The krvtc arc wjlhotil Icct, s<>(^, and cylindricaJf " 
and those of the larger s[>ecicti feed on the roots of 
plants, or in the hollows uf decayed trees. Both the 
larvre aod chrysafids of the sinaltcrTipuliE arefouod 
in water, and arc very various both in %ixc and colour. 
Some, Itkt; the poiypa% arc furnished with a pair of 
arms; and others are inclosed in cylindrical luhcft 
open at the ends. The taller swim nimbly, but tho 
others always remain in the boles ibcy have furmed 
in the banltsof rivulets, Sonte of the specie* uptn ■ 
a silken case round part of their body. Their wboic " 
frame i.s in general, ^o very tender, that a touch 
alone is oftca .snflictcot to cruttb them. 


TKB wtIB.^x-rl.v•, 

In July 1 795 1 Mr. Marsham had been informot 
Ibat an insect had nude its appearance among the 
wheat ofa gentleman, a friend of hi$, in Hertford. 
sbirc, which threatened much mischief. Some of 
the ears were brought to him for examination ; ami, 

* Tipuli Tritki Lnn. Trm. 




on opening lltose that seemed diseased, he found in 
many an orange-coloured powder, and in several on« 
or two very minute larv* of a yellow colour. On 
applying a mag-nlficr, for ihey were too minute for 
examination n-ith the naked eye, he supposed them 
St that time to be the brvse of a small species of 
Musca; but they have sinw been discovered to be- 
long to this tribe. They were thicker at one end 
than the other; extended and contracted themselves 
at pleasure; and had. in addition, a leaping motion, 
frequently springing full half an inch from the 
paper on which he cxHmined tbem. The ears were 
put into water, with gauze tied round them; bur, 
notwithstanding this care, the flies escaped, after 
their development, without being seen. Mr. Mar* 
•ham wrote to sevcml friends, ret^ucstlng their at- 
tention to litis subject ; !n consequence of which 
an accurate invesligatiun was imrocdiatcly set on 

It a[ipeani that these larvae take their station in the 
longitudinal furrow of the grain, to the bottom of 
which they seem attarhed. Here probably sucking 
the milky juice which swells the grain, and thus de- 
priving it of part, and in some ca5es, perhaps, of the 
whole of its moisture, they occasion it to shrink up, 
and become what the Farmers call fungltd. They 
infect several grains in the same car, and some cars 
ha\x been observed in which even a fourth of the 
grain was cither destroyed, or vcr)' materially injured 
by tbem. The lale-sown wheal always appeared the 
moat infected, arising, no doubt, from the seed of 
that sown earlier obtaining too great a degree of 


THfi WHKAT-rLlf. 

hardness, before the insects come out, to be liable 
to be much hurl by them. 

. • The Rev. Mr. Kirby attended very closely to 
Ibese iriKcis ; but it wag gome time before be wu 
able to discover the parent flies, aod still loogcr 
bcfurc he could tind ihcm in sufficient numbers to 
allow him to inakc the necessary observations &s to 
their habiik und economy. 

Jn the beginning of June 17981 however, be 
cbiinccd 10 walk through acorn-field in the evening* 
and to bis great surpn»e, observed an innuiDCnble 
multitude of them flying about in ever)' diredlon; 
and, for near a month Afterwards, found them in the 
greate:3t abundance. They tvcrc seldom seen be* 
fore seven o'clock ; at eight the fields appeared to 
swarm with them, at which hi'tir ibey were all busi- 
ly engaged in laying their c^s; and ahont nine ihcj 
generally dis.ippeared. They were so cxlremely no- 
merausThot, if each of them were to lay its eggs ins 
difl'erent floret, and these eggs were permitted lo 
produce lurvs, more than half the grain of the 
adjacent country would infallibly be deftlroyed. 
Twelve hnve been observed si the sonic moroeot 
la)!ng their eggs in t bo same ear: but among aU 
lbe«e niyr..-i(ls not one male cuutd be discovered. 
During the day-time none of the»c inaeci4 are lo be 
^eeD,a»thcy then cuniimic Mgcd in a Elate oT-re> 
pose upon the lower part of ihe culm. Upon 
^baking tbc stalks, however, ibey will fly about. 

'Xlie female l:i)8 her ^gs by means of a lung r& 
Inctite lul;«, which unshealhs an acuteus as fine as 
a hair, and vt:ry \on^. 





■ ThcK in8«ct» would soon become of seriou* la- 
H jury to mankind, were not ihcir race kept witbio 
^ due bounds by several natural enemies, some of 
which devour Ibem, and others (lebntmun TtpuUj 
deposit Iheir eggs in the larvae, the young of wbicb, 
when batched ibere, find a proper noumbment in 
the bodies of their hosts. 
H This Ichneumon is about the size of the Wbeat- 
' fly: and in otder to observe the manner of the female's 
depositing her eggs in the caterpillars of the Wheat- 
fly, Mr. Kirby placed a number of the latter on a 
sheet of white paper, and then Kt an Ichneumon 
down in the midst of them. She soon discovered 
one of the la^^£Ci when tibrating her antennae in sn 
inlcntc degree she fixed hcT«If upon it, and, bending 
her abdomen obliquely under her breast, inserted her 
■culcus into tbe btxt) of her victim, (tvhir.h seemed 
by its ritoiiun to experience a momentary pain,) and 
Ibere deposited a i^ingle egg. This being done, she 
went tu a second, which wasconMrntned to undergo 
the like operation, and so on to all the rest. She 
never dc|>oiil«i more than one egg in each Iar\'a j 
and when she was remarket! to muutit one thai had 
been pricked before, the suon discovered her nii&t.ike 
■nd left it. 

The size of the two insects is so nearly alike that 
one young only ran be tiourishcd by a single larva ; 
and Ihererore tn<-ilnct ic:ichesihe parent lehueumons 
to deposit only this number in each. 

Mr. Kirby proposes, as an additional remedy for 
this evil, that, when the wind is in a favourable 
quarter, the fumes of tt^acco oc suX^Vttt^ « as^^\fc 



thrown upon ihecorn. But, iftbiflkflone, ilflhould 
be »6 soon as the ears begio to appear from llic luw 
sheathing leaf of Ihe stalk. 

The Wheat-fly is about Ihc IwelfUi of an ioeh io 
length. Its body and legs are of dull yellow cobur, 
and ibc wiogsare whitish, with a fringed margin*. 


THE mouth of the insects of this tribe ha» a 9ofc 
fleshy proboscis with two equal lips; and ihe aucker 
isfurniahcd with bristles. TheontciiDiearegcnenaliy 
very short. 

The appellation ofFIy has been given almost ex- 
clusively to these insects, probably from their hcing 
so much more common than any others. The larvs 
of some of the species live in the watcTj others are 
found on trees, where they devour the plant-hce; and 
others in putrid flesh, chect^, &c. Most of the 
Flics steep during the winter, and therefore lay up do 
provision for their nourishment in the cold season. — 
At the decline of the year, when the mornings and 
evenings become chilly, many of the species come for 
warmth into houses, and swarm in the windonrii. At 
first they appear very brisk and alert; but a.s they grow 
torpid they arc seen to move with difficulty, and 3t 
last are scarcely able to lift their legs, which seem as 

THt rtlES. 


ifglncdto the glass; and by <Irgreesmnny do nctimlly 
slick on till they die in the plflcc. It his been cb- 
served \hm some of the Flies, besides their sharp 
hooked nuils, have also skinny palms or flups to 
Iheir feet, whereby they are enabled tostick on ;»laS!i 
^ and other sniooih bodim, and to walk on ceilings 
H with their backs downward, by means of the prcs- 
H sure of ihc aimo5phcrc on tboac flaps; the weight 
H of which they easily overcome in warm weather, 
^ frhen they arc brisk and alert. But towards the 
end of the year this resistance becomes too mighty 
for their diminished *;irerjgih; and we sec Flics la- 
bouring along, and lugging their feet in windows as 
H if they siuck fast in the glass; and it is with the 
tilmosl difficulty they cnn draw one foot after an- 
other, and disengage their hollow caps from the dip- 
p«-} surface. Oil a principle exactly similar to this 
it is that boys, by way of amusement, carry heavy 
«reights, by only a piece of wet leather nt the end 
of a string, clapped close to ihc surface of a stone. 
■ It is a very extraordinary fact, that Flics have 
" been known to remain immersed in strong [[(juors, 
even for Jcvcral months, and aft. rward, on being 
taken out, and cxpoM.'d to the air, have again revived. 
Some, we are told by Dr. Franklin, were drowned 
Hijn Madeira wine, when bottled in Virginia lobe sent to 
England. At the opening ofa bottle of this urinesi a 
friend's house in London many months afterwards, 
three drownedflics frll into the linit glaitsthatwaglillcd. 
The Doctor says, that, having heard it remarked that 
drowned flies were capable of being revived by I be 
rays of the sua, be now proposed \ji'jV!w^ vVt »^- 



periment. They were therefore np«ed to Ihe nin, 
vpon the sieve uhich had been employed lo »lratii 
them frum the uiiie. In less than Ibrec hours two 
of Ihein begon by Jegrees to hare life. The/ 
eommcnrcd this by some coneutsive motioas in the 
thighs; and at length tticy raised tbermelvcs upoo 
their legs, wiped iheir cjcs wiih their forc-fcet, md, 
very kajd afterwards, flew away. —The Rev. Mr. 
Kirby lofuriat me that he has made ihc same obser- 
vation un fl>cs taken out of home-made wiae$. Ho 
ia>B th.nt many ha^-c recovercil after bciog twelve 
(nooths immersed. 



This insect is, in appearance, much allied to I'^o 
brge BIwe-boiile flesh-flyt- I' '»» however, soqie- 
whftt more slender, and is besides of a grayish liat, 
occasioned by eome irregular ralhcr long stripes oi 
Ibc corselet running tengibwiHc, and some still more 
irregular marks of the same kind on ihc body; all of 
Ilicin of a cinereous gray, separalcd by a shining 
brown, which, under certain points of xiew, appear 
of a lilurisli tint. Its legs are bUck, the hallcresor 
balancers under it!^ wings are nhitish.and its reliculir 
cyet somewhat red. 

ll is a fact not generally known, that this it a 
viviparous insc«:t, de})u»iting its young tn a living 

MHte on ilic inent in our shinibles and Urdon. 

• SmwYM*-— Mu»f» caraaria, LtKti.^Lz Mouidie i 

I Franct. 

■f MufCJi irwnitoiia. ijnv. 



These young appear under the wine worm-like form 
aa tbc grubs produced from the Otue ilc^h-fly: ihey 
feed att those (lo« increaM: in size» undergo all ihcir 
tran-iformaiions in the same manner, and even in (he 
fly Hratc ap))t:ar very litdc diffiTctit. 1 1 appears that 
the eggs of this fly are extruded from the uterusinto 
lliccBviiy ol the abdomen, and there undergo ibeir 
6rHl change, differing in this ropect from most others 
of Ihc inaect tribes. 

When ihe %rorms have attained their full size 

{which 18 generally in ievcn or eight days) they quit 

their Tood, and go in search of some loo»c earth, io 

I vhich ihcy bury themselves and undcrgi^ their tncta- 


Some others of Ihe flics arc alsio viviparous. 


Among the various causes of alarm eipcrienred bjr 
the farmer in the couse of his rural labours, few are 
more powerful, though many more justly so, than 
the larvae or grubs of this little t\y. These arc 
lodged and nourished in the very heart oflhcstems 
of vvticiii and rye, just above the root, which by iheir 
Toracity they entirely destroy. 

The fly produring this destntctive grub is not 
quite the fourib purtof an inch in length. lis thorax 
is dark-eolonrcd, but marked longiludiually with 
two yellow Imrs. lite griihs are white, about two 
fines in length, composed of ten ringit, wit!) the head 
pointed at the end. Tbc cbrywihs is yellow, shining, 

* Utui^ Paa.ilMtiia. ttom. 




ntber more thsn one line long, ind coRiposed of 

In order to detennine ibe nperies of Ihin animal, 
Mr Markwick jibnlcd somcdts^.'isc'd roots of wheal io 
a small flower-pot lilted with uran: this pot he covtfr« M 
ed over with gauze, in such a manner that no inwct ' 
could get in Troni the oiit»ido, nor could any nrapo 
from wiibin. Not very long aftcr>vard he dtsco%-en:d 
three small flies, which he found to be of th» Kpecie^ , 
ftiiting on the inside of the gauze, and a few da)* m 
after three more. There- were in the pot six roois of 
diKcn<^ u'hcat, which thos i)roduced six Hies. On 
examining the roots, he now found an empty chry- 
sali& in each. 

The principal stems of the corn being entirely dc 
stroyed ty this grub, gave the crop of wheat belong* 
ing to a friend of Mr. Markwick so disastrous an 
appearance that scarcely a hope was entertained of 
any produce: but after the grub had changed iiito 
its chrysalis state the mischief ceased, and none of 
the roots ni're »o materially injured as to prevent 
them throwing out shoots on each side. At harvcM- 
time it was a matter of most ugrectble surprise that 
this should prove a good crop of wheal, with (he an 
throughout the field large and well filled. The 
owner even thought it the best crop on bis lam), 
and conjectured that it would produce about three 
quarters and a half of tbre&hcd corn from each 

The wheat (hat was »vvn early, about the beff9- 
ning of October, was alone aHectcd by this inu'd. 
Tlie a-uon was, probably, that (he cold at the ap- 





praacl) oTwinter Iiad destroyed all the flies before the 
latc-aown wheat had time to spring out of tho 
ground: consequently ihcir eggs could nut he Uid 
in this. Tiie fly appears to be pcrlccced in May, or 
the beginning of June. 
P It was conjectured iliac this might be the liesiian 
fiy, whose depredations io America have been » 
notorious. If this is the case, Mr. M, is of opioioa 
that a little good Englieh husbandry, by keeping the 
ground in heart, and thus enabling ihc wounded 
shoots to repnir themselves by strong klta-al onc5, 
will prm-cnt any serious alarms*. 


The larvsc of these Flies are the troublesome mag- 
gots found in cheese, so well known to housewives 
under the name of Ikppen^ They proceed from the 
cggR deposited inlhccreviccs ox holes of the cheese 
by a very common fly, nbout the lenlh of an incli 
long, and of a dirk colour, with whitish wings, each 
marked with a black rib. 

This maggot is surprisingly strong and vigorous, 

and leaps to a considcruhle distance when disturbed. 

[To do this it erects itself on its tail, and, bendiog 

V\K% head into a circle, fixes two black claws at the 

end of the tail into two cavities formed for ihcir re- 

'ccptlun at the buck of the head. It tlien exerts iu 

muscular powers, and, in suddenly cxcending ii« 

body, throws itself, for its size, to a vast distance. 

' Linn. Tran. ii p. ;6. tab. l^ 
t StkonVms.— Miua pvtrit. £< m. — Iaivk c^t4 //«//m. 



One of tbese, not a fourih of an inch lone, hu 
been known to leap thus out of a box six incha 
deep, or to twenty>four times its own length. 

The n>tteniiess of cheeee is in a grrat meauuire 
occuMoneH by these little maggotst (or they cram* 
btc the substance of it tnto small pii'iicles, and the 
smulleet tainted spot immediately spreads when anjr 
of them get ui>on it. 

When ihey are about to change into chrysatida, 
they desert the cheese, and in three or four dayi 
afterward grow stiff and lifeless. The fly burtts 
through an opening in the skin just at the head, 
which there divides into two purls. At its fint ap* 
pearance the nings are not fully formed, hue it is 
able to run about with great activity : the wings ti- 
paad by degrees, and in the course of a quarter of 
an boor they arc perfected. 

In the ovary of a single female no fewer fbao two 
hundred and filiy-^ix eggs have been found. 


This is one of our nrmst common twtvwinged in- 
sects. The egg from which it ts produced U depo- 
ttted by (he fcinnle in the hollow stalks of reeds aixl 
other a<]<iacic plants; From thi.s proci-edn n lirva of 
singuliir structure, which is often to be seen crawl* 
ing on grass and plants near shallow standing wa- 
ters* or floating near the surface. 

The general colour of the larvse is a greenish 
brown. Their bodies ron^ist of eleven rings, and 

" Miuci Chamricgn. LinM. 





iheir skin somewhat resembles parchment. Though 
these animals, before their iniitsformutton into flics, 
live in water, air is necessary lo support llicir pria- 
dplc of life; and the apparatus with which nature has 
furnished them for that imporlant purpose desen'ea 
our panicularnoticc. The list ring or lertninalion 
of their bodies is open, and serves as a conductor 
of air. From this ring proceed a numl>er of hain, 
which, when examined by the microscope, are found 
to be real feathers with regular vanes. In |>arlicular 
ailualions the larv'se bend the last ring in such a 
roanocT as to reach the surface of the water or mud 
in which they arc placed. TTtc feathers prevent the 
water from entering the tube or organ of respi- 
ration ; and, when the animal raises the termination 
of its body to its surface, in order to receive air, ic 
erects and spreads the fealherft, iind by these mcana 
exposes the end of the tube to the almosphere. 
When ic wishes to descend, >t contracts the fila- 
metitu into the form of a ball, and the babble of air 
contained within it serves to keep the body in a 
\'erltcal position. 

If this insect be cautiously cut open, two large 
vessels, or tracheae, will be seen on each side to 
occupy almot one half of tbc body. Both of these 
terminate in the open tube, or last ring. Though 
these larva are furnished with powers of respiration, 
and actually respire air, yet some of ihcm are able* 
to live mure than twenty-four hours without respira- 

The bead of this creature exhibits not less matter 
of curiosity than its tail. In the middle part uf ics 



moulb is placed a liani, poiniod, horny substance, 
immoveable, and iiOincM-lial resembling tbc upper 
mandible in the beak of a bird. On each 5tdc o( 
this tlicre is a am^l and very singular kind of pro 
cess. These have lalcly been discovered Id be i he 
feet, or, [lerhapn more properly, the arms, by which 
the animaJ perforins many of its movtiinents in the 
^vater, and by wliose aid nione it can mo\^ itsdf 
fonvard on drj- land. Another principal lueof Ibeie 
members seems to be to Joosen the mud for the pur- 
pose of altowing the month to Hod ca&lcr access into 
it ihnii it othcnutsc might do ; {xrrormmg-- in some 
incs!>ure the same fonciions in this respect s> (be 
gristle in the nose oT a hog* The animal has tbe 
power of drawing th»c orgaM inward at pleasure, 
so as to hide them as it u-crewitbin ibc checks ; and 
ii-om this peculiar position some persons have mi 
that this Iar\-a cirries iis feet in its iDouth. 

It is a calm inoffensive animal ; di:>coi'crs no : 
ptoms of fear when man approaches, and perform 
in his presence all its usual operations with great 
tranquillity. It never attempts to hinder or annov 
any ocber creature Jn this state of its existence. 

When the time of iis mctamorpbosis npproachwt 
the lan'a leaves the water, and, climbing up che side 
o( the hank, chooe>C5 a place where it can tic only 
ID pari iiumerged iti water. Here it remainsat resT^ 
until it finally atlaina its chrysalid stale. From five 
to ten days are occupied in attaining its coin{)kte 
fonn, and becoming a fly. This change always taket 
place about the middle of July. 

I *93 ] 



The larvas of the present species sre usually found 
in Rwist places, such as arc frequented by the com- 
mon black lizanl, and ibey never appear on dry 
ground till about to undergo their iirst t-ansforma- 
tion> In tbis state they sumewKat resemble a lafU 
pole in form, the fore-part being soft, thick, and 
rounded, and ihc tail small and tapering. They are 
covered wirh a viscous fluid, and on that account are 
generally found encmsterl with a coat of dirt. This 
seems to be their colour till they arc washed, wheq 
they are found of s tranfljurcnt white. 

The parent fly always lays hereggi in a place near 
the vicinity of water, that is, where it is betwixt 
moitt and dry. M- Reaumur watched the motions 
of one of these insect*, which he saw flying about a 
bucket of water that stood in his ganlcn. ARer 
crossing it often, she «t length descended within 
its mutith, and then, flying round and round It 
several times, stopped about an inch above the sur- 
face of the water, and laid, in several places, a little 
cluster of eggs. Tlicsc were nil dcpoiited where 
the wood was just damp from the influence of the 
wsler below, and invariably in civiiirs between tuo 
sdjuining staves, where the water was less likely to 
be dried up Ihnn oUcwhcre. In this situation, the 
youn|» insect was no sooner extruded from the egg 
than it found itself within the reach of the clcnncot 

• SrvoKTM*.— Mmca pcnduls. Z^m. — Tbe Lura b called bj 
VOL. UI. F f 



where it wiw destined to pass the tnofvt conRiderable 
part of its life 

The young are no sooner dropped into the witter, 
than, like all other anim.ils in their mlurnl element, 
th(>y tirul themsclvis endowed with ibc insUnct of 
searching for their own f^od, and of employing, in 
on appropriate manner, a!I the meinWrs of ihcir 
body to the proper uscs for which they are naturally 

The tail of this insect, like thai of the la^t, li >t9 
organ of respiration ; and ihuugh, like the whale, it 
h an inbabilant of the water, yet, like that, ii in a 
breathing animal, and would be entirely sutlbcited 
were it to be continued under water and cscluckd 
from access co tbc atr. 

Reaumur, ia order to observe the economy of 
these little creatures, which he denomtnattxl /im- 
taikd Iformi, eoUeeted a number of them, vbich he 
put into a gla&s vessel tiiletl two inches high with 
water. At tinst they were considerably agitated, 
each seemingly searching for a proper pla<x of re- 
pose. Some of Ihem swam across, others altacbcd 
themselves to the sides, and others rested at the 
bottom of the vessel. In a quarter of an hour they 
were almost all entirely Iranquiljand Keauiimr soon 
discovered the real use of their long tails. Op ex- 
amining the vessel, he found that each of ibc ani- 
mals, in whatever situation l hey were placed, ex- 
tended its tail exactly to the surfacej that, like 
other aquatic insects, the respiration of air was ne- 
cessary to their existence ; and that the tail, which 
is tubular, and open at tbc extremity, was Ihc organ 







by which this operation was performed. In Ihis 
experiment, the distance from the bottom to the 
surface was two inches, and, of course, the tails 
weruofan equal length. To discover how far the 
animals could extend their tails, thi<i most inge- 
nious and indefatignblc philosopher gradually aug-- 
tncnlcd the height of the water, and the tails oiii- 
formly rose to the surtiice till it was bt-tneen tire 
and six inches high. When the water was raised 
higher the aniinaU immediately rjuiltcd their sta- 
tion flt the bottom, and either mounted higher tn 
the water, or fixed themselves npon the sides of the 
vessel^ in situations which rendered it convcnicTtt 
for them to reach the surface with the points of 
their tails.— These tails consist of two tubes, both 
of which are capable of cxcMifiion and conlrnction. 
The first tuhc is aiwrys visible -. but the swomi, 
which is the proper organ of respiration, is cxcricd 
only when Ihe water is raided beyond a certntn 
height. Through this tube the air in conveyed into 
two large irachcre or wind-pipes within ihn body of 
the animal, .ind ihus maintain^ the pnttciplcof life. 
When the tails arc below ihc surface, ihc animals 
occasionally emit small bubble:; of air, which are vi<<l- 
blc to the naked eye, and immediately rrpair to the 
lurfaoc for fresh supplies. 

So aniious is nature to j^'ovide animals in every 
stale of their exisfence wiih air, thar, -iflcr the irans- 
formation of many insects into chry^-alid-*, she creates 
instruments for that purpose which did not exist 
previous to their transtornialton. These Rat-laitcd 
Worms, soon afier thev are (ran^^formed into chry«a- 


litis, inslcad of a soft pliitble »km, are oovered witi 
a hard cruitaceoussulisianoe, ^eelnitlgly iinprrrinus 
to the air t and the tiitl, which w.-is ihe wind-ptpa 
of the aniinul in its firtt state, gmdunlly vsatshcs. 
In a few hours, liowcycr, four hollow Somi aboot 
out| tMO rrom the fure and In-u frtim the tinder port 
orwi)ul WHS itic liead of the aolinal. l^hcc homs, 
which are biird mtd tubular, M. tie Rejiumur dis- 
covered Id be real wttid-pipc5, destined for the iotro- 
duction of air into the chnsnbs ; a sl&ic tn wbidi 
many animals hare the appejir^ince of being I'cad, 
and, of coumc, sbuidd H-cm to bn*c litilc use for re- 
spiration. He bkcwise discovered that the»c booA, 
which bad pierced Ibe bard exierior eoverinf;, ler- 
minaied in as many trachcas in ibe body of the ini- 
mal. This fact affords s strong exairtple of the ne- 
cessity of air for sustaining the principle of li'e, evni 
in its loncst condition. After ibe^ animals pass 
from the chryjalis stale to that of flies, they are de. 
prived both t»f their tnits and horns. But iMCore, 
in this last stage of their cxirtcnrc, bus not IcA 
thctn without proper resources for the introditciitm 
of air into their boibes. Instead of protuberant Irfr 
cheac in the form of tails or Iwms, they now, !ik« 
other flics, receive air by means of ili^main. or 
holes, viiriously difjused over diflercnt parts of tbe 

ThcK Rat-lailcd Worms pn'j! llic first and Icmgcal 
part of their li^cs, wbtch is unpposied lobcflci'cra] 
months, under ttsier. When near the time «f their 
tranbloriiiaiiont ii)ry leave that clement, rciiie into 
Ibe giuund, and there become cbryulids. From 





ihia state they arc chnng^ info flics, and spend Ibe 
remainder of tluir tiuxl existence in the air. 


THE motitS (if the Gnats has a long slender 
trunk, or flexile sheath, inclosing five pointed bris- 
tles ; it has also two feelers. The antcnnx arc ge- 
crally tbrcid'Shapcd, but those of some of the mates 
■re fcalhcre'l. 

These insects principally frequent woods and 
watery places, and are generally known to the 
country people by the name of Afidgej. They 
live by sucking the blood and juices of the larger 

"Dicir larvte are very common in stagnant waters. 
The U>dics ofchcM arc compoeed of nine segments, 
the last of which is furnished wiili a small cylin- 
drical lube through which they brcnthe, frequently 
rising to the lurfacc of the water for that purpose. — 
The head of the cbrysaiis is bent down towards the 
breast, so as (o throw the thorax in front ; in this 
the respiratory tubes are situated near the head. 
The last segment of the abdomen terminates in a 
kind of flat fin, by means of which the creature ob- 
tains its motion in Ibc water. 

C *38 ] 


Pew iosccls are bcCcr knowa than tbis spec! 
Gnat, and ihere arc nut many that afford a 
inlefesiiiig hisiory. 

From the beginning of May ihcir lar^-c may he 
ficen in the atagnaoE %vaters, nitb their heads down- 
ward, and [he extremity of djeir abdomen at lEe 
surface;; from t be side of which an'scs the hollow 
tube through which (hey respire. Tbcir beadu air 
armed with hooks, that serve to seize on iniiecls and 
bits of gra.s9, on which they feed j and on their sides 
arc four small fins, by the help of which ibcy swim 
and crawl along. Them lan'ae retain their fortn 
during a fortnight or three weeks, after which Ifaqr 
turn into chrysa!idsi and all the parts of the winged 
insect are now diMinguidhablc through (heir (bit} ex- 
terior covering. The situation and shape of ibeii 
respiratory tube are also altered : this is now divtJol 
into two parts, and is placed near the head. The 
cbrysulids abstain from ealtng, and reside alraoit 
conatatilly at the surface of the water; but, on the 
least motion, they may be seen to unroll thcmttclva 
from their spiral position, and, by means of Irttic 
paddles on their binder part, to plunge lo the bot- 
tom. In the course of a few days ttiey are trans- 
formed into perfect Gnats. The chrysialids t^well 
at tbe head, and ibefliei; burst from their iticlosoie. 
If al the instant of the change a breeze springs up, 

* STNo^iTHi'—CuIca iHpku. Irinn.-'Lt Cmiaia conunoB, il 



it proves to them o drcadltil humcnue, as the wa- 
■ Icr get9 inio Ihcircasc, from which they arc nut yet 
perfectly loosened; this imniedUtcly !unk% and chey 
ore drowned*. 

The t«in.ile deposits her ejfgs on the surface of 
the water, and surrounds thcin with a kind of unc- 
tuous matter, which prevents them from sinking j 
and she at thcsanw time fastens them with a thread 
to the bottom, to prevent them from floating away, 
at the mercy of every breeze, from a place the 
warmth of which is proper for their production, to 
any other where the water may be too cold, or the 
animals, their enemies too numemuH. In this stale 
they therefore resemble a buoy that ta fixed by an 
anchor. As they come to maturity they sink deeper j 
and nt l.isi, when they leave the egg, they creep in 
_ the form of grubs at the bottom. 
m (f (he Gn:its were not devoured by fish, water- 
fowl, swallows, and other unimals, the air would 
oflen, from their immense multitudes, become dark' 
cned : a tew in-tlancea have occurred in which this 
has been the case. In July, August, and Scptcm- 

rber 177^1 at Oxfordt they were sometimes seen to- 
wanli' the evenings it) stich myriads as literally to 
darken the rays of the sun ; and their repeated bites 
oflen welted iIk: exposed parts of the body to an 
enormous size, and caused the most iroublcsunw 
and unjjlcasant sensations. Mr. Swinton, uho has 
given an account of ihem in the Philosopbical 
Transactions, has stated that he was one evening 

*■ Bkrbut'a Gen. Insect. 306. 



In the garden of VVadham Collcfie. abont lialf tn 
bour b«fuK liUii'Sct, in company with nnother pen* 
tleimn, when they were observed in iiumljcrs almoit 
unexampled. Sin dUlinrl cotumns vrcre obfencd 
ta ascend front ihc lops of six. branches of an vpple. 
tree in an adjoining garden, sepuraled from 1)ist in 
which they were slalioncd by a wiill at lost 6fty or 
lixty feet in height. Two of these columns scenicd 
perfectly erect, three of ibem were oblique, and 
one approached itomewlvit townriU a pyramidal fonn. fl 
The bodica of &omc of the Gnottt were greatly dts- ' 
tended wiib bloud ; one, considerably larger than the 
rest,iitut was killalt bud as much blood expressed fram 
il as besmeared part of 3 wall three itichcn squaie. 
About thirty years Iwfore this many columns of 
rnatG nere obsened to rise from the top of (he c^ 
thedral church at Salisbury. Ai a little distance 
they had so great a resemblance to siiiuke, as, al 
, iifst, lo occasion cunfiidcrabic al.inn lest the cburch j 
n-as on 6 re*. H 

It i$ impossible tu behold and nor admire the 
»uliful structure of the proboscis of the Gtiali 
'through which it drans the juices that aO'urd it noo* 
DTtbmcnt. 'i'hc naked eye is only able to diKottr 

long nnd slender tube, conlaining five or »t 
ipicuts of exquisite fineness. These hpiciila;, intro* 
Jticed into ibc veins of anim.tiA, act like the surkcn 
sf a pump, and cause the blood to ascend. I'hc 
insect injecis a small quantity of liquid into tl» 
nd, by which the blood is made more Uuid.— 



Tbc antmnl iwcDs, g;row9 red, and t)oci not quit its 
tioM till it ba« gorged itself. Tbc liquor it bas tn- 
jccteJ causes, by its ferment in^r, n disagreeable 
itching, wliicb may be removed by volatile dIIchH^ 
or by ifnme<iialely rubbing and washing the place 
witb cold water*. — Wc arc also told that at night 
to rub the part aircctcti with fuller's eartb and wa- 
ter will lessen the inflammntion. 

GoaU arc said sometimes to sbinc In the dark. 

The Mtisqtieto-fy- is nothing more than a large va- 
ricty of ihc Common Gnat, which 19 very common 
in the woody and marshy parts of all hoi cliiriales. 
It also aboundsi during their short summer, through- 
out Liplund, Norway, and Finland, and other coun- 
tries equally near the Pole. 

It is the female only that biles and sucks the 
blood ; and this is so severe as to swell and blister 
ibe skia 10 a most violent manner, and sometimes 
even to leave obstinate sores. The Musqiictocs 
I are found in such swarms in the woodtt, that who- 
ever eaters them is sure to have his face covered, 
and he is scarcely able to sec his way before him. 
A swelling and disagreeable itching immediately 
follow the pnncturc, and these are succccilcd by 
small white ulcers ; so that tbc face of a person 
coming from the country is scarcely lo be rctwg- 
nisct), and it appears full of blotches. Even gloves 
are not a]w4iy5 found a protection against Ihew 

• Earbut't Geo. ltiM«t. jcC 



troublesome insect?:, as they often pji»s ibcir slmg« 
tbrnugh Ihe scams. 

Whilst the Lapldtidcrs are employed in (he woods, 
on the necessary business of cutting timber, they tn 
unable to lake the refreshment of their meals; fbr 
their months, asscx>n as opened, would be filled with 
Mus<juetoe». If the wind happen lo blow bribkly, 
the animaU disappear for the time ; but no eooaa 
is it again calm than they return, and orowd erciy 
place. — Tbey abo dreadfully infest the c:atllc and 
reindeer. When these return from the woods 
tbey arc found covered with Mu<K]ueloes • and, on 
the ifiitects being jtirepl from their bucks and ude*, 
their skins arc red with blood. 

The lowest class of people, in all the climates 
where \lusqiiciocs abound, keep them oat of their 
huts, during the day, by burning there a ctHitintial 
fire : the Laplander has a belter contrivance to de- 
fend himself from their stings while in bed. Me 
fixes a leather thong to the poles of his lent, over 
his bed, which raise-t hb canvas quilt to a proper 
height, so that its sides or edges touch the grouiML 
Under this he creeps, and passes Ihe uighl in seco- 
rity. — ^Wben Mr. Acerbi and his friends arrived ia 
s cottage in the villnge of Kotlorc, in Lapland, the 
first favour the women conferred on them was to 
light a fire, and fill the room so full of smoke thst 
it brought tears from thuir cyw. This vra* done 
(o deliver them from the niolcslation of tlie Ma»- 
quc;oc9 ; anil, a^ a means of effectual prcvcolion, 
they made a second fire, near the tnlranci! of the 
uparLmcnt, to stop the fresh myriads which, after 





death of these, would otherwise have rushed in 

upon tlicm from without. 

Smoke being found lo keep Musquctoes at a di- 
stancT, the Ijaplanderii geiicndly contrive lliat, while 
one Diiin is milking the Rein-deer, another shall hold 
a firebrand oiTr him. By thi« contrivance the animaU 
arc kept quiet*. 

»The buzzing of the Musqnclocs is so very loud 
as to disturb the rest of persons in the night, almost 
as much as would be done by their bite. The more 
opulent inhnbitant<i of climates where they abound 
ufually sleep under nets of thin gauze. 

Ac«rbi,'it. $*t79< 


THE present tribe U arr^in^ed by L'lnnxus among 

ttic apicious insccis : but it mlgtit with equal pto> 

pricty h^vc been Inscrlcd with the Neuroplern or 

, 11) iDcnoiiirra ; for the inalw of most of tb« species, 

[iu a pcrffci stale, have eiilier two or four wings. 

Tbe inoulh is furaished with two horny jiws, aod 
has a horny four cleft Up. The feelers ore four io 
number, ihicarl shaped, aufi equal. The antenna 
in some of the species arc beaded, and in oiben ' 


This inject is about a tenth o( an inch long. 
6rpt sight it has grciilly the appearance of a louie: 
Jls mouth, however, with a glaa, h seen to be red* A 
dish, and ils eyes arc yellow. The anlennB »rt™ 
&hjrp1y pointed hiuI sonieulut long, ft is some-, 
times, ihoiigh verj* nircly, obscrwd to have wiogy, 

It i$ UfUidly found in old wood, decoyed furaiturt^ 1 
iinscums. and neglected books; and both the male] 
Pand female have the power of making u itckiDf 
|noife» nut tinlike of a uaich, to attract each 
Ic animals are in conudcroUi;, 


* The Linnmngniiil of ApTEKOut Imtcn commcocaiMk I 
'th» liibc. 



numbtrs during ibe summer months; but, »hea 
disturbotl, tbcj' run so nimb'jr into n hiding;-;.'! ace at 
joc often to be remnrked. When ihey are dlA> 
turbefl, Hkj are very eJiy in making tlieir noisej 
but if they can be viewed without being alarmed 
by noise, ormoiing the place where ihtiy are, Ihey 
will not only heal frcrly, but even answer any per- 
son's UeatinEf wiih his nail. At every »tmkc ihcir 
boHy xh-ikc!, nr seems affected xe bv a sudden jerk ; 
and these jerks succeed e.ich other so quickly that 
kdt re<^iitre3 g-cnt ifendiness to p«rrcive u-ith th« 
Bnnkeid eye that ific body hA$ any motion. Tbcy are 
V scarcely ever heard 1o l>cat bcfiwe July, and never 
later than (he sixteenth of Aii|;twt. It npi^cara 
firangc ibat so srniill an Animnl should be able to 
Hmake s noi» so loud as is freqiicnily to be heard 
"from thii; sometimes cquul lo that of the strongest 
^bcatin^ watch. Dr. Durham Heems tn hnve been 
Pthc 6n>t naturalist who examined and dcacnk-d this 
species. Hi: bad ofien heard ibc noise, and in pur* 
suing it had funnd nothing hut thew infects, which 
Bhesii[)posed ineApahlc? of producing il ; hut one day, 
^^by findmg that the n'>i8C pruci-cdcd from a pu-ce of 
paper loosely folde^l, and lying in :• good light in his 
iludy window, he viewed it through, and willi m 
mteroscope observed, (o hiii great ahtonishinent, one 
of them in the very act of beoiing. In some ycors 
Il ihcy arc more numerous than in titber*', and (heir 
[licking is of roupie mi>rc fret|uonlly beard. Dr. 
rhnm says, that durng (he moiiih of jid), in one 
pirticiilar siimmtx, I licy scarcely ever cu^cd, ti^'tcr 
iti ibcday ornight. 



The female lays her eggs in dry ami du&ty plftr^i^ 
where they arc likely to mt-ct with the least diilurti- y 
aoce : Ihese arc exceedingly small, and are not ooM 
like the ntts or eggs of lice. They arc gcncraHy 
hatched about ihe beginning of March, or a lilllq 
sooner or laler, according to the i\coiJicr. Aftfi 
leaving the egg* the antmaU are so srnnll 3» Karocf; 
to be di&ccmed without the aasistaucc f>f a gla 
They continue in this larva Male, somo^Iwl rtacm- 
bling in appearance the miles in cheese, aboul ii 
monlbN; after which they undergo their change. 

They feed on dead (lies and other insccln ; aud, 
from their numbers and voracity, oficrt very inucb, 
deface cabinets of natural history. They also livel 
on various other jtubstancc^, and may frequently bej 
observed bunting for nulriliotis particIcK with great 
C3K and attention, among the dust i n which tbejr are 
found i turning it over with their heads, and ?earch- 

»ing among it somewhat in the manner of swiot 
Afany of them live through the winter ; but, daringj 

I that time, in order to avoid the inconvcnience^iaf 
frost, they bury themselves deep in dust*. 
The Death-watch Tctinus seems to bear wry] 

^little relation to the fiolloning ftpecics. 


The animals of this extraordinary community arc 
I'fuund in the East Indir:^, and in many parts of Afria 

* Pfail.Tnat- rol. ntiL p. z^i. 






aod South America, where their depreJalions are 
greatly dreaded by ttie inhabitants. Mr. Smeatb- 

n, whose account of them occupies above fifty 
pages in the MVcnIy-Jirst volume of the Pliitosopbi- 
col Transactions, says that tliey arc naturally divided 
kiio three orders : i. Tlic working insects, which 
c distinguishes by the name of Iithurt-rt ; 2. The 
ghtcrs, or skiers, which perform no other laliour 
than such as i» necessary in defence of i!ic ne^tsi 
and, 3. The winged or perfect insects, which are 
dmIc And female, and capable of innltiplving the 
specks. These last he calls the nobiiifj or gtMiry i 
bceatuc Lhcy nciLhi:r labour nor tight. 

In their nctt or hill, for they build on the surface 
of the ground, the labourers are always the most nu- 
merous. There arc at least a hundred Inbourere la 
one of tlic fighting insects or soldiers. When in 
this ginte, they arc about a I'ourlh of an inch in 
length ; wttich is rather smaller than some of our 

The second order, or sotdterv, differ in figure from 
the labourers. These appear to be such in»ecls as 
have undergone one ch.ingc toward their perfect 
etatc. They are now near half an inch in length, 
and equal in size to about fifteen of the lubuurers. 
The form of the head is likewise greatly changed. 
In the labourer stale, the mouth is evidently formed 
for gnawing, or for holding bodies ; but, in the 
soldier state, the jaws, being shapi-d like two sharp 
awU a little jagged, are destined solely fur piercing 
or wounding. For these purposes they are well cal- 
culated ; being as hard as a crab's claw, and placed 


in a t^lmng homy head, vhkh is larger thin all lb« , 
ics! of trie body. 

The in-ect of the third order, or in ils pcrfccl 

Ute, i* Mill more rcm-irkflhle. The bead, ihe th^ 

IX, and lh« abdomen, differ almost rniircly frooi 

Se same paris In the labourers and loldwrt. Th^ 

ittnaUnrc, beitdes, now fnrnitrhed wjih fotir Urge 

rruwnisit Crait^fKirenl win^;?, by whrch ibcy Jtrt en- 

iblcd. at the (iroftcr scuwn, to ctnigrale, sod M 

Blablish new ftctilcmcnts. They arc notr abo 

Illy uttered in their size* as v>rl) as figure, lod 

)3ve.icqutrc(I tht' [owcrs of profM^ting the specie. 

Ihcir budics now inea&urc near three qiurlcn of 

an inrh in letiglh, thrlr uinprii, from tip lo tip, 

ibovc two Incites and a half, and their bullc U eqcil 

to that of thirty lahourcrs, or two soldiers. Inslctfi 

of active, industrious, and rspscious little animabi 

when they arrite at their perfect state (hey bccofftc 

Jnnoccnt, helpless, and dastardly. Their numbcrf 

|Bregrc.i(,but their enemies a?c still more numcmU*: 

flhcy arc dc\'oured by birds, by every »pcc>cs of aniif 

by rarnivoroits riptite^, and even by the inhabJtaDts 

ofmnny parts of Afnca. After snch rlcta^laiiuo rl 

ifoems .sur()rising thai cron a single pnir shooW 

■escape. "Some, houevcr," sau Mr, Smealhmaa, 

'* arc KofiirtunAlc ; nnd being fniind by sumo rf lite 

Inbouring insects, that are coniinimny running about 

Ithr itorfnce of the ground nnder their co^-ercd pi- 

Ivrie*, arc eleefeil King* and Qitceofi of new f-int«j 

all those which err htH w> elected and prrKrtod 

rerlninly perish. 'I'ho manner in whith ihcic 1»- 

bourvnt protect the )iHp[>y pair from tbcir ianuiw- 




c enemies, not only on the day of the massacra 
Inio^t alt their race, but for a long time aflcr, 
will, I hoj)e. justify mc in the use of the term elec- 
tion. The tittle industrious creatures immedialdjr 
indosc them in a small chamber of cla^ suitable to 
their size, into which at first they leave but one en> 
Irance, large enough for themselves and the soldiers 
to go in and out at, but much too little for cither of 
the royal pir to use i and, when necessity obliges 
them (o make marc entrances, they arc never larger; 
•o that, of course, the voluntary subjects charge 
tbctnselves with the task of providing (or the oif- 
spriag of their sovereigns, as well as of working 
iml ftghling for ihcm, until they have raised a pro- 
geny capable at least of dividing the task with them/' 
About this time a most extraordinary change 
taJces place in ihe queen. The abdomen begins to 
extend and enlarge to &uch an enormous size, that 
an old queen »-itl sometimes have it so much in- 
creased as to be near lu-a ibouutnJ times the bulk of 
Ibe rest of her body. The skin between the seg- 
ments of the abdomen extends in every direction s 
and al last the segments are removed to the distance 
}f half an inch from each other, though at first the 
fbolc length of the abdomen was not half an inch. 
Wlien the insect is upward of two years old, the 
abdomen is incrcaivcd to three inches in length, nnd 
ir is sometimes scon near twice that size. It is now 
of in irregulnr oblong shape, and is become one 
matrix full of eggs, which make long circuni- 
loluiionK through an innumerable quantity of very 
.minute vessels, that circulate round the inside in a 

TOL. 111. 




•crpentine manocr. When the egg* are pcrfecll; 
formed, the; begin to be protruded, and they coow 
fiprlh tf> quictcly that about sixty in a miiiule, or 
upward of eighty thousand tn twcnfy-ibur bour«, 
Are deposited, 

. These egg! are immediately taken awny by the - 
attendants, aiut carried to the nurticries. licre they H 
arc haiclicit. The young arc attended and provickd 
with every thing necessary, until they are «ble lo 
^hi^t lor ihcmseU'cs, and take their shire in the U- 
, bours of the cointnuiiily. 

The ncsK, or r^ilher i5///j, of these Ants, ibrtbej 
■re often elcvvlcd ten or twelve feet above the nur^ 
face of the ground, are nearly irf a conical «lupei 
and somelitncs so numerous oi at a little dt»t«ntt hi 
appear like villages of the nc-groes. Jobson, in toi 
H'siory of Gutnbia, sayfl that done of them mt 
Jwenty feet high, and that he and his compinio9l 
liQve often hidden themsclve* behind ihctn, toiboPl 
tk'er and other wild anioiaU. Each bill is composed ■ 
o(an exterior and an interior p;irc. The caierior ^ 
cover U a large clay &hcll, shaped bke a iJonic, of 
strength .iiid mngiiiludc snfiicienl to tnctose aad 
protect the interior building I'roin the injuries of ibc 
weal Iter, acid to defend il£ numcroiis iahabtlaatsfnni 
the attacks of natural or aceidcnial uneinius. 

These iiilU make llwlr first n[>j^*'arancc in 
form ttirri^tsabouta toot hi^h. In a s^ort 
time the insects erect, at a liule distance, other tur- 
rets, and go on incrca>^ing their nnmherond vrideiiing 
their buses, till ibetr underworks aw: cutttdy cv* 
vcrcd with these turrets, which the sniunls aUvaj* 





raise highest in the mitlJIe oftbc htU ; and, by fill- 
ing up the interval bclwcen C8cb> tbcy collect ttiem 
at Inst into one great dome. 

The my:il chamber ih alwAys situated us near the 
centre of the building its possible, nnrl is genemlly 
on a level with Ihc comnmn vurface of the ground. 
It i» nearly in the shape of half an egg^ or an 
obluBO oval, within, nnd may be siipfx>scd to rr> 
prcacnt a long oven. In the inranl stnie uf tiK co- 
lony, it is not above an inch in length -, but in time 
it becomes incmiscd to six or eight inches, or more, 
being always in proportion to the itize of the qucen^ 
who, increasing in bulk as in age, at length requires 
■ chninher of mch dimensions. 

Tbc entrances into the royal chamber not admit- 
ting .iny snimul hirger ttian the labourer! or soldiers, 
lit followg that the king and queen can never possi- 
bly get out. This chamber is surrounded by an 
innumerable qaanlily of others, of different sizes, 
6gurt:9, and dimensions ; all uf them arched cither 
in a circular or an elliptical form- These chambers 
either open into each other, or have communicating 
passagefi; which, being always clear, are evidently 
intended for the convenience of the soldiers and 
ailendants, of uhom great numbers are necessary. 
The latter apartments arc joined by the magnzincs 
and nurseries. The magazines arc chambers of 
clay, and are at nil times u-ell store<lwiih provisioiu, 
which, 10 the naked eye, seem to conaist of the 
raspings of woo<l and plants t but, when examtncfl 
by the microKopc, they are found to consist chiefly 
jtssaied iuiccs of plants, throwo 

gums or mspt: 




logetber in small irregular misses. Of these ma-ves, 
some are Bner than others, and resemble the sugar 
about preserved frtitts ; others resemble ibc tears 
of gum, one being quite transparent, another like 
amber, a third brown, and 3 fourth perfcctfy opaque. 

The magjzincs arc always intermixed with the 
narsertea, buildings totallr different from the rest of 
the apartments. These are composed entirely of 
wooden materials, which Reem to be cemented wilb 
glims. They are invariably occupied by the egff^ 
and ihc young, which first appear in ihc shape of !■• 
bourcfs. These buildings arc eiccccdingly compict, 
and are divided into a number of small irrcgnlai^ 
yhapcd chambers, not one of which i» half an ineh 
nidc. They are placed all rcHirtdj and a* near ai 
{»59iblti to the royal apartments. 

When a ne^t \s in an infant slate, the nurseries 
arc close to the royal apartment. But, as in pro- 
cess of lime the body of the queen enlarges, it be- 
comes necessary, for her accommodation, to aug- 
ment the dimcnsiofis of her chamber. She ibeo, 
likewise, lays a grealer number of eggs, and requires 
more attendants : of course, it is necessary that both 
the number and diniensioiis of the adjacrnt apart, 
mcnts should be augmented. For this purpose, the 
small first-built nurseries are taken to pieces, rebuilt 
a little further off, and made a size larger ; and iheir 
number, at the same time, is increa-scd. Thus the 
animaU are coniinually emplo}ed in pulling down, 
repairing) or rebuilding their apartments ; and iheie 
operalions they pcrfonn with wonderful ugacity, 
regularity, and foresight. 




The norserics are iDciosed in chambers of clay, 
litce iho&c which contain the provisions ; but (b^ 
»rc much larger. In (he early Mate of the nest 
they are not bigger than a hazel nut } but in great 
hills they are often foiir or five inches across. 

The royal chamber, as we have observed, is st- 
toatcd as nciirly under the apex of the hill as pos- 
sible, and is surrounded on all sides, 1>oih above and 
below, by what Mr. Smeaihtnan calla the royal 
apartmaits, which coniain only labourers and soU 
dten>, that can be intended for no other purpose 
than to continue in the nest either to guard or 
cerve their common parents, on whose safc(y the 
happiness, and probably the existence, of the whole 
community depend. These apartments compofc 
an intricate labyrinth, which extends a foot or more 
in diameter from ihe royal chamber on every side. 
Here the nurscricif and magazines uf provisions 
begin i and, being separated by small empty chain- 
Hbcrs und galleries, which surround ihcm, and com- 
municate with each other, arc continued on oil 
sides to ihe outward shell, and reach up within two 
thirds or three-fourths of its height, leaving an open 
■rca in the middle under the dome, which resem- 
bles the nave of an old gothie cathedral. Thift area 
lis surrounded by large gothie arches, which are 
sometimes two or three feet high next to the front 
of the area, but dimini>h rapidly as they recede^ 
like the arches »( aisles in pcrsf.icctivc, and are 
soon Inst among the innumerable chainbcrt and 
nurseries behind them. All these chambers and 
{la^sagcs are arched, and contribute naturally to 



support one another. Tbe inferior buildift^, or ■». 
■cmbUge of nurseries, chambent, and p«ssgc«, hu« 
flattibh roof without any perforation. By this roa< 
trivunce, if, by accident, water ahould |ienelrata 
Ibc cttcroal domci the apartmenU below are (ms 
served from injury. The area baa atso a A^tlidi 
floor, which i& siiuntcd abot'C Ihe royal cbainfaer* 
It i» hkcwisc water.proof, and no eanslruclcd ttiat* 
)f water gels admittance, it runs off by aubtenra- 
neous p.-i»ages, which are cylindrical, and aotne of 
them so much as even thirteen inches in diameter. 
These mbtemineous paFsnges are thickly lined with 
the same kind of clay of which the hill is eon^ 
posed : they ascend the internal part of the eslcr- 
nal shell in a spiral tbrm,- and, winding round the 
whole biiihting up to the lop, inlcrseci and commu- 
nicate with each oihcr at different heights. Fron 
every part of these large gsllcriesa number of prpes» 
or smaller gallene:!, leading lo diflerent apartments 
ofthc building, proceed. There arc likewise a frcal 
many which lead do»nn-ard, by sloping descents, 
three and four feet perpendicular under gnHind, 
among the gravel, from «-hich the labouring Anta 
•elect the Bnerpartii; which, after being worked op 
in their mouths to the con»TSteoce of mortar, be> 
oonrte that »oli<l day or stone, of nhicb (heir hrlll, 
and c^*cTy apar.mcni o( their buildings except dm \ 
nurteries, aie competed. Other gallcriea atccnd 
and lead out horizontally on every side, wad art 
camcd utwlcr ground, but near the aurfacCf CogtTAtM 
dist^itircs, lor the purpose of fbrBf^ing. ™ 

When a breach is made in ooe of Ihc walU bj 

tpj J 



in ax, or other instrument, Ibo fir&t object lliat 
alincls attenlion is tlic beliaviour of the soldiers or 
fighting inscclR. Immediately after the bloir U 
given, a soldier comes out, walks about the brcachy 
and seems to examine the nslure of the enemv^ or 
the cause of the attack. lie then gocd into the 
hill, frives the al»rm, and, in a short lime, 'urge bo> 
dies rush out as fast as the breach will permit. It 
i* not caSjT to describe (he fury that actuates these 
fighting insects. In their eagerness to repel the 
enemy, they rrcqucnily tumble down the sides o( 
the hill, but ^eco^'er themselves very quickly, and 
bite every thing ihcy cncoontcr. This biting, join. 
ed to the striking of their forcepn U(>on the build- 
ing, makes a crackling or vihrnting noisi.', which is 
•omewhnt shriller and quicker than the licking of 
■ watch, and may be heard ai the <!istance of Kvtrai 
ftel. While the attack proceeds, they are in ilio 
moat violerti bustle and agilntion. If they get hold 
of any pan of n man's body, ihey iuMandy mnke a 
wound n-liich gives some {win. When they aiiack 
the leg, the slain of blood upon itic slocking ex* 
lends more (Iihu an iiteh in width. They maka 
their hoiikcd jhue meet nt the lir^t stroke, and nc^'cr 
qait Iheir hold, but m-iII aufi'cr ibemeelvcJ to be 
palled away piece aficr picec, without any aliempc 
to escape. On ibc other hand, if a person keepi 
Dul of their rt'sch, and gives them tw further dii> 
turbance, in lef« th^n halt an hour ihcy retire into 
the nest, as if they suppcHied the moiiAler that da* 
maged their caslle had Bed. Before (he whole of 
the soldiers have got in, the Ubourmg insects are 



all in molion, and hasten toward the breach, each 
of them having a quantity of tempered martar in 
his mouth. This mortar they sticic upon the bmdv 
as fast u they arrive, and perform the opcralioo 
with so much dispatch and liicility that, notwitb> 
itanding the immensity of Ihcir numbers, I hey oevtf 
scop or embarrass one aoolher. During thi« tcene 
of apparent hurry and confusion, the specialor is 
i^reeably surprised when he perceives a regular wall 
gradually rising and filling up the cha5m. While 
the labourers arc ibus employed, alnvn»( all the sol- 
dicn remain nilhin, except here and there one, who 
saunters about among six hundred or a Ibouaand 
labourers, but never touches the morcar. One sol- 
dier, however, always lakes his stauou clofi« to the 
wall that the labourers are building. Thia soldier 
turns bimM;lf leisurely on all sides, and, at intervals 
of a minute or two, raibcs bis head, beats upon the 
building with bis forceps, and makes the vibrating 
noise formerly mentioned. A loud hiss insouicl/ 
issues from the Inside of the dome, and all the sub- 
terraneous cavcmii ami passBgci. Thai this hisBpro- 
ccetls from the labourers is Apparent ; for* k entry 
signal of this kind, thry work with redoubled quick- 
ness and alacrity. A renewal of the atiock, howwer, 
instantly changes the scene. " On the first stroke^" 
Mr. Smcalhman remarks, " the lubourers ran idIo 
the mnny pipes and galleries with which tbc building 
!« pcrforalcd, which they do so quickly iliat tlwjr seem 
to vanbh ; fur, in a few secottds, all oie gone, and 
ihe soldiers rush out as numerous and as vindictive 
lu bcrorc. On iiadjag no enemy, they return agahi 




Ictsorely into the hiH j and, very «x>n after, the 
labourers appear loaded as at tirst, as active, and as 
sedulous, with soldiers here and there amonff them, 
who act juM in the same manner, one ur other of 
Ihem giving the signal to hasten the business. Thus 
the pIcaMirc of seeing ihcm come out to fight or co 
work aliernately, may be obtained as often as curi- 
o^ty excites, or lime permits; and it will certainty 
be found that the one order never attempts to fight, 
nor the other to work, let the emergency be ever so 

It U exceedingly difHctilt to explore the interior 
part« of a nesi or hill. The apartments which sur- 
round the royst chamber and the nurseries, and, in- 
deed, the whole fabric, have such a dependence on 
each other, that the breaking of one arch generally 
pulls down two or three. Another great obstacle is 
the obstinacy of the soldiers, who, sayti our author, 

'"fight to the very last, disputing ever)- inch of 
ground iw well a» often to drive away the negroes 

[ who are without shoes, and make white people bleed 
|>lentirully ihrmigh their ytockittgs. Neither can 
wc let a building stand so as to get a view of the in. 
Icrior pfirt< vviihuut interruption ; for, while the so\- 
dkn are defending the outworks, the labourers keep 
barricading all ihu way against us» aiopjiing up the 
different galleries and pa<if»gcs which lead to the va- 
rious agurlment^. particularly the royal chamber, alt 
the ciilraiuxs to which they fill up so artfully as not 
to Icl it be dislinguisbuble while it remains moist; 
and) estenwHy, it lias no other appearance than that 
of a ahapclc^i lump of clay. It is, however, easily 



found, froin its situation with respect to the otha 
parts of the building, and by the crowds of labooren 
and Aoldicrs ^\hi^h wrroand it, nbo show their \of- 
■Ity and fidelity by dying under its walls. The 
royal chamber, in a large ne^t, is capacious cnougli 
to hold many hundreds of (he attendants, besido 
the roynl pnir; and it is always found as full of then 
u it can hold. These failhTuI ftubjects ne\'er abaiwkm 
ihcir charge crcn in ihe Iwt distress; for, whcncwr 
I took out the royal chnmbor, m I oOen did, aiwl 
preserved it for some llinc in a large glass bow!, all 
the nttcndnnls continued running in one dircctioo 
round the king and queen wilh the utmost aoBct- 
lude, Bomcof them slopping at ibc head of thelaifcr, 
■ft if to gi^T her something. When they raine to 
Ihe extn-mity of the abdomen, they look theefgt 
from her, carried them away, and piled them e<f«- 
fiilly together in some part of the chamber, or is 
ihe bowl artder, or behind any broken pieces of cliy 
which lay most conveniently for the purpose •. 


THE mouth in ibew animab is formed by a rt- 
traclile recnr^-ed Micke r, wiiboui a proboscis. Thee 
are no feelers, and the antennA! are about the length 
ct the thorax. The abdomen a MtmcMhst &l- 
letwd t and the leg*, which are »% in nambcr, are 
lontwil nol fix leajMng, hot runnmg. 

.>w^>vw— v^ 



live on floimil juices, whirb Ihey eitracl from 
living bodies by^ meaits of their Micker. The Jarva 
nadpupiu resctoble tbe pcrlcci inncct, 


Wben ne etamioe ibe human Louse wilb Iho 
microscope, its exiemal dcfurmity strikes us wiili 
disgust. Tbe fure part of its beid is sonicwbat 
oblong, white the hind pari is muiiclcd. Tbe skin 
is hard aoil tran^arcnt, witli here and there a few 
bristly bairs. On each side of its are two an- 
tenna or horns, jainted, and covered wilb bristly 
bair; and behind ihe^e arc the eye?, which arc large 
and black. Tbe neck is »hnrt, and tbe hrcast di- 
ridrd into three pnris; on each side ol' \^hlch arc 
placed ihrce legs, armed at. ihc end with small ciaws, 
by vhich the animal lays bold of different objects. 
The irunkj or protwscis, is generally roncealcd in tis 
tube : this is very sharp, and runiishcd, towards its 
upper part, with a few rcvcrserl prickles. By means 
£>f this tlve Lonsc feeds; and, when it i« engaged in 
sucking any animal, llic blood may be seen, through 
Ibc tracsparcney of its exlcrnid covering, to ru''h like 
■ (orrcnt into the etomnch. Through this its sio- 
tnacb and inlesiittes arc al»> visihtc, as well as ihq 
raiiiilications uf the traches or respiratory tubc% 
which appear di:<pcrM:d In a mo^l beautiful manner 
througlioui various parts of the animal. 

Scart-ely any creature intihiplics so quickly as 

tbts uttweleoine iiuruiler. I( has been pkiisiDily 
^ < 

*SYkOHT)u.' — [*<dicului huRttnUi. Lhii^—Xjt Pju bamatti,^ 
}• FmnM. 



said thai a Lou-ie becomes n grandfather io tlie si 
of tnenly'fbur hours. This fact cannot be ascv- 
taincd i but nothing is more Irue thnn th^^ the mo- 
ment the nit, which is no other than [he egg oT the 
Jjoof-e, gets rid of its supcrnuous moi4ture, atiJ 
throws ofT its shell, it begins to breed in tit, luro. 
Nothing so much prevents the increase of ibis I 
rauscous animul as cold, and want of humidity. 
The nits unless they arc Uid in a place that is wami, 
do not pnKlucc any thing ; and from this it a that 
many of the nits laid on the hairs In the night-time 
arc destmyed by the cold of the succeeding d;iy. 

In Mexico these animals were so numtrous thu 
the anttent kings found no other means of riddicg 
their subjects of them than by the imposition of ao 
annual tribute of a certain quantity. Pcrdioaml 
Cortes found bags full of ihcoi in the palace of 

" This is a creature (says Alhin) so o/Hcious that 
it will be known to ever)' one at one time or other t 
so busy, and so impudent, that U will be intruding 
itself into every one's company ; nnd withal, so 
proud and aspiring, that it fcnrs not to trample on 
the best, and affects nothing so much is a crovta. 
It feeds and lives very high ; and chat makes i( so 
saucy as to pull any oiie by the cars ihnt comt> in 
its v^ay ; and it will never be (]uict till it has dra^TQ 
blood. Ii i-s troubled at nothing so much on dial a 
man scracchri* bis bead, a^ knowing thiit a tnmi a 
plotting and cootrii-ing some mischief agaitut it! 
this makes it orienlimes skulk into >ome meaner and 
lower place, and Tun\ic'b\'i\4»wvwiN\]«£\.,vWi^h it 


g;o very much against the hair, which ill conditions 
J^t, hainng madr it better known than trusted*." 

" THE 


THE mouth in the Fleas is without either jflws or 
fcrlcrs, hanng only a long inflected prxiboscis con- 
cealing I single bristle. The antenna are beaded ( 
the abdomen is compressed sideways ; and the legs 
are six, and formed for leaping. 

The larv<r arc white, cylindrical, and without feet, 
>ut are very active little creature*. Under the tail 
there arc two small spiiics. The ihryialts is motion- 
less, but in appearance very like the perfect insect. 
The two following species are all that have been yet 


H Notwithstanding the general disapprobation of this 

insect, it has certainly something rery pleasing in its 

appearance. When examined with a microscope^ it 

will be observed to have a small head, large eyes, and 

two short four-Jointed antcnme, between which is tho 

— trunk, or proboscis. The body appears enveloped ta 

^B shelly armour that ts always clean and bright : thia 

^is beset at the M.-gmcnts with many aharp bristles. 

All its motions indicate agility and elegance ; and 

its muscular power is w extraordinary xa Justly to 


* Ail)in*t Sptdcn, p. ^i 

t SnroKYMt. — Pal«x irrittoi. Iim.— U face inilsntr. la 


408 TBI COUUON rtiA. 

eiciCe our wondrr. Wc know no other inin^ 
whatever whcc musreolar strength can be pat in 
competition with that of a Plea; for, on i modentieflj 
compiitalion, it is known to lenp lo a distance of it " 
lc<ist two hundred limes its own length. 

There is no kind of proporlion between the ftwa 
and sizt of all the inwct tribe. Had man an njuol ■ 
degree of strength, bulk for bulk, with a loiiie orfl 
flea, the history of Ssmaun would be no longer mira- 
culous. A I'ica will drag after it a chain a hundred 
times heavier Ihati itself; and, lo compenMitc fbrthb 
force, will cat ten times iLi o*vn weight of provinoo* 
in a day. Mr. B<i\*erich, an ingenious WAtchmaJter 
who some vears ago lived in (be Strand, Londeo, 
exhibited to the public a little \voTf chaise, with fettrfl 
wheels, and all its proptr apparatus, and a man ■ 
sitting on the box, all of which were drawn by a 
single Flea. He made a small landua, which opened J 
snd shut hy springs, with six horses hanta&?ed to it.fl 
a coHchman silting on the boi, and a dog between 
hitt legs: four pcrsone in the airringt;, two footmeo 
behind it, and a [wstilliun riding on one nf the fi>ie- 
horsex, which was also easily drawn along by a Flea. 
He trkewise had a chain of brass, about (wo inches 
long, conlaitiing nvo hundrefl links, uilh a hook at 
one end, and a padlock and key at the other, which 
the Flea drew very nimbly along. 

This little animal h produced from cgg« which the 
females stick fa^t by a kind of gluiinoua matter, lo 
the root» of the huirs of l:at^, do£ti, and other anitnalx; 
or to llic wuol in blankets, tugs, or other sitnidr (n> 
nilurc. Ol' these eggs (he rcmule lay& tea or iwdre 

THE CEitaoz. 


ivcly; and they 

« iay, for several days succ«3Si\ 

batcbed in the same order five or six days after being 


From the eggs come forth, not perfect Fleas, but 
Jittlc whitish \vorms, or maggots, whose bodies have 
annular division^!, and are thinly covered with long 
bairv. They adhere closely to (he body of the 
animal, be. on which (hey were {»ro<)uccd i and feed 
on the scurfy excretion of the skin, the downy sub^ 
itance of (inen, &c They are about a fourth of an 
inch in length, and without feet ; but ihey are, not- 
withstanding, very lively andaciivc. When alarmed 
they luddenly roll themselves up into the shape of a 
tittle bull. They may be kejit in a lililc box, and 
brought up with dead flic^, which they eat with 

In eleven days from their being hatched, Ihey 
leave off eating, and lie as though they were dying i 
but, if viewed in ihifi stale with a mirroscope, they 
will be found weaving a t'ilken covering around them, 
ia which Ihey arc to change into their cbrysfllis form. 
They continue nine days in this shape, at lirtt white, 
and aHerwards by degrees darkening their coloor as 
tbey actfuire firmness of strength. As soon ai> they 
bsuc froui tbcir bag ihey become perfect Fleas, and 
arc able to leap away. 


Is a |roub1c<u)mc 
parts of America. 

in%ct, too well known in many 
It is so gmall as to be fltmo^i im- 

* SmoHTMi-— Pulci penctrtni. 

/iim-^JiSgcr, Nigut. a 




perceptible. Its legs have fini the dastidty of those 
of fleu ; (or, if the Chigoei had as great powen tf 
lenptng »3 flcM, there is rut a living erearure of the 
climales where Ihejr abound that would rK>t be full of 
them i and (his lurking race would destroy three 
fourllis ormnnkind by thecvililbcy would [nvdtxx. 
They arc always found among the dust, »nd putt- 
ctilarly in iillhy places; they fix themselves oii the 
leg*, to the soles of the feei, and cvea to the fingers. 
This crejiture pierces the skin so subtilely that at 
the time the per&ot) is nut sensible of it j nor is !r to 
be [lerceived till it begins to extend ilscll*. At fint, 
it is not difficult to extract it; but> alihough it msy 
only have inlro<luccd ils bead, it makes so 6na a 
lodgment that a part of the skin must be sacnficcd 
before it will quit its hold. If it is not fooa per- 
ccivc<I, the insect completes its lodgment, sucks ibc 
blood, and forms a nest of a while thin tuntcic, to 
the shape of a flat pearl. It extendi itself in Ibii 
space in such a manner that Its bead and Ibit am 
toward the exterior side, for the convcnienee ofnixi- 
rishment ; and the other part of the body answers to 
the inner side of the tuniclc. In order to Iny if 5 eggs 
there. In [>roportiun »» ihe^enre hiid, the lillle \>r»t\ 
b enlarged ^ and in four or five days it is at least two 
lines in diiimeter. It is then uf the utmost cou»- 
quence to have it citradcd ; for if this {a neglected 
it bursts of itself, and spreads tin infinity of ml% 
which, uhcn hatched, fill the whole pari, and pro* 
dncc cxccs<<iv'c anguiiih ; and the diflicully of di^ 
lodging ihem becomes very great. These peneirjic 
to ihc very bones ; and, even when the suHerer bat 



[•g6l rid of Ihcm, the pain will last till tlie flish and 
skin are entirely he^cd. 

The operation of extracting Ihcm is long and 
psiiiful. It cooHiats in ficpnraiiiig, uiih the point of 
a needle, the flesh next to ihc incmbranc where the 
e^s arc lodged} which is not easily Jone without 
bursting the tuniclc. After having separated even 
the muHt miniftc lignmcnis, the ncttt is to be ex- 
iractctl. If unfortunately it bunt, particular care 
must he lakco to exiracc cvvry root of it, and espe- 
cially not to leave behind the principal insect. This 
would begin to lay its egg^ again before the wound 
could be healed ; and, penetrating much further into 
tbe flesh, would increase the diflicully of cxiracting 
it. During the great heats cxlreme cart must be 
—^ taken not to wet the part affected. Without this 
Hprccaulioo, experience lias proved that (he patient la 

subject to con^ucncca that frequently prove fatal. 
H " The Chigoe," says Stcdman, " is a kind of small 
san^-flca, common in Surinam, which gets in be- 
tween llie skin and the flesh uithout il« being felt, 
and generally under the nails of tbe toe?; where, 
while it feeds it keeps growing till It becomes of the 
aize of a large pea, causing no further pain than a 
BdisAgreeable itching. In process of time it appear* 
in the form of a small bladder, in which are deposited 
thouMods of eggi» or nits* and wliichj if it breaks, 
produce so many young Chigoes, that In courw of 
limo create runningtulccrs, which arc often of very 
KlangerouB consequence to the patient ; so much $0| 
Hndecd, that he knew a soldier, the soles of whose 
'feet were obliged to be cut away before he could 






recover ; and some men have loM their limls hf 
am[}Utalioii — nay, even (heir Ihres by having ni^. 
lected in lime to root out these abotntnabte vcnnio 
The moment, tlierefore, thkt i redness and ilcht 
more thnn usual, is perceived, it i«titnc to cittnicc 
the Chigoe Ihat occssion<i tliem. This iit itonc with 
a shoqt- pointed needle, at which the black girli are 
extTCincly duxieroos, taking care not to occasion 
unneceamry pain* and to prevent the chigoe or blad- 
der frOQi breaking in the wound. Tobacco ariiei 
arc put into the oriftce, by which, in a little ttaic, 
Ibc sore 19 perfectly licalcd." 


THESE troublesome insects lire cIiicHy on otfter 
animals ; some of them, howc\'er, inhabit the vater, 
and oihcrD siibsi:it on various vegetable sulnlancek 
They are to he found every where, and in immune 
number.^. The lar-jo: and einyuruis hmt: cocb^^n 

Their mouth is not furnished %«ilh a proboecd^ 
but the s-uckcT has a twO'vaU-cd cylindrica! sheatb. ■ 
They have iwo comprcMeJ fcclcre os long at tbe ^ 
sucker -, two eyes, one on each side of the bead, sod 
eight legs. 


To the nuked eye, these minute creatures oppcar 
little nrwre than moving particles of dnst ; bat oa 

* Sviniiviu.— Anna Sin. tiff».— La kCUe dtgn. Tig*h 

md J 


tht application of the microscope they ure fouticl to 
be perfect animals pcrrormlng all tbc regular (uno 
tions. The kcad U smoll in proportiun to the rc^l of 
the body. Their legs arc furnished at the exlrc- 
roities with little clnws, by which they arc enabled 
to lay firm bold of the substances they inhabit. The 
body is furnished with long bairs, which they have 
the power of depressing ; and by this means they are 
cflablcd to creep through crevices that would not 
otherwise admit them. 

The females, which arc easily distinguished from 
the male^i, are oviparous. The eggs are so minute 
that, on a tolerably accurate calculation, it appeared 
that ninety milJions of them would not fill the shdl of 
8 pigeon's egg. These are hatched in worm weather 
hi about twelve day^t t but during the winter seaiwn 
the time of hatching is much longer. W'lien the 
young ones first come forth Ibey are extremely mi- 
nute; and before they attain their full aise they cast 
their skin several times. 

The mites arc xcry quick-sighted ; and when once 
they have been touched with a pin, it i3ea»y to per* 
cdvc a great degree of cunning exerted lo avoid a 
second touch. They arc extremely voracious ani- 
mals, and arc often observed even to devour each 
oibert and so very tenacious are Ihcy of life, that 
they have been kept alive many months bclwcen 
two concave glMscs, by which they were applied to a 
microscope. Leeuwenhock placed a female mite on 
the point of a pin for cxafnination : she remained 
there ten days, and during llie time laid two eggs; 
which, for want of other food, she devoured. 



Tbe Harvest-bug is of a eomewhal globular shape, 
And of a briglit red colour^ with tbc abdomen bristly 
behind. It i» smalter than the common mile, and 
by ita colour but jusc to be jjercvivcd when on ibc 
skill. In tbc months of Auguist and September it ij 
very troublesome, adhering to ihe skin by tnejn»of 
two ^hon arms ucualcd above the upper legs, to 
linnly as not easily to be disengaged. Wberever it 
files it causes a tumour about the size of a pea. or 
Hirj^cr, accompuDtod by a most unpleasant itclitng. 
— lis tubular snoiil, by which it lake^ its food, is 
gent-Tally concealed. 

These insects abound in vegetables, and are gene- 
rally caught from walking in gardens, among toog 
gra&&, or in corn-tields. 

Mr. White says, they abound so greatly on the 
chalky downs of Hampshire, that ihc warrcnrr'snclA 
arc frequently discoloured from the immense Miim- 
bcrs that get upon them ; whilst the men arc wme- 
times so billen as to be thrown into fevers f. 


THESE insects, which arc so remarkable on ac' 
coimt of their industry and manners of life, arc ge- 
nerally vtcwcti ^vith a degree of avcn<ion only to be 

* Stswontn*.— Aiarut autumnalit. Aulumnal Aeuw, oi 
J Iirvctt-Sug. — Sbav/'i \aJ, il/u, 

\ Sbuw't Nat. MU. u, tab, 4a,— WUtc^ SeTborne. 




accounted for by the uiiplcaslng impressions iria<le 
upon lis in youth. These impressions are in gcnera4 
communiratcd by pcriuns ill qualificft to give (he 
mind thai tlircclion neccssaryfor the purposes of lire. 
Many naturalists even have complained that this 
aversion delerred ihem from obsen-inp, and nc 
curatt-Iy exstniiiiiig, thuse in-tvts : and Ihcwe who 
have undertaken to do so hnvc generally been at 
much trouble to overcome their antipathy. RoescI 
accu-itonied liiiiiself to view the insects first at a 
dLiitoncc: he then considered Ihoir vthsi and a( 
la:>t lopkcd at the iiiFects ihem^clvcs through n tni- 
croscopc. Goi^c vie^vcd individual parts of Spiders, 
till he nos able to look, without any sentiment of 
BVCTMOn, at the entire tnsecc Both these ruturalisld 
so far conquered their aulip.ilhy that ihcy could 
afterward-^ handle and examine Spiders uith the same 
indifference is others can flies. 

Spiders prey on other inflects, and do not, in all 
casan, spnrc even their o»vn species. There is Jitllc 
doubt but their bite is vencii»ou»; and it iesaid that 
a fly which has once felt it can never be recovered, but 
soon dies in convulsions. Many of the species have 
been swallowed, without any subsequent inconve* 
Some of tI)C Spiders spin webs for the purpo.=£ of 

'catching their prey t but olhcrs seize it by surpriNc. 
They are all able to sustain an abstinence from fixid 

I for a great length of time ; some for even six months, 
or upward*!. 

They frequently change theit skins. — The /itrv* 



sod puf^ bavr each eight legv, and £ficr in no rofKCt 
from ibe perfect insccl. 

Spiders have »h(xt homy jaws, ■nd two incurred, 
jointed. Hid very sharp fcMdcra. Tbey src wilboot 
antennae; SDd btirc eight or K)fnelinK« ooly nx. 
eyes, ind eight Icgw. Their abckxiien » hairy, and 
furnished with papillx, from which tltey spin their 


This species is very commnn in bouses, and pirli- 
cularly about windowi. The abdomen is nearlj oval, 
of a brown colnur, and marked with (ire block and 
almost contiguous spot^. 

The Houncspiders feed principally on flie» j and 
the w«^'b by which they are enabled to enlanglc theae 
insects iM a surprising pari of the animal economy.— 
For the purpose of forming this wcl^ they arc sup- 
plied with a quantity of gluiinous matter contaificd 
in a receptacle near the extremity of their bodies i 
and ihcy have 6vc teats for spinning it inia ihfcad, 
the orilices oi which iht: insects have the jiowcr of 
contracting and dilating at pleasure. When they 
enter on the construction of this curious fabric, they 
fix on B spot of apparent plunder and security. — The 
animal then distils one little drop orgtutinous liquor* H 
which is very tenacious} and creeping alon^ the wall, " 
and joining its thread as it proceeds, darts itself to 
the opposite side, where the other end 19 to be faat; . 

* STKoifrm. — Aranea domalica. Z.riuE.^t.'Anign^ <kliKt* 
tiijne, ia Prince. 

ened. The first tlirend ihui (brmed, being drawn 
light and fixed ac each end, the Spidor runs on it 
backwards and forwardf. still doubling nad 3lreng;(h- 
cning it, a^ on ibU dqjcnd.<< the stability of the whule. 
The sGifTuhling thus completed, it makes a number 
of threads parallel to the first, and then crosses ibem 
with others, the clammy sub^laiice of which they ar^ ** 
fi>nncd serving, when first made, to bind them to 
each other. At the buttotn of the web a kind of 
funnel is contmcted, in which the little creature lies 
concealed. In this den of dcatruction it watches 
with unremitted assiduity till its pney is entangled, 
on which it instantly darts with inevitable niin. 

Ttie web of the Spider dilYcrs from lht>sc n'oven 
by any human artist in this circumstance, that, in our 
work, the threads extended in length are inlerJaecd 
with those that arc carrtrd on tran>ver5ely ; whereas 
the thrcnd.> o( a Spider's woof only crois lite tlirea^tit 
of the warp> and arc glued to litem in the |)oinlt 
where they mutually touch, and are not cither in- 
serted or interwoven. 

The threads along the border of the work are 
doubled or trebled, by the Spider's opening all her 
teats nt once, and glueing kcvcrul (hreadn one over 
another; scnbibic that the extremity of the Mcb 
ought to be hemmed and fortified to preserve it from 
being torn : she likewise further secures and supports 
it *-ilh slroog loop?, or double threads, which she 
fixes all around it, and which hinder it from being 
the t^port of the winds. 

From rime to time she finds i* ncccssar)- to clear 
away the duM, which would otherwise incommoile 



Ler web, and she sweeps the whole by giving it a 
shake with her \«iw ; but in doing this she so nicely 
|iraiMirttons ihc force of the blow to the slrenglh of 
the work, that nothing h ever broken. 

From all parU of the ucb are drawn stvetai thrCfttU, 
which terminate like nyy in a centre it the place of 
'Kbf concculment. The vibration o( any of then 
lhrca(t.s i.s communicated to bcr» anri givvs bcr no* 
tive whenever there is gimic in the net, and 
ingty she springs upon it in an in»tant. She dcrivM' 
another odvantagc (ram this retreat under her ircb, 
and that is the upportunily it afrord« of feasting on 
bcr prey in full security ; and besides IhU it givc'^ J"-' 
the puuef of concealing the carca-^^scs, and not . 
ing in the purlieus any traces of bcr barbarity capable 
of intimating the place of bcr resort, and hispirioj 
other insects with the dread of approaching it. 

But chief to the bndloa fiic* the window piovcf 

A coRMani tits'.h i vhetr, gloomily ntir'd, 

tile TitUtn Spiilnr Uvty : cunning, and ficRc, 

Miiturc abhorr'dl Amid s ntsngled ticap 

Of carcuM*, ia ca^r wLUh ho siti, 

O'cdooLing ill bis waving lUKntnmtti. 

Ncir Ihc dire cell the t]«Kt>»B wanderer otl 

Pisitr, as oh ibc tvffita siiawi hi* (r«it. 

Tlte yvcy kt lift ensnar'i), h« diFatirul dtrti 

With rapid glide along ihc leaning line ; 

And, filing in ikc wfcich bit rrutl f4agi, 

Siriko backwan), giimty pUu'd: ihc llutlcrisg wiag 

And (brillct uvnd dccl&tc cxinmc di*tr«u, 

And uk tbc tidptng hosjtittblc band. 

This Spicier is furnished with o pair of very sbai 
booked fvings, incloH:d, when at rest, in ca.'<C5 in the 
fore part of bia head. With this weapon (which a 



goad glass will dtsouver lo Imvc a wnall slit or orifice 
in eacli fxiini) he seizes and pierces sucli insects 
as entangle themselves in his web ; and infuses a 
potsonoiis licfiticl into Ibe xvountl. This poison must 
bt- very active and dclcteriou=i; for flies, and many 
ochcr insects, mav he muliliitud by depriving (hem 
of their legs, wings, aod cxeti cutting their bodici 
through the very middle of the abdomen, and in 
thst condition wilt survive several days; but this 
Jiqutd in b moment kills them. 

When two Spiders of the -^amc size meet in com- 
bat, neitherof them will yield; they hold carh other 
by their fangs so fast that one of the two must die 
Iwforc ihcy are separated. — M. Leeuwenhoek Mys 
he uw one sfidcr tliot \%-afi, hou-ever, only wounded 
in the leg by hi» Kntai^oiiist. \ drop of blood as 
large «(* a gnttn of ^and issued from ilic sore ; and* 
uoi being able to use this wouudc<l leg in running 
away fiuiti hit enemy, he held it up, and prchctitly 
aftrrrward the whole limb dropped from ha body. 
When spiders are wounded- in the breast or upper 
parts of die body, they alway-i die*. 

TliE spider, the pririuB, and many insects of the 
beetle kind, exhibit au instinct of a very exiraor- 
diuary iialure. When put in terror by a touch of 
Ibe finger, the spider runs off with great gwil^ness ; 
but if be (lads Hut, whatever direction he takes, he 
is opposed hy ano*her finger, he then seems to dc- 
fpair of being able (o escape, contracts bis limbs and 
body, lies perfectly rooiionless, and counterfeits every 

f pbU. Tru. *i>1. 

p. 870. 



symptom of dcalli. *' la this sitiutbn/' myt Mr. 
SiiK'Uic, " I have pierced spiders with pins, and torn 
ibcm to pieces, without (hvir dt^wvring the stnatIcA 
marks of patu. Tbis simutation of dcatb lias been 
ascribed to a strong coavuhion, or slupor,occasumoil 
by terror. But llm solmion of tbc phamotncnon U 
crroncoas. I have rrpcatcdty tried the cx[H.*ri[n«ii(, 
and unifunnly found Lhut, if ibc (ibjccl oi terror be 
temovtd, in a few seconds Ibc animal run» off with 
great rapidity. Some beetles, when counterfeiting 
d^atb, will suffer themselves to be gradually roasted 
V. ithoul moving a single joint*.*' 

Wbcn this animal changes \h skin, which it docs 
at certain scifons, ai) opening mny be seen, if care- 
fully wnlchcd, in chc bi-I)y. ThrouglkthiA it tlrswx 
all its limbs, nnd leaver the old covcrinfj hanging lo 
the cord that &u»t3iacd it during the npcralion. 

The eyes of all the spidci? arc placed on the 
upper part of the head, but in various po-iitions. 
They have no muscles belopf"" ■ 'o them, iiml the/ 
arc Iherelbrc alliigelhcr in. M. They alw 

consist only of one lens each, and du not, as in other 
insect»> po»tcx tbc faculty of muhiplyiug ol^i9| 
but their number and situation enable (he anitnals 
to sec pcffcclly well in all nccctsiiry directior». 


The liibour of the Garden Spider it very different 
from that of the former gpeeicsi yet it Is not per* 

" Sinel1ic*s rhilowpbj of Nainnl Mirtorj. 
fSviKiNyMj.— Aranca Ixirticvh. Latrtiih. — L'tkfAr 
fn'l'c jatdinicie, iu Vnata, 



THE CARDIfl sriDEM. 475 

ibrmed wiih less art. When desirotKoT flitting fram 
one piftce to another, this animal fixes one end of a 
thread to the place where ^e stands, snd then with 
her hind paws draw^ out several other tbrcAda from 
the nipples, which, being lengthened out, and driven 
by the wind to some neighbouring tree or other cAy- 
ject, ore by their nainrai clamminess lixcd to it. 
When she finds that these arc fastened, she make* 
or them a bridge on which she can pva or repa&s at 
lilcaKure. Thi.« done, she ret>ders the thread still 
thicker by spinning others to it. From this thread 
Kbc often descends by spinning downwanl to the 
ground. The thread formed by the latter operation 
dbe fixes to some stone, plant, or other snbMance. 
Slie rc-&sc(-ndti to the fir^t thread, and at a little di- 
6t4iii-« from Ibe 5ccond begins a third, w-bieh she fixes 
in ihr wmr manner. She now utrcngthens alt the 
Ihr^-vi'ls, and, beginning at one of the corners, 

ivo acruss. and at last form« a strong and durable 
net, in the centre of nhich she place« henelf with 
bcr hcnd downvrard (o wail for her prejr. 

Fh)m having frequently remarked that .spidcrt 
spread iheir wcbs in solitary and confined places, to 
which it U sometimes difficult for flics to penetrate, 
M. Le Vaillant naturally concludwl that thc'C crea- 
tures must fre<)ucntly remain long without fworl, and 

at cunKqncntly they were ciipable of enduring 
considerable nhstiticnce. 

To ascertain the truth of this circumstance, he 

}k a large Garden Spfdcr, whose belly was about 
sixe of a nut, and Inclmcd i( under a glass bell, 
which he secured with cement round its bottom, and 



left in this tilunikin for ten months. Notwithstand- 
ing ibis (Icprivaliou of foo<}, it appeared donng Ibo 
whole time equally vigorous nnd alert; but its bclljr 
xlecreiiscd^ till at Ust it wns ftcarccly larger tbuu tbc 
head o!*a pin. 

Me then put under the bell to it anolhor spider of 
Ihc same spme-'. For a lilllc while tliey kept at a 
respectful disuncc from ejich other, and reinaioed 
motionless ; but presently the meagre one, pressed 
by hunger, approuchcd and attacked the stranger. 
It returned several rimcj lo the charge ; and in these 
ilifl'crenl couOicts its enemy became deprived of 
almost all ii5 claws; it carried these awav, and re- 
tired to ils former situation lo dcvt^ur them. IV 
meagre one had likewise lo^t ihrec of lis own daws, 
on which alw it fed t and M. LcA'aillanl iKreeived 
that by this repast its pluntpncss was in some mea- 
sure rcsloncd. The day following, the new comers 
deprived nf nil its mcan!» of defence, fell a eomj/letfl 
«acrificc. It was ApcdlWy devoured ; and in Ic« 
than iwenly-foiir hours the old inhiiUiiaiii of the bell 
became as plump as ic wits nt the firel moment ofiu 

from ihc. b.ig» Iti which the young of the Garden 
Spider arc pri'diiccij, an atlcnipt has bettn tniidi.* (a 

maiuifixum- a kind of silk, which bus in - '!c. 

gri^ proved succtrssful. Wiih some troublt ..n 
ounces of tlicjtc bags were collected. Ttioy vcn 
beaten for HJine time with n stick to free tlieni frum 
diwt, nnd then washed in warm water till they were 

• Le Vaillanl's New Tr«*tb, latigd. pi x»»ia. 


pcrfccily clean. After ibis tbcy were steeped lo a 
pot witi) soup, nitre, and gtim arabic, and ifacn 
boiled in the same mixture over a gentle fire foe 
Iwro or ihrcc hours. Clt-an warm water was ag'a'm 
used to free them t'roin the soap, Uc. ; and, after 
having being laid for some days to dry, they u-ere 
loosened witb the fingers previously to being cardeJ 
by the eomtnon silk-earders. A beautiful a5li-co> 
loured &ilk vtas thus obtained, easy (o be spun, 
«nd much stronger in the thread than that of the 
silkworm. 'I'liis was woven in a slocking- weaver's 
loom, iind there can be no doubt but it would bear 
•ny other loom. The thiriccn ounce* of bags yielded 
near four ounces of silk, three of which made a'jiaii 
of stockings large enough Torn man.— It nould be a 
difficult talk lo obtain bags sutTicicnt (o render the 
manufacture of ihc silk of any im|x}rlance, since lit 
obtain one pound of silk no fewer ihan 28,000 bags 
«*ould be nrantcd; rtnd for this fjuantiiy a greater 
number of spider.-* than Iht^ must be bred, as none 
but ll»e females spin them. But a still greater ditH- 
culty arises from tlieir carnivorous divjiosition in de- 
Touring each other. HafI this not been the case, s 
very nutritious foo<l might have been adopted for 
(hem in the mti substance of fresh quills. If (he 
silk bad answered, we should hnvc bad from the dif- 
H fcrent ^pecici of tijiidcrs several genuine culoum in 
" »ilk ; Ruch as gray, white, s-ky-blue, nnd coflee colour: 
uhcrcai silkworms yield only while and orange co- 

;e females lay six or seven bnndrcd eggs in the 
bag. This is generally tkinc in August or 



September, and .ibout sixteen days afterwtrd tlie 
young arc hatched. If the weather conlinne cold, 
tbc young remain in their nidus for wvtnil rnonths 
without eating or increasing in bulk t but makeihar 
appearance abroad on the commencement of the 
warm weather. The old one:* live but a abort time 
after the eggs are bid*. 


This ^itdcr docs not lie in wiut for lit prey, Iiko 
jN^'eral others ; it is a lively, active hunter. Its bead 
is furnished, as in the re»t, wilh immoveable eyes. 
VVithout any motion of the head, it fwrccives all 
the flics that hover around j il does not alarm, but 
stretches over them its arms, furnished wilh fcalhenj 
which prove ncls chat entangle (heir wings. Tke 
spider seizes them with its mcrcilci>s clawih and sucla 
their blood. 

The manners of the Jumping Spider are very dn- 
gular. It doea not, like many others, lake its prqr 
by means of a net, but is constrained to sciwj fbcm 
only hy its own activity. It ia extremely nimble, at 
times leaping like a gra&shopper, then 5tandingsliD| 
and raifing itself on its bitid legs to look an>und for 
its prey. If it see a fly at the distance of three or 

" PhiL Traa. "vol. »svii. p. ». 

■f Stkoniom-— Aranu viitica. Liitft.— L'Araignfe ninlc, ia 

t Sjsostui.—Anae» leenia. fim.— L*ATTt{(u.-e ctaems- 
ao*j in Fr4o<c 





four yards, it docs not nin directly to iU hut cntlca- 
voun, as much as |x>sstble, to conceal itself till it 
can arrive near ; and then crec^ng slowly up, and 
but seldom missing ics aim, it upring!) upon (he 
insect's back, nnd it b then almoitt impo^^iblc for thct 
fly to effect an CMcapc, But if, before the spider 
gets to it, the f}y take ^^ing and (ix upoti another 
place, tlie Utile animal whirls nimbly about, nnd 
atill keeps it» c)'c u[>o» it, in order to commence s 
fresh attack. Dr. Brookes imys it has been some- 
times seen in «hc act of instructing its young ones 
how to bunt ; and alifo that, whcDcvrr an old one 
iniMed bis Ic^ip, it would run from (lie place, and 
hide itself in some en-rice, ait if ashamed of its mis. 
maimgemcnt ! 



This singular Hltle ci-cnture is a very common in- 
habitant of our fresh waters. When in ibc uatcr 
its belly appears a<i if covered with a silver varnish. 
This la^ howe^-er, nothing more thau a bubble of atr 
attached to the abdomen by (he oily humours which 
transpire from the body, and pre%'ent the immediate 
contact of the waler. By means of this kind of 
babble the infect form5 its dwelling under the water. 
It fiscsSCT'eral silky threads to thcbtalksof the ^vater- 
plsDlK, and tlicn, ascending to the surface, ihru&ts Cho 
hinder part of its body above the water, drawing it 
back with bo much rapidity z^ lo altnrh beneath a 
bobble of air, wbicb it has the art of detninin;; he- 

I * StnohTiu.— AiiUKa Kjuatjn. iJrm^^L' ht^p^ iqua- 
<i<tiie, in Ffanee. 



Iqw, b)' placing it under the threads above mentioned* 
and wbicti it bends, like a covering, almost round it*. 
It then agiiin sKcncIs for anolher air bubble, and 
Ibus proceeds litl it has comtructcd a large aerial 
apartment under the water, whicli it enter;! into or 
quits .It pleasure. I'he male con;4rucEs for hititMlf 
one near that of the female, and aflerward hnaka 
through the thread walls of (be feuwlc's dwcllingi 
snd thi± two bubbles, attached (o the bellies of botb« 
unite into one, forming one large chamber. 

• Tbe female takes care of the young, and con&trBdf 
sitnilnr iipartmcnts for ihem. 

Tlie figure uf this spider bo-s in it nothing remark- 
able, and will be overlooked among a crowd of els' 
riottities, if the ^{icctator be unacquainted vritb its 
singular oil of constructing an aerial habitation under 
watc'i^ and thus availing itself of the prupcrtte* of 
both elements. It lo<lge-«, during the wioier, in 
empty sIicIIf, which it dcxicroiuly closra np witli d 



The Ibllowing observations on ihe origin of iha 
Gosiianicr, by M. Bccbstcin, a German naluralisi, 
ore curious, and convey a more accurate account of 
it than 1 have been able to meet with in any other 
uTiler : 

" Some naturalists (says this gentleman) have 
con^dered this phixnomeoun as tbe evaporation of 
pL-tTits condensed, during ihc cool day» of hatVcstf 
bj the air, and converted into threads like ihoM 



«^ich can be drawn from resinous juices: others, 
■3 the production of a kind of spider, on account 
of its similarity to the threads of common 8f>fdcrs : 
and M. Pcrcboon has discovered a kind of beetle, 
furnishcd.wiili a ve.-<icle on its back ; from the hinder 
p&rts of which, on both sides, proceed (wo threads 
that extend over the citremtly of the bodj, and end 
ia a double thread, sometimes ten or more inches ia 
length, which thicau be supposes to form the Gos- 

J " Having made, for many years, (he closest obscr- 
f vations on this phenomenon, I am of opinion it is 
caused by a species of field spider, so small aud oc- 
livc as to be imperceptible, unless the obsen-cr pos- 
ies) a very acute sight. This spider, if it have no 
name already, I propose to call tbc Gos^mer Spider, 
jlfamaObuxlrix. It isabout the size of the bead ofa 
small ptn. lis head is somewhat long, and has in tbc 
fore-part eight gray eyes placed in a circular form. 
The body is of a chining dark bro»-n colour, with the 
abdomen shaped like an egg. The legs are yellowish. 
" These spiders first appear in the beginning of 
October, in woods, gardens, and mcadgyv, whera 
their eggs are hatched in safety : ihencethcy spread 
themselves over whole districts, and, during the 
rcaC of October, and lilt the middle of November, 
may be found in dry fields throughout Europe* 
Extensive tracts of land arc sometimes seen swarn> 
iogwilh them. In Ihc beginning of October, when 
but very few are hatched, some single threads of 
tbdr tvcbs, extending from lu-ig to twig, are teen 
only in the sunshine ; about tbe middle of the month 
▼OL. itt. li 




th«r threads arc more perceptible; and towmd 
the end, if a person stand in such a position u to ■ 
sec the sun.bcams play on the slender threads, ■ 
hedges, mendows, corn-fields, ctubble land, and even 
whole districts, appear covered us with s sort of 
fine white gauze. 

. " The Gossamer Spider Hoes not weave a web, 
but only extends its threads from one pbce to ao- 
wtbcr. These arc so delicate, that a tingle thread 
cannot be seen uolcasthc sun shines on it. One 
of them, to be visible at other times, most be com- fl 
posed of at least six commtm threads twtitexl to- " 
gether. In serene calm dfiy« these sptders worfc 
with great diligence, especially after the disappear' 
ance of the morning fogs, fiet^vcen twelve andtwo, 
however, their industry excites the greatest adliiti>> H 
tion. A person with a pretty <]u!ck eye, or bjr (Ik ~ 
help of a glass, may sometimes perceive among the 
barlcy-slubbic 5uch a multitude of thc5c injects cs* 
lending their threads, that the fields appear as if co- 
vered with swarms of gnats. 

*' Several of the ungic threads become tuijled 
together by the gentlest breath of wind, and (arm 
perceptible threads, nhich, being broken by stroagcr 
winds, unite into thick threads, or even into biU$, 
and float through the atmosphere. The$e are then 
called^ in Germany, the^rn^ sammgr^ bccxuac the 
gummcr seems to fly away at the same time. The 
spiders are conveyed in (hem : bat it is not uncoov 
men to find spiders of oibcr fpecies in ibciD, which 
have been entangled and dragged avfty i mirl even 
the wcbs.flf olbcr spiders, sod the dried hn^i of 




THE 00$SA»eil SPtDKR. 



Insects that have been caught by them, are often 
found in the Gossamer. 

" The Gossamer Spiders appear in swarms only 
daring- the han-cst ; but single spidcra arc lo be found 
ifaroagh the whole summer." 

We hnve a very curious account of the Gossamer, 
inserted by Mr. White, in the Natural Flistory of 
Selborne. " On September the aisl, 1741, being 
then on a visit, and intent on tidd di\'ersion% I rose 
before day-break. When I carocinio the incloBurWi 
I fouad the stubbles and clover- grounds matted all 
ovtr with a thick cent of cobweb, in the meshes of 
which a copious and heavy dew hung so plentifully 
that the whole face of the counlry seemed, as it 
were, covered with two or three sclling-ncl» drawn 
one over another. When the dogs attempted to 
hunt, their eyes were so blinded and hood-winked 
that ihey could not proceed, but were compelled to 
lie down and !)cra|)e the incumbrances from their 
faces with their fore-feet ; so that, finding my sport 
interrupted, I returned home, rousing in my mind 
on the oddncss of the occurrence. 

" As the morning advanced, the sun bccnme 
bright and warm, and the day turned out one <^ 
those most lovely ones which no season but the au- 
tumn produces ; cloudless, calm, serene, and worthy 
of the south of France itwif. 

** About nine an appcar.ince vcr)' unuiual began 
to demand our attention ; a shower of cobwebs 
filling from very elevated region*, and contiiiuitig. 
Without any intcrruplion, till the close of the d.iy. 
These webi were not iingic filmy ibrcaJs, floaUu^ 



in the air in all directions, but perfect Hikes or np, 
some nearly nn inch broad, ind five or six long, 
which fell with a de^;rce of velocity that showed tSey 
were cunndorably hesvicr than the stmosj>here. 

" On every side, as the observer turned his eyes, 
he might behold a continual i;ucce>iS)on of fresh 
flakes falling into his bight, and twinkling like fflif, 
as ihey turned their sides toward ihc sun. 

" How far this wonderful shower extended would 
be difficult to say ; but wc know (hat it reached 
Bradley^ Stlbome, and Alraford, three places wbtcb 
lie in a sort of triangle ; liie shortest of whose ridca 
is about eight miles in extent. 

" At the second of tha<:c places there was ageik* 
tleman (for whose veracity and intelligent tuni of 
miod I have the greatest veneration) who t^iaerrtd 
it the moaicnt be got abroad ; but concluded that, 
as soon as he came upon the hill above his hoiue, 
where he look his morning rides, he should be highci 
than this meteor; which, he itnagincd> mighc have 
been blown, like thistU-dmvn, from the cormnon 
above. But, to hi<i grcnt astonishment, whea be 
rode to the most elevated part of the down, 300 feet 
above the level of his lields, he found the wete, in 
appearance, as much above him as before \ still de- 
scending into sight in a consl.tnt succession, ind 
twinkling in the sun, so as to drew tbeatlenlWD of 
the most incurious. 

" Neither before nor afier this W3» any each fall 
obscn'cd ; but on this day the flakes hong in the 
trees and hedges so thick that a diligent persoa sent 
out might have gathered baskets fulL 





** The remark that I sh»!I make on these cobweb* 
riike appearances, called Gessamer, is, that, strange 
and superstitious as the notions about them were 
fbnncrl}^, nobody in these days doubis I«ut that they 
are the rcil production of small ftpidcrs, \vtiicb swarm 
in the lields in fine weather in autamn, and have a 
power of shooting out webs from their tails so as to 
render themselves buoyant, and lighter than air. 
But why these apterous injects should that disy lake 
such a wonderful aerial eicursion, and why their 
webs should at once become so j2:ross and materia! as 
to be considerably more weighty than air, and to 
descend with precipitation, is a matter beyond my 
skill If I might be allowed to ha2ard a suppoi^ition, 
\\ should imjigine [hut those filmy ihreadtj, when first 
shot, might be entangled in the rising dew, and so 
dni^>'n up, spiders and all, by a brisk cvspomlion, 
into the regions where clouds arc formed ; and if the 
spiders have a power of coiling and thickening their 
webs in (he nir, as Dr. Lister sayatbey liav**^ then, 
when they become heavier than the air, they must 

" Every day in fine weather, in autumn chiefly, 
da I see these .-piders shooting out their webs and 
mounting aloft : they will go off from your finger, 
if you take them into 3Four hand. Last sunrmier 
one alighted on my book as I was residing in the 
parlour; and, running to the top of a page, and 
ihooting out a web, took il!v departure from thence. 
But what I most wondered at was, that it went oft' 

• I^ttrrBtoMr. Ra^. 



in (he air in all direcCions but perfect fli^ 
fomc norfy an inch broad, and fimr ^ 
which fell with a degree of velocity ^^ t 
were cuDsidcrably heavier than ty; -g ^ 
** On every side, as ibe obsq/ ^ 

le might behold a contiau|J ^^ * - . %r 
flakes falling into his sight^V * ^ \ '^ ^ 


as tbey turned their sides tr 

« How far this woncJe 
be difficult to say ; h ^ ^ 

BraJlfyt SeJhona, Y t '^ ^ ♦ ^ 
lie in a sort of Irii^ ^ ^ * * 
is about e\g,\i{ milr 


" At the 8C0C 
llcman (for w' 
mind I hnvr 
it the moiT 
as scKin p 
where b' 


* ^ Its 

•n inch wide, ^ 
.let. AtthebottainttBl 
.ic imecl sits in wet »eitte, 
ttiUwayoat, if water gun ufida 
rs do not live (}uttc a year, T^fJ . 
ihjn t ,-> eggs, which are batched io the ip«ff.' 
1«-"«Q oHU Dcv-cr survive the vinter. 
""' .[ittuaition, difficulty of brcathiog. nod Mck«j 
"* ^, jrx- J id to be the in*"ariaUecon*cqocrt- 
'ireiw liii-'crealore. Dr. Meal, and uihcr d!C( 
-^ti. ha\e couiiirnaucetl iheridiculoti^ if^.n- nfi 
15 being counteraetcd«by the po 
7t H, boM-ercr, noft- well kno»n iluc this singul 
mode of cure was nothing more than a enck 
<)tieariy practiced on crednlouslra^'cllcrf, who * 



with considerable velocity in a place where no air 
was stirring; and I am sure I did nut ai^iM it wiib 
my brealli. So ttiat these little crawlers aeem 
bavc. while moimLiti^, some locomntivc power uUli<j 
out the nse of wings, and to move in the air Cuter 
than (he air itself." 


The Tarantula is somewhat more than an inefa in 
length, and faasits breast and bclljr of an ssh-ccJour: 
its Icgsnnc likewifie a^h'Cotourcd, with blackish rings 
on the under part. Its Tangs are red wilhin. It ii 
a native of Italy, Cyprus, Barbnry, and the East-In- 
dies. Thiit animal lives in fields, and its durelling 
K nbout four iocties dccpi half an inch wide, aod 
closed at ihe mouth with a ner. At the bottom tbU 
is curved { and there Ihe insect sits in wet weather, 
and (ram ihencc cuts ils way oat, if wtXer gain upon 
ttw These Ppidcrs do not live <juitc a year. "IVy 
lay about 730 fggs, which are halclied ta the tpriag. 
The |MircntinuiL-r survive the winter. ^ 

Inflammation, difficulty of breathing, sod ttcIC'fl 
0CS5, are said to be the invariaUeconwquenta (o the 
bile of this creature. Dr. Mead, aod oihcrinedica] 
men, ha\e countenance*! Ihe ridiculous story of (be>c 
effects being counteracied> by the power of muse. 
It ii, hoMcver, non- well known that this sioguUr 
mode of cure was nothing loofc than a trick ft^ 
qoently practised on credulous travellers, wbo were 



desiroiiK of witnessing it. Mr. Swinburne, nlien be. 
was in Icaly, minutely invcsligatcd every particular 
relalive to thia insect. Tbc season vni not far 
eaough advanced, ai>d it was pretended tliat no per- 
sons had that year been yet bitten : be, however, 
prevailed u[)on a woman, who had formerly beeu 
biUen^io dance tbe pari bdbrc biin, Scv-eral raiisi- 
ciaos were Hummoncd, and she perlbrmcd ilic dance, 
as every one present ossined hini| to pcrfuction. At 
first she lolleil stupidly on a chmt, while the inslrii^ 
roeiits played a dull strain. They touched at length 
the chord ftuppiMcd to vibralc to her heart ; and up 
shcpfirang with a most hideous yell, staggered about 
Iberaoin like a drunken person, holding a h&ndker- 
chief in both hiiuds, raising cbcm ahcmatcly, and 
moving in ver^- true dine. As the munc grew 
bri-ikcr,hcr motions quickened, and she«kip{K:d<iboot 
r with great vigour, and m a variety of sicpE, cveiy 
\ now and then shrieking very loud. The scene wai 
unpleasant, and, at his request, an end vras put to ic 
before the woman was tired. 

He informs as, that, wherever they are to dance, 
a place is prepared for them, hung round witH 
bunches of grape? and ribbons. Tbe patients are 
dre»«ed in wliitc, with red, green, or yellow ribbons j 
on their shoulders they have a white scarfj they Irt 
their hair fall loose about their ears, and ihrjw th% 
head quire back. He says that they are exact copies 
ofthe sntieni pricsleroei of Bacchus. The introduc- 
tion of Christianity abolished all public exhibitions 
of beatfaenkb niest but iho women, unwilling to 
give up their darling amusement in performing tbc 



Trantie character of Bacchantes, devised othw pr*- 
tcnccs; and he supposes th»t accident led them to 
the discovery of the TarantuU, on (he Strength of 
who«e poison the PugHan dames still enjoy their old 
dance, though fi:ne has effaced the memory of ill 
aniient name and insiltiitioo. 

U thcfc dancers arc al any lime really and ioTO» 
luatarily aSlxtcd, Mr. Swinburne supposes it matt 
be from soine allack upon the nerrcs, a luod of 
St. Vitus's daacc*. 


Ifcbe spiders that are found in Europe arc \odkxA 
upon with aversion and alarm by those who ate I'a 
the habits of constantly seeing tbem, surely tlut 
American species, whose gigantic si^c and great 
muscular power render it a ccrror even to the fea- 
Ihcrcd tribc^^ cannot be beholden without the most 
violent sensations of horror. 

This enormous creature will extend with its feet 
a space of near ten inclics. From the bead (o the 
extremity of the abdomen it oficn mca.surcs abow 
three inches. The legs arc as thick as a goose's 
quill, and closely covered with bair. The body a 
brown, and the fangs are as strong and sharp as in 
some of the rapacious species of birds. It is ooc 
uncommon in nuny parts of America, but is jrrin- 

1 1 STKONTW-^-Aniiu ivicuUrii. tmt—L'Ai^ptU arieo* 






Ctpftlly found in the southern division of that conti* 
rent, and particularly in Guiann. 

Captain Stcdmiin, while residing in Sunnam, had 
oncofibem given to him, which he put into a case- 
bolllc above cif^lil inches high ; and, when ihis was 
filled with spirits, the animal reached the surface 
with some of its claws, while odicrs rested on the 
bottom. On the whole, he says, (his spider is so 
hideous a creature ihit che very sight ofit is sutH- 
deot to occasion a tremor of abhorrence, even in per- 
sons most flccustomcd to ins[)cct the deformities of 

It resides in the trees, ,ind frequently seizes on 
tmall birds, which ildesiroys by sucking their blood, 
after having first wounded them by its fangs, which 
distil a [Kjt^onous liquid inui the wound. The slit 
or ortHcc near the tip of the f;ings, through which 
Ibis poison is cniitied, is so visible as to be di»liiicily 
perceived wilhuut a glassf . 

. The eight eyes of ibis terrible insect are placed 
somewhat in the fofoi of an oblong square in the 
front of the thorax. Of these the two middle ones 
are so large as lu be capable of bctng set tn t he mao- 
pcr of glasses, and u»cd as microscopes : the rest are 
emalicr and of an oval shape. The thorax is orbi- 
cular, and has a transverse central excavation. 

In Jam.iica thrrc is a species of spider :J:, the fo> 
nulc of which digs a hole in the earth obliquely 

* Amuu ntduluu, Gmel. S/M. Nu. Imh. 



downward, about three inches in length, and oni 
inch in {tinmctcr ; thi» cavity &he line* with a toa^ 
thick web, which, \%[)cii tAcn out, rcMMtililes a lea 
ibcrn ftiirsc: but, what b most curious, this bouic| 
baa a dour with hinges, like the opcrculuin of soo 
scashelisi and hcntetf ami ramily, who icoani ibis 
nesi, oj)et] and shut the Uoor whenever ibcy pan or 
rfpa&s*. ^^j 

In some ijlaces in the Ibre&ts of Java the wcbs^^^ 
spiders have been found, woven uiih thrc-xbofM) 
frtron^ a texture as not easily lo be divided vitfaoat 
a knife f. 

Damf icr informs us, that, at Campcx-hy in New 
Epain, there " is a sort of spiders of a prodipooi 
Kzc, some nearly as big as a man\ fist, with lot^ 
nrail legs, like the spiders in England. Thc^ hswj 
twt»fang*, each an inch and a half long, and ol'a jiro- 
porttODahlc thickness, which are black as jet, aoioatb 
Its glass, and at their small end as ffharp as a ihom i 
Ihete are not strAight, but bending. Some perwoi 
wear thftn in llieir tobacco-pouches to pick their 
pi[)f8 with ; others preserve tiKin for tooth picks, 
especially such as are troubled with the toolh-ach i 
for, if report may fce truBtcd, they will expel that 
pain. The backs of ibe^e spidcn are covcnrtl with 
a dark ycllowibli down as. suft as velvet. Soine ay 
they are venomous, and others that they are not: 
but which of these accounts ii to be credited I ati)> 
not determine." 

* Dtrwin'sXaoaotnu. 

t Snmiofl. 

THE Scnroion^ have eight legs, bosidL's two claws, 
not unlike those of a cnih, sit.iiiied on llic fore-part 
of the head, I hat scn-ethc purpoM.snf hands. Hhcf 
have also cigSt eyes, three of w\\\ch Jirc placed on 
each tide of ihe thurax> and two in tttc noddle. 

■ On ihc aaterior part of the bc;id iliey liavc l^osliart 
daw-like fuetet!>; but no antcniix. And on the 
underside, bctu'cen the breast and the abdomen, aro 
two instruments that have somewhat ihe ir^cin- 
btaoce of a comb. The tail is long, jointed, and 
terminated by a sharp crooked sling, from whence 
is emitted a pungent liquid, not dangerous, except 
in the very hot climates. Scoqiions may, however, bo 
considered as the mo^t malignant and poisoaous oT 
alt known insects. The poiscn is emitted through 
three very small foramina or holes near Ihc top of 
the sting, one on each side of the tip, and the other 
on the iipjwr part. In California there is a species, 
(be Scoffio jimtricanus, which is eaten by the inha- 

■ These animals prey on worms and ioaeccs, and 

■ frequently even on one aniitlicr. Tlic young are 
ptoduced fruin cg^«, of which one female byfc a 
con<>idcrable number. After iheir appcnrsmce, these 
seem to undergo no fnrllicr change than perhaps 
ca&ting their »kin from time to liuw, in, the aune 
manner as the spiders. 

[ 492 3 


^lost oflbe Scorptons have a diataat resemblance 
in5h<ii»eto Ihc lobster* but ilicy areioiinitdy more 
tigly. The head appears, m il were, jointed to Ibe 
breast : and the mouth is furnished n-hh two jaws, 
Ihe under one ot" which is divided into two, and (be 
pRris, notched into each other, answer the purpoK 
of teeth in breaking the food. On each side of the 
hevt is a four-Jointcd arm (crminafed by a danr, 
eomcwhnt like that of a lobster. The belly t» di- 
vided tnio sc\-cn segments, from the lowest of whkb 
the tail commeiicus : litis, In the present species, is 
armed with a hard, pointed, and crooked st'tug, tbc 
IKJison of which is very powerful. -Scorpion* are 
most common about old houses, and in dry or de- 
cayed walls. 

In some parts of Italy and France these animak 
■re among tbc greaief.t pesis that can plague man- 
kind ; but in those countric; of the East where 
Ihcygrow to t foot in length, there is no rcrftoving 
a piece of furniture without daogcr of being- stuug 
by them. There, we are told, they arc full as 
bulky as a small lobster. 

Many cxpcrtmcnis have been made at JifTcrcnt 
times to ascertain the s'trengthof the poison : and in 
the warm climates it has uniformly been found fatal 
to the »nallcr animals. To man the wound is ex- 
tretncly painful. The place becomes iDflnmcd, ttA 



fhe surrounding parts often turn livtil, and require 
to be carefully dre»scd to prevent mortification. 

We are informed, than when a Scorpion is sur- 
rounded by burning coals or wood, so as not to be 
able to escape their effects, it will strike its sling into 
its own body and destroy itself: but this seems to 
he merely a legend, undeserving of belief. 

M. Navarettc says, tbal, when he was in the Phi- 
lippinc islands, be was instructed in an infallible pre- 
servative against the sting of the Scorpions. The 
reader will smile when he h told that this \\a<, when 
he went to bed, simply lo make a commemoration 
of St. George. " I conlinucd," s-iys he, " this de- 
votion many years i and, God be praised, the saint 
always delivered mc> both there and in olhcr coun- 
tries from those and sueh like insects." He saya, 
however, afterward, thai he used another preventa- 
tive, that of rubbing his bed all round ultb garlir, 
to keep ihcm at a distance. The same credulity 
ihat dictated to him the commemoration of S:iint 
George, taught him that the mahtare from a itn's 
moHtb was an excellent remedy*. 

This creature, which is but too common in all hot 
countries is extremely bold and ivalchful. AV'heo- 
ever any thing appmachui, it seldom exhibits signs 
of fear, but, with its tail erect, and sting in readi- 
ness, as if fully confident of (he force of its poison, it 
waits an attack wiih courage and intrepidity, and 
seldom desists till either it is kilted or its enemy 
is put to flight. 

■ KamrtHe't Vo/ajc t«QuDi,inCbuish\\iiC(A.'*.»'iV 


ALL the animals of this tribe bavc tficir bodia 
coverctj nilb a bare) anu strong &bcIL The head k 
nniictl lo the (harax or breast without any joint, — 
Those crnphalirally dcnotninalcd crah hare a short 
flat tail, bent dox to llie body in n hullon- betwiit 
the legs. The Heraut-cralfty howCTcr, bivc i ioft 
tail, nilhnul any crustaceons corcring. nhich the 
sTiimnls 5l Into citipty shcllj), or hollow sinnes. In 
ihe Lobsters the tail is the principd pnrt of the body, 
being a very strong member, cm^jloyed with gmt 
advantage both in swimming and loiping. This it 
fonncd of six convex scgnicnls, lying over each other 
somewhat like tite tiles of a bouse, nnd Icraittuled 
by five latninEC, or thin plates. Tbe former arc untied 
by loose membraiies, which admit of much molioa. 
At lb€ angle, ivherc the upper and lower parts join. 
Ibese s^^ents are furnt&bed wiib a kind of crusto* 
ceous fins bordered with hair, and consisting of se- 
veral arliculations, callal by naturaliHts fed^s ar/d- 
torji. The fins are mo\-cd, backward nnd forward, 
and a tittle outward and inward, by .small musdea, 
contained within each articulation, which do »ol 
diflbr rcry greatly from the real feet. By means of 
these it is that the animals have their progressive aifr 
tion at different depths in the water. 

Most of the Crabs have eight It^s, (o few. how- 
ever, have six or Vcn.^Vwits.V^tjW^e, claws which 

,c the pur\>osc&ot \iatvii^ t\it>sVi\t\,mot:^«v 



m siltulcd on tubercles, projccling from Ibc head, and 
morcabtc in any dircclion. When the cxtremi(ie.-i 
«f these are viewed witliagtass, they are found to 
be composed of a mulliiude of lenses, like the eyes 
of insects. For a scnst? of toiieh Ihej are furnished 
with antenna;, and plpi, or ftelers. Tbcy have 
likewise a hc.irt, with arterial and venous vcs<iclf, 

■ and branchiK or gills {in- respiration. Their jaw* 
are transverse, strong and numerous ; and the su>- 
macb is furnished with internal Icctb. 

^ Crabs regularly cast their shells once a year.— This 

V is a procrsK chat occupies some lime, and seems to 
be attended with much pain. During the operation^ 
and lor a little while afterward, their skind are soft ; 

► in consequence of which multitudes of ihem arc de- 
voured by aquatic animals now Wronger than them- 
selves. At this time those calcareous concretion?, 
vulgarly culled crtih'' ryes, are found in ihcir sto- 
initchs. — V\'hcn any of the claws arc brokco o5* 
they arc reproduced. 

PTbcy live cliicfly in the 5ca ; some, hovi'ercr} inha- 
bit the fresh vvalcrs, and a (&x live in a gR-at measure 
on land. They feed variously, on aquatic or ma- 
_^ rine planu, small fish, molluscs, or dead bodies. 
W Tlie females carry tbeir ovji onder their tail, which, 
for that purpose, in many of the species, is much 
broader thau that of ihc males. 

C *96 3 



The Land Crabs arc natives of the Bahamas, and 
of most of Itic other islands between the iropics.— • 
Tbey live ia the clcAs of rocks, the hollows of trees 
or in hulcs which ihcy dig for themselves in ibc 
mountains. About the months of April and May 
in every y«ir, ihey descend in a body ofsoujemil- 
Itons at a IJmc to ihe sea-coast, in order to depost 
fhcir spawn, and at this season the whole ground 
seems alive wlih ihcm. They march in a direct line 
to ihcir place of tiesunation, and arc said seldom lo 
turn out of their way on account of intervening oV 
stacles. Even if they meet with a lofty wall or a 
house, they will attempt to scale it. If ihcy aniTC ji 
at a river, ihcy wind along Hie course of ibcstfcam. V 

They are as regular in their proccfision as an anny 
under the direction of an experienced commanderi H 
being generally divided into three batlaiiotia. The ■ 
first oC these consists of the strongest males, ubich 
march forward to clear the route and face the great- 
est dangers. The main body is composed of fcntaleii 
which arc sometimes formed into columns fifty or 
sixty yards broad, and three miles deep. Hie first 
division is often obliged to halt from want of rain, 
and the females never come from the mounlaini tiU 
the rains have set in for some time. Three or four 
days after these, the rear-guard follows, 8 (AnggUag 


* Stkohym*. — Cancer Riuirola. 
Ocjpode Ruticule ; Octpoda fturicak. 

Lmt.— Violet Cnb. — 



undisciplined trfbc, consisting of males and fetnatcs, 
but neither so robust nor so rigorous as tbe former. 

They ^jrcx^cetl chiefly in the night ; but if it rain 
during the day ibey alwaj-s profit by it. When the 
son is hot they invariably halt till the ercning. When 
lerrificd they nin back in it confused and disorderly 
manner, holding up and clattering their nippers, 
with a threatening attitude ■, and if they are suffered 
to catch iiuld of the hand they will soineliines tear 
o^ a piece of the skin. If in thuir jounicy any one 
of their body Is so maimed as to be inca[>ablc of pro- 
ceeding, some of them always foil upon and devour 
it. Tbey march verj' slowly, being sometimes three 
TiiOQths or upward in gaining the shorc- 
_ When arrived at the coast ihey prepare lo cast 
I their spawn ; for this purpose they go lo the edge 
of the water, and suficr the waves to wash twice or 
Ihricc over their bodies. They then withdraw in 
seely a lodging upon Kind. In the mean time the 
spawn is excluded in a biinch from the body, and 
adliercs to thL- under parts of the tail. This bunch 
becomes as large as a hen's egg, and eiactly resem- 
bles the nic of a herring, lo this state they again, 
for the last time, seek the shore, ami, shaking ofl'ibc 
spawn into the water, leave it to the waters, and the 
heat of the sun, to be brought to tnaturily. About 
two thirds of the eggs arc devoured by the shoals of 
li*h which annually frcf|uent the sliores in cxpecla- 
iRm of thU prey. Those that escape are batched 
under tlia tand ; and, not long after this, millions of 
the little Crubs may bo seen quitting the shore, and 
»!(»wly travelling up to the mountain*. 





The old ones in Ibetr return are feeble, Imo. and 
ra rtiRCtivo (hal thcr are scarcely able to cniwt along) 
and tbcir Acsh at tbis lime changus it;^ colour. Many 
of tlicm arc obliged to continue in the level parts of 
ibc country lilt ibcy recover, making hoica in ik 
earth, which ihry block up with \<aves and dirt. In 
lbes(k they cast their old shells, and continoc after* 
ward nearly motiunlcss for inx or seven days, when 
they become so f;it as to be deltcioiB food. After 
Ibif Ihey nmrch slowly b:ick to the mouniains. 

They Eiihsirt on vegetables, nnd, e\cc))i when i»- 
HJcd by ibc dciirccf bririgiog forth their youog, 
Kldom venture out from their mountatnousrtlrMlit 
Al chi( sc-ison (be inhabitants of the ttdandt when 
tbcy arc found wait in eager cxpcclution for tbar 
descent, nnd dL-stmy some ihousandi of ibem ; ibcy 
diarejrard the badica, and take only ihc spawn thil 
lits on each side of ibc stomach within the abdii 
about thelhickne$«ofa nuo'i thumb. llieBoittulf' 
arc much tnore valuable for rating on ibotr ntfttm 
afi^r ihey have cast their shells. They are lakeni 
in the holes ; and also sought lor by night, tvhen on 
their joiimev, by fla'nbeaus. The ins!;tot Ihc Crxbi 
pcrcCTvc ihcmselvc^all.iclied, they throw thcinsdrei 
on their back, andwiib ibeirelaws pinch most dread 
fully whatever thcj hjippcn to fasten on- 1 
crab-catcher seizes them by the hinder Irgs in suf 
[t manner 'hat ihc nip{<crs cannot touch him. T 
ire caught in their bolrs by the *ea-sidc, by ho ft 
fl stici: ns lo prevent ihcir escaping^: n nT 'i*n.-, n 
ward the tide enicrs ibe holes, nnd • 
drowned. V/M'ct «!*^s\Vi:i\\\>B"v. ,1 aoui 




brthc Giribbce island!:, when ihcyhave caughl them, 
pu( thfitl for three or four day* into a piece ofpolaloe 
gfoutid, in order to r^inder ihcm more firm, and bet- 
ter citing*. 
' In gcntrral shape thc&t: antmnh are not much un< 
like the cominnn Bluck>cliiwcd Cmb : and tbr largest 
of them measure about six inchc!) across the body. 
They mry in colour, biti arr coruinonly of a bUcUsh 
violet: Mime are entirely black, uthcrs yellow, or 
red, and others viiricfjattd. They are diMinguished 
from other species of Crabs by having the first joint 
of the legs spinous, and the second and third I'ur- 
titshcd uitb tufls of hair. 


This species of Crab is found on the rocky coast* 
both of Europe and India ; and is the same that is 
introduced to our tables, being In greater ealeetn as 
food than many other* of the tribe. 

The most remarkable circumstance in the history 
of these animals is the chanj^ing of their sbt^Ils and 
broken claws. The former ia done once a year, and 
that usually between Christmo^^ and Ea^trr. During 
the operation they retire among' the cavities of rocks 
and under great stones ; and Dr. Darwin says (from 
the authority of a friend who had been engaged in 
surveying the seaKioasta) that a hard shelled Crab 

•$« BrowiK't Jimaica, p. 433.— Slnaor, H. ^6g.—CMtlbf,'u. 
it. — Siiutl>*iNcvu, [I. i4.— Wafer"* Vopgc, \>, 1 11. 

f STKovTMs.^-Canccf pagunti. Lwr.— Eaiable Crab. — 
CmiH p*gtiTt. tatniift. 





always stands sent'inel to prevent the sea iDsecIs &oat 
injuring the rest in their defenctiless state ; and Ibati 
from his appearance* the fi^abcniKO know where to 
lind the soft ones, which they use fnr baits in catch- 
ing fish ; adding that, though the hard>4hdlcd Cnb, 
when he is on his duty, advances boldly lo meet (be 
foe, and will with difficulty quit ibi! lield, yet al 
other timcii he ihowa great timidity, and is very ex- 
peditious in effecting hi* escape ; if, however, he be 
oflen inlemipted, he will pretend death, like the 
spider, and watch an opportunity to sink fainvself 
into the sand, keeping only his eyes above. 

In the under part of the shell a crescent-fonaeil 
suture may be obser\'ed, which opens at the cutiof 
of the abdl, and Icavcsa space sufliciciit for drawing 
out the whole body : the thorax soon after dropt Hi 
breast-plate, and then the legs quit their cruslaoeota 
coverings. The body U now only enveloped in a 
soil skin, not unlike wet parchment ; and the ani' 
nial is so helplciS as for a while to he incapabk: of , 
motion, but lies between the rocks till it has ac- fl 
quired sufficient strength and hardness to bear the 
ivcight of its body, and convey itself from place lo 
place to pcrforai its u^nal functions. The old sbcH 
is left, in two divisions, one that cm-ercd the body, 
and the other that inclosed the legs. Dr. Darwin 
gcrts that the stomach and intestine'! arc also cast 
"with the skint and that the first food the aniimt 
takes after recovering its strength is the old sfoinacb. 
It sometimes happens that the shell harden.-; prema- 
turely, and fixes the animal a prisoner in his crcwc ; 
foe fishermen have often found Ihctn thus imutured. 




IVTien Crabs are out of health they do not €luing;c 
their shells regularly, the old shell* always remaining 
tilt they have recovered their proper strength and 

I When the ll«hermcn take a Crab that is not in 
good condition they return it into the sea, and some- 
times mark it on the back with a sharp-pointed in- 
strument, or the end of a knife ; and it is very sur- 
prising (hat this mark may not only be seen to re- 
main on the old shell, but that it is also found im- 
pressed on the subtw^ucnl new one. These men 

\ also uy that, when Crabs have had their shells 
marked, and been carried out to the distance of two 
or three miles, and thrown among others, they will 
always lind their W3y back again : this the men have 
often observed, by aflera-ard catching them in their 
fbnner haunts, 

I When the claw of a Crab is bruised it bleeds, and 
the animal seems by its motions to experience much 
pain. For a while it moves it from side to side ; 
then, holding it perfectly steady in a direct position, 
the daw on a sudden git'cs a gentle crack, and the 
vtiundcd part drops off, not at the joint, as hsth 
been generally said, but in the smoothest part of the 
limb; "just (says Mr. Collinson) as one sees the 
neck of a retort sepralc when it has been heflte<l 
by a red-hot iron ring, on the application of cold 
water." If^ however, the wound happen to be at 
the eitrcmity of the claw, the animal is said gene- 
rally to bleed to death, or to pine away in coow- 
qucnccof the slow and almost inKDsibIc leaking of 
the vital moistiue. 





Crabs are nalursHjr very quarrel iome, and Trt* J 
quently hare serious cootesls by nmiu oftboK (br-H 
nrdable fceaponv their great daw.'). With tbcw 
ihe^ lay hold of their a/lvcr*ary's tegs and whereMf 
ihey seize it it not cjisj to make (hem forgo tbdf 
bold. TSk: animal >cized hnn, lliewfore, no aller- 
rmiivc bui i,o leave part of ibc leg b^bin'l ■'> tni^r) 
of victory. 

Mr. Collinson was shown an experiment to prove 
the extremely lenacioua disposition of the Crab. ^ 
fisherman, by irrilalion, rmide • Crab seize ooc of 
ils own small claws with n large one. The fooltih 
creaiurc did not distinguiftb that it waa ititelf ibc 
aggre&sor, but exerted itit strength, and eoon cncked 
the shell of the small claw. Feeling iiwlf wounded. 
It CAstotFthe piece in theiuiial place, but continued 
to retail) the bold with the great cJaw for a long 
time afterward. 

Kishermcn say that the Crab will live confir»ed in 
■ pot or basket for, several months, without an; 
other food iban what is collected from the k*- 
water, and that even in this situation it will not de- 
crease in weight*. 


The Hermit Crab is usually about fuur Incbd 
long. It has no shell behind, but ia covered down 
(o the tail with n rough skin, terminating in n puint. 

* ColWtaca in Phl\. Tna. ml. xliv. p. ;e. — roL sltrit. p. 4I. 
■|- SvsohVMt.— Cancer bcrnlianluft. Liaw^^Ptfeik itnifi. 
Latrti&.'—l'iguTot bemtiaRlas. FaMtiut, 




h is armed with two strong bard tiippers before, 
one of which is as thick as a man's tliamb, and 90 
strong as to be capable of inflictiog a very severe 

llaring no shell to any part but its nippers, the 
Herniil Crab lupplies by art what is denied to it by 
nature : for, taking possession of iho deserted fibell 
of some other animal, it occupies that, till, by be- 
coming too large for its habitatiLin, it is under the 
necessity of changing it. 

It 19 curious cnniigh in iwme countries to observe 
this Bnima] busily psriKiing the sea-shure> along that 
line of {Kibbles and shells uliicti is formed by the 
furthest wave ; Mill, however, draeping iis old in- 
commodious habitation al its tnil, uiiM-illin^ to part 
with one shell, even Iboiigh h troublesome ;ippcn- 
dsge, till il can meet with another morr convenient. 
It slops first at one shell, turns it, |ui(nirB by ; Ihcn 
goes 10 another, eontcmplaics ihat (bra while, »u^, 
slipping }U tail froin iboold bsbilutioii, tries on the 
new,'*Tbi!^ alio is Ibund inconvenient, uikI it c^uickly 
resames the old one. In ibis innnner ii fre()ucntly 
cbangr.", till at length it fimls one light, roomy, and 
commodious. To this it ailhertf, thnugb tbc slicll 
he .wmeiimrs no large aa to bide bulb tbc bu^ly and 
clawBof the animal. 

But many trials and many combats arc sometimes 
to be suslMiiitd by the Hermit Crab, helore he ts 
thuscotnjilciely ttjuipped : for there is often a con- 
test between two of ihcm for some favourite shell, 
to wbicJl they are rivals. They both endeavour to 
take posscs^toA. They strike vitb tbeir claw, aud 


bile each other, UII the «c&ke»t is compelled to; 
The victor then takes poaeflston, and to hi» new 
qoisition parades backward and forward' on the itnial 
beforr. his envious sntagnnlsL ■ 

That the anticnls were well ftcquatnlcd with tl»c " 
manncrx of the Hcnntt Crab b evident from thefuJ-i 
towing tiocs Iraodated Irom OppiaLti : 

Tbe Hcnuffi^b. tinvi&'d bjr Niiurc. Icik 

Halploi, KBcl wak, grow ftrons hf b«rmle« lltcA, 

FcArful Ikty ilroll, aad look with putinf imli 

For the cut cnut of wmc nc«*covtn(l Gib } 

Or rucb u empty ItCf >nd drck the tbotr, 

WlicMc fif *t and rtghtful owiwn ar« no mon, 

Ttuy make glad sehart of ibe vMant rootn. 

Anil otuni itic borrav'd ibcll Ibcir lutiic hamr ; 

Screw tbetr tuft limht tu Rt the winding cAat, 

And boldly bird «ritb the am/licttrnt net. 

Cvclctt tbcj enter thi fini empty cell ; 

Oft find tbc plaited wtxlk's indented >tadl j 

Add oA tbc dtep dy'd purple forc'd by deu)) 

To»itan|eT luh rbe painted borne bequeaih. 

The whclk'i etch 'd coat b raoti wiih ptEmiun wdrn. 

Wid« in extent, and yet b«t lightly bomc 

Bw when tbey growing more ihno fill the place. 

And find iheaiielveft ha(d>piach'd tn tcaaty aparr. 

Compcll'd Iticy quit the roof they lov'd before. 

And bufj fcirdi around th« ptbkiy ihorr, 

1*!ll a cominodiows roormy sot be faaiid, 

S neb as I he larger shelt-fiBh Ihing owa'd. 

on cruel wai» ooBlcnding HenntU wage. 

And Ii^g tot the (Efpuied ihcll engage.' 

Tha tliongea bete lh« doubtful priu poneaa; 

Power giva the right, ami alt the claim pceacu . 

When this antnial is caught, it emits a foiatcry, 
bu t pinches foTCvU^ mxV \\£ Oiwti. •, wa^ ui there an/ 

mrnlc of getting dlscogagi'tl from ihcsc bnl ty eJtlicr 
breaking llicin off or heiiUnglhc bbcll. It Axda ou 
ilsb ind insects. 




Lobsters ore found on most of the rocky coasts of 
Great Britain. Some are cauj^t with the hand, but 
the gnaHcrquAQtit^ mpotsi a mrt o( trap rormcdof 
twigs, and baited wiib garbage. These are formed 
like a wire mouse-trapj so that when the Lobster gets 
in tbere )« po return. Tbey arc liislcnecl to a coni 

■ sunk into the sea, and their place is marked by a 

H Thesti animals are extremely prolilic ; Dr. Raster 

'^ says he counted 12,444 eggs under the tail of a fe- 
male Lobster, besides those that remained in the body 
unprotrudcd. They de[x>sit these eggs in the sand, 

I where llicy are soon hatched. 

I IJke tbe rest of Ihcir tribe, they an n mlly cast their 
fihellft. Pireviou&ly to thdr putting oO' the old one, 
they npijcar sick, languid, and rcatlcss. They ac- 
quire an entirely new covering in a few diiys ; but 
during the time that they remain defenceless (hey 
seek somt: lonely place, lest they uhould be attacked 
and dtnourcd by such of their brethren as arc not in 
Ibo Mme weak lutuation. 

■ At tbe same lime thai Ihcy cast their shell they 
change also their stomach and intestines. The aiii- 
jnal, while it ia moul^g, id said to feed upon its 


* SixaxTMi^^— Cancer gMotnanw. i^Kii.— AttKUi nuiiintt, 
.^WrviW.— BcrevJMc ticminl, in Fnsot. 



former ttOTTUich, which waste* b^ degrees, nod U at 
lenglli replaced with a new one. 

Like «nme of the CraU, these animals are ukl Ui 
be altacltcd to pnrlicular parts of Ibe sea. 

In thuMj armour wrapt, llie Lohaten ic«k 
Safe shelter in loma baf , or winding creeic | 
To rodty'chums the duiVj* tiaiivei ctesvr, 
Tcnidinu boU, uor will ih( dwtliing liir«. 
IvDi'gbl like tbrir home ibe ooaalaot Lubalcr* ptise, 
An4 forr'gn ihorM ud Kai unknown dnpiM. 
TboDgh cruel bitui the buiib'd wrclcfa cxpcli 
find force the captive frpm bi* nclive all. 
He wilt. If freed, retnm, wJlh uixioai cars. 
Vu-.A ib« known (ock, and to hit iHime repur i 
No ncrvet cuslon* learns ia iliffeient «C4», 
3ni wonted food and faome-laught muincri pie 

The pincc« of one of (he Lobsier'i large diwi 
are furnished with nob.'^, nnd ihoreof Ihc other m 
alwflf s serrated. Wiib the former it keeps firm hold 
of the AUilks of flubmarine pKinlft, and with the latter 
it cuts and minces its food very dctlcrxmsly. TJic 
knobbed or numb claw, as the fifihermcn eall U, 'a « 
sometimes on the right, and Fomctimex on the left, H 
imiirtcrendy. Ic h more rlingerous to he teizcd by 
the cutting claw than ibe other t but, in cither esse, 
the quickest wiiy of getting dtiengnged fiom tbe 
creature h to plurk off' its claw. 

In caitling their shells, It \b difltcutt to ooDcctre 
how the LulKtcn; aie able to'draw the fish of thm 
large clawaotit, teai-ing the shells of these catiir 
and altaclied to ibc ihell of their Uody i in which 
stale \Ut;Y are constanlly found. Tbe lUbertnen My 
ihat pieviousiy to the operanon the LolMter piae* 




awn}', tilt ihe fbh in iu Urge claw m no thicker tlisn 
[(he quill of a goose, wldch cnablct it lo draw iU 
[parts througb t)ie joints and nunxiw paisMge near Lho 
trunk. The nc* shell is mcmbraimceoui at fint, 
but it hardens bj decrees, Ltilii*iers only grow in 
size while (heir shells are in their soft stale. 
I In the water these animals are aLle to run nimbly 
upon their legs or small clan^. and il* alarme>(l ihey 
■ can spring, rail Torcmost, to a surprising distance, 
almost as swiftly as a bint can (ly. The fishermen 
can see them pasa about thirty feet, and, by the swiA- 
'ncss of their motion, it h nu^posed that ihcv may go 
much further. When frightened, they will ."pring 
from a conHiderabIc dislanrc \a their hulrl in the rock; 
Dndt what i» not lcs» surpriting than true, will throv 
ihcnwcK-es into ihcir huld in that manner, through an 
entrance barely sufficient for ihcir bodies to |misS( 
fa i» frequently seen by the jicnplc uho endenvonr lo 
' catch them at Fitey Brirlgc, near Sciirboroiigb. 

T^hc c ire nnifti ante of {.ob^lcrs loung their clnws 
fX lhnn<lcr-clup«, or on thcftouml of cannon, is well 
aulhcniicuiud ( ami the fishermen arc often jestingly 
ihrcnicncd with a salute by the uilors. The rcMo- 
ralinn of eluws thuii lo^t (nay always be observed s 
for ihc-*c never ugain grow lo ibeir furnicr size. 
When the claw« of Lobsters become incotivenicnl, 
from being by any means injured, Itey always break 
Ihcm pff •. 

Lob!-t«r« ,'irc caught in s.ucl» plenty on (he 
of Northu|nberland, that, nbout the \car 1769, lho 

t Penn. B(it. ZoiA. rol. ir. p. 9. 


TfiE CKAW-risn. 


Mim paid for ilic anniul fxporls from Xewbijjgin' 
and Newton by Ihc sea (exclusive off hcwc from 1 
lalnntl^ which produce annunlly s very consideniUe 
sum) amounted to near 1500I. Thin circumxtince 
wtts ttatcd by John Crtewell, Esq. of Creswcllj who 
formsny yein had made the {Mym^nts /or them 
from one fikhniongcr in LoikIoii, on whoec account 
all the mrat valuable ftsh front ide coist of NoTtbum' 
bcrlanil ircrc shipped*. 


In the breaking of the claw of the common Craw- 
^<<h, i( has been ob6cr\-ed chac, in ibout 3 day ortw> 
aAer the piece is cast off', a red mcmbriinc, not Wh 
like a bit of red dolh, closes up the aperture. Tbti 
ii at first plain t bur, in the cour:« of four or fit« 
days, it assumes n convexity, which (p-adujlly au£. 
menis till it taVcs the appearance of a small cone, 
of about a tine in heighl* It conltnurs bowctcr, 
lo ittretch out, and in ten days it ii somcftmn 
more than thrc*; lines, or about a r]uarter of an inch 
high. It is not hollow, but filled with flc-sh^witl \\m 
flesh is the ba^.-> or rudiment of a new cla-w. The 
membrane that co\'ers the flcah perlbrmit the ume 
office to the young claw as the membraocsdo to the 
foetus of the lurgcr animals, ll extends in f»n>por- 
tion as the animal grows; and> as it js tolerably 
thick, we can perceive autbing but a lengthened 

f STvontw.— CiiKtt uucai. i.M3i.— A«ta«B* Raviaitli* 


When fifteen days are elfl|>sed lliis cone in- 
ches toward the head of ibc animal. lu a few days 
more its curvature increases, «iid it begins to assume 

■ the appearance o( a dead cl.i\v. I'tils cliw, iliougli 
I Bt the cml of a month or fire weeks it hsii acquired 
Bthc length of ax or seven lines, which is more than 
■half an inch, is »iil) iiK:apitble ofBcciun. Thcmcm- 

branc in \vbich it a inclosed, Ix:w«ninf gradually 
thinner in proportion as it extends gives an oppor- 
tunity of oli.^crving the parta of the claw, and we 
now perceive that this conical substance is not a sim. 
pie congeries of flesh. The moment i> now arrived 
when the claw begins to be brought fonh. The 
membrane at la&l burets, and the new claw, though 
still soft, appears without incumbrance or investmenl. 
In a few days mire it is covered with a shell i and, 
ttiODgh still delicate, and not (he half of its former 
length, it is able to |)crfonii all ihc nataral function:. 

■ It has likcwist! bten discovered that, uhelhcr the claw 
hns been lopped off at the fourth articulation, or any 
where else, the animal, in a short time, recovers all 
ihat it had lost. The same reproduction rates plaee 
also in the horni) : but, if the tail is cut ofT^ the ani- 
mal survives a few days only. 

■ The Craw-fish arc found in mnny of our riycrF, 
lodged in holes which they form in the clayey banks; 
and their presence is generally esteemed an evidcnrc 
of the goodness of the water. Tliey arc frcqucaiJy 
taken by means of Micks split at the cod. with a 
bait iniciicd in the cleft, and stuck in the mud at 
the distance of a lew feet from each other. These 
sticks after rcouiining some time arc ViVta \i^^f»,«» 


rR£ CBNTiriDB. 

rally with an animal adhering \o each. Tbef an, 
gcolly ilrawD out of the muil, nntl a haskn a p 
under tticm tn receive tlic aninuls, which slmyr 
drup ofTwhcn brooghl to the tatface of the water. 


THE Scolopcnclrffl have uipcring antenna:, and 
two thrcad>shapcU (eclcra tiniicfl between the jaws> 
The ho6y is long, dcpreiiscd, and comista uT no* 
meroiis transverse segmenl'Si »itd there are asminy 
legs on each side as there arc ^egm^nls of itkc Iwdj". 

They live chiefly on t>thcr insecla ; and inhabilde- 
ca)'cd wood, or hollows under etonen. The species 
that frequent the hot climnles arc large, and ouof of 
them very vcoomou!i. 


None of the Insect tribe, the Scorpions cxcqited, 
arc io foimidiible in appearance as ihc Centipede 
It is found in the East and West Indiex, and ian- 
riotia jKirls of Afrien, inhabiting cfaleny the woods, 
where il is preyed upon by the different spcciec of 
snakes. It h, howcviT, sometimes found in bouses, 
and is <^ld 1u be .*;o cominuit in particular distncl;^ 
that the inhabil.iiit'4 :irc otjliged to have the feet of 


|--r * -' J «<'j Kill. lUu.— Centijic^ ia Ibc WcM InJltfc L* 

&-'i . ire n,oriJjnie, Tijti)/. 



tbetr beds placed in vessels of water, to prcveac 
Ihcir being anno)'ed during the night by iheie hor- 
rible rcplilea. 

Tticy vary greatly both in size anJ colour. Some 
of Ihctn are of « deep reddish brown, others of a yel- 
low ochre colour, livid yellow, or linged with red ; 
and they are sometimes seen above a foot in length : 
Ihcy are, however, generally much less. Their legs 
terminate in very sharp hookK or nails of a shining 
black colour ; and atl the other legs arc furnished 
with smaller ones of the same kind. 

Gronovius says that all the feel are venomous : 
but the most formidable weapons of thi$ creature 
are the two sharp hooked inslrutnenls, that are placed 
under the mouth, with which it destroys its prey. 
At the extremity of each of these there is a small 
opening, and from thence extends a lube, through 
which it I9 supposed the Centipede emits the poison- 
ous fluid into the wound inflicted by these fang:(. 

Cecil wen hoek, desirous of ascertaining the influ- 
ence of the poison, placed a large (ly within the 
reach of a Centipede. He seized it between a pair 
of the tnidfilc fcer, then passed it from one pair to 
the next, till it was brought under the fangs ; which 
I were plunged into its body, and it died instantly. 
St. Pierre says that, in the isle of France, his dog 
was bitten by one of them that was upwjtrd!* of tax 
inches in length, and that the wound turned to ■ 
kind of ultirr, which was three weeks \n healing. 
He was highly diverted in observing one of them 
ovtTcome by a vast number of anis, that allscked it 
in curijuoclion, and. after seizing it by all its legs. 



tore It nloD^ as workmen Mould have done a largt' 
|jtccc of limber*. Its poi»on h not more injunous 
than ih.*]! of the scorpion, and vtry acMom [irorci 
fatal (othcL-irger animals. M 

Sir Gc-urgc Staunton says that such was the bor- " 
lor excited In ihe mimU of some of lord Macmney's 
train by the sight of thc^e creatures in Chini, thjl 
many thought them aloiic a sufHcient oLjeolion 10 1 
Ihe CDtintry* 

They have eight very small eyes, four on cadi 
side of the hcadt near the anlcnnx. The uomber 
of Kgmenls of the botly increase with iheir age, lo 
ihnt from ibis circinnstaiKc il in sometimes difficali 
to ■sccrLaJn the spccicsf- 

» St. Pitrtt't Voyajeto ilw Itle of Fi»n«. 

E ^13 3 


KEARLY all the animals of this, the lowest cints 
of animal bring, have but slow locuonotirc powent. 
Their bodies are sofl, fie<;hy» and destitute of articu- 
lated members : some of them have hard internal 
parts, and others have crustaceous coverings. Many 
of them have arterial and venous \-cascls, in which 
the blood undergoes a real circulation ; but these 
arc by no means cammon to the whole class. In 
some of them eyes and ears arc very ptirceptiblc. 
while others seem to enjoy only the senses of iosIl- 
and touch, which are never wanting. Many have 
no distinct head> and most of them are without feet. 
The whole of these creatures are very tenacious of 
life. Iq most of them, parts thiit have been de- 
ilrayed will afterward be reproduced. 

I They are divided into five orders : 

r. Jttifj/mal Il^oitni*. These arc simple naked 
animals, without limbs, that live some of ihem wiib- 

[in other animals^ some in water, and ■ few in earths 
The Ascaridea, Tapc-v\t)rm5, Leeches, aod Common 

, Worms, are illustrations of this order. 

* (ntaiini, .\(«llBtea, T<ltic«. Zm^K^xa, %t>A \tvV.'«M(K^. <A 

roL. It I. 




a. Molluscous ITorms. These are simple antnuU 
tt'iihout sliells, and fumishetl with tcntacula or arms: 
most of them are inhabitants ofthe sea, and many po«. 
scss a phosphoreaceol t|Uality. The Sea AnenmnM, 
Cuttle-fish, Medusa*,, and Sea-urchins, be- 
long to ihc MoHu^crp. 

3. Tettacdius Worms: are Mollu!>cx covered with 
calcareous shells, which (hey carry about u'ith than ; 
as the Musclca, Cockles, Oyiitcrs, Snails, &c. I 

4. ZpopBjies: bold a rank between animals and 
vegetables, mo^t of them taking root and growing Dp 
into stems and branches. Some of them are soft and 
naked, and olbcni arc covered with a large shell. 

5. Atamaloilfs : arc extremely minute, dcstitnts 
of tcntacula or feelers, and generally invisible cu tie 
naked eye. They, are chiefly found in infusions of 
animal and vegetable substances of various kimU. 

[ SIS ] 


r^ENI/E arc worms thai inbabit ihc bodies of 
different animals, «herc they arc dcsdiicd to feed 

I upon juices aircndy animalizcd. They are gcni^rally 
round in the iiiiinentary canal, ami usually a'bout llie 
upper part of it, where Iherr is the grestcst abundance 

I of chyle, which seems to he their nnliiral food. 

f In strncturc they arc very simple ; for, being In- 
tended to be nourished by nlready digested food, 
tbey are not provided with complicitted organs of 

Their body Is flat, and compowd of numcixjus 
nrticiilnlionK -, niid the head has fourorificcu foreuc- 
tioD a little below the mouth, which is terminal, and 
continued by a short lube into (wo ventral canal*. 
The mouth is generally crowned with a duublu scries 
of retractile hookn or holders. 

We are not to suppose that thcseworms are created 
for (he pul-posc of producing dis^jsw in the aniniaU 
they inhabit, but rather that nature has directed that 
no situation should be vacant, where the woik of 
inulHptyine (he species of li^ing^ beings could be 

Lfarricd on. By thus allowing them to exist within 
each other, the sphere of increase is considerably en 

* Tlis tinnrui order of IsTasTiHit. Woaxl'comnifncci wiiti 
Lt a 



]«rgc<l. There is, however, little doubt that wonw, 
and more cspccialljr those of the present tribe, do 
sometimes produce diseases in the bodies the; inht* 
bit : but we nre at the same (ime very certain thst 
worms do eiist abundantly in many animsls withool 
at all di^turbmg their functions, or annoying them in 
the slightest degree : and we ought (o consider all 
these creatures rather sti the conoomitaala than tbe 
causes of disease. 

The species of Tsai'is arc not confined liagly to 
parlicolar anitnala : men are subjocl to several dif- 
ferent species, and even Ibe people of parciculir 
counlncit and climates arc subject to particulir spe- 
cies of them. The people of England have the T-ait 
Solium, or Common Tape-worm, and rarely any other: 
the tnhnbitants of Switzerland the Ttmia hia, &C. 

These creatures are apparently pot^sesitcd of few 
senses. Nothing resembling brain or ner>-es has 
been discorered ; but, as they arc highly scn«Mc tp 
stimuli, it >8 most reasonable to conclude tlut they 
have a considerable portion of ncrrous nutter in tbe 
composition of their bodies; that is, of &uch mattei 
as is susceptible of stimuli. Indeed, we can scarcely 
conceive how any aninul can eren exist without 
fuch matter in its oouipo^ition. Having no partiai- 
tar organs of sense, the tonch is therefore the on)} 
evident source of intelligence which they possess. 

The mode of tncrcaM; or propogation of Tomia; 
appears to be principally by ova j and there i» reason 
to believe that thciw ova, a,^ well as tho«c of other 
intestinal vrormSf are mj constructed as noc to be 
liily <ksUoyc&. ¥iom\V\s tM»»i»\^>a>wjt. •** tavi 



* — 






suppose them to pass along the circulating Tcrach of 
other ■nimalft. We canpgt easily explain the phSB- 
notnena of (^orms being (bund in the c^s of fowls, 
ami ill the intestines of a fcetus before birth^ except 
by BJpposing their ora to have passed through the 
circulating vessels of the moi'ticr, aad been by thi< 
means conveyed to the ofispring*. 


Theheadof thiBariirml is furnished with a mouth, 
and wiih an npparaius (or giving it a fixed fliiaaiion. 
The body is composed of a gn?at number of distinct 
pieces articulated logcthcr, each joint having an 
organ by means of which it attache* ititclf lu the 
inner coat of Ihc intestine i and as tttette juints are 
aometimcs exceedingly numerous, so of couree will 
be the different points of attachment. The joints 
nearest the Ixind arc always snull, and ibcy become 
gradually enlarged a« iliey arc further rcmo^-ed from 
it, except towards the \m\, where a few of the last 
jbiiiis become again dimininhcd. The body is ter- 
miriaied by a small semicircular joint, uhich has no 

'1 he external parts are clothed with a fine meofl- 
brane like cuticle, immediately under which is a ibin 
]e)cr of fibres, lying parallel (o each other, and roo- 
tling in the dtiectioa of the length of the animal's 
bodv. In this direction all ila moliona are pcr- 
fonncd ; from whence we may conclude that these 
fibres perform Ihc ofiice of muscle>. 

* Culwlc on the Tmia, Linn. Tnn. u. a^l . \x>i*. ^t^. 



The head t)As a rounded opening al ilR cxtrcnirt¥, 
which isconsidcTCtt lo be the mouth. Tbb opctitof 
i$ continued hy a shoit duct into tvo caiuils, wbicii 
pa^ round every joint of th^ animnl^ body, tnd 
convoy thcnhment. The hcBd is fixed to ils place i 
by means of two small tubercles, concave in the fl 
middle, Ihal seem to serve ihc purjiose of sucken. " 
The alimentarv canal passe? along each side of the 
animal, sending; a cross canal over the bottom of 
each joinlj which connects the Iwu laicraleanih 
together. The internal structure of the joinU is 
partly cellular and partly vascular: the BubEtsBce 
iiself is wbiie, aud in its texture soniewhat resembles 
the coagulated lymph of the human blood. 

The food of Ihc Tsnio;, requiring probably Tcry 
Jltlle change before it becomes a part of their body, 
IK taken ill ni (be tnoutb, and, hcin^ thrown into the 
alimentary canal, is made to visit, in a general way, 
every part. The central structure of the vesiel.i 
placed in each Joint seems calculated to ab^uib the 
fluid from Ihc alimentary eannl, for the purpose of 
eusuining and rc[)airtng the immediately adjacent 
parts: but there is in their bodies much ccllttUr 
substance, into which no vessels enter. Such ports 
of the bodies of these animals arc possibly tiourishod 
by trati^iudtttion nf ilic alimentary fluid into their 
cells J or tbia may be effected by the capillary attrac- j 
lion of ihcir fibres. As they bai'e no excretory ducfa^ fl 
(be decayed pans of Ibeir bodies are most probably 
dissolved into a fluid which transudes ihrotigh the 
skin like persp\raV\on, twvA.'Svi.h this view Ihc skin is 





The length of the present Txnia is genei-aUy from 
three to thirty feet ; but it has been known to reaXh 
fiUty feet, and to be compCH^ of several hun<]re(l 

When these norms produce a iliscAied state of 
body, those remedies {as drastic purges) arc supposed 
10 be the most cttcctual that operate partly by irri- 
tating the external surface of tbcir bodies, so as to 
make them quit their bold, and partly by violent 
contractions in the intestine.'^, which may eomclimes 
divide their bodies, or even destroy them by brui?iiig*. 
Islcclrical shocks, psBcd freqnenlly through the nh- 
domen, it is supposed might be hcneticlal, as the 
lower orders of animals are Iti general easily de- 
stroyed by electrical sheets. 

Id injecting these Tainic w-ith coloured size in 
order to preserve them, three fee* in length from 
the head downwards has been filled by a single push 
with a small syringe; bill (he injection would not 
pass from bcluw upward beyond the joint, owing, 
u it is sup[M)Scd, to a valvular apparatus situated in 
the laleral-canals immediately below the places where 
the cross canals arc sent offf. 

*Tbcre istitnrcrveTrcatun to suppoKlhal mcicly bmllng tlxan, 
nnla« the dcUched part comes imncoiittfy imj'i will not be 
■llogclbcr dTcclnat, at this lia gcnenlly und«niaod la l>e captble 
ct produdag a onr htadt a&<t ihu beeomiDg an indepcMleTii 

t Linn, Tm, u, 950. 

L sno 3 


THESE troiibtcsoTno anitnsl^ arc found in Ibe 
bodies of some species of quadrupeds, birds, in4 
insects. Must of (he species perforste the skin, inu 
mediately under which they lodge ihemselve:} i 
lew, however, have been discovered in the inlesiinei. 
Nunc of ihcm have yet been found to infest ibo 
bodies of Reptiles or Fish. 

Their body is round, thread-shaped, and very 
gniooih. The mouth it> dilated, and has a rau 
concave lip. 


This species is loo commonly found both in (be 
East and West rndie^. It enters the naked (eel of 
the slaves, and occasions very troublesome itchings, 
and sometimes excites even f^ver and inflatrunatiiTO. 
[t particularly attacks the muscles of (he arms and 
Icgti, from whence it b only to be extracted by nvcaos 
of a piece of silk or thread tied round its bead. But 
the greatest caution is necessary in this simple opera- 
tion, lest the animal, by being strained too much, 
should break; for, if any part remaini under the 
ikin, it grows wiih redoubled vigour, and become* 
a cruel and sometimes a fatal enemy. 

Dampicr tclU us Ihat these worms are no thicker 
than a large brown thready but, as be bad beeit id- 

* SrtcoNim.'-FAWiik mcdlintm^u. Um. Gvict.— Ggriin 



(bnneJ, live or six yards long. '* If they break, in 
drawing out, that part which remuns iti Ihc He^b 
will putrefy, be rery painful, and endanger the pa- 
tient's lifci or at Ica5l the use of ibc limb; uui 1 
have known .some that have been scariffcd and cut 
Ktrangely to take oui the worm." He was unfor- 
tunate enough to have one of these creatures in his 
own ankle. " I was (he says) in great torments 
before it came out : my leg and ankle swelled, and 
looked very r«d and angry, and I kept a plaster to 
bring it to a head. At lastt, drawing off my plapler, 
oat came about three inches of (he worm, mid my 
pain abated presently. Till then I was ignorant of 
my malady, and the gentlewoman at whu«e hnu« I 
vtas look it (or a nerve ; but I knew cnotigh what it 
vn», and pre^^ntly rolled it up on a sm:^!! stick. 
AAer that I opened the place every morning and 
crening, and strained it out gently about two inclics 
at a time, not without some pain, til) al lenj^h I had 
got out about two feet." He ailen^arcls had it en- 
tirely destroyed by one of the negroes, who applied 
to it a kind of rough powder, not unlike tobacco- 
leaves dried and crumbled very small. 

M. D'Obsonville received in his riglit leg the germ 
of one of these worms. He observed that its head 
was of a che.-inul colour, and that to the nakwl eye 
it appeared lo terminate in a small black point. On 
pressing il a little with a pin, and eiamining it with 
a common magnif}'ing glass, he fancied he perceived 
something like a Utile trunk or tongue, capable of 
being pushed out or contracted. Tlvcbwl^ -k*^ w*. 
thicker tbtn a elroog thread i \>u\, v.\\fft >\*.e iw\SB^ 


was extracted, it vras found to he. of the length of 
two or thrco ells. It appeared to be formed of a 
series of small rings, united to each other by an ex- 
ceedingly fine membrane, and a single; iaicsttnc ex- 
tended through the body. It vena extracted in tkc 
usual ways ond the reason he gives for the injoty 
done by breaking these animals is, thyt they arc full 
of whitish acrimonious lymph, which immedately 
cscilcs inflammation, and not unfrcquently pradoccs 
afterward an abscets or gangrene. The uonn in 
his leg n-as twice broken, and twice occasioned an 
abscess. At In^t, at his own request, the part affected 
was rubbed with a preparaiion of mercury : and ia M 
eight or ten dnys the efiect surpassed his hopes; for " 
pot only the body of the insect came away in suppn- 
ralion, but the wound also, which was then more 
than three inches long, and considerably inflatncdi 
wa! in tins time almost entirely healed*. 


. THE body of (he Futta is liuear, and of c(]0>1 
thicknrifs throughout. It has on each hide a aingk 
ro^v of closc-prcsjicd reflected prickles. 

Of this tribe only one sficcics, Ihc Furfajn/emil^t 
has been hitherto discovered. In Finland, Botbnti, 
and the northern province* of Sweden, tbc people 
^ere oilcn sc\z«d wivU an acute yt»Q^ i^ODfined to ft 



incrc point, in the (acc, or oiher exposed part ofibe 
body, which aftervartls increased to a most excru- 
ciating- degree, and somclimca, even wilbia ■ few 
hours after its commrnccmcnt, proved fatal. This 
disorder was more piirdcularly observed in Finland, 
especially about marshy places, and always in au- 
tumn. At length it was discovered that (he pain 
instantly succeeded something that dropped out of 
|ke air, ami alirtcst in a moment pcnclralcd and bu- 
ried itself in the flesh. On more accurate allcnliQi), 
the Furia was detected as the cause. It is about half 
an inch in length, and of a carnation colour, often 
Uack at the apex. It creep> up the slalks ofscdgc- 
gm$5, and shrubs in the marches, whence it is oflcri 
carried ofF by the wind } and if the cuikcd parts of 
th^ skin of any periion happen to be directly in it» 
conrKc, it immcdiuicly adheres and btiricf itself within. 
The firttt ^ensaiioo i» 6aid to be like tbut arising from 
ihe prick of a needle ; (his is ^uc(X'cdcd by a violent 
ttching of the part, soon after acute (lain, a red spot 
aiid gangrene, at latt an inflnmmalory fcrer, accom- 
panied with Awoonings. In Ihc coupm: of two days, 
at the furthest, tieath fullowt, unless the worm he 
extracted imroediaiely; nhich is vary dilTKuU to be 
done. The FinlandcrA say, howevrr, tliat a |)oullicc 
of curds, or checso, uil] allay the pain, and ealicc the 
animal out. Perhaps the most cH»:tual method is 
C^rc^uUy In di&Tvct between tkc muscles wher^ it bad 
(:ntcrcd, and ihtie extract it ^vith the knii'e. 

Linmeus, as he va? once collecting; insects, was 
$Xax\g by Ihc Furia in so dreadful a manner iKit 
there was^cat doubt whether he »ovi\Ar«;ON«. 

[ 524 ] 


THESE animals are inhabitants chiefly of ! 
nant waters. Tbetr bodies are round, ifarcad-slupcd, 
equal chraughout, and smootb. 


This wonn is about the ibiokness of a horse's hair, 
and, when full grou-n, is ten or twelve Inches ia 
length. Its skin is somcwbol glossj^, and of a pala „ 
yellowish vhite, except the head and tail, which are I 
black. It is common in our fresh waters, and |iiir- 
Itcularly in such where the bottom is compoaed of 
wfl clay*, through which it passes as a fish doa 
through water f. 

Its popular name arose from the idea thai it was 
produced from the hair of horses and other anitnili 
that were accidentally dropped into the water; an 
idea that is e\*t»n yet prevalent among the lower elaii 
of the people. Its Linnjran name of Gortiius origi- 
nated in the habit that it has uf twisting iiKlf into 
«uch pt'culiar contortions a& Xo resemble a rompli- 
rated gonlian knot. In this Ktate it often continues 
fan a considerable timci and then, slowly di^>ngiiginr 
it«etf, extends its body to the full length. 

Smictimes it moves in the water with a tolerably 
^h\ undulating motion, like thai of a tcecb; and 

Ihcr lintcs its motions arc the most slow and l8fi> 
imaginnble. When the water in which it smiu 

>au — CanS«»*y»tkiM. /.wnr— Waio HiJi ww. 



happens 1o be dried upi it soon loses evcr^ appear- 
ance of life; the slender body shrivels, and it may be 
kepi in this state fur a grc-at length of time. But 
whenever it is put into water its body soon re-assumes 
its former appcarince ; in less than half an hour it 
begins to move, and in a few minutes more it is an 
brisk and active as e\-er it was. The Abbe Fontans 
kept a Hair-worm in a drawer for ibrec years, at the 
c&piration of which it was [}eWect1y dry and hard, 
and exhibited no dgns of life ; but, on putting it into 
water, it very soon recovered its former vigour. 
\VT»ca kept in a vessel of water, it will sometimes 
appear motionless, and as if dead, for several houni, 
and afterward vill resume its former vigour, and 
seem as healthy as before. 

It is a very remarkable circumstance its bile, 
vh'tch it sometimes inflicts on being taken out of (he 
water, has been known to produce the cofnplatnt 
c:alled a v;iUIv:v. This is mentioned by Linnmiin as 
a popular opinion in Sweden, and it has »nce bis 
time been confirmed by various other persons. 

ITliis Gordius is sometimes found in the eajib ai 
well as in water, and particularly in gardeos of a 
clayey soil, aHcr rain *. 


XHC Earlli-worms have a round annublcdbody, 
with gcoemlly sn elevated fle^Iiy bell near the head. 

* Shaw'i Nat. Mit. Ir. ub. i3i.— AmleTwn'i RrcTMiTtDf, 1!. 



Mo9( of Ibc spedcs are rough, with minute conc<^fcrt 
prickles placed longitudinaHy, and bavc in the body 
a lateral aperture or pore. 


The most insignificant issectn and reptiles are of 
mnch more conscqiienre, nnd have intich more in- 
fluence in the economy ofnaturi', Ihsn tlic incUnww 
are aware of: and nri» mighty in their effect from 
their minutcnesp, which renders Ihcm Ic** an ol^t 
of altcnlion, and from their numbers and fccandil}'. 
Dcw-worma, though in appearance • small and de- 
spicable link iu the chain of natore, yet, if lost, mighl 
make a lamcntahle chasm. For, to say nothing of 
half the birds and some r|oadrupcHB ihii are sup* 
ported by Ihcm, worms seem to be the ^at pnv 
motcrs of vcgclslion, which would proccrfl but ill 
without thcm,*by horing, perforating:, and looMcnmg 
the soil, and rendering il pervious to rains and the 
fibresof plants, by drawing Btr/tws and iitalks cf k-avw 
and twig:* into it : and, most of all, by throwing op 
such inlrnttc number* of lumps called- Alvrm>cs^»r 
which form a fine manure for grain and grm.-^ 
Worms probably provide new soil for hills ondalopes 
where the rain wu^ihc^ die earth away i and tbry 
affect slojKs, prolwilily to avoid being floodrtl. 

Gardeners and farmers express their detestation at 
worms : ihc former, because they render their walir 
unsightly, and mak^ ihcm nuich work; and rhr 


* Symonvms. — ^Luntbricm teiT<»tm. tiRR.— Lati-won>,Cir- 
-WOTRi, or Twatcbfl. 



laller, because tbcy (hink wonns eat thdr green 
corn. But tKcse men wauld find lliat tbe earth 
without worms would Mxiti become cold, hard-hound, 
and void of fermentation } and consequenlly stcrili 
and besides, io tavuur or' wonni^ it sJiould be hinted 
that green corn, plants, and tlovi er>, are not so much 
injured hy them as by many species of insects iq their 
Urva or grub £tafc i .and by unnoticed myriads of 
those email sbell-tess snails, culled olugs, which ei- 
knllv and iirpcrccptibly nt»k« amasing ha.ock in 
the tidd and gardrn. 

I^nds that art; >ul>ject lo frcqncnt inundaliona arc 
always poor : one great rcm^fn of thii> may probably 
be, because all (he worms arc drowned. 
k The Dew-worm is without bones wiiboHl brain, 
eyes, and feet. It has a number of bmlhing-holes 
aleog its back> adjoining to each ring. Near tl> 
hcttd is placed the heart, whicl) may be obicrvcd to 
beat with a very distinct motion. The body t» formed 
of amall rings furttiithed with a set of musclea that 
act in a :>piral direction, and which cnvbic it in the 
moat complete: manner possible to pciKlrate into or 
creep upon the ciirlh. The mutiou of these crca- 
turn may be cjcplaincd hy a wire wound on a cy- 
linder t where, when one end is drawn on and held 
fact, Ihc other, upon being loowd, will imniedMteJy 
follow. These muAcWi enable cbcm vriih great 
strength to dilate or contract Tticir bodies. The 
annuli or ring's are slw each arnted with small, ttifT, 
and shnrp bcartU, or pricklt;f) which Ihey, h&ve tKe 
poverof opening ovit or cJosipg iQtbcjf body. . And 
under the »kia ia wcrclcda slimy maWMtwhicji Uwy, 



emit tt the perlbrationR between the annuli to lufatv 
Cite the body, and tRcililAte ihcir pa^^Age into tb« 
ground. By all which mcanx they are enabled with 
great ease to perforjite the earth ; whkb, had their 
bodies bfceo otherwise constructed, 1 hey could not id 
wctl have Jonc. 

Dew-norms make their casts prmcipally about (be 
months of Mnrcb or April, in mild weather^— la 
rainj nights they travel about, as appears from tiieir 
sinuous tracks, on a soA muddy soil, perhaps in seardi 
of (bod. When ihey appear at night on tl^e \taf, 
althougb tbey conHderabiy ctlcnd their bodies, tluy 
do not quite leave their holes, but keep their laib 
6nnly fi^cd, so that, on the lea<^ alarm, they can 
{jrecrpitately retire ondcr the earth. Whale\*er food 
falls uitbin their reach, when thm eritcoded, sucb b 
blades of grass, or fallen Ica^-c::;, ihcy teem coaioit 

with it. 

Helpless as Ihey may seem, these creature* are 
very vigilant in avoiding such animals as prey upon 
cbcm. The mole, in particular, they avoid by dart- 
ing to the surface of the earth ihe intitant they fed 
the ground move. Fisbermcn, who arc acqnainled 
with this circumstance, can take them in grent nam' 
bcrs, by moving the earth in places where Ibcy ex- 
pect to find them, with a dung fork. When, bov- 
«ver, tbey are wanted for tifhing, tl>cy ore perhkpa 
most easily caught by the light of a Uotcrn in the 
night, after heavy ahQwcrs,on gnkn walks and iihccp 
pftj-tures, where ibc herbagff is abort. 

la winter Ibeie worms retire tery deep into ibr 
cartb, tp secure Ihemselves from being frozen. Tbey 




Ao not become torpid duting this season, hr in the 
iotcrvals of mild wcaihcr they are often observed to 
throw up tticir castSt an usual at other limes of tlttf- 


THE body of 1 ho Leech is oblong nnd InincatCi 

I or as if cut off at both ends. These animnts «re 

cartiltgioous, and move by dilating (he head and 

tail, aud contracting thtfinselvcs into the fohn of an 


.Some species are viviparous, ollicn lay ihcir eg^s 
on aquatic planlA, and utbcni carry them under llidr 
belly. Each egg contains many young ones. Se- 
veral of the smaller specie's may be mtiltiplicd by 


]» Uftually found in stagnant ponds and ditcher, and 
is of an oliwc block, colour, v,'a\i six yellowish lines 
above, and spotted uiih yellow benCRth. It is gene* 
rally two or three inches in length. The body is 
fornicd wiib numerous annular wrinkles, which the 
animal has the power of expndjng or contracting 
at pleasure. The tail ends in a circular mitfclc or 
suckeff which, when applied to any subilancc, readily 
adheres, by the ortimars drawing op the middle, so 
as to have it pressed linnly down by the external. 

B * StioxYNi*— 'Hiruda mcdinnalu. iicim. — ConuDpa ^Mdi. ^^M 

B VOL. 111. Mm ^^1 




B^ this it fostens Itself wilh rase and 
rbilc it extends the other part of the body in aayi 
direction i and it is to firmly fixed tb&t it can morel 
its head about to seek for nourishment, without any I 
Jangcr of being carried away by the slrmglh of the 
current. Wbco the Leech is desirous of moving 
onwani, it extends its body forward, fites its bead 
in the same manner that it did its tail, asd then 
loosens find draws that up> and again &stcns it 
its head as a fresh point to proceed from. 

Tlie bead of the Leech is armed wiib three teeth 

a slightly cartilaginoos substance, which art » 

'situated as to convei^ when the nniroal bites, ead 

leave a somewhat triangular mark on the sb's. 

These are sufficiently strong to pierce the skin of j 

an ox or a Iiorsr. Tlirotigh the holes il femis with ■ 

them il sucks (he blood ; this is done by conimet- 

ing the muscles of the throat so as to make tile 

blood rush through the vacuam above the wound 

into the stomach, which is a kind of mcmbrunaceoos 

receptacle divided into twenty-four small ccllx. Hero 

it sometimes remains for several months almost nitb* 

out coagulating, and ofTords support to the anitnd 

during the whole time. It passes off by transpin- 

*iion, the matter ffiing on the surface of the body» 

and oflcnvard coming off in small thrcadsi. la 

proof of thS% if a leech be immerwd in oil (wbetelt 

uitl ke«[i alive for several dsys) and afterward put into 

traler, a kind of slough will be seen to loosen (cam 

its skin, exactly of the shape of the body. 

Ttie TcwU'is » 'jw\iw«>vA«T\\ma\, proJacin^ one 




If it be confined in a glass, and kqit in a room, it 
is said to show itself very restless before a change of 

When it is applied in surgery, and is found to 
adhere too long, it is easily removed by putting 
upon it salt, pepper, or acids. 



THE body of the Slug, or naked Snail, h oMoc^, 
and hns on its upper part a kind of fleshy rfitcld ; and 
below aflat longitudinal disk, by mc;ins of Trhicfa tb« 
animal has its progressive motion. On the rigbt 
side of the body there is an aperture. Above ibe 
month are situnted four feelers, nt the apex of escli J 
of the two larger of which there is an eye. I 

Few animala, for their size, are more rortctow _ 
Itian thcae. They vould do serious injury to dot ■ 
iiclds and gardens, were not ihcir numbers abrrdgeil 
by several of the ainsllcr qtuidrupcds, and by varioui 
5pecies of birds. 

They have so strong a tendency to rcprodudion, 
that, if the head or tail be cut off', these parti mil 
grow agiin. Most of die spedes can eiist for a i 
great length of time, scvcrnl inonlhs, vitboul food. 

7HE SriNNirCG SLtlGf. 

About the year 1781;, Mr. Hoy observwl, tn a 
plantation uf Scotch firs, somelhing hanging from 
one of the branches, which, as it seemed uncotnniop, 
he approached, and found to be this animal. It wt* 
hanging by a single line or thread attached to tU 
tail. This was, upward, very fioe; but near tk 

* The Linnmn nfJcrofMoi-LOiCOin Woniu CMii0aia»hen. 
t SviKMifMS. — Limaxa^slU. £>raii^— Sfiinoing Liatx. Urn. \ 


TRi sriHyiNO tLvo. 


aHtfflfrf ^t beesmc thicker and more broad, till ^~ 
length it esactty corresponded whb ths tail. Th*i 
Slug M'ss about lour feet below Ihc branch, and 
nearly at the same dielance from the ground ; wbicli^ 

■ it gradually :tpproached at the rate of an inch in' 

' about three niintitcs *. This rate, though slow, is' 
not so much so as might be Mjiecteil, con^dfring 
that the is not fumtsbcd t^ilh an; peculiar^ 
rtecptacle, ait in tome insects '^ Ibe glutinous 
liquid from which its oiltccn tines arc formed. 1'he 

I line by which it descended was drawn from the slimy 
exudation gradually aecrctcd irom the pores that co- 
vered iis whole boiiy. A great degree ofcxcriion 
Bcemed neccsmry to produce a KufHcient supply of 
the liquid, ami to force this to\\'&rd the tail, li alter. 
nttdy pushed oat aud drew back its head; and' 
turned it as far as possible, first to one side and then 
to the other, bk IT thereby to press its sides, and thus 
ptoinote secretion. This motion of the head in a 
horizontal dtreclion made the whole body turn round ; 

I by which the line, which would Imve otherwise re- 
mained somewhat Hat, became round. This motion 
slfiOj no doubt, in addition to the weight of iheaoi' 
mal, lefldcd materially tow.ird lengthening lheIinet-«S 
This h the substance of Mr. Hoy's account. Dr.'-' 
Latham says that the ^^ccretion from \vhich the thread 
is formed is whtilly from the under parts of the ani- 

: nial, and not from the back or sidrs, both of which. 

' It tuf betn obMrvtd b^ Dr. Luhatq to tictetnit i^ul ttirr< 
llncbo *n<i a tulf in ■ miouu. 

i iit.lioy inlMn.'SiM.l n;. 



during the operation, appear nearly dr}'. Thai it 
did not proceed from any ortlice in the tail was evi- 
dent i fur in some cxpcximents tbe aninwl wat suv 
pended by the tip, and at other limes from tbe lide, 
a full eighth of an inch from the lip. The flow of 
tbe viscous (ccrction toward tbe tail appeared to b& 
excited by meaos of an undulating moliun of tbe 
belly, similar to that ofciawling. 

AOer having spun for some time, the power of 
spinniiig seems for a while to be lost : but in tbode 
alugs uo which cxpcrimtiiits have been made it hat 
always been recovered, after tbcir being kept aome 
hours among wet mo&s*. 

This slug is of 41 grayish nhlte colour, with a yd- 
lowiah shield, and 15 generally about thrcc-fourttu 
orao inch in Icngtii. It is supposed not to be very 
uncommon in woods and other shady places. 




THE animals of this tribe arc long and slender. 
Their feet are very numerous, and arranged on each 
side of the boby. They have, in general, two or 
fljur eyes, but some of the species have none. Theif 
feelers are simple, and placed above the mouth. 


The body of this little creature ia oblong, linear, 


• Litbam IB LinB.Tf4n.K%v \ TS>«w* »««*»*. Ma^ 





3iid sominatc as toclufle cicnminaliao by ihc naked 
eye. It inhubits ever)- sea, and h one of ibc cauees 
of tbe luminuus shining of the ^^■aIe^ in the night, 
whkb is sometimes so great xs to make that elemeal 
ippcar as if on Are. The body, composed of about 
twenty- three segments or joincs is allogelhcr scarcely 
two line<i long, quite pelluciJ> and its colour that of 

These animals are found on all kttidtf of marine 
plant:^ ; but they often leave tbcm, and swim on the 
surface o( the water. They are frei]ucnt at all se;i- 
sons, but particularly iti summer bi-forc stormy wca* 
tbcr, when they arc more BgitiittrJ nnd mom lumt- 
nous than at other limcx. Tlicir numbers, end won- 
derful agility, added to their pellucid and shining 
quality, do not a little contribute to their illuminating 
Ibe sea ; for myriads of these animalcules may be 
conlsioeJ in a small cup of sca-watcr. Itinumc- 
rable quanlirics of them lodge in (he cavities of the 
scales of fishes, and to them probably tbc fish may 
in some measure become luroinou^ *' I have ob- 
served with great attention (says Oarbut) a fish just 
caught out of the sea, whose body was almost co- 
vered with tbcm, and have cxaminrd them in tbc 
dart : they twist and curl thcmseivc* with amazing 
agility, but socm relire out of our contracted sight ; 
probably on accouni of their glittering nnmbcrs 
dazzling the eye, and their extreme niinu(cne» 
eluding our researches. It is to be observed that, 
when the unctuous moisture which covers thr scales 
of (i&l>ea i> exhausted by the avr, iWsc uw'w^i^^ w« 
not to be seen ; nor arc ihc fisVic^ \\iftv\ \vviC\\v>.*^«^**' 



that nultcr being pcrbsfis iheir noumhmcnt whea 
living, 3S thcv thcm9elve:<> afibrd food to minv marine 
aoimaU. Tbe>' do not shiDC in tbc dAy-timc, bfr 
catue the solar rays are too powerTuI for itieir light, 
bowe^ier aggregate, or however iinmensr <ticir nuitt- 

Their appearance isparlicuL-uly brilliant when the 
wind is in the cask and soutb-casl points, aod iv 
winter nighis preceded by a worm dfly. If water 
coDtaioing lbcseai)rmalcule.s be kept warm, ibcywiU 
retain their light two whole days after tbcy ere deadi 
hot in cold M'cather they lose it in tbc course of sera 
or eight faoura. Motion and warmth, vhich iot 
crease their vivacity and strength^ increase also ibdr 


THESE animals are somewhat oblong, »nd whea 
closed rciteiiible a truncaie<l cone. They are died 
by (bu base, and from their top uccasionaMy extend 
several tcntacuin, which arc disposed in regular cir- 
cles. The mouth, nhich is (he only opening in ib« 
body, is situated ut the lop, in ihc centruorihc Ica- 
1acula,8Dd is furnished with croukrU tccih. 

They arc all capable of varying thctr figure; but, 
when their tcnlacnla are Tully cxjunJal, tbcy hai|>B 
the appouraoce of ru!l-btowii fluwcrji. Many of 



(hem nre of very bcnutifnl ant) brilliant colours. 
They feud oo shell-fish and other marine animnlit, 
which the)' draw inio their mouth with their arms; 
and they e^ect the shells and other indigestible |urlii 
through the same opening. I( sometimes hflppens, 
however, that a shell preiMiiits ilsclfin ii wrong pOM> 
lion, nnti I he unimal is not iblc to discharge It in 
the usiinl iniinuer : iii this c-ise we nre told l!iat il i* 
forced (hrutigh the body, niakiog a wound, a* if vriih 
a knife, near ilic b-iHc. I'lic arms seem to \ay hold 
of objects by making a vacuum ; for, on touching 
thom irilh the Fingci:!i, they readily adhere, but no 
v-tscoiis mailer is depodiicd by (hem. Their moulh 
16 capable of great extension, so ok to allow them 
to swallow very large :^hellj without injury'. The 
whole interior part of their body ia one cavity or sto, 

' roach. They have the power of progressive motion ; 
but (his is extremely slow, and i$ said to be per- 
formed by loosing I heir base from (he rock, rc»*crs- 
ing llieir body, and employing their tcntacula as io 
many Icg». 

I Near))' all the ftnimala of this tribe may be seps- 
rated from their native rocks by means of a card 
carefully introduced beneath, so as not materially to 
injure them : and, being put into glass vessL*1s with 
$ei-water, which mml be changed about once a 
week, they v\\\ there fit ihem>elvci>, and may be 
kept alive end in full vigour lor a great length of 
|tme, in plaecs far dtslant from the $ea>coasl9. 
All tbc spM»c8 are viviparoua. 

r 538 ] 

The present species is extremely common oaso> 
vcral of the £uro[)can coasis, and on the fica racki 
ofltiis island in particular. It adheres by its base 
firmly to the rocts, so as frequenlly to be left aborc 
water at (he ebbing of the sea : but it is genenlljr 
found adhering at soine little depth below the sur- 
faccof the wafer. Its usual colour is a deep redj 
more or less viviti in difTcrcnt specimens: and it is 
or nearly the same height when cloK»j. Its fbrm is 
that of a very obtuse cone, wilti an orifice at the 
top, which it can at pleasure cilbcr clo«c cotirdy 
or citcnd very ftidc, to orhnit lis tcntacula to spread 
out, and to receive such food as Ihry draw iato it 
These leiiiacula are varied with red in such (nanatT '■ 
as, when fully expandut^, lo bear a very considerable 
(taemblancc to the flower of some of the gardeo 
anemones. If any extraneous subslance ta iatro- 
duced into the cavity of the roouthj or even if any 
of the tcntacula ure but slightly touched, the ftoilP}) 
instantly contracts itsclfinto a conoid shape. 


On this specicd the abb£ Dicqucmaire nude 
venil experiments to prove rls powerii of rcprodu&l 
tion, 8cc. He first cut oft' all its (cntacuUij wbtd) 
grew Bgutn in Icmi than a month ) and, on repealing 




this a second and third time, he had cqaal success. 
One of the animals had its upper part cut oO*: ibe 
base was foun<l» a few days aficrward, (o have fallen 
liom its place, but ic sotm eutirely recovered its 
limbic After cutting one of them in two, the abbe 
ofiered s ptccc of a muscle to ilic detached iwrt, and 
the limbs seemed eager to lake it. Tbcy drew it 
into the mouth, and it was swallowed ; but, u the 
body was wanting^ to receive it^ the piece came out 
at the opposite end, "just (says the abbv) as a man's 
bead, being cut ofi', wouM let out at the neck the bit 
taken in at the mouth." It \vn^ offered a second 
time and jgaiii received, and retained till the follow- 
ing d:iy, wlicn it was throH-n up. In this manner it 
was fed for some time, the bits, when they did not 
pass through, appearing considerably altered on their 
re-appearance at the mouih. — If the ba&e of any of 
the Anemones be injured by the incision, the wound 
generally proves mortal. 

On being put under the receiver of an air.pump, 
and having the m'r eshau^tcd, these anitnnis did not 
se em to experience any ill effects, or to perceive any 
difference betwixt this and their being in (he open 
air : if their tcntacuU happened to be expanded they 
remained no, and nut tl>c least shrinking could be 

Some of them lived upwards of twelve months 
without any otticT food than what the Aco-waler af- 
forded them. 

When shcll-fisb, or pieces of other tiih, or bits of 
niw meat, were oftcre<l. if not too largj.vKt'j «\^k^% 
tfxjk them. The shell*, even if c\o*«iA, \\.t*i cy-cVcA. 


THK TtntrLK x^ASors. 

ia thccouT%or«da]r or two, but perfectly cleared of 
tbdr cootents. 

They bring fonh tbcir yoon^ olife at th« moulh? 
and tbc abbi had ibesc prcubiced ^ererat litncs in hit 
bancfas thej^ were gencrallv Tram eight to twdie^n 
•amber. Though mme of ibem are at this lime 
almost impercephhle, y^ thcytinmedifttel}' fixtbcm- 
sdres, imd expand their Icntacula in order ta calch 
their prey. 

These jintmaU are dwtilale of ey«, yet thcy wcw 
alwayivcry eviiJently uflwted by litjht. If a caiidlb 
was beld jvct tbc glastcs m which thry were krjM, 
and al such a itiatance as oot to cornmunin^c aaj 
heat, ibcy regularly do6e<^ and did not again expand 
tiU ibe %ht was rcmovMl. When, however, the^r 
had btica pleatifally f«t, they closed much &lowcr, 
or loaetimes even rdiuined open. 

When the Sea Anemones arc boiled in water lh^ 
actjuirc a ftrm cortMslcncc, and Uecomo a •• 'i- 

table food. Cals arc remorlcabiy fond or iDcm 
wbeo thus cooked. Their fmell i* nut unlike tbat 
of s warm crab or bUtcr. 

Among other cxpenmcnla of the abb^ DirqiMk^ 
mairc, he gave to two Aclintx of dift'crcnc spodo 
(a gray and a yellow one) a narrow s.lice of fish, w 
Jaidthal cocb had hold of an end. The yellow oiu^ 
however, bappeood to seJaclhe larger s^are. Each 
svalUnred on b)' its re<^>eclire end, itU at length their 
mouths came in contact, llie gray one (cental at 
first to get. the better; but the other soon recovered 
ili sharr^ lost it again, and again reeovervd it. 
3 bcse ahem%tc victoriea lasted about tbixc bourf* 




lill atliut, llic gray orm IwJng iti lioM, ihc other ob« 
toiiiod the prize. Tbb;tucke(f i( in buc slonly, and 
ibc^ay one again veiiruncd itsmouih upon a bsl itt|f 
at Ihe ciid still vvitliin reach r but the ctFort proved 
(roitless: the yellow cumpanion gnve a Bnal juill, 
BodiSivalbwcU the tvhult. ]>unng thisconicalioa, 
bolb the creatures seeincd oniinatcd by consider^ 
able psiision ; but, tlunigh they reniamed neigtibuufs 
fi>r a great wKile aficrward, (bey livctl togctbcr very 


Mr. Ilugbes, in his Natural Ilisrory of Baibadocn, 
has gu'cn us a very rninurr account of this specie*. 
Kvera) iiidividiinls of which were discovered iu that 
Jsland soiiic yeirs ago. Me calls it an aniimil flow-cr, 
ihd s«ctn8 to consider it as a fien&ilive plant, having 
many Mnimnl ])ro|)crties. 

" The cave that contained thcw animals was (he 
My*) wear the' bottom of a rocky cliff lacing the sea, 
hi the norlli psn cf ibc island, in the panKJi of Saint 
tacy. ■ The descent 16 ii w.ns steep ond dahgerou!", 
Iicing in some places alnH»t parpen Hico'.ir. The 
cavc'conritifiicd a natural bason of water, about si x- 
rfcn feet Ion;? and Iwclvc bnwd, in the middle tif 
which viz^ 3 rock nlmott rrtvercd with them. 
*^ •* Round the nidc^ of rhis ai difiercnt depths 
untkr the water, «Idom however mure than eighteen 
ftehc>, wtn 9tiin nt all time* of the year seemingly 
firic radrated floxrcr^ of a palft yellow, or 6 brig'ht 

rOff 82A iJABlGOLD. 

loof, il^lilt; tinged with fr«n Tb«e 

Ittd the a ppc OT iice of a drcvSar border oT thick-net 
pdals, ftbtxit tbe mm: of and macli rcKmbltng ihom 
of tbe imglc ^dcn m jri^M. 

« I often attemplird lo pluck ooe of them from the 
rodt to wbkh tbcT arc fw.^, but could never eflvcC 
kt foTi IS iKxm as ray fingers ramc within two or 
three mcbcsofit, it n-ould itnmcdiatcly contncl and 
doK tc^ber its yellow border, and shrink back 
hilo tix bold ia (be rock ; but, if left undistarbed 
for ibree ur four laiiiutos, it would come again ^tv 
dually into siglii, exinndtn^, though at first wry 
cautiously, what seemed its leaves, till at last il ap- 
Ijcared lu its Ibrmer bloom : ic would, bowcrer, agiiu 
coacract, with Rurprlsing quickoess, wbcn my hand 
approacbcd within a little distance of it." Thi.*! gen- 
tleman also attempted lo touch it with his cane, and 
tbcn with a slender rod; but the effect was tbe 
same. The motion of the wntcr, caused by tbe im- 
mersion of the hand or Blick, nag no doubt (he cauce 
of its invariably retreating when any attempt «>^ 
made to toueh it. ^H 

From llic centre of the apparent flower proeeedfd 
ibur dark-coloured threads, somewhat rcseinbling, 
anys Mr. II., the legs of a spider. Thcr»c, wbkfa 
were its arms or feelers, had a quick spontaneous 
motion from side to side. 

Its body seemed to be a small dsrk^roloured tube, 

about as thick as a raven's quill, one ^nd of which 

was affixed to (he rocl;, and the other, which ex- 

fenficd a liUlc wa^ ^toto \^, ««as encircled with the 

1 eKow border aV>o»JC n\w»V\aft^^ 



Soon aAer the di 

of thc« 

iscovcry oi thc« surpriiing ani- 
mals, great numbers of people carte to sec them. 
This was attended with some inconvenience to the 
person through whose grounds ihoy were obJigcd to 
pass, and he resolved to destroy (he olijecls of ilielr 
curiosity. That this might be done eftectiully, he 
caused all the hole-s out of which the aniroah ap- 
peared, to be cafefully drilled with an iron mstni- 
incQt. He could not, however, even by this meam 
destroy them ; for in the course of a lew weeks Ihcv 
again appeared in the vita- same placc> and in a ^hort 
time became as numerous as before. 


THE Cutile-fiih, though comparalhrely Urge ani- 
mals, 8omc of ilicm being two feet Jong and upward, 
are ranked by Linnaeus under the class of fFcrmt, — ■ 
Their structure is very remarkable. The body if 
cylindrical, and, in *omc of the spcc:c«, entirely 
covered with a fleshy jheaih ; in others, the ^healb 
reaches only to the middle of ihc b'>dy. Thej' have 
eight tcnlacula, or arms, besides two feelers, a« they 
are called, which arc much longer than the .irm^. 
Both the feelers and ana« arc furnished with strong 
circolar cups or sucker*, by mean? of which ibe ani- 
mal tcizn; its prey, and (Irmly attaches itself to rock* 
or olhrr bard substances. To do tins, it applies their 
surface, citendcd and plain, to the surface of the 
bcxiyt and ilitn drawing ihcm up "m \\w cswVtVt^ 


THE CUTtLt-riftn TKIM. 

muscles conlriTod for the purpoMi* vnctiimiis fenmit 
ami ibejF adhere -by ilic pressure of IhceitcrDal air.^ 
The adiic&ive power is io gruot itut il is g«a<3alt; 
more ca&y 1o Icnr off the armn thun Kciriite iheni 
fromlbe siib»tai>ce tr> Hliicb they srv fixed. Uihoe 
anns happen by any chance lo be broken ofT, tlxy 
arc soon Afterward reproduced. Tbc animnli ace 
aUo funiishcd wiib a burdj strong, and homy moulbi 
leoembling, boih in tckture and Mibfttmicc, tbe beat 
of a parrot. With itii^ ihey are enabled to bmlc 
tbe shells of Liinpcto, and other thellcd animjb,oo 
whicii liicy feed, in ihe bac)t, under the >kio, tbero 
is a kind of bone composed uf thin parallel pb(e8< 
one above another, and separaled by liiile columru 
arranged in quincnnxordcr. This bone isoval,tbid: 
toward the middle, and thin at the circumfcrmee. 
It is cxlremely light, and generally elastic, and in 
tfacliving animal transparent like glass: the mrfiice, 
in some !ipccie.s, is maikcd with longitudinal farrows. 
When dried and pulverized, the bone of the O^cmJ 
Cuitk-fish is employed by pjlversmitbs for moulds, 
ia which they cast iheir small work, as spoons, riiig9« 
C(c. It is af£o converted into Ibat uitefnl article of 
SUiionar)- called pounce This bone, on nccoant 
of its lightness, is mmeiiines called hca-foatn, or ses- 

In the bcDyof tbe Cuttle-fish there isc ccssel 
that contains a qu:inlil}- of dark or inky fluids which 
tlio animol emits, on conlraclion, nhcn alarmed.— 
This not only tinges the water ro » to conceal its 
retreat, but is at the Mine tiiiie so bitter u immedi- 
■Icly to drive off its cneoiics. 


"K *w4Mgcr'A Cunl* llius O'S'l'i* (})» (nrtt 
And ntiivc hnnJi ol fltud i-ifrl/ bear*. 
A pitdiy ink peculiar gUnd« •applf , 
WboM shales the alla^fTe^t b<sm of lif bt defy. 
^uiit'il Im bidi lh«H' Ic fountiin li"W, 
And. wnpt id eloudi, dude* Ih* imi>«niiii>s fo** 
Tlu foh ictrcUi uiuecn, Tbiic »clf-*Mrn r^'frbtf 
With pi*u» »hiide, bcl'iittids her j»*rfTH*i flight*. 

^Swftmmerdnm uas of opinion that IiJioh ixk ia 
nothing more than this black fluid in :in inspis5ale<l 
s{ale, with the addition of pertimies. If Indian ink 
be dtesolved in water in any considerable qnantily^ 
in the space of a few days it acquirer a very htgh de- 
gree of putridily, clearly indicating its being formed 
of some animal subi^ance ; and no other aeems so 
well calculated to coni{)osc il a$ thin. 

The male always accompanies the fentale, and 
when slie is altackcd will brave every danper, and 
attempt her rescue even at the hazard of hra can 
life. As soon as slie observer her partner to be 
wounded she immediately escapes, her timidity not 
sufFcrinp her to afford him any assistance. When 
these animnls arc dragged oat of the wnter, Ihcy 
make a noifie somewhat hlce the grunting ofa hog. 

The young are produced from eggs deposited on 
Ibe sca-wced, in parcels cxnctly resembling a bunrh 
of grapes. These arc at first white, but after their 
impr^nalion by the male they become black : they 
arc round, with a lilllc point at the cud, and in each 
oflhcm Is contained a Cuttle-fish surrounded by a 
gelatinous fluid. 

VOL. 111. 

* JoM-'i (}ppUn. 

N n 

The OjfiuacJ OxitUJtsh^ wa« !n great esteem bf 
Ihc anltcDls as Ibod, and it is creu ^tX ascd as well 
bv the Iialiaos. 

Th€ Et^ht-armtd Ctiule-Jifh\ in the hot cliniaia 
docnctiaics bectnntt of such a %mc as to mciisun: 
Iwclrc feet acrcua iis ceotre, and to bavc cjcli of iu 
ann« tictwccn forty and fifty feci long. When liw 
Indbos go out in ibeir canoes, io pbcus frequcnteii 
by these 5cpia. they are slways in drvad of ibeir 
lingingtbdrarmsov-er and s iikingihem ; on whi'cii 
^ftccouol tbey wc careful to lake witb litem an to. W 
cot ilicm off. 


TUESK arc inbabiunis of the sea, and are luitaDj 
found uu Itte sand or ainoiig the rocks on the MSr 
>borc, co&sidcnibl^ below high vj&xa nmrk. Tlxir 
cu*ciing is a curwccous cnut, wbich defends them 
UoiM ihc alt;ick» ofUtc smaller atiitnuLi ; and tbc]' 
\vAKC five or more ru)5 priKiecdiiig from a eeoire in 
iWhich their mouth is fiiiiated. Every ray is for* 
,Oit(l>cd u-itli a prodigious nntnljer pf tfniaculii, a 
bh[)Tt, soft and fleshy tubes, »bich ap^Hr la be cd' 
iif^; nok onlyiu taking pa'v, find in siding tbc nvv 
jioti of the aniniul, but J>o in enribling !t to ndlicrc 
Jo (^■kii'acd ,oi)jer sol>slau<'C5, by which it i\itbs(«>di 
ihc ruiccot'thc wa^o. In a single animal ihcsc tec- 



^^^^|t hnve licen found abnvc 1500 in number i and, 
^ when the Star-fisb nre thrown on tlieir backs, these 
' may be observed to be pushed nut und withdrawn in 

the «fitnc manner as snniU do their horns. The pro- 
I gressive motion of the Slar-Hsb, which ia with iheir 
B rays, 19 very slow ; and by the iindulnttoo of lbc4C 
I they ore enabled lo swim, llicy po^ssiS consider* 

able {xiwcrs of rcpro<luction : for, if by nny violence 

Is ray is broken of}', (beiit}^ moM of ihcm very hritttc,) 
in ihe course of a short lime a ncvv one will appear. 
The moiuh is armed with liony (eeih, that arc u«ed 
in seizing snd breaking the shells on which the ani- 
mals feed : from hence a canni extends to each of 
the rays, runs through the whole length, and bc- 
comts gradually narrower as it approaches the ex* 
_ trcmily. 

I If I he Star-fuh arc drowned in brandy or spirits of 
I wine, and (he rays be kept flat and expanded diiriitjG; 
the time, it is ensy afterward to extract, by mnw 
of a pair of foi*ccp9, the stomach and intestines en- 
tire through the month. This inrormaiion maybe 
of use to those who wish lo pre-crvc specimens .of 
tbem, and were not previously pos>cs-»cd of it. , 


tThis extremely siirgulsr Fpcciei is occasionally 
found in mo«;t seas, but never in any great number. 
It has five equi-distani, thickly jointed procMses pro- 
ceeding from its centre, each of which is divided mi to 


BiA«t-llit). Brjnch*<I Ai*«ri«. U(dtt-fc &tai-t»b. 

N n a 



two uther small ones and cadt of lbe% into two 
others still tmalier ; nnd this mode of regular oubdi* 
vickm is continued to a vaul cxicnt, and in the moit 
beautifu) gradation of minDlenesa, till at leogtb the 
numbrr of extreme rami6caiions fianictimca tmooiM 
to ftevcrnl ihoasaiiJi. One specimen, that mea&urcd 
three fvot acroMj had five btindred and twelve ex- 
tremtttn to each ny-, so that, in ttm, rbe whuk 
number was %56o. Dy thtt most curioua structure 
the animal becomes as it were a living net, and a 
capable uf catching :iuch creatures as arc bjr nitinc 
destined for its prey, by tfac sudden conlradioa of 
itt^ innamerobic rniniHcationit ; and the unfocluoile 
object h Mcured by these beyond all poesibiHty of 

In order to preserve this curious animnl wbole and 
undamaged for cabinetf, it should be lakim far oot 
in the Kii ; and the fi><hcrmen ought to be cafcfol 
not i<j break ot{' any of (he limbs, and to prevent tbe 
animnl (rom contracting and entangling \\s outerand 
most slender branches. The fishermen of the Qpe 
of GotHi Hope get sii, nnd Mimetimes eveo Ico, rii- 
dollani for one ofthcite Stsr-fisb. 

When it h alive, or but jusi dead, its colour ii a 
reddi^^h or deep carnation t buc on bnn^ dried it be> 
comes somcwhnt gray. It Khoufd be dried in tlw 
ahadca in some open place, where the wind h« fret 
Jiapeu to it {; for in the mid it is Bp( to ducMulrc, uai 
if jilaccd too much in die shade it rrei}uciitly he^ 
comes putiidt. 

• SbiVt Ni».tlfiW."«A.%.^*. ^«*^. 





THE Sca-orcbins are generally round, and shaped 
liLu a soQicwliai flattened bait. Their exterior U a 
hony crust, usually furnuiticd with movcabtc ^inca, 
b> which they are defended fram ituury, and by 
meaos of which Ihcy have their progressive ntolion : 
these arc often very numerous, amounting in aoine 
species to upward^ of two thousand. The mouth is 
placed beneath, and in mo&t of the species has five 
vaivca or tcctb. 

Tbey are nil inhabitant!* of the sea, and, in their 
genoral character, have so great an alliance to cacb 
other that it will not be necessary to bring forward 
more than one s^jcciei*, to illustrate ibc whole tribe. 



This animal, which lodges in cavilieB of rocks just 
within low-water mark, on most of the British coasts, 
is nearly of a globular shape, ha^-ing ils shell marked 
into ten partitions or divisions, not much unitize those 
of an orange. The mouth Jsiitualcd in the lower or 
under part, and armcilwith five strong and sharpened 
Iccth. The stomach and iniestines, which arc of 
considerable length, are disposed in a somewhat cir- 

• S«m H«lge-bog» Of Sea Egg*. 
J SxMOHYKS. — Echinui wculfnlu*. iiitir.— EjliWc Echimw, 
P/M.— Commfta Echinw. or EactiUnl lithinas^.^S*«w\ N"i*- 



colzr form ; iind the whole body is sapporteil 
lirrly b)' set ofupright bones or columns. On tb* 
outside of the shell is a prodigious number of shafp , 
moveable seines, of a dull violet ind grccnitth oo- I 
lAiir, curiotjslv articulated, nice b«]| or socket, with ' 
tubercles on ihc «urf4ce, and connected by strong 
lij^mcnt* 1o the skin or epiJcrnni^ wilh which itx 
'.clI is cwcrcd. The spines arc the inslrumenls by 
vhich (he animal convcvs itsclfal [itcssurc rrom ok 
place to another ; and br tnc&na of ihcsc it is cnaUcd 
to mote at lilt: bottom of the water with great iwift* ■ 
ne«. It generally em jilo}$lbo« about the moalb " 
for ihi« purpose, keepin* that opening donnwird: 
but it is also a-^sett^d to hai>e the power of mocing 
forvanl by turning on itself like a aheel*. When 
mny thing alarms (hcse animals, they immcliztety 
mo\'e all their spines toward it, and wait an attoct, 
« an army of (nkcmcn wonid with their wcspoof. 
Hie n.imbcr of muscirs, fibres, and other ap{iaratos 
nccesjsirY to the proper managcmfnt of lhc5c wast 
be very grent, and arc exceedingly vondcrfuL So 
trnaeioos are the Se»4irchi»s of tbe nial pnitdplc; 
that, on opening one of ihem. ii t$ no uncommon 
drcmnstance to oh=*rrve the several parts of tbe 
broken shdt more off in different directions. The 
■nlicnta, according to Oppian, gave credence (o a 
.ctrcttinstancc much more woniicrfiil than this : 

Sn-BrrbtBi, trbo ihtir »«ii>c atm'.m bout. 

* ^dKa,\. ^A. 


Should )-o« wilh Icnivcs (ttcir fn>ck\y bodW wovad, 
TtW Ihc cvie norFcli pini ujioa Ibc frwind ; 
Tdu may e'en ibcn, wbcn nmtiim Kccni dd moT^ 
Dvpiriing Knit aiwl (Iccttng life totore. 
ir id the *«< the Riiitgtcil ^irU yoaraai. 
The cons«Kn» picccf to Iheif feltotvi luuie i 
Again tbe^ ^Mj juin, ibcir whole com [lOKi 
Movcubtforcf norliji: nor v*^ur lose. 


Between Ihc spines, and disposed in a tontiniicil 
longitudinal series on thc^veral dixisionti or regions 
of the iliell, are an infinite number ot" 4*erj' small fo- 
nmina, communicating uiih an c<]ual number of 
tentacula placed above itiem. These are the instru- 
ments b^ which ihc creature affixes itself to any ob- 
ject, and stops its motions. They arc possessed of 
a very high degree of contractile power, and arc iur- 
niahed at tbe extremities with an cipani^ilc i>art, 
which may be supposed lo operate a« u sphincter, or 
' as the tail of a }ecch, in r;istcning ibc animals se- 
curely lu rucks and other sub^tancc^ lo whicb thejr 
choose to adhere. 

The shell of this animal, when deprived of the 
spines, which often fall off after its denth, isofn pale 
reddish tinge, and the tubercles on whieh the 5pine<; 
arc 6xcd appear bl:c su many pearly protuberances 
on the surface. 

At MarKillc?) and in some olhcr lowus on ihc 
continent, this species is exposed for sate in ilic inAr< 
lacii as oy^iers arc with us, and is eaten boi)ed like 
an egg. It forms an ariicic of food among the lower 
class of people on the sca^uvsta uf many pariiior 


this coontr)-, bat does not seem to have made iti 
way to the tables of the opaleat. The Bomau 
adopted it, and dressed it with vinegar, mead, par> 
dev, and mint*. 

• Slav'i Nat. Bfi( vii. ub.S23. Bubut*i GeB.Vcna< 
— Sloiae. ii. «67.— Pena. Briu Zod. W. p. tfB> 




THESE shells are fixed at the base, and coriMst 
tC more than iwo unequal and erect valves. Thfi 
antnlal that inhabits them U similar to one inhabiting 
Submarine rocks, that Linntcus has placed lO tbfi 
last OTdtT, under the name of Tr//o«. 

The two shells of Iht* tribe that arc best known 
are Ibc Common Bcntac!e\t which is found adhering 
in vast numbers to rocks, and to oyslen and other 
fcliell-fish ; and the Coae BernaiifX, •o well known 
from Ihc fables of its producing (be Bi-rnacle G<iose. 

The animaU contained in these shells, as wcW ta 
!h those of all the olhi-r speclca, have twenty-four 
6law8 or tcniacula, all joined in pair-i Aenr the bot- 
tom, and in!%rtcd in one common base. The twelve 
longcat stand fiomewhat creel and arched, arising 
from the bark part of the animal ; they appear like 
to many yellow curled feathers, clear, horny, and ar- 
ticulated : every joint i-t furnished with two rows of 
hars on the concave side. They arc of use in catch- 
ing prey, and the animals are continually extending 
and contracting these arched hairy claws, wbkih 
ficrre aa a net. 

*TiM LiniM»nOTd«t-afTt*T*c«o(i*AHiitAi.«,or&iiiiib-r>M, 

eoamenccs here. 


THE rnocAs TaiBB. 

The twelve smallest are placed, six on each side, 
in the front of Ibcsc. 'J'hey arc more pliable and 
more thickly set with hairs than the oibers and Eccin 
to perromi the office of hands. 

The inirik or proboscis ri»c» from the middle of 
Ihc base of llic larger clawg, and is longer than any 
ol ihcm. This llie animal moves wiih prcat agility 
in nny direction i it is tubular, transparent, and 
cotnjiuscd of rings lessening gradually to the cxlre- 
mily, where it is aurrounded wilh n circle of tnull 
bristles, which are likewise moveable. Along ihe 
inside of thi^ tratisiidrcnl pruboAcif appears the »pinl 
dark-coloured tuiigue, which is extended and cm* 
traded at pleasure. 

The mouth, formed not unlike a contracted ptine, 
is placed in front between the .smaller claws, within 
the folds of which are six or oghl homy lamiox or 
creel teeth. Under this lie the stomach, intestines, 
and tendons, by which the animal adheres to tbe 

The Goose Bemaclcs consist each of five shelb, 
Tbcy adhere in clusters to ihe bottoms of vessels and 
old limber, by means of luhc$ that to appearance arc 
likciomc- al'lhc Corallincsf- 


THE Pholast has a shell of two valves, that open 
widely at each end, with several lesser ones at the 

• EB« on Benu^«, l-hll. Trtn. toI. I. p. B45. 



hinge. The liinjEts are folded brick, and united by 
tt curtilage t and in tbc infitde, licncticli tite l)in|!:ra 
there is sn incurved looth< The animal conlnincd 
in this »hcll is cilicd an jlsciJia, 

Tlic tiiiimiils of this tribe* |n:rforatc cl»y, sjKmgf 
' stones, and wood, while very young ; and, ss they 
incrwise in size, they enlarge ihcir habitation u-iitiin, 
snd thus brconie imprisoned. I'hey are alwars 
found bc)ow hi^h-walcr mark, and a roa<^ of rock 
may sometimes be s^en wholly perforated l>y tlicin. 
They hive two oriliccs or openings capable of cton- 
gscion in the manner of a proboscis : one of thcfo 
M siip}xi9cd lo be the mouth, snd has the fnculiy of 
lipnu ting water. Most of them contain a iihoFpho* 
rcsccni Irquor, of p-eat brilliancy in ilic dark, which 
nlso illuminates whatever it touches or happens to 

_ ftll upon. 

K From the foHoiving specieft the character of nearly 

Thin is an oblonp- ^^lcII, inarkc<l wjih fotncwhat 

9|MncHis strifjcs. When full growtt, it is aUhic un 

joch and a <iuancr lonj^f, and near five inches bto*J. 

P It is of a whitish colour, and, In cxicrnal iipprar> 

ancc, has a di:ftant meinblancc to a Muscle. 
K The great puwera of penctraitan of these animals, 
■ comiiarcd with their ap|Kirent imbcrilJiy, have ju^^ily 
rxeiicd the astonishment of philosophers and natu* 
ralikta in alt ages. When divested of their slicll 


* Pholi* ^KtyWs, LinK. 



ihcv aic rountlish and aafl. i^tlh no iitstnimcnt 
seems in the iesst fined for boring inio ninnesvbich 
thcT are tnon-n to du, or even far penrrraiingtlH 
sotiesi substance They are, inripcd, «nnli Jtirpished 
vitb two iccth ; but ihcM arc filienl in ^^ucb a fitu< ■ 
•UAA ai til be incajable of loucbuig ll>e hollow rar. ^ 
fcec of thdr Mony dwelling*. They hate aliio hro 
eornen to ihcir shell*, that open und «htit at eitbcv ■ 
end; but these are totally unserricciible to themti ■ 
tniiicT'. The Initrunwnc witb whtch ihry pahim 
all their Df>cnirion!>, nnd by mcinsof which ihcybory 
llmnscW-o i i che h«nte»l rockr:, is onlj a bnad 
Ikthy subMincc, soncwlut rcMinbling a toogne, 
thai is seen issuing fnocn Ibc bodom of the shdL 
With this soA yielding inf^trumenl, while je( youag 
and small, they work their way into the substaticeaf 
the stont, and ihcy enlarce chcir nparlment as ttieiT 
increasiDg auec renders it necessary. 

The seeming untitDCSS, hov ever, of tbu animal 
for penetrating into rocks, and there forming a bifct- 
latlon. b«» indac<d many philosophers to suppose 
that [hey colercd the rock nrhite it was j-ct in a soft 
aintc, and, from ihc pcmfying (juality of the vbIov 
that the whole rock aftcnrird hardened round ibeoi 
by dqiretiL. This op'ntun, however, bus been coa> 
fulcd. in a very nattsfnrioty mannor, by Dr. Bohatbt 
wbo obecrKd thai many of the piUars of Ihe tem- 
ple of Senpi» at PotM^i were penetrated by then 
anitBaliL Whenee hejosily eonrludes that tbcPho. 
Itida rmast have pieroed info them aAcrtbey were 
erected; fir no wucLman would have laboured a 
pillar tovo (onn, lA \\. V*iX \wc* \«w!?i'^w«.iaRA. ' 





worms in the c^tinrry. In slK>rt, thci'C can be no 
doubt but ihjit the pillars were perfectly sound wbeo 
erected, and thai ibesennimnlsntlackcd them during 
the lime in which ibcy continued buried under uater. 
from the earthquake that swillovveii up the ciry. 

From hence ir appears that, ia all nature, there is 
not a grnatLT instnncc of perseverance and patience 
than wh:it this animal is seen to exhibit. KurniKhed 
with the bluntest and ^flest au^r, b^r slow suceefr- 
sive apf>lications, it effects tvhat other animals are 
incapable of pcrlbrining by torcc, penetrating the 
hardest bodies with onljr its tongue. When, while 
yet very small, it has effected on entrance and 
buried its btKty in llw sioiiCi it there continues 
for life atitscasc; the ica-rtater that enters at the 
litlle aperture sir'- - - ir with luxurious plenty. 
Upon this seeming... :, :i diet it fiy degree* grows 
larger and larg^er, and soon linds itself under the ne> 
ceasity of incre^ising the ditnensionB of its habitation 
and its khell. 

Tlie motion of the PboIa$ ti slow beyond concep- 
tion } its progress kct.']'ti pace with the growth of its 
body ) and, in proportion as it becomes lttrg;er> it 
makes its way further in;o the rock. When it has 
got a certain way in, it (hen turns from its former 
direction and hollon's donnwarti; till at labt, when 
it!i habitation is cotnpletetl, ibc uhole apsrimcfic ic- 
eembles the bowl of a lobHcco-pipe ; the hole in the 
gbank being that by which the atmnal entered. 

Thus immured, the Pbolas lives in darkuc-s, in- 
duicncc, and plenty ; it never remove? from the nar- 
row mansion into which it has penc\raic»i ■, »t\\,%ACssA 


pcrtrctif oontcat witb being indoRCt) in its onm «i' 
pulcbrc TIic innos of the sca-valcr ^t cntcnt bf 
its linle pllcry aatisAes all its nncs ; and. wiiboat 
anv oihcr food, it Js found to grow from 6vc to e^ 
|;inc!)C3 lon^ . .in(l thick in j>riipanian. 

Yet Ihc I'botas, thos»hut up, is not m soliisryan 
kniinal a& would at timt njijKmr • for ibaitgh it a tni- 
mared in its hole, u-itbout cgrcai, ibough ii u impos- 
bble ibr the animal, grotvr toa great size, co get ont 
hj the wajr it nade to get in, yet tnnn}- of tliU kind 
often ioctH ill ihc heart of (be rank. ; And, like tni- 
orrsin asiegc(wIio <omct!ntC5 cross c;ich olher'apl- 
f), tlicy frequently break in ujx>n raich otha'» 
rvlrcath Tbcy an; cuininonly found in grciil i)iu» 
bcr5 in ihe same mck, and somecimcs above iwcaty 
arc discovered witbin a fevr incbo of each other. ■ 

llm nniiiinl is found in the grcalesl rjuanlil^ ot i 

kncrma in Italy* it is found uUo along Ihc aborts 

>f NurmandyandPoicou, in France, and upoti some 

>f the cosftts of fcoibnd. It is in gctieral comi- 

dered as a eery great delicacy at the tablet of the 


THK razor.she;.ls' 

THESIi shells are bivalve, obluog, in iitapcMHOc- 
«hai rescfTtbling the handle of a r3zor, and v\ri 
at but 1) ends. The hinge haa a small Jind Uurp re- 





ileclcd tooth, somelinirs double, not inserted into the 
op|)OMie valve. Tlic animal is siinilnr to tlial of tUe 
Jast tribe. 

^iuiiy of the bivslt'ed shell-nshes have the power 
of pcrTonriing a prc^ctu>ivc or retrograde molioiii 
by an instrument ihnt has some rciictnblanco lo a 
leg or foot, and callc<l ilic iongua. But the present 
animals can, iit (pleasure, tnaku thld a^suinu almost 
every kind of form, as Ihcir exigences re<niirc. By 
thii tongue they urc not only enabled to creep, lo 
citik into the mud, or disengage themselves from it, 
but lo perfonn a motion which no one could suppose 
thdJ-fKbcs were capahle of perlbrining. 

All ihe species of Razor-shells are incap3b!e of 
progressive DKilion on the surface ; but titcy dig a 
hole or cell in the sand, sometimes tno feet in 
depth, in which they can ascend or descend at plea- 
Bure. The insiruincnl or tongue, by which ll>cf 
pcrlbrm all ihcir motions, is ^ilnatcd at the centre. 
It is fleshy, cylindrical, and lolcrahty toag. When 
necessary, the auimaUcan maVe the tcrmioatinn of 
the tongue assume the form of a bjll. The Razor- 
fish, vrlien lying on the surface of the sand, and aiwut 
to sink into it, cxiends its tongue from the inferior 
cndoClhe shell, and mak.cs ihc cxtrcmily of it take 
the form of n shovel, sharp on each side, and termi- 
nating in n point. W'itI' iSin instrument the animal 
cut» a hole in the sand. After the hole is m.idc, it 
advances the tonf^ue still furiher into the land, mnkex 
il JumiiDC the form of a hoot, and with lbi» hook, a« 
a fulcrum, it obligea \\\q shell to de5cend into the 
bole. Id this manner ihr animal g^n\c& ^ \\\% 


Afl\ toUlI; disappear*. When ic chooces to nf^n 
iti* Hirisce, it puts the icrininatto» ofthc tongue into 
Cbe slupe of a ball, and makes an efiurt to eicend 
die wbole too^uc: biU the ball prevents anjr liirtber 
deaccni. and the oitiscular rflbri neccsniily pmhes 
tbe &hcU upvard till it reaches Ibe Korface, or lop of 
the bole It 18 amazing with wliat dcxieril^ and 
qaidtnesa ^ these aeemingly awkvanj motitxu i tc „ 
perfomed. ^^fl 

It is rcfnarkaUe that the R^xor-lidh, ilioogb r< liv^^ 
Id call wntcr, ibbors salt. When a little mil k 
tbruwn inio the bole, ibc anttnnJ instantljf ()irits hit Jl 
habitation. But ii t$ still more remarkable that, if fl 
the aoiaisl w oocc sdaed with the haad, and oAer- 
wanU allowed to retire into its ocll> salt will Iboi 
be streuvd in vain, for the fUh will never agno 
make ii!^ nppeannce. If ii be not handled, bjr ap- 
plying salt the animal may be made to coow to liic 
eorface » otten as a person pleases : and BAermta 
oAen make u^e of this strac^em. This conduct 
indirates morcrcoollection ihnn one would hat-ebcen 
toctined la expect trom on animal so low in the 
order oC nature es a Razor-fi^b. 



THE 0\5iert are bivalve shcU.fieb, bavinp the 
nlvcs jTcnentity uitequal. The hinge is without 
teeth, but furnished with a somewhat oval cavity, 
■nd tiu>>tVy Miiv\i WwtA M*M«tT^ igwivct. 




From a wmilarity in ihc structure of llic Mnge, 
the Oysters utid Scullops have been united into one 
tnl>c. Bui they dilFcr very csstiilially, both in their 
habits, and in llicir external appearance. The Oys- 
ters adhere to rucks, or, as in two or three species; 
to rout^ of trees on the shore j while llic Sc^jllopa fire 
always iletocheiJ, and usually lurk in the sand. 


These Oysters inhabit the Europeaa and Indian 
seas, and arc well known as a palatable and nuinlious 
food. Most of our coasts produce them in great 
abundance, but the coasts chiefly celebrated arc 
those of Essex and Sufiblk. Here they are dredged 
up by means of a nel, with an iron scraper at the 
mouth, that is dragged by a rope from a boat, over 
the beds. As soon a& taken from their nntive beds 
they are stored in pits formed for the purpoiac, for- 
niihed with sluices i through which, at the spring 
tides, the water is uitfered lo flow. This water, 
being stagnant, soon beco<nc3 green in warm wea- 
ther, and in a few days afterward the Oysters acquire 
the same tinge, which rcndcrit them of greater value 
in the market : but they do not acquire ihcir full 
quality, and become fit for sole, till the end of six 
or eight weeks. 

The priocipa] breeding- time of Oysicns U \a April 
sod May, when they ca&l tlieir spawn, ox spau^ at 
the fishermen call ihcm, upon roe;ks, stones, >hell<i, 
or any other hard substance that hapjKns to be near 

roL. ttt. 

* Oitrea edutii. Ijim. 



the pUcc ivlierc they lie, to which the spats inrmoii- 
ately adhere. These, till they obcain their film or 
crtist, arc somewhat tike a drop of a candle, bat are of 
a greenish hue. The subKtances to which they ad* 
here, of whatever nature, are called culteh. From 
the spawning.Iirne till ifaout the end of July the 
Oysters arc Mid to be sick, but by the end of Au- 
gust they become perfectly recovered. During that 
months tlvcy are ouf ofscasoo, and are bad eating. 
Thin it* known, on in»pection, by the male having 
u bUck and the female a milky substance ia l&e 

The Oyster fishery of our principal coasts » r^o- 
Kited hy a court of admiralty. In the month of 
M.iy Ihe litihormen are allowed to take the 0>-^eis, 
in order fo separate the spawn from the cultch, ibe 
latter cf which is thrown in again to presen-e the 
Ix'd for [he futare. Af\cr this month it is felony to 
carry awny the ciiltch, and othemise pimishablc to 
tukc any Ojsicr, between whose shells, when closed, 
a shilling will raille. The reason of the Itcjiry [»- 
nalty on destroying the cultch i») that when tbisia m 
taken away, ihc ousc will increase, and muscln and ~ 
cockles will breed on the bed and destroy the O)* 
tent, from gradually occupying all the phcca oo 
which the spawn shoiitd be cast. There is likcirife 
some pcnaltjp for not (rending on, and killing, or 
ihronioj; on shore, any Slar-Jith (Asterias of Iis> 
mctis'i that happen to be seen. These, when col- 
Jecicd in any numbers, are very destructive to the 
OysIcrUcdtt, \v\>cruv\^ their mys as ihc abeth lit 


THfi SOIBLB tffsfir. 


FTSt fMtlf ft«f CT««i« on witb full il«:«!t, 
» To fat«e the ftom bis doM MlrtHt. 
I When gapini; liiJs IbcJr witlen'il void iitpiiy. 
The watcbi'ul Sur lhru»ls in a potalcd nj, 
Of all itt Irciiurci tpoll* Ihe rifl«() cue. 
And empty fhclU tbc nndy hitlixkt gnce*. 
Oysters arc nut reckoned proper (or tlic Cable til) 
tbcy arc about a year and lialf oM ; so that the brood 
of one spring are not to be taken for sale till at least 
the September twelve months aftcrwarrl. When 
younger than these happen to be caught in the 
drodgc, they are always thrown into the sea again. 
The luhcnnen know the age of O^alvri by the 
broader di&taiices or intcrsticesjimong the rounds 
or rings of the convex shell. 

tThc Oysters in the pits of courK always lie loose, 
but on their native beds they arc in general 5xcd 
(from the time they arc castj by their under shell ; 
snd their goudnoss is said (o be matt:ri:dly altl'Cicd 
by their being laid in the ;>it8 with the flat shell 
downward, not being able in this pwiiion to retain 
sufHcicnt water in the shell furthfair support f. 

• The French a&sert, but apparently without proof, 
that the English Oysters, which are esteemed the 
best in Europe, were originally procured from Con- 
, callc Bay near St. Malo. 
■ With r^;ard to the locomotive faculty of the 

* Joaefi Oppiin. The aniitnU Kem to lure been ignorant 
that Olsten vn utuiUy found ailbrrcoir tad u twiit. 
M -t- H»k. on the Dmdinj ^r Colcliciter Ojaicti^ M3S. In Brit. 
VMui. Ay*. Cil. No, 343* 49- — Toite oa dte Gencrdit»n nnJ Or- 
dtrifijcfColcbcUcrOjEtcif, Spnt'* Elutor; u( the R<oi^>!L ^w;\a'^ > 



Oyster, when detached from its n«(ivc rocks or tubi- 
tatton (which is a subject of curioas investigation), 
every one must have observed that this cannot tike 
1^ place, in the usual way of other bivalves, by nteani 
of a foot, for such an appendnge is in it altogetlicr 
wanling. Tlie Abb^ Dicqnemaire, who atteitttcd 
minutely the manners of these as well as nf wveral 
other marine animals, assures us that they have a 
'power of moving ihcmsclvcs. and this by the sinpi- 
[lur efF(>n of ejecting water wttb considerable force 
from their shells. They thus arc ab'c either lotbror 
thetn^elvcs backward, or to start aside in a laienH 
direction. lie says that any person may amuse 
himself with I he sifuirting and moltonsof Oysters, 
by putting them in a plale placed in a horizootal 
position, which contains as moch sca-walcr as '&i 
sufficient to cover them. 

The Oyster has bcffn represented by many aull 
as an animal destitute not o»Iy of motion but 
every species of sensation. The Abb^ Dicqut 
however, has &hown that it can perform inovemcot^f 
perfectly consonant to its wnnU, to the dangers it 
apprehends, and to the enemies by which it a at* 
tacked. Instead of being destitute of sensation. 
Oysters arc even capable of deriving some knowledge 
from experience. When removed from ntuationt 
that are constantly covered with the sea. from want 
of experience ihcy 0|)en tlrf^ir sheilas Iom their wster,j 
and die in ■ few days. Gut, uhen t.ikcn from hiib.' 
lar »tuation<;, and laid down in places from wbkhj 
the sea occasionally retires, they fifl the cfiect ofl 
ihc 6Un'$ ta)%, or o\ Cemi ^<i -m(, qc y^baps apprt- 


hcnd the attaclis of enemies, and accordingly Icam 
to keep their shells close till the tide returns*. 

»0)srers breathe by n)c<ins of gills. Tlicy draw 
the water in at their mouth, a smnll opening in the 
upprr part of the body, drive it down a long canal 
that coiiMit tiles the biisc of the gills, and so out 
again, retaining ihc air for (he necessary futictions of 
the body. Thus their ejecting of water seems to 
serve the double |>ur[iosc of aiding the motion of 
such as are loose, and of supplying the animaU with 

The Scallop has the power of progressive motion 
upon land, and likewise o( swimming on the surface 
of the water, When thi& animal happens to bo 
dctcricd by the tide, it opens its shell to the full c%- 
^teni, then &hiits it with a sudden jerk, by which it 
often rises five or six inches from ihc ground. In 
this manner it tumbles forward till it regains the 
vatcr. When chc sea is calm, troops or little fleets 
of Sralto|is nro often observed switnining on the 
surface. They ts'ife one valve of their shell above 
the surface, which becomes a kind of sail, while (he 
other remains on the water, aitd answers the pur. 
pose of a keel, by steadying the animal, and thus 
preventing its being overwl. When an enemy ap- 
proaches, they instani'y friiui their t-hclls, plunge to 
the bottom, and the whole fleet disappears, By 

* JDaru) dc ThjBu{ue. 
> CrtMl Snlhp. Ptnii. 

-\vLKm wKuaMft. 

mc EOiau MCSOLE. 

enabled to regaia the gi, 



-ibc isdisti- ! by the jt 

-^'^ - -iiboul aoy loou! m ibc hinge, bt^ 

'^t-^*-:^ . — ...Dge marked with a loagitudiDal hol- 
. i aad by the aairoal's being generally fUcd 
aoir.c mbftauce by a b}'Ssus or »ilky beard. 
Someol'tbc Mu.s:!cb penetrate bto tbe interior of j 
Icarcoiu rocks, where they reside out of thcicuh 
^pf danger. Othcr« ndhcrc by their beard to cbe eir 
tenor of rocls or stones ; aod so very tenaciots h 
I cir boJd ihal, in the Urgcr species, they caooot be 
fieponted without conbiderablc excrlion. Onespfrj 
cJc» B gaihcrcd from the dtjiths of (he sen, by divcrii 
lined for the purpose, on Bccuunt of ihe pearh thit ' 
^•rc found fthhin ihe f-htll*. Of ihcsc the tatieot 
Komaos Were CJrtramgoinly food. " II is not eoough 
^Xwy* Pliny) 10 dtijiuil ihc «ea of its riches, in order 
gor^ our appetites; wc muitt likcwtJCj both roea 
td fcorncn, cany (hem about oo our bands, in oaf | 
K, upon our headii, and on our whole body." 


This species is found adhering to rocks both in, 
the European and Indian scasj but il graw$ (04 
much greater size between the Tropics than north- 1 


ward, ft abouods nn the British sborc<4, tielno- nnc 
of the commoiicst ol' all our shells. 

All ihe Muscles liart, for an inslroment of mo- 
tion, a tongue or foot capable of consi^Jeniblc clou- 
gaiion, and a]f>o of being shortened inia ihc uwm €tf 
a heart. This is morkcJ with « longiluilinal furrow, 
and complcicly enveloped in a slu^th furnicd of 
transverse and circular fibrrs of an obscorL* par[^o 
colour. When the animal (eels inclined to chnn^TC 
its place, it ihrutts the toot out of ibc shell, and 
raises itself on its cdgej then, by reaching tht^ Ioa> 
great n distnncc ns it will extend, it usck it afr a kind 
of arm, drawing the body up toil, niul thus it pro- 
ceeds till it has foiimla convenient (itualion. rfthe 
Mufcio be incliDcU to make this \h residence, the 
tt}strumont of iis motion is n6w put to a very dif- 
ferent enip!oymen!» in spinning those sitfcy thread* 
that fit it Hrmly lo (lie «put ; and, lite o ihtp at an* 
chor, enable it to brave all theagitationn of the water. 
This it accomplishes by sizing' with its point ifae 
gluten supplied by a gland uluatcd utKtcrils base, 
and dfaninjr it out, through the ftirrow, into thrcaJa. 
Wlicn Ihc Muscle tslhus fixtxl it lives upon the little 
earthy particles, or n]mn the bodies of sucli sirHiller 
animals as the water tmnsporls to its shells. 

The present Muscle is generally esteemed a rich 
and wholesome food ; but to Aomc constitattons it 
often occasions disorders, the sytnptoma of which nre 
grvat swellings, eruptions of blotches or pitnplei, 
shortness of brcnth, connilsirc motions, and some* 
y^ times even delirium. A remedy that hn** been r«- 
I commended U two spooiu>(uU o( o\\> %vv^ *^^^ ^ 





jiDoe (or, in want of ibis, about tvo oT vint- 
^) dtdoea well togetber, and swalluwcfi u »oon n 
Mj of ihe qp mp ^o m s take fdace. This unwhul«ofBe 
qwfilf has been attributed lo a small £))eciL>s ofrnb, 

[the dwaa" jifMB of LinniEUS, ibat somelimes » fcntDd 
ia the shdU of the reu^te. It seems, however, not 

|lo have its seal ia aoy thing essential to the musdef 

jlbr, vbenacddenls of this kind have happeoed.tame 
have beea afFccied, sod othcr> have no^ 

'vfao hare caieo at the same time, and at least n 
eqvil qoutitjr. 


The PeaH Muacle has a flailencd and nearly ortn* 

'calar riidl, about eight incJm long, and soinewhic 

more in breadth. Tbe colour of the exterior is vaf 

nrknstbeiag in9atneiadi?icliulssea-preen, inoiben 

cfaoDUt, or eveo bbom cc^ur, with white rays, and 

limes «hitis]i, with green rayi. The youog ^kelll 

'incacniblc Scallops, having ears as long as the shell. 

Tbe Pcati is a calculus or morlud ooncnrUoo, 
vliid) h produced not only in this but goniciimca 
even in ibc Common Oysters and Mu^clcat but ia 
ihese it is generally very small, and of little rolue^ 
It is fbund both iu the body of the animal and ia 
the sbcIU on the uutside of the body. 

Tbo priociful fishery foe peath is on tbe cossi of 
Ttoevelly, in Eastern HindoNlan, where Ibc nali^it 
find ihem of sitch conimercial imjxtriance as Vt em- 
ploy in the &hery ^rcral hundrrde of small vesaeb. 
Xhe iicarl^ arc V»Veti. iXVwo «c*&ons o( ' ■ -r, ia 

March sad April, and agaia in August and Septein- 
brr. They do not, bowe^-er, fish e^-cry ycjr ; for iC 
u^on trial, tbey do not find ibe pearls sufficicnlly 
mltiable. tbey abstain till the ensuiag xasoo, to allow 
tbem tifDC to it>crea$e ibeir s-izc 

A conl ts fastened under the arms of the divers, 
and held by Ihe persons in the ; aod, to acc^ 
lemte tbeir descent, the divers have a pcrfbraled 
stone of eighteen or twenty pounds weight tied with 
a cord to their great toe. Each of them b a)^ fur* 
Diabcd with a sack, that has the moulh distended by 
a hoop. They then descend, nnd, on reaching the 
bottom, slip off the stone, which is drawn up, and 
lUl their sack with shells. When this is full they 
give a signal by pulling the rope, and they arc then 
drawn up by Ihc men in the boats. 

The cicpih of the water is twenty or ttiirly yard*, 
and the distance from fhure four or f)t-e leagues. 
Mbcn drawn up ibcy rcat eight or ten minules, to 
recover ihetr breath, and then plunge in ngiiin i and 
s »ucccesion uf men continue ihiit aliivtsh employment 
for ten or twelve hours every <lay. The shells are 
left in vast heaps to putrefy till the season is ovtT. 
The gains of the adventurers arc often wnall, as the 
succeta is very precarioof. Great iwarls are but 
seJdom found, and the grncraliiy of what arc taken 
are of the smaller kind, called Seed Pearls, which are 
5o!d by lie ounce to be converted into powder. 

The jhcJJs arc fotmd adhering to the coral banlu. 
Num' CTS of sharks lurk about Ihe diving-plact 
which often devour the ]«oor adi-entwrcrs*. 

[ -570 ] 


IN this tribe (be shell is univalve, spiral, InrotW, 
and mcmbranaccoti^!, with ooly a^»ngle cdl. 


lichis «ix or eig^ht iiicbt.'s in length, and but little 
either thicker or stronger than papsr, is found Id ibe 
MoHiterrancan Sea, and in tbe Indian Ocean. It ii 
tiif* famous tvautilas of the anticnts, and is 8oppo«>(d, 
in ifac carijT ages of society, to have fumtshed (he 
origiual ides of navigation: 

LcAm of ih« Uitk Nauliloi to uti, 

SfTcad tbe Ihln oar, a&O citck the drinug gik. 

When it means to sail, it discharges a (juantity 
water from its shell, by wliich it is rendered lighter 
than the surrounding medium, and of course rises to 
tbe surface. Here it extends two of its arms upward, 
which are each furnished at their extremity with an 
oval membrane that scn-es as a sgiK The other m 
arms hang over the sides of the shell, and supply tbe 
place either of oars or rudder. 

Two feet ihey upwatd tax, and ttmly k«pt 
I'bcKare Ihc muu tod ligjiogoribc ifaip. 
A mcmbniie itretchM bctv(«n Rip))lic« Ui« uil, 
Gendi ffotn ihe tnuii, »nd twetU btfon the gali. 
The olber feet bang paddling on rub aide, 
And icrve for oan lo row, and lulm to gtuds. 
*Tia Ibua tbtf Mil. plcu'd vith, tha wuten gunc, 
Tlie fiita, Ihc mXott tad tbe ship the nmt. 


THE FAre* N.\UT1^U8, OR ARGOSAUT. ^71 

Bit, wbcn tbe ■wimmcn drcW *oaM <iiiiser rtev, 

Tbe sjiofim plunire jicids to etron^ci fear : 

Uo Rvorc lbc)r wutoo ilri>e bcfLKc the Uj^ti, 

But (Irittc (he Mttf, and tirtiig duvn «ll ih« matu. 

IHk tolling iviwi tk«tr tonking thtUl nnflow. 

And duh ibem dowa agsia lo and* licloMr. < t 

In some places, when tbe sea is not agitated by 
uinrU, great numbersof thwcMngiilnrcrcaiurcs may 
sometimes be seen diverting themselves hy sailing 
about in this mnnncr; but as soon ss .1 storm rises,, 
or any thing gives them disturbance, lliey retract 
their arms, take in as niiicli water a» renders thcin 
KOtncwhat heavier than that in which llieysnlm, and 
then sink to the bottom. Several of ihcm were dj. 
served by M. Lc V'aillanl on the sea ne;ir ihc Cape of 
Good Hope ; and, ns he was desirous of obtaining 
perfect specimens ot* I he shells, he sent some of his 
|)copTc into the water to catch them : but, when (he 
men had got their hands nithin a certain distance, 
Ihey always instantly sank, and, with all the art that 
eniild be employed, they were not able to lay hold of 
a *ingle one. The instinct of the aniinal showed 
itself superior to all their subtlety ; and, when their 
disappointed mooter called them away from tlidr at- 
tempts, tlicy expressed themselves not a little cha- 
grined n( being outwitted by a slicll-n^h*. 

This species, which is the rcui N;uitiliis of the 
anticnts, is rot to be confounded with the Cham- 
bered or Pearly Nautilus, which belongs to a diflc- 
rent tribe, and bears very ttctlc resemblance to the 
present, either in its construction or habits.— -The 

.* It VutUot't Nn Irvtdh \. ivj. 


animal, if seen detached from its shell, might be 
misraken for a S^pia, bearing so great a rewmbUnre 
lo Ihc &J>Ja Ocicf^uj, or Eight-armc<l CaUle-fithj that 
its principal ti'iRkrtnce consists only to the shape of 
those arms that are used as mh* 


THE Snails have a spiral and mmewhat pcHuoJ 
shell, the aperture of which is roundish. Their bo- 
dies, in general construclioHj arc similar lo those of 
the Siugf. 

The wise Author of Nature has denied (olheie 
animaU the U!ie of (eel and cla^vs to enatiie ihem to 
more &om place to place, but he has raide ibem 
ample amends in a way more commodlouB to iboir 
habits and mode of life, b^ tbc broad ekin along 
each side of the belly, and the power of motion that 
this po.sscs6CS. By this motion they are enabled to 
creep, and by the »kin, assisted with Ihc glutmouf 
«lime emitted from their body, they adhere firmly 
and securely even to the smoothest surfaces. 

When the Snail is in motion, four horns are di- 
stinctly seen proceeding from it^ head ; but the two 
uppermost and longest of these dc*er\e peculiar con- 
sideration, bolh on account of the various motion* 
with tvhich they are endued, and also from ihctf 
having eyes fixed at the extreme ends of ihcm. 
These appear \Cnz \«o \>\a*:V\i'ft yoluts^ and when 
taken from theboA^- ate ol * WCoowa S\.-^\t:, "W^i 

bnve but one coat ; and tlic vitreous, the aqueous^ 
and ihe crystalline huinours are (though not very 
<1istinct1y) to be seen. These eyes the ariimal can 
direct to dittercnl objeeta at plea^iurc, by a r^ttar 
motion out of ibc body ; nnd soinciimcs it hide* 
them, by a very swiA contraction into the belly. 
Under the smaller horns is (he animal's mouth ; and 
though its substance may appear too soU to be fur- 
nished with Icelh, yet it has no fewer than eig-ht. 
With these it chews leaves and other substances 
seemingly harder than any part of its own body ; 
and with these it even sometimes bites ofi' pieces of 
its own shell. 

The Snail, when its shr^ll is broken, has a power of 
mending it. Sometimes the animals are seemingly 
crushed to pieces ; and, to all appearance, utterly 
destroyed; yet still they set themselves to work, and 
with the slimy substance that they force from their 
bodies, which soon hardens, they in a few days mend 
all their numerous breaches. All the junctures, how. 
t:ver, are very easily seen ; for these have a fresher 
colour than the rest, and the whole «hcll in some 
measure resembles an old coat patched with new 
pieces. They are sometimes seen with eight or ten 
of thcve patches. Still, however, though the animal 
has the power of mending its shell, it cannot, when 
come to its fidl growth, make a new one. — Swam- 
tncnlam tric«l the eipcriment. He stripped a snail 
of its shell, without injuring any of Ihc blood-vessels, 
retaining that part of the shell where the muscles 
were inserted : but it died in three days after it lost 
its coveting; uot, however^ wUhouv m^Vvn^ <5SoA& 



to build up a new shell t far, before t(s dealh, it 
pressed out a certain membrano round the wbote 
surface of Its body. This membrane was entire); of 
the Rbclly ntture, and \vns intended, no duubt, b$ a 
mpply toward a ne%v one. 

The following in«tnnce<t of tenacity of life in $n»\h 
are well authenticated, and probalily without pandld 
ill any other dii^ision of the animal creation. 

'Mr. Sittckey Simon, a merchant of Dublin, whose 
father, n fellow of the Royu! Society nnd a Uwct of 
natural tiistorv, left to bim a nmall collection of 
fossils and other eiirio-^ilies, had atitonp ibetn the 
shells of some snails. About jJ/Vrmj-nrrj after his 
feiher's dcaih (in whose possesion they rontinned 
many years) he by ehancc javc to his son, t 
child about ten years old, some of these stiail-shellfl 
1o pl-iy with. The boy put them into a flotver-pot, 
which he filled with water, and the next day into a 
bason. Having occasion to use this, Mr. S. obserred 
that the animals had come out of their shells. He 
examined the child, who assured bim ibat tbcy were 
the same he hatl pvcn him, and said he bad also a 
few more, which he brought. Mr. S. put one of 
these into water, and in an hour and a half after 
observed that it had pnc out its horns and body, 
which it moved but slowly, probably from wenlcnesi. 
Major Valiancy and Dr. Span were afterward pre^ 
sent, and tiaw one of the snails crawl out, the others 
beinp; Head, roost pfobably from their hnvinjj re- 
maint-d some days in the water. Dr. Qutn and 
Dr. Ruliy also examined (he li»ing snail several 
liiilerctlt timeft, »t\4 Victft ■^teAX^ \Veased to lee him 




come ont of bis solitary habustion' after so msnj^ 
years confineinenl. Dr. M;irbriHe, and a party of 
gcniJemen at his house, ucre also witnesses of tbisi 
surprising phfcnomenon. Dr. Macbtide has thus 
mentioned the ctrcumiilance : " After the •thell hod 
lain about ten minutes in a gloat of water that had 
the cold barely taken ofT, the snail began to appear | 
and ill five minutca more we pcrrcived half the body 
pushed out from the cavity oi ihc shell. Wc then 
removed i( into a bason, that the snatl might have 
more scope than it had io the glass; and here, in a 
very sbort time, wc saw it get above die surface of 
the water, and crawl up toward the edge of the 
bawn. While it wa>t thus moving about, with its 
horns erect, a ily chanced to be hovering near, and, 
perceiving the snail, darted down upon it. The 
little animal instantly withdrew itself into the shell, 
but as quickly came forth again wht;n it found the 
enemy was gone off. Wc allowed it to wander 
about (he bason for upward of an hour, when we 
returned it into a widc-mouthcd phial, wherein Mr. 
Simon had lately been used to keep ir. He was so 
obliging as to present me with this remarkable shell ; 
and I obsen'cd, at twelve o'clock, a« i was going to 
bed, that the snatl wax still m motion i but next 
morning 1 fjund it in a torpid slnle, sticking to the 
side of the glass." 

A few weeks afterward this »hcll wa« bcnt to Sir 
John Pringle, who showed it at a meeting oi' the 
Royal Society ; but some of the members imagining 
thai Mr. Simon must have been imposed upon by 
bia son having aubsttluicd fresh shells for ibo^A ^W. 



h»l been given to him, the boy vns re-examined 
by Dr. Macbride on the subject, who dccUrrd tl>at 
be could find no reason lo bclkvc that (be child 
cither did or could im)x>5e upon hi& father. Mr^ 
Simon's hving in the hesrt of the city rendered >t 
almost impossible for the boy (if he had beci> so dit* 
po9e<l) to collect fresh sbdts, being ai that linie om- 
fincd to ibe bouse with a cold. Mr. Simon ba%also 
declared that he is positive those were the ahdls be 
gave to bim, having in bis cabinet many more of the 
same sort, and nearly of (be same »u*. 

In consequence of the account, from which the 
above wns cxiraclcH, appearing in some periodical 
pubhcation, the following letter, bearing every mark, 
of authenticity, was sent by a Mr. Rowe to Ibe edi< 
tors of the Annual Register : be states tl to ban 
been written by a lady, but her name be w^ not it 
liberty to mention. 

" There is, in the lost magazine, an account of 
tbe reviving of some snails which had Iain in Mr. 
Simon's cabinet fifteen years, h it not a most ex- 
traordinary story ? And jet I am not faithless in thai 
point, as m.iny a reader probably is ; for I once sa<r 
a very remarkable properly in snails which gave inc 
such uncnsincss as fixed the remembrance strongly 
in my mind to this minute, though it happened many 
veors ago. 

" 1 ftw at Wnithnm, at Mr. Haddock >, in Kent, 
and wsft muking a little shclUwoik lower, to stand 
oo a cabinet in a long galtrry. After bavtng ro- 






paired (wo small amber temples tograc< the comers, 
I w« desirous of having some od<I pretly ornaincnt 
in front ; and 5ca-shclU rutiiiing short before i had 
Hnisbcd, I recollected hnvingseen some pretty lilllo 
tmuih OB the chalk hills ilnrre ; and wc all went ono 
evening to pick up some, and found Tanety ol" forms, 
ind ctrfours, and mms. We returned home neary 
enough, and longed for tea, though it was wmewhjt 
lace, and a large boiler was brought in, as we M'CTC 
a round company. I was contru-ing how to kill the 
snails in the easiest and most mo-ciful manner, when 
a vrag xaid, ' Slick them on alive ;' at which I shud- 
dered, and called him bruce. At length I gol a 
large china baein, and, putting a handful or two of 
snails into it, 1 filted it up with boiling water; and 
though my heart recoiled at the deed, yet my eager- 
ness lo finish my work next murning conquered my 
compassion. To make sure of giving tny snail* Ibe 
nup^/e-grace, I poured ofTihe first water, and ihen 
filled the bowl again with more out of the hot-boiling 
kettle. I carried the basin into & summer-house in 
Ibe gnrtlcn, whore 1 lovetl to go to work early in a 
morning before my friends were stirring j and ihc 
ncsl morning I arose .sooner I ban common, and went 
into the summer.bousc : but how great waa my sur- 
prise to find my poor snails crawling about, some on 
the edge of the basin, oumc tumbling orcr, some on 
the (able, atid one or two actually eating the pusie 
that was to slick ihem on ! 1 was perfectly shocked, 
and burst into tears, and, picking up every snail 
carefully, carried thejn into a field beyond the gjr* 



(leOi where I make no doubt but they perfectly rc- 
corcrcd tbeirsuUliiigsin boiling water. 

^*I had an abundance of empty shcllsof the same 
kind, but they bad not the beauty of those which 
had anails in thcin. However, I used those only 
which I could apply without cruelty and cotnpunc- 
lion. This I Ihen thought a very surprising crcnlj 
but Mr. Simon's ^naiU, I must confc^A, arc far H>p&- 
rior to mine*." 

From various experiments (hat have been made oa 
snails, it appear? that they arc possessed ol* consider- 
able powers of reproduction. Spaltonsani found 
that the whole head might be cut utTi and that in • 
certain time another would be fonned. 


bee to the iigbl the gentle varrion mtm. 

And iIaxX, with harmku (orct, tbe jhxfl* of loft t 

The mode of breeding, in this and a few other u 
species of snails, is excrcmely curious, and loo wdl fl 
authenticated to be doubted. Ac a certain tiinc of 
the year they meet in pairs, and stationing, tbetn- 
sclrvn an inch or two apart, launch severa] licite 
darts, not quite half nn inch long, at each other.— 
These are of & horny substance, and sharply pointed 
at one end. The onimaU, during Ibe breeding k*- 
son, arc provided with a little lescrroir for ibeta, ■ 
situated within the neck, and opening on die right ' 

* Knn. Beg, Tol. af iU p. Q6. t tiiMa bonesm. Um 



side. On *hc discharge of the first dart the wounded 
snail immediately reluttatcs oa its aggressor by eject- 
ing at it a similar one : the other renews the battle, 
and in turn is again wounded. Thus are the darts 
of Cupid, metaphorical with all the rest of the crci- 
tion, here completely realized in snails. Afler (be 
combat, they come together. Each of them lays il» 
«ggsin some sheltered and moist situation, generally 
under a little clod of tarih, or in some cool cavity. 
The eggs are about the size of small pease, semi- 
transparent, and of a soft substance. From these 
the young arc hatched completely formed, with shelU 
on their backs ; and they undergo no further change 
than what necessarily takes place in the gradual in- 
crease of their size. 

I'hc depredations that these animals commit in 
gardens and orchards are very considerable ; and it 
iii remarkable, that in defect of moist and succuleat 
food, as fruit and tender leaves, ihcy will even at- 
tack substances of a dry and hard nature Th« 
common Garden Snail has been known, when con* 
fined for a single night under i glass of more than 
four inches in diameter placed on a frhcct of common 
blue paper, entirely to devour the whole pajicr con- 
tained in the included space, to ihc very edge of ibc 
glass, so that a circular piece seemed almost as neatly 
taken out as if it bad been marked by a pair of 

• Sfaaw'i Nat. Mii, i. laK jo 
Pp 2 

[ ^8^ 3 


This 'a the largest of all Ibc Land Snails produced 
in this country. It is found in the woods and under 
hedges io NorihamptoDsbirc and some others of ibe 
southern coLiiiltcs. 

At the commencement of winter it carefully closes 
up its shell with a thick while corer, or opercuJam, 
attached to its body, that Just tills up ihc opening, 
and in th!s inclosed state remains til) the commence- 
ment of warm weather, tscldom appearing abroad dll 
about the bcginuiog of April. 

It is large and fleshy, and, when properly cooVed^ 
not unpleasant to the taste. Among the Koman<> it 
constituted n favourite di&h [ but, if the account oT 
Varro is to be credited, ihcy had it of a size intinitelj 
larger than any now known j for this writer ftssuru 
B5 that the shells of some of them would hold ita 
quorU. They kept these animals in what were called 
the Cochharia or Snail Stews. These were generally 
made uuder rocks or eminences whose bottomt>ttere 
watered by htke» or rivers; and if a natural dctv or 
moisture was not found> tbcy formed an artificial one 
by bringing a pipe into the place bored full of boles 
bkea u'alertng'[H)(, through which it wasconlioually 
sprinkled. They required little attendance or food, 
supplying lliemsclvcfi, in a great mcaMire, as they 
crawled about the sides or fioor of Ibeir habitalioo. 




fcvcr, mcy were 
and sudden lees of wine*. 

They are even yet much atlmirerl iu some pari* of 
the Conlirtent, and not ^ilways used from ccbnomical 
motives ^ for at VienDn, Ljt a few years ago, seven 
of Ihcm were charged the Fame at an inn as a plate 
of vcaI or beef. The UMial modes of preparing ilicro 
for the tabic are cither boiling-, frying them in buHer, 
or sometimes stuffing them wich (arce-meat : but, 
in what manner soever they arc dressed, their slimi- 
ncss always in a great measure remains. The greatest 
quantities, and the tipest bnails, arc brought from 
Stiabia. Dr. Browne, who (ravelled to Vienna above 
century ago, remarks that, since the markets wcrt 
BO welt supplied with other provisions, "he was sur- 
prised to meet with some odd dishes at their table."), 
RS Guinea-pigs, and divers sorts of Snails and Tor- 

Dr. Townson was shown at Eriau a snailcry, which, 
the proimclor infcirmed him, was constmoed on an 
Improved plan. In our island, he says, this might 
have had th« denomination of a Paient Snaiiery, or 
Philosophical Snaii-sty. It consisted only of a brgc 
hole, (wo or three feet deep, dug in the ground, 
having a wooden house as a cover. The animals in 
this place were fed on the refuse of the garden, 
which was thrown into themf. 

There seems some doubt as to the original inrro- 
duction oftlicse snails into England: Pennant says 
it wzs by sir Kcnelm Dlgby ; and Da Cosia, that a 

» DaCMU.p.67, f Towojoii'iTiwtXs.viS*^'*'^^ 


Charles Howard, esq., oftbeAruodel family, broa^ 
some of them, in the last century, from Italy, in the 
hopes of rendering them an article of food in this 
country { and for this purpose dispersed them abont 
the woods and downs of Albury, an antient seat of 
that femily, nearBoxhill in Surry. Th^ are now to 
be found in considerable plenty, not only tbere> Iwt 
in parts of the confines of Sussex. 


niE creatures tlial arc ranked under IU'm order 
seem to hold a middle slalion between aniinaU and 
vegetables. Most of them, deprived altogether of 
loccv-motion, are fliLcd by stems that take root in 
crevices of rocks, among sand, or in such other situa- 
ItDDS 83 nature hsii dtistioed for their abudc : these 
by degrees send off branches, till at length some of 
tbcm attain the size and extent oflargc shrubs. The 
Zoophytes are usually considered under two divi- 
sions. The stony branches of the first division, 
which has the general appellation of Coral, arc hol- 
Io»-, and full of cells, the habitations ofanimal^ re- 
sembling Polypes, Medusae, &c., according to liieir 
respective genera. They consist of the Tubipohes, 
Madrrpores, MiLLEPOREa, and CELLitroBes.t 
and arc nearly all confined to che ocean. The ani- 
mals .ip[>car nt the ends of the branclici, where they 
have Kimcwbat ibc resemblance of animated blos- 
soms endowed with considerable s(X)n1aneou9 mo- 
tion. The slem» of some of the Mtlleporcs are 
olmoit boVid, the cells being so extremely small a» to 
be scarcely visible without high magnifying powers. 
Among these is the Mil/efora Poiymorfta, or Offici- 
oal Coral of the shops. 

l"hc next division of the present order con«i*ts of 

Tbii ii llie fount) of tbc lAnnsan Ori^n tA ^ ^tw 



»ucli animals as linvc sofbcr stcmSj und are In gencnl 
not merely inhabitant? of n stem or bnincKcit, bui nre 
tliemsclvcs in the form of a j^lant. Tlto^c best 
known are ibe 0>r»lline4, ibc Sponges, and tfae 

TticCoKALLiMEsarc composed ofcapillary tubes, 
whose extrctnUiCfi pass through a calcareous cnut, 
and ojKn into pores on ibe surface. They arc ea- 
tirely submarine, and, from (lieir branches being 
finely divided and jointed, resembling some specia 
of Lichen, they have, till late years, been arranged 
by botanists with the cryptogntnous plants. In ap- 
pearance they certainly approach very neatly losooK 
of the vegetables; but their calcareous corcfing 
alone IS sufficient ilcinonstration of their being allied, 
in hottcier humble a station, to a more elevated 
order of beings. 

" The Spomges consist of an entirely ramified nua 
6f capillary tubes, 5iip]»»ed by many to be the pro> 
duclion of a si>ecics of tt'orms wliich ate often found 
straying about their ciinticj. Thisideu is now, bow- 
ever, nearly eiploded. Others bnve imagined them 
mere vcgelables. But that they ar« posscsftod of a 
living principle seems evident from the circumstance 
of their alternately contracting and ditatuig ihrtr 
pores, and shrinking in some degree from the touch 
whenever examined in ihcir natitc Waters. Prom 
their siruclurc I hey are capable of abiforhing nnlri- 
ment from tlie fluid in which they arc by nature im* 
mencd. They are tht most torpid of all the Zoo- 
phytes. Tbc *\«.c^c?. tV.fler very greatly from each 
other both in sW^ aivA ttsvicvax^, ^TOR.«i.t cnni,. 


^lUStr. J 



' ^Hkd of rcticiilnled ^br&t or maft>c« ufflBall spines : 
some, as the Gornmon or Offtcinal Sfxinf^c, are of qo 
regular shape ; others arc cup^hafjed, uthcrs tubu- 
lar, &c. 

The O^emil Sponfy u ela»lic, and very full of 
holes : it grows inio irregular lobes of a nooUv con* 
sUleiicef and gcncrolty atibcrcs by a very broad base, 
to the rocks. It is chiefly ibtind about the i.stands in 
the Mediterranean sea, where it forms a consider- 
able ariicle of commerce. A VHriely of small toa- 
nnc nniiDAls pierce anrl gnnw into its irrcgulu 
winding cavilics. Ttiese »p(>ear on Ihc outside^ by 
l«rgc hnles, raised higher than the rest. When il is 
cut pcrpcndicularfy, ihe interior parts arc seen to 
consist of small tubes, which divide into branches as 
they appear on the surface. These tubes, vhicti arc 
composed of rcllculated (ibrcs, extend ihcinsclves 
every way, by this means rticreniting the tuitacc uf 
the H[x)nge, and ending; at the outside in an inlinile 
number of Binall circular holes, which arc the prupcf 
muuihs of the animal. Each of these holes ist sur- 
rounded by a few erect poioled fibrec, that ajipear as 
H" woven in the (arm rf lililc spines. Thot; tubes, 
with their ramilications, in the living state of the 
Ipongc, arc clothed with a gelulinous substaitcc, pru- 
perly called the Besh of the animal. When the 
sponge is tirsl taJicn it has a strong ti>hy smell* and 
the fishcnncn take great care to wasli it pcrfecily 
clean, in order to prevent its growing putrid. 
The PoLTPKs* are gelatinous animals, cunsiscingf 

* Hydta of LumsUE. 



of 8 long tubolAr bodv, fixed ■! the bue, and ffur- 
rounded at the mouth by anns or icnucuU. Tbcf 
arechicny inhabitant of fresh w«tcr», and arcimong 
the most wonderful productioas of niture. The par< 
ticuUrsoflheir life, their mode of propagation, and 
pawers of rcjjroduclion, nfier being cut lo pieces, are 
Iruly astonishing to a refleoting mind. Long after 
Mperinicnts had been in.ide did sccptjcisni invot« 
the philasophic world ; and Ibc hi*tory of the ani- 
mats did not obtain complrte credit till thcsv bid 
not onlv been often n^peatcd, bnt varied ia VfHf 
possible manner: ihcy at length, bowei-er, incootc*- 
tibty proved the Iruib of the surprising And ^f» 
rcntly impossible properties. 

See wilb nev life the wODd'rtnu tronn iboniid, 
Rich fraoa lu Iom, ud fniuful fioo Ui wound '. 

The Greftt Polype, a species tbnt will fully iilajT 
ite the nature ofthe whole tribe, is found in dear 
walCTs, and may generally bo seen in great plenty ra 
small ilitches And irenchesnf fields, csfiecially in the 
months of April nnd May. It affixes itself to the 
undtr part* of leave*, and lo the slnlks of aucb vegc-i 
tobies as happen to grow immersed in the ^mc watcfi 
The animiil consists of a long lububr body, tbc 
bead ofwliicb is furnished wiih eight, and K)tni:ttmci 
ten long arms, or tcnlaeiila, thai mirrmind tbc inouih. 
It is rapnb'c uf conlrncting its body in a very sudden 
innnncr when distuihcd, so as to appear only lite a 
nitinflish gretn spot ; ond, ulien the danger isorer, 
il again extends it!«l{'ns before 
It is of an fxvTciswi'j ijit»btwi»*w&\wr,^'ei>lfceife 




I on the tarjous species of small ivoTms» and other water 
I animals that happen to n|)proacb. When any nni* 

mal of Ibis kind pe&s» near the Pblype, il sorldenly 
K catches it with its arms, and, (Irigf;ing i( lo itsfruiit'i, 
■ swallows it by degrees much in the same manner »s 

a snake swallows a frog. Two of them mJij *ome- 
I times be sc«n in the act of seising the same worm ut 
I different ends, and dragging it in opfXKite direc- 
I tions with great force. It often happens that, while 

one is swallowing its respective end, the other is also 

templofcd in the s:ime manner; and thus Ihcy con- 
tinue swallowing each his part, until their moulhs 
meet together : they then rest each for some lime in 
this situation, till the worm breaks between them, 

I and each goes off with his share. But it often hfi)>- 
pensthata seemingly more dangerous combat ensues, 
when the nKintli of botli arc thtiii joined togcihor 
upon one common prey ; Ihe largest Poijpe (hen 
gapes and swnllow!) his anlagontot ; bur, what is most 
wonderful, the animal thu< swallowed seem* to I« 
nlbcr a gainer by ilie misfortune. After it has lain in 
the conqueror's body for about an hour it isf^tics un- 
hurt, and often in posse.->i»ion of the prey lliat h;id been 
the original cause of contention. Tbc remains of the 
I animals on which the Polype feeds are evaeuaied at 
I the mouth, the only opening in the body. It k ra- 
peblc of swallowing a wonn of thrice its own size ; 
this circumstance, though it may inrt*<libl^, 
is easily nndcmtood, when wc consider I bnt the body 
of the Polype is extremely cxlt'nsil«, and is d dated 
on such occasions to a surprising degree. 
The species are multiplied tot \W wiqAyssX V^ 



oft !ong tuliuliir bodv, fixed al the , 
rounrlcd nt ihe mouth by nrins orXtfi^.^ ^ 
arc chiefly inhabttancs of frcsli "'■''^'y^'^ 
Ihc inoal wonderful proditctions of (f-. % o ^ 
ticulars of thtfir life, [heirmo(lc|( /^ %^ V 
powers of rcprodticlifwi.nficr l)« % ^ ^ 7 T 

powers of rcprodtichfwi.nncr b« % at » T T* 
truly aislonidhing to s refiecK. ^ ^ ^. gp A" 
eipcrimenls bar! been "»a^ "^ \. ^ '^V ^^ ^ 
the philosophic woricfj "l^^^.^^^^ ^ ^% 
mals did not obtaio corf ^ *« 4 4 \ V^L 
not only been often |/ ^ W- * fc^ ■ 
possible manner: thrf^ ^ ^ <r » ^ 
rcntty impossible^i \ a Ifr 

■aid. Em 
..o matni^ injarii 
ocgio to take food» cA 
floral funciioni. 
Ihc first vho discovered Itu 
.ncend of the WTeniPcnih cenlun; 

Bicb froi 

The Cretti 
tralc the aa\ i 
walcfs, an ' 
small iliii< 

rionthi 'i>ley, of Geneva, made, in ilie j-eii 

tindtr fir^t eiperimciirs that proved dectuvdf 

Mnblv £riK*. In Ihc coune of his cicpcritricnl&, be 
iThr J ihni dilTcrent porlJooKofone PoJtpc cg^i^ )^ 
on aaotber. Two tran»CT»c ^Ty^^n^^^ 
' I into conlacl will eni-ckly imil«, and kwa 
-..nil.!, though each Kciion brloi^ lo a diffo- 
»pccic*. The fccad ofoDc i^Tcira may W eo- 
*ed oti iho body of auoibcr. W hen one Polrpc 
>lr«MliiccJ by il.c lail into another'* body, tbciiro 
VHiWc. mvi knft erne. uwi-wAsad., yortuing 

he ^f;['red 



vegelation. one or two, or even more young-0(v«s 
emerging graduallj from tbc Miies of ibe paieiit 
animol ; and lhe$c joung are Trequenlly ig»'\a pro- 
lific hefore ihey drop off : io that it is no unconinwa 
ibing to «ce In-o or three gt-ticriiUoiis m once od (be 
tame Pirfypc. 

But the most astonishing pflrticular re«pecling ihii 
aiiimiLl is, titat if the Pulyjie he cut in pieces it h 
not destroyed, but i& muUi^jIicd bjr disseclioa : it it 

Blch from ils Ipst, snd frutlfttl ffcnn rti wmmd. 

It may be cut in every direction (hat fai>cy 
suggest^ aitd even into «<ery minute divisioos, and 
not only ibe parent slock will remain uninjured, but 
every i^eclion will become a perfect animal. £vea 
when turned insidC'Out it fiuffei^ no material irtjaryi 
for, in this Kate, it will aoon begin to take (bod, and 
to perrorm all its other natural funetiona. 

LcuweiiliocJt \va& ihc fir&t tt-ho disco^-ered (hit 
animal, toward the end ofthe Kvcntceoih century *, 
but M. Treinblcy, of Geneva, made, in the year 
1740, ihc £nl experiments that proved deciiuveJy 
its [iro{x:riica. Jn theoourisc of bin experiments, be 
found thot different portions ufone roly[>c could be 
Cf)£raf(ed imi aootbcr. Two l^an>^CT^c scclioM 
brought itito contact ulll quickly unite, and foaa 
one animul, though each section bcloi^ lo sdifier- 
ei)t species. The bead ofonc spccic» may be eo- 
graficd on the body of anolber. When one Polype 
is Inlioduccd by ilie tail into anolher's body, thclwo 
heads uii'Ue» and fctvh owt w\'&x\4.\i'si. V'istuinEr 







these strange operstions, M. Trembley gave scope 
to his fancy, and, by repeatedly splitting the head 
and part of the body, formed hydras more compli- 
cated than ever struck the imagination of the most 
romantic fabulists. 

These creatnrcs continue active during the greatest 
part of the year, and it is only when the cold is most 
intense that they feel the general torpor of nature. 
All their faculties are then for two or three months 
•uspended ; but if they abstain at one time they have 
ample amends in their voracity at another ; and, like 
all those animals that become torpid in winter, the 
mea^of one day suffices for several months. 

[ 590 ] 


THESE animals are very simple in their form, 
and generally invisible trithoul a magnifyiog power. 
^They are chictly found in infusions of animal and 
vegetable Hubstancea. M 

Their multiplication long occnpicd Ihc attention " 
and eluded ibc researches of philosophers. The du- 
covcT}', however, a few years back, ibat some of (be j 
l:irger animnls increased by a spontaneous dirawa, ■ 
gave rise to the conjecture that these micnnoopic 
animalcules might multiply their numbeni in a »• 
miliii manner. This conjecture wa« communicated 
to M. He Saussure in a letter from Bonnet, who !&■ 
ceivcU an answer from Genoa in September 1769, to ^ 
the following purport : fl 

" What you propose as a doubt («yi M. dc 
Saussurc) 1 have verified by incontestable experi-' 
ment^ ; namely, that infusion animalcules multif^ 
by continued divisions and subdiviMons. Those 
roundish or oial animalcules that have no beak w 
Ihx>I: on the fore-part of their bodies, divide trvns- 
vciscly. A kind of stricture or strangulation bcgios 
about the middle of tbr body, which gradually tn> 
cjvaicsj till the two parts ndhtn-e by a small tbiead 
only. TLcn both parts make repeated ciTort^ 

■* TbcANiMALCUi.r>,ar IsFUStntJi.canniliite ttw |jut of Ur ] 

^^ft ANIMALCULES. 59t 

■ the division » compicied. For some (imc subse- 
quent to the separalion the two animals remain in a 
i<eemingty torpid stale ; but llicy tafl<:rward begin to 
_ swim about briakiy. Encli part is only one half the 
B »izeof the wholes but they soon acquire the ma^ni- 
I ludc peculiar to iltc species, and multiply by similar 
I diviaiona. To obviale every doubt, 1 put a sinj^le 
animalcule into a drop of water, which split bcfure 
my eye:!. Ncxciiay I hod five, the day after sixty, 

I and on the third day their number was lo great that 
it was im|)os3ihIu to count them. 
" Another species, with a beak or horn on the 
fore-part of its body, which I obtained from an in- 
fusion of hcmp-iieed, multiplied likewise by division, 
»but in a manner &till more singular than the former. 
I'hU animalcule, when sbou( to divide, attaches it- 
self to the bottom of ihc infusion, contracts its b«ly, 
which is naturally oblong, into a spherical form, so 
that Ihc beak entirely disappear!). li then begins to 
move briskly round, sometimes from right to left, and 
sometimes from left to right, the ccncrc of motion 
being always fixed. Towards the end, iis inotioti 
I accelerates, and, instead of an uniform sphere, ifto 
H crois-Iike divisions begin to appear. Soon after, the 
H creature is greatly agitated, and fplits into roorani. 
'^ mnlculcsj perfectly similar to, though smaller than, 
that from which ihcy were produced. Xbc^c four 
increase to the usual size, and each in its turn subdi- 
vides into other luur*." 

KpIa PiIengcticMc PtuloSCfhJqiK, pir C. Bonnet, torn. i. p. 418. 



The difTerenf kinJs of aniniAlcutes arc very oti- 
lenius t on which aeciMinl J shall confine my eb- 
-t-aiions to a lew of the most cahou» general 
nann*!y, Vorticclla, Vibrio, and VoIvoji. 

Of these the Vorticelln, or wheel antmiil*, are the 
im^t remarkable, both i» thetr structure, Ificir tiabils 
and [iroduction. In general form ihcjr bear a gnaf 
aiTiii'ty to the Fulvpe», hitving a contracliU: lufccd 
body, furnished with roiAtory organs rouml the 
mmilh ; mid indcrd many microocopical writers 
have dcnDtiKoated them CJtuitr-fofypes. Tbcy are 
very nmll, am) ^ncrally found in clear Mngnant 
vrntera during tlie tnmmer months, .iriached to ibc 
sta]k<) oflhe le^-T water plants, where ihey feed on 
imalcnles Mill smaller than ibemselv^. Manyof 
the species arc found in groups, sonietinnes formed 
by the mere tipproxnuation of several iodividiuU, 
and At other ttmrs by the rmnilicd or i^ggrc^iie 
manner in wbica they grov. Their various nKttiui);, 
like ibc»e uf :he Pulvpcs, arc generally exerted only 
for ihe pnrpa!« of obtaining prey, the rotatory mo* 
lion of their tentacutacati?>ing an eddy in the water 
aronnd each individuiil sufficient to attract into iu 
vorlKt fnch animalcules os hiip|j«n to swim near : 
these the little erentore seize* by s^uddcnly contract- 
ing it$tcntacula and inclosing them in the muUt. 
The fitemft of several of the specter, into which ibcy 
occiMionally withdraw ihcniudvo*, are lomcwtuit 
rigid or scaly. The yoiuig ore carried in o»ol inte- 
gument? on the outiide of tlic lower partof iIick; 
utid, when ready t^ cmnc fvv0it ibcptrcnlftsid their 
extruMmi, viVcTt ^\iv:\\ \& ^tKKSESB%» U^ writiitiig 



their bodies or strtlcing ihe lillle vesicle. As soon 
as the young one is liberated frotn its pri<»>n it fixes 
itseJf, nnd commences the necessary o|>enitiond to 
procure its food. 

The animals of (he genus VrsRio arc very simple, 
round, and elongated worins> nearly all invisible to 
the nuked eye. The species best known is the Ewl 
Vihm*, which Is found in sou: paatc, and in mosc 
se<Jlriicni5 from an infusion of grain. Its body is 
pellucid, and tapers lowanl both end«. The general 
resemblance that it bears to an ErI has almost uni- 
versally led microscopical wriccrs co distinguish it by 
that title, though its )nofit gigantic individuals are 
seldom a tenth of nn inch in Iciigih. When paste be- 
comes sour, if examined with a glass ic will be seen 
to contain multitudes of thc^ animiilculcs, moving 
about with great strength and rapidity in every di- 
' rcction. And animals very similar in ap|>eurance arc 
also frequently to be observed in vinegar. They 
are viviparous, and produce, at intervals, a numerou* 
progeny. If one of them be cut through the middle, 
several young ones, coila) up and incloa'd each in a 
membrane, will be seen to issue from the wound* 
Upwards of a hundred young havR been remarked 
to proceed from a single parent ; which readily aC' 
counts for their su<lden and prodigtojs incresse.'^ 
The Proteus fihio is a species that has its nnme 
from its very singular [>owcr of assuming different 
shapes, so as sometimes with diflleully to be distin- 
guished for the same animal. When water, in which 

ret. xtt. 

* Filri* anguiiluia of LianMut. 



any vegetable has been iiifuscd, or in wlilch any ani- 
mal substance is preserved, has stood undisturbed for 
some days, a slimy substance will be found on the 
8>(1c6 of the vessel, some of which, if viewed in > 
mieroMxipc, will be found to contain, among several 
oilier animalcule<!, the Proteus. It is pellucid and 
gdiitinous, and !<wims about, most commonly, vith 
a long neck and bulbous body, with great vivacity. 
Somclimcs it mnkes a slop for a minute or two, snd 
stretches itself out apparently in search of prey.— 
When alarmed it immediately draws in its nccfc, be- 
comes more opoke, and moves very sluggishly, ll 
■will then, perhaps, instead of its former long nccfc, 
push out a kind of wheel machinery, the motions (^ 
which draw a current of water, and, along with this, 
probably its prey. Withdrawing this it will some- 
times remain almost motionless for some seconds, as 
if weary; then protruding its long neck, will ofien 
resume its former agility, or instead, adopt in suc- 
cession a multitude of difTerent appearances. The 
eyes of this creature have not liitherto been disco- 
vered : it however swims with great rapidity among 
the multitudes of animalcules that inhabit the same 
water, without striking against them. 

I shall conclude this account of the Animal Crea- 
tion with La Martiniere's description ofFo/vox buUit 
a species of animals nearly the most simple of soy 
that have yet come to our knowledge. " They con- 
kist (he says) only of oval bodies, similar in appear- 
ance to .soap bul]blc3, arranged in parlies of three, 
6vc, sixj and nine : among tbcm are also sooic doU- 



W tary ones. These collcciiurw of globules, being [nic 
I into a p^hsi filleJ wiih sca-w3tcr, described a rapid 
' circle round the gliiss by a common movement, to 
■ which each individual contribulcd by the simple 
f compression of the sides of its body, probably tlic 
effect of iherc-aclion of I he air wtlh which Ihcy were 
filled. Il is not, however, easy lo conceive how these 
distinct animals (for they may be readily separated 
without deranging their economy) arc capable of 
concurring in a common motion. These conside- 
rations, logctlicr with the form of ihcanimal, recalled 
A to my mind, with much satisfaction, the ingenious 
system of M. de Buffon ; and I endeavoured to per- 

tsuadc myself that I ivns about to witness one of the 
most wonderful phenomena of nature, supposing 
that these molecules, which were now employed in 
iocrcasing or diminishing their number, or perform - 
H ing their revolutions in the glass, would soon assume 
the lonn of a new animal, of which they were the 
living materials. My impatience led mc to detach 
- two from the most numerous group, imagining that 
P this number might perhaps be more favourable to 
the expected metamorphosis. I wa», however, mis- 
taken. These I examined with more attention than 
the rest, and the following account is of (heir pro- 
ceedings alone. Like two strong and active wrestlers, 
they immediately ru&hcd together, arul attacked each 

1 other on every side ; sometimes one would dive, 
leaving its adversary at the surface of the water | one 
would describe a circular movement, while the other ' 
remained at rcAt in the centre : (heir motions at 
cngch became so rapid as no longer to allow mc to 



(listinguisb the one from the other. Having quitted 
thetn for a short time, on my return I fuuud ihcm 
reunited as before, jmd amicably moving round the 
edge of the gla&s by their common e&ertions," 

How wend'rotu t* thi< mne ! where ill i* form'd 
With number, weighl and measure ! all dnign'd 
For »ome f real end ! wIktc not alone the ptant 
Of stately growth ; the herb of glorioua huci 
Or food-full lubataDct ; not the labouring itced ; 
The herd and flock that feed tis, not the mine 
That f ielda u( Btorca fo«- elegance jiad ute ; 
The (ca that loadi oor table, and conveys 
Tbewjindcicr man from clime to ctimc, vrilbtll 
ThoM rolling *phcrei, that frnm on high ibeddown 
Their kiadly inflaence; not these alone. 
Which atrilce e'en eye« incurioui ; but each inou. 
Each (hell, each crawling iniect, hoMi a rank 
Jmportaal in the [>tan of Him, wbofram'd 
Thi« icale of beings ; holLlg a rank, which lost 
Would bresk tbc chain, and Icstc behind a gap 
That nature's self would rue.^-^AImighijr Being, 
Cause and support of all ihingi, can 1 view 
These objects of my wonder ; can I fed 
The»e fine teoiiatians, and not think of ihoe } 
Thau who doit through th' eternal rotuidof time. 
Dost through tb' immcniity of ipacc, otiit 
Alon«, shak thuu alone excluded be 
From this thy uiiiver*c t Shall feeble man 
Think it beneath hit proud phtiosophjr 
To call for \hy usiiunce, aod pntcwt 
To frame a world, who cannot frame a clod ? ■ 
NottoVncrai \.VcB,umAVAVsuv«QnXMl'res«« 




,4beille MACoyxE 3rs 

tapmsere . . 3(» 

jfearut atitttmnal 46S 

ActimiaTbise d36 

Sfa Ant niniie . . 33S 

Piir|il« jViicnionc il-. 

Sea Marijj-oW .. <4l 

Adder JO 

Alticore 154 

Alli^ior S3 


Anetnoiit^, sm 538 

purple it 

AmuAi-cubU 590 

Am Liiiii »43 

AmtTribk 3^ 

wear -KW 

ArHit TBilK im 

-^- row 301 

Aboowa»-tTiiis» •..- . . 570 

I Paper NaiHilua i/. 

Mi 71 

JioiifticU I4l» 

BojirtjSsA Wfl 

Brave^al 133 

BebTkibs 371 

— poppy 37* 

^— lerf-tuttiiig 37"^ 

Apis nttoicaia 376 

nijsun 379 

.^— Wood-pidWT 881 

hive 385 

cnrding 3{H 

OTangc-lB'ilcd 3^7 

- AMIte Maf«n»t... 378 

JhfUle lap'utitve .. . i^'Z 

■ great vraogi-taii gar- 

dea 397 

- -- rnl-laiM ih. 


. — — ^^ <^x)n]niua ift. 

goo>c il. 


na\,THi8B - en 

gr«il .7... »*. 

Am (wuJm/of „....,,., U. 

Lt I>evia ■... if. 

Bw/nira 76 

BonilMnlier 357 

htfli V... -Il^ 

Br'iU-n flotJi 230 

BucTkibb 205 

bci tf. 

(laDcIoiiical K)8 


^^^■~~-" '^rg*' gJrdcn 

while .... 318 

MarOi - frilil- 

lary 3lp 

netUc turtoise- 

ibell 321 

Greoiy JiitU- 

larj 8I9 

— ■ Dishiloitl it. 

CAFBieoBK.BKCTLItTuiltH 253 

■ tiuibef it, 

CarpThibb 1. JM 

' cuininon .,..,..,. it. 

Tench Ifcy 

Qiub igo 

- Djce Jill 

Roach iffi 

—— Gold-Hth i<|3 

Cagmitn 53 

Ou(i]iede 510 

Clutnictnin <a 


beaked W. 

- Jiutiinior ., . a, 

SImttittg Jiii it. 

ClUPlflTBIBB '230 

C*„ k-chdW .... it. 

. R«w Chafcr .... ud 

burjtng 337 

— **• (lill 343 




Chofir Blind ieHlt 330 

- B'ow Ifdlt WO 

BtoH-n dork ... 230 

BroHftt-trw ietlU . it 

■ Ctmitaughl uvrm it. 

■ Dor U. 

• Green hfelle 230 

Jaek-horarr .... 230 

■ — J^'ri/ctxA it: 

■ Ma^-tva it. 

• Miil^t ih. 

fl-Mif Mn-chafrr 236 

• Tire-frmfe 230 

Tumhle-tUtnghtHU lAI 

CbanM-)<.«n <S3 

CliecseSy .'. 4'itl 

Cliocscmilfl...; Am 

Chlj[06 Alia 

Chul> ^ lew 

Churr n^trm 2^ 

CiCAnA TtttBs 26^ 

wax fomiiDg .... asji 

■ Anwiir-in locmt . 201 
-I Dlsck hcsdfd Frog- 

hoppf .... 2^ 

'- "^ Cuttoo-tpil 1*1, 

ytoik-tvotm it', 

Cahj rfi taprth 102 

CocuisKAi Tkibb 30A 

lac 306 

• — American . . 30JJ 

Cock-chalcT 230 

CodTsibe iS3 

■— fomnwn ih. 

Haiidwk 137 

Comrutg/U iLtirm S30 

Cor;tllinea B84 

Cii.abTkibb 494 

■ land "JyO 

black clawed 4()Q 

h«rmtt 503 

Lobkler .503 

"—— Cou-.fiyh 508 

vioM. 406 

Cram^fith I23,2'i2 

J> Crapaiid iotaman .... 3S 503 

Cricket, nrnlc. .,...,., . atit) 

1 tiiiuse.. ,,,.,.., 271 

. fii-ld 274 

CrocgdtW A7 , b-^ 


Crocodile ^mrritan S3 

CitekoQ-tfitt g^ 

CDTTLC-fliR TaiBt. ... iQ 

Dice 191 

\i*y-Af, conunoo JM 

Oeaih-watdiPtious Ms 

unnes 444 

L* Devin 80 

IXw-w-orni 339 

Ihtbcioot 3ig 

i)or 3M 

DKAUUK-rLT Tflipi . ... 99S 

— grgat 934 

Grettt t^lrllula tt. 


ttUitta it. 

Eakth.worwTiiibb S25 

- De*r-worm 53tf 

Eak-wic TxiBi 2SA 

• coninion. . . it, 

Echuma cvmmm ........ 549 

tal(iHt.,tt ift. 

EsLTBiii.. 415 

■■ oommon ......... £. 

c1cc(tk«l .,.,,,... 133 

■ exM it. 

ntrmfrm^.. ........ ii. 

Erur.HKB* TmiBi.. ,... S90 

— .-cotntngo S38 

£i'tf.f ftarr tfO 

Fm-nUht It, 

Fibb-Fly Tribe SM 

■— Gloir-womi . . it. 

Vi^Kiis DO 

KLAr'MauTaiBi! Ul 


Fi,«* Thiii*; 

— — conunon ..... 
CliigM ...... 

Fi-YtiKr.-rtsii Tains 





Fly TBiBt 4M 

Common fl»h-d/.. 43d 

Hw*Uo! 41; 

— — chcMc 43t 

■^^ cliaineteon ....... 430 

-^nil-t«ileilwonn.... 433 

FjilUlary grra>y 3]Q 

Frttg-lioppcrr bliiiit-licaded SjO 

[ ?iios TmuB , , . tt 


—— ComnMu toad 39 

— Pip* 44 

■ -■ Le Crapau^ <i>mmKii 38 

— rtrulm , , . 28 

grren it. 

^— S'^' '"* ■ 33 

■ La (Jrfmiuittr torn- 

nitne, o« mangevlU .. 38 
•^— La Afugissante, eu 

Grr^miitlr Taurcatt .... 30 

— La Itfinfvtrt,Qti com- 
mune 33 

— I.t Pipe, «ii Cttraru 44 

Suriuain-TDtiii it. 

FtJ«l» 333 

Glow-worm 055 

GxatTrib* 437 

• roninioii ........ 438 

. Musqiiilo fly 441 

GoUl-fiah 193 

Gouamer 490 

Jja GnaoiaUea»timaiu,m 

mai^ratle ?8 

Gmounv bictibTriki 2S(i 
^^— ^— ^^^— Bombor- ■ 

dicr 237 

Goans, cwmAon .57 

— ■■-' great /trnfrican . . U. 

CuineJ wonn 820 

GT»4Korvs Thidk , 123 







Ifadd'^k ... T.... 137 


^' common ... il. 

— traler , it, 

Hfln csl bajt 4458 

llEKPtMC TtiBt 175 

— onnmon it. 

— Pikhatd lei 

HMviinfly 427 

Jarttie M 

Ja<t'Hom<f 330 

— electrical. . ,, 

— Brtn-e Aal . . 

— ColdEet.... 

— Crawpjitk . . 

— Etrftrir^tl Erl 

— yum ting -jS^A 

Jtmlator I4fi 

Ich^ibukonTribb 34fi 

nunid-aljltir 3.50 

Jf&'>f(9cJi aao 

IxiRCTft 317 

Lantcdm-flt Tmat . ., 'jAi 

gnat MS 

LcUrtiH es 

I.rkchTribf 33g 

mcilidniil U. 

LErii>i>?T8iiova Jhskctr 313 

J.itnlala grral 33t 

vaii*j;aled it, 

Limax, tffinning , , 533 

LixakoTkibk 40 

CructKlUe 47, 53 

^ AlligaUir BZ 

^ ■ ■ Common Cuaita . SJ 

• nimble CD 

'■ CliRniclcflu 03 

Salamander OS 

warty 71 

— — Amrricm Cnc9- 

f^t ra 

— ■ ■ Cflygmit.. ...... 47 

/.* Cim^nm. ... Gi 

— L* CrwvtlUt pTV- 
prrment dit 47 

— Joflrtt , ...a..., 53 

L'/guaiK ST 

^- Legmmd ih. 

Lt Lexar4 grii . . SO 

— -■ liuie tnu-ii it. 

- miotic Cncoi&Ie 47 

— ■ " t€1tfy 00 

I,ob»(w- 00.5 


Mote*cricket .... 'jCq 

I Iouie-<Ykkcl . . . 171 

— - Fwld-cri A«* . . , , 274 

mignttf^ 277 

Anvricui 2J>1 

— Churr-unmt .... 'JOg 

Evr dorr if. 

FcH crieket it. 

LoL-seTiiBB 469 

comtaoa . . . . r, , , 4SQ 

Mackbii. Tribii Ifl 

i^>[nm«t , . . . * it, 

Tlninny; IM 


VlttyK} Mlicort .,,,,,, IM 

grfoi it. 

- Sfianitk il. 

■ AIa\irci-itiire . . il. 
IfAKiis TmsB 263 

ooKor Aj.. 364 

— '- • iirjr-lpaf 368 

■ religuaa 264 

M'>- '^uM^iwa 541 

fifoylttg .... ,, 20 

iiflm il. 

31<itii TuiBB 334 

■— - Silkwcsm .,,.,.. SS5_ 

^— cl«>tbL*t. ........ , 330 

/• .VH^itianle, oa Gr^ 

aituiiif Taureau ...,,. 30 

Ki'scLBTxtBe ^m 

alible it. 

p«si) see 

*Muti|nito-t1y 441 

MyRMKLEnNTsinE .... 342 

Ani-LioD . ■ 3-13 

Kjiitiliu, ppiT a;o 

K.HtiB 1'kibb yn 

r, night- shiiiiDg ... it. 

A'*/ InlU 250 

Or>TBV» or GlO-TLt 

Tribi 4I» 

OK ,..,. tl3 

In>r»c ...„,. ,. 416 

— *hcqi ....... .-419 


cilible 561 

BatUe-Makc Boiqidn ... JS 
BavTbibc ..^... 411 

eU-rlric 3IX 

Tvrffiia ii. 

Cram^Jth it. 

La Rrijtr vert. Ml commimt 33 

HohcIi igi 

/jj tiiivjte, la Matttt 21 

BAI0K-1UU.L Tkibs. .. Ua 
SjliimamlcT ...,,,.,,.,. dS 

SalmokThibb ,. lib 

riMnmoD •*. 

Trotit idS 


SAKD-WAtrTuiBS . , . ., 

■- cnuirooti 

■ ■ bliic 

- Pcniisiflvania 
ScoLorexDKA T* iak . . . 

Scorpion IVitt 
-^——^ coniinua . 



— ^c<iminop 


• Comnom Echt- 


•Eaiaite Etid- 

— Srtllop SOs 

PeiiciiTkibb 157 

■ ■ common ........ ib. 

PuotAS Tkibi A54 

— (iactyle 555 

P'ukirA \Gq 

PlKbTKIVB it. 

■ " ciiiinman it. 

• Picktrti ..,, it. 

Pilchard l&l 

F^pa 44 

roIri»e 5S5 

gn-«n , . ibh 

PiititcTeg 149 

I'tisu* TmB' 244 

— df.iilt-^ jiib .... it. 

1"* ....... 

SBsrEIfTS.., . 

Shabk TntBC 


— tKnIciag 


SllMlii>g-^h .......... 




StiAIL ialBE 

— ^ giirdcn t , . , 

■ cK-uleul ......... 


— C-oaiioon Vtper . . , 
comniuti ,. 

— biiixled .......... 



Cotre ifi captiJo . . . 

EufiiMh fipft, . . . , 

Knot ..•.., 

L« lAn........ H, 

























Snnkf ringed ft7 

' tprtiactt , , , IU2 

Sole ..t.:..'.. H5 

SpHBxTmis... 363 

Turner snagv . . aJ3 

SriDKR TiitiR -168 

- Iiou^e 4"0 

garden -17-1 

— — uanilering 4"8 

jumping th. 

-- uaier -1 "9 

GmuiDcr 4S»J 

Tarantula -IWi 

bird-catdiiiig .... 4*8 

5))unge S64 

officinal 385 

St*k-vi«ii TaiBK 546 




— itrbnrcuH-nt . . 

— Mueellanii- . . 

— Iranekctt atlt' 

- Mfduia . . 
Stuiiobo((Tri»b .. . 
■ common . 






ihrefvspiueit 149 







-~-^-^ — PrkHftag . 
— ■- — Skarpliog. . 
SucKiscc-riSH Thibb . . 
■ ■ ■ — ajiumon . 

S«'oni>-riaii TRr&R .... 

■ bmid'finiwl 

Indian .... 

TAfE-WORM TliiC S\5 

— cwnrooo .. ai? 

Tvamula V 486 

Ttmlx 51S 

TciKh 1S7 

TsRMeaTBiBB 444 

' [Intb-wiitch J*. 

■ White ani9 4-|0 

Thrrad-k-obm TmBr . A30 

: — IiMlian or 

Guluea-wonn it. 

'Hiiinny t J4 

Tick Taim; Vi6 

^^— Chrwc mile i*. 

Hane« bug 468 

^— ^utHmiml atarm . , ib. 

Tret-hnllf . 230 

■ tjw'B ij. 

Tmiii iGfl 

TitnUe-thms if*lit 241 

Tuibol J43 

Tiink. giecH Ifl 

loggiTliwid .... Ifl 

iiabiiutied . . . 31 

' ftftnvvn ..,,.... 15 

nwvttm gretn ... i*. 

■ ettttlaii ib. 

Vibrio sets 

— — ccl i*. 

- ■ ■■ prot«iiB U. 

Viprr 93 

Engtish it. 

Vnlvox bu]b 3{H 

Vonirdia 1..... 501 

trmtla -115 

Wji»kTiiibi aOl 

common 3fl2 

W«kvilTbibb M6 

■ ' com W. 

uut 3S0 

Kui hfttU tt. 

Whcil-lty 420 

White Ami 44a 

Wobhs SIS 

H'vrmuh 419 

ll'tirnnh 0> 

ZoOT»t1tt.V S-"^ 




RbKllUA 6 

7i>«iuooGcKUi it- 

— glwtC9. .■•..•• H 
^. ■ ■erpCTitilW .. .. !3 

_— DiydU. ,..... ^^ 

, caieita .m 

— imbricdia 31 

R^MA Genci 32 

- leniporatia 2J 

— Mculeuta -9 

-Caii^bebnj 30 

.. n tx.rea 3.t 

Uifo 3M 

. pi[kl 44 

_ — Otrl'.tu j| ? 30 

. h/i>'. fl/1 33 

L»c->«T* Okku» «i 

cnto,'i'm 47 

. Allrs-aior .03 

. igiutu ......... $T 

»i;i!i. 60 

. ctiamakfln 6i 

, uUmniKha 68 

_— ^— imluotrii. 7' 

SfcRFICNTES.., 74 


— botridu* f6 

Bo* Gbsu« 6fi 

aiiutricior . , ii. 

CoLVBBB GcKiri ga 

bcnu .,....,.. pa 

. iinlrii 97 

naja 102 

,— - ci.niiirif^lor .... 103 

hiSCES , 110 


Mvx^MA Obmv> 119 

I Boeuiu^ i^- 

GrM»oiusGtiini» \ia 

__^— ■ lAicxxrmxih ... '"-^ 

Xipuus Gekds ., t30 

' pUtjpterUi .... it, 



morltua U. 

— «gtc&]us 137 ' 





^^^_-_^^— maumcu 


C'hjciodok Genu I 

-- ronralus .... 

GmTtKomvt GtKu* . 148 

.^~^^-^^—^— acuJcatiu 149 

ficoMBiR Gemui lil 

■ Gcnoiber. a. 

^^—^■^~ tliyunn ...... IM 

I'lHI-A OlHU* 1*7 

-flinutiili* ifc 

SaI'MO Okmix ISD 

Esox Genu* 

- — luciiu 

Exocarui Gbnui 

hareoKui...... ik. 

pilctraoa ISI 

CTrKiMUs Gfkui IS4 


• carpio .-. 

- tiiMS 

■ccfthalui , 

. icociscos , 

■ FUtillU . . . 

AcuirsiTfBii GiHU9 . . . . 1P7 

■ ■ - - Mnirio it- 

SaUALus Gitiius 30(1 

■■ ' orrharin ao3 

■ T naximaa 308 

JtllA GXKUI 3il 

^— lometlo 312 


Scibakjcux Giko* ....330 
' ■ ■ mclolgtiilia., it, 

aunitu 334S 

mnrticinti . . . 137 

I ptlubrius. . . . 343 

PriKVd GiKus 344 

puUaior 34S 

■ JiuvScus il. 

CuacvLio GiiMva 248 

' gnnariu* iJ. 

DMcom , . 3iO 

CtRAKiYX Gexus 2S2 

• Aulxccui .... ft. 

LAMrvHiA CBUi't as 

■■^— ■ " ■ nuciJica. - . . . . it. 

Carabus Uekui 346 

■■ crcfMUns 2A7 

PonncuL* GiHiri 35ij 

auhruUria... H. 


MaKTit GkKV* 3«3 

• orati/TM 34^ 

- — liccUnliii Stitj 

' ■■ rtiigiou* ii. 

Okyllvi GkKu» ii. 

■- gtj-llnulpa .... tOg 

- • (l<i4ncittcu« . a? I 

- - ■■■-- canipeaim 274 

^' migiatoriiu. . . . 377 

FCLOOHA Gixut 384 

bnlntiana 385 

CiCAUA Gbuvs 390 

■ limbata. 38() 

wptendocim JQI 

i «piutMr!a 2^ 

CiMRx Gikus »2a5 

loctuliriia it. 

iamkixui 3j)8 
iKNUS 3^ 

rwwc SOI 

Cacevs GsNi/f 30S 


Coccns 6c«i 300 

«»«i 3<iu 

Papilio GBtitfs.v>.-...8l7 

brMHoi) ..9I* 

ancrnii SI9 

■ nniae nt 

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vulgarii 30% 

Aru Gkh vt 37 1 

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IjpkbTia Jy7 

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tce.iioa ii, 

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