(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The annals of Ireland"

\^ 



v^w^:--::^ 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 
LOS ANGELES 







7^-'<: 



\. 



j^3^^ 



\ 

=.*<»< 



:^ 



>" 



THE 



ANNALS OF IRELAND 



TRANSLATED FROM 



THE ORIGINAL IRISH 



OF 



THE FOUR MASTERS. 



BY OWEN CONNELLAN, ESQ., 

IRISH HISTORIOGRAPHER TO THEIR LATE MAJESTIES GEORGE IV. AND WILLIAM IV., AUTHOR OF A GRAMMAR OF THE 

IRISH LANGUAGE, ETC. 



ANNOTATIONS 

BY PHILIP MAC DERMOTT, ESQ., M.D., AND THE TRANSLATOR. 



DUBLIN:- 

PUBLISHED BY BRYAN GERAGHTY, 

8, ANGLESEA-STREET. 

MDCCCXLVI. 






DUBLIN : 

TRIXTED BY WrLLIAM JOSEPH WILSOX, 

HAWKINS'-STREET. 



TO J^/t 

SIR WILLIAM BETHAM, ^i^io 

KNIGHT ATTENDANT ON THE MOST ILLUSTRIOUS ORDER OF ST. PATRICK, 

JStetrr Sftifl of 'S.xmi, 

VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCLETY, MEXffiER OF THE ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY, 
FELLOW OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF LONDON, 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY, 



MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF LISBON, 



THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF COPENHAGEN, &c. 
AUTHOR OP THE 

IlilSH ANTIQUARIAN RESEABCHES ; THE GAEL AND CIMBRI ; ETRURIA CELTICA ; HISTORY 
OF THE CONSTITUTION OF ENGLAND AND IRELAND, S^c. ^e. 

"Whose various Works on Irish, British, Gaulic, and Etruscan Antiquities, particularly his learned Analysis 
of the Ancient Languages of Ireland, Britain, Gaul, and Etruria, have obtained for him an European reputation, 
and made his name known and respected, as a most eminent Antiquary, as well among the ArchiBologists of the 
Continent, as the Literati of these Kingdoms ; a man to whom Irislimen are so much indebted, for his liberal 
and enlightened encouragement, and love of Irish Literature, the present publication, as well as many others, 
being enriched by many materials furnished from his valuable Library ; and through whose disinterested pa- 
tronage the Publisher has been mainly enabled to present to his countrymen the far-famed 

ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS: 
To liim, therefore, this Work is, on behalf of the Irish people, as a smaU tribute of esteem and regard, justly 
and most respectfully 

INSCRIBED BY 



20G12;'l 



hr 



PREFACE. 



The Annals of the Four Masters being now published for the first time, there are 
some particular points which require explanation. The copy from which this translation 
has been made, has been accurately compared with that in the possession of Sir William 
Betham, which was transcribed by the translator from the original autograph MS. in the 
Library of the Royal Irish Academy, and is therefore perfectly authentic. Mr. Connellan 
the translator was eminently qualified for his arduous task, being one of the best Irish 
Scholars of the present day, having extensive experience in transcribing and translating 
ancient Irish MSS. for a period of more than twenty years, and had the honor of being 
appointed Irish Historiographer to their late Majesties George IV. and William IV. in the 
Royal Irish Academy. The copious Annotations to the Annals have been compiled by 
Philip Mac Dermott, Esq., M. D., assisted by Mr. Connellan, with valuable materials from 
the library of Sir WiUiam Betham. These Annotations are admitted to contain extensive 
and accurate information on Irish History and Antiquities ; and, together with the transla- 
tion, have stood, and will be found to stand the test of learned and candid criticism. In a 
work published in Numbers as these Annals have been, it was difficult to arrange the 
materials given in the historical and topographical Notes, which have no immediate 
reference to the text, as it was necessary that each Number should be noted with the 
matter that was prepared at the time, whereas, in a Book brought out all at once, any 
arrangement can be adopted. Independent of the Annals, the Notes will be found 
to contain a great mass of materials, and much mteresting and important information, 
not hitherto published, together with collections from various sources, rare Books and 
Manuscripts ; the whole forming a Compendium of Irish History, from the earliest ages 
to the English Invasion, vidth continued illustrations, to the end of the Annals in the 
l7th century, the great object of the present publication being to present to the Irish 
people as much as possible of their own History, at a moderate cost, and make it ac- 
cessible to all. 



With respect to the arrangement of the Annotations, it is recommended to read, 
rather as an Introductmi to the Annals, all the Notes which have apparently no immediate 
reference to the text of the Four Masters, such as the articles on the various ancient 
Colonies that peopled Ireland, and on the History and Kings of the early ages ; on the 
Danish Wars, on Antiquities and Topography ; for, by first reading those accounts of the 
ancient History before the English Invasion, the matters recorded in the Annals will be 
elucidated, and more easily understood, and as the Anglo-Norman Invasion immediately 
followed the Danish Wars, they both form part of one chain of events ; hence the 
wars of the Anglo-Normans in this country, will be more clearly comprehended by first 
getting an account of the Danes and Norwegians, who were the ancestors of the Normans 
of France who conquered England, and afterwards, mider the name of Anglo-Normans, 
or English, came here with Strongbow and his followers, and make such a remarkable 
figure in Irish History ; therefore, it was considered important to elucidate these affairs, 
which was the more particularly required, until the first part of the Four Masters can be 
published at some future time. 

The Topoffrapkj/ of ancient Ireland, of which an account is given in the Introduction 
to these Annals, forms a peculiar feature in this work; it was written about 450 years ago, 
but is now for the first time translated from the original Irish, and published in these Notes 
with copious explanations and additions. These Topographies of O'Dugan and O'Heerin 
may be considered as a sort of " Domesday-Book" of Irish History, containing an account 
of the rank, titles, and territories of the Irish Princes, Lords, and Chiefs, in the 12th, 13th 
and 14th centuries, thus forming a most important record, and affording invaluable infor- 
mation on the ancient families, and great landed proprietors. In the additions to those 
topographical works, ample accounts are given of the rank, genealogies, and possessions, 
not only of the Irish Princes and Chiefs, but of the Nobility, and families of note of 
English descent in Ireland, with memoirs of many eminent Irish and English historical 
characters ; the Annotations eAso contain a comprehensive outline of the History of 
each of the five Provinces or Kingdoms, Meath, Ulster, Connaught, Leinster, and Mun- 
ster, which constituted the Irish Pe^itarchy, together with a condensed account of the 
Histoi^y and Antiquities of every county, and of the Ancient Literature of each of the 
Provinces. It is to be observed that the numerous passages in parenthesis are not in the 
Irish of the Four Masters, but are additions explanatory of the text, and thus introduced 
to avoid the inconvenience of a great number of small notes, which would otherwise be 
required. The Index is condensed, but at the same time sufficiently comprehensive, and 
Avill be found to contain copious references to all the names of persons, places of note, 
and remarkable matters recorded either in the Text or Notes. 



The Publisher, grateful for the extensive patronage conferred on this Work by the 
Public, the friends of Irish Literature, and his numerous and highly respectable Subscribers, 
amounting to more than seven hundred, whose names he regrets he had not an opportunity 
of publishing, begs respectfully to state, that he has it in contemplation to bring out the 
first part of the Four Masters, and some other ancient Irish Annals, on receiving 
adequate public encouragement for the great expenditure required ; and to meet the wishes 
of learned men, and friends of Irish literature, he purposes, on receiving the names of a 
sufficient number of Subscribers, to give an accurate lithographic fac-simile copy of the 
Irish MS. of these Annals, the best means by which the Irish text can, in a perfect form, 
be handed dowTi to posterity. It is generally admitted that, as to embellishments, execu- 
tion and tj^ography, the present publication is one of the best that has hitherto issued 
from the Irish press ; and the Maj), the Illuminated Title-page, and ancient Irish Ornamental 
Letters, of which an account is given at the end, form remarkable features in this Book. 
The Publisher is happy to have been enabled, through great exertions, to complete this 
national work, composed by the illustrious and learned O'Clerys, and to present to his 
countrymen, as a rare production of Irish genius and patriotism, these faithful Annals, 
after they had been buried in libraries, and lost to the literary world for more than two 
hmidred years ; and he confidently hopes, that his future undertakings in Irish literature 
will receive the support of all patriotic and enlightened Irishmen. 

To complete the present publication in the best manner, excessive labour has been 
encountered, and great expenditm-e incurred, but no trouble or cost has been spared to 
render the work as perfect as possible, and a copy of it should be found in the public 
and private Libraries of the United Kingdom, for without these Annals the real his- 
tory of Ireland must remain miknowTi, as they contain, together with full historical 
memoirs of the Anglo-Normans and English in Ireland, by far the most copious and 
accm*ate accounts, and interesting information ever published on the Milesian Irish, their 
Kings, Princes, Chiefs, and Clans — their laws, manners,* and customs — their religious, 
literary, and charitable institutions. Colleges, Churches, Monasteries, and Houses of 
Hospitality — their Bards, Brehons, eminent Ecclesiastics, and learned men — their Music 
and Minstrels — their arts of War and Peace ; but are particularly rich in accounts of their 
military afi"airs, their forces and arms, their heroes and warriors, their battles and victories ; 
and, altogether, furnish a full and impartial record of the most important events in the 
entire range of Irish History. 

The writers candidly reveal the vices as well as the virtues of their countrymen, 
and demonstrate the defects, with the good qualities, in the Celtic character, the same 



=:il 



as that of the Celts of ancient Gaul and other countries, shewing the peculiarities 
of a remarkable race, so spirited, bold, brilliant, enthusiastic, and fond of fame, but 
prone to fierce feuds and dissensions amongst themselves, impetuous, rash, violent, 
wanting caution, coolness and calculation, greater talkers than thinkers — valiant, social, 
generous, high-minded, hospitable and humane, but too easily excited, passionate, 
and proud, every page of the Annals of our coimtry exhibiting w hat Byron designated 
" The magnificent and fiery spirit of her sons." The fierce wars of many centuries, with 
the Danes, Anglo-Normans, and English, must have greatly deteriorated the national 
character of the Irish, prevented the development of their virtues, and retarded all civili- 
zation ; for rapine, anarchy, and internal discord, constantly prevailed diu-ing these sangui- 
naiy contests, which were incessantly continued for a period of more than seven hundred 
years, through which the Milesians fought for their national independence, against 
powerful foreign foes ; and these Annals present a faithful picture of a people who, amidst 
all these adverse circumstances, were still renowned for their religious zeal, their love 
of literature, their hospitality, and feats of arms. 



INTEODUCTION. 



In publishing for the first time, the Annals of the Four Masters, it will be necessary to 
give some account of that celebrated work and its authors. The Annals were composed 
chiefly by the O'Clerys, a very leai-ned family, who were hereditary historians to the 
O'Donnells, Princes of Tyrconnel, now the county of Donegal. The O'Clerys had from 
the O'Donnells extensive grants of lands in Donegal, and resided at their Castle of Kil- 
barron, the romantic ruins of which still remain on the shore of the Atlantic near Bally- 
shannon. Michael O'Clery, Cucogry or Peregrine O'Clery, and Conary O'Clery, together 
with Peregrine O'Duigenan, a learned antiquai-y of Kilronan, in the county of Roscommon, 
were the four principal compilers : hence the work was called. The Annals of the Four 
Masters. The Annals are also quoted by various authors as The Annals of Donegal, from 
their being composed in the Franciscan Monastery of Donegal. There were, besides the 
above-named authors, two other eminent antiquaries and chronologers, who assisted in 
the compilation of the Annals ; namely, Fearfeasa O'Mulconaire or O'Conery, and Maurice 
O'Conery, both of the county Roscommon, of the ancient and learned family of the O'Mul- 
conaires, who were hereditary historians to the Kings of Connaught. But the chief 
author of the Annals was Michael O'Clery, a sketch of whose life and literai-y labours will 
not prove uninteresting. He was a native of Donegal, and born about the year 1580. 
Distinguished at an early age for his abilities, application, and piety, he retii-ed to the 
Irish Franciscan Monastery at Louvain, where his knowledge of the Irish language and 
history attracted the attention of his countryman, the learned Hugh Ward, then a Lec- 
turer at Louvain and guardian of its monastery. Ward, fully appreciating the character 
of O'Clery, determined to avail himself of his assistance and abilities to put into execution 
a project he had long formed, of rescuing from oblivion the Annals and Antiquities of 
his native land. Actuated by a spirit of patriotism and love of literature, O'Clery eagerly 
embraced the proposal, returned to Ireland, commenced his labours, and collected a vast 
number of ancient documents, which he transmitted tQ his friend at Louvain ; but the 
lamented death of Ward put a stop for a time to his noble intentions. The learned 
John Colgan, also a native of Donegal, then at Louvain, afterwards made ample use of 
these manuscripts when compiling his Acta Sanctorum Hibernia, and Trias Thaumaturga, 
those great works on the Irish Saints. O'Clery continued his collection for a period of 
fifteen years, travelled through all parts of Ireland, and got together all the ancient 
records, civil and ecclesiastical, that could be obtained, and then spent many years in 
arranging for publication this vast mass of materials. 

Amongst the collection enumerated as used in the compilation of the Annals of the 
Four Masters, are mentioned the following. The Annals of Tigernach, by the learned Abbot 
of Clonmacnois, and the Book of Clonmacnois. The Annals of Innisfallen, composed by 
the learned monks of that Abbey. The Book of the Mac Bruadins, hereditary historians 



to the O'Briens and other tribes of Thomond. The Annals of Ulster, by Cathal Mac 
Guire, and Roderick O'Cassidy, celebrated antiquaries in the diocese of Clogher. The 
Book of Conquests. The Book of the Mac Firbises, the learned antiquaries of Leacan, 
in Tireragh, county of Sligo. The Book of the O'Conrys, hereditary historians to the 
Kings of Connaught. The Book of the O'Duigenans of Kilronan, in Roscommon. The 
Book of the Island of All Saints in Loughree, and many others. 

After a life spent in the service of literature and of his country, Michael O'Clery died 
at the Monastery of Donegal, in the year lG43, and left to posterity the reputation of a 
truly great and learned man.* 

The Annals of the Four Masters commence at the earliest period of Irish history, 
and are carried down to A.D. I6l6. The learned and Rev. Doctor Charles O'Conor, 
Librarian to the Duke of Buckingham, at Stowe, in his great work, " Rerum Hibernicarum 
Scriptores Veteres," translated into Latin, and published with the original Irish, in the 
year 1824, part of those Annals, namely, to the English invasion, A.D. 1172. But the 
chief and more interesting portion of the work has never yet been published. 

The present publication wiWcomTprise the AnneLh from A.D. 1171, to their termination 
in A.D. 1616, a period of 444 years, containing an ample account of the English invasion, 
and embracing by far the most important events in the whole range of Irish History. 

The Annals have been carefully translated from the original Irish by Owen Connellan, 
Esq., Irish Historiographer to their late Majesties, George IV., and William IV., 
and author of a Grammar of the Irish language, &c. Copious explanatory notes are 
added by the Translator, and by several eminent Irish Antiquaries. Some short eluci- 
dations of the text are given in brackets. The notes will be found very valuable and 
comprehensive, from the assistance aflPorded by Sir William Betham, Ulster King of Arms, 
who with his usual liberality, as a patron of Irish literature, has given free access to his 
extensive Library, containing by far the best collection of Irish MSS., in any private 
hands in the kingdom, and also rich in rare Latin and English MSS. on Irish History. 

In the course of the work, the notes will embody the Topographies of O'Dugan 
and O'Heerin, translated from the original Irish transcripts, and never before published. 

John O' Dubhagain, or O'Dugan, was the learned historian of the O' Kelly s, Princes 
of Hy-Maine, and died A.D. 1372. O'Dugan commences his Topography thus : " Triall- 
am timcheall na Fodla ;" that is, "Let us travel over Fodla, " (i. e. Ireland). And 
again he says : " Ni bhia duine gan duithchidh;" " No man shall be without his estate." 
He gives a full account of all the Chiefs and Clans of Leath Coinn (that is, of the King- 
doms of Meath, Ulster, and Connaught), and the territories they possessed at the time of 
the English invasion in the twelfth century. 

Giolla-na-Naomh 0' Huidhrin, or O'Heerin, another learned historian, who died A. D. 
1420, wrote a continuation of O'Dugan's Topography, commencing thus : " Tuilleadh 
fcasa air Eirinn oigh ;" " An addition of Knowledge on sacred Erin." 

* Accounts of the O'Clerys, and otlier writers of the Annals of the Four Masters, are found in the works of Ware, Wadding 
and Colgan, and in O'Reilly's Irish Writers. 



O'Heerin in his work gives an account of all the Chiefs and Clans of Leath Mogha 
(that is, of Leinster and Munster), and the territories they possessed in the twelfth century. 

Both these works are very valuable and authentic, and furnish a complete Topo- 
graphy of ancient Ireland, never published till now, though absolutely necessary to be 
known, either for the elucidation of the Annals of the Four Masters, or of any other 
work on Irish History. Some of the notes are unavoidably long ; for otherwise a full 
and satisfactory account could not be given of the ancient Clans and their territories, as 
mentioned in those Topographies. Therefore these notes will be found clearly to eluci- 
date all old names of places and obscure passages in the text of the Four Masters, and 
will also contain descriptions of all the former territorial divisions of Ireland, and of 
every county, with an account of their ancient and modern possessors. 

The Ecclesiastical divisions will likewise be given, with an account of ancient Bishops' 
Sees, and the territories comprised in each Diocese. 

With the last number will be given a valuable Map, accompanied with explanations 
showing the ancient divisions of Ireland, and the territories possessed by the Irish Chiefs 
and Clans, together with the chief families of Anglo-Irish Proprietors in subsequent times. 

A copious Index wall also be added — containing references to every remarkable 
matter mentioned throughout the Work, either in the text or notes. 

To render these Annals one of the most important works ever published on Irish 
History and Antiquities, no trouble has been spared, or no available information neglected, 
and great expense has been incurred. All the best authorities, ancient and modern, have 
been consulted in the explanations of the text, and compilation of the notes ; and 
amongst the numerous authentic sources from which information has been collected the 
following may be mentioned : O'Conor's Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores Veteres, 
and the dissertations of Charles O'Conor on the History of Ireland ; O'Flaherty's 
Ogygia; Vallancey's Collectanea; the Histories of Ireland, by Keating, O'Halloran, 
Mac Geoghegan, and Moore ; the Works of Ware, Usher, Colgan, De Burgo, and 
Lanigan ; Harris's Hibernica; the Tracts of Sir John Davies; Cox's Hibernia Anglicana ; 
Pacata Hibernia ; the History and Annals of Ireland by Cambrensis, Camden, 
Holinshed, Hanmer, Campion, Temple, Borlase, Curry, and Leland ; the Topographies 
of O'Brien, Seward, Lewis, and others; the various Surveys of Ireland, with all 
the County Histories that have been published; various ancient Maps, as those 
of Ortelius, Petty, and others ; State Papers, Public Records, Inquisitions, and Peer- 
ages; together with numerous Irish Manuscripts, and many valuable documents in 
public and private collections. 

The Publisher respectfully submits the Work to the consideration of his country- 
men, as an impartial record of important events, consisting only of historical facts, free 
from all political or sectarian opinions ; and he confidently expects that these Annals, 
without which the genuine History of Ireland must remain unknown, will prove as 
acceptable as they will be found interesting to Irishmen of every class and of every creed. 

Dublin, January \st, 1845. Bryan Geraghty. 



DEDICATION TO PERGALL O'GARA, M.P. &c. 



I INVOKE the Almighty God that he may pour down every blessing, corporal and 
spiritual, on Fergall O'Gara, lord of Moy O'Gara and Coolavin, one of the two knights 
elected to represent the county of Sligo m the parliament held in Dublin, this present year 
of our Lord, 1634. 

In every country enlightened by civilization, and confirmed therein through a 
succession of ages, it has been customary to record the events produced by time. For 
sundry reasons nothing was deemed more profitable and honourable than to study and 
peruse the works of ancient writers, who gave a faithful account of the chiefs and nobles 
who figured on the stage of life in the preceding ages, that posterity might be informed 
how their forefathers employed their time, how long they continued in power, and how 
they finished their days. 

I, Michael O'Clery, poorbrotherof the order of St. Francis, (though ten years employed, 
under obedience to my several provincials, in collecting materials for our Irish Hagiology,) 
have waited on you, noble Fergall O'Gara, as I was well acquainted with your zeal for 
the glory of God, and the honour of your country, I perceived the anxiety you suffer 
from the cloud which at present hangs over our ancient Milesian race ; a state of things 
which has occasioned the ignorance of many, relative to the lives of saints, archbishops, 
bishops, abbots, and other dignitaries of the church ; the general ignorance also of our 
civil history, and of the monarchs, provincial kings, lords, and chieftains, who flourished 
in this country through a succession of ages, with equal want of knowledge of the syn- 
chronism necessary for throwing light on the transactions of each. In consequence of 
your uneasiness on this subject I have informed you that I entertained hopes of joining 
to my own labours the assistance of the antiquaries I held most in esteem, for compiling 
a body of Annals, wherein those matters should be digested under their proper heads ; 
judging that should such a compilation be neglected at present, or consigned to a future 
time, a risk might be run that the materials for it would never again be brought together. 
In this idea I have collected the most authentic Annals I could find in my travels through 
the kingdom, (and, indeed, the task was difficult,) from which I have compiled this work, 
which I now commit to the world under your name and patronage ; for you it was who 
set the antiquaries to work, and most hberally paid them for their labour, in arranging 
and transcribing the documents before them, in the Convent of Donegal, where the fathers 
of that house supplied them with necessary refreshments. In ti-uth every benefit derivable 
from our labours is due to your protection and bounty ; nor should it excite jealousy or 
envy that you stand foremost in this, as in other services which you have rendered your 
country ; for by your birth you are a descendant of the race of Heber, son of Milesius, 
which gave Ireland thirty monarchs, and sixty-one of which race died in the odour of 



sanctity. To Teige, the son of Kian, son of Oilioll Olum, (who died king of Munster, 


A.D. 260,) from whom eighteen of those saints sprung, your pedigree can be accurately 


traced from one generation to another. The posterity of that Teige have had great 


establishments in every part of Ireland, viz. : — The race of Cormac Galeng, in Leiny of 


Connaught, from whom you are descended, as well as the two O'Haras of the Routes ; 


also the O'Carrolls of Ely, O'Maghers of Hy Cairin, and the O'Conors of Kianactha of 


Glengiven, (in the county of Derry.) In proof of your noble extraction, here follows your 


genealogy : — 


Fergal O'Gara, thou art the son of 


Modha Neid, son of 


Teige, son of 


Derc Mac Dergtheinidh, son of 


Oilioll, son of 


Enda IMonchaoin, son of 


Dermod, son of 


Loich More, son of 


Owen, son of * 


Mofebis, son of 


Dermod, son of 


Muiredhach Muchna, son of 


Owen, son of 


Eachaidh Garbh, son of 


Tomaltach Oge, son of 


Duach Dalta Deadhaidh, son of 


Tomaltach More, son of 


Cairjjre Lusk, son of 


Dermod, son of 


lonadmar, son of 


Raighne, son of 


Niasedhaman, son of 


Congalach, son of 


Adamar Foltchain, son of 


Dunslevey, son of 


Fearcurb, son of 


Roderick, son of 


Modha Curb, son of 


Dunslevey, son of 


Cobhthach Caomli, son of 


Coucobar, son of 


Reachta Righdearg, son of 


Ruairc, son of 


Lughaidh Laigheach, son of 


Gadhra, from whom the O'Garas have derived 


Eachdach, son of 


the name, who was the son of 


Oilioll, son of 


Glethneaclian, son of 


Art, son of 


Saorgas, son of 


Lughaidh Lamhdearg, son of 


Bece, son of 


Eachaidh Uaircheas, son of 


Flaithios, son of 


Lughaidh lardhuinn, son of 


Taichleach, son of 


Enda dearg, son of 


Cinnfaola, son of 


Duach fionn, son of 


Dermod, son of 


Sedna lonnaireadh, son of 


Fionnbhar, son of 


Breasrigh, son of 


Brenann, son of 


Art Imligh, son of 


Nadfraoich, son of 


Feidhlimidh,son of 


Fideoin, son of 


Rotliechtach, son of 


Fiodcuire, son of 


Roan Righ Ailigh, son of 


Art Cm-b, son of 


Failbe lolcoraidh, son of 


Niadhcm-b, son of 


Caisced Coimhgnidh, son of 


Lui, from whom Leiny,* or Leiny, derived 


Fal Deargdoid, (or of tlie red finger rings,) son of 


its name, who was the son of 


Muineamon, son of 


Teige, son of 


Casclothach, son of 


Kian, son of 


Fear Arda, son of 


Oilioll Olum, son of 


Rotheachtagh, son of 


ilodlia Nuadhat, son of 


Rossa, son of 


* The barony of Lieny in the county of Sligo, and also an ancient district in the county of Westmeath, now the parisli of Leuey. 



Glass, son of 

Nuadat Deglam, son of 

Eachaidh Faobharglass, son of 

Conmaol, son of 

Eimbear Fionn, son of 

Milesius of Spain, son of 

Bile, son of 



Breogan, son of 
Bratha, son of 



Deaatha, son of 
Earchad, son of 
Aldoid, son of 
Nuadhad, son of 
Ninual, son of 
Eimh ear glass, son of 
Agnon fionn, son of 
Lamh fionn, son of 
Agnamhan. &c. 



On the 22nd January, 1632, this work was undertaken in the convent of Donegal, 
and was finished in the same convent on the 10th day of August, 1636, being the 11th 
year of the reign of Charles, King of England, France, Scotland, and Ireland. 

I am thine affectionate friend. 



Brother Michael O'Clery. 



TESTIMONIALS. 



The Fathers of the Franciscan Order, subscribers hereunto, do certify that Fergal O'Gara 
was the nobleman who prevailed on Brother Michael O'Clery to bring together the 
antiquaries and chi-onologers, who compiled the following Annals, (such as it was in his 
power to collect,) and that Fergal O'Gara, aforesaid, rewarded them liberally for their 
labour. 

This collection is divided into two parts, and from the beginning to the end has been 
transcribed in the Convent of the Brothers of Donegal, who supplied the transcribers 
with the necessary viands for their maintenance. The first volume was begun in the 
same Convent, A.D. 1632, when Father Bernardine O'Clery was guardian thereof. 

Tlie antiquaries and chronologers who were the collectors and transcribers of this 
work we attest to be Brother Michael O'Clery ; Maurice O'Maolconery, the son of Torna, 
who assisted during a month ; Ferfesa O'Maolconery, the son of Loghlin, (and both those 
antiquaries were of the county of Roscommon ;) Cucogry (Peregrine) O'Cleiy, of the 
county of Donegal ; Cucogry O'Duigenan, of the comity of Leitrim ; and Conary O'Clery, 
of the county of Donegal. 

The old books they collected were the Annals of Clonmacnois, an abbey consecrated 
by St. Kiaran, son of the Carpenter ; the Annals of the Island of Saints, on Lough Ribh, 
(now Lough Ree, or that part of the Shannon between Athlone and Lanesborough) ; the 
Annals of Senat Mac Magnus, on Lough Erne, (in the county of Fermanagh) ; the Annals 
of the O'Maolconerys ; and the Annals of Kilronan, (a parish in the county of Roscommon) 
compiled by the O'Duigenans. These antiquaries had also procured the Annals of 
Leacan, compiled by the Mac Firbises, (after having transcribed the greater part of the 
first volume,) and from those Annals they supplied what they thought proper in the blacks 
they left for any occasional information they could obtain. The Annals of Clonmacnois 
and those of the Island of Saints came down no farther than the year of our Lord 1227. 

The second part of this work commences with the year of our Lord 1208, and 
began to be transcribed in the present year 1635, when Father Christopher Dunlevy was 
guardian; and these Annals were continued down to the year 1608, when Father Bernardine 
O'Clery was for the second time elected guardian. 

Brother Michael O'Clery above-mentioned, Cucogry O'Clery, and Conary O'Clery, 
were the transcribers of the Annals from 1332 to 1608. The books from which they 
transcribed were ; the greater part of 0'Maolconerj''s book, ending with 1505 ; the Book 
of the O'Duigenans, aforesaid, from the year 900 to 1563 ; the Book of Senat Mac Mag- 
nus, ending with 1533 ; a part of the Book of Cucogry the son of Dermod, son of Teige 



Cam O'Clery, from the year 1281 to 1537 ; the Book of Maoilin OgeMae Bruadin from 
the year 1588 to 1603 ; and the Book of Liighaigh O'Clery, from 1586 to 1602. All 
those books we have seen in the hands of the antiquaries who have been the compilers of 
the present work ; together with other records too numerous to be mentioned. In proof 
of what we have here set forth, we have hereunto annexed our signs manual, in the Con- 
vent of Donegal, on the 10th day of August, in the year of our Lord 1636. 

Frater Bernardinus O'Clery, 

Guardianus Dungalensis. 
Brother Maurice Dunlevy. 
Brother Maurice Dunlevy. 

O'DoNNELL, (Prince of Tirconnell.) 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS. 




A.D. 1171. 



ETRUS O'MoRDHA, (or 

O'Moore,) bishop of Cloii- 

tcrt Brenan,' originally a 

pious monk, was drowned in 

the Shannon on the 27th 

December. 

Sadhbh (or Sabina,) daugh- 

luniairn Mac Murrogh, coai'b'^ to 

Saint Bridget, died after penance. 

The Cloicteach of Tealachard,^ which 
was crowded with people, was burned by 
Tiarnan O'Rourke. 

Derraod Mac Murrogh, Icing of Lein- 
ster, who had spread terror throughout 
Ireland, after putting the English in pos- 
session of the covintiy, committing exces- 
sive evils against the Irish people, and 
plundering and burning many churches, 
among which were Kclls, Clonard,^ &c., 
died this year of an intolerable and uncom- 
mon disease.' He became putrid while 



1. Brenan.—St. Brendan founded in A.D. 553, the monastery 
of Cluain Fearta or Clonfert, in wliich originated the diocese of 
the same name, in the barony of Longford, county of Galway, and 
of which he was first abbot or bishop, and died in A.D. 577. 

2. Com/tarfja, or coarb of St. Brifh/ef. — That is, the successor 
of St. Bridget, or abbess of Kildare. Tlie word coarb is applied to 
the successor or representative of the patron saint, or original foun- 
der of a monastery, priory, or any ecclesiastical establishment; or 
successor of a bishop, as the coarb of St. Patrick, that is, the suc- 
cessor or representative of St. Patrick at Armagh, as applied to the 
primates. The term Comorban is applied in the same sense by 
many writers. 

3. Cloicteach thealc/ia airth or the round totrer of Tullaijhard, 
• — In a M.S. in the library of Sir ^^'illiam Betham. this place is 
mentioned as TuUaghard, near Trim, in the county of Meath. 

4. Ctuan Eraird, or Ctonard, now a post town in the parish of 
the same name, in the barony of Moyfenragh, county of Meath, the 
original seat of the diocese of Meath, celebrated for its monastery 
and famous college, founded by St. Finnen, abbot of the same 
monastery, and general lecturer (or reader) to the saints of Ireland, 
■who died in A.D. 548. 

5. This disease is supposed to have been the morbus pedicularis 
of medical writers. 



living, by the miracles of God, through the inter- 
vention of Columkille, Finnen, and other saints 
of Ireland, for having violated and burned their 
churches. He died at Ferns without making a will, 
without penance, without the eucharist, and with- 
out extreme unction, as his evil deeds deserved.*" 

Maolcron Mac Gille Sechnaill, lord of Deisgeart 
Brcagh^ died. 

Tailtiu, daughter of Conor O'Melaghlin, the wife 
of lovar O'Casejr, lord of Saitne, ■ died. 

Donal, the grandson of llory O'jNIuUoy, lord 
of Fercall,^ was slain by the people of Munster. 

Donal O'Fogarty, lord of south Ety,'" was 
killed by Donal, son of Donagh, lord of Ossory :" 
he had committed slaughter in the two Elys, where 
three hundred and twenty persons fell. 

A piratical fleet from Uladh'- entered Tyrone 
and carried away a great number of cattle. 

Niall, son of Mac Loghlin, marched with the 
Kinel Owen*^ into Uladh, to plunder it. Many 
were slain by them ; and they carried away an 
immense prey of cattle. Niall afterwards took 
hostages from Oriel. '^ 

Manus ]\Iac Dunslevy O'Heoghy,'' with a party 

6. Every Irishman, no doubt, is aware that the English invasion 
was accomplished through the agency of Dermod Mac Murrogh, 
king of Leinster, who seduced Dearvorgail, the wife of Tiarnan 
O'Rourke, prince of Brefney. On account of this act Roderick 
O'Conor, monarch of Ireland, invaded the territory of Dermod in 
the year 1167, and put him to flight. King Dermod was obliged, 
after many defeats, to leave Ireland in 1168, throw himself at the 
feet of Henry II., and crave his assistance, offering to become his 
liegeman. The English king, having received Dermod's oath of 
allegiance, granted by letters patent a general license to all his sub- 
jects to aid king Dermod in the recovery of his kingdom. Dermod 
then engaged in his cause Richard de Clare, earl of Pembroke, com- 
monly called Strongbow, to whom he afterwards gave his daughter 
Eva in marriage ; and through his influence an army was raised, 
headed by Robert Fitzstephen, Myler Fitzhenry, Harvey de Monte- 
Marisco, Maurice Prendergast, Maurice Fitzgerald, and others, 
with which in May, 1 109, he landed in Bannow-bay, near Wexford, 
which they soon reduced together with the adjoining counties. In 
1 1 70 earl Strongbow landed at Waterford with a large body of 
followers, and laid siege to that city which he took. He then joined 
king Dermod's forces, marched for Dublin, and having defeated 
the monarch Roderick, entered the city, and after great slaughter 
made himself master of it. 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. II71. 



of Ultonians, preyed Cul-an-tuaiscirt : he plun- 
dered Ciiil Rathain (or Coleraine) and other chur- 
ches. A small body of the Kinel Owen, com- 
manded by Conor O'Cathaua (or O'Kane,) over- 
took them, and a battle ensued, in which the 
Ultonians were defeated, with the loss of twenty-one 



King Dermod died in his castle at Ferns about the 65th year of 
his age. His character is drawn by various writers in the darkest 
colours ; he was ra])acious, fierce, cruel, vindictive, and of violent 
passions ; though to gain popularity he endeavoured to conciUate 
the lower classes of the people. It appears he was a man of great 
stature and strength of body, and possessed of much jiersonal bra- 
very. Holingshed says, *' he was a man of tall stature and of a 
large and great body, a valiant and bold warrior in his nation ; from 
his continual shouting his voice was hoarse ; he rather chose to be 
feared th.in to be loved, and was a great oppressor of his nobility ; 
to his own people he was rough and grievous, and hateful unto 
strangers ; his hand was against all men, and all men against 
him." 

7. Deisceart Breac/h. — Now the parish of Dysart in Westmeath, 
which, according to O'Dugan, (who died A.D. 1372.) iu his topo- 
graphical poem, was the property of O'GioUa Seachlin. 

8. Saitiie or Saithne. — This was one of the estabUahments referred 
to by Michael O'Clery in his dedication to Fergal O'Gara, as pos- 
sessed by the descendants of Teige, son of Kian, son of OilioU 
Oluni. According to O'Dugan, this district was the property of 
the O'Caseys, a clan in the county of Westmeath, where O'Dugan 
has fixed this district. This place is now traceable under the name 
Sonagh, the property of sir Hugh Morgan Tuite, Bart., where 
one of the castles of De Lacy stood, who conferred the property on 
the Tuite family. 

9. Fear Ceall, or FercnU. — The lordship of O'Maolmuaidh or 
O'Mulloy, which O'Dugan places in the ancient kingdom of Meath, 
and which comprised the present baronies of Ballycowen, Ballyboy, 
and Fercall, or Eglish, in the King's county. 

10. JSte, or Ell/. — Ely O'Fogarty, or South Ely, now the barony 
of Eliogarty, in the county of Tipjierary ; and Ely O'CarroU lay in 
the south of the King's county, west of Slieve Bloom, or that por- 
tion of the county beyond the boundary of the ancient kingdom of 
Me,ath. 

11. Lord of Onraighe or Ossori/. — Mac GioUa Phadraic was 
lord or prince of Ossory ; and his ancient principality extended 
through the whole country between the rivers Nore and Suir, being 
bounded on the N. and E. by the Nore, and on the W. and S. by 
the Suir. The princes of Ossory make a considerable figure in 
Irish history, and one iu ])articular, Donal M'Giolla Ph.adraic, dis. 
tinguished himself in the wars with Strongbow and the English. At 
an early period they were dispossessed of part of their patrimony by 
the kings of Cashel ; and the southern parts of their territories were 
occupied by the Butlers, afterwards earls of Orraond, and other 
English adventurers ; but the northern jiarts remained with the 
original proprietors, who, on their connection with the English, 
changed their name to Fitzpatrick, and took the titles of earls of 
Upper Ossory. A full account of the county of Kilkenny and the 
clans of Ossoiy will be given in a future note. 

12. V/arlh, or Ulidia. — UUdia comprised the present county of 
Down, and a part of the county of Antrim. It was also called Dal 
Araidhe, which took its name from Fiacha Araidhe, king of Ulster 
in the third century, and was latinised into Dalai-adia. In a future 
number a full account of this territory and its clans will be given. 

13. Cenel.Eoghain, or Kinel-Owen. — That is, the descendants 
of Owen, whose territory was called Tir-Eoghain, anglicised to 
Tyrone, with parts of the counties of Derry and Antrim, and which 
derived its name from Owen, the fifth son of Niall of the nine hos- 
tiiges, monarch of Ireland, in the fourth century, ancestor to 
the O'Neills, princes of Tyrone. Tir Chonaill, now the pre- 
sent county of Donegal, derived its name from his brother 
Conall Gulban, the ancestor of St. Columkille, and of the O'Don- 
nells, princes of Tirconnell. The people of those two territories 



chiefs and sons of chiefs, and a large portion of their 
army. Manus himself was wounded in the engage- 
ment, and fled from the field. He was afterwards 
slain by his brother, Dunslevy, aided by Giolla 
Aongus, son of Gillespy, a prior of monks, at Down, 
after having committed many depredations. 



are generally designated in the annals under the denominations of 
Cenel-Eoghain, or the clan of Owen, and Cinel Conaill, or the clan 
of Connell. The Mac Loughlins were the senior branch of the 
O'Neills. In the course of these notes a full account will be given 
of Tyrone and Tyrconncli, and of the various clans who possessed 
those territories. 

14. Orgialla. — The ancient kingdom or principality of Orgiall, 
comprised an extensive territory in Ulster, and was called by Ware, 
Usher, Colgan, and other Latin writers, Orgallia and ErgalUa ,- 
and by the English Oriel and Uriel. In the beginning of the fourth 
century three warlike princes, called Ihe three Collas, sons of Eochy 
Doimhlein, son of Cairbre Lifeachar, monarch of Ireland, of the 
race of Heremon, made a conquest of a great part of Ulster, which 
they wrested from the old possessors, princes of the race of Ir, cal- 
led the Clanna Rory, or Rudericians. The three Collas in the great 
battle of .\chalethderg in Fearmuighe, iu Dalaradia, on the borders 
of Down and Antrim, A.D. 332, defeated the forces of Fergus, 
king of Ulster, who was slain ; and the victors bin"ned to the ground 
Eamhain Macha or Emania, (near the present city of Armagh,) the 
famous jmlace of the Ultonian kings, which had stood for six cen- 
turies, and had been long celebrated by the Irish bards. The 
place where this battle was fought is called also Carn Achy- 
Leth-Derg, and is now known as the parish of Aghadeig, 
in the barony of Iveagh, county of Down, where there stiU 
remains a huge Carn of loose stones near Loughbrickland. The 
sovereignty of Ulster tlms passed from the race of Ir to the race of 
Heremon. The names of the three chiefs were CoUa Uais, or 
Colla the noble, CoUa Meann, or Colla the famous, and CoUa-da- 
Chrich, or Colla of the two territories. Colla Uais became mo- 
narch of Ireland A.D. 327, and died A.D. 332. The territory 
concpiered by the three Collas comprised according to Usher, O'Fla- 
herty, and others, the present counties of Louth, Monaghan, and 
Armagh, and obtained the name of Oirgiall, as stated by O'Halloran, 
from the circumstance of the Collas having stipulated with the 
monarch of Ireland, for themselves and their posterity, that if any 
chiefs of the clan Colla should be at any time demanded as hostages, 
and if shackled, their fetters should be of gold : thus, from 
the Irish or, gold, and giall, a hostage, came the name orgialla. 
The terra Oriel, or Uriel, was in general confined by the Enghsh to 
the present county of Louth, which in fomer times was part of 
Ulster; that province extending to the Boyne at Drogheda. We 
find in Colgan and Mac Geoghegan, that the O'CarroUs, a noble 
clan of the race of the Dal Fiatachs, were at the time of St. Patrick, 
kings of OrgiaU, or that part of it comprising the county of Louth. 
The Dal Fiatachs or Dalfiatacians, who founded many powerful fa- 
milies in Ulster, particularly in Dalaradia or Down, were descended 
from Fiatach Fionn, monarch of Ireland at the commencement of 
the second century, of the race of Heremon. The O'Carrolls con- 
tinued kings of Orgiall, down to the twelfth century, when they 
were dispossessed by the Anglo-Normans under John de Courcy. 
Donogh O'CarroU, prince of Orgiall, the last celebrated head of 
this race, founded the great Abbey of Mellifont in Louth, in the 
twelfth century. The territory of Louth is mentioned in the ear- 
liest times under the names of Magh Muirlheijnhite, or the Plain of 
Muirtheimhne, so called from Muirtheimhne, son of Breogan, 
uncle of Milesius, who possessed it. Part of the territory of Louth 
and Armagh was called Cuailgne, from Cuailgne, another son of 
Breogan, who, according to our old Annalists, was killed there in 
a battle between the Milesians and the Tuatha-De-Danans, about a 
thousand years before the christian era. Sliabh Cuailgne, now 
Slieve Gullion mountain in Armagh, acquired its name from the 
same person. Louth was in ancient times also called Machaire 
Chonaill, or the Plain of Conall, from Conall Cearnach, or Conall 



REIGN OF HENRY II. 



Tiarnan O'Rourke, with the men of Brefne,'^ 
plundered the people of Saithne, slew great num- 
bers of them, and cairied away an immense booty 
in cattle. 

Another predatory excursion was made by Tiar- 
nan O'Rourke, into Deisceart Breagh, on which 

the Victorious, the renowned warrior, who was chief of the Red 
Branch kni^lits of Ulster, about the commencement of the Christian 
era, and whose descendants possessed this territory. (It may be here 
remarked that the celebrated hero of Ossian's poems, Cuchulin, the 
relative and cotemporary of Conall Ceaniacb, had his residence at 
Dun-Dealgan, now Dundalk.) The descendants of Conall Cear- 
nach were the Magennises, lords of Iveagb, in Dalaradia, or county 
of Down, the O'Moras, or O'Moores princes of Leix, in Kildare 
and Queen's county, and others. Amongst the other chief clans 
who possessed Louth were the Mac Canns, Mac Cartans, O'Kellys, 
O'Moores, O'Callaghans, O'Carraghars, Mac Colmans, Mac 
Campbells, Mac Ardells, Mac Kennys, O'Devins, O'Markys, 
O'Branagans, Mac-Scanlons, and others. 

In the reign of king John, A.D. 1210, Louth was formed into a 
county, and acquired its name from the town of Louth, in Irish 
Liigh MhayJi. In the Inquisitions the county is called Lovidia. 
The chief Anglo-Norman or British families settled in Louth were 
the De Lacys, De Verdons, De Gernons, De Pepards, De Flem- 
mings, barons of Slane ; the Bellews of Bamieath, who had for- 
merly the title of barons of Duleek ; the De Berminghams, earls of 
Louth, a title afterwards possessed by the Plunkets, a great family 
of Danish descent ; the Taaffes, earls of Carlingford ; the Balls, 
Brabazons, Darcys, Dowdals, and Clintons, the Dromgools of 
Danish descent, &c. ; the Fortescues now earls of Claremont, and in 
more modern times, the family of Gorges, barons of Dundalk ; and 
the Fosters, viscounts Ferard, and barons of Oriel. 

The ]>osterity of the three Collas, called clan Colla, founded many 
powerful clans and noble families in Ulster and other parts of Ire- 
land. From Colla Uais were descended the Mac Donnells, earls of 
Antrim in Ireland, and lords of the Isles in Scotland ; also the Mac 
Rorys, a great clan in the Hebrides, and also many families of that 
name in Ulster, anglicised to Rogers. 

From CoUada Chrich, were descended the Mac Mahons, princes 
of Monaghan, lords of Ferney, and barons of Dartree, at Conagh, 
where they had their chief seat. The Mac Mahons were sometimes 
styled princes of Orgiall. An interesting account of the iVIac 
Mahons, of Monaghan, is given by sir John Davis, who wrote 
in the reign of James the First. It may be observed that several 
of the Mac Mahons in former times changed tlie name to Mathews. 
The other chief clans of Monaghan were the ^lac Kennas, chiefs of 
Truagh ; the Mac Cabes ; the Mac Neneys, anglicised to Bird ; the 
Mac Aidells; Mac Cassidys; O'Duffys, and O'Corrys ; the O'Cos- 
gras, Mac CuskersorMac Oscars, changed to Cosgraves,whoposses- 
sed, according to O'Dugan, a territory called Fearra Rois, which 
comprised the district about Carrickmacross in Monaghan, with the 
parish of Clonkeen, adjoining, in the county of Louth ; the Boylans 
of Dartree ; the Mac Gil Michaels, changed to Mitchell ; the Mac 
Donnells ; the O'Connellys, and others. 

This part of Orgiall was overrun by the forces of John de Courcy 
in the reign of king John, but the Mac Mahons maintained their 
national independence to the reign of Elizabeth, when Monaghan 
was formed into a county, so called from its chief town Muin- 
eachan, that is, the Town of Monks. The noble families now in 
Monaghan, are the Dawsons, barons of Cremome ; the Westenras, 
lords Rossmore ; and the Blayneys, lords Blayney. The other 
chief landed proprietors are the families of Shirly, Lesley, Coote, 
Corry, and Hamilton. 

From Col/a-rla-C'/iricA were also descended the Mac Guires, 
lords of Fermanagh, and barons of Enniskillen ; the O'Flanagans 
of Fermanagh ; the O'Hanlons, chiefs of Hy-Meith-Tire, now the 
barony of Orior in Armagh, who held the office of hereditary regal 
standard-bearers of Ulster ; the Mac Cathans or Mac Canns of 
Clan Breasail, in Armagh; the O'Kellys, princes of Hy Maine, in 
the comities of Galway and Roscommon ; and the O'Madagans or 



occasion he slew Giollu Enain Mac Lughadha, 
chief of Cuircne," and Mac Gilleseachnaill, chief 
of Deisceart Breagh. O'Lamhduibh was slain on 
that occasion by the men of Meath. Donal 
Breaghagh (O'Melaghlin) lord of East Meath, gave 
hostages to Tiarnan O'Rourke, 

O'Maddens, chiefs of Siol Anmchadha or Silanchia, now the barony 
of Longford, in the county of Galway. 

Colla Meann's posterity possessed the territory of Modhorn, that 
is, the districts about the mountains of Mourne. 

That part of Orgiall, afterwards forming the county of Armagh, 
was possessed, as already stated, partly by the O'Hanlons and JIac 
Canns, and partly by the O'Neills, O'Larkins, O'Duvanys, and 
O'Garveys of the Clauna Rory, who according to O'Brien, posses- 
sed the Craobh Ruadh, or territory of the famous Red Branch 
knights of Ulster; O'Hanrathysof Hy-Meith Machaj O'Donegans 
of Breasal Magha ; and others. 

The native chiefs held tlieir independence down to the reign of Eliza- 
beth, when Armagh was formed into a county A.D.I 586, by the lord 
deputy, sir John Perrott. In Pynnar's Survey of Ulster, in the reign of 
James the First, the following are given as the chief families of Bri- 
tish settlers, viz : — the Atchesons. Biownlows, Powells, St. Johns, 
HamUtons, Copes, RowUstons, &c. The noble families now in 
Armagh, are the Atchesons, earls of Gosford ; the Caulfields, earls 
of Charlemont ; and the Brownlows, barons of Lurgan. The 
Hamiltons in former times had the title of earls of Clau- 
brassil. 

In the ancient ecclesiastical divisions the territory of Orgiall was 
comprised within the diocese of C'fofffier ; but in the 13th century 
the county of Louth was separated from Clogher and added to the 
diocese of Armagh. In early times there were bishops' sees at 
Clones and Louth, which sees were afterwards annexed to Clogher. 
In the early writers we find the bishops of Clogher frequently styled 
bishops of Orgiall and Ergallia. At present the diocese of Clogher 
comprises the whole of Monaghan, the greater part of Fermanagh, 
parts of Donegal and Tyrone, and a small portion of Louth. 

The see of Armagh, founded by St. Patrick in the 5th century, 
became the seat of an archdiocese, and the metropolitan see of all 
Ireland. The diocese of .\rmagh comprehends the greater part of 
that county, with parts of Louth, Meath, Tyrone, and Londonderry, 
and has ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the sees of ]Meath, Ardagh, 
Kilmore, Clogher, Raphoe, Derry, Down and Conor, and Dromore. 

15. Mac Duinsiebhe 0^ Heochada, or Mac Dunslei'ey O^Heoghy. 
— The Mac Dunsleveys were princes of Uladh or Ulidia, now the 
count)' of Down, and of the Clanna Rory of the race of Jr. The 
name of Roderick Mac Dunslevy, prince of Uhdia, frequently 
occurs in the account of the wars with John de Courcy, when the 
latter invaded Ulster. The name is derived from Dun a fortress, 
and Sleibhe, of the mountain, from the circumstance of one of the 
chiefs having his fortress at the mountains of IVIourne. The An- 
nalists add the name O'Heoghy, which was the original name of 
the family, and is still found in that countiy under the name of 
Haughy and Hoey ; and the name Mac Dunslevy is also found in 
various parts of Ireland. This name has undergone various mu- 
tations, as VlUach and UlUachan in Irish, always anglicised Dun- 
levy, the word Ulltach shewing the origin of the family from Ulidia. 
Some of this clan also call themselves Nultys and Mac Nultys, 
which is a modification of tlie same name. 

16. Brefne. — Brefney was divided into two principalities, viz., 
Brefney O'Rourke, or West Brefney, comprising the present county 
of Leitrim, with the barony of Tullaghagh, and part of TuUagh- 
onoho, in the county of Cavan ; and Brefney O'Reilly, or East 
Brefney, now the county of Cavan ; the river at Ballycormell being 
the boundary between Brefney O'Rourke and Brefney O'ReiUy. 
In a future number a full account will be given of these two terri- 
tories, and all their clans. 

17. Cuircne, or Mac/iaire Ciiircne. — This district comprised the 
present barony of Kilkenny West, in the county of M'estmeath, 
which, according to O'Dugan and Dr. O'Brien, was the lordship 
of O'Tolarg. 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1171. 



The people of Hy Maine" plundered Ormond on 
seven different expeditions from Palm Sunday to 
Low Sunday. 

The church of St. Cianan of Duleek'^ was 
plundered by the knights of Miles de Cogan, 
Some of them were slain on the day following by 
the Danes of Dublin, in revenge of their dishonour 
of St. Cianan. 

A l:)attle was fought at Dublin between Miles 
de Cogan and Asgal, son of Reginald, king of the 
Danes in Ireland ; many fell on both sides of the 
English knights and Danes of Dublin, among whom 
was Asgal himself, John, a Norwegian from the 
Orkney Isles, and many others. 

Roderick O'Conor, Tiarnan O'Rourke, and 
Miu-chad O'Carroll, marched with an army to 
Dublin to besiege the city, then in the possession 
of earl Strong-bow and Miles de Cogan. Thev 
remained there for a fortnight, during which time 
many fierce engagements took place. The king 
marched through Leinster with the cavalry of 
Brefney and Oriel, and burned the corn of the 
English. While Roderick was thus engaged, earl 
Strongbow and Miles de Cogan attacked the camp 
of the northern Irish, slew many soldiers, and caj)- 
tured their provisions, armour, and horses. 

The son of Cormac Mac Carthaigh (or Mac Car- 
thy) defeated the Danesof Limerick, and slew many 
of them, including Foirne, son of GioUa Cainidh, 
and Torcar, son of Treni ; he also burned the mar- 
ket-place and half the fortress. 



18. Ibh-Maine or Hy Maine. — The principality of the O'Kellys, 
a large territory comprised within the present counties of Galway 
and Roscommon, and extending from the Shannon at Lanesborough 
to the county of Clare, and from Atblone to Athenry in the county 
of Galway. 

19. Duleek. — In the original Doimhliag, (that is, a house of 
stone,) was founded by St. Cianan, who died A.D. 4S9. This 
village which was formerly a jiarliamentary borough, lies in the 
pari>h of the same name about five miles S.W. of Drogheda. Du- 
leek had in early times a famous monastery, and was the seat of a 
small diocese, afterwards united to the see of Meath. 

20. Tanist of Brefney. — " A successor was nominated for the 
prince in his life-time to fill the throne after his demise. As sup- 
pose his son or brother, or the most respectable relation, they 
denominated him Coimree, a word translated from the finger on 
which the ring is worn, which conies nearest to the middle finger 
in situation and length. Thus Tanist, (or the heir apjiarent,) second 
to the prince in rank and authority, and from this the title of Ta- 
nistry-law is derived by Davis and Ware. Each of the other can- 
didates of the family is called Riogh Damhna, (or heir presumptive) 
which is royal, that is, a subject qualified to receive the royal form. 
But if he was attached to any liberal or mechanical art, he was 
denominated Adhbhar only, which also denoted matter, (or material 
for a king or chief) ; that is, a matter disposed to be instructed in 
the rudiments of such an art." — O'Flaheriy's Ogygia. 



Tiarnan O'Rourke at the head of the men of 
Brefney and Oriel, marched a second time to Dub- 
lin, and attacked Miles de Cogan and his knights, 
but he -was defeated with the loss of his son Hugh, 
Tanist'^" of Brefney, the grandson of Dermod 
O'Quinn, and many others. 

A party of Siol Murray'*' went on a predatory 
excursion into Thomond,^^ they plundered Sir- 
taghan O'Lidiudha (Liddy,) and slew himself in a 
battle . 

Siol Anmchadha,-^ and Muintir Cionaeth,-* plun- 
dered Ely and took away a large prey in cattle. 

The earl's son having gone out on a predatory 
excursion, plundered the cluu'ches of the plain of 
Leinster and a large portion of Hy Faolain, (or 
O'Byrne's country.) 

The people of \Vest Connaught-' and a party of 
Siol Miu'ray plundered the west of Corcomroe,^'' 
and carried away an immense prey in cattle. 

The earl's people went on a predatory excursion 
and plundered Cluain Conaire, Galam, and Lath- 
rach Briuin, (in the county of Kildare.) 

The daughter of O'Heoghy, wife of Murchad 
O'Carroll, lord of Oriel, died. 

The Connaught squadron remained on the Shan- 
non and on Lough Derg Deirc'*' from November 
to May. 

Donnell Breaghagh (O'Melaghin) concluded a 
peace with Tiarnan O'Rourke ; and the people of 
East Meath submitted to him. 



21. Siol Muireadhaigh or Murray. — The descendants of Muir- 
eadhach Muilleathan, king of Connaught, who died A.D. 700. The 
O'Conors were chiefs of this territory, and many of them were 
kings of Connaught. An account of this territory, and all its clans 
will be given in a future number. 

22. Thomond. — TuadhMumhan or North Munster, which formed 
in ancient times a kingdom in itself, and of which a full account 
will appear in a future number. 

23. Siol Amneliadha. — Now the barony of Longford, in the 
county of Galway, and the parish of Lusmagh, on the other side of 
the Shannon in the King's county, of which according to O'Dugan, 
O'Madagain, (O'Madden,) and O'Huallachain, were chiefs. 

24. Muintir Cionaoth. — The family of O'Kenny, or as they are 
now called, Kenny, were, according to O'Dugan, chiefs of Clann 
Laitheamhain, conjointly with the family of O'Finnegan : their 
district lay in the west of the county of Roscommon, along the 
Shannon. 

25. West Connaught or lar Connacht. — Now Connemara in the 
west of the county of Galway, of which O'Flaherty was principal 
chief. This territory was bounded on the east by Lough Corrib 
and Lough Mask, and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean ; and 
comprised the baronies of Moycullen and Balliuahinch, and the 
half barony of Ross. 

26. Corcomroe. — In the original Corcumdruadh, or Corcomo- 
druadh, east and west. This territory derived its name from Core 



REIGN OF HENRY II. 



Henry the Second, king of England, duke of 
Normandy, earl of Anjou, and lord of man}' other 
countries, came to Ireland this year with a fleet 
of two hundred and forty ships, and landed at 
Waterford.-^ 



A.D. 1173. 

Brighdein O'Kane, coarb of St. Maedhog,' died. 

Giolla Aodha O'Muidhin (O'Mugin) of the peo- 
ple of Lough Con, bishop of Cork, died. He was 
distinguished for his piety, continence, and wisdom. 

Tigearnagh O'Maoileoin, (Malone) coarb of St. 
Kiaran" at Clonmacnois, died. 

Tiarnan O'Rourke, lord of Brefney and Con- 
maicne,^ for a long time a veiy powerfid chieftain, 
was treacherously slain at Tlaghtgha' by Hugo de 
Lacy and Donal, son of Annadh O'Rourke, one 
of his own tribe. He was beheaded and ignomi- 
niously carried to DubUn ; his head was placed 
o^'er the town-gate, and his body was gibbetted 
with his feet upwards, on the north side of the city, 
a woful spectacle to the Irish !' 

Donal O'Ferrall, chief of Conmaicne, was slain 
by the people of the king of England. 

Maolraaire Mac Murchadha, chief of Muintir 
Birne, was slain by Hugh Mac Aengusa (or Magen- 



Feardoid, third son of Fergus, by Jteadhbli or Maud, queen'of Con- 
naught, in the beginning of the Christian era, from whom descended 
O'LoughUn of Burren, and O'Conor Corcomroe, lords of the 
baronies of Burreu and Corcomroe, in the county of Galway. 

27. An expansion of the Shannon in tlie county of Tipperary. 

28. Henry II. landed at Waterford on St. Luke's day, the 18th 
of October, A.D. 1171, with an army consisting of 500 knights, 
and about 4000 men at arms. — Laniyan. 

1. St. Maodhog was the founder of the monastery of Ferns, 
which afterwards became the seat of a diocese, of which he was first 
bishop. He died on the 31st of January, A.D. 632, and was in- 
terred at Ferns. He was a native of Brefney, where he founded 
monasteries and churches atDromlane and Rosinver. His original 
name was Aodh Off, that is. Young Hugh, to which, after he became 
a celebrated ecclesiastic or saint, was prefixed the pronoun Mo or 
" My," a title of respect in those days, precisely as at present used 
in the address " My Lord." 

2. SI. Kiaran, who founded the monastery of Clonmacnois, 
afterwards a bishops' see, in the parish of the same name, in the 
barony of Garrycastle, King's county, died on the 9th of Septem- 
ber, A.D. 459. 

3. Conmaicne. — There were several districts of this name in 
Connaught, the inhabitants of which were called Conmaicne, or the 
descendants of Conmac, one of the three sons of queen Maud of 
Connaught, whom she bore at one birth for Fergus Mac Roy, the 
exiled king of Ulster, about the beginning of the Christian era. This 
place was designated Conmaicne of Moyrein, in Brefney O'Rourke, 
which, according to O'Flaherty, extended into the county of Long- 
ford. Under the date A.D. 1475 it is stated that Fenagh, in the 
barony of Leitrim, and county of Leitrim, lay in Moyrein, and by 
some authorities Conmaicne of Moyrein and JIuintir Eoluis were 



nis, and by the Clan Hugh, (the tribe name of the 
Magennises,) of Ulidia. 

Dermod O'Caolaldhe (Keely,) died. 

The Kinel Owen were defeated by Flaith- 
bheartach O'Maoldoraidh" and the people of Tir- 
connell, who committed great slaughter among 
them by the miracles of God, through the inter- 
■\entiou of St. Patrick and St. Columkille, whose 
churches they plundered. 

The fourth visitation of the entire province of 
Connaught, and as far as Armagh, was made by 
Giolla-Mac-Liag (Gelasius,) coarb of St. Patrick, 
and primate of Ireland. (He died in A.D. 1174, 
in the 87th year of his age.) 

Mac Gillepscoip (Mac Gillespy,) chief of the 
Clan Aeilabra, Brehon (or judge) of the tribe of 
Monaig, was treacherously slain by Dunsle^y 
O'Heoghaidh, king of Ulidia; the Ulidian nobles, 
who were the sureties between them, were the per- 
sons w'ho slew him. 

The people of Anghaile (Anally,) and Muintir 
INIegiollgain, were treacherously plundered by the 
son of Annadh O'Rourke and the English, who 
took much cattle and booty. They afterwards 
marched to Ardagh of bishop Mel, plundered all the 
country, and slew Donal O'Fen-all, chief of Anally.' 



considered identical. The Mac Rannalls, (anglicised to Reynolds) 
were the principal chiefs of Muintir Eoluis, which territory com- 
prised the southern part of the county of Leitrim, and extended 
from Slieve-an-Iarain and Lough Allen, to Siieve Carbry, west of 
Balona, in the county of Longford, and contained the castles of 
Riim, Lough Scur, and Leitrim, (See Annals under the year 1490,) 
and the monasteries of Fenagh, MohiU, and Cloon. Under the 
year 1562 it is stated that the power of O'Rourke extended from 
Caladh, in the territory of Hy Maine, (in the county of Roscommon) 
to Drobhaois, or Droos, on the borders of Leitrim, Donegal, and 
Sligo, and from Granard in Taffa or Tetfia, in the county of Long- 
ford, to the strand of Eohuile, in the barony of Tireragh, and county 
of Sligo, near Ballysadare ; and it may therefore be inferred that 
Conmaicne of Moyrein extended as far as Granard. It is stated 
however, under the presentyear 1172, that Donal O'Ferrall, of the 
Anally family, was chief of Conmaicne, or that portion of Longford 
adjoining the county of Leitrim. 

4. TIachtffha. — .\ hill near Athboy, in the barony of Lune, county 
of Meath. Mr. Hardiman, in his Statute of Kilkenny, states that 
this is now called the HUl of Ward, between Athboy and Trim. It 
is stated by O'Flaherty that a fire temple of the Druids stood here 
in the time of paganism, and that in the reign of Tuathal Teaght- 
mar, monarch of Ireland in the second century, solemn conventions 
were held here every year on the night of the last day of October, 
or the feast of Samhain, to appease the gods by immolating victims 
and raising fires. 

5. The Kingdom of Meath. — Tiaman O'Rourke, prince of Brefiiey, 
was married to the daughter of Murtagh O'JIelaghlin, king of 
Meath. The ancient kingdom of Meath was formed in the second 
century by Tuathal Teachtmar, (or Tuathal the Acceptable,) who 
was monarch of Ireland from A.D. 130 to A.D. IfiO, by the com- 

I hination of a portion from each of the then four provinces or king- 



ANNAiS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1173. 



A general synod of Ireland, both of the clergy 
and chief laitj', was held at Tuam in Connauglit, 
at which Rory O'Conor and Cadhla O'Duify, arch- 
bishop of Tuam, presided; three churches were 
consecrated. 



A.D. 1173. 
Mun-agh O'Cobhthaidh (Coffey,) bishop of 
Derry and Raphoe, died. He was a man of pure 
chastity, a precious stone, a transparent gem, a 
brilliant star, a treasuiy of wisdom, and chief con- 
senator of the canons of the church ; after bestow- 
ing food and raiment on the poor and needy. 



doins, and their annexation to Meatli : hence it became a Culgeadli, 
or fifth province, whicli term was afterwards and has been to the 
present applied to a jtrovince. Tlie Irish name is Mldhe, or, aceor- 
dinjj to some authorities, Meidhi', which signities a neclt, because it 
was formed by a portion or necJi talcen from eacli of the four pro- 
vinces. Others derive it from Mldhe, wlio was chief Druid to 
Nemedius, and by whom tlio first sacred tire was kindled in Ireland 
at Utsneucli, By the Latin writers it is wTitten Midia and Me- 
dia. According to Keating, Meatli contained eighteen territories 
called Triochas, thirty townlands in each territory, twelve plough- 
lands in each townland, and a hundred and twenty acres in each 
ploughland. He describes its boundaries as extending from the 
Shannon eastward to Dublin, and from Dulilin to the river Eigh, 
(now tlie Rye water, which falls into the Lift'ey at Leixlip), then 
by a line drawn through Kildare and the King's county to Birr, 
from the Righ westward to Chian Conrach, from thence to French- 
Mill's ford, and to the Cumar (or junction) of Clonard, (on the 
southern border of Meath,) thence to Tochar Cairbre, (the bog pass 
of Carlierry, in the barony of Carberry, and county of Kildare,) 
thence to GeashiU, (King's county,) to Drumchuillin, (a parish in 
the barony of Eglisli, and King's county,) aud to the river called 
Abha'in Clxira (probably the Little Brosnii, or the river flowing 
into the Shannon from Lough Couragh, between Frankford and 
Birr,) thence by the Shannon northwards to Athlone, and Lough 
Ribh (or Lough Ree, a part of the Shannon between Westmeath and 
Anally or Longford on one side, and Roscommon on the other,) and 
finally thence to Drogheda, being bounded on the north by Brefney 
and Orgiall. Thus the ancient kingdom of Merith comprised the 
present counties of Meath and Westmeath, with parts of Dublin, 
Kildare, Iving's county, the greater part of Longford, and small 
portions of Brefney and Orgiall on the borders of the present coun- 
ties of Cavan and Louth. 

The great plain of Meath which included the greater parts of the 
present counties of Meath and Dublin, was known by the name of 
MtKjh Brenyh, signifying the Magnificent Plain, mentioned by the 
latin writers under the name of Bre/jiii, and by O'Conor, (Eer. 
Hih. Scrip. Vol. I.) as Cmnpii.9 Brhjiintium, or the Plain of the 
Brigantes, from being possessed by the Brigantes, who were called 
by the Irish Cltmnn Breor/ahu Part of the territory of Bregia 
obtained the name of F'm(jal from the Danes, or rather Norwegians, 
who planted a colony there in the tenth century, along the coast 
between Dublin and Drogheda, and who were called by the Irish 
Fionn GliaUl, signifying the Fair-haired Foreianers : hence the 
name Fingal. The plain of Bregia extended^from Dublin to 
Drogheda, and thence to Kells, and contained the districts about 
Tara, Trim, Navan, Athboy, Dunboyne, &c. Another great division 
of ancient Meath was called Teahhtha or Tefha, which comprised 
the present county of Westmeath, with parts of Longford and the 
King's county. 

Meath was for many ages the seat of the Irish monarchy; and 
from the kings of Meath were generally elected the monarchs of 
Ireland. From the earliest period to the fifth century the monarchs 
of Ireland were occasionally elected from the descendants of each 
of the three sons of Milesius, namely, from the races of Heber, 



ordaining priests, deacons, and clergymen of every 
degree, repairing and consecrating many ecclesi- 
astical estabhshments and cemeteries, builcUng many 
monasteries and abbeys, performing every clerical 
duty, and gaining the victory of devotion, pilgri- 
mage, and penance, his spu-it departed to heaven, 
in the Black Abbey church of ColumkiUe, at Derry, 
on the 1 0th day of February. A great miracle was 
performed on the night of his death, viz ; — the 
dark night became bright from dusk till morning, 
and it a])peared to the inhabitants that the adjacent 
parts of the globe were illuminated ; and a large 
body of fire moved over the town and remained 



Heremon, and Ir. From the fifth to the eleventh century, during 
a period of six hundred years, the Hy Nialls of the race of Here- 
mon held exclusive possession of the Irish monarchy, until A.D. 
1002, when Brian Boroimhe, king of Monster, of the race of 
Heber, dethroned JIalachy the Secojid, and became monarch of 
Ireland. 

The Hy-Nialls took their name from their immediate ancestor, 
Niall of the Nine Hostages, who was monarch of Ireland from A.D. 
370 to A.D. 406. They were divided into two great families, 
denominated the northern and southern Hy Nialls. One branch 
of the northern Hy Nialls consisted of the O'Neills, who were 
descended from Eoghnn, one of the sons of Niall of the Hostages, 
and were princes of Tyrone, and in many instances kings of Ulster, 
and monarchs of Ireland : the other branch consisted of the O'Don- 
nells, princes of Tyrconnell, and some of whom were also monarchs 
of Ireland, who were descended from Conall Gulban, another son 
of the monarch Niall. 

The southern Hy Nialls were descended from four other sons of 
Niall, but chiefly from his son Conall Criomthann, many of whose 
descendants were kings of Meath, and monarchs of Ireland. This 
family took the name of Clan Colman, from Column More, son of 
Dermod, son of Criomthann, and monarch of Ireland, from A.D. 
564 to A.D. 665. The descendants of the Clan Colman, kings of 
Meath, took the name of O'Maolseachlain or O'Melaghlin, from 
Maolseachlain or Malachy, monarch of Ireland, their ancestor in 
the tenth century. 

The ancient monarchs had four royal palaces in Meath, namely, 
at Teamair or Tara, at Tailten, at Tlachtga, and at Uisneach. 
Amergin, the celebrated bard of Dermod, monarch of Ireland in the 
sixth century, derives the name of Teamair from Tea, the queen of 
Heremon, wlio was buried there, and 3/?/r, which signifies "Mound," 
hence Tea Mur, or the Mound of Tea. By Latin and English wTiters 
it is named Temoria and Temor, and was celebrated for the great 
national conventions held there, called the Feis Titmlirach. 'Taill- 
ten obtained its name frem Taillte, queen of Eochaidh, son of Eire, 
the last king of the Firbolgs, who was buried there. This place 
was long celebrated for the great assemblies of the people held there 
annually in August, at which various sports and recreations similar 
to the Olympic games of Greece were exhibited, and marriage con- 
tracts ratified. It is known as Teltown, near the river Black- 
water, between Kells and Navan. Tlachtga, according to the 
Annals of the Four Masters, was situate near Athboy, and was 
celebrated as a seat of Druidism The hill of Uisneach, in the barony 
of Rathconrath, in Westmeath, between MuUingar and Athlone, 
was another great seat of Drudism. 

The chief's and clans of the kingdom of Meath, and the territories 
they possessed in the twelfth century, are given in O'Dugan's To- 
pography as follows : to which are added various clans not men- 
tioned by O'Dugan, but whose names are collected from other 
sources. I. O'Melaghlins, kings of Meath. Of this family Mur- 
togh O'Melaghlin was king of Meath at the period of the Anglo- 
Norman invasion, when the kingdom of Meath was granted by Henry 
II., to Hugh de Lacy. II. O'Hairt or O'Hart ; O'Riagahi or 
O'Regan ; and O'Ceallaigh or O'Kelly, whom O'Dugan styled prin- 



REIGN OF HENRY II. 



in the south east ; all the people rose from their 
beds, for they thought it was day ; and it (the 
light) continued so eastward along the sea. 

Conaing O'Haengusa (Henesey,) chief canon of 
Roscrea, died. 

Etlru O'Miadhachain (O'Meehan,) bishop of 
Cluain (Clonard,) died at an advanced age, after a 
well-spent Hfe. 

Cionaodh O'Ronan, bishop of Glendalough, 
died. 

Maolmochta O'Maolseachnaill, abbot of Clon- 
macnois, died. 

A great prey was taken by Hugh Magennis and 
the Clan Hugh. They plundered the Trian More 



ces of Tara. Accordini; to the hook of Clonraacnois, quoted by 
Hardinian in his Statute of Kilkenny, page 7, the O'Kellys were 
lords of Bregia, long before the Anglo-Norman invasion. Tlie 
O'Kellys of Bregia, it appears, were of a different race from the 
O'Kellys of Hy Maine, lieing a branch of the southern Hy Nialls, 
and descended from Aodh Slaine, monarch of Ireland ; the son of 
Dermod was also monarch of Ireland, in the sixth century. III. 
O'Congalaidh, probably O'Comiolly, whom O'Dugan describes as 
one of the four princes of Tara. IV. O'Ruaidhri or O'Rory, now 
anglicised to Rogers, lord of Fionn Fochla, in Bregia. V. O'Fal- 
lamhain or O'Fallon, lord of Crioch-Ma-g-Ceadach, so called from 
Oilioll Cedach, son of Cathair More, king of Leinster, and monarch 
of Ireland in the second century. The country of the O'Fallons was 
near Athlone, in the county of Westmeath, but they were afterwards 
driven across the Shannon into Roscommon. VI. O'Coindealbhain or 
0'Kendellan,or O'Commellan, prince of Ibh-Laoghaire, or Ive-Leary 
which, according to Mac Geoghegan and others, was an extensive ter- 
ritory in the present counties of Meath and Westmeath, and was pos- 
sessed by the descendants of Laoghaire, monarch of Ireland at the 
time of St, Patrick. The parishofCastletownKendellan in Westmeath 
shows one part of this ancient territory, and the townland of Ken- 
dellan's town near Navan shows another part of it. O'Braom or 
O'Brcen, chief of LuigUne, now the parish of Leney, in the barony of 
Corcaree, Westmeath. VIII. O'Haongusa or O'Hennesy, chief of 
Hy-Mac-Uais, now the barony of Moygoish, in Westmeath. The 
Clan Mac Uais, or Mac Evoys, sometimes called Mac Veaghs, of 
the race of Clan Colla, were the original chiefs of this territory. 

IX. O'Haodha, supposed to be O'Hughes or O'Heas, chief of Odli- 
bha, (probably Odra or Oddor, in the barony of Skrine, near Tara.) 

X. O'Dubhain or O'Duvan, chief of Cnodhbha, probably Knowth 
near Slane. XI. O'llainbeith or O'Hanvey, chief of Fearbile, now 
the barony of Farbill in Westmeath. XII. O'Cathasaigh or 
O'Casey, chief of Saithne, now Sonagh in Westmeath, [See note on 
Saithne.] XIII. O'Leochain or O'Loughan, chief of Gailenga, now 
the parish of Gallen, in the barony of Garrycastle, King's county. 
XIV. O'Donchadha or O'Donoghoe, chief of Teallach Modharain, 
probably now TuUamore, in the King's county. XV. O'Hionradh- 
ain or O'Hanrahan, chief of Corcaraidhe, now the barony of Cor- 
caree in Westmeath. XVI. O'Maolmuaidh or O'MulIoy, prince of 
Ferceall, comprising the present baronies of Ballycowen, Ballyboy, 
and Eglish or Fercall. XVII. O'Dubhlaidhe or O'Dooley, chief 
of Fertullach, the present barony of FertuUagh, in Westmeath. 
XVIII. O'Fionnallaln or O'Finnellan, of the race of Heber, and 
tribe of the Dalcassians, lord of Delbhna Mor, now the barony of 
Delviii, in Westmeath. XIX. O'Maollugach or O'MuUedy, chief 
of Brogha, part of the now baronies of Delvin and Farbill. XX. 
Slac Cochlam or Mac Coghlan,of tliejDalcassians, lord of Dealbhna- 
Eathra, now the barony of Garrycastle, in the King's county. XXI. 
O'Tolairg or O'Toler, chief of Cuircne, now the barony of Kilkenny 
West, in Westmeath. XXII. Mac Eochagain or Mac Geoghegan, 
prince of Cenel Fiahcaidh, now the barony of Moycashel, with parts 
of Rathconrath, and FertuUagh. The Mac Geoghegans were one 



of Armagh. He (Hugh) was, however, killed thi-ee 
months aftenvards. 

Domhnall Breaghach (Donald of Bregia) O'Me- 
laghlin, king of Meath, was slain at Durrow of 
Columkille, by his own brother Arthm-, aided by 
Muintir Laighachain. 

Giolla-Mac-Liag (Gelasius,) son of Rory, suc- 
cessor to St. Patrick, primate of Armagh, and of 
all Ireland, a son of chastity, and pure of heart 
towards God and man, <lied happily, on the 2"th 
of March, being the AVednesday before Easter, in 
the 87th year of his age. He had been sixteen 
years in the Alibey of Cokmikille, at Deny, before 
his elevation to the see of Armagh. 



of the principal branches of the Clan-Colnian, and were called Cenel 
Fiacha, from one of the sons of Niall of the Hostages. XXIII. Mac 
Ruairc or Mac Rourke, chief of Aicme-Enda, descended from Enda 
son of Niall of the Hostages. This clan was located in the district 
in which is situated the Hill of Uisneach, in the barony of Rath- 
conrath in Westmeath. XXIV. O'Cairbre or O'Carberry, chief of 
Tuath Binn. XXV. O'Heochadha or O'Heoghy, chief of Cenel- 
Aengusa. XXVI. O'JIaelcolain, chief of Delvin Beag, or Little 
Delvin, adjoining the barony of Delvin. 

Teathbha or Teflfia, as before mentioned, formed a great portion 
of the ancient kingdom of Jleath. O'Flaherty states that Teftia, 
wiiich became the territory of Maine, one of the sons of Niall of 
the Hostages, and of his descendants, comprehended the greater 
part of the present county of Westmeath, with nearly the whole of 
Anally, or the county of Longford. It was divided into north and 
south Teffia. North Teffia, or Cairbre Gabhra, was that portion of 
Anally about Granard, which obtained its name from Cairbre, one 
of the sons of Niall of the Hostages, and his descendants, who were 
its possessors. South TetRa comprised the remaining portion in 
Anally and Westmeath. O'Dugan, in the continuation of his To- 
pography of Meath, enumerates the different chiefs and their terri- 
tories in Teffia. The principal chiefs of Teffia, according to him, 
were the following ;~I. O'Catharnaigh orO'Kearney. II. O'Cuinn 
or O'Quinn. III. O'Coinfiacla, now O'Convally. IV. O'Lacht- 
nain, or O'Loughnan, by some anglicised to Loftus. V. O'Muir- 
eagain, or O'Murrigan. The O'Quinns were chiefs of Muintir 
Giolgain, and had their cliief castle at Rathcline, in Longford. The 
otiier chiefs were :— I. O'Flannigain or O'Flanagan, chief of Comar, 
which O'Dugan places beside O'Braoin's country. II. O'Braoin 
or O'Breen, of Breaghmhuine, now the barony of Brawney in \\est- 
meath. III. Mac Conmeadha or Mac Conway of Mumtir Laoda- 
gain. IV. Mac Aodhaor Mae Hugh of Muintir Tlamain. V.Mac 
Taidhg or Mac Teige, (by some anglicised to Tighe, by others to 
Montague,) of Muintir Siorthachain. VI. JIac Amhalgaidh or 
Mac Gawley, chief of Calraidhe or Calrigia, a territory on the bor- 
ders of Westmeath and the King's county,. Mac Geoghegan states 
that this territory comprised the barony of Kilcourcy, in the King's 
county. Count Magawley of the Austrian service, was of this 
ancient clan. VII. Mac Garghamna or Mac Gaffney, of Muintir 
Maoilsionna. VIII. O'Dalaigh or O'Daley, of Corca Adhaimh, or 
Corcaduin. On the map of Ortelius, by O'Conor, O'Daly is given 
as in, or contiguous to, the barony of Clonlonan, in Westmeath. 

IX. O'Scolaidhe or O'Scully, of Dealbhna larthar or West Delvin. 

X. O'Comhraidhe, anglicisedto Curry, of Hy Mac L^ais, the present 
barony of Movgoish in Westmeath. 0'Haodha,orO'Hugh,orO'IIea, 
of TirTeabthaShoir, or East Teffia. XII. O'Ccarbhaill or O'Carroll, 
of Tara. XIII. O'Duinn, O'Doyne or O'Dunn, of the districts of 
Tara. XIV. Mac Giolla Seachlomn or O'Shaughlin, of Deisceart 
Breagh, now the parish of Dysart in Westmeath. XV. O'Ronain 
of Cairbre Gaura, or northern "Teffia. XVI. O'Haongusaor O'Hen- 
nesey, of Galinga beag, now the parish of Gallen, in the King's 
county. 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1174. 



A.D. 1174. 

Maol losa O'Conaghtan, bishop of Siol Mmray, 
(Elphin,) died. 

Maol Patrick O'Banan, bishop of Conor and Dal 
Araidhe (Down,) a venerable man, full of sanctity, 
meekness, and purity of heart, died happily in Hy 
of Columkille, (lona in the Hebrides,) at a good 
old age. 

Giolla Machaidhbeo, (latinised Maccabeus,) 
abbot of Peter and Paul's monastery at Armagh, 
a zealous and efHcient sci'vant of Christ, died on 
the 31st of March, in the 70th year of liis age. 

Flann (Florence) O'Gorman, chief professor (or 



Tlie following chiefs and clans in Meath and Westmeath hare 
not heen friven hy O'Dufjan, 0'Sionai(jk, anglicised to Fox, of the 
southern Hy Nialls, lords of Muintir Tadhgain, an extensive terri- 
tory in Tettia, containing parts oT the baronies of Rathconrath and 
Clonlonan in Westmeath, with part of the barony of Kilcoiircy, in 
the King's county. The head of Ihis family was distingiiished by 
the title of The Fox, and ol)taincd large grants of lands from queen 
Elizabeth, with the title of lord of Kilcourcey. The O' Malones, a 
branch of the O'Conors, kings of Connaught, who had large pos- 
sessions in the barony of Brawney, in Westmeath. In former times 
these chiefs had tlie title of barons of Clan-JIalone and afterwards 
obtained thatof baronsSimderlin, of Lake Sunderlin, in Westmeath. 
Tlie O'Fngrins, a numerous clan, in Meath and West Meath, of 
which there were many respectable families, the head of which had 
the title of baron of Feltrim in Fingal. The following also were 
clans of note in Westmeath, viz :— the O'Coffeys, and O'Higgins. 
In Meath O'Laingseachs, or O'Lynches, O'Murphys, and O'Mur- 
rays, the O'Brogans, and others. Tiie chiefs and clans of ancient 
Meath were, with few exceptions, of the race of the southern Hy 
Nialls. There are now but few families of any note, descendants 
of the ancient chiefs of Meath. 

In the year 1172 Henry II., granted to Hugh de Lacy for the 
service of fifty kn'ghts, the whole kingdom of Meath, of which that 
chieftain was made lord Palatine, with as full and ample powers as 
Murchard O'Melaghlin, then king of Meath, who was dispossessed. 
The original charter in Latin, conferring the grant, will be given 
in the course of tliis work. De Lacy divided Meath amongst 
his various chiefs, who were commonly denominated de Lacy's 
barons. Hugh Tyrrell obtained Castlcknock; and his descendants 
were for a Ions; period barons of Castlcknock. Gilbert de Angulo 
or Nangle, obtained Magherigallen, now the barony of Morgallion, 
in Meath. Jocelin, son of Gilbert Nangle, obtained Navan and 
Ardbraccan. The Nangles were afterwards barons of Navan. 
Many of the Nangles took the Irish name of Mac Costello, and from 
them the barony of Costello in Mayo derived its name. ^A'illiam 
de Missett obtained Luin ; and his descendants were barons of 
Lune near Trim. 

Adam Feipo or Pliepoe obtained Skrine, Santreff, or Santi-y, and 
Clontorth, (either Clouturk or Clontarf.) This f.nnily had the title 
of barons of Skrine, which title afterwards passed to the family of 
Marward. Gilbert Fitz-Thomas obtained the territories about Ken- 
lis; and his descendants were barons of Kells. Hugh de Hose 
obtained Dees or the barony of Deece in Meath. The Husseys were 
made barons of Galtrim. Hichard and Thomas Fleming obtained 
Crandon and other districts. The Flemmgs became barons of Slane, 
and a branch of the family viscounts of Longford. Adam Dullard 
or Dollard obtained Dullenevarty. Gilbert de Nugent obtained 
Delvin and his descendants were barons of Delvin, and earls of 
Westmeath. Richard Tuite received large grants in Westmeath 
and Longford. The Tuites r.'cei\ed tlie title of barons of Moyashell, 
in Westmeath, Robert de Lacy received Rathwu-e in Westmeath, 
of which his descendants were barons. Jeofi'rey de Constantine 
received Kilbixey in Westmeath, of which his descendants were 
barons. William Petit received Castlebreck and Magheritherinan, 



lecturer) of Armagh and of all Ireland, a learned 
and erudite doctor of divinity and moral law, having 
studied twenty years in France and England, and 
passed twenty more governing and superintenchng 
the schools of Ireland, died happily on the Wed- 
nesday before Easter, in the 70th year of his age. 

Murghes O'Dubhthaigh (or Maurice O'Duffy,) 
abbot of the monastery of Ath-da-la-arg at Boyle, 
died. 

llory O'CearbhaiU (or O'Carroll,) lord of Ely, was 
killed on Inis CIotlu*an, (an island in Lough Ree on 
the Shannon, in the county of Longi'ord.) 

Congalach O'Coinfiacla, lord of Teathba, died. 



now the barony of Magheradernon in Westmeath. The Petits 
received the title of barons of Mullingar. Myler Fitz-Henry ob- 
tained Magherneran, Rathkenin and Athinorker, now Ardnorcher. 
Richard de Lachapelle, brother to Gilbert Nugent, obtained much 
land. 

The following great families, either of English or Norman descent, 
settled in Meath in early times. Thede Genevilles succeeded the 
de Lacys as lords of Meath ; and afterwards the great family of 
Mortimer, earls of March in England. Tiie Plunketts, a family of 
Danish descent, became earls of Fingal, and branches of them barons 
of Dunsaney, and earls of Louth. The Prestons, viscounts Gor- 
manstown, and another branch viscounts of Tara. The Barnwalls, 
barons of Trimblcstown, and viscounts Kingsland. The Nettervilles, 
barons of Dowth. The Bellews, barons of Duleek. The Darcys 
of Flatten, some of whom were barons of Na\'au. The family of 
Jones were aftenvards barons of Navan. The Cusacks, barons of 
Clonmullen. The Fitz-Eustaces, barons of Portlester. 

Tlie following were also families of note in Meath. The de 
Bathes of Athcarn. The Dowdalls of Athlumney. The Flemings 
of Staholmock. The Betaghs of Moynally, of Danish descent. 
The Cruises of Cruisetown and Cruis-Rath, &e. The Drakes of 
Drake-Rath. The Corballys. The Everards. The Cheevers, 
some of whom had the title of barons of Mount Leinster. The Dar- 
dises. The Delahoids. The Balffes. The Berfords. The Cad- 
dells. The Scurlocks or Sherlocks. The Dillons. In more modern 
times the following famihes of note. The Brabazons, earls of 
Meath. The Butlers, barons of Dunbojme. Wharton, baron of 
Trim Scomberg, viscount Tara. Cholinondeley, viscount Kells. 
Hamilton, viscount Boyne. Colley Wesley or Wellesley, of Dan- 
gan, earl of Momington, afterwards marquess Wellesley, and duke 
of Wellington. The Taylors, earls of Bective, and marquesses of 
Headfort. The Biighs, earls of Darnlcy. The marquess Conyng- 
ham at Slane. Langford Rowley, baron of Summerhill. The 
Gerards, Gametts, Barneses, Lamberts, Napper of Loughcrew, 
Wallers, Tisdalls, ^yinters, Coddingtons, Nicholsons, and Thomsons, 
respectable famUies in modem times in Meath. 

In Westmeath the following great families of English descent 
were located, together with those already enumerated. The Dil- 
lons, who according to Lodge's Peerage, by Archdall, were oriffin- 
ally descended from a branch of the southern Hy Nialls ; their 
ancestor, a chieftain named Dillune or Delion, in the seventh cen- 
tury, went to France, and being a famous warrior, became duke of 
Aquitaine. One of his descenilants came to Ireland with king John, 
and got large grants of lands in Westmeath and Anally, his descen- 
dants were lords of Drumrany, in the barony of Kilkenny West, 
and having founded many great families in Meath and Connaught, 
became earls of Roscommon, viscounts Dillon in Mayo, barons of 
Clonbrock, and barons of Kilkenny West, and several of them were 
counts and generals in the French and Austrian service. The Dal- 
tons and Delameres obtained large possessions in Westmeath and 
Anally. The chief seat of the Daltons was at Mount Dalton, in 
the barony of Rathconrath, of w hich they were lords, and some of 
them distinguished in the service of foreign states, and were counts 
of the Holy Roman Empu'e. The Deases in Meath and Westmeath. 



REIGN OF HENRY II. 



Mulrooney O'Kiardha, (O'Keaiy,) lord of Cair- 
pre (Carbury in Meath,) was treacherously slain 
by the English of Dublin, assisted by Mac Tui-nin, 
by the son of Hugh O'Ferrall, and by Keallagh 
O'Finnellan, lord of Delvin More. 

The diocese of Westmeath, (the ancient see of 
Fore,) was annexed to the abbacy (or see) of Clon- 
macnoise by a general decree of the clergy of Ire- 
land. 

Earl Strongbow having marched with an army 
into Munster, Roderick O'Conor, (king of Con- 
naught,) proceeded thither with his forces to oppose 
him. When the English recei^'ed intelligence of 
Roderick's advance, they sent for reinforcements 
to Dublin, who marched with all possible speed 
to Thurles. Donal O'Brien advanced thither 
at the head of the Dalcassians, (clans of Clare,) 
and battalions from West Connaught, and with 
a large army of the Siol MuiTay, (clans of 
Roscommon,) besides the numerous and select 
army commanded by Idng Roderick. A fierce 
battle ensued, in which the English were defeated 
by means of great valour. Seven hundi'ed of them 
having been slain, the few who sumved fled in 



In more modern times are the following families having titles in 
Westmeath. The Roehforts, earls of Belvidere, and de Ginkells, 
earls of Athlone. 

In Meath the following baronets are located, viz. : — sir William 
Somerville, sir Henry Meredith, sir Francis Hopkins, sir Charles 
Dillon ; and in Westmeatli the following: — sir Percy Nugent, and 
count Nugent, sir Richard Nagle, sir John Bennet Piers, sir Richard 
Levinge, and sir John O'Reilly. 

Meath constituted the chief part of the EiigJ'ish Pale, and was 
divided into the counties of East and West Meath, in the reign of 
Henry VIII., but its extent was diminished, as East Meath in early 
times contained parts of Dublin and Kildare, and West Meath con- 
tained parts of Longford and King's county. 

The Ecclesiastical Divisions of ancient Meath were as follows ; 
It contained several small bishops' sees, namely, Clonard, Duleek, 
Ardbracan, Trim, Kells, Slane, Dunshaughlin, and Killskyre, in 
East Meath, with Fore and Uisneagh or Killere, in ^^'est.nleath. 
All those sees were consolidated in the twelfth century, and formed 
into the diocese of Meath. In the year 1568 the ancient see of 
Clonmacnois, in Westmeath and King's county ,was annexed to the 
diocese of Meath. The ancient see of Lusk, w hich lay in the king- 
dom of Meath, was united to the diocese of Dublin. The diocese 
of Meath is one of the ten which constitute the ecclesiastical pro- 
vince of Armagh, and comprehends almost the whole of the coun- 
ties of Meath and Westmeath, a large portion of the King's county, 
with parts of Kildare, Longford, and Cavan, being nearly co-exteu- 
sive with the ancient kingdom of Meath. 

6. The O'Muldorrys were princes of Tirconnell, prior to the 
O'Donnells, and are supposed to be the same sept. 

7. Anghaile or Analhj, which was formed out of the ancient ter- 
ritory of Teffia, comprised the whole of the county of Longford, and 
was the principality of O'Ferrall of the Clanna Roi-y. His chief 
residence was in the town of Longford, anciently called Longphort- 
ui-Fhearghail, or the fortress of O'Ferrall. It appears that this 
territory was divided into upper and lower Anally, the former com- 



dismay with the earl to Waterford. O'Brien after 
the victoiy retmnied home. 

Maolseaghlam O'Donagan, lord of Aradh,' was 
slain by O'Conor. 



A.D. 1175. 

O'Brien or O'Byrne, (Malachy,) bishop of Kil- 
dare, died. 

Maol losa, son of Cleraighchuir, and Giolla 
Donal Mac Cormack, his successor, both bishops 
of Ulicha, (Down,) died. 

Flaithbertagh O'Brolchain, coarb of ColumkiUe,' 
a tower of wisdom and hospitaUty, to whom the 
clergy of Ireland had given a bishop's see for his 
great vii-tues and superior wisdom, and offered 
the superintendance of the monastery of lona, after 
a patient suffering died, at the Black Abbey church 
of Deny. He was succeeded in the abbey by Giolla 
Mac Liag O'Brennan. 

The Kinel Enda"'^ were defeated in battle mth 
much slaughter, by Eachmarcach O'Kane and NeiU 
O'Gonnley. 

Manus O'Maolsachlain, (or O'Melaghhn,) lord 



prising that portion of the county of Longford south of Granard, 
and a part of the county of Westmeath possessed by O'Ferrall 
Buidh or the Yellow ; the latter that portion north of Granard, 
possessed by O'Ferrall Ban, or the Fair. The O'FerraUs were 
dispossessed of the eastern parts of this territory by the English 
settlers, the Tuites and Delamares, who came over with Hugh de 
Lacy in the twelfth century. Amongst the old clans of Anally 
were also the following, viz. : — O'Cuinn orO'Quinn.whohad his cas- 
tle at RathcUne ; and the Mac Gillegans. The Muintir MegioUgain 
or GioUgain, were located by O'Dugan in the territoiy of Muintir 
Eoluis, that is, in the northern portion of the county of Longford, 
and their chief was O'Quinn. A district called Corcard was pos- 
sessed bythe O'Mulfinnys; the Mac Cormacs ; Mac Corgabhans 
(now Gavans) ; O'Dalys ; O'Slamans or Slevins ; and O'SkoUys. 
The O'FerraUs maintained their sovereignty till the reign of Eliza- 
beth, when Anally was formed into the county of Longtbrd by the 
lord deputy, sir Henry Sidney. In modern times the following 
families haVe formed the nobility of this county. The Aungiers, 
earls of Longford, afterwards tlie Flemings, and at present the 
Pakenhams. The Lanes, earls of Laneshoro', and at present the 
Butlers. The Gores were earls of Anally, and the family of For- 
bes are now earls of Granard. The see of Ardagh was founded by 
St.Mel in the fifth century, and the bishops were also styled bisliops 
of Conma'icne, as the diocese included the territory in Leitrim 
called Comnaicne. The diocese of Ardagh at present comprehends 
nearly the whole of the comity Longford, a large portion of Leitrhn, 
and parts of Westmeath, Roscommon, Sligc, and Cavan. In the 
Roman Catholic division the ancient see of Clonmacnois, in the 
King's county, is united to Ardagh, but in the EstabUshed Church 
the see of Clonmacnois has been united to the diocese of Meath. 

I. Aradh, now the barony of Ara, county of Tipperary. 

1. The coarb or successor of St. Columkille was the abbot of 
Derry. Flaithbheartagh O'Brolchain resigned the see of Derry. 

C 



10 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1176. 



of East jNIeath, was taken treacherously by the 
English, and hanged by them at Trim. 

Donal Caemhanach (Kavanagh,) the son of Der- 
mod, king of Leinster, was treacherously slain by 
O'Fortchern and O'Nolan, (clans in Carlow.) 

The son of Donal, son of Donagh, (Fitzpatrick) 
lord of Ossoiy, was treacherously slain by Donal 
O'Brien. Teige, the son of Fergal O'Rourke, was 
also slain. 

Dennod, son of Teige O'Brien, and Mahon, son 
of Torlogh O'Brien, had their eyes put out, in theii- 
own house at Caislean-ui-Chonaing, (Castle Conell) 
by Donal O'Brien ; Dennod shortly aftenvards 
died. Mac-an-Leithdirg O'Conor, the son of 
O'Conor of Corcomroe, was also slain by Donal on 
the same day. 

Roderick O'Conor, king of Ireland, mai-ched an 
anny into Munster. He compelled Donal O'Brien 
to fly from Thomond, and spoiled the comitiy on 
that expecUtion. 

Conor (Cornelius,) Mac ConcoiUeadh, abbot 
of St. Peter and St. Paul's, and afterwards the 
coarb of St. Patrick, (archbishop of Armagh,) 
died at Rome, whither he had gone to confer m ith 
the successor of St. Peter. 

Giolla Coluim O'Maolmuaidh (Mulloy,) lord of 
Ferkale, was ti-eacherously slam by Roderick, son 
of Conor Mac Coghlan.^ 



2. The Kinel Enda were the O'Gormleys, chiefs of Moy Ith in 
thepresentbaronyofRaphoe, county of Donegal. The O'Cathansor 
O'Kanes were powerful chiefs in Derry, of whom aftjU account is 
given in the note on Tir-Eogliain. 

Clnel, Miuntlr, Clann, Siol, TenUach, Hy, O, and Mac. 
As these words constantly occur in the Annals, it is necessary to 
explain their meaning. The word Ciiienl, Ciiiel, or Cf?(eZ, pronoun- 
ced Kinel, signifies a people, or race, for instance the Cinel 
Eogbain, that is, the people or descendants of Eogan or Owen, a 
term applied to the people of Tyrone, and the posterity of Owen, 
son of king Niall, who possessed that territory, In like maimer 
the name Cinel Conaill was applied to the people of Tyreonnell, or 
Donegal, the posterity of Conall Gulban, brother of Owen, son of 
Niall. In the translation of the Annals the word is written Kinel, 
as conveying the proper pronunciation. Mulntir also signifies a 
people or tribe, but in a more limited sense than the word Cinel, 
for instance, Muintir Maolmordha, a term applied to a tribe of 
the O'Reillys, descended from Maobnordha, one of their ancient 
chiefs ; Muintir Eoluis, the tribe name of the Mac Ranalls of 
Leitrim. Clann or Clan, literally signifying a family, or descen- 
dants, is a term generally known. Siol signifies a race, or descen- 
dants, or a tribe, for instance Siol Muireadhaigh, pronounced 
Sheel Miirraf/, the tribe name of the O'Conors of Connaught, as 
descended from Muireadhach Muilleathan, king of Connaught in 
the seventh century. TeaUach is also a term applied to a tribe or 
elan, for instance, Teallach Eeachtagh, that is, the tribe of 
Eacliaidh, a name applied to the tribe of tlie Mac Gawrans, and 
also to their territory, now the barony of Tullaghaw, in the county 
of Cavan. All the foregoing terms are also applied to the terri- 
tories possessed by the various clans, as well as to the clans them- 



A.D. 1176. 

The abbeys of Fabhar (or Fore,) and Ceanannus 
(or Kells,) were laid waste by the Enghsh, and by 
the people of Hy Briuin.' 

Louth was devastated by the Enghsh. 

Niall, the son of Mac Loughlin, was slain by the 
Muinth' Branain, namelj'', Dal-m-Binne." 

The daughter of Roderick O'Conor, king of Ire- 
land, and wife of Flaithbheartach O'Maoldoraidh, 
was slain by the sons of O'CaireUain. 

Bean Midhe, daughter of Donagh O'CaiToU, and 
\rife of Cumaighe O'Floinn (Flynn), lady of Hy- 
Tiurtre and Fu-lee, died. 

Ciunaighe O' Flynn, lord of Hy-Tuirtre, Firlee 
and Dal Araidh (Down,) was slain by his own 
kinsman Conmidhe, aided by the people of Fu-lee.' 

Donal O'Brien besieged the city of Limerick and 
ex]jelled the English therefrom. 

A castle was erected by the English at KeUs. 

The Enghsh earl, Richard (Strongbow,) died of 
an ulcer in his foot, a visitation attributed to 
SS. Bridget, Cohimkille, and otlier saints, whose 
churches he had destroyed ; and it is said that 
he thought he saw St. Bridget kilhng him.'* 

The castle of Slane, which was occupied by 
Richard Fleming and his forces, and from, which 
he was in the habit of making predatory exciu'sions 
into Oriel and Hy Brium, and agamst the men of 



selves. Hy, ui Irish Ihh, pronounced Iv, is the plural of Un, or 
Oy which is the preposition from, and thus signifies of, or from. 
The word Hy is adopted by various writers instead of Il)h, and is 
retained in the present translation. The word Ua or O prefi.ved 
to Irish surnames, signified originally a grandson, but was afterwards 
applied to all the descendants. Mac, signifying a son, was in after 
times applied to the descendants of the same ancestor. 

3. The Mac Cochlains or Coghlans, a powerful clan, were chiefs 
of Dealbna Eatlu'a, now the barony of Garrycastle, in the King's 
county. 

1 . There were several places called Hy-Briuine, as will be after- 
wards explained in the note on Brefney. 

2. The Z)al-in-Sinne or iii-Bi(iniiewei'e so called, according to 
O'Flaherty, from Buinn, son of Fergus Mac Roy, king of Ulster. 
It was an ancient district in the county of Antrim. See Halriadn. 

3. Hy-Tuirtre ■was an ancient territory in Dalaradia, on the 
borders of Down and Antrim, extending from Lough Neagh to 
Slieve Mis, of which the O'Flynns were chiefs. It was afterwards 
called Clannaboy and possessed by the O'Neills. Fir Li or Firlee 
was a district on the borders of Tyrone and Derry, near Lough 
Neagh and the river Baim. In the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick 
by Colgau it is called Leacoruin Jines. 

4. It is necessary here to give some account of Strongbow, a 
name so intimately connected with the English Invasion, the most 
important event in Irish history. The ancestors of Strongbow were 
descended from the dukes of Normandy, and came to England with 
William the Conqueror. They were lords of Clare in Suffolk, from 
which they took the name of de Clare, and were created earls of 
Pembroke in M'ales. Gilbert de Clare, earl of Pembroke, bemg a 



REIGN OF HENRY II. 



11 



Meath, was plundered by Maoleachlain, son of Mac 
Loughlin, lord of Kinel Owen, at the head of the 
Kinel Owen, and the people of Oriel. They slew 
about five hundred or more of the English and then- 
horses,and not one person escaped with his life from 
the castle. Three castles were abandoned in Meath 
on the following day, through fear of the Kinel 
Owen, those of Kells, Calatrom, (Galtrim,) and 
Deny Patrick. Richard Fleming was slain on 
that occasion. 

RoderickO'Conor,kingof Ireland, granted aBally 
Biatach(townland)toGod andSt. Bean-aidh forever, 
namely, Tuaim Achaidli. The witnesses for con- 
firming this grant by O'Conor and his successors for 
ever, were Cadhla O'Dufly', archbishop of Tuam, 
Aireachtach O'Roduibh (Rody,) Flann O'Fion- 
nachta (Feenaghty,) Hugh O'Floinn, Ruairc 
O'Maoilbrenainn, Ignaidhe (Ignatius) O'Manach- 
ain, GioUu-an-CoimdeMacAnlestair, (MacAlhster) 
O'Hainlidhe (O'Hanly,) and Conor Mac Dermott. 

Donal, son of Torlogh O'Conor, lord of North 
Connaught, the most exemplary man for generosity, 
good order, and counsel, among the Irish, died and 
was buried at Mayo of the Saxons. 

Donal, son of Torlogh O'Brien, king apparent 
of JIunster, died. 

Donal O'Maim (or O'Mally,) lord of Hy MaUia, 
died. 

Dermod, son of Cormac Mac Carthy, king of 
Desmond, was taken prisoner by his own son 
Cormac Liathanach ; Cormac, however, was 
treacherously put to death by his own people, and 
Dermod re-took possession of the lordship. 

Donal Fitzpatrick, lord of Ossorj', died. 

Hugh Mac Gillabroidi O'Rourke died. 

Donal, son of GioUa Patraic, lord of Cair- 



famoiis archer, was designated de arm fort), or Strongbow, and bis 
son Ricliard also bore that name, and the titles of earl of Pembroke, 
Strigul and Chepstow ; and Kichard de Clare, earl of Pembroke, 
who invaded Ireland, is described by Cambrensis and Holingshed 
as follows : " Earl Strongbow was of a sanguine complexion, freck- 
led in the face, his eyes grey, and features feminine, his voice not 
strong, neck slender, in stature tall and well formed, courteous and 
gentle in manners ; wliat he could not compass by deeds, he would 
win by good words and gentle speeches ; in time of peace he was 
more ready to yield and obey, than to rule and command ; out of 
the camp he was more like a soldier-companion than a captain, but 
in the camp and in war, he carried with him the state and coun- 
tenance of a valiant captain. Of himself he was slow to adventure 
auythuig, but being advised and set on he refused no attempts. In 
all chances of war, he was still one and the same manner of man, 
being neither dismayed by adversity, nor puifed up with prosperity." 
Strongbow, as already mentioned,was invited to Ireland by Der- 



])re O'Ciarda, was treacherously slain by Art 
O'Melaghhn, who was deposed by the men of 
Meath, who confeiTed the principahty on Donogh 
0']\lelaghlin, whose son Flan was slain by (the 
people of) Carbry O'Ciarda. 



A.D. 1177. 

Cardinal Vivianus came to Ireland on the first 
Sunday in Lent, and convened a sjmod of the 
Irish bishops and abbots at Dubhn, in which they 
enacted many ecclesiastical regulations not now 
observed.' 

Hugh O'Neill, the youth called Toinleasg, lord 
of Kinel-Owen for a considerable time, and heir 
presumptive to the monarchy of Ireland, was slain 
by Maolachlain and Ardgal O'Loughhn ; but the 
latter fell by the hand of O'NelU in the conflict. 

John de Com'cy, accompanied by the knights of 
Dalaraidhe, marched an army to Dun-da-Leathglas 
(Down), and slew Donal, son of Cathusach, lord 
of Dalaraidhe. Down was plundered by de Courcy. 
He erected a castle there from which they defeated 
the Ultonians in two engagements. They also 
defeated the Kinel-Owen and Orgallians ; and 
Conor O'CauTellain, chief of Clan Dermod,^ and 
Giolla-Mac-Liag O'Dongaile (or O'DonneUy,) chief 
of Ferdroma,^ and many other chiefs were slain in 
the battle. Donal O'Flaherty, shot by aiTows 
in the same engagement, died of his wounds in St. 
Paul's church at Armagh, after penance and re- 
ceiving the eucharist and extreme unction. John 
de Courcy then proceeded to Hy Tuiitre and Fir 
Li, but Cumidlie O'Floinn burned the eastern 
plain before him ; Colerain also, and many other 
churches were burned. 



mod Mac Murrogh, king of Leinster, who gave him his daughter 
Eva in marriage, at Waterford A.D. 1171, with the reversion 
of the whole kingdom of Leinster after Dermod's death. 
By his wife Eva Strongbow had an only daughter, Isabel, who was 
married to William Le Mareschal, Earl Marshal of England, after- 
wards carl of Pembroke. After many battles with the Irish chiefs 
Strongbow died at Dublin of a mortification in his foot, in the month 
of May, A.D. 117G, and was buried in Christ Church, where his 
monument still remains. The descendants of tlie Anglo-iVonnan 
chiefs who came with Strongbow, were known by the name of the 
Strong bownians, and form to this day many of the principal families 
in Ireland. 



1 . Cardinal Vivianus was the Pope's Legate in Ireland. 

2. The O'Carolans of the Clanna Rory, were chiefs of Clann 
Diarmada, now the parish of Clandermot, or Glendermot, in Derry, 



12 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1178. 



Niall O'Gairmleadhaigh (Gormley), lord of Fer- 
maighe Ith and of Kind Enda, was slain by 
Donogh O'CaireUain and the Clan Dermod in the 
pi'ecincts of Deny ColumkiUe. The house in wliich 
Niall was at this time was set on fire, and he was 
slain at the door while endeavouring to make his 
escape. After this Donagh O'Carellain made peace 
with God, ColumkiUe, and the people of Derry, 
on his own account and on behalf of his descend- 
ants ; and he made an otfering to St. ColumkiUe, 
and the people of Derry, for his sons, grandsons, 
and descendants for ever. He likewise bestowed 
upon them a Bally Biatach, in the parish 
of Domhnachmore ; and he gave them the Mac 
Rlabhach,* the most valuable goblet in Ireland at 
that time, which was an equivalent for sixty cows. 
He built a house for the clergyman in lieu of that 
which was burned over O' Gormley, and paid him 
the loss sustained by the fire. The whole Clan 
Dermod, also, made restitution on then* own behalf. 

Morogh, son of Roderick O'Conor, took with 
him MUes de Cogan, and his knights to Ros- 
common, to lay waste Connaught, from ill wiU 
towards his father. The Conacians burned Tuam, 
and many other churches in the countiy, to pre- 
vent the Enghsh from fixing their quarters in them. 
They defeated the Enghsh and exijeUed them from 
the countiy. Roderick put out the eyes of his 
son, Morogh, for ha\'ing joined the English. 

O'Maoldoraidh (chief of TjTConnell,) and the 
Kinel ConeU were defeated by Conor O'CaireUain; 
and the Kinel Enda suffered great slaughter in 
the battle. The son of O'SeaiTaigh (Foley), and 
many other chieftains were slain. 

Donal O'Hara, lord of Lieney,' died. 



A.D. 1178. 

Donal O'Fogarty, bishop of Ossoiy, died. 

Giollu-Criost O'Heothaidh (O'Heoghaidh or 
O'Hoey,) bishop of Conmaicne, died. (See note 
on Anally.) 



on the borders of Tyrone. Many of this elan have changed their 
name to Carleton. 

3. Fenr Droina, an ancient territory in the county of Donejal, 
written Fardroin and Fardrome, in the mquisitions "taken of that 
county . 

4. Mac Biabhach signifies the Grey or Speckled Boy, a fanci- 
ful name given to this curious goblet. 

5. The O'Haras, chiefs of Lieuey,now the barony of Lieney, in 
the county of Sligo. 



Conor, son of Cualladh O'Lainnidh (Luiny,) 
took the cliieftainship of Kinel-Moen,' and ex- 
pelled Donal, son of Donal O'Gormley, from 
Moy-Ith,- who fled to Donogh O'Duibhdiorma 
in Inisowen. Three months afterwards the Kinel- 
Moen took the chieftainship from Conor and 
conferred it again on Donal O'Gormley. GioUa 
Caoch (the Blind,) O'Ederla and O'Flanagan, two 
of Donal's party, treacherously slew Conor in 
Donal's house, although he was under the protec- 
tion of the chief Erenach of Ernaklhe,^ who was 
then with him. Shortly afterwards the Kinel- 
Moen expelled Donal O'Gormley from the chief- 
tainship, and placed Roiy O' Flaherty in power 
over them. The three sons of O'Flaherty acted 
treacherously towards Kinel-Moen, and slew Donal, 
son of Donal O'Gormley, and Tiarnan, son of 
Rannall Mac Donall, with eight of the gentry of 
Kinel Moen. RaghnaU, son of Eachmarcach 
O'Cathain, had been slain by the Kinel Moen, in 
the beginning of the summer, and it was to 
revenge him that Galach O'Luinidh and Mur- 
togh O'Petain (Peyton) were slain, and that 
the aforementioned treachery was committed 
against Kinel Moen. 

There was a great wind in this year, by which 
many trees were uprooted, and many churches 
laid prostrate. One hmidred and twenty trees feU 
at Deny CohunkUle. 

John de Courcj', with his foreigners, marched 
into Machaire ChonaUl,'' which they plundered. 
He remained encamped for one night at Ghonn 
Righe.* Murogh O'Can-oll, loi-d of Orgiall and 
Cu-Ulladh,'' son of Dunslevey, king of Ulladh 
attacked de Courcy's forces, of whom they slew 
four hundred and fifty ! Of the Irish one hundred 
and fifty were slam on the field of battle, including 
O'Nainffed (O'Neney,) lord of Hy-Meith-Macha 
(a territory in Monaghan and partly in Armagh.) 

John de Courcy, ui an expedition into Dala- 
raidhe (or Dalaradia,) was opposed hy Cu-Midhe 
O'Flainn (Flynn,) lord of Hy-Tuirtre and of Firlee, 



1. -ffine?- .1/oen, now the barony of Raphoe, in the county Donegal. 

2. Moij-Ith, or the plain of Ith, so called from Ith, the uncle of 
Milesius, who landed at this place, where he was wounded, or, as 
some state, killed, by the Tuath-De-Danans According to 
O'Flaherty this district lay in the barony of Keenaght in the 
county of Derry. O'Gormly was chief of Moy-Ith and Kinel 
Enda. The family name O'Duibhdhiorma has been corruptly 
anglicised to Mac Dermott. 



REIGX OF HEXRY II. 



13 



The English were defeated 



who gave him battle 
wth great slaughter through the interposition of 
St. Patrick, St. Columkille, and St. Brendan ; and 
de Coui'cy with difficulty escaped to Dubhn, 
covered with wounds. 

The king of England's constable for Dublin and 
East Meath marched wth his forces to Clonmacnois, 
and plundered all the town except the churches 
and the houses of the bishop. God and St. Kiaran 
wrovight a xdsible miracle against them, for they 
could neither plunder nor rest, but abandoned 
their schemes, and departed the next day. 

The river of Galway was di-ied up for several 
days, so that aU things lost in it from time imme- 
morial were recovered, and great quantities of tish 
were taken by the inhabitants. 

The people of Dealbhna-Eathra (O'CoghUns,) 
Maoileachlain Beag (the Little,) and a party of the 
men of Teffia (the Foxes,) were defeated by Art 
O'Melaghlin, aided by the people of Offaley, and 
the English, in which battle Muu'edhach Mac-an- 
t-Sionnaigh (Fox,) was slain.' 



3. Ernaidhc, now the jiarish of Urney, wliich partly lies in 
the barony of fiaplioe, but chiefly in that of Strabane, county of 
Tyrone. 

4. Maclmire Chomiill. See note on Oreiall- 

5. GUonn or Glen Righe was the vale of the Newry river. 

6. Ci(-Vllndh. This Cu-UUadh was a celebrated chief, son of 
Conor Mac Dunsleve, king of UUilia, now the cuunty of Down. 
O'Conor (Rev. Hib. Scrip, vol. i.l states that he was called Cu- 
Ulladh, signifying the Hound of UUadh, from his great swiftness 
of foot, and bravery in battle. The defeat of de Courcy was owing 
to the valour of Cu-UIladh. 

John de Courcy was the most renowned leader of the Anglo- 
Normans in Ireland. He was descended from the dukes of Lorraine 
in France, and his ancestor came to England with William the 
Conqueror. He was a man of great strength, of gigantic stature, 
and indomitable courage. HoUngshed says that, " de Courcy was 
mighty of limb and strong of sinews, very tall and broad in propor- 
tion, a most valiant soldier, the first in the field and the foremost 
in the fight, a noble and right valiant warrior." Campion in his 
Chronicle says of him, "John de Courcy was a warrior of noble 
courage, and in pitch of body like a giant." It is remarked that in 
private life he was modest and religious ; he was, moreover, the 
founder of many monasteries. Holingshed states that, " he rode on 
a white horse, and had three eagles painted on his standards, to 
fulfill a prophecy made by Merlin, that a kniglit riding on a white 
horse and bearing birds on his shield should be the first of the 
English who with force of arms would enter and conquer Ulster." 
De Courcy and his forces subjugated a great part of Orgiall, now 
the counties of Louth, Monaghan, and Armagh, together with 
Ulidia, or the coimty of Down, and had his chief castle at Down- 
patrick. He was married to Africa, daughter of Godred, khig of 
the Isle of Man, and was created earl of Ulster by Henry II. After 
various contests with his great rivals the de Lacys, lords of Jleath, 
he was at length overcome, taken prisoner, and banished from Ire- 
land, and died an exile in France, A.D. 1"21U. The de Courcys, his 
successors in Ireland, were created barons of Kinsale, and in consi- 
deration of the fame of their ancestors were allowed the peculiar 
privilege of wearing their hats in the royal presence — a right which 



Hugh O'Flaherty, lord of West Connaught, died 

at Eanach-Duin. 

Mac AM'ley was slain by the Siol-Anmchadha.* 
Maelsechlainn Beag O'Melaghhn stormed the 

fortress of Art O'Melaghhn, and expelled him 

from his mansion, and also slew Flan, son of Mac 

Awley, chief of Cahy.* 



A.D. 1179. 

In this year the following ecclesiastics died: 
namely, Tuathal O'Connachtaidh, bishop of Tir 
Briuin ;' Colman O'Scannlain (or O'Scanlan,) 
Aircinneach- of ClojTie ; Giollu Domhnaill 
O'Forannain, Aircinneach of Ard Sratha f and 
Maelmuu-e Mac Giollu Commain, Secnap, or prior 
of Ard Sratha. 

Araiagh was entirely consumed by fii-e with all 
its chiu'ches and chapels, except St. Bridget's 
Chm-cli, and that of na bh-Fearta, or of the 
M hacks. 

All the churches of TjTone from the mountains 



the baron of Kinsale exercised on the occasion of George the Fourth's 
visit to Ireland. 

7. See note on Meath. 

8. The Siol-Anmohadha were the O'Madigans or Maddens. See 
note on Siol-Amnchadha . 

. 9. Calry, a district in the county West Meath, the ancient pro- 
perty of the Mac Awleys. See note on Meath. 

1. Skliop of Tir Sriuin. Ware mentions Tuathal O'Conach- 
taigh, bishop of Hua Brune, or Enaghdune, as attending at the 
council of Kells, A.D. 1152. Enaghdune, now the parish of Anna- 
down, county of Galway, was an ancient bishop's see, afterwards 
annexed to Tuara. 

2. The title Aircinneach, or Erenach, originally meant an Arch- 
deacon who, according to ancient discipline, was the manager of 
the property of the church. By degrees this office fell into the 
hands of lajinen, who consequently assumed the title of Arch- 
deacons. In the middle ages several archdeacons are found in one 
and the same diocese, some called nuijores, others minores. In the 
course of time the Erenachs became exceedingly numerous in Ire- 
land. They were universally laymen, except that they were 
tonsured, on v.'hich account they were ranked among the clerici or 
clerks. Each of these Erenachs used to pay, and was bound to do 
so, a certain subsidy, refections, and a yearly pension to the arch- 
bishop or bishop, in whose diocese the lands held by them were 
situated, in proportion to the quantity of land and the custom of the 
country. Usher observes, that in the diocese of Derry and Raphoe 
the bishop got a third part, the other two-thirds being reserved for 
the repairs of churches, hospitality, and Erenachs' maintenance. 
In fact the Erenachs were the actual possessors of old church lands, 
out of which they paid certain contributions, either in money or 
kind, towards ecclesiastical purposes. There was another title in the 
church somewhat similar but superior in rank to the Airchinneach, 
called Comharbn (Coarb,) corruptly written Corba or Corbe, and 
in the plural Corbas, Corhcs, and Conitirbnns- Some of the Coarbs 
in latter times were laymen, and possessed lands belonging to 
episcopal sees, paying, however, certain mensal dues to the bishops, 
who did not hold the lands in demesne. On the whole It appears 



14 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1180. 



southwards were abandoned on account of the 
wars, commotions, and famme. 

O'Ruadhachain, lord of Ua n-Eachducli,^ chcd 
of a disease of thi-ee nights duration, after his ex- 
pulsion for having violated the Canon Laws of St. 
Patrick a short time previously. 

A peace was concluded by Donogh O'Caireal- 
lain and the Clan Dermot, with the Kinel Moen 
and O'Gonnley. Awlave Mac Meanman was 
brother of Donogh's wife. This treaty was ratified 
in the church of Ai'dstraw, where the oaths were 
administered by the clergy of that church as well 
as of Domhnach-j\Ior and of Urney. O'Gormk'y 
(Awlave) came on the following day, demanding 
more sureties, to the house of Donogh O'Cairel- 
lain ; but they killed him in the middle of their 
people, before the mansion 4por, in the presence 
of his sister, Donogh's wife ; they also slew three 
of his party, namely, Cionaedh, son of Art O'Bra- 
cain, (or Bracken,) and the son of Gillcrist, son of 
Cormac Mac Reodain, the foster brother of Donogh 
O'Cahellam. Shortly after the chui-ches of Ai'd- 
straw, Domhnach-Mor, and Urney were devastated 
by the men of Moy-Ith. 

One hundred and five houses were burned in a 
plundering attack on Clonmacnois. 

Clonfert and all its churches were biu'ned. 

Lothra, Ai'dfert, Cashel, Tuaim-da-ghualainn 
(Tuam,) Dysart KeUy, Kil-meadlian, and Balla 
(in the comity of Mayo,) were all destroyed by 
fire. 

Maelseachlain O'Maoilmiaidli, chief of Muinter 
Eoluis, died. 

Ivar O'Casey, lord of Saithne, died. 



tliat the coarbs, erenaehs, and aircliinneachs were in ancient 
times the managers of Church Lands. (See Usher and Lanigan.) 

3. Ard Smthn, now Ardstraw, an ancient episcopal see in 
Tyrone, afterwards united to the diocese of Derry. 

4. Uii n-Eachdach or Iv Hachdtich, now the barony of Iveagh 
county of Down. 

5. O'Shaughnessy's territorywas Kmel Aodh, in the south-west 
of tlie county of Galway. 

1. Laurence O'Tunthail or O' Toole waa the son of Murtogh 
O'Tuatliail, prince of Imaile, in the present county of 'NVicklow. 
He became abbot of Glendalougli, and afterwards aichbishop of 
Dublin, A.D. 1162. In the year 1175, having gone to England 
on some business with king Henry, he nearly lost his life w^hile in 
the act of commencing to celebrate Mass in the cathedral of Can- 
terbury, a man, supposed to be a maniac, having approached the 
altar and struck him to the ground by a violent blow on the head 
witli a club. The archbishop, from his active exertions to rouse 
the Irish princes and people to resistance against the English, in- 
curred the enmity of kmg Henry. In the year 1180, the arch- 



Maolaghlin Riagh O'Shaughnessy,^ lord of the 
half of Kinel Aodh, was slain by the son of Donogh 
O'CathaU, (or O'Cahal.) 



A.D. 1180. 

Lorcan O'Tuathail, (or O'Toole,) i.e. Laurence, 
archbishop of Leinster, and legate of Ireland, was 
martjTed.' 

Macraith O'Daighi-e, (or O'Deerj',) Aircinneach 
of Derry, died. 

Raghnall O'Carolan was slain by the Kinel 
Moain within the precincts of Derry-Columkille. 

Donogh O'Carolan was slain by the Kinel 
Conaill (O'Donnells,) in revenge of his treachery 
to O'Gormley. This happened through the inter- 
vention of the saints, because he had violated their 
sanctuaries. 

Aindilis O'Dochartaidh (or O'Dogherty,) died at 
Derrj^ Columkille. 

A battle, commonly called Tfie battle of the 
Conors, was fought between Conor of Moan Moy, 
son of (king) Roiy O'Conor, and Conor O'Kelly, 
lord of Hy Maine, in which O'KeUy, Teige his son, 
Dermod his Ijrother, Maolseachlain, son of Deraiod 
O'Kelly, and Teige, son of Teige O'Conor, were 
slain. ^ 

Maurice O'Hedhin (O'HejTie or Hjmes,) lord 
of Hy Fiachrach Aidhne,^ was slain by the men 
of Munster. 

Carrghamhain O'Giollaultain, chief of Muintir 
Maoiltsiona,^ was slain by Hugh Mac Cangamhna 
on Innis Endaimh on Morlough. 



bishop went again to England to arrange some matters with the 
king, who treated liim in a tyrannical manner, and prevented his 
return to Ireland. King Henry having gone to France, the per- 
secuted prelate followed him, witli a view to accommodate matters, 
but on his arrival in Normandy he was seized with a fever, of 
which he soon afterwards died, on the 14th of November, A.D. 
11!!'0, in the monastery of Augum, now En, in the church of whic 
be was interred. Grief and persecution having prematurely cut 
off this eminent prelate, the Annalists mean to intimate that fact 
by stating that he died a martyr. In person he was tall and 
graceful, and of a comely countenance ; he was equally emuient for 
his piety aud patriotism, and was a man of unljounded charity. 
During a famine of three years' duration he daily gave alms to 
iive hundred destitute persons, whom he also supplied with food, 
clothing, and other necessaries. For his eminent virtues and 
sanctity he was canonized by Pope Honorius III., A.D. 1220. The 
festival of St. Laurence O'Toole, as patron saint of the diocese of 
Dublin, was annually celebrated on the 14th of November. 

2. This battle, commonly called the battle of the Conors, from 
the Christian names of the two chiefs being Conor, is mentioned 



REIGN OF HENRY II. 



15 



Donal, son of Teige O'Cinneididli (or O'Ken- 
nedy,) lord of Urmhumhay' (or Ormond.) died. 

Maolmuire, son of Con the Charitable, chief sage 
of Ireland, died. 

Hugh O'Caithniadh, (or O'Caheny,) lordof Erris, 
was treacherously slain by O'Callaghan, in Kil- 
coman.'' 

Awlave O'Toghda, chief of Bredagh, was slain 
by O'Gaibhtheachain, (or O'Gavaghau,) chief of 
Moy Eleg.^ 

Murogh O'Lachtna, chief of the two Backs,' was 
dro\\iied in Lous;h Con. 



A. D. 1181 

Dunghal O'Caellaidh (or O'Keely,) bishop of 
Leithghnne (or Leighlin,) died. 

Maolmuire O'Dunain, abbot of Cnoc-na-Seangan, 
in Lugh Magh, died.' 

Maolciaran O'Fiodhabhra (or O'Fidaver.) eoarb 
of St. Kiaran,- died. 

A battle was fought between Flaithbeartach 
O'Maeldoraidh (or Flaherty O'Muldony,) lord of 
Kinel Connell, and the sons of the king of Con- 
naught, on Saturday in Whitsuntide, in which six- 
teen sons of the lords and chiefs of Connausht fell 
besides many of the gentrj' and soldieiy. The 
Kinel ConneU held the Conacians in subjection 
for a considei'able time afterwards. Accordins to 
some records the following are the names of the 
chiefs who fell in this battle : — Biyan and Manus, 
sons of Torlogh More ; Muh-ooney ; tn-o sons 



by Charles O'Conor as tlie battle of Ruba Geallain. Maonmaigh 
was an ancient territory in Gahvay, afterwards, according to 
O'Brien, called Clanricard. 

3. Hij Fifichrach Aidhne was an ancient territory in the 
county of Gahvay, co-extensive with the diocese of Kilmacduach. 

4. Innls Endaitnh is probably lunis Aingin, which Lanigan says 
was the Island of All Saints in Lough Ree on the Shannon. Muin- 
tir Maoiltsiona was Fox's country in AVest Meath. 

5. Urmhumhn, that is, East Munster or Ormond, an extensive 
ancient territory wliieli lay in the present counties of Tipperary, 
Kilkenny, and Waterford. See note on Ormond. 

6. cm ChoDwut, or Kilcomon, the parish of Kilcoman, in the 
barony of Erris, county of 3Iayo. 

7. According to O'Dugan, O'Duibhdiarmaid, (anglicised to O'Der- 
mott,) was chief of Bredach. This territory was situated between 
Lough Foyle in Derry and Lough Swilly in Donegal, and tlie dis- 
trict is still traceable by the river Breadach in that locality, which 
falls into Lough Foyle. The parish of Moville lay in this district. 
O'Toghda, a name anglicised to Todd, was chief of the territory. 
Moy Elegh was the plain of Aileaeh in the same locality, in which 
was seated the famous palace of Aileaeh, a residence of the kuigs 
of Ulster. 

8. The district called the two Backs, lies between Lough Con 
and the river Jloy , in the barony of Tyrawley, and county of Mayo, 



of Hugh O'Conor ; Hugh, son of Conor O'Kelly; 
Giollacrist, son of Mac Oireachtaidh O'Rodhuibh ; 
(or O'Rody;) Eachmarcach O'MuLreadhaicUi (or 
O'Miuray ;) Donogh, son of Biyan Luigneach 
O'Conor; Cucuallachta, son of Murtogh O'Conor ; 
the three O'Maoilbrenams (or O'Brenans ;) the 
two Mac GioUabiudhes (or M'Gilwees ;) Hugh, 
grandson of Roderick ; and many other men of 
note.^ 

Donal, son of Hugh Mac Lochlainn (or Mac 
LoughUn,) marched an army of the Kinel Owen 
of Telach Oge into Ulidia, and defeated the Uh- 
chans, with the men of Hy Ttni-tre and of Fnlee, 
who were commanded by Roiy Mac Duinnsleve 
and Cumidhe O'Flainn (or O'Flynn.) 

O'Cathain (or O'Kane,) Eachmarcach,'* assem- 
bled an army of the men of Moy-Ith, and of Kinel 
Binnigh of the Glen, and crossed Tuaim.''' They 
plundered Firlee and Hy-Tuirtre, and took an 
immense prey of cattle. 

Tomaltach O'Conor was promoted to the coarb- 
ship of St. Patrick (or see of Armagh.) He made 
a \dsitation of the Kinel Owen (TjTone), received 
liis dues from them, and gave them liis benediction. 



A.D. 1182. 

Hugh O'Caellaidh' (or O'Keeley,) bishop of 
Oriel, and chief canon of Ireland, died. 

Donal O'Huallachain, archbishop of Munster 
(Cashel,) died. 

Donal, son of Hugh O'Lachlainn (or O'Lough- 
hn,) marched an army to Dunbo'- in Daih-iada, 



and was anciently the property of the Mac Firbises, the celebrated 
historians and antiquaries of Leacan. 

1 Cnoc-no-Seangnn, that is, the Hill of the Ants, a name 
applied to the large Moat or Mound at Ardee : hence the abbey 
meant is that of Ardee in Louth. 

2. Coarb of St. Ciaran, that is, abbot or bishop of Clonmacnois. 

3. This was called the battle of C'noc-Cairbre, and was fought in 
the barony of Carburry, county of Sligo. 

4. M'henever the chief or head of a territory or clan is mentioned, 
the surname is given first and then the christian name, for in- 
stance, O'Neill, Hugh ; but among the inferior chiefs the christian 
name is frequently used first. Sometimes the surname alone is 
expressed, as O'Donnell, that is. The O'Donnell. To the names of 
the Anglo-Norman and English chiefs, and even to those of some of 
tlie Irish, the definite article The is prefixed, as An Diolamlinach, 
that is. The Dillon; An Slonnach, The Fox ; &c. 

5. Tua'im, now Toora Bridge on the river Bann, near Lough 
Neagh, in the county of Antrim. 

1. O'Caellaidh is, called by Ware and others O'Kelly and O'Kil- 
ledy. 

2. Dunbo or Dunboe, a parish in the barony of Colerain, county 
of Derry. 



IG 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 



1183-84-85. 



where he gave battle to the English ; but the Kind 
Owen were defeated, and Raghnall O'Breislen, 
Gilcreest O'Kane, and many others fell. They 
carried away with them the Gospels of St. Martin. 

Biyan, sonof Torlogh O'Brien, was treacherously 
killed by Raghnall Mac Conmara (or Mac Namara) 
Beag. 

Hugh Mac Cargamhna, chief of Muintii- Maol- 
stiona, was killed by Gillu-Ultain Mac Cargamhna. 

Murogh, son of Taichleach O'Dubhda (or 
O'Dowd,) was slain by Maolseachlain O'Maol- 
ruannaigh (or O'Mubooney). 

Awlave O'Ferrall expelled Hugh O'FeiTall, and 
assumed the chieftainship of Anally. 



A.D. 1183. 

Joseph O'Haodha,' bishop of Hy Kinselagh, 
died. 

Bee O'Heaghra (or O'Hara,) lord of Lieney in 
Connaught, was treacherously killed by Conor 
O'Diai-mada (or O'Dermott,) on Lough Mac 
Fereadaidh, in his own house. 

A skirmish arose between O'Flaherty, viz. 
the GioUa Riabhach, and the son of O'Gormley. 
O'Flaherty and a gi-eat number of the Kinel Moen 
fell in the conflict. 

Fergal, son of Awlave O'Rourke, was killed by 
Loghlin, son of Donal O'Rourke. 

GiUultan Mac Cargawna, chief of Muintu- 
Maolstiona, was slain by the sons of Sionnagh 
O'Catharnidli (or O'Kearney) aided by five others. 



A.D. 1184. 

Giolla losa O'Maoilin, a bishop, died. 
Bryan of Brefney, son of Torlogh O'Conor, 
died. 

Maoil losa O'CarroU was elected successor of 



1. Joseph O'Haodha, O'Hethe or O'Hugh, bishop of Hy Km- 
selagh, in the county of Wexford, that is, bishop of Ferns. 

1 . Tualm Grene, now the parish of Tomgraney, in the barony 
of TuUa, county of Clare. 

1 Philip Unsesra. This was Philip of Worcester, the lord 
deputy of Ireland, who is represented hy various writers as a most 
corrupt and rapacious governor. Stuart, in his history of Armagh, 
says, that he entered tliat city in mid-lent, with his forces, accom- 
j)anied by Hugh Tyrrel, and subjected the inhabitants to six days' 
])illage, having robbed tlie clergy and churches. Hanmer in his 
Ciironicle says of Worcester : — " In March, about the middle of 
Lent, he came to Armagh, where he extorted and per force exacted 



St. Patrick, (to the archbishopric of Armagh,) 
which had been vacated by Tomaltach O'Conor, 

Ai-t O'Melaghlin, lord of West Meath, was 
treacherously killed by Dermod of the Friars, the 
son of Torlogh, at the instigation of the EngUsh, 
and Maoilseachlain Beag (the Little,) caused him- 
self to be appointed chief, and three days after- 
wards defeated Dermod in a battle, in which were 
slain the son of Mahon O'Brien, and many others. 

A castle was erected by the English at Kill-Air 
(in West Meath.) 

Another castle was attacked and plundered by 
Maoilseaclilain, aided by Conor of Maon Moy 
O'Conor, in wliich many EngHsh were slain. 

Thirty of the best houses in Armagh were plun- 
dered by the English of Meath. 

The monastery of Eas Ruadh (Ballyshannon,) 
was dedicated to God and St. Bernard, by Flaherty 
O'Muldorry, lord of Tyrconnell, for the good of 
his soul. 

Cenfaoladh O'Grada (or O'Grady,) successor to 
St. Cronan of Tuaim Grene,' died. 

Niall, son of the Sionagh O'Catharnaidh, died. 

Awlave, son of Fergal O'Rourke, lord of Brefney, 
was treacherously slain by Mac Raghnaill (Mac 
Revnolds.) 

Donal O'Flanagan, chief of Clan Cathail, died 
at Cong of St. Feichin (in Mayo.) 

Fergal O'Reilly was treacherously killed by 
Maelechlain O'Rourke. 



A.D. 1185. 

Maoilisu O'MmTay, professor at Deny Colum- 
kille, died at a venerable age. 

Philip Unsesra,' with his English forces, re- 
mained at Armagh six days in the middle of Lent. 

Gillcreest Mac Cathmhaoil^ (Mac Campbell,) 
head chieftain of the Kmel Fereadaidh and of the 



from the clergy there a great mass of money and treasure, and 
from thence he went to Du7ie (Down,) and from Dune to Dublin, 
laden with gold, silver, money, and money's worth, the which he 
extorted in every place where he came, and other good did he 
none. Hugh Tyrrel, his fellow scraper, took from the poor priests 
of Armagh a great brass pan or brewing furnace, whicli served the 
whole house." It is further stated, that as a judgment from Pro- 
vidence for those sacrilegious robberies, Worcester was seized with 
a sudden and violent cliolic, which nearly killed him, and tliat the 
house where Tyrrel lodged having taken fire, all the plunder he 
had was consumed to ashes together with the horses that carried 
it. It appears that Tyrrel, terrified in conscience, restored their 
pan to the priests of Armagh. 

2. Mac Cathmhaoil. See note on Tir Eaghain. 



REIGN OF HENRY II. 



17 



clans, \'iz. : clan Aengus, clan Dubhinreacht, clan 
Fogarty O'Ceannfhoda, and clan Colla, of Fer- 
managh, the chief of the councils of the north of 
Ireland, was slain by O'Negnaidh (O'Neney,) 
aided by Muintir Chaonain (the O'Keenans;) 
and his head was carried away by a party of them, 
but recovered in a month aftenvards. 

Maoilseachlain, son of Mm-togh O'Loughlin, 
was slain by the EngUsh, 

Maoilisa O'Dalaigh (O'Daly,) chief sage of 
Erinn (Ireland,) and of Albam (Scotland,) head 
chieftain of Corcaraidhe and of Corcadaimli,^ a 
nobleman distinguished for learning, poetry, and 
hospitality, died at Clonard, while on a pilgrimage 
there. 

John, son of Icing Hemy the Second of England, 
came to Ireland, wth a fleet of sixty ships, to 
assmne the government of the countiy. He took 
possession of Leinster and Dubhn, and erected 
castles at Tioprat Fachtna, and Ai-dfinan,* from 
which he proceeded to plunder Munster ; but 
Donal O'Brien defeated his forces with great 
slaughter. John soon afterwards retvu-ned to Eng- 
land to lodge complaints with his father against Hugh 
de Lacy, who was then the king's representative 
in Ireland, but who sent neither tribute nor hos- 
tages from the Irish princes. 

A fierce contest broke out in Connaught between 
the Rioghdamhnaidli (or heirs to the crown,) of 
that countiy, namely, Rory O' Conor ; Conor of 
Maonmoy, the son of (king) Roderick ; Conor, the 
descendant of Dennod ; Cathal Carrach, son of 
Conor of Maonmoy ; and Cathal Croibhdhearg 
(the Red handed,) the son of Torlogh. Many fell 
in the conflict. Roderick and his son made peace 
with the other nobles. 

West Connaught was burned, both houses and 
churches, by Donal O'Brien and the EngUsh. 

Cathal CaiTach, son of Conor of Maonmoy, son 
of Roderick, bm'ned Killaloe, both houses and 
churches, first plimdering and carrying away 
their property. He, with the EngUsh, also 
spoiled and plundered Thomond. The EngUsh 



3. Corcaraidhe and Corca Adaimh. See the O'Dalys, in tlie 
note on Meath. 

4. Tioprat Fachtna and Ardjitian. Tioprat Fachtna lay in the 
west of Ossory, in the parish of Tubrid, barony of Iverk, county of 
Killienny. Ardflnan castle was at Ardtinan, in the barony of 
Ifta and Offa, county of Tipperary, on the borders of the Suir. 



marched with him to Roscommon, where he gave 
them three thousand cows for their services. 

Amhlaoibh O'Muireadhaigh (Awlave O'Mur- 
ray,) archbishop of Armagh, and of Ivinel Fer- 
adaigh, a shining Ught, illuminating both clergy 
and people, died ; and Fogartaidh O'Cearbhallain 
(O'Carolan,) was elected his successor. 

Dermod Mac Carthy, lord of Deasmumhan 
(Desmond,) was slain by the English of Cork. 

Donal Mac GiUpatrick, lord of Ossory, died. 



A.D. 1186. 

Maolcallan, son of Adam, son of Cleirchein, 
bishop of Clonfert, died. 

Donal, son of Hugh O'LougliUn, was deprived 
of his territory, and Roderick O'Flaherty was 
elected chief thereof, by a party of the Kinel 
Owen of Tullaghoge.' 

Con O'Breislein, chief of Fanat, the torch of 
hospitality and bravery of the north of Ireland, 
was slain by the son of Mac Loughlin, and a 
party of the Kinel Owen. Inisowen was after- 
wards plundered in retaliation. 

GioUapatraic Mac Anghiollachuir, chief of Hy 
Branain, was slain by Donal O'LoughUn, at the 
instigation of the peoj^le of Hy Branain.^ 

Roderick O'Conor was banished into Munster 
by his own son, Conor of Maonmoy, and the entire 
of Connaught was laid waste between them. He 
(Roderick,) was, however, by the ad\dce of the 
Siol MiuTay, brought back, and a Triochad Cead^ 
of land was given him. 

Hugh de Lacy confiscated and transfeiTcd many 
churches to the EngUsh lords in Meath, Brefney, 
and Oriel, and to him the rents of Connaught 
were paid. He reduced and seized the greater 
portion of Ireland for the English, and erected 
castles in all parts of Meath, from the Shannon to 
the sea. After completing the castle of Dermhagh 
(Durrow,) he came out to view it, accompanied by 
one-third of the EngUsh. There came towards 
liim a certain yoimg man, whose name was GioUa- 



1 . Tullaghoge, the place at which the O'iVeills were Inaugurated ; 
it lies between Grange and Donaghcnry, in the parish of Desert- 
creight, in the barony of Dungannon, county of Tyrone. 

2. Hy Branain. See note on Dalriada. 

3. Triochad Cead. A Triochad Cead comprised, according to 
various authorities, thirty Ballybetaghs, or 120 quarters of land, 



18 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1187. 



gan-ionathar O'Miaidh, of the men of Teffia, who, 
having a battle-axe concealed about him, gave de 
Lacy a blow with which he struck off his head, 
whicli, along with the body, rolled uito the castle 
ditch, at the sanctuary of Columkille. GioUa-gan- 
ionathar made his escape by flight, both from 
English and Irish, into the wood of Clan-, and 
soon after came to the Sionnach (Fox,) and 
O'Breen, at whose instigation he had slain the 
earl.^ 

Murogh, son of Teige O'Kelly, lord of Hy 
Maine, was killed by O'Conor of Maonmoy. 

O'Breislein, chief of Fanat, in Kinel Connell, 
was slain by the son of Mac Loughlin. 



A.D. usr. 

Muircheartach O'ilaoiluidhir, bishop of Clon- 
fert and Clonmacnois, died. 

Maoihosa O'Cearbhaill (O'Carroll,) bishop of 
AirghiaU (Clogher,) died. 

Roderick O'FIaherty, lord of Kinel Owen 
(Tyi-one,) was slain on a predatory excursion into 
Tirconnell, by O'Maoldoraidh (i.e. Flaherty.) 

The Rock of Lough Key Avas burned by an 
accidental fire. Upwards of seven score persons, 
men and women, perished, either by drowning or 
burning, in the space of one hour, among whom 



each quarter containing 120 Irish acres, that is, 14,400 acres, and 
this quantity of land was considered equivalent to a barony. 

4. Hugh de Lacy. The castle of Dearmagh, or Durrow, in 
the King's County, was erected by de Lacy, on the site of a 
f^iuious monastery of St. Coluraliille, wliich he had thrown down ; 
and his death was attributed by tlie Irish to that circumstance as 
a judgment from Heaven. The man who Idlled de Lacy tied to 
his accomplices in the wood of Clair or Clara ; but it appears from 
Mac Geoghegan and others, that the Irish attacked and put to the 
sword the English retinue at the castle, and that having got de 
Lacy's body into their possession, they concealed it nearly ten 
years ; for it is stated in Ware, under the article Simon Rochfort, 
bishop of Meath, and in Archdall's notice of the abbey of St. 
Thomas, ui Dublin, that the body was not recovered till the year 
1195, when it was interred with great pomp in the abbey of Bective, 
in Jleath ; Matthew O'Heney, archbishop of Cashel, and John 
Comyn, archbishop of Dublin, attending at the ceremony. The 
head of de Lacy was brought to Dublin and buried in the tomb of 
hi s first wife, Rosa de Munimene, in the abbey of St. Thomas, 
which he had endowed. It appears that a curious controversy 
arose between the canons of St. Thomas and the monks of Bective, 
about de Lacy's body, which was at last decided in favour of the 
al)bey of St. Thomas, by Simon Rochfort, bishop of Meath, 
together with the archdeacon of Meath, and the prior of Duleek, 
who had been appointed by the Pope as judges in the case. 

Hugh de Lacy makes a remarkable figure in the English inva- 
sion. The de Lacys came from Normandy with William the Con- 
queror, and were earls of Lincoln in England. Hugh de Lacy 
came to Ireland with Henry II., A.D. 1171, and obtained from 
that monarch a grant of the whole kingdom of Meath, as already 



was Duibheasa O'Heyne, the lady of Conor Mac 
Dermott, lord of Moylurg.' 

Giollaiosa, son of Oilioll O'Brien, prior of Hy 
Maine, a historian, scribe, and poet, died. 

The castle of Killair (in Westmeath,) was burned 
and destroyed by O'Conor of Maonmoy and Mael- 
sechlain Beag, and not one of the English escaped 
to tell the tale. They took their arms and armour 
together with their horses, and two knights were 
amongst the slain. 

Donogh O'Rourke was treacherously killed by 
the Muintir Eoluis. 

DruimcUabh (Drumcliff,) was plundered by 
Maelseachlain, lord of Hy Briuin and Conmaicne, 
aided by the son of Cathal O'Rourke, and the 
English of Meath. A fortnight afterwards 
Maelechlain O'Rourke was killed in Conmaicne, 
and the son of Cathal O'Rourke had his eyes put 
out by O'Maoldoraidh {i.e. Flaherty,) as a punish- 
ment for the Adolation of Columl-dlle's sanctuary, 
and one hundred and twenty of the relatives of 
Maoilsechlain O'Rourke were killed in Conmaicne, 
and in Cairpre (Carbury) of Drumcliff, all which 
happened through the miracles of God, and inter- 
vention of Columkille.^ 

Mac Dermott (Maurice,) son of Teige, lord of 
Moylurg, died in his own house at Claonlough, in 
Clan Cuain.' 



stated m the note on Meath. He was lord palatine of Meath, and 
many years chief governor of Ireland. He erected numerous 
castles, particularly in Meath and Westmeath, as those of Trim, 
Kells, Ardnorcher, and Durrow, &c., and endowed some monas- 
teries. He is thus described in Holingshed : — " His eyes were 
dark and deep set, his neck short, his stature small, his body 
hairy, not fleshy, but sinewey, strong, and compact ; a very good 
soldier, but rather rash and hasty." It appears from Hanmer and 
others, that he was an able and politic man in state affairs, but 
very ambitious and covetous of wealth'and great possessions ; he 
is also represented as a famous horseman. De Lacy's second wife 
was a daughter of king Roderick O'Conor ; and his descendants, 
the de Lacys, were lords of Meath, and earls of Ulster, and founded 
many powerful families in Meath, Westmeath, and Louth, and also 
in Limerick, some of whom were distinguished marshals in the 
service of Austria and Russia. 

1. Mac Dermott was prince of Moylurg, now the Plains of 
Boyle, or barony of Boyle, in the county of Roscommon, and had 
his chief castle at Lough Key. In the text seven hundred persons 
are said to have lost their lives, but the mistake has been corrected 
by an interlineation, which states the number at one hundred 
and forty. 

2. DruimcUabh or Drumcliff, was a famous monastery in the 
barony of Carbury, county of Sligo, founded by St. ColumkUle. 
It appears that O'Rourke, chief of Brefney, who plundered it in 
conjunction with the English, usurped that principality after the 
death of Tiaman O'Rourke. Flaherty O'Muldorry, who killed 
O'Rourke for having committed this sacrilege, was prince of Tir- 
connell. 



REIGX OF HENRY II. 



19 



Raghnall Mac Coghlan, lord of Delvin, died. 

Hugh, son of Maoileachlaiii O'Rourke, lord of 
Brefiiey, was slain by the sons of Con Mac 
Raghnaill. 

Aireachtach Mac Amalgaidh (Mac Awley,) chief 
of Calraidhe (Calrj-,) died. 



A.D. 1188. 

Martin O'Brolaigh, the chief sage of the Irish, 
and professor at iVmiagh, died. 

Hugh O'Bechan, bishop of Innis Cathaidh,' 
died. 

Awlave O'Daighre, haAdng gone to Hi (lona,) 
on a pilgrimage, died with sincere repentance. 

Roderick O'Cananain, a long time chief of Kinel 
Connell, and heir presmnptive to the crovvii of 
Ireland, was treacherously slain by Flahertj^ 
O'Muldorrj', on the bridge of Sligo, where he was 
decoyed from DrumclifF, and along with him were 
also killed his kinsman, and a party of his people. 
Manus 0'Gai"s-ey, chief of Feardi'oma, who had 
attacked O'Cananain, was slain by the people 
of Eachmarcach O'Dogherty, in revenge for 
O'Cananain. 

Donal O'Cananain, having accidentally cut his 
foot with an axe, at Derrj', while clea\dng some 
wood for fuel, died, having the curse of the clergy 
of St. Columkille. 

The EngUshof the castle of Moycoba (in Do\vn,) 
and a party from Iveagh, in Ulidia, went on a 
predatoiy excursion into Tyrone, and advanced as 
far as Leim-Mic-Neill, where they seized some 
cattle. Donal O'Loughlin, with his followers, pur- 
sued and overtook them at Cabhan-na-s-Crann- 



3. Clann Cunin, a territory possessed by a tribe of the O'Dowds, 
in the north of the barony of Carra, county of Mayo. According 
to O'Dugan, Mac Dennott, prince of Moylurg, was their lord or 
chief. 

1. Innis Cathaidh, now Inoiscattery, an island in the Shannon, 
west of Limerick, had a famous monastery founded by St. Senan, 
in tlie sixth century, became a bishop's see, and afterwards united 
to the diocese of Limerick. 

2. Cabhan-na-g-Crannard. Magh Coba, or Jloycoba, signi- 
fying the plain of Coba, was a district situated near Downpatrick, 
where de Courcy had a castle. Cabhan (or Cavan) na-g-Crannard, 
signifies the hollow field of the high trees. It was afterwards 
called Cavan-na-Cath, that is, the hollow field of the fights. 
According to Stuart, in his history of Armagh, the place where this 
battle was fought is situated about two miles from Armagh on the 
road to Newry. Donal O'Loughlin, who commanded the Irish, 
and was killed in this engagement, was Rioghdamhna, or heir pre- 
sumptive to the Irish monarchy. He was prince of Aileacb, a 



ard.^ A battle ensued, in which the Enghsh 
were defeated with great slaughter. Donal, son 
of Hugh O'Loughlin, lord of Aileach, heir pre- 
sumptive (Rioghdamhna) to the crown of Ireland, 
a man eligible in person, in bravery, and in wisdom 
was slain in this engagement by a thrust from a 
spear. On the same day he was conveyed to 
Armagh, where he was inteiTed with great honours 
and solemnity. 

Edaoin, daughter of O'Quin,^ lady of Munster, 
while on a pilgrimage at Derrj-, died victorious 
over the world and the devil. 

John de Courc)', and the Enghsh of Ireland, 
joined by Conor O'Dermott, having marched into 
Connaught, O'Conor of Maonmoy (O'Conor, king 
of Connaught,) summoned the chiefs of that 
comitry to his assistance. Donal O'Brien, with a 
large force of the men of Munster, joined the king 
of Connaught's arm}'. The EngUsh burned several 
churches throvighout the country-, and did not halt 
until they arrived at Eas Dara (Ballysadare, in the 
county of Sligo.) They then resolved to march 
into Tirconnell, for the Conacians prevented them 
advancing into their own country. Upon O'Maol- 
doraidh (Flaherty) recei^dng inteUigence of the in- 
tention of the English, he collected the troops of 
Kinel Connell, and marched to Drumcliff to oppose 
them. When the English heard of this they 
bm-ned Ballysadare, and retreated to Cou'shliabh 
(the Cm-lew mountains,) where the Connaught and 
Munster forces met and gave them battle. Many 
of the EngUsh were slain, and they retreated from 
that countrj' with great difEcidty, ha\-ing done 
much damage on that expedition. 

The Enghsh of Ulidia* plundered the tenitory 



title taken from Aileach in Donegal, a royal residence of the Ulster 
kings. The O'Loughlins were a branch of the O'Xeills, princes of 
Tyrone, andtook their name from Loughlin O'Neill, a valiant chief, 
one of tlieir ancestors. In the same year that Donal O'Loughlin 
was killed we find also, in the Annals, that another chieftain named 
Donal O'Loughlin defeated the English m a battle m Tyrow en, in 
which he also was slain. 

3. The O'Quins, a powerful family in the county of Clare. See 
note on Thomond. 

4. Dalaradia and Ulidia. -is Dalaradia and Ulidia are fre- 
quently mentioned in the Annals, it will be necessary here to give 
an account of them Ulndh, or Ulidia, derived its name, accord- 
mg to Keating, O'Flaherty, and others, either from Ollshaith, 
signifying great treasure, or from Ollamh Fodhla, who was 
monarch of Ireland about six centuries before the Christian era. 
The name Uladh was applied to the province of Ulster, but in 
after times was confined to a large territorj- comprising the present 
county of Down and part of Antrim, and was latinised Ulidia, 
This territory also obtained the name of Dalaraidhe. The word 

D 2 



20 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1188. 



of Kinel Owen, but they were pursued and at- 
tacked by Donal, son of Hugh O'LoughUn, lord 
of Kinel Owen, and defeated with great slaughter. 



Dal signifies a part or portion, and also descendants or a trilie, 
and hence Dal-Araidlie signifies the descendants or trilie of Araidh, 
as behig descended from Fiacha Araidhe, liing of Ulster in the 
tliird century, who is described as of the race of Ir, or 
Clana Rory, called Rudericians, and whose posterity possessed 
this territory, the name of which was latinised into Dalaradia. In 
O'Flaherty, Lanigan, Dubourdieu's surveys of Down and Antrim, 
and others, the extent and boundaries of Dalaradia are given as 
follows : — It comprised the present county of Down, with a great 
part of Antrim, extending from Newry, Carlingford Bay, and the 
Mourne mountains, to Slieve Mis mountain,in the barony of Antrim ; 
thus containing, in the south and south-east parts of Antrim, the 
districts along the shores of Lough Neagh and Belfast Lough, 
Carrickfergus, and the peninsula of Island Magee, to Larne, and 
thence in a line westward to the river Bann. The remaining por- 
tion of the county Antrun obtained the name of Dalriada, a terri- 
tory which will he described hereafter. It has been erroneously 
stated by some writers that the boundary between Dalaraidhe 
and Dalriada was the river Buais, or Bush, in the barony of Dun- 
luce, county of Antrim. 

The territorj' of Uladh or Dalaraidlie is connected with the 
earliest events in Irish history. Inhhciir Slnhiyc, or the Bay of 
Slainge, now either the Bay of Dundrum or Strangford Lough, in 
the county of Down, derived its name from Slainge, son of Par- 
tholan, who jdanted the first colony in Ireland. Sliabh Slainge, 
or the mountain of Slainge, also took its name from Slainge, the 
son of Partholan, who was buried there. Giraldus Cambrensis 
calls it jl/on.« Sahinga. It is now called Slieve Donard ; it is the 
highest of the Mourne mountahis, and one of the most magnificent 
in Ireland. It obtained the name of Donard from St. Domangort, 
a disciple of St. Patrick, who built an oratory on its summit, 
which in after ages became a celebrated place of pilgrimage. 
Magh Innis, or the Plain of the Island, a name applied to the 
peninsula now called Lecale, is stated by our old Annalists as the 
place where Fionachta, monarch of Ireland, the son of Ollamh 
Fodhla, died and was buried. In the first century, in the reign 
of Lughaidh Riabhndearg, monarch of Ireland from A.D. 65 to 
A.D. 73, Lough Neagh, according to the ancient Annalists, sud- 
denly burst forth and overwhelmed by its waters the surrounding 
plains. Dalaradia is also remarkable as the scene of St. Patrick's 
early captivity, (it being there that he was sold as a slave to a 
chieftain named Milcho, whose flocks he tended near INIis moun- 
tain,) and is celebrated as the place where he made the first 
converts to Christianity, and finally as the place of his death and 
burial. He died at Sabhal, afterwards the abbey of Saul, in the 
parish of Saul, and was buried in the cathedral at Dune, which 
was called after him Downpatrick. The Did Fhitnchs, so 
designated as descendants of Fiatach Fionn, monarch of Ireland 
in the second century, of the race of Hereraon, were also inhabi- 
tants of Dalaradia, and founded many powerful families in this 
territory and other parts of Ulster. A colony of Picfs, from north 
Britain, settled in Ulster at a very early period, chiefly in Uladh 
or Dalaradia, and other parts of the present counties of Down, 
Antrun, and Derry. The Picts were called by the Irish Cruith- 
niflh, which signified Painted Men. The Cruiihneans, or Irish 
Picts, had their own princes and chiefs, and are frequently men- 
tioned in Irish history, from the first to the tenth century. The 
Picts of Dalaradia were intimately coimected by iutermarriages 
with the old Milesians of the race of Ir. The great battle of 
Achaidhleathdearg, in Dalaradia, in the fourth century, has been 
already described in the note on Orguill. In A.D. 637, Conall 
Claon, king of Uladh, a valiant prince of the race of Ir, having 
attempted to recover the monarchy of Ireland, which had been 
wrested from his ancestors by the descendants of Heremon, was 
defeated, and forced to fly to North Britain or Albany, afterwards 
called Scotland, but returning witii a powerful force of Picts, 
Britons, and Anglo-Saxons, and being joined by his allies in Uladh 
or Dalaradia, he fought against Donal the Second, monarch of 



but O'Louglihn himself was slain in the thick of 
the battle. 



Ireland, the famous battle of Moyrath,(no'W Moira, in the county 
of Down,) one of the bloodiest engagements recorded in Irish his- 
tory, which continued seven successive days, and in which, on the 
seventh day, the invaders were defeated, and Conall Cloan, with 
almost all his forces, slain. Donal Breac, king of the Albanian 
Scots, a conmiander in Conall's army, narrowly escaped with his 
life from this battle, and fled from the field with the shattered 
remnant of his forces. 

In A.D. 680, as mentioned in O'Conor's Dissertations, Cath- 
asacli and Ultan, princes of the Cruithnians of Dalaradia, leagued 
with the Britons to invade Ireland, and united their forces at Hath 
More, in Magh Line, but were defeated by the Northern Hy Nialls 
in a great battle. This Rath More was a royal residence of the 
kings of Dalaradia; it was situated in the parish now called 
Donegore, county of Antrim, and is comprised in the Manor of 
Moylinny, and not at Coleraine, as stated by Beaufort and others. 

In the lieginning of the tn'elfth century, Jlagrms, the celebrated 
king of Norway, the Orkneys, the Hebrides, and the Isle of Man, 
invaded Ireland with a powerful army, and ravaged the country. 
His progress was opposed by the men of Ulster, and in a great 
battle fought at Magh Coba, or the Plain of Coba, near Down- 
patrick, on St. Bartholomew's day, the 24th of August, A.D. 1101!, 
the foreigners were totally defeated, Magnus himself with Sigurd, 
earl of tlie Orkneys, and other valiant commanders, being slain. 
The surviving remnant of the Norwegians fled to their shijjs, and 
sailed to Scotland. Kuis Magnus was buried near the cathedral 
of Downpatrick. A most curious and interesting account of this 
battle is given in Johnstone's Celto-Scandinavian Antiquities from 
the Saga of Snorro, the Icelandic historian. 

The chiefs and clans of Dalaradia or Ulidia, and the territories 
which they possessed in the twelfth century, as collected from 
O'Dugan's Topograi)hy, are as follows : — The Craobh Rnadh, or 
the portion of the Rcdbranch Knights of Ulster, a large territory 
which comprised the central parts of the present county of Down, 
with some adjoining parts of Armagh, is given by O'Dugan as the 
head territory of Uladh. The principal chiefs of the Craobh 
Ruadh were — I. O'Duinnslebhe, called by the Annalists, Mac 
Duinnslebhe, as king of Uladh, which name has been anglicised 
O'Dunlevy, or Mac Dunlevy, as already explained under A.D. 
1171; O'Hcochadha, anglicised to O'Heoghy, or Hoey, a branch 
of the Mac Dunslevys ; O'Haidith ; O'Eochagain ; O'Labhradha ; 
O'Lcathlobhra ; O'Luingsigh, or Lynch ; O'Moran; and O'Math- 
ghamhna. O'Gairbhith, or O'barvey, and O'Ainbith, or 
O'Hanvey, were chiefs of Hy Eachach Coba, now the barony of 
Iveagh. " II. Mac Aongusa, or Magennis, chief of Clan Aodha, 
or Clan Hugh, the tribe name of the family. The Mac Gennises 
had the baronies of Iveagh and Lecale, and part of Mourne, and 
were lords of Iveagh, Newry, and Mourne. They were descended 
from the famous warrior Conall Cearnach, and were the head of 
the Clanna Rory of Ulster. III. Mae Artain, or Mac Carlan, 
chief of Kinel Fagartaigh, now the baronies of Kuielarty and Dnf- 
ferin. IV. O'Duibheanaigh, or O'Duvany, chief of Kinel Amal- 
gaidh, or Anmhargaidh Ui Moma, or Ui Mughroin, now Clan- 
awley, in the county of Down. V. Mac Duileachain, orO'Duibh- 
leacliain, chief of Clan Breasail Mac Duileachain, near Kinelarty, 
in the barony of Castlereagh. VI. O'Coltarain, or Coulter, chief of 
Dal C'oirh, in the barony of Castlereagh. The following clans col- 
lected from O'Dugan were located in Dalaradia. VII. O'Floinn, 
or O'Flynn, and b'Domhnallain, or O'Donnellan, chiefs of Hy 
Tuirtre. The territory of Hy Tuirtre lay along the northern shores 
of Lough Neagh and the river Bann, and extended to Slieve Mis, 
comprising the baronies of Toome and Antrim, in the county of 
Antrim, and was afterwards known as northern Clanaboy. VIII. 
O'Heirc, or Ere, chief of Hy Fiachrach Finn, in the barony of 
Massareene. IX. O'Criodain, or O'Credan, chief of Machaire 
Meadhaidh, now the parish of Magheramisk,in the barony of Mas- 
sareene. X. O'Haodha, or O'Hugh, chief of Feammhoighe, or 
Femmoy, a district in the county of Down, on the borders of 



REIGN OF RICH.AJRD I. 



21 




The entii'e of 



A.D. 1189. 

AOLCAINNIDH O'Fer- 
comais (now Mac Comas,) 
professor at Deny, was 
di-ovmei between Arcl 
(Ardmagilligan) and In- 
nisowen. 

John de Coiu'cy, and 
the English, plundered 
Armagh. 
Armagh, situate between St. 



Antrim, in the barony of Lower Iveacli; XI. O'Caomhain, or 
O'Keevan, chief of Slagh Lini, now Moylinny, a district in the 
barony of Antrim. XII. O'JIachoiden, chief of Muglidliom, or 
Moiiriie. XIII. O'Lachnain, or O'Loughuin, cliief of Jlodharn 
Bcas, or Little Moumo. 

In addition to O'Dugan, the following clans in Dalaradia are 
given from other authorities. The JIac Gees of Islandmagee. 
The Mac Gillmores, a warlike clan, who possessed the districts of 
the great Ards. The Mac Rorys, or Rogers, chiefs of Killwarlin. 
The O'Kellys of Clanhrasil Mac Coolechan, in the county of Down. 
The Mac Wards. The Mac Gobhans, or JIac Gowans, also given 
by some writers as O'Gobhans, or O'Gowans, a name which has 
been anglicised to Smith. These were a powerful clan of the race 
of Ir, or the Clanna Rory, and were descended from the famous 
warrior Conall Cearnach. They were mostly expelled by the 
English into Donegal, from whence great numbers of them 
emigrated to the county of Leitrim, aud they are still very nume- 
rous in Rossinver, as well as in the county of Cavan. Dal Buinne 
was a district in Dalaradia not given by O'Dugan, but occurring 
in the Annals, and derived its name, according to O'Flaherty, from 
Buinn, son of Fergus Mac Roy. It was situated on the borders of 
Down and Antrim, and contained the parish of Drumboe, in Down, 
with those of Lisbum, Magheragall, Magheramask, Glenavy, 
Aghalee, and .Vghagallen, in Antrim. 

In the fourteenth century Hugh Buidhe O'Neill, prince of Tyrone, 
with his forces, crossed the Bann, and took possession of the 
northern part of Dalaradia, which, from its being possessed by his 
posterity, who were called Clann Aodlta Bu'tdhe, was anglicised to 
Chincboy or Chiiiileboy. It extended from Carrickfergus Bay, 
aud the river Lagau, westward to Lough Neagh, and contained, 
according to Dubourdieu and other authorities, the baronies of Bel- 
fast, Massareene, Antrim, and Upper Toome, in the county of 
Antrim. This territory was called North Claneboy, to distinguish 
it from South Claneboy, which was in the county of Down. A 
part of North Claneboy also obtained the name of Bryan Carragh's 
country, from huving been taken from the O'Neills by a chief of 
the M'Donnells, who was called Bryan Carragh. 

South Claneboy, a territory which derived its name from the 
same Hugh Buidli O'Neill, comprised the baronies of Ards, Cas- 
tlerea, Kinelarty, and Lecale, and extended, according to Mae 
Gcoghegan, from the Bay of Dundrum to the BayW Carrickfergus, 
or B 'ifast Lough. 

In A.D. 1177, John de Courcy, with his forces, overran agreat 
part of Orsiall and Ulidia, or Dalaradia, and for a period of twenty 
years carried on an incessant warfare with tlie native chiefs. He 
fixed his head quarters at Downpatrick. After de Courcy had 
been driven out of Ireland by his great rivals, the de Lacys, lords 
of Meatli, the latter obtained possession of Ulidia, and were created 
earls of Ulster. Tlie de Burgos next became earls of Ulster, and 
possessors of Ulidia, which title and possessions afterwards passed 
to the Mortimers, earls of March, in England. The chief Anglo- 
Norman and English settlers in Ulidia under de Courcy and his 
successors were the Audleys, Bissetts, Copelands, Fitzsimons, 



Bridget's crosses and St. Bridget's chiu-ch, includ- 
ing the fortress, the Trian,' and the churches, was 
consumed by fire. 

JIurogh O'Carroll, lord of Oirgiall, died in the 
gi-eat monasteiT,^ after due penance. 

Donal, son of Murtogh O'Loughlin, was kiUed 
by the Enghsh of Dalaraidhe while amono-st 
them. 

Echmihdli,^ son of Mac Cana (or Mac Can,) 
the delight and happiness of all TjTone, died. 

Mac-na-hoidhche (Son of the Night), O'Maol- 
ruanaidh,^ lord of Fermanagh, being ex]3elled from 
his lordship, fled for refuge to O'CaiToll. Shortly 



Chamberlains, Bagnalls, MarteUs, Jordans, Mandevilles, Riddles, 
Russells, Smiths, Stauntons, Logans, Savadges, Walshes, and 
Whites. The Fitzgeralds, earls of Kildare, obtained Lecale in the 
reign of queen Mai-y. The followmg noble families are found m 
more modem times in the county of Down. The Hamiltons, 
barons of Claneboy, and earls of Clanbrassil. The Montgomerys, 
earls of Mount Alexander, in the barony of Ards. The Cromwells, 
viscounts of Ardglass, a title afterv\ards possessed by the Bar- 
ringtons. The Hills, barons of Killwarlin, viscounts of Hills- 
Mjorough, and now marquesses of Downshire. The Annesleys, 
barons of Glerawley and viscounts Annesleys of Castlewellan. 
Rawdon Hastings, earls of Moira. The Jocelyns, barons of Clan- 
brassU, and earls of Roden. Tlie Stuarts, viscounts Castlereagh, 
now marquesses of Londonderry. The Dawneys, viscounts of 
Down. The Wards, barons of Bangor. The Needhams, earls of 
Kilmorry, and viscounts of Newry and Mourne The Smythes, 
viscounts of Strangford. The Blackwoods, barons of Dutferin. 

In the reign of Edward II. tlie chief part of Ulidia was divided 
into two counties, namely, Down and the Ards, or Newtown, and 
in the reign of Elizabeth both were tbrmed into the county of 
Down. 

In the ecclesiastical divisions the see of Down, in Latin 
Dunum, was founded by St. Cailan, or Coelan, in the fifth cen- 
turv-. The bishops of Down are frequently mentioned as bishops 
of Dundaleathghlass, an ancient name of Downpatrick ; they 
are also styled bishops of Uladh, or Ulidia. The diocese of 
Down comprehends the greater part of the county of Down, with 
a small portion of Antrim, and is united to the see of Connor. 
The see of Droniore^ which was founded by St. Colman in the 
sixth century, comprises a large part of the county of Down, with 
small portions of Armagh and Antrim. At Newry a great Cister- 
cian monastery was foimded by Murtogh Mac Loughlin, king of 
Ireland, in the twelfth century. A mitred abbot presided over 
both it and the lordships of Newry and Mourne, and exercised 
episcopal jurisdiction. This abbey was named in Irish Inbhair 
Chinn Traighe, which signifies. Of the Yew at the Head of the 
Strand, from a yew tree planted there by St. Patrick ; and its name 
was latinised Monasterimn de viridi liyno. At Seanchoir, or 
Bangor, in the county of Down, an al>bey was founded by St. 
Congal, in the sixth century, and was famous for its college in the 
early ages. 

Dalriada or Dalrieda. This ancient territory comprised all 
the remaining portion of the county of Antrim, not mentioned in 
Dalaradia, with a small part of the present county of Derry, as it 
is stated in these .\nnals at the year 1 182, that Dunboe was in 
Dalriada, now the parish of Dunboe, in the barony of Colei-ain, 
county of Derry. Dalriada was named from Cairbre Riada, son of 
Conaire, monarch of Ireland in the third century. Some Irish 
chiefs from Ulster, descendants of Cairbre Riada, founded a colony 
in Albany, afterwards called Scotland, and after having conquered 
the Picts of that country became the founders of a kingdom also 
called Dalriada. From tlie chiefs of the Dalriadians were descended 
the ancient Scottish kings, and also the house of Stuart. The 



22 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1189. 



after an English force came to that country, 
O'CaiToll and O'Maolruanaidh gave them battle, 
but O'CaiToll was defeated, and O'Maolruanaidh 
was slain. 

O'Conor, of Maonmoy, (son of Roderick,) king 
of Connaught over both Irish and English, was 
slain by a party of his own people, namely, by 
Manus, son of Floinn O'Finachta (who was called 
the Crosach Donn,'') aided by Hugh, son of Biyan 
of Brefney, son of Torlogh O'Conor; Murtogh, 
son of Cathal, son of Dermod, son of Teige ; and 
Giolla-na-naomh, son of Giollacomain, son of 
Muireadhach Ban (the Fair) O'Maoihnichil of the 
Tuatha^ (or Districts.) It was a sad thing for a 
faction to have conspired to kill the monarch elect 
of Ireland, to whom the greater portion of the 
princes of Leath Mogha (or the south of Ireland,) 
gave their suffi*ages, for Donal O'Brien came to 

territory which ohtamed the name of Dalriada in Ulster is con- 
nected with some of the earliest events in Irish history ; and our 
old Annalists record the battle of Murbolfi, which was fought in 
this di!*trict between the Nemedians and Fomorians. It is stateA 
that Sobairce, monarch of Ireland of tlie race of Ir, about nine 
centuries before the Christian era, erected a fortress, in which he 
resided, at Dunsobairce, or the fortress of Sobairce, near Murbol;;. 
It is also mentioned that Rotheachta, king of Ireland, was killed 
by lightning at Dunsobairce. This place, now called Dunseverick, 
is situated on a bold rock projecting into the sea near the Giants' 
Causeway. The chief, O'Cathain, in after times, had his castle at 
Dunseverick, the ruins of which still remain. On the sea coast of 
Antrim is that stupendous natural curiosity the Giants' Causeway, 
of volcanic origin, consisting of a countless number of basaltic 
coluums of immense height, which, from the regularity of their 
formation and arrangement, have the appearance of a vast work of 
art, and hence were supposed to have been constructed by giants. 
In O'Brien's Irish Dictionary, under the word Fomar, it appears 
that tlie ancient Irish called this wondrous production of nature 
Clocltnn-nri-Fomarniijh, signifying the Causeway of the Fomo- 
rians. These Fomorians, it may be observed, are mentioned by our 
old historians as a colony of African pirates, descendants of Ham, 
who had settled in the North of Ireland, on the coasts of Ulster 
and Connaught, and are represented as a race of giants. Dalriada 
was divided into two large districts: 1st. The Glynns, so called 
from its consisting of several large glens, e.\tended from Olderileet 
or Lame, to the vicinity of Ballycastlc, along the sea shore, and 
contained the barony of Glenarm, and part of Carey. 2nd. Tlie 
Routes, called Reuta, or Ruta, which comprehended the baronies 
of Duniuce, and Kilconway. 

The chief clans in Dalriada were the O'Kanes, above-mentioned, 
and the Mac Uidhilin or Mac Quillans, who held the territory of 
the Routes, and had their chief seat at Duniuce. In these Annals, 
A.D. 1211, the Mac Donnells of the Hebrides are mentioned as 
having invaded the territories of Antrim and Derry, where 
they aften\'ards made settlements. In the reign of Elizabeth 
Somhairle Buidhe Mac Donnell, called by English wri- 
ters Sorley Boy, a chief from the Hebrides, (descended from the 
ancient Irish of the race of Clan CoUa, as given in the note on 
Orgiall,) came with his forces and took possession of the Glynns. 
After many long and fierce battles with the Mac Quillans, the Mac 
Dormells made themselves masters of the country, and dispossessed 
the Mac Quillans. Dubourdieu, in his Survey of Antrim, says : 
" A lineal descendant of the chief Mac Quillau lives on the road 
between Belfast and Carrickfergus, near the silver stream, and 
probably enjoys more happiness as a respectable farmer, than his 
ancestor did as a prince in those turbulent times." The Mac 



his mansion at Dunleoda' and remained with him 
on a visit for a week, and O'Conor gave him sixty 
cows out of every Triochad Cead (or barony) in 
Connaught, and ten valuable articles of gold, but 
O'Brien accepted only of the cup (or goblet) of 
Dermod O'Brien, his own ancestor. Roderick 
Mac Dunslevey, king of Ulidia, also paid him a 
friendly visit. Donal Mac Carthy, lord of Desmond, 
came to his mansion, and O'Conor gave him five 
steeds out of every barony in Connaught. Mael- 
seachlain Beag, king of Tara, \-isited O'Conor, and 
received large presents, as did also O'Rom-ke.* 

After the death of O'Conor of Maonmoy, the 
Siol MmTay waited on Roderick O'Conor, king of 
Ireland, to give him the government of Connaught ; 
and as soon as Roderick came to Moy Aoi,^ he 
took under his charge the hostages of Siol Mur- 
ray and Connaught, for it was at Inisclothran on 

Donnells were created earls of Antrim, a dignity which they still 
enjoy. The O'Haras, a branch of the great family of O'Hara in 
Sligo, have also been long settled in Antrim. Several families of 
the O'Neills have been also in Antrim from an early period. The 
other clans in this territory were the O'Siadhails or O'Shiels ; the 
O'Quinns ; O'Furries ; Mac Allisters, Mac Gees, kc. 

The following are the noble families in Antrim, in modem times. 
The viscounts O'Neill, a branch of the O'Neills, princes of Tyrone. 
The Chichesters, earls of Belfast, and marquesses of Donegal. The 
carl Mac Cartney, baron of Lisanoure. The Clotworthys and 
Skeffingtons, earls of Massereene. And the Vaughans, barons of 
Lisbume. Antrim was formed into a county in the reign of 
Edward II. 

The diocese of Connor was founded by St. Aengus Macnisius in 
the fifth century. It comprehends almost the whole of the county 
of Antrim, with small portions of Down and Derry. 



1. TTie Trian or Third, was a division of Armagh. 

2. The great monastery was that of Mellifont, near Drogheda 
in Louth. 

3. Eachmilidh Mac Cana, or Mac Can. The name Each- 
milidh is derived from Each, a steed, and MUidh, a knight, and 
is equivalent to the Latin equcs aiiratus. a knight or esquire; The 
Mac Cans were chiefs of Clan Breasail, an ancient territory on 
the borders of Armagh and Tyrone, near Lough Neagli, com- 
prising the present baronies of Oneilland m Armagh, and extend- 
ing into the county of Tyrone. The family of Hamilton have been 
in modern times earls of Clanbrazil. 

4. O'Maolruanaidh was descended from the Clan Colla, and of 
the same stock as the Mac Guires, lords of Fermanagh. 

5. Crosach Dmni signified the brown haired squinter 

6. According to O'Dugan, O'Branan, and O'Maolmichil were 
chiefs of Corcaseachnaill, in the county of Roscommon, for which 
territory the Tuatha, or Districts, was another name. 

7. liunleoda, now Dunloe, where a castle was built by Conor 
Maonmoy (O'Conor), near Ballinasloe, afterwards possessed by the 
earls of Clancarthy. 

8. It appears that the large presents of cattle, golden articles, 
&c. made by O'Conor to the provincial princes, were in the nature 
of compensation, or tributes, which were always paid by the 
monarclis to the provincial kings and princes, who did them homage 
and acknowledged their authority, as may be seen in the celebrated 
work called Leabhar-na-g-Ceart, or the Book of Miyhts. 

9. Moy Aoi, or Magh Aoi, also called Machaire Chonnacht, 
comprised the large plain in the county of Roscommon, between the 
towns of Roscommon and Elphio. 



EEIGN OF RICHARD I. 



23 



Lough Ree, that the hostages of O'Conor Maon- 
moy were kept at that time. 

Flaherty O'Maoldoraiclh, lord of Kinel Con- 
nell, remained encamped with liis forces at Corran 
(Ln SUgo,) and was opposed by all the Conacians, 
both Enghsh and Irish. 

Conor O'Dermott was slain by Cathal Carrach, 
son of O'Conor of Maonmoj', in revenge of the 
death of his father. 

Richard I.'" was proclaimed king of England on 
the 6th of July. 

O'Maoldoraidh (Flaherty,) marched a large force 
into Connaught, and encamped at Corran. The 
Conacians, both Enghsh and Ii-ish, opposed him, 
but no advantage was gamed on either side, and 
both armies returned. 



A.D. 1190. 

Dermod O'Rabhartaidh (O'Rafferty,) abbot of 
Durrow, died. 

Maelseachlain O'Neachtain and Giolla Bearaidh 
O'Sluaghadaigh, were slain by Torlogh son of 
Roderick O'Conor. 

Mor, daughter of Torlogh O'Conor, and of 
Diiibheasa, daughter of Dermod Mac Teige, died. 

A conference was held to conclude a peace 
between Cathal Croivdeai-g (O'Conor,) and Cathal 
Carrach (O'Conor,) at Clonfert Brendan. The 
Siol Murray came to the meeting, together with 
the successor of St. Patrick (Thomas O'Conor.) 
Conor Mac Demiott, and Aireachtach O'Rody, 
but they could not reconcile them. O'Conor and 
the Siol Murray came to Clonmacnois that night, 
and early on the foUovs-ing morning they embarked 
on the Shannon, and sailed into Lough Ree. A 
great storm arose on the lake by which their 
vessels were separated, and the boat in which 
O'Conor sailed became unmanageable in conse- 



10. Riehard I. The chronology of the kincts of England, fol- 
lowed in those notes, is that of Sir Harris Nicholas, the most accu- 
rate authority on the subject. Henry II. died at the castle of 
Chinon, in Normandy, on the 6th of July, A.D. 1189, and was 
succeeded by his son Richard, surnamed Coeurde Lion. 

The year of king Henry's arrival in Ireland, as already given hi 
the Annals, is A.D. 1171. Ware, O'Flaherty, and Lanigan, give 
the same year, though Leland and others erroneously state A.D. 
1172, as the year of his arrival. 



1. Tlr Fiachrach was in the county of Galway. See note in 
p. 15. Kinel Aodha-na-hEchtge, a district in the south-east of 
the same county. 



quence of the %-iolence of the storm, and was 
swamped, so that all perished ittth the exception 
of Cathal Croivdearg and six. others. Amon" 
those drowned were Aireachtach O'Rody ; Conor, 
son of Cathal; Conor and Awlave, the sons of 
Hugh Mac Oirechtaidh (Mac Geraghty ;) 
O'^IaoUbrenainn, the son of O'Mannachain, and 
many others. 



A.D. 1191. 

Roderick O'Conor went from Connaught into 
Tirconnell to the seat of Flaherty O'Maoldoraidh, 
and from thence into Tyi'one, requesting forces 
from the north of Ireland to enable him to recover 
his kingdom of Connaught; but the people of 
Ulster would give him no support. He then 
proceeded to the Enghsh of Meath for the same 
purpose, but they would not assist him. From 
thence he went into Munster, whence he was 
recalled by the Siol IMurray, who granted him 
lands in Tir Fiachrach and Kinel Aodha-na- 
Hechtge.' 

Ailleaun, the daughter of Riagan O'MaOruan- 
aidh, the wife of Aireachtach O'Rody, died. 



A.D. 1192. 

The porch of the refectory of the black church 
of St. ColumkUle at Deny, was biult by O'Kane 
of the Creeve,' and by the daughter of O'Inneirghe 
(O'Henerj-.) 

Taichleach O'Dowd, lord of Hy ^Ymhalgaldh 
and Hy Fiaclirach,^ was slain by his two grand- 
sons. 

Hugh O'Fh-nn, chief of Siol Maoileruain,' died. 

The Enghsh were defeated at Carraidli Eacha- 
radh^ by the Muintir Maoiltsiona. 

The castles of Ath-an-urchair and CiUbisge' 
were erected this year. 



1 . O'Kane of the Craoibh or Creeve. This territory was iden- 
tical with the present barony of Colerain, county of Derry. 

2. Lordof Tyraicley atidTireragh. The baronies of Tyrawley, 
m the county of Mayo, and Tireragh,in the county of Sligo, which 
in the original are written tin n-Amhalga\dh and Ua Ffiachrack. 

3. Siol Maoileruain, or Maoilruana. This territory lay in the 
west of the county of Roscommon, and comprised the parish of 
Kiltullagh, part of the parish of Kilteevan, in the county of Ros- 
common, and a considerable portion of Baflynakill, in the county 
of Galway. It also comprehended the mountain district of Sliabh- 
ui-Fhloinn, or O'Flynn's mountain, celebrated in the Irish song of 
the Droigheanan Donn, or the " Black Thorn." 

4. Carraidh Eacharadh, now Corry, near BallinaJack, county 
of Westmeath. 

5. The castles of Ardnorcher and Kilbixey, in Westmeath. 



24 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1193-94-95. 



The English committed great depredations on 
Donal O'Brien. They marched over the Plain 
of Cilldalua (Killaloe,) into iMoy O'd-Toirdheal- 
bhaidh (or Torlogh's Plain,) where they were over- 
taken by the Dal g-Cais (Dalcassians,) who slew 
a gi-eat number of them. On that expedition the 
Englisli built the castles of Cill Fiacal and Cnoc 
RafTonn." 

Donal O'Brien defeated the English of Ossory 
with great slaughter. 



A.D. 1193. 

Eochaidh O'Baoighill (O'Boyle,) was slain by 
the people of Hy Fiachra of Ard Sratha.' 

INIaolpadraic O'Coffey died. 

Cathal Mac Gaithene died. 

Derforghaill, wife of Tiaman O'Rourke, and 
daughter of JMurcliadh O'Maoileachlainn,'' died 
in the monastery of Droicheat Atha (Drogheda,) 
in the 85th year of her age. 

Dermod, son of Conbroghda O'Diomusaigh 
(O'Dempsey,) a long time chief of Clan ]\Iaoil- 
ughra, and lord of Hy Failge/ died. 

Cathal Odhar Mac Carthy was slain by Donal 
IMac Carthy. 

Murtogh, son of MuiTogh Mac Murrogh, lord 
of Hy Cennselaigh,'' died. 

Hugh O'Maoilbrcnan, chief of Clan Conchubh- 
air,^ was slain by the English of Dublin. 

O'CarroU, lord of Oriel, was taken by the 
English, who hanged him, having first put out 
his eyes. 

Inis Clothrann was plundered by the Mac 
Costelloes,'' and the sons of Conor of Maonmoy. 



6. CUl Fincn'il, or Kilfcaclo, a parish in the harony of Clanwil- 
liaiii, county of Tippcrary. Knockraflbn, a leautifiil liill near the 
river Suir, in the parish of Knockgraflbn, in the barony of Middle- 
third, county of Tipperary. 

1 . Tlie territory of Hy Fiaclira, in Tyrone, comprised the parish 
of Ardstraw,aiid some adjoining districts. 

2. Derforghaill. This was the celeliratcd princess Dervorsilla, 
daughter of the king of Meath, and wife of Tiarnan O'Rourke, 
prince of Brefney. She has been already mentioned as celebrated 
in Irish history, on account of her abduction by Dermod Mac 
Murrogh, king of Lcinster, which was the cause of the English 
Invasion. By other writers her death is stated to have taken 
place at the monastery of Jlellifont, near Drogheda. 

."3. The O'Dempseys were chiefs of Clan Maoilughra, or Glen- 
malire, a territory which, according to O'Brien, was divided 
between the King's and Queen's counties. Hy Failge, or Offaley, 
was an extensive territory, containing parts of the present King's 
and Queen's counties, of which O'Conor was supreme chief. 



A.D. 1194. 

Constantine O'Brien, bishop of Killaloe, died. 

Donal, son of Torlogh O'Brien, Idng of Munster, 
a refulgent torch of peace and war, and the bril- 
hant star of hospitality and generosity of the men 
of Munster and Leth Mogha, died. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Murtogh. 

The English took possession of Inis O'Fionn- 
tain,' but they were driven out of it. 

Cumidhe O'Flynn^ was slain by the English. 

Gilbert Mac Costelloe (or Nangle,) marched to 
Easruadh (Ballyshannon,) but was obliged to 
return without obtaining advantages. 

Maolseachlain, son of Donal Fitzpatrick, lord of 
Ossoiy, died. 

Conor, son of Manus, son of Dunslevey 
O'Heoghy, was treacherously killed by O'Hanlon. 

Hugh the Blind, son of Torlogh O'Conor, died. 

Sitriug, son of Floinn O'Feenaghty, chief of 
Clan Murchadha,' died. 

Donagh, son of Murtogh, son of Torlogh 
(O'Brien,) was slain by Murtogh, son of Donal 
O'Brien. 

Murogh, son of Awlave O'Cmneidigh (O'Ken- 
nedy,) was Idlled by Loughlin, son of Macraith 
O'Kennedy. 



A.D. 1195. 

Donal O'Conaing (Gunning,) bishop of Killaloe, 
died. 

Florent, son of Riagan O'Maoilruanaidh, (Mul- 
rooney,) bishop of Elphin, died. 

Donal O'Finn, successor of St. Brenan of 
Clonfert, died. 

Eachmarcach O'Kane died in St. Paul's church. 



4. Hy KlnselagJi, or Cennselagh, was an extensive territory, 
containing a great part of the county of Wexford, and part of 
Carlow. 

5. The O'Maolbranans were chiefs of Clanconor, a district in 
the county of Roscommon ; and another family of the same name 
were located in Leix, Queen's county. 

6. Inis Clothrann, was an island in Lough Ree, county of Long- 
ford, which had a celebrated abbey. The Mac Costelloes here 
mentioned were the English family of the Nangles, as explained 
in the note on Meath. 

1. St. Fmtan's island, m Longh Dearg, county of Donegal. See 
Se^Bord. 

2. O'FlvTin was lord of Hy Tuirtre, in Dalaradia, and this Cu- 
Midlie appears to have been the chief who defeated de Courcy in 
A.D. 1177. 

3. O'Finnaghta was chief of Clan Murchada, a'district in the 
county of Roscommon. 



REIGN OF RICHARD I. 



25 



Conor Mac Fachtna died in the church of 
DeiTy. 

Sitrig O'Gormley was slain by the son of 
Dunslevey. 

John de Courcy, and the son of Hugo de Lacy, 
marched an army to bring the Enghsh of Leinster 
and Munster under subjection. 

Cathal Crovdearg O'Conor, joined by Mac 
Costelloe, and a party of the Enghsh and Irish of 
Meath, marched into Munster, as far as Imlcach 
lubhau- (Emly,) and Cashel ; they burned four 
great castles, and several others of a muior 
description. 

Cathal Mac Dermott came fi-om Munster into 
Connaught, and conquered all before him, until 
he an-ived at Lough Mask and Inisroba (at Bal- 
hm-obe in Mayo,) where he seized on all the 
shipping of Cathal Crovdearg, which he took to 
Caislean-na-CaiUighe (in Lough Mask,) from 
whence he committed many depredations on all 
sides. Cathal Crovdearg, with a party of the 
Enghsh, and the Clan (or Siol) Maohnianaidh, 
marched thither, and at length concluded a peace 
with Mac Dermott, notwithstanding aU the 
depredations he had committed. 



A.D, 1196. 

The cathedral of Peter and Paul at Armagh, 
with its churches, and a great portion of the 
fortress, were biu'ned. 

Mm-cheartach, son of jMurcheartach O'Lough- 
lin, lord of Kinel Owen, and heir presxunptive to 
the throne of Ireland, the tower of braver}-, and 
feats of arms of Leath Cuinn, the demolisher of 
the cities and castles of the English, and a founder 
of chmxhes and dehghtfid sanctuaries, was slain 
by Donogh, son of Blosgaidh O'Kane, at the 
mstigation of the Kinel Owen, after they had 
sworn by the three shrines, and the canon of St. 
Patrick, to be faithful to him. His remains were 
conveyed to Deny Columldlle, and interred there 
with honours and solemnity. 

Roderick Mac Dunslevey, joined by the Enghsh, 



1. Termon Dobeog, or the church lands of St. Dabeog:, who 
founded a monasterj' on an island in Lough Derg, county of 
Donegal. 

2. Laoighis, or Leix, the principality of the O'Mordhas, or 



and the sons of some chieftains of Connaught, 
marched his forces into the territories of Kinel 
Owen, and of Airtheara (Orior in Armagh.) The 
Kinel Owen of Tellaghoge, and the men of Orior, 
marched to the plain of Armagh to oppose them, 
and gave them battle ; and Mac Dunslevej' was 
defeated wth a dreadfid slaughter of his forces. 
In this battle were slain t^velve sons of the nobles 
and chiefs of Connaught, with a great number of 
tlie common soldiery. Among the nobles slain 
were Bryan Buidhe O'Flaherty ; the son of 
Maohsa O'Conor of Connauglit ; the son of 
O'Conor Faily ; and the son of O'Faelain of the 
Desies. 

Mac Blosgaidh O'Cairin, having plundered 
Termon Dabeog,' was himself slain in a month 
afterwards, with a dreadful slaughter of his people, 
through the interposition of God and St. Dabeog. 

Donal, son of Dermod Mac Carthy, defeated 
the Enghsh of Limerick and Munster, in a battle, 
with dreadftd slaughter, and expeUed them from 
Limerick ; he also defeated them in two other 
battles. 

Conor Mac Dermott, lord of Moylm-g, took 
holy orders in the monastery of Boyle, and was 
succeeded in the lordshij) by Tomaltach. 

Hugh O'Ferrall, lord of Muintir Anally, was 
treacherously killed by the sons of Sitiick 
O'Quinn. 

The chiefs of Muintir Eoluis were treacherously 
killed by the son of Cathal O'Rourke. 

Mmreadhach IMac Rannall, ^-iz. the Giolla 
Ruadh, cliief of Muuith Eoluis, was slain by the 
son of Manus O'Conor, at the instigation of 
the son of Cathal O'Rotu-ke, by whom the afore- 
mentioned nobles were slain. 

Mahon, son of Conor of Maonmoy, heir pre- 
sumptive to the crown of Connaught, was slain by 
O'Moore, (Donal,) and the men of Laoighis, - 
while defending a booty which he had taken fi'om 
the English ; and in retaliation, O'Moore was 
slain bj' Cathal CaiTach O'Conor. 

Congalach, son of Fergal O'Rourke, was slain 
by the men of Lieney, at SUabh Da-En.^ 



0'5Ioores, was situated in the Queen's county, on the borders of 
Kildare. 

3. Sliabh Da-En, or Sl'iere Daen, a mountain to the south of 
Lough Gill, in the barony of Tirerrill, county of Sligo. 



26 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1197. 



lodnaidhe O'Mannachain (O'Monaghan,) lord 
of Hy Briuin of the Shannon,'' died. 

Cathal, son of Hugh O'Flaherty, was slain by 
Muii'cheartach Midhig-h. 



A.D. 1197. 

John de Coiu'cy, wdth the English of Ulidia, 
marched to Eas Craoibhe,' where they built the 
castle of Kill Sanctan. They plundered and laid 
waste the district of Cianachta, and left Roitsel 
Pitun (Peyton,) with a strong gairison in the 
castle, from which they sallied out, plundering 
and devastating the countiy and churches. 
Shortly afterwards Roitsel Pitun went on a pre- 
datoiy excm-sion to the port of Deny, and plun- 
dered Cluain I, Eanach, and Dcarg Bruach ; but 
Flaherty O'Muldoraidh, lord of Tirconnell and 
Tii'owen, with a party of the northern Clan NeiU, 
attacked him on the strand of Ua-Congbhala (near 
Faughanvale.) The English were defeated with 
great slaughter, through the interposition of 
ColumkUle, Caindeach (Canice,) and Breacan, for 
having plundered then- cluu-ches. Amongst the 
slain was the son of Ardgal Mac Loughlin. 

Mac Etigh, one of the people of Keenaght, 
robbed the altar of the great chm'ch of DeiTy 
ColumkiUe, and carried away with him the four 
most valuable cups in Ireland, which were called, 
the Mac Riabhach, the Mac Solas, the cup of 
O'Maoldoraidh, and the crooked goblet of 
O'Dogherty. He broke them to pieces, and took 
off their valuable ornaments. In three days after 
the robbery, these precious ornaments and the 
robber were discovered. He was hanged by 
Flaherty (O'Maoldoraidli,) at the Cross of 
Executions, to avenge St. Columldlle for having 
profaned his altar. 

Flaherty O'Muldorry, lord of TirconneU, Tir- 



4. Hy Briuhi'im-SUinnn^ or Htj Briuin of the Shannon^ a 
territory in Roscommon, between Elphin and the Shannon, cora- 
prisinp; the parishes of Aughrim, Kilmore, and Cloncraft. The 
O'Monaghans were chiefs of this terrltorj", and had tUeu: castle at 
Lisadom. 

1 . Eas Craoihbe, is now called the Cuts' Fishery, near Cole- 
rain ; Kill Sanctan Castle was also near Colerain. Cianachta, 
above mentioned, is the barony of Keenaght, in the county of 
Derry. 

■2. This celebrated chief, Flaherty O'Maoldoraidh, or O'Mul- 
dorry, is compared to the ancient heroes, namely, Conall Cearnach, 



owen, and OrgiaU, the defender of Tara, and heir 
presumptive to the throne of Ireland, a Conall^ in 
heroism, a Cuchulain in valour, a Guaire in hos- 
pitality, and a Mac Lughach in bravery, died 
on the 2nd day of February, after a patient 
suffering, at Inis Saimei', in ' the 30th year of his 
government, and 59th of his age ; and was buried 
at Druim Tuama, with the ciistomaiy honours. 
EachmarcachO'Dochartaidli (O'Dogherty,) there- 
upon assumed the government of Tirconnell, and 
in a fortnight aftei-wards John de Courcy, at the 
head of a strong force, crossed Tuaim (Toom 
Bridge,) into Tirowen ; from thence he proceeded 
to Ai'dstraw, and aftenvards marched round to 
Derry ColumkiUe, where he I'emained for five 
nights, and then crossed over by water to Cnoc 
Nascain (in Inisowen.) Eachmarcach O'Dogherty, 
at the head of the Kinell Connell, marched to 
oppose him, and a battle ensued, in which many 
fell on both sides, and the i)eople of Tirconnell 
sustained great loss, a hundred of their men being 
slain, amongst whom were Eachmarcach himself; 
Donogh O'Taircert, chief of Clan Snedgile, the 
mainstay of hospitality, generosity, wisdom, and 
counsel of all Tu'conneU ; Giolla Brighde O'Dogh- 
erty ; Mac Dubhain ; Mac Fergail ; the sons of 
O'Boyle, and many other cliiefs. The English, 
after the battle, plundered Inisowen, from which 
they took a great prey of cattle, and then retreated. 

Conchobhar O'Cathain, died. 

Conor, son of Teige (Mac Dermott,) lord of 
Moylurg, and of Moy Aoi, the tower of dignity, 
prudence, hospitahtj', and protection of all Con- 
naught, died, after sincere repentance, in the 
monastery of Ath-da-laarg (Boyle.) 

Iliac Raith O'Laithbheartaidli (O'Flaherty,) 
tanist of Tirowen, and Maolruanaidh O'Cairellain, 
chief of Clan Dermott, were killed. 

Donal, son of Rannall Mac RannaU, 



was 



chief of the Red Branch Knights of Ulster, and Cuchulainn, 
anotlier famous contemporary warrior of the Red Branch ; Mac 
Lughach, probably Lughaidh Mac Con, who was a great champion 
in Monster, in the reign of king Cormac ; or perhaps Lughaidh 
Lamhfada, who is celebrated for having expelled the Fomorians. 
Guaire, here mentioned, was a kmg of Connaught, renowned for 
his hospitality. Inis Saimer, given as the place of O'Muldorry's 
death, was the monastery of Ballyshannon, and the place of iiis 
burial was Druim Tuama, a monastery founded by ColumkiUe, 
now the parish of Drumhome, in the barony of Tirhugh, county of 
Donegal. 



REIGN OF RICHARD I. 



27 



treacherously slain by the sons of Mac Duibh- 
dara. 

Roderick O'Flaherty, lord of West Connaught, 
was taken prisoner by Cathal Croibhdearg (the 
Red Handed,) O'Conor, king of Connaught. 



A.D. 1198. 

Giolla Mac Liag O'Branain resigned his abbacy 
of Deny ColumkiUe, and GioUa Criost O'Cear- 
naigh (O'Keamey,) was appointed in his place by 
the chiefs and clergy of the north of Ireland. 

Roderick O'Conor,' king of Connaught and of 
all Ireland, both EngUsh and Irish, died in ca- 
nonical orders at Cong, after sincere repentance, 
victorious over the world and the devil ; his body 
was conveyed to Clonmacnois, and was intended 
there, on the north side of the altai" of the great 
church. 

The son of Bryan of Brefney, son of Toi'logh 
O'Conor, was slain by Cathal CaiTach, son of 
Conor of Maonmoy. 

Cathalan O'MaoMabhail, lord of Carraig Brach- 
aidhe,^ was slain by O'Derain, and in retahation 
O'Derain himself was immediately after killed. 

John de Courcy marched into Tu'owen, and 
plundered and spoiled the chui'ches of Ardstraw 
and Raphoe. He aftei^wards came to DeiTy 
ColumkiUe, where he remained for nine days, 
dming which time he plundered Inisowen and 
the adjacent country, but cUd not succeed in 
canying off the booty, for at tliis time Hugh 
O'Nedl, with five armed ships, came to the church 
of Lathau'ne (Larne,) bmTied a part of the town, 
and slew eighteen of the English. The English 
of Magh Line (Moylinny,) and Dalaradia, mus- 
tered three hundi-ed men, and marched against 
Hugh, who had no intimation of their approach 



1. Runidhri Ua Conchobhair, or Roderick O'Conor, the last 
Jlilesiaii monarch of Ireland, after having reigned eighteen years, 
abdicated the throne A.D. 1184, and retired to the monastery of 
Cong, in Mayo, where, after a religious seclusion of thirteen years, 
he died, A.U. 1198, in the 82nd year of his age, and was buried 
in the same sepulchre with his father, Torlogh O'Conor, monarch 
of Ireland, at the north side of the great altar, in the cathedral of 
St. Kiaran, at Clomnacnois. O'Conor (Rer. Hib. Scrip, vol. I.,) 
says he bequeathed gold, sUver, and many other thmgs to God, to 
the poor, to all the churches of Ireland, and to those of Rome and 
Jerusalem. In the chronological poem on the Christian kings of 
Ireland, written m the twelfth century, by Giolla Moduda, abbot 
of Ardbracan, as quoted in vol. I. of O'Conor's Mer. Hib. Scrip. 
is the following verse : — 



imtil they came up to him, while in' the act of 
burning the town. A battle ensued in wiiich the 
Enghsh were defeated, as they were in five 
different engagements aftenvards, between that 
town and the place where the Enghsh took to 
their shipping. Hugh lost but five men. As 
soon as John de Cotu-cy received inteUigence of 
this he left Deny. 

A war broke out between the Kinel Connell 
and the Kinel Owen. The Kinel Connell joined 
O'Hegnigh against the Kinel Owen, and they held 
a conference to ratify their union at Termon 
Dabeog. Hus-h O'Neill came thither with the 
Kinel Owen to prevent the meetiag, attacked 
O'Heigny, and defeated him ; and O'Neill ob- 
tained hostages. 

Hugh, at the head of the Kinel Owen, marched 
the same day, and plundered the Kinel Connell, on 
the plain of Moy Ith ; he took away with him 
many cattle, after slaying O'Duibhdianna,^ who 
opposed him Tvath a troop of horse. 

Hugh O'Neill, with a force of the Kinel Owen, 
mai'ched a second time to the plain of Moy Ith, 
to give the Kinel Connell battle ; but the Kinel 
Connell marched out of then' camp, and made 
fi'iendly and peaceable terms -vvith them on that 
occasion. 

Cathal Croibhdearg O'Conor made peace with 
Cathal CaiTach, son of Conor of Maonmoy, whom 
he recalled to the country, and gave him lands. 



A.D. 1199. 

Maol losa Mac Giolla Erain, the au-chinneach 
of Kilmore, in Hy NiaUain,' successor elect of St. 
Patrick, died. 

Sanctus Mam-itius O'Baodain died in Hy (or 
lona,) of ColumkiUe. 



" Ocht m-Bliadhna agus deich Ruaidri an Ri, 
Mac Toirdhealbhaidh an t-Ard Ri, 
riaith na n-Eirend : gan fhell, 
Ri deighneach deig Eirenn. 

" Eighteen years the monarch Roderick, 
Son of Torlogli, supreme sovereign, 
Ireland's undisputed ruler, 
Was fair Erin's latest king." 

2. Carraig Srachaidhe, in the barony of Inisowen, county of 
Donegal. 

3. O' Duibhdiarma was a chief in Inisowen. 

1. Kilmore in By Niallain, that is, the parish of Kilmore, 

E 2 



28 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1200. 



The English of Ulidia marched three great 
armies successively into Tirowen. The third 
anny pitched then' camp at Domhnachmore of 
Moy lomchlau',- from which they sent a large 
party to spoil and plunder the countiy. Hugh 
O'Neill, who marched to meet them, amved at 
the place at the same time with the Enghsh ; he 
attacked and routed them with great slaughter ; 
and such as escaped, fled by night, and did not 
halt imtil they passed over Tuaim (Toom Bridge.) 

Roiy O'Dunsleve, joined with a party of the 
Enghsh of Meath, marched his forces and plun- 
dered the monastery of S.S. Paul and Peter (at 
Annagh,) and left only one cow in the place. 

Donal O'Dogherty, lord of Kind Enda, and of 
Ai'dmiodhair,' died. 

Donogh Uaithneach, son of Roderick O'Conor, 
was slain by the English of Limerick. 

Rodubh Mac Roedig, chief of Kinel Aengusa, 
was slain by the Enghsh while plundering Hy 
Earca Chein.^ 

Cathal Croibhdearg O'Conor was diiven from 
Connaught, and Cathal Carrach assumed his 
place. 

Hugh O'Neill marched his forces to assist 
Cathal Croibhdearg, and was joined by the men 
of Moy Ith, and of Orgialla. They went as far 
as Teach Baoithin of Artagh,'' from whence they 
retm'ned to BaUysadai'e, where they were over- 
taken by Cathal Carrach, with the cliiefs of Con- 
naught, and William Burke, at the head of the 
English of Limerick. A battle ensued, in which 
the northern forces were defeated, and O'Hegnidli 
(O'Heney,) lord of Oriel, and many others, fell. 

John de Courcy, at the head of the English of 
Ulidia, joined by the son of Hugo de Lacy, at the 
head of the English of Meath, marched their 



situated partly in tlie Iiarony of Lower Orior, but cliiefly in that 
of O'Xeiliand, county of Armagli. 

2. Doinlniach Mot Ma'tghe lomchlair. The parish of Donagh- 
more, in tiie Ijarony of Dungannon, county of Tyrone. 

3- Lord of Kinel Enda and Ard Miodhair. See note on 
Kinel Enda at p. 10. According to O'Brien, Ard Miodhair lay 
near Fanat, in tlie county of Donegal. 

4. Chief of Kinel Aongusn, ^-c- See note on Meath. Ily 
Earca Chein, or Ibh Earca, now the barony of Iverk, county of 
Kilkenny. 

5. Teach Baoithin Airtigh, that is, Tibohine, Taughboyne, or 
Artagh, a parish in the barony of Boyle, county of Roscommon. 
It obtained its name of Teach Baoithin, or the House of Baoithm, 
from St. Baoithin, who, according to Colgan, waa bishop of this 
place in the seventh century. 



forces to reheve Cathal Croibhdearg, and anived 
at Kihnacduagh. Cathal Carrach, at the head 
of the Conacians, marched thither, and gave them 
battle, in which the Enghsh were defeated with 
such slaughter, that although their original force 
consisted of five battaUons, only two sumved the 
battle. They fled, but were closely pm-sued from 
the field of battle, as far as Rinn Diiin,'' at Lough 
Ree, where de Courcy was hemmed in, and a 
great number of the Enghsh slain ; many others 
were drowned, for they had no means of escaping 
but by crossing the lake eastward in boats. 

Ruarc O'Maoilbrenainn, chief of Clan Conor,' 
died. 

John was proclaimed king of England, on the 
6thof April.8 

Murchadh Mac Coghlan, lord of Delvin Eathra, 
died. 



A.D. 1200. 

Cadlila O'Duffy, ai-chbishop of Tuam, died at 
an advanced age. 

Uau-eirghe, son of Maolmordha, son of Uair- 
eirghe O'Neachtain, a learned professor of Clon- 
macnois, a man distuiguished for sanctity, charitj% 
and all other virtues, and chief of the Culdees of 
Clonmacnois, died on the 10th day of March. 

Maol Eoin O'Carmacain, coarb of St. Comman, 
(abbot of Roscommon,) died. 

Hugh O'Neill was deposed by the Kinel Owen, 
and Conor O'Loughhn was elected prince in his 
place ; he plimdered Tir-Enda, slew many people, 
and took away with him a large prey of cattle. 

Egneachan O'DomhnaiU (O'Donnell,) lord of 
Kinel Council, sailed with his fleet by sea, and 
sent his forces by land, and encamped at Gaoth- 



6. Rinn Duin, signifies the peninsula of the fortress: This 
peninsula was situated in Lough Ree, on the shore of the Shannon, 
in the county of Roscommon, about eight miles north of Athlone. 
There was a fortress here from the earliest times, and afterwards 
a strong castle, called Randown castle, which belonged to the 
O'Conors. Cill Mic Duach, or Killraacduagh, a parish, and the 
seat of a diocese in the barony of Kiltarton, county of Galway. 

7. Clan Concliobhair, or Clan Conor. O'Dugan gives Maol- 
brenainn as cliief of Clan Conor, in south Connaught, in Roscom- 
mon. This name has been changed to Brennan, and by others to 
O'Mulrenan. 

8. King Richard I. died on the Gth of April, A.D. 1190, at the 
castle of Chalus, m Normandy, of a wound he received from an 
arrow, while besieging that place, and was succeeded by his brother 
John. 



REIGN OF KING JOHN. 



29 



an-Chairgin. The Clan Diarmada, on the other 
side, came to Port Ross to attack the fleet. When 
the crews of the thu1;een sliips beheld them, they 
sallied forth and defeated them. Mac LougliUn, 
namely, Conor Beag, son of Murtogh, came at this 
time to assist the Clan Diarmada ; but his horse 
being wounded, he was dismounted, and finally 
slain by the Kinel Connell, to avenge Columkille 
and his coarb, whose shrines he had fonnerly 
violated. It was on account of the same \'iolation 
that Murchadh O'Criochain, lord of Hy Fiachrach, 
was killed. Egneachan's party followed up their 
■\actory, and committed great slaughter among the 
Kinel Owen, and the Clan Diarmada.' 

Meier,'- and the Enghsh of Leinster, marched 
then- forces against Cathal Carrach, and remained 
two nights at Clonmacnois. They plundered the 
town of property and provisions, not sparing even 
the churches. 

Cathal Croibhdearg fled for protection into 
Munster, to Mac Carthy and WiUiam Burke. 

GeiTmaide O'BaoigheUain' (O'Boylan,) was 
IviUed by Egneachan O'Donnell. 

A battle was fought between O'Donnell and 
O'Ruao-c (Ualgarg O'Rourke,) aided by Conor 
O'Rourke of Glaisfene, in whuch the Hy Briuin 
were defeated with great havock, both in killed 
and di-owTied ; and among the latter was Conor 
O'Rourke. The place where that battle was 
fought was Leac O'Maoldoraigh.'' 

Donagh Uaitneach, son of Roderick O'Conor, 
was slam by the Enghsh of Limerick. 

^lahon, son of Gillpatrick O'Ciardha, was slain 
by the Enghsh of Clonard. O'Ciardha bm-ned 
Clonard, and plundei'ed the English who resided 
there. 

Cathal Croibhdearg O'Conor went to plunder 



1. It appears that O'Donnell sailed up Lough Foyle, and \ma 
attacked by the Clan Dermod, that is, the O'Carolans and others, 
on the opposite side, in the county of Derry. Hy Fiachra, of 
which O'Criochain was lord, was a territory about' Ardstraw, in 
Tyrone. 

2. Meier and William Biirlie, that is, Meiler Fitz Henry, one 
of the Anglo-Xonnan leaders, who came over with Strongbow. 
He was grandson to king Henry I., and a very valiant commander. 
In A.D. 1199, he was appointed chief governor of Ireland, by king 
John, and had large grants of land in Westmeath and Kildare. 
lie died in A.D. 1-2-20, and was buried at Connell Abbey, in Kil- 
dare, which he had founded. WilUnm Burke, whose name occurs 
so frequently in the Annals at this period, was William Fitz 
Adelm de Burgo The family of de Burgo came from Nor- 
mandy with William the Conqueror, and were earls of Kent in 



Munster ; he bimied Castle Connell, the market- 
place of Limerick, and the castle of Wilkin, and 
took Wilkin and his wife prisoners, after having 
slain twelve knights, with many common people. 

Fiachra O'Flynn, chief of Siol Maobuain, died. 

Cathal Can-ach assumed the sovereignty of 
Connaught, and drove Cathal Croibhdearg into 
Ulster, who went to the residence of O'Eignigh, 
lord of Fermanagh, and from thence to the seat 
of John de Courcy, with whom he confirmed his 
covenant of friendship. 



A.D. 1201. 

Tomaltach O'Conor, successor of St. Patrick, 
and primate of Ireland, died. 

Conn O'Meallaigh, bishop of Eanach Duin, a 
brilliant gem, and a pillar of the chm-ch, died. 

Johanes de Monte Cehon, a cardinal, came to 
Ireland fi-om Rome, as the Pope's legate, and 
convened a great synod at Dubhn, which was 
attended by the bishops, the abbots, and the 
clergy of the various orders, as also many of the 
nobihty of Ireland. At this convention many 
regidations between clergy and laity were satis- 
factorily arranged. In a fortnight aftenvards, the 
cardinal convened a synod of the clergy and 
nobihty of Connaught at Tuam, where the neces- 
sary regidations were enacted. 

NiaU O'Flynn was treacherously slain by the 
English of Ulidia. 

Manus, son of Dermod O'Loughlin, was slain 
by Murtogh O'Neill, and Murtogh himself was 
afterwards slain in retahation. 

Conor, son of Mam-ice O'Edin, died. 

Teige O'Breen, lord of Leiney, in Meath, 
died. 



England. William de Burgo was chief governor of Ireland for 
some time in the reign of Henry II., and obtained extensive posses- 
sions in Connaught. He died A.D. 1-04, and was buried in the 
abbey of Athassell, in Tipperarj-, which he had founded. He was 
married to Isabella, natural daughter of king Richard I., and 
his descendants were earls of Connaught and Ulster, and 
founded many of the most powerful families in Ireland, as the 
earls of Clanrickard, and many others of the nobility. The name 
de Burgo was changed to de Burgh and Burke. See Lives of 
Illustrious Irishmen. 

3. Tlie O'Boylans, a clan in 3Ionaghan,on the borders of TjTone. 

4. Leac O'Maoldoraigh, or O'Muldorry's Rock, situated 
somewhere on the borders of Leitrim and Donegal, supposed to be 
at Ballysbannon. The Hy-Briuin, signifies the people of Leitrim, 
33 Hy-Briuin was a name applied to that territory. 



30 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1202. 



Muireadliach, son of Neill, son of Sionnach 
O'Catharnaigh, clied. 

Miirogh O'Madden, chief of the half of Siol 
Anmchadha, received a wound in his head from an 
an-ow, of which he died. 

Cathal Croibhdearg, and WiUiam Burke, at the 
head of the English and Irish forces, marched from 
Limerick to Tuam, in Connaught, from whence 
they went to Huaran (Oran,) to Elphin, to the 
Rock of Lough Key, and finally to the monastery 
of Ath-da-lo-arg (Boyle,) where they took ujd then- 
quarters. Cathal Mac Deraiott went at this time 
to plunder Hy Diarmada ;' he was overtaken and 
attacked by Teige, son of O'Conor of Maonmoy, 
and a conflict ensued in which Mac Dennott was 
slain. 

Cathal Can-ach, king of Connaught, collected 
his forces (to oppose Cathal Croibhdearg and 
Burke before-mentioned,) and marched to Guir- 
tin Cuil Luachra, near the monastery, where they 
were encamped. The two armies remained close 
to each other for a week, during which time many 
Bkii-mishes took place. Cathal Carrach then 
went to view one of those engagements, when 
it happened that his party were defeated, and he 
himself, in the thick of the conflict, was slain ; 
this was attributed to the miracles of God, and 
the intervention of St. Kiaran. In the same 
engagement Collaid, son of Dermod O'Maoil- 
ruanaidh, and many others fell. 

After this Cathal Croibhdearg, and WiUiam 
Burke, marched with their forces through Moy- 
lurg, Moy Aoi, from thence to West Connaught, 
to Cong of St. Feichin, where they spent the 
Easter. William Burke, and the sons of Rory 
O'Flaherty, conspired to betray Cathal Croibh- 
dearg, but God saved him through the intercession 
of the clergy, who were the sureties of their 
mutual fidelity. Shortly afterwards William 
Burke's soldiers came to demand their pay from 
the Conacians, but the Conacians attacked and slew 
many of them. William Bm-ke afterwards 
returned to Limerick, and Cathal Croibhdearg 
again assxmied the title of king of Connaught. 
Ualgharg O'Rom-ke marched his forces into 



1. Hy Diarmada, or Clan Diarmada, wa9 a district in Hy 

Maine, of which the Mac Egans were cliiefs. 



Kinel Connell, and seized on the cattle and 
property. O'Donnell (Egneachan,) overtook 
them at Leac-ui-Mhaoldoraigh. A conflict en- 
sued, in which the Hy Briuin were defeated with 
dreadful havock, both in killed and drowned. 
On that expedition Conor (O'Rourke,) of Glais- 
fene was drowned. 

The Kinel Owen went on a predatory excur- 
sion into Kinel Connell, on the same day, but 
were defeated by O'Donnell, in a battle in which 
Gearmaide O'Boylan, and many others of the 
Kinel Owen were slain. 

Tiarnan, son of Donal, son of Cathal O'Rourke, 
was slain by Mac Fiachraigh and the Clan Cathail. 
Mac Fiachi'aigh the younger was also slain on that 
occasion. 



A.D. 1202. 

Muircheartach O'Carmacain, bishop of Clon- 
fert, died. 

Maolcolaimm O'Branain, aircineach of Tor- 
aigh,' died. 

Donal O'Brolchain, a prior (of Derry,) an 
illustrious sage and learned doctor, distinguished 
for his wisdom and worth, form and figure, mild- 
ness and devotion, died, after a well spent life, on 
the 27th day of April. 

Maolfinnein Mac Colmain, an admired sage, 
and the devout Con O'Flanagan, died. 

Donal Carrach O'Dogherty, head chief of 
Ai'dmiodhair, was slain by Muintir BaoighiU,'^ after 
plundering many chiu-ches and districts. 

Conor Roe, son of Donal O'Brien, was killed 
by his own brother, namely, Murcheartach, son 
of Donal, son of Torlogh O'Brien. 

Torlogh, son of Rory O'Conor, having escaped 
from confinement, Cathal Croivdearg made peace 
with him, and granted him lands. Torlogh was 
aftenvards expelled by Cathal, hut he made peace 
wth him through the intercession of the English. 

Donal, son of Muirchertagh O'Melaghlin, 

died. 

Dermod, son of Art O'Melaghlin, was slain by 
the son of Loughhn O'Conor. 



1. Tory Island, off the coast of Donegal, on -which an ahbey was 
founded ijy St. Ernan, in the seventh century. 

2. Mulnt'iT BaoighiU, or the O'Boyles, a clan who possessed 
the barony of Boylagh, in the county of Donegal. 



REIGN OF KING JOHN. 



31 



A.D. 1203. 

Mac Giolla Cheallaigh O'Ruaidhin, bishop of 
Kilmacduagh, died. 

DeiTy Columkille was burned, from the cemetiy 
of St. Martin to the well of St. Adamnan. 

A monastery was unlawfully erected by Ceallach, 
in the centre of lona, in opposition to the people 
of that place ; and he did great damage to the 
town. The clergy of the north of Ireland assem- 
bled together, for the purpose of going to lona, 
natmely, Florent O'Cerbhallain, bishop of Tyrone, 
(Ardstraw) ; Maoliosa O'Dorigh, bishop of Tir- 
connell (Raphoe,) and abbot of the church of SS. 
Paul and Peter at Armagh ; Amhalgaidh O'Firgail, 
abbot of the chiu-ch of Derry ; Ainmu'e O'Cobh- 
thaigh (Coffey) ; with many of the people of Derry, 
and of the northern clergy. They proceeded to 
lona, and pulled down the chm'ch before men- 
tioned, in accordance with the ecclesiastical laws ; 
and Amhalgaidh O'Firgail was elected abbot of 
lona, by the suffi-ages of the Scots and Irish. 

Dermod, son of Murchertach O'Loughhn, with 
a party of English, proceeded on a predatory ex- 
cursion into Tyrone, and plundered the shrine of 
Columkille; but they were overtaken by •'party of 
the Kinel Owen, who defeated them, and Dennod 
himself was slain, through the miraculous interpo- 
sition of Columkille. 

The son of Hugo de Lacy marched, with a force 
of the EngUsh of Meath, into Ulidia, and expelled 
John de Courcy from thence, after a battle fought 
between them at Dundaleathglass (Down,) in 
which many were slain. 

Muircheartach of Teffia, son of Conor of Maon- 
moy, son of Roderick O' Conor, was slain by 
Dermod, son of Rory, his uncle, on the plain of 
Kilmacduagh. 

Donal, son of Mac Carthy, at the head of the 
people of Desmond, defeated the Enghsh in a 
battle, in which upwards of one hundred and 
sixty of the English were slain. 

Faolan, son of Faolan, lord of Hy Faolain, died 
in the monastery of Congalaidh.' 



1. The monnsfpr;/ of Congalaidh, or Great Connell, a parish in 
the barony of Connell, county of Kildare, in whicli, according to 
Seward, are the ruins of Great Connell Al)bey. In A.D. 1202, a 
priory was founded liere, under the invocation of the Blessed 
Virgin and St. David, by Meyler FitzHenry, wlio placed in it 
regular canons from the monastery of Lanthony, in Monmouth- 
shire. 



Kells, Trim, and Newbridge were burned. 
Sitrig of Teffia O'Kelly, of Hy Maine, died. 



A.D. 1204. 

Sitrig O'Sruithen, aircineach of Congbhala, 
viz. : the leader of the Hy Murtele, and chosen 
chief of Clan Snedgile,' died, after tme penance, 
and was buried in the church built by himself. 

John de CoLU-cy, the plunderer of churches and 
territories, was driven by the son of Hugh de 
Lacy into Tyrone, where he sought the protection 
of the Kinel Owen ; but he was pursued as far 
as Carrickfergus, and the Enghsh of Uhdia slew 
many of his pai-ty. 

William Burke plundered the whole of Con- 
naught, both lay and ecclesiastical, but God and 
the saints visited him with their vengeance, for he 
died of an uncommon disease, unbecoming to 
mention. 

Muii-chertach O'Flaherty, lord of West Con- 
naught, ched. 

A.D. 1205. 

The archbishop O'Heinni,' having retired to a 
monastery, died shortly afterwards. 

Donal O'Becdha, bishop of Hy Amalgaidh, 
(Killala,) died. 

Saou-bhrethach O'D^^il'ed, aircineach of Domh- 
nachmore, and Patrick O'Moghroin, died. 

Manus O'Kane, son of the lord of Ciananacht 
and Fercraoibhe, the' tower, of bravery and activity 
of the North, was wounded with a javelin, of which 
he died. 

Mac Guillbhealaidh O'CarroU, lord of Ely,* 
was slain by the English. 

Conor O'Breen, of Breghmaine, died, while on a 
pilgrimage at Clonmacnois. 

Raghnall Mac Dermott, lord of Clan Dermott, 
died. 

Donal Mac Concoigrighe, chief of Muintir Ser- 
cachain, died. 



1. Clan Snedgile, a tribe in Tirconnell. Congbhala, or Con- 
wall, an abljey over which St. Fiachra ])resided in the sixth cen- 
tury, was situated near Lough Swilly, in the barony of Kilma- 
orenan, county of Donegal, and gave name to the parish of 
Conwall. 



32 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1206- 



Donal O'Faolain, lord of the Deisi' of Munster, 
died. 

Teige, the son of Cathal Croibhdirg (O'Conor,) 
died, after one night's sickness, at Clonmacnois. 

Meyler, son of Meyler (Fitz Henry,) tooii forci- 
ble |iossession of Limerick ; on which account a 
great war broke out between the Enghsh of Meath 
and the English of Meyler. In tliis contest 
CuulacUi, son of ConmidJi O'Laeghachain, chief of 
Siol Ronain,* was slain by the Kinel Fiachach 
Mac Neill. 



A.D. 1206. 

Donal O'Muiredhaidh (O'Murray,) chief pro- 
fessor at Deny, died. 

Maolpeadair O'Colmain (O'Coleman,) successor 
of Caindeach (St. Canice of Kilkenny.) the pillar 
of piety and wisdom of the north of Ireland, died. 

Flaherty O'Flaherty, prior of Dungiven, and 
Gilpatrick O'Falachtaidh, aiixineach of Dun- 
cruithne,' died. 

Eignaghan O'Donnell, plundered and slew 
many in Tyi'one. 

The successor of St. Patrick^ went to the king 
of England on behalf of the churches of Ireland, 
and to complain against the Enghsh in Ireland. 

Tomaltach, son of Conor, son of Deimod, son 
of Teige (Mac Dennott,) lord of Moylurg, of 
Ai'tagh, and of the neighbom-mg tenitory of Clan 
Maolrooney, died. 

Eignachan O'Donnell plundered Hy Faranain 
and Clan Deniiod ; he carried away cattle, and slew 
many people. He was pursued and overtaken by 
the people of Clan Dermod, of Hy Forannaln, and 
of Hy Gormley f many were slam and di-owned 
on both sides, but the Kinel Connell at length, with 
difficulty, succeeded in can-jang away the booty. 

Rory O'Gara, lord of Sheve Lugha,'' died. 



1. Archbishop O'Hehini. This was Matthew O'Heney, areh- 
bisliop of Casliel, who died in the abbey of Holycross. 

2. O'Cearbhaill, or O'CarroU, lord of Ely O'Carroll, in the 
county of Tippcrary. 

3. The O'Faolnms, or O'Phelnns, lords of Deisi, in the present 
county of Waterford, from which the baronies of Decies tooli their 
name. 

4. O'Laeghnrhnhi, of Muintir Laedhachain, in Tcffia. Siol 
Ronain was m Cairbre Gaura, in Teffia. Kmel Fiacha was also in 
Teffia. See note on T^a. 

1. Diintjiren and Duncruifhne. Dungiven, a parish in the 
barony of Kenauglit, county of Derry where there wa£ an Augus- 



Hugh, son of Miu-ogh O'Kelly, lord of Hy 
Maine, and Caithniadli O'Caithniadh, lord of 
loras (Ems, in the county of Mayo,) died. 

Hugh O'Goimghialladh, lord of Partraidhe,' 
in CaiTa, was slain by the people of Carra. 

Roiy O'Toghda, chief of Bredach," in Hy Amal- 
gaidh, died. 

Gilbert O'Flanagan, and Ivar Mac Murrogh, 
slew each other at Roscommon. 

Murtogh Mac Carghamhna, chief of Muintir 
Jlaoiltsionna, died. 

Hugo de Lacy, the younger, marched with the 
Enghsh of Meath and Leinster, into Tulaghoge 
(in TjTone.) He burned some churches, and 
the corn of the country-, but obtamed neither 
hostages nor cattle from Hugh O'Neill on that 
expedition. 

The same party marched into Kianaght ; they 
burned all the churches in that territory, and car- 
ried away an immense prey of cattle. 



A.D. 1207. 

Eignaghan O'Donnell went into Feara Manach 
(Fermanagh,) and seized some cattle. A large 
party of the inhabitants attacked him, and slew 
O'Donnell, lord of Tirconnell, the tower of valour 
and hospitaUty of the province in his time. Many 
of his chiefs were slain along with him, viz. : 
The GioUa Riabhach, son of Callaidhe O'Boyle ; 
Donogh Conailleach, son of Conor of Maonmoy ; 
Mathgamhan (iNIahon,) the son of Donal ilidhigh 
O'Conor, with many other warriors. 

Donal, son of Fergal O'Roiu-ke, lord of the 
greater portion of Brefney, died. 

Muiredhach, son of Rory O'Conor, and Awlave 
O'Ferrall, chief of Anally, died. 

Dennod O'Madagain (Madden,) lord of Siol 
Anmchadha, died. 



tinian priory, founded by the O'Kanes. Duncruithne, now Dun- 
crun, ill the parish of Magilligan, county of Derry, had a famous 
monastery, founded by St. Columkille. 

2. The archbishop of Armagh at that time was Eugene Mac 
Gillivider, wlio waited on king John in England. 

3. This affair happened on the borders of Donegal and Derry, 
at Lough Foyle. 

4. SlUibh Lugha. O'Gadhra, or O'Gara, was lord of Moy 
O'Gara and Coolavin, in the county of Sligo. 

6. Piirtraitjhe, or Partrij, an ancient territory in the present 
barony of Carra, county of Mayo. 

6. Bredchn, or Bred/ich, in the parish of Moygawnagh, barony 
of Tyrawley, county of Mayo. 



REIGN OF KING JOHN. 



33 



The remains of Roderick O'Conor, king of Con- 
naught, were exhumed, and deposited 'm a stone 
coffin or shrine. 

Cathal Croibhdearg 0'Conor,kingof Connaught, 
expelled Hugh O'Flaherty, and gave his temtoiy 
to his own son Hugh. 

A great war broke out amongst the English of 
Leinster, viz, : between Meyler (Fitz Henry) Jeffiy 
Mares, and William Marusgal, so that Leinster 
and Munster were spoiled between them.' 

Great contentions also arose between Hugo de 
Lacy and Myler, in which all Myler's party were 
spoiled. 

Cathal CaiTach, son of Dennod, son of Teige 
(Mac Dennott,) plundered Cormac, son of Tomal- 
tach Mac Dennott, and O'Flynn of Eassa.'- He 
was pursued by the Conacians, headed by the fol- 
lowing chiefs, viz. : Dermod, son of Magnus, son 
of Murtogh O'Conor, and Cormac, son of Tomal- 
tach ; Conor Godh O'Hara, lord of Lieney ; and 
Donogh O'Dowd, lord of Tyrawley and Tireragh. 
A battle ensued, in which Cathal Carrach was 
defeated and taken prisoner, his eyes put out, and 
his son Muirghes, Mac Conghranna O'Flanagan, 
and many others slain. 

Myler Oge (young Myler,) Mm-togh O'Brien, 
and Torlogh, son of Roderick O'Conor, made a 
predatoiy excursion into Tir-Fiachra-Aidhne, 
where they plundered fifteen towns. 

Cathal, son of Rory, son of the Sionnagh 
O'Catharnaigh,^ lord of Teffia, died. 

The sous of Hugo de Lacy, and the English of 
Meath, marched with their forces to the castle of 
Ardnorcher, which they beseiged for five weeks ; 
and, having taken it and the territory of Ferkale, 
they drove Myler out of the countiy. 

A.D. 1208. 
Da\dd Breatnach (i.e. the Briton,) bishop of Purt 



1. Jeoffrey Mares was Jeoffrey de Marisco, afterwards lord 
justice of Ireland. William Marusgal was William Mareschal, 
earl of Pembroke. 

2. O'Flynn of Eassa, that is, Eass-ul-Fhloimi, or Assylin, near 
Boyle, in the county of Iloscomraon. 

3. O'Catharnaigh was the Sionagh, or principal chief of the 
family of the Foxes, in Westmeath. See note on Teffia. 



1. Purt Lairge was the ancient name of Waterford. This 
David, bishop of Purt Lairge, or Waterford, was kinsman to 



Lairge, was slain by O'Faolain (O'Phelan,) of the 
Decies.' 

Hugh O'Neill marched his forces, on a preda- 
toiy excursion, into Inisowen. O'Donnell (Donal 
More,) overtook them, an engagement ensued, 
with great slaughter on both sides. Donal Mac 
Murchadha, and a great number of the Kinel 
Owen, were slain, and the following also fell in 
the thick of the fight, namely, Cathbhar O'Don- 
nell, Fergal O'Boyle, Cormac O'Donnell, Da^dd 
O'Dogherty, and several other chiefs of the Kinel 
Connell. The Kinel Owen were finally defeated 
by superior valour. 

O'Donnell (Donal More,) marched liis forces 
against Hugh O'Neill, and the Kinel Owen, and 
took preys and hostages from the country ; but a 
peace was concluded between them, and they 
entered into an alliance against the English and 
Irish who would oppose them. 

Duibliinnsi Mac Gennis, lord of Clan Hugh, 
of Iveagh, was slain by Mac Dunslevy O'Heogh- 
aidh. 

Finghin, son of Dermod, son of Coi-mac Mac 
Carthy, was slain by his own kinsmen. 

Ualgharg O'Rourke was expelled from the 
lordship of Brefney, and Art, the son of Donal, 
son of Fergal, was set up in his place, by the 
influence of the English. 

John, bishop of Norbus,^ was sent by the king 
of England to Ireland as lord justice, but an 
interdiction was laid on the English by the Pope ; 
and in order that the bishop's authority might be 
opposed in Ireland, the Enghsh were denied the 
rites of mass, baptism, extreme unction, and burial, 
for the space of three years after his arrival. 

Murtogh, son of Donal O'Brien, lord of Tho- 
mond, was taken prisoner by the English of 
Limerick, in spite of the remonstrance of tlu-ee 
bishops, at the instigation of Donogh Cairbreach 
(of Carberry,) his own brother. 



Meyler Fitz Henry, lord justice of Ireland. He was appointed, 
through the English influence, against the will of the Irish, and 
had a long contest with O'Heda, the Irish bishop of Lismore, 
whose rights and possessions he had usurped. In consequence of 
these contests, bishop David was killed by O'Felan, chief of the 
Decies. See Ware, by Harris, on Bishops of Waterford and 
Lismore. 

2. John, bisJwp of Norhus, was John de Gray, bishop of Nor- 
wich, who was appointed lord justice of Ireland. At that time 
Pope Innocent III. had laid an interdict on the kingdom of 
England, in consequence of king John's opposition to the see of 



34 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1209-10. 



Dermod O'Caomhain, chief of the district from 
Tuaim-da-bhodhar to Gleoir/ died. 

Awlave O'Rothlain, chief of Calry, of Cuil- 
cearnatan(Coolcarne}-,iiitlie county of Mayo,) died. 



A.D. 1209. 

Cele O'Duffy, bishop of Mayo, of the Saxons ; 
Giolla Crist O'Keaniey, the coai'b of Condere ; 
and Flaherty O'Fljnin, the coarb of Dachonna- 
Easa-Mic-Eirc, died.' 

Art, son of Donal, son of Fergal O'Rourke, 
lord of Brefuey, was slain by Cormac, son of xVrt 
O'Melaghlin, and Cormac, son of Art O'Roui-ke ; 
and Ualgarg: O'Rourke assumed the lordship. 

Donogh O'Ferrall, lord of Anally, died. 

John, kuicr of England, sailed for Ireland with 
a large fleet, and landed at Dublin, where he 
rested for some time after his voyage ; he then 
jiroceeded to Tiopraid Ultain, in Meath, where 
Cathal Crovdearg O'Conor came to meet him. 
Walter de Lacy was expelled from Meath into 
England. The king, accompanied by his nobles, 
proceeded to Canickfergus, and expelled Hugo de 
Lacy from Ulidia, into England. Hugh O'Neill 
attended the king's summons, but he retiuTied 
without making submission. The king besieged 
Canickfergus, which suiTendered ; whereupon he 
gairisoned it with his own forces. O'Conor 
returned home, and the king of England next 
proceeded to Raith Guaire,^ where O'Conor a 
second time waited on him ; the king demanded 
his son as a hostage, in confirmation of his fealty ; 
O'Conor, however, would not consent to give his 



Rome in ecclesiastical inatters, and it appears that the interdict 
extended to tlie Encrlisliin Ireland. 

3. The O'Cnomhabu were chiefs of Tuaim-da-bhodhar to 
Gleoiv, a district on the borders of Mayo and Sligo, extending 
from Foxford to Killagiass, and comprised tlie parish of Tooranre. 
Tlie Gleoir is a small river in tlie parish of Killaglass, in Sligo. The 
O'Caorahains, a branch of the O'Dowds, were a numerous elan, 
and the name has been changed to Cavanagh. 

1. Cele, or Celestine O'Duffy, as he is called by Ware, was 
bishop of Mayo, an ancient see, which was annexed to Tuam in 
the sixteenth century. Coarb of Condere, that is, liishop of 
Connor. TIjc bishops of Conor, m ancient times, were sometimes 
styled bishops of Dalaraidhe, while those of Dowu were called 
bishops of Ulidia. As the tenitories of Dalaraidhe and Ulidia 
were nearly co-extensive, and the two sees he'nrx afterwards 
united, it is difticult to determine the exact boundaries of each. 
Vnchonnn-Easa-Mic-Eirc, was a monastery founded by St. 
Mochonii, son of Eire, at Lough Key, near Boyle, county of Ros- 
common. 



son, but gave four of his chiefs in his stead, 
namely, Conor (xodh O'Hara, lord of Lieney ; 
Dermod, son of Coaor O'Mulrooney, lord of Moy- 
liu-o- : Fionn O'Carmacain ; and Aireachtach Mac 
Donogh, a young prince of O'Conor's friends. 
The king retiu"ned to England, and brought the 
hostages with him. 



A.D. 1210. 

The English came to Caolmsge (at BaUy- 
shannon.) Hugh O'Neill and Donal (3'Donnell 
pioceeded tliitlier with their foi'ccs, and defeated 
and slew many of the Enghsh, amongst whom was 
Fitz Henry the younger; and they distributed 
their property and booty amongst their ovm. 
men. 

Torlogh, son of Roderick O'Conor, having plun- 
dered Moyhu-g, took the booty with him to his 
kinsman Dermod's house at Seghais ; Hugh, the 
son of Cathal, pursued him, but Torlogh fled to 
the North. 

The hostages of Connaught, (taken by king 
John,) retmnied to Ireland, namely, Conor Godh 
O'Hara, lord of Lieney ; Dermod, son of Conor 
O'Muhooney ; Fionn O'Caimacain ; and Air- 
eachtao-h Mac Donotjh. 

Mmiogh Muinxlmeach (of Munster,) son of 
Torlogh More (O'Brien,) died. 

A great war broke out between the king of 
England, and the prince of Wales; and dispatches 
came from king John, commanding the Enghsh 
bishop (of Norwich,) and the English nobles in 
Ireland, to return to England. Richard Diuid' 



2. In the month of June, A.D. 1210, according to various autho- 
rities, king John landed atWaterford, with a large fleet and power- 
ful army. According to these Annals he landed at Dublin. 
Copies of the Annals vary as to the number of ships ; in some it is 
stated at one hundred, in others more ; a discrepancy whicli pro- 
bably arose from a mistahe of the transcribers. In the month of 
July king John proceeded to Meath, to a place caUed Tiopraid 
Ultain, or St. Ultau's Well, which is considered to be Ardbraccan, 
as it had that name from a holy well there, in honour of St. Ultan, 
who was bishop uf Ardl>raccan in the sixtli century. 01 hers state 
that the castle of Trim was the place where the king stopped in 
Meath, hence it has Iieen called king John's castle. After pro- 
ceeding to DownpaM-ick, ('arrickferi;'us, and other parts of Ulster, 
king John returned in August by Carlingford, Drogheda, Duleek, 
Kells, Foure, and Granard, to Rathwire, where the de Lacys had 
a castle near Kinnegad, in the parish of Killucan, in Westmeath, 
where he received the submission and hostages of Cathal Crovdearg 
O'Conor, which place is given in the Annals as Rath Guaire. 

1. Richard Diuid. This was Richard Tuite, who came over 



REIGN OF KING JOHN. 



35 



(Tuite,) was appointed lord justice over Ireland, 
and, shortly after, proceeded to Athloue, in order 
to send his kinsmen to Limerick, Wateribrd, and 
Wexford, whUe he himself should govern Duljlin 
and Athlone. During his stay at Athlone, some 
of the stones of the castle fell on his head, and 
killed him on the spot, together with his priest, 
and several others of his party, a circumstance 
which was altributed to the mu'acles of God, and 
SS. Peter and Kiaran. 

The sons of Roderick O'Conor, and Teige, the 
son of Conor of Maonmoy, having crossed the 
Shannon fi-om the east into the Tnatha,'^ accom- 
panied by a party of the people of Anally, they 
plundered the district, and carried away the booty 
into the recesses of Kinel Uobhtha. Hugh, son 
of Cathal Crovdearg pursued them, and an engage- 
ment ensued, ill vvhicli tlie sons of Roderick were 
defeated, so that they were compelled to recross 
the Shannon, losing many men and horses. 



A.D. 1211. 

Sitrig O'Laighenain, the coarb of Comgall 
(abbot of Bangor,) died. 

The castle of Cluan Eois (Clones in Monaghan,) 
was erected by the Enghsh, and the English 
bishop (of Norwich,) and they marched with a 
force on a predatory excursion into Tyrone, but 
wei'e, however, attacked by Hugh O'Neill, and 
defeated wlLli great slaughter ; among the slain 
was Myler, the son of Robert Fltz Henry. 

Thomas Mac Uchtiy, with the sons of Randal, 
the son of Somhairle, came to Deny ColumkUle, 
with a fleet of seventy-six ships ; and, after plun- 
dering and destroying the town, they pro(;eeded to 
Inisowcn, and spoiled the whole peninsula.' 

The Conaclans, by command of the Enghsh 
bishop, and Gilbert Mac Costello, marched with 



with Strongbow, and got large grants of lands in Westmeath. He 
was made a palatine peer, with the title of baron of Moyashell, as 
stated by the learned antiquary, John D' Alton, in his History of 
Drogheda. 

2. Tuntha, that is, the districts, a large territory in (he county 
of Roscommon, through which Slieve Baglma, or Slieve Baun, ex- 
tends from north to south, parallel with the Sliannon. Slieve 
Baun, according to Weld, lies in the barony of Roscommon. It 
obtained the name Tuatha, from having comprised several districts. 
In the Annals, under the year 1530, it is stated that O'Hanley 
was chief of this territory, who is also styled by the Annalists and 
O'Dugan, chief of Kinel Dobhtha. 



their forces to Easroe (BaUyshannon,) and erected 
a caslle at Caohusge.'^ 

Roderick, son of Roderick, son of Torlogh 
O'Conor. was slain by the pet)i)le of Lieney, in 
Conuau'.!;hi;. 

Conuac, son of Art O'Melaghlln, dispossessed 
the English of Delviu ; and Malachy, son of Art, 
defeated la battle the English who were In posses- 
sion of that cotmtry, and slew Robert of Dun- 
comar, their constable. 

Cugaela O'Heyne, died. 

Raghnadt, and Callleach De (the nun,) two 
daughters of Roderick O'Conor, died. 



A.D. 1212. 

Drum Caoin,' and its church, were burned by 
the Kinel Owen, despite of Hugh O'Neill. 

Fergal O'Kane, lord of Ciaanachta, and of the 
Creeve, was slain by the Eirghsh. 

Gilbert Mac Costello was slain in the castle of 
Caoluisge, which was burned by O'Heignig. 

The castle of Clones was burned by Hugh 
O'Nedl, and the northern Irish. 

Donogh O'Heyne had his eyes put out by Hugh, 
son of Cathal Crovdearg, against the will of 
O'Conor. 

The battle of Caille-na-Grann,^ was fought by 
Cormac, son of Art O'Melaghhn, and Hugh, son 
of Conor of Maonmoy, against the Enghsh, who 
were defeated with great slaughter ; and Piarus 
(or Pierce) Mason, and the sons of Sleimhne, were 
amongst the slain. 

Donogh Mac Can, chief of Kinel Aongusa,^ 
died. 

Donal O'Daimhin (O'Devin,) was slain by the 
sons of Mac Loughhn, in the porch of the church 
of Deny. 

The Giolla Fiaclach O' Boyle, with a party of 



1. Somhairle. This was Sorley Mac Donnell, a chief from the 
Hebrides. Thomas Mac Uchtry was another chief from Galloway 
m Scotland, and was sometimes styled earl of Athol. 

2. Caol Ulsge, signifies the narrow water, or ford, where this 
castle was erected probably somewhere near BaUyshannon. 

1. Drumchaoin, now Drumquin, near Omagh, county of Tyrone. 

2. CaUle-na-granii signifies the pass of the wood, and is sup- 
posed to be the place called Culleen Wood, in the barony of Moy- 
ashell, in Westmeath. 

3. Kinel Aomptsa. The Mae Cans were chiefs of Clanbrasil, in 
Armagh, as already stated, Kinel Aongusa is a territory given by 
O'Dugan in Meath. See note on Meath. 

F 2 



36 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1213. 



the Kinel Connell, plundered some of the Kinel 
Owen, who were under the protection of O'Tau-- 
ceii-t, namely, the GioUareiagh, chief of Clan 
Sneidgliile and Clan Fingin. O'Taircheirt over- 
took them, and a conflict ensued, in which, how- 
ever, he was slain, while fighting in defence of 
those whom he had taken under his protection. 

Dermod, son of Roderick O'Conor, took by 
force the house of Hugh, son of Manus O'Conor, 
in Killcolmain-Finn,'' in CoiTan, and set it on tire, 
by which thirty-five persons were burned. 

Donal, son of Donal of Bregia O'Melaghlin, 
defeated Cormac 0*Mela2:hlin, in an engagement 
in which Gillcreest Mac Colgan, with many others, 
were slain. 

Donal, son of Donal O'Melaghlin, was killed in 
a predatory affray by Mylei-'s party. 

The Enghsh of Munster marched with theu* 
forces to Roscrea, where they erected a castle ; and 
from thence they proceeded to Kilaghaidh,'^ where 
they were overtaken by Murtogh Mac Brien, and 
his forces, who opposed them in a battle, in which 
Melaghlin, the son of Catal Carrach, received 
wounds, of which he died. 



A.D. 1213. 

Giolla-na-naomh O'Ruadhain, bishop of Lieny, 
(Achonr)',) and Muii-igen O'Muu-igein, bishop of 
Clonmacnois, died. 

Ainmire O'Coffey, abbot of the church of Deny 
ColumkiUe, an ecclesiastic of noble birth, distin- 
guished for liis piety, meekness, charity, wisdom, 
and other vu-fues, died. 

Thomas Mac Uchtry, and Roiy, son of Randal 
(Mac DonneU,) plundered Derry ColumkiUe, and 
carried away the precious and valuable articles of 
the people of Deny, and of all the north of Ireland, 
from the Abbey Chiu-ch to Coleraine. 

O'Kane, and the men of Creeve, came to DeiTy 
to attack the house of the sons of Mac Loughlin. 
The prior of the great church of Derry, who inter- 
posed to make peace between them, was killed, and 
Mahon Magaithne, who collected and commanded 
this force, was slain in the sanctuary of ColumkiUe, 
in the porch of the Black Chm-ch, a circumstance 



4. Kilcolmnin Finn, the parish of Kilcoleman, in the barony of 
Coolavin, county of Sligo. 

5. Kllaghaidh is the parish of Kilaughy, in the King's county. 



which was attributed to the mu-acles of God, 
through the intervention of ColumkiUe. 

The castle of Coleraine was erected by Thomas 
Mac Uchtry, and the English of Uhdia ; and in 
order to build it, the houses of the town, with all 
the ecclesiastical establishments except the church, 
were pulled down. 

Hugh O'Neill defeated the English with dread- 
ful slaughter, and on the same day bm-ned Car- 
lingford, spai'ing neither persons nor property. 

Donn O'Breslein, chief of Fauad, was treache- 
rously slain by his own people. 

Fionn O'Brolchain, the steward of O'Donnell 
(Donal More), went toConnaught to collect O'Don- 
nell's tribute. He first went to Carbmy, of Drum- 
cliff, where he visited, along with his attendants, 
the house of the poet, Muireagh O'Daly, of Lissa- 
dill. On coming into the poet's presence, he 
betrayed appearances of fear and caution before 
him, as he was a man of gigantic strength, and as 
his master had advised him to beware of the poet. 
O'Daly became enraged on seeing him, and, seiz- 
ing a sharp axe, he struck him a blow, and slew 
him on the spot, and then fled into Clanrickard, 
being afraid of O'Donnell. When O'DonneU ob- 
tained intelligence of this, he collected his forces 
and pursued liim, and chd not rest until he arrived 
at the place afterwards called Derry O'Donnell, 
in Clanrickard (so named because O'Donnell en- 
camped there for the night,) when be began to de- 
vastate the country by fire and sword, until, Mac 
WilUam (de Burgo,) at last submitted to him, 
ha-vdng previously sent Muireagh into Thomond 
for refuge. O'Donnell pursued him thither, and 
proceeded to plunder and lay waste that country 
also, whereupon Donogh Cairbreach O'Brien sent 
Muireagh from him for protection to the people of 
Limerick, to the gates of which O'Donnell piu-sued 
him, and, pitching his camp at Moin-ui-Donnell 
(O'Donnell's Marsh, so called from that circum- 
stance) laid seige to the city, upon which the 
mhabitants, at the command of O'Donnell, expelled 
Muireagh, ^vho found no protection, but was sent 
from place to place, until he arrived at Dublin. 
O'Donnell after his pm'suit, and his visitation of 
all Connaught, returned home, and having mus- 



Mac Brien, the cliief, who commanded the Irish, was probably Mac 
Brien, or Mac I-Brien, of Ara, in Tipperary. 



REIGN OF KING JOHN. 



37 



tered another force ^\'ith all possible speed, in the 
same year marched to Dublin, and compelled the 
inhabitants to banish Muu-eagh to Scotland ; whilst 
there, the poet composed three poems m praise of 
O'Donnell, and requesting peace and pardon for 
his crime. The thu'd poem commences thus : 
" Oh ! Donal, benevolent hand of peace." Mui- 
reagh obtained pardon on account of his laudatory 
poems, and O'Donnell afterwards received him 
into his friendship, and with his usual generosity 
gave him lands and possessions. 

Cormac O'Melaghlin plundered and burnt the 
castle of Cinn Clair, beat the English, and can-ied 
away many horses, and much property. 

The English, ■svith a great force, marched to 
attack Connac Mac Art (O'Melaghlin,) and both 
parties ha\-ing met at the bridge of Tinne, an 
engagement ensued, in which Mac Art was defeat- 
ed, and Rory O'Ciardha was slain. Mac Art was 
expelled from Dehdn, and his people were plun- 
dered : after this, the English went to Athlone, 
where they erected a castle ; and they also built 
castles at Cinneidigh, But, and Durmaighe.' 

Cormac INIac Art went on a predatory expedition 
into Delvin, pkmdered Maoilseachlain Beag (the 
little,) expelled him from the comitry, slew William 
Muilinn, and reassumed the lordship of Delvin. 



A.D. 1214, 

The bishop O'Ceallaigh, (O'Kelly) of Hy Fi- 
achra', died. 

Ardgai- O'Conor, bishop of Siol Muu"eadhaigh, 
(Elpliin,) died. 

Benmidhe, daughter of Egnigh, wife of Hugh 
O'Neill, and lady of Aileach, died, after a well- 
spent life. 

A depredation was committed by Hugh, the son 
of INIalachy O'Loghlin, upon the coarb of Colum- 



1. Cinn Clair was the castle at Clara, King's county. The 
Bridge of Tinne was at Tinnecross, on the river Cladagh, near 
TuUamore. The castles built by the English were, as stated in 
the text, those of Cinneidigh, that is, Kinnitty , in the parish of Kin- 
nitty, King's County; that of Birr; and that of Durmaighe, or 
Durrow. 

1. Bishop of Hy Fiaclirn. The bishops of Killala, were styled 
bishops of Hy Fiachra Muaidhe, that is, of Hy Fiachra on the 
Moy, in Mayo and Sligo, to distinguish it from Hy Fiachra Aidhne, 
an ancient territory in Galway, co-extensive with the diocese of 
Kilmacduagh. The bishops of Killala were also sometimes called 
bishops of Tir Amalgaidh, or Tyrawley. See Ware's Bishops, by 
Harris. 



kiUe, but Hugh himself was slain by the English 
in a year aftei-wards, through the miracles of God 
and Columkille. 

Cathal Mac Dennott, the son of Teige, lord of 
Moylurgjthe towerof generosity of Connaught died. 

Bryan, son of Roderick O'Flaherty, son of the 
lord of West Connaught, died. 

Ualgarg O'Rom'ke plundered the property of 
Phihp ]\Iac Costello, in Crich Cau-pre,^ and carried 
off a great prey of cattle. 



A.D. 1215. 

Dionisius O'Lonargan, archbishop of Cashel, 
died at Rome. 

Conor O'Heny, bishop of Killaloe, died on his 
way home, while retm'ning from the fourth general 
council of Lateran. 

Annudli O'Murray, bishop of Conmaicne,' and 
j\Iaolpoil O'Mmray, prior of Dungiven, died. 

Trad O'Maoilfabhail, chief of Kinel Fergusa, 
with his brother, and many others, were slain by 
Muiredagh, son of the great steward of Leamhna.^ 

Donagh O'Duyiorma, chief of Breadagh, died in 
the black abbey church of Derry. 

Angus O'Carolan, chief of Clan Dermod, was 
slain by his own kinsmen. 

MuiTogh Mac Cathmail, cliief of Kinel Fera- 
dith, died. 

Mac Can, cliief of Kinel Aongusa, was slain by 
his kinsmen. 

Ror}- O'Flpin, lord of Berks', died. 

GioUa Cuitrigh Mac Cargamna, cliief of Muintir 
Maoilsiona (Fox, of Teffia,) died. 

Giola Caomgin O'Kelly, of Bregia, was taken 
prisoner by the EngUsh, in St. Petei-'s monasteiy 
at Athlone, and hanged by them at Trim. 

Teige Mac Eitigen, a chief of Clan Dermod,^ 
died. 



2. Crioch Cairbre, the barony of Carburry, in Sligo. 

1. Bishop of Conmaicne, that is, bishop of Ardagh, who is called 
by Ware, Adam O'Murray. 

2. Kinel Fergusa, a tribe of the Kinel Owen; see note on Tir 
Ecain. The Steicard of Leamhna. This was Slurdoch, son 
of the Mormair, or the great Steward of Lennox, in Scotland ; one 
of the chiefs who came over with the Mac Doimells, and other 
Scots who invaded the north of Ireland at this period. Ogygia 
II. p. 306. 

3. Derlais, a district in the county of Antrim, in Hy Tuirtxe, 
of which O'FUtiu was chief. See note on Dalaradia. 

4. Clan Dermod. See note on Hy Maine. 



38 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1216-17-18-19. 



A. D. 1216, 

Mahon O'Laverty, (or O'Flaherty,) chief of 
Clan Donal,' died. 

Giolla-ArnainO'Martain, chief Brehon, or judge 
of Ireland, died. 

Tomaltach, son of Hugh, son of Ai'aghtagh 
O'Rody, was slain by Donal^ son of Hugh Mac 
Dei-mott. 

Eaghdon Mac Qilli-Uider,^ coarb of St. Pa- 
trick, and pi'imate of Ireland, died at Rome, after a 
well spent life. 

Malachy Mac Dermott was slain by the people 
of Ferkall, and those of Myler Fitz Henry. 

Moragh, son of Roderick O'Conor, died. 

The castle of Killaloe was erected by Geoffrey 
Marisco, and the Enghsh bishop (of Norwich,) also 
erected a mansion there, despite of all opposition. 

Henry III. was proclaimed king of England, on 
the 19th of October.' 



A. D. 1217. 

GioUa Tigernagh Mac GioUa Ronan, bishop of 
Oriel, (Clogher,) and chief canon of Ireland, died, 
after penance and repentance. 

Dermod, son of Conor Mac Dermott, lord of 
Moylurg, died. 

Mor, the daughter of O'Brien, (that is, Donal,) 
the wife of Cathal Crovdearg O'Conor, died. 

Donal O'Gara, died. 

Nial, the grandson of Loughhn O'Conor, died. 

Telge O'Ferrall was slain by Muragh Carragh 
O'Ferrall. 

Gillpatrick Mac Acadhain, chief of Clan Fer- 
maighe,' died. 

Donal, son of Murragh Mac Coghlan, lord of the 
greater portion of Delvin, was treacherously slain 
by the sons of Malachy Mac Coghlan, at Liath- 
di'uim.'^ 



1. Clan Donnl. There was a district so called, near Lough Con, 
in the county of Mayo. 

•2. Mac Gilli. Uidhir. This was Eugene Mac Gillirider, arch- 
bjshiip <f Armagh. 

:!. King John, died on the 19!h of October, A.D. 1216, and 
was succeeded by his son Henry III. 

1. Clnn Fermn'icfhe, according to O'Dugan, was a district in 
Brefiiey, of wliich Mac Cagadhain was cliief, a name sometimes 
anglicised Mac Egan, and by others, Mac Coggan. 

2. Liathdru'tm, probably the parish of Leitrim, in the county of 
Gahvay. 

3. May Eeleoq, a district in the parish of Crossmolina, mMayo. 
The district of the Two Backs, m Mayo, has been already explained. 



Cathal Fionn (the Fair) O'Laghtna, chief of the 
Two Backs, was killed in his own house, by 
O'Flynn, of Moy Eleog.* 



A.D. 1218. 

Clemens, bishop of Lieney (Achonry,) died. 

Giolla-na-naomli (or (iioUanaueev) O'Gormley, 
priest of Rathluraigh,' died while on a pilgrimage. 

MaoHiosa O'Doighre, airciiieach of Derry 
Cohimkiile, died oa the 8th of December, after 
having presided for forty years, and having done 
eveiy^ possible service to the church and to the 
counlry. 

The church of the monasteiy of Boyle was con- 
secrated. 

Murtogh O'Flynn, lord of Hy Tuirti'e, was 
slain by the Enghsh ; and Congalach O'Cuinn 
(O'Quiini,) chief of Moy Lugad,'^ and of the entire 
of Siol Cathusaigh, who was the lower of bravery, 
Jiospltalily, and magnanimily of the north of Ire- 
land, was al->o slain by the English on the same 
day. 

Rory and Malachy, the sons of Mac Coghlan^ 
died m the monastery of Kilbeggain.^ 

Longhliii O'Conor died in the monastery of 
Cnoc Muaidhe.'* 

The English of Meath, and Murtogh Carrach 
O'Ferrall, plundered the tenitory of Hy Criuin, 
of the Shannon, but were overtaken by Dermod, 
son of Torlogh, son of Mtlaghlin, with a party of 
the Conacians, who defeated the Enghsh, of whom 
upwards of one hmidred were eillier di'owned or 
slain ; and O'Conor himself, and many of his 
party, were also killed m the thick of the fight. 



A.D. 1219. 
Hugh O'Malone, bishop of Clonmacnois, v.-as 
drowned. 



1. Rathhtra'icjh, that is, Ardstraw, a parish partly in the barony 
of Omagh, but chiefly in that of Strabane, county of T.yrine ; it 
was an ancient liishop's see, which was removed to Derry in 
A.D. ]lo8. 

2. Marjh Lugnd, according to the brnks of Leacan and Bally- 
mote, lay in Kianaght of Glengiven, now tlie barony of Kenaught, 
in the county of Derry. Keating states that one of the plains 
clearci! hy Nemetius, was Moy-I.ughaidh, in Hy Tuirfre. 

3. KUheyabiy now the parish of KUbcggan, in the barony of 
Moyoashel, Westmcath, where a monastery was founded by 
St. Becan, about A.D. CUO. 

4. Cnoc il/«//(rf/?f, now the parish of Abbeyknockraoy, in the 
barony of Tyaquin, county of Galway : where an abbey was founded 
m A. D. 1189, by Cathal Crovdearg O'Conor, in commemoration of 



REIGN OF HEXRY III. 



39 



Fonachtan O'Bronain, the abbot of Deny, 
died, and was succeeded by Flau O'Brolchain. 

Malachy, son of O'Conor of Maoiimoy, was 
slaiii by Magnus, sou of Torloi^li O'Couor, after 
the latter had forcibly taken his house at Clon- 
tuaiscert.' 

O'Donnell {i.e. Donal More,) mai-ched his forces 
into the Gai-bh Thrian of Connaught, and ob- 
tained hostages, and the submission of O'Eom-ke, 
O'Reilly, aud the entire tribe of Hugh Fionn.- 
Ile aftei-wards led his forces tlu'ough Fermanagh, 
and spoiled every place through which he passed, 
both chui-ch and country, wherever he was op- 
posed. 

Walter de Lacy, and Mac Wiiham Bui'ke, 
anived fi-om England. 

Duvdai-a, son of Mtiireagh O'Malley, was put 
to death in prison b}' Cailial Crovdearg O'Conor, 
in his own fortress, for his misdeeds.' 

Enda, son of Danair O'iMdollcliiarain, died. 



A.D. 1220. 

Jacobus arrived in Ireland as the Pope's legate, 
to ai'range and settle the ecclesiastical ati'airs of Ire- 
land, after which he returned. 

Deriuod, sou of Roderick O'Conor, son of Tor- 
logh More (monarch of Ireland.) was sLiiu, on his 
voyage from the Hebrides, by Thomas Mac 
Uchtrs'. Demaod collected a fleet, with which he 
was coming, for the purpose of having liimself 
made king of Connaught ; Mulrooney O'Dowd 
was di'o\\iied on the same expedition. 

Malachy, son of Malachy Beag (the Little,) was 
di-ov>'ned iii Lough Ree. 

Dermod, son of Biyan the Blind, was treacher- 
ously killed by the son of Mahon O'Brien. 

Walter de Lacy, and the Enghsh of Meath, 



a great victory whicli he obtained there over the English ; hence 
it is said the monastery was called de colle victoria. 

1. Clontusltert, a parish in the county of Galway. 

2. Hugh Fionn, or Hugh the Fair, was one of the ancient kings 
of Connaught, and ancestor to the O'Rourkes and O'Reillys, princes 
of the tno Brefneys. The Garb Tricot, signifies the Rough Dis- 
trict, a name applied to the mountainous part of the county of 
Leitrini. 

3. The O'JIalleys were chiefs of Hy Slaille, or Umalia, now the 
barony of Murrisk, in the county of Mayo. 

1. Athliag, or Athleague,was the ancient name of the ford on the 
Shannon at Lanesborougb, between Longford and Rosconunon; so 



marched their forces to Athleague,' where they 
partly erected a castle, but Cathal Crovdearg, with 
his party, crossed the Shannon, eastward by the 
Feny, which so much temfied the Enghsh, that 
they made peaceable terms, and the Conacians 
demohshed the castle. 

The Cairneach Riabhach (?". e. the Grey Friar) 
Mac Flanchadha, and Fergal Mac Samlu'adhain, 
were slain by Hugh O'Rom-ke (i. e. the son of 
DouneU, son of Fergal,) and the Clan Fermaighe.^ 



A.D. 1221. 

Cormac, abbot of Comar,' was slain. 

The son of Hugo de Lacy came to Ireland, con- 
traiy to the command of the king of England, and 
having joined Hugh O'XeiU against the English, 
they first proceeded to Colerain, and thsmantled 
the castle, and fi-om thence marched to Meath and 
Lemster, and reduced the country on that expedi- 
tion. The Anglo-Irish collected twenty-four 
battalions at Dundalk, but Hugh O'Neill, aud de 
Lacy collected four large battahons, and marched 
against the English, who submitted to O'Neill 
on his own terms. 



A.D. 1222. 

Mac Gealan, bishop of Kiklare, died. 

Ailoin O'Mulloy, bishop of Fenis, died. 

Maoilisa O'Flj^nn, prior of Eas Mac Ere,' died. 

Teige O'Boyle, the prosperity and support of 
the north of Ireland, the bestower of rich presents, 
and patron of learned men, died. 

NiaU O'Neill violated Deny, in defiance of the 
daughter of O'Kane, but God and Columkille 
were avenged for this, for he did not Uve long after- 
wards. 



that it appears that this castle was buUt in the vicinity of that 
place, on the banks of the Shannon. 

•2. Mac Flanchadha, was Mac Clancy, and Mac Samradhain 
wa» Mac Gauran, sometimes anglicised to Somers. Both were 
chiefs in Leitrim and Cavan, as will be fully explained in the note 
on Bre&ey. 

1 . Comar was probably the Cistercian abbey of Comber, in the 
county of Down, or perhaps Commer, now the parish of 
Kilmacrcen, county of Galway, where there was also a religious 
establishment. 

1. Eas Mac Ere. There was a place so called, in the parish of 
Donagh, barony of Inisowen, county of Donegal. See also p. 34. 



40 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1223-24. 



Giolla Mochoinni O'Cahal, lord of eastern and 
western Kinel Hugh, was slain by Shaughnusagh 
Macgiollananeev O'Shaughnusy, after ha%dng been 
betrayed by his own people. 

Mor, daughter of O'Boyle, the wife of Awlave 
O'Beollain (O'Boland,) died. 



A.D. 1223. 

Maoliosa, son of Torlogh O'Conor, prior of Inis- 
meodhoin,' died. 

Du\1;hagh O'Duffy, abbot of Cong, died. 

O'Donnell (Donal More,) marched his forces to 
Croaghan of Connaught,from thence to the Tuatha, 
and proceeded westward across the river Suck, 
and devastated, by fire and sword, every district 
through which he passed, compelling them to give 
hostages, and make their submission. 

Seachnusagh Macgiollananeev O'Shaughnusy, 
was killed by Clan Cuilein,^ who carried off the 
great crozier of St. Colman of Kilmacduagh. 

Murogh Carragh O'FeiTall was slain by a dart, 
while making an attack on Hugh, son of Awlave 
O'Ferrall. 



A.D. 1224. 

The monaster}'- of St. Francis, at Athlone, was 
founded by Cathal Crovdearg O'Conor, king of 
Connaught, in the diocese of Clonmacnois, on the 
east bank of the Shannon. 

Maolmuire O'Conmaic, bishop of Hy Fiachra, 
and of Kinel Hugh,' died. 

The bishop of Conmaicne, i. e. the English 
bishop,^ died. 

Maurice, the canonist, son of Roderick O'Conor, 
one of the most eminent of the Irish for learning, 
psalmody, andpoetry, died,and was buriedat Cong. 

Maolkeevin O'Scingin, aircineach of Ardcarna,* 
died. 



1. Inis Meodhain, an island in Lough Mask, county of Mayo. 

2. Clan CiiUein, a district in tlie east of the county of Clare, of 
which the Mac Namaras were chiefs. 



1 . Bishop of Hy Fiachra and of Cinel Hugh, that is, bishop of 
Kilmacduagh. 

2. Bishop of Conmaicne, or Ardagh, mentioned by Ware as 
Robert, ^ Cistercian monk. 

3. Ard Carna, or Ardcame, a parish in the barony of Boyle, 
county of Roscommon, had in early times a monastery, and was a 
bishop's see. 

4. Cathal Crovdearg O'Conor, was the son of Torlogh, monarch 
of Ireland, and brother to king Roderick O'Conor, not his son, as 



Maolisa Mac-an-EspoIg O'Maolfaghmair, par- 
son and bishop elect of Hy Fiachra and Hy 
Amalgaidh (Killala,) was slain by the son of 
O'Dowd, a crime the more culpable in him, for 
none of the O'Dowds ever before killed an eccle- 
siastic. 

An awful and strange shower fell in Connaught, 
extending over Hy Maine, Sodain, Hy Diarmada, 
and other parts, followed by terrible diseases and 
distempers among the cattle that grazed on the 
lands where this shower fell ; and their milk pro- 
duced, in tlie persons who drank it, extraordinary 
internal diseases. It was manifest that these were 
evil omens, foreboding misfortunes to the people 
of Connaught, as they sustained irreparable loss and 
calamity in the same year by the death of Cathal 
Crovdearg, the son of Torlogh More O'Conor, and 
king of Connaught, the man who had, dm'ing a 
long time, destroyed more of the traitors and 
enemies of Ireland than any other had done, the 
chief supporter of the clergy, and benefactor of 
the poor and indigent — a man in whom God had 
implanted more goodness and greater virtues than 
in any other of the Irish nobility in his time. From 
the period of his wife's death till his own, he led a 
single and virtuous life. During his reign tithes 
were first lawfully collected in Ireland. This 
upright and noble prince, this warrior of pure 
piety and just judgments, died on the 28th day of 
Summer, on a Monday, in the habit of a grey 
fiiar, in the monastery of Knockmoy, which he 
himself had dedicated to God, and granted to the 
monks, with its site and lands, and in which he was 
inten'ed with due honours and solemnity. The 
place of Cathal Crovdearg's birth was at the Port 
of Lough Mask, and he was nurtured and educated 
in Hy Diarmada, with Teige O'Conceanain.* 



stated by several writers. He was long celebrated amongst the 
Irish, as a valiant warrior, and got the name Croibhdearg, signi- 
fying, of the Red or Bloody Hand, from the many battles he fought 
against the English. He was king of Connaught for many years, 
and made many energetic efforts to restore the Irish monarchy. 
Amongst the many victories he gained, was the battle of Knockmoy, 
A.D. 1189, in which he cut off the English forces commanded by 
the valiant Almeric de St. Lawrence, ancestor to the earls of 
Howth. In commemoration of this battle, he founded a great 
Cistercian monastery at Knockmoy, in the county of Galway, which 
was known imder the name de colle victoria, that is, of the liill of 
victory. Amidst the venerable ruins of Knockmoy, are still to be 
seen some interestmg remains of the magnificent monument of 
Crovdearg O'Conor. 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



41 



Hugh 



O'Conor, (Cathal Crovdearg's son), 
succeeded immediately, mthout opposition, as king 
of Connauglit, for he held the hostages of 
Connaught previous to his father's death. 
Hugh, in maintenance of the laws and functions 
of a prince, when about to assume the government. 



On Irish proper names. It may here not be unnecessary to 
give an explanation of some of the proper and Christian names of 
men and women tliat frequently occur in the course of these 
Annals. Many of these Irish names appear strange and uncouth 
to the mere English reader, though if their etymology and pro- 
nunciation were perfectly understood, they would be found truly 
beautiful, euphonious, and expressive. A few examples are given, 
as follows ; — 

Andli, pronounced Ee and E, was one of the most frequent 
names of kings and chiefs amongst tlie Irish. The word signifies 
fire, and was probably derived from the Druidical worship. The 
name has been anglicised into Hugh, aud latinised variously, 
Hugo, Aedus, Aedanus, Aldus, and Odo. 

Aongiix, the name of kings and chiefs, pronounced Angus, 
derived from Aon, excellent, and Gia; strength. This has become 
a surname, Mac Aongusa, or Mac Gennises, lords of Iveagh. 

Ardijal, a name of chiefs, from Aril, exalted, and gnl, valour. 

Art, a name of kings and chiefs, derived from Art, noble. It 
was a frequent name amongst the O'Neills. It has been anglicised 
to Arthur. 

Brian, a name of kings and chiefs, derived from Bri, strength, 
and an, very great, that is, a warrior of great strength. It has 
been anglicised into Bryan and Bernard. It has become a surname 
in the great family of the O'Briens, kings of Thomond, as derived 
from their ancestor, Brian Boroimhe. 

Brandubh, the name of a king of Leinster in the sixth century, 
signifying the Black Raven, from the colour of his hair, the 
word Bran signifying a Raven, and Diihh, black. Tlie O'Brains 
or O'Bymes, chiefs of Wieklow, derived their descent from this 
king. 

Blosgach, the name of a chief, signifies a strong man, or a 
smasher. This has become the surname of Mac Blosgaidh, or 
Mac Closkey, a clan in Derry. 

Cathal, a frequent name of kings and chiefs, signifies a great 
warrior, from Cath, a battle, and all, great. 

Cathaoir, or Cathair, also a frequent name of kings and 
chiefs, has a similar signification from Cath, a battle, and ar, 
slaughter. 

In the pronunciation of these names the t is silent, and they are to 
be pronounced Cah-al and Cali-ir. It may be remarked that both 
these names have been absurdly anglicised into Charles. 

Cormac, a name of kings and chiefs, signifies the son of the 
Chariot, from corb, a chariot, and mac, a son. Cairhre, a fre- 
quent name of kings and chiefs, probably derived from the same 
source, as corb, a chariot, and i?i, a king, hence may signify the 
chief or ruler of the chariot. 

Conn, a name of kings and chiefs, may be derived from Conn, 
wisdom or sense ; or from Cu, which signifies a hound, and was 
figuratively applied to a warrior, as the genitive case of Cu makes 
Con. This was a favourite name with the chiefs of the 
O'Neills, from Conn of the Hundred Battles, monarch of Ireland, 
one of their ancestors. 

ConaU, a name of kings and chiefs, derived either from Conall, 
friendship, or from Cn, making in the genitive Con, signifying a 
warrior, and all, mighty, an instance of which may be given in the 
famous warrior Conall Cearnaeh, or Conall the Victorious. 

Cathbhar, pronounced Cah-war, was a favourite name amongst 
the chiefs of the <J'DonnelIs, and signifies a helmeted-warriur, 
from Cathbhar, a heliuet, or perhaps from Cath, war or battle, 
and Barr, a chief. 

Conchiibhar, or Conchobhar, pronounced Con-coo-var, a fre- 
quent name of kings and cliiefs, derived from Cu or Con, a war- 
rior, and Cobhair, aid ; hence it signifies the helping warrior. 
This name has been anglicised into Conor, and latinised Cornelius. 



commanded the eyes of the son of O'Monaghan 
to be put out, becatise he had committed a rape, 
and the hands and feet of another to be cut otl', 
because he had committed a robbery. 

Hugh O'Conor, of Maonmoy, died on his jour- 
ney home from Jerusalem and the river Jordan. 



It also, like many others, became a surname, as in the great family 
of the O'Conors, kings of Connaught, and others of that name in 
Ireland. 

We find several names of chiefs commencing with Cu, which 
signifies a hound, and figuratively a swift-footed warrior, as for 
instance, Cuclndlain, a famous warrior of the Red Branch Knights 
of Ulster, the name signifying the warrior of Ulster, as Ulladh, 
or Ulster, is some times inflected Ullain. 

Cu-Ulladh, a frequent name of chiefs, also signifies the warrior 
of Vlladh, or Ulster. Cu-Midhe, signifying the warrior of 
Meath, is also a frequent name of chief's. 

Cucho7inacht, signifies the warrior of Connaught, and was a 
favourite name of the Mac Guires, chiefs of Fermanagh. This 
name has been anglicised into Conor, and Constantine. 

Boinhnall, pronounced Don-all, and anglicised Daniel, a name 
of kings and chiefs, became also a surname, as in the great family 
of the O'Donnells, princes of Tirconnell. 

Donnoch, or Bonnchu, a name of kings and chiefs, frequent 
among the O'Briens, derived probably from Bonn, brown, and Cu, 
a warrior, therefore might signify the brown-haired warrior. The 
name is pronounced Bonoyh, and anglicised Denis. It has also 
become a surname, as in the clans of the Mac Donoghs, and 
O'Donoghoes. 

Biarntaid, or Biarm,nid, a name of kings and chiefs, which, 
according to O'Brien, is derived from Bia, a god, and Armaid, 
the genitive plural of Arm, arms, the word thus signifying a god 
of arms, an epithet as applied to a warrior equivalent to that of 
one of Homer's heroes. Bios Krateros Biomedes, or the god-like 
fighting Diomede. "riiis natne has also become a surname, as 
Mac Biarmada, or Jlac Dermotts, princes of Moylurg. 

Eochaidh, pronounced Eochy, or Eohy, anglicised Achy, and 
latinised Eochadius, Achadius, and Achaius, a name of many kings 
and chiefs, is derived from Each or Each, a steed, and therefore 
sigiufies a horseman or kniglit. 

Eachmarcach, and EachmiUdh, names of chiefs, have a 
similar significatiou, the first derived from Each, a steed, and mar- 
each, a rider ; the second from Each, a steed, and MlUdh, a 
kniglit. 

Eiijneachnn, derived from Eigean, force, and Neach, a person, 
and may signify a plundering chief. 

Eogan, a name of kings and chiefs, signifies a young man or 
youthful warrior. This name has been anglicised into Owen and 
Eugene, in Latin, Eugenius. It was a favourite name of the 
O'Neills, from their ancestor Eogan, son of Niall of the Hostages, 
monarch of Ireland. 

Feidhllm, or Feidhlimidh, a name of kings and chiefs, which, 
according to Cormac's Glossary, signifies great goodness, and is 
probably derived from Feile, hospitality, hence it may signify a 
man of hospitality. The name is pronounced Felim, or Phelim, 
and has been anglicised to Felix. 

Fcargal, a name of kings and chiefs, derived from Fear, a man, 
and gal, valour, hence signifying a valiant warrior. It has become 
a surname, as O'Feargail, or O'Ferralls, princes of Anally. This 
was a favourite Christian name of the O'Ferralls, O'Rourkes, and 
O'Reillys. 

Feargus, or Fergus, a frequent name of kings and chiefs, 
derived from Fear, a man, and gns, strength, hence it signifies a 
strong warrior. 

Fiaclta, a frequent name of kings and chiefs from the earliest 
ages, and derived from Fiaeha, a hunter, which probably had 
its origin from the occupation or amusement of hunting, so 
frequent in early times. Nuurod for instance, in the Scriptures, 
is mentioned as a mighty hunter. 

Flann, a name of kings and chiefs, a word which signifies of a 



42 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1224. 



Doncathach, son of Aireactach O'Rody, chief 
of Clan Tomaltaidh, died on his pilgrimage at 
Tobur Patrick.' 

Maoilseachlin, son of Teige O'Kelly, lord of 
Hy Maine, died. 

GioUa-na-neev Crom O'Shaughnessy, lord of 
the western half of Kiuel Hugh of Echtgi, 
died. 

Donal O'Kelly, lord of Hy Maine, died. 

Cucanan O'Concanan died. 



red complexion. It has become a surname, as O'Flainn, or 
O'Flynns, of whom there were several clans, and the O'Flanagans 
are derived from the same source. 

Fionn, the name of kinjfs and chiefs, signifies fair-haired, and 
the word is prefixed to many names. 

Flnithhherirtach, pronounced Flaherty, the name of chiefs. 
This word, which may appear in the Irish to have an uncouth 
sound, is really a euphonious name, of expressive sig^nification, being 
derived from Flaitli, a chief, and beartach, of deeds, and may, 
therefore, siirnify a chief of noble deeds. It has become a sur- 
name, as of the O'FIahertys, chiefs of West Connaught. 

Guaire, a name of kings and chiefs, which signified noble or ex- 
cellent. Guaire, an ancient king of Coimaught, was celebrated for 
his hospitality. 

Gearrmaide, a name of some chiefs, derived from Gearr, 
short, and maide, a stick, which might signify the chief of the 
short cudgel : the first probably who obtained this was distinguished 
for his stick-fighting. 

GloUa. This word is prefixed to many names, chiefly to those 
of ecclesiastics, and signifies a servant, or disciple, for instance 
Giolla-an-choimhdhe, signifying the servant of the Trinity, from 
Coimhde, the Trinity ; Giolla-Iosa, the servant of Jesus ; a name 
which has been latinised into Gelasius ; GioUa-Criost, the servant 
of Christ ; GioUa-Muire, the servant of the Virgin Mary ; Giolla- 
na-naomh, pronounced Gioltn-nn-neev, signifying the servant of the 
saints ; GioUa-Peadair, or the servant of St. Peter ; Giolla-Poil, 
or servant of St. Paul ; GioUa-Michil, the servant of St. 
Michael ; Giolla-Patraig, the servant of St. Patrick ; Giolla- 
Coluim, or servant of St. Columkille ; Giolla-Brighde, the servant 
of St. Bridget; Giolla-Ciarain, the servant of St. Kiaran; Giolla- 
Caomhain, the servant of St. Kevin ; GioUa-Easbuig, the servant 
of the bishop, &c. 

Maol is also prefixed chiefly to the names of ecclesiastics, and 
signifies a bald or tonsured person, who became the spiritual ser- 
vant of some saint, as for instance Maol-Iosa, or the servant of 
Jesus ; Maol-Muire, or the servant of the Virgin Mary ; Maol- 
Peadair, or the servant of St. Peter ; Maol- Poll, or the servant of 
St. Paul; Maol-Patraig, or the servant of St. Patrick ; Maol- 
Coluim, or the servant of St. Columkille, a name known as Mal- 
colm, and which was borne by many of the kings of Scotland. 

Mrioheachlain, signifying the servant of St. Sechnall, or Seach- 
lan, was a name frequent amongst the kings and chiefs of Meath, 
of the Hy Nialls. This name has been anglicised to Malachy ; 
it also became a surname of that clan, under the name 
O'Melaghlin. 

Mnolmordha, a name which has been anglicised to Myles, or 
Miles, was a favourite name of the chiefs of the O'Reillys. 

Midrckeartttch, a frequent name of chiefs, may lie derived from 
Muir, the sea, and ceai-t, a right, hence might signify a naval 
warrior, or a chief establishing his rights at sea. The name has 
been anglicised to Murtogh. 

Mu'ireadhach, a. name of kings and chiefs, which may also be 
derived from Muir, the sea, and Eadhach, a protector, a name 
equivalent to that of admiral. It has been anglicised Morogh, and 
Maurice. 

NMl, a name of many kings and chiefs, derived from Nladh, 
a cliarapion, or mailed knight, and all, noble, hence signifies a 
noble knight, or armed champion. This became the tribe-name of 



Mahon, son of Carney O'Kerin, lord of Ciar- 
raidhe of Lough-na-naimeadh,'' died. 

The corn was unreaped till the festival of St. Brid- 
get, when the ploughing commenced (a delay), occa- 
sioned by war, and the inclemency of the weather. 

Maurice Fitzgerald,' from whom are descended 
the Geraldines of Kildare and Desmond, founded 
a monastery at Youghal, in the diocese of Cluan- 
insi-Mumhan (Cloyne), for friars of the order of 
St. Francis. 



the Hy Nialls, who were descended from Niall of the Hostages, 
monarch of Ireland. 

Eudhralghe, or Iiuadliraiy!ie,a. name of kings and chiefs, may 
be derived either from Ruadh, valiant, and Rk/li, a king ; or, 
Rundh, red, and High, a king, and may therefore signify the 
valiant king, or ihe red-haired king. This name has been anglicised 
to Rory and Roderick. 

Toirdhealbluich, pronounced Torlogh, a name of kings and 
chiefs, derived from Torja tower, and rfta?iAftcA, form, signifying a 
man of tower-like stature. This name has been anglicised to Terence. 

Tomaltach , a name of chiefs, derived from Tontailt^ provisions, 
or good living, hence signified a man of hospitality. It has been 
anglicised to Thomas 

Tnathal, pronounced Tua-hal, a name of kings and chiefs, 
deriveil from Tuatha, territories, that is, a man possessed of a 
large landed property, or a lordship, has become a surname, as 
O'fuath.iil, or O'Toole. 

Tighcarnait, or Tiurnan, a name of chiefs, derived from Tiarna, 
a lord. This was a favourite name among the chiefs of the 
O'Rourkes. It also became a surname, as Mac Tieruan, or Mac 
Keman. 

Tadhg, or Teige, a frequent name, signified originally, a poet. 

Valgarg, a name of chiefs amongst the O'Rourkes, derived 
from Uaill, famous, and garg, fierce, signifying a famous and 
fierce warrior. 

A few names of women may be here given as specimens, as for 
instance, Bebimi, derived from Be, a woman, and biim, melodious. 

Barrdiibh, a dark-haired woman, from Barr, the hair, and 
duhh, dark. 

Dearforgail, or Dervorgil, signifies a purely fair daughter, 
from Dear, a daughter, asiiforgil, purely fair. 

Duhhdeasa, or Dudeasa, signifies a dark-haired beauty, from 
Bnhh, dark, and deas, beautiful. 

Feithfailge, a beautiful and fanciful name, derived from Feith, 
a honey-suckle, and failge, of rings, hence it signifies a honey- 
suckle of ringlets. 

Fionnghuula, signifies a fair-shouldered woman, from Fiom, 
white, and guala, shoulders. This name has been anglicised to 
Penelope. 

Flanna, signifies a red or rosy complexioned beauty. 

Laaairfhioiia, signifies a wine or rosy comple.xioned woman. 

Mar, afrequent name of women, signifies a fine or majestic woman. 

5. Clan romHWi-ziWAjadistrict, according toO'Dugan, in the ter- 
ritory of Croaghan in Connaught, in the present county of Ros- 
common. Tohar Pndraig or St. Patrick's well, a place of pil- 
grimage, in the pariah of Annagh, barony of Costello, county 
of Mayo, where a church was founded by the abbot Maolbrighde 
O'Maigin, in A.D. 1-225. 

6. Clarraidhe-Loch-na-nnirneadh, which O'FIaherty calls 
Kerry, of Loch JIairne, lay in the parish of Aghamore, barony 
of Costello, county of Mayo. 

7. Maurice Fitzgerald. The Fitzgeralds trace their descent 
from the dukes of Tuscany. Some of the family, from Florence, 
settled in Normandy, and came from thence to England with \Vil- 
liam the Conqueror. Maurice Fitzgerald came to Ireland with 
Robert Fitzstephen, and other Anglo-Norman chiefs, A.D. 11G9, 
and assisted Strongbow in the reduction of Ireland. He is thus 
described from Cambrensis and Holingshed : — " A man he was, 



REIGN OF HENRY III, 



43 



A.D. 1225. 




WLAVE O'BEO- 
LAN, aircineach of 
Drumcliff, a learned 
man, and a Biatach,' 
died. 

O'Mulbrenan, abbot 
of the monastei-y of 
Boyle, died from the 
accidental effects of 
bloodletting. 

Maolbrigihde O'Mai- 



gi'i. 



abbot of Tobar- 



patrick, a son of purity 
and wisdom, died. 
He founded the church 
of Tobarpatrick, which 
he completed, with its sanctuary and crosses, at 
great pains, and dedicated it in honour of St. 
Patrick, the Virgin Mary, and the Apostles. 

GioUa-an-Choimde Mac Giollacharraidh, a dig- 
nified priest, and parson of Taughboine, died. 

Dionisius O'Mulkiaian, aii-cineach of Ai'dcame, 
died. 

GioUacou-pthe O'Mugi-oin died, and was inter- 
red at Cong of St. Feichin. 

O'Neill mustered a powerful force, and marched 
into Connaught, to aid the sons of Roderick 
O'Conor, namely, Torlogh and Hugh, at the 
instance of Duinnoig Mac Oireachtaidh (Mac 
Geraghty), head chief of Siol Murray (Roscom- 
mon), to be revenged of O'Conor (Hugh), who 
had dispossessed him of his territory ; but when 



lioth honest and wise, and for truth and valour very noble and 
famous, a man of his word, of constant mind, and of a certain bash- 
fulness, well coloured, and of good countenance, of middle stature, 
and compact at all points, courteous, gentle, and moderate, a 
jiattern of sobriety and good behaviour j a man of few words ; ids 
s|He<4ies more full of wit and reason than of words; more 
wisdom he had than eloquence ; in martial affairs bold, stout, and 
valiant, and yet not hasty to run headlong into any adventure, liut 
when an attempt was once taken in hand, he would strictly pur- 
sue and follow the same." He was appointed chief governor of 
Ireland, A.D. 1173, by Henry II., and be and his descendants got 
large grants of lands in Leinsterand Munster, chiefly in the coun- 
ties of Kildare, Wicklow, Wexford, Cork, and Kerry. He died 
A.D. 1177, and was buried in the abbey of the Grey Friars at 
AVexford. From him was descended the above Maurice Fitzgerald, 
and the noble family of the Fitzgeralds, one of the most distin- 
guished in Ireland A branch of them were, down to the reign of 
Ehzabeth, earls of Desmond, and had immense possessions in the 
counties of Cork and Kerry. Another branch became barons of 
Otfaly, earls of Kildare, and dukes of Leiuster. There have been 



Mac Oireachty turned against Hugh O'Conor, 
the Siol Mm-ray, and the people of West Con- 
naught, headed by Hugh O'Flaherty, lord of 
West Connaught, and all the Irish of the province, 
except Mac Dermott (Cormac, son of Tomaltach), 
rose in opposition to him. As to O'Neill, he did 
not halt until he arrived in the middle of Siol 
MmTay, from whence he proceeded to the wood 
of Athlone, where he remained encamped for two 
nights at the mill of Guanach, luitil he devastated 
Lough Nen, from which he carried away aU the 
treasiu'es of O'Conor. From thence he marched 
to Cam Fraoich,^ where Torlogh, son of Roderick 
O'Conor, was inaugurated by O'Neill and his 
party ; for all the clans, except the supporters of 
Hugh, namely, Mac Dermott, David O'Flynn, 
and a few others, gave their support to the sons 
of Roderick. 

The son of Cathal Crovdearg then came to a 
resolution to repair to the English, at the castle at 
Athlone ; and it happened fortunately for him 
that the English nobility of Ireland were then 
assembled there, most of whom were his friends 
on his own account, as well as on that of his father, 
for they were both tributaries to the English. 
The English received him gladly, and he remained 
■s\ ith them for some time, on very friendly terms. 
The lordjustice, andmany of the English nobility, 
gave him their support, and were joined by 
Donagh Cairbreach O'Brien, and O'Melaghlin, 
(lord of Meath), with their forces. 

The people of Moy Ai, and those of the Tuatha 
of Connaught, (in Roscommon), having received 
intelligence of the muster of the forces, fled, with 



also many other eminent families of the name in Ireland. The 
earls of Desmond and Kildare were frequently lords deputie and 
chief governors of Ireland, down to the reign of Elizabeth. Tlie 
noble family of the Gerahlines freijuently joined the Irish against 
the English government; hence they were charged by English wri- 
ters as having become Irish in language and manners, and Hiber- 
nls ipsis Hiberniores, or more Irish than the Irish themselves. 

1. Biatachs were an order of persons very numerous in Ireland, 
in ancient times appointed to keep houses of hospitality, for the 
entertainment of travellers and the poor ; and the establishments 
over which they presided had endowments and grants of lands 
for the public use, and free entertainment for all persons who stood 
in need of it ; and from these arose the term Ballybiatach, so com- 
mon in Ireland as a name for a townland, which signified land ap- 
propriated to these purposes. In early times these appear to have 
been used for supportuig the mUitary on their march. 

•2. Co™ frnoic/i, above mentioned, was the place of inaugura- 
tion of the O'Couors as kings of Connaught, and was situated near 
Tulsk, in the county of Roscommon. 

G 2 



44 



AJVNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1225. 



their flocks and property, into the temtory of 
Lieney and Tyrawley, and left the sons of Rode- 
rick, with a small army, who, with what men they 
could assemble, retired to Kilkelly.' Hugh, and 
the English who aided him, sent the light com- 
panies to plunder the adherents of Roderick's 
sons, and kept the main army for the purpose of 
attacking those of their opponents. Hugh, the 
son of Roderick, Donal O'Flaherty, Tiarnan, son 
of Cathal Migarun, and the son of Torlogh, son of 
Roderick, went to solicit the aid of some friends. 
The English, accompanied by Hugh, son of 
Cathal Crovdearg, marched to attack Torlogh, 
who, perceiving their intention, commanded his 
inexperienced leaders, namely, Donagh Oge Mac 
Ou-eachty \\dth his recruits, Flaherty O'Flanagan, 
and several other young soldiers, to advance with 
aU possible speed before him, while he himself 
covered the rear ; which movement he effectually 
executed, and thus they escaped without any loss. 

On the same day, a skinnishing party from 
Hugh O'Conor came up with Eachmarcach Mac 
Branan, who, while defending his prey of cattle, 
was killed by his opponents. 

Hugh O'Conor, at the head of the English, 
pursued the sons of Roderick, that night, to Mee- 
lick, and spent three nights plundering Lieny in 
all directions ; but afterwards made peace with 
O'Haj'a, and spared the remaining property of the 
country, Roderick's sons were, at this time, in the 
neighbourhood of Lough Mac Feredaidh, in Glen- 
na-Mochart. Hugh advised his English alhes to 
plunder the Tuatha of Connaught, Siol Murray, 
and also the clan Tomaltaidli, as they had fled. 
They determined on this plan, upon which he 
led the English by an unfi-equented pass through 
the wood of Gatlaigh, until they reached Ath- 
tighe-in-messaigh, where they commenced plun- 
dering Cxiil Cearnaidh,^ having expeUed the 
inhabitants, who fled to Dubhchonga, and the 
most of whom were drowned, so that the pools of 
the river above the fords, which they endeavom'ed 
to cross, were found full of di-owned chikh-en ; and 
such of them as escaped the English, and di'own- 



3. KilkcUy, in the barony of Costello, county of Mayo. 

4. Ciiil Cearnaidh. The places where this warfare occurred, 
namely, the Tuatha, Siol Murray, and the Clan Tomaltaidhe, were 
in the county of Roscommon. Cuilcarney was a district m the 
barony of Gallen, county of Mayo. The river in wliich those persons 



ing, fled into Tyrawley, where they wei'e attacked, 
and plundered of all their cattle, by O'Dowd. 
With respect to the sons of Roderick, the resolu- 
tion they came to was, that they would separate 
their forces until the English shoidd quit Hugh ; 
that Donn Mac Onaghty, and others of their chiefs 
shoidd go to the covmtry of O'Flaherty, their 
friend and ally; and that the sons of Mm'togh 
O'Conor, and Tiarnan Mac Cathail, should go in 
quest of their people and cattle, and sue for peace 
on their behalf, vnitil the English should separate 
from the son of Cathal Crovdearg. Hugh was 
then at Mayo ; and the sons of Murtogh Muira- 
nagh proceeded thither with sureties, to seek his 
pardon and protection. 

The people of South Connaught were then in a 
veiy unsettled and unhappy condition, for the 
English of Leinster and Munster, along with Mur- 
togh O'Brien and the English of Desmond, headed 
b)' the sheriff of Cork, marched together into their 
territory, slew all whom they met, and plundered 
their farms and towns. Hugh, son of Cathal 
Crovdearg, was much displeased with them, for 
coming on such an expedition, for they had not 
come at his instigation, but influenced by their own 
desire to j)lunder the country, on hearing how 
much the lord justice and his English followers 
had obtained of the wealth of Connaught on that 
occasion. Diu-mg that inctu'sion the foiu' sons of 
Mac Murrogh were slain in one place. 

It was a woeful visitation of Providence wliich 
befel the best province in Ireland at that time, for 
no man spared his neighbour, but took advantage 
of his misfortunes, and plimdered him ; and many 
women, children, and helpless persons among the 
peasantry, perished of cold and famine during 
those wars. 

The sons of Murtogh Muimnagh, having pro- 
ceeded as before stated, to sue for protection from 
Hugh O'Conor, arrived on the following day at 
Kilmeodhain.^ At this place the three EngUsh 
armies formed a junction, and the barony was 
nearly covered with their forces and those of the 
Irish. Hugh O'Flaherty, under protection of the 



were drowned, is supposed to liavebeen the Moy. Ath-f'iyhe-in- 
7)iessaig}i is Attemas, in the barony of Gallen, county of Jlayo. 

6. cm Meodhain, now Kilmaine, a parish in the barony of 
Kilmaine, county of Mayo. 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



45 



English nobles, and of DonaghCairbreach O'Brien, 
his intercessors, came before Hugh O'Conor and 
the lord justice, and entered into terms of peace 
and protection for his people and propei'ty, on 
condition that he should expel from his territoiy 
the sons of Roderick. After this, Hugh O'Conor 
and his EngUsh allies marched to Tuam, where 
he dismissed the English of Leinster and of Des- 
mond ; after which, he himself returned back to 
O'Flaherty, on whose fidelitj^ he did not depend, 
for O'Flaherty kept the sons of Roderick and Donn 
Oge Mac Oiraghty under his protection, on the 
western side of the lake, (Lough Corrib, in 
Galwa)'). 

At that time Mac Manus parted with the sons 
of Roderick (O'Conor), and went into TjTawley 
in quest of his people and cattle, which he for- 
tunately recovered without loss, and took with 
him, under the protection of O'Rourke, who at 
that time had plundered PhiUp j\Iac Costello. 
Donogh Cairbreach O'Brien, having sent before 
him a party with great booty, Hugh, son of 
Roderick, and Owen O'HejTie, who had received 
intelhgence of it, intercepted them with a small 
select party, and ha%ing defeated the Munster 
men, recovered the booty, and took some of the 
chiefs as hostages. "When Donogh Cairbreach 
(O'Brien), heard of these proceedings, he came 
to Hugh, son of Roderick, made peace v/ith him, 
by the solemn ceremony of extinguishing candles, 
andboundhimself never again tooppose him,on con- 
dition, that he (Hugh), should set liis (Donogh's), 
captive friends at hberty. He (Donogh), did not, 
however, adhere to his covenant with the son of 
Roderick, after his friends were released, for, on 
the next occasion, he marched against him with 
the forces of Hugh, son of Cathal Crovdeai'g. 

After some time Hugh O'Conor and the lord 
justice airived at the port of Inis Creamha,'' and 
compelled O'Flaherty to suiTender into his hands 
Inis, Oilean-na-Circe, and all the vessels on the 
lake. The lord justice, after this, returned home, 
being escorted a great part of his journey by Hugh 
O'Conor, with Mhom the lord justice left many of 



G. Inis Creninha was an island on the east of Lough Corrih, 
county of Galway. OUean-na-Circe, or the Hen's Island, was 
anotlier island in Lough Corrib, where the O'Flahertys had a 
castle. The lord justice so frequently mentioned at this period 
was Richard de Burgo. 



his chief officers and soldiers, for he could depend 
only on a few of the Conacians. He (O'Conor), 
then delivered into the hands of the English, the 
most distinguished heads of his clans as a guarantee 
for the pajTnent of theii- tribute, namely, Flaherty 
O' Flanagan, Fergal O'Teige, and others of the 
chiefs of Connaught, who were obliged to ran- 
som themselves. O'Flalicrty, the son of Murtogh 
(O'Dowd), and the other chiefs, revolted against 
Hugh, son of Cathal Crovdearg, after the English 
army had departed, and joined the sons of 
Roderick. Hugh O'Conor then sent messengers 
and letters to the lord justice, informing him of 
these circumstances, and requesting him to send 
him some forces. He was not disapjjointed, for 
the English promptly and cheerfully responded to 
the call, and their expedition proved profitable to 
them, for great was their booty, and small their 
loss. The English of Leinster, commanded by 
WiUiam Cruse, and the sons of Griffin, were forth- 
with sent to his aid. 

As soon as these forces arrived, Hugh O'Conor 
marched to attack the son of Roderick, passed the 
Tochar^ westward, and thence proceeded through 
the territoiy of Hy-Diarmada, where he heard 
that the son of Roderick then was, with a small 
force, as his friends had not as yet come to his 
aid. Hugh O'Conor sent his brother, Feidhhm, 
with other chiefs, and a large force of the Enghsh 
soldiers, to plunder Owen O'Heyne, in Hy- 
Fiachra Aidhne ; and they encamped for the 
night at Ai'drathan. Intelligence was brought 
to O'Flaherty, and to the sons of Murtogh, who 
were then preparing to join the son of Roderick, 
that the Enghsh had gone to plmider their ally, 
Owen O'Heyne, and were at Ardrathan; they, 
therefore, made no delay, but all with one accord 
pursued them, until they came close on them. 
They there held a consultation, and resolved first 
to send Tuathal, son of Murtogh (O'Dowd), and 
Taithleach O'Dowd, with a hu-ge body of their 
forces, to Ardrathan, while O'Flaherty, and the 
son of Murtogh, remained outside the town with 
their troops. Tuathal and Taithleach marched 



7. TochoT signifies a road, or pass ; and the one here mentioned 
is probably the ancient road called Tochar Phadraig, or St. Pa- 
trick's causeway, which is traditionally stated to have extended 
from the abbey of Ballintober, in Eoscommon, to Croagh Patrick, 
in ilayo. 



46 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1226. 



onward with a strong force, attacked the English 
in the town with great coui-age and animation, and 
made such havoc among them that they were 
totally defeated and put to flight, east and west. 
The victors closely pm-sued them eastward. 
Tuathal, in the first encounter, wounded the 
Enghsh constable or commander, and Taith- 
leach pierced him a second time, so that he was 
left hfeless on the spot. The remainder of the 
English who wxre driven out of the town west- 
w^ard were met by O'Flaherty, and the son of 
Murtogh (O'Dowd), but, unfortunately, they were 
defeated by the English, and Mahon, son of Hugh, 
son of Conor of Maonmoy ; Gillcreest Mac Der- 
mott ; Neill, son of Fergal O'Teige, and others, 
were slain in the conflict. The person who slew 
Niall O'Teige, namely', the brother of Colen 
O'Dempsey, was also slain. As to Roderick's 
son, he, O'Flaherty, and their supporters, assem- 
bled together, and marched on the following day 
southward, until they arrived at Drom Canannain; 
but Hugh, son of Cathal Crovdearg, with his 
English allies, pursued them. 

The supporters of Roderick's sons now held a 
council, and resolved that they should retiu-n home, 
which all agreed to do, except Donn Oge Mac 
Oiraghty. The other chiefs, however, having left 
the royal sons of Roderick O'Conor, with whom 
they left but a small force, they proceeded to the 
residence of Hugh O'Neill, accompanied by Donn 
Mac Oiraghty. Hugh, son of Cathal Crovdearg, 
then attacked O'Flaherty, and took hostages from 
him, after which he proceeded to Kilmaine, and 
from thence to Mayo, in pursuit of the son of 
Mm-togh (O'Dowd), and Tiaman, son of Cathal 
Migarainn, who made terms, and obtained pro- 
tection for their people and property ; and they 
then made theu" submission to Hugh O'Conor, on 
the security of Donogh Cairbreagh O'Brien, and 
the English nobles. Until then there was no 
peace in Connaught, for all its churches and ten'i- 
tories had been plundered and laid waste. Ailer 



these events, a destructive plague and fever fol- 
lowed, and devastated Connaught, entire towns 
being depopulated, so that a single h^•ing creature 
could not be found in them. 

Flan, son of Awlave O' Fallon, chief of Clan 
Uadagh,' was slain by Feidlim, son of Cathal 
Crovdearg ; and Teige O'Feenaghty, the friend of 
Hugh, son of Roderick O'Conor, was slain by the 
Mac Egans, in the aforementioned war. 

Awlave, son of Fearcair O'Fallon, the worthiest 
chief of his own clan, died. 

Muireagh O'Feenaghty, chief of Clan Mur- 
chadha,^ died on board a vessel on Lough Oirbsin 
(Lough Corrib), though in perfect health when he 
embarked. 

The residence of Conor, son of Teige O'Kelly 
(lord of H)^ Maine), and of Ardgal, his brother, 
was attacked and set on fire by the sons of Teige 
O'Kelly ; and both perished in the flames. 

Duarcau O'Hara, Teige O'Hara, and Edaoin, 
daughter of Dermod, son of Donal O'Hara, 
died. 

The people of Munster and the English made 
a predatoiy attack on Temion Caolainne,'" but 
they were repulsed with slaughter, through the 
miracles of God and St. Caolainne. 

The corn remained unreaped untU after the 
festival of St. Bridget (the 1st of February). 



A.D. 1226. 

Donum Dei (or Deodatus), bishop of Meath, 
died. 

Connmach O'Tappa (or O'Tarpa), bishop of 
Lieney (Achomy), died. 

Hugh, son of Dun O'Sochlachlain, aircineach 
of Cong, a learned scribe, skilled in psalmody, 
and in many arts and sciences, died. 

Matthew O'Maolmoicherghe died. 

Tiarnan, son of Cathal Migarun, son of Tor- 
loo-h More, who was the most celebrated tanist of 
his tribe for hospitality, generosity, and magnani- 



8. Clnn Uadnch, a district in the liarony of Athlone, county of 
Roscommon, of which, according to O'Dugan, O'Fallon was chief. 
O'Fallon had his castle at Milltown, in the parish of Dysart. 

9. Cht)i Murchndhn. This territory lay in the county of 
Gahvay, on the bordersof Roscommon, adjoinins; Clan Conmhaighe, 
of which the O'Feenaghtys were also chiefs. Clan Conmhaighe lay 
on both sides of the river Suck, which flows between the counties 
of Galway and Roscoimnon, but chiefly in the former, and met 



Siol Jlaoilniana at the bridge of Glinsk, which lay in the west of 
the county of Roscommon. 

10. Termon Caolainne. This was probably Killone, near Ennis, 
in the county of Clare, where there was a celebrated Augustinian 
abbey, founded AD. ilU.5, by Donald O'Brien, king of Limerick, 
and somclimes called Clare abbey ; or perhaps Killanna, in the 
parish of Killofin, county of Clare, where the ruius of an ancient 
monastery are still to be seen. 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



mity for a long period, was slain by Donogh 
O'Dowd and his sons. 

Nuala, daughter of Roderick O'Conor, and 
queen of Ulster,' died at Cong of St. Feichin, and 
was honorably interred there, in the church of the 
Canons. 

Donal, son of Roderick OTlaherty, was slain 
by the sons of Miu-togh O'Flaherty, after they, 
together with Feihm, son of Cathal Crovdearg, 
had taken his house by assault. 

Fergal O'Teige, chief of the household of Cathal 
Crovdearg (O'Conor), and Hugh, son of Cathal, 
were slain by Donsleve O'Gara. 

Hugh, son of Donal O'Roui'ke, was slain by 
Cathal O'Reilly, aided by Cathal, son of Cormac 
O'Mulroony, on Lough Allen (in Leitrim). 

Maui-ice Mac Dermott was slain. 

The castle of Kilmore (county of Cavan) was 
demolished by Cathal O'Reilly. 

Hugh, son of Cathal Crovdearg O'Conor, took 
Hugh O'Flaherty prisoner, and deUvered him into 
the hands of the English. 



A.D. 1227. 

Conor, son of Niall O'Cathamaigh, was slain by 
the English soldiers of Leinster, who were at the 
time along with the king of Connaught. 

Henry O'Melaghlin, and Mm-togh O'MelaghUn 
(of Meath), were slain by the Enghsh. 

Malachy O'Conor Faily was slain by Cuilen 
O'Dempsey. 

Giolla Coluim O'Mulloy was slain by O'Moore. 

The English of Ireland, having assembled in 
Dublin, invited Hugh, son of Cathal Crovdearg 
O'Conor, king of Coiuiaught, to a conference, and 
attempted to beti-ay him and keep him prisoner, 
but WiUiam Mai-eschal, his friend, an-ived with 
some troops, rescued him in despite of the English, 
out of the middle of the court-house, and escorted 
him into Connaught. 

Hugh, son of Cathal Crovdearg, appointed a 
meeting at Lathach Caichtuthbil,' with William 
Marisco, son of Jeoffi-ey, lord justice of Ireland. 



1 . Queen of Ulster. Tliis daughter of king Roderick O'Conor 
seems to have.been the wife of O'Neill, prince of Tirowen, and king 
of Ulster. 



Only a chosen few of O'Conor's party went beyond 
the morass where the meeting was to take place, 
namely, Cormac, son of Tomaltach ; Dermod, son 
of Manus; Manus, son of Miu-togh O'Conor; 
Teige, son of Mahon O'Kerin ; and Roderick 
O'Mullrenan, to receive WiUiam Marisco, who 
came thither, accompanied by eight horsemen. 
O'Conor, remembering their former treachery, 
rose in opposition to the English, and incited his 
party against them ; and he himself attacked Wil- 
liam Maiisco, and made him prisoner on the spot. 
The party, thus instigated by O'Conor, obeyed the 
call, attacked the English, defeated them, and slew 
the constable of Athlone ; they also took prison- 
ers Master Slemhny and Hugo Ardin. Hugh 
O'Conor sent those Englishmen to pi-ison beyond 
Lathach, and then marched with a body of men to 
Athlone, where he plundered the market-place, 
and biu-ned the entire town. This was a fortunate 
circumstance for the Conacians, as many of then- 
sons and daughters,and the hostages of Connaught, 
who were detained in bondage by the English, 
were released in exchange for the above-named 
EngUsh prisoners ; and in addition to this, the 
people of Connaught obtained terms of peace. 

Donsle\7 O'Gai-a, lord of Sheve Lugha, was 
slain by Giolla-roe, his own brother's son, after he 
(GioUa-roe) had taken his (Donslevy's) house by 
assault at night ; and Giolla-roe himself was after- 
wards slain there by order of Hugh O'Conor. 

Hugh, son of Roderick O'Conor, and Mac 
WilUam Burke, marched a powerful force into 
North Connaught. They burned Inis Meodhain 
(in Lough Mask, county of Mayo), plundered the 
country through which they passed, and took 
hostages. 

Jeoffrey Marisco, and Torlogh, son of Roderick 
O'Conor, marched a force into Moy Aoi,^ erected 
a castle at Rinn-Duin, and took the hostages of 
Siol Murray. 

Hugh, son of Cathal Crovdearg, went to Tir- 
connell to O'Donnell, but on his return home with 
his wife, the sons of Torlogh (O'Conor), met him 
in the neighbourhood of Seaghsa^ (pail of the 



1. LatJmch, -which signifies a morass, appears to have been near 
Athlone, on the Connaught side of the Shannon. 

2, Magh Aoi. This plain, and Ruin Duin, both in Roscommon, 
Lave been already described in the notes. 



48 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1228-29. 



Curlew mountidns), attacked him, and took his 
horses from him, and also his wife, whom they 
delivered up as a prisoner into the hands of the 
EngUsh. 

Torlogh, and the English of Meath, marched 
with another force into West Connaught, where 
they committed great depredations on Hugh, the 
son of Roderick O'Flaherty. They proceeded 
from thence into the territoiy of Carra (in Mayo), 
where they took hostages from the sons of Mur- 
togh ; and they carried away with them a large 
number of beeves from every district. 

Curaara O'Donnellan was slain in prison by 
Roderick Mac Dunslevy, in revenge of his father's 
death. 

Bryan, son of Conor O'Dermott, was slain. 

The castle of Athleague^ was built by Jeotfrey 
Marisco. 



A. D. 1228, 

Hugh, son of Cathal Crovdearg O'Conor, king 
of Connaught, was treacherously slain by the 
English, in the court of Jeoffi-ey Marisco, after he 
had been expelled by the Conacians. 

A great war broke out in Connaught between 
Hugh and Torlogh, sons of Roderick O'Conor, 
after the death of the aforementioned Hugh, for 
the younger brother would not yield submission 
to the elder ; so that the entu-e of Connaught lying 
between Ballysadare and the river of Hy Fiachra, 
southward, except a small part of Slieve Lugha, 
and the territory of Airtagh,' was laid waste by 
them. 

Niall, son of Congalach O'Rourke, lord of 
Dartr}',- and of Clan Fermaighe, was slain by 
Art and Awlave, sons of Art, son of Donal 
O'Roui-ke. Awlave Gearr (the Short), son of 
Niall, son of Congalach, was also slain, while 
bathing, by Awlave, son of Art. 

Fergal, son of Sitiic O'Rourke, was slain by the 
sons of Niall, son of Congalach O'Rom-ke. 



8. Afhliag. This place was afterwards called Lanesborough ; 
it is partly iu Longford and partly in Roscommon. 

1. ^;rfm//(, a district belonging to Mac Dermott, in the barony 
of Boyle, county of Roscommon. 

2. Dartraiyh, or Vnrtnj, was an extensive territory in the 
barony of Rossclogher, county of Leitrim, of which the Mac 



Murtogh, son of Flaherty O'Flanagan, was slain 
by the sons of Teige O'Gara. 

Hugh, son of Donogh O'FeiTall, was slain by 
Hugh, son of Awlave O'Ferrall. 

David O'Flynn, chief of Siol Maoilruain, and 
Roderick O'Mulbrenan, died. 

Rickard Mac William Burke was sent to Ire- 
land by the king of England, as lord justice. 

Hugh, son of Roderick O'Conor, was made 
king of Connaught, through the support of the 
lord justice and the chiefs of Connaught, thus 
usurjjing the rights of Torlogh, his elder brother. 

Malachy, son of Torlogh, son of Roderick 
O'Conor, was slain by Hugh O'Conor, king of 
Connaught. 

Excessive dearth prevailed in Connaught in 
consequence of the war between the sons of 
Roderick O'Conor. Both the churches and the 
country were plundered ; the clergy and learned 
men were exiled into foreign lands ; and many 
persons perished of cold and famine. 



A.D. 1229. 

The monastery of St. Francis, in Cork, was 
founded by Dermod Mac Carthy More. 

Muireagh O'Gormley, prior of Inis Mac Nerin,' 
the most distinguished man in Connaught for 
wisdom and piety, died. 

Dermod O'Fiaigh, abbot of the church of Giolla 
Molaisi O'GioUarain, from Tuam, died, and was 
interred at Aj'dcarne. 

Dermod Mac Giolla Carraigh, aircineach of the 
house of St. Baoithin, a dignified priest, died, and 
was buried in the monastery of the Holy Trinity ; 
his body having been taken, as by right, by the 
canons of that place, from the monks of the monas- 
tery of Boyle, after it had remained three nights 
unburied, as the monks had endeavoured to retain 
it in their own monastery. 

Girrard O'Kane, one of the most eminent of the 
order of canons for wisdom, died. 



Clancys were chiefs. ClanfermaigUe was another district in 
Leitrim. See note on Brefney. 

1. InU-Mac-Nerin, or " Inchmacnerin, an island in Lough 
Key. St. Colum founded a noble monastery at Easmacncirc, pro- 
bably the same with Inchmacnerin, over which he placed St. 
Mochonna, his disciple." — See 'VVeld's Survey of the County of 
Roscommon. 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



49 



Duvesa, daughter of Roderick, and wife of 
Cathal Mac Demiott, died a Benedictine nun. 

Denmod Mac Carthy, lord of Desmond, died. 

Dionysius O'Moore, bishop of Siol Muiredhaidh, 
(Elphin), resigned his see in honour of God. 

LoughUn O^Monaghan was slain by his uncle. 



A.D. 1230. 

Florent O'Carolan, bishop of Tyi-one (Derrj-), 
a select and dignified sage, died in the eighty-sixth 
year of his age. 

In this year died GioUa losa O'Clery, bishop of 
Lieney (Achonry) ; Joseph Mac Tecedain (or Mac 
Teigan), bishop of Conmaicne (Ardagh) ; Magrath 
Mac Geoffrey, bishop of Conmaicne; Rool (Ralph) 
Petit, bishop of Meath, a select ruler, and soldier 
of Christ ; Giolla Covdea O'Duilennain, the coarb 
and abbot of the church of Canons at Eass-dara 
(Ballysadare) 5 Maolmuire O'Malone, coarb of St. 
Kiaran, of Clonmacnois ; Giolla Cartaigh O'Heil- 
giusan, a canon and anchorite ; and Dunslevey 



A.D. 1230. 

1. Tir Eogain and Tir Cona'dl. These ancient aud extensive 
territories comprised the present counties of Tyrone, Derry, and 
Donegal ; and a full account of them will be necessary, as they 
are constantly mentioned throughout these Annals, as connected 
with very important events. 

I. Tir Eugain. This territory comprised the present counties 
of TjTone and Derry, with a large portion of Donegal, between 
Lough Foyle and Lough Swilly, namely, the peninsula of Inisowen, 
and the greater part of tlie barony of Ilaphoc. It is connected with 
some of the earliest events in Irish history. We find, for instance, 
in Keating and O'FIaherty, that in the reign of Tigeammas, who 
was monarch of Ireland about nine centuries before the Christian 
era, the lake now called Lough Foyle suddenly burst forth and 
overflowed the adjoining plain, which was called Mugh Fii'ins'idhe. 
This lake, mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters, and in 
O'FIaherty, as Loch Fcabhail Mic Lodain, that is, the Lake of 
Feval, son of Lodan, obtained its name from Feval, son of 
Lodan, one of the Tuath-De-Danan chiefs, who was drowned 
in its waves. In this territory, on a liigh hill or moun- 
tain, called Grianan, on the eastern shore of Lough Swilly, 
south of Inch Island, was situated the celebrated fortress called 
the Grlamm of Alleach, from Grianan, a palace or royal residence, 
and AUeiich or O'deach, which signifies a stone fortress. It was 
also called Aileach Neld, having derived its name, according to 
O'FIaherty, from Neid, one of the Tuath-De-Danan prmces (see 
Ogygia, v. II. p. 28). This fortress was for many ages the seat 
of the ancient kings of Ulster. It was built in a circular form 
of great stones without cement, and was of immense strength, 
in that style denominated Cyclopean architecture, and some of its 
extensive ruins remain to this day. This fortress, according to 
the Annals of the Four Masters, was taken and plundered, A.D. 
937, by tlie Danes, on which occasion they took prisoner Muir- 
cheartach O'Neill, then the celebrated prince of Aileach, who, 
however, was soon afterwards released. A.D. 1101, Murtogh 
O'Brien, king of Munster, with a powerful force, invaded Ulster, 
marched to Easroe (Ballyshannon), proceeded to Inisowen, and took 
the fortress of Aileach, which he totally demolished, in revenge of 
the destruction of the palace of Kincora, the royal seat of the kings 



O'Hionmainen, a pious monk and chief Master of 
Ai'ts in the monastery of Boyle. 

Malachy Mac Firedin, a dignified priest and 
learned lecturer, died a noviciate monk in the 
monastei-y of Boyle. 

O'DonneU (Donal More), marched with his 
forces into Connaught against Hugh, son of 
Roderick O'Conor, whom he attacked, and plun- 
dered Moy Aoi, with many parts of the country, 
but he did not reduce the sons of Roderick to 
submission. 

]\lac William Burke marched with his forces 
into Connaught, and plundered a large portion of 
that country ; he slew Donnog Mac Oireaghty, 
Echtigern, the son of the Brehon O'Mionacain, 
and several others ; he also, along with the 
English, banished Hugh, son of Roderick, king 
of Connaught, for having opposed them, and 
O'Conor being forced to fly to Hugh O'Neill, 
Felim, son of Cathal Crovdearg, was appointed 
liing by Mac WilUam Burke. 

Hugh O'Neill, lord of Tir Eogain,' heir 



of Jlunster in Clare, by Donal Mac Loughlin, king of Ulster, A.D. 
1088. This palace of Aileach is supposed to have been the Regia 
of Ptolemy, the celebrated Greek geographer, in the second cen- 
tury, and the river marked Argita on his Map of Ireland, is con- 
sidered to have been the Finn, which is the chief branch of the 
Foyle river. The territory surrounding the fortress of Aileach, 
obtained the name of Moy Aileach, or tlie Plain of Elagh. 

Tir Eognin obtained its name from Eogan, or Owen, one of 
the sons of Niall of the Nine Hostages, monarch of Ireland, who 
conquered this territory in the beginning of the fifth century, and 
hence its name, Tir Eogain, or the country of Owen, afterwards 
anglicised into Tiroen, or Tyrone. In consequence of the conquest 
of this country by Eogan, when it was taken from the old pos- 
sessors of the race of Ir, or Clanna Kory, its sovereignty was 
transferred to the race of Heremon. From the circumstance of its 
being possessed by the descendants of Eogan, calledCinel Eogain, or 
Klnel Owen, the territory also obtained the name of Kinel Owen. 
According to the Books of Leacan and Ballymote, and other 
authorities, this territory was divided between the ten sons of 
Eogan, whose descendants gave names to the various districts. 
In the note on the kingdom of Meath, it has been stated that the 
Hy Nialls, or the descendants of the monarch Niall of the Hos- 
tages, were divided into two great branches, namely, the Southern 
and Northern. The southern Hy Nialls, as already explained, 
were kings of Sleath, and many of them monarchs of Ireland. The 
northern Hy Nialls, of which there were two great branches, 
namely, the race of Eogan, who were princes of Tyrone, and the 
race of Conall, who were princes of Tireonnell, also furnished 
many monarchs of ireland ; but the descendants of Eogan were the 
most celebrated of all the Milesian clans; and of them, a great 
many were kings of Ulster, and, according to O'FIaherty, sixteen 
were also monarchs of Ireland. The race of Eogan took the name 
of O'Neill in the tenth century, from Niall Glundubh, monarch of 
Ireland, who was killed in a great battle with the Danes, near 
DubUn, A.D. 910. A branch of the O'Neills took the name of 
O'Loughlin, and Mac Loughlin, from Loughlin, one of their 
ancient chiefs. In the Annals, during the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries, several princes and kings of Ulster of the Mae Loughlins 
are mentioned ; and some of them were also monarchs of Ireland ; 



50 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1230. 



presumptive to the throne of Ireland, the defen- 
der of Leath Cuinn (or the northern half of 
Ireland), against the English and the people of 
Leath Mogha Nuadhat (or the southern half 



but the O'Neills afterwards recovered their supremacy, and made 
a distinguished figure in Irish history, down to the seventeenth 
century, as princes of Tyrone, and kings of Ulster. The O'Neills 
had their chief seat at Dungannon, and were inaugurated as princes 
of Tyrone, at Tullaghoge, a place between Grange and Donaghenry , 
in the parish of Dcsertcreight, in the barony of Dungannon, where 
ii rude seat of large stoues served them as a coronation chair. 
Tliis, however, was broken by order of the lord deputy Mountjoy, 
in the reign of Elizabeth. 

The chiefs and clans of Tir Eogain, and the territories possessed 
by each in the twelfth century, are collected from O'Dugan as 
follows :—0'Dugan commences with the territory oi Aihach of 
flic Kings, of which he gives — I. O'Neill and Mac Loughlin as 
princes or kings. II. 0'Cathain,or O'Kane, who was of the race 
of Eogan, or a branch of the O'Neills, and who was the chief of 
Cianacht of Gleanna Geibhin, or Keenaght of Glengiven. The 
O'Kanes were also chiefs of the Creeve, now the barony of Cole- 
rain, and in after times this powerful clan possessed the greater 
part of the county of Derry, which was called O'Kane's country ; 
they also possessed, at an early period, part of Antrim, and had 
their seat at the castle of Dunseverick, as already stated in the 
note on Dalriada. III. O'Conchobhair or the O'Conors, who were 
chiefs of Cianachta before the O'Kanes, and were descendants of 
Cian, son of OilioU Olum, king of Munster : hence their territory 
obtained the name of Cianachta, a name still preserved in the 
barony of Keenaught, county of Derry. IV. O'Duibhdionna or 
O'Dooyiorma, sometimes anglicised O'Dermott or Mac Dermotf, 
but a distinct clan from Mac Dermott, prince of Moylurg in Con- 
naught. The O'Dooyiormas are represented by O'Dugan as one 
of the noblest clans of the Kind Owen ; they were chiefs of 
Breadach, a territory which lay along the western banks of Lough 
Foyle, and comprised the parishes of Upper and Lower Moville, in 
the barony of Inisowen. 'The name of this district is still preserved 
in the small river Bredag, which falls into Lough Foyle. V. 
O'Gainnledhaidh, or O'Gormley, chief of Kinel Moain, or Moen, 
now the barony of Eaphoe, county of Donegal. This district 
derived its name from Moain, one of the descendants of Eogan. 

VI. Moy Itha, or Moy Ith, and Kinel Enda, two districts adjoining 
Kinel Moain, partly in the barony of Raphoe, and partly in the 
barony of Tirkeeran in Derry. O'Flaherty places Moy Ith in 
Cianachta, the ancient name of a large territory in this part 
of Derry. According to O'Dugan, the following were the 
chiefs of Moy Ith, namely, O'Baoighill, or O'Boyle ; O'Maol- 
breasail ; O'Cuinn, or O'Quinn ; and O'Cionaotha, or O'Kcnny. 

VII. O'Bruadair, or O'Brody ; O'Maoilfabhaill ; and O'Ho- 
gain, chiefs of Carruic Brachuighe, still traceable by the 
name Carricbrack, in the barony of Inisowen. VIII. 
O'Hagain, or O'Hagan, chief of Tulachog, or Tullaghoge, in 
the parish of Dcsertcreight, barony of Dungannon, county of 
Tyrone. IX. O'Dunagain, or O'Donegan; Mac Murchadh, or 
Mac Murrogh ; O'Fergail, O'Ferrall, or O'Freel ; and Mac 
Ruaidhri, or Rogers, chiefs of Tealach Ainbith, and of Mulntir 
Birn, districts in the baronies of Dungannon and Strabane. X. 
O'Ceallaidh, or O'Kelly, chief of Kinel Eachaidh, or Corca Each- 
aidh, probalily Corkaghee, barony of Dungannon. XI. O'Tighear- 
naidh, or O'Tierney ; and O'Ciarain, or O'Kieran, chiefs of Fearn- 
muigh. XII. O'Duibhduanaidh ; O'Haighmaill, or Hamill ; and 
O'Heitigein, or O'Etigan, chiefs of three districts called Teallach 
Cathalain, Teallach Duibhrailbe, and Teallach Braenain. XIII. 
O'Maolfothartaigh, and O'Hcodhasa, or O'Heosey, chiefs of Kinel 
Tighearnaigh. XIV. O'Cuauaich, or O'Cooney ; and O'Baoth- 
ghalaigh, chief of Clan Fergus. XV. O'Murchadha, or O'Mur- 
rogh, and O'Meallain, chiefs of Siol Aodha-Eanaigh. XVI. Mac 
Fiachraigh, chief of Kinel Feradaigh, in the south of Tyrone. 
XVII. O'Hairnin, O'Maelfabhaill, and the Clan Cathmaoil, chiefs 
of Kinel Firadhaidh, in the north of Tyrone. In the Annals of the 
Four Masters, A.D. 1186, mention is made of Gillcreest Mac 



of Ireland), a man who had given neither hos- 
tages nor tributes to either English or Irish, who 
had gained many victories over the English, and 
defeated them with great slaughter, and who had 



Cathmaoil, head chieftain of the Kinel Firadaigh, and of the Clan 
Aongusa, Clan Dubhinreachtaidh, and Clan Fogortaigh, and chief 
of the councils of the North of Ireland. This name was sometimes 
changed to Mac Campbell, and Mac Caghwell, and also to Caul- 
field. The Cathmaoils were a jiowerful clan in Tyrone, and many 
of them in Monaghan, Louth, and Armagh. XVIII. The clans of 
Maolgeimridh, and of Maolpadraig, who possessed the two dis- 
tricts of Kinel Firedhaidh, in the east of "Tyrone. XIX. Muintir 
Taithligh, of Ily Laoghaire, of Lough Lir, a name anglicised to 
Mac TuUy. XX. O'Hainbitir, chief of Hy Seaain. 

The following chiefs and clans, not given in O'Dugan, are col- 
lected from various other sources : I. O'Criochain, chief of Hy 
Fiachra, a territory which comprised the parish of Ardstraw, and 
some adjoining districts in Tj-rone, and is mentioned in the Annals 
at A.D. 1200. II. O'Quinn, chief of Moy Lugad, and of Siol 
Cathusaigh, as given in the Annals at A. D. 1218. Moy Lugad, 
according to the Books of Leacan and Ballymote, lay in Keenaught 
of Glengiven, county of Derry. III. The O'Cearbhallains, 
O'Cairellains, or O'Carolans, a name sometimes anglicised to Carle- 
ton : they are frequently mentioned in the Annals as chiefs of 
Clan Diarniada, now the parish of Clandermod, or Glendermod, in 
Derry. IV. The O'Brolchains, or O'Brolchans, a name sometimes 
changed to Bradly. These were a numerous clan near Derry, but 
origuially of the Kinel Firadaigh, in the south of Tjrone, and were 
a branch of the Kinel Owen. V. Mac Blosgaidh, or the Mac 
Closkeys, a numerous clan in the parish of Dungiven, and some 
adjoining parts : they were a branch of the O'Kanes. VI. The 
O'Devlins, chiefs of Muintir Devlin, near Lough Neagh, on the bor- 
ders of Derry and Tyrone. VII. The O'Looneys, chiefs of Muintir 
Loney, a district known as the Monter Loney Mountains in 
Tyrone. VIII. O'Connellan, chief of Crioch TuUach, in Tyrone, 
a name which has been by some changed to Conolly. IX. O'Don- 
ghaile, or O'Donnellys, chiefs in Tyrone, at Ballydonnelly, and other 
parts. X. O'Nena, or O'Nenys, or Mac Nenys, a name which 
has been anglicised to Bird. These were chiefs of note, and pos- 
sessed the territory of Kinel Naena, in Tyrone, bordering on 
Monaghan. Of this family was Count O'Neny, of Brussels, in the 
Austrian service, under the Empress Maria Theresa. X. O'Fla- 
herty, mentioned in the Annals at A.D. 1187, as lord of Kinel 
Owen. These O'Flahertys, who settled in Tyrone, appear to have 
been a branch of the great family of the O'Flahertys of Connaught. 
XI. The O'Murrys, given in O'Conor's Maj) of Ortelius, as a clan in 
Derry. XII. The Mac Shanes, a name anglicised to Johnson, who 
were a clan in TjTone. XIII. The O'Mulligans, anglicised to Moli- 
neux,who were also a clan in Tyrone. XI\'. The O'Gneeves, heredi- 
tary bards to theO'Neills. This name has been angUcised to Agnew. 
The O'Neills, as already stated, maintained their independence 
down to the end of the sixteenth century, as princes of Tyrone ; 
and in the reigns of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth, bore the titles of 
earls of Tyrone, and barons of Dungannon. The last celebrated 
chiefs of the name vere Hugh O'Neill, the great earl of Tyrone, 
famous as the commander of the northern Irish in their wars with 
Elizabeth ; and Owen Roe O'Neill, the general of the Irish of 
Ulster, in 1G41, and the Cromwellian wars. Several of the 
O'Neills have been distinguished in the military service of Spain, 
France, and Austria. In consequence of the adherence of the 
Ulster chiefs to Hugh O'Neill, in the wars with Elizabeth, six 
counties in Ulster were confiscated, namely, Tyrone, Derry, Done- 
gal, Fermanagh, Cavan, and Armagh, in the reign of James I. 
In the survey of Ulster, by Captain Pynnar, A. D. 16U), as in 
Harris's Hibemica, the following English and Scotch families are 
given as the settlers in Tyrone, in accordance with the project of 
locating British colonies, called the Plantation of Ulster. The 
earl of Abercom; sir George Hamilton; sir Claude Hamilton; 
sir Robert Newcomen ; sir John Drummond ; the ear! of Castle- 
haven ; sir William Stewart ; sir John Davis ; the lord Ridgeway ; 
George Ridgeway; sir Gerrard Lowthef; the lordBurley; sir 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



51 



le\-ied tributes both on English and Irish enemies, 
and contemplated the conquest of all Ireland, 
died, though it was rather expected that he would 
have fallen in battle with the Enghsh. 



Francis Willoufrhby ; sir William Cope ; John Leigh ; William 
Parsons; sir Robert Heyborne ; Stewart, lord of Uchiltree; 
Captain Saunderson ; Robert Lindsey ; Alexander Richardson ; 
Andrew Stewart ; David Kennedy ; the lord Chichester ; sir Toby 
Caulfield ; sir Francis Roe ; William Parsons ; sir Francis 
Annesley,and the lord Win^field. 

The following noble families in Tyrone are given from the reign 
of James I. to the present time. The Le Poers were earls of 
Tyrone, a title which afterwards passed, by intermarriage, to the 
Beresfords. The Blounts, viscounts Mountjoy, a title which after- 
wards passed to the families of Stewart and Gardiner. The 
Trevors, viscounts Dungannon ; the Stewarts, viscounts Castle- 
stewart ; the Kno-xes, earls of Ranfurley ; and the Alexanders, 
barons of Caledon. 

Verrij. In the reign of Elizabeth, the lord deputy, sir John 
Perrott, formed O'Kane's country into a county, which was called 
from its chief town the county of Colerain ; and in the reign of 
James I., on the plantation of Ulster with British colonies, a com- 
pany of undertakers, consisting of merchants and traders from 
London, got grants of the county of Colerain and town of Derry, 
hence the city and county got the name of Londonderry. 

The following noble families derive their titles from this county. 
The family of Pitt, formerly marquesses of Londonderry, a title 
now possessed by the Stewarts. The Hamiltons, earls of Aber- 
com, and barons of Strabane. The families of Hare and Hanger, 
barons of Colerain. 

Ecclesiastical divisions. The following account of the bishops' 
sees in Tir Eogain, have been collected from Ware, Colgan, 
Lanigan, and other sources. Clogher, the seat of the diocese of 
Clogiier, is at Clogher, in the county of TvTone, part of which 
county it contains. This see was founded by St. Macartin, in the fifth 
century, and an account of it has been given in the note on Orgiall. 

A>-d.\ratka on the river Derg, now the parish of Ardstraw, in 
Tyrone, was an ancient liishops' see founded by St. Eugene in the 
sixth century. Ardshrath afterwards got the name of Rathlurig, 
or Rathlure, from St. Lurec or Lurac, to whom its church was 
dedicated. The see of .\rdsrath or Rathlure, at an early period, 
was transferred to Maghera, in the county of Derry, and afterwards 
annexed to Derry in the twelfth century. The bishops of these 
sees were styled bishops of Tir Eogain or Tyroile, or bishops of 
Cinel Eogain. 

See of Derry: A monastery was founded in the sixth century, 
by St.Columkille, at a place called Voire Calgach, that is the Oak 
Wood of Calgach, which St. Adamnanus, abbot of lona, in the 
seventh century, in his Life of St. Columkille, translates Jtobo- 
refum Calgachi It was also called Doire Coluim Cille, or the 
Oak Wood of St. Columkille, anglicised to Derry Columkille, and 
gave its name to the city and county of Derry. In these Annals 
the church of the monastery is called Dubh Reglnis, signifying 
the Black Church, and latinised by Ware, Cella 7iigra. This 
abbey was long famous as a seat of learning and religion, and its 
abbots were also styled bishops. In the twelfth century a regular 
bishop's see was formed at Derry, to which was afterwards 
annexed the see of Ardsrath, or Rathlure. A.D. 1104, Maurice 
Mac Loughliu, king of Ireland, erected a cathedral at Derry, 
which, together with the abbey and other ecclesiastical establish- 
ments, was destroyed by the English, under sir Henry Docwra, in 
the reign of Elizabeth. The diocese of Derry comprehends the 
greater part of the county of Londonderry, with nearly half of 
Tyrone, and a large portion of Donegal, and a very small portion 
of Antrim. 

St. Columkille, so often mentioned in the course of these Annals, 
was a native of Tir Connell, and born at Gartan, in the barony of 
Kilmacrenan, county of Donegal, .\.D. 5"21. He was a descendant 
of Conall Gulban, son of Niall of the Hostages, monarch of Ire- 
land, and consequently of the same race as the O'Donnells, princes 



i\rt, son of Art O'Rourke, was slain by Ran- 
naU OTinn. 

Malachy O'Monaghan was killed b}- his kins- 
men. 



of Tirconnell. The name in Irish is Colum, and signifies a dove, 
latinised to Coluniba, but he was generally called by the Irish 
Colum Cille, or Columkille, that is Colum of the Churches, from 
the many churches and monasteries he had founded, both in Ire- 
land and in \orth Britain. In the year 563, he proceeded to that 
part of North Britain called Albany, afterwards Scotland, as a 
missionary, and converted the inhabitants to Christianity, hence he 
has been styled the Apostle of the Picts. Having received the pa- 
tronage and support of his relative Conall, then king of the Albanian 
Scots, he founded a monastery on an island in the Hebrides, called 
after Iiim Hy Columkille, afterwards lona, which was long famous 
as a scat of learning and religion. St. Columkille died on the 9th 
of June, A. D. 597, in the seventy-sixth year of his age, and was 
buried at lona, hut his remains were a long time after removed to 
Ireland, and interred at Downpatriek. His memory has been 
always held in the highest veneration as one of the tutelar saints of 
Ireland. In the year 590, St. Columkille, accompaniedby .•Vidan,king 
of the Albanian Scots, came to Ireland to attend the great national 
convention held at Dromceat, in Cianachta, near Glengiven, in 
Derry, which was attended by the provincial kings, princes, chiefs, 
bishops, and clergy, to arrange a great contention that arose 
between Hugh, son of Ainmireach, then monarch of Ireland, and 
the bards, whose order the king had resolved to suppress, but 
Columkille opposed their abolition, and advocated their continuance 
under proper regulations, as a useful national institution, and 
through his influence the bards were continued, and all differences 
amicably arranged. I 

II, Tir Conaill. This territory comprised the remaining portion 
of the county of Donegal not contained in Tir Eogain, the boundary 
between both being Lough Swilly ; but in the twelfth century the 
O'AIaoldorrys and O'Donnells, princes of Tir Connell, became mas- 
ters of the entire of Donegal, thus making Lough Foyle and the 
rivers Foyle and Finn the boundaries between Tir Connell and Tir 
Eogain. This territory got its name from Conall Gulban, who 
took possession of it in the beginning of the fifth century. He was 
brother to Eogan, wdio conquered Tir Eogain, and son of the 
monarch Niall of the Hostages, and from him the territory obtamed 
the name of Tir Conaill, or the country of Council, and his posterity 
were designated Kiuel Conaill, or the race of Connell, a name which 
was also applied to the territory. 

Some of the earliest events in Irish history are connected with 
this territory, amongst which the following may be noticed : — 
Inis Stiimer is stated, by the ancient Annalists, as a residence of 
Partholan, who planted the first colony in Ireland. This is the 
small island near the cataract, called the Salmon-leap, at Bally- 
shannon. It got the name Inis Saimer, or the Island of Saimer, 
from the circumstance of Partholan having there killed Saimer, 
the favourite greyhound of his queen. Tliis island gave the name 
Saimer to theriver now called the Erne, and to Lough Erne, which 
in ancient times was called Lough Saimer. The waterfall at Bally- 
shannon is connected with anotlier early event, namely, the death 
of Aodh Ruadh, kuig of Ireland, who was drowned there about 
five centuries before the Christian era, hence it was called Eas- 
Aodha-Ruaidh, that is, the cataract of Red Hugh, and hence 
Eas-roe, or Ashroe, was the ancient name of Ballyshannon. The 
Fomorians, of whom an account has been given in the note on Dal- 
riada, formed settlements on the coast of Donegal, and, under one 
of their commanders, named Conning, erected a fortress on an 
island which was called Tor Conumg, or the Tower of Conning, 
and hence the island got the name of Tor Inis, or Tower-Island, 
in modem times Tory Island, The places along the coast of 
Donegal and Brefney, or Leitrim, are stated as the scenes of many 
great battles between the Fomorians and the colony called Nemedians. 
The plain between the rivers Erne and Drobhaois, that is, between 
Ballyshannon and Bundrowes, was called Magh Ceitne, which, as 
Keatmg states, derived this name from the frequent payment of 

H 2 



52 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1231. 



A.D. 1231. 

Dionysius O'Moore, bishop of Elphin, having 
ended liis days on Trinity Island, in Lough Key, 



tributes there, the Fomorians having compelled the Nemedians to 
deliver up at that place cattle, corn, and even some of their chil- 
dren, as a tribute. 

The race of Conall Oulban, who possessed Tir Connell, are cele- 
brated in Irish history, and, according to O'Flaherty and others, 
furnished ten of the monarchs of Ireland. In the tenth century a 
branch of the Kinel Comiell, or descendants of Conall Gulban, 
took the name of O'Canannain, many of whom were celebrated 
chiefs, particularly Roderick O'Canannain, who was distinguished 
for his great valour and abilities. Charles O'Conor, in his Dis- 
sertations on the History of Ireland, states that he was heir pre- 
sumptive to the crown, and got himself chosen king by military 
election, and expelled for a time the monarch Congalach from the 
throne. In A.D. 948, the Danes of Dublin and other parts of Ire- 
land, having collected a powerful army, under Godfred, the son of 
Sitric, Ivar, and other leaders, marched into Meath. Roderick 
O'Canannain, at the head of the Irish forces, marched to oppose 
their progress, and in a great battle fought on the festival of St. 
Andrew the Apostle (30th of November), at Muine Brocain, the 
Danes were totally defeated, sei-en thoitsand of them being slain, 
amongst whom was Ivar, one of their generals, but O'Canannain 
himself, towards the close of the battle, was killed in the thick of 
of the fight. Godfred, the son of Sitric, with the survivors, fled 
to Dublin. The ])lace where this battle was fought, mentioned as 
Jluine Brocain, is supposed to have been Ardbraccan. Another 
branch of the race of Conall Gulban took the name O'Waoldoraidh, 
or O'Muldorry, and became princes of Tir Connell. In the Annals 
of the Four Masters in the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries, 
accounts are given of many contests between the O'Canannains 
and O'Maoldoraidhs, those rival chiefs of the same race, as con- 
tending for the sovereignity of Tir Connell. 

The O'Donnclls, in the twelfth century, became princes of Tir 
Connell, and were of the same race as the O'Canannains and 
O'Muldorrys, being descendants of Conall Gulban. The tribe- 
name, at an early period, was Clan Dalaidh, from Dalach, one of 
their chiefs. They are called in O'Dugan's poem, " Clnnna 
Dalaigh na n-tlonn sglath," that is, of the brown shields. 
They afterwards took the name O'Domhnaill, or O'Donnell, 
from Domhnall, or Donal, one of their ancient chiefs. The O'Don- 
nells, from the twelfth to the end of the sixteenth century, make a 
very distinguished figure in Irish history, as princes of 'Tirconnell. 
The last celebrated chief of the name was Red Hugh O'Donnell, 
long famous as one of the chief commanders of the northern Irish 
in their wars with Elizabeth, of whose actions copious accounts 
are given in the course of these Annals. An interesting Life of 
Red Hugh O'Donnell is given in that learned work. The Anti- 
quarian Researches, by Sir William Betham. Rory O'Donnell, 
the last chief of the race, was created earl of Tyrconnell, but died 
in exile on the Continent, and his estates were confiscated in the 
reign of James I. Many of the O'Donnells have been celebrated 
generals in the service of Spain, France, and Austria. The O'Don- 
nells were inaugurated as prhices of 'Tirconnell on the Rock of 
Donne, at Kilmacreuan, and had their chief castle at Donegal. 

The following clans and chiefs in Tir Conaill in the twelfth cen- 
tury, are given by O'Dugan under the head of Kinel Conaill : I, 
O'Maoldovaigh, O'Canannain, and Clann Dalaigh, were the prin- 
cipal chiefs. The Clann Dalaigh was the tribe name of the 
O'Donnells, as before stated. II. O'Baoighill or O'Boyles, were 
chiefs of Clann Chindfaoladh, of Tir Aiinmireach, and of Tir 
Boghaine, which territories comprised the present baronies of Boy- 
lagh and Bannagli, Crioch Baoighilleach, or the country of the 
O'Boyles, as mentioned in the Annals, gave name to the barony of 
Boylagh, Tir Boghame was the barony of Banagh. III. O'Maoil- 
maghna, probably O'Mulvany, chief of Magh Seireadh ; Magh 
Seireadh may probably be traced m a townland called Massarey, 
mentioned in the Inquisitions on Donegal. IV. O'Haodha or 
O'llugh, chief of Easruadh, that is Ballysliannon, in the barony of 



on the 15 th December, was succeeded by Donogh 
O'Conor. 

Flann O'Connachty, bishop of Hy Briuin 
Brefney (Kilmore), died. 



Tir Hugh. V. O'Tairceirt, chief of Clann Neachtain, and in the 
Annals (A.D. 1197 and I'312), of Clann Snedgaile. VI. Mac 
Dubhain or Mac Duvanys, chiefs of Kinel Nenna or Kinel Enda. 
This district, according to O'Flaherty, lay in Inisowen. VII. 
Mae Loingseachain or Mac Lynchys, chiel's of Gleann Binne, or 
Gleann m-Binne, and O'BreisIen, chief of Fanaid,on the western shore 
of Lough Swilly. VIII. O'Dochartaigh or O'Dogherty, chief of 
Ard Miodhair. The O'Doghertys were a powerful sept, a branch 
of the O'Donnells, and became chiefs of Inisowen ; and in the 
Annals, A.D. 1197, Eachmarcach O'Dogherty is mentioned as 
chief ol^ all Tirconnell. The O'Doghertys maintained their rank 
as chiefs of Inisowen down to the reign of James I., when sir 
Cahir O'Dogherty was killed in a contest with the English. IX. 
Mac Gillesamhais, chief of Ros Guill, now Rosgull, m the barony 
of Kihnakrenan. X. O'Cearnachain, or O'Keniaghan ; and 
O'Dalachain, or O'Dullaghan, chiefs of the Tnath Bladliaidh. 

XI. O'Maolagain or O'MuUigan, chief of Tir Mac Caerthain. 

XII. O'Donnagain, and Mac Gailjlin, chiefs of Tir Breasail. 
O'Maolgaoithe, chief of Muintir Maoilgaoithe. Some of this name 
have been anglicised to Mac Ghee, and others to \Vyim. XIII. 
And Mac Tigheamain or Mac Teman, chief of Clan Fearghoile. 

The following chiefs and clans not given in O'Dugan, are col- 
lected from the Four Masters, and various other sources. I. Mac 
Suibhne or the Mac Sweenys, a branch of the O'Neills which 
settled in Donegal, and formed three great families, namely, Mac 
Sweeney of Fanaid, who had an extensive territory west of Lough 
Swilly, and whose castle was at Rathmullin ; Mac Sweeny Bogh- 
amach, or of Tir Boghaine, now the barony of Banagh, who had 
his castle at Rathain, and in wliich territory was situated Reach- 
rain Muintire Birn, now Rathlin O'Beirne Islands; and Mac 
Sweeny Na d-Tuatli, signifying Mac Sweeny of the Territories. 
His districts were also called Tuatha Toraighe, or the districts of 
Tory Island. This JIac Sweeny's possessions lay m the barony of 
Kilmakrenan. According to O'Brien and others, he was called Mac 
Sweeny Na d-Tuagh, signifying Mac Sweeny of the Battle-axes, a 
title said to be derived from their being standard hearers and mar- 
shals to the O'Donnells, and chiefs of Galloglasses. A branch of 
these Mac Sweenys who were distinguished military leaders, settled 
in Munster in the county Cork, in the thirteenth century, and became 
commanders under the Mac Carthys, princes of Desmond. II. 
O'Galchobhairor O'Gallaghers, derived from Gallchobhair, a war- 
rior, were a clan of note in Donegal, in the baronies of Raphoe and 
Tirhugh, and had a castle at Ballyshannon, and also possessed the 
castle of LiS'ord, and were commanders of O'Donnell's cavalry. 
Sir John O'Gallagher is mentioned in the wars of Elizabeth. III. 
O'Furanain is given by O'Dugan in his poem as chief of Fiond Ruis, 
wliich probably was the Rosses, in the barony of Boylagh. IV. 
O'Donngaile or O'Donnelly, chief of Fear Droma, a district in 
Inisowen, is mentioned in the Annals A.D. 1177. Ferdrom is 
mentioned in the Inquisitions on Donegal. V. O'Lainidh is men- 
tioned as chief of Kinel Moain, a district in the barony of Raphoe, 
in the Annals at A.D. 1178. O'Clerigh or O'CIerys, celebrated as 
the hereditary historians to the O'Donnells, and the learned authors 
of the Annals of the Four Masters, and many other valuable works 
on Irish history and antiquities. They had large possessions in 
the barony of Tirhugh, and resided in their castle at Kilbarron, the 
ruins of which still remain situated on a rock on the shore of the 
Atlantic near Ballyshannon. VII. Mac Anbhaird, or the Mac 
Wards, were a clan in Donegal, and many of them bards to the 
O'Donnells, and were very learned men. 

Tir Connell was formed into the county Donegal by the lord deputy, 
sir John Perrott,in the reign of Elizabeth, and on its confiscation, and 
the settlement of British colonies called the Plantation of Ulster, in 
the reign of James I., the following families of English and Scotch 
settlers are given as the possessors of this county, in Pynnar's 
Survey, A.D. 1619. John Murray got all Boylagh and Banagh, 
being ten thousand acres. The following had various districts :— 



REIGN OF HENRY HI. 



53 



Stephen O'Breen, au'cineach of Mayo, died. 

Celechaii- O'Dobhailen (or O'Devlin), aircin- 
each of Camma,' a man eminent for charity, 
piety, and learning, died. 

Fethfoilge, daughter of Conor Mac Dermott, 
and wife of Murtogh Aluimnagh, son of Torlogh 
More, who was the mother of Manus, son of 
Murtogh, of Conor, of Roderick, of Tuathal, and 
of Torlogh the priest, prior of the chui-ch of SS. 
Peter and Paul, died. 

Duvchovlagli, daughter of Conor Mac Dennott, 
died in the monastery of Boyle. 

Flaherty O'Flanagan, chief of Clan Cathail,'- 
son of jMuii'eadliach Muilleathan, died on his 
pilgrimage, in the monasteiy of Boyle, and his 
wife Duvhemragli, daughter of O'Quinn, also 
died. 

Ualgarg O'Rourke, lord of Brefney, died on 
his pilgrimage to the river (Jordan). 

Giolla-Iosa Mac Samhradhain, chief of Teal- 
lach Eachdach,' and Duinnin O'Mulconaiy, chief 
poet and historian of Siol Murray (Roscommon), 
died. 

Conor Gott O'Hai-a, lord of Lieney, died. 

Donall O'Donnell, lord of Tirconnell, and 
Angus Mac Gillefinen, of Fermanagh, marched 
their forces into the territory of Cathal O'Reilly ; 
conveyed their vessels to Lough Uachtair,'' plun- 
dered Eo Inis, and carried away all the provisions 
and treasure of the entire town. 



captain Tliomas Dutton ; Alexander Cunning-ham ; Jolm Cun- 
niniilmm ; James Cunninjliam ; Ciithbert Cunningham ; sir James 
Cuiininj;hara ; James Mao Cuilagli ; William Stewart ; Laird of 
Dunduft'; Alexander Mae Awley, alias Stewart ; the Laird of 
Lusse ; sir John Stewart ; Petef Benson ; William Wilson ; 
Thomas Davis ; captain Mansfield; sir John Kingsmill ; sir Ralph 
Bingley ; sir Thomas Coach ; sir George Marburie ; sir ^^■illiam 
Stewart ; sir Basil Brooke ; sir Thomas Chichester j sir John 
Vaughan ; John Wray ; Arthur Terrie; captain Henry Hart; 
cajitain Paul Gore ; Nathaniel Rowley ; William Lynn ; and 
captain Sandford. 

The foUowuig have been the noble families in Donegal since the 
reign of James I. The Fitzwilliams, e-arls of Tyrconnell. Richard 
Talbot, lord lieutenant of Ireland in the reign of James II., was 
created duke of Tyrconnell. Tlie families of Brownlow and Car- 
penter have been subsequently earlsof Tyrconnell. The Chiehesters, 
earls of Donegal. The Conynghams, earls of Jlountcharles. Tlie 
Cockaynes, barons of Cullen. And the Hewitts, barons of Lifford. 

Amongst the great landed proprietors resident in this county, 
may be mentioned, Lord George Hill, a nobleman justly estimated 
by Jlrs. Hall, and other tourists, as one of the most excellent 
landlords in Ireland. 

Diocexe of Raphoe. The see of Raphoe was founded by St. 
Euuan, whom Lanigan considers to have been the same person as 
Adamnan, the celebrated abbot of lona, in the seventh century, 
who was a native of Tyrconnell. The diocese comprehends the 
greater part of the county of Donegal. On the Island in Lough 



Felim, son of Cathal Crovdearg, was made 
prisoner by Mac AAlUiam Burke, at MeeUck, in 
violation of the faith of the English nobles of 
Ireland. 



A.D. 1232. 

Fachtna O'Hallgaith, coarb of Drom Mochuda,' 
and official of Hy Fiachra, a man who kept a house 
of hospitahty for the entertainment of the learned, 
and for the relief of the sick and indigent, died. 

The church of Kilmore, in Tir Briuin of the 
Shannon, was consecrated by Donogh O'Conor, 
bishop of Elphin, and canons were appointed there 
by Conn O'Flanagan, prior of that place. 

Tiopraid O'Breen, the coarb of St. Comman,^ a 
man ieai-ned in divinity, history, and laws, died 
at Inis Clothran, while on a pilgrimage there. 

Hugh, the son of Awlave, son of Donal O'Fer- 
rall, chief of Anally, was burned on the island of 
Lough Cuille, by the sons of Hugh Ciabhach, son 
of Mvu'ogh O'FerraU, having been chief of Anally 
for nine years after Murogh Carragh O'FerraU. 

Manus, son of Awlave, son of Teige Mac Mtd- 
rooriy, a luminary of hospitahty, generosity, and 
piety, died. 

Donogh, the son of Tomaltach Mac Dermott, 
a man eminent for hospitality, and generosity to 
the distressed of Connaught, died of an epidemic. 

Conor, son of Hugh, son of Roderick O'Conor, 



Derg, in the county of Donegal, is the celebrated place of pilgrim- 
age, called St. Patrick's Purgatory. 

A. D. :'231. 

1 . Camma or Camcha, a parish in the barony of Athlone, county 
of Roscommon. 

2. Clan Cathail, a district in Roscommon near Elphin, and the 
tribe were so called from Cathal, son of Muireadhach Muilleathan, 
king of Connaught, who died A. D. 7U0. 

3. Teallack Eachdnch, now the barony of Tullaghaw, in the 
county of Cavan, of which the Mac Samhradbains were chiefs, a. 
name that has been changed to Mac Gauran, and by some angli- 
cised to Somers. 

4. Loch UachfalT. This was Lough Oughter, a chain of large 
lakes lying between Cavan, Killeshandra and Belturbet in the 
county of Cavan, or as it was called O'Reilly's country. En Inis 
or the Holy Island, which was plundered, was probably Trinity 
Island in Lough Oughter, where there was an abbey founded by 
this Cathal O'Reilly, prince of East Brefney ; or perhaps it may 
have been TJrney, where there was an abbey and small town, near 
Lough Oughter. 

A.D. 1-23-3. 

1. Dromamttcadha, now the parish of Dromacoo, in the barony 
of Dunkellin, county of Galway. This parish was in Hy Fiachra, 
a territory co-extensive with the diocese of Kilmaeduagli. 

2. Coarb of St. Commati, that is, abbot of Roscommon. 



54 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1233. 



haxdng escaped from the English, was joined by 
the sons of some chiefs of Connaught, with whom 
he marched into the Tuatha (in Roscommon), to 
make seizures there, but was slain by the Tuatha, 
along with Gillkelly O'Heyne, Gillcreest the son 
of Donogh Mac Dermott, and many others. On 
that day the ])eople of Tuatha had all white 
handled battle-axes, from which arose the adage, 
" The man with the white axe slew the son of 
Hugh." 

Hugh, the son of Roderick O'Conor, was again 
appointed king of Connaught, by Mac William 
Bvn-ke,' and made peace with him after he had 
made Feilim, the son of Cathal Crovdearg, pri- 
soner. 

The castle of Bona Gaillmhe was erected by 
Rickard de Burgo, and the castle of Dun lom- 
gain'' was commenced by Adam Stanton. 

Giolla-na-neev O'Daly, aman learned in poetry^, 
and who kept a house of hospitaUty both for rich 
and poor, died. 

Maoleoin, the Deaf, O'Mulconery, took Cluan 
Bolcain. 

Feilim, the son of Cathal Crovdearg, was set at 
liberty by the English. 

Conor, son of Niall O'Gormley, chief of Kinel 
Maoin, died. 

Donal O'Loughlin, lord of Tyrone, marched 
with a force consisting of Enghsh and Irish into 
Tirconnell, on which expedition he plmidered 
Fanat, and took hostages from Donal O'Boyle, 
and from O'Tairceirt. 

O'Donnell marched his forces into Tyrone, and 
anived at Tullaghoge, where he killed the cattle, 
burned the corn, plundered the country, and re- 
turned home in triumph. 

Midbeach and Eaghinish'' were plundered by 
the Kinel Owen, to which place they took then- 
shipping, but a party of the Kinel Connell, hc^aded 
by the son of Niall O'Donnell, attacked and slew 



Inisclotliran, an island in Lougli Ree, on the Shannon, 
between Roscommon and Longford, where there was a famous 
abbey. 

3. Mac William Burke, so often mentioned at tliis period, was 
Richard de Burgo, son of William Fitzadelm de Burgo. He suc- 
ceeded JeofFrey de Marisco as lord justice, and was also lord 
deputy of Ireland 

4. Crilslean Bun lomgain was the castle of Dunamon, near 
the river Suck, in Roscommon. The other castle was at 
Galway. 



many of them, but was himself killed in the midst 



of the fight. 



A.D. 1233. 

Geoffrey O'Doighre, aircineach' of Derry 
Columkille, died. 

Maolisa O'Maonaigh, a dignified priest and 
psalmodist, died. 

Donagh, archdeacon of Achaigh Fobhair,^ an 
arbiter who settled all disputes and contentions, 
a man of dignity and honour, died on the 15th day 
of December. 

Feilim O'Conor, son of Cathal Crovdearg, led 
his forces into Connaught, and Cormac, the son of 
Tomaltagh Mac Dermott, lord of Moylurg, went 
to meet him, and brought him with him to Moy- 
lurg, where they constructed a camp at Druim 
Gregraighe, and were joined by Cormac, by Conor 
his son, and the people of the three Tuatha, and 
by the two sons of Murtogh Mac Dermott, Donogh 
and Mm'togh. They then held a council, in which 
they resolved to go in pursuit of Hugh, king of 
Connaught, and the other sons of Roderick ; they 
attacked and defeated Hugh, the son of Roderick, 
slew himself, Hugh Muimnagh his brother, his son, 
and Donogh More Mac Dermott, son of Roderick, 
with many others. There were also slain Raghallagh 
O'Flanagan, Thomas Biris, constable of Ireland, 
John his brother, and John Guer, with many other 
Englishmen. This was after they had been cursed 
and excommunicated by bell, crozier, and the extin- 
guishing of candles, by the clergy of Connaught, for 
Hugh Muimnagh had violated and plundered Tibo- 
hine (in Roscommon), and many other churches, 
so that he and his adherents fell in avengement 
of the dishonour they had done to the saints 
by violating their churches. The kingdom and 
government of Connaught were that day WTested 
from the sons of Roderick, the son of Torlogh. 
Felim, the son of Cathal Crovdearg, then assumed 



5. Eaghinis and Midhbheach, now Aghinis and Mevagh, near 
Lough Swilly, barony of Kilmakrenan, county of Donegal. 

A.D. 1-23.3. 

1. Aircineach, sometimes written Airchindech, as already ex- 
plained, according to Lanigan, meant originally an archdeacon, 
and has been translated by Colgan, archidiaconus, hence in these 
Annals the word will in future be translated archdeacon. 

2. Achad Fobhair, now the parish of Aughagower, in Mayo, 
where St. Patrick founded a church, and placed over it St. Senach. 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



the sovereignty of Connaught, and demolished 
the castles which had been erected by the sons of 
Roderick O'Conor and Mac William Burke, 
namely, the castle of Bona Gaillmhe, Caislen-na- 
Circe,' Caislen-na-Caillighe, and the castle of Dun 
lomgain. 

William, the son of Hugo de Lacy (whose 
mother was daughter of king Roderick O'Conor), 
marched, with the English of Meath, into Brefuey 
against Cathal O'Reilly, where they committed 
great depredations; but a party of O'Reilly's peo- 
ple overtook de Lacy and his chiefs, while con- 
veying the plunder, and gave them battle, in which 
William Brit, and a number of the English nobles, 
were slain, and William de Lacy with many others 
were wounded ; they were cb'iven from the country 
without prisoners or plunder, and de Lacy, 
Charles, the son of Cathal Gall O'Conor, Feorus 
Fionn, the son of the English queen, and Dermod 
Bearnagh O'Melaghhn, died of the wounds they 
received in the battle of Mona-Crann-Chaoin,* 
and NiallSionagh O'Catharnaidh, lord of the men 
of Teffia, also died of the wounds he received in 
this battle, in his own house, after making his 
will and receiving extreme unction. 



A. D. 1234. 

Angus O'Maolfoghmair, bishop of Hy Fiachra 
(Kilalla) ; Giolla-na-neev, son of Art O'Breen, 
archdeacon of Roscommon ; Maolisa, son of 
Daniel O'Gormley, prior of Inis Mac Nerin ; 
Maol Peter O'Cormacain, prior of Roscommon ; 
and Giollisa O'Gibellan, monk and anchorite of 
Trinity Island (in Lough Key), died. 

Donal, son of Hugh O'Neill, lord of Kinel 
Owen, and heir presumptive to the crown of Ire- 
land, was slain by Mac Loughlin (i. e. Donal), 
and by the Kinel Owen themselves ; and Donal 
assumed the lordship. 

Aongus Mac GiUifinen, lord of Lough Erne, 



3. CnlsIetm-na-Circe, or the Hen's castle, was situated on an 
island in Lough Corrib, county of Galway, and belonged to the 
O'Flahertys. The otlier castles at Dimamon and Galway have 
been already mentioned under A. D. 1232. Caislea>t-nu CiiillUjhc, 
or tlie Hog's castle, was also in the neighbourhood of Loupli Corril). 

4. Moim Crunn Cliiioin. The place where this battle was 
fought signifies the bog or marsh of the handsome trees, and was 
situated on the borders of Cavan and Meath. Feorus Fionn, or 
Feorus the Fair, here mentioned as son of the English queen, must 
Iiave been the son of Isabella, widow of king John, who was mar- 
ried to the Count of La Marche in France. 



having revolted against O'Donnell, went to plun- 
der Tirconnell ; but O'Donnell, i. e. Donal More, 
attacked and slew him in revenge of the death of 
Eigneaghan (O'Donnell). 

Hugh O'Hara, lord of Lieney, was slain by 
Donogh, son of Duarcan O'Hara, after he 
(Donogh) had burned his (Hugh's) house, out of 
which he (Hugh) escaped, in revenge of the 
death of his (Donogh's) brother and five nephews, 
who had been slain by Hugh, who also put out 
the eyes of another brother (of Donogh). 

Dermod O'Quinn, chief of Muintir GioUgain,' 
was slain. 

Rickard, son of William Mareschal, having 
rebelled against the king of England, came over 
to Ireland and settled in Leinster. The English 
of Ireland, who were in favour of the king of Eng- 
land, collected their forces to oppose, him : these 
were Mac Maurice, the lord justice of Ireland, 
Hugo de Lacy, earl of Ulster, and Walter de 
Lacy, lord of Meath. Having marched to Cuir- 
each Lifi,^ in Leinster, they attacked Mareschal 
and slew him, and took Jeoffrey Mareschal pri- 
soner, for Mareschal had none to fight the battle, 
having been betrayed by his own people. 



A.D. 1235. 

Isaac O'Maolfoghmair, archdeacon of Kilalla, 
died. 

Mattheus, prior of Trinity Island (on Lough 
Key), died. 

Madden O'Madden, lord of Siol Anmchadha, 
died. 

Loughlin, son of Echtigim O'Kelly, was slain 
by the sons of the Giolla Riavach O'Boyle. 

Taithleach, son of Hugh O'Dowd, lord of 
Tyrawley and Tireragh, was slain by the cast of a 
dart, while interposing in a quarrel in the for- 
tress of FeUim (O'Conor), son of Cathal Crov- 
deta-g. 



A.D. 1234. 

1. Muintir GioUgain, a district m Anally, or Longford, of 
which the O'Quiims were chiefs. See notes on Anally and 
Teffia. 

■2. Cuireach Lifi was the ancient name of the Curragli of Kil- 
dare. Mareschal, above mentioned, was the celebrated Richard 
Mareschal, earl of Pembroke, who was treacherously killed on the 
Curragh of Kildare by the contrivance of Jeotfrey de Marisco, and 
the other English barons. Mac Maurice, so often mentioned at 
this period, was Maurice Fitzgerald, lord justice of Ireland. 



56 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1235. 



Tlie English of Ireland, having collected their 
forces under Rickard Mac William Burke, and the 
following leaders, namely, Mac Muiris (Mac- 
Maurice), lord justice of Ireland, Hugo de Lacy, 
cai-1 of Ulster, Walter Riddlesford, chief baron of 
Leinster, with the English of Leinster, and John 
Cogan, with the English of Munster, and the 
Routes (or lords of the Marches) of Ireland, 
proceeded across the Shannon at Athlone, to 
Roscommon, and burned the town ; from thence 
they went to Elphin, where they burned the great 
church, and from thence to the monastery of Ath- 
da-la-arg at Boyle, on the night of Trinity Sunday, 
A party of their soldiers attacked the monaster}-, 
broke open the scripta (sacristy or sanctuary), 
and took therefrom the cheJices, vestments, and 
other precious articles. The English nobles were 
much displeased at this act, and sent back every 
thing they could find, and paid for such as could 
not be recovered. On the following day they 
sent scouting parties to Creit, to Cairthe Muil- 
chen, and to the tower of Glen Fearna,' from 
which they carried away great booty to the lord 
justice at Ai-dcarne. The Enghsh then privately 
resolved, at the request of Owen O'Heyne (in 
order to be revenged of the people of Munster and 
Donogh Cairbreach O'Brien, for the wrongs he 
had sustaine ), to return back the same way 
through Tir Maine, Maonmoy, and from thence 
to Thomond, and to come unawares on the 
people of Munster ; and in their progress they 
committed great plunders. When Felim, son of 
Cathal Crovdearg, perceived that the English had 
departed, he resolved to lead his forces to join the 
men of Munster, and having arrived at their 
quarters, several fierce engagements took place 
every day, but at length the Conacians and 
Munster men gave the English a general battle, in 
which they : ought bravely, but were, however, 
finally defeated by the superior numbers of the 



A.D. 1235. 

1 . Glen Fearnn, that is, the Glen of the Alder Trees, now Glcn- 
fame, a large valley surrounded by high mountains, near Manor- 
hamilton, in the county of Leitrim." Cairtke Miiilchen, now Glen- 
car, another large valley in the parish of Killasnet, county of 
Leitrim. Creit, afterwards called Crcy, in the parish of Kil- 
toghert, in Leitrim. Ardcame was near Boyle. 

2. Conmnlcne Mnra, or the barony of Ballynahinch, in Cona- 
mara. Connuucne Culle Tola, now the barony of Kilmaine, in 
Mayo. 

3. Dunmugltdord, an ancient fortress in the par"sh of Auggaval, 



English, whose cavalry and infantry were clad in 
armour. Many were slain on both sides, but the 
Munster men suffered most loss, through the 
mismanagement of Donogh Cairbreach O'Brien. 
The Conacians then returned home, and on the 
following day, O'Brien made peace with the 
English, and gave them hostages. The English 
then returned to Connaught, and first went to 
Hugh O'Flaherty, who made peace with them for 
the protection of his people and property. In 
the mean time, Felim, son of Cathal Crovdearg, 
determined on caiTying away all the cattle in 
Conmaicne Mara and Conmaicne Cuile,^ of those 
who would be counselled by hiiu, and took 
along with him the son of Manus and Conor Roe, 
son of Murtogh Muinagh (O'Conor), with whom 
he proceeded to ODonnell's country (i.e. Donal 
More), and left the territories quite bare to the 
English. After this the English came to Dun 
Mughdord, and sent a message to INIanus, son of 
Murtogh Muinagh, demanding hostages, but 
Manus would yield them neither submission 
nor hostages. The English then sent a veiy 
strong force from Mughdord,' against the sons of 
Roderick, plundered Eccuil, and carried away 
great spoils to the English at Druimni. Hugh 
O'Flaherty and Owen O'Hyne, marched round 
with another large force, and brought boats with 
them to Lionan-chinn-mara. This force, with the 
boats, met the lord justice from Druimne, at the 
port of Inis Aonaigh ; Manus, who at this time 
had his vessels on the sea at Inis Aonaigh, made 
frequent attacks on the English ; and they also 
attacked him, but they desisted for a time, 
removed their camp, and drew their boats round 
to the rear of a large strand in that place. As 
soon as Manus perceived this movement he sailed 
to Inis Raithne, and sent a party of his people . 
into Inis Aoinaigh, When the English saw that 
Manus and his people landed on those islands 



barony of Murrisk, county of Mayo. Vruimnl, now Druimneen, 
near Westport, in Mayo. Lionan-chinn-mara, now Leenan, near 
Killery Harbour, county of Galway. Inis Aonaigh, an island in 
Killery Bay, between Mayo and Galway. Inis Raithin, another 
of those islands in Killery Bay. Itm Modh, a general name ap- 
plied to the islands in Clew Bay, county of Mayo. Umaill, or 
Hy JSIalia, formerly the county of the O'Mallies, now the baronies 
of Murrisk and Burishoole, county of Mayo. Eccnill, now 
Achill Island, county of Mayo. Liit/lthardan, now called Luffer- 
tan, in the parish of Balliutobber, barony of Carra, county of 
Mayo. 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



they conveyed their boats along the strand, and, 
having launched them on the sea, quickly filled 
them with well armed men clad in armour, and 
proceeded to the islands on which Manus's men 
were, except Inis Raithin, on which Manus him- 
self was posted, and slew all the people they 
found on the islands. Manus and his men, who 
were on Inis Raithne, took to their shipping and 
sailed from the island ; but had Manus been on 
friendly terms with the O'Malleys, they would 
have sent their shipping against the Enghsh. 
The English can-ied off all the cattle of Insi Modh 
in one day, and the inhabitants would have left the 
islands, together with their cattle, from excessive 
want, had they not been prevented. Many of the 
common people were slain that night by the 
English. On the following day, being Friday 
(Good Frida}'), the English invaded the islands 
north of UmhaiU, but the officers of the army, out 
of respect to the crucifixion of Christ, commanded 
that no person should be put to death on that 
day. After the English had devastated and spoiled 
Hy Malia, both by sea and land, they proceeded 
■with the cattle and booty to Lughbardan, from 
whence they marched to Eas Dara (Ballysadare), 
and plundered O'Donnell, in consequence of his 
having protected FeUm O'Conor, who had fled to 
him for refuge. From this they proceeded to 
Corrsliabh-na-Seghsa (Curlew mountains), and to 
the harbour of the Rock on Lough Key,'' for the 
puqiose of taking it from the people of Felim 
O'Conor, and Cormac, son of Tomaltagh (Mac 
Dermott), who guarded it. The English and the 
lord justice gave protection and Tennon (sanc- 
tuary), to Clarus Mac MaoiUn, archdeacon of 
Elphin, and to the canons of Trinity Island, in 
honour of the Holy Trinity ; and the lord justice 
himself, accompanied by the English nobles, went 
to inspect that place and to offer up their prayers, 
after which they constructed wonderful engines, 
with great ingenuity and invention, by which they 
took the Rock of Lough Key fi-ora the people of 
Felim and Comiac, and, after taking possession of 
it, the lord justice left a gamson there, with as 
much provisions and ale as were necessary. The 
Enghsh on that expedition rendered Connaught 



4. TJie JiocTi of Lmigh Key was a fortress of the Mac Der- 
motts at Lough Key, near Boyle, in the county of Roscommon, 



bare of food, raiment, and cattle ; deprived it of 
peace and happiness, and left the inhabitants 
nothing but discord, and mutual plunder and 
slaughter. The English, however, obtained 
neither hostages nor submission on that occasion. 
Felim (O'Conor) made peace with the lord jus- 
tice, and they (the Enghsh), gave him the five 
districts of the king free of purchase and rents. 

Cormac Mac Dermott regained possession of 
the Rock of Lough Key twenty days after it had 
been taken by the English, in the following man- 
ner : The constable, attended by a large party of 
his men, having gone out at night, one of their 
own gamson, named O'Hostin, closed the gates 
after them, and delivered up the fortress to Cor- 
mac. The English were conveyed by a guard to 
Trinity Island, and safely sent out of the countiy, 
after which the fortifications of the Rock were 
demohshed by Cormac, in order that the Enghsh 
might not take possession of it again. 

Donal and Murtogh, the sons of Muiredagh 
O'Malley, were slain by Donal, son of IManus, son 
of Mm-togh O'Conor, aided by Niall Roe, son of 
Cathal, son of Conor, at Chara (Claremorris), 
w^here he was also inteiTed. 

Tuathal, son of Mortogh O'Conor, was slain by 
Conor Buidhe, son of Torlogh O'Conor, and by 
Conor, son of Hugh Muinagh. 

The castle of Meelick was demohshed by FeUm 
O'Conor. 



A.D. 1236. 

Mac Raith Mac Maolin, priest of Kilmactreana, 
in Tiren'ell (in the county of Sligo), died. 

Hugh O'Gibellain, priest of Kih-odan (in tlie 
county of Sligo), and afterwards canon of Trinity 
Island, died on Christmas night. 

The lord justice, that is, Mac Maurice (Fitz- 
gerald), having summoned the Enghsh of Ireland to 
a convention held by him atAthfearaine, Felim, son 
of Cathal Crovdearg O'Conor, king of Connaught, 
came to the meeting ; but it was determined 
amongst them to act treacherously towards Fehm, 
although he was gossip to the lord justice. The 
motive of the English in assembhng at that place 



from which a part of that family were afterwards designated as 
the Mac Dermotts of the Rock. 



58 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1236. 



being such, Felim, who had received intelligence 
of their intention, fled from the meeting, with a 
few horse, to Roscommon, but was pm'sued thither, 
and from thence as far as the bridge of Sligo ; and 
he ])laced b.imsclf under the protection of O'Don- 
nell. As they did not succeed in capturing him, 
they committed great devastations in the territoiy 
of Teige O'Conor, and carried into bondage and 
captivity a great number of fair women, after which 
they returned with these captives to Druim Greg- 
raidhe in Moylurg, as it was there that the lord 
justice was awaiting their movements. The above- 
mentioned meeting was held after Mac William 
(Burke) liad gone to England. The lord justice 
and the English returned to theu' homes, and left 
the government of the countiy in the hands of 
Biyan, son of Torlogh (O'Conor), by whom and 
the English soldiers of the lord justice, great 
depredations were committed on the sons of Hugh, 
son of Cathal Crovdearg, and on many others of 
Felim's people. The sons of Hugh, in retaUation, 
plundered the English, and the Irish enemies who 
supported them, so that the country was altogether 
laid waste between them. 

Conor O'Conor, son of Hugh Muinagh, was 
slain by Manus, son of Mortogh O'Conor. 

Maolmuire O'Laughnan, having been elected to 
the see of Tuam, went to England, and after 
receiving the Pope's letters, was, with the consent 
of the king, consecrated. 

Mac WiUiam (Burke) returned from England, 
but it was not known whether for peace or ^var. 

FeUm, son of Cathal Crovdeai-g, returned to 
Connaught, having been invited thither by some 
of the Conacians, namely, by O'Kelly and O'Flynn, 
the sons of Hugh, the son of Cathal Crovdearg, 
and the son of Art O'Melaghhn, all fonning four 
strong battalions. They marched to Rinn-Duin, 
where Bryan, son of Torlogh (O'Conor), Owen 
O'Heyne, Conor Buidhe, son of Torlogh, and Mac 
Costello, had all the cattle of the country. 
Felim's men crossed over the rampart and ditch 
which fortified the island, and every leader of a 
troop, and chief of a band, drove off each a share of 
the cattle as they found them on the place ; and 
they then separated with their booty, leaving 
of the four battalions only four horsemen with 
Fehm. As Bryan, son of Torlogh, and Owen 
O'Heyne, with their party, perceived that Fehm's 



forces were scattered with their booty, they set out 
quickly and actively, with a small party of horse 
and many foot soldiers, to attack O'Conor and his 
few men. Conor Buidhe, son of Torlogh, did not 
])erceive them until he came up, and, mistaking 
them for his own partj^, was killed by Roderick, 
son of Hugh, son of Cathal Crovdearg. Felim 
(the king), loudly calling his men, commanded 
them to leave their booty, and attack the enemy ; 
and many of the party were killed by Felim and 
his followers in the battle, both on and outside of 
the Island, and amongst the killed were many 
notorious for their crimes and e\'il deeds. Teige, 
son of Cormac, son of Tomaltagh Mac Dermott, 
was amongst the slain. When Mac William heard 
of the defeat of all those who had opposed O'Conor, 
he joined him to subdue them. Dennod, son of 
Manus, having heard of these events, proceeded to 
attack Manus, son of Mmlogh O'Conor. 

After this Mac William went to Tuam, unnoticed 
and unperceived, and from thence to Mayo, of the 
Saxons ; and he left not a rick or measiu'e of corn 
at the great church of Mayo, or in the church of 
Teampull Michil, the Archangel ; and his troops 
earned off from these churches eighty measures 
of corn. They aftei-wards went to Turlogh, and 
plundered his place in a similar manner. They 
then sent a party to plunder the people of Dermod, 
son of Manus, and, meeting with the people of 
Conor Roe and of Turlogh, the three parties plun- 
dered these places indiscriminately. Manus was 
obliged to banish and expel the people of Dermod, 
and on the following day Conor Roe went to Mac 
William, and made peace with him ; and the cattle 
of which he had been plundered were restored, and 
all the property which had been taken from the 
churches, and could be recognised as belonging to 
them, was also restored. Dermod, son of Manus, 
submitted to the English, and claimed protection 
for his people and property. 

Mac William proceeded to Balla, where he re- 
mained one night : from thence he went to Tuam ; 
and he left Connaught without peace, happiness, 
or provisions, either in churches or country. 

Hugh O'Flaherty, lord of West Connaught, died. 

The eyes of Dermod, son of Niall O'Rourke, 
were put out by Cuchonaght O'Reilly. 

Cathal Riabhach, son of GioUa Buidhe O'Rom'ke, 
lord of Hy Briuin, died. 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



59 



Great stonns and rain and violent wars pre- 
vailed in this year. 

The sons of Roderick, and Conor, son of Cormac 
Mac Dermott, were defeated iia the battle of 
Cluan-Catha,' by Felim O'Conor. 

Gillpatrick Mac GioUaroidli (or Mac Gillroy), 
lord of Kinel Aongusa, died. 

Terraon Caollaine- was burned by the lord 
justice. 

O'Donnell (Donal More) led his forces into 
Ulidia as far as lubhar-chinn-choiche,^ plundered 
every place tlirough which he passed, and exacted 
hostages and submission from the greater part of 
Ulster. 



A. D. 1237. 

Thomas O'Ruadhain, bishop of Luighne 
(Achonry), died. 

Giolla-Iosa, son of the historian O'Tormaigh 
(or O'Tormey), bishop of Conmaicne (Ardagh), 
died. 

Giolla-na-neag O'Monaghan died in the monas- 
tery of Boyle. 

Fehm, son of Cathal Crovdearg, marched his 
forces into Connaught, to attack the descendants 
of Roderick O'Conor, namety, Bryan, son of Tor- 
logh, Mmiogh and Donal, sons of Dermod, son 
of Roderick, and Conor, son of Cormac, son of 
Dermod. In this expedition Felim was aided by 
Cuchonaght O'Reilly, with all the Hy Briuin 
(or people of Cavan), and Cathal Mac Rannall, at 
the head of the people of Conmaicne (or the people 
of Muintir Eoluis, in Leitrim). Fehm, with his 
forces, crossed the Curlew Mountains northward, 
and arrived at Druim Raide, in pm'suit of the 
people of Roderick, with the soldiers of the lord 
justice, and prepared to give them battle. Felim 
commanded his men not to lose time in discharging 
their arrows, or throwing missiles, but to charge 
and come to close quarters at once ; they did so 
accordingly, and the (Enghsh) soldiers did not long 
sustain the charge, but were defeated and di-iven 



A.D. 1236. 

1. C/imn Cn<7(«, a place now called Battlefield, in the barony 
of Corran, county of Sligo. 

2. Termon Caollaine, supposed to be the abbey of Callan, in 
the county of Kilkenny. 

3. luhlinr-clihm-choiche, probably the same as lubbar-cliinn- 
traighe, the ancient name of Newry. 



back to their own people, and a great number of 
them slain, amongst whom was the son of Milrig. 

When Roderick perceived that their forces were 
put to flight, they retreated from the position j 
they had taken up, wthout losing any of their own 
men ; but after this defeat they became dispersed, 
and had no footing in Siol MiiiTay (Roscommon). 
All their people were plundered by FeUm, and 
much depredation was committed on Conor, the 
son of Cormac, in Tyi-en-ell. Fehm's party, after 
that, conveyed their vessels to Lough Key, from 
which they expelled Cormac Mac Dermott, lord of 
Moylmg, and plundered the entire of Moylurg ; 
and they put Donogh, son of Murtogh Luath 
Shuileach (the Quick Eyed), in possession of the 
government of the countiy, and of the lake. 

The lord justice made peace with FeUm, and 
the five districts of the king were given him, free 
of purchase or rents. 

Manus, son of Dermod, son of Manus, was 
slain by Donal, son of Dermod, son of Roderick 
O'Conor. 

Mmtogh, the son of Dermod, son of Roderick 
O'Conor, was slain by the son of Manus, son of 
Mm"togh Muinagh. 

Conor, son of Coraiac, committed depredations 
on Roderick O'Gara ; and the brother of Roderick 
was slain. 

Tlie hostages of Conor, son of Coraiac, were 
slain by Fehm, son of Cathal Crovdearg. 

A monastery of canons was founded by Clarus 
Mac Maihn, on Trinity Island, in Lough Uachtair,' 
under the recommendation and patronage of Cathal 
O'Reilly. 

The English barons of Ireland, ha-i-ing settled 
in Connaught, commenced building castles there. 



A. D. 1238. 

Fehx O'Ruanadha (O'Rooney), archbishop of 
Tuam, who had previously resigned liis bishoprick 
in honour of God, and had taken the monastic habit 
in Maiy's Abbey, m Dubhn, died. 



A.D. 1237. 
1. Loch Uachtair, or Lough Oughter, in the county of Cavan, 
on an island in which, called Trinity Island, this monastery was 
founded and endowed by Cathal O'Reilly, prmce of Brefney. 
See Ware. 



60 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1238-1239-40. 



Donogh Uaithnagh, son of Hugh, son of Rode- 
rick O'Conor, was slain by Teige, son of Hugh, 
son of Cathal Crovdearg. 

Donogh, son of Duarcan O'Hara, lord of Lieny, 
was taken prisoner by Teige, son of Hugh, son of 
Cathal Crovdearg, and as he was brought to be 
confined, he was slain by his own kinsman, the 
son of Hugh O'Hara, in Hy Briuin of the Shan- 
non. 

Flaherty Mac Cathmaoil, head chief of Kinel 
Fereadaigh, and cliief of Clan Congail, and of 
O'Ceannfhoda, in Tir Manach, the most distin- 
guished for braveiy and hospitality in Tir Eogain, 
was slain by Donogh Mac Cathmaoil, his own kins- 
man. 

Donogh, son of Murtogh (Mac Dermott), hav- 
ing proceeded into Brefney, to O'Reilly, from wliich 
he marched with a great force into Connaught, 
plundered the people of Cluain Coirpthe,' and 
killed many of the chiefs of Muinter Eoluis, and 
of the Tuatha, who pm-sued him to recover the 
booty. 

Mulroony, son of Donogh O'Dowd, was slain 
by Malachy, son of Conor Roe, son of Murtogh 
Muimnagh, and by the son of Tiarnan, son of 
Cathal Migarain O'Conor. 

Castles were erected in Muintir Murchadha,^ in 
Conmaicne Cuile, and in Ceara, by the English 
barons before mentioned. 

Mac Maurice, lord justice of Ireland, and Hugo 
De Lacy, earl of Ulster, marched with their forces 
into Kinel Connell. They deposed Mac LoughUn 
(i. e. Donal), and gave the lordship of Kinel Owen 
to Bryan, the son of O'Neill, and they themselves 
took the hostages of the north of Ireland. 

The Cloicteach of Eanach Duin,' was erected. 

Cathal Mac Riabhaigh, chief of Scedne,* died. 



A. D. 1238. 

1. Cliiain Coirpthe, OT Cnir/^f/fe, was a place in Kinel Dobhtha, 
a district wliicli lay alons the Shannon, in the present barony of 
Ballintobber, county of Uoscoinmoii. A church was founded here 
by the abbot, St. Berach, in tlie sixth century. 

2. Muinter Miireliad/ia, in Conmaicne Cuile, now the barony 
of Kihnain, county of Mayo. Ceara, now the barony of Carra, 
county of Mayo. 

a. manach Duiii, and Cloicteach. Eanach Dtiin, nov the 
parish of Aniiadown, in the county of Galway, an ancient bishop's 
see. Cloicteach is derived by some from Cloeh, a stene, and 
teach, a building or house ; by others from Clog, a bell, and teach, 
a house, and is therefore supposed by some to si<jnify a belfry, 
while others have translated it a round-tower. O'Reiliy gives the 
word C/o;(7f/(mc/(, a steeple or belfry; O'Brien gives Clogas, as 
a belfry or steeple. 



A.D. 1239. 

Murtogh, the son of Donal O'Brien, died. 

The battle of Carn Siadhail' was fought by 
Donal Mac Loughlin, in which the following chiefs 
were slain, namely, Donal Tamhnaighe O'Neill, 
Mac Mahon, Sorly O'Gormly, Caoch Bearnais 
O'Gonnly, and the chiefs of Kinel Moain, with 
many others ; and Donal Mac LoughUn re-assumed 
the lordship, but was deprived of it, soon after the 
battle. 

Torlogh, son of Roderick O'Conor, King of 
Connaught, died. 

Fergal, son of Cuchonacht O'Reilly, lord of 
Dartry,^ of Clan Firmaighe, and, according to 
some books, of Brefney, from the mountain east- 
ward, was slain by Muh-oony, son of Fergal, and 
Conor, son of Cormac, while attacking the sons of 
NiaU, son of Congalagh, after having plundered 
them and stormed their house ; and Mmiogh, the 
son of Niall, surrended, on his word of honom*, 
but he was seized, and immediately slain, after the 
son of O'Reilly had been killed. 

The Enghsh of Ireland committed depredations 
on O'DoneU, and plundered Carbuiy, (in Sligo) ; 
and the lord justice himself was at Bally sadare, 
du-ecting their movements, and his scouts went to 
Drumchff. 

Lasarina, daughter of Cathal CrovdeargO'Conor, 
and wife of O'Donnell, gave half a townland of 
her marriage dowry, \iz., Rosbirn, to Clarus Mac 
Maolin, and to the confraternity of the canons of 
Trinity Island, on Lough Key, in honour of the 
Trinity, and of the Vu-gin Marj'. 

Cormac, the son of Art O'Melaghlin, died. 



A.D. 1240. 
A monastery was erected in Waterford, by sir 



4. Sceclne was a district in Moylurg, the present barony of 
Boyle, county of Roscommon. Tlie name Mac Ria1)haigh has 
been made by some Mac Reavy, by others Mac Colreavy, and an- 
glicised by others into Gray. 

A.D. 1239. 

1. Carn, Siadhail, supposed to be Carnteel, a parish in the 
barony of Dungannon, county of Tyrone. Caoch Searnais 
O'Gorinlcy, that is, the blind O'Goruiley of Bearnais, or Barnes- 
more, in tlie county of Donegal. 

2. Dartry, now the barony of Rosclogher, county of Leitrim ; 
and Clan Firmaighe was another place adjoining it, of which 
places it appears O'Reilly became chief at this time, though it was 
part of O'Rourke's country. The other chiefs here mentioned 
were also of the O'Reilly clan. 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



61 



Hugo Pursel, for the brothers of the order of St. 
Francis. 

Giolla-na-necv O'Dreain, archdeacon of Ai'd- 
carne, died. 

Cuchouaght O'Reilly marched with a great force 
against Cormac Mac Dermoft ; he plundered the 
entire countiy, as far as Ardcarne, and slew many 
persons, in revenge for his son's death ; he deposed 
Cormac, son of Tomaltagh ; and Donogh, son of 
Murtogh, assumed the lordship of Moylurg. 

Fehm O'Conor went to England, to the king, 
to lodge complaints against both English and Irish, 
and having received great honours from the king, 
he returned home safe. 

Hugh, son of GioUa-na-neev Crum O'Shaugh- 
nessey, was slain by Conor, son of Hugh, son of 
Cathal Crovdearg, and by Fiachra O'Flynn. 

Sadhbh' (Sabina), daughter of O'Kennedy, the 
wife of Donogh Cairbreach O'Brien, died. 

The monasteiy of Tighe Molaga,^ in Carberry, in 
Munster, in the diocese of Ross, was founded for 
brothers of the order of St. Francis, by Mac 
Carthy Riabhach, lord of Carberry, and his own 
tomb was constructed in the choir (or chancel). 
The Barry Moi'es, the O'Mahonnys of Carberry, 
and the bai-ons de Courcy, are also interred 
there. 



A.D. 1241. 

Murtogh O'Flaherty, bishop of Eanagh Dime, 
died. 

The chm-ch of the friars minors (Franciscans), 
at Athlone, was consecrated by the successor of St. 
Patrick. 

Donal More, the son of Egnaghan O'Donnell, 
lord of Tirconnell, Fennanagh, and North 
Connaught, as far as the Curlew mountains, and 
of OrgiaU, from the Clar' northwards, died in a 
monastic habit, having gained the palm of victoiy 
over the world and the de\il, and was interred. 



A. D. 1240. 

1. SndJtb?i signifies goodness, and was a frequent name of women 
among- the Irish. It has been made mto Sahina. 

2. Tiflh MoJugn, sisnifyint^ the house of St. Molasa, now the 
parish of Timolcasue, partly in the baronies of Barryroe and 
Carberry, county of Corli. 

A.D. 1241. 

1. Clar signifies a plain, and therefore this passage appears to 
mean that liis power extended over Orgiall, from the plaiu of 
Louth, northwards, including Monaghan. 



with great honours and solemnity, in the monastery 
of Eas Roe (Ballyshannon), in the harvest of this 
year. 

Malachy O'Donnell was appointed lord of Tir- 
connell in his father's place. O'Neill (i.e. Bryan), 
after having been expelled by Donal Mac Lough- 
lin, came to O'Donnell, who, wth his forces, ac- 
companied O'Neill to Tyrone, and they fought 
\vith Mac Loua-hlin the battle of Caimeirse,^ in 
\\"hich were slain Donal O'Loughlin, lord of Kinel 
Owen, and nine of his kinsmen, together with all 
the chiefs of Kinel Owen ; and Bryan was then ap- 
pointed lord of Kinel Owen. 

Dermod, son of Manus, son of Torlogh More 
O'Conor, a man eminent for hospitality and gene- 
rosity, died. 

Sitrick Mac Oiraghty, cliief of Clan Tomalty, 
died. 

Walter de Lacy, lord of the English of Meath, 
and chief counsellor of the English of Ireland, 
died in England. 

Teige, son of Roderick O'Gara, died. 

Teige O'Conor plundered Dartry and Clan Fer- 
maighe (in Leitrim). 

The lord justice, Maurice Fitzgerald, ha%'ing 
collected a great army, marched into Moy Aoi (in 
Roscommon), where he plundered Fiachra O'Flj-nn 
and Donogh Mac Dermott. A small party of 
O'Conor's people overtook them, and slew Nar 
Mac GioUa Kelly, and many others. 

Donal Mac Clancy, chief of Dartry (in Leitrim), 
died. 



A.D. 1242. 

Donal Mac Ah-ten died a canon at Kllmore. 

A great chapter was held by the primate of Ar- 
magh, and by the abbots of the canons of Ireland, 
at Lughmadh (Louth), on which occasion were 
exliibited the rehcs which St. Moctheus had 
brought from Rome.' 



2. Cnimeirffe, probably the parish of Cumber, in the barony of 
Tirkeeran, county of Derry ; or the place might be near tlie Cama- 
wen or Cameron river, in the barony of Omagh, county of Tyrone. 

A.D. 1242. 
1. Si. il/oc/(/a, or Mochteus, a disciple of St. Patrick, was the 
founder, and first bishop of the see of Louth. The archbishop of 
Armagh at this time, was Albert of Cologne. 



62 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1243-44. 



Donogh Cairbreagh O'Brien, lord of the Dal- 
cassians, the tower of generosity and excellence of 
the south of Ireland, and his son Torlogh, died. 

Conor O'Brien assumed the sovereignty of 
Thomond. 

Hugh O'Conor, surnamed Athehleirach, the 
son of Hugh, son of Rodej-ick O'Conor, was slain 
by Torlogh, son of Hugh, son of Cathal Crov- 
dearg. 

Bryan Dearg (or the Red), son of Donogh 
O'Dowd, lord of Tireragh, Tyrawlej^, and Erris, 
was slain on his journey to perform a pilgrimage 
at the monastery of Boyle. 

The lord justice, with the English of Ireland, and 
Felim, the son of Cathal Cro\dearg, marched with 
a powerful force into Tirconnell, in pursuit of Teige 
O'Conor, who had fled thither ; they encamped at 
DiTjim Tuama (Drumhome), and committed great 
ravages on that expedition, although Teige was 
given up to them. 

Teige O'Conor was afterwards taken prisoner by 
Cuchonaght O'Reilly, at the instigation of Fehm, 
son of Cathal Crovdeai'ff. 



A.D. 1243. 

Petrus Macraith, after spending his Ufe with the 
canons of Trinity Island, Lough Key, died, and 
was buried on St. Martin's day. 

Finachta O'Lughadha, the coarb of St. Benen,' 
died. 

Maoleoin O'Crechain, archdeacon of Tuam, after 
his return fi'om beyond the seas as a professor, 
died in Dublin. 

Cathasach O'Snedhiusa, dean of Muinter Maol- 
roony (Moylurg, in Roscommon), died at Ardcarne 
on the 10th of August. 

Teige, son of Hugh, son of Cathal Crovdearg, 
was set at liberty by O'Reilly, who came 'along 
with him to the monastery of Boyle with his forces, 
and having proceeded to the house of Mac Der- 
mott, that is, Connac, the son of Tomaltach, he 



A.D. 1243. 

1. Coarb of St. Bmen; that is, successor of St. Benen, or 
Benignus, who was archbishop of Armagh, and a disciple of 
St. Patrick, but had been prerioiisly placed by him over the church 
of Drumlias, now the parish of Drumlease, county of Leitrim, and 
diocese of Kilinore. 

2. Mot/rein, sometimes called Conmaicne Moyrein, was a terri- 
tory in the south of Leitrim, witli some adjoining parts of Lonsford, 



took himself and his wife prisoners (namely Etaoin, 
the daughter of Fingin, who was also Teige's own 
mother), and gave her to Cuchonaght O'Reilly, 
which he did in reward of his own liberation. 

Teige O'Conor went again, with a small party, 
to attend a meeting ajipointed by O'Reilly, who 
treacherously took Teige prisoner, slew his people, 
and kept himself in confinement until the following 
feast of St. Bearrach. 

The king of England having collected a great 
aiTny to oppose the king of France, sent messen- 
gers commanding the attendance of the English of 
Ireland to his aid. Richard Mac Wilham Burke 
was among those who went, and he died abroad 
with the same army. 

Cathal, son of Hugh O'Conor, the ward of 
Muinter Reilly, having turned against them, and 
plundered Murtogh Mac Suihgh, in Moy Nisse 
(in Leitrim), took Murtogh himself prisoner, and 
slew him at Kilseisin. He immediately after plrni- 
dered Clan Firmaighe and Dartry. 

Moyrein^ was plundered by Cathal O'Conor, 
and a war ensued between O'Conor and O'Reilly. 



A.D. 1244. 

Donagh, son of Fingin, son of Malachy, son of 
Hugh, son of Torlogh O'Conor, bishop of Elphin, 
died on the 23rd of April, on Inis Clothran, and 
was interred in the monastery of Boyle. 

The archdeacon of Tuam was drowned in Glas 
Linn of Cluan'. 

Donogh More O'Daly^, a learned man, and pre- 
eminent in poetiy, died, and was buried in the 
monasteiy of Boyle. 

Teige, son of Hugh, son of Cathal Crovdearg, 
had his eyes put out, and was hanged by Cucho- 
naght O'Reilty, on the feast of St. Bearraidh, on 
Inis-na-conake, in Lough Allen, (in Leitrim), after 
having been in confinement from the feast of 
St. Martin to that time. 

Roderick, son of Hugh, Iris brother, was drowned 



and by some identified with Sluintir Eoluis, or Mac Rannalls's 
country. 

A.D. 1244. 

1. Glas Linn of Chum ; or the grey pool of Cluan ; supposed to 
be Cluainfois, near Tuam, where there was an abbey and celebrated 
school in the sixth century. 

2. DonayhMore O'Xiff?)/, according to O'Reilly, in his Account 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



63 



on the Cuii-in Conachtach, at Athleague of the 
Shannon (Lanesborough), on the 9th day of March, 
and was interred in the monastery of Chian Tuais- 
ceart, (Clontuskeil), with solemnity and honour. 

Conor, son of Hugh, son of Cathal Crovdearg, 
died within a month of spring. 

Fehm, son of Cathal Crovdearg, marched with 
his forces eastward into Brefney, against O'RciUy, 
to be revenged for his ward and kinsman Tcige 
O'Conor ; they remained a night encamped at 
Fiodhnach, of Moy Rein.^ The abbot was not at 
home on that night, and the church of Fiodhnach 
being unroofed, a party of the soldiers bm-ned the 
tents and huts which were erected in the inside, 
without the permission of their leaders, and the 
alumnus of the abbot was smothered. The abbot 
himself came the following day, very much in- 
censed and enraged at the death of his alumnus, 
and demanded his Eraic* from O'Conor, who an- 
swered, that he would grant him his own de- 
mand. " My demand," said the abbot, is, " that 
the best man among you be given up as an Eraic 
for my alumnus." " That person," said O'Conor, 



' is Manus, son of Murtogh Muimnagh.- 



■I 



not indeed," replied Manus, "but the chief com- 
mander is." " I shall not part with you," said the 
abbot, " until I obtain my Eraic." The party after 
that, marched out of the town, and the abbot hav- 
ing followed them, they proceeded to Ath-na-Cuire, 
on the river Geircthigh, but the flood so overflowed 
its banks, that they could not cross it; and in order 
to pass over, they broke up the chapel house of 
St. John the Baptist, which was adjacent to the 
ford, and placed the timber across the river. 
Manus, son of Murtogh Muimnagh, went into the 
house, accompanied by Conor, son of Cormac Mac 
Dermott, and while i\Ianus was giving directions 
to the man that was on the top of the house, 
stripping the roof, he pointed up his sword and said 
" There is the nail which prevents the beam from 
falling" ; and on saying so, the top rafter of the 
house fell on his head, which it smashed, and killed 
him on the spot. He was buried on the outside of 
the door of the church of Fiodhnach, and three times 
the full of the kings' bell of money were given 



of Irish Writers, was abbot of Boyle, and a famous poet, who, 
from the sweetness of bis verses, was called the Ovid of Ireland. 

3. Fiodhnach of Moyrein, was the celebrated abbey of Fenagh, 
in Leitrim. 



as an offering for his soul, and also thirty steeds ; 
so it was thus that the coarb of St. Caillin obtain- 
ed an Eraic for his alumnus. A monument of cut 
stone, and a handsome carved cross, were raised 
over the body of Manus, but after some time 
they were broken by the people of O'Rourke. 

Cormac, son of Tomaltagh, son of Conor Mac 
Dermott, lord of the entire of Clan Maolroony, 
died in the habit of a grey friar, in the monastery 
of Boyle, in harvest, ha\ing gained the victory 
over the world and the devil, and ha\'ing been 
twenty-six years in the lordship. 

Fergal Mac Tagadain was slain by Conor Mac 
Tighernain, on Inis Fraoich, in Lough Gill (coun- 
ty of Sligo). 



A.D. 1245. 

Donal O'Flanagan, abbot of Cong, died. 

Conor Roe, son of Murtogh Muimnagh, son of 
Torlogh O'Conor, w'as wounded with a dagger by 
O'Timmaith, his own steward, which hajjpened 
in consequence of a dispute arising between them 
at Port-na-Leige ; but the steward was slain by 
Gillcreest, son of Ivar O'Beirne, and Conor Roe 
was conveyed to the monastery of Boyle, where he 
died of the wound, and was inten-ed there, after 
the benefit of extreme unction and repentance. 

The castle of Sligo was erected by Mac Maurice 
Fitzgerald, lord justice, and by the Siol Murray ; 
for Felim (O'Conor), was commanded to build it 
at his own expense, and to draw to it stones and 
lime, together with the materials of the hospital- 
house of the Trinity, after the same place had been 
given by the lord justice to Clarus Mac Maoilin, 
honour of the Holy Trinity. 

The king of England marched with a great army 
into Wales, and encamped at the castle of Gannoc, 
where he summoned to his aid the lord justice, 
with the English of Ireland, and Fehm, son of 
Cathal Crovdearg, with theu- forces. When they 
went thither, Wales was devastated by them, but 
however, they took no hostages on that expedition. 
Felim O'Conor and his forces were highly 
honoured by the king. 



4. Eraic or Eric, was the term applied to a fine or compensa- 
tion either in vahie or person, as a reparation for crimes and 
injuries, according to the laws and customs of the ancient Irish. 



64 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1246-4* 



The castle of Ath-an-chip, on the borders of 
Moy Nisse,' was erected by Miles Mac Costello. 

Fiachra, the son of Da\ad O'Flynn, chief of Siol 
Maolroony, (in Roscommon), died. 

Carroll Buidhe, son of Teige, son of Aongus 
Findabragh O'Daly, died. 

The castle of Siiicin was erected. 

Rannall O'Mulloy vras slain by the Conacians. 

Murtogh, son of Maiu'ice, son of Cathal Mac 
Dermott, was slain by the men of Brefney. 

O'Donnell (Malachy), marched with a force 
against the English and Irish of North Connaught, 
and they carried away much cattle and pro- 
perty on that expedition. 



A.D. 1246. 

John O'Hugroin, the son of the coarb of St. 
Mochua, bishop of Elphin, died at Rath Aodha Mic 
Brie' 

John Mac Geoffrey^ having come to Ireland as 
lord justice, Maurice Fitzgerald was removed. 

Druim Leathan' was burned this year. 

Malachy, son of Conor Roe, son of Murtogh 
Muimnagh O'Conor, was slain by Murtogh 
O'Dowd, for which, Murtogh was banished across 
the seas. 

Maurice Fitzgerald marched with a force into 
Tirconnell ; he gave the half of TirconneU to Cor- 
mac, son of Dermod, son of Roderick O'Conor ; 
took hostages from O'Donnell for the other half, 
and Jeft them in the castle of Sligo. 

O'Donnell, (Malachy), and the chiefs of Kinel 
Conn ell, came on the first of November to Sligo, 
andburned the outworks of the town,but could not, 
however, take the castle; and the garrison hanged 
their hostages in their sight, having suspended 
them from the top of the castle, namely O'Mianain, 
the tutor of O'Donnell, and his foster brother. 



A.D. 1245. 
1. Moy Nissi was a district on tlie eastern side of the Shannon, 
in the county of Leitrim, near Carrick-on-Shaunon. 

A.D. 1240. 

1. Until Aodha Mac Brie, now Rathhufch, in the barony of 
Moycashel, comity of Westraeath, where Aodhor Aidus,the son of 
Brec, founded a monastery in the sixtli century. 

2. John Mac Geoff retj ; or, Fifzgeoffrey, was the son of 
Geofii-py deMiirisco, formerly lord justice of Ireland. 

3. Druim Leathan, now Dromlane, in the county of Cavan, 
where a monastery was founded by St. Moep, in the sixth century. 

4. Airthera, signifyhig the eastern districts, now the barony "of 



JMurtogh O'Hanlon, lord of Airther,'' was slain, 
by command of Bryan O'Neill. 

Hugh, son of Hugh O'Conor, was taken prison- 
er, and plundered. 

Torlogh, son of Hugh O'Conor, made his escape 
from the Cranog' of Lough Leisi, in har\'est, and 
drowned those who guarded him, namely, Cormac 
O'Murray, and the two O'Ainmiraghs. 

Torlogh was again taken prisoner, from the pro- 
tection of the bishop of Clonfert, and, having been 
deUvered into the hands of the English, he was 
confined in the castle of Athlone. 

Albert Almaineach,'' Archbishop of Armagh, 
retired to Hungary. 



A.D. 1247. 

Conor O'Murray, bishop of Fiachra Aidhne 
(Kilmacduagh), died in Bristuma. 

Hugh Mac Conchailleadh, abbot of Cluan Eois 
(Clones), died. 

Malachy O'Donnell, lord of Tirconnell, Kinel 
Moain, Inisowen, and Fermanagh, was slain by 
Maurice Fitzgerald. This happened in the follow- 
ing manner : Maurice Fitzgerald and the English 
collected a great force, and, ha\ing first marched 
to Sligo, they ^^roceeded thence to Eas Aodha 
Ruaidh Mic Baduirn.' Conor, son of Dermod, 
son of Roderick O'Conor, joined them, on the 
Wednesday after the feast of SS. Peter and Paul. 
O'Donnell collected the forces of Tirconnell and 
Tyrone to oppose them, and prevent either the 
English or Irish from crossing Ath Seanaigh 
(BaUyshannon), for an entire week, upon M'hich 
they determined to send Cormac O'Conor, with a 
large body of cavaby, through the plain, westward, 
and then to advance high up, and along the bog, 
eastward, which they did unperceived, until they 
arrived atBel-atha-chul-uain(Belleek),on thcEme. 



Orior, In Armagh, of which the O'Hanlons were chiefs, as given 
in the note on Orfjiall. 

5. Cranog sifrnified a fortified place on a lake. 

6. Albert Almaineach, that is Albert the German, namely, 
Albert of Cologne, archbishop of Armagh. 

A.D. 1247. 
1. Eas Aodha Ruaidh Mac Baduirn, that is, the cataract of 
Red Hugli, son of Badurn. This is the waterfall called the Salmon- 
leap, at BaUyshannon, where Aodh Ruadh,or Red Hugh, monarch 
of Ireland, the son of Badurn, was drowned, about five centuries 
before the Christian era, which circmnstance gave that name to 
the place. 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



65 



The men of Tireoniiell did not know of this 
movement until they saw the cavahy advancing 
at their rere, on the same side of the river, and 
then tm-ned round to meet them ; but when the 
English saw that their attention was drawai towards 
the cavahy, they advanced up the rising ground, 
being well aware that the TirconneUians could not 
attend to the attack of their forces on both sides, 
and, having crossed the ford, (at Ballyshannon), 
the TirconneUians were thus encompassed by them 
on all sides. O'Donnell was slain, and also the 
Cammulnelach (Crooked Necked) O'Boyle, the 
head chief of the three districts, Mac Sorley,^ lord 
of the eastern Irish, and many chiefs of Tirconnell. 
A great many of Fitzgerald's forces were slain and 
drowned there ; others of them were drowned in 
the Finn, northward ; and many more at Termon 
Dabeog (at Lough Derg), in pursuit of plunder, 
and amongst these were WiUiam Brit, sheriff of 
Connaught, and a young knight, his brother. 
The country was then spoiled and plundered by 
the English, and they appointed Roderick O'Can- 
annain to the government of Tirconnell. 

Eachmarcach O'Kane, lord of Cianacht and of 
the men of Creeve, was slain by Manus O'Kane, 
the former having gone to plunder his country to 
Airther-Maighe (or the Eastern Plain) in Dal 
Riada (Antrim). 

Torlogh, the son of Hugh O'Conor, made his 
escape from Athlone. 

Miles Mac CosteUo made an incursion into the 
. Feadha of Conmaicne, and expelled Cathal Mac 
Rannall ; he also took the Cranog of Claonlough,' 
and left a garrison there of his own men. Cathal 
and Torlogh, the sons of Hugh O'Conor, imited 
with Mac Rannall, to expel Mac Costello from the 
Feadha of Conmaicne, they took the Cranog on the 
lake, demolished the castle of Lecce Derge, on 
the Satm-day of Whitsuntide, and Torlogh went 
to Truiity Island to wait on the ai'chdeacon, Clarus 
Mac Maoilin, because the Enghsh would not 
evacuate the castle, except under the protection of 



A. D. 1247. 

2. Mac Sorley. This was the son of Sorly Mae Donnell, from 
the Hebrides, who had settled in Antrim, with a number of Scots, 
and is here called lord of the eastern Gaels. 

3. Claon Lough, probably Lough Clean, in the barony of Droma- 
hairc, county of Lcitrim. Cranog, as already explained, signifies 



the archdeacon, and to be escorted safely by him 
across the Shannon, westward, to Tuaim Mna.'' 
They afterwards came out with Clarus, and the 
Clan Costello were entirely expelled from that 
country. 

A great war was commenced by Torlogh, son 
of Hugh O'Conor, and by Donogh, the son of 
Anmchadha, son of Donogh O'Gillpatrick, (or 
Mac Gillpatrick), of Ossory, against the English 
of Connaught. Torlogh collected the sons of the 
chiefs of Connaught, and marched to Fidh O'Diar- 
mada (in Roscommon), and to Muinter Fathaidh, 
where they slew many people. They proceeded 
from thence to the castle of Bona Gaillmhe (at 
Galway), and burned the town and the castle. 
Many were killed by them, along with Mac Elget, 
the seneschal of Connaught, who was slain by 
Donogh ]\lac Gillpatrick. After that the English 
pursued them and engaged them in battle, in 
which a great number of the English were slain, 
and the Irish advanced in despite of them to 
Carra. Siurtan Dexetra (or Jordan de Exeter), 
collected the clan Adam and the English of Carra 
against Torlogh, who evacuated that country, as 
he had not equal forces to meet them. 

The borough of Cinntrachta was burned by 
Teige, the son of Conor Roe, and Teige, the son 
of Tuathal, sou of Murtogh Muimnagh, and the 
Enghsh of Connaught did not experience, for a 
long period, so severe a war as that waged against 
them by the heirs presumptive, for they left neither 
district nor tract of the English possessions in 
Connaught without devastation. 

Roscommon and Ardcarne were burned by the 
English. 

Fionnghuala, the daughter of Roderick O'Conor, 
died at Cong of St. Feichin. 

O'Dowd and O'Boyle sailed with a fleet to 
plunder the territory of Carbuiy (in Sligo), and 
the crew of one of the vessels was drowned, along 
with O'Boyle, among the Islands of Tuatha Ross 
(the Rosses in Donegal). 



a fortress on a lake, supposed to have been a wooden fortress. 
Feadha of Conmaicne signified the woody district of Comnaicne, 
part of Mac Hannall's country in Leitrim. 

4. Tuaim. M?ia, now Tumna, m tlie barony of Boyle, county of 
Roscommon. 



66 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1248. 



Teige, the son of Conor Roe, set fire to the 
island of Insi Moire, on Claonlough, and twenty- 
eight of the English were burned to death. 

A monastery was founded in Galway, in the 
arch-diocese of Tuam, by William Burke, lord of 
Clanrickard, for the friars of St. Francis, and 
many tombs were constructed in that monastery 
for the nobility of the town. 

The monastery of Ennis, in Thomond, in the 
diocese of Killaloe, was erected by O'Brien, in 
which is the burying place of the O'Briens. 

Maurice Fitzgerald, and the English, marched 
with a great force to Eas Roe (Ballyshannon), at 
the invitation of Geoffry O'Donnell. Roderick 
O'Canannain opposed them, but he was not suf- 
ficiently supported by the people of Tirconnell. 



A.D. 1248. 

Dermod O'Cuana, the chief priest of Elphin, 
died, and was interred in Kilmore. 

Master Gilbert O'Carroll died. 

O'Fichin Guer was slain by Giolla-Mochoinne 
O'Cahall. 

An insurrection was raised by the son of Manus, 
and by the son of Conor Roe (O'Conor) against 
the English ; and they burned the castle of Mac 
Henry, that is, of Pierce Poer, took his constable 
prisoner, and carried away the spoils of North 
Umaill to Insi Modh.' Jordan de Exeter, John 
Butler, Roblein Laigles (Lawless), andmany others, 
collected their forces, and marched to the town of 
Tubberjjatrick, and from thence to Aghagower, 
and plundered Umaill north and south on the 
following day. Heniy Poer came with a great 
force into Umaill, his own country, for it was 
there that his residence was. Pierce Poer son of 
Henry, made peace with Donal, son of Manus ; 
and Donal promised to supply him with men and 
vessels to oppose his kinsmen. The sons of 
O'Conor, who were on the isles of Modh, received 
intelligence that the son of Henry had sent for 
his forces and vessels to Donal ; and O'Conor's 
sons being assured of this, they proceeded to attack 



A.D. 1248. 
1 . Islands of Modh, called Insi Modh, the rame of the islands 
in Clew Bay, county of Mayo. Umalia, where these events hap- 
pened, was the ancient territory of the O'Malleys, now the baronies 
of Murrisk and Burrishoole, in the county of Mayo. 



them, and slew O'Huain, the son of the Galsighe 
(or English hag), and John, the son of the English 
priest. Dermod the son of Manus also slew, in 
that insurrection, Senaitt Guer and a number of his 
people, but the xdctoiy was without joy, for the 
valiant hero and experienced warrior, Dermod, 
son of Manus, was himself slain. 

Teige, son of Conor Roe, (O'Conor), was slain 
by the English. He was the terror of all the 
English and Irish who opposed him. 

Maurice Fitzgerald led his forces into Tirconnell, 
which he plundered and devastated. He banished 
Roderick O'Canannain into Tyrone, and left the 
government of Tirconnell in the hands of Geoffrey, 
son of Donal O'Donnell. 

The men of Tyi'one and O'Canannain collected 
a force, marched into Tirconnell, and gave battle 
to Geoffi-ey O'Donnell; but Roderick O'Canan- 
nain and many others were slain in the engage- 
ment. 

The lord justice of Ireland marched with another 
army into Tyrone against O'Neill. The people 
of Tyrone came to the resolution of making peace 
and giving hostages, in consequence of the su- 
periority in forces of the English over the Irish. 
On that expedition the English built the bridge 
of the Bann, and the castle of Drom Tairsigh. 

Bryan O'Neill, lord of Tyrone, conveyed boats 
from Lough Foyle in Moy Ith, across Termon 
Dabeog (at Lough Derg), until he came to Lough 
Erne, where he committed great depredations, and 
demoHshed a castle. 

The entire of Conmaicne Mara (Connemara),was 
plundered by the Enghsh ; they marched their 
forces against O'Flaherty, who defeated and slew 
many of them. 

Murtogh O'Dowd, that is the aithcleireach, 
lord of all the country from Kildarbile'- to the 
strand, was slain by Felim O'Conor. 

WiUiam Burke having died in England, his re- 
mains were conveyed to Ireland, and buried at 
Athiseal (Athassel Abbey, in Tipperary). 

The King of France went to Jerusalem on a 
crusade. 



2. Killdarbile, now Termon Dervilla, in the barony of Erris, 
county of Mayo. The strand here mentioned is Traigh Eothuile, 
or the strand of Eohuil, near Ballysadare, in the county of Sligo. 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



67 



John TjTrel was slain by Giolla-na-neev O'Ferrall. 

Felim, son of Cathal Crovdearg, gave Rath-na- 
Romanagh to the canons of Kilmore/ at the re- 
quest of Teige O'Mannachain, in honour of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, and of St. Augustine. 

Awlave, son of Cathal Riavagh O'Rourke, was 
slain by Con CaiTach Mac Donogh. 

Fogartach O'Dobhailen (or O'Devlin), lord of 
Coran (county of Shgo), died. 

Raighncd (Reiner), archbishop of Armagh, came 
from Rome after receiving the PaUium, in which 
he celebrated Mass at Armagh, on the festival of 
SS. Peter and Paul. 



A.D. 1249. 

Maolniuire O'Laghnan, archbishop of Tuam, 
and master of the canons, died in winter, shortly 
after Christmas. 

Andrew Mac GiUa Ger, coarb of St. Feichin,' 
died. 

Maolciaran O'Lenaghan, a dignified priest of 
Tumna, (in Roscommon), a man who kept a house 
of hospitality for the clergy and laity, died on his 
way to Ardcame, to attend a sermon there, on the 
Friday before Lammas, and was buried with 
honour and solemnity on Trinitj^ Island in Lough 
Key. 

Con O'Flanagan, prior of Kilmore of the Shan- 
non, died. 

More, daughter of Donogh O'Dowd, and wife 
of the GioUa Muinelach O'Boyle, died. 

Teige O'Monaghan, lord of Hy Briuin of the 
Shannon, died on the 6th day of June, and was 
inteiTcd in Kilmore of the Shaimon. 

Fingin Mac Carthy waged war, and inflicted 
many e^■ils on the English of Desmond. 

Pierce Poer, son of Henrj', Da\'id Drew, and 
many other young EngUshmen, proceeded with 
Mac Feorais (Bermmgham), through Connaught, 
to the castle of Shgo. The son of Fehm O'Conor 
went to oppose them, and a fierce engagement 
ensued between them, in which Pierce Poer, David 
Drew, and many others of the English, were slain; 
and their bodies were conveyed for burial to Bally- 



3. Kilmore, a parish in tlie barony of Ballintobber, county of 
Roscommon, where there was an abbey of canons regular. 



sadare. After this the son of Fehm (O'Conor)^ 
proceeded to Tyreragh, and through the territory 
of BeiTningham, which he completely plundered 
from the Moy to the Strand of Eothuile the car- 
penter (neai- Ballysadare). Geroit Bei-mingham 
piu-sued them (liis forces), and overtook Donogh, 
the son of Manus, and wounded him, and Donogh, 
after receiving the wound, was taken prisoner, and 
conveyed to Dun Contreathain (near Dromore 
West). The son of Fehm followed them, (Geroit's 
forces), and, after having slain Geroit, he released 
the son of Manus, whom he took with him, but 
who, however, shortly afterwards died of his 
wounds, and was much lamented. 

Mac Maurice, having collected his forces, 
entered Connaught, and took from Fehm all the 
plunder he could. Felim, son of Cathal Crov- 
dearg, received inteUigence that the English were 
in his neighbourhood ; and, as he had done them 
several injuries, he sent all his moveable property 
across the Shannon eastward into Brefney, and the 
north of Ireland. The lord justice collected the 
Enghsh of Meath and Leinster, and marched with 
a great force to Athlone, and from thence into Siol 
Mun-aj'^, (Roscommon), while Mac Maurice with 
the Enghsh of Connaught and Munster marched 
on the other side until both armies met at Elphin. 
After having plundered Siol MuiTay in every 
direction, they summoned to them Torlogh, son of 
Hugh, son of Cathal Crovdearg, and appointed 
him king in place of Fehm, son of Cathal. After 
this they plundered the territory of Brefiiey, com- 
mitted many e%als in eveiy quarter of it, and 
earned away therefrom immense booty. They 
were twenty days in Siol Mun-ay, ravaging it, and 
they plundered Lough Key, ^rith its islands, and 
also the Rock. After this the lord justice pro- 
ceeded to Meath, while Mac Maurice went to 
Sligo; and they left Torlogh to govern Siol 
Mun-ay. The presumptive heirs of the crown of 
Connaught, Torlogh and Hugh, sons of Hugh, 
son of Cathal Crovdearg, marched with an army 
to Ath-na-riogh (xUhenry), which they burned and 
plundered about Lady Day in Hai-vest. The 
sheriif of Connaught was before them in the towTi, 
and many of the EngUsh along with him, and they 



A.D. 1249. 
I . The Coarb of St. Feichin was either abbot of Cong, in Mayo, 
or of Fore, in Westmeath. 

K 2 



68 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1250. 



demanded a truce on that day from the sons of 
the king of Connaught, in honour of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, as that was her festival day; but 
this favour was not granted them, for although 
Torlogh endeavoured to prevent his people from 
attacking the town, the chiefs of the army attacked 
it, in despite of him. AVhen Jordan and the 
English saw their intention, they marched out of 
the town, armed and clad in armour, to oppose 
them ; and the young soldiers of the Irish per- 
ceiving the English advancing in battle array, 
they became dismayed, and fled, through the 
miracles of the Virgin Mary, for having refused to 
grant the demanded truce in honour of her fes- 
tival. Of their chiefs the following were slain : — 
namely, Hugh, son of Hugh O'Conor ; Dermod 
Roe, son of Comiac O'Melaghlin ; the two sons 
of O'Kelly; Bryan-an-Doire (of the Oak Wood), 
son of Manus ; Carraidh-an-Siubhail (the Travel- 
ler), son of Niall O'Conor ; Baothghalach (Boe- 
tius) Mac Egan ; the two sons of Loghlin 
O'Conor ; Donal, son of Cormac Mac Dennott ; 
the Fionnanacli Mac Brenan ; Cu-niumhan Mac 
Cassarly, and many others. 

Donogh O'Gillpatrick (or Mac Gillpatrick), 
that is, the son of Anmchadh, son of Donogh of 
the Ossorians, was slain by the English, in retalia- 
tion for the burnings, plunders, and slaughters he 
had peiijetratod on them. This Donogh was one 
of the three Irishmen who committed the greatest 
number of depredations on the English ; and these 
three were Conor O'MelaghUn, Conor Mac 
Coghlan of the Castles, and the before-mentioned 
Donogh, who was in the habit of reconnoitering the 
market towns (of the English), by visiting them in 
the ditferent charactei's of a beggar, a carpenter, a 
turner, an artist, or a pedlar, as recorded in the 
following verse : 

" He is now a carpenter, or turner, 

Now a man of books or learned poet, 
In ffood wines and hides, a dealer sometimes ; 
Every thin<; by turns as suits his purpose." 

Dunmore'- was burned by the sons of the kmg 
of Connaught. 

O'Donnell [i. e. Geoffi-ey), having led his forces 
into North Connaught, plundered and devastated 
the country from the Curlew mountains to the 

2. Dunmore, in the county of Galway, where the de Berming- 
bams, barons of Athenry, had a castle. 



river Moy, and returned safe and triumphant, 
with much booty and many hostages. 



A.D. 1250. 

Thomas O'Meallaidh, bishop of Enagh Dune, 
died. 

The bishop of Imleach lubhair (Emly), died. 

Congalach Mac Cidneoil, bishop of Brefney 
(Kdmore), died. 

Torlogh, son of Murtogh Muinagh O'Conor, 
prior of the church of SS. Peter and Paul, died. 

Fclim O'Conor set out from the north, with a 
great force from Tyrone, and marched into Bref- 
nej', and from thence into the Tuatha (in Ros- 
common), accompanied by Conor Mac Tiarnan 
(O'Rourke). Both then entered Tir Maine, and 
drove Torlogh O'Conor out of Connaught, who 
again sought the ])rotection of the English. Felim 
collected all the moveable property of Connaught, 
which he conveyed northward across the Curlew 
mountains, but the English sent messengers after 
him, and peace being made between them, he was 
restored to his sovereignty. 

The English put out the eyes of the hostages 
of Connaught in Athlone. 

Felim (O'Conor) committed great depredations 
on Cathal O'Conor, and drove him a second time 
out of Connaught. 

Cairbre O'Melaghlin was treacherously slain by 
David Roche. 

Dermod O'Hara, lord of Lieney, died while 
imprisoned by Fitzgerald. 

Maurice Fitzgerald, Cathal O'Reilly, Cuchon- 
acht O'Reill}', and all the chiefs of Hy Briuin 
(Cavan and Leitrim), marched with a great force 
into Tyrone, and remained three nights at Tul- 
laghoge, where they met much loss and opposition ; 
and they did not succeed in taking hostages from 
the O'Neills on that expedition. On their return 
they entered Tirconnell ; and Maurice Fitzgerald 
made a prisoner of O'Canannain, lord of Tirconnell, 
who was under the protection of the bishop 
O'Carolan,' and they slew O'Canannain while en- 
deavouring to escape. 

Fingin Mac Carthy was slain by the English of 
Desmond. 

A.D. 1250. 
1. The bishop O'Carolan vrsts Florence O'Carolan, the bishop 
of Derry. 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



(J9 



A. D. 




1251. 

AIGHNED (Reiner), 

archbishop of Amiagh, 

went on a pilgrimage to 

Rome. 

Florent Mac Floinn (or 
Fhmn), was, on Christ- 
mas day, appointed arch- 
bishop of Tuam, on ac- 
count of hisgreatlearning 
and ^Aasdom. 

A monaster)- was erec- 
ted at Kilnamidlagh,' in 
the diocese of Cork, by the Bany ; and it was after- 
wards selected as the burying place of the Barrys. 
GioUa Mocoinne, son of Giolla Mocoinne O'Ca- 
hal, was slain by Conor, son of Hugh, son of Cathal 
Crovdearg. 

Teige, son of Tuathal, son of Murtogh Muinagh 
O'Conor, was slain by the EngUsh. 

The two sons of Rory O'Neill were slain in Kil- 
more of Hy Niallain.- 

Ardgal O'FIaherty, the torch of bravery and 
hospitaUty of the north of Ireland, died. 

Gillcreest O'Breislen, chief of Fanad (in Done- 
gal), and his brother, were slain by Ceallach 
Balbh (the Stammerer) O'Boyle. 

Donogh Mac Catlimoil, chief of Kinel Ferc- 
daigh (in T}Tone),was slain by the people of Orgiall. 
lovar Mac Madden, chief of Clan Ruadrach, 
was slain. 

Conor, son of Cormac, son of Tomaltagh Mac 
Dermott, a man eminent for hospitality and gene- 
rosity, died. 

Flaherty O'CarroU, chief of Calry,' was slain 

by Art, son of Art O'Rourke. 

Muiredhach O'Teige died. 

A great shower of rain fell in Hy Briuin, on the 

festival of S S. Peter and Paul, so that boats floated 

round the town of Kilmore of the Shannon, and a 



A.D. 1251. 

1. KilnnmuUiich was the ancient name of Buttevant, in the 
county ot'Corli, where a great Franciscan monastery was founded 
by the Barrys, barons of Barrymore. 

2. Kilmore in Hi) Xinllain, now the parish of Kilmore, in the 
barony of O'Neilland, county of Armagh. 

3. Calruigh or Calrigia, sometimes called Calraigh of Drum- 
cliff, an ancient district on the borders of Leitrira and Sligo, 
part of which is now known as the parish of Calry, county of 
Sligo. 



mill might grind with the stream which flowed 
from the rising grounds to Ath-na-faithche, in 
Fenagh, during the time that the vespers were 
chaunted. 

Flan O'Loughnan, chief of the Two Backs (in 
county of Mayo), died. 



A.D. 1252. 

Maol Maodhog O'Beollain, coarb of Columkille 
at DrumclitT(in Sligo), a man of great dignity and 
affluence, distinguished for liis hospitalitj', and 
who had received the greatest honour and respect, 
both from the English and Irish in his time, died. 

The castles of Caol Uisce,' and Moy Coba, 
were erected by the son of Maurice Fitzgerald. 

Conor O'Dogherty, chief of Ardmiodhair (in 
Donegal), the tower of hospitality and bravery of 
the North, died. 

Conor Mac Cathmoil, chief of Kinel Feredaidh, 
and of many other districts, the peace-maker of 
Tirconnell, Tp-one, and Oriell, was slain by the 
people of Bryan O'Neill, \\hi\e defending his 
wards against them, he being the surety for 
O'Gormley and O'Kane. 

Cuchonacht Mac Consnamha, chief of Muintir 
Kenny ,^ died. 

Giolla losa O'CaiToll, chief of Cahy of Drum- 
cliff, died. 

Manus Mac GilldufF, chief of TeaUach Gau-- 
bheth,' died. 

The lord justice of Ireland marched with a great 
force to Armagh ; from thence he went to Iveagh, 
and he aftenvards returned back toCluainFiachna,'' 
where Bryan O'NeiU submitted to him, and gave 
his brother Rory O'NeiU to him as a hostage. It 
was on this expedition that a dispute arose in the 
camp (of the Enghsh) at Dundalk, between the 
men of Meath and of Munster, in which many of 
the men of Munster were shun. 

Great heat and ckought prevailed this summer. 



A.D. 1252. 

1. CfloJuwje signifies the Narrow Water, and is a name given 
to the Xewrv river ; hence this castle was near Newry. Moycobn 
was the plaiii or district about Downpatrick where the other castle 
was erected. 

2. Muintir Cinaith,a district along Lough .\llen, in the parish of 
Innis Magrath, county of Leitrim, of which Mac Consnamha was 
chief. This name has been anglicised to Ford. 

3. TeaUach Gairbheith was Tullygarvey barony, in the county 
of CaTan. 

4. CluMTi Fiachna, probably Clonfeacle, in the barony of Dun- 
gannon, county of Tyrone. 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1253-54. 



so that the people passed with dry feet over the 
principal rivers of Ireland. The people commenced 
reaping the corn twenty days before Lammas, (1st 
of August), and the trees became ignited by the 
heat of the sun. 

New money was ordered by the king of England 
to be coined in Ireland, and the old money hitherto 
in circulation was discontinued. 

Murogh O'Fallon, high constable of Connaught, 
was slain by the men of Brefney, in Moyrein. 

Geoffi-ey O'Donnell marched with a predatory 
force into Tyrone, and took therefrom much cattle 
and many hostages ; but on his return he was 
overtaken by Bryan O'Neill, and a fierce battle 
ensued, in which the people of TjTone were de- 
feated with great loss, and many of their chiefs 
were slain. 



A. D. 1253. 

Alinn O'Sullivan, bishop of Lismore, died. 

David MackeUy O'Gillpatrick, bishop of Clon- 
macnois, died ; and Thomas O'Q-uinn, a friar 
minor, was consecrated at Rome his successor. 

GillkeUy O'Ruadhain, bishop of Hy Fiachra 
(Kilalla), died. John O'Laidig, a friar of the 
order of St. Dominick, was appointed his succes- 
sor at Kilalla of Hy Fiachra, and was consecrated 
at Tuam, on the second Sunday in Lent. 

A monastery was founded for friars of the order 
of St. Dominick, in Sligo. 

A monastery was founded for the same order of 
friars at Athleathan,' in Lieney. 

A court was built at Kiltesin,^ by Tomaltagh 
O'Conor, bishop of Elphin. 

Owen O'Heyne, lord of Hy Fiachra (in Galway), 
died. 

The daughter of the earl of Ulster, wife of Miles 
Mac Costello, died, and was buried in the monas- 
tery of Boyle. 

The English of Ireland, headed by Mac Maurice 
(Fitzgerald), marched with a great force into 



A.D. 12S3. 

1. Athleathan in Lieney. A Dominican monastery was founded 
liere by the de Exeters or Mac Jordans, lords of Athleathan. 
This place was situated in the present parish of Templemore or 
Strade, in the barony of Gallen, county of Mayo, and was in the 
ancient territory of Lieney, and now the diocese of Achonry. 

2. Kiltesin, probably Kiltrastin, in the connty of Roscommon, 
where the O'Conors had a castle. 



Tyrone to attack O'Neill, but obtained no hos- 
tages, for they were defeated with great slaughter 
on that expedition. 

Bryan O'Neill, prince of TjTone, waged war 
against the English, and, having gone to Moy Coba 
(Downpatrick), demohshed its castle and many 
others, burned Stradbhaile (Dundalk), and cleared 
(from the English) the entire plain of Uhdia. 

Donal O'Reilly, the Caoch O'Reilly [i.e. the 
one-eyed O'Reilly), Cathal O'Conor, and Giolla- 
na-neev O'Ferrall, having collected their forces, 
marched into Muintir Eoluis to attack Cathal 
Mac Rannall, and plundered the entire of the 
country. They encamped for two nights at Tully 
Alain, and the third night at Eanach Dhuibh. 
GioUa-na-neev O'Ferrall separated from them 
there, and the O'Reillys, with Cathal O'Conor, 
proceeded to Cluain Conmaicne,'' where they re- 
mained encamped for a night. When Hugh, son 
of Felim O'Conor, received intelligence of this, he 
quickly collected his forces, and followed them to 
Cluain, where a fierce engagement ensued, in 
which O'Reilly's party were defeated, and Donogh, 
son of GioUa losa, son of Donogh O'Reilly, Mac 
Giolla Toedog O'Biobhsaigh, and many others, 
were slain. 

The monastery of St. Francis in Ardfert, was 
erected by Mac Maurice of Kerry. 



A.D. 1254. 

Maolfinnen O'Beollan, coarb of DrumclifF, 
died. 

MuiTogh O'Melaghlin was slain by the son of 
Sionagh O' Catharnaigh. 

Aindihs O'Heneiy, the tower of generosity of 
the north of Ireland, died. 

Pierce Pramister (Bermingham), lord of Con- 
maicne of Dunmore,' died. 

The monastery of the friars of St. Dominick at 
Athlone, was burned. 

Pierce Ristubard lord of Siol Maolruain (in 



3. Cluain Conmaicne, that is, Cloone, m the barony of Mohill, 
county of Leitrim. Banach Dubh, now the parish of Annaduff, 
barony of Mohill, county of Leitrim. 

A.D. 1254. 
1. Conmaicne of Dunmore, now the barony of Dunmore, 
county of Galway, of which the de Benninghams, barons of 
Athenry, were lords. 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



71 



Roscommon), and a baron, was slain on Lough 
Ree by Murrogh O'Melaghlin. 

Sitrig Mac Seanlaoigh was taken prisoner by 
Felim, son of Cathal Crovdearg O'Conor; and 
the Seanshaileach Mac Seanlaoigh's eyes were 
put out by him for his evil intentions, as he had 
been informed that they had conspired to betray 
him. 

Donogh Mac Donogh, son of Tomaltagh, and 
Awlave O'Biobhsaigh were slain by the Conacians 
at Cluain Conmaicne. 

Manus O'Gara was slain in a quarrel by the 
people of Felim O'Conor. 

The king of France returned from Jerusalem, 
after having estabhshed a peace of three years' 
duration, between the Christians and the Saracens. 

The monastery of Kildare was founded by the 
earl of Kildare ; and the family have a splendid 
tomb there, in the chapel of St. Mary. 



A.D. 1255. 

Dunslevey O'Flynn, abbot of the church of SS. 
Peter and Paul, at Armagh, died; and Patrick 
O'Murray, prior of the same house, was elected to 
the abbacy. 

Thomas Mac Dermott, archdeacon of Elphin, 
died. He was parson of Moylurg, Airteach, and 
Clan CuaLn. 

O'Laidigh, archdeacon of Eanach Dune, died. 

Hugh, son of Felim O'Conor, went into Tyrone, 
and made peace between his father and the people 
of the north of Ireland ; and he brought back 
with him all the Conacians who had been in exile 
there, together with their property, through the 
midst of his inveterate enemies, namely, the sons 
of Roderick O'Conor and the English, who did 
not venture to molest them. 

Mac CarroU assumed the archbishoprick of 
Cashel of Munster. 

Florence Mac Flynn, archbishop of Tuam, 



A.D. 1255. 
1. Tochar Mono Coinneadha signifies the bog pass of the con- 
ference, and obtained its name from the above circumstance, which 
occurred on the borders of Roscommon and Galway, where a 
great battle was fought, as given in the Annals under the year 
1310. 

A.D. 1-256. 
1. i?i4c, who had been dean of St. Martin's in London, was 
then archbishop of Dublin. 



crossed the sea to confer with the kins; of Eno;land ; 
and all the favours that he requested were honour- 
ably granted him by the king ; after which he re- 
turned home. 

Mahon O'Monaghan was slain at Buimlin. 

Dermod O'Quinn, Awlave his son, and the chiefs 
of Muintir Giolgain, were slain at Faradhan of 
Moy Treagh (in Longford), by Giolla-ua-neev 
O'Ferrall, who afterwards plundered their property. 

A great conference was held lietween O'Conor 
(j. e. Felim) and Mac William Burke, at Tochar 
Mona Coinneadha.' A peace was ratified between 
them, and all his rights and possessions were con- 
ceded to Felim. 

Juliana, daughter of the coarb of St. Cailin, (at 
Fenagh), and Giclla-na-neev, her brother, died. 

Ragnailt, daughter of O'Ferrall, died in a bath. 



A.D. 1256. 

Flann (or Florence) Mac Flynn, archbishop of 
Tuam, died in Bristuma (Bristol). 

The archbishop of Dublin' died. 

Giolla Coimdhe O'Cinfaola, abbot of Eanach 
Dune, died. 

O'Giollaraine, abbot of the church of the Trinity 
at Tuam, died. 

A party of O'Reilly's people were slain by 
Hugh, son of Felim (O'Conor), namely, Cathal 
O'Reilly, lord of Muinter Maolmordha and of the 
tribe of Hugh Fionn; his two sons, namely, 
Donal Roe and Niall; his brother Cuchonacht; 
the three sons of Cathal Didjh O'Reilly, namely, 
Geoffry, Fergal, and Donal ; and Annadh, the son 
of Donal O'Reilly, was slain by Conor Mac Tiar- 
nan. Niall Caoch (the One-eyed) O'Reilly ; 
Tiarnan Mac Brady ; Giolla Michil Mac Taichlich 
(Mac Tully) ; Donogh O'Biobhsaigh ; Manus 
Mac GilldufF, and upwards of sixty other chiefs, 
were slain. This was called the Battle of Moy- 
slecht,^ and was fought on the border of 



2. Moyslecht, where this battle was fought, was the ancient 
name of the plain of Fenagh, in the county of Leitrim. Muinter 
Maolmordha was the tribe name of the O'Reillys of Cavan, from 
Maolmordha, one of their ancient chiefs. O'Reilly is mentioned 
here as the chief of the tribe of Hugh Finn, that is of Hugh the 
Fair, an ancient king of Connaught, who was an ancestor of the 
O'Reillys and O'Rourkes, princes of both Brefneys, or Cavan and 
Leitrim. An account of the other chiefs mentioned here, as fight- 
ing under the O'Reillys, is given in the note on Brefney, in this 
Number. 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1257. 



Ath Deirg, at Alt-na-hellte, above Beallach- 
na-Bethaidhe. The O'Reillys also slew many 
of the chiefs opposed to them, among whom were 
Dermod O'Flanagan, Flann Mac Oiraghty, Mur- 
rogh Fionn O'Ferrall, and many others. The 
O'Reillys' Glasslaith (or Green-clad Chiefs), three 
times broke through the foremost ranks of their op- 
ponents, but at length the main body of the hostile 
party overpowered O'Reilly's people at Sailten-na- 
ngasan, and pursued them to Ait-Tighc-]\Ieguirin, 
and from thence to the field of the great battle. 

A lord justice' arrived in Ireland from the king 
of England, and he and Hugh O'Conor had a 
conference at Rinn Duin (in Roscommon), when 
a peace was established between them, on condi- 
tion, that while he was lord justice no ])art of the 
territory or lands of Connaught should be taken 
from O'Conor. 

Roderick O'Gara, lord of Sliabh Lugha (in 
Sligo), was slain by David, son of Ricard Cuisin. 

Hugh, the son of Felim O'Conor, plundered 
the lands of Mac Ricard Cuisin, in revenge for 
the death of O'Gara; he demolished his castle, 
slew all the people that were in it, and took the 
entire islands of Lough Techet (Lough Gara in 
Sligo). 

Ranall Mac Brannan,lordofCorcAchlann,^died. 

Mac William Burke marched with a predatory 
force against Roderick O'Flaherty, and plundered 
Gno More and Gno Beag, and took the entire of 
Lough Oirbsen.'' 

Donogh Mac Senlaich died in the monastery 
of Boyle. 

A great war arose between Hugh O'Conor and 
Con 0'Rourke,that is, the son of Tiarnan, although 
they had long been friends before that time ; 
O'Rourke then joined the English, and made 
peace with them, for himself and for his people, 
wthout the concurrence of Felim, or of his son 
Hugh O'Conor, who plundered O'Rourke's coun- 
try, the Wednesday before Christmas, after which 
they made peace. 



3. T)io lord Justice who came at this time was Geoffrey Alan 
de la Zouch. 

4. Core Aclilann, a district in the barony of Ballintobher, 
county of Roscommon, of which the JNIac Brannans were chiefs. 

5. Loch Oirhsen, tliat is, Loush Corrib, county of Galway. 
Gno More and Gno Beag were two ancient districts west of 
Lough C.irrih, in the harony of lloycuUen, county of Galway, of 
which the Mac Conrys were chiefs. — Ogygia II., p. 31'i. 



Athlone and Dun Doighre'' were burned in one 
day. 

O'Donnell, that is, Geoffrey, led his forces into 
Fermanagh, where he took goods and hostages, 
and proceeding thence into Brefney O'Rourke, 
they submitted to his conditions. 



A.D. 1257. 

Mac Robiss, the abbot of Cluan Eoais (Clones), 
died. 

Mun-ogh, son of Maolbride O'Fairchellaidh, 
coarb of St. Maodhog,' died. 

Maolpatrick Mac Cele, archdeacon of Kilalla, 
was slain. 

Thomas O'Maolkiaran, chief sage of L-eland, 
died. 

The monastery of the Virgin Mai-y at Roscom- 
mon was consecrated by the bishop Tomaltagh 
O'Conor, for the friars of St. Dominick. 

Con, son of Tiarnan O'Rourke, having gone to 
the residence of O'Conor and his sons, to ratify a 
peace with them, he conceded to them their own 
demand on the lands of Brefney, together with 
Cloch Inse-na-d-Torc on Lough Fionnmoighe, 
into which Hugh, the son of Fehm (O'Conor), sent 
a garrison. 

Cathal Cuirrach, son of Hugh, son of Cathal 
Crovdearg (O'Conor), and Hugh, the son of 
Conor, son of Hugh, son of Cathal Crovdearg, had 
their eyes put out, by Hugh, son of Felim, son of 
Cathal Crovdearg, through hatred and rivalship, 
in Adolation of the guarantees of the clergy, and 
compact of the chiefs of Connaught. 

Con, the son of Cathal O'Reilly, chief of Muin- 
tir jMaolmordha, died. 

Cloch Linse-na-d-Torc on Lough Fionnmuighe 
was burned by O'Rourke, and he turned the gar- 
rison out of it. 

Hugh O'Conor appointed Sitric, the son of 
Ualgarg O'Rourke, as joint lord along with Conor, 
the son of Tiarnan O'Rourke, in consequence of 
which Donal, the son of Conor, slew Sitric. 



6. Dun Doighre, now Duniry, in the barony of Leitrim, county 
of Galway, where the Mac Egans had a castle. 
A.D. 12.57. 

1. Conrb of St. Maodhog, that is, successor of St. Moeg, who 
is ^ven by Archdall as abbot of Dromlane, in the county of Cavan, 
which abbey was founded by St. Moegr, first bishop of Ferns, in 
the si.xtli century, who was a native of Brefney. O' Faircheal- 
laidh was probably the same oame as O'Farrelly. 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



73 



A conference was held between Felim O'Conor 
and the lord justice of Ireland, Mac William 
Burke, and all the English chiefs, at Athlone, 
where they made peace. 

Hugh O'Conor committed great depredations 
on O'Rourke about Easter. 

A brilliant battle was fought by Geoffrey O'Don- 
nell, lord of Tirconnell, against the lord justice of 
Ireland, Maurice Fitzgerald, and the English of Con- 
naught, atCi-ech-ainCille,^ inRoscede.inthetemtory 
of Carburj'', north of Sligo, in defence of his princi- 
pality. A fierce and terrible conflict took place, 
in which bodies were hacked, heroes disabled, and 
the strength of both sides exhausted ; the men of 
Tirconnell maintained their ground, and com- 
pletely overthrew the English forces in the en- 
gagement, and defeated them with great slaughter, 
but Geoffi-ey himself was severely wounded, having 
encountered in the fight Maurice Fitzgerald in 
single combat, in which they desperately wounded 
each other. By this fortunate \actory the English 
and the Geraldines were driven from North 
Connaught. Mac Griffin, a noble knight, was 
taken prisoner by the people of O'Donnell on the 
same day, after wliich they bm-ned and completely 
plundered Sligo. Donogh, the son of Cormac 
O'Donnell, was slain in the thick of the fight. 
They (the people of Tirconnell), then returned 
home in consequence of the dangerous wounds of 
O'Donnell, for othenvise he would ha\e pursued 
the defeated English to the Moy. On Geoffrey's 
return home he demolished the castle of Caoluisce, 
which had been erected by the English to keep 
the people of Th'connell in subjection. 

Maurice Fitzgerald, lord justice of Ireland, for 
a long period the destroj-er of the Irish, died. 

The king of England granted a charter (or 
patent) to Felim O'Conor, for the five districts of 
the king. 

A great war arose between Conor O'Brien, and 
the English of Munster, who were slaughtered by 
him. 

Teige O'Brien also committed immense depreda- 
tions on the English. 

Conor, the son of Tiarnan O'Rourke, was slain 



2. Credrnin, where this battle was fought, is a rising ground near 
the town of Sligo, to the north. 



at Ath-na-Failme, by Giolla Bearaigh O'Lamh- 
duibh, one of his own people, and by the people of 
Matthew O'Reilly. 

Cathal O'Mannachain died on the 6th of 
December. 



A. D. 1258. 

Abraham O'Conellan, archbishop of Armagh, 
received a Pallium from the court of Rome, in 
which he celebrated mass at Armagh, on the 
.second day of the month of June. 

Walter de Salerna, archbishop of Tuam, and 
chief dean of London, died in England, having 
been appointed by the king of England to those 
cUgnities the preceding year. 

Tomaltach O'Conor, bishop of Elphin, was 
translated to the archiepiscopal see of Tuam. 

Gillcreest O'Cai-macain, dean of Elphin, died. 

Anmanach O'Cuirnin, a man distinguished for 
his piety, died. 

Matthew, son of Giolla Roe O'Roduibh, that is, 
the Master, died. 

The bishop's court at Elphin, and the court of 
Kilsesin, were demolished by Hugh O'Conor. 

O'Donnell (Geofirey), was confined by his mor- 
tal wounds at Lough Beathach,' for the space of a 
year after the battle of Crcdrain. When O'Neill 
(Bryan) received intelligence of this, he collected 
his forces for the purpose of marching into Tu- 
connell, and sent messengers to O'Donnell 
demanding sureties, hostages, and submission 
from the Tirconnelhans, as they had no lord 
capable to govern them after Geoffrey. The 
messengers having delivered their commands to 
O'Donnell, returned back with all possible speed. 
O'Donnell summoned the Connellians from all 
quarters to wait on him, and having assembled at 
their lord's call, he ordered them, as he was not 
able to lead them, to prepare for him the coffin in 
which his remains should finally be conveyed, to 
place him therein, and to carry him in the very 
midst of his people ; he told them to fight bravely 
as he was amongst them, and not to submit to the 
power of their enemies. They then proceeded in 



A. D. 1258. 
1. Lough Beathach, probably tlie lake in the parish of Gartan, 
near KUmakrennan, county of Donegal. 

I, 



74 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1258. 



battle array at the command of their lord to meet 
O'Neill's force, until both armies confronted each 
other at the river called Suileach (Swilly). They 
attacked each other without regard to fi'iend or 
relative, until at length the Tyronians were 
defeated and diiven back, leaving behind them 
many of their men, horses, and much property. 
On the return of the Connellian force from their 
victory, the cothn in which O'Donnell was borne 
was laid down on the place where the battle 
was fought, where his spirit departed, from tlie 
mortification of tlie wounds he had reccixed in the 
battle of Credrain ; and his death was not dis- 
honourable, for in all his expeditions iie was vic- 
torious over his enemies. When O'Neill received 
intelligence of the death of O'Donnell, he again 
sent messengers to the Connellians demanding 
hostages and submission from them, uj)on which 
the Connellians held a consultation to determine 
what they should do, and to decide to what chief 
they should yield obedience and submission, for 
they had no acknowledged lord to command them 
after the death of Geoffrey. While thus deli- 
berating, they beheld Donal Oge,'- the son of Donal 
More O'Donnell, who had arrived from Scotland, 
a noble and intelligent youth, in his eighteenth 
year, on whom the Connellians conferred the 
chieftainship. That was a proper election, for 
he was by right their own lawful lord. The 
Connelhans informed him of their choice, and at 
the same time communicated to him the message 
thej' had received from O'Neill, at which he ex- 
pressed his indignation and contempt ; and on that 
occasion he made use of that excellent old saying 
in the Albanian Gaelic (Scottish GaeUc), which 
they used in conferring with the messengers, ^•iz. : 
"50 inbiaoh a Doiiian pein tij jach peap." 
" That evei'y man should hove hix own eountry." 

Similar to the return of Tuathal Teachtmar over 
the seas from Albain (Scotland), when the chief- 



2. Don/il Oge O'Donnell, the son of Donal More, prince of Tir- 
eonnell, was born A.D. 1240; his mother was the daughter of 
Catlial Crovdearg O'Conor. 

3. Aithech Tuatha, a name translated to Attacots, was applied 
to the Firbolgs, who in the second century by a temporary insur- 

Vection defeated the Milesians, and set upon the throne of Ireland 
a monarch of their own race, namely, Cairbre Ceann Cait, but the 
Milesian monarchy was soon after restored under Tuathal Teacht- 
mar, or Tuathal tlie Acceptable. 

4. Hy Briiiin. This was the name applied to the territory of 
both Brefuies, as explained in the note on Brefiiey ; and this pas- 



tains of Ireland were expelled by the Aithech 
Tuatha,^ was the return of Donal Oge O'Donnell 
from Albain (Scotland), in supporting the rights of 
princes, in reconciUng chiefs, and in defending his 
own territory from foreigners, from the day he was 
inaugurated in the lordship to the day of his death. 

The monastery of Claen (Clane), in Leinster, in 
the diocese of Kildare, was founded for brothers of 
the order of St. Francis. 

Hugh, the son of Felim (O'Conor), and Teige 
O'Brien, marched with a great force to Caol Uisge 
(near Ne«Ty,) to hold a conference with Bryan 
O'Neill, to whom the foregoing chiefs, after making 
peace with each other, granted the sovereignty 
o^'er the Irish ; and they agreed that the hostages 
of Hugh O'Conor should be given to him as sure- 
ties for the fulfilment of this compact, and that the 
hostages of O'Reilly's people, and also those of 
Hy Briuin,'' from Kells to DrumclilF, should be 
likewise given to Hugh, the son of Felim 
(O'Conor). 

Mac Sorley (Mac Donnell) sailed round Con- 
naught with a fleet from Insi Gall (the He- 
brides), until he came to Conmaicne Mara (Con- 
namara), where he captured a merchant vessel, 
and seized on the cargo, which consisted of 
wine, cloth, brass, and iron. Jordan Dexeter, the 
sheriff of Connaught, pursued Mac Sorley to the 
island at which he stopped, and near which his 
ships were anchored. A conflict ensued, in which 
Jordan was slain, and also Pierce Agabard, a 
knight belonging to his party, with many others. 
Mac Sorley and his people returned to their own 
country joyfully and enriched. 

Donal, son of Conor, son of Tiarnan O'Rourke, 
who was kept in confinement on behalf of his 
father by Fehm O'Conor and his son Hugh, was 
set at liberty by them, and appointed to the lord- 
ship of Brefney' in the place of his father. 

Macraith Mac Tiarnan, chief of Teallach Dun- 



safie shows that Hy Briuin, or Brefney, extended from Kells in 
Meath, to Drumcliff, in the county of Sligo ; thus comprising the 
counties of Cavan and Leitrim, with a portion of Mcath, and a 
part of tlie barony of Carbury hi Sligo, O'Hourke being prince of 
West Brefney or Leitrim, and O'Reiliy of East Brefney or Cavan. 
5. I. Brefney. This ancientand extensive territory comprised the 
present counties of Cavan and Leitrim, and was part of the king- 
dom of Connaught down to the reign of Elizabeth, when it was 
formed into the counties of Cavan and Leitrim, and Cavan was 
added to the province of Ulster. Some of the earliest events in 
Irish history are recorded as having taken place in this territory. 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



75 



chadha,'' was slain by Donal, son of Tiarnan 
O'Rourke. The Conacians, and the men of Bref- 
ney in general, then deprived Donal of the lordship, 
and the people of Teallach Dunchadha slew his 



About nine centuries before tlie Cliristian era, accordinsr to our 
ancient annalists, Tlcearniuas, monarch of Ireland, of the race of 
Heremon, was the first who introduced Driiidism and tlie worship 
of idols into Ireland ; and it is stated, that while worshipping the 
idol Crom Cnuich, the chief deitv of the Irish Druids, along with 
a vast assemblage of his subjects at Magh Slenchf in Breifne, on 
the feast of Samhuhi, (one of their deities, the day dedicated to 
whose rites was the same as the last day of October), he himself, 
with three-fourths of his people, were stnick dead by lightning, as 
a punishment from heaven for his introduction of idolatry into tlie 
kingdom. JMiigh Sleaclita signifies either the Plain of Adoration, 
or the Plain of Slaughter, and obtained its name from the Druidical 
rites performed there, or from the human sacrifices which the 
Pagan Irish offered up to the deities of Druidism, as the Canaanites 
offered up their's to iloloch. In tliis place stood a famous tem- 
ple of the Druids, with the great idol Crom Cruach sur- 
rounded by twelve minor idols, composed of pillar stones, and 
decorated with heads of gold. This temple and its idols were 
destroyed by St. Patrick, who erected a church on its site. Of 
these events accounts are given in the Life of St. Patrick by 
Jocelyn the monk, in Cambrensis Eversus, O'Flaherty's Opygia, 
and Valiancy's Collectanea. Magh Sleacht was situated in the 
present barony of Mohill, county of Leitrim, and afterwards 
received the name of Fiodhnmh, which may signify a wild or 
woody district. Fenagh in after ages had a celebrated monastery 
and college, and was long famous as a seat of learning and religion. 
Cromle/ics of huge stones and other Druidical remains are to be 
seen at Fenagh to this day. 

Brefney was inhabited in the early ages by the Fir-Boigs, wlio 
are called Belgee or Belgians by various writers, afterwards by the 
Milesians of the race of Ir, or the Clanna Rory, and lastly by the 
Jlilesians of the race of Heremon. The Fir-Bolgs who possessed 
Brefncy, are mentioned by the ancient writers under the names of 
Ernnidhey Entaians, and Ernaechx, which names are stated to 
have been given them from their inhabiting the territories about 
Lough Erne. Ptolemy, the great Greek geogra})her of the second 
century, denominates tliem Ernidi, Ernidoi, or Erdinoi, as given in 
his Map of Ireland by Ware, O'Conor, and others. Tliese Erneans 
possessed the entire of Brefney, and make a remarkable figure in 
the history of the early ages, from the various great battles fought 
between them and the Milesian kings. 

The name Breifne is sometimes also written Srefine, and 
Bregline, latinised Brefnin and Brefinin, and anglicised Brefiiey, 
and is generally called by the old English writers, the Brenny. In 
Seward's Topography, the name Breifne is derived from Bre, a hill, 
and therefore signifies the country of little hills, or the hilly coun- 
try, a derivation which may not appear inappropriate as descriptive 
of the topographical features of the country, as innumerable bills 
are scattered over the counties of Cavan and Leitrim. These hills, 
of different sizes, are chiefly of a round or conical form, very beau- 
tiful and fertile, producing various crops, and capable of cultiva- 
tion to their very sumnuts ; and many fertile valleys are inter- 
spersed among them. From the productive soil of these hills, and 
tlieir having been cultivated from the earliest times, the name 
Breifne may probably be derived from Bre. a hill, and feine, 
husbandmen, and hence may signify the hills of the husbandmen; 
or, it may be derived from Bre, hills, and^»e, people, that is, the 
hills of the people, or the hills inhabited by the people. On a vast 
number of tliese hills over Cavan and Leitrim are found those cir- 
cular earthen ramparts called forts or raths, and some of them 
very large, which circumstance shews that those hills were inha- 
bited from the earliest ages. As several thousands of those raths 
exist even to this day, and many more have beeii levelled, it is 
evident that there was a very great population in ancient Brefney. 
The eroctian of these raths has been absurdly attriliuted to the 
Danes, for it is evident that they must have formed the cliief 
habitations and fortresses of the ancient Irish many centuries before 



brother Cathal, the son of Conor. After that the 
government of Hy Briuin was given to Art, the 
son of Cathal Riavagh O'Rourke, viz. from the 
mountain eastward. 



the Danes set foot in Ireland, since they abound chiefly in the 
interior and remote parts of the country, where the Danes never 
had any permanent settlement. In Cavan and Leitrim are many 
magnificent mountains and extensive bogs, the remains of ancient 
forests, in which have been frequently found the husre horns of the 
Irish elk ; there are also many large and beautiful lakes, and 
several tine rivers, including the mighty Shannon, which has its 
source at the foot of the towering Cuilcagh, one of the Cavan 
mountains. Amongst the mountains of Brefney may be men- 
tioned SliabU-an-Iarain, or the Iron Mountain, in Leitrim, famous 
for its mines of coal and iron. 

Brefney also bore the name of Hij Briuin Breifne, or Hy 
Briiine Brefney, from its being possessed hy the race of Hy Briidn. 
The Hy Briuin race derived their name from being the descendants 
of Bryan, kinff of Connaught, in the fourth century, son of Eoch- 
aidh Muighmeodhoin, who was monarch of Ireland from A. D. 358 
to A. D. 3(56, and w'as of the race of Heremon. The name Muigh- 
meadhoin is derived from Magh, a plain, which in the genitive 
makes Muighe, and vicndhoin, which Dr. O'Conor, in his translation 
of the Annals, renders a cultivator ; and he calls this monarch 
Eochius ciimporuni cultor, that is, Eochaidh the cultivator of 
plains. Bryan, above-mentioned, had twenty-four sons, whose 
posterity possessed the greater part of Connaught, and were called 
the Hy Briuin race. Of this race were the O'Conors, kings of 
Connaught; the O'Rourkes ; O'Reillys; Mac Dermotts ; Mac 
Donoghs ; O'Flahertys ; O'Malleys ; Mac Oiraghtys ; O'Fallons ; 
O'Flynns ; O'Malones ; Mac Gaurans; Mac Tiernans, or Mac 
Kernans ; Mac Bradys, and some other clans. From Fiachra, 
brother of Bryan, king of Connaught, were descended the race of 
III/ Fiachra, of whom were the O'Dowds, O'Heynes, O'Shaugh- 
nesseys, and other clans in Connaught, as hereafter explained. 
From Niall of the Nine Hostages, monarch of Ireland, another of 
Bryan's brothers, were descended, as mentioned in the notes on 
Meatli, Tir Eogain and Tir Conaill ; the O'Melaghlins, kings of 
Mcatli ; the O'Neills, kings of Ulster, and princes of Tyrone ; the 
O'Donnells, princes of Tirconnell, and some other chiefs of Ulster : 
thus these three great branches, descended from Eochaidh Muigh- 
meadhoin, were the chief rulers of the kingdoms of Meath, Ulster, 
and Connaught. 

The O'Rourkes and O'Reillys derived their descent from Aodh 
Ftonn, or Hugh the Fair, king of Connaught, "who died in the 
beginning of the seventh century, A.D. Oil, and was buried at 
Fenagh. This Aodh Fionn was a descendant of Bryan, king of 
Connaught, before-mentioned ; and from him the O'Rourkes and 
I )'Reillys were called Clann Aodha Fuin, that is, the posterity of 
Hugh the Fair. The O'Ruarcachs, O'Ruaircs, O'Ruarcs, or 
O'Rourkes, took their name from one of their ancient chiefs, Ruarc, 
who was prince of Brefney in the tenth century. The name Ruarc 
may be derived from Ruadh, valiant, and arg, a champion ; or 
from Ruadh, red, and arg, a champion, and hence it may signify 
the valiant champion, or the red-haired champion. Mention is 
made by the Four Masters in the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth cen- 
turies of many celebrated chiefs of the O'Rourkes : these chiefs 
often contended with the O'Conors for the sovereignty of Con- 
naught ; and in the tenth century, one of them, namely, Fergal 
O'Rourke, became king of Connaught, and reigned from A. D. 900, 
to A. D. 964, when be was killed in a battle with the men of 
Meath. In the twelfth century Tiarnan O'Rourke was king of 
Brefney, and is frequently mentioned in these Annals, on account 
of the abduction of liis wife, Dervorgal, (who was daughter of Mur- 
togh O'Melaghlin, king of Meath), by Dermod Mac Murrogh, king 
of Leinster, which led to the English invasion under Strongbow and 
his followers. The O'Rourkes had the title of kings of Brefney 
and Conmaicne, and in later times that of princes of "West Brefney, 
that is, of the county of Leitrim, the O'Reillys becoming princes 
of East Brefney, or the county of Cavan. Ancient Brefney was, 
in the tenth century, divided into two principalities, the O'Rourkes, 

L 2 



76 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 125S. 



Bryan Mac Samradhain (Mac Gauran), lord of 
Teallach Eachdach (Tullaghagh in Cavan), was 
slain by the Conaciaiis. 

Awlave, the son of Art O'Rourke, lord of 



as princ.'S of West Brefney, hcinn; tlie principal chiefs, and the 
O'Reillys, as princes of East Brefney, possessing the territory of 
the present county of Cavan. O'Rourke's country was called 
Brefney O'Rourke, and O'Reilly's country Brefney O'Reilly. 
O'Rourke's ancient principality comprised the present county of 
Leitrim, with the present barony of Tullaghagh, and part of Tul- 
laglionoho, in the county of Cavan, the river at Ballyconnell being 
the boundary between Brefney O'Rourke and Brefney O'Reilly. 
Brefney O'Rourke was separated from Fermanagh or Mac Guire's 
country, by Lough Melvin, Lough Mac Nean, and Cuilcagh moun- 
tain. It appears also that a small portion of the barony of Car- 
bury, in the county of Sligo, belonged to Brefney O'Rourke. 
Conmaicne, also called Conmaicne of Moy Rein, of which the 
O'Rourkes were also lords, was an ancient territory which derived 
its name from Conraac, one of the sons of Meva, the celebrated 
queen of Connaughr, at the beginning of the Christian era ; it com- 
prised the southern part of Leitrim, namely, the baronies of Carri- 
gallen, Leitrim, and Mohill, with a portion of the northern part of 
Anally, or county of Longford, extending nearly to Granard. It 
appears also that O'Rourke's rule extended at one period over a 
portion of Roscommon, for, in the .Vnnals under the year loCi, it 
is stated that the power of O'Rourke extended from Caladh, in the 
territory of Hy Maine, (in the county of Roscommon), to Drobhais, 
that is Bundroos, on the borders of Leitrim and Donegal, and from 
Granard in Teffia, in the county of Longford, to the strand of 
Eothuile, in the barony of Tirerell, near Ballysadare, in the county 
of Sligo. In the Annals at the year 1470, it is recorded that the 
O'Rourkes were inaugurated as princes of Brefney at a place called 
Cruacluin O'Cuprain, supposed to be Croaghan, near Killeshandra, 
as it is stated that the O'Reillys and the jieople of TuUyhunco met 
O'Rourke's party at Ballyconnell, to opjiose the inauguration. 
The O'Rourkes had their chief castles at Dromahaire, Leitrim, Clon- 
corick or Carrickallen, and Castle Car, near Manorhamillon. They 
maintained their mdepcndence, as princes of West Brefney, down 
to the reign of James I., and had considerable possessions even 
until the Cromwellian wars, when their estates were confiscated. 
Several of the O'Rourkes have \)een distinguished in the military 
service of foreign slates, as count Owen O'Rourke of the Austrian 
service, under the empress Maria Theresa; count John O'Rourke, 
a distinguished soldier of fortune, who served as a commander in 
the armies of France, Russia, and Poland, between the years 1700 
and 1780, and his brother count O'Rourke, who was a colonel of 
cavalry in the Imperial Austrian service, at the same time, and 
was married to a niece of field marshal de Lacy. Accounts of these 
officersand the genealogy of the O'Rourkes, as princes of Brefney, 
by Charles O'Conor of Belenagar, are given in Walker's Hibernian 
Magazine for 1782. There is at present a count O'Rourke in the 
military service of Russia. 

The O'Reillys, as above stated, were descended from the same 
ancestor as the O'Rourkes, namely Aodh Fionn, or Hugh the 
Fair, king of Connaught, in the beginning of the seventh century. 
They took the name O'Raighilligh or O'Raghallaigh, pronounced 
O'Railligh, and rendered into O'Reilly, from Raghallach, one of 
their celebrated chiefs, in the tenth century. The name Raighal- 
lach may be derived from Raigh, an arm, and till or allnch, strong 
or powerful ; hence it may signify, strong of arm, an epithet very 
applicable to a warlike chief. The O'Reillys also took the tribe name 
of Muinter Maolmordha, or the people of .Maolmordha, from Maol- 
ruordha, another of their celebrated chiefs. This name Maolmordha, 
or Mulmora, latinised Milesius, and anglicised Miles, was a favorite 
name with the O'Reillys, and was borne by many of their chiefs. 

Tlie principality of Brefney O'Reilly comprised originally the 
greater part of the present county of Cavan, the boundary between 
it and Brefney O'Rourke being, as already stated, the river at 
Ballyconnell, and being separated from Fermanagh, or Mac Guire's 
country, by the Ballyconnell mountains j but in after times the 



Brefney, from the mountain westward, died. 

Thomas O'Beirne died. 

Ardgal O'Conor, son of the coarb of St. Coman, 
died. 



O'Reillys extended their dominion over the entire of tlie county of 
Cavan, and at one period over a great part of Leitrim, as it is 
stated in the .\nnals, under the year 1239, that Fergal, son of Cn- 
chonacht O'Reilly, was lord of Brefney, of Dartry, and of Clan 
Firmaighe, from the mountains eastward, which shows that he 
possessed the territory of Dartry, in the barony of Rosscloglier, in 
the county of Leitrim. It appears also that the O'Reillys ex- 
tended their territory and authority into the borders of the Flnglish 
Pale, as far as Kilnutinham wood, to the Black Water near Kells, 
and to Crossakeele and Oldcastle in Meath, from thence as far as 
Granard in Longford, and to parts of Westmeath. In O'Reilly's 
Irish Writers, at the years 1380 and 1415, it is stated that Thomas, 
son of Mah(m O'Reilly, lord of Clan Malum, and prince of Brefney, 
destroyed eighteen castles of the English in the Pale, and overran 
the country from Droijheda to Dublin. According to other authori- 
ties this Thomas O'Reilly erected a castle at Ballinlough, in 
Westmeath. The O'Reillys, exercising an independent sovereignty, 
as princes of Brefney, coined their own money ; as appears by a 
Parliament held at "Trim, A. D 1447, in the reign of Henry VI., 
by sir John Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury, lord lieutenant ; and by 
another Parliament held at Naas, A. D. 1457, by the lord deputy, 
Thomas Fitzgerald, earl of Kildare, in which Acts were passed 
prohibiting the circulation of the Irish coinage, called O'Reilly's 
money, in the English Pale. From the thirteenth to the sixteenth 
century many valiant chiefs of the O'Reillys are mentioned, who 
fought several battles with the English forces of the Pale, over 
whom they gained many victories, as appears in these Annals. 
The O'Reillys located on the borders of Meath were obliged to 
maintain an incessant warfare to defend the frontiers of Ulster 
against the English of the Pale, who made constant incursions into 
the northern territories. Camden, writing in the reign of Elizabeth, 
says that the O'Reillys were famous for cavalry ; and Fynes Mor- 
rison, in his account of the wars of Hugh O'Neill, earl of Tyrone, 
against Elizabeth, states that the O'Reillys of Brenny brought to 
the standard of O'JVeill eight hundred foot, and two hundred horse. 
The O'Reillys maintained their independence down to the reign of 
James I., and possessed great property and influence even until 
the Cromwellian wars, after wliich their estates were confiscated. 
Maolmora O'Reilly, commonly called Miles the Slasher, was a 
celebrated chief, distinguished for his great strength and undaunted 
valour : he fought many battles in Cavan and other places during 
the Cromwellian war, and fought at the battle of Benburb, under 
Owen Roe O'Neill. The O'Reillys were elected and inaugurated 
in early times as princes and tanists of Brefney, on the Hill of 
Seantnnifin or Shantimjun, a large hill between Cavan and Bally- 
haise, on the summit of which may still be seen the remains of a 
Druidical temple, consisting of several huge stones standing up- 
right. In after thnes the O'Reillys were inaugurated on the Hill 
of Tullymongan, above the town of Cavan. The O'Reillys had cas- 
tles at 'Tullymongan, Ballynacargy, Tullyvin, Lisgannon, Belturbet, 
Ballyconnell, Cloughoughter, Kilmore, Lismore, and Camett, near 
Crossdoney ; at Tonagli, and Ballinrinke, near Lough Siieelin ; at 
Kilnacrott, Loughranmr, and Jlullagh ; at Tonragee, now Baile- 
borough, and at Muif'near Kingscourt, the ruins of some of which 
castles still remain. An interesting account of the O'Reillys in 
the reign of James I., is given in the works of Sir John Davies. 
Several of the particulars above mentioned conceniing the O'Reillys 
have been collected fiom the Book of Cavan, an ancient record, 
chiefly compiled by the learned Chevalier O'Gorman, from the 
works of O'Cuirnin, Historiographer of Brefney, and other ancient 
Irish MSS., together with family papers. The original of this 
curious and interesting MS. is in the possession of the publisher of 
these Annals, Mr. Geraghty, of Anglesea-street. The O'Reillys 
are extremely numerous, being estimated at about 20,000 persons 
of the name in the county of Cavan, and there are many respectable 
families of them in the counties of Cavan, Meath, Westmeath, 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



I i 



A trreat war arose between the Ennrlish and 
Conor O'Brien, dnring which Ardrathan," Kil- 
coljran and many other comitiy towns, with the 
corn of the country, were burned. 



Lon<rforcl, Loutli, Down, Dublin, Kildare, and Queen's County. 
Many of the O'Reillys have been distinguished commanders in the 
military service of foreign states, and anions them may he men- 
tioned Count Alexander O'Reilly, who, between the years 1770 
and ISOO, was Generalissimo of the Spanish armies, and was of 
the same stock as the O'Reillys of Baltrasna.in Meath ; of Kilna- 
cri)tt,iii the county of Cavan ; and of Thomastown castle in Louth. 
Count .\ndrew O'Reilly, of the family of Uallinloufih in West- 
meath, was for more than fifty years a distinguished ijeneral in the 
Austrian service, and died at Vienna, in IttlVJ, in the !)Oth year of 
his aure. Count Michael Charles Joseph Keille, a distinguished 
general of cavalry in the service of France, in all Buonaparte's 
campai^rns, and at present a peer of France, is descended from one 
of the Irish O'Reillys, who was an officer in the service of France 
in the last century. 

The chiefs and clans of Brefney and the territories they pos- 
sessed in the twelfth century, are, according to O'Dugan, as follows : 
I. O'Ruairc or O'Rourke, who is de>iirnated by O'Dugan, Ardrlgh 
Breifne n.i biinii sninchf, that is, chief king of Brefney of lasting 
sway, and to wliom, he states, the rents or tributes of Connaught 
were paid. 11. O'Raghallaigh or O'Reilly, chief of Muinter 
Maollmordha, designated as — 

** Utoghfhaoisetich nn riwfhar u-garbh^ 

O'RaghaUaigh itti ruadh tirin.'' 
" Head chief of fierce conflicts, 

O'Reilly of the red arms or shields." 

III. Mae Tigheamain or the Mac Tienians, also rendered Mae 
Kiernan or Mac Kernan, and by some anglicised to Masterson, 
who were chiefs of Teallach Dnnchadha, signifying the tribe or 
territory of Donogh, so called from one of their chiefs, a name 
which has been luade Tullaiihouoho, now the barony of TuUyhunco, 
in the county of Cavan. Mac Tieman is designated as "' the true 
defender of valiant chiefs." The Mac Kemans are still very nu- 
merous in the coTinties of Cavan and Leitrim, and several of their 
chiefs are mentioned in the course of these Annals. IV. ^lac 
Samhradhain, designated " a bond of strength," who was chief of 
Teallach Eachach, or Eacbaidh, which signifies of the tribe or 
territory of Eachy, so called from one of their chiefs, and now the 
barony of Tullaghagh, county of Cavan. This name is now 
generally made Mac Gauran, and by some anglicised, or rather 
translated, Somers, from the word Samhradli, which signifies 
summer. The JIac Gaurans in modern times are very numerous 
in the counties of Cavan and Leitrim, and many chiefs of the name 
are mentioned in the Annals. A'. Mac Consnamha, cliief of Clan 
Cionnaith, or Clan Kenny, now known as the Muintir Kenny 
niovmtains, and adjoining districts, near Lough .Mien, in the parish 
of Innismagrath, county of Leitrim. This name has been anglicised 
to Ford, and there are several of the clan still in those districts. 
Mac Consnamha is mentioned as a chief in those Annals, A. D. 
1-2.V-'. VI. Mac Cagadhain, chief of Clan Fearniaighe, a district 
south of Dartry, and in the present barony of Dromahaire, county 
of Leitrim. 'This name has been anglicised Cogan or Coggan. 
O'Brien, in his Dictionary, at the word Eagan, states that the 
Mac Egans were chiefs of Clanfearamuighe in Brefney ; hence 
;Mac Cagadhain and Mac Eagain may probably have been the same 
clan. Vll. Mac Darchaidh,whichO'Brien writes Mac Dorchuighe, 
chief of Kinel Luachain, a district in the barony of ilohill, county 
of Leitrim, which may probably be traced in the name of the 
townlaiid of Laheen. This name has been by some anglicised to 
Darcy. VIII. JIac Flannchadha, a name rendered into Mae 
Clancy, who was chief of Dartraidhe or Dartry, an ancient 
territory co-extensive with the present barony of Rossclogher in 
Leitrim. Several chiefs of the JIac Clancys are mentioned in the 
course of these .\nnals, and they are designated by O'Dugan as 
the mighty Mac Clancys. IX. O'Finnand O'Cearbhaill or O'Car- 
roU, wiio were chiefs of Calraighe, a district adjoining Dartry, in 



A conference was held between the EngUsh and 
Irish concerning Fehm O'Conor, and peace was 
estabhshed between them. 



the present barony of Dromahaire, coimty of Leitrim, and which 
appears to have comprehended an adjoining portion of Sligo, near 
the present parish of Calry, in that county. This district is men- 
tioned by Lanigan, (vol. i. p. 2,^(0), under the name of Calrigia, 
and comprised the parishes of Drumlease and Killargj' in Leitrim, 
with part of the parish of Calry in Sligo. X. Mac Maoiliosa, 
chief of Magh Breacraighe, a district on the borders of Leitrim 
and Longford. XI. Mac Fionnbhair or Finnevar, chief of Muinter 
Greadain or Gearadhain, a district in the southern part of Leitrim. 
XII. Mac Raghnaill or Mac Rannall, a name anglicised to Rey- 
nolds, who were chiefs of Muinter Eoluis. This territory was 
sometimes called Conmaicne of Moyrein, and comprised almost 
the whole of the present baronies of Leitrim, Mohill and Carry- 
gallen, in the county of Leitrim, with a portion of the north of 
Longford. The JIac Rannalls were powerful chiefs, and are often 
mentioned in the course of these Annals. They were of the race 
of Ir, or Clanna Rory, and of the same stock as the O'Ferralls, 
princes of Anally, or Longford. They had ca.stles at Rinn, Leitrim 
and Loush Scur. Of this family wasGeorge Nugent Reynolds, esq., 
of Letterfian, in Leitrim, a celebrated wit and poet, who is 
stated to have been the author of the beautiful song called " Tlie 
Exile of Erin," though its composition was claimed by Thomas 
Campbell, author of " The Pleasures of Hope." XIII. O'Maoil- 
miadhaigh or D'JIulvey, chief of Magh Neise or Nisi, a district 
which lay along the Shannon in the west of Leitrim, near Carrick- 
on-Sliannon. 

The following Clans in the counties of Cavan and Leitrim, not given 
by O'Dugan, are collected from various other sources : I. Mac Brad- 
aigh or Mac Brady. Tiarnan Mac Bradaigh is mentioned in the 
Annals, at the year I'i.jfi, as one of the chiefs who foughtunder the 
O'Reillys, in a great battle at Moysleacht, or Fenagh. The Mac 
Bradys sometimes called O'Bradys are given by Mac Geoghegan, as 
a branch of the O'CarroUs, chiefs of Calry, a territory in Leitrun, 
in the barony of Dromahaire, as already explained in the precedmg 
part of this article ; and they are in fact often called O'Carrolls at 
the present day, particularly by persons speaking in Irish, who 
designate them Carullaghs. Tlie Mac Bradys are extremely nu- 
merous in the county of Cavan, particularly in the barony of 
Loughtee ; and there are many respectable families of the name in 
various parts of Ireland. Baron Thomas Brady, a distinguished 
field marshal for many years in the Austrian service, and who 
died at Vienna in 1827, was a native of the county of Cavan. 
11. The Mac Gobhains,Mac-an-Ghobhains, or 0'Gobhains,aname 
which has been anglicised to Smith, are very numerous in the 
county of Cavan, particularly in the parishes of Lavey, Laragh, 
and Killinkere, among whom have been many respectable families. 
The Mac Gowans are also very numerous in Rossinver in the 
county of Leitrim, as explained in the note on Dalaradia, or 
county of Down. The Mac Gowans are of the race of Ir, or Clanna 
Rory,' descended from the famous warrior Conall Cearnach, or 
Conall the Victorious, who was chief of the Red Branch Knights 
of Ulster, about the commencement of the Christian era ; and 
many of the name have proved their distinguished descent, being 
remarkable for great strength and bravery, and having been chiefs 
of gallowglasses under the O'Reillys. The Mac Gowans, originally 
a powerful clan in Dalaradia, or the county of Down, in early 
times produced many eminent ecclesiastics, learned men, and poets, 
too numerous to be here mentioned , and in modem times there 
are many highly respectable families of the name of Smith in many 
parts of Ireland, and several have been eminent lawyers, some of 
whom, no doubt, may trace their descent from the Milesian Mac 
Gowans. III. Mac GioUaduibh or Mac GilldufF. In the .\nnals, 
at the year 12.52, Manus Mac GioUaduibh is mentioned as chief of 
Teallach Gairbheith, now the barony of TuUygarvey, m the 
county of Cavan. IV. Mac Taichligh or Mac Tally. Giolla 
Michil Mac Taichligh, is mentioned in the Annals, at 1256, 
as one of the chiefs who fought under the O'Reillys at the battle 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1259. 



A. D. 1259. 

Cormac O'Lulmluin, bishop of Clonfert of St. 
Brenan, and the chief sage of Ireland, died a vener- 
able divine at an advanced age. 



of Fenasli. The Mac Tullys were chiefs of a district coinprisnig 
tlie greater part of tlie jiiirisli of Drmi};, in the harony of Tullj- 
garvey. V. Mac Cal)es, a clan originally from Monaglian, hut 
settled for many centuries in the county of C'avaii, where they are 
very numerous, particularly in the haronics of Tullygarvey and 
Clankee. The Mac Cabes were a warlike (_!lan, and are frequently 
mentioned in the Book ofCavan, as commanders of battle-axe 
men under the O'Reillys in their wars witli the English of the 
Pale. VI. The O'Sheridans, an ancient clan in the county of 
Cavan, and still numerous, particularly in the barony of Claninahon. 
Of this clan were several persons distinguisheil in the literary 
world for the most brilliant ahilities, us the Uev. Dr. Thomas 
Sheridan, president of the great school of Cavan, the friend and 
favonrite companion of Dean 8wil't, and distinguished for his great 
wit and talents ; Thomas Sheridan, his son, a celebrated actor, 
and author of an English J)ictionary and other works ; and Richard 
Brinsley Sheridan, the son of Thomas, well known for his .sjdendid 
genius, and one of the most eminent men of ills age as an orator, 
dramatist, and jioet. Many other members of this family, too 
numerous to be here mentioned, ha\ e also been highly distinguished 
in the literary world. VII. The O'C'orrys or O'Currys, given in 
the Map of Ortelius as a clan in Cavan, in the barony of TuUy- 
garvey. They w'ere located about the place afterwards called 
Cootehill. Of this family was James Curry, M.D., the celebrated 
writer on the civil wars of Ireland. VIII. The O'Clerys or 
Clarkes, a branch of the O'Clerys of Connau'^ht and Donegal, and 
of the same stock as the celebrated authors of the Annals of the 
Four Masters, numerous in the county of Cavan, jiarticularly in 
the baronies of Tullygarvey and Clankee, and many of whom have 
been distinguished for literary aciiuirenients. IX. The C)'Dalys 
and O'MuUigans, clans in the county of Cavan, who were heredi- 
tary bards to the O'Reillys, and of whom accoimts may bo found 
in O'Reilly's Irish Writers. X. The Fitzpatricks, a numerous 
clan in the county of Cavan, chielly located in the baronies of 
Tullyhunco and Loughtee. They were originally of the Fitzpa- 
tricks of Ossory,but have been settled for a long period in the 
county of Cavan. XI. The Fitzsimons, a numerous clan in the 
county of Ca^an, chiefly in the barony of Castlerahan, wlio came 
originally from the English Pale, being of Anglo-Norman descent, 
but have been long located in the county of Cavan. XII. The 
O'Farrellys, anumerous clan, particularly in the parish of Mullagh, 
comity of Cavan. XIII. Several other clans in consideralile num- 
bers, in various parts of the county of Cavan, as the O'Murrays, 
Mac Donnells, O'Conaghtys, O'Connells, Mac jianusses, O'Lynches, 
Mac Gilligans, O'Fays, Mac Gaft'ncys, Mac Hughs, O'Dolans, 
O'Droms, &c. XIV. Several clans in the county of Leitrim 
not mentioned by O'Dugan, as the Mac (iloins of Rossinver ; the 
Mac Fergu.-es, who were hereditary creniiclis of the churches of 
Rossinver, and whose name has been anglicised to Ferguson ; the 
O'Cuirnins, an ancient clan in the barony of Dromahaire, and 
many of whom were celebrated bards and historians ; the Mac 
Kennys or Keaneys ; the Mac Cartans, O'Murrays, and O'Meehans, 
are also numerous in the county of Leitrim. 

Bi\fney O'Boufke was formed into the county of Leitrim, 
and so called from the town of Leitrim, in the reign of Elizabeth, 
A.D. 1065, by the lord deputy, sir Henry Sidney, and large crrants 
of lands were given, in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I., to 
various British settlers there, the chief of whom were the Hamil- 
tons, who erected a castle at Manorhamilton : the family of 
A'illiers, dukes of Buckingiiam, had also large grants of lands in 
it. The Sherrards were in after times barons of Leitrim ; and the 
family of Clements arc at the present day carls of Leitrim. 

Biefin'ii Olicilh/ was formed into a county, by the lord deputy, 
sir John Perrott, A. D. I'lXi, in the reign of Elizabeth, and called 
Cavan, from its chief town. On the eonilscation of si.\ counties in 



Tomaltach, son of Torlogh, son of Malachy 
O'Conor, returned from Rome after having been 
consecrated archbishop of Tuam in the Pope's 
palace, having brought -with him a Pallium, and 
great favours for the clergy besides. 



Ulster, as stated in the note on Tyrone, in the reign of James I., 
the county of Cavan, in accordance with the project called the 
Plantation of Ulster, was planted with British colonies, and in 
Pyimar's Survey of Ulster, A. D. 1010, as given in Harris's 
Hibernica, the following were the families of English and Scotch 
settlers in the county of Cavan : In Clankee, sir James Hamilton, 
John Hamilton, William Hamilton, and William Bailie. In Cas- 
tleralian, sir Thomas .^ she, Captain Culrae, and sir John Elliot. 
In Tullygarvey, Captain Hugh Culme, Arcliibald Moore, John 
Ashe, and Captain Richard Tyrrell. In Lougbtee, John Taylor, 
Thomas Waldron, John Fish, sir Hugh Wirral, sir Stephen Butler, 
sir fjeorge Manneriucr, and Peter Ameas. In Clannmhon, lord 
Lambert, Archibald Moore, and Captain Fleming. In Tullyhunco, 
sir Claude Hamilton, sir James Craig, and Archibald Acheson. 
In Tidlaghagh, Captain Cidme, Walter Talbot, sir Richard, and 
sir ficorgc Orimes, and William Parsons. The following natives 
obtained grants of the forfeited lands: In Castlerahan, Shane 
Mac Philip O'Reilly, nine hundred acres. In Tullygarvey, Mul- 
mora Mac Philip O'Reilly, one thousand acres; Captain O'Reilly, 
one thousand acres ; ^lulmora Oge O'Reilly, tliree thousand acres ; 
and Maurice Mac Tclligh (or Mac Tally), three thousand acres. 
In Clanmahou, Mulmora Mac Hugh O'Reilly, two thousand acres. 
In Tiillaghagh, Mac Oauran, one thousand acres. 

The following ha\'e been the noble families in the county of 
Cavan, since the reign of James I. The LainherLs, earls of Cavan ; 
the JIaxwells, earls of Farnham ; the Cootes, earls of Bellamout; 
the Popes, carls of IJeltnrbet ; and tlie Verneys, barons of Bel- 
turbet. Amongst the great landed proprietors, but not resident in 
the county, are the marquess of Headfort; the earl Annesley ; 
and the earl of Gosford ; and of the landed proprietors resident in 
the county, the chief are the earl of Farnham, and the families of 
Saundcrsou, Pratt, Burrowes, Clements, Coote, Southwell, Hum- 
phreys, and Ncsbitt. 

Tlie fre nf Kilmore was founded by St. Feidlimidh or Felimy, 
in the sixth century. The bishops of Kilmore were in early times 
styled H'tshops of Srefnci/, of Hy-Sriune Brefufij, and some- 
times of Tlr Jiriuncj a name latinised by Ware to Trihurna. The 
(Uoceae comjirises almost the entire of the county of Cavan, with 
the greater part of Leitrim, a large portion of Fermanagh, and a 
small jiortion of Meath. 

II. 7'c/v»n»m//(, an ancient territory, the same as the present 
county of Fermanagh. It is written in the Irish, Fcnrn JMttnacfi, 
Fcnrniiinnch, and Fenrn Monach. The origin of the word is 
diHicult to determine, but it might be derived from Fenra, men, 
and ttui/uich, of monks, which might originate from its famous 
monastery at Devinish ; or, it might be derived from Fenni, men, 
and iiioiiiicli, of marshes, that is, men inhabiting a marshy 
country. 

About eight centuries before the Christian era, in the reign of 
Fiacha Labhruine, monarch of Ireland, as stated by all the ancient 
annalists, the lake afterwards called Lough Erne suddenly burst 
forth and overflowed a great tract of land, which was called MagU 
Cieannain, or the Plain of Geannan, so called from Gean nan, one 
of the Fir Bolg kings. This lake, as explained in the note on 
Tirconuaill, had at first the name of Lonijh Sahiier (and is cidled 
by Cambrciisis, Saraarius), hut afterwards obtained the name of 
Lougli Erne, whicli, according to Peter Walsh, in quoting Cam- 
brensis Eversus, derived the name of Erne from Erua, the fa- 
vourite waiting-maid ofMeav, the famous Queen of Connaiight, 
who was drowned there. The ancient inhabitants of this territory, 
as explained in the note on Breiiicy, were the Erneans, of the 
race of the Fir Boigs, who were conquered in a great battle by 
the above-mentioned monarch, Fiacha Labhruinne, leaving the 
Milesians masters of the country. In the tenth century, as stated 
by various historians, the Danes bad a large fleet on Lough Erne. 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



The GioUa Cam Mac Gillcliiarain, a man dis- 
tiiiiiuished in literature and poetry, died. 

gave the residence of Awlave, 



Hugh O' Conor 



the 



of Art, to Art Beag, the son of Art 



In tlic tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries, the head chief 
of this territory was O'Dulihdara, and several of the name are 
mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters ; amongst others, 
Giolla Criost O'Dubhdara, Prince of Fermanagh, who was killed 
by the men of Fermanagh at Daimhinis, or Devinish Island, in 
Lough Erne, A.D. 1076. The O'Duhhdaras were probably of the 
same race as the Mac Guires, who afterwards became princes of 
Fermanagh. The name in Irish is Mac Uuih'ir, sometimes writ- 
ten Maguibhlr, which is pronounced Mac Ivir, and has been 
made Mac Guire and Maguire. The Mac Guires took this name 
from U'ldhir, one of their ancient chiefs ; and they are of the 
race of CUin Colla, of the same descent as the Mac Mahons, 
lords of Monaghan ; the 0"Hanlons, chiifs of Orier, in Armagh ; 
the O'Kellys, lords of Hy Maine, in Galway and Roscommon ; 
and other clans, of whom a full account has been gi\en m the 
note on Or//inll. Many valiant chiefs af the Mac Guires are men- 
tinned in tlie course of these Annals ; and in O'Dugan's Topogra- 
phy of the twelfth century, Mac Uidhir, or Mac Guire, is given 
as chief of Feara Mouach, or Fermanagh, and designated in terms 
which may be thus translated : 

" Mac Guire, the head of the batalions, 
Over the mighty men of Monach, 
At home munificent in presents, ' 

The noblest chief in hospitality.'' 

The JIac Guires were inaugurated as princes of Fermanagh on 
the summit of Cuilcagh, a magnificent mountain near Swanlinbar, 
on the borders of Cavan and Fermanagh, and sometimes, also, at 
a place called Sciath Gabhra, now Lisnaskea. They possessed 
the entire of Fernuinagh, wliicli was called Mac Giiire'.i coiintri/, 
and maintained their independence as lords of Fermanagii down to 
the reign of James I., when their country was confiscated like 
other parts of Ulster ; but Conor Roe Mac Guire obtained re-grants 
of t\velve thousand acres of the forfeited lands of his ancestors, 
and was created baron of Enniskillen — a title which was also 
borne by several of his successors. Several chiefs of the Mac 
Guires are mentioned during theCromwellian andWilliamite wars, 
and many of them were afterwards distinguished ofiicers in the 
Irish Brigade, in France, and also in the Austrian service. The 
Mac Guires produced several eminent and learned ecclesiastics ; 
amongst whom may be mentioned Cathal, or Charles Mac Guire, 
archdeacon of Clogher, in the fifteenth century, the author of the 
celebrated Annals of Ulster. An interesting account of the Mac 
Guires in the reign of James I., is given in the works of Sir John 
Davies, who, amongst other particulars, states that the lands of 
Fermanagh were divided into three great portions, one of which 
was entirely possessed by JIac Guire, and another by the church, 
while the third was allotted to the rhymers and gallowglasses, 
that is, to the bards and swordsnjen. The Mac Guires are still 
numerous, particularly in the counties of Fermanagh and Cavan ; 
and many respectable families of the name exist in various parts of 
Ireland. 

The following chiefs and elans of Fermanagh, and the territories 
tliey possessed in the twelfth century, have been collected from 
O'Dugan's Topography : I., O'Maolduin, or O'Muldoon, chief of 
Muinter Maolduin and Feara Luirg. This territory is now known 
as the barony of Lurg. The O'Maolduins are mentioned in the 
Annals, as early as the latter end of the tenth century ; and 
Dubhdara O'Maolduin, lord of the men of Lurg, is stated to have 
been killed, A. D. 1000. II. Muintir Taithligh, or Mac Tullys, 
chiefs of Hy Laoghaire of Lough Lir, a district which lay in the 
barony of Lurg, near Lough Erne, towards Tyrone. III. Mac 
Duilgen, not mentioned in O'Dugan, is given in the Annals, which 
state that Fergus Mac Duilgen, lord of Lurg, was killed by the 
men of Brefney, A. D. 9'24. IV. O'Flannagain or O'Flanagan, 
chief of Tuath Ratha, that is, the district of the fortress, a terri- 
tory which extended from Belmore to Belleek, and from Lough 



O'Rourke, and he took prisoner Art, the son of 
Cathal Riavach O'Rourke, after he had displaced 
Awlave. 

Hugh O'Conor went to Deny Columkille, to 



Melvin to Lough Erne, comprising the present barony of Jlahera- 
boy. It contained the ancient districts of larthar Maighe and 
Magh Niadh, and its name is still retained by the mountain Tura. 
At the year A. D. 1498, in these Annals, it is stated that Achaidh 
More was the town or residence of O'Flanagan. Of this ancient 
family were James O'Flanagan, a lieutenant general of Dillon's 
regiment in the Irish Brigade in France, and his brother, John 
O'Flanagan, who was a coloncd in tlie Austrian army. V. Mac 
Giolla Fineui or Mac Gillfinnen, chief of Muintir Peodachain of the 
Port. This territory, on the borders of Fermanagh and Donegal, 
is still traceable in the name of Pettigoe. At the years A. D. 
1 231 and 1234 in the Annals, Mac Gillfinnen is mentioned as a 
warlike chief, who made expeditions in his ships along with 
O'Donuell j and he is styled lord of Lough Erne ; he is also men- 
tioned in several other parts of the Annals. VI. Mac Giolla 
Michil, chief of Clan Congail. In the .\nnals at A. D. 1238, it is 
stated that Clan Congail and O'Ceanfoda lay in Tir Manach. 
Tirkennedy barony is probably Tir O'Ceanflioda. The name Mac 
Giolla Michil, has been anglicised to Mitchell. VII. O'Maolruana 
orO'Mulrooney,and O'Eignigh or O'lleignigh, probably O'Heaney, 
who were chiefs of Muintir Maolruanaidh, and of Maoith Leirg 
Monach. VIII. Mac Domhnaill or Mac Donnell, chief of Clann 
Ceallaigh, now the barony of Clankelly. 

The following clans in Fermanagh are not given in O'Dugan ; I. 
The Mac Manuses, formerly a numerous clan, chiefly in Tirken- 
nedy, who had the controu! of the shipping on Lout^h Erne, and 
held the office of hereditary chief managers of the fisheries under 
Mac Guire. II. The Mac Cassidys, who were hereditary physi- 
cians to the Mac Guires, and many of the name also learned eccle- 
siastics and historians, amongst whom may be mentioned Rode- 
rick Mac Cassidy, archdeacon of Clogher, who partly compiled the 
Aimals of Ulster. III. The O'Criochans or O'Creehans, a nume- 
rous clan in Fermanagh, and many of whom changed the name to 
Creighton. IV. The Magratlis, who held some possessions at 
Termon Magrath, where they had a castle in the parish of Tem- 
plecarne. 

Fermanagh was formed into a county by the lord deputy Sir 
Henry Sydney, A. D. l.jGO, in the reign of Elizabeth. On the 
plantation of Ulster with British colonies, in the reign of James I., 
the following families of English and Scotch settlers obtained ex- 
tensive grants of the confiscated lands in Fennanagh, as given in 
Pynnar's Survey, A.D. 1G19, in Harris's Hibernica. Sir James 
Belford ; Mr. Adwick ; sir Stephen Butler, ancestor of the earls 
of Lanesborough ; John Sedborow ; Thomas Flowerdew ; Edward 
Hatton ; sir Hugh Wirrall ; sir John Davies, who was attorney- 
general to King James I., and a celebrated writer; sir Gerrard 
Lowther ; John Archdall ; Edward Sibthorp ; Henry Flower ; 
Thomas Blennerhasset ; sir Edward Blennerhasset, Francis Blen- 
nerhasset ; sir William Cole, ancestor of the earls of En- 
niskillen ; sir Henry Folliot ; captain Paul Gore ; captain 
Roger Atkinson ; Malcolm Hamilton ; George Humes ; sir John 
Humes ; and John Dunbar. Two or three of the natives ob- 
tained grants, namely. Con Mac Shane O'Neill, 1,500 acres; 
Bryan Slaguire 2,000 acres at Terapodassell ; and Conor Roe 
Maguire, who obtained large grants, and was created baron of 
Eunisldlien, as before stated. The following have been the noble 
famiUes in Fermanagh since the reign of James I. The Coles, 
earls of Enniskillen ; the Creightons, earls of Erne ; the Corrys, 
earls of Belmore ; the Verneys, viscounts of Fermanagh ; and the 
Butlers, barons of Newtown-Butler, and earls of Lanesborough. 
The family of Loftus, earls of Ely, have a seat in Fermanagh. 

In the ecclesiastical division the chief part of Fermanagh is 
comprised in the diocese of Clogher, but a considerable portion of 
the county is in the diocese of Kilmore. The abbey on Devinish 
Island in Lough Erne, founded by St. Molaise or Laisrean, in the 
sixth century, was celebrated for many ages as a seat of learning 
and religion, and some of its venerable ruins still remain, together 



80 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTESS, A. D. 1260. 



espouse the daughter of Dubhghall (Dugald), the 
son of Sorley (Mac Donnell). 

Cathal jMac Consnamha, chief of Muintir Kenny 
(in Leitrim), had his eyes put out by Hugh 
O'Conor, who also put out the eyes of the hos- 
tages of Donal O'Rourke, namely, Niall Mac 
Donogh, and Bryan Mac Neill, and Ukewise those 
of the hostages of Hy Briuin. 

Hugh O'Conor and Bryan O'Neill held a con- 
ference at Daiminis (Devinish Island), on Lough 
Erne. 

Hugh O'Conormadepeace withDonal O'Rourke, 
and gave him the lordship of Brefney. 
Taichleach Mac Dermott died. 
Miles Mac Costello died. 

Hugh O'Conor took Gilbert Mac Costello pri- 
soner, and plundered the entire of Sliabh Lugha 
(in the county of Sligo). Gilbert gave his three 
sons as hostages for his own release, and Hugh 
O'Conor set him at lil)erty. 

Teige O'Brien, heir presumptive of Munster, 
died. 

Sidhridh O'Boyle was slain by his own kinsmen. 
O'Donnell (Donal Oge), collected a great force 
and marched into Tyrone ; Hugh Buidhe O'Neill 
marched with another force to join him, and they 
jDlundered the adjoining territories and proceeded 
into Oriel, and all submitted to them wherever 
they came, after which they returned home. 

Felim O'Tuathail (O' Toole), lord of Siol or Hy 
Muiredhaigh,- cUed. 



A. D. 1260. 

Cionaoth O'Beirne, prior of Kilmore, (in Ros- 
common,) died. 

Maolfinnen O'Mithigen died. 

The archbishop of Armagh consecrated Mala- 
chy O'Conor' a bishop at Dundalk. 

with one of the ancient round towers, a beautiful structure, in per- 
fect preservation. 

G. TeaUach Dunchndhn,'no-w the barony of Tullyhunco, in the 
county of Cavan, of wliich the Mac TIarnans or Mac Kemans were 
chiefs, as explained in the note on Brefney. 

7. Ardrathnn, a parish in the baronies of Kiltartan, Lough- 
rea, and Dunkellin, in the county of Galway. Kilcolgan 
another parish in the same baronies. 

A. D. 1259. 

1 . Aodh Buidhe or Hiiyh Buidhe O'Neill, that is Hugh 
O'Neill, the Yellow, prince of Tyrone, who about this time took 
possession of a great part of tlie counties of Down and Antrim, 
which districts were called from him Upper and Lower Clanaboy, 
as explained in the note on Balaradin. 

2. Siol or Hy Muireudlmigh, sometimes called I Mail, was an 



The battle of Drom Deirg^ at Dundaleathghlas 
(Downpatrick) was fought by Brj-^an O'Neill and 
Hugh O'Conor against the English of the north of 
L'eland, in which many of the Irish chiefs were 
slain, namely, Bryan O'Neill, the chief ruler of 
Ireland ; Donal O'Cairre ; DermodMac Loughlin ; 
Manus O'Kane ; Kane O'Hennery ; Donslevey 
Mac Can ; Conor O'Duvdiorma, and his son ; 
Hugh O'Kane ; Murtogh O'Kane ; Awlave 
O'Gormley ; Cu-ula O'Hanlon ; and Niall O'Han- 
lon ; and in the whole fifteen chiefs of the O'Kanes 
were slain there. A number of the chiefs of Con- 
naught were also killed there, namely, Gillcreest, 
son of Conor, son of Cormac, son of Tomaltach 
(]\Iac Dermott), lord of ^loylui-g : Cathal, son of 
Tiarnan O'Conor ; Maolrooney Mac Donagh ; 
Cathal Mac Donagh, the son of Murtogh ; Hugh, 
son of IMurtogh Fionn ; Teige, son of Cathal, 
son of Bryan O'Mulrooney ; Dermod, son of 
Teige, son of Murrogh, son of Tomaltach O'Mul- 
rooney ; Conor Mac Gillarraith ; Teige, the son 
ofKian O'Gara; Gillbaraigh O'Cuinn(O'Quinn) ; 
Carolus Mac Anespoig O'Murray, with many 
others of the chiefs, and common soldiers of the 
Irish. 

Mac William Burke marched with a force to 
attack Felim O'Conor, and plundered the country 
before him, until he came to Roscommon; he did 
not, however, attempt to proceed further, for 
Felim and his son Hugh-na-n-Gall were in the 
Tuatha prepared to meet him, and the Cona- 
cians were at their back in the recesses ; so they 
came to a resolution on both sides to make peace, 
which they accordingly did ; and Mac William re- 
tmnied home. 

Mac Maurice marched with his forces into Tho- 
mond to attack Conor O'Brien, who was then at 
Coin Bearrain,^ where the chiefs of his people 
assembled to support him ; the English w'ere 

ancient territory in the county of Wicklow, of which the O'Tua- 

thails or O'Tooles were chiefs. 

A. D. 12fiO. 

1. Miilachy O'Cono)", bishop of Elphin, is tlie person here men- 
tioned, who died A. D. 1262. 

2. The Battle of Drom Deirg, at Downpatrick. Stephen 
Longespe or Longsword, earl of Salisbury, tlien lord deputy of 
Ireland, commanded the English in the battle of Down. Bryan 
O'Neill, prince of Tyrone, who fell in this battle, is generally desig- 
nated by the Irish writers, B rian-Catha-JUuin, that is, Bryan of 
the battle of Down. 

3. Coin Bearrain was probably Kilbarron, near Burrisokane in 
Tipperary, on the borders of the Shannon or Lough Derg, opposite 
the county of Clare, a place where there were some ancieut castles. 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



81 



defeated by them ia the first onset ; and Da\nd Pren- 
dergast, who was a powerful knight; the Failgeach ; 
the parson of Ardrathan ;* Thomas Barret, and 
many others whose names have not been recorded, 
were slain. 

Manns, son of Hugh Mac Oiraghty, was slain 
by Donal O'Flaithimh. 

Loughhn, son of Awlave, son of Art O'Rourke, 
and Tiarnan, his brother, were killed by Hugh 
O'Conor, after they had been dehvered to him by 
Donal, son of NiaU, son of Congallach O'Rourke. 

Donal, son of Conor, son of Tiarnan O'Rourke, 
was killed by the people of Tidlyhuncho (in Ca- 
van) ; and Murtogh, his brother, was slain soon 
afterwards by Hugh O'Conor. 

Art Beag, son of Ai-t O'Rourke, was slain by 
Hugh O'Conor. 

Teige Duv, son of NiaU, son of Congalach, was 
slain by Malachy, son of Awlave, son of Art 
(O'Rom-ke). 

A great depredation was committed by Hugh 
O'Conor, in Tuaith Ratha (in Roscommon), on 
which occasion Conor Mac Brannan, chief of Core 
Achlan ; Murtogh O'Maonaigh ; the son of Bryan 
O'Fallon, and many others, were slain. 

A depredation was committed by Mac Maurice 
on O'Donnell ; but a party of O'Donnell's people 
overtook him at Bennan Brechmoighe, where 
thej^ burned some of his people, and slew 
others. 

An immense depredation was committed by 
O'DonneU on Mac Maurice; and he, (O'Donnell), 
plundered the whole of Carbury (in Sligo). 

The fortress of Conor O'Kelly (in Galway), was 
burned by the people of Hugh O'Conor. 

Sitrick Mac Seanlaigh was slain in Athlone by Don- 
cathach Mac Oiraghty andTomaltaghMac Oiraghty. 

O'Donnell marched with a predatory force into 
TjTone, after the battle of Dun (Down), and plun- 
dered and biu-ned the greater portion of Tyi'one 
on that occasion. 

Abraham O'Conellan, coarb of St. Patrick, 
(archbishop of Aimagh), died. 



A. D. 1261. 
Maolpatrick O'Scannail(orO'Scanlan), bishop of 



4. Ardrahan, a parish in the county of Galway. The chief called 
FailReacli was probably O'Conor Failgeach, that is, O'Conor, lord 
of Oifaly in the King's county. Mac Maurice mentioned above, as 



Rathboth (Raphoe), was elected archbishop of 
.\i"magh. 

Sixteen of the most distinguished of the clergy 
of Tirconnell, together with Conor O'Firgil, were 
slain by Conor O'Neill and the people of Tyrone, 
at Deny Columkille. Conor O'Neill was soon 
afterwards killed by Donn O'Breislein, chief of 
Fanad (in Donegal), through the miracles of God 
and Columkille. 

Hugh, son of Malachy O'Conor, was slain by 
MaoltavaiU O'Heyne. 

Cathal O'Hara, together with five others of the 
people of Lieney, were slain by the English, at 
the instigation of Bermingham, in the great church 
of St. Fechin at Ballysadare. 

Fingin, son of Donal Mac Carthy, and his 
brethren, waged war and committed many depre- 
dations on the EnffUsh. 

The Geraldines marched with a great force into 
Desmond, to attack Mac Carthy (Fingin), who 
encountered and defeated them in an engagement 
in which eight barons, five knights, and several 
others of the English gentry, were slain, together 
with John Mac Thomas, and BaiTy More ; an 
innumerable host of their common soldiers also 
fell in that battle. 

Fingin jNIac Carthy was slain afterwards by 
the English ; and his brother, the Aithchleireach 
Mac Carthy, assumed the lordship of Des- 
mond. 

Art, son of Cathal Riavach O'Rourke, made 
his escape from Hugh O'Conor ; and the chiefs of 
Brefney and Conmaicne gave him the government 
of Bref iiey. 

Donal O'Hara plundered the sons of Ber- 
mingham in revenge for the killing of Cathal 
O'Hara, and violating the church of St. Fechin 
(at Ballysadare) ; and he slew Sefin, son of 
Bermingham, the weapon with which he kil- 
led him being the bell which he (Bermingham), 
had carried away from the chm'ch of Bally- 
sadare. 

Biyan Roe O'Brien burned and demoUshed the 
castle of O'Conaing (Castleconnell in Limerick), 
and slew all the gaiTison. 

The fortress of Hugh O'Conor, at Snamh- 

eommander of the English, was sir Gerald Fitzgerald, baron of 
OfFaly, who was son to Maurice Fitzgerald, formerly lord justice of 
Ireland. 

M 



82 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1262. 



an-Redaigh,' was burned by the men of Bref- 
ney. 

Cluan Suilionn, the fortress of Fehm O'Conor, 
was burned. 

Torlogh Oge, son of Hugh O'Conor, was sent 
to Art O'Rourke to be fostered. 

A great prey was taken by Hugh O'Conor 
in Brefney ; who marched as far as Druim 
Leathan (Dromlane in Cavan), where a part of 
his forces were encountered and defeated, and 
many of his common soldiers slain. 

Hugh Buidlie O'Neill was deposed, and Niall 
Culanach O'Neill was appointed in his place. 

Niall O'Gormley, chief of Kinel Moain, died. 

Niall Culanach O'Neill was defeated in battle 
by O'Donnell ; and many of the chiefs of Tyi-one 
were slain and taken prisoners, amongst whom 
were Mac CathmoU, chief of Kinel Feredaigh, and 
many other chiefs (in Tyrone), not recorded. 



A.D. 1262. 

Maolpatrick O'Scannail, archbishop of Armagh, 
celebrated mass in a Pallium, on the Octave of 
John the Baptist, at Armagh. 

Malachy, son of Teige O'Conor, bishop of 
Elphin, died. 

The English of Ireland marched with an im- 
mense force to attack Fehm, son of Cathal Crov- 
dearg (O'Conor), and his son Hugh-na-n-Gall ; 
upon which O'Conor sent the greater portion of 
the cattle of Connaught into Tirconnell, to secure 
them from the English, while he himself remained 
at Inis Saimer (Ballyshannon), to defend his pro- 
perty and people. Mac William Burke proceeded 
with his forces from the west across Tochar Mona 
Coinneadha, and anived at Elphin. The lord 
justice of Ireland and John de Verdun came by 
Athlone to Roscommon. They sent out scouting 
parties into Kinel Dobhtha Mic Aongusa,' and 
plundered aU those that remained in Connaught 
after O'Conor; and they also marked out the 
place for a castle at Roscommon. Hugh O'Conor 
at the same time collected his forces, marched into 



A.D. 1261. 
1. Snamhanredaigh, probably Drumsna, on the Sliannon, on the 
borders of Leitrim and Roscommon 

A.D. 126-2. 
1 . Kinel Dobhtha Mic Aongusa, a district along the Shannon, in 



the west of Connaught, and plundered all the 
country eastward from Mayo of the Saxons and 
Balla, burned their (the English) towns and corn 
as far as Sliabh Lugha (in Mayo), and slew many 
people between those places. He sent his chiefs 
and young officers into South Connaught, and they 
bm'ned and plundered the country from Tuam to 
Athlone, and slew all the fighting men whom they 
met between those places. After this the English 
sent messengers to O'Conor and his son, oflfering 
them terms of peace. Hugh (O'Conor) went to 
Ath-Doire-Chuirc to hold a conference, in which 
they made peace, neither party yielding to the 
other hostages or securities, on the occasion. 
Hugh O'Conor and Mac William Burke slept 
together that night, after the peace, in the same bed, 
cheerfully and amicably ; and on the following day 
the English departed, after taking leave of O'Conor. 

Hugh Buidhe O'Neill was again restored (to 
his principality), and Niall Culanach was deposed. 

A great depredation was committed by the 
English of Meath on GioUa-na-neev O'Ferrall, 
lord of Anally ; and his own party, having con- 
spired with the EngUsh, deposed him, and 
conferred the lordship on the son of Murrogh 
Carrach O'Ferrall. After this GioUa-na-neev com- 
mitted many evils, depredations, plunders, da- 
mages, spohations, and slaughters on the English, 
and succeeded in recovering by main force, the 
lordship of Anally, from which he expelled the 
son of Murrogh Carrach. 

Donslevey Mac Cathmoil, chief of Kinel Fere- 
daigh, was slain by Hugh Buidhe O'Neill. 

Mac William Burke and the English of Ireland 
marched with an army into Desmond, to attack 
Mac Carthy, and proceeded as far as Mangartach 
of Lough Lein,^ where Mac Carthy slew Gerald 
Roche, who was considered one of the three best 
barons in Ireland in his time ; but the victory was 
without joy to the people of Desmond, for Cormac, 
son of Donal Gud Mac Carthy, was also slain in 
that engagement, and many of the Irish as well as of 
the English fell on the previous day at Mangartan. 



the barony of Ballintobber, county of Roscommon. The lord jus- 
tice mentioned at this time was Richard de Rupella. 

2. Mangnrtack of Liitigk Lein, that is, the Mangartan moun- 
tains at Loughlene, oue of the lakes of Killarney, in the county of 
Kerry. 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



83 



Donal O'Monnaghan was slain by the sons of 
Roderick and Teige O'Conor. 

O'Donnell (Donal Oge), marched with a force 
first into Fermanagh, and from thence to Gairbh- 
Trian-Connacht (or the Rough District of Con- 
naught, in Leitrim), and as far as Granard of 
Teffia (in Longford); and in all the places through 
which he passed the people paid him tribute and 
yielded him submission ; after which he returned 
home \'ictoriously. 



A. D. 1263. 

Thomas O'KeUy, bishop of Clonfert, and Mul- 
kiaran O'Maoileoin (or O'Malone), died. 

Da^dd O'Finn, abbot of the monastery of Boyle, 
and Gillpatrick Mac Giolla-na-Guisen, priorof Doi- 
rein,' a man eminent for piety and hospitality, died. 

Donn O'Breslein was slain in the bishop's court 
at Raphoe, by Donal O'Donnell. 

Mac William (Burke)- having marched a force 
to attack Fehm O'Conor and his son, came as far 
as Roscommon ; but the Siol MuiTay (©'Conor's 
people), fled before them into the north of Con- 
naught, and the Enghsh found nothing to plunder 
on that expedition. Donogh O'Flynn and Teige 
his son, attacked their forces, and slew one hun- 
dred of them, both officers and common soldiers, 
amongst whom were Aitin Russel, and his son, the 
five sons of Cuchonaght O'Conor, and many 
others, after which the army (of the English) 
retm-ned to their homes much dismayed. Maol- 
favaill O'Heyne was slain by the English. 

Dermod Clerach, son of Cormac Mac Dermott, 
died. 

Aindiles Mac Fionnvar,' chief of Muintir 
Gearadhain, died. 



A. D. 1263. 

1. Doirein, supposed to be Ballagliaderrcen, in the parish of 
Kileoleman, barony of Clanmorris, county of Mayo, where a Car- 
melite Friary was founded by the Prendergasts in the thirteenth 
century. 

2. Mac William Burke, so often mentioned at this period, was 
Walter de Burgo or Burke, son of Richard de Burgo, formerly 
lord justice of Ireland, and grandson of William de Burgo ; hence 
he is called by the annalists Mac William Burke. Walter having 
married the daughter of Hugh de Lacy the younger, earl of Ulster, 
obtained, in right of his wife, the earldom of Ulster; and, 
besides being earl of Ulster, was also styled lord of Connaught. 
He was the most powerful nobleman in Ireland in his time, and 
formed alliances with many great families, by the intermarriage of 
five of his daughters, one of whom was married to Robert Bruce, 
king of Scotland ; two others to the Fitzgeralds, earls of Kildare 



A castle was built by Mac William Burke at 
Athangail in Con-an (in the county of Sligo). 

Machair O'Ruadhain was slain by the English 
in the porch of the church of Kilsesgnen.* 

Etaoin, daughter of O'Flanagan, died. 

O'Donnell (Donal Oge), led his forces into 
Connaught, and joined Hugh O'Conor at the 
Curlew mountains, fi'om whence they proceeded 
to Cruachan,'^ westward across the river Suck, and 
from that into Clanricard ; they completely plun- 
dered and devastated the country as far as Echtge 
and to Galway, where Hugh O'Conor parted from 
O'Donnell to retiu-n home ; O'Donnell then pro- 
ceeded across Sruthair and Rodhba, through 
TjTawley, and across the Moy, and enforced 
tributes and submission from all. 

Hugh, son of Fehm (O'Conor), committed great 
depredations on the English of Sliabh Lugha and 
of Ciarraidhe (in the county of Mayo), slew 
many of them, and cai'ried away a great number 
of cattle. 



A.D. 1264. 

Aongus O'Clumain, bishop of Lieney (Achonry), 
died in the monasteiy of Boyle, he having long 
before resigned his bishopric. 

A war broke out between Art O'Melaghhn and 
the English of Meath, and he slew and di-o^Tied 
many of them in a battle at the river Brosnach (in 
King's county). 

Murtogh, son of Donal O'Hart, was slain, and 
his people's property burned by Donogh Maguire 
(in Fermanagh). 

The people of Dealbhna' committed a great 
depredation in the ten-ltorj- of Siol Anmchadha, 



and Desmond ; another to de Bermingham, earl of Louth; and the 
fifth to the earl of Gloucester, in England. He died A.D. 1271. 
See Lodge's Peerage bv Archdall. 

3. Mac Fionnbhar or Mac Fiimaver, chief of Muinter Geradh- 
ain, a district m Muintir Eoluis, county of Leitrim.— See note on 

Brefhev. 

4. Kilsesgnen, an old church in the parish of Killasser, barony 
of Gallen, county of Mayo. 

5. Cruachan, near Elphin in Roscommon. Echtge, a district 
in the south east of Galway, on the borders of Clare, so called from 
the mountain Echtge, nowSlieveAughty. Sruthair and Rodhba 
are the rivers Shrule and Ballinrobe. 

A.D. 1264. 
1. Dealbhna, or Delvin, here mentioned, was Dealbhna Eathra, 

M 2 



84 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1265. 



and slew the five sons of O'Madden on that 
occasion. 

A conference was held at Athlone between the 
lord justice of Ireland (accompanied by the 
Enghsh, the earl of Ulster, and Maurice Fitz- 
gerald, with their united forces), and Fehm 
O'Conor, together with his son. The English 
were much perplexed and dismayed in mind when 
they beheld the king of Connaught and his son 
advancing with a great force to attend the meeting, 
and they came to a resolution to sue for peace. 
Fehm and the chiefs of his people consented to 
make peace with them, and they afterwards sepa- 
rated on peaceable tenns. 

A war broke out between Mac William Burke, 
earl of Ulster, and Mac Maurice Fitzgerald ; and 
the greater portion of Ireland was laid waste 
between them. The earl took all the castles in 
Connaught belonging to Fitzgerald, burned his 
manors, and plundered his people. 

Art O'Melaghlin burned all the castles and 
towns in Delvm,^ in Calraigh, and in Breaghmaine, 
and expelled aU the English therefrom, and after- 
wards took hostages from their chiefs. 

The lord justice of Ireland, with John Cogan, 
and Tiboid (Theobald) Butler, were taken pri- 
soners by Maurice Fitzgerald' in a consecrated 
church. 

The castles of Lough Mask (in Mayo), and 
Ardrahan, were taken by Mac Wilham (Burke). 

Maolpatrick O'Scannail, archbishop of Armagh, 
brought the friars minor to Armagh ; and it was 
Mac Donnell, the GaUoglaoch (according to 
tradition), who commenced the building of that 
monastei-y. 



A.D. 1265. 

Thomas, son of Fergal Mac Dermott, bishop of 
Elpliin, Thomas O'Maicin (or O'Miachain), bishop 



now the barony of Garrycastle, in the King's county, and not Del- 
vin in Westmeath. Siolajimchadha , now the barony of Longford, 
in the county of Galway, was O'Madden's territorj'. 

2. Delvin barony in Westnieath. Breaghmaine, the barony of 
Brawney in Westmeath. Calraigh was an ancient territory com- 
prising part of the barony of Clonlonan, in Westmeath, and, according 
to Mac Geoghegan, part of the barony of Kilcourey, in the King's 
county, of which the Mac Gawleys were chiefs. See note on Meath. 

3. Maurice Fitzgerald, so frequently mentioned at this period, 
was son of the former Maurice Fitzgerald, lord justice of Ireland. 



of Lieney (Achonry), and Maolbride O'Gruagain 
(O'Grogan), archdeacon of Elphm, died. 

Maurice, son of Niall O'Conor, was elected to 
the see of Elphin. 

The castle of Shgo was demohshed by Hugh 
O'Conor and by O'Donnell, and they also burned 
and destroyed , the castles of Beannada and of 
Rath- Ardcroibhe. ' 

The monastery of Tobberpatrick (in Mayo) was 
burned. 

Teige Mac Fionnvar was slain by Conor Mac 
Rannall and the son of Donal O'Ferrall. 

Felim, son of Cathal Crovdearg O'Conor, king 
of Connaught, the defender and protector of his 
province, and of all his friends ; the spoiler and 
exterminator of his enemies ; a man eminent for 
hospitality, generosity, and magnanimity; a patron 
of religious orders, of the clergy, and of learned 
men ; a worthy heir to the crown of Ireland for 
his nobility, his personal figure, braveiy, wisdom, 
justice, and truthfulness, died after the victory of 
extreme unction and penance, in the monastery of 
the friars of St. Dominick, at Roscommon, which 
he himself had dedicated to God, and granted to 
that order.^ Hugh O'Conor, his son, was appoin- 
ted his successor as king of Connaught, who made 
his regal plundering excursion into Otfaley, and, 
on his return to Athlone, put out the eyes of 
Cathal, son of Teige O'Conor, of which punish- 
ment he died. 

Murtogh, son of Cathal, son of Dermod, son of 
Teige O'Mulrooney, lord of Moylurg, died. 

Giolla-na-neev O'Quinn, chief of Muinter GioU- 
gain (in Longford) ; Cathal Mac Rannall, chief of 
Muintir Eoluis, and Muireagh O'CaiToll, cliief of 
Calry (in Leitrim), died. 

A conference was held by Tomaltagh O'Conor, 
archbishop of Tuam, with David Prendergast and 
the Mac Murchadas ; and many of the archbishop's 
people were slain by them on that day, at Kil- 
meadhain (Kilmaine, county of jMayo). Dearvor- 



A. D. 1265. 

1. Ardcrnoihhe, now Ardclare, in the parish of Kilmacteige, 
barony of Lieney, county of Sligo. Beannada, or Banada, a vil- 
lage in the same parish. 

2. King Felini O'Conor had a magnificent marble monument in 
the abbey of Roscommon, ornamented with beautiful sculptured 
representations of his body-guard of galloglasses, with their 
ancient arms and armour. 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



85 



gall, daughter of O'Dowd (the mother of the arch- 
bishop Tomaltach O'Conor), died, after receiving 
the rites of the church. 



A.D. 1266. 

O'Scopa, a friar of the order of St. Dominick, 
was conseci-ated a bishop at Armagh for the see of 
Raphoe. Thomas O'Maolconry, archdeacon of 
Tuam, and Maolisa O'Hanainn, prior of Roscom- 
mon and Athleague, died. 

Thomas O'Miadhachain (O'Meehan), became 
bishop of Lieney (Achonry). 

A bishop elect came from Rome to Clonfert' of 
St. Brenan, and he, together ^viib Thomas O'Mee- 
han, were consecrated bishops at Athenry, on the 
Sunday before Christmas. 

Donal O'Hara, lord of Lieny, was slain by the 
Enghsh while he was burning Ardnaree. 

Mahon, son of Cethernach O'Keirin, lord of 
Ciarraidhe (in Mayo), was slain by the English. 

Mahon O'Cuilein, lord of Claonglaise,^ was 
killed by his wife with a thrust of a knife, which 
she gave him through jealousy. 

The castle of Tighe-da-Coinne^ was demolished, 
and the entire of Conmaicne was laid waste. 

Torlogh, son of Hugh, son of Cathal Crovdearg 
(O'Conor), died in the monasteiy of Knocmoy. 

Dermod Roe, son of Conor, son of Cormac Mac 
Dermott, and Donncathach, son of Duinoig Mac 
Oiraghty, had then" eyes put out by Hugh 
O'Conor. 

The borough of Beol-an-Tachair'' was burned 
by Flann Roe O'Flynn, who slew many of the 
EngUsh of the town. 

Hugh O'Conor, king of Connaught, marched 
into Brefney to depose Ai-t, son of Cathal Riavach 
(O'Rourke), and he conferred the lordship of 
Brefney on Conor Buidhe, son of Awlave, son of 
Art O'Rourke, and took hostages from all the 
chiefs of Brefney. 



A. D. 1266. 
1 . Clonfert. The bishop of Clonfert here mentioned was John, 
an Italian, the Pope's Nuncio, who, being appointed to the see of 
Clonfert, was consecrated at Athenry, and the year following went 
to Rome, but returned soon afterwards, and continued bishop of 
Clonfert until A.D. 1-296, when he was translated to the see of 
Benevento iu Italy. Robert, a monk of Christ Church, Canter- 
bury, succeeded as bishop of Clonfert, and died A. D. 1307. See 
Ware's Bishops, by Harris. 



Wilham Burke marched with a force to attack 
O'MelaghUn ; and many of his men were drowned 
at Ath Crochda,'^ and he was obliged to return 
without succeeding or gaining hostages. 

A party of O'Conor's people, namely, Loughlin 
Mac Dermott; the sonof MurtoghMac Carney; and 
the son of Donal Duv O'Hara, committed great 
slaughter on the Welsh and Leinster men, in the 
west of Connaught, and brought thirty-one of 
them pi'isoners to O'Conor. 

Cormac, son of Gillcreest Mac Dermott, re- 
ceived a wound, of which he died. 

Sava, daughter of Cathal Crovdearg (O'Conor), 
and Maoleoin Bodhar O'Mulconry, historiographer 
of Siol Murray (in Roscommon), died. 

Maolpatrick O'Scannail, primate of Armagh, 
brought friars minor to Armagh ; and he caused 
a deep and broad ditch to be constructed round 
their church. 



A. D. 1267. 

The bishop of Clonfert, that is, the Roman, went 
to the court of the Pope. 

Murogh Mac Sweeney was taken prisoner in 
Hy MaUa (in Mayo), by Donal, son of Manus 
O'Conor, who delivered him into the hands of the 
earl (Burke, earl of Ulster), and he died in prison. 

Biyan, son of Torlogh, son of Roderick O'Conor, 
died in the monastei-y of Knockmoy. 

Mac William (Burke) made a predatory attack 
on O'Conor, and plundered Tir Maine and Clan 
Uadach (in Roscommon). 

The English of the west of Connaught commit- 
ted depredations in Carbm-y of DrumcUff, and 
plundered Ballysadare. 

Donogh, son of Roderick, son of Hugh O'Conor, 
was slain by the English. 

The king of Connaught was seized with a 
grievous disease, the report of which was made 
known aU over Ireland. 



2. Claonglaise, an ancient territory in Limerick. See note on 
Thomond. 

3. Tighe-da-Coinne, probably Tiaquinn, in the county of 

Galway. 

4. Belantachair, probably Ballintogher, barony of Tyrerrell, 
county of Sligo. 

5. Ath Crochda was the ancient name of a ford on the Shan- 
non, at the place now called Shannon Uarbour. 



86 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1268-69. 



Alise, daughter of Mac Cargavna (in West- 
meath), died. 

Hugh O'Murray, chief of the Lagan,' was slain 
at Kilalla by O'Maolfoghmalr, the coarb of the 
church, on Sunday, after hearing Mass. 



A.D. 1268. 

Hugh, son of Conor O'Flaherty, the official 
(vicar general) of Anadown (in Galway), died. 

The great church of Armagh was commenced 
to be built by the primate, Gillpatrick O'Scan- 
nail. 

Conor Roe O'Brien, lord of Thomond, his son 
John, his daughter, his daughtei-'s son, that is, the 
son of Roderick O'Gara, Duvloghlin O'Loughlln, 
Thomas O'Beolan, and many others, were slain by 
Dermod, the son of Murtogh O'Brien, but he 
himself was soon afterwards killed. 

Bryan, son of Conor O'Brien, then assumed the 
lordship of Thomond. 

Torlogh Oge, son of Hugh, son of FeUm, son 
of Cathal Crovdearg (O'Conor), the ward of the 
Hy Briune, died. 

Awlave O'FerraU, the tower of defence of the 
Conmacnians (in Longford), was treacherously 
slain by the English. 

Conor O'Kelly, lord of Hy Maine ; Aongus 
O'Daly, a man eminent for poetiy, and who kept 
a house of hospitality ; Manus Mac Oiraghty, 
chief of Clan Tomalty ; Donal O'Grady, chief of 
Kinel Dungaile ; and Dubhgall Mac Rory, lord 
of Innsi Gall, and of the eastern Irish, died.' 

Maurice Roe Fitzgerald was drowned at sea, 
along with all the crew of a ship, on his passage 
from England. 

Hugh O'Conor marched with his forces to at- 
tack the English of Athlone, who met him at the 
Feadha (woody district), and an engagement en- 
sued, in which the English were defeated, and 
many of them slain. 

Donn, son of Teige O'Monaghan (in Roscom- 



A. D. 1267. 

1. Lagan a district in the north of the barony of Tyrawlej", 
county of Mayo, of which the O'Murrays were chiefs. 

A.D. 1208. 
1. O'Kelly was lord of Hy Maine, in Galway and Boscommon. 



mon), and ten of his people, were slain by Teige 
O'Flanagan and GiUcreest O'Beirne. 

Fergal O'MulIoy, chief of Ferkale (King's 
County), and Malachy Mac Coghlan, were slain 
by the English. 

Aongus O'Maolfoghmalr was slain by the 
O'Murrays (in Mayo), in revenge for the death of 
their chief. 



A.D. 1269. 

David O'Brogain, bishop of Clogher, died, and 
was interred in the monastery of Mehfont, for he 
was one of the monks of that place. 

Teige, son of Niall, son of Morogh O'Conor, 
was slain at Elphin by a young man of his own 
kinsmen, who was put to death for that deed. 

Ivar O'Beirne, a young chief, the confidential 
friend of Hugh O'Conor, abandoned the cares of 
the world, and retiring fi'om the midst of his 
family and property, entered the monastery of 
Roscommon, where he spent the remainder of his 
days amongst the brothers of St. Dominick. 

Biyan, son of Donal Duv O'Hara, was slain by 
the English at Sligo. 

Benmidhe, daughter of Torlogh, son of Roderick 
(O'Conor), the wife of Maolmuire Mac Sweeney; 
Geoffrey, son of Donal Clannach Mac Gillpatrick, 
lord of Slieve Bloom (in Ossory) ; and Hugho 
Feenaghty, an eminent minstrel, died. 

Echmilidh Mac Arten (in the county of Down), 
was slain by O'Hanlon (of Armagh). 

Donal O'Fen-all and Hugh his son, men distin- 
guished for friendship, hospitality and benevolence, 
were slain by GioUa-na-neev O'Ferral and the 
English. 

Christina, daughter of O'Naghten, the wife of 
Dennod Midheagh Mac Dermott, the most distin- 
guished woman of her tribe for hospitality and 
benevolence, and the most bountiful benefactress 
to the order of grey friars, died after the victory 
of repentance. 



Mac Oiraghty was chief of Clan Tomaltaijih in Roscommon. 
O'Grady was chief of Kinel Dungaile, a district in the county of 
Clare. Dubhgall or Dugald Mac Rory, lord of Innsi Gall, tliat 
is, lord of the Hebrides. The Mac Rorys were a branch of tlie 
Mac Donnells of the Hebrides, and are styled lords of the eastern 
Irish, as tliey had large possessions m the counties of Down and 
Antrim. 



REIGN OF HENRY III. 



87 



The castle of Sligo was re-built by Mac Maurice 
Fitzgerald, after it had been destroyed by Hugh 
O'Conor and O'Donnell. 

The castle of Roscommon was built by Robert 
de Ufford, lord justice of Ireland, taking advan- 
tage of the illness of Hugh O'Conor, king of 
Connaught, who on that account could not engage 
the English in battle, nor oppose them in building 
the castle, and Connaught was plundered a hun- 
dred times over by the English before his recovery. 

Flaherty O'Maoilfhiona (O'Mulleeney), chief of 
the half of Calraighe of Moy Heleog,' was slain 
by O'Gaibhtheachain (O'Gavaghan) his co-pai"tner 
chief. 



A.D. 1370. 

Maolpatrick O'Scannail, archbishop of Armagh, 
went to England to be presented to the king, who 
received him honourably, and he returned invested 
with great authority. 

A great war arose between O'Conor and the 
earl of Ulster, Walter Burke, who together with 
the lord justice (Robert de Utford), collected the 
nobles of the Enghsh of Ireland, and also theu* 
Irish allies, with whom they marched into Con- 
naught, and came to Roscommon the first night, 
and on the second to Elphin, from whence they 
proceeded to Port Lecce, where they halted and 
encamped for that night ; on the following day 
they proceeded to Ath-Cara-Conaill (Carrick-on- 
Shannon), across the Shannon eastward. The 
king of Connaught was at this time with a few of 
the chiefs of his people, in Moy Nise,' prepared to 
meet the English, and the lord justice with a small 
portion of the English army, remained on the 
eastern side of the Shannon, to watch their move- 
ments. When the earl had passed Ath-Caradh- 
Conaill, a small division of O'Conor's forces 
attacked the English in the woods of Conmaicne, 



A. D. 1269. 
I. Cnlrnigh of Moy Hehog, an ancient district in the county 
of Mayo, now the parish of Crossmolina, of which O'Maolfhiona 
was head chief, from whom Crossmolina derived its name. 

A. D. 1270. 

1. Moj/ Nine was a district along the Shannon in the county of 
Leitrim, near Carrick-on-Shannon ; and the events here narrated 
occurred about tliat place, and in those parts of Roscommon on the 
opposite side of the Shannon. 

2. Kllcolinain Castle was in the parish of Kilcoleman in the 



and slew many of them, after which they returned 
to Moy Nise, where they encamped for the night. 
They then held a council, and came to the reso- 
lution of making peace with the king of Connaught, 
and agreed to deliver the earl's brother (William 
Oge, the son of Rickard Mac William), into the 
hands of O'Conor's people, while he himself 
(O'Conor), should be at the earl's residence 
ratifying the peace. This having been done, 
O'Conor's people immediately made the earl's 
brother prisoner, and slew John Dolofin and his 
son. When the earl received intelligence of this, 
he became enraged, and he spent that night in 
sadness and in soitow, and early on the following 
morning he mustered his English and Irish forces, 
and marched towards O'Conor's residence, until 
they arrived at Ath-an-chip, where they met 
Torlogh O'Brien front to front, who was on his 
march to aid O'Conor. The earl personally at- 
tacked Torlogh, and remembering his enmity to 
him, he slew him on the spot. The Conacian 
forces at this time advanced up to the ford, and 
fell on the English with their horse and foot, broke 
their van guards, dislodged their rere ranks after 
much opposition ; and slew nine of their chief 
knights at the ford, along ^vith Rickard (Burke) 
of the Wood, and John Butler, with many of 
their other officers and of the common soldiers. 
They also took immense booty from them, con- 
sisting of arms, armour, horses, &c. 

After the battle the earl's brother was slain by 
O'Conor as an Eraic (in retaliation) for the son of 
O'Brien, who was slain by the earl. 

The castle of Ath-an-Gaile, the castle of Sliabh 
Lugha, and the castle of Kill Colmain^ were pulled 
down by O'Conor, and Roscommon, Rinn-Duin, 
and Uillinn Uanach, were also burned by him. 

Bryan Roe O'Brien turned against the English; 
he committed great plunders on them, and took 
the castle of Clar-Ath-da-Caradh.^ 



barony of Costello, county of Mayo. SUabh Luglin a mountainous 
district in the barony of Costello, county of Mayo. Uillinn 
Uanach. Sliabh Cairpre in Longford, according to O'Reilly, was 
originally called Sliahh Uilinn, hence probably Uiluin Uanach and 
Sliabh Uillinn were the same, the castle of which might be on the 
opposite side of the Shannon to that of Rinn Diii>i,'now St. John's, 
a peninsula running into Lough Ree, on the Roscommon side of the 
Shannon. 

3. Clnr-Atha-da-Caradh, now Clarisford near Killaloe, in the 
county of Clare. 



88 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1271-72. 



The earl (of Ulster) and the Enghsh of Con- 
naught committed great plunders in Tirerell, on 
the people of Hugh O'Conor, and David Cuisin 
was slain on that occasion. 

The son of MuiTogh Gan-ach O'Fen-all, a bear 
in agility, a leopard in activity, and famous for 
feats of arms, was slain by the Enghsh. 

Tannaidhe More, son of Duinnin, son of Nedhe, 
son of Conaing Buidhe O'Maolconry, was appoin- 
ted chief Historiographer of Connaught ; and 
Dubhsuileach O'Maolconry and Dunking O'Maol- 
conry were removed from that professorship. 

Sligo was burned by O'Donnell and the people 
of Tyrconnell ; and Mac Breallagh-an-chairn 
O'Maolbrennan was slain on that occasion. 



A.D. 1271. 

Simon iNIagrath, dean of Ardcarne, cUed. 

Walter Burke, earl of Ulster, and lord of the 
English of Connaught, died in the castle of Gal- 
way of a short sickness, after the victoiy of 
repentance. 

Thomas Mac Maurice died in the town of Lough 
Mask.' 

Ivar O'Beirne, the confidential friend of Hugh 
O'Conor, died in Roscommon after the victory of 
repentance, and was buried there. 

Hugh O'Conor, the son of the coarb of St. 
Coman, was slain by Thomas Butler, at Muine- 
Inghine-Crechain (in Roscommon). 

Donal O'Flynn was slain by the son of Robin 
Lawless on the same day at the upper end of 
Sruthra.2 

Mahon O'Conor was slain by the English of 
Dunmore (in Galway). 

Nicholas, son of John Verdun, lord of Oriel, 
was slain by Geoffrey O'Ferrall. 

Conor, son of Tiarnan O'Conor, was slain by 
Malachy, son of Art O'Rourke, and by the Clan 
Fermuighe (in Leitrim). 



A.D. 1271 

1 . Lough Mask. The town here mentioned was called Bally- 
lougliinask or Loughraask castle, near Lough Mask, in the county 
of Mayo. Thomas Mac Maurice here mentioned, was Thomas, the 
son of Maurice Fitzgerald. 

2. Sruthra, now the parish of Shrule, barony of Kilmain, county 
of Mayo. 

3. Templehotise Castle or Caulean-Tighe-Templa, was a house 
of tlie knights templars, founded by the English in the thirteenth 



The castle of Templehouse,' the castle of Sligo, 
and the castle of Athleague were demolished by 
Hugh O'Conor. 

Hugh, son of Niall O'Dowd, (in Sligo), died. 



A.D. 1272. 

Henry Butler, lord of Umaha (in Mayo), and 
Hoitse Medbrick, were slain by Cathal, son of 
Conor Roe (O'Conor), and by the sons of Mur- 
togh O'Conor. 

The castle of Roscommon was demolished by 
Hugh O'Conor, king of Connaught. 

TeigeDall(the Bhnd), son of Hugh,son of Cathal 
Crovdearg (OConor), died, and he was the most 
eligible candidate for the crown of his tribe, until 
he was bhnded by the people of O'Reilly. 

James Dodaly,' lord justice of Ireland, was 
slain by O'Braoin and by the Conacians. 

Maurice, son of Donogh, son of Tomaltagh 
O'Mulrooney (in Roscommon), the most hospita- 
ble and generous man of his tribe, died in the 
fortress of O'Donnell at Murbach (in Donegal), 
and his remains were conveyed to the monastery 
of Boyle, where he was buried. 

Donogh, son of Giolla-na-neev Mac Gauran, 
was slain by his brother Thomas. 

Richard Tuite, the most noble of the English 
barons, died. 

Hugh O'Conor burned Meath as far as Granard, 
and also burned Athlone, and broke down its 
bridge. 

O'Donnell (Donal Oge) collected his vessels 
and boats on Lough Erne, with which he pro- 
ceeded to Lough Uachtar, and seized on the 
property of the adjoining places, (namely, on 
the islands of that lake), which he carried away, 
plundered the people, and reduced them in all the 
neighbom-ing parts under his sway and subjection. 

Edward L^ was proclaimed king of England, 
on the 1 (3th of November. 



century, near Ballymote, county of Sligo, now the residence of 
Colonel Percival, Member of Parliament for the county. 

A.D. 1272. 

1. J'wme,'! I>orf/!?e^ was sir James Audley, then lord justice of 
Ireland. O'Braoin m the text means O'Byme, but probably it 
sliould be O'Brien, as Audley was killed in 'fhnmond. 

2. Eibcurd I. Kmg Henry I II. died on tbe 16th of November, 
A. D 1272, and was succeeded by his son Edward I. 



REIGN OF EDWARD I. 



89 




A. D. 1273. 

LAN O'Tierney, lord 
)t' C'eara,' was slain by 
O'Murray, concerning 
the lordship of Ceara, 
through the influence 
of Hugh, son of Felini 
O'Conor. 

Conor Buidhe, son 
of Awlave, son of Art 
0'Rourke,lordofBref- 
ney, was slain by the 
i^ons of Conor, son of 
I'iarnan O'Conor, for 
he (O'Rourkc) had kill- 
ed the best of the sons, namely, 
Tiarnan. 

Eochy Mac Mahon, lord of 
Oriel (Monaghan), and many 
others along with him, were slain 
by O'Hanlon and by the peojile of 
Tyrone. 

Jordan Dexetra having commit- 
ted a depredation in Corran (in 
Sligo), was overtaken by some of 
the young chiefs of Con naught, 
who imprudently attacked him by 
advice of some of their soldi ers^ 
in consequence of \>hich Donal, 
son of Donogh, son of Manus ; and Manus, son 
of Art (O'Conor); Aireachtach Mac Egan; Hugh 
O'Beu-ne, and many others were slain. 

Mac Maurice Fitzgerald marched with a great 
force into Thomond, and took hostages from 
O'Brien and brought him under subjection. 
Cormac I\Iac Dcrmott, son of Roderick, died. 
Donal of Erris, son of Manus, son of Murtogh 
Muinagh (O'Conor), was expelled from Umalia 
and fi-ora Erris, and Roderick O'Flaherty was 
expelled from West Connaught. 

O'Donnell (Donal Oge) mustered a great force 
of the chiefs of Tirconnell and of Connaught, with 
which he marched into Tyrone and spoiled the 
countn\ 

Donal O'Quinn, chief of half of Aicideach (in 
Longford), was slain by O'Dufly. 

A. D. 1273. 

1. Ceara now tlie barony of Carra, in the county of Mayo. 




A. D. 1274. 

Hugh, son of Felini, son of Cathal Crovdearg 
O'Conor, king of Connaught, a prince who laid 
waste all parts of Connaught in possession of 
both English and Irish enemies, who often defeat- 
ed the English, who demolished their courts and 
castles, and slew their chamjiions and ^varriors ; 
who took the hostages of Hy Briuin and of the 
race of Hugh Fionn ; a king who was most 
dreaded and victorious ; the most eminent for 
hospitality and magnanimity ; and who, though 
sometimes a spoiler, was also an improver of Ire- 
land, died after the victory of repentance on a 
Ihnrsday, being the third day of summer. Owen, 
son of Roderick, son of Hugh, son of Cathal Crov- 
dearg (O'Conor), was appointed king in his place, 
but he reigned only three months, when he was 
slain by one of his own kindred, namely, by 
Roderick, son of Torlogh, son of Hugh O'Conor, 
in the church of the friars at Roscommon ; and 
Hugh, the son of Cathal Dall (the Blind), son of 
Hugh, son of Cathal Crovdearg (O'Conor), was 
elected king by the Conacians, but his reign was 
not long, being slain in a fortnight after by Mac 
Oiraghty (Tomaltagh) and O'Beirne ; and Teige, 
son of Torlogh, son of Hugh, son of Cathal 
Crovdearg, was appointed king over the Cona- 
cians. 

Tiarnan, son of Hugh O'Rourke, lord of Bref- 
ney ; and Donal, son of Manus, son of Murtogh 
Muinagh (O'Conor), the most eminent man in 
Ireland for hospitality and generosity, died. 

GioUa-na-neev, son of Hugh, son of Awlave 
O'Ferrall, lord of Anally, the mainstay of hos- 
])itality and generosity of the Clanna Rory, a man 
full of dignity and abilities, intrepid against his 
enemies, but kind to his friends, died after the 
victory of repentance. 

Malachy, son of Awlave, son of Art O'Rourke, 
lord of Dartry and of Clan Fermuighe (in Leitrim), 
was slain by Conor, son of Donal, son of NiaU 
O'Rourke. 

Teige, son of CaiToll Buidhe O'Daly, chief poet 
to Hugh O'Conor, died. 

Donal Oge, son of Donal, son of Art O'Rourke ; 
and Cathal Mac Clancy, chief of Dartry (in Lei- 
trim), died. 

Fergal O'Caithniadh, lord of Erris (in Mayo), 
died in Hy Maccaechain. 

N 



90 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1275-76-77. 



A. D. 1275. 

O'Laidigh, bishop of Killala ; and Cairpre 
O'Scuapa, bishop of Raphoe, in Tirconnell, died. 

Roderick, son of Torlogh O'Conor, was taken 
prisoner by O'Conor (Teige, son of Torlogh his 
brother) : Roderick made Ids escape through the 
assistance of Conor O'Hanley, who accompanied 
him, but their pursuers overtook them, and slew 
Conor O'Hanley. 

Teige, son of Cathal Mac Dermott, was phm- 
dered by O'Conor. 

Conor, son of Fergal, son of Donogh, son of 
Murtogh (O'Conor), \\as slain by his own kinsmen. 

Art, son of Cathal Riavach O'Rourke, lord of 
Brefney, was slain by Mac Fionnvar and by the 
English at Granard, and many of his people were 
killed. 

The English sustained a great defeat in Ulster, 
in which they lost two hundred of their cavalry, 
both men and horses, besides what were slain of 
common soldiers. 

Thomas Mac Gauran was slain by the people of 
Kinel Luachain (in Leitrim). 

The Tyronians marched into Tirconnell and 
plundered a great portion of the country ; O'Don- 
nell (Donal Oge), having collected his forces 
pursued them to the foot of Sliabh Truini, defeated 
them and slew many of their men ; a great num- 
ber of their horses with accoutrements, arms, and 
armour, were taken by the people of Tirconnell on 
that occasion. 



A.D. 1276. 

Giolla-an-Coivde O'Carolan, bishop of Tyrone 
(Derry), died. 

Hugh Muinagh, son of Felim, son of Cathal 
Crovdearg (O'Conor), went from Munster into 
Connaught, and from thence went to O'Donnell, 
who accompanied him with the whole of his forces 



A. D. T27fi. 

1. Echennach, now tbe parish of Aiijrhanagli, barony of Tir- 
crell, county of Sliffo, where a church was built by St. Patrick. 

2. Lentil Cafha'd, now tlie barony of Lecale, in the county of 
Down, of which Mac Gilla Muire, or tlie Mac Gilraors, were 
chiefs. 

A. D. 1277. 

1 . The carl of Clare here mentioned was Thomas de Clare, son 
to the earl of Gloucester, who got large grants of land in that part 



to Echeanach,' where O'Donnell parted from him ; 
and Hugh remained in Connaught. 

The sons of Torlogh (O'Conor) committed a 
depredation on the son of Felim and on the sons 
of Mac Dermott, and Gilcreest O'Mulbrenan was 
slain by them. 

A depredation was committed by the son of 
Felim on the sons of Murtogh (O'Conor), and 
Giolla-na-Naingeal (servant of the Angels) O'Con- 
roy, was slain by the sons of Murtogh while they 
were pursuing their plundered property. 

Roderick, son of Torlogh, committed a plunder 
on the people of Naghtan (the Nortons), who, 
however, defeated him, and recovered their pro- 
perty. Dona! (called Giolla-an-ime), son of Niall, 
son of Congalach O'Rourke, and many others of 
Roderick's people were slain by them. 

Gillcreest 0"Naghtan (or O'Norton), and Wil- 
liam O'Naghtan were slain after this by Roderick, 
son of Torlogh. 

Dermod Mac Gillmurry, lord of Leath Cathail,^ 
died. 



A.D. 1277. 

Braon O'Mulmoicheirghi, abbot of Kells, 
died. 

Brien Roe O'Brien, lord of Thomond, was 
treacherously taken prisoner by the son of the 
earl of Clare,' and was dragged to death between 
horses, although they had both previously become 
gossips to each other, and had exchanged bells and 
holy rclicks (or oaths), in confirmation of their 
friendship for each other. 

Gillcreest O'Bcirne, the bosom friend of Hugh 
O'Conor, was slain by Giolla-Roe, son of Lough- 
lin O'Conor. 

Giolla-na-neev O'Bcirne died after repentance. 

Hugh Muinach, son of Felim (O'Conor), ac- 
companied by the Conacians and by Donall 



of Thomond afterwards called the county of Clare. Moore in his 
History of Ireland (v. 3. p. 33,) quotes the Annals of Inisfallen, 
which give the following account of this affair ; " The earl of 
Clare's son took Bryan Roe O'Brien prisoner very deceitfully after 
they had swoni to each other all the oaths in Munster, as bells, 
bachals, and relicks of saints, to be true to one anotlier ; also after 
they had become sworn gossips, and for confirmation of this bond 
of perpetual friendship, drew part of each other's blood, wiiichthey 
mingled together in a vessel. After all these protestations Bryan 
Koe was taken as aforesaid and bound to a horse and so was tor- 
tured to death by the said earl's son." 



REIGN OF EDWARD I. 



91 



O'Donnell, demolished the castle of Roscom- 
mon. 

The people of Teallach Eachdach- committed a 
great depredation on the Kinel Luachain in Glen- 
da-Duile, on which occasion they slew Conor Mac 
Dorchaidh and many others. 



A.D. 1278. 

Thomas O'Quinn, bishop of Clonmacnois, died. 

Flaherty O'Daimhin,' lord of Fermanagh, died. 

Teige (O'Conor), son of Torlogh, son of Hugh, 
son of Cathal Crovdearg, king of Connaught, was 
slain by the sons of Cathal Mac Dermott. 

Roderick, son of Torlogh O'Conor, together 
with the parson riavach, the son of Tiarnan 
O'Conor, and many others who are not recorded, 
were slain by Gillcreest Mac Clancy and the 
people of Dartry (in Leitrim), on the borders of 
Dromcliff. 

Donogh, Fergal, and Gillcreest, the three sons 
of Maurice Mac Donogh, son of Tonialtach, were 
slain by Teige, son of Donal (O'Conor) of En-is 
(county of Mayo). 

Donogh, son of Bryan Roe, and the other sons 
of Bryan, defeated the son of the earl of Clare in 
the battle of Cuince ;'- they burned the church of 
Cuince on his people (the English), and put great 
numbers of them to death both by slaying and 
burning. 

Tomaltach Mac Oiraghty, head chief of Siol 
Murray, was slain by the people of the Tuatha (in 
Roscommon). 

Hugh Muinach, son of Felim (O'Conor), as- 
sumed the sovereignty of Connaught. 

Bryan O'Dowd and Art-na-Capall (Art of the 
Horses) O'Hara, lord of Lieney, fought a battle 
with the Berminghams, in which the Berminghams 
were defeated, and the two sons of Myler More, 



2. Teallach Enchdnch, now the barony of Tullagha, county of 
Cavan, of wliich the Mac Gaurans were chiefs. Kinel Luachain 
was a district in the barony of Mohill, county of Leitrim. Tlie 
Mac Dorchys were chiefs of tliat district. See note on Brefney. 

A D. 1-278. 

1. O'Daimhin or O'JJeiin. The O'Devins were formerly a 
powerful clan on the borders of Tyrone and Derry ; and this 
O'Devin, lord of Feruiana^jh, was probably a chief, in the northern 
part of Fermanagh, on the borders of Tyrone. 

2. Cuince, anciently called Quincy, now the parish of Qiiinn, 



with Conor Roe Bemiingham, and many more 
besides, were slain. 



A.D. 1279. 

Tomaltach, son of Torlogh, son of Malachy 
O'Conor, archbishop of Tuam, the most eminent 
man in Ireland for wisdom, learning, and charitj^, 
died after the victory of repentance. 

Giolla-an-Choivde O'Carolan,' bishop of Ty- 
rone, died. 

Conor, son of Dermod, son of Manus O'Conor, 
was slain. 

MuiTogh O'Naghtan (or O'Norton in Roscom- 
mon), was slain by Donal O'Naghtan ; and Robert, 
his brother, challenged Donal to a conflict, in which 
Robert was also slain. 

Donal, son of Gillcreest O'Naghtan, was slain 
by Hugh O'Concannon. 

Malachy, son of Torlogh (O'Conor) was slain. 

Giolla-Iosa More Mac Firbis, chief historiogra- 
pher of Hy-Fiachra (in Sligo), died. 



A.D. 1280. 

John O'Laidhigh, bishop of Killala ; and Mat- 
thew, son of Manus O'Conor, abbot of Boyle, 
died. 

A dispute arose between Hugh Muinach 
(O'Conor), king of Connaught, son of Felim, son 
of Cathal Crovdearg, and the sons of Murtogh 
Muinach O'Conor, on which occasion Hugh 
Muinach was slain in the wood of Dangan ;' and 
on the same day they took Malachy, son of 
Manus (O'Conor), prisoner, whom, however, 
O'Donnell released, on their receiving a ransom 
of four hvnidred cows and twenty horses. 

Cathal, son of Conor Roe, son of Murtogh 
Muinach, son of Torlogh More O'Conor, was 
elected king ailer this by the Conacians. 



barony of Biinratty, county of Clare ; the church which was 
burned was that of Quinn-abhey, of which some magnificent ruins 
still remain. 

A. D. 1279. 
1. O'Carolan, bishop of Tyrone, that is, Derry, here mentioned, 
was probably the same person as another bishop of the same name 
whose death has been recorded A. D. 1276. 

A. D. 1280. 
1. Dangan, a town in the barony ofTiaquin, county of Galway. 

N 2 



92 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 12S1-82. 



Malaohy O'Gormley, chief of Kinel Moain (in 
Donegal), and Conor O'Gormley, were slain by 
the people of Tellach Modhai-ain.^ 



A.D. 1281. 

Teige, son of Cathal Mac Dermott, lord of Moy- 
lurg, a man distinguished for hospitality, genero- 
sity, and magnanimity, died. 

The battle of Disirt-da-Chrioch,' was fought 
between the Tirconnellians and Tyronians, Hugh 
Euidhe (O'Neill), son of Donal Oge, son of Hugh 
Metli, son of Hugh, generally called the Macaomh 
Toinlcasg, aided by the English of Ulidia, on the 
one side ; and Donal Oge O'Donncll, lord of Tir- 
connell, Fermanagh, Orgiall, and of the greater 
])art of the Irish of all Ulster, and nearly of all 
Connaught, with the entire of lirefney, on the 
other side. The Tirconnellians were defeated ; 
and Donal O'Donnell, the most eminent man of 
the Irish for hospitality, generosity, prudence, and 
magnanimity, in his time, and the most valiant 
wai-rior of the west of Europe, was slain in this 
battle, in the forty-tirst year of his age, and ■s\as 
buried in the monastery of the friars at Derry 
Columkille, having through life gained the palm 
of pre-eminence in everj' goodness. The following 
were the most eminent who were slain along with 
him, namely, Mulrooney O'Boyle, chief of the 
three territories (in Donegal) ; Owen, son of 
IMalachy, son of Donal More O'Donnell; Ceallach, 
son of Giolla Brighde O'Boyle, one of the most 
distinguished chiefs of his tribe for hospitality and 
generosity to men of learning and science ; Ain- 
dileas O'Boyle, and Dugall, his son ; Gillcrecst 
IMac Clancy, chief of Dartry (in Leitrim) ; Donal 
Mac Gilfinen, chief of Muintir Feodhachain (in 
Fermanagh) ; Enna O'Gormley, head chief of 
Kinel Moain (in Donegal) ; Cormac, son of the 
professor O'Donnell, chief of Fanad (in Donegal) ; 
Giolla-an-Coivde O'Muldoon, chief of Lurg (in 
Fermanagh) ; Cormac, son of Cormac O'Donnell; 



2. Tenllach Modhara'in, a district in the barony of Strabane, 
county of Tyrone, on the borders of Donegal, near tlie riicr 
Alournc. 



A.D. 1281. 
1. Disirt-dn-Chr'ioch, now the parish of Desertcreight, in the 
barony of Dungannon, county of Tyrone. 



Giolla-na-Noge Mac Dail-le-docair ; Malachy, son 
of Niall O'Boyle ; Aindiles, son of Murtogh 
O'Donnell ; Manus Mac Quinn ; Gio!la-na-neev 
O'Heoghagain (or O'Hogan) ; Murtogh O'Fla- 
herty ; Murtogh Mac Nulty ; Flaherty Mac 
Buidheachain ; and many others of the sons of 
lords and chiefs who are not recorded. Hugh, 
son of Donal Oge O'Donnell, was appointed his 
father's successor. 

A battle was fought between the Barretts and 
Cusacks.'- in which the Barretts were defeated, 
with the loss of William Barrett, Adam Fleming, 
and many others. There were assisting the Cu- 
sacks in this battle two of the Irish, who were 
the most accomplished in achievements, bravery, 
activity, and dexterity, of those who fought, 
namely, Taichleach O'Boyle, and Taichleach 
O'Dowd. 

Hugh Muinach, son of Torlogh O'Brien, died. 



A.D. 1282. 

Min-togh Mac Murrogh, king of Leinster, and 
Art Mac Murrogh, his brother, were slain by the 
English. 

Taichleach, son of Mulrooney O'Dowd, lord of 
Hy Fiachra, one of the most distinguished of his 
tribe in his time, for hospitality and bravery, was 
slain by Adam Cusack, on the strand of Eothuile 
(in Sligo). 

Lasarina,daughterof Cathal Crovdearg O'Conor, 
the wife of Donal More O'Donnell, and the mother 
of Donal Oge, the most noble woman of the north 
of Ireland, died. 

Matthew O'Reilly, lord of Muintir Maolmordha 
(in the county of Cavan) ; and Giolla losa More 
Mac Tiarnan, chief of TuUaghonoho (in the county 
of Cavan), died. 

Cathal, son of GioUa-na-neev O'Ferrall, lord of 
Anallj-, died on Inis Cuan, on the river of Cluain- 
Lis-Bece,' of the son of Conla. Geoffrey, son of 
Giolla-na-naov O'Ferrall, assumed the lordship of 
Anally after him. 



2. This battle between the Barretts and Cusacks was fouglit in 
the county of Mayo. 

A. D. 1282. 
1. C'JumiUs Bi'cc was probably in the parish of Cloongish, ba- 
rony and county of Longford, tiirough which run the rivers CiiTolin 
and Shannon. An abbey may have been situated on Inish Cuan, 
an island on one of those rivers. 



REIGN OF EDWARD I. 



93 



A. D. 1283. 

llujrh Buidhe O'Neill, lord of Tyrone, the most 
illustrious of the Irish for hospitality and bravery, 
the most eminent man of the north for bestowing 
favours and gifts, the most dreaded and triumphant 
man of his race in his time, and the worth}' heir 
presumptive to the throne of Ireland, was slain by 
Mac jMahon (Bryan) and the Orgiallians, aided by 
Giolla losa Roe, son of Donal O'Reilly. 

Teige, son of Donal of Erris (in Mayo) O'Conor, 
was wounded by the people of Lieney (in Sligo), 
and, being delivered into the hands of Cathal 
O'Conor, died of his wound. 

Dublin and Christ Church were partly consumed 
by tire. 



A.D. 1284. 

Maurice O'Conor, bishop of Elphin, died; and 
Awlave O'Tomalty was consecrated his successor, 
but died soon afterwards. 

Giolla losa Mac Anliatanaigh O'Conor, abbot 
of Trinity Island on Lough Key, of the order of 
Premonstratensians, was then elected to the see of 
Elphin. 

Donogh O'Brien, lord of Thomond, was slain 
by Torlogh O'Brien. 

Dubgall, son of Manus O'Boyle, chief of Cloch- 
Chinn-Faoladh,' was slain by the people of 
O'Maolgaoithe. 

Mac-na-hoidhche- Mac Dorchy, chief of Kinel 
Luachain, died. 

Simon de Exeter was slain by Biyan O'FljTin 
and by the two sons of O'Flanagan, Dermod and 
]\Ialachy ; in consequence of which, war and con- 
tentions arose in Connaught, and the English 
committed great depredations, but restored the 
plunder to the people of Trinity Island, and to the 
monks of the monastery of Boyle. 

The Castle of Kilcoleman (in the county of 
Mayo), was demolished by Cathal, son of Conor 
Roe (O'Conor), king of Connaught. 

A. D. 1284. 

1 . ClocJi-Chinn-Fhaolndh, now Cloghaneely, a district near 
the Atlantic, in tlie barony of Kilmaltrenan, county of Donegal. 

2. Mfic-nn~hoidhche signifies Son of the Night, but has been 
anglicised to Nicholas. The Mac Dorchys were chiefs of Kinel 
Luachain, a district in Leitrim, as explained in the note on 
Brefney. 

A. D. 1285. 
1. LotKjhO'GaraaxiiSliabhGamh. Lough O'Gara is a large 



Dunmore (in the comity of Galway), was burned 
by Fiachra O'Flynn. 



A.D. 1285. 

Simon O'Rourke, bishop of Brefney (Kilmore)j 
died. 

Roderick O'Gara, lord of Sliabh Lugha, was 
slain by Bermingham, at Lough O'Gara.' 

Maurice Maol (tlie Bald) Fitzgerald, died. 

Henry Mac Gillfinnen (a chief in Fermanagh), 
died. 

Manus O'Conor defeated Adam Cusack and 
the English of the west of Connaught, in a battle 
at Ballysadare, in which many were slain, and 
Coilin Cusack, brother of Adam, was taken pri- 
soner. 

Philip Mac Costello defeated the people of 
Manus O'Conor on Sliabh Gamh ; and many of 
Manus's people were slain. 



A.D. 1286. 

The earl of Ulster marched with a great force 
into Connaught, and plundered many monasteries 
and chui-ches throughout that country. He re- 
duced to submission every place through which 
he passed, took hostages from all Connaught, and 
brought the Conacians with him into Tirconnell 
and Tyrone, where he also took hostages ; he de- 
posed Donal, son of Bryan O'Neill, and appointed 
Niall Culanach (O'Neill), to the lordship. 

Philip Mac Costello (in the county of Mayo), 
died. 



A.D. 1287. 

Florent O'Gibellain, archdeacon of Elphin, an 
eminent philosopher, died. 

Giolla-na-noge O'Monaghan, lord of the three 
Tuatha (in Roscommon), died. 

Dermod Midheach, son of Dermod, son of Ma- 
lake in the barony of Coolavin, county of Sligo, on the borders of 
the barony of Costello, county of IMayo. It lay in the ancient 
district of Sliabh Lugba, partly in the county of Mayo and partly 
in that of Sligo, of which O'Gara was lord. Sliabh Gamh is a 
chain of high mountains which separate the barony of Tireragh 
from that of Lieney, in the county of Sligo. It has been for a 
considerable time erroneously called by the people of that county 
Slieve JJnrnh. and translated Ox Mountains, the name by wliich 
it is now marked on the maps. 



94 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1288-89. 



nus, son of Cathal Mac Dermott, lord of Siol 
Maolruain (in Roscommon and Galway), the best, 
the oldest, and the most noble of his race, died. 

Malachy, son of Tomaltach Mac Oirajrhty, was 
slain by Torlogh, son of Owen O'Conor, in revenge 
for his father, who had been killed by the afore- 
mentioned Tomaltach. 

Adam Cusack ; Bean IMumhan, daughter of 
O'Kane ; and Donal O'llanley, chief of Kinel 
Dobhtha (in Roscommon), died. 



A.D. 1288. 

Stephen (de Fulburn), archbishop of Tuam, 
died. 

Michael Mac Antsaoir (or Macintire), bishop of 
Clogher, died. 

Manns,sonof ConorRoe O'Conor, with all whom 
he could procure to join him of the Conacians, of 
the Ily Briune, and of the Conmacnians (people 
of C'avan and Leitrim), marched to Athslisen (in 
Roscommon), where his brother, the king of Con- 
naught, was then with his forces. A battle ensued 
between them, in which Cathal's (the king's) forces 
were defeated, and he himself taken prisoner; 
Manus took by force the sovereignty of Con- 
naught, and deposed his brother. Torlogh, son of 
Owen O'Conor, stormed the house of Manus, at 
Rossmore, where Manus and Niall (iealbuidhe 
O'Conor were wounded; and Rannall Mac Rannall, 
chief of Muintir Eoluis (in Leitrim), was slain 
by the cast of a javelin. Manus O'Conor, after 
his wound was healed, led his forces into Siol 
Murray, where he gained power and took hostages. 

The Red Earl,' Richard, son of Walter, earl of 
Ulster, son of William the Conqueror, having 



A.D, 1288. 
1. The Red Em-l here mentioned. WHS Richard de Burgo, earl 
of Ulster, and lord of Connauslit, son of Walter the former earl 
of Ulster. His ancestor, William de Burgo is here called William 
the Conqueror, from his l)eiiig the tirst of that family who had 
conquered a part of Connaught. Richard was called the Red Earl 
from the colour of his liair, and was celehrated for his military 
exploits ; he was commander in chief of the Anglo-Irish forces 
under Henry III. and Edward I., iu their wars in Ireland, Scot- 
land, Wales and Gascoigne. In Ills ilay he was the must power- 
ful nobleman in Ireland, and erected many castles, and founded 
several monasteries. A short time hefore his death he retired to 
the monastery of Athassel in Tipperary, which was founded by 
his ancestors, where he died, A.D. 132G. See Lodge's Peerage by 
Archdall, on the House of Clanricarde. 



marched with his forces, to attack the people of 
Connaught, arrived at Roscommon, where there 
were then assembled, Manus, son of Conor Roe, 
king of Connaught, with Fitzgerald and the king's 
forces, who collected there to support him ; and, 
having intimidated the earl from proceeding fur- 
ther, he came to the resolution of leaving the 
country, and dispersed his forces. 



A.D. 1289. 

Miles, bishop of Conmaicne,' that is, the Eng- 
lish bishop ; and Simon O'Feenaghty, archdea- 
con of Elphin, died. 

Matthew O'Sgingin,^ chief historiographer of 
Ireland, died. 

Teige O'Flanagan, chief of Clan Cathail (in 
Roscommon), died. 

Richard Tnite, with the English of Meath, and 
Manus O'Conor, king of Connaught, marched 
with a force to attack O'Melaghlin, who collected 
his forces to resist them, and marched to Cross 
Sliidjh^ in their vicinity. A battle ensued, in 
which Richard Tuite, the great baron, together 
with his kinsmen, and Siecus O'Kelly, were 
slain. 

Fiachra O'Flynn, chief of Siol Maoilruain (in 
Roscommon), one of the chiefs of Connaught, and 
celebrated for his hospitality and generosity, hav- 
ing; cone to make a marriage alliance with the 
English, was treacherously slain by Mac Rickard 
Fionn Bin-ke, Mac William, and Bermingham. 

Benningham and the English of the Lieneys,'' 
marched with a great force against Calvach 
O'Conor ; and a battle ensued, in which the Eng- 
lish were defeated ; Myler Dexeter, with many 



A.D. 1289. 

1. Miles, bishop of Co7imnicne, here mentioned ai the English 
bishop, was Miles de Dunstable, bishop of Ardagh. 

2. Matthew O'Sgingin. The O'Sgingins were in early times 
historiographers to the O'Donnells, princes of Tirconnell, an 
otiice afterwards held by the O'CIerys, who had intermarried with 
the O'Sgingins. See note on Tirconnell. 

3. Cross Slinbh or Cross Mountain, where this battle was 
fought, was probably the place now called Crosswood, near Ath- 
lone, in the parish of St. Mary's, barony of Brawney, county of 
Westmeath ; or perhaps it niisht have lieen the place called Cross, 
in the parish of Rathaspic, barony of Moygoish, in Westmeatii. 
O'Melaghlin here mentioned was styled king of Meath. 

4. Lieneys. This term was applied to the barony of Lieney in 
the county of Sligo, and some adjoining parts of the barony of 
Costello in the county of Mayo j hence the diocese of Achonry, 



REIGN OF EDWARD I. 



95 



others of the EngHsh, being slain, and a great 
number of horses and much booty being taken 
from them. 



A.D. 1290, 

O'Sedachain, bishop of Kilmacduaoh, died. 

Carbry O'Melaghlin, king of Meath, the most 
vaUant young warrior in Ireland in his time, was 
slain by Mac Coghlan (of the King's County.) 

Donal, son of Brj'an O'Neill, marched with a 
force into Tyrone, from whence he forcibly ex- 
pelled Niall Culanach O'Neill ; and lie himself 
assumed the lordship of Tyrone by strong hand. 

Hugh, son of Donal Oge O'Donnell, was de- 
posed by his brother, Torlogh O'Donnell, through 
the influence of his mother's family, namely, the 
Clan Donnell (Mac Donnells), and several other 
Galloglaochs (Scots) ; and he took the lordship 
by force. 



A.D. 1291. 

Edru Magrath, abbot of the monastery of the 
Trinity, on Lough Key (in Roscommon), died. 

Torlogh, son of Owen O'Conor, the most cele- 
brated man in Ireland for hospitality, generosity 
and valour, in his time, was slain by Niall Geal- 
buidhe O'Conor. 

Conor Conallach O'Dowd, lord of Hy Fiachra, 
was drowned in the Shannon. 

Congalach Mac Geoghegan, chief of Kinel 
Fiachach, (in Westmeath), died. 

Rickard Burke, earl of Ulster, called the Red 
Earl, marched ^\ ith an army into Tyi'one, where 
he deposed Donal, son of Bryan O'Neill, and ap- 
pointed in his place Niall Culanach O'Neill, but 
after the earl had left the country, Niall Culanach 
was slain by Donal O'Neill. This atfair did not 
turn out fortunate for Donal, for Bryan, son of 
Hugh Buidhe O'Neill, was, through the influence 
of the earl, appointed to the lordship by Mac 
Martin and Mac John, who expelled him (Donal) 
from TjTone. 



anciently called the diocese of Lieney, comprises part of the county 
of Mayo. The Lieneys are designated by the people of that 
country Lieney O'Hara, and Lieney Costello. 



The earl marched with a force into Tirconnell 
against Torlogh, son of Donal Oge (O'Donnell), 
and he plundered the country, both clergy and 
people, after which he proceeded to Elphin in 
Connaught ; and the Conacians gave him hos- 
tages. 

An instuTection was raised by Cathal O'Conor, 
Niall Gealbuidhe, and their allies among Enghsh 
and Irish, to depose Manus (O'Conor) ; and a 
battle was fought between them at Cul Maile,' in 
which Cathal was wounded, and Murrogh, son of 
Teige (O'Conor), with many others that are not 
recorded, were slain ; but Manus, however, was 
defeated and forced to surrender, having lost many 
of his cavalry. The people of Cathal O'Conor 
and Niall Gealbuidhe, after Cathal had been 
wounded, committed great depredations in Car- 
bury (county of Sligo), but the Siol Murray, his 
own supporters, and the English of Roscommon, 
came to the assistance of Manus on the following 
day ; and they went to meet those who had taken 
the plunder, and came up to them on the marshy 
plain, where they were collected, and took the 
booty from them. Nia'l made his escape by 
means of his activity and valour. On this occa- 
sion Thomas jNIac Costello was slain, and his 
brother, David Mac Costello, taken prisonei-, and 
put to death in prison. Many others, both of the 
Enslish and Irish, were either routed or slain. 
Niall after this returned to his own country on 
obtaining terms of peace, and his own lands were 
restored to him, but great complaints and dis- 
sensions aflerwards arose between them (the 
O'Conors), and Niall was compelled to leave the 
country. 

Bryan O'Flynn, lord of Hy Tuirtre (in Antrim), 
died. 

Manus O'Conor committed a great depredation 
on Niall Gealbuidhe (O'Conor). 

Hugh O'Fallon (in Roscommon), was slain. 



A.D. 1292. 
Aindilis O'Dogherty, chief of Ard Miodhair 



A.D. 1291. 
1. Cul Maile, mentioned as Coolmoney in the Down Survey, 
now called CoUooney, a post town in the county of Sligo. 



96 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1293. 



(in Donegal) a man of general hospitality ; and 
Donogh, son of Owen O'Conor (in Roscommon), 
died. 

Sorley O'Gormley was slain by O'Neill. 

Niall Gealbuidhe O'Conor was slain by Teige, 
son of Andrew O'Conor, and Tuathal, son of 
Murtogh. 

Mac Coghlan, lord of Delvin More (in King's 
County or AVestmcath), was slain by Sifin Mac 
Feorais (Bermingham), at the instigation of the 
earl (of Ulster). 

Congalach O'Kelly, lord of Bregia (in Meath), 
died. 

The Red Earl marched with a force against 
Manus O'Conor to Roscommon, but departed 
thence without taking hostages or gaining any ad- 
vantage ; Manus, however, followed him to Mee- 
lick and paid him his tribute. 



A.D. 1293. 
Florence O'Carolan, bishop of Derry, died. 



A.D. 1203. 
1. Saints Piiti-ic}i, CulunJilUe, find Bridget. The accounts 
of tliis matter quoted liy Laniijaii from Ware, Usher, Colf;aii, and 
otliers, difl'er from that of tlie Four Masters. St Patrick died 
at Sabhal, or Saul, near Donupatriok, and was buried in the 
churcli he himself had founded at Downpatrick. Joeelin, the 
monk, in his Life of St. Patrick, says, that his body was buried 
in a very deep R-rave under a stone live cubits deep in the earth, to 
prevent its removal, for it appears that a preat contest arose be- 
tween the peoi)le of Uliclia, ot Down, and those of OrfjiaU, the 
latter wishing to have his remains buried at Arrnaich ; this eon- 
test was, however, amicably arransjed, and the saint's remains 
were buried at Downpatrick. According to Colgan and Usher, 
pfrt'of St. Patrick's remains or relicks were, after some time, re- 
moved to the catliedra! of Armagh, which removal might he tlie 
circumstance here mentioned by the Four Masters, as occurring 
under Nicholas Mac Maolisa, archbishop of Armagh. St. Bridget 
was buried in the monastery of Kildare, hut during the wars of 
the Danes in the ninth century, Kildare having been plundered, 
Ceallach, the abbot or bishop of Kildare, about A. D. 850, caused 
the rich shrine containing the remains of St. Bridget to be removed 
for safety to Downpatrick, and Ijuried there near the remains of 
St. Patrick. St. Cohnnkille was buried in the abbey founded 
by him on the island of lona in the Hebrides, but his remains 
were also removed to Down in the ninth century, to preserve them 
from the ravages of the Danes, who had plundered lona. Ac- 
cording to the Annals of Ulster, Dermod, abbot of lona, came to 
Ireland A. D. 851 with the rich shrine containinir the remains or 
relics of Columkille, which were buried in Downpatrick, along 
with those of St. Patrick and St. Bridget. The Four Masters say 
that this removal of his relics took place A. D. 875 ; though", 
according to Lanigan, it occurred A. D. 878 (see Lanigan, v^ 3, 
pp. 274, 326). Thus it appears, that the remains of the three 
tutelar saints of Ireland were buried in Downpatrick, as univer- 
sally believed both from history and tradition. In the twelfth 
century, as stated by Colgan, Usher, and other authorities, and 
quoted by Lanigan (vol. 4, p. 274, &c.) the place where the re- 
mains of the three saints lay in the church of Down was revealed 
in a vision to Malachy, bishop of Down, in the year 1185, who 



Nicholas Mac Maolisa, coarb of St. Patrick 
(arclibishop of Armagh), having had a revelation 
that the relicks of SS. Patrick, Columkille, and 
Bridget were deposited in Saul, he had them 
raised, and great miracles and wonders were after- 
wards wTought by them, and having been solemnly 
covered, they were finally deposited in a shrine.' 

Mm-togh O'Melaghlin, king of Meath, died. 

Manus O'Conor, king of Connauaht, a valiant 
wanior, the most dreaded and the most illustrious 
of the Irish for bravery and hospittility in his time, 
died, after three months' illness, and Hugh, son of 
Owen (O'Conor), was appointed to succeed him 
as king, through the influence of the lord justice;'^ 
and on the tenth day after his appointment he 
was taken prisoner by Fitzgerald, and fifty of his 
men were slain, and others of them plundered. 

Cathal O'Conor was slain by Roderick, son of 
Donogh Riavach (O'Conor). 

Cathal Roe O'Conor assumed the sovereignty 
of Connaught after Hugh, son of Owen, had been 
taken prisoner, but in three months afterwards he 



caused the floor to be dug up and the remains of the bodies put 
into three distinct coffins. Malachy having comnuniicated wliat 
had occurred to John de Courcy, then the English chief governor 
of Ulster, who resided at Downpatrick, they determined on send- 
ing messengers on the subject to Pope Urban III ; and Cardinal 
Vivian, the pope's legate, coming to Ireland soon afterwards, 
went to Downpatrick, and in his presence, and that of Thomas 
O'Conor, archbishop of Armagh, iifteen other bishops, and a 
numerous attendance of abbots and other clergy, the remains of 
tliB three saints were solemnly tninstntedf and placed in one mo- 
nument in the cathedral of Downpatrick in the year 118(1, on the 
0th of June, the festival of St. Columkille. According to 
Cambrensis the following inscription was engraved on the mo- 
nument : — 

" Hi tres in Duno tumulo tumulantur in uno, 
Patricius, Brigida atcjue Columha pius." 

Thus translated by the old chroniclers : — 

" In Down three saints one tomb do fill, 
Patrick, Bridget and Columkille." 

The cathedral of Downpatrick was for many centuries decorated 
with beautiful marble statues of the three saints, but in the reign 
of Henry VIII. A. D. 1538, the lord deputy, Leonard Urey, hav- 
ing invaded Ulster, plundered and burned the town and cathedral 
of Downpatrick ; and he and his barbarian soldiers broke and de- 
faced the statues of SS. Patrick, Bridget, and Columkille. 
Representations of the statues of tlie three saints from Messing- 
ham's Florileg'ium are given in a plate prefixed to the life of St. 
Patrick by Joeelin, a Cistercian monk of Furness-al.bey, in Lan- 
cashire, written m the twelfth century, translated from tlie ori- 
ginal Latin by Edmund Swift, and published in Dublin at the 
Hihernia press in the year 1800. 

2. The Lord Justice and Fitzgerald. William de Vessey was 
then lord justice of Ireland. The de Vesseys caine from Nor- 
mandy to England with William the Conqueror, and had large 
grants of lands in Yorkshire, with the title of barons of Knapton. 
M'illiam de Vessey, baron of Knapton, was appointed lord justice 
of Ireland by King Edward I., obtained large grants of lands in 



REIGN OF EDWARD I. 



97 



was slain by Roderick, son of Donogh Riavach 
O'Conor. Hugh, son of Owen, being after this 
set at hberty, resumed the government of Con- 
naught, through the influence of the lord justice 
and of the people of the king (of England). 



Kildare, and was styled lord of Kildare ; but, during his adminis- 
tration, he liad frequent disputes with John Fitzthomas Fitzgerald, 
baron of Otfaley, wlio cliarged him with treason. Both parties 
repaired to England to lay their complaints before the king, and 
having challenged each otiier to battle in single combat, a day was 
appointed, and great preparations were made, but in the mean time 
de Vessey tied to France, and his estates in Kildare, liecoming 
forfeited to the crown, were conferred by the king on Fitzgerald, 
who was afterwards created the first earl of Kildare. This Fitz- 
gerald, earl of Kildare, so often mentioned in the Annals at this 
period, was a celebrated warrior, and had frequent contests with 
Richard de Burgo, earl of Ulster ; these two noblemen, then the 
most powerful in Ireland, contending for mastery. On the inva- 
sion of Ireland by Edward Bruce, in 1315, the earl of Kildare 
commanded the Anglo-Irish forces in several engagements, in 
some of which he defeated Bruce. The earl died A. D. 1316, and 
was buried in the Franciscan Friary of Kildare. See Lodge's 
Peerage on earls of Kildare, and barons of Knapton ; and Willis's 
Lives of Illustrious Irishmen. 

I. North Connniiyht. The terms TuaUceart Conacht, or 
North Connaught, and Deisceart Conacht, or South Connaught, 
frequently occur in these Annals. In this article on North Con- 
naught will be given the history and topography, with the chiefs 
and clans of the ajicient territories comprised in the present coun- 
ties of Sligo and Mayo. In the succeeding number will be given 
a full account of tlie ancient territories comprised in the present 
counties of Galway and Roscommon. An account of the county 
of Leitrim has been given in the note on Brefney. A portiou of 
Connaught was also called lar Conacht, or West Connaught, 
which comprised Connamara in the county of Galway. The an- 
cient kingdom of Connaught comprised the present counties of 
Galway, Mayo, Sligo, Roscommon, and Leitrim, together with 
Clare, now in Munster, and Cavan, now a part of Ulster, as ex- 
plained in the note on Hrefney. The territory w'hich forms the 
present county of Clare, as stated m Charles O'Conor's Disserta- 
tions on the History of Ireland (p. 289), was taken from Con- 
naught in tlie latter end of the third century by CormacCas, son of 
Oilioll Olum, king of Munster, or by Lughaigh Mean, king pf Mun- 
ster, in the tliird century, another descendant of Oilioll Olimi, and 
added to part of Limerick under the name of Tiiadh-Mumlia'm, 
or North Munster, a word anglicised to Thomond (see O'Brien's 
Dictionary at the word Tuadh). Tlie O'Briens of the Dalcassian 
race became kings of Thomond. Conacht, according to Keating, 
O'Flaherty, and others, derived its name either from Con, one of 
the chief druids of the Tuatli de Danans, or from Conn-Cead- 
Cathach, that is Con of the hundred battles, monarch of Ireland 
in the second century, whose posterity possessed the country j 
the word iacht, or iocht, signifying children or a posterity, and 
hence Conlocht means the territory possessed by the posterity of 
Con. The more ancient name of Connaught, according to O'Fla- 
herty and Charles O'Connor, was Olnegniacht, and was so called 
from Olnegmacht, an ancient queen of the Firbolgs ; and hence 
the inhabitants were called Fir Olnegmacht. Sligo derived its 
name from the river Sligeach, which was probably derived from 
slig, a shell ; and the word may signify abounding in shells, a 
prohable inference, as the tide in its course up the river carries 
with it many sea shells. Mayo, in Irish Magh-Eo, or Muigh-Eo 
in the genitive, is supposed to take its name from magh, a plain, 
and eo, a yew tree, tmd therefore may signify the plain of the yew 
trees. 

The territory of North Coimaught is connected with some of the 
earliest events in Irish history, as mentioned in all our ancient 
annalists. In the time of Partholan, who planted the first colony 
in Ireland, the lakes called Loughs Con, and Mease or Mask, in Mayo, 



Fergal O'Reilly, lord of Muintir Maoilmordha 
(county of Cavan), died. 

More, daughter of Felim O'Conor, died. 

Murtogh O'Flanagan, chief of Clan Cathail (in 
Roscommon), died. 



and Lough Teithed, or Techet, now Lough Gara in Sligo, on the bor- 
ders of Roscommon, suddenly burst forth, as stated in Ogygia, 
and in the Book of Leacan, folio 273. The lakes of North Con- 
naught are numerous, and many of them large and very beautiful, 
as Loughs Mask, Con, and others in Mayo ; Lough Gara, Louuh 
Arrow, Lough Gill, and others in Sligo. There are many mag- 
nificent mountains in it, some of them ranging between two and 
three thousand feet above the level of the sea, as those of Croagh 
Patrick, Muilrea, Partry, Furnamore, Nephin, Bengorm, Ben- 
goriff, and others in Mayo ; and those of Slieve Gamh, corruptly 
changed to Slieve Damh, and anglicised the Ox Mountains ; the 
King's Mountain, Truskmore, Bengulban or Benl)ulban, Knock- 
narea, and Keis Corran, in Sligo ; together with the Curlew 
Mountains on the borders of Sligo and Roscommon. In some of 
the mountains of Mayo are still found herds of red deer, which 
in former times inhabited the ancient forests in vast numbers. 
The coasts of Mayo and Sligo along the Atlantic abound in wild 
and sublime scenery, such as towering ocean cliffs, and immense 
rocky caverns, and contain Achill, and other interesting islands, 
and many fine bays,mlets and harbours, as those of Killery, Clew, 
Blacksod, Broadhaven, Killala, and Sligo. 

On the arrival of the colony of Firbolgs, or Belgians, in Ire- 
land, a division of them landed on the north-western coast of 
Connaught, in one of the bays now called Blacsod, or the Broad 
Haven. These Firljolgs were named Fir-Domhnan, which has 
been anglicised to Firdomnians, and sometimes Damnonians. The 
place where they landed was called Inbhear-Domhnan, or the 
Bay of the Damnonians, and the adjoining country larras, or 
Irras-Domhnan, a name probably derived from lar, the west, 
and ros, a promontory or peninsula, and which, therefore, may 
signify the western promontory or peninsula of the Damnonians, 
a term exactly corresponding with the topograjdiical features of 
the country ; and the name has been retained in that of the barony 
of Erris, in Mayo, to the present day. 

When the colony called Tuatha-De-Danan first invaded Ireland 
they landed in Ulster, and proceeded thence to Sliabh-an-iarain 
(the iron mountain) in Brefney, and forward into the territory of 
Connaught. The Firbolgs having collected their forces to oppose 
their progress, a desperate battle was fought between them 
at a place called Magh Tuireadh, or the Plain of the Tower, in 
which the Firbolgs were totally defeated, ten thousand of them 
being slain, together with Eochaidh, son of Eire their king, who 
was buried on the sea shore, a cam of large stones being erected 
over him as a sepulchral monument, which remains to this day. 
This place is on the strand near Ballysadare, in the county of 
Sligo, and was called Traigh-an-Chairn, or the Strand of the 
Cam, from the earn erected there to the Firbolg king ; and in 
later times it obtained the name of Tralgh EotUuile-an t-Saoir, 
that is, the Strand of Eothuile the carpenter. This was called 
the battle of South Moyturey, and took place on the borders of 
Lough Mask, between Ballinrobe and Cong, in the county of 
Mayo. In thirty years afterwards the Fomorians, aided by the 
Firbolgs, fought another great battle with the Danans for the 
recovery of the kingdom, but were defeated. This was called the 
battle of North Moyturey, or Moyturey of the Fomorians, and 
took place near Lough Arrow, in Tirerrill, in Sligo, on the borders 
of Roscommon, about fifty miles distant from the place of the 
first battle. The townland of Moterra, in the parish of Kilmac- 
tranny, in the barony of Tirerril, points out the place where this 
battle was fought. An account of the Fomorians has been given 
in the notes on Dalriada and Tirconnell. After the battle of North 
Moyturey the Danans became possessors of Ireland, which they 
ruled for nearly two centuries, until the arrival of the Milesian 
colony from Spain, who conquered them, and became masters of 



98 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1294. 



Tuathal, son of Murtogh O'Conor, was slain 
by the O'Haras. 

The castle of Sligo was given to John Fitz- 
thomas (one of the Fitzgeralds), who soon after- 
wards went to England. 



Ireland. The Firbolgs, who were defeated and dispossessed by 
the Danans, having assisted the Milesians in the conquest of the 
Danans, were in consequence restored by the Milesians to a great 
part of their former possessions, particularly in Connaught, in 
which province they were ruled by their own kings of the Firholg 
race for more than a thousand years, and down to the third cen- 
tury, when the Milesian kings of the race of Heremon became 
chief rulers of Connaught. The Firbolgs appear to have been 
an athletic race, and those of Irros Domhnan, in Mayo, in the 
early ages, about the commencement of the Christian era, are 
described in O'Flaherty's Ogygia, under the name of Gamanradi- 
ans, as celebrated champions and wrestlers. The Clanna Morna 
of Connaught, under their chief, GoU, son of Morna, are also 
celebrated in the Ossianic poems and ancient annals, as famous 
warriors in the third century. JIany of the Firbolg or Firdoranian 
race are still to he found in Connaught, but blended by blood 
and intermarriages with the Milesians. 

The ancient city called Nagnata by the Greek geographer, 
Ptolemy, in the second century, in his map of Ireland, is supposed 
to have been situated near Sligo ; but, according to others, near 
Galway. 

Cormac, the celebrated monarch of Ireland, in the third century, 
as stated in O'Flaherty's Ogygia, and the book of Ballymote, was 
born in Corran, at the place called Ath-Cormaic, or the Ford of 
Cormac, near Keis Corran, in Sligo, and hence was called Cormac 
of Corran. 

The territory of North Connaught is connected in a remarkable 
manner with the mission of St. Patrick in Ireland. Colli Fochladh, 
or the Forest of Fochuth, in Tir Amhalgaidh, now Tyrawley, 
in the county of Mayo, is mentioned in the various Lives of St. 
Patrick as the scene of his vision respecting the conversion of 
Ireland, and a place which he afterwards visited in the course of 
his mission, and where he converted to Christianity Enda Crom, 
king of the territory, with his seven sons, and baptized twelve 
thousand persons in the water of a well called Tobar Enadliarc. 
The place where St. Patrick held the assembly was called Foracli 
Mac Amalgaidh, and is now known as MuUagh Farry, near 
Killala. Tlie wood of Fochluth was situated between Ballina and 
Killala ; and the village of Foghill, near Killala, is supposed to 
retam the ancient name. Croagh Patrick mountain, m Mayo, 
was long celebrated for the miracles the saint performed there, 
and has continued a famous place of pilgrimage to this day. 

In the sixth century, A. D. 555, or, according to others, A. D. 
561, was fought in the territory of Carhury, near Sligo, the great 
battle of Cula Vreimhne, between the forces of Meath and Lein- 
ster, under Diarmaid, monarch of Ireland, and the people of Tir 
Eogain and Tir Conaill, commanded by the princes Fergus and 
Domhnall, sons of Murtogh Mac Earca, former monarch of Ire- 
land, and aided by Aodh or Hugh, king of Connaught, with his 
forces ; in which battle the army of the monarch Diarmaid was 
totally defeated, three thousand of his men being slain, and he 
himself having hardly saved his life by flight. 

Hy Fifichra or Hy Fiachrach was a name applied to the 
territories possessed by the race of Fiachra, one of the sons of 
Eochaidh Muighmeadhoin, monarch of Ireland in the fourth 
century, of the race of Heremon. Tlie following accounts of the 
race of Hy Fiachra have been collected from the Books of Leacan 
and Ballymote, O'Flaherty's Ogygia, and other authorities. Fiachra 
was for some time King of Connaught, and was a celebrated 
warrior, and commander-in-chief of the Irish forces under his 
brother Niall of the Hostages, Monarch of Ireland ; and according 
to the Book of Ballymote, folio 145, on his return home victorious 
from a great battle which he had fought with the men of Munster, 
A. D. 40'2, he died of his wounds at a place called Hy Mac-Uais 



A.D. 1294. 

Great depredations were committed by Hugh, 

son of Owen (O'Conor), on the sons of Murtogh. 

Murtogh, son of Manus O'Conor, the most 



in Meath, where he was buried with great honours, and where a 
monument was erected to his memory with an inscription in 
Ogham characters, on which occasion fifty prisoners taken in the 
battle were, according to the Pagan customs, sacrificed around 
his tomb. The place called Hy Mac-Uais is now the barony of 
Moygoish in Westmeath. Datki, son of Fiachra, was king of 
Connaught, and afterwards Slonarch of Ireland ; he was one of 
the most celebrated of the Irish monarchs, and carried his victo- 
rious arms to Gaul, where he was killed by lightning at the foot of 
the Alps, A.D. 429. His body was brought to Ireland and buried 
in Relig-na-Riogh, the ancient cemetery of the Irish kings at 
Cruachan, near Elpliin. Dathi was the last Pagan monarch of 
Ireland. Oilioll Molt, son of Dathi, was also king of Connaught 
and monarch of Ireland in the fifth century. Amhalgaidh, ano- 
ther son of Fiachra, was also king of Connaught, and from him 
the territory of Tir Amhalgaidh or Tirawley in Mayo obtained its 
name. Dathi the Monarch had a son called Fiachra Ealgach, 
whose posterity gave name to the territory of Hy Fiachrach 
Muaidhe or Hy Fiaclira of the Moy, also called Tir Fiachrach, 
and afteiTvards Tireragh barony, in the county of Sligo. This Fiachra 
had a son called Amhalgaidh, who raised a cam of great stones 
called Carn Amhalgaidh, where it appears great assemblies of the 
people were held and wliere Amhalgaidh himself was buried. It 
is supposed that this earn w-as on the hill of MuUaghcam, near the 
town of Killala. On this hill are some remauis of an earthen 
rampart or fort, with some very large stones arranged in a cir- 
cular form, apparently the remains of a Druidieal monument, 
which the writer saw a few years ago. At Carn Amhalgaidh the 
chiefs of the O'Dowds were inaugurated as princes of Hy Fiachra, 
though according to some accounts the O'Dowds were sometimes 
inaugurated on the hill of Ardnarea near Ballina. Bryan, khig of 
Connaught, ancestor of the Hy Briuin race, and Niall of the 
Hostages, Monarch of Ireland, ancestor of the Hy Nialls, of 
whom accounts have been given in the notes on Meath and 
Brefney, were brothers of Fiachra, son of Eochaidh Muighmeadh- 
ain, monarch of Ireland ; and hence these three brothers were 
the progenitors of the kings and head chiefs of Meath, Ulster and 
Connaught. 'llie territories possessed by the race of Fiachra also 
obtained the name of Hy Fiachra, and comprised the present 
counties of Sligo and Mayo with a great portion of Galway. The 
territory of Hy Fiachra in Cialway, or southern Hy Fiachra, was 
called Hy Fiachra Aidhne from Eogan Aidhne, son of Eochaidh 
Breac, son of Dathi, monarch of Ireland. The posterity of 
Eogan Aidhne, the chief of whom were the O'lleynes, O'Clerys, 
and O'Shaughnesseys, possessed this territory, which was co-ex- 
tensive with the diocese of Kilmacduagh ; and an account of its 
chiefs and clans will be found in the note on South Connaught. 
The chiefs of North Hy Fiachra in Sligo and Mayo were the 
O'Dowds, &c. According to O'Dugan and Mac Firbis, fourteen 
of the race of Hy Fiachra were kings of Connaught, some of 
whom had their residence at Aidhne, in Galway ; others at Ceara, 
now the barony of Carra, in Mayo ; and some on the plain of 
Muaidhe or the Moy, in Sligo. 
The Clans of Hy Fiachra are thus designated by O'Dugan ; — 

" Binn sluagh na m-borb cliathach." 

" The music-loving hosts of fierce engagements." 

O'Duhhda, a name sometimes anglicised O'Dowda, but more 
frequently O'Dowd, and by some O'Dowde, by others O'Dooda 
and O'Doody, was the head chief of North Hy Fiachra, whose 
territory comprised nearly the whole of the present county of 
Sligo, with the greater part of Mayo. The name Dubhda ap- 
pears to be derived from Dubh, dark or black, and datk, a 



REIGN OF EDWARD I. 



99 



eligible heir to the province (of Connaught) of his 
family, was slain by Teige (O'Conor), and Donal, 
son of Teige. 

Malachy O'Flanagan, chief of Clan Cathail, was 



colour, which, by the elision of the two last letters, which have no 
sound, makes IJubhda^ and miiiht signify a dark-haired chief. 
Taithleach was a favourite name amongst the chiefs of the 
O'Dowds, and may be derived from Tath a ruler, and laech or 
htoch a warrior ; hence it may signify the ruling warrior. Tlie 
O'Dowds are descended from Fiachra Ealgach, son of Dathi, 
monarch of Ireland above mentioned, and took their name from 
Uiil)hda, one of their ancient chiefs. Several celebrated chiefs of 
the O'Dowds are mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters, 
in the tenth, eleventh and twelfth centuries. At A.D. 'M\, 
Aodh O'Dubhda or Hugh O'Dowd, who is styled lord of North 
Connaught, died. By a typographical error in O'Connor's Rer. 
Ilib. Scrip, the name is translated O'Duify instead of O'Dowd. 
In the Annals at A. D. 1097, is recorded the death of Murchartach 
O'Dowd, lord of Hy Amhalgaidh. JIany valiant chiefs of the 
O'Dowds are mentioned in these Annals down to the seventeenth 
century; and they had large possessions in the county ofSli^'o 
until tlie Cromwellian wars, when their estates were confiscutcd. 
The O'Dowds were inaugurated as princes of 11 y Fiachra or 
North Connaught at C'arn Amhalgaidh, near Killala, as above 
stated. They appear from history to have been a valiant race ; 
and many of them even down to modern times were remarkable 
for their great strength and stature: indeed, it may lie observed 
that most of the clans of Sligo and Mayo furnished many men of 
great size and strength. 

The following chiefs and clans of Hy Fiachra, and the territo- 
ries they possessed in the twelfth century in the ju'esent counties 
of Sligo and Mayo, have been collected from O'Dugan and other 
authorities : I. O'Maolcluiche, or O'Mulclohy, chief of Cairbre, 
now the barony of Carbury, county of Sligo. (^arbury derived its 
name from Cairbre, one of the sons of King Niall of the Hostages. 
This name has been anglicised to Stone, and there are still many 
of the family in Carbury. II. Mac Diarmada or Mac Dermott, 
chief of Tir Oiliolla, now the barony of Tirerrill, in Sligo, which 
derived its name from Oilioll, one of the sons of Eochaidh Muigh- 
meodhain, monarch of Ireland. The Mac Dermotts were also 
princes of Moylurg, a large territory in the county of Roscommon, 
of which an account will be found in the note on south Connaught. 
They afterwards became chiefs of Coolavin, as successors to the 
O'Garas, lords of Coolavin, and have to the present day estates 
in Coolavui, and retain the title of princes of Coolavin, being the 
only family of the Milesian clans who have preserved their an- 
cient titles to the present time. III. Mac Uonchaidh, that is, 
Mac Donogh, a branch of the Mac Dermotts, afterwards 
chiefs of Tirerrill and of Coran, now the barony of Corran in 
Sligo. Several chiefs of the Mac Donaghs are mentioned in the 
course of the Annals ; and they were great patrons of learned 
men, as mentioned in the subsequent part of this article, in the 
account of the Book of Ballymote. O'Donchathaigh is given as 
a chief by O'Dugan in Corran, and is also mentioned in the poem 
of Giolla Io.sa More Mae Firbis, in which he is styled O'Dun- 
chadha of the " learned men," and it is stated that his territory 
extended as far as the beauteous stream of the salmons, by 
which was meant the river of Ballysadare. This name has 
been anglicised O'Donagh or O'Donaghy. IV. O'Dobhalen 
or O'Devlin, is given as another chief in Corran ; and some 
chiefs of the name are mentioned in the course of the Annals. 
V. O'Headhra or O'Hara, chief of Luighne, now the barony of 
Lieney in the county of Sligo ; but Lieney anciently comprised 
part of the baronies of Costello and Gallen in Mayo. The O'Haras 
were descended from Cormac Gaileng, son of Teige, son of Cian, 
son of Oilioll Olum, king of Munster in the third century, of the 
race of Heber, and therefore of the same stock as the Dalcassians 
of Thomond, of whom the O'Briens were kings. From this Cor- 
mac Gaileng, who lived in the fourth century, the territory of 
Galinga, now the barony of Gallen in Mayo, toolt its name. The 
territory of Luighne or Lieney derived its name from Luighne, a 



slain by Cathal, son of Teige Mac Dermott, in 



the street of Sligo. 



Cathal, son of Teige Mac Dermott, lord of 
Moylurg, died soon afterwards, and Maolrooney, 



brother of Cormac Gaileang. The O'Haras took their name from 
Eaghra, lord of Lieney in the tenth century, whose death is men- 
tioned in the Annals at A.D. 92G. Many chiefs of the O'Haras 
are mentioned in the Annals in the tenth, eleventh and twelfth 
centuries, amongst others Donal O'Hara, lord of Lieney, who was 
killed A- D. 10'23 ; and from the twelfth to the seventeenth cen- 
tury they held their rank as lords of Lieney, and had large pos- 
sessions to the period of the Cromwellian wars, when a great deal 
of their property was confiscated, though they still hold consider- 
able estates in the barony of Lieney. In the reigns of Queen 
Anne and George I., the O'Haras were created barons of Tyrawley 
and Kilmain, in Mayo, and some of them were distinguished ge- 
nerals in the British service. The O'Haras are thus designated by 
O'Dugan. 

" Righ Luighne na m-bladlial ; 
Luighne na laoch lann." 

" The lords of Lieney of high fame ; 
The men of Lieney, of warlike swords." 

VI. O'Gadhra or O'Gara, given by O'Dugan as a chief of 
Lieney, but in after times lord of Cuil O'bh-finn, now the 
barony of Coolavin in the county of Sligo, and sometimes 
styled lord of Moy O'Gara, of Coolavin, and also Sliabh Lugha, 
which latter district extended into a part of the barony of Cos- 
tello in Mayo. The O'Garas derived their descent from Teige, son 
of Cian, son of Oilioll Ollum, being exactly of the same stock as 
the O'Haras. They took their name from Gadhra, one of their 
ancient chiefs. Some chiefs of the O'Garas are mentioned in the 
Annals as early as the beginning of the eleventh century, amongst 
others, Roderick O'Gara, lord of Luighne, who died A. D. 1056. 
Many other distinguished chiefs are mentioned in the course of 
the Annals ; it appears that they retained considerable rank and 
possessions in the county of Sligo down to the seventeenth cen- 
tury ; and one of them, Fergal O'Gara, lord of Moy O'Gara and 
Coolavin, is justly celebrated as a great patron of learned men, 
particularly of the O'Clerys and other authors of the Annals of the 
Four Masters, the beautiful dedication of which work may be seen 
prefixed to the First Number of this publication, as addressed to 
their patron Fergal O'Gara. VII. O'Ciearnachain and O'Huath- 
mharain, given by O'Dugan as chiefs in the territory of Lieney. 
VIII. O'Muiredhaigh or O'Murray, chief of Ceara, now the 
barony of Carra, in Mayo. The O'.Murrays were of the race of 
Hy Fiachra, and were also chiefs of the Lagan, a district in the 
northern part of the barony of Tyrawley in Mayo. Several 
chiefs of the O'Murrays are mentioned in the course of the 
Annals. IX. O'Tigheamaigh or O'Tierney, a chief in Carra. 
Several of the O'Tierneys are mentioned as lords of Carra in the 
Annals. X. O'Gormog, also given as a chief in Carra. XI. O'Maille 
or O'Malley, chief of Umhall, which O'Dugan states was divided 
into two territories. The name has been rendered sometimes into 
Umalia and Hy Malia. This territory comprised the present 
baronies of Murrisk and Burrishoole in the county of Mayo. 
The O'Malleys are of the Hy Briuin race, descended from Bryan, 
king of Connaught in the fifth century, who was also the |)ro- 
genitor of the O'Connors, kings of Connaught, of the O'Rourkes, 
O'Reillys, Mac Dermotts and other chiefs, as explained in the 
note on Brefney. The O'Malleys were celebrated chiefs, and many 
of them are mentioned in the course of these Annals. They are 
thus designated by O'Dugan : 

" Duine maith riamh ni raibhe, 

D'ibh Maille acht na mharuidbe, 

Faidhe na sine sibhse, 

Dine baidhe is braithirsi." 
" A good man yet there never was, 

Of the O'Malleys, who was not a mariner, 

Of every weather ye are prophets, 

A tribe of brotherly affection and of friendship." 

o 2 



100 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1294. 



son of Gillcreest Mac Dermott, succeeded him in 
the lordship. 

Donogh, Mac Consnamha, chief of Muintir 
Kenny (in Leitrim) ; Durkan Mac Tiarnan, lord 
or chief of Tullaghonoho (in the county of Cavan) ; 



The O'Malleys were valiant chiefs and particularly distinguished 
in naval engagements, having a considerable fleet always under 
their command. In the reign of Elizaheth, Grace O'JIalley, 
daughter of Mac William Burl<e, and wife of the chief O'Malley, 
was a celebrated heroine, commanded her fleet in person, and per- 
formed many remarkable exploits against the English. Her 
memory was long famous among the Irish, and celebrated in their 
songs, and even to the present day is held in esteem under the 
designation of Graine ni Mhaille or Grauie Wale. The head of 
this ancient family is sir Samuel O'Malley, and there are at the 
present day many respectable families of the O'Malleys in Mayo. 
XII. O'Talcharain, chief of Conmaicne Guile, now the barony of 
Kilmain, county of Mayo. 

The following chiefs and clans not given in O'Dugan, have been 
collected from various other sources : I. O'Caithniadli, chief of 
lorrus, now the barony of Erris, in Mayo. Several chiefs of the 
O'Caithniadhs are mentioned in the Annals ; the name was an- 
glicised to O'Cahenney, but few of the family exist at the present 
day. II. O'Ceallachain or O'Callaghan. The O'Callaghans were 
chiefs in Erris, but of a different race from the O'Callaghans of 
Munster. III. O'Caomhain, a name anglicised to O'Keevan and 
O'Cavanaghs, a senior branch of the O'Dowd family, and 
chiefs of some districts on the borders of Sligo and Mayo, in 
the baronies of Tireragh, Corran, and Costello. IV. O'Gaihh- 
theachain or O'Gavagan, and O'Maoilfhiona or O'Mulleency, 
chiefs of Calraighe of Moy Heleog, a district in which was com- 
prised the present parish of Crossmolina, in the barony of Tyrawley, 
in Mayo. V. O'Gairmiallaigh or O'Gormley ; and O'Dorchaidhe, 
a name anglicised to Dorchy, aud by others to Darcy. These were 
chiefs of Partraighe or Partry, an ancient territory at the Partry 
mountains in Mayo. The present parish of Ballyovey, also called 
the parish of Partry, shews the situation of this ancient territory. 
The O'Dorceys were a distinguished clan, and many families of them 
in Mayo and Galway, having anglicised the name to Darcey or 
D'Arcy, have been erroneously supposed to be some of the D'Arcys 
of Meath, of English descent. VI. O'Laehtnain or O'Loughnan, by 
some anglicised to Loftus. The O'Loughnans were chiefs of a ter- 
ritory called the Two Bacs, now the parish of Bacs, situated 
between Lough Con and the river Moy in Mayo. VII. O'Maol- 
foghmair and O'Maolbreimuin, chiefs of Hy Eachach Muaidhe, a 
district extending along the western banks of the Moy, between 
Ballina and KiUala. 'This name O'Maolbrennuin has been angli- 
cised to Mulrennin, and the name O'Maolfoghmair has been by some 
rendered into Milford. VIII. Tlie O'Mongans or O'Mangans, 
chiefs of Breach Magh, a district in the parish of Kilraore Moy in 
Sligo. IX. O'Conniallain or O'Connellan, chief of Bun-ui-Con- 
niallan, now Bunnyconnellan, a district in the barony of Gallen, 
county of Mayo, and also of Cloonconnellan, in the barony of Kil- 
main. This clan are a branch of the southern Hy Nialls, descen- 
ded from Laoghaire, monarch of Ireland in the fifth century, and 
are of the same family as the O'Coindealbhains or O'Kendellans, 
princes of Hy Laoghaire in Meath, but long settled in the counties 
of Mayo, Sligo, and Rosconmion. Tliey are mentioned in these 
Araials at A.D. 1-295, as a clan in Roscommon; and under the year 
1316 in the Annals one of their chiefs, Thomas O'Connellan, is 
recorded as having been slain in tlie great battle fought at Athenry. 
X. O'Ceirin or O'Keerin, chief of Ciarraighe Loch-na-nairneadh, 
an ancient territory in the barony of Costello, county of Mayo, 
comprising the parishes of Aghamore, Bekan, and Knock. 

There are various other clans, many of them still numerous, in 
the counties of Mayo and Sligo, as the O'Bannans, O'Brogans, Mae 
Conbains, O'Beans or Whites, O'Beolans, O'Beirnes, O'Flattelleys, 
O'Creans, O'Careys, O'Conachtains or O'Conaghtys of Cabrach, 
in Tireragh, O'Flannelleys, O'Coolaghans, O'Burns, O'Hughes, 



and Dearvail, daughter of Teige, son of Cathal 
Mac Dermott, died. 

The castle of Shgo was demohshed by Hugh, 
son of Owen O'Conor. 

Rickard Burke, the Red Earl, was taken pri- 



O'Huada or O'Fuada, and O'Tapa, names anglicised to Swift, 
O'Loingsys or O'Lynches, O'Maolmoicheirghe, anglicised to Earley, 
O'Mulrooneys or Rooneys, O'Morans, O'Muldoons, O'Meehans, 
O'Caft'reys, O'Finnegans, O'Morriseys, Mac Geraghtys, O'Spillans. 
The O'Uonnells and Mac Sweeneys from Donegal who settled in many 
parts of Sligo and Mayo, particularly when the O'Donnells, princes 
of Tirconnell, extended their power into Sligo. Many families of the 
O'Donnells and Mac Sweeneys in Sligo and Mayo have been very 
respectable. Sir Neill O'Donnell has large estates in the county 
of Mayo. 

The O'Conor Sligo. A branch of the O'Conors of Roscommon, 
descendants of the the kings of Connaught, settled in Sligo, and 
became very powerful in the sixteenth century. The head of the 
family was designated The O'Conor Sligo, and appears to have 
extended his power over the greater part of that county. In 
the learned work, the Irish Antiquarian Mesearchea, by sir 
William Betham, Ulster King of Arms, accounts are found of the 
O'Conor Sligo, the O'Donnells, princes of Tircoimell, together 
with many other Irish chiefs, and much interesting information on 
curious points of Irish history and antiquities. 

The Mac Firbijies, called Clan Firbisigh, were a branch de- 
scended from the same stock as the O'Dowds, jjrinces of Hy 
Fiachra. Their original territory was Magh Broin in Tyrawley ; 
tbey afterwards settled in Rosserk, between Ballina and Kil- 
lala, and lastly at Leacan in the parish of Kilglass, barony of 
Tireragh, east of the river Moy, where they had estates and a cas- 
tle, the ruins of which still remain. The Mac Firbiscs held the 
office of Ollamlis, that is, of historiographers and poets of Hy 
Fiachra, and at one time of all Connaught. From the Annals of 
the Four Masters, and other authorities, the following accoimt of 
the Mac Firhises has been collected : — 

A. D. 1138. Awlave More Mac Firbis, ollav, or historiographer 
of Hy Fiachra, died. O'Reilly's Irish Writers. 

A.D. 1279. Giolla losa More Mac Firbis, ollav of Tir Fiachra, 
died. Four Masters. 

A. D. 1301 . Giolla losa Mac Firbis, chief historian of Tir Fiach- 
ra, &c., died. Annals of Clonmacnoise. 

A.D. 1370. Donogh Mac Firbis, an eminent historian, died. 
Four Masters. 

A. D. 1379. Fearbisigh Mac Firbis, a learned historian, died. 

A.D. 1418. Giolla losa More Mac Firbis, the famous anti- 
quary of Leacan, one of the chief compilers of the book of Leacan, 
and iviaol losa Mac Firbis, another learned writer, and poet, died. 
O'Reilly's Irhh. Writers. 

Dubhaltach, Duald, or Dudley Mac Firbis, of whom accounts 
may be found in the Dissertations of the learned Charles O'Conor 
of Belenagar, in his preface to Ogygia Vindicated, in O'Flaherty's 
Ogygia, and in the works of Ware by Harris, was one of the most 
celebrated of the historians of Leacan, and was instructed in the 
Brelion laws by the Mac Egans, hereditary Brehons of Ormond. 
O'Conor says that " Duald Mac Firbis closed the line of the here- 
ditary antiquaries of Leacan, in Tir Fiachra, on the Moy, a family 
whose law reports (on Brehonisra) and historical collections have 
derived great credit to their country. This last of the Mac Fir- 
hises was unfortunately nmrderedat Dimflin in tlie county of Sligo, 
and by his death our antiquities received an irreparable blow." 
The learned Roderick O'Flaherty, author of Ogygia, was the pupil 
of Mac Firbis, of whom he speaks with the highest praise, as the 
chief ornament and support of Irish antiquarianism while living, 
and an irreparable loss to it when dead. Mac Firbis was killed in 
the year 1670, about the eightieth year of his age ; and it is stated 
in some accounts that be was buried in the old church of Kilglass. 
It is also mentioned in Ware's works by Harris, imder the account 
of John de Burgo, archbishop of Tuam in the fifteenth century, 



REIGN OF EDWARD I. 



101 



soner by Fitzgerald, which circumstance occa- 
sioned great commotions in Ireland. 

Fitzgerald and Mac Feorais (Bermingh.im) 
treacherously committed great depredations on the 
people of Connaught, and attempted to depose 



tliat Duald Mac Firbis was a sliort time liefore his death cm- 
ployed by sir James Ware in collectino; and translating Irish MSS. 
There are still some of the family of Mac Firbis about Leacan, 
some of wliom have chana;ed the name to Forbes. 

The Book of Lencan, so called from being composed at Leacan, 
was compiled by the Mac Firbises, from the twelfth to the fifteenth 
century , and is one of the greatest and most authentic works on 
Irish history and antiquities. It is a very voluminous MS., 
written on tine vellum, and comprises the history of Ireland from 
the earliest ages to the fifteenth century. The original book of 
Leacan is in the Library of the Rnyal Irish Academy, from which 
the translator of these Annals, who had the honour of being a])- 
pointed to the office of Irish Historiographer to their late Majesties 
George IV. and William IV., transcribed a copy, which is now 
deposited in the Royal Library at Windsor. 

The Book ofB/illi/mote, so called from having been in the pos- 
session of the Slac Donoghs at their castle of Ballymote in Sligo, 
or, according to others, from having been partly composed at the 
monastery of Ballymote, was compiled in the latter end of the four- 
teenth century, chiefly by Solamh O'Droma, or Solomon O'Drom, 
and Manus O'Duigenan, learned antiquaries and historians. Tomal- 
tagh Mac Donogh, lord of Tirerrill and Oorran, in Sligo, was the 
patron of these learned men ; and the Book of Ballymote remained 
a long time in possession of this family, but was purchased from one 
of the Mac Donoghs, in the year 15'2-2, by Hugh Duv, son of Hugh 
Koe, sonof ^'iallGarv O'Donnell, of Donegal, the price given for the 
Book being one hundred and forty milch cowx. The Book of Bally- 
mote is a large folio M.S. on vellum ; it contains the ancient his- 
tory of Ireland from the earliest period to tlie end of the fourteenth 
century, and is considered a very authentic work and of great 
authority. The original is deposited in the library of the Royal 
Irish Academy ; and a copy of it, with a full account of its con- 
tents, was made by tlie translator of these .\nnals as Irish Historio- 
grapher, and is deposited in the Royal Library at Windsor. 
Further accounts of the Books of Leacan and Ballynuite and of 
their learned authors are to be found in O'Reilly's Irish Writers. 

The Annals of the Four Masters, of which a copious account 
lias been given in the introduction to the first number of the present 
publication, were compiled by the O'Clerys and other learned wri- 
ters, under the patronage of Fergal O'Gara, lord of Moy O'Gara 
and Coolavin, in the county of Sligo ; and thence it hapiiens that 
these three great works on Irish history and antiquities, are inti- 
mately connected with Sligo, giving that county a peculiarly 
honourable position in respect to ancient Irish literature. 

In the twelfth century John de Courcy made some attempts 
witli his Anglo Norman forces towards the conquest of Connaught, 
but did not succeed to any extent. The de Burgos, or Burkes, in 
the reign of king John, obtained grants in various parts of Con- 
naught, and carried on fierce contests for a long period with the 
O'Connors, kings of Connaught, and various chiefs. They made 
considerable conquests in the country, and were styled lords of 
Connaught ; but it appears that in the fourteenth century several 
chiefs of the Burkes renounced their allegiance to the English go- 
vernment, and some of them then took the surname of Mac Wil- 
liam, and, adopting the Irish language and dress, identified them- 
selves with the ancient Irish in customs and manners. One of 
them, namely, Edmund de Burgo, took the name of Mac William 
Oughter, or llac William the Upper, who was located in Galway, 
and another, Mac William Eighter, or Mac William the Lower, 
who was located in Mayo. Some branches of the Burkes took the 
surnames of Mac David, Mac Philbin, and Mac Gibbon, from 
their respective ancestors. The other families of Anglo-Norman, 
or English, descent who settled in Mayo, were the following, viz. : 
The de Angulos, or Nangles, of whom an account has been given in 



Hugh, son of Owen (O'Conor) ; and they spoiled 
the country, but did not, however, establish their 
power over it, and only disturbed its peace. 

David Mac Gillaraigh (in Sligo), was slain by 
the sons of Donal Duv O'Hara. 



the note on Meath, and who also settled in Mayo and took the Irish 
surname of Mac Costello, and fi'om whom the barony of Costello 
derived its name. The de Exeters, who took the name of Mac 
Jordans, and were styled lords of Athleathan, in the barony of 
Gallon. The Barretts, some of whom took the surnames of Mac 
Watten and Mac Andrew ; the Stauntons, in Carra, some of 
whom took the name of Mac Aveeley ; the Lawlesses, Cusacks, 
Lynots, Prendergasts, and Fitzmaurices, the Berminghams, who 
changed their name to Mac Feorais ; the Blakes, Dillons, Bing- 
hams, &c. &c. The Mac Philips are placed on the map of Or- 
telius in the barony of Costello ; their principal seat is at Cloon- 
niore, and they are a branch of the Burkes, who took the name of 
Mac Philips. 

In Sligo the Anglo-Normans under the Burkes, and the Fitzgeralds, 
earls of Kildare, made some settlements, and had frequent contests 
with the O'Conors, and with the O'Donnells, prmces of Tirconnell, 
who had extended their power over a great part of Sligo. 

Mayo, according to some accounts, was formed into a county 
as early as the reign of Edward III., but not altogether reduced 
to English rule till the reign of Elizabeth. In Speed's Theatre of 
Great Britain, published A. D. 1670, Mayo is stated to be " re- 
plenished both with pleasure and fertility, abundantly rich in 
cattle, deer, hawks, and plenty of honey." 

Sligo was formed into a county A. D. 1565, in the reign of 
Elizabeth by the lord deputy, sir Henry Sydney. 

The following have been the noble families in Mayo and Sligo 
since the reign of James I. In Mayo the Burkes, viscounts Clan- 
morris and earls of Mayo. The Brownes, barons of Kilmain, ba- 
rons of Westport, and barons of Oranmore. The Binghams, ba- 
rons of Castlebar ; and the Savilles, barons of Castlebar. The 
Dillons, barons of Costello-Gallen, and viscounts Dillon. The 
O'Haras, barons of Tyrawley and Kilmain. In Sligo the Taaffes, 
barons of Ballymote, and visocunts of Corran. The Cootes, ba- 
rons of Collooney. The Scudamores, viscounts of Sligo. And the 
Browns, marquesses of Sligo. 

Ecclesiastical divisions. At Cong, in Mayo, a monastery was 
founded and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin by St. Feichin, a 
native of Sligo, a man eminent for his learning and sanctity, in the 
seventh century. This abbey, possessed by Augustinian monks, 
was a celebrated seat of learning and religion for many centuries, 
and became a bishop's see, which was united to the seeofTuam 
in the twelfth century. Cong was also the residence of some of 
the kings of Connaught ; and Roderick O'Conor, the last Milesian 
monarch of Ireland died there A. D. 1198, and was buried at 
Clonmacnois. 

Mayo. A monastery was founded here in the seventh century 
by St. Colman, an Irishman, who had been bishop of Lindisfame, 
in Northumberland, but leaving England, returned to his own 
country, and founded this monastery, chiefly for the use of English 
monks, whom he had brought over with him. A college also was 
founded here which was long famous as a seat of learning, and, 
being established chiefly for the use of the English, was called 
Macjh-Eo-na-Saxon, or Mayo of the Saxons. Alfred, king of 
Northumberland in the seventh century, was according to some 
accounts educated at Mayo, and by other accounts Alfred the 
Great, king of England, in the ninth century, also received his 
education there. Mayo likewise became a bishop's see, and in the 
sLxteenth century, A. D. 1559, was annexed to the see of Tuam. 

The see of Killala or Cill Alaidhe was founded by St. Patrick 
in the fifth century, and the bishops are sometimes styled bishops 
of Tir Amhalgaidh or Tyrawley, also bishops of Tir Fiachra, and 
of Hy Fiachra, and sometimes of Hy Fiachra Muaidhe, that is, of 
Hy Fiachra of the Moy, so called to distinguish it from Hy 
Fiachra Aidhne or the diocese of Kilmacduagh in the county of 



102 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A, D. 1295-96. 



Donal O'Hara, lord of Lieny, died. 
Dermod O'Caemhain (in Sligo), died. 



A. D. 1295, 

The Red Earl was set at liberty fi-om his con- 
finement by Fitzgerald, by command of the king 
of England, and good hostages of his own kindred 
were taken in exchange for him. 

Bryan, son of Hugh Buidhe O'Neill, lord of 
Tyrone, was slain by Donal, son of Bryan O'Neill, 
and many of the English and Irish were slain 
along with him. 

A contest arose in Tirconnell between Hugh, 
son of Donal Oge O'Donnell, and Torlogh his 
brother, respecting the lordship, so that a great 
part of the country was spoiled between them, 
both clergy and people ; Torlogh was deposed and 
expelled from Tirconnell to the people of Tyrone 
and to the Clan Donnell (Mac Donnells). 

Donal O'Kelly, lord of Hy Maine, the most 
wise of counsel in his time, ched in a monastic 
habit, and was interred in the monastery of Knock- 
moy. 

Mac Branan, chief of Core Achlan (in Roscom- 
mon), died, and Tomaltagh Mac Branan, the chief 
who was appointed his successor, was slain by 
Muintir Connellan in revenge of their father who 
had been killed by him. 

The castles of Baile Nui,' Moy Brecraighe, and 
Moy Dumha, were demolished by Geoffrey 
O'Ferrall. 



A.D. 1296. 

GioUaisa Mac AnUatanaigh (O'Conor), bishop 
of Elphin ; and Maolpeadar O'Duigenan, arch- 



Galway. The diocese of Killala comprehends a great part of the 
county of Mayo and a portion of Sligo. 

Thesee of Achonrij or Achadh C/ionntre, was founded in the sixth 
century by St. Finian, bishop of Clonard, in Meath, who placed over 
it his disciple St. Nathy, its first bishop. The bishops of Achonry 
were in early times styled bishops of Luighne or Lieney, which was 
the ancient name of the territory. The diocese of Achonry compre- 
hends a large portion of the county of Sligo, with a considerable 
part of Mayo. 

Drumcliff in Sligo. A monastery was founded here by St. 
Columkille in the sixth century, and was long famous as a seat 
of learning and religion. It became a bishop's see and its abbots 
were styled bishops. It was united to the see of Elphin in the 
sixteenth century. See Ware's Bishops by Harris, Archdall's 
Monasticon, and Lanigan's Ecclesiastical History. 



deacon of Brefney,* from Drumchff to Kells, 
died. 

Hugh, son of Owen O'Conor, was deposed by 
his own people, who brought in the Clan Muir- 
cheartaigh, and the government was conferred on 
Conor Roe (O'Conor), son of Cathal, to whom 
they gave hostages. The entire country both 
clergy and laity was spoiled through that depo- 
sition. A great force was collected to the aid of 
Hugh O'Conor, composed of English and Irish, 
with William Burke and Theobald Burke, whom 
he invited to the country, and they continued four 
days and nights plundering and devastating the 
country of property and corn. The chiefs of the 
country waited on him afterwards, and he brought 
them before the earl to make peace with them ; as 
to the sons of Murchertagh they burned and 
spoiled the entire district of Carbury (in Sligo), 
and plundered its churches, but God, the Virgin 
Mary, and Columkille, were avenged of them soon 
after for having violated their churches. As to 
the forementioned chiefs, after promising they 
would be tributary to Hugh they returned to their 
homes, but did not continue long at peace with 
him, for they again joined the sons of Murtogh. 
Hugh, son of Owen, having then come into the 
Tuatha (in Roscommon), and having brought with 
him thither O'Ferrall and Mac Rannall with their 
forces, he sent messengers to Mac Dermott and 
O'Flanagan, who having turned against the sons 
of Murtogh and separated from the other clans, 
joined Hugh. Conor Roe (O'Conor) having 
received intelligence of this, attacked Mac Der- 
mott, and, aided by his supporters, committed 
depredations on him ; Mac Dermott having gone 
in pursuit of his plundered property, an engage- 
ment ensued, in which Conor Roe was slain, and 
Loghlin, son of Conor, and Manus, son of Tomal- 



A.D. 1295. 
1. Saile Nui, that is Newtown, was probably the place now 
called Newtown- Forbes, in the county of Longford ; or it might 
he Newtown-Gore, in the parish of Carrigallen, county of Leitrim, 
on the borders of Longford, where there are some ruins of a castle. 
The castle of Moyduma was that of Moydow, in the parish of 
Moydow, county of Longford. 

A. D. 1296. 
1. Archdeacon of Brefney, that is, of the diocese of Kilmore, 
which, as stated here, extended from Kells in Meath to Drumcliff 

in Sligo. 



REIGN OF EDWARD I. 



103 



tagh, were taken prisoners. Great numbers 
were slain on both sides ; Mac Dermott brought 
the prisoners to Hugh O'Conor, who with O'Fer- 
rall, Mac Dermott, Mac Rannall, and the clans 
before-mentioned committed a retaliatory depre- 
dation on the people of Clan Muircheartaigh the 
same day ; and Loghlin, son of Conor, afterwards 
had his eyes put out, and died of his wounds. 

The king of England marched with an army 
into Scotland and gained great power over that 
country. The nobles of the English of Ireland 
were in that army, namely, Rickard Burke, earl of 
Ulster ; Gerald Fitzgerald ; and John Fitzthomas 
(Fitzgerald), and they plundered Scotland both 
churches and people ; a monastery of friars in that 
country was plundered by them, and they levelled 
it to the ground so as not to leave one stone upon 
another on its site, after they had slain a number 
of its clergy, besides many of its people both male 
and female, which acts were indeed disgraceful. 



A. D. 1297. 

Malachy Mac Brien, abbot of Boyle, was elected 
to the see of Elphin, and Marian O'Donnabair, a 
friar of the order of St. Dominick was also elected, 
and they botM ha\dng gone to Rome, Malachy 
died. 

Henry Mac Oiraghty,' bishop of Conor, a 
monk, died, and was buried in the monastery of 
Drogheda. 

William O'DutFy, bishop of Clonfert, fell from 
his horse, of which fall he died. 

Conor, son of Taichleach Mac Dermott, lord of 
Moylurg and of Airteach, the most famous man in 
battle, in conflict, in attacks, in bravery, in valour, 
in defending and giving protection, in power and 
integrity, in his time, died, and was buried in the 
monastery of Boyle, 

Manus O'Hanley, chief of Kinel Dobhtha (in 
Roscommon), died. 



A. D. 1297. 
1. Henry Mac Oiraghty is mentioned here in the Annals as 
bishop of Condeire, that is, of Conor ; he is not to be found in 
^^'are'3 Bishops of Conor, but Henry Mac Oiraghty, a Cistercian 
monk, isfriven in Ware as bishop of Achonry, and his death placed 
A.D. 12!)7 ; therefore it appears probable that the translator made 
a mistake, and confounded Achad Conaire or Achonry with Con- 
deire or Connor. Henry Mac Oiraghty, a Cistercian monk, was 
called Henry of Ardagh from the place of his birth, in Longford ; 
he is given by Ware as bishop of Derry for a short time, namely, 



Cu-idadh O'Hanlon, lordof Orior (in Armagh), 
Aongus Mac Mahon, and many others of the 
chiefs of their people were slain by the English of 
Dundalk, who were returning home from the earl 
(of Ulster). 



A.D. 1298. 

Thomas O'Hairectaigh, abbot of Eas Roe (at 
Ballyshannon), died. 

Sabina, daughter of Hugh Buidhe O'NeiU, and 
wife of Teige, son -of Andrew O'Conor, died. 

Bryan Breaghach Mac Gauran, chief of Tul- 
laghaw (in Cavan), was slain by Hugh Brefney 
O'Conor and the sons of Murtogh (O'Conor). 

Donogh, son of Donal O'Hara, one of the most 
distinguished chiefs' sons for hospitality and 
defending his country, was slain by his own kins- 
man Biyan Carrach O'Hara. 

Thomas Fitzmaurice, a baron of the Geraldines, 
called Oidhre Cam (the Crooked Heir), died. 



A.D. 1299. 

Nicholas Mac Maolisa, archbishop of Armagh, 
the most pious and devout ecclesiastic of his time, 
died. 

Feargal O'Fugil, bishop of Raphoe, died. He 
was the most eminent ecclesiastic in his time for 
charity, humanity, piety, and benevolence. 

Alexander Mac Donnell (of Antrim), the most 
distinsuished of his name, either in Ireland or in 
Scotland, for hospitahty and feats of arms, was 
slain by Alexander Mac Dugall, together with 
many of his people. 



A.D. 1300. 

Congalach O'LoghUn, bishop of Core Mod- 
ruadh,' a man distinguished for learning, piety, 
and hospitahty, died. 



from A. D. 1295, to 1297, and Ware conjectured that he might 
have been the same person as Henry Mac Oiraghty, bishop of 
Achonry. On the whole it appears probable that this Henry Mac 
Oiraghty might have been a bishop for a short time in each of 

those sees. 

A. D. 1300 
1. Core Modnindh or Corcomroe, a parish and also a barony in 
the county of Clare. There was a celebrated Cistercian abbey 
called Corcomroe, of which extensive ruins still remain. It is 



104 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1301-2-3. 



Felim Mac Carthy, heir to the lordship of Des- 
mond, died. 

The castle of Athcliath of Corran, that is, of 
Balljanote, was commenced to be built by the earl 
(of Ulster). 

John Prendergast was slain by the son of 
Fiachra O'Flynn. 

Theobald Butler, a noble baron, died. 

Adam Staunton, another great baron, died. 

Seoinin Oge Fitzmaurice was slain by Conor 
O'Flynn, and many others with him. 



A. D. 1301. 

Fionnguala, daughter of Fehm O'Conor, the 
abbess of Killcraobhnad,' died. 

Cairbre, son of Cormac O'Melaghlin (of Meath), 
was slain at the instance of his kinsman, the son 
of Art O'Melaghlin. 

William Mac Clancy, chief of Dartry (in Lei- 
trim), was slain by Ualgarg, son of Donal, son of 
Art O'Rourke. 

Great depredations were committed by Hugh, 
son of Cathal O'Conor, and by the sons of Mur- 
togh (O'Conor) on Teige, the son of Andrew, in 
Moy Cedne.- 

The Iving of England marched with an army 
into Scotland, accompanied by Fitzgerald, Ber- 
mingham, and all the chief barons of Ireland, to- 
gether with the earl of Ulster, and they remained 
in Scotland from a fortnight after Lammas until 
November, but did not gain complete power du- 
ring that period. 



A. D. 1302. 
Stephen O'Braccan (or O'Brogan), archbishop 



also called the parish of Abbey. The see of Kilfenora, anciently 
called Fenabore, bad its seat in the barony of Corcoraroe ; hence 
the bishops were styled bisliops of Corcomroe, and therefore this 
Congalach O'Loghlin was bishop of Kilfenora. 

A. D. 1301. 

1. Kill Craohhnnd, now probably the parish of Kilkeevan, in 
the barony of Ballintobber, county of Roscommon, where there 
are some remains of an abbey at Moor, and of a church at Kil- 
keevan, which is a burying place of the O'Conors Don. 

2. Moy Cedne, or the plain of Cedne, given on the map of an- 
cient Ireland in O'Conor's Dissertations as Moy Cetney, was the 
ancient name of the district extending from the river Erne at Bel- 
leek and Ballyshannon, along the sea shore to Lough Melvm and 
Bundrowes in Leitrim ; and, according to O'Conor, comprising 
also part of Carbury in Sligo. This territory is mentioned in these 
Annals at A. D. 153G. Moy Cedne is celebrated by the old an- 



of Cashel; Miles, bishop of Limerick, who was 
grandson of the earl of Leinster ; and the bishop 
of Cork,' died; he was a monk previous to his 
being consecrated a bishop. 

Donal Roe Mac Carthy, lord of Desmond ; 
Donncarrach Mag Uidhir (or Mac Guire), the 
first lord of Siol Uidhir (the clan INIac Guire) in 
Fermanagh ; and Roderick, son of Donal O'Hara, 
heir to the lordship of Lieney, died. 

Hugh, son of Cathal (O'Conor), committed 
great depredations on Teige, son of Bryan, and 
on Sltrick, son of the Carnach Mac Clancy, in 
Moy Cedne (in Leitrim). 



A.D. 1303. 

Malachy Mac Brien, bishop of Elphin,' died, 
and Donogh O'Flanagan, abbot of Boyle, suc- 
ceeded him in the see. 

Torlogh, son of Donal Oge O'Donnell, called 
Torlogh Cnuic-an-madhma (or the Hill of Vic- 
tory), lord of Tirconnell, a tower of war, battle, 
and defence, the Cuchulain of the Clan Dalaigh 
in valour, was slain by his brother Hugh, after a 
long contention, in which much of the country 
was spoiled between them ; and many of the Ty- 
ronians and of the English nobilitji of the north, 
and also of the Connallians themselves were slain, 
among whom were Murtogh Mac Clancy, chief of 
Dartry (in Leitrim) ; Donogh O'Kane, lord of the 
men of Creeve and of Keenaught (in Deny) ; 
Donagh Mac Meanman ; Hugh Mac Meanman ; 
the two sons of the professor O'Donnell ; Niall, 
son of Niall O'Boyle, heir to the chieftancy of the 
three districts (in Donegal) ; Mac Hugossa, with 
his son and brother ; Adam Sandal ; and many 
more of the English and Irish. Hugh, son of 



nalists as the scene of many battles in the early ages between the 
Nemedians and Fomorians, as already shewn in the note on Tir- 
connell. 

A. D. 1303. 
1. Bishop of Cork. Robert Mac Donogh, a Cistercian monk, 
was the bisliop of Cork, who died at this time. Miles, mentioned 
here as the bishop of Limerick, was probably Gerald de Mares- 
chal, who is given by Ware as bishop of Limerick, and died in 
1301 or 1302. He may have been of the family of the Fitz- 
geralds, carls of Kildare. 

A.D. 1303. 
1. Bishop of Elphin. Slalachy Mac Brien has been already 
mentioned at A.D. 1297 as having gone to Rome and died there. 
Ware places his death in the year 1302, at Rome. 



REIGN OF EDWARD I. 



105 



Doiial Oge, afterwards enjoyed the lordship of 
Tirconnell hapjjily and prosperously while he 
lived. 

Donal Oge Mac Carthy, lord of Desmond, died. 

Dermod O'FIanagan, chief of Tura (in Fer- 
managh) ; his two sons ; and many others with 
them, were slain by a party of people from the 
house of Donal, son of Teige O'Conor, at Bun 
Duibhe (Bunduft' in Sligo), wliile endeavouring 
to carry otl"a prey from Moy Ceidne. 

Manus Mac Gauran, chief of Tullaghaw (in 
Cavan); and Niall Mac Gillfinnen (in Fermanagh), 
died. 

Gerald Fitzgerald died. 

The sons of Murtogh (O'Conor) committed 
great depredations on ]Muintir Kenny (in Leitrim) ; 
and Murtogh Mac Consnamha, heir to the chief- 
tancy of Muintir Kenny, was slain on that occa- 
sion. 

The king of England again led a great army 
into Scotland, and the earl (of Ulster), and many 
of the English and Irish went with a large fleet 
from Ireland to assist him ; they took many cities, 
and gained full power over Scotland on that ex- 
pedition ; and Theobald Burke, the earl's brother, 
after his return from that army, died on Christ- 
mas night, in Carrickfergus. 



A.D. 1304. 

Conor, son of Hugh O'Conor, was slain by 
Hoberd O'Flaherty, after he had betrayed Don- 
ogh O'Flaherty, and Hoberd himself was killed 
immediately afterwards. 

The countess, wife of Richard Burke, earl of 
Ulster, that is, the Red Earl ; and Walter Burke, 
heir to the same earl, died. 



A.D. 1305. 

O'Conor Failge,' that is, Murtogh ; Maolmor- 
dha, his brother; the Calvach O'Conor, with 
twenty-nine of the chiefs of their people were 



A.D. 1305. 
1. O'Conor Failge, that is O'Conor Failcy, whicli was the title 
of O'Conor, lord of Oflaley, in the King's county. The affair here 
mentioned took place at the house of Pierce Bermingham in Car- 
bery, in the county of Kildare. 



treacherously and deceitfully slain, by sir Pierce 
Bermingham, in his own castle. 

The new castle of Inisowen (in Donegal) was 
built by the Red Earl (of Ulster). 

Hugh, son of Cathal (O'Conor), and the sons 
of Murtogh (O'Conor), defeated the O'Reillys in a 
battle, in which Philip O'Reilly, with the heir of 
Clansweeney (in Donegal), and Mac Buirche, the 
chief of the galloglasses, together with one hundred 
and forty others, were slain. 

Matthew Oge O'Reilly was slain by the people 
of Tullaghonoho (in Cavan). 

Torlogh, son of Niall Roe O'Brien (of Tho- 
mond) died. 

Hugh Oge O'Ferrall (of Longford), died. 



A. D. 1306. 

Donogh O'Flaherty, bishop of Killala, the 
most eminent of the Irish in piety, died at Dun- 
buinne (Dunboyne), on his way to Dublin, and 
was honourably interred in the house of the Vir- 
gin Mary at Muilionnchearr (Mullingar). 

Petrus O'Toole, vicar of Killeaspuic Broin ;' 
andMasterThomas O'Naan, archdeacon of Raphoe, 
and bishop elect (or coadjutor) of the same see, died. 

Torlogh O'Brien, lord of Thomond, the most 
noble, pious, charitable, prosperous, and generous 
man in Ireland, in his time, died ; and his son 
Donogh was appointed in his place. 

Donal Tuirtreach O'Neill was slain in mistake 
by the people of the house of O'Neill. 

Fergal Mac Rannall, chief of Muintir Eoluis 
(in Leitrim) was slain, by his own brethren, and by 
a party of his own people. 

A great war arose between Hugh, son of Owen 
O'Conor, king of Connaught, aided by the chiefs 
of Siol Murray (in Roscommon), and Hugh, son 
of Cathal O'Conor, joined by a party of the sons 
of the chiefs of Connaught, and by the chiefs and 
clans of Brefney ; the two armies remained on 
either side of the Shannon for the space of four 
months. Parties from Hugh's, the son of Cathal's, 
forces made several sallies into the Tuatha (in 



A.D. 1306. 

1. Kill Efispicig Broin, now Killaspicbrone, a parish in the 
barony of Carbury, county of Sligo. 



106 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1307-8. 



Roscommon), on which occasions they committed 
plunders and depredations. Flan, son of Fiachra 
O'Flinn, heir to the chieftainship of Siol Maoil- 
ruain (in Roscommon), Bryan, son of Donogh 
Riavach O'Conor, and many others along with 
them were slain by the O'Hanleys, who were 
in pursuit of their plundered property. The fol- 
lowing were the most distinguished on that expe- 
dition : Roderick, son of Cathal O'Connor ; Do- 
nogh, son of Conor of the Cup ; and the son of 
Fergal (Mac Dermott), heir to the lordship of 
Moylurg ; all eminent for theu- prosperity and 
hospitality to that day. However, those chiefs, 
with all that sui-vived of their people, proceeded 
with the booty until they reached the fortress of 
O'Conor, and they then burned the palace of the 
king of Connaugbt, that is, the palace of Cloon- 
fraoich.'- Hugh, son of Owen O'Conor, overtook 
them after they had burned the royal residence, 
and took the booty from them, and slew Donogh, 
son of Conor of the Cup, and some of his people. 

The sons of Murtogh (O'Conor) committed a 
great depredation in the district of Carbury (in 
Sligo), and David O'Kavanagh, chief from Too- 
more to the river Gleoir, a wealthy and affluent 
landed proprietor ; Donogh Mac Buidheachain, 
and many others, were slain in the conflict about 
the plunder. 

O' Flanagan was slain by Bryan Can-ach O'Hara. 



A.D. 130T. 

Luii-int (or Laurence) O'Lachtnan (orO'Lough- 
nan), a grey friar, bishop of Kilmacduagh, and 
Donogh O'Flanagan, bishop of Elphin, died. 

Donal, son of Teige, son of Bryan, son of An- 
drew, son of Bryan Luighneach, son of Torlogh 
More (O'Conor), tanist (or heir elect) to the 
crown of Connaugbt, a man full of generosity and 
hospitahty, and of iniiversal benevolence, was 
slain by Hugh Brefnach, the son of Cathal Roe 
O'Conor. 

Teige, son of Malachy, son of Donogh, son of 
Donal, son of Manus, son of Torlogh (O'Conor), 



2. Cloon Fraoich, an ancient residence of the kings of Con- 
naught, was situated near Ttilsk, in the county of Roscommon, 
and near it was the Hill of Cam Fraoich, where the O'Conors 
were inaugurated as kings of Counaught. 



a man distinguished for hospitality, was slain 
by Cathal, son of Donal, son of Teige (O'Conor). 

The greater part of the English of Roscommon 
were slain by Donogh Muinach O'Kelly, lord of 
Hy Maine, at Atheasgrach Cuan,' at which place 
Philip Muinder (orMontyre), John Muinder, and 
Matthew Drew, together with many others who 
are not recorded, were slain, and the following 
were made prisoners : Dermod Gall Mac Dermott, 
Cormac Mac Cethernaigh (or Kearney), and the 
sheriff of Roscommon ; but they were afterwards 
set at hberty, and they made peace for the burn- 
ing of the town by Edmond Butler. This Donogh 
O'Kelly died after these exploits, and his death 
was not unheroie, being after the performance of 
deeds of valour and braveiy, and after conferring 
favours and bounties. 

Ailve, the daughter of Teige O'Conor, died. 

Malachy O'Gormley, chief of Kind Moain (in 
Donegal), and Manus Mac Oiraghty (of Ros- 
common), died. 

Conor, son of Fiachra O'Flynn (of Roscommon), 
the most eminent young man of his tribe for hos- 
pitality and bravery, died. 

Edward H. was proclaimed king of England on 
the 7th of July." 



A.D. 1308. 

The monastery of the friars in Roscommon was 
struck by lightning and much damaged. 

Maolrooney Mac Dermott committed a plunder 
on the sons of Donal O'Conor in Carbmy (in 
Shgo),and another plunder was committed on them, 
by the sons of Mm-togh who after ha\ing made 
peace with them and given them hostages, after- 
wards deceived them. After that the sons of 
Donal proceeded to Slieve-da-en (in Tirerrill, 
Shgo), and took nothing ^;ith them but their 
horses, armour and accoutrements. \A'hen the 
English of Tireragh and Lieney received inteUi- 
gence of this they mustered their forces and jjur- 
sued them to the top of Sheve Daen ; the sons of 
Donal (O'Conor) turned upon them, and a battle 



A.D. 1307. 

1. Ath Easccrn Cuan, or Ahascragh, in tlie county of Galway. 

2. Edward II. King Edward I. died on the 7th of July, 
A. D. 1307, and was succeeded by his son, Edward II. 



REIGN OF EDWARD II. 



107 



ensued, in which the English were defeated ; the 
sons of Donal followed up their victory, and pur- 
sued them as far as the Rock of Ballysadarc. 
Thomas Mac AValter, constable of Bunfinne,' with 
his brother, and many others, were slain. 

Hugh, son of Cathal (O'Conor), committed a 
retaliatoiy depredation on liis brother Roderick, 
son of Cathal, on which occasion Manus, son of 
Manus (O'Conor), and many others, were slain. 



A. D. 1309. 

Hugh, son of Owen, son of Roderick, son of 
Hugh, son of Cathal Crovdearg (O'Conor), king of 
Connaught, a worthy heir to the throne of Ire- 
land, the most illustrious Irishman of his time for 
hospitality and feats of arms, was slain by Hugh 
Brefneach, the son of Cathal O'Conor, in the 
wood of Cloghan,' together with many chiefs of 
his people ; and of those who fell were Conor Mac 
Dermott ; Dermod Roe, son of Teige O'Conor ; 
Dermod, son of Cathal CaiTach Mac Dermott ; 
Hugh, son of Murtogh, son of Teige, son of Maol- 
rooney (Mac Dermott), and Dermod O'Healey, 
the most eminent of the landed gentry of his time. 
On the other side were slain Giolla-na-neev Mac 
Egan, chief Brehon of Coimaught, and the most 
learned judge in his time ; Fogartach O'Dobailen 
(or O'Devlin) ; and many others who have not 
been recorded. The Siol Murray (of Roscommon) 
confen'cd the sovereignty on Roderick, son of 
Cathal O'Conor, after which he and O'Flynn 
marched with a large troop of cavaliy to the plain 
and slew Bermingham. 

William Burke and such of the Conacians as 
were his adherents, held a conference with Ro- 
derick, the son of Cathal (O'Conor), at Athsliseu 
(in Roscommon) ; they disagi-eed, and a conflict 
ensued, in which Roderick was defeated, and many 
of his people were slain. William Burke pro- 
ceeded to the monastery of Boyle, and the sons of 
Murtogh went into Tirenill, where they destroyed 



A.D. 1308. 
1. Sunfinric, that is, the mouth of the river Finn, antrlicised 
Buninne, a place in the parish of Drumard, barony of Tireragli, 
county of Sligo, where there was in former times a cattle. 

A.D. 1309. 
1 . The wood of Cloghan was probably the place called Cloghan 



much corn and biu-ncd the countrj- ; Mac William 
afterwards marched across the Curlew mountains 
northward, and turned Roderick, the son of Cathal 
(O'Conor) out of his fortress, and Mac Wilhara's 
vanguard slew Donogh O'Feenaghty and many 
others. 

Mac William committed depredations in Clan 
Fermuighe (in Leitrim), and also as far as Ben 
Gulban (Benbulban mountain in the north of 
Shgo). 

Conor, son of Bryan Roe O'Brien (in Thomond), 
was slain. 



A.D. 1310. 

Conor O'Brien, the most illustrious heir pre- 
sumptive in his time, was treacherously slain by 
the English. 

Hugh Brefneach (O'Conor), aided by the sons 
of Murtogh, committed great retaliatorj' depreda- 
tions on ^laolrooney Mac Dermott; they plundered 
Donogh Mac Donogh, took himself and some of 
the chiefs of his people prisoners, and slew others 
of them, and burned their properties; they also 
slew his wife, the daughter of O'Flanagan. 

Fergal Mac Dorchy (in Mayo), died. 

Fionguala, daughter of Manus O'Conor, and 
Una, daughter of Hugh, son of FeUm, died. 

Geotfrey O' Fen-all marched with an army to 
Dun Uabhair (in Longford), where Donal, son of 
Hugh Oge O'Ferrall, Hugh, son of Maolisa, and 
Geotfrey, son of ]Murtogh, were slain. 

Roderick, son of Cathal (O'Conor), Hugh, son 
of Manus, and the people of Hugh Brefneach 
(O'Conor), burned the castle of Bunfinne (in Sh- 
go), including the corn-stacks and houses. 

Hugh Brefneach O'Conor, a worthy heir to the 
crown of Connaught, was treacherously slain by 
Seonag Mac Uidhlin (Mac Quillan of Antrim), 
who was one of his retainers ; and it was for lucre 
that he committed the deed. 

Twenty tuns of wine were driven on shore in 
Moy Ceidne.' 



m the barony of Athlone, county of Roscommon. 

A.D. 1310. 
1. Moy Ceidne, as already e.xplained, lay alon^ the coast of 
Donegal, Leitrim, and Sligo, between Ballyshaimon and Bunduff. 



p ;: 



108 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1311-12-13-14. 



The castle of Sligo was rebuilt by the Red 
Earl. 

Fehm, son of Hugh, son of Owen O'Conor, 
succeeded his father (in the government of Con- 
naught) . 

Cormac O'Flanagan, chief of Tura (in Fer- 
managh), was slain by Henry Mac Gilltinnen, 
chief of Muintir Feodachain (in Pettigo). 

Macraith Maguire, tanist of Fermanagh, and 
Donogh Mac Gillmichil, chief of Clan Congaile 
(in Fermanagh), had their properties burned by 
Ralph Mac Mahon. 



A.D. 1311. 

Donal O'Rourke, lord of Brefney, died. 

The Clan Muircheartaigh(O'Conors), committed 
a dreadful depredation in Connaught, on which 
occasion Gillcreest, son of Maurice, son of Donogh 
Mac Dermott, Hugh, son of Cormac, Donogh, son 
of Tomaltach (Mac Dermott), WiUiam Mac 
Gilaraith, and many others were slain by them 
(the O'Conors). 

Wilham Burke marched with a great army into 
Munster against de Clare, and a battle was fought 
in which de Clare was defeated ; William Burke 
boldly pvirsued the defeated party of de Clare, 
who sun-ounded him and took him prisoner, but, 
however, he was victorious in the battle. 

Teige O'Hanley (in Roscommon), was slain by 
Jordan Dexeter. 

A great war arose in Thomond, and Donogh 
Mac Namara and his party, namely, the people of 
Triochad Ced Hy Caisin,' gave battle to O'Brien 
and to the men of Munster, in which Mac Namara 
was defeated, and himself and Donal O'Grady, lord 
of Kinel Dungaile, were slain with an immense 
number of both armies. 

Donogh O'Brien, king of Munster, and heir to 
the crown of Ireland, celebrated for his hospitaUty 
and great deeds, was treacherously slain by Mur- 
rogh, son of Mahon O'Brien ; and Murrofijfc 
O'Brien was appointed his successor. iP 

Loghlin Riavach O'Dea (in county of Clare), 



A.D. 1311. 

I. Triochad Ced Hy Caishi, that is, the territory or barony of 
Hy Caisin, now tlie baronies of Tiilla, in the county of Clare, of 
■which the Mac Namaras were chiefs and hereditary marshals to 
the O'Briens, kings of Thomond. Kinel Dungaile was another ter- 



was slain by Mahon, son of Donal Connachtach 
O'Brien. 

Seonag Mac Quillan slew Grudeley in the town 
of Tobarbrighde,^ and he himself was soon after 
killed with the sharj:) axe by which he had slain 
Hugh Brefneach (O'Conor, A.D. 1310). 

Felim O'Conor, king of Connaught, plundered 
the Clan Muircheartaigh (O'Conors of Sligo) on 
the border of Moy Cedne (borders of Sligo and 
Leitrim), and Malachy, son of Conor, called the 
leader of the workmen or crowd, was slain there 
with many others. 

Dermod Cleireach O'Brien (of Thomond), 
died. 

Donal O'Beirne, chief of Tir Briuin (in Ros- 
common), and Giollaisa O'Daly, chief professor 
of poetry (in Connaught), died. 



A.D. 1312. 

William Bermingham, archbishop of Tuam, and 
Benedict O'Braccain, bishop of Lieney (Achonry) 
died. 

Malachy Mac Aodha (or Mac Hugh), bishop of 
Elphin, was translated to the archiepiscopal see 
of Tuam. 



A. D. 1313. 

Teige, son of Andrew, son of Bryan Luighneach, 
and Cathal, son of Murrogh Carrach O'Ferrall 
(in Longford), died. 

Giollaisa Mac Dorchy (m Mayo) was slain by 
Conor Carrach Mac Dermott. 



A.D. 1314. 

Matthew Mac Uibhne (or Mac Gevney), bishop 
of Brefney (Kilmore), died. 

Niall Beag, son of Malachy, son of Torlogh 
Cnoc Anmadhma O'Donnell, was slain by Hugh, 
son of Hugh O'Donnell. 

Matthew Mac Tiarnan (in Cavan) was slain by 
Cathal O'Rourke. 



ritory in Thomond of which the O'Gradys were lords. See note on 
Thomond. 

2- Tobnr Brighde, that is, St. Bridget's Well, which gave its 
name to the town of Balimtobber m Roscommon. 



REIGN OF EDWARD II. 



109 



Ralph Mac Mahon (in Monaghan) was slain by 
his own kinsmen. 

The O'Reillys were defeated at Drnmlane (in 
Cavan) by Roderick, son of Cathal O'Conor. 

Niall, son of Bryan O'Neill, heir presumptive 
of Tyrone, a man of affluence and prosperity, 
died. 

Manus, son of Donal O'Hara (in Sligo), was 
slain by Manus, the son of William O'Hara. 



A. D. 1315. 

Edward,' the king of Scotland's brother, sailed 
from Scotland to Ireland with a large fleet, and 
landed on the coast of Ulster ; they committed 
great depredations on the earl's people (Burke, 
earl of Ulster), and on the English of Meath. 
The earl collected a great army against the Al- 
banians (or Scots) ; and Felim, son of Hugh 
O'Conor, with a large force of the Conacians, 
marched to join the earl. Roderick, son of Cathal 
(O'Conor), mustered another great force in Con- 
naught, and he burned and demolished many 
castles after Felim had left the country. 

Hugh Ballach, son of Manus O'Conor, was 
slain by Cathal, son of Donal O'Conor ; and 
Manus, son of Manus O'Conor, the most famous 
and noble of the pi'inces of Connaught in that 
time, and his brother Donal, were also slain by 
the same Cathal on the following day. 

A battle was fought between the armies of the 
Red Earl and of Edward Bruce, in which the earl 
was defeated, and William Burke and the two 
sons of Mac-an-Milidh- were taken prisoners. 

Mahon Mac Rannall, chief of Muintir Eoluis 
(in Leitrim), O'Maolmiaidh, chief of Muintir 
Cearbhalain,' and many of their people with them, 
were slain by Maolrooney Mac Dermott, lord of 
Moylurg, and Conor Roe, son of Hugh Breifnach, 
who was on Mac Dermott's side that day, was 
slain. 

O'Donnell, that is, Hugh, son of Donal Oge, 



A. D. 1315. 

1 . Edward here mentioned was Edward Bruce, brother of Ro- 
bert Bruce, king of Scotland. 

2. Mac-nn-MWdh signifies the Son of the Kniglit. Tlie battle 
mentioned here between Burke, earl of Ulster, and Edward Bruce, 
was foufrlit at Colerain. 

3. O'Maolm'wdhnUjh, or O'Mulvey, chief of Muintir Cearbh- 
allain, a district in Leitrim, near the Shannon, called also Magh 
Nise. See note on Brefney. 



marched with a great force to the castle of Sligo, 
took the town, and destroyed much of the adjoin- 
ing country. 

Roderick, son of Donal O'Conor, was slain by 
a party of galloglasses at the instigation of Der- 
vorgail, the daughter of Manus O'Conor, who 
gave them a recompence for committing the act. 

Awlave O'Ferrall died. 

Teige O'Higgins, a man learned in poetry (in 
Connaught), died. 



A. D. 1316. 

A great army was collected by Felim O'Conor, 
by Bermingham, and by the English of the west 
of Connaught, with which they marched toTochar 
Mona Coinneadha.' Roderick O'Conor, king of 
Connaught, marched with the whole of his forces 
against them, and a battle ensued in which Ro- 
derick was defeated, himself slain, and also the 
following chiefs, namely, Dermod Gall Mac Der- 
mott, lord of Moylurg ; Cormac Mac Ceithirnaidh, 
of Ciarraidhe, and many others of the chiefs of his 
(O'Conor's) galloglasses, and of his immediate 
friends. FeUm re-assumed the government of 
Connaught, and collected a great armj^, with 
which he marched to attack Athleathan ; he burned 
the town, slew Slemne Dexeter, lord of the town, 
also Cogan, the most noble baron in Ireland in 
his time, and many other EngUshmen besides, and 
took much booty. 

Felim O'Conor collected a great army, together 
with the chiefs of the province, along with whom 
were the following : Donogh O'Brien, with the 
chiefs of Munster ; O'jMelaghlin, king of Meath ; 
Ualgarg O'Rourke, lord of Brefney ; O'FerraU, 
lord of Anally; Teige O'Kelly, lord of Hy Maine; 
Manus, son of Donal O'Conor, tanist of Con- 
naught ; Art O'Hara, lord of Lieney ; and Bryan 
O'Dowd, lordof theHyFiachras; all these marched 
to Athenry," and at the same time the English of 
the west of Connaught marched their army against 



A. D. 1316. 
1. Tochar Mona Coinneadha signifies the bog-pass of the con- 
ference, and obtained its name from a conference held there be- 
tween Felim O'Conor, king of Connaught, and Mac William 
Burke, as stated in these Annals at A. D. 125.5 ; the place appears 
to have been situated on the borders of Roscommon and Galway. 
Ciaraidh and Athleathan were ancient territories in Mayo. See 
note on North Connaught. 



4 



110 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1317. 



them, namely, William Burke; the baron Berming- 
ham, lord of Athenry, and the greater part of the 
English of the entire north of Ireland. A 
fierce and vigorous battle was fought between 
them, in which the Irish were at length defeated. 
Felim O'Conor, king of Connaught, was slain, a 
man from whom the people of Ireland had the 
greatest hopes, and there were also slain Teige 
O'Kelly, lord of Hy Maine, and twenty-eight 
other chiefs of the O ' Kelly s, together with Man us, 
son of Donal O'Conor, tanist of Connaught ; Art 
O'Hara, lord of Lieiiey ; IMalachy CaiTach 
O'Dowd ; Conor Oge O'Dowd ; Murtogh, son 
of Conor O'Dowd ; Dcrmod Mac Dermott, heir 
to the lordship of Moylurg; Murtogh, son of 
Teige Mac Dermott ; Murtogh Mac Dermott, 
son of Fergal ; Malachy Oge Mac Manus ; John, 
son of Murrogh O'Madden ; Donal, son of Hugh 
O'Concannon, lord of Ily Diarmada, and Mur- 
togh his brother ; Murrogh O'Madden ; Donal 
O'Boyle ; and Donogh O'MuUoy with many of 
his people ; Morogh, son of Morogh Mac Mahon, 
with a hundred of his people ; Niall Sionach 
(Fox), lord of the men of Teffia, with his people ; 
Fergal, son of John Gallda O'Ferrall ; William, 
son of Hugh Oge O'Ferrall ; Thomas, son of 
Awlave O'Ferrall ; five of the Mac Donoghs, 
namely, Tomaltach, son of Gillcreest ; Murrogh, 
son of Donogh ; Conor, son of Teige ; Murtogh, 
son of Donogh ; and Malachy Mac Donogh ; 
John Mac Egan, the Brehon (or judge) of 
O'Conor ; Giolla-na-neev, son of Dailredocair 
O'Devlin, the standai-d-bearer of O'Conor ; and 
Thomas O'Connellan. It is, however, impossible 
to ascertain or record all the chiefs of Connaught 
and of Meath that were slain in that battle, which 
was fought on the festival day of St. LawTence. 
Felim was twenty-three years of age at that time. 
Roderick Na-bhfeadh (of the W'oods), son of 
Donogh, son of Owen, son of Roderick O'Conor, 
was appointed to the sovereignty of Connaught. 
Wilham Burke marched with an immense army 



2. The -Bnf^?eo/^fAc«!i/was foughton thefestivalof St.Lau- 
rence the Martyr, which is placed in the calendars on the 10th of 
August. Sir William Burke, mentioned in Campion's Chronicle as 
lord \\arden of Ireland, and sir Richard Berniingham, afterwards 
baron of Athenry, were the chief commanders of the English, who 
had collected a more powerful army than they ever had before in 
Ireland, and were perfectly disciplined, well armed, and clad in 
armour. The Irish forces were suddenly raised, imperfectly dis- 



into Siol MuiTay (in Roscommon), and O'Conor, 
with the Siol MuiTay, and many of the clans of 
Connaught and of their chiefs made peace with 
him ; but Mac Dermott, however, did not consent 
to make peace, and Mac William attacked Moy- 
lurg (in Roscommon), committed great depreda- 
tions in Ath Anchip and in Uachtar Tire, and 
burned and spoiled the entire country, but de- 
parted without fighting a battle or getting sub- 
mission. Mac Dermott soon after deposed Rode- 
rick (O'Conor) the son of Donogh. 

Der\'orgaill, daughter of Manus O'Conor, and 
wife of Hugh O'Donnell, died. 



A.D. 1317. 

Donogh O'Brien, king of Munster, was slain. 

Torlogh, son of Hugh, son of Owen, son of 
Roderick, son of Hugh, son of Cathal Crovdcarg 
(O'Conor), was appointed king by the Conacians. 

Robert Bruce came to Ireland from Scotland 
with a great army, to assist his brother Edward 
Bruce to expel the English from Ireland. 

Myler Dexeter, lord of Athleathan (in Mayo), 
\^'as slain by Cathal, son of Donal O'Conor, and 
Donal, son of Teige, son of Donal, of Erris 
O'Conor, was also slain by him, together with 
fourteen of his party, which deeds took place on 
the banks of the river Methenaigh of Drumclitf 
(in Sligo). 

The castle of AthcUath of Corran, or Ballymote 
(in Sligo), was demolished. 

Malachy Carrach Mac Dermott, heir to the 
lordship of Moylurg ; Conor O'Conor, that is, 
the son of the coarb of St. Comari (in Roscommon), 
and Manus O'FIanagan, heir to the chieftancy of 
Clan Cathail (in Roscommon) together with many 
others, were slain by Gilbert Mac Costello. 

The son of Roderick (O'Conor), and the men 
of Brefney were defeated in the battle of Kilmore,' 
in which the son of Hugh Brefnach O'Conor was 



ciplined, and without armour. According to sir Richard Cox and 
others, about eight thousand of the Irish were slain ; but this ac- 
count appears to be exaggerated. The number of the English 
forces killed has not been stated, but it must have been very great, 
as the battle w-as fiercely and long contested on both sides, until 
Felim O'Conor fell, when the Irish forces gave way, which may 
account for the victory. 



REIGN OF EDAVARD II. 



Ill 



taken pi'lsoner, and the following were slain, 
namely, two sons of Niall O'Rourke ; Conor 
Buidhe Mac Tiarnan, chief of Tnllao^honoho ; 
Mahon i\Iac Tiarnan ; the Giollaroe, son of the 
erenach Mac Tiarnan ; Nicholas Mac Master (or 
Masterson) ; and one hundred and forty gallo- 
glasses of the forces of Roderick's son, with many 
others not recorded. 

Maolisa Roe Mac Egan, chief professor of Ire- 
land in laws and Brehonism, died. 

Rannall Mac Rannall, chief of Muintir Eoluis 
(in Leitrim), was treacherously taken prisoner, 
and GeotFrey Mac Rannall was appointed cliief in 
his place. 



A. D. 1318. 

The English sustained a great defeat in Ely' by 
O'Carroll, in which Adam Mares and many of the 
English were slain. 

Mulrooney Mac Dermott, lord of Moylurg, col- 
lected a great force, with which he marched to 
attack Cathal, son of Donal O'Conor, at Fassa 
Coilleadh ;'- and amongst the chiefs who joined 
him were Torlogh, son of Hugh, son of Owen 
O'Conor; Ualgarg O'Rourke, lord of Brefney ; 



1 . Battle of Kilmore. 
tlie county of Cavan. 



AD. 1317. 

This battle was fouslit at Kilmore, in 



A.D. 1318. 

1. Ely, where tliis Iiattle was fought, was called Ely O'Carroll, 
of which the O'CarroHs were chiefs, a territory which comprised 
the present barony of Lower Ormond, in Tipperary, and tlie ba- 
rony of Clonlisk, in the King's County. 

2. Fasa Coilleadh sif^nities a woody district, and was situated 
in the barony of Carbury, county of Sligo, as appears from a pas- 
sage in the Annals at the year 1397. 

3. The hwnstmi of Brncc. The following sketch of Bruce's 
progress in Ireland has been collected from Hollingshead, Camjjion, 
Cox, Leland, Moore, Lodge's Peerage, and other sources. Ed- 
ward Bruce, brother of the celebrated Robert Bruce, king of 
Scotland, landed at Olderfleet, in the bay of Larne, on the coast 
of Antrim, on tlie •2M\ of May, A. D. 1315, with a fleet of three 
hundred sail and six thousand Scots. Amongst his chief com- 
manders were TIiomasBandoIj)h, earl of Moray, one of the Scottish 
cliiefs who commanded at Bannockburn ; sir Walter Moray ; 
lord Philip Mowbray ; lord Allan Stewart ; sir John Sandale ; 
sir James Douglas ; Walter, lord de Soulis ; Fergus of Androssan, 
&c. The Bruces being maternally descended from the old Scottish 
kings of the Milesian race, a colony of whom had in early times 
made a conquest of Scotland, that circumstance was considered 
by the Irish chiefs a sufficient claim to the crown of Ireland ; and, 
consequently, Edward Bruce was invited to assume the sove- 
reignty of Ireland by Donal O'Neill, prince of Tyrone, and other 
Irish chiefs. He was also assisted by some of the English, par- 
ticularly the great family of the de Lacys, in Ulster and Meath, 
whose forces were commanded by Walter and Robert de Lacy. 
Joined by these, and great numbers of the Irish, Bruce and his 



Conor O'Kelly, lord of Hy Maine ; and Tomaltach 
Mac Donogh, lord of Tirerrill. After those chiefs 
arrived at Fassa Coilleadh, Cathal offered them 
great largesses, which, however, they rejected, 
and attacked him to the very precincts of his for- 
tress, but he was neither terrified nor daunted at 
that, for he answered them with firmness and de- 
fiance, whereupon a fierce battle ensued, in which 
Bryan, son of Torlogh O'Conor, the heir pre- 
sumptive to the crown of Connaught, Conor 
O'Kelly, Bryan Mac Manus, Cathal, son of Gill- 
creest Mac Dermott, and many others of the chiefs 
and of the common soldiers of their forces, were 
slain by Cathal and his men. 

Cathal, the son of Donal (O'Conor), attacked 
O'Conor and Mac Dermott, and committed im- 
mense devastation in Moylurg, and deposed Tor- 
logh, son of Hugh (O'Conor), and he himself 
assumed the government of Connaught; and Tor- 
logh then fled for protection to William Burke and 
the English. 

John, son of Donal O'Neill, was slain by 
O'Donnell, that is Hugh, son of Donal Oge, at 
Derry Columkille, and Mac Donnell, and many 
others were slain and drowned. 

Edward Bruce,^ a man who spoiled Ireland 



.Scots attacked and took from the English garrisons the towns of 
Carrickfergus, Colerain, and Uundalk, and was crowned king of 
Ireland at the hill of Knocknemelan, within half a mile of Dun- 
dalk. Richard de Burgo, earl of Ulster, having collected the 
English forces, fought a great battle with Bruce at Colerain, in 
which the English were defeated with great loss, and sir 
William de Burgo, the earl's brother, taken prisoner. Bruce, 
proceeding onwards through Meath and Westmeath, ravaged 
all the towns of the English Pale, and defeated their forces 
in \arious engagements, particularly hi a great battle near Kells, 
in which fifteen tliousand of the English, conunanded by the lord 
justice, Roger Mortimer, earl of March, were routed, and great 
numbers slain. Bruce spent his CIn-istmas, and a great part of 
the winter, at Lough Seudy, one of the castles of his friends, the 
de Lacys in Westmeath. Proceeding the next year onwards to 
Kildare, his progress was ojiposed i)y the English barons, who 
collected a great force, commanded by the lord justice Edmond 
Butler, earl of Carrick ; John Fitzthomas Fitzgerald, earl of Kil- 
dare ; Arnold le Poer, and others ; they encountered the Scots 
and Irish under Bruce, and a great battle was fought at the moat 
of AscuU near Athy, in which the English were defeated with 
much loss ; and amongst the slain were two valiant knights, Wil- 
liam Prendergast and Hamon le Gras ; and on the sitle of the 
Scots, Fergus of Androssan and sir Walter Moray. These knights 
were all buried in the Dominican abbey of Athy. In the course 
of this year, king Robert Bruce landed at Carrickfergus 
with a large force to support his brother ; and their com- 
bined forces, amounting to twenty thousand men, ravaged the 
English Pale as far as Slane, and, marching thence towards Dublin, 
arrived at Castleknock, took Hugh Tyrrell, baron of Castle- 
knock, prisoner, and established their head quarters at his castle. 
It appears that Robert Bnice was after a short lime obliged to 
return to Scotland to defend his own kingdom agamst the English. 



112 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1319-20. 



generally, both English and Irish,was slain by the 
English by force of battle and bravery at Dundalk, 
and Mac Rory, lord of the Hebrides, Mac Don- 
nell, lord of the eastern Gael (in Antrim), and 
many others of the Albanian (or Scottish) chiels, 
were also slain ; and no event occurred in Ii-eland 
for a long period from which so much benefit was 
derived as that, for a general famine prevailed in 
the country during the three years and a half he 
had been in it, and the people were almost re- 
duced to the necessity of eating each other. 

John O'Ferrall was slain by the cast of a javelin 
from his own son. 

Geoffrey, son of Giolla-na-neev O'Ferrall, lord 
of Anally, died. 

Cathal, son of Gilcreest Mac Rannall, was 
slain. 

Giolla Ancovde, son of Kenny O'Gormley, and 
Gormley, daughter of Mac Branan, his wife, 
died. 



A. D. 1319. 

Henry Mac An-Crossain, bishop of Raphoe, died, 
and Thomas, son of Cormac O'Donnell, abbot of 
Easroe, was elected his successor to the see of 
Raphoe. 

The bishop of Deny;' O'Banain, bishop of 
Clogher ; and the bishop of Clonfert, died. 

Aine, daughter of Mac Dermott, and wife of 
Mac Consnamha, died. 

Eachmarcach Mac Branan, chief of Corcachlan 
(in Roscommon), slew Tomaltach O'Mulbrenan, 
but he himself did not escape free, for he died three 
days afterwards of the wounds which Tomaltach 
inflicted on him. 



Edward Bniee proceeded to take Dublin, but the citizens, fearing 
a sieire, resolutely resolved to oppose the Scots, and set fire to the 
suburbs of tlie city, by which many churches were burned and St. 
Patrick's cathedral much damaged. The Scots and Irish overran 
many parts of Leinster and Munster, taking the towns and de- 
molishing the castles of tlie English as far as Kilkenny, Cashel, 
Limerick, and other places. The Butlers, Fitzgeralds, le Poers, 
and other English barons, collected an army of thirty thousand 
men to oppose them, but Bruce was generally victorious in many 
engagements during two years, and is said to have defeated the 
English forces in eighteen battles. The Scots and Irish were at 
length compelled by a dreadtiil famine to retire to Ulster with the 
remnant of their forces, now reduced to three thousand men. The 
English having collected a great force, commanded by sir John 
Bermingham, sir Richard Tuite, sir Miles de Verdon, John Maupas, 
and other valiant captains, and accompanied by Roland de Jorse, 
archbishop of Armagh, who incited the English to attack the 
Scots, and attended to perform the last offices of religion for the 
dying, both armies marched to Louth, and in a fierce battle fought 



Donal O'Neill, lord of Tyrone, was deposed a 
second time by the power of the English and of 
the Clan of Hugh Buidhe (O'Neills of Claneboy), 
and having gone to Fermanagh under the protec- 
tion of Flaherty Mac Guire, the men of Fermanagh 
plundered his people. 

O'Neill, that is, Donal, re-assumed the govern- 
ment of his principality. Bryan, son of Donal 
O'Neill, tanist of Tyrone, was slain by the people 
of Claneboy, and by Henry Mac Davill at Rath 
Luraig (Rathlure in Tyrone). 



A. D. 1320. 

The monastery of Bantry, on the estate of 
O'SulIivan, in the diocese of Ross, was founded 
by O'SulIivan for Franciscan friars, and was 
selected as the burying place of the O'SuUivans, 
and many other noble families. 

A conference was held between Cathal O'Conor 
and Mulrooney Mac Dermott, at which they made 
amicable terms and peace with each other, after 
which Mac Dermott returned to his own country ; 
but shortly afterwards Cathal acted treacherously 
towards Mac Dermott on Mullagh Doramhnach, 
where he made him prisoner ; and Graine (Grace) 
daughter of Mac Manus, and wife of Mac Der- 
mott, was also made prisoner at the port of the 
Rock ;' and he moreover took prisoners Maolisa 
Donn Mac Egan and his son, and Tomaltagh 
Mac Donogh, lord of Tirerrill, and he completely 
plundered the country. 

Hugh, son of Teige O'Conor, a worthy heir to 
the crown of Connaught, in person, in dignity, 
and in hospitality, was slain by Mac Martin, who 
was himself killed in retaliation. 



at the moat of Fanghart near Dundalk, on the 28th of May, A. D. 
1318, Brace's forces were defeated, and he himself slain. He was 
found amidst a heap of the dead, and his head was cutoffby sir John 
Bermingham, who brought it to England and presented it toking Ed- 
ward, forwhich signal service he was created earl of Louth. Thebody 
of Bruce was buried on the hill of Fanghart, and a large pillar stone 
erected to mark his grave. Edward Bruce was a man of tine per- 
son, of great spirit, ambition and bravery, but fiery, rash, and 
impetuous, wanting that rare combination of wisdom and valour, 
which so conspicuously marked the character of his renowned 
brother Robert Bruce. 

A D. 1319. 
1. Bhhop of Verry. Odo or Hugh O'Neill was the bishop of 
Derry who died in this year. Gelasius O'Banan, bishop of 
Clogher, and Gregory O'Brogy, bishop of Clonfert, also died in the 
year 1319. 

A.D. 1320. 
1. The Bock here mentioned was the Rock of Lough Key, near 
Boyle, Co. Roscommon, where the Mac Dermotts had a fortress. 



REIGN OF EDWARD II. 



113 



Mahon, son of Donal Conachtach O'Brien, 
tanist of IMunster, was slain by the clan Cuilein 
(in Clare). 

More, daughter of O' Boyle, and wife of O'Fer- 
rall, died, 

Mac Martin was slain in his own house by 
Hugh, son of Teige O'Conor. The sons of 
Martin and the clan of Hugh Buidhe followed 
Hugh to Clogher, and slew him. 



A. D. 1321. 

Graine, daughter of Mac Manus, and wife of 
Mulrooney Mac Dermott, died. 

Roderick of the Woods, son of Donogh, son of 
Owen O'Conor, was maliciously slain by Cathal, 
the son of Hugh, son of Owen (O'Conor). 

The Rock of Lough Key (the fortress), was de- 
molished by Donal O'Conor. 

Manus O'Hanlon, lord of Orior (in Armagh), 
had his eyes put out by his own kinsman, Niall, 
son of Cu-uladh O'Hanlon, on Spy Wednesday. 

Niall O'Hanlon, lord of Orior, was treacherous- 
ly slain by the English of Dundalk. 

The sons of the king of Offaley' received a great 
defeat in battle by Andrew Bermingham and the 
English of Meath. 

William and Matthew Mac Giltinnen (in Fer- 
managh), were slain by Henrj* Mac Gillfinnen, in 
his own countiy. 



A.D. 1322. 

Matthew O'Heothaigh (or O'Hoey), bishop of 
Conmaicne (or Ardagh), and Andrew Mac Maoi- 
lin, head master of the ancient and modern, civil 
and canon laws, died. 

Luke O'Murray, archdeacon of Cloyne, died. 

Murrogh, son of Giolla-na-neev O'Ferrall, lord 
of Anally, was slain by his own brother, Seoinin 
O'Ferrall, at Cluan-Lis-Beag. 

Murtogh, son of Awlave O'FeiTall, was slain 
the same day by his own kinsmen, Loughlui and 



A.D. 1321. 
1. King of Offaley. The O'Conors of Leinster were styled 
kings and princes of Offaley, an extensive territory comprising a 
great part of the present ICiiig's and Queen's counties, with part of 
Kildare. 



Robert ; and Loughlin, the son of Awlave O'Fer- 
rall, was aflenvards slain by Seoinin. 

Donogh, son of Donogh Mac Dermott, died. 

Henry Mac Gillfinnen, chief of Muintir Peoda- 
chain (in Fermanagh), was slain by the sons of 
Awlave Mac Guire. 

Gilbert O'Kellj', lord of Hy Maine, died. 

Mulrooney Mac Dermott was taken prisoner by 
Conor, son of Teige O'Conor, and by the people 
of the house of Cathal O'Conor, at Clooncumuisg ; 
and they plundered the iovm. 

Rickard Benningham, lord of Athenry, died. 

Brj-an O'Brien (of Thomond), gave the Eng- 
hsh a very great defeat. 

Giolla-na-neev, son of Geoffi-ey, son of Giolla-na- 
neev O'Ferrall, assumed the lordship of Anally. 

Wilham Liath (the Grey) Burke, the son of 
WilUam More, died. 

Mulrooney, son of Gillcreest, son of Conor, son 
of Cormac, son of Tomaltach (Mac Dermott), of 
the Rock, lord of Moylurg, died ; and Maurice, 
son of the coarb, died. 

Osgar, son of LoghUn Mac Guire, was slain by 
Cathal O'Rourke. 

Petrus O'BreisIen, chief Brehon (or judge) of 
Fermanagh, died. 

Fingin O'Cassidy, head physician of Ferma- 
nagh, died. 

Fergal Roe Mac Gauran and GioUaisa Mac 
Gauran were slain by the sons of Awlave Mac 
Guire. 



A.D. 1323. 

Giolla Aiinin O'Casey, erenach of Cluan-da- 
rath,' died. 

Cah'pre-an-sgregain, king of IVIeath, son of Cor- 
mac O'Melaghlin, king of Meath, was killed by 
Donal O'Mulloy. 

Maolmordha Mac Geoghegan (in Westmeath), 
died. 

Seoinin O'Ferrall (in Longford) was slain by 
the sons of John O'Ferrall. 



A. D. 1323. 
1. Cluan-da-rath,no-w probably Clondra, in the parish of Kil- 
lashee, near the Shannon, in the county of Longford, where there 
are some ruins of an ancient church. The Erenachs, as already 
explained, were managers of church lands. 

Q 



114 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1324-25-26. 



O'Hara, that is, Fergal (in Sligo), was killed by 
O'Conmachain, one of his own people. 

Roderick Mac Mahon, son of the lord of Orgiall 
(Monaghan), and Malachy O'Seganain and Mac 
Maoilduin, were slain by Cathal O'Rourke at 
BelathaconaiU (Ballyconnell in the county of 
Cavan). 

Niall, son of Niall Cam (O'Reilly), was slain 
by Loghlin and Malachy O'Reilly. 

Bermingham and the English marched with a 
great army to Coill-na-namas (in Longford), to 
attack Donal, son of John O'Ferrall, on which 
expedition the Cepach and the Calvach, with 
many other English, were slain. 

Maoknedha, daughter of Mac Tiarnan, and 
wife of Bryan Mac Gauran (in Cavan), died. 

GUIpatrick O'Duigenan, chief historian of Con- 
maicne (in Leitrim), and Luke, his son, were 
kdled by Conor, son of Garvey Mac Guire ; and 
Loghhn, son of Owen O'Daly, was slain by the 
sons of Hugh Buidhe O'Neill. 

Geoffirey, son of Giollaisa O'Daly, was slain by 
Bryan, son of Roderick O'Conor. 



A.D. 1324. 

Cathal (O'Conor), king of Connaught, son of 
Donal, son ofTeige, son of Bryan, son of Andrew, 
son of Bryan Luighneach, son of Torlogh More, 
the most celebrated man for courage, goodness, 
and great prosperity of any in his time, was slain 
by Torlogh O'Conor in Tu' Briuinof the Shannon 
(in Roscommon) ; and the son of Donal, that is, 
Malachy, son of Torlogh Cnuic-an-Madhma, son 
of Donal Oge, tanist of Tirconnell, after he had 
been expelled by O'Donnell, that is by Hugh, son 
of Donal Oge, together with Gillcreest Oge Mac 
Donogh, and many others, were slain there by 
Cathal O'Conor ; and Torlogh after that assumed 
the government of Connaught. 

Rannall Oge Mac Rannall, chief of Muintir 
Eoluis (in Leitrim), was slain. 

WilUam Burke, son of William More, died. 



A.D. 1325. 

1 . Loch Laoghaire was part of Lower Lough Erne in the barony 
of Lurpt, on the borders of Fermanagh and Tyrone. 

2. The O' Mulbrennans or O'Mulrenans are given by O'Dugan 
as cliiefs of Clan Conor in Roscommon. Manannan here mentioned 
was Manannan Mac Lir or Son of the Sea, a celebrated Danan 



Teige O'Rourke and Tiarnan Mac Rourke were 
taken prisoners by the sons of Matthew O'Reilly, 
and were delivered to Mac Mahon, by whom they 
were put to death in revenge of the death of his 
son Roderick. 

Donogh Mac Gilpatrick, lord of Ossory, died. 

Bryan O'Reilly and Gilcreest (O'Reilly), were 
slain by O'Rourke's people. 



A. D. 1325. 

Donal, son of Bryan O'Neill, lord of Tyrone, 
died at Lough Laoghaire.' 

Cu-uladh, son of Donal, son of Bryan O'Neill, a 
worthy heir to the lordship of Tyrone, was slain by 
the sons of Niall, son of Bryan, his fathei-'s brother. 

Gilcreest, the chaplain of Mac Dermott, and 
Brj-an O'Gara, died. 

Malachy O'Flanagan, chief of Tura (in Fer- 
managh), was slain by the sons of Dermod 
O'Flanagan. 

Dermod O'Mulbrenan,^ the Manannan of the 
chiefs of Connaught in his time, died. 

Thomas O'Coinderi (O'Connery or O'Conry), 
dean of Brefney (diocese of Kilmore), died. 

The sons of Torlogh O'Brien (of Thomond), 
defeated the sons of Bryan Roe ; and Bryan, the 
son of Mahon O'Brien, and many others were 
slain. 

Rannall O'Higin, and Nicolas, son of the coarb 
of St. Moeg (abbot of Drumlane in Cavan), 
died. 

Raghnailt, daughter of Andaidh O'Reilly (in 
Cavan), and wife of Donogh Mac Brady, died. 

Donogh Mac Kenny was slain in the church of 
Mac Mahon (in Monaghan). 



A.D. 1326. 

Luirint (or Laurence) O'Lachtnan, bishop of 
Elphin, died, and John O'Feenaghty was elected 
to the see. 

Richard Burke, that is, the Red Earl, lord of 



merchant, and one of the first navigators m the west of Europe, 
from whom the Isle of Mann took its name. An account of Manan- 
nan may be found in O' Flaherty's Ogygia. This O'Mulbrennan 
is here designated Manannan, because he was the chief naval 
commander in Connaught. 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



115 



Ulster and of the greater part of Connaught, the 
chief of all the English of Ireland, died in the 
latter end of summer. 

Ivar Mac Rannall, chief of Muintir Eoluis, was 
slain by his own kinsmen. 

Nicol O'Heyne (of Galway), Torlogh Mac An- 
chaoich and Torlogh Mac Mahon (in Monaghan), 
died. 

O'Rourke (Ualgarg) plundered Moy Inis,' 
where Geoffrey Mac Cafrey was slain by Cathal 
O'Rourke. 

Donal Cairbreach Mac Carthy defeated Mac 
Thomas (Fitzgerald), and the English of Munster ; 
and many knights were slain. 

Awlave Mac Guire (in Fermanagh), died. 



A.D. 1327. 

Flaherty Mac Guire, lord of Fermanagh, died. 

Gormley, daughter of Mac Dermott, and wife 
for some time of Manus, son of Donal O'Conor, 
tanist of Connaught, afterwards wife of Conor 
O'Kelly, lord of Hy Maine, and lastly wife of 
Fergal O'Hara, lord of Lieney, distinguished for 
her hospitality and nobleness, died after the vic- 
tory of repentance. 

Malachy Riavach, son of Donal, son of Teige 
O'Conor, died of the small-pox. 

Fergal, son of Ualgarg O'Rourke (in Leitrim), 
Cuilen O'Dempsey (in Kildare), and Sabina, 
daughter of Mac Egan, died. 

A great war arose between the king of England' 
and his queen, who was the daughter of the king 
of France ; and she dethroned the king ; and her 
son assumed the sovereignty against his father 
in his seventeenth year, at his mother's instigation, 
and was crowned by the council (or parliament) of 
England. 



A.D. 1326. 
1. JWo»/mnis, now called the parish of Inismacsaint in Fermanagh, 
where a monastery was founded Ijy St. Nennidh m the sixth cen- 
tury, on an island in Lough Erne. 

A.D. 1327. 
1. King of England. Edward II. was married to Isabella, 
daughter of Philip le Bel, king of France. The queen and her 
favourite, Roger Mortimer, earl of March, having joined the fac- 
tious barons of England in a rebellion against the kuig, deposed 
and imprisoned him in Berkly castle, where he was put to deatli, 
and his son, then only in the fifteenth year of his age, was 
proclaimed king of England as Edward III., on the 24th or 
2oth of January, A. D. 1327, according to the chronology of sir 
Harris Nicholas. 



Edward III., was proclaimed king of England 
on the 25tli of Januaiy. 

The king of Scotland'^ came to Ireland. 

A war broke out between the O'Rourkes and 
the O'Reillys ; and the castle of Lough Uachtar' 
was burned by Cathal O'Rourke, who abandoned 
it for a i-ansom of cattle. 

Gilcreest Dall Mac Rannall (in Leitrim), was 
put to death by O'Maolmiadhaigh, in his own 
bed. 

The small-pox raged through Ireland, of which 
"•reat numbers died. 



A.D. 1328. 

O'Cridagain, bishop of Brefney (Kilmore), 
died. 

Thomas O'Malley, bishop of Annaghdune (in 
Galway), died at Rome. 

Mam-ice O'Gibellain, head ma!5ter of Ireland in 
the ancient and modern canon and civil laws, a 
trul}^ learned philosopher, a genuine poet, a canon 
of the chapter o.*'Tuam, Elphin, Achoniy, Killala, 
Annaghdune, and Clonfert, an official (or vicar 
general), and general Brehon (or judge) of the 
archbishoprick, cbed. 

Giolla-na-naingeal) (servant of the Angels), 
O'TaichUdh (or O'Tully), archdeacon of Insi,' 
died. 

jMalachy O'Reilly, lord of Muintir Maolmordha 
(county of Cavan), having been wounded and 
taken prisoner by the Enghsh of Meath, who 
received hostages for his release, afterwards died 
in his own house. 

GioUa Adamnan O'Firghil (or O'Freel), the 
coarb of Adamnan (abbot of Raphoe), died. 

Awful thunder and lightning occurred in the 
summer of this year, by which the vegetation and 



2. The King of Scotland at this time was Robert Bruce, who 
had come to Ireland, as already stated, in the year 1317, to support 
his brother Edward Bruce, but our historians give no account of 
the second visit of king Robert Bruce to Ireland. 

3. Lough Ouijr/ffer, a large lake between the towns of Cavan and 
Killeshandra, in the county of Cavan. On an island in this lake 
the O'Reillys had a strong castle which was called the Castle of 
Clough Oughter, of which some ruins still remam. In this castle 
the celebrated Owen Roe O'Neill, general of the northern Irish in 
the Cromwellian wars, died in November, 1049. 

A.D. 1328. 
1 . /«.<ti was probably Devenish Abbey on an island in Lough 
Erne, where, according to Archdall's Monasticon, the O'Tullys 
were erenaehs. 

Q 2 



116 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1328. 



iruit of Ireland were extensively destroyed, and 
the corn blighted. 

An epidemic disease prevailed throughout Ire- 
land, called Slaodan,'^ which continued on every 
person seized by it for three or four days, and 
proved almost fatal to them. 

William Burke, that is, the Brown Earl, the son 
of sir John the earl, who was the son of the Red 
Earl, came to Ireland. 

Donogh Roe O'Gara (in SUgo), and five others 
of his name were slain. 

Conor Mac Branan, heir to the chieftaincy of 
Corcachlan (in Roscommon), was slain by the 
people of Anally. 

Walter Burke marched with a force into Con- 
naught, and plundered many of the immediate 
friends of Torlogh O'Conor, king of Connaught. 

Sir John Bermingham,^ earl of Louth, the most 
valiant, powerful, and hospitable baron of the 
English of Ireland, was treacherously slain by his 
own people, viz., the English of Oriel (Louth) ; 
and many of the English and Irish along with him 
were also slain, among whom was the blind O'Car- 
roll, that is, Mulrooney, who was the chief minstrel 
of Ireland and Scotland in his time. 

Biyan, son of Tomaltagh Mac Donogh (in Sligo), 
was slain by Brj'an, son of Teige Mac Donogh. 

The earl of Ulster, together with Torlogh 
O'Conor, king of Connaught, and Murtogh 
O'Brien, king of Munster, marched with a great 
army against Biyan Ban (the Fair) O'Brien, by 
whom they were defeated ; and Conor O'Brien, a 
worthy heir to the crown of Ireland for his per- 
sonal figure, wisdom, hospitality, and nobleness, 
was slain on that exnedition, together with eighty 
of the chiefs and common soldiers. 



2. Slaodan signifies a cough or cold ; hence this disease appears 
to have been an epidemic cold or influenza. 

3. Sir John Bermlngham. A great contention arose at this 
time amongst the English families of Louth, as the Berniinghauis, 
Gernons, Savadges, &c., and a battle was fought between them on 
Whitsun Eve, the 10th of June, as mentioned by Mac Geoghegan 
and others, at Ballibragan (probably Balbriggan), in which 160, or 
according to others 200 of the English, were slain, amongst wliom 
were John Bermingham, earl of Louth, his brother Pierce, and 
many others of his kindred, and Richard Talbot of Malahide, &c. 

4. Mac Geoghegan. Tliis battle, in which the English forces 
met such a tremendous defeat, was fought near Mullingar, the day 
before the feast of St. Lawrence, namely, the yth of August. The 
Irish clans were commanded by William JIac Geoghegan, lord of 
Kinel Fiaeha, a large territory in Westmeath, comprising the pre- 
bcnt baronies of Moycashel and Rathconrath. The English forces 
were commanded by lord Thomas Butler, the Petits, Tuites, 



Teige, son of Torlogh O'Conor, was slain by 
Dermod O'Gara. 

An appointed meeting was held between Walter 
Mac William Burke and Gilbert Mac Costello on 
the one side, and Mulrooney Mac Dermott, 
Tomaltagh his son, Tomaltagh Mac Donogh and 
the chiefs of Clan Mulrooney (in Roscommon) on 
the other side ; and an engagement took place, in 
which Mac Dermott defeated Walter and Gilbert, 
with their people. 

Donogh Gallda, son of Donal O'Conor, was 
slain by Hugh, son of Teige, son of Malachy, son 
of Manus (O'Conor). 

Matthew Riavach Mac Gafridh was slain by 
Muintir Gearadhain (In Leitrim). 

Ivar Mac Rannall, chief of Muintir Eoluis, was 
slain by the sons of Gilcreest Mac Rannall. 

Duvesa, daughter of O'Ferrall, and wife of Mac 
MiuTogh of the mountain, died. 

Edina, daughter of Mac Mahon, and wife of 
Mac Guire (in FeiTnanagh), died. 

Duvesa, daughter of O'Helighe (or O'Hely), 
and wife of Donal, son of Teige O'Conor, died. 

Murtogh O'Brien and the Clan Cuilein (Mac 
Namaras of Clare), marched with their forces to 
attack Bryan O'Brien a second time, but Mur- 
togh was defeated, and Conor O'Brien, Donal of 
the Donals, and Mac Namara, with many others 
were slain. 

Mac Geoghegan'' gave a great overthrow to the 
English, in which three thousand five hundred of 
the English, together with the D'Altons, and the 
son of the vain-glorious knight, were slain. 

Awlave Mac Finevar (in Leitrim), was slain by 
Cathal O'Rourke. 



D'Altons, Delamers, Tyrrells, Nangles, &c. In Pembridge's 
Annals, quoted by Mac Geoghegan in his History of Ireland, 
(Duify's edition, p. 322), Pemliridge says, "The same year on the 
eve of St. Laurence, lord Thomas Butler marched with a great 
army towards Ardnorcher, and met there lord Thomas Mac Geo- 
ghegan. The lord Thomas Butler and many besides were killed, to 
the great loss of Ireland." Amongst the English captains killed 
Pembridge enumerates John, Roger, and Thomas Ledwich ; John 
and David Nangle ; Miler and Simon Petit; Nicholas and John 
White ; James Tyrrell ; John Warringer ; Peter Kent ; and Wil- 
liam Freyne, with 140 other leaders whose names are unknown. 
On this battle Henry Marleborough in his chronicle says, " Lord 
Thomas Butler and divers other noblemen were slain by Mac 
Geoghegan and the Irish near Molingar." Mac Geoghegan was 
named William Gallda, from havmg defeated the English. See 
his death, at A. D. 1332. 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



117 



A.D. 1329. 

Augustin, abbot of Lisgabhal' on Lough Erne, 
died. 

Cathal, son of Donal O'llourke, a worthy heir 
to the lordship of Brefney, was slain by the sons 
of John O'Ferrall and the English of Meath, and 
many others with them, in the house of Richard 
Tuite, at the monastery of Fobhar.^ 

Murtogh, son of Donal O'Conor, lord of Car- 
bury (in Sligo), and a worthy heir to the kingdom 
of Connaught, died. 

Cathal, son of Hugh, son of Owen O'Conor, was 
forcibly expelled from the Feadha, and from Tir 
Maine (in Roscommon and Gahvay), by the 
O'Kellys and the people of Ily Maine, at the 
instigation of Walter Burke, 

A great contest arose between Torlogh O'Conor 
and the Clan Mulrooney (Mac Dermotts) ; and 
much devastation was committed on both sides. 

A depredation was committed by Tomaltach 
Mac Dermott on Dermod O'Flanagan, chief of 
Clan Cathail (in Roscommon). 

Aine, daughter of Fergal O'Reilly, and wife of 
Tomaltach Mac Dermott, died. 

Teige, son of Torlogh, son of Mahon O'Conor, 
was slain by O'Gara (in Shgo), and by the people 
of Artagh. 

Mac William Burke and the earl of Ulster 
made peace with Mac Thomas (Fitzgerald). 

Dabac Don Mac WiUiam (Burke), a noble 
knight of great affluence, died. 

Donogh Mac Gilpatrick (of Ossory), was slain 
by the earl of Ulster. 

Maolisa Donn Mac Egan, Ard Ollamh^ (or 
chief professor) of Connaught, died. 

The crops remained unreapeduntil after Michael- 
mas throughout Ireland, in consequence of wet 
weather. 



A.D. 1329. 

1. LiosGabltail, DOW Lisgoolenear Eiiniskillen,in the county of 
Fermanagh, where there was a celebrated abbey endowed by the 
Mac Guires. 

2. Fohhnr, now Fore in Westmeath, where a monastery was 
founded for canons regular in tlie seventh century, by St. Feicliin ; 
it afterwards became a Benedictine monastery, and a great college 
being established there, it was for many centuries a celebrated seat 
of learning and religion, and also a bishop's see. 

3. Ardollamh signifies a chief professor; and as the Mac Egans 
were hereditary 13rehons in Munster and Connaught, it is probable 
that this Mae Egan was a professor of the Brehon laws. 

A.D. 1330. 
1. Fiodhanatha signifies the wood of the ford, now called 



A.D. 1330. 

Maolisa O'Coinel, the coarb of Drumcliff (in 
Sligo), died. 

Benedict O'Flanagan, prior of Kilmore of the 
Shannon, died. 

Manus, son of Hugh Breifnach O'Conor, was 
slain by Cathal, son of Hugh, son of Owen 
O'Conor, at Fearan-na-Darach (or the Land of 
the Oak), and Simon Mac-an-Failgidh was slain 
along with him. 

Giolla losa Roe O'Reilly, lord of Muintir 
Maolmordha, and of all Brefney for a long period, 
died at an advanced age, after gaining the palm of 
victory over the world and the devil, and was 
buried in the habit of a Franciscan friar in the 
monastery of Cavan, of which he was the original 
founder. 

Malachy Mac Cormac, a wealthy landed jjro- 
prietor, died. 

Ualgarg O'Rourke marched with a great force 
to Fiodh-an-atha,' where he was met by the 
English of the town, who defeated his people and 
slew Ai-t O'Rourke, heir to the head lorship of Bref- 
ney, Roderick Mac Gauran, and many others. 

Torlogh O'Conor, king of Connaught, attacked 
Walter Mac Wilham Burke in his camp at Leag- 
moy- in Moylurg, and routed him thence to Cair- 
the Liag Fada ; Gilbert Mac Costello, then lord 
of Slieve Lugha, came with all his forces to aid 
Mac William, and Tomaltach Mac Donogh with 
his people also came to assist Mac ^A'illiam, having 
turned against O'Conor ; their combined forces 
attacked O'Conor, and a great battle M'as fought 
between them, until they came as far as Ath Disirt 
Nuadan, where Donogh, son of Donal, son of 
Mahon (or Mac Mahon), Mac GiUa Comdhain, 
and a few of O'Conor's people were slain at the 
ford; O'Conor with the chiefs of his people es- 



Finae, atown in Westmeath, situated on the river between Loughs 
Sheelin and Kinale, which separates the counties of Cavan and 
Westmeath. This battle was severe and long contested, and great 
numbers were slain on both sides. The English were commanded by 
the lord justice sir Anthony Lucy. 

2. Leaginoigh, in Moylurg, in the barony of Boyle, county of 
Roscommon. Calrthe Liag fada, on the borders of the baronies 
of Costello and Gallen, county of Mayo. SUeve Lugha, a large 
district in the barony of Costello, county of Mayo, and extending 
into the barony of Coolavin, county of Sligo, of which Mac Cos- 
tello was lord. The Tuatha or Districts, a large territory in the 
baronies of Ballintobber and Roscommon, county of Roscommon, 
in which Sliabh Baghna, now Slieve Bawn, was situated. Kill 
Lnmad, a parish in the barony of Boyle, county of Roscommon. 



118 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1331-32-33. 



caped from them until they came as far as the 
Tuatha. Mac William pitched his camp at Kill 
Lomad in the neighbourhood of O'Conor ; the 
forces of Connaught, both English and Irish, who 
had joined him, were collected by ]\Iac William 
for the purpose of having himself appointed king 
of Connaught, and he was then prepared to depose 
O'Conor ; when Mac Dermott got intelhgence of 
this, he tiu-ned against Mac William, and, taking 
O'Conor's part, amicable terms and peace were 
concluded between both parties. 

Conor, son of Teige, son of Bryan, son of An- 
drew, son of Bryan Luighneach (O'Conor), gave 
the people of Dartry (in Leitrim), a great defeat, 
and slew many of them. 

Torlogh O'Conor, with a few of his chiefs 
waited on William Burke, the Brown Earl, to 
obtain his aid against Mac William. 

Bryan, son of Gilcreest Mac RannaU (in Lei- 
trim), was slain by Teige Mac Rannall. 

Hugh and Dermod, the sons of Murrogh O'Fer- 
rall (in Longford), were slain by Hugh O'Ferrall. 

Petrus, the son of the coarb of St. Moeg (abbot 
of Dnunlane in Cavan), was slain by the English 
of Kells. 



A.D. 1331. 

The coarb of St. Cailhn,' that is, Giolla-na-neev 
Mac Cele, died in the monastery of Maothla. 

Mulrooney Mac Dermott, lord of Moylurg, 
having abcUcated his lordshij), assumed a monastic 
habit in the monastery of Boyle, and Tomaltach 
Mac Demiott, his son, succeeded to the lordship 
on the 7th day of May. 

Fergal, son of Malachy Carrach Mac Dermott, 
was slain by Teige, son of Cathal, son of Donal 
O'Conor. 

Walter Mac WilUam Burke marched with a force 



A. D. 1331. 
1. ConrhofSt. CaiUii, that is abbot of Fenagh, in Leitrim. 
Tlie monastery of Maotlila was tliat of Moliill, also in Leitrim. 

A.D. 1333. 

1. KiUornn was probably Killora, in the diocese of Kilmae- 
dua<rli in the county of Galway, a parisli wliich is attached to the 
arclideaconry. Tliere is also Oran, in the county of Roscommon, 
where there was an ancient church founded by St. Patrick, and 
there is a parish called Killoran, in the county of Sligo. 

2. Earl of Ulster. William de Burgo, earl of Ulster, was 



into Moylurg and plundered the entire country, 
excepting its churches, to which he extended pro- 
tection and respect. Tomaltach Mac Dermott 
with his party attacked them, but was repelled by 
the English, who slew a number of his people ; 
they at length made peace with each other, and 
Walter left the country. 

Myler Mac Geoghegan (of Westmeath), died. 

MuiTogh Mac Mahon (in Monaghan), was slain 
by John Mac Mahon and the English of the plain 
of Oriel (Louth). 

Thomas, son of Conchairge O'Flynn, died. 



A. D. 1332. 

Walter, son of sir William Burke, was taken 
prisoner by the Brown Earl (Burke), and was 
conveyed by him to the new castle of Inisowen (in 
Donegal), where he afterwards died of starvation, 
in the castle prison. 

Tomaltach Mac Dermott and Mac William 
(Burke), were defeated at Beirne-an-mil (in Ros- 
common), by the son of the earl (Burke), and 
Tomaltach Mac Donogh and many of their people 
were slain. 

William GaUda, son of Murtogh More Mac 
Geoghegan, lord of Kinel Fiacha (in Westmeath), 
died. 



A.D. 1333. 

Florent Mac Anoglaigh, archdeacon of Killoran,' 
died. 

William Burke, earl of Ulster,^ was slain by the 
English of Ulster, and the English who perpetrated 
that deed were put to death in an extraordinary 
manner by the people of the king of England ; 
some of them were hanged, others were slain, and 
some were torn asunder to avenge his death. 



murdered in June, 1333, in the 21st year of his age, at a place 
called the Fords near Carrickfergus, in consequence of some family 
quarrels, by his own people, headed by sir John Mandeville, who 
was married to a lady of the de Burgos, the earl's relative. De 
Burgos was married to Maud, daughter of Henry Plantagenet, 
earl of Lancaster, grandson to king Henry III., and by her he 
had a daughter Elizabeth, who was married to Lionel, duke of 
Clarence, son of king Edward 111., who, in right of his wife, was 
created earl of Ulster and lord of Connaught ; hence the title earl 
of Ulster has been since that time retained in the royal family of 
England. — Lives of Illustrious Irishmen, and Lodge's Peerage. 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



119 



Tomaltach Mac Donogh, son of Dermod, lord 
of Tirerrill, the most eminent man for truth, friend- 
ship, and protection of his time, died. 

Felini O'Donnell, the most noble and honour- 
able tanist to a lordship, a man of whom the Irish 
had the highest expectations, died. 

Gilbert Mac Costello was treacherously slain on 
the floor of his own house by Cathal Mac Der- 
mott Gall. 

Hugh Mac Consnamha, chief of Muintir Kenny 
(in Leitrim), died. 

Nicholas Oge Mac Clancy was slain by the Co- 
nacians, that is, by Torlogh O'Conor, king of Con- 
naught, and by Tiarnan Mac Rom-ke ; and the 
lordship of Brefney was given to O'Reilly. 

Donogh, son of Hugh O'Kelly (in Galway), 
was taken prisoner by Torlogh O'Conor, king of 
Connaught. 

A general pardon was proclaimed to the sons of 
William Burke from the king of England. 

Conor Mac Brenan, chief of Corcachlan (in 
Roscommon), died. 

Hugh, son of Donal Oge O'Donnell, lord of 
Tirconnell, Kinel Moain, Inisowen, Fermanagh, 
North Connaught, and Brefney, and heir to 
the crown of all Ulster, the most dreaded and for- 
midable to his enemies of any of the Irish in his 
time, a man by whom most of the English fell, 
and also of the Irish who were opposed to him ; 
one whose government, laws, and regulations were 
superior to any of his neighbouring chiefs, the 
most distinguished man of western Europe for 
hospitaUty and benevolence, died after gaining the 
palm of victory over the world and the devil, in a 
monastic habit, at Innis Samer,' and was buried 
with great honours and solemnity in the monastery 
of Eas Roe. Conor O'Donnell, his son, suc- 
ceeded him, but a contention afterwards arose 
between Conor and Art his brother, respecting the 
lordship, until Ail was slain m a conflict by 
Conor. 



A.D. 1334. 
All the Conacians both EngUsh and Irish 



3. lyiis Saimer and Has Ruadli, as already explained in several 
places, were names applied to Ballyshannon and its monastery. 
See note on Tirconnell. 



marched with a great army into Munster to at- 
tack Mac Namara (of Clare), from whom they 
took hostages, and reduced him to subjection ; a 
party of these forces set fire to a church, in which 
there were one hundred and eighty persons and 
two priests, none of whom escaped from the 
burning. 

Ten of the people of Donogh, son of Malachy 
Carrach Mac Dermott, were drowned on Lough 
Techet (Lough Gara in Sligo). 

Teige, son of Cathal, son of Donal O'Conor, 
died. 

Donogh Mac Consnamha, chief of Muintir 
Kenny (in Leitrim), and Seonag, the son of 
Murtogh More Mac Geoghegan, lord of Kinel 
Fiacha (in Westmeath), and WilUam Mac Geo- 
ghegan, died. 

Conor Mac Branan died. John Mac Gilultan 
was slain by Donal Mac Hugh. 



A. D. 1335. 

Fionguala, daughter of O'Brien, and wife of 
Torlogh O'Conor, died. 

John, son of Art O'Hara (in Sligo), was taken 
prisoner by the son of the earl (Burke), who plun- 
dered his people. 

The sons of Donal O'Conor plundered the 
people of Maurice Sugach (the Merry) Fitzgerald, 
on which occasion the grandson of Maurice was 
slain. 

The Clan Maurice, in retaliation, plundered the 
sons of Donal. 

All the west of Connaught was laid waste by 
Edmond Burke, who committed numerous evils 
both by burning and slaying' on the son of the 
earl (Burke), and on the Clan Rickard, after which 
they made peace with each other. 

Giolla-na-Naingeal O'Cassidy, chief physician 
of Fermanagh, died. 

A.D. 1336. 

Triinnoit O'Naan, head professor in many 
sciences, and in civil and canon law, died. 

Tomaltach Gearr of the Plunders, 3Iac Der- 
mott, lord of Moylurg, one who triumphed often 
over his enemies, whose friendship, protection, 
generosity, and hospitality excelled those of any 



120 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1337. 



of his tribe, died on the night of Trinity Sunday 
in his own house at the port of the Rock (of 
Lough Key near Boyle), and was buried with 
honours in the monastery of Boyle. Conor, his 
son, succeeded him in the lordship. 

Theobald Burke Mac William, and Myler, the 
son of Jordan Dexeter (in Mayo), died. 

Owen O'Madden defeated the Clan Rickard 
Burke, and many of their people were slain, viz., 
sixty-six in number. 

The sons of Dermod Gall, and the son of Fehm 
O'Conor, committed great depredations on the 
Clan Costello (in Mayo), and Maidluc Mac Wail- 
drin was slain while pursuing them. 

Edmond Mac William Burke committed depre- 
dations on the Clan Cathal (in Roscommon), on 
which occasion Conor O'Flanagan and many other 
persons were plundered ; and Malachy O'Flana- 
gan was slain in the piu-suit of the prey on that 
occasion, and a brother to Mac Anmilidh was af- 
terwards taken prisoner by the pursuers, and was 
retained as a hostage. 

Conor Mac Dermott, lord of Moylurg ; Hugh, 
son of Fehm, son of Hugh O'Conor, with the 
household of O'Conor ; the Mac Donoghs ; and 
Cormac, son of Roderick O'Conor, with the 
young soldiers of Carbury (in Sligo), went on a 
predatory excursion into Tireragh, and amved at 
Mullach Ratha (near Easkey) ; the cattle of the 
countiy were driven away before them, but they 
however carried away with them much property, 
many horses and steeds, and a gi'eat quantity of 
valuable articles ; they also slew many people, 
and returned safe to their own homes. 

Dermod O'Flanagan, lord of Clan Cathail (in 
Roscommon), died. 

Torlogh O'Conor, king of Connaught, collected 
all the light troops of the Tuatha, of Clan Cathail, 
of Clan Conor, and of Moylurg (all clans of Ros- 
common), to Artagh ; and the great castle of Mac 
Costello (in Mayo) was taken and demolished by 
O'Conor on that occasion, and the Ceitherv} who 
gari-isoned the town, surrendered, on the guaran- 
tee of Mac Dermott. 

Donal, son of John, son of Donal O'Conor, 
died. 



A.D. 1336. 
1. Ceithern, or kerns, were the light-armed troops of the Irish, 



Niall, son of Conor, son of Teige (O'Conor), 
was slain. 

The monastery of St. Francis at Carraic-na- 
Siuire (Carrick-on-Suir, county of Tipperary), in 
the diocese of Lismore, was founded by James 
Butler (earl of Ormond). 

Mahon O'Reilly (lord of Clanmahon in the 
county of Cavan), was slain by the Enghsh. 

O'Mechan, the coarb of St. Molaise (abbot of 
Devenish in Fermanagh), died. 



A.D. 1337. 

Lughaidh O'Daly, bishop of Clonmacnois, died 
after a well-spent life. 

Thomas, son of Cormac O'Donnell, bishop of 
Raphoe, a man eminent for wisdom and piety, 
died. 

The Master O'Rothlain died. 

William (Burke), son of the earl of Ulster, and 
Brj'an Bane (the Fair) O'Brien, made peace with 
each other, and the lands which he (Bryan) took 
from the earl's son were set to him for rents. 

The king of Connaught pitched his camp at 
Athleague (in Roscommon), in opposition to Ed- 
mond Burke. 

John O' Fallon, lord of Clan Uadach (in Ros- 
common), died. 

Teige Mac Clancy, lord of Dartry (in Leitrim), 
was slain by Cormac, son of Roderick, son of 
Donal O'Conor, together with many others, in re- 
taliation for the death of John, son of Donal 
(O'Conor), and he (Cormac) afterwards committed 
great depredations on Dartry ; and the son of Mau- 
rice Mac Clancy was slain while pursuing the 
plunder. 

Teige and Malachy, the sons of Ivar Mac Ran- 
nall, were taken prisoners by Cathal Mac Rannall, 
who was soon after slain by the kinsmen of the 
sons of Ivar, who went to rescue them, having 
collected a great force, in conjunction with Wil- 
liam Mac Mahon and the two other sons of Ivar 
Mac Rannall, namely, Conor and Tomaltach ; 
they also slew Manus O'Ferrall on the same day, 
and Teige, the son of Ivar Mac Rannall, was 
appointed chief. 



and the galloglaochs, or gallowglasses were the heavy-armed 
infantry. 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



121 



Donal Roe O'Malley (in Mayo), and Cormac, 
his son, were slain by the sons of Mebric, and 
others of the English, on the festival of St. 
Stephen. 

Matthew O'Higgin, a man eminent for poetry 
and liberality, died. 

Heniy Mac Martin was slain. 

Donogh, son of Murtogh More Mac Geoghe- 
gan, lord of Kinel Fiacha (in Westmeath) was 
slain by the people of Offaley. 

Hugh Reamhur (the Fat) O'Neill, made peace 
with the people of Oriel and of Fermanagh. 

Donogh More O'Dowd, tanist of Hy Fiachra 
(in Sligo), died. 



A. D. 1338. 
Roderick-an-Einigh (the Hospitable), 



Mai 



Guire, lord of Fermanagh, a man who, in making 
presents of money, of clothing, of steeds and other 
goods to the learned men and professors of Ire- 



I. South Conrmught. The name Deiscirf Conocht, or South 
Coniiauelit, often occurs in the course of the Annals, also some- 
times called Unclitor Coniicht, or Upper Connaught, as North 
Connaupcht is called TuaUcenrt Cotuicht, and sometimes lachtnr 
Conacht, or Lower C'onnaudcht. The history and topography of 
the counties of Sligo and Mayo have heen given in the note on 
North Connaught, and in the present article will be given the his- 
tory and topography of the ancient territories comprised in the 
present counties of Roscommon and Galway, together with their 
chiefs and clans, compiled from the books of Leacan and Bally- 
mote, O'Dusran's Topography, O'Flaherty's Ogygia, O'Conor's 
Rerum Ilihernicarum Scriptores, the Dissertations of Charles 
O'Conor, de Burgo's Hibernia Dominicana, the Histories of Kea- 
ting, O'Halloran, and Mac Geoghegan, County Surveys, and various 
other sources. In the earliest ages the Firboigs, called also Fir 
Domniaus and Damnonians, by O'Flaherty and others, were the 
first inhabitants of Connaught, as already stated in the note on 
North Connaught. The Firboigs are called by various writers 
Belgce^ or Belgians, and, according to our ancient annalists, were 
a colony originally from Scythia, or, according to others, came 
from that part of Gaul which was called by the Romans Gallia 
Belgica, now Belgium, and are supposed hy others to be the same 
people as the Bclgfc of Britain. The colony called Tnath Dc 
Damni^ already mentioned in the note on North Connaught, con- 
quered the Firboigs, and became masters of Ireland. The Danans 
are represented by our old annalists as originally Scythians, who 
had settled some time in Greece, and afterwards migrated to Scan- 
dinavia, or the countries now forming Norway, Sweden, and Den- 
mark. From Scandinavia the Danans came to North Britain, where 
they settled colonies, and from thence passed into Ireland. It 
appears that the Danans were a highly civilized peo])le, far more 
skilled in arts and sciences than any of the other ancient colonies 
that settled in Ireland; hence from their great knowledge they 
were considered as magicians by the Firboigs and Milesians. 
O'Brien, in his learned work on the Round Tourers of Ireland, 
considers that these beautiful structures were built hy the Danans, 
for purposes connected with Pagan worship and astronomical ob- 
servations, an opinion not improbable, when it is considered that 
the Danans ruled in Ireland about two centuries, or one hundred 
and ninety-seven years, according to the Psalter of Cashel, and 



land, was the most liberal of all the Clan Mac 
Guire in his time, died. 

Donogh, son of Roderick O'Conor, was slain. 

Edmund (Burke), the son of the earl of Ulster, 
was taken prisoner by Edmond Burke (Mac W"\\- 
liam) who tied a stone about his neck and drowned 
him in Lough Mask (in Mayo). The destruction 
of the English of Connaught and of his own race 
was the consequence of that deed, for Torlogh 
O'Conor, king of Connaught, soon after expelled 
Edmund Mac WiUiam Burke out of Connaught, 
after the country and churches in the west of 
Connaught had been awfully destroyed between 
them, and O'Conor then assumed the supreme 
government of the entire country. 

Edmund Burke afterwards collected a large fleet 
of ships and boats, and remained for a long time 
on the islands of the sea. 

The English of Lieney and of Corran (in Sligo), 
were plundered and dispossessed of their proper- 
ties and power, which were transferred to the 



were highly skilled in architecture and other arts, from their long 
residence in Greece, and intercourse with the Phoenicians. The 
Foiiioraigh or FomorUins, another ancient colony mentioned liy 
the old annalists as settled m the northern parts of Ulster and 
Connaught, are stated to have heen African or Phoenician pirates, 
descendants of Ham, and are represented as a race of giants. 
The term Fomaire is derived by O'Brien, in his Irish Dictionary, 
from J'o(7A,plundering,and muir, the sea, and hence signifies pirates. 
These various colonies, according to our annalists, settled in Ire- 
land more than a thousand years before the Christian era. In 
O'Flaherty's Ogygia (vol ii. p. 26), it is stated that Orbsen, a 
chief descended from the Danans and Fomorians, was a famous 
merchant, an<l carried on a commercial intercourse between Ire- 
land and Britain, and that he was commonly called Mnnaiiniin, 
on account of his frequent trading to the Isle of Mann, and that 
he also got the name of Mac Lir, signifying the son of the sea, 
from his being so expert a mariner. He was killed by Uillinn 
Abradhrnaidh, or Uillinn of the Red Brows, another Danan chief, 
in a battle in Connaught, at a place called, from that circum- 
stance, Magh Uillinn, or the plain of Uillinn, now the barony of 
MoycuUen, in the county of Galway. The lake near which this 
bati;le was fought got the name Lough Orbsen, from the chief 
Orbsen, who was killed there, and is now called Lough Corrib, in 
the county of Galway. According to O'Flaherty, the lakes called 
Lough Cime, now Lough Hacket, Lough Riach or Loughrea, and 
some other lakes in the county of Galway, and also the river Sue, 
between Roscommon and Galway, first began to flow in the time 
of Heremon, son of Milesius ; iind Loch Ke, in Moylurg, near 
Boyle in Roscommon, first sprung out in the reign of Tigeamraas, 
monarch of Ireland, about nine centuries before the Christian era. 
The territory of South Connaught, bounded on one side by the 
Atlantic, anil on the other by the mighty Shannon, abounds in 
sublime and beautiful scenery, magnificent lakes, as Lough Corrib 
and many other.'!, in Galway; Loughs Key, Gara, Allen, and 
many others, in Roscommon ; the Sue, and many other fine rivers; 
majestic mountains, as Maam Trasna, Maam Turk, Maam Ban, 
Slieve Baughta, and the twelve Pins of Benabola, in Galway ; 
with immense ocean cliffs, large inlets, and bays, and many tine 
islands, as those of Arran, &c., along the Atlantic coast. Amongst 
the remarkable features of this country may be mentioned the 



122 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1339. 



ancient Irish inheritors, after the English had been 
expelled. 

Teige, son of Roderick, son of Cathal O'Conor, 
who was called the Bratach righin (that is of the 
firm Standard or Banner), was taken prisoner by 
Thomas Mac Gauran (of the county of Cavan), 
and many of his people were slain. 

Mac Gauran (Thomas) went then to the house 
of O'Conor, and on his return therefrom, the 
Clan Murtogh (O'Conor of Sligo), and people of 
Muintir Eoluis (in Leitrim), collected their forces, 
took him prisoner, and slew many of his people. 

Hugh-an-Chleitigh (of the Plumes), the son of 
Roderick O'Conor, while commanding in the rere 
of his forces, received a wound, of which he died. 

Den-oill, daughter of Cathal Mac Murrogh, and 
wife of Donogh, the son of Hugh Oge, died. 



A. D. 1339. 
Roderick O'Kelly, lord of Hy Maine, was slain 



peculiarly wild and picturesque scenery of Connemara. In Ros- 
common are many fine njount.iins, as tlie Curlews, Slieve Bawn, 
and many others. Crunchan, in Connauglit, was celebrated from 
tlie earliest ages, and nearly a tliousand years before the Christian 
era, Muimne, monarcli of Ireland, son of Hereraon, is stated to 
have died at Cruachan. Cruachan, or Croaghan, was situated 
near Elphin, in the county of Roscommon, and according to Char- 
les O'Conor, was also called Druim na n-Dmadh, or the Hill of 
the Druids, being a great seat of Druidism. Cruachan became 
tlie capital of Connaught, and residence of the ancient kings ; 
and the states of Connaught held conventions there, to mal<e laws 
and inaugurate tlieir kings. Eochaidli Feidhliocli, monarch of 
Ireland, about a century before tlie Cliristian era, erected a royal 
residence and a great ratli tliere, called R/ith Cruachan, which got 
its name from Cruachan Croidheirg, his queen, motlier of Meadhbh. 
This Meadhbli or Meava, was queen of Connaught, and a cele- 
brated heroine, who, like the ancient queens of the Amazons, com- 
manded her own forces in person, in the seven-years' war with 
the Red-branch Knights of Ulster, an event famous in the Tain- 
bo-Cuailgne, and other ancient records. Meava is represented in 
her gilded war-chariot, surrounded by several other chariots, and 
wearing on her head her ^wJOH, or golden crown. At Cruachan 
was the burial-place of the pagan kings of Connaught, called 
Reilig na Rioyli, or the Cemetery of the Kings. The heroic 
Uatlii, the last pagan monarch of Ireland, liaving carried his vic- 
torious arms to Gaul, and being killed by lightning at the foot of the 
Alps, A.D. 429, his body was brought to Ireland by his soldiers, 
and buried in Reilig na Riogh, and a large red pillar-stone erected 
over his grave, which remains to this day. Datlii was nephew to 
the famous warrior, Niall of the Nine Hostages, monarch of Ire- 
land, and, like him, made war on the Romans in Gaul and Britain. 
Datlii's name was Fercdach, but he got the appellation Dathi 
from his great activity, as the word Dathi or Dallie signifies 
agility, and he is represented to have been so expert in the use of 
his arms and handling his weapons that, if attacked hy an hun- 
dred persons at the same time, all discharging their arrows and 
javelins at him, he would ward off every weapon by his dexterity. 
A beautiful poem, giving an account of the kings and queens 
buried at Cruachan, was composed by Torna Eigeas (Torna the 



by Cathal, son of Hugh, son of Owen O'Co- 
nor, while going from O'Conor's house to his 
own. 

Thomas Mac Gauran was set at liberty by the 
Clan Muircheartaigh. 

Hugh Reamhar O'Neill marched with a great 
force into Tirconnell, and the son of John O'Neill 
and Geoffrey O'Donnell, of those forces, were slain 
by the people of O'Dogherty. 

Edmoiul Mac William Burke, who was on the 
islands of the sea with his fleet, was expelled to 
Ulster, by Torlogh O'Conor, king of Con- 
naught. 

Torlogh O'Conor took to him (as wife) the 
daughter of Torlogh O'Brien, who was the wife 
of the earl of Ulster's son, and put away Dervoil, 
the daughter of Hugh O'Donnell. 

A great war arose throughout Meath, between 
the English and the Irish. 

The church of Kilronan (in Roscommon), was 
erected by Fergal Muinach O'Duigenan. 



Learned), chief bard to the monarch Niall of the Hostages, in the 
fifth century, commencing thus : 

" Ata fudsa ri fionn hh-fear Fail, 
Dathi, mac Fiachrach, fear graidh, 
A Cruacha, ro cheilis sin 
Ar Ghalluibh, ar Ghaoidhealuibh." 

" Under thee lies the fair king of the men of Fail, 
Dathi, son of Fiachra, man of fame, 
O ! Cruacha, thou hast this concealed 
From the strangers and Gaels !" 

This last line is, literally, from the Galls and Gaels, the word Gaels 
meaning the Irish themselves, and the term Galls being applied 
by the Irish to all foreigners, as the Gauls, Danes, English, tec. 
In the above Ireland is called Fail, as Inls Fail, signifying the 
Island of Destiny, was the name given to Ireland by the Tuath 
de Danans, from a remarkable stone they brought with them into 
Ireland, which was called the L'la Fail, or Stone of Destiny, 
sitting on which, the ancient kings, both of the Danan and Mile- 
sian race, were for many ages crowned at Tara. This stone was 
sent to Scotland in the sixth century, for the coronation of Fergus, 
king of Scots, who was descended from the Milesian kings of Ire- 
land, and was used for many centuries at the coronation of the 
Scottish kings, and kept at the abbey of Scone, from whence it 
was taken to England by King Edward I., when he invaded Scot- 
land, and placed under the coronation chair in Westminster Abbey, 
where it still remains, though it has been erroneously stated in 
some modern publications, that the large pillar stone which 
stands on the mound or rath at Tara is the Stone of Destiny, an 
assertion opposed to the statements of O'Flaherty, the O'Conors, 
and all other learned antiquarians. It may be here observed, 
that three of the Tuath de Danan queens, namely, Eire, Fodhia, 
and Banba, gave their names to Ireland, which is mentioned by 
the various old writers under the names Fodhia, Saiiba, and 
Eire, and from Eire has been derived the name Eirin. According to 
the poem of Torna Eigeas, the following were the kings and queens 
buried at Cruachan : the three queens of tlie Danans, Eire, Fodhia, 
and Banba, and their husbands, Mac Coill, Mac Cecht, and Mao 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



123 




A.D. 1340. 

HE monastery of Oirbeal- 
aigh' at Carraic-an-Chuil, 
at the eastern end of Lough 
Lein, in the diocese of Ard- 
fert, in Munster, was found- 
ed for Franciscan friars by 
Mac Carthy, and many of 
the nobihty of the country 
selected their burial-places in that monastery, 
and amongst these were O'SulUvan More and the 
two O'Donoghoes. 



Greine, tbe three Danan kings ; also Luirliaidh Latiihfada, 
Daghda, and Midir, three other celebrated kings of the Danans ; 
several Jlilesian kings and f|ueens, as Ugaine Mor, or Hugony 
the Great, who was monarcli of Ireland more than three cen- 
tnries before the Christian era ; liis daugliter, the princess 
Jluireasc ; Cobhthach Caol, monarch of Ireland, and son of Hu- 
gony ; Brea«, Nar, and Lothar, tbe three sons of Eochaidh 
Feidhleach, monarch of Ireland, a short time before tbe Christian 
era, and also his three daughters, namely, Meava, the famous 
queen of Connaught, Deirlibre, and Clothra ; also Eochaidh 
Aircamh, monarch of Ireland, and lirotber of Eochaidh Feidh- 
leach ; the sons of Feidblimidli Reacbtmar, or Felimy the Law- 
giver, who was monarch of Ireland in tbe second century, and 
other kings, tbe descendants of Con Cead Catbach, with the 
exce])tion of Art, monarch of Ireland, who was buried at Trevet, 
in Meatb, and his son Cormac, the famous monarch of Ireland, 
in the third century, who was buried at Ros-na-Riogh, now Ros- 
naree, near Slane in Jleath ; and according lo the Book of Bally- 
mote, at folio I4"2, it is stated that Cormac, who it appears bad 
some knowledge of Christianity, gave orders that he should not be 
buried at Brugh Boine, which was tbe cemetery of the pagan 
kings, hut at Ros-na-Riogh, and that bis face should be towards 
the rising sun. Bruijh Boine, the town or fortress of the Boyne, 
was also a great cemetery of the pagan kings of Ireland, and 
according to some antiquaries, was situated near Trim, but ac- 
cording to others, more probably, at the place now called Stack- 
alien, between Navan and Slane, in Jleath. In various parts of 
the ancient kingdom of Meatb, in the counties of Meath, West- 
meath, and Dublin, are many sepulchral viottnch, usually called 
moats, of a circular form, and having the appearance of hillocks; 
these are the sepulchres of kings, queens, and warriors, of the 
pagan times ; there are several of these mounds of great size, 
particularly along the banks of the Boyne, between Drogheda and 
Slane, and one of them, at Newgrange, is of immense extent, 
covering an area of two acres, and about eighty feet in height, 
and was surrounded by a circle of huge stones standing upright, 
many of which still remain. The interior of this mound is formed 
of a vast heap of stones of various sizes, and a passage, vaulted 
over with great flags, leads to the interior, where there is a large 
chamber or dome, and in it have been found sepulchral urns, and 
remains of human bones. Cairns, or huge heaps of stones, many 
of which still remain on hills and mountains in various parts of 
Ireland, were also in pagan times erected as sepulchres over kings 
and chiefs. In the Books of Armagh and Ballymote, and other 
ancient records, are given some curious accounts of tbe customs 
used in the interment of tbe ancient kings and chiefs. Laoghaire, 
monarch of Ireland in tbe fifth century, was buried in the ram- 
part or rath called Rath Laoghaire, at Tara, with bis military 
weapons and armour on bim, his face turned southwards, as it 
were bidding defiance to bis enemies, the men of Leinster ; and 



A contention arose between the people of Hy 
Maine, namely, between Teige O' Kelly, to whom 
Torlogh O'Couor, king of Connaught, gave the 
government of Hy Maine, and Wilham, son of 
Donogh IMuinach O'Kelly, who was expelled from 
the country ; and although he had left it, Teige 
O'Kelly, with his kinsmen and people, pursued 
and overtook him ; William and his party at once 
turned upon them, and an engagement ensued, in 
which Donogh, the son of Hugh O'Kelly, was 
slain, and Teige O'Kelly taken prisoner, after re- 
ceiving wounds, of which he died. 

Malachy O'Gormley, chief of Kinel Moain (in 
Donegal), died. 

The sons of Ualgarg O'Rourke, Donal, Hugh, 



Eogan Beul, a king of Connaught in the sixth century, who was 
mortally wounded at the battle of Sligeach or Sligo, fought with 
the people of Ulster, gave directions that he should be buried 
with his red javelin in bis hand, and his face towards Ulster, as 
in defiance of bis enemies ; but the Clanna Neill, from Ulster, 
came with a strong force and raised the body of the king, and 
buried it near Lough Gill, with the face downwards, that it might 
not be the cause of making them fly before the Conacians. Near 
Lough Gill, in Sligo, are two great cairns still remaining, at which 
place was probably an ancient cemetery of some of tbe kings of Con- 
naught. After the introduction of Christianity the kings and 
chiefs were buried in the abbeys, churches, and cathedrals ; for 
instance, the monarch Brian Boroimhe, who was killed at Clon- 
tarf, was buried in the cathedral of Armagh. The kings of Con- 
naught in the Christian times were interred in the abbeys of 
Clonmacnois, Cong, Knockmoy, Roscommon, &c. There are still 
some remains of Reilig-na-Riogh at Cruachan, consisting of a 
circular area of about two hundred feet in diameter, surrounded with 
some remains of an ancient sione ditch, and in the interior are 
heaps of rude stones piled upon each other, as stated in Weld's 
Survey of Roscommon. 

Bun Aengus, or the fortress of Aengus, erected on the largest 
of the Arran islands off the coast of Galway, and situated on a 
tremendous eliif overhanging the sea, consists of a stone work of 
immense strength, of C(/c?o/)eoH architecture, composed of large 
stones without cement : it is of a circular form, and capable of con- 
taining within its area two hundred cows. According to O'Fla- 
herty, in his Ogygia (V. II. p. 20.), it was erected by Aengus and 
Concbobhar, two of the Firbolg kings of Connaught, about a cen- 
tury before the Christian era, and was also called the Dun of 
Concovar. 

The Milesians are so constantly mentioned in the course of 
these notes, that a short account of their colony may be necessary. 
The Firbolgs, as already explained, were conquered by tbe colony 
of Tuath De Danan, who ruled over Ireland about two centuries, 
according to our annalists. The Milesians, according to Keating, 
O'FIaherty, and the old annalists, were originally a colony from 
Scythia, near the Euxine and Caspian seas, on tbe borders of 
Europe and Asia, about the country now called the Crimea. These 
Scythians, called by the Roman writers Celto-Scythce, were the 
most ancient inhabitants in Europe after the deluge, and de- 
scended from Japhet. The Celts peopled the greater part of 
Europe in those early ages, and the chief nation of them were the 
Gauls, or ancient uibabitants of France and Belgium. A Scythian 
chief named Niul, the son of one of the kings of Scythia named 
Feniusa Fearsa, liaving settled in Egypt, married the princess 
Scota, daughter of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, who was drowned 
in the Red Sea. Niul had a son called Gaodhal ; hence his de- 
scendants are called Gndelians or Gaels. These Gadelians being 
afterwards expelled from Egypt, sailed back to Scythia, under 

R 2 



124 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1340. 



Gilcreest, and Roderick, went on a predatory ex- 
cursion against Catlial, son of Hugh Brefnach 
(O'Conor), whom they plundered, and on the 
same day they slew Conor, son of Donogh Ria- 



the conduct of their chief Eibcr Scut or Eber the Scythian ; 
hence they got tlie name Cineadh Scut, tliat is, the race of tlie 
Scyths or Scythians, and tliis name was latinised to Scoti, and 
anglicised Scots, all of wliich signify Scythians. Tlie Ciade- 
lians or Scythians, again emii;rate<l from Scythia, and having 
sailed through the Euxine or Black Sea, and the Egean or Ar- 
chipelago, entered the sea now called the Mediterranean, which is 
named by the Irish writers Miiir Toirrinn, and made settlements 
on the coast of Africa, according to O'Flaherty, in Getulia, a coun- 
try near ancient Carthage, and from thence sent a colony to Iberia 
or Spain, who, landing there, defeated the race of Tulial, son of 
Japhet, wlio then iniialiited that country. The Gadelians formed 
settlements in that part of ancient Spain called Celtiberia, and 
carried on wars a long time with the nati\es, under one of their 
celebrated chiefs named Brcniinn, from whom the Gadelians or 
Milesians got the name of Chiiiim Breof/riin, which people some 
writers state to be the same as the Brigantes. A descendant of 
Breogain named Gollamli, became king of Spain, and being a 
famous warrior, got the name of MiUdh En.ipalne, which signi- 
fies the Spanish hero, a name latinised Milesius, apd his posterity 
were called Cluimn il/i/cnrf/i, a term anglicised to Milesians. This 
Milesius having gone to Egypt as a military commander, married 
Scota, daughter of the king of Egypt. The Milesians of Spain 
sent a force under Ith, son of Breogain and uncle of Milesius, a 
valiant warrior, to Eire or Ireland, hut he was killed by the Tuath 
de Danans. After the death of Milesius, his sons having fitted 
out a powerful fleet and large force for the invasion of Ireland, 
and setting sail from the tower of Brigantia, which was erected 
by Breogain near Corunna in Cantabria, landed at Inver Sceine, 
now the bay of Kenmare in the county of Kerry, and the Taath 
de Danans having collected their forces to oppose them, a great 
battle was fought between them at Slieve Mis Mountain in Kerry, 
where the Danans were defeated ; but Scota, the widow of Milesius, 
was killed while commanding in the engagement, and was buried 
in a valley on the sea sliore near Tralee. The commanders of the 
Milesians were Heber, Heremon, and Ir, the sons of Milesius, 
together with many other chiefs, who proceeded with their forces 
towards Tara, and in another great battle fought at Tailten in 
Meath, totally defeated the Danans, and became masters of Ire- 
land. The island was divided between Heber, Heremon and Ir, 
and another brother named Amergin, was appointed as chief 
bard. The period of the arrival of the Milesians in Ireland is 
placed by our ancient chronologists about a thousand years before 
the Christian era. The descendants of Heremon, or the Heremo- 
ninns, divided into various branches, became the kings and chiefs 
of almost the whole of the ancient kingdoms of Meath, Ulster, 
Leinster and Connaught. The race of Heber Fionn, or Heber the 
Fair, called Heherians, became the kings and chiefs of Monster, 
but some also of the race of Ith, uncle of Milesuis, called Ithians, 
became kings and chiefs in Jliinster, and several of the race of 
Heber were also monarchs of Ireland; but the race of Heremon 
furnished hy far the greater number of the nmnarchs of Ireland. 
The race of Ir, called Clnnim Riulhraldli, from Rudliraidh, one 
of their ancestors, who was king of Ulster in early times, were 
ehieily settled in Ulster, of whidi province they were kings for 
many centuries, and several of tliem also monarchs of Ireland. 
The /riajw or Clanna Rory, are mentioned by O'Connor and va- 
rious writers, under the name o( Riidricians, and they continued 
kings of Ulster to the fourth and tifth centuries, when they were 
conquered by tiie Ileremouians, as explained in the notes on Ttr 
Eogcdn, Tir Conu'dl and Orrjiidl. It may be observed here, 
that the colonies of Firbolgs, Danans and Milesians, were all 
originally Scythians or Celto-Scythians, and all spoke dialects of 
the same language, namely, the Celtic, wdiieh was also the lan- 
guage of the ancient Gauls and Britons. From the Milesians, 
called also Scotl or Scots, as above explained, Ireland got the 
name of Scotia ; and when a colony of the Milesian Scots from 



vach, son of Manus, son of Murtogh Muinach, 
together with many others ; and that was the first 
conflict between the people of O'Rourke and the 
Clan of Murtogh Muinach (O'Conor). Cathal, 



Ireland, in the beginning of the third century, under an Irish 
prince named Cairbre Riada, settled in that part of North Britain 
which was called by the Irish Alba and Alhoin, and by the 
Romans Caledon'iii, and conquered the Picts and Caledonians, 
they became kings of the country, and gave it tlie name of Scotia 
or Scotland, and from Ihe ancient Scottish kings of Irish Milesian 
race were descended the kings of Scotland and the royal house 
of Stewart. Besides those already enumerated, Ireland is men- 
tioned under various names ; by the Greeks it was called lerne, 
signifying the sacred Isle, as it was a great seat of Druidism, by 
the Romans HibernUi, and by Plutarch Oyijijin, wliicli signifies 
tlie ancient land ; in the Christian times it got the name Insula 
Stinctoniin or the Island of Saints. 

The Firbolgs having assisted the Milesians against the Danans, 
were restored in a great measure to their former possessions, and 
were located chiefly in Connaught, whicli was ruled over for many 
centuries by Firbolg kings. According to Charles O'Connor, in 
his Dissertations, the Cruithnidh or Picts were in early times set- 
tled at Moy Naoi or Magh-Aoi, a territory wdiich comprised the 
central parts of Roscommon, and were probably some of the 
colony of Picts from North Britain, who had settled in Ulster, 
in the present counties of Down and Antrim, as explained in the note 
on Dalaradia. Geaiian, one of the earliest of the Flrholg kings, had 
Connaught. Meava, the celebrated queen of Connaught already 
mentioned, was married to Oilioll Fionn, a king of the Damnonian or 
Firbolg race, and al'ter she had reigned over Connaught for ninety- 
eight years, died in the one-hundred-and-twentieth year of 
her age, about the beginning of the Christian era, as stated in 
O'Flaherty's Ogygia (v. ii. p. 1.56.) In the first century the 
Firbolgs, having formed a conspiracy to seize on the monarchy, 
invited the Milesian kings and chiefs to a great assembly and 
feast in Connaught, and having massacred a vast number of the 
chiefs, they seized njion the sovereignly, and set up one of their own 
race as monarch of Ireland, named Caifbre Ceann Cnit, or 
Carbry Cat Head, so called, it is said, from his ears resembling 
those of a cat. The place where the Milesian chiefs were mas- 
sacred was called Magk Cnt, signifying the field of blood, and is 
supposed to have been near Lough Con in Mayo. Cairbre Oann 
Cait reigned from A.D. 90 to 9i. About thirty years after the 
first insurrection of the Firbolgs, a second revolt took place, in 
which, assisted hy the people of Ulster of the Clanna Kory, 
the Heremonians were defeated in a great battle, and the 
monarch Fiacha Finioladh was slain, A.D. \'2Q, and Elim, king, of 
Ulster of the race of Ir, was made monarch. The Firbolgs engaged 
in these rebellions are called by the ancient annalists Athach 
Tiuitha, signifying according to Dr. O'Connor the giant race, 
or according to O'Reilly, in his Dictionary, the plebeians. Tliis 
word has been anglicised into Attacots, and the revolts of the 
Firbolgs are called by diii'erent writers the Attacotic wars. — 
Tuathal Teachtmar, or Tuathai the Acceptable, son of the monarch 
Fiacha Finnodhla, was forced to fly from the kingdom to North 
Britain, but returned A.D. 130, and regained the kingdom from 
the Firbolgs. Tuatlia! is celebrated as one of tiie greatest of the 
Irish niouarchs for his wisdom and valour. On his return to Ireland, 
he landed at lorras Doinlian,now Erris in Mayo, and, collecting 
bis forces, defeated the Firbolgs in many battles in Connauglit, as 
those of Diiniha Sealga, in Magh-Ai, a plain in Roscommon ; also 
at the battle of (^rbsen near Lough Corrib in Galway, in which 
Amergin the cliief of the Firbolgs was slain ; in the battles of 
Umhall, now the barony of Marrisk, in Ceara, and at Cruachan 
Aichle, now Croagh Patrick, all in Mayo; and at Magh Sleaght 
in Brefney, now Fenagli in the county of Leitrim, and many 
others, having according to the old annalists fouglit altogether 
eighty-five battles for the recovery of the crown. The battle of 
Magh Cruimhe. Lugliaidh Mac Con, a valiant prince of the 
race of Ith, having been expelled from Monster liy Oilioll 
Olum, who became king of Munster, and being banished to 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



]25 



son of Hugh Brefnach, went in pursuit of his 
phmdered property, and overtook the sons of 
Ualgarg O'Rourke, on which a fierce engagement 
ensued, in which Donal O'Roui-ke, one of the 



Britain, projected an invasion of Ireland, and, assisted by the Bri- 
tons and otiier foreiffn auxiliaries under the command of Beine 
Briot, or Beine the Briton, who was one of the most famous warriors 
of that age, and son of the kins of Wales, landed a powerful 
army in Galway. Art, monarch of Ireland, aided by OilioU 
Olum, king of Munster, who was his brother-in-law, and by 
Forga, king of Connauglit, collected their forces, and fouaht a 
great battle, long celebrated by the Irish annalists as most fierce 
and bloody, in which the foreigners were at length victorious. 
In this battle tlie monarcli Art was slain, together with Forga, 
king of Connaiight, and also seven out of tlie nineteen sons of 
Oilioll (Jlum, who were commanders in that engagement. After 
this victory Lngliaidh Mac Con became monarch of Ireland. Tlie 
battle of Miiycruimhe or Muerom, was fought A. D. 251), accord- 
ing to O'Flalierty, near Atbenry, about eight miles from Galway. 
The head of king Art was cut oif after the battle, near a brook or 
pool, which from that circumstance was called Turloch Airt, a name 
which O'Flaherty says it retained to his own day, and was si- 
tuated between Aloyvolaand Killcornan. 

In the third century Cormac, monarch of Ireland, the son of 
the monarch Art, attacked Aodh or Hugh, the Firbolg king of 
(Jonnaught, who had incurred his resentment, and according to 
O'Flaherty totally defeated his forces in the battle of Magh Aoi 
in Roscommon, upon •which the sovereignty of Connanglit was 
taken from tlie Damnonian<, and transferred to the Milesians of 
the race of Heremon. This .\odh or Hugh, the last king of the 
Firbolgs, was son ofOarad, and succeeded Lughaidli, the son of 
Firtri, as king of Connauglit, and was descended from Goll, the 
son of Morna, the famous warrior, who was chief of the Clanna 
Moma, celebrated warriors in Connaiight. Cairbre Liffeachair, 
the son of Cormac, succeeded his father as monarch of Ireland, 
and Fiach, son of Cairbre, snriiained Srabhtene, from Dun Srabli- 
tene, in Connaught, where be was nurtured, became king of 
Connauglit, and afterwards monarch of Ireland from A. D 290, 
to A.D. 327. Muireadhach Tireach, or Murroch the Patriot, 
son of king Fiach, succeded as king of Connaught, and was also 
monarch of Ireland, from A.U. 3:S1 to A. D. 357. Eochaidh Muigh- 
meadhoin, son of Muireadhach Tireach, became king of Con- 
naught, and was also monarch of Ireland from A. D. 35S to 
A. D. 3(iR. 

Saint Patrick, in the course of his mission in Connauglit, as 
already stated in the note on Brefney, and as given in his life by 
Jocclin the monk, and in the tripartite life by Colgan, quoted in 
O'Flaherty's Ogygia, having thrown down the temple of tlie 
Druids at Moysleacht in Brefney, now Fenagh in Leitrini, on 
which occasion he destroyed the great idol called Crom Cruach, 
worshipped as a deity by the Druids, and wliich was made of a 
large pillar stone, having its head formed of gold and silver, and 
surrounded with twelve inferior lirazen idols, crossed the Shan- 
non, and proceeding onwards into Connaught, came near the 
royal palace at Cruachan, where he met the tvvo princesses, Ethne 
and Feidhlimina, daughters of Laoghaire, then monarch of Ireland, 
whom he converted to the Christian faith. In O'Flaherty's 
Ogygia (vol. ii. pp. 293, 295), it is stated that si\ of the sons of 
Bryan, king of Connaught, were converted and baptised, together 
with many of the people, on the jilain of Moyseola, in Roscommon, 
and that he erected a cliurch, called Domhnacii Mor, that is, the 
great church, on the banks of Lough Sealga, now Lough Hacket, 
and that on three pillar stones which had Iteen raised there in the 
ages of idolatry, lie had tlie name of Christ inscribed in three 
languages, on one of them Jesus, on the second Siiter, and on the 
third Salratnr, with a cross over each, and also that Ono, a 
grandson of Bryan, king of Connaught, made a present to St. 
Patrick of his palace, called Inileach Ona, where St. Patrick 
founded the episcopal see of Oilfinn or Eiphin, which obtained its 
name from a spring well the saint had sunk there, and on the mar- 
gin of which was erected a large stone ; and thus from Oil, which 



worthiest heirs to the lordship of Brefney, and 
many others, were slain, and Gilcreest O'Rourke 
and Mac Consnamha were taken prisoners, after 
the defeat of their people. Teige, son of Rode- 



means a stone or rock, anifinn, which signifies fair or clear, the 
name Oilfinn or Eiphin was derived, which meant the rock of the 
lini|)id water. O'Flaherty states that this stone continued there 
till bis own time, A. D. I()75, when it fell, on the 9th of October, 
and the well was inclosed, attended with some remarkable cir- 
cumstances, of ndiich O'Flaherty gives a curious account. 

Connaught, in the seventh century, is described as follows, in 
the poem called the Itinerary of Ireland, composed by Alfred, 
king of Northumberland, wdio had been educated in Mayo, and a 
translation of this poem was made by the translator of these An- 
nals, from which is taken the following passage : 

" I found in Conacht, famed for justice, 
Affluence, milk in abundance, 
Hospitality, lasting vigour, fame. 
In tills territory of Cruachan of heroes." 

In the ninth and tenth centuries Connaught was often ravaged by 
the Danes and Norwegians, who destroyed its towns, abbeys, col- 
leges, and churclies. 

Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin, as already stated, was king of 
Connaught and monarch of Irelan I, about the middle of the fourth 
century. He was a lineal descendant of Con Ceadcatbach, or Con 
of the Hundred Battles, monarch of Ireland in the second century, 
of the race of Heremon. The name Muighmheadhain, pronounced 
Moi/rnne, is derived from Muiijhe, the genitive ea^e of Magh, a 
plain, and meadhoin, a cultivator; hence the name has been trans- 
lated by Dr. O'Conor, in his puldication of the Annals of the Four 
Masters, Eochlus eantporum Culior, that is, Eoehy the cultiva- 
tor of plains. 

Brian, one of the sons of Eochy Moy vone, who became king of 
Connaught, and was killed in a battle at Damlicluan in Galway, 
A. D. 403, was progenitor of the race called Hy Briuin or Hy 
iJriw/ie, signifying the descendants of Brian. This Biian had 
twenty-four sons, and his posterity possessed the greater part of 
Connaught. Of the Hy Briuin race were the O'Conors, kings of 
Connaught ; tlie O'Rourkes, princes of West Brefney, or Leitrim; 
the O'Reillys, prim-es of East Brefney, or Cavan ; the Mac Der- 
motts, princes of Moylurg in Roscommon ; the Mac Donaglis, 
lords of Corran and TirerriU in Sligo ; the Mac Oiraghtys, some- 
times styled head chiefs of Siol Murray, and lords of Clan Tomal- 
tacb, &c. in Roscommon ; the O'Malleys, lords of Umalia in 
Mayo ; the O'Flahertys, lords of West Connaught in Galway ; 
the O'Brenans or Mac Brenans, the O'Beirnes, the O'Donnellans, 
O'Klynns, O'Flanagans, O'Feanaghtys, O'Concanans, O'Monagh- 
ans,'0'Murrays, (J'Hanleys, and O'Hallorans, Mac Manuses, 
chiefs in Roscommon and Galway ; the O'Malones, chiefs in 
Westmeath ; the Mae Consnamhas or Fords, chiefs of Muintir 
Kenny in Leitrini ; the Mac Gaurans, Mac Tiarnans or Mac Ker- 
nans, the JIac Bradys, O'Sheridans, and some other chiefs and 
clans in Cavan ; also the Mae Hughs, O'Crollys, O'Bresleins, 
Mac Egans, O'Creans, O'Finnegans, O'Callinans, O'Finns, O'Fays, 
O'Devlins, O'Callanans, and some other clans in Ulster and 
Connaught. From Flarhra, another son of Eochy Jloyvone, 
were descended the race of Hy Fiaclira, as the O'Dowds, O'lleynes, 
O'Clerys, O'Shaughnesseys, and other chiefs in Sligo, Mayo, and 
Galway, of whom accounts are given in the present article, and in 
the note on North Connaught. 

Niall Naoi GUiallacli, or Niall of the Nine Hostages, monarch 
of Ireland in the latter end of the fourth and beginning of the fiftli 
century, was another son of Eocliy Moyvone. Niall was a cele- 
brated warrior, and made frequent expeditions against the Romans 
in Gaul and Britain, in one of which he was killed in Gaul, on the 
banks of the Loire, A.D. 406. From Niall of the Hostages were 
descended the Hy Niall race, for many centuries kings of Ulster 
and Meath, and monarchs of Ireland; They were divided into 
two great branches, the north and south Hy Nialls ; the liead of 
the southern Hy Nialls behig the O'Melaghlms, kings of Meath, 



126 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1340. 



rick, son of Cathal O'Conor, whom O'Rourke 
had ill prison, was set at liberty in exchange for 
the liberation of Gilcreest O'Rourke. 

Hugh, son of Felim O'Conor, was taken pri- 



of ^viioni an account has been priven in the note on Meath ; and 
tlic liead of the northern Ily Nialls being tlie O'Neills, princes 
of Tyrone and kings of Ulster, and tlie O'Donnells, princes of 
Tircoiinell, of wliom accounts ha\e been given in the notes on Tir 
Eogain and Tir ConaiU. Thus from Brian, Fiachra, and Niall, 
the three sons of the monarch Eochy Moy vone, were descended 
the kings and chiefs of the ancient kingdoms of Meath, Ulster, 
and Connaught. 

The Siol Muireadknigh, or Siol Murray, so called as tlie des- 
cendants of Muireadhach Muilleatlmn, a king of Connaught in the 
latter end of the seventli century, who died A. D. 700, and a descen- 
dant of the above-named Brian, king of Connaught, became the chief 
branch of the Hy Briune race, and possessed tlie greater part of Con- 
naught, but were chiefly located in the territory now forming the 
county (Tf Roscommon ; and hence the term Siol Murray was ap- 
plied to that territory. 

The OX'onors, who became kings of Connaught, were the head 
chiefs of Siol Murray, and took their name from Conchobhar or 
C<mor, wlio was a king of Connauglit in the tenth century. The 
name Ua Concliobhair, pronounce<l Concoovar, is derived from Cti 
or Cull, which figuratively signifies a warrior, and Cohhiilr, aid ; 
hence it signities a helping warrior. Teige, king of Connaught, in 
the beginning of the eleventh century, who died A. D. 10.30, and 
was called Tadhg on eich gliil, or Teige of the White Steed, was 
the iirst who took the name of O'Conor, from Concovar or Conor, 
his grandfather, king of Connaught. Between the fourtli and 
eighth centuries fourteen of the race of lly Fiachra were kings of 
Connaught, as already stated in the note on North Connaught; 
and two or three of the O'Rourkes are styled kings of Connaught 
in the tenth century, in the Annals of the Four Masters. With 
these exceptions, the ancestors of the O'Conors of the race of Hy 
Briune and Siol Murray, and the O'Conors themselves, held the 
sovereignty of Connaught from the fifth to the iifteentb century, 
for a period of more than a thousand years, and two of tliem be- 
came monarchs of Ireland in the twelfth century, namely, Tor- 
legh, and his son, Roderick O'Conor, who was the last Milesian 
monarch of Ireland. Torlogli O'Conor, called Toirdhealbhach 
Mor, or Torlogh the Great, was a valiant monarch, and celebrated 
for his magnificence, and is called by the Annalists the " Augustus 
of western Europe." lie was many years king of Connaught, and 
afterwards monarch of Ireland for twenty years, from A. D. 1130 
to 1 136. He died at Dunmore, in Galway, accoiding to O'Flaher- 
ty's Ogygia (vol. ii. p. 380), on the 10th of May, A. D. 115G, in 
the GStii year of his age, and was buried at Clonmacnois. As 
stated by O'Flaherty, O'Halloran, and others, after having distri- 
buted his precious household furniture, his gold and silver vases, 
goblets, gems, jewels, musical instruments, chess-boards, his studs 
of horses, military wea])ons, i:c., he bequeathed to the cathedral 
of Clonmacnois and other churches, 540 ounces of pure gold, and 
00 marks of silver, with gold and silver chalices and crosses. 
He was buried at the north side of the great altar in the cathedral 
of St, Kiaran, having directed by ids will that his favourite horse, 
arms, bow, and quiver, shoidd be de])Osited at Clonmacnois. Rode- 
rick (.t'Conor, his son, was the last Milesian monarch of Ireland, 
anil after having reigned eighteen years, abdicated the throne 
A.D. 1184, in consequence of the English invasion, and retired to 
the monastery of Cong in Mayo, where, after a religious seclusion 
of thirteen years, he died, on Sunday, the -iTth of November, 
A.D. 1108, in the 82nd year of his age, and was buried in the 
same sepulchre with his father, in the cathedral of Clonmacnois. 
In the first volume of O'Conor's Rer. Hih. Scrip, it is stated that 
he bequeathed gold, silver, and many other valuable things, for 
the service of God, to the poor, to the churches of Ireland, and 
those of Rome and Jerusalem. According to Dr. O'Conor, king 
Torlogh O'Conor was thrice married ; his first wife was Taltenia, 
daughter of Murtogh O'Melaghlin, king of Meath ; his second 



soner by the king of Connaught, and sent for 
confinement to the castle of Roscommon, in con- 
sequence of which a great contention and com- 
motion arose between O'Conor and Mac Dermott, 



was Dervorgilla, daughter of Donald O'Melaghlin, prince of 
Meath ; and Ins third was Duvcola, daughter of Mulrooney Mac 
Dermott, prince of Moylurg. By liis last wife lie had a son, 
Cathal Crovdearg O'Conor, the famous king of Connaught, so 
often mentioned in the course of these Annals. The O'Conors, 
kings of Connaught, had royal residences at Cruachan, near EI- 
pbin, and at Cluan Fraoich, near Tulsk, in Roscommon ; also at 
Dunmore in Galway, and at Cong in Mayo, and many castles in 
various parts of Connaught. The ancient kings of Connaught 
were inaugurated at Cruachan, near Elpbin, but it appears from 
these Annals that in after times tlie O'Conors were inaugurated 
as kings of Connaught at the hill of Cam Fraoich, near Tulsk, in 
Roscommon. The O'Conors lield their rank as kings of Con- 
naught down to the reign of Elizabeth, in the sixteenth century, 
and many celebrated and valiant princes and chiefs of them are 
constantly mentioned in the course of these Annals. In the Me- 
moirs of Charles O'Conor of Belenagar, it is stated, that in the 
latter end of the fourteenth century the two head chiefs of the 
O'Conors, namely, Torlogh Roe, and Torlogh Donn, having con- 
tended for the lordship oi" Siol Murray, agreed to divide the terri- 
tory between them. The families descended from Torlogh Donn 
called themselves O'Conors Don, or the Brown ; and the descen- 
dants of Torlogh Roe called themselves O'Conors Roe, or the 
Reil. The present head of the O'Conors, a lineal descendant from 
Cathal Crovdeardg O'Conor, the celebrated king of Connaught in 
the thirteenth century, is the O'Conor Son, namely, Dennis 
O'Conor, of Belenagare, M.P. for the county of Roscommon. 
Another branch of the O'Conors, as already stated in the note on 
North Connaught, got great possessions in the county of Sligo, and 
were styled the O'Conors Sligo. 

The O'Conors are thus designated in the topographical poem of 
O'Dugan, written in the fourteenth century : — 

" Riogha na sluagh na senaidh 
A Cruachain moir min f heuruigh, 
Nir tubhadh thall a d-toradh 
Do bhunadh clann Conchubhair. 

Duthaidh don t-siol so seach each 
Siol Muiredhaigh na maol rath, 
Fine fuachdha da faire 
Righe Cruachna clothaidhe." 

" The kings of the hosts refuse nought 
To great Cruachan of the fair grassy plains, 
Which did not refuse abundant fruits 
To the tribe of Clan Conor. 

The undisjiuted patrimony of this race. 
Was Siol Murray of the Inroad mounds, 
A warlike tribe defended 
The illustrious kings of Cruachan." 

The O'Conors are at the present day very numerous, and many 
highly respectable families of the name exist in Connaught. 

Several of the O'Conors, of whom an account is given in the sub- 
se(|ucnt part of tlie present article, were eminent literary men, and 
particularly distinguished in Irish literature. 

The following cliiefs and clans in Roscommon and Galway, and 
the territories possessed by tliem in the twelfth century, have been 
collected as follows from O'Dugan's Topography, and other sources : 
I. Mac Diarmadaor Mac Dermott. The name Diarmada is deri- 
ved by O'Brien in bis Irish Diclionary from Uio, a god, and arinaid, 
the genitive plural of arm, arms, tlie word thus signifying figura- 
tively a great warrior. The Mac Dermotts derive their descent 
from the same ancestor as the O'Conors, kings of Connaught, 
namely, from Teige of the White Steed, king of Connaught in the 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



127 



and great devastations were committed on both sides. 
O'Conor experienced great danger and distress 
from the attacks made on him by Mac Dermott 
as far as Corran, and from thence was forcibly 



eleventh century, as alioTe stated, and tlierefore are a branch of the 
O'Conors. Tiiis Teigre had a son named Maolnianaidli, the pro- 
genitor of t}ie Mac Deriuotts ; hence their trihe name was Clan 
Maolruanaidh or Clan Muh-ooney. Diannaid, grandson of Mul- 
rooney, was tlie head of the clan in the twelftii century, and died 
A.D. llfio, and from him they took the name of Mac Dermott. 
The JIiic Dermotts had the title of princes of Moylurg, Tir 
Oilill, Tir Tuathail, Airteach, and Clan Cnain. 

Moylurg, called Magh Luirg an Daghda, in O'Dugan, signifies 
the Plain of the Track of Dajjrhda, and got its name from Daghda, 
one of the Tiiath De Danan kings. This territory comprised the 
Plains of Boyle, in the county of Roscommon, consisting of some of 
tile finest lands in Ireland, and famous for their fertility and beauty. 
Tir Oilill is now the barony of Tirrerill in Sligo. .\irteach, a dis- 
trict in Roscommon, near Lough Gara, on the borders of Sligo and 
Mayo. Clan Cnain was a district in the north of the barony of 
Carra, county of Mayo. Tir Tuathail was a district in the barony 
of Boyle, bordering on Leitrim and Sligo, towards Lough Allen ; 
thus Mac Dermott's territories comprised the present barony of 
Boyle, in tlie county of Roscommon, together with TirerriU in 
Sligo, and Clan Cuain in Mayo at Castlebar, wiiicli comprised the 
present parishes of Islandeady, Turlough, and Breaffy. In the 
topographical poem of O'Dugan, written in the fourteenth century, 
tlie Mac Dermotts are thus designated : — 

'* Clanna Maoilruana an raith 
Slogh foisteanach fiochathlarah 
Glan a m-buird da ta gach dreach 
Magh Luirg aea agus Airteach. 

Tir Oililla is Tir Tuathail 
Arn-dul sios tar scan Chruachain 
Ni dith dine an rann re radh 
Crich fear tire is Clann Cliuan. 

Tir iVeaehtain is Tir n-Enda 
Saoirse iad gan Aithnihela 
Fir fhialboga do glac goil 
Do Mac Diariuada as duthaidh." 

** The clan of Mulrooney of prosperity 
The host of good order but fierce and active, 
Polished are their tables of various colours, 
They possess Moylurg and Artagh. 

TirerriU and Tirtohill, 

After passing northward of ancient Croaghan, 
Numerous the tribes of whom we treat, 
They governed Firtire and Clan Cuan, 

With the lands of Naghtan and of Enda. 
They are freemen without sorrow. 
They are mild men of hospitality and valour, 
Such is the inheritance of the Mac Dermotts." 

Tlie Mac Dermotts had their chief fortress at the Rock of 
Lough Key, on an island in Lough Key near Boyle, and they 
held the Iiigh and honourable office of hereditary marshals of 
Connaught, the duties attached to which were to raise and regulate 
the military forces, and to prepare them for battle as command- 
ers-in-chief, also to preside at the inauguration of the O'Connors 
as kings of Connaught, and to proclaim tiieir election. Many 
valiant chiefs of the Mac Dermotts are mentioned in the course of 
these Annals from the twelfth to the sixteenth century, and se- 
veral of them distinguished for their religion, bravery, hospitality 
and patronage of learned men. They held their rank as lords of 
Moylurg down to the reign of Elizabeth, and considerable pos- 
sessions down to the period of the Cromwellian wars, when their 
estates were confiscated ; but it is a singular fact, that of all the 
Milesian chiefs, the Mac Dermotts alone have retained their title 



driven to Ballymote, after which they concluded a 
peace with each other. 

Jordan Roe Mac Costello (in Mayo), was slain 
by Cathal Mac Dermott Gall. 



of prince, as the Miw Dermott is to this day recognised as prince 
of Coolavin in the county of Sligo, holding a part of the hereditary 
possessions of his ancestors. There are several respectable fand- 
iies of the Mac Dermotts in Connaught at the present day, par- 
ticularly the families of Coolavin in Sligo, and of Mac Dermott 
Roe of Alderford in Roscommon. The Mac Donoghs, of whom an 
account has been given in the note on north Connaught, were a 
branch of the Mac Dermotts, and lords of TirerriU and Corran in 
Sligo. It may be observed that O'Dugan gives the following 
as the ancient chiefs of Moylurg before the time of the Mae 
Dermotts ; he designates theiu as ; — 

" The ancient chiefs of Moylurg of abundance 
Mac Eoaeh (or Mac Keogh) Mae Maon the great, 
And Jlac Riabhaidh (or Mac Revy) the efficient forces." 

II. O'Cenllaigh or O'Kclh/. The name O'Ceallaigh is derived 
from Ceallficb, a warrior, and was taken from one of their ances- 
tors, Ceallach, a celebrated chief in the ninth century. The 
O'Kellys are a branch of tlie CInii Culla of Orgiall in Ulster, 
and of the same descent as the Maguires, lords of Fermanagh, 
the Mac Mahons, lords of Monaghan, the O'Hanlons, chiefs of 
Oirior in Armagh, and some other clans of whom an account has 
Iieen given in tlie note on Orgiidl. In the fourth century, Maine 
3Iiir, or Maine the Great, a chief of the Clan Colla, having col- 
lected his forces in Orgiall, on the borders of the jiresent counties 
of Tyrone, Monaghan and Armagh, marched to Connaught, and 
having conquered a colony of the Firbolgs who possessed the ter- 
ritory called Miigh SeachnoUe, expelled the Firbolgs ; and to that 
territory, which was possessed by his posterity, he gave the 
name of Hii Maine, wliieli has been latinised to Hy Mania and 
I-Mania. This extensive territory comprised, according to 
O'Flaherty and others, a great part of south Connaught in the 
present county of Gahvay, and was afterwards extended beyond 
the river Suck to the Shannon, in the south of Roscommon, and 
comprehended the baronies of Ballymoe, Tiaquin, Killian, and 
Kileonnel, with part of Cloninacnoon in Galway, and the barony 
of A tlilone in Roscommon. The O'Kellys were styled princes of 
Hy Maine, and their territory was called O'Kelly's country. Hy 
Mania is thus described by O'Dugan : — 

" Moirthvian Chonnacht an clarr sin, 
Ui Maine na mordhail sin, 
O Shionainn sreabha sidhe, 
Go Cnoc Meadh na morriglie." 

" A great division of Connaught is that plain. 
Of Hy Maine of vast assemblies. 
Extending from the Shannou of fairy streams 
To Knoc Meadh of the great kings." 

According to the Dissertations of Charles O'Connor, the 
O'Kellys held the office of high treasurers of Connaught, and the 
Mac Dermotts that of marslials. Several celebrated chiefs of 
the O'Kellys are mentioned in the course of these Annals from 
the tenth to the sixteenth century, and amongst these Tadhg or 
Teige O'Kelly, one of the commanders under Bryan Boroimhe at 
the" battle of Clontarf The O'Kellys had castles at Aughrim, 
Garbally, Gallagh, Monivea, Moylough, MuUaghmore, and Agh- 
rane, now Castle-Kelly in the county of Galway, and at Athlone, 
Athleague, Corbeg, Galy and Skryne in the county of Roscom- 
mon. Tlie chiefs of the O'Kellys, according to some accounts, 
were inaugurated at t'loutuskert, about five miles from Eyre- 
court in the county of Galway, and held their rank as princes of 
Hy Maine to the reign of Elizabeth. There are still many highly 
respectable families of the O'Kellys in Galway, Roscommon, 
and other parts of Connaught. 

III. Mac Oireachtaiijh or Mac Oiraghty, a name anglicised 
Mac Geraghty or Geraghty, descended from the same stock as 



128 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1340. 



Cathal Mac Dermott Gall, the best man of his 
race in his time, in valour, in feats of arms, in 
sway, and in generosity, was slain by Donogh 



the O'Conors, kings of Connaught. The name is derived from 
Olreachf, a territory, hence Oireachtnch signifies the man of the 
territory. They are thus designated in O'Dugan's poem : — 

" Ag Mac Oireachtaigh na n-each, 
IVIuintir Roduibii na riglililireath, 
Triath nach iodiialta os eoill cuir." 

" Jfac Oiraghty of tlie steeds was the ruling chief, 
Of Muintir Roduiv of riglitful laws, 
A fearless warrior as he ranged the woods." 

Ill the Annals at A.D. 1241, Mac Oiraghty is mentioned as 
chief of Clan Tomaltaigh, and at 1-278, as head chief of Siol 
Murray. The districts of Clan Tomaltaigh and .Muintir Roduiv, 
were situated in the barony of Roscommon, county of Ros- 
common, and the term Siol Murray was applied to the central 
parts of the county of Roscommon. Several distinguished chiefs 
of the Mac Oiraghtys are mentioned in the course of the 
Annals, and in the sixteenth century, when deprived of their 
territories, some of the clan settled in Mayo and Sligo, and are to 
this day the chief possessors of tlie island of Inis Murray, off the 
coast of Sligo; their having, it is said, given name to the 
island from their former title as head chiefs of Siol Murray, and are 
still governed by a chief of the tribe. As a remarkable circum- 
stance connected with the Mac Oiraghtys who reside at Croagh 
Patrick in Mayo, an antique bell is kept by them, and is tradi- 
tionally stated to have been one of those used by St. Patrick. At 
A. D. 1-1)7 in these Annals, an account is given of Henry Mac 
Oiraghty, who was bishop of Achonry, and afterwards of Derry 
and of Conor; and Uavid Mac Oiraghty, who was archbishop of 
Armagh, died A. D. 1343. One of the chief representatives of 
this ancient and respectable clan is Mr. Bryan Geraghty, of 
Anglesca-street, Dublin, the publisher of these Annals. 

IV. O' Flonnacht.il or O'Feenaghtys, chief's of Clan Conniaigh 
and C'lan Murchadha, districts in the two half baronies of Bally- 
moe, in the counties of Roscommon and Galway. Two distinct 
chiefs of the O'Feenaghtys are given by O'Dugan, one of Clan 
Murrngh and the other of Clan Conway, the former being desig- 
nated " chiefs of Clan Murrogh of the champions." O'Feenaghty, 
chiefs of Clan Conway liad their castle at Dunamon, near the river 
Suck, in the county of Roscommon. Several chiefs of the O'Fee- 
naghtys are mentioned in the course of these Annals, and there 
are still several respectable families of the name in Connaught ; 
and it is stated by some old authorities, that the O'Feenaghtys, as 
a head branch of the Siol Murray, liad the privilege of drinking 
the first cup at every royal feast. V. O' FalUimhaln or O'Fallons, 
chiefs of Clan Uadach, a district in the barony of Athlone, county 
of Roscommon, comprising the parishes of Cam and Dysart, and 
had a ca.itle at MiUtown. The O'Fallons were originally chiefs 
in Westmeath near Athlone. Several chiefs of the O'Fallons are 
mentioned in the course of the Annals. By O'Dugan they are 
designated in terms which may be thus translated : — 

" The O'Fallons, who marched with every force, 
Were chiefs of Clan Uadach of wine banquets, 
Men who let not their spears decay, 
Of those are the freeborn clans." 

VI. O'B'irn or O'Beirnes, chiefs of Mura O'Mannachain, other- 
wise called Tir Briuin-na-Sionna or Tir Briune of the Shannon. 
This territory lay along the Shannon in the barony of Ballintobber, 
in Roscommon, comprising the parishes of Kilmore of the Shannon, 
Cloonaff, Aughrim and Kilumod, extending nearly to Elphin. 
VII. O'Mannachain or O'Monnaghan, was also a chief on the 
same territory as O'Beirne. Several chiefs of the O'Beirnes 
and O'Monaghans are mentioned in the course of the Annals, and 
it is to be observed that these O'Beirnes are of a different race 



Riavach, the son of Malachy Carrach Mac Der- 
mott, at Lios Sealbhaidh,'^ in Clan Conor (in Ros- 
common. 



from the O'Byrnes ofM'icklow. 
O'Dugan : — 



They are thus designated by 



*' Brave are the defending tribe of Muintir Bcirne, 
In the fortresses of O'Monaghan, 
By strengtli, by shouts of war and valour. 
The country which they conquered still they hold." 

VIII. O'Hainlidhe or O'Hanleys, chiefs of Kinel Dobhfha, a 
large district in the barony of Ballintobber, county of Rosconnnon, 
along the Shannon. It formed part of the Three Tuatha or 
three districts. Tlie O'Hanleys were chiefs of note, and many of 
them are mentioned in the course of these Annals. IX. Mac 
Branain or Mac Brennan, sometimes made O'Brennan, and 
O'Mailniichil or O'Mulvihil, sometimes anglicised to Mulville 
and Mitchell. The Mac Brennans and O'Mulvihils, were chiefs 
of Corca Achlann, a large district adjoining Kinel-Dobhtha, in 
the barony of Rosconnnon. Tliis district formed part of the 
Tuatha in which was situated the Sliev Baun Mountain. The 
O'Hanleys, Mac Brennans and O'Muhnihils, including O'Beirne 
and O'Monaghan, are thus designated in O'Dugan's poem : — 

" Let us remember the three Tuatha, 
The skilful forces of fair Cruachan, 
Let us not conceal their fine appearance. 
Let us name their three lords, 

Brave are the defending tribe of Muintir Beime, 
In the fortresses of O'Monaghan. 

Efficient is the power of the Clan Brennan, 
And also of the noble Mulmihil, 
They command the strong forces 
Of Corca Achlan of the herds. 

An estate is possessed by the forces of sharp weapons, 
Kinel Dohhtha who are compact and brave ; 
My affection for them !•* in my heart ; 
They are the clan of O'Hanley." 

X. O'Flannagain, or O'Flanagans, chiefs of Clan Cathail, a ter- 
ritory in the barony of Roscommon, north of Elphin. O'Maol- 
mordha; O'Carthaidb, or O'Carthy ; and O'Mughroin, were also 
subordinate chiefs of Clan Caihail. Many distinguished chiefs of 
the O'Flanagans are mentioned in the course of the Annals, and 
are thus designated by O'Dugan : 

" Above all remember Clan Cathail, 
From their many chiefs in continued succession ; 
Their meritorious deeds I therefore recite 
Remember the nobility of Roduiv, 

Four effective chieftains 
Ruled over the Clan Cathail. 
Kinsmen who have not been dispraised 
Are these four whom we enumerate. 

O'Flanagan, chief of the territory, 
O'Mulmora whom I praise; 
With cheerfulness they were still supported 
By the blithe O'Carthy and O'Muroin. 

XI. O'Maolbrennain, a name anglicised to O'Mulrenan, were 
chiefs of Clan Conchobhair, or Clan Conor, a district in the barony 
of Roscommon, near Cruachan. Some chiefs of the O'Mulrenans 
occur in the course of the Annals, and at A. D. Viib Dermod 
O'Mulbrenan is mentioned as Manannan, or head naval commander 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



129 



Manus, son of Cathal, son of Donal O'Conor, 
was slain by Cathal, son of Hugh Brefnach O'Conor. 

Bryan Oge Mac Gauran was slain by the 
people of Tullyhunco (in Cavan). 



of the chiefs of Connaught, and they are thus designated by 
O'Dugan : 

" O'Mulbrenan of renown 
Was chief of Clan Conor of the fertile plain ; 
Their men above all others I record, 
They are of the tribe of Clan Cathail." 

XII. O'Cathalain, chief of Clan Fogartaigh. O'Maonaigh, or 
O'Meeneys, sometimes made O'Mooneys, were chiefs of Clan Mur- 
thuile. Clan Fogartaigh and Clan Murtlniile were districts in 
Ballintobber, county of Roscommon. O'Cathalain and O'Mooney 
are thus mentioned in O'Dugan : 

" O'Cathalain is the chartered chief 
Of Clan Fogarty of the grassy plains, 
And powerful are his conquering forces ; 
Chief of Clan Murthuile is O'Mooney." 

XIII. O'Conceanain, or O'Concannon, chief of Hy Diarma- 
da, a district on the borders of Roscommon and Galway, in the 
baronies of Athlone and Ballymoe. The O'Concannons are thus 
mentioned in O'Dugan : 

" The Hy Diarmada of protecting men, 
Their heroes are kinsmen to kings ; 
Governor of the territory 
Is O'Concanain, its undisputed chief." 

XIV. Mac Murchadha, or Mac Murrogh, sometimes anglicised 
to Mac Morrow, a chief of Clan Tomaltaigh, in Rosconmion, 
of which Mac Oiraghty was head chief. XV. O'Floinn, or OFlynn, 
chief of Siol Maolruain, a large district in the barony of Ballin- 
tobber, county of Roscommon, in which lay Slieve Vi Fhloinn, 
or O'Flynn's mountain, and which comprised the parishes of 
Killkeevan and Kiltullagh, and also part of the parish of Bally- 
nakill, in the barony of Ballymoe, county of Galway. O'Maol- 
muaidh, or O'Mulloy, is also given as a subordinate chief over 
Clan Taidhg, or Clan Teige, in the same district. They are thus 
designated by O'Dugan : 

" The Siol Maolruain, and Clan Teige of prosperity, 
A host of good order, fierce and active, 
O'Mulloy and O'Flynn the hospitable ; 
The two tribes had a sufficient portion." 

XVI. O'Rothlain, chiefs of Coill Fothaidh, a district on the bor- 
ders of Roscommon and Mayo ; they are thus mentioned by 
O'Dugan : 

" O'Rothlain of Coill Fothaidh let us not omit. 
Chief of the whitestoned goblets and spears." 

XVII. O'Sgaithgil, or Mac Sgaithgil, chief of Corca Mogha, a dis- 
trict which comprised the parish of Kilkeeran, in the barony of 
Killian, county of Galway. O'Broin, anglicised to Bums, was 
chief of Lough Gealgosa, a district adjoining Corca Mogha. 

XVIII. O'Talcharain, chief of Conmaicne Cuile, a district in the 
barony of Clare, county of Galway; XIX. O'Cadhla, or O'Caw- 
ley, chief of Conmaicne Mara, now the barony of Ballynahmch in 
the county of Galway, and thus mentioned by O'Dugan : 

" Chief of the great Conmaicne Mara 
Was the head of the hospitable hosts." 

XX. Mac Conroi, or Mac Conroy, chief of Gno Mor ; and 
O'Haidhnidh, chief of Gno Beag, districts which lay along 



Owen O'Heyne, lord of Hy Fiachra Aidhne (in 
Galway), was slain by his own kinsmen. 

Owen, son of Geoffrey Mae Rannall, and Hugh 
O'Maolmiaidh, slew each other (in Leitrim). 



the western banks of Lough Corrib, between that lake and 
the bay of Galway, in the barony of Moycullen, county of Gal- 
way. O'Dugan says — 

" Mac Conroy possesses in peace 
Gno Mor of the numerous harbours." 

XXI. Mac Aodha, or Mac Hugh, chief of Clan Cosgraidh, a dis- 
trict on the eastern side of Lough Corrib, thus designated by 
O'Dugan : 

" The race of Mac Hugh on the eastern side 
Of the cttensive plain of Clan Cosgry, 
An active host from the plain of Meadha, 
Mild and hospitable are their tribes." 

XXII. O'Flaithbheartaigh or O'Flaherty, a name derived from 
Flnith, a chief or hero, and heartach, of great deeds; hence itmay 
signify a chief of noble deeds. They are styled by O'Dugan, chiefs 
of Muintir Murchadha, now the barony of Clare, county of Gal- 
way. In the thirteenth century they were expelled from this ter- 
ritory by the English, and having settled on the other side of 
Lough Corrib, got extensive possessions there in the barony of 
Moycullen, and were styled lords of lar Conacht, or West Con- 
naught. Several distinguished chiefs of the O'FIahertys are men- 
tioned in the course of the Annals, and they had the chief naval 
command about Lough Corrib, on the islands of which they had 
castles ; they are thus designated by O'Dugan: 

" Clan Murrogh of the fortress of hospitality 
Was governed by the Clan Flaherty of swords, 
Who from the shout of battle would not flee. 
To them belongs the regulation of the fair ports." 

XXIII. O'Heidhin or O'Heyne, sometimes anglicised to Hynes. 
O'Heyne was styled prince of Hy Fiachra Aidhne, so called as 
being of the race of Hy Fiachra, of whom an account has been 
given in the previous part of this article, and also in the note on 
North Connaught. The territory of Hy Fiachra Aidhne, also called 
South Hy Fiachra, was co-extensive with the diocese of Kilmac- 
duagh, and comprised the barony of Kiltartan, and parts of the 
baronies of Dunkellin and Loughrea, in the county of Galway. 
The O'Heynes were descended from Guaire Aidhne, a king of 
Connaught in the seventh century, who is celebrated by all the 
ancient annalists for his hospitality to all classes, and charity to 
the poor ; hence it passed in to a proverb, in speak ing of an hospitable 
person, that he was " as generous as Guaire;" and the poets in 
their figurative language stated, that his right hand had become 
much longer tlian his left, in consequence of bemg constantly ex- 
tended in giving charity. The O'Heynes were celebrated chiefs, 
and many of them are mentioned in the course of these Annals. 
They took their name from Eidhin, one of their chiefs in the tenth 
century, and Maolruanaidh O'Heyne, prince of Hy Fiachra, was a 
commander under Brian Boroimhe at the battleof Clontarf; and it 
may be remarked that Brian Boroimhe was married to Mor, the 
daughter of Flann, father of Maolruanaidh O'Heyne. XXIV. 
O'Seachnasaigh, or O'Shaughnessey, of the same descent as 
O'Heyne, and chief of Kbiel Aodha, sometimes called Kinel 
Aodha-na-h-Echtge, that is Kinel Hugh of Echty, a mountainous 
district on the borders of Galway and Clare. Kinel Hugh was a 
large district in the barony of Kiltartan, county of Galway. 
O'Cathail, or O'Cahal, of the race of Hy Fiachra, was also a chief 
of Kinel Hugh. XXV. Mac Giolla Ceallaigh or Mac Gilkelly, 
sometimes made Killikelly, also of the race of Hy Fiachra, and 
another chief of Aidhne. XXVI. O'Cleirigh or O'CUery, a name 
sometimes anglicised to Clarke, likewise of the race of Hy 
Fiachra, and chiefs in Aidhne, and sometimes styled chiefs of Hy 
Fiachra Finn. They took the name from Cleireach, one of their cele- 

S 



130 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1340. 



Philip O'Duigenan, chief professor of Conmaicne 
(in Leitrim), died. 

William, son of Gilbert Mac Costello (of Mayo), 



brated chiefs in the tentli oent\iry. Many of these O'Clerys were 
highly distinguished in literature, and a branch of them having 
settled in Donegal, became bards and historians to the O'Donnells, 
princes of Tyrconnell, and were the authors of tlie Annals of the Four 
Masters, of which a full account has been given in the introduction 
to the present publication. Other branches of the O'Clerys set- 
tled in Brefney O'Reilly, or the county of Cavan. XXVII. 
O'Duibhgiolla, chief of Kinel Cinngainhna ; Mac Fiachra, chief of 
Oga Beathra ; O'Cathain, chief of Kinel Sedna ; and O'Maghna, 
chief of Caenridhe, all chiefs in Aidhne. The chiefs of Aidhne 
are thus designated by O'Dugan :— 

" Let us approach Aidhne of steeds, 
And their noble chiefs of hospitality ; 
Let us trace their kings wiio are not few, 
And treat of the host of the free clans. 

We treat of Aidhne, a duty uncontrouled, 
We leave the tribes of Connaught ; 
AVe have melodiously sung of lier nobles. 
Let us record the chiefs of Hy Fiachra. 

The noble clan of Mac Gilkelly, 

The O'Heynes of the sleek and slender steeds, 

Whose defence and pride is the strengtli of their arms, 

They are of the race of Guaire the Fair, 

Good and hospitable is the chief 

O'CIery of the same race. 

Two other chiefs of Kinel Hugh, 
O'Shaughnessey whom I will not shun. 
Together with O'Cahal of the learned men. 
Smooth are his fields, and fertile his mountain." 

XXVIII. O'Madagain, or O'lMadadhain, anglicised to O'Madden, 
chief of tSioZ Annichndhdj a name latinised to Silanchia, and which 
got its name from Anrachadli,one of their ancient chiefs. This terri- 
tory comprised the present barony of Longford, in the county of 
Galway, and the parish of Lusmagh, on the other side of the Siian- 
non, in the King's County. The O'SIaddcns are a branch of the 
Clan CoUa, and of the same descent as the O'Kellys, princes of 
Hy Maine, and took their name from Madudan More, one of their 
ancient chiefs. The O'Maddens were chiefs of note, and many of 
them are mentioned in the course of these Annals. There are se- 
veral respectable families of the name still in Connaught. The 
chief representatives of this ancient and respectable family are Sir 
Edward Madden, Librarian of the Britisli Museum, London ; and 
R. Madden, esq., M.l)., an eminent literary man, author of 
" Travels in the IJast," " The United Irishmen," and other works. 

XXIX. O'Huallachain, or O'Hoolaghan, sometimes anglicised 
O'Coulaghan and Mac Coulaghan, and also given by O'Dugan, as 
chiefs of Siol Anmchadha. O'Hoolaghan is thus designated by 
O'Dugan : 

" A noble chief of lasting fame 
Rules over the plain of the race of Anracha, 
A valiant rough-fettering warrior, 
Of keen-edged weapons, is O'Hoolaghan." 

XXX. O'Maolalaidh, or O'Mulally, sometimes made Lally. XXXI. 
O'Neachtain, or O'Naghten, sometimes made Norton. The 
O'Naghtens and O'Mulallcys are given by O'Dugan as the two 
chiefs of Maonniuicihe, or Moenmoy, a territory which, according 
to O'Flaherty, got its name from Moen, one of the sons of Ugame 
More, who was monarch of Ireland, umre than three centuries before 
the Christian era. Tliis territory was an extensive plain, com- 
prising a great part of the present baronies of Loughrea and 



was slain in a plundering incursion in Brefney 
(county of Cavan), by the people of Tullaghaw. 
Rory, son of Manus O'Hara, died. 



Leitrim, in the county of Galway. Tlie O'Naghtens and O'Mulallys 
are branches of the Clan CoUa, and of the same descent as the 
O'Kellys, princes of Hy Maine, and are thuse designated by 
O'Dugan : 

" The chiefs of Moenmoy of the champions, 
Wiiose estate is the fertile plain, 
Two who defend that district 
Are O'Naghten and O'Mulally, 
Their warfare is heavy in battles. 
The land is theirs as far as Hy Fiachra." 

Several chiefs of the O'Naghtens are mentioned in the course of 
these .\nnals ; and there were also many respectable families of 
the name who had considerable possessions in the barony of 
Athlonc, county of Roscommon. The O'Mulallys, when dispos- 
sessed of their ancient territory, settled at TuUach-na-Dala, near 
Tuam, where they had a castle. The head of the family having 
removed to France, a descendant of his became celebrated as an 
orator and statesman at the time of the French Revolution, and 
was known by the name count Lally ToUendal, taking his title 
from his ancient territory in Ireland. Several of the O'Lallys 
were celebrated commanders in the Irish Brigade in France, and 
one of them was created marquis de Lally ToUendal, and a peer of 
France, by Napoleon. XXXII. O'Conaill, or O'Counell, given 
by O'Dugan as follows : 

" O'Connell's portion of that country, 
Of that delightful pleasant land, 
From Grian to the great plain. 
Whose hosts obey the noble chief." 

Grian here mentioned was the name of a river on the borders of 
Clare, and the plain alluded to was Maenmoy ; hence O'Connell's 
territory appears to have been parts of the barony of Leitrim in 
Galway, and of Tullagh in Clare, The O'Counells and Mae 
Egans were marshals of the forces to the O'Kellys, princes of Hy 
Maine, and of the same descent as the O'Kellys. XXXIII. Mac 
Eideadhain or Mac Aodhagain, anglicised Mac Egans, were chiefs 
of Clan Diarmada, a district in the barony of Leitrim, county of 
Galway, and had a castle at Dun Doighre, now Duniry. The 
Mac Egans were celebrated as Brehons in Connaught and also in 
Ormond, and many of them eminent literary men. They are thus 
mentioned by O'Dugan : — 

" Precedence for his valour and fame 
Be given to Mac Egan the noble. 
Record him for the activity of his warriors, 
Of his prosperity and great renown. 
The Clan Diarmada north and south, 
To place them in my poem is a duty". 

XXXIV. Mac Giolla Fionnagain or O'Finnegans, a name some- 
times rendered Finnucane j and O'Cionaoith or O'Kenny, chiefs 
of Clan Laitheamhain or Fhlaitheamhain, called also Muintir 
Cionaith, a district in the barony of Moycamon, county of Ros- 
common. They are thus mentioned by O'Dugan : — ■ 

" Mac Giolla Finnegan the mild, 
And the valiant Clan Kenny, 
Two tribes wbo are fair to be seen, 
Rule over the brave Clan Flahavan." 

There are several respectable families of the O'Finnegans in 
Clare, who take the name of Finnucane, and of these was Mathias 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



131 



Mahon, son of Anaidh O'Reilly, was slain by 
Andrew, son of Bryan O'Reilly, who afterwards 
committed great depredations in the Bolgan 
(parish of Drumlane, county of Cavan). 



Finnucane, one of the judges of the Common Pleas, who died 
in 1814. XXXV. O'Domhnallain or O'Donnellans, chiefs of Clan 
Breasail, a district in the barony of Leitrim, county of Galway. 
The O'Donnellans are thus mentioned by O'Dugan : — 

" Noble the blood and achievements, 
Of the O'Donnellans of handsome figure, 
Rushing to the battle like a torrent. 
Such are the yellow-haired Clan Breasail." 

Some chiefs of the O'Donnellans are mentioned in the Annals ; 
and at A. D. 1531, one of them is mentioned as chief of Machaire 
Maoninoy. There are still many respectable families of the 
O'Donnellans in Connaught, the chief of which is that of Ballydon- 
nellan, between Ballinasloe and Loughrea, in the county of Galway. 

XXXVI. O'Uonchadha or O'Donoghoe, chief of Clan C'ormaic, a 
district in Moenmov in Galway, which has been already defined. 

XXXVII. O'Duililighind or o''Deighan, chief of the twelVe Ballys 
or Townlands of O'Duibhghind, a district near Loughrea, in the 
county of Galway. XXXVIII. G'Docomlain, chief of Eidhnigh ; 
and O'Gabhrain or O'Gauran, chief of Dal Druithne, districts 
about Loughrea. XXXIX. O'Maoilbrighde, or U'lMulbrides, or 
Mac Brides, chiefs of Magh Finn and of Bredach, a large district 
in the barony of Athlone, county of Roscommon, east of the river 
Suck. The O'Mulbrides are thus designated by O'Dugan : — 

" Chief of the prosperous Maghfinn, 
To which St. Bridget gave her blessing; 
Still free are the warlike hosts 
Of O'MuIhride the ever brave. 
Good has he conferred on all men, 
This noble chief of Bredach." 

XL. O'Mainnin, or O'Mannin, or O'Mannings, chiefs of Sodhan, a 
large territory in the barony of Tiaquin, which was made into six 
divisions, called the six Sodhans. The O'Mannins had their chief 
residence at the castle of Clogher, barony of Tiaquin, county of 
Galway, and afterwards at .Menlough, in the parish of Killascube, 
in the same barony. The other chiefs given by O'Dugan on the 
six Sodhans, were Mac-an-Bhaird or Mac Wards ; O'Sgurra or 
O'Scurrys; O'Lennan or O'Lennans ; O'Casain or O'Cashins ; 
O'Gialla or O'Giallain, rendered O'Gealans and Ciillys ; and 
O'Maigins, O'Migins, or O'Maginns. The chiefs of Sodhan are 
thus mentioned by O'Dugan : — 

" The six Sodhans let us not shun, 
Their chiefs are not to be forgotten ; 
Brave are their predatory hosts. 
To whom belonged the spear-armed Sodhans." 

XLI. O'Cathail or O'Cahill ; O'Mughroin or O'Moran ; O'Maol- 
ruanaidh or O'Mulrooney, were the three chiefs of Crumthan, an 
extensive territory sometimes called Crutfon, comprising the barony 
of Killian, and part of Ballymoe, in the county of Galway. These 
chiefs are thus designated by O'Dugan : — 

" O'Cahill and O'Murain the active, 
O'Mulrooney of the splendid banquets, 
Like trees which shelter the fertile land. 
Are the chiefs of Crumthan of the woody plains." 

XLII. O'Laodogor O'Laodhaigh, anglicised O'Leahy, chiefs of 
Caladh, a large district in the barony of Killconnell, county of Gal- 
way ; they are thus mentioned by O'Dugan : — 

" The O'Leahys are heroes I must mention, 
They are chiefs of the extensive Caladh, 
Men who have taken into their possession 
Caladh of the Shannon of clear streams." 



The church of Kilronan (in Roscommon), was 
burned. 

Niall O'Higgin, a truly learned poet, was 
drowned. 



The following chiefs and clans not given by O' Dugan are col- 
lected from various other sources : XLIII. The O'Dalys, a branch 
of the O'Donnells of Donegal, princes of Tirconnell, whose tribe 
name was Clan Dalaigh. The O'Dalys, it appears, settled in Con- 
naught as early as the twelfth century, and accounts of many of 
them, very eminent as poets and learned men in Connaught, and 
also in Munster,and several of them distinguished ecclesiastics, are 
to be found in the Annals of the Four Masters, and in O'Reilly's 
Irish Writers, from the twelfth to the seventeenth century. The 
O'Dalys had large possessions in the counties of Galway and Ros- 
common, and there have been at various times many highly res- 
pectable families of the name in those counties. Of the O'Dalys 
of Connaught were Dennis Daly, one of the judges of the Common 
Pleas in the reign of James II., and St. George Daly, one of the 
barons of the Exchequer, and afterwards one of the justices of the 
King's Bench in the reigns of Geo. III. and Geo. IV. Of the same 
family is the Right Rev. Robert Daly, bishop of Cashel. XLIV. 
O'Coindealbhain, O'Conghiollain, O'Conniallain, O'Conallain, or 
O'Connellan. In the .\nnals of the Four Masters several of this 
family are mentioned in the tenth and eleventh centuries, as princes 
of Hy Laoghaire or Hy Leary, a large territory situated in the 
present counties of Meath and Westmeath, as already shown in the 
note on Meath. In O'Dugan's Topography, the prince of Hy 
Leary is thus designated : — 

" O'Coindealbhain na ccuire 
Rig laomsgairghlic Laoghaire." 

" O'Connellan of the champions 
Is the great and wise prince of Hy Leary." 

Branches of this family, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries 
settled in the counties of Roscommon, Galway, and Mayo, as 
already stated in the note on North Connaught, and are mentioned 
in these Annals at A. D. 1'295, as a clan in Roscommon. At A. D. 
1316, one of their chiefs is recorded as havmg been slain 
in the great battle of Athenry, who is also mentioned in the 
Annals of Clonmacnois, as having beenachief in the king's guards, 
that is, of O'Conor's, king of Connaught. Among various other 
notices of this ancient family, the translator of these Annals has 
been kindly favoured with the following by his friend Sir William 
Bethara, Ulster King of Arms, &c. " Donogh Mac Shane O'Con- 
allan, of Rahassan, had a grant of part of the lands of Rahassan, 
in the barony of Dunkellin, county of Galway, 27th March, 
IfilO." " Dermott Mac Bryan Mac Dermott Roe of Legan, mar- 
ried Rose Connellan, and died Gth January, 1G'20, by whom he had a 
son Ferrall Mac Dernmtt Roe (The Mac Dermott Roe) at fi, 1G20." 
Seieral eminent ecclesiastics of the name are given In the course 
of the Annals, among whom may be mentioned Abraham O'Con- 
nellan, archbishop of Armagh, and primate of all Ireland, in 
A. D. 1260; Carbreus O'Coinghiollain, or O'Connellan, abbot of 
Kilkenny in A. D. 1038 ; Laurence O'Connellan, a native of 
Sligo, a Dominican friar, lecturer and superior of the Domini- 
can monastery at Louvain, A. D. 17.56, accordmg to de Burgo's 
Hiliernia Dominicana. Pedigrees of this clan are given in the 
Books of Leacan and Ballymote, and also in the Genealogical Book 
of the O'Clerys. One of the heads of this family is Peter 
Connellan, esq, deputy lieutenant for the county of Kilkenny. 
XLV. The O'Hallorai'is, given in O'Flaherty's Ogygia (vol. ii. 
p. 296.), as chiefs of Clan Fergaill, a large district on the east side 
of the river of Galway, near Lough Corrih. From these was des- 
cended O'Halloran the historian. XLVI. The O'Callanans and 
O'Canavans, mentioned by O'Flaherty as hereditary physi- 
ciansin Galway. XLVII. The O'Dubhthaighs, or O'Duffys, 
families of note in Galway and Roscommon, and many of them 
learned men and eminent ecclesiastics, several of them having 
been archbishops of Tuam, and bishops in Elphin. XLVIII. The 
O'Briens, a branch of the O'Briens of Thomond, in the comity of 

S 2 



132 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1341. 



Conor O'Donnell, lord of Tirconnell, inarched 
with his forces into Connaught. 



A.D. 1341. 
Murtogh Mac-an-Gobhann, abbot of Clochar,' 



died. 



Clare, and lords of the Isles of Arran, off the coast of Galway, 
which they held from the thirteenth to a late period in the six- 
teenth century, and, as captains of the sea coasts, kept a large 
maritime force. XLIX. Mac Cnaimhin, or Mac IVevins, ac- 
cording to the hook of Lcacan, chiefs of a district called Cran- 
nog Mac Cnaimhin, or Crannagh Mac iVevin, in the parish 
of Tynagh, barony of Leitrira, and county of Galway ; a chief 
of the name is mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters, at 
A. D. 1159, as having been killed in a battle fought near Ardee in 
Orgiall, between Murtogh Mac Loughlin, chief of the northern 
Hy Nialls, and Roilerick O'Conor, king of Connaught. There 
are still some respectable families of the Mac Nevius in the 
county of Galway. L. Mac Eochaidh, or Mac Keogh, a branch 
of the O'Kellys, chiefs of Omhanach, now Onagh, in the 
parish of Taghmaconnell, in the barony of Athlone, county of Ros- 
common. There are still many respectable families of the Mac 
Keiighs, or Keoghs, in Connaught. LI. Mac Giolladuilih, or Mac 
Gilduffs, sometimes rendered Kilduffs, chiefs in Caladb, along 
with the O'Leahys, in the barony of Killcounell, county of 
Galway. LII. The 0'Lorcains,or O'Larkins ; the O'Gebenaighs, 
or O'Gevennys ; the O'Aireachtains, anglicised to Harrington ; 
the O'Fahys, or O'Fays ; O'Laidins, or O'Lanes; and the O'Ho- 
rans, all clans in Hy Maine, in the county of Galway. 
LIU. O'Cobbthaigh, or O'Coffeys, a branch of the O'Kellys, 
princes of Hy Maine, frequently mentioned in the course of 
these Annals, and also in the Books of Leacan and Ballymote, as 
a clan in Connaught ; several of them were eminent ecclesiastics 
and learned men. The O'Coffeys possessed a large district in the 
barony of Clonmacnoon, county of Galway, and had their princi- 
pal residence at a place called Tuani Cathraigh. There are several 
respectable families of this name in the counties of Galway and 
Roscommon. LI\^ The Mac Manuses ; Mac Keons ; O'Com- 
mins ; and O'Ronans, clans in Roscommon. 

Shortly after the English invasion, William de Burgo, and other 
Anglo-Norman leaders, led their forces into Connaught, and after 
fierce contests with the O'Conors and other chiefs, got possession 
of a considerable part of the country. From Richard, or Rickard 
de Burgo, a great part of the county of Galway got the name of 
Clanrickard, which comprised, according to Ware, the baronies of 
Clare, Dunlcellin, Loughrea, Kiltartan, Athenry, and Leitrim. 
The de Burgos became the most powerful family in Connaught, 
and were its chief governors under the kings of England. They 
were styled lords of Connaught, and also became earls of Ulster ; 
but on the death of William de Burgo, earl of Ulster, in the four- 
teenth century, and the marriage of his daughter, Elizabeth, to 
Lionel, duke of Clarence, son of King Edward III., his titles 
passed into the royal family of England, by whom they are still 
held ; the dukes of York having the title of earls of Ulster, and 
the dukes of Gloucester that of earls of Connaught. In the 
beginning of the fourteenth century the heads of the two principal 
branches of the Burkes took the Irish name of Mae William, and 
adopted the Irish language and customs. Sir William, or Ulick 
Burke, the progenitor of the earls of Clanrickard, had great pos- 
sessions in Galway and Roscommon, and took the name Mac 
William Eighter ; and sir Edmond Burke, called Albanach, took 
the name Mac William Oughter, had large possessions in Mayo, 
and was ancestor the earls of Mayo. 

In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries several English and 
Welsh families settled in the town of Galway, and other parts of 
the county ; the principal of whom were the Athys, Berminghams, 
Blakes, Bodkins, Brownes, Blundels, Deanes, Dillons, Darcys, 
Frenches, Joyces, Kirwans, LyTiches, Lawlesses, Morrisses, Mar- 
tins, Whites, Sec. It is to be observed that the O'Loinsighs, an- 



Mac Williain Burke completely defeated the 
Clan Maurice (in Mayo), in which contest Thomas 
Mac Maurice, JMaurice, son of Seonaig Roe, 
and seventy others of his men were slain. 

Donal, Mac Dorchaidh, chief of Kinel Luach- 
ain (in Leitrim), died. 



glicised to O'Lynches, are also an Irish clan ; and the O'Loinsighs 
are mentioned in the Annals in the tenth and eleventh centuries, 
as chiefs of Ulidia, now the county of Down. The O'Kerovans 
were also an Irish clan, and the name has been anglicised to 
Kirwan. The Mac Dorchys or O'Dorchys, were chiefs in Partry, 
in the county of Mayo, and also in Galway, and many of them 
anglicised the name to D'Arcy, and were considered to be of 
English descent. Patrick D'Arcy of Galway, a celebrated lawyer 
in the reign of Charles I., was one of the Irish O'Darchaidhs. 'The 
Martins of Galway, were considered by O'Brien, Vallancey, and 
others, to be of Firbolg origin, descended from the old race of the 
Fir Domnians, so frequently mentioned in the old annalists under 
the name of Mairtinigh, anglicised Martineans. The Joyces, or 
de Jorses, came from Wales to Galway in the reign of Edward I., 
and having formed alliances with the O'Flahertys, chiefs of west 
Connaught, got large possessions in Connemarra in the barony of 
Ross, and towards the borders of Mayo, a large territory which is 
still called Joyces' Country, where they are very numerous to the 
present day, and many of them remarkable for immense strength 
of body and gigantic stature. 

Galway was formed into a county in the reign of Elizabeth, by 
the lord deputy, sir Henry Sidney, A. D. 1565, and got its name 
from the chief town, called in Irish GaillimJi^ pronoimced Galliv, 
and anglicised Galway, which, according to O'Flaherty in his 
Ogygia, is said to have derived this appellation from the river 
Gaillimh, as the river derived its name from a woman called 
Gaillimh, who was drowned there in remote times. De Burgo in 
his Hibemia Dominicana, p. 322, says that Galway derived its 
name from the English colony which settled there in the thir- 
teenth century, and from Gnll^ an Englishman or foreigner, lie 
derives the word GailUbh, signifying Locus Atiglornm, or the 
place of the English ; but de Burgo's derivation is very doubtful, 
and O'Flaherty's derivation appears more probable, as the place 
was called Gaillimh long before the thirteenth century. The name 
Galway is latinised Gw/ti-in and Cro/iro. The bay of Galway is 
considered to be the Ausoba of the Greek geographer Ptolemy, 
who wrote in the second century, and the town of Galway is 
supposed to be the ancient city called by Ptolemy Nngnata. 

Roscommon was formed into a county in the reign of Elizabeth, 
by the lord deputy, sir Henry Sidney, and took its name from the 
town of Roscommon, which in Irish is Ros Coraain, signifying the 
wood of Coman, and so called from St. Coman, who founded an 
abbey there in tlie sixth century. 

The following have been tlie noble families in Galway and 
Roscommon since the reign of James I. In Galway, the de 
Burghs or Burkes, earls and marquesses of Clanriearde ; the 
Burkes, viscounts of Galway, and barons of Brittas ; the Ber- 
minghams, barons of Athenry ; the Butlers, and Gores, earls of 
Arran ; the de Massues and Honctons, viscounts of Galway ; the 
le Peer Trenches, earls of Clancarty, viscounts Dunloe, and 
barons of Kilconnell ; the Verekers, viscounts of Gort ; the Dillons, 
barons of Clonbrock ; the Frenches, barons French; the Browns, 
barons of Oranmore ; the Blakes, barons of M'allscourt ; the 
Trenches, barons of Ashtown. In Roscommon, the Dillons, 
earls of Roscommon ; the Wilmots and de Ginkles, earls of 
Athlone ; the Kings, viscounts Lorton ; the Cootes, barons of 
Castlecoote ; the Croftoiis, barons Crofton ; the Mahons, barons 
Hartland ; and the Sandfords, barons of Mountsandford. 

Ecclesiastical divisions. The see of Rosconnnon. St. Com- 
an founded in the sixth century an abbey, which was called 
from him Ros Comain ; which afterwards became a bishop's see, 
and was united at an early period to the see of Elphin. A rd- 
carne. An abbey was founded at Ardcame, in the barony of 



REIGN OF EDWARD III, 



133 



Donogh, son of Nicholas Mac Clancy (in Lei- 
trim) was slain by Hugh, son of Teige Mac 
Clancy. 

O'Gormley, chief of Kinel Moain (in Donegal), 
died. 

Cathal Mac Ceitherney was killed by a fall. 



Boyle, county of Roscommon, early in the sixth century, by St. 
Beoidh or Beoy, and it became a bishop's see, which was also at 
an early period annexed to tlie see of Elphin. Tlie ancient see of 
Drunicliff in Sligo, as already stated in the note on north Connaught, 
was also united to Elphin. 

The see of Elphin. A church was founded at Elphin, in Ros- 
common, by St. Patrick, in the fifth century, who placed over it 
St. Asicus, one of his disciples, and made it a bishop's see. The 
bishops of Elphin in ancient times are sometimes styled bishops of 
East Connaught. The diocese of Elphin comprises the greater 
part of the county of Roscommon, with considerable portions of 
the counties of Sligo and Galway. 

The See of Clonfert. A monastery was founded at Clonfert, 
in the present barony of Longford, county of Galway, by St. 
Breiman, or St. Brendan, in the sixth century, and it became a 
bisliop's see, and was long celebrated as a seat of learning and 
religion. The diocese of Clonfert comprises a considerable part 
of the county of Galway, with part of Roscommon, and a small 
portion of the King's county. 

I'he Sec of Kllmncduagh. A monastery was founded in the 
present barony of Kiltartan, county of Galway, in the serenth 
century, by St. Colman, the son of Duach, hence it was called 
cm Mac Vuach, signifying the church of the son of Duach, 
which became a bishoji's see, and gave its name to tlie diocese. 
Tlie bishops of Kilmacdiiagli, in ancient times were often styled 
bishops of Hy Fiiichra Aidhne, which was the ancient name of 
the territory. The diocese of Kilmacduagh comprises a large 
portion of the county of Galway. 

The See of Eiwghdxme. A monastery ■was founded at Enach- 
dune, now the parish of Annaghdown, in the barony of Clare, 
county of Galway, by St. Brendan, in the sixth century, and it 
became a bishop's see, which was united to Tuam in the fourteenth 
century, A.D. 13-24. 

Tlie See of Galway. The diocese of Galway, which comprises 
the city of Galway and some adjoining districts, anciently formed 
part of the diocese of Enachdune, but was afterwards presided 
over by an ecclesiastic who had episcopal authority, and was 
elected hy the tribes under the title of warden. The wardenship 
was instituted in tlie fifteenth century, in A.D. 1484, by Pope 
Innocent VIII. ; and the wardens of Galway continued till the 
year 1831, the first year of the pontificate of Gregory XVI., who 
abolished the wardenship and erected it into a bishop's see. 

The See of Tuam. The see of Tuam was founded in the be- 
ginning of the sixth century by St. larlath, or Jarlath. Tuam is 
mentioned by the Irish writers as Tuaim-da-ghualann. The an- 
cient sees of Mayo, Cong, and Enachdune, were afterwards an- 
nexed to Tuam, and its bishops were often styled bishops of Con- 
naught. The rfJoce«e of Tuam comprises the greater part of the 
county of Galway, and about one-third of Mayo, with a large por- 
tion of Roscommon. The suffragan sees under the archbishopric 
of Tuam are those of Achonry, Killala, Elphin, Clonfert, Kibnac- 
duagh, Kilfenora, and Galway. 

On the ancient literature of Connaught. I. O'Maolconaire, 
or O'Maolconry, anglicised to Conry and Conroy The O'Maol- 
conrys are a branch of the southern Hy Nialls (who were for 
many centuries kings of Meath and monarchs of Ireland), and de- 
rive their descent from Maine, one of the sons of Niall of the 
Hostages, monarch of Ireland in the beginning of the fifth century. 
The O'Maolconrys were originally chiefs in 'Teffia or Westmeatii, 
as given in the genealogies of Keating, O'Halloran and others, but 
in the tenth century they crossed the Shannon into Connaught, 
and many of them being learned men, got large possessions from 
the O'Conors, kmgs of Connaught, and were located in the present 



The castle of Roscommon was taken by Torlogh 
O'Conor ; and Hugh, son of FeUm, who was con- 
fined there, was released, and a ransom given for 
him. 

John Mac Mahon was expelled from Oriel 
(Monaghan). 



barony of Roscommon, county of Roscommon towards the Shan- 
non, and were appointed hereditary historians, and also bards of 
Connaught, which high and honourable office they held for many 
centuries, one of the duties attached to which was to assist at the 
inauguration of the kings of Connaught, which ceremony took 
place on the hill of Carn-Fraoich, near Tulsk, in the county of 
Roscommon, and an account of which has been transmitted by 
Torna O'JIaolconry, who was chief bard to Felim O'Conor, king 
of Connaught, at the commencement of the fourteenth century, 
and who discharged that duty at his mauguration A.D. 1312. 
Amongst the offices performed, O'Maolconry standing next to the 
king, recited publicly, before the assembled chiefs, the principal 
clergy, and the clans, the royal genealogy composed in metre, and 
placed a white wand, as emblem of sovereignty, in the hands of the 
elected king, administering the usual oath or admonition, that he 
would preserve the customs of the country, and the bard finally 
recorded all these proceedings in the annals of the country. Many 
of the O'Maolconrys are mentioned as eminent bards and historians 
in the Annals of the Four Masters, in O'Reilly's Irish Writers, and 
by Ware and others. Conaing O'Maolconry is mentioned, in 
d'Flaherty's Ogygia, and in Ware's Writers, in the beginning of 
the eleventh century, and considered to be the author of the ancient 
M.S. called the Book of the O'Maolconrys, which is often quoted 
by ancient writers. The Annals of Connaught, another ancient 
M.S. often quoted, the original of which was in the possession of 
Dr. Charles O'Conor, and a copy of which is in the Royal Irish 
Academy, contains chiefly the provincial history of Connaught, 
from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century, and is considered to 
have been compiled chiefly by the O'Maolconrys as Historiogra- 
phers of Connaught. A beautiful M.S. on vellum, folio size, now 
deposited in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, and containing partly 
in poetry and partly in prose the history of Fionn Mac Cumhaill, 
and the celebrated Fenian heroes of Ireland in the third century, 
with some of the poems ascribed to Ossian, was composed by one 
of the O'Maolconrys about the fourteenth century. Dr. Drum- 
mond, in his Prize Essay on the poems of Ossian, states that Mac 
Pherson, the celebrated author of Ossian' s Poems, on visiting 
Oxford, was shewn the above-mentioned Irish M.S. as containing 
the Poems of Ossian, a single word of which he was not able to 
read. Some learned men of the O'Maolconrys have been men- 
tioned in the introduction to the present publication, as having 
assisted in the compilation of the Annals of the Four Masters. 

A. D. I13C. Tanaidhe O'Maolconry, a celebrated historian and 
poet, died, several of whose poems are quoted in O'Reilly's Irish 
Writers. 

Neide O'Maolconry, another historian of the same family, 
died. 

.\. D. 1266. Thomas O'Maolconry, archdeacon of Tuam ; and 
Maoilin O'Maolconry, Historiographer of Siol Murray, died. 
Four Masters. 

A. D. 1270. Tanaidhe More O'Maolconry was appointed chief 
Historiographer of Connaught ; and Dubhsuileach O'Maolconry, 
and Dunlaing O'Maolconry, were removed from that professorship. 
Four Masters. 

A.D. 1310. Torna O'Maolconry, chief poet and historian of 
Connaught, attended at the inauguration of Felim O'Conor, and 
his poems are mentioned in O'Reilly's Irish Writers. 

A.D. 1314. Conaing O'Maolconry, chief poet of Connaught,died. 

A.D. 1385. Tanaidhe O'Maolconry, an eminent poet of Con- 
naught, died. 

A. D. 1404. Donogh 0'MaoIcom-y,ehief poetof the O'Conors of 
Connaught, died. 

A. D. 1420. Conaing O'Maolconry, poet of Connaught, died. 



134 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1341. 



I 



Bryan O'Flynn, lord of Teallach Cumain (in 
Roscommon), died. 

Cuconacht O'Quinn, chief of Muintir Giollgain 
(in Longford), died. 

Dermod Roe, son of Cormac Oge Mac Dermott, 
died in a monastic habit, in the monastei'y of Boyle. 



A.D. 1441. Maoilin O'Maolconry, chief poet of Connaught, 
died. 

A. D. 1446. Tanaidhe O'Maolconry, an eminent poet of Con- 
naught, died. 

A. D. 1.511. Carbry O'Maolconry, a famous historian of Con- 
naught, died. 

A. D. l.^iCG. John O'Maolconry, called by the annalists Ard 
Ollamli Eirionn, or chief poet and historiographer of Ireland, 
flourished. 

A. D. 1600. Maurice O'Maolconry, an eminent poet of Con- 
naught, died. 

A. D. 16-29. Died at Madrid, Florence O'Maolconry, aFranciscan 
friar, and eminent for his learning, who was the fnunderof the Irish 
Franciscan monastery of Louvain, and was also appointed Roman Ca- 
tholic archbishop of Tiiam. It may be observed here that several of 
the O'Maolconrys, were eminent ecclesiastics, and in the beginning 
of the twelfth century Clarus Mac Maoilin O'Maolconry, archdeacon 
of Elpliin, is often mentioned in these Annals, as tlie founder of 
many monasteries. 

A.D. 1701. Peter O'Maelconry, an eminent poet, flourished. 
Several poems and other works written by the above named 
O'Maolconrys, are given in O'Reilly's Irish Writers. 

It may be here observed, that the chief representative of the 
ancient, honorable, and learned family of the O'Maolconrys is Sir 
John Conroy, Bart., of ArborHeld Hall, North Reading, Berkshire. 
The Book of Hi/ Maine, generally called the Book of the 
O'Kellys, was compiled partly by the O'Dugans, hereditary bards 
and historians to the O'Kellys, and partly by Faolan Mac an Gobli- 
an or Sn)ith, a learned historian, who is mentioned in O'Reilly's 
Irish Writers, at A. D. 14iS. This Book of Hy Maine is a volu- 
minous MS. on vellum, containing a vast deal of curious and inte- 
resting information on the history and antiquities of Ireland, and a 
full account of it may be seen in O'Reilly's Irish Writers, at the 
year 142:!, in which it is stated that the original is in the 
library of Sir William Betham, in Dublin. 

O DiKjan's Topoyraphy. The O'Dugans were hereditary bards 
and historians to the O'Kellys, princes of Hy Maine ; and an 
account of John O'Dugan, the celebrated author of the ancient 
topography of Ireland, has been given in the introduction to the 
present publication ; and this topography is embodied in the 
course of these notes, and numerous extracts are also given, literally 
translated from the Topoijraphicnl Poem of O'Dugan. 

Tlie Leabhar Brenc Mac Aodhaga'm, or Sjjeckled Book of 
Mac Egan, an ancient M.S. often quoted by tur historians, and 
containing much curious information, the original of wliich is in 
the Royal Irish Academy, was composed by the Mac Egans of 
Duniry, in Ualway, learned Brehons and historians. 

Tlie Annuls of Boyle. The abbey of Boyle, in Roscommon, a 
celebrated Cistercian monastery, was founded in the twelfth 
century, and amply endowed by the Mac Dermotts, lords of Moy- 
lurg ; it was long eminent as a seat of learning and religion, and its 
remaining ruins shew its former magnificence. The Annals of 
Boyle were composed by the monks of that abbey, and are con- 
sidered as a most authentic record of tlie ancient history of 
Ireland. Dr. O'Conor, in the Index to his first vol. Rer. Hib. 
Scrip., says that Ware was in error in stating, that the Annals of 
Connaught and the Annals of Boyle were the same, being two 
different works. The Annals of Boyle, translated into Englisli, 
accompanied with commentaries on the general history of Ireland, 
are now fortunately in progress of publication, by that eminent 
Irish historian and antiquary, John D'Alton, esq., barrister at 
law, Did>lin. 

Cumhrensis Eeersns, a Latin work, published about the year 
1665, was written by John Lynch, a native of Galway, a learned 



A.D. 1342. 

A contest arose between Torlogh O'Conor (king 
of Connaught), and Conor Mac Dermott, lord of 
Moylurg, and Edmond Burke joined Mac Der- 
mott against O'Conor. 

Hugh, son of Felim O'Conor, and Donogh 



ecclesiastic, who was archdeacon of Tuam, and afterwards, R.C. 
bishop of Killala, and died about A.D. 1670. He published his 
work under the name Gratianus Lucius, and it contains much 
learned information on the ancient history of Ireland, and a full 
refutation of the calumnies of Giraldus Cambrensis against the 
Irish. 

O'Flnherty's Otjygia, a large work written in Latin by Rode- 
rick O'Flalierty, a gentleman farmer, in the barony of Moycullen, 
county of (ialway. He was a man of great learning, and died in 
the year 171H, in the 89th year of his age. The Ogygia was pub- 
lished in Loudon, A.D. 1685, and translated into English by the 
Rev. James Healy, and published in Dublin, A. D. 17!)3. The 
work contains vast infornjation on ancient Irish history, and is 
particularly valuable on Chronology. 

Dlisertnfloiis on the Ancient History of Ireland, a very 
learned work, published about the year 1780, by Charles O'Conor 
of Belenagar, in the county of Roscommon, who also published 
O'Flaherty's Ogygia Vindicated, and other learned works. 

Beruin Hibernicarnm Scriptores Veteres. The Rev. Dr. 
Charles O'Conor, nephew to Charles O'Conor of Belenagar, 
and librarian to the duke of Buckingham, at Stowe, in England, 
published in 1824, in four large quarto volumes, this great work, 
containing various learned dissertations, and translations into 
Latin, of the chief works of the Irish annalists, as the Annals of 
the Four Masters, to the English invasion ; the Annals of Inuis- 
fallen ; the Annals of Tigearnach ; the Annals of Ulster ; of 
Boyle, &c. 

Amongst the learned poets and historians of Connaught, the 
O'Dalys, as already stated, were eminent ; also the O'Duigenans ; 
O'Higgins ; O'Gibleans, &c. The O'Duigenans of Kilronan, in the 
county of Roscommon, composed a learned M.S. work on Irish 
history, often quoted, and called the Booh of the O'Duigenans, 
and also assisted in the compilation of the Annals of the Four 
Masters. 

The Book of Fenagh, called also the Book of St. Caillin, from 
St. Caillin, who founded the abbey of Fenagh, in the fifth century. 
It was partly compiled by St. Caillin himself, and contains some 
poetical pieces, called the Prophecies of St. Caillin ; and much 
interesting information on the history of the O'Rourkes, and the 
aff'airs of Connaught. Patrick O'Maolconry, Teige O'Rody, ab- 
bot of Fenagh, and others, are mentioned amongst its compilers, 
and a fine copy of it is in the possession of JNlr. Geraghty, of 
Anglesea-street, the publisher of these Annals. 

The Boohs of Leacan and BaUymote, compiled by the learned 
Mac Firbises and other historians, in Sligo, are two of the greatest 
works on Irish history and antiquities, and an account of them 
has been given in the note on North Connaught. Thus it appears 
that the province of Connaught holds a distinguished rank with 
respect to ancient Irish literature. In the present article only 
a sliort sketch could be given of the works composed in Con- 
naught, and many have not been mentioned ; but in the course of 
these notes full accounts will be given of the ancient literature of 
Ireland, and of the works composed in the dift'erent provinces, 
with memoirs of the various writers. The history and topography 
of the ancient kingdoms of Meath, Ulster, and Connaught, are 
finished in the present number, and in the succeeding numbers 
will be given the history and topography of Leinsterand Monster, 
together with their chiefs and clans, and the ancient territories 
possessed by each, commencing with Thomond. 

A.D. 1340. 
1. Oirbealaigh, afterwards called JIuckross Abbey, situated 
on a peninsula on one of the lakes of Killamey, county of Kerry. 



REIGN OF EDAVARD III. 



135 



O'Beirne, chief of Tir Briune of the Shannon, 
confined Torlogh O'Conor in the church of El- 
phin, after he had gone to make reprisals for a 
depredation committed by the Muintir Bcirne on 
Hoberd Burke, and they slew some of the gallo- 
glasses of O'Conor, together with his constable 
Mac Rory. 

A general commotion arose after that in Con- 
naught, the Clan Murtogh (O'Conors) having at 
first joined O'Conor against Mac Dermott, but 
subsequently sided with Mac Dermott and Mac 
William ; the Clan Maurice then committed a 
disgraceful treachery in their own country against 
the Clan William Burke, and slew Thomas Burke ; 
and John Burke was slain on the same occasion by 
the Clan Rickard, at the instigation of the Clan 
Maurice and O'Conor. 

Cathal, son of Gilcreest INIac Dermott, was slain 
by Fergal O'Teige in this contest, and Fergal the 
son of Gilcreest Finn (the Fair), Mac Cormac was 
also slain. 

Mac Dermott with his chiefs made a vigorous 
attack on O'Conor at Belathslisen (in Roscommon), 
in which he gained the Ford against him ; and 
Dermod, son of Bryan O'Ferrall, the best man of 
the Conmacnians (in Longford) of his tribe, with 
the son of Hoberd Burke, and Conor, son of 
Donogh Duv O'Healey, were slain on that occa- 
sion. 

John Mac Mahon, lord of Oriel (Monaghan), 
went to plunder Hugh, son of Ralph Mac Mahon, 
and was slain in the rere of the preying party, and 
many of his galloglasses were slain and drowned. 

Cormac, son of Roderick, son of Donal O'Conor, 
was taken prisoner by Conor, the son of Teige, 
and by Roderick, the son of Cathal O'Conor; and 
Conor, the son of Teige, was afterwards taken 
prisoner by Bryan, the son of Roderick, and he 
delivered him into the hands of Conor Mac Der- 
mott, who sent him to be confined on the Rock of 
Lough Key. 

Donal O'Dogherty, chief of Ard Miodhair 



2. Lios Sealbhaidh, probably Lissonuffy, in the barony of Ros- 
common. 

A. D. 1341. 

1. CToc/iar, or Clogher, in the comity of Tyrone, which place, 
accordingf to the learned Cathal Mac Guire, canon of Armagh, and 
archdeacon of Clogher, who compiled the Annals of Ulster in the 
fifteenth century, obtained its name from a celebrated idol of the 
Druids worshipped there, and called Clock oir, or the Golden 



(in Donegal), and of Triochaced Tire Enda, a 
man full of hospitality and generosity, died, and 
was succeeded in the chieftaincy by John O'Dogh- 
crtv. 

All the Siol Murray (clans of Roscommon), 
with the chiefs who supported them, turned against 
Torlogh, son cf Hugh, son of Owen O'Conor, and 
the following were the principal chiefs amongst 
those who united against him on that occasion, 
namely, Edmond Mac William Burke; Conor Mac 
Dermott, lord of Moylurg, with his kinsmen and 
party; Hugh, son of Hugh Brefnach, son of Cathal 
Roe O'Conor ; Teige, son of Roderick O'Conor ; 
Cathal, son of Hugh Brefnach, son of Cathal Roe, 
with the forces of Brefney and of Conmaicne ; and 
Hugh, son of Felim, son of Hugh, son of Owen 
O'Conor, all of whom assembled against O'Conor, 
and expelledhimasecondtime from his country and 
lands, upon which he was advised by his friends to 
go secretly, without telling many of it, to Mac 
Dermott's place, to ascertain if he would make 
peace with him. The Clan Murtogh (O'Conor), 
however, having received intelligence of his inten- 
tion, and of the particular night on which O'Conor 
was to come to Mac Dermott's house, they planted 
themselves in the perilous passes of the way through 
which O'Conor was to proceed to Mac Dermott's 
fortress, but Torlogh however escaped them until 
he got to the road leading to the fortress, when he 
was attacked, and Cathal, son of Hugh Brefnach 
Glass, was wounded in the first onset; and although 
he (O'Conor), with his other three companions 
were but a few against many, compared to the 
force which opposed him, he escaped in despite of 
them, without himself or any of his party losing a 
drop of blood, or receiving a wound. Mac Der- 
mott had no knowledge of the great danger in 
which Torlogh was placed until he heard the loud 
shouting, clamour, and swearing all around the 
fortress, and being informed of the circumstances, 
he despatched messengers privately for O'Conor 
to conduct him safely to the Rock^ and have him 



Stone, from its being covered with gold. Saint Patrick founded 
a church here, over which his disciple, St. Mac Cartin, presided, 
and it became the seat of the diocese of Clogher, of which an ac- 
count has been given in the note on Orgiall. The abbey of Clogher 
was long celebrated as a seat of learning and religion. Mac- 
an-Gobhan, or Mac Gowan, a name which has been anglicised to 
Smith, were an ancient clan, of whom an account has been given 
in the notes on Dalaradia and Brefney. 



136 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1343. 



protected until he could ascertain if he could make 
peace for him. O'Conor remained there for a 
week, during which time the chiefs of the countiy 
frequently visited him at the request of Mac Der- 
mott, who finding he could not succeed in obtain- 
ing terms of peace for him, escorted him with 
a force of cavaby, and left him at Roscom- 
mon. 

Conor Roe Mac Geoghegan, lord of Kind 
Fiacha (in Westmeath), was slain by the EngUsh. 
Thomas O'Cinga, Maurice Mac Geoghegan, 
and Simon, the son of Conor, who was the son of 
Simon Mac GiollaiTaidh, one of the chiefs of 
Lieney (in Sligo), died. 

Murrogh, son of Tomaltach O' Flanagan (in 
Roscommon), one of the best men of his name, 
was slain by the galloglasses of the son of 
Cathal. 

Hugli, son of Hugh Brefhach, the son of Cathal 
Roe O'Conor, was appointed king of Connaught 
by the Conacians, and Mac Wilbam Burke, on 
the first Monday of winter after they had deposed 
Torlogh; and they conferred the Tanistship of 
Connaught on Hugh, son of Fehm O'Conor, and 
Tirerill (in Sligo), was given toFergalMac Dermott. 
Teige, son of Tomaltach, the son of Maurice 
Mac Donogh, was expelled from his own territoiy 
(in Tirerill), by Conor Mac Dermott and his 
kinsmen, and he went to reside with Torlogh 
O'Conor ; and Fergal (Mac Dermott), the son of 
Tomaltach, then took possession of Tirerill. 

The Giolla Duv Mac Guire was drowned in 
Lough Erne. 

Matthew Mac Manus (in Fermanagh), an 
affluent landed proprietor, who never refused hos- 
pitality to any man rich or poor, died. 

Conor, son of Hugh, son of Donal Oge O'Don- 
nell, lord of Tirconnell, of North Connaught, Fer- 
managh, Kinel Moain, and Inisowen, a worthy 
heir to the sovereignty of Ireland in personal 
figure, wisdom, hospitality, nobility, prudence, 
ingenuity, cheerfulness, abilities, strength, valour, 
piety, and benevolence, was slain by his brother 
NiaU O'Donnell, who had surprised him by night 
in his fortress at Mm-beach (in Donegal), and 
Niall himself assumed the lordship. 

Flann Oge O'DonneUan, chief professor of 
poetry in Connaught, died. 

Donal O'Coinlesg, a learned historian, was 



slain by the people of Hy Diarmada (in Roscom- 
mon), shortly after Easter. 

Thomas Mac Gilcoisgley, a man distinguished 
for hospitality and benevolence, died. 

Pierce Albanach (the Scot), was slain by the 
sons of Myler Bermingham. 



A. D. 1343. 

John Mac Eoigh, bishop of Conmaicne ( Ardagh), 
died. 

Johannes O 'Lai thin, bishop of Killala; and 
Cathal Mac AnUathanaigh, abbot of the Trinity 
(Trinity Island on Lough Key, county of Ros- 
common), died. 

Donogh Cleireach O'Mulbrenan, a canon of 
the chapter of Elphin, was slain by the cast of a 
javelin by the people of Hoberd, the son of David 
Dunn Mac VViOiam (Burke). 

Slaine, daughter of O'Brien, and wife of Tor- 
logh O'Conor, king of Connaught, died. 

Cathal O'Madden, the most distinguished man 
of his name for hospitality and nobleness, was 
slain by the Clanrickard. 

Dearvoil, daughter of Hugh O'Donnell, having 
gone to Inis Doighre on a visit to Mac Dermott, 
was seized with a fatal disease, of which she died, 
and was buried with honour and solemnity in the 
monastery of Boyle; and no lady of her family ever 
before excelled her in goodness. 

Duvcovlagh, daughter of Mac Dermott, and 
wife of O'Brien, died. 

Murtogh O'Brien, lord of Thomond, died, and 
Dermod O'Brien assumed the lordship, but was, 
however, dispossessed of it by Bryan O'Brien, to 
whom the nobility of Thomond made their sub- 
mission. 

Thomas Mac Gauran, chief of Tullaghaw (in 
Cavan), died. 

Ulick Mac Rickard (Bm'ke), the son of WiUiara 
Liath (the grey), the most distinguished young 
nobleman of the EngUsh of Ireland for hospitahty 
and generosity, died. 

TheBerminghams and the people of Clanrickard, 
(Burkes), gained a great victory over the people of 
Hy Maine, (O'KeUys), in which eleven of the 
chiefs of Hy Maine, along with Conor Cervach 
O'Kelly were slain. 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



137 



Niall O'Donnell was deposed from his lordship 
by Aongus O'Donnell, aided by Donal Duv 
O'Boyle, Hugh O'Doghertj', and by the influence 
of Hugh Reamhar O'Neill, and the Clan Sweeney ; 
and Aongus, son of Conor, son of Hugh, son of 
Donal Oge, (O'Donnell), was appointed to the 
lordship of Tirconnell. 

The Clan Murtogh, (O'Conors of Sligo), were 
expelled from Brefney by Ualgarg O'Rourke, 
Torlogh O'Conor, and Teige Mae Rannall. The 
Clan Murtogh removed to Tir Hugh (in Donegal), 
under the protection of O'Donnell, and Aongus, 
that is, O'Donnell, gave them Tir Hugh. A bat- 
tle took place after that between Aongus and Niall 
(the O'Donnells) at Achadh Mona, and the Clan 
Murtogh having joined Aongus against Niall, they 
defeated Niall and his people; and Andiles O'Boyle, 
chief of Tir Ainmireach (in Donegal), with his 
son ; Owen, the son of Art O'Donnell, and many 
others were slain there, and Aongus was victorious. 

David Mac Oiraghty, the coarb of St. Patrick 
(archbishop of Armagh), died. 

John Mac Duibhne, archdeacon of Dromleathan, 
(Drumlane in Cavan), died. 

Conor Mac Dermott, lord of Moylurg, the foun- 
tain of generosity, and the most eminent of the 
Clan Midrooney More, the son of Teige, son of 
Cathal, son of Conor, died in his own house a 
week after Lammas, on a Saturday, after having 
gained the victory over the world and the devil, 
and was buried in the monastery of Boyle ; and 
Fergal Mac Dermott, his brother, was appointed 
in his place. 

Roderick Mac Craith, chief poet of Leath 
Mogha (south of Ireland), died. 



A.D. 1344. 

The bishop of Lieney (Achonry), died. 

Murrogh, son of Maolmuaidh O'Hara, abbot of 
Boyle, and bishop elect of Lieney, died. 

Nicholas Magrath, coarb of Termon Dabeog 
(abbot of Lough Derg, in the diocese of Clogher), 
died. 

Art More the son of Coi-mac O'Melaghlin, king 
of Meath, was slain by Cormac Ballach O'Melagh- 
lin, who assumed the government. 

Hugh, son of Ralph Mac Mahon, lord of 
Orgiall (Monaghan), died, and Murrogh Oge Mac 
Mahon assumed the lordship, but died in a week 



afterwards, and Manus son of Eochy, son of Ralph 
Mac ]Mahon, then assumed the lordship. 

AVilliam, son of Mahon Mac Rannall (in Lei- 
trim), was slain by the sons of Cathal Mac Ran- 
nall. 

Mahon Mac Gilcreest, the chaplain of Mac 
Dermott, was slain by Muintir Heley, on the Cm- 
lew mountains. 

Bryan, the son of Roderick Mac Guire (in Fer- 
managh), died. 



A. D. 1345. 

Giolla-na-neev O'Cianain (O'Keenan), abbot of 
Lios Gabhail (Lisgoole in Fermanagh), died. 

Torlogh, son of Hugh, son of Owen O'Conor, 
king of Connaught, was killed in harvest by the 
cast of a javelin, in Fiodh Daradha (the oak wood), 
in Muintir Eoluis (in Leitrim), he having gone to 
aid Teige Mac Rannall against the Clan Murtogh 
Muinach O'Conor, at Lough Airinn (Lough Ar- 
row, in Sligo) ; the Clan Murtogh, and the other 
portion of Muintir Eoluis followed him to Fiodh 
Doradh, and slew him at Guirteen na-Spideoige, 
and none of the Irish that had been slain for a long 
time was a greater loss than he. Hugh, son of 
Torlogh, was appointed his successor. 

Bryan O'Ferrall, a worthy heir to the lordship 
of Annaly, died, a man blameless in every thing he 
had done through life, and finally gained the vic- 
tory over the world and the devil. 

Hugh O'Neill sailed with a fleet on Lough 
Neagh, but the Clanaboy (O'Neills of Clanaboy), 
with their forces attacked him, and many were 
killed and wounded on both sides ; but Hugh, 
however, escaped in despite of them, in his ships. 

Manus O'Flynn of Line (Moylinny in Antrim), 
was slain by Donal Donn and by Bryan O'Neill. 

Cormac, son of Roderick O'Conor, died. 

Cormac, son of Murtogh Mac Loughlin, was 
slain by the sons of Ualgarg, the son of Fergal 
(O'Rourke.) 



A.D. 1346. 
A war arose between O'Rourke, that is, Ual- 
garg, and Roderick, son of Cathal O'Conor, and a 
battle was fought between them atCalraighof Lough 
Gill (in Sligo), in whichO'Rourke was defeated, and 
all his galloglasses slain, viz., Mac Buiroe, and the 
son of Niall Cam, with his party ; O'Rourke, being 

T 



138 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1347-48. 



pursued by Roderick O'Conor and the Mac Don- 
oghs, was slain by Mulrooney Mac Donogh, and 
his death was much lamented. 

Tlie four sons of Cathal, son of the Caoch Mac 
Rannall, were taken prisoners on Lough-an-Sguir 
(Lough Scur in Leitrim), by Conor Mac Rannall, 
and were conveyed by Tomaltach ]\Iac Rannall to 
Caisiol Cosgraigh, where they were slain. 

Cu-uladh Mac Cathmail, chief of Kinel Fere- 
daigh (in Tyrone), was killed by Donal Mac 
Cathmail. 

Bryan Mac Mahon (chief of Monaghan), de- 
feated the English in a battle, in which they lost 
three hundred men. 

Niall O'Donnell, with the sons of Murtogh, 
son of Felim O'Conor, and Maurice Mac Der- 
niott, having pursued Roderick, son of Cathal 
(O'Conor), to Culmaoile (Collooney in Sligo), 
defeated him and the Mac Donoghs in battle, 
with great slaughter, and afterwards plundered 
them, and carried away as much booty as they 
pleased. 

Mac Dermott Gall was treacherously slain in 
his own house, by the sons of Waldrin Mac Cos- 
teUo, and they also killed Cormac Caoch Mac Finin. 

Conor O'Bcirne (of Roscommon) was slain. 

Ivar, son of Murrogh O'Ferrall (in Longford), 
was slain by Biyan Mac Tiarnan, and by the Clan 
Mac Murtogh. 

Art, son of Thomas O'Rourke (in Leitrim), was 
slain by Donal Mac Tiarnan. 



A.D. 1347. 

Maolmoeg O'Tully, the official (vicar-general), 
of Lough Erne (diocese of Clogher), died. 

Giolla-na-neev, son of Geoffrey, son of Giolla- 
na-neev O'Ferrall, lord of Annaly (Longford), the 
chief defender of Conmaicne, in valour, fortitude, 
hospitality, and nobleness, died at Cluan Lisbeag, 
having been for a long period in the chief govern- 
ment of Annaly, and after having gained the palm 
of victory over the world and the devil. Cathal, 
son of Murrogh, son of Giolla-na-neev O'Ferrall, 
then assumed the loi'dship of Annaly. 

Maurice Mac Dermott (in Roscommon), was 
slain by John Roc, son of David Burke. 

Teige Mac Rannall, chief of Muintir Eoluis, 
was taken prisoner by the Clan Murtogh, (O'Conors 
of Sligo). 



William Mac David (Burke), was slain by 
Teige Roe Mac Dermott Gall, at Ballintobber. 

Thomas Mac Artan, lord of Hy Veach in Ulidia, 
(county of Down), was hanged by the English. 

Owen O'Madden, chief of Siol Anmcha (in 
Galway), died, and was succeeded in the chief- 
taincy of Siol Anmcha by his son, Murrogh. 

Aongus, the son of Gara O'Madden, died. 

The church of Kilronan (in Roscommon), was 
re-built by Fergal O'Duigenan. 

Fionguala, daughter of Mac Finin, and wife of 
Fergal O'Duigenan, died. 

Henry, son of Hugh Buidhe O'Neill ; Fion- 
guala, daughter of Malachj' O'Reilly (of Cavan) ; 
and the Giolla Duv Mac Giollamochua, died. 

Donogh, son of Hugh Oge O'Ferrall, died. 

Sidredh O'Cuirnin, the learned poet and histo- 
riographer of Brefney, died. 



A. D. 1348. 

Niall Garv O'Donnell, lord of Tirconnell, after 
having experienced much trouble during the 
period of his government, was treacherously and 
maliciously slain, by Manus Meabhlach (the De- 
ceitful) O'Donnell, at the harbour of Inis Saimer 
(Ballyshannon). Niall was a tower of bravery, 
strength, and defence, until then, and his death, in 
such a manner, was a melancholy occurrence. 

Aongus, the son of Conor O'Donnell, who was 
in contention with Niall, assumed the government. 

Cathal O'Ferrall, lord of Annaly, died. 

Malachy Mac Oiraghty, chief of Muintir Roduiv 
(in Roscommon) ; and Donogh Mac Brady, chief 
of Cuil Brighde (Kilbride, county of Cavan), died. 

A contention arose between Fergal Mac Der- 
mott and Roderick, son of Cathal, son of Donal 
O'Conor, and the fortress of Mac Dermott was 
burned by Roderick; Mac Dermott, after that, 
having collected his friends, pursued Roderick to 
his fortress at Ballymote (in Sligo), and burned 
the town, both stone and wooden buildings, and they 
returned home without meeting any opposition; 
they liberated the son of O'Rourke, who was impri- 
soned in the town, together with all the other 
prisoners they found there. 

The Berminghams were expelled by Edmond 
Burke ; and Bermingham himself was forced to 
fly for refuge to the house of O'Conor. 



I 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



139 



A.D. 1349. 

Hugh O'Rourke gained a victorj^ over Flaherty 
O'Rourke, Donogh O'Donnell, and the people of 
Diirtry (in Leitrim) ; and Hugh Mac Clancy, 
chief of Dartry ; Gilci-eest Mac Clancy ; Loghlin, 
son of Andilis O' Boyle, and many others, were 
slain in the conflict. 

John Duv Mac Donnell was slain by Manus, 
son of Eochy Mac Mahon (in Monaghan). 

Giolla-na-neev O'Higgin, a learned poet (in 
Connaught), died. 

Another commotion arose between Mac 
Dcrmott and Roderick O'Conor ; Mac Dermott 
collected all the English and Irish he could, to- 
gether with the Clan Murtogh (O'Conors of Sligo), 
and the Tirconnellians, with whom he marched 
against the son of Cathal (O'Conor), but Roderick 
fled before them, and they pursued him to Clan 
Fermaighe (in Leiti-im), but he escaped from all 
the English and Irish together, and they returned 
without gaining any advantage or obtaining hos- 
tages. Roderick then, having collected a force, 
burned, laid waste, and plundered the greater 
part of Moylurg. 

A great plague raged in Ireland, and particu- 
larly in Moylurg (in Roscommon), by which an 
immense number of people were destroyed ; and 
Matthew, the son of Cathal O'Rourke, died of the 
same plague. 

Donogh Riavach, son of Malachy Carrach Mac 
Dermott, was taken prisoner by Cormac Bodhar 
Mac Dermott, and conveyed to Airteach (in Ros- 
common), where he was put to death, at Dun- 
thaidhe, by the people of Airteach, namely, 
Gilcreest Mac Tully, and O' Kearney. 

Richard O'Reilly, lord of East Brefney (county 
of Cavan), and the son of the earl, died. 

Gilbert O'Flanagan, chief of Tura (in Fer- 
managh), was slain bythesonsof BryanO'Flanagan. 

Murtogh Riaganach Mac Gennis (in the 
county of Down), was slain by his own kinsmen. 

Roderick O'Kane, lord of the Creeve, and of 
Ard Kianaght (in Derry), died. 

Hugh O'Reilly (in Cavan), and the Giolla 
Caoch Mac Dorchy (in Leitrim), died. 

Maurice Mac Donogh, chief of Corran (in Sligo), 
a man distinguished for knowledge and hospitality, 
died. 

The lord justice and the Enghsh of Meath gave 



a great defeat to O'Melaghlin and the Irish of 
Meath, in which many of the chiefs were slain. 



A.D. 1350. 

William O'Dowd, bishop of Killala, a founder 
of churches and sanctuaries, a man eminent for 
his piety, alms-giving, and humanity, died. 

Hugh, king of Connaught, the son of Hugh 
Brefnach O'Conor, who was called the O'Conor, 
was slain by Hugh O'Rourke, at Moy Angaidhe. 

Fergal O'Rourke, son of Ualgarg, was slain by 
the son of Cathal Cleireach Mac Donogh. 

Bryan Mac Dermott, heir to the lordship of 
Moylurg, was slain at Roscommon, by Muintir 
Aneaspuig O'Feenaghty, with a chance cast of a 
javelin, and the person who was accused of casting 
it, namely, Roderick Antseomra O'Donaghoe, was 
instantly put to death, as a reparation for the deed. 

Bryan, son of Donal, son of Bryan Roe 
O'Brien, was treacherously slain by the sons of 
Lorcan Mac Keogh ; and for liim the following 
was composed — 

" Sorrowful was the fate of Donal's only son, 
Mournful was the death of Brian Boromha, 
Sorrowful was his unexpected end, 
Pity that the Clan Keogh should exult in his fall." 

Torlogh Oge O'Brien slew sixteen men of the 
Clan Keogh, in retaliation for their misdeeds ; he 
also deprived them of their lands and property. 

Roderick, son of Cathal, son of Donal O'Conor, 
was treacherously slain at Garrdha-na-fionguine 
on Brecslieve," by the sons of Fergal Mac Donogh, 
at the instigation of Hugh, the son of Torlogh. 

Hugh, the son of Torlogh (O'Conor), was de- 
posed by Mac William Burke, and the people of 
the Tuatha of Connaught (in Roscommon), and 
they appointed, in opposition to him, Hugh, the 
son of Felim (O'Conor). 

Cuchoigrighe (Peregrine) More Mac Geoghe- 
gan, lord of Kinel Fiacha (in Westmeath) ; Hugh, 
the son of Awlave Mac Guire (in Fermanagh) ; 
and Maurice Mac Donogh (in Sligo), died. 

Aongus Roe O'Daly (of Westmeath), chief 
poet of Ireland ; and Aongus O'Heoghusa, an 
eminent poet, died. 



A.D. 1350. 
1. JJrec.rfJo6/i, or Bracklieve Mountains, in the northern ex- 
tremity of Hoscommon, near Lough Allen. 

T 2 



140 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1351-52-53-45. 



A. D. 1351. 

The monaster)' of Rusoirbeallaigh,' in the dio- 
cese of Tuam, was erected for Franciscan friars. 

Owen Nalaithighe Mac Sweeney (in Donegal), 
was slain by Manus O'Donnell. 

Philip Mac Gnire, chief of Muintir Peodachain 
(Pettigo in Fermanagh) ; and Enna O'Flanagan, 
chief of Tura (in Fermanagh), died. 

Hugh, son of Torlogh (O'Conor), regained his 
power, and the hostages of Connaught were de- 
livered up to him ; and Hugh, the son of Fehm, 
was expelled from the country. 

Hugh O'Rourke was taken pi-isoner by Mac 
Philbin Mac William Burke, on his i-eturn from 
Croagh Patrick ; and Mac Dermott rose in oppo- 
sition to the Clan Philbin on that account, and 
great depredations were committed between them. 

Mahon Mac Consnamha (in Leitrim), was slain 
by the family of Donogh Mac Consnamha. 

A public invitation to a general entertainment, 
at Christmas, was issued by Wilham, the son of 
Donogh Muinach O' Kelly (lord of Hy Maine, in 
Gfilway and Roscommon), to the colleges of Ire- 
land, to all travellers, and to the poor and indigent ; 
and all classes, noble and ignoble, rich and poor, 
were abundantly entertained, and were perfectly 
satisfied with himself and his son Malachy. 



A.D. 1352. 

Hugh, son of Torlogh O'Conor, re-assumed the 
government despite of all the English and Irish 
that were opposed to him. 

Hugh O'Rourke, lord of Brefnej', was slain by 
Cathal, son of Hugh Brefnach O'Conor, and by the 
Clan Murtogh (O'Conors), and a slaughter of the 
galloglasses of the Mac Sweeneys took place on 
that occasion. 

HughO'Mulbrenan (in Roscommon), and his two 
sons, were slain by Hugh, the son of Felim O'Conor. 

Aongus, son of Conor, son of Hugh, son of 
Donal Oge O'Donnell, lord of Tirconnell, a vigor- 
ous and resolute man, the most distinguished in 
Ulster in his time for hospitality and nobleness. 



A.D. 1351. 
1. BiwoirfteaJfligi/i, now Rosserelly, situated on the river Ross, 
in tlie barony of Clare, county of Gahvay, where some ruins of 
this extensive monastery still remain. 



was slain by Manus O'Donnell ; Felim O'Donnell 
succeeded him, and John, the son of Conor 
O'Donnell, contended with him for the lordship. 

Ballindoon was taken by Torlogh O'Conor. 

Conor, son of Maurice Mac Donogh (in Sligo), 
a general patron of men of learning and arts ; 
Davock Dillon, the son of Ulick of Hy Malia (in 
Mayo), the chief of the kerns (light troops), and 
of the Dillons of Connaught ; Thomas Mac Ran- 
nall ; and Teige, the son of Siacus O'Kelly, died. 



A.D. 1353. 

John O'Carbry, the coarb of Tighernach, of 
Cluan Eois,' died. 

Gormley, daughter of O'Donnell, and wife of 
O'Neill, died, and no woman in her time was more 
distinguished for virtue and good fame. 

Hugh, the son of Roderick O'Neill ; and 
Mahon, the son of Giolla-na-neev O'Ferrall, lord 
of Annaly, died. 

Teige Mac Rannall, chief of Muintir Eoluis, 
was slain by the Clan Geoffrey Mac Rannall. 

Hugh, the son of Torlogh (O'Conor), was de- 
posed,and MacBrenan retained him in the country. 

The monastery of Kilconnell, in the diocese of 
Clonfert, in Connaught, was founded for Francis- 
can friars, by WiUiam O'Kelly, lord of Hy Maine. 



A.D. 1354. 

O'Laghnan, bishop of Connaught, and John 
O'Feenaghty, bishop of Elphin, died. 

Mac Murrogh was put to death by the English, 
and a great war arose in consequence thereof, 
between the English and Irish. 

Roderick O'Moore, lord of Leix (in the Queen's 
county), was slain by his own kinsmen and house- 
hold. 

Bryan O'Dowd, chief of his tribe in Tireragh 
(in Sligo), died, and was succeeded by his son 
Donal. 

Bryan, the son of Hugh More O'Neill ; Cathal, 
the son of Niall O'Rourke ; Geoffrey Mac Ran- 



A.D. 1.353. 
1. Cluan Eois, now Clones in Monairhan, of which St. Tlehear- 
nach was founder in tlie sixth century, hence the coarb of Tighear- 
nach signifies the abbot of Clones. 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



141 



nail ; Geoffrey O'Reilly ; Sitrick Mac Gauran ; 
and Fero-al Mac Geoo;hea;an, chief of Kinel Fiacha 
(in Westmcath), died. 

Roderick, the son of John Mac Mahon (in 
Monaghan), was slain in the fortress of Mac 
Mahon. 

The Clanaboy O'Neills and the English of 
Dundalk gave a great defeat to Hugh O'Neill, in 
which a great niuxiber were slain. 

DerforgaiU, the daughter of O'Conor ; Felira, 
the son of Cathal O'Conor ; and Hoberd Burke, 
died. 

Flaherty Mac Gilefinen (in Fermanagh), and 
his brother, were slain by his own people. 

MuiTogh, the son of Cathal O'Ferrall, and Teige 
Mac Seanlaich, died. 

Saerbrethach, the son of Maolisa Dunn Mac 
Egan, chief pi'ofessor of Conmaicne (in Leitrim), 
died on Inis Clothran (in Lough Ree, county of 
Longford). 

Malachy Mac Raiferty, chief professor of poetry 
in Fermanagh, died. 

A. D. 1355. 

Conor Mac Consnamha, bishop of Brefney,' 
from Drumcliff to Kells ; Mac Gallgael, prior of 
the Trinity ; and Mac Cathail, abbot of Sruthra, 
died. 

Donogh, son of Felim, son of Hugh, son of 
Donal Oge O'Donnell, was slain while forcibly 
attempting the abduction of Gormley, the daughter 
of Hugh Roe Mac Guire (lord of Fermanagh), 
and Donn, the son of Murrogh, was the man who 
slew him in the fortress of Mac Guire. 

Donal, the son of John O'FeiTall, lord of 
Annaly, died. 

Dermod O'Mulvey, chief of Muintir Carolan (in 
Leiti'ini), was slain by Muintir Beirne (of Ros- 



A. D. 1355. 
1. Bishop of Brefney, from Kells to Drumcliff, that is from 
Kells in Meath to Drumcliif in Sligo, which was the extent of the 
diocese of Kilraore. Mac Consnamha, a name anglicised to Ford, 
were chiefs of Muintir Kenny in Leitrim. The prior of the Trinity 
here mentioned, was that of Trinity Island on Lough Key, in the 
county of Roscommon. The abbot of Sruthra was abbot oi' Shrule, 
in the barony of Kilmaine, county of Mayo. 

A. D. 1356. 

1. Primate of Armagh. The archbishop of Armagh at this 

time, according to Ware and others, was the celebrated Richard 

Fitzralph. This Fergal, son of Geoffrey Mac Rannall, is not given 

in Ware's Archbishops of Armagh; he appears to have been of the 



common), and a great number of Muintir Eoluis 
were slain along with him. 

Cathal O'Quinn, chief of Muintir Giollgain (in 
Longford), and also five of his kinsmen, were slain 
by the Clan Shane and the Clan Hugh. 

Cormac Mac Rannall, chief of Muintir Eoluis, 
was slain by the sons of Ivar Mac Rannall. 

Fergal, son of Fergal, son of Murtogh More, 
the son of Congalach Mac Geoghcgan, chief of 
Kinel Fiacha (in Westmeath), died. 

Murrogh, the son of Cathal O'Ferrall ; Derfor- 
gaiU, the daughter of O'Ferrall ; and Teige Mac 
Egan, a man learned in the law (Brehonism), 
died. 

The English of the west of Connaught defeated 
Mac William (Burke), and slew many of his 
people. 

Edward Mac William Mac Rickard (Burke), 
was slain by the people of Siol Anmcha (in Gal- 
way). 

Rickard Oge gave a great defeat to the people 
of Mac William (Burke), that is, Edward, and the 
people of Siol Anmcha, in which Stephen Mac 
Jordan, Henry Mac Philbin, and sixteen of the 
chiefs of Siol Anmcha, were slain. 

Niall Mac Mahon (in Monaghan), was slain by 
the sons of John Mac Mahon. 

Aduc Mac Quillan (of Antrim), was slain by 
the people of Orior (in Armagh). 

Ten lambs were yeaned at once by one sheep. 



A.D. 1356. 

Fergal, son of Geoffrey Mac Rannall, primate 
of Armagh,' and successor of St. Patrick, died. 

Nicholas Mac Cathasaigh, bishop of Orgiall,^ died. 

Solotnon O'Meallan, keeper of an adjuration 
bell,^ died; he was the most illustrious of the 
clergy of Ireland. 



ancient family of the Mac Rannalls, chiefs of Mumtir Eoluis in 
Leitrim, and was probably the same person as the primate called 
Fitzralph by W^are and others. 

•2. Bishop of Orgiall, that is bishop of Clogher. There are two 
or three of the Mac Cathasaighs given as bishops of Clogher, and 
the name appears to be Mac Casey, but some suppose it to he Mac 
Cassidy. 

8. Adjuration Bell. In ancient times the Irish held in great 
veneration some of the bells used by the saints in early times, and 
preserved them for many ages, some of them even to the present 
day ; amongst other purposes for administering solemn oaths and 
adjurations, and to swear falsely on them was considered the 
greatest crime and profanation. 



142 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1357-58-59. 



Hugh, son of Torlogh O'Conor, king of Con- 
naught, was slain in Baile Loch Deacair," by 
Donogh Carrach O'Kelly, and by the Clan Mac 
Award, at the instigation of the Hymanians, for 
the crime of carrj'ing otf clandestinely the daughter 
of Seoinin Burke, the wife of O'Kelly. 

Hugh, son of Felim O'Conor, then assumed the 
sovereignty of Connaught. 

Conor, son of Teige O'Kelly, was slain by 
Teige, the son of Dermod O'Kelly. 

Torlogh, son of Hugh Brefnach O'Conor, was 
slain by the Mac Donoghs. 

Dermod, son of Dermod Mac Carthy (in the 
the county of Cork), and his son Donogh, were 
slain by the son of O'Sullivan. 

More, daughter of O'Conor, and wife of O'Fer- 
rall, died. 

Murtogh, son of John O'Neill (of Tyrone), was 
slain by Philip Mac Guire. 

Dugall Mac Sweeney was slain by Donal 
O'Conor. 

Roderick, son of Hugh O'Conor, and Donal, 
son of Hugh Brefnach O'Conor, died. 

Donogh Mac Namara (of Clare), the best chiefs 
son in Munster ia his time, was slain by the 
O'Briens. 

Donogh Praisteach was treacherously slain by 
two of his own people. 

Garrett Tyrrell was put to death by the king of 
England's people on the plain of Dublin. 

Murrogh, son of Bryan O'Neill, died. 

Felim, son of Hugh, son of Donal Oge, lord of 
Tirconneil, was slain by his brother's son, namely, 
John, the son of Conor O'Donnell, who assumed 
the lordship of Tirconneil without opposition. 



A.D. 1357. 

Clement O'Duigenan, vicar of Kilronan (in Ros- 
common), died ; he was called the priest of the 
Sionachs. 

Manus Mac Mahon, lord of Orgiall (Monaghan); 
Loghlin, son of Murtogh O'Conor ; and Fergal 
Muinach O'Duigenan, chief professor of Con- 
maicne (in Leitrim), and of Clan Maolrooney (in 
Roscommon), north and south, died. 



4. Baile Locha Deacair was probahly in that part of Galway 
called Hy Maine, lielonging lo the O'Kellys ; and the Mac Wards 
were a clan in the barony of Tiaquin, county of Galway. 



John, son of Bryan O'Reilly (chief of Cavan), 
was slain by the English. 

Bryan, son of Gilcreest O'Rourke, and Manus 
Buidhe Mac Gauran (in Cavan), were slain in the 
Routs (county of Antrim) of Mac Quillan, by 
Hugh O'Neill. 

Donslevy Mac Carroll, the most accomplished 
master of music and harmony in his own time, died. 

A general peace was concluded between the 
two Cathals, namely, Cathal, son of Hugh Bref- 
nach (O'Conor), and Cathal Oge, son of Cathal, 
son of Donal (O'Conor). 



A.D. 1358. 

Bryan Mac Cathmoil, bishop of Orgiall 
(Clogher), died. 

Manus Mac Guire was slain by the Clan Cath- 
mail (of Tyrone). 

Donal O'Hara, lord of Lieney (in Sligo), died 
on Easter Day. 

Conor O'Hanley, chief of Kinel Dobtha, the son 
of Aongus( in Roscommon), died after he had gained 
the palm of victory over the world and the devil. 

Hugh O'Neill gained a battle over the Orgal- 
lians (people of Monaghan and Armagh), and the 
people of Fermanagh, in which Hugh Mac Cabe 
and Malachy Mac Anaspuig O'Dowd, with many 
others, were slain. 

O'Moore (of Leix, in the Queen's county), 
gained a great victory over the English of Dublin, 
and left two hundred and forty of them dead on 
the field of battle. 

Torlogh, son of Hugh of the Wood O'Neill, and 
the son of Andrew Bermingham, died. 

A great shower of hail fell in Crioch Cairpre 
(Carbury in Sligo), in the summer, and each stone 
was as large as a wild apple. 

Senicin Mac Quillan, high constable of the 
province of Ulster, died. 

The son of Giolla losa O'Flanagan was slain by 
Manus, son of Cathal, the son of Hugh Brefnach 
(O'Conor). 



A. D. 1359. 

Cormac Mac Carthy, lord of Desmond, and 
Donal, son of Teige O'Mahony, died. 

Cathal Oge, the son of Cathal O'Conor, gave a 
great defeat at Ballyshannon, to John, the son of 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



143 



Conor O'Donnell, and the Connallians, and he 
took John O'Dogherty, chief of Ard Miodhair ; 
Owen Conactach; and Torlogh Mac Sweeney, 
prisoners, and slew many others ; Matthew Mac 
Gauran, heir to the chieftaincy of Tullaghaw 
(county of Cavan), received wounds on that day 
of which he died, after he had reached his own 
house. 

Cathal Bodhar, the son of Cathal O'Rourke, 
and Malachy O'Gormley, fell by each other's 
hands in the course of this contest, after Cathal 
O'Conor had marched his forces a second time 
into Tirconnell, on which occasion a party from 
the teiTitory of O'Gormley, came in contact with 
Cathal Bodhar O'Rourke. 

Murtogh, son of Thomas O'Flynn of Line, 
heir to the lordship of Hy Tuirtre (in An- 
trim), was slain by Hugh, son of Bryan, son of 
Hugh Buidhe O'Neill. 

Bryan Mac Donogh, heir to the lordship of 
Tirerrill (in Sligo), was slain by Mac Sencha, of 
the party of O'Gara. 

Henr}% son of Ulick, son of Rickard Burke (in 
Galway), died. 

Murrogh Oge Mac Mahon, heir to the lordship 
of Corco Baiscind (in the county of Clare), was 
slain by the O'Briens. 

Manus O'Dowd, son of the lord of Tireragh (in 
Sligo), and Hugh, son of Conor Mac Egan, the 
chief Brehon (judge) in Ireland, died. 

Donal, son of Teige O'Mahony, was slain. 

Art, son of Awlave O'Rourke, was slain by Mac 
Gennis (of the county of Down). 



A.D, 1360. 

Maolrooney, son of Cammuinelach (the crooked 
necked), O'Boyle, chief of the three Tuatha (in 



A.D. 13G0. 
1. The King of England's son -WAS Lionel, duke of Clarence, 
son to Edward III., who being appointed by his father, lord 
lieutenant of Ireland, landed at Dublin on the 1.5th of September, 
with a force of fifteen hundred men , consisting of arch ers and men at 
arms, togetherwith Ralph, earl of Stafford, whowas one of the com- 
manders under the Black Prince, at the battle of Cressy ; James 
Butler, earl of Ormond ; sir John Carew ; sir William Windsor, 
and other kniirhts. A curious account of the pay received by these 
officers and soldiers is given at page 25 in the Tracts of sir John 
Davies. Tlie Duke of Clarence was accompanied by his countess, 
Elizabeth, daughter of William de Burgo, earl of Ulster, whose 
death is recorded in these Annals, at A.D. 1333, and in right of 



Donegal), a man distinguished for dignity, hospi- 
tality, wisdom, heroism, and protection, died. 

Awlave, son of Geoffrey Mac Rannall, was 
slain. 

Sir Robert Savadge (of the county of Down), 
and Dermod O'Hanley (of Roscommon), died. 

Roscommon, Ennis, Sligo, and the monasteries 
of Lisgoole (in Fermanagh), Fenagh (in Leitrim), 
and Drumlias (in Sligo), were burned. 

John, son of Gilcreest O'Rourke, was slain by 
Hugh Mac Dorchy. 

Dermod O'Brien was deposed by his brother's 
son. 

Dermod, son of Donogh Riavach Mac Dermott, 
was slain by Cathal Oge, the son of Cathal 
O'Conor. 

The daughter of Torlogh O'Conor, the wife 
of Fergal O'Reilly (of Cavan), was kUled by *a 
fall. 

A bridge of stone and mortar was built by 
Cathal Oge O'Conor over the river of Bally- 
sadare. 

Fergal, son of Geolfrey Mac Rannall (of Lei- 
trim), and Tuathal O'Feenaghty (of Galway), 
died. 

Naovoge O'Duigenan (of Roscommon), died. 

Cathal, son of the Caoch Mac Rannall, was 
slain. 

Giolla-na-neev O'Conmaighe (O' Conway), chief 
professor of music in Thomond, died. 

The kino- of England's son' came to Ireland. 

Art, son of the Giolla Riavach Mac Gennis 
(county of Down), was treacherously slain by the 
family of the Savadges, and the son of Murtogh 
Riaganach Mac Gennis. 

Cathal O'Conor marched with a force into 
Tyrawley (in Mayo), and destroyed many houses 
and churches. 



his wife he became earl of Ulster and lord of Connaught, titles 
still held by the royal family of England. The Duke of Clarence 
held the office of lord lieutenant to A.D. 1307, and in his adminis- 
tration was held the celebrated parliament at Kilkenny, in which 
was passed the Act called the Statute of Kilkenny, which pro- 
hibited, under penalty of high treason, the families of Anglo- 
Norman or English descent, settled in Ireland, to form any alliances 
or intermarriages with the native Irish, thus endeavouring to 
prevent all intercourse between them ; and prohibiting the 
Anglo-Irish from adopting Irish surnames, the Irish language, 
dress, manners, or customs ; and also making it penal to appoint 
any of the native Irish to ecclesiastical livings, bishops' sees, 
abbotships over monasteries, or any other preferments. 



144 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1361-62. 



A.D. 1361. 

Benedict O'Moghan, erenachof Kill Athrachta,' 
died. 

Art Mac Murrogh, king of Leinster,^ and Donal 
Riavach (Mac Murrogh) heir presumptive to the 
crown of Leinster, were treacherously taken pri- 
soners by the king of England's son, at his own 
residence, and they died in prison. 

Cormac Ballaoh O'Melaghlin, king of Meath ; 
DonoghO'Loughlin,lord of Corcamroe (in Clare); 
Cathal and Murtogh, the sons of Hugh, son of 
Owen ; Duhhoge, daughter of Hugh Mac Guire, 
the wife of Cuchonacht, the son of Philip Mac 
Mahon (of Monaghan) ; Thomas Mac Tiarnan, 
chief of Tullyhunco (county of Cavan) ; Nicholas 
O'Feenaghty (of the county of Galway) ; and 
Tuathal O'Malley (of Mayo), died. 

Sir Edmond Burke; Raymond, the son of 
Burke of Buine ; Walter Stanton; and Gilbert 
Mac Myler, died. 

Cluit"he-an-Righ (some epidemic disease), pre- 
vailed throughout Ireland generally, of which 
Richard Savadge died. Magrath O'Finn, chief 
professor of Siol Murray (Roscommon), in mu- 
sic and minstrelsy, died. 

Great depredations were committed by Mac 
William Burke, Bermingham, and all the English 
of Connaught, on Cathal Oge, the son of Cathal 
O' Conor, and they plundered and devastated 
Lieney and Tireragh (in Sligo) ; Cathal after that 
marched with a force, to retaliate for all the devas- 
tations they had committed, and they plundered 
the people of Birmingham, and the territory of 
Edmond Mac Hoberd (Bm-ke), and spoiled and 
laid waste the entire country. 



A.D. 1362. 

O'Beollan, the abbot of Drumcliff (in Sligo) ; 
Giolla Ancovde Mac Mughroin, erenach of Kil- 
laniomaire' ; Oirechtach Mac Brennan, archdeacon 
of Elphin ; Aongus Mac Anaglaoigh, erenach of 



A.D. 1361. 

1. Kill Athracht, now Killaraght, a parish in the barony of 
Coolavin, county of Slijio, so called from Athrachta, a female 
saint, who founded a nunnery there in the fifth century. 

2. King of Leinster. It appears tliat these two chiefs of the 
Mac Murroghs were confined in Dublin Castle, where, according 
to some accounts, they were put to death by the English. 



Killarry; O'Fergus, vicar of lomtha; and Mur- 
ragh Mac Teige, the monk, died. 

Owen Fionn (the Fair) O'Conor, son of the 
king of Connaught; Maolrooney O'Dowd (in Sli- 
go), and his wife, the daughter of Mac Donogh ; 
Niall Mac Gauran, chief of Tullaghaw (county of 
Cavan); Dermod, son of John O'FeiTall, lord of 
Annaly ; Carbry O'Qiunn, chief of Muintir Gioll- 
gain (in Longford) ; Donal, son of Roderick 
O'Kelly (of Galway) ; Tomaltach O'Beirne (of 
Roscommon) ; Murtogh Don Mac Oiraghty (of 
Roscommon) ; Owen O'Malley, and Dermod, his 
son, both lords of Umalia (in Mayo), died. 

Peregrine Mac Geoghegan, son of Dermod Mac 
Geoghegan, and Maurice, son of Murtogh Mac 
Geoghegan, died. 

Cathal Oge, and the son of Felim O'Conor, 
took the castle of Ballintobber (in Roscommon). 

Hugh, son of Felim O'Conor, king of Con- 
naught, and Cathal Oge O'Conor, marched with 
a great army into Meath, which they biu-ned and 
laid waste ; they also burned Kilkenny, with its 
fourteen churches, in which the English had taken 
up their quarters, and after inflicting great injuries 
on them in that expedition, they returned safe to 
their own homes. 

Teige, son of Conor, son of Torlogh O'Brien, 
was slain by the Clan Coilein (of Clare). 

Cathal Oge O'Conor, the most illustrious heir 
presumptive, for excellence, magnanimity, power, 
honour, hospitality, and generosity, of his time, 
died in SHgo, of the plague. 

Murtogh, son of Thomas, son of Cathal Ria- 
vach O'Roin-ke (in Leitrim), died. 

Donal, son of O'Kelly (of Galway), and Cu- 
chonacht O'Duigenan, vicar of Kilronan (in Ros- 
common), died. 

Awlave Mac Firbis, chief historian elect of Hy 
Fiachra (in Sligo) ; Fergal, son of Teige Mac Egan, 
a learned Brehon ; John, son of Donogh Mac Fir- 
bis, chief historian elect of Hy Fiachra ; Dermod, 
son of Mac Carthy (of Cork) ; Conor, son of Mala- 
chy Carrach O'Dowd, and Murtogh his son, died. 



A. D. 1362. 

1. Kill-an-Iomaire, now the parish of Killanummery, in the 
diocese of Ardagh, county of Leitrim. Kill-Arraidh, now the 
parish of Killery in Sligo. lomtha, now Immagh, or Omey, an is- 
land off the coast of Galway, where there was an ancient abbey, 
founded by St. Feichm. 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



145 



VCd- 



A.D. 1363. 



J 



THIS year Manus 
Eoghanach, son of Co- 
nor, son of Hugh, son of 
Donal Oge O'Donnell ; 
»,and Hugh Roe Mac 
, Guire, lord of Ferman- 
agh, died. 
Manus Mebhlach (the Crafty), 
son of Hugh O'DonneU, heir pre- 
sumptive to the lordship of Tir- 
conneU, a man who performed the 
most noble and enterprising deeds 
of any in his time, was slain 
by Manus the son of Cathal Sra- 
mach O'Conor. 

Teige Mac Consnamha, chief 
of Muintir Kenny (in Leitrim), 
was wounded by Cathal, son of 
Hugh Brefnach (O'Conor), by 
whom he was after that taken 
prisoner ; and he died in his imprisonment. 



It is necessary to observe that the above figure represents 
the two ancient Irish letters I N. One of these ornamental letters 
has been given with each number of these Annals, and will be so 
continued in every succeeding number, the publisher having for 
that purpose, at a great cost, got all of them engraved by one of the 
ablest artists in Dublin, being anxious to preserve these curious 
and beautiful specimens of ancient Irish art, but few of which 
have been ever engraved in any printed works, and which are only 
to be found in the old Irish MSS., many of them illuminated, and 
of very elegant execution ; and though many of them are as early 
at least as the fifth and sixth centuries, as for instance, in the 
Book of St. CoUmikille, or the Hook of Kells, the original of 
which is in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, yet, in point of 
execution and colouring they could not be excelled, or probably 
equalled by any artists at the present day. As to the ancient 
Irish MSS. themselves, they furnish some of the most beautiful 
specimens of penmanship in any language, and are even considered 
in beauty superior to any specimens of typography. 



on THE AltCIEST DIVISIONS OP IRELAND. 

According to our ancient annalists, the first colonies wliich 
came to Ireland were Scythians, namely, the Partholanians and 
Nemedians, and afterwards, the colonies of Firboigs, Tuath De 
Danans, and Milesians, who were also either Celts or Scythians. 
The Fomorians or African pirates also settled in the north of Ire- 
land in early ages. Accounts of all these colonies have been 
already given in the notes on North and South Connaught, Dalri- 
ada, and Tir Conaill. 



Lasairiona, or Catharina, daughter of O'Ferrall, 
and wife of O'Reilly (of Cavan), died. 

Murtogh Roe, son of Donal, of Erris O'Conor, 
was slain by Teige Mac Manus. 

Bebin, daughter of Mac Geoghegan, and wife 
of the Sionach (Fox of Westmeath), died. 

Cathal Mac Donogh (of Sligo), was slain by 
the people of Moylurg. 

An awful storm of wind in this year destroyed 
many churches and buildings, and many ships 
and vessels were sunk. 

Conor O'Dowd was slain by Donogh O'Dowd 
and Murtogh O'Dowd. 



A.D. 1364. 

Hugh O'Neill, king of Tyrone, the best Irish- 
man in his time, died, after gaining the palm 
of victory for justice, hospitality, and magna- 
nimity. 

Dermod O'Brien, lord of Thomond ; Malachy, 
son of Murrogh, son of Giolla-na-neev, son of 
Hugh, son of Awlave (O'Ferrall), lord of Annaly; 
Dervail, daughter of O'Donnell, and wife of Mac 
Guire (of Fermanagh) ; Donal Mac Guire, chief 
of Clan Fergaile (barony of Knockninny, county 
of Fermanagh) ; Giolla-na-neev O'Duibhda Boi- 
reann, chief Brehon of Corcomroe (in the county 



The Firboigs divided Ireland into _/?i!e portions or provinces, 
over each of which they placed a king. 

The Tuath De Dnmnis, according to some accounts, divided the 
island into three parts, with a king over each, one of whom ruled 
alternately as supreme monarch over the entire country. 

The Milesians under their pruices, the three brothers, Heber, 
Heremon, and Ir, divided the island among them into three parts ; 
Heremon and his posterity, called Heremonians, had Leinster and 
Connaught ; Ir, and his descendants, called Irians, and Clanna 
Rory, or Rudricans, had Ulster ; and Hel)cr Fionn, or Heber the 
Fair and his posterity, called Helierians, had Munster. The kings 
of the race of Ir or Clanna Rory, it appears, were very powerful in 
early times, for, according to our annalists, about nine centuries 
before the Christian era, two brothers, princes of the posterity of 
Ir divided the entire island between them. Sobairce had the 
portion from Droglieda northwards, and built his chief fortress at 
Dun Sobairce, now Dunseverick, near the Giant's Causeway, in the 
county of Antrim ; and his brother Cearmna had his chief fortress 
at Dun Cearmna, near the place now called Kinsale, in the county 
of Cork. 

Ugaine Mor, or Hugony the Great, who was monarch of Ire- 
land of the race of Heremon, nearly four centuries before the 
Christian era, divided the island into twenty-fve portions among 
his twenty-five children, namely, twenty-two sons and three 
daughters. 

Eochaidh Feidhlioch, who was monarch of Ireland, of the race 
of Heremon, a short time before the Christian era, divided the 
kingdom into^^i-e proi^inces, namely, Ulster, Connaught, Leinster, 
and the two provinces of Munster. 

U 



146 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1364. 



of Clare) ; and AifFric, daughter of Bryan O'Reilly 
(of Cavan), the wife of Bryan Mac Tiarnan, 
died. 



Tunthfd Teoc/i^fHo?-, monarch of Ireland, oftberace of Here- 
mon, in the beginning of the second century, formed anew division 
of Ireland into five provinces, and having taken a portion from 
each of the provinces of Leinster, Munster, Ulster, and Connaugbt, 
as already explained in the note on Menth, formed the new province 
of Meath, which was to be appropriated as mensal lands for the 
use of tile monarcbs of Ireland. This division continued for many 
centuries, and even long after the Anglo-Norman invasion ; a 
king ruling over each of the five provinces or kingdoms, namely, 
Meath, Ulster, Connaught, Leinster, and Munster, the Irisii 
government being a Penfarchy, and a supreme monarch being 
elected to preside over all the provincial kings, and designated 
Ard rigli, or the High King. The island being thus divided into 
five provinces, the name of a province in Irish was Coigeadli, 
which signifies a fifth part. 

About the middle of the second century. Con Cead Cathach, or 
Con of the hundred battles, monarch of Ireland, of the race of 
Heremon, and grandson of the monarch Tuathal Teaehtmar, hav- 
ing long and fierce contests for the sovereignty of Ireland with 
Eogan Mor, called Mogha Nuadhat, king of Munster, of the race 
of Heber, they at length agreed to divide the kingdom between 
them into two parts, by a line drawn direct from Dublin to Gal- 
way ; the northern half, consisting of the kingdoms of Sleath, 
Ulster, and Connaught, being Con's share, and hence called Leath 
Cuinn, or Con's half ; and the southern portions or kingdoms of 
Leinster and Munster, being allotted to Mogha Nuadhat, and hence 
called Lerith Mogha, or Mogha's half; and this division was long 
recognised in after times, and is often mentioned in the course of 
these annals. 

The Kingdom of Menth, as already described in the note on 
Meath, comprised the present counties of Meath and Westmeath, 
with parts of Longford, King's county, Kildare, and Dublin ; and 
in the early ages, like other parts of Ireland, was ruled by the 
Firbolgs and Danans, and lastly by the Milesians of the race of 
Heremou. The ancient kingdom of Meath was in after times added 
to the province of Leinster. 

The Ktngcloni of Ulster comprised the present counties of 
Armagh, Down, Antrim, Tyrone, Derry, Donegal, Fermanagh, and 
Monaghan, with a portion of the eastern part of Cavan, the greater 
part of Cavan, called East Brefney, belonging to Connaught. 
Ulster also contained the present county of Louth, which was 
part of Orgiall, as explained in the note on Orgiall, the boundaries 
between Ulster and Meatli being the rivers Boyne and Black- 
water, from Drogheda to Kells. The Firbolgs, Danans, and Fomo- 
rians ruled over Ulster in the early ages ; and afterwards the 
Milesians, of the race of Ir or Clanna Rory ; but in the fourth and 
fifth centuries, the race of Ir were conquered by the Heremonians 
of the race of Hy Niall and Clan Colla, who became rulers of 
Ulster, as already explained in the notes on Orgiall, Tir Eogain, 
and Tir Conaill. 

The Kingdom of Connaught, as explained in the notes on North 
and South Connaught and Brefney, comprised the present counties 
of Sligo, Mayo, Galway, Roscommon, and Leitrim, with the 
greater part of Cavan, whicli was part of ancient Brefney. The 
territory of the present county of Clare also originally belonged to 
Connaught, but was in early times added to Munster. Connaught 
in the early ages was ruled by the Firbolgs, Danans, and 
Fomorians, and lastly by the Milesians of the race of Heremon. 

The Kingdom of Leinster comprised the present counties of 
Wexford, Wicklow, Carlow, with the greater part of Kilkenny, 
the Queen's county, the greater part of the King's county, and of 
Kildare, and that part of Dublin south of the river Litfey ; hut in 
after times, the kingdom of Meath, and also the county of Louth in 
Ulster, were added to the province of Leinster. The Firbolgs and 
Danans were the first rulers of Lemster, and lastly the Milesians 
of the race of Heremon. 

Tlie Kingdom of Munster, in Irish, Mumha, Mumhan, and 
Miimhain, according to O'Flaherty's Ogygia, derived its name from 



Donal, son of Roderick O'Kelly, heir presump- 
tive to the lordship of Hy Maine, died. 

Giolla-na-neev Mac Gowan, of the records, a 



Eochaidh Muraho, who was king of Munster and monarch of 
Ireland of the race of Heber, about eight centuries before the 
Christian era ; Mimster is latinised Momonia. Ancient Munster 
comprised the present counties of Tipperary, Waterford, Cork, 
Kerry, Limerick, and part of Kilkenny, to which was added the 
territory now forming the county of Clare, by Lughaidh Mcann, 
king of Munster, of the race of the Dalcassians in the latter end of 
the third century, who took it from Connaught and added it to 
Munster. Ancient Munster is mentioned under the following 
divisions, namely, Tuiidh il/j(m/«/7! or North Munster, anglicised 
Thomond ; JJeas Mainhnn, or South Munster, rendered Desmond ; 
Urmhumhri or Oirmhumha, which signifies East Munster, and 
has been anglicised Orniond, and leir Mumhan, or West Munster. 
These divisions will be followed in the course of tliese notes ; and 
in the first place will bo given the historj- and topography of the 
kuigdom of Thomond, with its chiefs and elans. 

I. Thomond, under its ancient kings, extended from the isles of 
Arran, ofl' the coast of Galway, to the mountain of Eibline, near 
Cashel in Tipperary, thence to Cam Feradaigh, now Knock Aine, 
in Limerick, and from Leim Chuchullain or Cuchullin's Leap, now 
Loophead, at the mouth of the Shannon in the county of Clare, to 
Sliabh Dala mountain in Ossory, on the borders of Tipperary, 
Kilkenny, and Queen's county, thus comprising the present 
counties of Clare and Limerick, with the greater part of Tipperary, 
but in after times Thomond was confined to the present county 
of Clare. 

The Milesians of the race of Heber or the Hcberians, as above 
explained, possessed Munster, but the descendants of Ith, son of 
Breogain, and uncle of Milesius, also possessed in early times a 
great part of Munster. The race of Heber furnished most of the 
kings of Munster, and many of them were also monarcbs of Ire- 
land. The Heberians are called by the old annalists Deirgtheine, 
from one of their ancient kings named Deirgtheine. Tlie race of 
Ith or Ithians also furnished many kings of Munster, and some of 
them were also monarcbs of Ireland in the early ages. They were 
called Dairine, from one of their kings so named. The Deirgtini- 
ans and Darinians had frequent contests before the period of the 
Christian era, for the sovereignty of Munster, which they at length 
agreed to hold alternately ; thus while the head of one race reigned 
as king, the other held the office of chief Brehon or judge. 

The Clanna 2>«/(//(«irf/i, another colony, also settled in Munster 
a short time before the Christian era. They were named Deagadhs 
or Degadians, from Deagadh or Deag their chief, and as stated in 
O'Flaherty's Ogygia, (vol. ii., p. 14-2), were also called Ernans, 
from Oilioll Arronn, a prince of Ulster, and grandfather of Deag. 
These Deagadians or Ernans were of the race of Heremon, and 
being expelled from Ulster by the race of Ir, or Clanna Rory, went 
to Munster, where they were favourably received, and had lands 
allotted to them by Duach, king of Munster, of the race of Heber, 
who was also monarch of Ireland. The Clanna Deagha make a 
remarkable figure in the ancient history of Munster; they had 
extensive possessions, became very powerful, and, as stated by 
Keating, O'Flaherty, O'Halloran, and other historians, were the 
chief military commanders of Munster, and masters nearly of the 
entire country. Some of them became kings of Munster, and 
three of them also monarcbs of Ireland, namely, Eiderscol, and his 
son Conaire, about the beginning of the Christian era ; and 
Conaire II., a descendant of Conaire I., was monarch of Ireland in 
the beginning of the third century. From Cairbre Riada, son of 
Conaire II., were descended the Dalriadians, princes of Ulster, 
who planted a colony in Albain, afterwards called Scotland, in the 
third century ; and from them were descended the Scottish kings of 
Jlilesian race, and the royal house of Stuart. In the second century, 
the Deagas becoming so powerful as nearly to assume the entire sove- 
reignty of Munster, to the exclusion oftberace of Heber, they were 
attacked and conquered by the celebrated Eogan More, or Mogha 
Nuadhat, who expelled them from Munster, except such families 
of them as yielded bun submission. Amongst the chiefs of the 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



147 



learned historian ; Dermod O'Sgingin, chief his- 
toriographerof TirconneU; and Margaret, daughter 



Clanna Deagadh, are mentioned Daire, and liis son Conrigh Mac 
Daire, famous warriors in Munster about the beginnina; of the 
Christian era ; and celebrated by tlie ancient bards, amongst tlie 
coteniporary heroes Cucliullain, and Conall Cearnach, cliiefs of the 
Red Brancli Knights of Ulster. This warrior, Conrigh Mac Daire, 
had his fortress, called Cathair Conraidh, on tlie top of a mountain 
still called Cahir Conrigh, situated between the bays of Castlemain 
and Tralee, in the county of Kerry ; and of this fortress, composed 
of huge stones in a circular form, there are some remains to this 
day ; and on the opposite shore, at the mouth of the Sliannon, is a 
promontory called Loophead, anciently named Leini Chuchullain, 
or Cuchullan's Leap, from which place the ancient bards state that 
the famous hero Cuchullain set out, when on his expedition to 
attack Conraidh Mac Daire, whom he slew. On the hill of 
Knoekfennell, near Lough Gur in Limerick, are the remains of an 
immense fortress of Cyclopean nrcliitccfiire, of a circular form, 
three hundred and sixty feet in circumference, with walls ten feet 
thick, composed of massive stones accurately laiil together without 
cement ; and on Calan mountain in the county Clare are some 
huge stones, said to be the tomb of Conan, one of the celebrated 
Fenian heroes of the third century. 

About the beginning of the Christian era, Eochaidh Abrat 
Ruadh, or Eochy of the Red Brows, of the race of Heber, a man 
of gigantic stature, was king of South Munster; and Conrigh Mac 
Daire was prince of North Munster, and was succeeded by Cairbre 
Finn More, son of the monarch Conaire, also of the ClannaDeagadh, 
as king of Munster. In the second century, amongst the battles 
fought by the monarch Tuathal Teachtmar, are mentioned 
those of Magh Raighne, and of Clar or Clare, in which fell 
Felim and Conall, two princes of the Deagadhs of Munster, as 
mentioned in O'Flaherty's Ogygia, vol. ii. pp. 1!)2, 1!)5 ; and 
Eochaidh, the son of Daire, succeeded as king of both Munsters. 
In the latter end of the second century, Eogan More, or Mogha 
Nuadhat, called also Eogan Taidhleach, or Eogan the Splendid, of 
the race of Heber, and maternally descended from the Clanna 
Deagadhs, was a celebrated warrior ; and having contended for 
the monarchy of Ireland with Con of the Hundred Battles, they at 
last divided the island between them as already stated ; but Eogan 
being afterwards defeated, and forced to fly into Spain, where lie 
lived many years in exile, and married Beara, a Spanish princess, 
daughter to Heber, king of Castile ; and entering into a confederacy 
with Fraeeh, the son of Heber, they collected a powerful army, 
with which they landed in Ireland, to recover the sovereignty from 
Con of the Hundred Battles, and both armies, A.D. 192, fought a 
tremendous battle on the plain of Moylena, in which Con was 
victorious, and Eogan More was killed by Goll, the son of Morna, 
a celebrated champion of Connaught of the Firbolg race. Tlie 
place where this battle was fought, as stated in O'Flaherty's 
Ogygia, (vol. ii p. 212), is the ancient barony of Fircall in the 
King's county, and there are still to be seen there two hillocks 
or sepulchral mounds, in one of which was buried the body of 
Eogan, and in the other that of Fraeeh, the Spaniard, who was 
also slain in that batlte. 

Oilioll Olum, the son of Eogan More by the Spanish princess 
Beara, and sou-in-law of the monarch Con of the Hundred Battles, 
being married to his daughter Saba, having contended with Lugh- 
aidh Mac Con, a prince of the race of Ith, for the sovereignty of 
Munster, defeated him and Nemeth, prince of the Ernans, in a 
great battle at Ceann Febradh, in which Eogan, the son of Oilioll, 
slew Dadar the Druid, and Nemeth was slain by Cairbre Riada; 
after this victory, Oilioll Olum became king of Munster. 

Oilioll Olum had three sons, Eogan, Cormac Cas, and Cian, and 
by his will, he made a regulation that the kingdom of Munster 
should be ruled alternately by one of the posterity of Eogan and 
Cormac Cas. From Cormac Cas, king of Munster, or according 
to others, from his descendant Cais, who was king of Thomond in 
the fifth century, their posterity got the name Dal Cais or Dnl 
GaiSf anglicised Dalcassians, the various families of whom, were 
located chiefly in that part of Thomond which forms the present 



of Walter Burke, the wife of Hugh, son of Felim 
O'Conor, king of Connaught, died. 



county of Clare, and the ruling family of them were the O'Briens, 
kings of Thomond. From Eogan, another of the sons of Oilioll 
Olum, were descended the Eoijanuchts or Eiiijcnuins, who were, 
alternately with the Dalcassians, kings of Munster, and sometimes 
styled kings of Cashel. The Eugenians possessed Desmond, or 
South Munster, the present counties of Cork and Kerry, and they 
also had a territory, part of the present county of Tipjierary, about 
Cashel, called the Eoganacht of Cashel. The head family of the 
Eugenians were the Mac Carthys, princes of Desmond. From 
Cian, the third son of Oilioll Olum, were descended the Clnii 
Kian, who were located chiefly in Orinond, and the chief of which 
families were the O'Carrolls, princes of Ely. An account of the 
various families of the Dalcassians, Eugenians, and Clan Kian, and 
of the other Milesian families of Munster, are given in the subse- 
quent part of the present article on Thomond, and in the notes on 
Desmond and Orinond. In the latter end of the third century, 
Lughaidh Meann, king of Munster, of the race of the Dalcassians, 
took the territory afterwar<is called the county of Clare, from Con- 
naught, and added it to Tliomond. Conall Eachluath, or Conall 
of the Swift Steeds, son of Lughaidh iVIeann, became king of 
Munster. Criomthan, monarch of Ireland, who was also a 
descendant of Oilioll Olum, and is celebrated for his foreign 
expeditions into Gaul and Britain, during his absence appointed 
Conall Eachluath as regent of the kingdom, being distinguished for 
his great valour. Cais, the son of Conall, was prince of Thomond, 
and Carthen Dubli, the son of Cais, succeeded as prince of the 
Dalcassians. In the seventh century, A.D. 622, Guaire, king of 
Connaught, having collected a great army, marched into 'Thomond, 
for the purpose of recovering the territory of Clare, which had been 
taken from Connaught, and fought a great battle against the Munster 
forces commanded by Failbe FUinii and Dionia, kings of Munster, 
but the Conacians were defeated, and, according to some accounts, 
four thousand of them were slain. The place where this 
battle was fought was called Cam Feradaigh, which, according 
to Steward's Topography, is now called Knock Aine in the county 
of Limerick. In the ninth and tentu centuries the Danes overran 
various parts of Ireland, and made settlements, particularly in the 
sea-ports of Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, Limerick, and Cork. 
In the middle of the tenth century, from A.D. 940 to 950, Ceal- 
lachan,king of Cashel, of the Eugenian race, a celebrated warrior, 
carried on long and fierce contests with the Danes, whom he 
defeated in many batlles, in one of which, described by O'Halloran 
as fought at a place called Sainangeal,now Singland, near Limerick, 
the Danes were defeated with dreadful slaughter, their chief com- 
mander, Aulaf, having his skull cloven throuah his helmet by 
Ceallaclian himself, with a single stroke of his battle-axe. The 
chiefs under Ceallachan acted with equal valour ; O'Sullivan 
killed in single combat, and cut off the head of Moran, son of the 
king of Denmark ; O'Keefle ran his spear through the body of 
Magnus, the Danish standard bearer ; and Lochlin, another Danish 
chief, was slain m single combat by O'Riordan. Ceallachan, king 
of Cashel, died A.D. 9.52. Lorcan, king of Munster, of the Dal- 
cassian race, died A.D. 942. Cineidi, son of Lorcan, succeeded as 
king of Thomond, and dying A. D. 950, was succeeded by his son 
Mahon, who became king of Munster. Mahon was a celebrated war- 
rior and fought many battles against the Danes, over whom he gained 
great victories, particularly at tiie battle of Sulcliaid,near Limerick, 
fought A. D. 950, in whicli more than 2,000 of the foreigners were 
slain ; and Brian, brother of Mahon, then a young man, displayed 
great bravery in this battle. Mahon having been slain by one of the 
Irish chiefs of Thomond, named Donovan, was succeeded as king 
of Munster, A. D. 905, by his brother Brian, afterwards known as 
the celebrated Brian Boroimhe. According to O'Halloran, Mac 
Curtin, and others, he was called Brian Boroimhe, or Brian of the 
Tributes, from the word Boroimhe, which signifies a tribute of 
cattle, in consequence of his having exacted tribute from the peo- 
ple of Leinster, as a punishment for their having assisted the 
Danes in their wars with the Irish; or, according to O'Brien, in 
his Irish dictionary, at the word Borumha, he got his name from 

u 2 



148 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1365. 



A.D. 1365. 
Patrick O'Congaile, parson and erenach of 
Ross Airthii- (Rossory in Fei-managh), died. 



a torn) so called near Killaloe, in the county of Clare, adjoining 
which he Iiad his palace of Ceann Coradh. Brian, while king of 
Munster, for a period of more tlian thirty years, carried on inces- 
sant war with the Danes, whom he defeated, according to some 
accounts, in forty battles, chiefly fought in Munster and Leinster, 
and having attained greater power than any of the Irish kings, he 
marched his victorious forces through all parts of Ireland, reducing 
to subjection the provincial kings and chiefs, and obtaining hos- 
tages from them ; and finally, in A. D. 1002, deposed the monarch, 
Malachy II., and assumed the sovereignty of Ireland, thus setting 
aside the Hy Niall kings of the race of Heremon, who had exclu- 
sively ruled as nionarchs of Ireland for a period of six hundred 
years. Brian, having ruled as monarch of Ireland for twelve 
years, fought the great battle of Clontarf, in which he totally de- 
feated the Danes, on Good Friday, the 23rd of April, A.D. i014, 
but after the victory was himself slain, nnawares, in his tent, by 
Brodar, a Danish chief. Brian, at the time of his death, was in 
the 8Sth year of his age, and bis body was conveyed to Armagh, 
and buried in St. Patrick's cathedral, with great honours and so- 
lemnity. Brian is represented by our old annalists as a man of 
fine figure, of large stature, of great strength of body, and undaunted 
valour, and has beenalways justly celebrated as one of the greatest 
of the Irish monarchs, equally conspicuous for his mental endow- 
ments and physical energies; a man of great intellectual powers, 
sagacity, and bravery ; a warrior and legislator ; and, at the same 
time, distinguished ibr his munificence, piety, and patronage of 
learned men ; tiius combining all the elements of a great character, 
equally eminent in the arts of war and peace ; a hero and patriot 
whose memory will always remain famous as one of the foremost 
of the Irish kings in wisdom and valour. JIurchertach Mac Liag, 
chief bard, historian, and secretary to Brian Born, wrote his life, 
and an account of his wars with tlie Danes, together with many 
beautiful poems on his heroic actions. An account of Mac Liag's 
Avorks is to be found, at the year 101.5, in O'Reilly's Irish Writers, 
and from these curious and valuable MSS. an interesting life of 
Brian Born could be compiled. In the chronological poem on the 
kings of Ireland, written in the twelfth century by Giolla Moduda 
O'Cassidy, abbot of Ardbraccan, and given in the first volume of 
O'Conor's Rerum Hib. Scriptores, is the following verse on Brian 
Boru : — 

" Fiach fairrgi, tuile trie 
Brian breo os Banbha blaith brie, 
Cen ciamhair, cen bed, cen brath. 
Da bliadhain decc a degh rath, 
Denmaircc Atlia cliath na cclann 
Dibherga Laochda Lochlann." 

" A raven of the sea — a rapid torrent. 
Was Brian the brave over Banba (Ireland) of varied fame, 
Free from sadness, free from grief, and free from stain, 
For twelve years of deserved prosperity, 
To Dublin (Clontarf) of the clans of woeful deeds 
Against the warring chiefs of Lochlinn (Denmark)." 

Brian lived at his palace of Ceann Coradh, or Kincora, which, 
according to O'Halloran, was called Ball Borumha, signifying the 
habitation of Borunia, in a style of regal splendour and magnifi- 
cence unequalled by any of the Irish kings since the days of Cor- 
mac, the celebrated monarch of Ireland in the third century, the 
glories of whose palace at Tara were for many ages the theme of the 
Irish bards. The palace of Kincora was situated on the banks of 
the Shannon, near Killaloe, in the county of Clare, and some exten- 
sive earthen ramparts, shewing its site, remain to this day. An 
account of the revenues and tributes paid to Brian is given in 
Keating's Ireland, from the first vohmie of Valancey's Collectanea, 
translated from the ancient record called Leabhar na g-Ceart, or 
the Book of Rights, which gives an account of the tributes and re- 
venues of the Irish kings and princes. A perfect copy of the Book 



Roderick, son of Donal O'Neill, was slain with 
the cast of a javelin, by Malachy, son of Anghir 
Mac Cathmaoil (^of Tyrone.) 



of Rights is in the library of Sir William Betliam, with a full trans- 
lation of it into English by the translator of these Annals. The 
following tributes were paid to Brian Boru, at his palace of Kin- 
cora, annually, on the first day of November ; From Connaught, 
800 cows and 800 hogs. From Tirconnell or Donegal, 600 cows, 
and 500 cloaks or mantles. From Tir Eogain, or Tyrone, 60 hogs, 
and 60 loads of iron. From the Clanna Rory of Ulster, 160 cows 
and 150 hogs. From the people of Orgiall, now the counties of 
Louth, Monaghan, and Armagh, 160 cows. From the province of 
Leinster, 300 bullocks, 300 hogs, and 300 loads of iron. From the 
people of Ossory, 60 beeves, GO hogs, and 60 loads of iron Besides 
these tributes he had also large revenues from the two kingdoms of 
IMunster, the Dalcassinn clans of Thomond being the only people 
wlio had the privilege of exemption from all tributes. Together 
with the above contributions, Brian, when he conquered the Danes, 
gave them permission to reside in some of the chief cities of Leins- 
ter and Munster, for purposes of commerce, but for such permis- 
sion com])elled the Danes of Limerick to deliver him annually 3G5 
pipes of red wine, and levied 150 pipes of wine on the Danes of 
Dublin. 

The O'BHenx took their name from Brian Boru, and the follow- 
ing account of his successors, the O'Briens, kings of Munster and 
Thomond, have been collected from the Four Masters ; from the 
histories of O'Halloran, Mac Geoghegan, &c. ; from Ware, and va- 
rious other sources : Donogh O'Brien, the son of Brian Boru, 
succeeded his father as king of Munster, and was partly acknow- 
ledged as monarch of Ireland. He abdicated the throne of Muns- 
ter A. D. 1063, and retired to Rome, where he died, in the monas- 
tery of St. Stephen, in the 88th year of his age. The second wife 
of Donogh was Driella, daughter of Godwin, earl of Kent, and 
sister to Harold, the last Saxon king of England ; and after Wil- 
liam the Conqueror had defeated and slain Harold, at the battle of 
Hastings, A.D. 1066, Edmond, Godwin, and Magnus, sons of Ha- 
rold, retired to Ireland, and resided at the court of their relative, 
Torlogh O'Brien, king of Munster. Torlogh O'Brien, the nephew 
of Donogh, and grandson of Brian Boru, succeeded as king of 
Munster, and was also generally acknowledged as monarch of Ire- 
land. He was a prince of great power and valour, and died at his 
palace of Kincora, A, D. 1086, in the 77th year of his age. His 
three sons, Teige, Murtogh, and Dermod, contended for the throne 
of Munster, but JIurtogh O'Brien became at last king of Munster, 
and had many contests for the monarchy of Ireland with Donal 
Mac Loughlin, king of Ulster, who, having marched to Munster 
Mith a powerful force, took and l>urned to the ground the royal 
palace of Kincora, A.D. 1088; but in the year 1101 Murtogh 
marched a powerful army into Ulster, and having proceeded to 
Easroe, or Ballyshannon, and to Inisowen, took the fortress of 
Aileach, tlie celebrated residence of the kings of Ulster, which he 
totally demolished, in retaliation for the destruction of Kincora. 
Murtogh O'Brien was a powerful prince, and one of his daughters 
was married to Sigurd, king of the Hebrides and Isle of Mann, and 
son of Magnus the celebrated king of Norway ; and it is said that 
one of his relatives, a prince of the O'Briens, was also king of the 
Isle of Mann. A. D. 1095, Murtogh invaded Leinster, and having 
expelled Godfrey Merenagh, the Danish king of Dublin, became 
himself king of Dublin and Fingal, and ruled over the greater part 
of Leinster, and ap])ointed his son Donal governor of Dublin. 
Murtogh O'Brien being deposed, A. D. 1116, retired to the monas- 
tery of Lismore, where he died, A.D. HID. Dermod O'Brien, his 
brother, succeeded as king of Munster. Conor O'Brien, son of 
Dermod, succeeded as king of Munster, A.D. 1120, and died at 
Killaloe, A.D. 1142. Torlogh 0'Brien,brother of Conor, succeeded 
as king of Munster ; but Teige, son of Dermod O'Brien, having 
contended with him for the sovereignty, was assisted by Torlogh 
O'Conor, king of Connaught, who, having collected a powerful 
force, marched to Munster, joined by the men of Meath and those 
of Leinster, under Dermod Mac Murrogh, king of Leinster, and 
also aided liy Dermod Mac Carthy, king of Desmond. A bloody 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



149 



Felim, the hospitable, son of Donal O' Conor, 
lord of Corcomroe (in Clare), a man of unbounded 



battle was foiiglit at a place called Moin Store, or the Great Bog, 
between Cork and the River Blackwater, A.D. 1151, in which 
9000 of the Dalcassians were totally defeated ; and, according to 
the Four Masters, and the Book of Leaean, uinvards of 7000 of 
them were slain, together with Murtogh, the son ofConor O'Brien, 
prince of Tlioraond,and heir presumptive to the throne of Munster; 
Lughad, the son of Donald O'Brien, and the following chiefs: 
Aneslis O'Grady, lord of Hy Caissin, and five others of the 
O'Gradys ; Flaherty O'Dea, and eight other chiefs of the O'Deas ; 
two of the O'Kennedys ; nine chiefs of the O'Seanchans ; upwards 
of twenty-four chiefs of the O'Hogans ; five of the O'Neils, and 
many other chiefs. Torlogh O'Brien died A.D. 1107, and was 
succeeded by his son, Murtogh O'Brien, who was killed the follow- 
ing year by Conor O'Brien, or, according to other accounts, by 
the people of Desmond, who, on account of his death, had to pay 
an e/Y(«f, or fine, of 3000 cows, as stated by O'Halloran. Donal 
O'Brien, brother of JIurtogh, succeeded, and was kuig of Thomond 
at the period of the Anglo-Norman invasion. 

The O'Briens had long and fierce contests to maintain their in- 
dependence against the Anglo-Norman and English settlers ; hut 
they held their rank as kings and princes of Thomond, and are also 
styled kings of Limerick down to the reign of Henry VIII., and 
many celebrated chiefs of them are mentioned in the course of 
these Annals. The O'Briens in the twelfth century are thus desig- 
uated in the topographical poem of O'Heerin : 

" Airdrigh air Eirinn uile 
O'Briain bile na Boruimhe 
O crich Caisil cead do chind 
Treabh os taisibh an tailgiun." 

" High king of all Erin, 
Is O'Brien, the stately tree of Bornime, 
Over the country of Cashel by permission ordained 
A tribe of protectmg chiefs are the pious warriors." 

The place o{ inauguration of the O'Briens as kings and princes of 
Thomond, as stated in O'Brien's Dictionary, at the word Bile, was 
at Mugh Adhuir, a plain in the barony of TuUagh, county of 
Clare, at a large tree there, the word Bile, in Irish, signifying a 
tree, hence the place was called Bile Magh Adhair. The Imttle- 
crij of the O'Briens was Lamh laidir an unchdar, or the strong 
hand uppermost, and on their armorial ensigns were three lions 
rampant, which were also on the standards of Brian Boru, borne 
by the Dalcassians at the battle of Clontarf, as stated in O'Brien's 
Dictionary, under the word Coueuhar. The O'Briens had nume- 
rous castles in various parts of the counties of Clare and Limerick. 
Tliere were, altogether, one hundred and seventy-two castles in the 
county of Clare, most of which were erected by the O'Briens ; fifty 
of them, it is said, were built by the Mac Namaras, and twenty 
belonged to the O'Loghlins. There were about one hundred cas- 
tles in the county of Limerick, many of them belonging to the 
O'Briens, but several of the castles in Limerick and Clare were 
also erected by the Fitzgeralds, de Clares, and other Anglo-Nor- 
man settlers. There are still to be seen ruins and remains of 
about one hundred and fifty castles in the counties of Clare and 
Limerick. In A.D. lo43, Murrogh O'Brien, having dispossessed 
his nephew Donogh of the principality of Thomond, repaired to 
England, and made his submission to king Henry VIII., to whom 
he resigned his principality, and was created earl of Thomond, and 
baron of Inchiquin, the conditions being, as stated in Lodge's 
Peerage, that he should utterly forsake and give up the name of 
O'Brien, and all claims to which he might pretend by the same, 
and take such name as the kuig should please to give him ; and he 
and his heirs, and the inhabitors of his lands, shouhl use the 
English dress, manners, customs, and language ; that he should 
give up the Irish dress, customs, and language, and keep no kerns 
or galloglasses ; and Conor O'Brien, earl of Thomond hi the reign 
of Elizabeth, as stated by Lodge, did, in the year loJB, on Sunday 



hospitality and generosity ; and Tomaltach, son of 
Murcha O'Ferrall, died. 



the lOth of July, after divine service, publicly and solemnly swear 
for ever to renounce the name of O'Brien, and use only the name 
of earl of Thomond. Donogh O'Brien was, hy King Henry VIII. , 
created baron of Ihrackan, in the county of Clare; and 
other branches of the O'Briens were created viscounts of Clare by 
king Charles II., and earls of Clare by king James II. In the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the O'Briens were lords and ad- 
mirals of the Isles of Arran, in the county of tialway. In modem 
times the O'Briens are marquesses of Tliomond, earls of Inchiquin, 
and barons of Burren, in the county of Clare ; and a female branch 
of the O'Briens had the title of countesses of the Orkneys, in 
Scotland. Many of the O'Briens have been distinguished com- 
manders in the Irish Brigades in the service of France, under the 
titles of earls of Clare and counts of Thomond. The O'Briens are 
still a very numerous name in various parts of Leinster and Mon- 
ster, and there are many highly respectable families of them, par- 
ticularly in the counties of Clare, Limerick, and Tipperary. The 
chief representatives of the O'Briens at the present day are the 
marquesses of Thomond, and the O'Briens of Dromoland, in the 
county of Clare, of which family are Sir Lucius O'Brien of Dromo- 
land, and his brother, William Smith O'Brien, M. P. for the county 
of Limerick, who are lineal descendants of Brian Boru. 

On Irish Surnames. — The meaning of the terms, O' and Mac, 
Kinel, Clan, Sec, has been already explained. Surnames were 
partially adopted by various tribes as early as the ninth and tenth 
centuries, as may be seen in the Four Masters, and other annalists; 
but hereditary and permanent surnames were not established until 
the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Brian Boru made an ordinance 
that every family and clan should adopt a particular surname, in 
order to preserve correctly the history and genealogy of the diffe- 
rent tribes, and his own descendants took from himself the name of 
O'Briain, or O'Brien. It appears that surnames were not arbitra- 
rily assumed, but each family or clan were at liberty to adopt a 
surname from some particular ancestor, and generally took their 
names from some chief of their tribe, celebrated for his valour, 
wisdom, piety, or some other great qualities, some prefixing Mac, 
which means a son, and others l/a, or O, which signifies of, a 
grandson, or descendant. 

The Minister Milesians. — The following are the chief families 
of Milesians in Munster, and first will be given the three branches 
of the race of Heber, namely, the Dalcassians, the Eugenians, and 
the Clan Kiau : I. The Dalcassians. The descent of the Dal- 
cassians has been explained in the preceding part of this article, 
and they were located chiefly in Thomond, in the present counties 
of Clare and Limerick, and partly in Tipperary. Of these were 
the O'Briens, Mac Namaras, Mac Mahons, Mac Doimells, Mac 
Enirvs, O'Gradys, O'Kennedys, O'Deas, 0'Heas,0'Quinns, O'He- 
hirs," O'Heffemans, O'Hogans, O'Hurlys, O'Hartigans, O'Mo- 
lonys, O'Spillans, Mac Graths, O'Sheehans, O'Seanchans, or 
O'Seanachans, Mac GioUaiosacht, or Lysaghts, O'Lonergans, 
O'Mearas, Mac Arthurainsor Mac Arthurs, O'Kearneys, O'Caseys, 
O'Considines, O'Brodys, Mac Bruodins, Mac Clancys, Mac Cur- 
tins, O'Hickeys, O'Healys, O'Hanraghan?, O'Cashins, O'Davo- 
rans, O'Liddys, O'Tuomys, O'Nunans, O'Duhiggs, O'Aherns, 
O'Slatterrys, O'Naghtans or O'Nortons, Mac Conroys, O'Heafes, 
and some other clans. The following were also of the Dalcassian 
race, namely, the Mac Coghlans, chiefs in the King's county ; and 
the O'Finnellans and O'ScuUys, chiefs in Teffia or Westmeath, of 
whom an account has been given in the note on Meath. II. The 
Eugenians, whose descent has been already described, were located 
chiefly in Desmond, or the present counties of Cork and Kerry, but 
partly in Limerick, Clare, and Tipperary. Of these were the Mac 
Cartliys, princes of Desmond ; the O'SuUivans, O'Mabonys, 
O'Caliaghans, O'Donohoes, O'Keeffes, O'Fogartys, Mac Gilli- 
cuddys, Mac EUigotts, Mac Aulilfes, Mac Donaghs, Mac Fineens, 
O'Moryartys, O'Kerwies, O'Cuilleans, O'Finegans, OTraeys, 
O'Leclians," O'Flannerys, O'Meighans, and some other clans. 
III. The Clan-Kinn, whose descent has been already given, were 
located chiefly in Ormond, or the present county of Tipperary, and 
the head of tlus tribe were the O'CarroUs, prmces of Ely. The 



150 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1365. 



The Clan Costello (of Mayo), made an attack 
on the people of Lieney (in Shgo), in which Cor- 



other families were the O'Meaghers or O'Mahers, the Mae 
Keoghs, O'Corcorans, O'Dulhunty, changed to Delahunty. The 
O'Haras and O'Garas, lords of Lieny and Coolavin in Sligo ; and 
the O'Conors, chiefs of Kianaght in Derry, of whom accounts have 
been already given in the notes on North Connaught and Tir 
Eogain, were also branches of the Clan-Kian of Munster. IV. The 
Ithians, or Durinlans, descended from Ith, sou of Breogain and 
uncle of Milesius, had several respectable chiefs and clans settled 
in Munster, as the O'Driscolls, O'Learys, O'Baires, O'Hallinans, 
O'Finns, O'Cowheys, O'Crowleys, O'Corniacs, and some others in 
the county of Cork. The Mac Auleys, chiefs of Calry in West- 
meath ; the Mac Clancys, chiefs of Dartry in Leitrim ; and the 
O'Cuirnins of Leitrim, were also of the race of Ith. As stated in 
O'Flaherty's Ogygia, and the Dissertations of Charles O'Conor, 
the Campbells of Scotland, of whom were the dukes of Argyll, and 
several other noble families in that kingdom, were also of the race 
of Ith, descended from Lughaidh Mac Con, who was monarch of 
Ireland in the third century ; and according to O'Flaherty and 
O'Halloran, the High Stewards or ancient earls of Lennox and 
Mar in Scotland, were descended from the Heberians of Munster, 
and hence they assisted Brian Boru at the battle of Clontarf 
V. The Claniut Deiiga or Degndlinis also called Ernans, of whom 
an account has been given in the preceding part of this article, 
were celebrated chiefs in Munster, hut originally descended from 
the Heremonians of Ulster ; and from the Clanna Deaga were 
descended, as already shewn, the Dalriednns or Didriedlmans of 
Ulster, who, in the third century, planted the Milesian colony in 
Albany or North Britain, afterwards called Scotland, and from 
whom were descended the Scottish kings and the House of Stuart. 
Of the Clanna Deaga there were several families of note settled in 
Munster, given by Keating, O'Flaherty, and O'Halloran, as the 
O'Falvies of Kerry, hereditary admirals of Desmond ; the O'Con- 
nells of Kerry, Limerick, and Clare; the O'Flynns, O'Sheas, 
O'CuUenans, O'Fihellys, O'Donegans, O'Connings or Gunnings, 
O'Cuires, and some other clans ; also the O'Baiscins and O'Don- 
nels of Clare, as may be seen in vol. iii. pp. 397, 407, and 
409 of O'Halloran's Ireland. VI. The Irians or Clantta Rory 
of Ulster, also settled several families of note in Munster, as early 
as the first and second centuries, descended from Fergus Mac 
Roy, king of Ulster, of the race of Ir, and Meva the celebrated 
queen of Connaught, daughter of Eochy Feidhlioch, monarch of 
Ireland a short time before the Christian era, of whom were the 
following, namely, the O'Conors, lords of Kerry ; the O'Conors, 
lords of Corcoraroe in Clare ; and the O'Loghlins, lords of Barren 
in Clare ; and of the same race were also the O'Ferralls, lords of 
Annaly or Longford ; and the Mac Rannalls, lords of Muintir Eo- 
luis in Leitrim. From another branch oftheClanna Rory, descended 
from tlie celebrated warrior Conall Cearnach, chief of the Red 
Branch knights of Ulster a short time before the Chi-istian era, 
were the Mac Gennises, lords of Iveagh in the county of Down ; 
the O'Moores, princes of Leix in the Queen's county ; the Mac 
Cartans, Mac Dnnlevys, Mac Gowans or Smiths, O'Garveys, 
O'Carolans, and some other chiefs and clans in the county of Down 
and other parts of Ulster. Of the Le'mster Mlleskins of the race 
of Heremon, were some chiefs and clans of note in Munster, as the 
O'Felans, pruices of Desies in Watcrford ; and the O'Brics, chiefs 
m Watcrford ; the O'Dwyers and O'Ryans, chiefs in Tipperary ; 
and the O'Gormans, chiefs in Clare. 

In the notes of the preceding numbers has been given the entire 
of O'Dugan's Topography, comprising Leath Cuin, or the ancient 
kingdoms of Jleath, Ulster, and Connaught, with then- chiefs and 
clans, and the territories possessed by each in ancient and modem 
times ; and in the following numbers will he given the topography 
of O'Heerv), of which an account has been given in the 
introduction to this publication, as comprising the topography of 
Leath Mogha, or the kingdoms of Leinster and Munster, together 
with their chiefs and clans. In the present article on Thomond, 
will be given the topography of the ancient territories comprised 
in the present counties of Clare and Limerick, together with their 



mac O'Hara, and six of the chiefs of his tribe 
were slain. 



chiefs and clans, and the possessions of each in ancient and modern 
times. 

It may be observed here, that the topographies of O'Dugan and 
O'Heerin were transcribed by Peregrine O'Clery, one of the Four 
Masters, and by Duald Mac Firbis, one of the learned historians of 
Leacan in Sligo, and from these two transcripts, the translator has 
made copies, and also had access to various other copies in the 
library of Sir William Betham, all of which he has accurately 
compared, to make the topography as perfect as possible. Sir 
William Betham having given free access to all his valuable MSS. 
on Irish history and antiquities, with his usual liberality, always 
an.\-ious to patronize and promote the interests of Irish literature. 

The following verses descriptive of Clare and the Dalcassian 
clans have been translated from O'Heerin : — 



" Let us treat of the race of Cormac Cas, 
Let us proceed across the Shannon of clear streams, 
From the tribe of Core our course record, 
To the tribe of Lure of brilliant deeds. (Core and Lure, 
ancient kings of Thomond). 



" The Deis Beag of the purple mantles 
Is an estate to the lawful tribes, 
The heroes of Clare are proclaimed by us 
From the fairest lands of Erin. 



'Tlie Dalcassians of Clare's battalions, 
Pure is their silver and abundant their property. 
Their gold by the furnace is purified. 
The hospitable hosts have great affluence. 



" Rich is each chief in bis own territory, 
Of the Dalcassians renowned in victories. 
Men of great prosperity whom we thus place, [Shannon." 
They possessed the land eastward from Callan to the 

I. O'Deadhaidh or O'Dea, chief of Triocha Uachtarach, called 
also Kind Fearmaic and Diseart I Dhegha, or Dysart O'Dea, now 
the parish of Dysart, barony of Inchi(ium, county of Clare. The 
O'Deas are thus mentioned by O'Heerin : — 

" With due respect we give the lead 
To the high lands of Triocha Oughter, 
O'Dea is the inheritor of the country, 
Of the brown nut producing plains." 

The O'Deas had several castles m this territory, of which some 
ruins still remain, and some chiefs of the O'Deas are mentioned in 
the course of these Annals. II. O' Cuinn or O'Quinn, chief of 
Muintir Ifernain, a territory about Curofin in the county of Clare. 
The O'Hefiernans were the tribe who possessed this territory over 
whom O'Quinn was cliief. They are thus mentioned by O'Heerin ; 

" O Quinn of the honest heart. 
Is chief of the boimtiful O'Heifemans; 
Their land is fruitful and purely fair, 
About Curofin of the banquets," 

The O'Quinns had also possessions in Limerick, and are placed in 
the barony of Kenry on the map of Ortelius. At the present tune 
the ancient family of the O'Quinns have the title of barons of 
Adare m the county of Limerick and earls of Dunraven. 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



151 



Hugh Mac Dermott made an incursion into 
Muintir Eoluis (in Leitrim) and committed great 



III. O'Flaithri or O'Flattery, and O'Catliail or O'Cahil, chiefs 
of Fiondchoradh. They are thus designated by O'Heerin : — 

" O'Flaithri wlio commands our praise, 
Possesses the land of Fionchora, 
The country of O'Cahil to the east and west 
Is the smooth plain of the fields of yews." 

IV. O'Maoilmcda, chief of Kinel m-Baith or Breintire, now Brentry, 
near Callan hill ui the county of Clare. They are thus mentioned 
by O'Heerin : — 

" Kinel Baith of the numerous tribe, 
The noble chiefs of Brentire, 
O'Mulmea ofthe bright fair plains, 
Possessed the woods about delightful Einigh." 

v. O'Haithchir or O'Hehirs, chiefs of Hy Flanchadha and Hy 
Cormac, districts in the barony of Islands, county of Clare, and, 
according to O'Halloran, of Callan, m the county of Clare. They 
are thus designated by O'Heerin : — 

" Of the race of Eogan of Oirir Cliaeh 
Are the Hy Cormac of the fine fair plain. 
To O'Hehir belongs the fertile country. 
The lord from whom great nobles sprung. 

" Chiefs who were powerful in each house 
Are of the noble clans of O'Hehir, 
They rule over Hy Flancha of hospitable mansions, 
They are noble and well armed Fenian warriors. 

VI. O'Duibhghinn or O'Duigin, chief of Muintir Conlochtaidh, 
a district in the parish of Toragraney, in the barony of Tullagh, 
county of Clare, is thus mentioned by O'Heerin : — 

" O'Duigan of the ruddy fair face 
Rules over the mild IMuinter Conlochta, 
A chief who gained his possessions 
By force of his spears in battle." 

VII. O'Grada, or O'Grady, chief of Kinel Donghuile, a large ter- 
ritory comprising the present barony of Lower Tullagh, in the 
county of Clare, wliere they are placed on tlie Map of Ortelius. 
The O'Gradys also had large possessions in the county of Limerick, 
accordmg to O'Halloran, at Carn Feradaigh, now the parish of 
Knockaney , or Auey , in the barony of Small County, in the county 
of Limerick, where the O'Gradys had their castle at Kilballyowen, 
which place is at present the residence of The O'Grady, the head 
of this ancient and respectable family. The O'Gradys are thus de- 
signated by O'Heerin, and several chiefs of them are mentioned in 
the course of these Annals : 

" Do ghabh O'Grada uile 
Cenel duasbog Donghuile 
A cuilg bunbuidhe bleachta 
Uird urlaidhe a oireachta." 

" O'Grady took the entire lands 
Of the profitable Kinel Dongally, 
His swords were yellow-liandled and keen, 
Powerful are the blows of his forces in battle." 

There are several highly respectable families ofthe O'Gradys at the 
present day in the counties of Clare and Limerick, and also in the 
county of Cork ; and in modem tunes they were created viscounts 
Guillamore, that title having been conferred, in the year 1831, on 
the Right Hon. Standish O'Grady, chief baron of the Exchequer 
in Ireland. VIII. Mac Conmara, or Mac Namara. The Mac Na- 



depredation.s, which plunders, however, were not 
unavenged, for Cormac Mac Dermott Roe, the 



maras have taken their name, as stated in O'Brien's dictionary at 
the word Cumara, from one of their ancient chiefs in the tenth 
century named Cumara, a descendant of Conall Eachluath, or 
Council of the Swift Steeds, who was king of Monster in the 
fourth century. The word Cumara makes, in the genitive, Conmara, 
which signifies a warrior of the sea, this ancient chief probably 
having been a great naval commander. The Mac Namaras were 
chiefs of Triocha Cead Hy Caisin, which territory, according to 
O'Brien and O'Halloran, is now the barony of 'Tullagh, in the 
county of Clare ; and, according to Mac Geoghegan, (p. 234), con- 
tained also part of the barony of Buuratty. The Jlac Namaras 
are also sometimes styled chiefs of Clan Cuileain, which was the 
tribe name of his family, derived from Cuilean, one of their chiefs 
in the eighth century. 'The Mac Namaras are thus designated by 
O'Heerin, and many chiefs of them are mentioned in the course of 
these Annals : 

" Riogh thaoiseach na ruathar n-glan 
Mac Conmara o Mhuigh Adhair, 
Criocha na sed thall a thir, 
Ar Triocha Cead Clann Caisin. 

" The princely chief of well fought battles 
Is Mac Namara from Moy Air, 
The land of riches is his country. 
It is the territory of Clan Caisin." 

The Mac Namaras held the high and honourable office of hereditary 
marshals of Thoniond, were very powerful, and had numerous 
castles; and there are at the present day some highly respectable 
families of the name in the county of Clare ; the head of which is 
Major William Nugent Mac INamara, of Doohn Castle, M.P. 
for the County of Clare. Some of the Mac Namaras have 
been distinguished in the service of France, particularly John 
Mac Namara, who died A.D. 1747, and was, as stated by 
Mac Geoghegan, (p. 334), an admiral in the service of 
France, of the grand military order of St. Louis, and governor of 
the port of Rochefort. IX. O'Conchubhair or O'Conor, chief of 
Triocha Cead Fear n-Arda and of Corcamruadh, the ancient name 
of the barony of Corcomroe, in the county of Clare, also anciently 
called Crioch Cuirc or the territory of Core, wUicli got its name 
from Core, prince of the race of Ir from Ulster, who settled there 
in the first century. The O'Conors were chiefs of this territory, 
and some of them are mentioned in the course of these Amials ; 
they are thus designated by O'Heerin : — • 

" The territory of Fear Arda of the gold, 
Corcomroe of the hosts of flashing battalions, 
O'Conor obtained the land. 
The heights from delightful Conagh." 

X. O'Lochlainn or O'Loghlin, chief of Boirinn, now the barony of 
Barren, county,of Clare, which was sometimes called Eastern Cor- 
comroe; they are thus mentioned by O'Heerin : — 

" O'Loghlin, a hero commanding battalions, 
Over the fertile watered plains of Barren, 
And the lands of Core which he holds by right, 
A country of cattle and abundant wealth. 

Several chiefs of the O'Loghlins are mentioned In the course of 
these Annals; they were very powerful, had many castles, and 
held their rank as lords of Burren down to the reign of Elizabeth. 
As already stated in the present article, the O'Conors and 
O'Loghlins were of the same descent, namely, a branch of the 
Clanna Rory descended from the ancient kings of Ulster of the 
race of Ir. There are at the present time some highly respectable 
families of the O'Loghlins in the county of Clare, and the head of 
this ancient and distinguished family is Sir Colman O'Loghlin, 
son of the late sir Michael O'Loghlin, a very emment lawyer, and 
Master of the Rolls m Ireland. 



152 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1365. 



general Biatach' of Connaught, was slain, and 
also the two sons of Tomaltach O'Beii-ne, namely. 



XI. O'Conaill, or O'ConnpIl, chief of Hy Cuilein, from Luachair 
Ailleto Claenglais,according to O'Heerin. Tlje commons of Claon- 
(jlas are marked on the maps south-east of Abbeyfeale, in the 
barony of Upper Conello, on the verge of the county of Limerick, 
towards the river Feale, and the borders of Cork and Kerry. 
According to O'Brien, at the word Conal, and also O'Halloran, 
(vol. iii. p. 389,) the territory of the O'Connells was called 
Hy Conaill Gabhra, and comprised the present baronies of 
Upper and Lower Conello, in the county of Limerick, and got 
its name from Conall Gabhra, one of its ancient chiefs, the ancestor 
of the O'Connells. The O'Connells, chiefs of Hy Conall Gaura, 
had also, according to O'Halloran, a district called Aos Grcine,^ 
extending from Knock Greine to near Limerick, and had their chief 
residence at Castle Connell. At an early period, namely, in the 
twelfth century, as stated in O'Brien's Irish Dictionary, at the 
word Ibh Conail Gabhra, the O'Connells settled in Kerry, where 
they had a large territory extending from Sliabh Luachra, and the 
river Feale, toClaenglais, on the borders of their ancient possessions. 
According to O'Halloran, (vol. iii. p. 4U7,) as already stated in this 
article, the O'Falvies, admirals of Desmond ; the O'Connells of 
Kerry, O'Sheas, chiefs of Muskerry, in Cork, and several other 
chiefs, were descended from the ClannaDeaga, celebrated chiefs of 
Munster, originally a branch of the Heremonians of Ulster. Of the 
Clanna Deaga, was Conaire II., monarch of Ireland in the beginning 
of the third century, who was married to a daughter of his prede- 
cessor. Con of the Hundred Battles, monarch of Ireland ; by whom 
lie had a son, named Cairbre Riada, from whom were descended the 
Dalriedians of Ulster. This Cairlire Riada, about the middle of 
tlie third century, settled the colony of Dalriedians, in that part of 
North Britain called Albany, afterwards Scotland ; and from this 
colony were descended the Scottish kings, and the House of 
Stuart. From Cairbre Muse, brother to Cairbre Riada, Muiscrith, 
or Muskerry, in Cork, got its name ; and according to Keating's 
Genealogies, the O'Falvies and other chiefs were his descendants ; 
or, as stated in a learned Essay on ancient Ireland, by John 
T. O'Flaherty, Esq., published in Cork in the year 184-2, a son of 
Cairbre Riada got large possessions in South Munster, in parts of 
the present counties of Cork and Kerry ; and from him were 
descended the O'Connells of Kerry ; and according to some MS. 
communications, also the O'Falvies and O'Sheas. In the topo- 
graphical poem of O'Heerin, the O'Connells of the twelfth century 
are thus designated : — 

" OConail! catha Mnmhan, 
Toirteamhuil an tiomsughadh, 
Fian eath-armach is dual dreim, 
Sluagh cathadhnach O g-Cuilein." 

" O'Connell of the battalions of Munster, 
Mighty are his mustering forces, 
A Fenian armed warrior frequent in the fight. 
Commands the battling hosts of Hy Cuilein." 

The O'Connells had large possessions in Kerry, chiefly in the 
barony of Iveragh, and branches of them were also settled in the 
county of Clare. From an early period they were coimecfed, by 
marriage alliances, with the O'Conors, the ancient lords of Kerry. 
Maurice O'Connell, of the county of Clare, who was a general of 
brigade, and colonel of the king's guards, under James II., was 
killed at the battle of Aughrim ; and Charles O'Connell, his 
brother, of Braintree, in Clare, was a colonel in king James' service. 
Several of the O'Connells afterwards entered the Irish Brigade, in 
the service of France ; and some of them were distinguished com- 
manders, amongst whom may be mentioned Count Daniel O'Con- 
nell, a general in the French service ; others of them were officers 
in the Austrian service. Lieutenant-general sir Maurice O'Con- 
nell, is at present commander of the British forces in New South 
Wales. After the Cromwellian wars, and the Revolution, a great 



Malachy Dall and Gilcreest, with many others of 
the people of Muintir Eoluis, while in pursuit of 



part of the extensive possessions of the O'Connells were confis- 
cated ; but there are still many very respectable families of the 
O'Connells in the counties of Kerry and Clare ; and of this 
ancient family, the head is the celebrated Daniel O'Connell, of 
Darrynane Abbey, in the county of Kerry, who retains in his pos- 
session ancestral estates which never were forfeited during a tenure 
of sixteen hundred years. XII. Mac Inderigh, Mac Aneiridhe, or 
Mac Eneiry, chief of Corca Muiceadha, also called Conaill Uach- 
tarach, or the barony of Upper Conello, in the county of Limerick. 
The Mac Eneirys were descended from Mahon, king of Munster, 
brother of Brian Born, and were a highly respectable family in for- 
mer times, and their chief residence was at Castletown Mac Eneiry, 
where there are still some ruins of a large castle and monastery. 
Accounts of the Mac Eneirys are to be found in the third vol. of 
O'Halloran's Ireland, pp. 390, 398 ; and in O'Brien's Dictionary, 
at the words Concubar and Muiceadha, they are thus mentioned 
by O'Heerin : — 

" Mac Eneiry the hero of precious gems, 
Rules over Corea Muiceada of the mounds, 
A noble Fenian who always flourished, 
As doth the fair blossom on the apple tree." 

XIII. O'Billraidhe, a chief in Hy Conaill Gabhra, now the baronies 
of Upper and Lower Conello, in the county of Limerick, is thus 
mentioned by O'Heerin : — 

" O'Billry the bestower of cattle. 
Was a chief of fertile Conall Gaura, 
They were truly bountiful men of the fair plains, 
The rich lands of productive crops." 

XIV. O'Cuilein, or O'Cullen, by some rendered Collins ; 
O'Kenealys and O'Sheelians, are given by O'Halloran, vol. iii. p. 
390; and in O'Brien's Dictionary, at the word Conal, as chiefs in the 
baronies of Conello, county of Limerick. Some chiefs of the 
O'Cuileins are mentioned in the course of these Annals. XV. 
O'Maolmacasa, or O'Mackessy, chief of Corca Oiche ; and 
O'Berga, chief of Tuath Rossa, districts in the county of Limerick, 
are thus mentioned by O'Heerin : — 

" Corca Oiche of the delightful woods, 
The country of white mantles and clear streams, 
A fair land of great fertility. 
Is governed by O'Maolmackessy, 
O'Berga of the fair country took possession of. 
The districts of Hy Rossa a rich portion." 

XVI. O'Maolchalloin, a chief in Caonraidhe, now the barony of 
Kenry, county of Limerick, is thus mentioned by O'Heerin : — 

"The Fenian chief of Kenry of delightful lands. 
Is O'Mulcallen of the numerous tribe." 

XVII. O'Cleircmn and O'Flannabhra, or O'Flannery, chiefs of 
Dail Cairbre Aodhbha, a territory in the barony of Kenry, in the 
county of Limerick, thus mentioned by O'Heerin: — 

" The portion of the delightful Dal Cairbre Eva, 
Of the princes of Cashel of white standards, 
Lasting is his prosperity to the country, 
The brave and high chief O'Cleircinn." 

XVIII. O'Donnobhain, or O'Donovan, who is given by O'Brien at 
the word Cairbre, as chief of Cairbre Aodhbha, now the barony of 
Kenry, in the county of Limerick, which as stated by O'Halloran, 
(vol. iii. p. 387), was the ancient territory of O'Donovan, O'Cleircin, 
and O'Flannery ; O'Donovan is thus designated by O'Heerin : — 

" Hereditary to O'Donovan of Dun Cuire, 

Is this territory as his fortress land, 

To him without tribute belongs Maghmoill, 

And the level plains down to the Shannon." 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



153 



their property, and they also took prisoners Der- 
mod Mac Dermott and Maolrooney Mac Donogh 
Riabhach, after defeating their people. 



There are several respectable families of the O' Donovans at the 
present day, in tlie county of Cork, where, it appears, they have 
been chiefly located in modem times. The O'Donovans of 
Limerick had their chief castle at Bmree. XIX. O'Ciarmaic, 
anglicised O'Kirwick, chief of Eoganacht Aino, called by O'Hal- 
loran, .\ine Cliach, now the parish of Knockaney, in the barony of 
Small County, county of Limerick. The O'Kirwicks are thus 
mentioned by O'Heerin : 

" Eoganacht Aine of the wealthy lands, 
O'Kirwick is the mainstay of the territory, 
A country inhabited by the most noble tribes, 
They are Hy Enda, Aine, and Auluiin." 

XX. O'Maolduin, or O'Muldoon, is also given as a chief of Eogan- 
acht Ame, and thus mentioned by O'Heerin. 

" The race of O'Maolduin from Dun Cais, 
Over Eoganacht Aine in due order, 
A numerous tribe who proceeded o'er the waves, 
The armed Fenian heroes from Aughrim." 

XXI. O'Cinnfaolaidh, probably O'Kinealy, chief of Eoganacht 
Grian Gabhra, a district comprising parts of the baronies of 
Coshma and Small County, m Limerick, and thus mentioned by 
O'Heerin : 

" The Eoganacht of the fertile Grian Gaura, 
A land producing most delicious apples, 
A crown of female households in fame, 
Belongs to O'Kmfaola of the red arms." 

XXII. O'Conuing, a name anglicised to Gunning, was chief of 
Crioch Saiugil and Aosgreine, which territories are now com- 
prised in the barony of Small County, in Limerick, according to 
O'Brien, at the word Aos-Greine. Crioch Saingil, according to 
O'Halloran, (vol. iii., p. 304), is called Single Land, and sitimted 
near Limerick. The O'Cmnings are thus mentioned by O'Heerin : 

" Aos Greine of the fine fair plains, 
Was possessed by O'Cuining of Crioch Saingil, 
He cheerfully held the fair Grian, 
From the noble race of Eogan." 

XXIII. O'Caelaidh, or O'Cadhla, probably O'Keeley ; and 
O'Maille, or O'Malley, are given as chiefs of 'Tuath Luimnidh, or 
the district about Limerick. XXIV. O'Ceadfadha is given as chief 
ofTriocha-Cead-an Chalaidh, called Cala Luimne, that is, the port 
or ferry of Limerick. XXV. O'Haodha, or O'Hea, chief of 
Musgraidhe Luachra, a territory lying between Kilmallock and 
Ardpatrick, in the barony of Coshlea, in the county of Limerick, 
is thus designated by O'Heerm : 

" O'Hea, the bestower of cattle. 
Obtained the extensive Muscry Luachra, 
The tribe of the fair land of melodious song, 
Dwelt along the great salmon stream." 

There are some respectable families of the O'Heas in tlie counties 
of Limerick and Cork. XXVI. Mac Domhnaill, or Muinter Domh- 
naill, and O'Baiscind, chiefs of Triocha Cead Corca Baiscind, 
which, according to O'Halloran, is now the barony of Moyarta, hi 
the county of Clare. O'Maolcorcra is given as chief of Hy Bra- 
cain, now the barony of Ibrackan ; and another chief, O'CaoIaidh, 
or O'Keeley. In the poem two Corca Baiscins are mentioned, 
one of which was the present barony of Clonderlaw. Mac Don- 



Brj'an, son of Matthew Mac Tiarnan, chief of 
Tullyhunco (in Cavan), the most distinguished for 
prosperity, nobleness, good fame, and power, of 



nell's district is mentioned by O'Halloran, under the name of 
Darach, whom he also calls O'Dounell. These chiefs are thus 
designated by O'Heerin : 

" The two Triocha Ceads we remember. 
The two delightful Corca Baiscins, 
The Mac Donnells were its inheritors, 
The host who have shared the country. 

" Another chief of this land of music. 
Noble is the origin of his descent, 
O'Baiskinn, the stately tree from its root. 
The tribe who marched with every force. 

" The lord of Ibrackan of silken garments, 
A chief who musters mighty forces, 
O'Maolcorcra of prevailing fame. 
Whose land extends from both the bays. 

" The two territories of the entire Fochla, 
Are possessed by the valiant race of Couary, 
Along the land of Braonmoy 'tis true, 
Its lawful defender is O'Keely. 
Let us leave the race of Conary of Battles, 
The princes of Ema of the golden shields." 

XXVII. Mac Mathghamhna, nr Mac Mahon. The Mac Mahons, 
it appears, succeeded the above chiefs, as lords of Corca Baiscinn ; 
and possessed the greater part of the baronies of Moyarta and 
Clonderlaw, in the county of Clare, m which they are placed on 
the map of Ortelius ; and a further account of them may be found 
in O'Halloran, vol. iii. pp. 388, 390 ; and in O'Brien's Dictionary, 
at the words Baisginneach, Concubar, and Domhnal, where the 
Mac Mahons and Mac Donnells are given as branches of the 
O'Briens, the posterity of Brian Born, and therefore, of quite 
a difl'erent descent from the Mac Mahons, lords of Mooaghan, 
and the Mac Donnells, earls of Antrim, who are of the race of 
Clan CoUa, as explained in the note on Orgiall. Several chiefs 
of the Mac Mahons of Tliomond are mentioned in the course of 
these Annals. There were of this family, a marquis Mac Mahon 
and some other military commanders of the name, in the service of 
France and Spain, in the last century, of whom accounts may be 
found m Ferrar's History of Limerick; and the late sir William 
Mac Mahon, Master of the Rolls m Ireland, and his brother, 
General Mac Mahon, of the British service, were of this family. 
There are still some respectable families of the Mac Mahons in 
the county of Clare, and some have changed the name to Mahon, 
and the chief representative of this ancient family is O'Gorman 
Mahon, formerly M P. for Clare. XXVIII. O'Gormain, or 
O'fiorman, is given by O'Halloran, vol. iii. p. 402, as chief of 
Tullichrin, a territory comprising parts of the baronies of Moyarta 
and Ibrackan, in the county of Clare, in which they are placed 
on the map of Ortelius. There are several respectable families of 
the O'Gormans in the county of Clare, the head of which is, 
Nicholas Purcell O'Gorman, at present Assistant Barrister for the 
county of Kilkenny. XXIX. O'DiochoUa and O'Maoleithigh, are 
given as chiefs in Corcomroe, in the county of Clare, and thus 
mentioned by O'Heerin ; 

" O'Diocholla's possessions by inheritance. 
Are in Corcomroe of the intrepid battalions, 
Also O'Maoleithigh the hospitable. 
Who maintained his hereditary rights." 

XXX. O'Droighnean, or O'Drennan, chief of Slieve Eise Film and 

X 



154 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1365. 



all the chiefs in Brefney, died, 
composed the following — 



For him was 



" Bryan Mae Tiarnan of the battles, 
Whose liospitality was unbounded, 
And his liberality as unlimited 
As his achievements were extensive." 



of Kinel Seudna, a district on the borders of Clare and Galway, is 
thus mentioned by O'Heerin : 

"The lands about the fair Slieve Else, 
Are possessed by the Clan Seudna of melodious bards, 
A tribe who tirnily support their clans. 
Chief of their territory is O'Drennan. " 

XXXI. O'Neill, chief of Clan Dealbuidhe and of Tradraidhe, a 
district in the barony of Inchiquin, county of Clare, is thus men- 
tioned by O'Heerhi ; 

" The land of Clan Dalvy of the poets 
Was ruled by O'Neill chief of Fionnluaragh, 
The forces of Tradree came to his fortress, 
The descendant of the yellow-haired chiefs." 

It appears that these O'Neills of Thomond were originally some 
of the O'Neills of Ulster, some of whom, as stated in Ferrar's 
History of Limerick, (pp. 258, 36.3), changed the name to Nihell, 
of whicli name there were many respectable families in the counties 
of Limerick and Clare ; and of these was sir Balthazar Nihell, a 
Brigadier-general in tlie service of the king of Naples ; and 
colonel Nihell, of the Irish brigade, in the French service. The 
Creaghs also, of whom there are still many highly respectable 
families in the counties of Clare, Cork, and Tipperary, were 
descended from the O'Neills of Ulster, according to Ferrar, some 
of them having come to Limerick, in the tenth century, to assist 
in the expulsion of the Danes. Many of them were valiant chiefs, 
and gained several victories over the Danes ; and on one occasion, 
having worn green boughs in their helmets, they from this circum- 
stance got the name O'Craoibh, which signifies, of the branches, 
which name was anglicised to Creagh. Of this family was 
Richard Creagh, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Armagli, who 
died A.D. 1585, an eminent writer on ecclesiastical history, and 
the lives of the Irish saints. The O'Creaghs are also given by 
O'Halloran, (vol. iii. p. 414), as a branch of the O'Neills of 
Ulster. XXXII. O'Dobharchon or O'Davoran, chief of Muintir 
Lidheagha, or the O'Liddys, the tribe name of this clan. The 
O'Davorans are placed on the map of Ortelius, in the barony of 
Corcomroe, county of Clare. They are thus mentioned by 
O'Heerin : 

" The O'Davorans of the intelligent learned men. 
Chiefs of the O'Liddys of whom I treat. 
They belonged to the clans of Siunill, 
And are the supporters of nobility." 

The following chiefs and clans of Thomond, not given by O'Heerin, 
are collected from other sources. XXXIII. The O'Moloneys, 
according to O'Halloran, (vol. iii. p. 387), were chiefs of Cuilte- 
nan, now the parish of Kiltonanlea, in the barony of Tulla, county 
of Clare, where they are also placed on the map of Ortelius. 
Tliere are also, at present, many respectable families of the name, 
in the county, the head of which is James O'Molony of Kiltan- 
non, Esq. XXXIV. The O'Keameys, given by O'Halloran, 
(vol. iii. p. 400), as chiefs of Abhuin Ui Cbearnaidh, or O'Kear- 
ney's river, a district about Six- Mile- Bridge, in the baronies of 
Tulla and Bunratty, county of Clare. XXXV. The O'Caseys, 
given as chiefs of Rathconan, in the barony of Pubblebrien, county 
of Limerick, by O'Halloran, (p. 400), who states, that the viscounts 
Perry, afterwards earls of Limerick, possessed part of this estate, 
in right of his great grandmother, who was the heiress of O'Casey. 



Bryan, son of Hugh Mac Mahon, having 
assumed the lordship of Orgiall (Monaghan), 
proposed a marriage connection to Sorley, son of 
Edin Duv Mac Donnell, heir presumptive to the 
lordship of the Hebrides, and high constable of 
the province of Ulster, and prevailed on him to 



XXXVI. O'Dinnahans or O'Dinans, given by O'Halloran, (p. 420,) 
as chiefs of Uaithne, now the barony of Owneybeg, in Limerick. 

XXXVII. The O'Hallinans and Mac Sheeliys, are given by 
O'Halloran, as chiefs of Ballyhallinan, in the barony of Pubble- 
brien, county of Limerick. The O'Hallorans, given by O'Hal- 
loran, as chiefs of Faith-ui-Hallurain, a district between Tulla 
and Cjlare, in the county of Clare. The following families of note 
are given on the map of Ortelius, an ancient authority often 
quoted, which gave tiie localities and territories possessed by the 
Irish chiefs and clans, in the reign of James I., in the beginning 
of the seventeenth century, and was orignally compiled by Abra- 
ham Ortelius, of Antwerp, the celebrated geographer to king Philip 
II. of Spain, and re-published with improvements by the learned 
Charles O'Conor, of Belenagar. XXXVIII. The Mac Giollaio- 
saghts, a name anglicised to Lysaghts, are placed on the map of 
Ortelius, about Ennistymon ; the Mae Considincs, in the barony 
of Ibrackan ; the O'Dalys, in the barony of Barren ; the Mae 
Ciillereaghs, in the barony of Clondcrlaw ; the Mac Clancys, in 
the liarony of Tulla ; and the Mac Bruodins, in the barony of 
Inchiquin, all in the county of Clare. The following families are 
placed on the map, in the county of Limerick : the Mac Arthurs, 
in the barony of Pubblebrien; the O'Scanlans, in the barony of 
Pubblebrien ; and the O'Mornys, in the barony of Lower Conello. 
Several of the Dalcassian chiefs and clans, not mentioned in this 
article, are given in the notes on Ormond and Desmond, on the 
territories which they possessed. 

In the year 1180, king Henry II. granted the kingdom of 
Limerick to Herbert Fitzherbert, but he having resigned his 
claims, it was granted by king John to William and Philip de 
Braosa. In the latter end of the twelfth, and beginning of the 
thirteenth century, the Anglo-Normans penetrated into Tliomond, 
and formed some settlements about Limerick, under William de 
Braosa and William de Burgo ; and in tlie thirteenth century, 
king Henry III., gave a grant of the whole kingdom of Thomond, 
or O'Brien's country, to Thomas de Clare, son of the earl of 
Ciloucester ; and the Fitzgeralds, Burkes, and other Anglo-Nor- 
man families, also got large possessions in Limerick and Clare. 
The O'Briens, and other chiefs, maintained for centuries fierce 
contests with the Anglo-Norman and English settlers, in defence 
of their national independence. The following were the chief 
families of Anglo-Normans, and early English settlers, in the 
counties of Limerick and Clare. The de Burgos or Burkes, 
Fitzgeralds, Fitzgihbons, a branch of the Fitzgeralds, the de Clares, 
de Lacies, Browns, Barretts, Roches, Russels, Sarsfields, Stritches, 
Purcells, Husseys, Harolds, Tracys, Trants, Comyns, Whites, 
^Valshcs, Woulfes, Dongans, Rices, Aylmers, Nashes, Monsells, 
Ma^sys, &c. 

The Fitzgeralds, earls of Desmond, had vast possessions in Lime- 
rick, and of the estates of Gerald, the sixteenth earl of Desmond, 
in the reign of Elizabeth, about one hundred thousand acres were 
confiscated in the county of Limerick, and divided amongst the 
following English families : the Annesleys, Barkleys, Billingsleys, 
Bourchiers, Carters, Courtenays, Fittons, Mannerings, Stroudes, 
Trenchards, Thorntons, and Uthereds. In the reign of George I., 
according to Lodge's Peerage, Thomas, baron Southwell, brought 
over and settled on his estates about Bathkeale, in the county of 
Limerick, a colony of about three thousand Cicrmans, from Suabia 
and the Palatinate of the Rhine hence they were called Pal/itines. 

Limerick was formed into a county as early as the reign of king 
John, A.D. 1210. The Book of D'mn Smnclms, written in the 
sixth century liy Amergin, chief bard to Dermod, monarch of Ire- 
land, is a work which gives an account of the origin of the names 
of remarkable places, as fortresses, cities, mountains, lakes, rivers, 
&c. in Ireland. A copy made from the Books of Leacan and Bal- 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



155 



put away the daughter of O'Reilly (of Cavan), 

but not long after 



and to take his own daughter 



lymote, and an original Irish MS. of the eighth century on vellum, 
by the translator of these Annals, is in the library of Sir William 
Bethuin. Tlie Dinn Seanclius gives the following aecoinit of the 
origin of the name of Limerick. In the early ages a battle was 
fought here between the kings of Munster and Connaught, and the 
forces of botli sides engaged at the fords, when the tide was out ; 
but during the contest, both parties liecauie so hotly engaged 
that tliey were iiiimindful of the tide, which flowed in, and the 
flood coming so suddenly on them, they were forced to throw off 
their sliields, wlien tiie beholders exclaimed, *' Tlie pool is covered 
with shields" — hence the place got the name of Luinuieacli, the 
word Lvimne, in the ancient Irish, signifying shields. Tlie city of 
Limerick is suijposed by some to liave been the ancient Regtn of 
the Greek geographer Ptolemy, in his account of Ireland in the 
second century ; and, according to O'Halloran, Limerick was a large 
city as early as the tenth century, and ha\ ing commerce with 
Spain and other countries, and great shipping, got the name of 
Lu'imneuch-na-luingeas, or Limerick of the Ships. The geogra- 
pher Ptolemy mentions the inhabitants of the territory now 
forming the county of Clare, and the southern part ofGalway, un- 
der the name of Gnnynnl, whom Camden, and Dr. Charles O'Co- 
nor consider to have been a tribe of the Concoti! of Spain. Clare 
was formed into a county in the reign of Elizabeth, A. D. 1505, by 
the Lord Deputy, Sir Henry Sidney, and got its name, not from 
the de Clares, who were lords of tliat country, as asserted by va- 
rious writers ; but, according to JIac Curtin, as quoted from one of 
his ancient MSS. given in the account of the parish of Kilnamaneen, 
in tlie county of Clare, in the first volume of Sliaw JIason's Statis- 
tical Survey of Ireland, it derived its name from an ancient bridge 
of planks built over the river Fergus, and the word CInr in Irish 
signifying a plank, hence the adjoining town got the name of Clnr, 
or Clare, and the town gave its name to the entire county. The 
county of Clare forms a large peninsula, boimded on one side by 
the Atlantic ocean, and on the other by the Shannon ; and the 
counties of Clare and Limerick, along the coast of the Atlantic, 
and course of the Shannon, and the river Fergus, abound in grand 
and beautiful scenery. An extensive tract in the county of Lime- 
rick, called the Golden Vale, contains some of the richest lands in 
Ireland, famous for their unbounded fertility. The counties of 
Limerick and Clare are celebrated for orchards, and the production 
of cider. 

Nobiliti/. — The following have been the noble families in Lime- 
rick and Clare since the reign of Henry VIII. The O'Briens, earls 
and marquesses of Thomond, earls of Inchiquin, barons of Ibrackan, 
and barons of Hurren, also viscounts of Clare, and barons of Moy- 
arta ; the Burkes, barons of Castleconnell : tlie Roches, barons of 
Tarbcrt ; and the Fitzgeralds, knights of Glin, in the connty of 
Limerick j the Sarsfields, viscounts of Kilmallock, in the county of 
Limerick ; the Dongans, earls of Limerick ; the Hamiltons, vis- 
counts of Limerick ; the Fanes, viscounts Fane, and barons of 
Loughguire, in Limerick ; the Southwells, barons Southwell of 
Castlematross, in Limerick ; the Fitzgibbons, carls of Clare ; the 
Perrys, earls of Limerick ; the Quinns, earls of Dunraven and ba- 
rons of .\dare, in Limerick ; the O'Gradys, vi>-counts Guillamore, 
in Limerick ; the lords Fitzgerald and Vesci, in the county of 
Clare; and tlic Massys, barons of Clarina in Limerick. 

Ecdexifist'ical Uiviximis. — TJie See of KUfenora, according to 
Lanigan, (vol. ii. p. 107), was founded tiy St. Fachna, or St. Fach- 
nan, and the bishops were also styled bishops of Fcnabore, and 
sometimes bishops of Corcomroe, all of which names were applied 
to this see. A celebrated Cistercian monastery was founded and 
endowed at Corcomroe, in the twelfth century, by Donal O'Brien, 
king of Limerick, and his son Donogh Cairbreach O'Brien, prince 
of Thomond. The Diocese of KUfenora comprises only the baro- 
nies of Barren and Corcomroe, in the county of Clare, being the 
smallest in Ireland. 

Tlie See ofKiUaloc, in Irish CiU-da-Lua, or the church of Lua, 
got its name from St. Lua, or Molua, who founded a cliurch there 
in the sixth centurv. The name of Killaloe is latinised Laonia, and 



Mac Mahon gave him an invitation to his house, 
and ha'ving been drinking for some time, a dispute 



it became a bishop's see in the seventh century, the first bishop 
being St. Flannan, a disciple of St. Molua, who was consecrated at 
Rome by Pope John IV. A. D. G30. St. Flanan was the son of 
Torlogh, king of Monster, who endowed the see with extensive 
lands, and was interred in the cathedral. The abbey and see of 
Killaloe were amply endowed by the O'Briens, kmgs of Thomond, 
who erected the cathedral, in which many of them were interred. 
The ancient see of Roscrea, in the county of Tipperary, was in the 
twelfth century united to Killaloe, and the bishops of Killaloe were 
sometimes styled bishops of Thomond. The Diocese ofKiUidoe 
comprehends the gTeater part of the county of Clare, with a large 
portion of Tipperary, and parts of Limerick, King's and Queen's 
counties, and Galway. 

The See of Limerick was founded in the sixth century by St. 
Munchin, who became the first bishop. In the tenth and eleventh 
centuries, several of the bishops of Limerick were Danes, a colony 
of that people possessing the city at that period. In the twelfth 
century a new cathedral was erected by the O'Briens, kings of 
Thomond, who amply endowed the see. The Diocese of Limerick 
comprises the greater part of the county of Limerick, with a por- 
tion of Clare. The See of Iiiis Cathayv:a» founded in the fifth 
century by St. Patrick, and St. Senan, bishop and abbot of Inis- 
Cathay, is mentioned as his successor Inis-Cathay is an island 
situated near the mouth of the Shannon, and its ancient monastery 
was a celebrated seat of religion in early times, and continued for 
many years a great place of pilgrimage. Tbe ancient see comprised 
some adjoining districts in the counties of Limerick and Clare, and 
was annexed to the see of Limerick in the twelfth century. 

Ancient Literature. — The Mac Clancys w'ere hereditary Bre- 
hons ; the Mac Bruodins hereditary historians ; and the Mac Cur- 
tuis hereditary bards of Thomond, of whom, and other learned men, 
accounts are given in the course of these Annals, and also in 
O'Reilly's Irish Writers. Tile Mae Craiths, or Magraths, of Tho- 
mond, are also mentioned as bards and historians. The Wars of 
Thomond, styled, Cathreim Thoirdhetilhhitiyh, or, a Catalogue of 
Torlogh's Battles, contains, as stated in O'Reilly's Irish Writers at 
A. D. 1450, an account of the battles of Torlogh O'Brien, and of 
the wars of Thomond, from the landing of Henry II. in Ireland, to 
the death of Robert de Clare, A. D. 1318. This work was written 
by Rory Mac Craith, in the fifteenth century, the original of 
which, on vellum, is in the library of Sir \\'illiam Betham, and if 
translated and published, would form a valuable contribution to 
the history of that period. Mac Cartings Irish Dictionary, writ- 
ten by Hugh Mac Curtin, a native of Clare, a celebrated poet and 
historian, and published at Paris \.T). 1732. It is an English- 
Irish Dictionary, and the only one extant. Mac Curtin also pub- 
lished an Irish Grammar at Louvain, in 17'28, and also other learned 
works on Irish history and antiquities. Andrew Mac Curtin, a 
celebrated poet of the same family, is also mentioned by O'Reilly. 
Several Irish poems by the Mac Curtins are in the possession of Sir 
William Betliam, and form the best collection of them extant. The 
chevalier Thomas O'Gorman, of the family of the O'Gormans of 
Clare, was an officer in the French service, and distinguished in 
Irish literature, and collected many works. He is often mentioned 
in O'Reilly's Irish Writers, and died in Clare about the year 1815, 
and some of his MSS. are in the possession of Sir William Betham. 
O'Brien's Irish i))C^ioHor;/, written by John O'Brien, R. C. bishop 
ofCloyne, and first published at Paris, .\. D. 17C8 ; and anew 
edition of it was published in Dublin, in the year 1832, by the Rev. 
Robert Daly, at present bishop of Cashel. O'Brien's Dictionary 
is a very learneil and valuable work, not only on the Irish language, 
but on the topography of Ireland, and the genealogies of the ancient 
chiefs and clans. O'Connell's Irish Dictionary, written by Peter 
O'Connell, a native of Clare, a learned and laborious scholar, who 
flied about the year 1828, a large work in MS., the original of 
which is in the library of the British Museum, London, and a copy 
in the library of Trinity College, Dublin. Anthony Bruodin, a 
native of Clare, who died about A. D. 1680, was a Franciscan friar 
and learned lecturer in the Irish monastery at Prague, and wrote the 

X 2 



156 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1366. 



arose between them ; Brj'an folded his arms about 
Mac Donnell, and had him firmly bound, and cast 
into the adjacent lake, where he was imme- 
diately drowned. Donal, son of Hugh O'Neill, 
with his kinsmen ; Bryan, son of Henry O'Neill, 
with the chiefs of Clanaboy ; and Torlogh More 
Mac Donnell, with all those of his name in Ulster, 
having collected themselves together, marched 
with one accord into Orgiall, until they arrived at 
Rath TuUoch, the fortress of Mac Mahon ; infor- 
mation was sent before them to Bryan, who fled, 
leaving the to\'\n quite empty, but they pursued 
Mac Mahon, who, together with the chiefs of his 
country, were engaged in securing their property 
and cattle, in the fastnesses of the coimtry ; the 
Orgiallians were then defeated, and their arms 
and cattle were taken from them. Afler that Mac 
Mahon was expelled from his own territory, and 
compelled to take refuge with Muintir Maolmordha 
(O'Reillys of Cavan), and his wife and his daughter 
were made prisonei's. 

Cuchonacht O'Reilly, lord of Brefney, having 
entered a monastery, left the lordship to his bro- 
ther Philip. 

Hugh, son of Niall O'Donnell, heir presump- 
tive to the lordship of Tirconnell, was slain by 
Donal, son of Murtogh O'Conor, but Teige, son 
of Manns O'Conor, overtook Donal on the same 
day, defeated him, and slew a number of his peo- 
ple, together with Hugh, son of Conor, the son 
of Teige. 

Robert, son of Watin Barrett (in Mayo), died. 

The king of England's son left Ireland. 



A. D. 1366. 
The bishop of Raphoe, that is, Mac Maengail 
(Patrick Mac Moengal, or Magonail), died. 



celebrated work entitled Passio Martyrum Hibernlce^ and many 
learned works on tlieology. Richnrd Crenijh, Roman Catholic 
archbishop of Armagh, was a native of Limerick, and wrote Lives 
of the Irish ^^aints, and other learned works on Ecclesiastical His- 
tory ; he died A. D. 1585. O'Hulluran's History of Ireland, 
written by Sylvester O'Halloran, a native of Limerick, who was 
an eminent surgeon there, and a man of great learning on Irish 
history and antiquities. His History of Ireland, from the earliest 
period to tlie English invasion, is a learned and valuable v^ork. It 
was first published in the year 1778, in two volumes quarto, 
and afterwards republished by Fitzpatrick of Dublin, in three 
\olumes octavo, A.D. 1803. Ferrar's History of Linier'wh, 
written by John Ferrar, and published at Limerick, A.D. 1787. 
In the notes on Desmond and Ormond, will be given a full account 
of the ancient literature of Munster, and of many natives of 
IMuuster, distinguished in the military service of foreign states. 



Cathal, son of Hugh Brefnach (O'Conor), the 
son of Cathal Roe ; IManus Oge, his son ; Miu*- 
togh, the son of Dailredacair ; Maurice O'Maol- 
tuile ; Dermod Mac Simon ; and Dermod Mac 
GioUabearaigh, were treacherously slain by the 
men of Fermanagh, at the river of Firluirg (ba- 
rony of Lin-g), and they also committed great 
depredations on the Clan Murtogh (O'Conors), 
and made peace with the O'Rourkes, and forgave 
them their trespasses, through spite for the Clan 
Murtogh, and the O'Rourkes made terms with 
them. The son of Roderick O'Conor took Cathal's 
place after that, and the O'Rourkes fled with their 
property, under the protection of the people of 
Fermanagh, and, having surrounded the Clan 
Murtogh ; took them by suprise, and slew Cathal 
Mac Clancy, chief of Dartry. 

Murtogh Mac Rannall, son of Rannall More 
Mac Rannall, the undisputed heir presumptive, 
was treacherously slain by Malachy Mac Rannall, 
chief of Muintir Eoluis (in Leitrim), and Malachy 
himself died in two months afterwards. 

Cormac Don Mac Carthy, lord of Hy Cairpre 
and of Hy Eachach of Munster (both in the 
county of Cork), was treacherously slain by his 
own brother's son, the son of Donal of the Donals. 

Conor O'Conor, lord of Ciarraidhe Luachra (in 
the county of Ken-y), was slain by the Branachs.' 

Roderick, son of Murtogh O'Conor, was drowned 
in the Shannon. 

Teige, son of Manus O'Conor, defeated John 
O'Donnell and his galloglasses^ in a battle, in which 
a great many were slain, and Mac S^veeney, and 
several of the chiefs of Tirconnell, were taken 
prisoners and kept as hostages. 

Donal O'Neill and the Clan Donnell, namely, 
Torlogh Mac Donnell and Alexander his son, col- 



A.D. ISG.'j. 
1. Biiitarh, derived from B'lodh, food, and teach, a house, was 
the term applied to the keepers of tiie imuses of hospitality, an order 
of persons, as already explained, very numerous in Ireland in 
ancient times, having grants of lands and other public endow- 
ments, for the purpose of keeping open houses of hospitality, for 
the entertainment of the poor and indigent, and all travellers and 
strangers, &c. ; therefore this Cormac Mac Dermott Roe appears 
to have been the chief inspector and regulator of these establish- 
ments in Connaught. 

A. D. 1366, 

1. Brnnachs. Branachs was a name applied to the descendants 
of Bran, one of the kings of Leinster in the sixth century, of which 
trilie were the O'Byrnes, O'Tooles, and other clans in Wexford 
and M'icklow. 

2. G(dloglasses, in Irish Galloglacha, were the heavy-armed 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



157 



lected their forces to attack Niall O'Neill; they 
expelled Mac Cathmail from the country, who 
went and joined O'Neill with his forces and cattle ; 
but they overtook the rear of Mac Cathmail's 
party with their flocks, attacked them, and captured 
all their property ; Randal, the son of Alexander, 
heir of the clan of Alexander, arrived at the same 
time from the Hebrides, to join Niall O'Neill. 
The kerns from either side of the Clan Donnells 
having approached each other, Randal sent mes- 
sengers to Torlogh, and his son Alexander, 
entreating them to let him pass in respect of his 
seniority and of their friendship with each other ; 
but they, however, treated that application with 
indifference, for they advanced to the ford over 
wliich they saw him preparing to pass, and a 
determined .and fierce engagement ensued, in 
which many were slain and wounded on both 
sides ; a son of Randal was slain by Torlogh in 
the thick of the fight, and Alexander, the son of 
Torlogh, was taken jjrisoner by Randal's party, 
whom they resolved instantly to put to death ; but 
Randal, however, would not consent to their pro- 
posal, for he said that he should not be deprived 
both of his son and of his kinsman on the same day. 

A great war broke out among the English of 
Connaught ; Mac Maurice was expelled from the 
countiy by Mac ^Villiam, and sought refuge with 
the Clan Rickard ; Mac William, with Hugh 
O'Conor, king of Connaught, and William 
O'Kelly, lord of Ily Maine, collected a force in 
South Connaught, with which they marched into 
Clan Rickard, where they remained nearly three 
months opposing each other, until at length Mac 
VViUiam obtained the superiority, took the hostages 
of Clanrickard into his possession, and then vic- 
toriously returned to his own country. 

John iMac Costello, lord of Slieve Lugha (in 
Mayo), died. 

Hugh TiiTell, lord of Fertullach, (in West- 
meath), was slain by the Berminghams. 



A.D. 1367. 
The bishop Malachy O'Fenall, that is, bishop 



foot soldiers of the Irish; they wore iron helmets, and coats of 
mail, studded with iron nails and rings ; had long swords by tlieir 
sides, and bore in their right hands broad battle-axes with very 
keen edges, by a single blow of whieh they, often clove the skull 
of a warrior through his helmet. It appears that the Scots also 
had troops called galloglasses and kerns, as in Shakspear's Jlac- 



of Ardagh, a prelate eminent for his piety, alms- 
giving, humanity and wisdom; and Malachias 
Mac Guire, archdeacon of Orgiall, (diocese of 
Clogher), died. 

Cuchonacht O'Reilly, lord of Brefuey, until he 
resigned it to God, and took holy orders, was 
succeeded by Philip (O'Reilly). 

The Clan Murtogh (O'Conors) , made an incur- 
sion with their forces into Moy Nisse (in Leitrim), 
and they attacked Mojdm-g (in Roscommon) ; the 
chiefs on that expedition were, Teige, the son of 
Roderick O'Conor ; Fergal Mac Tiarnan, lord of 
Tidlyhunco, and Dermod Mac Rannall, lord of 
Miunter Eoluis, with many galloglasses, and they 
burned the fortress of Hugh MacDermott; Fergal 
Mac Dermott, lord of Moylurg, accompanied by 
Hugh Mac Dermott, overtook them, and a conflict 
ensued, in which many were slain on both sides, 
after which Teige O'Conor and Mac Rannall re- 
turned, without prisoners or booty. 

Donal, son of Murtogh O'Conor, the O'Rom-kes, 
and the Mac Donoghs, with their retained kerns, 
defeated Teige, the son of Manus O'Conor, on the 
strand of Eothuile the carpenter (near Sligo), in 
which (battle) the galloglasses of Manus's son were 
slain, eighty of the bravest of them being killed, 
along with Donal, the son of Sorley (Mac Don- 
nell), Donal Oge his son, the two Mac Sweenys, 
Mac Aneas])uigO'Dowd, and William MacSithidh. 

Denail, daughter of Midroony More Mac Der- 
mott, and wife of Ualgarg O'Rourke, was slain by 
the Clan Murtogh. 

Malachy, the son of Geoffrey Mac Gilpatrick 
(of Ossoiy), and a great many of his people, were 
treacherously slain by the English. 

Teige Mac Gauran, and Aongus Mac Andeaga- 
naigh Mac Gauran, died. 

Teige and Loughlin, the two sons of Aongus 
Roe O'Daly, and Maolmaire Oge Magrath, died. 

Mac Maurice Nambrigh ; Owen, son of Rode- 
rick O'Kelly (of Galway) ; Murtogh, son of Mur- 
togh O'Conor ; and Bebinn, the daughter of Ual- 
garg O'Rourke, the wife of Tomaltagh Mac Do- 
nogh, died. 



beth mention is made of " the merciless Mac Donnell, from the 
Western Isles, with his kerns and galloglasses." 

Kerns, in Irish, Cethern, derived, according to Cormac's 
Glossary of the tenth century, from Ccth, that is, Cath, a battle, 
and am, plundering, was the term applied to the light troops of 
the Irish, armed with spears,javelins, darts, sUngs and arrows, Jcc. 



158 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1368. 



Tlie ClanMurtogh (O'Conorsof Sligo), made an 
attack on the people of Fermanagh, at Inis Moi'e, 
Lough Berraid,andSeanadh Mac Manus,andhaving 
earned away much booty, they returned home safe. 



A. D. 1308. 

• The coarb of St. Maog', and archdeacon of Bref- 
ney, a man full of the gifts of the Holy Ghost, 
died, after gaining the victory over the world and 
the devil. 

Hugh, son of Felim O'Conor, king of Con- 
naught, the most heroic and valiant of the Irish, 
the Lughaidh Lamhfada^ of Leath Cuinn against 
the English and other enemies, died at Roscom- 
mon, after gaining the ^•ictol■y of repentance ; and 
Rodei-ick, the son of Torlogh, assumed the sove- 
reigntj' of Connaught. 

Crioch Cairpre (Carbury, in Sligo),was di\'ided 
between the son of Manus (O'Conor), and Donal, 
the son of Murtogh (O'Conor). 

Fergal Mac Dermott, lord of Moylurg, the lion 
of nobleness and of feats of arms of his tribe; To- 
maltach, son of Fergal Mac Dermott, tanist of 
Moylurg ; and Conor Mac Dermott, died. 

Hugh, son of Conor Mac Dermott, assumed the 
lordship of Moylurg. 

Roderick, son oi' Seonnig Mac Geoghegan, the 
hawk of heroism and of feats of arms of his tribe, 
the most hospitable man from Dublin to Athloue ; 
and Tiarnan, son of Cathal O'Rom-kc, died. 

Dermod, son of Cormac Dun Mac Carthy, was 
taken prisoner by Mac Carthy of Carbery, (county 
of Cork), by whom he was deUvered up to the 
English, who put him to death. 

David O'Tuathail (O'Toole, in Wicklow), was 
slain by the English of Dublin. 

William Sasanach, the son of Sir Edmond Burke, 
heir to the Mac Williams, died of the small-pox at 
Inis Cua'. 

Fiachra O'Flynn, heir to the chieftaincy of Siol 
Maolruain (in Roscommon), the best man of his 
tribe in his time, and also his wife, died. 



A. D. 1368. 
1. Coarb of St. Maoyc, that is, abbot of Drumlane, in the 
county of Cavan, tlie monastery of which was founded by 
St. Maoge, in tlie sixth century. Archdeacon of Brefney, that 
is archdeacon of the diocese of Kilmore. 



Niall O'Neill, king of Tyrone, marched with a 
great force into Orgiall, and all the chiefs of the 
province (of Ulster), joined him to attack Bryan 
Mac Mahon, and they encamped at Meodhan 
Tire (the middle country); Mac Mahon offered them 
great terms, \dz., that he would give the half of 
Orgiall (Monaghan), to Niall, the son of Murtogh, 
son of Bryan (Mac Mahon) Nagoileach Naiffrin 
(of the chalices), namely, the lord who was pre- 
viously over the country, and other large gifts to 
O'Neill himself, as a reparation for the death of 
Mac Donnell; O'Neill consentedto make peace with 
him on those conditions, but the son of Murtogh 
Mac Mahon, and Alexander Oge M.ic Donnell, 
lord of the galloglasses (or Scots), with one accord 
proceeded with three troops of kerns to attack 
Mac Mahon, without O'Neill's pei-mission, and 
they made a sally upon his fortress ; jSIac Mahon 
and all his household were on theu- guard, armed 
and accoutred in their fortress, and the other party 
having instantly attacked them, a fierce and des- 
perate conflict ensued, in which Mac Mahon de- 
feated them, and slew the son of MuiTogh Mac 
Mahon, tanist of Orgiall, together with Alexander, 
the son of Torlogh Mac Donnell, the constable of 
the galloglasses ; Owen, son of Torlogh, son of 
Malachy O'Donnell, and many others, on that oc- 
casion. 

Thomas O'Flynn, lord of Tuirtre (in Antrim), a 
man full of hospitality and honour, died. 

Teige, son of INIanus, son of Cathal, son of 
Donal O'Conor, was treacherously taken prisoner 
by Roderick, the son of Torlogh (O'Conor), in his 
own fortress, at Ard Anchoillin, (in Roscommon), 
after he had been brought to the house of O'Con- 
or, by Cormac Mac Donogli ; and was, after that, 
delivered into the hands of Donal, son of Murtogh 
O'Conor, who finally slew him in the castle of 
Sliffo. All bad deeds afterwards committed were 
compared to those perpetrated on Manus O'Con- 
nor's son, so that it followed as an old saying of 
abhorrence, " that the taking and slaying of the 
son of Manus was not worse than whatsoever trea- 
cherous deed they might hear of being committed." 



2. Lughaidh Lamhflwda, to whom Hugh O'Conor is here com- 
pared, was a celebrated warrior king of the Tuatli Ue Danans. 
Leath Ciiin was a term applied to the northern half of Ireland. 

3. Inis Clin, now Iniscoe, situated near Lough Con, in the 
parish of Crossmolina, barony of Tyrawley, county of Mayo. 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



159 



A great war arose in Connaught, between 
O'Conor, Mac William, and Mac Dermott, on 
account of that taking and slaying (of O'Conor). 

Cuuladh Mac-an-Gir Mac Cathmail, the chief 
of his own tribe, and his son, an experienced and 
learned master in the arts and sciences, cUed in 
England. 

William, son of Donogh Muinach O'Kelly, 
lord of Hy Maine, was taken prisoner by O'Mad- 
den, and by the Clan Mac Eogain ; and Donal, 
son of Conor O'Kelly, and Ardgal Oge O'Con- 
canon, were slain on the same day, by O'Madden. 

Donal Mac Namara, (of Clare), died. 

Slevin Mac Quillan, constable of the province 
of Ulster, died. 

Muiredhach O'Fairchellaidh (O'Farrelly), the 
abbot of Drumlane, and archdeacon of Brefney, 
(diocese of Kilmore), died. 

Dermod Lamh-dearg, (the red-handed), Mac 
Murrogh, king of Leinster, was taken prisoner by 
the English, and he was the most valiant provin- 
cial king in his time. 



A.D. 1369. 

Hugh O'Neill, bishop of Clogher, a pious and 
charitable prelate; and Richard O'lleiliy, bishop 
of Kilmore,' died. 

The Dean O'Bardain, and Cuchonacht O'Reilly, 
lord of Brefney, died. 

Philip O'Reilly was taken prisoner by his own 
kinsmen, and was sent to be im])risoned in the 
castle of Lough Uachtar, closely bound and 
fettered. 

Manus O'Reilly assumed the lordship then, and 
a war and commotion arose in Brefney, on account 



A.D. 13G9. 
1. Bishop of Kilmore. Many of the O'Reillys of Cavan have 
been bishops of Brefney or Kilmore, and of several other sees, of 
whom the following have been collected from Ware, Archdall, 
Stewart's Armagh, Brennan's Ecclesiastical History, and various 
other sources. Richard O'Reilly, bishop of Brefiiey, died A. D. 
1369 ; he wasthesonofMalachy O'Reilly, chief of Brefney. Jolin 
O'Reilly, bishop of Brefney, died A.D. 1393; he was the son of Geof- 
frey, son of GioUalosa Roe O'Reilly, prince of Brefney, who is called 
by Ware, Gelasius Rnfus O'Reilly, and was founder of the abbey of 
Cavan. John O'Reilly, abbot of Kells, and afterwards liishop of 
Brefney, from about A.D. 1464 to AD. 1474. Dermitius O'Reilly, 
abbot of Kells, afterwards bishop of Kilmore, from A.D. 1511 to 
1.322. Hugh O'Reilly, Roman Catholic bishop of Kilmore, 
from about A.D. IGIO to 1C26, and afterwards translated to 
Armagh. Jlichael O'Reilly, vicar-general and administrator 
of the diocese of Kilmore, from A.D. 1715 to 1727, afterwards 
Roman Catholic bishop of Derry, and lastly translated to Armagh. 



of that imprisonment ; Annadh, the son of Richard 
O'Reilly, collected a great force, and Mac Mahon 
and the chiefs of Orgiall, (Monaghan), came to 
assist him to compel Manus to release Philip 
O'Reilly ; Manus, and his kinsmen, with all their 
forces, united together to defend their own coun- 
try, and a battle ensued, in which however, Manus 
was defeated at Blen Chupa f and the three sons 
of Cormac O'Ferrall, namely, Seoinin, Malachy, 
and Fergus ; Felim, son of Hugh Anchleitigh (of 
the plume), O'Conor ; the two sons of Flaherty 
More ]\Iac Conruba, namely, Donogh, and Brien ; 
Sitrick-na-srona Masterson, and many others, 
were slain in that engagement. 

Gerald Cavenagh, heir presum]itive to the 
crown of Leinster, was slain by the Black Knight. 

Tiarnan O'llourke went on a predatory excur- 
sion, to Lurg, (in Fermanagh), and carried away 
great booty ; but Hugh Oge, the son of Hugh 
O'llourke, was slain by O'Maolduin, of Liu'g, 
while in pursuit of the plunder. 

Dermod, the red-handed, Mac MuiTogh, king 
of Leinster, was put to death by the English of 
Dublin, (in the castle of Dublin), after he had 
been a long time imprisoned by them. 

Mahon, of Maonmoy, O'Brien, lord of Thomond, 
the best and most noble of the Irish of the south 
of Ireland, died in his own fortress, after gaining 
the victory of repentance. 

Bryan O'Brien assumed the lordship of Tho- 
mond, after Mahon. 

O'Maolduin, that is, Donal, chief of Tuath 
Luirg (in Fermanagh), was slain by the sons of 
Niall O'Donnell, who can-ied with them a booty 
on one of the islands of Lough Erne called Badhba 
(Boa Island) ; Philip Mac Guire, lord of the seven 



Charles O'Reilly, Roman Catholic bishop of Kilmore, died in 1800. 
Fergal O'Reilly, Roman Catholic bishop of Kilmore twenty-two 
years, died A.D. 1829. Philip O'Reilly, Roman Catholic bishop 
of Raphoe twenty-one years, died about A.D. 1780. Daniel 
O'Reilly, Roman Catholic bishop of Clogher thirty years, died 
A.D. 1778. Hugh O'Reilly, Roman Catholic bishop of Clogher 
twenty-three years, died A.D. 1801. The following O'Reillys 
have been in the see of Armagh : — Hugh O'Reilly, Koman Catholic 
archbishop of Armagh twenty-eight years, died A.D. 1C5.J ; 
Edmond O'Reilly, vicar-general of the diocese of Dublin, after- 
wards Roman Catholic archbishop of Armagh lourteen years, died 
A.D. 10G9 ; Michael O'Reilly, Roman CatLolic bishop of Derry, 
afterwards archbishop of Armagh ten years, died A.D. 1758; 
Richard O'Reilly, coadjutor bishop of Kildare, afterwards Roman 
Catholic archbishop of Armagh thirty-six years, died A.D. 1818. 
2. Blen Chupa, a place now called Blencup, in the parish of 
Kilmore, county of Cavan. 



160 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1369-70-71. 



districts, sailed with a large fleet, to avenge the 
death of his young friend on the sons of O'Don- 
nell ; and Niall Oge, son of Niall Garv, son of 
Hugh, son of Donal Oge (O'Donnell), was slain hy 
him in a naval engagement on Fionn Lough, at 
the side of the island. 

Bryan, son of Hugh Ijuidhe O'Neill, a worthy 
heir to the crown of Ireland, in nobility, hospitality, 
and feats of arms, died. 

Bryan O'Brien, lord of Thomond, gave a very 
great overthrow to the English of Munster, and 
took Gerald, earl of Desmond, and many of the 
Enghsh nobles, prisoners, and slaughtered an 
immense number of their people besides. The 
people of Thomond, and the Clan Cuilein, (Mae 
Namai-as), burned Limerick on that occasion ; the 
people of the town submitted to O'Brien, and 
Sioda Cam, (Mac Namara), son of O'DwjTe's 
daughter, assumed the wardenship of the town ; 
but the Enghsh who were in the town, acted 
treacheroiisly towards him and slew him, which was 
a great calamity, as regarded the son of a chief. 

Philip Mac Guire, lord of Feraianagh, sailed 
with a fleet, on Lough Oughter, (county of 
Cavan), and having taken the castle of Cloch 
Oughter, liberated Philip O'Reilly, lord of Brefney, 
who re-assumed his lordship. 

Malachy Mac Mahon, heir presumptive to the 
lordship of Orgiall, (Monaghan) ; Biyan, son of 
Murtagh O'Conor ; John, son of Edmond Mac 
Hoberd ; Donogh O'Beirnc, chief of Tir Briune, 
(Roscommon) ; Rannall O'Hanley, (of Roscom- 
mon) ; Cormac O'Hanley ; also John Mac Egan, 
and Gilbert O'Barden, the two most famous 
harpers of Conmaicne, (Leitrim), died. 

William O'Farrelly, abbot of Drumlane, and 
archdeacon of Brefney, (Kilmore), died. 



A. D. 1370, 

A firm and friendly peace was concluded between 
the Tyronians, amongst themselves, on the fol- 
lowing conditions : that Donal should give hos- 
tages to Niall, as security, in not opposing him 
about the lordship, and that Niall should give 
Donal a portion of lands and possessions. 

Gilpatrick Mac Cathmail, chief of Kinel Ferad- 
aidli, (in Tyrone), Cuuladh his son, and his wife, 
and the daughter of Manus Mac Mahon, were 



treacherously slain by the Clan Hugh Mac Cath- 
mail, and Murtogh, his brother, succeeded him in 
the chieftainship. 

Caheer O'Conor, heir presumptive to the lord- 
ship of Offaley, (King's county), and Murtogh 
O'Moore, were killed in a predatory excursion by 
the English of Leinster. 

Ducola, the daughter of O'Reilly, and wife of 
Philip Mac Guire, died. 

Manus O'Reilly, (chief of Cavan), was taken 
prisoner by the sons of Thomas, the son of Mahon 
O'Reilly, and was imprisoned in the castle of 
Lough Oughter. 

Cathal, son of Dabug O'Concanon, lord of 
Hy Dermada, (in Roscommon) ; Siobhan (Jud- 
ith) Cham, daughter of Mac Carthy, and wife of 
Mac Namara, (in Clare) ; Sioda of Kilkenny, the 
son of John Mac Namara ; John O'Hara, heir to 
the lordship of Lieney ; and Dermod, the son of 
Cathal Oge O'Conor, died 

Niall O'Neill, lord of Tyrone, defeated Bryan 
Mac Mahon, lord of Orgiall, (Monaghan), and 
great numbers of Mac Mahon's people were slain 
and drowned. 

Donal, son of Malachy ; and Teige, son of 
Loghlin O'Kelly, (of Galway), with his two sons, 
died. 

Malachy Conactach O'Ferrall, and Cathal Oge 
O'Ferrall, died. 

Teige O'Rourke assumed the lordship of Bref- 
ney, but he was expelled therefrom, and driven 
into the country of Mac WiUiam, (Burke), by the 
Clan Murtogh, (O'Conors) ; and by Mac Tiar- 
nan, aided by Conor Roe, son of Cathal, the son 
of Hugh Brefnagh, (O'Conor). 

William Don, the son of Uhck, (Burke), died. 



A.D. 1371. 

John O'Grady, archbishop of Tuam, the most 
distinguished man in his time for wisdom and 
hospitality, died. 

Fergal Mac Coghlan, (of the King's county), 
died while imprisoned by O'Kennedy. 

Fergal Mac Geoghegan, (of Westmeath), died. 

Murrogh, son of Owen O'Madden, the most 
distinguished man in Ireland for his contributions 
to the clergy, the poor, and the destitute, was 
slain by the cast of a javelin, in the rere of a prey- 
ing party, in Onnond. 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



161 



Biyan O'Kennedy, lord of Ormond, was trea- 
cherously slain by the English. 

Edmond O'Kennedy, heir to the lordship of 
Ormond, died. 

Teige Oge, sonofManus O'Conor, was treache- 
rously slain by Donal, son of Miu'togh O'Conor, in 
the castle of Sligo, after he had been sent to him 
by the king of Connaught, Roderick, the son of 
Torlogh, as before stated. 

Eachmarcach, son of Manus, son of Roderick, 
son of Manus, son of Don More Maguire, a great 
landed proprietor who lived at Lough Erne, died. 

O'Dowd, (Donal) committed great depredations 
in Tireragh of the Moy (in Sligo), plundered the 
country, took the castles, namely, those of Ardna- 
ree and Castle Conor, and expelled all the English 
who possessed them, and then divided the countiy 
among his kinsmen and people. 



A. D. 1372. 

Biyan More Mac Mahon, lord of Orgiall, (JNlo- 
naghan), marched with his forces against the 
English, to give them battle, but was treacherously 
slain in ambush by one of the galloglasses of his 
own party, who then made his escape by flight. 

John More O'Dugan', chief bard and historio- 
grapher of Hy Maine, died after the victoiy of 
extreme unction and repentance at Rinn Duin, 
among the monks of St. -John the Baptist. 

Murtogh Muinach, son of Murtogh More Mac 
Geoghegan, chief of Kincl Fiacha, died, after 
gaining the victory of repentance. 

Bermingham (of Galway), was taken prisoner by 
O' Kelly and his sons, and Richard Bermingham, 
his heir, was slain. 

Mj'lerMacHoberd (Burke) was slainby O'Conor. 

William Mac Ulick (Burke), the most humor- 
ous and affable of the Burkes, and William Oge 
O'KeUy, heir to the lordship of Hy Maine, died. 



A.D. 1373. 
William Mac Cormaic, bishop of Ardagh, a man 
distinguished for his wisdom and piety, died. 



A.D. 1372. 
2. John More O^Dngan, chief bard and historian to the 
O'Kellys, princes of Hy Maine, in Galway and Roscommon, of 
whom an account has been given in the introduction to the present 
publication, was the celebrated author of the Topography of ancient 
Ireland, which is embodied in the course of these notes, together 



Adam O'Keenan, a canon and learned historian, 
died at Lisgoole (in Fermanagh). 

The English of Meath attacked Annaly, and 
slew Roderick, the son of Cathal O'FeiTall, and 
his son, with many of his people, on that occasion. 
Donogh O'Ferrall, with all his forces, pursued and 
slew a great many of them ; the commander of the 
English was slain by the cast of a javelin, in con- 
sequence of which his forces were defeated. 

William D'Alton, and the sheriff of Meath were 
slain by the Kinel Fiacha (Mac Geoghegans of 
Westmeath), and by O'Melaghlin. 

Mac Anphearsuin Bermingham was slain by 
Torlogh Roe O'Conor with a single stroke of a 
sword, in Conmaicne of Dunmore (in the county 
of Galway), after they (the Berminghams), had 
acted treacherously towards him, while on his way 
from Conmaicne Cuile (in Mayo), after which he 
made his escape from his enemies by the strength 
of his arm, although he had been wounded ; An- 
drew Mac Kenny was slain afterwards by them (the 
Berminghams), he havingbeen left as a hostage with 
them by Torlogh, for the purpose that they should 
obtain their choice ransom in lieu of him, at the 
time they had deceived him on a former occasion. 
Barduv, daughter of O'Rourke, and wife of Do- 
nal Mac Tiarnan (of the county of Cavan), died. 

John Mac Namara, head chief of Clan Cuilein 
(in Clare), and Teige Oge O'Durnin, died. 

Sabina, daughter of Cathal O'Conor, and wife of 
Flaherty O'Rourke (of Leitrim), died. 

Raiuiall, son of Cormac Mac Rannall, was trea- 
cherously slain by the son of Mac Naiscin. 
Malachy Conachtach O'Neil died. 
Master Niocol Mac Techedain, official of Cloyne, 
died. 

Bryan Oge, son of Bryan O'Dowd (of Shgo), 
was slain by the Barretts. 



A.D. 1374. 

Senicin Savadge was slain by Mac Gennis (of 
the county of Down). 

Donal Oge, son of John O'Dogherty (of Done- 
gal), died. 



with numerous extracts literally translated from his beautiful 
topographical poem on the Irish chiefs and clans. At Rinndune 
or Randown, now called St. John's, was situated an ancient abbey 
and castle, on a peninsula extending into the Shannon m Roscom- 
mon. 



162 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1374-75. 



Peregrine Oge Mac Geoghegan, chief of Kind 
Fiacha, having gone to Athlone in company with 
the bishop of Meath, was treacherously slain there 
with one thrust of a spear by the Sionach (Fox), 
who was one of William D' Alton's party ; but he 
himself was immediately after torn asunder, and 
small fragments were made of his body, as a retri- 
bution for his misdeeds. 

Theobald Burke, heir to Mac William, was slain 
by the people of Hy Maine. 

Niall O'Neill defeated the English in an engage- 
ment, in which the Knight Roche, with Bocksa of 
the Rock (Carrickfergus), Sandal Burke, W^il- 
liam of Ballydolet, the most hospitable man in Ire- 
land, and many others, not recorded, were slain. 

Teige, son of Roderick, son of Cathal Roe 
O'Conor, the worthy heir of O'Conor, died. 

Malachy, son of Dermod O'Ferrall, having 
marched from Annaly with his forces to join Muin- 
tir Maolmordha (the O'Reillys of Cavan), against 
the English, a fierce and desperate battle was 
fought between them and the English, in which, 
however, he (O'Ferrall) and many others were slain. 

Teige Oge Mac Rannall was wounded by the 
cast of a javeUn, of which he died, but it was not 
ascertained who had thrown it; the Muintir Beirne 
(of Roscommon), accused the Clan Murtogh 
(O'Conors) of the deed, and the Clan Murtogh in 
turn accused the O'Beirnes, for a strife existed be- 
tween them at that time ; but a contest, however, 
arose in consequence of it between the Mac Ran- 
nalls and O'Beirnes. 

Cormac, son of Tomaltach O'Ferrall, was slain. 

Fergal, son of Flaherty O'Rourke, was slain by 
Philip. 

Tiarnan, son of Bryan Mac Tiaman, died. 

Malachy Roe O'Duigenan, a learned historian, 
and Mahon Anchinn, sonofDonal, son of Murtogh 
O'Rourke, fell by each other's hands. 



A.D. 1375. 
Donogh Cavanagh Mac Mun-ogh, king of Lein- 
ster, was treacherously slain by the English, he 
having often, before that, spread destruction among 
them. 



A.D. 1375. 
1. Sir James here mentioned, of Bally-Atha-TIiid, or Alabid, 
was probably one of tlie Talbota of Malabide, and as he is desig- 



Mahon, son of Manus O'Conoi-, died, after hav- 
ing gained the palm of hospitality and generosity. 

The castle of Roscommon was given to Rode- 
rick O'Conor by Torlogh Roe, in exchange for 
Ballintobber, and other property. 

Mac Arten, chief of Kinel Fogarty (county of 
Down), was treacherously slain by his own kins- 
man, the son of Gille Trenoinn Mac Arten. 

Niall O'Neill gave the English of Down a signal 
overthrow, in which Sir James of Bally Atha Thid, 
or Alahid, the king of England's viceroy,' Burke 
of Camlinn, and many others who are not recorded, 
were slain. 

Cu-uladh Mac Mahon, Tanist of Orgiall (Mo- 
naghan), died from the bleeding of a vein. 

Ai't, son of Maguire (of Fermanagh), a man fuU 
of hospitality and generosity, died. 

Dermod Mac Rannall went on an expedition to 
attack Cormac O'Beu'ue ; and Donogh, son of Co- 
nor of the Cup, was slain on that occasion, together 
with many others, and they also took much booty. 

Malachy O'Donnellan, the chosen professor of 
poetry in Siol Murray (Roscommon), and also chief 
professor of Arts in Ireland, died of an ulcer. 

Cairbre and Owen, the sons of Mac Tiarnan (of 
Cavan), marched with all their forces to attack the 
English ; but one of their own men, having acted 
treacherously, betrayed them for a bribe to the 
EngHsh, who surrounded them, and took twenty- 
five of the Mac Tiarnans, and of the chiefs of their 
people, whom they beheaded in one place. 

Geoffrey, son of Giolla-na-neev O'Ferrall, a wor- 
thy heir to the lordship of Annaly, for hospitality, 
feats of arms, personal figure, and affable manners, 
ched after the victory of extreme unction and 
repentance. 

Sir Edmond Albanach, the son of WiUiam 
Burke, died, after the victoiy of repentance, and 
Thomas, liis son, succeeded him in the lordship. 

Osgar, son of Art Mac Guire (of Fermanagh), 
was slain by the sons of Donogh Mac Guire. 

Donogh, son of Teige, son of Conor of the Cup 
(Mac Rannall), was slain by Muintir Beirne. 

Thomas Bermingham, lord of Athenry, and John 
Mac Loghlin, head chief of his own tribe, died. 



nated the King of England's viceroy, he might have been a deputy 
under Sir William de Windsor, who was at that time lord lieute- 
nant of Ireland. 



REIGN OF EDWARD III. 



163 



Cathal Oge, son of Cathal Oge, son of Cathal 
More, son of Donal O' Conor, was slain by the 
people of Clan Rickard, and Loghlin, son of Do- 
nogh O'Dowd, was taken prisoner on the same 
occasion. 

Brian O'Brien, lord of Thomond, was expelled 
from his country by Torlogh, son of Murtogh 
O'Brien, and by the Clan Rickard. 

A war broke out between Roderick O'Conor, 
king of Connaught, and Malachy O'Kelly, lord of 
Hy Maine, but at length O'Conor gained power 
over Hy Maine. 

Cathal, son of Manus Mac Dermott, died. 



A.D. 1376. 

Teige O'Rourke, lord of Brefney, a man full of 
hospitaUty, generosity, excellence, and renown, the 
bear of the Brefnians, and the lion of the north of 
Ireland, died, and Tiarnan, his son, then assumed 
the lordship of Brefney. 

Hugh O'Tuathail, lord of Imaile (county of 
Wicklow), was slain by the English. 

Dalvach, son of Malachy O'Byrne, the most dis- 
tinguished man in Leinster for hospitality and ge- 
nerosity, was wounded by his own spur, of which 
wound he died. 

Hugh, son of John O'Fen-all, died, a man who, 
from Ijoyhood to that time, was an inexhaustible 
fountain in hospitahty and liberality to the clergy 
of Ireland in general. 

Bebinn, daughter of Donal O'Dunn, and wife of 
O'Dempsey (of the Queen's county), died. 

Robert O'Ferrall died, after gaining the victory 
of repentance. 

Cuaifne O'Conor Faily, a most worthy heir to 
the lordship of OfFaley (King's county), died. 

Conor O'Beehan, a learned historian ; Ceallach 
Mac Curtin, chief historian of Thomond ; John 
O'Roonej', chief poet to Magennis (county of 
Down) ; Malachy O'Maolmhena, cliief professor 
to O'Kane, (of Derry) ; Donogh Mac Firbis (of 
Sligo), a good historian ; and Ruarcan O'Hamill, 
chief poet to O'Hanlon (of Armagh), a man who 
kept a house of general hospitahty, and refused 
none, died. 

Cumoighe O'Kane, lord of Oireacht O'Kane (of 
Derry), was taken prisoner by the English at the 
port of Colerain, and sent prisoner in fetters to 
Carrickfergus. 



The English of Meath, Ulster, and Leinster, 
marched with their combined forces to Annaly, and 
treacherously committed depredations in the coun- 
try ; O'Ferrall then collected all his forces, attacked 
by turns the English of Ulster, Leinster, &c. 
burned their fami-houses and towns, plundered 
their ten-itories, and returned home victoriously, 
with great booty. 



A.D. 13T7. 

O'Kelly, bishop of Clonfert Brenain ; John 
O'Rodachain, the coarb of St. Caillin (abbot of Fe- 
nagh) an eminent scholar ; and the great dean Mac 
Maurice, died ; the dean died at Rome. 

The monasteiy of Easroe (Ballyshannon) was 
biuned. 

Walter, son of Sir David Burke ; Donal, son of 
Fergal Mac Anmanaigh O'Gallagher (of Donegal), 
Geoffrey O'Flanagan, chief of Clan Cathail, (in 
Roscommon) ; Donogh, son of William Alain 
O'CarroU, lord of Ely ; Dermod Bacach Mac 
Brenan, chief of Corcachlan, (in Roscommon) ; 
Fachtna, son of David O'Moore (of the Queen's 
county) ; and Brj'an O'Flaherty (of Galway), died. 

Rickard Burke marched with a force into Clan 
Cuilein (in Clare), and the people of Clan Cuilein, 
ha^dng collected their forces, headed by i\Iac Na- 
mara, the son of O'Daly's daughter, attacked and 
defeated the Clan Rickard in an engagement, in 
which Theobald, son of Ulick (Burke), the leader 
of the kerns, with the three sons of O'Nedin, and 
many of the chiefs of Clan Rickard, were slain. 

Roderick O'Conor defeated at Roscommon Mac 
William Biu-ke, and Malachy O'Kelly, lord of Hy 
Maine, in an engagement in which Richard Burke, 
brother of Mac AViUiam; Donal, son of Cathal Oge 
O'Conor; Teige Oge, son of Teige O'Kelly; 
O'Mannin, chief of Sodain ; and Mac Dugal of the 
galloglasses, with many others who are not re- 
corded, were slain. 

The castle of Lios-Aird-Abla (Lisard, in Long- 
ford), was erected by John O'FeiTall, lord of 
Annaly. 

A contention arose between Mac Dermott and 
Roderick O'Conor, from which resulted the spoli- 
ation of Moylurg, and the bmning of its crops and 
dwellings ; a great many were slain on both sides ; 
but they at length made peace, and Mac Dermott 



164 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1378-79. 



received presents for making that peace, and com- 
pensation for the injuries he had sustained from 
Roderick O'Conor. 

Mahon, son of John Mac Namara (of Clare), 
died. 

Richard II.' assumed the sovereignty of England 
on the 21st of June. 

Geoffrey, son of Annadh O'Reilly (of Cavan) 
was slain bv the sons of Caoch O'Reilly. 



A. D. 1378. 

Carbre O'Ferrall, bishop of Ardagh, the reten- 
tive bond of piety, the protecting link of wisdom, 
a vessel of divine love and humanity, died at Rome, 
after gaining the victory over the world and the 
devil. 

More, daughter of O'Ferrall, and wife of Der- 
mod Mac Rannall, died, and was buried with great 
solemnity at Cluan Conmaicne'. 

Walter Mac William Burke was slain by the 
O'Malleys (of Mayo). 

Fergal Mac Rannall was slain by Con, son of 
Murtogh Mac Rannall, 

Gilcreest O'Rourke, son of the lord of Brefney, 
died. 

Torlogh Mac Sweeny, high constable of Con- 
naught, died. 

Teige, son of Loghlin Mac Namara, chief of 
Clan Cuilein, was slain by the son of O'Daly's 
daughter. 

Donal j\Iac Brady, chief of Cuile Brighdin, and 
of Teallach CaiToll (in the county of Cavan), a 
man of general knowledge ; John O'Felan (of Wa- 
terford), an eminent poet ; and Duvcola, daughter 
of Mac Rannall, and wife of O'AIulvey, died. 

Mac Rannall, with his kinsmen and party, the 
two clans of Hugh and Fergal O'Rourke, made an 
attack on Cathal Roe Mac Rannall ; but Cathal 
having collected his kinsmen and connexions, to- 



A. I). 1377. 
1. Richard II. King Edward III. died on the 21st of June, 
A. D. 1377, and was succeeded by his t;randson, Richard II., son 
of Edward the Black Prince, then only in the eleventh year of his 
as;e, his uncles, John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, Edniond, duke 
of York, and'l'liomas, duke of Gloucester, being appointed regents 
of the kingdom during his minority. 

A.D. 1378. 
1. Cluan Conmaicne, now Cloon, in the parish of Cloon, barony 



gether with Dermod Mac Dermott, to oppose 
them, they defeated Mac Rannall ; and Fergal 
Mac Rannall, a worthy, prosperous, and wealthy 
man; Mac Shanly, Mac Gildufl', and many others 
not recorded, were slain in that conflict. 

Gilcreest O'Sgingin, chief historian of Tircon- 
nell, died of an ulcer. 

Bryan Mac Guire, heir to the lordship of Fer- 
managh, was slain by the sons of Art Mac Guire. 

Fergal O'Mulvey, chief of Muinter Carolan (in 
Leitrim), died. 

Teige Mac Egan, chief Brehon (judge) of North 
Connaught, a man of learning, free from pride and 
arrogance, who kept a house of general hospitality, 
died. 



A.D. 1379. 

Faltach, bishop of Meath,' died in England. 

James O'Conolly, prior of Devenish (in Ferma- 
nagh), died. 

Flaherty O'Mongan, erenach of Rossorry (in 
Fermanagh), died. 

Philip, son of Niocol, that is. The D' Alton, lord 
of AVestmeath, died. 

Ferbisigh Mac Firbis (of Sligo), a learned his- 
torian, died. 

David O'Dunn, chief of HyRiagain (in Queen's 
county), was slain by the son of CaiToU O'Dunn. 

Richard Mac Cathmaill (of Tyrone), was slain 
by Philip Mac Guire, lord of Fermanagh, and 
Donal O'Neill. 

O'Neill, that is Niall More, defeated Mac Guire 
at the battle of Dreche^, in which Teige Mac 
Guire, with the two sons of Mac Manus ; Torlogh, 
son of Donogh Maguire ; Bryan, the son of Ma- 
grath, and Murtogh Mac Miolchon, were slain. 

Mac Anchaoich O'Reilly (of Cavan) was slain 
by the son of Annadh O'Reilly. 

Cumara Gearr Mac Namara was treacherously 
slain by his own kinsmen. 



of Mohill, county of Leitrim, in Muintir Eolnis, or Mac Rannall's 
Country, where there was a celebrated abbey founded by St. Fraech 
in the sixth century. 

A.D 1379. 

1. The hkhnp of Meath here mentioned under the name of 
Faltach, was Stephen de Vale, Wale, or Wall. 

2. The buttle of Dreche, now probably Draha, near Newtown- 
butler, county of Fermanagh. 



REIGN OF RICHARD II. 



165 



Cuchonnacht, son of Philip Mac Giiire, a worthy 
heir to the lordship of Fermanagh, for hospitahty 
and nobleness, was slain by the Clan Donnell of 
Clankelly. 

Maolmora Oge, son of Maolmora Roe O'Conor, 
of Oftaley, was slain by the English. 

Fionguala, daughter of 0"Kelly, and wife of 
Mae William Burke (of Galway), died. 

Richard O'Dugan, a worthy successor to the 
professorship of Hy Maine, died. 

William, son of the Giolla Caoch Mac Carroll, 
the most delightful minstrel of the Irish, died. 



A. D. 1380. 

The abbot, Mac Dermott Roe, of Trinity Island, 
on Lough Key (in Roscommon), and Donal O'Lea- 
nan, prior of Lisgoole (in Fermanagh), died. 

John, son of Conor, son of Hugh, son of Donal 
Oge (O'Donnell), lord of Tirconnell, and of the 
adjoining districts, and heir presumptive to the 
crown of all Ulster, and his son, Malachy Duv, 
were slain at the monastery of Easroe (Ballyshan- 
non), by Torlogh, son of Niall O'Donnell, aided 
by the sons of Cathal Oge O'Conor, and by the 
Muintir Duirnin, in a nocturnal attack on his 
camp. 

Mac W^iDiam Burke gave Mac William Oughter 
(Richard Oge) a great overthrow in the town of 
Ath Leathan (in Mayo), in which Mac Jordan 
Dexeter, lord of Ath Leathan, and John Dexeter, 
were slain. 

Teige, the son of Murtogh O'Brien (of Tho- 
mond), was slain by Bryan Sramach O'Brien. 

Roderick, son of Cathal, son of Hugh Bref- 
nach O'Conor, made an attack on the O'Rom-kes, 
but was slain by Manus O'Rourke. 

Art Mac Gennis (of the county of Down), gave 
the English and the people of Oirior (in Armagh), 
a signal and awful overthrow, in which O'Hanlon, 
lord of Oirior, and a great many of the English 
were slain. 

The Mortimer' came to Ireland with sovereign 
power, as lord cliief justice, and the Irish nobility. 



A.D. 1380. 

1. The Mortimer here mentioned was Edmond Mortimer, earl 
of March and Ulster, wlio was married to Pliilipa, daughter of 
Lionel, duke of Clarence, one of the sons of king lidward III.; 
hence his son, Roger Mortuner, earl of March and Ulster, became 



with the heirs presumptive to the throne of Ire- 
land, waited on him, namely, Niall O'Neill (of Ty- 
rone), O'Hanlon (of xVrmagh),0'Ferrall (of Long- 
ford), O'Reilly (of Cavan), O'Mulloy (of the King's 
county), Mac Geoghegan and the Sionach (Fox of 
Westmeath), with other chiefs. 

Art Mac Gennis, lord of Iveagh, in Ulidia (county 
of Down), was treacherously taken prisoner, at 
the residence of Mortimer, in consequence of which 
the Irish, and many of the English themselves, 
became afraid to place any confidence in him, or 
trust themselves to his power. 

Art, son of Gerald Cavenagh (of Leinster), was 
slain by the English. 

Torlogh O'Donnell gained a great victory over 
Conor Oge, son of John, son of Conor, son of 
Hugh, son of Donal Oge (O'Donnell), and over 
O'Dogherty and the Mac Sweeneys, in which en- 
gagement many of their chiefs were slain ; two 
brothers of the Mac Sweeneys were taken prisoners, 
namely, John and Murrogh, and he took much 
property from them in horses, arms and armour. 

Art, son of Gerald, son of Thomas Fionn (the 
foir), of the Mac Murroghs, was slain by Mac Mm-- 
rogli, king of Leinster. 

The Clan Murtogh (O'Conors of Sligo), and 
Philip O'Reilly (of Cavan), marched with a force 
into Brefney O'Rourke, and slew Thomas Mac 
Dorchy, but O'Rourke overtook them and drove 
tiiem forcibly out of the country, after they had lost 
some of their men and horses. 

Cian, son of Roderick O'Carroll, an illustrious 
heir to the loi'dship of Ely (in Ormond), was slain 
by Hugh, son of Murtogh O'Mulloy, with the cast 
of a javelin. 

Mortimer marched with an army into Ulster, 
where he destroyed many fortresses and towns on 
his expedition, together with the churches and 
country, including Urney," Donoghmore, Ai'a- 
gail, Clogher, &c. 

Cormac Oge Mac Carthy (of Cork) ; Henry, 
son of Donal O'Ferrall ; Hugh, son of Mui-togh 
Muinach Mac Geoghegan (in Westmeath), and 
Donal, son of David Mac Geoghegan, died. 



heir presumptive to tlie throne of England. Edmond Mortimer 
died at Cork, A.D. Ui«l. 

2. Urney, in the parish of Urney, near Strabane ; Donaghmore, 
a church in the parish of Donaghmore, near Dungannon ; Airegal, 
now Errigal Kerougue, in the barony of Clogher; and Clogher 
church, all in the county of Tyrone. 



166 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1381-82. 



Donal, son of Bryan O'Dowd, lord of Tireragh 
and Tyi-awley (inSligo and Mayo), a man who de- 
fended his territory against the English and Irish 
who opposed him, died in his own town on the 
3rd of May, and was succeeded by his son Roderick. 



A. D. 1381. 

William, son of Donogh Muinach O'Kelly, 
lord of Hy Maine, the most distinguished man of 
his race for high character, excellence and renown, 
a man who gave a general invitation of hospitable 
entertainment to the clergy and learned of Ireland, 
and made presents to them all according to their 
wants, died at a venerable old age, after gaining 
the victoiy of repentance, and was succeeded by 
his son Malachy. 

Teige Roe Mac Dermott Gall, who had the 
chief power over Airtheach, was slain by the Clan 
Costello. 

Dermod Mac Carthy, heir to the lordship of 
Desmond, was slain by O'Mahony. 

Kennedy Mac-I-Brien of Coonagh(in Ormond), 
was slain by the English. 

The sons of Felim O'Conor were expelled by 
Roderick O'Conor, and dispossessed of Ballintob- 
ber (in Roscommon). Cathal, son of Roderick 
O'Conor, was valiantly and victoriously taken pri- 
soner soon after by Bryan Ballach (O'Conor), at 
Beol-an-Tachair(in Roscommon), as were also some 
other chiefs, together with Bryan O'Beirne and 
Loghlin O'Hanley, who were returning from Con- 
maicne of Dunmore (in Galway) ; Bryan kept 
them in confinement until he obtained his own 
tenns from O'Conor, and they then concluded a 
jjeace. 

The castle of Athlone was taken by the earl 
Mortimer, and the son of Ricard Fox was slain 
there. 

The castle of Athleathan (in Mayo), was de- 
molished by the Mac Donoghs, who carried away 
its portal-gates to Ballymote. 

O'Dunn was slain by the people of FercaU (in 
the King's covmty), while plundering them. 

Niall O'Neill marched with his forces into Or- 
giall (Monaghan), where they committed great 
depredations, but the Orgiallians pursued them, 
attacked the rear of O'Neill's party, and recovered 
a part of their prey ; Donogh, son of Manus Mac 
Mahon, was slain in that engagement. 



Sir Edmond Mortimer, lord of the English of 
Ireland, died. 

Duvcola, daughter of Hugh Mac Dermott, and 
wife of Cathal Roe Mac Rannall ; Lasarina, daugh- 
ter of Torlogh O'Conor, and wife of Mac Rannall ; 
Fionguala, daughter of Conmaighe O'Kane, and 
wife of Torlogh Mac Sweeney ; Sabina, daughter 
of Ulick Biu'ke, and wife of O'Conor ; Duvcola, 
daughter of O'Conor Failey, and wife of Donal, 
son of Theobald O'Mulloy ; and Lasarina, daugh- 
ter of Fergal O'Duigenan, and wife of O'Mithigen 
of Bealach, died. 

Owen Fox, Tanist of Muintir Tadhgain (in 
Westmeath), was slain by the D'Altons. 

Hugh, son of Murtogh Muinach ]\Iac Geoghe- 
gan (in Westmeath), was slain by Myler, the son 
of Theobald O'Mulloy, by the thiiist of a spear. 

Dungallach O'Madden (of Galway), was slain 
in a conflict with the Clan Rickard. 

Raghnailt, daughter of Mac Brady, and wife of 
Mac Dorchy (of Leitrim),died. 

Owen O'Quinn, chief of Munitir Giollgain (in 
Longford), died. 

Donal O'Murchadha (O'Murphy), lord of Hy 
Felimidh, was slain by the people of Hy Kinsel- 
lagh (in Wexford). 

Philip, the grandson of Philip O'Kennedy, lord 
of Ormond, and Aine, the daughter of Mac Na- 
mara, his wife, died. 



A. D. 1382. 

Thomas O'Carmacain, bishop of Thomond (Kil- 
laloe), and Matthew Mac Murray, prior of Kilmore 
(in Roscommon), died. 

Dermod O'Donnell, son of Owen, son of Hugh, 
son of Donal Oge, heir to the lordship of Tircon- 
nell, died. 

Laurence Tuite (of Longford) was slain by the 
sons of John O'Ferrall, namely, Murrogh, Cormac 
and Donal. 

Fergal Roe, son of Donagh, son of Murtogh 
More Mac Geoghegan, chief of Kinel Fiacha, was 
treacherously slain by the people of Fercall, at 
Kilmona, eastward of Rath Hugh Mac Brie (Rath 
Hugh, in Westmeath). Fergal O'Mulloy and the 
son of Theobald were the persons who attacked 
him, and Myler Maintin was he who struck him. 

Some of the chiefs of Connaught were taken 
prisoners by Roderick O'Conor in his own terri- 



REIGN OF RICHARD II. 



167 



tory, namely, O'Hanley, O'Beime, and Mac Kear- 
ney, in consequenc'e of his having received inteUi- 
gence that they were about joining the sons of 
FeHm (O'Conor) against him. 

Roderick, the son of John O'Ferrall, died. 

The Clan Mam-ice (of Mayo) having made an 
attack on Corcomogha,' and plundered the inha- 
bitants, O'Concanan went in pursuit of the prey 
and was slain ; Conor Oge Mac Dermott, with his 
kinsmen, after that attacked the Clan Maurice, 
and on his march for that purpose, the Clan Mau- 
rice with their forces prepared themselves to meet 
him ; but in spite of them he proceeded onwards, 
burned both dwellings and corn, and slew many 
people about the place, and then Conor and his 
party returned victorious by their valour, without 
any of them having sustained an injuiy. 

MuiTogh O'Brien marched with a force into 
Desmond, which he completely plundered. 

Donal, son of Mahon Donn O'Kennedy (of Oi- 
mond), and Edmond Oge, son of Edmond Butler, 
died. 

Murtogh, son of Mahon Maonmoy O'Brien, 
died in imprisonment at Trim (in Meath) . 

Donal O'Brien ; Torlogh, son of Dermod 
O'Brien, and Biyan, son of Dei-mod O'Brien, of 
the Clan of Biyan Roe, died. 

Gillabride O'Sgingin, the intended chief profes- 
sor of Tirconnell, died. 

Murtogh Oge, son of Mac Manus of Tir Tua- 
thail (in Roscommon), died. 



A.D. 1383. 

The abbot, Mac David of Boyle, a man distin- 
guished for charity and humanity, died. 

Teige Mac Donogh, son of Tomaltach, son of 
Maurice, son of Donogh, from whom the Clan 
Donogh (or Mac Donoghs of Sligo) derived their 
name, lord of Tu-errill, a man full of hospitaUty 
and generosity, died on Good Friday. 

Niall O'Neill, with his sons and the chiefs of 
Tyrone, marched with a great force into Trian 
Congail to attack the English, and they com- 
pletely plundered and burned many of their towns ; 



A.D. 1382. 
1. CoTComodhn, a district in the tiarony of Killian, county of 
Galway, comprising the parish of Kilkerrin, on the borders of 
Mayo. 



the English of the district collected together to op- 
pose them, and Hugh O'Neill, and Raibilin Sa- 
vadge ha^^ng encountered each other in a charge 
of their cavalry, they pierced each other's bodies 
with two violent thrusts of their spears ; Raibi- 
lin retiuned to his house desperately woimded, 
where he was again attacked, and killed, by the son 
of John Bisett, and Hugh O'Neill died on the tWrd 
day from the effects of his wounds, and the son of 
John Bisett was slain by Raibilin's people three 
days after Raibilin himself was killed. 

Murtogh O'Flanagan, chief of Tura (in Ferma- 
nagh), and Cormac, son of Art Mac Guire, died. 

John Mac Gaffrey and Manus Mac David were 
slain on the same day. 

Art, son of Thomas Fion, of the family of the 
Mac Murroghs, heir jjresumptive to the crown of 
Leinster, was slain by the English of the coimty 
of Lough Garnian (Wextbrd). 

An awfiJ and very fatal plague raged through- 
out Ireland. 

Ai-t Mac Gennis, lord of Iveagh, in Ulidia 
(county of Down), the most distinguished prop of 
hospitality in Ireland in his time, died of the plague 
in the town of Ath Truim (Trim, county of Meath), 
M'hei-e he was confined by the English. 

MuiTogh-na-Raithnigh O'Brien ; More, daugh- 
ter of Murrogh O'Madden, the wife of Rickard 
MacWilUam (Burke) of Clan Rickard ; and Judith, 
daughter of the earl of Ormond, the wife of Teige 
O'CarroU, lord of Eh', died of the plague. 

MiuTOgh, son of Bryan O'Kennedy (of Or- 
mond) ; Donogh-an-Chuil j\Iac ]\Iahon, lord of 
Corcobaiscind (in the county of Clare) ; Owen, son 
of Donogh, son of Roderick O'Kelly ; andLondres, 
of the town of Athboy, died. 

Fonntach of Tigh Mvma,' and the daughter of 
O'Brien, the wife of O'Kennedy, died. 

Honora, daughter of William Burke, the wife of 
O'Magher; Mac Gillpatrick, lord of Ossoiy, and 
Mac Kelly Mac Gillpatrick, tanist of Ossorj', all 
died of the same plague. 

Dermod O'Dempsey, lord of Clan Malire (in 
Queen's county), was slain by the English. 

Donogh O'Conor, lord of Kerry Luachra (in 



A.D. 1383. 

1 . Tigh Muna, now Timoney, near Roscrea, in the county of 
Tipperary. 



168 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1384. 



county of Kerry), and Malachy Mac Gauran, ta- 
nist of Tullaghaw (in Cavan), died. 

John, son of Donal O'Fen-all, lord of Annaly, 
died at Lisard, and was buried in the monastery of 
Leath-Ratha.'^ 

Cathan, son of Roderick O'Kane (of Derry) ; 
John Gallda, son of the earl ; William Barrett ; 
and Roderick, son of Hugh Oge O'Mulloy, lord 
of Fercall (in King's county), died. 

Roderick, son of Art Mac Guire, was slain by 
Donogh Mac Guire. 

Dermod Mac Dermott, tanist of Moylurg (in 
Roscommon), died. 

Fergal, son of Thomas Mac Tiernan, chief of 
Tullyhunco (in Cavan), died. 

Murrogh, son of Caliir O'Conor Faily (King's 
county), died. 

Milig Mac Costello was slain by the Clan of 
Fiachra O'Flynn (of Roscommon). 

lomar O'Hanley, heir to the chieftaincy of Ki- 
nd Dovha (in Roscommon), was slain by his own 
kindred. 

Cathal, son of Geoffi-ey O'Ferral, died. 

Dermod Mac Rannall, chief of MuintirEoluis (in 
Leitrim), committed a depredation on O'Rourke. 



A. D. 1384. 

John Mac Gillcoisgle, master, erenach, and par- 
son of Airigh Brosga,' died. 

Roderick, son of Torlogh O'Conor, king of 
Connaught, died of the same plague on the eve of 
St. Catherine's festival, having reigned king of 
Connaught sixteen years and three months, as the 
poet Maoilin O'Maolconry has recorded in his 
poem of Reim Riograidhe (or Catalogue of Kings) : 

" For three months and sixteen years, 
The royal Roderick held the rule, 
At Croghan, in honour, free from contest, 
The son of Torlogh fierce in conflicts." 

Ailer that two lords were elected in Connaught, 
viz. i Torlogh Oge, son of Hugh, son of Torlogh, 
was appointed to the government by O'Kelly, Clan 
Rickard, Donal, son of Murtogh O'Conor, and 



2. Leath Hatha, now Lerlia, or Laragh, in the parish of Ab- 
beylaragh, in the barony of Granard, county of Longford, where 
there was an ancient abbey. 

A.D. 1384. 

1. Airigh Brosga, now Derrybrusk, a parish in the barony of 



also by the Mac Donoghs ; and Torlogh Roe, son 
of Hugh, son of Felim, son of Hugh, son of Owen, 
was appointed to the government in like manner, 
by Mac Dermott, the Clan of Murtogh Muinach 
(O'Conors), and by the chiefs of Siol Murray (Ros- 
common) besides ; in consequence of which a war 
broke out all over Connaught, by which the peo- 
ple were much disturbed. 

Dermod Mac Rannall Duv, son of Malachy, the 
worthy, hospitable, and generous chief of Muintir 
Eoluis, ^vas treacherously slain by the clan of Ran- 
nall Mac Rannall, in the hall of the house of Rich- 
ard Mac Rannall. 

Murtogh O'Conor, lord of Offaley,died at an ad- 
vanced age. 

TomaltachMac Dorchy, chief of Kinel Duachain 
(in Leitrim), was kiUed accidentally with a wound 
by his own knife. 

A meeting was held between the parties of 
O'Flaherty and O'Malley, at which a dispute 
arose, and Owen O'Malley, Cormac Cruin O'Mal- 
ley, and many others, were slain on the occasion. 

Carrickfergus was burned by Niall O'Neill, who 
gained great power over the English. 

Cuchonacht O'Ferrall, son of Hugh, lord of 
Moy Treagha (in Longford), and Geoffi-ey O'Fer- 
rall, died. 

William, son of sir Edmond Burke, and Rickard, 
son of Maduc, son of Tomin Ban-ett, a general 
benefactor to the clergy, died. 

Uigh O'Duigenan, chief historian of Conmaicne 
(Leitrim), died. 

Ualgarg O'Rourke, a worthy heir to the lord- 
ship of Brefney, was drowned in Lough Gawnagh 
(in Longford). 

Philip O'Reilly, lord of Muintir Maolmora (in 
Cavan), died. 

Myler, son of sir William Burke, was killed by 
a fall ; John and David, the two other sons of sir 
William Burke, died of the plague. 

Manus, son of Malachy O'Ferrall, Tomaltach, 
son of Cairbre O'Ferrall, and Fergal, son of Cathal 
O'Ferrall, died. 

Donal Mac Murtogh (O'Conor), with his chief. 



Tyrkennedy, county of Fermanagh, near Lough Erne, where a 
Dominican monastery was founded by Mac Manus, lord of the ter- 
ritory, of which there are still some remains, near the village 
of Golla. 



REIGN OF RICHARD 11. 



169 



clans marched a force into Moylurg, and burned 
the fortress of Mac Dermott. 

Donogh O'Dowd died, and was succeeded by his 
son Murtogh. 

Donal, son of Flaherty O'Rourke, died. 



A.D. 1385. 

David, son of Edmond Mac Hoberd (Burke), 
was taken prisoner by O'Conor, and died in his 
confinement at Ballintober. 

O'Rourke (of Leitrim) and Mac Donogh (of 
Sligo), with their respective chiefs, marched their 
forces into Moylurg, where they burned the for- 
tress of Mac Dermott, and the country in general ; 
the son of John O'Hara was slain in pursuit of 
them, and his brother was taken prisoner. 

Felim Cleireach O'Conor and Conor Oge Mac 
DeiTnott, led their forces into Tirerrill (in Sligo), 
but notice of their approach was sent before them, 
and an ambush was laid for them ; they, however, 
proceeded through the country, slew many people, 
and carried off cattle, but the guards of the coun- 
try overtook them afterwards, and a battle ensued, 
in which Cathal Cairbreach Mac Donogh was slain, 
Conor Mac Dermott was taken prisoner, and Fe- 
Hm O'Conor was wounded. 

Murtogh, son of Cathal (O'Conor), Cormac, son 
of Roderick (O'Conor), Teige Mac Dermott, and 
Cathal Mac Dermott, made an attack upon Mac 
Rannall Roe, and on Hugh O'Conor, whom 
they took prisoners and conveyed to the Rock of 
Lough Key (in Roscommon), where they were im- 
prisoned. 

Cathal O'Ferrall, a worthy heu- to the lordship 
of Annaly,andCumuigheO'Kane, lordof O'Kane's 
country (in Derrj'), died much honoured and re- 
spected. 

O'Conor Roe, with Mac Dermott, the Clan 
Murtogh (O'Conors), and the chiefs of Connaught, 
marched with a very great force intoHy Maine, and 
burned the town of Edmond O'Kelly ; and Wilham 
Buidhe O'Naghtan was slain on that occasion. 

The men of Brefney and the people of TirerriD 



A.D. 1385. 

1. Tochar Cntachnn Brieilc, that is, the bog-pass of Croghan 
of Brieile, where this battle was fought, near Croglian Hill, in the 
parish of Crogban, barony of PhilipstowD, king's county, on the 
borders of Westraeath. 

2. Cluan Cairpthe, now Cloonaff, or Clooncraff, a parish in the 
barony aud county of KoscomiDon, where a monastery was founded 



having joined O'Conor Don, made an incursion 
into Corcoachlan (in Roscommon), where they 
burned many of their towns and cut down much of 
their crops. 

Tireragh was burned by Mac William Burke, 
after which he proceeded to Sligo, which he also 
burned, together with the south of Carbuiy, where 
he was opposed, and a battle fought, in which 
Maideog Maol, one of the chiefs of his people, was 
slain, and hostages were taken from him after- 
wards. 

Tyrawley (in Mayo) was burned by Donal, son 
of Murtogh O'Conor, who slew many people, 
seized much booty there, and afterwards took some 
of their chiefs as hostages. 

Murrogh O'Conor, lord of Ophaley, and the 
people of Kinel Fiacha (Mac Geoghegans of West- 
meath), defeated the English of Meath at Tochar 
Cruachan Bri Eile,' in which Nugent of Meath, 
Chambers and his son, with many others of the 
English nobility, and an immense number of their 
common soldiers, were slain. 

Tanaidhe O'lMaolconry, chief historiographer 
and bard of Connaught, died at Lamas, in his own 
house, after having gained the victory of extreme 
unction and repentance, and was interred at Cluan 
Coirpthe^ with due honours. 

The Conacians having made peace with each 
other, Siol Mun-ay (Roscommon), was divided into 
two portions between the two O'Conors.^ 

Art, son of Art More O'Melaghhn ; Dervor- 
gail, daughter of Cathal Oge, the wife of O'Conor 
Roe ; and Bean Midhe, daughter of Mac Mahon, 
the wife of O'Neill, died. 

Gillcreest Mac Gilfinen, chief of Pettigo, (in 
Fermanagh), died. 

The Mac Donoghs committed great depreda- 
tions in Cara (in Mayo), but they were, however, 
overtaken by the clan of Cathal Oge O'Conor, 
aided by the Stantons and many others besides ; 
the Mac Donoghs were defeated, many of their 
people slain, and they themselves were afterwards 
driven into KilcondufF (in Mayo). 



by St. Baraeh, in the sixth century. This district was the pos- 
session of the O'Maolconrys, hereditary bards and historiogra- 
phers of Connaught. 

3. The two O'Conors here mentioned were the two great 
branches of that family named The O'Conor Don and The O'Conor 
Roe, who divided the county of Roscommon between them, as 
explained in the note on South Connaught. 

Z 



170 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1386-7. 



A. D. 1386. 

Aine, daup;hter of Teige Mac Donogh, the wife 
of Tiariian O'Rourke, lord of Brefney, one of the 
most worthy women of Leath Cuinn (north of Ire- 
land), died at Tuam Seanchadhaat Lough Fionn- 
maighe, and was buried in Sligo. 

Carbre, son of Bryan, son of Murrogh O'Fer- 
rall, lord of the Port of Annaly, a hospitable, be- 
neficent, valiant and protecting man, died after 
having gained the victory of good fame, veneration, 
extreme unction and repentance. 

Niall, son of Peregrine Oge Mac Geoghegan, the 
intended lord of his sept, was slain by William 
D'Alton and his son, and Manus, son of Hugh 
Mac Dermott, was also slain by the D'Altons. 

Donal, son of Murtogh O'Conor, with the Mac 
Donoghs, O'Dowd and the O'Haras, marched with 
a great force into the country of Mac Waittin 
(Barrett of Mayo), which they devastated and 
plundered on that expedition, and slew many peo- 
ple, together with Robert of Dun Domnain,' Mac 
Myler of Corran (in Sligo), and Maigoge Gallda; 
and they took Castle Lynod, and cut down the 
orchards of Caorthanain and of Inis Cua. 

Heremon O'Melaghlin (of Meath), was slain 
by Mac Awley and the D'Altons. 

O'Conor Roe, with all the Conacians he could 
collect to join him, went to aid Mac William 
Burke against Donal, son of Murtogh (O'Conor), 
and the Mac Donoghs ; they carried otf great preys 
from Tireragh of the Moy (in Sligo), after which 
they proceeded on a predatory expedition into 
Clanrickard ; O'Brien, at the head of a great force, 
and Mac William of Clanrickard overtook them ; 
O'Conor Roe turned on them and defeated them, 
and C(mor, son of Teige, son of Conor O'Brien, 
was slain by them in that engagement. 



A. D. 1386. 
1. Dun Domnninn, an ancient fortress, situated on a hill in the 
valley of'Glencastle, parish of Kilcoraraon, haronyof Erris, county 
of Mayo. Castle Lijiiod was situated in the harony of Tyrawlcy, 
county of Mayo, and the chief residence of the English family of 
the Lynotts. Inis Cttfiy now Iniscoe, situate near Lough Con, in 
tlie piirish of CrosmoliTia, and harony of Tyrawley. Caertliiiiwn, 
now called Castle-hill, a townland on the west side of Lough 
Con, in the barony of Tyrawley. 

A. D 1387. 
1. cm NnUe, now Kinav/ley, a parish partly in the harony of 
Knockiiiuny, county Fernianaah, and partly in Tullaghaw, county 
of Cavan, so called from St. Nail, or Natalis, who founded a mo- 
nastery there in the sixth century. 



Many of the English of Ossory fell by Mac 
Murrogh, king of Leinster. 

Donal Mac Coghlan, lord of Delvin (in King's 
county), died. 

Fingin,son of RoderickMacGeoghegan,wasslain. 

The Conacians made peace with each other after 
their war, and Mac William Burke made his sub- 
mission to Mac William of Clanrickard ; Berming- 
ham was appointed to a lordship on submission to 
him in like manner. 

Donogh Mac Cabe (county of Cavan), was slain 
by the clan of Manus O'Reilly. 

Cathal O'Naghtan (of Roscommon) was slain 
by O'Conor Roe. 



A. D. 1387. 

A house of general entertainment and support 
was founded for the learned men of Ireland at 
Eamhain Macha (Armagh), by Niall O'Neill, king 
of Ulster. 

Sabina, daughter of Hugh O'Neill, one of the 
most illustrious women of the race of Niall of the 
Nine Hostages, in her time, the wife of John Bi- 
sett's son, died after the victory of repentance. 

Richard Oge Mac William of Clanrickard died. 

Geoffrey Fionn O'Daly (of Munster), chief poet 
of Ireland, and Roderick O'Cianain, a learned his- 
torian, and chief poet of Oriel, died. 

Donal, son of Donogh Docair Mac Guire, and 
Matthew Mac Conleagh, were slain at Kil Naile'. 

Conor, son of Bryan Carach O'Neill, was slain 
by the English of Dundalk. 

William, son of Dermod Mac Rannall, the in- 
tended chief of Muintir Eoluis, was slain by Muin- 
tir Beirne. 

John, son of Aongus Mac Donnell, lord of the 
Hebrides, died. 

Dermod Roe O'Duirnin died. 



I. Desmond. The territory called Desmond, in Irish Deas 
Muinlirin, signifying South Munster, comprised, according to 
Smith, in his histories of Cork and Kerry, and other authorities, 
the whole of the present county of Cork, and the greater part of 
Kerry, together with a portion of Waterford, and also a small 
part of the south of Tipperary, hordering on Cork, called the Eoga- 
nacht Cashel, thuscNtending from Brandon Mountain, in the harony 
of Corcaguiney, county of Kerry, to the river Blackwater, near Lis- 
niore, in the county of Waterford ; hut in after times, under the 
Fitzgeralds, earls of Desmond, this territory was confined to the 
haronies of Hear and Bantry,and some other portions of the south 
west of Cork, together with that part of Kerry south of the river 
Mang. The north-western part of Kerry, with a large portion of 
Limerick, extending to the Shannon, and comprising the present 
baronies of Upper and Lower Conello, was called lar Mumhrniy or 



REIGN OF RICHARD II. 



171 




A. D. 1388. 



ORMAC Mac Donogh, the 
valiant ^van'ior and tanist of 
Tirerrill (in Sligo), went by 
night to plunder Moylurg, 
where he committed great 
depredations; O'Conor Roe, 
with the sons of Felim ; the 
sons of Cathal Oge O'Con- 
or ; and the sons of Hugh 
Mac Dermott, namely, Ca- 
thal and Conor, with their 

forces, followed them in pursuit of their property ; 

Cormac Mac Donogh took the rear of his own 



West Mnnster. In the present article will be given the history 
and topograpliy of the territories comprised in the present counties 
of Corii and Kerry, together with tlioir chiefs and clans, and tlie 
possessions of each, in ancient and modern times, compiled from the 
Annals of tlie Four Masters, the Books of Leacan and Ballymote, 
O'lleerin's Topography, 0'Conor"s Rerum Hib. Scrip., the Disser- 
tations of Charles O'Conor, O'Flaherty's Ogygia, O'Halloran's Ire- 
land, O'Brien's Topographical Dictionary, Ware's worlis, Lodge's 
Peerage, tlie histories of Cork and Kerry by Smith, Windele's 
History of Cork, county surveys, and various other sources, to- 
gether with the MSS. in the library of Sir William ISetham. 

This teiTitory is connected with some of the earliest events in 
Irish history. Partholan the Scythian, who planted the first co- 
lony in Ireland, according to our ancient annalists, sailed from 
Greece through Mulr Toil inn (the ancient name of the Mediter- 
ranean), and landed on the coast of Ireland at Itiver Sceiiie, now 
the bay of Kenmare in Kerry. After the colony of Partholanians 
had become extinct by a plague, \eimedh, or Nemedius, another 
Scythian, sailed from the Eu.vine sea, and, arriving in Ireland, 
settled a colony there called Nemedians, who fought luany battles 
with the Fomoriaus or African pirates, who had .-ettled in Ulster, 
as mentioned in the notes on Dalriada and Tir Connell. Neme- 
dius, together with three thousand of his people, died of the 
plague on an island called from him OHean-Ard-Xeimidh, now 
the island of Barrymore, or Great Island, near the city of Cork. 
When the colony of Firbolgs subsequently took possession of 
Ireland, they divided the island into parts or provinces among 
the five brothers, who were their five principal commanders. 
Slainge possessed the territory from the place afterwards called 
Drogheda to Cumnr-na-dtrl-n Uinge, or the Jleeting of the Three 
Waters, that is, the confluence of the rivers Suir, Nore, and Bar- 
row at \\'aterford ; to Gann belonged the country from the Meet- 
ing of the Three Waters to Bealach Conglais, near the bay of 
Cork ; Seangann possessed the country from Bealach Conglais to 
Luinmeach or Limerick ; Cieannan had tli-) territory after- 
wards called Connaught, from Luimneach to Drolihaois, that is 
from Limerick to Bundrowes, in the county of Leitrim, on the 
coast of the Atlantic ; and Rughridhe possessed the country after- 
wards called Ulster, from Drobhaois to tlie Boyne at Drogheda. 
The colony called the Tuath De Danans, as already explained in 
tlie notes on North and South Connaught, having conquered the 
Firbolgs, possessed Ireland for two hundred years. The Milesian 
colony from Spain, originally Celts or Scythians, of whom an ac- 
count has been given in the note on South Connaught, with a large 
fleet and powerful force, commanded by the sons of Mllesius, 
sailed for Ireland, and while attempting to land, a violent storm 
occurred, and two of the sons w ere drowned oft' the coast of Kerry, 
namely, Heber Donn, at a place called from him Teach Doinn, and 
Ir, at the rocks of Skellig ; another of the sons called Colpa-un- 
Chloidhimh, or Colpa the Swordsman, was driven eastward, and 



force, and was soon engaged by some of 0"Co- 
nor's party, who actively attacked him ; at this 
time O'Conor himself came up, and gave orders 
to his men not to kill him, if they could take him 
prisoner, but in this they did not succeed ; and 
at length he (Mac Donogh) was slain ; and during 
his life time none of his tribe had excelled him 
in hospitality and feats of arms ; Conor Mac Do- 
nogh, Murrogh, son of Cormac Mac Donogh, and 
Mac Dermott Roe were taken prisoners after that 
and were kept as hostages, and O'Conor Roe pur- 
sued the force across the moinitain (the Curlews) 
northward, but the Mac Donoghs fled before him 
to CoUooney, and the lower part of Tirerrill. 

Murtogh, son of Donal, son of Murtogh O'Co- 



attempting to land was drowned at a place, named from him Inver 
Colpa, or the bay of Colpa, now the mouth of the Boyne, near 
Drogheda. Tiie surviving sons of Milesius, Heber, Ileremon, and 
Amergin, efi'ected a landing at Inver Sgeine, now the bay of Ken- 
mare, and soon after were attacked by the Tuath De Danans, 
and a great battle was fought between tliem at Slieve ]\Iis Jloun- 
tain in Kerry, where the Danans were defeated. In this battle 
Scota, the relict of Milesius, who commanded along with lier 
sons, was slain and buried in a valley adjoining the sea, near 
Tralee, called after her Gleann Scota, or the valley of Scota. The 
Milesians afterwards totally vanquished the Danans in a great 
battle at Tailten, in Meath, and thus became masters of Ireland. 
The Milesians, called Clnnna Mileadh, or race of Milesius, and 
Clnnnn Gaodhul, that is Gadelians or Gaels, and Cineadli Sciiit, 
or race of the Scythians, divided the island amongst them. He- 
remon and his posterity, called Heremonians, possessed the king- 
doms ofMeath, Leinster, and Connaught ; the posterity of Heber 
Fionn, or Heber the Fair, named Helierians, had Munster; and 
the descendants of another Heber, who was son of Ir, had Ulster, 
and were called Irians or Clanna Rory, and sometimes Rudricians. 
The arriv al of the colonies of Partholanians, Nemedians, Fomorians, 
Firbolgs, and Danans, in Ireland, is placed by our old chrono- 
logers from twelve to fifteen centuries before the Christian era ; 
and the arrival of the Milesians about a thousand years before the 
Christian era. The Fomorians are mentioned by our ancient an- 
nalists amongst the first inhabitants of Ireland, and stated to have 
been African pirates, descendants of Ham, and represented as a 
race of giants, being men of great strength and stature, which 
exactly corresponds with the accounts of ancient writers, who 
frequently mention the gia7it race of Ham. (See article Ama- 
lekitex in London Penny Cyclopedia). These Fomorians are 
considered to have been some of the Phenicians and Canaanites 
who were expelled from Palestine and the land of Canaan, 
by Joshua, about fifteen hundred years before the Christian 
era, and who made settlements on the northern coasts of Lybia or 
Africa, and, beins expert navigators, sailed to Iberia or Spain, and 
other northern nations. A remarkable record of the expulsion of 
the Phenicians from the land of Canaan, and of their settlement 
in Africa, is given by the historian Procopius, who was himself a 
native of Palestine, and wrote in the sixth century. He was 
secretary to the Roman general Belisarius, and in his account of 
the wars of the Vandals in .-Ifrica, states that in his own time 
there were near the fountain of the Magi, at Tangier, two marble 
columns, with inscriptions in the Phenioian language, to the fol- 
lowing effect : — " We fly from the face of Joshua the robber, the 
son of Nun." These Fomorians were of the same stock as the 
Phenicians, and Tyrians, who in after times settled colonies in 
.\frica, and founded Carthage, and also Gades, or Cadiz, in Ibe- 
ria or Spain, and were celebrated for their commercial inter- 
course with various ancient nations, as Greece, Italy, Spain, Gaul, 

z 2 



172 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A. D. 1388. 



nor made an attack on O'Donnell's camp, in the 
neighbourhood of Eas Roe (Ballyshannon), and 



and Britain, and no doubt some of them sailed to Ireland, and 
most prolialjly settled colonies there in early a^es. On the Ber- 
bers, who were the most ancient inhabitants of northern Africa, 
and descendants of the Canaanites, Philistines, and Amalekifes, 
who were expelled from Canaan by Joshua, some curious and in- 
teresting information may be found in the articles on the Berbers 
and Amalekitcs, in the London Penny Cyclopedia, and various 
circumstances seem to coincide witli the statements of our old 
annalists, about the settlement of the colony called Fomorians in 
Ireland in the early ages, of whom some accounts have been al- 
ready given in the notes on Dalriada, Tir Connell, and South 
Connaught. That some people of Phenician origin traded to Ire- 
land, and probably settled colonies there, has been a general opi- 
nion amongst our ablest antiquarians. The ancient territory called 
Fear Muighe Fihte, which now forms the barony of Fermoy, 
with the half barony of Condons, in the county of Cork, got its 
name, as stated in O'Brien's Dictionary at the word Fearmuighe, 
from its being peopled in the early ages by Phenicians ; hence 
the word Fir Jluigbe Peine signifies the Men of the Plain of the 
Phenicians, which O'Brien translates into Latin, Viri, cnmpi 
Phenlonim, and he considers them to have been a colony of the 
Gaditanian Phenicians from Gades, now Cadiz in Spain ; and 
Dr. Charles O'Conor, in his edition of the Annals of Inisfallen, 
was also of opinion that a colony of Phenicians or Celtiberians 
from Spain settled in those parts ; and the learned Spaniard, Dr. 
Joachim Villaneuva, in his Hibernia Phenicea, maintains the same 
opinion. At Glanworth, in the barony of Fermoy, and in the 
parishes of Temijlebrian and Templeomalus, are the remains of 
Cromleacs and Druidical Temples, consisting of stones of enor- 
mous size, supposed to be monuments erected by the Phenicians ; 
or according to others, by Mogruth, a celebrated Druid, who got 
possession of the territory of Fermoy from Fiach, king of Munster 
in the third century, as a reward for liis bravery in assisting Fiach 
in several battles, and also for his extraordinary skill in music. 
Large stones, with Ogham inscriptions, have been discovered, at 
various times, in the counties of Cork, Kerry, Limerick and Clare, 
accounts of which, by the learned antiquaries of Cork, Messrs. 
Abel, Horgan, Windele, O'Flanagan, &c. may be found in Windele's 
Notices of Cork, &c. 

Cyclopean Architecture. — Of that massive rude architecture 
composed of large stones without cement, and forming walls and 
fortresses of immense strength, there are many remains in Ireland, 
resembling the Cyclopean architecture of ancient Greece and 
Etruria, such as the fortresses of Aileach in Donegal, and of Dun 
Aonguis, on one of the Arran Isles, oft" the coast of Galway, al- 
ready described in the notes on Tirconnell aiid South Connaught. 
The Cyclopean fortress of Knockfennell in Limerick, and that of 
Cahir Conree in Kerry, have been described in the note on Tho- 
mond. At Cabirdonnell, in the parish of Kilcrohanc, county of 
Kerry, are the remains of a large Cyclopean fortress, but the most 
remarkable specimen of Cyclopean architecture in Ireland is that 
called Stah/ue Fort, situated also in the parish of Kilcrohane, on 
a hill near the bay of Kenmare. It is built of stones, without ce- 
ment, but of admirable architecture, of a circular form, and the 
internal area about ninety feet in diameter, the walls eighteen feet 
high and thirteen feet thick, a doorway opening to the interior ; on 
the outside a broad and deep fosse surrounds the entire building. 
A full account of Staigue Fort, given by Mr. Bland in the year 
1821, may be seen in the 14th volume of the Transactions of the 
Royal Irish Academy; and there is a modelof thefortin the Royal 
Dublin Society House. That Ireland has been peopled from the 
most remote ages there exists abundant evidence over the entire 
country. In every county, and almost in every parish, are found 
some memorials, such as remains of Cromleacs, Druidical temples, 
round towers, cairns, sepulchral mounds, Cyclopean fortresses, 
raths, and other antiquities, the histories of which, and even their 
traditions, are long lost in the niglit of time. 

The Heburiaiis were the chief Munster Milesians, as already 
explained in the note on Thomond, and were divided into three 
great branches, namely, the Dalcassians, Eugenians, and Clan 



slew many persons, among whom were the sons of 
O'Boyle and O'Gallagher, with their kinsmen ; he 



Kian. Eogan More, the celebrated king of Munster in the second 
century, had by his wife Bera, the Spanish princess, a son named 
Oilioll Oliim, who became king of Munster ; and Oilioll had three 
sons, Eogan, Cormac Cas, and Clan. From Eogan were descended 
the lioganachts or Eugenians ; from Cormac Cas the Dal Cais, or 
Dalcassians; and from Cian the Clan Kian. The chief families of 
the Dalcassians, Eugenians, and Clan Kian, have been mentioned 
in the note on Thomond, which may he referred to in order to save 
a repetition of their names in this place. Cormac Cas or Cais, sig- 
nifying Cormac the Beloved, the progenitor of the Dalcassians, was 
king of Munster, and a celebrated warrior. O'Halloran, quoting 
the Psalter of Casliel, and the Book of Munster, says that his first 
queen was Samhair, daughter to Fionn Mac Cumhaill, the cele- 
brated hero, who was general of the Fenian forces, and his second 
queen Oriund, daughter of the king of Locblin, or Denmark, 
by whom he had a son called Mogha Corb, who became king of 
Munster in the third century, and was a celebrated warrior. He 
invaded Denmark with a powerful force to support his maternal 
uncles in a contest for the crown of that country, and after gaining 
some victories, succeeded in placing his uncles, Osna and Airid, on 
the throne of Denmark, as stated in the Psalter of Casliel and 
other ancient annalists. The intercourse between the Irish and the 
Scandinavians, or northern nations, as the Danes, Norwegians, 
Swedes, &c. in these early ages, is remarkable ; but, according to 
our ancient annalists, an intercourse and marriage alliances, in 
more remote times, were formed between the Irish kings, and 
those of Spain, Gaul, and Scandinavia. Eogan More, king of 
Munster in the second century, father of Cormac Cas, was married 
to the Spanish princess Bera, daughter of Heber, king of Castile. 
Eochaid, king of the Firboigs many centuries before the Christian 
era, was married to Tailte, daughter of Magh Mor, king of the Cel- 
tiberians in Spain. Ugaine Mor, monarch of Ireland nearly four 
centuries before the Christian era, was married to Ceasair, daugh- 
ter of the king of Gaul. Lughaidh Riabhdearg, monarch of Ire- 
land in the first century, was married to Dervorgal, daughter of 
the king of Locblin, or Denmark. Tuathal Teachtmar, monarch 
of Ireland in the second century, was married to Bania, daughter 
of the king of Denmark and Finland. Feilimidh Reachtmar, mo- 
narch of Ireland, son of Tuathal, was married to Ughna, daughter 
of the king of Denmark, by whom he had a son, Con Cead Cathach, 
or Con of the Hundred Battles, the celelirated monarch of Ireland 
in the second century. Eochaidh Muighmeadhain, monarch of 
Ireland in the fourth century, was married to Carinna, either a 
British or a Saxon jjrincess, by whom he had a son, the celebrated 
Niall of the Nine Hostages, monarch of Ireland. This Carinna is 
called by the Irish writers Carthan Cais Dubh, or Carthan the 
Beloved, of the Dark Hair. Eogan, son of Niall of the Hostages, 
and progenitor of the O'Neills, princes of Tyrone, was married to 
Indorba the Fair, a Saxon princess ; and Murtogh O'Brien, king of 
Munster in the eleventh century, had for his second wife Driella, 
daughter of Godwin, earl of Kent, and sister of Harold, the last 
Saxon king of England. 

The race of Heber, or Heberians, and the race of Ith, or Ithians, 
as stated in the note on Thomond, alternately ruled as kings of 
Munster in the early ages, before the Christian era. The Ithians 
were so called as descendants of Ith, son of Breogain, and uncle of 
Milesius, and were also called Clanna Breogain, as descended from 
Breogain. The Clanna Breogain are mentioned by various Latin 
wTiters, under the name Srigautes. The race of Ith areplaced on 
the Map of Ancient Ireland by Charles O'Conor, in the south of 
Cork, and called liy him Lughadii, as descended from Lugaidh, the 
son of Ith. A list of the chief families of Ithians, or Lugadians, 
has been given in the note on Thomond. They were chiefly located 
in that part of Cork called Corea Luighe, which got its name 
from the above-mentioned Lughaid, and, according to O'Brien, 
as explained at the words Cairbre and Cobtach, comprised a 
large territory in the south west of Cork, extending from Bandon 
to Crookhaven, and to the bay of Kenmare, including the present 
baronies of Carbery, Bear and Bantry. 

The Clanna Deayha or Degadians, a branch of the Heremonlans 



REIGN OF RICHARD II. 



173 



took Mac Sweeney and his son prisoners, whom 
he took with him, together with some property, 
horses, arms, and armour; and the Clan Mur- 



of Ulster, settled in Munster a short time before the Christian era, 
and tiie chief families descended from thein have heeu mentioned 
in the note on Thomond. They possessed that part of Kerry and 
Limerick called West Munster, which also had the name of the 
province of Conrigh Mac Daire, being possessed by that celebrated 
■warrior and his posterity, of whom an account has been given in 
the note on Thomond. The Degadians, under the name a? Degndil, 
are placed in Charles O'Conor's map in the west of Kerry, and 
considered by him to be the same as the Udce'i who are placed on 
Ptolemy's map about the same territory, the word Udici being 
formed from the Ua Deagaidh of the Irish writers. 

The Irians, CInnna Rory, or Biidiicians of Ulster, settled in 
Munster in the first century, and the chief families of them have 
been mentioned in the note on Thomond. On Cbarles O'Conor's 
map they are placed in tlie southern and central partsof Cork and 
Kerry, and called Iberi aitstrales or southern Ibei'ians, to distin- 
guish them from the Irians of Ulster, whom ho designates northern 
Iberians. The Irians or Iberians of Munster are considered to be 
the same as the Velabri, Iberi, Juverni, and Uterni, given ou 
the maps of Ptolemy and other geographers. According to Dr. 
O'Conor they are the same as the Siol Eibbir, that is the race of 
Heber or Heberians of the Irish writers, and according to others 
are supposed to be a colony of Iberians from Spain The Lucenil 
are placed on Ptolemy's map in these parts of Kerry and Limerick 
towards the Shannon. These Lucenians are supposed to be a 
colony of the Luceni of Spam, who, according to Sn'ith, are placed 
by Strabo in Galicia and Cantabria, and said to be of Scythian 
origin, which corresponds with the accounts of our ancient annal- 
ists, who make the Milesians originally a colony from Scythia. 
According to Smith the barony of Lixnaw is considered to have 
derived its name from the Lticenians. Tiie Ganganl or Cnncanl 
of Spain, also stated by Strabo to have been Scythians, are given 
by Ptolemy as the ancient inhabitants of the territories now forming 
the counties of Clare and Galway, a colony of tliem having come 
from Spain in remote ages. From the Concanians of Galway some 
antiquaries suppose that Connaught deri\ed its name. The Cori- 
ondoi are placed on Ptolemy's map in the central parts of Cork, 
and considered by Sniith and others to have been a colony of the 
Corltani of Britain, who inhabited in early times the present coun- 
ties of Lincoln, Leicester, and >'orthampton, and, according to 
Camden, these Coritanians fled to Ireland about the first century, 
in consequence of the conquest of Britain by the Pomans From 
the great intercourse between Spain and tlie south of Ireland in 
tiie early ages, there is much of the Spanish blood in Munster, 
particularly in the counties of Kerry, Limerick, and Cork ; and as 
in the tenth and eleventh centuries colonies of the Danes settled in 
the cities of Waterford, Limerick, and Cork, and continued tliere 
down to the English invasion, there is much of the Danish race in 
those cities mixed by intermarriages with the old Irish. 

Cork, in Latin Corcagia, and also Coraciuin, gut its name, ac- 
cording to O'Brien, at the word Corca, and also according to other 
authorities, from Corca or Corcach, which signifies a marsh, as the 
city of Cork was originally founded on marshy ground, but accord- 
ing to others the name was derived from Core, a prince of the Euge- 
nian race, who was king of Munster in the fourth century. 

Kerr;/, in Latin Kerrigia, got its name from Ciar, son of Fer- 
gus Mac Roy, by Meava, the celebrated queen of Connaught, a 
short time before the Christian era. This Fergus, king of Ulster, 
was of the race of Ir, and hence his descendants were Irians or 
Clanna Rory. His son Ciar, in the first century, got possession of 
a large territory in Munster, called from him Cinr Rioghucht, sig- 
nifying Ciar's kingdom ; hence came the word Ciaraidhe, or as it is 
written in the Book of Armagh, Ciarrichi, anglicised Kerry. By 
the old ecclesiastical writers Kerry was called St. Brendan's 
country, from Brendan, a celebrated saint of the sixth century, 
who founded many monasteries there, and several places in Kerry 
etill bear his name, amongst others Brendan or Brandon mountain ; 
and Camden calls that part of the Atlantic off the coast of Kerry, 



togh (O'Conors) turned against O'Donnell on that 
occasion. 

John Roe O'Tuathail, lord of Hy Murray (in 



at the mouth of the Shannon, Mare Brendarticum, or the sea of 
Brendan. Cork and Kerry are frequently mentioned hy various 
writers under the names of the kingdoujs of Cork and Kerry. 

Kings of the race of the Dalcassians and Engenians alternately 
ruled over Munster, from the third to the eleventh century ; but 
while a king of each race governed by turns the whole of Munster, 
a king of the Dalcassian race ruled over Thomond, and a king of 
the Eugenian race over Desmond. A few of the remarkable 
events in Desmond, from the fourth to the twelfth century, may 
be here mentioned. 

The Battle of Ventry. In Hanmer's Chronicle, collected 
chiefly from the ancient record called the Book of Ilowth, is given 
an account of the battle of Fentra in JIunster, that is of Ventry, 
fought in the beginning of the fourth century, about A. D. 320. 
The Scandinavians, Gauls, Saxons, and other foreigners, with 
povv-erful forces, invaded Ireland, and fought many great battles 
with the natives in Ulster and Meath, which Hannier describes ; 
and another powerful force of these foreigners, attempting to land 
at Ventry in Kerry, were opposed by the Irish, and both sides 
having fought desperately for the space of seven days, tlie slaughter 
was so great that the sea shore was dyed red with the blood of 
the slain. After the foreigners efl'ected a landing, many terrific 
battles were fought almost incessantly during a whole year, but 
finally the invaders were vanquished, and an enormous number of 
them slain in the various conflicts. This battle has been celebrated 
by the Irisli writers under the name of Cath Fion Tragha, and 
some ancient MSS. on the subject still remain. In the ninth and 
tenth centuries the Danes and Norwegians overran Munster, as 
they did various other parts of Ireland, and settled colonies in the 
cities of Waterford, Limerick, and Cork. An account of various 
victories gained over the Danes by Brian Boru and Ceallachan, 
king of Cashel, has been given in the note ou Thomond. Ceal- 
lachan, a celebrated warrior of the Eugenian race, was king of 
Cashel in the tenth century, and having defeated the Danes in 
several battles, Sitric, king of the Danes of Dublin, with his 
brothers Tor and Magnus, having proposed a peace with the 
people of Munster, witli an ofi"er to give in marriage to Ceallachan 
their sister Beibhion, an accomplished princess, the proposals of 
alliance being accepted by Ceallachan, he prepared to go to Dub- 
lin to meet his intended bride, but on his arrival there his party 
were treacherously attacked and defeated by the Danes, who took 
Ceallachan prisoner, together with Dunchuan, son of Cineide, king 
of Tlioniond, the entire proceedings on the part of the Danes being 
a conspiracy to get Ceallachan, their formidable enemy, into their 
power. Tlie Munster chiefs, in order to redeem their king from 
captivity, collected a powerful force, amongst whom were two 
thousand Dalcassians, and three thousand Engenians, com- 
manded by Donogh O'KeefFe, prince of Fermoy ; O'Sullivan, 
prince of Beara ; the O'Conors Kerry ; O'Driscolls ; O'Moriartys ; 
O'Flynns ; O'l-'elans, and other chiefs of Munster, aided by one 
thousand of the Connaught forces, under the O'Haras, O'Garas, 
Mac Coghlans, and others ; the entire, it is stated, amounting 
to twelve thousand men, the chief commander of the Euge- 
nians being O'Keeff'e; and Cineidi, king of Thomond, with his 
brothers Congalach, Cosgrach, and Lonargan, commanded the 
Dalcassians. They also had a large naval force under O'Falvey, 
hereditary admiral of Desmond, who equipped thirty ships; 
O'Conor Kerry, twenty ships; O'Driscoll, O'Cobhtaich, and 
O'Flynn, armed and manned ten ships each ; the Mac Namaras, 
O'Conors, and O'Loghlins of Clare, sent twenty ships ; and from 
Corca Baisein, in Clare, came twenty more, making in all one hun- 
dred and twenty sail. The army, which proceeded by land, marched 
through Connaught and Ulster to Armagh, which city was then 
in possession of the Danes, and whither they brought Ceallachan 
prisoner, in order to put him on board their fleet at Dundalk, and 
send him to Denmark ; the Irish attacked Armagh by the pro- 
jection of large stones from machines, together with arrows, 
darts, slhigs, and other missiles, and applying scaling ladders to the 



174 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1388. 



Wicklow), the most distinguished of his tribe for 
hospitality and feats of arms, was slain by a pea- 
sant of his own clan, within the precincts of his 



walls ; the Danes, under Sitric, were at length defeated with great 
slaughter, and having evacuated the city liy night, they marched 
off towards Dundalk and einharked their forces in their fleet, which 
lay in that hay. The Irish pursued them, and O'KeefFe, sending a 
flag of truce, demanded of Sitric the princes Ceallachan and Uun- 
chuan, who were his prisoners, hut the Danes returned for answer 
that the prisoners would not be restored until an eric was first 
paid for the Danes who fell in fifteen different battles with Ceal- 
laclian and his forces ; and Sitric ordered Ceallachan to be hound 
to the mast of his own ship, and Dunchuan Iti like manner on the 
king of Norway's ship, in view of the whole Munster army. The 
Irish were enraged at thissight, but their land forces had no means 
of attacking the enemy ; shortly after, however, O'Falvey, the 
Irish admiral, ap])eared in sight, and drawins; uj) his ships in an 
extended line, prepared for action. A des]jerate engagement en- 
sued, and the Irish commanders grappled with, and hoarded the 
Danish vessels ; both sides fought with great fury, but O'Falvey 
at length succeeded in releasing Ceallachan, and, giving him one of 
his own swords, bade him take the command. The Irish, animated 
by seeing their prince at liberty, fought with renewed vigour; but 
the valiant O'Falvey at length fell pierced by many wounds, and 
his head was immediately displayed on the mast of Sitric's ship. 
Fingal, a chief who was second in command to O'Falvey, animat- 
ing the Irish, the fight was continued with great fury on both 
sides, but at length Fingal, encompassed by the Danes, and seeing 
his own death certain, seized on Sitric by a sudden grasp, and 
having jumjjcd with him in his arms overboard, both were 
instantly drowned. Conal and Sioda, chiefs of the Clareforces, who 
were engaged with the ships commanded by Tor and Magnus, 
brothers of Sitric, following the example of Fingal, gTasped the 
Danish chiefs in their arms, and leaped witli them in like manner 
into the deep. O'Conor Kerry slew one of the Danish commanders 
in single combat, and cut off his head, but while holding it up in 
triumph, he was himself killed by another Dane. The Danish 
forces were at length totally defeated, and their fleet destroyed, 
but almost the whole of the Irish chiefs and men engaged in that 
fierce contest, were also slain. Tliis great sen Jiijht in the hny of 
Dundalh took place A. D. 944, according to O'Halloran and other 
authorities. Copies of the ancient Irish MSS. giving accounts of 
the battles of Ventvy and Dundalk, are to he found in the library 
of Sir William Betham. That respecting the battles of the Mun- 
ster forces with the Danes, is entitled Toniigheacht Chenllacliain 
Chnisil, signifying The Pursuit for the recovery of Ceallaclian 
Cashel, which would be well worth having translated and publislied. 

The great battle of Main Mor in Cork, fought in the twelfth 
century, A.D. 1151, between the Connaught, Leiiister, and Des- 
mond forces on one side, and the Dalcassians on the other, has 
been described in the note on Thomond. 

The Eugenians ruled as kings over Desnu>nd, and the Dalcassian 
kings over Thomond, and from each race, as already explained in 
the note on Thomond, was alternately elected a king of all Mun- 
ster, which mode of government in Munster continued from the 
third to the eleventh century, when Brian Boru, of the Dalcassian 
race, became king of Munster and monarch of Ireland, and his 
descendants the O'Briens were kings of Munster and kings of 
Thomond, and the Mac Carthys, who were the head of the Euge- 
nian race, were kings and princes of Desmond. 

The Mac Carthys, in Irish Mac Ciirthaidh or Mac Cairthy, 
and pronounced like Mac Carha or Mac Cawra, took their name 
fromCartkach or Cflir^Aconeoftlieir ancestors, aprince ofDesmond 
in the eleventh century, son of Justin, king of Munster, who was 
grandson to Ceallachan, king of Cashel. Of the Mac Carthys 
in early times some accounts may be found in tlie Annals of Inis- 
fallen. The Mac Carlhys of the twelfth century are thus desig- 
nated in ttie topograpliical poem of O'Heerin : — 

" Flaithe Mumhan muir Sionna 
Siol Eogain mic Oiliolla, 
Mac Carthaidii cuing a cana. 
Mar thuind anfaidh etragha." 



own fortress, and the bodach (clown) who slew 
him, was immediately put to death. 

The sons of O'Cuirnin,' Siodhraidh, Carbre, 



"' Heroes of Munster of the fortress of the Shannon, 
Are the race of Eogan, the son of Oilioll, 
Mac Carthy the mainstay of its tributes, 
Is like an unceasing stormy wave." 

On the English invasion, when king Henry II. landed at Waterford, 
in October A. D. 1171, Derniod Mac Cartliy, king of Desmond, 
waited on him the day after his arrival, delivered to him the keys 
of the city of Cork, and did him homage. According to Mac Geo- 
ghegan, this Dermod Mac Carthy, in the year 1185, was, together 
with all his retinue, treacherously slain at a conference held with 
Tlieobald Fitzwalter, and the English of Cork. At the time 
of the English invasion, tlie Danes were in possession of the 
city of Cork and the adjoining districts, being permitted by 
the Mac Carthys, kings of Desmond, to reside there for com- 
mercial purposes. In A.D. 1174, the forces of Strongbow and 
Kaymond le Grosha\hig plundered various parts of Waterford and 
Cork, dispatched the booty to Waterford by sea, under the com- 
mand of Adam de Hereford ; the Danes of Cork equipped thirty- 
five vessels, and attacked the English fleet at Dungarvan, hut 
after a severe engagement they lost the victory, chiefly through 
the valour of Philip Walsh, who Imarded the admiral's ship, and 
killed CJilbert, the son of Turgesius, the Danish commander. 
A. D. 1177, King Henry II. granted to Roliert Fitzslephen and 
Milo de Cngan, for the service of sixty knights, to liimself and 
Ills son John and their heirs, the whole kingdom of Cork or Des- 
mond, with the exception of the city of Cork, and the adjoining 
cantreds, which belonged to the Ostnjen or Danes of that city, 
which the king reserved to hold in his own hands. The Mac 
Carthys maintained long contests for their independence with the 
Fitzgeralds, earls of Desmond, the Butlers, earls of Ormond, 
and other Anglo-Noririan and English settlers, and held their 
titles, as j)rinces of Desmond, with considerable possessions, 
down to the reign of Elizabeth. They were divided into two great 
liranches, the head of which was Mac Carthy More, of whom 
Donal Mac Carthy was created earl of Glencare or Clancare, 
A. D. 1566, by t^ueen Elizabeth; the other branch, called Mac 
Carthy Reagh, were styled princes of Caibery. Besides the earls 
of Clancare, the Mac Carthys were also created at various periods 
barons of Valentia, earls of Clancarthy, earls of Muskerry, and 
earls of Momitcashel, and had several strong castles in various 
parts of Cork and Kerry. According to Windele, the Mac 
Carthy Jlore was inaugurated at Lisban-nacahir in Kerry, at 
which ceremony presided O'Sullivan Mor and O'Donoghoe Mor ; 
his captains of war were the O'Rourkes, probably a branch of the 
O'Rourkes, princes of Brefncy ; the Mac Egans were his heredi- 
tary Brehons, and the O'Dalys and O'Duinins were his hereditary 
poets and antiquaries. There are still in the counties of Cork and 
Kerry many highly respectable families of the Mac Carthys, and 
several of tlie name have been distinguished commanders in the 
Irish Brigades, in the service of France and Sj>ain. Tiie following 
accounts of chiefs and clans in Desmond, or the counties of Corlc 
and Kerry, and the territories possessed by each in ancient and 
modern times, have been collected from O'Heerin's Topography, 
O'Brien, O'Halloran, Smith's histories of Cork and Kerry, and 
various other sources. 

I. O'Suilleabhain or O'Sullivan. The O'Sullivans had the 
ancient territory of Beara, now the baronies of Beare and Bantry, 
in the county of Cork, and were called O'Sullivan Beara, and 
styled princes of Beara. Another branch of the family called 
O'Sullivan Mor were lords of Dunkerron, and possessed the ba- 
rony of Dunkerron, in the county of Kerry, and their chief seat 
was the castle of Dunkerron, near the river Kenmare. A third 
branch of the O'Sullivans were chiefs of Knockraffan, in Tipperary, 
of whom an account is given in the note on Ormond. The O'Sul- 
livans are of the Eiigenian race of the same descent as the Mac 
Carthys, princes of Desmond, and took their name from Suileabh- 
an, one of their chiefs in the tenth century. As princes of Beara 
they held a high rank in ancient times in the county of Cork, 



REIGN OF RICHARD II. 



175 



and Gillpatrick, were slain by the English of 
Lehister. 



and liad several strong castles, the cliief of which were 
those of Diinboy, Ardea, and Carrijanas. In tlie reign of 
James I. tlieir extensive possessions were confiscated, in conse- 
quence of tlieir adherence to the earls of Desmond and Tyrone in 
the Elizabetliian wars, and tlie heads of the family retired to Spain, 
where many of them were distinguislied officers in the Spanish 
service, and liad the title of Counts of Bearliaven. 11. O'llcidir- 
sceoil or O'Driseoll, head of the Ithian race, was chief or prince 
of Corcaluighe, otherwise called Cairbreacha, comprising ancient 
Carbery, an extensive territory in the south-west of Cork. Ano- 
ther branch of tiie O'DriscolIs were lords of Beara, now the ba- 
ronies of Beareand Bantry, in the county of Cork, of which they 
were the original possessors, but tlie O'SuUivans in after times lie- 
came tile possessors of this territory as above stated. The O'Dris- 
colIs of the twelfth century are designated in O'lUerin's topogra- 
phical poem, in terms which may be thus translated ; — 

" To the race of Luighee along the shore, 
I now proceed beyond the bounds, 
To pass tlie tribe is not meet for roe. 
But to record the warriors' fame. 

" O'Driseoll, head chief of the land 
Of Corcaluigliee, I treat of now. 
He took possession of the coasts of Cleire, 
The fittest headland for the princely lord. 

" O'Driseoll of the wealthy Beara, 

Rules over the land of the salmon coast, 
A blue water shore abounding in harbours, 
Exhibitmg to view large fleets of wine." 

Tlie O'DriscolIs had the island of Capeclear, alluded to in the 
poem, and the territory about the bay of Baltimore, and, accord- 
ing to Smith, had a part of Iveragh in Kerry. They h^id castles 
at Dunashad and Dunalong near Baltimore, the castle of Diina- 
niore on Capeclear island, and others. Tliere are still several 
respectable families of the O'DriscolIs in the county of Cork. III. 
O'Caoimh orO'Keeft'e, is given by O'Heerin as chief of Glan Anih- 
ain and of Hrluaelira. Gleanamhain, according to O'Brien, is now 
Glanworth, in the barony of Fermoy, county of Cork ; they had also 
afterwards a large terrilory in 1 he barony of Duliallow,knownby the 
name of Pobal O'Keeffe. In ancient times the O'Keefies had the 
territory of Fearmuighe Peine, now the liarony of Fermoy, in the 
county of Cork, which afterwards was possessed by the Anglo- 
Norman family of Roche, viscounts of Fermoy, and called Roche's 
country. The O'Dugans and O'Coscraighs were also ancient 
chiefs in Fermoy. They are thus designated by O'lleerm : — 

"Chief of Fermoy of enclosed fortresses. 
Is O'Dugan of Dunmanann, 
A tribe of the Gaels of precious jewels; 
O'Keeffe is chief of Glen Avon. 

" O'Keeffe of the handsome brown brows, 
Chief of Urluachra of the fertile lands. 
The hiheritor of the hospitable country. 
Which resembled In beauty the fair plains of Meath.'" 

Tlie O'Keeffes were in ancient times marshals and chief military 
leaders of Desmond, and were styled princes of Fermoy. They 
had several eastles, the chief of which were those of Dro- 
magh and Duaragil. There are still several respectable 
families of the O'Keeffes in the county of Cork. IV. Mac 
Donnocha or Mac Donogh, of whom an account is given in 
O'Brien's Dictionary at the word Donnoch, was chief of Duhalla, 
now the barony of Duhallow, in the county of Cork. The Mac 
Donaghs were a branch of the JIac Carthys, and powerful chiefs ; 
they were styled princes of Duhallow, and their chief residence 



Great depredations were committed by O'Conor 
Roe and Mac Dermott on O'Conor Don, in con- 



was the magnificent castle of Kanturk. V. O'AIathghamhna or 
O'Mahony. The O'Mahonys are given by O'Heerin as chiefs of 
Hy Eachach, and also of Kinel m-Beice ; the latter is now the 
barony of Kinalmeaky, in the county of Cork, and Hy Eachach is 
in modern times called Ivaugli, which, according to Smith, com- 
prises the whole peninsula in the barony of West Carbery, extend- 
ing from Ballydehob to the bay of Dunmamis. O'Brien and 
O'Halloran give the territory Kinel Aodha as possessed by the 
O'Mahonys, which is now the barony of Kinnalea, in the county 
of Cork : audO'Brien in his Dictionary, at the word Mnthijhnhhaln, 
states that the O'Mahonys, who were a branch of the Eugenian 
race, had a large territory in Muskerry, south of the river Lee, in 
the county of Cork, and also another territory called Tiobrad, in 
the county of Kerry ; and the O'Mahonys are placed on the map of 
Ortelius, in the west of Kerry, opposite the island of Valentia. 
The O'Mahonys were powcrl^ul chiefs, and were sometimes 
styled princes. They are thus designated by O'Heerin : — 

" Ivaugh , the most western part of Banba (Ireland), 
Is the great estate of O'Mahony, 
The well watered lands of fair fortresses, 
Extensive are the brown-nut-producing plains. 

" Kinnalmeaky of the pleasant fields 
About Bandon, of the fair woods. 
The most warlike chief, in victory supreme, 
Is O'Mahony of the white foaming coast." 

Tlie O'Mahonys had several castles, as those of Rosbrin, Ardin- 
tenant, Blackcastle, Ballydesmoiid, Dunbeacan, Dunmanus, Ring- 
niahon, &c., all along the sea coast. There are several respectable 
families of the O'Mahonys in the counties of Cork and Kerry, and 
many of the name, styled counts O'Mahony have been highly dis- 
tinguished commanders in the Irish brigades in the service of 
France and Spain. VI. O'Ceallachain or O'Callaghans, given by 
O'Heerin as chiefs of Clair Beire, and of Kinel Aodha. Accord- 
ing to O'Brien and O'Halloran, the territory of the O'Callaghans 
was called Pobul O'Callaghan, signifying O'Callaghan's people, 
and extended from Mallow westward, on both sides of the Black- 
water, in the barony of Duhallow, county of Cork, and comprised, 
according to Smith, the present parishes of Clonraeen and Kil- 
shannick, an extensive territory containing about fifty thousand 
acres. Tlie O'Callaghans mentioned by O'Heerin were chiefs in 
Kinel Aodha, now the barony of Kinnalea, and of Clar Beire, which 
signifies the plain of Beara, a district situated in the barony of 
Beare, both in the county of Cork. They are thus mentioned in 
the poem of O'Heerin : — • 

*' Ar Clienel Aedha an fiiinn te, 
O'Ceallachain Clair Beire, 
Fonn glaislinde co grian geal, 
Fiadh is fairsinge inbhear." 

" Over Kinnalea of the fertile lands. 

Rules O'Callaghan of the plain of Beara, 
A land of blue waters and bright sunshine. 
The country of the most expanded bay." 

The O'Callaghans are of the Eugenian race, and took their name 
from their ancestor Ceallachan Casliel, the celebrated king of 
Munster in the tenth century, and accounts of them may be found 
in the .\nna!s of Inisfallen and the Four Masters. The O'Callaghans, 
lords of Clonmeen, were in former times very powerful chiefs, and 
had their chief residence at the castle of Clonmeen, the ruins of 
which still remain on a rock near the river Blackwater. Accord- 
ing to O'Brien, at the word Pobul, the chief of the O'Callaghans 
was transplanted into the county of Clare, by Cromwell where he 
gave him a considerable property at Kilcorney, in lieu of his an- 
cient estates. O'Brien mentions bartm Louis Dennis O'Callaghan, 
grand Venuer to his Serene Highness the Prince Margrave of 



176 



ANNALS OF THE FOUR MASTERS, A.D. 1388. 



sequence of which great commotion ensued in 
Connaught ; and Mac Donogh burned Moylurg 
on account of these depredations. 



Baden-Baden, and some of them were also distinguished officers 
in the French service. There are several highly respectable 
families of the O'Callaghans in the county of Cork, and a branch 
of them in Tipperary are viscounts of Lismnre. VII. O'Liathain 
or O'Lchan, by some rendered to Lyne and Lyons, is given by 
O'Hecrin chief of Hy Liathain, and of lly Nanmchadha. According 
to O'Brien, at the words Cuislean and Ilih Nanmcha, and also ac- 
cording to Smith, the O'Lehans had the territory in the county of 
Cork, afterwards called the barony of Barrymore, from the Anglo- 
Norman family of the Harrys, who became its possessors. According 
to O'Brien, the O'Lehans took their name from one of their chiefs 
in the beginning of the eleventh century, named Cuilean O'Liathan, 
who, in A.D. 1010, built Castle Lehan, now Castlelyons, which 
was the chief seat of that family. The O'Lehans are thus men- 
tioned by O'Heerin : 

" Lord of Hy Lehan, a warrior of fame, 
The hardy leader of the battalions of Munster, 
Of Hy Nameha he is lineal chief. 
The host of keen arms, of high nobility." 
Vltl. O'Floin or O'Flynn, chief of Arda and Hy Bagamhna, ac- 
cording to O'Heerin, and given by O'Brien, at the words Ardach 
and Donnchu ; and by O'Halloran as chiefs of Arda, a territory in 
the barony of Carbery", and also of Muiserith Miotaine,or Muiscrigh 
ui-Fhloinn, a district in the barony of Muskerry, both in the 
county of Cork. The district in Muscry possessed by theO'Flynns, 
according to O'Heerin, extended from the river Dribseach, or 
Dripsey, to Ballynoorney. O'Maolfabhail is another chief given 
by O'Heerin, in the same territory. The O'Flynns are thus men- 
tioned by O'Heerin : 

" O'Flynn Arda of the blooming woods, 

A tribe of the purest pedigree, 

Heir to the lordship is each man, 

They are the clan of Ibawne." 
" Of the race of Conary of the great forces. 

Let us speak of the chiefs of Muscry, 

A host whom the bright sun salutes 

On the land of the Martineans of Munster." 

Hy Baghamna is now the barony of Iliane and Barryroe, adjoining 
Carbery. According to \Vindele, the O'Flynns built the castle of 
Macroom, which was called O'Flynn's castle. The O'Flynns 
were of the Clanna Deaga, descended from the Ernans of Ul- 
ster, and Eochy O'Flynn, a celebrated bard and historian is 
stated to be of this sept, and is mentioned in O'Reilly's Irish 
AVriters amongst the chief bards of the tenth century, whose com- 
positions are contained in the Books of Leacan and Ballymote. 
IX. Mac Amhiaidhibh or Mac Auliffe, given hy O'Heerin as chief 
of the country from Amhaiu Ella westward beyond Gleann Salcain. 
This territory was in the barony of Duhallow, in the county of 
Cork, extending westward from the river Alia to the borders of 
Limerick. According to O'Brien, at the words Curmac, Glean Omra, 
and the end of the letter M , the Mac Auliffes were a branch of the 
Mac Carthys, and possessed the territory called Glean Omra, in the 
barony of Duhallow, and that the last chief of the family was co- 
lonel of a regiment in Spain, and died about the year 17-20. Their 
chief seat was castle Mac Auliffe, near Newmarket. The Mac 
Auliffes are thus mentioned by O'Heerin : 

" Far beyond the bountiful river Ella, 
To the westward of Glen Salcain of stately trees, 
A fair land of affluence undenied ; 
The territory belongs to the noble Mac Auliffe." 
Another chief in this territory is mentioned hy O'Heerin, as follows : 

" An estate of the plain of Core belongs, 
It is Aes Ella of the fine level land ; 
To the stately scion of Banba of the ringletted hair, 
He is O'Tedgauina of Uun Durlais." 



Peregrine O'Mulloy, lord of Fercall (in the 
King's county), died. 

O'Conor marched into the plain of Connaught 



X. O'Donnagain or Donnegans, chiefs of Muiscrith-na-dtri-Magh, 
or Muscry of the Three Plains, now the half barony of Orrery, in 
the county of Cork, according to O'Brien at the word Muiserith. 
They are thus mentioned by O'Dugan : 

"The country of O'Donnegan is certified. 
The great Muscry of the three plains. 
Which belongs to the host of polished steel, 
The district of charming sunny lands." 

O'Cullenanisgivenby O'Brienasaehiefonthe same territory. The 
O'Cullenans were celebrated as hereditary physicians of Munster. 

XI. O'llionmhuinein, chief of Tuath Saxon, is thus mentioned by 
O'Heerin : 

" Tuath Saxon of the fair pleasant plain, 
To O'Hinmanen I proclaim, 
A country of harbours in atfluence abounding, 
Belong to the hardy sept of Clan Conary." 

XII. O'Maolhleoghaidh, of the race of Core, chief of Muiserith 
Treithirne, is thus mentioned by O'Heerin: 

" Muscry Trehime of the mighty men. 
Rightfully belongs to the race of Core, 
O'Mulbleaghain is powerful over the land. 
He possesses the country of smooth plains." 

XIII. O'Breaghain or O'Bregan, O'GIaisin, also O'Mictire and 
O'Coelidh, or Keeley ; likewise O'Ciaran, are given by O'Heerin, 
O'Brien, and O'Halioran, as chiefs of Hy Mac Caille, or I Mac- 
cuile, now the barony of Imokilly, county of Cork. O'Bregan and 
O'GIaisin are thus mentioned by O'Heerm : 

" A valiant clan, warlike in pursuit, 
Ruled Imokilly of the hospitable banquets, 
Two tribes possessed the smooth plains, 
O'Bregan and the fair O'GIaisin." 

XIV. O'Cuire or O'Curry, of Clan Torna, chief of Ciarraidhe 
Cuirc, now the barony of Kerricurrehy, in the county of Cork, is 
thus mentioned by O'Heerin : 

" Kerricurrehy of the fair coast. 
That country belongs to Clan Torna ; 
O'Curry obtained the fertile land. 
Its green aspect is like the plains of Meath." 

XV. O'Cobhthaidh, anglicised O'Cowhiggs or O'Cowhys, of Fuinn 
Cliodhna, chiefs of Triocha Meadhona, now the barony of West 
Barryroe, in the county of Cork. The O'Cowhiggs were in ancient 
times powerful chiefs, and, according to Smith, had seven castles 
alon" the coast in the barony of Ibawne and Barryroe. They are 
thus mentioned by O'Heerin ; — 

" Lord of the county of Triocha Meona, 
Is O'Cowhy of the white-stoned shore. 
The land of Cleena is the plain of O'Cowhy, 
In the sea fights they are valiant foes." 

XVI O'Fichiolla or O'Fihellys, a name anglicised to Field, are 
also given by O'Brien as chiefs in West Barryroe. XVII. O'Baire, 
given by O'Heerin as chief of Muintir Baire, and by O'Halloran as 
chief of Aron. In O'Brien's Dictionary at the word Riun, the 
O'Baires are stated to possess a territory and foreland called 
Muintir Baire, part of ancient Carbery, in the county of Cork. 
This name has been anglicised to Baery ; they were of the Ithian 
or Lngadian race, and descended from Fathaidh Airgtheach, a king 
of Munster in tlie third century, according to O'Heerin, by whom 
they are thus designated : 



I 



REIGN OF RICHARD II. 



177 



(in Roscommon), burned Ard-an-Choilein, and the 
island of Lough Cairgin, and slew Donal Oge Mac 
Donnell, a constable of ""gaUoglasses, on that 
occasion. 



" Miiintir Baire of the fair fortress, 
They are of the race of Fathaidh Airghtheach ; 
O'Baire rules over the land of waves, 
Which is not surpassed by the smooth plains of Manainn." 

This name has bejn anglicised to Barry, not Baery, as left uncor- 
rected hy the printer in the foreffoing part of this article. 
XVIII. O'Laoghaire orO'Learys, chiefs of Hy Laoghaire or Ive- 
leary, were, according to O'Brien at the word Ihh, of the Luijadian 
or Ithian race, and possessed in ancient times the city of Roscar- 
bery and its environs ; and, according to Smith and \Vindele, Ive- 
leary, or O'Leary's country, lay in Muskerry, in the county of 
Cork, between Macroom and Inchaeeela, where tliey had several 
castles, as those of Carrigafooky, Carrignaneelagh, Carrignacurra, 
Dundarierk and Drumeurragh XIX. The O'Heas and O'Dcas, 
of whom accounts have been already given in the note on Tlio- 
niond, are mentioned by O'Brien at the word Cairbre, amongst 
the chiefs of Carbery, county of Cork, and Smith states that the 
O'Heas were chiefs of Pebble O'Hea in Carbery. XX. The 
O'Donovans, of whom also an account has been given in the note 
on Thomond, likewise settled in Cork, and according to Smith, 
were chiefs of Clan Cathail, an extensive district in West Carbery, 
and had their chief residence at Castle Donovan. XXI. O'Beice 
is given by O'Heerin as a chief of Beantraidhe, now the barony 
of Bantry, county of Cork, and is thus designated : — 

" O'Beice, chief of the fair land, 
Rules over Bantry of delightful bloom, 
Heroes whose noble actions I certify. 
They are of the race of Fergus of Ulster." 
XXII. The O'Caseys are given by O'Brien at the word Coillte, as 
chiefs of CoiUte Maibineacha, a territory near Mitchelstown,in the 
county of Cork. XXIII. The O'Healys or O'Helys are given by 
O'Brien at the word Domhnach, as chiefs of Domhnach Mor 
O'Healy, or Pobble O'Healy, a large parish in the barony of Mus- 
kerry, county of Cork, and he states that the lord chief baron, 
Hely Hutchinson, was descended from this family. XXIV. The 
O'llerlihys or O'Hurleys are given by O'Brien, at the end of the 
letter /, as chiefs of a district in the barony of Muskerry, and he 
states tliey were hereditary wardens of the church of St. Gobnait 
of Ballyvoorny, and were possessors for many ages of the large 
parish of that name. Smith states that they were chiefs near 
Macroom. For a further account of the O'Hurleys, see note on 
Ormond. XXV. The O'Nunans are given by O'Brien at the letter 
U, as chiefs of Tullaleis and Castlelissen, now the parish of TiiUi- 
lease, in tlie barony of Duhallow, county of Cork, of which they 
were hereditary wardens of St. Brendan's church. XXVI. The 
O'Dalys, according to Smith, had the parish of Kilcrohane, in the 
barony of West Carbery, county of Cork, and were bards to the Mac 
Carthys, O'Mahonys, Carews, and other great families. An account 
of several of the O'Dalys, eminent poets in Munster, is to be found 
in O'Reilly's Irish writers. XXVII. The Mae Egans are men- 
tioned by O'Brien at the word Eagan, as Brehons, in the counties 
of Cork and Kerry, under the Mac Carthys, kings of Desmond. 
The Mac Egans were also hereditary Brehons or judges of Or- 
mond. XXVIII. The Mac Sweeneys are mentioned by O'Brien 
at the end of the letter M, as military commanders under the 
Mac Carthys, princes of Desmond, who, in the thirteenth century, 
brought a body of them from Tirconnell or Donegal, where they 
were celebrated as military chiefs under the O'Donnells, and hence 
the head of the clan was styled Mac Suibhne-na-dTuadh, or 
Mac Sweeney of the Battle-axes. According to Smith and 
Seward, the Mac Sweeneys had the parish of Kilmurry, in 
the barony of Muskerry, county of Cork, and their chief castle 
at Clodagii, near Macroom, and had also Castlemore, in the parish 
of Movidy. They were famous for their hospitality, and one 
of them erected a large stone near the castle of Clodagh, 



O'Donnelljthat is, Torlogh of the Wine, marched 
his forces against the Clan Murtogh (O'Conors) 
to Sligo, preyed and devastated the entire of Car- 
bury of Drumcliff, and after he had slain many, 



with an inscription in Irish, inviting all passengers to repair to 
the house of Edmond Mac Sweeney for free entertainment. 
XXIX. The Mac Sheehys, according to Smith, were a warlike 
clan, brought from Coimaught in the fifteenth century by the 
Fitzgeralds, earls of Desmond, who appointed them their body 
guards. They were afterwards numerous in the counties of Cork 
and Limerick ; some of them cliangcd the name to Joy, and of this 
family was the late judge. Baron Joy; they are supposed by some 
to be originally the same as the Joyces of Connemara. XXX. The 
O'Kearneys were a clannear Kinsale,in the county of Cork, where 
they are placed on the Map of Ortelius, and are mentioned by 
O'Heerin as chiefs of Hy Floinn. XXXI. TheO'Riordans were a 
clan of note in Muskerry, in the county of Cork, and distinguished 
military chiefs in ancient times. Of this family was the late Dr. 
O'Riordan of Limerick, a distinguished Irish scholar, and patron 
of the late Peter O'Connell, the compiler of an Irish Dictionary, 
which has been described in the note on Thomond. XXXII. The 
O'Crowleys are mentioned by Smith as chiefs of Kilshallow, west 
of Bandon, in the county of Cork, and originally a clan from 
Connauaht. XXXIII. TheO'Murphys, originally from Wexford, 
are mentioned by Smith as a numerous clan in Muskerry, and 
there are many respectable families of the name in the city of 
Cork. XXXIV. The O'Aherns, 0'Ronaynes,and O'Heynes, were 
also old and respectable families in the county of Cork. Of the 
O'Creaghs and O'Gradys, of whom an account has been given in 
the note on Thomond, there are several respectable families in the 
county of Cork. 

The following have been the chiefs and clans in Kerry, in an- 
cient and modern times. I. O'Concobhair or O'Conors, styled by 
O'Heerin kings or princes of Kerry, who thus mentions them 
in his topograph