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Full text of "The annual register, or, A view of the history, politics, and literature for the year .."

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• A 



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This hook belonged to the 
late Hugh Edward Egerton^ 
Belt Professor of Qolonial 
History in the University of 
Oxford from 1 905 to 1 920 



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ANNUAL REGISTER, 

OR A VIEW OF THE 

HISTORY, 
POLITICS, 

AND 

LITERATURE, 

OF THE YEAR 
182 8. 



PRINTED FOR BALDWIS AND CRADOCK; 
C. AND J. RIVINGTONi 

lANGHAK, REES, OHME.AHD CO. ; B. JEITEIIT AND SON; J. H. tttCHASDSOKi 
J. BOOTn; J. BOOKERi HUR3T, CHANCE, AND CO.; K. SCHOLKVl E. LiOTD 
AND eON : HAMILTON, ADAMS, AND CO. ; W. JOT) O. LAWfOSD i WUHTAEEa, 
TKEACBEB, AND ARNOT; BIMZKIK AND JCAHSHALL ( T. LATCOCS ; J. COL- 
UMOWOOD i ADD SUSTEKAKCE AND STREIClb 

18S9. 




• \ 



V 



N> A^ 



A 




CONTENTS. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 

CHAPTER I. 

DitcoRDAKir Mftt6irlalB of Lord Goderich's Ministry— Dltseniions amoti^ 
the MeAben of it--Quarrel8 as to the Selection of a Chairman of the 
intended Committee of Finance— Conduct of Lord Ooderich, Mr. Tlfer- 
ney, Mr. Hutkisson, and Mr. Hlerrie»->-Threats and tenders of Resign- 
ation by Mr. Huslcisson and.Mr. Herries — ^Dissolution of the Goderich 
Miniatry-^Formation of aihew Ministry under the Duke of Wellington 
—Adhesion of Mr. Huskisson and his friends to the new Ministry— 
Stttwequent expulsion of Mr. Huskisson from Office^-^Resignations of 
his fHends^—SuDsequent changes in the Ministry . • . [l 



CHAPTER n. 

Meetiog of Parliament-Speech from the Throne— Debate on the Address 
— Discuaaions and Explanations conceminj^ the Dissolution "of the 
Goderich Ministry— Statements of Lord Gooerioh, Mr. Huskisson, Mr. 
Herries, and Mr. Tlemey'— Discussions on the Union of some of the 
Bfindpal Members of Mr. Canning's Administration with the Duke of 
WcUington . • [22 



CHAPTER m. 

FiVAirci.— Appointment of a Fmance Committee— Views of Mr. Peel and 

. of Mr. Hume on this sulyect— Bill to Repeal the Life Annuities Act — 

Motion for a Grant to the Family of Mr. Canninjp— Bill to prohibit the 

Circulation of Scotch Small Notes in England— The Budget . • [64 



CHAPTER IV. 

Repeal of the Teat and Corporation Acta— Motion for a Committee to 
eonaidor tiMsa Aeta» earrled— Reaolution that they be repealed, canied 
-^Dadaimtion to be taken instead of these Oaihs— Discussion in the 
H«ttB« of Xiordt^Mocion In tlw House of Commons for a (/ommittee 
00 tiM Oaiknlle Glatas» eattUd, and Mfisrred in the House of Lords for 

« UMirMMumiice .....».*•. [84 

VI 



iv CONTENT S. 



CHAPTBR V. 

Metioii on the state of the Law— Commissions for inquiriaflr iiit» tka^ state 
of the Common Law and of the Law of Real Propcartv^^Bills connected 
with Elections of Members of the House— New Corn Bill passed— 
King's Speech at the Close of tiift Session . • • • . [HO 



CHAPTER VL 

StateoflRBLAin>-^Pr(k:eedingsoftheCatii<^icAssoetatu»n-p-Mr.O'Coi|AeU 
becomes a Candidate to i^i*esent the County of Clare in Padiament— 
Exertions of the Catholic Orators and Priests— Mr. O'Conndl is elected 
—Protest against his being i^tnmed^ReyiTal of the Catholic AssoBa- 
tion in its original Fbrm— The Association resolves to oppose every 
Candidate who will not pledge himself to oppose the Administrataon of 
the Duke of Wellington, to a Ref&rm in Parliament, and to a i^^eal of 
the Sub-letHnp Act— Bflfect of the Clare Election— Speech of Mr. Daw- 
son at Londonderry — I'he Association proceeds to organiie the Popula- 
tion by instituting County and Parochial Clubs— Provincial Meetmgs-^ 
The Association puts an end to the Quarrels >unong the Peasantry— 
The united Peasantry assemble in large Bodies in Military am^— 

* Alarm excited by tliese Meetings — Revival of the Orange, and Institu- 
tion of, the Brunswick Clubs— The Association sends an Aaent to 
organize the North — He traverses the Country, and enters the Towns, 
at the heali of large Bodies of Catholics— The Protestants assemble— 
The Magistrates oppose his progress — ^Riot at Ballabay-^The Assoria- 
tion exhort the Peasantry of Tipperary to hold no more Meeti3Sfs» and 
they obey — ^Proclamation issued by the Lord Lieutenan>-^Praoeedings 
in fiagland— Meeting at Pennenden Heath — Institutfon of Proteatant 
Associations — Proceedings of the Catholic Assodat)on-^Remhitions 

' against Securities— Declarations in fsvour of the Forty-ShilJing Free- 
holders — Correspondence between the t>uke of Wellington, Dr«. Curtis, 
'and the Lord Lieutenant— The Lord lieutenant is recaUed • [120 



CHAPTER VIL 
Fravcs.— Sketch of the new Ministry— State of parties— First acts of the 




prepi 

two remaining Members of the late Administration resign — ^The Cham* 
ber votes an Address condemning the late Minist^^The Kliig's 
Answer to the Address-r-Proposition to impeach M. Villele entertained, 
and sent to a Committee— Conduct of the new Ministers— The Com- 
mittee report that there h ground- to Impeach Vill^le for Treason and 
Peculation— Farther proceedings postponed till next Session — ^Motion 
f>r the Restoration or the National 6uard*^Bill ft>l"seenikig^i«he "Vlght 
of Election— BiH to abolish the Censorship and establish u»lMfaty 
of the Pkvss— The Commission appointed to investigate the teg|lKty . of 
the Jesuit Establishments reports in their favour-<^e Oovtmaient, 



CONTBNTS, V 

notwithBtanding the report, suppresses them— Memorial of the Clergy 
afainst the Suppression — Finance— Trade — The Navy— Difficulties of 
the Ministry— The Adhefents of tlie lata Administration are dismissed 
from the Council of State, and Liberals admitted— Dismissal of prefects 
of Dep«rtoeBt«--«-Foroigo relations *••«*» [169 



CHAPTBR VIU. 

PomTuoAL.— Prospects of Portugal from the Regencv of- Don Miguel— 

' Don Miguel amves in En|^n(f— The Sestion of the Chambers is opened 

at Lisbon — ^Proceedinffs of the Deputies — ^Trial of four Peers for exdting 

• fieditlouB Tumults— PublicatlQna in favour^ of Miguel-r-He arrives at 
' liiabon, and puts himself under the guidance of his Mother—He takes 

• the Oath to the Coastitutton, and appoints a Mimstry hostiloto it — 
Biots at the Palaee— The Mob encouraged to attack tne Constitution- 
nlista— Motions in the Chambers regarding the Riots— The Constitu- 

' tiomd Governors of the Provinces, and Officers of the Army are dis- 
missed to make room for Absolutists— The Constitutionalists begin to 
emigrate— The British Troops embark to return to Bngland— ^Flan of 
Mijgfu^ ta seise the Crown — It is discovered, and the Departure of the 
Bruisk Troops is countermanded — ^Proceedings in the Chamber of 
Depntie9---Mijniel dissolves the Chamber — ^Encouragement g>ven to the 
fiartizaiiaof Miguel-— Addresses from the Muiiieipalities praying Miguel 
to abolish the Constitution, and assume the Crown— Occurrences at 
Lisbon on 25th April-^-Address of the Municipality-'^nd of the Peers 
—The Foreign Ministers suspend all Official Communication with the 
Oovenment— Miguel convokes the Cortes, to declare him lung—^Protest 

' by the Brazilian Ministers— Oporto and its Garrison declare for Don 
Pidro and the Constitutiwi — ^They are joined by other Towns— The 
Censtitntionalists advance .towards Lisbon— Measures of the Govern- 
ment—The Constitutionalists be^in to reUre — ^They retreat upon Oporto 
<*«4diaB^on Oporto— and retire into Spaii^— Madeira declares for Don 
Pedro, but is reduced bv Miguel— The Cortes assemble in Lisbon, de- 
throne Pedro, and declare Aliguel Kin||[ — The Foreign Ambassstdors 
quit Lisbim^-Proscription of. we Coi)Stitutionalist8-»%oRfiscation of 
Property — ^Decree of bon P^ro, resigning the Crown in favour of his 
Daughter — ^Address by Don Pedro to the Portuguese on the Usurpation 
of Nliguel— <The young Queen arrives in Europe, and is brought to 
England • • . . [177 

CHAPTER IX. 

. Spain. — ^Alarms of Insurrection — Disturbances at Saragossa — Final De- 
parture of the French Army of Occupation — ^Arrangement as to British 
pecui4|»'y Claims. — Italt. — Hostilities between Naples and Tripoli 

CHAPTER X. 

Tiw J^lati0lti*ANDa.— Discussions on the Libertjr of the Press— Progress 
of the Insurrection in Java.— Gbrmant.*— Weimar— Baden. — ^Russia. 
t-HofltiUties with Persia renewed— Progress of tiieRussians- A Treaty 
«f Peace 4s concluded [213 



Yi CONTENTS^. 



CHAPTER XI. 

RimiA AKB TuRKiTi^The Grand Vizier wrltH to the Rttiriaii^v«m-> 
meat to have the Negotiations renewed^ to which Russia returns no 
Answer — ^Instructions of the Porte to the Governors of the Provinces- 
Measures adopted by Tarl^eyi in IM tontMiplation of Wai^Russia 
declares War agunst Turkey — Answer of Turkey to the Russian De- 
claration of War— Rttsaian Ans%v«r to the Letter of tha Qvaad Vtmr-^ 
The Russian Army begins the CaBipaij|fn--Siege of Bndlow^Th^ 
Russians take Drailow^ and cross the Danube— ^^nother Division croaaea 
at Issaktchiy and takes that Fortress^ with Hlrsova, Tuleaa» aAd Kus* 
tencyi— Prince Menzikoff takes Anapft--The centre and left Divisions 
join at KarassU'^Deecription of Shumla and Varna— The Russiaaa ad« 
vance from Karassu, and take Bazar^iik — ^They arrive befara Shomla 
and drive tlie Turlu from the heights— They resolve not to attempt 
Shumla till re>infarcements arrive— ^iege of Varna— Obstinate defence 
of the Turks— Operations before Shumla— Successful attack cf the 
Turks on both flanks of the Russian position— They deleat General 
-Rudiger— Siege of Varna— The Grand Viiier approaches to the relief 
of Varna* but is unable to force the Russian position— Defeats the 
Russians in an Assault upon his Gamp— 'Determined resistance of the 
Turks in Varna— Their Commander, the Gapitan Pacha» mfusea to 
Surrender— Vussuf Pacha betrays the Place— The Oapitaa Paoha» with 
Three Hundred Men, retires into the Citadel — He is allowed to retire 
unmolested— The Russians retire from before Shumla* puntted by tibe 
Turks— They retreat beyond the Danube— Operations of the right 
Corps of the Russian Army — Siege of Silistria— The Russians raise the 
Siege, and retire across tne Danube— Operations in Little Wallachia, 
where the Russians defeat the Tuiks, and take Kalafat— Campaign in 
Armenia— The Russians take Kars, and defeat the Turks at Ahalaik. 
—Grbbci.— Convention for the Departure of theBrrptianArmy from 
the Morea— French Expedition to the Morea— The rortresses in pos- 
session of the Turks are surrendered— Proceedings of the Govecnment 
of Greece • • . . • [219 

CHAPTER XII. 

• • - 

United Stats8.— Tariff Bill— President's Messa^— Brazil— Peace con- 
cluded with Buenos Ayres — Mutiny at Rio Janeiro. — ^Bubnos Atrbs. — 
Colombia — Meeting of the Grand Convention — Address by Bolivar— 
The mf^jority of the Convention is hostile to Bolivar — Therefore the 
Convention Is dissolved — Bolivar is invested with supreme power^^A 
conspiracy against Bolivar breaks out in Bogota-«^Pttni8hment of the 

"Conspirators — Revolution in Boliviar*-Bolivar declares war aninat Peru. 
— -Pbru — Mbxico — Conspiracy of General Bravo, the Vice Fresident — 
Election of a new President — General Pedrazza is chosen— 'Insurrection 
agiunst his election — Insurrection in the Capital— Pedrazza leaves 
Mexico. — Chili— Mutiny of the military agamst the Government — 
GuATBiiAi.ir .•..••'.,.« [247 



COMTBNtS. 



▼II 



tfmm 



CHRONICLE. 



1 



APPENDIX TO CHRONICLR 



Kiif*» Mimtefs . -189 

tterifft « .192 

flirtl|8 193 

MtffiaMS « * . .196 
ftwootiona « . • • £04 

D«»tlis 210 

Pttbdo IncqiM . .270 

9%Wxi ExpaMtxLtt • .. 272 
Da^osition of Grants • V73 

Ways and M«ana • •279 

P«Wic Fnaded Debt . 280 

Pvbfic Unfunded Debt • • 283 
Fwretgtk 'frade of Gieat Britain 284 
Trade of the United Kingdom 285 
Tmd#oflFf4aBd .986 

Navi^aaieB of tbe United Klngw 

dom « • . . 287 

Poblk Oeneral Acts • . 239* 
PvUic Acts of a liocsil and Per* 

topal nature « .243 

8l0d» . .250 

Prices of Gem* Hay and But* 

ek«r*8 Meat . ,251 

finis of Mortality BiuVrapts 

«-4>aclMratioas of Insolvency 

apd Meteorolc^al Table , 292 
Uninnity In^eUig^nee « . 253 

LAW CASES AND NAR. 
RATIVES. 

Court of Kiof *s Benc]i.-^Con- 
nimtf7.^r^rba iC^ vk lUbert 
Bolton^nd another ... 306 

QU Balla/.^mUian Jopea . 306 

Court of Kuig% BiBdk.~llM 
King V. Sanud Sutton and 
Oihsia .318 

Wtsteni .C^cuity Satisburyt.-^ 
Tbe moffo«.Seyi»our. . .323 

Bury St. Edmunds.— William 
Corder for Murder . 337 

Sbrewsburr. — Extraordinary 
Caseof Murder . • . 349 

* By an error of the prem, this sheet 
b MsA i»^2M| taslead of 289^^04 



Glasffow Cfrcttlt Court.— Rob- 
bery of the Greenock Bank 352 

St. Christopher^.— Piracies in 
the West In<Ue8 . 355 

Cloninel.-*tYials of the Mur- 
derers of Danler Mara . .359 

Hisrb Court of Justiciary. Edin- 
burgh. — Trkd of WSlJam 
Burke and Helen M'Dougat 365 

PUBLIC DQCUMENTS. 

I. Domesde. -^ Despatch from 
t^e right hon. William Hus- 

- kissott to sir John Keane^ 
K.C.B. liieutfwint Governor « 
of Jamuca ^ . • 386 

Report on Mr. Huriiisson's Do* 
spatch^ to the House of As- 
sembly at Jamaica • . 395 

n. Foreign. — ^Mamfeslo of ^ 
Ottoman Porte, issued after 
the Departure of the Am- 
bassadors ' . • , . 397 

Letter from tbe Grand Viaier 
to Count Nesselrode • « 401 

Letter from Ae Vice-ebancti* 
lori Count NesseUrode to the 
Grand Vizier . . .403 

Russian Dedaratiou of War 
A^nst Turkey • . 404 

Answer ot the Pohe to the 
Russian Manifesto* . • .411 

Speech of the kii]^ of Sweden 
at the opening of the Exr- 
traordinary Storthing • • 419 

Treaty between BkazU and the 
Hanse towns . • . 42t 

Protest of the nenipotentiaries 
of His Majesty tie Emperor 
of Brazil against the Usurpa- 
tion which has recently been 
made of his Crown and King- 
dom .... 425 

Proclamation of Don Pedro to 

- the Portuguese Nation . . 429 



VIll 



CONTENTS. 



Message of tlie Executive of 
Buenos Ayres to the Legis- 
lative 431 

Speech of the PreMdent of the 
UaitedStates v » - . 434 

HISTORY AND BIO- 
GRAPHY. 

Memoirs of the Riffht Hon. 
Robert Banks Jenkinson 
Earl of Liverpool . • 449 

Surprise. and Cfapture of Val- 
divia by Lord Cochrane in 
1820 . . . .4«3 

Opening of the Italian Cam* 
pufcn of 1799, and Siege of 
Genoa . . . * 466 

Entrance of Buonaparte into 
lialy in 1799 , . . 475 

Battle of Marengo » • .481 

Battle of Muda « » .486 

MANNERS, CUSTOMS. &c 

Account of Franklin's Second 
Journey to the shores of the 
Polar Sea . . . .488 

Captain Clitpperton's Second 
fixpeditioa into the Interior 
of Africa, from the Bight of 
Benin to Soccatoo • • 495 

Western Australia . , » 5\0 

Present State of the Jews • • 517 

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 
AND MECHANICAL ARTS. 

To Increase the Odour of Roses 523 
Cochineal ' • . • • f ^* 
Caterpillar • • • • i ^. 
The Pransns . . . • 524 
Grerman method of making 

Flowers grow in Winter • 525 
The Kirbut . • 524' 

Culture of Celery . « . ib. 
Effects of Ivy on Trees • ib. 

Cultivation of the BrMsh Oak 525 



CHEMISTRY, ARTS, &c- 

Poispmng Tjegetables • ^ .527 

Experiments upon E^gs with 
tne Chloride of Lime and 
Soda • I • • • ib. 

Method of Makinga cheap Soda 
Ley, without Crystallizing, 
for the Use of the Turkey- 
Red Dyers \ - . .528 

St^am Boat . • . . ib. 

N^ Method of- Lighting large 
Apartments' • . • 529 

Steam ArtiUety . . . t^. 

Mr. Hohson's improved Method 
of paving • « • . 530 

Crane . • • . • 531 

Windmills attached to Ships' 
Pumps * • . • .1^. 

Patsnts . . • • 532 

ANTIQUITIES AND MIS. 
CELLANEOUS LITE. 
RATURE. . 

American Antiauities • . 536 
University of Upsala • . 537 
American Great Western Canal ib. 
First English Newspaper es- 
• tahlishra in China • . ib. 
Denmark — ^Education • ib, . 

Literature of the Netherlands i6, 
German Literature * . 538 
Oriental Libraries • • , ib. 
Footsteps before the Flood • 539 

POETRY. 

The Homes of England. By 
Mrs. Hemans • • 541 

To Wordsworth. By the same 542 

Komer and his Sister. By Mrs. 
Hemans . • . • 544 

Banwell Cave. By the Rev. 
W.L. Bowles . • «543 

Indix • • « • #547 



THE HISTORY 



. THE 



• « 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 



FOR THE YEAR 



1 828. 



. » 



^SSSSSSSSSSS^S 



■n I I' l 



THE 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



CHAP. I. 

Discordant Material of Lard GodericKs Mimsiry — Dissensions 
among the Members of it — Quarrels as to the Selection of a Chair* 
mofi of the intended Committee qf Finance — Conduct of Lord 

• Ooderichj Mr, Tiemey, Mr, Ituskisson, and Mr, Berries — Threats 
and tetiders of Resignation by Mr. Huskisson and Mr. Herries — 
Dissolution of the Ooderich Ministry — Formation of a new Ministry 
under the Duhe of Wellington — Adhesion of Mr, Huskisson and 
his friends to the new Ministry — Subsequent expulsion of Mr. HuS' 

•■ hissonfrom Office — Resignations of his friends — Subsequent changes 
in the Ministry, 



WE closed our account of tbe 
domestic occurrences of 
18^7^ with the elevation of lord 
Goderich to. the office of prime 
minister on -the death of Mr. Can- 
ning. The discordant elements^ of 
which the latter had composed his 
eovemmenti led men to expect, 
Sbat it would fall in pieces, when 
lie himself was removed. In ap» 
Vol, LXX. 



pearance, however, nothing was 
chanced, except the head. The 
introduction of Mr. .Herries into 
the c£ibi«i^t, as chancellor of the 
exchequer, was not the introduc- 
tion of any new interest. His 
political views and attachments 
severed him no doubt very widely 
from that portion of the ministry, 
which,' before its union with Mr* 



2] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



Cai^Qing, had formed the oppod-i 
tioxi; Wt that difference already 
e^Eist^ in the ministry in point of 
principle : even the premier him- 
^lf> if any confidence could he 
placed in the former tenor of his 
political life^ was far r^mpved from 
perfect political sympathy with 
the new colleagues whom he re- 
ceived from his predecessor. Mr. 
Herries at the head of the exche-* 
quer, was an additional point on 
which the contending interests of 
the cabinet nught come into con- 
tact ; but these discordant interests 
themselves were all there^ already 
prepared to support each its own 
pretensions by open clamour^ or to 
undermine its adversary by secret 
intrigue. Two sets of men^ so 
much opposed to each other ^s 
those had Idng been/ who 'now 
formed the ministry^ could not be 
expected to carry on the govern- 
ment with cordiality and harmony. 
Mr. Cannings in whom all of them 
acknowledged a superior, might 
have been able to retain them for 
a while in their appropriate 
spheres; but lord Ooderich soon 
felt, that, though his dying friend 
had bequeathed to him rivalry and 
dissension in the cabinet, neither 
the power of intellect, nor the d&* 
cision and energy of character, nor 
even the tact of management, 
which would have been necessary 
to avoid ruin, had formed any part 
of the bequest. The departing 
prophet had bestowed his blessing, 
put had not left his mantle. 

The discords^ which were un- 
avoidable among these ill-assorted 
companions, became more deadly, 
and rendered the ministry more 
helpless, the neaVet the meeting of 
parliament approached— an occa- 
sion which required for their official 
self-preservation the oblivion of all 
enmities, and the exhibition of a}I thq 



united strength which they ccnuld 
muster. It was scarcely possible, 
that, in great matters of domes^ 
tic arrangement, such as finance, 
Ireland, or the Corn-laws, lo)^ 
Lansdowne, and Mr. Tieirney, 
with sir Francis Burdett, rirRohett 
Wilson, and the rest of the toho^ 
which they had brought overfrcMn 
the opposition benches, could cor- 
dially coincide with the less bold 
and decided views of the premier 
himself: and it was utterly im- 
practicable that any true harmony 
oould exist between them, and thii 
interest of which Mr. Herries was 
now considered an official repre- 
sentative. He and lord Goderich 
had' long been members of the 
same government ; and there was 
nothing to prevent them from still 
acting together/ unless the latter 
was determined to throw himself 
into the arms of his whig allies : 
but these allies and Mr. Herries 
had always been widely separated 
from each other; and, though 
now brought together in office, 
they were as distant as ever 
from mutual confidence. Th% 
whig part of the ministry had 
vehemently opposed his admisnon 
into the cabinet ; lord Lansdowne 
had tendered his resignation nn 
the occasion, under the idea/ it 
was said, of the apppintment being 
pressed by the king personally; 
and he submitted to it only on 
being assured, that it was, as' it 
ought to have been, the act of the 
premier. But still Mr. Herrias 
was only tolerated by them. They 
were determined not to trust him : 
they naturally aspired to the 
strengthening of their power by 
filling, with one of themsdves, ttn 
office in the government iO pro* 
teinent and influential. 'Whilo 
Mr. Herries continued there, th^ 
must \e content to remain latiified 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



P 



witli flUvided jKiwerr To tbem it 
W94 papBt desirable either to re^ 
1Q0V« )iuilj au4 those who thought 
with him> from office, or tp dimi^ 
ivub the influence of the office 
WAH^h \^e Ntained* by wumiog 
^ ihepselves the arrangement of 
m^ttl^ in which no chanqelbr of 
il^ ^xdi^uer could submit to fill 
any ]4ace but the first. In at« 
teioptii^g the latter> they wrecked 
the govenunent- The occasioni 
indeedi aeemed to be a trifling one< 
but the occasion was only the 
means; the importance and the 
Tuiyhi^f lay in what was either 
the truei though the concealed, 
ol^ject, or at le^st the • unavoidable 
consequence of what was done and 
persevered in. 

When Mr. Canning, as chant 
cellof of the exchequer^ opened 
the budget in 18279 he had avowed 
strongly the necessity of 9ubjecting 
the Snancical condition and re** 
sources of the country to 4 thorough 
investigation, and bad stated that 
the proper co^nie to be adopted for 
that purpose would be the appoints 
ment of a finance committee. The 
HeceadtieB of his newJy-acquiredj 
fipd still very unstable power, had 
justified him in postponing this 
measui^e from the short session 
during which alone he had been 
in ofiioe ; but he had pledged him- 
•elf to the House of Commonsj 
Ihat^ in the enduing session of 
18t28, such a (xuqmittee would be 
ni^Bied* His successor, who a»^ 
sumed offioe professedly to govern 
on the same principles, held him-* 
self to be boynd by this engage- 
ment ; and therefore, towards the 
dose of the year, as the meeting 
of the parliament aj^xroiiched, some 
QMimb^ of the ministry began to 
turn their attention to the formti** 
lien of this oommittee* In sud) 
»:9>wui% whiclb ip its pgnsfH 



^uences might interfere, to a^ 
indefinite extent, with financisd 
arrangements, it seems to be per- 
fectly clear that the chancellor of 
the exchequer, the finance minister 
of the country, waj the very first 
person to be ' consulted. It was 
not merely due to him as a matter 
of courtesy, though his onponents 
were never willing to aUow that 
what followed was more than a 
want of courtesy : it was due to 
the influence of his oflice ; it wap 
due to the regular procedure of the 
ministry. To proceed in such a 
measure without having ascertain- 
ed what were his wishes and views, 
or evea without being prepared 
to accede to these wishes and 
views, in so far as they did not 
contradict the general policy of 
the government, was to degrade 
him from that official weight and 
control which belong to every 
head of a department It so hap- 
pened, however, that, before any 
thine had been ^d on the sul^ect 
in ^e cabinet, Mr. Tiemey, the 
most active member of the whig 
section of the cabinet, had resolved 
to take the lead in the formatidn 
of this committee, — to take it at 
once in its most important part, 
vi2. the nomination of the chair- 
man, and to take it, moreover, 
without so much as informing, 
much less consulting, the chan« 
cellor of the exchequer. In the 
middle of November, he proposed 
to lord Goderich, that lord Althorpe 
should be appointed chairman of 
the committee. Lord Goderich 
expressed no objectiqn ; but merely 
said, that, as it was a matter which 
more nearly concerned those mem- 
bers of the cabinet who had se^t^ 
in the House of Commons, he 
would leave it to them ; and what- 
ever they jpught determine, qn 
would be wK)^b)e,U^ him* He 
[B 2] 



"43 ANNUAL RfiGISTER, 1828. 



Tequeste^ Mr. Tietney, in pftiticu- 
la'r, lb talk' it ovet -wWi Mr; Hu*. 
Idfladn. The ktt^^ when the pr(>- 
pb^ t^as first made to him^ object- 
ed to ^^ i)ti the ground, that> what- 
l^v^r tbi^ht he the talents of lord 
'Althorpe^ tfhey had not been direct- 
'ed in any particular manner to 
iHese ' inqdiries which would oc- 
"eutif^yib iattention of such a com- 
Witter. Af^ some dayaT consi- 
^deffttion, liowever, he got the bet- 
ter of his objections^ and informed 
Mf. Tiemey> that he had come to 
1^ of opihion that the public service 
^^M be benefitted by having 
lord 'Althorpe in the chair. Upon 
t!Aj, ' Mr. Tiemey immediately 
wrote to earl' Spencer, lord Al- 
thorpeV fisither, to ascertain whe- 
ther his* lordship would accept the 
office, if it w^re'ofibred to him; 
find lord Althorpe stated in reply; 
that he would ponSirot to under- 
take that duty, provided certmn 
fla*rangement8, which he did not 
Ifhen specify, were acceded to by 
Ms majesty's government. This 
negotiation was communicated to 
lord Ooderich, wTio seemed cor^ . 
dially to acquiesce. It may be very 
thie -that it did not go the length 
0? positively committing the go- 
v^nment to place lord Althorpe 
ultimately in the* chair; but it 
shewed decidedly, what wefe the 
views of those who engeiffed in it ; 
ffiid lord * Althorpe ivould justly 
have thought himself trifled with, 
}f they had afVerwards determined 
on appointhig another chairman 
without some very good reason. 

All this took place between the 
middle and the 27th of November; 
ahd, amid all these proposals and 
toiuigement!!, not on<6 syllable of 
it^t was going on had ever been 
i<^Uil<pet«d'tb the chanc^or of th^ 
ii^h%qut&r ! he was kept in {sitw 
i^d ilfiMMNice <»e >w&«t vitally 



concerned his own Office, iiid ongfai 
to hiBive been subKaitted 'as auilt^ 
(>f deliberation to him, the inltflttt 
it had b^en entertained ^ tbi 
head of the 'govemmem. It "was 
only on the S7Ui of November, 
that lord Goderich; when mentiofiSi 
ing to Mr. Huskitton th^ comlora* 
nication which had tieen made* to 
lord Althorpe, happened t«> ask; 
whcfther thechanceuorof tfaee9DiAie& 
quer knew any tlni^ of wiiat h$A 
been going on, and Xettufned to Us 
no small tnirprise, that no otmim'ch 
nication' had been made to Mr. 
Herries. Mr. Hnskisson's answer 
shewed an anxiety to exculpate 
himself, which betrayed a con- 
scious feeling tliat wrong had been 
done, if very serious wrong was 
not intended : *^1 was neither 
denred nor- authorized," said Mr. 
Huskisson, *' to make any commu- 
nication to him on the subject; 
but I take it for granted that he 
has been made acquainted with it.^' 
Certainly every man would have 
taken that for granted; but the 
fact was, ihkt it had never been 
mentioned to him. Lord Goderich 
charactemed the omission a» «h 
oversight, and requited Mr. H«rit^ 
kisson to inform "Mr. Herries of 
what had been done. Next day. 
the 28th November, wheil ev«n 
the names of the' intend^ mem- 
bers of the committee w^re talked 
of in town, Mr. Heriier ha(p|ieneft 
to call at the Coldnial office on 
other business, and leAmed, for the 
first time, that It was proposed t6 
place lord Althorpe in the chair i)f 
the finance committee, that > the 
intention had been alrmdv obm- 
municated to his lordship, and that 
all this had been arranged by ihe 
master of the mint and the cAoii^ 
td secretary, without takitig-ll^ 
tttiuble even to inquire wkbt^iftiighr 
U the vieM^r wMitt' ef Ae' 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[e 



b^oK^ miniater of the oouatiy, 
inlbia whoie defectment the mat- 
ter, ffjl, who waaentidfid to have 
had Ae iaitiative in every thing 
ivonetted with it, and whose every 
aRttngement mipht depend on the 
mwa viUi which the choice was 
made* . While these two gentlemen 
wed^. loeetherj Mr. Tiemey came 
Jba^jLod &9w£rQiii hU pocket a pr&< 
miti Ugit of the memhers whom 
be, meast :to pco^^ose should form 
tbe oonimittee. Mr. Huskisson 
afterwarda stated, that Mr. Hemes, 
a€thia meeting seemed to acqoiesce 
ill the nomination; and Mr. 
Tiomey said, that he thought he 
had the dbanodlor of the exchequer 
with. him. But Mr. Heixiesy in 
the oouEse of the parliamentary 
expiaaations which followed^ made 
the following uncontradicted state- 
ment in the House of, Commons, 
on the 18th of Fehruary : " I now 
call on my right hon. friend (Mr* 
Hu^kiaaon) to do me die justice to 
state, thiU, when mention was first 
made to me of the intention to 
plaoe lord Althorpe in the chair, I 
said, that, with all the respect 
whiich I bore for the high private 
dh^iBcl^ of that noble lord, and 
witb all the • satisfaction which I 
abould experience in acting with 
hiiA on wiy committee, I must 
object to hia being appointed chair^ 
snail of this ooinmittee. Such was 
the answer which I gave to a com- 
saunioation which I by no n^eans 
oOnsidefed.at the time to be so dis- 
fciQct as I afterwards discovered 
that it was intended to be." 

Before next day, Mr. Henries 
liad brought himself to be of opi- 
0i6n that this nomination was one 
which on, various grounds he was 
kou&d to resist; and, looking at 
the matter in theli^htiu whixmhe 
waa entitled to consider it, it is not 
•aiy to S90 hpw Uame could attach 



to .him for doung so« jU)rd JMr 
tjunpe belonged to a party in the 
House of Commons, with whose 
financial views Mr. Hisn^es could 
not coincide, and with which Jord 
Goderich, when himself chancellor 
of the exchequer would as Uttle 
have coincided. The section of 
a chairman, by the. gpyernmen^, 
was a dedaratioQ by the. goy^^^- 
ment of the priociples.JBy wh^c^ fit 
]|itended that the inquiry ^ho^d 
be conducted^ and the gen^iW ^^$h 
ture of the results which,. i^ yvfs 
meant to brinff out. Now,.if .^ii^L 
Herries thou^t that the prind^I^ 
and doctrines, of which be con,si*- 
dered lord Althorpe a representaf- 
tive, were not those to which tl^ 
government ought to lend its qouut 
tenance, and would lead to a state 
of things under which he could 
not consent to conduct his own 
department of public afiairs, he 
was both bound and entitled ■, to 
resist* Whether his opinion v^as 
at bottom right or wrong, was, in 
this view, matter of indifference. 
These objections in his mind, if 
they really existed, were perfectly 
fair and legitimate grounds of 
dissent and opposition, and, if the 
measure was persisted in, of resign 
nation. Scarcely less valid were the 
objections arising from the history 
of the transaction. A mere unip- 
tentional omission it could not be : 
at least it would have been asking 
too much, to have required Mr^ 
Herries, in all the circumstances of 
the case, to have considered it as 
not betokening something much 
more serious. He had come into 
the government in defiance of Mm 
violent resistance of tlie whig parjt 
of the cabinet; and it was the mpst 
active member of that party whiQ 
had taken into hia hands. wW 
properly })elQnged to the chaficeUor 
of the e^ecjger hiw^<< • Jh^ 



«] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



ihiiig to be done, tooj W tliis inteir-i 
ference was to place a leader of the 
lame party in an office of no mean 
importance ; todedare, in a manner, . 
that the principles of that party 
were the principles by which the 
ministry desired to De guided in 
one of th^ir weightiest depart- 
ments; to moke, in short, the 
whig interest in the- cabinet, a 
rising and predominating interest ; 
and to sink Mr. Herries, and the 
interest of which he was a repre- 
sentative, into such a state of sub- 
serviency, thatj while its adherents 
held office nominally, they were to 
exercise none of the prerogatives 
and influence of their offices. No- 
thing could be more natural than 
for Mr. Ticmey and his friends to 
labour after such a consummation : 
they undoubtedly would have con- 
sidered the removal of Mr. Herries 
a good gained: and even lord Gode- 
rich mav have had reasons for 
being willing that one section of 
tils cabinet should assume a decided 
superiority over the other, although 
his errors seem to have proceeded 
from mere want of energy. But 
all this did not make it the less 
unreasonably to insist that Mr. 
Herries should submit to such a 
superiority, and to accuse him of 
treacherously plotting to destroy 
the government, merely because 
lie thought that the whole trans- 
action tended to create a prepon- 
derance under which he was per- 
fectly entitled to say he would 
not act. A mere unintentional 
omission to consult the head of a 
department, while you are concoct- 
ing measures which afiect the very 
vitals of his department, and of 
which he ought to be the official 
leader, is not a thing to be pre- 
sumed among men of ousiness and 
decorum, e^cially when it comes 
from a declared political enemy. 



or a lukewarm (Head. Lord 06de« 
rich had said at the very tiixU 
set, " consult the members Of the 
cabinet whohateii6atsin thb Hd/tm 
of Commons f Mr. Tiertiey cbn* 
sulu Mr. Huskissoh i t^nd not t^xily 
do they go the length of MntnD- 
nicatin^ to the nominee, without 
consulting that member of the 
cabinet in the House bf Commons^ 
without whom they fnust hate 
known, unless thef meant b) d^ 
grade him ifito a nominal miAistef , 
they could not move ii )»tep, but 
there is nothing from which it ttp- 
Jpears that they had nnr intention 
of consulting him at all. It Wai 
only an incidental Inquiry of lotd 
Goderich which brought out the 
fact, that Mr. Hernes was stiQ Ittfpi 
in ignorance. Mr. Huskisson de- 
clares, that he could make no toui- 
tnunication, unless he w&8 **hs* 
quested or authorised" ; an excellent 
specimen of the utter Want of ootdi- 
ality among these gentlemen ! for 
what authority did Mr. Husklison 
require to infotm a fellow-minister» 
that measures were going .oit, in 
which that minister Was deeply in 
terested? what other authority thttn 
that which good feeling is to every 
honest man, not to keep another 
pcrk)n in the dark About what he 
is doing in that other person's 
affiiirs. When Mr. Tierney goes 
with a list Of members f(ft the 
committee in his pocket, it i^ to 
the Colonial offic^e that he goes, ftttd 
to consult with ^the cofomal secre- 
tary, not with the chancellor of 
the exchequer ; and next day, when 
the colonial secretary^ in conse* 
quence of Mr. Henies's remon- 
strances, and in po^ssion of Mr* 
Herries's objections, writes to Mr. 
Tierney at Brighton, requestltij 
tliat greater caution may be use^ 
and no names mentioned, he does 
not once make ereb the slightest 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



17 



alluaicm to Mr. Herries's feelings or 
wishei on the subject* If Mr, 
Uenies felty as he probably did, 
aadbad ojpe&ly said, that die tians- 
action had been carried on either 
in the opinion that his approbation 
was matter of little moment, or 
with the niizpose of trying how 
far he would allow it to be reck* 
Oped of little monipnt, and proving 
Ip him that the real influence of 
hb office was in the hands of others, 
there assuredly was nothing in the 
histoiy or probabilities of the trans* 
action to contradict him. 

Accordingly, next day, the Sdth 
of November, he, Mr. Herries re^ 
ouested an interview with lord 
Goderichf at which he stated to 
his lordship the strong objections 
whidi he felt, both on public and 
private grounds, to the nomination 
of lord Althorpe, and the mode in 
which it had been carried so far as 
it had cone. Lord Goderich re- 
ceived Sie communication " with 
considerable agitation; admitted 
the wrong which had been done ; 
And agredL that no time should be 
lost in obviating the objections 
which had been stated/'t Mr. 
Herries immediately sousht an in- 
terview wjth Mr. Huslisson for 
the same nutpose : he did not ob- 
tain one tiU next day, and he then 
stated to him what he had stated 
le lord Goderich, and, after leaving 
Mr. Uuskisson, transmitted his ol^ 
Jections to him in a written form, 
as his protest against the nomina- 
tion of lord Althorpe. This was 
en ,the 30th of November; and 
nothing more seems to have talcen 
place r^ardit^ the matter, till the 
Slst of pecember. During this 
interval, it is allowed on all hands 
that the government was in the 

* Mr. Tleniey^ speech, JL8th Fe- 

ofttaiy* 
tw.Herriss'sspetcbflStbFebi 



affonies of dissolution from causes 
wliich had no connection with thh 
dispute, for neither Mr. Herries 
nor Mr. Husktsson had yet spoken 
of resigning ; and Mr. Hetri^ h^A 
no reason to believe, that, a!ftto 
what had passed, the obnotiOUs 
nomination would be persisted in. 
]S^r. Huskisson himself said of the 
intervening period, that, durin|2['it, 
" there had occurred many circum- 
stances, which tended materially to 
impair the strength and shake the 
stability of the admtnistratioh. 
Some of the principal of them tffe 
of a nature so notorious aitp tender 
it unnecessary for me to State them ; 
while there are others which have 
come to my knowledge in sutih a 
manner as to preclude me from 
stating them ; out the imptression 
mode upon my mind by all of them 
was, that the administration, as 
constituted at that time, was ex- 
posed to the greatest difficulties. 
These were to me ominous stgOs 
which I could not mistake." In 
truth, till the 19th of December, 
there was no government. Lord 
Goderich had formally tendered his 
resignation ; there was no osten« 
sible head to whom the complaints 
or wishes of an inferior member of 
the ministry could be addres.^d. 
The nominal head was in a sea of 
perplexities, where squabbling and 
complaining would have been any 
thing but .friendly offices. Mr. 
Herries, when accused of having 
subsequently backed his objections 
by the alternative of resigning, if 
they were not sustained, answered, 
and apparently with much justice, 
that, if he had chosen that season 
to press a determination of the dis- 
pute, there would have been some 
reason for representing him as seis- 
ing an opportunity at once to hapten 
and to embitter the dying moments 
of the expiring cabiiict. 



$} ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



On the 19tb or SOdi of De- 
oemb^r, the minittiy again righted 
for a while, and lord Goderich waa 
sUll at the helm. Mr*Herrie8| to 
hring the affidr of the finance com- 
mittee to a dose, addressed to him 
on the 21 St the following letter. 

" My dear Goderich^— It is now 
full time that some further steps 
shauld be taken with respect to t&e 
oommittee of finance* 

" It would^ I believej naturally 
be my duty to bring that subject 
under the consideration of the 
cabinet ; but, after what has pass- 
ed (and I advert to it with much 
pain), I feel that it is not at pre- 
sen|; in my hands. I must, there- 
fore, learn from you, as head of the, 
gpveroment, what is the course in- 
tended to be pursued for the for- 
loiation of this committee, and the 
regulation of its proceedings. 

" What has hitherto b^n done 
in this matter has taken place 
without consultation or communis 
cation with me, although it would 
seem to belong principally to my 
department of the public business. 
A negotiation has been carried on, 
and completed by Mr. Tiemey, 
with your sanction and that of Mr. 
HuslosBon, for the nomination of 
the chairman of the committee. 
The government is, I presume, 
fully committed to the individual 
fiz.^ upon for the purpose, and to 
the noble house of which he is a 
member; and this proceeding, as 
I am given to understand, has 
been adopted with a view, in a great 
measure, to a political object, and 
as being calculated to strengthen 
the hands of the adminiBtration. I 
doubt much, whether that View be 
correct, and whether the calculation 
be a just one. But I have an 
objection to the arrangement upon 
a .much higher ground. I. con- 
ceive> that, in onl^r to deciyei in 



the utmost possiUfi di^gote, hmoL 
this important xneasuxe all tfaft 
public b^efit which it is capable 
of afibr^ngv and at the aaiie tkn0 
to avoid the inoonvenienoes to 
which it ia liable, all 
views of the naivower 
all those which are oonneetod with 
particular parties and, iafluenoHl 
only-should be utterly discwHied m 
the formation of the committee. U 
appears to me, that these ol^etiiUl 
would be best secured, if th» eom^ 
mittee were composed of the moit 
eminent individuals of the seven^ 
parties in the House oi Commons^ 
and the chair filled by some per* 
son of high character and resgecta^ 
bility, either entirely unconnected, 
or connected as litUe as posnbk^ 
with any of the political parties 
into which the House is divided* 

"Whether this be a proper view 
of the subject, and whether, if it 
be so, you could yet proceed upon 
such a principle, you iore best aUe 
to judge. I do not feel that I 
could act in it upon any other* 
In order, therefore, to relieve you 
from any difficulty, as connected- 
with my situation, respecting the 
course which you may deem it 
expedient to pursue, I beg to as* 
sure you, that if, by puttii^ my 
office into other hands, you can 
more satisfactorily execute this dif* 
ficult measure, ,you may oommaod 
my most ready and cheerful resig»> 
xvation of it. I place it (and I beg 
it to be understood as being dooein 
the most friendly manner) entifdy 
at your disposal." 

The answer of lord Goderich, 
was in the following terms: 

" My dear Henries,— I received 
your letter of the 21st, and I agree 
with you, that the time is aft wpA 
'when it will become necessary to 
consider the direction of the fioaaoe> 
committer iniJI iti.btanogs, wiA 



HIStORY OF feUROPfe. 



r « 



^yiiw t^ Ae pub^ goad^ and th^ 
satisfietioii of all parties. When 
Mr. Huiklitton returns to town; 
As TiMltsr mnst be brcmght to a 
final'issue* I owe it^ howerer^ to 
n^ttiif to say^tbat you bave greatly 
iBuieoiiceiTed the degree in which 
r was a party to the nomiiiatum of 
knd Altbbrpe to fill the chair of 
that committee. I thought I had 
niffioieiltiy explained to you, ver- 
bally^' that I conceived the commu- 
nication to be nothing more than 
0uoal, and I reeret that it was 
made. When Mr. Tiemey sug- 
fletted to me the appointment of 
mrd Alfhorpe, I said it was a pro- 
pontion that ought to be well con- 
aidfeied; but fiom my regard for 
tlie individual^ and my old friend- 
tbip towards him> I was disposed 
towaids.it. The matter ended 
here. When Mr. Tiemey after- 
wards mentioned the circumstance 
affain, I said> that, if the members 
m the House of Commons inclined 
to his nomination, I should not 
object, but that it could not be 
a^ed on without a consultation 
witli the government. When I 
subsequently understood from Mr. 
Huskisson that a sort of communi- 
cation had been made to lord- 
Altfaorpe, on the subject, my first 
inquixy was, as to whether you had 
been spoken to on the subject, and 
to «By great surprise, I was given 
to- un&ntand you never had. I 
dien thou^t it right to state^hat 
you were a party to v^hom direct 
reiWence should be made. With 
respect to the latter part of your 
lelt^r^ in which you place your 
office in my hands, I cannot con- 
ceive that yon have made out a 
case to Justify you in so' proceed- 
ing ; but I hope that you will take 
no steps ttntil an opportunity has 
been given for bringmg the whole 
DMtier under fidl considenition." ' 



On Mr. Herries's proposal to re- 
ngn being commumcated to Mr. 
CHiskisson, the latter immediately 
announced to lord Odderich that he' 
would resign, if the nomination of 
lord Althorpe was not carried 
through. He had been wilHng, he 
said, notwithstanding the dimcul-, 
ties in which the ministry was 
placed, to make evtry exertion 'to' 
meet parliament,- and then leave 
their fate in the hands of the Souse 
of Commons; but he now saw 
that there was no prospect of 
that cordial co-operation, without 
which he could not hope to carry ' 
through the measures which he* 
reckoned of essential importance 
to the country.' This seemed to 
imply, that to yield to Mr. Herries 
on the present occasion would be 
to acknowledge th^ power of an in* 
terest which did not run in the 
same channel with his own. But 
he forgot that, in thinking so, he 
furnished the justification of his 
colleague; for, consideriiig the 
quarter from which the proposed 
nomination had come, and the 
party likings and views which 
might fairly be said to be involved 
in Its confirmation, the same sen- 
timent would have been, at leas^ 
equally correct in the mouth of 
Mr. Herries. Mr. Huskisson, 
however, although he had thus 
expressed his determination, was 
prevailed upon not to resign ' for- 
mally, till it should be ascertain- 
ed whether Mr. Herries was in 
earnest.* New applications were 
accordingly made to Mr. Herries, 
who remained ignorant ki the 
mean time of Mr. Hudisson'ii 
threatened resignation. If he had 
been aware of it, he would !ft^ 
stantly have given in his fisrmal 
resignation ; but he dSd'tiot 



■•ki 



»'» 



Mr. HU8k!8eohV^cli| idtb Fe^ '' ^ 



10] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



U, till Ike 5th of jAnuBtjr- Lord 
Qodorkh^ in the mean time^ was 
npeating hia essuninoes that no 
. flUght had faeen intended, and 
tttgtag Mr. Herries not to take a 
fti^ which would embarrass the 
gDvermnent; but no aj^roaoh was 
made to an}r explanation or discus- 
aion« Mr. Herries was told again 
ltd again, that he was wrong in 
Ihitthng that the covemment stood 
Qommi&d to lord AUhorpe ; and 
yet he was given dearly to under- 
Maiidi that the government would 
carqr hvd Alttorpe's nomination 
through It is very evideot that 
In ptess the appointment in such 
ciroumstanoes was to add strength 
to every objection which Mr. 
Henriea had Originally been en- 
titled to take. His opponents 
were clearly those who hiul been 
at fim in the wrong ; and if» look- 
ing at it merely as a matter of 
nersonal rivalry^ without any re» 
ntence to the puUic grounds on 
which the proposal Was defended 
and t>pp08ea, lord Goderich found 
himself compelled to say^— -'though 
perfectly indifferent myself in the 
matter, vet I cannot give up this 
nomination l^ the Colonial Secre- 
tary and the Master of the Mint, 
without losing Mr. Huskisson/— 
neither he> nor anyother reasona- 
ble man could blame Mr. Herries 
for avoiding bv his resignation, a 
conoesnon which could not fairly be 
pressed upon him. So soon, there- 
tore, as he learned, that, if lord 
AUhorpe was not made chairman 
of the Finance Committee, Mr. 
Huslusson would not continue Co- 
lonial Secretary, he announced his 
final determination to resum in the 
following letter to lord Goderidi, 
on the 7th of January. 

'^ My dear Goderidi :— -I have, 
as you requested in your last letter, 

(and as I promiaed in my answer 



that I wouU),eanfiiIIy Tbctmrniu^ 
ed the subject of my letter of the 
8l8t of Depember. l tecret to ha 
compelled to state, that the recoo- 
sideration so bestowed upon it has 
not conduced to anv alteration of 
the judgment which. I had previ- 
ously formed and communicated to 
you. The question i^ issue^atid 
upon which your juogment, not 
mine, is to be formed, is obviously 
not the mere nomination of lord 
AUhorpe. That nomination cannot 
be treats aSan insulated point, di^ 
connected from the circumstances 
under which it was delermiaed 
upon, and the manner in which it 
was settled; nor (whichis of much 
more importance) can it be &irly 
cotxsidered without reference to the 
principles by which I have stated 
that I think every step in the for* 
mation of the committee of finance 
ought to be guided. In your last 
communication to me, you gave me 
to understand that I had bmn mis- 
taken in supposing that a conclu- 
sive engagement with lord Al« 
thorpe had been made. It appears 
from your view of the matter, that 
little more had been done than to 
ascertain that lord Althorpe wojuJld 
undertake the office. It such be 
the case, I cannot but observe that 
it renders the positive detecmin»- 
tion to adhere peremptorily to that 
choice, and even to refuse all dia- 
cussion of the reasons upon whicl^l 
think a different course ougjbt to be 
pursued, not only more unintelli* 
gible to me, but more difficult for 
me to acquiesce in. I should have 
thought that it might, upon such 
grounds, have still been an open 
question. Let me take this oppor- 
tunity of renewing the assoraooe 
which r have alr^y given you, 
that your determinatum, as th^ rt* 
suU of your judgment in this mat- 
t^, to advise the king to confide to 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



tn 



dther iM^Adi the seals which f now 
hold, will not have the slightest 
tendencjr to diminish the friendship 
wMeh I fSeel hoth fbr you and for 
Htiskisson; nof to ahate the iin>* 
eere wishes which I entertain for 
the AittM Success of your adminis- 
traHon. I ftel that, where parties 
6f Mich unequal weights are placed, 
hjf an unfbrtunate concurrence of 
Cifcmnstances, in two opposite 
scales, there ought not to be a 
iBMriefttrs heftltation (with refer- 
ence to th6 interests of the govern- 
ment) in ltd disposing of me as t5 
retain the invaluable services of 
(mr common friend.** Next day 
the ministry was at an end. Lord^ 
Ooderich, unable to untie the knot/ 
resolved to cut it. He was redu- 
ce to the necessity of allowing 
cither Mr. Husldsson or Mr. Mer* 
ries to resign, and he escaped fVom 
the dilemma by resigning himself. 
On the 8th of January he went 
ddwn to Windsor, opened his diffi- 
culties to the king, and ceased to 
be ministef. 

Thusperished the Canning Coali- 
tion Mmistrv, after an existence of 
seten months, before it had been 
able to a^Uire a character, or gain 
that hola on public confidence, 
which had been forfeited by the 
sudden reconciliation of the ancient 
efiemies of whom it was composed. 
It perished — ^the victim ef that 
want of confidence, of those very 
entttties which the gainers by coa- 
litions always represent as swal- 
lowed up in their new-bom friend- 
ships-^nd of vrant of power and 
energy in its leader. Though oc- 
casion was industriously taken to 
throw th6 blame of having caused 
its dissolution on the dispute be- 
tween Mr. Henries and Mr. Hus- 
kisson, it was abundantly plain that 
if would speedily have fallen to 

|yieeeii (ba iu own infirmities. 



We have already seen the -total 
want of cordiality among its mem* 
hers: we have abeady noticed the 
dedaration of Mr. HuskisBon, that 
there were *' omitmus signs" whidi 
he oould not mistake. Mr. Her- 
ries declared positively in th» 
H0US6 of Commons, that the tx^ 
plosion had not been produced 
by that dispute ; that it was the 
work of other cauaes . which had 
been previously acting; and that 
a consultation had teen held to 
determine whether his tendered 
resignation should not be madetne 
of as fumidiinff an oppbrtunitf and 
a pretext to tale a step alresdy r«- 
solved on. In truth, in the midffle 
of Decemter, tefore the difihrenoe 
about the chair of the Finance 
Committee had exhibited a single 
alarming symptom, lord Oodeneh 
had actual^ tendered his resigna- 
tion. How then could the em- 
barrassments and dissolution of Ae 
ministry be ascribed to events, 
which did not occur till the mem- 
ters seemed to be already anxious 
to seize the first opportunitv of 
escaping from a falling edifice r In 
particular, the question was often 
put, but never answered,^-' why 
did lord Goderich resign instead 
ofdedding^ Tolose Mr. Herries, 
was not to lose the ministry. It 
was often asked, too, who, or what, 
was Mr. Herries, that he should 
have been of sufficient importance 
to destroy the ministry ^ The 
question could reasonably be direct- 
ed to lord Goderich alone. Mr. 
Herries said, ' I shall resign that 
Mr. Huskisson mav remain.' Lord 
Goderich said, ' if you resign, the 
cabinet is destroyed, for the govern- 
ment cannot ao on without you.* 
It is only on the supposition of Mr. 
Herries having been considered a 
minister whose place oould not be 

supplied, that the determiiiation of 



il^} ANNUAL RBGISTBRj 1828. 



t)|e )irem€^ beoomes intelligible. 
p)r^ Goderich took with him from 
office, thjB honourabldj candid, and 
Vigenpou4 character .which had 
always digtingiiiithed him ; but he 
hft i^either his king nor hia country 
ijvpiepsed. with any high idea of 
Ilia, energy and deddion, or of his 

Ewer aind akill to grapple with dif- 
ulties, oi; oootrd jarring spirits. 
. The king, ihuB abandoned by the 
:9)inisler9j t/o whom he said he wpuld 
hav^ b^n true if they bad. been 
tfc^e to tliemselve^ sent for the 
duke of Wellington, and commis- 
sipned his grace to form a new. 
cabinet with himself at its head. 
His grace immediately entered into 
oompiunication with Mr. Peel, and 
otlier members of lord. Liverpool's 
ministry, who had seceded on the 
elev^on of Mr. Canning. The 
new government was speedily con« 
structpd. In framing it, almost all 
the members of the former one 
were rejtained, except the whigs 
who had joined Mr. Canning 
in the day of his necessity, 
Mn Peel returned, to the home 
office, in place of the marquis of 
l<anadowne. Mr. Tiemey surren- 
dered the mint ; sir James Scar- 
lett resigned the office of attorney- 
generalship, which was restored to 
su: Charles Wethercll, who had 
gone out with the leading members 
of lord Liverpool's ministry in the 
preceding April Lord Melville 
was placed at the head of the board 
of control; Mr. Goulbum was 
made chancellor of the exchequer, 
and earl Bathurst, president of the 
coundL Even Mr. Huskisson and 
Mr. Herries, whose irreconcileaUe 
antipathies had just been so fatal, 
rei^ained portions of the new mi- 
nistxy, Mr. Huskisson continuing 
to be colonial, secretary, and Mr. 
Hen^es bepopusg master of the 
xnio^ in i^e tiC Mr. Tiemey, 



whose ifiterference had tended^^tf 
it was not meant, tod^nu^.Ua 
successor in his official cbacaotec^ 
All the friends of Mr* IJuskisaoii 
retained theirplaoesi.-;-lardX>ud^ 
and Ward, as foreign •ecret8)ey>Mr< 
Grant, as president of the boavd of 
trade ; lord Palmerstoa, a»«eovetai9 
at war. The duke of WeUingteA 
was first lord of the tiiea^ufyj. a^ 
he immediately resided ^e ottviQ 
of commander-in-chief of the acE^n 
Thus the ministry was. almosft 
entirely restored to what it hsA 
been under the premiership of Igid 
Liverpool. With the exception of 
lord Lyndhurst as chancellor, in 
place of lord Eldon, . aiyi lord. 
Dudley as foreign secretary in phioe 
of Mr. Canning, the personale re« 
mained nearly unchanged. The old 
opposition atone was again totaUy. 
eai:cluded. The public, however, 
were not easily satisfied at seeLna 
Mr. Huskisson and his friends stiu 
clinging to office. His union with 
the new ministry displeased the 
personal friends of Mx. Cannine^ 
who thought that he di^lajed litm 
regard to the memory of his friei^. 
in so soon taking place with those 
who had deserted that friend.at Jiis 
utmost need. The whigs wer^ npt 
easily satisfied thatheactedh4Hiest]/< 
in staying in, when they were cpffip 
pelled to gQ out : Aey had thought 
that the conduct of those who^r^n 
sighed in April 18^7, ,when li9 ih 
hered to Mr. Canning, had.sc^juv^ 
him fxom them for ' ever, and tk^' 
he would remain faithful to the, 
opposition benches, where, ii^ tha^ 
emergency,he had iound protteotiwk, 
and support He was directly $On 
cused of having sacrificed prin4?ipl9* 
to love of place. He was pleiLm^ , 
it was said, to measures to wSph 
the leading membe^i of ^e.iifw 

Kvemment could pot » bu|^ ^ hfi 
stUe. On him depended tbie 



-'.'.) .:• 



4t»* *.l t 



». ■!- 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



n \ 



t^t 



IBbmi ^VLay' cS our oommerclal 
9«tem; he 8«(M)d etigoged to liberal 
iMlMiWi in our foreign policy ; he 
WW pledged' in the dinse oi Ca- 
Axditi emancipation. These mea^ 
iDh^ hftd formed the points of 
tekn nncftig all the members of 
tfie kte gv?erament ; but in every 
ene^f ^em the new government 
#10 either lukewarm, or would be 
flulfcd, "hyitirhefld, in an opposite 
aiieelioii. No beneficial alteration 
^ the com laws conld, it was said, 
fe expected, under the dule of 
WeUhfgton, who, in the preceding 
year, had thrown out the com bill i 
CithoKc emancipation had no more 
dbsdnate enemy ; he was too inti- 
Inatefy and personally connected 
with the monatvhs of Europe, to 
set any value on the rights of tlxeir 
soljects; and the policy of Mr. 
Camnng to protect Portugal and 
iescue Greece would wither under 
fiiSfnflnence. The men who in- 
dulged in language like this, (and 
they were found in parliament as 
wdl as out of it), forgot, that every 
thing which had been done in re- 
gard to these topics, with the ex- 
ceptiott of the corii bill, had been 
done under lord Liverpool, when 
the duke of Wellington and Mr. 
Pteei were members of the govern- 
ment. * Neither of these statesmen 
lii^l«idftted Mr. Huskisson'samend- 
n%ht« iii the commercial code ; it 
was ttie* duke of Wellington who 
hud signed the pt\)tocol of St. Pe- 
tenlniirgK <wi which rested our 
interference with Turkey in behalf 
of Greece ; and, as to Ireland, the 
government was now just what it 
had been so long, and what even 
the tet cabinet itself had been, a 
dffviied government. There was 
ia mitfa moch more of ignorance 
aikd prejudice than of sound sense 
in'th^ aamour which was excited 
agynil ^'Vh. -Hoskissbn for his 
accfwion to the ministry. Oa 



the hustings at Liverpod, whetb 
he was re^^cted, he entet^'intd 
an explanation of his'cotidutt. It 
was simply this— that the polity of 
the present ministry waiS to be the 
same with that of all those of iti 
predecessors, to which he hlid \i^ 
longed. He had refused to Accept 
the duke of WeHin^n's offers, tm 
he should understand what W^ 
to be the principles of his gtace's 
cabinet. ' When he found th^t lord 
Dudley was to continue at the heacT 
of our foreign relations, Mr. Grahtr 
at the board of trade, and he hnni 
self in the colonial office,-*- that 
there was to be no change in' th!e 
administration of Ireland, andHhalf 
the Irish question to remain, as iH 
had so long remained, a question on 
which no official influence should 
be brought to bear,-he saw so mucK 
security for the prevalence of thif 
principles to which he was pledged,' 
as would have lef^ him without 
excuse, if he had deserted the public 
service to gratify private feelings.' 
In speaking on this subjett he used 
the word " guarantees", and was 
reported to have said, that he had 
insisted on receiving, and had re* 
ceived, from the duke of Wellington; 
positive and special pledges that a 
particular line of policy should be 
followed, and that his grace should 
tread in all respects in the footsteps 
of Mr. Canning. So soon as the 
report of the speeches was made* 
public, the expressions of Mr.' 
Huskisson attracted notice. The 
duke of Wellington immediately' 
noticed them in the House of Lords, 
and repelled, with a prompt ahd 
somewhat contemptuous contra- 
diction, the imputation that he had 
bound himself to Mr. Huskisson by 
any particular security. Pledges,- 
he said, had neither been asked no^' 
given; and if they had been asi 
they .would have been inditfmmllj^' 
refused* Mr. Huskissoa then ex« 



I.' 



14] ANNUAL HEGISTfiR, 1828. 



p]ianed m the Houfe of Commontt 
thai bis word» h«cl bee^ ipi^repref 
MntecU He hsui, he allowed^ used 
the oxprenion guarantee ; hut be 
bad used it in qo other -sense tbai^ 
this, that the presenoe of his friends 
in 4Jie efflees whiph they }^ held 
unde? Mr. Conning was a sufficient 
pnd^tanding as to the views on 
which the new government was to 
he conducted. 

It is eertain^ however, that these 
ocoorrenoes injured Mr* Huskisson 
in public estimation. Amid all 
chai^ies he was too vegularlyin 
office i his political life had render* 
ed it indubitable that he loved 
plaee; and he seemed not indis* 
posed to rest the defence of bis con« 
sisteney on finedrawn distinctions* 
On the present occasion he ap^ 
peered to feel that part, at leasts 
of the public confidence was oone ; 
that his late friends consideren him 
as bavins betrayed them ; that bis 
new coueagues scarcely trusted 
him, though they found lum useful, 
and imputed his adherence to an 
inability to resign or refuse place, 
rather than to any cordial commu- 
nity of sentiment. He seemed 
anidous to redeem himself by some 
act that would look Hke an asser* 
tion of independence ; yet he took 
his importunity so unrortunately, 
and followed it up with such a 
miserable want of steadiness and 
self-respect, that it left him almost 
without 41 public character; and, 
while it dismissed him from the 
iinnistary, allowed him to depart 
scarcely followed by a single regret. 
In the course of the session, bills 
were iiitroduced into parliament to 
disfranchise the boroughs of Penryn 
and East Retford, which had been 
convicted q( repeated and incur* 
aUebrib^. Two opinions prevaiU 
^ r^gai^ing the mode in which the 
varaTit fnmchises should be disposed 



of, One was that they should b# 
extended to the neigbbeuring huib 
dreds; the other wasj that they 
should be transferred to ^me i^ 
the populous unrepi^esoAt^ tpwni* 
Birmingham for instance, aod 
Manchester. Mr. Pee), as Ifiader 
in the House of Commons, had de^ 
claredf that» having two boroughs 
to de^ withj he WQuldi in the one 
case, es^tend the franchise to the 
hundreds, and, in tlie other, trw^tfer 
it to a town. Mr. Huali^sson» 
however, had ffone 4u:theri aod 
had stated in w house, that* if 
there should be only the (iranchisa 
of one borough to dispose of^ hei 
would vote in favour m th^ tranfn 
ference to Birmingham or Man^ 
Chester. Penryn was first dealt 
with in the House of Commois : 
a bill transferring its franchise to 
Manchester was s^t up to tfao 
Lords, while the case of East Ret* 
ford was allowed to stand over, aa 
the decision of the Commons in the 
latter might be materially affected 
by the decision of the peers upon 
the former. By the iptb of May^ 
when the East Retford bill was 
again moved, it was considered sa 
certain that the Penryn bill would, 
be rejected by the House of Lords 
altogether, that the ministers^ who 
had pledged themselves, only im 
case of two boroughs being in qufa« 
tion, to give the nanchise cS one of 
them to a town, considered them«» 
selves as in fact having only one 
borough to deal with. I^yvotodjr 
therefore, with the exception of 
Mr. Huskisson, ajgainst transferring 
the franchise oi East Retfosd to 
Birmingham. But Mr. Huskisson* 
who had tied himself up by bin 
former declaration, even in the casa 
of only one being disfrBncihisedi fela 
himself bound to redeem his pledg^^ 
and divided against lus ooUeagu 
This vms, no doubt* an 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[13 



oceqirmee; bot as the iuten- 
tioBS of govemmtfat bad been kin 
y^ni in aome obscurity^ it does 
not ieem tibat it would baTe led 
to aaj oongequences, if Mr. Hue* 
Imon ioioaelf bad not con* 
sideivd it to be of nicb import* 
m^i ag to affbet bia oonnection 
wilb tbo inim9tr3r. So soon as 
be got borne fVom the House of 
Cemmoas^ be sat down, at two 
o'dookin tbe iDomingy and wrote to 
tbe duke of Wellington the follow- 
iw letter, marked private and coiw 
fideotial, and inclosed in a cabinet 
box ;— ^circumstances, on which Mr. 
Huskssson 8ubaequentl7 laid great 
Itowtt as modifying its plain import. 

** Downing Street, 

'^Tnes^y oumiiDg, 3 a. m. May 90. 

'' My dear Dukew— After tbe vote 

wbiidi, in regard to my own con« 

siatenoy and personal cbaractetj I 

baw fbond myself, horn the course 

ef this evmiing's debate, compelled 

to give on the East Retford quea. 

tiflB, I owe it to you, as tbe bead 

of tbeaflfniniitration, and to Mr. 

Peel as tbe leader of the House of 

Commons, to lose no time in af* 

htdang yon an opportunity of 

phcing my office in other bands, 

as tke only means in my power of 

pieventiiv tbe injuvy to uie king's 

acnriee wmeb may ensue from the 

appepranee of disunion in bis raa^ 

j«sty%coiiQci]i^ however unfounded 

in lettlity, ov however unimportant 

n itadf the question which has 

given rise to that appearance." 

If words bad any meaning, this 
waaareiignataonQf hisoffiee. The 
epistfo was eouched in almost the 
evpreas tf<nns'6f Mr. Herries, not 
mflny weeks before; which lord 
Godcri oh and all die world had 
vigiitly looked upon as arestgnation, 
and on wUeh, as a cesignaaon, Mr. 
Hu^sson himself bad buUt his 
Uicf thkt tbe tben govermaent 



could not stand- The duke of 
Wellins^n read and understood it 
as a resignation^ and as such be 
laid it immediately before the kin^^^, 
returning to Mr. Huskisson thts 
laconic answmr. 

« My dear HuakisaQOi«^yeur 
letter of two this mondogi wfaicb 
I received at ten^ b^ surprised m« 
much and has given me great con^ 
cem* I have consider^ it my 
duty to lay it before tbe bing," 

For such urompt and straigbtf* 
forward conduct Mr. Huakissoa 
was not prepared. He had expect- 
ed that tbe minister would entreat 
bun to remain in office^ as aperson 
without whom tbe government 
would be helpless; be did not seem 
to have once caloubied on the posif 
sibilityof the duke dispensing with 
his services. He was in oenvenNH 
tion with lord Dudley^ when hii 
grace'sanswer arrived, and astounds 
ed him. Lord Dudley, to whom bo 
shewed it, said the duke, was la^ 
bouring under a mistake, which be 
would go and dear up. He soon 
returned however, with the 'mttln 
ligence that the duke maintainedj 
" it is no mistake, it oan be no 
mistake, and it shall be no mistake," 
Here Mr. Huskisson ought to have 
stopped short: any step towards 
explanation was, after thisy de»^ 
gradation J to volunteer it farther 
was to supplicate for permission to 
remain in office from a master who 
had thus brought bim to bis knees« 
But Mr. Huskisson did not stop 
here. Lord Dudley was immedi^ 
ately followed by lord Palmerstonj 
eomroiasioned to tell the duke, that 
Mr. Huskisson was surprised at bis 
graoe not having called for any ex- 
planation of the vote of tbemre* 
ceding ni^t, end was ready and 
willing to state t« bis graoe titfto 
reasons on which be had aetedi 
Tbe secretary at wav Ym ««t « 



16] ANNUAL RBGIST£R, 1828. 



more suooearful ambassador than 

'the fore^ secretary. The answer 

he b|»ught baclc was, that, in the 

view which the duke of Wellington 

took of the matter, Mr. Huskisaon's 

letter was an absolute and formal 

resignation, and could not be looked 

upon in any other light whatever. 

Even this was not sufficient to 

recal the placeman to a sense of 

self-respect Two ambassadors had 

failed : he tried the eSect of a 

written expUnation of his own, in 

the following terms. 

^'Downing street, ' 
<« May 20, 1828, half past 6 p. im 

*' My dear duke,-— Havinc un- 
derstood from lord Dudley and lord 
Palmerston, that you had laid my' 
letter of last night before the king 
iinder a different impression fr6m 
that which it was intended to 
oonvey, I feel it due both to you 
and to myself to say, that my ob- 
ject in writing that letter was, not 
to express any intentions of my 
own, but to relieve you from any 
delicacy which you might feel 
towards me, if you should think 
that the interests of his majesty's 
service would be prejudiced by my 
remaining in office, after giving a 
vote, in respect to which, from the 
turn which the latter part of the 
debate had taken, a sense of per- 
sonal honour leftme no alternative." 
- The duke's answer placed the 
matter on its true footinff; the 
footing on which Mr. Huskisson's 
self-love must have hoped and in- 
tended that it should be placed, 
although the issue had so* unluckily 
disappointed his expectations. It 
was in these terms: — 

** My dear Huskisson,— I have 
received your letter of this evening. 
I certainly did not understand 
your letter of two this morning as 
offering me any option ; nor do I 
nnderstand the one of this evening, 



as leaving me any, exoq^ Aat 
submitting myself and hia i|ii(jc)ity^ 
government to the necessity of ao* 
udting you to remain in* your 
office, or of incurring dw leas oC 
your valuable assistance to his 
majesty's service. However senrible 
I may be of this loss, I am con- 
vinced that, in these times, any loss 
is better than that of character, 
which is die foundation of ptiblie 
confidence. 

In this view of the case, I have 
put out of it altosether every con^i 
sideration of the mscredit resulting 
from the scene of last night; m 
the extent of which you could not 
but have been sendble when you 
thought proper, as a remedy for it, 
to send me the ofifer of '' placixyg 
your office in other hands." 

Still another attempt was to be 
made; and Mr. Huskisson, nex£ 
day, dispatched another apologetic 
epistle to his grace, vowing that be 
had neverintended to resign; that, 
in truth, he had never expected to 
be taken at his word.* His grace's 

• " Colonial Omce, May 81, 182& 

** My dear Duke,— In juBttce to myself, 

I cannot acquiesce for a moment in the 

construction which your letter of last 

night puta upon my conduct. 

*' You cannot refuse to mc the rigbtol^ 
knowing the motives of my own acuooa ; 
and T solemnly declare that, in both my 
letters, I was actuated by ooe and the . 
same feeling. It was simply thia:-^- 
That it was not for me, but for you, aa 
head of the governroentf to decide how 
far my vote made it expedient to remove 
me from his majesty's service. I^t 
that I had no alternative, consistently 
with personal honour (in a difficulty not 
of my own seeking'or creating), but to 
give that vote ; that the question, In 
itself, was one of minor importance ; that 
the disunion was more m appearance 
than in reality ; but I also felt that, |iob» 
sibly, you mij|;ht take a different view of 
it, and that, in case fou should,,! oii|^t» 
(as I had done on a similar occaaioa with 
lord Liverpooj), to relieve you fifon any 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[17 



imswar m^ in tbe aante clear and preied it oliherwise wbuldhave ex* 

dieigidcid ityle aa before, that it was posed tbe government to rerj pain- 

impoasiUe to put any otber rational ful xniBoonstnictions. In tbe mean 

meaning on tiie letter tban tbat of time^ Mr. Husluaion^ wbexlbefound 

arefltgnation; and tbat to bave inter- tbat tbese repeated and bumble 



difficulty, arittog out of penooal oousi- 
deration towards me, in deciding upon 
a step to which you might find it your 
public duty to resort on the occasion. 

** It WW under this impression sJone, 
that I wrote to you imnsedlately upon 
my return Irom the House of Commons. 

'* If youhad not misopncei ved that im- 
pression, as well as the purport of my 
second letter, I am persuaded that you 
could not suppose me guilty of the ar- 
rogance of expecting * tbat you and bis 
majesty^s government should submit 
yourselves to the necessity of soliciting 
tne to remain in niy office,' or do roe 
the injustice of believing that I could be 
capable of placing you in the alternative 
of choosing between the continuance of 
my services, such as they are, and the 
lossto your administration of one particle 
of character, which I agree with you, is 
th^ foundation of public confidence. 

** If, understanding my communication 
as I intended It to be nndeistood, you 
had, in any way, intiomted to me, either 
that the occurrence, however unfor- 
tunate, was not one of sufllicient moment 
to render It necessary for you, on public 
grounds, to act in the manner in which 
I had assumed that you possibly might 
think it necessary, or tluit you were 
under that necessity, in either case 
there would have been an end of the 
matter. In the first supposition, I 
should have felt that I had done, what 
in honour and fkimess towards you, I 
was bound to do; but it never would 
hive entered my imagination, that I had 
claimed or received any sacrifice what- 
ever from yon or any member of his 
majesty's government. 

** On the other hand, nothing can be 
further from my intention tban to express 
an opinion tliat the occasion was not 
one in which you might fiiirly consider 
it your duty to advise his majesty to 
wtwdraw from me the seals of office, on 
tha ground of this vote. I do not, there- 
fofe, complain; but I cannot allow that 
my reuMmd shall be placed on any other 
ground. I cannot allow that it was my 
ownnct, still iess can I admit, that when 
I bad no other intention than to relieve 
the qnefttion on which yon bad to decide 

Vol. LXX. 



from any personal embarrassment, this 
step, on my part, should be ascribed to 
feelings the very reverse of those by 
which alone I was actuated, either to* 
wards you or his majesty'sgfovernment.'' 

This K^etter produced the following 
answer from his grace f 

" LofuUm, Afa^ 31, 1828. 

'* My dear Mr. Huskis^on, — In conse* 
(juence of your last letter, 1 feel it to be 
necessary to recal to vour recollection 
the circumstances under which I re- 
ceived yoQT letter of Tuesday moral ng. 

*' It is addref!«ed to me at two o'clock 
in the morning, immediately after a 
debate and division in the House of 
Commons. It informs me that you lose 
no time in aflfordtng me an opportunity 
of placing your office in other hands, as 
the only means in your power of pre- 
venting an injury to the king's service, 
which you describe. It concludes by 
' regretting the necessity for troubling 
me with this commuoicalion.' 

** Could I consider this in any other 
light than as a formal tender of the 
resignation of your office, or that I had 
any alternative but either to solicit you 
to remain in office contrary to yoar 
sense of duty, or to submit your letter to 
the king ? 

*' If you had called on me the next 
morning after your vote, and had ex- 
plained to me in oonvemtion what Ixad 
passed in the House of Commons, the 
charactejr of the communication would 
have been quite different, and I might 
have felt myself at liberty to discuss the 
whole subject with you, and freely to 
give an opinion upon any point connect- 
ed. But I must still think that if I had 
not considered a letter, couched in tbe 
terms in which that letter is couched, 
and received under the circumstances 
under which 1 received it, as a tender 
of resignation, and had not laid it before 
tbe king, I should have exposed the 
king's government and myself to v^ry 
painful misconstructions. My answer to 
your letter will have informed you tliat 
it surprised mc much, and that it gave 
me great concern. I must .consider, 
therefore, the resignation of your office 
as your own act, and not as mthe.^' 



IS] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



Mrtrettlies, vdach he miscsaUed ex« 
pbmfttipns, had no eifect on the 
hmUhetrted duke^ requested an 
interview with the long, in the 
hope^ no doubts of finding his royal 
master more placable : for^ as' he 
expressed! it, *' when it had been 
sta^d .to his majesty that hq had 
written a letter containing his 
complete resignation, and when he 
could tell his sovereign that it had 
been written with no such inten- 
tion— ^hat it wasmarked private and 
confidential — and that the supposed 
resignation of his office was not ac- 
companied by expressions of gra« 
titude for the favours which he nad 
received at his majesty's hands,—- 
that the letter in question did not 
contain a single expression of regret 
at withdrawing from the service of 
his sovereign, — ^that, in fact, there 
was nothing in it of those genuine 
feelings which it became a mi« 
nister to utter upon such an 
occasion, and towards such a king, 
-^-when he should have stated 
such circumstances, he (Mr. Hus- 
kisson) believed that he should 
have set the royal mind right upon 
the subject, and that he should 
have made his majesty conscious 
that he (Mr. Huskisson) was not 
forgetful of the confidence with 
which he liad been honoured while 
in his majesty's service." The 
duke of Wellington, however, did 
not think proper to advise his ma- 
jesty to grant an audience to Mr. 
Huskisson, till the correspondence 
between him and his grace should 
be at an end, by arrangements 
being made to fill up his office ; 
but he allowed him to be informed 
through lord Dudley, that a door 
of escsfpe was still open. " Hus* 
kisson is a man of sense," sali the 
duke, '' and knows well what 
should be done to settle the whole 
matter and bring it to an end ;" 



meaning that he should wilhdniir 
his letter, whioh, whale it fenaiiied* 
was a recorded icsagnationt iBut 
Mr. Huskisson was either too dull 
to take the duke's hint^ ortcio pnmd 
to act upon it; where pride, af^er 
so much humility, was verjr much 
out of place. On the %5t}i pt M^y, 
the duke of Wellington informed 
him, that his majesty had giTen in- 
structions to supply the vacancy 
occasioned by his resignation,* 
Mr. Huskisson, in giving what 

* The folloiriiig is the sequel of tile 
correspondence, the earlier mrt of 
whidi has already been quoted. ' The 
first letter was returned by the duke 4if 
Wellington un-opened, from a feeling 
that, as his msjesty had been adtieed to 
supply Mr. Husktsson's pisee, it wauM 
be improper to leara its coatents wttb- 
out the consent of Mr. Huskisson, who 
had written it in ignormnoe of that fact. 
The eontrast is striking between the 
explicit manner of the duke, and the 
lonided verbiage of the secretary. 

The following are the Letters alluded 
to:— 

*^ Dmiming Street, 9$ih ^%, 18S8. 

** My dear I>uke,— On Tuesday faiat 
I wrote to the king tosolieit an audlenee. 
His majesty has net yet been pleased to 
grant me this honour. 

** In the expectation (not unaatofal 
for me to entertain in the sitimtion which 
I hold) of 1>eing afforded an •pportanHy 
of waiting upon his miy'esty, >l have'de* 
ferrtd aekaowledging your letterof the 
31st, which, passing by altogether bH 
that is stated in mMe of the same' date 
you conclude in the following wo^Aa: 
' I mu8t, therefore, consider the resfgpw 
nation of your office as your owa act, and 
not as mine.' 

" I will not revertto the full explana- 
tion which I have already given you on 
this sulijeet. Not denying that my fl rat 
letter might be capable of the eonrtnic- 
tion which you put upon it, I would oak 
you whether it be usual, after a eoi»« 
sir uction has been from the first moment 
explicitly disavowed, to persist that It is 
the right one? It being, howev e r,- ^le 
construction to which yea adhete, I 
must assume, as you laid the letter be* 
fore his nu^OFty, that you advised hia 
majesty upon it, and that hismi^icsty is. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[19 



he cftlkd liifl eocplanfttton of these 
oeeurrenees in the House of 
Commona^ insinuated that he 

theitftm, under the tune miMppreben* 
fllpaM joaneif of what I meant: the 
more etpeefadly, as I have no meana of 
knovnng whether any aibeeqoent letten 
have been laid before hit mijetty. 
' *^ It waa in the parpcae ef aettfng 
right any erroneoua impreailon on the 
tipd muidy that I iought to be admitted 
aa Aion as poeaible into hia mije8ty*a 
presence. 

** I ima then, aa I am stiU, moat 
anxious to asaure his m^iesty that no- 
thing eouU have been 6irtber from my 
intention, than that the letter in question 
should have been at all submitted to his 
majeity, — to make Imown to his majesty 
the circumstances and £»elingK under 
wliich It had been vrttten-*-to point out 
to him tlmt I had taloen the precaution 
(usual between mtnlsten in matters of 
a delicate and ooofldential nature, when 
it is wished to keep the subjects as much 
aa poeaible confined to the respective 
partiea) of marking the letter ^ private 
and confidential,' that I understood that 
this letter, so marked spedally to guard 
its olject, had been, without previous 
eommualeatiDnofanysort with me, in 
respect to the transaction referred to, 
but not explained in the letter Itself, 
laid before his majesty, as oonveving to 
the foot of the throne my positive re- 
signation. 

*^ I siiould Airther have had to state to 
hia anaieaty the great pain and concern 
which libit at finding that a paper should 
hnve been submitted to his m^esty.and 
desOTibiog to him as conveying my re- 
signation of the seals, in a form so un- 
usual, and with a restriction so unbe- 
coming towards my sovereign, as is 
implied in tlie words * private and con* 
fldential;' that in a necessity so painful 
(had I felt such a necessity) as that of 
asking his majesty's permission to with- 
draw from his service, my firnt anxiety 
would hav;e been to lay my reasons, in a 
respeelful, but direct, communication 
from myself at his mtjeety*s feet, but 
that, most certainly, in whatever mode 
conveyed, the uppermost feeling of my 
heart would have been to have accom- , 
pealed it with these expresskms of du- 
tUbl attaehaientand respectful latitude 
which. I ewe his majesty fbr the many 
and uniform proofs of confidence and 



had heen made a peace-offering 
to gain the support of peraons 
who would join the ministry 

kindness with whic^ he has been gra« 
ciouslv pleased to honour me since I 
have neld the seals of the colonial de- 
partment. 

** If I had been aUbrded aa oppor- 
tunitv of thus relieving myself from the 
painnil position In which I stand towards 
his miyesty, I should then haveentreated 
of his migesty*s goodness and sense of 
justice to permit a letter, so improper 
for me to have written (if it could have 
been In my contemplation that it would 
have been laid before his majesty as an 
act of resignation) to be withdrawn. 
Neither should I have concealed from 
his majesty my regret, considering the 
trouble which has unfortunately oc« 
curredi both to his majesty and his 
government, that 1 had not taken a 
diflTerent mode of doing what, for the 
reasons fully stated in my letter of the 
31st, I found myself bound In honour to 
do, so as to have prevented, perhaps, 
the misconception arising out of my 
letter, written immediately after the 
debate. 

** I have now stated to you fmnkly, 
and without reserve, the substance of 
all that I was anxious to submit to the 
king. I have done so in the full ron- 
fldence that you will do me the fuvour 
to lay this statement before his majesty; 
and that I may be allowed to implore of 
his majesty thathe will do me the justice 
to believe tbati of all who have a right 
to prefer a claim to be admitted to his 
royal presenee, I am the last who, In a 
matter relating to myself, would press 
that claim in a manner unpleasant to 
his majesty's wishes or Inclinations* — 
I Iww to them with respectful deference, 
still retaining, however, a confidence 
founded on the rectitude of my inten- 
tions, that in being removed from his 
majesty's service, T may be allowed tlip 
consolation of knowing that I have not 
been debarred from the privilege of my 
office in consequence of my having in- 
curred his majesty's personal dis- 
pleasure." 

" London f May 25, 1828. 

•' My dear Huskisson.— It Is with 
great concern that I inform you that T 
have at last attended his majesty, and 
have received his instnictions respecting 
an arrangement to fill your office. 

[C2] 



tQ] ANNOAL REGlStT|l«i 1828. 



only' bik etodtiion tbftt he, and ^mUk 
him, nil 'ehahces of iiltpn>y«ment» 



should' he removed ;. and ke'yABie 
a furious attadk on' the noUemeh 



• * < ■ . H I ' I I If I II i' I " 



I 



"T*^" 



** I ;i|iic^ret]r regret the low of your 
valuable as^stance ill the arduous task 
th <rhich 1 sm enga^.'' 

. . .. , *Mhipnmg Street^ 

"My dear Duke,— IX)rd Dudley has 
3d^ t^t to me,- unopened, my letter to 
yon, whldi* I foriiarded to Apsley^liouie 
jtfa^pt 6ire<0'oloek iWs afternoon. , 
. " XUU ]e^ter was written as soon as I 
w^giveo to understand by 1ord/)udley, 
Who called hei-e after an interview with 
fM tbfl^thomlDg, tbat liis majesty had 
oat ngpriftad any inteadoa of iccanting 
SS(^ the hooour of an Audience. No other 
mo<i^ therefore, remaining open to me 
of eonveying my sentiments to the king, 
I address myself to you, for the purpose 
tif brhiglDg befbm bis mi^ty^ in the 
1^1^ <lf ajwritieo commufucation, what 
I am preyi^ted from stating to his ma- 
jesty in person. . 

^*i ^eel confident that you will not 
deny me this favour, and yoa will be 
satisfied by the contents of my letter 
(which I now return) that in writing it, 
nothing was further from my Intention 
than to intrude myself between you and 
the arrangements which,' upon my re- 
moval from office (for such I have con- 
sidered the result of our correspondence 
since your letter of the 21st) you have 
received his mijesty's instructions to 
make. 

<< Your letter, communicating this 
ihct, reached me about h%If pa«it seven 
this evening. I thank you for the in- 
formation, and for the kind manner in 
which you advert to any feeble assistance 
which I may have been able to give to 
your administration, as well as for the 
expression of the concern with which 
you have advised his miycsty to place 
my office in other hands." 

" London, Mag 26, 1828. 

'' My dear Huskisson,— I have receiv- 
ed your letter of yesterday, accompanied 
by another letter from you dated also yes- 
terday, which I had returned to lord 
Dudley, under the impression that I 
ought not to open it without your pre- 
vious consent, under the circumstances 
that existed at the time I received it. 

^'1 have laid both beibre the king. In 
answer I have only to repeat that 1 con- 
sidered your letter of the 20th as a 



formal tender of the resignation of vour 
office ; and that the circumstiiice 6r lis 
beln^ mwked * prltste and botMeuM' 
did not alter the chaitatek nfitheletlsr, 
or relieve me ,fnom the,ftie%li<d|Vty of 
communicating its contenteto bisjiui- 
jesty, as I did, in person. ' 

** Your suhsequent letters tdid Mt, 
eceording teoiy oider^teadieg'Of tk/tm^ 
eMvey eey disavowal of yeer iiHentkii 
to tender your resignation* . I,lei4t^ee& 
before bis migesty, and my answers to 
them, and commlmicated tcl totd Dudley 
tint I bad done sOb , 'iw t« 

^'Tliekiag iefoneedmoB^ iliUBk^eii 
Wednesday the 21at,.that veu M»4 de- 
sired to have an audience of his mfit^tj.l 
and that he intended to receive you db 
the day but one after. I dfd not con- 
sider It my duty to advise his Mi^t^r 
to reoeiveyee at an earlier fieriod.' 
. <* Itis scarcely Accessary for m^, to 
obser\'e, that your letter to me of the 
20th was entirely your own act, and 
wholly unexpected by mOw If the letAer 
waswrittea hestiiy and ioseitfideraeely* 
syrely the natural course was for you to 
withdraw it altogether, and thus relieve 
me from the position in which, withont 
any fisult of mine, it bad placed me— > 
compelling me either to accept the re- 
signation which it tendered, or to solicit 
you to continue to hold your office. 

^ This latter step was, in my opinion, 
calculated to do me personaUy, and the 
king's government, great dts-serviee; 
and it appeared to me that the only, 
mode by which we could be extricated 
from the difficulty in which your letter 
had placed us was, that the witlidrawal 
of your letter should be vour spontaneous 
act, and that it should be adopted with- 
out delay. 

. " The interference of his miue*ty, 
pending our correspondence, wpuld not 
only have placed his majesty in a situa^ 
tion in which he ought not to be placed, 
in such a question, but it woolo have 
subjected me to the imputation that tliat 
interference had taken place on my 
suggestion, or with my connivance* 

'' I did not consider it my duty to 
advise his m^esty to interfere in any 
manner whatever. 

'^ His roi\jesty informed me this day 
that he had written to you this morning 
appointing an audience in the coarse <% 
the day.*' 



HISTOBY OF EURO PE/ 



m 



oidgaBtlaDen who odebtate the 
yiti^&y oP Mr. Pitt, as if their 
IcsUtIUcs had faitd some coimectioii 
witii liB downfall. Mr. Hus- 
Ufaon forthwith retired for a time 
to^the ootitiBcnt* 

Along *f»ith Mn Huskisiion went 
otit lord Dudley, lord P^dmerston, 
^nd.Mr, C. Grant; lord Ikidley 
iTAftattopeeded aa foreign leetetary 
b^nhe 'ea?l of Ahetdeen: Mr. 
Htnidtton Mthself was roctteeded 
ia the cplonial office by sir George 
'Murray; sir H. Harduige became 
■eclat i rj at war> in pkoe of lord 
'fUtneratoti '; and Mr. V. Fitz^ 
serald was put at the head of 
die bDasd of trade^ in place of Mr. 



AAothei' cnttugG in lutAmnistry 
happened during the autumn, by 
the dule of Clarence resigning the 
oficeof Jbrd high admiral The 
lof tUs step werenevvrgiYen 



explicitly to the public-; but it was 
genetally attributed to some ^is*- 
satisfaction which' the minister was 
said to have expressed ^t the fre- 
quent costly journeys of his royal 
highness, and the costly marine 
shows which were got up in the 
course of them, both of which 
were believed to cause a greater 
outlay of money thanTv any 
benefit lo be deri^^ fiomtsoHi 
superintendence and ' fbrmal ex- 
aminationa could be worth*' ' The 
Admiralty was ag^n put intacom- 
miasion/fuid lord MerviUa wiia te- 
instated at the head of * the hdixtd. 
In Ireland, too, a change of go- 
vernment was rendered neceasary 
towards the close of the yetrfi hot 
as the events occurring in Irehmd 
possessed more than ordinary' in^ 
terest, they will find a more appro- 
priate place in a aubaequeat pact 
c^the volume. 



iii] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



CHAP. II. 

Meeting of Parliament — Speech from the Throne — Debate on the 
Address — Discus$ion$ and Explanations concerning the Dissolution 
of the Goderich Ministry — Statements of Lord Qoderichf Mr,Hus- 
kissony Mr. Merries f and Mr, Tiemep — Discussions on the Union ^f 
some of the principal Members of Mr, Canning's Administration 
with the Duke of Wellington, 



TO give time fbr carrying into 
effect the ministerial arrange- 
ments which followed the re8ig« 
nation of lotd Goderich, parliament 
had been prorogaed from its ap« 
pointed day of meeting, till the 
29th of January. On that day^ 
the session was opened with the 
following spoech, which was read 
by the lord chancellor. 

" My Lords and Gentlemen, 

" We are commanded by His 
Majesty to acquaint ydu, that His 
Majesty continues to receive from 
all Foreign Princes and States, as- 
surances of their desire to maintain 
the relations of amity with this 
country, and that the great powers 
of Europe participate in the earnest 
wish of His Majesty to cultivate a 
good understanding upon all points 
which may conduce to the preserva- 
tion of peace. 

** His Majesty has viewed for 
some time past, with great concern, 
the state of affairs in the east of 
Europe. 

" For several years a contest has 
been ciirried on between the Otto- 
man Porte and the inhabitants of 
the Greek provinces and islands, 
which has been marked, on each 
side, by excesses revolting to hu- 
manity. In the progress of that 
contest, the rights of neutral states 
and the laws which regulate the 



intercourse of civilked nationsi 
have been repeatedly violAted^ and 
the peaceful commerce of His 
Majesty's suljects has been ex« 
posed to frequent interruptionjaiid 
to depredntions too olten aggra¥ated 
by acts of violence and nttodiy, 

" His Majesty h«i felt the deepest 
anxiefy to terminate the falanntiea 
and avert the dangers insepanUe 
from hostilities which constitute 
the only exception to the eeneral 
tranquillity, of Europe. Having 
been earnestly entreated by the 
Greeks to interpose his good offices, 
with a view to effect a reconciluvtion 
between them and the Ottoman 
Porte, His Majesty concerted mea- 
sures for that purpose, in the finit 
instance with the emperor tif 
Russia, and subsequently with his 
Imperial Majesty, and thekinr of 
France. His Majeaty has given 
directions that there should be laid 
before you copies* of a protoc61 
signed at St. Petersburg, by the 
plenipotentiaries of His Majesty, 
and of his imperial majesty the 
emperor of Russia, on the 4th of 
April, 1826, and of the treatf en- 
tered into between His Majesty 
and the courts of the Tuilleiies^ and 
of St.- Petersburg, on the 6th of 
July, 1827. 

*' In the course of the measures 
adopted with a view to carry into 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[23 



cfiect the object of the treaty^ a 
eollision, wholly unexpected by 
HiB Majesty, took place, in the 
port of Navarin, between the fleets 
of the oontiactinff powers and that 
of the Ottoman Porte. 

" Notwithstanding the valour 
dispkyed by the combined fleet. 
His Migesty deeply laments that 
tUaeoallict'tfaottld have ooouired 
with th6 naval fame of an ancient 
al^f ; bat h6 still entertains a con^ 
iident hope that this untoward 
event wiu not be followed by 
liurthar hostilities^ and will not 
impede tliaifc amicable adjustment 
ef the misting difierenoes between 
the Porte and the Oteeks, to whidi 
il is so manifestly their common 
intaBasft to afflad^*" 

'' In maintaining the national 
faith by adhering te the engage- 
menla into which His Majesty has 
ca» e pod > His Majesty wUl never 
lose sight of the gseat objects to 
wldcfa all bis efl^irts have been di«> 
tested «— the tenninatioii of the 
conteat between the hostile parties 
•«*4lka permanent settlement of 
thmr future relations to each other 
— ^md the maintenance of the 
sepose of Europe upon the basis on 
wMA it has reeted since the last 
general treaty of peace* 

** Hie M^esty has the greatest 
satisfh^tiob in informing you, that 
Ihepujpoaes, to which His Majesty, 
iifbii thfa rsquisilton ef the court of 
ladMm detaehed a military force to 
Pfirtiigalj have been accomplished. 
The dUigatkma of good faith hav« 
idgbeen fulfilled^ and the safety 
aaSk independenoe of Portugal se*' 
eoredf Jffisliajesty has given orders 
that the fates now in that country 
afaoold be imme^tetely withdrawn. 

'« Wo aie eeminndod by His 
Msjesty to acqu^nt yoD^ that His 
l iri as ty hm oonehided treaties of 

trnm tmA comtBem with the 



emperor of Brasil, and with the 
United States of Mexico; copies 
of which will, by His Majesty's 
commands, be laid before you. 

'* Gentlemen of the House of 
Commons, 

'* His Majesty has ordered the 
estimates for the current year to 
be laid before yoni They have 
been prepsxed with every regard 
to economy, ooBsiateitb with the 
exigency ci the pubUc service* 

'* We are commanded by His 
Majesty to recommend to your 
early attention an inquiry into thf 
state of the revenue and ^•^ 
penditurc of the country. 

" His Majesty is assured, that It 
will be satinactoiy to you to learn, 
that, notwithstanding the diminu- 
tion which has taken place in domb 
branches of the revenue, the total 
amount of receipt during the last 
year has not disappointeci the ex- 
pectations which were entertained 
at the commencement of it. 

'' My Lords and Gentlemev> 

** His Majesty has commanded 
us to inform you, that a consider-^ 
able increase has taken place in the 
export of the. principal articles of 
British manumcture. This im- 
provement of our foreign trade has 
led to a more general enjoyment 
of the population, and aifords a 
satisfactory indication of the con- 
tinued abatement of those commer- 
cial difficulties which recently 
affected so severely the national 
industiy* 

'' His Majesty commands us to 
assure you, that he places the 
firmest reliance upon your con- 
tinued endeavours to improve the 
condition of all classes of his sub- 
jects, and to advance the great 
object of His Majesty's solicitude, 
the prosperity and happiness of his 
people." , 

la the Lord! the addren wtf 



24] ANNUAL REaiSTER, 1828. 



nwvod,b7 the earl of Chichester. 
No tmaakaent wu proposed. 
The «Bicaaskiii, which tookphice^ 
\nm confined almost exdusivdy to 
the state of our relations with 
Tvarkey, more Specially to the 
piODriet3roftheepidiet''untoward/' 
applied in the speech to the battle 
or Na^aiinOy and to some lurking 
indisposition in the new ministers, 
to cany thioa^ the policy of their 
pkedeoeasovSytegarding the Ottoman 
Porte^ which the use of that 
epithet was supposed to manifest. 
Lord HoUmnd expended a great 
deal of historical research in fixing 
a qoanrd on the phrase " andent 
ally/' hy which His Majesty had 
desigtiated the Turkish empire; 
contending that the Turk could 
not be termed, in any correct sense 
of the words, an ally of this country 
at all, and much less an andent 
ally. ' '* The anti-social race," said 
hishndship, " which now enjoys the 
thione of the Constantines, con« 
siders itself naturally at war wi& 
erery nation, with whidi it has not 
entered into a formal treaty of 
peace. But can a treaty of peace 
be fiudy considered as a treaty of 
allianoe ? . The first treaty made 
between this country and Turkey, 
I have no doubt, was considered by 
the Turin as an act of grace and 
canoession, yielded by them, in the 
plenitude of their power, to those 
dogs of Christians, the Nasarene 
nations. The privileges which 
were granted 'to our commerce, 
were obtainedfrom the Porte about 
l699> by lord Winchilsea and sir 
John Finch. But how were they 
giaated ? Were the names of lord 
Winchilsea or sir John Finch sub- 
scdbed to any treaty which secured 
them ? No such thing. The pri- 
vileges were granted as we would 
thtow a bone to a dog : they were 
gfawi too^ for very q^cial reasons^ 



The fiist was, becaiue the 
sages, which Charles II. had «ent 
to the sultan, weceof an agmeablfe 
nature; theseoondyhecaneeChartea 
IL' was considered to. he at. very 
powerful monarch among tfae'Nn^* 
jsarene nations; and the last imd 
most ludicrou» was» h ec a i a Bcr »thr 
sultan had beaad tiiat Chwrjas. wav 
the arbiter of the difierencesaneHg 
them. For those leasqaathe auiian 
granted to our oountiymtti whsi 
was called, by a sort ef diphanatie 
euphonisB, ceitayi icapStuialions^' 
but what I believe to have been 
called, in the Turkish languages 
boons or concessions. Those eoa«« 
cessions or oapitalationa*- <caltlihem 
by which name you please' > wcse 
merely commercial: they galFe^to 
the subjects of Great Britain the 
same immunities which had been 
granted, on the same tenns, to the 
subjects of Franee. Wehad, how* 
ever, no political lelations wish 
Turkey, in any aenae of. the wosdt» 
until the year 1^99. In 169^, we 
ofiSsred our services to aaediate be* 
tween the emperor of Germaiqr 
and the Turkidi power, who wens 
then at war; and we did «v<in 
order to leave our andent ally^ the 
house of Austria>-Hfor Aoatria wjis> 
our ancient aliy^ and BusBia» toe^ ' 
was our ancient alIy,-^«aLa akua-' 
tion to direct her arms, aloiqf w&tb 
us, against the then oolsssal powee 
of France. And what waa thja> 
result of that negotiatMu? > We 
were accused^ by Frendi writeia^***-' 
I shallnot stop to examine whether 
rightly or wrongly,*— of having epi* 
erased our msidiation with firass 
partiality, and with hnviaginflioted 
by it a severe injury on die OtiU>^ 
man* power. One of the artacks 
in the treaty, into which the* Torka 
entered under oiir mediation, mm 
to this efi*ect^«— that thMr should 
suireoder the whole of- ibe Meeeti 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[26 



andi^f'Oreeoe.iato the hands of 
tfae^'VenitBlns^ , . So that the leaidt 
o€' 4a»:fixBt pnlMwil sicgodatioa 
wiiiiTiiilBi^r-wa^.to wfwt Greece 
fmu iti damseion; tkmch^ mfor- 
tun&tel|r, vat ior ever.*— £i the year 
)7i8/«e again^entered into a po* 
Ulieal BBgodatioii' with Turkey ; 
hatTiMbg' cilw ui iwUBiees which,' I 
oentend^ daU* predude us from 
dendminatiag < her. our ' andrait 
afi^.' ItsiMngfat, howeyer* to 
slate I that, by that treaty, we re» 
oi^iafd Turkey as tiie aoveragn 
of Grease,' whidi a fatal war lud 
enable^ Jier.to recoyer from the 
VsiietiaEmk 

^'In the war. between Germany 
and'Turkey, lord Tovrin^ton at- 
tacked and Seated a Spanish fleet, 
becauaeit waa suspected of acting 
under Mders hostile to the znteresta 
of. the empire^ . The aggression 
waa blaaMd as a viahition of the 
Um of naitiaos, an unjustifiable 
ontiBge against .a power with 
which we were at peace. Andhow 
wasitdeftaded?. The two score* 
taties of state, hnd Stanhope, in 
tfaei Ifone of Lords, and Mr. 
CcBgp, in the House of Commons^ 
defended it. on the ground that 
th& attaidc>: made by Spain upon 
GnmwBn^f when Genqaliy was at 
war with the Turks*, was a species 
off 'dfllinqueney whocli rendered all 
Ast^had been done jasfctfiaUe-^ 
was ai sort of aggression against 
th^^terestsef Christendom and of 
EumpeL . Strange language this 
tV'heSd of an ancient imd faithful 
aUgr.!.. Mr. ' Addison, too, who 
was Qot only a philosopher, but one 
dB tbd wisest snd best men on the 
faoft of the earth, remarked upon 
the bad effect of the nomoxras 
jesimalistsia this oeontry, and the 
pKst sprit of writing and read- 
lig politics in Ae country, and 
wealiteto saji tbiiti though then 



was no absurdity to 
by this itch lor talkang andwiitiBg 
poliidcsy mii^ not bebeoof^, he 
did not b^mreit pasBtbie that 
there could be persons in Rngiand 
who could think -that we wtse ^« 
tevestedih the pvospesi^ ef Ike 
Ottoman empire. Thercnire^ after 
the two polkicalrelatioBS ssahai 
with Turkey, in one of whieli tro 
extorted this very Gsesee frem.4he 
Turks, we have the deslavatom- of 
two secretaries of statb, and of 
another man, afterwards rsacsetary 
of state, as to the imcrest^ *whsch 
this countty -has i in' Ottammi 
politics. But, what haf[|mwi1 
afterwords?. FscBnrthat.pceiod4o 
the year 1770, 1 do not knowasiy* 
thing of political feelings 'towards 
the Turks ; nor^ indeed,: until^we 
come to the mmnorable debate in 
this House on the affiurof Oesakaw. 
AlmoBt every man who had hdd 
office, and had .aoflmrity^ slated, 
that the opinion of load Ghathaw 
was, that we shonldnever ha;ve«ny 
kind of oonneiion whaterer with 
the Ottoman Porte ; ' and • the* 
opinion was fortified during the 
seven years' war by a smuflar 
opinion of the king of Prussia. In 
1770 our alHies, the Rusaans^ sent 
a great fleet into the Mediter- 
raaean, for the purpose of over* 
powering^ Turks. What -war 
the policy of this country ^ To. 
assist the Russian navy. That 
fleet was refitted in our harbours^ 
and, widi the munitions and im- 
plements which it received from 
us, burnt a Turkish town and 
fleet, and continued cruising in the 
Archipeli^for no leas than ftfB or 
six years.— 'Then we eome to "die 
business of Ocaakow. We had< an 
object in preventing Russia fnom 
possessing Ocsdeow* I>id '.Bfe# 
ritt propose an- alliatiee • widi' 

Tufkeyr JMhefmcub ixmnmA 



96] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



w^ ^Here ia your anciait and 
faithful ally thatia attacked ?' Did 
heaay^ ^Haxeia a power afctaoked 
whtcsh wt are iateiegted in defend* 
iagr No. Mr. Pitt knew woU 
aiiou§^»"-4»e nuiatkate known from 
his iBilhfsr that there waa no tort of 
aUiance between thia oountry and 
Tiudgey, and never had been ; but 
ho said tfaxs^ ^ We hara eatabliahed 
a new sjFatem in £urope'-«and 
he prided himaelf upon it««-^ 
* Pruaaia fonaa a nudn part of that 
avatemi and, for tha intereat of 
FmamsL, we mnat prevent the pro* 
poaed ag gr ea n ott of Ruaaia upon 
Tmk»yi Mr. Pitt waa not the 
onl^penott who uaed thia language 
at that time; but neither J^. 
Pkt« oor any of hia frienda^ ever 
apoka of Turkey at that time aa 
our ^aodent ally/ Mr* Burke* 
tao^ apoka thua ot our ancient and 
fittthftil ally the Turk. 'I have 
never faefove heard it held forth 
that the Turkiah ompire haa ever 
heoft ooaaidflfBd aa any part of the 
bfllanoaofpowttiB Europe. They 
had notUng to do with European 
power; they conaidered than* 
aelvea a» wholly Aaiatio. Where 
is the Tuddflh itaidentat our court, 
thecourt of Fruaiia, or of Holland ? 
They deapiae and oontemn all 
Chriatian prinoea> aa infidelb and 
only wiah to aubdue and extenai* 
nate them and their people. What 
have theae worse than aavagea to 
do ivith the pdwoifa of Europe, 
but to apread War^ deilaruetion, and 
pcatileiioej aaiongat them? The 
miniatara and the policy which ahall 
give theie people any weight in 
EuBope^ will deaerve all the bania 
and ooewa of poaterity.' Very 
atcaiuBe language thia in an £ng« 
liab tlouae m Commonai regarding 
an ftncient and faithful ally i Thia 
mighty maal^ protteeda**— * AU 



ia moral and humane^ demanda aa 
abhonmice of every thing whidi 
tenda to extend the powar of that 
eruel and waateful empire.. Any 
Chriatian power ia tobepcefared 
to theae daBtmetive aavagea/. I 
do not mean to aay that I ap|Nnpve 
of the aentimenta bore ea^Ewed* 
I do not ^uote them aa ruka tat 
the guidance of your loedahipa ; 
but I bring them# aa evideopo to 
the £Bct, and. for the purpoae of 
abowing that the Turk waa not 
conaideKed by public men aa the 
aneient ally of Gaeat BritaiQj In 
truth, the fisat alliance really, made 
with Tiurkey by thia oouaAfy« waft 

an alliance formed in tha year 1 798 
or 1799i in conaaqueaoe of the io- 
vaaion of Egypt by tha Franoh^ 
who have moL been repioaohed 
with being, though th^ never ao» 
kaowledged that they were, on 
ancient al^ of the Ottonaan eoa^ 
piae. When they invadad Egypti* 
aadnot bafore, vn enteaed into n 
treaty of aUiaaice with the Porta* 
My lofda, I have looked iatoi tliaft 
treaty thia very evening* and I am 
aurpriaed to find that, ao far £rom 
itabeinga treatyof aUionae fovmad 
for the mutual inteieata of Tuch^ 
and England aa againat the.raafe oi 
the world, or aaeonneGtod wilk 
conuneice, ao far froat being a 
taaaty of aUianee^ foraiad for^the 
paote c tion of tha TurUah .amfira 
againat ita immediate invaderai.it 
ia a treaty nf alUanaei on. ^ in^ 
viiation of an old and natuad ally, 
the empeim: of Euaaiah to entea; 
for the first time, ia;to an alUanoe 
with the Turk. The wosda of the 
first article are: ^Hia Britannic 
m^jeaty, oonnoQtad already widi 
hia majesty the emperor of Ruaaas 
by the tiea of the atrictestaUiaaeey 
aceedeij by the preaeot tieat^tto 
the defonaive aUianoe which haa 
Jual bean aoaaluddd botwieii hia 



HI8T0EY OF EUROPE. 



[27 



tlie OttoiDftn emperor and 
the emperor of Russiii, m far aa 
the adpulatsaiM therecxf are appli* 
caUe to the local ciictmiBtances of 
his empne» and that of the Sublime 
Porte.' Thofl, all the alliance 
whidi we then made with Tovkey 
was made at the ejipx ei e request ot 
Riusia. This tteaty of alliance 
itself^ too, waa limited in its dura^ 
tion to aerea yean; and> atiange 
to flBy» long before these seven years 
had ezpind, Turkey had broken 
all the mam artides of that treaty 
which boand it to remain at peace 
with Russia. It broke them, too> 
in 10 far as they related to our« 
selves. By the treaty, Turkey 
was to have no friends Uiat were 
not onr firiendsy and was to enter 
into no relations with those who 
dedared diemselves our enemies* 
But, long before the year 1607, 
we luid occasion to remonattate 
■gsiBSt the influMice which the 
i^^ts of Napoleon had aequiied 
in the Divaa. That of itself 
would have been a Intimate cause 
efwar; and three months had not 
elapsed after iho expiry of the 
tieaty, before we were obliged to 
send e fleet to Conetantinopte t6 
bring them to reason, and compel 
them to^erfena the articles of the 
treaty widi Russia* I do say, then, 
t&at Turkey is proved to have been 
neSaher an aneienit nor a faithftd 
ally. Sinee dmt tnne no allianee 
has been made. We have preserved 
the lektiona of peace and amity, 
bat we have done no more." 

His fefdship further expressed 
his disapprobation ef the epithet 
*' untowmd,'' as epplied in the 
speedi to tlie battle of Navurina 
If it wasmeanti by ^ untoward," to 
cast any bbole <m the gallant 
eflker who commanded the fleet at 
Navarino, he would protest asainst 

tehMM|eafe and iffnooiiny i» suck 



an insinuation, in the most solemn 
way. If we are to understand 
from the word ^' untowtod," that 
it referred to that wliick happened 
by accident, and which stood across 
the obiect which we bed in view 
— 'if toat were the meanisjg; of it, 
be must also protest agauat it« 
However much he might lament 
the effusion of blood which had 
taken place at Navarino**-«ho«iFever 
mudi he might lament that we had 
not yet aeoompliflhed so great an 
object as the pacification of two 
contending countries, and the 
liberation of Greeee*^-4hat country 
from which we derive no inall 
portion of all those virtues wfaieh 
exalt and dignify our nature^ and 
to wltioh we owed all that gives 
life and animation to oorddiates-*^ 
however mucb he might mourn 
over the deferred hopesof a-oaUaat 
people-«4till, if by that worflt was 
meant to say, that the battle of 
Navarino was an obstacle to the 
independence of Greeee, he oould 
not agree in such vieswsr* He 
looked upon it as a step» and a 
great step, toward* the padflca* 
tion of Europe: and considered 
it of more use than a contrary 
policy cot^ have been In pio» 
moting that great and desirable 
object. 

The duke of Wellington main'* 
tained, that the epithets, which had 
excited lotd Holland's disappreb»» 
tion and spirit of resetfrch, were, 
in both ittstanoes, fairly and truly 
applicable. The Ottoman empire, 
he said, had long been an ally of 
this country i the Ottoman power 
was an essential part of the faaianoe 
of power in Europe ) ita preserve* 
tion had been, for a considerable 
number of years, an object not only 
to this country, butto the whoIe^Mf 
Europe; wlule the revoliitioiM 

and changef of p o s i wi im wbieb 



28] ANNWAL REGISTER, 1828. 



liad.Jt^ftkeii place had increased the 
ip(^|K2rt&Bce of preBerving the Otto- 
^ai^. •^pow«r as - an independent 
«tate cf^pable of preserving itself. 
Its pi;«^rvatu>n had heen an 
essential objfiQt to Russia as well 
as to ourselves. Had it not been 
tqr the iniluenee of the councils of 
thif . GQuntry at Constantinople^ 
j^he disaster of Napoleon in 11)12^ 
which • led • to the establishment 
of Eprope in its present state^ 
fro»ld ^6t have occurred to the 
^ef^lp^i to which it did occur. 
^8 to the designating the battle of 
Nav^no an ** untoward '' event, 
t|be penae in which the epithet was 
used, was this. Under the treaty 
it was particularly stated, as one 
of the stipulations of the alliance, 
that its operation was not to lead 
to hostiUtifis, and that the con« 
tractivig powers were to take no 
part in hostilities. Therefore, 
when unfortunately the operations 
under the treaty did lead to hosti- 
lities, it certainly was an untoward 
occurreiioe. The former govern- 
ment had es^cted to acoomplish 
its ol>[ect without hostilitifis; this 
w^ manifest both from the treaty 
itself, and from their providing 
such a foKce for the es^ecntion of 
the measure as rendered it almost 
impossible that there should be 
hottilitifis. That beins the case, 
when the measures or the late 
govemiBent assamedthe character 
m hostilhies, instead o( that of 
peace, it was an untoward event. 
As he undentood, moreover, that 
there was some prospect, after the 
ipitelUgenoe ci ^e conflict reached 
Constantinople, that it might have 
endiBdin war, it wM, in that sense, 
taoi-aa^ mntowaid event. YetNaa^ 
soj^y it was not tneant to make 
aa^r ohat!gQa^nstf^eiia^oom« 
maitden His mneAy, and his 
h4fr;gimniMtit> Who Iwd had tte 



gallant admiral's conduct :,mnder 
their consideration, had fwhol]^ 
acquitted him of bbme,; and be 
( the duke of Wellington] certainly 
had no right to come fiirwfued and 
say that the galhmt admiral had 
done otherwise than his du^ .to 
his^kiug and his onintiy. I will 
say, said his Grace/that the giaUai^ 
a^bniral waa placed in a very d&» 
licate and peculiar situation** H^ 
was in command of aaquf^drpn.^^ 
ships, acting in corrj unction ^|^ 
admirals of other natioaay, and h^ 
so conducted himself as to acqi^i«e 
their confidence, and to indmae 
them to allow him to lead them to 
victory. This being the case, I 
shonld feel myself unworthy oCtbe 
high situation which 1 hold in his 
mijesty 's councils, if I were capaUe 
of uttering a single word against 
the gallant admiraL Meaning, as 
I did, that the government should 
carry the treaty, fairly into e^ecu^ 
tion, it would be highly bkmeahle 
in me -to insinuat& a oensam 
against a man who waa. charged 
with the execution of diffiwk 
orders under that treaty* : , 
Earl Orey, the marquis of Lans* 

down, andlordGodeo(di,aIlagre0iU 
that, whatever might baare been 
the character of the conflict >at 
Navanno, no blame could attach 
to the admital who oommandad* 
The marquia • of Lansdoam mii'i 
that, on the intelligenoe of tha 
aflbir reaching this eouotty, it wai 
found that further informatioa m^ 
wanted. That infcnnnalion . bad 
been supplied; and, beingsuppliiied* 
it had shown- thatjsir £dwavd 
CodringtOB waa -ehtitlad * to Ifaa. 
warm approbatioB <jf the gavctfa* 
ment and of the couatiy^ • In to** 
gard to the conflict itself, aUhou^' 
it was no doubt on tinfeitnaata 
ocooneneey inas muehaa k otsoHi* 
oQad tha ^MtnifitMA af lifib and lid 



HISTORY OF EUROPE; 



[^ 



to tli!iosec<)nsequencesMrliich always 
tended tx> alienate fxiendly powers^ 
yet lie should be ashamed not to 
declare that it would be childish to 
hayeexpectedj that, when an armed 
interference had been determined 
on ht treaty, it could take place 
witm>ut the risk of war. War no 
doubt was not to tafke place, if the 
objects of the intervention^could be 
edected without it ; but the con- 
sequencea of opposition must have 
be^ foreseen by those who framed 
theprotoool and the treaty of Lon- 
doni • There was no meaning in 
estiiblishinga hostile intervention, 
tmless we were prepared to en- 
counter all the consequences which 
might result fihom it, melancholy 
as they might be. Earl Ghrey could 
not help considering the event as 
fin tintoward and most unfortunate 
one ; for war was the issue to which 
it might naturally have been expect- 
ed to lead : and lord Eldon could 
not see how the epithet of " unto- 
ward " could be denied to hostili- 
ties taking place in the face of two 
treaties, one of which aimed at the 
re-establishment of peace, and the 
other provided that hostilities 
should' not be committed. 

The address was agreed to with- 
O0t a division. 

In the Commons the address 
was moved by the hon. Cecil 
Jenkinson, the brother of lord 
Li^erpod, and seconded by 
Mr< ilobert Grant ; ^— but the 
discussion was greatly nar- 
Howed by the absence of the 
ministers who had vacated their 
seats by taking office under the 
new administration, and whose 
writs had been moved for only in 
the oourse of the evening. The 
mo ve^ delivered a panegyric on the 
cJiaractarof lord Liverpod, which, 
iromtherelationshipbetween them, 
WM aiieast natund, though per« 



haps misplaced; andi he tssured 
the House that lord' Liv^ef^Mbl 
confided cordially in th^ new ad- 
ministration, was persuaded Itet 
it embodied all the inftef^ts to 
which he had himself been so 
long attached; and approved .'of h 
as containing many, if not a&, the 
distinguished persons, with whokh 
he had himse^ been so dosely coR^ 
nected. The debate, if so it might 
be termed, regarded princiipa^ 
the state of our; relations with 
Turkey, and the changes which had 
taken place in the govenimeiit. 
Mr. Brougham sdd, that he wish- 
ed at once to record his dissent from 
that paragraph of the speech which 
designated the affair of Navarino 
as an occurrence to be lamented, 
but which he would term ^ a 
elorious, brilliant, decisive, and 
immortal achievement.*' It had 
been reserved, he said, for some 
of the men of these times, to 
triumph and to be afraid— to con- 
quer and to repine^— to fight, as 
heroes did, the contest oi freedom, 
and still to tremble like slaves — to 
act gloriously, and repine bitterly 
•—to win by brave men the battle 
of liberty in the east, and, in the 
west, to pluck from the valiant 
brow the laurels which it had so 
nobly earned, and plant the cypress 
in their stead, because the con- 
queror had fought for religion and 
liberty. He hailed as a bad omen, 
the designation of a great naval 
achievement as an "untoward 
event." He complained of this 
passage, on the part of certain 
honourable gentlemen, who formed 
a portion of the late, as they did 
of the existing administration) but 
who were not present to state their 
sentiments with rsferenoe to this 
point. The censure, which it ctm^' 
tained, was directed either againtft; 
Mr. Gcsnt andMri^fladdBiOiirWiiioi 



so] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



had fomdl pan of the Itsfc tniniHiy 
as they did df thl«^ or against the 
gaUan t ofioer who was employed on 
3iis important oteasion. '' In this 
diletniM,'* exidainied Mr» Brough*- 
vm, ^in this dilemma, my Lord 
Field MarAal Dake of Wellington 
and Prime Mimster, yea are 
placed; ootoftfaisdilemma^ not your 
fhiest manceuvres^ not your most 
aooomplished movements, be they 
ever so hold, eret so nimble, 
ever so well constructed, will be 
sufficient to extricate you. Either 
you Uame Mr. Haskisson or Mr. 
Grant, or there is no blame what- 
evler imputed by you to them. In 
that case the blame is all meant on 
the other side : it is directed against 
those who fought this glorious 
battle, against those who led our 
gallant seamen to victory. They 
must be the objects of blame, if Mr. 
Grant and Mr. Huskisson are not." 
The learned member forgot that 
his dilemma was harmless, because 
the cabinet on the one hand, and 
the admiral on the other, did not 
exhaust its conditions, and because 
the phrase that was used implied 
no censure at all. The battle of 
Navarino might be an untoward, 
a very untoward event, and yet 
neither the one nor the other be 
blamed, or intended to be blamed. 
The word is one which refers 
merely to the consequences of 
an occurrence, not to the moral 
dispositions of the actors who have 
borne a part in it. And so ^ong aS' 
nobody could have-been surprised, 
had Turkey declared war against 
the fViendly powers, who burned 
her fleet, by way of manifesting 
the absence of all hostile intentions, 
80 long could tliose, who desired the 
continuation of peace, give the 
battle of Navarino no other epithet 
than 'untowai^'— if they refrained 
ftwti marking it by a somewhat 
harsher appellation. 



As to the new adminiatnitioii, 
Mr. Brougham deokared he wcmld 
look to its measures, not to its 
members ; and if the Ibnner were 
ffood, the latter would lecaivt Itton 
Sim as hearty and active a suppoft 
OS if he were sistlttg amimg t^enu 
But there was one oinmrnatahee 
connected with the present admi- 
nistration, to which he fdt a very 
gaeat Aegeee of objection. He 
alluded to the eommandern n '* A icf 
of the army having been plaeed, 
by his sovereign at lihe head of 
the government. Na man valaed 
more highly than he did tJM illia* 
trious s^vioesi of t^ noble duke, as 
a soldier. But, theupfh he enteiw 
tained the highest ^pmion of the 
noble duke's military geniusi stiU 
he did not like to see him at the 
head of the finances of the country, 
enjoying all the patrona^ of the 
crown,--^oying, as he did enjoy, 
the full and perfect confidence of 
his sovereign,— enjoying the pa« 
tronage of the army, — enjoying the 
patronage of the chuipch,'^>««na, in 
fact, enjoying almost all the pa« 
tronage of the state. To the nohie 
duke also was intrusted the ddi* 
cate function of conveying oobp^ 
stent and confidential advice to the 
ears of his royal master. As a 
constitutional man, this state of 
things struck him as being moae 
unconstitutional. He was, indeed, 
told, that the noble duke was a 
person of very great vigour in 
council, and that his talents 
were not confined to the art of 
war. It might be so; but that did 
not remove his objections against 
the noble duke's being placed in 
possession of sudi an immense 
mass of civil and military infiutnoe* 
It was said, that the noble date 
was incapable of speaking, in piih» 
lie, as a first minister of the crown 
ought to do. Now, he eonogived 



fflSTORY OF EUROPE. 



[St 



thai Am tns no Ydidity in diat 

ob^edioii. He h^ppoied to be 

ftttmi, wbssi the aoble duke» kiit 

fen^ hid the modBtty snd fltndoor 

to dtckv0y in enothi^ plao6> that 

he«a» vnfii fiir the tttuationof 

fint niaiitart and hareeUy thought 

he had nevor heaid a better ftpeech 

in his ltfe» l^hing could be 

aore aotted to the oecoauMi. He 

nerer aw leiB want of cafiacity in 

an indiTidiud who. might be called 

OB to take an aetive part in debate. 

Thi^ therefore, waa not his reason 

lav objecting to the appointment* 

That objection retfeed on the con* 

ilitntioBal gnmndi which he had 

ahnady rtated, and^ moreover^ be« 

ocnse the noUe duke's experieace 

had been porely military , not civil. 

Let it not he supposed* however, 

that he was inclined toejcaggerate. 

He had no fear of slaveiy being 

intsodaoed into this country^ by 

the power of the sword. It would 

Ithe a atnmgeTy it would demand 

a more powerful, man, than 

even the dnkeof Wellington> to 

e&ct audi an object. The noUe 

dnfce noight take the army» he 

might take the navy, he might 

take the mitce, he might take the 

great aeaU^he would make the 

nMt duke a present of them all. 

Let him come on with his whole 

force, awoid in hand^ against the 

constitntiony and the energies of 

the "people of this country would 

not only beat him> but laugh at his 

efibrta. There had been periods 

when the country heard with dia* 

may that ** the soldier was abroad." 

TlMi waa not the case now. Let 

the aoldaer be ever so much abroad* 

in the present age he could do no* 

thii^* Then was another person 

fldmadr— n Imb important person* 

-«*«n the eyes of aome an insignl- 

fieant perBon,*-*whoae labours hod 

tended to produce tliia atate of 



things. The aehoolmaater waa 
abroad* and he trusted mere fa the 
schoolmaster* armed with his pti« 
mar* than he did to the aotdier in 
full military array* for uj^MiUing 
and extending the libaitiea of hia 
country* He thought thenf^pofaitf 
ment of the duke of Wellington 
was bad* in a conatitutianal noini 
of view; but as to any vicMonce 
being* in consequenoe* directed 
againat the liberties of the country* 
the fear of such an event he looked 
upon as futile and groundlesai 

Mr..Baakea* on toe other hand* 
treated the a&ir of Navarino 0B 
one which had created dismi^ and 
astonishment* and had called forth 
an unqualified expuestdon of regret 
throughout the country* Those 
who Had agreed to a treaty* the 
neceaaary consequence of which 
had been se deplorable an event* 
were placed in a dilemma from 
which they could not extricate 
themselvea. The treaty itself he 
considered impolitic and unjust. 
Was it British policy to interfere 
in the internal affairs of other 
states?- Was it not contrary to 
the law of nations to do so? And 
had they not» by the treaty into 
which they had- entered* violated 
that law ? The treaty was founds 
ed on a false pretence* for they 
were told that the intention was 
to put down piracy. But* was it 
necessary for England* the greatest 
naval country under the sun* to 
call to her assistance two other 
powers* to check and put down a 
system of piracy ? Was it neees^ 
sary that a fleet of sixteen srnl of 
the line should be employed in such 
a business? It was ridiculous to 
make such an assertion. It waa 
appaientj on the face of the matter, 
that tjie force waa eotirdy, ditact^ 
ed againat a power which waa in 
amity with this countryi and Ihati 



nj ANNUAL iRBGISTB&.lS28. 



tfiOi mtkfwt anyniffioieBt €ai«ie«' 
In his visw of the^oaaey t W e n rt w . 
Bjiilgeciv Uie icwtgr aa&eveiy thiagt 
Goanected with. it> Bhoald be t&^ 
fitfved to a secret oomnitteo-: for 
it would iiot» perhaps^ be-rproper 
that inch an ia^iry^ should .be 
vntiic Her shoold be ^ad I9 
loaow in: • what sitoatioik this 
oQimtqF sik)od al; .preeent; and 
wfaathey. we.w^io. H «?ar or peaoe 
witKTorkey. Aarto the gallant 
ofbBfT who had behaved eo ho* 
iHHiRahjiy at* Navadnb^) he had 
natUug to saf agakust him. He 
had^ ondy- to lameatj that so 
iqentorioua an individual -had been 
engaged in an attack on ananoient 
ally. It wottld> however, be right 
tbatflie House should know, heco- 
after,! what instmotiona were givea 
to him on that disaa^us occasion.' 

Lord Althorpe, likewise, whMe 
henaiatahied that the edmural who 
had ibughtthe battle was beyond 
theieachof oensurei acknowledged, 
that, with respect to the treaty of- 
Londottj^he entertained consider- 
able doobts hath of its policy and 
itsjaatiee. 

Lord Palraerston answered, that 
the speech contained no condem- 
nation of the battle of Navarino: 
it censiued or oondeinned nodiing* 
It contained no censute upon tkc 
treaty which had led to the 
battle, nor any blame of the gaUant 
a^oaSral who had commanded in it. 
The^ia^ said, that the confliet 
was uneBi|)ected; and; certainly, 
thfro could be no doubt that it had 
been aob Beaause, although some 
collision anight have been antici« 
pated, yet^eaffinrof Navarinotook 
plaeO'in fa way whidi could not be 
exp6at6d< It had arisen out of a 
coariiinBlioaof ciffdumalancea which 
coa]d.4iot>be foraaaen; and. there- 
foqa it must:, have heeB'^'cdiiflion 
entjifly jto ^ y pwtp d jby.the §«reni# 




meat* Ho thought k -si 

to «llude«toa 

an exprnasion-of 
speaktiig witheat the 
dfinnal , iBn of it, iivhioii*Jual- 
plaea balween:hb:ABals, «Bdv4h« 
fleetaof a ooontiy wi^'WUch w« 
weie notooly^aQtiarwaii*, halwsiii 
whieh wa« weae lAaoiuleljNna M*i# 
ofaytanee^ 'Bie ospMsiriM al^ 
did not tbum any i«ilaDtiim*«iMft 
the oonduct oi tfaa gaHaal oimisil 
cemwanding, and touM tm Mrt)^ 
be so conBtmed. The bawMmi 
conferred on the* adndral w«ro 
a Boffictent proof ^ tMs^ and" 
proved tiiat bis skffl and g^ 
lantry wtva didy appaadateft. 
The gallaat offiaer altll oBOtiiitted 
in his aakoationof hiflh amt im 
pottant troat. ^ Wbud thib be 
the case, if the govammeiit oon-^ 
sidered that any censure ong^- to 
be paaaad upas him ? No cananva 
waa meant, ner was any expressed ; 
and thecefofe thedBhanma^'in whiiii 
the hon. and learned member' p^o^ 
peaed tb kntikft the govermsmt;' 
waa without oiileiice. *Ir>-lfaid 
been asked, whether we wero atrwur 
or at'peaoe with Tnrleey ? ' ^6l»w 
tatnly, not atr-wor. iOor ai i flia ii i 
sador haid (Quitted' Gonaiailliiio^'t 
but no change had 'taken plaesrln 
our:pottoy» Ther^foie^ we w«^ 
stOl at peace. With iMMtit 4^ 
Gieece, he wonkL^ merdy «ay, 
thajt the treaty and protocirf wMMI 
be laid before tiie Hoosei blithe 
waa not intended at preaenO^^tO' 
found any motion 'tipon them: 
Tim negodationa conneeted wdlil 
the treaty were not yet edMU 
There was no reason tb b^tt#^ 
that they woold be ended^ otteK- 
wiae than to the advantage of Ae 
country; but it was ^passible 'Aiil' 
the paeaent diacaasien -mi^^opiEdpik 



« » 



HWTORY OF EUROPE. 



[3» 



a|ii|Mqjpikitll|F. If, unier thcM 
(iMMMM^eiwifc flhoBld be thought 
aMl>%) to hnag forward any 
wMitm,' wmittimB would be pre* 
faaiA t# WMmt it; tboogb tbej 

Qayfaiale.«]if« To the oonstitu- 
tiwalebjeBlioBs wbkb had been 
uiped bgr- Mr. Bnxigham againtt 
tjtfAitoVC WelUngton'areaainiaff 
atlhehead hstkn theanay and 
o£ tht «dmiiui|fatkm» hii londahip 
aaiwieiwi^ ftha^ an that point» he 
wai giUd to be able to raieve the 
ahnaM (a£ the ban. and learned 
mfiilmmn. The military office 
ramerly k^ by the noUe duke 
would not be united to the politi- 
cal* His giaee bad tendered to 
the king his sengnation of the 
offioe«f oamniander-inpdueC on the 
nine day that he had aoeepted that 
of first lord of the Treasury ; and, 
although no sucoesHir had as yet 
been appointedj the House mioht 
consider the resignation as Tirtudly 
made : from the present time, the 
duke of Wellington would cease to 
be cnnHmradar-m-chief. Another 
obfeption to the present prime 
mH^iSter was^ that the noble duke's 
haUts and ezperienee had been 
military, and not civik But there 
ha4 been scarcely an important 
transaction in Europe for the hut 
thirteen yeasa in which the m^le 
duke^ at home or alnoad, had not 
directly bocne a part. 

Lofd John Russell said, he was 
noli satisfied with lord Pahaenton's 
statem e n t on the sub|ect of die 
f4imnmnd of the army. He 
must know how that situation was 
intsnded to beJiUed, before he 
shoultl be convinced, that some part 
of the .patronage of it would not 
still semaui: tt the diiqposal of the 
duke of WaUingfton in his new 
capacity. He admitted that it 
was but fair to. wait for the mea- 

Vol. LXX. 



sores of the new ministry, before, 
the House decided upon its charac* 
ter. He certainly saw symptoms 
of dai^er in the formation of llie 
government; but he would not 
make up his mind deliakively, until 
he saw it act. With r^ardtothe 
aflSur at Navarino, he r^retted 
the phrase made use of m the 
qieech* He was bound to take the 
sense in which thewords had been 
used, to be that which lordPdmer^ 
ston had given to them; but 
certainly if my were not intended 
to intimate, that the gallant admi- 
ral, who fought that battle, had 
fought it without instructions and 
unadvisedly, they were the most 
unlucky words, for their real pur- 
pose, that could possiUy have Seen 
chosen. For himself, he believed 
the battle to have been a glorious 
victory, and a necessary conse- 
quence of the treaty of London; 
and moreover, as honest a victory 
as had been gained since the be- 
ginning of the world. 

No amendment was moved, 
and the address, which was as 
usual an echo of the speech, was 
voted without a division. 

The dissoliftion of the late mi» 
nistry had been so unexpected, so 
little had hitherto been made 
known of the causes which produced 
it, and the conduct of those mem- 
bers of it who had passed into the 
new government appeared so sus» 
pidous to their former brethren 
who had been turned out, that 
some explanation of these various 
matters was anxiously looked lor 
in both Houses of Parliamient. 
No sooner, therefore, had Mr* 
Harries, Mr. Huskitton, and the 
other ministers who had vaessod 
their seats by accqiting office wider 
the new government, again taken 

[Dj 



84] ANNtJAL REGISTER, 1828. 



ffsclosures T)egRti. As was nattiral, 
they commenced witli lofd Godfe- 
rich, on whom it was eispedally 
incumbent 'to eitplkin the civil 
dissensionsr which had broken in 

efeccit a ' ^blnet of nis own iwrttt- 
g, and had induced him to throw 
np' the government in a ihahn^ 
not easily intelligible either 'to his 
older fHends of his more recent 
allies^— and with effects whieh^ in 
the public mind, had not been 
itivoarable to his reputation for 
g ta ie sm an-like energy and conduct. 
On the 11th of February, his lord- 
ship took occasion on a motion 
of «ie earl of Carnarvon for the 
prodhctjon of fortherpapers regard-^ 
mg our relations with Turkey, to 

five the following history of the 
ecline and fall of his administra- 
tion. He referred to the engage-* 
ment, which Mr. Canning, during 
his short administration, had come 
under, in the preceding session of 
parliament, that a Finance Com- 
mittee should be appointed during 
the present session ; and he stated, 
that, in the course of the familiar 
communications which had passed 
between himself and his colleagues 
on the subject, after he had suc- 
ceeded to office, the name of lord 
Althorpe had been mentioned to 
him as a proper person to be placed 
in the chair of the committee 
which was to be hamed so soon 
as parliament should assemble. ** It 
was impossible," said lord Gode- 
rich, '' that I should have felt any 
personal objection to the appoint- 
ment of that individual: but, as 
the matter had not come regularly 
before the government, but was 
stated to me merely in a casual 
and inetdental manner, I did not 
feel myself then called upon to ex- 
press any other opinion than this 
-^that, as the question was one 
whieh rested especially wltii tlie 



House of Cornmont, wlnfeVeif ij^ 
pointment the membeM of 'the 
(ialnnet in that House shoaldiaaU, 
I should be «atlified witih^ i»d 
aequlesoe in. The fUitlei^ wm not 
piboed before m^'tttv/^'tm^MtaAm 
tion in any thing Utemicttoial 
way, nor as at a mtiMilsrial con- 
ference, but finder* the f'eiituia-i 
stances whieh I have stated, as»a 
mere matter of aooidental coiivwi- 
sation. It did, however; happen, 
without my being aware^ at ilie 
time, that suah a atep had ijeaii 
taken, that a communicaliott Mraa 
made to the individual in qneitioai, 
for the puvpose of aacertaioitae 
whether, if the government shodM 
be disposed to recommend his no* 
mination as chainnan of the eom- 
mittee, he would undertake the 
duty. This oommunication wttf 
made, as I have already dedared^ 
without my knowledge; and it 
was also made without the know-i 
ledge of one of the members of the 
government) who, from Us sittuu 
tion, was more immediately eon- 
neeted with the anUect to whieh 
it refors; I mean the right hon. 
gentleman (Mr. Henries) who wte 
then Chancellor of the Bxcheqiur. 
But I ought to add, tfaoA hctm takh* 
sequent expknatkms whieh wece 
given to me, I understood: thabtfae 
application was not at all madeias 
a settled thing, or m aoeh' a asaa- 
ner as to pledge the goVenundnt, 
and bind them to the appoiahnelit. 
** When, h6wever, M^amt^t 
' tiiis comnninication had' been'maie, 
the result of whidi wai t» vc^, 
from my personal fedvng towaoids 
the individual to whom it was 
made, any thing butnnsatisAustoKy, 
she first question I aaked' was, 
whether any previooi commibiiim- 
tion had been had with the Chsen* 
cellor of the Etehequer^ I was 
informed, that there had not heen 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[35 



my*' I^kmented dut ai«uiiist«ace 
•^I aonlA not but lament it-^nd 
limpotaditlomegraoverBiglit* It 
atemoi to tte mn unfintunstt at- 
eumflttiioe^ that any thing ahould 
hovtt pnnA qpoa iho AiQeot be* 
3f«dioiiroiniimm«diatecirele. I 
be§gid*thol'no time might be lost 
m vutliBg Ao* (^Mic^or of the 
Ridtaqttor in poMetsion of what 
ImmI bocB done> and in aiiplainiag 
t»'hta tiie whole of the circum^ 
alaneei. Thu was done • by the 
S ecr ot afy of State for the Colonies^ 
(Mr« Huskiflson). He fully ex- 
pkined totbe Chancellor of the £x- 
.<he%aer all that had occurred upon 
4he subject No objection was 
then made by the Chaneellor of the 
Eschequer* No ofienoe was taken 
by him at thetiffle>asfar as I have 
hieaxd« to any thing that had been 
dooai It did> however^ so happen^ 
that^ on the next day— after he had 
had die subject under his consider" 
«tion-»he found, that there were 
very stxong objections to the pro- 
posed ajmointment which had been 
«o flubmitted to him. He stated 
dioee objections to me ; but I un« 
dentood them to refer much more 
to the dtcumslanoe^ of the nomi- 
aaden hanring been made without 
hie hsnrinff bwa consulted, than to 
the matsnal p r epo sR ioa itself ; and 
that»se plaeed, he could net accede 
la it. Various explanations follQW* 
ed^ aa I have becm informed, some 
•f them by letters between the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer and 
4k Secretary of State for the 
^^olenies: and I, who never saw 
tint oomspoadenoe, was in hopes, 
tar a time, that sudi exj^anations 
had been perfectly satimctory to 
aB the pardds eoneemed in it. In- 
deedy aoconvinoed was the colonial 
ISecretaty that he had succeeded 
ia removing thd objections of 
the ChaMelior of the Exchequer^ 



that he did not feel it necessary to 
make me acquainted with the cor- 
resp^mdence which had taken place 
between them both, and the right 
hon. gentleman (Mr. Tiemey) 
from whom the recommendation 
originaUy proceeded. For my own 
par^ I was quite convinced^ that 
the explanation had proved entirely 
satisfactory. There might be dif- 
ferences of opinion, as to the pxo- 
priety of what had been done: 
difficulties were to be surmounted, 
and objections, unquestionably, 
might be made; but I had no 
reason to believe, that there was 
any such difference of opinion as 
would lead any party concerned 
to conceive, that, if that appoint- 
ment were persisted in> it would 
be impossible for the individual 
objecting, to remain any longer a 
member of the government. 

''These circumstances took place 
between the latter end of Novem* 
her and the beginning of Decern* 
her; and, on the SSnd of Decem- 
ber^ I received a letter from the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, in 
which he iirst of all stated to me 
his objections to the mode in which 
the matter had been discussed, and 
the negotiation, as he termed it, 
carried on, and concluded with my 
sanction, — ^without bis knowledge. 
He then proceeded to state his 
objections, on' public grounds, to 
the particular nomination ; and 
he concluded by positively inform*- 
ing me, that, under these ciroum<*i 
stances, he felt it his duty, on prin*> 
ciple, to place his office of Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer at my dis- 
posal, if it were a matter of con- 
venience to me to accept his re- 
Xtion, and put it ' into any 
hands. The conclusion £ 
drew from that latter certainly 
was, that my right hon. friend 
tendered - his resignation, if the 

ID 21 



36] ANNOALREOISTBRi 1828. 



{>otk^^Red honilnfltion tdolt pkcd. 
Mt itto)r-diity"8o to eonsider 
ft ; . knd! etety r^ivoiasl man must^ 
I^ km sfttisfi^^' view it in the 
istUiie' light. I stated in anffvrer 
to' the Chancellor of the Ex- 
cheqti^^ that he seemed to have 
gt^tttly 'misunderstood the degree 
to ivhich' I had heen a party to any 
^in^ like a settlement of the 
cm^mo/n. I lezplained to him that 
ther^ was no ground for represent- 
itig an attangement as coiiduded 
with my sanction, of which in 
ftict I knew nothing till it was 
over. In reference to the tender of 
his resignation, I assured him he 
Wa^ mistaken, if he thought I could 
conceive a case in which his re- 
tirement would be a convenience ; 
^t)d expressed iny hope, that; at all 
events, he would take no final 
stepj until we should have an 
opportunity of giving the whole 
question the fullest consideration. 
Copies of these two letters I trans- 
mitted to the Secretary of the Colo- 
nies. The result unfortunately was, 
that the Chancellor of the Exche- 
quer, though strongly pressed not 
to risk the consistency of the 
government, and. though the most 
earnest endeavours were made to 
satisfy him that his objections to 
the proposed nomination had no 
sufficient foundation, always re- 
fertied to his letter which involved 
his resignation as the necessary 
consequence of that appointment: 
and, on the other hand, the Secre« 
tary for the Colonies distinctly and 
unequivocally declared, that he 
felt his own honour and character 
to be so involved in maintaining 
that nomination, that it was ut- 
terly impossible he could acquiesce 
in any change. Here then there 
was an irreconoileable difference 
between two individuals, holding 
two of thfii mM; important and 



efficient offices ih ^Sbe tltii^e; cto a 
questioh of vkal ii^portaitee tb tfae : 
proper eonduct-of the aflikSrs df 
the kingdom. It was^manifest^i t|^, 
as both of them could not' riimain 
in the government, tinker 1^ tof- 
cumstances which had^ d(;scniTed, 
and with die opiMMi ^I^Al Arey 
avowed, tfae adniinisti!^ticin cotild 
not goon with ^eessential butifhc^ 
of the country. This^ivturno^tih 
of mine. I dM not TB&ae the wB- 
culty. f had no wi^,- God %nkTi(|^, 
that the government sho'uid ' nbt 
go on. f dedare beft)Te iGdd, 
my desire was to maintain jths 
administration undivided ; -^nd, let 
my opinion be what it may iip6h 
the cause of d^erence, no man cab 
think I could descend to so piltry, 
so base a trick, as to cattse dill^r- 
enees -among my friends ill tJie 
cabinet. God knows I have never 
done so, I tried to heal, not to ex- 
cite dii^renoes! Need I vindi« 
eate myself fVom the insmua- 
tion ? I hope not, I am surenot^— 
your lordships cannot believe it. 
What was J to do? In what 
situation was I piacwd? The^ 
was an irreooneileablo difi^renOe 
between two of my eoltoajgnitt. J 
fonnd — ^paiafiiUy fooiid — l^at ^I 
could not biing them fBdgefUhiti. ' I 
oouldnot induo6oitherof<2iefti So 
vary his rescdution. Undtn^- these 
circumstances, I (bund it to' be my 
duty to infoMi his ma[je0iy of ^ 
situaUon in which his govemmeht 
stood. I was compeUeii to ijidke 
this known. I could . not cMceal 
it, if I would; and if I hlid at- 
tempted to do so, I BhooM ha^e 
been guilty of tveaohery fo^ tife 
king and to the country, asnd I 
should have oompromised my *o#n 
honour and that of my ooUeaguea. 
1 thought it my duly, frankly «md 
without reserve^ to lay before the 
king the state in ml^dt cirei^n- 



HISTORlr OF EUROPE^ 



[87 



atwcet bad placed the government 
at. the head of which I had the 
hautm of being placed. Big 
SQuuesty ^waacoQstitutionaUy ei^ 
titled to delenaine, under these 
qrcuiaittanoegt what was fit to be 
doQCy. ydtb a view to the promo- 
tion oC the interesU of the people 
•whom b.C' ^piverned. Thedecirion, 
to which hia majesty came, was, to 
iCffDmiuoicate with the noble duke 
.wibf9 'ii4 now. at the^ head of the 
gwn^mvieQt, and the result was^ 
that , I. ceased to hold the situation 
in.itrhiGh I had the honour to be 
placed." 

This statement of the late pre- 
mier laid the dissolution of the 
ministry exclusively at the door 
of an irreoondleaUe difference be- 
tween Mr. Huskisson and Mr. 
Henies regarding the proposed 
chairman tt the Finance tamr 
mittee; and, since that irreooa^ 
cileable difiboence had caused the 
resifipition of the minister, it 
impued an admission that his 
cahbet WBs so constructed that the 
removal of either of these geo- 
tknisn necessarily dissolvedit. It 
.mm^ad to be learned from these 
.gen tta q s m themselves* what weve 
•the groutods on which each had 
:thoi^^ himself bound to adhere 
ohsiwately t^ his own opinion in 
a dissension wheve obstinacy was 
ep fatd. They had taken their 
seatSk and were Temaining silent, 
when lord Noniaiil^>on the I8th 
of February, iomeUj called upon 
%bem U> explain their conduct in 
the. transactions to which lord 
Qoderich had referredi-«a course 
which he found himself he said, 
tootopelled to adopt, in consequence 
€£u psevious evenings (which had 
heen looked upon, in general un« 
derstandHi^ as the <occaiion on 
iriiieh ^these explanadoas weie to 
lake-place^ihavaBg been allowed to 



pass over without any explanation 
being given. Haring repeated th^ 
statement made by lord Goderich 
in the House of reei9» ^d Nop- 
manby said, that the principal 
q^uestion arisinfffronithis detail was, 
why did Mr. Berries not state at 
once the full extent of his difficuJi- 
ties, and the nature of his object 
tvm as resting on public grounds,? 
Why did he leave lord Crpdcrich 
secure id die. opinion^ that^ the 
matter was merely one of ap- 
parently personal sUght, easily ex- 
plainable^ and then bring it foe- 
ward unexpectedly, at a distant 
period? Whence came. likewW 
the extraordinary non ,9€(iuiiur of 
the minister, that, when this dispute 
took place, lus business was, npt to 
decide, but to reMgn ? A far more 
important question, however, said 
lord Normanby> regarded the prin- 
ciples on which the new ministry 
had been framed, and the footing 
on which Mr. Huskisson, and 
those of his party, who had be- 
longed to the old government, had 
been induced to join it« Mr. 
Huskisson, in expuuning his con- 
duct to his constituents at Liver- 
pool, was reported to have said» 
that he did not consent to become 
a part of the new cabinet, till he 
had obtained ''ffuavantees" that 
the public and domestic poliqjr of 
the country was to continue to be 
conducted on those principles 
which he had so \oD£t mamtained ; 
and the duke of M^Uington had 
already indignantly contradicted 
every supposition that such guar- 
antees had heen eldier asked, or 
ffiven. His Grace's words in the 
House of Locds weie " Is it to be 
supposed that the right honouisble 
gentleman" (Mf. Husldsaon) ^'ever 
used such expressions- as are ascrib- 
ed to Um at the JUvevpool election f 
If I had -entered into« any iuob 



3S1 AWNUAL REGISTEB, 1828. 



^rftol^gftTe iMrrgftiD, I iixould hftve 
tdLrttiefbed his f«me as mut^b as I 
should hav^e disgraced my owiu 
But iff gate a guarantee to himi 
what have I done for the other 
ineitibers of the government? Is 
there nobody eke in the govern- 
ment but him? Every minister 
surely forms a part of it. Every 
one of them is equally at liberty 
to stitte his opnions on eVery sub* 
je^ he may ehoose to propose for 
the consideration of government. 
I appeal to my noble iHends^ 
wt^ber they ever belonged to a 
cabinet, in which questions were 
discussed taore freely f^—^Now, 
oontintied lord Normanby, the in- 
ference which 1 draw from this is^ 
that the noble duke considers the 
right hon. gentleman correct in 
speaking of aguarantee^ if he places 
rdiance on tha three or four mem- 
bers^ who, with him, belonged to 
the preceding cabinet ; but against 
this that node lord has a counter^ 
guarantee^ in the seven or eight 
other individuals who go to make 
up the new dne. The noble duke 
himself seems to have interpreted 
the meaning of the right hon. gen<* 
tleman somewhat in this way ; for 
he says-^'^ It is much more proba- 
ble, though I have not thought it 
worth bay while to ask for any ex* 
planation on the subject, that my 
right hon. friend stated, not that 
he had concluded any wholesale 
bargain with me, but that the meui 
of whom the government is now 
composed, arc in themselves a gua- 
rantee to the public, that their 
measures will be such as will be 
conducive to his majesty's honour 
and interests, and to the happiness 
of the people. That is what the 
right hon. gentleman said, if I am 
not mistaken ; end not that I had 
giveti him any guarantee for the 
foriaciplei of the goYenunenU" 



Now, oontinuad Idcd 
by, as the right hon< g«iitlfm«ti 
could never have stated what th« 
n^e duke thus supposes he djA 
state ; as I am quite sura ihalk th# 
right hon. gentleman oould aa^rar 
have stated, as the simple Jusbift« 
cation of his adhereooe to the 
govemvaent, his oonvictiaii that 
the members of that govemmtBt 
would pursue ao^ meaauna as 
wduld be conducive ^' t^ his nft«> 
jesty's honour and interests,' aaid 
to the happiness of the peopW'*-^ 
the fact being, that a large nli^ovM 
ity of the members of the govern** 
ment had opposed the mttsures 
which the right hon. getitleaiaa 
himself had declared were coAdii« 
oive to those ends ;--«s I am quite 
sure that the right hon. genUeman 
oould never have said any thiag 
like thisi I now ask binv in the 
perfect spirit of eandour and fUxw 
ness, to state to the Houses whab 
it was that he xeally did say* 

Mr. HuskiAon, thus callfid an> 
firit gave to the House hi* veiMa 
of the events which had led. to th« 
dissolution of the xninistf y^ agoe^ 
ing in general with the statement 
made by lord Godezich, hut anpM 
plying some deficiencies which hia 
lordship, who had left the nomiaaM 
tion of the ohairman of the Fit 
nance Committee to such of hia 
colleagues as were meaibers ef the 
House of Common^ had beet^ usbi 
able to fill up. He said that» in 
the middle of November, Jjoai 
Goderich, in the course of a ooiu 
versation on general buainessi caeu« 
ally mentioned to hinii that Mr« 
I'iemey had been suggesting the 
propriety of asking losd Althacpe 
to be chairman of the conmittee* 
Lord Goderich himself was pei> 
fectly satisfied with the proposal i 
but left itj and all other maueta 
coooicted with Uie cpoiniitteej to 



HISTORY OP EUROPE. 



[30 



A t acBi bgi a rf die govenimttit 

iih»^ad foats io the kwer House. 

Mr J HnikiiiaBiw <n Uie odi«r hioid^ 

c J Hu eti td doiite of fehe propnety 

oC ^fao noBrinfttiwi, not doubts as 

t^ilM filooiBoC lord Althorpeto 

hmva ih» omnmiltee, bul doubts 

mtetborhifl induitryaad talent^ 

ham w w 9 K gmt th^ iniebt be« bad 

hfim- tffiMlj dtroeted to such 

nhjoctaaa would qualify him lor 

pwiidittg aver a committaa of that 

nhiara/ ^ Turn h over 'in your 

niadi -' aijd lofld Ooderioh ; and they 

parted* This coavecsationi lord 

Godenoh had eommanicatad to Mr. 

Tianwy; for a few days after* 

waoda (19di November) the latter 

ashed Mr. HttabiaKm, ''whether 

he bad tomed OTtr in his mind 

the ooaTemtion he had had with 

kMl Godcrioh ?"•— Mr. Hoskisson 

anaweBed, that he bad been con** 

lidttfaig the subject; and that, 

aotwithstaiittig his first impres* 

sioDSy he now believed it would 

be fer iftur pttUic iateitiit toendea- 

WMir to secure the senriees of lord 

Alttorpe aa diainnaa of the com* 

antlw. This was on the Igth of 

NoTomfaer; and Mr. Huskisson 

hsaiil IM> more of the matter till 

the 2Tth» when lord Godench told 

baa ha bad leanied from Mr* 

Tiem^ thai he (Mr. Tiemey) 

had been aounding lord Spenoer> 

kxfl AldunpeTa fiitber, as to the 

fwimiiHifji'of the latter accepting 

the oh^ of the committee, if it 

daoaM be offered to him. It was 

ai tins conversation that the name 

of du Chancellor of the Exchec^uer 

waa mentioned for tbe first time. 

Lctod Godsiich said^ Mr. Husidft* 

SOB asked, ** la tbe Chancellor of tbe 

Eatthefaer acquainted with this ?" 

I innnediatdy replied, that I did 

not kniyw whether he was ac« 

^oaoUed with itornot; and that I 

hnl not kosn doiircd, or autbov* 



iseflf to make any conunnnication 
to him on the sut^t ; but that I 
took it for granted, be b$d been 
made acquainted with it. My no*. 
Ue friend saidi'.tbat^ if he bftd nots 
it was an ovexiigbt. Iremacked 
that it waa not my oversiabt ; 
and that I did not hold mysdi re« 
sponsible for it. He then re« 
quested me to see the Cbencellor 
of the Exchequer and state to 
him what bad occurred. The 
next day the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer called on me at my 
office ; and I stated to him all that 
had passed on the subject between 
me and my noble friend at tbe 
head of the government, as well 
as between me and my right bon. 
friend the master of tbe Mint» 
And here I am bound to say, that;, 
when I made tbat cammunicatum 
to my right bon. friend, the Chan« 
cellor of the Exchequer, beseemed 
to take the same view of tbe case 
that we had done. We then en# 
tered into a discussion on other 
matters, in the course of which, 
my riffbt bon. fiiend the master of 
the hunt, quite unexpectedly, and 
by accident, called on me. I told 
bim what bad passed* He said, 
^' I am going to Brighton to-mor« 
row, and under those civcunv* 
stances 1 called upon you to talk 
to you fd)Out this very affiiir of the 
Finance Committee." We then 
discussed the subject; compared 
lists of the members of tbe in<* 
tended committee, and, as I sup- 
posed, advanced a good deal in the 
business. On tbe next day, how- 
ever, the 29th of November, I re- 
ceived a communication from my 
right bon. friend, the Chaacellov 
of tbe Exchequer, expressing a 
wish to see me; and, when we 
met> he informed me that he had 
some reason to take a different 
new of tho subject from' that 



1 



4«i ANNUA,!. ssaisTEnirisss. 



whiduoocuiMd to hiiB on tliA/dttv 
i^fva^ mA xergect tn Uie pwwa 

fmaoce .^osumttee. He ex- 
mBued hm mnpet. thai tke intfB- 
tioa of aapoiating lord AlUmpe 
cbaunuiA oad beonse a subject of 
qpQvemtion about towii> aad-he 
alio^ mei^ioned^ 4« a gz^t incoik* 
venienG^ that several other luunes 
qCthftintpniled membersof the ooa^ 
mXU» were publicly ^Icen of. 
Tf>oy<li^]y. on i^eceivwg this cem- 
9>9xuca4oiV I wrote to the master 
of ibe^Mixitat Brighton, ezpresfr- 
i.Rg niy deep reuret at hearing that 
these niatters had been divulged, 
^d adding my earnest and anxious 
reyiest, th^ - the best means 
^ould b& taken to prevent in fu^ 
tuce the r«)etAtio« dfanyfludb inw 
fmper disciQfiuxes, . and d»t , above 
aUj no other application should be 
milde jbr any member to be upon 
the committee, without fiirUier 
Gonsideratuin* A copy of this 
letter I sent, on the sameeveaingy 
to the Chancellor of the £xche- 
quer« to show the feeling which I 
entertmed upon these informal 
statements, and in orders as fiir as 
the means were in my power, to 
allay aiQr . unpleasant sensation 
which might have been raised in 
his mind, from what had passed 
upon thu business. The master 
of the Mint answered on the 2nd 
of December, that he had never 
mentioned the name of a single 
member of the committee; and 
that, with respect to lord Altlun^j 
we were at |)ecfect liberty> either 
to put him mto the chair of the 
Finance Committee^ or not, as 
we pleased; and, as a proof of 
this, beiag the case, he enclosed to 
me an extract of a letter which he 
had received from lord Althoi^e^ 
in .reply to one transmitted by 
)m to tb€ votik lord, to laomr 



whedierj in caee hmAmfiA.ftmi^ff* 
nUod Us to beesuMdiaisiBttMjftlift 
commillee, • he vmM ta^mn^iiiA 
Iul61 its duDes* ihcmii MslkifgpiiL 
aoMwr w«4i thaty ifj ,itt Aeipmipai 
tSnutf*. Kjji name thffMM ba>ttflonBifo 
edfay Mr. Tiamc9% aj|dL>^i«i04 
g s i t io n be eoncweduinitqfritlle 
other membera otAt^gmmmmki 
and if ako certain' ^g ial ie Owcrt i 
wese made> 'iu ralaiioQ(..«>l^ithe 
eommitlee, he .frould. nol toindrtt 
posed 'to flOBept the, chair- . >Oii 
the day* of my lecmvifig'i Aii 
answer^ I transmiMdriliiendci 
cover to the Chamwdhwr- .rfAfihe 
Exchequer, wka subsaq^aenllyniDv 
turned it to me^ wweaoiiipgwiiiil 
by a single obsoryatimw ''.TbH/' 
eontinuS Mr. H«siBSBon,/<4S tte 
whole of what .. passed nff^gaacti 
ing the naminatifm of lord.jAd** 
thorpe, so far as I am iolBKmc&'W 
coaoemed^ I b^ ta add, tha^ tbe 
natter as it has ooeune^^'itnlBes 
me as beiag of (he meet iinieng 
and unimportant natoie;. and, at* 
though the Chancellor e£ the £«* 
cheouar migM htvelelt that* 
slight was cosweyad by the. 
not haaring^beea coiginallyii 
tioned to )m» I amr/p«iu*b^ 
that every cm^ who impartitfhr 
views the questioll^-at:gBSlle,•WMj[ 
feel that it . waa only au'iqipaimil 
slight* It would oertAifilsr 4iSMre 
be^ a 8}m^ty hod it been seninr 
tended; but 1 scdemafy. .dtdbtfou 
that, onmyrpar^ na>ftligihi)whal¥ 
ever was intended." . - i . \,' * , 
Mr. Hudiiuon weot'OUHteMit^^ 
that, from the god up to iheitCtli 
of December, he ne^eo beirdoik 
word moce about the .matter> i.Be 
allowed, that» in the intesMH^ 
many circumstances had ae oai Brei 
to shake the stability or^ttrn'^ftd- 
ministration-— that thegevenvmeitt 
was es^osed to the ^eatest ^St^ 
cu]tie»«-that th«[[€ *fwqrait»<Um 



^ 'r 



IHIOTORY Of fiUHOPtr >'- A f^ 



oqtaih^dgnfc'iflikb ho odiM luilr 

lii(^i<»mBf» "iAiwfltf, '«tid expvcmed 

]Mip(Mddfbe''bellerUd' meet jwi'lk^ 
julwy thsfti ftpfMUP tO'iMnt fi^tai 

ofi*I>»fcefid>elr,> ke had tiie fifM€it 
uwmiimii C(cf«rikiidiiiig4ti the coun^ 

aBr^«f*4he4x>Ulft^r- Of this he 
eitald'>%ioe i^^a 4trqiig0» fifocif 
tfHbi^ihf imiiig^' lAutt; irf^ ihstt 
lifaiey •'i^M petixnui < oC gniat eflu«< 
iHllce; ptfracill^ ojppdfled to hsn^ 
htfiiinttmslled <piaiii)y/ ih&rthe 
eafaiffttfsnieaM :»f the goireiti- 
lotiitiravese eviAeut, that some 
iMflnowa ought to be taken^ and 
that' the^r wete dfqMMed to address 
the Mug open the utibjaet T6 
tUa-'touuaimleiitioii' he had an* 
s«^4d^ that the peint; was one 
vpdti irtA^ he ceuM g}vie no epm^ 
W ; kit ilial^ whdtevei^ tesolu*' 
tmrthef ittight tito^ he thought 
A^ oi^^- decndedlr to state it 
fint to httd Oodetkhr It treisin 
cmequeiiee of this oeeurrence, 
ttol laid OoderMi had if^aited on 
hiiiflfljesty en "tibe (fth of January ; 
wttw that ttne he had-abiohitely 
iioahMB^wttre, wfaathter the noble 
hUdr ' wttit to 'Aibnflt his grie^- 
ti> -she' ki!i||> <w to propose 
flan by whidi those mev- 
mlghthe temedied. It was 
ifi'thasawiutnslaiAces, that, on the 
Stfdt JOedMbei^j he learned froni 
k»d <MMic!li the dtttmAhiatioii 
of Mr. Herries to re^ign^ if the 
a^^efaUtaieiit'Of'lotd Althorpe were 
Mtfsev«ited' in ; and then indeed 
he «Hd^ ftwly and ejEpteased His 
fttiing, that tiie adminislration 
wasiafe an end ; that there was no 
inajyiitl Of thM id(»edialiey and co^ 
dpeifttiony whhoat whleh any en- 
deswaur on his part to promote 
thepahlie Inteieits most be use- 
that he«>^ liot, witki 



otHJ'nnfin^ Bra^cKaiwI^/ -(Muiiijiuls 
a nienibef ofr* a cs^^tie^'^ s^ e6nsiau 
tnted. On-lheSSthofDeeenlb^ 
he Btatdl to lord'ObAeijc^ the 
oemdasion to whsch' h^ hM eoih^i 
Lord Goderidb said dlSlSiictl!^, thirt! 
fhe ^nesiioii ite ' to die cihutmair 
of the cottiOiittee was^ in the ab«' 
stnfct^ of trifling MpiyHailiCc^ 
''Bat I coi!dd not' disiMHhble^ 
said Mr. HtEskisson^'^^af'tHe 
manner in wMdH flSs' (j!iMMii 
had nnforemiate!y -fii^M, d6tfld 
not, in my jndgment, be* easffllj^ 
0¥eti20Uie I and" thikt, Hfiottt ^h6 'ind* 
ment it was ^d^etesably ^uitu 
ed that this partibu^r artang^- 
ment ahould be iflMi jkidoued/ T 
eonld not recede^ without- tiii^t-^ 
ting such a eonces^on' as 1 kne^ 
would be hailed by ' sttoe aS 'ti! 
subject of tritimph— -wottM' tenA 
to lower me in the puUSe niind^-*' 
would expose ' me even fn tfafii 
HoQseto be taunted fbr my wan^ 
of firmness-^-and would fashre con- 
sequently much fimiYnsfaed the 
measure of my usefcilnestf in thid 
ofiiciid s^eie which f thein o6ctl^ 
pied. The abstract ijueslion wa^ 
Itself^ I repeaty of no moment; 
but it became raised by adcon)- 
patiyittg circumstances, into vital 
importance, and assumed a "^Jg* 
nant and imposing form/' OtL 
the 99th of December, thereforej 
heinfbrmed lord Goderich, that 
he meant to tender his resigna- 
tion, and had prepared a letter tb 
his majesty to that efiect. Lord 
Ooderich immediately said, '^hen, 
if you have come to this determi- 
nation, my administration is alto- 
rither at an end ; for if you retire, 
will not remain an hour longer 
in office, and the inevitable conse- 
quence is, that there is an end bf 
the administration/' Lord I>iid- 
ley, and the maratds of LansdowTt^ 
^ Foreign and Homef Secretet«i 



491 ANNUAL aECrSTER, 1828. 



mi, to 'Whott diB QOmmmidation 
luUk^awisa bem iiiad«> laid th« 
SAHIB ' ifanig ■ *<hot what he in* 
teqded'todo, would be thediw>* 
]ttttiQa of. the aunata^* He had 
be«L ^vmted fiom MbdiM in 
hit ren^taon as he mlendecC by 
tJm wxvnA of the Infant of Por« 
togali and his visit to Windsor 
JQit afe that time. Then he had 
postponed sending it for a few 
daifSb'' for.this reason, that it was 
Tafy.aferani^y soggested to him by 
d^MOWidK whom he had oommu* 
niflBtidi. whether^ as the step he was 
ahoat to take would neoesssrily 
onak tip the administration^ it 
wioald not he better to reqncst 
load ' Goderioh to consider of the 
resignotioa tendered by the Chan* 
oeiHor of the Exchequer. He 
jieUed to this suggestion; and, 
on the 1st of January^ wrote a 
letter io lord Godeiich, requesting 
him to asoertain distinctly from 
the Chancellor of the Eisdiequer^ 
whethor he persisted in his xe« 
signatbn; and telling him that 
he. would suspend any step, until 
the. result was known. Laid 
Godecicb carried on tho correspon* 
deooe with the Chanoellor of the 
Eachequer, ur^g him to rerall 
his detenninationi but without 
sttooess. On the 8th of January, 
lord Goderich went to Windsor, 
waited on his majesty, and, telling, 
the whole difficaltiss of the case, 
opened to his majesty the situa* 
turn of the govemment* In doing 
so, he did what he was bound in 
duty to do— he laid before his 
m^esty fully, fairly, and honestly, 
the n^ slate of the difficulties 
and perplexities into which the 
govexniaent was thrown— and the 
administration was at an end. " So 
far ,i|s c^gards myself," said Mr* 
Httslnsiont ''up to the last no* 
ment of its existence^-up to the 



last momeat when-it eeuldfomift 
bly administor the aflUis of dm 
oeuntry-— I used tmry eftct to 
keep t^e elements, ofwhiDhit was 
composed, together, lappeahle 
eimry mmnberof the lategovenia. 
ment, whether there has bMtrariy 
wont of aeal or industry on imgr 
part«<»-whetlier I did'iiet saoriiot 
time, health, ewy-diing that was 
dear to me, to the* endmoor to 
pref«nt the bceakia^Bp «f tkia 
administration. I have .hoss 
Ghai]^with having made a eem» 
momcation to all my colleagufls^ 
»eept the Chancellor of die Ex« 
chequer, with respect to thtrap« 
pointment of the noble ked oe 
chairman of the Coaraiiltae df 
Finances and I have idsoheon 
charged with haifiag eanvaesed 
my colleagues to snppott dwt 
appoiatment aoainst the fiMlinga 
(^ the Chaneeuor of the Exche* 
quer. I state distinctly now, 
what must hav« been kaewn fee 
maay persons befinre, thai I never 
communicated on dmt siib|cet with 
any person except lord- Oodesidi 
and Mr* T&emey, befiDiatha tnoat 
action took a coume whsck g en d awd 
further oommunicatioii neoesfeary*" 
On the seeond parti of the casa^ 
the footing on which hehad jaiiied 
the new iSministiatioii, so aoeaos 
that to which he had belongad 
was at ao end ; and the natuieof 
the guarantees which, it was iaid». 
he Imd amured his ooastitttenta ai 
Liverpool, he had recerred ftom 
the duke of Wellingtoa as condii 
tions of his acosssion, Mr« Hnskia« 
son s^, that he had been andar 
great appiehensionB firom the very 
first, that the mcaabem of the new 
fforemment were very likely to 
differ amonc themselves with 
req^ to poUtical- prinniples^ and 
the measurea growing out of thesa» 
There wer^ no doubt, certain 



HISTORY. OF EUROPE. 



[48- 



tkm lo wlnoh ie was absolutely 
vHOtta m tf to imve ma undentand^ 
1^ cnr it waa impoMiUa for a 
caMal to ogrea; but Btill> if a 
&ir< 'aid 'diatiiiot undBsitaadixia 
nbutod aaHbgtha members of a 
gfrermnaat aa io general princU 
pba^ Idiat wma aufficie&t ; and of 
«Kfa an midentanding in favour 
of tbegcEBtial prlaciplea wbicii he 
had' abrajB maititaiaedj ho had 
fanod an atturtnoe in the very 
oantroction.of the new covens 
mantft Before joining it| he had 
aea|^ explanations both regard- 
iag gnieral prindples and pending 
laaniMiia ; and having received 
v»hat feemed to him satisfactory 
tMfitanBtmin, he considered that 
tbe bait guarantee^ which oould be 
cAxad for the execution of these 
SMaasitBy the furtheranoa of these 
prirtOipilfa> and the understanding 
thaft tiiey would be adhered toj 
wasy th«t the individuals, who 
VTCR, in some re^eets^ the framers 
of time measure^i and whose duty 
ik would be to carry them into 
oanralioB, were to continue in the 
€moeA which they held* Whai 
the dnlsB of Wellington applied to 
bim to form part of the admini»- 
tetfiuDt ha told his gracesy that he 
tixpeeted that lord Dudley^ Mr* 
Qxmnt, and Mr. Lamb^ should be 
nieaabeia.of it| .but he did not 
aak for any stipiulatian on this 
pesnt ; nor oommunieate with anv 
oiM of those individuals. He kft 
it to the dtthe to do that^ if he 
thought proper. The duke made 
a aapaiate eommunication to each* 
If he had omitted to do so, he 
(Mr. Hnskisaon) should have con* 
sidersd himself at liberty to with- 
draw from any connexion with 
the adminiatrttjon* Each having 
received a eepemte pioposal And 



a separata eapJaneJiem from his 
grace, they oommunieated with 
each other* Then aU jointly wh- 
quested an interview with his 
grace, in order that they mi|^t 
understand the explanationa which 
they had received sepasately^ ha 
the same sense, one with the other* 
Up to the very morning when .n 
list of the new government, fay. 
some accident, appeared in anawa* 
paper, the duke ot Wellington oovw 
ndered, that Mr. Huskisson waitat 
liberty to wait 
the explanations which had 
given) until he should see the 
construction of tbe whole goveniAr 
ment, in order to judge whether 
that construction affor&d the best ' 
security for the enforcement ef 
the principles and measures to 
which he had alluded. It was 
that security, and that alone> that 
he had meant, when he used the 
word ''guarantee," about whieh 
misconception and malioe had been 
so busy* " Suppose for a moment^" 
said Mr* Huskisson, ''that the 
noble duke at the head of the co« 
vemment had communicated with 
me on the principles of a contract 
to be made— a bargi^ to be en* 
tered into<-*betweex> parties, having 
between them opposite and con* 
flieting interests — ^if they had tiuis 
bertered their own honour and 
character, how could they expeet 
to keep the matter a secret ? Is 
it to be believed that the noble 
duke would have sent to five or 
six gentlemen of untarnished ho<t 
nour and reputation^ for the pum 
pose of offering them such an in* 
suit? Can it be imagined that 
the duke of Wellington, with his 
exalted notions and nice sense of 
honour. Was such a driveller as 
not to see that the o&nsive prON 
podtionj even if accepted) would 



4)1} ANNOAL RBGI^TBR^ 1828. 

l^^uj^/^ifia^ because it would de* HusUssou had adaijt^d dutino)^ 

f^pj^lbe value 4»f the seryioes of enough, thati hefoce the final diJ^ 

th^/^ho. were ba^ enough to ference between him and MivHflP* 

1(^4 th^^n^f Ives to 8o base a trans- ries^ the minia^cy was totteriugrtip 

actiqn f Oi^ the part of the noble its destruction : Mr. Hervieii iBum 

duke> of my noble friend at the aet out with averring bfoadlj-aud 

head lof the- Foreign Departnienty boldly^ that that differen?^ waa aft 

and of m^lf, I positively deny the cause of the dimluliion'Of loc^ 

th^t Asy sudi pixipoaition was poderich'sadminiatzatioB* /'Thas^ 

ori^aat^ entertaixied^ or ever is no truth whatever/^ said'He^ 

in *thc ^teoip^ticm (^ any one ''in the aUegaUosa ihat tl|i|t ^tf* 

pf ..then^, Should I have d]»- fe]ienee< oauaed^^tl^, dia|ol|itii^..^ 

|^^,any.,prudeno&-<Hi}sing that tiie late cabinet. In. a}} thp^rur 

v^i]^<,^, iitf, meancfit sease-*4n mours whioh have l^een ipja|iaf> 

gpjifag tp jUivpipool^ and exposing gated about demu> and «ITM%^ 

iqys^lf to midx aa imputation^ and stratagem, theiie is aot^ one 

whf^ it was positively certain, word of truth. I deo^ thnoi.aU 

thaitr in. a £ew days after, my state- most unequivocally. Tbc(y. af^ 

n^ent would be contradicted by fidse and unfounded in evei^ pai»- 

tbK^ persons to whom it had been ticular^ and have not even tjhe 

api^ed ^ I 8ay> therefore, that I slightest shadow of a foupdaisom'* 

4ci not xpp^9uft one syllable of what In regard to the cause of that dif« 

I vsaid at liverpool reelecting feience, it was he huaaolf, he sai^ 

puaraxvtees : I will not qualify it who had proposed to Mr. Oan^ 

m ii^p slightest degree. I used ning the Finance CoDusattfe, ' as 

the word in the sense in which I he had previously proposed - it 

have now used it : that my mean- to the government of Jkud Liver- 

iug was such, must have been ob- pool. It was a measure whi^h he 

vious to every person at Liverw conceived to be of panmaunt. im* 

pool I and that it was obvious to portamoe, and'iu whiohi botkd&i 

them, I know to be the ftct» When dally and persoiiaUy,. ha t^ql;. f 

I spoke of guarantee in the way I deep interest Aathe meetii<e<9f 

did, they were aware that I was parliament Ufyroadhed/'numiWifffjM 

not qieaking of an instrument applioatioos had been made 'to hinpi 

underhand and seal, covenanting regarding the chaiRnaii of AiS 

ibr tbaexe^ution of some particuw committee. • To these •h^'tted 

engajB^eat^^-tfaat, in £act, I was either refused' to give an apswei^ 

alludmg only to assurances and or had realisd thai? he ooudd^ nf4 

undenstandingi^ that my ccdlea^es and would not, give any ^asfiDnofk 

would not sacrifice any principle, tion as to who was» or who ^ was 

or foxugo any measure, which they not to be thefhairmaAof the^cQmH 

cwsid^eed essential to theinteresta mittee. He himaslf 'had .never 

of the epintry. Having made deemed it neceisaify to* think :(ef a 

this statement, I nouv deeliue, that person for thediaictium* ' 6«at0ed 

I will not be compelled evetr agam matters, when, a caauid cjmmm*- 

to raitecate ii^ or to return to the stance having, taken him to -Mr- 

«Mbje0t hf dj^ means which may Huskisson's office, it waamii^eftted 

W<se)ected to.farea me to do so.'* to him for A^ fisstUmHi Uiftit ktd 

. Mn Hdotiea aeadt rose. Mr. Althorpe should be<hainnant|'h«t 



HISTORY 0B> KUROPfe: 



/ / 



t4t( 



wetamm ^Kstiact as hd tSbetwaniB 
ifiM^vef^ U iA^ intended fo be* 
vr^n* tills BnggBrnKfrn lie imiBe^ 
£8te^&fletit^'«nd stated fit onee 
W'Mr. HuakisBKiB^ that, Mridx aM 
iSie taEAetien'wfaich he might ex- 
l^dftce iii actifig wkli his lordship 
m any ooaMaltliee, He most object 
lO' his -being ap^iiited ohainnan. 
Mr. Tici|u0^ csBEae In, and he, tooy 
iipdo^frf' 1^ cemmittee^ bift the 
fSBntcnaliMij whioh was very brief , 
mtited UMHie on what were to be 
Qtt subjects thatoagbt to ooenpy its 
attentien, ihan on who were to be 
its oiMumanor memben. Instant- 
ly on'lea?ing the Cc^onial office, he 
had requested an interview with 
Isid GMerich, which he obtained 
the-fiiBewing day. " On that oo- 
oasion>" said Mr. Herrie% '^ I d6- 
dored to lord Goderieh, my regret 
-*-&8t, that any step had been 
taken on a subject on which- the 
atep taken was not likely to lead to 
soooess ; and secondly, tlmtthe steps 
taken £ad not been better adapted 
Uy pfomele the beta^ts which 
0yght to be derived ftom the ap* 
«ointttent of tlie comnnttee ; and 
latf y, net osnfining nysdf to the 
factions wliich I bad to the ap* 
fi&tiiieBftvpGR prineijde, I made a 
Bti<ong 4«mowitmnoa upon the 
al%fa^g manner in which I had 
been ti«eatad' throughout the whole 
transacaien. It was impossible for 
sne einfirely to lose sight, in this 
«splati&lion, of every thing which 
iiad mken pfause psevioasly to that 
flommutiioatiatt having been* made 
j|a m^ There » not an individual 
whbm I hatetbeiionoai: to address^ 
in wImm^ racoUaction the circum- 
absnoea wiQ not be fresh, which 
took . place befbre myaoeesnon to 
tkeoffiee of Chanoellor of the Ex- 
chequer; not one, in whoae recol- 
kc^onthey are fkesh» who will not 



perceive, that thM^ 've^ "eMtotti 
stances made it, and oodld ribi'lMt 
make it, unavoidalite that I dimSiL 
be peouliffriy jeidous to'iiaEidiitidn 
the dignity and • character attiK^ed 
to my sitnation. It cannot have 
escaped the memoiy of the Henae; 
£hat there were individiialil, whb 
had made themselves so eokispiku* 
ous in opposing my ttppthiXmtht 
to office, as to reader a^y int^ 
ftrence on their parf against men 
thing whidr I could not, as a iMn 
of honour, submit to for a moment. 
It was, however, mcne-Aomreffeo* 
tion than from the ittpttbe of the 
iDomeut that I was induced tb 
think seriously i^ the objecdon 
whidi I had started to theappc^M- 
ment of the noble lord ; SRid, aftet 
reflection, without conmiltinff idth 
any peraon^'^-a point whidi, in this 
instance, is ma^ essentially ma^ 
teriai — I repaired to the noble loti 
at the head of the govemraent,'and 
represented to him all the object 
lioDS, public as well as personal 
(and the public objections were ex- 
tremely strong), which had oceuiv 
zed to me with regard to tiie pro« 
position which had been msdeto 
me on the previous day. That 
noble lord expressed to me his sin- 
oere regret at what had taken place, 
and received the communication I 
then made to him with considerl 
abie affitation; admitting that a 
wrong had been done me, which 
Ott^t to be repaired, and that no 
time ought to be lost in obviating 
the objections which I had so 
fnnkly and fairly stated.'* Im- 
mediately after this interview, he 
had oomnranicated his obfections 
in writing to Mr. Huskisson, who, 
next day, returned an answer ex- 
pressing regret at -any thing having 
been done of whi<^ Mr. Herri«s 
thought he had a right' to osm- 
plain, and accompanied by a copy 



460 ANNUAL KEGISTER, 1828. 



t»f ft letMt Whiok he h%A written to 
Mt. Tietwef, recpiesting that no- 
thing hnhet should he done fbr 
ths ftmcM itej0uding thePmanoe 
Oominiltee. This 'vms followed hy 
n letter fhtad Mr. Tiemey, which 
Mr. Hu«1dM0ii likewiM comtnuni* 
Oftted to him> disckiming the har- 
ing gone «o ffar m he had been 
ettpp^ed to have gone^ and Mating 
how far he I'eaUy had gone. 

Thus 8todd nattttv on the Snd 
Debetnh^r t and^ matten standing 
thu((^ Mr. Hetries maintained )^ 
hflda right to coAohidethat nothing 
farther would be done in the mat- 
ter Widiout communication being 
had with him. He had openly and 
fhiriy staled his objections to lord 
Althorpe bn public grounds^ he 
had protested against the appcint- 
mentj both verlmlly and in writing. 
In return he had^- received assur- 
ances that no slight towards him- 
self, or any undue interference 
with his office, had been intended, 
and that the proceedings, so to 
apeak, were stayed. He was justi- 
-fied therefore in allowing the mat- 
tet* to rest till farther communica- 
tions should be made to him. 
Moreover the state of the govern- 
ment, between the 2nd and the 
22nd of December, was such, that 
any communication on this subject 
ftom him would have been pecu* 
liarly ill*timed. During that in- 
terval there had been an abdication 
of the head of the govenunent ; the 
government itself had been in 
abeyance, till the mysterious re- 
storation of lord God.erich on the 
19th December. During that in- 
terval, there was no day, except 
the 3rd, 4th, or 5th (and he had 
yecdved the copy of Mr. Tierney's 
letter only on the 2nd ), on which 
he could have renewed his ^m- 
mUfiications regarding the chair of 
•the Finance Committee, without 



unseMnrably thtostldg t Oomm t A « 
topic of diflbrencaas if to teilan 
the destmetion o£ tlie govemimt, 
which was then in the agoaiM <kf 
diflsohitiott. TfaecewaanapenDa^ 
in fact, t» w hat luek a eomminU 
oation eoM bil^ linn Addrated: 
there was no goyanuant in e^ 
istence. Delay, tlifirafoR^ tti Ida 
part, there had bean tieQ& But 
so soon as a govemment 'Wis anik 
completed on the tfOtk DooenMr> 
he addressed a kttet to lofd '(Mb* 
rich on the 21st, ve^tdfatiaff- Ui 
objections, and, above bH, his ohjw- 
tions to placing in the eliatr of l3ie 
committee any perton who watiaot 
entirely unoonneoted, or eonaecttd 
as little as possiUe, with any bf 'die 
political parties in the HoDse^ €^ 
Commons; stating that, to make 
the committee useful, all narrow 
political views, connected with 
particular and party influences only, 
should be disregarded in its fdiv. 
mation ; that on no other prinoi^ 
could he himself act in it ; and if 
it were intended that it should be 
framed on any other prinei^, 
then, added he, " In order tv 
lieve you tttmi any diffioaky, 
connected with my rituation, 
specting the course which '1 mmy 
deem it expedient to pnrsoe, i heg 
to assure you, that tf, by pnttuig 
my office into other hands, ytmoan 
more satisfactorily execute thisdi£. 
ficult measure, you may oommatid 
my most ready and cheerful tem^ 
nation of it I plaoe it (and I beg 
it to be understood as being done 
in the most friendly manner) en- 
tirely at your disposal" If the 
views stated in this letter piocaedied 
on any misconceptions in point 6f 
fact, it was open to lord Godetidi 
to correct them ; if the princi|des 
laid down in it were unsound, the 
writer ought to have been Said 
so, and the olSier principle, w^a^ 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[47 



etor it ttiglit be, on which the 
ttiyaet Was detcamined to pro- 
Mid^ oQglit to hsTo been diitiBet- 
•iy- MWHtd But no WMh denkl 
waa given,- no such aaaertion was 
laade. la hi& aimver kvd Godfr* 
jSA aidi Hat Mr* Heniea had 
pieatly miaonioaTed *' the degree 
m wfaiflh ha ^brd Goderioh^ had 
been a paMy Uy the nomination of 
httA Auhofpe to fin the chair of 
that eoolnnttee ;' ^repeated th^ 
fiieta cO B CCiu iag it cohnected with 
hfaiae1f». from the first casual men* 
lion of it by Mr* Tiemey^down to 
ina discovery that it had neVer 
been mentioned to the Chancellor 
of the Exchequer ;--€md begged 
Mr« Henies to take no step as to 
his leaignation, till an opportunity 
dKmld be given of bnnging the 
whole matter under full considenn 
tioo. The next communication 
b e t wee n them on the subject was 
of a personal nature^ on the fi9th 
December, when lord Goderioh re- 
qiiesled to know from him distinct- 
ly, whether he had made up his 
mkid to resign, if lord Althorpe 
were appointed chairman of the 
eoonasttee ? His answer was " look 
to. my letterj and you wiU there 
see ihe gteunds on which you 
jbbA de termi ne whether I do 
jMgn or not" It was never men- 
tioiwd tohim» in the course of these 
eonmtmieatioas, that the matter 
of tte nomination was not con- 
daded, ^at no engaeement hod 
been entered into absolutely bind- 
ing on the parties* Therewasnot 
even an approach to an adjustment, 
by a discussion of the merits of the 
Question. He was only asked the 
bare question, do you intend to 
teun ? If he had been informed 
at uiat time, that Mr. Huskisson 
hsd tendered bis resignation on 
gieunda likemse connected with 
this aominatson, At case might 



have been veiy dSffeiwnt But' of 
this he was kept in ignoiance, ««d 
first learned it from seeing the 
letter of the 5th of JaAuaiy* His 
answer to lord Goderich was to this 
bflbot, ''if the matter be still open 
to daacttssumj' let us wtmMe h/' 
« But," said Mr. Herries, *'Iwas 
toldiA ieply» that, though the ques- 
tion was not closed by Miy positive 
pledffe, yet there was an under* 
stan£ng that it must be so con- 
sidered, and that it was therefore, 
no longer open to discussion* I 
would put it, then, to any masi of 
honour and feeling, if he had been 
placed in my situation, what else 
could he have done but what I did? 
I was told, on the one hand, that, 
as nothing was formally concluded, 
I had no just ground 6>r resigning ; 
and, on the other hand, I was also 
told, that the matter was not open 
to discussion. I could not consent 
to hold office upon such conditions*** 
Notwithstanding Mr. Herries^s ro«. 
iterated declarations of his deter- 
mination to adhere to the resolu- 
tion which he had on mature deli- 
beration adopted, lord Goderich 
still pressed him to depart from it 
— »but there was no offer even to 
discuss his objections to that 
measure, the determination to 
persevere in which, though now 
acknowledged to be an open ques- 
tion, was the ground of his 
resolution. Mr. Herries made 
his final communication to lord 
G9derich in a letter of the 7th 
January, stating, that, since he 
had learned from his lordship's last 
communication that, instead of a 
concluded engagement, little more 
had been done than to ascertain 
whether lord Althorpe would 
accept the office, he could tmi 
but see that the determination to 
persist in the appointment a;»d to 
refuse M discussion of the veasoas 



mj ANNUAL mEOISTER, 1828. 



^i^ hehktt \»uidvi8eftble> only in- 
dtiAMd'tSe dlffieutty of his ^c- 
4lliesbiiig in 'it ) £&r in such cir- 
dbiiMitoioes lie would have th<h]ght 
it tnii^t Itwt fetill been an open 
^oeffSan. He added^ in reference 
fi» aay opposidon to Mr. Huskis- 
am, " f feel that, where parties of 
soeh nne^oal weights are placed, 
IN^ * an tmbttonate occtrnrence of 
CRtttiMUuicMy in two opposite 
sdries* tfiere ought not to be a 
moMnt'^heritation (with reference 
to the interfesto of the government) 
iA BO dispbsing of tne as to retain 
tlie' invBluahle services of our com- 
mon friend'*-^This was the last 
cxmunttnication that took place-* 
thegovemment was dissolved. 

l^ese^ said Mr. Herries^ were 
tbe facts; and on these facts he 
maiifttain^, firsts that his objections 
to lord Althorpe were fair objec- 
tions on public grounds^ and the 
persisting in his appointment^ a 
colirse of proceeding to which^ as 
a public TOBn, he was entitled tor 
renise to make himself a party. 
The principle on which he ob- 
jected to ity and objected to it^ he 
admitted, stron^ly^ was^ that to 
render the committee as useful as 

• 

possible^ it should be composed of 
persons connected in the least de- 
gree with party, and that of this 
character ought the chairman, above 
all others, to be, since he would 
have to hold the balance between 
oonfiieting opinions. But a person, 
who, if not the leader, was promi- 
nent among ihe leaders of a party, 
wf^ the last to whom such a cha- 
racter could applv. On some of the 
points likdy to be brought under 
the consideration of such a com- 
mitt^, lord Althorpe would have 
found himself pledged by the 
st^gest previous declarations. 
Did not this alone render him 



lete eligB)le than oni^ ^ A>|^ ]» 
pledged and predeteitminel'.' Ai 
the objection itself was fior^ and 
as the refusal to continue in a go- 
vernment, adopting the coufse 
which a perseverance in the thing 
objected to implied^ was perfectly 
&ir ; so he had allowed no undue 
delay to intervene in stadbg of 
his objections. He had state! 
them from the beginning, and 
renewed them so soon as a resto- 
ration of the government enabled 
him to do so. jBut, which was the 
most important circumstance of all» 
he denied that any step or resolu- 
tion taken by him had beenthe cause 
of the dissolution of the ministry.' 
The state of the government be- 
tween the beginmne of Decem- 
ber, and his letter to lordGoderich 
of the SI St, proved the contrary. 
'^ Circumstances,'' said Mr. HerrieSji 
" had shaken the government to ita 
foundation before the 21st^ whea 
I wrote the letter I have read to the 
House, nay, had led to its dissolu-^ 
tion before that time ; but of 
which, to my extreme suiprisey 
and very deep resret, my noble 
friend in another place, in ffiving 
his account of the causes of that 
dissolution, omitted to make any 
mention. I say that circumstaucea 
were known before the 21st, ta 
those connected with the govern-^ 
ment, which made them foresea 
the dissolution thi^t was about i» 
take place. I further say, tha% 
this letter and proceeding of mine 
was taken advantage of, as a con-*^ 
venient opportimity for doing th^. 
which sooner or later must have 
happened. I say that I know it 
was 80 taken adva^itag^ o£l , I «aj 
that I know it was discussed, whe- 
ther my letter should not.be mad^ 
use of in the manner it has been^. 
I will speak out plainly in my owa 
defence. No mmistev eould take 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[4ft 



waA ^ trifling matter as this to 
tlie foot of the throne, and leave it 
ihejce as a difficulty and embarrasa- 
menty unaccompanied by any ad- 
yioe as to tibe removal of it» with- 
out virtually giving in his own 
resignation o^ office at the same 
time. But I fipel that^ if I were to 
pursue .this subject further, I 
should transgress the limits I have 
imposed on myself .and which I 
kola it a sacred obUgalion not to 
pass." There was only one other 
point on which he had any e^la- 
nation to sive. It had been pub- 
licly stated that he had communi- 
cated^ on this question, with 
parties out of the government, 
and that what he had done had been 
done in consequence of these com- 
munications. It had even been 
hinted that he had held communi- 
cation on the subject with the 
highest personage in the state. 
" Now, I declare, upon my word 
of honour as a ffentleraan, and as I 
hope to be saved, that I have never 
had any communication on this 
question, with any individual out of 
the circle of my own colleagues. 
I declare, that I have received no 
advice from anv man, and that I did 
not mal^e the least communication 
in the high quarter alluded to ; nor 
do I believe that any of the pass- 
ing circumstances were known 
there, until they were made known 
by my noble friend. That I be- 
fieve ; but, with respect to myself, 
I can solemnly affirm, that there 
exists not the shadow of a reason 
for the insinuation, which has been 
thrown out against me on this 
point" 

Mr. Tiemey said that, in any 
share which he had borne in these 
proceedings, he had never thought 
of putting the smallest slight on 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
s(nd had actually believed that he 

Vol; LXX, 



had ihat rifpht honu gejBtlawaii'a 
concurrence m the propofal* - He 
had proposed lord AUho)rpe,,joMy 
for the purpose of stiengdiapioff 
the government. Lpvd Goderiffc 
approved of the suggestiQiiy lAit 
s^ to him, " consiut the lea^ 
in the House of Commons^ the 
Secretary for the Colonies, and 
what he decides on I will agoie jU)-" 
Mr. HuskisBon aixcydinyy «waa. 
consulted, and indmated his ap^pro- 
bation of the suggestion* Feehm^ 
however, that, he (Mr* Tiern9y^> 
should be awkwardly Atuatedi i^ 
after the nomination had been 
agreed to by the government, the; 
proposed nominee Siould refuse to 
act, he took means, through earl 
Spencer,lord Althorpe's fatber,to as^ 
certain, whether, in the event of an 
application being made to the . lat^. 
ter^he would accept the situation of 
chairman. Lord Althorpe's an- 
swer was such as must have ren- 
dered it impossible to imagine that 
any conclusive step had been taken. 
It was in these words, " I write 
to you in consequence of a messagp 
which you desired my father to 
give me. I understand your mes- 
sage was, that you had thoughts 
of proposing that I should take the 
chair of the Finance Committee ; 
but before I give a definite answer, 
I wish to know whether cer- 
tain arrangements will be agreed 
to by his majesty's government**^ 
Every thing therefore was open ; 
and he had made no attempt to 
bargain with or influence lord 
Althorpe* On the 28th of No- 
vember, when, before leaving town 
for Brighton, he called on Mr. 
Huskisson, he found him and Mr. 
Herries together ; Mr. Huskisson 
said they had just been talking 
over the committee, and that he 
cordially concurred in the course 
which had been taken. He, Mr. 



50] ANNUAL RE0I8TER, 1828. 



Tiarnef, tlien produced a list of 
lu&mes from wnicb he suegested 
the oomoiittee might he tormed, 
and set off for Bii^top, so utterly 
unsuspicious of any difference of 
opiniont that» if he had been 
a4^e4 on the road about the matter, 
he woi^ have answered " eveiy 
thing is settled; for I have with 
ipfie dye.Premier, and the Chancel- 
lor of the Exchequer." On the 
Ist of December, however, he re- 
ceived Mr* Huskis8on*s letter, re- 
questine that care should be taken 
to mention no names as connected 
with the committee : but that 
letter did not even mention the 
name of the Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer, much less did it advert to 
his views or feelings. It came 
entirely from Mn Huskisson as 
a suggestion of his own. He 
there stated, that it would prove 
inconvenient, if lists of those, who 
were intended to be placed on the 
committee, were shown about ; and 
he expressed a wish, that no notice 
of the list should be taken to lord 
Althorpe himself. He was de- 
sirous that the matter should not 
be noticed, until they were nearer 
the meeting of parliament. That 
letter gave no information what- 
ever, as to the sentiments enter- 
tained by the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer. Although it subse- 
quently appeared to have been 
written in consequence of informa- 
tion derived from him, yet it con-* 
tained not a S3r]lable with respect 
to his feelings on the subject. To 
that letter he, Mr. Tierney, an- 
swered that he had not shewn the 
list, or been asked to sliew it, and 
that, in so far as lord Althorpe was 
concerned, he did not mean to say 
a wottl. This letter had been 
shewn to Che Chancellor of the 
Exchequer on the ^rd or 4th of 
January ; and hiow any man, after 



reading it, could imagine that, wtkj 
definitive arrangementhadbeen re^ 
solved on was to him inooneeiv«» 
able. These were the only three 
communications he had ever had 
on the subject of the oommitteQ— 
one on the 19th of Noveinberit tjbe 
meeting at Mr. Hualu^son's mce 
on the S8th, and his letter to Mr< 
Huskisson on the 2pd^ Qeqei^ber. 
However surprising it might ap- 
pear, the fact was, that he never 
heard one syllable on the subject 
till the 9th of January. Till that 
day he knew not that any resignaH 
tion had been threatened or sent 
in — that any dissatisfaction had 
been expressed— *that any intrigue 
was going on: yet, during the 
whole time from the 2 Ist to the 
SOth of December, a correspond 
dence had been going on with two 
members of the government, each 
threatening to resign, of which he 
was entirely ignorant. On the 
19th or 20th of December, a cabi« 
net council was held» at which 
the restoration of lord Goderich, 
as it had been called, took place. 
Mr. Herries was there — ^he made 
no objection — he made no obser- 
vations as' to what his own 
sentiments were, thougli, at that 
council, it was fully canvassed 
and settled, how far lord Gode-i 
rich could be re-adopted as minis- 
ter. Was not that the time to hare 
advanced any objection, or to have 
put forward any observation which 
his mind might have suggested 
relative to the ministry. Unques- 
tionably it was ; but Mr. Herries 
said not one word on the subject. 
It looked just as if he had agreed 
to bolster up the government at 
night, that he might blow it up 
the next morning* Could that be 
called fair j^lay ? — He was hound 
to bring his opinions before the 
government, in order that he 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[61 



n^t a9certuii what the senti- 
ment of the government were. 
He |iad taid, that he was anxious, 
at the time^ for discussion. Why^ 
then, did he not introduce the 
subject? -The cabinet was the 
place for discusaion. There he 
mi^t hxvt had discussion to his 
hearths content, and information of 
ererj descriptbn. The last cabi- 
net council, at which he, Mr. 
Tiemey, attended, was held on the 
S9th of December. When coming 
out of the council»room, he asked 
the thpn Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer, *' Praj, Mr. Henries, 
what do yon mean to do about the 
committee of Finance ?" The an- 
swer was, '^ Oh, we must talk 
about the matter.** He (Mr. 
Tiemey) then said, *' I have look-* 
ed into the reports, and J find that 
the former committee was appoint- 
ed l^ biOlot." On which the 
aright hon. gentleman observed, 
" Yes, after a. debate" So far 
from his having any idea at the 
time, that things had come to such 
a pass, that gentlemen were about 
to resign in consequence of his 
•proposition, he, in pure sincerity 
of heart, spoke to the right hon. 
gentleman on the subject of the 
Finance Committee, and the right 
hon. gentleman himself did not 
even then so much as insinuate to 
him, that he was opposed to the 
appointment of lord Althorpe. He 
did not mean to say that that gen- 
tleman cherished any wish to over- 
turn the government ; but that 
rieht hon. gentleman, he believed, 
felt some £gree of hostility to it 
on certain matters — ^matters which 
were wormwood to him. He did 
not censure the right hon. gentle- 
man's opinions ; but it did appear 
that, for some reason or other, he 
was out of humour with the go- 
vernment ; and indeed he had 



said, that no man could be in a 
good humour with a government 
carried on as that had been. View- 
ing what had taken place, he would 
Fay, that the individual, who was 
at the head of the late government 
was a very good man, bat he 
thought he was not sufficiently 
energetic to meet the times, and 
control the circumstances in whit'h 
he was placed. Havihs said thus 
much upon dates and rocts, so far 
as they had come to his knowledge, 
he would only repeat, that, for his 
part, he had never taken part in 
any proceeding which was intend- 
ed as a slight upon Mr. Henries. 

Lord Althorpe said, that he 
had received a message from Mr. 
Tiemey, throueh lord Spencer, 
the purport of which was, to 
ascertain whether he would ac- 
cept the situation of chairman. 
He had requested time to consider 
of the proposal^ and then answered, 
that he was willing to accept of 
the appointment, on the clear 
understanding that he should 
nevertheless he at full liberty to 
support or oppose in the committee, 
the measures of government, as 
his judgment might direct. He had 
agreed to accept it much against 
his will, and only because he felt 
that he could not refuse consistently 
with his duty as a member of the 
House. The matter stood on this 
footing, that, if any objection 
should be made to the appointment 
in any quarter, and it should be 
thought expedient to name another 
person, so far from taking offence, 
he would feel himself relieved, as 
he had stated in his letter to Mr. 
Tiemey, from a laborious duty 
in which he was by no means 
eager to engage. He heard no 
more of the matter till, from curio- 
sity to know how it was going on^ 
he put a question on the subject to 

IE 2] 



0?] ANNUAL HEGIS;T5R*:1828. 



Mr.: Tien^y on the 14th Decern* 
f)er, when he was ipfonned that 
the matter was still quite open, and 
that nothingfurther had passed^ hut 
that h^ meant to proi)08e the ap- 
pQintnient to the cahinet. This 
was all that his lordship knew upon 
the suhject: hut he hegged to 
assure Mr* Herries, that he never 
for one moment conceived that 
that gentleman's objection to his 
nomination rested on personal 

f rounds. He was quite satisfied 
e had not acted from any impulse 
pf which be (lord Althorpe) had 
liny. right to complain. 

Such w>is the 'history of the dis- 
sensions, and dissolution of the 
cabinet given , hy those who had 
been the actors in it. In the dis« 
cussion which followed^ the atten- 
tion of. the House was directed to 
the character of the new govem- 
nientf ,and the conduct of the 
ipembers of the former govern- 
ment who had joined it^ more 
than, to the bickerings which had 
occasioned the destruction of its 
predecessor ; and the very exist- 
ence of differences of^ opinion so 
irreconcileable as to occasion the 
breaking up of a cabineti was re- 
presented as b^ing sufficient of 
itself to excite surprise at the 
unioni which immediately followed^ 
between men who had thus over- 
turned a government by their 
dissensions. Mr. T. Duncombe 
observed, that the House had still 
to learn how the irreconcileable 
difference between Mr. Herries and 
Mr Huskusson had been made up, 
and how these members continued 
to sit in the same cabinet. The 
colonial secretary had still to ex- 
plaii^y ''how their pulses, which 
formerly were so irregular, could 
beat so soon in unison, by what 
mefins the quietus had been pro- 
^uccd^ and the direful wrath ^p* 



peased." Mr. Dunoopibe wa^rjn* 
clined to impute all tl^t had hajiij 
pened to a secret an4 .powerful 
agency, which had not yet beei^ 
unmasked, and which was ^er« 
cised, according to the statem^ 9/ 
the hon. member, by a. Jew, stoci^ 
broker, and a. Christian^ p^y^ciaiu 
"It has been credibly affirmed*. 
3aid he 1' that there is atWysteriouf 
personage behind the soen!B who 
concerts,, regulates, and influencea^ 
every arrangement. l!^b^ is^. 
said the hon< gentleman^ ''^U7 
it who can, a secret influe^of 
behind the throne, whose tonia if 
never seen, whose name is n^ever 
breathed, who has acce^ to all the 
secrets of the state^ and who 
manages all the sudden, springjs, qjT 
painisterial arrangement— ^ 

'At whnsfe Noft nod, the stnlfttns of 

honour 60W, 
Whose fliniles all pfaoe aad pttreilage 

bestow.' 

Closely connected with this in- 
visible, this incorporeal person^ 
stands a more solid and substantial 
form, a new, and formidable 
power, tiU these d^s unknown in 
Europe : master of unbounded 
wealth, he boasts that he is the 
arbiter of peace and war, and that 
the credit of nations depends upo^ 
his nod; his correspondents are 
innumerable; his couriers outrun 
those of sovereign princes, and 
absolute sovereigns; ministers of 
state are in his pay. . Paramoqnt 
in the cabinets of continental 
Europe, he aspires to the domina- 
tion of our own; even the great 
Don Miguel himself, of whom we 
have 'lately, heard and seen so 
much, wais oUiged to have recourse 
to the purse of this individual^ 
before he could take possession pf 
his throne. Sir, that sudi^ secret 
influences do exist is a matter of 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[63 



iiotdrl^fy ; they are known to 
Iiaye been . but too busy in the 
underplot of the late revolution; I 
believe tbeir object to be as impure 
as the means by which their 
power has been a0q[uired ; and I 
denoiinbe them^ and their agents^ 
as unknown to the British con- 
stitution^ and derogatory to the 
honour of the Crown." Mr. Peel 
answer(^/that of the existence of 
^ch agency/he at leasts had never 
discovered any trace. 

Mr. Stanley^ lord Milton^ and 
lord Morpeth^ the first of whom 
had "been under secretary in the 
Colonial office with Mr. Huskis- 
son^ but had declined to retain his 
office under the new ministry, 
while they did not say that Mr. 
Huskisson had departed, by his 
accession, from principles of polky 
to which he had been long and 
wUidy pledged, thought that he 
had been too easily satisfied with 
what he considered securities for 
the continued prosecution of that 
policy. ''Paying homage/* said 
Mr. Stanley, -" to the talents of 
th&t right hon. gentleman, it is 
but justice to myself to say, that I 
look with surprise and regret at 
the associates whom he has select- 
ed to act with or rather under, at 
this moment. No man living, 
who looks at the present eabinet, 
can say, that they are an united 
and consistent government. Every 
one must see the stranee medley 
of men and principles of which it 
IS composed — such, indeed, as has 
seldom been seen under any ad- 
ministration. The words 'guar- 
antee,' 'agreement,' 'understand- 
ing,' 'stipulation,' and 'pledge,' 
have been used, and have been all 
.disclaimed. The right hon. gen- 
tleman is angry at havinc it said, 
that |ie made any stipi^lation what- 
eTior^ and yet, in the next breath. 



he tells us that he told the'duke' of 
Wellington it was a necessary cJOp- 
dition cf his accepting office, that 
his three friends should cpme in 
with him. And this, we are told, 
is not a stipulation. I agree with 
the right hon. gentleman, that it 
is not a satisfactory stipulation; 
because we have no security for 
the extent to which he means it 
to operate. But are we to' be 
told that, having had one cohces- 
sion made to him by the admission 
of a new party to the cabinet, it 
was out of his power to obtain 
terms upon other points of great 
public importance?" No answer 
had yet been given to the question. 
" Is the policy of Mr. Canning to 
be acted on or not? Is the Colo- 
nial Secretary determined to adhere 
to that only, with or without a 
euarantee?" The intentions of 
Mr. Huskisson and his friends, 
who remained in office, might be 
excellent, but could it be forgotten 
that the leading members of the 

fovemment were the men who, 
nowing that Mr. Canning was 
inclined and pledged to a cer- 
tain line of liberal policy, with- 
drew from him at a time when he 
was about to carry it into execu- 
tiout and gave up office rather than 
follow him as their leader in that 
course? The Colonial Secretary 
mieht be faithful to the prin- 
ciples of free trade ; but was not 
the very duke of Wellington, who 
last year threw out the Corn-bill, 
now at the head of the govern- 
ment? Lord Milton said, that 
the accession of Mr. Huskisson to 
the cabinet was the only ground 
on which he hoped for a good ad- 
ministration of the public affidr»; 
but, at the same time, he would 
have been much better pleased, if 
that hon. gentleman had obtailned 
more . substantial guarietnte^ for 



54] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



the proiecuiion of the meatures to 
which he wts pledged, than thoae 
wilh which he appeared to hare 
been satisfied. The qaestion was,- 
how he came to be in office ? And 
the only answer was, " l, and 
osrtMn others are in office j and 
that oircmnstanoe is a sufficient 
guarantee thaS our measures will 
be earned into execution." This 
would be weU, if the govern, 
ment in this country were di* 
vided into separate and indepen« 
dent departments* But such was 
not the ease; there was but ouq 
govemaenti and if men wished 
to understand its principles, they 
must look to the individual who 
w«s pilaoed at its head. In regard 
to the Com^dlU for instance, for 
which the eountry looked to Mr* 
Huskisson, and which it would be 
impossible for him to elude, who^ 
ever rqqolleoted tiie history of its 
last defeat, would not now look 
fotinarA with much hope to its 
success* Even if it should be car* 
ried through the House of Com* 
mons, what would the oountiy 
say, should it be defeated in the 
House of Lords? Would it not 
be thought that the Colonial Secre« 
tary had gotten but poor gua« 
rantees, in obtaining seats in the 
cabinet for himself and two or 
three others. It would be thought 
to be rather a barter for seats, than 
a means of carrying into e£^t the 
principles which were professed 
and proclaimed. 

liord Morpeth admitted, that, 
in relation to the words said to 
have been made use of at Liver* 
pool, Mr. Huskisson had establish* 
ed his case most satisfactorily; 
yet he had heard his statements 
to-night with profound disappoint* 
ment. When that right hon. gen* 
tleman, in oommon with those of 
Us-ootteBgues who were supposed 



to participate in Us viewi^ aeps^ 
rated himsdf from those mcmbm 
of the late government who had 
joined Mr. Canning in his utmost 
need, and lUlied himself to those 
who (it was ncvw . matter <f 
noftorietyi unless the ooontry had 
been grossly deoeifed) had hng 
differed from Mr. Canning on n^. 
jects of the most vital eoncemaftSBt, 
who had manifested only last year 
the strongest disposition to thwart 
the measures, and embitter tkas n* 
poseof thatsiatesnmn^ andkadeven 
declined to fUlow his remains to 
the grave; when the right ban. 
gentfeman did this, it was espaet* 
od that he would justify himself 
by demonstrating that be allll 
maintained his pmciples^ and thnt 
only a sense of what was due to 
the public interest had led him to 
sacrifice the natutal feelings of a 
man, or rather of a friend, to the 
sterner duties of a patriot. WiA. 
no small degree of surprise, tbeie* 
fore, and witii yet greater pain^. 
had he coUeotcd from the right 
hon. gentleman's speech, that tho 
only security or guarantee for the 
perseverance of the present go* 
vemment in that policy, and those 
measures, was an impresskm^ which 
the right hon* gtntieman had hed& 
pleased to adopt in his own miad^ 
that there was so peifect a oh^ 
currence of opinion between iStm. 
and his new colleagues in offioe, 
as would have made any mere 
actual or matter^^fact bargain or 
understanding between thm, not 
only unnecessary, but degrading. 
Such a statement was utterly un<* 
satisfactory ; and he oonld not re* 
frain from looking upon the rig^t 
hon. gentleman as one whoi aban-» 
doning those who were most wil« 
ling to promote his own enlarged 
and intelligent views, hod gone 
oyer to a body indiaed to thwart 



History of burope. 



[56 



sad to difoouraM them ; and had 
left the party or his late illuiilrious 
fnend^ without a kader, an exiflt- 
enoe, or a name* 

Lard Pabnemton^ on the con** 
tiary, one of those memhers of the 
late govonnnent who had passed 
with Mr. HnikisBon into the new 
amf maintained, that the securities, 
w^idk he, and others in the same 
etieanistanoea with himself, had 
received, were satin^aotory and 
sufloient in every practical sense ; 
andthat their own situation, as well 
as thechatactev of those with whom 
they hadb to deal, rendered it im** 
posnUe that sudi stipulations as 
had heen euggested, could have 
heeo, for one moment, proposed or 
eirtertained. Before agreeing to 
join the new government, they 
had ascertained by the most direct 
and explicit means, what were the 
views and opinions of the indivi- 
doals with whom they were in» 
vited to aot« When, for example, 
applieatien was first made to him* 
self, the only answer he could 
l^ve to a pn^Misal general in its 
nature, was, that he should wish, 
in the first instance, to know of 
what individuals it was purposed 
to eonstitute the government. But, 
when herfound uat it was wished 
that the Secretary for the Colonies, 
should retmn his office — that his 
nohle friend at the head of the 
Forrtgn D^Mfftment, should con« 
tiiNie in that post^ to direct our 
foreifftt i«lation»— end that the 
Presment of the Board of Trade 
should direct the management of 
oiir commerdal interests, he felt 
it to be ^nite unnecessary to in- 
quire furdier as to ^ther the per* 
sons or the principles of the new 
administration, in respect either 
of our foreign ndations, our corn* 
merdal relations, or our general 
Aveign polii7« As to the Catho^ 



lie question, although unfortu- 
nately there were two parties, one 
for, and the other against, - that 
measure, surely no man could con- 
scientiously say, that this ought to 
be a barrier against their acting to* 
gether — that this great question 
should be carried by the simple de« 
clsion of ministers, or even of the 
House, without trusting to the 
opinion of the public* But even 
considering, in tnat point of view, 
the conduct of those members of 
the cabinet who had acted with 
the last ministry, and who had 
joined the present, they were fuUy 
Justified in the part which they 
had taken. In the present cabinet 
tliere was a greater number of 
members who had voted for Catho*' 
lie emancipation, than there was in 
that of lonl Liverpool. His grace 
had slated, that it was hb iuten** 
tion to observe the strictest neu-* 
trality on that point, and not to use 
his influenee either in opposimr or 
inforwaidingthemeaaarT^ord 
P., and his friends felt perfectly 
convinced, that, on this question, 
and indeed on every other, whether 
connected with our policy, foreign 
or domestic, they had pursued a 
course which was strictly honour- 
able, and which would bear the 
strictest investigation. 

Mr. Peel said, that he could telt 
nothing, because he knew nothing, 
reffatduiff the dissolution of the late 
cabinet, but he yras ready to state 
every thing regarding his own ac- 
cession to the present government. 
On the night of the 9th of January, 
he had received a letter from the 
duke of Wellington, stating that 
he had been commissioned by his 
majesty to form a new ministry, 
and requesting him to return to 
London without delay, that his 
grace might confer with him on 
the subject* He cftme to I^mdon 



S6] ANNUA L^EGISTEH, 1828. 



eadfTiMzi vtotniigi and immedi* 
at% ymked on the di&e- of WeU 
UDMmy'wlie asked him^ if he was 
wiuiii^ilK) jotii a now admmiitnt- 
ti4m,' gtating likewise, that his 
ittajesiy intended to plaee his grace 
•ttts^head. He (Mr. Peel) then 
coEpisened his perfect willingness 
to: serve under- him, it being im* 
demtood that his grace was to re* 
smn the office of coniniander«-inr 
chief ra^d he took the liberty^^at 
the sam^ time, of stating hisi^in- 
ion^aato the numner in whieh the 
cabfaiel ought to be constructedy 
yia* that> £roor the state of the 
Honse4if Commons, looking at the 
talents 'of pablic men there, and 
fiom Ae genecai condition ai our 
feifeign .and. oommereial relations, 
he was convinced that the country 
eedld not be govenied on any ex- 
elusive pdnciplea, and pardfiuhurly, 
that it would be impossible to form 
a^govonunent founded either on 
the pEindples of excluding Um 
Ca t heUc question altogether, or of 
eairfing it as a sine aua turn* In 
these sentiments the ouke of Wel- 
lington entirdy coincided, and it 
was determined that an ^ offer 
should he made to those members 
of the late government, who had 
also been members of Utd Livei^ 
pool's. The duke of Wellington 
said, '' let us put the matter to 
them fairly and freely upon public 
grounds." No stipulations were 
ofieied or required, but there was 
a spontaneous desire on the duke's 
part, to make such propositions to 
tliose individuals as must prove 
acceptable to alL The duke fdt 
tfie iinportuioe of m««empg ua- 
ehn^ the exuting pobqr re- 
spectmg the general amurs of 
Europe, especially as concerned 
the east ; and he felt also, that it 
would be a graat public advantage 
fSf secure the taluaUe assiatanoe of 




earl Dudley in;thrF< 
On the lOA of JmsMiry. Ae^ttibb 
duke had assarad hii%<4h«;b73io 
ehange should tahexpliiBr'in ^itfa^ 
govemment of Iseiani ;)9pif}sd(i 
though some diesatiafiietienKiiii 
been expiessed. In aamfe^^uartert^ 
renecting ihe sqfipalntmtot'cfittlie 
v^fat hon* gentlenHHs iHbo iwm 
secretary for that touniryyt/im 
could only sv^, thsit if it^ nraoe 
left to him to name any.' peana 
to that officer be ooddiasatweBlnft 
an individual better qdai^fedbAaq 
that right hen. gentlrpwni***<Jie» 
speeting the CatholiG > q«BStian» 
every member of the piJeseitt ladp 
ministration was at liberty • to Aahe 
what line of conduct. im m]^|bt 
choose: it was deemed to be.«H 
open question and the pairaqigB 
of Ireland was tojremain nenthd^ 
as it was pledged to be in- Mk* 
Canning's government. The oom 
question had been xefiBrred to east 
reason why a union never ooiild 
take place between the remMmtp 
of the two £nrmer admiraateataomb 
NoWi whatever was the value of the 
olriection, it did not Bpffy to himf 
self I he had never expressed aay 
diesent from dw pxino^es jofith* 
cem-bUl brou^t inbj llxirCan^ 
nu%. But he fuxther dfloiedttibat 
there was any evidenee tef :the 
duke of Wdlia^ten.beingi.^hae* 
tile to the pnnapfe.of 'thatriUlL 
His grace had aat in the cabinet 
when it was introduced; he haA 
voted for the second Ieading^; and 
there was nothings aa .^^g^oded 
prinoi^e, which could betOlQeoSs^ 
to him fior having alteied) llm 
details. The amendment, -whieh 
hb grsoe had moved to the>talk 
fon^ no bar to his supporting 
another bill broudbt in uma 
similar principles. But the feat 
was, that a conmstency and un* 
imimxty of opiniea ifM caUidiet| 



HISTOBY OF EUROPE* 



[W 



'»ji 



i' tD bo caiUL • fbfy 
flk'tthftiiMaifaai o£ di6 govern^ 
mentyriwhjBluithvw iUly Co map^ 
pdie rwfm. could. cziiL In oon^ 
itstsM-to IwciiHife ft momber of sa 
iMbiuaMteiABii^ 'be did. vet snxran^ 
dflK^^-nit'Misve that he was boand 
temtaooder^ ins )q[muoiif to any 
mma. lie asver ivoDld enter tlie 
Mrvior>ia£.<the csowb, or of the 
eonrtrT^ if 1i» temif wexc^ that be 
[iaipttEkly-^ta adopt tboTiewB 
«r. Coold it be tup* 
pond'diat B117 ^^**^' <^ B^ admiiiis* 
tMimi owfat to expeet-— or would 
aiij,;eHewiiaatttad with him con- 
aant tbai-lie duiuM be permitted-* 
Id'kyi down bis peinnal opinioiis 
]ihB«foanula» to which every one 
about faini was bnmd, witfiottt 
fjiytetian or quaUfication, toaob* 
aonbe? If- Mrerameiit wete 
allowed to tallica couEBOy as modi 
imaiikiiity and ezertioii wauld 
mark tiie adminiatratian of tibe 
duke of Wdlington as had disCin* 
any miondy liiat bad 
esiated ia-tberoountry; cer* 
tmnly as noeb 'as could bdong to 
aosy ministvy capable of bebg 
fanned ix the existing state <^ 
partiss. On oolgr one odier topic 
woidd'bb trouble tihe House, it 
nintdlnto a sobjeet wbaeb it was 
ijght'shotdd be ful^ uaderstoed^ 
asoonnesMd widi toe dissolution 
ofitfie laieminissry^ and the for^* 
matiao of the jnetent. On the 
Mi 9t Jinvary; when bis majesty 
bad comiflsMhin ed tbe noble duke 
at^tbehtad^yf lAirs to fbnn a new 
gvnremment, bis ms^y bad ao- 
aottpamed his eonnnands for that 
(mpose with the Ibllowbg deoh»> 
radoa:-*^'! commit to you the 
tesaation of a new ministry e the 
last sdmimsttacimi has been dis- 
SDived«'* But it is my duty to in« 
fivrn you/tliat> if diat administra- 
tbrnhad aol been dinolved by 



.kA*am%» I .iMiddxbevelie^ 
laltfaful to it lo>lhe7h|Bi'J 
Tfaeze were ftimiasteilses rimUsh 
made it eapedieni ifatft.thtfr'.uicl 
dieuld be kaoini* For bunsetft 
be beliaEired it wnsJoB^nssiblerrto 
attcibttte the diseibitiila >fif.*tlM 
late goremmmt tor aaor^ othoMliaB 
tibe canaes wbick had be snbw aghl 
before the House in. the eounb 
of the explanatioos tf tbetetien^ 
ittg. He tbeu^>thfirQihad becb 
discussion enoi^. ICitbeaerWtfs 
any point ochneoted with kis^fieec 
sooal ' acceptance 'of ^office•rtha* 
wanted explanatioa^ be waitveady 
to sive it to any; meaibeB^flfM 
might cdl upen -him* - fittt'>lie 
tboud^t bis ooUoai^aea biid|poM«i 
for as it was iifwrmary, od pooftle^ 
fcf tnem to go* 

Mr. Brou{^nm» on iktt other 
hand» said, tlmt^ tbou^ the Hanse 
bad hcazda gseat deal on idlothfe 
topics^ it was sliU left^neniy as 
much in tbedarkaseTav^segard* 
ing the slMvt substantial Ma of 
the case ^bicb it was desindde 
shooldbe known r and Ikowbde 
transBctioB was aaotbor ilinalm* 
tion of Oxeastiem's senarit to-Us 
son, '^ You see with bow littls wi^ 
dom the world can begovexned." It 
ai^ieared that two members, of the 
cabinet had been waging about.in 
considemble uncertainty whether 
they belonged to the gOTemmeat 
or not; and the head of that ga^ 
vemmeot wasduefly d i sti ngui s h* 
ed for movinff about with the 
resignations of two of. his eot- 
leagues in his pocket, and for an 
apparent akrm, when they should 
leave him, as to what he should do 
to proride himadif with- new- oae^ 
Then tbe quariel between the taie 
resigning members -was of tlf^ 
mostextiaordinarydesGiiptif»» It 
was endless-^hopelem. WaUa,ef 
Yums weve*xais0d:io."diftdo\At 



SB] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1826. 



oontendiiig portifls for ever. To 
oonununicate with each other was 
imp^iiihle. Both parties oommu* 
moated to a thirds but still, eaeh 
wilh a cantiDii that what he said 
was, on no aooount^ to be repeated 
to the other* Every posnble 
couvsehad been resorted tOj to 
«¥Did the polsibillity of an exjda-* 
nation which would have put an 
end to the difficulty altogether*-— 
It was not surprising uiat lord 
Ooderich had been distracted> sur- 
rottttded as he was with such ele- 
ments of discord as the House had 
seen that night* Unless he had 
bsen a military man as well as a 
peUtkian, unless he had been a 
snldier« with a provost martial at his 
baek, how ocmld he reduce them to 
any shew of order? The only 
chanoe for a civilian would liave 
been, to have carried them both to 
Bow-street, and have had them 
sworn to keep the peace, before he 
swore them in as members of the 
oabhiet. 

The eitphmatbns of Mr* Herw 
ries, in partieular, Mr. Brougham 
said, gave him no satisfaction. 
That gentleman's shifting of his 
ground, first assenting, or at least, 
not objeotkig, to the appointment 
of lord Althorpe, afterwards pro* 
testing against it, and then attri* 
bating the dissolution of the mi« 
idatry to a preconcerted plan on 
the part of others, all this left 
doubts remaining* There was 
still something untold, which 
would have explained the matter 
at onoe ; and it would have been 
better to have said, " you wish for 
information as to the cause of the 
late break*up, but I will not tell 
you." It appeared from the letters 
whidi had been read, that, at the 
time when he complained of having 
beea overloelDed and neglected in 
lb* iffioifttaieftt of lord Althorpe^ 



he must have known that die ap* 
pointment was not finally decidefl 
upon* It had been tallEed of, and 
with the approbation of lord Gode* 
ridi. The letter of lord Gedericb 
distinotiy stated, not dist he waa 
not a party to ibe mention of the 
appointment, hot Uiat it was net 
final. Early in Deoeoifaer, the 
right hon. gentleman was ao« 
quainted with the fact, that no* 
thing was finally concluded upon. 
He was informed of what wise 
done, and made no objection ; and 
yet, three weeks afterwards, he 
talkedof arrangements havingbeen 
made bdiind & back, aiid m the 
caballing, planning, appeintin^ 
determining, and filially aitanging^ 
a matter in whioh he ouehl to 
have been, but was not, ondally 
consulted. But another rsy of 
light broke in upon ^em in this 
matter* That was the letter of 
lord Ooderich in January* That 
letter, which went into a detail so 
long, tJmt it might be ealled pKo« 
lix, clearly showed, that* the right 
hon. gentleman was miataken. It 
admonished him on the subject of 
his mistake, and advised hun to 
reconsider his afi*er of resignatioa. 
After all these repeated ooaBmuni^ 
cations, the right hon* gentLesaan 
complained that it was intended to 
thwart him in his olBoa. What 
ol^ect could the rifffat hem the 
member for Liverpool, o^ the right 
hon. the member fi» Knaceuc^ 
rough, have in thwarting him^ 
They both denied it, and dedarod 
that, from the time of his appoiiit^ 
ment, ther had uniformly bcihaved 
towards him with Uie g ie alest 
kindness. What* then, could be 
meant by the complaint of bsiag 
thwarted f Then, whatvitarehia 
ol^eotions to lord Althospe^ 
That his lovdahip was a Ptrty 
maiif' Wliy, the Jc^Twse of that 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[69 



WW the Mtfon why he had been 
named, in the first instanoe* Lord 
Altfaotpe had neter been recog* 
ni#ed aa a party man. He was at 
iho head of a set of gentlemen 
who acted independently, without 
reference to the ?ie wa df any party. 
But lerd Althofpe, it seemed, 
stood oolMBitted on the bullion 
question, and had expressed a 
staong opiniOQ regarding the Sink-« 
in^und* Then where was Mr. 
Hevries'il conyisteney, for he had 
slated no objection to the nomina* 
tion of iir H« Parnell to be chaiiw 
man of ibit Finance Committee 
which had just been appobted. 
Now^ sir H. PftmeU was not only 
0Qnniitted.on the bullion question, 
but had written a book upon it, 
had spoken on the subject an hun« 
dred times, and always with e^ct 
*-had moved finance resolutions 
over and over again, in which the 
Sinking-fund was mentioned,— was 
a political economist, at the head 
of a. set of political economists, 
and was even a member of the Po- 
litical Economist's dub;— and yet, 
with all these qualities, so olneo* 
tionable in the eyes of the late 
Chancell<Mr of the Exchequer, he 
had made no sort of objection 
whatever to his appointment; 
tho^g^ rather than consent to the 
nominatkm of lord Althorpe with 
only one of those objectionable 
qui^lies> he was prepared on the 
21st ^of Deoembor to resign his 
situation. The right hon. gentle- 
man- could not consent to this 
appointment, as it derogated from 
his dignity; about that dig- 
nity he was so solicitous, as 
to be angiy with lord Gode« 
rich's adminiilration ; and yet 
at a nod or a beck fh>m the duke 
of Wellington he became mild as 
a lamb. The moment the field 
mMhlil gftT0 tfao word of oom« 



mand, he was all obedience, re- 
signed without a murmur the 
golden gown of his office, andra« 
tired to the less dignified, the less 
responsible, and certainly the lei^ 
lucrative, office of master of his 
migesty's Mint. 

As to Mr. Huskisson^a length-* 
ened statement, to prove that he 
had not got, and had never in«' 
tended to say that he had got, a 
guarantee, Mr. Broug^m consi-* 
dered it altogether unnedesBary ; 
for no man had ever meant or sup^ 
posed that Mr. HuskiaKm had sti« 
pulated for and obtained a gua< 
rantee in the lepd sense of tba 
words, set down m a formal wrk« 
ing, and on a proper stamp. 
StiU, however, that statement waa 
the most important thing they had 
heard that night. If a man spoke 
to an audience of having had con* 
versations, explanations, and un** 
derstandings, with anciher on a 
particular sul|ject, would they not 
apply those conversations, expla* 
nations, and understandings, to 
that subject, just as much as If it 
were written i Would it not be 
said, that Explanation was the r6-< 
suit of conversation, and that the 
result of that explanation, in the 
case before the liouse, was the 
acceptance of office by the right 
hon. gentleman ? But it was stud, 
that the guarantees wene implied 
by the presence, in the same cabi* 
net, of the Secretary for Irehind, 
the President of Uie Board of 
Trade, and the noble Secretary at 
War. Were these the guaran- 
tees? He' was afraid the public 
would not so consider them. 
Let the House look to the 
situation of Ireland,, and ask, 
whether a change for the better 
had taken place. A sentence of 
eighteen months imprisonment 
biwi just boon pionowmd it|abs^ 



«eq ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 

acdonnell, in Dublin, son of tlie duEolution (ff Hit so* 

aTcbdeacon Trench, veninient ; he had ascritied wit 

hiore severe than the event to other, hat stfll concealed, 

>f numr atrociouH li- causey whichhadalreadyproduced 

some of the highest a resolution to put an end to the 

ti this country ; and cabinet, and he had nwken Sf his 

ian doubt that the own refusal to arauiesce in the 

sentenced Mr. Mac- nomination of lord Althmjfe, as 

Idered, not that they having been merely made use of 

tor of a libel on Mr. as a pretext to execute that reso- 

« them, but the ac- lation already fomfcd. Ob th« 

Ions, and persevering, following day (Feb. 19^b) lord 

t hated body, the Ca- Goderich adverted to this stata> 

lation. Then it was tnent in the House of LardA, 

' ti hod a guarantee for and repeated i» the stron^t terms', 

pc^cy of the conntiy that hla ministry had fdlen solely 

^ m of lord Dudley, in consequence of the iireconcil©- 

Bdt, who lat on the same bench able difference between Mr. Hus^ 

with him, as member of the Idsson and Mr. Herries. It baa 

■ama cabinet f A young noble- been imputed to nje, said he, that 

man, who certainly possessed here- what I stated to his majesty w«s 

4itary clums to great sagacity, a false pretence; that I had a 

^nd yet, somdtow or other, had covert demgn to dissolve the go- 

j)Ot yet succeeded in establishing vemment, and that I acted from 

himielf in the possesmon. That some profound calculation. I 

roung nobleman had stated, that should have thought, ray lord^ 

ae had never been opposed to that what the world knew t^ me 

the foreign polic? of Mr. Canning ; would have been suffitient to save 

yet he could not disguise the fact, me from any imputation of this 

that he had always been of opi- kind ; and I can hardly believe 

nion, and in that his opinion re- that such an imputation has been 

mained unchanged, that Mr. Can- made ; but if it has, there can be 

ning was a dangerous man. Yet no justification for such conduct, 

these were the discordant mate- It is imputed to me, that I weht 

riada, of which the guarantees for down to his majesty with a state- 

the policy of Mr. Canning were ment that was not correct; end 

made up ! As to the guarantee that the immediate cause, wlu<2i 

fiw free trade in the person of Mr. led to the precarious utuation of 

C. Grant, the House would know the government, was not that 

what value to set upon it, when which I stated it to be. If thp 

they recollected the events of last immediate cause was not Uie te- 

summer, and saw in them an effi- signation of the Chancellor of the 

dent counter-guarantee in the po- Exchequer, as I stated it to be, 

li^ of the duke ot Wellington. then am I the basest of mankind. 
When I wrote to the Chancellor 

, Mr. Herries, it has been seen, of the Exchequer on the subject 

denied, in the course of these ex- of the committee, I told him in 

ginations, that his quarrel with the plainest terms what was the 

r. Huskisson, or his tendered re- opimon of my right bon. friend.- 

vgaation, tud been the trae rea* I itated ehat be coniideMd it int* 



j; 



HISTORY OF EUROPPr 



m 



pofnUe forliiivi not to acquiesce 
m ^e nomination of the cbainnan 
ctf the Finance Committee^ which 
had been ^he subject of discussion. 
Mj right hon. friend stated^ that, 
if t%9 decision should he against 
that nomination, he would resign ; 
and I stated also that the resigna-* 
tion of the Secretary of State 
would dissolve the government I 
added to this, that his own resign 
nation would^ in all probability, 
be attended with the same consei- 
quenqes. How, then, could the 
right hpn. gentleman state — ^how 
could any man state-*-that I went 
down to his majesty with a false 
pretenge, to procure the dissolution 
of thp government ? Whether my 
procee^ng was right or wrong is, 
perhaps, of little consequence, but 
the statement which I made was 
the sole ground of my actions : and 
I defy any man to say that I acted 
from any other. On the next day 
I stated my opinion to the right 
hon. gentleman. I recommended 
him to -reconsider his decision. I 
told him 1 could not accede to his 
opinion. J urged him not to take 
the step, he contemplated. He said 
he would take it; and I foresaw 
the consequences. I added, that 
.we owed it to ourselves, to the 
king, and the country, not to break 
up the government, unless it was 
absolute^ necessary. It was our 
duty, I said^ to meet parliament 
and wait its decision. All this 
proved inefiectual. What ground, 
then, was there for the declaration^ 
that I went to his majesty with a 
false pretence? I say that the 
conduct of the right hon. gentle- 
man was the. immediate cause of 
the dissolution of the government. 
These were the motives for my 
conduct ; and it is not possible for 
any-person justly to impute to me 
any other. Your lordships will 



also have seen il rapp^r^^e&rr 
though I cazmot say whether cojcy 
rectly or not— that there existed; |i 
design, a plot, to, break up the go^ 
vemment. Who entertained iti 
When was it concocted ? t posi« 
tively deny that I knew any thin^ 
of it ; apd I deny that any perspn^ 
as far as I know, had any such de« 
sign. I will not say that circym- 
stances had not occurred whiob 
might make the government np^ 
receive the countenance^ and sup« 
port of parliament ; but that thef e 
was a design to alter or change 
the government, or to break ^t up^ 
is a most ^tuitous assumption. 

Lord Carlisle confirmed thjB 
statement of lord Goderich : ex- 
pressing his surprise that the disso* 
lution of the gpvernroen^ should 
ever have been ascribed to any 
other cause than the disputed 
nomination of the chairmui of the 
Finance Committee, and his entire 
ignorance of any secret machineiy 
or intrigue having been employed 
to brei& up the ministry. 

Mr. Herries, however, reiterated 
his assertion in the House of Com- 
mons (Feb. SI). It had been 
supposed, he said, that, in what he 
had stated, he had meant to deny 
the truth of the account of the 
noble lord at the head of the 20- 
vemment, as to the causes of 
which that government had been 
dissolved. When any man of 
character, spoke of his motive^ 
such a declaration was nnanswer- 
able; of his own motives he 
must be incomparably the best 
judge. But, at the same time, 
said Mr. Herries, nothing can 
alter my personal conviction,iound« 
ed upon aU that I know of the 
facts, that the trifling circumstance 
of the difference between the Secre- 
tary for the Colonies and myselfrf- 
trifling, as compared with other 



63] ANlsrUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



matters^ and/I repeat^ most triiline> 
because I had been ready to settle 
it Jn the most amicable waj^ by 
m|f own resignation— ^by the sacri* 
fice, if there was to be any sacrificej 
of myself*— that a difTerence so 
easiiy disposed of never oonld be, 
and ncrar had beeui the* ttue and 

rrative cause of the dissolution 
the late government. Other 
causes^ and farmore important ones, 
had been pressing with an embarras- 
sing weiffht upon the administra- 
tion ; and I do believe, that no argu- 
ments will ever convince impartial 
persons, who take the trouble to 
advert to all the facts, that so 
trifling a circumstance as is alleged, 
had iSen the cause of so impor- 
tant a catastrophe. 

Mr. Sturges Bourne, on the other 
hand, and Mr.Wynn, who had both 
been members of the late govern- 
ment, declared that they neither 
knew, nor had ever heai^ of any 
other reason for its dissolution than 
the irreconcileable difference which 
had arisen between Mr. Huskisson 
and Mr. Herries; and if there 
really were grounds for Mr. 
Herries's insinuations as to inten- 
tion and design, the premier, at 
least, and his colleagues, had, they 
said, been ignorant of it from be- 
ginning to end. Lord Milton called 
on Mr. Herries to state what he 
knew of this design to dissolve the 
government If ne knew that it 
existed, and knew the parties who 
were concerned in it, that would 
bespmething,compared with which, 
all the explanations yet nven would 
be but as dust in the balance. If he 
did know of this design, he must 
know the grounds of it, the objects 
of it, the parties to it ; and on these 
heajLs it was his bounden duty, a 
duty from which he could not 
retreat^ to nve the Honse an ex- 
p)anati6n.--Mr. Brougham added, 
that, as Mr. Herries had solemnly 



and explictly denied t&e cliarge 
made against him, elsewfaefe, c^ 
havinff, in the course oi these 
stnig^es in the miniitiT, consulted 
persons not belonging to t^ cabi- 
net, he wished now to know ham 
that fl»ntleinan» whetlnr tMi person 
out of the cabiael hud MisulteA 
him ; whether hia defikl went to 
the faot of any indi^Ufll having 
consulted with him, as well as t6 
the fact of his having consulted 
with any individual P^-^Mr. Hemes 
answered that he did not think any 
gentleman had a right to ask that 
question ; that he doubted whedier 
it ought to have been asked ; at all 
events, it would have been more 
properiy omitted. All he would 
say was this, that he entirely 
abided by his former explanations. 
He would enter into no more. On 
any subject relating to the dissolu- 
tion of the late government, he 
should decline to go further. 

When one looks at the admission 
of lord Goderich himself, that there 
were circumstances in the condition 
of the ministry which rendered it 
doubtful whether it would be safe 
for them to meet parliament, and 
at the declaration of Mr. Huskisson 
that there were many things in its 
prospects which were, in his esti-> 
mation, signs of evil omen, he will 
probably arrive at die conclutton, 
that the averments of lord Gode- 
rich and Mr. Herries differed more 
in words than in reality. It may 
be perfectly true that lord Gode- 
rich, even embarrassed as he wi\s, 
would not have broken up the 
' ministry when he did do it, unless 
Mr. Huskisson or Mr. Herries had 
threatened a resistnation ; but this 
is by no means inconsistent with 
Its likewise beinsr true, that he 
would ^ot have oroken it up on 
accountof Mr. Herries's resignation, 
had there not been pre-existing 



HISTORY OP EUROPE. 



[63 



causesi -^vbich thieatened it with 
speedy decay, and rendered the 
pout of honour neither comfortable 
nor safe, fiad there not been 
" aomething rotten in the state of 
Denmark/' lord Goderich probably 
would not hav9 se^n the neoe^ty 
at maUng its eauatenoe dependent 
on the continued adherence of a 
single member of the cabinet. If 
the ministry was otherwise sound 
and cordial^ why did not lord 
Goderich accept of Mr- Herries's 
resignation? The space which 
that gentleman filled in the public 
eycj was by no means so large, 
that his loss could not have been 
supplied ; and lord Goderich never 

gave any answer to the question^ 
ow happened it that your ministry 
was dependent on the continuance 
of Mr. Herries in office? Why 
did you not accept of his resigna- 
tion, appoint a new chancellor of 
the exchequer, and go on with the 
government ? The dispute between 
tnat gentleman and the colonial 
secretary may have been the last 
straw that broke the elephant'sback ; 
but if so, it must have been already 
sinking under the pressure of accu- 
mulated burdens. 

Lord Goderich retired from 
office with the character of being 
an amiable, candid, and honourable 
man, but without the praise of 
being a firm and energetic minister. 
He had manifested no talent for 
commanding and controlling; he 
had shewn no confidence in his 
own resources. 

Mr. Huskisson, too, suffisred in 
public estimation, from the readi- 
ness with which he had fallen into 
the ranks of the new ministry. He 
had used strong expressions, when 
the late ministry was formed, as to 
his reluctance ev6r to take office 
wi^ those who had deserted Mr. 
Canning on his elevation to the 
head of th« government: in the 



cabinet in which he now sat, these 
very men were his superiors and 
his colleagues ; and the more 
attached admirers of Mr. Canning 
regarded him as having betrayM 
both the policy and the memory of 
his friend* When he said that the 
policy of the present cabinet was 
to dmer in liothingfrom that of 
Mr^ Canning, he was told to recol- 
lect, that its head and most influ- 
ential members had refused to take 
Mr. Canning for their leader in 
politics, and had chosen to eo out, 
rather than go along wiUi him. 
When he pointed to omer members 
of lord Goderich's ministry in the 
same situation as himself, as secu- 
rities that all would be ri^t, he 
was told that it was scarcely logical 
for a man, whose conduct was sus- 
picious, to justify it by the conduct 
of others who were obnoxious to 
the very samesuspicions. Although, 
too, it was perfectly true, that no- 
body imagined him to have meant, 
when he spoke of guarantees, a 
written instrument binding the 
premier; yet many people could 
not help thinking that the lan- 
guage, which Mr. Huskisson bad 
used at Liverpool, conveyed, and 
was intended to convey, the idea that 
he had made special stipulations 
with the duke of Wellington re^ 
garding particular measures of 
policy, as the price of his accession 
to the ministry ; and nobody could 
forget the instant and contemptu- 
ous disclaimer with which the 
duke of Wellington had scouted 
the supposition, .or the submission 
with which Mr. Huskisson had 
acquiesced in the correctness of that 
disclaimer. The public were im- 
pressed with the belief that there , 
were many verv valuable things, 
which Mr. Huskisson would sacri- 
fice, rather than abandon office, (nf 
the hopes .of office. 



^] ANNyAf. REGISTER, 1828. 






' t » 



♦ i 



;- ^ 1 « 

'»••-«- ^ 



€HAP. IIL 






• x 



¥iv AiKCiiu^-AppQinimeht of a Finance CammitiM^Wmo^ ^MPi 
jF€el and of Mr. Hume on this iu^at—BiU toRtp^ai'm Hifb 
AamdtieeAct^MoHonfor a Grant to the Fam&y cf'Mr.€{^mdlkg^^ 

s muta pf^cfMU the Circulation of Scotch Small Notei in EUglM^ 
TheBidgeU . . . v 



W-HILE tiiese ezplflnatioAfl 
weve taking place regarding 
tbe diaxBi \i^ich a dnpute alM>ut the 
■omination of a chairman c^ a 
Fihaaee'Comniittee had had in di»- 
acdving 'a ministry^ the committee 
ifidf £ad been named cm the I5th 
of Fehraary, The motion was 
flMde bf Mr. Peel. He ptefaced 
it by A general review of the finan- 
cial condition, and prospects of the 
ooanliy, and of the objects which 
it was proposed to gain by the 
appointment of the committee. He 
•would attempt, he said, to consider 
the state of the iinsmcefl^ on pre- 
eisdy the same princi^es which an 
individual would apply to his pri^ 
vate concerns. He would 6rst 
determine what were the incum-- 
brances to which we were liable ; 
secondly, the nett amount of the 
income for some years past ; third- 
ly, the nett amount of expenditure 
during the same period; and 
fiiurtmy, what reasonable prospects 
there might exist as to the future 
amount ^either of our expenses or 
of our income. 

On the first point, it would, he 
^d, be quite sufficient for his pur^ 
pose, ifi taking the amount of the 
gaami del^ funded and unfund- 
ed, at a reoent period, he should 
ooB|»r6 it with the amount of debt 
ia the 6ait yeav after the lale peace^ 
laoUnf likome «t aa iaterme* 



diate period between that yeaf abA 
the present He would'take, there^ 
fore, the years 1815, 18d2, land 
l%^li premising that be would call 
the year iai5--4>ut which aided 
on 5th Jan. ]8l6~the year 1810, 
as being a more compendiotia 
way of describing it, and so of 
the other years which he might 
name. Now, Uie total capital o€ 
the unredeemed funded debt vk die 
year ending on the 5th Januarys 
1816, was 816,310,000/. In 1822, 
the total amount of the unredeemed 
debt was 796,530,000/. Last year^ 
the amount or capital of the nnroi* 
deemed debt was 777,476;000f., 
omitting the hundreds, and stating 
it in round numbers. 

The next matter to be cOnn^« 
ed was the amount of charge. T)^e 
amount of charge for debt to whnSi 
the country was annual!^ KbU^ 
included the amount of hitere^ft 
payable to the puUie creditor^ 
on account of the funded debt^* 
and the cost of manageme&tl' 
This charge amounted, 

In January 1815 to . . . . ^* 89,878,00a 
1883 to .... 84,419,000 
1887 to .... 85,£00,00O 

But this statement alone did not 
comprise a fiur view of the ei^gg^ 

Skte amount of the public debt; and 
e charge upon it In the first 
pkcei some of the auMiities ptfynUe 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



/ 



'f66 



in die paUie ftuidf were teriiim« 
•bk m point of fact; but at lo 
iultukt a period as scarcely to 
warrant the introduction of anj 
eaknktiona founded on their ex- 
piration. In the next place, a 
jMlite of sUl Ghar^B was permit 
^Mqtjjnd a psfftlon teaiporaiy only. 
loasesMb the total amount of 
difiEie jQO^aiifnied to the eoontty 
hy reason of the unredeemed fund^ 
debt, at the first period — the year 
$fietAfi p ea ce th e lalermediBte 
pdod MS2*— and in the last yeer, 
he prepcMKd te add to the charge 
of theunsedeemed debt, the amount 
of the ehafge in the shape of annu- 
ilica; in order to diow the total 
amonnt payable by the country, in 
consequence of the unredeemed 
debt axuL annuities taken together. 
The annual amount of charge on 
tbe fiinded debt and wnuities was, 

Is Janosiy 1815 ^.d0,488»000 

18d3 S8,596,000 

1827 28,381,000 

Thus the diminution of the public 
expenditure^ on aoopunt of interest, 
was last year,ascowpared with the 
year 1 8 1 5, 2, 1 06,000/., but, as com* 
pared with 1822, only 216,000/. 
.This regarded only the funded 
debt;^ . As to the enoufnbranees to. 
^hicA the country was liable, on 
of t1^ charge of the un-> 
debt, indudiing Exchequer 
[under various classes), public 
Irish treasury, deficiencies, 
and outstanding monies ; it might 
be stated that — 

fn ^Ifi. 1815 H amounted 

1823 to .... 43,909,000 
1837 to .... 34,770,000 

The^ Itotal annual charge, theitfore, 
for. theee three years, namely, 
IJ»JJ, ieAS,i and 1S27, for funded 
4rf% asyinitiesj and unfunded debt. 




Vou LXX. 



In January 1815 £.SSJB79,(M 

1883 30,087,1100 

1887 fBjmfiHIO 

The total decrease of the capital 
nf the unredeemed funded debt, 
since the year 1815 had been 
38,835,000^: that is t» sqr, sacb 
was the amount of sledc, which, 
sinoe 1816, had been poieltased 
with the sums appsspriatedirt^ the 
redemption of the fnodM 8ebt. 
The unfunded debt, last year, on 
a similar eomnarison, was YttmMi 
by the sum of 9,770,000/.^ s# Aat 
the total diminution of- the fmded 
and unfunded debt, since tiie yesr 
1815,amountedto48,608,OOOL The 
total decrease of the auiaalr cdwroe 
of the funded and unfunded dsSt 
and annuities, since 1815, snaeifnted 
to 41,424,000/.: The total chaife 
of the unredeemed debt and an« 
nuities in 1815 amounted to 
30,488,000/., of ^diich sum the 
total anM)unt in annuities was 
li924»000/. : the total charge ^ m 
1322 amounted to 28,596,000^, of 
which sum the total amount in an^ 
nuities was 1,892,000/. : mid 
the total charge in 1827 was 
2M8 1,0001., of which sum dM 
totel amount in annuities was 
2,602,000/. 

This being the amount of the vb^ 
cumbranoes, it was necessary to 
look next at the rerenue and e»* 
penditure ; and he intended, in the 
mean time, to keep out of account 
what was called the ''dead weight;" 
though he would afterwards given 
statement including it. He would 
state, then, the gross amount of 
the expenditare of the country, 
under all the ordinary iMm^Mi 
of out»lay--^the interest of the «n^ 
tional debt, the services of the 
army, navy, and ordnance, wbk^ 
ceUmieons service^, and civil lits,^^*^ 
including the chai^ nrisina naon 
bo^ the funded and unfunded 

[Fl 



66] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



debt, but exdusire of eertnn ex* 
pMuef which he ihould parti- 
eukrine at he went along, — 
for each of the last fiye years^ 
ending on the 5th of January, 1 828. 
In the year 1825» the total cat- 
penditiife of the country, exchnive 
of the advaive of 5,000,000/. |wid 
to the eommiMioners for liquidating 
the national debt, but including 
the inteieat upon Exchequer-lnlls, 
was 47^692,000/. In the year 

1824, it was 49,527,000/. In the 
year 1825, it wai 48,061,000/. 
In the year 1826, 49,585,000/L 
And in the lait year, 1827, 
49.21 9»000/. Now, toppofing that 
he deducted from thu general 
amount of expenditure, the fums 
payable on account of the debt, the 
difference would t^ow what the 
expenaetf of the country were, in- 
dependent of what might be called 
the fixed incumbrances — ^in short, 
what were the chargesfor the public 
service. Thenett expenditure, then, 
of the country, exclusive of the 
charees of the national debt, of the 
naval and military pensions, and 
of the ^'advances on account of 
public works," (which he left out, 
because such advances could not 
be considered as part of the perma- 
nent service), for the year 1823, 
had been 18,477,000/.; for the 
year 1824, 20,461,000/. ; for 

1825, 20,000,000/.; for 1826, 
21,509,000/. ; and for 1827, 
21,529,000/. Taking, again, the 
total expenditure and income for 
these five years, the account stood 
thus.<^The total income, including 
fill sources of revenue, and the re« 
payment of advances made for pub- 
lic works, for the five years last 
paat,wa« 201,000,000/. The item 
of se-payments of advances made 
upon public works in England and 
Ireland, had reference to sumsad^ 
vanoed, from time to time, for the 



promotion of works in both eoiUH 
triep, security hemg taken for the 
inteicit and le-pajmient at ainv»- 
nient periods; and this sum of 
26l/)00,000/. incUided within it 
such sums as had been s^pfoA 
during the ^we yean^- On.^ 
other hand, the total tw ye o di t ma 
duiing the five years,' omitting, 
as in the statement of the inoomoj 
the naval and military peirajans, 
and including all advances made 
for public worksy and deduotinig 
the lepayments, was 249,000,000^ 
Deducting 249,000,000/. from 
261,000,000/. the total siurplua 
revenue, applicable to the liquida- 
tion of the national debt, during 
that period of five years, 'Appeared 
to have been 12,000,000/. But, 
under *the existing arrangement, 
what was csdled the dead-weisht 
added to the income on one tide, 
and to the expenditure on the 
other. Including it on both sides 
of the account, the result for the 
last five years would stand thus : 
Income 284,149,000/., expenditure 
268,005,000/.; making a total 
surplus, in round numbers of 
21,000,000/. 

The next point to -be attended 
to was, the amount paid by the 
commissioners of the Sinking-fund, 
as directed to be annually appro^ 
priated by act of parliament for 
the last five yeara. The total of 
these payments was 29,414,000/» ; 
exhibiting an excess over the sum 
plus income of 8,860,000/. The 
difference had been- made up, partly 
by money raised for that purposei 
and partly by reduction of the ba- 
lances in the Exchequer on the 
last day of one year compared with 
those balances on the last day of 
another. Supposing, for instance, 
the amount of bsStncee to have 
been five millions in the year 1823, 
and the amount now to be only 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[67 



two TOJlBimit, m krgcrrom by three 
nflfioQi tlmn the actual luxplm of 
oM ittcoiBo cyvet expenditniB niifffat 
kare, during the intervening 
period* been applied to the reduo* 
tMRi oC A* debt. 

To ilBte the probable fbtitre 
iweuue Would ittore properly be* 
long, Mr. Peel eaid^ to the Chancel* 
br of the Exchequer^ when he 
ilMmld oome to open the budget ; 
bot^ to aniflt in fuitiijhing a correct 
view of our proepects in that re- 
spect, it niiflht not be amiss to refer 
to Ike ormnary expenditure and 
iaoome of die last two years. The 
lalal ordinary revenue 

Per 1896, was ....^^49,635.000 
Porl8S7 41^,581,000 

exdimve of naval and military 
pensionsj casual revenuCj and the 
icpaTment of advances on public 
woriLS. The income for the year 
1827 being therefore 49,56 1,000/., 
and the expenditure, 49,487>000/. ; 
the excess of income was 9^,000L 
The expenditure for the two 
years was 

Foriase £.48,513,000 

1837 48,487»00U 

As eo the expenditure of the pre- 
sent year, the estimates were not 
yet all made up itt a form fit to-^te 
presented to the House; but he 
night wy, without binding hiraielf 
down to complete accuracy, that 
they woidd be about 17>575,000/. 
The Finanee Committee of 1817 
hfldestinmted the sums necessary for 
the ssme services at 17i350,000/. 
The eatimates of the present year 
were thus greater than those of 
1817 by 2«7|00(M. ; but they were 
lev than thoee of 1835 by 6,140/. ; 
kH dMm those of 1 8S6by 865,848^; 
and faii Aan those of 18S7 by 
I,l68,e60i. 

H a vaag tak en this general view of 
the insBciel state of the country, 



Mr.Peel said, that his colleagues and 
himself would listen most willinrfty 
to any su^^tions or reoommenda* 
tions from the committee, the ap* 
pointment of which he was now to 
move. In leeacd to the constitution 
of the committee, nothing eould be 
move .painful than to have the no« 
Inination of such a body, from the 
necessary duty which it imposed 
of excluding a number of persous 
whose assistance would be in the 
highest degpree valuable* To make 
a selection, however, was neces* 
sary ; and he had endeavoured, 
without regard to party, to choose 
those persons whose talents were 
the most generally admitted, and 
whose attention luid been longest 
directed to the consideration of 
financial subjects. Of the powers 
to be given to the committee, it 
was not so easy to speak ; in fact, 
to define those powers very closely 
in words, would hardly be piactie- 
able. On the one hand there 
could be no doubt that the execu*« 
tive government of the country 
must remain chiefly responsible for 
the amount of the establishments 
proposed to be kept up ; but, on 
the other hand, to say that the 
committee should be precluded 
from all consideration of the fitneKS 
of those establishments, would be 
almost absurd. In truth, the 
<5ourse adopted in the year 1817 
was the right one. The committee 
then appointed had been allowed 
to call for every information which 
could throw light upon the exist- 
ing public establishments; a^, for 
instance, the amount of establish- 
ments kept up by the country 
in former years. But it hod not 
been forgotten at the same time, 
that the government of the coun* 
trvmust necessarily be in possession 
of many circumstances, important 
in the consideration of the extent 
[F2] 



CI8] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



of p}jl\i&c establiBbments ; and that 
it miglit even be in possession of 
fkcts^ such as could not be disclosed^ 
and for which the committee nrast 
merely ^vc credit— upon which the 
decision of such a question would 
entirely depend. For example, to 
lake the case of the secret article 
in the recent treaty of London^ 
which bound this country to main- 
tain a certain naral force in the 
Mediterranean. None but the 

fovemment of the country could 
e aware of the existence of that 
article, and of the pledge which it 
contained. Government^ if a Fi- 
nance Committee had been sitting, 
could not have communicated the 
information. And yet, without 
it, it would have been impossible 
for such a committee to come to any 
competent opinion as to the extent 
of naval armaments necessary to be 
appointed or maintained. The 
proper course, therefore, was to sive 
the committee every means or in- 
quiry, as to the expediency of main- 
taining the publice stablishments. 

There was one subject, how- 
ever, which he intended especi- 
ally to refer to the committee, and 
upon which he would for a moment 
request the attention of the House; 
it was a subject of very high im- 
portance, and he looked for infinite 
benefit from the consideration of 
it :-— he alluded to the question of 
the simplification of the public 
accounts. If the committee should 
be able to propose any plan for 
the attainment of that object, they 
would confer a most valuable and 
lasting obligation upon the state. 
For himself^ he saw no reason 
why, in this point, as well as 
others, we should not avail our- 
selves of the example of foreign 
nations — of France, for instance, 
the public accounts of which were 
pecuKarly clear; or of the United 



States of America^ whiare Mltev fo A 
was performed with ^eqCMl ^^lUit^ 
ness and facility. He tlwn^ndtd^ 
" That a select committee b^ itfi- 
pointed, to inc^uire iAto the 'Stro 
of the publie income and expitA^ 
diture of the united langdmn> tftlA 
to consider and report "*^lo tite 
House, what furAer i^folidtiA 
and checks it may be prtf^, id 
their opinion, to tdktpt, 'fyt IMIiAk 
lishing an ^^tual control ujMti 
all charges incurred in the reoeS^ 
custody, and appHcation^ of ^p 
public money ; and what furth^ 
measui^ can be adopted f^f^ 
ducing any part- of the publie te^ 
penditure without detriment Hi 
the public service." 

The motion passed without op^ 
position, except from Mr* Hume^ 
who objected to the appointing of 
only one committee, whereas. If 
any good was to be done, and to 
be done in good time, there ought 
to be many. He had taken the 
trouble, he said, to prepare a state- 
ment of the different branches of 
inquiry connected with the public 
revenue and expenditure or the 
country, and he must say, that, if 
the committee were to direct itft 
attention to all, it would be im- 
possible for it to terminate itft 
labours in even so shoit a time ste 
two or three years. What he 
therefore would suggest to the 
right hon. gentleman would be, 
the appointment of ten or eleven 
Finance Committees. He wan 
quite aware that this was a novel 
thing to propose, and he was pre- 
pared to expect obfeetions-^there 
were so few in the House disposed 
to take any trouble or labo^ur cm 
themselves. But he must contend, 
that, if ministers were seriousivpitK 
posing a consideration of all' the 
points which ough tto be eonsidei^. 
It would be quite impossible UMt 



HISTORY OF EUROPE- 



[69 



Afij/ooiddbe gpneiiito byooeoom- 
milHep jDiMuistitigof twenty or even 
fi^jofmbem ^ It would be isi- 
nMsible* tbat» with any chance of 
eSbetin tbi»ov the next sesaon^ 
tb^^eottld go into an inquiry or 
nHlke any report^ not merely re- 
apectiag one^ but twenty depart- 
HfiiKiM which ought to he «ubmitted 
ta tfaeirwCODBideration. The laat 
oonmittee 4yppointed« that which 
waacdled Sir C. Long's oommitteey 
bad been oecupied for five years 
mth theCoftOQis and Excise alone. 
The> Finanoe Committee made 
thirteen or fourteen reports^ and 
yet not one of them referred to the 
inany departments into which he 
contended inquiry ought to be 
made : he meant the Crown lands, 
the beredifaiy revenues, the civil 
list, the expenses of our law courts 
and of the colonies. To consider 
those important matters with effect, 
be repeated that the labours of one 
committee could not be finished 
in less than two or three years. 
If the House were in earnest in 
die disposition to inquire, they 
, onght to divide the labour by the 
appointment of many committees, 
jwhichr by sitting from day to day, 
might be enabled^ by the end of 
the session, to present reports re« 
j^pocHmg the several departments 
49onneoml with the revenue and 
expenditure of the country. By 
that means they might be enabled 
topointout many reductions, which 
it would be impossible otherwise to 
make* The committees, which he 
should su^^est, should be small in 
nnmber—nnotexceedingseven mem- 
bora for each committee, of whom 
five should be a quorum. All who 
ware-acquainted with the mode of 
doing business an select committees, 
woim agree with him, that it was 
do^e in a more regular> orderly, 
tod ^ffiei^t meaner by e mniH 



committee than by one very nu- 
merous. To one of those oam« 
mittees he would refer the con* 
sideration of Customs and Excise : 
the changes which it might be 
necessary to make in some of the 
dudes, mid the substitution of one 
duty for another would.be sufficient 
to employ that committee for three 
or four months, and their report 
would be attended with consider^ 
able advantage to the countvy. 
Another committee would find suf- 
ficient employment r va, inquiring 
into the departments of 8tamp«^ 
taxes, and hackney-coaches. There 
was a department under the latter 
head, kept up at an expense of some 
10,000/. or 15,000/. a year, which 
might with advantage be transfer- 
red to the board of stamps and taxes. 
He stated this because he knew 
that a board- of stamps was ke(ft 
on several years with seven com- 
missioners, and during that time 
three commissioners were never in 
attendance at once. To another 
committee, he would submit an 
inquiry into a department which 
was, perhaps, the best conducted 
of any under the government, but 
in which there yet remained much 
to be done, if they looked to what 
took place respecting it in Ireland* 
He would have a committee ap- 
pointed to examine into the Post- 
office department of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, and he had 
no doubt that the country would 
derive great benefit from the result 
of that inquiry. The next subject 
of inquiry, which he would refer 
to another committee, would be tie 
nature and management of the 
land revenue, which from a report 
made in 1777> appeared to have 
been then very productive, but had 
since been squandered in useless 
estabUshments. The hereditacy 
revenue of the Crown wqqU it 



70] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



itself give ample employment to 
the investigations of a select com- 
mittee for six months. Another 
committee might he most usefully 
employed in inquiring into the 
manner in which the civil list was 
expended^ in England^ Scotland, 
and Ireland^ — the salaries of judges, 
— the pensions and allowances to 
officers of state,— 'the expenses of 
palaces and parks-— and all the other 
charges which went to make up 
our miscellaneous expenditure. 
To the investigation of another 
committee he would suhmit the 
revenue and expenditure of those 
colonies which did not possess 
legislative assemblies, and the 
amount which the maintenance of 
such colonies cost Great Britain. 
He would have a committee to 
inquire into the expenditure of the 
army and ordnance abroad and at 
home. Another committee would 
have to consider the navy, and all 
the expenses of dock-yards, and 
marine establishments, the several 
items of which would fully occupy 
the attention of a committee for 
three months. Besides the mis^ 
cellaneous payments, he would 
also inquire into the expenditure 
under the head of civil con- 
tingencies — ^the expenses of Down- 
ing-street— the Board of Works 
•—'the amount of law charges, 
which particularly required in* 
vestigation — the expense and ap« 
plication of Irish charitie8,-^the 
expense of convicts, and several 
other items, which made up the 
long list in that very costly depart- 
ment. He had no doubt, if a strict 
and impartial inquiry were in- 
stituted into these matters, that a 
saving might be made of 500,000/., 
or 600,000/. out of the 2,000,000/. 
which they cost the country. He 
would also have a committee to 

i&^ulre into the amount of our 



funded and unfunded debt, and tke 
cost and chargesof its management; 
and he had no doubt it would be 
made apparent, that the amoutit of 
the annual charge reduced since 
1816, had been mistaken by thr 
right hon. gentleman (Mr. Peel)* 
The committee would also have to 
inquire into the nature of the 
sinking fund, and the source frosi 
which it was derived; into th^ 
arrangement respecting the half- 
pay and pensions; and likewise 
into the arrangements respeetitig 
the Savings' banks, on account of 
which so great an expense wAi 
undertaken by flovemment The 
committee would also have to coa* 
aider why the South Sea Compaa^r' 
was continued at an expenso of 
about 12,000/. a«year, fbr no other 
purpose but that of paying a few 
hundred thousand pounds. The 
inrestigation of these matters 
would fully oceupy the oommittett 
for three months, and the public^ 
he was sure, would derive mueb 
advantage from its labours. Thoae 
matters would afford abundant oe^ 
cupation for the eleven committeea; 
but if some of them should prove 
too heavy for a single committee^ 
subdivisions might be made of tha 
matters referred to one oommittae. 
If the House seriously inteadiod 
to benefit the country by inquiring 
into its income and expetioiturey 
they would adopt this subdivisum 
of labour, by the result of whioh 
the public might be freed feom 
much of that burden of taxes t^ 
which they were oppressed. 

Mr. Hume's plan of thus divid- 
ing labour received no eouateaanfle, 
eiuxtpt from Mr. Brougham^ who 
said, he thought it minit be aeled 
on to a limitdi extent, by ihe com* 
mittoe dividing themselves into 8»< 
parate committees of seven mem« 
bort, to iDquire into particalar 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[71 



ij if it should be oonadered 
Qfoesoary* The Chancellor of the 
Exchequer observed, that, if there 
should be eny particular branch of 
the .expenditure^-— that of the oolo« 
nies* for instance— which the com- 
mittee might think they could not 
adequately inquire into, he would 
have no ol^tion to delegate that 
particular sulgect to a separate 
oommiUee.-^A committee of twen- 
ty*thD9emembers wasthen named.* 
One of the first fruits of the 
appointment of the committee was 
the discovery* that the public was 
jngularly losing a considerable sum 
of money by the system on which 
the government annuities had been 
granted. Mr. Henries had submit* 
ted to the committee, a statement 
of the finances which lord Al- 
tborpe described as '' able, . dear, 
and satisfactory ;" and it appeared 
from that exposition, that these 
annuities had been sold at a oonsi« 
deraUe loss. The evidence of this 
was found in certain calculations 
nude by Mr. Finlayson, who was 
said to have communicated the fact 
to lord Bexley, in 1819> and 
subsequently to lord Goderich, 

. * The foUowiog were the inemben 
or the Committee : The Chancellor of 
the Exchequer, Mr. Tiemey, Mr. Her- 
ries, 6(r John Newport, Mr. Ward, 
Ij>f4 Altkorpe, Mr. Asburvt, liord Low. 
Uier, Mr. Hume^ Lord Howick^Sir Ed* 
ward KpatchbuII, Mr. Maberly, Mr. 
Home Druramond, Mr. Bankes, Mr. 
Baring, Mr. Robert Pallmer, Mr. Little- 
IMiy Mr. Veaty Fitsgermld, Sir Henry 
Parnelli Mr* Wilmot Horton, Sir M. 
W. Ridley, Mr. SUinley, and Mr. Secre- 
tary Huskisaon. Mr. Iluskisson's name 
was not In the list origpnally handed in 
try Mr. V^ : be bad declined serving, 
on the gvdund, that, as bis whole time 
waa occupied by his official duties, he 
could not be an efficient member of the 
Committee. He consented, however, 
t%ttt his name should be added, on the 
vrgentreprMentatioosofieverHl meni* 
bsii«4. 



and who stated the rate of 
the loss to be 8000/. per month. 
It arose thus. — These annuities, 
which had been granted in pursu* 
ance of a bill introduced by Mr* 
Perceval in 1808^ had been calcu- 
lated on the duration of life as given 
in Dr. Price's tables, and those ta- 
bles had long been the foundation 
on which all annuities were grant* 
ed. But it was now ascertained, 
either that these tables were ori<» 

ginally inaccurate, or that human 
fe, in consequence of the increase 
of comforts and conveniences, 
extended in general to a longer 
period than it had done thirty or 
forty years ago. The duration of 
life, especially of female life, was 
found to be mushloneer than had 
generally been assumed. The rate 
of mortality had decreased from 
one in forty to one iu fifty-six. 
Thus the annuities had been sold 
at too low a price. When Mr« 
Finlayson first stated his suspicion 
that loss was sustained, in 1819> he 
had been directed to prosecute his 
inquiries, so as to ascertain where 
the error lay ; and these inquiriesled 
to the conclusion which convinced 
the Finance Committee and the 
House that the life annuities were 
a losing bargain. Mr. Finlayson, 
on looking to the annuities which 
were outstanding on the 5 th of 
January, 1 827> and the 5th of Jan« 
uary, 1828, conceived, upon a 
comparison of the two periodis, that 
the public would lose about95,000/. 
per annum, which sum would be 
equivalent to a loss of about 8,000/1 
per month. The mode in which he 
arrived at his deductions was this : 
— He assumed the amount of the 
existing annuities, and calculated 
that the whole amount of them 
about sixty years from the present 
would not be extinguished, until 
time; that is^ that the last or 



«2] ANNUAL REGISTBB/ 1828. 



kbgeil liftr wouM^ in all pmbdiii* 
hfy} mi\mat£otmxty yean to oobm. 
iiisioiicidiMioii^ theivfoee, resped* 
kA tterfinal iMilt of this financial 
fSKratiim ' at tiw end of such 
podod' of Bxty yean. He as- 
fOiaed^ tile overage duration of 
oaehilifii to be 80 many yean, and 
tlniatetest of money to be foar and 
a hdf per ocnt. Working his cal- 
49dalxMi upon these data, from the 
6th :«f Janaary, he asaamed^ that, 
at^ the end of sixty years there 
would be redeemed 82,000fi(M. 
ksB of the- national debt, through 
tke49eiationof this measure for 
granting Hfe annuities, than would 
have heeniredeemed if all the stock 
which had been given for effecting 
this mtasavc, had been aocurau- 
latiag duxing'. the whole of the same 
period under the working of the 
8ioking*fand« Upon a similar 
cakukition, as to the 5th of April, 
he reckoned that in sixty years 
fnnD that day, the public would 
be still the worse by 95,000/.; 
that is to say, that there would 
be 95,000/L less redeemed of an* 
unities; the amount redeemed at 
the doae of that period, would be 
less than wonldhave been redeemed 
by the Sinking-fund, by an aggre« 
gate sum of 32,000,000/. plus this 
95,000/. 

The Finance Committee soon con- 
yinoed itself, that the annuities oc- 
casioned loak Nothine could be 
done to alter those which had been 
already sold ; but, on the recom- 
mendation of the committee, a bill 
was brought in, and speedily pass- 
ed, to suspend the operation of the 
Act under which they had been 
granted, so that no new annuities 
might be created, until a more cor- 
rect system shouU besettled^ 

Duringthesession^ the committee 
reported on ▼arious matters which 
had been brought under their con<« 



sideratioBj btitaofe^arlyieiMi||olq 
rilow their wcmmnimim^tmn^ torM 
oanied into eifeet InsirapfeOOM 
the state oflte Ordmrnco 'Qefntt 
ment, they voooamettded! thorabalU 
tion of the office of lieutekiaiit^^ 
neral of the Oidmoice'; but^lieiaai 
nistry dissented firom thcdr o|iiniio^ 
and, when the Ordnance EstimttlflB 
were before the House (Jlily^4^ 
amotion to giToefiect fo>the'aB» 
commendation of the^ comnnfalBB 
was lost by a large majority. ' * <. * 
The detail of the estinmfea 'iarr 
the year prodoced as usuhd hamjaad 
tedious discuBsioDS, broken oowE 
into minute inquiries- regarding 
individual items*— eztremdy propel 
and useful in the aetud aandHot'of 
public buacness, but not fitted; to 
interest the general reader. Th# 
sums voted, and the purposes to 
which they were appropriated wiE 
be found in another part of onr ro* 
lume. One grant of money met 
widi unezpedted and ungradoua 
opposition. Mr. Canning haddied 
a poor man. He had begun the 
world without fortune; he had 

rt. his life in piMic .servioe j 
emoluments of ^ offioea 
which he had held at diflferent 
times, even added to the ineome of 
his wife's property, had soafod^ 
sufficed to eover the espenasa. of 
his station, much less to emdde 
him to accumulate wetdth. : Im 
1822, he had been on the pdint Of 
proceeding as Govemorufleoersl 14 
India, from which in a lew y^ears^ 
he would have retomod with an 
independent fortune, when lihe 
death of lord Castlereagh, and the 
necessities of government, detained 
him at home as Foteign SecretaiTw 
He held no sinecures ; and his sud^ 
den death left his family, unprovi* 
ded for. On these grounds, tho 
Chanoellor of the £xdbequer(Ma3r 
IS), brought before the Hoim j^ 



HISTORY OF EUKOPBi 



[38 



M|^nl:^9r;^gnBtiiig to oae of 
afivj fmrnnrnfm-mmB >m pennoii of 
BOMimTymai Tbiv w» the only 
Moft^iof ginitf'itMiUcli the pecu<> 
iiAvioiiiUe^iofvtbB case admitted. 
INidaitiid amfeooR pkeea, nvhidi 
had ^laett' toaaliy bestofvred along 
iriab.tiK^liigh ofloei of govern- 
■MM^^d-eaifaottfaed by die 57th of 
Gto. ttie S^ that statute had em- 
pBMrenad^hit majertyjto grant pen- 
■na%ioakexeeMiiijp; in aU 40,000/. 
to the 'holden m pohlic offioes, 
wia-akDoId have Med their effces 
ifarafnded notleat than two yean. 
To dneof theaepmaione Mr. Can- 
omft^voiild hove been entitled if 
liB, nad lived; but the Act oon* 
tained no proviaioii lor gnnting 
itr to hit finmly on his deoui. The 
Chanodkir of the Eatchequer^there- 
ion, . moved, in a Committee of 
Sopplyi that tha dhairraan he di^ 
leetcd td bring in a hill to enhuge 
nd amend the 57th of Gea the 
ftd. AU he proposed' was, to give 
Uf majesty the power of granting 
to Mr. Canning'ft son, the pension 
to which, mider that Act, Mr. 
Caaning himself would have been 
entitled— *« mode of providing for 
the ^uidly, whidi seemed to him 
modi ksB ooetous than voting a 
ha»osiim iat thepayment of debts. 
The ptopositiDn was vehemently 
opposed by-iord Althorpe, sir M. 
ittdley^ Mr. Unmoy Mr. Bankes, 
Mr« Mondi} colonel Sibthorpe, sir 
R. Fergtison> Mr. Powlett Thomp* 
soB,ondMr.'D.W. Harvey. While 
sU these gentlemen admitted the 
nplendid talent of the deceased, 
tlM^ opposed the grant, some of 
tliOB on groinids of economy, 
some of them on the gromiid 
that it had not been d^erved. 
Thefiirmer said, diat although the 
aom was small, yet it was extrava- 
gant at a time when much smaller 
actings were held to be of im* 



pottanoe. Evety/.datti ii^:^^kb 
conmoDifty wos' • suffkringi vnodfet 
sndi ' picssufe> •-mid ehe '^sumdih 
of the gevenlmetit wesedbniftliM 
in such endxarassment^ that itms 
unjustifiable to- votao shigli»>sh9H 
ling which was not calfeaiba by 
imperious necessity. Theptopusa^ 
it Was said, was onowimoo* pea^ 
cedent, and w6uld only 'become a 
bad piecedent itsel£ The PenaiWi 
act had been intended to fix ihto 
mode of remunerat&ag pubHosen^ 
vants; a case which didnotiaii 
within its provisiona, was a.oaaa 
which parliament had 'cooaidatf^ 
ed as justly essluded fuom ramu^ 
neration : to provide, by a now 
bill, for every case for whibh that 
act had not provided, waa the same 
thing as to repeal the act albo^ 
ther. It waifH daageroiis .dootnno 
to hdid out to public men, tiwt 
they might be negligent of the 
interest of dieir &imlxes during 
their lives, because parliament 
would liberally provide for them 
after their death. But even if 
Mr. Canning's family were to be 
rewarded, why impose a new bur- 
then upon the country ? Why did 
not his majesty grant a penaion out 
of the civil list ? If nmnsters were 
so strongly inclined to remunerate 
Mr. Canning's merits, there was an 
annual, fund of 200,000^ out of 
which they could do it^ There 
was the English pension-list of 
gSfiOOL; the Irish pension-list of 
70,000/. ; and the Scotch pensioii«i 
list of 30,0001. If that list were 
looked at, nopersonswouldbefound 
upon it whose claims oould stand a 
moment's competition with, those 
of Mr. Canning. Let Mr. Can* 
ning*s family be placed upon that 
list, and let not the country, whidi 
was already overburdened with 
pensions andplaoes, be caUed won 
to mike provisioa for i^ Th« 



74] ANNUAL REGISTER. 1828. 



very language of Mr. Canning's 
friends, whea they spurned the 
proposed grant as an act of charity 
or compassion, and demanded it as 
a debt of justice and gratitude, 
was turned against themselves, and 
ihey were asked by Mr. Hume, 
'^ were, then, the finances of the 
eountiy in such a state, that the 
House could feel itself called on 
to foioe a large sum of money on a 
fakietant &mily?*' Mr. Bankes 
went still further. He stated a 
Mgukr account between Mr. Can^ 
ning and the country, and debited 
tiie deceased minister with the ex- 
pense of all the measures which he 
badadvised, and which Mr. Bankes 
Aought bad measures. Would any 
masi, said he, deny that Mr. Can- 
ning had incurred very great ex- 
pense in endeavouijpg to realise 
those vast and magmficent schemes 
whidi he had projected for re- 
modelling the policy of Spain, Por- 
tugal, and America? Did the 
House know, that, besides the ex- 
pense of sending out the arma- 
ment to Portugu, not less than 
160,OOOL had l^en expended upon 
the extraordinaries attendant on 
these movements? True, they 
were to have a claim for this part 
of the amount upon the Portuguese 
treasury ; but ^ the Chancellor of 
the Exchequer should call upon 
Don Miffud to liquidate this debt, 
he would be glad to know « what 
chance there was of a farthing of 
the sum finding its way into our 
ooffiBTS. Then, again, look to his 
measures towards Turkey. He 
eef tainly could not fairly put to 
Mr. Canmng*s account the value 
of the loss of lives of those brave 
men who were sacrificed in the 
unfortunate and disastrous battle 
of Navaxino ; but with the general 
axpense of the expedition, he was 

OBtainlV wiiAr«Mit>»U>- and in ^^ 



branch of the calculation must be 
necessarily comprehended the lossea 
and damage of the fleet. Why 
not place that to his aocouiU, as 
he was undoubtedly ofaazgeaUe 
with the cost of that partioular and 
unfortunate expedition? There 
was one other thing in the way of 
expense, with which Mr. Can- 
ning was more peculiarly and per- 
sonally chargeable. Within the 
short space of two years he had 
expended 43,000t of the puUie 
money solely upon his {Nivate and 
personal residence, in Downing- 
street, at the Foreign-office* whidi 
he had converted into his domestic 
dwelling, for his own personal ac- 
commodation, and no other. He 
did not mean to say that his iu^ 
cessor had not the benefit of these 
improvements; but still the exi- 
pense was uncalled-for and ut^ua- 
tifiable. To this new mode of meet- 
ing the pecuniary claims €i public 
servants the House did not listen 
without many expressions of strong 
disapprobation. 

Others, who of^posed the grant, 
admitted, that the finances were by 
no means in so miserable a state af 
to disable the country from being 
either just or generous where a 
public reward Irad be<^ deserved ; 
but they denied that the public 
life of Mr. Canning had been such 
as to entitle his family to the re- 
muneration which was now d^ 
manded. In this view the daim 
was resisted on contradictory- 
grounds. One member held thi^ 
the errors of Mr. Canning's later 
years had cancelled all the merit 
of his earlier life ; another Joain* 
tained that the errors of his earlier 
life had not been blotted out by 
the merits of his later velars. In 
addition to Mr. Bankes, who waa 
for visiting on Mr. Canning's head 
all the Goosef ueacfB of Ibe perfidj 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



IT6 



of Don Mi^el in Portagnl, aud 
of the amlntioii of Rusna in the 
£ait« gir M. Ridley declared/ that 
if he were called upon to agree to 
thia 9ei& on account of the ex« 
oeUence of Mr. Canning's policy in 
vegard to Portugal and Greece, he 
would have no hesitation whatever 
in givioff it a direct negative. 
Lord AlUiorpe, and other metn* 
hers of ihe old oppositionj while 
they admitted that his general 
policy, from the time when he he* 
came foreign secretary, had entitled 
him to respect, oould not forget 
the character Cfi all his fimner 
measures, which had insured their 
constant resistance; and Mr. D. 
W. Harvey denounced him as a 
statesman, than whom ''no man had 
ever more directed his untameahle 
eloquence against public rights," 
and who, moreover, had " enticed 
nearly the whole stream of oppo* 
sition to his own side of the 
House." Mr. Monck, the member 
for Reading, opposed the grant 
for this reason among others, that 
it proceeded on the principle of no 
civil services being entitled to re« 
wardi unless they were performed 
by men in office. Now, said he, 
weof the oppoaitian haveperformed 
services quite as efficient ; we have 
wasted our time and t^ents in 
useless opposition to extravagant 
eocpenditure, and unjust and un«» 
neoeasury wars! 

The ministers were unanimous 
in supporting the proposition,-^ 
perhaps not the less so, that the 
late sdiism between some of them 
and Mr. Canning might be sup* 
posed to have given their feelings 
some tinge of personal animosity ; 
and they were supported by many 
of the most active leaders of the 
oppo8ition«-*by lord Milton, sir 
James Madntoah, sir Robert Wil« 
W>^ sir Jofaii Newporti sir Jcunee 



Scarlett. To the charge of the 
grant imposing a new burden on 
the people, they answered, that it 
could have no such effect. The 
arrangement introduced by the act 
of the late king, when the sine* 
cure offices were abolished, was 
simply this :**The Crowu was em- 
powered to grant six pensions, not 
exceeding in the aggregate 40,000/. 
a year, to ministers wno had per- 
formed eminent public services, 
according to their different sta** 
tions and degrees* If the Crown 
were now paying the whole 
of this sum (which was not the 
case), the public would have no 
right to complain, according to the 
strict terms of the agpreement; for 
it was a compensation given by 
parliament in exchange for the sur- 
render of a much larger and more 
valuable amount of patronage. The 
only limits were six offices, and 
40,000i!. What was the present 
proposition ? To grant one of these 
for life to the son of Mr. Canning, 
in consideration of services fur 
which hii father could unfortu- 
nately no bnger receive reward in 
his own person. This entailed no 
increase upon the principle of the 
fund : it gave to one claimant in- 
stead of another— *it merely sub- 

ituted one life for that which 

ad been withdrawn. 

The merits of the question, 
again, they placed on this broad 
ground, that Mr. Canning, through- 
out a long life, had devoted talents 
of the very first order to the ser- 
vice of his country, and, in follow- 
ing that service, luid not merely lost 
the means of improving, but had 
positively deteriorated, his private 
fortune : in short, that he was a most 
meritorious public servant, whose 
labours for the public good had 
been most undeniably under-paid* 
What had he not surrendered* 



»e] ANNUAL REGISTER. 1828. 



f^h^Dt lift gave ttp tbe government 
(^-rladiai t9 fill the unprofitable 
^ffi0e of ^ireigii Beoretary? — and 
fjboM Menfice he had made solely 
£E99»'a>pn»eiple of public duly; 
he a|N>ndoiied what was almost ne- 
Q^sBary to himself to follow what 
waaesteemedj and had been found 
tQ'bsb(;more beneficial to the ooun- 
txf^i '^. I regret," said Mr. Hus- 
l^soB^/^ W.W'Obliged to make re* 
lereiftce en svieh an occasicm to in« 
fi^cnieHoii.derived from the privacy 
of ^nfidential intercourse; but I 
09gk stafeOj upon my own personal 
eie^ty chat, whatever were the 
feeliskgs of others^ who were justly 
near and dear to Mr. Canning, it 
had for years been his own warm 
and anxious wish (owing to cir« 
cumstanoes that were likely to press 
upon the acute and sensitive mind 
^ such a man) to be placed in some 
public situation, however it might 
sacniice or compromise the fair and 
legitimate scope of his ambition, 
which, while it enabled him to 
perform adequate public services, 
woMld enable him also to place 
upon a better footing his wife's 
pivate fortune which he had 
lessened, and the inheritance of his 
chUdren which he had impaired. 
I win not go so far as tosay, that 
this waaa prospect fixed upon Mr. 
Cannings mind, or an object that 
he was bent upon pursuing, for it 
is difficult to trace the springs of so 
susceptible a temperament; but 
und» the circumstances, it was 
quite natural, considering his means 
and his family, that, while he ho- 
nourably sought a situation to ren- 
der service io his country, he should 
apt be unmindful of the means 
ef repairing the family fortune 
which he had diminished while in 
the-aerviee of his country." But it 
M been 8aid> that, when Mr. Can- 
niagipfefened Ihe fcweign office to 



the ^vemment of Indiarb%.')u4 
exercised his option^ and rmtl^hwff 
censideied what he veoeinredT as 
an equivalent 'for what he^afayif- 
doned. That was to say, thfft no 
man in public lifO'Sacnifices'hisowa 
pecuniary interest to the pfibiio-aai* 
vice; for if it were meant that Mt^ 
Canning found in 'the o^Sne . irUsIi 
he assumed a due equivalent in [so 
far as ambition was eonoerned; still* 
on what principle wase man'a fiMni«< 
ly to be left in poverty, beeansehii 
ambition had been exerted itir.'tth^ 
public good? ''-Why should tbe 

f ratification of ambition," said Mti 
*eel, " m holding hi^h situatiens 
in the state, form of itself a euffi^ 
dent reward. When they sB«ir,inp» 
dividuals acquiring high hono«ra 
and great eoooluments at the bsor 
and in other profesidonsi whj 
should they turn round to tbe 
£unily of a minister now no move^ 
and say to them, '-The gratifioa* 
tbn of ambition was his reward. 
It is true he gave his services to the 
state, but we will not listen to your 
claims for reward from his oountry* 
because your parent was satisfied 
with the gratification of >his aabi-i 
tion.' This would be a low avd 
niggard way of deaUng wilh pMtn 
lie men. In the present case thm 
was every thing which could mdui 
out a daim, and nothing, which 
could make it suspicions as. an. /9S(^ 
ample; for, alas ! similar talenti^ sp 
employed, would but rarely appear. 
Mr. Canning, for twenty yean^l^ 
held hiffh stations in the 0>v^|n«* 
ment— -he had brought to m. sem 
vice of the state, according te hia 
views of policy, most qplendid taf^ 
lents, — and he had.diMaided, dwv 
ing his whole career,aU feehnas of 
private and peisonalintecest The^ 
was here arrured, therefoie^ that 
comUnatioa of^rirounistanQeswhidh 
would prevent tbe piesenitfxm 



HISTORY OP EUROPE. 



[n 



bring Jbivm into airf inconve&iort 
y r«cd < m beieaften 

To Ikeopporition fonnded on dis- 
appfObBlionof Mr. Canninff'spolic^r^ 
or oi the piMcf with whicn he had 
boen officially connected, it was an- 
sw«red,that the proposition touched 
no ^political principle, did not imply 
the tihand6nment of any one politi* 
oal dc^ttuk.' If the motion were, to 
vate Mr. Canning a imonumeiit to 
ooMraiemorate his services, memhers^ 
who'did not beliOTe that he had 
performed any serrioes to he com* 
metnorated, woold do right to op- 
pose it ; but when the motion was 
only to reward his family, they 
had merely to consider the fact, 
whether he had devoted his splen- 
did talents to the public service to 
the detriment of his private inter- 
ests. Sir James Macintosh said, 
that the question, in his view of it, 
did not depend on, and did not 
compromise in any way, the politi- 
cal opinions of any man. The 
terms upon which he would be 
content always to entertain a claim 
for compensation ta any public man 
were these: — ^he would allow it to 
every man who could be shown to 
hate employed illustrious talents in 
that course of policy which he be- 
lieved to be beneficial to the coun- 
try, for a time so long, and in a 
situation so elevated, that no fair 
diffinenoe of opinion could arise as 
to his pretensions. This was the 
prittriple upon which lie should be 
disposed to try every public officer's 
claim to honour or reward ; and if 
thb principle was not admitted by 
the House, and if he was asked how 
he came forward to support the 
vote in discussion, having himself 
been often opposed to Mr. Canning, 
the objection taken would amount 
to this-^that no national honour 
hereafter could be conferred upon 
any man ; because, in a free coun- 



try like ours, if diAsrenei^ oftMfliitit* 
cal opinion was to tufttify diHetMnc^ 
upon a question like thisy-it >wii# 
utterly impossible that «ny BUuk of 
sufficient power to eomniand«tlMi^^ 
tion could ever get thioogh li poH^ 
tical life without doing a grMvt 
many acts which must cla«& vMt 
the interests or afiront the pfneju*^ 
dices of some of the parlies whof 
surrounded him. If ma cause <tf 
opposition was recognudd, tlie)^ 
was an end to the mr exprMidtf 
of public feeling as t6 anV maiiC 
That which was done must 'be tlM^ 
result of the numerical force of 
party. A victorious faction m^ht' 
have power to give a monument ttf 
its chief; but the country at hitg^ 
would no longer have the povreri o^ 
evinee its impartial sense of the 
talents and merits of its servants* 
Death, the thought of departed 
honour, and the memory of de-[ 
parted genius, these were subjcfcts 
which no good or generous mind 
could approach without sentiments 
of respect. They were recollec- 
tions before which party quarrek 
would fade, in company with 
which the thought of persona! dif-' 
ferences could not be maintained. 
On the claim of merit alone, there- 
fore, he would judge of such grants 
as that no wproposed ; kad who had 
ventured to deny to Mr. Canning 
the praise of merit. " That he 
was a man of the purest honour," 
said sir James, ''I know. That 
he was a man of the most rare and 
splendid talents, I know. That he 
was a man renowned through 
Europe for his brilliant genius and 
philosophic thinking, not a member 
of this House can be ignorant ; or 
that, with his best seal, as w^ as 
with success, he applied that genius 
and those views of policy, to advance 
the service and the glory of his 
country. If there were thoie flNMi 



78] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



whom lie bid diirered,«>Hind can it 
ba doubted thet every politician 
moat fiave iome opjpowd to him ^— • 
ifthera wereaomemnnwfaoni he had 
dtfieradi even wide^, — ^poHticallj 
or pefwmailT^— -tfaia is not an boor 
when dioK differenoea ought to be 
reooUeeied. Afriendahipof thirty«( 
nx ykattt with him^ baa given me, I 
confeffy and I am not aahamed to 
own it^deepintereat in any measure 
which is intended to do honour to 
his memory* An humble place in 
his friendship was all that Mr. 
Canning had ever had the oppor- 
tunity of bestowing upon me ; but 
I feel that it was the greatest boon 
and the most honourable, by which 
I ever could have been distinguish- 
ed. But, though private friend- 
ship/' continued he, ''was a- fair 
auxiliary ground for influencing 
the vote of any man, he would not 
Ibten to it as a main ground* The 
claim of merit, above all considera- 
tions, was that on which such a 
vote should rest, and was the only 
thing which such a vote required. 
Principle having clearly pointed 
out the duty, friendship sweetened 
its performance. On the other 
hand, personal enmity ought not 
to be fulowed to have the lightest 
weight in such a decision, ft was 
a, feeling always, heaven knew, 
which the infirmity of man found 
it hard to curb : but it ought to be 
restrained-*it must be*— in a dis- 
cussion like the present. The dis- 
tribution of posthumous honours 
ought peculiarly to be sanctified 
by the waiver of all spirit of passion 
or dislike. Mors obruat iras was 
a maxim, which the least temperate 
would hardly gainsay* In the same 
way, the opinion, which an indi^ 
vidual might entertain of the mea- 
sures of any great statesman, would 
have its weight, as an auxiliary in- 
fluence, in a question like that 



before tilie House. Bnt tUi iafri* 
ence ought to be tolerated, aakf 
where it exerted itself in Csvourof 
the party* Approbatimi of aitaes»* 
man s measures would and m^bt 
fairly operate as an additiflttfil xai* 
duoement to give a favottmUevolM 
upon such a vote: but it was otily* 
in a very extreme caseind fe e d ^ u A 
a case as certainly eoold not be 
supposed in the prsaent instanoa-*^ 
that our mere disappitibation of 
measures could Justify a nega* 
tive. The present vote seemed one 
of little possible difficulty. The 
main ground of granting it was one 
of general principle and dear. The 
auxiliary grounds might be varkmss 
some would be inclined to snppsrt 
the vote from approbation of one 
part'of Mr. Canninjpf's life,— ^theia, 
from admiration of another. Any 
one of those ground might fairly 
be admitted as an influence in vot* 
ing for the grant; but let hon. 
members recoUect that it was only 
some strong and unequivocal eauae 
of disappro&tion, whidi oould jus- 
tify their votine against it. 

The motion for bringing in tJie 
biU was carried by a majority of 
161 to 54. On the motion for 
bringing up the report, after ^e 
bill had passed the committee, Mr. 
Hume again divided the House on 
an amendment, that the report 
should be received that day tht^e 
months. The amendment was 
negatived by 73 against 14, and 
the bill passed both Houses with- 
out further opposition. 

A s Mr. Canning^seldest son wastn 
the navy, and his life consequently 
exposed to many casualties, the jpen- 
sion was granted for the Hfe of the 
second son. It was a happy fbre- 
sight, for, in the course of t&e year, 
the eldest son perished by an acci- 
dental death on a foreign statidn. 

Connected with the ftoandal 



HISTORY OP EUROPE. 



\79 



tnugeteeiils was a meamira re* 
gnding tbe circulatum of small 
nates. The act of 18£61iBdpR>- 
hifaitcd the iasue of notes under 5L 
lA England, after 5th April, 16£9« 
but tba small notes of fiootland 
and of Ireland had been spared. 
It was now found that small notes 
of the Seottish banhs were getting 
into circulation^ especially in the 
north of £ncland» The diaracter 
of the establishments from which 
thej issued inspired confidence, and 
they were not prohibited by any 
positire law. As the object of 
parliament had been, to substitute 
a metallic currency for the small 
paper currency, and as to gain this 
ol^eet they had restrained the Eng- 
lish country bankers, it would have 
been at once partial and inconsis- 
tent to hare allowed the notes of 
Scotland and Ireland to travel out 
of their own country, for whose 
esdusive benefit they had been 
spared, and fill the place firom 
which the English bankers had 
been excluded. The chancellor of 
the Exchequer, therefore, brought 
in a bin to prohibit the circulation 
of snail Scotch notes, to be en« 
foroed by a fine, summarily 
leviable. The motion was opposed 
by the members who had been hos- 
tile to the measure of 1826, not bo 
miaeh from any strong desire to 
seeore the partial circuktiou of the 
notes of tbirir neighbours, as from 
a wish -to challenge the principles 
on which the abolition of small 
notes in England had been justi- 
fiedj and to bring about, if possi- 
bly the re-establishment of the 
former system, or of something 
like it. Sir James Graham met 
the motion ibr biinging in the bill 
by moving, aa an amendment, 
'' that a Sdect Committee be ap- 
poinced to inquire into the state 
of the circulation of promissory 



notes under 61. in En^t&d, and Co 
report their opinions and observ»« 
tions thereupon to the Houses 
with reference to the expedieney of 
making any alteration in the exM 
isting law afiecttng those notes." 
The amendment wan supported by 
Mr. Liddell, member for Northum-* 
berland, by sir Frauds fiurdett ; 
Mr. Maberly, sir M. Ridley, sir 
John Wrottesley, Mr. Banker**- 
generally, in short, by those mem« 
hers who had been originally op** 
posed to the destruction of the 
English small notes ; and the ar« 
guments and illustrations which 
they pressed difiered little from 
those which had been urged in 
18S6. They described the war 
of extermination which had been 
declared against small notes, aa 
characterized by the thoughtleas-i 
ness and precipitation incident to 
the mercantile panic which had 
given it birth. Nothing, they 
said, was fairer or more prudent, 
than now to re-consider die sub- 
ject, when the pressure had passed 
away, and the minds of men were 
capable of weighing it with caltxy* 
ness and deliberation. The circu* 
lation of small notes had not been 
found to be so radically bad, that 
it might not be usefully regulated, 
without being destroyeid ; and the 
relations produced by its long con- 
tinuance as a part of our currency 
were such, that it could not be de- 
stroyed without injustice as well as 
mischief. Whether the evils of 
1825 and 18^6 were, or were not, 
to be ascribed to over-trading, it 
was in small notes that the source 
of over-trading was to be fiiund; 
Instead of producing panics, they 
had been applied on more occasiona 
than one, as remedies to reaoove 
panics. Both in 179^ and in 18S5, 
the one-pound notes had been re* 
sorted to in order to check the pre« 



^] AN N U.AX E EG IS T fi R^ :1828. 



alapHSj and they had ac- 
Cbitf^hid that end after other 
ISf^ns had' failed.' The latter in- 
jftJEmee wak'iredi in the recollectioa 
ef' eriry iha». Iri 1793, when the 
iiin had drained the tery cofien of 
ihe Bank, recourse was had, on the 
fflMi day, to a supply of old one- 
^ond notes : the issue of these 
notes "bhec^ed the rush of money, 
and a better state of things ensued. 
On, the other hand^ however, it wa9 
fir frbm'heing certain that the 
execution in Apiil, 1829, of the 
gpct'of IB2&J would not produce a 
mighty revulsion. It was douht- 
fill, in 'the first place, whether 
there would be gold to fill up the 
gap left by the withdrawal of the 
small 'notes. Government stated, 
indeed, that the gold in circula- 
tion ' amounted to no less than 
22,000,000/1 ; but, although that 
amount might have been issued, 
it did not fdlow that they were all 
in circulation ; it was not known 
how many had been melted down, 
or carriea abroad. Whatever the 
sum in circulation might be, it 
was circulating along with the 
one -pound notes, and an addi- 
tional quantity would be required 
to take their place, when they 
should be removed. Estimating 
then the issues of the country- 
banks in one -pound notes at 
8,000/. each, they would amount 
to 4,800,000/. To this were also to 
be added the amount of deposits, for 
which the banks would have to 
provide gold. These, taken at the 
aTerage of 5,000/. each bank, 
would not be less than 3,000,000/., 
flH of which the country banks 
would have to pay before April 
next. Here, then, was a diminu- 
tion of the circulation to an amount 
e^eding 7,000,000/. For the 
fopply of this deficiency, the coun- 
tiy wotdd have to depend upon the 



Qank a£ EQf^i;im^An9jJk0 
twenty-four gentlenaeu. ^<^9|i 

niiRged that estaUiahiQjsnl^'Wful^^ 
the arbiters of the jao^^tj^^m 
country, as far as it dependaii ofji^ 
proper supply, of theorguiUtios 
medium ; for if they did. ]u>t.,fq» 
issue the notes paid in I^Ukpun^ 
chase of Exchequer IoSm, €r od m^ 
coants, they had the power ta Cf9^ 
tract the cuireney to tluit ««imV 
There were alio certain contia^ 
gendes to be taken into conaiderM 
tion. Suppose there should beua 
bad harvest, how was thia to hi 
made good but by a sudden io^ 
portation of com ftom abroad,, anil 
how could that be met but bjr a 
corresponding exportaUon of |KMa 
from this country ? Here, then, 
would the! want of a currency b^ 
felt ; and what was certain on the 
one hand would be uncertain oxk 
the other, for the intended limits^ 
tion of the small paper currency 
would prevent the re-issue of the 
notes, and this would bring about 
such difficulties as were felt, ix^ 
1825; the only difference hein^ 
that, in the one case, the demaiS 
for gold was domestic, in the 
other, would be foreigt^, but thf». 
results would be the same* It 
the sum required should appew< 
too small to warrant any Appre^ 
hension how could the contiAU*, 
ance of so small a sum in p^nar, 
lost amid a circulation of neaiij; 
70,000,000/. be pregnant with. 
danger? It was an utter mi*-, 
take to imagine, that the oonti« 
nuance of the small notes was aju 
object of personal interest to the 
country bankers. Four-fifths of 
these bankers had sent deputies to 
London ; at the meetin|gi of theae 
deputies, and in their mterviewa 
with the members of government^ 
so far were they from exj^reariuL 
any desire to return to the iinie gt. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



lnUP%oleti tbat Aejr had not lo 
MfeU 'aft riSMi the qoestion. It 
%jfiB^ *ihiB groitnd en the paUic 
me^ty «Bd on that groand alone^ 
Ibidt ihe eodtittued circulation of 
tiieae note^' was now defended. 
Tike' petitions presented to the 
ifMfle in suppbrt of them^ were 
tlie result of an inoonTCnience ac- 
tMAj Idt hy the parties who 
dfgam^' Aem. They ptoceeded 
from Doxham^ NorUiumherland, 
Cumhedand^ and North Wales, all 
great coal and mining districts, in 
#hidb a large capital was actively 
employed. The ahstraction of 
<md-pound notes from the currency 
in London would not he felt as an 
inconvenience, hut in these dis- 
tricts it would he a serious one. It 
was extremely unwise, unless a 
paramount neoesnty prevailed, to 
withdraw from those dbtricts the 
capital which was employed in feed- 
ing the lahouring part of the po- 
pulation. In short, as a currency 
which excluded paper was, at 
least, as impolitic and impracticahle 
aa one which should exclude 
gold, the question came to he, 
whether a paper currency could 
not he placed, in its lower deno- 
minations, no less than in its 
higher, on such a foundation, and 
in such relations to the standard 
inetallic currency, as to supersede 
the ineonvenience and injustice of 
mq^pmsing it entirely — for unjust 
it would he to deprive the people, 
and especially the lower orders, of 
^e small notes, since it was just 
compelling them to pay in a cur- 
rency of a higher vaJue the in- 
terest of a deht which had heen 
contracted in a currency of a lower 
value. AD this, it was said, was 
proved hy the very fact of such a hill 
as that now in question heing pro- 
p^Kd. It was a hill which admit- 
ted that a small*iiote circulation 
Vol. LXX. 



[Si 



might he so organised wtti^gif^ 
lated as to serve the purposes dt 



commerce move conveniently than 
ffold ; for it was a Inll introduced 
for the very purpose of preventing 
such a circulation from gettinc the 
hetter of the metallic medimt 
which parliament was attenmtim| 
to force upon the country. At ajj 
events, it was a grave question^ 
whether, even as it now stood, it 
produced danger, and if it did^ 
whether it might not he so legu* 
lated as to avoid all danger. In'i* 
quiry, therefore, was necessary and 
proper, and inquiry was all that 
was asked. 

If it was proper, then, that the 
general question of restriction, 
even in regard to England, as it 
at present stood on the act of 
1826, should he re-considered^ it 
was douhly proper that the exist- 
ing restriction should not he car* 
ried farther hy allowing the hill 
now proposed to he introduced. 
The effect of that hill would he 
to impose a new and most grievous 
hardship on the northern counties 
of England, hy aholishiug a cur- 
rency to which they had heen 
long accustomed, which had heen 
acknowledged on all hands, even 
in parliamentary reports, to he at- 
tended with no danger, and which, 
hecause it was so secure and con- 
venient, had heen left untouch- 
ed hy ministers. The districts, on 
which it would hear most heavily, 
were those adjacent to Scotland. 
One of those districts had sent up 
a petition signed hy people of ail 
classes, who never agreed, proba^- 
hly, ou any other suhject of a 
political nature, hut who now 
came forward as one man, and de- 
clared, that no ereater inconveui^ 
ence could heftul them than the 
introduction of such a measure as 
that now proposed. For seventy 



82] ANNUAL REGISTEB, 1828. 



yean they had poniessed the ad* 

vantage, if hich it was now sought 
to deprive them of,— the adyan- 
tage of the Scotch currency. In 
many instances, seven-eighths of 
the rei!its of estates had been paid 
in the paper currency of Scotland ; 
and no loss had been sustained in 
that district in consequence of 
faUures of persons issuing this 
currency. This general difiusion 
of Scotch currency had also weak- 
ened the banks in the neighbour- 
hood. They had no bankers like 
the Scotch bankers. TEey could 
find no twenty-five men who 
would associate themselves toge- 
ther as partners, — all being respon- 
sible for the claims upon them; 
and yet, for a theoretical evil, 
tbey were asked to pass a measure 
which would produce these fatal 
consequences. The effect of the 
present system of currency being 
of a mixed nature in the northern 
parts of England was, that there 
was an interchange of one species 
of currency for another constantly 
twice in each week, just in the 
aame manner as draughts and bills 
were exchanged every day at the 
clearing house in London. Thus 
all the paper of the Scotch banks 
had to be taken out of circulation 
twice in each week. The pre- 
vailing habit of bringing every 
thing at night to the aifierent 
Scotch banks to secure and invest 
it, through the extreme caution 
of that people, was in itself a 
means of^ checking the too great 
issues of Scotch bank paper. The 
■Operation of this check was not 
only felt in the counties of Scot- 
land, but also in the counties of 
.England bordering on Scotland, 
which had adopted the benefit of 
the Scotch system. The restrio 
tion of the currency of these notes 
would bQ extremely prejudicisd to 



\hc intin^sts of tndo mA dBtn* 
merce in the oountiei on the 
ders, while no danger would 
under the eireumalaAeM &i tM 
continued cheek which tbeaei— lo 
were of neoesiity subjeefc to by tiie 
p res en t systesi* 

Ministen, on the oth^ Ittod, 
repeated the argpments, hf wlitA 
they had supported the bill M 
1826, lind by which they'ttam- 
tained the prudence of gettfaig riS 
of the small notes, unless it etvaHA 
be shown that the want of tlmii 
would be produ^ve of some gteat 
and counteibalanciog ineonveni* 
ence. There was a manitet fen*' 
dency in parties who issued psKpeiV 
to issue as much paper, and to 
keep as little gold, as they could ^ 
whilst it was the possaBsion of 
sufficient gold to meet the deniaiidy 
on whibh the value of the paper 
depended. It was an essential 
part of the banking system, for 
bankers to depend en one anotiter, 
and it was utterly impossibl^i to 
take sufficient security for the 
conversion of their notes into gold* 
Then, let a panic come,— 4UQid it 
was impossible to say ttom how 
small a cause it might ariae , the 
notes issued would be in the hands 
of those classes upon whom the 
panic would first seiae; and who 
could venture to say whfltt wmdd 
be the extent of the evil ? The 
whole mass of the cireuiatkiii 
would rest with the Bank of fiag^ 
land, and the entire responsibiiity 
of providing gold for the ditidif*- 
tion of the country wouM de^dve 
upon one establishment* If there 
was not a sentinel continually 
watching over it, there was a 
constant tendencjiiin paper to an 
over issue ; that sentinel was the 
metallic sovereign, continilally 
issuing. The act of 18S6, there- 
ibre^ would be a proper meastire 



r ^ 



tUMDOUt OP £UROP£. 



*•. 



In^ 




i$9^ whtlwa it should bow fas 
dbj^lii >' «Bd .:;Ui0ie wm fuither 
ih0'«madtmkNi, tk«ft> so a cob* 



flf •' fissi flod fisn dpinion ww iu 
wtM an «nriL Nodiiag oould give 
n» ivsmps aamf eviliy than to 
hmp .4ko poliiao miad in a peiw 
pMw ilate of iwcovlaiiitl as to 
tkB iiitOMliiiiii of tho IcgBaturoi 
If Ihtr xeMdved at 0110 Sile thai 
tb*. iMis of' matt notes rfiould 
dHM Mdj at aaodMV time, that 
^t0f ciioiild ooiitmtte«»]f they 
wait #a vaeUlaliag between one 
dMriMe ani anelber, and finally 
flRRavp die ptine^e to whioh 
mjT'bad repeateiUy pMged tbem^ 
a rt¥ca» ibey BU|^t depei^ upon it 
liMi. thif oowtttty would not for 
the #Mn» plaoe any relknee on 
Adr dedttOni. The question 
oa|^t to be decided upon the 
f iai i a d af expediency; and the 
avidenee vf expediency should be 
vaty dear, that eoiild warrant 
Ikeia m taliaeing thidr stq;»» and 
nadeiag what thay had done with 
la s atU to the imie of small notes. 
M0W9 no suoli expediency en- 
isled; Ant the dangers appreliendp 
ad fima the sud&i ^withdrawal 
of tha snail notes^ and the want 
o^ Odin to supply the deficiency, 
waaa iaMgiBazy* It was true that 
msmffemenat mii^t be felt» if all 
iha iSBM^ notes weta to be wiih^ 
daawB fiam ^circulation ou a par- 
liBukt day* But this was not 
frtttft was ei\)oined by the aa of 
f gSfi^ and aJould not be an effect 
af iu The act stated* that a 
tauatfy banker should not, after 
At 6dk of ApriU 1^9» issne notes 
noder the Talamof 5/.; but it pro- 
vided that notes issned since Fe- 
brattry* IS26, might be circulatod 
fiom band to baim with the sane 
tifUk^ as at tha pia^siit moment. 
«t- VOL. LXX, 



It had only the afftet oif^sduaHy. 
^t might be said^ i mperrepti iUy 

cancelling these notes* When 

the law provided that those notes 
dboold remain in circulation a» 
long aa they endured — ^when it 
only prerented the issue of them 
by the bankers into whose hands 
they might return— then die 
question bore a very diffisicnt as* 
pecL Accordingly, a gradual ex» 
tinction of them had been going 
on since the date of the act* Since 
Fdbruary, 1826, there had not 
been a suiale country benk*nota 
stamped at UieStamp-oflice. There 
had been, therefore, a gradual re- 
duction of the issues in opesatioa 
since that period; and if Uie total 
reduction was likely to be attended 
with such effects as had been da* 
scribed, the partial reduction going 
on since that time ought to euiibit 
some indications of the evils ap» 
prebended* But hitherto, at least, 
no symptom had appeared-^ no 
pressure, no stagnation, which any 
man had ever thought of aacribing 
to the diminished circulation of 
one-pound notes, and the increased 
circidation of sovereigns. 

Again, the amount of small 
notes, which would be banished by 
the chanoB, had been, it was said, 
enormoudy exaggerated. It was 
•too smaU, either perceptibly |o 
afiect the general currency of the 
country, or occasion the sUgbtast 
difficulty in supplying its plaoe 
with gold. The numl^r of notes 
under 5/., which ware ia cinBulation 
previously to the alarm which pr^ 
vailed in 18S5 and 1826, waa 
7,800,0002. The aaMunt ef mim 
discredited at that period, retusaed 
to.the stamp-office to be oancel i ed> 
or worn out, was l,700,OOOZ«.and 
it was not unreasonaUe ta'Sttpppue 
that, by th^ opesatioa jof .^vmlpr 
causes, up to Aniil ljM^ft,n9(eiia 

[G2] 



(?p^ ANN|U(A:L; ll'EtJfaiB'Eim 1828. 

jl^ (jf^c^diMpa »* likely to UWh ^^i2A(m00Rlvfhy^RF,mmm^ 

ther withdrawn — ^r<w8i«9ediel)fMi8 ii^ V^hJ^ \^afmV9^nf9^.^^St^ 

of Uieact.of 1^26 was laki, there ,^inQuiil(^':mfJl.>ii^t(^.^i|^^Y^(|& 

)mi be^H* % gradual, wiiibdtawtt] .of .th^ aot id mi^^Mfies^wo^i^ih^ 

.the tsqiall-note dtculatioD ; aiKl to 4cal« . if»>^^^rQ&|?PjiffMliW^ 

Ki onrroqxmding augm^oyt^lioQ: of this ^uflstig^,! t^^^^hp^mhi^ 

M mnea. Adding to these,. the mN»uBt im.u)94^ At^^A^ 

ni^m ot the Scottish banhs wiiich would not und<9ixat9.^i9:|9Beii|i0|i 

)i^,l)^i;b and. would ha. ^udied> ofj fiiutUr pliotea..4h^V>!^^^ ^ 

tjkie m#l of the sunia to be deducted «dSEectiid)Jb^,itl|e m^9iVm^^ ^l^f^ 

i^j .^ajiKvmled to.. dj660jew<v *BPt |#rctt:l^j^p^.(53irfp^^ 

^M^^^takexLfnnxuihe 9rqf&:wm i»f liWrpwoWt^. ;?T><i|f .o? ffiq|j lt ii gi 

f^.'ii^ifOifiOQL, h&, a. total. iw^ mwfMMfi^^fmm^^^^^wa^^ 

:»[.,. %UQ,0O0l., aa the ,muph0v <H wiKlfuu«aia|9})oi98;r^ ^9«4hfi^ 



a^, notes ovrtstaoding ^t preseat. %ag)iudi 2p,pQftqQ0^ ; J 

^i^«g«pothec mode <^ calpula- tprj hmhen^.tU^ xw^ .|4Hfe^f#> 

tifjfii tbo nesuk would he nearly Ihe lHJOOQimxAi} i« wt^ i^daf^l^^ 

IMie, It oujglit he assumed thal^ ^40Q^0QO^,, •Tber^v^VWt i^/^ 

in April 19»9m there would be no dr(ubktim«>o Jflw^tluMA $^9yP^MWP 

^iptef in circulation of a date ante- ^ sovoroigpik aoA i^jOQO,9iQO/|.(^ 

(i^i^dcnt to January 1 8jld. This was silter ooii^ mking jtJbe^fiircijdatTC 

aUpwing noore than four years for inediuin< Uk the^whcJei^^^po^lS^ 

Ae circulation of all these notesr^* Let the HiHm» the9> <nody oqm^^ 

atthoogh, as. 90 new notes had been these ifiOOAQO^i j^ttUfw^tes^with 

ifnied, thoae old notes must have the total siim of 66»WQfiQQff[i ' 



imn mbregenfflmlly in drculatiDn^ thorn consider how amaU a pispp^ 

and weoQ, thereforoj more liable tioa this part boice tOi tbfi *yfiiif^; 

ftp be destroyed 1^. constant wear; that all that was ^mt^mtjufffi 

and the. law, which SM^ulated the was a reduction of ^i* •Wt:tP(ifl^i; 



iisua.of Small notes, pBooeeded on a and thatii not immediatdj^ 

eakplation that they did. not con* the distance of a ooosidfiprabMiM- 

iiouier in droalation more than riod : — thufl^ all apiviiJh<«M|fl|i 

4lirGe yean. ; The total amount of even of inconvepie^eeiftQi^iai^ 19Q- 

9fiU$ iTfrhiqh had been issued be* thing of serious . emhafOMmM* 

tween 'January^ 182^» and Febru- or panic should disappair.to S^ 

m^xviase,. yrwB Sfi92,OSll. Of ther could the ^^tm^4SiM^ 

diM dmre appeared to haye been occur in supplying^ wM^^glUj 

dMioyed • |o . the aaiount of the trifling defioien<^«;.¥Rbidi[rtfie 

ififii8/)QflU4)y the fiuling of hanks withdrawfU of the. npi^lipogjlit 

aMitaotesfoanddled in the Stamp* create* There meref.r aliiyAr 

tiB»^ ffejIMXMU-and by the with^ ^^^000,000^ of gold kicmac^^^ 

drawal of thfersifi)! of. n6,000L of besides 8»0QQ,000^. in tShm^^mi^ 

fiio|ehiaif«ila6on» as 'U.^^ed to the ^(unntity /availaUfffar.iAff 



CmytiBrifasuij y Those tliree'itOQif aeat puipDee &r e^oeee^edflito JVlit 

ftamfldua flddudBosfToe 9A0fiQ0l*, which that paifnse.wottUrev^* 

1rfaabMiihp»rfflhmJi,89g,^liH,isft K« jUfficuJityi.wo^]d be «iipe^ 

^rhalfnnHB£4>4M^fti. huciteik* imeed inAe vdiitiibtttiari^.ii&iiiMB 



|MMi>.uiN(n^tmi%ji|i«|eiftiwwl> money thioug^wit!<tte-<«iHatl|fk; 



«i^ t Hl8TffiHT'C» 



/». 



/A 



ipw 



ia^ wjMS^ktAtstiti' Hkton^^Mtit the 

:w^fi|iftulSli^ tiiaf there bbuld he nb 
^lit iA]i4«v^rMf tkfti "^eie ^«ntt 
UMiie- cMnr'Adii]^ 9iiffi<d6titiX> tM6i 
!ft*itf4iM^tpiAtteh • 
^te^fttiiimr'theD, Of the 
^^ )jQiTi^^ ce inete«'of '9r. aJM 
tii^#aAMb ^ghl tb %e nmlrrtaiheA^; 
ttih§'if<k>, 'the freM^t' hW Wi» 
Ml i| l< ?itefc iatf ' hi curdii' D^tuttlee^k 

-iM'Wbifld flkkki' to' Mi- the T»ent. 
ffbe'f^ 1Ufe« flfeteA^I]^ the 
o^el^mK f^lMe Holue; Aikt great 
^Nut"^ tRe fexkti ef ^large e!lCa«es th 
t!Afr^h6fder «x>ini«lei irerepaid in 
%hak HMtilc]^, pwted'Cbeikebessitf 
<yf '^tf^ ^i^Nlsnt; MecBuze. * The 
^ftkt hi these Mteft' -was so pro* 
fMffiKr 10 llto honkeri, tiiat 
'fthejr irere sefe-to keep oreepinlg 
fftaihwa^ fttmi the iiartheni dis- 
fAtti. ' If we Were to permit 
thto to ^Nmtiiitte^ as a necessary 
dt^pat lttfe from our estahlished 
p^hsiapk^.it woiild he the height of 
injttffioe to ptet«ilt English hank- 
er 'fihyia c^culating dieir small 
iiOM» ftf Ihese distriets. In justice 
HP flfiNd there tras no alternative 
MWteker to prohihit the drcnla- 
tio& of- -6o0t^ notes in England, 
elf fa<inlrbdttbea metallic currency 
(Mb Sedfland^ 

• ' ^Tiie iiioiioii for leave to hring in 
Kte'ldlliAris earried hy one hun- 
tftCfr and fifty-foor to forty*five. 
Oii^'ikb motion for going into a 
eaaiiBllfeee on the hil], the House 
i#KI Ugain divided^ when the mo* 
tltfii was carried hy astiU larger ma- < 
JOtttjr* Even at the thitd reading, 
It 'iras stUl opposed^ hut it was 
■kiiiMrti ly <tarried hy a majority of 
illyuiiiBe u^'4ibis«eeii. 



' ThehUdgfit was< bpt^ti«aih^^1^ 
Chancellor of the *£it^eiicter oii 
the'llihof'Jaljr. •' ' -•■i-M.H 
It appttu!ed hf the papers oh' thfe 
tahle of the House, Mi the Chaif- 
odHot of the EsLchequer, that thb 
total ordinary nett reventik of the 
year 1887, was 49,^1, 57» To 
this w^ to he added 4,245,000/), 
i:«eeived from the Bank oh account 
<^the delkd«#eight, And' under thh 
head>of ^ extraordinaty and uiiscel;. 
kneotts," 660,081/1, Hiakhlg a totM 
i^oventfo of 54,486,657/. The ^«. 
I^enditnre'of 18B7, foe the' interest 
bf the diiht, estchidin^ the smkinke* 
Amdi hut induding ^ interest W 
Exchequer-hills,' was 38,239,848/. 
The s'um paid to the trtisteesof ^h^ 
naval and military pensions, 'imk 
MiSO0,00OL Other ctMgea On the 
eefeselidatedfund were 2,218,?] 8/.; 
making In the whole 3S,258,066A 
under the hc^ of deht and per* 
nranent charges on the consolidated 
fbnd. The supply of 18S7, in* 
eluding the charges of army, ni^vyy 
ordnance, and miscellaneous esti* 
mates, amounted to 19,0^,000/. 
There were certain other additions 
that year, whidi, together with the 
deht and charges, made the whole 
expenditure amountto52,690,687/. 
If, therefore, he deducted fron^ th^ 
wIm^ income of 54,486,65?/. the 
expenditure of ^,690,6S7/. there 
would temain a surplus of 
1,796,020/. From this;, however^ 
were to be deducted the fl«nir«lL 
vanced ihr canying on .piMfe 
works, after allowing for the BUms 
x^epaid on account bt tluMe*ttdvtNH 
oes, of 66S,79d/.*-^-]eaviAgUu atuial 
surolus ofl,lS2>!287t' - ' ^ 

In thus staling tile aseouotj'h^ 
did not mean to conosal, vdiAt-^J^ 
di€fes«noe botweeti>lihe sunanvdi 
Vtenoed hy the Banfeonriiedonnirlof 
navaland milfiury . pettsiiM^iiahd 
the namof paidito ^tJwtnisaeMt 

£G3J 



W|] A N H'UAl REG4*T1RBJ[ 1828. 



, .^9f)iild,.ilft(>ba oofMNderod as income, 
jb^t w^ nthflr i^ loim made in aid 

. <iftbee|cpenditureoftliey<9ar« As 
^ ^ nrobable amount of the in- 

. fiomn of the present year> b^ anti- 
£|jj^t4^ an inorease of about 
^^QOOl. ThaCusUNaa had|iro. 
4uced.in 1^27 mora tban in l«d6» 
Jyy, aboMt 600|000/. But in 1«|27 
^i^ecewitias of the oouAtry b(id 
^lUH)^ a: lar||^ importation of oorn, 

, jsrhuii came lu under a heavy Ao^y ; 

. j|9 that the duty paid on that oom« 
(Piodity alone amounted to 800,000^ 
.He coiUd not fairly calculate on 

.,«ny ^uch importation in Ae course 
of tb&preaent yeari and therefore 
he was bound* in hif eatimata« to 
deduct &Qm the revenue of hist 
year the sum of 800,0002. derived 
from the duty on com. But there 
were other branches of the Cus* 
iom^ by which we should be en- 

; aUed to supply the want of revenue 
arismg from the importation of 
com. Those branches were sugar, 
rum, brandy and wine. The Cus- 
toms' duties on sugar fell off in 
IS27, as compared with the pie- 
oeding year, to the amount of 
SQOfiOOL The crop was greatly 
deficient in 1826. This occasioned 
i^n increase of price, with a corres* 
ponding decrease of the consump* 
tion, and defalcation in the re* 
.venue. This year the reverse 
might be €)(pected. There was on 
improved crop, which would create 
9fi^ uicreaaed consumption^ and, of 
co^ra^ revenue. The amount of 
^^t increase he calculated at 
39Q,Qpo/. ; (fiu on referring to the 
i^ums.of the la^t si^ months, the 
a^ties receive4 ^n sugar amounted 
U^^,).OQpOQQL OH^re than was re- 
.^|5^ve4. i^.t^ie .corresponding six 
mm^iSfOf the .pre^ii^g.jfcar. 
!aas ilu^) on TiUm ,had fallen joff in 

imX^ , « W^ with iw6. 



of 189<J tha haaty 4ati«ii m itM^ 
oonunodMgr liad bmi ItMsnad^aBd 
thepanse^ucnoe waiw ibati^^aicw- 
attmptiou indeasad to «aa iiMidi- 
nale eoitanU In 18i7i thdsa »viaB 
a oousiderable' falUng^ff; buii- sn 
tbe present yaarj it amain^ tarsal- 
isillato that the oqrfmwtprfttB i would 
amount tei the maaR of lha'4iro 
pifeadii^ yaav^^ whiab^wmld make 
the increase of iy»Msuia..OA dMt 
frtiiole this jreari as.0QiaiaKad.witti 
the laslt, 100,000^ WUb. . rcapsot 
to bvandy, there had beeaa fidllM* 
off in the. Customs last yaaiw •& 
reasons whiok he was not anfepe- 
tent to explain, aor was it neana- 
sary to hi& oalculatwa; for<it Waa 
known that the oonaamptioaiof 
brandy bore a considarablepsSfMr* 
tion to that of rum* Ha, 4hase* 
fore, was justified in putting the 
increase . m bnmdy at • fiOiOQO/. 
Wine stood in a diffiN!\eqt aituatiDii 
from any of the artidea bahad 
mentioned. There had not. batn 
ai^ diminution of theconsumptioa 
for some time* On the contlrary, 
the increase was steady fenn year 
to year. In 1827 the Customs duty 
on wine exceeded that of 1826, by 
200»000/. J and the lastsLx alontba 
exceeded the eonre^xmdMig ids 
months of the preceding y tar,, bj 
a vexy large proportion* Hathara* 
fare calculated, that the iafsaaae 
on the whole year wo«ld be teay 
considerable j and ha putit; doam 
at 150,000/. The additions >t»4ie 
revenue on whieh he ealcuhHed 
would stand thus :— augmdOO^OOQl. 
rum and brandy, 1 50,0001 j wilia 
1 50,000/.~making in all 60AMQ^- 
This would still leave a de&da«ny 
in theCustoms <tf 900,000/. aiscom- 
pared with the amount of laat 
year. The Exoiie, ha eiqpaclad* 
would . be more productive Jii tlie 
raevant thanin thafaaoading mr. 
In I8£7> 7X)0,Oogi.ia» hsd.Mai 



mSTOItY OP EUROPI:^ 



[w 



|iiid> into ibe Stxihefaet, ota ms 
MuM'df filcdi&autkli,1lluai in the 
TCtti^MMdiiig. Thttrt were dr- 
•MBBStincM kit 3ri»r whkb had 
gresiky diminuiiid the mannfao- 
4uie«f didtt md, in the iame prcH 
p0ftiimk4e«itaiadtfaedtitjr; aothat 
ih0 falUiiB>«ff on iMa ene article 
«luMankmnaa4 to 860,000^ This 
^waa to he ileeotmteA for b^r very ob- 
^imi>eanie» 'Ihcdsfkteiicyifor in* 
aittiet, of iteciop of hariey.and the 
atate of a[^reheiliiMi and alarm in 
aahici tho penooa engaged in that 
ttiaoiiftetitra xnte plao^, in ooq« 
a p ywiw Bof the altefationfl in the 
hm* Thealarm ivaa now entirely 
^■ipatid, and a large augmenta* 
tian- of dnty on that piurtieular 
mgMt might be antiapated. In 
aone of -the Excifle duties of last 
ytm, thete had been a £idlingn>ff ; 
in the duty on beer there was a 
Aaioienflpr of 1 70^0001. The con- 
ailinption of this article was on the 
inereasa. On the whole he esti- 
aMted tho inoreaae under the head 
of Saeiae^ in the msent year, at »• 
iMNit 750,000^ Deduct from this 
the daAeiency in the Customs, he 
fclt jnstifliadin taking the surplus 
•a tbe two branches at 550,000^ 
The vest branch of revenue was 
the duty on stamps ; and he caU 
cylaled the increase in them for 
th0pitaent year at 200,000^ ; be- 
ing n avm nther diort of that ac« 
taaUy rtnliied up to the present 
nament. In the assessed taxes, 
elso, the augmentation had been 
eonaideraUe. The increase under 
tibfS head, in the last half year, 
bad been no kas than SlfiOoL As 
tii0 prodnce of these taxes was 
anbjcct to great irariation, he was 
eontent to calculate on no larger 
«B iwmafle than 50,000/. With 
TC^pect to tfie Post-office, pensions- 
dtity, hait'ni I <• oeaches, smtdl* 
fainD^hes sorpm mid poundage 



fee*, he would merely sIKppoKis that 
they would pioduce the same 
amount as in last year, and estimite 
i^era accordingly^ The >whole 
angmentationi under the dillbrent 
heaids which he had enumerated, 
nmounted to 600,000A In ^ 
two quarters already past, Ae 
aiMnaentation on the artielaa he 
had mentioned in Great Britida 
idone, was SdSfiOOL ; which ex* 
needed the sum he Tontored to 
eidculate on, as the increase fbr the 
whole year. On the other haMd, 
as the com«duty was priacipaay 
veoeived in the latter part of the 
year, some deficiency might«be ex* 
pected in the subsequent quarters, 
which could be made gooa by the 
present surplus. 

Hitherto he had spoken only of 
Great Britain. But the revenue 
of Ireland had increased, during 
the period to which he had refer^ 
red by the sum of 150,000/. ; and 
he might fairly calculate that a 
further augn^entation would take 
place. The result of what he had 
atated to the committee was, that 
the total ordinary revenue of the 
year 1688 might be considered as 
amounting to 50,861,580/., to 
which was to be added the sum to 
be received from the trustees of 
naval and military pensions, 
6,08S,500/« and extraordinaiy and 
miscellaneous p8ymenta,488,d00f.^ 
makinga grand totalof 58,902,080/. 

He next came to the expendi- 
ture. The interest of debt, ex* 
elusive of the Sinking^nd, but 
including the interest on Exche- 
quer bills, amounted to^8,O88,00Q/; 
to this was to be added, l,6^,S70f. 
for naval and mUitai^ p^hsioris 
and f6r other charges on the 
conaolidated fund, S,tlSfim,; 
making a total of 81,^44,470/. 
The votes which • ther I^ouse Kid 
agreed tdftrth^ Wy, niiv^, ^ 



MY] A N HIH A^ ; E frG raT)E«)^I 1828. 



^d^itid total of d<M04;5»{. .I>e». 
thictklg^tlie tPtol eimendiiliiiie^fiNim 
4akeii^ mcaa» dt ^90Stfi9(>Ly 
there srematned «Ban^ar<if InooBie 
vmr '6q»^iidittti»' or 'd^7d7v508/. 
iMir tioB^ te had t^ dedactfih^ 
odnudes 4oirablkr^oxto70S,800t^, 
whidi t'kft a dAar^ nTfdui i tof 
8j089>70Bil When this surplus 
was compared with that of 1827> 
which was 1,1S2)227^> it would 
he seen that there was a balance 
in &vour of the present year of 
nearly 2,000,000/. 

Thaty being the surplus of re- 
venue above expenditure, if we 
were to provide according to the 
forms now prescribed for the an« 
nual payment of the Sinking-fund, 
the sum required for that purpose 
would be, m addition to the sur« 
plus, little short of 3,000,000/. If 
It were considered necessary to 
comply strictly with the existing 
law with respect to the Sinking* 
fund, there were but two courses 
whic^ he could recommend to the 
committee, either to raise the 
sum requbed, together with sur- 
plus revenue for &e Sinking-fund, 
by adding to the burthens of the 

rle, or to supply the deficiency 
creating fresh debt» either 
lunded or unfunded. 

It was impossible, in the present 
drcuihstances of the countiy, to 
think of supplying the deficiency 
of the Sinking-fund by means oS 
additional taxation ; and it was in- 
expedient to add to the funded or 
unfunded debt : consequently we 
had no alternative but to re« 
duoe, fix>m the present period, the 
nominal amount of the Sinking 
fund to that of the real surplus 
6f revenue. In thus nominally 
mtecing the «BM>nnt of the Stnb» 



have' as JHkUdlirinbin^ h^^isfff^ ^ 
.tke'e]0(iiic«ited0 d€(l>6»;ilsfcAfttdMir. 
Th9 li^y >«ib?«m«» fk^d'^^W^ 
thatv ' iiiMad ^oC ^ M(itfHinlij^''^tt 

^^fimditlebt^. we AiMA ik^'tfimSb 
ndmittf a Mk^^ Sam i^iMnitrifiV 
iKiith<)Ut ^eUlpHiSg' *aiiy ' i^^^4HbH 
•fine MibiOQfi^ ef 6^ if«dfeM^; 4ft 
a«e.«ouiMr4if ffbtf laM-^v^ ^^^LMi 
was 29,006,000/. His propod^ 
tion was, that we should in future 
apply 3,000,000/. to the ledemp* 
tion of debt, which he believed to 
be equally for the advantage of 
public credit and the best interests 
of the country. It must be a&* 
knowledfled, that the existing 
system of incurring debt with one 
hand and redeeming it with the 
other, was liable to the charge of 
delusion. 

The Chancellor of the Exche* 
quer next called the attention of the 
House to the state of the supplies^ 
and ways and means for the pre* 
sent year. The sum voted for the 
army was 8,049,938/L, which was 
less than the vote for the same 
purpose in the preceding year by 
nearly 1 45,000/. The vote for the 
navy in the present year was 
5,995,905/., which was less than 
the vote of last year by 130,0001. 
The vote for the ordnance this 
year was 1,597,196/., bdng a re« 
duction of 50,000/. below that of 
last year : and the miscellaneous 
estimates thisyear were 2,1 84,96l/« 
being 90,000/. less than those of 
last year. The total reduction on 
these several estimates amounted 
to nearly 418,000/. Add to that 
the vote of credit given last year, 
but now no longer necessary, and 
the reduction on the estimates 
would be about 1,00(^000/. The 
whole of the chaige for the public 
service of the pcesent year -was 



.fi2fe{ HKI(IBtiaF;«UIUDBBd 



^ftftWO^ l.:Wnvali^utie* on 0ug»r 
3ip^O^P0p/v« i tlie tfiiMe» of the 

Jit Ij^vst.',*} >i« rJ 'i:*v/ ,♦(' '.» ••• 1" *^ 

1«> M^j-.lffr mV Si't tut V. rtl •< .♦<< 

-'jt 'h' JHi<;'f 7'. '«. '.''' •••'* *• 
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«:»ri*> :!*' /r Jf* .!") J..'. I"'- ..': •' ^ I' »'>'•'■' 



^494680^; m^pMi. oC A^ canr 
Aolidaled fund fm th&prtent yw, 
J(U90>000JL ; ; ways and -inefaiisuaf 
M%7 to b^ ti{m]i«l lot im^ 
»m%660L; vaiiag a. tgtai jdf 
l»;a^i280t to moot «a /esfeadb- 

lureofia,6B8«06Q/* !; 

Tiie GhanceUorof the fiadieauor 
ihimw&wtd, ike nsohttiam^ imA 
wem adopted wilbout a dfarisUn 
and almaat wiAout diaculnoiu : // 



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U] ANNOAX R£OISTBR, 182d. 



CHAP. IV. 

Repeal qf the Test and Corporation Acts — Motion fir a Committee 
to consider the$e ActSf carried — Resolution thcU they ie repealed^ 
carried-^JDeqlariUion to be taken instead qf these Oaths-^l^iecm' 
sion in th^ House of Lords — Motion m the House qf Commons/or a 
Committee on the Catholic Claims^ carried, and referred to the 
Home of Lords for their concurrence. 



NO subject discussed in parlia- 
ment during the session exi* 
cited greater interest, than the 
progress of a bill for repealing the 
Test and Corporation Acts* which 
excluded Dissenters* from offices 
of trust and powor, and shut the 
doors of all oocporations against 
them, unless they consented to 
take the sacrament according to 
the ritual of the churdi of £ng- 
land-^a necessity from which they 
were relieved only by the patting 
of the Annual Indemnity bilL On 
the 26th of February^ lord John 
Russell moved> " That this House 
will resolve itself into a Committee 
of the whole House, to consider 
of so much of the Acts of the 13tb 
and 25th of Charles 2nd, as-re» 
quires persons, before ihey are 
admitted into any office or place 
in Corporations, or having accepted 
any office, civU or military, or any 
place of trust under the Crown, 
to receive the Sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper acoordine to the 
Rites of the Church of England/' 
To these he subsequently added^ 
the 1 6th of Geo. 2nd, for indemni- 
fying from penalties individuals 
who^ had not qualified according 
to law for certain offices. Hia 
.lordship prefaced the motion by a 
review of the history of the sta- 
tutes in question^ from which be 



inferred that they had been ori- 
ginally enacted for reasons which 
no longer existed; and he main- 
tained Its justice and expediency 
on the ground, that, whUa these 
tests were an inffibction on the Dis- 
senters, which only the most inwe- 
rative necessity could justify, they 
did in truth afford the church oi 
England no protection, but ex- 
posed herj on the contrary, to dan- 
gers to which she otherwise would 
not be obnoxious. Without serv* 
ing any good purpose, they made 
the Dissenters irritated onemiai^ 
smarting under the continual sense 
of injustice, instead of oonverting 
them into peaceable and amicable 
companiunSy if not into cordial 
friends. It was notorious, he 
said, that the Presbyterians and 
Independents formed the main 
force of that party which carried 
through the stru^^ aguost 
Charles 1st. It was natural, uiere- 
fore, when his son recovca:ed his 
regal rights, that one of the first 
steps, which he took, should be, to 
endeavour to apply a check tg the 
power of those who had contdbuU 
ed to the dethronement and death 
of his father. In the preamble 
of the Corporation Act it is stated, 
that, '' notwithstanding aU his ma- 
iestY*s eudeavouzs and unparaU 
ieled indulgence in pardoning all 



HISTORY OJF EURJOPE; 



[89 



that was past, nevertheless many 
evil spirits were still working." 
It was to counteract the working 
of l^ese evil spirits, that the Cor« 
poration Act was introduced; pro- 
viding that commissioners should 
be appointed to see that no persons 
flhoiiid be allowed to enter into 
any Corporation, withouttakingthe 
oa^iTof AUemcneeand Supremacy, 
reabuacmg toe Solemn League and 
Cov«tuait> and makaig oath, *' that 
they did not consider it lawful, upon 
any pretence whatsoever, to take 
armsi^nst the kingi and thatthey 
abhorrad Ihe traitorous position of 
taldng* arms, by his authority, 
against his pecson, or against those 
who were commiiwioned by him*" 
In. the cQUZse.of discussing the 
measuie, however, some difference 
took plaoshetween the two Houses 
of parliament. The House of Lords 
wished to put the corporations in 
the power of the crown* This 
the House of Commons resisted ; 
and at length successfully; con« 
aenting, however, to a clause, 
whidb. provided, that no person 
should be admitted into any office 
or pkee contemplated in the bill, 
without previously taking the 
sacrament of the Lord's Supper, 
aocosding to the rites of the church 
of Engfbnd. But so far was the 
act from contemplating the exclu- 
sion of Dissenters generally from 
situations of trust and honour, 
that there were then about iifty 
Presbyterians sitting in the House, 
of whom only two scrupled to take 
the sacrament according to the 
rites of the chiirdi of England. 
No doubt, when the Presbyterians 
ceased to partake the Communion 
of the church of England, they 
properiy came within tha scope of 
the statote ; but stDl the general 
fact was true, that it was Dot 
intended to esudude the Presby« 



terians as a body, but only the 
^' evil spirits," who refused all 
reoonciliation,all compromise, with 
the church. 

The Test Act, again, was passed 
at a time when Uie nation was 
irritated and terrified by the know- 
ledge that it had a king who 
was a concealed Papist, a successor 
to the crown who was an avowed 
Papist, an odious alliance with 
France formed against the liberties 
of England, and an army encamped 
at Blackheath to overawe delibera- 
tion. Under these circumstfuiQes^ 
the Test Act was passed, and 
there could be no dispute as to its 
object ; for it is intituled " An Act 
for preventing dangers which may 
happen from Popish recusants, and 
quieting the minds of his majesty's 
good subjects" — ^minds disquiet- 
ed, not by the Dissenters, but by 
the Roman Catholics. So weU 
was it known that this act was not 
intended to be directed against 
Protestant Dissenters, that, when 
it was under deliberation, and many 
persons were inclined to voteagainat 
it because it would affect the Dis- 
senters, a well-known Dissenter 
had said in the House, that ** the 
Dissenters would rather lie under 
the severity of the law, than clog 
so necessary a work." The House 
of Commons, in feict, had at- 
tempted on various occasions to 
relieve the Dissenters; but the 
king had always contrived to evade 
the measure. The Commons 
were strong to persecute the Ca- 
tholics, but not to relieve the 
Dissenters ; and the king, unable 
to relieve the Catholics, consoled 
himself with retaining the Di»< 
senters under the same constraint. 
The policy then of the two acts had 
been this: when parliament wished 
to exclude the Dissenters^ they 
gave the king the. power. of, pui^ 



8d] ANNUAL tlEGrST£R, 1828. 



log the cdrponiioM, mnd impoeed 
a test to exdude members wbo 
might be elected hy a Dissenting 
majority ; but they did not exclude 
them from offices under the crown, 
.because they did not suspect the 
crown of any partiality towards 
Protestant Dissenters : but when 
they wished to guard against the 
Catholics, they put up their bar 
against the entrance to office, and 
closed the road to the ro3ral palace^ 
because the king was suspected to 
be a Papist. Now, with the secu- 
rity of a king attached to the 
church of England, by law, by 
affection, and by principle, what 
need had we of keeping up the 
barrier that was erected, not to 
defend the throne from the people, 
but to defend the people from the 
throne ? At the Revolution, king 
William came down to parliament 
and openly expressed his wish, that 
all Dissenters, who were ** willing 
and able to serve," should be ad- 
mitted to offices and places of 
trust ; but those who had to con- 
duct the government, considering 
that the Revolution had changed 
the dynasty, and that the church 
was greatly ofiended by the intro- 
duction of the Toleration Act, did 
not think it safe, if it was meant 
that the establishment should last, 
to grant any further liberty to {he 
Dissenters at that time. Affiiirs 
continued in the same situation 
during aU tbe changes of parties, 
till the time of George the first, 
when earl Stanhope, a zealous 
Whig, proposed to introduce a 
clause. for repealing certain parts 
of the Test and Corporation Acts 
into a bill brought into the House 
of Lords. The clause met with 
serious opposition in the House of 
Lords, and failed, but, at the same 
time, it was support^ by some of 
the men most eminent for loyalty 



and public Bt»rit, and Hkiswiifr bf 
some of tiie neat learned ftraong 
the bishops, by Ifae bi4id{Nr -of 
Gloucester and Lineoitt, hot oioi^ 
especially by Hoadley, bishop of 
Bangor, and K«met, bbdiop of 
Peteriiorough. FarliamMtthoiight 
and continued to think; that the 
House of 'Hanover would not vo- 
ceive the support of the dMmeh, 
if they gave further relief to the 
Dissentcns ^ and the Dmseiilieiiay 
who, in the reign of Charles SUA, 
had subjected themsdvetr to m 
severe law rather thaa endanger 
the public liberty, temaiBed eoa- 
tented to endure their pri:vaAons 
for the sake of the inestSsSMlile 
blessings which they found to flow 
from the expulsion of the Stowart 
dynasty, and the establiahment of 
the family of Brunswick. The 
feeling of the government, how- 
ever, and its wish to favour UieDia- 
senters, though not to remove all 
their disabiUaes at once, had in- 
troduced an anomaloos state of 
things. In the reigns of Oettfge 
Ist and 2nd four Indemnity aets 
had been passed, to protect Dis- 
senters against the conaeqnenee^of 
having violated the Test and Cor- 
poration Acts— a proceeding inde- 
fensible in principle ; • for, if the 
Dissenters were dangesrms, they 
ought to have been etelnded al- 
together, and if they wele not 
dangerous, they ought to have been 
fully admitted. 1 he practical ab- 
surdities that followed were tikm- 
strous. Daring the RebelKon in 
1745, many non-conforttiista took 
arms in defence of the crown, fought 
gallantly by the side of the royal 
troops, and bore a laige share in 
triumphantly c[uelling the enter- 
prise. But did the crown shower 
honours upon these menP Did 
parliament vote them thanks ^ Did 

the people express to diem ibeir 



HISTORY OF EUROPE* 



{fi^ 



grftftitode^ No: the iorerngn 
gK9^ ihina no hommni» pailiameut 
AC fthas^ the people oo gratitude. 
For their useful vid gloriouA ikiw 
Wfmt tbej reqelved mm the mu** 
nificeiioe of king, parliament^ and 
MopU^-^^^ fuE and free pardon. 
Vet Ihift act of 1747 was not 
singuhir: siace that period it had 
keea the iprincifde of oup legisla^ 
tien on this snt^^eot. The annual 
Indemakjr Act was apaidon of the 
aameidnd, but not so complete and 
unconditional^ by which good men 
wave Sar^vmn for having done 
good servuse to their country. 

Fmn the histaory of these acts, 
thuaefowiy his lordship said^ it clear- 
ly appeared, that they had been 
TWUfflH tognacd against a particu- 
lar daagec; and the true ques- 
timi was* does that danger still 
esiet? Now, who was so extra- 
iPi^nal as to suspect the Dissenters 
of dislsyalty ? It was possible to 
cDMoetve why things might have 
ffooe on upon the footing of the 
Yilsamity Act ier a few years; 
^^venment-aoi^t have said, ** wait 
alittlaf we are not yet assorsd of 
th^ loyalty of these persons : do 
not give thtm freedom all at once, 
hot see first how they will act." 
But thai psrliament should go on 
with a«ts of indemnity for e^ty- 
fivB yea(»— that they should not, 
at thaa time of day be satisfied 
of- the loyaky of die Dissenters, 
wis a thing against all rules of 
justioe^ of poUey, and of prudence. 
Aaodier inigiity objection arose 
inmi the nature of the test, which 
made it a shameless abuse of 
the amst solenm of all religious 
riles. The sacrament of the Ix>rd'8 
Supper was held by the church to 
be most sacred; and yet it was 
piustitoted by law to be a mere 
qoaltfioataon for civil office. It was 
slated in hiatorical works that it was 



the custom for persons to be wait- 
ing in taverns and houses near the 
dwrch, not goiag in until service 
was over. Ihe o^remony used to 
be called " qualifying for office ;" 
and an appointed person called out, 
** Those who want to be qualified 
will please to step up this W8y>" 
Persons then took the communion 
for the purpose of receiving o£Bce, 
and with no other intent. Such 
were the consequences of mixing 
politics with religion. You em- 
bitter and aggravate politieal dis- 
sensions by the venom of theologi- 
cal disputes ; you profane reli^n 
with the vices of political ambition, 
making it both hateful to man and 
o&nsive to Ood. Who would 
say, that legislation of this kind 
was calculated to induce men 
to entertain a greater respect for 
religion, or to induce Dissenters 
to believe that the church, from 
which they differed, was pure and 
blameless. 

The only answers, which could 
be made to these obfeotionc^ were, 
that the Dissenters, m consequence 
of the Indemnity Act, suffered no 
real liardship, and that the law in 
its present state was useful or 
necessary to the security of the 
church. Neither of these positions 
was true. The practical griev- 
ance suffered by the Dissenters was 
mueh heavier than the legal griev- 
ances appearing on the face of the 
statutes. Even the indemnity 
was given on the ground that the 
omission to qualify had proceeded 
from ignorance, absence, or una- 
voidable accident, and thus re- 
fused all relief to those in whom 
the omission flowed from conscien- 
tious scruples. The fact was, 
that many Dissenters refused to 
take office on these degrading 
terms; they refused to attain 
by a fraud upon the statute 



W] ANNllfAjLfKBGL5irffR;:U828. 



^, hmiMu9Aili»y durald aoi 
ti94bte tP ;ilt«uii3 anjiother mqr. 
Bestdeciji It ms^alifsytf in tbfc power 
pC .$117 oiifponilioii^. actuated by 
Ugymyj hy yNWiQpal ammosity, or 
by.par^ tfmi^ to ^avry the Cor^i 
]^l]A&)«. Act^mlo efifeet ugaiiut 
oboQilioJiS Duwnters^ i The reeofds 
•f ithe «Mrts. of law. fumiahed 
mf^ iniBtiiiMea of persons, who had 
t^«.'WiiaUBriiumher of votes, having 
l;i9^i.4aQUred:du](y «kcted to oGorpo- 
ini|s}Mi ottpee ia coase^uence of no^ 
lus^jMHviiigUwsitgiveB^ that tihe pei^ 
aim vated foe by the majotity weie 
PisitRAe|»; and in how many more 
etf^eu »a6t> the drei^ of this have 
jtHMFeated Biasenttan from ooning 
£9rwiu:d«a candidates? Theseault 
w/RSj that, nat one teath of the 
I^jiBsetilens who. la pnoportion to 
thab numben ought to hold office, 
did at^present hold it. 
' .E^oeUiy unfounded was the po* 
8ition> that these laws weore useful 
orjiecesBary/to the. security of t&e 
cburdi, which must always fiad 
its true proteotion, sot in exclu<- 
sipn, but in its moderation, . its 
{air. temper, and its decent wor* 
abip»' OonfoiffiaUe to the sentip 
Biepts and consdeaees of the ma« 
jority of the people. The Dissen- 
ters could have no views ag^st 
ehiyu*cb property ; for they did 
not hold that great wealth was a 
zeoommendation of a church, and 
thevefore they would not seek to 
aggrandiae themselves. So long 
aa they were excluded by law £xMn 
theii: civil rights, on account of 
the established chureh, it was im- 
ppssihle that they could regard 
that oiuucb with feelings of good 
will; bu^. when it laid down the 
character of. a persecutor, it would 
oease to be an object of jealous* 
The question as to the safety of 
tbe jBkurdt waa not oae of mere 



ihtofy^.ifr had Jjem^qiiliitiirtiy 
dacddei m.liiajotksatvpaidi^tiw 
Idafjdom. if t)ha> sBeariayi^ ate 
EndUhiehuidh wftsffatnstoi fbUg^ 
oauie Test apd)OpqK?fatian 'ilcti} 
what waa thft aooiaity j^or ^Ifaa 
ehmck . of iSfvtlBndl By ^ vaiu 
tkleaaf 'Unum^ theJRnafaytritiite 
was dedasedthrxBtabladseikcltuiA 
of that ooantiyyflsidiyet'jatf'ilWil 
or CofpoBataonAotsfiriflawiJtiiiBfai; 
Nay, in order to- :disBiiiisk>tat3i 
further the aecmity of theaovdwkii 
church, persons' <]£•the-Ialulach^af 
Scotland oould .nOt^osnaa tb^^tUi 
country and take officeV'^itteut 
being liable to tike .penaltiBa'iYif 
these acts^ althoagh tfaey^^niaw 
menfaen of the chincb estaldiaftied 
l^ law in another part af tha iaalg* 
dom. If these laws wete neceaauy 
for thesecmitgr^of tfaa chmdi/iBf 
England, they ought iikeipve totba 
enacted. for the aepu ri ^ ef ^tiie 
church of Scotland. Then, aa to 
Ireland : if the Gorponrtioa aad 
Test Aots were necessary to^v the 
seciuniy of the diuioh' in Bni^and, 
it would be suppotod that tfacv 
must neeessarily' exist in Iialond* 
That, however, was not the &^ 

The Carpm^iiiMm ^i^hntmin 'mtl^^ 

in Ireland. The Test^Aet ww 
introduced there in thar9ig»<of 
Anne; it had been abidiifaedaome 
forty*eight or forty-auaeyeaiaagp^' 
since which tioK itfaad nateoEisteii 

in that country. .. .> 

In rfTnnhmmi, riid bin hiiflilpp^ 
I have shewn that'faiatoiT mUnot 

justify you in, mai»k»nink>gi.Ai^fy 

acts. The first of tSiem waaaeaiidl 
as a barrier to the tfafone against a* 
party who had recentlyioveiturBad 
it; but whatever the ZHsbeihtexaaf 
that day mi^t feel .towanb th^ 
House of Stuart, the Dis8entBia;of 
the present time feel toothing :bat 
loyalty towards the Uouaa^^ian* 
oreTi The Teat Ac^ againi wa< 






.HJHTODEra Of JEUROPB: ^i A [8§ 



lKiifj^3fviiiacwai»^ooBiisrted Fspisl'; 

iKii^aibii-^Fapaliaiigi period theie 
•cIb ware 'imuBtained for f eaor of 
dnrmg tUe diiuMskiinio the aims 
ffatbc/Jaediiteft: there is aow- do 
ftair.'tfaat.tiieiQlflq^ will Jook for 
fiiliciog|iD8Lrorj fuviiui' tiuwugh any 
oAbT tiMft: die 'le^tunate wumel 
tfir^hk-iiiugtiit/a Tteasuiy asid 
Cfatttoei|ri i 2i«Ke dbotrn you 
IbattjallpgroiliidB of. neoevsity foily 
Ikdiacts Inmog-beeA fiupendedfor 
auiDt.' -thazt . three « quarters of a 
oeatiay.6 ~1 hafie pcoved that thef 
mbte.tfae sioxad righto of eon» 
4m^^ flBDd^ane'of tiie natuve of 
injiginani fieneaution^ •—• I ha^ 
ahoHsiy .thil, M far from not 
hiflijstiiig any haidddp on the 
faodis upon whom they opep^te^ 
ihfly tae fstsai^ with great xnia* 
diief> iidfiadoiu and injuttioe. I 
hftjve dioYRi, thai they are lolaUy 
at radanoe withotur own pelicy in 
Soodand. and Iishmd^ as weU as 
with the^enlif^teoed legisktioti of 
alliheiChxistiaa oountiieaof £u« 
z^& 'If I am aaked what advan* 
lag^.the. country it to derive from 
m ^togatkm of such laws, I 
aDSWery-that the ohrious tendenoy 
of uthe Afiaaace^ independently dP 
il8LJ«8tace,.w]li fae,-to x«nder the 
BiaaeoteEB better aifeoted to the 
government^ to inspire them with 
difqpotttaans/ to bear the heavy 
boctheaa impeaed on them by the 
Baednities.otthe state, with cheers 
fidoeBB^ «r» at leasts with resiena* 
tiati;'.aiBi, above all, it will be 
HMMBetitooaonant to die tone and 
spiJBt^'the age. than the existence 
oft thoaa angry, yet inefficient and 
itDprantioahle laws, which are a 
diimceio the Statate-book. 

The » metacMir was seconded by 
Mi^ J» Smithy one ef the leaders cf 



dieDissentliigiititetetethcMmM 
of Commttia, and%ai«Q^ptti%bd^ 
lenh Miltoti; Aithotpis'ttxfil'JNiBfA 
gent) Mr. .BrcnigbaM/ MPr^Peti 
gusson^ and Mr* R^Piilltter.'ini4y 
set out fcom this* g«Bna{alpdndpl(»^ 
that ^y wei« reqtdvei KO^f^ixi 
nothsag except dil&pmntioR, which 
everyone must admit^Mrix.- Ihat^'to 
exelude a man fromi^ttee M nM 
deing what his ptixely"'r«ligt($itt 
q^ions forbade hlm^to doi "Wtur ^ 
imitation ef ' his politknl ti^l&aA 
oompared with- theaa of his I(eli4# 
eitiaens who prefesead a d iflfek^H l 
creed. This limifeation atld^ irie^ 
quality coold be Jastkied M^b;^ 
poiitiod expediency ; and it #aa th^ 
business, therefore, of thoscf who 
maintained that they Aobld' be 
continued, to tnake ontthat such ^fl 
expediency existed. The^e^^ Mi 
fli^ed on' the - Dissenter* weni 
neither few nor light In the first 
instance theiie was the for^tare 
of the place which the ofiendiiig 
individual hekU Next, he was 
rendered incapable of holding ttny 
other. Agam he was disquulfied 
from maintaining a suit at law. 
Still further, he was prevented 
from accepting the- office of gnarw 
dian. To crown all,' he was 
rendered incapable of inheriting 
a l^acy; and af^ bong thutf 
robbed of his properiT by the 
sweeping iir}usttceof the aeti he 
was visited with a penalty of 500li 
No one had maintained that these 
were provisions which ought aetO-^ 
ally to be enforced : on the contrary, 
the only argument for continuing 
them was, that, in consequence of 
the Annual Indemnity bill, they 
were not enforced, an^ thetrefere' 
occasioned no actual grievance. 
But, was it no grievance fR^ai^ 
£nglishman to hoTd ins rights by 
an annual lease, instead cf holding 
them a« he ou^t> for the tenn ^ 



90] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



hii natoittl life^ Wositiio gpneT«- 
anoe tbatke should have his rights 
dependa&l on the caprice of any 
hrmnch of the ]egiilaturo-«-tbat he 
diMld «we it to theb forbeaiancey 
that ha was not OTorwhehnad and 
oniahed hj the penectuion of the 
laws ? The evu which emanated 
ftom these exdusite iawt did not 
$o muck oonrist in the ^actual de- 
privatioA of place which they in-> 
flitted, as in the stigma and degra- 
dation which Uiey fastened on 
those who suffered under them^ 
and in the insolent superiority with 
which they armed those who were 
the ^>rthodox opponents of all oon» 
oeasions to their fellow subjects. 
It was equally false that the Pro- 
testant Dissenters were indifl^rent 
to the repeal of them. The peti- 
tions laid on the table of the House 
on this suhject><— which^ if not 
more numerously signed than any 
patildcms ever were on any other 
sub}«ctj had rarely been surpassed 
for the information and liberality 
rf sentiment of those who signed 
them, was a sufficient answer to 
that argument. 

Mr. Ferguson, one of the mem« 
bars for Scotland j desired the House 
to lookat these laws, as they affect- 
ed, not merely a minority of £ng- 
lishmen, but even the established re- 
ligion of a constituent part of the 
empire. Scotland had a national re« 
ligion as legally as England. At the 
Union, on the meeting of the oom- 
misrioners, it was provided by the 
pmrliament of England, that no 
alteration should be made in the 
prittciples,doctrine, or discipline, of 
the church of England, as by law 
established. The Scotch parlia- 
aient, true to their own particular 
diOctrines, imitated the precaution 
nf tfieir neighbours, and imme- 
diately issued orders to their com- 
miasioiiers^ that any daueo should 



he null and void which mililalail 
in any way against the dJasipMnia, 
mindples, or doctrines of the tme 
Protestant Presbyterian religion. 
The religiDn of SeotJand was 
therefore a state religumj lU ^ifidl 
as that of Et^Uodi yet its manikin 
were affected by theae penal laiwa, 
and prevented from tmmng thmr 
king, but at the risk of ineoariag 
tkese penalties, or renoaneia^ dieir 
region. Why this pseacfiptian 
of a whole nation, upon the nation 
that this mode of exduskm waa the 
best way of defending Uie ahoivh 
and state as by law established? 
Why deny a communis of frini- 
leges to those who confer e^ual 
services and encounter equal dan- 
ger? On what ooeaabn had the 
people of Scotland not oontribaiad 
their full share in support of Grnat 
Britain? Were they no longer 
wanted ? Did the church of Eng- 
land desire to be left to defend the 
empire eackiaively ? If so, let 
the Dissenters be pbaaly tald to 
withdraw, and quit a defence 
which they could only remain to 
make under exposure to ignominy. 
Take the battle of Waterloo, 
which had crowned the renown, of 
the most illustrious leader of their 
times. What would have been 
the fate of that battle» and that 
leader, if the airmy> whioh had 
conquered, had bewi filled only 
by the sons of the chufeh of Eng- 
land i Take frmn the field, the 
Scottish regiments— *take away too 
the aid of thoae sons of Irslaod, 
the proscribed GathoUes; what then 
would have been the chaaceof tiieir 
arms, divested of the Scottish: and 
the Irish soldiers who filled their 
ranks^ who served their navy in 
every quarter of the globe? If 
they had the essistanoe of soch 
men, when the hour of peril oame 
upcm thern^ surely they ought not 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



m 



tti (detiy tlnir' emiMenc^ in a time 
of tmnquilHty Mid peatid. Did the 
goremment believe tbey could 
■nflDeMfolly v^age another war, 
and ptolong these exclusions? 
Tile iking wai quite ittmosdble ; 
thi^ must conciliate that uirge and 
iwtegfal portion of the popuuttionj 
wiiiioot! whose aotive aid in the 
Md the ckmtiy would be undone. 
- Mininters had determined to re- 
etet the ttotion^ and ^e opposition 
to It was conducted by Mr. Hus- 
Idmoti and Mr. Peel. They took 
Up, however> ^ery narrow noundj 
and did not fight the battto with 
nMldi determination. They aban- 
doned the principle on which the 
laws in question were founded, and 
defkitded them as beine prorisions 
which led to no actual hard^ip. 
The evidence of this they sought 
itt the Indemnity Acts, and in the 
long rilence of the Dissenters 
UkcmselveB, from whom it was to 
have been expected that the con- 
stant infliction of a permanent 
grievance would have drawn forth 
moessant complaints/ Mr. Hns- 
hiflson said^ he was free to confess 
kis objection to these acts. He 
was nofiiend to the principle of 
i^gious tests in reference to civil 
rigfhts : he should be glad to see all 
such tests aboHshed. But he 
doubti^ whether the present mo* 
lion was cakulated to remove any 
urgent grievance. The grievances 
complained of were of an imagin- 
ary character; for he had yet to 
Item What obstacles existed against 
the' honourable ambition of the 
I>issenter8. They were qualified 
to fill the first offices in the army 
and navy^ and they had their fiill 
share of the civil power of the 
country. Forty years had elapsed 
since this subiect had been last 
iiqptated in parliament ; that period 
had been marked by many eager 



discuasions on anothef mait ques- 
tion involving the pnneiplea of 
religious liberty. Could tt be 
credited that the petitionets now 
before the House, many of whom 
possessed aeute intellects amd ele- 
vated minds, enjoyed the highest 
consideration in the country, and 
wexe deservedly nM^ctable, if 
they knew there was any thing in 
the state of the law to impede the 
fair> useiiil, and honourable^ exer- 
cise of their talents, vrould not 
have long since respeetAil]y> bat 
firmly and unsmimoosly, called 
upon the House to remold the 
grievance? If anoppresiivegriev*' 
ance existed, if a wrong of some 
nature were committ^ woald 
they have failed to remonstnte 
against the continuance of ^e 
system? The fact could not be 
so; for, during the long period of 
forty years, the parties most inte^* 
ested had preserved a total silence. 
The question had not been diseulsed 
since 1791> and the happest results 
had been the consequence. All 
those distressing feuds, which form-i 
erly existed, ceased: an end was 
put to those diiferences which had 
sprung up in society, and had 
interfered with all the rations of 
public and pHvate life. Men came 
together in society. Without any 
reference to those religious doc- 
trines and dogmas upon which they 
happened to diifer honestly and 
conscientiously. The members of 
the church of England formed a 
cordial union with their Dissenting 
brethren : in that work of concilia- 
tion and of charity none were so 
conspicuous as the ministers of the 
establi^ed church, and none were 
more ready now to continue and 
foster that i^irit which ^ey had 
been the first to pnimote. It Was 
plain that so Imppy a state of 
things must sow beintemrpM by 



9ft3 ANNIUAL HlBGIS^^TElj; 1828. 



fttOMiv WM^ 4t: ttU ef#&« tetid fo 
9itum dksbfeioBB wkidi-Ind better 

I^ SitftMrQ HuddMon'B ^rku^al 
«490fttO&<otke fnotkni wa« Ibunded 
M tlrai tltet it» success would b^ 
UiifimAiftibie to theCilliolio claims. 
Bto»fe v e» Mud^as he mig^t be to 
ieai'triigloutfvUBift samdved, jet 
«bltei](^h^^liraifll ahiitti itt eKistonoe^ 
ii[&Vai^tk>uttd'to laok Ht tbe 83^8- 
ittii m^ WliOl«y one pare of wIik^ 
wM'^mt^ \i9 VMfetlf dnlt with, 
•alaas' Mfttttnoe wiera made to all 
Ito't^st Thf». principle, which the 
mmhn tliea hefere the Hoase 
medlttod to him to involve, was 
Ihls-^^tiMttk wheiieas, up to the pie- 
iiiitheuri a« the Uw stood (he 
WOidd-tio€ say in its practice, but 
eartaMy in iu pdne^es)) the rule 
was 'to render qODformity to tiie 
0$laUished church the condition <tf 
bdfeding dvil ofioes, an aitenmt was 
BOW made to ramove s<mie of those 
kws, leaving others in eatisteneia 
Which bore upon a ^different part 
of thapopijdation. If, then, thc^ 
aepeakd those laws which were 
the* object of ^be noUe lord's mo* 
tion, and' left other laws nntoudi- 
ed, wiidch were oomideied by many 
tft an oppressive nature, what be« 
canra of that general role^ He 
contended, that, from the moment 
audi a eourse was adopted, the rule 
was oitiiely changed, and thay 
created an exception. And who 
filmed that exception ? The Ro« 
man Catholics alone. The exo^ 
tion, it was quite clear, would, 
nndtor sooh drcomstaaoes, be level* 
ed and directed >^nst the Catho* 
]^laith alone. They would, hj 
aatii^*Aa the noUe lord desired, 
iMdte 'that an eau^eption, which was 
BOW only-part of a gederal rale. 
Havliig slated thia, he would adc 
(tf'thcSe, iilioi Wk9 huMslf, wena 



anidoua Ibr the 'kidftebuffttlMaCktak 
tholk^l^Mtion, wheArir tfteflialteg 
ef'SUch*a dmngein itopbaMHi^aa 
wMchthe ibman-iGatMiflB wsafc 
plaeed in the eyea of Tfagiand/aad. 
of the woflrld,;woaAi(3iot iie tial 
means of ginugaomefooimtenaiiae 
and some sui^nrt to.the'doetetnlb^ 
that the Raman;: Cadsc^tcs mam 
not, atiA ouriit^ not 4a bo^dfaiwad 
1^ aame^pmiieges as ednr^OD^ 
confonoBistB, tminr tliuji i'wwl fUN 
paied to do away-'witL theispititiiid 
authority of tliesee of *fiapa^ said 
thus to remove ail-idea a£ mdiridai 
aflcgia n c e ? He waa not. p B tyaiud ^ 
he confessed, to tdoeji ata|[»,'idiia 
was likely to make an unfiwmaMa 
impressiaa with zespeat tO' tfaif 
ipeat question-- 4he Cathcihaqpieat 
tion — to which he had always heatt 
a fiiend. He waa aolafasttasftadly 
unfriancay to the ptfopaBEtkmaf tfaie 
noUe lord ; but he eoald not amoBt 
toi^bacauaehewaaBUDej that, with 
reference to :die Catholic ciainif -it 
would make a bad impraanoo. :lia 
was simparled in. tins hy4ihe kUi 
authen<^ of .Mr. Pitt*, £nna^£d 

between his late majea^aadi^ 
Pitt in 1801, it wouldheaeenrlMM 
anzioua that miniaterwaa to jmdi 
dify the laws wUch al&oted vtlib 
Dissenters, dnd it.waald he^adav 
seeuj that, aotfauthstendinff • his 
great anxiety i^oa Chat, hi 
was opposed to any 
whatever of dunn, oatiL iStkBtGt^ 
tholie question had heasi rirllhaii 
Then, and not till tfaen^ dU Jim 
Pitt conceive that n proper- oppoa^ 
tunity wonld arise 10 take ^aa* 
laws into oonsidefatifln withm viaw 
to their miininn anri raadifliiaiic * 
Mr. Ftd admowledged; thak tiia 
^piestion was 'attended vaA 
fliderable difficnlty. Ua 
prepared to aay, dutfeit 
tkUy iBterwavcii^A4li9«ft(»M|^ 




HISTORY Of ^EUROPE; / / (jM 



€itA«tliiirdr«f £xiglaiid;be 4sd 
pi^'/tkBBlt iltt* the two w«re tfo 
iwaHutedi« tbttt Aediurch of £xif« 
JBaA miifll fiJl,. if< llue Test aM 
GorpoialMi; AitByrect lepeoled: 
Ml, in .canmitmng bow to deal 
.«riiiki«iok' aaaieBt' kwt to acguo 
Idmsf-^'tbouUi w^ enact them 
mam^''**t^i9$B not ^ a fair mode 
tf 'vUiRiiff lbe.queslioiu Whether 
HA.'shoiw or akoold not. enact 
wmkJmmB in medecn timefi^ was 
imttiieteifc bjr wfaioh to judge of 
&a pMifnifetf of repealing lawi in 
io. .aadent monarchy See thi^ 
lidnteaHamen and customs mi(B^t 
oAon. hsve ^Down up and become 
Miemwaat with .the laws. .The 
fBbdpfe, OD^ which he was disposed 
ta-kokattheselawsy was this; was 
there ilalfpieatpEacticalgcievanGe 
^'-^Init intuit xenilting .to the Dis*- 
aentera Inrnt these acts^-**wbioh 
eailed upon the House to repeal 
diem? Waa there any thintf so 
ahsBid as to make the vojpcu, of 
tiamDeoBBSBiy? Or were they of 
anok a aatme^.tfaat, if repealed, the 
DSasanters wonld be in a better 
mtnalaon? So great was hiare^ect 
f&t that lane and respectable body 
iifaiitaiifiBlBd Protestant Dissentezs; 
that, if he oould ha satisfied that 
tisay did. lahomr under such grier- 
flBfiea*as had been desoifaed, he 
alsSfuld-he nery atnngly induced to 
the. repeal of die acts 
oL But he did not 
ihinVliiatdw gseat body of Dis- 
aeaiers^ Inalffld at them, together 
wMk Om Indmnnityactyassogreat 
as * en] aa * hon* gentlemen had 
daai'iihid ISiey Imd been told to 
laak St. tiKonnnhcr of. petitions 
that* had been [^MT i mi it cd to the 
I^wv if be were sure that 
BtitiaBB had been quke 
, and notset inmotion 
»hir niEr eaaemaLinflMenoe. he can«> 
diilr decfand that he shauU be 



ditqpofled to: pay ntticbrXlanM^tari^ 
tion to them ; butrhaceuld nptani^ 
aider them ea. aucbr MMa9wU^ 
if the number of these patitioRft 
which had lately b^eo' yr^aaflted 
was inaisted upon as,a ateongwiMl^ 
mentj ought not the si]etice>el>9b# 
Diaflenten to be takeft :in laoacnmt 
the other way ? It had been/aeft 
^' Look at the handreda of potttiooa 
which have been piaa^nttfd tib» 
year/'-^and be waa Ifanrafonl 
tempted to aaki . how sm^ had 
been preaented at former .|iarlaij«)2 
On inqoiry he found' thdft.pnj^. mm 
petitions had been psetjentedaUdy 
gether during the ten y^xn belweon 
1B16 and lS27i Nay> what h^d 
been the impression q£ pailiameiil 
itself? In the discussifna on.tha 
Catholic questiDn,the ^ntlemen* 
who now supported thia mo^tiov^ 
had never ui^^ ijqpon the House the 
grievance and the insult of wfaidh 
they now complained. Inl8I3Mr# 
Grattan had introduced a bill tore* 
move the disabilitiea of the Roman 
Catholica^ and the profeased end of 
that bill also was» to do away witib 
every civil disaluUty, of whalever 
kind, on the acore of reliaion. But 
what was the eWect of Umt bill? 
It professed to do what he hii, 
stated ; but what did it do? Why« 
the bill actually subjected Catho* 
lies in this country to the operation 
of this very act, which waa now 
said to be an insult and a grievaaoeti 
The last bill, which was iatroduoed 
in 1825^ professedly removed those 
disabilities alt(^ther ; but that biU 
also left the Roman Catholic sub- 
ject to the operation of thia act in 
England* The preamble. of that 
bill stated its object to he, ^Vthat 
all hia majesty's faithful and dulje* 
ful sulgects may geow into .^m 
nation, whereby there may be. m^ 
utter oblivion and eatinguiahmant 
of all fonaar diaaenaioi^ «Ml.di^ 



94] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



001& between them, thus consolU 
datixut the union between Great 
Britein $iad Irekmd, and unitinc 
and knitting together the hearts m 
all his majett/s ralgectsin oneaad 
tin same intaieat, for the tunxnt 
of his maiestj's person, fmlf^, 
crown, and government, and for 
the defettee of their common rights 
and liberties." Now, when it was 
considered that a bill, whioh was to 
ha^e all these admirable efiects, 
never |iroposed to relieve the Ro« 
man Catholics from the operation 
of the law, of which the Prote»- 
tant Dissenters were now oom« 
idaining, he thought he was en* 
titled to assume, that the grievances 
suffered from that law were rather 
of an imaginary than a practical 
and retd nature. And of the fact 
that there was nothing in the pro* 
visions of that bill to repeal the law 
in question, there could exist no 
doubt Upon a question raised as 
to that point, Mr. Canning, the 
warm supporter of the bill, had 
said,-^'' Sir— This bill does not 
tend, as is imagined by the peti- 
tioners, to equalize all religions in 
the state, but to equaluEe all the 
dissenting sects of religion. I am, 
and this bOl is, for a predominant 
established church; and I would 
not, even in appearance, meddle 
vrith the laws which secure that 
predominance to die church of 
England,-— I would not sanction 
any measure, which, even by infer- 
ence,' eould be shoym to be hostile 
to that establishment. But I am 
for the removal of practical griev* 
anoe. And in this view of the 
Bubjeot, what is the fact with 
respect to Protestant Dissenters? 
It is this,"— that they labour under 
no practical grievance on aceount 
of their religious differences from 
us,— that they nt with us in this 
House, and share our oouncils,— 



that they are adtniasihle tath*. 
offices of the state> and have^^ia 
fact, in very nnmenHis hietiHice% 
been admitted to them f but; they 
hold these privsikges subjeot 'to aa 
annual renewal by ike- aimiiai act 
of indemnity: sa with the Kooum 
CathoUcs, if this Ull should paaa^ 
They will be admitted only to Om 
saaM privileges, and th^ v^ hold 
them liable to the same ododidom-T 
This, then, was sufficient eridanoa 
that the Roman Catholic i^elief 
biU of 1%2S had neves coatemj^ 
lated the relieving the Catholms 
from the operation of the* Teat 
and Corporation acts, as mitigatod 
by the Annual Indemnity acta^ 
Nor was it wonderful that it 
should be so; for what wms» in 
point of fact, the opoation oi thde 
acts ? what was the extent of 
elusion which they aetualiy i 
flioted? The House had been 
told, that, in Scotland, they aeted 
as a proscriptionof a vdioie nation^ 
Where, then, were the oomplainta 
of that country ? From the whole 
population of Scotland there wiib 
not one solitary petition; so slight 
and impalpable was the real fnc* 
tical amount of this fancied gziev* 
ance. We had shed the bkrad, it 
was said, of the Scotch regimeiita 
in the peninsula, and at Waterloo^ 
Well, what office of nawd oc 
military command had been cloaad 
aoainst their officers P But yoiit 
Test acts shut them out from ^ 
higher offices of government. For 
an answer, look at ^ miniiSiy* 
Of the fourteen mcoosbert wfaa 
composed the present ^cahtnet^ 
three, via* httd AberdeeiH lotd 
Melville, and the Presstait of ifaa 
Board oi Trsde, were Scotsmmi, 
and good PrBsbyteriaaa, whom 
these acts neveitheleaB had aoa 
succeeded in shutting out* Then, 
even in Enghmd, what was Um 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[95 



fiMtSi to CUgptlMOOlM ? H0 hO" 

liored that Diiseniers were not 
prlicaHy ezduded;- tbat, last 
jeac, tli0 lovd tnB]r[nr of London 
had been a Fiolestant DiaBoiter: 
and he vis tontiaoed that, in 
geaafa]» tbs lair was not found to 
baairaaelkalgnavBiicet The&ct 
WB^ that the czuting law gave 
nMedj.a'iioninal pxedonunaooe lo 
the EriaUashed Chnrdi, A pre* 
damiaaaoeof some sort would be 
admitted on all handa to be neoea* 
ngf, and tba ptesent was as sli^t 
a ene as eoold wdl be iaaagined. 
He beactily wiahedi theiefore, 
thai this question had been allow* 
ed to remain qmesoent; practically 
oflenive as he was coovinoed the 
hm oooplained of was to no one. 
All the anaogements and inters 
coosse between the Dissenters and 
the KetaMished Churchy had been 
maEkedy of late y tarsi by the most 
perfect cordiality ; and he regretted 
that anj chance should be hasaided, 
by which it was possible that that 
temperate and candid feeling should 
he hroheo* 

In answer to tho views^ on 
whkh ministers defended the ex« 
iatisig law, Mr* Brougham main* 
tained that these acts were daily 
aod poailively feh to be a most de« 
prcaaiiig grieiwaee. Was it no 
gnevaoee to bear the mark of the 
dbasn (to use an enpression of the 
lata Mk Canning) remaining, after 
the feltec had been knocked away ? 
Was it no gKierance for a Dis-* 
aenlar, wherever he went, to look 
Uke^ nod. to be treated like, a dif- 
feiant being}" '' We/' said the 
other party to l&e Dissenter, " are 
in poisession of the aood things ; 
yon are a diffiscent and a degraded, 
and an usolted being." This 
was the very language of the aet 
of parliament. &ut it was said, 
that temporal interests were not 



eoneecned: this he denied. No 
Dissenter could stand for a corpo-* 
ration. It had been stated, that 
the late lord mayor of Loadon had 
taken the sacrament, aotwithstaad*- 
ittg he was a Dissenter* But that 
statement made in favour of his 
argument. With req^t to Soot* 
land» he knew that not one Prea- 
l^terian in a thousand wpuld take 
the sacrament, would not even go 
to a place of worship where theace 
was an organ, would consider it 
idolatry to kneel at an altar^ If 
they consdentioasly thought 90^ 
was it to be wondensd at that they 
evinced a repugnanoe at what they 
considered a mixture of idolatiy 
with Christian worship? In 
Liverpool, two individuals had 
lately chosen to spend 10,000& 
each, to obtain the office of mayor ; 
it had been one of the haidest 
fought contests ever known : butj 
if one of these persons had had the 
misfortune to dififar from the Es- 
tablished Church as to the thirty- 
nine articles, and the other party 
did not« the Dissenter would have 
lost his election. So in the recent 
contest in the Vintry Ward, if one 
of the candidates had differed from 
the other as to transubstantiatioi^ 
or any thing of that sortj there 
would be an end to this Ictgal con- 
troversy; the court of KingV 
bench vn)uld never have heard of 
it, and the churchman would have 
been elected. Was this no griev- 
ance? Had every grievance of 
this kind, which existed, reached 
the House? The knowledge of 
this act operated so, that, though 
the Dissentor mig^t walk on in his 
course, when not opposed, yet even 
if he aspired to a corparatym, and 
no individual exposed him; if be 
was unanimously elected, and 
actually filled the place, a qingle 
malicious individual might upiei 



«^ A]NrN:UAL &BGISTEf1l» 1828. 



Uf fiopftii^^ and 4)iU be must go* 
t^ onjanaqwrnyo was, that lie 
^nwdd x^Qt go to aoek that place; 
he would 99 to his libraiy, to re- 
timneuty to privato puvsiuti|» with 
what appedto he mieht towards 
the^vecnnent and £e constitu- 
tjfMi; he wa# cQodemned to privacy, 
heoasse he was of a different re* 
Ijipm fisem the state, and because 
]|e would not saerifioe hisreligioQ 
fos hi^ plaoe* Was this the way 
toeoiiciJaate three miUions of Dis- 
awsfrenb who must feel their in- 
capeeitybeoause they knew it? It 
was vaetfidid to argue that the 
Dissenters bad felt no practical 
ieeeayenienoeb because they had so 
losig been silent. Their silenee 
h«d beoA wise, it had been gener* 
oiisk When the French revolu- 
tibnliadbBoken out, it would have 
been insanity in them to have 
peessed their claims^ and they had 
not esid a word from 1793 to 1805. 
It was consistent with his own 
knowledge, that Mr. Fox intended 
to hare * brought forward dieir 
daims in 1805, mid was restrained 
only by the fear of its injuring tihe 
Ca^oiftc oanse. But still die de- 
cision of the House on the subject 
now before it would not, in his 
opinian, either injure or forward 
the Gatbidio question. He bad 
consulted the most distinguidiad 
advocates for the Catholic question, 
and was also aware of the sen- 
timents of the Catholic leaders 
themselves, whidt aU accorded 
with the most perfect unanimity 
in ihinhinff that those two qiies« 
tions shomd be decided on their 
respective merils, and kept totaUy 
diannet from ^e another. In 
slwit, said Mtk BfOUgham, the 
sum and substance m - all ' the 
BmmmtkMHtk: ifit is little for 




'* 




them ^ eak, it is likewim little 
fim,«s-tQ.gU«; " Bf deeidfaig this 



Hiifstvm uL 

seDlexii^we<siiaU< 

to our country and t^ 

establishmenW . wbidi . thaee 
psoftne. 

Lord Falmesekon JeiwA n 
opinion of Mn flmmtmm^ Mliinii 
wuld be au act <of 
CathoUes .to 
gpaevanoe, wUle 
suftr under rnaeh 
ments. Sir Thotoiaa Ad ssA p i ip* 
posed a middle eoum% wihiek'ls» 
thouffht would 
relief and would slill hmm 
theoretie principle of thakw 
touched for the present. Gown^ 
ment, on the next paBrtsg-ofthe 
Annual Indemnity htO^ n^gkei^m 
introduce a bill Isr Ite snspeniiMr 
of the Test and Coipostttkm aoie 
pro Jktunh say for one year or 
more^ and renew it periodiodif ; 
until tlie time should antve lbt'% 
more permanent and a a li sfc ct ery 
settlement of the qoestiim. Hie 
principiLe of tlie lawn weidd not 
be abandoned, and the yower 16 
call them again into opeNabn, tm 
case of dancer or tieeessisy > wmrii • 
exist as ^I^ as it now did. 'H& 
was not disposed to plur€>'witb'«MI6 
security even in Iheabslrafet, wM<i 
out obtaining ' anotlie]Mblit» 1 1^*- 
suspending these biUs, we A0tfld 
part with no eecurity^we ehouM^ 
ridouraelvesof tlie piesent fliioidal]|^ 
—we Aonld «m^ly sulMititttte^4- 
plain, intelligible^ and peespedfiee 
mode of relief fbrtbevettt»t|MlSti^j 
clumsy, and in some lostlMbes, 
precarious, protectioM now e flft frtMd ' 
by the Antmal Indemnify. *a''f (^'» ' 

On a division, die metittn'fc^^ ' 
committee was -caMed hf a '«UU/' 
jority of 44, the ayei bMg 4»?^ ' 
and the noes 199 j the' fiM'iU^ 
cessful blow that? bfli>bisli dmed - 
at the Bi^neemacy of libe-BAaliliAM < 
edXhnvh sinee Hhe^Ret^inmii 



HlfitoRY OP EUROPE. • [97 

weat into » cc m mi t le e rifea or unge of the Chmdt of 

pMu/mmm^ nfortdl pngreiA, vnft England, fbr tbe purposes therein 

aMMaft-iMTe to tit agftia on the exj^eiBed, or impose mny peBah}^» 

WtAt 4m aesnid di^ «ilev. Ott forfeiture, incapacity, or dinhOity,- 

tiiat day, the House havinff gone hy reason of any neglect or ooiia- 

aaottnatolee^ lifd John Riusell sbn so to do, he rep^ed." Mimsi- 

\mif that-h» foand it impossifale ten, on the other hand, to ivliom 

to sir T« Adaod's pro« the short interval, which had 

r».of m i [ i n ii i iii t the «cts in- df^Mcd sinoe their unexpected ide« 

£eBh . That, hoc feat, had not left leisure to seleet 

»,wfaMlihewaa deliberately the tine tit ecMiduet 

^aidd please neither trhich they ought now to. ihllow,' 

jtftf ; hacsMse, while it would objected to the motion as being too 

gim the DissenlerB the power of precipitate in a matter which m^ 

loating thflBiffdves whh oorpo- yolved sueh grave interests. Many 



zatimia and other establishments, members, they said, who hadvosed 
it« would still leave them in that for going into the committee, and* 



of pfecarioua tennce which thus expressed an opinion that 

fiDcmed the great ohiection to the relief should be aflorded, were by 

'^"f^***^ system ; and, on the other no means prepared to grant tluib 

hand. It would interfere so far rdief in the form c^ a simple 



with the securities povidedby the peal; and, to insure the oontiaued 

Teat and Corporation acta, as to support of these members^ it miflht- 

cieate dissatisfactiaii in the Ghurch be worth while to consider, who^ 

G^ England ; for Aoae» who were ther some mode short of repeal 

fityonraUetothepBtseat secnriiies, might not advanti^eously be^ 

would leav^ that; when once sus* adopted. At ali^events, die mode^ 



nendedv they would never again in which relief ought to be given, ' 

be caoried into dfeei. The only was matter of grave deliberadoa^ 

pvopositioa which he* oould make boA on its own merits, and with 

was for their fdmple.and absolute a view to securing the co-operation 

n^wal; and if the House or tho of the other House of Parliament; 

comeMttee should differ from him, much too grave to be settled after 

h^ could nofc bring himself to o^;rte only a few hours consideration* 

to.a. paoppsition of any other kind. Mr.Peel, therefore, wishedthal the 

He therafixKe Juoved, ''that so further cansideration of the subjest 

n^jcb of on act of the 13th of should be delayed for a few Ays. 

Qiacka9ad»entituM,'AnActfer The friends of the repeal weke 

the well-fpvQiming and regulating opposed to all delay ; they thought 

of Cerpoitationf,' and so much <» its expediency too dear to admit 

an. Act of th» 25tk Charles 2nd, of any question, and that postpone- 

emtiivled^ 'An Act for pre- ment would only do harm by 

venting danflsis which may happen creating the appearance of doubt. 

lixmi.ropi£ reousantf, and of "Aviray with these pretenee^** 

another ad of the 16th Geo* 2nd, exdaimed lord Milton, ''thoaa 

for amending the last mentioned who make them know they ava 

act,.as joa^pira the pemon or per- but pretences. Their only objeet 

sooain tba said acts described to is, to r^ain the vantage nouiil 

tato oc reeei«<e the Sacrament of which t£y have lost, and by da* 

ihp Loni's jSupper acoofding to the feating the Dimantcn^ to dafcat 
Vol. LXX. [H] 



96] ANNUAL REOI6TEIU 1828. 



tb^ beit interefU of the Church.'' 
Mr. Peel, witli great warmth, r^ 
pdled thii Tenr unwarrantable 
tirade. He saUL that, after sub* 
pioions like th^ had been in- 
ainuatdd, he would not onlf nOfc 
j^Qfoto smpenaion, bt|t woyUL not 
even accept delay ; although that 
dehf was prppoied for puzpoee^v 
which, if hu proposition had been 
accepted in the spirit in which it 
had Wn made, might have turned 
out satisfiictory to all parties. He 
would leave the noble lord to take 
the course which his Judgment 
pointed out to him, declininff any 
4elay, but reserving to himsdf the 
riffhtj at any future stages of the 
bUi to adopt such measures as 
might anpear to him advisable. 
The resolution was then agreed 
to, the ministers having left the 
House before the question was 
put.* 

Government, if it could not 
bring itself to agree to simple re- 
peal, had now one of two courses 
to adopt ; either to employ all its 
influence still to stop the measure 
in totOy if not in the Commons, at 
least in the House of Peers, or to 
endeavoi^ to engraft upon it some 
security for the church in lieu of 

* PW — -—... — II, I 

* Mr. Peel, after teying this, left the 
House. Some tnembers thought that 
he had withdrawn in bad humour ; and 
•ir George Warrender was declaring 
that such impatient conduct would 
almost tempt him to withdraw his support 
from government, when Mr. Pee! re- 
turned. Having fasted, he said, aiaee 
nine oVloclc in the morning, 'and having 
resolved, as he had told the House not 
to vote on the motion, be bad been very 
agreeably employed up stairs, when 
intelligence was brought to him of sir 
George's threatened defection. He 
was afraid, however, thtu he could not 
secure the baranet's allegiance-} for 
aesuredly, if the question had not yet 
heen put, he wonld agaia leave the 
House BO sooB as it should be pul^ 



thftidigiims test^duA i 

so generally denounoed. Tl 

ierred the latter ; to have 

the former, after the opinion of tha 

House of Commons had been «a 

decidedly expressed, would havo 

been neither politic nor jjrafiiooa- 

The bill, founded .upon ibm 
wsolution, w(i0t allowed to \m 
read a second tigie without op« 
position; and on the motiim mr 
the House going into a committee 
(March 18), Mr. Peel bmu^t 
forward the views of government 
by proposing to insert in the Ull » 
Dedantdon to be taken by all per* 
sons appointed to any of those of- 
fices which fell under the purview 
of the Test and Corporation, acta* 
After the dedsbn to whidi tW 
House had oome, he was pcepaied 
to dismiss at once from his mind^ 
any idea of adhering to the exist^i 
ing law. The |»roposal of suspen- 
sion he would likewise dismiss, for 
he was convinced it would be no 
better than the Indemnity act— « 
that it would still leave the Dia^ 
senters to feel that the law waa 
held over them in jealous diftr;ii|^, 
The wisest and best course, be 
thought, would be to come to supk 
a final arran^ment, as, while it 
should not afiect the fair ^md oon^* 
scientious scruploi of the Diwent- 
ers, would give a reasonable proof 
to the Church of England, that> in 
the repeal of these leng-established 
tests, which were oonsidexed as a 
mueb-valued security, her rigbta 
were to remain sacred. A 



corded opinion should be given^ 
in the form of a Declaration, lor the 
security of the predominancy of 
the Established Church. With 
this view he thought that the com« 
mittee should be instructed to in<» 
tfoduoe a declaration to the e&ct 
he had a]lu4ed to, to be taken as a 
substitute for the Saoamental 



ttlSTORY OF EUEOPE. 



[99 



x^^ hy md psrtiet wbo were no^ 
Uable to take tbe latter. He would 
not ttake it an oath, ibr that would 
he peihaps td aroase again the di»- 
thist of the Dissenten, and sub« 
j6ct diem to an inconvenience 
which he thought could not follow 
At impdidtion of ft Dedaratldn; 
and ptarticdlarty when thej looked 
At ^ch an afttmation as inter* 
Proven with the principle of the 
cdnatitntion, and as requiring 
neither the renunciation nor the 
etpressSon of anj relisious princi- 
ple, of any religious feeling. He 
Wotild propose, therefore, uie fol« 
lowing clause : — ^ And he it 
enact^, that all persons who shall 
hereafter be elected, or chosen to 
fill the office of mayor, alderman, 
or mag^trate, or to fill any office 
of emolument and trust in any city 
or town corporate in England or 
Wales, shall, previous to his ad- 
mission, make and subscribe the 
following Declaration : — ' I, A. B., 
do solemnly declare, that I will never 
exert any power or any influence 
which t may possess l^ virtue of 
my office, to injure or subvert the 
Protestant church, by law esta- 
blished in these realms, or to dis- 
turb it in the possession of those 
rights and privileges to which it is 
by law entitled.' — And be it 
enacted, that the said Declaration 
shall be made and subscribed in 
the presence of the persons, who, 
by the present charters and usages 
of cities and towns corporate, admi- 
nister the oath to Dissenters on 
entering into office there ; and that 
in counties corporate such Declara- 
tion shall be made and subscribed 
in the presence of two justices of 
the peace,— 7And be it further 
enacted, that where any person 
shall omit, on being chosen or no- 
minated to the said office, to sub- 
scribe such Declaration, such elec- 



tion and nomination, anfl ttu uiq 
acts of such officer, are herehy de<* 
dared null and votd.** He.did not 
deem it necessary to attach any 
penalty to the omission farther 
than the nullity of the election 
and of the subseijnent Mts* TMt6 
was a difficulty, however, as re- 
garded persons holffinj^ ofl^ies 
under the Crown ; fcr, if iJl such 

Srsons were required to take the 
eclaration, the provirion would 
only throw ridicule upon the 
whole proceeding. But that diffi- 
culty, he imagined, might he got 
over, by giving the CroWn a dis- 
cretionary power, bv a clause of 
the foUowine Hnd: — "Be it 
enacted, that it may be lawfVd for 
his Majesty to require of all per- 
sons who shall be appointed to civil 
offices of trust, or who shall hold 
commissions under his Majesty's 
gov^nment, and by whom, ac* 
cording to the present law, the Sa- 
cramental Test is order^ to be 
token, to make and subscribe the 
Dedfixation above-mentioned, pre- 
ceding the admission of such per- 
sons to offices of civil trust, under 
such regulations respecting the 
time and manner of subscribing 
such Declaration as his Majesty 
should please to appoint/' If these 
clauses were introduced into the 
bill, he thought himself warranted 
in saying that they would insure its 
success, and the question in the 
course of the present session would 
be settled satisfactorily and for ever. 

The supporters of the simple 
repeal were all opposed to the 
Dedaration in point of princi- 
ple. They described it as both 
usdess and unnecessary ; the best 
thing about it, they said, was 
the option given to government to 
require or not to require it from 
persons taking office under the 
Crown, for that held out a hope 

[H2] 



100] ANNUAL RBGISTEIt, 1828. 



diat k wcrtdd be ftllo wed to go in to 
ft dlaetee.. They united, however^ 
ktzteemHending that Mr. Peel's 
wttagt^ah ^omd be adopted, 
ti^et than the loca of the bill 
hftiarded. Lord John Rnsiiell, 
therefbre, complied, and the House 
went into a^ oonnoUtee with Mr. 
Pedis (Aauses as an instraetion, it 
beiti^ tinderstood, however, that 
the detail of these clauses was still 
to be an open question. In the 
40OAiidltee, how^rer, no alteration 
was aiade. Lord Nugent suggested 
an exception, which wasnot adopted. 
In regard totheoftceof PrivyC&un- 
cillor. All Privy Councillors had 
Wn bound, unckr the old system, 
to take the Sacramental Test,- mid, 
tinder the new act, would have to 
iMke the Declaration. By that 
Dedatation they bound themselves, 
hot to exert any power or inflo- 
ence whidi their office might give 
them, to injure the EstiMiued 
Church, or disturb it in the pos- 
session of those rights and privi- 
leges to which it was by law esta- 
blished. ''Now," said lOTd Nugent, 
^ there might be cases, andthese not 
extreme ones, in which a man, not 
nioely scrupulous, but only pro- 
perly eonscientious, might find ihe 
Declaration to be at variance with 
the oath which he had taken as 
a privy councillor. The oath 
which a privy councillor took, 
bound him to advuie the king ac- 
cording to the best of his discre- 
tion, and to observe, keep, and do 
all that a good and true councillor 
ought to do to his sovereign lord. 
But cases touching the disposal of 
church property might arise, in 
which the Declaration, which 
bound him not to employ the in- 
iluenee of his office to weaken the 
church establishment, might be in 
direct opposition with the oath of 
a privy cctmdllor, whioh bound 



him to mMa^^fotsiheMaffBhammt 
and the good of feke paUiB* It 
might be supposed in sooh easeaily 
conscientious men, that :tha'~D^ 
daration was to svpcnede ndnde 
over the oath winok) tbqr Ud 
taken." 

The bill> having fasaed ths 
Commons, was introdooed xntb ^ke 
xiottse of Peers bylardriiiQlianGU 
There was here nomkiisteiisl fljpb 
position to be tficoiMtewd r y. 
yemment had taken its pait,> raild 
the bill was now,'lttaODie mcasosq^ 
the bill of the cabinet. The &de 
of Wellington said, that the^|iiiiiu 
ciple, on which the memben of .^t^ 
vemment, in tihe other Uoiiso of 
Parliament, had originally^opposad 
the measure was, that, ailiidD|^ 
th^ did not approve entsrefy:4if 
the eadstinff law on the snbjeoi, 
they had tound it to conduoe no 
much to the advantage xif ekuseh 
and state, without impairing ihe 
religious peace of the. oountiy-*«i 
peace which had been ei^oyed fay 
this country in a greater degioe 
than by any othev— 4;hat di^.ean* 
ceived we might lii^ the loss #f 
our present advantages^ if the sfa- 
tem, under whiditluae advantagea 
had been attained, riievld^.-ni- 
oonaiderately abrogated* AAar* 
wards, however, on finding! that} -n 
large majority. of lihe Uouie ^of 
Commons agreed to Ae bdU, ;and 
that many who opposed st;.oppoatd 
it on grounds not amdicaUe tot*Ae 
present measure^ uey adopted it 
with an amendment, whidi teemed 
to them to affind ample seotrityto 
the church, and to be raW^il^ ^^^ to 
improve, instead of impasringv the 
rebgious peace which the oountsry 
had so long enjoyed. To thcae 
sentiments he tkoo^t it tlie.diity 
of their hndshms to aceede^ talaag 

the chance fin: reogioaa peace which 
the majority of the Hoaaeof Ooai- 



HISTORY OP EUROPE. 



fif> aad'tobe ctotiuuttd hy, the pre* 
wdat iBeaiim> ooti}eiiKd wifih same 
da^r»0faedant3% perixapB all the 
flBcank^ neoBHvj, ofeed to the 
^lAn^i^ Ift tsntth, however^ he 
£d not conceive thai the seeaiitj 
•f^tltecinircht depdhded either on 
dle^Mr eboot to he v^eided^ or on 
Bib UBdslnm Mdch wiA to come iti 
i^j^no: It depended on the oatb 
taken ^^^ raigcs^, to whieh in 
Ihsir flsveal ateoona thef were all 
pntiei^ onllB Act of Setdement> 
ahd the diflhieui acts which pro- 
vided far the insepandde union of 
-chundi and states 

Of &e sphitoal lordSy the re- 
IMjeaUtl iwi of the interests and 
ibdiilgft of' the dknrch, none spoke 
aeaiBst the bill. The archbishop 
m York, and the bidiope of Lin- 
oohi» Dnxham^ and Chester, qwbe 
ha Us &voDr. Thej denied that 
Ae ksni in question had originated 
Iron anfnnjOst or oppressive prin- 
mphf m hi^ fidled to efiect any 
good pntpoir. They had been 
neaaisBB of sdf^defenoe^ the j had 
been the renh of state neoessity^ 
Aey had gjLven to the church sob- 
'SbnitisB protection. Th^ admit" 
Sed^ftdowf^^ that a test could be 
joftftlfied onlyasadefensive measure^ 
. and thsy tiiou^t that a defence^ 
•10 oiijeetionAle in its own natnre, 
ma no^ losiger necessary^ especially 
' when it mm aekno wledged to have 
Been mr hmg ineffectual, and to 
Irivre been annually made inefibc- 
Soal -bf the legislatiire itself. At 
the aanB txinei the church was en- 
titlad to demand aome security 
itaai ' lies* ccdonflBticBl opponents; 
laid diey thought tlie Dedaration 
eo titaki ed in the hi]], altered as it 
mighlf ' be ia ^tte committee, fur- 
fli&d -m politioal security infinitely 
3 ei s u i ywi tienaMei, and in all lifcdi- 
Indf ODoe tfeefaab than 



[lOI 



gious test. ^' I wiA the UU tb 
pass," said the hiAiop of Cbestei^ 
''if for tto other reaso»j yet fot 
diis, because the piesent li^s do 
not answer their purpose* If th^ 
declaration now proposed b^ li^ii 
by a conteientSous JOis^nt^j (t 
wiU prevent him from endeavoufw 
ing^-^t least from directly efldesh 
vouring— to injure the estabU^ 
ment, and that is more thaa the 
Sacramental Test, if takep, oould 
eflfect; if it be taken by ftfu^iwia 
who does not eoosGientiou/dy iop 
tend to observe it, that person 
would not be kept out of office bsf 
any test whatever." 

The earl of Eldon gave the biljL 
his most decided opposition* He 
had heard, much he said, of the 
march of mipd, and the progvoss 
of information, and of perscos 
changing opinions which they bad 
hdd for years; but he had not 
thou^t it possible that the march 
of nund oould have been so speedjr 
as to induce some of the chaiiges 
of opinion which he had witnessed 
within the last year ; least of all 
did he expect that such a bill as 
the present would ever have beeo 
received into their lordships' House, 
even under the idea of makipg 
amendments in it The princ^ 
pie of the bill was ''expediency/' 
a word used by all who had n»- 
thin^ else to say ; and as for the 
Decuoation, an unqualified repea 
would be more consistent than this 
bill, every clause of which mili« 
tated against the ooostitution* 
The preamble set forth " Whereas, 
the Protestant Church of these 
realms is estaUished and inviolate," 
but how was it so, except by the 
existing laws? If thea, these 
laws constituted the defence and 
inviolability o£ the church, swrely 
the lepealiag of these Jawa could 
noi-boljufi wajF ^LkfittLt^^duuaeh 




102) ANNUAL REGISTER, 181i8. 

a^ lon^ aft wlaA waa wi hrti tat e d 
was of inferior eSca£j. VfKtibms 
Ue mawitaioed thai* iacaaaplmce 
with QUI exifis^g coo^utioo^ tbs 
Church of EngUmd siu«t he umb^ 
jxnted ; and orald heat ba aiUN 
ported h^ tho adinwian of oijgc 
its Qwm nwalieca to offiicea of tn>tt 
and ciBolnmfipU Suek had been 
die prinbi^ of tho ciwaritntiigii 
of th]3 ooumtry for age& Th^ 
lordshiiift should take ^ood Gn» 
that thjejE did not diauwe thoio 
whom the cootftittttio» had uniiifid 
tci^ther; and- if the^ did aoy 
thug* towards dj/goining theas^ 
they should he equaUy cacaful IQ 
use some sort of ceiaent* wid ^- 
aUe the Church and State £st^ 
Uishmenta to protect each oAoic 
by BUitual service and support. 
The ground oi oxpedieni^yy aafc 
foctb in the preawUe to the hiU 
he could not help thinfcioaafiordf^ 
ed a low pnociple on wnidi ^ 
le^pslate^ But tSe aols, werok now 
said to he hm Jq ss ; parliament ha(^ 
acknowledged them to. be so 1^ 
Mssingy from jg»k to yeaiu. biUa^of 
Indemnity; and why then aok 
fthftlish them at cmoa.? JHk)Brevmu 
he maintained that those lodfjoriojjty 
act% pasaed year by yesTj, worn 
ncitber more nor less tha« «o» 
knowledgem^nts and xecogojtiona 
on the part of the legblatuce^ Ao^ 
the Corporatioa and TeiMfttii 
ought not to be diseased witk* 
He desired to knov whether tb# 
passing of these acts &om jseac ta 
year^ was not rather ooz^comliii^ 
of the opinion of pflrliamea^. thaa 
the law should not be y^^eiiledy 
thaathat it ought to be abolished i 
In 1787> &e question had beea 
brought forwarid in the other. 
House, and was is^jected by a nvi^ 
jprity of that House. In 17^9^ 
the ouestion was Moun diyusnol^ 
when. the. nu^ofitgb agaiosi it W9ii^, 



by hm. But what 
was the substitute for the Sacra^ 
BMBBtal Test ? A simple dedarai* 
tion. Instead of making tbe taker 
of office describe hxmaelf as be« 
lon^ng to some sort of religion— « 
whether a Unitariai^ a Catholic^ 
or a Free-thinker, it did not re« 
quire him eyen to say^-he had 
osly to answer, that he was of the 
Christiaii faith ; neither did it call 
on him to observe tbe Declaration 
\^ such ptunses as ^' I am a Chnih 
tiao,".or ^^as I stand in the pre- 
fienoe of my God^" The conEU 
dence to he reposed in the pro* 
posed Declaration, did not rest 
nyon the faith of a ChcUtian, or 
on. the confe s sion of any &itb 
wiMfttever. Thei^ while the De-i 
clamtion was to be extended^ oot 
merely to corporate offices^ but to 
aU effiji^ of trust and emolument 
under the Crowi^ the. biU left it 
entirely ^ the kkig to. say, with 
iSfispect to these latter functional 
ries, wjiether his majesty would 
require sudbi a Declaration or not. 
He could not but object to the 
provisions of such a bill, the object 
of which was» to take away the- 
Sacramental Test,, merely on the 
ground of '* ei^pediency," and to 
substitute in its place a Declaia^ 
tion» which, in some instancea» 
might or might not be taken* ac«^ 
cording to tbe will of the sove* 
reign* He difiered extremely 
from all he had read and heard 
respecting the propriety of omit- 
ting to maintain the great princi-* 
pie of the constitution ««^ that the 
Church of England was not an 
establishment erected for mere 
purposes of convenience, but was 
essen^^ially and insepazabiy a part 
of the state. The Sacramejital 
Test was well calculated to effect 
that great object^ and it simified 
qot what th^jf. substituted lot iV 



HJOrrORY OF EUROPE. 



tioi 



90; hat id )790v on Its bong 
«M» atre inlndaoed^ iti oppOH 

Igr 1#7. The qoesiion kid Ml 
fliMB MCA IWMipit wotwttnkf mtii 
tkft^pment ecduno. The fln^ 
llf y hf fphUt it wM rented in 
179^9 wa»a0» esMoiiniry, when 
k walr ibnnteed ihat itt epfo^. 
MM% wlio tiitn ooniCaiated tiM 
MptMovof dor happy fiifWinh* 
iMgdy'teouk that amws hod bees 
Md aiidar«h»EMtfhfiihed ChiiTch^ 
^riitth oflif muted te tte awieh 
tirei^tedBAiMn. If attyjeyooold 
toMt ee the vnlbtfetiMife crentB 
Am eiimjal in ether CRmtrief 
•tout thai period, it arose from 
tfce iieni ii eiathMi, thee thaoeevMrte 
iMMene AogtmimeD- mnne euve 
tir Ae ettenptB made te dhjohi 
tf» Chsnii luid State ; eed^ eo 
eeidiaglf r the paeMaaent of tiuil 
dflj v«Sed to prevent the daitnie- 
Hob ef the atiamoe vHhkb had 

tad beiwoen on? 
Whet WS8 to 
M» CefpomSentf ikwk hein^ 
tsff estufthr ef aoetnhefe of 
the Camidi of ftome^ if notMng 
tfoee thefti due BederaiiDn nom 
gmgmii Mm yeyiiwd» He haid 
eottHMne^ tbe^quettion de]fhevately> 
and ito deteily fbr the pnrpoM of 
MWMMnf whether* he hedheen 
^enteng or not. Tie «e80lt> of his 
in if gj g SeiHi otf was, tiiat he hed 
hieM ^jjhf ; end he eoeld not, 
ihetdlM^ «M»n8ent to gfi)^ up the 
CMWiiaiien^ arwell as the Chvmsh 
iMdMMittieiit^- to* the extent that 
ihke pfOBeiit- 1^ pYopOsed* rie 
ie«ti flM dii^ HUe : it mnst he i^e 
wofir of oAerft 9b they^ wi^iit 
or wiUheee tlieChQirali, it mattered 
net to htm. 1% prayer te God 
wm^ diet tie ittUvmnidt^ wbo^pro^ 
ttoted HbsM tiMMne, mi^t have 
i im #iail [Hlie ta tk<h o ti o n of t%inlt^ 
ktgi iMHi^«i^thej!ik«d;Hitoiidod^n» 



mitduef to the Cheithv no 
dnef hed ensued. Bot at the 
tame tSme, that he gave them 
credit £dv tinetinty, lie tkdmed< o 
ABiikff allowance to hhiMdf, ivh^ 
he aoienmiy ftdd, nt he tben> dM 
flNMn hit heart sad icnd, ''Not** 
Genfent ' to t«e pfeoEMt bilL ' 

Aa the minietrT- end the biabtpt 
had expiened iSioir £vroiinihie 
opnilDn of the hiQ, aR oppoiddoir 
to iti principle wae of eocirte ete^ 
leak Nodnng icma i e ed ibv iCi 
adversaries, hnt to Tender the Jh^ 
thtfation as strict and iffeetuat m 
posflible in the Comflsittsis. Theit^ 
accordingly, varions aUieiidatenti 
were moved, end some wei^ e»v« 
lied^ which did give the Deriare- 
wftk a more soienmi and e^j^uit 
cheracter. The went of any nfore 
iekfmti exprwrion of cwowelv thew 
the sheple phnifte ^ 1 deelave;'^ watt 
speeielly objected to« To* th# 

gimeiplt of s&bsdtm^lng' BwAk- d 
eelEffation tbr the Saorameiftal 
Test, said krd Fahnoetll, I nevctf 
ca» aaaent. It is positively good 
for nothing. Even the Wonle ** ki 
1^ presence of Almighty God;** 
appear to heve been studioudy 
a^roided, at if to ^scard all soc* 
lemnity. The earl of HarCW^iod^ 
too, said> that it did appear to Met 
ctnrious that, in the Deblarathm 
contained in* the Mil, no Aotioe 
was tdien of this important qnes- 
tion ; namely, whether a man, te 
whom the I>sclaration Was about 
to be administered) was or wl» not 
a Christian? He should* be sorry 
to estelude the Dissenters from 
t^ose privileges which they etijoyed 
under the Indemnity bill; belt 
when ifliey came to that House 
with a new Dieclaration', their Ibrd*- 
ships' ought to see that it Was a 
proper one. In ftmni^g fk^ Deda^ 
ration suitable to such d btll> it 
oQght to* proceed- on this strnj^ 



104] AN 



aEOISTElEt/1828- 



h is^^ef kt CMtfdanity. Tha 
aii««i^'ti»^Ui/k€rkiie# mm, tbaft 
l»>JM9 ^MttllHs €6 ^Mnde sudi a 
]P4ll$ 4br pertonsy wlio did &ot be* 
tkm^^ uromd u1e6 Bay oal& tbgt 
iiti(^ ^ be f ropoundM to tbem. 
Aut^<tio%#i^gtiaidiiig tbat, be did 
nit wkfr %» iee a D^kration tbat 
d&BTner-toiAaiti^fKmie provision of 
itis fiaiute Btanding on tbe records 
ciT'pMiiMieni* ' He wished merely 
tbkft tf^'dMlse should be inserted 
ia;tUe Deelamlidn^ fiNmi whieb it 
iwnld appear, tbat every ^aa 
^ttmmck itr believed in the Cbrts- 
iiMi feligimi« It was not because 
bk '' eqmted any gieat Becaritnf 
fiqu tbe Dad«ratiim^ tbat be was 
dMarojU'of having it ^118 altered; 
Wt'he^sqshed: it so to be wovdad 
finrtfaecittditof pariiament. Mov^d 
117 i'tbasa seMtiments, tbe words 
^I doreeiemnly^eelare," were, on 
Itba motion of the duke of WeL- 
lingteWjTieplaced bv '' I do solemap 
iy aad sincerely, m the presence 
tif Ah^Atj 6od> testify and de- 
^Btt." Tfau.did not meet tbe 
di^JBstien ; and the bishop of Llan- 
3flH moved, tbat there should be 
iGuther^ added tbe WMds ''upon 
tiietrae faith of a Christian ;" and 
diaifcj too, ' was cuvied. An at- 
tend however, made by lord 
EldoD, to convert tbe Declaration 
into an oath, ^by substituting 
*/ 1 swear," for '' I decbure," was 
last by a majority of 100 to S2 ; 
and an amendment of lord Win- 
chilsea^ • intended to exclude Uni- 
tarians^ by introducing a Dedara^ 
tion tbat the person taking it 
believed ''in oor Lord and Ssp- 
irisor Jceua Chxist," waa lost by 
UStal5< The bishop of Llan- 
dttfT,' on the ground ttat it was 
•fasurdto xeoaire from a member 
^ tte Aiwcaof Snglandf mias* 



siliflnice dMrto w^oUdd tsotiea^ddf 



b^' offiee to ita^ 



'i'ti 



'piMpaada 



tbat f^om sttdi peHons^ao^iafliar 
DechMtion Should' bi'^nsqniipd 
thatt ibis, ^^; '*^^bm^1fe -murA 
oommnaion wMr -thettcbiMboaif 
Engkind as bylaw iHaiylMM^ 
but tbe propedtioa waa^ u i )»m i i^ 
because it weikt to maiirqa ^/im^ 
tinction between Cbmrdittieif ant 
Diflsemers. The bill ^panedi,'^ 
a large mi^ocity,' onthoii^tk 
of April The Commaiiit ^BgfmA 
to the amendaaenta. BirJBtDodmi 
aaid,- it would be impolitic to mupif 
away the bill en aeoounfof' titeni^ 
idtboogb be waa vf opittian'-tbBa 
titey made tbe bill wofaerandiyat 
tfawe amendments ee mii s tud ii ifi m idy 
in tUs, tbat the mxn^ nisumingm 
public offiee in a Cbeiatian ^eom^ 
try, shoold dedare afaatbavamm 
Chffiatian, or, atieaat,nfaat>be^wiai 
not aniz^del. 

In the diseuanoB on ^ia bU 
frequent allaaioa bad been- nmfe 
to tbe Catiiolie mitknv The 
opponents 'Of the faal-bad^&and>an 
additional argument against ifr'Sii 
tiie oonsideratkm, that dit wnsih 
tmtb but tbe firatatQ) in.a.oqiaae 
which was to temdnatein-GathoBc 
emancipation. Tfaoae ^of ils^aHp- 
porters who were adiaiae * to vie 
latter meaaore, denedr dmt^ Qtadd 
have any aiieb tendeney*- .Xke 
duke of Wellington, to^ ahew.timt 
be might vote for the biUyiandiy^t 
be a determined enemy- 9B. Hhe 
pqnsts, aaid ** tbeiiie ia no-|iaatti 
m thia houae wboae feeliagi old 
aentiments afVer. lo&r • >taaHideo- 
ation, are mora decided' ^m: mine 
are with regard to^ 8nlgfiat>af 
the Roman Catfaolic oiaini^; and 
until I see a groat diange ia^.that 
question, I certainiy .dbaU oppoae 
it." TbefriendaagainitfGbdmlk 
emancipation, did not admit that 

it wouU be favourod bgiLtiie iU^aal 



HISTORYl OP EUmOPEi^ / f^ [MMf 



•fileaviiigvmilQKiclHed eveiy pan- 
fa^lvMwUch the decMimof th^ 
CniBtr '^oHloii iniglit depend; 
teiiMc. Htiddaiem it hat been 

theieUefof tliedi». 
bmEUM H'WOuld ereate a 
lobMaofe Id tibe adminion ci 
iba Catiiilkri Now- it was per« 
focUjr teme, that all proieitaiits 
iiUht<'inBiflk oabeim e^ual to 
e>5fc.ot i wc»' and yet dl unile to 
kaati>0Qt^UMek conuaoo ^iieniy the 
^pa|nit;'biit i| likewiae did seem 
to he wj deal that the pcinoiple» 
jw^whadL the rqieal of the Test 
aod •.' Corpoi a ltoa Acts had heen 
tnaiMtained wmd canned through, 
iwwiU as siraeesaAiUy jtistify the 
w Ml HI 111 I if the Catholie disahilinea. 
Stb^ piiiua|de junonnted to Ihis^ 
Aat^dinB&t fknaihe established 
Church in matters of. doctrine, and 
of drareh -govjsmnent, ought in no 
fffagBse^to^ alast aaan's ctspMMty 
^•bein|^ a|ipaanted te office; and 
ihe CkmohoB mighfc plausihl j le- 
present thomselvas as being merely 
dOiaanters, separated by a wider 
•gdfh, inm 1km churdi of England. 
lAodOEding^y the Catholics had 
4iaan pewunccs for the repeal of 
fllHB Testand Corporation Acts; 
sod theaaeasiisefor repealing them 
jwas imnmtiiUwly foUowed up by a 
mtaioa -&)v remonng the Catholic 

> On the Ml of May Sir Francis 

• Bontete moved, '* That the House 

:do^ nmr lesalnre itself into a 

-coouaBttee of the whole House for 

"idat poipose of taking into consU 

'.detatjon^^ state of the lawsaf- 

liMting his majesty's Roman Ca- 

dailio sBbpstS'in Great Britain 

and Irelaad, with a view to such 

a^ftel and ooaciHatOBy adjustment 

a^m^r he eondudye to the peaee 

msd ftmiglhef the imited king^ 



dom, to Uie s^biUtr of;>^.;p^ 
testaat • estahKshmeni* "and . tft f tbA 
general satisf aotien aB4 w^naA of 
all daases of hianMjf es^ s aiilQaote«a 
The debate was continued en^.tbil 
9th and 10th. The pilincij^ 
qieaken in support of the.meliea 
werC'Mr* Brougham who*. Beooi>d» 
ed it5 Mr^ M. Fitrae^M^ av A 
Ifewgoct, sir J« Macaintoehy. Mri 
C. Grant, Mn North, and Mjb 
Huskisson. It was opposed Mtar 
the Solioiter and Attorney Gtner«b 
si|( R« Ii^li% Mr. Mmx^ hktt 
Leslie Foster, Mr. Banki,< and'Mvt 
PeeL It would be teJUouft.and 
useless to give even the siihstanos 
of a debate, every thing contaiattd 
in which had been ao often said 
before in evexy possible shapei 
The speeches were merdy lepets* 
tions of former nrgoieeats, tmtf 
oneef which had idready beenna 
oommon*place« The. reoMral *of 
the disabiUties was cUaned ' at 
matter of right, unless some strong 
ground of expedicmiy coidd be 
established against than, and the 
eadstence of any joch noond of 
expediency was denied. Th^ 
had been originally imposed "o^ien 
every thinff was to be dieaded 
from a CaUiolio prinee conoealei 
or avowed; nothing was new te 
be dreaded from a royal family, 
which, by the necessity of tlmcon^ 
stittttkm, must be protestant. 
They haid been imposed te guard 
against danger from the pope and 
a pretender; now a pretender no 
longer existed, and the pope was 
impotent. Tlrere was notmoffin 
the CadioUc religion, to disquiuify 
its professors from holdiu power 
in a Calliolic country; mr their 
allegiance to the pope regoMledenly 
their political faith; to perseoution 
they were not' inclined, for the 
spiritof popery had changbd and 
been mitigatod ; end, even if thej 



t06] ANNUAL RBGISTSR^ 1828. 



aMmpt would be fuutile in m pn* 
littaat mmnUy^ Above aU» h wm 
ahioliitely Moenvf t» gnat the 
dMHodi o£ the Ciilkoiic»; becanas 
eihMnrMe Ifae CatheUef woidd ttot 
allow Ixelnii to eajey amemeiit'i 

mooaeiil to Uie danger of lebellim^ 
wDQld vender that, part ^ the 
UMtei ]BQ^QB»-*what» jaiteed, it 
ibeaiy n w. i ho aaiirce of 9lkxm, 
of diteofdy ^ opeMKve eaoipiil* 
^ii^g^iremmeBtui feaee, and, in 
fmM, a WMMe of positinre w«alEae8& 
Ui waatfldied^ tlttl the eanceaant 
waadue^aa- heing. only the fv2fil« 
VMBlof what had been ati^nlatod 
far jnvfiM'QUVof.the Catholicaiarths 
Xiea^ o# LJBiexkky and as bang 
tha. MMmnatioft ii» the hape of 
wbi«h abwffi tho paapte of Ireland 
h^d bee« huMight to oaaant to the 



certain prifwiidotfj wodd noi ke 
esteicind benewioUy far a 
taot eoMtitntian ; owL If 
pr jDcifdea xfeflaained the mm^ alio 
roaoana for aacliiMa eacdd 
haivoidteKed. No«r>thailtl»] 
ciideB and policy of the^ 

waalheboaataltfaaitCknek ~hm 
tymoBfrnByWdf, Ibrthohi 



roAoiaa 



had been leatmned iQrliie 
of aveatfly but hod sat 
pled. It hod a a aa io o 
laaoi want of opportooili^ 
power ; to hcep^iit ipiwooeatt i 
face, lal power mak opMrtBnifegrte 
ifeiU wi^hidd. To Mfaae tH^m 
woa novkda lk wof ri|^ IwiMi 
aaeiety, nO siidi thiag aa 



The anavevs sade to thea»or]gtt» 
BMiKte were neeeonrtly not noro 
aovd* On naithor side waa then 
mj want at tatonta but every 
thuii^ which aoiild be aaidhad al«* 
aaady been often ao wdU said, thaO 
it Goold Bot now bo ejected to be 
said bettor. The opponenta of 
the bill aiqitttnini?d» thot^fsamthe 
Befiwmatima dowmwaxda» it had 
boea the policy of this coustiy to 
ea wh id o the Catholica Iron power^ 
because their admissMm vpoold bo 
pas^pooa \fUbt danger to ita politi*" 
eal liberty^ and to ito ptotestont 
duisohy aod would be uaterly in^ 
consistent with that iKindam^ital 
agawgffniwit of the cpnatitution« 
whidit haito the Chuaoh and the 
State together- The exdusion 
had been adopted,. soLamnly esta** 
bUshodatthettevolutiony and rati* 
fad in the unioA with Scotland, 
on this simple an4 undeniable 

Kundr that politieaL power m 
iMttK^Q of mAB^ imfiffliBiniw 



TMlittfa} zisht exiaiad s the vnhlia 
good was the only stOBdaed af paB- 
tiaai right. lathiacoontryydtepaOfc 
pie had detevaKoei^ oa the laa^ 
of orevolndon vriririr changai tte 
dyawty of ifan Uogs,^liia* d» 
ptthlio good dnmldbotoa gBod> not 
merdy of afireooGBstitoftion^huiof 
afteopfotestOBtconatitoiaoSi Hw 
dflss of meoi ooidd efeiaa aa a ng|iO 
any thing whidi wooldbeai^iAioaa 
to either ; and political, powao* Isi 
the hands of papiato woaJdr haiof 
evil omen to bath* Tho eaoMa 
of the few katr yoava iw ladoii^ 
and espeeiaUy tho hiati genoad 
eleotion, had shevna thoapowieiii 
such hands, would be powiito aft' 
the absolute ^apasai of' th» €»* 
, diolic priesthood, to ho diata fc od 
by them to vdiataoer ohjoat thejp 
nog^t select, tihough ai thasaoa* 
fae of public ooncocd,- asiib in d^ 
fanoa ik all the ordinny oMthtsea^ 
which ought to biOd togothar tho 
difiereot classes of theixmunaaiiy^ 
Who waa so. cBedulouo as to iiopa^ 
that^tibe powec 4§ a Cathdto piieiu 
hoodwoiddbeesaployedtoliMatoatid 
paolH^t a p aataa tant 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[lOT 



la Om imdb of Ur. Peel, '' If 
Bonum Cadiolict aie admitted to 
Ae full fofile^ of British tub* 
kct% we maf still have a benck of 
hulwipB in the Hou«e of Lonl^ 
bttt tba onljr link betweea tbe |p>- 
teflUnt zflligion. and the ooiutitu^ 
fcMR aad menunent of thii 
coliBtjry «iu be gone. That aam 
ceadasi^ whidi waa gmn to the 
fhwfb of Kaglftw^ afc < J^ Revobfr" 
tiflB will be gone.'^ 

In tcffo^ to Iidaad itself^ con- 
ceanem it waa aigued, would xe» 
wme none of the evils which af- 
flicted il>for none of them had 
beea nMwad by ea c kBioii. It 
wo«U not diapd theis igBoraace ; 
It would not maka thtm Iobb the 
iMtaonests of violent aod mrlrlrn 
pnnoiia; it would not incieeM 
tkaiertiHAsr of dieiirsQil; it would 
not tnck them to be provident; 
it would not semotve lunine; it 
would not clothe theiv nafcednesa. 
Its utBMNst e&ct woold be to open 
a new path to the ambition of the 
few ; but the misery of Ireland 
msided in tiia condition of the 
nnny> fiom whom emanematum 
would not remove one single pri^* 
vsdoB» Accordingly, the turbid 
IiMua which Iieknd had displayed 
had not been tbe natural result of 
aagp pditBoal pcessuxe upon the 
paqpk; it waa commotion &cti* 
taniily mieatad lor their« own eads» 
If the interested turbulent few, 
poopagiated and Maddened by the 
aatbodty of the priest^ who oould 
ha^ 00 wish, to maintaia civil 
ioBcfaiscs^ but as iastruments to 
he. atlkerwards used in attadting 
psotestnnt here^. In vain> mor^ 
o«ar, would we think of permanent* 
ly tranyuHising Ireland by gant* 

Swhat was now asked. There 
L mnaiiied behind, the thcono 
and the property of the chaieh. 
fadna a a fiawntbe iammi waa not 



a whit moce jmtifiaMa than the 
excUisioa which we weie new 
called OB to abolish; and to de» 
lend it would be donUy difBenltt 
after the principle now usarelafl 
fko^^yi oBco hava bean eslahttihed> 
The property and ftmchista of 
the dium, agai% wese, to Roman 
r^athoKn^^ tha pvapcfty and fimn* 
chises of heretiiBa) soohatasDy to be 
prudently subuultea te^ (aJai' taHl 
the power to ledeim them snould 
have been attained. Thcgp wouM 
be demanded by Irish aapiela^ 
under the absolute contm of a 
popish priasthoed^ widi the veiy 
same turbulencpb dtseesd, and 
virtual thieata of teheUion as the 
altemativ^aiitb wUdi it waancpw 
demanded that dya doom ef tha 
legkktiue should be thaown opaa, 
On a division* the naoliDn 
fiic a committee waa canned by a 
nuyocity of six; in die piacedt 
iag BesBJon it had beini last by 
a majority of fcmr. In the eooi* 
mittee the resolution '< that- it is 
eacpedient to consider the stele of 
the laws a&etinff hia majesty's 
Soman Catholic suajeotSy with the 
view of a&cting sach a finai ad>« 
juatment of theas^ as may be cen« 
dudve to tiie pease and stseagtk 
of the United Kingdom, tbesti^ 
bility oi tiie Protestant Establisb^ 
ment^ and the oeneaal sadsfiMtion 
and concord of all daasea" vMa 
agreed to^ and hero the Commona 
stopped. Instead of fuihav andf 
more detailed sesolntkma bemg 
moved/ or a bill being brought in 
to give effect tO) the genemreso^ 
lution which had beencanied^ it 
was resolved to ascertain) in tho 
first plfloe, whether the sentimeata 
of the H<Hise of Lords hadr under^ 
gime the same <3hange with those 
of Uie Commons. Therefiiroi on 
the l6th> it wes agreed,, en tii« 
motaeik of Sk Fxanda^ Bofdat^ 



^^ ANNU.At REGISTER. '1828, 

mid be oom> diSauT', and be gnni|)ded,lM.«ppf»f 

3s in con£Nc> rition to tbe motion, sot tm ,«iq 

Ups' c<fBcur> do^rinal pointSf but on the C3)W^ 

3, and tliat a aoTernmeat of the Boapi ^v^MiP)- 

the I^ordi Em. Nobody could l)ave,witn«wod 

accordingly, the trBOWftiona wlucbiliad be«a 

) hdd on the mattg on in Ireland dvmK ^ 

or the Lords b*t ttiiitf-fise yearf, wit}iOfit..})e^ 

tbe duke of ing convinced ' that .tW« waa:« 

J, the mar- combinaticm between t^Ui^oiHl 

I tbe earl of the clergf, which was dailf gaiq* 

t>urham,and ing ground, ^ence ^n^ iJtff 

se peen nav* conf^^on diat dj itinynihed U^ 

ution, it was land. If the ariatootacj had bcBH 

I House, and rendered powerless, and ftd^tical 

ito considers authority transfened to the po(qd<s 

ae. who, again, were the creatufw, iflf 

wo dajs. It the priest, it waa to this cffnUnap 

quia (tfLani- tion that it was owing. EmaiKar 

dowM, wbo moved that the House pation, th^ had been told, wo)il4 

iiiMiid concur in the resolution cure ^ these evils. But, in addi* 

4ih.ifih had been adopted by the tion to emancipation, they wmiU 

CciiAmons. Beudes tne dokes of also be obliged to give ta the Ca* 

Sussex and Gloucester, he was tholic church the whole esta b lia h - 

s^iported'by lord Goderich, lord ment of the Protestant chutch, 

Pfuo^t^ manniis Wellesley, the afler whidt tbe country would fa« 

tnarquis of Londonderir, eari exposed to the sam^ evils wbiol^ 

PBmlev, and the eail of Hadding- now prevailed. On all fanner {OO: 

ton. On tbe other hand tbe mo- canons, too, it had been proposed 

tion was strenuously resisted fay to grant political pvwer only m 

the duke of Wellington, the lord connection with effectual seeu^tw* 

Cbancdlor, and earrBatburst, the for the Protestant constitution in 

only ministers who spoke ; by tbe church and state : but now secuii. 

earlofEldon, the earl of Falmouth, ties were not even hinted at. He 

the earl of Wincbilsea, tbe earl of wished to see real distinct securitiea 

Dartmouth, lord Manners, the mar- proposed, before he would consent 

quia of Salisbury, lords Colchester to give any vote in favour of these 

and Redeadale ; and by the arch- clamis. He denied that any infer- 

bisbopa of Canterbury and Tuam, ence could be drawn from the ex- 

with the bisbc^ of Durham, Lin- ample of other countries, except 

coin, and Lancuff. The discussion this, that the Roman Catholic r&- 

necMsarily had still less of novelty ligion, in its natural state, waa 

than that wbidi bad preceded it in not a religion favourable to good 

the lower House. The sentiments government in any countiT. He 

delivered by the duke of Welling, begged their lonlships to ol^ 

ton weieUie most important, as serve, that, in tbe very countries of 

this was tbe firat time be had spoken Europe where the sovereigns poa- 

at length on the subject as prime sessed great power, the goveri]- 

minister. He considered the ques- ments were under the necearity of 

tiooitwiuil^inerelyasoneof expe> calling ia the ^ <tf tin pope 



Histioinr' OP BUROPEr 



/. 



Kd9 



iSitoujji me xtteftns of ft con* 
itorait,' or Knn^ tresty gntnted by 
fitt HdBneMr, trf which ibey bb» 
limed tbat tnitbority wbicb it was 
fteocsB tty t&t tt' govenmotit to po^ 
Mb ^er i^ clergy of the country. 
Mow it was utterly imponble for 
liici'' l^fernmetft bf this country 
tb^ Mi«r into any a rrangement of 
^irt-kliid. He ^ not mean to 
Italy wkt niere was no other ar* 
limMsient: My wUdi His Majesty 
ix^i have the jiower of appoint- 
ing the biflhops in Ireland^ and of 
eontfoUhtg and superintending the 
Ittteccoiirae between theni and the 
wseisi Rome ; but in his opinion it 
WM- utterly impossible^ under the 
^tesent constitution of tihe country, 
to make any such amneement 
With Ae pope as prevailed in 
foreign states.- The discussion of 
the question^ he thought^ would 
lead to no practical result^ and 
^rould'tend only to disturb the 
pubfie mind. From 1781 to 17^1, 
idthough many momentous ques* 
ikntti had been agitated in Ireland^ 
Ae Roman Catholic question was 
never heard of. So little indeed had 



itbeenheatdof, that his noUiefViend^ 
who sat near him, had broueht intp 
the House of Commons a bill re- 
specting the Roman Catholics^ an4 
it was a fact that the lord Liey- 
tenant of Ireland was never oo'n- 
sulted respecting it^ and indeed 
knew nothing of it, tSl it was' be- 
fore the House, so' little did' tlie 
Catholic question at that time dis^ 
turb the puldic mind. Hd did not, 
however, expect that such a staVe of 
tranquillity would agtdn occur; but 
it would be well to allow the puSr 
lie mind to rest, and in the end It 
might be possible to do somethings 
for he was most desirous of Se^ng 
the subject brought to an amicab^^ 
conclusion. ».. 

The motion was lost by k ma^ 
jority of 44, the contents ' being 
157, and the not-cont6nts 181^ 
The friends of emancipation, ho^ 
ever, professed to augur a less obsti^ 
nate and uncompromising opjsosi^ 
tion to their wishes in future^ 
from what they tertned the " con- 
cfiiatory tone,** in which the prim^ 
minister had delivered his senti- 
ments. 



'I • 



110] ANNUAL REGISTBIt, 1828. 



CHAP. V. 

ftetft^lAf Gmwom Xow ami #/ <ito Xm» «/ J2e«r Prnperhf^^Bim 
ecmaucHd wkh SkeHoni of Members of tk^ HontB^Nm OMfH BM 
paMmd»^Kmg*i Speech ai the Cloee of th$ Seesum. 



EARLY ta did Session (7tli 
P«b.) Mr. BtDUgham had 
diluted tbe attention of the Houie 
of Ckmniena to the etate of the 
CoBtnlon Law eoarts> and of ihe 
Comnon Lew itadf> in a speech 
which had been rarely equalled, 
either in the lime consumed in its 
deiiveiy, wld€^ is ndd to hftTO 
been upwards of six hours, or in 
llie mtooellaneotts variety of sub- 
jeeta^ on wUdi it touched. Pro« 
feising to exclude f^m his con* 
sideratiott, for different reasons, 
£quity4aw, CriminaMaw, Corn-* 
mercial-law, and the law of Real 
Property, he examined the consti- 
tution of the Common«^law courts, 
and the mode in- which business 
was divided amongst them, and 
conducted by them ; and, without 
much accuracy of detail, or pro- 
foundness of thought, or soundness 
of principle, contrived to detain 
the attention of his hearers by 
skimminff over nearly all the topics 
of popumr speculation, and trite 
complaint, connected with the ad- 
ministration of justice. 

He concluded with moving, 
'^ that an humble address be pre- 
sented to his majesty, respectfully 
requesting that it may be his ma- 
jesty^s pleasure to cause a commis- 
sion to iisue, to inquire into the 
abuses which have been introduced, 
in the course of time, into the ad- 
ministiration of the laws of these 



realms, and of the courts of com* 
mon kw, and to report on What 
remedies it mey seem fit smd ex- 
pedient to adopt ibr their t^tnoval. 
On the suggestion of the 6oIhntor->' 
general, the fnrthef ftottri^oeratioii 
m the question was adjourned for 
a fortnight. The discussion waft 
resumed on the S8th of Februarys 
when the Attorney-general and 
the l^licitor-seneral pointed out 
the fallacy and errors of many of 
Mr. Brougham's notions and sug^ 
gestions. All concurred in the 
opinion, that there was no Subject 
more worthy of attention than 
the improvement of the kw. , The 
only question was, how improve** 
ment could be best attained : and 
it was very obvious, that the un- 
bounded nature of the inquiry, 
which Mr. Broueham seemed to 
recommend, would prevent it from 
producing any practical good. In 
the course of the session two com- 
missions issued: one to inquire 
into the state of the Common-law ; 
the other to take into considera- 
tion the state of the law of Real 
Property. 

This session of parliament was 
distinguished by giving birth to a 
variety of attempts, to alter, and, 
as was therefcrre supposed, to im- 
prove, the mode of electing members 
of the House of Commons. The 
House had before it, at one time, 
seven or eight measures all bearing 



HISTOST OP EUROPE. 



cm 



or IfiH disoctij obl difieneiit 
fftitsof Ae Sfstem, In the pnoed* 
iog iBaaim an act had been {lasied, 
which, among other tUngs, pro* 
^ifpi^if^ ^^ fwnflidiatfli atran ftlfi^MJon 
fiEomdialiibatuig libboni* An at* 
tmupit wae now nade to repeal it, 
aa iHteg nas iiijarioiii to die ailk 
wB a f w cfCovontiy, than it could 
he beneficial to the oonatitutian ; 
hot leave was re&ied to bpog in 
the bOL The Commong. having 
oonvictad the burgaBacs of Penryn, 
in Comwally of grots and nrevail* 
ini^.bribeiy, papsedabill oisfran* 
ohiaing the hofinuiiy and transfer'* 
ring Its ri^t of electing two 
nemfaers to Manchester : but the 
lords threw out the bill as not be- 
ing supported by evidence of titir- 
ruption sufficient to warrant dia> 
feanchisement. In the lower 
house East Retfoid, too,in Netting* 
hamshire, was found guilty of eor« 
ruption, and a bill was brought in 
to transfer its f^ranchise to Binning* 
ham* The House, however, hav- 
ing resolved that instead of the 
borough being disfranchised, the 
right of voting should be thrown 
open to the adioining hundred. 
Mr. Tennyson, who haif brought In 
the bill, lefus^ to take any farther 
charge of it, and the measure was 
allowed to stand over till next 
aevion, on an agreement that in 
the mean time no new writ should 
be issued for East Retford. In Eng- 
land there ax9 many districts, which 
have been separated, at different 
times, fiom the counties to which 
they briong: the frediolders re- 
sidao^ in them have thus lost the 
right ci voting for. the county 
members, without having gained, 
hi several instances, the privUege 
of voting for the representatives of 
the boroughs, to which- they had 
been attached. Thus, Kingston 
upon Hull had been severed 



fWm the ooonty of York; and 
its freeholders ooull vote nei^ 
ther for the mewihera for York" 
shire, nor the members for Hull* 
A bUl was bronghl in to emddo 
die fineholden of snah districts io 
vote at the eleetiaa of koij^its of 
the ffhfrfs £aw the <y fi n t^f f from 
which they had bean nsparstiad, 
but it did not make its way ovaa 
through the House of ConMnons* 
A pn^posed bill for,regulatin|^ the 
time and manner or admittili| 
freemen in boroudbfl|» was noi 
allowed to be fafou^t in ; another' 
for registeringdie voters in simUa?. 
places was tluown out, after it had 
been brought in ;r*v»d the same 
treatment was extended to a diird 
for registering the fpeeholdcrs in 
counties. The House of Coo* 
mens, however, passed a bill.Ui 
prevent corporations from employ^ 
ing the corporate funds for eleoii 
tion purpoaes<«Hi measure .which 
originated in certain complaints 
regarding the conduct of the cor^" 
poration oi Leicester, at the last 
general election ; but the bill waa 
rejected by the House of I^oxds^t 
An -act regulating the manner of 
taking the poll at city and 
borough elections, and whose 
principal feature was that it cut 
down the duration of the poll from 
fifteen days to six, was the only ono^ 
that passed into a law« 

The plan for apermanent settle* 
ment of the corn-laws had failed 
in the preceding session, in ctnu 
sequence of ministers ^ving i^i 
their bill, because an amendment,- 
which they reckoned hostile to 
its principle^ had been enmfted 
on it by the duke of Wdliagtont 
Thesubject was again introduced by 
Mr*C Grant (Slst March) on tha 
very same piiMsiple, but with soma 
alteration in the prcfXMed duties- 
He would assume, he saidj that thoi 




tlQ ANMICrAIi REGI'STfiR^-:1828. 

ibirie «u4iiti]aad'tlll «d aOM Bdt]iltoomdiowidtki*«»«»rd%ii 

loJkft fmdfle^ whisk. it. had » sofiplr was neoittBrfr— He ««s 

Mtalcftlf ^adiplfli im tlie pMoediag very well awjue^ thal-k^ fPauU^be 

aflkMB» ▼19.' ihmt agrkukiive wm in vain to attenq^ lii iiiwnimuiti| 

t» to^pmealai 4igr dittiei, aot bf aigumtet dune t»ko iwii ilum 

fMUUma^^^'mMba dMaadiities ed, tlMt this waa aot lining to Uie 

AodU ba» flitoi or ««ryiiiA*^tf ]a«7; butheooiili 

iaad^t^whatiite y .a nd if ^aty- that tke fact WM 

hi|^ fkiw^thap flacttaalion& ahmild and that the Honae 

W i»gi|iaawl, ■■ mmm jnAnU of mi« it into eoniideratidn. 

J tot iiUMrta wcei. GoiwnmiaDtwaa taken into aeoouat mJ^jte&tlli^^ 

ilttlBomacad^ that a scale of turns liow to ba intndnaad, ud 

faqritt d«lM mm the best ekpe* the duties at some painted ife 

dient nwidoiafr equal justice to all soale^ would be irond to^ kigkar 

CBBS laaeteslpd, bat tft» rate of than those formally jseopoaBd ; «n 

as wis te be asbjacted to some additxmal protection, moonfariavi 

MoiifiDalioii^diflaent fem what with the bill of last saswm, beiq^^ 

the^'faill of Sast sasBia& had. con^ thus afforded to the agrienltHnlui- 

lalwrii .Ontbe fiehise of that terest. ItwasprqMsedtkatwJbltet 

Mil)' oi ' iafyntary act had been diould be snljeet to a dutyof ^^ 

]kaM> Id oontame in fone till 84JL, whenefer theprieeoC BiitWa 

the'lat'iof- May in the present wheat was at 6^.; «mI iewae 

year, -'peamitliag tke importatioii^ also proposed that the doty aheiild 

cf 'earfiQndife condithmscoaHain* be decreeiedby l^^for eveiy iik 

ed in the bill which had been oreaseof U. in the priceofBcitiih 

akasiddned. The onfiQaenta of the wheat : so that at 56s. tiie duty 

bill' had then predicted that the would h^SO^M. !rhis scale ed*^ 

ettct of ibis maasere would h^ to vanced by diminutioiia of U. in 



die>prioe of British com, the'duty fyc every increase ef X^ 

andte bdnn Foreign com into the in the pnoe, until the priee xeeii& 

liavket* He thought, for his own ed 67s»; then by e disainutatm at* 

pen, Ikat' both of these drcum* 2#., until. the price reached, 60i^|. 

staacaainil^ be accounted for in by a diminution of 3#* ; until, ijffif 

aaoliherwBy; yet, it could not be prioe reached 7U. ; and by aditWin 

doiriited that they had excited very nutioe of 4s^; until the 



sHroi^ fioelings, in the minds of reached 7^* It would ha ee^y 

ilMse aocustonied to indulge in thereforeyF that at itSt*^' and -ZMSi 

sodi pradictionsb If it wasjustto the scales id the tstfe jbiitikpaiwv 

take into eonsidentien at all the cided; but, at they. prpe qp 4 <d jp.. 

akrau of these mast nearly oon« diffiuent maansi the»difffiencp»;be^ 

cemedy the neeeanty of consider- tween them at the intervals, xeaa 



ing them vras strengthened by coasideiable. He prepasad acale: 

lato ikelB^ The House ought not wasasfoUows: r. f, 

to IbrM die facty that, inder a «*/,., . • .^ > • r 

dotyi ^U its. Sd., and a duty of Wheai^^mperiol WwHtf. ^, 

li4s. Uh A^ kundsed thounnd • ^ Jm,'* 



Smasi ef Aireiffn ectn had, in 58 and under 59 . . $^^B 

aoBlks '.«f ' July aad AiuRMt 53 ■ .i 54 . * 0>« ft 

lastt-kesnadmiftfead into the madet, 54 > 55 . * 91k -^^i 

aii'timiy top^ whan ^e priaa of U ■■ ■ »i^ 56 • » W'^^ 



HISTORY OF EUROPE: 



w^ 



*, 



*■ » i ». 



*#»i 



•««. 



n^m,0mm^mm 




MHW 



.4{1 

.ii 
■^%^ 

•r 

*i 

70 

Tl 

78 

« A« to iheWindMfler measure^ it 
WM pnpMed to impose a duty of 
mt. when«vor the price in thu 
oemityy wm at 54#. ; and that the 
duty riioold dtcxeaie in the tans 
Bttnner as in the scale ibr the im- 
perial nieaaiiie«--'With respect to 
other fffain^ appKealiDHs had heen 
asiide hv an augmentation of the 
doty on hariey and oats, hut 
especially on oals. After consU 
daring the snbjeet, however, he 
had thought it would he hetter to 
ilisiie no utention in these duties. 



VI ; 




3D 


a 


M . 


b 'a 


29 


8 


«9 


> ■ • 


M 


8 


«> , 




27 


8 


61 . 


» w* 


26 


8 


£3 . 




M 


8 


fis . 




24 


8 


U- . 




23 


8 


65 i 




22 


8 


66 . 




21 


8 


67 . 




20 


8 


6» . 




IB 


8 


69 . 




16 


8 


70 . 




IS 


8 


71 . 


- 


10 


8 


7a . 




6 


8 


7» . 




• 2 


8 


74 . 


r • 


1 






[111 



ions applications had heen made 
holh for on augmentation of the 
dote, and for limiting the qruan« 
tityirf* foreign corn that should he 
admitted* Ooifemment, however, 
after taking these applications into 
co ns i d swHien, did not feel that it 
would he proper to comply with 
them, and thought it would he 
heller to t^e a duty atonoeon 
these kinds of grain, rather than 
suffer it to be continually fluctuat- 
ing. The present resolutions, there- 
foie» vfere in principle the same 
as the hiU of last session, though 
the a^ of duties was seaiew£it 
diflkreni: and they woe presented 
to Ae House, not as the hest that 
Vol. LXX* 



eouU be ftuaed, hoi 
Ukely to pern into n hw% «»«•, 
they did pass into • 4ait^ to.ht 
beneficial to the ptthlk» Sn te 
as the kgislatuae waa eneoHwdi 
they were pnTwanant, nsilil-llit 
minds of men ceuU bv M Jn 
entertain jnslsr notiesttrii|MitAJi 
stthfect; and they wwdd >« 
chimged only atthe nolsBn^ whiibk 
at pcesent prevailed, wera-aliPied 
for the better. Tbqr vrameffctal 
to the landed i n te wst aan 
nlaoe. as firm ^«»«i aalid sfiDnnd< 
whidi time and experi 
aocumulato a xisher eaiL Tbciif- 
were a oompromiae hetwesn oann 
flieting interests and * opinlnnii 
He himself thou^t them isiiwii 
feet, inasmudi as they £dl shorfealf 
die hill of last year ; hut they had. 
been brought as near to thai^ men^' 
sure as was oensisient' witfi . tin 
likelihood of tiieir being 
intoakw. ^ 

The opposition which hadu 
made to the bill of last year waa 
immediately renewed, from tise 
same quartern, and on the. wumm 
grounds; the agnculturiata strugw 
gHng jEbr still higher dutiesi^ ami 
uieir advenaries maintaining that 
those proposed were a great dad too 
high. The vehemence of the ftv» 
mer, however, was some what abated 
by the increase of duty over that of 
last year's hill, introduced in defeiw 
ence to their opinions or to their 
power: but that very altorationfnr* 
nished to the latter anew groundof 
complaint and opposition. Other 
m^bers of the government, '^be- 
sides Mr. €rrant,distinctly deMfbed 
the measure asone whidi did not 
their own ideas of whaa- 
right and expedient; tmd 
what they called a emnpnmssiinf- 
coafiieting opinions ^ras sn seaK^. 
it was sttd, nothuig km-thtfami 
soeriflce of what Umy. fdirfmd« 

[I] 



nWi ANNITAL REOISTBR, 1828. 



diejr' knew to be fer the pfobtie 
goed^ to* libe pftitlal view^ of a par- 
ridtfktf kiterMt whioh tbef were 
aMd to dkplease. Bvery person 
wht>. bad opposed tbe bill of last 
session" was mucb more bound to 
oppose tbe pteseot meaauve, wbieb 
BWtMdIy nsoeded' still further from 
oorrect prindple, and to oppose it 
on the admissions of tbe rery men 
wbo supported it— ^tbat tbey them- 
sehrvs deemed it bad in proportion 
m it ^flfo]^ from its predecessor. 
The resolutions moved by Mn 
Cvraat were agreed to ) but when 
the House went into • committee, 
Mr. (>alei»ft moved as an amende 
rtenty that the scale, which had 
been adopted by the House of 
Cemmon^ last year, should be sub« 
sti^nted for that which was now 
proposed ;- and the amendment re* 
celved the support of many mem- 
h«m who 'Were by no means 
disinclined to shew favour to the 
agricultural interests. For, al- 
though the alterations in the pre* 
sent biil from that of last year, 
had avowedly been made for the 
purpose of conciliating the landed 
interest, by afibrding it greater 
protection, the efiect of them, it 
was said, would be just the re* 
verse. The bill of last year had 
the feelings of the country in its 
favour, which fixed the pivot price 
at SOi* ; but the present bill» de- 
parting from that precedent, had 
fixed it at a lower rate, and upon 
a principle leas calculated to ope- 
rate as a certain protection. In 
the year 1815 we had been told 
that the average price of com for 
several previous years had varied 
from 7dJ. to BOs. We had then 
been teld in the year 182S, that, 
in cenaequence of the peace, and 
of the Deduction of taxation oonse* 
qatnat oo the peace, and of certain 
other causes, 70f > was the proper 



average price as caknlsted: fU^oa 
the prices during* iha jtms 
intervening between 181S and 
1822; and we were next told, 
in the year 1827, that 60§. was 
the proper average pricey as •cat 
cdbited upon -the pnoes dnmB^Alie 
yean intervening bet i ton : the 
year» 1882 and 1827* -Kfalw» iC 
we took into our oonsidflrition Ae 
price of com during the last year, 
we should find tlmi lihe proper 
average prio& was somewhat lofwttr 
than 60s.. Why then* duittld lee 
jump all at oooe^ and without any 
express reason, to an AVem^ {trioe 
above 60#. ? Was it ^fiaouetie 
the people? Nay, wa»it gracMma 
to that large majwity of the Moose 
of Commons, which, in the laafc 
year, hod affirmed a lomex price, itt 
oomplianoe v(4th the wishes, el 
his mi^esty's ministers, .mas^ o£ 
whom were still filling the, same 
places in the cabinet wUoh ibfty 
tAam occupied? Without aey sea^ 
son whatevor»«»for they would de 
Mr* Grant the justice to states that 
he had had the modesty not even te 
attempt togiveareaaen fot theellfte* 
edresolution whichhe had this ^ear 
proposed to the House-^^nrithgut 
any reason whatever, he 'jumped 
above the price on. whieh liiew 
Canning had fixed in the bill oC- 
last yetir. The great o\ij»t wi$9^ 
to secure the oorn-macluit fitom 
all excessive fiuetuatiooi^ and. that 
was the very point in. which* the 
present bill was uadenieblj wA 
notoriously deficient. It^ was a 
bill of false pretences, when it wee 
held out to the agricultural inter- 
est as a premium on the bill which 
had been proposed last year.: it 
was the most palpable faUaiQr theft 
was ever attempted tolie,<|N4i9ed 
upon a House of CommoMv ti JCme 
it was> that at a certain; priffe.U 
afibrded greater protection ito the 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



(.lliSf 



flgiisQltiml interest ; Vut it was 
eneilj at diat price to wbi^ oorti 
had nevet am^r«d m the last year, 
and to ivhich it was not to he 
expected that it would ever arrive 
ag^» Up to SBsh there was le« 
pseteotiaii for tine aorioultural i»* 
tesest nader the bill of diis year, 
tlian there was under the bill of 
bsl ; and so far it was favourable 
to those virho stickled for low 
prioes. The great fault, however, 
of the present bill was, that you 
had ptohibition when you did not 
want it, and j^tection when you 
need^ it least ; for it gave you 
pioteetion under high, and with« 
drew it under low prices. The 
bill of last year proceeded upon a 
consistent and intelligible princi- 
ple: the biU of this year pro- 
deeded on no other than an ad 
i^toiM^irm principle, seeking to 
oonoiliate one side by the ofkr of 
low, and the other by the offer 
of high prices, and making them 
both liable to the danger of Hue- 
tilating prices. From 50s. to 58jr. 
we were worse off than we were 
before ; and that was exactlv the 
point at which the people at 
lai|*edid not fbel my inconvcni- 
enee* You thus had com let in, 
when the people did not want 
it; but when it rose above that 
price, and its deamess began ta 
ineonvMienee them, yon threw 
eveiiy possible obstacle in the way 
of its importation. It was only 
natural for the duke of Wellington 
to say that 64^. was the proper 
average price, for be had said so 
last year: and though it might 
be convenient for those who held 
seats in the calnnet to compromise 
thtUr former opinions on this sub* 
jeet in order to retain those seats, 
why shottid the House of Commons 
imitate their example ? The 
gnmnd on which it had been de- 



fended, as a bad measiMS which 
ought to be adopted because the 
ether Hoose of parliament wo\ild 
not agree to pass-a better, waa 
equally derogaSory to the righte 
and to the duties of the CommoDS«»^ 
This sjMrit of compromise, was 
becoming a great deal too oQnii»on« 
The House of Commons ought to 
send every measure up to the 
House of Lords in the shape 
which it deemed would be most 
advantageous to the interests of 
those whom it represented : it Was 
for the House of Lords to suggest 
any amendments which they deem* 
ed expedient upon such a measure ; 
and then it was for the House (^ 
Commons to decide, whether they* 
would deviate from the strict line 
on which they had first proceeded^ 
in order to pass a particular mear* 
sure, rather than none at all, 
upon any particular subject There 
might be reasons of policy and 
expediency, why gentlemen, hold-i 
ing responsible situations in the 
cabinet; miffht make concessimis 
to their coDeagues on points of 
national importance; but those 
reasons were no grounds for the 
House of Commons, nor for indi- 
vidual members who were bound 
by no ties, exc^t those of con- 
science and equity, to alter the 
vote to which they had deliberately 
come in the last session of parlia- 
ment by a large majority. 

Ministersanswered, that, in truth 
there was no inconsistency betMreen 
the two measures, when the com- 
mon principle on which they both 
proceeded was rightly understood. 
The object and principle of tho 
present measure were precisely the 
same as the object and princi^^le of 
that of kst year. The biH of last 
year afforded proleotitm up to 60s. : 
a greater degree of protection, from 
GOr. to 64s., was given by the 

[12] 



U9] ANNUtiJU iflfiOl 



9* 



a828. 



m^.it^ im^e, tbj^ , pcinciple WM 
d^ ,AaQ^; ,^ .the ,«a/9a«uxe oC ]asi 
Mftflioa,... Tbe^lQect. wafij. to^>e 
pvQ^tlp^'vUp^ ta.a oertaia ppiot» 
^ndl to exclude the, iutroduction of 
f(Mp9^ga»ADi?n 99J]iuch.,a« pos^iUa. 
XhfT i^yot prioe^ bpwev^, it wai 

ipi4 lM4beeA'nisedto64«v while 
t^sJEiouaa oC CpnuDonB hud last 
Vear.d^berat^ly fixed it at 60g* 
nx^ ia points tof &ct> the pivot 
piio^ had AOt been changedi The 
piFOttpriqe, was that poiat in the 
Spal^,iut which on one side the duty 
i^^iQpndedt and on the other de- 
s^^ded^it WAS the. level where 
thf) aseeiKdinff ^^ descending du<« 
tiw mett,, The pivot in the bOl 
imt, year was fixed alt 60s^ the 
Wuichie8ter,.aBd at 62s, the im« 
pe^al na^sure^ In the present 
t^Ui.thB'flaaie.^vel was taken, and 
^t 6&S, the imperial, and at 66s» 
tj)e Winchester mefnure^^ihejKale 
aapended on the one side> and de* 
amended on the other. The difier- 
ev^ between the two bills was not 
aSfto the pivot which had been 
fixed i^pon as affiuding a su&^ient 
fxc^teotipn to British agnculture, 
hy. the imposition of a certain duty 
when the price of com ascended 
above that point, and diminishing 
the duty when the price of com 
fell below it» The point, which 
had been agjreed to last year by 
parliament as afibrding a sufficient 
protection to British agriculture, 
was stil^ preserved; butthe question 
now wasy whether the scale which 
had been last year adapted to that 
point afibrded a sufficient protec-* 
tipn. The object of Mr. Cfl^ning, 
in the plan of last year, had been, 
to. giva, an efficient protection 
tp the British cora-gisbwer up to 
6(U,«the Winchester^ and 62s. the 
ifnpamlioa^WMre, With that view^ 
bfi.had. pTRpo^ed'^iKale of duties. 



whidi^tenMun^sta^^irnuy)^^ 

60*, fttd 64*.. tlfP . Wiij^jipjiwr 

measurei find 6^r.and iSp^n,^ 

iniperiaV mcasur«i ^d„werft .i^ 

ci3»sedov djminysbed^ fui thft . «grip|» 

of com rose, or {eU ,.abPV||^.,jy|^f 

standard, Thescale tbei^ivwiViad 

was ooniddered adequalja ^fr ^f 

purpose^ Thequest^on nAWi.be^SnTT 

the Hous9 W98f not^.tgM^hangeithf 

price at which that sq4e h^id^b^^n 

fixed, but vf h^her t)ie tpiy^yigifii 

thereby afforded^ was a jSfffideivk 

protection to the'BnUsb.<¥np9-gci9^^ 

er. In deciding ih^tquestioi^tthfQF 

should look at'What qgd hawj^[^4 

since the session of Jast yaa;i^. ^Ht^ 

would find that a quantity .of opicn 

amounting to 300,000 qu^ters ^aA 

been admitted into tbevnuqfc^ 

Without adverting even to the cir> 

cumstances under wbi^.ihi| C9ni¥ 

bad been admitted^ when Aej 

found that such a quantity • afi 

500^000 quai;terB had been ad< 

mitted in on^ mqnth, it mu^ 

appear evident that the scala 

of duties^ proposed in the hill nC 

last year, did.notr afford a sufficienH 

protection to the agric^ltoval i^ter«t 

est, — in fact thatproteRtion.jwhicli 

had been con^mplated^y^.U^ 

of Mr. Cannin^^. That minist9i> 

when introducing the t^^p^po^panr^ 

bill, after the intendcd..penKtaiieii% 

measure had been thn^wn/put-a«k 

the other House ,of parU^fp/kn 

had distinctly stated, thaJ^i^.wai^.ii 

measure to be^^ied \^ rth# imi-fif 

experience, i^nd that jln tba. nea^ 

session, they, ifirould be^^n»bied^to^ 

judge from. *Ufte working of -|i^ 

whether it was calculated to ^iFof^* 

the desired protection to th^agpf^ 

cultural interests . Govemn;|^^ 

had acted upon this sumesti^^. 

and, taking eyperienca &r .|hair« 

puide> had felt themselves l^iu^* 

m eonsistend^y of primnplv, to j9!^rT^ 

pose the present 4une9KNwit'.i^. 



HI^W)RY^ O?! gUROPJE/ / ^ [Hi 



iMH^itii the qtiantitf of foreign 

t)lleil^ (Hit of Ixmd; snd it tras 
^vieyent;; that, tmdto the bill of I^t 
Ms^ioto; ft mmilar influx of "foreign 
cdrtx ii^ht occur^ so as to oppress 
th^ filri^^ eoni-*grower. The 
fim "^I^M/then, ^^niisteft had 
^^n'lo' reiAed;3r' that defect, and to 
Itfi^d'tt stffllefent protection when 
tfee *^*fee'^ com was from 60*. to 
Wa Ilia* 6bject^ they conceived, 
WddU bi efl^tedl)y adding 4v. to 
Hke ^dijtty pMposed kst year, when 
tlife ;^ce of com should he at 
fi^y.^ Other corresponding' changes 
had been made in the ascending 
sEttd d^wendinff scale ef duties, 
^hich' appearS to them calcu- 
liited to remedy th^ deibcts of the 
Kl$ of last year. 

£quftlly unfounded was the ob- 
jection that the duties did not 
flfibrd sufficient protection when 
ifhe price of com was low. The 
duties, when com was between 
58*. and 59*., were as high as it 
hid been Intended they should be 
in l^^lffl of last year; and they 
were so high as to be equal to a 
proiiibitoty duty. When com was 
58*. and' up to 59*., the intended 
^ty wotdd ttmmint tc^ 28*. Bd. 
Did tAf body imacine that foreicn 
com' would be Imported under 
i^t dtity when com was at 58*.? 
NotWitliffitandinetliecirxnimstances, 
#hich, dtiring the last year, tended 
tb ^encourage the importation of 
fytdfft com, yet, Vhen the price 
Was at M*:, the duty under the 
MI' 'of last se^on prevented, 
tho^h it did not altogether ex« 
clud>e, the importation of fbrei^ 
com. Notwithstanding the fall m 
the prite*'of corn, and- the alarm 
t^QS create in the minds of the 
holder!^ of foreign ^in, when the 
duty WVB at 5^*, M-, what was 



the fearfiil quantity of fdteigtieoM 
taken out of bond ? IWO h#idi^ 
and 8eventy*.»even ' quiirtertf ^'only ; 
when the duty wits tit^ 30*^; fbttt 
hundlred and twenty^six qUftftetft 
were taken out; When at '^*i. 
One hundred and six qnaiHeiv werb 
taken out ; When at 84*.; one hun- 
dred and one quartet; when ftt 
86*., fifty-three quartern ) arf 88^., 
sixty-one quarters were itkfin imt: 
and when the duty was at 40ii, 
four quarters were taken' btxf; in 
one week, fifty-two in afaoflu^ 
twenty in another, dnd' lfwo= ih 
another ; altog^her sbbut' one 
thousand quarters Were taken biit 
during an entire qttarler of a yeSt* j 
and a great portion of thetef drib.* 
blings had been ordered to be soM 
out by the fordgn merdhiiits even 
at a loss, as the article wonld not 
pay for the rent of the wnrehouses. 
It was plain, then, that the duty 
of 28*. 8^., when com- was from 
58*. to 5gs., amounted nei^yto 
a prohibition duty. Goverament 
had, therefor^^ made out fronr 
the experience of last year, ftom 
the reports which had been re*' 
celved from foreign countries, and 
from the evidence taken before the 
House of Lords,— that, by the irii*^ 
position of a duty of 38*. 8rf., when 
com was at 58*., thete was no 
risk of any quantity of foreign 
com being imported into tms 
country. 'The scale under the 
present bill, in short, when com- 
pared with that of last year, af- 
forded a better protection to the 
agriculturist. When the price of 
corn was frdm 60*. to 65s,y undet 
the proposed duty, the importation 
of foreign com wonld be checked. 
When the price was above 65*.' 
the oom from our colonies would 
come in free; and Whien the prices 
were higher, the duties would 
operate to ptel^t the importfttidti* 



\\^] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



6t m overwhelming quantity of 
foreign com. 

The amendment was lost by a 
majority of 202 to 58 ; and various 
other amendments moved in the 
committee^ for the purpose of in- 
craaiung the quantity or protection 
against fbreign gniin, all shared 
the same fate, being opposed not 
only by the fHends of the minis- 
terial measure, but by all who 
were the enemies of the ministe- 
rial measure, on the ground that 
the protection bestowed was exces- 
sive, and rested on an erroneous 
principle. The bill passed in its 
original form. 

In the House of Lords, it was 
opposed by lord Lauderdale, the 
earl of Malmesbury, and earl Stan- 
hope, An amendment on the mo- 
tion for the second reading, that 
the bill should be read 'that day 
six months, was lost by 86 to 
19. On the motion for the third 
reading, amendments were moved 
similar to those which had been 
proposed in the Commons, but 
with no better success; and the 
bill was finally carried without 
alteration. 

On the 28th of July, the session 
was closed. On that occasion, the 
following Speech of the Lords 
Commissionera was delivered to 
both Houses by the lord ChanceU 
lor: 

" My Lords and Gentlemen, 

''We are commanded by his 
Majesty to acquaint you, that, the 
business of the Session having 
been brought to a close, his Ma- 
jesty is enabled to release you 
from your attendance in Parlia- 
ment. 

" His Majesty commands us at 
the same time to return to you 
his warm acknowledgements for 
the jeal and diligenoo with which 



yDU have ap(4ied yoorselvMrfa 
consideration of BHuiy anl^^ta «f 
great importance to the public 
welfare. 

" The pfovlaik>ni whiefa ymi 
have made for the regdiition nf 
the import of CotB> oolnbixi^g 
adequate pioteelioQ for dMnosak 
agriculture with d«e preCMitien 
against the eonseqveiiodi aT a dafr- 
cient harvest, will, in the oanfiient 
expectation of his Majei^, pxxvaole 
the inseparaUe interealai of «U 
classes of his subjecta. • 

*' We are commaniad by Us 
Majesty to aequaml yo\h tbsitlAa 
Majesty continuesto reeftvefioas 
his AUies, and from aU Farai|n 
Powers, assuraoees of tkeiv fticm-' 
ly disposition towards this ooantsy. 

" The eadeavoursof his MsQ/mtj 
to effect the Pacification of Gfene» 
in concert with his Allies, the Kii^ 
of France and the Emperor S 
Russia, have continued unah^tri. 

''His Imperial Migee^ Jas 
found himself under the neeoanty 
of declaring War against the Ot- 
toman Porte, upon gronnda oon- 
ceming evclusively the iottfTfUi of 
his own Dominions, and uwMi- 
nected with the St^ukiaoni of she 
Treaty of the 6th July 1827* 

" His Majesty deeply lanwits 
the oecurrence of these hoaiilitie^ 
and will omit no efibrt) of ftwndly 
InterpositioB to restore peaoci 

"The determination of ^ 
Powers, parties to the Tmty c^ 
the 6th July, to dfeek the oh^nts 
of that Treaty, remains uncbaoged. 

" His Imperial Majesty mis 
consented to wave the exercise, in 
the Mediterranean Sea» of any 
rights appertaining to his Imperial 
Majesty in the character of a 
belligerent Power, and to recall 
the separate instructions which had 
been given to the Commander of 
bis Naval Forces in that bea. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[lie. 



dbreotkig, hostile operations against 
'the OuiQinaQ. Porte* 

"His Majesty will therefore 
continue to combine his efforts with 
Ihose oC^lhe King of Franee and 
his Jnipenal Majesty^ for the pu»- 
•yose 'of carvying into complete 
cwmslton^ .the stipulation of the 
iTimity -of Ltudott* 
< '^f Hia Majesty anamands us to 
•ao^mMit ymij that, his Majesty had 
•vwy reason to hopOj when he last 
flddtessod you» that the arrange- 
ments which had been made for 
admUuslei&Qg the goyemment of 
Portugal^ until the period at which 
ihe> Emperor of Biazil should have 
cmnpltted his abdication of the 
Thmia of Portugal, would have 
secured the' Peace and promoted 
the hi^ipinesa of a Country in the 
welfare of which his Majesty has 
eve^ taken the deepest interest. 

<' The just expectations of his 
Manesty have been disappointed ; 
and measures have been adopted in 
Portugal, in disregard of the earn- 
est advioe and repeated remon- 
strances of his Majesty^ which have 
compelled his Majesty and the 
ether Powers of Europe^ acting in 
eoncert with hi^ Majesty^ to with- 
draw their representatives from 
Lisbon. 

^' His Majesty relies upon the 
miaibm '«f the august Sovereign^ 
the Heed of the House of Biagan- 
M9k, to tahe the course which Siall 
be best Calculated to maintain the 
ialekesls and honour of that iUus- 



u 



€t 



trious Family, and to .secure the 
peace and happiness of the Domi- 
nions over which it reigns- 

'' Gentlemen of the House ot 
Commons^ 

"We are commanded by his 
Makjesty to thank you for the Sup- 
plies which you have granted to 
him for the service of the present 
year ; his Majesty willupply them 
with the utmost regard to economy, 
and will continue a deliberate re- 
vision of the several public esta- 
blishments, with a view to any 
further reduction which may be 
compatible with the dignity of the 
Crown, and with the pei^manent 
interests of the country. 

My Lords, and Gentlemen^ 
His Majesty commands us 
congratulate you upon the general 
prosperity of the country^ a^d upon 
the satisfactory state of the Public 
Revenue. 

*' His Majesty contem^ates the 
increase of our Financial Resc^orces 
with peculiar gratification^ on ac- 
count of the decisive proof which 
it exhibit^ that the condition of 
his subjects is one of progressive 
improvement. 

" His Majesty commands us, in 
conclusion, to assure you that his 
unabated exertions will be directed 
to inculcate among Foreign powers 
a spirit of mutusd goodwill ; and 
to encourage the Industry, to ex- 
tend the Commeift^, and advance 
the general Welfare of his ovui 
Dominions*" 



199) A N N U. A^ REG l&TE Bi •• 1828. 



n' 


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Hj , 1 ;•». in; v^ 

:'.'■,. ".';,■ - ■ . CHAP. VL ■ ■• •• T.->/ " 

^bi^: ^ ./rafciirf—Pr^pwcttipf of 4ke Caiholk.AMmutiim--ff^Mr^ 

. O'jUofmU ieom4» a GoiMitdaie ^o rqnfsaitf tkt Grai^^^/ CIrfwiw 

. Emlumm ^ > .ggertttwu o/ tike Goltett: OrafirrtfiuiiPfinli^itf^ 

.iJi:iCkmn4lit tbeted^Protat aganut his beim^ reinrmd^ yRiv^f 

M^.lA0 CblMic iifsoeta^uNt ui t#« angina/ /iVirm^f^ uUmouMM 

f. ruriva to 0fpo$e every Candktaie who wiU natfMige*liim^'^ 

t dpfeiusike Admimstratum ef the Duke of WiMm^,9^ U>^Jbm 

M^adimnemt,tmd to a repetd of the Sub4eiiinsrA€i^^eei^fm 

..HCybdra Bkotrnn-S^eeh of Mr. Dawson at iMdonderrf-^flk 

-^fJkmmiaihn proceeds to organize the PopulaiiOH bg inHMMtff. 

; €0iintif amd Parochial Cluh9 — Provinciai Meetmfft--The^ Assoc&i^ 

I tion pmte wi end to the Quarreh among the Peasantry^-^ThennittlB^ 

.Jfleattrnfry assemble in large Bodies in MUitttry arra^^^Alnrk 

mxeUed by these Meetings — Revival of the Orange, and Institutioii 

^'^ihe Brmmirick Clubs — The Association sends an Agent to t)rganize 

• Ae North — ffe traverses the Country^ and enters the Toums, at the, 

head of large Bodies of Catholics — The Protestants assemble-^fhe 

Magistrates oppose his progress — Riot at BaUybay — The Associa* 

thn exhort the Peasantry ofTipperary to hold no more Meetingi^ 

and they obey — Proclamation issued by the Lord Lieutenant-^Prth 

' 'eeedings in England — Meeting at Pennenden Heath — Institutioaf 

of Protestant Associations — Proceedings of the CatltaUc Assoqor, 

titn — Resolutions against Securities — Declaraiions in favour qf ih( 

Porty^Shilling Freeholders — Correspondence between the D^M.j^, 

Wellington, Dr, Curtis, and the Lord LieutenogU — The Loi^4 Li^t 



tenant is recalled^ 



Z'tl 



IN tlie det^ whidi has been meat of Portugalo-HmaorouMiOfr 

given of tbe pruid|«l topics which we shall ]uive (a QwlBaaaHir 

that occupied the attention of par- fully, when narmHag the events 9S 

liamenty is included eveiy ^ thing the year in thooe couniriei < Ift 

worthy of lieing recorded in the whoae histoiy they asywe y m^tiufss ^ 

domestic history of the year, in larly belong^^-occaaoned^ • Mboi^ 

so far at least as Great Britain some discontent both amoitgipelilivt 

was the scene of action. That dans and mecchanti B«A maf-, 

part of the United Kin^m pre- injuiy^ which migbt be. aoffmdili^ 

sented only scenes of active, tran- the mercantile interests^ mMitea. 

3uil^ and not unprosperous in- trivial to be made matter «f grafB: 

ustiy. The temporary bldckade complaint; and the kwedeet sw^Hja i 

of tbe Dardanelles by Russia, and sions of dissatisfaction pvooeeded: 



of Oporto and Madeira, by the .from those not veiy 

pegcsons who had seised the govern* penon^ who thgnj^t, not that 



iHwamY OF .i:uR6K05 « A pai 



oonmieioe was crippledy but tliat 
the national honoor was stained, 
and national impotence proclaimed^ 
hy these blockades being allowed 
to be established at alL 

Very different was the state of ' 
Ireland. There, political and re- 
lig&iis fnrt|i spifit aaslmiti a fbcm 
svittahv .^fodttsed ichae .uaexpe^ted 
pt^tiiwaifssj andLtthreatiBned, in the 
H^SfkiBsitea of the dmid, the 
Wite ^dkdbithm of^iM)det74 The 
Catiii)i«r.AsMasiiQn had eontbiH 
e4>taBM^ wd ;to:op6Kaeei notwith« 
ifjy^ffw. . Ui& sta^utfi w^ch had 
bmLdefime40supp^ That 
law* had been intend^ to abolish 
i0l]?i^i^4i]l the «ipr aiidomy 
eoityopatioiis of both parties, the 
Qraniee Societies as well as the 
Catb^ic AssocIatidoDu The former 
had, submitted to the voice of the 
le^slature: the latter changed its 
form, but cbaneed nothing of its 
activity, its vlolehce, and abuse. 
The Catholic leader had boasted 
fipm the b^inning that no act of 
parliament would be able to re- 
strain them, and he had carried his 
bbost into efibct. The task was 
an easy one ; for no attempt was 
hiade t6 ^ut the law in execution. 
Hie govermnent, which had called 
for it as being indispensable to the 
peace of Ireland, made no use of it, 
whtts tba peace of Ireland was 
tsniiUng*' before their eyes; and 
by doing iOi they deprived them- 
salves^ in a great measore, of all 
ri^ fo^compiain that the proper 
g ^o aw i m eiit of Ireland was a thing 
b^)Mi4 4heb power. During the 
short piriod that Mr. Canning Was 
nunlstar,^ l3ie Catiioli6s had been 
oonpastftivaly tranquil. Although 
his eabfaiet was divided jon we 
qwdoii of tbeir admission to poH- 
ttcal power, they rightly placed 
gRttt estoidence in the circmn* 
stniee that he himself was their 



friend; if he should remain in 
power, it was more than probaUe 
that their object would be gained ; 
and, therefore, their most tried 
friends in parlhunent had both de>* 
clined'- pressing Mr. Canning to 
give any determinate pledge upo^ 
the subject, and had abdtained^fWiibt 
all motions «ad vdiselusiMi^ which 
might hwfecmbakraSMdiir'dMdien 
him in his totlerine pbAt^. 
When lord Qodaridi &(»alle^jtoi« 
nister, their -conAdeaoe 'waxed 
weaker i * fiir tbedgh tbe «hii4''of 
the ministiy was stitt-iiiAiv^ftiead, 
be was a fciend, whosevininehce 
with the puUifi asd inithe.SBBi^n* 
meat was infiintdy ' less^ v Wden 
he retired Aom nffioe^ ^ and* was 
succeeded by theduke^oC Wdlhlg- 
ton, they did not ipei^ >l<Mie^ ul 
hope of miojsteriaji assistt^neaj ^jbut 
they r^;arded th^ new aitaage- 
ment otthe cabinet as 'a. naiiV' ab* 
stade reared up aoawt £hw pro« 
^ess. True, fcbeur. exclusion had 
not been made a cabinet .q[oe8tiaD ; 
the ministry had not been orggnu- 
ed on the principle that efliuiacipa- 
tion ought never to be granted; 
and Mr. Peel had already declared 
. in parliament that it would jiot be 
possible to frame on that principle, 
a ministry sufficiently strong to 
govern the country*. But stiU-tha- 
head of the ministry was now theii^ 
enemy, instead of being the^ 
Ariend ; and it was a powerful and 
energetic head instead of being a 
weak one. Many of their sup- 
porters still-continued in office, but 
they had lost the marquis of Lans- 
downe, and in his place had come 
Mr. Peel, the most immoveable 
and determined, as far as men 
could judge from his whole public 
life, and lus repeated parliamentaty 
declarations, cSt all their adversaries 
•^— the representative of the em- 
bodied resistance of the Churtif 



12Q] ANNUAL RB<SISTER, 1828. 



'f»C Jlpglimd* The power of the 
mnwtary nmdod in the duke of 
WfdUnfflon 4nd Mr. Peel; the 
duke m Wellingtoii «nd Mr. Peel, 
f liHa their fiwt entranoe into puhlic 
life> had been the opponents of 
iC«d>uUc emftneipatioa ; and in 
thvm . the Proleititnt s of the empire 
tvuMed> with a eonfideaco which 
knew no bounds, that Catholics 
9hQtild never^ with their consent, 
bei <adaiitted io the enjoyment of 
poUtieal power. 

' Fjkw the instant, therefine, that 
th4 new mitiistry was formed, the 
CatiboUo Assoeiaition had waoed war 
fipinst the duke of WeUington 
and his ministry. Its orators 
laWffhed dieir contumely and abuse 
*4i|MMi bit fpMoe without either taste 
lur diseretton ; so far as their words 
«ould pK they revolted all sound 
ie«se and good feeling. But their 
doij^ were things at much higher 
imporlanoe, and were carried 
through with an activity and per- 
eev^oanoe which led to very alarm- 
iag results. The general election 
bad taught them to what an extent 
they oocdd control the votes of the 
freeholders in the county elections. 
The efBastB, which they made on 
Qmt oocasioa, had not been pro* 
oeded by any uncommon degree of 
pieparadon^ and yet their success 
bad been conspicuous. The same 
instruments inomiaed still more 
inqiortant triumphs, when they 
should be more systematically em« 
ployed. The fate of every county 
election in Irdand depended on 
the rabble of ferty<"8hilllng free* 
holders, men generally ignozuit 
aod poor, hitherto the mere crei^ 
torea .of the landlords on whose 
pnifNsrty they vegetated, easily in« 
iamed by imai^iied wrongs and 
teki of fancied oppression, incap^ 
Ue of all sound or independent 
yolitiMl aentimanty the akTes of a 



raligMm whidi rnlea iattoa 
more de^Kridoally dian 2ms any 
other, and which, againi noas 
ignorance itself aa one xxoffity 
strument of its away. Hie 
ation determined to mako: itself 
master of the voioea of tibeaa fllen, 
and, thua obtaining tbeooainuad 
of the county eleodona, to 
throw the miaistry, or any 
nistry which shoiddreftne togiBKit 
unconditiooal emamnpatiosi, by 
turning membera pledged to 
every measure of efer3r .aMnet 
which would not adopt and eany 
through this one meaaore. Thoiy 
had weir itinerant otatota toin- 
flame the angry passiona and 
ignorant prejudices of the mbbfe ; 
what was of much higher eosi- 
sequenoe, they had the united body 
of the popish priesthood to weak 
upon their oonsdences. They 
could deprive the contest of aU 
the dbazacters of a merely politieal 
struggle, whish still leavea aoBie 
room for the exercise of the nndsr- 
standing, and invest it with die 
character of a refigious warfiure, 
which, in an ignorant and supop- 
stitious mofa^lays every thing at liie 
feet of blind, unthinking, andvedb- 
less bigotry. It waavery tme.tiiflt 
the suooeaa of the sdieme hnplied'a 
fareaking«up of the vaoal ralalions 
of society; the ptoprietoKS of At 
soil must be stripped of the. in- 
fiuenoe which the possession df 
property ought alvntya to bestow, 
and which, in evcay wdWoadi- 
tioned society it alwnyv does 
bestow. But of thia oonfbaion the 
Catholio Association boaatadt. This 
diarupture of ordiaaiy ties, thia 
dislocation of the membm<«f 
society, was the very eflbott^aoh 
it announced its inteataaii af pe»- 
dudng. Its orators pablieiy pra- 
daim^ that ^' Agitataon,'' aa thay 
termed if, was thooljaet tiUrii 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



J^ 



^bqr liai m new, and, that agitft- 
te iimj ivould iuive bo long as 
^kaj found it neoewajy^-^Iiat th« 
flbcilyMt of all their iaboun wai» 
ti lake tbe gorennnent of b«laiHl 
-iitfo thair own hands^ mud prev^ent 
it froBB^njoyiiigany fxirtion of the 
tranqinUitjr of sdvilised country, 
mifl • Ao^ Cadiolica should hove 
baen- Mader eqioal sharers hi pdstical 
ftwpjiiasawith the Pfotestants, 

VMbiag wfaieh is reckoned on 
as tks xtgoH of political invjudiDes/ 
ocMbined with idii^s higotry, 
OD(^t ever to be leokoned extm* 
TsMuat; and the general election 
hsd ahcady shewn^ that this plan 
of the €atholio loaders was by no 
manasoextram^anty iureality>as 
«l €rsk 8%^t it nught have seenied. 
The new tcial,whioh they now made 
cf its efficacy, was mudi more daiv 
iagy and mtiH more astoandingly 
suceessfiiL Mr. Vesey Fitageraid, 
eae of the niembenfor the county 
of dare, had vacated his seat by 
aosratii^ the office of President of 
the BoBfd of Trade, when Mr. C. 
Glint resigned it, in the course of 
die sesaon, on the dismissal of Mr« 
Hiwlriwsnp* A new election thus 
hseame nooessary; but no appr&* 
heaaioos weie entertained that 
Mr» f itfgesald woadd not be again 
rstomed, far he bad unifonnly 

£' SKI hia vote and his inihienee in 
onr of enKmoipation* That he 
bekmged» however, to a ministry 
which would not unite to carry 
thatqiieition/«a a cabinet measure, 
waSp lo the Catholio Assodation, 
and the Catholio priests, a sufficient 
reason wlqr be should beproaeribed; 
and thay want the still mere un^ 
qpectad length of starting against 
hni -their own great popish leader 
and agitsdar, Daniel O'Connell. 
The power, which could execute a 
sdttna like this> was truly apower 
to bo dxooM^ nnee govcnunenl. 



sitting by in listless apathy, 8^m<»d 
resold to make no attenqit lere- 
atrain it. Not only was a most 
respectable gentleman, hi^ly p6« 
nuhr in his own county, backed 
hj the influence of the staitc, and 
a steady supporter of the CaUiolJlB 
claims, to be ousted, but a mtn 
was to be rotumed who had no 
connection with the county; and 
who, moreover, beins a pxofessed 
CathoUc, was disabled from sitting 
in parliament by those very kwn 
winch it was the great object of 
the Catholics to abolish. Mr. 
O'Coimell, however> rteolved to 
stand as a can£date; his only 
hope of success lay in severing' the 
forty • shilling fireehotders Trom 
their landlords, and every instru- 
ment, which the Association and 
its agents could commamd, was im« 
mediately put in requisitioiw The 
Catholic rent, regularly colkcted* 
from almostevery part of a oountry 
which could scarcely pay taxes, 
supplied money; a mooting of 
Catholics held in London agteed 
to subscribe funds towards the 
same object. To get rid oi the ob- 
jection against electing a man who 
could not 8it<^an objection which 
was within the comprehension 
even of the cultivator of a potatoe 
garden,-*-«Mr. O'Connell was rash 
enough to pledge his profossional 
character as a lawyer, not merely 
that, although a Catholic, he was 
capable of being elected<-«which 
was true— but that he could sit 
and vote in the House of Com^ 
mons without taking the oaths. 
Mr. Butler, a Catholic English 
conveyanoer and barrister, pub- 
lashed an elaborate opinion to the 
same effect. Such an accessory 
was not requii^ed to serve the pur- 
pose of the a^tators. Mr. O'Cen^- 
neU had considerabLe reputation in 
his pnrfessMNi ; and bis legal Ofd* 



tfi4] ANIOJAL REGM^TTBtt, U828. 



j6lUtPmMfim'Ml' ta h& vecevred 
i^t^Wf^wesHoflAble kw by a rtibble 
Mii^^iiOBe^^pttttkmB it wms fe'voom- 
Ue^^ttfi^ mttitigBt^fhom he Was^ on 
oAtt tt«(mtit#i eteinentlT' popular. 
T&^ 'iiAtiiilikk^ wultitu^te, fbr 
nHimti M6h asteraotis were intend- 
ed, -1i0f»'^ii<idered, that, if Mr. 
O'0mi««)1» (^a r^aHy idt in par* 
lifetmiRit 'fW tlie eoonty of Clare, 
ifi4Aid(it tddng the oaitb* Which de^ 
ndWviei^tifeirCfaMrih as idolatrous 
aiyif' ackdoMitidged the supremaey 
o^thehiiq;,^ ^tMi it^neeesBKrily fol« 
hfifftd that heand they had always 
pKMMsed the Tefy right for which 
tlirf' #«*# now ecmtending, and 
Widbb Wafirtd- be sednred even by 
tiler ^laeiifkse^f'fla dvil coneoMl. 

''FVomthe^iaomenl that hisin- 
tktlitmtdf oppbflmgMr. Fitajserald 
wiSvttlbinioed, the eounty ofCkfe 
vNiaiiwreirsed in etery direction by 
the <}raCiftFB' of ihfe Assodiation, and 
the- p^pbh' ' parish prints. With 
unwearied aetinty-they huniied 
ftoth paHsh to pariah; assembling 
aM-hiUttngtiing the squalid elect^^ 
on. The places, which they chose 
fof tlieitf leofi vooations, were the po- 
pish tihapete, partly from oonve^ 
nknde,' «nd pardy'to aid the-reli- 
f^\3B -eliatacteir Which their mission 
inMamly asmuned. As Mr. Shiel, 
tm/b"^ 4heir most flowery rhetori- 
cians^- sft et w at d s sod, " every altar 
betone a Iribunei** Wherever a 
priest wnd an agitator' aitived, the 
populace wore instantly assembled/ 
ev«D atthe-dead hour of nta;ht« 
SttKouaded by tiie fiymbols of their 
reKgion,- they were eftlled upon by 
tli<aiftMlH)ie voice of its teachers, 
to fiae in defence of itshonour and 
iti'vlgliis. Their opponents vreii 
rtfptiMiiced .to then as objects of 
hM<bi< 'and dMtttationi All pn>^ 
t6ltints,#holiMnBght ^t protest^ 
anflMi •^iroifld'^ be endimgered by. 
gHtoffClMh«lk»4lie« power uritt^ 



jure It, were repwsjetttAdJ 'ndt^ik 
nien vvho entertidaed <rtlilh ^fiHff 
eiToneovn opinions #hli^ oti^ t^ 
be opposed, but as brutet imd abMn^' 
doned miscretot* whl» W^t^ t<y te 
cruididL and hated. The^ ^^M; 
maj^tyof the poputad6niDf'^6 
United KingdiMn wefeMVilNpdkte 
of but a» pers^dilofs fave^os ' tor 
Catholic bked, lata. labo«nnKg; by 
the perpetration of syttemMi^ 
atrooties, te efecft th» degrtidnaMr 
and ' deatnidiob of ^ the Cadlblte^ 
Church. The peasantry %e^tiady 
that to support any stipporter'eif 
the admitdstitttkm Wds to ky* 
themselves at the m^rcy ttf" beM^' 
tical murderers] 'tvhilst the tiri« 
mnph of th^ pc^pnl^ kader wtfdUl 
shower down upon theSr tM^;- 
by some unexptaiiied process, a bap^ 
ptnesB ftttd abundance whkh^^M 
from before the face (»f a P^teat^ 
ant n^nesentative. The eixsito*' 
ment, so easily rai^' In wfflii^ 
minds by furioutf tirades about petw 
sonal skvety and national d^di*^' 
dation, Was ijiaddened ' bej^d ' 
control by the di^ead of i5vedMu - 
ing punishment. The pdest oom>^\ 
pleted what the politician 'had be^' 
ffun. His flock hetkd fMU'-hU' 
Sps, that, in vdtin^ asidnst Daftkl* 
O'Connell, they would 'be- vo^^' 
against their God and tiMir Md^ 
strengthening the hakidsi of'htt^ 
etics, peipetciating the <)j^jM^EJMra" 
of their own bc^ ClMdi;nftMd' 
therefore exposing tbemsdves "^^ 
servedly to idl'its power of^unhb^' 
ing both her6 tind^ h^rMlter. ' <[ki « 
the one hand were preseftHCAt-U^* 
them the skv^ry ef th«ii<'^colMI^ 
under Protestant tyrants, l9ie'^H>0" 
faning of their temples by Fmii^^ 
ant insult, the out^g^ of "Ikefr '• 
penons by ProCestahtbiODd-aiiillliti'i 
ness and Protestatit losti-' aM"lh^-^ 
pains of hMl^flre as^ibe rfewiM^M^^ 
hAvfaig chosen a ProtMAril^ottitti^ 



. HI»TQBY Of EUHOPE^ / / [IM 

(b^te: ondi^oAer'tli^ wepe ^bt ta see thateyqry thi»ft WtiAqwik 

^i^ byjlke awunnoeof libertj, the CaAoUo haAim Ajso ftf ^ m 

w^watf,. and p^ace> tha i^nval of professed at l^ast to. mfk^ ^49^ 9^ 

thaif ir^Ugum^ .and the happinesn likely tobegisMcl hy^tii^ ^aitiotli 

^hkh ijfai.iBiMteri pould wcure tp of a fxieod to their '4att(l» mkf^ 

tl^^BL ia.die nextworld for haying, oould at in par1ia^^en<» M by thf 

whilQ ixk ti^hmt all civil Uesj to return of a CaJtho)io 9vhoiQM)Ur.iiOI^ 

aid it» ^i^jgandUement* sit at all. He bad the nHiR^iieg|b> 

. It Ju». trua that tbefifrflouroesj not too> to in^ffess the isame caaisi«ti)^ 

q£ raaionaUa argument^ but of upon his pec^^. and tieai'thfHii.lOi 

npi^ lying, reckless exGitation« the election prq^^red.la f^ote aorr 

HjiffTWiad only with the rabUe: ocHrdiRgly. Bu^atiliia ,iNeigF.faa9^ 

£0^,00 oth^ifchss of peraons wera ings tb^ weva at«Q«o^ >a|Bdr 

thQTr fitted or intended ; but it harangued by the A9loci||li<it);.0fafr. 

iraa«9i^ thia rabble that the late of tors ; they wero sinBrouuM^ Ma^i 

di^ eloction depended. The landed by the 8houts> the exmpk^ aiadi 



pxoprietQra ^ the county were 
alia^ uaaniqiouB on the side 
of. Mr. Fit^rald. They held a 
meeiting previous to the elec^n> 
at which they passed reeolutiona 
piaflging ihemselvestoaupporthini^ 
exptaamg their iadigfiauan at the 



theremonHirancea, of the {Qqaal laaaij 
who had already bm oha^ad KHlhe^ 
chariot wheek of the deniagoguest 1 
The consequeace was^ thal.^^y 
instantly changed aideib and yoi«A' 
for Mn O'CoQnell, wlule the.m^' 
prudent- priest himselfi - who l^id/ 



attempts Bmde,throi]^h strange and fallen into the noflastrou^ mistake 
unconstitational chamiels, to d^ of supposing that ha. wo|d4 be id«i 



8(dve the connection and good feel- 
ing which had so long suhsbted be- 
tween the hmdlords and their te- 
nantiyy and binding thanwelves to 
affittd every protection to such free- 
holder as should disregard the 
thtifata which were held out to 
thei)iif ' Bu^ considerations like 
thfim were impotant advocates 
againat , the ignorant pcejudioea, 
excited pasriopis, and religuma 
e^^thttsiafip» of the mob. The 
itjiaarant'bnbwleraof the Association 
allowed (be heated faaciea and 
abus^ eonseienoes of these poor 
people ma epporluniQr to cool; one 
fali^Ffk^ . and extravagant de- 
cleifiiy fiuooeeded another; and, 
oatbe day of election (dOth June) 
the^&n^f-shiUing fieehoUen were 
mandyrf into £nnis» the county 
tovmi in regular baa^> each led to 
tha>hustUM;a by the parish priest, 
taarola '^ lor God and aConnelL" 
Qnc( priest alone had the candour 



lowed to havp any of^pfi e^s^apt! 
on one side> was denounced by the ' 
Association, and removed from* hin 
parish. 

On the day of elaotion^ Mr* 
Fitagerald was propQaed liy hia. 
colleague in the representariou of 
the oouniy,>who was hinaelf a. 
supporter of emaneipatieiii an^ in 
general, an opposition Qieiah^«. 
Mr. O'Connell was pcopeaed by 
Mr. O'Gorman Mahon, the 6eei»^ 
tary of the CathoUe Association.'^-* 
Nothing could better exhiUt die 
diflferent temper of the two pastieti 
than the diflferent tonea of tiie two- 
candidates. Mr. Fitagexald eo- 
tered into a review of his parlia* 
roentaiy conduct, ex jdaining every, 
thing in which he oeald imi^ina 
he might be questioned, wjih th^* 
temper of a gmtleaaan,. and thia. 
calmness of a ratieiMd aMuu He : 
^oke to the.CalhoUcsaf' theictjiiw' 
coDsutenc^ in lamUng tboir a|K; 



m\ ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



I^^te 6h the bonditety Rnd regfet« 
istig tht seceMion from the cabinet 
of^nrd Duffley^ Mt. Httslisson, or 
Mh GntiM^ wlio bad voted for their 
clftim9, and yet beM office under 
the dtiket)f Wellington, and at the 
Btlhe titne pursuing him to the 
death, who had merely done the 
Very saihe thing. He told them, 
and told them truly, that it was only 
by a mixed administmtion that the 
Catholic qtiestion was ever likely to 
be carried: thatapurewhigcabinet 
wonld be unable to forward it a 
single step : that the gentry of the 
c6unty, the natural guides and 
protectors of their tenantry, were, 
as a body, firm friends of emanci* 
pation, and were equally firm in 
supporting him as a constant and 
honest friend of the same cause. 
They were at least not more likely 
to be wrong in what was truly ad- 
vantageous to that cause, than the 
otators who had come down from 
Dublin to introduce a new princi- 
ple into elections. My joining the 
administration of the duke of Wel- 
lington, said he, is the front and 
hem of my offending. Be the 
c(msequences what they may, I de- 
clare that I am proud of being his 
colleague and possessing his confi- 
dence. But, at a moment when the 
Catholic question has been tri- 
umphant in the Commons, and 
when the discussion in the House 
of lords has been marked by a 
greater decree of liberality than 
was heretofore exhibited— I confess 
it appears strange to me that such 
a moment shouUl be chosen by the 
Catholics of Ireland to announce 
their hostility to a government, 
under whose auspices such a fa* 
vourable change had taken place, 
and to select a member of that 
gof^eniment,<^-'one who at least 
falinestly supported their cause-— 
as a victim upon whom to wreak 



their vei^eanoe. If 'Was W^edMf 
them to pexlbi'nl this sttfauge '^m' 
ploit| in favour of a geMlemMf'tff^ 
whom it was more &n dOuWbl' 
whether he oould sit at all, that the^ 
agitators hiA ^edteoed like ledanftfy 
to rise against thrir-iandltiidfiy' iis 
the only retam fdv the 'kindness 
and proteetkm whidk titey hAd'te^ 
oeived, and of their constant intei*^' 
ferenoe even in behalf of the po** 
litical rights which Hiey demsttdsd. 
When the day arrives, said he, kai' 
arrive I fear it will, whena etoidfos- 
difihrence will take plaett between' 
the landed proprietor and his 
tenant,— 4uid by neaven I dffpt^ 
cato the thought of it,-^4)nt if it 
should arrive, let me 8Sk> is it the' 
payment of an arroar of rent by smy 
body of men that will oompensato 
to the unfortunate peasant for being 
deprived of hie natural pfoteeior ? 
Is it the payment of a few poundi 
that can oompensato the tenant ibr 
the total alienation of his landlord ^ 
When the poor man is sick, and his 
family perhaps fmmishing with 
hunger, where will those men be, 
who, to gratify a puUic, perha^ a 
private pique, Irarst the bonda 
which for years have bound toge* 
ther the landlord and tenant by 
what was considered an indissold- 
bletie? Alas! they will be ft» 
distant; and the unfdMniiate tenant 
will have nobodv to look to 1^ 
relief and comrort, except that 
landlord whom he is now edled 
upon to desert. 

Mr. Otkninell ^ke in a rerf 
difierent style. He knew that hu 
oratory must be guided by the mlea 
of '' Agitation f that his rh«da* 
montades must be addressed to the 
passions. Like bis Mends^ there** 
fore, he did not eondeseend tOf 
s^esJe rationally, bof eoatentad 
hnnself with talking very wildly 
about trampled r^htt«— bending 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



im 



D^dkS' Uy misfeen— -bloody blood« 
hoiuid»T-^bttse ministen^ and very 
grandiloqueatly about the mighty 
thh^ which he, Daniel O'Coa- 
tieU^ would achieve when he got 
iot^./a parliasient in which he 
oquld not «it^-»One sample of his 
own manufacture will suffice to 
shew the style of argumenti by 
which the Catholic Association was 
in the habit of swaying the people 
of Ireland* '* The timeis come," said 
hcj '* when the system whidi has 
bqen pursued towards this country 
must be put a stop to. It will 
not do for the future to say, 
' Sweet iriendj I wish you well/ 
but it must be shown by acts that 
they do wish us well. It is time 
that tliis system should be put an 
end to^ and I am come here to put 
an end to it. The right hon. gen- 
tleman has boasted of the support 
he has received from most of the 
gentry of the county. He has the 
support of some of our friends, it 
is tnie» and <^ all our enemies** 
not one nortion of the filthy press 
but affords him their support. Oh ! 
there is nothing makes the iron 
enter my soul so much as the air of 
patixmage with which our claims 
are taken under the wing of a great 
patron; but the time when we 
could be trampled upon with im« 
punity'is gone by. We do not 
now, as we were wont to do, bend 
our necks before our masters. 
Are there no biUical persecutors 
amongst his supporters ? Are not 
the wretched father and mother 
driven out to starve, unless their 
wretohed children are permitted to 
attend all the proselytiaing schools? 
If I am returned to parliament, I 
shall consider myself in the nature 
of A juror between the country and 
the king. Send in the right hon. 
gentleman, and he will be calcula* 
ting how much hock and cham- 



paigne he expended in entertamng 
his colleagues in office. PerceviiX 
it was who first raised tho 'Np 
Popery' cry ; and every man, who 
supported the base, Uop^j and tin- 
ckrutian Percmfol, is aa guilty of 
the deed he cammitte4 m that mu 
Jamous , minister himself. The 
marquis of Anglesea came here and 
preached toleration^ his son, as 
gallant an officer as ever trod a 
ship's deck, voted in favour of lis* 
Lord Anglesea tried to satisfy us 
with sweet words, but did he vote 
for us ? No ; and for this I de« 
nounce him. Delusion is abroad* 
If you send me to parliament I wiU 
put an end to the horrid tax for 
building Protestant Churches^ aaiid 
providing sacramental wine. I 
will vote for the diminution of the 
tithes. I will vote for a reform in 
parliament; and, finally^ I will 
vote for reconsidering the abomi* 
naUe measure of the Union. Be 
true to each other, and to me, and 
we must succeed. Make way for 
Mr. Fitsgendd's freeholders as you 
would for mine ; but go round the 
country and tell his voters that 
they ought to vote for me<— scatter 
through the country, and do that 
manfully fur roe. I have taken^the 
oath of allegiance to my king, and 
will keep it ; but I must tdl the. 
right hon. gentleman that the 
young blood of Ireland is in a fer^ 
ment. I detected a boy of IS 
years of age a few days stnoe, 
drilling a regiment of boys—they 
had a flag on which was em<- 
bla;;oned, ' Remember Orr.' " 

The election itself, however, 
was not attended by any scenes of 
violence, or any disturbance of the 
peace ,* it was conducted with less 
outrage than not unfrequently dis*- 

graces a popular election in £ng« 
nd. The Catholic leaders exerted 
themselves to restrain all attempts 



m] ANN^jL/ALUBGIfiirBI^ 11828. 



fHf- m mi ing H^mien. . It would 
kptf^vhmii nditfaloMdsr tu^iiiciQiiii^ 
if, whttcUlM^ and tlMftr.piiMts w&» 
m ma mm \ mn» iiirh fihfWiintfft doiuiiiioiia 
thaJgihiflwffBM'baA been too feeUa 
lafremitnptAiidflmult. After 

iR$s «Qilvia0«d tlMRl he oould qqI 
(NOlwnieitli* ogniest with aii|r 
hggpoCpHnm^ iwd Mr, O'ConiieU 
Wife .deckMA. to be duly electedi 
llf jQ*CoiMi^.'HiJii8eddie8i to the 
^QrtWu>fcddecil(»red» tW he would 
ai(irer.tatMihe f>|ktiui which* it was 
thoiMdtlu nittal.«epQS8aril7 he tokm 
l^rWt iMmbeiv of fMirlioment be* 
lintithiQr oould. idt» and t^at he 
woiddi;hB admitted to ait without 
goinf duviMghlhat.fomL On this 
grQwad^^ipB9M^vfMs t»heii at the 
et^tiashf anumbjor of £re6bolder% 

SVm^ notice of the ladt, and Gon« 
ttdiBl; tlukt: a^y latujm of Mr* 
d^OBfondU whoj. though elected> 
eould oot' mtf would be. ille^ 
AfCker the polling the protest waa 
amiediby aounselbefoie the sheriff 
and his. .assessor ; but the latter 
deeided'.thiit there was nothine in 
the law to pMrent a CadioUc irom 
being elecftedy and therefore from 
being returned as duly elected, 
whatever further secuntisa might 
be reqmred from him, before he- 
would, be allowed to take his seat. 
Ho held, that there was nothing 
to hi«der a Roman Catholic sitting 
in Parliament, except a test which 
be imuat take when theue;, and 
without which the House of 
Cammmiff -would not recomije 
him:, but he must he in the House 
to tid^e that, oaih ; he could not 
take itfiHitil he was there; and 
a» penou had a -right to detern 
miu^-a frionii ' that any iiuUvi* 
dnsli would .not take the oath, 
wtaert jfthO' timf^ in which he 
oOuId itkt iti.wai not. yet arrived? 
I£.ihO(eMO haA oocurned in £ng- 



bmd^ whore 4 deiiblo 

thehigh8heiifftomaka«fe,aetmni 
for Mr. O'CoueU ami eiwjiyiijhi 
Mr> . Fitagi Jdr . ButM.iliMa 
not Qampetent'ta.adipt4lial)aoiaM 
iA.IiehndUh^^wicfidd ridiieatllhi 
sheriff to i»teKn Airi O^Ctamiliaa 

the teo of lua.«lunlii fth^ilt^ifnUU 

Kpooedi Mr» Vi SiMamliyTift 
»teataQt»..:adl iM^ NOHSaSumlk 
a Catholi^--><that |^.kllep 4MH 
nounced that he Una ^Xiaihalio i 
and further, flmt a paotgal lapitisli 
h|S return was lodtfttd.hgr a o«lBHi 
number of ineehoMeta^^Hyt. thai 
Mr. O'ConneU had & m^perilpaf 
qualified Irediiddevs at toe tmmim 
natioa of the polL Mr* O'Cosisell 
was aooordini^y netomed* . . 
. A petition agatnst hia le^OBt 
was immediately pveselited' to. the 
Mouse of CoBimonsi but the aea* 
sion was ao for adfaafiad^ that 
noideoision could be paoniaipswl 
upon it before paiUiment was pipi« 
rogued. > 

The triumph, which the AsseaiaM 
tion had tlms.obiained,qidy.i}^d 
theoi'toarsaikffs, on the-Mmeipiih* 
dple^ mom o&tended phms of .^oo^ 
quest ; for it naw.appaaaed thaitsS 
might be perfectly praciieaU*£sr, 
them to cany int» effaoi tbek 
threat of returning, at lhirii^;fiaiH 
sure, aU the county memV^ Of- 
Ireland. It was.'io be ajyeehaiifad. 
that the poor po| wa n tiy,<aMi» tei 
been drawn awi^frcntfifiaiaailuMJL 
allegianee to dieir landlaaisbiinii^t 
be exposed to aevetfolegal mwaqma 
at the instaooa of laadlosdiMiiM^ 
tp aay nothing of a wish toipunisk 
could have no strong mntife £w 
encouraging or cherwUng taftno^ 
tory tenants; and the A a eoei at kn 
waa bound equally in poh^n^iB 
justice to take car^ ^at* while it 



HBTORV OB XUtOPfi:' 



^ f i 



tfS» 



Iktom^nMr^ibd tlMir it^» impou 
ceuv ib'fiiatMli ' One of its fint 
Mpi^ tibiifcfbi^ «ftiir the election, 
mi to d|ipOini a coomjltee to a^ 
MMl/to tlitf ii A i t lU ^ of wch teu 
«kt»«vadu>ifldi»diMrakMdoii for 
MrMMiiif ^i«fit, on flodoont of the 

llMih«b of dus Ajwoktion awnef 
lM»lo Wiuli«lK»d 4o paf up those 
invkoKf 4te mUtent ffranting kis 
iji^tljr mfli nouior ioivent 
r>ftr rOAfayiaoiit' of the sttxn 
withtti « reflwuihla th&e. Its in** 
•HfiRi|ii60y» however, waa hy no 
■UMiM'geimftlfy xeqoired* The 
haKUaiiis did- not In^ak ont into 
hapatienl xmrenfle; thejr acted 
wio^ in not piwting themselves 
ia.tli0 wvonff $ and the evil was of 
a kind wUcn ooiild not be effect^ 
wdlf teaohed hf the ruin or eject- 
laent of their present tenantry- 

We have mentioned that the aet 
flgsanst iilegal meetings in Ireland, 
liMHigh fiH^uced and passed for 
the exfvesB purpose of zestrainine 
the Catholic Association, as weu 
as- the Orttnge lodges, had never 
heea put' into esecntion i^^nst the 
former lMdsr« The agitators them- 
selves hoasM thfit it had only in« 
creased thehr activity— had made 
them meet ahttost daily, in place 
dt iseeting ottoe a week. The 
kMveKpired, however, in the month 
df Jal^; and the Association im- 
nkedintely i^a^assemhled in its ori- 
gpnal foMi, to improve ^e victory 
vMsfa «h^ had last gained. . The 
s|ibit1n which »iey were resolved 
t9 -pMMNMd, and the conMence 
wihidi sueoeas had generated, were 
mh^^nifleeittly displayed in certain 
rteolotiona,fwhieh they promulgated 
as 4he con d it io ns on which alone 
they wonld in fbture allow any 
member to be returned to parlia- 
nient% I1ie ft»t «Mng which they 

Vol, LXX. 



required of ^vcvy cimaUiM'^M 
tiiat he ^ould pledge Mmsdlf 4i» 
be an ' indiscrimiaMe oppcMiW <k 
theministrf of thedukeof Weia 
lington and Mr« Pe^^ unUl'tiM 
duke of Wellington and Mr. Qeel 
should become Cathciio emtaiei{ias 
tors. The eeoeud m^ tlMkt^ii 
sb^ld pled^ ' himself to ^4uppoi^ 
lel^ious aiid dvil <^bei«v.< 19iO 
thiMwas^ that lie shoult pled|^ 
himself to prooui^ the r^)dd'et 
the 8ub*lettiag eot*- ''TiaiP''ao^* 
which had passed Itt l^t^^ hed«a 
other object, and eemldi'hbve'ntr 
other cfi]^, than gradnotty toim^ 
prove the condition of tfie IHaK^ 
peasantry by restrainiiig thBti>eveir 
multipljring minute divi^bfi -OC 
property, whidi covered tho^Hin^c 
try with a race of paupevft^ 'It> 
provided that a temakt* dbould 
not have the power of sihb-l^t^g; 
without the consent of his^lMid* 
lord, and' that he should wftt have^ 
the power of sub-dividing his landO 
among seveiul pemons by a teatOk'' 
meritary devise, unless the. ledse, 
if subsequent to June IHSdi eon^. 
tained authority to suMet, at, if 
pri6r to that date, contained no 
prohibition of sub-lettingi But' 
whatever tended to raise the coimKa 
tion of the peasantry was un«^' 
favourable to the dark dominion of 
the agitators : the peasantry thenw 
selves, improvident and tlioughtlcss^ 
could not appreciate the value of 
prospective comfort ; but they fek 
the inconvenience of pesent re*^" 
straint; and the Association pru- 
dently joined them in denouncing 
this measure as an act of oidcu-ft 
latine cold->blooded oppremon; 
The fourth thing required of every^. 
candidate was, that he should 
pledge himself to Support a fefbfM' 
in parliament, but of what kinAj 
and to what extent, was 'left' 
undetermined. The agilMom^itoU 



186] AN If UAL REGISTER'S 1828. 



wteA, that, if any eandidafce for a 
Mat iti paKUament sliould deolixM 
to bind himflelf eocpreuly and for* 
aoally to the fufehfal obiervance of 
all these eonditiona, he should be 
opfiDsed by 'tiic men, the influence, 
and tiw fnddB, of the Catholic AiM^ 
eiatiMi ;•— 4md ^ihe Aiiociation,'* 
■aid Mt. Shiei, " im omnipotent." 

Some of theie pledges were so 
utterly extravagant, that it would 
have been imposable to have 
found any person mean and mad 
eiMiu|g^ to bind himself to obey 
the whole eode, except men of 
faesiteA heads and perverted un- 
derstandings Hke those who had 
framed .it. In some of the proi- 
vxnoial meetings which were sub** 
sequently held, the '' pledges" were 
not carried without much animad- 
version; and attempts, but vain 
attempts, were made in the Asso** 
ciation itself to have them repealed. 
While they continued to be the 
standing law of the Anociation, it 
eould hardly have sou^t for its 
candidates among respectable Pro** 
teseaQts. Among Catholics, in«- 
deed, they might have been found ; 
and' the Clave election had proved 
that even a Catholic might .be re* 
turned. But when this abuse of the 
elective franchise was attemptad^- 
an abuse, which, if it prospered as 
the Catholic leaders wished, would 
only have kept the Insh^ county 
representation empty ,-^what rea« 
sonable objection could there have 
been to an act of parliament, re*- 
quiring the candidate to take at 
Uie hustings the oaths which he 
assuredly would have to take at the 
table of the House of Commons ? 
Such a measure would not have 
imposed any new disability up«m 
tha Catholics. It was alr^y the - 
law, that they could not sit in par- 
liament.' They might be right, 
or they might be wvong, in kisiflt- 



; 



ing that the law 
but, while such was liie law» lh«y 
were n<^ entitled to damatid^ thitt 
diey shauld be allowed t9 evade 
and abuse St. 

At the momeftt when: the lAa^ 
aociadon was thus Imiingitsde^ 
crees, it was receivia^ enooiuftfld* 
nant toproeeedfroBDsthater wlhuih 
its power was unforlanat^y ei^ 
citing among its adversanea . The 
result of the Clara elDclian..was 
matter of grave ooatsidenition; > . ta 
all the Irish oottnty.niembet% and 
especially to those who had. been 
aocustoined to vote i^aiBSteaiaoin^ 
pation. It waaaa example wiuoh 
taught them, that all the influenee 
whieh they mi^t possesSi^ whether 
from personal merit, or the po»- 
Bsssion of property, or oonnectioae 
in the state, might he utterly un^ 
availing to secure their reluiQ. 
If the l^idatuia was too impo- 
tent to counteract the schemes of 
this new government, the moat pni* 
dent course s^em^ to be to oome 
to terms with these new governors. 
At a pubEo dinner gi^^en in Lon- 
donderry, on the 15Hh of Augda^ 
( the plcMiges had been iaoved in the 
Association on the Snd)tO€elebBale 
the ereotion of a maaument to oooa- 
memorate the gallant reststanee'of 
the city to Javies 2tid» MviDawfi' 
son, one of the oonnty memheite, 
was present. This geatkmanthad 
always been reckoned amottgithe 
most violent opponetttsof the Catka- 
lics ; he was the brothers-law of 
Mr. Peel, the aoknowledgedhead of 
the anti*Catholio party anoog-tlke 
Commons of England ; he* was hiai^ 
self a minister of the Cronm ; bis 
language in the House of Coiti- 
mons Imd invaciidily breathed more 
than ordinary vehemence agadnst 
emancipation; his last speech dn 
the aubyect had announced firm 
and decidad opposition. He get up 



! HISTORY OF EUROPB. 



081 



after dinii^r at Deny, and made a 
fpeech; and in that ipeeoh he 
dedaved that hii leiLtiinents were 
Aovr changed, and that the Asao- 
cufction ouffht to be coninliated bjr 
fi^iantiag &e enuuMipatiim which 
thev deraamded. ''The state of 
le^nnd/' laid he, '^ is an anomaly 
in the kiatoiy of cirilured natimis. 
It is true that we have a govern- 
ment to which an outward obe- 
dienoe is shown, which u reqioiH 
sible to pafliaasent, and imswerable 
to God, for the -maaner of admin- 
istering its Ainctions; but it is 
equally feme that an immense ma- 
jority of the people look up, not to 
the legitimate government, but to 
en irresponsible and to a selfooon- 
stituted associatiDn, for the admin- 
istiation of the alfidrs of the coun- 
try. The peace of Ireland de- 
pends not upon the government of 
the kin^ but upon the dictation 
of the Catholic Association. It 
has defied the government, and 
trampled npon the law of the land ; 
and it is b^ond oontrodietion, that 
the same power, which banbhed a 
cabinet minister from the repre- 
sentation of his county, because he 
wias a minister of the king, can 
maintain or disturb the peace of the 
country just as it suits the caprice 
or ambition of those who exert it. 
The same dangerimpendsovereverjr 
insUtutioii established by law. The 
ohunsh enjoys its dignity, and the 
dergy enjoy their revenues, by the 
laws of the land ; and we know not 
hdw soon it may please the Catholic 
Association to issue its anathemas 
against the pa3rment of tithes : and 
what man isliardy enough to say that 
the Catholic people will disobey its 
mandates? It depends upon the 
Catholic Association, no men can 
deny it, whether the clergy are 
to receive their incomes or not. 
The eonditioQ of ^he landlords is 



not more consoling : already th^ 
have been robbed cf their influenee 
over the tenantrytt-palneady they 
are become but mere ciphers on 
their estates ; nay, in many places 
th^ are wois^ than cipheriv ^hey 
bav0 been forced to heoowe th^ 
tools of their domineering masters, 
the Catholic priesthood ; and it de^ 
pends upon a single breath, a single 
resolution of the Catholic Asso- 
ciation, whether the landlords ane 
to be robbed of their rents or not. 
So perfect a system of organisation 
was never yet achieved by any 
body not possessing the legitimate 
powers of government. It is 
powerful, it is arrogant, it deride^ 
and it has triumphed over theenact* 
ments of the legidature; and it 
goes on filling its cof&rs foom the 
voluntary contributions of the peop- 
ple." This was a perfectly fair 
description of what the Catholic 
Aisociatum had done.— of what it 
had been allowed to do without 
molestot]on<r-^f what, to all ap- 
pearances, it was still to be al- 
lowed to do. But it was not so 
easy to arrive at the conclusion, 
that nothing remained to the king 
and legislature but to haul down 
their colours to this political pirate. 
Nothing but dire necessity can 
justify a government in submitting 
to the ineffable meanness, the irre- 
deemable degradation of striking to 
so imperious a mandate. In the 
present instance, the government 
had not even attempted to fight 
the ship. While it was proclaimed, 
as the justification of timidity, that 
the Association had usurped the 
powers of government, and was 
dashing society in pieces, that 
government, so insulted and con- 
temned, made no one exertion to 
maintain its own character and 
functions, to quell the usurper, or 
to vindicate the authority of the 
[K21 



M^] A N N'U At ' ft E ti*tt «, ' 1828. 



lawjB.' ^ Mr. Dawson taid there was 
but one alternative^ either to crush 
the Assodation^ or to loot at the 
QU^tipi^ with an intention to set- 
tle it. TKe latter was the course 
which he preferred ; the former he 
did not s^m to consider either 
practicable or advisable. 

Mr. Dawson's sentiments were 
not those of merely a private in- 
dividual. They were the senti- 
ments of a minister of the crown^ 
of ,'a near relation of the anti-Ca- 
tholic leader^ who would hold no 
opinions on such a subject different 
fromtl^ose of the persons at the head 
of" the ministry^ The Catholics^ 
therefore^ hailed this inclination to 
capitulate on the part of one who 
had been reckoned among their 
most unyielding opponents, as a 
signal that the whole garrison 
would spon be their own. The 
white flag had been hung out; 
but, determined to be satisfied with 
nothing; less than a surrender at 
discretioi^ they continued to push 
with vigour the plans which they 
had begun for organizing the whole 
island against the goverhment. In 
almost every county liberal clubs 
were established, under the direc- 
tion of the Association, for the 
purpose of receiving and adopting 
"the pledges/* and drilling the 
county to be in readiness to act 
upon them at a moment's warning. 
Under these, again, were placed 
parochial clubs, instituted on the 
same plan, and with similar objects. 
The organization of these parochial 
dubs, which came most directly 
into contact with the people, wiU 
be best seen from the circular let- 
ter from the county club of Water- 
ford, ujpon which the parochial 
cUilw of that county were formed. 
ft directs the formation of a club 
in each parish on the following 
principles :— • 



''1. The chib t6 be compos^, 
as much as po^ble, of the pr!iiq|>- 
pal gentry^ olergy, churcb^mdeii^, 
and such of the' respectable' fami^ 
as can read, and are able dnd MQU 
ling to take a part hi stich proceed- 
ings in their parish. These td ftirm 
tho first members— ^therii to be 
added afterwards by nomiii^ticm br 
ballot. 

" 2. The club, when soforMea, 
to hold meetings (if possDJe^l once 
a fortnight, but at all events tkce 
a month, in such place and dnie as 
they may judge exponent.' 

" S. These clubs and meeliii^to 
have for object the keeping ev^ 
manin constant readiness for ftihir^ 
elections, maintaining the regia- 
triesy inquiring into and giving in- 
formation of any persecution of 
freeholders, &c., and promoting 
good order, perfect subordination 
to the laws, political knowledge, 
and liberal feding, as much as pos- 
sible, in the parish. 

" 4. A report of these parti- 
culars, addressed to the secretary, 
will be expected once in every 
three months by the county cliib, 
and perhaps oftener. 

" 5. Eveiy club to contribote Sd. 
a week, and tobethereby entitled!to 
a weekly paper, to be sent down 
every Saturday for their bforoiflf- 
tion. No other contribution to be 
required." 

No organization could be ihoie 
complete or formidable than this, 
which was in rapid progress all 
over Ireland, witb tbe exc!ep- 
tion of the north. Its prin- 
ciples were adopted moreover by 
many of the higher classes of so- 
ciety as well as by the lower. In 
the course of the autumn aggr^ate 
meetings, as they were called, were 
held in the provinces of LeinsCer 
and Munster, at which many of 
the aristocracy attended, and sub- 



idtte^ to re<sei?e aiid cxmfirm the Billingsgate quarrel*, . - ^'pm hay«- 

dicjlated pledges of tlie Catholic lag been so long accustomed^' tp 

Ajsaod^n* At these meetings, speak only where every man was 

Mr, . O'Connell and Mr. Shiel of their own way of thinking,— 

were ^till the principal performers, where extravagance^ therefore, was 

They flitted from one part of the a merit, and accuracy of though^ or 

ppu^try, to another, bringing with of statement would have been 

theoi the aoine unvarying tempest cumbersome superfluities — they 

of vuteuj brutal abuse against had lost all sense of moderation \k 

every tMng and every person that language, and all capacity for fair 

9tO((Nl, ,in th^i^ ^'^X',, ^^^ every even-minded thinking. Having 

where feasting; t)ieir vanity by the met with no contradiction, even 

same aelf-oonimaccnt admiration of from government, they treated 'it 

their own authority. Feeling that, in precisely the same way. They 

through the. Association, and the told it, that it was no government; 

sjrstem ot orgsmization which it that they were thp governmcnl|, 

had established, they indubitably^ and would direct the people pnly 

did, possess immense power over as to them seemed good, and so as 

the peace of the country, and the to keep it impotent in t>eace, and 

iQovements of the people, and dash it in pieces during war. Mr. 

believing, as the impotence of the Shicl, whose oratory, though not so 

foveinioent justifieid them in be« racv or xeady, nor so colTo^uiatly 

eving, that they had frightened vivid as O'Connell's, had generally 

that government into imbecility, less of vulgar blackguardism, and 

they assumed the swaogering airs much more of rhetorical diction, 

of absolute dominion ; but, instead thus expressed liimself at the 

of exhibitiiig the csdm dignity of Munster meeting :—'' What has 

rightful and justice-loving mon- government to dread from our 

amis, they behaved with the resentment in peace ? An answer 

icdkless despotism, the impatience is supplied by what we actually 

of contradiction, of mere vulgar behold. Does not a tremendous 

tyiannf. Mr. Hutchinson, one organization extend over the whole 

of the members, for having de« island ? Have not all the natural 

clinpd to attend Uie Munster meet- bonds, by which men are tied to- 

ing, on the very intelligible gether, been broken and burst 

ground, that he would not be a asunder? Are not all the rela< 

party to any measure so extrava- tions of society, which exist else- 

^t as an indiscriminate opposi- where, gone ? Has not property 

tion to tbe existing government, lost its influence— has not rank 

because it would not oecome una* been stripped of the respect which 

nimous oa the Catholic question, should belong to it, and has not fin 

was visited by Messrs. Shiel and internal government grown up, 

O'Connell with every epithet of which, gradually superseding the 

abuse, which the long practice, le^timate authorities, has armed 

and not very fastidious tastes, of itself, with a complete domina- 

the Hibernian vituperators could tion? Is it nothing that the 

supply, 't'he slightest difference whole body of the clergy are 

of opuuon from these vain and im- alienated from the state, and that 

patient deixia|g(^e8, raised a storm the Catholic gentry, and peasantry, 

of wrath which ven^ itself in a and priestho^ arc all combidecl'u^ 



isi) ANNdAt feft(5f^tJi«, 1828. 



(ine vast confederacy? So mucli 
for Catholic indignation^ while we 
are at peace : and when England 
shall he involved in wa r I 

pause : it is not necessary that I 
should discuss that branch of the 
division^ or point to the cloud, 
which, charged with thunder, is 
hanging over our heads.'* The 
man recoiled from the treason of 
his own anticipations * he shroud- 
ed the fore-runners of audacious 
rebellion in the darkness of a 
hienacing metaphor. 

The plan, however, iVhich the 
Association had adopted to confirm 
and extend its power, was, lieyond 
all doubt, excellently fitted to com- 
pass the object which it had in 
view. The government, which 
the Catholic leaders were insulting 
and superseding, seemed deter- 
mined not to measure its strength 
with them, and allowed them to 
proceed undisturbed until they had 
moulded the whole Catholic popu- 
lation into one mighty mass, 
which, in so far as that govern- 
ment was concerned, was ani- 
mated by a common spirit of op- 
position, and of whose energies 
they were the sole, the uncon- 
trolled, and the daring directors. 
Their next object was, to put 
an end to the petty dissensions 
which prevailed among their own 
adherents. In many parts of Ire- 
land, especially in the sotlth, 
and, above all, in the county of 
Tipperary, these dissensions, ori- 
ginating often from no assignable 
cause, and never from any other 
source than some petty quarrel,, or 
some imaginary affront, had oc- 
i^asioned a great proportion of 
the habitual crime for which Ire- 
land was notorious. These small 
factions, under such designations, 
as, hens and magpies, shanavests 
and caravatS; Paaeeu Oars atid 



;Mo11 Doyl^s, and a hdttdred' btblir 
vulgar party appellations, had b^i^ 
in use to wage war agairist i^lldi 
other, like so niany feudal bardtii. 
At fairs, and on sainii^ diy«, tliejr 
broke each other's heluls t>t hotiea; 
occasional defbat they r^Vehgedby 
deliberate arsati-and-itinr^fer; ihty 
Were incessantly cotfiln^itl t5otitact 
with the police; tfaeif habits tf 
life were riot and'bltkxUhed, kM 
systematic disregard of the 1^^. 
Neither the merely dtH (x^d, ttor 
an armed police, iiot the mtfte 
stem provisions of Itisutteeti^ 
acts, had been Ah\e to ftui the 
country from the confllsion hi 
which they delighted, Mr secffi^ to 
it the peaceful industry of Y(^efl- 
constitutcd society. Religlbn tvas 
not concerned here; th^se dis- 
turbances were not the struggles 
of the many against the exclusive 
rights and franchises of the fbw : 
in the warfare of these lawless 
Auctions it was Catholic against 
Chtholic. The Association Em- 
ployed its influence in exterminat- 
ing them. To have achieved ii 
task to which the regular goverti- 
ment, even when vested With ex- 
traordinary power8,had been found 
unequal^ would not merely be flat- 
tering to its pride ; that would 4)e 
a result which Would prov6 scHk- 
ingly the extent of it« substantial 
authority with the peo|rIei the ctVif^b 
trol which it held ov^t tfa^ ptdb- 
lie peace, and its incHnation to 
employ that control fbr bcttefidal 
purposes. It was desirable, ISkb* 
wise, for the objects of the Asso- 
ciation itself, that the idtlliitudcis, 
whom it was to devote to one 
great purpose, should not be ifi- 
vided by mortal quarrels aild habi- 
tual dissensions. The United arid 
harmonious body Which it might 
thus create, was, no doubt, an m- 
strumetit which it might employ 



flISTORt O? EUROPE. 



[13? 



in. . opea oulrage and xebellion 
agpjif^ the 8Ut9> as easily as they 
OQuldhrioff its members to throw off 
their aUeeumce to their landlords : 
bii^ agUatiog.aod deqpotic as was 
the Cionduct of the Cathcdic leaders^ 
and e3^<9T•g^nt and dangerous as 
was their language, when poured 
inta the willu^ ears of ignorant^ 
prajiuUced, ana excited men, it 
•would be uncandid to assert that 
thqr had smy de»g& of goading 
theu: cwatures to actual insurrec^ 
tioi^ or that they would have been 
phssised to -have seen their angry 
pasriona voluntarily ventmg 'them- 
aelvqi in that direction. They 
often qpoke of such a result as a 
possiUe thing; for they were 
not unwilling that the government 
•bould have the fear of it before 
ita eyety and should regard them- 
selves as the only security against 
a civil war* By their labours and 
their orations, too, they had raised 
a spirit, which, at any moment, on 
any incidental uneacpected occur- 
sence, might assume the form of 
opea reb^ion, and which all their 
ooi\iurations would be unable to 
lay. But their guilt went no fur- 
ther; th<^ neither intended to be 
traiton themselvesi nor to encour- 
age others to become traitors, so 
wng as Britain was not involved 
ia war. They had accumulated 
eombustiUai in every recess of 
society^ which a chance spark 
might set in a Uia«e; but they 
had no intention to i^ply the 
match, and were satufied with im- 
pressing upon their enemies the 
conviction that they might apply 
it, and envelope society m flames, 
whenever it might seem good unto 
them ao to da But whatever the 
motivea of the Association might 
he, ita exhortatiana, and the m«- 
flaeace of its popuW leaders, suc- 
aeeded ia weo n cilin g the factaonsj 



whose feuds had so long broken 
up the peace of the country. 
Throughout the counties of Cork, 
Clare, Limerick, and Tipperary, 
these sworn enemies assembled, 
not for discord and bloodsh^, but 
to lay down their dissensions and 
animosities, and to engage to live 
in future like countrymen ahd bro- 
thers. The consequence was^ that 
those districts of Ireland, which 
had become almost proverbial for 
scenes of violence and murder, ex- 
hibited a decree of order and tran- 
quillity to which they had long Wn 
strangers. The best proof of the 
fact was, that the judges of the 
circuit had the rare happiness of 
congratulating the magistrates, in 
almost every county, on the small 
number of crimes, and the absence 
of great atrocity in those which 
appeared to have been committed. 
Of this improvement in the state 
of the country ihe Association took 
the credit to itself, — and it was en- 
titled to do so ; but the power by 
which it was enabled to accomplish 
the good work, rested on a state of 
mind in the people, which threaten- 
ed mischief in another direction. 
It had deprived the factions of all 
animosity against each other ; but 
it had done so by concentrating all 
the animosity, that their active and 
heated minds could feel, against the 
established government and the ex- 
isting laws. It had Tjint an end to 
their quarrels with hostile equals ; 
but it had done so by calling them 
to unite against haughty superiors 
and personal oppressors. It had 
weaned them from lawless and 
disorderly assemblages for the ac- 
complishment of private illegal 
purposes; but it had drilled and 
organised them into a combined 
body, to be directed to the attain- 
ment of one great national purpose. 
Il was utmatural and irrational tg 



iqif^qe llmiu tl>e Iridi peMMiUy, fasdiiitlorthewiftsBf aoddbfriitanh 

t^^rbaoJMwdUwMdi would fay tinued to aaBeteU te in iaKgackodiati 

4»vr» Aeirbaiitoof a4StMm>l]M«i0e Uttn «ver; diey mmmti ^nuboa^ 

oni^ rib^nnd bad heen ibut <gMm» mililary tpp e awa tcFy and'dinJK^ 

^jhep^.«t t)«e v^ory moHMBt when a mate fwmet orgtaifBtiiiii <^iiH- 

^ooth^ wm opened to Uieni> more before. Thqp wcm nmlnikd^ai 

WvitMff/MidiBipofiiig. Acted opaii their plaoei ofrxendanroni^iind. 

eviory any by iKe ineendkry kn* msrdied aanm ^kmwvmtry^M w^ 

gva^ of ibo ORtttoro of the A«o» ^ular bodies of hone and foot,. ^sejih 

ailiticHi* denouneiag both their op* ug to numben fimn'five ^hnndlred 

|Dnfip»t« fiind the govenunent aa to two thouMuid men^.dreind-fiKb 

qppmvivci and fakxNUthiraty pcraer* quently in onifonn, ^and iae^iin^ 

c^tocfi, who, wece withholding from panied by mune. In^enBtalftllsji 

tbm the fimt and dearest rightsof wese not armed, or aims^iafe leait- 

tbo peasant of Tippenuy, were not yi^l^ O^Qamifill had; 



Uttk accu«tomed to reBeet, but ac« dedared at the MuMler a&ediDg^ 
c^ftomrd toact ; and to hold evecy shortly befoi^ dbat tkeee wereri|fai^ 



mode of (Action lawful which car- arms in the county of 

xiod him forward to hiB object, what- which he would make the peasant 

e^rer the statute book or the bench try giveup— -aneogagemesitirinBh; 

might «ay to the contrary, could he subsequently proved 4inw«UaBg 

n^(Vpr believje that he was to resist or unable to fulfil-»4ttid be. had 

ttiese ,0|i|N9nefit8 and that govern- stated at the Clare eleotion^ a& a 

mea;tanlybyhisvote;—- thathewas sjrmptom of the ^Mease d - state of 

to seek these valued rights, and re« the country, that he had found 

gfjip. the dignity of a man only by even a boy dzilling-his yoan^eom- 

petitioning and canvassing^—that paaions, and teaching themrwatck* 

the^ tyrannous oppressors, whom words of political bitterness. More« 



Ve scarcely heard spoken of as men, over, the immediate want of 

wei:e to be attacked only through is at bestbutasogEryand tepqponnjr 

the poll book of the returning om- security, when the minds of the 

c^r, when all his habits told him turbulent are at the poiiU where 

that, his rifle and his pike were the Juror arma mnifirai* Thnat^ mi«* 

just and effectual means of aveng- litary assemblages seemed te.laitd 

ing an insignificant insult <m even only one obiect. They thiew ^i6 

an insignificant equal in the next public mind into a state ef ^^ti^ 

barony, — and that all the skilful hi^est alarm. Every day might 

organizaticm of clubs and contribu- ddu£e the south of Ir^md* in 

tions, of which he formed a part, Mood: even the Cathdicekfgybe-i 

was to end in bringing him to the gan to feel apprehensive of the 



hustings, once in seven years, to sequences of the spiidt whieh< thef 

vote against his landlord. He had been so active in exciting* aiid 

might be brought so to conduct of the umoo of menaoeustomedlo 

himself by mOTal authority, and lawless habits which th^ boasted 

that the Association possessed ; but oi having accomplished. All nsi^ 

it was not the direction which his sonable men asked, why this 



feelings and his actions would na- play of physical force? why ^lese 

turally take of themselves. Ac- uniforms? why these marehingsin- 

cordingly, thp peasantry of the military array? why these divisiona 

q^ut^i instead of faUiog quietly of infentry and cavnby I whnaasi 



o 



HISmDHY' OPi BUHOPEK 'f" h |[1SS> 



dnA «ieo JSffe ^dodMd^ift a &liii& 
goniiiitg iiiflforai?. and where tlie 
tfBttnijity'Wliiclx dineta the appli* 
oatioii •OS findb. w a|^ra|>fiiied ? 
IfirdkiftfivbBnithcve unui euspieioiiy 
agilatipwyggd «kniii As yet there 
had taMO^iiO'«ttiiid bmaoh of the 



» ' •« ( • 



n Thujas' the^state of tlunn in 
the Isdiitii^' and mote o^Meially in 
Tqipemry^iat theisnd of August* 
apdvi^tfaeoiraniime, a new element 
df'O^niiuuin'and eandtemeiit had 
Been •hmmlttded bj ihe exertions 
wiiiish the eondnct and • the lao* 
gwige of the AssocSation anavoid- 
aUy; caUdd forth on the part of 
thew eppekients. Whik tne €a- 
AoUos wove orttaniahi^ the whole 
CBvatry us an mstroment for the 
eaeeutimi of their plans^ it was 
neither notoial nor just to e^tpect^ 
that the Protestants^ who eonnder* 
dd the sBCccM of these phms to 
thieatenthe destroction of the oon- 
stitntion^ as well as direct injury 
to tbemseiveSf should adopt no 
neaaures to eounterast them. To 
hofe oppesed mere indiyidual ex« 
ertioit to the combined resources 
idikk the Association had hrouj^t 
into phty, woilld hate been futile. 
The gavemaaent had allowed that 
Aisooadon to stride on in its mis* 
diievCvs and alarming ooorsc with- 
orit ^fstioa or reboke; and the 
Prottntanti s^t about pnmding for 
Ihdr interests^ by adopting some of 
th» expedients whidi the Cath<^cs 
hwi found so efiectual. The Orange 
lodges hadceased to exist, under the 
aotuifpasiittment which had been 
direeted equally a^dnst them and 
Masnst the Gathonc Association, 
'nie latter had continued to act, in 
a somewhat different disguise, in 
defiance of the law; andnosooner^ 
as we have seen> had the act ex« 
I»d ia Jidy, than the Association 



ieattumsdiits«iibi^iitlbi«h. ^FQilll¥ 
wi^ the Ofange lodjfeit; io(^' - wttiil 
revived; and the ^^df OAAge 
lodge in DtibHn #ds ^n^ <ft)^itaed; 
to be a oentrefor the f^iMiott -^ 
the protdncial bodies, f tiaddkiMt 
to these associatioDSi lli^r^fiddiM 
were fomSed in various paM of ^e 
country, but pasrti^larly in DdUlfi^ 
and Ulster, under^ the tiatee^of 
Brunswid: dubs. On the roils Uf 
these clubs were found tbd-nawlis 
of many of the Protestant ak4si&* 
cracy, and the most inflUelVtilli 
clashes of sodety. They ^tahhshed 
a Protestant rent, in imiOttion kH 
the Catl^c rent of thcj AittodiU 
turn: and were, in their geiieraf 
construction, counterpai^'of -^h^ 
county dubs which hald e^rtiiij^ 
up on the other side 6f the qiies^ 
tion under the auspices of Mr. 
O'Conncll. It was melandbioly tb 
see the inhabitants of a countiy; 
which was believed by the rest of 
the world to be placed under the 
control of a regular government, 
thus marshalled against each other, 
breaking up sodety into dubs and 
associations for the more extended 
indulgence of mutual animosity; 
but yet nothing could be more ridi- 
culously unjust than the vitupera-* 
tbn, which not merdy the Catho- 
lic Association and its subordinate 
fraternities heaped upon die Bruns^ 
wick clubs> but which made its ap- 
pearance likewise in Britain, and 
was repeated in high places. The 
Protestants may luive been wrong 
in opposing Catholic emandpaition; 
that is matter of o^onion : but assur- 
edly they no more transgressed tiie 
duties of good subjects in oppodhg 
it, than did the Cathdies in de- 
manding it. IVhen Mr. 0*Cdn*^ 
ndl, who existed only by the As« 
sociation, who had' covered the 
country with associations, and wlk> 
boasted of agitation as his pcofeiBBed 



4de] ANNUAL REGISTER. .1828. 



9kj/mtt xBved wildlx againBt Pto* 
toslMfel «fl9ocifttions as being illegal 
itiiiUiemsclliresi and dangerous to 
tiha'fcitoqtiilliiy. of Ihe {lublicy be 
ivaaroidjrtobelaugbed at for bii 
absiifdity* . But what right had 
aiijr member of a gDvemment^ 
whieh^ so fiff B8 its conduct could 
fpeak> apprcpred of every thing 
tiiiiah 0*Connall had done for 
pajfBXf, id reprobate its subjects fot 
the very same things when done by 
' ^mstosCants in defence of the esta* 
UliahedraligiiHi of the country? 
QaMsionaUy#it is tni*» Tidient and 
thouriulffls langoage was uttered 
at tvke, Protestant meetings^ as 
tirdyL as in the Association; but 
it was notthe Jatter^nor the friends 
of the iatter, who could be entitled 
to4»ll in qoestidn any human being 
lor using wild, and extc«vagant> 
and abusive words. Yet| whUe the 
Catholics were allowed to pursue 
Ikieir course unmoiesiedf it was 
gvavely stated^ that the Protett- 
tmiii aooieties ^lould be put dowa> 
and. all Ptotestantfl deprived of 
the tight to carry arms. Aeports 
weire industriously propagated^ that 
die Orange societies and Bruns* 
wiofc dubs were employing iheir 
'^rent" in purchasing armsi and 
had imported large quantities from 
Scotland into the north of Ireland. 
Looiking at the orsaniaation into 
which the GathoUcs hsd been 
drilled, and the alarming and mili* 
tary garb which it immediately as* 
sumed^ it would not have been 
wonderful^ if what was imputed to 
the Protestants had been true. It 
is the nature of civil animosity^ ihat 
each party dreads more evil from 
its aaversary than was ever in** 
tended^ The story, however^ was 
a iisoUsh lie, invented for the pur- 
peae of producuig a belief that the 
savage riotestimts were preparing 

{or offinifliv« mm* while the laila 



and huroUa haiDes of the Catholio 
Association weraproceediiig qui8tl(y 
to their object only along the btoad 
and recogmaed paths of the oonstir 
tution. 

The Protestant Asiooiatiena were 
most powerful in the oortbu as. the 
Catholic AsBociatiott was tbe.,piish 
voiling authority in the s^th; 
and in the former^ therefofB the 
orgauiaataon of the Cathclies pto^ 
ceeded more slowly^ The A$ionjh 
ation sent, forth one d its omton^ 
a Mr. Lawless^ as. the apostlfr cf 
agitation^ toex^teandtoenoourage 
the nocthemJooQntiesi. The dema^ 
gogue travdled from padib la 
parish^ assembling the people in 
crowds in the Catholic olwjpeH» ^md 
there addressing to them toe usiwl 
incentiyes to steady animosity 
against their fellow dountcymetti. 
Theoountiy, which he was visiting* 
was the strong-hold of Protestant*- 
ism; allaraundhimweiiethePro- 
testant duba; yet the vain and 
heartless deelaimecneTer allowed 
himself to be detdrred fiam has 
mischievous enterpxise by any i^ 
prehensbn of the consequeSMeea 
which might arise from bringing 
into contact tumultueus assem* 
hUiges sofaitteiiy envenomed a^nst 
ea^ other« He boasted of having 
entered Protestant towmi* wch ae 
Collon, At the heed of twenty or 
thirty thousand Catbdicsj henovar 
thought of the impvsssion whieh 
must be produced on the Protest* 
ants, by such a triumph of theic 
unrelenttng and abusive enemiesk 
The magistrates in these parts had 
more prudence ; they warned the 
people against joining in his tumul* 
tuous prpcesaionay or attending his 
agitating aucmUieB; thcyentiseat^ 
ed the man himself to give up his 
misdiievous crusade. If Mr. Law* 
less really believed that it waa In 
bumea neture for the Pfoteittmti 



HISTORY OF EUROPE: • l\Bi 

tfo to tranquQ witnessM of these tenth bf that ntiitiber> ifwM moto 
Mly ovatidns^ in whicfa they vrett than enough for evefy purfioM of 
heU Up to the oonteftipt and ab* insult, iatimidatlon, and mWhief* 
^OM«noe of the eountry, ho was a The PMIe8tant«> hm^eveiv^hayimg 
fool, unfit to be trusted with any expresBed fhoir determination lo 
thing fat which the interests of assemble at the same time, lo¥c rt d 
other people were eoneemed. If of the inhabiunts proceeded to tlio 
he was wke enough to know that county town, and called a 'moetitig 
th^ ProtHstants, already banded of magistrates, before whom- «A» 
for ttMistanefe, would not so sub* davits were made relativte to the 
mil^ and was yet wicked enough intended procession. The magis* 
to risk all the consequences of tnates forwarded the affidavits, to- 
angry cdlision> for the sake of gether with their opinions on' th^ 
fedling hb paltry vanity by roceiv* subject, to the general oomnind* 
ing the bhoiita ^ miserable mobs, ing in the district, who^ immaili* 
and narrating in his despatches to ately after their perusal^ prooaedtMl 
the Assoeia^, " his splendid and to Monagban, and anived at Ballyw 
MibHme proceedings," in making bay on t& morning of the intended 
vapid speeches to a few thousand entry. On Mn Lawkss's anival 
ttMn, women; and children, then in the vicinity of the town and 
be was an unprincipled gam* accompanied, too> by his promised 
Mer in rebellion! Those conae- force, the general, and one of the 
queneea followed, which every ra« local magistrates) met luut, and 
Uonal being had foreseen. He stated what the result would be^ 
proclaimed befot^hand the day on should he persevere in entering 
Which he was to make his trium* BaUybay. He was prevailed o^on 
phal entry into this totvn or into not to enter the town^ and rettii^ied 
that> at the head of his legions : to Caniokmacnias to await furtiier 
forthwith the Protestants mustered orders from the Association. Soma 
imd prepared to meet him on the of his followers, however, were leas 
lame arena* He was to take pos-> prudent The animosity, which 
session, as he himself once termed provokes opposition, is itself aggra* 
it, of the town of Armagh ^ the vated by the appearance of that 
OTth September, but, on the mom^ opposition. A scuffle took place 
ing of that day, the Pirotestants, between the parties, and a Catho-» ^ 
ttmny of them armed, marched in- lie was killed. The more moder* 
to the city from all parts of the ate and sensible of that body in the 
(Aornity. Mr. Lawless advanced districts, into which the march of 
nb forther, and the Protestants the Catholic apostle had thus 
^ui^tly dispersed. He announced brought confusion, were now con« 
hia ititention of entering BaUybay, vinood that his obstinate persever* 
in the county of Monagban, and anee would only lead to more oa^ 
he marched upon it at the head, lamitous consequences. He de« 
aceording to his own account, of clared that he would visit " all the 
two btmdred and fifty thousand sttvng^holds of the Orangemen," 
Cath<^cs.* If his retinue was one and it was plain to all the world, 

that the Orangemen would not 



< I I ■ - 1 m ■ ■« 1 I 



♦ TJii» Was the Dumber which Mr. allow these tumultuous and insuk* 

»^rK!*Ai!™^l-'"'^V"!l'?^i^^^^^^ m visits to be made Without op* 

to the AsBocaaUoo. He added, tliat tie ^.. mi.^ .^..^^ ^^a 4^j.w 

•• galloped up the hills foilovrcd by fifty powtum. iho atttfuy ana 
thousand p^ple, and aU the Qltrsf'^ 



^jipj A N NiU A'Ji . fl !?,<? l^X jg Br : 1828. 



pendent Piotestant9 of the nortbj 
tfi6' ' majoilty holding ' religious 
6pnilons peculiarly csuculated to 
generate tnat spirit that arouses t^t 
coercion or* intimidation^ and long 
iuicustomed to a moral and physical 
superiority— -the consequence of 
competence^ industry^ and intelli- 
^etice^^ — could ill broolc dictation 
and were not disposed to yield to 
tfie'^gumcnt from numbers. 
• ' ' Th^s, hy the end of September, 
t!h^'CJ!athoucs in the south had as- 
sumed a form of military organizar- 
tipn il^hich excited alarm through- 
ifixt the wh(de country ; and, in the 
north, the attempt to establish 
Ik dmilar system, had roused their 
of^ponents to the adoption of simi«< 
1^ me^ures, and prepared the two 
patdes for a collifflbn the result of 
Whibh It was impossible to foresee. 
TJbc Association began to fear that 
th^y had gone too far. In the 
adndi they had excited a temper 
wh^h it ta^t not be in their 
power to control; in the north 
they had created opposition, 

Sid successful opposition, where 
ey had hoped to impose silence, 
by producing dismay : they had 
driven the Protestant spirit of re- 
sistance into an organized form. 
We have already said, that the 
CatfaoGc leaders assuredly had no 
wish or intention to have the 
question, in present circumstances, 
decided by force. lasurrection, 
they knew, would be their ruin. 
They boasted, indeed, that, if the 
Catholics and Protestants of Ire- 
land were left to fighit it out alone, 
** the might of the Catholic people 
ti^ouM crush the Orangemen mto 
flttst ;" but they were probably 
iVftre that, even in Ireland, nearly 
all ihe property and all the intelli- 

Snce of the country were with 
eir opponents; and they had at 
sekiSQ to see, thatj in such a 



quarrel, Protestant Qreat. Britain 
would certainly interfere, *' and m 
a week,*' said Mr. Shiel, ."they 
would cut us down.*'. Tho Associi^- 
tion, therefore, had no wish,, thai 
the pea9antry in the south of 
Ireland should still continue in a 
state which threatened insurrection 
at every moment^i and would b^ 
come the more difficult to, be 
mana^^, the. longer it was per- 
mitted to exist : neither could they 
shut their ^yes to the fact, ^at the 
state which they had ^us pro* 
duced, while it alarmed and dis^ 
gusted their Protestant friend^ 
strengthened, and, amid the torpor, 
of government, iustified^ the vigi- 
lance and dctemunation of their Pro^ 
testant enemies. There was much 
truth in Mr. Shiel's description of 
the state of the country in a speedh 
delivered in the Association, evi- 
dently with the view of preparing 
its wildest members for the necessi- 
ty of occasionally using their power 
to purposes of politic peace. The 
Catholics, he said, had attained the 
perfection of national organization 
and popular discipline. "They 
have almost reached the excellence 
of military array. But an im^ 
mense population thus united, 
thus amliated, thus controlled^ 
in such a state of complete subor- 
dination, afibrds matter of the most 
solemn meditation. A fedine of 
expectation has begun to manifest 
itself among the people. They 
put painful questions^ and awfiu 
interrogatories. But if the s^te 
of the Catholics be deserving. of 
attention, that of the Protestants 
calls also for remark. It is in vain 
for us to hide it JBrom'ouirselves. 
Th^ Protestants are every day be^ 
coming more alienated by our dis- 
play of power. The sneAt proprie- 
tori, a^ aU men^ who W. «i 
interest in tbe security of ^e,sU]^ 



HISTDRY OF EUROPE: 



m 



are aindous for'tlie settlement of 
tlie question ; but still tbeirpride is 
wounded, and thev see witq some 
di^lisii the attitude of just equali- 
ty whicL we have assumed. Our 
Protestant advocates, with a few 
exceptions^ declined the invitation 
to join in our late proceedings. 
As individuals, I hold them in no 
sort of account ; but I look upon 
their absence as a feature in the 
existing circumstances of the coun- 
try. It is clear that the division 
between Catholic and Protestant is 
widening. They were before par- 
ted^ but they are now rent asunder; 
and while the Catholic Association 
rises up from the indignant pas- 
sions 01 one great body of the com- 
piunity^ the " Brunswick Club" b 
^ringing out of the irritated pride 
and the sectarian rancour of the 
Protestants of Ireland. The Ca- 
tholic Association owes its political 
parentage to heavy wrong, operat- 
ing on deeply sensitive and strong- 
ly susceptible feelings. Oppres- 
sion has engendered it. The Pro- 
testant Association has its birth in 
the hereditary love of power, and 
inveterate habits of domination; 
and thus two sreat rivals are 
brought into pmitical existence, 
and enter the lists against each 
other. As yet they have not en- 
gaged in the great struggle — they 
have not closed in the comDat ; but, 
as they advance upon each other, 
and collect their might, it is easy 
to discern the terrible passions by 
which they are influenced,' and the 
fell determination with which they 
rush to the encounter. Mean- 
while, THE GOVERNMENT STAND 
BY^ AND THE MINISTER FOLDS 
Ufa ARMS A8 IF HK WERE A MERE 
INDIFFERENT OBSERVER, AND 
THl? TERRIFIC CONTEST ONLY 
AFFORDED HIM A SPECTACLE FOR 
fUE AMUSEMENT OF ^lapFFlCIAI. 



LEISURE. He SITS, AJS iii: TTlfO Gli^f 
DIAT0R8 WERE CRQ68INa T^J^I,^ 
8W0RDS FOR HIS RECR^ATxblJ. 

The cabinet seems to be ut- 

TLE better than A BOX IN AN 
AMPHITHEATRE, F^OM WHENCE 
HIS MAJBBTY'a MINISTERS hUY 
SURVEY THE BU3INBS6 OF BLOOD* 

This, then, is the state of thli^ : 
—There are three parties concenpir 
ed — the Catholics, the Pxotestf^ts, 
and the Government ; the Cathpr 
lies advance upon oi^e han^ the 
Protestants upon the other and the 
Govemment,V whom hotli ought 
to be controlled, look? passlvel^f on/' 
These views w^re, in the . i^fun, 
perfectly just. 

The events which accoippanied 
the mission of Mr. Lawleiss to 
the north in the month of Septem^ 
her only strengthened tibe 9011* 
victio^ of the Association, that the 
chances were every day increaidz^g 
of violent collision^ in which th&y 
could not fail to be losers. The 

fovemment was still blind and 
umb. It seeme4 to court oppor- 
tunities of shewine to the worlds 
how completely it had transferred 
its powers to the Catholic Asso- 
ciation; and it was fortunate for 
the empire, that the policy of t^e 
Association was on the side of 
peace. It adopted, on the 26th Sep- 
tember, the following resolutions : 
1. That while we warmly coiv. 
gratulatc the people of Tippenury 
upon the happy cessation of the^ 
feuds, we implore them to discon- 
tinue the holding of assemblies of 
the peculiar character which have 
recently taken place. 2. That w« 
humbly entreat the Catholic clergjr 
to CO operate with the Association 
in carrying the above resolution 
into effect. 3. That Daniel 0*Con- 
nell, to whose influence the pacifi* 
cation of Tippcrary should be re- 
ferred, is hereby called upon to 



142] ANNUAL REG ISTBR« 1828. 



ihNjploy liif powerful and deterred 
mathOnXj iu deterring the people 
ef Tippemvy from the holdLig of 
fueh meetingB, in. an. addreM to be 
printed -and cireulaited at the essm 
penaeof theAaodation. 4. That 
it be rcfeived to the standing com** 
mktae to report^ whether it be, or 
may become expedient, that a de- 
putation thall be lent toTipperary, 
and suffgeel luob other measures 
as shall be deemed advisable, in 
Older to diamiade the people from 
holding aneh meetings. 

Mr. O'Conneili aeoordingly, pub- 
liiAed an address to the people of 
theeounty of Tipperary conjuring 
them to abstain from the useless 
and alarming assemblages in which 
they had lately been indulging. 
^ Obey the laws," said he to them, 
*' follow the advice of the Catholic 
Association, listen to the counsels 
I give you,--4i8continue, I know 
you will discontinue, those large 
meetings — avoid secret societies and 
illegal oaths— contribute, accord- 
ing to your means, to that sacred 
and national fund, the Catholic 
rent-«cultivatc your moral duties 
^-attend seriously and solemnly 
to your holy and divine religion. 
You will thus exalt yourselves 
as men and as* Christians. Bigotry 
i^d oppression will wither from 
amongst us. A parental govern- 
ment, now held out to us, will 
compensate for centuries of mis- 
rule. I adjure you all, by the 
sacred duty you owe your country, 
and by the sanctified duty you owe 
vour religion, not to hold any meet- 
ing, and, however great your irrita- 
tion, not to copamit any breach of 
the peace, which is just the very 
thing by which your enemies would 
be delighted, and which would 
rive the hearts of your friends 
with unutterable agony.** * 

* In thiB sddrpm, Mr* O'Connell un* 



This address^whiab^io iha.iMiSftl 
style of the Catholic omtui^ d»* 
soiibed the Protestants to Iha 
peasmti^ as being mare ''hkoA, 
hounds,' produced the oesultwUr^i 
had been tntendad* Itanrifed.iii 
Tipperary on the ev/S of a . d«y 
which hi^ been fixed fer the. m? 
sembling of many lai^ bodiea of 
men from difierent parts id the 
country. It was immediately 
disseminated with great aotivily 
throughout the county. The 
parish priests, who shared in the 
alarm of the Associatioiii enfinrcod 
its directions from their altaia» 
and the danger was piaveiited* 
Divisions of a thousand or fiAeen 
hundred men> marching in unifijna 
to the place of rendezvous^ in 
, ignorance of what hud. hai^lied^ 
were met on their way by a oo|iy 



■•^■ 



fblded B plan which he had in his bead 
for the moral orgaoiaation of the fOfHe^ 
provitioi^ having been already made fi^r 
arranginif them effectively in political 
combiDations. ** I would divide the 
people," aatd he, "for all political, morale 
and religious purpotet, into naofibers 
not exceeding one hnndfed and twenty. 
These one hundred and twenty should 
elect amongst themselves a person 
to take charge of the whole, under 
the name of a < Padfieator. ' No man 
to be a < pacifleator* bat a man ragular 
In his religious duttf s, and a( least a 
montlily communioint* The 'paciii^sa- 
tor' to have power to nominate two per- 
sonn, to be ealted ' Regulators,' tm&et 
him; and the three to be rMpaasitile 
that no crime or outrage, or viokiton of 
the law, should be committed by any of 
the one hundred and twenty. On the 
contrary, that they should assist In the 
preservation of the peace-^ln the pre- 
vention ofallcHme8*-^in tkeauppression 
of all illegal socie^ef-r*in the leollectifyn 
of the Catholic rent, and in all otli^r 
useful, legal, and honest purposes. It 
would be a ^rt of my plan, tiiat the 
name and nsidenceof each ^ paMAcalor ' 
should te transmitted to every nalgh* 
boudng magistrate and |K»lice statipn, 
and advertised in the newspapers, and 
enrolled in the books of the CftthoHc Aa- 
aociathMU" 



HISTCMIY OP EUROPE. 



C143 



cf ih» tdclrett, snd inrtantl^ re« 
tmced their steps in peace. Others^ 
wbo hiid aetuaUy assembled, im- 
dtoAiaftely 'Separated and departed 
ipMMty to ^txt homes. Although 
die mimhet* amount^, according 
to the Catholic accounts, to fifty 
^rnusand men, and had pot them- 
ielres to no small expense in flagtf, 
ftaiidhrds, musio, and uniform 
equlpmewto^ so soon as the Asso« 
riano» gaTe the nod, and Daniel 
CCounell pronounced the word, 
fhey-aubmitted without a murmur 
Or complaint. Only at one spot 
wnm there any public disturbance : 
at Caatle^town, in the county of 
Tippermry, the police interfered 
with one of these numerous pro- 
eesskms which was parading 
through the town on a Sunday, 
with music playing, and colours 
flying. The peasantry at first 
lefeind ; but returning in greater 
numbers, they attacked and de- 
stroyed the barracks, compelling the 
police to MtelL safety in flight. 

These things happened in the 
last days o( Sqitember. When all 
was OTer, forth came at last, on the 
J St October, a proclamation from 
the Lord-lieutenant, enjcnningthat 
to bo done which the Catholic As- 
aodalion had already done for him. 
Thin was the first symptom of re- 
turning life which the government 
eidiibited, after so long a period 
of suspended animation. The pro- 
clamation described the convoca- 
tions of the lieges, which had been 
held in various parts of the coun- 
try, as being what they truly were, 
ill^al and alarming, ''consisting 
of persons both on foot and on 
horsebacky coming together from 
vBfiotts and distant parts and places, 
acting in concert, and under the 
command of leaders, assuming the 
appearance of military array and 
discipline, or exhibiting other marks 



and symbols of illegal concert fad 
union, to the great danger of tho 
public peace, and to ^ well- 
founded terror and dread of ; his 
majesty's peaceable and well»dis-» 
posed subjects;" and therefore it 
prohibited all persons frapi holding 
or attending any sueh meeliiM^ 
and directed all magistrates to take 
measures for their effectual dis< 
pension and suppression. The 
proclamation found scarcely any 
thing On which to operate ; the 
assemblies had disappeared at tho 
word of the Association, before the 
Lord-lieutenant of Ireland rent 
tured to call them in queslisili 
Its only effect waft, to confirm Mr. 
Lawless in his resolution to proceed 
no farther in Ids mission to the 
north, where he had already been 
checkedby theprecautionsof thema- 
gistrates, and by the remonstrances 
of the Catholics themselves. * The 

• Three weeks after this, Mr. I,AyvIe$s 
was apprehended and held to ball on a 
warrant charf^ing him with ^'hayingbeen 
preMntat, and actively engaged in pro* 
motiog and forwarding, a meetiDg of a 
large inullitude of personft unlawfully 
assemhled near Baflibay, on 22 Sep- 
tember, in the county of Monaghan, in 
a manner calculated to endanger th« 
public peace and tranquillity, to tend 
to the violation of the law, and to ex* 
cite terror, alarm, and consternation, 
amongst hi4Majesty*s peaceable subjects 
resi(ling. at ana In the neighboornood 
of said place ; and by the appearanoe 
and conduct of which meeting, great 
apprehension and terror were caused 
and created in the minds of divers of 
the said subjects," — *'and with having, 
alon^ with divei-s other persons, previ- 
ously to tlie said assembly, combined 
and agreed together to form the said 
assembly and other assemblies of the 
like nature, for the purpose of creating 
terror and alarm« and opposing and ter- 
rii^ing certain classes or hH majesty's 
sn^jects, and thereby exposing tQ hazard 
the public peace. " No ulterior proceed- 
ings were adopted. The arrest was 
supposed to have been occasioned by the 
intemperanoeof his luibsequent conduct. 



Hi) ANNUAL ;»90I^3^>RRr.a828. 



tmnti^uoiia^eetivgftm thp aouth 
ba4, pe^n^exiBting tpt sonne uxue^ 
the^.^^]:Q.as.iIk^ at fint at tliey 
Vere now ;.. inaUsad o£ being crush- 
ed ^t^ the. outset, tney hm been 
allowed to grow up into a strength 
and an union which alanned even 
d'Conikll and Shiel. Assujredly 
It wafii nb .ordinary degree of. Ca- 
tholic agitation which could fill 
thcor minm with alaim, a|id subdue 
the^t tp the neceissity of abstaining 
frppitheduiplay of their power: yet 
tjh^ mandate wan issued^ and h^d 
prpdi^ced Its efiectp before the I'risb 
government could see cause or. 
miist^ courage.. to utter a word. 
li seeme^ as it the executive of 
the country did not dare to call on 
the^ Catholics to obey the laws^ 
untU the Association badconsentep 
Ui prepare that obedience for it 
before hand. At a provincial meet* 
ii^g pf Leinster, held in October, 

OnlAi tetani to Dubliii, be added to 
hit AMaer indiecretioiM, by dcnoiiticiiif 
the Lord-lieuleaaiit's procUmiitioii, or 
ratfi«r the object of it. as unlawful ; and 
boasted thaty in defiance of the official 
iMionslranoefl, he was ready to recom- 
menee hit tarbnleni circuit, if the Ga- 
tboUca wooldaifthoriae him to undertake 
such a meaaure. Before tbeBallibay meet- 
ing, which was assigned as the ground 
of Mr. Lawless's arrest, the CatlioMcs 
had became sensible of the imprudenceft 
into which he was daily fidJing, and the 
consequences of which must necessarily 
re-act upon themselves, and the great 
cause committed to them by their coun- 
try. The chiefs of the Association had 
therefore forwarded to Mr. Lawless an 
earnest, though private, or at least not 
official, entreaty, that he would desist 
from an enterprise which had been so 
conducted as to exasperate their ene- 
mies, and to alarm the most reflecting 
and useful of their friends, both Protes- 
tant and Catholic. It was natural 
enough (hat they should be unwilling 
to. wound a zealous and very vain par- 
tieftn, by administering direct reproof 
or Openly dismissing him from an office, 
whtcli,sueh as it was, was the only thing 
that g^ve him personal consideration. 



toadQI>t *J*^ nlffliMiif>f tbci ftMniiMii 

te]cen can^ .t9 rei>4^ Ximmw-M^ 

peaqeable and tv»n9i\ili, ^i»4^, Ai^uVv 
glepoIicenna^w4Sso«VQffrjf^e|}ii9^ 

to pre^Te,th^^uUic'i9eaa9r')>lA 
one instani>e a .se^eijyiMf yTtJwUofl 
offered a ymsp^Jfs iwMt, ^> .HmH 
ing of tho |^9f^i»^ «m4 ^ 
oonseqoeoo^ wa%..that,;|kh«Qf; p9^ 
dawn ihA . Folioei fimipl|«f i \tk^ 
Catholic' Assofiiatioiiv . 4earioii> thati 
siinilar iw^dts ioitht l^>.^ej9Gi4«i 
and that tb^:«Puld,V. w'w^ 
by similar efiepts» apipeal^. tp:l^ 
people of Tipp^iy tQ^fsnierfyottf^ 
such assemblageSf and they.nt^fimi^ 
ob^ed its injunction* Xbffi lliiq 
prodamatiqn of tb» goftenm^iAi 
was issued, but we had ^uietis4- 
the country beffne it c^nf foi^^ 
and . the government hot hif^* 
tapped the work, which had 
been akeady .perforined fagr thm 
Catholic Associatipn*" Itwas^iiq-. 
possible to deiiyv that tha Associa* 
tioQ had organijsed the peof^ of 
Ireland into a^form vfhich enaUM 
it to reader them danigi^rons tq afyfri 
government, and that it «wa|Gid 
the mind of that people with^ dofih: 
potic authoriQr- Tl^re wga -m 
tmperium in impmo; bnt thv^ 
was so, because the gvviernmep^^. 
Irehind and of the United ^iMgr 
dom seemed to have abdic^t^*<^. 
its powers either to. punish, or., j^, 
protea. . • t . 

The alarm, which had heeyi 0^, 
cited by theie tunyiltaaiy .'ui^n 
ceedings was not confined -to Iivr, 
land. The.o^ponentsof Catjveli^ 
emancipation m England joinaijn • 
the apprehension that govenunept 
had already sunk, or was aboui to 
ank, before the well'"O i ;g |m y ed 
power of the Catholies ; and diey 
thought it rttht to enll for a piiblie 
expression of the opinion of Great 
Britain, on a question whidh 



fllSTORYi Of) BUROPfe' 



m 



enhMi^eeoiMMiim of tiie whole 
4lii)^i^ ' 'the example was set by 
the-i^euntyof Kent. In pursuance 
dr* rtointf tkm aigjiied by many per* 
^mm'm%!SaetKee in' tbe county, a 
fll^tiiij^ of tbe freeholders and 
^Mttfanty was hdd en Pennenden 
Heath, to the 24(hi^ October. It 
wik Ike moat nimeious puWe 
ntoeliiii|(''thM had assembled in 
Ei^laira lor maiiy years: twenty 
thiMisAiA'^MrsoM were laad to have 
heeft phjseht** Siich meetings are 
fitted tO" exprte nothing but tu* 
iMltiloiis defienkiination ; there can 
be lio weighing of argument, no 
discussion of facts or principles. 
But they are a perfectly le^ti- 
nate mode of expressing opnion, 
whatever may be the weight to 
which that opinion is entitled, 
lie 'leaders and_ speakers, too, of 
this assembly, were very difierent 
from die noisy demagogues whose 
efiiisioiui had brought disgrace on 
piaMic meedngs. They were men 
of education, of ranl^ of public 
dianicter. Both Cobbett and 
Hunt endeavoured to thrust them« 
adves in ; but they were not al* 
lowed to be heard. The earl of 
Win^ilsea, and sir £. Knatchbull, 
one of the county members, sup- 
port^ the petition proposed for the 
adoption of die meeting, which 
met^ prayed the House of Com- 
0on# to preserve the Protestant 
constitution of the united kingdom 
invibkhle, and, of course, in the 
minds at least of the petitioners, 
not to throw open the high places 
of that constitution to Roman Ca- 
tholics.* No counter*motion was 



■^^ 



* The peLifioii iras in the following 
words : — 
''To di« hononmble the Hou«e of 

Commons, &e. 
. " Tkt iMiroble petition of the un- 
dersigned freeholders of the 
county of Kent. 
** That tour petitioners beg leave to 

Vol. LXX. 



made directly favouring th0'0e4 
mands of the Catholics, but ft ^ok 
moved, that it ought to be lefb en* 
tirely to his mqesty's govemmeot 
to propose such measures as they 
mi^ht think proper for the pacifi- 
cation ef Ireland, and thefleneral^ 
benefit of the kingdom. This mo« 
tion was supported by earl Cdmden^ 
earl Damley, the earl dt Radi^oiii, 
and lord Teynham ; but the peti- 
tion was carried by a great mi^ority^ 
The^ English fnends of the' 
CathoHcs immediately grew' yrild 
in their abuse; they spoke of the^ 
Pennenden Heath meeting) as re- 
volutionary, and talked unuttetat 
ble nonsense' about the wickedne$|j[ 
of attempting to control govern- 
ment by such meetings ^na votes. 
Had it terminated the other way» 
these very men would have lauded 
it as a maffnifioent and temperate 
display of constitutional , action* 
Was the question, whether Catho^ 
lies should be admitted to pelittcal 
power, one on which ministers 
alone were fitted and qualified to 
decide? Assuredly not. It io* 
volved the weightiest- interetta- 
of every man in the kingdom' 
its Protestant opponents neld, 
that the constitution itself woa 
at stake. If ever theve waa a 

■■ ■■!■ ■ ■ ' ■ ■ ■ I 

express to your honourable House tlieir 
sense of t)ie blessings they enjoy under 
the Protestant constitution of these 
kingdoms, a.^ settled at the Revolution. 

" Viewine' with the deepest regret 
the proceedings which have for a long 
time been carrying on in Ireland^ yoiir 
petitioners feel themselves imperatively 
called upon to declare their strong ana 
inviolable attachment to those Protes- 
tant principles which have proved to be 
the best security for the cIvO and reli* 
gious liberty of these kingdoms. 

** They therefore approach your ho- '. 
nourable House, humbly, but earnestly, 
praying tliat the Protestint cotiRtituHon 
of the united kingdom may be pi-eserved . 
entire and inviolable.*' 



146] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



dmibtf ul topic <m whicb everjr part 
of the p^l9- vfLs bound aad enti« 
tkd to tn»ke its voiee be heard> it 
WM t^t wbich had been subnitted 
to the fre<riiokkf« pf Kent 

Thetexample was followed in tone 
o^er parts of £ngland. Bnina- 
wiok or constitutional dubs were 
fomed in Leeds, in Leicester, and, 
under the patronage of the marquis 
o£ Chandida, in the eounty of Buck- 
ingham. But' they displayed no 
activity; they cherished no ** agi- 
tation ;" they left scarcely a trace 
behind them. The people of Eng- 
land tffusted, that, so long as the 
duke of Wellington -and Mr. Peel 
were the leading ministers of the 
country, no disposition would be 
manifested to truckle to the Catho- 
lie Association: they believed that 
they themselves might sleep secure, 
while these sentinels, to whose 
often*repeated and often-tried pro« 
fessions of fidelity they had confid- 
ed the constitution, were at their 
post; of pusillanimity or apostacy 
they entertained no suspicion. 
They knew, moreover, that, if any 
measure which they disliked should 
be proposed, then was the time to 
raise the public voice against it ; 
and, therefore, they very wisely 
showed little disposition to encou- 
rage associations which would have 
made in England, as they had done 
in Ireland, political dissension the 
business and the bitterness of daily 
life. 

The Catholic Association con^ 
tinued its sittings in Dublin, and' 
dossd the year in the same furious 
and insulting temper in which it 
had begun it. Its tone was now 
more confident and determined 
thtm ever; and certainly the vie- 
tocy which it had gained in Clare 
— the control which it had been 
able to eoLeccise over the pub]u>— 
the symptoms of yielding timidity 



which it had dialed from seme ef : 
its most stubboni adveisarie g a n d 
the impotence into which it seemed* 
to have terrified and ndueed the 
Irish goveniment,-«weuld haw*- 
given boldness to men much less 
vain and confident • They> now 
declared that they had the game ia 
their own hands, and that xftiotstara 
would be worse than fuad t6 gfmr. 
pose them: for, at the very latMl, 
so soon as the next general deCtibn 
should arrive, they would return tk>^ 
parliament, by the aid of the fovtj* 
shilling freeholders, at least aeveaty- 
members, pledged to oppose every 
measure, till emandpation should 
• be granted. They resolved»>theie* 
fore, that they would listen to 90 
proposal — would enter into no oe^ 
gotiation — - regarding securities. 
They would take the Oath of Alle-^ 
giance ; but no other security would 
they allow to be imposed; every 
oflfer of emandpatum, which should 
come dogged with oonditioaa, they 
would indignantly reject; that is, 
they would exercise their authori<« 
ty, as they had exercised it alrea^y^ 
until the conditions should be du* 
peused with. " The detailed, pal^ 
try question of politieal- diaoount/ 
said Mr. O'Connell, '' shall aot be 
listened to. We despise^ we copK 
demn it. We degraded ounelvea 
by such a traffic before; and it 
would be double delinquenoy t0 
assetit to it again. I theii>fore waat 
that we should pledge oursel^s to 
have unqualified emancipation er 
nothing at all. I don't care if the 
government bring in a bill for our 
relief unconnected with any extst- 
ing privileges* We will take ^any 
thing they give us. They owe ua 
28«. in the pound. Let them giv:« 
us 158, in the pound; we will. pro- 
ceed aeainst them for the^o^main- 
der. Well take the instalment, 
and demand the residue with 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[147 



gff«at0r«iniefltnen. Til not object 
to cny Mil for our eimtioipataon, if 
it X9ete only to look at it: for, 
fliHM the abomiQable Umon^ we 
bate kiot gotten the leatt increttte 
of xptr fights* i am not^ therafore, 
op pw e d to partial reUef ; aU I la^ 
ifl^ that I ikaU oppoee any bargain, 
or abmifd'Beeumes^ with al] my 
foroe." This determiiiation led to 
a ouarrel between the Aasodatton 
and the Catholio body of England; 
The latter had expressed their will* 
ingnese to entertain the question 
of seomities^ and the Association 
reaolred to hare no further eon* 
niexion with them, till they should 
abandon thedamnaUe heresy, that, 
where much is asked, it may often 
be prudent— -to say nothing of its 
being necessary-^ to give some* 
thing. 

tl^ep and often repeated, above 
all, were the vows of the Associa* 
tlon to resist, even unto the death, 
any attempt to disfranchise the 
forty-shSlling freeholders. That 
was a measure, which would have 
reached to its very vitals, and com 
mgnedit toitsoriginal insignificance. 
>&tbing, therefore, did the egita* 
tors more dread ; and they dreaded 
it the more from knowing that it 
was not the first time it hod been 
proposed ; for, in 1825, O'Connell 
himself had agreed to sacrifice the 
f^hqlden. More than once he 
had publicly declared his contrition 
for t^at act of backsliding ; and 
had staked his life that he would 
nevet sin again. To him and his 
compeein the events of the year 
had infmitely increased the Value 
of these squalid electors: it was 
only now they had learned the 
numstroiis poWer of the instrument 
of which they had made them* 
selves masters, as well as their own 
ability to wield it at pleasure for 
evil or for good. Solemnly, there* 



fore, did they swear that l^ey 
would listen to no pftiposi^^^that 
thev would accept of no oODdition% 
which were to trenoh on the rights 
of the ^/brf»er-«HHi tiMf were now 

Sroverbially called; boldly did they 
eclare, that any sneh attempt 
would be treason, and that they 
woold resist it, not mer^y ' witii 
their speeches in the Aisociation^ 
and their petitions inpariiament; 
but with their blood in the field> 
and with their heads on the sraf* 
fold*' The Association unanimous^ 

ly passed a resolution (Dec. 16) 
" That they would deem any at* 
tempt to deprive the fbrty-shilltng 
fteeholders of their franchise, a 
direct violation of the constitution**' 
Mr. Shiel had said of it, that the 
duke of Wellington could not 
adopt |t plan more caleulated to 
throw the country into a bhuie than 
this atrocious attempt at spoliating 
the rights of the Irish people. 
'' I trust he will not pursue this 
course; but if he should, I tei) 
him, we would rather submit for 
ever to the pressure of the par* 
ricidal code, which crushed our 
fathers to the grave, than assent 
to this robbery of a generous pea* 
sentry's privileges/' O'Connell, 
probably from the feeling which 
renders a man, who knows that his 
sincerity is doubted, doubly vehe- 
ment in his protestations, had 
bound himself over and over i^n 
by engagements which no sophistry 
could untie, and which, all man* 
kind would have thought, not even 
his efirontery would ever dare 
to burst asunder. He seemed 
anxiously loshut himself out, for the 
future, from every avenue to escape 
or evasion. When he was twitted 
at the Clare election with having 
surrendered i\\efoftie» in 18«5, 
he admitted the justice of the re- 
proach, declaring that he had long 
[L2] 



1=48] A N N U A L R E G K T B R, 1828. 



Ornce been cmmneedaaidadiamed of 
"Um error, and tlut '* he woald rather 
die" than again agree to gire them 
tip. 'After the election, he said in 
the Asflodation, ** In England, the 
people threw off the tyrant James, 
ill 1688, because he dared to in« 
nihge on their liberty of oonscienee, 
tfnd they deserved the bles&ng of 
God for it. I win say, then, that, 
if any man dare to bring in a bill for 
the disftanchisement df the forty- 
riiilling freeholders, the people 
ought to rebel, if they cannot other- 
wise succeed.** On the 19th of 
November, when he moved that 
the Association should suspend its 
connection with the English Ca- 
tholics, until thie latter should de- 
clare themselves against securities, 
he said, '' I, myself, may be taunt- 
ed with consenting to the mea- 
sumr called the ' Wings,' in 1825. 
I Vnow that I deserve that re- 
proach; and I answer to those 
who assail me, that the only way 
in which I can atone for that error 
is, by a firm and determined op- 
position to any encroachments 
hereafter. Sooner than give up 
the forty-shilling freeholders, I 
would rather eo nick to the penal 
iiode. They form part of the con- 
stitution : their right is as 5;acred 
as that of the king to his throne ; 
and it would be treason against the 
people to attempt to di^ranchise 
them. J am loyal to the throne, 
and my dispositions and my interest 
combine to produce in my mind 
an attachment to the ruling pow- 
ers ; but if an attempt were made 
to take from the forty-shilling free- 
holders the privileges vested in 
them by the constitution, I would 
conceive it just to resist that at- 
tempt with force, and in such 
resistance I would be ready to pe- 
rish in the Aeld, or on the scaffold." 
If there was any meaning in words 



any faith was to he t^pMediii 
sdeffln asset CI atioiis, and nMittd 
aolutioiis,— 4he Biitisb ' go v^iMkteot 
was to enooonter wmwed tiemtitk, 
and dflffing, open r^bdUen^ *if 4t 
should attempt lo' hiterMe "^iih 
the subjects of its ttttl pf9en!ti^&M, 
the Catholie Aancitttloil. Th^se- 
ditions haransute of the ^denm- 
goguea were ulowed to fott iMiifcy^ 
Ueed. It may have heeil wise to 
do so. In a goremmettt winch hdd 
manifested its power to«Mitnan& 
and to oontrol in more Bubatantittl 
matten, it would have been wiaeto 
do so. But on the present ocscasiek, 
impunity WBsascribed to impotence; 
for the government; instead of 
oontrolling and commanding, hiid 
allowed itself to be insnlted, oeied, 
and superseded by this very Asao- 
ciation. 

On the 4th of Deoember, Dr. 
Curtis, the titular Catholic piimate 
of Ireland, had written a letter to 
the duke of Welitngton regarding 
the state of the oountry, and the 
importance of settling the question 
of emancipation, if concord was to 
be restored." llie Doctor bad heid 
a high office in the Univernty- of 
Salamanca> when the duke com- 
manded in Spain, and was nid to 
have rendered impmtant serricea 
to the army. A long intimooy 
had entitled Dr. Coitk to cen^ 
spend with the duke of WellingttMi 
on matters which the Catholic pri- 
mate could scarcely have intruded 
on the notice of the lim Lesd of 
the Treasury ; but that very cir- 
cumstance inferred the iniptt>priety 
of exhibiting to the public such 
cpmmunications as might pass be- 
tween them. His grace answered 
the doctor's letter on the lltfa of 
December, in the following terms : 
" My dear Sir— I hav^ reoeiv«d 
your letter of the 4th instant»'*and 
I assure you that you do me Jtn^ 



r HKTIQRY Of lEUROD^. 



[149 



tioeM.MieTing that I- am sincerely 
auMPus .iQ witness tlie settlement 
of tiU^ Bqman Catholic Question^ 
wbiol^. k^ beneiifting the state^ 
rwould cmSfft a benefit on every 
individual belonging to it. But I 
tmSi^», that I see no pro^ct of 
snob {|settIeoieaUp*-Psu:ty bas been 
wix^ up with the consideration 
of the qnestion to such a degree, 
fmdtSUcb violeDce pervades every 
<diacufisio9 cf it> that it is imposd- 
•M^..ti>«xpi9ct to pravail upon men 
t^ consider it dispassionately. If 
W9 could bury it in oblivion for a 
short time, and employ that time 
diligently in the consideration of 
its difficulties on all sides (for they 
are very great), I- should not de- 
spair of seeing a satisfactory re« 
medy*" Thiscommunication, what- 
ever might be its import, assuredly 
was never intended for the public 
A copy of it,^wever, was fuiu 
nished to Mr. O'Connell, and Mr. 
0!Cannell forthwith carried it to 
the AflsodatioD^ where it was ib- 
ceived with loud plaudits, as a do- 
daration by the minister, that he 
wai now favourable to the Catholic 
claims, and was ordered to be re- 
corded in their minutes* It was 
not easy ta see how this conclusion 
could . be deduced from his grace's 
avowal* that ''he saw 210 prospect 
eCia settlemenl^' of the question, 
that any hope of such a settlement 
ainst bO' preceded by a temporary 
•oblivion* which the Catholics de- 
clared themselves to be determined 
diouM nevev exist, and by a cessa- 
tion of that party violence and 
^' agitation^" in which the Catho- 
lien swooe that they would live, 
and mov^ and have their being, 
fiueh a meaning, however, the 
Catholic leaders did affix to it, and 
this belief naturally added to their 
confidence and their exultation. 
But ihia. was t ri fliPSN oomDarad 



with the mischief which followed. 
Dr. Curtis had replied to his grace's 
letter in a long epistle, in.' which 
he told him plainly, that the pn^m* 
sal to '' bury the question in obli- 
vion" for a time, was totally inad- 
missible, and would only exasperate 
in the hig^best degree those who 
were already too much excited. 
He next thou^t fit to transmjit a 
copy of the duWs letter,, and of 
this his anawer to it, to the ;ner- 
quis of Anglcseaj the Loid-Ueute* 
nant; and the Lord-lieut^nt 
thought fit immediately to. convey 
to Dr. Curtis his sentiments ,^x!^ 
advice on the matter — senU,meQts 
in direct opposition, to, tho9^. of 
the head of the government 
which he represented ; and advice 
which counselled the continpai^ce 
of Catholic agitation in the coun- 
try, in lyhich it was his sacred duty 
to countenance nothing which 
could be injurious to the jpublic 
peace. ''Your letter,'* said the 
marquis, "gives me information 
on a subject of the highest interest. 
I did not know the precise seqti- 
ments of the duke of Wellington 
upon the present state of the Catho- 
lic question/' If the Lord-Ueute- 
nant of Ireland was really ignorant 
of the views of the minister, and 
believed these views to be waver- 
ing and unsettled, it might go far 
to account for the torpor which 
seemed to have seized the govern- 
ment, while the Association was 
striding on to the consolidation of 
its mischievous power. But lord 
Anglesea could only mean, that no 
communication had been made to 
him on the subject. Now, he knew 
that the duke of 'Wellington had 
s^ken and voted, in this very ses- 
sion of parliament, against the mo- 
tion for considering the Catholic 
claims* If no cbaq^ of a^ntiniienit 

hild tia#>n fvmuBimicated tO * 



150] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



why did he suppose that any change 
had taken place ? And if a diange 
had been communicatod to him, 
how conid he have been ignotant 
of what fientamentfl were enter* 
tatnedp Setting oot with this un- 
fortunate phrase, the marquis gave 
the Catholics a great deal of very 
properad vioe^^to make much of the 
duke, to avoid provoking him or 
any body else hj personalities, to 
«rost to the legidature, and never 
to think of using brute force.* 

* Tbefiaiowing is the Mftniuis's letter, 
4ated 23rd Deoember. 

"Most Reverend Sir,— I hasten to 
acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
1^ the 99ad, covering that which you re- 
ceived from the duke of Wellington, of 
the Ilth instant, together with a copy 
pf your answer to it— I thank you for 
the confidence you have reposed in me. 
^^Your letter gives me information up- 
on a subject of the highest interest. I 
did nq* know the precise sentiments of 
the duke of WelliQp^ton upon the present 
state of the Catholic question. 

" Knowing it, I shall venture to offer 
my opinion upon the eourse that It be* 
faoves the Catholics to pursue. 
. "Perfectly convinced that the final 
and cordial settlement of this great 
question can alone give peace, harmony, 
and prosperity to all classes of his Ma- 
jesty^s subjects in this kingdom, I must 
acknowledge my disappointment on 
learning that there is no prospect of its 
bping eff*ected during the ensuing Ses« 
Sion of Parliament. I, however, derive 
mnte consolation from observing, that 
bSs Grace ia not wholly adverse to the 
measure; for if he can be induced to 
promote it, be, of all men, will have the 
greatest facility in carryingitinto effect. 

** If I am correct in this opinion, it is 
obviously most ianportant that the duke 
of Wellington should be propitiated; that 
no obstacle that can by possibility be 
avoided should be thrown in bis way ; 
that all personal and offensive insinua- 
tions should be suppressed; and that 
ample allowance ahonld be made for the 
difficulties of his situation* 

"Difficult it certainly is, for he has 
to overcome the very strong prejudices, 
and the interested motives of many per- 
•ootof tbe bigbeatlnfiueaoei •• well m to 



" Bat," said he, *' I diivr'&oai tiie 
opinion of the duke^ that an ' at- 
tempt should be made to * bury in 
oblivion' the qflestioil fbtf a abort 



■«■■* 



allay the real alarms of maay oi the 
ignorant Protestants. 

" I differ from the opinion of the 
duke, that an attempt should be made 
to * bury In oblivioa* the quettk>n f»r a 
short time. First, because the «hmg 
is utterly impossible | andnextyif the 
thing were posbible, I fear that advan- 
tage might be taken of the pause, by re- 
presenting it as a panic achieved by the 
fate violent reaction, aiid by fModaim. 
ing, that if the governmeiit at oooe aad 
peremptorily decided against coa<ea- 
sion, toe Catholics would cease to a|^- 
tatc,and then all the miseries of the fast 
years of Ireland will be to be re-acted« 

" What I do recommend ia, tbm %ke 
measure should not be for a moment lost 
sight of— that anxiety should oontinue 
to be manifested — that all constitutional 
(in contradistinction to merely legal) 
means should be resorted to, to Ibnmrd 
the cause; but thai, at the same tiine» 
the most patient forbearaQce*«the most 
submissive obedience to the laws^ should 
be inculcated; that no personal and 
offensive language should be held to- 
wards those who oppoae the dahns* 

" Personality c^ra no advantage — it 
effects no good; on the contrary^ it 
ofTcndsi and confirms predisposed aver- 
sion. Let the Catholic trust to the 
jiistirc of his cause— to the growing K- 
berality of mankind. UafortunaMy* 
he has lost some friends, and fortified 
his enemies, within tlie last six months, 
by unmeasured and unnecessary vio- 
lence. He will soonest reodver fham the 
present stagnation of his ibrtiinta by 
showing more temper, and by truating 
to the legislature for redress. 

*•' Brute force, he should be assured, 
can eflfect nothing. — tt is the legislatote 
that must decide thia great queaHui i 
and my greatest anxiety is, that ft should 
be met by the Parliament under the 
most favourable circumstances, and tliat 
the opposers of Catholic emancipation 
shall be disarmed by the patient for- 
bearaoce, as well as bgr tbe uawearied 
perseverance of its advocates. 

*' My warm anxiety to promote tlie 
general interests of this country is the 
motive that has induced me to g^Te an 
^BioDi and to oAer advioe," 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[161 



time» Fic8t> because the thing is 
utterly imposBible ; and next^ if 
the thing were possible^ I fear that 
advantage might be taken of the 
pause, by representing it as a panic 
achieved by the late violent reac- 
tion, and by proclaiming, that, if 
tbe government at once and pe* 
remptorily decided against conces- 
mm, tbe Catholics virould cease to 
agitate, und then all the miseries 
01 the last years of Ireland will be 
to be reacted." Who • would not 
imagiAe, on reading this, that he 
was readiag a speech of Mr. 
CyConnell, or some other confi- 
dential adviser of the Catholic bo- 
dy? The advice may be sound, 
politic advice, for furthering the 
views of a party ; but are not the 
words the words of a privy counsel- 
lor of the Catholic Association, 
rather than of a privy counsellor 
of the king of Great Britain ? Set- 
ting aside altogether the opposition, 
in which the Lord-lieutenant thus 
placed himself, to the declared 
wishes and sentiments of the head 
of the g ov ern m ent, was it con- 
sistent with his duty, or with the 
dignity of his office, to point out to 
any body of men, the system of 
jMirty tactics which they ought to 
kdopt? 

It was bad enough that the head 
of the Irish government should have 
given such advice to the Catholic 
primate even privately ; but it is 
difficult to imagine, that any 
man, writing to Dr. Curtis on 
Catholic politics, with the fate of 
the duke of Wellington's letter 
ftesli before his eyes, could write 
under the belief that his communi- 
cations weie not to be made public. 
The marquis of Anglesea's letter 
was immediately earned to the As- 
sociation. There it was hailed 
as another triumph of their irre- 



sistible power, and as a new motive 
to do what they were already ro« 
solved to do, ** not to lose sight of 
the question for a moment"*— to 
continue to agitate. Resolutions 
were nnanimously adopted, extol- 
ling '' the manliness and political 
sagacity*' of the Lord-lieutenant in 
terms as extravagantly adiilatocy, 
as the language, in which the very 
same men had denounced him as 
an object of execrotioa but three 
years before, had been brutal and 
unsparing. The incense of party- 
flattery diffused ita fumes round 
the marquis of Anglesea ; — and the 
next wind that blew from England 
brought the mandate which de- 
prived him of his office, and recalled 
him from Ireland. He qaitced 
Dublin in the following January, 
and was succeeded by the duke of 
Northumb^land. 

His recal furnished him with 
an excellent example of the value 
set on the advicQ which he had 
tendered to the Catholics, to avoid 
all personal abuse, and, most 
especially, not to insult and 
vilify tjie duke of WellingtOD* 
The Association had resolved, 
that it could not better testify its 
high sense of his virtues and roerita 
*'than by following his advice." 
Therefore, at the first meeting af- 
ter his recall was known, O'Connell 
exclaimed, ''In my own knowledge 
of Irish history, and I believe I 
know Ireland's history well, I never 
heard any thing so monstrously 
absurd, as the recall of this gallant 
and high-minded man. The duke 
of Wellington said, he would be 
worse than mad, if he became 
premier. He is, therefore, a self- 
convicted madman; and yet, gra- 
cious heaven, he continues the in- 
sane pilot who directs our almost 
tottering state." 



Ua] A N N Ui A L I K EG I'SfT'ffB,; 1 1828. 



chj 

Phaitcb.— SileleA of Ike tieic M 
,' 'of the Mmistrij — Commissum 
•'• tkn Jetuiti — Meeting of the C 
■ 9f mal-practiccs by the late 
Vttrrg the Election of the Presi 
•■ -thi Address — The two rem 
mktralion resirjn-^The Chaa 

■(fie late Ministry. — The King's Answer to the Address-^PrQ- 
j>6sition to impeach M. VilUle entertained, and sent to a. Com- 
mittee — Conduct of the new Ministers^— The Comrnittee report 
that there is ffrovnd to impeach VillHe for Treason and Pecvlatnm 
" —farther proceedings postponed till next Session — Motion, for l/ie 
Restoration of the Naiional Guard — Bill for securing the right of 
' Electum — Bill to abolish the Censorship and establish the tibertg 
' of the Press — The Commission appointed to investigate the legatiin 
of the Jesrnt Eslablishmenls reports in their favour— The Govern- 
ment, notwithstanding the report, suppresses them — Jifemoriat nflka 
Clergy against the Suppression — Finance — Trade — The Navjf — • 
Dificttlties of the Ministry-^Tha Adherents of the late Admin»- 
tration are dismissed from the Council of Slate, and LibertUe ad' 
mitted — Dismissal of prefects of Departments — Foreign rvlalioH*. 

E concluded our account of cren when ooDdMoUd under tlisir 

. . tlie events in Fiance, dur- own control; it wai, tbtnSote, a 

ing the last year, with the expul- verjr decided exncesvoni^UiA 

" *' "■"^' ' •■ • ■ 1- whidi had ] 



w 



of M.Vill^Jcand his princi- lie voice whic^ , 

md ctdle9|;uei from the minutry. tbeir oondeoutation, whik the«i»» 

They had ^en iu consequence of dacitjr, with tfhich tbc^ K>d tbrir 

having lent thenuelvei to the de- crealuies had nbuMd at e*sd^ 

rigna of the court, and of the the law, to turn die ak«tinsi in 

church, instead of consulting ths their own favour, added hittBram 

foowing spirit and intelligence of to the animoaty of their oppoBenli» 

the nation. Many good measures added to their ahauNv withcMt MWta 

which they had carried through, ingthem from defeat. . ' -' 

and the favour of the court. Tor The n«w niiustoni, fonxd upon 

which thi^had attempted and extv the king by this triumi^.of tka 

cutcd many bad ones, could not liberal party, were men sf nade^ 

support them agunst the general rate pnnciples, and of not aasn 

unpresnon, that neither civil nor than moderate talent. They wert 

religious liberty was safe in their not iu[^orted by wdg^ly aiiati»> 

hands. They had been muted by cratic connection ; they did aot en* 

^ result of B ge&cral election, joy the favour ^ the kin^ wbo 



mbimttad to tbem only as a no- duplayed in tlie Chamber a dew 
ocHUT eriL M. Roy, the mmi»- and copious doquence. Hia con- 
Wr of finance, and pRddent of the duct; however, during the lait am- 
councU, bad been ori^nallf an ad- sion, in which he had adhered to 
vDcate, but had acquired .by other H. de Villcie through good and 
ditnu^ bad report, cnmpaied with 
the station to which he was now 
called in a roidiatiy Jbrmed ini^ tht 
ruin of M. ViUele'a ptinc^plesi did 
not erinoe much 'tRHdiaaw vt *ou- 
liuot i and the libemla-woiidd have 
been better ploawd toliaTe s^an hi* 
office filled % A, maa who had been 
leSB intimate with the ultra poUtica 
of the late cabinet.; To Pcyron- 
' net, who, aa Keeper of thn Seals, 
had rendered himaelf ^moiio ^ ft^^^ 
Tvetfe not, cateulated to inspire aay than any other member of the dis- 
alarm respectiag the course which solved cabiact, succeeded M. 
he mJght now pursue. M. de Portalis, apecr, andoneoftbeffie- 
FenonnaTs, towhomwcreentrust- sidents of the court of Cassation. 
ed'the aeaJsofthe foreign office, bad Enjoyingan hereditary claim tu con- 
been, for a long time, the French sideratlan from tlte tdeota and vir- 
ambasador in Rusaia, and had tues of. his father, he had gamed 
paacd the greatest part of his public conlidcncc by hit enmtt;^ to 
yoRtb afaraod, following, inthe ca- the Jcsnits, and by his reuurL,' in 
pacity of Gentleman of the the previous tesson, on the peti- 
Chamber, the varitaiH fortnuea of don whiih count Montlosicr had 
tbe diAe de Berry. He was a addressed to the Chamber of Peers 
person tf popular appearance and against these religionists. Bpoe 
addles, and of ondoubted proUty, a nan of enlightened miod^ ud 
aidwaigeneially thoughttobeat- liberal prindpl^, bis avcrsidn'to 
MrhrA tb liberal and constitutional the Jesuits was not likely to com- 
pmrnnijAM, . U. de Mardgnac, the promise the impartiality of his ad- 
MBsv ninialer of the interior, the ministration ; while the excellence 
son of a celebrated advocate of of his private character, and the 
Bcbdeaux, had begun to make him- respectability of bis family, formed 
•elf k m mv, betart that city had ac- a striking contrast with the morals 
pundits eMtaor^faory claims on and eonnexiona of bis piedecessor. 
ibr mtitude of the mgning fa- At tbe head of the department 
nriiy bf ill cooduot on the ISth of of commerce, a branch of adminis- 
Harch, 1814' He had been suo> tration, which was now eatahltsbed 
eeaBvdy a D^Dty to tbe Chamber, for the first time, was placed M. 
iIr Kii^B Cmnmissioner In Spain, de Saint Cricq. He had been, for 
Grand Cross of the Order of several years. Director General 
CbwleaSrd, Minister of State, and of the Customs, hod digplayed a 
Dscctor Genoa] of the Cnstoms. respectable decree of acquaintance 
Ha yjweacd ■ cowideTable talents, with the detuls and interests of 
' ' d fbr eleconce and French trade in the nporis, which, 
^ in society, aod in that capacity, he wd anaualfy 



154] ANNUAL REGISTER. 1828. 



IveKBted to the Chambeo; and, 
iitiiougli not Buqpected a£ any pro* 
iNind afqiwrintBiny with the true 
fri]ioi|ik8€f eeonomicfl, he was held 
to he favourable upon the whole to 
the vflie Ufacial maxinw of the 
twadem code, and to be no obsti- 
■ate' or pv0)u&ed admirer of 
paafaihitifins ud pcotections. 

The new usiaten were thus 
4ar reawved from being the rqpre* 
aenlaitivea of ultca^iberalinn, and 
ibey retained amongst them a 
aMich greater quantity of the ma- 
terial of the old ministry than was 
9grtaaUk to the party who had 
saned them to power. The king 
had yielded to public opinion no 
tether than necessity compelled 
him* M* de ChafaEoly who was 
gattemUy believed to have con- 
structed the new ministry/ retained 
hiS' office as Minister of Marine. 
He had been unwilling to separate 
himself fVom his former colleagues ; 
but his probity and talents for 
busineai induced the king to reiiise 
his resignatton^ though repeat- 
edly tendered, and to command 
the continuance of his services. 
It was thought that he would 
find himself better placed in a 
cabinet formed at his own recom- 
mendation, ihan among his former 
associates, with several of whom 
he could not sympathise. Frays* 
ainous, too, who, under the former 
ministry, had been a steady friend 
of the Jesuits, in an office which 
gave him peculiar means of favour- 
ing their narrow schemes, still re- 
mained at the head of ecclesiastical 
afi&irs. His influence, however, 
was diminished by the department 
of Public Instruction being now 
severed from his office, and placed 
under the superintendence of an 
independent functionary. llie 
newly-created office, along with that 
if Onnd Master of tba Umver« 



«ty y was given to M. d« Vatisnmi], 
one of the six Advocates •Geawaal 
of the court of Casntaon, where hia 
great aeooQipliihnettta aaa^lawyer 
had recommended him to tiie jm>- 
tioe of M. do Foitalia. Hfiaap- 
poiatment, however, gavo great 
ofenoe to the liberels; for M. de 
Vatismenil had supported the iaiws 
aoainst sacril^^, and the Uhnty 
of the press ; he was believed to 
be an ultra in his religious tenets, 
a aerf of the Jesuits, a member of 
that conoregatioB, the faintest 
shadow of which threatened, in 
their eyeif, darkness and desolation 
to the liberties of France* But 
their fears or their prejudices were 
soon diqielled. The new Grsnd 
Master of the University, immedi- 
ately after his nomination, ad- 
dressed a circular letter, a sort of 
pastoral charge, to the reotors of 
all colleges and academiea in the 
kingdom, unfblding to them his 
general views on the subject of 
education, which instantly turned 
the tide in his favour, and draw 
forth the applauses of the initeble 
Kberals themselves.* It was f^ 
™ '■■'■*■'' I ■■Ill 

• The ibllowlng is a copy of this 
document:— 
Circular of Ui« Grand Master of the 

University to the Rectois of Ooll^gfes 

or Academies. 

;* Sir,— The office, which the king has 
deigned to confer upon tne, must estab- 
lish between you and me important t^ 
lations. In announcing to yoa bow 
much I congratulate myself upon it, 
I seise Ihe opportunity to lay before you 
my notions on the principles which 
ought to direct the teaching bodv. 

Religion and momlity are Ifh'e flnt 
bases of all good education. It is «f Im. 
portance tliat this truth should be con- 
stantly present to the minds of men em- 
ployed in public instructtoii. It is of 
importance likewise, that, in iMreoo- 
duct towards Uioee of their puf^ls who 
profess a religion difierent from theirs, 
they should never forget what the char* 
tery the laws of the Uogdoni} and the 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[IS6 



ffooB' prefudicej bigotry^ and in- 
lolerafice. Ik incolcAted on teachers 
m diM arose of ihe conduct, which 
■the laws, that protected liberty cf 
oonacieiice, required from them to- 
wards pupils of a difierent religious 
persuasion from their own; it fnuik- 
ly acknowledged the value bf con- 
fltituiional liberty, and particularly 
reoonmended historical studies as a 
mean of training the youth of 
France injust ideas of their poli- 
tical rifhts and political dutiefc It 
insisted on the paramount neces« 
nty of eoltivating elementary in« 
atnietion, and extending equal «n« 
couragement and protection to 
every mode of teaching by which 
that great object might be for- 

statutes of the Universities, prescribe 
eoncerniog liberty of cotucience and the 
authority of parents* 

*^ Love fi»r tbeir legitimate princeB is 
an innate sentiment of Frcncbincn, but 
tbis sentiment is strengthened and de- 
veloped by an education well directed, 
and above all by tound historical 
atudissy which teach youth all that 
Praace owes to her kings. In foUoiving 
the cbain of ages, they see issuing from 
the same source, although at immense 
intervals^ the emancipation of thecom- 
Bunea, the eetablishinent of regular in- 
dependent justice, the wise and atcong 
measures which have preserved the 
liber ties of the Gallican church, and 
finally the constitutional charter, which 
has clMed, aoeording to the saying of 
its auguil aathor, the abyss of revolu* 
iiooa. It is by the joint consideration 
of these benefits, the last of which has 
surpassed all the rest, that our pupils 
will learn what ought to be the extent 
of their gmtltade, &t their hearts will 
unite in the sane sentiment of love for 
their king and country, and that their 
minds will comprehend the happy alli- 
ance of monarchical principles and 
national liberties. Faithftil subjects 
and enlightened citliens, obedience to 
the laws will beooroe easy, and they will 
be convinced that in learning to fulfil 
their duties they will show themselves 
worthy of exercbing tbeir rights. 

<«ChMsisa| histructlon has arrived In 



warded. It contained net one 
word which could be deemed hea- 
tile to rational freedom^ or favavr- 
able to the exclusive views of the 
Jesuits and the priesthood* Thsise 
sentiments, thus publidy eatpressedy 
reoonoiled the liberals to th& «ow 
functionary» and drew a distinct 
line between the ewting miniafery 
and their predecessora. 

It would have been strange, in* 
deed» if the infant cabinet Iwd al« 
lowed itself to be iaduord, evcsi by 
the urgencies of the omir^ tDSake 
a step, at its very outsell which 
wotdd have given the libeaals the 
inclination, as they now posscased 
the power, to break it in |Hac^ 
£ven with all their good intatt* 
tions, and their earnest desire to 
avoid the exaggerations of both 

■ ■^ ■ t ■ »im • 11 y ^ !■ .MM 

France to a mtisfactory degree of ad« 
vanq^ment By continuing I9 em|»loy 
the same eabrts»aod tD pursue the same 
pathsj we shall obtain new improve- 
ments. I reckon in this respect upon 
the zeal, of which you have not cesa^d 
to give hmoumble ptedgtst but I 
think it my duty to call your particular 
attention to elementary instruction. 
Over a great part of the kingdom 
the state of sucn instruction leaves a 
great deal to be desired. In ordet to 
propagate it» 1 shall employ all the 
means in my power. The government 
of the king owes an equal protection to 
the difTerent modes of elementary teach- 
ing, whose utility is admitted. All 
will receive encouragement from it 
Not only does instruction procure for 
the labouring classes more happiness 
and comfort, but it renders them 
more religious, more moral, and more 
quiet. 

^* In all administrstionsy but peihaps 
more in that with which I am chai^^ed 
than in any other, it is necessary tP 
maintain legal order. My Intention ls» 
to attempt its maintenance in idl points, 
and without restriction. Inmoonvinoed 
that I shall find in you a frask and un- 
reserved co*opcration, and I shall be 
happy to lay brfore the king the proof 
of your zeal, and the result of your 
sfferts. Accept, ftoi^ 



m] A N RU A X R EG I ST £ I^ > 1828. 



g^rtieSytbe aUiation of the iiiiiiu« 
-ffin W4» >ttandted with 8o much 
4oubtT.«9d difficulty^ that their ve« 
ugQUtMoa ox diflmJBiwI wwexpecU 
«d iO' the Mkmft of Paris, almost be* 
fore they bad been weU seated in 
office. Thesy had not been the 
l^idws of any powerful faction: 
tHey did not bring to the support 
c^ their ministcy any number of 
^evo^d adherents. Their personal 
influfpce was not felt in either 
CJ^na^Mili i^r finnly rooted in any 
jiar^y- They had to solicit support^ 
lyiviteadiof vpoeinng it as homage ; 
tlfey. had to conquer or seduce the 
chamheiSr before they could be sure 
oi a majority* On the one hand, 
thiey had not been the choice of 
the :king».and he did not feel 
tfiviifarda them^oordiality or con* 
6d|inoe. They appeared to him 
kt^ the. ungracious light of in« 
s^rnments. by which the popular 
miyori^ of the chamber, who had 
dUplaced ..his favouriteai, were to 
govern and :oonstndn him. At 
ey«ry turn, therefore, they found 
themselves opposed in the royal 
closet by old principles and qpin* 
ioQK, .to whirii they could not 
bend without losing their conns'* 
tency and risking Uieir power,-— 
which they could not utterly and 
openly resist without breaking 
with tbe king and the whole party 
of the dispUboed ia(iinisters---and 
with which they wore thus com-*^ 
pellcd to make a compromise that 
was.disagreoable to many of both 
parties* Though the principles of 
M* de Villele's ministry were di« 
ractly opposed to the minority who 
had driven him from office, he was 
no4 willing that his adherents should 
assist the new ministry in becom<» 
ing independent of that majority. 
Some pf his colleagues and some 
qf Uacreatmoes stiU continued iu 
office^ the A)yal wiflhMb and tbo uiK 



fluenoe of the priestfaQo4« W9f^ i* 
his favour. If the ministry ^eonld 
be exhibited in » weak, waveriag, 
and dependent eooditionj of eom^ 
polled to throw itself into- ihe 
arms of the dreaded libeiyds, be did 
not despair of being agnn^byf the 
confusion. The bat<di oif ipeen^ 
which, by one of the most 4i»- 
giacefol acts of his nunistcy, be 
had introduoed into the Upimr* 
Chamber, as a d€spen|(e reaoiHvce 
to maintain his tot|eriog-.pc|i«er> 
shared the hopes of tbeir |)olitiq4 
cieator* His adherents in ^e 
chamber of deputies were.BHHS^ 
willing to foster • di^contenti b^* 
tween the ministry and the Ubec* 
als^ and to stand aloof to takeaj^ 
vantage of the quarrel and make 
their importance be felt, than to 
lend thi^ aid in consolidating the 
govemmont. M.de Villelehun* 
self had wished to remain among 
the deputies; it was there that his 
talent and his tactics could be moat 
efficiently employed; and he had 
bargained, it wns said, with M, de 
Chabrol, who brought togedier 
the new ministry, and continued 
in office himself; that,, he. should 
net be invnlided by jreceiving ta 
peerage. But M. Roy was usb^ 
willing that so aUe aK antagonist 
should remain in the chambier of 
deputies ; and M» de • ViUele waa 
forced to accept of an- vnwelcome 
honour which he could not refus0. 
On the other hand, the libenih^i 
who had been the m^eana .oC dis« 
placing the eidmnistryihadmaii^ 
ground? of oomplaint,. against* ili 
successors; and not the^leastr of 
them was the very necessity: which 
these oircumstanoas ipyosed.upott 
the cabinet of acti^g-with eautuHii^ 
perhaps with uiaidity^ in-order to 
avoid an open breach with, tbe 
king and the court party. The. 
libmls^inthe intoxioatioa^f theiv 



HISTORY OF 'EUROPE. 



tl6t 



fticmiiih, liftd iteAone^ upon aradi- 
^ and thorough change^ which 
would eall to office the decided 
feadei^ of their own party-— not an 
alteration whieh merely dilated a 
Btt^ong remnant of the old ultraism 
b^ th^ hiftiaion of a certain quan- 
tity of lakewarm moderation. The 
ptfeseM Alinlsfeers, they said^ could 
n^t be truBted, for they had taken 
offiee widiout any fixed system^ 
and without 'fliipolating for the 
otisermnoe of any certain princi* 
)^e9. That they had not cast off 
th^ inffluenoe of the court and the 
priMts, was proTed, it was said, by 
tb^ flict> that they hod retained in 
offiee not only the ministers of 
Mtoiiie and Ecclesiastical affairs^ 
who had shared all the iniquities 
of the former cabinet, but even 
Ftaiidiet and Delavaux, the direc- 
tor general andprefect of the police, 
who had been the most unpopular 
instruments' of their misdiievous 
system* If the ministrv wished 
to deaerre and secure the confi- 
dence of the chamber, they ought 
to break off all connection with 
allies whom the chamber had de- 
nounced and defeated as enemies 
af the public weal. They ought 
ta^ cleanse every comer of office 
even from the dregs of the suspect- 
ed faction, and unite themselves 
at once, frankly and decidedly, with 
the majority which had thrown 
the government open to their ap- 
proadi. 

Amid these discordant views, 
without any oommanding influence 
of its own, placed under the ne- 
cessity of conciliating, so far as 
might be practicable, the moderate 
men of both parties, but with the 
hope^ tpo, that it might effect that 
object by good faith, and firm, 
though moderate, conduct, the 
ministry felt itself called upon to 
meet the chambers. Its previous 



acts had not beeii inebiirisiMt 
with. what the present state of 
public opinion expected ftoto! ii; 
M. Hyde de NeaviUe had beat 
deprived by the former minister of 
his pension as ambassador, ai!id Ml 
Michaud of the office of reader to 

< 

the king, on account of their op<* 
position, in the prece^n^ session, 
to the law for the regulation of the 
press : the new ministers restotecl 
the one to his pension, and ihd 
other to his place. M. de Vill^« 
main, for the same reason, UdA 
been deprived of the joftce ef 
maitre des requites: his appolnij^ 
ment was now again tendered* to 
him ; but he declmed the accepli- 
ance of it on the ground, that hi^ 
had no confidence ih the prind- 
ples or the stability of his new; 
patrons. Legendre, too, again 
received the pension, which nad 
been taken from him, for pofiiical 
reasons by M^ de Corbieres; di^ 
late minister of the interior* The 
ministry knew that their vi^ws of 
foreign policy would not bring 
them into collision with public 
opinion; and they were aware, 
that, in domestic policy, their con- 
duct regarding education and the 
exclusive views of the churchmen, 
would be the standard, by which, 
in the first instance, public opinion 
would try them. It was known 
that the priests and the Jesuits 
were struggling and intriguing to 
acquire the absolute control of 
education, as the most effectual of 
all means to secure the revival of 
ecclesiastical domination. Jealousy 
of these attempts, and an ardent 
determination to resist them, vi'as 
widely diffiised : " no Jesuitism ** 
was as awakening a cry in France^ 
as " no popery " used to be in 
Britain. The ministers, therefoi^e, 
prudently determined to give k 
distinct intimation of the line ht 



1883 ANNUAL REGISTBR, 1828. 



conekiot whidi tbey intended to 
pursue on this subject of popular 
exeitation. The cireular of M. de 
Votismenil^ considered as a niani* 
festty of their principles^ and of the 
creed of the minister under ivhose 
superintendence the seminaries of 
education had been placed, com- 
manded the public approbation^ 
and inspired eeneral confidence. 
Bijitthe7wentrarther. As we have 
retoided in our annals of last year, 
a pietition had been presented to 
the Chamber of Peers by count 
MontJoflier/ oomplainiug of the 
Je^itical establishments in France, 
as being contrary to law, and iih<« 
plying, therefore, the illegality of 
the eodesiastical seminaries which 
they had brought under their con«' 
troL The Chamber of Peers, in 
defiance of the ministry, had ap« 
pointed a commission to examine 
the grounds of his petition (of 
which the present keeper of the 
seals was the chairman), and this 
commission recommended the sub' 
ject to the attention of the execu- 
tive government. The late minis- 
ters, having defended the Jesuits 
during the discussion of the peti- 
tion, and having resisted the re- 
commendation of the commission 
by their speeches and their votes, 
were not likely to give it much 
attention vSter the debate* had 
terminated ; and they accordingly 
did nothing. M. Portalis now 
fulfilled, as minister, the pledge 
which he had given as reporter of 
the commission. On the 20th of 
January he presented to the king 
a report on the state of what was 
called the " Secondary Ecclesiasti- 
cal Schools" — those to which the 
Jesuits had principally devoted 
their attention, ana over which 
they iiflfd most extensively estab- 
lished their influence. The report 
was a recommendation of inquiry, 



founded on vety VagHe projjmi* 
tions, which were almdst truiMfts^ 
and might have been- made tile 
foundation of any thin^ . But' it 
wiMt enough ^nt inquiry ahodH' 
be made; for the system of the 
exdusive party hsid ahrays been 
to decry investigation as revidu* 
tionary and irreli^ons. '* These 
establijghments," sind the keq^er ef 
the seals, ** onght tity hatmoniM 
with our poltticfd legislatkm, arid 
the maxims of the publie law ef 
France. They are connectect at 
the same time, with the sacred 
rights of religion, with those of 
the throne, with the paternal and 
domestic authority, and the reii^«« 
ous liberty guaranteed by the 
charter: they cannot be prepal^ed 
with too much maturity, since they 
are not foreign to any of the prin* 
cipal interests of the ootintry. 
That they may be so prepared, 
with full and entire knowledge of 
the subject, your ministers, siie, 
have thought that it was uiefbl 
and fitting, that the state of the 
facts should be ascertained, that 
they should be compared with the 
laws, and that the radiations, 
acknowledged to be indispensable 
for the maintenance of Uie legal 
regime, should be submitted to a 
previous and thorough exandna- 
tion, before they are laid befoieyeor 
council for discussion, and before 
your majesty for approbation: they 
have thought that this important 
mission should naturally be con- 
fided to men, more particularly 
pointed out to your majest/s dmice 
by their rank, their rituation, and 
their knowledge." A oommisstaa 
of inquiry was accordingly named. 
The commissioners were, the Areh>^ 
bishop of Paris, who was made 
president; viscount Laine, hkton 
Seguier, and baron Mounier^peem,* 
M. Alexis NoaiUes^ M. de la Boifii* 



HISTORY Ot EUROPE. 



[18& 



doiiaft3rej and M. Dupin, members 
of tiw Chamber of Deputies ; the 
bbhep of JBeauvais; and M. de 
Courville, member of the council 
of die lUniversity of France. This 
commission consisted of men of all 
opiniona. Some of them had already 
dedared themselres against^ and 
otben in favour of, the Jesuits; 
while the opinions of some had 
been, leas decidedly pronounced. 

On the 5th of February^ the 
Idaiig opened the first session of the 
new Chamber. He delivered the 
fallowing speech:-^ 

" Gentlemen^ — It is always with 
the same aatisfaction that I see 
you assembled about my throne, 
and that I come to lay before you 
the situation of France. 

" My relations with the powers 
of Europe continue to be amicable 
and satisfactory. The aflairs of 
the east alone offer some difficul- 
ties ; but the treaty which I have 
signed with the king of England 
and the emperor of Kussia has laid 
the* foundation of the pacification 
of Greece ; and I have still reason 
to hope, that the efforts of my 
allies and my own will overcome, 
without the employment of force, 
the - lesistance of the Ottoman 
Porte. 

" The unforeseen combat at Na-^ 
varino has been at once an occasion 
to give glory to our arms, and the 
most striking pledge of union of 
the three flags. 

" The Peninsula has long been 
the cause of sacrifices to us : they 
are drawing to a conclusion. Spain, 
being secure upon its frontiers, 
perseveringlyexerts herself in order 
to stifle in her bosom the deplora- 
ble' germs of civil discord. Every 
thing indicates that I shall very 
soon be able, in concert with the 
king my nephew, to restore my 
sol£en to their country, and to 



relieve my people from ft 8ev<»e 
burden. 

" A rigorous blockade, which 
will not terminate till the day on 
which I shall hav« receiVed^ the 
satisfaction which is due to me, 
restrains and punbhes Algiers, and 
protects French commerce. 

" On distant shores, and under 
the uncertain sway of infant g6-t 
vemments, our flag hasexperienced ' 
some acts of aggression; but I 
have ordered just indemnity ta he 
required, and have prescribed mea« 
sures wliich will henceforth pro*«^ 
tect the fortune of my subjects 
from all injury. 

" If I am thus able> gentlemen>' 
to look with satisfaction upon our 
external affairs, the internal situa-' 
tion of my kingdom does not afford 
me fewer grounds of security. 

•*You will perceive, by the 
documents which will be laid be« 
fore you, that, if the produce of 
the several taxes has undergoiie 
some diminution, the sources of 
public wealth have not experienced 
any durable alteration. Extra- 
ordinary circumstances have led 
to an excessive expenditure, for 
which it will be necessary to pnn 
vide. I have ordered my ministers 
to lay the particulars of them 
before you, and have enjoined them 
to have constantly in view a strict 
and judicious economy. 

^' I have called my son to take 
part in the military promotions. 
The army will see in this new ar- 
rangement the most decided proof 
of my good-will towards^it. 

"The progressive development 
of commerce and manufacturea, 
which are the glory of pacific 
states, has increased their wants, 
and calls for more numerous chan^ 
nels for the disposal of their p«>« 
duce. I have resolved that a mi* 
nister, appointed for their interest, 



m] ANNflTA^L BRGI&T>ERal828. 

l)iilU,b» §gmfJky cbaiged to pnn its nolii^ tie. ^^^ mpctka |9 

ppse to.meQTery tluiiff thai; may wbii^dicbtemmstKjlifi&.xeBarlv 

b» yilrutafcy^ u> ,fleeoaa their coih ed to influence the, jpet]a9iu^< and 

tjwially ittcreiiBing activity ♦ furnished the £r8t. ofiportiinitiea 

. , " H<^9]FC^intiiDa^ the coopffi^ for letting forth, .the, wralh of du» 

ion may he which should exi^t he« deputies against its misdeedai 



tifKian- r^igion and the educa« v^»l deputies aware of iheaan* 

tMoa of ni^^nd^ public instruction ner in whicb their ekctions had 

and ecclesiastical affiurs have ^h beai carried* surrendered iheur 

waced to nie to require a separate aeata without a struggle* jsafeh^ 

diir^BtiMif ai|d I have aoonrdingly than expose, their mtron^hy^io*- 

Qvder^ dvsm to be divided* quiry. . A baron Duhay, who had 

H 'M>«9i^4oi <^ consolidate jooti^ been r^med by some unjustifio** 

a9|^,iinova in, joy donuniou& the ble mauioeuvre for the anondisse* 

4;)H^4^ wA^cb was grafted by my ment of Toumon* in the depart-- 

lW8QirbffiU Sd^wbich I havie sworn ment of the Ardeohe* seeing^ thai 

to maintain, I shall take care that he could not maintain his. seat on 

i|;v9H9V|res be pursued with wisdom an investigatioa of Uiei means by 

aqd ijiif^ure deliberation^ to make which he Stained iti took the pru« 

qur legislation harmonize with. it. dent step of sending in hii resigna* 

'' Some important questions of tion. He assigned, two. reasons llnr 

puhUa administration have been this surrender of his legislative 

pointed out to my attention, functions,^ — namely* thestateofhis 

B^xng jUHivinced tluait the real health* and ike fpani ^ gralUtide 

strength of thrones, under the in his consiitu^nU* These un* 

Divine. protection* is in the obse|'« grateful constituents were the pe« 

y^nce of the laws* I have ordered titioners qgainst his election ; and. 

these quafs^ons to be thoroughly their ingratitude consisted in. their 

iave^^igate^ that the discussion of having consequently declared, by 

them may make manifest the truth* their petition* that he was not duly 

which is the first want of Princ^ elected* From the Report on the 

and. of people. election for the department of the 

, " Gentlemen* the happiness of Charente it appeared that the pre^ 

France, is the obiect of all my feet, just as t^ election was aboul 

wishes and of all my thoiu^hts. to commence* ordered a.lettet to be 
To. secure it, I shall know-how .put into the hands of the President - 

to maintain the strouff and tutelary of the College* requesting the 

authority which bdongs to my electors not to confer their, 8uf«>- 

crown. I rely also, gentlemen, I frages on the liberal candidate*, aa 

r^y« greatly, on the assistance of he was not possessed of the re|ui- 

your wisdom* a^d the harmony of site income for a deputy, and aa 

your sentiments* The voice of his return would thus render n^ 

your king calling for the union of cessary a new electiox^ This 1^* 

men of worth cannot find here ter was generally oondemn«d« the 

any )|ut hearts disposed to hear new Minister of the Int^ior wok 

and to answer it." daring to defend tlie Pr^fect^ h^t 

.TKeArsti^ittingsof thefJiamber endeavouring only toe^cuaa* in 

of deputies were occupied in veri- some degree> his ofienoa- ^ Mane 

fying the powers of the, members, serious and unblushing was the iii<» 

Tb^jaYffs^^ioi\i^broug)it under terfei-ence .with the fi:««dom :af 



HISTORY OF EUROPE 



[161 



fkdkn wbidi had taken place in 
(be sntmdifiement of Qnincamp, 
in the dqiartment of the North. 
The. prefect of that department^ 
iwlVed to carry the election in fa« 
Toiir of the late ministry, by cli« 
rectiDg the whole influence of go* 
temment on poor or dependent 
elector^ had a^lressed a menacing 
circnlar to every man who held an 
dSke, or enjoyed a favourz-^m 
goremment In diis circular he 
told them ''that the first condition 
of ifipraniitative government i^ 
that all public fanctionariesy to 
whatever branch of administration 
they belong, owe to government 
not only their votes, but their 
exertions and influence, and that, if 
thay are free as individuals, they 
cannot reAise their co-operation 
when required by government, at 
the elections^ without separating 
themselves from it, and placing it 
under the necessity of renouncing 
them." The means, which the 
President of the Electoral College 
had taken to enforce this threat, 
weie equally flagitious. In France 
the elections «re conducted by bal- 
lot. From the centralization of 
the powers of government, and the 
want of ccffporate bodies, or of mu» 
nicipal and local authorities, such 
a mode of taking the votes of the 
electoral colleges may be a necessary 
condition of an independent choice. 
The fnends of freedom, therefore, 
lay great stress on that secret voting 
whseh the law ordains. But while 
the prefect, in this case, had 
thveatened eveiy government of- 
ficer with disnnsaal, who should 
give a ssffinge in favour oi an op* 
position can£date, the President 
of Ae €oDege, to make the threat 
eflkctutd, had violated the secrecy 
of the electoral urn. Another case 
uresented a scene of a very different 
kjtidy--« member voluntarily oC 
Vol. LXX. 



fering to give up his seat wittioik 
necessity, and submit himself ta 
the test of a new electien. This 
was a M. Mousnier^Bnisson, whose 
returns had been petitioned against 
on the ground that two of the 
electors who had voted for him were 
not duly qualified. The eons&denN 
tion of the question had been ad^ 
jonmed ; and, during the interval^ 
representatbns were sent tip from 
his department, whkh, on the re- 
newed discussion of thevriUity of 
his election, determined the dunn* 
her to decide in his favoot. ht the 
course, however, of this renewed 
discussion the electors were ^tiH 
charged with voting on a fbfged 
quahfication, though it was ao* 
knowledged on ail hands that 
the deputy was not privy to the 
forgery. His delicacy, however, 
not allowing him to exercise his 
legislative functions under • such 
circumstances, he wrote a letter to 
the President of the Chamber, 
tendering the resignation of his 
seat, on we ground that the legality 
of his election had been donbted, 
and offering to appeal a second 
time to the electoral college for a 
confirmation of its first choice. 
The members of the Tight side, to 
which he belonged, thought this an* 
overstrained delicacy, and one of 
them moved that his resignation 
should not be accepted. Any 
member, it was allowed, might 
resign, without assigning a motive 
for his conduct ; but if he ascribed 
his tender of resignation to the de- 
licacy of a conscience wounded by 
c(^umny, the Chamber had a ri^t 
to interfere, and to relieve Inm 
from the consequences of scruples 
by which his honour was rendet- 
ed only more conspicuous and iiv 
disputable. Besides, if honoUN 
able men, were to resign because, 
their constituents misrepresented 
IM] 



162} ANNUAL REGISTER* 1828. 



tlieir. coaduct or disputed their 
return^ the deputies would be at 
the mercy of the least worthy 
electors. After considerable dis- 
cusdon^ the Chamber decided that 
M. . M<iusQier*Bui89on*t resigoa- 
tioa should be accepted without 
any tefbtenoe to the motives on 
which it was* tendered. 

These inquiries were naturally 
employed as a test by which to as- 
certain how the present ministry 
stood affected towards the purity of 
the law of election, and they were 
not found wanting. They made no 
defence of detectal trickery ; they 
professed their willingness to lend 
their cordial assistance in discover- 
ing and punishing mal-practices ; 
and the frankness and loyaut^ of 
their conduot began already to give 
them popularity on their own ao« 
count. *' We come not," said M. 
de Martignac, '^to demand pro- 
tection for fraud, nor the means of 
working for our own benefit elect- 
oral rights. Like you, we are the 
sworn enemies of fraud, falsehood, 
and illegality. We shall combat 
them under whatever colours they 
make their appearance. This is a 
resolution in which we are irrevo- 
cably fixed." Four of the prefects, 
whose conduct had been most glar- 
ing, were dismissed ; sixteen others 
were removed into different de- 
partments from those in which 
their questionable proceedings had 
taken place. The new elections 
which took place in consequence of 
returns having been found void, 
terminated generally in favour of 
the popular party. 

The next important occupation 
of the Deputies, and the first trial 
of strength between the parties, 
was the election of the President 
of the Chamber. The ultra-Royal- 
ists had been announcing confi- 
denily that they still commanded a 



majority in the new asiemlil(y» aod 
that their power would be shewn 
in raising one of their leadeM <o 
the chair. M. Ravesi an aUe and 
distinguished orator, had occupied 
it for several sesBioiMj Bnd:M.)i9 
united the interest of, M» de ViJU 
IMe's party to that of the li^t «ide, 
he was considered the ewd^ate 
most likely to succeed* By ita re- 
gulations, the Chamber of Depu« 
ties presents the names of five can- 
didates for the Presidency to Hia 
Majesty, who selects one of them. 
On this occasion the state of the 
votes was as follows.* — For M, 
Delalot, 212; for M. Hyde da 
Neuville, 206 ; for M. Roye? Col* 
laid, 189; for M. Gautier, 189; 
for M. Cassimir Perrier, 180« 
The former President^ M. Ravev, 
had only l67 8ufiTage8> and M. de 
la Bourdonnaye only 154. The 
two first deputies M. Delalot^ and 
M. Hydede Neuville, had formerly 
belonged to the extreme right, but 
had now joined the constitutional 
party. The three next had always 
been constitutionalists. M* de la 
Bourdonnaye, had violently fq>po- 
sed Villele in the preceding Ses- 
sion, but had since made his peace 
with him. The result of this 
election proved that the enemiea 
of M. VillMe's policy would rule, 
the chamber by an overwhelming 
majority; and th'at the union — 
scarcely a natural * union — of a 
fraction of the extreme right Or 
royalist side, with the whole of 
the left, or liberal side, which^ at 
the eeneral election had driven 
him from office, was still continued 
to keep him out. 

Of the ^\Q members wKoae 
names the Chamber thus sends up 
to the king as candidates for (he 
Presidency, his majesty oommomy 
selects the one which stands high- 
est on the list On thepreseni oc- 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[163 



caiiion^ tlie new minittry xnftde a 
Hitthep and large adTimce in public 
oonfidftMe, by advisiiig his majesty 
td depart from the ordinary course, 
and «»lect M. Royer ColUued, whose 
naiaeitood only third. That gen- 
tleman had longbaen dlBtinguithed 
among Che most} able and respect* 
aUe of the liberal deputies. His 
nomination, Uke the result of the 
eleetiod in the ehamber, was hailed 
with shouts of triumph by the po- 
pular, party. It shewed the 
ministry to be trust-worthy, be* 
canie it shewed that they had the 
in^Bnation to advise, and weight 
and fhmness to carry through, a 
pntoeeding, which, on many ac- 
counts, must have been distasteful 
to the court. 

The same influence predominat- 
ed in framing the commission ap- 
pointed to draw up the address 
in answer to the Icing's speech. Of 
nine members of whom it consist- 
ed, only two or three could be 
suspected of any desire to spare 
the errors or the sins of the defunct 
administration. That any portion . 
of that administration should yet 
remain in office, and at the head 
of departments, was still the great 
fault which the popular party 
oHe^ed to the new ministry. 
There vras reason to believe that 
the latter, now confident in its 
strei^gth, eager to gain, while it 
had the ascendant, every advantage 
within its reach, and anxious to 
bring the cabinet, by the ejection, 
of the remnants of the old one 
which it still contained, into a 
more complete dependence upon 
itself, would employ its prepon- 
derance in the chamber to purify 
the government from every taint 
of the defeated faction . To avoid a 
more direct' attacic, M. Chabrol and 
M..Fray8Mnous gav^ in their resig- 
nations. The former, who was a 



worthy man and an able minister^ 
was succeeded, as minister of the 
Marine) by M. Hyde de Neutllle, 
a newly-»made oonstitutionaltet, 
who had distinguished himself on 
some former oooasions by vei^r ex^ 
travaffant tirades against Bngiand. 
M. Frayssinotfff waa suoseeded, in 
the department of ecclesiastical '^' 
afiairs, by M. Feutrier, bishop of 
Beauvais, a prelate of respectable 
and tolerant character— ^ protege 
of Napoleon's uncle, cardinal 
Fesch. This change was a very 
useful event for the ministry, 
and had been brought about hi 
the way least calculated to em- 
barrass them. They must have 
felt, that, in the temper which the 
majority of the chamber had mani- 
fested, these legacies of the Vill^le 
administration hung upon them 
like leaden weights, preventing 
them from rising in public opinion, 
and attaching suspicion to the 
general character of their govern- 
ment. But yet it would have 
been embarrassing and ungracious 
to have insisted on their dismissal, 
supported as they were by the king 
and the court party, and worthy, as 
they had been acknowledged to be, 
to ^t as the colleagues of the new 
ministers. As it was, their expul- 
sion had the appearance of being 
the act of the chambers — and their 
resignation, submission to a neces- 
sity, which they, and their col- 
leagues, and his majesty, might 
all regret, but could not control. 
The liberals, however, were still 
dissatisfied ; for neither of the 
vacancies had been filled up from 
their side of the Chamber. They 
had allowed that they had got 
better men than those who had 
gone out; but they complained 
that they had not yet got the best, 
or the right men. 

The address was an echo of the 
[M2] 



HA] A N liTIf AMJ ■ R B G I€VBR; ^a 828. 



royal jipeeell witit tite exception of 
(me ^^pk, wbich ' WttS not to 'be 
' loblcedfbf' iti the ktter^ but wbibh 
the Chaxttbeir was fletermined to 
fott^ upon hii majesty's notice in 
. tbfe fonner. The ministry bad 
"neoessSaiily abstained fhnn imtting 
into the king's mouth any allusion 
to the result of ihe .general elec^ 
'tion, 01^ the ebanse which had 
taken pdace among his counsellors. 
' Th6 inajority, however, who had 
achieved that change, reaolired to 
'pa^ a Vote of censure, at least, 
figAti^ his favourite minister, by 
introducing into the answer to 
"the address a formal condemnation 
i6f' the ppHcy which he had pur- 
sued. ' The commission, after five 
■ da)r8 debate, reported in favour 
'of 'an ' address, which contained 
'the foUowiiig paragraph direct- 
ed aciaiilst the late ministry: 
':^*'The complaints of France 
expressed our 'repugnance to the 
deplorable system which rendered 
illusory' the promises of the king." 
Nothing could bring into more 
direct collision the party which, 
for seven years, had governed the 
state, and the new champions 
whom the electoral colleges had 
deputed to overthrow it. A keen, 
ingry,and violent debate forthwith 
began, and was continued during 
four days. All turned on the word 
^deplorable." The liberals re- 
fused to be satisfied with any ex- 
pression of less decided censure; 
and a large body of the royalists 
resisted the employment of a term, 
v^ich, they said, though profess- 
edly directed against a disgraced 
ministry, might pass beyond 
minL<terial responsibility, and reach 
the throne itself. The king was 
believed to have caused it to be 
^nerally made known, that he 
htid a personal repugnance to 
'irtfdiiangndge, ^amd that he w<mld 



conceive hitedf vffiMieA byihe«r« 
ing sneh vdescriplioMl O0<hit Mcdbt 
govemnentt Nolhltig- MuUi^in 
such cireuflMtflabeSi be'niDre^cn^ 
btmuKing'to hb pi»>ea»t: iiU'fii« . 
Those of ^em, who nntt dbi^lite, 
wereobligedeMiMr to4M»AenistMir 
preiiecenoiv, in ■msPDenien co ms t* me 
will of fSMst maSter^-ortDfleqiiit 
uiem and -be left' ktt^tt vlfiB^rlcyi'^— 
In the ooilrseof 'Ilia diabattsr'they 
preserveA a prudeiir«yeikfe, v^kit 
was iiiterrupied onfybp^-ndtation 
from tliekesperof thowak^ittiid 
some observatioBs ftiom«thcr.'tniiii»- 
ter of the intezior. They Miaed 
to have no power to miidefmte >ti^ 
animosity, or direct the vot^of tke 
parties engaged. Amid Ihealtanm- 
tions which preceded the «ote^4me 
of the libemls went iq^ to tbe bench 
of the ministers and ' exclaimed 
''Suppress the obnoxious word, aad 
war is between us." The imion of 
the same parties which earned the 
question (^ the presidency secured 
likewise the succesB' of the dMpvtcd 
paragrqfh. It was canied bf.a 
majority of thirty-four'! ona^hun* 
dred and ninety-eight voting ior, 
«nd one hundml And sixtyHfimr 
against it. On this .decision^ ^a 
great tumult ensued in the Chiifeti* 
ber. Severe reproaches ifwere 
addressed to a member, of - like 
commission, wbo, after iiawiiig 
agreed to the use of the'\mira 
"deplorable*' in the oomttiiltee, 
voted against it in the Gfaanfher. 
The nmse and disovder,'whsdi'were 
occanoned by the warmth «f 'die 
deputies, pireventad acohtimnidan 
of the sitting. Sevetid snembers 
rushed to the tribune, boA* could 
not be heard ; a part of.the<ii|^t 
extremity left the hall, and tjie 
Chamber adjourned amid the da- 
mours of the two centiesr > > ) 

The address was piesented* lo 
his majesty by « grand deputation 



iHISTDRY . OF I EUROPE./ A [Jf 5 



»iif .;{Im( lOMunbcar! with the preri- 

itdhmbafcitohcttdir Uwasnoltohe 

utxpMed tkai lh«rking should xe« 

-«flive;.wtth< sa^AClion die assur- 

me^iAat^ ever sinoe.hi» accession 

.rW,^i^> Armofi^ the ooontvy had 

• .b09» hdAot a 'f d«plomhle" govern- 

meatfUr .. In ht» <aaswer» he did not 

tefTOi exprese hia saliii&ctioa at 

•4heirpR«leaBieiis of loyfdty to his 

4hioaei. tfod attocbiiieiit to his p^r- 

I'tfotU' He^answeied.thett Ihust 

,'n>;f^Gaitklii6ii«.wbHil nude you 

liMq^nnted wilh ^a^ uewjiution to 

atmnglbeni.our institutioii8» and 

't4idka upon you to labour with me 

•lor 'the happiness o£ Fsuice, I de- 

fi^nded cm the union of your senti* 

4Bmita 88 well' as on the concur- 

ffenoe^fyourenlightenedjudgnient. 

I .-'fMy. wofds were addressed to 

4he whole Chamber; it wonld 

have been exiretnely pleasing to 

. mei it its answer coidd have been 

UDBiiinKni& 

''You will not foi^t» I am 

ocvtBin, that you are the natural 

guHrfiana of the ttiajesty of the 

thione> the first and the roost noble 

cff y«ur guaMmtees. Your labours 

fwAlprove to Fjranee your pro- 

. found vdbpecft for- the memory of 

ithcf sovctoeiffa who gmnted u» the 

-charter, and 3rour just confidence in 

Mm whom you ealled the worthy 

. doMXttidant of Henry 4th and of 

> -fiti" Louis.^ 

''rliheve wBlr nothing in this re- 

{piy.i ti>; oobciliate the wounded 

^oriifagii «f . ihe> niition* 1 1 would 

»(lii1« . been more prudent and 

.^tignified in the king to have 

laifoided tfaeappeanince of identify- 

iing hiitoclf with the odium^ which 

.ottachBdy whether justly or un- 

•juMy, td the late administration. 

>The>liUti8ion lo the divisum in the 

Chamber wasneither wise nor ivm- 

nrtitutiiMuli Thevoieoof themajo- 

oriilf w^ fiw him, the voice of the 



Chamberj whatever be the Atrength 
of the minority ] and^ as the ad- 
dress had been discussed by it 
when sitting in a secret cpminit^ 
tee. nobody had a ipght to ki^ow* 
ov could legally be supposed to 
know, whewer its* contents had 
been keenly • contested, or unani- 
mously adopted. 

In the Chamber of peers, al- 
though the liberal iiairty forpied 
the majority in the. coit^u^suon 
for preparing the addfess^.^tl^s 
topic of discord was rUot intro- 
duced; for the peers^ holding, it 
possible that they might be, quled 
upon as judges. to< try, ui?der m 
impeachment, the ministers whose 
conduct was thus oohdemned, 
thought it more just and becoming 
to abstain^ in the mean time, fi'om 
pronouncing any opinion on that 
conduct in Uetr pohtical capacity. 

And^ in truth, the threat of an 
impeachment, which M. de VilL^le 
and his colleagues had appeared to 
treat with contempt, qpeedily as- 
sumed a very serious complexion. 
Early in the s^on a petition hf^d 
been prese/'ted, praying the cham- 
ber to adopt this step; but the 
committee, to which it was referred, 
had reported against the proceed-* 
ing, on the ground that impeach- 
ment oueht to originate in the 
chamber itself. The chamber re« 
fused, however, to pass to the 
order of the day, lest it should 
seem to express an opinion on the 
merits of the application*. In the 
month of June, M. Labbey de 
Pompieres made a formal motion, 
that M, de Villele should be im- 
peached. The proposition was 
brought ff»rward without any con- 
cert^ it was said, with the left side 
of the chamber, and som^ qf f;he 
members of that party wished the 
mover to withdraw it fiut he 
aasworedi ^ I «m eighty y«iir» old ; 



166] ANNUAL REGISTER," 1828. 



I inQst do my duty now ; you may 
do yoOTS when it suits you ;" and, 
the. motion being once m$dt, all 
who had united to eject the ex- 
minister thought themselves bound 
to support it. Of the ministers, 
M . de Martignac, and M. Hyde de 
Neiiville, were the only two who 
spoke, and they both deprecated the 
proposition. The friends of M. de 
Vni^le, se^ns that it would be 
carried in despite of their resistaoce, 
adopted the policy of supporting it, 
for the purpose, they all^ged^ of 
showing the falsiehood of the 
charges on which it rested. The 
motion was accordingly referred 
to a committee ; and that com- 
mlltee held twenty-three long 
sittings, but found itself misera- 
bly hampered by wanting power 
to compel the production of the 
necessary information. There was 
no difficulty in getting at facts 
which were already notorious in 
the shape of public acts bearing the 
signature of the minister; but it 
was unable to throw much light 
upon the circun^Unces which 
might give to any of those facts a 
character of criminality. The dif- 
ferent functionaries, to whom the 
committee addressed itself to obtain 
public documents, gave a flat refusal 
to the various applications that were 
made to them* The ministers re- 
fused to communicate, in the pre- 
sent stale of the proceedings^ the 
instructions and the circulars ad- 
dressed by their predecessors to the 
subordinate magistrates. Different 
military commanders refused to 
attend the committee, except under 
the sanction of the minister of 
war, and that sanction was not 
given. Some refused to depose, be- 
cause, being members of the Cham- 
ber of Peers, they might have to 
pronounce sentence as judges. 
Even the minister of justioe refiued 



to give infoniistion. Ooe foitiDii 
of the libeiml membanr of tli»«clm- 
mittee wished that no leport shottld 
be made^ till it had beetiMidotlisd 
with powers lo obtain mtte wlia 
factory information*; otheni wwe 
for immediatoi impeachoientw It 
was finally resolved, thai the com- 
mittee flhooM report the i«i^>#f 
its labours> m tat ^ it had been 
able to cany them, and iea^ it to 
the chamber to adopt >aiiy forlhir 
measures which mighl aeain pioper. 
The report was aocordiagly m- 
seated on the Slat of Julf. The 
reporter, M. Giiodj a member -isf 
the Cour Royale at Paris, fint -ffi- 
tered into an inquiry rtgwriiiig cke 
power of impeachment, and the 
rules of proceeding in bucIi cam, 
which he said had not yel been, 
clearly established by statute, nor 
fixed by acknowledged precelent. 
In stating this preliminary matlar, 
he alluded to an objection whkh 
had been made to the interfcrenoe 
of the d^utiea, vis. that the a«li^ 
which constituted the chai||e8 
against M. de Viliele's miniitcy, 
were exertions of the royal pvam- 
gative, clearly within its proper 
competence, and that an'aocumian 
against the servants of the Cfbtrn 
in such a ease was an attack upen 
the Crown itself. The re|Kx4nr 
demolished this defence ia tlw 4wo 
cases in which it had beeaattopopt- 
ed to set it up,-— namely> the ^isao- 
luUon of the national guard, aM 
the creation of a great batch of naw 
peers* The king, said he, candia- 
solve the national guard; but if 
the dissolution is ui^juatifiable in 
policy, his ministers imut aaavrer 
for their advice« The king maj 
create new peers; but if it is 
proved that the ministera reoooi- 
mended a creation of peers io ob- 
tain a majority against the iaterests 
of the .thiooa and the people their 



HISTORY OF EUROPE- (m 

mqMNiflihility snbjeets them to pun- ing the elections, . The article for 

iflhment, tsoeitainly as if the act impeaching the ministers for dii^ 

had been their own. In truths solving the national guard was lost 

that Buoh an objection shoold ever by a majority. Finally, the com- 

ha«e been eeriously stated in a mittee reported that there were 

cottntvy where the irre^nsibilit»y grounds of impeachment aninst 

of thaorown^ and the responsibility the late ministry for pecuktioa 

of isa ainistars, were received and treason. This decision, how- 

wairim s «f the eonstitotiony could ever, was adopted only by. a msjor-* 

be'SLombedoiily fep the fact, that ity of five to four — one of the 

Franoa was as yet comparatively five not going^the length of prefer- 

kieaKfert in the appUeation of con- ring a direct charge, but merely 

aftitutional doctrines/ and the man- declaring that there was ground 

agement of constitutional forms, for inquiry. Here, however, in the 

and that this was the first instance mean time, the proceeding stopped, 

presented by her annals of a regular The session was already far ad- 

impeaehmeat, at the instance of vanced: the Chamber agreed not 

ihe popolar body; for the pro- to take the report into^onsideration, 

oeedings of the convention against until the discussions on the budget 

tha members of the royal family, should have been closed, when Uie 

taoeht no lesson except how aaxi- country members would be all 

ously they should be avoided. anxious to leave Paris. The con« 

M. Girod then stated the pro- sequence was, that the process ^as 

oaediags of the comnuttee, which postponed till the next session ; 

seamed lo be rather a prods verbal and the popular party thus secured 

of what it had done, and had not themselves against the possibility 

haen aUe to do, than an explana* of the return of Villdle to power 

lion of the views by which the during the recess ; for it was not 

cfaambar ought to be guided in so to be supposed, that the king would 

§rave a matter. They had arrived, select that man as a counsellor, 

hiewever, at various conclusions, against whom a committee of the 

ttton documentary evidence, some representatives of the people had 

of them favourable to the ex-mi- recommended an impeachment, 

niater, and some of them against which was still undisposed of. 

Jum. On some of the charges the Though the a4.vice, which the 

members had been unanimous in new ministers had given the king 

acquitting^ on others, the vote for in the seleqtion of the president 

impeaehmenty or for farther in- of the Chamber, had augmented 

^ify, had been carried only by the public confidence in the cabi- 

a majoriityi In regard to the in- net, the answer, which they adviied 

timdttction of the Jesuits, the ma- him to give to the criminatory ppr« 

jority, on different grounds, voted tion of the Chamber's address, had 

that there was no ground of im- somewhat cooled the afiection of 

peachmeRt On the question of the ruling party among the depu- 

tke establishment of the censor- ties. This breach was widened by 

shipi four were for an acquittal, the affair of the impeachment. M. 

{bur for a trial, and one for more de Martignac, now minister of 

ample in£Drmation« Nearly a nimi- the interior, had been a steady ad- 

hur oenclusbv was come to respect- berent of ViUele : he might be 

ing tba charge of illegally influence said to have been p^ticipant in 



f§^ A N NMAt L^ H B 6 l&W Eini ! il828. 



^ .nlorji ,l90ii8tiK» for- wUeh hia 

(prtl^ 'HMft ^paU^ of ihe de-> 
^i9C^.<«diiiMustnilion ware in- 
yolvcy^r U.r 4e Chabvol^ and Mf 
F^B8i|i0i||» w]iOy iill wiibiq the 
l^trjfew: .we«k% faEid been tbeix ool* 
l^pfi^ll^>.ftt|d U»ey had tbat diaUke, 
ii^<lh |A masters evec .will bave, 
t^.cripfmtoryjyad penal prooeed« 
m^^g^uuftoiiheriiiinialerB. They 
l^ja^ fikemfoi^ iippo«ed ihe pix)ject ; 
wb^ It ifw oarne4> they had offi« 
^^y-Mwdiali their inflttenGe to 
ejBpluAc^tbe^ commil^^ee from every 
ilK^UQ to «u9eful iolonpation. By 
93l,thify ihe^Jipd remoTed them- 
w4yf»'^^9Hhisx. fpom the popular 
party^i and. i^pcoacbed nearer to 
tfap^c whom, tin popular party had 
hmigbt jdown, and h»&viiig brought 
dawn^fHOw wished to tmd under 
fpol^" Anothev affior drew them 
stiU more, widely aniader. We 
]iav^..iecordedin'Our last volume*, 
tbp' vigour jvitk which M. de Vil-» 
lele disbanded the national guard 
of P;an8j when they forgot their 
duty as floldieiSj and openly in^ 
suited the king by political exela«« 
mations. . The measure was in it- 
self: xigbty but, in the then state 
of tbe puUic mind^ it was extremely 
u^popuhur* The liberal deputies, 
not perhfl^ oonsidmngso much 
whether, what they proposed waa 
advisaUe on its own merits^ as 
holding that whatever was the op* 
posite of what M. de Villele had 
dootpe must be right, now proposed, 
thait the nationiu guasd dioidd be 
re-established. The question arose 
cm the'OonAderation of some peti* 
ti(m% cf whidi the prayer was to 
ttiat effect; and the scene that fol* 
lowod waa /One of those, whidi no 
legjdative hi^ but that of the vi* 
vipiious Frenohoian ever exhibits. 

• Votlibi.p«8St4' 



M. AndfeD^« after dflffiriiii0«fte 

inatittttifm of > a^ MtiMth^f^mi^ 
aa a farce -the,- moit) ^ wuii iniha l> 
and best ada^ptsd tio>peMSrtetiMttftt 
BaltnwfuiUxty,Tfin^fiM(I to fjiwii 
mit cme of ttoietpetitftiiiaiAatdbo 
mtnistav of war andiofiithftf' I«h 
teri<n:. iOn tUa.ftheiiimisMiiDf 
the Interior momited^diei^rfMtt^ 
and dedacedf thatti thenpcafi^ctf 
the petitions ¥kAi an MteiftaAfio^ 
fraction of the rojfBlSprtemgathRi 
of whioh the diabaif/ibgctaf fti|be 
national guard Was a'lamul^smM 
tion/ and which oug|hftMtaii)e«tee 
and j^ntaaeotts*. He Aereiave 
moved the order of tbe.itayu. '^TUi 
amendment wasnriolaAtly i ti ip oili i d 
by the right side, andasdaBMoiMl* 
ly opposed by the left. . ThU mds . 
of :die preadeal^ even his«Ml.tod 
hammer, could notbe iwand aaU 
the noisy agitation^ He r^jpeatedly 
tried^to putthequesticHa^butf n'vu* 
His calls to silence weze^anawoBed 
by additional tumult* M«*Bai^ 
min Constant ^ascended tbe ftribun^ 
to show the fblly of demandiiig the 
cloie of a discossum bdCose'Ae dia<t 
ou8Bion.was&(y(ftiiy imdb^iisojvaB 
overpowered by the daiao«i^ q£ Ahe 
right side. . The. fgeMfmk^^iguU 
endeavouxed to exevoiie Ms /attth** 
rity ; but voioe, belli hamawify atnO 
gestures were poweiksa* . Jitilaet 
the question was>pttt,4md.lhe;pilH 
poaiticm of the rainisier i^greed- tdi 
On this a total insunectionTof tha 
left side took place. Diflteeitt 
members endeavoured to^acakiitiiB 
tribune, and lo take tkeratteilliaii 
of the chamber by stpn^j bu^ wtH» 
repulsed by the piesident* Cfr>ov^<* 
oolde by the cries of thw/C|qpo« 
nents. The bell again. <«ttg^«nA 
the hammer beat ''to otdflr^Kid. 
vain. The deputies l^thetisCMbiEi 
and formed ttieaiselvea iolo lit^ 

Cps of disordeiiy ^di^putaaftls. 
eof the oraton ivenled Aete 



iHISTCMftV OP fiUllOPEc ^ /^^ [m 



^hmbrt'ia^n^f appetlB to the 
ifaWiierhl tettth-^soliie hum^glnd 
gHJaa^^'^i* partisafiil^:— «iid aome 
<^ImM dtttaice" tm tlMf ^^bnoximM 
idlrai.";1%iii!itoene"of imifbsioii 
Mbtiriu«d< fera quarteir df dit hoar* 
B»i didttbe ttiffiult efttii^ly Bdbmde^ 
wltlM^ttWiiibiy diiptoted. itseemed 
«9tf'tt«Terarek«lM)lhat]et6 prevent 
iile'liliciils AtrnfaUackiiig the pre- 
mt'nniiiABtky m ^etxsely a« they 
liad^«|taoln|d- iC9 fft^ecettot, ex« 
odj^ the i^spMhensioit that they 
WMid; fioi beable to clhnb to 
Mn^er tlwiniebvs, ttid that, there^ 
woi0, if they dht>ve liie ministry into 
■a! tiliaiioe, for it^ own preserva^ 
tiaii)>'iv«ih theaehated pred^oeasors^ 
tte'kner aifght again build up 
tlieir iyien ediiice. 

in> Ae tnean tSttie, the other 
IneMuiea diopted by the minxstry 
^vtre- calculated tiv.atrengthen its 
cUnis td the good opitiion of the 
people: By nothing had the late 
BoniflCry more iititated the pnbfie 
mind^ and dngraceditsdf, than by 
the libeniea which they used with 
Ifatt^ electoral Uses ; for which, the 
stale- of the bw afibrded them too 
mkkif (Miiaea. The minister of 
|he .inSerior now introduced a bill 
to' pravent frauds in making up 
fhe eletMMi lists, by securing the 
dotreot earoknent of all persons 
wiiqse 'names were entitled to be 
ifa^i^. By its pnmnons, on the 
latof June', every year, the mayors 
^"silube communej' composing a 
amton were required to assemble 
at the chief town of the canton ; 
and' Co pnMeed to the revision 
of the list of electors, with the 
aSBiateuce of the collectors of the 
dbect4atfes. Hie result of their 
Pabotrrs was to be sent to the sub- 
prefect of the arrondUsemfnt, who 
was required, before the 1st of 
JaiTy to transmit it to the prefect 
«f w d iy a itm eatj idong with his 



oWn cbserviittorts; > ' '"Aflef 'fHe 9H 
df Jttly;< the pk«f(def/ lftf«dilg|^>lldi 
eeived th^ difelireut hkaift'listll'fn^ 
his sub«pr«ftdNi,' WaB*'^i^ttl^''l6 
ptof^eH to'ther^isionoitli^'gt^ 
neral 11^, eitibni6it^g ail' ^^dH^ 
tdrs of the* departaM»ir,' adoyg^^ 
eraang natnea, tuscordiiig ^s» 'his 
diould ilnd' that partlei^'li^'ik^ 
qnired' or ibrfeit^ elec^artd 'HghtiA 
The list, thus t^edifM by 4lie ^ 
feet, was to be atudt tip; ihi^i} 
15th of August, at the chief wirii 
or village ttf every comia«ine,' iiti9 
a copy was tc^be depo^it^ 'bitKe 
oiBce of every liiayoTy hK th^ but^sii^ 
of each sub^refect, and tit the- pr^i^ 
fectufe; This publito^Bbn'w«s ttt 
be reckoned a notification Id Idl 
concerned, and no difonge ecmld- be; 
made in the Hst, except by '^^ 

of' a decision of die coUrfd) of pr<!^' 
fecture. ComfJaints of'ilnpropet^ 
omission from, orr insertion' ill, th^ 
list, might be made tdl ^he SOtli' of 
December. The demtod fbr- the; 
enrolment or crasure^'of ' ndmes, 
when made to the pt^fbct, trab tb 
be immediately submitted by hittl' 
to his council^ and if parties apt 
pealed from the couneil of the pte* 
fecture, the appeal was to be notified 
within ten days after itadecisioia. ' 
This maclrinery seemed caloo-^ 
lated to aiR>rd a surer guarantiee 
for electoral rights, and a better" 
protection against the arbitrary 
or vexatious exercise of authority; 
in creating false, or ranstin^ 1^1, 
titles, than France had hithertd 
enjoyed. The chamber received it 
with great favour. In the debates, 
die mal-pracdces of the ViUdte 
administration vrere, to the HbeMsi 
the fiTiitful theme of bitter and 
eloquent declamation. M. de Mtfr<^ 
tignac turned the battery aMdttMf 
them. WhUe he admitted thcf 
improper in terf ere n ce with -the 
right of vcnifig oa the patt of some 



no] ANNUAL REGISTERi 1828. 



eb tli9r preftots, he Btrongly oiiii« 
damvad the ckctoral manoeavres 
pg a c tig c d hf the libenlt, who 
ioroMd VuU of candidates l^ their 
diseotiiifl oomoitteeay whioh they 
difpened over France, called can- 
dtdates before them^ and exacted 
piomiies or engagements, as the 
eonditions of their support, and 
donuneered, by intimidation, both 
ofer the eandidates and the voters. 

The law was earned by two bun* 
died and fifty«seven votes out of 
thfee hundred and sixty-two ; the 
BUnevity of one hundred and five, 
marking the remaining strength of 
the late minister in the Chamber 
of Deputies. In the Chamber of 
Peers the law was vehemently 
oppossd by Villele . himself, and 
Peyronnet, the ex-keeper oi the 
seds. They moved and supported 
an amendment, which would have 
deprived the measure of all its 
efficacy, but were defeated by a ma- 
jority of one hundred andiifty-two 
to ninety-seven. 

Another equally popular mea- 
sure vras oonnectad with the press. 
By the existing law, the govern- 
ment had the power of establishins 
a censorship, whenever it shoula 
seem to be rendered advisable by 
'*tl€9 drcamtances grttvts," of 
which circumstances, the govern- 
ment alone was to be the judge* 
In the session of 1826, a pn^Kisi- 
tion of M. Boyer CoUard, the pre- 
sent president of the Chamber, to 
take wis law into consideration, had 
been crushed by the influence of 
the ministry. M. Benjamin Con- 
stant now again proposed, that this 
discretionary power should be abo- 
lished; and the proposition was sent 
to a committee. The committee 
reported unfavourably, not, how- 
ever, on the ground of the provi- 
sion being a proper one, but on the 
gvouad mU it was n^t advisable 



to dkange any part of the law 
without revising the vrtiole* Far 
there were other enaelxnents not 
nudi less hostile to pttbUc lilMty. 
Thus, authors and ptMishersmight 
be prosecuted for the ^ tsndenoy" 
of their writings, a teiai 'wfaieb 
meant— 4iot that a partiovlnr woskj 
or number of a woric might be pun- 
ished for the illegal tendency of 
particular passagea^-^but that the 
judges might decide, in cases of 
libel in a periodical writing, by 
putting the publications of thieej 
four, five, or ox months {none of 
which could s^arately be pio- 
nounced libellous) into a erucUde, 
and distilling from the whole a 
libellous tendency. The same lasr, 
too, which laid these restraints «n 
all written thought, had provided, 
that no new periJodioal jovmsal 
should be established without the 
permission of government* 

All these things were utterly in« 
oonsistent with the useful enjoy- 
ment of the most valuAle tight 
which a free state can pos s es s . 
The new ministers justified their 
claims to the confidence and grati* 
tude of the nation by sweepinc 
them all away. The keeper <h 
the seals introduced, and carried 
through both Chambers, n bill 
which declared, that every Frendb«> 
man, enjoying civil rights, was en* 
titled to establish a journal pr pe« 
riodical work, without being pie- 
viously authorixed; abolished the 
law which permitted prosecutions 
on account 'of *' tendency ;" and 
renounced the discretionary power 
of establishing a cenaorship.* 

* An autkor was prosecuted beiore 
tbe Cour Royals, on that protnaion of 
the law which makes it crinainal '^ to, 
insiilf the religion of tbe state* He* 
was accused of having done so *^by de* 
nying the fundamental dogmas of the 
Christian fiiith.'^ The rfefendaat ac» 
knovkdged the (act, bat imtited that 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[171 



EfwUy latidEutofy to the puV- 
1m Buad 1HI9 tbe conduct of ainb- 
tec% OB tbt nucti a^taled question 
«f di^ Jcsttikical estftUiflhinento. 
We konre aeotioiied ebo¥e, tl»t 
the kingi befcte the neeiing of the 
iitmmhm, had named oommiasion- 
en 40 inquire inio that matterj and 
■qme Ifaflif epiaion. Thatcom- 
ttieekni^ which oonabted of nine 
Biemh»i xepovtedt bgr the casting 
role of ite pveridenti the arohbi- 
Aof of Paris^ that the ezittence of 
Ae Jeeuita ae a body, and of the 
eetaUieboMQiAe under their direc- 
taon in Fmiiee« waa not contrary to 
ia«r. Thie decision was equally 
aiverse to the public wishes^ and 
to the intentions of the ministers. 
As k waa a mere opinion^ there- 
foee> the cabinet adopted the con* 
chisiens of ihe minority^ which 
eoQsisted of the four distinguished 
lawyers, M* Se^er, fint president 
ef the Boyal Court, M< Laine, M. 
Mowiier, and M. Dupin, a oele* 
leated advocate* Even before they 
notified officially what the com- 
tbought on the subject, 



two royal ordinanees appeamd, 
which declared that the Jesuits, 
though they were not mentioaf d 
by name» were ** a religious con- 
ipregation not legally established 
in France," and restored to the 
jurisdiction of the uni?ersi^> many 
thousand pupils who had been 
withdrawn from its superintend- 
ance by the activity of theas in- 
triguing rBli^^istft By the fint 
of these ordmances, the establish- 
ments, known under the designa- 
tion of Seemdary EodomHknl 
SchooU,^ diraeted by persons be- 



* " ^ ^\ t»'TP 



deiikU was not intulL (lis counsel ar- 
g]iietly that eveiy Frenchman bad the 
right of adopting whaterer opfnion ap- 
pMred 10 him tti« meat jnet, and of oon* 
ttndia^ aaatoai evtry adteraa epiniony 
provjdsd i^ abstsiiaedfirom yioUnos and 
iDsuU. The Court held the same 
opinion, and acquitted the defendant. 

After the close of the Session, the 
editsr of the iMgette de Fimnee, wfafeh 
«•• wm the jouraalof the VUlele-party, 
i«ia a^vitted by the Court of Correc- 
tional Police, of a charge of having, by 
In article on the late session of the 
Chambers, excited hatred and contempt 
of the enistiof government. The arti- 
cle, tboagh expressed with severity, 
was, in the judgment of the Court, con- 
fined within the strict bounds of political 
discussion. 

Under aH administmtfons, the French 
Coorta have qniformly displayed a kindly 
feeling towards the press, and, so far as 
depended on them, have rendered the 
ftpemtSon of law mild, even when its 
friadpiss were despotic and opprtHi?e. 



* The nature and hUtory of tbfae 
^* Secondary Schools,'' was this ^i-Be- 
fore the Revolution, when the revenues 
and the honours of^e ehurch were 
sufficient to tempt the capidity or am- 
bitioa of wealthy or distingui^bad iaisi- 
liea, the primary or secular edups- 
tioQ of those destined for the ecclesias- 
tical state was attained in the colleges, 
open alike to the laity and the elorgy. 
They pursued their early stndies idoog 
with other children, and were not sot 
apart for the service of the altar, till 
they had taken a degree in. some sem!- 
nary of secular or profane learning. 
But when Buonaparte re-eatablnihod the 
ehurob with bishoprios at a thousand a 
year, and parish livings at 40/,, he could 
entice into its bosom only youths who 
were unable to pay the charges of an 
expensive education. Indeed, such was 
the averaioa to a derioal life some time 
after the restoration of the church eata- 
blishment, that only the sons of peasants 
and artisans could be prevailed upon to 
take the tonsure, and severel thousand 
parishes remained without spiritual 
guides. In this state of thing^ it was 
necessary to encourage ecclesiastical re- 
cruits, not only by an exemption from 
military service, but by a gratuitous 
education. Accordingly, eveiy bishop 
was authorised to open a school in his 
diocese to instruct pupils destined for 
the church, in which they might obtain 
the degrees preparatory to their theolo- 
gical course, without attending a col- 
lege. The establishments wsre ^Ued 
" secondary eocleaiastical schools'' -— 
they were exempted from the regime of 
the universities, placed entirely under the 
control of the bishops, and prohibited 
from rseslvini^ soy hut intended eharehvi 



«7feJ ANNOAL 



*■ r 



1828. 



iMTgingf to ar i«l&|poM odngregalkiii 
HOt'tahtbbriiBeAr'iiif Fvinte, and ex- 
iBtkig lit ^ifht piirti<Mlar 'plMes, 
trin. AIk; BiiUotti,'BovdeauK> Dde, 
FmuJatiiar^ 'Mmituiorilkin^ Sttinti- 
AfcUeuJ^ and'Satnte^Aiin PAufay, 
«MM 'ofd^red lwr<be«ibj«eted to the 
Mguae«f the univ^mtTf / and no 
j&ok was fiertnitled to be em« 
flloMl< in 'any Oitablidnnent be^ 
fabgirij^ to^'the uiiivetnty, or in the 



ibiiinD«>deckreiiii: wfidng thai he 
whs iQluiotineoied' with any sock 
tRianiciioiiied'ike]lgkm»oRler« As 
theier'Mttlt^cMaWshtnentB vmere 
teitineiy . supported by 'pupils be* 
kmi^iig 'to the wealthier classes^ 
aetid^itod>ffr the church, who 
Mftfortlheir^edoaation* and maiil- 
flonendb alia iate io h^ as enabled 
ilie Atthm to receive and educate 
a'nmiiber Of ecckiiastical seholaiB 
frratoitoQsly; the deeieefor placing 
dlefli ilnder tbe vniveraityy whi^9 
bnf its oottsldtotion, semurated these 
%^ sorts of pupils, effectually de* 
stteyed their AUuity to the church* 
Tbe> ^eooiid^ ordinsnce, pahfiriied 
Ofkufae Same- day, limited the num^ 
ber'Crf'pupilB to be received in all 
the secondary ecclesiastical schools 
vmst Fnaice to twenty thousand ; 
^Miiiliited the reception of any ex* 
tekfual or <day pupils ; order^ all 
wftpDs to take uie ecclesiastical 
habitat the age of foarteen ; rea* 
deted the approbation of the orowi^ 
necessary to the nomination of 
teachers; and dteated d^t 8,000 
yearly pensions or bursanes of 1 50 
Aanoi (or 6/.) each, fcrthe encoor- 
a^emertt of youth Inclined to* enter 
the church, and destitute of other 
meats of support* 
> The ttinasters, it was said, found 
k'Heoessary to tender their resig-^ 

peiu !By afioiitting pupUf^a diflferent 
clius^ as HAS the ci^ of the Jesait esla^ 
bHshtiientS, they departed from their 
M^ and MMtcd tMr piivtttgcs. 



nations, before the kingiesalii'be 
prevailed upon' to sign 'tlsBSBf^oei^ 
nances, aiid^'the: publinitiD»':itf 
iton produced gnait/ comniati^n 
and hsdignation aaaing ftheioless3^ 
and the aKoibcin and' aicliiereDtatnf 
*^ die c uugu e g a tiom''' >> The'ttshopa 
prepared a atemcsatd to hi^nu^ssCf^ 
lemonstiating agoiiari; Us decfBeii ks 
bein^ defuaatory totdie li^ts^and 
digmdes of thn ehandhv er wistt ?ak 
ii^nona to tbfe intefeats ofsosBsd 
fakb^ OseAii leamiagj ansb .pu^ 
morals* The tainjstorto oansadite 
hnfanps to be^iofeiJknBd^^that^'wlnk 
each of ^em en^oyed^ beyondinil 
donbt, the n^t cf - canyingi bds 
oomphunts aiu gnevanoaa <iadi«i« 
duaUy to the foot of the throaav 
yet t^y could not unito for sueh« 
purpose witfaous the expresa oan* 
sent of the king; that* his nugesty 
would not> veoeive' a .mctaunial 
wliidi should lie>tfae tesolt of aaoh 
a deliberation, nrwnirnced without 
any Aufchoriiy derived from Juras 
that he had publiahed his ovdinanA 
0BB» and would know how to sake 
them be executed. The biriiopt( 
thus finding the king, or, at leasts 
the kinp^s miaisten» deaf to dsaf 
entreaties, and nnintimidatad by 
imaginary denierB,:or impeetiafttt 
and eovert. threats^ traatani0ted 
their meihorial -to the popfe * It 
was said, that the flovemnlelit had 
agreed to '^a reference" of die 
question to his holiaess i bot ibiis 
scarcely credible, Ihat it sihould 
so fieur have comproarifed ita.dygl 
nity and tndepenidenae. iBa^ ihdt 
as it nay, tho:aniwte of thei^pane 
waS' extremely pffudent .iHeiftold 
the bishops,* that hb thought' ^cjr 
might safely sely <'>oii< the >. well 
kOown piety of lusimajesfy^'^: •.. ! •; 
In the ihundal amsqgenents 
of the year, the ffeneitJexpendU 
tore was reduced by four or ^five 
millions of francs* Thm'^vf^A 
fteted by tbe 4|mi&oliM of A* 



raSTORY OF EUROm 



[<17l 



^fij^datmentB* of all ' the great 
itmotiaoane^ Thut[f< thoiuairf 
finuMtt wete takes awa j from eack 
<f I jihe iininiilBfy» widi the exocfio 
.tt^n'of the :nHBiiter of £oreig& 
fedUvsr The>Manhali of FkBnce, 
aftdj aibmA ' othec dignitaries, ex- 
simihar refcraiiohment& 



Theffodaci of the taxes for the 
ffsar t^naeededy by iq^warda of 
^wrabty imllinnB of fiamcB» theiero- 
lra»^ of. IfiST^ The esliBiates, 
hov^eWi warn higher; but the 
^kficianof thus- pEoduoed had been 
«Q«eied» before the expiration of the 
fiBftiiciaJ ^rear^bj the increased pn^ 
ddctiveneas of ^e ordinary sources 
of reveene. No taxes were taken 
off, at ledueed^ An addition 
was made to the o^tal of the 
debt bj a new ]oan <yf eighty miU 
Uoosk It ivas' voted on th^ ground 
that the army required to be in« 
creased, and placed on ' the full 
peaoe'estaUisknwaty and that the 
navy, Iftewiae, demanded, from 
the< extent of its services, some 
augaientation. The troth was, 
that the war, which had broken out 
in tJie east, justtfied measures of 
precaolion^ and that France was 
on the point of sending a militacy 
catpsdition to the Morea. 

IaIS^ M. de ViUde had eaiw 
ried di|»Qgh a law by which a mil- 
fiaidof firancs^or about 40,000,000^ 
were gratiled in order to indemnify 
the emigninis for the loss of theur 
tetatte 'during the revolution. 
F.racn a report' of the labours of 
thd 'commission^ to whom the ad- 
n^RV^tration oi the fund had been 
hitsuslbd, it appeared that, up to 
tMs tim».^.9M claims had been 
given in, of which 1 8,798 had been 
admittedandliquidated^andthat the 
soma expended in paying them had 
amounted to nearly 80,000,000/. 
• Some .alterations were intro* 
disced into the public departments. 
Xbe ministry. f$ t£adc^ as has been 



abcady- noticedi • waa^a new etim» 
tion» and ito heact M» daSt^.Crk^ 
obtained the appotntmeiit dot-m 
oommission > lo f^TawinH int# tk^ 
state of agrieulturei taiaiiiifacttt«a% 
and commesee» QspficiaUy.ui-adffii 
tion to the foUowang 4fiiviti/m»t 
Im The regulations oettcenaiiigl^ 
importatum .of -wofl* ^and^ktlif 
bounty granted en the expoftatiiHi 
of wodilen maaufactuita < ft« . Tbi 
appreotatiea of tkie.> )pro£fes .<a]id 
losses resulting fremthe.'saciiifibds 
which the tanffs imposadifiyr the 
encouragement of tJiQiprodubn»itf 
iron, to all those who make use«jtf 
that metal* S^The prppwt^»'«f 
maintaining^ lueh as«it.«xi8tei^<or 
of confining witkin«ii]K)W!er Umils^ 
the almost .exclusive ^pnfynmD^ 
given to the sugars .of; the FiMabb 
ooibnies in the eonsumplioii >iif 
France, and even in dtst aalesidn 
foreign countries, by the process, of 
refimne. 4. The utility «f nmdi* 
fying the com laws evttor.in thmt 
fun&mental bases^ or only in the 
manner of executing them. 6w The 
possibility of enlarging the faciilt)r 
of transit, by- extending it to* the 
articles which were prohibited, or 
at least to some of them* 6* The 
controversy which for some time 
had existed between Paris an^ 
other cities in the interior, on the 
one hand, and the 8ea<-port8 on the 
other, as to allowing the former the 
privUe^ of being enirtpols oi colo« 
nial preduocw 

The ministry of war, too« was 
new modelled^ and plaeed under 
the management of a board, 
at the head of which was the 
Dauphin. The niini8t;ry' of the 
marine received theaidof a.oouRffil 
of admiralty, framed a new aystem 
for forming a body . of jnaripei^ 
and established maritime oreiec- 
tures. The navy, Qccording to 
the statements of M. Hyde da 
NeuviUe,. wiis th^cheai^^ ir^ ^ 



174] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1628. 

wokU, find h$A alwayt snflfiBred tlie preeBdliig< eompivlHm, ttnff 

front the MVitiiieM of its budget, adopting the ealoukdon which i« 

** Tho admd tftate of our navy/', least favourable to tm^ Bn^md 

said ho, ''is this: we have^ afloat ought to have' aightjr^— whereas 

and buildfaigy three hundred and she hsB two hundred «id Moan. 

thlvty««i3c Tasseki of whkh ^fty^ Franoe has ei^^ty taplaiM of Alj^ 

three are ships of the line^ and of the line, and, in IftlifStte had 

fifty^sovan ftigates. Of these one hundred and twonlf-Are^.' 

flffcf-^three vassels, seyeM are^ and England, aMdtnff always hy tiia 

three will soon be at sea; same data, should have two htm* 

twentywthree sore laid up in ofdi- dred and twenty^^-Hihe has «tght 

naf^y and twenty are on the stocks, hundred and fifty. • We have Ofte 

Of Uie frigates^ thirty«six are at hundred and twenty caplainf of 

sea or ready for it| eighteen are frigates ; England has e^ht huQ" 

buiidiDg, and, of these, four will be dred and sixty-eight oomnuttldeiv 

imiaediately equipped and afloat, of the corresponmng rank. Our 

The French navy is that which lieutenants and Aligns umMd 

costs the least. The budgets of amount to seven hundi^ and 

every country prove this, and a twenty-eight: England has threo 

few 4iort observations would serve thousand seven hundred and ten 

to demonstrate the fact. I shall lieutenants, and flve hundred and 

take f>r terms of comparison only forty-three masters." 

those powers whose naval force After the session of the cham-* 

most generally fixes attention. hers had been, closed, the king 

^^«Mis sought relief from the affiun in 

"T*l*'*7hi?r''*''^*'''''^^ 600 ^^ich it had involved him, and 

" The ulntedViiteV hnVe \ \ \ \ \ ! 53 *^>« mortifications to which it had 

»Mpi of the Mne cxposed him, in a progress through 

" ?^ *!*'%" h?^*' ^""^ ***** ' " 14? ^^^ P*^* ^^ *^® kingdom. Hfe 

r* The UaitSS^Utea'L;;;^ ;: ;: :: 12 "limsteMdid not And it so easy to 

fHgatci escape from their embart^ssmenls. 

•• or this aamevumber France has 66 They had come through the ses-^ 

!!5f*^?fl'*?cV; *t? sion with honour, but they had 

" Total ships of ihe line and fri- ^^ stood by any Strength of^theh' 

gates in France 108 own. To the sujtport of th© 

England S6d popular party the ministiy ' wad 

Us United Slates.. S9 indebted for its existence, and that 

•* Now, whether we take for the party did not yet trust it The 

term of comparison the whole of measures, which it had aanied 

the vessels afloat or building in the through, were grateful and bene- 

three countries, or whether we fidal to the public, and seemed to 

confine ourselves to ships of the have cut it off for ever ftbm alt 

line or frigates only, it will be communion with thie ruling prfn- 

found that we always do the most ctples of its predecessor ; j^et they* 

with the least expense. Compare had the air of having been (breed 

the pay in each country. Compare upon it, as necessaiy to its Ow^ 

also the number of officers, and preservation, rather than of having 

say whether there be any abuse or sprung fresh from its own eonvfc- 

supetfluity ivith us. We have tions, and while its |9olicy was 

thirty general oi&cers— ^we had liberal, its government was carried 

Mxty-four in 1787 : according to on by the agents of the arfaitrBry 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[W4- 



and. jflbgmced administration to 
wMch it had succeeded. The 
conncal of state was still composed 
of the creatures of Villele ; it still 
coniaiaed his director-general and 
predG^ot of the polioe* . In the pro- 
Tinces> the prefects^ the .mayors, 
and the members of the general 
councils of departments were 
ehieflj partisans of the same fac*- 
tion*— >men who had been notorious 
for their mal-practices with public 
franchises, and who had been 
placed in their offices for the pur^^ 
pose of abusing their power to the 
advantage of their masters. In 
their agents and fellow coundllorSj 
the ministers thus found persons 
more inclined to betray their pre- 
sent masters than to rebel against 
their former patrons— eager to 
counteract the projects of the go^ 
vemment, and to prepare by their 
overthrow the return of Viliye 
to power. The popular party told 
the ministers, that, while this com- 
hini^tion remained, it could not 
trust them; it called upon them 
to get rid of so many sources of 
suspicion and embarrassment, and, 
consequently^ of weakness, and to 
surround the throne with men to 
whose principles the country could 
look up with confidence, and in 
whoae conduct it would find a secu- 
rity for their principles. It bade 
them remember, that they had 
not been the choice of the people 
to celebrate its triumph, but the 
choice ..of the 4cing to break his 
fall ;— that the former conduct of 
some of them had been such, and 
all of them had consented to be 
introduced into such company, as 
surrounded them with suspicion ;-— 
that they had been supported only 
because there was more hope of 
them than of the impenicently 
profligate ministry who had pre- 
ceded them ;**that the members of 



that ministry were stlU the hiada 
of a vigilant and powerful party ^ 
strong in the royal favottr> aided 
by the influeikce and the intrigues 
of the church ; — that, if they per* 
sisted therefore in #till keeping ia 
office the partisans and creatuvaa 
of that dangerous hclaon, th# 
friends of constitutional govern* 
ment must conclude that they 
themselves were not in earnest^ 
and must exercise the power# whidi 
they had shown that they poJMWs^ 
sed, to give his majesty anoUier 
opportunity of choosing servants 
of greater energy and less dubiinis 
sincerity. 

The ministers, to whom the 
votes of the session had made it 
abundantly manifest that their &to 
was in the hands of the popular 
party, would willingly have Am* 
plied with these remonstranees* 
Even if they had been less in** 
clined to liberal ideas than their 
measures, in all candid construc-i 
tion, shewed them to be, their own 
safety impressed them with the 
folly of resisting. But they were 
restrained by the obstinacy of thcf 
king. His majesty had no favour 
towards the popular party ; the 
description which they had given 
him of his government, rendiered 
the possibility of having them 
around him no pleasing prospect : 
their determined animosity to the 
Jesuits and the congregation made 
him regard it as a dangerous one. 
His royal signature was with M. 
Roy and his colleagues; biit his 
royal wishes were with M. Villele 
and his friends. It is true that 
the ministers mieht have made 
very short work with the resistance 
of his majesty's attachments and 
prejudices. They had only to 
resign : the king must have taken 
the servants whom the majority 
of the chamber gave him. But 



176] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



then, it was 'much more than 
doubtful whether the Chamber, on 
the occurrence of such an event 
would fix its choice on the mem^ 
ben €i the present cabinet. Va- 
cillating between these opposite 
motives— unwillingness 'to press 
the king too far, upon the one 
hand, and the fear of roiiaing the 
resentment of .the tjriun^hant 19a* 
joritj upo^ the.other,— the. qainis- 
ters still continued to submit to 
the influence of the dependents of 
the court, thus running the risk of 
appearing to identify < themselves 
with that pfuty, and provoking the 
enmity of those whose exertions had 
given them power, had kept them 
in power, and, to all appearances, 
could again drive them from power. 
At length, however, as the year 
wore round-^'-as the season at 
which they must meet the cham- 
bers again approached^ and the 
reproaches and remonstrances of 
the popular party became more 
threatening,—- they shook off their 
lethargy, and roused themselves 
to a better sense of what was due 
to their safety, if not to their 
honour* In the month of Novem- 
ber, five counsellors of state^ steady 
adherents of the . Vill^le admiiHSi- 
traAion, were dismissed from the 
council of state. Among them 
were Fraadiet, who had been the 
direotor<Fg0nei:al, andOelavau, who 
had .been the prefect of that mir 
nister's arbitrary, police. Seven 
new- membea(8 were admitted, f^ 
of whom weve either decid^ con- 
stitutionalists, or men obnoxious 
to the la.te administratbn. It was 
not the liberals alone who had 
broken it up. They had conquered 
by an alliance with the ultraism 
of the extreme right. That was 
the union which now ruled the 
chamber. In the provinces, five 
obnoxious prefects were dismissed^ 



and four more were deprived of 
the office of prefect, thov^ called 
to other functions* Various minor 
changes were effected in the admi- 
nistration of the departments.. 

The foreign relations of France 
o&red nothug worthy of reoorc^ 
that will not appiear more, in de» 
tail in another paft of ouc namu 
tive^ .Like England, she wiw a 
tranquO, thouj^ not an unini- 
terested, n>^tator of the struggle 
between Russia jsn^ Turkey ; and» 
in the autumn, she dispatched jaat 
e^qpedition to the Morea to enforce 
the surrender of those fortresses 
of the Morea wliich remained in 
the hands of the Turks, after the 
departure of Ibrahim to Egypt 

In the course of the year, the 
last division of the army of occu- 
pation returned from Spain : Cadis 
was the last fortress that they 
quitted; and thus terminated an 
expedition which had gained to 
France no one conceivable olgect, 
but had been to her a /source of 
enormous and useless expense. The 
minister for foreign affairs stated, 
in the Chamber of Peers, that the 
army would have been withdrawn 
in 18£7, had it not been for the 
events which then occturred in 
PortugaL The necessity of treat- 
ing Ferdinand with peculiar deli- 
cacy, while a French army was in 
possession of his kingdom, had aU 
wayj been assigned by- the Fuench 
ministers as a reason for not ao- 
knowledging the revolted Spanish 
colopies. They weiQ now freed 
from this restraint; and so soon 
as the evacuation of Cadis hfd. 
been resolved on, an f^ent ifn 
appointed to repair to the sevend 
statesj and arrange the. jvreliminsyry 
measures for the estatauahment of 
the usual diplomatic r^I^ons b^i* 
tween friendly powers by^acofr*^ 
dited ministers* 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, 



[177 



CHAP. VIII. 



Portugal. — Prospects of Portugal from the Regenqf of Dom 
Miguel — Don Miguel arrives m England — The Session of the 
Chambers is opened at Lisbon — Proceedings of the Deputies — IVial 
of four Peers for exciting Seditious 7\imutts -^.Publications in 
favour of Miguel — He arrives at Lisbon , and p^ts himself under 
the guidance of his Mother — He tahes the Qath to the Constitution, 
and appoints a Ministry hostile to it^Riots at the Palace — The 
Mob encouraged to attack the Constitutionalists — Motions in the 
Chambers regarding the Riots — The Constitutional Qovemors of 
the Provinces, and Officers of the Army are dismissed to make room 
for absolutists — The Constitutionalists begin to emigrate — The 
British Troops embark to return to England — Plan of Miguel to 
seize the Crown — It is discovered, and the Departure of the British 
Troops is countermanded — Proceedings in the Chamber qf Deputies 
— Miguel dissolves the Chamber — Encouragement given to the 
Partizans of Miguel — Addresses from the Municipalities praying 
Miguel to abolish the Constitution, and assume the Crown — Ocair^ 
rences at Lisbon on 25th April — Address of the Municipality-'-^nd 
of the Peers — The Foreign Ministers suspend all Official CommU" 
nication with the Qovemment — Miguel convokes the Cortes, to de^ 
clare. him king — Protest by the Brazilian Ministers — Oporto and 
its Garrison declare for Don Pedro and the Constitution — They are 
joined by other Towns — The Constitutionalists advance towards 
Lisbon — Measures of the, Government-^ The Constitutionalists begin 
to retire — They retreat upon Oporto — abandon Ovorto-^and retire 
into Spain — Madeira declares for Don Pedro, out is reduced by 
Miguel'^T'Tlie Cortes assemble in Lisbon, dethrone Pedro, and declare 
Miguel King — The Foreign Ambassadors quit Lisbon — Proscription 
qf the Constitutionalists — Confiscation of Property — Decree oJrDon, 
Pedro, resigning the Crown in favour of his Daughter-^ Address 
by Don Pedro to the Portuguese on the Usurpation of Miguel-^ 
The young Queen arrives in Europe, and is brought to England, 



WHEN Don Pedro named 
his' brother Don Miguel to 
the regency of Portugal, he un- 
douhtedly flattered himself that he 
had adopted the most efficacious 
expedient to reconcile the factions 
which divided Portugal, and to in- 
sure protection to the tree institu- 
Vol. LXX. 



tions which lie had bestowed upon 
it. It secured to the young prince 
all the real advantages of poster 
during the minority of his niece, 
the new queen ; and» as he was to 
become her husband so soon as she 
could assume the reins of govern- 
ment in her own name^ he was se- 
[N] 



178] ANNUA'L REGISTER, 1828. 



etm oit all the autbortty at which 
he could urn without the guilt of 
unnatural rebellion and very 
daring usurpation. Even the 
hatred of liberal institutions^ in 
' which he had been brought vp^ and 
the desire to blast the growth of 
those of Portugal, whid^ he had 
nYMty e)diibitedj Muld havte fol«* 
kiwed after their object aa securely 
a«d efflcient}y when he used) for 
thepurpoie of furthering theni) the 
Tegular power with which he was 
iegitimately invested, as if he wore 
to excite a vigilant Jealousy against 
all hit meatureir by setting out with 
open treason againtt his brother 
and bit queen. The constitution- 
alists^ Portugal had, to be sure, 
abondant reason to distrust him. 
They knew that all his wishes 
leaned towards arbitrary power; 
they ^uld scarcely expect that any 
vows would bind the man, who, in 
his hatred of liberty, had drawn 
the sword against his own father, 
and encouraged rebellion against 
his brrnher and sister; but they 
tru^ted that he would feel himself 
reitroined by being only the re- 
presentative of another; that he 
ttould be constrained to follow, in 
the general cast, at least, of his 
policy, the principles of the Court 
of Sio Janeiro, and that the liber- 
ality of Don Pedro would miti- 
gate the ultraism of Don Miguel, 
through whom it was to act. 
Above all, they longed for ah ete- 
cative, to which at length alt paif- 
ties would stibmit, though for very 
different reasons, instead of the 
weak and wavering goveftiment, 
which* during two yearly had been 
aa efum rebeUed against aa obeyed. 
They thought themMlvea entitkid 
to^aafotiiff^ that Don Migoei would 
aft least obeerve th«pfeieribed forma 
4if the eonntftotioni whiek he wot 
caUaA to rfminminr as Mgefti ibr 



his brother ; and while the forms 
remained, it Uy with tfaemaelxes 
to infu&e into them a living md 
protecting spirit-^The ^nemiea6f 
the constitution, again^ baidedilte 
return of the prince .as'anioocur- 
rence whidi haled the fatoof 4lie 
new inatitulions. They kxtaw/tbat 
he was their own in .hearts;' tk^ 
doubted not that kt^'wodd^ aoah 
unite widi them in dcetmyiB^^tfae 
object of tSiehr common taiftred aoid 



:n: 



All the eommvnioattoiia tliat 
had been reoeived from Don lifi- 
guid flinoe his nomination <tO the 
regency, had been fiivottniUe to 
the lovers of liberty and Mod 
order. He had accepted thevnc^, 
and hod thereby acknowltdged the 
rights of the monarch who .be- 
stowed it, and pledged himaelf to 
use it for the purposes for which It 
bore to have been granted«*4e 
maintenance of the ckarter*'*<4lie 
gradual advancement of coostiiu- 
tional freedom. He had written 
to his sister from Vienna, that he 
was '' determined to maintais' in- 
violate the laws of the kingdom, 
and the institutions legally eranted 
by our august brother,* aM^oailse 
them to be observed, and hy them 
to govern the kingdom.'* * He Iwd 
made this dedaration fot the vay 
purpose of quietinff llie fnihlic 
mind* and, with aU otkef (rmiks 
in Portugal, he was already tomid, 
by the solemnity of an oaiit^ .te (ib- 
serve the constitntidn #hk9L^ 1» 
was now appcHntedttoadinii^ikteiv!!' 
The more sanguine, dtew bapes 

• See vol. LXI3t. p. [m ; . 

t It xmt said. that, be fd^ te^Afe (ma 
country, be had v<o]ui^rMy>M£tf a 
letter to tbt moat cttrineac ptm 
this realfll>aayins *< ibati if haa^fv 
tlie coostii^tton, he abould be s wi 
a breaker of his oat)i, and ao uturj 
fait (n'dthe^'s tbrour.'* ff^ dM^ 
tiimlt. 




HISTORY OP EUROPE. 



(179 



HfW. mffSk Ab cireoTnatance that, 
on: km xetum to Portugal, he did 
mtit pioeeed-direetly from France to 
'lAAm,^ hot repaired to London, 
•4iid'*qMBit i^early two months 
-atmmg'tfie princet and minittem of 
: tfie'iBoiiiiiry to ivhkh his own was 
tate^.-dotely fled, amongst whom 
h^ would receive no impresmo^s 
knl what w«re farourable to the 
flondiict whkh his duty Ireqnired of 
him. He arriyed in England in 
the end of December. The Por- 
tilgtieaa aubjects resident in Lon- 
&oln^ all of them lovers of liberty, 
because they enjoyed the blessing 
t/tlMng under its protection, as- 
sembled, so soon as he reached 
London, and waited upon him vrith 
•hi address, ia which they con- 
gt^tulated him on his present des- 
tanatkm '^ to secure the felicity of 
Forttlgal by supporting the laws 
of the kingdom, and the institu- 
^ons granted by our Great King 
and Lord, Don Pedro, and to real- 
ise the hopes which your generous 
aentinients, already announced to 
your august sister, have deeply 
engraved in the hearts of all Por- 
tuguese.* His royal highness 
thanked them, in general terms, for 
diexr attrition. He dropped no 
syllable from which it could be in- 
ferred what he thought of their 
hopes, or what he meant to do with 
tfao Portuguese institutions. He 
ranaihed in London, enjoying the 
pleasures of the capital, tilf the 
.lAiddls of February, when he sailed 
'for Bsrtugal ; and on the 22nd of 
tfa8t*month he arrived in the Tagus. 
"~Jn the mean time, the Princess 
^B^gent had assembled the Cortes 
^on the 2nd of January. She ad- 
dressed to them the following 
"ijfwech— the dying speech of her 
regency. — " For the third timeyou 
meet in this place to continue the 
useful hibours which the dharter 



of the Portuguese monarchy has 
confided in you. Your seal is al- 
ways the same* Every day new 
lights, the effect of calm experience, 
assure an honourable result to your 
exertions in the serYioe of the 
country. 

''You are not igttorant that 
much is still wanting completely to 
found and consolidate our political 
edifice. I do not doubt that you 
will now exert the most prudent 
diligence to accelerate the great 
work: the time is not long, but 
prudence and seal can effect much, 
and you have given sufficient 
proofs that you possess both. 

" The King, my august brother, 
who was inspired by a desire for 
our happiness to give us in the con- 
stitutional charter an indisputable 
proof of his wisdom and magnan- 
imity, trusts to you to realise this 
great enterprise, which was mo- 
tured in his mind the noUe title 
of his glory, and the invaluable 
pledge of the happinessof Portugal ; 
and all the worid now know ho^ 
you deserve this coniidence. 

"My beloved brother, the? In- 
fant Don Miguel, is charged by the 
laws iind the orders of his Majesty 
with the regency of this kingdom. 
His intentions, conformaUe to 
those of the king, our* august 
brother, have been manifestea by 
him ; and this event, agreeing with 
the political views of great nations, 
added to the measures of the go- 
vernment, has disarmed the par- 
ties, and calmed the agitations in 
the country, which wad a necessary 
consequence of extraordinary cir- 
cumstances. The government of 
a neighbouring nation, convinced 
of the true bonds which unite the 
reciprocal interests of the Peninsu- 
la, sinoerely opposes the attempts, 
which madly ambitious and restiesa 
spirits have not oeasedto make: 

[N2] 



180]. ANNFAL •HBQIfiTBRini828. 



rff Th^ ^ pfeture ot 4mr finances is 
lOfit titifi|i?iii|rafale tb the public 
tte^tcf the 'Stafee^ yet an uneit- 
pe<3tdd ttid unfoveieen event hasaf- 
ft^ted the intetests of the nation, 
aU ' especially the inhaUtaints of 
ihis capital. The government^ 
however, trusts, that, l^ the assist^ 
tnte which il has aiflbrded, and by 
the measures which have been* and 
will be adopted, lihe credit of the 
bank Will be shortly restored. 
- ^f We enjoy profound peace with 
fbraizn Powers^-a peace ^Mmded 
on aUianoes and on Uie geneiid in«r 
teiBsts. The government will neg^ 
lect no means to ensure the duration 
(Vf friendship with our allies, and the 
trsmquillity of the whole nation. 
Punne, then, the slorious career 
upon which you nave entered. 
Fwtugal looks upon you as the in- 
stminents which a great king em- 
plojrs to make it happy and flouzish- 
ingi; the 3dng takes lueasure in the 
punctuality with which yon answer 
his wise thoughts Be assured 
that his nugesty will be more and 
more «oniQrmed in his opinion of 
youit'fleal and prudence, and that 
tie srhole' nation will always look 
npon you as true friends of the 
country. I know well that you 
asK. no other inward for the incon- 
veniences to whidi you subject 
yourselves, and the exertions which 
you make to serve it. I acknow*- 
Ifdgd it, and do not hesitate to de« 
clbre it*; but it is certain that, for 
such generous minds, for true Por- 
tugurse, the highest reward is the 
entire approbation of the monarch, 
and: the grateful praise of their fel« 
low*^tizen8." 

< The passage of this speech which 
gave the greatest satisfaction was 
the. renewed assurance of the 
good dispositions of her expected 
suocesson When the princess told 
the Chambecs, chat *' much was stil) 



ntlng to oonsDlidiU»«the'pdBtfaii 
edifice^" she • ought 1o' >havei 4«dd 
them, diat, hitherto, tiathin^>lMUl 
been done, and that) the ifioui&dft 
edifice, from their own -inadli^fty 
and neglect, was ready to' laA uttoM 
their heads. Evety defMtmM 
of the administiation wtM in^GdilM 
fusimi; every department' wob liMU 
hie and useless exeept tlw 'pUkBi 
The police was the gDvemmeAii 
and it was agovemmentof tefrdf 
and oppression* Baslos' and hii 
minions were the rnHng powm^ 
sufiported by the apostSiov wM 
governed the regent, and van 
controlled by ministen, who 'either 
belonged to the same factkni^ 
and had therefore been raised to 
office, or were willing, horn want 
of principle, to favour any facfeibii 
wMch would retain them inoAce; 
— «The same sort of pexsens mme 
gradually returning to the aimy; 
from which they had been dismiss*^ 
ed by Saldanha ; and the whole 
march of the administratson be^ 
trayed a q;urit and an influenoe 
decidedly hostile to the new in-^ 
stitutions. Notwithstanding, too, 
the assuranoesB put in the mouth 
of the regent, that ''the state (^ 
the finances was not unfiivoma- 
able," they were in utter oonfti^ 
sbn. The credit of tJbe Bank 
was gone ; the loan of thepreeed* 
in^ year had disiiDpea«ied» ond^no-. 
thmg had been effected l^iit;) th^ 
ordinary revenues had been- ewal^ 
lowed up by anticipatibb^' 'the 
treasury was -empty ; a de&aencf 
in the accounts of the ytery.'fl^niil 
to a large proportion of' theusail 
income, was already fiiseseen ; m* 
stead of economy being 'practiseA; 
old offices were re-estabhshad; 
and new ones wpre ewatcd^i^Mk 
furnish the means of fetaining 
and rewarding ready instruments 
of servility. Fo this state matters 



HISTORY: OF: EUROPE./ V / pSli 



Ivid.eWe^ under the <way of the 
i*hflrte?«tid the Chambers. What 
#Quid^ ad*i||^orant popuhice thinh 
^f-tJui-nalllci of jBonstitutiQQal fomra^ 
^rilidh>4urHig4wo yean, had either 

aif tMUe to aot at all, oT) if they 
.hB9i) acting, had left the peo« 
JH»^ iira •atatej than which despot- 
isms 4Bpald not hai^ been Biore 
TnjiChjeYetisj and would have beeon 
faa'QHireJMgular? StQl, howereifr 
iib.^vas>inrtlie pow«r of the Chilm** 
betsF.to remedy all these evlla; 
and r4h& ^17 first step dhould 
hrfve beesB^'to-get rid of the crea- 
tures who iiUed the offices^ and 
abused, the powers^ of government. 
The financial embarrassments 
themselves would have aided the 
fcfannaticni* If the Chambers, 
when they now met upon the 
teitof January, had manfully de- 
clasad their detennination to with- 
]iold> money, till the administration 
should be in the hands of men 
nfhom they could trust, the apos- 
toUcs oeuld have made no senous 
resistance : and, if Miguel, when 
he^landed on the 22nd of February, 
had found a ministry of honest 
skid popular men in actual opera* 
Uon, instead of finduie weakness 
and iadifierence whidi invited 
atteek, Portugal might have been 
savadfhski thie misery and disgrace 
whaehi were so soon to visit her. 

'Ill only one point did the de- 
pitties'Shewi a. disposition to reach 
tfafi^evil at itb source. In our last 
vdhime* wehave- recorded the law- 
less-Mil fof the poHoe of Lisbon in 
tlks, preceding July, on oecasion of 
the ootery. raised in the capital, 
when Saldsnha was dismissed from 
^omnistry of warw By the char- 
ttof dtfim dedbredi that the Cham** 
hers;should inquire, at the com- 
nMncement of every session, whe« 



.fci>it>ii>ifci 



•'Viil.UIXip.974i 



ther any * violations of > th0 I con- 
stitution had taten i plage. during 
the recess* The committeei^ !(» 
whom ^le Chamber of deputieii 
now intrusted that duty^^ rUpoxt^ 
ed, that the imprisonnient^ which 
had been ordered in July at)A 
August, were oontrary to thexharf* 
terj thattfaemagistrateSjWhohad 
commanded them, ou^t ti^ hb 
pDosemited; and that Aiidrade,>- the 
minister -1 i€ justieci' oughft tocbo 
toOM^to tnalfof havii^ viMated 
ihft &WS, as well as private . ps^ 
perty, and usurped the powers 
which!belenged only to the^legia^ 
latute.' This sounded well^ bttH 
it vms not followed up. Why did 
the Chamber not act in the saane 
spirit in which liheir eomnutteu 
had reported? Why cBd they not 
take their Aand upon th^ grou»d> 
that the men in the servioeef the 
state wete violators of the consti**^ 
tution, and insist on .tiheir 4«ir 
missal, if they were too" timid 'tor 
caU for their pttfushnient? " N& 
more was required to sweep dwaif ' 
the whole swaim of reptiles that 
had crawled into office-^^andi 'it 
was in vain to water* and oherisi: 
the plant, while the insects weqe 
allowed to destroy eveiy pioaMae 
of fruit. The report of the. 
committee remained a dead letter 
•—a mere opinion. The magis^ 
trates and mmister, whom it con-r 
demned, laughed it to scorn. They, 
aotedandffovemed as diey plpased;. 
the Chamhers were salasfied Witk' 
talking. They took into their 
consideration a law fok* regulating 
the liberty of the presa-^whieh 
was aU very proper, although they, 
therein voted by a majority that 
the Portuguese nation was better^ 
instructed and more enlightened 
than any other, and then provided,, 
te a conaequeiice of this modest 
postulate^' that the^uaUficalibn'fot' 



lU] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



a p^ttf jator ihoald be an annutl 
mCiouLe, whether from indaairf or 
{M-opertf, of ^0/. a year, which 
would hate put into the box, twerj 
joum^man and chimney-sweep in 
Lisdwn. It wss no wonder that 
the enactment, and the proposition 
an whiK^ it wae fouaded, ehould 
ham been oppeied by a poweifui 
minority with a strong protest. It 
was very oxoeIlent» tooy in the de- 
-puties to enter, as they did, upon 
« revision of the judioaal ^rateai) 
ihan whieh nothing required more 
.radical changej more thorough 
amendment; and the scheme 
whieh was eubmitted to them for 
that purpose by M. GnerreirQ^ 
displayed great ability and clearness^ 
as well as much moderation and 
prudeooe. In doinff all thia, th^ 
were doing well, if they had not 
neglected what was more piessing^ 
ly indispensable* They knew that 
the c^fititution waa yet far from 
having taken firm root; every day 
ibrced upon them the «]nvictio«» 
that the government was in the 
hands of men who were using ail 
the powem of their office, and all 
tha resources of intriguei to lower 
it i$i the dust; they knew that 
these men, strong only by impu- 
nity, but as yet without ttystem ur 
^ead> anxiously looked forward 
to the arrival of the new regent 
as to an event which would give 
tbem a chief in the very head d 
the government iUielf: yet they 
iame^ allowed these persons to 
retain office, and nature their 
schemes; they exercised no. one 
of the prerogatives which the 
constitution had vested in them 
for the very purpose of providing 
against similar dangers; they 
went on haranguing and voting 
on abstract tlieorenub while the 
sword was suspended above their 
down it eane vfim. 



Ihtiti, and cut Ami M nmm 4lil^ 
political apeecfaea» tM HieirrfoiM^ 
eal ekisteliee. 

The Chamber af Faeia, dUfM^ 
the interral that elapaed beiwrtS 
the iMsefliUiiig of the CeHia a^ 
l^e arrival of Don MiMd^ 'mim 
occupied Wi«h the ttafl «f Hia 
biahep of Elvaa^ thie aNs^uii ik 
Fronteiia, eaunt Taipa» ^i»df tke 
count da Cunha» Tliew Ibtf^ 
noblemen had been aeeutwd, fa^ thfe 
apettolie head of the polieef tf 
eticottraging and abetting Ike U^ 
ben riots of the preoedw itt^ 
the impriaemnantt iaiieied on ^m^ 
oouat of whk^ were dedaiwl hf 
the oonmiteee of thfa Cblfenbar tf 
Deputies lobe oibBtase agsfaai Ilia 
conAitutian. The change was f^ 
leered toa eommktee, wh» lep J li 
ed| that, as the preper ArlM iMd 
heen observed in ihe previiM* m^ 
oedure of the depftltoMit^ wUah 
Ixought forward the atfPi»Miai|» 
jthe aoeHsatien ftuat ba teoei«ed» 
asid the four peershe put vtpon tMr 
tci^ before the (Camber. fiMias 
and hia adminiatnititm wauld isi^- 
lingly have dta,Wn hafek fton A 
chinge, whioh had been get up mt 
mste falsehaod» for %h» purpaie 
of calumniating and hiiaxaidatB^ 
and whidi would now lead ^ aa 
iavestigaition that threatoned im- 
pleasani disclosures ; but tha<aa» 
oused insiAed on iafauy^ ior the 
purpose of eatposfag &a epiiit aad 
measures of the addusuiflnitioik 
The details ai the tiial would 
aess no iatereet ; the evidence 
that of the creatures of Hasten 4n 
which even courts martial had 
already refused to convict "a wwar 
of absurdity, contnidiothmt aad 
penary. When it was conelwda^ 
the biahep of fivas vm the «4f 
one of the aeouaed whoaaida wand 
in hia defence. The other noble- 
men woaU net diigwee tbenr* 



HKTOttY OF EUilOPie* / / im 



creanU and their ea{doy«r ; $ni all 
lll^ifiiur Wtf^ iBiMatljr fic^itted. 
JififlSQhhommiwr, w$^ now beyond 
Ibft vseed) of ^ger cmt tbame. 
J'befeei9:weve eequitted op th# 
in «f Umhi J)im MiKi«el bed 
itrriffid iwi . the ^Snd of February, 
t AB^k» Mrpocted Airivol i^f the 
WMT re^Ml^ drew nearer, the wj^o^ 
^ietr beeame more bold aud active. 
Hithe rto thoir had been allowed to 
idol ag^aiiuit the coofttitution wijih 
plpfcctiitpuaitf : beoeefoFth* tbey 
yHiiflttd»'they were to plot againel 
in as a duty, under the protection 
of dift.aupreme authority. Publi- 
oitiooA were industriously circu- 
latad through the kingdom, in 
Whj^ they not only caUed upon 
the peop&e to orertum the new in- 
etUutioB9 as derogatory to the 
i^rianiJ cbancter, heatile to re* 
)i^n« an iavention of wicked 
foen, "tnutora to their country/ 
but plainly declared^ that Don 
Podio, from whom they had eoa- 
lMrted» eould not ioteifeve in the 
aiflhtrt of the ktngdoin, because he 
had no li^ts in it : that he had no 
title to the crown of Portugal* 
and thflvelOBe had no power to send 
then |i vieo^roy : that the young 
{irinoe,who wasapproacfaingas their 
regent, was in truth their king; 
that he oiuat be hailed as king— 
aa.kittg in hia owa righ t a nd as 
aa- absolute king. Lest any fiim- 
pl^-mSflded man should fall into 
the onxir of sapposing that Don 
MigMMd tti^t speak sinoerely, they 
fiitther warned their countrymen 
** not to be deceived by the words 
put into his mouth by the free- 
aaa a o ns b y the bastard Portuguese, 
aoU io the EngUeh govenuneat*— 
hf 'iihe indsors to their countiy. 
inie restorer of the monarchy 
oomes aaaoiig you* Run ea^er^. 



lo meet aud salute bw fl^^ iYOMi 
king. Long live oar holy reJii^jou) 
I^ng live our absolute lung Do^ 
Miguel i I^ng live the^ boa»? gf 
Braganza ! I^ooK Uve tb^.j:e»tar«4 
monarchy."* This was tbeXi^x^ 

• The followinff "Protect," which 
wai eireulated duHeg ianiMUy and 
Fobnuff » wiU sarv* as a saaiplfr of 

^^ in the DHme of Uie most bolj au4 
undivided Trinity. 

**The Porta^ue«e nation, oppr«^Md 
and bfttiufcd by wUikcd factions, wttW 
eat a IflifHimate king or ^vetnwfut ta 
dirlend U, and deprived of ^1 the mtaas 
of makinK itself heard authoritatively 
throuf^h its legifilative representatives^ 
or the delegates of the three esutes af 
the kiugdom* uAiog the only facuMj 
whi«h is aow left Ui the voice of its owe 
oooscietu^e, prote»ts-^ 

'^ First,— That, as longM Don Miguel 
(vho was snatched from the Portugueat 
hy the perfidy of the eaeniies of God* «f 
kings, and of ineo) sbaM live* tiiey wiU 
not jtckDOHTl edge sa kiag of Portugal vpf 
other prince but bicn ; because bif 
elder brother, the ftrat^bom aon of the 
late king, was, before tbe death «f his 
augttst father* naoifaliaed a Bmaiiiaa* 
coBstkuted emperor of BiaslU aud ra^ 
cognized as a forjeiga sovereign by tM 
coDStitution of that state, and by aiplo* 
matic acU of all Europe, Portugal v^ 
el«ded ; and because, as a fowiga somu 
laigo, the emperor of Braal if txciadad 
fEOtt the euccession of Portugal by the 
f^ndameDlal laws of tlie kingdom, which 
expressly prohibit a foreigner from 
wearing the crown ef PortiigaJ. Hut, 
fvea 4boagh theee fundamental laws 
did not exist, he ceuld not be king af 
Portugal ^^^ ^* nev^r been admitiedj 
nor can it be admitted, that nations am 
to be foreigners in the eye of their 
legitimate kings, as the Portagaast now 
are in the eyes ef Oon Pedrp I. of Amail, 
entitled, coutrary tp the r\ghu of 
nations, Don Pedra IV. of Portugal. 

" Secondly,— The Portuguese protestj 
that they will never recngniae, es fun- 
damental laws of the monarchy, oc as the 
constitution of the state, any other con- 
stitution than that which ionoed Por- 
tugal into a hereditary munarchy at the 
Cortes of Lamego, which Don Johu VL 
proposed to restore by tbe decsoe of the 
4th of Jane, 1824, ia calling to meot in 



«8l] ANN«[A1L 'mBGISnrER;ni828. 



jgcmgeML^kummese' ihi'daigas of 
iiieb, ^fiiuwi'the OofiKliad tanielj^ 
Ulbwed^'io^relflfai' tte udvAauAn^ 
tidii <lfthey wwuu» nv oiid quietly 
to'^Btttetli^i!' iutti 'triumph over 
evetyJiopervf liberty sod justice. 
I' -Siofr'M^uU landed at Lisbon on 
t)heiKdiid,(^ Febraatyi amid loud 
addUlKialioiis fVom the asseeiUbd 
^opviftGew The motcton and die 
t0io|» sbooted ** Long live the In^ 
Ami f* but, from -the eDowd^ a £bw 
vdoes^weie heard to fdoethecry 
^•LoRg live- Don- Migud tlM 
sbBDiirte king." The Prince be4 

I > , iim H r » I I m i I " ■ ^^»»-»ii I III « III 

tbe Cortes the three estates of the Iting- 
dbiii. Atf for what fs called the consti* 
Vii^nal cfakirter givto by Don P^ro I*, 
tbor enferor of BnaW, tbty ppotett 
9gai|i9t it iiji be'iag the work of a fore.ig;ii 
soirereigDf who had by the laws no right 
to impose it, as (he Portuguese neither 
ii^kedforit'tior weti consulted on the 
mktj^t^ aa U' wis made by socrieties of 
fittaaMyvms,' atidloonfiiintd by the said 
Pqi], fff^To, aa ch)^f of the Masonic 
M>4§e8 of Portugal and Brazif, who 
^llejl iifms^tf a xnason in his letters to 
J4tt AWga^t filther'f as ft pHcee the kings 
of Pdblugid>miderT8itralnt^ making the 
ei|erc|9ie'«C tha.fnvareigBty, and other 
ap^ of itwajtyy depend upon secondary 
p6vers like tne two Chambers ; as ft 
iSstMlTshes iti this kingdom heretical 
hdulesf^nd^ worship reproved by the 
hdlyiOailfaoiiO'idnucb; and because H 
Mrtpitff the. Portuguese to abandon with 
iippunity: the holy religion of Jesus 
CilrTsr, of which toey engage to be the 
dlamploAa lutfae sa^rement of baptism. 
Cm aeooimt of til * these subversive 
fiSlaetirfes which attack the altar and 
t(te^ thpone, they declared the charter 
ihfrasive, null, and void. 
' •"'Thirdly,— They protestagafnst the 
d#tCJkiliaii of 'the kifimt Don Miguel In 
any foreigik state by vMonce, by artifice^ 
or on l^ay pretence whatever, as his de« 
tention abroad increases and multiplies 
the bitter evils which oppress the nation. 
•'^** Ffitorthly,— They protest against ail 
sngyesttanst hrtrfgnes, comlilnatloiiSf' 
cabals, machinations, meditated^ iatend'- 
f^i or executed, in aay mode or manner 
w|iat^er, with the object of destroying 
^ present protestation, or any part 



lfay«d no SBliirfai tMii«fcit /thiftp >«■» 
006881008 ' of ' seditioBlJ ' y HtMnitB^ 
he went in »iBte» to-thenaBAidiil 
tx> oflfer thai^ far4iu.«AialDmib 
Along'the vrhold iiil&i«>E)4fa0i^^ 
cession he wto^ocepmnallyfttilfftsd 
witih thtf same disloyal)ifaiifi6, «B 
he reoetved them> wftthmb^-sSHD^ 
indx^voioB. .Ths^/ hmmpdri^Jn 
ooihe only iram • the *ki«resfa -d rma 
populace; they seeeiirddriid/ooBBa 
tehance either ten^thidlnilitMr^^'iir 
from the gtea« bodyio£ tfpebtateni 
Strata^ as weie tdie fuuttkal^isdl 
despotic- prindpks -of'' hia soydl 
highiiesri, he did not teeaa-inkMa 



■ 1 - - 



'" Fffthly,— Finally, tWjy pi-ofcie, 
outil'the arrital of Dw MinieMn Mj 
tngal, in the plenitude of hU lilMrti^ 
ajiainst any writing or writing ^^pd^ 
whatever title ascribed to this prince', 
or signed by him in his captivity, ift« 
tended to oonthidiet, detract -fr*i«,'Oif 
annal, the whole or aay .pait^ai-.tM 
doctrine of this protsat* b^causi^> fn^ 
writings must be apocryphal, or diaw^ 
up under moral or physical coercfb^. ' 
' ^They declare and eonderati, M 
sobversive, all doctrlMa paUished-taif 
tiaasmitted bert with the o^oact of a«|ir 
porting in whole, or in pa{t» the ac|s qr 
matters against which they protest. 

"They declare void, of noeftct, 
and sacrilegious,' any ooontaf^pitrteft 
which amy appear, is snah doemieiil 
must be oontcary to trilby aad yk p p ? 
leilged as such. And the Foraigucsie 
nation, prostrate before the ' tiirone ' lif 
the most High, swears, ih t&e ilans^ %f 
the Lord, never to ^deslst^frons^'lM 
protestatioa—alVttrea aall' (4«|e^\aU 
the principles, n^eani^ aa,4 enpp (9|hi 
posed to this oath — impToi^es, tne soc* 
cour and justice of Clod against th«^^ 
presskms and the* taraatlte'tff -HiMO^iU 
orders and coi^jtuaaaU Poatafnaqf^ idisi 
by the grace of God ara,99ot.J|i|^4^ 
with revolutionary doctrines»or Iny^fed 
in secret societies, to protect ana iAkltUI 
this protestation, without ddubt, HMMt 
dianffautlon, and without additlte, > 



the aatioa isahle» by meaaaoflilanojf 
true constitution of the khu^i' 
consume its execrable cnemie^.^ 
whom mky divihe ^ovidenc^^ 

ali-tme mti%itess.«-^ikttMii4'* 




fHISlORY OB ZUROFCkl */! A [I8S 



viiiraoii^ dtfaer to detlmiie has 
liiilhrfl'ui lij'o^^trtuni his UiuIIm^'s 
dfanMHitibB. . aBoiind, in tkcifaee 
•tfi$iinSpe(«to<MludtotiaD5 bjr 
iD^aimy ^ t atuffifgBmeatgf, towt as 
Om ,aifMt£y ai kis brother's 
powBi^vIe dlrfaiidBrdf his-biother's 

2hti^>«Dd the' kdmintsfaator «f 
It ^reif'tmtitMlwmi lie piobahly 
anmd'ineliiied to yidd a suUen 
andr*4tilwd}iBg< obedianee. • His 
1Mb' had qk^ady'showo, thac, as«ii 
InlriBMiUiiiti the hand of othevs^ 
fhfvs waa adnrody any ammmfr'tif 
jntuktntnk 'Wtasmatj at which he 
would stop : buty of himself, he 
gqwwly would have plunged into 
th^ izxeoot^mUe inftuny with 
wlAdi treason to his present duties 
wbuM overwhelm him. But^what* 
eVer Daight be his own indinationif, 
Wkfoi^natriy-for Portugal and for 
hitosrify he fell, upon his arrival, 
itrtb Blinds to which natureJ afieo- 
iibix gave authority, although they 
had never been used except to push 
hint ibrwazd to crime and disgrace. 
Tile queen mother had been the 
curse of her kingdom, and of her 
ffumly — ^fanatical to madness in 
veligum, inveterate to very insanity 
Ita her hatred of every thing that 
spdke of Hbetty, ever ready to burst 
the bonds even of all natural hfko 
liosb if (hoy restrained her from 
hi^Dtiy • and -oppresaon— attached 
ib hc^ Ml Miguel only because she 
hkd ti^nhied hSn to J[)e the express 
iviBge q( her own baseness — and 
exemsing a despotic control over 
hi^ %nonuit* mmd, because her 
^x^ls tievt^ deviated, even by 
acadent or nustake, into the paths 
q( honour and manliness whidi he 
had shja«9d»^unadonied by even 
<ttMf st^taty qualification of s queen, 
tb n^eem the absence of every 
virtue of a woman or a wife* From 
the momenttliat hat ho^ul soot 



ietanied»' shd i rniassuwii hiM;jsii» 
limitad ast fftnAin rjr 'otepthiN>> ^Xht 
prastsaite anhiisBJait^pt^iA »»riiri 
to the fut«wiB.^pasriyia»*d6nMs 
fDother^weDtfasyotidifiiiaMaii^ot^nil 
and has reii§iooa hi^otiy.«iwii mva 
level ' with hiS' - filial iitiiMi4km. 
When he entared ihe ipiMlioe'iilf 
Ajiida, thenfore^ he ^ealtfod^ltha 
defti of the'florcaresa; .and»s h eiiya^ 
both his^superstitionk .in ih&iavie 
nut: ' His mother, who knbW hral 
weU/ Idvaaned to reoeive hiia ;*hm 
fell on his kneel 1 and Idss^.. her 
hand, as if she had been-a s w p ui is 
being, and, taking from his breas^ 
an ima^e of the vuron ot the rods, 
he ex^aimed amid teass» "Sea 
with what fidelity I have pseservsd 
the r^lic whkh ytm gav6 meM 
parting.** From that moment the 
old queen's influenoe — aninjCtoeaos 
under whidi he^hadattenptedcto 
dedirotie, and would have'^assaini^ 
natedhis&ther-was r6-est«bKshe8L 
At the first interview she io^£^4 
him with the idea ibatiSveiT^Umg 
which he had heard iihiaado£> Ihe 
charter was a - ddnsioni^^-^hat' >the 
friends of the new ;iniieitcftibn$ 
were Freemasons and i^iS^^ 
whoy joimng with, the* pavfidM 
ous English, bveatiied aelhjttg 
but murder and vengeance agidt^ 
the house of Braganxa. The siate 
of the administiatinn aided tbie4^ 
lusion. He found that befriends 
of the constitution had be^iiinsibtt 
to maintain themselves in the pqs^ 
session of power, and he would 
conclude that they were aol.sup* 
ported by popular favour. The 
official world, with which he wito 
necessarily brought into contac^ 
confirmed the counsels of- his 
moUicr, and the bias of hisewa 
incliMtionsi 

The act, which made him i^^nt^ 
had declared, that hie was to be 
regent to govern according to ikhe 



t6<3 ANNUAL REGISTB&,':1828. 



Bj tlMfc charter ke ^Mild 
■M oflt M n^mtt wM, in Uuit 
wtf^tfphm hid teksn mi oalk to 
idteeinre tbe baititiituMi* To have 
fiffliJ this *<w<^<*M»« wouid have 
heat to throw off the ouflk too 
hoilUf ; ebdit wm retolved there* 
foe dbst he ikoiild tehe the eeth» 
orif to aamire the cojoiriiieiit of an 
additional hixarsr in the pei)petm» 
tiaftafaaadditmial perjury. On 
the finirth day after his ariifal 
(iK6th Fehniary)^ in pmmee of the 
tiro dmnberB of the Cortex and 
«f theaaaemUedoourt, he loleainly 
awavs to obserre the oonatitudooy 
fmd to oauae it to be observed in aU 
iia partly as ettabliahed by the 
ehaitea. This Tsry aet^ whi^ 
aught to have quieted apfxehea- 
tioHi «t least for a tiaie^ was the 
ihat thiiiff that excited suapicioii of 
his i nt s atia s M * It was iwnarhffd^ 
that, the nanner in whieh he took 
ikosith waa^awkward and pieoi* 
ipilate^.thsit the duhe de Cadond, 
waddeat«Qf the chamber of peen» 
af!whGin it was adnuBSstarad, so 
■laoad fahaasif as almost to OMdade 
the icgawt finai view; that the 
latter lapested the words in a tone 
ao hnsv that even the membem of 
thw chamhen, who were nearest^ 
hsaad not what he said. Nay, it 
was doubtfial whether he had 
4ittesad a mocd^ ior, he was said to 
hnme eachaasedy on retmning to his 
afaitaMotB» ''Well I have gone 
thvaafih the eereanony of swearing 
to the Waiter, hat I have 




and a auhiwuiani craafw of 4a 
qnaea mother. The poatfoBo af 
tiM infearier was givon to M»«Laito 
de fiarrot* of wttom- it is 
to say that ha had/haUtha 
offiee daring the tamyamryi 
of Don Migoel'a rebfJlioa.agHinai 
his father in 1M4. The aijpsaiii 
of JHstioe was given IP M^Fuatada 

^^^0 4''AAaa^^w^^n^H^ai^n ^w asa^^ ^^^v ^^ a*a^^wa^^Bwa^n^^^^r 

only for servility aad a eaenty. AL 
Lauaaa was amde minittaf of 
finance, a nwpecteble» bat* 
less man* who, dud^ tho 
eamestiy desired peBnisabnte 
sign, SBora than onee, but 
alwaya cefnsed. To h^ in 
measure, pubUc atnawheosinn, tho 
ministry oif walr» and, mi inkrim^ 
that of foreign affinrly waie givan 
to oount Villa Eeal, a tried a»d 
worthy finieod of the oonstitntiai^ 
This was tbeenly mNniBatian thM 
oottkl insfaae eoafidenee; it was 
foeesoen that it would aeon dia^ 
appear; and, while it leQuuned, it 
oauid be ao eounterbalanoa to m 




»$ 



The next day he annoanoed tho 
ehoiee whidi he had amde of his 
ministers, and that choioe an- 
Bonnoed lihat the cenatitution had 
no finnur to eapeet At the head 
of the ministry he placed the duhe 
da Oadoaal, the first peer of Portu* 

e,aDdaUiad to the royal iamily ; 
; witihffnf ii ' i h a rant nr ttt 



Tho annottneeesent of the 
ndniatry, thenefore, operated hloa a 
pi^die c^aauty* AU bofiinnif in 
Lisbon came to a stand- ■ TW 
neper maney last isMBadiafeefar dd 
per cent, t the late loan bone as 
mioe whatever; the iiotes of Has 
bank* which had got onto iwlfsi 
per cent distount, ft& io> ^ piv 
oent ; and» in censeqiicBce>of tliilk 
the Bank, whjeh was to ha«a 
qiened its paymento that vfayidaf* 
a&aid of the aun, and «f what 
might yet fiiUow, p ostpdoed ila 
payflaeats indetecauBiatelf , Oatha 
other lumd^the saob, that had teo» 
taught to shoat in aa lahsohste 
long, iiom that momenta wawad 
bohkr aad moie ontp^goouat 
Every onaniag they aefmshod the 
luoen motheib b q a a a t h hor wi»> 



HI8TQBY OF EUROPE: i\ 



t)8t 




MMi, fvSA' tfidr wdUiuHH oefesi t# 
wUbh tfaif nowyided '' Long Uve 

"^JXrnn vtMi ^e Coiutitulioii.'' 
Tbtt naMliKy wtro ovderad not lo 
jurtoslm wi^ tluem, aad the bow 
jHinoi> minifclir ditltiibulod money 
Ikeoh TkM6 oaihilitlioiui 
aot OKpraMOtts «f poplar 
Tl» wrolohesv who per- 
ilieai, hiMi BO oentimcBto 
of tUrowa; tkey. wdfe ]iii«d and 
tetond s no re^ectalde ialialiitaat 

speoUo^gaoetCts of tke go* 
to annoiiBoo wbat it 
or btfendad to do, in a 
da^e wfakli nagbt faa lued asa 
y a mcat fer doing it> 

A BMii^ dflriog and detasive 
aeanta MHaediatBly foUowod. The 
iwgeatlMdIuBBddielstof March 
tm laoiivine the ccpgratulatkiag 
nf iIm aojal a cad e m y of Lbboo^ 
and aloMMl ail the eauitiers aad 
pnblic fonotianaries. attended the 
leaee^ The rtgcnt's laob, which 
had lufeherto heen foond idways at 
the laJnoai iadeed^ but always aut^ 
a£ then» wai adauttad, on this 
iafto the inner yaids of the 
Ajuda, aad the Tiakoia, who anivad 
to pay their i aa pc ct» to the repre*- 
aon^ativaaf their aaveieigay found 
tha whda azUMt af the hall, or 
pnlaoa antnnce^ which is withai 
^ hail ding, oeeapied hy d>e feroii 
eanii^ nigf^ vodfenftiag gaai^ 
Aa eteiy camtga anteredihe ha9» 
jla4locapaiit was detained* threat* 
Odd, and ahuaad, until he apoail 
aaMenI to ahoiA fer '< Raligion/' 
and «' The Absalnte King/' and 
iiik %rithin aeaoh of the ardien' 
gaatd. Their oiitragea» natuv^y, 
ware ^ledaUy dixeeted against aM 
wito weta hMtm to he friends af 
the oonstsHitioni. The paftnaiBch 



of Lnban Uaisei^Mtwkbstwidui 
his leaeoRid f^fm^ 9oA, 



sastaadaiiff 
apostoUon 



m 

garii was roaipeUeH not enl^rto 
repeat sevcial tiflMB the wioifei» 
tkms of the niab« but ta give tioMi 
his benediction^ whilst he htiaa0lf 
.was abused as a Liberal and a Fai»> 
ausobi Count da Cnaha»t»ne af 
4he faur noUesaen who had beaA 
acquitted that Toxy morning bytha 
Chamber af Peers^ was or^EffBd 
uam his carriage^ and beatattk ife 
escaped into tm hall of thaaiohcBS' 
Mard, but the ruffians followid 
hiai Into the vexy iatoriae of the 
• pdaoe ; and his liib »«ald hata 
been sacrificed, bad not annB offi- 
eeis sunounded kim with their 
drawn aabaes* General Caula» laa^ 
who had dbtinguadied himaalf lail 
year by his fidelity and proaplb- 
ittda in suppeesang the aeralt of 
the garniaa of the fifftseai. af 
Elras, of which he - was igofamaay 
was viaked by siaular makiaau 
aeeat. He was now aamnamdat 
ofthegainaoBofLisha& Inlte 
aapacity he was preseat ah dnp 
aeoasioa to racaiTe f nmt the regent 
the watch«wfl»d of ^e h^lil 
Havina sefused ta obey the- aaan^ 
dateof theawbyjor to shoot ftMrtha 
absolute king^ he eras attachad wilh 
atoiaeSj aad aicsr bis iiiiagp Iwa 
heea broken to pieces^ it:n 
difficulty liiat he, aS last, 
with his life. 

While all this waagoBi|, 
in the Ihnila af the palase vi Dan 
Miguel regent of Portagal^ ha 
refused to allow any atep.to he 
taken to quell l^e ziotenk Tha 
answer which he sent to the sav 
peated applioatiotts of the eaplasi 
dL lite gnard fi» aiders -to di lyase 
then, was^ ^' Take bd notioe of it" 
(Nno fessa oasa)^ 'and hts paiaK 
nanister, who Mae, so soon as &e 
told them his naaie) had been id^ 
lowed to pass nnquestioaad by the 
maby stoad lauf^us^ at ene af tha 
paiflqa wiW '^^y apa;iiniawingthiitaiTWBft 



m] ANNVJbli iRE'<»I8>TERy 1828. 



^.,,Xhci^ <Mn?^" no uamegning 
«w! ^..'.wBXitQn putxiige. The 
\iM^le scttif^rfPolce voliimes. The 
mbt'^4^ ^e^riol waspenniUed, 
t|ie/|9ljjectQ£ the xiotec8> the per« 
ion^ I whom ihey specially selected 
for, UiiuU aqd vioience, the pas^ 
siYef^e^s of the prince> whose dig* 
nj^jTt if he had not directed it^ was 
degnided.b3r its existeiice-<-*aU told 
thq^coQstitutioQalistsArery ph<My^ 
^t \!hrute ibrce was pr^aring 
agaf|:|st thenu aful tl^t their su^rest, 
^fi^y ^wovdd he foimd ia absence.. 
'.Wjben some days had, ehips^ 
wittiout the authorities taldng any 
notice of the transaction^ count 
Ti^nay one o£ the acquitted peer$> 
mpae' ^ notion concerning it in 
the chambei:, and supported it by 
a. speedfv which exhibited^ amid 
the pceyailing aervility or. timid 
pissiyr^ness, a. manliness that was 
refreshing* ''The events," he 
ff which had recently taken 
ini the capital had excited so 
a degree of alarm Uiat hua* 
of fenllies were on the point 
01 Jfapinjj. the country, and would 
G^rpcy^ ,wuh them great wealtk 
AU who nossessed the means of 
living in roreign , countries talked 
of^emiprnting; hnt such an emi- 
g|:|fUioh woiiul constitute an epoch 
a^ areadful to Portugal as the loss 
a|t,)uing, Sebastian in Africa; and 
it wght perhaps be realixed^ if the 
(Juunber did not dissipate the 
olpsf^i^re atmosphere with which 
a faction had surrounded the re- 
geilf/' by making him aequainied 
vidA'the real state of the nation* 
Sqpn..fl^r the.airival of the r»- 
gmi, * hised gronpt began' to as^ 
iSBiliieiround tlie'palaee, and cried 
'life Bon Miguel^ the absolute 
kji^g!' 'Down with the Chsjrterl' 
A pear #f.. the..Jm9domi eominff 
out ef lbs oomi) waa>ittndted and 




life by flight.* Genwil iCc^il^ 
commandant of Xisbon^..^ .^e^ 
perienoed the same .trwt|ip#f|iy 
when> in the eaoocati^n oJT Mifi: 
duty, he cans Xo* veom»,%lni^)fp^ 
gent*s orders. Th^* princOv-foC* 
Schwartsenberg i^as likewi^^ fii|n 
suited. Amidst these eveiiM»(it)^ 
flovernment remained ^fam,y(^ 
Not even a proclamation iii^.^^. 
approval of them had been imed; 
no^pioceedings had been^oi(darid 
to be instituted against, the .j(xi|ir' 
tors who had committed, jnifhr 
atrocities. Tzaitom. t^ey ,.wef^,£. 
because men^ who raided- thf^ 
voices for a king, who was ^not 
their lawful monarch, were nol; Icp^ 
traitors than those who cried £}|rp 
republic." After pointing, out' the 
neoessity of an authentie te^oMoof. 
of the regent's disapprobation, ^f 
these transactions^ he moved. thipk 
the ministers should be re^esEtci^ 
to come to the chamber to aninprer 
questions 6n the subject. 

Count Villa Xteal, the only 9ae 
of the ministers who was presepi,. 
opposed the motion as prenufe- 
tur& He allowed that ministers 
were bound to bring the^. txai^ 
actions under the notice. oC the 
r^nt; but it was only aftpr it 
should be ascertained whethfsr:or 
not they had remained silen^. 4|«t, 
it could be judged how (ax ii^. 
had performed Uieb .d^ty.^ >r J%Rb 
ing accused count Tarn { of .ip^J**"' 
cretion in speaking of ^^fiiWwitt. 
surroundins the tWone^" a^)unr/T. 
ing assured the <^hamner .ttia^ijfu^, 
knew of no such ta^tioni (ftivil^ 
Taipa replied^ "I han^. heefi.i?^*, 
sureid for saying that ^e J^^Ajat^^ 
surrounded by afaetknw-^ ^fffH} 
not accustomed to retract' n^ «^, 
sertions, and in the woid^-pCi^Pti 

French poet I.sha}lspy^^..;*:..„,rHi 
' Je 1e dirals encore^ st j*avass ^ le,4ju^.«if , 

When l^9CioBs$fii tht dviil^;>/qf* 



HISTORY* OP BUttOPfir' ^ ^ (M 



]Bfe^n I Mt tbftt I hdd in this 
ctonber A ' post of honour, in 
wbldh'if 'wai my duty, if neces- 
fl^, ^ di^ in the same manner as 
I beM myaelf, when I entered the 
^felrvite/ ready to die*in the field 
of^liattle. If I may not freely 
s^k hiy opliliony I shall be no 
better than Caligula's horse. That 
snteal wore the robe of a Roman 
sebaffor; and I, like it, shall ap^ 
pear bere in the dress of a Portu- 
guese peer. I therefore persist in 
nty motion." On the question 
bdhg put, there were for the mo- 
tion seven ; against it, twenty-four. 

In the Chambw of Deputies, too, 
onthesame day (7th Manch), M. 
Magalhaes, die same member, who, 
in the preceding session, had pro- 
posed an address for the dismissal 
of the ministers, brought forward 
the' subject of the riots and sedi- 
iSans cries. He mored that the 
mixiisters should be called on to 
give information respecting the 
measures adopted to punish the 
offenders and prevent the recur- 
rence of such practices. The 
chamber unanimously agreed to 
th6 motion : but it leid to no re- 
sult; forthefunctionsof theCham-^ 
hers were speedily at an end. 

The steps, which the regent now 
took towards his object, were more 
open .and direct. Not only the 
mat mass of the respectable popu- 
Ettibn pf Li&bon remained true to 
the CQtistitutibn, but, what was 
infinitely mote disagreeable to the 
ooiirt party, the military had 
shewn no desire to Join in the 
scenes of sedition which had been 

Stten up. Many of them had done 
rd duty for the constitution in 
the field against the rebellious 
legiohs of Chaves ; and their good, 
dii^p^itions found strong encou- 
ragement, as well as an excellent 
el£iimple> iti the firmness of general 



Caula^who oommafhdM tlfe''^aiVi 
rison. The regenV set'abcmt.cdir^ 
rupting them If disniiiH^g j^ 
n^ral Caula. Next dl'tihe cStf 
stitutional officers cf Ae jg^stAsdii 
were dismissed, and theur pkoell 
were filled by officers devoted to the 
designs of the court. ViU^ ned,^ 
the rainister-at-war, rather thai!^ 
sign these decrees, resigned ihi$ 
portfolio, but he stHI consent^^ 
and was allowed to retain huf 
place as ministerforfbre^ aff&lr^* 
while the war department was 
immediately given to an ^)ostolic 
of the name of Pardo. Tne con- 
stitutional governors of the pror 
vinces were next deprived of thdf 
offices, and succeeded by officers; 
obedient to the opposite faction. 
.Finally, orders were sent to Spain 
to the notorious Chaves, to Vetum 
to Portugal with his band^, t6' 
receive from hiis gratefiiV master 
the reward of having seped liini 
so well in rel)elIiott. f tj wtw 'ftti^ 
important object with -the. ctjur^ 
to gain the assistance of the iroo^ • 
of Chaves, as, notwithkahdin^ 
the changes of the officers, Tt could 
not reckon either on the neguter 
army, or on the mijitia. 

The shameless proceedings of 
the regent threw Lisbon itstir 
consternation. It was clear that' 
the destruction of the constitution 
was resolved on ; and what iiian^' 
who was known to be a friend of 
the constitution, could expect ihercy 

* The reason of ooimt Villa Rtal'a 
remaininflp In office, after the deagnt of 
the court bad been to openly declared^ 
was explained to bi*, that the fbrelgn 
ambassadors, seeing the mteehiovoiiS- 
tendency of the court, and appitheiAihre 
that, if a fanatic obtained the manage*- 
nient of the foreign relationa of Porlii-r 
gal, the usual communicatiotis nitghl 
be interrupted, requested himlo i^e'Risiii^ 
in the Foreign*offioe, and lie relachinlly 
contented to a UmpofAry raocifl^e- ictf' 
his feelings. 



Wa] ANI^UAt RBGI6TER, 1628. 



TTOnl k pttAcs t6 wnotii trraflDii} 
fM9j, atid peHuty Imd become 
«> ' faliiiHar. T&e remit, which 
^()ttnt Taipft had foretold in the 
Hd^ ^ Pe6ft, tra« taking place. 
Tfa« egMtttntionaMBtfl were pre* 
fikting in erowdB to leave the 
eMdtiy ; ihe capital was sonk in 
despair. The hopelessneaa of their 
condition seemed to be increased 
by the approaching departure of 
th^ British troops. The object^ 
for which they had been sent out, 
had been accomplished. Portugal 
had been secured against fbreign 
invasion : it was no part of their^ 
duty to interfere in the struggles 
of domestic factions, however 
strokig might be the wishes of their 
government for the triumph of 
Sberty. Their embarkation was 
going ott, while Don Miguel was 
t^n^ the different steps, which 
have been narrated, for overtum- 
ingthe constitution. 

The regent had arranged, at 
ihd tome time, a plan for assuming 
the title, as well as the authority 
rf Itlng, and for providing a mili- 
^ tary fbrce to support him in his 
tksurpation, if the regular army 
should refuse to follow him in 
i^bellibn against their lawful so- 
vereign, ffe was to go to Villa 
Vijosa, a town in the Alentejo, 
and near the Spanish frontier, 
nnder the pretence of a hunting 
e5tcursioti. He was there to find 
a forcfe raised by the priests from 
among the peasantry who had been 
«ngA|^ in the former insurrec- 
tions; he was to be joined by 
Chaves^ with his rebeUious troops ; 
he was to be proclaimed king ; and 
Portugal was, of course, to be de- 
clared independent of Don Pedro. 
He Vtras th^ to address the nation, 
and the army ; and» with the fbrce 
which woulfl attend him, the au- 
thority of the priests, and the pra* 



parationg which h» hid ^mwiit hy 
ohai^ng die officers of die army, he 
doubted not fthat, whan he aMhthtf 
upon Lisbon, ha Would, be fMeiwd 
as king. If he should hSL^ ht 
was to retiv« into Spaki, mt^aMb 
an ttiny, with the ts^ktence« of 
his ondle Ferdinand^ andr retutti 
as an invader. 

It ' BO happened that lar ¥n* 
derick Laalb, the Engi^ mieje. 
ter at Lisbon obtained aocuNte 
information of the sohene, and of 
the share which the eoatt «f 
Madrid was to bear in it He 
immediately^ upon his own f^ 
sponsibility, oountennaiided the 
orders for the departure of the 
British troops, until be duoold 
receive further ordeta frem Us 
government in such novel obtunn 
stances as the forcible usutpatioii 
of the crown of anaDied aovereigii 
by an armed fbrce, headed by a 
man whom the powen of Ewn^ 
knew onry as that sovereigii'c 
viceroy. Moreover, Don Miguel 
was very poor. When in London, 
he had tried to negodate a loan ftr 
his most urgent wants; but nobody 
in the money-market would truat 
him. At length M. Rothaohlkl 
was prevaUed upon to advance to 
him a oondderable sirai^ on receiv- 
ing the guarantee of the British 
government for its repsr^em« 
The money had arrived ;' it would 
have been invaluable te Migbel, 
ier equipping and supporting the 
rebels who were to return with 
Chaves; it was on the vointef 
being delivered, when tke plot 
against Don Pedn/s evown win 
detected. Sir Frederidt Laart^ 
at the same time that he ordeted 
the troops to remain, ordered Sb^ 
money to be sent hack. * * 

The detemination to detain ite 
tttMlpsfiUed Lisbon with joy. Timf 
weM n^t^indeed, te iftterfbe ia tlib 



HISTORY OP EUROPE. 



[I«l 



itra|^«f sntemal factions; but 
il!¥9Vtfaele9* the inbftbitanto felt 
.tltttlkeir presence was a powerful 
leitfaiat tipon the regent and liii 
mo0^,mbi(ik in«irented the cmU 
liti'ialbiit ef;«taj Violent peneei»- 
itunt^ mi^wai a aeearity againtt 
•diBintMluotion ef ^beb anned 
in Spain-— the very proceeding 
nMch. Uiey had been aent out to 
pot dcmn« Don Miguel knew 
that tile BriliBh government was 
tm the aide of the constitution, 
Midhe wasnot the man to trust 
M the sinceritf of any profeaidons. 
Ilaily employed himself in prao- 
tising the moat unblushing per- 
HAy,' in falsifying the clearest 
depurations, and violating the 
iBDsl sotemn oaths, he oomd not 
believe that other men might pre* 
fer good faith to the attainment 
ef a desirable object. So long 
et ho was within the reach m 
Bfitisil bayonets, he always feared 
th«i those bayonets, though sent 
to defend Portugal against Spain, 
adght be employed to defend the 
odnalttution against himsdf. 

The Chambers shared in the 
Joy, and began to show symptoms 
of e ^nzitf which, if exerted even 
two months beforoi might have 
saved the country. The discussion 
in both Chambers, and the vote of 
Ae Chamber of Deputies, on the 
aoUect of tiie riots at the palace, 
hm i^en mortal ofienoe. They 
would have been instantly dis* 
ieived^bnt that the Regent's plans 
wet« not sufficiently matured* and 
that their aeasion would expire on 
the ted of April in virtue of the 
d^drter itself, which limited their 
aearipg to threo months. A re-. 
pesrt had gone abroad that the 
wtitten oath to the constitution, 
wUekMigadi hid sworn to as not 
t^te heaid> waa one prepared fqr 
tMaosarfoiiy 



and the Chamber of Deputies J^ 
voted an address, praying that a 
copy of the oath which he hajl 
taken might be laid ht&ne them. 
They had also spoken of a vpt^ »qf 
thanks to the admiral anA^n^ral 
oemmanding the British fleet aiid 
troops, as well as to the fl^4diers 
and sail(»s. It was to be moved 
on the 14ith of March* Par- 
ther> it was understood, that H 
majority of the peers had united, 
and resolved to co-operate with the 
Deputies in calling the government 
to account for the existing aboses, to 
deny all supplies of money till such 
account was given, and to de« 
nounce the re-action that was tak^ 
ing place against Don Pedro's 
rights. The Regent, therefore, 
on the 14th of Mardi terminated 
the session, and dissolved the 
Chamber of Deputies; and thus 
perished^ in their third session, tlie 
Portuguese Constitutional Cortes, 
marking, by their downfall) the 
destruction of a free govei^nmenti 
to whose ultimate ruin they them«i 
selves had mainly contributed by 
their own inactivity, and want of 
promptitude and energy in duly 
exerci^ng the powers which it had 
lodged in them for its preservation* 
The instructions for the ultimate 
removal of the British troops Which 
shortly afterwards arrived from 
England, completed the dismay of 
theoonstitutionalists* Every check 
upon the extravagance of the 
apostolics was now removed. The 
miseries of emigration commenced | 
the most estimable personages of 
the kingdom, all of the nobilitv 
(and they included the chief wealth 
of the aristocracy), who had r^-> 
dered themselves obnoidous to the 
despot and his minibns, soqdbt 
refuge in England. Count Villa 
Real opposed with all his influence 
the dissolution of the Chamber* 



192] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1828. 



When his iresiBtance proTed. inef- 
fectoal^ he reagned his office a» 
Minister for Foreign Affairs, and 
finally separated himself from a 
government which perhaps he had 
too loii£ served. He was suc- 
ceeded hy viscount Santaxem» an 
insignificant personiage, too fond of 
the dig^ty of office to quarrel 
with the principles of any party 
that would bestow it. . 

iThe measures for re-modelling the 
artaiy were now more industriously 
pursued, and began to produce 
some efiect. Rebel officers were 
called back in great numbers from 
Spain, and placed in all situations 
of any importance. The Regent 
introduced the army to a know- 
ledge of what he wished it to dp 
for him now, by an order of the 
day, in which he lauded its fidelity 
to him when he rebelled against 
his father in 1824. More open 
and regular encouragement, too, 
was now given to all rabble wha 
could be prevailed on to shout for 
an absolute king, and that king 
Don Miguel. By an ordinance (? 
19th of March, the head of the po- 
lice, Bastos, was ordered to send 
him a list of all the magistrates iii 
the kingdom, who had hmdered the 
people m>m manifesting their sen- 
timents of loyalty and bve to Don 
Miguel — ^that is, who had stopped 
the seditious and rebellious vocife- 
rations for Miguel I. absolute king 
*-in oidec that such magistrates 
might be punished with all the 
rigour of the laws, and *' with the 
terrible efiects of his royal high- 
ness's justice*" In Tr^ Os Montes, 
which, in consequence of the 
local possessions of the families of 
Chaves and Silveira, had always 
beeiji the principal seat of the influ- 
ence of the rebels, the lower orders, 
who, for several days had been 
tutored by the priests, by en^ssa- 



ries from Lisbon, an^^l^, pwiQBf 
belonging to the families of the 
SUveiras, met tj^e^new apostolical 
fi»yenu)r of tho parovxnc|i at VUla 
Real with shouts of '^Viva the ^1^ 
veirqs ! Viva, Queen Charlotte i 
Viva, Don Miguel ! Death to the 
Char^r ! Death to Don Pedro ! 
Death to the Ep^ish 1 Death ,to 

the Freeniasons r X he mob likewise 
insulted and attacked such p^rsim 
as were known to be constitutio^f 
ists> the governor encouraging th^ 
in their cries, and telling then^j,^ 
''Yqu miist petition the Senhpr 
Infante to take adequate mea* 
sures." 

On the foUovfring day a figun? 
of pasteboard was dragged abo^(. 
the streets, representing, aeoood* 
ing to some, Don Pedro, and ac- 
cording to others, the Charter.. It 
was thrown ink> the river wij|^ 
tremendous imprecations against 
Don Pedro and the English. 
Another expedient adopted to ae» . 
complish the Sfune end ponsisted ii^ 
the military governors eddressuig 
to the municipalities, cir^ularlettem 
which invited them not to be ,the 
last in addi^essing a supplication tQ 
Don Mifuel to procfaim himself 
king, and to aboli^ the chiartei; m 
contrary to the fundameutal lav% 
and as a production of the factiqn 
who in 1820 had usurped ihp ao^B^ 
reignty- Tlie expedient could 
not &£[ to succeed ; for aU reflp9o(. 
aUe magistrates df towns, eoa all 
military governors and onmmandeia 
of regiments, who remain^ f^itl^. 
ful to Don Pedro, had been^re* 
moved, and rebels had beenn^fK 
pointed in their ste^ . -.i..;, 

The Regent and his Tninifpi. 
hoped, that, by means like i\k9mtL 
they would be able tOi fl^t i^. in 
Lisbon something to w^ich tifiyi 
^ig^^ give the name of an exfpe»^ 
sion of public opiniost infavpW'ef 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



JBMMMipliVA Hf* tncrcwwn ; ttia 
Aif ^^SSeII*^ A^iil; tlie faiflh-d&yof 
fiSs M<fthi^^ Wag eele^ed (br the ex- 
VifHim' : Xhe birth-day of las 
mtDti [D^nna Mariuy at once his 
fiftifte^e«n imdbis betrothed m£e, 
liad heoi aUowed to pass over un« 
nQtroed<y Oil the Mtk of Aprils a 
^itfkgvaid rahUe waited upon the 
mMicfpiilkj^ and e«pre«ied their 
iiPQfrilttkt apetition to Don Miguel 
rf^boH. hie immediately ftamed, 
yqipljditi^g. hixn, for the honour 
ifm^m&tfcl the natioii, to «a8une 
llwtttiMknd poww» of its absolute 
kiii£^ The , municipality, duly 
firepared and acquiescentj acceded 
taitlKD .le^eat.. .While they pro- 
tJMtfud .te.'<ioncoct the precious do- 
cmnenty their- itiAan appheants 
aiiyottmed to. the square^ and^ bar- 
ipg ipade a bonfire, mid shouts of 
''&eat]i to Don Pedro/' burned 
the charter^ which few of them 
ooold read^ and not one of them 
eould understand. At no time did 
they exceed three hundred per* 
sonst Half a dosen caTabry might 
htfe diflpened them, but although 
the pofioe was on the ground, they 
were allowed to play out their se- 
ditioiis fiuce. The petition, being 
dtwHi up, was signed by all the 
mentberft of the municipality, and 
by as many of their friends in the 
square as could wrke» but both to- 
gether did not yield an hundred 
nffHeiL Even the Gazette could 
not have- 'set these doWn as repre- 
fli^tmg ** the will of Lisbon ;" yet 
ip sespectaUe person could be got- 
ten to sign voluntanly. In this 
dHclmina, the nobility and gentry 
hs^pehed to be returning from the 
levee at the palace. All who 
passed by the municipality were 
stopped by the rioters, taken out 
of tfieir carriages, and compelled 
to sign. In this way, some 
names were obtained wUch odiep* 
Vol. LXX. 



1193 



wise would never hiivc^ appeared^ 
aiid the number of agnatures was 
raised to something above an 
hundred. A deputation of tibe 
municipality, headed by its pre- 
mdent, then repaired to the pa- 
lace with the begearly supplication. 
The disappointed Regent received 
it graciously, but answered that it 
was premature; anxious todisclaim/ 
when it became a disgracefbl 
failure, what he had ordered an4 
arranged, in the hope that it would 
prove a triumpL All the prepara-^ 
tions made in the palace and the 
city, among the courtiers and the 
monks, at the barracks and in the 
convents, to get up the sembluice 
of a general revolt in favour of the 
wretched despot who desired to 
build his usurpation on the ruin of 
the national institutions, miserably 
failed, from the want of abk 
actors, and a sympathising, public. 
If the burlesque representation 
showed, on the one hand, how far 
the partisans of the R^ent and 
his mother were willing to go, it 
demonstrated, on the other, how 
small a minority of the nation was 
disposed to second their views. 
The military, though solicited, did 
not stir; the respectable inhabit- 
ants stood aloof from scenes at 
which they were disgusted; and. 
the self-styled awarders of power 
were reduced to the dregs cyf a 
brutal mob, furious and fanatic^— 
because intoxicated by the monks 
and protected by the police — ^who 
enforced loyalty and illumination 
by breaking windows, and the sig- 
nature of municipal addresses by 
threats of assassination. Even the 
government itself winced under 
the disgmcei and, not knowiRghow 
such open rebellion agnin^ Di^' 
Pedro, gotten up under the very 
eyes of the Regent,. and directed, in 
flkd, by hiS'himdf'tnight be viewed 

PI — 



194] ANNUAL 11EGISTE1I;:1828. 



b^ Don Pedn/«allie9, tbe Minister 
for Foreign Aflldn nest day acU 
dtessed a note to the meaibm of 
tbe corps diplomatique^ in wbibb 
he affected to regret tbe occoz^ 
rence^ ascribing it to the impoiai* 
bilitjr of keeping down tbe j»opk$, 
though tbe most efficacious mea^^ 
tores hdd boen adopted by the go^ 
vemment^ and though ^ tbi^ '0Dn« 
stitnted authorities had employed 
every proceeding practicable in bo 
delicate a conjuncture/* Everymaa 
in Lisbon knew^ that all this was 
a mean and unbinshinff lie. The 
nbble had carried on its proceed* 
higs in the presence of the police, 
the ministers were in waiting to 
receive the address, the heads and 
principal officers of all the public 
departments were compelling their 
dependents and creatures to sigii it 
at the very time when this note was 
written. To crown all, the duke 
of Lafoens (a brother of Cadoval), 
who, on the death of the late king, 
had been one of the deputation 
who carried to Don Pedro in 
Brasil the homage and allegiance 
of Portugal, and the recognition of 
every European power, invited 
the Portuguese nobility to sign an 
atrocious act of rebellion of the 
very same character with that of 
the municipality. Never were the 
nobles of a land insulted before by 
a pnyposal of such damning perfidy 
~yet many signatures were obi 
tamed, though, in numerous in* 
stances, it met with just and indig- 
nant scorn. M. Santarem's note, 
therefore, deceived nobody, much 
less the foreign ministers; they had 
been accredited to Don Pedro in 
being accredited to his representa* 
ttve; they could not fihut their 
eyes to the fact, that they were 
now dealing with a man who ivins 
sdatdhlng the crown from Don 
iVdtw's heAd J they, tfaer«fbre, all 



met to fottfer on tihe 
flhonld be given, wfaeft liiey naaiiM 
moualy a^ieod that the^r dataM 
notify to the minister> that tiwji 
ffuspendod all official ■ata rao u Bse 
with him and the gumn a im ifcai' 
which he was a. mearimv' tmtil 
they riiould saddva intAast. 
fiEXiai their cDoits. 

The ticasen thuir- 
was adon oompleled*- Them adU 
dresaea, from half a aoora of miaofr 
able officialB. of fan awn. appniBb* 
meat, eonstisutiaff ttmniaii^idtai^ 
aad ftom a aamherof ndtOnmem 
who, by the vary fact of a flLJag 
their unatorss^ £iEfeked avel^ 
title to we name, thr Begettt ^i^^ 

LppiUatioii «ff)ali 
eionofthdfnibiie 



•) 



ever, so expressed, was naS' 
pressed in the maiuter whash Ae 
fundamental laws of thekkigdoni 
had prescribed aa proper to be qIim 
served in the election of its aDV»« 
reign ; bnt it furnished to him, be 
said, an irresistifaie reason why tlw 
mode presGsibed by these finidfe- 
mental laws should be adapted/aiid 
an opportnnity should be/fiiiitiiafaad 
to his faithful people of giving aC« 
feet to their wishes itt*a IrailBdiate 
form. On the drd af.l£^rv.ae« 
oordingly, he issued a decreei co^ 
vokingv for that . purpoaew tia 
Cortes of Lammi^ the antassit 
three estates of the kingdom, wha 

had not been asiembled nnoe USStf* 

• • ■ - " ■ — -* 

• The fof lofving Is the Dccrse !--* 
«*The neceMity ef convsfcUigf ilie 
three estates of the kingdoai, aksady 
acknowledged by tbe kiiifCr my hMm, 
(now in glorv), in hts decree ol June 
4, 1834, bavfng increased by reasoa *f 
Iftte etrents, and I, desiring to atlsiy 
the urgent representations irhidfr the 
clergy, the nobility, the tributtat% ami 
all the municipalities hav«i sabmitM to 
my royal presence, have thought proper, 
in conformity with tbe apiaion of learned 
persons, aeUous for the se rvkfe of God 



HISTORY OP EUROPE. 



im 



fliA 6aemm of the Regebt hsA 
UdwEto voM in tbe atinft of Don 
Afiiio; this ordniaace nn in bit 
Mtn nune. He forestailed llwt 
varf vnelMni wliidi he was dedar- 
iegtftheiadijpeiMBUe. Theguill 
of andaekiiM Cveeaoasftt Ug^tly on 
luseHil, Int the vidieole of eonvok* 
ing an assembler in. Don Pecbo's 
Mone to toSB Don Pedro from bis 
thcone would have wounded bis 
peide. B7 his mean &lseboods» 
Of hBf< oontempt of all natural 
afibctian^ end load damestic feel- 
ings hy bis levolting bypoctisy^ by 
bii ilnin imd daxing perjuries, Doa 
Mlnel bad abeady lendesed blm* 
em theecniriily oontemplible and 
deteatiAde; liy issuing this decree 
be bed forfeited bis bead. He lay 
ehsinJy nnder the ban of every 
banoundde mind ; by this act' be 
Ittd binuelf under the ban of the 
hm, and to tbat Jew be ouoht to 
bwe nuide atonement wiu bis 
worthless life, if the men of Portu- 
gal bad not beto dull and brutish 
at stooiui and stones, as despicably 
ainvish as be was darinsly wicked. 
So 8D0B as this atrocious decree 
was fasdwn out of Portugal, the 
nmniuia Resende, and the marquis 
ISafaayBna, the Biaailian ministers 
^ fill ■ , . ... ■ 

and the gfood of the nation, to convoke 
Ifte said tbrae estetes of the kiogdom In 
tUm city of Lishoa, wilhin thirty days 
t^om this date of the letters of oonvoca* 
UiNi, for the end that they, in a solemn 
ailjl legal manner, nccording to the 
maget and style of this monarchy, and 
in the form praotiaed on similar oeoa- 
aiana, may rseognise the application of 
ffavtt pohits of Portuguese right, and 
in that way restore public concord and 
ftfaoqutllUy, and that all the important 
basfaieas of the kingdom may take con* 
•iatenee and juat direction. My coun- 
cil of BsinislerB is to understand my 
erder in* this sense, and cause it to be 
esaeuled, 
•^MsMOf AJnds, (With the royal 
May 3^' signature.) 



r 

to tbie courts of London and Vlen^ 
na, made public a protest against 
the usurpationj and in defence of 
their master^s rights. They de- 
scribed the address of the muni^ 
otpalify of Liidxm* and the Be» 
9Cnt*s decree^ (which, boweveTf 
with a foobsh afiectatipn of r^ 
spect for the royal bloody they 
imputed to treason and force prac- 
tised against him), «ui criminal 
violations of the incontestable 
rights of his majesty Don Pedro, 
and bis daughter Donna Maria-* 
rights which the govemments of 
Europe in general, and the Portu- 
guese nation in particular* had 
solemnly recogni;sed. They pro* 
tested, therefore, against them* 
against the abolition of institutioos 
granted by the king, and legally 
established and sworn to in Portu- 
gal, and against the unlawful 
convocation of the antient states 
which had ceased to exist no less 
by prescription than by the intro- 
duction of the late constitution. 
" As," said they, in conclusion, 
''this solemn protest cannot be 
regularly notified to the existing 
government of Portugal— since, in 
consequence of having openly vio- 
lated all the conditions which his 
majesty Don Pedro IV. had im- 
posed upon the said government, 
and of having endeavoured to 
render doubtful his imprescriptible 
rights by the decree issued at 
Lbbon, it cannot be considered in 
any other light than a government 
dejitcto, with which all official 
communications on the part of the 
foreien ministers resident at Lis* 
bon have ceased— we have deter- 
mined to address this protest* as 
it is our duty to do, to the Poiv 
tuguese nation, firmly persuaded, 
that they will not be appealed to 
in vain; and that their fidelity, 
inherent and hereditary, will net 
[0 2] 



suoei I a . pecfidious and perjured tbeic i 

faction, to overturn the tutelar usurpai 

principle of lemtimacyjwhichfoniv Pedro'i 

tba iaiii of the p^ace of Europst caTBli7 

Kod which oU its sovereigns have a thijx 

■0 nobly engaged to maintain in- plated 

viiJate, as the surest means c^ the occ 

securing their own welfare and their « 

tliat of their subjects." e^uallj 

And it did teem, for a while, as tants f 

if tbe appeal was not to be nutde having 

in vain. The hope that Portugal Migua 

would diale off the joke of this was et 

nefiurioususuipation arosefrom the Dtm f 

army, a great part of which had mandant, who had refjacel .iC^!'^ 

preserved its fiddity against all ral Stuhbs, fle^ iii.dism(iif • So boo^ 

the .management and seduction of as the event was known at Coim,- 

the government, although its fa- bra, the students of tha uaivera^f 

vourite and consdtutional leaders armed, themselves, and marcfa^ to 

had not only been removed, but join the little army of Oportq. 

had sought lefuge in Britain from Tho troops in Oporto Jiad.'I>e^ 

the persecution which would pro- previously assur^ of the ac^sMoa 

bably have attacked their talents of the garrisons of Braya, Valen^ii, 

and influence, even whil£ it spared and Penafiel, on the north Ifaqk 

the resistance of less able, and of the Douro, and being joino^ 

therefore less formidable, though by them, the whole force marched 

not less honest men. The munici- towards Lisbon. On dieir Waj 

polity of Oporto, fashioned for the they were reinforced by the ixs>- 

purpose, had gotten up an address ments stationed in many of tne 

ai^r the style of that at Luibon. towns in Upper Beirm who wer^ 

From this address, all the respect- animated by the same spirit; an^ 

able inhabitants of the city linnly now amounting in number, to 

dissented ; and, having assembled, about six thousand men, they '^~ 

they declared their determination vanced without omxtaiUpn fo 

to sujqwrt the ri^ts of Don Pedro. Coimbra, of which they took do»- 

The 6th rwment of in&a'try session. They Imd amotw thraq 

filmed part of thegarrison, having no officer of diitinguiahed ra^JL 

mrrived on the 6th ot May, while or high character. Their aM^ 

the city was still in a ferment. This generals were refugees in E^i^' 

yins a regiment which had been laud. The provisiaaal junto of 

pripeipally raised in Oporto : the Oporto, do soon as it wai fbrme^^ 

men, well disposed of themselves, di^tched intelligence of th^ 

w*re. cpnfirnied hj the example counter revolution to them m 

and exhortations of their relations London, and formally cammuni. 

and aoiuaintances, and fixed, in caled it, in the name of the^^in^ 
" ' aella, wV Imf 



theic turn,, the resolution of the to the marquis Palmella, 

Ifith inGutry which ^as likewise represented the regent at 

isBinisniV On the l6thof May, court of St. James's, but had 

the^,two, regimeirta met in arms clared his functions to b^'a| 

in the great sqiiare> and announced end oii the publication of 



r- - I 



HI^1K3|RY OF EUROPE,. 



/ / 



m 



dfpr^ of the Srd May. As the 
ju^' acted' in the name of the 
ling his master^ the marquis with- 
put hesitjition ' recognized its au- 
'ihbiity, and resolved^ alone with 
his exiled companions, imm^iately 
io return to put themselves at the 
Ibead ' of the attempt to redeem 
the kingdom. In a. few dajis after 
the rpce^t of the intelligence, the 
inare[uis Palmelk, along with 
ebuhts V^ Flor, the most dis« 
kmguished' . of the Portuguese 
officers, de Taipa, and Sa^payd; 
generals Saldanha^Xavier, Stuhhs, 
and soihe btheits df 'less note, sailed 
from f*lvmoutli' fol: O^rlo, where 
they counted upon arriving hy 
tiie ^Dth June. 

•'' When the knowledge of these 
events reached the capital, they 
'^hrew the usurper and his-, ad- 
herents into perplexity and con- 
sternation. They were ignorant 
bf the extent of the movement ; 
£hey di^aded the influence of ex- 
lampl^ upon the military; they 
wahted money to equip and pay 
up tl^e troops which were at their 
comi^and. Their first step was, 
to declare Oporto to he in a state 
6t hlockade (22nd May) in order 
to deprive the constitutionalists of 
ail succours from without, espe- 
cially jrom Britain. Though the 
iftritish government had so far 
^ejprohatea the proceedings of 
Vfiaiiel, and deni^ the tiUe hy 
which hfe now held his power, it 
acknowledged and ohs^ed the 
blockade, as being established de 
facto by the presence of ships of 
war, and by an authority which 
Was held to be (ie facto master 
df Portugal. ' To raise money, 
Mlgtiel applied to the bank of 
Lisbon ftn* a loan: the bank, 
knowing the weakness of his 
hi^nesty and of its own resources, 

yefufled the request. , He then 

111 <« >ii'. .—I «.i «.• >i 



fell back upon the wealthiest of 
those who had supported his ly- 
ranny, and compelled them/ by 
forcal loans, to supply his want& 
By these means he was enabled to 
send a body of troops from the 
capital (25th May) to Join the 
regiments with which the gover- 
nors of the northern and • eastern 
provinces had been ordered, on 
the first alarm, to march into U|^r 
Beira, through which the constSv 
tutionalists were advancing; The 
governors, who had all oieen s^ 
idcted from among his oWn cnea* 
tures, served hini with activity 
and fidelity, and the troops whi^h 
they commanded remained faith* 
ful. Unfortunately, too, the coil- 
stitutionalists, after having ad^ 
vanced, without opposition, con^ 
siderably in front of Coiipbra, 
on the left bank of the Mondego, 
suddenly stopped short. Whether 
from want of skill and determina- 
tion in their leaders, unaccustomed 
to conduct important operations, 
and unwilling to advance farther 
into the interior, until they should 
have the aid of some of the dis- 
tinguished general officers who 
were on their way from England, 
or whether they feared that the 
troops collecting from the eastern 
and northern provinces might 
close upon them from behind, and 
cut off the retreat to Oporto in 
case of a reverse ; certain it is, that 
they lingered about Coimbra till 
beyond Uie middle of June; while 
it was always thought, that, ' if 
they had pushed on without delk^ 
to Lisbon, they would have beert 
received with open arms, and th^ 
contest would have beim eild!^!. 
The delay, from whatever 'cau^ 
it proceeded, enabled the generals 
of Miguel to ailvance agatibst them 
at last, with superior hunkbenr, 
both in front and in l&tik, dnd t^ 



W&\ ANNUAL KEGISTBR,><I828. 



threaten to liem them m between 
the Mondego and the Vouga. On 
the 24th of June the constitution^ 
alists sustained on equal terms a 
vigorous attack made upon their 
advanced guard in front of Coim- 
bra; but finding themselves in 
danger of being outflanked by 
superior forces, they commenced 
a retrograde movement on the IS^th, 
and recrossed the Mondego to fall 
back on the river Vouga, the 
only good military position be- 
tween Goimbra and Oporta 
' On the very day on which this 
movement was made, the generals 
from England landed at Oporto, 
having unfortunately been detain- 
ed upon their passi^ six days 
longer than they had calculated. 
On the 29th, those of their num- 
ber, -who were appointed by the 
Junta to take the command of the 
troops which were expected to be 
found on the Vougs^ set out from 
Oporto ; but they had not got 
fiirthcr than four leagues from that 
city, when they received informa* 
tion that an action had taken 
place that morning, on the bridge 
of the Vouga, in consequence of 
which (though the Miguelite 
troops had not forced the bridge) 
the commander of the Constitution- 
alists thought it necessary to fall 
back and abuidon that ad vantageous 
position. There remained, then, 
no course to be taken before an 
enemy superior in numbers, than 
that of continuing to retreat to the 
suburb of Oporto, which is built on 
a hill to the north of the Douro, 
and which b separated from the 
city only by that river* The corps, 
which had thus fallen back, con'* 
sisted ai about three thonsasd good 
troops of the line. In the retreat 
fk)m Coimbra to the Douro, all the 
militia corpe, which had attached 
themtV.ves to the oonatatoticmal 



army, had left it iml'teliiAled to 
tl^ hones. Desertion, tooi the 
usual eflecto f re tr egtaflemovemcn^ 
had thinned some ^tlmegMneiiti^ 
and the peasantry, among wbrnit 
they were acting, had generdlf 
espoused, nnder the dielMitioaof tU 
nnests, the side of Don MigoeL 
With these three thomatti nMil^ 
about one (iiousand to the nevA 
of the Dooro, and one thousflod 
five hundred Oporto ycdottteor^ 
it was required to mtke a ataiai 
asainst douUe l&e force in traopa 
of the line which wttre on the MNith 
of the Donro, and at the Hone tiitie 
to de^d the city againit flvm five 
thousand to six thousand troops nf 
every description, which war« olniy 
at three ieagoe^ distance^ on thb 
north of Oporto, and wwe adviisf i 
ing against the town by thraa dtf» 
ferent roads at once. Eveoon the 
supposition that they had attached 
the Miguelite anny in fhnt^ and 
had gained the advantage the ooqis 
of t£ee thousand men, whiflh liad 
no means of recniiting ilae]l> vnk 
not sufficient to take advaatMe of 
a victory, and to leave behind it a 
garrison to defend Oporto apuHt 
the attack with, which it was 
threatened on the opposite odei 
In case of a revem, again, ibmit 
troops had no means of letreaa ick* 
oept acroH the river behind tfaen^ 
and they would have been amv 
rounded by enemies who wonld 
have attacked a town withDot for^ 
tifications or means of defimee 
against such a superior fbne. 
There remained only the aitena^ 
tive either to defend thenaelveB in 
despair in ihe town of Oporto^ or 
to evacuate it, and, uniting in one 
corps all the dtsposaUe troops to 
cut their way tfarouffh the enemy 
on the north of the Dours^ in 
order, as a last jsesonroe^ to gain 
the firantiers of 



HJUarORY OF EUROPE. 



im 



• ' /OttdiomMmgflf ftliQlSndof July 
ibt gmvcnnneKfe Junta asiembled. 
Hmnm hmai Uia gptwions o£ the 
gftmam appointed locommaiid the 
tmofB on liie.sQiitkof the Douxo^ 
md lof ||8iiend . Stubba* oominaiif 
difeitiof £etawii» they decided that 
if wr^Miii onm uy .toedopt the latter 
atomiaftunu The Junta was ooo« 

wmlkasf authgritj bring pieviously 
delfgitied to a-conmitteeroompoied 
9£ ,tmo of ila memben> and to the 
Bnend.who was to telnstheeoai* 
mepd of the tn»p% in oider to 
eAetlkke eraeuation of Oporto^ 
and onidaet them to the Spanish 
Ik o nri ai L ThameoibeEaof the Junta* 
and' Iha. other individuals who 
did not intead to fcUew the anny, 
and ^ eottld not remain in the 
leiWn^ immediately embarked. The 
only chance th^ had foreicaping 
tbe blockading ships d^iended 
tnon taUkig advantage of the night 
sraioh would elapse before the 
enlnnce of the snemy's troops, 
laihai timy wcse fcwtunate enough 
lo snceeed, and arrived nfely in 
jRngJbwd, whenee the most distin- 
gnSbed of them had departed not 
■sany weeks before with very dif- 
fiarant pnispects. Next day the 
tioops passed to the northern bank 
ofihe Doore^ sodoommeneed their 
lotieat iewards Snain tluxmgh the 
fnoraea of Minho. On their 
they had some severe ^r* 
wkh guerilla parties^ and^ 
firom &e state of tl^e roads, had to 
leave behind them the heavy artil- 
ksy wttfa whidi they had encum- 
beiod llMir retreat. On the fourth 
daf ^btf reaehed the Spanish fnm- 
lieri Thee- were not received 
witii' ooidi^ity; but they were 
not'i^veo vf, and were allowed to 
tiafid forward to Ferrol and 
Corunna, and thence they were 
uonveyed to Bngland# Bendastfae 



regular troopi, there wece'ln thif 
unfortunate band, a great number 
of persons belonging to Oporto^ 
who had taken arms as volunteers. 
A d^t of these refugees was 
established at Plymouth. Thus 
suddenly did the hopes of a counter 
revolution fade away, and thus 
qpeedHy and unexpectedly did the 
usurper reap the proverbial advent 
tage of a supprcned insurrection. 

A similar atten^t at resistanpe^ 
which was made in Madeuca, did 
not prove more successful! The 
government of Lisbon, doubtful of 
the submission of general Valdea^ 
the governor of Uie island, seni 
out a successor of its own choosing 
to replace him. But Valdez had 
determined not to acknowledge the 
title of Don Miguel* and to hold 
the island for Don Pedro, in which . 
he obtained the concurrence of the 
principal inhabitants. When the 
frigate, which brought the new 
apoBtoHc governor, arrived at Ma-* 
deira on Uie35th of June, her sa^ 
lute was answered, to his exceUen* 
ey's great surprise, by a discharge 
of shotted-euns from the batteries ; 
and speedny understanding how 
matters stood, and not having come 
prepared for war, he did not at« 
tempt to land. The priests having 
gotten up an insurrection in favour 
of Don Miguel, Valdea instantly 
attacked the rebels, routed and 
quelled them. The ^ernment at 
home, however, having its hands 
set f^ by the unfortunateissue of 
the counter revolution of Oporto, 
forthwith dispatched an expedition 
to reduoe Madeira. It appeared 
before Machioo on the SSnd of 
August. It was received with some 
shots from the land batteries, which» 
however, were quickly sileneed by 
the fire of the squadimii and pn 
the same day, the landing of t}^ 
troops took place without ogposi* 



fOO] ANNUiAE fBHOrfinirBlllIil828. 



liw^rNett^jay/thiey-Diarctied upon 
JhAitboIi wfaich dwy eateiied after 
iPQie trifling oppontion, theg<Mrei> 
apt : not ihaviDg mere thaa two 
ImadlocI'menL for the defeneeof the 
Umn* VMex, with the most 
qpident end ioiuentiel inhabitaiftft 
<^ the idaoe;, aovght refuge on 
hoecd an: EngliBh doop of war lying 
in Ibe harboujr. 

I ..When the cornier revolution in 
QlNirto carried eonetematton to 
I^boiiy Don Miguel had pr»* 
iMded for his safety in the city 
Vyihunrykig into its dungeona 
fMdtitudSea <^ the citiaeas win 
were sospected, justly or unjustly^ 
of-favoiurii^ the constitution. ■ fiy 
th»midd,lp, of June he had filled its 
ptisons with nearly three thousand 
vktims of his jealousy, or revenge. 
Every packet that suled for £ae- 
land' earned into voluntary exile 
numbexB of useful and respectable 
dltaens ; the industry and wealth 
of Lisbon were disappearing with 
its liberty and peace. Instead of 
endeavouring to prevent, the 
usoiper saw with pleasure, the de* 
nartttre of men nke count Villa 
Ueal, oount da Cunha» count 
Ficabra, and nuiny other noble- 
men of distinguished rank; lor 
their absOTwe facilitated ^»« ma- 
nagenent of the aristocracy in the 
sdena meeting ^of the three es^ 
tates which was now to crown his 

Grfidy. The decree of the ard 
ay/ had ovdered them to assemWe 
ii^ thirty days from that date ; but 
the day of meeting had been post* 
pon^s to give time for changing 
the. members of some of the muni< 
dpJities wh^ would not prostitute 
tlfoir offices at the despot's nod. 
No^.^eljcacy was observed in the 
m^Megemant*. Wherever a muni* 
ci{ialj4y hesitated or refused to send 
t:^,^his i^offimandi an aMresa or 
f^ranfflamatifln " as ^ wus- termed* 



oSnii^ bfim ttbeiiaannir intdie dtaM 
inbtevof.«baolnte hfaig^tahdjetalmg 
moreover,' ^that lit •madeirthe^jefta 
voluntai^;' its/'meaha|B->i«fBBi 
imtanfly: > di i imissfti y! and' <adoM 
obedient iostrumentr instsOed'/ssi 
thetf pfawfr ■ Prqwiisd/ 



thing kad been, the odniHldiuiflff 
the threet^estaies whs armedbxiC 
Sttpererogataon; ftswhatlbegnweili 
now to expeesi Uwyihial^bBfcdy 
eaipBBsapd* Thcee msB ftaiheitsi^ 
dnIiberatiaB ^ they< ' aSswiiHed^.- *tb 
speak the «#oids^rfauii4he'pridd^ 
tnilor had alreadlr ma4&i.thbm 
repmt to ssrtiety* uHetfaadfWji^uudl 
theopiimm..^ the tnitniripafahtj; 
Jby.identifi)ribig!iihemi«ith hia j o ip n ' 
blbid and devoted ■niiiak;^ ani-nn 
to the chttffdl, ' it -was hetimAA^ 
thatt was wi^ng- <him to thci eriaoify 
it was her intMner'thsft.puta^v 
knife into his hand, and homifrdi^ 
victim at his feet AstdithepaeBa 
again, the most able^ the.nMfit 
upriflht, the most' influerilial- 
menmrs of the nohility hnftihaea 
ordered or firigihteDed.fay faim;' ip^ba- 
exile; those who vemained^'with 
some spIenfflHl Bxeeii'twwf^ haA'Snilii** 
lied their rank by a .daifcer<r8lam 
than almost ever before hodidia* 
graced the bonoon <if obivabytN** 
mean, unnmnly Jinking^ :4iitt 
from the feet of a pei^uiedjaadi 
unnatural usdrper -*- pafii^mto^u 
wards a liberal, aad .anmbaadt 
king— -treasc^n aoainst a dsArioBN* 
less child, and that child ahotit eat 
become a woman. ^ vm' 

At len^h the three eatatrtias> 
sembled u Lisbon ^m the- dArd 
June. The session was'typaded 
with a speech from ^e . hwkBpiiaf 
Viseu, who, not much 
twelvemonths before, had 
the session of . the eonstitntioBak 
Cortes of that very monHeh whoas 
he was now about to deposskt 13ie 

three eonititaeat pattS' of ^-ea^ 



.p^j8iHiffroRYi0FEUR(aM;//:A [not 



Mb ^Hto> iniwndad ito'Uilieral^ 
jgiriiipd^difergnt cboxdM; on ^e 
adBklent^laia- .belbre/liieok' Tbe 
nrale ywhriooi wtt, wbetber Dan 
iWbo ot» J^on. Mind. wa8> b^. tlie 
kinr:>o£.} PbitugE^" lang cf the 
HmJiik ' .^duMit at momciit's faed* 
tadmn'ter ddwtb, thej decided by 
iodiBisdoD^ tlmt Dm-Mwiiel was 
Ae^DlyikgBl'^overeign^ toat Jdon 
i^bdi«iihad.tto/n|^t o^rar the * kingu 
^km^Hiaad 4ihat «v^ inMkiKiott^ 
dierifiireifwhkh habad mttoduDedy 
had>bee|x, ani i#aB/!iadiicatt)r «]iii]l 
mdiillef^ Thk'kifiiiBaua tote 
^mprmte'cni the '9§lk ti Juqe. 
Onil£B;:d8th< Don Migaei by ati 
oribuaite' amfinded tbe judge* 
meM^ aadt fomally aAiiniad tbe 
H^dihand dtk i>f '' Bon Miffael 
byntfab gEBoeof Qod, kiiig4if rer« 
ti^)BL 1^ • the Algawea.'* At 
ditt flamatiaie* a decree waa made 
iBBB^gChavtes and his gang' of 
zabdB, aAd xettoring them to Seir 
eatate%'honouie» and emplo3rmentf| 
aa fidtbliil ffib)eet8 and meritorious 
« < |H>oitus of the throne. Thus, 
in kss tiiaa three months* was 
bioii^tio a triumphant conclusion 
a sctee- of hypocrisy, treason, and 
uamrpation, to which the annals of 
hiatocy will scaitely affi>rd a pand<« 
M»«««|itine0 entitling himself to 
baast'tbat to the attempted de« 
thxoneasent of his father he had 
addcd.-theactval dethronement of 
fais'broiiiev and his niece, not by 
wwnti n i ag biirher talent or superior 
n.^ of ISy deKription,^t 
sbipiy by bemg able to trample 
Under foot every obligation, human 
and dfvine, and to face with equal 
isapertnrbability the scorn and re« 
probatiim of mankind, and the zetri- 
bbdapnaof the nnseen Power whose 
moat awftil sanctions he had vio* 
lated^aadwhoseisu^hedisgraced*' 
" 6b flooB'fa tbe tilw of long was 
UioB ftvmiUyiitsiUBodi ibo amb^MN 



doia of all aUUtt, flxte^t^ %i6tn iftrid 
the Pope, quitted Lisbon, atii^'MiL 
god was left to ftel that 'the >fi«M 
oonseqiience of hia erisdes'Wast'to 
out him off fnMn the'vfetia} i^sbU 
fions with every Cbriatiim printi^. 
He indulged on the ooeanonln 
some vulgar and impotent wiath ; 
then he had rDoouxae to bare- 
faced falsehood, announcing liiat 
their governments had recalled 
Uiem at his desbe, to replaoeitiiebi 
by others, who; being laM adi 
dieted to ftiee^masonry, wc^ld'be 
more agreeable to hialn^^'^y^* 
btft he did not improve thelesaetf 
which the oocurrenee taught himr, 
toeonciliaie respect by ndng, with 
moderation and mercy, tliepowek' 
whieh he had acquired by mrtnnadi' 
woiu Now clothed in form, as 
he had long beenf in reality, with 
absolute pewer, and teiumphant 
over the cmly bmid that had dardd 
to oppose him in Arms, be gratified 
his hatred and revenge by vevellsng 
in the Inxuriics of proscription and 
confiscation. One of ins first 
acts, after he had been dedored 
king, was. the appointment of -a 
Bpeatl commission (14th July) to 
tnverae the kii^om for the 
punishment, at its diseretion, of 
all who had borne any share in 
the insurrection, as he of oootae 
termed it, of Oporta The powers 
of the commisrionofs were idmost 
unbounded, and were all dSstte^' 
tionary. The oommissiottarieswere 
four judges, or deaembargadors, al) 
of tlMsm bearing a bad reputation ' 
in a not very reputable f rftteriilty; ' 
notorious oidy for partiality^ M56vi' 
vility, and videnoe, 1^ pakiteis 
of a facHcn, not the even-minded ' 
judges of a land. T6 shai^ien* 
their cupidity, and ensum ooit^itoL 
tions at their hands, Hiey Wi^te'tb ' 
be recompenaed for thi^nr a6rvic6» 
out of the dtofiscfrted pifepi^ irf 




iM} ANNUAL aEGrfiTBRini828. 



tMB iitaktippf indivldtiiib Vfhaut 
tIkeysliDiiidaMidflDitu Thefweie 
dbectfed to prdeeed finfc to Oporto^ 
and tiiejr speedUy coovertod it into 
A'citf of' mourning. The list of 
ptoidiption for that dty (for audi 
Hsti wtt* ctieukted all over the 
Idngdom) contained at the vmy 
fina BIX hmdied and fifty names 
of penons of all ranks and en* 
pioymenta^ and die hiaertion oi* a 
nan's name was an older for his 
i mp riso n ment* In the course of a 
mooah one hundred end twenty* 
£ve of diese had been tried by the 
oomndMlen, of whom eighty were 
ruthlessly condemned to death; 
The rapacity oi the Judges would 
have done sood m securing dis- 
pateh) if it had not at the -same 
time eecured almost indiscriminate 
eanvictlon* To be a violent paiw 
tiaan of the king was the only 
protection against a prosecution; 
aad a prosecution^ in its mildest 
acnscy meant indeflnite imprison* 
ment; Even whero straggling an* 
^rittals ooeunedi then followed 
no iifaeratum; for the intendant 
of poUoe orderod, if he thought 
§tj the acquitted wntch to be 
detained durinff pleasure. Such 
was the will of the government : 
Fbrtagal knew no otlwr law. 

Jn die begianisig of October, 
dm pciaon of the Limoeira alone 
in Lisbon^ contained two thousand 
finir hundred prisoners, of vdiom 
eafr thouaand als hundred were 
eeailiaed for polidaal ddinquendes. 
The total number of individuals 
tlMBDUjjihout the kingdom ineaiw 
cfintted 4m aimilar cha^^, or who 
Isid avoided the 8caffi>ld and the 
dimgeon by flying into exile» 
amcuHted to upwards of fifteen 
thetimiid men^ among whom 
wero ibrtyi4wo members of the 
Chamber of Peers, inchtdinff 
tnm^ut die hif^iest noUlity^ and 



members' 'of die Cbaaiber 
of Depndes. Wfasii SMdrndm 
was dismissed fiom the miniatiEy^ 
in July l(m> timposmkee^>of 
Lisbon shmitel for ha" rotom. 
For these cries, which he ealhri 
seditious tmnolts, Baalos aiiteik 
rily dirow a number of indMdusis 
into prison, andihero hefaip tfi bi ss fc 

We have seen tha^ i»dio iprim 
of the preaant year, a eowimittoe 
of the Chamber of Dejpa^AeB'W^ 
ported, that these impnasoaints 
were illegal, and dmir^ tfaf^ mig^ 
ttaies, who hfldexdered diem, encha 
so be breoght totdaL The sntval 
ef Don^ Miguel asvedtthegnill^ 
instruments of poweis' bat-aealei 
die fiite of its innocent meAum'^ 
for whose libetadon the Chtkakik, 
and iite oeamitteOr had taken ^ 
diought^ even while they dedarad 
that the imprisonment war itte^ 
Miguel Imd now dme, not^SDitt^ 
quire, but to ponldi* Theae umi 
arable men, whose grsveot teh 
had been a noiSy eanrossion ef 
esteem towavSa a popidtf aad do- 
serving minister, who is«a <iiea 
agreealde at court| but wlie ted 
been guilty of no breadi of dii 
peace, and had oeasad •vm aa 
shout the instant that the ptUie 
authorities expre s s e d iTIssntisflsii 
tion« vrore now tranroorted- to 'thie 
African coast, some tor lilb> ntisafc 
for a limited period* ^ < • ' 

Migudseemed fncapaUeef eiissi^ 
tainittg any other AeUng tOwaria 
his subjects than a sava|g|e sipped 
dte for mdiscriminate puriislniMWl't 
while his proscripdons s o a t t ens d 
death and imprisonment, and>eidll^ 
his confiscations imposed b^gar^ 
Rapacity here hurried hkor ms 4a 
well as cruelty, and he ovecloA 
even the absent. He duiiaed tlmt 
the property of all PortngQeeai^^ 
whatever rank, convicted «f ttkeU 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[m 



craile k 'cownctiaa eoak him only 
» wonL He decreed that thie 
pnipertj of all FDrtuguese, who 
iiad left the kingdom without his 
pmiiisioii^ should be ooniiscated to 
iim use ; e most eruel provisioii 
iaany cv^nauitancm, refusiog to 
the p«aeeful e?ea the power of 
wdtUnuving beyond the leechof 
fjkvnig o&BO^ but, when used as 
nn.sorpoa^yac^oenactinent* utterly 



. Yet all his cruel rapacity could 
Boiffll his treasury* To the lu»i 
VKy of aonihilating private comfort, 
he Jiided Hbe ei^yment of having 
dcslarqyed public Gredit;-«*but in 
destroying the value of the public 
securitiea> he had the sstiafoction 
of •fedudng respectable feunilies to 
bi^pgaiyi so that even here he 
^amedtoncthing for theonly hap- 
)&iefls which he eould feel. The 
Isen whioh bore five per cent had 
been at eighty^two when he ar* 
rived in Portugal. It descended 
as has Star rose ; and when he was 
dedaoad king, it sunk to fifty-twoiv 
and oeuld find no buyers* The 
Cmit per cents eould find none at 
iarty*two» Fraud and meanness 
were employed to supply the wants 
of the royal beggar* as if he had 
bean afraid the world ^ould sus- 
fiset that any one imaginable vice 
had been left out of his character. 
A lottery having been granted to 
the .Foundling Hospital, no sooner 
w«s the nund^er of one of the 
bwjBBst prises ascertained, than the 
draught from which the ticket was 
out reoeiYed a new cot When 
the holder of die ticket presented 
it, in eider to receive his nine 
thousand milreas, it was applied to 
thefiedaified draught) and, as it did 
not ag^se with the notch of the 
ticket, he was dismissed as the 
holder of a finrged document; while 
the dsreotor of the ho^talaent the 
amftunt immediately to the Txea« 



.sury> without even weiiting for the 
appearance of the supposed exis^ 
ing true ticket. That was frauds 
A government, however wicked it 
may be, cannot always support 
itself by plunder and confisoatiofli, 
andsoDonMifiuelfoundit* Asa 
last resource, he came befiwe bis 
subjects in f&rma patiperU, h^ 

Kg their v<duntaiy contributions, 
e names of the charitable donom 
were honourably paraded in the 
Lisbon Gaaettee they oowtained 
dukes, and counts, and marqoiaes^ 
and barons, and bishops# and the 
whole munificent elms amounted 
to somewhere about 4,000/. 

While Don Miguel bad been 
plotting to deprive Don Pedro of 
the crown, the latter had formally 
and finally resigned it. On thie 
3rd of March, he surned the bH- 
lowing decree at Kio Janeiioc 
** The period having arrived which 
I fixed for the completion of my 
abdication of the crown of Portu»- 
gal, accmiding to mr decree of the 
Std of May, 1826, and it being 
necessarsr to give to the Portupiese 
nation, always jealous of its md^ 
pendence, an indubitaUe proof of 
my desire of its beins peipetually 
separated from Braril (of whidi I 
have the distinct glory and pride 
of being sovereign), so as to make 
even tl^ idea of their being Beua»i 
ted impracticable^ I am pleased, 
of my own free and spontaneous 
will, after having pondued on this 
most important bunineai^ to order, 
as by this my royal decree I do 
order, that the kingdom of PortUN 
gsl be henceforward governed in 
the name of my demy beloved 
dauffhter Dpnna Maria IL afarea^ 
dy Its queen, according to the 
constitutional charter by me au* 
thoriaed and given, ordered to be 
sworn, and sworn; deohunng, 
moreover, most expresdy, that I 
haye no further daim or right 



^3 AN N.U A L R EG %T)B Bt| ,1828. 



Whatever to the Portuguese crown, 
lie Infant Don Miguel^ my much 
beloved and esteemed brother, re- 
gent of the kingdoms of Portugal 
and Algarve, and my lieutenant, 
is charged with the execution and 
publication of the present decree/' 
No Occurrence could have placed 
in a stronger lights than the issuing 
of this decree, the monstrous in« 
eonvenience, if not the impractica- 
bility, of attempting to govern Por- 
tttffu from the other side of the 
Atlantic. If the emperor, when 
hcl dgned H on the 3m of Marchj 
HbA known what Don Miguel had 
been doing, and what dispositions 
he had manifested during the pre- 
ceding ten days,he assur^y would 
never have put his hand to it 
All he then knew was» that his 
brbther had reached London in the 
end of December on his way to 
Lisbon ; that he had accepted the 
regency with seeminff gratitude 
-aiid submission; that he declared, 
apparently with all cordiality, his 
determination to preserve the in- 
stitutions which Don Pedro had 
created. The emperor, therefore, 
sensible that the pride of the Por- 
tuguese was wounded by the idea 
of Deing governed by the mandates 
of a monarch from another hemi- 
sphere, ' and affectionately anxious 
to smooth the path of his infant 
daughter to her throne^ draws 
up the decree in the fulness of 
fraternal confidence, removing eve- 
ry restraint from the authority 
whieh he had already delegated 
id }iis. brother. For the effect of 
^he 4ecree was this : the act which 
made Don Miguel regent, b^ng 
an act within the oonstitutionsd 
p(!»weri9 of the emperor, was ^till 
Vjplid^ because it was not recalled ; 
biit.ttie right of the emperor to 
advise imd control tjbat regent 
was at an en4i hecause the em- 
petor had ceased to be 



Donna Maria, was. npw, ^u^^ <ff 
Portugal; the abdication yf oer 
father was complete and %iatf 
Miguel could no lonjger be tVe .r^r 
cent for Don Pedro ; .his decrees 
Sould not run in th« ^ame/of ^ 
abdicated kingi He was now^ re- 
gent for Donna Maria, appointed 
to that effect by her father."^ In 
her xiame the decrees must tun ; 
from her alone must the ^xitroi 
proceed, which a constituent exes- 
cises over the act^ of his i^pre^ 
sentative. So long as she was a 
minor, that power of control waf 
nothing, and Don Miguel,' iipdor 
the name of r^ent, would, nave 
possessed, in fact, not a sei^oiidfary^ 
out a mimary authority. 

If Don Pedro would, nol have 
fflgned the decree, had he kiioi^ 
at Rio, on the Srd of Mdrch, what 
was then known ii^' Lisbon^ ^•'^^ 
equally certain, that he would not 
havethoughtofmakingitpublic,1iad 
he been able to foresee how matter 
would stand on its arrival iu l^u- 
rope. It arrived at the time when 
all Europe had been astounded h]f 
Miguel's decree of the Srd of May, 
convoking the ancient Cortes to de- 
spoil his brother of his ctown^ and 
abolish his institutions, llie ein- 
peror^s decree, therefore, in ftie 
circumstances which had occiirredj 
had no longer a meaning. By li 
he abdicat^ the crowu ; Miguel 
was maintaining that he had ntfve^ 
possessed a crown to abdicate^ j,By 
the decree, the emperor d^ar^ 
his daughter to be queen ; Mi^el 
was mamtaining that the dauffo!^ 
would be as much an. 'ufl^cpel| 
as the father. By the , ^caf^ 
the emperor made Miguel ' a '|&t 
cent; Miguel was denvihjg'^tiuit^ 
he had any title to interfere ^HiU^ 
and was daiming the throne in ius 
own indefeasilue right. , Tiu^ 
Brazilian minister^, theiefor^ M. 
M. fieaencle aM Itahayanai oafy 



ti:"! 



HlSik^If^ 6f ^UROP!E. 



{M 



01^^' what tlieir master himself 
ivbu^i )iave done, when they kep( 
back the decree^ and prevented it 
Aom V^inff officially communicated 
ib ifiy of the European powers. 
' ^' It must have been with sen- 
timents of iprievous vexation^ and 
^-what is far more worthy pf 
sympathyT— it must have been with 
feehnffs oif disappointed affection^ 
bptib lor what his brother had 

* done^ and what his daughter was 
to encounter — that the emperor 
ireeeiyed the ■ intelligence of his de^ 
thrqnement ^Bu t he was helpless* 
*tp think of reconquering his king- 
dom by proclamations and decrees, 
Would have been infinitely more 
chimei^cal than to think of gpvem- 
fng It by thenv However^ he did 
^(aaress a proclamation to the Por-* 
tuguese people on the occasion 
fJuljr 25). He enumerate^ the 

' (ilc^l and unconstitutional acts 
wluch hadbeen committed amongst 
thefiij down to the decree of the 
Srd of May ; he gave these pro- 
ceedings their proper character; 
and sgoke with due severity of 
their advisers and promoters. It 
was natural that he should spare 
the reputation of his brother ; it 
Wfis prudent that he should not 
proclaim the corruptions of royal 
blood ; but he went unnecessarily 
^ar,, wpfi- almost insulted the know- 
ledge pf the people whom he ad- 
dressed, when he represented that 
^ther as the subjugated victim 
pf a party whom he detested^ and 
impjafed all the evils that had hap- 
pened to a faction which oppressed 
equally the regent and the nation. 
The faction, to be sure, was as sel- 
fish and mischievous a faction as 
could be' found ; but Miguel was 
very far indeed from being a pas- 
sive or unwilling instrument in 
tb^ir hands; The eniperor, from 
bis knowledge of the old queen 



aftd her minions, may have believjafl 
his representation to be more cor^ 
rect than in truth it was ; but in 
that case, he was sparine his bro^ 
ther at the expense of his mother. 
The notice which was taken of 
this proclamation in an artic](0 
in the Lisbon Gazette, writtep 
by one of Mif^el'd minis^i9« 
shewed how little the latter 
and his friends were inclined, to 
return the fraternal leniency, of 
the emperor. It was a comment 
rjr on the proclamation, and a ae« 
nes of insults to Don Pedro. t\ 
compared him to Robespierre; li 
assured the ^orld, that he musi 
have written the document in 
question under the influence of 
''the horrid sect of freemasons, 
who are the enemies of the throne 
and the altar ;'* — " The raving fol- 
lies of the proclamation,'' it was 
said, " are so monstrous, that nei- 
ther ancient nor modern history can 
supply so disgraceful a production .** 
The emperor, in his full confi- 
dence in his worthless brother, 
had sent to Europe, with a nume- 
rous retinue, his daughter, the 
young queen Donna Maria. . It 
was intended, that she should land 
at Genoa, and proceed to Vienna, 
to her grandfather, the emperor of 
Austria; but when the frigate 
which conveyed her arrived at 
Gibraltar (September 2), and the 
full extent "" of Miguel's . guilty 
triumph was ascertained, the young 
queen's conductors thought it pru- 
dent to take a different course, and 
they brought her to England. She 
landed at Falmouth on Uie 24th of 
September. She was received 
with royal honours, and enter- 
tained with all the magnificence 
which her tender years allowedj, 
and with all the kindness whicYf 
her years, her sex, and tW pecu^ 
liarity of her situation, demanded. 



308} ANNUAL REGIISTBi^ 1828. 



CHAP. IX. 

» 

SPAW^-^Alatmi of Iniurr^etumf^DisiurbaMeei oi SmuffOita^FmH 
^ Departure of the French Armf of Oecupation'-^rrangement me 4/o 
Britiih pecuniary Clame^-^ltAhY^^-'Hoitilitiee between Napiee 
and TVyo/t. 

THE Idetory of Spain duting 
theyeanisabkiuu Shewat 
as little known as if she had been 
blotted from the faoe of Europe. 
Even the most contemptible of the 
ittanf states that had arisen in the 
transatlantic colonies of which she 
had been the mistress^ excited 

£ eater interest than her long " sad 
y of nodiingness." The insur- 
rection in Catalonia^ which gave 
some interest to the oondudinff 
months of the preceding year> had 
been quelled. The market^ the 

Sibbet, and the gallies, did their 
uty, without ooomunction, npon 
the rebels : the ronatical priests 
who had preached sedition^ were 
teduced to nlence by terror^ or by 
higher commands. In the month 
of January, transports sailed from 
Barcelona for the other side of the 
Mediterranean, carrying away thir- 
ty-seven ecclesiastics, secular or 
regular, and two hundred and fif- 
ty-six citizens, condemned to drag 
out their lives, as banished felons, 
ainld the burning sands, and- be- 
neath the pestilential skies, of the 
Spanish transport settlements in 
Africa. This was the merciful 
doom reserved,a8it wasannounced, 
for all who had so compromised 
themselves, that a prosecution in 
the Usual form would have been 
-fbllotved hf ti sentetiw of death, 
tllat h, fbr «ll whom the despoft, or 



the despot'! agents feuad it 
able, on whatever aooottDVios^ 
move by the mere ttandate laf 
brate audiority. ' > .. 

The king^ who had visked^ at 
we haifie recorded, the disiiislM^ 
provmce, in order to titoqiflike 
It by the avthority of hit akn 
ttoeust presence, and eonvioeetiie 
tunmlent whovdbelled in hiaMUBOj 
that he was not a prisoner^ ei^ an 
instrument, in the hands of IttNT^ 
als, remained at Barcefena;, tili he 
had sated himaelf with the laiHe* 
tion of punishment, and baiiewed 
that the last seeds of revolt liad 
been destroyed. He then tookhia 
departure for the e^ntal by Aiia^ 
gon and Navane, and, aifler ao* 
joumingfor some lime in ^ 
vinces, returned to Madrid ift 
bmnning of August* 

But he did not leave bekfodhini 
the deep tranquillity which h&fal« 
tered himself witb^iavingeatabiiali^ 
ed. Small bandsofamednieniMhade 
their anpearance on rarious pcmit* 
inCataionia, Arragon,and Valcnm. 
They seemed to be nodihig ete 
than robbers, who eared not Ibr 
politics, and could have no deaise n» 
excite insurrec t i on excqit et* a 
means of enabling them to plunder 
on a more extensive scale* Tliey 
were always r^reaented, fao^ewr, 
as the forentnneni «f ot^ganiaftd 
sedition, and the yoUic ear wme 



!■ • 



HISTORY or EUROPE: 



[WT 



kioeBmitlj alaimed with the dis« 
eovery of paltry pretended pbt& 
A daagerous ooniBpiracj was said 
to haTe been detected in Barcelona 
itself, in the month of August. 
It was announoed, that the con* 
^pirators had been seised whilfrsit* 
ting in dark dinm, and that, in the 
plaiee where thef assembled, wece 
fcond papers^ pistols, and daggen^ 
edBeealedmatrunl& Twelve in* 
diTiduals, of whom ten were mili« 
kuy men, one a painter, 'and ano* 
AerAfrdfcssor ef languages, hot 
aU ef them alleged eonstitutional- 
kt8,.wereoondflinmedtodie. The 
captain*general, in the prodana* 
taon'^ia which he announced the 
pvOiiflihnieni of the oon8{iiiator% 
aacrfbed the disoevwrj of the plot to 
^tfoine Piovidenee,whichseemsde« 
sitsuaofpsissemng to Spain the ad* 
vaniagpsaof a psrtemal goremment." 
About- the same time, a ru-* 
asMtf ' waa spread abroad, that 
sjmiptons of dislifi&ction had ap« 
peand about Oeiona, and that 
Bsaleimlpnts in Videncia had formed 
a itmgn upon Tontosa and Penis* 
eaia^ whiim the vi^;ilance of the 
g > tf t <fcns sent had discovered and 
d i aap po M Bted. The world had no 
iMfiann of judging how far these fre» 
^ienealanns were well founded^ 
what was the extent of these ever- 
veeuninf; plot*— what were the 
olf^ecU e£ the disaffected— who 
mete the men that directed them. 
Onkf one fset was certain, via. 
thateverf alarm ef this nature 
wsM immediately made the pretext 
tet acMnttg the persons of indlvidu« 
ale, and oonsianing them to the 
dmMBcms <vf Ferdinand, without 
fittt£er inqnizT, and without hope 
of B«kose. It the tools of govern* 
m e UI ware desiroos» eit^sr for 
poUio cr prLvAta reasons, to rid 
thcsnsalves ef the presence of an 
ohnoaious SpeBiav^ it was easily 



effected* The govenicr made hia 
garrison beat to arms ; he cbubled 
the guards ; he called out the po« 
lice ; he announced the discovery 
of a plot ; he seised his victim, and 
lock^hun up in prison. Toe¥ery 
thhig, however, the Spaniard 
quieUy submitted. If we except 
tne bttida of robbers who traversed 
the lawless kingdom in every di« 
vection, carrying their depreda«« 
tions to the very gates of Afadxid, 
and who were scfurdy mare the 
enemies of life, property, and gqpel 

fovemmenty than was Ferdinand 
imself, there was no violation of 
the public tranquillity (if that is 
to be termed trauquillity which is 
the silence of the gnve) except in 
the case of a trimng msturbanoe 
at Saragossa, which mid no conneo* 
tion with political agitation. The! 
ecclesiastical chapter of Saragossa 
bad demanded from the market^ 
gardeners of the province, pay- 
ment of a tithe of their produce. 
The latter resisted the imposition 
as oppressive and illegal, and the 
question, afkr havingbeen decided 
by the -primary tribunal in favour 
of the gardeners, was brou^t he* 
fore a hidier court, where the in« 
fluence of .the churchmen prevailed, 
and the exaction of the tithe was 
confirmed. On this, measures 
were taken for the seixure and 
sale of the effects of the gardeners, 
as far as was sufficient to cover the 
tithe which they owed. Just be- 
fore the day fixed for the sale, 
numerous groups of gardeners col- 
lected in the squares and streets of 
Sara^^oflsa, bearing the cockades of 
royalist volunteers, and armed with 
large bludgeons. Some of th^ 
posted themselves at Uie city gates 
lor the purpose of prevenMug tfie^ 
exit of any field, labouren;, " so io^g 
aa their difierences with tho.eco)^ 
siasticali^faapt^p mmatn unsett)^*' 



mi ANNtPA'fe *afiGlf^^[1^IIi828. 



$BSSdg,' 'Hfiirt tinjil ihen Tio la^ 
liodiiKrt'slidtdd so'dut to tvtxtlcfbr 
any rf thief Sutplxce gentry." Theft: 
bands' wenc Hinci^eased ' by a* gteut 
ntcmber df the inhabitants of the 
ftnbonres^ armed' with sttcbr; and 
tte whole bodjKparaded the stteet^; 
crying out, ^ Long Kve the Hn^^ 
tn^^omore tithes on vegetables?^ 
'Aey^'afterwatds pcoeebdoA to iHo ' 
flasti^'^h^ the pj^^perty . which 
ha^%een seized was to be (xAi, ani 
uttez«d lodd threats i^nit* lihe 
axtSifbi^op and the clergy. ' I%e 
dapddif-genend, wishing to user 
g^xMte meanff rather than ibrce, ■ 
sent to the rioters the king^slieu-j 
tenaht/and the eapttdn of , the^' 
J/iAones (soldiers of the Py^ees);, 
Who ei\joyed great popularity.; 
Thcite two officers endeavoured to 
induce the multitude to return to 
th^ duty; but the insurgents' 
cried out that the demand of the 
ecclesiastical chapter was as utifust 
as the decision of the court which 
had set aside the judgment of the 
lii^t tribunal before which they had 
gamed their cause. They would 
not be satisfied, they said, until 
the prder td pay the tithe was re- 
versed, o^d until the chapter gave 
up the seizure which they had 
m^de. It was then agreed, that a 
deputation from amongst them 
shouldieo before the captain-gene- 
rali This was done, and the de« 
puties of the gardeners renewed 
their demands. The captain-ge- 
n^, judging from the temper of 
th^/people^ tliat the employment 
of gentle means would be much 
more 'eflbctual than force, promised 
th^ the seissure should oe taken 
dP, and th&t the, tithe should not 
be '^xactira.' This promise was re- 
ceived with transports by the gar- 
didn^s^ 'and tranquillity was re- 
iti6^, iftteast in appearance. It 
d^r^ to^ nientu>ned as a pr^of 



of ^er^determxnaljbii m*^^)^^^ 

off law iviiich a hrwleiigovenin^nt^ 
had produced^ that ' some oT'^ft^ 
gardeners; wm) had beenrj^itfV&^<{ 
upon by the priests to. ^y th^ 
thhe, werd assassinatei; Thej^;^ 
pular movement . was. said tb.;be' 
under the guidanoe df mi^;ttf '^^ 
mtttfi'lnghS: rank,vx& waff s&^ 
pectedto be onl;^ tfe b^t^rng; (£ 
a ^ "cdtich mare exteft^ve ^fihSlil. 
WUWthe dbinrbaiicela^tea^'h^-''' 
ever,^ Ae f^g^, 6t 1[n^c&4; 
lib^nds, pVudendykepi theiiyel*(f^^ 
within doori^ li^ they ghoyld^bey^ 
compromised ii^ the Httmult. ^/ -.** 
In the course fH the.year^ S]^n' 
was reBeved fram the la^ retnkb^^^ 
of the French amy of o(^up4»ja.'! 
F'ei^and, in the end of 1 826*,; hsa 
di^sirod their, removal, and tt'^K^,^' 
been agreed that they should tale' 
their departure in the following' 
year. This resolution Was alteim 
in consequence of the establishment 
of B constitutional go verahient in 

Portugal,and thewidiof Ferdin^d 
to bdl secure against i^s influen^i^ 
From that quarter he had ho loq^er.. 
any fears. The coiistitution of ^pr« . 
tugal was at an end : thai copintry^ ', 
had now gotten a despot of its p^^ \ 
a ruler acoordinjg to Ferdiiiav^a'i 
own heart, a match £brhim,ifi 
every species of political aii 
and more than a matchTor 
personal profligacy. Spam, 
presented no alarming lyq 
of the existence of Iibe»t 
The government, during th^.^ra^' 
years that it had been pri^tf^f^lj^fj 
by the French troops, hm\^BH^ 
ployed exile, and the dm^gefm^aaa^ 
the scafiblda too liberally OM ^'^ 
fectually, not ' to have.^.cnj^h^'', 
every expression of an ktgit^^m, 
adter a better state of thh^s* jjtie 
only rebels, with whom It jEw^ 
lately to deal, were reb^ Jie^aiMe 



:- Hi^Rre^fiy op jeurope. 



f9M 



^^^^99^ tliat tbe king mras 
npi jniofi^ oC a de^t and had a 
l\ffi^pi^_iijj^ to oQDfltitutloDal 
nplio^ju ]^enliimnd» dierefoce> 
ffliy tbat.lie nvgLt dispense wiUi 
tba further protection of his French 
alties. Pan^peluna and St. SebflA* 
tiaii in the noirth, Cadiz In the 
■puih« and .Urgel on the norths 
a|steni.fpQtier«w^6 the only for« 
toeaieft'which' ^y stfll oc^upie^f 
Frofn the two'fo^er, they were^ 
witj^dtrawp in, tl^o spring of th« 
year.. . Cadiz was the last position 
that .{hey retained* . It was given 
m to Spanish troops in the course 
of September* and, before the end 
oftb^year^ even^ French' soldier 
had fec^ossed the ryrenees^, reliev- 
ing Sjpain from a visitation which 
had bestowed, no benefit upon it 
either in liberty^ or in morals, but 
Whic^ had confirmed^ if it had not 
plantedj the melancholy reign of 
ignorance and oppression. 

The Spanish government was 
as poor in pocket, as it was beg<^ 
gafly in di^K)sition« and dishonest 
in principle. With difficulty could 
it be brought even to recognize its 
debtsL ^ say. nothing of payment. 
I{ still refused to acknowledge the 
bonds for the loan which the Cor- 
tek hod negotiated in England ; 
but there was a debt of a different 
kin^ and likewise to British ere- 
diibrSr which it was at length pre- 
va^ed upon to settle, at least upon 
paper. During the struggle of 
the Spanish people aeainst France, 
aboi^t the period of 1808^ many 
£british individuals then connected 
by con^melrcial habits with Spain, 
as well OS others who were not, 
had ftimished the Spanish forces 
and authmties with stores, pro- 
visions, and various goods, for 
Wh'i<^ they received vouchers or 
memorandums, to ' which in some 
instances the authoritie$ them- 

Vbi. LXX. 



selves had pot hesitat<4 .to .a%c 
their names. The claims, in some 
cases, were founded on acts of tho 
Spamsh authoridesby whichBritish 
subjects had been forced to contri- 
bute to the immediate exigencies 
of the times by forced loan^ or 
other illegal, exactions. To theae 
were ^ad£d hisses at sea by Bri^ 
tish subjects in oonsequance ,o( 
their ^ships or property haying, 
been detained, and ^metimes' 
iIl^;aUy confiscated and sold, by 
Spanish cruisers and ships of wai;. 
Tne claims of these, persons were, 
permitted to remain unadjust<^ 
from 1808 to the year 18^3. In 
the latter year; on the 12th of 
March, it was agreed between thb 
British government and that oC 
Spain, by treaty, that they should bo 
referred to a mixed commission o( 
•Spanish and English commission- 
ers, who were, as the terms of the 
treaty . ran, " to decide on these 
claims in a summary way,'* in 
order that such British subjects^ 
as had suffered in consequence of 
the detention of their property 
under such circumstances, might 
receive satisfaction. This com- 
mission met in October^ 1823, 
and above three hundred claims 
were referred to it, the amount 
of which was between 3,000,000/. 
and 4,000,000/. sterling. Every, 
impediment was raised, every 
possible delay, even if only 
to obtain a single day, was 
resorted to by the Spanish com- 
missioners. By involving the 
claimants in this labyrinth and iiw 
tricocy, during eighteen months in 
which the commissioners sat, no 
more than eighteen claima wete 
investisated out of three hiindi^ed 
and thirty; and four claims out of 
these eighteen. were determined tbb^ 
just. Thus, several persons^ MfK sei, 
property had been^)|ei«ed, (^ , th^' 



^k\ AN^i^trAL'fefifcr^^>ft«f,l'l828. 



high seas aixt^fen ye&i^ hefote, 
contrary to the law of Aatiom^ 
were roduced to poverty. The 
secret^ however, of these delays 
was soon after revealed. A sug- 
gestidn was made by a ]|^rSK)n con- 
nected with the government df 
Spain^ that, as the pmteedlngs 
^under a commission of this nature 
were always excessively dflatoiy, 
it would be advisable to make 
' an offer to accept a given sum in 
liquidation of the wnole demand. 
' Tills sum was fixed at 800,000/., 
and the claimants were riven to 
understand, that this woula be the 
amount likely to h6 afforded by 
Spain in discharge of claims a^ 
mountinffto upwards bf 3,000,000/. 
Upon this suggestion the British 
merchants agreed to act^ and they 
made a proposal which was copied 
Trom the plan of the Spanish agent 
himself, who had originated the 
suggestion. It produced, contrary 
to expectation, no good result; 
lind the only object which the 
Spanish government appeared to 
have in contemplation was, to in- 
duce the claimants to make a pro- 
position, in order that they might 
have it in their power to quote 
the sum so proposed as an admis- 
sion that, in point of fact, no more 
tvas due. The Spanish govern- 
ment through its agents, then pro- 
posed to pay tiOOfOOOL, thus aoat- 
ing even the diminished sum 
demanded by the claimants. There 
was this additional breach of fhith, 
that the Spanish minister at Lon- 
don, in the year 1824, had told 
iheir agent, that such a moderation 
of their demands should be without 

fjrejudicc to their claim. Yet, so 
ar fVom this prdmise being kept^ 
th^ ofFet to accept a limited sum 
Was ttidde, hi the spring of 18!iB, a 
i^lfodf rtat iaibh Was the triaxiMffh 
of theh* demand. The npxt ;sf 6p 



was srill'^brfe ditottJeftll.' 'The 

Spani^- agent prMfeitMtf l« 'Mr. 

Cock that his govehtiuefn'W^ 

willing, as d ptoof <jf t§ie hdno^ 

df the Canilidti ehArtta^V'tOr'iJtd 

to dbc sum df 500;00d£ di^5tt#|r 

offered, an oafitidttal' '50;om, 

BUchtoUl df 560,OObr.< bdp^* Ai 

i\ill dischat^ df* fltiti*! tfl^*, 

* Such WM the odVMft df inenh nM 

paltry higgling ^dptod* dtf' this 

occasion, that it almost amditnted 

td a clear evtt^dn of the cltM, 6t 

an attempt tb imnlliSlnte'it^tifti- 

gethef. For ikJtiie Htte tttatt^rs 

remained fn this stact^ bf i uVid^- 

talnty. Until the ' ]^rtitiWttrtl, 

who acte^ fdr the Brtttlli daii^ 

ants, were invited td fttfis"tb 

settle the matter' With" 9*dr 

Aguado, the banker df the tSpsMtth 

government at P&ris, and Dim 

Antdnio Uriarte, keepei^'df the 

Great Book of S^tidn. I^ Bfi^ 

lilt a^t was rbmirfied tvith b 

notarial copy of the powers i^eh 

had been gnmted by hiif Cathdlit 

majesty to these gentletriefi, h^ 

which it appeared that thi^ were 

fully authorized to efl%et an ccn 

rangement, with the cdncutrenefe 

of the SpanifAi ftmbas^addf , ^ th^ 

duke of villahermos^ j and' ih^ 

gave the most positive iissuiMi^ 

that any agreement, >99hiA HfiAi 

be entered into, Wdidd tiot M^mi4 

to be confirmed by their gdtiinr- 

ment but wduld be fhiid mtf^cMl 

elusive. Accordingly^ dn Ul^ HOl 

February, 1827i nn ft^etehk^ 

under the hands and seSir'df'flie 

Spanish commissioners An\i idHtibu 

sador, and of the &geni dP''!A^ 

English clainutnts, Was c6fte!Mls^» 

by which it was proViddd tKftf'tlie 

sum of 500,000,000 df feUiL 

amounting to 3,000,0001.^ khdiila 

be delivered in abodt twd^mdiUh^* 

in seven thotikdnd se^^ii' litmdM 

certificated df rentes dfr SttniilttH 



r Hl^TOftY OF EUROPE^ 



[au 



XtifcriM ip the Otvat Book of 
SpalDr bearing intexest from tbe 
14^ Jsiuiary, lB2*t, at 5 per cent*, 
M io: ftdl for the whole of the 
•JBrituhdaUdM under tbe omven- 
jAm* Tbe twQ months expired, 
bu^ pia certtficHieB were readj* nor 
bad a .«i|gla. itep bten taken to- 
wtexdi tbe exj^ulum of the agree- 
iineni. Atyplication was made to 
tbe £^nidh gmremmenti and that 
•government unUushlngLjr diii- 
ATowed the agreement, on the 
lyi>>S pretext t^t the commission- 
ein and ambasiador had exceeded 
tbeir powws. This the obmmis- 
mguiffaad ambassador indignantly 
and positively denied. The am- 
Tyisanijnr returned to Madrid to 
wip0 off the imputation, and, in- 
"it^ jof being reoeived with dis- 
aoprobation, was honoured with 
tbd order of tho Golden Fleece. 
Thus OMtters remained, till count 
•Ofidia arrived in London, again to 
renew the negotiation. During 
twelve months afterwards, ine£ 
factual offers were made to effect 
^ arrangement ; until the court 
of Madrid raised the offer from 
the 550,000/. formerly tendered, 
to 700,000A, adopting a system 
which would have disgraced a 
pedlar. The sum offered was then 
r^sed to 900,000/., which the 
British claimants, now in despair, 
seamed willing to accept ; but still 
thi^ Spanish agents adopted every 
expedient of trickery and delay, to 
postpone a final settlement. The 
claimants, at length, had recourse 
tp parliament. Their petition, de- 
taoUng the disgusting train of 
'chicaneiy and lying, by which a 
crowned king was evading the 
payment of just debts, recognized 
py a sol^n treaty, was presented 
to the House of Commons on the 
1 5th J^uly, by sir James Mcintosh. 
From all sides of the House there 



was but one expression of satisfac- 
tion at the anxiety with which our 
foreign secretaries, from Mr. Can^ 
ning downwards, had supported 
the interests of the unfortunate 
claimants, and bat one expt-ession 
of utter loathing ttnd scorn at the 
baseness, and audacity, and mean-^ 
neas wUch had characteriaTed the 
^vemment of his Catholic ma- 
jesty. It was suggested that the 
orown should be addressed on the 
subject, as it regarded not merely 
the rights of private individuals, 
but the observance of treaties by 
an allied government. The sug- 
gestion, however, was departed 
from on Mr. Peel remarking that 
it would be premature, as no copy 
of the treaty had been laid before 
the House, or been moved j(br, 
and stating that there was now 
a greater prospect of an amicable 
settlement than at any previous 
time. There can be no doubt that 
the exposure in parliament bright- 
ened that prospect, and facilitated 
the negotiations. At all events, 
in the course of October a conven- 
tion was finally concluded between 
lord Aberdeen and count Ofalia. 
It was agreed, that the sum of 
900,000/. sterling should be paid 
by Spain in full of all the claims 
presented to, and registered by, 
the mixed commission, appointed 
in conformity with the treaty of 
1 823. The money was to be paid 
by instalments, as follows : 

200,000/. on or before tbe 8th of Decem- 
ber next 
200,000/. on tbe 8tb of March, 1829. 
350,000/. on the 8th of June. 
150,000/. on the 8tli of September. 

The sum of 600,000/. at the least 
was to be paid in sterling money. 
For the remaining 300,000/. the 
Spanish government was to be at 
liberty to grant debentures, bei^^ 
interest of 5 per cent., at the rate 

tP 2] 



of lOCMl in debentures for SOl. ' in comequeoce of a qnarrel widt 
moaBj, resetvbg to itself the ri^ht the pKcha of Tripoli. Hii hi^ 
of paying them off at aaj tune new had o^red lome insult to the 
witnin four jean of their date at Neapolitan flog, and as he irfnwd 
55 per cent., or at a subsequent to give redress, a Ne^nlitan sqow 
- period at 60 per, cent., giving in diOn of fngates, corvettes, and 
«ther case six months' notice. gun-boats, was dispatched to Tri- 

. poli to. exact it i Iv :<(«•«. .,31u! 
' la Italy, a ila^ ^Mrk, that fioel hnmbwdud ',tlM,^t«|iPn\ fat 
tdisBppesred alisoBt before, it. ceold about tmp h^vnm iim,93ffi "^ 
be remarked, mere]; .BOtified that August*, wj^ifut awklflfl-.^ajtvus^ 
the embers of Carbonarism were ful impresuoo. Its tqientiotis 
,^t yet ejitin^uished. la the 
.f^untainous district of Valla, m 
, tbc. )w>gdom of Naples, « small 
. troop of insignificant persons , 
formed themselves into a junta, ui 
.the course of the summer, du- 
played the tu-coloured cockade, 
ttma proclaimed the French con- 
iS^ution pf the year 9 i ^7 '^ 
CQived no cauntaianqe in their 
wild exploit . from anjr of the 
neighbouring communes. On the 
approach of a small difision of 
the military, which hod been sent 
toput an end. to their freaks, they 

oSered no redstunce, but instantly nothing but an 'Useless, atid'ijot 
dispersed. Yet so easily does po- very honourable, waste of Mon^ 
Utical alarm propi^te itself, that and powder. Naples founfl h b^l- 
tbia prank played .iQ the mountains ter to n^ociate than tO'fighV; 
ai Naples, eSecteda fall in the va- and settled her quariel ^ith, lite 
lue of the public funds in Vienna. Pacha by a conveiid>non tHji SInh 

Besides this internal event, Na- October. '~| 

,jjes hod a little ,war of her owp . . ■ "'■ ' 



.8<?>.l 



H^p^fc^ftV pf EU^pi;. 



? Y- A ^ 



;'1- n .-»T :,.. ,, -. ', 






CHAP. X. 



'TiiE N^VHKitLANDs.-^Ducifisions on /Ae Liberty of the Press — 
^ ^P^i-est 'of iksiJkswrectio^ tit Jaua.-^TGE9MAVY*^^WmMir — 
* 'Sadem, — R\jsiiiA.^-^HdstiUtUs with Persia renewed*^Pra§r^9&9f 



•< • 



• A 



11 



t. 



TN, lli<rNetherIfih&;» Sudng tUs it^ was not allowed to inrdke' like 
JL j^earj th« Bag's gpVeram^ht 'coYitrol' oJT public ophiioA;; Tlie 
exTOsedilsolf to8Gme'unp(^ularit^ * ' '"'' • - ■-- •- » 

j^and |?;sctted, against hself .a good 

] a^r/Ojrw.iuin 'd^iission^ by cer- 

'~&in'ph)q?e4ings which it adopted 
^^$t thj pre^; not, indeed, con- 



traTy;to IgWj but under a law 
/whii^ W99 justly deeuaed oppres- 



imtnense power thus inthi^ted \o 
irresponsible magistrates was; fas 
Bright haVe been expected; sonib- 
times abused; and oppressive judg- 
ments, inconsistent with the gene- 
ral tenoor of the government, 
were' often the subject of' com- 



^^^y^.«. in thai oountfy, the law of plaint The joinnals, though ft^ 
thcfpibsss was made at a time when to speak against the Jesuits, and 



i|S indenendence of the country 
was but ul secured, ancL when the 
.'union between the Belgic and 
Dutch' provinces was far from 
being .consolidated* It was en- 
.af^ted in a period of agitation, and 
was, chiefly calculated to repress 
excitements to insurrection or re- 
, oelUof^. The latitude of punish- 
ment, which it permitted, was there- 
fore excessive, and the discretion, 
which it intrusted to the judges, 
unlimited. According to the qua- 
lity 4of the libel, the court might 
condemn the party accused to 
10,000 or 100,000 florins, — to an 



to sneer at the apostolical p^rty in 
France, were thus restricted in 
their observations on domestic 
topics Vithin narrow limits. About 
thirty or forty persons, including 
six ecdeidastics and two printers, 
had beenprosecnted within a few 
years. ^The editor of the SpcctO'^ 
teur Beige had been condemned to 
two years' imprisonment ' for pub- 
lishing a controversial letter of an 
inhabitant of Antwerp, ahd a it^te 
of cardinal Gonsalvi, previously 
printed at Coloffie : and the pro- 
prietors of another journal were 
condemned in July for denouncing, 
imprisonment of one month, or of on the Idth March, a toll-duty, 
ten years, — to hard labour, or to which,very possibly inconsequence 



any other rigorous penalty short 
of death. No jury was interposed 
between the prisoner and judges 
appointed by the crown, in cases 
where the crown was prosecutor ; 
and the subject had no security 
but in the mercy of a tribunal, on 
wUch the pressi which suffered by 



of their representations, had ac- 
tually been abolished two months 
before it was determined to prose- 
cute them. At the present time, 
a particular iivtance, as always 
happens, brought the general po- 
licy and spint of the law into 
question. A couple of foreigners 



314] ANNUAL llBGlM'BR/in828. 



htA been ordered to leave the ooun^ 
tty. 'Certain articles^ animadvert- 
ing^ an this exercise of the prero- 
gative in terms not at all agreeable 
to the government^ appeared in a 
newspaper called the '' Courier des 
Pays Bas." Proceedings were 
forthwith commenced i^inst the 
editor and printer of the jonmal^ 
on which the authors immediately 
gave themselves up. The pro- 
ceedings of tlie tribunal of Cor- 
rectional Police, at least in castes 
141^ thb, seem to be abundantly 
rapid and summary. The arroita 
to6k place on the 98th of Og« 
tober ; and^ on the 7th of Novem* 
her, the' court pronounced sen» 
tencej condemning one of the 
writers to imprisonment for a year, 
the other for eight months, the 
printer for six monthfl, and remits 
ting the editor to another tribunal, 
as having attempted to sow dis* 
sension among the Belgianai 

TheCham^rs were sitting when 
these proceedings took place, and 
the sabjeet immediately attracted 
the notice of the deputies. A. M. 
Brouckere moved for the abroga- 
tion of the ordinances of April 
1815, and of March 1818, which 
constituted the penal code touch- 
ing this matter, The debate lasted 
five days ; it was animated and in- 
structive; every member was pre** 
sent, except five who were detained 
by illness. The laws in question, 
the mover said, had produced 
monstrous persecutions, although, 
in 1815, when a conqueror menace^ 
the political existence of clie state^ 
the sovereign had necessarily adopt- 
^ ar^rary regulatbns, justified 
by the circumstances in which he 
found himsdf. '' The piess is the 
only means of communication be- 
tween the gevermnent and the 
nation, it makes a wi^ tlirough all 
obHaeles^ Iti ft caaslittttioQal ttat^ 



the king can d<i no' vi^rsn^; he 
must be infbtmed by the pr^ 
which is a ^heck on the atbttrasy 
acts of ministers! The liberty ^ 
the press may be abused ; li«t tins 
is an inconvenience of ttifling jhm 
portanice, compared with tiie -mis*' 
chief wliich the govemmenl maf 
do, when the llbertv «€ the press 
does not exist Under the sreseiit 
law,ourindividusifiteedom deptois 
on the procorstors of tbekng^ and 
their substitutes, and, ultiniately 
en a sinf^e ministttr. (Mnselil?, 
there have been fiifly-^lk pavsoils 
accused by virtue of these laws, 
which euf^ tabe erased frcn* mn 
slatate-b(Kik as a disgiace tts as; 
finr without pubfic discuaAm them 
is no public liberty.'^ • B^fav the 
greater number ef the itpeeAek 
were in favMr of the mMBfa, ani 
iiioae, which' w«ra aoainst it, wens 
not in favour of the law. Afaaast 
sJl who opposed the netion pnw 
tested their attachment to tba 
liberty of the pms, and tMr dasik^fe 
to see the laws in question altsM ; 
but thought, that, as the king Ind 
promised that a measure ob' ^le 
subject should he kid befitfs dse 
Clmmber in the course of tiie ses- 
sion, it would be best te wasi 'far 
the royal proposition. Thaasiiias- 
ten tried to close the lYi s tnns i i i 
with the fourth day's debate^ )b«K 
they were left in a minofil^ Oil 
the final division, howswer,< tlssy 
carried the rejectien ef tlievrntMi 
bv a majority of 6l miss to* M. 
The debate did honoor ta^he aUls. 
ty, and the division did bo sw n r to 
the spirit, of the fidgisiiritepsi ties. 
In the eastern domioioiis'Qf the 
Netherlands, civil war still -ssr^- 
tinned to rage. The mUMj 
operations of 18S7 had bean sihi* 
pended in Autumn hf the Biitsb 
acceptiw the ptefMJsals of tiia in- 
surgant ksdec Ar «tt annistMoA 



a ..DMplNiUaq,, Tke nef^jtbtion th9 liveg of !» m^Py Kuyfo^tuovti; 

taok.^h«0» bu4i it UoipinAte^iiutbo peopla."««T.When, w^^ay^the Dutch 

ml <»C SeptooifaBr^ wi Aout halving gowemmeoit told the people of Javi^ 

lad M^my result*. Tbd Dutoh ftU tbi«i we c»nnot help witpeaiug 

ffHnaflr^ Ia nn aAckoi» ta the thatit was guilty of the? iUUnewcH 

pat|dfi<tfj»vii»wbiab be published telling them what every maa i^ 

oa t fa eo Bcati gii , fawpMtad the failuiie Java knew to he not truci Aa4 

to sthft ainbiiion of Dopo N^^ what the military events of the iut 

ao^iVONT' die head of th« anned surreotion oontradictedf Ifitwa^ 

aatmi^ .ildio hud made» he said** ao ea^ for the ^vemmeni to 

iiadqriiirihlc H/fxmndh JiM Qvly vindicate its authonty against re- 

ttoaoianiaUe ' a« . sog^ided th« bellious subjectsj it h^ acted with 

fiu^* ibut hiumliatijig likewise inexpressible folly in ellowingth^mj 

tQ the fMilans, Ibe^gi^at va^n» j»nd year after year> successfully ;to re« 

Ibo pijesta^^id even altogether sist it^ power, and to shake its 

eoBtcaiqf ' to :tho feligion W the very foundations. Governments 

wnTitiy>i Th^ |»roehimat>k»a did da not lose battles against insur*. 

pai f^le*Miha* theset demands had gents for the fake of philanthropy. 



;aiidaAlheJiipriinf«epiihlii^ The military operations, thegre 

ad; qoi £9wette0y we cannot judge for9> were renewed so sooq a3 thc^ 

hsmJbftr ^ Dufetb authoiitjes seaiion permitted. The Putch 

deaerihed tken oerreotly* It wai ibroe was now in a more eSbctivo 

pasfpotiBr.- oatiunRl tt^pit the suoeesiv condition than it had been at 

whirh had hxtbarto at^nded the Conner periods of the contest. Be»» 

Srhstium, flbouU have given iu sides the reinforcements which had 

eia coafidMKae^ But when th# been received in the precedins 

Piilrhf ^svoruneBt ibold the pe^dv year, upwards of six hundred bedt^ 

pf Jftva^ ^' It would not have bei^ troops arrived from Holland ia 

difto|d$ for 01^ by meansof ourown January, and« in the course of the 

lOKs^ and it would have Veen still summer, considerable bodies of 

Um m%, wppoffted by the efficacious auxiliaries were obtained from Tern 

ttiiiisliiiire oif the grout emjperor of nate> and the neighbouring islanda* 

Saariyartm as of our faithful allies The forces of the insurgents some^ 

tbo^nitaas of Madura and Suma* times amounted to thirty thousand 

JMl^.li^ deduce tbe inaurgeats and men. There was no regular camrr 

ttafHiiBth their reheUiaa ; but we paign; the system of Nc^oro^ was 

kave if imed tiftsm^ because we h»ve one of censtant alarm, and exhaust* 

the Javaaase peepte, and because ed European troops in an Indiim 

aMBl^af4hea»nad been milled by climate by imposing perpetual 

Ifaeie hwlipiteia: and it was for watohfulnesi^ and umyaaing af^tir 

Aa^ vMfQii, and solely out of love vity. According to the Dutch 

Uk.tkm- mtiosK mid atiachment to aooounts, the only accounts of |he9^ 

the icaulfttry which it iahahitSj that transactions aocessible to the public^ 

very- leonatly^ when a considerable the insurgents never stood to figh^t, 

was BMdy to erudi the par^ but fled immediately, on tbe;ap«> 



o£ tbe insuffgratSf we gave to Krai proadi of the troopi^ But they 

Madjo^ wlm appeared to have were no sooner di^rved on one 

plMcd bhPielf U their head, u» .point, than they rerappcaxedi in 

^ppcMtunity to a^ake peace* and to equal foroe, upon anol^r- Wbw 



^^^jj ANNiUA*l.-^RB«I^ir®«liIl828. 

did 



dk[ t|ife^ Sght^but^itwasacUnUtad^ 
Ithey /pughf Witkgieat couragoaad 
perseveiance. They defeated n 
fitrpng disteofament under a colonel 
r7abaxs ; they took Bandjar« a large 
$}iip4)uildi|ig establishment: and 
cut oft' the commonicauoa between 
the capital and Sourabya by talcing 
possession of the road with 9^ over- 
iynelming force. On otherpoiats, 
again^. the Dutch claimed the vic« 
iory ; and their own account of the 
state of matters on the whole. wa^i 
thj^t affairs^ if not much belter» 
were very &r from getting wor^e* 

r 
: '. ' . •• • ' 

' Among the states of GEUMiofy 
fii^ year passed over in undisturbed 
repose* The confederation lost by 
deaths the grand di^ke of Saxe* 
Weimar/ the sovereign of a very 
limitedy but most hi^py staie,-— 
amphg the least pow^lul. princes 
of the confederation in territory 
and influence and a cipher in the 
poUticalarithmeticof Europe^-^but 
the most respectable of its princes 
in every thing that makes power 
lovely and estimable. He had been 
th« first German prince who took 
under his protection the rising lite- 
rature of his country; he had 
gathered around him^ at his little 
courts the greatest of the great 
men. who, during the last fifty 
years have been devating German 
literature to its present rank. 
Weimar never came into notice^ 
when the counsels of empires were 
tOibe arranged^ or their armies to 
^ jnprshalled; but Weimar was 
the first name pronounced, when 
pqetjry, or philosophy was to be 
cherished. As aprince, he governed 
with mildness, with kindnessj with 
Un^j^tted justice. Helovediiberty, 
^q he esliabUshed it among his 
8ul)jec^. Before eith^ Wirtem* 
ber^ or fiavaxia introduced the 
taatitotioMh'vvUbh llibjf^now poi< 



jess, ^bad4il|ced.ihQgBMld.iiiMi^, 
of \¥eiiim wder tj^jwyifcfdliiiit^f ' 
a xem^nUitiv)9;.sy«im4rni^ 
faqftily vault in. whiieb/'helwa9/ in- 
terred, his cofiloiby hiflK)wa»iieiiilM> 
was placed bet^oeA Aftt^ of iSdnBl«» 
and the spotiwhichisapestrHtdrfiir 
*th(^t of Gdthe. ,<'t frinil )f 

, TheaiudentsofHddelbeR^wia 
th^ vvorking^ef (ihci setSred atiA^iiir- 
peniiHriUe Bii]»dlMff»clMift -Whu^ 
xx^ai|^ted:|ihem with^nU llietlstiii- 
dents of GMadwi^/ a^d iaUMiih^ 
^^enl^ o(; Gennan^.)iirifeh tieaiik 
otheri still opntimiei p9 petfeetnllie 
grfmd.duk^/dlT'Bad^- • tm aMche^ 

thai « vasolutMJki ofr tte <3iettluHs 
di€|lb iihm9j had sfrifctty ^fm^plut^ 
ed < all secret Msecaatap»S/rift^tl^ 
uniyeintieflii ^d febalThe htfthni^ 
iself issued 'V8rioUioMiiifiiioB»//tD 
destroy their pennideiii^ iofliieboB'; 
that laite ^ents, i holv«tay- pww wi i 
that they still sutetefeed, aai>«titt 
piDduoed the saJM fctid efibdik. Ho 
therefore dedared, thai ifaaa&BSBO^ 
ciationssihouid henpefisrtii boftwU 
ed,not as tnqu^^mwons^of tlA.4i» 
dplineof the iiniverritie$>biitrMniai^ 
demeaaorsf eognijmblebjidie^iHfeli 
of justices end that tki^wMmui 
principals!, and other AifeieiMnMMs 
of tl^ societies, er^k -M ikof 
had no criminal ol^ejOt* dMuliLiki 
punished by three or sts-Mlntluf 
confinraient in a lorliesqb ^KrtM 
suspected of participttlingitt scsnte 
associations might- te ^dlmiiflnfl 
from the umversLtieft ^^iAnnftrwuf 
formal proof. If itte olfeet^of ^dia 
society was oanunid, the fsniliy 
decreed by the law was .t# fatf iii« 
flicted. Any of the in! 
who Imowin^ly fdlofwod i 
of secret societies in.tlMar hmtai!} 
were to be fined from 50 to 100 
florins. lt> \» true Ihatf ahHMJiny 
thins would be jnslifiaU^jvflMi 
could eradicate uiese miadnfivmn 



> - < r umvcm^ ■<&!» )i:xrtioi»B: ^ ^ ^i% 



-ffitVi' 'dt 'wtoi !«!tdrildM to ntalDs 
.MWeiiMy'^ txi i tlieie' tfociettes ftti 

viliUiiil' €D8nily arid towithcfraw 
it from the tender j^riddietion df 
Umi ^nmfeflMirli; but beside* this, 
kndtrdiiMd thflit the^ oeadtftnidd 
^tlididMiC -flkoald be inifieted, 6t 
^^AeaU gave the acad^ttical ttu 
Mnal'thd fOwe»'<6if'iiiflictibg it, on 
^iaeie Mjptdtm.- N6W> the adi- 
'dfakidaAlfiuiiiAfiiMiit'iii^t be«x« 
^uhitfiF fMa «he ' uAt^eraky; aiid 
diffMbrntfOtai^e imitf^rtity bliuiis, 
onGmnalBys flAl a y^tig maa's best 
^Ifd^et^ itt Ufb. The po^iver thui 
^te« !^v«tt< a^ tenible one ; but*foir- 
inuktk^f Ur wa^ 'given' to men, 
alwajra^kiafllydiApmed tiowatdsthe 
stodoniay ' and' whose' interest it 
bemi oouM be to diminish their 
lUlmbtta. <« The late events/' to 
iihidtf th^ edieC refeited as justify, 
ii^ itisavefity, were a rebellion of 
4liefiQi>soheii'<^ Heidelberg, oeca- 
aictnci by ^e insdtntion of a pub^ 
UoX^bnaj by 'the more respectable 
dweaof die inhaHlsntSj and stMne 
mtnibtts of Uie uniiF«rsity; They 
weMi«BtitM to do what they ehose 
wiih Aeir own libraiy ; and they 
adada-'Mipilations to prevent the 
uttataeiMa (»f ^bB intrusive and 
oiwbdariiig Bursehen. The Burs- 
itat? instantly rose in a body; 
ftotanikd the repeal of theobnoxi« 
qoaregnlations ; marched out of the 
aiiy^'wlMa that was ref\ised, and 
inikngp a position on the banks of 
the Nfeokar^ where they maintained 
tlisaBsdhres^ till expulsion and ex- 
nstaltftiDn together brought them 
nudD^ oattege^ 



< « 



" WMIe the rest of Europe en* 
jttjwS'paaoe^' Roteu was {Avdved 



in Witt. We hiM-^nif^ -^ 
c<>rdedy* that the ' Pevs&eth ' ^ 
vemment, acted on, it* wa^ 'said^ 
by the inttigaes of Ttiri^ey; h^ 
i^ef^ised to ra^fy the preliniinaxy 
trtety bf peac^ which- Abbas Mii-za 
had cohduded with Russia Iti thp 
cfid of last yeai*. The retolution 
wairwadAesfi. Tlie events of the 
war; brief as it had been, niust have 
convinced Persia that resistance 
was vain ; only unaoconnteibte igtio; 
mnce could permit her to behev^^ 
that Turkey, in existing drcUm- 
stances, could come effechially (b 
her aid, when all Turkey's au^ety 
was to av6id a waryand-die bug^t 
to have known enough of h'uma^ 
natUYej or at least of Russfap 
pdii^, to bcf aware, that eveijy 
additional day's march which genie« 
ral Faskewitflch, was'obligS to 
make, would extend the frontier 6f 
general Paskewitsch's master, when 
the peace, which was unavoidable, 
should come to be concluded. The 
Persian plenipoiehtiaty saw all the 
mischief and danger of the unad« 
vised step which the schah had 
taken. He hastened back to Tef 
heran to prevail up(m him to ^ 
-trace it ; and» in the mean time, the 
Russian army resumed mifitdxy 
opemtions, notwithstanding the 
severity of the season. Majot 
general Pankerarieff, Uppointed t6 
act on the right, with the detacliT 
ment under lids command, ' had 
occupied, on the d7th of Januaxf , 
and without any resistanee, the 
town of Ourmior, which h sur- 
rounded with ditches and' Walb; 
one of the most consideral^le iu'llvs 
provinceof Adxerbidjan, andafibrd- 
ing great resources tor '^e 'iuj^V 
of an army. On the other s^e, 
lieutenant-general * StrchteM 
advanced on the 'left; with'ihil 



. ^ pi « .1 I 1 I 



.J LLi ,. 1 »i ' 



Vob)J(IS^9M(. 



n 



818] AN NiU Ah An^ I^ff fl Bt i .-1828. 

pelled to cede the fortreaik loo« witb 
three weists and a hfdf (if the sww 
xounding ooantrj. Penia £irthar 
acieedtopay the sumof 20,000,000 
of ruUeSy tuid conaentedf that, while 
both powen should have the batJ^ 
gation of the Caspian for oommer- 
okl purpofleii, Ruana alone should 
be entitled to keep venels of war 
upon it. 8hia further fi aco itM att 
aauieaty to such inhabitajata^. Ad* 
«^bi4iaira8 hadeapouiai tlia^auaB 
of Ru8si% aliowifla tben^Alo wi* 
grate in|o Ruam ifth^ diqi4«^ ^ 
so inclined^ avidgiEanUn^ ^be^.for 
thai purpoaa one 3FWLiaiiiM|.,to 
disppae of iheir.iQ0Veahte,pim<tJf 
and five years to di^g^ose .V t)iav 
lands. Rusaii^ in r^tun^^mog- 
nired the crown prinqe* At^ias 
Mircfi, as heir apparent of^ the 
Persian crown, in the poli^ of 
Russia there is nothin|^ more insi- 
dious than her practice of nnl 
stirring to.rebelhon proyhiCGa of 
the eounlnes which she i^Tai)ei^ 
and then stioubting for a pardon 
to their rebeiUoa when tfie vwos 
peace. Th^ popufiition of these 
provinces (and tiiey txt ^ways 
frentier pjovinees) coine to tegaid 
her as a proleetor ; die acqolrfea a 
light to take caie that the haden^ 
nity is duly observed ; vebds ipai^ 
doned by conipulnoB are never 
treated with kuidnessi and tbeir 
protector can never be at a kmior 
oomplaints of viobdoos of tl«afcy. 
'to serv^ as proteftts te 9' war, 
whenev^ he shall wish one.' ^ ^ 

llie Russian anoy vriil^' had 
been employed a^unsfc Fenia ftma 
thus left at Ubei^ to UsA ils^aid 
to the attack which was now medi- 
tsjked i«aiast T wkesFi in whotf |il^ 
invader must expect to Aaia mw^ 
tougher enemy. Peisia had *boen 
presumptumsB, rssh, aod«<fiMhle^ * 
Turkey waa caulioiNii ptudenib aai 
vigorous. 



intention of taking possession ctf the 
fortress of ArdebiL Scarcely had 
he ajmared before the wtdls of 
that place, ^e strongest in Ad^er* 
bidjan, when the Persian governor 
opened the gates to him on the 7th 
of February. Even before the 
^ news of these successes eould reach 
' Teheran, and as soon as they were 
informed there <tf the renewal of 
hostilities, the shah, alarmed at 
the new dangers which threatened 
hi^i, thought only of averting them 
by in the means in his power. He 
hastened to send a direct commu- 
nication to general Paskewitcb, to 
assure him w his pacific intentiovu^ 
imd to announce we immediate re* 
mittance of the sums to complete 
the pecimiary indemnity demanded 
by Russia, and the half of which 
had already arrived at Miana. At 
the same iio^e he directed Abbas 
Mirxa to hasten on his side the 
eondusLon of the treaty, giving 
him the neeesssry full powers. 
Peace was 6nally conduded at 
Tourkmantchai on the j28th of Fe» 
bruary. Perda paid dearly for 
hef f^ly in having provoked this 
in^rudwt and impc^tic contest; 
while Russia gained the two ob» 
\&fAB for which she would mi^e 
war on all ssankind, increase of 
tetnUbry, and payment of her ex- 
penses. By dus treaty Persia 
gave up to Russia the whole Kha« 
Ml of Eiivan, on both aides of the 
Araxesb aad the Khanat <^ Nak» 
hitchaviMi, whidi tfaua brought 
JR u is ii^ eseepinff onwrnxts, still 
fiirthor south, ^ut thie wtas not 
aU* .Along the moat seotharly 
part of this frontier the Araxes was 
pow declared .to be the boundary. 
8lV^, on this yart of the Araxes was 
Ae sisoog foitress of Abbaa Abad» 
§9^, /Unfiprtimately forr Rusfsa* it 
stood . on the right bank of the 
m»f V^nih theiefinre; was qoov* 



tHlSTOlRV OF EUROPE. [219 



V, 

t I 

> I • 1 



CHAP. XL 



RvtotA AVB TtJiiicsT. — The Gr<md Vizier writes to iht 
GdU ernmcH iia kaive the JNI^ticUions rmewwd^ t6 which Russia 
t^ftwms no Aniuier<--^Instirucfims af the Parte to the Govetiwte 
'of the Prepinees ^MPeasures adopted by Turhe^f in the eon-^ 
temMlatwno/ Wt$r--^RusM declares War against Turkey ^-AfOwer 
of Tuthey to the Russian Declaratiwi of War — Russian Answer to 
the Letter of the Grand Vizier--^7he Russian Army begins the 
: Cwe^^afyfn — Siege of Biraiht^The Russians take BraihWy and cross 
the t>anube — Another Division crosses at Tssaktchi^ ahd takes that 
Fortress, with Hirsova, Tulcza^ and Kustendji — Prince Menzikoff 
takes Anapa — The centre and left Divisions Join at Karassu-^Pe- 
scription of Shumta and Varria — The Russians advance from Ka^ 
rassUf and take Bazardiik — They arrive before Skumla, and drive 
the Turks from the heights — They resolve not to attempt Shumla tiU 
re-infqrqements <vrrive — Siege of Varna — Obstinate defence of the 
Turks — Operations before Shumla — Successful attack qf the Turks on 
both flanks of the Russian position — They defeat General Rudiger — 

• Saege qf Varna — The Grand Vizier approaches to the relief qf Vama^ 
but is unable to force the Russian position — Defeats the Russians 
in an Assault upon his Camp — Determined resistance of the Turks 
in Varna— Their Commander^ the Copitan Pachc^, refuse^ to Sur^ 
render — Yussuf Pacha betrays the Place — The Capiian Pacha,, 
with Three Bundred Men^ retires into the Citadel — He is allowed 
to retire unmolested — The Russians retire from before Shumla^ 
pumped bp the Turks-^They retreat beyond the Danuie— ^£^pera« 

^ tionsofthe ri^ht Corps of the Russian Army — Siege ofSiUstrior^ 
Tie Xu4sians raise the J^ege^ g>nd retire across the Danube^ Ope^ 
ruiians tm Little WiUlachkiy whae the Ruesians d^eat the Turke^ 
ofui toks Kal^fat — Campaign in Armenia — The Museiaus take 
KarMf and defeat ike Turks at Ahhalzik. — ^Grj&ecs. — Com)entiem, 
for tike Depttrtuee of the Egyptian Army from the Mofesb^Fremek 
£sepeditiom to the Morea^^The Fortresses in possesmon of the 
Turks are surrendered — Proeeedings of the Oovemment of weeee^ 

THE aaifaomdon of EngHnA^ eiave a step, whidi hastened a 

F jmoe, and Ruaria, had quiu catastrophe that it wHlmgly wooU 

ledr CoBistttirinople on the 8th cxf have avoided, and pnt an ^d to 

DeooHiber, 1887* The suUime the diktery negoUalic^to bf whieh 

VoetmheA acaitsly espoeted'to find it wai ffiemg tiAe to piepai^ Ite 

iti pfams hnkep in upon ^ 90^de^ tcoirtest« Wbos tho pnVaMdM 



i^l ANN?U AL. RfiGrSTTEflJi 1828. 



-d^Mfiiiid«d Iheir pMsports^ the reia 
^n^di endeavoured to dter their 
-pxtpo^, feptwentin^ to them the 
ita^d&tf of dcmirtmg when eo 
ftaeh imgkt still he expected fvom 
riegotiatioki^ end dte imprdprietf 
^'removkig the means of amicable 
^nnBneement without expreae or- 
'A^M uom their courts. He de- 
ttiittded from* them a written and 
;<^ffidd dtolaxatiMii that they weie^ 
■6t^^Cidiie6iYed themsdvee to be^ an- 
tlMmMd by their courts to quit 
ilidk. posts, without giviag any 
-farther exposition of me motives 
of i&eir resolution. With this 
^Rnmrnd the envoys reCosed to oom« 
^f, and insisted, as the cendition 
of their continued lesideBce, and 
of continued negotiation, the im- 
mediate acceptance by the Povte 
of the terms on which the three 
powers had resolved, by the treaty 
of the 6th of July, 1825, that the 
warfare with Greece should be 
terminated. The divan remaining 
firm in its resdution to reject so 
formidable fin encroadiment on the 
integrity of the empite, the ambas- 
sadors were reluctantly allowed to 
depart. Their departure, however, 
produced' less alarm and confusion 
among their respective country- 
men residing, at Constantinople, 
tfasn the existence of hostilities be- 
tween the Porte and European 
powen had been wont to excite. 
Much confidence seemed to be re- 
posed in the wishes of the Turhiflii 
gdVei^dient to avoid every mea- 
feffite wMd^ipht wideh the breadi : 
the Vigoioos nitemal police mein- 
ti&n^ by the rexgning emperor 
|^v6 full assilranoe that the ftuious 
fiigbliy' of Ae mob,, whack on 
idthilAr-ASIMiions had been the 
"^i^jml soui«e of dangeiv would 
'fM^ be "^^nadtt^t* overcame the 
"Akuk' and 'oav^ett of the gorem- 



the esra of tliciiidmaltturf^ >hed fvn^ 

nouaced lo/the'Forteirtbat.^Jher 
imtended to lecommendj timir i«(- 
li>WHeotMiftryBien« who' nHgH^..jri^ 
■udn in ConstantfiioplffA , 49: .4llie 
Motectimi of theem^oy of/tl^ 
Nesheriands; butthedipim'wcmld 
not admit of this interfei(efieey mI 
ordeoed t thai .4he sul^bcti^ oCiihe 
'ihitce powers^ whole mmWinrtftr 
had leA the .«a|itld, Jho^vbe 
pldsed. inder the imooikm^fm' 
teetion of therPflirte> th^JLe^Mlr 
tiqn^ v^lkidi:ngMd«d(Mih{Mp|>|rs 
dioddbe eoudusitelyro^nA^ 
the £eis iefiendit, audi ti^al^ ihe^^M- 
-cuniaryaSUna^dUtigiii^Qpi^iltPV^ 
bc.left toaqiecial oontmi^Qoiiif fo.T 
The anxiety of the. P9i1%t9tfi(- 
tain, by jcetaining the . nmillefrf, 
the means of piomging tiietfoy^o- 
tiatioDfl^ induced it» immedialfi^itm 
their departure/ to tAJketa 9^j«it 
common in the annids ^ X^Ush 
diplomacy. On the 12th pf X>^ 
cember, the grand vimor,. a^wni- 
festly in order to give the fiusMsp ^ 
government an opportunity, if Jt 
should be so incUned, of i^ain 
having recourse to amicaUe disccii- 
sion, Mldressed a letter directly. |o 
count Nessehrode, the Russian mi- 
nister for foreign afiairs^ cMtplaMi* 
ing of the conduct of Uie Rswieii 
ambassador, M. de RibfiWpieine^ 
in leaving Constantinofdtf,'^ en- 
tirely on his own ' reflfooaibili^, 
and without a reason. Foc.d^ 
Turkish diplomatist- argupBd»v ^^M, 
as the rejected proposals r^gaoiiffg 
Greece had been contrary^ the 
faith of existing tiea^, tl^ |^ 
jeotion could never justify tb^.di^- 
parture of a resident envqy, jp- 
pointed merely to^ watch. otver.t^ 
due execution of these, trsi^i^ 
" It is eertain,*' said thisi^|Me, 
^ that as the. residwoe of the}fi9fK?« 
sentatives. of. friendly poweni^ 

no 0l^ httttjtbemMitywiiwi >nil 



HreioTer OF eurxjpb; r 7 i^m 



«ietetioB) of'Qsbtiiig* taeafeie^.'a 
««;keiitiiatli^)teto)d<>nt]ni!yi to tbe 
larw^balkmii^'wlion he leases has 
-phob^i^'teaAtaod 4m aocount df 
dltettttaioiiB "itlubh' have no co»- 
fibxilm trith these ireaties. M. 
^dtt'RibiMti^leiMWflBiiekt informed^ 
^iImiI; if te iwtts andioriBcd fay his 
thajh? td ]6life Gonstaatiiioplo in 
*lAik nMtfifier, he had oniy to deli- 
ifbr tttthe SttbitiBe Porte a nole 
tmtAkig the Teason-anigticd 1^ 
Akxi;-'4Mlt tbos^also he refused. 
tPhe B(»teliiena9eing9ta4f obliged 
^Ib^tA^'a-midde ^xwrse hetween 
gthriMg^it^ j^niiisaiKMvaAd refusing 
Wtlb&''fliiihMadbr>kft Constanti- 
nopUf* of i his dwn> aocerd. • The 
^^MaenttU^iidly letter hasheen eom- 
. ■ptt ds fl 'ttttd -sent, to acfuaittt your 
mMeikty oC these drcuuiitanoes. 
'Wlien^yoU'leam* from it, that the 
'fitebliitoe Porte h&s, at'all timesy no 
beherdeaire than to pr^Krve peace, 
tthd^'that the event in question 
hflS'heeb entirely the* act of yotrr 
'own minister, we hope that you 
will endeavour on every occasion 
to:fuim the duties of friendship." 
IVrlliis letter, the Russian govern- 
ttientdid not d«gn to igive any 
tieply, tail the begmning^ of May ; 
ton then it sent its answer by the 
' hands of count Wittgenstein at the 
hdadioCa- Russian invading army. 
When it was«een that negotia- 
tion wa^'finally at an end, Ttirkey 
'^^'it necessary to throw off 
-Mie-niiisk. To gain time for her 
-MSta^ preparations, had been 
the^dnfy object which she had in 
yieiivin proposing to treat ; having 
"now no alternative but resistance, 
'dhe- thought it prudent to rouse 
the spirit of the people for the 
tonteit, by calling forth all the vio- 
leht prejudice- and bigotry to whi<;h 
'Itlamism had so frequently been 
ftidehtcjd for its oon^jnests. Ae- 
«eHttiigly> early in January: of the 



^wsent yeari while the iqtAcmuit- 
oios of • Austria and/ Prusfiiai>,^v:f|:p 
still labouring to vender th(3,tppK^ 
positions of Uie allies palatahle.^P 
4 the Povte, and the Porte itself «q|i- 
peaied to be anxiously ineUaed. tp 
an amicable arrangemeiit^ a4asMr 
ment wasmade puHic, inthetfami 

of a dispateh from the yeia efi&nAi 
t». the- pachas of the proyi^p^, 
which put an end to 8lI'hQ|)e»i«i^ 
a friendly a^ustmeat. It described 
<the war, which was about to/{q[iw, 
aS' bebg one whieh W4iS' pqi^ 
sefigious. The^hoetilities of Rui|- 
sia> the sultan assured bis eultJecMj 
wece not directed meisely. tQ thi^ 
mntihtinn of^ the- empiroj th^ 
were imdertaken widi the design, 
and, if successful* could not fail ;to 
have the effect, cf establishing, the 
religious hereaes of the .infid/^ on 
ike utter destmctaon of the in^ti- 
tutions of the prophet* Every 
topic. was made use of which could 
itt&une the religtous;ardoux of 
an enthusiasticj ign<minit, and su- 
perstitious, populMc^ and giye to 
every defender of the crescent a 
personal interest in the combat that 
was to follow*. " It is well kaow%" 
was the ouUet of this manifesto, 
'^ that, if the Mussulmans natural- 
ly hate the infidels, 0^ infidels, 
on their part» • wre the . enemies 
of .the Mussulman*— that Russia, 
more especially, bears a particular 
hatred to Islamism, and i^ , the 
principal enemy of tbe 3i|hli^ne 
Porte." For sixty yeaia, it was 
said, she had eagerly taken advan- 
tage of the aligbteet pretextflnl^r 
deehuing war; she ;bad. bee^.jthe 
pcpteetoir afdisohedfteoQQ iu/^e 
principalities ; she had enceMf^j^, 
if she had not originaQy;instigM^> 
the 'insurittetion of ^ ll^e<>rQi!9pil^ 
The .iQihau waa. perfeetly ii^qrqet 
in givingitliis dMnriiit]^n(QC,t)|e 
policy of fiosaiaq(:bu^lpe wfm^m 



$Kttl ANIfVAt RBGlSfTJri^ 11828. 



an 0110 li^dfeb kid beM unJiMtly 
«3ilKineA4«.wliiih mig^ noi to have 
bofii flignefl^ and ftkould iMC^lbem* 
fore, M atiy kmgM omtiddred 
bbd^ Tyn waa to Autil* 
liftMi* vvkb a aAiidk in<M aubitati* 
tial OHM of wiyr^ ikaii aaj)r«ryie 

CbHifti whkik ha aanmd her af 
1119 tiidiakfto uiad. Ha tfaah 
aimad fnatkly> that all hin tieg^ 
tiaMottt/ vtA tha i^pafant aquanl- 
fiiiiy with which he had Mibttiittcd 
avett to Che defeat af Navariml, 
had bean only devices to dday 
•aetoal ho0tilitiaH» till he ehoold be 
abia to ftaitaiti them. The Mltab 
knew he Wat addreMing a people 
wito would not fitid &ult with him 
for hoUiftg that no ialth wai td be 
kept with heratics. He nMihtioned 
•tlia prapailtSons preMed upon him 
for the iettlemettt of Greece as 
hairkig no other ol^t ''than to 
thtow into the hands of the tnft* 
delfl all the countries of Europe 
and ARia> in which the Greeks are 
mixed with the Mussulmans^ to 
put the Rajas by degreea in the 
plao^ <^ the Ottonmns> and degrade 
the true believers to the plaoe of 
the Bl^as) «^ to convert the 
aaosques into ohurches^ and pro- 
fane them, pairhaps, with the sound 
of bells^n a wordi to crush Iltlam* 
ism^ rapidly and easily.'* They 
Were- pmpositlonsj therefore, he 
said, to whieh reason, policy, and 
religion had equally forbidden him 
\cf listen seiiotiily for a moment 
Bat '' though tha object of the 
Franks had been perceived from 
the hegtnatng, and though every 
thing- onnouiused that the answer 
td their pMipoeitimui would at last 
ha^ to be givaa by the sabfa 
alotta, yet^ to sain the time neces^ 
sary fori warlike prq)aralions« the 
SidiUme Itorte andeavonied to tern- 
pariaei «a macfa.aa peffliUa> by sa>* 



tisliiainKyt repttea ml&oAoid'eo^ 
fof^Mei' Evan after tha batriaaf 
liavatikiOi with.ilia.Mign oC.gm- 
ing iiMa> at least till iiha cummar 
diauld appraachv avary ^ataCnl^ 
nageniaat was xaitfrtad to In. ttie 



whkdft foQawad.". '*I1iia 
theNfeta," ha oOBsittdad^ ''asiait 
be oatttddaesA i puialy stiligiaaa 
and natknail war^ Itianot^like 
fonnar worsi a politioil oabtasl for 
pfovinoes and frontieia; 4ha ^ 
jeet of the enemy is to annihilate 
Islamism, and ta tread thaAatiab 
of the If abcaaatanB uader foot. 
Let all the fktthftd, than, ricfr and 
poor, hiffh and lowj seeollect,. that 
to fight lornsisa duty. Let tfaaia 
have no thou^t of their a^eam^ 
or of pe^ of ai^ Undk Lei; lis 
flscrifioe wilUagly oar fsofactics 
and our penensi and struggle bady 
and soul^ for the support of ottr 
reli^pon^ The vwmh^para of the 
prophet have ho other maana of 
working out their salvation In thin 
world and the next" 

When this documant became 
known, and when it was plain that 
it would only furnish to Russia an 
. additional pratevt for. a war whieh 
die was determined to wBge> this 
Porte would wiUin^y have, dis^ 
avowed it The document, it waa 
said, was not to be eonsiteed aa 
an authoritative deolaration of cha 
Turkish government even to.ita 
own subjects. It had neithar.baen 
printed, nor had it bean read( in 
the mosques* If it scsmed. ta 
rouse the people to resistance. aa 
against the enemies of Uieir intii^ 
gioni vet it had been neither ndf^t 
drcssad nor commuiueated to tha' 
people* It was metaly.& privatei 
dispatch, directed to the aouu^ or 
govinmars of tbeprovinoesi for tbaM: 
guidance. in> case of. a defenidve 
war^tha only ioae into which 



HlSTOlty OP l:uItOPB. 



(W 



VvtAi&f i^M aHow herself to be 
lp«T>^lt«d. > ' The felft efiendi in*. 
-^^61 ' tittdrl J' bgftimt the atti^ 
fiee^ hf #Meh the ptifate irtfltnic- 
^Oti^ ^hiiS goterniftent to it8<mnri 
l^hf^AAriiM h«d ilret been dl^ 
M^f^^tdl>' and* tlNm pfopogat^ 
iliMugllbiit foteigtt (xrantries M 
hW'«i)lhdri(;fttive extore^On of its 
imenlittu i^Ad ftentiikiemi towardb 
^Iheir goven^mexlts. But, be ^is 
tiflr it ma^r, the truth or tendency of 
the hunta was not altered by the 
eoverln^ in which they had been 
"ttHippi^ up. It yJinm still true, 
^xtti TuiiEie)% In pfetetiditig to ne- 

Ecifltte, had dhiy been seeldng 
lAy to pffSpaiit herself for war. 
ft'Wair still troe, that» wh3e con- 
ltntii¥lg to solicit the renewal of 
MnkMiDie proposition^!, she had te* 
MlH^ to nject the&i even at the 
rM' of an armed tesistanoe^ and 
that she was determined, when 
thiit resistance should become ne* 
eessAVy, to give it the character of 
a ileli^ous contest. There was, per- 
haps,Iittleln either of these circunl- 
MMH?es fol^ which mere politicians 
dould be entitled to blame her. 
To temporise is not prohibited by 
atiy diplomati6 decalogue, or by the ^ 
m^ctite of any diplomatic sect' 
TOgivethd people of an invaded 
eoimtry the ardour which religion 
ten- infbse into superstitious, as 
wMr as into intolligent minds, is, 
td evtery government, a perfectly 
'fifhr Weapon of defence. 

' The Porte, moreover, shewed by 
otflier eircnmstances, about the 
Mme time, that it considered itself 
on the eve of war. The greater 
p^ of the subjects of the three 
poi^crfi, resident in Constantinople! 
h^ remained, as has' been already 
mentioned, on the departure of the 
ambassaflord, and had been taken 
tinder the speHal protection of the 
government. In the month of 



Januom lists dfthM %e«»ikliid(fe 
up, and they were ofdeted, with a 
few exceptions, to leave the eaphal 
on a very brief notioe. It waaiiot 
to be expected, that those amon|; 
the subjects of the Porte itself 
Whose creed and sUppoiM partfadi*. 
ties fnlghi render ^ma suipleiou^ 
iwonld meet with milder treatamnlk 
Several of the rilost refepectahl^ 
Armenians were put into tonfinei* 
ment ; and this was (bibWed by a 
firman, (Ordering all the Armenianft 
from Angora, to settle Iheir afl^ 
within twelve days, and to return 
to their own country, nei^er again 
to revisit the capital. The teasdn 
assigned for this despotic proceeds 
ing was, that, ''there is in 1^ 
capital a very great number cf 
Armenians from Angota, priestai 
money-changers, medianicsi and 
merchants, and also others who are 
mere idlers, most of whom have 
not kept within the bounds of do* 
ooTum, and attended to their own 
afiairs, but have ventured on va« 
rious acts incompatible with thdr 
situation as subjects of the Sublime 
Porte, and which would not have 
failed, in course of time, to ehre a 
dangerous tendency to the spirit of 
the nation ; and as, on account ef 
their excessive number, the inMN 
cent cannot be distinguished from 
the guilty, therefore, to prevent 
any interruption of public ordet 
and tranquillity/'— they were all 
ordered into banishment togelJien 
The number of Armenians* sUb^ 
Jected to tliis indi^riminating senM 
tsence of relegation, amounted to 
about twelvethoUsand. Thegrentet 
proportion of them were- CathdieiL.* 
The Bosphorus, too, was doied^' 
without any mrtii:i4ar' Reason be^ 
ing assigned rot t^e adoptkm af k 
measure whioh affe^tod the com« 
merc^ of all nations; and, on!Ai6 
pretext of its bein^ aecetfwryf «ii< 



m^ ANNUAL RB€^I'3c|V|!|%ii#82a 



^sure apxojj^i; su^l^ of provisions 
to the capital, foraUe possession 
was taken of the cargoes of all ves- 
sels laden with conij without dis- 
tinction as to the country to which 
ihey might belong. 

Aware that war must now come, 
the Porte carried on with . much 
activity its preparations for resist- 
ance; it never entertained any 
idea of becoming the aggressor. 
£very measure within the reach 
of Turkish despotism was adopted 
to insure a general arming of the 
people; and, although there was 
still a lingering spint of dissatis- 
faction on account of the destruc- 
tion of the janizzaries, the sultan 
did not find much difficulty in fill- 
ing his regiments with men. A 
ereat proportion, however, of these 
kvies were raw soldiers, without 
e3cperience or confidence; and, 
under the system which the reign- 
ing sultan had introduced, they 
were to be suddenly trained *to, or 
were to exercise vrithout having 
been trained to it, a mode of war- 
fare foreign to their habits and un- 
acceptable to their prejudices. 
Reinforcements were hastened for- 
ward to the fortresses on the Da- 
nube, where the first wave of the 
invasion was expected to break, 
and to the strong-holds in the 
passes of Mount Hoemus, throueh 
whidh the advancing stream would 
have to take its way. In the rear 
of these positions, preparations 
were made for forming an exten- 
sive encampment in the neighbour- 
hood of Adrianople. At Con- 
stantinople itself every comer re- 
sounded with the din and bustle of 
mnns-^the reviewing of soldiers, 
the casting' of cannon, the repair 
af|A conistruction of fortifications. 
Th^; weaWt point of Turkey 
was In her naval power on the 
Eiiiine'.*' 'The battle of Navarino 






»»►» Jii'f 



I'.-' 



hadd^v^ 

event aiow tiuiied out. tb 

Russia* could have 

own individual in.t^eamts^ 

her the undispttted.nustf^ -•^-:,o* 

Black Sea. The sultan, iiowj^ff^i 

seemed resolved to meet the ajt? 

proaching danger with that det^^- 

minedi and desperate resolutifivi x%f.^ 

quired in j^ conflict which lii^^ 

beved to have nq othearphiect ' 

to expel the suoQesepc^^p^Sfi ~ 

frpmjEurbp^. ' . . y 

The language of th^ niJiMi^i^ 
sp^^ch to ]iis;pachasassimG^i^,^ 

not occasion the v^^v^^^^fllfifir 
may have hastenej^ its. ^ao^ii^ji,-*! 
plodon, and, by putting an fP^ff\\ 
all hopes o^ successful n^odatiQ^^ 
may have furnished to Bu^m^^ 
excellent pretext for bringix^ ukr 
ward other grounds of compl^t 
which she had been accumulatiijs.' 
On the 26th of April, the Rusftimr 
government issued its declaration 
of war against Turkey, and direct- 
ed its armies to marc^. The more^ 
substantial reasons of hostilities 
were the alleged repeated viola-, 
tions, by the Sublime Porte, of its 
treaties with Russia, and espedfilly 
of the convention of Ackmnaii^.' 
which was not 3ret a. y^ oj^l, 
By these treaties it ha'dljeen*' 
stipulated that Russian ships Aom 
enjoy the unimpeded nayigaticm|i ^^ 
the Danube, the Euxuie, ai>d*tl^&^ 
Turkish seas ; that thei^ caz^^'. 
should not be sequestrat^,' ^ 
sold against the will of die ^ia^...^ 
and that Russian merchante's&Uii{a« 
be allowed to travel and 8o|6&^ 
in the Turkish domimons, so^^<!»A|^^' 
as they might see fit. In vl6l6iitiSS.'' 
of these engagements, the V69k ' 
had expelled all Russian sabjej^\^ 
and merchants from its damirimi|iy 
had closed the Bosphorus ^gs^M^ ' 
the passage of Russian shies;' li^ 
detained the Rus^n vessds in the 



'BI#FbteY OP EUROPE. 



(22fl 



ports dr'AftEitz$iieyiiiidi& tli6 har« 
bbair of ConstsntiDople ; and had 
vfelisutly tfteh ponession of their 
cAt^goes at priceg arbitrarily fixed. 
Tfineae infiractioiiB of treaty, it wag 
ftother said, were proved to be 
ddiberate and systematic, by the 
lai^age of the late nianifesto of 
ttit^ Porte, which spoke of the 
dontcn^tion of Ackermami as an 
c m^ iiitgCmepJt entered into under 
mental* reservations, and to be 
obaervjid only until it could be 
VSili^ ^vith impunity. In the 
sariiei faithless spirit had been the 
cdhdtidt of the Porte towards the 
{fiit^^hpolities. Russia had stipula- 
ted for an ^amnesty to the Ser- 
i^sns r in the face of that amnesty, 
TVirkey had invaded their terri- 
tory, executing'indiscriminate mas- 
sacre ai^d proscription. Russia 
bad guaranteed the privileges of 
Waluichia and Moldavia ; Turkey 
had violated them by introducing 
a system of sweeping plunder. 
Russia, along with its allies, had 
interposed in favour of the Greeks ; 
whose insurrection, however, Rus- 
sia, had neither instigated nor aid- 
ed : but Turkey, not satisfied with 
rising all terms of accommo- 
dation, had persisted in cruelty 
a^d ixijustice towards the emperor's 
fellow . christians, and had been 
ff^y^y of that breach of faith which 
brought on the battle of Navarino. 
Farjlei;, Turkey had made herself 
aii a% of Persia in the war just 
t^l^inated between the Shah and 
Busna,: it was by her instigation, 
and on an undertaking, that she 
was alput to relieve him, by de- 
claring war, that the Shah had 
bebn wduoed to refuse to ratify 
the preliminaries of peace* Fi- 
nally, the Porte had given just 
offence by the language which it 
had used towards Russia in the 
hte proclamation, describing her as 
Vol, LXX. 



the natural enemy of Turkey, and 
holding her out to the mussulmaxis 
as an object of universal religious 
execration. Therefore Russia.do* 
dared war, disclaiming all inten- 
tion of seeking territorial aggran- 
disement, for she had idmdy 
countries and cares enough, but to 
compel Turkey to obseire faith- 
fully the treaties which she had 
violated-^to secure the liberty oC 
the Bosphorus and the free naviga- 
tion of the Euxincr— >to obtain aa 
indemnky to her subjects for the 
losses which they had sustained-— 
and lastly, to enforce from Turkey 
payment of all the expenses which 
the war might occasion to the in-» 
vader. Russia always makes war 
in the spirit of an Attorney anxious 
about his '' Costs." 

The Porte, in its counter-mani- 
festo, declared every one of these 
alleged causes of war to be untrue 
or unjust, and the whole of them 
to be merely a cover for that love 
of conquest over Turkey which 
never ceased to actuate the Rus- 
sian cabinet. If there had been 
any violation of treaties, Russia 
alone had been guilty. At the 
peace of Bucharest, which termi- 
nated a war of aogression on the 
part of Russia, the latter was bound 
to evacuate certain fortresses along 
the Asiatic frontier. Instead of 
giving them up, she had retained 
them, notiyithstanding the re- 
peated applications of the Porte^ 
merely because it was convenient 
for her to do so. During the con- , 
£erenoe&at Ackermann, the demand 
for these fortresses, in fulfilment 
of that treaty, had been renewed ; 
and the only answer of Russia was^ . 
that as she had kept them so lo%t; 
she might as well keep them s^.i 
It had been stipulatedi^ likewigp,,, 
that the Russian tariff fhotU^ J^i 
renewed every two years ; but for 



228] ANNUAL EEGISTEH, 1828. 



twenty-seven jeKn, notwithstand- 
ing all the demands of the Porte, it 
hM undergone no change. When 
the Greek insurrection broke out^ 
Ypsilanti, issuing from Russia, 
nused a rebelKon in Moldaria 
against the Porte.' When he failed, 
he again took refuge in Russia, 
along with Michael Snso, the hospo^* 
dar of that province. The Forte 
demanded, in terms of existing 
treaties, that they should be de- 
livered up ; but Russia refused; aU 
leging as her reason, that humani« 
ty forbade her to respect treaties, 
or deny her protection to the rebeU 
lious, subjects of herally. ''These 
instances," said the sultan, *' shew 
strikingly the respect which Russia 
entertains fbr justice and the faith 
of . treaties." On the other hand, 
the infractions imputed to Turkey 
were groundless. In regard to 
Servia, the amnesty promised to 
its inhabitants for the part which 
they had taken in favour of Russia 
in the former war, had been faith- 
fully observed, after the peace at 
which it was stipulated* But they 
had thought fit to rebel, against 
the sultan, and the sultan had in- 
flicted punishment where it was 
deserved^ and he was well entitled 
to do so. In Wallachia and Mol- 
davia — although Russia had in- 
sidiously seized the moment when 
a dangerous insurrection in these 
pptivinoes had just been quelled, 
and the flame of rebellion was 
spreading in Greece, to demand 
their evacuation by the Turkish 
troops, every thing whidi she 
demanded had been granted, and 
lord Sirangford, the British minia* 
ter, had declared officially, in full 
confidence, tliat there was no 
longer any subject of dispute be* 
sween Russia and the Porte. The 
seizui»i( again, of the grain on 
board of :fiLttnian ships, and tlie 



closing of the Bosphorasio pKMoi 
the grain from being kemmpsd^ 
were nueasures teoAiheA necensty 
by the measures (^ Russia bccsrif 
and her allies, to prcrvent Conssaik^ 
tinpple from being viated by a 
famine equally aenaeing t# '<its 
Christian, asto its Mahomadas poM 

Sulation. • By the blodeade whidt 
luBSia and her alHes had estafalidiM 
ed in the Levant, the TniUab 
troops in the Morea had been cttt 
ofi* from their ususi resources': tku^ 
cum of Rumelia, destined fee ikn 
capital, had to be emplojrad tasuiM 
ply them ; and it became' neoesterjr 
to adopt the measure inqUeStiim 
to make up the deficiency in Aa 
market of Constantinople^ whidk 
was equally felt by the metchttnla 
of all friendly nations.-*The ceni«f 
the RussianmerchantswasptirrhMii 
ed at the current market priee^ and 
the amount was paid to the owners. 
All this was an inevitable conae* 
quence of the blockade of the porta 
in the Morea ,* while that UedEade 
itself, and the whole conduct ef 
Russia and her allies in the affidrs 
of Greece, had been in gioas viola* 
tion of the laws of natimis and the 
undoubted rights of the sultan. In 
the conferences at Ackenaann^ llie 
Russian ministers had distincaiy 
admitted that the Greek ^uestioa 
was an internal afiair of the Porta ; 
explicit declarations weie mtaied 
upon the protooolof theeo nfa r ei w sa 
that Russia would not inteilere;* 
and on that declaration the oosuren^ 
tion of Ackermann was dbasd. 
But scarcely had the dedaifatieii 
by Russia* that no intarfersace be» 
tween Turkey and Greeoe slioiiid' 
take place, been finally setlted^ 
when M. de Ribeaupierte oame to 
Constantinoplefbr the veiy j^urpose* 
of interfering^ and it sqypeaiiBd Aet 
a treaty had already been eoiiaiad« 
ed, without the k»swkdaa of the 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[227 



PM)^ under which the intaference 
Wfl»' to be by force of arms-^a 
UnMt imniedktely carried into 
eteciidonia the biittle of Nava^ 
naa, ** an efent unexampled in the 
hitfeory of nations.'* 

T* the' ohotge of hating eon* 
ekmiM. the convention of Acker- 
Blantr under a mental reservation, 
this Borte answered, that it did not 
aSeitt easy to prove the existence 
of a mental reservation, or to see 
hoMr it could be a cause of war 
ir toi i e no actual infraction had 
taken place* Most of the articles 
of that oonventaon had been exe- 
ented before M. de Ribeaupierre 
arrived at Constantinople; and the 
means by which die others might 
be best executed were under 
anieable discussion between him 
and' the Turkish government, 
when -he intfoduoed the subject of 
Ghreeoe, the exclusion of which had 
been the basis of that very con- 
vention, and took his departure, 
not becmise the Porte was unwil- 
ling to go on with the fulfilment 
of the convention, but because it 
would not recognize the indepen- 
dence of the Morea. As to the 
late proclamation, which seemed 
to have giten so much offence, be- 
ing a private communication made 
t0 its own subjects by the Porte 
who alone knew its motives, its 
contents, it was said, could not 
ftinrish a ground of quarrel to a 
finreign power. At all events, as 
the oonrse of ocAnmunication be- 
tween the courts had been kept 
open by the Grand Visier's official 
letter to the Runian minister for 
fbteign affairs, Russia, even sup- 
posing the proclanmtion to have 
given her ground of offence, might 
have applied amicably to the Porte 
to ascertain the truth, and have her 
doubts cleared up^ ''Far from 
Mlov^ng this course, she hastened 



to class that proclamation amon|^ 
her oompU&ints and pretexts."—- As 
to the charge of having instigated 
Persia to continue the war, " it is," 
said the sultan, '' a pure calumny. 
The Sublime Porte observed the 
strictest neutrality. If some neigh- 
bouring pachas made preparations, 
they were only measures of pre* 
caution, usual to every state border- 
ing on two nations at war." 

On considering these counter- 
manifestos, it is dear that the war 
which Russia was now about to 
wage, was a war founded on her 
own individual interests, and her 
own peculiar causes of complaint. 
Although the Greek question 
figured in the deckration of the 
emperor Nicholas, as a fitting topic 
on which to proclaim his love of 
religion and humanity, the settle- 
ment of that question was no ob- 
ject, and, therefore, was no cause 
of the war. To compel the ful- 
filment of treaties which regarded 
only Russia and Turkey was the 
single avowed purpose of his arms ; 
and if he had no ground of com- 
plaint in relation to these treaties,' 
then he had no ground of com- 
plaint at all. But, although no- 
thing connected with the contest 
between Turkey and Greece was 
even pretended to furnish to Rus- 
sia a cause of war, yet, if the 
statements of Turkey were true, 
the state of the Greek question 
removed nearly all the peculiar 
grounds of complaint on which' 
Russia professed to proceed. These 
were principally infractions of the 
convention of Ackermaun, mid a 
declaration of the Porte timt it 
was not binding— a declaration 
from which the Porte was mani- 
festly willing to withdraw. But 
if it was true that Russia, in the 
conferences at Ackermaun, had ad- 
mitted the Greek question to be 

[Q2] 



mS] A N NlU'AJt ! :R »G FSCTJff «,! 1 1828. 

lonen^Ci infttaid adnunistsalabn -Moreweo tkis^atfep walinbtUalMfti 

with, vhixi she .would ootiiiiAer- tffl m moiiltb i^far tte^ Atttafaili 

ftore^fltid if 4hu. was. hdd out as ttinister. b«ia^« qnUto^ ^ CoftiA^ti- 

4nB6 of the.inducemcnte by whinh <siopleu Hiaidey a r i i fa iymt. <wp^l«id 

Turkey was brought to enter iato to aU aBDdaaUe «UattM»i|)IRUttftft 

that Gonrention^ wiUi what reason was not edtiidttditoiiiidoe ainrniMte- 

or justice oould Rotasia complain of rare of freeauluMr wAUb^Tw^bi^ 

its iafiacticMa^ at 4he moiaent when might wibKqttendyi adi^ 'Bi<Mm 

sbe hendif was tiiampliBg it mder of a war whidi Russia^had^abeai^ 

fi|ot> 4Uid maintaining a Heet in virtually. dedaxadi tTba^ ^gifatd, 

the .Mediterranean for the very too» on widoh^llio RnasSasi ia^^r 

purposa of violating it in triuaipk? took hia depertuM'-was Ae aaaie 



if the fact was so, with what with, that on wiodsitha sniniMaiB 

jCQuntenanoe oould a. Russian, di- of England and FVance-^pHiMNi 

pkMitist oomplain of '* mental ^ via, tint t&e'^drieiiMiiaad'JCo 

jre^ervatioQ," who had hiaiself de- aco^ the pni|x)ai«ioibaf ttiaitlir«e 

dased in.l8S7 that hvigevemmetit powers' re^oeding Gtekarp ^aisAy^t 

Wauldnot do what. he knew his Blis8ia.'dxpKesdy!"diailBdwed>^teit 

H^verament had bound Uiself by a lafusal easa-'oanset- of ^aaru^ >Wheii 

treaty in IB26 to do hy force of she iimttd hat dadaratsonaiFiwvir 

ams? Then, the infFaclioBS of oa the dfitli4)(l Aprils fa^ibMto 

treaty aet up by Russia^ axe of a minister lamdesoeoded lian'^ '(^lito 

vary doubttul . complexion—- the aame time td return wa,^mBkeo*kb 

si^isure. of the grain, and the.ex^ the Grand Viaiei^s letter minA» 

puhdon of the Russian merchants 27thof Deeenber. Thia^iaaufB8Mt 

from Constantinople.. As to the amounted to as admiflBUw^liiiit 

first, originating as the measure Russia had no ground > of •iooib- 

did, from the proceedings of Rus- plaint, excepting • what iMfanaad 

aia herself, and knowing, as all the departure of her minister Mil 

the w(Hrld knows, how completdy Constantinople on ac uowil 'afctfce 



Constantinople depends for its Greek question* CouBt' 
supplies on the provinces, and the rode states in that cpuAc^ that 



^^tful consequences of a scarcity every thing which M^ de^iRi^day- 
to the whole Christian population pierre had done regarding' 4l» 



f^y&K if Turks are to be reckon- fairs of Greeee had thfraithsiKMr 

ed . as nothipg-^^e explanation of the emperor ;; that Ae jtnniataiM 

offered hy the rorte was deserving made were intended for titatame 

of. all oonsideration ; and it sa- benefit of the 



xourcdof a. too keen appetite for and that after the Rnssiail -iosim^ 

war: to seine upon it instantly as a had urged them^o-offeOi bat 



grouia4 of hostilities. The same not bound to state theas ^^gaan^r^A 
maasure was adopts towards the the request of the Porte, 



l^kl{|(scts of other powers, Austria, a reason, or to wait fi»r instaocstioHb 
.i^:ex9«9ple;;but it did not lead which would have been 



4P th» matcAiing of an Austrian ous. " He had no alteraatlaa kA^ 

IM^y^ , ; The. expubion again of but to maintain the ^gaiir*foi Wa 

.^?^{liu«fiiaa -mfirchantsi induddl court by quitting Coastantiart]^ 

^^^m0V(«l of tibosei' of FteBoe at the same time gitiog aha ntte 

^4 iKngl^nd ; ibut Neither -Engw a salutary hint, aM leavilR^t 

J«^d() lior i^flaica ^declared ww. tb.xeiact on the dangera mt 



.kifii HBTOHra JDJF :EUROPBC /. r. pSSS 



frRODdedii iHL V ':'!%& .'Emperor «^ 
/Mrilb'ltgKf/dBitfthe^Borte lepifies 
49fMitii>ei^-friendb^ paliey hf 
ifMi^iQltt jiirbidiaiviiil itft trealies 
^^iyHR|UMb;iili&t it has impeded 
-tkftrtfide'oC' tfaeiBlack fiea^has at- 
jt«A0d Rttssnii attbjects; and lastly^ 
Iiat asivmobed i» all miuaulmans 
^^ v^eadutioii to return evil lor 
,|INiiA$i9^ain'fi)r pitec8»: oiid naicer to 
AiUtt laidemii odaveniloBs. Aftar 
Ml iQM6ur . ihostib^inf^akiiefl^ oon- 
.Imiiiidi.voiitritlirtalidiii^ tliferepce- 
4mtafti9DS and^endeaToui^ -of die 
(iiDtisto*liHieA''v^kiUisBi%.'3roi]r ^x« 
' ffl l lqnoj r tarfll nofe lie' siirj^riiied to 
ikfilii^;thajk>'I'aifli 'jDEdetod to- reply 
jtoitydiir/'letteB. of S?th -Decaaber 
(fairilVe BBomai deisfaioatiaB, /whieh 
mll'fce.iiiliiiieiiatelj fdkiwed by 
itjiftiifarBli: of ik6 Buasiait troops, 
utiuckthe emperor orders to enter 
ttbe .dominions of the sultan to 
•obt^ -aitirfaetioii iot his just 
jwrnipJoilitn.'' Thisdocuinent proves 
idbtuMs%, in the fint place, that 
-thfr.RttasiaDmimster quitted Con- 
jtantilH>ple • solely beeause the 
.Porter would not consent to recog* 
mx^ tlie independence of Greece ; 
imd'fiUssm explicitly avowed that 
lAis Rl&iBal was no cause of war. 
.\Vikf.)then d^ she withdraw her 
jnimder • ibom Constantinople ? 
.Wli|r*Jbreak up all amicable re- 
h^im^ In not the ordering of a 
•miniattr to leave his court, unless 
.-cerlfMr ptopodtaons ate accepted, 
ittotaelf an mot of hostility, and a 
^viBtuAl declaration that amity and 
£ieadly infterbourse are no longer 
te^nst; and was .the sultan bound 
^bir^h^gard auoh a step in. a di&rent 
Ja^t&om that in which the same 
pnmoding would have been viewed 
is any Eui^ipean court? But in 
,tihitib. -IliKsia h^d wa^ed actwd 
nwr; aild had waged it^ too; on 
•tkat vefF> grouead whifih sbs now 
"iWiU.io^ affume im aguslMaUe 



cause of war« She had iuiterferiKl 
with force of anus to ][irevontafae 
sultan from- 'exeieisiti^ his ntf-i 
doubted right of reducing a rebel- 
lious province. She and- her^allies 
may have been right, or they may 
have been wrong, in so doing : in 
shrinkuig from stating it as a just 
cauae of war, they admitted that 
they were wrong. But assur^y 
H ^ was ' actual wan ^RUstik ha4 
blpdEaded the Turkish ports;* she 
hiid cut off -thesupphes of tUe 
Tuilcish atinies; she had *bome' a 
^re in destroying the Taitisb 
fieetii^sfter having done' all this, 
she orders her ambassador to leave 
the Turkish court, because it wttl 
not admit all this to be '' frkadly 
policy ; " and yet insists at the 
same moment that Turkey shall go 
on in the strict observance of peace- 
ful oonventions, as if all the vo- 
lations of amity were still exist- 
ii^i Truly the absurdity of this 
is only equalled by its hypocrisy. 
Russia will not allow a Tui^Mi 
vessel to leave a port in the Morea, 
and yet denies to 1 urkey the right 
of preventing a Russian vessel 
from passing the Dardanelles 
Russia will not allow the sultan s 
subjects to pass from one part of his 
own dominions to another; and yet 
complains of him for refusing to 
Russian subjects a peaceful abode 
at Constantmople. Having equip*- 
ped an armament for -the very pur- 
pose of acting hostildy agaitast' thb 
sultan's fleet, she has the' boMneeb 
to blame him for fiot>a]lowin<^ the 
exportation of graiii from his otiti 
capital to supply thlat tery' artha^. 
ment which was <to 'lea^ *lAtk 
without a na^. White shi^ is 
positively enga^ i»- Active' 'flM 
dcatruotive h«bti»iss flgaiffltl^ himf, 
dieddmands tkUt he ^h«ai'«dfisi#it 
Umielf 40^ 'bet iu . Mti^Malliittibe 
with berf^ioid wl#i Ui^'ift bkiWl 



ii30] ANNUAL REG ISTiaR,: 1828. 



ing his ships out of the water, aud 
stripping him of one of his fairest 
provinces^ she clamourB for a faith- 
fill ohservance of the convention 
of Ackermann. Modem Europe 
has scarcely seen a more shameless 
avowal of mere power in the face 
of reason and justice. — But, again, 
while this epistle of count Nessel- 
rode distinctly assumes, as the 
only grounds of the declaration of 
war, things which the sultan had 
done after he found himself en« 
gaged in actual hostilities with his 
gigantic and insidious neighbour, 
It farther proves, tluit Russia did 
not even attempt to remove mis- 
understanding on these points by 
a single • word of negotiation or 
explanation: they are all set 
down as having occurred after she 
had herself obstructed the path of 
peace, by withdrawing her minis- 
ter. Considering the relation in 
which she actually stood to Tur- 
key, it was from her, as the party 
whose conduct was positively 
hostile, that the desire of amicable 
arrangement ought to have pro- 
ceeded. She does not utter a 
word. The Porte, on the other 
hand, does more than it was bound 
to do. By the letter of the Grand 
Vizier of 27th December, it invites 
negotiation on these matters. But 
Russia, as if dreading the possibi- 
lity of a friendly adjustment, al- 
lows this letter to remain un- 
answered during four months. In 
the interval, she does not make a 
single complaint; she does not 
state a single grievance ; she does 
not demand a single explanation. 
As to the only causes of hostility 
which she dares to avow, not one 
token of displeasure escapes her, 
until she sets them down in an 
actual declaration of war, and 
marches an hundred thousand men 
to support them. Hese^ too, her 



conduct was ambitious^, sangoltiaty, 
and unprincipled-^or surely do 
conduct can be more atrociou^y 
sanguinary than that df a monarch 
who hastens to a havoc, to xdlich 
no limit can be asdgned, w the 
only means of redressifng a sbp* 
posed injury of which he has not 
even compkuned. 

The truth is, that Russia Wtet 
resolved upon war, and, to her, 
the object of that war wai joat 
what has been the oonttant obtoet 
of Rusaan policy since the atys 
of Catherine, the extenstontif the 
Rusman frontier at the expanse «f 
Turkey. Nicholas, indeed, dis- 
claimed any purpose of te r t i ml tl 
aggrandisetnent, and modestly te» 
presented the multitude of savage 
and barbarous hordes over whom 
he already swayed the sceptre as 
furnishing abundant oocnpation 
for his imperial- cares. Such pro- 
fessions, aceompanied by such cdn- 
duct, are hypocrisy, aiid all eon- 
quests have been made under the 
cover of similar disavowals. Wlmt 
Rusaa was doing was too un- 
reasonable and unprincipled Co 
inspire any confidence regtrdtng 
what she might alterwsirda do. 
Although the modest and humhle 
emperor felt himself, while en llhe 
banks of the froren Neva, scaredy 
equal to the tml, of goipeming tWe 
nations whom heaven had titemky 
committed to his care, he wmAd 
have found, within the walUi of 
Constantinople, and on the inoiv 
genial dbores of the Bosphartis, 
that his im|)erial 90ul oonid eammd 
with the limits of his doohitoin, 
and watch over the new m^lt^^^g 
whom arms had subjeded to ins 
yoke. Even the erection of Oraeoe 
into a Christian state, snljeet <mly 
to the nominal superiority of tiio 
Forte, appointing its own nilera 
fiom anong its own m antaw ^ 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



£231 



aecured against the presence of 
Turkish iiQOj^, or even of Turkish 
prQjprietom, was, as between Rus- 
M.mad Turkey, an actual dismem- 
bennent of the Ottoman empire, 
aiid» as Regarded Europe, an actual 
^tension of Russian power. 

The Russian Declaration vras 
followed immediately by the march 
of the Russian troops, which, for 
soQie time, had been accumulating 
.in Bessarabia. On the 7th of May 
an army of a hundred and fifteen 
thousand men, headed by count 
Wittgenstein, began its movements 
in three divisions. The first, under 

Ecral Roth, was to occupy, in 
mean time, Wallachia and 
Moldavia* and watch the fortresses 
along the ri^ ht bank of the Da- 
Aub^ where it separates these prin- 
cipalities from Bosnia and Servia. 
This division formed the right of 
the whole army. The centre, 
commanded by the grand duke 
MidMiel, the emperor's brother, 
after crossing the Pruth, was to 
a^ppioach the Danube, and reduce 
the fortiess of Brailow, or Ibrail, 
on the left bank of the river, which 
it was thouf^t imprudent either to 
omploy troops in marking, or to 
leave unobserved in the rear. The 
third corps, under general Rudxe- 
witch, forming the left of the whole 
army, was to cross the Danube at 
IsspJbtchi, between Brailow and 
Ismael, und, pushing forward, carry 
some of the ports in the Euxine, 
to secure the regular supplies of 
tha army by sea. The Russian 
floaty under admiral Gieig, had the 
eominunid of the Black Setu The 
battle of Navarino had cut off this 
arm of the Turkish power. It was 
thus that France and England had 
literally fought the battles of Rua* 
aia, and had done more for her 
success in a campaign in which 
th^eould not wufa her suocess^ 



than she would have been able to 
accomplish for herself. Being 
then joined by the centre, which 
was to pass the Danube at Brailow, 
after having reduced that fortress, 
the centre and the left united, 
were to advance agunst the strong 
positions of Shumla and Varna. 
When they should have made 
themselves masters of these for- 
tresses, the keys, on that side of 
European Turkey, they would be 
masters of the passages across the 
lofty ridge of 'Mount Hsemus, now 
called the Balkan, and might either 
pour themselves down into the 
plains of Adrianople, or repose, 
during the winter, in the cities 
which they had conquered, accord- 
ing as the season, and the facility 
or difficulty of keeping up their 
military equipments, might render 
advisable. 

The right corps, under general 
Roth, encountered no opposition in 
taking possession of the princi^ 
palities. He was in a friendly 
country, rather than in an enem3r's, 
for the Wallachians and Molda- 
vians are much more Russian than 
Turkish in their habits and incli- 
nations. The centre corps, which 
was to move on Brailow, having 
passed the Pruth, made themselves 
masters, without opposition, of Gal- 
lacz, a place of no importance. The 
few Turkish troops who were sta- 
tioned in it retired to Ibrail, which 
had been prepared for an obstinate 
resistance. Its position was fa- 
vourable for defence ,- the fortifi- 
cations had been put into good re- 
pair; it was well supplied with 
proviuons, and was garrisoned by 
five thousand men. The Russian 
army, provided with a full park of 
artiUery for the siege, sat down 
before it in the middle of May* 
By the 21st they had brought their 
works within an hundred toises of 



SB2] AN 



£ BG HSmOffnj] 1828. 



^iniTiiviy dsfisoded AsAt poditiai 
ivstihhiivBh gfealer bcBTerf'ftnd de*> 
itttiieiariah ^fawi tJieir adveiMfiei 
Iliid'eiiyeetod* They repaired^ with 
ipoat liaodvity and expeditum the 
Snaches Biade by the . batteries of 
|hd invaders. -Tfa^.made frequent 
and flQmetimea very suooenful .sal* 
lies^ iirtenni{»ling the progreea of 
kbe^aefley and keeping their adyer* 
mxi^iioi foil en^loyment. Tht 
flia^ittid. CQQtnmed for a mdnth^ 
^tdttntfae •BtMaaii8> haring^ effected 
a^praclieahle breach, determined to 
Merm (June' 15). Three nines 
irMs'to be aproitt^ at onoerand 
i»n :itbe 'imtant mt . they ex* 
fdaded^ the . troops w«ce to mount 
to tfaia< aasaolt. . One of the mines 
ospkding too soon, buried the ofli* 
eci:.vho was- to fire the setrond, and 
tihe<hitter was not sprung at alL 
lliei third exploded, and the men 
mouQted the breach. Ontheri^t, 
a party succeeded in- seaUngthe 
vtiOs,. hatp as they were not sop* 
ported^ the^ were all killed, with 
the exception of a subaltern offi* 
cer, who threw himself into the 
fiooube. On the left, the assault 
was not more fortunate. The 
Tmks f oop^t obstinately for every 
stoney and, after some desperate 
sftrui^glmg, the Russians werecom- 
pelM to retire. The Turks im- 
modiaibdly made a sally, and attack* 
ed the en^nyts M^rks» but were^in 
their rium^ ospulsed with consider* 
able loss. The^ Russian accounts 
admitted^ a loss of seven hundred 
aiea';-kiUed> induding two gene- 
sab^ and ififteen huamd wounded^ 
anong^whem were ninety "^ve of* 
fioeiB. -NeJLt day the mine which 
had mot exploded befeie the storm 
isa^)SUcqMaful]y' sprung. .On the 
I9ik the . Turjissh commandant jns- 
qnestediniasmifitioe for ten daysj 
proUUngKto.suctanddr.tho; plaoo 



o» Ao)mBpioaliGn>is£:4hfi^ 4iliii^tfiit 
ahoiddlrait Aos b^reUBiMnii^be 
RussJan, nwnwafwhr)^opid/tnBQir 

at ths mid' of which , th cij o gia a s 
waa^^tven up«^ •TheJliawi.BiiiH 
in it s'large qointstytof 
and nrnmuni^jonu;/ •Qn^/halfinof 
their, owu'ipaarib 'of -asrtsUaitr^kii^ 
been rendmd .mskm> ^^i^'^iltit 
sane tinie,ithr.poi&ti<m«C-M9Miii> 
op^odte ;BiailawV on; <tkei$JD^ 
bank of ihe Danuhejtvaa/^isumb 
dered. The^fBsscue of );theirisii'*tf 
beia^ ihiis;clm,itbeednte ofidka 
Russmti ' eanf apW>.|iBiM^iaftBr 
leaving^a ganiaon w tfniipwi nnfl 
adMsnoed to join liliQiefbidirfaian 
inrtroanp/atlCaHiiJsul c'la/ri^iL 
Iliat left div)iio»4tsdf, Jboft 
the Ame. time th«t^^theuean|mi|Mnd 
ed up the left bank of AhofDamn 
agidnst Bnnlow, ind/ efleakedltika 
pasBi^ of the 'riarer neai>eridgnsol> 
in the neighbourhood oCitfae T^div 
ishfiortress Jssaktchi. Th^^feoiily 
made themselves maateis ^..dwt 
fortaress, as wdQ as of Hirsa^v^MT 
Kir8ova> another fortsess on jAb 
Turkish ride, and fiuther an.ad» 
vance. They next leduced Tiikt% 
which was c^tinatelyndefendQitbir 
Ibrahim Paoha, and. then ^iW 
tendji, a small se^^poiit >;on :tte 
Euxine. A detached bodjrirasMkd 
by the fleet, had laid. A^g^-xMb 
Anapa, a sea-jport on ano^het .' pam 
of the Black Sea, strong bgrrjlsii mm 
tural position as wdl as.:by BxMti 
dal defenees. The worksriWiM 
carried on r^ulaxly; but iltipa 
. the 9th of June before the jLnssiaoa 
succeeded in surrottodii^ tki^ V^'f^ 
with it strong line of oitpunvaUsN 
tion, intersecting At ne^ ^ hitti 
on. which Anapa is situated^ ««d( 
extending on eachside tq then%kxJbi 
a few days the worksinwi^iaAvnobi^ 
ed to the glacis, and thieelireaclies 
brang beninadfi 4>a}|lie* Modii^C 



^1^ I HK'BaiEH OB SUJLOHBi^ Z A [S8d 



^'JRirKdndorj^iAi fis^t hsiitiMttdfl 
wmSm^MigyAeTfimBmiiik an&MitA 
tagg^^dedmifiitet, oiikssthiB 
mtosT'tawkLei^'iM Woold dtfend 
fciMiilft to^jgiuUbost*? Tiieaego- 
iHliDHB #em1)tolteiioff, and ^ repar* 
'ktkiftk^'TvtCi^^iiialdiif' ta oany the 
^iribe tjf 'ittNnn; whin $he governor 
gt t co dfto «int!eidei> at 'dKcreCum; 
J^nifaigiMtoii liAdwiiiiiitad'af tlnee 
Ui^OBaiMl'meni IW kid defieaied 
thtmielvM'ijnitely n>r fiirtjr dsr^ft 
Wb«ir»ih^' eqp&tei^ted,^ aUtfaeir 

lodbaucM^arid^'iM^ Tiicfcej Itadmo 
fleet in^tlMpSiniaei tfaey were cot 
oByMaiimpp&eB^ ' A fbw da^ 
afterwards Tiikm lloewiae surrem 
tedi. JiKu8teiid)v:anMher small 
mmtftxtrVnantiso Mduced. > Thu^ 
^liMmMtfae idelU]» and left 'diviiBoiis 
jiiitii^'taemf #ere re-vnit^ atKa- 
liHMitto'^tbetst of July, they had 
flfadei ttooiselves ttasteis of Brai- 
lowv' ViMiMn, ' Issaktchi, Hirsova, 
Aiiapa> Tdteaa, and Kusteadji; 
atd^hy tba posnsnon of the last, 
Oifiy ted'ieedred their eommunica'* 
tiim inih< the fleet. The Turks, 
wheiethey did reMt, had resisted 
witfc'bviHrery and determination, 
^hcrjr had 'already shown Europe 
tUfltt Nichohfl was not to get to 
CeilnaiatiUnople without an* ahnn- 
dlnde^of hM fifhting. Th^ had 
iM{waMed their strength in at- 
MRApling; to maintain every trifling 
pbftt}- They had lost fortresses, 
bivrth^'had gained mudi in gain- 
ii^ the delay occasioned by the ob- 
ttUMMcrdefenoe of Anapa and Brai« 
harni' wliieh had confined the Rue- 
mim to the north-eastern comer 
#f ^Bidgaria, iHiile iJie means of 
pmetM. resiBtance were aceumu* 
jating^lMifbre Ifaem et>the foot of 
Mount Hmnus. . 

To^ftittie a passage acMtt thkt 
diffilMik^ riigoy atid tbw lay open 



t&e way fiwmr Btt^!ai]i|koA|iai^ 
iia^tfae Rusitoianitypwhas^laBSte 
had been repaired' li^ iwinfdNe^ 
meitts; and whadi MW^hoasteiiAia 
piesenee of the einpeiov bunseU^ 
broke up^mn Kanssli av thO'^Aj^ 
of July.. AofOBs Mount >M«mis 
they cduldr not pass,' until "they 
should: have made thenuelaes' liMii^ 
ters of , the fortresB of Chounki^ *o^ 
Shumla^ the - yet unconqseKdd 
bulwark of Northern^ ibiro|ieaa 
Turioeyr This fortnwi, situated^en 
t^e northern dedimty ^-tfae fikk 
kail, oocopiea the>intei]or of a; e^ 
saeDti stti#ounddd to the somlf) 
west, and nordi, by steep and IsAiy 
loountaiifs, ' which, ' pesenting ' « 
thick and tangled surmceefthbrnt 
and briars. Tender the appioadi of 
an invader neaily impnulScdblek 
Itis open only oD'^eas^ when 
the ground stretches out into^a 
wide phin towards the: Enxine, 
and tfaxouffh that {dain passes by 
Pravadi, we road to Ccmstantino^ 
pie. Art hod done far it on that 
side what nature had done on the 
others. A deep fosse, and- thiok 
walls, flanked with towenr, ^x^ 
tended three miles in one direotioii 
and a mile in the other. Thus for* 
tifled, Shmnk had hidieito resisted 
every attack of Russia.' Prinoe 
Renmnaofl' fa&d attempted it in 
1774, but was driven back from 
its walls with mat slaaghteei 
Then general Kaminsky* pM^ 
traced to it, and eadeavoural'to 
carry i^ by assault^ but he, tdo^ 
was repulsed withgrkvinai bsK 
In the last war it wan affaia^aa* 
tacked, but wasd^flnubsd tul^eveiy 
inch of ground - aroniMl vit was 
ploughed «p by Ae bidets^ftmii 
the Russian batteiries,iand 'the H»4 
vadem were at<last'«6ni{ielledi.to 
abandon '^the entevptisb, 'iteM|; 
bdhitod them so manyof^tiidblBsi^ 
tbatthe )^h«t wtoeomnrnM^^iii 



^3 ANNUAL REGIST>ea,t:1828. 



i^.boMtedy itt hif dispatebes to ibe 
sukan^ of having ^< as many Rofl- 
flian heads aa would build a bridge 
fium SbuBila to baaven." U was 
aguBst ibis fortiess, carefully 
piepaved with all the munitions of 
w«r> and garrisoned wilb the 
flower of the Turkish army, that 
the Russians were now again ad* 
vaneiBg. Within its walls lay 
forftj thousand armed men, and at 
tuteir head was Hussein Pacha, the 
bold and intrepid rdbnner of the 
Turktsh soldiery* 

Wbeve the plain which stretebes 
fsoto Shumla to the eastward, teru 
nsinates in the waters of the 
£u8une» and nearly on a line, in 
thai direction, with the fortress, 
atwids the sea-port town and cit»> 
dd of Varna, another of the keysof 
Noffthem European Turkey. It is 
atnmgly fortified : it is strong by 
its maritime situation between the 
lake of Dwina and the sea, but 
the latter source of strength rather 
fuftiisbed» on the present occasion, 
a facility ctf attack, in consequence 
a£ the Russians being the undis* 
puted masters of the sea. It was 
atrongjly garnsooed, too, as its 
importance demanded. Its poases- 
sion was essential to the success of 
any attempt upon Shumla. The 
farther the uivaders Itft the Danube 
behind them the more dependent 
did they become upon the sea for 
tbetf' supplies j and Varna was 
neoBssary to maintain the commu- 
irication of the army with the fleet 
which, agaia maintained the oom« 
nMnifiation of the commissariat 
with Odessa. Varna and Shumla, 
then, were the objects which the 
Russian amyy headed by its em- 
perQr> had now he&ae them. 

Tha4 asmy« it has been me&- 
taasied, bt^ up from Kanusu on 
Ihfi ^ erf July;. On the 8th they 
Mk possfliBiQa^of B^c^^ik^ a 



small town on the. road to Smmh, 
which the Turks did not atlempt 
to defend Hussein Pacha bid 
pushed forward so far a]aii0S body 
of cavalry as a reconnoitcing pfMEJ^* 
They had some skarroishing on the 
Sth with the van of ^ RnssinnSj 
but retired as the main body of 
the army came upb Que coqps, 
under general Suditeleot iiqw 
direrged in the direotionof Vaxaa, 
which it reached on the I4tb, and 
having driven the Turin witUp 
the walk, threw up redoubta sad 
entrenchmahts as tomposary de- 
fencesy whtte it took up its goaund 
to prepare fin; the aiqge. The 
main body, in the meanwhile 
moving oa Shumli^ reached J^m- 
basar on the 18th, without basiog 
encountered any opposition* SnwU 
detachments of the Turks shevied 
themselves eveiy now and thesi to 
reconnoitre, but always fell bad^ 
before the advanced guard. On 
the 20th the Rusfliaos reached Use 
heights above the town, which had 
been occupied by a stnmg body of 
Turkish cavalry. During the fbi- 
lowing days they attacked and 
carried these heights, and on the 
27th they had fairly established 
themselves before Shumla, their 
position extending from the heigfits 
just mentioned upon the west 
down into the plain on the banks 
of the Parawadi, and the gasAt 
road leading to Cgnstantinoidc. 
On the night between the 27lh 
and 28th the Turks oonstnioted e 
redoubt in front of the fmtross to 
act upon the position occupied the 
previous day by the Russian^ upon 
the heights above the town. On 
ibe 28th, the Russians, in order to 
oount^act the extension of these 
works, which would have com- 
manded their camp^ estaUiahed a 
battery on the right wing of their 
pesitieof which ^S^ctvdl j sileaoad 



HISTORY OF EUROPE; 



t&d5 



^ftrtf of the enemf , the Turks 
l«^iii^ abandon!^ their woriks 
tnA Mtired with precipitaticm into 
the town. Having failed in an» 
ai»3^iag the eamp of the bes&egera 
b)r tiietr redoubt^ and being com- 
]ielled to dxseontinne the works 
whidi they had begun to construct, . 
tiie Turka made a sortie with a 
kf^ body of cavalry to attack the 
Rmnan battery. This movement 
was executed with great spirit, 
aftd led to a sanguinary conflict, 
though libe forces engaged on both 
sidea wore inconsiderable. The 
Toiks^ being repulsed from the 
batteiy, directed their fury on two 
xegimentB of Chasseurs, which de- 
ftnded the eirtreme right of the 
Bnsidan position, and on this side, 
liketvise, though they gained a 
partial BQCcesfS they vrere ulti- 
nately defeated. On the S9th 
and SOtfa, the Russians proceeded 
in' the constniction of works on 
tin heighli, amid attacks similar 
to those which they had ex* 
perieneed on the previous day, the 
Tuxks nu&ing an unsuccessful at* 
tempt to turn the left wing of the 
Russian position, having previous* 
}y failed in an attack on the right. 
Havinff thus maintained them* 
selves m possession of the heights, 
and invested the fortress on the 
north, they next interrupted its 
eesummications on the south. 
Oeneial Rudiger, on the Slst of 
July, succeeded, after considerable 
resiitanee, in establishing himself 
at £ski Stamboul, a position on 
the toad to Constantinople, and 
behiad Shumla, with the view of 
preventinff the arrival of convoys 
and r^imoicements from the ca« 
pital. 

Theae dispositians, however, 
vrerenot made with any idea of 
Mofkading the place; that was 
smdettd lnipo«lble by the ex^ 



tont of the mountaMs sEBMiigM 
which it is situated. Neither was 
it intended to fbrm a regular siege; 
for that the Russians found them- 
selves too weak. The plan of 
operations which they adopted 
after much deliberation was this : 
to observe Shumla, and* paralyse 
the army of Hussein Pacha, wh^e 
they waited the arrival of the 
large re»inforcements which were 
on their way from Russia, even the 
imperial guards having been ordeiw 
ed to march for this important ser* 
vice. In the mean time they meant 
to press the siege of Varna, which 
they expected would fall tn the 
course olP a month ; then to take 
advantage of the re^inforoements 
to reduce Shumla, or leaving it 
behind them, push on to Booraas 
on the road to Constantinom. 
The emperor, therefore, havmg 
thus far accompanied his army, 
repaired to Varna on the 9nd of 
August, taking with him a re* 
inforcemeni from the army before 
Shumla to aid in the siege of the 
former; and from Varna he im« 
mediately sailed for Odessa^ where 
the empress was awaiting him. 

Considerable reinforcements had 
already entered Vama^ the Rus- 
sians being confined to the ground 
on the north and south. Even 
in these directions, the besieged 
had occupied a positum go»* 
siderably in advance, from which 
it was necessary to dislodge them 
before the approaches could be 
bc^n. Prince Menaikofiv who 
now took the command, succeeded 
in carrying that position on the 
2nd of August. The fleet ha^ 
ing arrived on the smne day to 
execute the operations on the 'soa 
ride, and having reiafomd the 
bes^ging army with the treaps 
who had been employed against 
Anapa, the Ruanaoe preMeded to 



9IS] ANNiV(AL/iifi^I^{r(e]£B^!Ta828. 



99P^^^|ed ;» ctam of redoubts 
if^ frqif^eS tbeir positioii exiencting 
ffOOi .Uie hEiight» ^hiqh tkej oo^ 
qupfed to the aei». They were npt 
aUoysred to proceed UDmolested. 
Cv/MEy .other 'day the Turks sallied 
froj^i. their wbUsi and attacked the 
hmiBgois in a style of persevering 
bvky^l^ wiib whieh the Eusauws 
badr, nol^ « Isidi their aoeou&t» . ai^ 
^lliiBt^ thoiigh not sooeesifiil in, 
d^i^|ig.M^eni ^rom their positum, 
gn^^retarded their, progn^sSi and 
qiif9i^^,^tes^hle havoc among their 
offigB|»)and.nien* On the 7th of 
Aiigaii,ihB Turks began, in thd 
OiWMilg^ .an assault which lasted 
l^jsupset, and which the Eu»iaas 
tb^^opmekres described , as having 
be^. ^ ^' murderous." A - similar 
scqiei occupied the whole of the 
9ll^and in. the oourse of it, a new 
feature in Turkish warfare ap- 
peared. The bayonet was a novel 
ipstrument to the mussulman— n 
its nse one of the first fruits of 
the, late reformation in the army, 
four times> in the course of that 
dayf the. Turkish troops char^ 
t|ae Russian infantry at the point 
of the bayonet .without shrinking. 
The place was not yet invested on 
the south side where it is almost 
washed by the waters of the 
lake Dwina. The investment of 
it on that side was of the utmost 
importance, because, while it was 
opfin, both .provisions and re- 
ii^ibixenienta could be thrown into 
the towiv . A corps was despatched 
to tbe/Soi]|th of the D wina, there 
to, eifta^Udv itself on the road lead* 
ing4ntoyair9)f^frt)m Coi^taatinople. 
TSaTuilcstsqtioed tbe movement, 
B|tac)r<gfl lbe.(;9ipg upoii^its marcU 
ai|d, mitr.r^ ,ifit^ly; ,(q,tbe rout, 
Tj)0 jwg^t^ii^ v\^ berii^^ 



eki^ Aioid t)M9iiei/^fo«a4lU1aqi 
destructive eaUiasy jkow^ev^ -tkltf 
hndgradvatiy be^i^gpiniitgrglftMdt 
and by die igtb of lAwui^bei 
completed a .parallel rWhju^'iifiMU 
enable tbesi to- i«»dev . tb^nbRitft 
bardment much mawr, ^STe^lwAf 
On the gist, flie Tnrb mede mm^ 
ther of. their. jfuriops ■miKtsiHhihIn 
atteiupt ,it9..'4e|tru^tim4 .^.TIkqi 
lRr€iie^a%; n^ulsadtlbutJKeiJv 
aftectinflictipg a ^y^fa»hmm^Mil^ 
&i Jmminen^i inraa the daiiger!,Af» 
the . whole: Ru^^ianM.poeidiWUiiAal 
prince Menaikoff .wii».<vpmp#ili!d' 
to: expose himself ,ito.jtbo* MtmMfl 
ptt9onal dangiWii -wsit^'^mf^h^m 
severfdy woundeA^ that^ b&v<iima 
under' the; neeesAty-Df .^rigldiM 
the command; < Me ^ waa #ifofietW 
bj count Woronxow^ . • .• '• ti.H.Tr^ 
Hussein Pa|3^ k^t .tbeiezfljfi 
whicb had been kft to observe b^ 
in Shumla, eqmdly upoB.th€^idertt 
Not confining himsett' wijtbiil tW 
walls, his detached bodiesoiwwA 
hovering round the, enemy's pOfin 
turn in all direotiims, alteHJiiig 
their convoys,and threatenif^ih^ 
works. At length he ventuijld 4iCl 
an operationof greateriBonsew^iocV' 
The Russians had atrensti^^oiQJl 
the position which genemli Bmfin 

f^r had occupied in his rear ^jilr 
ski Stamboulf and it WM oC>b|^ 
importance that th^ dtoidd-itot 
driven from it, both becauaa^lfiiir. 
terrupted his own eomiauiMOalMir 
with the capital» and beeaiKOriS 
was known that the grand, jvi^ifN^. 
was now approaching. in vthi^ftJ^f) 
rection, at the head of a j^MMh 
reinforcement, to the rdief i^olt 
Varna. On the night oi. thm iMii 
of August, Hussein dmotc4;MiKI' 
separate bodies of his tsoopsrta tin< 
tack the maiai positioa of thfTtRmf ■ 
sians on both flanks at itb^^aHfle.' 
time^tB thirdihfi held injimiiixcea; 



:V 



!^^ Hii^S)iiti Of "Eimoi^gi y" A im 



nflkt gifiksetv f beae tliitee ^visiioiis 
lUMSiiumlH (bgeHietf. Ttetwbic^ 
itt«itdil'':;ligiiinM t%e ligbt flank, 
liiliidir tbbiyftpproMh eo oBUtiottsly, 
timvithey elttet^ the first redoubt 
AfiMyon^witb the Videttes wbo 
gM« 4li#' i^rui. ' The RussiflD^ 
Mdli^v'ioid^a d6Bpei«t6 stru^^ 
anfaled; bfltilie Turks barried the 
iMmibl* T]^«e times the Russians 
ttMlbtedov^ it; their officers^ 
wk^gtMitel Wmte himsetf/ who 
AtttUmMMted on that pdint, felly 
MMg«'tbemon, hut ereryiime 
Hn&f* ' wes& repulsed. The Torks 
lliad»gtod th«ir pMMsSon till thiey 
jMKttreA;^ add <terried off as trophies 
f0i6llii«aW Bix frieees of artdlety 
^UM'iw^ra' mounted in it The 
simultanaous attaek made^ on the 
leH^iof't^e position was equally 
titteof. Four battalions of the 
RtlssiaifS wete aknost cut in pieces^ 
mi HdiOit cannon carried tj&, one 
batCdlion alone lost, according to 
theiif own account, three bun- 
dle wen. Both these assaults, 
hoW^Vfrr, were only feints to cover 
ihe third, which was made at the 
aam&'tiitte, on the troublesome po» 
sMfdw &t £ski StambouL It was 
tiAffttphantfy successful. Rudiger 
yms driven from his entrenched 
ptitittoh; and compelled to re-unite 
Mns^lf with the main body by a 
dMidtons route. The rear of 
SiMMila was cleared, nor did the 
RiUsrifitAs again attempt to inter- 
est^ 'thd cotamunication between 
tMfonress and the capital. These 
(MvatioHs 'were valuable in ano- 
ther point of view. They proved, 
Utii the hew system to which the 
Tdtkidi military had been trained, 
hod not impaired their activity--^ 
that" they could use it, and use it 
Willi eflfect-^that they could be 
tMMted CO execute oombined move- 
BMftts af'Some deiicaey, and te* 



ipAtiag disd^Oitta iur^ell ^^mm 
minataon. A body of thO'Rti^i&MMBr 
was encamped at Jentbator/^ alf 
some distance from- the -fertfMii 
Hussein attacked them on ther^liit 
of August, and drove them, tvhh- 
the loss of their cannon «iidainlnu-l 
nitlon-wa^^ns into the AttrrouftdV' 
ing woods. On the 9th of -Sep-; 
tettber> he again assaulted «imi!f!<Si| 
taaeou^y both wings fst themahi^ 
posidott. Every week i^tneslM^ 
vigorous attacks of the saio^e-'HtrdP 
In all of them, as usuelfy h^pp^Sfc 
both parties claimed thd advaii^ 
ta^ ; out in the end of Septemt^^' 
Hussein was manoenveritog ki ^h^' 
rea^ of the Russians, between th^ni- 
and "Silisttia, and they had ' anV 
nounced that it would be necester^' 
to quit theirposidon, although they 
ascribed that necessity to iIms WA^" 
culty of fining forage fw theSr 
horses. 

' In the mean time, the rein^/ 
fbreements which had been exp^et^ 
ed from Russia, had arrived ; but 
instead of being employed in the. 
service to which they had oi^inal- 
ly been destined, vir. in attempting 
Shumla, or passing on towards 
Constantinople, it was fband ne*. 
cessary to devote' them to the isiegcf 
of Varna, and leave Shumla un« 
disturbed. In the beginning of 
September, the emperor had re^* 
turned from Odessa to the besieging 
army ; and the troops being' eti-^ 
couraged and relieved by the iekrw 
rival of the j*einforcements, the 
Russians pressed their opei^tiohs 
with redoubled vigour. Tl^sdc-' 
ceeded, on the l^th ijif SeptenA^- 
in establishing a strong dMch-^ 
ment on the south sidebf thef towttJ 
It maintained its gMund kgftinst^' 
repeated iissaults of the Tuilt^^ atid;- 
dieeonsequehoe was, thaC tlie^hi«ieF 
was now ahftost in' '^ -B<al6 ^^ 
Uodcade. The W^i^k^^ t^/ iMl' 



Kiel 



ANNUAL REGISTEJltiiri828. 



baminMliedeloae to tbe walla, and 
th» iMitteriea were playinff upon 
them inoemiitlj from acuataoce 
o£ thirty toiaea. Still the luite 
spibred not thair Uood. They 
jniraaed the same system of inoes- 
saat and daapcrate aortiea with 
whidi they had hegon> never oar* 
rying any pert 4>f the works ao aa 
to retain it, hut always uiflioting 
hy their ohetinate valour^ a aevere 
loas. At length, on the i4th of 
September, the besiegers having 
made a breach which they thought 
ptacticable, and obtained aeoess to 
it by a mine, havmg thrown the 
counterscarp into that part of the 
fbase whidi was opposite to it, in- 
stead of storminff, they sent in a 
ftig of truoe, caSing on the capi* 
tan Padm, who now commanded, 
to Burrendier, aa their oommunica- 
tiona with any quarter from which 
he might have expected reinforce* 
ments, were now cut off, and he 
could no longer hope to maintain 
himself in his position. A tempo* 
rary suspension of hostilities en« 
sued, and an interview took place 
between the camtan Pacha and 
admiral Greie.- But the latter dis- 
covering as he alleged, that the 
Turkish eommander had no other 
object than to gain time, broke off 
the oonferenees, and, on the 15th 
the cannonade re-commenced. The 
batteries, too, which had been 
newly erected on the south side of 
the town, were now brought into 
play, and the fortifications were 
every where becoming a heap of 
ruins. Still the garrison shewed 
no inclination to yield* Thorough- 
ly, iniiaed, had the Russians reck- 
oned without their boat, when they 
faamad tibeir plan of operations, as 
th^ alleged that th^y did frame 
it, ma the hypotheait, that Varna 
could «ot hokl oat longer than a 
months' 



• . I 



Sensible of the impovlanQe «f the 
fortreaa whudi waa djafeadiiig ilaeIC 
so well, the sultaa had made every 
eiertion to leUeve it* The gtaad 
vijrier had been djapatdied fiaar 
Conatanttnople at the. head e£ 
twelve thousand fpesh traopa. HaA 
he expedited his march byasiag|i» 
week^ he would have eataaed 
Varna wnthout molestation ; as it- 
was, the corps under general Q»r 
lowkin, \diichhad entrencheil itaelf 
on the Dwina, waa now b etween 
him and the fortress. On tiie ISA 
of September, he had arrived aft 
the Kamtchi : Omer Vrinoe waa 
despatched to join him with ciglrt^ 
thousand men of the garnaon '€&. 
Shumk, and count Wittgenateisi, 
on tlie other hand, had aenta ianr 
division of die army before Shdnuar 
to support Oolowkin* The Tarha 
failed in an attempt to drive baofcr 
Golowldn, but diey entrendmd 
themselvea at no great fKatamrt' 
Prince Eugene and Golowlon, ia 
their turn again attacked Omer 
Vrione, on the 16th of Septembers 
In their return^ they were repalaed 
with great loss, a misfortune which 
they ascribed to the impetuosity of 
their valour, which carried them too 
far forward. However, the viaier, 
and Omer, made no farther eacerw 
tion for the relief of the garnaon*/ 
which seemed to be left to its ilfte. 

The springing of mines^ and the 
constant fire from Uie batterieaatilL 
continued to demolish the forftii* 
cations, and still their defenderai 
seemed determined « to die bdiiad 
the last rood of wall that would 
stand. Their luimbera were new 
miserably diminiriied by the mortal 
combats which they had iaceaaantly 
waged, but their activity and rea»* 
ItttuNi were unabated. By the be* 
ginning ef October the Ruasiait 
manes had been, carried under Iho 
priaMsipal wall .of the forlreaa. The 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



0289t 



Turks entand them fair timefl in 
the eoaraeoCoiie night, but could 
vuikn no iuijateBOJon on superior 
numfaerB|. except fajiofficting and 
reeeiving dceith* Two of theie 
minet were sprung on the Srd and 
4th: tf .October, and made two nefw 
heaaelMi, but atill no attempt waa- 
madarat a storm. On the nigh* of 
the 7th, indeed, they tried to snr^ 
ptise one of the bastions which had 
been broken op by these mines, 
under cover of feigned attacks 
mode sinmltaneonsly on three other 
pointo of the works ; and they told 
a akrange stocy of their sharp- 
sbeotem on this occasion having 
penetrated not merely into the baa- 
tioR, tat into the heart of the town, 
and returned unobserved with a 
number of Christian women and 
children whom they had found in 
priaon. The assault, however, was 
nltcrly unsuccessfuL They were 
driven back on .every point. As 
they themselves acknowleged their 
own loss to have been four hundred 
men in killed and wounded, and 
even guessed the loss of the Turks 
at no more than six hundred, the 
historical probability is, that, in 
thi^ the last action of the siege, 
they not only lost their object, but 
sastoined Bn heavier injuries than 
their aoGoearfii] adversaries. 

On the two following days, how- 
e^et, acooiding to the Russian ac- 
counts, proposals were made for 
a eapituiation, and, on the same 
authetricy, they ended in nothing. 
However, on the evening of the 
10th October, Yussuf Pacha, the 
seoond in command, appear^ in 
the tent of the Russian general, 
declared that the fortress was no 
longer tenable, but that as the 
€«pitan pacha, the oonmmnder*in- 
chkf, Pfis determined not to sur* 
render, he, Yussuf Pacha, had 
deserted his leader and his post, 



and had come to^the Russian camp 
*^ to place himself under the empe«^ 
ror's protection." His sabmissuMD 
vras thankfully received, and iniM 
mediately oommunicated to thft 
garrison. His own troops, who. 
seemed to have been prtpsred ler 
it, as immediately joined him, and 
came over in erowds to the Rusaan 
camp* The capitan padia, though 
thus deserted, retired into the cita* 
del with three hundred men who 
still remained faithful, and the 
Russians entered the defenoelem 
city on the llth of October, afkr 
a siege of eleven weeks. As Yussuf 
was clearly a traitor, Europe did 
not hesitate to say that Runia had 
made him a traitor, and in the 
agony of her despair, had purohased 
^^uma vrith gold. In the egony of 
despair she assuredly was. The 
garrison shewed no disposition to 
yield ; the night of the 7th had 
shewn her what unflinching reso-* 
lution she had still to encounter ; 
she had never ventured even to 
think of attempting to storm ; it 
was with difficulty that her troops 
could maintain themselves in the 
face of the force that was before 
them; the season was about to 
compel her to raise the siege what-* 
ever might be the injury that 
would result from her being so 
signally foiled. There was enough 
of motive therefbro to make her 
emperor willing to briber The 
eager anxiety of Nicholas to get 
possession of the place, is best provvd 
by the fiaet that when the capitan 
pacha, after retreating into the 
citadel, refused to listen, even theny 
to any proposal of a surrender at 
discretion, he was allowed to retire: 
unmolested with hia little band olT 
faithful followers. Th^ traitor 
was rewaided by the empertr with 
an ample pension, and* retired 'ta 
live in splendid infamyat OddsHU. 



a^, ANIfUlAL!»Ha mTBR; TTl 888. 



1^I^UM eonfiioatodhat pxopext^ ; 
^e deprived the gmd yiner tf U* 
aS^9'^ to his iofl^taTity he- aBr. 
Qnhe4 it that tho fortxess had not 
haeiv ralioFed^ and he named^aa hia 
aaeoeator ia that office the oapitan' 
pa4^ hy 'whom it had heen so 
gallantly and lo CutfaCuUy defended. 

This magnififent exploit of the 
Buasian annj steidiixg into Vavna 
((or- whether the traaaoa apnu^ 
ftom bribery or oowaadice, clear it 
ia^ that Varna, .was not taken .hy 
Iluasiii;«tbat its c^iiie was no 
militaiy exploit), closed the cam- 
paiffn> Onthe.l^th of Octoheri 
b£ed, some sldrmishing took 
places without any result, between 
Omer Vxione and the division 
under prince Eueene of Wirtem- 
ber& to the south of Varna; but 
die latier immediately rotunied to 
join the rest of the army in hurry* 
ing back to the Danube with all 
possifale qpeed. The emperor him- 
aelf was at Odessa^ on his way 
home to St. Petersburg by the 
30th of October. The army in 
ftont of Shumla was withdmwn 
into the neighbourhood o£ Vanuu 
But Hussdn was immediately upon 
it, and garriaons being left in Var« 
na and Bazardjik, the- retrograde 
movement was continued to the 
Danuboj and across the Danube, 
great part of the ba^age being 
abandoned in the i^treat. 

We have said nothing of the 
operations of general Roth's divi- 
sia|iii whi^hf forming the right of 
the whole an|iy» had been intended 
to ocoiipy' the .jprincipalkies. Ge- 
netal Roth.biiviing encountered no 
opposition in traversing Wallachia> 
app^FQ^hedihe .Danube at Oltenit- 
aa, intfndiug these to ooassitjiand 
fsmfi thf^.sifge of SiUst|ia» a stnmg 
Turkish iqfJ^mnf 'M th^ J^t haokt 
wKifh, thi9>i9^^n ATO^. whfa at 
adi^^ l^pop SUmm^ and Vama. 



ha* k» iaaairil iisAig 
evaol^.ielie 





ronjiftuaiftieiii wUk, 
General Rothi havnmm tead^' 
not advasaUato atlaniBft ^ahsifiank 
81^ of the river at OteutaB^iHr 
deaoended' the river • to KfiMam'' 
whiah the JtusmMniis* ^ttkm^AA 
tba bedmihir mL tlMB «MMMb»d 
thane he ffmtiitm^ 
stflna«eoi»lha rigM hank; iit 
.be&ae Siliatcia a»d»«UKi£ Jtifg- 
Hiaanay aafcbei9fe:iir4kniagr 
montha till thef retnat of An 
anny fromi Bulgariak Thett 
wns^a series o£ aailiaa Ute 
Vanub but netthor aoAoinealtiii* 
somortaQyeonMtak' Th#.^iaBa» 
son viwpreiieiilcdiinlaliialHhiaB" 
the main asmy^ and 'fresn 
out of the town eaQDi0^ ha 
baokj or to go \mA vialiiitaBi^ 
after killing a oeitain 
Ruttians ; oufc the Bi 
wise were preyentedfaam 
the town, although an their 
they killed a ^evtain aimhec^ayf 
Turks. When the laain arnqFO^ 
crossed the Danube Jn Koapakar*. 
the invaders wem loalh< in Wfth* 
the campaign by retiringdiliaainfili t- 
ed likewise from SilMtriti^hUt lliqr i 
were equally aaxioub to plasb^^daa: 
Danube between thetna w ia a imnjl t 
the Tmrkiah armies. . TTh^ 
pared . to draw off by 
what they had caUed a 
into a bombaidmentid^tartlinaiio ■ 
wreak at least .upon the yniknmt\ 
Mussulman bousea A^t^jfi 
which Ah^ were pDavenf 
wreaking on the M< 
They beaan the 
the 2nd Novamher^ anc 
thov town two dayaand tsvo 
AathOk Turks/ howefer>o 
nadispaaition to yieU* tlie 
on the 14Mk JifmnmAar niMtfl^ 




mSOJKV. OF EUJtOPE/ 



(W 



betook tliwah egto die 



ef ^e Ilaaube, wkli 
the JMipf • gMst.4Ml of baggage, 
■a^ ahniiiteM ibiibiinuief ^e anny> 
tAmker up-die Danube, tbere 
faadtbaaa aane iSgbtarg between 
tbaaeoMkicr ef Widdm and the 
Bttnan genend Geiaimii<, wbo 
I— iiited in little WaUaehia. 
IHw-aaaM af tbeir epamtkms was 
tbi j eyiify batwteeit €nijeva on 
the* qpe aUe 8^1 Kda^ en l^ 
iiiwa / t;4fitap a oouple ef menths 

dveadiso^iiialt, mei^} Geismar 
gajaaiyaa Ae «6th Deeember, the 
OB^^ttbiBg IUm. a Tictory^ that 
alMed tie eanpaign. On that 
difr^ha Tvilidi troopi^ eighteen 
in nmnWr, nnder the 
the paoha of WMdin, 
against the positions of 
Caami^ Geneial Geisnar engaged 
ihBKu The aetion was continued 
wMi gfieat vesolation on both sides, 
ham seen in the morning till two 
in.'tiie -aftemoon, without any de- 
eiam Teaolt, both parties retiring 
to: thor Honner positions; but at 
ni^it4Ui general Geismar took 
adtattiagem the fancied security 
of 'lib8' enemy, advanced rapidly, 
and imMked'the camp, which the 
Tnte • had already begun to 
stmtigdwa with some ledoubts. 
Tfie^enemy, though far superior in 
niHiAers/ could not withstand the 
iilipeniosiiy of the assault; they 
wcSb^'livoken on all sides, and 
sought safety^ in ffight, with the loss 
of tamicsi^coloun, prisoners, ammu*- 
nitioft mid baggage. They took re- 
fugeiMtheirintreihchmentsat Kala- 
fattf • GeiievalGeismar resolved toat- 
teaiftKidaliBititself. After a march 
c€ mf wants {nearly thirty-four 
miMfiti one night, he appeared 
beAM0tife fortress, aiid thegarriaon 
a baa d em tl it with the grenlest 
meeimtalMMi, and fled to Widdiiu 
Vol. LXX. 



While the evenlftwldclDrwe 
recorded were taking place in Bbl- 
garia and Wfl}lacliia> Ibrttrae w»r 
more indulgent to the Bussiait 
arms in Armenia. The war with 
Persia was finally at an end, before 
the war against Turkey was'de^ 
dared. General Paakewitch w)io 
had commimded in the former, im- 
mediately* took his share in i^ 
latter, l^ attacking the snltiai 
in the Asiatic PadiaHcks. - In ' 
July he laid siege to Kars, one of 
the principal fbrtresses in that part' 
of Asia, situated on the summit'' 
of a mountain, having one hun* • 
died and fifty pieces of cannon 
mounted upon its walls, and con- 
taining a garrison of eleven thou- ' 
sand men. Upon another summit 
of the' mountain, commanding ikie 
town, the Turks had formed an en- 
trenched camp, which it was neces* 
sary to get possession of in order 
to carry on the nege. The Rus- 
sians attacked it with the bayonet, 
and drove the Turks from their 
entrenchments, and,' entering the 
dty along with them in' their panic 
flight, made themselves masters of 
the fortress. He next reduced 
Achakalaki, and, having received 
reinforcements from Georgia, he 
then advanced against the strong 
fortress of Achabnk, in the vicinity 
of which the Tuikish forces bad 
concentrated themselves to the 
number of between twenty and 
thirty thousand men under the' 
command of the pachas Mttsti|)hk 
and Mehmed' Rios. .They were ' 
stationed in four en trenched camnv. ' 
The Rusnans attacked them on Hie 
24th of August, and, after nn obu 
stinate combat, which lasted fhM 
day-break till consideiUbly 'af^r^ 
sun-set, took pOMSsidn "4ff all' tiM'/ 
four estmpa, with the 'Wh6le^q^'tto ^ 
enemy's maga^in^. ' The 'Til^lM ' 
were i^nued mfmsi^^^M^^' 



// 



242] ANNUAL RBGI'SirBlU:il828. 



tttn^f till iftty took risfoge in a 
IbMsU* M«lim0d K]O0» wSo wfli 
y/HmndeA, sueoeefl«d in reaobiJig 
the fortraos of AtlmLrik with frre 
lliounmd niiilntzy. Three dm 
■ftertrflordi, theconqueiore took tlie 
dtf of Admkik ttsdf bjr stons^ 
•mi^eii Msault of thkteen heme, 
in tfaeoonrse of whidhthe ganiton 
of four thootand men were put to 
the Aword* On the following day 
the citadd ran-endered hy capitu* 
kdon. Paakewitch mst overran, 
with little eppo8ition» the pachidiek 
of Bajaset, and was preparing t6 
naveh against Eriremmj in the end 
e# Ootoher, when the appvoaoh of 
wintet put an end to the campdgfti 

While the op p re s nor, and the itt* 
tidious patron, of Greece were 
thna grappling with each ot&er m 
mortal oonflict, Grbbob henelf 
iortunately was allowed to feel that 
her day of hlood and desolation was 
past Ihrahim found himself eon* 
demned toinactiTity, and condemn* 
ed moreover to starvation, if he 
remained in the Morea« The 
exhausted countiy itself could not 
supply his army ; the sultan, com- 
bating for existence in the north, 
had no aid to spare for his friends 
in the south ; and all communioa* 
tion with Egypt was prevented by 
the presence of the allied fleets 
He had no choice but to return to 
Egypt, and the allies were willing 
to amird him every fSadlity for his 
departore. His scruples regarding 
the honesty of giving up his post 
without tHie authority of his master 
the gnmd signor, were overcome by 
the authority of his father, the Pa* 
cha Af Egypti with whom admiral 
Codrhtgton arranged the evmcua- 
tUm C>rdie MoieftM Akxan^aftp 
by a ^j&titmdm diftea Sth Ah* 

Sst, 1867 which stipolated as 
lows: 




Avtkle U-^^JSmu: 
MekeqMe All' Packav ea^a^ 
give up all peiiantf jahdntiuaie 
trol nade slaves «iikardha>hat4^ysiflf 
Navarin, who ' have^ baaik'' isnt 
to Egypt^'^nd vrillt>Simnsdinlity 
place Shem ai tbe ^istibsal oC «dk 
iBUMd CodringloBi. His liighirib 
Ukewise pKOBiass thatih^wfli^ifai 
eomunotian wilb the.iMniBiIl^.ilf 
dimrsoi netsflBtynse'Jibul 
endeavours to indiice spch 
OS have yurohasod ony^eClh^ 
ta deliver them 4^ 
Codriagtoiyosi i& 
toset atiSMEiyall _. 
diers taken priammrei Wieafpee 
up the- corvettes llmt ihafv Ibeen 
oaptBZBil in thawntots ofc M^Aoa 
by the Httssar* d. .I^ft^tmftjps 
shall evocoato ibe MoKeasFSDteJM 
possbUe, and he wiH send tAe 
neeesany ships to NaitaEfaiQ le tahe 
tiiB Egyptians on faoatfd. Ji*. < Wt 
transpoits shall be ei m vujiied "hy 
English and Freneh shifN^ whids 
ase tosailin oompany widi tbolsla 
Navarin, or to some other^oriwips; 
4. The tronspoffts.on thehrtntnan 
shall be escorted out of hodsifli; 
till they arrive within .«iglli'<tf 
Alexandria. 5. • No <i«recl^ joab 
or female^ need aosemlpatty/tha 
personsnamed in this tMa^wP 
less they are desifous of'4oiliA(aa 
6. Ibrahim Ftacha is tWmmJito 
leave some men in the fnslipwsiaiiif 
Patras, Costel TcanBfiie, Mfokv^ 
Goron, and Navaria». to nrlf^fn 
these places," and 1^ an eddiltioMil 
asticle the Pacha engngcd /' thu*. 
on no eoeonnt whatevei^ ahajl tisMt 
remain more thanone thousand *^ 
hundred Egyptian tioep8,.t^jece«tgr 
these fortresses; and his hifchmji 
engages to ses4 aiders .^Jln* 
eAct to Ibrahim P^cte.*'; . tkf 
veasDn why these five fwtrMSSi 
wvre ionsevled from the Miven- 
ticm was, that the garrison^ which 



HISTORY OF £UROPB; . [248 

9m aM t h iB n cftMMttd ptiiwiimlly navia fot^ saKmUad in tUlwy 

«f Tofb and Alfamun^ ev«r of Navmn* and tba railitiagr 

^Aom tW Packa of £g|rpt oouU povrer that had bean so unaK* 

ma^pnioidtefamaiiyaotlioritj, pectedly iatiodueed* would haya 

and wham tha allied ipoweri could ooayinoed him that it wag luelcMa. 

^A im diScultgr in aedHcmg l»f He aflthaxtod on board hia tcaaa* 

ifanai aad,tfia l a^ilati o e thai; the pmrta tweiity*oiie tboHaand ineii, 

Jhsfafi abiMdd haet the pawav of who atiU samained to him o£ the 

AaftMUpiHietkoiMMultirahuaii. mai^ powerful fegiona whicji 

dved off his Egyptians along with Egypt had lent to the cao40 of 

tlMMi giniiiMiii secflM to hatve been Turkey. On the 4th of Octobar 

nilended aa a alao to the barba* bo set aail^ and finally relieved 

aiB?a ' ^oiarwnoe l a a seniethiag Greece fima a preience which M 

viudi would entitla' him to say been so fatal to her b^ies of 

ilipt^Ua BOffante had shaied the fieedom. 

eeraon lotcrf^otber fidthfulaep» All that now tfemained to be 

TMats-aHthe sahan.. done for liberating the JMoria 

« ' The TufUsh and Alfaaniaa firom foreign power was to yo* 

aeoi^' is thvoKoq^ fortirtB>i> duoe the fortresses in the hands 



angaaented by tiie one tboiii» of the Turks. General Maiaon, 

aaad tw» honted Egyptians who the oomnumder of the French 

waie>ta joikfc thenii would anumnt expeditioo, immediately proceed* 

ia^^aKloaboua dgfat thousand men. ed to make this part of the schema 

Toobviatediainitation, and most effectual. On the 6th of Oetor 

yioWdy the bloodshed which her, the aeoand di^ after Ibr^ 



wanld have bean oocasifmed, if die him had sailed, Navam was 

aadc of ledndngihem had been as* summoned to eurtender, and the 

s i g aedeotiia Greeks, it wasagreed demand was supported by a body 

ahat thiaatop should be taken by the of French troops nnder tihe walls, 

aUiaa diednelvcs. Theyhadnota mady to commence operations, 

ini^soldier, English, French, or The Turkish goveroor answered 

^ ' I, in the Morea; bat Fiance evasively ''The Forte is not at 



a» furnish a sufficient war with the French or the Eng* 

«lHBhar«ftioopsfai good time. An lish; no act of hootiUiy will be 

aaii^didan waa iaanrndii^y fitted committed; but the jdace will not 

•ntftioai Tottloiir It carried nearly be given up." The scJdiem im< 



two t h ousa n d French troops mediately set to woi&: a detach* 
aMadfioe tbesa five places, whose mentofsappersspeedilymadeahole 



KagartiaoiiS did not amount to in an old breach, and the French 
hSii of file mnmber. They soldieiy marched in» meeting with 
snd^efi at. Navam neaiiy at the no opposition from the garrison 



tioM with the transports sent of five hundred and thirty me«» 

b^ the PiMiia of Egypt, in confer* mnong whom ware fimrhuadi^d of 

aiiaywiih*^tha convention, to carry the one thousand two hundred 

hia son and his tnoph Egyptians nrhom Ibrahim had left 



IbahUm liimaslf^ performed every bdmnd. On the same dsy the 

Cof the sttpuliUionB with pet^ same demand fsas aMtaird to^die 
gwd fUtL If he had beea goremoe of Modan^ and the lanHf 
~ to fan treaeharoBS, the answer was retaraed. T)|e gatef 

[R2] 



'SI44i ANN'UAL RS'61«!rBrRi!ri828. 



werd foi*ced open, and he and his 
gamflbn q(tietl}rflubinxtt:ed. Cordti 
was mate ccMittimarious ; hut Coron 
too, agreed^ to follow the example 
of Mbdon/when once assured bf a 
messenger of its own that Modou 
had truly set that exan^ple ; and 
Coron accordingly opened its gates 
on the 9th. "Hie castle of Patras 
had'already shown the aame cotn« 
plaisance to the French general 
Schneider, on his forming three re- 
giments of inikntry, wim a quan- 
tity of artillery, within cannon shot 
of the walls. The Morea castle 
alone' remained, and alone gave 
any trouble. It was found neees- 
saryto ertet powerful batteries, 
and keep theM playing for a whole 
week, before the garrison would 
agree to surrendeir the fort. By 
the end ' of November all the ex- 
cepted places had been reduced, 
and the Morea, freed from foreign 
control, was now left at liberty to 
select the course which she might 
choose to follow in the paths of 
civil life. 

The President M. Capo d'lstria 
had arrived and been installed in 
his oiSce- early in the year. In a 
sort of inaugural address which 
he delivered, he told his country- 
men that the first care of their go- 
vernment should be to deliver them 
fVom 'anarchy, and conduct them 
hy degrees 'to nfatidnal and politi- 
cal regeneration. - '' Jt is only then 
you will be able to give the allied so- 
vereigns the indispensable pledges 
which you owe them, in order that 
they may no kmger doubt of. the 
course which you will take toobtain 
thig salttaty d^l^ which led to the 
treaty of London, and the mettor- 
«ble day "of October 90th. Before 
IMS' ^rieii^y^' have naiisht to 
h^pfi hcih^^B^kmtkCB Uiat T.hsve 
ii«iVDked^fbh<ydu, tioipfor any thing 



whi<$h etfii ierr^ libe «MaaKif gajtA 
order at* hom^ or ^e •^retenfamp 
of yot»^ repu^ttoa Uannii""')!^ 
seenied la oondudtlmtiselft/inlii 
medeiatiim, and 7et'wilih\s|ihnt. 
He did not aetoi indiBecktau^w 
the 'aopreme power to kntalMi 
willi,ortobenndemevely awiii* 
strument to seeuie fl0ltdii«Biii'lp 
powe^l iotsAgaKKk '^Fap'tfte 
good of ««r oountrf," sd h^ au^ 
aaidto have> ouptm s fai ^hinaitf ->^in 
the deiihenitifie asnni^y> f^iatihe 
0ood ef o«tf countiy I wouidnniori- 

nee «y life-^i'iiflve MMificfaibnr 
eojoymei^tsi tny. faeall^ fidl vfj 
fortua&^but i tamiot^svdc 'vtijr 
cfaafSK^r. i dcnand' tte;' laqr 
orders be puneiiially'eKectttfid, a«d 
that nidiody -sikMiv- Idmstf n#e 
qiposMon to tny Willi liMkifitUs 
snufl&box whieh I cnisli^' (hetlidd 
in his hand « sMiff«hox •winA'Sie 
trampelled under his ftey^' ^6at 
we must yet 'ehey Uindly/' 'He 
set himself ttendy Bgrnat- -the 
piratical habits by whi£ indepen- 
dent Greece had so disgraoad-iflf; 
and he Had mntbimty eoeikgk 4o 
make the fleet, which was pMld 
at his disposal, oerry his eedeta iaio 
punctual exeeotbn. .^ - * 

As yet neither he tier tlie§Dveasi« 
ment had enjoyed leumbt^fttase 
any system of finance. The ihbii, 
who had been accustemed iO e^t in 
the affairs of the ooimiry;had home 
very unfortonate xeputatbnaffin 
money matters. It appeared dbsc, 
probably from liia perRNoal >iBia« 
ence, ifit wasnot'giveaenpeislie 
oottsideratioasy he had- ojbteiiM^'a 
loan of money fnm Rnssiaf *lee^in 
a proclamation which he pnUidiU 
on the oedasion of the: Riittiati.d^ 
dantion of war berog oflldiBy 
transmitted to^ him, he aaid^ ''Oar 
wants are already kBdemcanaflSs 
majesty the empeioraf RiAsia-kwi 



1- iHISnOlR'Y OF EURORB^ 



/ 



A* 



mp 



fpauX ^0^t^. OteA- gtfvienimeiit 
l^umttnr^U, wbick wSi infallibly 

ifiisiiitlL^it inA the meams of pn>- 
vaSmg fortlirmoBl preasiiig wwite 

v«£:tlie,aaay» the fleet> and oth«r 

Lhtaaebai cf the- public service. 

■ 33118 aaoeour ]i«8> however^ be«i 

Syramtcad to ut only on the con- 
mui of maUag «ife of it with 
'£be gteatait eooaony, oolelgr forthe 
idefmo of the oqmitiT^ to xepuhe 
>diQettemyi mid to aUeviate the 
eoGHeDie diatxess of the peopk^ 
vifjiiflh'hea. been gdeatl^ ineieajied 
^ fhcg coriilBgieus diaoeder wldch 
An Ictsetioe of Ihe Tudka has 
vhiou^ uvaad wftieh thoBateaed 
rut inth elill gnater sufierJjDgK. 
tWm lira > thormtghly conyiaoed, 
kliat.hiliznlajeBty the king of Great 
'Britain, aiid Jib nUjeaty the king 
itf Fffflnee, will oa their part grant 
m Bimiiar niccoiir. Meantime, 
:hbwever^ considerable as these sub- 
isidiea-nwy be, which will be given 
n^aiinultaneously hy these powers, 
thn ctiau of our aflairs is not the 
k» difficult, and the only means of 
getting. out of it consists in show- 
mg^flursdves worthy, by the ameli- 
oration of our internal situation, of 
Affaucoour which we have received 
and of dat which we shortly ex- 



• iln Che present " high and palmy 

■atRte/? of the fortunes of Greece, 

.•the.' very first question, which 

ytfassed itself upon the govern- 

- atent, was, what were to be the 

•boundaries of the new state. This 

■ vtsB a question which the allied 

•^powers, parties to the Treaty of 

'London^ would have to settle 

^iibitii. Turkey; but the govem- 

'inent^ as vras natural and right, 

. had ita own ideas upon the sulyeot. 

The commission of the natioaal 

•assembly addressed '' a deelacation 



to the allied pow^acs/ ijQi. which 
they proposed that the northern 
boundary should be the. northern 
mountains of Theasaly . .on the 
eastern side, and the course of- the 
Voa;u8sa on the western, thus 
excluditig Macedonia. The first 
part of the line was to . bc^;in 
in the environs of Hntrin, . pass 
by Savia at Greneura, following 
the course of the Haliacmon, up 
to the highest summit of Pindus : 
the other would commence in the 
district of Cenitsa and descend to 
Vehemeru« These limits they 
said, seemed to be pointed out by 
nature herself, and luid always got- 
ten the better of military and pouti- 
cal events. The Greeks, however 
fond of extending their colonies, 
had never been able to establish 
themselves beyond the banks of 
the Vogussa. On the other 
hand, numerous irruptions made 
into Epirus in the middle ages 
by oonquering nations, e^eciuly 
by the Sclavonians and the 
Albanians, did not succeed in 
destroying the Greek race, its 
language, and that spirit which 
was natural to it. That race, on 
the contrary, remained essentially 
predominating, so powerfully did 
its local connexions prevail over 
the efiects of time and the force of 
events. If you went down from 
the mountains of Thessaly^ you 
passed from a country, wMch by 
its geographical position had pre- 
served itself very unmixed thfoomh 
successive ages, ij^to Macedonia, 
peopled in a great meagre by 
Mirous and Bulgariaas^ It w^s 
true that this haundaiy would 
include some small dis^ctSi the 
papulation erf whiob .h%d,. taken 
no share in tho natJoaal. smuggle, 
but, on the other h^, U would 
lea¥e out . other .di^trif^tf whi4h 



iH] ANtiUAL aeOISfr£IR,il828. 



had taken an active piart in the 
war, and whoie highest wishes 
woidd be to form part of the 
renovated common country. The 
natural conformation of this line, 
moreover, gave it a political reoom- 
mendation. Where boundaries do 
not coincide with some great 



natural features, but are liass 
arbitrarily laid down, itmy pro* 
duoe uncertainty, they furnisli a 
dangerous fodlity, and the r e fo re a 
temptation, to violation, and aoooer 
or later, prodooe disoonl between 
the neighbouring states* . 



« » 



* \ 



«i •• 



I 



' J » 



< 



* m * 



• .' , t 



• I 



i 



;•.<•;, 



jHtarrOBYv 6F suaoBa.^ 



tut 



t 



CHAP, xir 



UiriTiD States. — Tariff Bill — President*$ Message — Brazil — 
Peace concluded with Buenos Ayres — Mutiny at Rio Janeiro — 
Buenos Ayues — Colombia — Meeting of the Grand Convention — 
Address by Bolivar — The majority of the Convention is hostile to 
Bolivar — Therefore the Convention is dissolved — Bolivar is invested 
with stq)reme power — A conspiracy against Bolivar breaks out in 
Bogota — PunishTnent of the Conspirators — Revolution in Bolivia — 
Bolivar declares war against Peru — Peru — Mexico — Conspiracy 
of General Bravo, the Vice President — Election of a new President 
— General Pedrazza is chosen —Insurrection against his election — 
Insurrection in the Capital — Pedrazza leaves Mexico — Chili — 
Mutiny of the military against the Government — Guatemala. 



IN the United States, the public 
mind was exclusively occupied^ 
but at the same time very eagerly 
occupied^ with a bill introduced 
into Congress for raising the duties 
on manufactured articles imported 
from other countries, and on the raw 
materials of manufactures which 
formed branches of American in-> 
dustry. No measure, since the 
Federal Union was finally estab- 
lished, ever excited more vehement 
party spirit, or gave to that party 
spirit more unconstitutional lan- 
guage, than did this measure for the 
regmation of trade. It did not divide 
merely individuals ; it divided the 
states; and while it thus threw 
them into hostile masses, it impres- 
sed these dissensions with that un- 
reasonable violence arising from 
personal interest, which makes 
snch discords strain hard upon the 
bands which hold a political confe- 
deration together. The object and 
the efiect of the bill were simple 
enough, vi2. to throw obstacles in 
the way of foreign materials and 
Tnanufi»ctures wh^ America her« 



self could produce. In its princi* 
pie, therefore, there was nothing 
new. There might be some novelty 
in seeing it adopted by a state so 
purely mercantile, and which for 
many years had annually boasted 
that she was the sole depositary of 
very different and far sounder 
maxims ; and perhaps it was more 
extraordinary still to find her estab- 
lishing it as the law of her policy, 
at the very time when European 
states were shaking themselves 
loose from its observance ; but still 
it was a matter on which difference 
of opinion had existed, and di4 
exist ; it required in its discussion 
much wisdom and moderation ; 
it did not require either animositj 
or faction. 

The New England States, who 
have never been convinced that 
they have their just weight and in- 
fluence in Congress, considered it 
as a measure, by which their privatq 
and public prosperity was to be 
sacrificedto create an unfair, and an 
unsound, because an artificial, ad- 
vantage to the landholders of the 



&ISQ AfiTmAL)WiUGllS!nsa,\UB2S. 



. imiHsrmimuUm «tatea» Widi 
^o^QldMlrali^eQty Budihsy, eoold it 
ofg^tSbly kave/lieeii brought ftr- 
iwiurd. Neazly . the whole revenue 
w»B denvad from duties on im- 
ports ; and if it had beea uecessaiy 
to. raiie the tariff of Custonr House 
duties in Dvder tomeet the growing 
.expenditure of the ntate> no ofajeo- 
^tioaeoiddhnre been nmdetothe 
.B«w. io^xttiiions. But this pretext 
,WM never used"--«nd could not 
Jhtnf^ been used* The existing 
^duties were more than sufficient for 
tevery etateneoBssity^ andafibrd^ 
ti .«iu|diis bf which the natioual 
. jbbt was phced in a situation of 
jwpid^ xeden^tioii ; the new ones 
were to diminish the revenue^ 
Swr their very object was to pro* 
hibtt> or to limit, impartatMHi« 
the avowed purpose, tfaeve&re/of 
the kw, said they^ ^'isthe cre^on 
and encouragement of domestic 
manufactures, at the expense of 
those portions of the union whose 
trade depends on the exchange of 
Aeirraw or agricultural producefor 
the products of foreign manufactur- 
ing labour and skill. It is an at- 
tempted triumph of one half of the 
states over the other,— 4kn experi- 
ment which must totally alter the 
direction of industry in a great 
part of the Union— a sentence of 
.confiseatbn passed on the trade 
of Nordi and South Carolina, 
Georgia^ Alabama, LfOuisiana, and 
some other districts, for the benefit 
of Tennessee, Kentucky, the Ohio, 
New Yorki Pennsylvania, and 
otbet distriola where manufactures 
aie estabBshed;«— in short, as the 
meimsof enriddng the central and 
4Hrestem states at the expense of 
tikerostof theeonfederacy.'' This 
i».^ the gceat evil . and danger 
lof federal uninns* In all tases, sdf 
iii « sufficiently active corrupter of 
puUicv ^ weU as o^pdvate^ duty; 



hilt jils.^taiBtw>a ^ thadiaift 
momdec^iaiii poncmpos^ QsHevDlb 
themanfafiwitpefaiaialsdf^^aganitft 
which an ordiutify! wall-tniiBdd 
adnd will be on its gtixtd^ thiirdia 
superadded the imiibsing fBtBMi>- 
lookiiig pditicalsGdf of oae'a:^«wii 
eonixtry. 

All the soathem states, 'volad 
againit it: .9i the New JSn^and 
repoeaenlatives^ twepty»*eight mH i jI 
against it, and * only ^fifteen m its 
favour. It passed in the UoBaoiof 
EepEesentatifSB, onlybyg nma| t irit y 
of one hundred -and five- to moAf'^ 
four* OothetnotadnthattfaeSHMs 
*^ and &r the encptnagfwnwnttafido* 
mestio manufiutures, should' afaad 
part of the title «f the bili^ Mr JSsBi- 
dolph said, that the mo^on .aii^Pit 
pass, fiir ''tbs biH refened tf^ao 
manufiKtnze of miyjnvtiar:>ldiid 
but the manufircture of « prasnkiit 
of the United States^'^RteBtiitg to 
the idea very generally entertained, 
that the measure was • taial ef 
strength among the states watka 
view to 'the appgoachiny. d eot p^ . 
A Mr. Drayton moved to an»ead 
the title by calling it ^'an Att 
to increase the duties upon cer- 
tain imports, for the pucpoae ti 
increasing the profits t£ certain 
manufacturers:"— «>to whick ft Mr- 
Hodges proposed there shon)d be 
added, '' and to transfer the canitBl 
and industry of the New Kilgnmd 
States to other states inthe Umaa^" 

Even after the bill had paaasd, 
and become the law of the 'land^ 
theopposm^ states did not ncsd^ 
declaim agamst it as a badasaa wiw, 
to be repealed as soon as jpnUey 
but they began to ^eatitti tibae 
power of Conffren to enact it^'aad 
to speak darkfy about the naftal 
rights of the states. In the Sontifc- 
em states, piofessor&of 0QUflgca.fa»- 
gaa to lecture an the nature of tbe 
fed^ Union, tm the purpose of 






C-i* 



i H^S'HaHB OF ^UROFEi /! A [pN® 



limriifriiHytt: thaigtaonlJegiibi- 

iuie^hadi jBo<pflnnEi^ ¥ft tbe oomiiika- 

lioii^lt^ridt^ifthB *^iiseetaem of in- 

^ibntaiy ^ttr'.tbe faoud&t o£ oae part 

vhih^ticoaEedeniMatt aLtluB aaqpenae 

o£>tlB/iesti:i^Tke journals of these 

itHeijeren retonunended tlie ze- 

pes] of the act of Union. A niu- 

AUDOus publio meetiDg held in 

(ktohaa, fior- the purpose of poti- 

Ming^Ao gomacDoe .to 'OoavolDe 

-Iheiegistttaioof thestateto talw 

menrntfls for. iMstnig^ the new 

ianS, puhUflhed aa addBiBSg in 

wiiid^ aflsr .askang. the question, 

iRbat shall we domiha pttsent oir« 

wrnishmffa^jheyriiemseiTeaangwer 

it thus a ■■ ^' if ve have the ooiMum 

'jnneitff ^ttkeify or tihe dotagniiiiatTiin 

fii^&eaaen, we. must xdbsIi the 

impodtian^of this tariff. We must 

ia^erTetaagade in disfaowour and 

AsBWj and receive the contempt 

sod mora, ef ourhrethien, supep- 

sdded te. oiir . wrongs and their 

jyttcm of cfpprenioiL strengthened 

lifoiir tidezatiiin« or .we must, * by 

oppoibg^ endihem.' To the very 

Is^ .TOte in the Canmss we have 

htpt this altecnative m our minds, 

still . dinging to the vain hope 

'that' some kmdied feeling— Hsome 

BBOse of constitutional justice 

^^^ssme- spirit of forbearance and 

cbi&pEQiBisr-«-such as influenced 

oui! fathers when acting together, 

aod.th6 fnmien of the constitution, 

wofdd zcecne us from this bitter 

sncsgeMcy. In advising an at« 

titaide of resistance to the laws, we 

^keai it due to the occasion to state 

mar ppthntional faith. For it is 

not enpogb that imposts, laid on 

Ar the protection of domestic 

nanufactares, are oppressive, and 

tnmsfisr in dieir operations mil- 

Konr of our capital to northern 

capitalists. I£ we have given our 

bond, let them take our blood. 

Those, who resist those imposts 



must deemlbem^BMOBsntiiSMttily 
and the principle is'rittntmsdt as 
■Mch by the payment of -one 
cent as ten mtlHonii." > And 
these Carolinian le^siatovs dtti- 
oludedthus.'^-^^'By all the gregt 
principles of liberty, »*- by the 
glorious achievements of oar fiitheM 
in defending ^em,-^by thecr lives 
in suffering, and thcnr dsstiis in 
honooror in<glory,P^-H>oreonntyy- 
men, we must resist. NovsecvetiPjT, 
as timid thieves, or skulking sarag^ 
glers,->-*not in companies and e8S<»* 
ciations, like moo^«cha£ferbni' or 
stock-jobbers,*— not separately and 
indivftduslly, as if this'was oirip, 
and not our country's caose^-'i*4iot 
opcsily,^ fairly, fearlessly, and wi&« 
tedly, as becomes a free, sovereign^ 
mid independent people ! * Letncit 
time eat away your rights and pre- 
scr^rtion8. Plead yobr sanctidn 
to them. Let us assemble' in 
solemn convocation or in legishN 
tuie; and in firmness, but humility 
of spirit, rdy upon that Pityvidendie 
who has hitherto protected us, to 
guide and direct our anxious ooun» 
cils."— Other states adopted the 
less dangerous course of resolvintt 
to consume no article the growth 
or manufieu^ure of those portums 
of the Union which defended the 
tariff: "Let the legislatures," said 
they, " of Virginia, the Oatnlinas, 
Georgia, and Alabama, nkeet and 
prohibit the introdnctum of horses, 
mules, cattle, pigs, and odier arsih 
cles from Tennessee, Ohio, Kel»- 
tucky, Indiana, ^^- whisky - aiid 
cheese fmm New York viA Pem»- 
sylvania, and we shall sdon eoe 
what they have gained 'by '<Ateir 
tariff."-^By one county it Wts itf- 
solved, that no omdidafte *for tte 
legislature, or for any cennty lifficu^ 
should be supt)orted>> who sdld*^ 
engage to appear' ^dadt'in 'the 
GiKN:gian bomeMi^n;^ ' The^oiu^l 



iSO] ANNUAL REGt^tfiRv :ld2d. 



aiflojwqU66t0d to vfipmt in home* 
•pun. ftt WflshiagtMi during tho 
fosuiaff iOMioa. 

In JDecomber Mr. AdaoM ad* 
irand to Congion bis last moBnge. 
HiB four yean w«re aboul to ex* 
^ix% and it was certain that ha 
woidd not be re-elected. The 
wypM i witario n whi<di be gave of 
Iha Stales, now when he was de- 
fartJM fiom the govanuneDt^ was 
ana orgmwine ai^ universal proa* 
parity. Ha kft the finance4» he 
said» in a more flourishing state 
than the most sanguine expectation 
oaold have antieapaled, 12,000,000 
of dcdaia having been applied duiv 
iBg the year to the extinction 
of the puUio debt, and the whole 
capital of the debt to be due on 
the 1st January, 1829, heing only 
S%t3GiplS6 dollars. He oonm* 
tulated the country on the fiEulaxe 
of the harvest in Europe, which 
had added, in grain, an item of 
laige amount to the value of the 
exports, whadi, by a general law 
of proqieious commerce, would 
produce a conesponding increase 
of importatioas, and these, again, 
augmenting the income, would 
picbaUy make next yearns revenue 
even hi^^ than that of the pre« 
sent je$x had heen* He gave 
Congifss his opinion on tfie tariff 
bill« and his advice as to the tern* 
per in which it ought to be dealt 
withi in the following words:*- 
" The tariff of the last session 
was, in its details^ not acceptable 
to the greal interests of any portion 
of the UnioB, not even to the in« 
taiast which it was specially in- 
tended to subserve, [ts object 
was;, to balance the burthens upon 
native industxy. imposed by the 
oparatbn of fomgn. laws ; Initnot 
to aggnaala the burthens of one 
isMMi^iheUainh^ the lelief 



aflMdfld feeanolhesir 
princMe aanetionbd fay that^mt; 
one of those upon whkk thanon* 
stttution iftsof waa ftrmen^ 1. «Mpa 
and tnist the aiAmirieatf titU 
Unimi vrtU adhere. Butif a«y af 
the duties infpoaad by the 9ct.imfy 
relieve the manufin^mnv bf agp 
gravating the bnrdien of the plan* 
ter, let a carefol cevisd of itt 
provisions, enlightaned oy \ub 
practical experieuoe of its e0ecta» 
be directed to lelatn tboae wUok 
impart prelection to native indna^ 
try, and reanova or aufipnr tab 
place of those whtdi oafy aUevtaftfr 
one gfeat national intaseat hf iioa 
depression of another." 

Brazil and Boenoa Ayies pat 
an end at last, in the course of tins 
3rear,by a definitive treaty of penee, 
to the unnecessary and almast' ma* 
intelligible war which they had ao 
long waged* The ground of qnar* 
rel had been, that Den Fedso 
claimed Monte Video and the tfs* 
trict on the left bai^ of tiie Pbaa 
river, called the Banda Oriental^ 
as parts of the empire of Bimni« 
while Buenos Ayres, if die oonUl 
not daim them for hendf, waa 
determined never to ackoowietee 
them to belong to her rival. It 
was this that had rendered fiitile 
all previous negotiations, the em^ 
peror and the repuUic b^g eqoab 
ly obstinate in muntaining their 
imagined rights. In the treaty 
which viras now ooiudiMled^ tiim 
difficult pmnt was provided for%jr 
the feUowina; stipulayons^^ " 1* 
His majesty ute emperor of fiiaml 
declares the province of Moato 
Video, at present called tbeCia^ 
pktine, separated from the tem- 
tory of tfaie empire of Brasil, m 
order that it may oonatitnte itadf 
into a state, free and independent 
of' any natkm whatever, miet tho 



^ • 



HM'RJKV X)T EUROPE; 



f 



t&61 



MUBt^mitdile loriii incwuto, 



EnmMt Qt^ tkc i^spoMic of tbQ 
Ml Pniniioe»«>noiirsiacltc]ur* 
3IPMI iti part,4Jieitidepttidcan)e 
.di« piofinot of Monte Vidocs 
■«. pfeleatwUed felie Cifpiatme, 
and iu "Ma^f oonttittitei into n 
tee ind^flideneiideiit jtaie, in the 
firfta dfeoUava in the iot9gicnng 
■itMHu 9* Soni liisli contVBCtiiitf 
ytotfw dtfige tfaene d v eg tflr defend 
dMittdepeiMlnioe end integiity of 
tirtrpf9«we of Mmce Video, for 
dmeiaiofliid in the menner that 
Mi^ te egieed upon in lihe definv- 
tiye treaty cf peMO.** The oon^ 
tnKting parties having thus de- 
dncBd th» pwi f Aace in qnestiett ^'a 
frMflndindepeodeat ttate^" to be 
plHBd uuduT' whfltever *' fonn of 
gmnjmmj at it rai^t deem nuMt 
mmMit/' ik^y nooeeded, in the 
Bflxtu^oiea, tolay down aathori* 
mtlte^niifeeforittgaidanoeiA the 
fini*iini<a> of m paNmsional govern* 
nM0ti On the sadfication of the 
tiMi^y me eimtng govenunent o* 
tlielEbai&Oriantanind the ensting 
gntatm n ^n t of Monte VideOy were 
to eonvete Rspectivelf the repve- 
muUU& ^ m of the dty and of the 
inftmiiee,reguhittng die number of 
depatie* %y that of thelnhaUtantoi 
amd-vang the f otm whidi had been 
lAMttrved nt the election of the 
i n einbfff* of the hat legialaniie. 
TiMae dcpatiei were to asiemble^ 
flit ■ dhUiiee of at least ten miles 
tato Mbttte Video^ or any other 
pdat iMcapied by military, and to 
eoHHOBUi n pioviflHMiai goferainent, 
ahoald rale the whde pco« 
, until B ijegukr end perm»- 
gofernment emild be uamed. 
Tliey were then to frame a poli^ 
deal eoosiltntioD for the provmce, 
OB fim tmk estdement joi wladh 



eease. WhateveroonsditttionmighC 
be adopted, it ?wes to be submitM, 
before biAng twomtoi to the im«. 
amination of oommil»loners on the 
pait of Brasil and Buenos Ayree, 
''for d&e 01^ obfeet of ses^that 
it does not eontain aaiy art^te or 
articles opposed to die seeurit^ of 
their respeetive states "•'-^ pmv^ 
slon which eonveys mueh instrao^ 
tion as to the meamnig of ^'fiee 
and independent," when applied 
by large states to small ouea. The 
oontiraSting powers, having ttea 
retained in their own haima the 
power of preventing the establish^ 
ment of any government by ebi^ 
jeeting to dl, engaged to lend their 
aid to procure for we oonstilutlon 
a fohr trial. They provided thu^ 
in the lOdi and 11th ardclest-^ 
''It being the duty of die tvro 
contracting governments to assiKt 
and protect die provinoe of Monte 
Video until it be completely eon^ 
stituted, the said governments 
agree, that, if previously to the 
constitution being sworn to, and 
during five years afterwards, its 
tranquillity and security should be 
distinbed by civil war, they shall 
lend the necessary aid to maintaia 
and support the lawful govenn 
nient After the expiration of the 
above term, all protection, whkdi 
is by this article promised to the 
lawful government of the province 
of Monte Video, shall cease, and 
the said province diall be consider^ 
ed in a state of perfect and abi&. 
lute independence. Butbodithe 
contracting parties dedtare most 
explicitly and categorically, that^ 
whatever may happen to be die 
use of the protection which, in 
conliomiity to the foregmng aitialei 
is promised to the pfo«inee stf 
Montevideo, it dmllittall cbmis 
be limited to die' restst«dn» of 
Older; and shall erne itamediateif 



282] A N N^tU A L B E^G RSIDB El f 11828. 



ikfMbi WoUqqI ii atttioiied." The 
tng^ of msil weie to be with* 
4i»wa from, the province; aad 
^oie of BueDos Ayies from the 
tffon^xy tif Bmsil^ within two 
months, after the reUfication of the 
tteat^j with the exception that 
fitienoa Ajrrea might retain one 
thouoand .five hundred men in the 
pjrprii>ee> .until the firaaiUan troops 
shmiU^ withdrawn, from Monte 
Videos and that the empecpr might 
niafy^yip one thouaand five hun^ 
4wdmen in Monte VideOi until 
th» pBOVMiefial goverament ahpuld 
baitnlaUed. The«e troops^ how* 
eyet, while diey so ieniaiAed« wese 
in no manner, to interfere with 
tfie- political ajBSura of the province^' 
but were to be considered merely 
Ma liwce to protect and guarantee 
public aad individual liberties and 
ppopert^^ and not to act unless the 
uwful gDvemmeat of the province 
riiottld demand their assistance. 
Ua^ubtedly. no treaty could easily 
be.positively bad^ which put an end 
to an nadesSf impoveri^ung, and 
]f»t trifling war : but some of the 
IMDvisions of this treaty were of a 
nature^, which seemed to provide 
abwdant sources of future jealousy 
aiid discontent. Each of the oon« 
trading partiesj for instance, was 
allowed to quanel with any pro- 
vision of the intended constitution 
of Monte Video which migbt seem 
ii^uHous to.ita own security ; but, 
just Ar vUiat teasouj the other 
ilKMild -deem any such provision 
W^.-jast and proper, and insist 
tbat^tte Monte Videans should be 
aUewed. to. laaintaih it» There 
atiU rvftiain^ many, points to be 
anmgad. between the ocntendiog 
9t«4««r. . 'iQiese weie to be dial^eBed 
ftf.-T^- anfl^mrate' oegotiatieny aind 
^caipatftatiwriw wete^tobe nsined, 
la^aontj^^ tho(;niri&ationsof tho 
liaafliititrMifraAndd Aams hafia 



exohgog^M V !»/ <raai!< s l Bp ^ fci|t A 
howeter, tfaatr ^^if>iO0dMBy.l%«»> 
peetation, the . Jhigh • (tantrsiPtNig 
parties sbtmUL not. tiwM to m^^ 
justment . in tbo^ aaid. flefinlliire 
treaty of peace» through qiMttnni 
that may arise in whtid<.tM9fA)|i«|r 
lM>t a^ee, notwithstandiag ^^h^ 
mediation of hia Britannia ip^^Mf^ 
the oepuUkand tho emfeMriiiiih 
not vene w boitilities btf oie :%hp e»> 
ptration of die five years atipiAiMd 
in tbetenikattidas n«r.4Tea4^tef 
this time eanhostilitiea-talReipUoe^ 
without notification ib(fng-.#fft^ 
pvecaily given isix dnionithi%^fW»'' 
. The sucoessrof itfie. nfyriatilres 
which. termitnated ia tbiS'^tMl^ 
was perhapsaided by mi alafnijs^ 
mutiny among the tiOffii.4A .^ 
capital in the monthoC Ji|ae«< Th^ 
ficaiilian army contained ..foola 
battaUonaof'Izishmeno Tho<«tap 
peror, moreover, had .inviMd^and 
encouraged an extensiveemigrelMi 
of German colonists^ and had ^tum 
required of them to serve a tmrHdn 
number of years in his anny» bffima 
allowinfp them to prosemte tlmir 
mechamcal labours and. pnrfWons 
fiir themselves. This ehanga^of 
condition was submitled to.1^l•^l 
impatience ; but when theempeajTA 
taking advantage of the neacMtiM 
arising from the war with. iAmmb 
Ayres, refused to dischaqj^tihMiM 
thie expiration of the linited^n^M 
during whidi they had 9^|faadoti| 
serve, a general nirit of diseontUftf 
was diswminatel meamg^^likBtki 
which was inflamed- hit»w;ppti 
mutiny on the occasion of afiMuk* 
mentof five hundred bdwshawsjg 
bem inflicted on oneof their riliiAav 
her who had neglected to tooda JUa 
hat to an ofiMorw Xhe.taeMid 
hatitalton, which waa quMMTod^^sia 
Si« Chtistoval/ia6k up^anaiv toA 
mdndied tin a 4wdy til tboteltes. 

Ih0y;4aaiaadadtttha«'l]kai«tviii •«£ 



?' 



HlSTfaiW GP EUROPE; 



5 



*\ 



[as3 



^Q^^rf'A^oftceH who badlMii 
-mttj^^cdsdnffo^vlfitiiig their diseon-^ 
:|ail»('mfll hewi» nit at Kberty. 
l!k<^ OAmplatned bf breach of 
ftllhi' tliey^ repTMenfed chat they 
4flidJ!»M0 itivitM to repair to Bnisril 
wpettttfbrBetden, each esqpecthig 
tt^'piMue th« trade or oecupatkm 
.lAhh'was best smted to ham ; and^ 
tlWRiAstiiey were wittiiig to a4;t 
av'imKtia for tbe defbnee of the 
diitvkl'iti whioh' ^ey might be 
^^Ba6^y they ol^eeted to beiti? em« 
l^ioytid'w regttW 09ldien/tttia oon* 
flMfted'thfirt a; bfeadi' of the €oa« 
traet^ witb 1(heiA had been oommit* 
Ifid^ittMi^n^thetti from Rio on 
)|iyMry flervice. They therefore 
jscqtth^d an eng^ment, that no 
uhldhiirenrpli^meAt^ouldinAitufe 
M bonded upon them^ and that they 
ilitMild be idlowed without molest^ 
Mton* to follow their pargukii as 
fMXftc^l settlers They were told, 
that?, if: they had ootikplaints ' to 
make/ they must make them indi- 
vidcndly, not as a muthioas body 
WiAi arms in their hands, and 
that their representations would 
bft laid before the council of 
ttate^ They returned to their 
qnaarteni ; bnt/next day, entertain- 
ing doobts of the sincerity of the 
gotemment, and inflamed by a 
deCaehment of the Irish brigade, 
frho had resolved to have a mutiny 
kj^i^'^ Again took up arms, and 
pfoeeeded to violence and plunder. 
Hiey attacked the houses of their 
BMuriyitfn offieeni ; they broke open 
tiva magazines and shops; they kept 
mj^disdia^ges of musketry in the 
•tf eeis^ and perpetrated, dilring a 
whole day and nieht, all the worst 
eKtMses • of rebellion. Some of 
thdr ofliotrs, who tried to bring 
Ikem hack to their duty, they put 
to death ; the others sought safety 
in flight. To complete we confu>* 
iiDDi a bifttelion of Ca^sdofes, who 



suspected their ^ifflcekaislmidt^in^ 
tnm in r^ard to etitaitt <^ ittial 
retained out of the pay ofthe ineri> 
thought this the propto timo 4* 
take vengeance, when there wair A 
rautmy, at any rate. They put to 
death their major whom they chiefly 
suspected ; and some officers,' who 
interposed to save him, were eevttia* 
ly wounded. This battalion ^ prtM: 
eeeded no farther in its ekceimi 
but the mutineers at St Chri^tbvtJ, 
espedidly, according to theoifittStfl 
accounts, the Inili soldiers, having 
been joined by thdrcomnidea, aulS 
a number of the lowest popolaoDi 
whom they armed by breaking 
open the police barraclu, oondnued 
to riot, intoxicating themselves 
with the liquors found in th^ 
taverns which they plundered, and 
firing upon every person whonf 
they met in the streets. To these 
disorders was added the appreken- 
non of a rising of the negroes^ 
favoured by the apparent suspen* 
sion of all legal authority; for, 
during the two days, and part of a 
third (9, 10, 11, Jtme) on which 
these scenes were exhibited, no atNT 
tempt seems to have been made' td 
repress them. The imperial gua^ 
were posted at the palaoe, and the 
national troops were kept under 
arms, but they were kept Under 
arms in their quarterB. It was not 
till the government, on the llthi 
applied ror and obtained a strong 
body of marines from the Frehch 
and Englirii ships of war in the 
bay, that it vei^tured to employ a 
battalion of infantry, with sObm^ 
cavalry and artillery, against ^tho 
mutineers. After a good dml cf 
firing, the mathieerB wekv ooni« 
pelM to retreat to their quavteri^ 
where they were sutinmnded ;''ttndi 
on the following dfift chef (suts* 
rendered atdisfeiiition;^ Thef WM« 
Imaiediately dlitcibatid in -HMil 



8A4] ANNUAL RBOIST£!Rrl828. 



ImAei among the forts, attd anned 
tkipi^ and flwaBores W6re taken £» 
landing the Irish home to their 
own couatry-^or on them did the 
govenunant lay die blame of all tho 
esmenes wMch had been oommitted. 

The soppresskm of the mutiny 
was foUoarad by a change of mi^ 
nistry« Theemperorwaaaispleased, 
and apparently with justice, at the 
want of decision in queUbig the 
refoltt which his servants had dit* 
played; and he was particularly 
dinatisfied with the minister ii 
wnv for having managed so badly 
as to excite it He, therefore, 
SKHM what unoevamoniously ordered 
that minister to surrender his seals 
of oAee. On this fact being an- 
noanoed to the other members of 
^ cabinet, the latter resolved to 
resign their places, if his majesty 
insisted on the retirement of their 
ooUeague« Having thus made com- 
mon cause with the minister in 
disgrace, no alternative remained 
for his majesty but to submit to 
their dictation, or to accept their 
rengnations. He did not hesitate 
in adopting the latter course ; and, 
with his ohaiacteristic promptitude, 
dismiswd the whole cabinet at 
once, only one of them retaining 
his place* 

The new appointments were, 
Joae Clemente reretra, to the de- 
partment of'the empire and justice ; 
JoseBemardino Baptista Pereira,to 
that of finance ; Francisco Cordre 
da Silva Torres, to that of war ; 
Miffnel de Souaa Meilo e Alvino, 
to Smtef manBe. 

Buenos Ayres found the peace 
still movedeorable than did Brasii« 
The army, with which she waged 
the fvar, had never been well ap* 
peintad'i but her finances, bank* 
rsq^^ eredh ae she was, were in 
Booonditiett to bear any warlike 



kudcns, hovtwfw sKfthU fSIm 
Congress, indaadvfKiMaMBteale^ 
getic and honyar spunkiny Iprwa^ 
deckiriBg that '' lih» provinae^vof 
Buenos Ayres>adEaawledgw;^tiK«H 
dieir ftiee and vigoar,^ in a asli j^ 
Woion tnO' uemastio ana iWMgtf 
debt of this nation haa bion nm^ 
tracted, and theobligaisQns^aMHJiid 
by theicreation of puhliafinsV*^ 
whidi was a great deal mete titth 
some other ci^ the psDvineea. had 
the honesty to do. Bne thoa|^ 
they acknowledged Jthe ^bUgaHsna' 
to payj the payoMnt itaelf w«8 4vst 
msyde; for thoe waspoveetyia'i)M» 
revenue, and there was corrupt, sel- 
fish misappropriation, iu> ndmirfa* 
teringsuch revenue aswaaeaiiestaii 
Peace was equally naeessaiyibt 
enable the distracted lepiihlle^ia 
improve and consolidate its tloaiea* 
tic relations, and remove, if it were' 
practicable, that spirit oif- diannlwi 
among the provinces^ whkh 4e* 
prived the government of nB 
strength and lespeetahilky, and 
kept it dependent upon diaoetdnnt 
factions. When Rivadavia rcisyd^ 
in the preceding year, on tlie fiuhite 
of the negotiations with'Bitfail> 
the Congress had voted to hia an 
address expressive of the high 
which they entertained of hie 
vice, and Uieir regret at hiaietiM- 
raent. His sucoessora, again, luid 
scarcely entered oflke, when tlsey 
presented a message whidi altaekad 
all the measures of the kte ad.- 
ministration. It stated thai, «r 
coming into office, the new ||^ 
vemment found the army duM 
organised, the navy useless^ and 
the bank in discredit. The amay 
on the frontiers was saflbringeveiy 
species of privation, and in wsost ot 
pay, clothing, and horses. The 
last charge received noeeuntsnama' 
from what immediately ftttoaosdr 
On the conelurion of the peaoei-Aa 



HiarroRYi of burope. 



[Mft 



Mtly of l2ie ripiddus xetumed 
to.BuflMM.A]rvQ^ and tha fint 
tkmg Ibflgr did was to expel the 
Mw yyennnea fc Tfaii revohitioa 
ItaAiefiwied on die 1st December. 
Ddnego IM>kttt'Sooa afterwuds 
edlMMed t» Buenos Ayxes with 
sqoM militM end Indiana; he was 
dafiaaled, tdteo prisoner^ and shot 
Thoi ihfi wpublic of the '' United 
FisndQeeSy" in addition to the curse 
q£ a gofernmeDt so feeble as scarce* 
ijf •. to desccire the namer had the 
QUisa of seeing that govenunent, 
shA at it wasi made the sport of 
miiilary power^ 

.rCoMMBU. When Bolivar^ in 
tbe fitfnne of last jemc, was em- 
plpjdttg his influence and almost 
dietatotial power to allay the dis- 
ootttenfcs, and quell the disturbances 
whidi had arisen in the noirtheru 
^striols of Colombia^ he had pro- 
mised to anticipate the regukr 
jmdod fnr the meeting of the great 
convention of the republic in 1831. 
His pledge was redeemed shortly 
afterwttvdsbjCoapress; andaCon- 
vention o£ deputies from all the 
states of the republic, had been 
dsiecled to assemble at Ocana in 
the present year, to connder the 
condition of the constitution, and 
make whit alterations might be 
needssaiy to secure that union and 
ciirilpeaoe of which Colombia of 
late hjid displayed so few symptoms. 
This convention, aocordingly« as- 
sembled at Ocana on the Snd of 
March. Its proceedings were open- 
ed by a long address from Bohvar, 
itb which he pointed out to them 
the. various radical defects which 
seemed to him toexist in the frame 
of their government, and the 
nMierable eonseouences to which 
thsgr had led. The general d»- 
BcOfHia^, which he found himself 
coiqpelM to give of the sMe of 



ColomUi^ was any thing hoi flat« 
tenng to the national • vanity, 
" Colombia," said ho, " whish wm 
abb to raise heoelf into M^ifftofiiy^ 
is now feeble and dedinine. Iden^ 
tified before with the pufiie good^ 
she no longer oonoeivss her duty 
to be the only rule of sdfety. The 
same men, who^during the struggle^ 
were contented in thsis poverty^ 
and who did not owe thrae 
millions (dollars} to foseignsn^ 
have, in order to maintain peace, 
had to load themselves with debts 
shameful in their consequencesb 
Colombia, who, in the faceof hostSt 
of oppressors, breathed rady refined 
honour and virtue, endnxes with, 
apparent insensilHlity the national 
discredit Colombia, who only 
thouj^t on painful ascrifiess, on 
eminent services, is now accupisd 
solely with its rights, while it 
eiitiiely neglects its duties. The 
nation would have perished, if a 
remnant of public spirit had not 
imnelled it to call for the remedy, 
and rescued it on the brink of the 
grave. A horrible peril would alone 
have made us thixdc on the altera* 
tion of the fundamental laws; this 
peril alone was capable of ™H"g 
itself superior to our devotion to 
legitimate institutions of our own 
creation, the principles of which 
had procured for us the desired 
emancipation. I would add nothinsr 
to this fatal picture, if the past I 
occupy did not compel me to expose 
to the nation the practical ill con* 
sequences of its laws. Iknowtbafe 
I cannot do this without eaposing 
myself to malicious interpretations, 
and that my words will beocn- 
stmed into ambitioos ideas^ but I, 
who have not refused to dmte Id 
Colombia my existence aid rspn^: 
uison, conceive myself boiind to 
make this last sacnifice; -il imupt- 
confess it: our form f^ipmwa^ 



ttffi AN 



KBOIfiin!mj«B828. 



matA is tuea/dsJlj Metctiftti 
Without considering tbat we af<0 
oalf/jiiii entered into. poUtical 
eoBsfenoe^ ve hare aUowed* our* 
aohpiHi to be Inlliiciiiated by a^pii^ 
lag^theories superior even to tkose 
wUch'the history of all ages bus 
proved to be incompatible with 
bumttn nature. At otiier times wer 
have erred in tbe means, and 
aaeribed ihe failure to not having 
hept^suffioiendy dose to the d&« 
oeitfiil guiie who was leading us 
ntHny, . regardless of those - who 
were deaiiotts of fiiHowing the na^ 
tural aider of things, andofoom** 
paring with each other the difierM 
eat parts of our constitution^ and* 
the- whole with our education, 
customs, and inexperienoe, in order' 
that we m^htnot plunge into a 
ttouUed ocean." 

' The great defect of the oonsti* 
ttttam, according to the Liberator, 
wasthefeeMehess of the executive. 
''We have made the legislative," 
he complained, ''the only sovereign 
body, whereas it ought to be mere- 
ly a member of this sovereign. 
We have subjected to it the execu- 
tive, and we have given to it a 
much greater part in the general 
administration than what our true 
interest penults. Ar the climax 
of error, all the strength has been 
plaoed in- ih6 will, and all the 
weahness in the movement and 
aotion of the social body." The 
exeootive did net enjoy the power 
of «vea proposing laws for the con- 
sidsnAttOD m the legiakture, and 
ita^r^t to object could always be 
readered' ttugatoiy. its officers 
were* not > freely adnutted to ex- 
pfadn'the ground on whidi thego- 
vemvMt^miglit vnak measures to 
bi^iioMd, or ott'wkich it might 
MJfec^JMBij -when adopted by the 
liigishiaaf • in all ita Itmetkntf, 
tBe eivi^) tM iidstary, a|id the 




£iitiiid nable't» 

Csre^ gii. ' M i< a ^ 
until it 'witt'iMiiBaflliBiiM 
itregukraaddsetalusiiil |mwii^ 
Nay die TC—tituihm' itself 
had made propAon flii beetofciag 
tliat ' aliBoet faoundlese avthoNif 
ty, and the aniMii/ af benf -s» 
estravagsBdy lavUi, «ft*oinmBB 
of every piaasunii'^KoVed that<tlv 
geaeral principfe-cf the aoaittti^ 
tioon waa ene^ imptlilia^Md 4m0 
feeblitig nlg^tfdliMani HmMf. 
refused -to give :selid aat hu f tjiv 
and thua* en u wsfaga d insliliwdiaii i 
tioa, to lepfess-iasuliiiiililiirnii M 
granted powerS' vrihibh "w^g^^wmmt 
ooBcileafale with libcitty*''' •-•-. i>«' 
He com^BUmdy too,*thiii. t^« 
anny was not on a fMpir •fooiAagk' 
The dvil tribunals Ind an ahioliita^ 
supremacy in military ttials^-^^aM* 
rogatory tothe authosityinesteAia'* 
the prendent, and destruclaaa wf 
disdplxne*-of that blind obudispeii, - 
without which no army ca^'Oiiat' 
for any good purpose. The^ 'lit^ 
too, which permitted the fldlMvf 
to marry without ^e pensiisiMi' 
of the government, had 'faeentpseaU* 
cularly injurious to the may > ! » ♦ 
the fadlity of ita movcsdentss^itif 
force, and its sptrii.- Ttaey^lttA: 
pxt^bited the anny fniin Thiiiim i 
recruited from among falhaisiyf 
families — ^they would nolaBoia.^ 
married man to becomefa sdiiiep^^ 
and yet they aUowed saliieia^tB' 
become marned men. la :tiH> Jqa ^ 
didal department, theta' waa*>veiki 
nality and injustice, widkdl- 'tipa^ 
executive found itadf aaabfe-'A 
repcess; in die fiaandal 
meat, there was a system >of 
experiment in admimsteriog' 'tfa« 
ravenne,« hostef oadess jteeoMM, 
aad noteiiNa aegbet andd^ 



' • 



1 mgamvi OF suaops. 



12S» 




aad it '.'votild: .be 
_ :to fAm :oaantty to also* 
MBiHMiiHfligOTiier. t^mieB tmn 



df«4li eanrti j l iBtn ii^ and repose 
BUMQrei;" AgDomltme had 
'uaafala • to. -flwiirtaBn • itaelf 
iptJB'.ila fboMr oieBii eitate, 
MWtk anto *f mfifiahle^ d»* 
flHatiaii/'* ' ForrinBL anaumflin' had 
MBtallwiftlfidk Bud' du 'YeoB^tn 
Wlh tiwUdl te judges sold them* 
mhnatio piotKft mud% had de« 
mdpdftik oonidenoe. inmeRsft* 
til»finsditb : Th»*. nataonai credit 

kHU7 A «^ fiolivar, *^ has, at 
last, reached the crisis o£ not be« 
lai^ dda to redeem dor natioiial 
afMsnT'tvitli^the ^^eneroiis fiireigit* 
a- mkb^ haa advaaosd to us his 
mmtf ,m rdknee; on our good 
fiatk } The wmy does not reeeive 
tee kalf of ata pay ; and, with the 
1. of the employ^ of the 
luct the sast -auflet the gveat- 
cfib 'Haiwttfm Sl|ame stops my pen, 
afdi. waai' the resolotion to tell 
jMt'lfaat the natioBal rcTenue is 
hasAippt> aaad tihat the Republic is 
haset^bya fonrndaUehost of ere* 
diftOdL" SodiwaSfOntheaudiori-* 
tyi -of its i own ^ government, the 
slat&^f »• country which had- been 
rtiyi ' tam ted to £uropean8y year 
amr year,, as having advanced 
ifipidl^ ' in every comftorty and 
eKei^atnaaaeBt that flow from the 
enjeymenl of well^otdered liberty. 
It««afliifitsd to thisy that every 
diisiartaMBt of the estate was in-* 
efidmlf and eomipt, founded on 




bynnpiinQiftted piactioe» and that 
tk» .result of this Jbad already 
beasb *ikt desfecnetioB of pvos* 
pasilRr and haaikioBHr at wfwifj aftd' 
Vol. LXX, 



the fbrfciture of ^^e tnattsMl 
honour absoad. 

These were the evxb which tUa 
grand oon'rantum, waa intendBd 19 
reniedy->*-and there :waa no Jinaaa 
to their powers. They had^tstla 
settle the radical qoestson, whether 
the principle of a federal ^mioa 
ought still to be retained -^fer 
iMre waa a party^ thoud^.a sanIL 
one, of antifederalists; The Cam^ 
vention remitted, this quidstiDn !» 
a committee), and the detaaiuii of 
the conBoittee was in favour oitltor 
federal unkmy they having nnam« 
mously reported that the gvi^eni* 
ment'riionid remain on 'die pancxM 
{Abb laid down in the eonatitiitiaK 
of 1821. Thus the. Gonvsntioa 
fmnid itself^ in the onddle of. Mayy 
jost where it had set out, hanring 
determined that the leondatbn ot 
their govemaient should continue 
as it was, and having only done 
mischieCin teachii^ the pec^, by 
such a diacussbn, tot consider the 
very foundations of their governw 
ment as something meidy tempoEft- 
ly and variable, conneeted with no 
idea of habitual stability. All th«/ 
important questions— eveiy thing 
that regarded the .rights and rehK 
turns- of the- different poweis in- 
the state, every thing which waa. 
to alfeot the actually existing evils* 
and do practical good,«--rBmainBd 
untouched, and funiiahed aUa^* 
dant matter of . diseusnott* But 
the turn, which the discussion took» 
soon put an end to them. Bobvar/ 
when hepointedrout withsa^Aaah: . 
frankness, and with perfieet^^fr 
tkei die weakness »whnh theiete«-r 
stitntion impoaed . upon die'exeaa*" 
tive» knew wiall, thal^ UMtrengthad,' 
the (BBeeudve, waato^l umg^t i a n hjai 
own powm: r he hod so tterAat'^ 
any ot&ernpn^Md&^fluisDdbte-: 
thttfiiesidensy, so long aa4M a<aaa»: 
to acoapt k^^. aoA Uit pilsay eJBj 

[S] 



fi6S] A N NU'A L < Jt BG ISrDffHH i 1826. 

the leosipt af 'lalBDiMicei c^tCSmk 
fclut^ottA of 'intuit viMta Qoakwnkmk 
^BogaOk, &' nmiki? mminip Ism 
ebnvcncdy and did MOBB't.ffesB* 
latiiMia were ttnanimouB^ nrttplni 
Ghiayaam followed the Titii^liij 
waA neafiy afl die pterialeflMa 
almost instaatljr lejAfleed 7<lfcQMr 
gseat /natknal CoiLveiiftio» 'wxUi 
thft' peoitei of lUie ptBMiiant* i ti tBaKb 
vav^ wiio^vaa atii».gz«al dfa<;yiea 
fonn thecapilaly and w1r> ;««• 
psobaiUx :a«RH3a iKfordMoi ef^llto 
mevemoiki mdKftated iahiifinwnn 
wai not ilew m obeying thecallM 
the infaabitantfl. He aUcwdv Bo« 
gota on the dOthofJim^eoANeB* 
pefienoed & reosfrtten eufta iea t ly 
enthiMiaBtio to giatiff >the\ihig1ilet 
ambition^ A Uaupoaarf tteoaie 
wai ereotad for i&imin die gvni 
aqnare, to wUck he waa oondufsta^ 
in triunpht whece, bekig atiled* 
he rcoeiTed the eongmtnlatHmi'^ 
die puUie fimotiboarie^ and- aH 
the principal inhahitiat8» en hi* 
deradeo. In hia leply^ he. gap* 
them distinct assucanoea of hia 
intention t» remain in the ommttir^ 
and of Us detenmnadon to enii||dejr 
die power oo n fe r red on himrUnaevs 
it, bj putting down rabeUiMi and 
anarchy. He thus wanted: nplhing 
of a king but the name, and he he! 
the authority, too^ ef Ung^i ftttb 
from the restraints of any. xe^m* 
sentadve body. One would thiidK» 
to be sure, tlmt, as the ConvenAieK 
had made no cheaga in the eoil# 
sdtution, that censtiiudon, UHn^ 
pealed by any reoogniaed authvrib 
ty, mast still be the form tn^whieh 
the powere of the state would 
have to act. Not a» thwiighf 
Bolivar. In a pseokmatim which 
he immediatdiy issued,* h^ lold 
them, that their old ' {unakitaliim 
was gone, and they, had got. him 
ia its place. Heproeiised'tO'CBSft* 
y^kM thexepresmitedvebe^willit 



Uefriends^at least was, tobrmff 
the>CdnventioB to imrest him with 
sepreme power, as the only proper 
remedy for the aoknowledosd evils 
of the present system. Tlie Can« 
vendon shewed a very different 
temper. There were strong doubts 
of Bolivar's itstentkmtabro&; and 
while many wev^ disinclined, on 
general principle, to give the es* 
ceudve moie eztmuiive power than 
it' already possessed, <odien joined 
tliem from views which had refer* 
enee to the person by whom these 
powers were to be esurased. The 
msflerity of the Convention, fram 
sndi various causes, evinoed this 
dispoaiden, and therefore the Con« 
vention was abrupdy dasselved, 
without leaving a memorial of its 
brief existence in any one pufailio 
measure. Assoonosdiedisoovery 
was made by the friends and the 
partisans of Bolivnr diat a majori* 
ty of the memben of the Convene 
don were opposed to his views, 
they immediately vacated their 
seats in the assembly, which then, 
having no longer the number re« 
quired by the consdtudon to give 
vahdily to its prooeedings, became 
vtftually . extinct. 

When the intelligence of its die* 
soludon readied Bogota, a meedng 
was convened for the Idthof June, 
of the principal inhabitants both 
civil and militavy. Its proceedings 
Were short, but decisive and im- 
portant. Readutions were passed 
by acclamation, declaring fikdivar 
supreme chief of Colombia, with 
the-mtet extensive powers ;.-.<xe« 
calling franOcana all the ds^ties 
sernt to^ the' Convention fimn Bo* 
gntH,-^«nd invidng Bolivar, who 
wtiA absent on a tour in the pro* 
vinoesr,(td' repair immediately to 
i1i^cs(p«tal,tttid tali^ upon him the 
management^ of attdrsy vntil tran« 
4lEdffi«)r•sho4la^te>Ieitered4 O9 



r rHlSTiaiW? OF EUROPE. / f [850 

aw^rj bafe ihsl wd» an engage* atiUMMn aa bedas at on end.; »aiid 

wbwhioh liir¥ie#aailil intecBaU if tlie.aame tuaiuUiiarf aaaambliiif 

■righ t Hian g a gttnyrime, aadp if m^liick gave him power» hftd-«|i» 

bt iTHt lojwalk liy <lie rulM of tlie Unpted to control hini ia ita ejwt* 

(^tttiiutionv nopmniiae waa re* ciae, he would have bonn the firat 

(pl^id/tb aaniee them ef what lo tdl ihem truly, how imfiA suoh 

mil )ht^ whether he pioaiiaed U aaaenUiea were to detiberate for 

iriM. '^The hetiea ef all,*'eaid th» puUie gaod. He pnimised, 

lm,'f* wen finiatiated hf die Cam* however, to uae hia autkieity with 

venttoD, which waa tdrittately jnaticeandmiidneaa,and to reiaiii it 

ompeOed to diflKdve itaelf, heoaeee only till the people iheulddeoiand 

•aae wne eabmiaiive to the wiD ita natitotion. 

o^the laaMirisy» andothera anxiooa The party, which had all %kn^ 

toenoDt UDWt whiBh their oon« been auapieioua of Bolivar^a de^ 

loiiBoeaatidofQiifiettediotated. Th€ aigns,orwho,fiompetaonaleauaaa« 

iptMiuUm ^itke commomoealih wera hoitik to hia «levatiim> 

mf'ikmerpoiiSumt its kgtd force thou^ that they saw in theae 

•wr >.|ilie fnuUihtde^ becauMe ihot emanta the nealiaation of their werat 

M^vniffe Canweniifinhad mumtUid apprehenaiona* They fonmed a 

iiriy uwa mmmti h decreeing the oonspiracy not merely againat hia 

tefeacy ^ iU r^ormatioH, The goramment, hut aeiinat hia lifea 

painle^ theiVi becoming aenaiUe In the month of March a oon^ 

ef ueenevmity of the evila which spiraigr, headed by geneural Padilla, 

thitateneil their riffhta, reaaanmed had broken out in Carthagena. It 

thoae oonatitiitiomif privilegea that had been easily quelled, and PadilJa 

bad heen delegated to them ; and, had been brought to Bogota, where 

by 4he- inatsntaneona exerdae of he waa now fying in priaon, till 

file plemtnde of their aovereign the liberator ahouUl bring him to 

power, they pronded for their own triaL The sarriaon of Bogota 

weUhie, and tutnve security. The oonaisted, besides a sanadron of 

■otenign people deigned to hou« horse (not an efficient force in the 

oor Bse with die title of their mi* streets of a city) of a single batte- 



ry and moreover authoriaed lion of infantry, and a brigade of ar- 

lae to execute their commands. tiUery. Someoftheperaonalfriends 

My chaiacter of chief magiatrate of Padilla, uniting with others who 

iaipnaed upon me the duty of felt a political abhorrence of the 

ehqrftig and serving the nation, liberator, aeduced the latter frnm 

antt to a niu(^ greater extent their duty, by the paomiae, it waa 

than mjr humble abilitiea could said, of six months pay, and thq 

parftrBL At a period ao moment* sacking of the city. Their plai9 

'eoi^'i ooold not decline the accept* waa to make three simultanaQUS 

iaoeof the oonftdence reposed in attacks, one on the palaoew togain 

eie)>^a ooniidence Whidi over* poaseasion of the peraoiii of. tha 

«mp» me wiUi unspeakable glo« liberator, another on the. priaen , in 

ry, tiftflti at the aame time it hum* which general Padilla waa. coih 

^ 1MI by a eonaoousness of my lined, that they might place him 

owft iju^nlitf*" There waa no at their head, and a third upon .the 

power % which he could be te*^ bairacks in, which waa.aMioncd 

stiatfloSff^Alio oonaideTed all the the battalion^ under .m^cal Varfp 

amogeMita of the former can* gaa, jthat they might be. preYcy^te^ 



I. 

- V, 



SOQ] A N N: 131 Ai L ; It B«S fiSIDff Hal 1828. 



^silntarfeDbg wiibb the popooedk 
jsi§ir'i)f fd^.ooBiiMntois on the 
fldnr/fbisto. The leading oon« 
ifnatoKti "ware miUlary offioeiq^ and 
jw^iHoiitBeot a Fxtfbrh eettler. 
.GeaenJ Santander* the late vice* 
fUendest'flC the arapublicy waaac>* 
tuifyl) jomifidiateljr after tho ex» 
{doMADf the aitempt, of notonlj 
hamng hem pri?y . to tilie plot> 
buM) c£ being it8 instigator* 
:. jiThd : coimpiatofs moceeM^to 
MtUn nn the night of ihe 25th of 
£eplMnbey« A party kdhx.Carrijc^' 
riie-^fomiliandaiit^ Homnent, luid 
hape^k en .officer who had hetfn 
4e0iadcii hy a aentenoe of the 
iujneme edurt of justice, attacked 
.the .paltacei unexpectedly ibout ten 
.»'tkiek at night. Thaj lolled the 
jenianela who resisted^ and aaoond* 
«d to the upper apartnaits, where 
ibd^erly officer of the libeailor 
Imposed their progrew, until he 
waa diaabled by the cut of a sabre.' 
Theas^lants then suooeeded in 

Snetrating to BoUrar's cabinet* 
&adfan(»d to meet them, but, 
aedng their numbers, retixed to 
defend himaelf in his room; and, 
when it was found impossible 
to hold out any longer, he escaped 
by a balcony into the street, and 
leeched the barracks of Vargas. . 
'.. The aAtack on these . bamcksi 
omhicted by colonel Selva, had 
commenced as soon as news was 
fsoeived ef thai on the palace, by 
placilig)apieoei6f ordnance against 
tb» gate- '« BuA. the ^aid main- 
tailiedt • thm • peai • with firmnesa^ 
aMA easiitedbytfiesddiersof the 
aam^/jbaltidion, 'twh<>»' fiom the 
iifqilfV'7 mMo>WK fired' uptm. the 
Mges sesi^ith^sbeaVbadi fee -conf 
Kj/hitmi^ %9Qk (their; eannoii^ -Mid 
fifnM Ulesatiiii all directions. . In 
thieTSifln»/tim« thdthiid.pap^ hud 
a»c(»eflnfbio!getiM|g ipKo jA^prisoo 
9S'm^mmi»P0dSiih })l^Ji«tiug^4he 



SBadNd:theiXQanr/«f ihat ijipaasb 
they ^lotedbod Bolita^ die oA 
oerbn doAy, iftbam'AtynffmU^dtk 
hia bed« ntnun^' ,li 

A di^iisioil- of the sqpneipllcaf 
Vaigpt^ under the - oqmnnftiduswP 
lieatenant f oncaloagr hirtingti fcie n 
supplied, with emnumkiest^ arid 
bended by gstanal fTi<1niMihiiMninld 
tar :of war,, plao^. ihndadiasaln 
the*painfli|iBl.»ayiaye!»>aieditnphtaeiar' 
Jnures iar ^her^debnceof /;theieil|^ 
and the j^rsuiA.'^f dwf tsmia«|^ 
HflDPe. th€9^ .veie/ijainedvjbysLitqi^ 
libeiater,: who 'laast waiy ediianifc 
open amr aaid/jnesl'rPnlhuBinrtBi, 
demonafenitiona of ^joy hgr aUltlfa^ 
officers and men**'. - \ I't i*-l{st 

A . pubUo. masa "wns oalehriiei 
on the irety next inomih|^ 4^>P^ 
tember 26i in gratitttda lot tmt 
sttfety of Boli^nn Tke dtMaiM 
crowded round him ftO'CopgriBtolate 
him on the events Semnl jtiidB* 
sands of: the neig^ihDuHnff p 
try were verjr eboetfy uuSbf. 
and at tbedispoaal^eC tlm gntemi 
meat. > A decree was alan laraed 
the same day, in ^riiieh fiofikMr 
announced :-^'' Fromrilsisjdagr^Mi 
ward I will use .the cnthonlf 
which the national tnlp haft-nifea* 
fided to me, with the estenskm 
which curoometaneea .aty 'ixffcee 
upon me. The same ckvannalrinoBa 
shall fix the term of. theei^aisfani 
of this authority* In ij^rfebanfae 
of which; the oouneil ef alata ^mll 
advise me of the measunsBTiffhiqh 
in its opinion the pihlie gnriU'iMN 
quires, pointing out tfaafe -^obiiae 
or leas urg^icy/' 'fieBidaa^itfte 
oenapimtora who were madri ini»* 
era in the actual .«ttemp|^^f|fteeft 
number of individna}^^ ^cd^' ^p* 
Imbended en the ioUbwjii^ ida^ 
'^ V^ '•Hf liTf^rff in fbri fiiBi|M 
imy* Among :them.«iiiHi'fiMln- 
der, aftd twmlaf Ue«i4a»S&Msai^ 



^28 1 HBHOHSr OK XUAQPEZ Z A pWt 



i)iir/liihef«ias toliin futtukki^ 
ifiiMiill )«ft ^vow^ puniibdieiitb 
ak> ik dad ioP Ootbbery genesd 
fiAdilihyUivd.'ODliNidvRanioti Guer* 
xtty oommandant of the iDiUtary 
ttaS^jtmmti eotocuted^ -Hoiiment 
'Ita^dud'Hpon thcfifth^ al(mg.vntli 
WBlkkuiiiSJi^ t9fu lieutemmto of 
IfaB afftUkirf^ and a partner of 
*MaaBiaut>*' ' Saiitanda waa- oon* 
iwded r «f ' kariAg / bcien : xoneemed 
4ifl&ldi^<0itiifirae7v vadifl^sitsBfe 4£ 
destb-'iivlM Jftiawifle ipronDimted 
aoaiiBti faba. Samtt of tHe less 
miltf^vrkitemly lenoved to mote 
£flan^v / d ap w taentai' - and aome 
'mwefte allowed; to maia dieir 
fMdia c|Hip]o3rnifinti«'> The parti* 
cular cluirges^ howevarj agauBt 
iniriidtials -wwcHiiot pu1iluhed> it 
lipxig judged betteri as the goTem- 
9ridnt< Gaaetta expressed it, '*to 
a i aaib iwewridiDg private famiBes, 
atd^tok^qpfrom public view crimes 
winch were' before - supposed im* 
pBiiiUf in Colombia ""-"v^dod veiw 
IDDBifor not exciling pubbc notice 
fafi-anj inquiry or punishment at 
idiHi^bui- nO' reason for exciting 
pnhlii!' notice by haneing and 
dHDtHigmeny and yet keeping it 
saciet > for what they had been 
eitlieF' hanged or flix>t. 



5 1 1 » » >■ • r 



• < 



•The Peruvians in 1827» so soon 
aa-itkey! got rid of the personal 
pMBSBce of Bolivar^ had overturn- 
ed nail .the institutions which he 
had giaen'themy and from beiog 
A ) p t re n riy aa object of the most 
^lUMutie papiiln •dmintion.he 
had becoBW all at once an object 
00 popuhir odium. They now at* 
ladted-bim in the small republic 
df tBolivifl^ a bantUng of hb own 
nmsidngr 'Which he ]^d hooMored 
wiAk hu own name, and auHiived 
wi|kk'thepap>of a'tmest ineiaphya- 
ainlly absuad" aad uninlelligiUe 
eOostkotiaa^ aad wfceie^ ^^m hk 



mtttm to Coloinhi%he?faa&ikftUl 
fiiend and-oeoiideBit genarsl^Saese^. 
to act as dry*-nurie under tl|B naiae 
of pmident. After dia'Pemviaas 
in 1^27 unoeremonioaaly sbipped 
off thehr Colombian atsdliaries to 
their own coatttry; ^snesalGaN 
nuura, with a Peruvian, asmy^ Ini 
taken his station on the fvinitieia 
of Bolivia^ under the preteiBt that 
Peru droaded ^an .attack ia' tiaift 
yiaat ft c fj ro m Colonfauu Thd true 
objaety howevery:. seeau tO' hava 
been> to eaoitean iiisurMbtMiij ia 
Bolivia agaiittt the infttanee^ef 
Bolivar^ and to be at hand i^idi 
Peruvian troops to take advanfeqfe 
of it. • The project was suoeessfuL 
The Bolivian troops revolted on ihe 
ISth of April. General Socr^ 
in atlempting to quell the iasavb 
rection^ was wounded^ and aiade 
prisoner. On the 22nd^ the govafw 
nor of Potosi attacked them, and 
succeeded in expelling them fmn 
Chuquisaca^ and in rescuing die 
president. The mutineers, howw 
ever^ kept the field, waxed stranger 
and stronger, and were at ust 
joined by general Gomarra and his 
Peruvians, who pretended that he 
was bound to assist a brave people 
struggling for its liberties against 
foreign power. They had now 
the command of the repablie^ and 
immediately set about the nito* 
duetioVi of a new system by 'r&» 
moving every person, and every 
thingy which -spoke of Bslivan 
The president, wilik<all the se^^.^ 
vants of his government^' theCo^' 
lombian troops wtkh iall their 4tt« 
cers, were sent off >saib ^to-Coikna^ 
bia ; the Peruvian geiiani ea^ig^ 
ing to find thefmeaos'of eoftveyiqg 
them to Guayaquil, and Awr^BoU* 
vfan leader fomdamnii!^ hlae^for 
the expend 'The Peru^^aniaiai^ 
was ^nlk^ed; bf «> tnMdnioupiio 



US] ANNUAL RBOI<S^VHmi^l828. 



tMmm; mw MiiWBomd to Meet 
ar^Mqilfeefli oh iKe in of Aiw 
gvit, under the peiiAlty, that ail 
membeiv/ who aid not attend, 
weeld be deemed undeeerving of 
yobiio ooiindcnce* 
* On feeelting inteUigenee of 
Aeiie proeeedkigi^ BoUnn' imrae- 
dindy deolered war ogainet Pem. 
Jfmu, he iaidi had km been anU 
tttfled br heilUedlepoBltieDiagauttt 
6<AoitfEM,end had now bM>ken out 
inie' t faeetile nets* Bhe had en^ 
ooufageda fotmet revolt, among 
the ColMMan troo^> for the puiv 
ptm ot aiding her ki making war 
upon the republic $ and «lw had 
not made war, only beeauae the 
iff^lt did not qivead m widely as 
fliie had hoped, and was instantly 
(Mshed. . She had now aetaally 
ini^aded a Aiendly eountry'^for 
invasion it was under a thin dis* 
tfttlSe of regard for Bolivia, which 
me was oppressing. For two 
years the hostile desiens and war« 
Uke preparations of Peru had eom« 
petted Colombia to maintain con- 
siderable forces on foot in the 
southern departments of the re- 
poblic, when its people were Just 
beginning to breatne from the 
pressure of the war. To maintain 
thes6 trbops on the frontiers would 
be . injurious to the agricultural 
and other interests of the provinces ; 
to disband them would be open* 
ing the doer to Peruvian invasion, 
Whll^ they would have to remain 
qttlst spectators of the fate of 
BoHWir, and e>9en famish new 
medus agaifist themselves. The 
wIMt polidy then was,td carry 
vi^f 'itito the territory of the 
tnMf, befbfe he should bring it 
irito Cblcimbhil 

Tn'PantT, on the other hand, the 
war* kils reoriented as a war of 
dSferfce, against the designs of a 
sfa«MS!tf\il Mdie^, who had shewn 



not Indiitbeilyhif iwish'to'CMsba 
Krfi Over Farur the tetw deapdiia 
dontrol and inAneaee^Wfaitik-iilMr 
had now^ by his intriguesyga&ieA 
for h&fflseir in CoiMMafMdb tha^ 
neeessi^ of maUng every 'exeviiov 
to meet the direatened 'dangili 
wassMiiedioeoiigrass'by tteobm^ 
mitteeof dndnoe, as a neaioii wls^i 
it was nin to tMiik of p^iiiMiB* 
interest of = tbetr Eaaopeasi lUbbi 
''The lamentable tieeasnty/^mdi; 
they ^of icsq^ng up a great naliw 
tarf estabUshment, never beioiw 
maintained by the fefnbUe/lbr tte 
purpose of 'secodng it Mdnit Ite 
designs of a watvlor aaib itBua a a 
as he is aimbltioufl^h^htbftiestaUv** 
dinaiy expenses niuissmy' so-i «»»• 
equip the navy tuid ^eompiMeith*' 
divisions south and tfovtli;-'*«4hs> 
main tenanee of the lertsJasiim faody^ 
and a thousand omT' 'Ohaigas# 
which have suddenly 'fhttni im 
P^ru at a time when it eot^-not 
recover the losses wifibrsd darinjg 
the war with the Spansard^ ex- 
pose us to the d^graainff aitarn»» 
tive of figuring before the natioHa 
of Europe and America as si 
state without crsdit and with*: 
out good faith/* The g m eium a al t 
prolMtbly did not believe the dan- 
ger to be so ereat as they were 
williqg it should be thought to bc!^ 
in order to induce o uiig rB st to 
place the public estaiilishnients o» 
a resectable footing. Th^ gamed- 
their object. The army was 
brought into a state of compete 
equipment, and a frigate of the 
first .class vras fitted one by the 
inhabitants of Lima at their own 
expense. 

The installation of gencnd Lanmr 
in the office af president of Peru, 
had ft beneficial induenoe in oslni« 
ing the dimensions which pee* 
viousiy existed. His measmvs 
weten^ld and eonoiUatorv, and his 



*"' V 



i HISTORY OF EUROPE/ f 



[M» 



gdvtnrantiUI vvBtiaionttiig « iiiai 
asd<(Ddfpeobble cbanoter. An 
ludintited wnnMtj wat ^published 
ita Ikvpur of the ioluibiUints of 
Ctiao^aad tbe surroundinff depart^ 
mentis who litd vilhiidd their 
«A|^eaonto iheeongren; it har- 
iQgiheeii proved, on their piirt, that 
t)i2|t hsd been jnidedbjr fabe r»* 
piteentntkiui reipeeting tbe .new 
foijDi the oeatftl goternment had 
dwmued, and they now pmfemng 
their wilUngneas to be obedient 
meiftbenof the fedemtion^ StiU> 
hekrevtr, there weie ettanations of 
ihAt love «f change which is the 
bane of llieae South American rb- 
puhiins and which* if it continues 
miBh iongevy will end in teaching 
thton as a maxima that government 
raiiiriBtii in the fiequent repetition 
of ' especiments to difloover what 
4 government ii. A pfq)ect of a 
new oonstitutba was laid before 
uiugitos fay • oomoussum appoint- 
ed for that purpose. It was 
founded on the baaia of federalism^ 
but so modified as to accord greater 
powers to the central government 
than are ttsuaUy given by that sys- 
teas. 'Couress did not come to any 
tihimnte decision upon its merits. 

Mnxioos'^'The series of plots 
and insttrrections* which formed 
the history of Mexico for 18S7> 
and whidi we have recorded 
i* •our annals of that year, oon- 
taiued during the present; the 
censpMrades, nom the rank and 
ottoial d^nity of some of the par* 
ties engaged in them, being, how« 
eveiv muiHi more serious and dan* 
gerous. They seemed to have 
thcsr.otigin ui die party spirit ex« 
cited by the Approaching election 
of aipBondeat; and that party spirit 
seeaMid t» take the shape of an 
anaed lebeUaea just aa naturally 
aat iit* this couatiy^ \v w4>ttM faav« 



assumed tho foras of a puUio o^ttb* 

ing. There were two oindid»les^ 

One was Pedrai n, the miniate^ 

of war, who was supported }xf 

Victoria the present premdent*. The 

other was general Guerveio, who 

had the supportof Bravo,the present 

vio^preaident In the middle eC 

December the standard of rebel* 

lion was raised at Otamba in the 

neighbourhood of Mexico^ andor. 

a comaunder who aammed die> 

nom d/t guerre of iMontanao, foam. 

whom the enterprise waa design 

nated that of ** the Mountain^T 

They increased in number; and. 

intelligenee had arrived that a 

similar insanection had brokan 

out at Vera Cruz, while the. 

government was either treating the 

ocourrenoe with contempt, or did 

not know how to conduct itself 

in the emergency. In a few 

days, a number of officers left 

Mexico clandestinely, and united 

themsdves with Montana Thn 

dqiarture of theae officers, known 

to be violent Esooseses, at ooce 

chanicteriaed the plan in wUA 

they had engaged. On the 1st 

of January, Bravo, the vice-press* 

dent, also left Mexico, and aiWr 

wandering about without foUoweia 

for five or six days, joined Mon^ 

tano^ whose force had by that time 

been reduced by desertion to about 

one hundred and Mky men* They 

proceeded to Tulancingo, about 85 

leitgues N. £• of Mexico, and tb«ve 

they fmrtiiiied themsel ves« The g9?« 

venmient, into which Fedxiu^SBi- 

who saw that hia own eliQctaoa. wan. 

at stake, had infused some ^n^gy,, 

now sent against theqi i^.«|trD|ig^ 

bodyof tro(m; andtb«imurg!fpV^. 

showed much less petaev<^rai|C|p.i|;i^ 

conductiii||[, than, ^y b94«|n^i- 

feated 4aru>g, uvA .evep ,raiihnc^, 

in eima»enqing,itM -W^ •.,X^,> 

feeble <aiMilaiK» tl>Qr.iHtt?m)4m»' 



im] A N N U A L tl EiGIS t Z% It828. 



^t diBevedoti. 'Ths vics^president 
BrtnrOy with fear colonels, sereh 
Ikntenant colonels, and fourteen 
G^vtains were carried bade prisoners 
to Mexico. No man was even 
wounded during this citil war of 
fifteen days duration. 

The Vera Cru2 branch of the plot 
was equally unsucoess&l. General 
Barragan, at the head of one then* 
sand five hundred men, declared for 
fiiaVo; bat,havingheiud of hil cap- 
ture, thev fled on the first appear^ 
anoe i^ ike troops sent against them 
by the Congress. Barragan was 
taken prisoner, and conveyed to 
Vera Cruz, whence, by the order 
of the local government, he was 
consigned to the fortress of St. 
Juan de Ulloa, to await the deci« 
sion of the executive at Mexico 
respecting him. General Santa 
Ana was also apprehended, and 
committed to the same prisoh. - As 
Cox^ress was sitting, hftving met 
on the Ist of January, a decree was 
immediately made, ordering that 
Bxavo and his associates should be 
brought to trial ;-*Hsixteen mem* 
bers voting ^ that they should 
not be called in ' question. There 
was apparently no wish to take 
their Jives. On the contrary, a 
motion was made in congress that 
they should be banished from 
Mexico for ten years, and that 
Bravo and Barragan should reta&i 
their half-pay of generals of divi« 
sion. No where amid these in- 
ceaMnt South American rebellions 
did the triumphant party manifest 
any love of Uood. They were all 
too wdl aware of the mutalnlity 
of their mtems for any of them 
to establish the practice of punish^ 
ingreb^on by taHng off heads. 

The election of the new presi^ 
Aent took piaoe in September, and 
PedrasxA was elected by an over^ 
-^/Muing lAfjoriiy of Ae pl^ 



vincial legidilum; Tkn^ ^ar 
now, theralbva, nathifl^^lbr it ImI 
to ^ up a lebdacm/ aa a woKl^rtt 
petition againat the T>lttm» Genei^ 
ral Santa Aiia» who had i%ee» 
imprisoned, andd^nivod of the 
government of Vehi Cnuh 
count of his suspected 
Brave's prank, escaped ham ^km 
fortress where he was eonfiae^-* 
^aoed himself at the head of ast 
hundred men, and took posBMiftaei 
of the stfo&i^old of Psvolfc • Hto 
numbers increased^ and W iasvai 
a manifesto in which, >tyl^ Um^ 
self and his acoemplioea *' TSe*Ii* 
berating Vowet," he deotamU-alM 
" the natkm" aimulled^tlie dadlBfr 
of Pedmiai»— that * hia oppanflAt 
should be chda en - and uuailte 
provincial legUatmes ahonU jm^ 
ceed to a newelectioii agraaaUe ^ 
the wishes of the peofSk ''Tlie 
LiberatmgPower,'*saidh^ ^lAiek 
maintains the ri^^ of the p o e p k ii 
declares, that no Mexiean «m 
should be spilt, unless it be cobi* 
pelled to adc^t means for its o«M 
defence. It protests obedi e aee^o 
the general constitution of tbft 
United States of Mexico, m well 
as to the highly-deservki|p paaA* 
dent of the Republic, Don Guid^ 
lupe Victoria, and will not pM 
down the arms it has tak«n upi 
until the preeeding artideo hm0 
been complied with." On-kgi^i 
ing these occurrences, the Moati 
can con g ress passed a d0sreo'4e^ 
daring Santa Ana an oatlaw^vif 
he did not deliver up hu mmm 
within a fixed time; if he dkl m 
he was to escape capital puniilM 
ment If the officers who had join* 
ed him made the same 
they were to be tried by a 
of war of genends, and wete^to 
be^^empt from ca|^ital * pinisk* 
meat; if they did bM, thi^>wace 
to be ptooeedcd wHh aooildijig %o 



mSTORY OF BUEOPE. 



065 



mBUmfimfr. M tl»9 fltma live, 
i^yet tbmmnA men were oidered 
tq 9i)ar<:liagainM biui. Meanwhile 
Sm%% An^ftemi^hisoJieif^ with 
bis pariyi befofe Xal^pa> in ex- 
|iQi!ta(ian of beipg itble to aeduoe 
ifOQP^.of the troops remaining in 
dMrti lown. In iJm be was disap* 
l^iotod by Uie steadiness of ih9 
lUMpb wid retired, sending a par* 
ty to tale possession of a strong 
pei^ c^tUed 'Puente Nacional/ 
•iKiut fifty «iileii from Vara Crus, 
wbile be, witb bis main body, 
atout one ibousinid, returned to 
P^iptj^ Tbe party left near Xar 
ll^ w»a fiorced to retreat^, and ^no- 
Iter iMHy^^l ^tb emmui^iuon 
for Puente Nacional was defeased 
iq a sUrmisb wilb a detacbment 
iif XlJ^^militiflb wbiph succeeded 
in^ t|J(i|lg tbeii: stores* Vera Cru^ 
imeir wsit is^oatnible to every 
«m0^ of tbe insusgentfj wbetber 
by curips Of by s^uctioii ; and be»> 
ing l^M^ble to resist tb^ more nu* 
HWBUS bodies of forces brought 
«|^linst tb«m by tbe government, 
tb^ diqpersedi and l^t the coun- 
try in eomparative tranquillity. 

Mexicoj itself, however, was the 
Bifpe of another of these insurreo- 
tfona Q>rinfl9ng out of the same 
4tecty>n. On the 30th of Novem- 
b<^, Lobato and Zavalk, ex^go- 
iwsomi of Mexieo and Valladoud^ 
f rt t ac t e d and earried, at the head 
df oile thousand five hundred men, 
tbo AcQOrd^a-— that quarter of 
the d\y in wbipb the artillery is 
kqiti They were feebly opposed 
by tbe government troops, and 
scaircely at all by the citixens. On 
tbe 4tb of De^mber, the firing 
w|i« wnewedf and the ass^ant 
obtained possession of the convent of 
San FivicisQO, which was suspected 
to bfV^ heen given up by treachery. 
So- upa^y of tbe government party 
mw. tt^t qvfir to tbe r^volu^ 

Vol. LXX. 



tionistfl, tbat tbe •ieu|pei»la..ot Ibi 
palace surrendered ; PedranMr tek^ 
iog to flight, and J^obato entering 
the palece, The troops, gidri by 
% mob of 'Leperos,' begjMi to 
plunder the dty,. and: directed 
themselves to the Parean, a large 
square^ filled with retail shops* In 
tbifl district the greater part of the 
merchandise of Me^po was storedf 
and the pjpnder carried off wai^ 
according to some of the aecount^ 
not less, than eight or te9 mil* 
lion3 of dollars, while other statOr 
ments reduced it to three millions* 
Many outrages were also pon^mit* 
ted on the inhabitants, and several 
murders w^re perpetrated. ThepU^ 
lage did not cease till the eveniog 
of the 3th, when the iFcweigo ofll* 
cers succeeded in restoring order^ 
and general Guerrero b^an to 
act as foreign aecretaryt On the 
lOtb of December, all was appar* 
ently tranquil in Mexico, b^t it 
was UBcertein whether the pfuty 
of Pedraxxa would not return with 
tbe military force which they hfi4 
in tbe provinces, and restore the 
government. 

Under such an absence of go^ 
vemment (for the country, whe^ 
scenes like these fire so frequent 
as scarcely to excite surprise, ba# 
no government) it would have 
been vain to expect finy proi^ 
perity in the publii? finances- 
Mexico had become banbrupt 19 
18^7' Public honour^ as well as 
private honesty, demanded that 
every sacrifice should be made to 
p^ the dividends on her debt | but 
the only thing done was, tbe set- 
ting apart for tba^ purpose, and for 
the liquidation of the capittd " one 
eighth part of the net proceeds of 
the maritime Custom House dut^, 
and the proceeds of the duties on 
the exportation of gold and silver, 
opipedj worked, os in bars," T^ 



^. A N m^lk^' 'fR POf ilfl^D* i 1828. 



top^ YfpS.^^y ap ^ppiopriatiq* in 
'na(ne: $^iid corriiptiop ap^ pecula- 
tioi} vtere far too common to. make 
tbe 9p|nounped intention be receiv- 
ed with xaneh confidence in its 
.practical result. . 

IhChxUj tboj the congress was 
occupied^ not with paying its delits^ 
.^hqt in listening to absurd ha- 
\ ramies on a project for improving 
, the*r**'constitution" by assimilating 
. ]^, more neady to that of Buenos 
f^jxes^ where the federal govern- 
,ment could not command obedience 
'from a single provincial junta> and 
where one of these juntas, two 
years before, had given notice 
to the foreign ministers, that it 
would not hmd itself bound by the 
acts of the national congress. The 
place of meetine of the Chilian 
Li^ress was lemoved, during its 
session, from Santiago to Valpa- 
raiso, to prevent, it was said, the 
influence of party spirit ; but, in- 
stead of escaping from party spirit, 
they found themselves involved in 
an insurrection, and an insurrec- 
tion by men with arms in their 
hands. A battalion, called that of 
Maypu, and a regiment of dra- 
goons quartered at San Femandcv 
openly declared against the existing 
government. General Borgono 
and major Tupper were deroatched 

Jinst the insurgents, at the head 
the 7th reeiment of Infantry. 
These troops lucewise mutinied, or 
refused to fight, and the rebels 
advanced from San Fernando to- 
wards the capital, Santiaga On 
the 18th, the vice-president of the 
Republic himself marched against 
them with a squadron of cuiras- 
siers and the civic militia of San- 
tiaffo. The cuirassiers gave way, 
and the civic force retreated on the 
city, which the rebels afterwards 
eatmA without resistance. The 



to opr..4;er9¥sf,^;ic^i4Ati^ 
the gov^ernfOi^^ iWMfiib) Ih^'vlie* 
.preffldeot ^^^^rjii!iiM?tf9«illi. 

Valpan^isq, i<si»dTa; jy w l ifflw t w n 
on the igthr calUns fp<i|ix,t&f? <filli« 
.zons;pf the Rq^ubU^ tp .pai^^Jtlin 
tranqpillxty, to;nasist 4inMJii{frHo 
ob^y the lawS| and^4efi9»d tWr 
country agamst revolutionaiy^^ 
On ti^ m\i, i^s^hm^^ 
ne»v\y iptbe^a^OMT^tate i^iithe 
.capital^ th^ jreh^lB iK>t dai^ilo 
make a .fin^l MMIftr> aodfi^r^RP* 

ve^m^ntbeW^ f^9Smp^ ^sSp- 
pressftheir mutoi^f .- TJi^ fi(ffk^gSf^ 
sident continued In his palace all 
the morning of that day, surmund- 
ed with citisensof all classes. In the 
afternoon, the mutineers advanced 
into the square in which the vice- 
president's palace was situated, but 
being met with resolution by their 
fello w-dticens, they did not choose 
to risk a battle. As if under the 
influence of fascination, they yield* 
ed to the voice of authority, and 
laid down their arms on an engage- 
ment that they should escape pun- 
ishment. In the representation 
which contained their submission, 
they expressed their confidence in 
the *' eternal consolidation" of or- 
der about to be effected by the 
labours of the sovereign leglslatme. 
Such things are governments, and 
constitutions, and national coiv- 
gresses, and sovereign assemblies, 
m this quarter of the world. 

In Central Avbbica the civil 
war still continued between Guat- 
emala and San Salvador, and was 
carried on by pettyactions and txi^ 
fling expeditions. Thepieliniinaiies 
of a treaty were agreed to about the 
middle of the year, but San Salva« 
dor refused to ratify it, and hos- 
tilities recommenoed. The refosal 



'tiTM jMtffiM (m 'tie^grmrtia that vrfach may liapp^ ia troateittata, 

-koOM^ef 'the fiMdamettta} articles cannot excite much' iiiterekt' In 

'D^tb^'Co^i^iioBMiibt embrace JBnropej but even in this t^ 

(rtM^bbfit^ prop6^ as the bams of mote comer, here was* a handful 

' tlAPD^^iaCion, m. the speedy of men, as f^ as the want of all 

'TCMm|£b)itiBDnof the Republic by restrainine power in a goYernmefit 

-'^ttifattg di a national represen t a« could maike them> cluising from 

tta; iind Uiat ^e state of 8an their little territory — which^how- 

tSal^iido^'wa^ thereby deprived of ever small* was to be the scene of 

"M ifidei^endent li^ts of sove- all their hopes of happiness and 

M^1f> to which the constito- respectability— «very tning which 

' titfbid code gave it an undeniable comd contribute to the attainment 

iium. Moi^dter, these articles, of either, and that too, for ^e 

'1t'J#iM alleged, wexe diametrically -sake of a liberty which their whole 

6fip(ai^io the instmcdons giren conduct shewed they were utterty 

-'ttt^the-ooHiiliittSonfiiii appointed to unable even to understand. 

' dfifadttct ili^ negotiations. Events 



.1; ', 



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i ' 



t' I 



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• .-. . . * 



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•J 



CHRONICLE. 



V / A 



»> f. 



91 



tl r 



*f \ 



''CHRONICLE, 






JANUARY. 



'\N'tIie 4th> at a short distance 

^ from Crewkeme, on the road 
lea£n|^ to llchester, an embank- 
ment of considerable extent sud- 
denly gave way, carrying with it 
a number of bushes and, several 
trees^ of ordinary dimensions, in an 
erect, 'position, the whole mass 
moving from the summit of Fair- 
hill to Its base, a distance of about 
fifty yards. Passing over the hedge 
which divides the road from the 
hilly it fell into the road and 
stopped all communication. The 
Taunton and Bridport mail had 
passed a short time previously, but 
was obliged, on its return, to take 
a drcuitous road through Hinton 
St. George. 

Smugolsrs. — ^During the night 
of the 4th, a desperate conflict took 
place on the coast of Sussex, be- 
tween a party o£ the blockade ser- 
vice and a numerous gang of smug- 
glers. About midnight, a lugger, 
well'laden, approached the shore at 
an*' -almost desolate spot, between 
the vjBage of BcxhiU and a public- 
houseeaUed '' Bo-peep;" and in a 
feW moments a large party, com- 
porfhg the land-sang, rushed down 
to^th^ beach, landed the whole 
of 'llie' eargo, oonaisting of several 
hundred tuln of spirits and other 
cottflMiband goods. As they were 
iDAltntg off with it in carts, on 
the hSuiks of horses, and on the 
sfaottlden of men, some of the 
ooast blockade stationed near the 

Vol. LXX 



spot en^voured to intercept them ; 
but the force of the smug^^rs was 
overpowering, and the blockade^ 
men thought it prudent to retire 
for a time, until they could procure 
a reinforcement. In as wort a 
•time as possible the officers in com« 
mand assembled a force of about 
forty men, well armed, and com« 
menced a pursuit in the direction 
which the smugglers had taken. 
The latter, contrarv to their usual 
custom, kept a straight course, and 
at Sidley-green, a small vIDage 
about two miles and a half inlaiKlj 
the guard came up with 'the gan^, 
and immediately made a deter- 
mined attack upon them. Th^ 
armed portion of the snluggl^* 
drew themselves up in a 'body' ih ' 
regular line, and a desperate fight 
took place. Success was for sonie ' 
time doubtful. The smuggler^, ' 
fought with such determu^on ' 
and courage, that the blockade- ' 
men were repulsed, after two per- 
sons were kiUed, and several badly 
wounded. The smugglers carriea 
off the whole of their goods. Not 
one of them could be secured. 
The greater part of the smugglers 
were armed with bats (ash poles, 
about six feet long, cut from the 
woods for the purpose), and a few 
of them with fire-arms; Several 
of the blockade men were severely 
bruised by the skilfully directed 
blows of the batsmen, and tlie 
quarter-master (Collins) had hia 
B 



ANNUAL REGISTER. 



[1828. 



bnizis literally beaten out. In the 
first voUey fired by tbc blockade- 
men^ an old smuggler^ Smithurst^ 
was killed. He was found in tbe 
morning lying dead in tbe road> 
witb bis bat still grasped in bis 
bands, tbe weapon being almost 
backed in pieces by tbe cutlasses 
and bayonets of tbe blockade-men. 
Tbe coroner's jury, wbicb sat on tbe 
body of Collins tbe quarter-master, 
returned a verdict of '^ wilful mur- 
der against some person or persons 
unknown." In a few days, the 
party were betrayed by one of 
their aooomplices, and the ring- 
leaders were apprehended. Al- 
tiiough the informer was what is 
called " foreman of the company," 
he had long been an object of 
suspicion to his gang: but they 
were too much in his power to ven- 
ture to discard, him. 

5. Hyobophobia. — A Mr. 
•Bryan, of Leicester, having observ- 
ed his dog unusually dull, and very 
snappish, deemed it proper to secure 
him ; but, in the attempt, on No- 
vember 8th, his left hand was bit 
in several places; he madea second 
attempt to place a collar round the 
neck of the dog, when the right 
hand was also seised, and was 
dreadfully lacerated. The wounds 
were so serious, and so deep 
amongst the tendons of the bands 
and fingers, that excision of the 
parts seemed impracticable; but 
the usual antidotes were applied, 
and in two days an extensive dis* 
charge commenced in tbe sores. 
Tbe patient always appeared very 
cheerful, and deemed himself secure 
from any ill consequences. But 
on Wednesday morning, January 
Snd, after passing a restless night, 
with fever and thirst, he be(^e 
considerably agitated and fearful 
on taking aome toast and water 
into his hand. There was a wild 



glassy appearance in the eyes, with 
constant deep sighing, and great 
anxiety. Some gruel being brought, 
be became uneasy and restless at 
tbe sight of it, and, to use his own 
words, 'felt as if be shpuld. be 
suffocated^ and could not get bis 
breath.' Nearly two pounds of 
blood were taken from his arm, with- 
out producing any sensible effect on 
tbe pulse, which was only sixty- 
eight. In attempting to take a glass 
ofwarm ale, which ht adced for, he 
became convulsed, and threw the 
contents of the glass into his face, 
without tasting any. The pulse 
rose to ninety, but the disease oodi- 
tinued slowly progressive until 
Friday the 4th, when he became 
rapidly worse, being violently con- 
vulsed at intervals. The saliva 
flowed copiously from his mouth ; 
there was some blood mixed with it, 
in consequence of the great effort he 
made to eject it. He became very 
hoarse. The pulse rose ficom one 
hundred and twenty to one 
'hundred and sixty-five, became 
feeble, and scanpely perceptible. 
The spasms became much weaker, 
andon the morning of Saturday the 
5th, the patient expired. His 
movements during the progresi of 
the- disease were astonishingly 
rapid; he continued sensible during 
the whole of hia illness. 

7. Natural Phsnombnon. — 
On the 7th of January, after a 
violent storm on the preceding 
day, there was beards at four 
wersts from the village of Jokmali, 
situated fifteen worsts N.W. of 
Baku, in Persia, a loud noise like 
that of fire arms, which was fidb w- 
ed by the appearance of a column 
of fiame of great height, which 
burnt for three hours, gradually be- 
coming bwer till it was only on 
arsbeen in height, in which state 
it continued finr twentyȣNir faovr^ 



JAN.] 



CHRONICLE. 



It eoneied a space of two hundred 
fbthomB in lengthy by one hundred 
and fifty in breadth. The erup- 
tion wat accompanied by a sub- 
terraneous noiae like thunder; and 
this Tokano threw up cakined 
stones of different Jdnds, and 
columns of water. There was no 
enter; on the contrary, the spot 
from, which the flame proceeded, 
«m about an araheen, as if it had 
been due up. The soil was com- 
posed uf calcined stones, a thick 
ai^gillaoeous mud, and other burnt 
substances. Fire continued to 
issue from it for several days, and 
flames immediately burst forth 
when the earth was- stirred. The 
Are was different from that which 
boms thirty wersts from it, near 
the temple of the Indians. It was 
red, emitted no smell, and did not 
aftect the atmosphere. 

Entbbonxmsnt of the Bi- 
shop or WiNCHBSTER.— The ce- 
remonial of enthroninff Dr. Sum- 
ner, the new Bishop of Winchester, 
took place in Winchester Cathedral, 
on the lOthJanuary, being the first 
instance of a Protestant bishop hav- 
ingbeen enthroned in that city ; and 
Uie novelty of the circumstance 
attracted a concourse of at least ten 
thousand persons to witness the 
ceremony. On his arrival at Fam- 
ham, on Tuesday the 8th, to take 
p o a scssi on of the episcopal palace 
tlieie, his lordship was met by a 
nnrnerous assemblage of people, 
who drew him to tne castle, pre- 
ceded by a band of music, and 
greeted with continual cheers, the 
ringing of bells, and every demon* 
stmtim of popular respect. A 
nmilar welcome was given to him 
oo his arrival at Winchesler, on the 
9eh. Nearly one hundred gen- 
tlemen and tradesmen on horse* 
bmek^ taet him at the entrance 
at €te Atf, and eseofted him to the 



The usual service commenced at 
ten in the morning of the 10th, 
the stalls, seats, galleries, and every 
accessible part of the vast edifice 
being thronged with people. At 
the conclusion of the first lesson, 
the clergymen on duty, and their 
officers, proceeded to the chapter- 
room, where his lordship awaited 
their arrival, in order to be escorted 
to take possession of the mother- 
church of St. Lawrence. 

This ceremony having been per- 
formed by his lordship's tolling the 
bell at St. Lawrence church, the 
prooesnon was joined by the mayor, 
recorder, and aldermen of the city, 
attended by their mace-bearers and 
other officers, all in their robes of 
office, and returned in the same 
order to the cathedral. Immedi- 
ately on entering the choir, the 
bishop advanced to the altar-table, 
where he knelt for a short time, 
and then returned towards his 
throne, to which, having first taken 
the usual oaths before the whole 
congregation, his lordship . was 
handed by the chancellor and senior 
prebendary, who stood on either 
side of his lordship's seat. 

11. High Coubt of Admi- 
ralty. — David Smith, master of 
the luggage steam boat Favourite, 
pl3ring on the river Clyde, Norman 
Jamieson, mate of the said steam 
boat, John M'Arthur,actingmaster 
on board the steam packet Fingal, 
plying between Belfast and Glas- 

g)w, and Donald M'Bryd, now or 
tely seaman on board that vessel, 
were tried for culpable homicide, 
in the culpably, negligently, and 
recklessly directing and managing 
or steering their vessels, so as on 
Slst August, to bring them into 
collision, about half a mile above 
Dumbarton castle, ' whereby the 
smack Carolina, which was in tow 
of the Favourite, was brought into 
B2 



ANNUAL REGISTER. 



[1829. 



collLdon with, and upset and sunk 
Ij, the Fingnd, which sailed over 
tne said smack, whereof in conse- 
quence Mary Duncan or Anderson, 
and Margaret Anderson, Gnzle 
Anderson, and James Anderson, 
her children, were drowned. 

From the evidence, it appeared, 
that the Favourite steam boat had 
the Carolina smack in tow for Glas- 
^w» when, at the place mentioned 
in the indictment, the Fingal came 
up, and ranff her bell when about 
one hundrcSi yards distant The 
steam boats, however, continued to 
advance, and came in collision, in 
consequence of the one boat not 
eoing sufficiently to the north, and 
tne other to the south, but rather 
keeping midway in the river. The 
seamen of the respective boats de- 
posed as to the vessels keeping the 
right side, and threw the blame on 
each other ; and swore they backed 
the engines about two minutes be- 
fore they came in contact. The 
smack, on being struck, instantly 
sunk. Mrs. Anderson was below, 
with her three children. When 
the vessel righted, a voice was 
heard, and a hole being cut with 
an axe in the side of the vessel, a 
boy was got out alive, but Mrs. 
Anderson and her children were 
found dead. A seaman of the Fa- 
vourite swore he saw the light of 
the Fingal three hundred yards 
distant. He cried to starboard, 
which brought the head of the 
Favourite to the north; but the 
Fingal kept her course right down 
mid-channel, and struck the Fa- 
vourite. A seaman on board the 
Fingal swore, that the bell was 
rung, and the order was twice given 
to starboard the helm, and the 
vessel inclined to the south. .Some 
pei8onJ[in the Fin^l cried out, 
" where is that stupid fellow, (al- 
luding to the Favonrite) going 



across our bow$^'' The Fingal was 
between two and thuee hnndM[ 
tons burden, with engines ct oiva 
hundred horse power. The 'PIn 
vourite was mudi SmaSl^. ' Itinnt^ 
culpation, the superintendent' bn 
the Clyde deposed there ' yftxt' re- 
gulations made br the Trusted 'm 
to the nde steam boatsshbuM tal^ ; 
but there was no rule as to^tlitm 
except these regulations. That 
pracdce-had, howeVer; been g^&e* 
rally observed by the steam ooals 
for nine or ten years.- There waa 
no rule as to sailing vessels t&ldhg 
a particular side of the river, tliey 
being regulated by the state ^*tli^ 
wind, depth of water and Ollttir 
circumstances. The paneb i^ 
cdved good characters. Smith was 
found not guilty by a pluniBltftt 
voices, and the other paneb wele 
unanimously found not guilty. ^ 

12. Accident at ths Tbaki^ 
ToNNBL. — At six o clod: ' Ifiis 
morning, the night gang leftibeir 
work, and were succeeded by the 
day men, consisting of one hundiM 
and thirty excavators. Mr. Brunei, 
jun., who was present when the 
relief took place, was giving direc- 
tions to the workmen, when he 
remarked that the water dhnned 
through the soil at the shield mildi 
more rapidly than it had done' <br 
some time. The soil itself, wUeh 
for some days had been strontg snd 
clayey, appealed much looser/ and 
water and sand poured thibugh tlie 
left of the box No. 1, but otit in 
such quantities as to preate li^sup- 
position that the evil (souhi^'ttot 
be soon remedied. At aboat half 
past six o'clock, however, Mvtttal 
hundred weight of mud wak ftieed 
into the tunnel through "the left 
4»mer of No. 1 shield. The boxes 
Na 1 and 2, having yielded ^'Ae 
pressure of the .hjgh tidea of Che 
season^ and penwittad thft isfioKof 



JAN.] 



CHRONICLE. 



Aq, HFer,, tho water rushed in 
wUb. such eistreme velocity, that 
tb^ furce of the air threw one man 
mn^h ]fif hack on the stage, and ex- 
tinguished, the .gas. The workmen 
ipf bo coi^ld ^t to the eastern aich 
ejSected their escape; others were 
ewAed. by the force of the water to 
ibf^fifA of ihe abaft, and were taken 
fW^-oi the. water in a state of ex- 
treme exhaustion. At one period 
mghtpwi men were all immersed in 
Iba water, besides Mr. Brunei, 
jun. ; . avd that gentleman and 
.twdve of the men, after being re- 
peatedly driven asainst the wood- 
work, and severely bruised, were 
taken out at the sludlt nearly insen- 
jible* Two men who were knocked 
dowB along with Mr. Brunei, and 
.a third, who was a bottom-box man, 
were destroyed almost instantane- 
ously. The rush was so violent as 
Ip destroy the lower part of the 
.staircase by which the labourers 
ascended and descended, so that it 
was utterly impossible for them, by 
any exertion, to save themselves. 
Three other men, who were at 
work at the lower boxes of the 
frame, when the catastrophe hap- 
ipened, likewise perished. 

The noise created by the influx 
of the water was tremendous, and 
absolutely deafened the ears of 
Ihoae engaged at the base of the 
shaft. It was so powerful, that the 
water rose several inches above the 
level of the shaft, and reached the 
lodge itself. 

Mr* Brunei, jun., was brought 
out with his ai^e much injured 
in his exertions to save the unfor- 
tunate men that perished. He 
gave the following account of the 
accident. 

^ -I had been in the frames 
i^sUeld) with the workmen through- 
out ihe, whole night, having taken 

mj'Mdva tiiere at ten o'clock. 



During the workings, through the 
night, no symptoms of insecurity 
appeared. At six o'clock this morn- 
ing f the usual time for shifting the 
men) a fresh set, or shift of the 
men, came on to work. We began 
to work the ground at the West top 
comer of the frame. 'The tide had 
just then begun to flow, and finding 
the 'ground tolerably quiet, we 
proceeded, by beginning at the top, 
and had worked about a foot down- 
wards, when, on exposing the next 
six inches, the ground swelled sud- 
denly, and a large quantity burst 
through the opening thus made. 
This was followed instantly by a 
large body of water. The rush was 
so violent as to force the man, on 
the spot where the burst took place, 
out of the frame (or cell), on to the 
timber stage, behind the frames. I 
was in the frame with the man, but 
upon the rush of the water, I went 
into the next box (or cell), in order 
to command a better view of the 
irruption; and seeing that there 
was no possibility of their opposing 
the water, I ordered all the men in 
the frames to retire. All were re- 
tiring, except the three men who 
were with me, and they retreated 
with me. I did not leave the stage 
until those three men were down 
the ladder of the frames, when they 
and I proceeded about twenty feet 
along the west arch of the tunnel ; 
at this moment, the agitation of 
the air by the rush of the water, 
was such as to extinguish all the 
lights, and the water had gained 
the height of the middle of our 
waists. I, was at that moment 
giving directions to the three men, 
m what manner they ought to pro- 
ceed, in the dark, to eflect their 
escape, when they and I were 
knocked down and covered by a 
part of the timber stage. I strug- 
gled under water for tome timej 



6 



ANNUAL REGISTER. 



{\Kt%. 



and ftt length extricated myself 
from the Stiige^ and by swimming, 
and being forced by the water, I 
gained the eastern arch^ where I 
got a better footing, and wot en- 
abled, by laying hold of the railway 
rope, to pause a little, in the hope 
of encouraging the men who had 
been knocked down at the same 
time with myself. This I endear 
voured to do by calling to them* 
Before I reached the shaft, the 
water had risen so rapidly that I 
was out of my depth, and, therefore 
swam to the visitors' stairs — the 
stairs for the workmen being occu- 
pied by those who had so far escap- 
ed. My knee was so injured by the 
timber stage that I could scarcely 
swim, or eet up the stairs ; but 
the rush of the water carried me 
up the shaft." 

On the following day, Mr. 
Gravat went down in the diving 
* bell, and examined the aperture* 
It was found to be of an oblong 
shape, extending from West to 
East, and in length about seven 
feet. It was quite perpendicular. 
The ground on* either side was so 
perfectly sound, that notwithstand- 
ing the strong current that must of 
course have accompanied the influx, 
it still remained unbroken. 

13. Violent Storm. — ^On the 
ni^t of Saturday the 12th, and 
during Sunday the Idth, a severer 
storm of wind, than had been ex- 
perienced for many years, visited 
the coast. At Plymouth, on Sa- 
turday afternoon, there was a great 
flux and reflux of the tide, which 
nnie and fell two feet perpendicular. 
Between twelve and one o'clock on 
Sunday morning, the wind, which 
had been blowing freshly from the 
S.S.E. suddenly increased to the 
violence of a gale. About two 
o'clock it shifted to the S.S.W., and 
blew a tremendous hurricane for 



two hours. Shortly after four it 
changed to the W., and became horn 
yixAenU It was aooompanied wilh 
vivid flashes of liffhtning. The 
harbour, particularly the Soond, 
was crowded with shipping ; aad^ 
towards one o'clock, signala of dk- 
tress were heard from' the Sound, 
though such was the uproar of the 
elements that the guna wero but 
faintly distinguished in the town, 
and it was found utterly imposrible 
to render the slightest assistance to 
the vessels which were drifting* 
When day-light broke, there wece 
altogether thirteen vessels on ■hoie ; 
six in Deadman's bay, six in Mount 
Batten bay, and one in Bovisend 
bay. Eight vessels, however, rode 
out the gpede in the Sound, without 
damage* Only two lives were lost* 
llie preservation of the crewi and 
passengers, particularly on the 
dangerous shores of Mount Batten 
bay, was owing mainly to one in« 
dividual. The only habitation on 
the mountf is a cottage, occupied 
by a labourer : by the exertiont of 
this man and his wife, topes thrown 
from the wrecks were fastened to 
the rocks, and the crews saved: 
four women and a child were 
brought ashore from the Jessie 
Lawson in this manner. The 
hurricane occasioned, likewise, a 
great destruction of property on 
chore. In Plymouth, Devonport, 
Stonehouse, Stoke, and all the viU 
lages around, many chimnies weve 
blown down, and a great number 
of houses unroofed. The north- 
east minaret of Stondiouse chapel 
was blown down, and (eii throuj^ 
the roof into the chapeL One of 
the chimnies in the centre range of 
the buildings of the workhouaey 
fell through the roof, and broke 
through part of the upper floor, 
carrying away two of the joists* 
There were, at the ttme^ six poor 



JAN.] 



CHRONIC tB. 



women lying in bed in the upper 
room ; but, idihough the man fell 
upon three of the bedsteacU^ and 
broke the iron sides of one^ only 
one of the women received any 
injury. Thia escape excited the 
astonishment of all who viewed 
the premises. 

Two hundred trees were blown 
down at Mount Edgcumbe. On 
the estate of J. t&mn, esq. at 
Radford, fourteen elm-trees, of 
immense size, were blown down, 
moat of them being literally torn 
up by the rootst On the barton 
of Hooe, eleven trees, of different 
descriptions, wereblown down, and 
at TotiU, about forty. At Ports- 
mouth, Dartmouth, Dover, and Fal- 
mouth, the storm was equally se- 
vcre ; but the shipping in general 
escaped with less injury. The 
tempest was the most violent and 
destructive, that had visited the 
coast, since November, 1824. 

14* Pbds0TbianI8M. — Shop- 
pard, the Yorkshire pedestrian, 
undertook for a wager of twenty 
guineas to run twenty miles, in 
three hours. He started from the 
Maidenhead, Leadenhall-market, 
and ran with great speed until he 
arrived at Homford, a distance of 
ten miles, which he accomplished 
in considerably less than half the 
time given to perform the whole of 
the match* After a short rest, he 
again started towards London, and 
arrived at the Maidenhead, at a 
quarter past one o'clock, having 
performed his difficult task in a 
quarter of an hour less than the 
given time. He was extremely 
exhausted, and a great number of 
bets were lost and won on tho oc- 



Oi^n fiAiLBY Sbssionb. — Con-' 
tUmi Sleek, a native of Germany, 
fr person of req)ectable appearance 
ai^ address, stood chai^d with 



stealing an inkstand, valoe 5«;, the 
property of John Jones. John 
Pedder stated, that he w^s in the 
auction-room of Dawson and Cafe, 
in Great Marlborough-street, on 
the day named in the indictment, 
when he saw the prisoner take an 
inkstand off the marble slab, with 
which he walked away. Witness 
told the prosecutor of the circum- 
stance, and the prisoner said he 
had purchased it of a person who 
had left the room. John Jones, 
the prosecutor, stated that he saw 
the prisoner with an inkstand, 
which he considered to be his pro- 
perty : hence he gave the prisoner 
into custody. In his cross-exami* 
nation by Mr. Sergeant Arabin, 
the witness said, that he was a 
broker, and that he attended sales 
to buy and sell goods ; there were 
two hundred and fifty lots for sale 
that day, part of them belonging to 
him and part to other people ; the 
inkstand was not one of those 
marked for sale ; there were thou- 
sands like it, and he would not now 
&wear that it was hu property. He 
did not deny but that it was the 
{ffactice of jobbers to sell their lots 
immediately after the purchase. 

The prisoner, when called upon 
for his defence, addressed the Court 
in the following words : 
-^" My Lord and Gentlemen of 
the Jury, — Overwhelmed as I am 
at the deplorable situation in which 
I now stand before you, will, I am 
fearful, preclude the possibility of 
my revealing to you what I have 
suffered both in body and mind, in 
consequenoeof the accusation which 
is now preferred against me, and of 
which I most solemnly avow I am 
perfectly innocent. I trust the 
verdict which you, gentlemen, are 
about to return wm bear me out 
in that assertion, and restore me 
to that liberty of which I never 



8 



ANNUAL REGISTER. 



[I<S8« 



tiftd tKd^ ihkfortune to be depii^ed, 
tttftil the present ocoasioii. Gen« 
tSemen^ I beg to call your attention 
to the circutantances of this (to me) 
distressing ease, which are simply 
th^se: — Having occasion to pass 
trough Marlborongh*street> on the 
day in question, 1 was attracted to 
notice a bill of sale attached to the 
anetion-room, and was induoed to 
go in. While there I was loolnng 
at an inkstand which stood on the 
table, when a nian standing close 
by me asked if I would buy it, 
adding, that he had just given four 
ridllings for it, and if I would give 
him one shilling advance, I dimild 
have it. I agreed to do so, and 
paid him five shillings, and he went 
sway, and I proceeded to do so in 
about half an hour, when I was 
aeoused of theft and given in cus- 
tody, although there was no con- 
cealmeBt of the axticle, and I took 
it from the table in the presence of 
a number of persons. 1 need hardly 
advert to the fact, that the case ap- 
peared to be exaggerated against 
me^ probably taking advantage be- 
cause I was atoeigner, andconse- 
qfuently unable to convince them 
^'tbeir doubts respecting my re- 
spectidnlity. Crentlemen, no cause 
exists why I should be induced to 
purlin an article of trifling value, 
as the means I derive from my 
pasents are amply sufficient to pro- 
cure me a comfortable living in 
England, independent of which my 
education and pursuits are a source 
of income. I came, gentleman, to 
this coontry, twelve months ago,, 
in Older to study mathematics, and 
perfect myself in the English lan- 
guage, and was about to return 
Some on tiie 8th of this month, 
and had procured my passport ac- 
cordn^yy which is now become 
uselessin consequence of this abom- 
insUe ofaaigej which not only gives 



rise to delay, but will be tfeaieaiis 
of deranging n^ demestio afiaink 
My passport, certificate andiotber 
credentials, will show that mj 
character has always beeip unquel^ 
tionable, and there aie p^noba It 
court who will give vexbaL ttibti^ 
mony to that effect. My Ibid and 
gentlemen, as a foreigner' 1 Uuoar 
myself upon your proteoSion«>' I 
am entirelT innocent of the datge^ 
and rely upon your justice!, yoor 
humanity, and respectability aa.a 
safeguard ; and liope that, : afisr 
taking the circumstances into rooa* 
sideration, you will by your vndict, 
not only^restore me to lifaeity> hut 
thereby enable me to return to inir 
country and friends^ where impov^ 
tant affairs demand my |n»seBoe»'' 
While the unfortunate gentleman 
delivered the address, he waa.at 
times considerably affeotedk 

Mr. Taplin, the proprietor of a 
tavern near Soho-square, stMad 
that for the last two numdis Mr; 
Steck had lived at his house ; he 
kept gentlemen's company, ^aad 
appeared at all times to be a gen- 
tleman himself, by his conduct, and 
by his pecuniary means. 

Mr. Sergeant Arabin left it to 
the jury to say, whether under «ll 
the circumstances they couM sup- 
pose that the prisoner was guikyu 
His defence manifested taknt aad 
ingenuity, and no man axouiii* 
stanced as he was could have a 
better character. The jury wo n l i l 
also bear in mind that the -proafr* 
cutor would not swear to the pie« 
party being his. 

The jury without hesitatkm, le- 
turned a verdict rf acqmUioL 

15. CumNQ TRsnk-^Far m 
considerable time past the 
residing in the vicinage of 
head-tUcket, a lai^ comoamii 
Maidenhead, have eqj(»yed' 
turbed th^ right to cut iiuse nff 




JAK.] 



CHRONICLE. 



a 



tiiethiBiet for Mns^ Some per« 
miB^ wlien cotting the fume, har* 
iBg^ dti^ up thfeir roocsy as being 
ikm wore useful, because the 
lidcfccv pait >of the wood> Mr. 
Maitiand^'tbe lord of the manor, 
had' sevend of these persons con* 
^hated before the magistrates, and 
pmishtdirith imprisonment. Some 
iajB wkiet, however, upwards of 
fliochnndied yoang oak trees which 
hm had lately planted on the com- 
mon weve discovered to have been 
eot down during the preceding 
BBg^t, and with so much industry, 
tmt ' not one was left standing. 
ThJese trees were about three years' 
growth, and appeared to have been 
all cut by the same person with the 
teme instrument. 

. (8. Riot at Grantham.*— A 
l&rga body of the men at work on 
the Ancholme river collected toee- 
&er to attend the funeral of a 
iSnnmde and took advantage of 
the occasion to revenge upon the 
constables of that villafle the ap- 
prehension of two of their gang, 
who had been committed to Kirton 
gaol a few days before, for a riot 
at the Crown Inn. Having got 
up a sham fight among themselves, 
and the constables having as- 
sembled on account of the distur- 
bance, the sham fight was soon 
turned into a serious attack upon 
tfaeconstabies. Hedge-stakes, rails, 
and^ iron-bars, torn from the win- 
dows, were hurled at the consta- 
Ues ; who in return repelled the 
asanjanis fi^r an hour with their 
staves only, but as the night grew 
very dark, the yells and over- 
powering numbers of the bankers 
so intimidated some of their op- 
ponents, that it became necessary to 
fixe li piMol over their heads, in the 
hope that the certain knowledge of 
fire>%rms beine possessed would' 
(heck their £ry. The cry of 



'' murder the eonstaUes, they have 
only powder," and an imiiie£ate 
violent rush inside and outside 
the hou8e> into whieb they had 
pushed, obHged some . one to 
load his pistol and defend his per- 
son. A small slug entensd the side 
of one man, whose unfortunate 
situation immediately engaged the 
attention of his rioting companions ; 
and, with the exception of a few 
random blows with cudgels^ the 
tumult gradually subsided. Several 
of the principal farmers acting as 
constables, weredangerously beaten 
and cut; yet owing to the dark- 
ness of the night, only one rioter 
could be identified; nearly fifty 
of the gang of bankers fled the 
county, marked with black eyes 
and bruised limbs. Of a large 
quantity of stones which lay near, 
for the purpose of building a wall, 
not one remained next .morning, 
when the woikmen arrived to mfl^e 
use of them; th^ had all been 
used by the rioters as ammunitiont. 

Thbathicajl AcCIDKNT.*r-On 

Wednesday the 19th during the re- 
presentation of thespectadeof Peter 
fVUkins, at Bath, Miss Cooke and 
Mrs. Ashton, the two flying Gaw-. 
ries, were elevatedin the third scene, 
to the height of about ten or eleven 
feet, when, by the slipping of an 
iron pinion in the machinery, a 
cog-wheel became disengaged; and, 
the windlass being .thus left un« 
restrained, and running rapidly 
round, they were both precipitated 
with violence to the ground. On 
ascertaining the extent of the suf- 
fering, it was discovered that Miss 
Cooke had her ancle dislocated, 
and her leg seriously fractured. 
Mrs. Aahton had sustained severe 
injury in her chest, by falling upon 
part of the scenery representing a 
pointed rock. 

SI. fALh or BuiIiDXIY€Wv->< 



10 



ANNUAL REGISTER. 



[1838. 



Thia monung between foiir and 
five u dbck, one of the houses in 
a court called Palmer's Rents, the 
buildings in which were chiefly in- 
habited by poor Irish, and had been 
long in a very dilapidated state, 
was observed to bulse oyt evident^ 
ly with oonsiderabk motion, and 
in a few seconds, the house fell. 
The vicinity was soon alarmed, 
and several persons ventured up 
the court, which was almost im« 
passable. Their advance was eon« 
siderably impeded by the retreat of 
numbers of penKms in a state of 
nudity. Lights being procured, 
the two adjoining houses were 
perceived to be in<mning outwards, 
part of the front of one of them 
having fallen. The inhabitants of 
these two houses, amounting to ten 
or twelve persons, instantly escap- 
ed. The number of persons in the 
house that fell was fourteen. 
The landlord of the house, who 
slept in the second floor, was taken 
out nearly lifeless— his wife was 
found under a beam. Two lodgers 
had their limbs fractured; a man, 
his wife, and two children, who 
slept in the front parlour, escaped, 
in consequence of the house falling 
outwards. 

24w Family of Criminals.— 
at the Hull Sessions, Sarah Stanm 
hope was placed at the bar, charg- 
ed with stealing from the person, 
a promissory note for 20t, a bill 
for 15^, three promissory notes of 
a guinea each, a pound note, and 
a sovereign.-— The Jury having 
without hesitation returned a ver- 
dict of Guilty, the Recorder, af- 
ter some observations on the irre- 
claimable habits of the prisoner, 
sentenced her to be transported 
for seven years. She was the 
daughter of the notorious Snow- 
den Dunhill, of Spaldington-lane, 
near Howden, die Auiag and 



OLtensive depfedationi of 
gang had r^ideied them ob|ect8 
of terror thoughout the East Rid-* 
ing. Snowden himaelf was tried 
at the York Mardi Aasisei^ in 
1814, for robbing a gianaiy ; was 
found guilty, and aentenoed to 
seven years' transportation* Theve 
were four oth^ bills found against 
him. Having gone through the 
term of punimment awarded him 
by the Court, he returned to HuU ; 
and, having reoommenoed his old 
course, he was about three yean 
ago, once more sentenced to trana* 
portation, and is now, if living, at 
Botany Bay. In July laat, his 
son Geoige Dunhill, aged twenty^ 
four, was executed at Hobart-town, 
Van Diemen's Land. He had 
been transported fiom Beverley 
sessions about eight or nine years 
ago, along with his motlier ; and 
at the same time, his sister Rom 
was also convicted, and sentenced 
to six months' imprisonment in 
York Castle. At the last Leeds 
borough sessions she was found 
guilty of larceny, and sei;iteneed to 
six months' imprisonment in Wake- 
field House of Correction, in which 
place of confinement she now ro^ 
mains. Her two husbands, Wm. 
M'Dowell of Pontefract, and 
George Conner, of Leeds, wete 
transported. Sarah, the present 
culpnt, had been impriscmed in 
York county prison, several years 
before, for twelve months, and 
was again tried at Beverley last 
year. Her three husbands, vi^ 
James Stanhope, alias ^ One 
-armed Jem," William Rhodes, 
and James Crassland, of Hull, 
were each transported. William, 
another son of Snowden Dun- 
hill, was tpmsported for . four- 
teen years, from York, about ten 
years ago, and died immediately 
on his arrival at Sydney Cove^ New 



JAN.l 



CHRONICLE. 



II 



South Wilefl. Robert Tajlor, m 
SOD of Mn* DnnhiU to a fanner 
hnslniidy was also transported. 

SM* DsaTHUornrs Fibs. -^ 
About half-past two o'clock in the 
momingt the house of Mr. Cain> 
of the JPrench Horn, €rutGfaed«> 
frian, was discovered to be on Are, 
and the inmates immediatelj af ter« 
wards appeared at the windows 
calling tor help. Mr. Cain was 
seen at the s^xmd floori a man 
named Williams at the third story, 
and three or four of the lodgers 
at the others. Williams jumped 
from the window, and was so much 
hurt that he was conveyed to the 
hospital in a coach ; Mr. Cain slip* 
ped down from the window at 
which he first appeared, and escap* 
ed wiUi some slight contusions. 
Two young men, lodgers, and 
Mrs. Cain, saved their lives by 
jumping from the windows at the 
rear of the house ; but the house 
was^ by this time, one mass of 
flame, and the daughter of Mr. 
Cain, aged fifteen, the servant-ml, 
and the pot-boy, and two oUier 
persons perished. The remains of 
Miss Cain were got out of the 
ruins about five o'dock. The tot« 
tcring state in which the front of 
the house stood, prevented the 
fitvnien present, from venturing on 
any portion of the premises, to dis- 
eorex, if possible, any of the other 
bodies, which had perished in the 
flames. Two men, however, 
mounted by a ladder, to the second 
f^xrr, and on entering the window 
they discovered two bodies lying 
close together on a portion of the 
floor which had not fallen with 
the rest. They were both young 
women, and were dreadfully burnt 
about the head and upper part of 
the body. The remains of the 
pot*boy were dug out of the ruins. 
The face was not much injured. 



but nearly the whole of the flesh 
from the chest downwards was 
burnt off. From the position in 
which the body was found, it 
would appear that he had never 
risen from his bed« Not far from 
the body the head was pioiEed up^ 
and the right hand was dose to 
the side of the head^ as if he had 
mllowed his head with his hand* 
The left arm was lying nearly 
parallel to the body. 

96. Fall of a Mountaiii.^*^ 
The side of the mountain of 
Spalonmont, which overlooks Spa 
on the north side, burst about 
midnight, enormous masses of 
rock rolling down on the houses 
below. The noise of these masses 
in their fall awakened the inhabi- 
tants in the middle of the night ; 
and the f)atrol instantly made all 
those persons who lived in the 
neighbourhood remove from tiieir 
houses. Providentially^ no lives 
were lost. 

LiBBi/.-— Court op Excbm* 
QUBB* — Hall v. Longman and 
others* — This was an action of 
libel, brought by Mr. Hall, a 
teacher of languages, against 
Messrs. Longman, Rees, and Co., 
for publishing a letter of the late 
Dr. Jones, purporting to be an ex- 
posure of the namiltonian System, 
in which the writer, speaking of 
the plaintiff, said that he had late* 
ly attended a lecture given by him, 
and then proceeded ttius :— *' The 
lecturer did not want talents, nor 
did he want impudence : he want- 
ed nothing but honesty; for the 
whole of what he called his system 
was taken from a little work publish- 
ed by me, called Afiahgtas htUiwB^ 
&c. The trial took "place in the 
sittings after last Term, before the 
Lord Chief Baron, and the jury 
found a verdict for the defendants* 

Mr, Brougham now moved thd 



£2 



ANNUAL REGISTER. 



[18». 



Goorir fam nik to net aside the 
VBidio^^jadgnuit a »ew trial, on 
tbergramd m miadixectioti on the 

a of the leartied Judge. His 
Uim^ in addveaBuig the linyi 
iaid^ '^ The sthig of the lihel is the 
hnpstingto the .phiintiiF tlie want 
of honesty: undouhtedly this is a 
hanh phiBse taken by itself, but it 
k"one which may- be explained'; 
and the way in which it is explam- 
od joa the other side is .this— 
they say it is not an imputation of 
di^onesiy in the common sense of 
the word, but merely one of pla- 
giarism. It is for you to say 
whether or not the plaintiff is en- 
titled 'to any damages. There is 
no evidence of his having incurred 
any injury through this publica- 
tion ; It does not appear that he is 
the " poorer or the less esteemed 
in consequence of it." The ten- 
dency of the latter part of this ad- 
dress, the learned counsel contend- 
ed, was, by sayins that no evidence, 
ddiots the libel, had been given of 
damaoe incunred by the plaintiff, 
|o miuead the jury into the suppo- 
sition that such evidence wasne- 
eesfaiy* 

Mr« Baron Garrow. — Can any 
person imderstand an imputation 
to he cast upon a man's moral cha- 
racterby this:— Igotohearalecture; 
the lecturer stands up behind his 
desk and brings to the performance 
of his tads talents, confidence, and a 
knowledge of his subject. More 
than this is not requiied, nor can 
we oonceive what we have to do 
with lus honesty on such an occa- 
sion. Well, I say he possesses 
those requisite qualities which I 
have mentioned, but add that he 
wants honesty, not in the ocdinary 
sense of the word, but the honesty 
or candour to aoknowledge that he 
is indebted for that part of his 
agntem, for which be is so much 



.•w'> ' 



appiaoded, to awdikof mins/ApA 
w&ch it was boffxotted^;- NoK^ 
was it not a fair questibfp.ftr Ad 
jury to determine whbthiir siAoka 
mere charge .of want of eandiuv^M 
that, entitled the plaintiff, to antr 
damages ?• - 

. Mr. Baron HuUocb— ♦ItaseTOKiF 
true, an imputation of .:ar wnntief 
honesty is a libel, botit'Oi^rjhe ao 
qualified by other oxn r c a si ons aaltb 
prevent any person imm inferriag 
from it that the party isseaUjr dis- 
honest. • So, to charge a mte^with 
being a felon or a thief is:a Hbel; 
but if I say to a man '^you aire n 
thief," and then state my grounds 
for so calling him, ** beeauee jmx 
ran away vnth my house/* whkh 
shows that he could not poaaSdy 
have committed the fdovy or thslk 
imputed to him, I apprehend diat 
would be no libd. The rule 
refused. 



FEBRUAKY. 

• 

6. Death from thb^ bit b oip 
A Ferrbt. — An inquest was held 
on the body of an inimt aeven 
weeks old, which had died on the 
preceding day in conseqaentt of 
wounds inflicted by aJerret. The 
body of the infant presented alsot^ 
rid spectacle. No tiaoe of dw 
child's features was left: ifes: nosfe, 
eyes, and cheeks, as fiur as Aeop- 
per lip, were completely eaten, off, 
and in their plaoe notluBg.was to 
be seen but the bare hane^ aad« 
mass of coagulated. Uood. It ap- 
peared from the evidence of sIk 
mother, daughter, and- - 8o% (a 
boy about seven years old), that 
the child had been left in bed ahiMt 
nine o'clock with another QhilA##e 
yean old; the mother had' t^en 
{^ne down stai^ and aftct I^t- 

mg a fire was sitting by i^ bebg 



FSB.] 



CHRONIOLE. 



13 



iBatooor«tflteofkealtii> wImd she 
bnud th6 isfimt ery, «iid desired 
Into dlaffbter po bring it down 
audit': tae Ixtde h^ ran up to it, 
Miv.tli^'fiBmtupoa its lace, and 
tbO' child aH blood: he slkridked 
out, on wfaicli the sister ran up 
atafsflod took up bdfli the child and 
fertet? bat the latter, on getting 
ts the ftair-head, she threw down. 
Thft cUd, aftrar lingering in this 
aliitB tmtil Tuesday mornings died. 
The fisiret'had been kept in a box 
in 'tlie house, and. had that mom- 
ing been let out to kill a rat, and 
ttosiunFiog been put back into its 
ciige> hadcveptup stairs, and seized 
open due rieqnnginfiknt. The jury 
vmxr unanimous in their veidict, 
that the ekild had been killed by 
die ferret, and ordered the animal 
to be destroyed. The ferret was a 
wary lasge one, and nearly f wo feet 
in length ; its front teeth measunng 
a quarter of an inch. — WeHmcre^ 
land Advertiser. 

CuBious pRAun*— Mary-le* 
BOVU^VPiCK.^-^Eleanor Sinclair, a 
lady who bad for a long time been 
known and respected in the pari^ 
fif ' fit. 'Marylebone, was charged 
with the following fraud. 

Mr. Robert Bell, a respectable 
faoht-maker; andhis&indly, had been 
aofuainted with the prisoner up* 
wards of twenty-two years. In 
Noivember last she told them she 
wsa^about to beccane possessed of a 
largef^nrtune. A Chancery suit had 
beea decsded in her favour'— 3,750/. 
stock in the Bank of England, with 
tbe Bocoteukted divideiids of thirty 
sAoe yean^ were ber's/— also an an- 
cient casUn called Wellingbeach, 
near Andorer, and money in the 
Warwoflfee, which had been in the 
liinda of ^ government ever since 
Ae fnt American war. She said 
tli9 LaidChancellor was her friend. 



and frequent^ showed AasA lettaci 
apparently bearing his rign a Hin r ^ 
filled with expressions of kxninesb 
By these means she imposed luiaii 
the credulity of her friends, aadfii^ 
Bell advanced her small sumSi of 
money, amounting to 28/» ISt.^ in 
consequence of albged disafqwini* 
ments, in order to assist during 
accidental delays, which> as dM 
represented, hindered herfiram'reit 
ceiving the money. In one of 
the alkged letters from the Chaa^ 
oellor he said, '* I regret I* can«. 
not meet you this day, for . I 
must sit with the big wigs - at 
Westminster :" In another, '' Don^t 
blame the poor Chaneellor, the 
Wellesley case is en this day :'' 
In another, " 1 cannot attend this 
day ; on Monday i wffl devote twe 
or three hours, and put you in pos«i 
session of your funded property^ 
and hope in March to see you 
seated in your ancient csistle* If 
you can get through 'the.* week 
without assistance, so much the 
better; if not, yov may have « 
check for 100/. by coming- to my 
office in- the morning/' On liie 
14th of January the prisoner |«d- 
duced a paper before the ftEunHy of 
Mr. Bell, which oQataan^ the 
names of Sir Watkin Williams 
Wynn, Mr. Langfoid^ and. two 
other persons, and said they 
w«re her trustees, and that they 
would meet her and the luotd 
Chancellor at the Bank that day 
week, to put her in possession, of 
the stock. In the afternoon of 
that day week (January 21),* she 
said she had met the Lord Chan- 
cellor and her trustees at the Bank, 
but h^r business was delayed, . for 
Mr. Robson said there were, divi- 
dends due for only thirty-six yeass 
instead of thirty-nine. How«ves> 
she was happy to find the mistake 



14 



ANNUAL REGISTER. 



[1898. 



WM ndUM, by the following let- 
ter^ written to her bj the Lord 
Chmnoellor: 

** Dear Madam, You muit come 
thii evening, or the old gentlenuuii 
(tneMiSag Mr* Langfora) will be 
hig^j offended. Bobion, of the 
Rank of England, lent me a note 
an hour after we had left, to tay 
the old gentleman was correct, 
therefore we shall get our business 
finished the first thing in the morn- 
ing: remember, we shall expect 
^ou about eight, in George-street. 
Tour's sincerely, &c. 

(Signed) " J. S* Lyndhubst. 

« Jan. 21." 

Notwithstanding the above, dim 
appointment followed disappoint- 
ment. And at last, on Tuesday, 
Mr. Bell himself accompanied the 
lady to the' Bank, and sat an 
hour with her in the Rotunda, but 
her friends did not come to meet 
her, and he applied at this ofiice 
for a warrant to apprehend her. 

Mr. RawUnson asked the pri- 
soner if any one could prove she 
had such a cause in Chancery, and 
she made no reply. In answer to 
other questions, she said she had 
a husband, but did not know where 
he was, and she did not intend to 
cheat Mr. Bell. 

7. FoBBioN Loans. -—Vice 
Chanobllor'b Court.-^ TAomp- 
ton V. Barclayy Herring, and 
Rhkardson, and «7. A- Powles, Sf 
Co.— The bill filed by the plain*, 
tiff, Alderman Thompson, stated, 
that in August, 1 825, the defend- 
ants, Messrs. Barclay and Co., the 
bankers, announced that they pos- 
sessed certificates of obligation from 
the Government of the Federal 
Republic of Soutfc America, or 
Guatemala, and that they were 
ready to receive tenders for the 
purchase of those certificates of ob* 



ligation, to die amount of 1,468, 
571 /• 8«* Messrs. Powles mid Co. 
(who were joined in this suit with 
Messrs. Bioclay) as defendanta), 
sent in tenders for the purchaae m 
the eartifiifsatesy whidi they were 
to pay for in various instalasenti; 
the ibst of which was to be paid 
on the S2nd of September, 1M5, 
the last on the 2Snd of Match, 
1826. The interest on the certi^ 
ficates of obligation was to com- 
mence on the 1st day of August, 
18S5. In case of Messrs. Powles 
failing to make good any of the 
instalments, all the monies paid 
previously were to be forfeited. 
The price which Messrs* Powles 
were to pay for the certificates, 
was sixty-eight per cent. It was 
publicly announced that their ten- 
der had been accepted ; and in the 
notifications to the public, it was 
represented that the two firms were 
distinct and separate parties to the 
transaction, Messrs. Barclay and 
Co. being agents only to the Gua- 
temala Government, and Messrs. 
Powles the contractors for the loan. 
The partners of the latter firm 
were the intimate friends of the 
plaintiff^ and they represented to 
him that they had contracted to 
take the Guatemala loan, which 
they expected would bear a pre- 
mium, and they therefore strongly 
advised him to pnrdiase a portion 
of it. By these representations 
the plaintiff was induced to por^ 
chase certificates of bonds of obli- 
gation to the amount of 10,000/., 
at seventy^three per cent, that ia, 
to purchase* documents entitlin|^ 
him, upon paying up the whole of 
the instalments, to receive bonda 
certifying the special obligation of 
the Guatemala Government to pa^ 
him six percent, on eadi bond or 
certificate of obygatioB. Theplain- 



FEB.) 



CHRONICLE. 



16 



tift paid insttlmentfl to tlie amount 
of 4,000/., by the direction of 
PowloB and Co., into the hands of 
Bafclay and Co. When the sixth 
instahaient beoamedue, the phuntiif 
qfieied to pay the same, but he was 
advised not to do so, by Messrs. 
Powles and Co. on the grounds that 
a disagreement had arisen between 
Barclay and Co., and the Govern- 
ment of Guatemala. This advice 
the plaintiff alleged in his bill, he 
had since discovered, was given him 
with the view of making him com- 
mit a forfeiture of the money paid. 
He stated, he had also learned that 
the defendants, Barclay and Co., 
instead of having lold the certifi- 
cates to the highest bidder, pri- 
vately agreed that Powles and Co. 
should become the nominal con- 
traetors of the loan, at sixty-eight 
per cent., but that they (Messrs. 
•Barclay) should have a larger in- 
terest Uian Messrs. Powles, and 
they, in fact, purchased certificates 
themselves to the amount of 
1,000,000/. It was agreed that this 
should be concealed nom the Gua- 
temala Government, for whom 
Messrs. Barclay were agents, as 
well as from the public, or thote 
parties who might become the pur- 
chasers of the bonds. The defend- 
ants sold tothe amount of 400,000/. 
chiefly at seventy-two, some at 
seventy-three per cent, but, they 
never remitted any of the money to 
the Government of Guatemala. 
That Government, having become 
acquainted with the transaction, as 
to the pretended sale of the loan 
to Messrs. Powles, re&sed to ac- 
knowledge any of the acts of their 
agents, Messrs. Barclay and Co., 
and had refused to pay any of the 
certificates of obligation. The 
plaintiff and other purchasers of 
eertificates had declined paying 
any more instalments, and Messrs. 



Barclay had, in consequence, d^ 
clared all the former mstalments 
forfeited. The plaintiff allied, 
that the defendants had committed 
a fraud in rqxresenting the con* 
tract by Powles and &>. as bond 
Jlde, when, in fact, Barday and 
Co. were at once buyers and sel- 
lers; and he prayed that they might 
be decreed to repay the money he 
had advanced, with interest. The 
defendants put in separate demuiv 
rers. 

Mr. Pepys, in support of the 
demurrer, conttoded, that the 
plaintiff's case being founded on a 
contract to receive six pw cent., 
was usurious. Besides, the contract 
was made in behalf of a state 
whose existence was not acknow- 
ledged by the Government of this 
country. Both at common law 
and in this court the decisions were 
uniform on this subject. Lord 
Eldon, in the case of the Peruvian 
loan, had declared that the court 
was bound to know that Peru 
formed part of the dominions of 
Spain, with which we were at 
peace. It appeared that the con- 
tract was made with persons who 
were treated by Spain as rebels. 
Our courts of justice, therefore, 
could not entertain such a contract. 

Mr. BickCTSteth* contended that 
the contract was in this case to be 
taken as made in the country where 
the obligor resided, and where the 
interest of the money was to be 
paid, — namely, abroad. It did 
not appear that the obligors or the 
Government of Guatemala had 
contracted to pay the interest to 
the obligees in this country. 

The V ice Chancellor, in deliver- 
ing his judgment, said, that if the 
contract had been made here, it 
would certainly have been void ; 
but he could not say that it had 
been made in this country. H6 



16 



ANNUAL REGISTER. 



[18»8< 



eonfened^ that the case alle|^ on 
the face of the bill appeared to be 
one of frauds such as would en- 
title the plaintiff to the equitable 
rdief he prayed. But from all 
his honour had heard from the 
mouth of Lord Eldon on the sub-* 
ject of the illegality of contracts 
for loans to subjects in hostility to 
states with which the Government 
of. this country was at peace^ it 
did abpear to him that the con- 
tract before the courts as one of 
that description^ could not be en- 
tertained as a subject of suit. On 
this ground he allowed the de- 
murrer. 

Blasphemt. — In the court of 
King's-bench Robert Taylor who, 
at the aittines at Guildhall in Oc- 
tober last, had been convicted of 
delivering an impious and blas- 
phemous discourse, was brought 
up for judgment. When asked if 
he had any thing to say before 
judgment should be pronounced, 
he delivered a speech two hours 
long, attacking in the most un- 
measured languid his prosecutors 
and their counsel, the jury, Chris- 
tianity, and the bible. In the 
course of his haraneue, the bench 
was frequently under the neces- 
sity of interrupting him, so violent 
and indecent were his expressions. 
He denounced the grand jury who 
found the bill against him as per- 
jured; he described the Lord 
Mayor who had committed him as 
" Persecution sitting in the chair 
of mayoralty;" the witnesses 
were ^* vulgar, stupid Idne;" 
the prosecution was itself a crime. 
His principles were summed up in 
this proposition, '' It is the ever- 
lasting law of Righteousness that, 
when it made man a rationed 
-bebig, it did wed his capacity of 
thou|^t to his faculty of speech, 
never again to be divoroed« and 



with the power to think aaya hia 
the right to speak the thuvg ha 
thougiht:" and ids conclusion wa% 
'^wluLt good shall your utiMMl 
power to punish accomplish. Shall 
it conquer the glorious cause of 
which I am the mar^ir? Not 
Shall it conquer me? No. Tho 
consciousness of having deserved 
well of society shall obtund the 
anguish that Christian malice 
would inflict on me, the lact per* 
ception of my existence shall be 
the joy of an approving conseieBee, 
and the last sigh that heaves this 
beating heart, shall breathe its 
curse on Christianity.'* When he 
had finished, the court sentenced 
him to be imprisoned for a year, 
and to find security for his good 
behaviour for five years thereafter, 
himself in 500^, and two suretMS 
in 250/. each. 

. 11. FiBB AT HaVANNAH*— A 

fire, which broke out about twdve 
o'clock on the 11th of Fdimiary in 
the suburbs of Jesus Maria, ooi^ 
sumed in a few hours upwards of 
three-hundred and fif^ houses, 
leaving more than two thousand 
people, of all condition^ in iadi* 
gence; manufactories, moveables, 
stores, shops, were all destroyed 
by the flunes ; the* stronc wind 
that prevailed preventing »e Ofpe- 
ration of the fire engines. Un- 
fortunately the quarter of the city 
in which the fixe brokei out was 
composed of very combustihb ]b»- 
teriaU, and , the rapidity of the 
flames rendered unavailing all ef^ 
forts to avert the disaster. It was 
thought that the creek, whidk 
crosses at the end of the subofb 
would put a stop to the fire teaa 
want of fuel ; but the violence of 
the wind, which blew from the 
east, carried the flames towards 
the other side, audit was feand sit 
one time that it would evw 



FEB.] 



CHRONICLE. 



17 



^Miflsii^, eommuiiieati^ directly 
ifkbc the cM Hocoon. 'um cala- 
nUty^ '^ONrbvefj 'was averted by 
Jl^Xltiig dawti a hoase, and bring- 
iiigf^Co beai5 on this point all the 
litedi whioii thd authmties had 
mfeide ataHiilde. No lives were lost. 
Lddtily the a^sfortune was not 
afaMMpiiiiied bf the loss of * a 
sbi^l^'life^ al^ough some suf- 
£&Hd severely from the suffocate 
iBg'beat and humidity of the at* 
mosi^here. 

CNa'the succeeding mornings the 
Goii^mor named a commission of 
five persons to collect such of 
the sufferers as should be found 
witkout shelter^ receiving them in 
tempefrary dwellings erected for 
thp' occasion^ and providing them 
wslh' tile necessary food. The 
charity of the reverend fathers 
Belemitas had provided the latter 
artielei they having offered to 
supply ' eight-hundr^ rations of 
bread for six days^ meat^ rice, 
and butter, and tiiree ounces ci 
gold for minor expenses. — In the 
coune of a week more than four« 
thouiand rations were distributed 
to fismulies utterly ruined by the 
fire. 

15. Casb of Hydrophobia, 
bV THJB BiTB OP A Fox.*— An 
ostkr at the Derby Arms Inn, 
Croydon, was sujpposed to have 
died from hydrophobia, occasioned 
by the bite of a fox kept in the 
stables of the Derby Arms; and 
though no symptoms of the ma* 
lady had beiesi evinced by the ani« 
inal# the fox was destroyed, not, 
hovntwT, until he had bitten 
several persons. Among oihers 
injused was Robert tCemp, who 
continued to enjoy good health un- 
til Thursday laaEt, when he showed 
stEODg symptoms of hydrophobia, 
and was oonvqred to the poor- 
hoiiie, aad attended by Mr. Bot* 

Vol.. LXX. 



tomley, the house-surgeon, who 
iitamediately thoueht it neceflsaty 
to call in the assistance of other 
medical gentlemen. Kemp was 
sensible of his situation, and, on 
seeing several persons standing 
round him ready to secure his 
arms in case of a fit suddenly 
coming on, he Assured them that 
he had no wish to injure them, and 
that he would not hurt a hair of 
their heads, at the same moment 
exclaiming— '' Hero's an end for 
me to come to, a strong healthy 
man of twenty-four! — Oh the 
poor fox — give me a razor or a 
pistol — ^knock out my brains with 
a hammer — ^pray destroy me." In 
this state he continued until night, 
when he expired. The following 
account of the case was drawn up 
by Mr. Bottomley, at the request 
of several magistrates. 

'' On Thursday night, Feb. 14, 
I was requested to visit a very ro- 
bust young man, aged twenty- 
four, of the name of Kemp, who 
was then labouring under consi- 
derable nervous excitement, rest*- 
less, with a dejected and anxloUfl' 
countenance; upon proposing some 
medicine to him, he said he could 
not swallow, nor had he been able 
to do so from eiffht o'clock that 
morning, which led me to make 
inquiry relative to the case; he 
stated as follows: — About eight 
or nine weeks before, he had been 
bitten by a fox, in two or three 
places on the right hand, the scars 
of which were then visible, the 
wounds bled profusely, but healed 
soon after, and remained perfectly 
well ever since ; for a week past 
he could not wash his face, and 
much dreaded any thing touching 
it« On the morning of the 14th, 
feeling rather poorly, he thought 
he wmild take a glass of gin, but 
found great difficulty in vwaUdw- 

C 



18 



ANNUAL REGISTER. 



lim. 



ing it He next attempted to eat 
flome bread and cheese^ and was 
unable. He. laid he was sleepy^ 
and kept his bed the greater part 
of the daj^ getting rapidly wone« 
until the time I saw him at night ; 
I with difficulty got him to take 
•ome pills^ but the feeling of 8uf« 
focation was so great, as to occa<« 
sion violent conrulstouB : he could 
not bear the opening of a door^ or 
any person breathing on his facej 
as the least breath of air brou|;ht 
on a fresh paroxysm. The thurst 
was intense, and he made repeated 
ineffectual efforts to moisten his 
mouth. The spasm was so great 
he could not even swallow the 
saliva. Each paro^sm was more 
violent than the last, and he re- 
peatedly begged to be destroyed. 
About twelve o'clock at noon, on 
the 15th, he became so violent, as 
to require the assistance of four 
men to hold him, though in full 
possession of his faculties, and not 
suffering the least pain. At this 
period the sense of suffocation was 
so great, he thought he should be 
able to breathe with more freedom 
if the doors and windows were 
opened, which was complied with, 
without his experiencing the least 
relief.- The symptoms continued 
to increase with violence, though 
the most active mode of treat- 
ment was pursued, until nine 
o'clock, when he expired." 

16. Attbhpt to blow up a 
HovaB."—At about half-past nine 
o'clock this evening, an explosion 
took place 4n the house of Messrs. 
Raikes and Newberry, wine-mer- 
ehanta» in Mincing-lane. The 
warehottse-window was blown 
intp the lane, and that of one of 
the adjoining houses was shattered 
lo pieces* The following particu« 
laxs were ascertained : 
. The partners of the bouse had 



been of late but little in the haUt 
of giving their own particular a^ 
tentioa to the business in Mioe- 
ing-lane, which was left generally 
under the luperintendanoe of some 
oonfidentia] persoiis. After the 
business of Saturday was 000- 
duded, these persons had r^red 
from the lower apartments to the 
rooms on the first-floor* They 
were not long in the higher apart- 
ments, when they heard the noise, 
and felt the shock of the exploeum, 
which was followed by a suffocat- 
ing stench of gunpowder, and it 
was soon ascertained, beyond a 
doubt, that an incendiary had been 
at work. A train of gunpowder 
had been laid in one of the ground- 
floor rooms leading to a doaet, of 
which no use was made, {n this 
eloset was heaped up in a oomer 
a quantity of paper and old rags, 
with which the train of gunpowder 
came in immediate contact. So 
large a quantity of gunpowder had 
been lodged amongst the papers and 
rags, that it blew themj the mo- 
ment the train was touched, 
right through the window, and 
leilt the premises with scarcely a 
spark of fire upon them. 

17. Wrbok of ▲ Stbam Boat. 
**-The Stirling sailed from Fort 
William for Glasgow, having on 
board Mr. M'Doniud of Glengarry, 
with his two daughters, on their 
way to Edinbur^; an EnsUsh- 
man, butler .to Mr. M'OoniSdof 
Clanronald, and several other pas- 
sengers. The morning was re- 
markably stormy; and the gale 
increasing, and part of the madii- 
nery having given way, it was 
found necessary to run the vessel 
ashore at InnencaddeU, where die 
became a total wreck. The paa- 
sengers and crew, with the excep- 
tion of Mr. M'Donald of Glen- 
garry, and the English batlo'. 



FEB.] 



CHRONICLE. 



19 



wtnre all hnded in safely. The 
batler fell overboard at the time 
the StirHag Castle itruck> and his 
tody waa washed ashore* Mr. 
McDonald's attention was natu« 
rally <lirected to the safety of his 
dan^ttta; and a boat hating been 
pvocnred, one of them was sj^edily 
oonv^ed to the beach, the rest of 
the passengers and the crew en- 
deimmring in the meanwhile to 
eaoqie as they best oould. But 
inrfbrtunatelyy while the second 
Miss McDonald wasbeing conveyed 
ashore. Glengarry, alarmed by her 
danger, leapad firom the steam 
beat upon a rock; and his foot 
sUppingi he was precipitated into 
the water, his head striking with 
mat violence against a ledge of 
m rock* After being a few se* 
eoads in the water, however, he 
so far recovered from the immedi* 
ate eflbcia o£ the contusion as to 
be able to swim ashore, where he 
joiQed the yonns ladies ; and, hav- 
ing rested a litue on this beach, he 
proceeded on foot with his daugh- 
tera to Mr. M'Doogall's house at 
Innersoadden fium, a mile distant. 
At first; the hurt, which he had 
received, was not considered to be 
■annis; l^ut the brain had re* 
eeivad a mortal injury from the vio« 
leaee of the shock ; and he expired 
about nine o'dock in the evening. 

18« ROTAX. MABBIA09* -— The 

nnpdals of the princess Feodore 
with the prince of Hohenlohe- 
Lsugenborg, were celebrated at 
the residence of the dneheas of 
K«Dt, in the King^s palace, at 



. The members of the royal family 
arrived at the palace soon after two 
o'clock. Thoae present were the 
duha and duchess of Clarence, the 
daloe of Soflsez, the duke and du- 
clieas of Glooeester, the princess 
gophii, the prinesBs Sophia Ma- 



tilda, and prince Leopold, being the 
whole of the royal family now in 
England, with the exception of the 
princess Augusta, who was at 
Brighton* 

As soon as the royal fiMOHily had 
all assembled, which was about 
three o'clock, the party passed 
in procession to the great saloon 
adjoining the vestibule, in which a 
temporary altar had been fitted up, 
when Dr. Kuper, the chaplain oi 
the royal German diapd, united 
the illustrious parties according to 
the service of the Lutheran church. 

The bride was given away by 
his royal highness the duke a£ 
Clarence. The princess is in her 
twentieth year, and has passed 
nsarly nine in this country. The 
prince is in his thirty^second year* 

19* PO81>OFFI0B ROBBBBT.-^ 

About six o'clock in the morning, 
the Hounslow post-office was 
robbed in a singular manner of 
about thirty bags, delivered by five 
of the western mails. Itisoustomary 
for the guards, while the horses 
are changing, to throw the bags 
into one of the upper windows of 
the post-office, where a servant 
usually waits to receive them. 
This had been done, and the ser* 
vant had just led the room to 
change her cap, when> in the in- 
terim, some fellows ascended by 
means of a clasp laddei> stole the 
bags, and made i^ without being 
perceived. A light cart had been 
observed, with a clasp ladder folded 
behind it, going through llounslow 
several mornings. Just as the mails 
were delivering their bags. The 
fellows in their hurry left the lad- 
der behind them« 

27* FiBB^-^This morning about 
two o'clock, a fire broke ou* 
in the house of Mr. Bedlc^ 
hatter, in Red Lion--8treet, with- 
in a few doors of Helbom.. Mr 

c2 



20 



ANNUAL REGISTER. 



[1S88. 



Bedle was awoke by tlie'alarm of 
fire being giyen^ and on getting out 
of bed^ be discovered tbat tbe wbole 
lowerpart of tbehouse wasin flames, 
rendering it totally impossible for 
bxmself and wife to effect an escape 
down stairs. . Mrs. Bedle ran about 
tbe rooni in a state of distraction, 
and ber busband, seeing no alter- 
native, snatched up bis child tbat 
was lying on tbe bed, opened tbe 
first floor window, and dropped it 
into the arms of a man, who ran 
out of tbe opposite bouse. Then, 
perceiving tbe flames rapidly nin- 
ing strength, be jumped out <n the 
wuidow into the narrow lane, and 
was seriously injured in bis right 
arm and side. His wife folbwed 
bis example, and was very much 
hurt on die head. Before the in- 
mates could be aroused, the flames 
spread throueh the house, and a 
man named oartlett, a shoemaker, 
bis wife, and two children, who 
resided on the second floor, were 
burnt to death ; an elderly woman 
who lived on the third floor, and 
who had been bed-ridden for some 
time, likewise fell a prey to the 
flames. Three young men appeared 
at the third floor windows, and 
. th^ were rescued by the assistance 
of some persons helping them to 
escape through the windows of the 
adjoining house. The conflagration 
oontinuS raging with the utmost 
fury until five o'clock in the morn- 
ing, when it was got under, with- 
out occasioning any considerable in- 
jury to the adjacent premises. Tbe 
opposite houses^were scorched very 
much. The firemen, after remov- 
ing a small portion of the ruins; 
discovered two of tbe bodies, Bart- 
lett and his wife; and shortly af- 
terwards the children and the body 
df the old woman were found* The 
beads, arm^ and 1^, were com- 
pLeiely burnt off, so uat they omild 



not be identified by their finendsor 
relatives. 

28. Mblancholt Aocimbnt. 
.—This afternoon, at one o'clock, a 
new vessel, behmcing to tbe New 
Quay Company, Mandiester; was to 
be layncbed. A great number of 
people were present, and about two 
hundred persons went on board. 
The whole of die preparations 
being concluded, the vessel was let 
go, and bounded away Into the 
river. At first, on goinff into the 
water, she appeared to fie a little 
to one side, though not so much as 
to cause any alarm, but with the 
impetus received by. descending 
ftom the stocks, she keeled, and on 
striking against the opposite bank, 
was in a moment upset. Tlie 
whole of the persons on deck, and 
a few, who were climbing up liie 
rigging, were precipitated into the 
river. All the small boats that oould 
be got wereinstantly brought to the 
spot, and those who were floating 
were rescued. Three or four men, 
two of whom bad been on the deck, 
kept swimming about, and diving 
and bringing as many to the shore 
as they could ; and in this way a 
great many we^e saved. Boat- 
hooks and drags were then mode 
use of, and several others were got 
out, apparently lifeless. Evety 
conceivable expedient was bad re- 
course to, to restore snspcaided ani- 
mation; but, although in aosne 
instances, they wera socoeaaftil, 
forty-seven bodies were taken, out 
of the river dead. 

29. Fall of thb Bbunbwiox 
Thbat]ub.^-A new theatre, under 
this name, situated in WelUstxeet, 
and intended fiir the entertainment 
of the eastern parts of London, was 
opened on Monday, the 25tii of 
February. On Friday following, 
the 29th, about half past eleren in 
the foKenooUj when the company 



FEB.] 



CHRONICLE. 



21 



were mustered on the stage to oom- 
mence a rehearsal, and a number 
of mechanics and artificers were 
still employed inside of the theatre, 
the roof suddenly fell in, brinsing 
along with it the front wall. The 
latter fell outwards into the street, 
destroying ten houses on the oppo* 
site side, and 6rushingunder its mass 
a dray said horses which werestand- 
ing in the street. A Jew dothes- 
man who was reading the play bill 
on the front of the theatre, was 
killed on the spot, and a servant 
girl, who was standing at the door 
of a house opposite, died of the in- 
juries which she received. In the 
theatre itself eleven persons were 
killed, among whom was Mr. 
Maurice, one of the proprietors. 
About twenty more received frac- 
tures and contusions more or less 
serious, one of whom afterwards 
died. Mr. P. Farren, the stage 
manager, was involved among the 
ruins, but escaped almost miracu- 
lously. He was sitting on the front 
of Mr. Mauripe's box, with his feet 
on the stage, and Mr. Maurice was 
standing close before him; sud- 
denly a strange noise was heard, 
not a cracking, but a strangely 
discordant rumbling sound, which 
continued several seconds. It fixed 
general attention, and just at that 
moment, Mr. Farren, looking up- 
wards, whence it seemed to pro- 
ceed, saw one of the lustres trem- 
bling. The chandelier caught the 
eye of Mr. Maurice at the same 
time. Mr. Farren then threw his 
legs over into the" box, and ex- 
claimed, ''the wall! the wall!" 
and at that instant he saw Mr. 
Maurice retreating from him, mak- 
ing towards the centre of the stape, 
and he also saw a little girl with 
her head cut, and bleeding very 
much. The hitter was still within 
his reach, and he pulled her off the 



stage into the box. In an instant 
the crash took place ; down came 
the roof, bringing with it the gal- 
leries, l^xes, and scenes; wiUiin 
one minute from the time he was 
sitting on the front of the stage-box, 
in conversation with Mr. Maurice, 
Mr. Farren found himself din^g 
to a beam of wood, with the httla 
girl before mentioned closely grasp- 
ed between his legs, and so far re- 
moved from any footing, as to 
render an attempt to extricate him- 
self almost certain death. In this 
situation he remained for twenty- 
five minutes, so far as he could 
judge of time in such a situation, 
durine which he heard distinctly 
the ones and moans of the unfor- 
tunate persons under the ruins. At 
one time he discovered the stage 
carpenter, who had struggled and 
got his head and shoulders from 
under the mass, and to whom he 
applied for help. But the poor 
man replied he needed hdp himself, 
and that Mr. Farren's situation 
was the better of the two, recom- 
mending him to hold fast by the 
beam, and it would save him ; the 
carpenter