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THE 



FIFTY-SECOND 
ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



>oard of Education 



OF THE 



CITY OF ROCHESTER 

(NEW YORK) 



tJ^W 



rOR THIi 

YEARS 1900, 1901, 1902 



Hre$t of Juhn C. Atottre, Hmheiter, Sew Yurk 



THE FIFTY- SECOND 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF FHK 



Board of Education 



oi nn: citn of 



Rochester, New York. 



FOk lUF. Vr.AKS 



1900, I90I, 1902 



COMI'KISIXC. THK l<Kl»t)Krs OF IMF PRICSIDKNT OF IHK l»o\kI) oF 
ElJl'C ATrON ANT» OF THK SlPKRI N TKN DKN T OF SCMOOLS : THE L AW 
rNDKRWHFlH THK St'HO )LS AKF ()k<;AN[ZFI): THE Rl EFS 
FOR THE (loVKRNMENT OF IH E ScilOOF.S ; 1 ME CoiRSE 

OF Sti:i)y and a Direc i^r)/ of the Teachers. 

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1322259 



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• • • 



• •• . 
• • • 



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• • • • • • 

•• ••• 



Board OF Education, 1902 



President, 



Secretary. 



Andrew J. Townson 
John B. Mullan 



Superintendent of Schools, 



Charles B. Gilbert* 



Edward R. ShawI 



Temi 
Flxpires 

George G. Carroll, M. D., - 1905 

302 West Avenue. 

Philetus Chamberlain^ .---.... 1903 
Ellwanger & Barry Building. 

(George M. Forbes, 1903 

University of Rochester. 

Helen B. Montgomery, 1905 

218 Spencer Street. 

Andrew J. Townson, 1905 

134 Main Street East. 

'Resigned Feb. i, ofts- 
f Elected Feb. i. KJ03. 



THE LAWS OF 1898. 

As Amended by the Laws of 1900 and 1901. 
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE SCHOOLS OF ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



Sec. 123. The commissioners of common schools in said city shall 
constitute a board to be styled " The Board of Education of the city of 
Rochester," which shall be a corporate body in relation to all the powers and 
duties conferred upon it by virtue of this act. The said board shall meet 
on the first Monday of each and every month, and at such other times as 
it shall from time to time appoint. Special meetings shall be called by the 
secretary upon order of the president or upon request of a majority of the 
said board. A majority of said board shall constitute a quorum for the 
transaction of business. In the absence of a quorum, a minority of said 
board may adjourn a meeting from day to day. The said board shall, at 
the first regular meeting in January of each year, elect one of its members 
president, who shall, when present, preside at all its meetings. In the 
absence of the president, the said board shall elect some other member to 
preside at such meetings and to perform the duties of the president during 
such absence. 

On and after the first day of January', 1900, the Board of Education of 
the city of Rochester shall be composed of five commissioners of schools 
to be elected by the electors of the city at large ; and at the city election to 
be held in 1899 there shall be elected by the electors of the city at large, 
five commissioners of schools, three of whom shall be elected for a term of 
two years each, and the other two of whom shall be elected for terms of 
four years each. Their terms of office shall commence on January i, 1900. 
At the biennial city election to be held in the city of Rochester next pre- 
ceding the expiration of the terms of any of the said commissioners of 
schools, their successors shall be elected for tenns of four years each. In 
case a vacancy shall occur in the office of a member of the Board of Edu- 
cation for any cause, the mayor of said city shall fill such vacancy by the 
appointment of a suitable person ; and the person so appointed shall hold 
office by virtue of such appointment until and including the 31st day of 
December following the next succeeding biennial city election, at which 
election a commissioner of schools for the unexpired term shall be elected 



by the electors of the city at large. The compensation of the commission- 
ers shall be twelve hundred dollars ($1,200) per annum, to be paid out of 
the school fund. 

Sec. 124. Any member of the said Board of Education may be re- 
moved by tHe mayor of the said city upon proof, either of official miscon- 
duct in office, or of negUg;ence of official duties, or of conduct in any man- 
ner connected with his official duties, which tends to discredit his office or 
the school system, or for mental or physical inability to perform his duties 
as a member of said board ; but before such removal of said member he 
shall receive due and timely notice in writing of the charges against him, 
and a copy thereof, and shall be entitled to a hearing, on like notice, before 
the mayor and to the assistance of counsel on said hearing. 

Sec. 126. The said Board of Education shall manage, control, main- 
tain and provide for the public schools of said city, and the public school 
system thereof, and shall manage and control the property, real and per- 
sonal, which shall belong to the said city and be used for the purposes of 
education, subject only to the general statutes of the state relating to public 
schools and public school instruction and to the provisions of this act. 

Sec. 127. The said board shall have power: 

1. To establish kindergartens, common schools, one or more high 
schools, manual training schools or classes, evening classes or schools for 
special studies, training school or classes for teachers, and truant schools, 
and shall have power to discontinue or consolidate schools. Any training 
school or high school, heretofore established and maintained by the public 
school authorities and registered as high schools by the regents of the 
state of New York, shall be maintained in full efficiency. The said high 
schools shall be so organized as to furnish the benefit of further education 
to pupils of both sexes who shall have finished the grammar school 
course, and to other residents of school age equally prepared, and the said 
board shall have power to make, from time to time, for the said high 
schools, all needful rules and regulations, and to prescribe conditions on 
which pupils shall be received and instructed therein and discharged 
therefrom. 

2. To change the grades of all scools, or of any school, and of all 
classes of any high school or other schools under its charge, and to adopt 
and modify courses of study therefor. 

3. To fix a standard of qualifications as a necessar)^ requirement for 
the service of all principals and teachers in the high schools and other 
schools of the city ; which requirement may be higher, but not lower, than 
the minimum qualifications required by the general laws of the state and 
the provisions of this act. 

4. As herein provided, to purchase, lease or improve sites for school 
houses : to build, purchase, lease, enlarge, improve, alter and repair school 



houses and their appurtenances; to purchase, improve, exchange and re- 
pair school apparatus, books, furniture and appendages ; to procure fuel and 
defray the contingent expenses of the schools under its control ; to pay the 
wages of all officers, principals, teachers and employees in the said depart- 
ment of education, as herein provided. 

5. To appoint as herein provided: 

ii. A secretary' of the board of education, who shall serve during the 
pleasure of the board. 

^. A superintendent of public schools, whose term of office shall be 
four vears. 

I. A librarian, whose term of office shall be two years. 

t/. A supervising architect of experience and good standing in his pro- 
fession, who shall serve during the pleasure of the board. 

r*. All school principals and teachers. 

/. All janitors and truant officers, subject, however, to the restrictions 
imposed by the general laws of the state. 

g. A policeman, who shall hold his office during the pleasure of said 
board, and whose salary shall be tixed and paid by the board of education 
from the funds raised for its use, and who shall have the same powers as 
the other policemen of said city, and shall perform such duties as said 
board of education may impose. 

h. Such other officers, clerks, subordinates and employees as it may 
deem necessary' for the proper discharge of its administrative duties. 

6. To fill any vacancies which may occur in any of the offices or 
positions in this section provided for. 

7. To allow the children of persons not resident within the city, to 
attend any of the schools of said city, under the care and control of said 
board, upon such terms as said board shall by resolution prescribe, fixing 
the tuition which shall be paid therefor. 

8. Subject to the provisions of law and of this act, to enact rules and 
regulations for the proper execution of all duties devolved upon said board ; 
its members and committees ; for the transaction of all business pertaining 
to tht: same; for defining the duties of all its officers, clerks, superintend- 
ent, principals, teachers, examiners, subordinates and employees : for 
regulating the manner of making disbursements from any of the funds 
appropriated for school purposes : for the proper execution of all pow'ers 
vested in it by law and for the promotion of the welfare and best interests 
of the public schools and public school system of the city in the matters 
committed to its care. 

Sec. 128. The said lioard of Kducation shall tix and regulate, within 
the projxir appropriation of money therefor, the salaries and compensation 
of each of the persons appointed by it to any office, place or position, 
pursuant to the powers granted by the preceding section. 



Sec. 129. The said Board of Education shall, between the first day of 
August and the thirtieth day of September, in each year, make and transmit 
to the state superintendent of public instruction, a report in writing for the 
state school year ending on the next preceding thirty-first day of July, 
which report shall be in such form and shall state such facts as the state 
superintendent and the school laws of the state shall require. 

Sec. 129^7. It shall be the duty of said board to publish, as hereinafter 
provided, in one of the daily papers of said city, a report of the final 
proceedings of said board for the preceding month. 

Sec. 130. It shall be the duty of said board to prepare and transmit, 
within ten days preceding the close of the fiscal year, to the Common Council, 
correct statements of the receipts and disbursements of money under and 
in pursuance of provisions of this act during said fiscal year, in which 
account shall be stated, under appropriate heads: 

1. The moneys raised by the Common Council under the provisions of 
this act. 

2. The school moneys received by the city treasurer from the county 
treasurer or the state. 

3. All other moneys received by the city treasurer, subject to the order 
of the board specifying the same, and the sources thereof. 

4. The manner in which such sums of money shall have been expended, 
specifying the amount paid under each head of expenditure, and whether 
any part of any such fund remains unexpended. 

5. Whether any and what claims or bills against the department, or 
obligations incurred by said department remain unpaid. 

6. The said board shall also at the same time certify to the C'ommon 
Council the total number of persons registered as pupils in the public 
schools of said city during the current fiscal year. 

Sec. 131. It shall be the duty of said Board of Education to certify 
on or before the first day of March of each year, to the Common (Council, 
an estimate of the amount of moneys required to maintain the department 
of education for the current year, specifying in detail the objects thereof, 
under appropriate heads : 

1. For salaries of teachers. 

2. For buildings, including purchase of sites. 

3. For repairs. 

4. For library. 

5. For contingent expenses. 

Sec. 132. The Common Council shall have power and it shall be its 
duty, if the said estimate, certified by the Board of Education, as herein 
provided, shall not exceed in amount a sum equal to twenty-five dollars per 
capita, based on the total number of persons enrolled as pupils in the public 
schools in said city, for the year ending on the thirty-first day of Decem- 



ber. next preceding the levying of the general city taxes in each year, to 
appropriate and raise by tax to be levied equally upon the real and personal 
estate in said city, which shall be liable to taxation for the ordinary city 
taxes or for the city and county charges, such sum or sums of money, so 
certified to be necessary for the maintenance of the department of educa- 
tion and to defray the expenses of the said department ; but if the total 
amount of said estimate shall exceed in amount a sum equal to twenty-five 
dollars per capita, based upon the total number of persons so enrolled as 
pupils as aforesaid, then the Common Council may in its discretion, appro- 
priate and raise by tax, as herein provided, any sum not greater than the 
estimate so certified and not less than twenty-five dollars per capita, based 
on said total number of persons so enrolled as pupils as aforesaid, pro- 
vided nevertheless that the tax to be levied as aforesaid and collected by 
virtue of this act shall be collected at the same time and in the same manner 
as other city taxes, and the Common Council of said city are authorized 
and directed, when necessary, to raise by loan in anticipation of the taxes, 
the amount to be raised, collected and levied as aforesaid or any part 
thereof. 

Sec. 133. It shall be the duty of the Common Council within fifteen 
days after receiving the certificate of the Board of txlucation hereinbefore 
required, of the sum necessary or proper to be raised for school purposes, 
to determine and certify to said Board of Education the amount that will 
be raised by them for the year commencing on the first day of the pre- 
ceding Januar)^ for the purposes mentioned in said certificate. The amount 
raised for school purposes shall constitute five separate and distinct funds, 
namely : Teachers' fund, contingent fund, building fund, repair fund and 
library fund, and in case the said Common Council shall neglect or fail to 
certify to the Board of Education, as above specified, the amount that will 
be raised by them within thirty days, then the said Common Council shall 
raise the several amounts embraced in the certificate of the Board of Educa- 
tion, as specified therein, which amount shall be subject to the disposal 
of the Board of Education. 

Sec. 134. If the sum appropriated for the department of education, as 
provided in section one hundred and thirty-three, shall be less than the total 
amount certified by the said board in said estimate, it shall be the duty of 
said board, within fifteen days after receiving the certificate of the Common 
Council of the sum appropriated by said Common Council for the depart- 
ment of education, to apportion the said sum to the teachers' fund, the 
building fund, the repair fund, the library fund and the contingent fund, 
and to certify such apportionment to the Common Council : the said appor- 
tionment so certified shall constitute the teachers' fund, building fund, repair 
fund, library fund and contingent fund for the then current year, provided, 
however, that in such apportionment to such funds, the amount appor- 



lO 



tioned to any fund shall not exceed the amount originally certified sis 
necessary to be raised for such fund. 

Sec. 135. It shall be the duty of said board, in all their expenditure's 
and contracts, to have reference to the amount of moneys which shall t>tr 
subject to their order during the then current year for the particular 
expenditure in question, and not to exceed that amount ; and they shall 
apply the moneys raised and received by them for the support of thtf 
common schools in said city, in such a manner as shall secure as neari\' 
as may be an equal period of instruction to all the children over five? 
and under twenty-one years of age. 

Sec. 136. If before the expiration of the fiscal year, it shall appeal" 
that any sum or sums raised by the Common Council for the Board of 
Education will be inadequate to maintain the department of education to 
the expiration of such fiscal year, the Common Council shall have power 
and may, upon application of the Board of Education, borrow on the 
credit of said city such sum as it may deem necessary to maintain said 
department of education until the end of such fiscal year, and shall 
apportion such moneys to the several funds maintained for the benefit 
of such department. 

Sec. 137. All moneys to be raised pursuant to the provisions of this 
act and all school moneys by law appropriated to or provided for said city, 
shall be paid to the city treasurer thereof, who, together with the sureties 
upon his ofllicial bond, shall be accountable therefor in the same manner as 
for other moneys of said city. The said city treasurer shall be liable to 
the same penalties for any official misconduct in relation to said moneys, 
as for any similar misconduct in relation to other moneys of said city. 

Sec. 138. Whenever the Board of Education shall determine to build, 
or enlarge a school building, it shall cause plans and specifications to b< 
prepared therefor, and shall submit the same to the Board of Health foi 
approval as to sanitary provision. The Board of Health shall thereupon 
and within ten days thereafter certify in writing to the Board of Educa- 
tion its approval or disapproval of such plans and specifications, an( 
upon the failure of the Board of Health to so certify, then such plani:^ — ^ 
and specifications shall be deemed to be approved by the Board of Health ^ 

Sec. 139. Whenever such Board of Education shall build, enlarge, re — 
pair, furnish (^r supply any school building or buildings, or publish reports-^ 
of its proceedings, at an estimated expense of not less than fifty or mor^:? 
than two hundred and fifty dollars, it shall be the duty of the officials hav- 
ing jurisdiction, to procure estimates of such work or supplies from two or 
more competitors, wherever practicable, and re}X)rt such estimates to the 
board for its consideration and action. Whenever such board shall build, 
enlarge, repair, furnish or supply any school building or buildings, or make 
any improvements or repairs or purchase any supplies, or publish reports 



1 1 



of its proceedings, the cost of which will exceed two hundred and fifty dol- 
lars, the board shall proceed as follows : 

a. Said board shall advertise for bids for the period of two weeks, at 
least twice in each week, in two newspapers published in the city of Roch- 
ester, and which resolution providing for the same shall be entered in full 
by the clerk on the record of proceedings of said board. 

b. The bids, duly sealed up, shall be filed with the clerk by twelve 
o'clock, noon, of the last day, as stated in the advertisement. 

c. The bids shall be opened at the next meeting of the board and pub- 
licly read by the clerk. 

J. Each bid shall contain the name of every person, firm or corporation 
interested in the same and shall be accompanied by a sufficient guarantee 
of some disinterested person, that if the bid is accepted, a contract will be 
entered into and the performance of it properly secured by bonds duly 
approved. 

/. The board may, in its discretion, accept any bids for both labor and 
material which shall be mo.st advantageous to the city, or it may reject any 
or all bids, as the interest of the city may require. 

Sec. 140. No member of said Hoard of Education shall, during the 
period he holds said office, be appointed to, or be competent to hold any 
office of which the emoluments are paid from the city treasury, or paid by 
any fees directed to be paid by any act or ordinance of the Board of Edu- 
cation, or be directly or indirectly interested in any contract as principal, 
surety or otherwise, or the furnishing of any materials or supplies for the 
city of Rochester, directly or by another person, the expenses or consider- 
tion whereof are to be paid under any ordinance, resolution or order of the 
Board of Education. No member of said board shall vote for the payment 
of any such bill for materials or supplies after notice that any member of 
said board is interested therein or in the payment thereof. Any violation 
of this section .shall be deemed a misdemeanor and punishable as such. 

Sec. 140^1. The said board of commissioners shall be tru.stees of the 
school, library or libraries in said city, and all the provisions of the law 
which are now or hereafter may be pas.sed relative to the di.strict school 
libraries, shall apply to the said commissioners. They shall also be ve.sted 
with the same discretion as to the disposition of all moneys appropriated 
by any laws of this state for the purchase of libraries which is therein con- 
ferred upon the inhabitants of school districts. It shall he their duty to 
provide for the safe keeping of the library or libraries. 

Sec. 140/^. The secretary of the said board shall have charge of the 
rooms, books, papers, and documents of the board, except such as pertain 
to the office and duties of the superintendent. He shall perform such 
duties as may be required of him by the board, its committees or members. 
He shall have right to administer oaths and take acknowledgments, hut 



12 



without fee. He shall be clerk of the board, and shall keep, or cause t(^ 
be kept, a record of the proceedings thereof. He shall also keep or caus^ 
to be kept a set of records showing the receipts and expenditures sepa- 
rately through each of the different funds of the school board. Said ex- 
penditures through each and every fund shall be subdivided so as to sho\w'- 
the cost of maintaining each school separately and the supplies usec3 
therein. He shall also keep or cause to be kept a series of receipts to be 
signed by either the principals or janitors certifying to all repairs and im- 
provements made and all supplies received for their respective school 
buildings and premises. The printed record of said board, or a tran- 
script thereof, certified by the president or clerk, shall be received in all 
courts as prima facie evidence of the facts therein set forth, and such 
records, and all the books, accounts, vouchers and papers of said board 
shall at all times be subject to the inspection of the Common Couucil and 
of any committee thereof. He shall also collect and pay into the city 
treasury monthly all tuition fees. 

Sec. 140c. To be eligible to the position of superintendent, an appli- 
cant must be a graduate of a college or university recognized by the 
regents of the state of New York, together with at least ten years' success- 
ful experience as a practical educator. 

Sec. 140//. The superintendent has power and it is his duty to en- 
force the laws of the state applicable to the public schools of the city of 
Rochester, and all the rules and regulations of the said Board of Edu- 
cation, except as herein provided. He shall visit the schools of the city 
as often as he can consistently with his other duties, and inquire into the 
character of the instruction, management and discipline, and shall advise 
and encourage the pupils, teachers and officers thereof. He shall pre- 
scribe, subject to the rules of the board, and the provisions herein, suit- 
able registers, blanks, forms and regulations for making of all reports and 
for conducting all necessary business connected with the school system 
and he shall cause the same, with such information and instructions as 
he shall deem conducive to the proper organization and government of 
the schools, to be transmitted to the persons entrusted with the execution 
of the same. He shall report to the said board, from time to time, as he 
may be required or as he may deem necessary, a statement of the con- 
dition of the schools, and all such matters relating to his office, and such 
plans and suggestions for the improvement of the schools and for the ad- 
vancement of public instruction in the city of Rochester as he shall deem 
expedient. He may appoint and define the duties of such clerks as are 
authorized by the board. He shall have the recommendation of the num- 
ber of teachers necessary for each of the several schools. He shall assign 
supply teachers to duty whenever occasion requires, and may transfer 
temporarily principals, teachers and pupils from one school to another. 



>3 

It shall be his duty to maintain proper discipline in the management and 
conduct of the schools, and he may, in his discretion, suspend or expel 
any pupil guilty of misconduct or insubordination, and may suspend for 
cause any teacher, principal or employe. He shall immediately report 
such discipline to the board. It shall be his duty to report to the board 
inefficiency on the part of principals, teachers or employes. He shall 
nominate special teachers and supervisors. He shall enforce the com- 
pulsory education law and direct truant officers in the discharge of their 
duties. He shall maintain his office in such buildings as the board may 
direct, and he shall not be required to perform any duty except such as 
relates to the educational work of the department. 

Sec. i4o<f. A principal, under the general supervision of the super- 
intendent, shall have the direction of the school over which he is placed, 
shall assign the teachers to their respective grades in the school, and 
direct them as to methods of instruction and discipline. He may sus- 
pend any teacher for a definite time for inefficiency or insubordination. 
He shall report immediately such suspension, with reasons therefor, to the 
superintendent. 

Sec. 140/". The librarian shall have, subject to the rules and regu- 
lations of the said board, the general direction of the library, the custody 
and care of the books; shall supervise the letting out and the return 
thereof; make all purchases of books; have bound or cause to be re- 
paired the damaged books belonging thereto ; appoint and remove, with 
the approval of the board, such assistants, clerks or employes as the board 
niay authorize ; collect and account for fines and enforce penalties which 
"^ay be incurred by violation of regulations relating to the librar)'. 

Sec. 140^'. It shall be the duty of the supervising architect, subject to 
the rules and regulations of the said board, to inspect school buildings, 
prepare plans and specifications for new buildings, annexes and repairs 
and to supervise the construction thereof. 

Sec. 140//. A board of examiners is hereby constituted, whose duty it 
shall be to examine all applicants for positions of principal or teacher in the 
Public schools of Rochester and to prepare an eligible list of such applicants 
as they may deem qualified, and as hereinafter provided, classified as to po- 
5^ition and graded according to scholarship, character and general fitness, 
"^tich board of examiners shall consist of the superintendent, together with 
two persons appointed by the said Hoard of Education upon nomination of 
the superintendent. The term of service of the two persons so appointed 
shall be at the pleasure of the said Board of Education. They shall be 
paid such compensation for services actually rendered as the said Board of 
Wucation shall prescribe. To be eligible to appointment as examiner 
^^ applicant must be (a) a graduate of a college or university recognized 
^y the regents of the state of New York, and a practical educator, having 



14 

had at least five years' successful experience in teaching since such grad 
ation ; or (If) must have a state certificate obtained as a result of an exam- 
ination held since eighteen hundred and seventy-five, together with at leas^ 
ten years' successful experience in teaching since obtaining such certificate , 
No principal or teacher in the public schools of Rochester shall be allowedl 
to serve on the said board of examiners. The said board of examiners 
shall hold such examinations as the superintendent may prescribe and 
prepare the said eligible list. The superintendent shall report the said list 
to the said Board of Education and shall transcribe the same into a book 
which shall be open to public inspection. Any name placed upon the 
eligible list shall be entitled to remain thereon without further examination 
for the period of two years, after which the name shall be dropped from 
said list and shall not be restored thereto except after a new examination. 

Sec. 140/. The superintendent shall nominate principals for each school 
from the first ten names certified by the said board of examiners, as qualified 
for principalship. But no person shall be appointed to the position of prin- 
cipal of the Free Academy or High School, or of a grammar school, or 
teacher in the Free Academy or High School who has not had two years' 
successful experience as a teacher, and who does not possess one of the 
following qualifications : (a) completion of a four years' course in a college 
or high school recognized by the regents of the state of New York; 
(d) completion of a four years' course in a normal school recognized by the 
state department of public instruction ; (c) holder of a life certificate of this 
state granted upon examination. The superintendent and the principal of 
a school shall constitute a board for the nomination of teachers for such 
school from the first twenty-five names on said eligible list for teachers ; 
but no person shall be appointed as teacher in a grammar school or kinder- 
garten who is not a graduate of a normal school after a course of study 
therein of at least two years, or has not pursued a course in pedogogy in a 
state training school or a city training school for one year. Elxcept that 
any graduate of the normal course of the Rochester Athenaeum and Me- 
chanics Institute after a course of study therein of at least two years may be 
appointed in any of the schools of said city as teacher of manual training, 
domestic science, domestic art, or any of the special subjects comprised in 
said normal course of said institute. 

The said Board of Education shall consider such nominations, and upon 
approval, appoint the persons so nominated. 

Sec. 140/. Any principal or teacher who may have been appointed to 
the same school for three successive years, may, upon the recommendation 
of the superintendent, be promoted by the said Board of Elducation to 
permanent service in said school during good behavior ; thereafter, they 
may be suspended or removed as herein provided, only for cause and after 
a hearing. Any principal or teacher, before such promotion, shall be 



elig^ible to reappointment without certification by the said Board of Ex- 
anniners. 

Sec. i40it. The said Board of Education shall from time to time desig- 
nate the number of persons having the highest standing upon the said 
certified lists of qualified principals and teachers respectively, who shall be 
eUgible for temporary appointments as supply principals and teachers. 
From the number so designated the superintendent shall from time to time 
assign to duty at the several schools such principals or teachers for tem- 
porary service as he may deem the exigencies of such schools to require. 

Sec. 140/. Any officer, principal or teacher, in the employ of the said 
department of education at the time of the passage of this act shall be 
exempt from the conditions as to qualifications or eligibility imposed by 
this act. 

Sec. 140m. The said Board of Education may suspend any principal 
«'r teacher for a definite time, and may for cause remove any officer, prin- 
cipal, teacher or employee ; provided, however, that no officer, principal or 
teacher shall be removed until opportunity for a hearing at a meeting of 
the board shall have been given. All suspensions by principals shall be 
'>ubject to review by the superintendent. Suspensions by the superin- 
tendent shall be subject to review by the board. Any person suspended 
shall not be entitled to salary for time of susf>ension unless such suspension 
is revoked by superior authority. 

Sec. 141. Said Board of Mucation shall prepare and report to the 
Common (Council such ordinances and regulations as may be necessary or 
proper for the protection, safe-keeping and preservation of the schoolhouses. 
lots and sites, and appurtenances, and all the property belonging to the 
% connected with or appertaining to the schools, and to suggest proper 
penalties for the violation of such ordinances and regulations. 

Sec. 141/7. The C'ommon Council of the said city shall have the power 
^^ pass such ordinances and regulations as the said Board of hklucation 
inay report as necessary or proper for the protection, safekeeping, care and 
preservation of the schoolhouses, lots, sites, appurtenances and appendages, 
•'hraries, and all necessary property belonging to or connected with the 
*^chooLs in said city, and to impose proper penalties for the violation thereof, 
'Subject to the restrictions and limitations contained in this charter : and all 
'U^h penalties shall be collected in the same manner that the penalties for 
^^^ violation of citv ordinances are bv law collected, and when collected 
^hall be paid to the treasurer of the city and be subject to the order of the 
l^ard of Education, in the same manner as other moneys raised pursuant 
^^ this charter. 

Sec. 141^. The Common Council of said city may, upon the recom- 
niendation of the Board of Education hereinafter mentioned, sell any of the 
'^hoolhouses, lots or sites, or any other school property now or hereafter 



i6 

belonging to said city, upon such terms as the said Common Council may 
deem reasonable. The proceeds of such sale shall be paid to the treasurer 
of the city and shall be by the said Common Council again expended in the 
purchase, repairs or improvements of other schoolhouses, lots, sites or 
school furniture, apparatus or appurtenances. 

Sec. i4if. The Common Council may investigate any and all charges, 
claims or proceedings of or made against the said Ik)ard of .Kducation, its 
officers and employees, or in any way relating to said public schools of said 
city, and have all the powers and authority which are conferred by law 
upon any committee or board which is authorized to send for persons and 
papers. 

Sec. 141//. The title to all property, real or personal, now held by the 
city of Rochester for school or educational purposes, or which may be here- 
after acquired for such purposes, and the title to all property, real or per- 
sonal, purchased for like purposes with any school moneys, whether derived 
from the issue of bonds or raised by taxation, shall be vested in the city of 
Rochester. The said city of Rochester shall have power to take and hold 
any property, real or personal, devised, bequeathed or otherwise transmitted 
to it for the purposes of education in said city. All actions affecting any 
such property shall, however, be brought by or against said Hoard of 
Kducation in its corporate capacity. 

Sec. i4ir'. The public schools shall be free to all children between 
the ages of five and twenty-one years residing in the cit^', and all evening 
schools shall be free to all person's over five years of age. 

Sec. 141/. No order shall be drawn for payment of any bills or claims 
against the said department until the same has been approved by the 
comptroller. 

ARTICLE I. 

Ditties ok Presidknt. 

The l*resident shall appoint all committees: sign all contracts, 
leases, warrants, checks, and documents au horized by the Board ; shall 
enforce the laws, rules, and regulations governing the department and 
conduct of the public schools. He may conduct or authorize an examination 
of all books, records, accounts, documents, and contracts, and of the official 
conduct of any committee, officer, teacher, or employe. 

He shall, at the last meeting in December, present an annual report, 
which shall be entered upon the minutes and be incorporated with that of 
the Superintendent in the annual report of the Hoard of Kducation. 

Other Officers. 

The duties of the secretary of the Hoard and of the superintendent of 
schools are prescribed by law. 



17 

ARTICLE II. 

eetings of the Board are Prescribed by Law. 

ARTICLE III. 

General Regulations — School System. 

The public schools of the city of Rochester shall consist of the following 
scliools : grammar schools, primary schools, high schools, normal training 
school, truant school, evening schools. 

Schools containing all grades, first to eighth inclusive, shall be denom- 
inated grammar schools. 

Schools containing less than eight grades shall be denominated primary 
schools. A kindergarten department may be included in either a grammar 
or primary school. 

The first, second, third and fourth grades shall constitute the primary 
department : the fifth and sixth grades shall constitute the intermediate 
department ; the seventh and eighth grades shall constitute the grammar 
department ; the number of each grade representing that year of school 
in the course of study. 

The High Schools shall include four grades, the ninth, tenth, 
eleventh and twelfth. 

The Normal Training School shall consist of the following depart- 
ments: Normal, Kindergarten, and shall include two grades, the thirteenth 
a^nd the fourteenth. 

The Evening Schools shall furnish instruction in such subjects as the 
^ard mav from time to time determine. 

Duties of Principai^s. 

The Principals, under the general supervision and direction of the 
Superintendent, shall have the immediate charge and direction of the 
schools to which they have been appointed, and are vested with the 
responsibility and authority to carry into effect the rules and regulations 
^f the Board of Education. 

They shall not allow the pupils to appear in or about the school 
premises earHer than thirty minutes before the commencement of the school, 
^^d shall see to it that they do not annoy the residents of the vicinity of 
^^^ school, and shall have jurisdiction over the conduct of children going 
^0 and returning home from school. 

They shall assign the teachers to their respective grades or depart- 
ments and classes, and advise and direct them as to methods of instruction 
^d government. They shall keep a record of visits of supervisors. 

They shall require both teachers and pupils to be regular and 
Punctual in attendance, courteous, and attentive to duty. 



They shall attend to all cases of sp>ecial discipline, and for the purposie 
of maintaining proper discipline, they may, if necessary, suspend for a 
definite time an insubordinate pupil. They shall keep a record of such 
suspension, with reasons therefor, which shall be transmitted to the 
Superintendent. 

They shall, within ten days after the beginning of each semester, 
transmit to the Superintendent a list of the names and addresses, by street 
and number, of the teachers employed in their schools. , 

They shall have charge, and be responsible for, their respective school 
buildings, the furniture, books, apparatus, and supplies contained therein ; 
and the grounds, fences, trees, shrubbery belonging thereto. They shall 
require that the school buildings be kept properly cleaned, warmed and 
ventilated. 

They shall receive all applicants for admission to the schools, and 
shall classify and promote them Jiccording to their qualifications and attain- 
ments. 

They shall give personal attention to the protection, health and 
comfort of the teachers and pupils in the school buildings, and on the 
school grounds. 

They shall require all pupils to furnish themselves with the neces- 
sary books in conformity with the rules of the Board, and no pupil shall 
be allowed to retain a place in the school for a longer period than one 
week, unless so provided ; but should the parents or guardians of the 
pupils in any school present satisfactory proof, by affidavit, of their inabil- 
ity to furnish their children with the required school books, the principal 
shall send a written order to the Secretary, with the reasons assigned, 
specifying the books needed. These books shall be only lent to indigent 
pupils, to be returned to the principal at or before the close of the year, 
or whenever the pupil shall leave the school, and a correct list of all such 
books shall be preserved by the principal. 

They shall report in writing, each month, to the Superintendent, 
the names of all non-resident pupils attending their respective schools. 
together with the amounts paid by each of said pupils for tuition, and 
said principals are required to pay to the Secretary, as soon as received, 
the sums received by them for such tuition. 

rhey shall devote some portion of each day to visiting the various 
departments of the school for the pur]X)se of supervising and directing 
the labors of the teachers, and ascertaining whether all the records of the 
school are regularly and accurately kept, the pupils properly classified, 
and their parents or guardians duly notified of the absence of their chil- 
dren, when the cause of such absence is unknown or not satisfactory. 

They shall devote such time to class instruction as may be directed by 
the Superintendent. 



'9 

Corporal punishment is allowed in extreme cases, though principals are 
advised not to inflict it except under compulsion of absolue necessity. A 
witness must be present, and each instance must be reported to the Super- 
intendent of Schools without delay. 

They shall prepare and conduct such reviews and examinations as 
may be provided in the course of study, or may be required by the 
Superintendent. 

They shall keep a record of all the promotions made at all times 
in their respective schools, showing the age and standing of each pupil 
promoted, which record shall, at all times, be open to the inspection of 
the Superintendent, members of the Board, parents or guardians, and, 
when called for, shall be sent to the office of the Superintendent. 

Principals may, in their discretion, at any time reclassify such pupils 
as may be unable to take the course of study as prescribed, and may ad- 
vance such pupils as may be able to take the prescribed course of study 
more rapidly than provided for the respective grades. 

They shall be present at the schools where they are employed at 
least thirty minutes before the time specified for commencing the schools, 
both morning and afternoon, and shall personally superintend the opening 
and closing of each school session. 

They shall frequently, and at irregular intervals, not exceeding one 
week, carry into effect, in their respective schools, the following instruc- 
tions respecting fire drills : Every precaution must be used to allow free 
egress from the building, and one or more pupils must be instructed to 
open, upon a given signal, all outside doors. The word F-I-R-E be made 
by striking the bells or gong four times, upon which all pupils shall form, 
either in rooms or hall, as shall be determined by each principal, and remain 
in position until ordered out or sent back. One stroke of the gong shall 
signify false alann, whereupon pupils will return to their desks. Two 
strokes of the gong will notify pupils to immediately pass out of the build- 
ing, in lines, without waiting for wraps. Any pupil refusing to obey these 
signals shall be suspended. The fire signals shall be distinct from all others, 
^nd used only for fire-drill purposes. The signals and drills shall be as 
"early uniform in all the buildings as the construction of the same will 
permit. 

They shall cause written programmes of the daily exercises of the 
several grades to be placed in some conspicuous place in the school rooms. 

They shall transmit to the Superintendent, at the close of every 
school month, and of each school year, full reports, according to blanks 
funiished them, with such additional information as the Board or the 
Superintendent may, from time to time, require, or as they may think 
"'^portant to communicate. 



20 



The principals may make such special regulations for their schools, 
teachers, and pupils, not conflicting with the general regulations, as they 
deem necessary to secure good discipline, proper deportment, and 
thorough scholarship. 

The decisions of principals relative to discipline, classification, and 
promotion, shall be subject to review by the Superintendent. 

Duties of Teachers. 

Any principal or teacher who may wish a leave of absence for one or 
more days, must secure such leave from the Superintendent, or, in his 
absence, from the principal of the school. In case of enforced absence* 
immediate notice must be sent to the Superintendent's office. 

All teachers in the public schools are required to acquaint them- 
selves with the rules and regulations of the Board, and the directions of the 
Superintendent and principal, in relation to the management and discipline 
of their respective departments, and to carry them into full effect. 

They shall report to the principals at their respective school houses 
at least twenty minutes before the time specified for commencing school in 
the morning and afternoon. They shall record the time of arrival at the 
school building, both morning and afternoon, at the time of such arrival. 

They shall take care that the school building, furniture, apparatus, 
maps, books of reference, and books loaned to indigent pupils, be not 
defaced or injured ; and they shall, immediately upon the discovery of any 
injury to school property, report the same to the principal. 

It shall be the duty of all teachers to exercise a careful supervision 
over their pupils while in the school rooms, about the school premises, and 
going to and from school. They shall report to the principal any improper 
conduct. Teachers shall pay strict attention to the habits and morals of 
pupils. They shall have special regard to prop>er attitudes, sitting and 
standing, deferential and courteous manners, and in no case allow the 
use of profane or improper language. 

Corporal punishment must never be inflicted by the teacher, but by 
the principal alone. 

Teachers having in their department indigent pupils, not provided 
with text-books, shall report such to the principal. 

Elach teacher shall give a correct and faithful record at the end of 
each month, to the principal, of the number of days taught, the number of 
times punctual, and the amount of time lost by absence, which report the 
principal shall fon\'ard, with the record of his own time, to the Secretary 
of the Board. 

The teachers in each department may be allowed to visit other public 
schools in the discretion of the Superintendent. 



21 

When duly notiiied, all teachers shall attend institutes or classes for 
instruction. 

No teacher in the public schools shall tutor or assist any pupil of 
his school except with the consent of the principal, in which case no com- 
pensation shall be charged. 

Supervisors. 

Supervisors, except as herein provided, shall, under the immediate 
direction of the Superintendent, have a general supervision of the in- 
struction in their respective departments. They shall give instruction to 
teachers by lectures, by model or illustrative teaching, by general or per- 
sonal suggestion and criticism. They shall visit the schools systematically, 
and shall report to the principals, who shall make a record of the same. 
They shall report to the principal upon the character of the instruction 
given in their respective departments, with criticisms and suggestions as 
exigencies may require. They shall report to the Superintendent upon the 
general condition of the schools as regards departmental instruction. 

Special Teachers. 

Special teachers shall be employed for work in certain branches only, 
and they shall, under the direction of the Superintendent, devote their 
whole time to the work of their respective departments. They shall give 
instruction at such schools and at such times as may be determined by the 
Superintendent under the direction of the Board. They shall report to and 
co-operate with the principals as regards their work in the respective 
schools. They shall report to the Superintendent, as often as he may 
require, as to the character of the work accomplished under their instruc- 
tion, together with such suggestions as to the general management of their 
respective departments as they may deem the interests of the schools to 
require. 

Pupils. 

All pupils shall be classified according to their attainments, and enter 
such department or class, and pursue the studies in such order as the 
principals shall direct, in conformity with the rules of the Board and course 
of study. 

Any person of school age who shall have taken a temporary resi- 
dence in the city for the purpose of attending school, or a minor or ward 
whose parent or guardian resides out of the city of Rochester, shall be 
considered a non-resident. A non-resident must obtain from the Superin- 
tendent a school permit, which shall designate the school in which attendance 
is permitted. 



22 



No resident pupil shall be allowed to attend the public school in a 
district other than that in which he resides, without the written permit of 
the Superintendent of schools. All permits shall expire at the end of each 
school year, unless sooner revoked or rescinded. Resident pupils of each 
district must be first provided with proper room before others are admitted. 
District permits may be revoked for cause by the Superintendent and he 
may transfer, for cause, pupils from one district to another. Whenever . a 
pupil attends a school under a district permit, he shall not be transferred to 
another school without written consent of the Superintendent. 

Any pupil about to remove to another district shall notify the princi- 
pal, and obtain a certificate of transfer showing the grade of scholarship 
and a record of attendance, and principals are hereby required to reject 
such applicants until they have complied with the provisions of this rule. 
This rule shall apply to all transfers from one public school to another. 

All pupils who are irregular, tardy, disorderly, indolent, or inatten- 
tive may be suspended, and all pupils who, by reason of irregularity, tardi- 
ness, indolence or inattention, have fallen behind in their classes, may be 
placed in the grade or class below. 

A pupil absent eight half -days, whenever accumulating, without an 
excuse from the parent or guardian, given either in person or by written 
note, satisfying the teacher that his absence was caused by his own sickness, 
sickness in the family, or some urgent necessity, shall forfeit his seat in the 
school ; and the principal shall forthwith notify the parent and the Superin- 
tendent that the pupil is suspended. No pupil thus suspended shall be 
restored to the school until the parent or guardian has given satisfactory- 
assurance that the pupil will be regular in attendance in the future, and has 
obtained permission from the principal for such pupil to return. Parents 
shall be notified by teacher, in writing, of absence of pupil before suspen- 
sion. 

No mere statement that the parent has kept the pupil at home shall be 
accepted by the teacher as an excuse for absence ; and, unless it shall 
appear that the pupil has been detained by sickness, or some other urgent 
reason, which would render attendance impossible, or which would cause 
a serious and imprudent exposure of health, the excuse shall not be deemed 
satisfactory. 

All pupils are required to conform to the regulations of the school, 
and obey promptly all directions of the teacher ; to observe good order and 
propriety of deportment. 

For open disobedience, improper conduct, vicious habits, insubordi- 
nation, tardiness, truancy, or conduct forbidden by any of these school 
regulations, any pupil may be suspended by the principal or expelled by the 
Superintendent, immediate notice of which suspension or expulsion shall be 
given to the parent or guardian, and Superintendent. Such pupil shall only 



be re-admitted by the principal or Superintendent in case of suspension, 
and by the Superintendent in case of expulsion. 

Pupils guilty of defacing or injuring any of the school property shall 
pay in full for all damages, and, in default of such payment, shall be 
suspended from the school, and be readmitted only by permission of the 
Superintendent. 

Any pupil who shall come to school not properly prepared as to 
dress, cleanliness, and personal appearance, shall be sent home to be put in 
proper order for school. 

Pupils shall not be permitted to assemble about the school buildings 
at an unreasanable time before the commencement of school or remain 
abovit school premises after being dismissed. 

ARTICLE IV. 

(xENKRAL Rules for Schools. 

There shall be such reviews and examinations in each semester as 
^^^^ Sup>erintendent may prescribe. 

The school year shall be divided into two semesters ; the first shall 
^^-'^t'nmence the second Monday of September, each year, and continue 
"^t^il the last Friday in January; the second shall commence on Mon- 
^^>' next following the close of the first, and shall continue so long as 
™^^y be necessary to complete the school year as fixed by the Hoard of 
'^^lucation. 

Special individual conditional promotions to the class next higher shall 
^^^ made whenever, in the judgment of the teacher and principal, the pupil 
*^ qualified to do the more advanced work and would be benefited by such 
I^i~omotion. 

At the end of each semester a report of the work of each pupil during 

^^^e semester shall be sent to his parents or guardian. Such report shall 

^^X)ntain the record of the pupil's work in each subject by months, and in 

^ases of failure to promote, the reason of such failure shall be clearly set 

"forth. 

Whenever it is clear, from the weekly records of the pupils, that the 
^'ork done, if continued, will not warrant promotion, it shall be the duty of 
^he teachers to communicate with the parents, and endeavor, if possible, to 
Secure their co-operation in improving the work of the pupils. 

Pupils having been promoted from one class to the class next higher, 
^'ho for two consecutive months fail to maintain a satisfactorv standard, 
shall be returned to the grade from which they were advanced, if in the 
opinion of the principal and Superintendent of schools such failure is due 
^^ insufficient preparation for the work of the higher grade. 



24 



Gradation and Promotion. 

For the purposes of gradation and promotion, the school year shall \>^ 
divided into two semesters. In each grade there shall be two classes 
designated respectively the A and B classes — ^the A class being the more 
advanced. All promotions shall be made to the class next higher. 

In grades one, two and three, classes may be promoted at any time \>y 
the principal of the school, with the consent of the Superintendent of 
schools, upon the advice of the teachers in charge, supplemented by such 
oral examinations as the Superintendent and principal shall deem ad- 
visable. 

In all grades, from the fourth to the twelfth, inclusive, at. the end of 
each week teachers shall prepare, on blanks furnished for the purpose, an 
estimate of the work of each student during the week. These estimates 
shall represent the judgment of the teachers upon the ability and industry 
displayed by the pupils in the various subjects pursued. They shall be 
rec6rded by the use of the letters A, B, C. B being the passing mark; 
C indicating failure, and A being given only in cases of especial merit. 

At frequent irregular intervals, brief examinations or written reviews of 
various sorts shall be given the pupils in their respective classes, and a 
record of the results obtained in each case shall be kept by the teachers. 
Questions for at least one examination in each semester shall be furnished 
or specially authorized by the Superintendent of schools. The results of 
these examinations shall not be the basis for promotion, but shall be used 
and considered by the teacher as a guide and critique of his own work, and 
as one means for determining the character of the work of the students. 

At the end of each month a report shall be sent to the parent or 
guardian of every pupil, giving the average of the weekly estimates taken 
from the teachers' record modified by the average results of any written 
tests given during the month. Each of these reports, signed by the parent 
or guardian, shall be returned to the teacher. 

At the end of each semester, the teacher and principal together shall 
examine the record of each pupil, both as to weekly estimates and tests or 
examinations given during the term, taking into consideration all circum- 
stances so far as known, affecting the work of the pupil. 

All pupils whose work has been found upon the whole satisfactory and 
all who have given evidence that they are qualified to do the work of the 
succeeding grade, shall be promoted. Those whose work has been found 
to be in the main unsatisfactory and those who have not given satisfactory 
evidence of ability to do the work of the succeeding grade, shall not be 
promoted, provided that in the case of exceptional pupils, conditional pro- 
motions for a definite time may be made. 



25 

The morning session of all the public schools shall commence at 

nine o'clock and close at 11:45. '^^^ afternoon session shall commence 

at 1:30 o'clock and close at 3:45. Dismissals and all preparations therefor 

shall be made not earlier than five minutes previous to said hours herein 

specified. The morning session for Second and Third Grade shall be 

9 to 11:30, and the afternoon session shall be 1:30 to 3:30. Pupils of the 

Kindergartens and First Grade shall attend school but one-half day each ; 

certain classes reporting in the morning and others in the afternoon, as 

determined by the teachers. The hours for these grades shall be in the 

morning from 9 to 1 1:30, in the afternoon from 1:30 to 3:30. 

Regents examinations for preliminary certificates may be taken at such 
time and under such conditions as may be prescribed by the principals of 
the respective schools, under the direction of the Superintendent. 

Pupils may be detained after the close of the afternoon session, not 
to exceed one hour for the time lost by tardiness, or for misconduct during 
scViool hours. When thus detained they shall be subject to the same regu- 
lations as in school hours. No pupil shall be detained in school for study 
or punishment during any part of the noon intermission or recreation 
time. 

No study tasks shall be imposed upon pupils as a punishment. 
No use whatever shall be made of any school house other than for 
I Vie purposes of the school, without the consent of the Board. 

No person shall be permitted to solicit subscriptions for any paper, 
V>ook, publication, or other article, or canvass for the sale or manufacture 
of any article or tickets, within the school buildings or the school grounds 
at any time, and no subscription, for any purpose whatever, shall be intro- 
duced in any public school, and no advertisement shall be read to the 
pupils of any schools, or distributed among them, or posted upon the walls 
of any school building or fences of the same, and no collection or contribu- 
tion shall be allowed to be taken or tickets sold, for any purpose not con- 
nected with the purposes of the school. No advertising matter, circulars, 
announcements, posters, or cards shall be left or distributed within any of 
the school buildings or grounds for any purpose. Lists of the names or 
addresses of teachers or pupils must not be furnished by any employee of 
the Board to any person for use in circulating, canvassing, or distributing 
advertising matter. Every employee will be held to a rigid enforcement of 
this rule. 

No principal or teacher or other employee in the public schools 
shall be allowed to sell any book, stationery, pens, pencils, slates, or other 
articles used in schools by the pupils. 

Teachers of classes dismissed before 11:45 ^^^ 3-45 o'clock shall 
perform such duties during remainder of school hours as the principal may 
direct. 



26 

All rules of the Board of Health in regard to infectious and con- 
tagious diseases shall be strictly enforced. 

Ohskrvanck of Washincjton's Birthday. 

The several public schools of the city of Rochester shall annually 
hereafter suitably observe the celebration of Washington's birth-day by 
public exercises of patriotic character in each school, preceding the con- 
vention exercises hereinafter provided for. 

All the pupils of the highest grade in each school shall be invited 
to attend the convention of school pupils held for the public observance of 
such annual exercises, which observance shall occur on the twenty-second 
day of February, or if that date should occur on Sunday in any year, then 
on such other day as shall be designated by this Board for that purpose. 
Such pupils shall constitute a guard of honor to standard bearers, and shall 
attend as entire delegations and attended by teachers. 

A standard bearer shall each year be selected by the principal of 
each public .school from the pupils of the highest grade of that school, and 
from the graduating class of the High Schools, based upon the highest 
attainment in scholarship and deportment that year, whose duty it shall be 
to receive at such convention of delegates the United States flag presented 
to such school by members of the (Jeorge H. Thomas Post, No. 4, (x. A. R., 
from the standard bearer preceding him ; to have the custody, during the 
year following his appointment, of the flag, and transmit the same to his 
successor. Said flag shall remain at the respective public school during 
the year and be displayed in public only upon national holidays or other 
important public occasions. They shall be suitably boxed and preserved 
and formally transferred each year, as above provided, at said annual 
convention of delegates. 

A permanent record shall each year be made and preserved by the 
several school principals, of the delegates and standard bearers selected, as 
hereinbefore provided, in that school; and in case of death, resignation, or 
inability to act. of any standard bearer in any year, his successor shall 
immediately be selected in the same manner as hereinbefore provided. 

ARTICLE V. 

\{\r.ii S(.:hools. 

The faculty of the High School shall be composed of a principal 
and such teachers as shall from time to time be appointed. 

The principal of the Jligh School shall keep a register of the name, 
age and residence of all pupils attending the same — the time of their 
entrance — the school, whether public or private, from which they were 
received, and also the names of all who graduate and receive a diploma. 



He shall also keep a list of the names of all pupils who have been sus- 
pended, dismissed, or expelled from said school, and the reasons therefor. 
Students in any of the departments, having completed the required 
course to the satisfaction of the faculty, shall receive suitable diplomas, 
signed by the principal, the president of the Board of Education, and 
School Superintendent ; but such diplomas shall be withheld until the com- 
pletion of the graduating exercises. Each diploma shall show from what 
course the holder is a graduate. The graduating exercises shall be under 
the supervision of the Board. 

All pupils who fail from any cause to do the prescribed work of the 
class to which they have been promoted, shall be subject to re-classifica- 
tion or withdrawal. 

The hours of school in the High School shall be determined from time 
to time bv the Board. 

All teachers employed in the High School shall be at their respective 
school rooms twenty minutes before the time specified for the commence- 
ment of each school session. 

The faculty shall each year determine the number and names of the 
pupils who shall participate in the graduating exercises. 

ARTICLE VI. 

Faknin(; Schools. 

The fall term of the Evening Schools shall begin on the seconti Monday 
of October, and continue until the Christmas recess. 

The winter term shall begin on the first Monday after New \'ear\s, and 
continue according to attendance. 

The hours shall be from 7.30 to 9.15 ; three sessions each week. 

The course of study shall be determined, from time to time, by the 

Superintendent and the lk)ard of Education. 

ARTICLE VII. 

Truant School Rules. 

By the State law authorizing the establishment of Truant schools and 
the compulsory attendance of truants, the Superintendent of city public 
ivchools is constituted the supervising officer to enforce the provisions of 
said law. 

HousK Rules. 

The following rules shall be observed in the control and management 
of the school, known as the Truant School, for the detention of school 
truants, until otherwise ordered : 



28 

Rule I. Attendance officers shall be on duty at the school during the 
hours prescribed in weekly bulletins, as furnished by the Superintendent. 

Rule 2. The attendance officer bringing a boy into school shall deliver 
him to the principal, or the officer in charge. 

Rule 3. Every attendance officer while on duty at the building, shall in 
the absence of the executive officer, be in full charge and custody of the 
inmates and be responsible for the same. 

Rule 4. The officer in charge during the night shall be responsible for 
the heat, lights, and condition of the building and custody of the inmates 
during said time, subject, however, to the direction of the executive officer. 

Rule 5. The hours of attendance at the school, as laid down by the 
weekly bulletin, shall not be changed without the consent of the principal 
and the Superintendent. 

Rule 6. The principal shall be the executive officer of the school and 
shall have full power and control over all matters pertaining to the school 
and building, subject to orders from the Superintendent. 

Rule 7. The principal shall receipt for all non-resident inmates, notify 
the Superintendent of the name, address, and time of arrival of every in- 
mate ; keep the school record as heretofore required ; have charge and 
custody of the inmates and their instruction, exercise and drill ; shall cause 
all inmates to bathe at least twice a week and to be exercised in the yard 
at his discretion. The matron shall regulate the changes of beds and 
clothing. 

Rule 8. The principal shall keep the inmates in custody, and release 
them only upon the written order of the Superintendent of Public Schools. 

Rule 9. The principal shall receive all articles intended for the inmates, 
and use his discretion in allowing the use of the same. 

Rule 10. In cases of disorderly inmates the principal may in his dis- 
cretion use sufficient means to bring them to subjection without resorting 
to cruelty. 

Rule II. Inmates, when received, shall be examined and all articles, 
except wearing apparel, taken from them for safe keeping and restored to 
them on being released. 

Rule 12. Suitable text-books shall be furnished for use of said school 
by the Board of Education. 

Rule 13. Profanity and the use of tobacco shall not be permitted. 

Rule 14. The building shall be open at all times to the public. 

Rule 15. Hours for inmates: 

7 to 8 A. M., rising and preparation. 

8 to 8.30, breakfast. 

8.30 to 9, donnitory duties. 

9 to 12, school, with intennission. 
12 to I P. M., dinner. 



29 



I to 3» school. 

3 to 5.30 recreation. 

5.30 to 6, supper. 

6 to 9, games and reading. 

9, to bed. 



ARTICLE VIII. 

Duty of Librarian. 
The business hours of the librarian shall be from 9 A. M. to 6 P. M. 

Regulations of the Central Library. 

Rule I. The library shall be open to the public every day throughout 
t*^^ year from 10 A. M. to 6 P. M., without intermission (except upon Sun- 
"^^->^s and legal holidays). Employees' hours, from 9 A. M. to 6 P. M., 
^^^th noon intermission. 

Rule 2. All inhabitants of Rochester, over the age of ten years, who 
^*>all have obtained a permit from a school commissioner, the Superintend- 
^^^t, the librarian, or principal of a school shall be entitled to borrow books 
^ ^^m the library, for home use, so long as they conform to the rules govem- 
^^g the library. 

Rule 3. An alphabetical list, with residence, of all persons using the 
^ il)rary shall be kept by the librarian. 

Rule 4. No pupil of the High Schools or other public school shall be 
Allowed to draw from the library more than two books a week, including 
^^ne of fiction. 

Rule 5. No person can procure a book by the use of another person's 
crard, except persons who may be suffering from continued illness or those 
V'ho are permanently disabled from applying in person. 

Rule 6. No person shall have, for home use, more than one book on 
one card at one time ; and no book shall be retained by any person borrow- 
ing it more than fourteen days ; provided, always, that any book may be 
borrowed twice by the same f)erson, but not more, until it shall have been 
returned to the library and shall have remained there one full library day. 
Rule 7. All books that the Board of Education, in its discretion, may 
set apart as books of reference, shall constitute the Reference Library, and 
none of such books shall be taken from the library. 

Rule 8. To protect the library against loss, and to secure to all a just 
and equitable share in its benefits, any person retaining a volume longer 
than the regulations permit will be fined two cents for each day of deten- 
tion ; the librarian being charged with the collection of these and all other 
<iues to the library, keeping a careful and accurate account of the same in 



30 

detail, and no remission of any fine shall be made, except by order of the 
Board of Education. The librarian shall, at least once each month, pay to 
the Secretary' the amount of all fees collected during the preceding month . 

Rule 9. Any book detained one week beyond the time fixed by these 
regulations shall be sent for by the librarian, and an additional penalt}' o£ 
twenty cents shall be collected from any such delinquent. And no book 
shall be lent to any person who has fines and penalties remaining unsettled 
after three weeks from the date of any loan. 

Rule 10. No person who has borrowed a book from the librar}' shall 
lend it to any one not a member of the same household. 

Rule II. All injuries to books beyond a reasonable wear, and all losses, 
shall be made good to the satisfaction of the Board of Education ; any book 
remaining out of the library for two months shall be considered lost, and 
proceedings taken for its recovery. 

Rule 12. Any person borrowing and failing to return a book within the 
prescribed time, may be refused further loans by the librarian. 

Rule 13. No book shall be taken from the shelves in any part of the 
library by any person not connected with or employed there. 

Rule 14. Pupils in attendance in the public schools will not be per- 
mitted within the librar}- rooms during school hours, except by the written 
permission of a teacher. 

Rule 15. All conversation and conduct inconsistent with the quiet and 
orderly use of the librar}^ is strictly prohibited. 

Rule 16. Any person abusing the privileges of the library by unbecom- 
ing conduct, or by violation of any of the regulations by intentional de- 
facement of the book in any way, shall be reported to the Board as soon as 
may be, and by them excluded from the librar}- for a time, or permanently, 
according to the nature and degree of delinquency or fault ; but in case of 
any gross offense, the librarian shall act summarily in the matter, and 
cause the offender to be at once excluded from the library, reporting the 
case to the Board as soon as possible for their final decision. The use of 
ink shall not be peniiitted in making extracts from books in the reference 
library. Smoking will be strictly prohibited in the librar}'. 

Rule 17. No periodical shall be taken from the library room. Bound 
volumes of magazines shall not be taken from the librar}- room, except such 
duplicate volumes as may especially be set aside for that purpose. 

ARTICLE IX. 

RuLKs Rki.atini; to Care of Sch(K)I. Buim)IN(;s. 

I. The janitors of the public schools shall be under the immediate 
direction of the school principals, who are hereby held responsible for the 



3» 

enforcement of the following rules, and who are required to report to the 
Superintendent any neglect of duty, disrespect toward the teachers, or 
willful violations of the said rules. 

2. The janitors shall keep the school buildings, water closets, and 
cellars, thoroughly clean and free from lead pencil or chalk marks, in which 
latter particular they shall have the co-operation of the principals. 

3. They shall sweep the several schoolrooms, cloakrooms, and halls 

onc^ each school day, and thoroughly dust the woodwork and furniture of 

each room after each sweeping. No sweeping shall be done during the 

hours when the school is in session, or while the teacher is engaged in 

school work. 

^. They shall dust the walls of the several school rooms and halls, and 
scrub the floors as often as twice each month, and whenever required by 
the principal ; they shall wash the rostrums, stairs, and the woodwork, 
windows, and transomes as often as directed by the principals of the re- 
■^JHictive school buildings, and always immediately before the commence- 
ment of each school term. 

5. They shall keep the school yards clean and free from rubbish, stones 
an<i weeds, and the walks, both inside and outside of the school grounds, well 
s>vept and free from snow% and the sidewalk and the steps around the 
t>^ildings, when coated with ice, shall be kept well covered with ashes or saw 
<i^st, so as to effectually prevent slipping thereon. In default of this pre- 
caution against accident, each janitor offending shall be responsible to the 
^^ard for any injur)' caused by such neglect. 

6. They shall personally see that all the windows, shutters, doors, and 

'^ates are securely fastened when the schools are not in session ; shall 

prom})tly make such repairs as they are able to make, and report to the 

principal all other repairs necessary'. They shall do all other work properly 

belonging to janitors, including washing and filling ink-wells, and washing 

dishes used in kindergarten ; fasten or remove seats, desks, or benches to 

the floor when required ; glaze windows when necessar\', and assist in 

niaintaining order upon the school grounds. 

7. No janitor shall allow any pupil to assist him in his work unless such 
Piipil be a member of his own family. Nor shall any janitor employ help 
'Jr pennit around school buildings any person whose presence shall be 
f^ttrimental to the school or obnoxious to the principal. 

8. They shall endeavor to secure a uniform temperature in their school 
huildings of from 68 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit as nearly as may be, and in 
•locase to allow a temperature above 70 degrees, and shall use all proper 
"leans to avoid injurious extremes of heat and cold. 

9. Janitors shall not be absent from their respective school buildings 
binder any circumstances, during hours when school is in session, without 
permission from the principal in each instance. They shall have the ex- 



32 

elusive control of the heating apparatus, under the direction of the principal, 
and shall be held responsible to the Board for any damage to the same 
resulting from carelessness or neglect. 

10. They shall report promptly any defect in the steam heating appa- 
ratus or fixtures under their respective charge, to the principal, and to the 
office of the Secretary, who shall cause necessary repairs to be made, as 
provided by the Board. 

11. In school buildings heated by stoves or furnaces the janitors shall 
make and regulate the fires ; supply coal for the stoves as directed by the 
principal or teacher, and when fuel is necessar}' to be supplied they shall 
promptly notify the principal of the fact, who must thereupon issue a written 
order to the Secretar)', for such fuel as may be needed. 

12. They shall promptly screen or sift the ashes, separating therefrom 
the cinders, which latter they must use for fuel as occasion requires. The 
ashes shall be disposed of as the Board may determine. 

13. They shall, during school vacations, be personally in attendance 
each day in and around their respective school buildings, and shall use all 
possible vigilance to preserve the property under their care from injur)'. 
They shall receive and receipt, under the direction of the principal, for fuel 
delivered at any time, and .see that the same is properly placed in the 
cellars of their respective school buildings. In no case shall they receive 
or receipt for any fuel without first personally inspecting the same and 
requiring full weight or measure so receipted for to be then delivered. 

14. During each summer vacation they shall securely lock up all books, 
pencils, drawing materials, and other property used by pupils or teachers 
and left in the building for safety. 

15. The janitors shall properly care for the school grounds, and .shall 
perfonn such other school duties as may be directed by the principals or 
Board of Mucation. 

16. They shall be courteous and respectful to pupils, teachers, and 
visitors, and shall not smoke inside their respective buildings. 



Salariks. 

Experience gained elsewhere than in the public schools of this city 
shall be allowed at one-half time for the purpose of fixing salaries or dating 
an increase, except in cases where a larger allowance is recommended by 
the Board of Examiners and approved by the Board of Education. 

Experience gained in supply teaching in this city or in the evening 
schools of this city, may be allowed in fixing salaries or dating an increase, 
provided there has been at least six weeks of consecutive teaching. 



In case of the absence of any supervisor, principal or teacher, after the 
beginning of the school year and without special permission of tlie Board, 
deduction of salary for such absence will be made as follows for fifteen 
consecutive school days, after which time the entire salary will be dis- 
allowed : 

For absence of Supervisors $3.00 per day. 

** ** Principals $3.00 " 

*' ** " Special teachers $3.00 

*' '* " High School leachers $3.00 ** ** 

•* ** " Grade and kindergarten teachers . . $1.50 

** ** " Manual Training teachers $1.50 



(4 

H li 

(( (i 

u n 

i4 44 



No allowance of salary will be made for absence occurring at the 
btiginning of the school year. 

In case of the absence of any supervisor, principal or teacher on account 
of a death in the immediate family, three full days' allowance will be made 
to the absentee, provided such absence covers school days. 

The salary of a principal of a primary school shall be established at the 
rsite of $650 during the first year of employment, and thereafter the salary 
iTiaybe increased at the discretion of the Board until said principal's 
salary shall have reached the maximum limit of $1,000. 

The salaries of all supervisors, principals of grammar schools, high 
school teachers, and special teachers, shall be fixed and increased at the 
ciiscretion of the Board, the amount being dependant upon training, experi- 
ence, size of school, responsibility of the position, success in the work, etc. 
The salaries of assistant teachers, with the exception of the principal's 
assistant, shall be fixed at $30 per school months. 

The salaries of grade, kindergarten and manual training teachers shall 
be fixed at $300 for the first year of employment ; $350 for tlie second year ; 
5400 for the third year; $450 for the fourth year; $500 for the fifth, sixth, 
seventh, and the first half of the eighth year ; 1^550 for the second half of 
the eighth year, and the ninth and tenth year; $600 for the eleventh year, 
and thereafter. 



34 



ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 

To the Members of the Board of Education : 

AlTKNDANCK. 

The number of pupils in attendance at the public schools has shown a 
gratifying increase during the year. A year ago, as shown in the report 
of November, 1901, there were 22,586 pupils registered. At present there 
are 24,056. The greatest growth has been that of the High School, which 
has a registration of 1,390, as against 1,029 ^"^ y^^'* ^g^» ^ &^^^ of 361 
pupils. The prevalence of contagious disease has interfered quite seriously 
in many of the schools with the total attendance, reducing it below its 
normal proportions. A slight gain, however, has been made over the 
average of attendance for last year; 19,865 as against 19,360. 

Buildings. 

The question of providing adequate and suitable buildings in which to 
accommodate these pupils has continued to be one of the most pressing 
problems of the Board. As is the case with many other cities, Rochester 
school buildings are sadly inadequate to the needs of the schools, and for 
several years extraordinary expenditures will be necessary to put the school 
buildings in a first-class condition. The people are demanding that the 
buildings in which their children pass so many hours of the day during 
eight or ten years of their life, be warm, light, thoroughly ventilated and 
large enough to accommodate the children without overcrowding. In order 
to meet these demands two old buildings, Nos. 7 and 23, that were menaces 
to the health of teachers and children, have been replaced by new buildings 
constructed in accordance with the best modern ideas. It was hoped to 
have both buildings ready for occupancy in September of this year, but 
owing to continuous rains during June and July, and to unavoidable delays 
in the securing of building material, school No. 23 was not completed until 
Thanksgiving, and school No. 7 until the middle of the present month. 
lk)th these buildings are so constructed that each school ro(Mn is flooded 
with light which falls over the pupil's left shoulder as he sits at his desk 
to study. A portion of the desks in the upper grade rooms are adjustable, 
so as to allow children above or below the average height to be provided 
with desks suitable to their size. The buildings are heated by steam and 
ventilated by a fan system that forces an abundance of warm, pure air 
supplied with the proper amount of moisture, into eacii room. Flach build- 



35 

ing contains on the first floor a large assembly haDj in»^hich the principal 
may meet the entire school for general exercises. ' Th^ke afnd other build- 
ings recently completed have frequently been visited liy p>eople from other 
cities about to build school houses. 

In the coming year it will be necessary to rebuild school No. 13 ; after 

that at the earliest possible date school No. 9. School No. 36 will need to 

be i^jreatly enlarged in order to provide for its own growing district and to 

relieve the crowded conditions of No. 26. Assembly halls are needed at 

scViools Nos. 26, 10 and 12. 

High School. 

The new East High School will be ready for occupancy we hope 
at the beginning of the second semester of the present school year. No 
pains have been spared to make this building a source oi pride to the city, 
and a means of attracting to Rochester as residents many who are seeking 
the best educational advantages for their children. The aim of the Board 
has been, without wasting money in lavish display, to equip the building for 
the most efficient work. Laboratories, library, lecture rooms, gymnasiums 
for boys and girls, convenient class rooms and a spacious assembly hall are 
aH provided. The ventilation, plumbing and heating plants are all the 
best that could be secured, and no trouble has been spared to make the 
building abreast of the modem ideas in high school construction. The public 
response to these improved facilities has been immediate ; the registration 
in the High School having increased one-third in one year. While the 
number of High School pupils is still below that of Syracuse, a city con- 
siderably smaller than Rochester, the increase is a gratifying proof of the 
public demand for better high school facilities. 

Even the new building is inadequate to accommodate all the pupils of 
^he school at one session, and it will probably be necessary to use the build- 
ing formerly occupied by school No. 11 and the old High School building 
for the first year pupils. When the overcrowding of the present High 
School building is relieved by the removal of all except first year pupils and 
^hese latter are distributed in the largest and pleasantest rooms of the 
building, it will be possible to provide for them quite comfortably until the 
completion of the West High School. It is, however, a disadvantage to 
have the pupils of the first year taught in three different buildings, and it 
is the settled policy of the Ik>ard to provide at an early date for the West 
'% a High School in every way equal to the Kast High School. 

The building on Fitzhugh street is none too large for the use of the 
library and administrative departments of the school system. The Central 
library is seriously crippled for lack of room and should be given the entire 
tirst floor with provision for a children's reading room. The offices of the 
Superintendent, Secretary of the Board and supervisors of Manual Traning, 



36 

Music, Drawing, Sewing, and Primary and Kindergarten, cx)uld be placed 
upon the second floor, with meeting places for the Board of Education and 
for the teachers and principals on the third floor. These much needed 
improvements must wait, however, until the completion of the West High 
School. 

Evening Schools. 

The past year has seen a further development of the evening schools, 
one of the most important departments of the city's educational system. 
Three evening schools of grammar grade and one evening high school 
have been maintained. The course of study in the evening grammar 
schools has been revised and strengthened. Certificates of work accom- 
plished are given and provision made for orderly promotion from class to 
class and year to year. It is an inspiring sight to see gathered in school 
No. 26 a thousand industrious and studious young people taking advantage 
of the opportunities thus offered. In one room may be seen thirty Poles 
and Russians studying English ; in another a class of men studying 
mechanical drawing ; still another room has forty boys doing simple sloyd 
exercises at their desks ; while the benches in the manual training room 
have three shifts in an evening in order to accommodate the classes. There 
are 450 pupils taking the weekly lessons in chorus singing ; 216 the course 
in cooking and 275 that in sewing, and more than fifty that in book-keeping 
and business. Those choosing the courses in manual training, music, 
cooking or sewing are required also to take two academic studies, and the 
classes in United States history, arithmetic, geography, reading and writing 
are large and enthusiastic. The classes in practical electrical science undei 
the inspiring instruction of Mr. John Dennis are crowded full of young 
men eager to equip themselves for intelligent electrical work. 

The evening schools at Nos. 5 and 4, while not so large as that at No. 
26, are doing admirable work along similar lines and are performing a 
noble service to the communities in which they are placed. The Board 
regards the establishing and placing of evening schools wherever there is 
need of them as an imperative duty. Opportunity is thus afforded to hun- 
dreds of ambitious boys and girls to supplement the defects of earlj 
education and to qualify themselves for positions of increased usefulness 
and responsibility. 

The large increase in the registration in the evening schools since the 
introduction of elementary industrial and manual training proves that the 
demand for instruction of this kind is wide spread. The experience of the 
Board would seem to show that these evening schools may be most needed 
in the outlying districts of the city where large numbers of people find 
themselves too far removed to take advantage of opportunities afforded in 
the central portion of the city. 



37 

The experiment of opening an evening high school has succeeded 
beyond our expectations. There has been a registration of 316 pupils, 
three times as many as we dared to expect for the first year. Though the 
work has been new and untried, both teachers and pupils have entered into 
it with enthusiasm and there is every encouragement for the future of the 
school. 

Manual Training. 

Under the able supervision of Mr. Murray, the difficulties attending the 
introduction of manual training have been to a large extent overcome, and 
the department has proved its value as an integral part of our course of 
study. New centers for bench work have been established at schools Nos. 
3, 5, 8, 29 and 33. The teachers of manual training report enthusiastic 
interest on the part of the children and the cordial co-operation of princi- 
pals and teachers. Provisions have been made to carry manual training 
into the High School, expanding the course somewhat to meet the needs of 
older children. Mr. Murray has been studying the systems in operation 
in the high schools of other cities, and hopes to introduce into our new High 
School courses that shall combine the excellencies of other systems while 
avoiding their defects. 

Library. 

In spite of the adverse conditions which have for years hampered the 
^'ork of the Central Library, it has continued to do a most valuable and 
beneficent work. The number of those drawing books from the library, as 
shown by the report of the librarian, is somewhat over 30,000. There is 
no doubt that this number could be largely increased, had the Board the 
facilities or the funds for properly administering a great circulating library. 

The experience of Buffalo has shown that group libraries of about fifty 
volumes placed in the grade rooms of the public schools are an exceed- 
ingly valuable adjunct to the work of the schools. These cases of books 
are sent out from the public library to the various schools and exchanged 
once each term. The children most eagerly avail themselves of the privi- 
leges of drawing books from these libraries, and the aggregate circulation 
is very large. Desirable as such work would be, it is impossible for the 
Board to undertake it with the amount at present in the library fund. 

The Librarian, Mrs. Dowling, and her assistants, have co-operated most 
cordially to make the library of value to the schools. Many special lists 
of books have been prepared for the use of the teachers and special collec- 
tions in Nature Study and kindred topics have been made for their use. 
Mention should be made of the exceedingly valuable list of Christmas 
books and stories prepared by the Librarian for the use of the teachers. 



38 

Music. 

To the regret ot the Board, Miss M. R. Hofer severed her connection 
with the schools of Rochester as supervisor of music at the end of her 
first year of service, going from us to accept a position of responsibility 
and influence in New York City. Her work in introducing music into the 
schools had been done with such success, and had so secured the co- 
operation of teachers and pupils that it was feared that it would be 
impossible to find one to fill her place. It is a pleasure to report that 
her successor, Miss R. R. de Laittre, is more than fulfilling the high expec- 
tations with which she was called to this responsible position. She has 
carried on the work so well begim to even greater efliciency, and has shown 
tact and skill of an unusual order in instructing and assisting the grade 
teachers in this new, and, to many of them, difficult subject. 

Drawing. 

The development of the drawing course in the schools has been so 
steady and quiet that the great improvement effected is not realized until 
one compares the work done now with that done three years ago. Per- 
haps the greatest improvement has been seen in the color work. The 
growing freedom and discrimination of the children in the use of color 
is most gratifying. The past year has seen an advance in correlating 
drawing with other subjects, using it freely as a means of expression in 
connection with language, history and geography. 

Sewing. 

The course in sewing is closely connected with and is indeed a part 
of the department of manual training. Mr. Murray and Miss Wallace 
have worked together with enthusiasm and earnestness to develope the edu- 
cational possibilities of the subject and to connect sewing with other 
exercises in manual training. The subject has been much enjoyed by 
children, and teachers report improvement in the neatness and accuracy 
of their work. 

Tkachers. 

With the close of the present school year we shall have about reached 
the end of the trying and difficult situation caused by the surplusage 
which existed in the teaching force when the Board went into office. 
We felt it but just in filling vacancies to give the preferencce to those 
teachers who had failed of reappointment not because of personal ineffi- 
ciency, but because former abuses in the appointing power had placed a 
larger number of teachers on the pay roll than the needs of the school 
justified. Had it been possible to fill the twenty-five or thirty vacancies 



39 

occurring each year with inexperienced teachers at the minimum salary, 
a substantial sum would now be available toward increase of salaries. 
Owing, however, to the Board's policy of dealing fairly and even gener- 
ously with those teachers who found themselves without positions after 
having given five or ten years of faithful service, there has been no 
opportunit}' as yet to appoint teachers at the minimum salary. The 
result has been that while the schools are well equipped with a force 
numbering 150 fewer teachers than when the Board took office, the pay 
roll shows a decrease of only $1,000.00 from that of 1899. 

I wish again to express the hope and expectation that with the pass- 
ing of these unusual conditions, with the consequent possibility of 
appointing those just beginning their work as teachers at the minimum salary, 
and with close supervision in order that the total number of teachers em- 
ployed does not exceed that needed for the efficient management of the 
schools, it may be possible to raise the salary of teachers. The matter 
will receive our very earnest and early consideration. 

I wish to express what I am sure is the feeling of all the members of 
the Board, our appreciation of all good work done by the principals and 
teachers in both common schools and High School. We realize that it 
is upon the loyal, intelligent, faithful co-op)eration of the teaching force 
that we depend for any good results that may be wrought out in the 
schools. On such continued support and co-operation in the work in 
which we are trying to do we confidently rely. 

C>)URSE OF Study. 

Large bodies move slowly, we are told and in the case of a great 
^educational system, numbering scores of schools and hundreds of teachers, 
this is peculiarly true. To overcome the inertia of so great a body, dis- 
turb some of its traditions, modify many of its methods, and change 
some even slightly the emphasis in a few of its departments, is no light 
task. 

While it would be premature to speak of the results of changes made 
by the new course of study, it is not too early to express the satisfac- 
tion of the Ik)ard with its main features. That there has been decided 
improvement during the past three years in the school work, in reading, 
wing, arithmetic and other common branches, cannot be questioned 
by those who have watched and compared the work from year to year. 
In many of the schools recently at Christmas time pupils took home to 
their parents neatly written pamphlets containing their month's work in 
geography, grammar, language, spelling and arithmetic. These written 
les.sons were bound without correction in covers designed and decorated 
in color by the child. They were the best, because the most unanswer- 
able witness, to the quality of the work being done by the schools., 



40 

There is yet much to be effected. Doubtless mistakes will be made in 
minor details. Not all methods will prove successful in all schools. 
But the one aim and purpose of the Board, and of the officers in charge 
of the educational work of the schools, is to have it thorough, practical 
and efficient. 

Superintendent. 

By the resignation of Superintendent Gilbert we have been deprived 
of a wise, patient and powerful leader. It is a great loss to our schools 
that the work so ably begun by him cannot be carried to completion by 
the same hands. It is a gratification to us, however, to have had for 
two years his counsel and direction, and the impetus which his forceful 
personality has given to our schools will be felt for years. The great 
publishing house which has called him to the head of its educational 
department has only recognized the positson which he holds as an 
authority in the field of elementary public education. In his successor. 
Dr. Shaw, we believe that we have secured a man thoroughly qualified 
by training and experience to take up the work and carry it on to suc- 
cessful completion. We believe that Rochester deserves the best man 
who can be procured for one of the highest positions in the gift of the 
city, and we believe we have secured him in Dr. Edward R. Shaw, of 
New York City. 

Financial Statement. 

Receipts from all sources : 

Teachers' fund $418,416.48 

Building fund 251,377 .47 

Repair fund 13,000 . 00 

Library fund 3,363 . 75 

Contingent fund 141,612.17 

$827,769.87 

Expenditures : 

Teachers' fund $408,214. 16 

Building fund 251,356. 15 

Repair fund 12,279.17 

Library fund 2 ,89 1 . 48 

Contingent fund 123,028.91 

$797,769.87 

Balance on hand $30,000.00 

These amounts have been compared with the books of the comp- 
troller and agree in every particular. The outstanding bills for current 
expenses, it is estimated, will amount to between $100.00 and $200.00. 



41 

In addition, as provided in our contracts for building No. 7 and 23 
schools, we have deemed it wise to withhold the payment of $11,493.00, 
due on No. 7, and $11,000.00 due on 23. There is also due on con- 
tracts $64,261,00 for the East High school, now in process of erection, 
a\\ of these obligations to be paid during the coming year. 

Bond Account. 

There has been issued $150,000 in bonds for the erection of the East 
High School, the proceeds of which have already been expended and 
with the end of this year we will have paid into the sinking fund for 
the payment of these bonds the sum of $60,000. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. J. TOWNSON, 

President. 



42 



REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT. 

To tfie Board of Education : 

I have the honor to present this my first and only report as Superin- 
tendent of Schools under your control. At the date of my resignation, I 
shall have been associated with you two years. They have been years of 
hard work, honest effort, and earnest aspiration. The relations sustained 
with your honorable body have been most agreeable and profitable to me. 
My personal and professional relations with the teaching corps have also 
been wholly pleasant. There has been on the part of all a genuine co- 
operation and a manifest desire to improve the schools of this city, and to 
do the best work possible for the children. Yo\ all this 1 am deeply grate- 
ful to all concerned, and regret sincerely that what seems to me an impera- 
tive call, takes me away from you at the time when the work done is 
beginning to bear fruit. 

February first, 1901, found the schools of Rochester in a somewhat dis- 
turbed state. The advent of a new Hoard of Education the year before : 
the wonderful energy and intelligence displayed by this Hoard in removing 
evil conditions : the long interregnum in the office of superintendent ; the 
retiring of a large number of teachers as unnecessary ; the introduction of 
new work without a full, carefully planned and correlated course of study, 
all these had greatly disturbed the peace of mind of the teachers : had 
created uncertainty and alarm amounting almost to panic — conditions 
absolutely hostile to good work. As the work which the Hoard had done 
was inevitable in view of the conditions which they had found upon enter- 
ing office, this confusion and distrust were also inevitable. 

The new Superintendent was looked upon with very doubtful eyes : the 
teachers questioned among themselves whether or not he was to be King 
Log or King Stork — a figure-head or a beast of prey. Propitiatory smiles 
concealed quaking hearts. During the two years that have passed, the 
Hoard of Education has steadily gone on its way of reform and improve- 
ment. The teachers have gradually subsided into a normal condition, 
excessive fear has been allayed and I believe that many of them are already 
taking real joy in their work in school, having some outlook and a tangible 
hope for the future. 

Among the needs that were most manifest to your superintendent were 
a course of study and suitable material for teaching it. The old course of 
study had been so far abandoned as to leave nothing definite as a guide to 
the teachers. The work was ver}' uneven, depending almost entirely upon 
the judgment of the principals and teachers. 



43 

Miss Jones who had done noble, pioneer work as a primary supervisor, 

had brought some order out of the chaos in the primary schools, but the 

lack of unity and harmony was most apparent everjrwhere. There was 

also a pitiful dearth of aids to the teachers and of working material. 

Maps, globes, supplementary reading books and the necessary supplies for 

a school room were lacking. About the only unifying force was the use of 

the Regents examinations, and it is fair to say that they had doubtless set 

some kind of a standard albeit a narrow and mechanical one. 

It would be unbecoming to state in detail the defects of the work for 
which this lack of unit)' and of a general plan were responsible. Suffice it 
to say that most apparent were the poor reading, the poor arithmetic work, 
the lack of famiHarity with English literature, and the ability to use the 
English language reasonably well. 

The first effort was devoted to preparing a preliminary course of study 
for the primary grades and to supplying the schools with the necessary 
equipment. A large supply of supplementary reading matter was pur- 
chased and put into the schools, thus making possible improvement in 
reading. Material for language work and number work was also purchased 
in considerable quantities. Plans were made for uniting the kindergarten 
and the primary grades under a single supervision. 

Miss Ada Van Stone Harris, an experienced and able supervisor of 
primary schools and kindergartens, was elected to that position. For the 
first time the kindergartners really began to feel that they were a co- 
ordinated part of the educational system and not a separate institution. 
They began to realize that the work which they had to do was preparatory 
to the work of the grade teachers. 

Since this uniformity in administration was etTected the unity of feeling 
has steadily increased, until now I think it can truly be said that there is 
no serious lack of harmony between the kinckrgartners and the primary 
grade teachers. All realize that they are engaged in the same great work 
and that in order to accomplish this to the best advantage, all must work 
together. 

Among the devices that Miss Harris has resorted to to secure this 
desirable end is the occasional bringing together of the kindergartners and 
primary teachers for social purposes. The first and one of the most in- 
teresting of these occasions was just before Christmas la.st year when the 
kindergartners and teachers of the first grade gathered around a Christmas 
tree and had festival exercises suitable for Christmas-tide and suggestive of 
what they might do for their children. This party was repeated this year, 
all the primary teachers being invited. 



44 
Course of Study. 

Perhaps the most trying need of the schools in February, 1901. was that 
of a consistent and stimulating course of study, and to the preparation of 
such a course much time and energy were given during the first part of the 
year. 

Before the opening of the schools in the fall, this course had been pub- 
lished and was in the hands of the teachers. It was naturally tentative in 
character and was far from ideal. In making it, it was found necessary, in 
as far as possible, to adapt it to the present conditions and to the text- 
books in use. It is of little use to put a course of study before teachers 
unless they are in some degree able to comprehend the principles involved, 
and to carry it out successfully. The course was perhaps too radical for a 
body of teachers who had for a long time worked without a consistent 
course and along lines dictated by the connundrum-making-and-answering 
policy. Indeed, to make any course which should not appear to our teach- 
ers radical was very difficult. 

It is not my purpose in this report to state in any detail the course of 
study. That will naturally be published with the report and will speak for 
itself. However, a few of the principles which underlie the course of study 
may be mentioned. 

First, it must be harmonious and consistent ; that is, it must recognize 
the relations within each subject treated, the relations of part to part, mak- 
ing natural progressions from easier to more difficult, and from known to 
unknown. It must also recognize the relations existing among the various 
subjects treated, such as the relation of history to geography ; of mathe- 
matics to science ; of language to all subjects which furnish thought ; in 
fine, of all subjects to all other subjects so that the body of knowledge 
presented to children through the course of study shall be, like the body of 
knowledge presented to all minds in life, a correlated whole rather than a 
number of apparently distinct entities. This is the first essential of a wise 
course of study. 

The second is, in the treatment of every subject the natural order of the 
development of children should receive even more careful consideration 
than the logical development of the subject. Adults in presenting know- 
ledge to children have always been prone to consider chiefly the logical 
relations of subjects to one another more than the relations of one or all to 
the receiving minds. This failure to meet the needs of children has been 
responsible for very much of the difficulty of teaching, and the consequent 
failure to grasp the subjects taught. 

In order to meet the needs of children, it is not infrequently necessary 
to subvert the logical order. For example, in the study of nature in public 
schools in its early stages, the error was committed of making it the study 
of science ; that is, of endeavoring to lead children through the mazes of 



45 

scientific analysis and nomenclature which is the logical order, rather than 
arousing interest through the presentation of concrete nature and the study 
of wholes. The same error has almost always been made in the study of 
language. Children have been presented to the facts of grammar and of the 
scientific development of language rather than to the treasures of literature 
and the natural expression of thought through speech. 

A third principle of a good course of study is that it should not be 
specific, but should be suggestive and stimulating rather, encouraging 
teachers to follow their own lines of interest and of ability, and expecting 
of them general results of a satisfactory nature in the development of children 
rather than the ability of the child to answer a few specified questions. The 
best results in all human endeavor are secured through the cooperation of 
many minds working under such direction as to secure harmony, but not 
hampered by such martinet regulations as to destroy freedom. In the 
work of education it is particularly important that the minds of all the 
teachers be stimulated to the highest activity. This can only be done by 
encouragement and freedom. The highest efficiency is always the result 
of that education which comes only through free activity. Hence a pre- 
scriptive course of study, requiring so many facts to be acquired by the 
pupil in each month or term, of necessity stands in the way of the best 
work on the part of either teacher or pupils. The body of facts which 
may be learned and which may be used for educative purposes is so vast 
that beyond the simple facts of the mechanic arts, reading, writing, spelling 
^d computing, it really is impossible for anyone to say just what it is 
important for all to learn. 

Indeed, there is no possible universal definite course of study. There 
are, however, certain important fields of thought which concern all who 
live in society, and which consequently can be made the basis of all school 
ctanicula. They concern in a general way the material, spiritual and social 
environment of human beings. 

The common mechanical arts are means for the expression of thought 
and for the intercommunication of men. The old course of study stops 
with these. The newer courses lay no less stress upon these mechanical 
arts, but insist that they are better taught as fulfilling their functions of 
furthering thought than when taught unrelated. 

Throughout our course of study, the effort is manifest to stimulate 
thought in children along those lines which most merit and reward thought, 
and to use the common arts of expression for the conveyance of thought 
thus stimulated ; and in this way through constant use and consequent drill 
to teach these arts. 

This is the reason for giving children, who are learning to read, an 
abundance of good reading and for laying especial stress upon the subject 
matter while also properly emphasising the art of reading. It is also the 



46 

reason for discarding the familiar problems with which arithmetics have 
been filled for many, many years ; problems which have nothing to do with 
the earth, the heavens above it or the waters underneath, and whose only 
excuse is their alleged value in that bete fwir of teachers, the fonnal 
discipline of the alleged faculties. In the place of these our effort 
has been to draw problems from common life, the simpler and the more 
practical the better, and at the same time to show that arithmetic has a 
higher function and as the science of measurement is the key to the physi- 
cal universe. 

Also in language, the stress upon the teaching of formal grammar to 
young children has been greatly lessened, and instead teachers have been 
urged to make children acquainted with good literature and to cultivate the 
art of expression through the habit of expression. The other arts, as 
writing and drawing, are to be taught according to the same principles. 
This in brief, has been the aim of the course of studv now in use in our 
schools. 

Spkllinu. 

'J^he complaint is now well nigh universal the countr)- over that children 
coming from the schools to-day do not spell well. There is enough truth 
in the complaint to justify careful consideration of the subject. Indeed, it 
has been studied with as great care as any other of the common school 
studies. Such men as President Stanley Hall, Dr. E. R. wShaw, and Dr. 
J. M. Rice have devoted months to the consideration of the subject, draw- 
ing their data from thousands of children. Perhaps the most general 
result of these observations and experiments is the conclusion that teaching 
spelling is a matter of emphasis rather than of method. Spelling in Kng- 
lish is so irregular that there are very few general rules helpful to children 
learning to spell. It is a matter of bare memor)% or rather of memory aided 
by all jx)ssible associations, the more the better. 

Formerly the spelling book was the most conspicuous school book, and 
an inordinate amount of time was given to memorizing the spelling of the 
lists of words in the spelling book. These words were learned without 
relation to anything, and with none of those helps to memor}' which associ- 
ation offers. It was. however, possible to commit to memory the spelling 
book, and the words there given covered the child's vocabulary and more. 
Hut the introduction of new subjects such as hi.stor}*, geography, literature, 
and science into the schools has enormously increased the necessar}^ vo- 
cabulary- of the children, and in like proportion has increased the difficulty 
of learning to spell. 

The first attempt to meet this new difficulty was by doing away with the 
spelling book and teaching, instead, words which the children had occasion 
to use in their natural and proper relations. This was good in so far as it 



47 

went, but it did not go far enough. The method almost universally em- 
ployed was that of writing. The old fashioned oral spelling with its careful 
syllabication was discarded. The result was that only the eye-minded 
children became good spellers, and they lacked the reinforcement which 
comes from pronouncing the word. In order to correct this defect a variety 
of new exercises have been introduced into our schools, the most important 
of them being the restoration of oral spelling by syllables. Devices for 
securing exact visualization of words have been introduced so that the two 
essentials to good spelling are now at least receiving attention ; that is, the 
work is so conducted that children must look carefully and receive upon the 
mind an exact image of the work. They also get through the oral spelling 
the exact sound of the word by syllables. Really this is about all there is 
to the art of teaching spelling, and as I have said its success depends upon 
the emphasis placed upon it. 

I desire to speak somewhat more in detail of a few subjects because 
ihey are fundamental, and because instruction in them most needed refor- 
mation. First, reading. Surely ability to read well is fundamental in 
school education. This needs no argument. Three years ago many 
of the children in the higher grades of our schools could not read well 
enough to study intelligently their text books. This was due partly to 
faulty methods of instruction, partly to lack of sufficient reading matter, 
^d partly to simple neglect. The method of instruction had resulted in 
abiijt)* to call words in so far as memor)' extended, but not in the power 
toanalvze them into sounds and letters, not to read sentences as wholes, 
l^e getting at the thought of the printed page, which only is reading, had 
not received sufficient attention to enable many of the children to read 
books upon geography or history either fluently or intelligently. The text 
books in reading adopted by this board could not at first be used in the 
grades for which they were intended and in which they were used in other 
<^ities. There were no books for the children to read from except the 
regular reading books which were soon committed to memory, so that they 
could be read inverted as well as right-side-up. 

In grades above the primary in many schools no reading lessons at all 
were given. Hence of necessity reading was the first point of attack. An 
effort was made to make reading reading from the very first. That is. the 
•stress was placed upon the sentence, the expression of complete thought. 
Uter this was analyzed into words, and the words into their elementary- 
bounds and letters. At first, as was natural, some mistakes were made. 
In particular, the analysis into words and sounds was overlooked, with the 
result that children so taught were unable to read new matter. That, how- 
ever, has been remedied, and I think it is fair to say that our children in 
the primary grades are really learning to read. 



48 

A large amount of additional or supplementary reading matter for the 
various grades was purchased, and it was ordered that pupils in all grades 
should have regular reading lessons. It is too early yet to see marked 
results, but some improvement is already manifest. The readers in most 
schools are now used in the grades for which they are intended, and there 
is every prospect that through the zealous and intelligent work of our 
teachers with the material now at their disposal the reading in our schools 
will become as good as the best. 

Another fundamental subject is Arithmetic. The past conditions are 
well exemplified by the fact that at a recent examination of candidates for 
teachers' positions almost the entire class failed to pass a very ordinar)' 
examination in this subject, and they were most of them high school gradu- 
ates and graduates of state normal schools and training schools stamp>ed all 
over with Regents certificates. 

The first step here was to introduce better text books, which compelled 
attention to the fundamentals of the subject — namely, drill on the basal 
operations and cultivation of the ability to reason as to numerical relations 
and to state the results in mathematical terms. Some of the teachers 
thought these books too difficult. But at least they compel thought and 
furnish drill, and if they are faithfully followed as they will be, there will 
unquestionably be great gain in mathematical power. 

Shortenin(; the Curriculum. 

The old course of study called for nine years of work in the grammar 
schools, above the kindergarten. It was felt by the Board and the Super- 
intendent that this involved an enomious waste of time ; that the children 
who had completed this ten years course were no better prepared, indeed, 
were not so well prepared to do high school work as children in other cities 
in which the course covers but seven or eight years above the kindergarten. 
It was perfectly clear that with improved methods of instruction, with the 
use of a better course of study, and with more intensive work on the part 
of children, a higher degree of mental attainment could be secured in eight 
years than had been obtained in dawdling through nine, hence the new 
course of study was made to cover a period of eight years, the average time 
throughout the country- for such a course. 

The only difficulty with the change will be during the first few years. 
.\s the students in the higher grades had not done the intensive work of the 
new course, in some cases serious mistakes were made by the principals of 
schools. The children who had completed eight of the years of the old 
course were rushed ahead into the high school badly equipped. This was 
an error of judgment probably, and was certainly a misinterpretation of 
instruction. Those children will, many of them, be of necessity retained 
longer in the high school. 



49 

With this experience in mind, I am quite confident that hereafter the 
children will not be rushed forward simply for the sake of completing the 
course in eight years, but we shall have better scholarship and more 
students going into and through the high school as the result of the change. 

• 

The Promotion of Children. 

In a large school system it is necessary of course that the pupils be 
graded ; that is, that those of similar attainments and ability be grouped 
together for their work. There is great danger, however, that the develo|>- 
ment of machinery for meeting this necessity shall so absorb the thought of 
school authorities as to overbalance the consideration of the children's 
needs. The employment of machines in human affairs always constitute a 
danger. Our school systems have been too largely mere examining and 
promoting machines, bringing all to a common level. 

As effort is likely to follow the line of least resistance, the simplest and 

most easily worked method of promoting is pretty sure in time to prevail 

even though the children suffer. This has certainly happened in New 

York State as well as in many other states. Examinations have become a 

fetich. The ability to answer conundrums more or less carefully prepared 

by local authorities or by constituted centralized authority has been made 

the sole test of educational progress. Thus children have been put ahead 

who could answer the set conundrums — ;those kept back who could not, 

and this in spite of the fact that the questions covered at best a very narrow 

portion of a very wide field, and at the worst placed positive limitations 

upon good teaching. 

Under such a system it is inevitable that teachers teach for examinations 
and children study for examinations. Breadth of work, the stimulating and 
foDowing out of new interests are practically forbidden since the examina- 
tions must be limited to those narrow fields that can be covered by definite 
categorical questions. 

Tlie great fact is overlooked that in the course of education the accu- 
mulation of the few facts that can under the most favorable circumstances 
be learned, is one of the least consequential results. The arousing of 
interest, the stimulating of desire to know more, which will follow the 
students through life, the broadening of the outlook, the bringing into 
propKjr relations the various things studied, the search for truth for truth's 
sake, these are all rendered impossible by a cut and dried system of exam- 
ination for promotions. This is peculiarly true when the examinations are 
given by people remote from the schools, compelled by circumstances to 
ask questions very definite and in very small compass. The assumption 
that all children must know the same facts in order to be educated is of 
course absurd, and doubtless examinations are of very great value in edu- 
cation, but that is when they are used as a means and not as an end of 



so 

education. It is of the utmost value to a person young or old to be com- 
pelled occasionally, nay even frequently, to face his own attainments and 
his own power, but to have his future depend upon his ability to answer a 
few questions out of a large field, selected by some one who knows nothing 
of his conditions, his ambitions or his needs, is to reduce the educational 
process to an absurdity which becomes more absurd and more serious when 
the questions are themselves poor and tending toward low standards. 

When, as the result of the method of testing and promoting children, 
the subjects which naturally are of the broadest interest, such for example, 
as history, are the most disliked by the children, the system stands self 
condemned without the slightest hope of rehabilitation. 

This was the condition which I found in the schools of Rochester 
regarding the subjects which are broadest and of most universal interest. 
I also found teachers generally in the higher grammar grades, giving their 
entire attention for weeks toward the end of each term to drilling upon old 
examination questions, asking connundrum after connundrum unrelated and 
unimportant, with the hope that by drilling upon a great many such con- 
nundrums a few might be * hit upon which the examiners would ask next 
time. In my judgment this sort of work is scarcely educational at all, and 
it simply intensified the condemnation of a system already condemned for 
ample reason. 

It became necessary to devise some plan which should introduce interest 
in the place of dislike — life in the place of death. It w-as not difficult to 
find such a system because such systems are in vogue throughout the 
greater part of the Union. It must be evident to all that the question to 
be asked in determining the grade of a child is, what is his condition and 
need and where can he do the work that is best for him. Not how many 
questions can he answer that somebody else may ask. but where will he do 
the best work ? Now this is a matter of judgment. No formal system that 
man can devise will determine it with even reasonable accuracv. 

The best judge in the vast majority of cases is undoubtedly the teacher, 
who is instructing the child, but teachers' judgments are fallible naturally, 
and it is well to reinforce and supplement them by any reasonable devices. 
Among such devices are records of the work of children taken from time 
to time, examinations given at frequent intervals, both upon questions pre- 
pared by the teacher, who is immediately responsible, and up>on those pre- 
pared by others who have a wider outlook, but no one of these is sufficient 
alone nor may they all together be substituted for the teachers' judgment. 

The plan which we have adopted is this: At the end of each week the 
teacher is to make a record of all the work of the students in the different 
fields in plain, clearly understood terms. The records are kept also of all 
tests or examinations. At the end of each month a summary is prepared, 
not an average, of the work of the month and sent to the parents for their 



51 

information. Tests are given as frequently as once a month, sometimes 
oftener, and it is a part of the plan to have regular examinations at least 
twice a year upon questions prepared by principals, superintendent or others 
not engaged directly in teaching the children. In some cases the regents 
examinations will be given. These are not the final nor the only, nor the 
principal means of determining the wisdom of promoting the children, but 
they are guides to the teacher as to the character of the work that has been 
or should have been done, and they help her in making up her mind as to 
to the wisdom or unwisdom of promoting children. When the time for 
regular promotion arrives, the teacher, with the principal reviews these 
records and from them, together with their knowledge of the children per- 
sonally, their home environment, their characters, the decision is reached. 
Each case is considered by itself without reference to others. 

Promotions however, are not limited to these regular times. Whenever 
in the judgment of the teacher and principal, a pupil will do better work in 
another grade, higher or lower, the pupil will be put there. Semi-annual 
promotions, providing classes only a half year apart make these individual 
promotions easy and thus provide for exceptional cases. 

I have written upon this subject thus at length because many have ex- 
pressed surprise, and some disapproval at the action of the Board and its 
Superintendent in limiting the influence of the so-called Regents examina- 
tions in determining promotion and graduation. I have not referred to 
many of the strongest arguments against this undue prominence of a system 
of extraneous examinations, such as the effect upon the health of nervous 
children of placing their fate for a year at least upon a single cast of the 
dice. This of course refers to the large element of chance entering into all 
examinations ; nor have I referred to the bad moral effect of placing undue 
stress upon a very insignificant and wholly secondary interest, and the ex- 
ceedingly strong temptation to dishonesty and the tremendous moral shock 
to children who see their inferiors by improper methods advanced above 
thera. I have said nothing about the great loss the teacher sustains in 
losing his freedom, in the narrowing of his work, in his being compelled to 
treat the accumulation of a few facts as the sole end of the work of children 
during their best years and to ignore the great modem dictum of educa- 
tion: ** Education is life." 

I might also speak of the unfortunate effect upon this great institution, 
the University of the State of New York of giving such prominence to one 
of its functions, of all the least important and even of questionable value. 
The University of the State of New York is a great institution endowed 
with enormous power ; it is directed by men of the highest ability as well 
as of a broad public spirit, but through what I cannot conceive to be other 
than a mistaken view, it has placed so much stress upon the question-asking 
function that the vast majority of people regard that as its only work. 



52 

In my judgment if this office should be reduced to its proper minimum 
and the greater functions brought into prominence, both the schools of the 
state and the University itself would be vastly the gainers ; the former in 
the regaining of freedom through the removing of what is of necessity a 
hindrance, and the latter in dignity and general respect through the bring- 
ing forward and emphasising of its higher functions instead of the lower. 

I believe that the steps taken in the schools of this city will be followed 
and that in time the Regents of the University themselves will be glad of 
it. Hence for all reasons the Regents owe it to themselves to put this 
examination business upon its proper basis where it may be merely a 
stimulus to good work and a check to bad work, and to see to it that free- 
dom is restored to the teachers of the state. 

It is proper to state that we shall continue to give regents examinations 
to all who desire them, but shall not make them compulsory nor base the 
work of our schools upon them. 

The teachers have been using the course of study and have had out- 
lines since September, 1901. The broad lines laid out have stimulated 
thought and effort on the part of the teachers. They have been encouraged 
to do their own thinking and they have done it. I believe that it can be 
honestly said that our teachers are more thoroughly alive intellectually than 
they were before. They are interested in the various fields of human 
learning because the course of study takes them out into these. They are 
also interested in the profound problems of the development of mind and 
of the training for society which are involved in the study of education. 
The effect of this widening interest is bound to be felt by children in the 

future. 

Evening Schools. 

The evening school has come to be regarded as a necessity in industrial 
communities where boys and girls leave schools to enter factories and 
shops as early as the law allows. It is universally admitted that oppor- 
tunity should be given such to continue their schooling if they themselves 
have the necessary ambition. Also under our very loose imigration laws 
large numbers of illiterate foreigners are continually coming into our large 
cities. Some of these early receive an ambition to learn to read and to 
write the English language. For these an evening school is a necessity. 
Still, other adult foreigners not illiterate in their own language are anxious 
to acquire as rapidly as possible a thorough working knowledge of Eng- 
lish. 

The night school idea is not new to Rochester, but some new features 
have been introduced within the last two years. We have come to realize 
that the public school has social functions of a high order, that it may be 
made to serve the interests of the public in many more ways than the sim- 
ple giving instruction in the elementary branches — that the school property 



S3 

immensely valuable as it is, has had altogether too little use. There is 
every reason why it should be used during as many more hours of the year 
as it can be profitably for the social and intellectual uplifting of the com- 
munity. 

Last year we had three evening schools. They were all good and well 
attended. Two of them were conducted upon the usual lines and met the 
needs of their communities well. The third one, held in No. 26 school, 
was conducted on wholly different lines. The principal, Col. S. P. Moul- 
thiop, had a deep sense of the obligation of his school to its constituency, 
and entertained the belief that by making it attractive in the evening he 
could influence for good large numbers of the youth living thereabouts. 
He received permission to go ahead and do his best. As a result there 
was conducted under the roof of No. 26 school a most interesting institu- 
tion. Eight hundred and sixty persons of all ages were enrolled in the 
various classes. These claeses were organized in a great variety of sub- 
jects to meet the wishes of the people. There were classes in the ordinary 
English branches, in mechanical drawing, shop work, sewing, cooking, 
singing, and a most interesting class in practical electricity conducted by 
Mr. John Dennis. 

Besides this, a library was opened in one of the rooms from which 
during the season 1,950 books were drawn. The social features of the 
school were most pronounced. Large numbers of the parents of the young 
people visited the school. Many came and spent the evening. The street 
comers were cleared. The police reported that more had been done to 
take boys and girls off the street by this school than by all their efforts. It 
was truly a social center. 

The success of No. 26 school last year was so marked that we deter- 
mined this year to apply the same principles to the other evening schools. 
Consequently Nos. 4 and 5 were supplied with manual training equipment, 
and classes were offered in all the various attractive subjects. The results 
have been most satisfactory. No. 26 has already enrolled 1,027 ; No. 5 is 
a good second with 846 ; No. 4, which is a new evening school, is doing 
weU. 

The domestic science subjects — sewing and cooking, are in great de- 
mand, as is manual training. 

I cannot but feel that our evening schools are helping solve some of the 
difficult social problems that confront us. 

Another new feature with us this year has been the evening high 
school. We believed, and still believe that the additional opportunities for 
self improvement offered in evening schools should be offered to those more 
ambitious young people who want to pursue higher courses, and owing to 
stress of circumstances have not been able to do so. All of the arguments 
which are used in favor of public day high schools apply with increased 



54 

force to evening high schools. Pupils attending day high school sometimes 
go under compulsion. There is a possibility of dillittanteism and of the 
work of the school being secondary to its play. In the evening high school 
no such conditions are possible. The young people who go there are 
serious-minded, truly ambitious, and go for a purpose. The facilities 
offered are appreciated to a degree impossible in the day high schools. 
The young people who attend the evening high school represent the best 
in American life ; that is, worthy ambition and the energy and industr)' 
necessary to its pursuit in the face of difficulties. It is ground for genuine 
congratulations that so many young people in this city are attending the 
evening high school. I have no doubt that in the future the number will 
be greatly increased. While I do not regard the evening school problem 
as by any means settled, I do think that our experiments have contributed 
something toward its settlement, and that we are working along the right 
lines. 

High School. 

The High School is in a most flourishing and promising condition . 
Under the able management of principal Wilcox, it is emerging from i 
slough of despond, and beginning to do work worthy its name and its cost - 
There has been during the past two years a steady improvement in the 
teaching corps. Young, strong teachers especially equipped by broad, 
general and specific training for their work have been added to the corps. 
The result is already evident in the quality of the work done and in the 
increased popularity of the school. 

No department has shown greater gain than that of English, and none 
is more important. Freedom from narrow extraneous examinations has 
made it possible for the teachers to pursue the two ends important in the 
study of English — acquaintance with literature involving study both of 
thought and of style, and facility of expression. In this department, per- 
haps more than in any other, the characteristics of a good education, as 
stated by President Elliott, should be manifested, the power to observe 
accurately, to reason justly, and to express cogently. This ideal bids fair 
to be realized. There is not time to speak in detail of the various depart- 
ments. That is done in the Principalis report hereto appended. 

The opening of the new east High School will finally give to at least a 
large portion of the High School students of this city a suitable place for 
work. This building is a joy to the eye and a delight to the teacher, a 
credit to the Board of Exlucation and its architect, and an honor to the 
city. 

For the present it will be necessar}' to keep some of the students in the 
old building, and some in old No. 1 1 school used as an annex, but when 
the plans of the Board of Education already formed are fully carried out. 



55 

every High School pupil in the city of Rochester will be provided for in 
as good buildings as can be found in the country. 

Truant School. 

Almost the only department of school work that has not felt the touch 
of reform is its one reformatory institution, the Truant School, and nothing 
in our system needs reform more. In its present state it is unworthy of an 
enlightened commimity. The building is bare, barren, and altogether 
unlovely. The life within it is in full accord with its external character. 
The only thing that can be said in its favor is that the children are com- 
fortably housed, well fed, kept clean, and in general kindly treated, but 
that it is in any true sense a genuine reformatory institution, a place where 
boys who are beginning a downward road can be sent with the hope that 
they will be surrounded with the best influences day and night, given 
through their occupation and environment new ideals and interest in educa- 
tion and an impulse toward better living, no one would be rash enough to 
assert. 

The Truant School needs making over from top to bottom. It should 
be removed from the city to the country, and located on a farm where the 
boys might have an abundance of out-door employment. It should be 
placed in the hands of experts who have made the refonnation of youth an 
especial study, and who sympathetically but strongly will undertake the 
moral elevation of the boys in their care. I urgently recommend that the 
property now occupied by this school be sold, and with the money thus 
secured a farm be bought convenient to the cit}^ ; that the method of con- 
ducting the institution be so completely changed as to bring it into accord 
with the best known principles of reformatory schools. 

I do not wish to be understood as criticising the principal and his 
assistants now in charge. They are earnest and most conscientious in the 
perfonnance of their duties, and do the best possible under the circum- 
stances. I desire to commend their zeal, but the circumstances are bad. 

Thk Trainin<; of Tkachers. 

No subjects are of more general interest and anxiety to school superin- 
tendents than these two — How to secure a proper supply of well-trained 
and fully-equipped teachers, and how to train teachers already in the corps. 
The natural and common solution of the first problem is the establishment 
of a sufficient number of schools for the training of teachers. In this 
respect New York State is very fortunate in that it has a number of Nomial 
Schools of the State at large, and also a large number of training classes 
and training schools whose chief function is to supply local needs. For 
the city of Rochester, undertaking, as it is doing, many and new things, and 
for that reason needing teachers specially trained to do these things, the 



56 

local teachers training school is even more important than the State Normal 
Schools. 

Before this Board took office the training class had been made into a 
training school and the course somewhat lengthened, it being all under the 
able direction of Principal Searing. The steps in advance which we made 
were lengthing the course to two years ; greatly increasing the opportunities 
for practice under proper supervision on the part of the pupil teachers, 
and furnishing all the facilities for instruction which could be furnished by 
any Normal School, and also making provision for the special needs of the 
city of Rochester. 

In these respects I believe that we were eminently successful. Young 
teachers now graduated from our two-year course are superior in fitness for 
our purposes to those who come from any other sources. It is greatly to 
be regretted that they cannot be put into the schools as fast as they are 
graduated. 

The conditions prevailing here are peculiar and will only be removed 
by time. When it became evident that many more teachers were employed 
in the schools than were needed, naturally many were dismissed. Some 
of these were good teachers and they have been waiting for opportunities 
to return to service. The further reduction of the corps has rendered the 
employment of many new teachers impossible, hence the fresh, young blood 
needed in all institutions, but in none more than in the schools, has been 
kept out of our schools and has been driven to other places. 

Meanwhile the cost of the schools for teachers* salaries has greatly 
increased without any increase in the salary schedule ; the older teachers 
who have been advancing toward the maximum have supplied the needs of 
the city so that we have at the present time almost no teachers at the 
minimum and very few at the intermediate stages. 

We have practically now reached the end of this dfficulty. The old list 
of teachers has been almost entirely disposed of, the good teachers having 
been placed, the others having sought employment elsewhere. 

From the present time vacancies can be filled by the employment of 
freshly-trained teachers, and I am sure that this will mean not only financial 
relief but improvement in work. 

Even a more difficult problem than the preliminary training of would-be 
teachers is the supplementary and continued training of the teachers 
already employed. This is particularly important and particularly difficult 
if the teachers are many of them old teachers who began the work in the 
first instance with no professional training, or with very little. Such 
teachers are to be found in all grades, many of them honest and earnest, 
with a deal of practical sense and skill in the school room, but without any 
scientific knowledge of educational principles. There is another class, 
especially in those school systems that have been dominated by political 



57 

influences, who, while reasonably honest and earnest, are lacking in general 
culture and intelligence as well as professional training, and who can 
become reasonably good teachers only after a very careful and thorough 
process of tutelage, which is particularly difficult late in life. 

The needs of supplementary training, however, are not limited to these 

two classes of teachers whose early training was deficient. All teachers, 

even though thoroughly competent and graduated from the best schools 

and colleges, need constant instruction and inspiration in order that they 

may be kept alert and abreast of the times. This need is universally 

recognized. Nearly all States contribute from the State treasury for the 

maintenance of institutes, summer schools, and classes of various sorts for 

the help and stimulation of teachers already at work. The most common 

method of giving such instruction is through institutes of from one to five 

days in length, in which the teachers gather and listen to a number of 

addresses on educational subjects. This is frequently supplemented in 

city school systems by meetings of teachers by grades or otherwise out 

of school hours. 

Last year we determined to make trial of a different plan with the hope 

that it would prove better than either of the others or a combination of 

them. We have not been disappointed in the results. The method is 

this. We have had institutes of teachers by grades as often as possible 

during the year. For example, on Friday of one week the first grade 

rooms of the city are all dismissed and the teachers are assembled at the 

Normal School building for instruction. On the next Friday the same is 

done for the second grades and so on, a grade at a time, until all have 

received this instruction. This is repeated four or five times through the 

school year, so that the teachers get practically a week of institute, but not 

all at once. During each of these days the work of the grade is carefully 

studied by the teachers with the superintendent and the supervisors. 

Usually we divide the day into four periods, each one being assigned to a 

particular subject, as, for example, language, under the superintendent; 

drawing, under the supervisor of drawing ; music, under the supervisor of 

music; and arithmetic, under the primary supervisor. 'J'he subjects are 

varied from institute to institute. 

In this way the teachers receive definite instruction in the work of their 
own grades. Sometimes illustrative lessons with children are given before 
the institute ; sometimes a period is given up to the consideration of a 
question-box, the teachers presenting questions upon any subjects that 
trouble them. It is perfectly evident that after every institute the teachers 
go back to their work stronger. The work has been definite, to the point, 
and given by those directly concerned and not by strangers with new 
theories. I can recommend this plan to any school authorities as giving 
more help to the teachers than any other method with which I am familiar. 



58 

The instruction which comes from addresses by strangers of note is 
secured by means of courses of lectures furnished to the teachers through 
the liberality of the Board of Education. Last year we had Dr. Edward R. 
Shaw, President G. Stanley Hall, President C. F. Thwing, and E. Howard 
Griggs. This year thus far we have had another inspiring lecture by 
K. H. Griggs, and one on music by W. L. Tomlins. President Butler of 
C?olumbia College, and other noted speakers will be heard later. 

Teachers' Libraries. 

Still another help furnished by the Board to the teachers who are 
desirous of improving themselves is the teachers' library. A considerable 
number of purely professional works on education have been purchased 
each year and been placed in the different schools, where they are accessible 
to the teachers. 

One of the great needs of this city is a free public library. There is 
under the control of the Board of Education and supported out of school 
funds, a part of them derived from local taxation and a part derived from 
State appropriation, a Central Library. Unquestionably the only legal use 
to which the funds, both local and State, may properly be applied is 
educational. This library is intended to be of benefit to the schools, their 
teachers and children. It is not intended to be used as a general circu- 
lating librar}'. Indeed, the use of the State funds for such a purpose is 
distinctly forbidden by law, and I am quite satisfied that the use of the 
local funds is by implication equally improper. We need all the money 
appropriated by the lk)ard of Education for library purposes and all that 
received from the State, to properly supply our schools with educational 
literature. The public should not look to the School Board for its general 
reading. Possibly if the law were to be strictly interpreted and the Central 
Library' be used for a school library, public sentiment would be sufficiently 
aroused by the lack of any general circulating medium to secure a free 
public library. Rochester is one of the few cities of considerable size in 
the country without a public library. I urgently recommend that hereafter 
all the funds appropriated to library purposes for and by the School Board 
be expended in the interest of the schools, and that consequently the 
purchasmg of current novels and other books not of value in the schools 
be discontinued. 

Salaries. 

The amount of money expended annually for teachers' salaries, if the 
teaching corps were in normal condition, with the ordinary number of 
young teachers coming in each year at the minimum, would pay for a con- 
siderable advance in schedule, nearly if not quite all that is asked for by 
the teachers. With the end of the old waiting list and the introduction of 
the young teachers, begins the removing of this handicap. Naturally, 



59 

within a short time, the Board will be able to pay larger salaries without 
greatly increasing the total amount spent upon salaries. 

I wish to urge with all the force that I can that it is imperative that 
teachers' salaries be advanced at the earliest possible moment. The one 
most important thing in a successful school system is the right esprit du 
corps among the teachers. It is worth more than buildings ; more than 
good supervision ; more than anything else. It will be difficult to retain 
the fine spirit already manifest among our teachers unless their demands 
for increased salaries are met early. 

The cost of living has advanced in almost every respect. Nearly all 
classes of labor, unskilled and skilled, are receiving higher wages than ^\t. 
years ago. Teachers in other places have had their salaries advanced. 
Our teachers have not. Moreover, we are requiring of them very much more 
work than they were ever required to do before. We are demanding higher 
skill and better equipment. We expect teachers to dress well ; to appear 
well ; to keep abreast of the times by means of study ; to continually 
improve their culture by travel ; by attending lectures and summer schools ; 
by those many means that are available, all of which costs money. I speak 
thus earnestly while I know that your honorable body are in favor of 
advanced salaries, in order that, if possible, it may be brought about sooner 
than it otherwise would be even if some material improvements are post- 
poned. 

I know that in what I say that 1 am merely voicing your sentiments as 
well as my own, and I do it partly in order that the teachers and the 
public may know that the Board of Education intends to advance salaries 
to a proper figure as soon as possible. 

Skwinc;. 

It was felt that one of the functions of a public school is to properly 
equip the girls as well as the boys with that know ledge which is found to 
be useful in after life. Nothing is more important for the average girl than 
acquaintance with those arts which are essential in a home. 

The two most conspicuous of these are sewing and cooking. The 
girls in the highest grammar grades were already, through the generosity 
ot one of our citizens. Captain Henr^' Lonib, given instruction in cooking. 
Sewing was introduced into the grammar grades. 

Miss Kmma E. Wallace, a teacher in our own schools, who had given 
much attention to the subject, was placed in charge as supervisor. VV^eekly 
lessons were given the girls of the 6th, 7th, and 8th grades. The course, 
as will be seen from the accompanying course of study, was not only general 
in character, but aimed to make it possible for girls to do household sewing 
as well. 



6o 

The attempts at the union of this department with that of Manual 
Training have already been spoken of. It is hoped that in the future the 
work will be even more practical in character than it is at present. 

Music. 

It is almost incredible that the introduction of music into the schools of 
Rochester should have been so long delayed. No single art affords such 
universal pleasure or is so generally appreciated as music. It is but a 
platitude to say that its influence is most civilizing, and is almost an 
imperative necessity among a self-governing people. 

Early in the year 1901 your honorable body determined to introduce 
music into the schools of Rochester. The question of a music system at 
once came up for consideration. It was found that most of the systems in 
use are ultra-mechanical, attaching more importance to the technic of music 
than to the cultivation of the love of good music and of the power to enjoy 
music. 

While both are important, the former belongs more especially to the 
special school for the training of musicians. The latter is the need of 
people generally, hence a system was selected in which the song element is 
predominant, the Modem Music System, and I feel that we have made no 
mistake. 

Our first supervisor was Miss Marie R. Hofer, a woman of strong p)er- 
sonality and marked ability in certain lines. She remained with us a year 
creating much interest in her subject. Her successor was Miss Rizpah R. 
de Laittre, the present supervisor, who brought to us beside a thorough 
acquaintance with the subject, a charming personality and power to help 
and inspire the teachers. The work is going well and needs simply 
encouragement and continued support. 

Drawing. 

Drawing had already been introduced into the schools before 1902, 
with Miss Helen E. Lucas, formerly a teacher in one of our schools as 
supervisor. The work has progressed steadily under her helpful su|>er- 
vision. 

The special effort in teaching drawing is to make it a means of intro- 
ducing the student to art, both practical and decorative, and to give him 
another vehicle of expression. 

The method of teaching drawing within recent years has been practically 
revolutionized. Instead of the formal study of lines and angles at first 
prevailing, has come free expression, following observation and the use of 
those media best adapted to children. As children see mass before they 
see outline, mass is first represented. But the pencil cannot well show 



6i 

mass, hence, in the lowest grades, the brush used with ink and paints 
largely supplants the pencil. 

The ^vork in drawing, especially in the department of design, is being 
more and more closely allied with the departments of manual training and 
sewing. I believe that our work is along wise lines, and that what is 
needed is simply continued effort. 

Manual Trainino. 

Certain new subjects have been introduced which do not need justi- 
fication before the public of Rochester. One of them is manual train- 
ing. The aid which education receives through the employment of the 
hands and brains co-operatively in creative work is so universally admitted 
by thoughtful people that I shall not even attempt to discuss it here. The 
willfully ignorant will not learn ; the woefully ignorant cannot. But in an 
industrial city like Rochester there certainly can be no question as to the 
wisdom or necessity of introducing into the curricula of the public schools 
lines of thought and of work which tend to produce comprehension of the 
ends and means of industrial activity and the kind of elementary skill which 
will both encourage and make it possible for the youth of the city to enter 
these local and profitable fields of industry. 

We have had manual training in our schools since September, 1901. 
It was introduced into five grades ; the seventh, eighth, and ninth doing 
bench work, and the fifth and sixth work at their desks with an especially 
prepared equipment. With the latter equipment all of the schools were pro- 
vided. For the bench work five centers were established, as conveniently 
located as possible, to which the boys of the higher grammar grades of all 
the schools were sent, once a week, for a lesson. 

At the outset we were exceedingly fortunate in securing for supervisor 
Mr. W. W. Murray, the director of this department at the Mechanic's In- 
stitute. Mr. Murray's heart is in the public school work and his long 
experience and varied training have especially qualified him for the de- 
velopment of this department. It is largely through his initiative and 
guidance that we have kept away from the formal exercise method of man- 
ual training and have taken to the making of things interesting and useful 
to children, in particular the making of apparatus to be used by the chil- 
dren themselves and by the other grades of the various schools in school 
work. 

A special corps of teachers was appointed to work under Mr. Murray's 
direction and give the instruction both at the benches and at the desks. 
Great enthusiasm was manifested by the boys of this city generally, the 
complaints and requests for excuses from manual training being very few 
indeed. The teachers were selected from our own corps. In this we were 



62 

ver)^ fortunate, as many of our best teachers had taken manual training 
courses under Mr. Murray at the Mechanics Institute, and were fully quali- 
fied to give instruction in this subject. In this way the work continued 
through the school year 1901 and 1902. 

At the beginning of the present school year certain improvements and 
additions were made to the course. Last year both boys and girls in the 
fifth grade did the tool work at their desks. This year a course was pro- 
vided for the sixth grade pupils for the boys and girls together, combining 
the work of the sewing and manual training departments. Naturally the 
sewing work here had to be different from the general work in sewing and 
the tool work was also somewhat modified. 

The scheme in so far as it combines the two departments naturally in- 
cludes chiefly the designing and making of artistic objects largely for house- 
hold decoration. Thus far the work has proven exceedingly interesting 
and valuable. The interest has been increased and the value as well by 
the co-operation of the department of drawing, securing artistic form and 
coloring for objects made and making natural application of the principles 
of art, thus bringing into prominence the practical character of that depart- 
ment and increasing its educational value. 

The difficulties attending sending pupils from one school to another 
for their manual training exercises are readily apparent. It is certainly 
better to have shops in all the schools if possible. Six more have already 
been added to the number of those established at the beginning. All of 
the newer buildings are provided with manual training rooms, and it is to 
be hoped that before long every grammar school in Rochester will be pro- 
vided in this respect. 

School Buildings. 

Rochester is being rapidly supplied with as good school buildings as 
can be built. The conditions that prevailed when this Board of Education 
came into office were appalling. By means of remarkable financing and 
the display of great executive ability the worst of these have been removed 
and plans are now under way for the further improvement and perfecting of 
the buildings. 

The two buildings erected this year Numbers 7 and 23 are models. 
Detailed reports relating to construction will doubtless be given by the 
President of the Board in his annual report, hence 1 shall say no more 
upon the subject. 

Summary. 

The following is a brief sunnnar}' of some of the things accomplished 
by the present Board of Education : The erection of a new high school 
building and four new grammar school buildings, additions and improve- 
ments to many more ; the adoption of a new course of study complete 



63 

throughout ; the development of a modern, fully-equipped Normal School 
for the training of teachers; the introduction of manual training in all 
grades of the grammar schools ; the introduction of sewing into the higher 
grammar grades; the introduction of music into all the grades of all the 
schools ; the introduction of kindergartens into those numerous schools not 
before supplied : the training of teachers already in the corps ; the reduction of 
the corps of teachers to a proper figure with the elimination of the undesir- 
able : supplying the schools with a suitable amount of supplementary' read- 
ing matter and other material necessary for accomplishing the best work ; 
furnishing teachers* libraries in all the schools ; shortening the course of 
study from nine years to eight, and in general quickening a fine esprit du 
corps and professional enthusiasm among the teachers. 

1 wish to add a brief tribute to the conscientious and earnest efforts of 
the teaching corps of the city. With but a few exceptions they have taken 
the burden of the new work without complaining and in many cases with 
genuine eagerness. 1 do not see how such a spirit properly guided can 
fail to make good schools. I have faith in the great teaching body of the 
city and commend them to the generous consideration of the Ik)ard of 
Education. 

In conclusion I beg to assure this Board of Education as a body and 

individually of my high esteem and warm regard. I have worked during 

the last quarter century with many Boards of Education, a few of them 

good, never however with one on the whole so high in aim, so unswerving 

in purpose and so vigorous and intelligent in execution as this. To work 

with you has been a joy. I feel that we have shared the labor and also the 

blame and the credit of our work for the schools. I regret exeedingly that 

it seems on the whole best for me to accept an offer of work in another field 

and to retire from my present position, but I leave, feeling that the schools 

of Rochester will not suffer, since this Board is still in the saddle, since 

there is an intelligent and earnest body of teachers, and since you have been 

wise enough and fortunate enough to secure the services as superintendent 

«>f one of the ablest school men in the United States. 

Respectfully submitted. 

C. B. Gilbert, 
Superintendent of Schools. 
K(x:hestkr, N. Y., Jan. 5, 1903. 

Appended are the reports of the various supervisors and of the Princi- 
pals of the High School and the Normal School. 



64 



ROCHESTER HIGH SCHOOL. 

Albert H. Wilcox, Principal. 

Rochester, N, K, January 5, 1903. 
Mr, Charles B. Gilbert^ 

Superintendent of Schools^ 
Dear Sir : — 

In making my first official report as principal of the high school I wish 
to acknowledge the courtesy extended to me by my predecessor. At the 
time of the change in the executive control Mr. Allen took particular pains 
to make the details of the work familiar and many times since then I have 
had the benefit of his experience and advice. 

Two years ago after a conference with Principal Searing of the Normal 
Training School it seemed best to drop the so-called Teacher's Training 
Course. Under this course candidates for any normal school were com- 
pelled to choose their course at the time of entrance to the high school. 
Frequently pupils who chose this course changed their plans and decided 
not to go to a normal school and some pupils in other courses wished to be 
prepared for such a school. We have tried to meet this difficulty by so 
arranging the required and elective subjects in all courses that a pupil on 
completing any course may be prepared for the normal schools. This 
arrangement enables the pupils to defer a positive decision until later in 
their course, when the choice can be made more intelligently. 

One year ago in resp>onse to repeated requests from parents and pupils 
a new course was outlined called the Latin-German course, similar to the 
classical course, but substituting three years of Gennan for three of Greek. 
At the same time it seemed best to give four years of Gennan in the Ger- 
man-Scientific course in place of one year of Latin and three of German. 

As the work of the school is organized at the present time, all pupils 
who wish to pursue a regular course study Algebra, English, English His- 
tory, Physiology, and Botany during the first year. They also choose a 
foreign language, either Latin or German, which is continued for the entire 
course. At the beginning of the second year pupils who have had one 
year of Latin choose their course for the remaining three years. This 
choice lies between the classical with three years of (ireek, the Latin- 
German with three years of German, or the Latin-Scientific with three 
years of sciences. Zoology, Chemistr\' and Physics. In the third year 



6s 

there is a choice between a modern language and history. In the fourth 
year the field of electives is broader and a pupil may choose his elective 
from five or six different subjects. 

The total registration for the current year is 1390. These pupils are 
classified as follows : 

First year 637 

Second year 379 

Third year 196 

Fourth year 134 

l^nclassified 44 



^390 



All pupils are required to pursue the same work in English, Algebra and 
(Jeometry. unless a good reason can be given for an exception. All pupils 
also are required to study the histor)* and science work of the first year, 
Where a choice is allowed, the following figures will be of interest. Num- 
ber of pupils pursuing important electives : 

Foreign languages 

(ireek 155 

Latin 1 03 2 

(jerman 518 

French 59 

Sciences 

Zoology 131 

Chemistry 98 

Physics 39 

Cireek and Roman historv Mi 

rhe work of the last two years has been greatly hindered by tiie crowded 
condition of the present building, entailing a number of evils which are too 
well known to need extended mention here. 1 v ish to speak of the double 
session which brings one-half of the pupils and teachers here in the morn- 
ing and an entirely new set in the aftenuxm. This arrangement reduces 
to a niinimum the time spent in school by both teacher and pupil ; it re- 
moves almost entirely any opportunity for helpful individual contact be- 
tween pupil and teacher; and finally it introduces an element of hurrv 
into schofjl life which is detrimental to the best work. Not the least of the 
advantages which will come with increased acconunodations will be a 
single session where time can be given for the school to meet as a whole 
and also for both pupils and teachers to have an opportunity to meet out- 
'^ide the class-room. 



66 



The work of the school needs to be broadened along the lines of his- 
tory, drawing, music, public speaking and manual training. The last two 
years have been largely a time of waiting for an opportunity to give to the 
pupils of the school the benefit of instruction in the subjects mentioned. 
In closing I wish to mention the cheerful spirit with which teachers and 
pupils have combined to make the most of the facilities offered to them 
here. Respectfully yours, 

Albert H. Wilcox. 



ROCHESTER HIGH SCHOOL. 



COURSES OF STUDY OUTLINED. 



CLASSICAL. 



bra 




LATIN— GERMAN. 



.5; Latin 6 



LATIN— SCIENTIFIC. GERMAN— SCIENTIFIC. 



.6! Algebra 6 



Latin 6 German 6 

Algebra 6! Algebra 6 

ish 61 English 5i English 6 English 6 

lstsem...o 



wAogy \ - . .^^ -' Physiology I • . .^^ ,1 English History, 1st sem . . .6 English Histoiy, 

Botany } !«» »^ «WBou5y P »* »*" ^Physiology l^^^ -Physiology )?,' 

;l»h History, 2d sem ... .5 English History, 2d sem. . . .6 and Botany f ^ **"* ** and Bouny j **" 



sem 



Drawing, 2d sem 6 Elem. Drawing, 2d sem ... .6 Elem. Drawing, 1st sem ... .6: Elem. Drawing, 1st sem 6 

:. _. L 

5 German 5 ZoSlogy 4,Zodlogy 4 

r 6 Caesar 5 Csesar SiGerman 5 

(Ceometry 5 Geometry 5 Geometry 5|Geometry 5 

PKaglish 4 English 4 Engli^ 4 English 4 

LAidlv. Drawing 3 Adv. Drawing 3 Adv. Drawing 3j Adv. Drawing 3 



^G«eek 6 German 5 Chemistry 6| Chemistry 5 

rGoero 6 Cicero S.Cicero SIGerman 5 

lEag^ish 4 English 4 English 4 EnglUh 4 

•Andent and ) • ) Elocution 2 Elocution 2 Elocution 2 

History f "****"•} 6 Ancient and i ,,» ..« ) And one of the following : [Ancient and 1 1.» ^,„ ) 
m •* 2d sem. ) Greek History f *"***"} 6 Ancient and l,,,.._) lOreek History J *« »e™ } 5 

L^^lUocution 2Roman " 2d sem. ) , Greek History I *"**"*• J 61 Roman " 2d sem. ) 

or 'Roman " 2d sem..) : or 

French 6 or ' French 5 

French 6 



or 



(Terman 6 



Greek 6 

Virgil 5 

Ewlish 4 

And ant of the following : 
Algebra, review, 1st sem.. I 
Geometry, '* 2d sem.. P 

^'Advanced Mathematics 6 

Physics (see note) 6 

French 5 

Gennan 5 

Arith. review, 1st sem .... \ 
VoalMuaic. 2d sem fS 



German 

Virgil 

Enelish 

Ana one of the following : 
Algebra, review, 1st sem.. ) 
Geometry, " 2d sem..) 

Advanced Mathematics 

Physics (see note) 

French 



Arith. review, 1st sem. 
Vocal Music. 2d sem. 



Physics 6 

Virgil 6 

English 6 

And one of the following : 
Algebra, review, 1st sem.. ) « 
Geometiy, " 2d sem.. f 

Advanced Mathematics 5 

French 5 

German 6 

Economics, 1st sem ) > 

Civics, 2d sem t 



Physics 5 

German 6 

English 4 

And one of the following : 
Algebra, review, 1st sem.. ) g 
Geometry, ** 2d sem.. I 

Advanced Mathematics <> 

French ^ 

Economics, 1st sem (5 

Civics, 2d sem I 



Arith. review, 1st sem 
Vocal Music, 2d sem 



• t • • f 



Arith. review, 1st sem . 
Vocal Music, 2d sem. 



:h 



REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION.— Graduates of Grammar schools in the 
Qtyof Rochester are admitted without exammation on the recommendation of the Gram- 
^^ School Principal. All other pupils must pass an entrance examination or present a 
"Regents' Preliminary Certificate and a pass-card in elementary U. S. History. 

The tuition for non-residents is ^20 per .semester ($40 per year), payable October 1 
^d March i. 

Pupils who intend to enter college, a normal school, or the Normal Training School, 
^nould consult the Principal as to their course of study. 

REQUIREMENT FOR GRADUATION.— The satisfactory completion of one 
01 the above courses of study. 



68 



ROCHESTER NORMAL TRAINING SCHOOL, 

Superintendent Charles B, Gilbert: 

Dear Sir : — 

In submitting to you a report on the Normal and Training School for 
the past two years, I desire to call attention to a few facts in its brief 
history. 

The school was organized in September, 1898, under the name of the 
Rochester Training School, for the professional training of teachers in 
accordance with Chapter 1031 of the Laws of 1895, which says: 

" The Board of Education of the public school authorities of any city 
employing a superintendent of schools, may establish, maintain, direct and 
control one or more schools for the professional instruction and training of 
teachers in the principles of education and in the method of instruction for 
not less than thirty-eight weeks in each school ye^r." 

The course of study as planned at that time covered a period of one 
year. Only one instructor was employed to give the instruction in the 
twelve subjects prescribed in the minimum course of study outlined by the 
State Department of Public Instruction. There was no provision made for 
practice teaching for the reason that the students needed all of their time 
for the theory work in preparation for their final examinations. During 
the winter of 1898 and '99, an instructor in drawing was provided and 
under these very unsatisfactory conditions the first class, forty-four in num- 
ber, were graduated in June, 1899. 

At the close of the first year the Board of Education was prevailed 
upon to make certain changes of which the first year's experience had demon- 
strated the need. The course was extended to one and a half years, a 
department for the training of Kindergarten teachers was added, a special 
instructor in Nature Study, and in Methods in Geography, Physiology and 
Hygiene, was employed, thus greatly strengthening the character of the 
work over that of the preceding year. An effort was made to have a cer- 
tain amount of practice teaching by the pupil teachers, but the results were 
meager for two reasons, — there was not sufficient time and there were no 
professionally trained Critic teachers to guide and direct the pupil teacher 
intelligently in her work. Notwithstanding these needs we graduated a 
class of thirty-four young ladies in January, 1901, nearly all of whom 
have developed by experience, into strong and successful grade and kinder- 
garten teachers. 



69 

It was not, however, until the present administration came into control 
of the schools that the needs of the Training School were* recognized and 
its important relation to the city school system fully appreciated. The 
Board of Education realized the importance of affording the young women 
of this city an opportunity for the best professional training as teachers 
and also the fact that the Training School must stand for the highest ideals 
in education if its graduates are to go into the city schools and accomplish 
all that is expected of them. Accordingly under your direction and with 
the hesLTty co-operation of the Board, the school was entirely reorganized 
under the name of the Rochester Normal Training School, and the course 
of study was extended to cover a period of two years. A Practice Depart- 
ment was created and four strong professionally trained Critic teachers 
placed in charge. A department of Physical Training was also established 
wnth an exceptionally strong instructor in charge. In addition to the 
minimum course of study as prescribed by the State, our students are 
afforded the exceptional advantages of a complete course in Manual Train- 
ing, Sociology, Vocal Music and in the Interpretation of Art and Literature. 
The present plan, adopted at your suggestion, of requiring all students to 
have a knowledge of Kindergarten Theory and Primary Methods as the 
result of one semester's work, is proving one of the strongest features in 
our course of study. The present requirement, that all members of the 
graduating class must teach at least twenty weeks during their Senior Year, 
in my opinion is the strongest feature of our work, and its value has been 
fully demonstrated in the exceptionally strong class of twenty-three gradu- 
ates who went out last June, several of whom are teaching, successfully, 
classes where teachers of experience have failed. The faculty of the 
Normal School is determined that no student teacher shall be allowed to 
graduate who has not attained a reasonable degree of success in her prac- 
tice teaching. That we are sincere in this determination was evinced by 
our refusal last year to graduate three students, for the reasons referred to. 
The present course of study and plan of organization of the school has 
received the strongest commendation from the State Department of Public 
Instruction, and several of the City Training Schools in the State have 
adopted our plan of work in its entirety. 

Since the organization of the school, ninety-six young women have 
been graduated and have secured New York State Training School certifi- 
cates in addition to the diploma given by the Board of Education. Of 
this number, forty are at present teaching in this cit)s four have married, 
seven hold exceptionally good positions as teachers in Greater New York, 
one is teaching in Toledo, one in Cleveland, three in Auburn, one in Ken- 
tucky, one in Florida, and one in Mexico. A majority of the others are 
teaching in various towns of Western New York. A larger number of them 
should be teaching in this city and it is gratifying to know that the Board 



70 

intends to assign them to positions in our local schools as rapidly as 
vacancies occur. 

Qualifications for Admission. 

In addition to the Physical Examination required by the Board of Edu- 
cation, for admission to the Normal Training School, the regulations of the 
State Department of Public Instruction are that : — 

Candidates must be at least seventeen years of age at the time of 
entrance. 

They must subscribe to the following declaration : "We, the subscrib- 
ers, hereby declare that our object in asking admission to the Training 
School or class is to prepare ourselves for teaching ; and that it is our 
purpose to engage in teaching in the public schools of the State of New 
York, at the completion of such preparation." 

They must hold diplomas issued by the State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction certifying to graduation from approved high schools or acade- 
mies or certificates issued by the same authority certifying to the completion 
of an approved course of study in an institution of equal or higher rank as 
provided under the law. In addition thereto they must pass an examination 
conducted under the direction of the City Superintendent of Schools. 
This examination should include groups I. and II. and any three of the 
other groups. 

I. Grammar, Rhetoric, Literature. 
II. Arithmetic, Algebra. Geometry. 

III. Latin or French or German. 

IV. French or Gennan or Greek. 

V. Botany, Zoology, Physiology, Physics. 
VI. General History, American History, Civics. 

VII. Geography, Drawing. 

Additional qualifications may be prescribed by boards of education. 

Candidates from other States, in order to qualify for entrance to any 
training school, shall present credentials of graduation from a high school 
or an institution of equal or higher rank having a course of 'study at least 
equivalent to the high school course of study prescribed as a basis for 
entrance to training schools in this State. Such credentials shall be for- 
warded to the State Superintendent for approval. 

Before admission the principal of the training school must require each 
candidate to present an approved school diploma or a certificate issued by 
the State Superintendent. 

No person shall be admitted to the class later than the second Monday 
following its organization. 

No allowance can be made for any pupil not shown by reports to have 
been eligible to enter the class. 



7> 

No allowance will be made for any pupil who leaves the class before the 
expiration of the year, except by permission of the State Superintendent 
and no such permission will be granted during the year, simply that the 
candidate may teach. 

When the class is organized, the qualifications for admission of each 
candidate shall be entered in the place designated for such entry in the 
training school attendance register. 

The daily attendance of each member upon such recitation must be 
recorded in the recitation register supplied for this purj)ose. 

Training schools that organize but one class a year must not admit 
members at the beginning of the second term. Those that organize a class 
at the beginning of the school year must keep a separate register. 

The following course of study is designated by the State Department of 
Public Instruction as a minimum to meet the requirements of the laws of 
1895, Chapter 1031, and at least 450 hours must be devoted to its comple- 
tion. 

Psycholog)*^ and Principles of Education, 60 hours ; History of Educa- 
tion, 40 hours; School Management, 40 hours; Methods in Mathematics, 
40 hours ; Methods in Nature Study (plants, animals, minerals), and in 
Physiology and Hygiene, 40 hours ; Methods in Reading, Spelling and 
Phonics, 30 hours ; Methods in Language, Composition and Grammar, 40 
hours ; Methods in Geography, 30 hours ; Methods in Drawing, 40 hours ; 
Methods in History and Civics, 30 hours ; Physical Culture, with methods, 
^o hours ; Methods in Music, 20 hours. At least 50 hours shall be spent 
by each member of the training school in practice teaching. 

(Jur course of study as at present planned gives much more than the 
minimum amount of time to all subjects. 

At the close of each semester, the Department of Public Instruction 
furnishes a special examination in the several subjects prescribed in the 
course of study or in such of them as the State Superintendent may deter- 
mine, which examination is included as a part of the work required in the 
approved course of study. 

These examinations begin on the Wednesday after the third Tuesday of 
Januar}% and on the Wednesday after the second Tuesday of June and 
continue three days. 

The name of every member taking the examination must appear in the 
fcport of the examination. 

Members must attain a standing of at least 75 per cent, in each pre- 
"icribed subject and complete the course within two years. 

The program of examination is as follows: Wednesday forenoon — 
History of Education, Nature Study, Physiology and Hygiene. Wednesday 
aftemoon — School Management, Methods in History and Civics. Thurs- 
day forenoon — Methods in Mathematics. Thursday afternoon — M.eXVvods 



72 

in Language, Composition and Grammar ; Methods in Reading, Phonics 
and Orthography. Friday forenoon — Methods in Geography, Psycholog}- 
and Principles of Education. Friday afternoon — Methods in Drawing. 

Members of training schools who attain a standing of 75 per cent in 
the several subjects of the course will receive a New York State Training 
School certificate upon the certification of the city superintendent that the 
candidate has shown sufficient skill in teaching to warrant his receiving 
such certificate, that he is a person of good moral character, and worthy to 
be employed in the schools of the state. 

Training School certificates are valid for three years and are renewable 
thereafter for ten-year periods if the holder has had a successful experience 
of at least two years under the certificate. 

The requirements for admission to the Kindergarten department of the 
school is the same as for admission to the Normal Department. Graduates 
from this department receive in addition to the diploma of graduation issued 
by the Board of Education, a New York State Training School Kindergar- 
ten Certificate, the highest grade of kindergarten license issued by the 
State. The State Department regulations governing the issuance of kin- 
dergarten certificates is that — 

A kindergarten certificate entitles the holder to teach in a kindergarten 
only. A violation of this regulation will be deemed sufficient cause for the 
revocation of the certificate. 

These certificates are issued for a period of three years. Upon expira- 
tion they are renewable for ten year periods if the holder has had a 
successful experience of at least two years under the certificate. 

Candidates must have completed a course of professional training in 
kindergarten work in a normal school in this State or in connection with a 
kindergarten training school under the supervision of the Department of 
Public Instruction, or in some other institution approved by the State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

The examination for kindergarten certificates are held on the Wednes- 
day after the third Tuesday of January and on the Wednesday after the 
second Tuesday of June and continue two and one-half days. 

Candidates must attain a minimum standing of 75 per cent, in the fol- 
lowing subjects: History of Education, School Management, Special 
Kindergarten Methods, Primary Methods, Psychology. 

Candidates may combine the standing earned in four consecutive 
examinations. 

The principal of the school in which the kindergarten training is given 
must certify to the moral character, worthiness and teaching abilit}^ of the 
candidate. 



73 

Coursp: of Study. 

The following outline of the Course of Study was adopted for the 
Normal Training School a year ago and with some slight modifications has 
been found to meet the needs of our work admirably : 

Normal Training School — (Jenkral Course. 
Junior Year — First Semester. 

Period. 

ICO. Psychology and Child Study. 

Drawing, 60. 
100. 

Manual Training, 40. 

Physical Training, daily, 45 minutes. 
1 00. Primary Methods and Kindergarten. 

Literature, 60. 
100. 

Art, 40. 

* 

Second Semi-^ster. 

100. Applied Psychology arid Pedagogy. 

Music, 60. 
100. 

Drawing, 40. 

Physical Training, daily, 45 minutes. 

Reading and Literature, 60. 
100. Methods. 

Language and Grammar, 40. 

Mathematics — Method, 40. 
100. 

Nature Study, 60. 

Senior Year — First Semester. 

Period. 

100. History and Science of Education. 

Nature Study (Methods), 50. 
100. 

Geography (Methods), 50. 

Physical Training, daily, 45 minutes. 

Methods in History and Civics, 50. 
100. 

Methods in Physiology- and Hygiene, 50. 
Sociology, 60. 



lOO. 



Period. 



lOO. 



74 



Music. 40. 
Teaching, daily. 

Second Skmestkr. 
'I'eaching and Critic Meetings. 

Kindergarten Course. 
Junior Year — First Semester. 
Same as General Course. 

Second Semester. 
Music, 40. 



Nature Study, 60. 

Physical Training, daily, 45 minutes. 
100. Theory of Kindergarten. 

Reading and Literature (Methods), 60. 
100. 

Language add Grammar (Methods), 40. 
100. ()bser\'ation and Discussion. 

Senior Year — First Semester. 

Period. 

100. History and Science of Education. 

Physical Training, daily, 45 minutes. 

Nature Study, 50. 
100. Mother Play, 50. 

100. Education of Man — Kindergarten Theory. 
100. Teaching. 

Second Semrster. 

100. Literature. 
100. Program Work. 
100. Mother Play. 
100. Teaching. 

r^hysical Training, daily, 45 minutes. 

The term ** Period " is used to indicate a recitation hour of rtftv 
minutes. 

Applied Psycholog\^ and Pedagogy is understood here to include the 
subject of '* School Management,'' and *' Art of Questioning.'' 

The instruction in Drawing, Music and Manual Training is to be given 
by the City Supervisors in those subjects. 



75 

In the Senior Year, all students will be required to teach one-half of 
each semester. 

Observation work will be given the Junior Class during the second tenn 
of the Junior Year. 

In the second semester, Junior Year, and the first semester, Senior 
Year, students will be expected to devote portions of the afternoons to field 
work in Nature Study. 

Practice Teach in(;. 

In the practice teaching the aim is to give opportunity for such work as 
will produce practical and intelligent teachers. As no work can be truly 
one's own except as it is worked out through his individuality, the greatest 
possible amount of freedom consistent with the accomplishing of the 
required amount of work in the grade, is encouraged. 

After having had a year's work in the theory of pedagogy the pupil- 
teachers are required to teach for one term of twenty weeks, in the Training 
School. This term extends over one school year, ten weeks of teaching 
alternating with ten weeks of theory. We find that by this arrangement of 
time, the theory work and practice teaching supplement each other to a 
marke ddegree — that the pupil-teacher returns to each more intelligent for 
having had the experience of the other. As the student devotes her entire 
time either to practice or theory work, there can be no division of interests. 
All work is under the supervision of experienced critics. Elach critic 
teacher has but two grades, which allows her opportunity for much indi- 
vidual work with both children and student-teachers. When the standard 
of the grade requires, and at the beginning of each term, classes are 
taught by the critic-teacher, thus giving the pupil-teacher further opportu- 
nit\' for close and directed observation of efficient work. Each critic 
averages at least one day of teaching each week in both of her grades. 

The pupil-teacher is given practically entire control of her grade. She 
teaches all of an entire session. At the end of Invt weeks, when prac- 
ticable, the work is changed, either to another grade or another session of 
the same grade. The pupil-teacher submits to the critic daily plans which 
are carefully reviewed by the critic and discussed with the pupil-teacher 
before the lesson is presented to the class. From time to time, subject 
plans are worked out and demonstrated by the pupil-teacher. Careful and 
directed study of the child and of the class is required. A thesis based 
upon some phase of child-study is required from each student at the close 
of her second term of teaching. 

Once each week is held a conference of critic and pupil-teachers. 
These conferences consist of model lessons, with their after discussions ; 
"round-table" talks on subjects suggested by the pupil-teachers them- 
selves, — the expression of some felt need, and discussions suggested by a 



76 

required course of reading. The aim of the letter is to keep students con- 
versant with the work of recent educators. 

Students who have proven themselves incapable of carrying on their 
work succesfully, are allowed to observe in grades taught by efficient 
teachers, often assisting with the work. At the discretion of the critic and 
principal, such a student may resume her work. 

There are many things that are needed to render the work of the 
school more efficient. In the library there is great need of duplicate 
copies of Standard educational works in order that more than one student 
may have access to the same subject at the same time. 

The walls of the various class-rooms are greatly in need of kalsomining, 
and if they could be put in proper condition and picture mouldings put in 
place, the faculty have plans for the securing of works of art to place upon 
the walls of the class-rooms. 

The gymnasium is greatly in need of additional apparatus, as well as 
shower baths, and when the splendid work already accomplished in this 
department is considered, is it not the best of arguments for the meeting of 
these urgent needs ? 

The KiNDKRCiARTEN DEPARTMENT. 

During the first semester the sajne course of study is pursued by all 
students of the training department. This is of especial advantage because 
it gives a broader and more intelligent idea of the relative importance of 
each grade of work, and tends toward a closer connection between the 
kindergarten and primary schools. In this period a general survey is 
taken of all the gifts, occupations, games and songs of the kindergarten, 
with some special idea of adaptation to work in the primary grades. 

Opportunity is given during the junior year for a period of observation 
in the best kindergartens in Rochester. This observation is of inestimable 
value to the students, affording a more comprehensive view of the pro- 
fession they have chosen. Here they see the actual working out of the 
theories they have discussed in the class-room, thus receiving a deeper and 
more lasting impression of them. They also have a good opportunity for 
another form of child-study, and also a comparative study of methods. 

At the end of the first semester, the students elect either the grade work 
or the kindergarten course, and a division is made, special work then being 
done with each group, although they still remain together in the game and 
story courses. 

The kindergarten students continue their study of the kindergarten 
theor>% completing the work with the first six gifts and most of the manual 
work by the end of the first year. The second year the remaining gifts 
are studied, and special attention is given to the program work, Froebers 
Mother Play and Education of Man. 



77 

The aim in all the work of this department is to give the students a 
broad and intelligent knowledge of the kindergarten materials and their 
use : and also of Froebers Philosophy in its relation to the education of 
the present day. To this end a careful study is made of his life, system, 
and tools, original thoughtful work being encouraged. 

The student-teachers in this department have exceptional advantages. 
Last year the work was unified by the appointment of an expert kinder- 
garten training-teacher who gives all the theoretical work, while the large 
kindergarten connected with the school, in charge of an experienced direct- 
ress and an expert kindergarten-critic, affords ideal conditions for the most 
effective practice work. The members of the senior kindergarten class 
are required to teach half a day during the entire year. Kvery young lady 
in this department is required to be able to play the piano and to sing 
before she is permitted to graduate, as musical ability is a prime requisite 
in the kindergarten teacher. The story and literature work for little 
children is strongly emphasized in this department, and we are particularly 
fortunate in having in our kindergarten critic a most competent and inspir_ 
ing instructor. We are, however, greatly in need of additional books for 
our library bearing upon the special work of this department. Our kinder- 
garten graduates are doing \try strong and successful work and are a 
credit to the school. 

The school suffered a great loss in the resignation of Miss Mabel B. 
Peirson last September. Miss Peirson had been most successful in organ- 
izing the Nature Study work of the school, and was as well an exceptional 
strong instructor in Methods in Geography and Physiolog)' and Hygiene. 
Her work in Nature Study with us was so efficient that the State Department 
of Public Instruction invited her to prepare a syllabus, which was adopted 
for the entire State. Miss Peirson 's successor has already proven a most 
competent and successful instructor, and the standard of the work is being 
raised from year to year. 

The work in the Department of Psychology', (General and Special 
Methods, has been exceptionally strong during the present year ; in fact, 
I feel that it is, everything considered, the most efficient work we have 
ever had since the school was organized. 'J'he work done by the students 
is full of vitality, and they are able to think out the practical and successful 
application of theories as never before. 

In Manual Training our students have shown the greatest enthusiasm, 
and the excellent work produced by the class has been of great satisfaction 
to the faculty and credit to the supervisor under whose faithful instruction 
^ much has been accomplished. 

In the Model Grades excellent work has been accomplished during the 
past year. The teachers seem to fully realize how much is expected of 
them in order to have their work of such a character as to inspire the 



78 

Student-teacher with the highest ideals in her observation work. There 
has been an enthusiastic effort on the part of the teachers to work out the 
purpose of the new course of study as fully as possible. In doing this, 
results of a very satisfactory character have been attained. 

I desire to commend to you the excellent work that all of the teachers 
in the school are doing. They are thoroughly loyal and enthusiastic in 
all that they do, and a most gratifying spirit of harmony prevails in and 
between all departments of the school. 

I also desire to express to you, personally, my sincere appreciation of 
your deep interest in the school, and the. wise plans and suggestions you 
have made. It has been a pleasure for us to carry into effect these 
measures which have meant so much for the increased efficiency of the 
work here. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

RICHARD A. SEARING, 

Principal Normal Training School. 



79 



REPORT OF SUPERVISOR OF KINDERGARTEN AND 

PRIMARY SCHOOLS. 

Mr. C B. Gilbert, Superintendent of Public Instruction^ 

Rochester^ N. V. 
Dear Sir: — I submit the following report of the Kindergarten and 
Primar}-^ Departments from September, 1901. to December the 31st for the 
year 1902. 

On entering upon my duties as Supervisor in this city, I found that the 
high ideals established by my predecessors made it possible for me to 
develop the work much more rapidly than 1 could otherwise hav-e done. 

The highest type of school has for its ideal a community life, in which 
its government, its study — in short, all its movements tend toward the 
realization of the highest and best physical and moral life of each indi- 
vidual and of the whole. 

The ideal community life in the school, held for and worked for means 
cr>ntinual growth ; it is a school in which the end and aim of teacher and 
pupil is to fill er'ery minute of ever)' day with the best possible mental and 
moral action. 

All study, all school work moving steadily toward one ideal under the 
suggestions and hearty co-operation of each individual in the school cannot 
tail to open new avenues of thought and discover}', to develop principles 
and elaborate methods. 

The kindergarten stands for two things — the community idea and the 

laboratory method. When we speak of continuing the kindergarten work 

through the grades, we mean kindergarten principles and not kindergarten 

material. We mean that the sweet joyousness of the kindergarten life, its 

activity, interests, its community life, and laboratory method shall go on. 

In the ideal school the community spirit of the kindergarten is still 

carried out, and we find the school organized for the general good to which 

each pupil is a contributing member. The majority of our primary classes 

art working toward this ideal. Such class-rooms have the sunshine and 

atmosphere of a cheerful home — the appearance of busy workshops in 

^vhich each pupil is an interested workman for the love of the work, ear- 

i^estly performing every duty with due regard to the rights of others, look- 

'^^ to the teacher only for direction and advice. The pupils are led by 

^tgtees to work independently of the teacher, her chief duty being to train 

^'^ child so as to enable him to gain desired information for himself. 

•^^ each grade of school work is a preparation for the succeeding one, it 
devolves upon the kindergarten as the foundation of the higher school life, 
^0 so equip the child that he may work better upon entering the primar)- 



8o 

■ 

school. To accomplish this, it becomes necessary for the kindergartner to 
understand the requirements of the primary teacher that adaptable material 
may be sent her. It is equally necessary that the primary teacher should 
understand the full and highest aim of the kindergarten. 

I have found the spirit which characterizes the kindergartners to be 
one of enquiry and openmindedness. What has been does not set the limit 
of what must be. There is an increasing recognition of the logical relation 
of the kindergarten to the school, which gives promise of that unbroken 
connection and harmonious blending with the primary department, which 
alone can bring about the most desirable results. 

For the purpose of gaining a deeper insight into the basic philosophy 
of the kindergarten, to the end that the work may be raised to a higher 
standard in this department, I have organized the kindergartners into four 
groups for special study work — each group having special leaders. The 
subject under discussion are as follows : 

Group 1. Free Play — what is it? 

. Group II. Nature Study in the Kindergarten. 

Group III. Stories in the Kindergarten. 

Group IV. Programs. 

(}reat interest is taken in this organized plan of work, and I am confi- 
dent the results will be helpful and satisfactory-. 

Rkai)IN<;. 

In reviewing the work of the primary grades progress and improvement 
may be noted to a greater or less degree in the teaching of all subjects, 
but the most noteworty progress is seen in the results attained in reading 
and language. 

1 found in many cases the children of the first grade had memorized 
their readers and could read ^is well when the books were closed as 
when opened. This was due, no doubt, to the fact that they had read the 
same lessons many times and that not enough attention had been given to 
///•/// in enlarging the child's vocabulary. Repetition, variety, and the 
re-arrangement of words and sentences are most essential in the beginning 
of reading in order that the child may recognize the words under all condi- 
tions. Fmphasis must not alone be placed upon the sentence, but equally 
upon the words which make up the sentence; also upon the symbols, 
sounds and letters, which make up the words. 

I am pleased to slate that the children throughout the primary depart- 
ment are now reading more books with greater intelligence and with better 
expression than heretofore, due to the untiring etYorts on the part of all 
teachers to attain the ideals set forth in the curriculum. 



8i 

In this connection I desire to state that we are in need of more supple- 
mentary readers, which I trust may be supplied at the beginning of the 
vear. 

Language — Expression. 

In language the growth has been marked. The children are expressing 
themselves with greater fluency and accuracy, also showing greater neat- 
ness in form. The power of oral and written expression comes only through 
practice, and I regard it as very important that much attention be given to 
this subject and that the oral side be emphasized in the primary grades. 

Good written expression comes partly as a result of good oral express- 
ion. Pupils should not only express their thoughts, but they should be 
helped to the choice of good language in such expression. The story taken 
from good literature is a means to this end. The intensity of the desire to 
express depends upon the intensity of the impression. The inter-relation 
of language with nature-study — history, geography and literature, as the 
great impression subjects for the awakening and stimulating of thought, 
make good expression possible. 

When the child has something to stimulate thought, he has something 
to express. Out of this free expression comes abundant opportunity to 
emphasize the grammatical form. 

The growth in the preparation and use of profitable occupation or seat- 
work is deser\'ing of the highest commendation. Vigorous effort has been 
put forth to attain the highest development in all forms of expression. 
The seat or occupation work should lead to the formation of correct modes 
of thought, to habits of diligence, industry and skill, which come through 
doing. The hberal use of the blackboard for drawing and writing has 
produced greater freedom in all forms of expression. 

The quantity of clav, paper, wood or brush-work that a child turns out 
is nothing in itself, but the thought expressed, the power developed and 
character formed by the conscientious doing of it, amounts to a great deal. 

Every exercise of the school should offer occasion for the child to put 
forth effort — effort that will result in acquired power and skill. 

One of the best tests of superiority of a good teacher is her power to 
provide healthful, interesting, and educative occupations for the children at 
their desks. 

Arithmetic. 

This subject which is one of the most important, has not in any sense 
^n neglected, Much stress is laid upon accuracy and rapidity with the 
fundamental processes including drill upon the multiplication table, the test 
of which is the applied problems referring to the ordinary commercial life 
of toKlay, and those of a statistical character for general information. 



82 

Mathematicians have long realized the necessity for and importance of 
more practical work along this line. Consequently, instead of the mass of 
inherited puzzles which give children a false notion of business, we now 
have text-books that are considerate of the lessfortunate whose circum- 
stances may compel them to leave school earlier. These, if thoroughly 
completed, fit them for all ordinary business requirements. 

Our teachers are making a careful study of the principles involved in 
our new arithmetics, and already many excellent and practical results are 
apparent. 1 find many classes where the children have real joy in the 
arithmetic lesson because it gives them definite and hard tasks to work out. 

The teachers have been given at the various institutes many suggestions 
in the way of devices for the purpose of simplifying, elaborating, enriching, 
and making more definite the instruction, in order that direct application 
might be made of all the principles of computing, measurement, and com- 
parison, thereby emphasizing the drill side of the arithmetic. 

The contrast between the old and new ideas of arithmetic, is most 

simply stated when I say that the old was mechanical, without thought or 

reason — mere parrot-like work — while the nciu emphasizes the necessity of 

children being taught to think accurately, to apply their reasoning and to 
construct. 

(jKO<iRAFHV. 

We are making progress in geography ; still it will take some time to 
reach the high stage of development desired. While the course of study is 
broad and comprehensive, yet it has been diflScult for some to drop out all 
unimportant burdensome details and concentrate on essentials, and then so 
present these essentials in their proper relations that pupils may gain ideas 
of cause and effect. 

Geography is a science involving a wide range of knowledge. To teach 
it successfully requires much study and preparatipn on the part of the 
teacher. 

The idea in geography is to train children to observe, to see relations, 
to think for themselves, and to reason from cause to effect rather than to 
memorize the thoughts of others. 

Teachers' Meetings and Institutes. 

The establishment of the grade institute has been one of the most help- 
ful movements in our work. Teachers gain greater help when they come 
to a meeting fresh and rested than after a hard day of teaching. In addi- 
tion to the institute some special meetings have been held for detailed 
instruction. 

I have aimed to make all of these gatherings helpful and instructive, 
not only by giving definite instruction, but by having collections of superior 
and representative individual and class-room work on exhibition, also by 



83 

conducting and having conducted by the class teacher regular class work. 
This phase of the work proved to be of great value, arousing a free, sf>on- 
taneous and sympathetic discussion of fundamental principles underlying 
the teaching of the subject. 

In addition to the above, circular outlines elaborating the topics in the 
course of study have been given out on Arithmetic, Spelling, Reading, 
Language, Geography, Histoiy and Occupation work. I regard these cir- 
culars profitable as they give the teachers something definite to refer to. 

I have also held teachers meetings at the various schools at the close 
of my visits, where we have had free discussions on the work of the par- 
ticular schools. These have been helpful and profitable to both teachers 
and supervisor, bringing us into closer relationship, thus enabling us to 
work together for the common good. 

While I aim to maintain an average number of visits to each school, 1 
tind it must necessarily vary, because of existing conditions. 

The progress of the work viewed as a whole is rich in promise. The 
growth has been slow, but of such a character as to give a lasting and per- 
manent foundation. 

The general attitude of our teachers toward the work, their interest in, 
and sj-mpathy with the pupils and their harmonious and helpful relations 
to each other, have engendered an atmosphere of helpfulness and unity of 
purpose which is most marked, and which cannot fail to be productive of 
large and excellent results. 

In conclusion, I desire to thank the principals and teachers for the 
enthusiasm, earnestness and good will with which they have co-operated 
with me ; also to thank you for your helpful inspiration and wise counsel, 
and the Board of Education for their encouragement and confidence. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Ada Van Stone Harris, 
Supervisor of Kindergartens and Primary Schools. 



84 



REPORT OF SUPERVISOR OF MANUAL TRAINING. 

Mr. Charles B, Gilbert^ Superintendent of City Schools : 

Dear Sir : In response to your request, I desire to submit the following 
brief report: 

In October of last year, 1901, manual training was introduced in the 
fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth grades of all of our public schools. 

The work of the fifth and sixth grades is done in the regular school 
room, on the pupil's desk. Each school is provided with a large, attractive 
cabinet, about 5 feet 6 inches wide by 6 feet high, which contains the desk- 
trays, tools, and such supplies as drawing paper, thin lumber, nails, glue, 
sandpaper, cardboard, and sewing material. When in use the desk-tray 
covers and protects the pupil's desk, and is used both as a drawing-board 
and work-bench. Each tray is furnished with a T-square, triangle, com- 
passes, eraser, boxwood measuring rule, graduated to sixteenths; try- 
square, a sloyd knife, and an original device for fastening the drawing 
paper, instead of thumb-tacks. Besides the individual outfit in the tray 
there is a set of tools in each cabinet for general use. It consists of the 
following: Four lo-inch back saws, one 12-inch back saw, five saw boxes, 
one oil can, one oil stone, four handled-auger bits, two gimlets, six punches, 
twenty small hammers, one blackboard compass, one blackboard triangle, 
eight small sloyd knives, and thirty-five boxwood measuring rules, gradu- 
ated to eighths. Some of these tools are intended for use in the third and 
fourth grades. 

During the school year of 1 901 -1902 the manual training work of the 
seventh, eighth, and ninth grades was done at five centrally located schools, 
known as "centers," to which the boys from neighboring schools went 
once each week for a one-hour lesson. Schools No. 4, No. 6, No. 14, 
No. 15, and No. 26 were selected and equipped for this work. The 
average number of boys attending a " center " each week was 265. 

In September of this year, 1902, Schools No. 3, No. 5, No. 8, No. 29, 
and No. t^Z were furnished with benches and tools for shop work. The 
manual training rooms in Schools No. 7 and No. 23 will be furnished and 
ready for classes early next month, January. 

All of the manual training rooms are situated on the first floor and nea«: 
an outside entrance. The rooms are large, with good light, and, as a rule . 
are kept as clean and neat as the other rooms in the same building. 

Until September of this year the boys and girls of the fifth grade wer^ 
given the same lessons in drawing and construction ; in the sixth grad. ^ 



8s 

they were separated, the boys working in wood, while the girls were occu- 
pied in sewing. This year they are kept together and have the same work 
until they reach the seventh grade, when the work is differentiated, the 
boys entering the manual training room to undertake the bench work, and 
the girls continue in the sewing. Besides the drawing, each article planned 
for this sixth grade work involves a lesson in sewing, as well as exercises 
in the use of knife, try-square, hammer, etc. The boys have been as much 
interested in this combination of sewing and woodwork as the girls. There 
are many good reasons for extending this plan so as to include the fourth 
and fifth grades, combining the sewing with cardboard, splint basketry, and 
the textile work which the children will do on hand looms. 

The work of the boys in the upper grammar grades is at first largely 
imitative, but as a rule the teachers' models are used solely 'as examples of 
form, proportion, neatness, and accuracy. In order that the teachers may 
control it, the work is carefully outlined. Still, the courses are sufficiently 
elastic and susceptible of modifications to suit local conditions and the 
needs and capabilities of the pupils. The guiding or controlling idea is to 
stimulate independent thought and develop the power to originate and 
invent, to make the manual training work creative rather than reproductive. 
Therefore, as early in the course as possible, the teacher consults indi- 
vidual interests in the selection of models, and leads the worker to modify 
the piece selected to suit his own ideas or needs, with reference to form, 
size, decoration, and material. 

Each article made by the pupil involves either a freehand or instru- 
mental working drawing, and in some cases both are required. 

Since the beginning of the second semester of last year the members of 

the normal classes at the Normal Training School have been given instruc- 

Uon in elementary manual training. The work is specially adapted to the 

needs of the sixth, fifth, and primary grades. It consists of lessons in 

freehand and instrumental drawing, and constructive work in manilla paper, 

tagboard, colored cover paper, and knife work in thin basswood. This 

will be followed by lessons in textile work on hand looms, raffia work, and 

simple basketry. Up to the present time most of this instruction has been 

given by my assistant, Miss Shedd. The young women of these normal 

classes are doing most excellent work, and are satisfied only with the 

highest mark. 

At the Truant School, Mrs. Gallery is doing as good manual training 
work as can be done in so small a room and with such inadequate facilities, 
yet these facilities are complete as they can be in such cramped quarters. 

The manual training work done in the evening schools is similar to 
^at of the day classes. There are no abstract exercises. No work is done 
solely for the purpose of acquiring skill ; all of the articles made by the 
pupils are finished pieces which are carried home and put to use as soon 



86 

as completed. The instruction is individual. All material is furnished l> 
the schools. 

The mechanical drawing is made as practical and interesting as possib 1 
by means of familiar objects in the form of castings and patterns brougl:' 
in from factories and used for drawing lessons. Some of the geometiri 
problems in the drawing are made clearer and more interesting by develaj 
ing and building up the various forms in stiff manilla paper. The drawin. 
paper, thuuib-tacks, drawing boards and instruments are furnished by tH 
schools. Yours respectfully, W. W. Murray, 

Supervisor Manual Training. 



87 



REPORT OF THE SUPERVISOR OF DRAWING. 

Mr. Chas. B. Gilbert^ Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Dear Sir : In accordance with your request, I submit the following 
report: 

" The aim in the drawing department is to put the pupils in possession 
of another language with which to express their thoughts, thus enriching 
their other school subjects and at the same time developing the aesthetic 
sense to such an extent that they may better enjoy the beautiful in nature 
and in art. 

" In order that this may be intelligently carried out, the time has been 
devoted entirely to freehand work ; for as an expression study, freehand 
drawing occupies a place which nothing else can fill ; and as a method of 
self-activity and discipline of the will, it takes its place beside language 
work and manual training. To reach the creative powers, the study of 
design and composition have been introduced and effectively carried out. 
Vea good examples of applied design correlated with the sewing an'd 
manual training have been shown in the many beautiful Christmas gifts 
made in the schools this year. 

•' The drawing lessons in the primary department have been used as a 
mtans toward intelligent work at the occupation table, and have resulted 
m preparing the pupils to work intelligently without the direct supervision 
of the teacher. The work has been carried out with brush, ink, color. 
scissors, and crayon. In the grammar grades we have worked along the 
Imes suggested in the Prang Art Books in use in the schools, supplemented 
bv other art work as occasion demanded. 

•The work has been closely related to nature study, language, history, 
'ind all other subjects connected with our course of study. 

"The directions to teachers have been given during the drawing period 
at the regular institutes, the first half hour being devoted to instructions, 
<ind the latter half to the practical application of instructions given. 

* rhe color box has been in use in all grades during the past three 
years, and has proved to be one of the greatest incentives to good work. 
^olor study does much toward developing the perception and appreciation 
^^ beauty, and has opened the eyes of many to the charms of nature. The 
^<5^k has grown wonderfully and compares favorably with the results 
obtained in the various cities that I have visited, Kast and West. 



88 

" The scope of the High School work, under the direction of Miss 
Davis, has been to give a thorough knowledge of principles and to culti- 
vate an individuality necessary to good art-work. Great stress has been 
placed on the fact of obtaining good results from quick work. The allotted 
time of I GO hours for the elementary and 120 hours for the advanced 
classes has been devoted to the three branches, — representation, decora- 
tion, and construction. 

" The work is done mostly from models and casts, thus showing the 
necessity for a well equipped drawing-room in our new High School. I 
wish to mention here the need of another High School teacher to help carry 
on the work, so that all pupils may have the privilege of studying for at 
least two years of their High School life, as there is no other subject out- 
side of manual training that compels such closely combined effort of hand 
and eye under the direction of the mind, thus training the perception, 
judgment, and reasoning powers to their fullest extent. 

" In the training class the drawing course has been planned to meet the 
needs of the kindergarten and grade-teachers, and includes work with all 
mediums used in the schools. 

" A strong effort is made to lead the students to realize that a knowl- 
edge of art is necessary to a well-rounded life; and that it is the duty 
of the teacher to develop both the aesthetic and the practical sides of the 
child. The course has been planned in progressive steps from the lowest 
to the highest grades, and covers instruction in subject-matter and in proper 
methods of presentation. 

*' The study of programs for this line of work and the collecting of 
illustrative material is made a special feature of the course. 

'* History of art, picture-study, and the proper decoration of the school- 
room receive special attention, and the fact that art-study has proved to be 
the most powerful factor toward aesthetic culture, is constantly kept before 
the students. 

'* I wish to say here that the success of the drawing in our schools is 
due largely to the attitude taken by the principals and teachers toward the 
work ; and I sincerely thank them for their support. 

'* Allow me to express to you and to the Board of Education my appre- 
ciation of your interest, encouragement, and hearty co-operation in the 
work of this department." 

Respectfully submitted, 

Helen E. Lucas, 

Supervisor of Drawing. 



89 



REPORT OF THE SUPERVISOR OF MUSIC. 

Mr. Charles B, Gilbert, Supt, of Rochester Schools. 

Dear Sir: — Complying with your request, I herewith submit a brief 
report of the Department of Music. 

Last year a most excellent basis was laid by Miss Hofer, who was able 
iri the short space of a school year to inspire both teachers and pupils with 
enthusiasm and love for the subject. A careful selection of song material 
>»vas made, and the teachers so skillfully instructed in song interpretation 
^Hat the pupils could not fail to respond to such a presentation of the sub- 
ject. Careful and definite instruction was given along the line of tone 
development and voice-care. An excellent list of breathing and tone exer- 
cises was placed in the hands of each teacher, and every precaution was 
taken by the supervisor to prevent the use of the harsh, forced tone usually 
beard in public school music. The technicalities of the subject were wisely 
avoided and the work so arranged that while the children were gaining the 
interest in music, so necessary for successful teaching of it, and were un- 
consciously absorbing the wonderful cultural and moral influence that good 
songs always bring, they were also gaining a musical vocabulary — a vital 
knowledge of the elements of the songs sung which made the best possible 
foundation for the future development of the music work. Rythm work, 
scale-drill and written exercises in music copy-books were also a part of 
last year's work, and as an outgrowth of the preparator)' work the pupils in 
the upper grades were able the latter part of the year to do some simple 
sight-reading in the first and second books of the Modern Series. 

With the music work in this condition, and the pupils and teachers so 
thoroughly in sympathy with the subject, it has been a pleasure to carry on 
the work Miss Hofer so successfully began, and the music work this year 
has been as far as f>ossible a natural development of last year's plans. 

In the first and second grades rote-song work is given with rythm exer- 
<^ises and simple ear training. Realizing that the great majority of our 
ptipils will be hearers of, and not performers of music, special attention is 
paid to ear-training in all the grades, hoping to add to the pupils' apprecia- 
te and enjoyment of good music. Ear-training is also invaluable in the 
♦establishment of tone relation, which will lead to independent tone thinking. 
^n the upper grades rote-songs are used, supplemented with sight reading 
^^ill. Some simple two-part work is given in these grades, which adds 
"^tich to the interest of the music lesson. In every effort made with the 
children, we hope to keep in view the fact that the public school teachers' 



90 

purpose in music work is vastly different from that of the studio teacher. 
The former does not expect to make trained musicians from the children. 
She is simply using music for the children's sake, as one of the numerous 
influences which are to make them better boys and girls, and more useful 
members of society. 

The music work suffers in some places because of a lack of preparation 
on the part of the teachers. When music becomes a part of our High 
School curriculum and more time can be given to the training classes, the 
teachers who come into the public schools will be better equipped for the 
work. To help the teachers who are already in the schools and have had 
no opportunity to prepare themselves to teach music, a special class has 
been held every week dealing with the simple rudiments of the subject, 
and the eagerness of the teachers to avail themselves of the help offered 
them, proves that we need have no fear of the success of music in the 
schools, when the teachers have once been given an opp>ortunity to prepare 
themselves to teach it. 

In closing, 1 wish to make acknowledgment to you and the members 
of the Board, of the courtesy and encouragement shown me, and also to 
thank the principals and teachers for their cordial co-operation in the work. 

Respectfully submitted. 

RizpAH A. Dki.aittre, 

December 22c\. • Supervisor of Music. 



91 



REPORT OF THE SUPERVISOR OF SEWING. 

Mk. C B, Gilbert^ Superintendent of Schools, 

Dear Sir : — In compliance with your request, I submit to you my first 
ref)ort of the Sewing Department. 

From the beginning the work has been steadily progressing. The plan 
covers the period from the fifth grade to the High School. In the be- 
ginning it was not possible to grade the work, as it was new to all. The 
interest of the children was sustained by allowing them to apply each ele- 
mentary stitch, as soon as learned, to the making of some practical article. 
This year the work is more satisfactorily graded. In the sixth grade, 
where the work begins, the sewing and manual training are combined, all 
children carrying out the same line of work. The work in this grade is 
really the primary work of the course. 

In the seventh grade the work is a step in advance, and the stitches 
learned in the former grade are very carefully reviewed, and various 
methods of application taught. 

The experience that the eighth grade girls gained during the last year's 
work enabled them to apply the principles of the remainder of the course 
in various original ideas this year. 

Many of the girls have shown much skill and inventive ability in the 
making of (Christmas gifts during the sewing lessons of November and 
December. 

The pleasure of doing for others is emphasized in the sewing lessons 
at this season. 

During the past year drafting has been included in the work of each 
grade. Ever}' girl making at least one article from pattern. Great help 
in this department will be derived from the work in measurements which 
has been introduced in the lower grades. The work in applied design has 
been a pleasure to teachers and pupils. Much originality and artistic 
ability has been displayed. 

The boys particularly deserve mention for the excellent work they have 
done, not only in design and harmony of color, but also in the quality of 
sewing. 

I'he applied design which has correlated sewing and drawing has aided 
8^eatly in the Christmas work, resulting in thousands of handsome and 
useful gifts having been made by the children. 

Many of the girls handle the needle so deftly that it must create a 
demand for their dainty bits of handwork. 



92 

We feel that our one hour a week could not be more profitably spent than 
in teaching our girls — the women of the future — to mend neatly, to make 
garments well and tastefully, and to buy economically. The comfort and 
happiness of every household depends largely uf>on this knowledge. 

The course as planned for the training class covers thirty hours* time, 
and consists in graded lessons from elementary to advanced work in sew- 
ing and drafting. The aim has been to cover the work now carried on in 
the schools, so that when the students become teachers they may be able to 
intelligently direct the work. 

The great progress made in the work is due largely to the hearty co- 
operation of the principals and teachers. In closing, I wish to express my 
sincere thanks to the Board of Education, also my deep appreciation of 
your consideration, help, and encouragement in the work. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Emma E. Wallace. 



93 



COURSE OF STUDY 



Adopted by the Board of Education, July 27, 1901. 



PURPOSE. 

THE objects of a course of study for elementary schools are to supply 
the teachers with working material which they may employ in the 
training of the child. Its business is not to state in definite terms just 
what the teacher is to do each day, but rather to map out in a broad way 
those activities, exercises, and fields of knowledge which experience has 
shown to be most suitable for the elementary school, and to suggest to the 
teachers methods for enlarging this work and of preparing themselves to 
perform it. It should take into consideration such facts concerning children 
in general as the study of child-life has made clear, the character of the 
civilization in which the child is to be a factor, and the means necessary to 
make him a most effective voluntary factor for good in his community. It 
must supply such activities as will best stimulate growth, such discipline as 
will produce the finest culture, and must suggest such knowledge as will 
enable him to take hold of nature effectively, comprehend what others have 
done and expressed, and to express himself adequately for the benefit of 
others. It must involve also such a vital acquaintance with social, economic 
and ethical conditions as is required for perfect citizenship. It is not 
claimed that the present course of study meets these ends, but it is hoped 
that it will prove suggestive to the teachers along the lines mentioned and 
will stimulate in them renewed efforts to train children into the utmost 
possible largeness of being for the utmost f>ossible service. 

This course of study is intended to furnish the basis for work in the 
Rochester schools during the . coming year. It will be supplemented from 
time to time, as the need appears, by circulars giving additional instruction, 
explanation, and amplification ; also, by explanation and instruction given 
^' the Superintendent and Supervisors in meetings with the teachers. 

As further light is thrown upon educational principles and methods as 
the result of study and investigation, as teachers become more familiar with 
new ways, and as better text-books are made available, it is hoped that this 
^urse may be improved. 



94 

CORRELATION OF STUDIES. 

In the correlation of studies in the elementary grades there should be 
little attempt to differentiate the various subjects taught. Together they 
constitute the occupation element of the child's school life. This is as true 
of what is called the recitation as what is called ** occupation work." It 
constitutes in its entirety the child's rational employment. The various 
subjects used for the stimulation of thought and the others employed for its 
expression are so naturally co-ordinated that any formal separation in the 
primary schools is forced and unnatural. 

It must be remembered that the two elements in all education are 
impression and expression, and that while the former is necessary as fur- 
nishing a fund of material, the latter is that upon which growth in power, 
facility, and adaptation depends. 

As the child advances from grade to grade the differentiation of subjects 
necessarily becomes more evident. In the higher grades correlation, while 
no less real, is naturally less evident, until in the college and university it 
becomes the philosophical unity of human learning. But in any of the 
grades of the common school, the relation between those subjects which are 
the great sources of thought, and those which include the various forms of 
expression must be close. 

Instead of such a correlation being unnatural, its opposite is unnatural. 
The divorce of the forms of expression from the subject- matter to be 
expressed is unnatural, and is responsible for much of the loss of interest 
and the failure to connect school with the realities of life which has caused 
the ruin of many schools and pupils. The teacher in teaching any subject 
should never cut loose from the base of supplies. The vital interest whieh 
connects the child's school occupations with his whole life is the artery 
carrying the life blood to the former. 

Correlation of subjects and the introduction into the schools of varied 
work, interesting to the child, is not ignoring the three R/s, but teaching 
them more effectively and in a better way, because it furnishes the irresist- 
ible impetus which carries the young student swiftly and easily and surely 
over the otherwise difficult and uncertain road of acquisition. 

In the primary grades it is well to take some subject of general interest, 
as the cycle of the year, and relate the other subjects to it. 

Such a subject as a farm or a garden, or a visit to the fields, or a stor}* 
of the observance of a festival, will furnish material for a series of lessons 
in language, drawing, construction, writing, painting, cutting, and the 
various other expressional subjects, of great value because of vital interest. 
A study of the immediate environment growing out into the larger 
environment ; a study of a garment, or a food, or of any of the other many 
objects which suggest man's common interpendence ; a study of the family' 



95 



or the neighborhood ; all these items and many more may be made the 
centers of much work of various sorts. 

A caution may be needed. The relations should always be vital and 
natural, not artificial nor superficial. They should, in so far as possible, 
be human rather than mechanical or scientific. They should come home 
to the child's own interests, and suggest the dependence of man upon man. 

Children should work in groups, each being engaged in some part of the 
general scheme. All of the work should bear a definite relation to the 
whole. The children should never be given an occupation whose sole 
motive is to keep them busy. 

Whatever the particular subject chosen, much attention should be given 
to the literature relating to it. 

CORRELATED OUTLINE. 



First (Jrade. 



Impression Subjects : 
(See separate outlines.) 
Reading (Literature). 
(Geography. 
History. 
Nature. 
School Life. 
Home Life. 



Expression Subjects : 
(See separate outlines.) 
Reading (Utterance). 
Language (Speech) oral and 

written. 
Drawing and Painting. 
Cutting. 
Construction. 
Writing. 
Dramatic Representation (Play). 



Second Grade. 



Impression Subjects : 
(See separate outlines. ) 
Reading (Literature). 
Geography. 
History. 



Nature. 

Number (actual). 
School Life. 
Home Life. 



Expression Subjects . 
(See separate outlines.) 
Reading (Utterance.) 
Writing. 

Number (computation and drill). 
Language (oral and written). 
Dramatic Representation (Play). 
Drawing and Painting. 
Cutting and Construction. 



96 



Third Grade. 



Impression Subjects : 
(See separate outlines.) 
Reading (Literature). 
Geography. 
History. 
Nature. 

Number (actual). 
Current Events. 
Immediate Environment. 



Expression Subjects : 
(See separate outline.) 
Reading. 
Writing. 
Number. 
Language. 

Drawing and Painting. 
Cutting and Construction. 
Play. 



Impression Subjects 
(See outlines.) 
Literature. 
History. 
Geography. 
Nature. 
Number. 
Current Events. 
Environment. 



Expression : 
(See outlines.) 
Literature. 
History. 
Geography. 
Nature. 
Number. 
Current Events. 
Environment. 



Impression : 
Literature. 
History. 
Geography. 
Nature. 
Number. 
Grammar. 
Civics. 
Environment. 



Fourth Grade. 



Elaboration and Expression 
(See outlines.) 
Reading. 
Writing. 
Language. 
Graphic Arts. 
Constructive Arts. 
(Manual Training.) 
Arithmetic. 



Fifth and Sixth Grades. 



Elaboration and Expression 
(See outlines.) 
Reading. 
Writing. 
Language. 
Graphic Arts. 
Constructive Arts. 
Arithmetic. 



Seventh and Eighth Grades. 



Elaboration and Expression : 
Reading. 
Writing. 
Language. 
Graphic Arts. 
Constructive Arts. 
Algebra. 
Arithmetic. 



97 



ARITHMETIC. 

Arithmetic has always been justly regarded as one of the absokitely 

necessar}' subjects of the school course of study. Indeed, it is more im- 

pt)rtant than many of its most strenuous advocates know, because it rests 

upon broader and firmer foundations than those commonly advanced. 'I'he 

usual argument in its behalf is its very great utilitarian value in that the 

ordinary computations necessar}- for even the simplest business operations 

require its use. But the racial instinct which demands it goes far beyond 

that for its ground. C!ommon utilitarian arithmetic, necessary as it is, is 

little more than the art of ** figuring." 

Newton used merely an advanced arithmetic in arriving at the philo- 
sophic statement of his wonderful discoveries. Upon it depends all sense 
of proportion, of form, of relative space. It is the knowledge of number 
that makes possible the definite, exact, and consequently the practical com- 
prehension of the world. 

What the advocates of educational reform criticize in the old schools 
ij* not the teaching of arithmetic, but the teaching of it badly, limiting the 
work upon this subject to its minor and baser uses, teaching it as form and 
i^ot reality, drilling upon foolish combinations of figures without giving 
power to perceive relations and to accurately estimate values. It was 
tau|;ht in the w-rong way and at the wrong time. Young children were 
drilled to death upon what would have come later naturally, instead of 
In-'ino; introduced to number as a vital factor in life. 

I'hroughout this course of study, number is treated as ratio, as always 
indicating relation between magnitudes. In the first grade formal number 
'!> not taught separately, that is. the subject is not differentiated, but the 
M{\ is being familiarized with magnitude and number to an extent un- 
l^nown to the old drill teacher. 

It is not possible to do the best work in Arithmetic with the tools now 
'bailable. It is earnestly hoped that before long we may be able to use 
n^odern text-lx)oks, embodying the principles here suggested. 

ALGEBRA. 

I'or the coming year the course in Algebra will be that provided in 
H^>mbrook's Arithmetic. 



/ 



98 



ARITHMETIC. 



PRIMARY SCHOOLS. 



First Grade. 



A continuation of the incidental number work of the kindergarten. 

By dealing definitely with such magnitudes as copne naturally into their 
lives, through measuring, comparing, and counting, children will inevitably 
acquire considerable knowledge of number, and such knowledge will be 
vital and practical. 

The time for drill is not yet. No attempt should be made in this grade 
to drill upon combinations of figures. Such drill is likely to result in sus- 
pended development, and seriously impair the mathematical powers. (See 
Number circular.) 

Second Grade. 

In this grade the definite study of number may properly begin, though 
the time for extended drill has not yet arrived. 

The work should be as fully as possible concrete in character. Measur- 
ing, computing, comparing of things, no longer indefinitely, but definitely ; 
using the terms of the tables, pounds, ounces, feet, yards, miles, pints, 
quarts, gallons, bushels, and the like, should constitute the earlier part of 
the work. 

Incidentally the children should be acquiring the tables of denominate 
numbers, and directly but gradually the combinations and separations 
known as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. 

The work is outlined in the Rational .Arithmetic (Belfield and Brooks), 
to page 27. 

The first portion of this will, of necessity, be used with discretion. 

Some classes will need little or none, others may need to spend con- 
siderable time upon it. 

Third Gradk. 

" B " Class. Rational Arithmetic to page 63. 

" C" Class. Rational Arithmetic to page 101. 

Continue the practical use of number in the school life. Introduce 
more of drill. 

By the end of this year the children should be able to use the multipli- 
cation table fluently and readily. 



* B " Class. 

* A " Class. 



99 

Fourth Grade. 

Rational Arithmetic to page 146. 
Rational Arithmetic to page 185, 

Fifth Grade. 



** B " Class. Rational Arithmetic to page 228. 

•• A '* Class. Rational Arithmetic completed and review. 



'* B " Class. 
II, and III. 



Sixth Grade, 
Hombrook's Grammar School Arithmetic, Chapters 1, 



- A " Class. Chapters IV, V, and VI. 



* B " Class. 

* A " Class. 



Seventh Grade. 

Chapter VII. 
Chapters VIII and IX. 

Eighth Grade. 



- B '' Class. Chapters X and XI. 

" A " Class. Chapters XII and Review. 



READING. 

Reading is, beyond comparison, the most important of the conventional 
school exercises, not only because it is the key to the world^s great litera- 
ture, but because any considerabie advancement in the other departments 
of school work is impossible without it. 

Hence it should receive the first consideration of the primary teacher 
in the preparation of her program of formal work. 

A child who has completed the primary grades should be able to read 
any production whose thought and vocabulary he can comprehend. 

If any considerable number of normal children cannot do this, there is 
something wrong with teacher or method. 

It does not follow from this that a greatly increased amount of time 
should be put upon reading. This would cause weariness, .loss of interest, 
and would defeat the desired end. 

An abundance and variety of interesting exercises, properly balanced, 
afford needed mental relief, stimulate interest, and reinforce one another. 

Dull grind upon words will not make good readers in any sense. 
Interest is fundamental. The child learning to read must be consciously 
•seeking thought through the symbol. If reading is well taught, children 
learn to read without much conscious effort to that end. The conscious 



lOO 

effort will have been expended in the search for information or other ob- 
ject of interest, and reading will have been merely the new road to the 
sought for goal. 

In all grades the teacher should constantly bear in mind the importance 
of cultivating a taste for good literature. Giving the child possession of 
the art of reading, without the power to discriminate between good litera- 
ture and bad, is like giving him a sharp tool without instruction as to its 
proper use. Hence no demand for formal exercises as drill work or for 
other purposes should ever induce the teacher to give the child reading 
matter which is not in itself worth reading. 

If the course of instruction in the reading does not give most of the 
children power to read freely and with good expression any suitable mate- 
rial and to discriminate the good from the bad and choose the good, the 
work is not successful. 

THE READING LESSON. 

The objects of the reading lesson are two. First, to give the pupil the 
power to secure from the written or printed page an intelligent and appre- 
ciative knowledge of the thoughts of authors as recorded and expressed in 
literature. Second, to give the pupil the power to impart to others the 
knowledge thus obtained in a clear, sympathetic, and pleasing manner. 
The teacher should always bear in mind that the content of the reading 
lesson is of more value than its form, and that an appreciation of good 
literature is worth more than the mechanical ability to read. 

Careful attention should be paid in all grades to correct enunciation 
and pronunciation, to proper use of the vocal organs and of the organs em- 
ployed in breathing. F^se, naturalness, and a clear, resonant tone should 
be sought. Frequent exercises in breathing and the carriage of the body 
and in the vocalization of both vowels and consonants should be employed 
when needed. 

RESUME. 

LEARNING TO READ. 



I. The Skntenck is the Unit of Expression. 

'* Ideas are primarily awakened in the mind by means of impressions 
made on one or more of the senses ; thus ideas must be expressed through 
the medium of language." 

The unit of mental action is a thought : therefore the unit of expression 
is a sentence. 

If reading "consists in giving expression to the ideas the mind has 
formed," the sentence ought to be made the basis of reading. 

Think the sentence as the whole, and the word as the part. 



lOI 

2. Emphasize the Unit. 

The sentence as a whole. 

(a,) Awaken thoughts in the mind of the child by means of objects. 

(p,) By skillful questioning elicit as many original statements about the 
object as possible. Write the most suitable sentences upon the blackboard. 

(r.) Repetition and variety are psychologically necessary in good 
teaching. 

(i/.) The same words need to be presented in a great number and 
variety of sentences. 

3. Analysis of Sentences into Words. 

(a,) Analyze the sentences to find the words of which they are com- 
posed, and teach these words as parts of sentences. 

(fi.) Keep a list of all words presented, using them continually in re- 
view sentences until they cannot be forgotten. 

(r.) Make every possible combination with all words taught, forming 
as many sentences as possible. Have all sentences arranged upon the 
board so as to tell a story ; keep to a continuity of thought. 

4. Analysis of Words into Leiters and Sounds. 

(a,) Work in phonics should be carried on in connection with oral 
work. 

(d,) Introduce sounds gradually, giving general and special drill upon 
difficult combinations, for the following purposes : 

1. To give ability to call new words without help. 

2. To improve articulation. 

3. To correct defective speech. 

5. READiNCi IS a Mental Process — A Thought Process. 

" To read aloud, we must get the thought ; we must hold the thought ; 
and we must give the thought." — ZT. S, Clark. 
Necessary steps to the above end : 

1. Perfect word knowledge. 

2. Silent reading ; to get thought. 

3. Oral reading ; to give thought. 

A pupil should not attempt to read a sentence orally until he has the 
thought in mind. 

Reading each word by itself is an evil never to be tolerated. 
Spelling out words while reading should not be permitted. 
Train children to read to their listeners, not to their books. 



I02 

First Grade. " B " Class. 

Method, — Of the different methods of teaching beginners to read, no 
one contains all the excellencies. The best points of all should be em- 
ployed, but it is important to select the proper unit, which is not the sound 
of the letter, nor the word, but the sentence. Children should begin by 
reading the sentence. Later, the sentence should be analyzed into words, 
and the words into their sound elements. No one of these three methods 
should be neglected, but the order indicated should be carefully preserved. 

Begin with the sentence. As soon as possible call attention to the 
words composing it, which the children will at first recognize through 
memory. After some weeks of such reading, exercises in the sound ele- 
ments of words should be introduced and regularly continued through the 
primary grades. These should be systematic and thorough, leading to 
word building and the use of the dictionary. Teachers who are not famil- 
iar with this method are expected to become so as rapidly as possible. 

Material, — Where this method is employed, the first reading lessons 
should be based upon observations of nature and upon poems and stories 
used in the same connection ; also stories told for the sake of their literary 
or ethical merit may be employed in the same manner. 

The first lessons should be script upon the blackboard. They shoulrf 
be carefully prepared, so as to be progressive in thought and style, and 
should be preserved. Each school should be supplied with a copying pa.cl 
of some kind and the blackboard lessons preserved should be copied upon 
leaflets and put into the children's hands for review lessons. 

By the end of the first semester pupils should have read at least Bas.s' 
Primer and one other, beside much reading from the blackboard. 

First Grade. "A" Class. 

Lessons prepared by the teacher or selected from reading books bas^^ 
upon the study of plants, animals, the human body, and literature. 

During this semester. Stepping Stones No. i, and at least two othm^' 
First Readers should be completed, or- an equivalent amount of matter re^<i 

The language work should be closely related to the reading during tl^^ 
primary grades. 

PJionics : Training in vocalization. (See circular.) 

Second Grade. '* B " Class. 

In this class pupils should read the first half of Stepping Stones No- 
and two other readers, or an equivalent amount. 

Phonics : Training in vocalization. Bring lists of rhyming word- - 
Practice in the discovery of rhymes by children. 



I03 
Second Grade. "A " Class. 

Pupils should complete three Second Readers and much supplementary 
reading matter. 

Phonics as per outline. 

Third Grade. "B" Class. 

Pupils should read an equivalent of half of Stepping Stones No. 3 and 
two other Third Readers and much supplementar}' matter. The matter 
selected should be appropriate to the work in other departments. 

Phonics : Families of words ; simple rules for the addition of participal 
endings and of syllabication. 

Third Grade. "A" Class. 

Lessons selected from Stepping Stones No. 3, and other Third Readers 
and supplementary readers such as may be readily correlated with work in 
other departments, especially nature study, geography, histor)% and litera- 
ture. 

At the end of this grade pupils should be able to read readily and in 
pleasing style any matter whose thought and language is within their 
comprehension. 

The sound drill should have given them power to call new words, and 
the use of the sentence as a unit should have enabled them to grasp the 
thought of the author readily. 

Phonics: A continuation and extension of the work outlined for ** B'' 
Third. 

Fourth Grade. 

From this time on the readin^' matter should be carefully selected, good 
literature, adapted to the mental powers of the children, and material 
relative to the other subjects of the curriculum. 

Children should now be able to read fluently and for the sake of what 
they read. While continued attention should be paid to the art of reading, 
the pupils should always realize that they are reading as adults read — to 
get at the thought of the author — and not for the sake of going through 
with the .school exercise. 

"B" Cla.ss. 

Matter selected from the Fourth Reader, Stepping Stones, from the 
supplementar}' Readers, and from other good literature, relating to the 
other topics in the curriculum, particularly nature study, geography, and 
history. 

Phonics : The standard rules for spelling and syllabication. 



I04 
"A'' Class. 

The same as outlined for " B'' Class. 

Historical and mythological tales of (Jreece and Rome are here 
appropriate. 

Phonics: The same as outlined for '* B" class. 

KiFTH Grade "B" Class. 

Fifth Reader, Stepping Stones, and matter selected from geographical, 
historical, and other readers, and from good literature appropriate to the 
work of the grade. 

FiriH Gradk. "A" Class. 

The same as " B " CHass and good literature appropriate to the work of 
the grade. 

Sixth (iRAi)E. "B" Class. 

Sixth Reader, Stepping Stones, and much reading matter selected from 
standard authors, and, in .so far as possible, correlated with the work of 
the other departments, particularly nature study and the picturesque features 
of geography. 

Sixth (^rade. '*A" C'lass. 

The same as *' B " Cla.ss and much good literature appropriate to tlie 
work of the grade, especially historical tales and poems. 

Seventh (}rade. *' B " Class. 

Seventh Reader, Stepping Stones, and other literature, especially In- 
American authors, and relating to periods of American histor)'. 

Seventh (Jrade. "A" C^lass. 
Same as *' B " Class. 

KI(;HTH (iKADE. "B" C'lasn. 

Eighth Reader, Stepping Stones, and other literature selected from 
English authors relating to Knglish histor}-. 
Good literature in general. 

KicHTH (Jrade. "A" Class. 

The same as " B " Class. 
The literarv excellence of selections read should be noted. 



I OS 



SPELLING. 

For All Oradks. 

The spelling lessons are to be upon words used by the children in some 

a)nnection. In all grades above the first there must be every day a formal 

spelling lesson upon words selected. The list of words should be selected 

from the various lessons, and should include words misspelled or likely to 

be misspelled by the children in any written exercise. 

In the primary grades these words should be classified by the teacher. 
List of words given should, in so far as possible, be preserved for review. 
New words occurring in any lesson which the children are not able to read 
at sight or by spelling should be placed before them at once, and the pro- 
nunciation clearly given, with the divisions of the words into sylhihles. In 
all grades, particularly in the primary, sight spelling is a most valuable 
exercise, and if conducted with care and frequency, will in many cases prove 
ilmost sufficient for the instruction in spelling. 

In formal spelling, from the outset, children should learn to divide into 
syllables. The sounds of the letters should be taught, but of more value 
than all special drill is the correct spelling of all words in all written exer- 
cises. In one sense, ever)' lesson is a language lesson and a spelling 
lesson. 

Children should from the first be taught to use the dictionary. They 
should be instructed never to write a word unless they are sure of its 
spelling, but to look up the proper spelling before using. 

rhere is no one method by which spelling may be taught. Teachers 
must see to it that all the methods indicated above are employed. In the 
lihh and eighth grades the use of the spelling book is provided for review 
purposes. 

<^ral spelling must not be neglected in any grade and must precede 
^he written in the primar}' grades. Such oral spelling must include 
syllabication. 

WRITING. 

First (Jradk. 

iHiring the first year the writing should be wholly with white crayon on 
^he blackboard, or with ver}' large pencils on large sheets of paper, such as 
'^ used for newspaper, unruled. These sheets should be as long as the 
school desk and not more than six inches wide. The latter should not be 
uiied in ''B" First, and in the *'A" First most of the writing should be 
"Pon the blackboard. Large, free-arm movements should be encouraged. 



io6 

Exercises should be given in the air and on the board to cuhivate freedo^^ 
and ease of curvilinear motion. 

The writing book should not be used at all in this grade. 

Second (Jrade. 

Continue writing upon the blackboard and large sheets of paper, gradu-^ 
ally reducing the size of the letters. Allow in the *' B '" Class the use of 
large pencil upon unruled paper. In the "A'* Class the pen may be 
introduced, still upon unruled paper. The paper used should be long, but 
not more than six inches wide. 

Third (trade. 

The most valuable writing lessons are the ordinary writing required 
of the child in his spelling, language, and other written work. 

The Natural System of Vertical Writing, Book II., may be used for 
necessary drill. 

In using the writing book, always begin with the bottom line, and 
advance toward the top of the page. The children will thus avoid copying 
their own writing. 

Fourth (^rade. 

All written work and Writing Book No. III. (See directions for ThirA. 
Crade.) 

Fifth Grade. 

All written work and Writing Book No. IV. 

Sixth Grade. 
All written work and Writing Book No. V. 

Seventh (jRade. 

All written work, and when needed by individual pupils for dril'B 
Writing lk>ok No. VI. 

F1(;HTH (iRADE. 

All written work, and when needed for drill by indiv idual pupil*=r 
Writing Book No. VII. 

THE ARTS OF EXPRESSION. 

In a general way, the work of the school concerns itself with though 
and its expression. As man thinketh in his heart, so he is. But he mj 
hope to impress what he is upon others, to make his thinking or himself 
factor in society, only as he is able adequately and accurately to expre. 
himself in ways comprehended by others. Thought and its expres.si( 



I07 

cannot in reality be separated. In a sense it may truthfully be said that 
thought is all important while the form of expression is wholly subsidiary. 
But the thought unexpressed accomplishes no good, and perfect expression 
is necessary to the perfect fruition of the thought. 

On the other hand, all attempts to consider expression apart from 
thought result in absurdity, though in mature years, after the arts of ex- 
pression have been acquired through use, they may be studied as to their 
technique or method. 

In the earlier years, when the power. to think and the jXDwer to express 
are being developed together through the entire range of the child's asso- 
ciations and activities, any attempt to separate definitely the arts of expres- 
sion from the thoughts to be expressed and consider them as independent 
entities is psychologically wrong and results in hollow imitation. 

Hence, in the elementary grades of school the various arts of expres- 
sion should be used naturally, to express worthy thoughts which have been 
stimulated in the child's mind by his material and spiritual environments. 
Little attempt should be made to differentiate the arts from the thought 
which they aim to express. The various means by which children naturally 
express themselves are gesture, play or dramatic representation, the graphic 
arts, as writing, drawing, painting, the constructive arts, generally classed 
under the head of manual training, and, most important of all, language or 
speech. This is the most nearly universal form of expression and is most 
characteristic of human beings. It is so inseparably connected with man's 
thoughts and his ideals that to study it truly is to study spiritual man. 

In the earlier years of the school course the child is absorbing the spirit 
of his environment at every pore of his mind. He is entering into his in- 
heritance, the world of nature about him and the spiritual achievements 
of the human race. He is growing at a marvelous rate. I do not mean 
that he is learning about this heritage, but he is entering into it. It is vital 
to him, becomes a part of him. Often the school positively interferes with 
this growth. It alienates the child from his spiritual heritage, diverts his 
inind to hollow imitations of life, deprives his activity of spiritual vitality 
and significance. 

Especially is this true of the attempts. to teach the arts of expression, 
notably language. 

LANGUAGE. 

In teaching language in the elementary school the first step is to stimu- 
late thought. This is effected through all the activities of the school life. 

The second step is to encourage the child to express his thought with 
Perfect freedom, for perfect freedom is the prime essential of adequacy. 

The third step is to impress upon his mind the importance of accuracy 
^d fitness in the use of language. 



io8 

The fourth step is to teach him how to secure such accuracy and fitness 
through the use of conventional fonns without losing his freedom. 

Hence pure technique occupies a late and inferior place in language 
teaching in the elementary grades. 

Power to use language is acquired by its use. All language used should 
be correct in all respects. 

The child's thought determines its form. This is at first simple, and 
gradually increases in complexity with advancing age aud growing knowl- 
edge ; hence, new difficulties will continually arise which need to be met by 
proper explanation and practice at the time ; for example, in regard to the 
use of punctuation and capitals. The child first expresses himself in short, 
disconnected sentences. Punctuation for such expression is very simple. 
As conjunctions and pronouns are introduced to make the compound sen- 
tence, somewhat more elaborate punctuation is required. Later, with the 
use of the complex sentence, which is naturally employed to express more 
complex thoughts, other rules of punctuation are necessary and should be 
given as needed. To give rules for punctuation and then compose exer- 
cises to illustrate them, before the child has need of them for the natural 
expression of his thought, is to begin at the wrong end and work back- 
wards. 

If no attempt is made to force technique upon pupils before it is needed, 
teachers will find that the difficulties have been greatly reduced in number 
and can be readily classified. As difficulties arise and definite instruction 
is required, such instruction should be given in definite lessons and re- 
peated until the points are made perfectly clear and right habits started. 

The following outline consists mainly, especially for the earlier years, 
of suggestions as to proper thought material to be used as a basis of lan- 
guage instruction, with the mention of sources in some cases. Suggestions 
appearing here and there that certain technical points be enforced in certain 
grades do not mean that they are to be ignored in other grades, but imply 
that in the average school teachers will find need of enforcing these points 
in the grades indicated. 

First (Irade.* 
Si (;<;estki) Material : 

Literature — Stories and poems drawn from the Readers, the '* Graded 
List" and other sources. 

N ature — (Geography — material; environment). 

S(x:ial Environment — Home Life — School I^ife. The child in simple 
economic relations — as to the various people who supply his wants. 

* N(»TK. — Allow no paraphrasing of poem* in any grade. 



109 

History — Stories of Heroes. In particular, stories suitable to the cele- 
bration of national holidays and for other patriotic occasions. 

Art — Pictures representing action, especially those illustrating some 
of the other subjects studied. 

Su(k;estei) Exercises : All oral in the '* B " Class. 

The development of words, through their use in oral sentences. 

Much conversation up)on the various topics suggested above, encourag- 
ing the greatest freedom. 

Word games and sentence games. 

Study and description of pictures telling stories. 

Memorizing verses. 

In the ** A " class introduce a little written work. 

Kncourage freedom of expression. By example rather than by precept 
impress upon children correct forms, especially as to the u.se of capitals and 
punctuation. 

SfX'ONI) (iRAl)K. 

SucKii-usTED Material: 

Literature — Stories and poems drawn from the Readers, the " Graded 
List " and other sources. 

Nature — (Geography — material ; environment). 

Social Environment — Home Life — School Life. The child in simple 
economic relations — as to the various people who supply his wants. 

Histor}' — Stories of Heroes as stated for first grade and also stories of 
primitive people and the child life of other lands. 

Add lessons on human bodv. 

Art — Pictures representing action, also those illu.strating some of the 
subjects studied. 

Su( K ; J.ST K I ) E X e R<: I s ks : 

Development of the meanings and uses of words employed in stories, 
nature lessons and readers. 

I'elling stories for oral reproduction. Development upon the hlack- 
^)ar(l of connected stories and descriptions from sentences given in con- 
versation by the children. 

I'he copying of such sentences and stories by children. 

A very limited amount of dictation and always of connected thought. 

1 he silent reading of short selections by the children, who afterward 
"'^produce them orallv. 

The co-operative illustration upon the blackboard of scenes and stories 
^^'^ally produced bv them. 



1 lO 

The memorizing of at least one poem each month. 

Introduce children gradually to compound statements by the use of 
simple connectives and relative pronouns. 

See that children use correctly inflected forms, capitals and punctuation 
marks. 

Third Oradk. 
Su(;<;estki) Material : 

Literature — Stories and poems drawn from the Readers, the " Graded 
List " and other sources. 

Nature — (Geography — material ; environment). 

Social Environment — Home Life — School Life. The child in simple 
economic relations — as to the various people who supply his wants. 

Stories of Heroes, in particular world heroes, myths. 

The study of community' life, in particular, that of the early settlers of 
this State. 

Social and industrial life of primitive people in connection with the 
geography. 

Art. 

Su(;gestei) Kxercises: 

The same as those suggested for the second grade and written repro- 
ductions of both dictation exercises and stories. Original written discus- 
sions and stories. 

Give no technical grammar, but simply see that the correct fomis required 
in each case are used. Lead children to use freely complex sentences. 

Letters. 

Fourth Grade. 
SiKKiESTED Material : 

To be drawn mainly from the outlines of other subjects as in the third 
grade, but somewhat more specifically used ; in particular, much use of 
historical studies and of written and oral statements of geographical topics. 

Nature study. 

Stories and poems from standard authors. 

S u ( ;g kste d Ex e rc i s es : 

Continue the work of the third grade in sentence, construction and in 
the correct use of sentences of different kinds. 

Require nuich oral reproduction and original work, both oral and writ- 
ten ; oral should always precede written work. 

Give attention to paragraphing. Compositions may now take more 
definite form. Make use of the letter form, seeing that all the details of 
heading subscription and address are properly used. Encourage freedom 
and independence of expression and avoid nuich use of regular outlines. 

Figures of speech. 



1 1 1 

Fifth Grade. 

Suggested Material : 

To be drawn from the child's environment and other subjects of the 
curricukim. History, Literature, Geography, Nature Study. 

Suggested Exercises : 

Continuation of the work of the third and fourth grades. 

Give much writing upon varied topics. 

Continue oral work. 

Encourage the use of a large vocabulary. 

Introduce much word study in connection with the study of literature. 
Incidentally use varied forms of composition, as letters, essays, newspaper 
paragraphs, debates, discussions, fanciful sketches, simple business letters. 

Sixth Grade. 

Suggested Material: 

To be drawn from the child's environment and other subjects of the 
cun-iculum. History, Literature, Geography, Nature Study. 

Suggested Exercises: 

Continue the work of the fifth grade. 

Give considerable attention to the exact use of the sentence. 

Teach its two parts. 

See that written work is divided into proper paragraphs in this as in all 
.ijrades. 

Allow only correct inflectional and other conventional forms. 



LANGUAGE AND GRAMMAR. 

LANGUAGE. 

Seventh CJrade. 

Continue the work suggested for the sixth grade, drawing upon all the 
available sources for material, so that the thought studies and the expres- 
^K>n studies shall be mutually helpful. 

Sn;(;i.>iTKi) HXERCISES: 

Articles and stories on topics drawn from history. 

Sketches of characters in books read. 

ranciful sketches and descriptions of books read. 

l^cscriptions of journeys. 

l-etters of invitation, acceptance, and regret. 

business letters. 



I 12 

GRAMMAR. 

Seventh (trade *' H." 

Definite, careful instruction in formal grammar should begin witl 
grade. 

The unit of the work is the simple sentence. 

Pupils should master the simple sentence thoroughly and be a 
recognize subject, predicate and object, and should be drilled upon ] 
igms and inflectional forms as needed. 

Parts of speech. 

Seventh Grade '* A." 
Parts of speech. 

With the simple sentence still as a unit, make a more extended sti 

nouns, pronouns and adjectives. 

Treat fully adverbs, appositives, predicate-nominative. 

C'ontinue work upon paradigms and inflectional forms. 

(Jrammar lessons three days in the week throughout this year. 

LANGUAGE. 

Kic.HTH Grade. 

Si:<;(iESTioNs as to Material: 

The whole of a child's life, particularly the other subjects c 
curriculum. 

Si:(m;e>;ted Exercisvus : 

Much writing in various forms upon varied topics. 

Much oral work. 

Discussion of historical themes. 

Character sketches. Reproduction. 

Reproduction of stories. 

Synopsis and review of books read. 

Advertisements, applications, and business letters. 

lUisiness forms. 

NoTK. — Allow IV) paraph ra>inf; <»f iKJclry in any •^radc. 

GRAMMAR. 

Ki<;HTH (iRADE " H." 

The compound sentence. A careful study of its construction. 
Analysis of simple and compound sentences. 
Study of verbs and phrases. 

Eic.HTH (Jkade "A." 

Complex sentence. Study of its construction. 
Analysis of simple, compound, and complex sentences. 
Clauses, relative pronouns and other connectives. 
Grammar lessons three times per week throughout this year. 



HISTORY. 

In leaching the history of any nation or time, the first step is to select 
certain centers of crystallization about which facts and events of inferior 
significance naturally group themselves. 

Such centers may be the names of great leaders, places which were the 
scenes of momentous occurrences or events of crucial significance. For 
example, Bunker Hill, Abrahaip Lincoln, The Dred Scott Decision. In 
teaching yoimg children, the centers selected should be picturesque if pos- 
sible. But they should always have a vital, causal relation to the units 
clustering about them. 

Thoroughness in teaching history requires true perspective, the proper 
relation of events especially as to cause and effect. It is not necessary 
that all tTirnts be recorded, but that those recorded have significance and 
appear in due proportion. 

A mere stringing together of occurrences of varying significance upon 
a plane of apparent equality, dissipates interest and produces a result the 
opposite of thoroughness. The difference is that between village gossip 
and history. 

In the following outline but few centers are named, and it is left to the 
teachers to name more if necessary and to cull and relate facts of minor 
significance in their proper places. 

Send children to available sources for their information. Do not write 
'*» the blackhoiird for them to copy in note-books. 

If note-books are used, it should be to record the discoveries of the 
children as the result of searching the available sources of information. 

First (iRADE. 
The pANfiLv : 

Indian Life: Docas ; the Indian Boy. or Hiawatha. 
Eskimo Life ; Agoonack. 

\Vi>RU) Storiks : 

Fairv Tales. 
Nature Myths. 

Stories relating to national and other festivals, particularly those having 
a patriotic purpose. 

SkCOND (iRADE. 

Historic Homks (Primitive): 

Cave Dwellers. 
Cliff Dwellers. 
Tent Dwellers, 
l-ike Dwellers. 

Historic Homks (Ancient): 
^'feek. 
Ionian. 



114 

Saxon. 

Stories suitable for the observance of National holidays. 

World Stories: 

Nature Myths. 

Fables. 

Third Grade. 
Local History: 

Stories associated with Rochester and vCith New York City and Sta 
Stories suitable for National holidays ; in particular, stories of brav 
During November treat of the community life of the early settle 
this state 

World Stories: 

Great myths taken from the great national epics, such as Beo 
Siegfried, Achilles, Aeneas, Rama. 

Fourth Grade. *' B '' Class. 
World Stories: 

Stories of Nomads, as Abraham, Moses, Kric, Clovis, Magellan. 

Stories of old Greece. 

Fourth Grade. ** A " Class. 
Stories of the Explorers and Discoverers of the W'esteni Continent. 

Fifth Grade. ** B " Class. 

Stories of United States History. 
Stories from Irving. 

Fifth (Jrade. "A" Class. 
World Stories : 
Norse Stories. 

Heroes of Conquest and Empire : as : 
Alexander the Great. 
Caesar. 
Joshua. 

Sixth Grade *' B." 

World Stories. (Two days in each week) : 
Stories of Chivalry. 
Arthur and His Round Table. 

U. S. Histor}'. (Use books for reference). (Two days in each >^ 
Mowr)'. History stories both general and of the United State*? 
Peter, Gustavus Adolphus. Charlemagne, Xapoleon, William 1. 

Sixth Gradk ** A." 

World Stories. (Two days in each week) : 
The Legends of Early Rome. 
Historical stories of Europe, Asia and Africa. 



Mohammed, Kublai Khan, Hannibal. 

U. S. History. Mowry. (Suggested topics from which teachers may 
nake selection). 

This work should be largely story work, connected with geography and 
literature. It should be picturesque, leaving vivid pictures in the children's 
minds. It should not be bare memory work, but should lead to much 
investigation by the children and should develop much interest. Good 
literature should be constantly employed to enforce and vivify the history 
tales. 

Seventh Grade. '* B " Class. 

United States History. 
Prehistoric Period (briefly treated). 
Review, explorations and settlements. 
Topics suggested : 

English influence on the various colonies, Dutch influence, French influ- 
ence, Spanish influence. 
French and Indian War. 
Revolutionary Period. 
Causes of Dissatisfaction. 
Boston Tea Party. 
Patrick Henry. 
Benjamin Franklin. 
Thomas Jeff^erson. 
George Washington. 
Alexander Hamilton. 
Arnold and Andre. 
^declaration of Independence. 

Seventh Grade. ** A " Class. 

Battles and campaigns of the Revolutionary War : 

Lexington. 

Long Island. 

Retreat across New Jersey. 

Trenton. 

Philadelphia. 

Valley Forge. 

Monmouth. 

^^goyne. 

^orktown. 

Rebuilding of the Constitution. 

Early development of the West. 



ii6 

Eighth Grade. " B " Class. 

United States history continued. 
Topics Suggested : 
Mexican cessions. 
Slavery. 

American statesmen and orators — 
Clay. 
Webster. 
Calhoun. 

Development of the government. 
Causes of the Civil War. 
Heroes of the Civil War — 
Lincoln. 
Grant. 
Sherman. 
Sheridan. 
Lee. 

Important battles and campaigns of the Civil War — 
Peninsula. 
Mississippi. 
Gettysburg. 
Sherman's March. 
Wilderness. 
Virginia. 

Appomattox — Close of the Civil War. 
The growth and work of the navy. 
The South — 
Before the War. 
The Confederacy. 
Reconstruction. 

Eighth Grade. " A " Class. 

Growth of the United States. 

Territory. 

Population. 

Wealth. 

Influence. 

Literature. . 

Science. 

Review. 

Four days in the week, United States history by topics. 

One day in the week. Civics. 



1^7 



GEOGRAPHY. 

The object in teaching Geography in school is to make the child 
acquainted with the earth as the home of man, the scene and the partially 
detennining condition of his movements and achievements. 

It should give him definite knowledge of a few important geographic 
facts, such as will supply him with stimulus and a key to further knowledge. 
It should acquaint him with the common dependence of all men upon 
one another and upon their physical environment. 

It should show the relation between habitat and plant and animal life, 
and how economic conditions are largely the product of such relations. 

In particular, it should enable him to understand the triumphs of man 
over adverse material surroundings and put him in possession of such 
knowledge as will enable him to use the environing world to the best 
advantage. 

First Grade. 

Study of plants and animals and natural phenomena, as forms of water. 
Study of the home life of the child : such various interests and occupa- 
tions as immediately affect the home life. 

Observing weather : weather vane, points of compass, making calendars. 

Second Grade. " B '* Class. 

Calendar work. 

Review of the work of the preceding grade. 

Enlargement of the immediate home life in its relation to other homes. 

Observations made of plant and animal life and natural phenomena by 
held excursions, and through the use of such material as can be brought 
into the school room. 

Direction : Winds (vane set), physical forces (story of Ulysses). 

'*A'' Class. 

The child life of the various countries of the world, as affected by 
climate and physical environment. 

This should be given to the children simply and in sharp contrast with 
their own, and should include the simple phases of social life and industrial 
life in other countries. 

At this stage " natural phenomena,'' *' land and water fonns," " points 
of compass,*' and ** maps " should be more thoroughly developed. 

All should be in story form. 



ii8 

Third Grade. ** B '' Class. 

Review of the work of the preceding grade. 
Forms of land and water studied from local observation. 
Drawing to scale. 

Stories of the early settlements in Rochester and New York, with 
geographical reasons. 

Third Grade. " A " Ci-ass. 

Work of '* B " Class continued. 

Local geography : Historical, Physical, Political. 

To be outlined in detail to meet conditions. 

Fourth Grade. " B " Class. 

The World. 

This study should include form and relative size of the earth, simple 
zone study with reference to heat and cold, trade winds of hot belt, westerly 
winds of cold belt, plant and animal life, etc., and a study of the chains of 
highlands, forming the " backbone " of the lands, simple physiographic pro- 
cesses and the elements of drainage. 

Divisions into Continents. 

Note. — This study is to serve as a basis for the special study of each 
continent in its relation to the whole. 

Continents in general should be studied as to : 

1. General relief and relative size. 

2. Their drainage and such features of their coast line as have an im- 
portant bearing on commerce. 

3. Their important political divisions. 

4. The life of the people, and their important industries. 

5. Their commerce, and a brief description of the plant and animal 
life in so far as these enter into the industries and trade. 

Fourth Grade. ** A " Cla.ss. 

The Western Hemisphere. 

North America, considered topically, as follows : 
Relief. 
I )rainage. 
Soil. 

Productions. 
Industries. 

Facilities for transportation, and commerce. 

Central America and South America studied along lines similar to those 
laid down for North America and in relation to it. 



119 
FirrH Grade. ** B." 

The United States, first as a whole, then by sections, under the following 
heads : 

Physical. 
Industrial. 
Social. 
Historical. 

FirrH Grade. "A'' Class. 

The Eastern Hemisphere studied along the lines laid down for the study 
of the Western Hemisphere. 

Sixth Grade. 

The world by continents and countries. 

B — Western Hemisphere (excepting LJ. S.) and Europe. 

A — Asia, Africa and Ocean ica. 

Seventh Grade. 

The I'nited States in connection with its history. 

Eighth Grade. 

Commercial Geography. 
Physical (geography. 



I20 



NATURE STUDY. 

It should be understood that throughout all the work in Nature Study 
the children must have an opportunity of studying the actual living speci- 
mens. Many of the specimens will live and grow in the school room ; but 
frequent excursions to study them in their natural surroundings are abso- 
lutely necessary. Short excursions to the school grounds and immediate 
neighborhood may be made often, and longer ones to the parks and countr)' 
occasionally. 

The teacher should require accurate obser\'ation and clear and truthful 
expression. The language and drawing lessons may be very profitably based 
on this work. Every topic should be studied in its economic relation. 
Nature Study is very closely connected with geography and should be 
correlated with it. Nature Study should also be correlated with literature. 
Care must be taken, however, that children do not read on any subject untik 
after they have made their own observations. 

It is not expected that the teacher will take up all of the topics sug 
gested for each year ; but she may choose those which are best suited tr 
the needs and opportunities of her pupils. 

First Oradk. 
Fall. 

(!olor ; fields, trees, sky, birds, fiowers, charts of leaves and fruits. 

(gardening ; farm life, with excursions to farm. 

Study of some common tree, as horse chestnut, apple or maple ; leave?* 
fruit, uses. 

Preparation of plants for winter. 

Moths and butterflies : development, preparation for winter. 

WiNTK.R. 

C'olor: snow and .shadows, bare fields, forests, fruits. 

Study of common vegetables and fruits. 

Plant passivity. 

Study of same tree continued ; trunk, branches, bark, buds ; study o 
some common evergreen, as pine or Norway spruce. 

Domestic birds, as hen, duck, pigeon, canary, parrot : comparison ol 
structure as related to food and habits ; family life and care for young. 



121 

Spring. 

Color : opening buds and leaves, flowers, birds, insects. 
Spring awakening of life. 

Study of the same tree continued ; opening of buds, flowering, fornia- 
tion of fruit, uses of tree, 
(hardening and farm life. 
Moths and butterflies. 

Simple talks on the weather throughout the year ; sunshine charts. 
Stories and poems. 

Shx:oNi) Gradk. 
Fall. 

Gardening and fanning. 

Study of tree as in first grade, as poplar, elm, oak or chestnut. 
Dissemination of a few common seeds; dandelion, milk-weed, stick- 
ij^ht. burr, maple. 

Fruits ; apples and apple-like fruits, stone fruits, nuts, berries. 
Grasshoppers, locusts, crickets. 

WiNTKR. 

How plants and animals pass the winter. 
Study of tree continued ; also cedar or hemlock. 
Study of vegetables and fruit continued. 

Conditions of germination : experiments to show effect of moisture, heat 
^ind light. 

Let the children plant flower seeds, as sweet pea or nasturtiiun, and 
watch germination and growth to fruiting. 

Comparative study of cat and rabbit, or other unlike animals. 

Si'Rim;. 

Gardening and farm life. 

Kise of sap : opening of buds : springing up of plants from under- 
ground parts. 

'ree study continued. 

^ticognition of a few common flowers. 

^^ild birds, as robin, English sparrow, crow, oriole : food habits, family 
■^^^' use to man. 

rornis of water : wind and directions ; weather charts of sunshine and 

\vind. 

Stories and poems. 



122 

Third Grade. 
Vaia.. 

Recognition of common flowers. 

Trees ; kinds of oaks and maples ; other common deciduous and ever- 
green trees of neighborhood and in the parks ; ready recognition of them 
at Jill seasons ; uses to man. 

Comparison of seeds, as to mode of dissemination : use of various fruits 
to plants. 

Planting of wheat. 

Insect homes ; leaf rollers and miners, galls, tents, nests of wasps, bees, 
ants. 

Migration of birds. 

WiNTKR. 

Tree study continued. 

Study of cereals. 

Gennination of squash, pumpkm, bean, or pea; corn or wheat; careful 
study of stages in each ; drawings made. 

Domestic mammals; horse, cow, sheep, etc. ; habits, structure, compari- 
son, uses, products. 

Kxperiments on air, heat, wind, thermometer, temperature. 

Sprinc;. 

'frees and flowers. 

Planting of corn ; study of wheat and corn plants. 

Wild birds: spring migration and nesting habits: uses to man. 

Insect homes continued. 

Cloud forms. 

Weather charts of wind, sunshine, cloud forms, and temperature. 

Poems and stories. 

Foi'RTH Gradk. 
Fail. 

General plant relationship; no study of parts of flower by children, 
but simply recognition of relationship; study of sunflower and comparison 
with other composites collected by children ; study of mint family. 

Leaf venation ; parallel and netted veined leaves. 

Hird habits continued. 

Study of bugs and beetles : aquaria with water insects. 



J23 

Winter. 

Germination of various plants having one and two cotyledons to com- 
p>aLre; drawings. 

Wild mammals in groups as far as can be studied ; domestication ; 
ir^^lations to man. 

Comparison of food habits and adaptation of animals already studied. 

Spring. 

Lily, rose, and butter-cup families, studied in the same way as the com- 
posite family. 

Leaf venation. 

Study of flower parts sufficiently to recognize that parts of one group 
are usually in threes, never in fives, while parts of other group are often in 
fives. Children by this time should be able to separate the plants they find 
into the two great groups of monocotyledons and dicotyledons, and discover 
the distinctions for themselves. 

Studv of birds and insects continued. 

General problems relating to seasons as suggested by United States 
Weather Bureau. 

Effect of climate on man. 

Stories and poems. 



Fifth Gradk. 

Wood : kinds ; appearance in various sections ; value of different kinds. 

Forests : growth ; enemies ; preser\ation ; [umbering. 

Study of important plant families ; flower parts. 

Continued classification into groups of monocotyledons and dicotyle- 
dons. 

Recognition of great groups of alga;, fungi, mosses, ferns, gymnosperms. 
^"giosperms. 

Clam, snail, cray-fish, lobster ; fish ; life habits. 

Changes in coloration : protective coloration of niamnials, birds, and 

insects. 

How insects live ; how they breathe : how they eat ; experiments with 
food plants. 

Literature. 



124 

Sixth Gradic. 

Work of flower parts ; pollination, wind and insect; provisions to pre- 
vent self-pollination and to secure cross-pollination. 

Growth of fruit from flower ; careful study of various examples. 

Study of different kinds of fruit as to provisions for seed dispersal. 

Roots ; work, adaptations. 

Stems ; work, adaptations. 

Leaves ; work, adaptations. 

Locomotion of various vertebrates and adaptations. 

Bees, wasps, and ants. 

Common minerals ; formation of rocks, as shale, sandstone, conglom- 
erate, limestone, granite, etc. ; building stones : formation and transportation 
of soil. 

Literature. 

Seventh Grade. 

Ecological factors ; heat, water, soil, light, wind. 

Plant societies. 

Weeds and useful plants, with especial study of economic relations. 

Differences between wild and cultivated plants ; methods by which our 
food plants have been produced from the original wild stock. 

Development of frog and toad ; water insects ; study of habits in 
aquaria. 

Simple experiments in Physics. 

Literature. 

KiGHTH CJrade. 

General physiology of plants and animals ; experiments. 

Physics. 

Kconomic relations of animals and insects. 

Literature. 



PHYSIOLOGY AND HYGIENE, 

Instruction in Pysiology and Hygiene with especial reference to the 
effects of narcotics must be given from the approved text-books in all 
grades in which it is required by law. 

NoTK. — Sparlin's Topical Outlines and Questions in United States Histor\', and 
Townsend's Problems in Arithmetic, Questions in (leography, and Exercises in Gram- 
matical Analysis, will Ihj found helpful to teachers. 



125 



SUGGESTIVE OUTLINES TO SUPPLEMENT THE 

COURSE OF STUDY. 

THE INCIDENTAL TEACHING OF NUMBER IN THE FIRST GRADE. 

This teaching should be incident aly not accidental, — That is, such teach- 
ing should not be left to chance, but should be given whenever the use of 
number is necessary for the clear imaging of objects or their relations. 
This will be found to be the case frequently in nearly all the subjects of the 
curriculum. 

The teacher should watch for opportunities to employ number definitely, 
and should even make them whenever the subject matter under considera- 
tion is suitable. 

It should be remembered that most children entering the first grade, 
especially those coming from the kindergarten, have already a considerable 
stock of number ideas. The number sense is then quite alert. The 
teacher should see that none of this is lost, but that the development thus 
indicated continues rationally without break. 

" Unless there is to be arrested development when the child enters 
school, some function must be found with reference to which he may utilize 
his ability to count — the number sense becomes vitilized and truly educative 
(it this point by being largely directed towards the definition of values in the 
form of measurements '' — Dr. John Dkwev. 

The first exercises should be counting and making comparisons. For 
these the children are ready. In all cases first ascertain what the children 
can already do, then proceed to increase their knowledge and poicer. 

B Class — First Grade. 

CouxTiNO. — In counting the child gets an idea of the whole, \\\^ parts 
^nd the how many. 

Start with a whole and count by single things ; /-. g. Count the number 
0^ girls in the room, of boys, of children, of desks, etc. Test how far the 
number names are significant ; e. g. name the number and have correspond- 
ing objects selected. 

Count thus two rows of girls, of boys, of desks, of blocks ; how many 
twos? Count pairs of eyes, how many pairs? Pairs of hands, how many 
pairs, etc., etc. 

Count groups of three, how many threes ? etc. Groups of four, etc. 
Count the same quantity with different units or groups, e. g. the.se twelve 
pupils: by twos, how many ? By threes, by fours, by sixes, etc.. to deter- 
"^ine the different numbers (how many), that measure the same quantity. 
Count different quantities with the same unit of measure. 



126 

This lot of six (pupils, etc.,) by threes. 

This group of twelve by threes. 

This group of fifteens by threes, etc. 

Toy money may be used with advantage for counting. 



Comparisons. 

This should be first indefinite then definite. Have pupils make com- 
parisons involving ideas of more or less, larger or smaller, e. g. the 
length of the desk is greater than the width, etc. One child is larger or 
smaller than another. One pile of books is higher or lower than the other. 

A line is long or short in comparison with another, etc. 

Draw lines of varying lengths on the board and have pupils measure to 

find number of inches long, etc. 

Draw triangles, squares, rectangles, etc., and have pupils measure sides 
and find number of inches, etc. 



A Class — First Grade. 

Measurements, — Counting may be extended to exact measurements. 

Count the number of inches in a foot. 

Count the two inches in this foot rule (or line) ; the three inches, etc. 

Count the number of three inches in lines, ten, twelve, fifteen, eighteen 
inches long, and so on. 

Cut out of card board strips respectively one inch, two inches, three 
inches, twelve inches, etc., long by one inch wide. Ask pupils to- select the 
three inch strip, the five inch strip, etc. 

Make squares whose sides are respectively two, three and four inches. 
Make oblongs two inches by three inches, three inches by four inches, 
four inches by five inches, etc. Divide into square inches, etc. 

Make simple measurements with the foot rule and tape measure, e. g.^ 
measure the width of a desk, sides of the room, length of table, height of 
children, the number of inches around head, around chest, etc. 

Measure the distance between points with the foot rule, the yard stick. 

What number do you get ? How many feet ? How many yards ? 

Measure from finger tip to finger tip. 

Measure from crown of head to sole of foot, etc. 

The regular occupations will suggest many similar exercises. 

Employ figures naturally that children may learn their uses. 



127 



MATERIAL NEEDED. 

Blocks, acorns, horse chestnuts, shells, etc., are valuable for counting. 
Kverj' child should have a foot rule, marked in inches for measuring and 
objects of various sizes for comparison. 

Children during the first year should learn to count by twos, threes, 
fours. They should also become thoroughly familiar with the proper use of 
terms for comparison of units or objects, and acquire a knowledge of inch, 
foot, and yard as units of linear measurement. 

"Thought consists in the establishment of relations. There can be 
no relations established, and, therefore, no thought framed when one of the 
related tenns is absent from consciousness." — H. Spencer. 



ARITHMETIC. 

B Class — Second Grade. 

The suggestions for the first grade should be reviewed and elaborated. 

Counting by 2's, 3's, 4's, 5's, 6's, etc. 

Comparisons of objects of various sizes. 

Continue the use of foot, inch and yard through actual measurements. 

The object in this grade, as is in the first, is to create an interest in 
number by dealing with familiar things, rather than abstract quantities. 

Have pupils ascertain for themselves prices of various articles used in 
and about the home, ranging in price from one to twelve cents, or from one 
to twelve dollars. Make lists of such articles and have pupils evolve 
problems. For example : 



Grocery 


Store. 




Dry Goods St 


ore 


K 


RUiT Store 


•"^ugar 6 cents 


pei 


• pound. 


Calico . . — cents 


per yard. 


Oranges 


Kaisins ...11 


t» 


it 


»t 


Thread. - " 


it 


spool. 


Dates. 


Urd 10 


»4 


i% 


(» 


Needles. — ** 


tt 


paper. 


Apples. 


Heans 7 


.t 


n 


quart. 


Hose. . . — '' 


ti 


pair. 


Grapes. 


^ap 3 


,( 


n 


cake. 


Mittens. — *' 


.t 


t . 


Figs. 


•"Starch 4 


t» 


t( 


pound. 


Ribbon . 


ii 


yard. 


Peaches 


1 omatoes. . 9 


»i 


t( 


can. 


Pins ... 


1 1 


paper. 


Pears. 


Clothespins 2 


k4 


ti 


dozen. 










Crackers . . 5 


H 


n 


pound. 










Currants . . 8 


»k 


»t 


ii 











128 



The numbers around 
the circle are the prices of 
articles which the pupils 
have found. The figure 
within the circle shows 
the number of articles 
to be bought. Teacher 
points to three, and pupil 
buys two of something 
at three cents. For 
example: If a cake of 
soap costs three cents, 
two cakes will cost six 
cents. 

This forms a practical 
basis for the multiplica- 
tion table. 
'J'he reverse relations may also be taught — pupils readily see that ** if two 
pounds of sugar cost twelve cents, one pound will cost six cents." 

The figure within the circle should be changed when the children' are 
thoroughly conversant with the one in use. 

A list should always be kept on the blackboard, and the prices changed 
from time to time, according to the market. 

In connection with this work the table of weights and measures should 
be developed. Children should handle the various measures and be 
allowed to measure freelv. 




A Class — Sfxond (Jrai>k. 



Review all the subjects previously suggested, and extend each by 
broader applications of the real value of things studied. 

Elaborate the first' pages of the Rational Arithmetic, by direct applica- 
tion of the steps therein evolved, in measurement and comparison, to the 
practical drawing and constructing of objects. 

Create interest, arouse mental activity, and appeal to the sense of 
utilit}', by having children do at ever)- step of the process, by allowing them 
to deal with familiar articles and prices. 



129 



OUTLINE FOR FIRST GRADE. 

This outline contains abundant suggestions of material and occupations 
[rom which teachers should select such as they can readily follow. 

IK) NOT TRY TO FOLLOW THEM ALL 
DO W H A r Y O U C A N D O W E L L 

Throughout the year use stories and poems as suggested in the course 
of study and the graded list, suitable for the season and corelating with the 
other work. 



September — Family Life. 

General Theme. — Child's interest in things about him. Home activities 
leading to a comprehension of the following : 

Underlying; Principle. — Right relationships. Relations with other living 
beings. Mutual helpfulness essential for happiness. 

Family Life. 

Families — Homes of children. Homes adapted to occupants. 
Experiences of home life. F'amily relationships. 

Natirk. 

Other homes and families, as : Animals, insects, birds, bees, plants. 



( )C rOBER L\ DIVIDUAL FUNCTIONS. 

in the home. — The contribution of father ; his occupation. 

Mother ; her duties in the home. 

Brothers and sisters : their dailv interests. 

The Analoi^y of Nature, — The preparation for future life as observed in 

the care and preparation for their long winter rest. 

Lkaves — Fall changes, the falling leaves. 
Bri>s — How formed, how protected. 
Flowers — Their function. 

Skkds — Story of seeds, their many ways of travel. 

Kdiblk Fruits — Where and how they grow, use to nature and to man. 
N<)TK-~r|a,ssify fruits under main type forms for comparison and discrimination. 

Catkr PILLARS — Color, movements, where found, food. Cocoons: 

How made, when, where. Transformation into the Imtterfly. 
BiKi>s — Migration. 



130 

November — Harvest : Thanks(;iving. 

General Theme, — Child's growing interest 'in activities about him. 
Winter preparation in family and in nature. Place of individual. Result 
of universal labor. 

* Underlying Principle — Relation of family to civil society. Interde- 
pendence of nature and man. Thankfulness. 

Work of the Farm. 

Grain — Kinds, who planted them, where, how, for what ? Who grinds 

them, where, into what ? (Stor)' from seed to loaf.) 
Vegktahles — Gathered and distributed for winter. 
Fruits — Gathered and distributed for winter. 
Squirrkl — Covering, movements, food, habits, home, work. 

Preparation for Thanksgivinc;. 

The First Thanksgiving — Things for which to Ije thankful. 
Thanksgiving Celebration. 
Indian Life — Hiawatha or Uocas. 



DecExMber — Christm.as : Doing and Giving. 

General Theme — Children's interest in the home as the center of social 
and benevolent activities. In the Christmas holidays. The joy of giving — 
of loving. 

Winter — Frost, ice, snow (beauties of nature). 
Animal life — example : 

Shkki' — Covering, movements, food, habits, home. 
What the sheep gives. 

Santa C'laus — His work for others (how we get ready for him, how we 

can help him). 

Our work for others. Lme — The measure of our gift. 
Storv of the First Christmas. 
Christmas Celebration. 



January — Co-operation THROUCiH Indi.'.strv. 

General Theme — The child's interest in the home, in the activities and 
industries about him. A fuller development of thankfulness and of loving 
and giving, leading the child through the study of other people, to a sense 
of kin.ship with all the world. 



Underlying Principle — Relation of family to civil society. Gratitude, 
protection, interpendence and co-operation. 

Time — New Year season, month and days. 

Vacation Experiences — Toys, games, etc., what the *• New Year " 
has brought to us. 

Trades — New things that have come to us. Where they come from. 
Busy father who earns the money. Busy mother who cares for the 
home. Brothers and sisters, what they do for us. Other people 
that help. Woodworking, knitting, shoemakers, baker, etc. 

Eskimo Life — Agoonack. Appearance of the country. Personal 
appearance of the people. Dress : material ; how made. Homes : 
how built; furniture. Food: how obtained; cooking utensils. 
Vehicles for travel : how made ; how drawn. Occupations : hunt- 
ing; weapons used. Fishing boats : kinds; how made. 

Winter — Nature's rest. Color; snow and shadows, bare fields, forests. 
Winter appearance of trees. Observing weather, changes in length 
of days and nights. Snow crystals, ice. 



February Patriotism : Relations with Country. 

General Theme — Formation of ideas of patriotism, heroes, birthdays. 
Underlying Principle — Our relation to organized society and to state, 
dependence. 

Heroes : — Lincoln. The boy, his home life, games, occupation, 
interests, etc. Industrious, ambitious, to what he attained, etc. 

Washington — The boy, his home life, games, occupations and interests. 
The solder and captain. 

Other Brave Men — Policemen. Firemen. Brave children. 

Longfellow — The children's poet. 

St. Valentine's Day — Story of the Good Saint. Messengers of love. 
Postman. 

Pigeon and Canary — Compare as to home life, habits, uses, etc. 

Observing Weather — Longer days and shorter nights. Winter ob- 
servation of trees, etc. 



March — Beginning of Spring. 

Omerai Theme — Forces of nature, children's interest in the activities 
of nature as related to the home. Our dependence upon these. Wind 

direction. 



^32 

Underlying Principle — Unseen power behind all things. Weather vane 

and points of compass. 

Wind — North, east, south and west wind. What each brings. Things 

dependent upon wind ; sail boats, wind mills, kites, etc. What the 

wind does, effect upon nature, etc. 
Water — Things dependent upon water. How utilized by man ; water 

wheels, mills, navigation, etc. 
Sun-Heat — Melting of ice and snow. 

Maple Trees — Observe coming changes. Sap flowing, sugar. 
Lily Bulbs — Plant and observe Chinese lily bulbs. 
Pussy Wn.LOVV.s — Where grow, use. 



April — Sprinc, Awakening of Life and Nature. 

General Theme — Children's interest in the activities of nature as related 
to the home. Patience, waiting for results, continuity of development. 
Easter. 

Underlying Principle — Right use of opportunities, reverence. 

Easter — Awakening of nature. Lead pupils to see and feel the ix)wer 

of the spring awakening in a few of its many expressions. 
Lily Bulbs — 
Budding of the Trees — Oliserve and compare opening of buds. 

flowering, etc. 
('ocooNs — Butterflies, moths. 
Return of the Birds — Seeking a place for homes, nests, how and 

where dwell, etc. 
('hickens and Ducks — Food, habits, family life and care for young, 

etc. 
Rain — Spring showers. Observe work of rain. •' Spring house 

cleaning." 
Sprin(; Flowers — Trips to the woods and tields. 
(iARDENiNc; — At home and at school. 



May Life in N.vfure — (Growth. 

General Theme — All nature is active. Freedom. Self activitv. I>e- 
velopment. Nature's expression for our benefit and pleasure. 

(Iardening — At home and at school. 

The Farm — Work on the farm as related to all life. The home, etc. 

Flovver.s — Trips to the fields to gather flowers; where they grow, how 

they grow, color, etc. 
Bees — Ants, fishes and frogs olxserved as to development. Where 

found. Activity, industry, etc. 
Memorial Day — 



^33 
June — Beauty in Nature. 

General Theme — Summer changes in the home. Preparing for vaca- 
tion. Growth and beauty in environment 

Underlying Principle — Universal relationship. Love and care of 
flowers, birds and other animals and for each other. 

Changf^s in the Home — 

Clothing — Why needed, what they are. 

Foixl — How different in summer from winter. Classification. 
Changes in Light and Heat — Why more light and heat. How these are 
used. How we protect ourselves from them. 

Preparation for Vacation — 

Flowers, verdure, cloud, sky, rainbow, sunshine. Excursions, means of 
travel, locomotives, boats, trolley cars. 

" Everj'thing is unity : everything rests upon, strives for and returns to 
unity." — Froebel. 

Ada Van Stone Harris, 
Supen'isor of Kindergartens and Primary Schools. 

Approved September lo, 1902. 

C. B. GILBERT, Superintendent of Schools. 



134 



OCCUPATION WORK. 



" The busy have no time for tears." — Byron, 

** To play, to build, to construct, are the first tender 
flower of a child's life.*' 



Every school exercise should be truly educative. The function of the 
teacher then is to direct the child's energy and help him to make his activ- 
ity useful. ** The destiny, the privilege, the glory of man is to work, to do, 
to create." 

It is through expression that the indefinite mental image takes shape and 
becomes a definite image. The intensity of the desire on the part of the 
child to express depends upon the intensity of the impression. 

The school should furnish all possible means for varied expression, for 
the more ways in which a child can express an idea, an image, and the 
wider the range of expression the richer and clearer becomes the thought 
content. 

'* Occupation work " is as imperative in its claims as the recitation. It 
is necessary to hand an eye training, to introduce the concrete, — to remove 
difficulties and to strengthen weak places. No period of the school pro- 
gram demands more thoughtful planning and more careful preparation 
than this. 

The material should be so adapted and presented that it will not only 
arouse and strengthen ideas in the child's mind, but will also provide con- 
ditions for gaining new ideas. It should be so selected as to have a definite 
purpose, and should either supplement a lesson already taught^ teach a 
lesson in itself, or aid in the preparation of a neia lesson. 

All forms of expression and manual work should stimulate the child to 
attain some end which he feels to be good and worthy of his best effort. 
Work under the stimulus of the very best of motives tends to the forming 
of right habits. 

In the various modes of expression and the manual arts, the child gains 
power through doing which enables him to construct and to create ; also to 
adapt all material which comes to hand for the expression of his ideas. 

The child reveals his interests, his experiences and powers through the 
various modes of expression. 



135 

The material or medium of expression depends upon the nature of the 
subject. Such material should be used as will allow the fullest and most 
satisfactory expression. In all forms encourage Larj^e, Free Work, 

MODES OF EXPRESSION SUITABLE FOR SCHOOL USE. 
I. MoDKLiNc. IN Sand or Clay. 

Sand modeling may be used for natural land areas. The sand table is 
one of the most useful articles in the class room, hlncourage the child to 
create, construct and build for the representation of all stories told ; for 
example, Hiawatha, The Landing of the Pilgrims, Knights of the Round 
Table, Robinson Crusoe, The Three Bears, Ulysses, etc. The greatest 
freedom should be allowed the child in his representation. It should tell 
the stor)' as he sees and feels it. This phase of utilizing the things the 
child has made tends to cultivate power in oral lan^ua^e expression. The 
moment a child creates something to represent his idea of the story, he is 
free to talk about it. 

The sand table may be used to represent different occupations and the 
tools or implements used in each : as those of the fanner, carpenter, black- 
Miiith, shoemaker, etc. 

Describe and represent the work of the seasons and the implements 
Used : as the planting of gardens in spring. 

Represent the work of each day in the home, etc., and the things needed 
in each kind of work. 

Represent the means of transpK)rtation observed on land and water, or 
imaged from stories and pictures : as boats, bridges, wagons, caravans, 
trains of cars, etc. 

Illustrate inventions. 

Illustrate the successive pictures represented in a poem. 

Clay modeling should be used for representing objects requiring three 

dimensions : or in relief ; for models of huts, houses or parts of architectural 

'structures and decorative detail, for utensils, for models of animals, for all 

, objects in nature study or history- requiring a plastic medium for correct 

rendering. 

II. Wkaving, Hraidinc, Rnottinc;. 

Weaving, braiding and knotting : Raffia, cotton, and coarse wcK)len yarn 
'"ay be utilized in the construction of mats, miniature rugs, doll hats, wall 
P^ketb, sewing cases, calendar backs, shopping and book bags. 

In the study of primitive people, the child, through this material should 
be led to appreciate the evolution of this form of industry. 



136 
III. Makin(; — Construction. 

Cardboard and paper are good materials for the making of various 
articles suitable for use in the school room — such as boxes, envelopes to 
hold words, sentences and pictures ; trays and baskets to hold small articles 
such as seed, shoe pegs, etc. 

Also to make articles illustrating the ideas gained from regular lessons 
in histor)^ and literature : as, the homes and occupation of primitive people 
studied, weapons, utensils, modes of travel and inventions. 

Articles for the use of others, simple but useful gifts, appropriate to 
festival occasions for those at home, or for other children who may be less 
fortunate. 

IV. Painting — Water Colors — Ink. 

Painting with water colors, ink or colored crayons should be used for 
illustrating those phases of life and nature that possess the color elements. 

V. Paper Cutting and Pastin(;. 

The representation in cutting should always be free hand, cutting first 
from the object and later from imagination. The child may make his stor)' 
better understood by pasting the cuttings in order upon a background of 
some contrasting color. 

VI. DRAWiNt;. 

With brush, crayon or pencil illustrate a stor^- that has been told or read, 
also follow carefully the outlines of the Drawing Super\'isor, making use of 
them in connection with all other subjects, whenever it is possible. 

VII. Pictures. 

F'.ncourage pupils to collect pictures connected with work being done ; 
as pictures of people of other countries, their manners and customs of 
living, etc. (Carefully mount and classify them.) 

Note. — In planning the hand-work with the children, take time for 
discussion and explanation, ascertaining that ever)' child knows clearly what 
he is to make, to what use it will be put, and also that he feels so sure of 
materials and plans that he can work freely and independently. 

Criticism, C'ommendation and Encouragement are tools in hands of the 
teacher to inspire closer study and awaken enthusiasm and desire for im- 
provement on the part of the pupils. The pupil should be allowed to be his 
own critic first. 

Improvement must be noticed by the teacher. (Growth will be shown 
in pupils' work after a just criticism has given rise to more accurate obser- 
vation. 



137 

In all work tiie children should be trained to habits of economy in the 

Use of materials : neatness and order in care of materials : honesty and 

accuracy in having the work so well done that it fulfills its intended purpose. 

All work done by the child when not under immediate supervision 

should truly tell his power and his needs. 

'J'he child through these various fonns of educational activity not only 
gains habits of order, skill and industry', but his powers of obser\'ation, 
attention, memor\'. association, judgment, and accurate reasoning are 
developed. 

Dr. E. R. Shaw, in '* 'J'hree Studies in Kducation," discussing the " Value 

of Motor Activities in Education," says : '* Seek in every- subject of study in 

the lower grades to provide motor activity at least as an accompaniment of 

study and of recitation. If possible, however, invent means which shall use 

up the motor tendencies, and at the same time make them a contributing 

part in the more purely thought work of the child. In short, let some doitif^ 

accompany all the child's efforts to leani." 

RKFERENCKS : 

Clay Modeling for Schools, - - - (i. S. Haycock. 

Ratl'ia and Reed Weaving, .... E. S. Knapp. 

Story of a Sand Pile, - - - - G. Stanley Hall. 

How to Make Baskets, Mar\- White. 

Paper and Sci.ssors in Her School Room, - Miller Bradley C'o. 

A Sand Pile (St. Nicholas Mag. Aug. 1886), - H. M. Lay. 

Three Studies in Education (Motor Activities), E. R. Shaw. 

Ada Van Stoxk Harris, 
Supenisor of Kindergartens and Primar)* (Jrades. 

Approved. October 16, 1901. 

('. H. (ilLBERT. Su])t:rinteiulent of ('ity Schools. 



138 



VOCAL DRILL. 



** Once more, speak clearly, if you speak at all," 
Carve each word before you let it fall. 

— O. W. Holmes. 

To speak or read in pure tones one must breathe deeply, stand erect, 
open the mouth freely, pronounce distintly and speak clearly. 

Lord Bacon said : *' A man would better address himslf to a stone 
statue than suffer his thoughts to pass in smother." 

A good voice possesses purity^ strength and compass. 

Suggestions. 

The following suggestions are given to aid in developing purity, strength 
and compass of voice on the part of the pupils. Teachers may add others 
to these. 

Pronunciation is the utterance of syllables and words ; it includes artic- 
ulation and accent. 

Articulation is the utterance of elementary sounds contained in a 
syllable or word ; hence without clear and distinct articulation, there can be 
no correct pronunciation. 

Pupils should have daily practice in repeating elementary sounds, also 
in pronouncing the consonent combinations composed of these sounds. 

Articulation. 

Faulty articulation may arise from one or more of the following : 

1. The omission of a sound (hist'ry for history). 

2. The use of more sounds than necessary (ca'ow for cow). 

3. The substitution of the wrong sound (jest for just). 

Note. — In pronouncing words, also in the reading of sentences, see that children 
pronounce and articulate n'ery sound distinctly. 



139 
EXERCISES FOR PURE QUALITY. 

I Grade. 

(i) Practice in rich, musical tones the long vowels a, e, I, 5, oo, a, a, 
c. 

(2) Sing each long and short vowel to the scale, ascending and de- 
ending. 

(3 ) Rep>eat each voice consonant several times ; first with rising, then 
Xh falling inflection. 

II Grade. 

(1) Sing the syllabel ah to the scale up and down. 

(2) Practice the vowels e and a together. 

(3) Repeat the syllables nee, iih, nee oh, nee you, slowly, then more and 
ciore rapidly. 

III Grade. 

(i) Sing the syllabel sea to the scale, letting the under jaw fall freely. 

(2) Repeat the syllables ip, it, ik, siowly, then more and more rapidly. 

(3) Practice the following tables, using the mouth vigorously : 

(a) b-p-b-p (^) d-t-d-t (c) g-k-g-k (d) j-ch-j-ch 
b-p-p-b d-t~t-d g-k-k-g j-ch-ch-j 

p-b-j>-b t-d-t-d k-g-k-g ch-j-ch-j 

IV Grade. 

(1) Sing the syllable fa to the scale, letting the under jaw fall freely. 

(2) Repeat the scales e, 1, a, S, 5,, 00, 00, 0, a, o, with pure musical tones. 

(3) Practice the following tables, using the mouth vigorously. 

(a) r-f-r-f (d) z-s-z-s (r) zh-sh-zh-sh (//) th-th-lh-th 

r-f-f-r z-s-s-z zh-sh-sh-zh th-t h t h th 

f-r-f-r z-s-z-s sh-zh-sh-zh th-th-th-th- 

'^OTE.—Each grade should review the work of the preceding grade or grades. 

SOUND DRILL. 



' ^kade. Long and short vowels and consonants. 
^Rade. All vowel sounds and consonants. 

hade. Work of preceding grades, including much drill in initial 

consonant combinations. 
RADE. Work of preceding grades, with much drill in terminal 
consonant combinations. 






140 
TABLE OF ELEMENTARY SOUNDS. 



a as m ate 



VCXJALS. 



^ as in met 



a 



u 



it 



n 



^i 



(t 



at 



arm 



all 



care 



ask 



me 



o 
o 
o 



b as in 


bid 


d ** 


did 


g *' 


g^F: 


J '' 


jug 


1 


lull 


m 


man 


n 


name 



r (smooth) as in lard 



p as m cap 
t ** take 
k *' cake 
ch " church 



^i 



her 



ice 



It 

go 
not 

do 

SUBVOCALS. 



Aspirates. 



th as in their 



u as m mute 



u 
u 

ou 
oi 
00 
00 



it 



t k 



( t 



cup 
full 

our 
oil 
fool 
foot 



r (trilled) as in roll 

V as in vine 

w 



y 

z 

th 

zh 

"g 



»i 



well 

yes 

zone 

this 

ozier 



smg 



h as in hat 
s " sun 
sh " shall 
f '• five 



NoTK. — Make lists of words containing each of the above sounds, and hav« 
pronounce the words containing them. 



CONSONANT COMBINATIONS. 
L Initial Combinations. 



bl as in 


I blow 


br 


ii 


brave 


dr 


a 


drag 


dw 


ki 


dwell 


fl 


it 


flour 


fr 


{» 


fret 


gl 


i> 


gloom 


gr 


It 


grade 



sk as in skill 



si 


t > 


sleep 


sm 


k t 


smell 


sn 


(k 


snap 


sp 


%i 


spin 


St 


» t 


stone 


sw 


k > 


swing 


shr 


• « 


shrill 



141 



Initial Combinations. — Continued. 



vvh as in which 
(k) cl •* cling 
(k) cr *' crown 
pi '* plum 
pr •* pray 



skr as in scrub 
spl *' splint 
spr ** spruce 
str '* strong 
thr '• three 



thw as in thwart 





11. Tkrminal 


Combinations. 




ed as in robbed 


fiFs as 


in 


cliffs 


dth " 


width 


ks 


it 


rocks 


dths ** 


breadths 


ts 


«( 


bats 


bs - 


snobs 


sk 


«« 


mask 


ds 


beds 


sps 


k t 


clasps 


Ich - 


filch 


St 


»k 


mist 


Ige '• 


bulged 


fth 


« ft 


fifth 


dge ** 


budge 


pth 


(4 


depth 


Id •• 


fold 


sts 


»t 


fists 


ids - 


holds 


ched 


«t 


filched 


dged ** 


budged 


Iged 


i* 


bulged 



N«»TE. — Make list of words containing each of the al)ove c<Misonant combination 
J^'unds and have pupils pronounce them. 





ILLUSTRATIONS. 






1 Cradk. 




pat-a-cake 


rock-a-bve 


north 


baker's 


babv 


wind 


man 


cradle 


blow 


cake 


green 


snow 


just 


father's 


robin 


fast 


nobleman 


poor 


roll 


mother's 


thing 


mark 


queen 


sit 


brown 


Hetty's 


barn 




lady 


keep 


cock 


wears 


warm 


doth 


gold 


hide 


crow 


ring 


head 


let 


Johnny's 


wing 


know 


drummer 


thing 


you 


drums 




wise 


king 




time 






rise 







142 

Shoe the colt 

Shoe the colt ; 
Shoe the wild mare ; 

Here a nail, 

There a nail, 
Yet she goes bare. 



I had a little pony, 

His name was Dapple-gray, 

I lent him to a lady, 

To ride a mile away ; 



She whipped him, she slashe* 
She rode him through the mi 
I would not lend my pony no 
For all the lady's hire. 



Some little mice sat in a barn to spin ; 

Pussy came by and popped his head in : 
" Shall I come in and cut your threads off ?" 
** Oh, no 1 kind sir, you will snap our heads oflF." 

II Grade. 

Tf I'd as much money as I could spend, 
T never would cry : '* Old chairs to mend I" 
*' Old chairs to mend ! Old chairs to mend !" 
I never would cry : " Old chairs to mend !" 

If I'd as much money as I could tell, 
I never would cry '* Old clothes to sell !*' 
'* Old clothes to sell !" " Old clothes to sell !" 
I never would cr}' : '* Old clothes to sell 1" 



Hear the sledges and the bells. 

Silver bells 1 
How they tinkle, tinkle, tinkle, 
In the icy air of night 1 
Oh ! the bells, bells, bells, bells ! 

Do well, do well, do well, do well ! 
In mellow tones rang out a bell. 

Over the hills the farm boy goes. 
Cheerily calling : '* Co, boss ; co, boss ;'* 
Farther, farther over the hill. 
Faintly calling ; calling still, 
" Co, boss ; CO, boss ; co, co, co." 



U3 
III Gradk. 

Robert of Lincoln is gaily dressed, 
Wearing a bright, black wedding coat ; 
White are his shoulders and white his crest : 
Hear him call in his merry note : 
*'Bob-o-linkl BobK>-link ! 

Spink, spank, spink !" 
Look, what a nice new coat is mine ; 
Sure there was never a bird so fine. 

Chee, chee, chee. 

Hushed the people's swelling murmur, 
While the boy cries joyously : 

Ring! ringl (Jrandpa, 

Ring ! C), ring for liberty — 

Like a child at play. 

Comes tripping along her joyous way, 

Tripping along. 
With mirth and song. 
Laughing, loving May. 

IV (Jrade. 

Amidst the mists and coldest frosts. 
With barest wrists and stoutest boasts. 
He thrusts his fists against the posts 
And still insists he sees the ghosts. 

And round and round the rugged rocks, rude, ragged rascals ran. 

The brightest stars are burning suns ; 
The deepest water stillest runs ; 
The laden bee the lowest fiies : 
The richest mine the deepest lies ; 
The stalk that's most replenished 
Doth bow the most its modest head. 

It is not what we earn, but what we save, that makes us rich. It is not 
hat we eat, but what we digest, that makes us strong. It is not what we 
jad, but what we remember, that makes us useful. 



144 

The following; poems are especially strong for articulative exercises. 
Selections niav be made from them : 

The C'ataract of Lodore. — Robert Southev. 

The Old vear and the New. — Tennvson. 
'J'he Brook. — Tennvson. 

The Old Clock. — Lon<(fello\\ . 

J'he Ballad of Kasi and West (opening stanzas). — Kipling. 

Ada Van Stone Harris, 
Superintendent of Kindergartens and Primary School?^, 

A|)i>R)Vti(l Stptt-nihrr i i, iw02. 

C B. (II IJil'.RT. SuptrinleiuKnt of City Sdiools. 



•45 



CLIFF DWELLERS. 

Second (Jrade. 

I. Kind of People; describe characteristics — Personal appearance. 

II. Where they lived ; describe region in Arizona and New Mexico, 
its rocks, sand, dryness, barrenness except along the rivers, etc. 

III. Their Homes. Kinds (lowland Village, Cave Dwelling, Cliff 
Houses). Where and how each was built, materials used, difficulties in 
getting material, furniture of the house. (Have pupils work out foe them- 
selves what the material would be from the character of the country. 
Tools used). 

IV. Their (iovernment. 

Clan or C'ommunistic Life. 

V. Food. 

What. 

How obtained. 

Implements used. 

VI. Clothing. 

What. 

How obtained. 

W'eaving and making of loom making clothing. 

VII. Occupations. 

Farming. 

Making of Pottery. 
Weaving. 
Basket Work. 
VIII. Religion. 

References : 

Ix)lani — The Little Cliff Dweller. 

Webster. Among the Cliff Dwellers. Am. Naturali.st, 27:435. 

Schwatka. In the Land of the Cave and Cliff Dwellers. 

Cliff Dwellings of Mexico. Spectator, 64:588. 

Cliff Dwellings of Arizona. Science, 11:257. 

Skertchly. Cliff Dwellers of the Far West. 

Hardacre. Cliff Dwellers. Scribner, 17:266. 

Ma.son. Cliff Dwellers. Sandal. Pop. Sci., 50:676-9. 



146 



GEOGRAPHY FOR THE FIRST FIVE GRADES. 

The work of each grade should be preceded by a careful review of the 
work of the previous grade or grades. 

Geography is not only a description of the earth's surface, but a treat- 
ment of the people who inhabit it, and their life as related to climate and 
physical environment. 

The lessons in Nature Study in the first and second grades form a basis 
for work in Geography in giving concepts which the pupils will use more or 
less in all geographical study. 



WEATHER OBSERVATIONS. 

Make a copy of month's record for future use when it is kept on the 
blackboard. (It is an economy of time to keep record on a large sheet of 
cardboard). At the close of each month the teacher should aid the child 
in stating general conditions of the month. For example : 

September — Bright sun, rather high; warm days; days and nights 
nearly equal ; green leaves ; fruits ripening ; birds still heard ; crickets 
chirp; thistle, sunflower, aster and goldenrod in bloom. 

At close of each season record general conditions of heat and moisture, 
lengthening or shortening of days and prevailing winds. Aim to establish 
clearly : 

In winter — coldest, shortest days ; low sun, very slanting rays, long 
shadows. 

In summer — warmest, longest days ; high sun, rays nearly vertical, 
shadows short. 

In spring and autumn — mild days and nights, nearly equal in length: 
sun's arch between highest and lowest ; rays not so slanting as in winter; 
shadows not so long. (Length of shadow taken at noon on the same day 
of week if possible.) A post in the yard may be taken to measure shadow. 
Notice the change in the place where sunlight falls in the room each week 
di^ring the year. 

Thermometer record — same hour each day. 

M(X)n phases — when seen and where; sunrise and sunset; evening star. 

Sun — form, apparent size and color, rising and setting, apparent change 
of place in different .seasons. 

Sunrise — dawn ; noon ; sun.set ; twilight ; night. (See picture and story 
of Aurora in " Brooks and Brook Basins," page 2). 



147 

Stars — many : some twinkle ; others shine steadily ; some brighter than 
others ; evening star, north star and dipper. Myths and poems given. 

Wind — direction, how named ; which are warm winds ; which cold ; 
which bring storms. Uses. 

Weather-vane and weather signals should be made and used for weather 
study. 

FORMS OF WATER. 

Rain — drops, varying in size, form clouds ; showers ; storms ; which 
season has most rain ; measure rainfall ; use to man, plants and animals ; 
power to cleanse ; to float objects, to carry soil and to dissolve. 

Snow — flakes, etc., as above: 

Hail — Ice, balls of different sizes and shapes ; falls from clouds. 

Dew — drops, collect on objects ; when formed ; when seen ; heavy or 

light. 

Frost — crystals ; form on objects ; when seen ; heavy or light. 

Clouds — ^mass of water in tiny drops ; colors ; forms ; moved by the 

wind ; seen all the year. 

Fogs — clouds near the ground ; dampen objects ; seen occasionally. 
Mist- 
Ice — crystal ; how formed ; when made ; effect on object holding it ; 

light or heavy ; season. 

Note. — Many beautiful poems may be connected with this study. 

POINTS OF COMPASS. 

Cardinal and semi-cardinal points taught out of doors from the sun. 

Teach relative positions. 

How to find directions at sunrise ; sunset ; noon. 

Mark lines in yard showing chief directions. 

1. Locate pupils with reference — 

a. To different parts of the room. 

b. To other pupils. 

c. To objects in the room. 

2. Locate room with reference — 

a. To other rooms on the floor. 

b. To other parts of building. 

3. Locate buildings with reference — 

a. To parts of yard. 

b. To child's home. 

c. To objects of interest near by. 

d. To part of city. 

Locate adjoining streets and state directions in which they extend. 



148 
MAPS. 

a. Of school room. 

b. Of school house. 

c. Of yard, square, district. 

d. Of city. 
NoTK. — While drawing maps, children should face the north when possible. 

Measure sides of room ; compare lengths. 

Draw line representing north side of rooom and mark it, follow with 
the east, then south, then west. 

Review These Points. — While facing north, hold a child^s paper 
against the blackboard on north side of room and draw similar plan on 
board. Drill, and have children continue to draw plans until it is clear 
that north is at the top of the map, south at the bottom, etc. (Thus 
develop map idea). 

FIELD LESSONS. 

Children should be led to see the wonderful beauty around them, to 
acquire facts and form habits of personal investigation. 

The field lesson may be for one or all of three purposes : For plant 
study, for animal study, or for land study. (Always collect specimens 
when possible). 

Collect different kinds of soil. Sand, pebbles: clay or loam are near 
the surface and easily collected. 

Observe characteristics of each. 

Arrangement of soil can be observed by a brook, if banks have been 
worn to any depth. 

Any excavation into the natural soil, as a sewer or a cellar, is a good- 
place for observation. Drawings can be made and samples collected and 
marked as to layers. Find kind of soil near a spring as water leaves hill- 
side. 

Observe how often the gutters fill with debris. 

Observe work of small rills wearing away the soil, carrying fine material 
to low places near the mouth. 

Observe a brook after a rain and watch a stream with its load worn 
from the banks. I^ad children to see where this load is deposited. 
(Small rills everywhere doing the same work). 

In the study of streams, a suitable rill may often be found near the 
school. Trace its course from source to mouth if possible. Observe 
windings ; where it flows most rapidly, most slowly — why ? Direction it 
flows. Bed ; bank. 



149 

Examine the valley — the slopes down which the water runs to form a 
ream. Draw the course of the stream — the profile of the valley. 

What becomes of water after a rain ? 

Lead children to see that after a rain, some of the water evaporates ; 
mch sinks into the ground, and part flows off in streams ; from rills to 
utters, gutters to sewers, sewers to rivers, rivers to lake. 

Trace course of surface drainage in your district — then in the city. 
Vhy does it flow in certain directions ? 

Note the kinds of soil which take up most water ; if one kind takes it 
nore slowly than another, etc. 

Note how frost and worms prepare soil for water to enter. (See Sea 
Side and Way Side, Part II). The depth water sinks ; what stops it ? 

Hill — Summit ; base ; slopes, long, gradual, short, abrupt. Find ranges 
of hills, groups, peaks. 

Read good descriptions ; show pictures. 

Valley — Among hills ; shape ; slopes forming the valleys ; length and 
steepness ; where meet ; compare depth of valley with height of hills. 

Plain — length and breadth. 

References : 
Frye's Brook and Brook Basins. 
Shaler*s First Book in Geology. 
Dana's Geological Story Briefly told. 

Clapp's Observation Lessons on Common Minerals and Rocks. 
Hyatt's About Pebbles. 
Dan^in's The Earth Worm. 

HOME LIFE. 

Homes — materials needed (for building and furnishing). 
Lumber — Transportation. From lumber-yard (distributing center). 
From saw-mill (transformation of lumber). 

From forest (Lumbering. Appearance of forest, life and work of lum- 
bermen). 

Work of each stage shown by use of pictures, if excursion is impossible, 

N(/rE. — The same plan for other materials used in construction, etc., as stone, 
brick, lime and the like. Comparisons should be made throughout with primitive life ; 
also with the construction of homes of the children of other lands. 

Needs of daily life. 

a. Food. 

Bread : Transportation from bakery; from wholesale house, 
from mill. (Work of the mill and work of the farm con- 
sidered briefly). Need of each shown. 



ISO 

Milk : Transportation, milk depot, milk farm. 

Butter : Transportation, store, wholesale house, crearaer)% 

dairy farm. 
Vegetables. 

c. Fuel. 

Wood : Wood-yards, forest. 
Coal : Coal-yards, mines. 

Note. — Same plan should be followed for each topic ; and former methods of 
manufacture should be compared with methods of to-day. 

d. Occupations of different members of the family and their 

relation to each other. 

Note. — All stories of children of other lands are contributions to the study of 
Geography. Children may get a fair knowledge of people, their relations and their 
homes (different zones) in the study of the " Seven Little Sisters," " Each and All," and 
" Big People and Little People of Other Lands." 

Each section with its race of people should be studied from the same plan in the 
mind of the teacher. Given to the children in the most picturesque story form followed 
by much oral and written work. 

The thoughts, concepts, of the children must be realized in actual things; things 
made and done. The clay and sand tables are fruitful means. Construct roads, bridges, 
houses, tents, boats, etc. 

Children should know locality, plant life, animal life, home, food and occupation, 
with reference to themselves ; compare and contrast with others. 

CITY— ROCHESTER. 
I. History. 

Give a picture of the early life of the community — the homes, manner 
of living, industries and resources of the people, the field, the forest, the 
sea, dress, education, religion, government and social life. 

Show that animals, plants and minerals are in general useful to man, 
and that to obtain them man must work. Certain occupations require num- 
bers of people to be gathered together and work in large companies ; thus 
towns and cities are formed. Discover the occupations that led to the 
city's growth ; show the growth to present population as due to resources, 
etc. 

IL lx>CATION. 

1. Position in reference to neighboring towns and cities (this point 

includes distance and direction). 

2. Position in regard to river, lake and bay. 

3. Extent, boundaries, size. 

4. Make a map or plan of original city when possible, and develop 

to present boundaries. 

Note, — The teacher should \ye provided with large map of city before attempting 
to teach it. 



'5' 

III. Physical Features. 

Surface features of the immediate locality. 

1. Highlands and lowlands. 

School and homes in relation to surface, slopes and highlands. 
Slopes followed from school to home ; steepness ; relation of 

traffic to slopes. Length, direction. 
Kxtent, attitude and air of highlands. 
Extent, attitude and air of lowlands. 

Distribution of people in reference to highlands and lowlands. 
Beauty of one in contrast to the other. 

2. Drainage. 

Stream (caused by showers). Its course, its origin, condition, 
and work of water. 

Brook : Work of the brook, its course, width, volume, origin, 
use and relation to the river. 

River : Work of the river, its course, obstructions ; causing 
falls, rapids, lakes, etc., width, volume, origin, use and rela- 
tion to the lake. 

3. Hills: Slopes, steepness, length, varying size and shape, altitude 

and vegetation. 

4. Valleys : Slopes, steepness, length, altitude compared with hills, 

varying size and shape of valleys. 

5. Climatic conditions recorded. 

N(nE. — Have pupUs dwcover the ivhy for each of the al>ove topics. 
IV. ()R(;aNI/ATION. 

I. Productive Occupations. 

Note. — He sure l)efore you leave this subject that each instance of occupation 
j'tudied stands to the child as a type of that occupation. 

a. Agriculture. 

1. (hardening. 

Notice what gardening is, why people make gardens. 
Make a list of the products of the garden, and show 
what becomes of them. 

2. Truck raising. 

Notice how much like gardening this is as regards pro- 
cess — how it differs in purpose. How extensive the 
truck area is : what truck is raised ; what becomes of it. 

3. I'arming. 

Notice that farming is truck raising of a more extensive 
and less intensive sort — that in connection with this 
the farmer raises .stock. 



152 

b. Manufacturing industries. 

Factories — kinds and location, reasons for these? Where is 

raw material obtained ? Where the market for finished 

products ? 
What becomes of all these products ; food products, clothing 

products, wood — kinds and for what purposes used. 

NoTK. — Study a manufacturing establishment first, for what it is; second, in it> 
relation to producers of raw materials; and third, in its relation to the consumer. Fac- 
tory studied should always l)e visited if possible. 

2. COMMKRCIAL OCCUPATIONS. 



Note. — Show the relation of the following to the manufacturer, the agriculturist, 
and the child. 



a. Transportation. 

1. Primitive modes u.sed in the city. 

2. Present modes. 

a. City car line.s — uses, advantages of. extent, kind of 

service, how regulated. 

b. Hack lines, deliver}' wagons, bicycles, country wagons. 

c. Roads and railroad.s — name principal lines and cities 

with which they connect. 

d. Canal and river. 

e. Aids to commerce as harbor, telephones, cables, letter 

service. 

f. Protection to commerce, as lighthouses, life-saving 

stations. 

NuTK. — Kmphasize all the al)Ove as furnishing means of communication l)etween 
distant points and individuals, by l)eing of service in the exchange of commodities and 
as l>eing related to the development of other methods of communication, such as travel- 
ing, letters, telegraph, telephone, etc. 

b. Stores, as markets — furnishing the best opportunities for ex- 

change, barter or trade. 

1. Principal dry goods stores. 

Make a sort of inventory of goods ; show where the 
different articles come from, manner of tiansportation 
and the demand for them. Where do the people 
who buy these things get their purchasing money ^ 
Develop the idea of reciprocity : mutual dependence. 



153 

(Jrocer}' stores. 
Notice home grown products and canned goods and other 
products shipped in. Where do these products come from ? 
Where packed or canned, as the case may be ? How 
shipped, etc. 

The market place, 
'['he things seen there. Give an accurate idea of home grown 
products, and this leads to a study of fanning in the surround- 
ing countr}'. 

Furniture stores. 

Hardware stores. 

Shoe stores. 

Drug stores. 

Jewelry stores. 

Hook stores, etc. 



NoTK. — These should be studied in a similar manner to dry goods and grocery 
j-ioresand in connection with each one studied take some typical manufactory interest. 

c. City or village. 

As being merely a larger market or store with greater opportuni- 
ties in the way of trade. 



3. KdUCATIONAL ANT) ScX.IAI. INSTITUTIONS. 

a. Schools. 

b. Libraries. 

c. Churches. 

d. Social life — opera houses, clubs, charitable organizations, 

industrial societies (our duties as members of a community^). 

e. Letter delivery (Post Office). 

4- Govern MKNT. 

.><)TK.— l^ad pupils to get an idea of government from the rules in games, in the 
''Chooi yard, school room, and in the home. Lead them to discover the purjx)se for 
^nich all such rules are made, for the comfort and happiness of all. 

a. In the home. 

b. In the city, 

'-'t)- offiQials ; duties;. City Hall — uses of. 

1. The Mayor. 

2. The Board of Alderman and other Boards. 
3- Policemen, etc. 



154 
V. Mathematical Observations. 

a. Sun rising and setting ; mcx)n ; stars ; day and night — their vary- 

ing length ; seasons ; their change and order of recurrence, as 
observed in our own city. 

b. Globe lessons. 

c. Maps and mapping. 

The map work should develop clearly in the minds of children 
the following points : 

1. The map idea. 

2. Fixedness of position. 

3. Scale — (necessary to teach the idea of relative size of coun- 

tries and continents). 

4. Symbolism — (coloring cities, rivers, etc. Teach symbols as 

you need them and use symbols as you teach them. After 
a symbol has once been taught, always require the pupils 
to call to mind a picture of objects represented by the 
symbol). 

Note. — In the study of Rochester the historical and physical should be emphasized 
with such of the political as particularly relates to your particular district. 



OUTLINE FOR THE STUDY OF ANY COUNTRY. 

1. Position, (a) In hemisphere, (b) In zones, (c) From conti- 
nents, (d) From oceans. 

Actual Position, (a) Between parallels, (b) Between meridians. 

2. Form. 

1 . Relative. 

2. Actual, (a) As shown by map. (b) Indentations, (c) Pro- 

longations. 

3. Sl/K. 

1. Relative, (a) In relation to other continents, (b) In rela- 

tion to ocean areas. 

2. Actual, (a) Number of square miles, 

4. Rklief, 

1. Primary highlands, (a) Position, (b) Kxtent, (c) Eleva- 

tion. 

2. Secondary highlands. (a) Position. (b) Extent — width. 

(c) Elevation. 



^55 

5- Climate. 

1 . Winds, (a) Over ocean or land, from warm to cold or cold 

to warm latitudes, (b) Prevailing direction; whence it 
came. 

2. Rainfall, (a) Where and why. (b) Where not and why. 

a. Drainage, (a) Rivers, (b) Seas, (c) Lakes. 

b. Vegetable life (zones of). 

c. Animal life (distribution of). 

d. Mineral resources. 

6. The above outlines are conditions of : — (i) Temperature as de- 
pendent upon (a) Latitude, (b) Altitude, (c) Ocean currents, (d) Prox- 
imity to large bodies of water. (2) Rainfall. (3) Character of soil. 

7. Zones of waste as dependent upon : — (i) Lack of moisture. (2) 
Altitude. (3) Latitude. (4) A supply of moisture giving: (a) swamp. 
(b) jungle, (c) eroded lands. 

8. Distribution of population as dep>endent upon possibilities of pro- 
ductive occupation. 

9. Productive occupation as dependent upon : — (i) Resources. (2) 
Supply and demand. (3) Occupation. (4) Commercial advantages. 

10. Development and location of centers of population ; as expressions 
of necessities of the people for : — (a) Collecting stations, (b) For manu- 
facturing stations, (c) Commercial stations, (d) Governmental stations. 

11. Development of commercial and trade routes as dependent upon 
the necessities which a people are under of obtaining the produetions and 
patronage of the other peoples of the world. 



SUGGESTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Carl Ritter's Comparative Geography ; American Book Co. 

Carl Ritt^r\s Geographical Studies ; American Book Co. 

Guyot's Earth and Man ; Charles Scribner's Sons. 

J^eith Johnston's Physical, Historical and Political (Geography ; Stan- 
ford, London. 

^uyot's Physical Geography ; American Book Co. 

^Ppleton's Physical Geography ; American Book Co. 

Eclectic Physical Geography ; American Book Co. 

Houston's Physical Geography ; Elbridge ^: Bro. 

Saury's Physical Geography ; University Publishing Co. 

Maury's Physical Geography of the Sea ; Sandon, Lowell ^: Son ; 
London. 

Reclus' Earth ; Harper & Bro. 
Reclus' Ocean ; Harper iS: Bro. 



156 

Reclus' History of a Mountain ; Haq>er & Bro. 

Stanford's Compendiums of the Continents. 6 vols.; Stanford, London. 

Brown's Countries of the World : Cassell & Co. 

Brown's Peoples of the World ; Cassell & Co. 

Reclus' Earth and Its Inhabitants. 17 vols.; 1). Appleton & Co. 

Europ>e. 5 vols. 

Asia. 4 vols. 

Africa. 4 vols. 

Oceanica. i vol. 

North America. 3 vols. 

South America — being prepared. 

NoTF. — Reclus* is the most exhaustive work on this subject published in English. 
Methods : — 

Parker's How to Study Geography ; Appleton & Co. 

King's Methods and Aids in Geography ; Lee & Shepard. 

Frys's Child and Nature ; (iinn & Co. 

Crocker's Method of Teaching Geography ; Boston School Supply Co. 

(ieikie's Teaching of Geography ; Macmillan & Co. 

Redway's Manual of Geography ; D. C. Heath & Co. 

Trotter's Lessons in the New Geography ; D. C. Heath & Co. 

C. McMurray's A Teacher's Manual of Geography. (Note, Bibliog- 
raphy) ; Macmillan & Co. 

Nichol's Topics in Geography; 1). C. Heath & Co. 

The Journal of Geography. 

Articles in the Encyclopedia Britannica and in the bound volumes o" 
Harper's, Century, Scribner's, and Popular Science Monthly Magazine. 

Ada Van Stone Harris, 
Supervisor of Kindergartens and Primary Schools. 

C. H. (Gilbert, Superintendent of City Schools. 



^57 



OUTLINES FOR THE STUDY OF THE WORLD. 



FOURTH GRADE. 

<^^a) General shape. 

(b) Relative size. 

(c) Relative position of the more importaut countries and continents. 

(d) Life, occupations and exports of the people. 

(e) Our relation to and dependence upon the whole world. 

In treating the above topics, the children should gain a general idea of 
zones with reference to heat and cold of the various continents, of highlands 
md lowlands forming the ** back bone " of lands, of simple physiographic 

processes, of the elements of drainage, of leading cities, and of the relation 

of its parts in direction and di.stance. 

The following are suggestive topics chosen with reference to illustrating 
various phases of life, extremes of life conditions, various methods of trans- 
portation and commerce. Of these, the first only (sealskin) is developed. 

I. Northern Section, North America. 
Sealskin. 
Its u.se. 
Ixx;ation of region from which this product is obtained (direction 

from home). 
Seal fisheries. Method of obtaining. 
Climate. 

Plant and animal life. 
People. 
Home. 

Habits of life. 
Transportation. 

Methods in country. 

Routes to New York. 

(Time required). 

Note all barriers or difficulties in routes of travel. 

Scenery. 
-• 'Southern Section, North America. 

Coffee. 

3- Northern Section, South America, Valley of Amazon. 

India Rubber. 

4- Southern Section, South America. 

Hides and wool. 



iS8 

5. Northern Eurasia. 

Sable. 

6. West Central Europe (Switzerland). 

Cheese. 

7. Southern Europe. France and Spain. 

Wine. 

8. Southeastern Asia. 

Tea. 

9. Central Africa. 

Ivory. 
10. South Africa. 

Diamonds. 

This suggestive outline of articles of commerce belonging to various 
countries is quoted from the topics arranged by Richard E. Dodge, 
Teachers' College Record. 

Ada Van Stone Harris, 

Supervisor Primary and Kindergarten Schools. 

C. B. Gilbert, Superintendent. 
Approved Oct. 20, 1902. 



159 



SUGGESTIVE OUTLINE FOR GEOGRAPHY. 

SIXTH GRADE. 

Around the World from San Francisco. 
Points visited. 

Tokio — call at Philippines enroute. 

Seoul (Korea). Cross Yellow Sea to — 

Peking. 

Tientsin. 

Shanghai. 

Nanking. 

Grand Canal. 

(Compare calm, peaceful, blue Yangtse-Kiang with boisterous, 
mad, and capricious yellow Hoang Ho). 

Hong Kong. 

Bangkok (Siam), (lulf of Siam. 

Singapore. 

Strait of Malacca. 

Calcutta. 

Bay of Bengal. 

(Contrast rivers Ganges and Brahmaputra). 

Colombo. 

Island of Ceylon. 

Bombay (Hindustan). 

Across Arabian Sea, through (lulf of Aden and Strait of Bebel- 

Mandeb, stopping at M 
Mocha. 

Red Sea. 

Suez. 

Isthmus of Suez — Suez Canal. 

Alexandria. 

(Contrast rivers Nile and Niger). 

Constantinople (Turkey). 

Athens (Greece). 

Naples, Italy. 

Rome, Italy. 

Marseilles, (France). 

Barcelona, Spain. 

Malaga, Spain. 

Gibraltar — Strait of Gibraltar. 



i6o 

Across the Atlantic to New York ; or from Rome by land to — 
Venice. 

Berne, Switzerland. 
Vienna, Austria. 
Berlin, Germany. 

Side trip here to Copenhagen, Stockholm, St. Petersburg. 
Brussels, Belgium. 
Paris — Havre. 

London, Edinburg. Glasgow, Dublin. 
New York. 
Study causes producing differences of climate ; its effect in different 
countries upon habits and customs of people and upon industries. 

Each city visited should stand as a type of the countr\\ and should ]yc 
studied under the following points: 

1 . Geographical conditions — favorable to development. 

2. Important industries; whether agriculture, grazing and lumbering, 
manufacturing, mining. 

3. Commerce. 
Manners and customs of people. 
Scenic Centers. 
Historical places of note. 
Notable places in Literature. 
Art of Country. 

Note. — Compare peculiar manners, looks and customs of peoples studied. For 
example: Blacks and Aral)s, Hindus and Malays. C'hinese and Japanese, etc. 

Ada Van Stone Harris, 
Supervi.sor of Kindergartens and Primary Schools. 

('. H. Clli.HRRT, Superintendent. 
Approved Oct. 20, 1902. 



4 

5 
6 

7 
8 



i6i 



SUGGESTIVE OUTLINE FOR COMMERCIAL 

GEOGRAPHY. 

EIGHTH GRADE. 

Introduction. 

1. Physical conditions. 

1. Review of climate, relief, drainage, cost, as regards their 

influence on products, occupations, etc. 

2. Political Divisions. 

States — ^groups of, as determined by physical conditions and 
products. 

II. Products — where found and why. 

1. Agricultural products. 

2. Lumber and other forest products. 

3. Mining products. 

4. Animal products. 

Mats, Leather, etc. 
Furs and skins. 
Fisheries. 

'II. Industries — Location of. 

1 . Agriculture. 

2. Manufactures. (See IV'). 

3. Mining. 

4. Lumbering. 

5. F'ishing. 

6. Commercial pursuits. 

^^' Manufacturing Centers. 

1. For clothing materials; cotton, woolen, silk, leather. 

2. For wood ; building purposes, furniture, etc. (paper pulp). 

3. For food materials ; vegetable, animal, etc. 



^- Commerce. 

1. What is it? 

2. Why needed ? 

3. Means used for carrying it on ? 

4. With what countries ? 



l62 

VI. Principal Seaports. 

I. Why locat^id where they are? 

(a) New York. 

(b) Boston. 

(c) San Francisco. 
Gulf port — New Orleans. 

VII. Small Seaports. 

1 . Why situated as they are ? 

2. Why not so important as those above ? 

3. What has made them? 

(a) Norfolk. 

(b) Savannah. 

(c) Charleston. 

(d) Galveston (gulf). 

(e) Baltimore. 

(f) Portland, Me. 

VIII. Lake Ports. 

I . Why located as they are, and what about their position ir 
them important ? 

(a) Buffalo. 

(b) Cleveland. 

(c) Detroit. 

(d) Duluth. 

(e) Milwaukee. 

(f) Chicago. 

IX. River Ports. 

I . Why located as they are ? 

(a) St. Paul. 

(b) St. Louis. 

(c) Pittsburg. 

(d) Cincinnati, 
(c) Portland, Ore. 

X. Railroad Centers. 

I. Why good ones ? 

(a) Buffalo. 

(b) New York. 

(c) Chicago. 

(d) Omaha. 

(e) 1 )enver. 

(f) Kansas C'ity. 

(g) St. Paul and Minneapolis, 
(h) Detroit and San Francisco. 



163 

XI. Commercial Routes. 

1. Railroad routes from above railroad centers. 

2. Inland water routes. 

(a) On the great Lakes. 

(b) On the Mississippi and its tributaries. 

(c) On the canals. 

(d) On the Atlantic system of rivers. 

(e) On the Pacific system of rivers. 

3. Ocean routes from — 

(a) New York. 

(b) Boston. 

(c) New Orleans. 

(d) San Francisco. 

(e) Other ports. 



MANUAL TRAINING. 

The general plan for Manual Training covers the entire period between 
the kindergarten and the high school. The course is provisional and sub- 
ject to such modifications as our undeveloped plans and the progress and 
growth of the school require. It will be brought into close relationship 
with the other subjects and become an organic part of the child's school 
and home life. 

Primary Grades. 

The children of the first, second, third, and fourth grades, will work in 
such material as clay, cotton warp, string and cloth ; coarse woolen yam : 
reed, raffia, grass, rush, splints, etc. 

No carefully graded course or outline can apply to all conditions, but 
the work in each case must be planned to suit the locality, the grade, and 
the theme, as well as the tools and material available for the work. As in 
all manual training, the work should provide a progression of problems or 
difficulties for the child to overcome which shall keep pace with the ever- 
increasing power of the worker. 

The objects made may be such as are suggested by the subjects devel- 
oped in the regular lesson — arithmetic, reading, history, geography, nature 
study and drawing. The work is to be used as a means of expression and 
to enhance and throw light upon the theme to which it is related. 

When the doing of a particular exercise has become automatic it has in 
a measure reached the limit of its educational value, therefore no exercise 
should be undertaken solely for the purpose of acquiring skill. The things 



164 

made by the children ** should be useful in their school or home lives noWy^^ 
and the work should afford opportunities for growth along lines of se/f- 
expression. 

Suggestive outlines will be prepared for teachers of primary grades 
from time to time. 

Fii-TH AND Sixth Grades. 

In the fifth and sixth grades, the boys and girls will be kept together 
on the same work in the regular class room. When they reach the seventh 
grades they will be separated — the boys entering the Manual Training room 
to undertake bench work, and the girls continuing in the sewing. 

Besides the drawing, each object planned for the sixth grade pupils will 
involve a lesson in sewing as well as exercises in wood work. 

SF.VENTH AND KiGHTH (JraDES. 

The work of the boys in the upper grammar grades is, at first, largely 
imitative ; but as a rule, the teachers' models will be used as examples of 
form, proportion, neatness, and accuracy. In order that the teachers may 
control the work, it has been carefully outlined. Still, the courses are 
sufficiently elastic and susceptible of modification to suit local conditions 
and the needs and capabilities of the pupils. The guiding or controlling 
idea is to stimulate independent thought and the power to originate and 
invent — to make the work creative rather than reproductive. Therefore, 
as early in the course as possible, the teachers will consult individual in- 
terests in the selection of models and lead the worker to modify the piece 
selected to suit his own ideas or needs with reference to form, size, decora- 
tion and material. 

DRAWING. 

FIRST GRADE. 

Seffember to February. 

Mediums : — Water color, crayon, ink with brush, and scissors. 

NoTK. — The objects to l)e drawn, mentioned in these outlines, are given merely as 
types or examples. The teachers are not required or supposed to use them if others 
similar and illustrating the same points are more readily available. 

Color — Conversational lessons on color observations made by the 
children : prism, soap-bubbles, flowers, fruits, vegetables, birds, trees, sky, 
fields, etc. Introduce color-box, giving particular attention to the handling 
of the brush. Have pupils make flat and graded color washes. Teach 
color combinations by mixing, /'. c, red and yellow make orange, etc. Paint 
prismatic colors in proper order. 



i6s 

Nature Work — Paint sky and land illustrating the color effects and 
changes of the seasons. Paint trees with and without foliage, according to 
season. See Nature Study Course. 

Paint fruits and vegetables, noting color and form, flowers, grasses, 
seedpods, grains, autumn leaves, etc. 

Illustrative and Imaginative Drawing and Cutting — Sugges- 
tions from children's home and school experiences, Indian and Eskimo 
life, nature myths, etc. See Course of Study. Winttr sports, Thanksgiv- 
mg and Christmas stories and songs frpm " Graded List of Poems and 
Stories," (Gilbert & Harris), for first year pupils, '* The Busy Bee," " Over 
in the Meadow," " Chicken Song," etc., '* Mother Goose Rhymes,". *' Jack 
be Nimble,"** Little Miss Muffet," etc. 

Pose Drawing — Paint with brush and ink from live model — child in 
motion, jumping rope, rolling hoop, acting Mother Goose Rhymes, etc. 

Animal Life — Duck, chicken, etc. See Nature Study Course. 

Object Drawing and Form Study — Represent objects used in con- 
nection with daily work, and note the type forms on which they are based. 

Type solids made familiar by using for building when suggested in 
daily work — the cone illustrating the Indian tent, the hemisphere, the 
Eskimo hut, etc. See Course of Study. 

Picture Study — Make children familiar with pictures from the best 
artists. Those representing home-life and incidents are advisable; such 
as " Feeding Her Birds," ** Feeding the Hens," " First Steps," etc., by 
Millet, and " Sistine Madonna," and " Madonna of the Chair," etc., by 
Raphael. 

Blackboard Illustrations and Free Drawing of Circles and 
Straight Lines. 

FEBRUARY TO JUNE. 

February. 

" Little by little I'll learn to know 
The stored up wisdom of long ago — 
And one of these days perhaps we*ll see 
The world will be the better for me." 

Illustrate childhood stories related to the lives of Lincoln, Washington, 
Longfellow, etc. 

Represent objects used as illustrative material in daily work. 
Make valentines. 

March. 

" The stormy month has come at last, 

With wind, and cloud, and changing skies — 
I hear the rushing of the blast 

That through the snowy valley flies." 



i66 

Illustrate windy weather. 

Pose drawing from child in action and from animals studied in Nature 
Course. 

Paint squares, oblongs and circles as related to number work. 
Paint bulbs, branches, trees and objects related to work. 

April. 

" * Come little leaves,* sang the wind one day, 
'* * Out on the little brown twigs and play — 
Put on your dresses so green, so fair. 
And flutter and sway in the sunny air.' " 

Illustrate a rainy day, spring occupations and sports. 
Paint flat and graded washes, sprouting bulbs and budding branches, 
objects related to daily work. 

May and June. 

" The butter-cups are coming — the scarlet columbine, 
And in the sunny meadows the dandelions shine ; 
Here blows the warm red clover — there peeps the violet blue ; 
Oh, happy little children, God made them all for you.'' 

Review oral color-lessons from September outline. 
Paint spring flowers, simple sky and land effects, and the American 
flag as related to Decoration Day and to Flag Day. 

SECOND GRADE. 



Skftember to February. 



Mediums — Water color, crayon, ink with brush, pencil and scissors. 

Note — The objects to be drawn, mentioned in these outlines are given merely as 
types or examples. The teachers are not required or supposed to use them if others 
similar illustrating the same points are more readily available. 

Color — Lead pupils to talk about what they have learned in the pre- 
vious grade about color ; and what they have observed out-of.doors, in 
flelds, flowers, trees, sky, etc. Teach standards, tints and shades. Paint 
graded washes illustrating standards and tints. 

Nature Work — Paint simple landscapes illustrating color effects and 
changes of the seasons. Paint trees with and without foliage, according to 
season, giving particular attention to color and form of mass, and to branch- 
ing. See Nature Study Course. 



167 

Paint fruits and vegetables, noting color and form, flowers, grasses, 
seedpods, grains, autumn leaves, etc. 

Illustrative and Imaginative Drawing and Cutting — Incidents 
from child's home and school life, the occupations of the early settlers, 
nature myths, etc. See Course of Study. Winter sports, Thanksgiving 
and Christmas stories and songs from " Graded List of Poems and Stories " 
(Gilbert & Harris) for Second year pupils, '* The Spider and the Fly," 
'^Rabbit Song," " Seven Times One,'' etc. 

Pose Drawing — Paint from live model, with Srush and ink, child in 
motion, throwing ball, running, walking, etc. Animals — Cat, rabbit, etc. 
See Nature Study for Second Grade. 

Object Drawing and Form Study — Type solids made familiar by 
using for building when suggested in daily work ; for example, cone and 
square pyramid, illustrating the Tent Dweller's home, etc. Represent ob- 
jects used in daily work as illustrative material, noting the type forms on 
which they are based. See Course of Study. 

Picture Study — Make children familiar with pictures from the best 
artists. Those representing occupations or the supply of wants are advis- 
able, such as Gleaners, Sheperdess, Woman Churning, etc., by Millet, 
Mowers, by Dupre, Village Blacksmith by Herring, etc. 

Blackboard Illustrations and Free Drawing ok Circles, 
Straight Lines and Lcx)ps. 



FEBRUARY TO JUNE. 
February. 

*' Lives of great men all remind us 
We can make our lives sublime. 
And departing leave behind us 
Footprints on the sand of time." 
Illustrate incidents of bravery of the great men whose birthdays occur 
during this month. 

Represent objects connected with daily lessons, working from the object 
in every case. 

Make valentines. 

March. 

** 'J'he wind one morning sprang up from sleep. 
Saying, * Now for a frolic ! Now for a leap ! 
Now for a madcap galloping chase ! 
I'll make commotion in every place.' " 
Illustrate March weather. 
Pose drawing from animal life and from child posed in action. 



1 68 

Represent objects connected with daily work, — articles related to t lie 
home life of Greeks, Romans, Saxons, etc. 

Lay borders with sticks or tablets and represent on paper, using prop^^^ 
coloring, from the Greeks, Romans, etc. 

Represent on paper, using proper coloring, from the Greeks, Roman 2:^' 
etc. 

Paint bulbs, bare branches and trees. 

April. 

" Look at this little piece of green 
That peeps out from the snow, 
As if it wanted to be seen ; 
'Twill soon be Spring, I know. 
Paint sprouting bulbs and budding branches, growing plants, umbrella* 
open and shut, rubbers and objects related to daily work. 
Pose child with umbrella. 
Illustrate a rainy day, spring occupations and sport. 

May and Junk. 

'* (jolden butter-cups lean above. 

And daisies white, with hearts of gold. 
Golden lily buds nod their love. 

And the golden sunshine all doth enfold." 
Paint sky and land effects, budding branches, spring flowers, trees ix 
foliage (See Nature Study Course), the American flag as related to l)ecor?« 
tion Day and to Flag Day, objects related to daily work. 
Review oral color lessons from September outline. 
Co-operative blackboard drawing. 

THIRD GRADE. 
Skptember to February. 

Mediums — Water color, crayon, ink with brush, pencil and scissors. 

CouoR — Review knowledge of color gained by pupils in preceding 
grades. By comparison make pupils perfectly familiar with standards, tints 
and shades. Test pupils' ability by use of color chart and paint box. Paint 
graded washes and stained glass effects, allowing colors to blend in brush 
or on moist paper. 

Nature Work — Paint simple landscapes from out-of-door observations, 
noting color effects and changes characteristic of the seasons. Paint trees 
with and without foliage, according to season, noting color and form of 



169 

mass and branching. See Nature Study Course. Paint fruits and veget- 
ables, noting coloj and form, flowers, grasses, seed pods, autumn branches, 
berries and vines. 

Illustrative and Imaginative Drawing and Cutting — Incidents 
from the child's home and school life and the family life of the early settlers. 
See Course of Study. Winter sports, Thanksgiving and Christmas Stories, 
successive pictures represented in poems and stories selected from " Graded 
List of Poems and Stories '' (Gilbert & Harris), for Third year pupils, — for 
example, in The Village Blacksmith, Little Gustave, The Wise Fairy, 
**Whitter's Corn Song," etc. 

Pose Drawing — Represent with brush and ink Child posed in action, 
sweeping floor, helping mother, etc, Animals — Cat, dog, rabbit, etc. See 
Nature Study Course. 

Object Drawing and Form Study — Represent objects used in daily 
work as illustrative material, noting the type forms on which they are based. 

Use type solids for building whenever suggested by daily work. 

Picture Study — Make children familiar with pictures from the best 
artists. Those showing incidents of community life are advisable, such as 
Primary School in Brittany, Children at Work by Geoffroy, Pilgrims Going 
to Church by Bough ton, etc. 

Blackboard Illustrations and Free Drawing of Circles, Loops, 
Reversed Curves and Straight Lines. 



FEBRUARY TO JUNE. 
P'ebruarv. 

'' It is not growing like a tree 

In bulk, doth make man better be, — 
In small proportions we just beauty see, — 
And in short measure life may perfect be." 

Illustrate stories of braver)^ related to the National holidays that occur 
during this month. 

Draw from objects related to daily work. 
Make valentines. 

March. 

" March nodded to winter, * Good bye, CJood bye I 
Off to your home in the north you must hie ; 
Oh, have you forgotten, that under the snow. 

The wee seeds are waiting, yes, waiting to grow ? ' " 

Illustrate March weather, stories associated with Rochester, New York, 
etc. See Course of Study. 



Pose drawing from children in action, and from animals studied i 
Nature Course. 

Draw objects related to daily work — such as the articles of use and orna. - 
ment found with the early settlers of New York State, etc. 

Paint bulbs, bare branches and trees. 

Paint circles, squares, oblongs, triangles, etc. 

April. 

" * Come out little leaves,* says the sunshine bright, 
' Let the trees be seen in their coats of green ;' 
' Come out little leaves,* says the sunshine bright, 
And end your long cold winter night.'* 
Paint sprouting bulbs and budding branches, growing plants, etc. 
Draw objects related to spring occupations. 
Paint borders for some definite purpose. 
Illustrate rainy weather. 
Draw horizontal and vertical lines, studying good spacing. 

May and June. 

*' Golden sunshine, silver rain, 
Each its work is doing, — 
Birds and bees and blossoms fair, — 
Now the world renewing." 
Paint Spring landscape, budding branches, spring flowers, trees in 
foliage. See Nature Study Course. 

Review oral color lessons from September outline. 
Co-operative blackboard work. 

FOURTH GRADE. 
September to February. 

pRANc; Drawing Book No. i. 

Note. — Pupils must not copy from printed drawings in lx>ok. The drawing> 
are to be studied for the rendering. 

Mediums : — Water color, ink with brush, pencil. 

Color and Nature Work — Review standards, tints and shades, and 
teach intennediate hues, using color charts. (Jive exercises in color blend- 
ing in brush or on moist paper. For example : stained glass effects, Japa- 
nese lanterns, autumn leaves and landscapes. 



171 

Paint flowers, fruits, vegetables, trees, etc. Make out-of-door sketches, 
looting color changes. 

Decoration — Creative work from nature or historic ornament — units, 
borders, etc. Line and landscape composition. 

Illustrate Drawing — Thanksgiving and Christmas poems and stories 
from the " Graded List of Poems and Stories " for fourth year pupils. 
Illustrate daily work with brush and ink, color, and on blackboard. 

Pose Drawing — Lead pupils to make quick sketches of characters 
studied in connection with daily work. Use brush and ink, or color. 

Object Drawing — Represent beautiful and familiar objects, giving 
special attention to grouping and rendering. 

Picture Study — Make pupils familiar with works of art by acknow- 
ledged masters ; such as. Horse Fair, On Guard, etc., by Rosa Bonheur ; 
Dignity and Impudence, My Dog, etc., by Landseer. History pictures such 
as The Return of the Mayflower, Pilgrims Going to Church, etc., by Bough- 
ton. 



February to June. 

Prang Drawing Book No. 2. 

Object Drawing — Represent objects based on the sphere, hemisphere, 
cylinder and cone, separately and in groups. 

Pose Drawing — Work from live models. 

Animal, Bird or Insect Siudies — Work from live models, leading 
pupils to make quick sketches and to realize that a few lines are all that 
are needed to give truth and beauty of form. 

Development — Developed surfaces of the cube, square, prism, and the 
right-angled triangular prism. 

Decoration — Borders, quatrefoil and rosette. 

Color — Review standards, tints and shades, and teach intermediate 
^ues, using color charts ; teach contrasted harmony. 

Nature Work — Paint spring landscapes, budding twigs, growing 
plants, flowers, etc. 

Illustrate daily lessons with ink; color or chalk. 

Encourage co-operative blackboard work. 

Picture Study — As suggested in first term's outline. 



172 
FIFTH GRADE. 

September to February. 

Pranc; Drawing Book No. 3. 

Mediums : — Water color, ipk with brush, pencil. 

Color and Nature Work — Review standards, tints, shades, interme- 
diate hues, and teach broken colors, using color charts. Give exercises in 
color-blending in the brush or on moist paper ; for example, paint stained 
glass effects, Japanese lanterns, autumn leaves and landscapes. 

Lead children to make out-of-door observations ; to notice color effects 
in sky, earth and foliage ; then dictate simple landscapes, such as sky, land, 
hill, tree. Paint flowers, fruits, vegetables, tree, etc., and make out-of-door 
sketches. 

Decoration — Creative work from nature or historic ornament, units 
and borders. Line and landscape composition. 

Pose Drawing — Lead pupils to make quick sketches of characters 
studied in connection with daily work — histor)\ geography, literature, etc. 
Use brush and ink, or color. 

Illustrate daily work with ink or color. 

Object Drawing — Represent beautiful and familiar objects, giving 
special attention to grouping and rendering. 

Picture Study — Make pupils familiar with works of art by acknow- 
ledged masters ; for example. The Shepherdess, Arrival of the Shepherds, 
etc., by Lerolle ; The White Cow, At the Watering Trough, etc., by Dupre : 
The Angelus, The Gleaners, etc., by Millet. 

Encourage Blackboard Illustration. 

February to June. 

PRANCr Drawin(; Book No. 4. 

Object Drawinc; — Represent objects based on the sphere, hemisphere, 
cylinder, cube and square prism, giving special attention to unity, variety, 
and relation in grouping. 

Animal, Bird or Insect Studies — Work from live models, leading 
pupils to make quick sketches with few lines. See Nature Study Course. 

Pose Drawinc; — Represent some particular action or character. See 
History Course. 

Development — Pattern or developed surface of the equilateral-triangu- 
lar prism. 

Decoration — Design unit,'border and rosette from Historic Ornament, 
or from Nature. 



173 

Design a simple book-cover for a composition on Greek ornament. 

Color — Review standards, tints, shades and intermediate hues, and 
teach broken colors, using color charts. Teach dominant harmony and 
apply to book cover. 

Nature Work — Paint landscapes suggesting distance and foreground, 
and illustrating nature's changes in color. 

Paint budding branches, opening buds and spring flowers. 

Illustrate daily lessons with pencil, brush or chalk. 

Encourage blackboard work. 

Picture Study as suggested in first term's outline. 



SIXTH GRADE. 
September to February. 

Prang Drawin(; Book No. 5. 

Mediums. — Water color, ink with brush, pencil. 

Color and Nature Work — Review standards, tints, shades, inter- 
mediate hues, broken color, and teach warm and cool colors, using color 
charts. 

Give exercises in color-blending in the brush or on moist paper; for 
example, paint stained glass effects, Japanese lanterns, autumn leaves, land- 
scapes, etc. 

Lead pupils to make out-of-door observations, to notice color effects in 
sky, earth, and foliage ; then dictate simple landscapes, such as sky, land, 
distant foliage, tree in foreground, etc. Paint flowers, fruits, vegetables, 
trees, sp>ecifying kind of tree. 

Decoration — Creative work from nature or historic ornament, units, 
and borders. Line and landscape compxDsition. 

Pose Drawing — Lead pupils to make quick sketches of characters 
studied in connection with daily work, history, geography, literature. Use 
brush and ink or color. 

Illustrate daily work with ink and color. 

' Object Drawing — Represent beautiful and familiar objects, giving 
special attention to grouping, rendering, and composition. 

Picture Study — Make pupils familiar with works of art by acknowl- 
edged masters ; for example, Returning to the Fann, Oxen Going to Labor, 
etc., by Troyon ; Song of the Lark, End of Labor, The Gleaners, by Hreton, 
etc. Encourage blackboard illustration. 



174 
February to June. 

Prang Drawing Book No. 6. 

Object Drawing : — Represent objects based on the cylinder, vase- 
form, square, pyramid, cube, and square prism, giving special attention to 
good grouping and good rendering. 

Pose Drawing — Represent some particular action or character. See 
History Course. 

Development — Developed surface of the hexagonal prism. 

Decoration — Design unit, surface covering and border; motive from 
nature. Flower composition. 

Color — Review standards, tints, shades, intermediate hues, broken 
colors, and teach warm and cool colors, using color charts. Teach analagous 
harmony, and apply to a decorative design. 

Nature Work — Paint openings buds, spring flowers, and landscapes 
showing distance, foreground tree, etc. 

Illustrate daily lessons with pencil, brush, or chalk. 

Picture Study, as suggested in first term's outline. 

SEVENTH GRADE. 
Sepi'ember to February. 

Pranc; Drawing Book No. 7. 

Mediums — Water color, ink with brush, pencil. 

Color and Nature W'ork — Review standards, tints, shades, inter- 
mediate hues, broken colors, warm and cool colors, and teach active and 
passive or non-colors. Use color charts. 

(live stained-glass exercises for the purpose of color blending in brush 
or on moist paper. Lead pupils to make out-of-door observations and 
sketches from nature, noting color effects and changes in autumn skies, 
fields, and foliage. Dictate landscapes, such as sky, land, mass of foliage 
against sky, tree in foreground, pond of water, etc. Paint flowers, fruits, 
vegetables, etc. 

Decoration — Creative work for some definite purpose, using Nature or 
Historic Ornament as source of material. Landscape Composition. 

Pose Drawinc; — Lead pupils to make quick sketches of characters 
studied in connection with daily work, from history, geography, literature, 
etc., pencil, ink or color. 

Illustrate daily work with ink or color. 



175 

Object Drawing — Represent beautiful and familiar objects, giving 
special attention to grouping, rendering, and composition. 

Picture Study — Make pupils familiar with works of art from acknowl- 
edged masters ; for example. Landscape, Dance of the Nymphs, etc., by 
Corot ; The Madonnas, by Raphael, etc. 

« 

February to June. 

Prang Drawing Book No. 8. 

Object Drawing — Represent objects based on the various type forms; 
all of which should be familiar to the pupils of this grade. Teach rendering 
in light and dark and in light and shade. 

Pose Drawing — Quick sketches from pupils representing particular 
characters, and from animals suggested in Nature Study Course. 

Decoration — Creative work from Historic Ornament and from Nature, 
liower composition, initial letters, and book-covers. 

Picture Study, as suggested in outline for first term. 

Color — Review oral color lessons from September outline, and teach 
active and passive colors, using color charts. Teach complimentary har- 
mony, leading pupils to see that in this harmony tints of a color with shades 
of its complimentary, produce the most pleasing effects ; and that the best 
complimentary harmonies contain one or more passive colors. Apply any 
of the four harmonies taught to a book-cover to be used for a written com- 
f>osttion on Greek Ornament. 

Nature Work — Paint opening buds, spring flowers, trees in foliage, 
and spring landscapes suggesting distance, foreground, trees, water, etc. 

Illustrate daily lessons with pencil or brush. 

EIGHTH GRADE. 
Ski^tember to February. 

Pran(; Drawing Book No. 9. 

Mediums: — Water-color, ink with brush, pencil. 

Color and Nature Work — Review standards, tints, shades, scale, 
intermediate hues, broken colors, cool and wann colors, active and passive, 
or non-colors. Use color charts. 

Give exercises for color blending in brush or on moist paper, such as 
stained glass effects, etc. Exercises in graded washes and flat tints. Lead 
pupils to make out-of-door observations and sketches from nature, noting 



176 

the color effects and changes in autumn skies, fields, and foliage ; dictatd 
landscape, sky, land, mass of foliage against sky, tree in foreground, then a 
little more detail, a picture showing path, roadway, or river disappearing in 
the distance. Paint flowers, fruits, vegetables, trees, etc. Always specify 
kind of tree. See Nature Course. 

Decoration — Creative work for some definite purpose, using nature or 
historic ornament as source of material, units, borders, etc. 

Pose Drawinc; — Lead pupils to make quick sketches of characters 
studied in connection with daily work, history, literature, etc. Use ink or 
color. 

Illustrate daily work with ink or color. 

Object Drawin(; — Represent beautiful and familiar objects, giving 
sf>ecial attention to grouping, rendering, and composition. 

Picture Study — Make pupils familiar with works of art from acknowl- 
edged masters, such as Raphael's Madonnas, Hoffmon's Christ in the 
Temple, Murillo's St. Anthony and Child, etc. The pupils of this grade 
should have a fair knowledge of our best American artists, Sargent, 
La Farge, Whistler, Blashficld, and others of note. See the World's 
Painters by Hoyt and Drawing Manual for this grade. 



Fkhruarv to June. 

Pranc; Drawinc; Book No. 10. 

Object Drawinc. — Represent objects separately and in groups, showing 
light and shade and light and dark. 

Pose Drawinc, — Quick sketches from animals suggested in Nature 
Study Course. 

Decoration — Creative work from Historic Ornament or from Nature, 
flower composition, book-covers, stained-glass windows or grills. 

Pk:ture Study, as suggested in outline for first term. 

C^:)LOR — Review oral color lessons from September outline. Review 
the four harmonies taught — contrasted, dominant, analagous, and compli- 
mentary ; and apply any one of them to a book-cover to be used for a 
written composition on Romanesque Style of Ornament. 

Nature Work — Paint spring flowers and landscapes suggesting dis- 
tance, middle distance, and foreground, by introducing trees, water, fences, 
or a road. 

Illustrate daily lessons with pencil or brush. 



177 
MUSIC. 

The music work having^ been so recently introduced into the schools of 

Rochester, no very definite grade lines can be drawn. Simple sight-reading 

work is a problem in the eighth and ninth grades, as well as in the third 

and fourth. Therefore, the course of study must change greatly each year, 

as the work advances, and the pupils come into each grade prepared to do 

more advanced work than was done in that same grade the previous year. 

First (iHAOK. 

Material — Modern Primer in the hands of the teacher; supplementary 
rote songs. Time given to music in primary grades, fifty minutes per week. 

I. Rcn'K So.\c;s — Presentation of song. Sing song for children. Tell 
the stor)' of the song, explain difficult words and meanings. Have children 
repeat words. Careful enunciation. Sing song a few times each day, pupils 
listening. Then sing one phrase several times. Children listen and imitate. 
Teacher must not sing with the children, and when singing for them imitate 
the soft light tone of the child voice. 

II. VoiCK Care — Prevent use of chest tone by soft light singing. Urge 
children to sing with " tip>-toe tone," and sing ** on their lips." Vocalize 
songs /r^'^//<f////r with *' who " or *' loo '* and '* o." Follow this with words, 
insisting on round mouth on all words which permit it. Seat monotones in 
front of room. Have them listen frequently and give them special attention 
in ear-training work. 

ill. Far-trainin(; — Kmphasize sense of pitch, high and low, loud and 
^^ft. Lead children to notice different tones, qualities of different instru- 
nients, with what kind of voices they speak and sing. Guessing games — 
distinguishing different pupils' voices, the sound of taps on different sub- 
stances, when blindtolded. 

IV. Kn\THM Work — When rhythmic movements accompany songs, 
teacher sing while pupils give movements, or part of the pupils sing while 
others take movements. 

Second Crade. 

Matkrial : — Primer in hands of teacher. Supplementary rote songs. 

I. Rote Sonc.s — Presentation outlined in first grade work. 

II. Voice Care — Breathing exercises. Vocalizing with *' who," "loo," 
"o'and "la." Begin scale on upper Do, and ahvays use soft light tone. 

ni. Presentation of Siiale — Write the words expressing qualities of 
tone after each syllable. Sing to the children and appeal to the ear. I>et 
^^"^ discriminate and give as many descriptive words as possible. After 






178 

they have listened and discriminated, family names may be given. These 
help to establish and fix the tones by association. Teach do, me, sol, do. 
Use modulator and hand signs. 

IV. Ear-train INC. — Establish sense of key-note in songs. Find the 
dohs, mehs, and sols in songs. Teacher sing simple progressions with la, 
pupils repeat with syllables. Sing simple rote songs with scale names. 
Tap songs for rhythm drill. 

Third and Fourth Grades. 

Material: — First half-year. Primer in hands of teacher. Second half- 
year. Primer in pupils' hands. Supplementary rote songs. 

I. Rote Soncjs — Presented as in first year's work. 

II. Voice Care — Breathing exercises. Humming exercises. Sing scale 
from upper do down. Use '* who," *' loo.'' ** o," and " la," frequently for 
both scales and songs. 

III. Observation Work from Son(;.s — Develop two-pulse measure 
from Tick-Tack Song. Three-pulse measure from Dancing Song. Pupils, 
swing, tap, and sketch both kinds of measure. Learn to recognize measure 
in diflferent songs sung. Phrase work in two-pulse measure, modulator, 
phrase cards, and blackboard. Three-pulse measure, after two-pulse is well 
established. Develop pxDwer to think tones and think in phrases. Phrase 
work from rote songs. 

IV. Staff Work — Write '* work songs " on staff to be sung with 
syllables. Make various alterations, sing by syllable. Write on staff 
phrases from various songs which have been learned by rote. Intervals 
always developed from songs. 

La.st half of year, book work as given in regular outlines. 

Firm AND Sixth Grades. 

Material : — First Book, Modem Course. Supplementary rote songs. 
Time given to music in grammar grades, sixty minutes per week. 

I. Rote Songs — Enough songs to stimulate interest and keep alive 
artistic side of work. 

II. Breathin(; AND Tone Exercises. 

HI. Observation Work from Songs. 

IV. Ear-traininc. — Develop power to recognize simple melody fonns 
and two-puLse and three-pulse measure. 

V. Music CoFV-BooK Work — Presentation of staff. Pitch names. 
Scale building. Written work from dictation and ear. 

VI. Exercises to Develop Power to Think Tones and Think in 
Phrases. 



179 

VII. ScALK Exercises for Time Drill. 

V'lII. Melody Forms on Board for each Key Used. 

IX. Sight Readinc; Work in Books as given in Re(;ular Music 
Outlines. 

Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth Grades. 
Material: Book II, Modern Series. 

Supplementary Rote Son(;s. 

I. Rote Songs — A few rote songs to stimulate interest and keep 
alive the artistic side of the work. 

II. Breathing and Tone Exercises. 

III. Observation Work from Songs. 

Time — Time Signatures. Kinds of Notes, Rests, etc. 

IV. Develop Power to Think Tones and Think in Phrases. 
C«) Ear Traininc;.* {b) Phra.se Work from Board and Modulator. 

V. Work in Music Copy-Books from Dictation and Ear. 

VI. Preparation for Two-Part Work — Rounds, Canons, Two- 
Part, pointing on board or modulator. 

VII. Melody from Drill in Nine Keys used. Book work to be 
carried on with each key drill. 

VIII. Chromatic Scale — As a tune. Pointed slowly on modulator 
or staff. Drill on sharp four. Exercises for chromatic tones (regular 
njusic outlines). 

IX. Development of Minor Mode — Simple form of minor scale from 
"Sea Horses," page io8, Book II. Harmonic form from **The Gnome," 
P^e 135. Melodic form from ** The Brownie," page 165. Sight Reading 
" ork in Book II will be designated in regular music outlines. 

RizPAH R. deLaittre, 
Supervisor of Music. 



i8o 



COURSE OF STUDY. 



SEWING. 



In the arts of weaving and sewing, some work has been done in the 
kindergarten and primary grades. The children should study materials 
that they use in their work, trace these materials from their sources, and 
learn something of the process of their manufacture and transportation. 

The textile industry should form part of the basis of the course of study 
for the purpose of gaining greater thoroughness in the work. 

The work should include needlework, spinning, dyeing, making a loomi 
weaving, study of the materials used, flax, hemp, wool, cotton, silk, and the 
process of cloth manufacture by primitive methods, visits to shops and in- 
dustrial plants. 

The children should spin enough to give an understanding of the process 
and what it costs. Weave enough to give a thorough knowledge of materi- 
als of good and poor work, and a clear idea of the mechanical processes 
involved — something of color, something of design. 

After doing some work themselves, they will be interested in the way it 
gomes about that we have these texile fabrics. 

So the study of clothing becomes a part of history. See Course of 
Study. 

Sixth Gradk. 

Sewing, wood-work and sewing combined. 

The children will begin their year's work by making articles useful for 
the school or their homes ; perhaps looking forward to Christmas gifts. 

1. Canvas mat. 

2. Needle book; canvas cover for same. 

3. Lamp for corner shelf. 

4. Pen-wiper, on easel. 

5. Catch-all. 

6. Sewing on buttons. 

(This list is subject to change : other articles may be substituted and 

others added). 

Materials Used:- -Canvas, wool, mer. cotton, flannel, duck, felt, cotton. 

Buttons — I' se small model if necessar}' ; applied lesson preferred. 

Then children should be held responsible for keeping the buttons on their 

clothing. 



i8i 

Basting — Even and uneven. 
Stitching — Overhanding. 
Outline stitch — Catch stitch, blanket stitch. 

Talks. — Weaving — Principles explained ; culture of cotton and manu- 
facture of cloth and thread. ' See Course of Study. 
Applied Design — Christmas work. See list. 

Seventh Grade. 

As in the sixth grade, children will begin by making useful articles for 
school and home. 

1 . Canvas Bag — Basting, overcasting, stitching, cross-stitch, catch stitch, 
outline stitch, hemming, hemstitch, buttonhole stitch. 

Apply : 

2. Hem — Turn hem on paper, hem and tape towels, hem handkerchiefs, 
pillow-cases, etc. (Pupils bring work from home). 

3. Teach French hem, linen marking, napkin, table-cloth, etc. 
Apply : 

4. Bag — Allow pupil to select size, shape, material and purpose of this. 
Some may desire hand-bags, others laundr)' bags, etc. 

Pupils of this grade make bean bags used in the school. 

5. Button-hole making — Principles explained, practice few on small 
model, apply as soon as possible. 

Apply : 

6. Teach — (Jathering, placing gathers, band. 

Materials : — Cream-colored canvas, half-bleached cotton, toweling, 
damask, felt, coarse linen, crochet cotton (red), white cotton, marking 
cotton. 

Apply at once : 

7. Seams — Over-handing, folded and selvedge edges. 

** Running, combinaton, half-back stitching. 

8. Teach — Sewing on lace beading. 
Drafting — Draft, cut, underwaist ( paper first). 

*' (Slow pupils) — Draft, cut and make gingham case, 

(garment making — Apron, bib, seamless corset cover, etc. 

Ei(;hth Grade. 

Pupils in this grade will be expected to apply all stitches taught in 
other grades. 

I. Seams — Review seams taught in seventh grade. 

I. French seam. 2. French fell. 3. Straightway fell. 4. Bias 
fell. Allow pupils to bring work from home. 



l82 

Apply : 

2. Variety of Stitches — Outline, cross, blanket, catch, chain, feather 
stich, button-hole stitch, hemstitch. Any or all as soon as possible. 

Apply : 
Pillows — Holders, book covers, needle book, pin ball, bands for shirt 
waists, etc. 

See list — Applied design, Christmas work. 
** Suggested work. 

3. Patching. 

I. Hempatch. 2. Overhand. Have pupils bring work from home 
some article that needs patching to apply the foregoing. 

Apply: 

4. Flannel Seam. 

Fell. 
** Patch, Apply as soon a possible. 

5. Darning. 

1. Stocking darning. Pupils bring stockings from home for appli- 
cation of above. 

6. Button-holes — Buttons — Making; principles explained. Apply as 
soon as possible, 

7. Sewing an tape, hooks and eyes, making blind loops, eyelets. 

Do not use small models unless very necessary : have pupil bring some- 
thing from home that will embody the above. 

Materials Used : — Half-bleached cotton, ticking, denim, duck, canvas, 
coarse linen, silk, gingham, muslin, Hannels, etc. 

Talks.— Study of texile and lesson from raw material to fabric. Talks 
about seasonable clothing of people, adaptation to particular needs. 

Use of cotton, silk, wool and linen garments. 

Comparison of these fabrics. 

Recognition of silk, wool, cotton and linen fibers in raw state : cotton 
plant, flax plant and seeds, silk cocoon, worm and eggs. (Nature Study. 
See Course of Study). 

Simple descriptions and pictures of the cultivation and manufacture of 
the fibers and fabrics. 

Pupils in this grade should be able to apply any stitch or principle that 
has been taught. 

DkAniNd— Drafting Patterns — (Garments to be made later. Oarment 
making. Pupils to furnish material for any garment — full size — or for a 
full set of underwear, or any article of utility or decoration that embodies 



1 83 

incipies taught during instruction. These subjects to be entirely the 
rsire or origination of the pupil who selects size, shape, material, method 
decoration and subsequent use. 

Machine Stitch — Long seams on machine. 

(See list of suggested work — Hemstitching, Applied Design and ('hrist- 
as work). 



Su(;<;kstki) Work. 



Aprons. - 



Hac.s. 



Plain. 

Fancy. 

Children. 
L Adult. 
< Button. 

Bean. 

C'ollar and Cuff. 

Laundry. 

Marble. 

Pencil. 

Dust cloth. 

School. 

Sewing. 

Sachet. 

Thimble Part}*. 

Work. 

Wet sponge. 
Hibs. 

Buttons sewed on. 
Bed Linen. 
Book Covers. 
Cap — Sweeping — 
Handkerchief and 
(Circular. 
Cooking Aprons, 
('ushions. 



Collars, Cuffs. 

Curtains — Sash. 

Corset Covers. 

I )u.sters. 

Doll's Clothes. 

Darning (stocking). 

Flannel (stitches applied). 

Handkerchief — hem, hemstitched, lace. 

Holders (for hot dishes). 

Napkins — hem, hemstitched. 

iM ending. 

Needle Cases. 

Pincushion. 

Pillowcases. 

Patching. 

Quilt.s — (whole or part). 

Strings — (apron and cap). 

Spread — table. 

Stocking darning. 

Sewing on lace. 

Sewing Sets. 

Skirts. 

Towels — (hem, tape, mark). 

Waists. 

Wash-cloths. 



Apri.iKh Dt>;i(;\. 



^ foliar, Cufis, Center Pieces, Doilies, Bands for Shirt Waist.s, Dresser 
'Scarfs, Pin-balls, Book Covers, Needle Book, Pillow Covers, Table Spread, 
^^'der, Tray Cloth. 



i84 

Hemstitching. 

Aprons, Handkerchiefs, Collars, Cuffs, Ties, Towels, Napkins, Tabl- 
cloth, Dresser Scarfs, Square Coarse Linen, Tray Cloth, Ruffles. Sil 
Scarfs, Pillow Cases, Sheets. 

Christmas Work. 

Making of tarleton candy bags to hang on tree. 

Dolls clothes, etc. (See above lists^. 

November and December may be devoted to Christmas gifts. 

Emma E. Wallace. 



i8S 

ROCHESTER HIGH SCHOOL. 

COURSES OF STUDY OUTLINKI). 



CLASSICAL. LATIN— GKR.MAN. ' LATIN— SCIENTIFIC. GERMAN— SCIENTIFIC. 

I 
* I 

Latin 5 Latin 5' Latin 5 German 

Algebra 5 Algebra 6 Algebra 5 Algebra 5 

i'r^ English 6 English 5 English 5 English 5 

:*v< Physiology \ ,^. .^^ - Physiology { .. ,^^ k English History, Isi sem. ..5 English History, 1st sem. ..5 

:f2>miBotony M^» ««" '^anciBotanv M'** ^^^ ^Physiology > .!. ^^ rPhysiology |?,' ^ . 

: *> English History. 2d sem ... .5 English History, 'id sem.. . .5 and Bouny I ^ ^"^ ^ and Botany ) ^ «»" ^ 

Kleni. Drawing. 2d sem 5 Elem. Drawing, 2d sem f> Elem. L>rawing. 1st sem 5 Elem. Drawing, 1st sem. . . .6 

^ (ireek 6 German 5 Ztxilogy 4 Zoblog>' 4 

:2K Cxsar 6 C«sar 5 Cusar 5 (German 5 

.'«<; (ieometry ft (icomclry 5 (Geometry ft (Jeometry ft 

UJa English 4 English 4 English 4 English 4 

• il> 



Adv. iJrawing • 3 Adv. Drawing 3 Adv. Drawing 3 Adv. Drawing 



Greek ft (German ft Chemistry 5 Chemistry 5 

Cicero 5 Cicero ft Cicero ft (ierman 5 

English 4 English 4 English 4 English 4 

Ancient and ^ l.t sem ) Elocution 2 Elocution 2 Elocution 2 

t-v Greek History 1 '[ 6 Ancient and )., ^ ) And one of the following : Ancient and ( i.. ..„, ) 

:^^ Roman - 2d sem. ) (;reek History f *** '^"^' \ 6 Ancient and K , ^^„ ) (ireck History ) "^ *^"^- J 5 

S J j; Elocution 2 Roman " 2d sem. ) Greek History f ^'^^ *^™' j ft Roman " 2d sem. ) 

- «> or Roman " 2d .sem.. ) or 

French 5 or French 5 

French ft 



or 
(ierman ft 



(ircek ft (rerman 5 Physics ft Physics ft 

Virgil 5 Virgil 5 Virgil ft (ierman ft 

Engli.sh 4 English 4 Engli.sh ft English 4 

And (me of the following : And one of the following : And one of the following : And one of the following : 
- Algebra, review, 1st sem.. | Algebra, review, 1st sem.. ) Algebra, review, l.st sem.. ) r Algebra, review, 1st sem.. \ ^ 
til^ Geometr\*, " 2d .sem.. J" Geometry, " 2d sem.. » ^ Geometry, " 2d sem.. ) Geometry, '* 2d sem.. ) 

•"x^ Advanced Mathematics 5 Advanced Mathematics ft Advanced Mathematics ft Advanceti Mathematics » 

<^-ji Physics (see note) 6 Physics (see note) ft French 5 French ^ 

: C> French ft French ft (ierman ft Economics, 1st sem I 5 

'•*' German 6 Economics, 1st sem ) g Civics, 2d sem 1 

Arith. review, 1st sem ) _ Civics, 2d sem I 

I ) Vocal Music. 2d sem | * Ai 



Arith. review. 1st sem ) Vocal Music. 2d sem | Arith. review, 1st .sem. . . • I 5 

Arith. review, l.st.sem. 
Vocal .Music, 2d sem. 



V»Kral Music. 2d sem I ^» Arith. review, l.st .sem I _ Vocal Music, 2d sem S 



REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION.— Graduates of Grammar schools in the 
city of Rochester are admitted without exammation on the recommendation of the Gram- 
mar School Principal. All other pupils must pass an entrance examination or present a 
Regents' Prehminar)' Certificate and a pass-card in elementary U. S. History. 

The tuition for non-residents is 520 per semester (540 per year). payal)Ie October 1 
and March i. 

Pupils who intend to enter college, a normal school, or the Normal Training School, 
should consult the Principal as to their course of study. 

REQUIREMENT FOR GRADUATION.— The sati.sfactory completion of one 
of the above courses of study. 



i86 
First Year. 

REguiREi): — Irving's Skelch-Book (selections), Scott's The Lady of the 
Lake and Ivanhoe; Tennyson's Gareth and Lynette ; Julius Caesar. 

Optional : (Note — It is expected that a few of the following selections 
will be read in class, and as many as possible of the rest will be read at 
home, and a report made on them either to the class or to the teacher.) 
Palmer's Odyssey ; Old English Ballads ; Scott's Marmion ; Macaulay's 
Lay's of Ancient Rome ; Browning, three narrative poems ; Selections from 
Holmes, the Broomstick Train, etc. : Midsummer-Night's Dream, Coriolanus, 
Henry V. : Franklin's Autobiography ; Selections from Plutarch ; Lincoln's 
Speeches ; The Vicar of Wakefield : The Last of the Mohicans ; The Tails- 
man ; Bracebridge Hall : Mill on the Floss ; David Copperfield ; Selec- 
tions from Burns. 

Second \'ear. 

KEguiREi) : — Silhs Marner; The Rime of the Ancient Mariner; The 
Vision of Sir Launfal ; The Idylls of the King — The Coming of Arthur, 
Lancelot and Elaine, Geraint and Enid, The Holy Grail, The Passing of 
Arthur ; As Vou Like It ; Selections from Bums. 

Oi'TioNAL : — Bryant's Iliad : Selections from Wright's (Jreek Master- 
pieces — Plato's C'rito, Phaedo, and Republic: Selections from Warner, 
Burroughs, and Thoreau : Byron's Prisoner of Chillon ; Goldsmith's De- 
serted Village ; (iray's Eleg}' : Bryant's Thanatopsis ; Ruskin's Sesame and 
Lilies; Hawthorn's Twice- Told Tales ; Dickens Christmas Carol ; Black- 
more 's Lorna Doone ; Dickens' Tale of Two Cities; Selections from Poe's 
Poems; Shakespeare's Richard II, Richard HI, The Tempest. 

J'hiri) Veak. 

Re(jijikei> : - The Merchant of X'enicc ; Irving's Life of Goldsmith: 
Milton's L'AUegro and II Penseroso ; Carlyle's Essay on Bums; Arnold's 
Sohrab and Rustum : Wordsworth's Ode on lminortalit)% Tinturn Abbey, 
Minor Poem's : Webster's Bunker Hill Orations. 

( )i'ri()NAi. : Dante's Divine Comedy: Longfellows's and Norton's 
Translations: Don Quixote: Lowell's Biglow Papers and Fable for Critics; 
Carlyle's Heroes and Hero-Worship ; Mitchell's Reveries of a Bachelor: 
Lamb's Essays: Hawthorne's House of vSeven Gables; Thackeray's Vir- 
ginians : Pope's Rape of the Lock and F>ssay on Criticism : Emerscm's 
Essay on ('ompensation ; Hacon's Essays: Twelfth Night, Romeo and 
Juliet, Henry \'lll: Milton's Paradise Lost: Demosthenes de ('oaona : 
Selections from (Jreek Historians. 



i87 
Fourth Year. 

Required : — Burke's Speech on Conciliation ; Macbeth ; Milton's 
CZomusand Lycidas, and Sonnets ; Macaulay's ?lssay on Milton ; Selections 
from Johnson ; Macaulay's Essay on Johnson. 

Optional ; — Sophocles' Antigone, Plumptre's Translation ; Aeschylus' 
F^romethus Bound ; Beowulf, Hall's Translation ; Chaucer's Prologue, 
night's Tale, and Nun's Priest's Tale; Spenser's Faerie Queen; Hamlet, 
ingLear; Henry IV ; Selections from Dryden ; Milton's Areopagitica ; 
Addison's Sir Roger de Coverly Papers ; Macaulay's Essay on Addison ; 
Selections from Shelley and Keats ; Tennyson's Princess ; Henry Esmond ; 
^omola ; Washington's Farewell Address to the People ; Webster's Reply 
to Hayne. 

LATIN. 

First Vear — Drill on forms and simple rules of syntax. Acquisition 
of a correct pronunciation and a sufficient vocabulary to begin the 
heading of Cajsar. Daily exercises in translating and in simple prose 
composition. 

Second Year — Ca^ear's Gallic War, books 1-4; daily exercise in 
prose comf>osition and a thorough review of forms of syntax. 

Third Year — Cicero's Orations, including the four against Catiline ; 
^or Archias and the Manilian Law ; also selections from Cicero's Letters or 
^""om other orations. Daily exercises in prose composition. 

Fourth Year — Virgil's Aeneid, books 1-6; selections from Ovid's 
Metamorphoses. Drill in prose composition. 

GREEK. 

First Year — The inflections and fundamental rules of syntax. Daily 
tixercises in translating simple sentences from (Jreek into English and 
Knglish into Greek. 'I'ranslation of the first eight chapters of tTie Anabasis 
in a simplified form. 

Second Year — The Anabasis, books 1-4, with a thorough review of 
inflections ; development of syntax ; daily exercise in prose composition. 

Third Year — Homer's Iliad — the equivalent of six books : selections 
from Attic prose writers ; drill in prose composition. 

FIRST YEAR GERMAN. 
(Grammar. 

(a) Drill in pronunciation in all oral work; general rules for the 
quantity of vowels, the sounds of the modified vowels, the diphthongs, con- 
^^ental digraphs and trigraphs. 



i88 

(b) Simple rules for the accentuation of foreign words and the use of 
capital letters. 

(c) Declension of the articles, pronominal and possessive adjectives. 
The strong and weak declensions of nouns and the memorizing of nouns in 
common use under these declensions. 

Declension of the adjective and of the pronouns, personal, relative, 
demonstrative, interrogative and indefinite. 

(d) Comparison of the adjective and the adverb. 

(e) The conjugation of the auxiliary verbs of tense and some of the 
simpler fonns and uses of the modal auxiliaries. 

The formation of the principal parts of strong and weak verbs. Conju- 
gation, chiefly in the indicative mode of strong verbs and the memorizing 
by means of sentence work of those verbs under both classes that are in 
common use. 

(f) The prepositions in common use. 

(g) The elementary rules of syntax and word order including the normal, 
inverted and transposed position of the verb. 

(h) The conditional mode and the simpler uses of the subjunctive. 

Constant grammatical drill by means of exercises designed to fix in the 
mind the forms and principles studied. 

The reading of from i oo to 115 pages of graduated texts in a reader. 

Memorizing and oral repetition of colloquial sentences and composition 
and conversation based upon the sentences memorized and the texts read. 



SECOND YEAR GERMAN. 

Careful review of the grammar studied the first year, with more thorough 
drill on the forms and conjugation of strong verbs, the modal auxiliaries, 
separable and inseparable, mixed and irregular verbs and the passive voice. 

The use of the infinitive. 

Further study of the subjunctive mode. 

The most important adverbial and subordinate conjunctions and their 
influence upon word order. 

Dependent clauses. 

Additional rules in word order. 

The use of the cases. The memorizing of the more common verbs 
governing the dative and genitive cases. 

Derivation of nouns and adjectives ; composition of nouns and ad- 
jectives. 

Translation into Geaman of easy English paraphrases of the texts read. 

Conversation based upon the reading and the exercises memorized. 



1 89 

The reading of from 125 to 150 pages of literature in the form of short 
stories, such as Zschokke's ** Der zerbrochene Krug ;" Strom's ** Im- 
mensee;" Gerstacker's '* Germelshausen," etc. 

THIRD YEAR GERMAN. 

Aim of Course — The aim of the course in the third year of German is 
to meet, with as large a margin as possible, the requirements indicated in 
the Report of the Committee of Twelve of the Modem Language Associa- 
tion under the head of ** Intermediate German " and in the Harvard and 
Cornell catalogues under the head of '* Advanced German." 

Character and Scope ok the Work. 

1. Grammar — Thorough review, by topics of elementary grammar, 
followed by a cursory study of more advanced grammar, the chief features 
of which are mastered later, gradually in the reading and composition. 

2. Reading — The pace is adapted to the preparation and average 
ability of the pupils. From 500 to 700 pages of classical and contemporary 
prose and poetry, at least one half of which is taken from the works of 
Lesser, Schiller and (Jcethe, are read and translated by the pupils. Routine 
class translation is avoided as much as possible. For purposes of control, 
other expedients are resorted to, namely : The pupils' word that the lesson 
has been carefully prepared ; class translation of difficult constructions ; 
questions as to the meaning of difficult passages, unusual words and words 
with unusual meanings ; and above all, two written tests every month, 
sometimes the same for all pupils, sometimes ditTerent for every pupil. 

Thus about one-half of the hour can be devoted to other phases of 
linguistic training. Almost as much German is read at sight, or read as 
German, without translating, as is assigned daily. No distinction is made 
in written tests between work prepared as an assigned lesson and work 
translated at sight, since whatever ground is covered at sight must be re- 
viewed as part of the next day's lesson. 

3. Composition and Translation of Connected Kncjlish — Careful, 
written translations of themes and paraphrases based on the texts read, 
prepared, with notes and grammar references, and mimiographed by the 
teacher, equivalent in amount to one-tenth the number of pages read in 
German. These translations are the basis for the grammatical work of the 
course. They are discussed. in class, corrected and graded by the teacher 
and returned to the pupils for further study, as part of the next day's 
preparation. This work then takes the form of a complete story, or an 
outline of the events of a play, which the pupils must be able to reproduce 
freely. 

4. Conversation — Limited practice is offered in conversation, but 
German is not the language of the class room. At times short talks are 



given by the teacher in Gennan on subjects connected more or less closely 
with the texts read, namely : On German literature, history, customs, etc. 

5. Written Translation — When a text has been finished, a certain 
number of pages, usually eight or twelve, are assigned to every pupil to be 
carefully translated in writing. These translations are criticized by the 
teacher from two points of view : • fidelity to the German thought and the 
English idiom. They are corrected and graded by the teacher and re- 
turned to the pupils for inspection and discussion. 

Texts. 

First Term — Joynes Meissner's Grammar, complete. 
Stem's Gerschichten von Deutschen Stadten, pp 9-286 text. 

Schiller's Das Lied von der Glocke, pp i 15 text. 

Second Term — Readings from works of Lessing, Schiller and Gcethe. 

FRENCH, TWO YEARS. 

Aim and Methoi> — The aim of the two years course in PYench is 
to meet the entrance requirements for elementary French in any American 
college or university. 

In reality a great deal more is accomplished by a close correlation of 
the different phases of instruction. 

1. Grammar — The essentials of the grammar, as indicated in the 
eatalogues of the leading eastern universities and in the Report of the Com- 
mittee of Twelve of the Modern Language Association, are mastered, the 
principal irregular verbs are learned, a large, well digested vocabulary of 
words and sentences is acquired, and 30 to 40 pages of French are read 
and translated by the end of the first semester of the first year. 

2. Reading — In the second semester 200 to 300 pages are read and 
translated, with constant drill on form and syntax. In the second year 400 
to 500 quodecimo pages of contemporary prose by different authors are 
read and translated, partly as prepared work and partly at sight. 

3. Composition — The translation of themes and paraphrases, both 
orally and in writing, begins with the second term of the first year and is 
continued throughout the second year. It is believed that this is the best 
method of acquiring a connected vocabulary and of mastering the principles 
of French syntax. The amount of the work thus translated is equivalent to 
one-tenth the number of pages of French read. 

4. Pronunciation — Drill on pronunciation is continued throughout 
the course with scrupulous attention to the little faults which are so often 
neglected after the first few weeks of drill. The ear is trained by frequent 
dictation and translation at hearing. 

5. Wriiten Translations — When a test has been finished it is trans- 
lated in writing by the pupils, a certain number of pages being assigned to 



i9» 

each pupil. These translations are criticised by the teacher from two 
points of view : fidelity to the French thought and English idiom. The 
translations, carefully corrected and graded by the teacher, are returned to 
the pupil for inspection and discussion. 

TEXT BOOKS— FRENCH. 

First Year. 

Fraser andSquair's French Grammar. 
Kuhn's French Reading for Beginners, pp. 3-196, text. 
Easy French Stories, Williamson, Papot, pp. 15-139, text. (In part at 
least. ) 

Second Year. 

P'raser and Squair's French Grammar. 
Dumas' La Tulipe Noir, pp. 5-156, text. 
Labiche and Martin's Voyage de M. Perrichon, pp. 3-81; text. 
Colin Contes et Saynetes, pp. 1-35, text. 
Daudet, Selected Stories, pp. 19-126, text. 

Erckman-Chatrian, Madame Therese, pp. 250 (or something in place of 
it of about the same number of pages). 

ENGLISH HISTORY. 

The time allowed for English History in the Rochester High School is 
twenty weeks. 

Within that time the history of the English people, from the first appear- 
ance of man upon the island down to the present day, is studied, special 
attention being paid to the social and constitutional development. An 
attempt is made at the same time to keep in touch with European develop- 
ment on the continent. 

Special topic work is given in which the pupils are required to use out- 
side reference books. 

Some time is also spent in the work of drawing and filling in maps, 
illustrating territorial changes, war campaigns, and commercial growth. 

Written and oral reviews are held every two or three weeks ; and during 
the last month a general review is taken up in connection with each 
advanced lesson. 

Each pupil keeps a note-book for summaries, illustrations, and news- 
paper clippings. 

The text-book used is "The Leading Facts of English History," by 
D. H. Montgomery. 



192 
ANCIENT HISTORY. 

The first semester's work consists of several weeks' study of the Eastern 
Nations, as introductory to the study of Greece, and the remainder of the 
time is devoted to the latter nation. 

We have the aid of wall maps and such works for collateral reading as 
our school library or home collections afford. 

Each pupil prepares a note-book in which is placed maps, plans, quota- 
tions, articles obtained from papers and periodicals, pictures, tables, sub- 
jects summarized, and written work in general. 

The work of the second semester carries us through the story of Rome 
and the Middle Ages to 800 a. d. The same plan being pursued as during 
the first term. 

The aim is to give the pupils the simpler conceptions common to all his- 
tory, to teach them to form conclusions from the work done, and to trace the 
progress of the world's civilization. 

ECONOMICS. 

The work in political economy consists largely of free discussions in the 
class-room of those topics that are subjects of living interest to the world 
about us. A text-book (Eaughlin's Elements of Political Economy) is gone 
through systematically, the pupils being guided in their study of each chap- 
ter by a topical analysis furnished by the teacher. (Certain topics, like 
Division of Labor, Banks, Clearing Houses, etc., are assigned to particular 
pupils to look up by personal observation and report to the class. Books 
of a popular economic character, like Bellamy's *' Looking Backward ; *' 
•' Equality; " Howell's "Traveller from Alturia ; " (Jeorge's *• Progress and 
Poverty,'' are given to certain pupils to read and review before the class. 
The aim of the instructor is to develop the power of clear and logical 
thinking on economic subjects. With this in view, slight stress is put on 
•'what the book says," but always the question is, " What do you think? '' 
and *' Do you think that is right ? ** 

CIVICS. 

The method in the civics is similar to that in economics, viz., free dis- 
cussion with the appeal to reason, the common sense of the pupils, and the 
acknowledged principles of right. The text-book has been Fiske's " Civil 
(lOvernment in the l-'nited States." Pnnciples of government rather than 
catalogues of officials and their salaries are kept in mind. Present-day 
problems of City (Government, Party Organization, Boss Rule, Woman 
Suffrage, etc., are discussed fully. Political topics from the newspapers are 
taken up in the class-room, and chapters in Bryce's ''American Common- 



193 

wealth,** and special features of the City Charter are assigned to individ- 
uals for individual study and report. The aim chiefly is to impress on the 
minds of the pupils the importance of right thinking and acting in political 
affairs, and to give them a few leading principles that are most needed, 
especially at the present time, to guide American citizens. 

MATHEMATICS. 

The mathematical curriculum of the High School has been gradually 
extended within the past four years. This expansion is due to the ever 
increasing demands of the colleges. Ultimately, the course lies in the 
phenomenal progress of human knowledge. This remarkable growth, 
within the past fifty years, of the exact sciences especially, is constantly 
reacting upon the secondary schools, calling for a proportionally better 
preparation on the part of the high school graduates. The high school 
cannot, of course, train specialists, and even in the mathematical work the 
general ideal of mind-training completely overbalances all commercial con- 
siderations. At the same time, advantages of the latter kind are not under- 
estimated, and practical problems are introduced in order to lead students 
to an immediate realization of the power derived from their studies. 

The maximum time requirement, which formerly was two and a half 
years, has therefore been extended to three years. The elementary work, 
comprising Elementary Algebra and Plane Geometry, is compulsory, and 
occupies the first two years. After a pause of an entire year, the opportu- 
nity is given to review and enlarge the knowledge of mathematics previously 
gained. It may be possible, eventually, to establish a mathematical cur- 
riculum of four years, enabling a student to pursue mathematical studies 
uninterruptedly. This would only place matematics on a footing of equality 
with the languages, for instance. 

The following is a synopsis of the three mathematical courses given at 
present. 

First Year. 

1. The Elementary Course, Required of all. 

a. Elementary Algebra, In general, the course is identical in 
scope with the one outlined in the Regents' syllabus. The young 
student is made familiar with the fundamental operations. Many 
problems of average difficulty are solved. 

Second Year. 

b. Plane Geometry, The meaning of a geometric proof is 
gradually explained. To rouse the creative faculties, original 
exercises are given almost at the very beginning. Each new 



194 

proposition is attacked with all the instruments at the disposal of 
the student. " Mental diagrams '' are often used, especially for 
review purposes. 

Fourth Year — First Semester. 

II. The Rmtiv Courses. Open to Seniors. 

a. Arithmetic, This course is intended primarily for members 
of the teachers' preparatory class. The subject is developed 
more systematically and is treated from a more advanced p)oint of 
view. 

b. Algebra. The first elements are thoroughly reviewed, not 
merely repeated. Constant emphasis is laid on the logic of the 
subject, the various topics are extended and correlated, more 
scientific developments are given, interpretation of the formulas is 
insisted upon, more difficult problems are analyzed, and as much 
drill work as possible is given. Besides, to make the transition 
from high school to college less abrupt, the course includes an 
elementary discussion of ratio and proportion, variation, the pro- 
gressions, the binominal theorem, logarithms, and graphs. 

Second Semester. 

c. Geometry. The work of the second year is then reviewed 
in practically the same way. Independent demonstrations are 
called for. Many original problems are solved, ** Mental Dia- 
grams " are frequently substituted. The various methods of 
attacking geometrical exercises are carefully considered. To 
satisfy the requirements of some colleges, the course also treats of 
the first elements of Solid Geometr}- (as much of Solid Geometry- 
as is contained in " Book VI." of the ordinary^ text-books). 

III. The Advafueil Course. Open to Seniors. 

A class in advanced matliematics was originated three years ago to meet 
the maximum entrance requirements of such institutions as Cornell. Only 
the most talented members of the Senior Class are encouraged to join this 
class. As it was found necessary to review the elementary' work in a 
manner parallel to that of the review classes, but more rapidly, before 
touching the advanced topics, the original intentions of those directing the 
course have not yet been realized, but are being approximated more nearly 
each year. As now given the course includes : 



195 
First Semester. 

1. A review of Elementary Algebra. 

2. Advanced Algebra (maxima and minima of quadratic func 
tions, ratio and proportion, variation, the pregressions, the binomi- 
nal theorem, logarithms, choice and chance, graphs, theory of 
equations, theory of numbers, etc.) 

Second Semester. 

3. A review of Plane Geometry. 

4. Plane Geometry. 

5. A rapid survey of Solid Geometr}'. 



PHYSIOLOGY. 

The course in Physiology comprises a daily recitation of forty-five 
minutes for a period of twenty weeks. 

The present equipment includes 15 B. & L. microscopes with double 
nose-pieces fitted with ^3 and J^ objectives ; dissecting microscopes ; 36 
dissecting sets; a skeleton, skull, separate vertebra;, femur (longitudinal 
and cross sections), Azoux models of the heart, larnyx, eye ; plaster 
inodels of the brain, ear, skin ; a three-foot Azoux manikin ; food and diet 
charts and anatomical charts ; microscopic slides. 

The class begins with a microscopic study of the cell, using such 
"Material as is available — spirogyra, elodea canadensis, amoeba, etc., and 
pass thence to a brief study of the various tissues. The skeleton, muscles, 
skin and its products, the various organs and processes are exhaustively 
'itudied with reference to structure, function and hygiene, including the 
effects of stimulants and narcotics. 

The course is designed to give students a practical elementary know- 
ledge of the human body. Special emphasis is laid upon hygiene, and 
i^tudents are encouraged to apply the knowledge gained. It is sought to 
'nipart an intelligent understanding of the ordinances of the Board of 
Health, the necessity for these, and thus to secure the co-operation of future 
citizens in their enforcement. 

The educational value of the study of physiology- is realized in the tram- 
^H of students in scientific habits of thought. At ever)- step they trace the 
^elation between cause and effect, the adaptation of means to end. 

I'he students examine and make drawings of cells, tissues and organs ; 
*nte accounts of experiments performed by them or by the teacher in their 
presence. The work is collected and bound in special note-book covers. 
and accepted if every sheet has been stamf)ed approved by the teacK^x . 



196 

Lessons for home study are assigned in a printed outline of the subject 
prepared by the teachers. Every student is provided with a copy of the 
outline. Blaisdell's Practical Physiology is the text-book used. 

Thus far no laboratory manual has been used, the teachers planning 
such laboratory work as could be done. With the opening of the new 
High School, however, we look forward to larger opportunities in this field. 
We hope to base our study on laboratory work and to make the text-book 
supplementary-. While we shall continue to make the subject as practical 
as possible, with better facilities we can achieve better results educationally. 

Students are always more interested in what they do themselves than in 
what they see done, and the lessons learned from self-performed experiments 
are far more impressive. The conclusions formed and the inferences 
derived become veritable discoveries, while the value of habits of accuracy 
in work can hardly be over-estimated. 

A well chosen library for collateral reading will be available in the new 
school. 

ZOOLOGY. 

The course in zoology is required of all second year scientific students. 
it is a year's course and includes weekly, two laboratory periods of ninety 
minutes each, and two recitation periods of forty-five minutes each. 

In the laborator}' each desk is equipped with a dissecting microscope, a 
dissecting pan and a case of instruments, including a scapel, two adjustable 
needles, two forceps and a pair of scissors. One compound microscope is 
provided for every two pupils. With this equipment each student is en- 
abled to do individual laboratory' work on the structure of the typical forms 
of both invertebrates and vertebrates. Material is furnished by the school 
except in the case of the insects. These the students are required to collect 
for themselves. All laboratory work is done under the super\nsion of the 
teacher. Notes of work done are kept by the pupils. These notes include 
carefully lettered drawings and a written description of each animal studied. 
The objects of the descriptions are : first, to supplement the drawings ; and 
second, to assist pupils to whom a good drawing is almost an impossibility. 
Where it is convenient, the natural history of the animals is studied in the 
laborator)' by means of aquaria, observation hives, ants nests, and breeding 
cages for butterflies and moths, etc. Students are also encouraged to make 
personal observations on the habits, in the fields and woods, especially of 
birds and insects. When time and weather permit, occasional excursions 
are made under the direction of the instructor. 

Some time is spent in the laboratory on experiments in the embr^'olog}' 
of the frog, and the growth and development of insects. 

In all the work that is done, especial emphasis is laid on, (1) accuracy 
of observation, (2) neatness in recording results, (^3) a logical drawing of 
conclusions from the the accumulated facts. 



CHEMISTRY. 

Place in Curriculum. — This subject is required in the third year of 
all courses except the classical, and is an alternative with physics in the 
third or fourth year of the classical course. 

Time. — It occurs five times per week for forty weeks. An average of 
2J4 periods per week is given to recitations, and 4j^ periods per week to 
laboratory work. Periods are 42 Y^ minutes each. 

Text Book and Recitations. — The text book used is Remsen's In- 
troduction to Chemistry. The year's work covers this text with the exception 
of a few pages on *' Corrections in Measuring the Volume of Gases," and a 
part of the topic " Compounds of Carbon." These topics will also be given 
as soon as laboratory facilities and equipment permit. 

Manual. — The laboratory manual is by the same author. It gives 
about 205 experiments, exclusive of qualitative analysis. Of this number 
1 00 are required of the pupil, and some qualitative analysis is given near 
the close of the year. 

Note Books. — A special uniform note book, 8x11, is kept by the 
pupil, and the notes are written in the laboratory at the time of experi- 
menting. 

Extra Work. — It should be noted that considerably more time than 
is indicated above is devoted to laboratory wo.rk, as pupils voluntarily 
devote time beyond the assigned periods. 

PHYSICS. 

The subject of Physics covers one full year of seven periods per week ; 
three of which are given to demonstrations, recitation and quiz. Lessons 
are assigned by topics, and an effort is made to have experimental work 
follow the demonstration and recitation. 

Two consecutive periods, twice per week, are spent in the laboratory, 
and each pupil is required to complete at least forty experiments, largely 
quantitative in character, recording the results in a suitable note book which 
IS not taken from the laboratory without permission from the instructor. 
TTie experimental work is followed by a quiz upon the text book and labora- 
tory work. 



198 



ROCHESTER NORMAL TRAINING SCHOOL. 



The Rochester Nonnal Training School was organized in September, 
1898, for the professional training of teachers in accordance with Chapter 
1 03 1 of the Laws of 1895, which says : 

'* The Board of Education, or the public school authorities of any city, 
employing a Superintendent of Schools, may establish, maintain, direct and 
control one or more schools for the professional instruction and training of 
teachers in the principles of education and in the method of instruction for 
not less than thirty-eight weeks of each school year." 

The school is located on Scio Street, near Main St., East, and can be 
easily reached by any of the trolley lines passing out Main St., East. The 
school has a teachers' professional library of over 700 volumes which is for 
the exclusive use of students. The students also have the benefit of a 
gymnasium fully equipped with all necessary apparatus where instruction in 
physical culture is given daily. 

A practice school of nearly 1000 pupils affords opportunit}^ for pupil 
teachers not only to teach but also to obser\'e model teaching. A corps of 
professionally trained critic teachers have supervision of the practice teach- 
ing. For students who take the Kindergarten course, a large kindergarten 
in the practice school under the direction of an experienced directress and 
critic affords opportunity for observation work and practice teaching. 

A course of lectures by professional educators is provided each winter 
by the Board of Education without expense to the students of the Normal 
School. 

The tuition is free and the course of study covers a period of two years. 
At the completion of the course the student receives in addition to the 
diploma issued by the Board of Education, a New York State Training 
School certificate, or if they graduate from the Kindergarten Department, a 
New York State Training School Kindergarten certificate issued by the State 
Department of Public Instruction, which entitles the holder to teach in any 
public school or kindergarten in the state of New York for a period of three 
years, and is renewable without examination for periods of ten years each, 
thus being equivalent to a life certificate. These certificates are accepted 
in many of the other states without submitting the holder to further examin- 
ation. 



In accordance with a ruling made by the Hon. Charles R. Skinner, State 
S\i|>erintendent of Public Instruction, students who graduate from either 
course in this school, may by remaining a third year receive both certificates 
^p>on passing satisfactory examination in only such subjects as they did not 
pursue during their original course. 

In the appointment of teachers to positions in the Rochester schools, 
other things being equal, preference will be given to the graduates of the 
Normal Training School. 

At the close of each semester, the Department of Public Instruction 
furnishes a special examination in the several subjects prescribed in the 
course of study or in such of them as the State Superintendent may deter- 
mine, which examination is included as a part of the work required in the 
approved course of study. These examinations begin on the Wednesday 
after the third Tuesday of January, and on the Wednesday after the second 
Tuesday of June, and continue three days. The name of every member 
taking the examination must appear in the report of the examination. Mem- 
bers must attain a standing of at least 75% in each prescribed subject and 
complete the course within two years. 

The program of examination is as follows : Wednesday forenoon — His- 
tory of Education, Nature Study, Physiology and Hygiene. Wednesday 
afternoon — School Management, Methods in History and Civics. Thursday 
forenoon — Methods in Mathematics. Thursday afternoon — Methods in 
Language, Composition and Grammar; Methods in Reading, Phonics and 
Orthography. Friday forenoon — Methods in Geography, Psychology and 
Pimciples of Education. Friday afternoon — Methods in Drawing. 

Members of training schools who attain a standing of 75% in the several 
subjects of the course will reeeive a New York State Training School certifi- 
cate upon the certification of the city superintendent that the candidate has 
shown sufficient skill in teaching to warrant his receiving such certificate, 
^at he is a person of good moral character, and worthy to be employed in 
^e schools of the state. 

Training School certificates are valid for three years and are renewable 
tbereafter for ten-year periods if the holder has had a successful experience 
of at least two years under the certificate. 

A kindergarten certificate entitles the holder to teach in a kindergarten 
only. A violation of this regulation will be deemed sufficient cause for the 
revocation of the certificate. 

These certificates are issued for a period of three years. Upon expira- 
tion they are renewable for ten-year periods if the holder has had a successful 
experience of at least two years under the certificate. 

The exainination for kindergarten certificates are held on the Wednes- 
^y after the third Tuesday of January, and on the W^ednesday after the 
second Tuesday of June, and continue two and one-half days. 



200 

Candidate must obtain a minimum standing of 75% in the following 
subjects : History of Education, School Management, Special Kindergarten 
Methods, Primary Methods, Psychology. 

Candidates may combine the standing earned in four consecutive exam- 
inations. 



QUALIFICATIONS FOR ADMISSION. 

In addition to the physical examination required by the Board of Edu- 
cation for admission to the Normal Training School, the regulations of the 
State Department of Public Instruction are that, — Candidates must be at 
least seventeen years of age at the time of entrance. They must subscribe 
to the following declaration : *' We, the subscribers, hereby declare that our 
object in asking admission to the training school is to prepare ourselves for 
teaching ; and that it is our purpose to engage in teaching in the public 
schools of the state of New York, at the completion of such preparation." 
They must hold diplomas issued by the State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction certifying to graduation from approved high schools or academies 
or certificates issued by the same authority certifying to the completion of 
an approved course of study in an institution of equal or higher rank as 
provided under the law. In addition thereto they must pass an examination 
conducted under the direction of the City Superintendent of Schools. 

Candidates from other states, in order to qualify for entrance to the 
training school, shall present credentials of graduation from a high school 
or an institution of equal or higher rank having a course of study at least 
equivalent to the high school course of study prescribed as a basis for en- 
trance to training schools in this state. Such credentials shall be forwarded 
to the State Superintendent for approval. 

Before admission the principal of the training school must require each 
candidate to present an approved school diploma or a certificate issued by 
the State Sup)erintendent. No person shall be admitted to the ^class later 
than the second Monday following its organization. 

The requirements for admission to the Kindergarten Department of the 
school are the same as for admission to the Normal Department. Graduates 
from this department receive in addition to the diploma of graduation issued 
by the Board of Education, a New York State Training School Kindergarten 
certificate, the highest grade of kindergarten license issued by the state. 



COURSE OF STUDY. 

The following is an outline of the Course of Study as pursued in the 
Normal Training School. 



20I 



NORMAL TRAINING SCHOOL. 



GENERAL COURSE— JUNIOR YEAR 



First Semester. 

Period. 

100. Psychology and Child Study. 

( Drawing, 60. 

( Manual Training, 40. 

Physical Training, daily, 50 minutes. 

100. Primary Methods and Kindergarten. 

( Literature, 60. 
{ Art, 40. 

Second Seme.ster. 

100. Applied Psychology and Pedagogy. 

f Music, 60. 
\ Drawing, 40. 

Physical Training, daily, 45 minutes. 

< Reading and Literature. 60. | ^^^^^ 
{ Language and Grammar, 40. \ 

, Mathematics — Methods, 40. 

100. ^ ^ 



•1 



Nature Study, 60. 



SENIOR YEAR. 

First Semester. 

Period. 

100. History and Science of Education. 

( Nature Study (Methods), 50. 
* ( Geography (Methods), 50. 

Physical Training, daily, 50 minutes. 

100 i Methods in History and Civics, 50. 

' ( Methods in Physiology and Hygiene, 50. 

,00 i Sociology, 60. 
( Music, 40. 

Teaching, daily. 

Second Semester. 

Teaching and Critic Meetings. 



202 



KINDERGARTEN COURSE. 



JUNIOR YEAR. 



First Semester. 
Same as General Course. 

Second Semester. 



Period. 
lOO 



■{ 



lOO. 



lOO. 



Music, 40. 

Nature Study, 60. 

Physical Training, daily, 50 minutes. 

100. Theory of Kindergarten. 

j Reading and Literature (Methods), 60. 
( Language and Grammar (Methods), 40. 

100. Observation and Discussion. 

SENIOR YEAR. 
First Semester. 

Period. 

1 00. History and Science of Education. 

Physical Training, daily, 50 minutes. 

f Nature Study, 50. 
\ Mother Play, 50. 
100. Education of Man — Kindergarten Theory. 

100. Teaching. 

Second Semester. 

100. Literature. 

100. Program Work. 

100. Mother Play. 

100. Teaching. 

Physical Training, daily, 50 minutes. 

The term " Period '* is used to indicate a recitation hour of fifty minutes* 
Applied Psychology and Pedagogy is understood here to include the sub— 
ject of ** School Management,** and Art of Questioning. 

The instruction in Drawing, Music, and Manual Training is to be given, 
by the Cit}' Supervisors in those subjects. In the Senior Year, all students 
will be required to teach one-half of each semester. Observation work will 
be given the Junior Class during the second term of the Junior Year. 1t% 
the second semester. Junior Year, and the first semester, Senior Year, 
students will be expected to devote portions of the afternoons to field wor^ 
in Nature Study. 



203 

PRACTICE TEACHING. 

In the practice teaching the aim is to give opportunity for such work as 
v^-ill produce practical and intelligent teachers. As no work can be truly 
oTkc's own except as it is worked out through his individuality, the greatest 
pxz>ssible amount of freedom consistent with the accomplishing of the 
r acquired amount of work in the grade is encouraged. 

After having had a year's work in the theory of pedagogy the pupil- 
teachers are required to teach for one term of twenty weeks, in the Training 
Sohool. This term extends over one school year, ten weeks of teaching 
alternating with ten weeks of theory. 

All work is under the supervision of experienced critics. Each critic- 
teacher has but two grades. When the standard of the grade requires, and 
at the beginning of each term, classes are taught by the critic-teacher, thus 
giving the pupil-teacher further opportunity for close and directed observa- 
tion of efficient work. Each critic averages at least one day of teaching 
each week in both of her grades. 

The pupil teacher is given practically entire control of her grade. She 
teaches all of an entire session. At the end of five weeks, when practicable, 
the work is changed, either to another grade or another session of the same 
^ade. The pupil-teacher submits to the critic daily plans which are care- 
^lly reviewed by the critic and discussed with student-teacher before the 
Wesson is presented to class. From time to time, subject plans are worked out 
^nd demonstrated by pupil-teacher. Careful and directed study of the child 
^nd of the class is required. A thesis based upon some phase of child study 
^s required from each student at the close of her second term of teaching. 
In all the teaching the student is practiced in studying individual 
peculiarities and physical and mental defects, and in adjusting work to the 
Necessities of the case. The student is taught to apply the most general 
physical tests of child study to remove conditions which hamper the pupil's 
progress. The practice work should make close and sympathetic observers 
^^ child activity, and of those conditions which check or foster the fullest 
^Xcrcise of mental life. 

Once each week is held a conference of critic and pupil-teachers. These 
Conferences consist of model lessons with their after discussions; •' round- 
^^ble" talks on subjects suggested by the pupil-teachers themselves — the 
expression of some felt need, and discussions suggested by a required 
Course of reading. The aim of the latter is to keep students conversant 
^vith the work of recent educators. 

Students who have proven themselves incapable of carrying on their 
^'^irk successfully are allowed to obsen^e in grades taught by efficient 
teachers, often assisting with the work. At the discretion of the critic and 
Principal, she may resume her work. 



204 



THE KINDERGARTEN DEPARTMENT. 

The Kindergarten Department of the Normal Training School, covering 
two years, includes the theory and practice departments. During the first 
semester the same course of study is pursued by all students of the training 
department. This is of especial advantage because it gives a broader and 
more intelligent idea of the relative importance of each grade of work, and 
tends toward a closer connection between the kindergarten and primary 
schools. In this period a general survey is taken of all the gifts, occupa- 
tions, games, and songs of the kindergarten, with some special idea of 
adaptation to work in the primary grades. 

Opportunity is given during the junior year for a period of observation 
in the best kindergartens in Rochester. This observation is of inestimable 
value to the students, affording a more comprehensive view of the profes- 
sion they have chosen. Here they see the actual working out of the theories 
they have discussed in the class-room, thus receiving a deeper and more 
lasting impression of them. They also have a good opportunity for another 
form of child study, and also a comparative study of methods, etc. 

At the end of the first semester the students elect either the normal 
work or the kindergarten course, and a division is made, special work then 
being done with each group, although they still remain together in the game 
and story courses. 

The kindergarten students continue their study of the kindergarten 
theor)s completing the work with the first six gifts and most of the manual 
work by the end of the first year. The second year the remaining gifts are 
studied, and special attention is given to the program work, FroebePs 
Mother Play and Education of Man. 

The aim in all the work of this department is to give the students a 
broad and intelligent knowledge of the kindergarten materials and their use ; 
and also of Froebel's philosophy in its relation to the education of the 
present day. To this end a careful study is made of his life, system, and 
tools, original thoughtful work being encouraged. The large kindergarten 
connected with the school affords ideal conditions for the most effective 
practice work. The members of the Senior Kindergarten Class are required 
to teach a half day during the entire year. Every student in this depart- 
ment is required to be able to play the piano and to sing before she is per- 
mitted to graduate, as musical ability is considered a prime requisite in the 
kindergarten teacher. The Story and Literature Work for little children is 
strongly emphasized in this department. 



205 



STATEMENT OF COURSE IN DEPARTMENTS. 



SOCIOLOGY. 

The purpose of this course is : First, to have the student secure a 

thorough comprehension of the relation of Man to Nature ; the relations of 

the Individual to Society, and the Individual Aim in Education as compared 

with the Social Aim. In the second place, by an analysis of social forces 

and institutions, and by illustrations of the control of the individual by 

social forces acting through various institutions, the student will come to an 

understanding of social control. And finally, that the socialization process 

of the individual within the school is dependent upon school management 

and instruction, and without the school is dependent upon various social 

forces and institutions, keeping always before the student the question, 

*'V\Tiat is the ideal function of the teacher in the socialization of the 

child?" 

I. The Origin and Scope of Sociology. 

(a) The beginnings of Sociology-. 

(d) The development of Sociology'. 

(r) The relation of Sociology to the Special Social Sciences. 

(//) The relation of Sociology to Social Reforms. 

(/) The Organic Conception of Society. 

II. The Theory of Socialization. 

1. The modes of Purposive Activity. 

(a) Appreciation. 

(d) Utilization. 

(/) Characterization. 

(//) Socialization. 

(^) How analyzed and fomiulated by science. 

2. Aggregation. 

(a) Chief Conditions. 

(^) Causes of Aggregation. 

3. Association. 

(a) Conflict and its motives. 

(fi) Modes of resemblance. 

(c) Consciousness of Kind. 

(//) Socializing forces. 

(/) Co-operation. 

(/) Personality and Social Classes. 



2o6 

4. The Social Mind and Social Control. 

(a) Social Mind. 

(d) Social Forces. 

(c) Laws of Social Choice. 

5. Social Organization. 

(a) Institutions. 

(fi) Authority and Liberty. 

6. Survival of Institutions. 

(a) Natural Selection in Society. 
(If) The Law of Survival. 

PSYCHOLOGY. 

Psychology is intended as an introduction to the principles of educa- 
tion and to school management. These subjects should be closely co- 
related in their presentation. It is the aim of this course in Psycholog}' to 
train the students to observe their own minds and the minds of others, and 
to aid them to gain a clearer understanding of the science of the laws of 
the mind, by presenting the principles in a simple and definite manner. 
The course takes up the general study of mental processes, dealing with 
knowledge as a form of attentit)n, and the inter-relation of attention with 
interest and habit. This work is made introductory to the course in Ped- 
agogy, by giving special attention to the study of motor impulses, emotion, 
instinct, imagery, imitative, experiment, etc., using them as the basis for the 
observation and interpretation of individual children. 

I. Psychology and its relation to physiology. 
II. The mind-its three functions. 

III. Consciousness. 

IV. Attention, voluntary and involuntar}^ ; the nature and characteristics 
of each, and the relation of one to the other. 

V. Interest : the factors on which it depends: its relation to attention. 
VI. Habit: the law of habit : instinct: reason: character. 
VI 1. Knowing: (i) presentation ; (2) representation : (3) elaboration. 

1. The presentative faculties. 

(a) Sensation : its physical and psychical factors ; the senses 
and their functions. 

(7^) Perception : sense percepts, the elements of all knowl- 
edge. 

(i-) Observation: its relation to sensation, perception, atten- 
tion : sense realism. 

2. 'i'he representative faculty. 

Memor\': passive, remembering: active, recollecting: the 
three steps — apprehension, retention, reproduction : the 
laws of association : mnemonics. 



207 

3- The elaborative. faculties — thought processes. 

(a) Imagination : reproductive and creative ; processes in- 
volved. 
(d) Conception : stages in the process — presentation, com- 
parison, abstraction, generalization, denomination ; causes 
of indistinct or poor concepts ; apperception. 
((C) Judgment : processes involved ; intuitive and deliberative 

judgments ; causes of incorrect judgments. 
(//) Reasoning : induction, deduction, analogy. 

Percepts, images, concepts : their relation and their value 
in acquiring new knowledge. 
^^^ XI. Feeling : The feelings as sensations and as emotions ; egoistic, 
social, intellectual, aesthetic and moral emotions; cultivation and 
repression of feelings. 
1 X. Willing : the will and its relation to attention, desire, the feelings, 
thoughts, and habit; instinct, deliberation, choice. 
X. Growth and development of the mental faculties; the influence of 
heredity and environment ; order and stages of development. 



APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY AND PEDAGOGY. 

The general aim of this course is to present to our students the funda- 
"^ental principles of teaching based on a sound psychology and tested by 
^^e best school experience. It is believed that the real educative process 
starts with what the child has already gained in his own experience, and 
that the definite work of the school is to give a clearer meaning to this ex- 
P<^rience and thus enable him to get more value from his succeeding acts. 
With this thought in mind the course has been arranged. 

1. The Relation of Psychology to Teaching. 

2. Means of Knowing Mind. 

Methods- ^ ^^^ Subjective. 
( Ihe Objective. 

3. The Child. 

1. The Elements. 

(a) Native Tendencies. 
(^) Acquired Capacities. 

2. Energies. 

(a) Spontaneous. 
(If) External. 

3. Senses. 

(a) Physiology. 

(d) Classification. 

(c) Individual differences. 



208 

4. Sensations. 

(a) General. 
(p) Special. 

5. Attention. 

{a) Definition. 
{b) Classification. 

(c) Power in child. 

(d) Methods of increasing power. 

6. Thinking. 

{a) Perception. 

,,. ,, ^. \ Psychical Notions. 

(p) Conception : s t • 1 xt *.• 
-^ ^ ( Logical Notions. 

7. Apperception and Retention. 

(a) Memory, Recollection, Synthesis, Association, Unii 

tion. Analysis, Comparison, Classification. 
(p) Dynamical Associations. 
{c) Relation of Attention and Memory. 

8. Imagination. 

(a) Character. 

(b) Development. 

4. Principles of Intellectual Development. 

(i) PVom Presentative to Representative ; from Things to Syi 
bols ; from Sensuous to Ideal. 

(2) Development demands self-activity. 

(3) The Unity of whole being. 

5. The Forms of Emotional Development. 

(a) Relation of Feeling and Self- Activity. 

(b) Spontanieity. 

(c) Activities : Strength of ; Change of ; Harmony of. 
{d) Development of Emotional Nature Through Motive. 

(^) The Forms of Feeling; Intellectual, Aesthetic, Personal. 

6. The Mental and Physical, — their action and reaction. 

7. The Doctrine of Concentration. 

8. Discipline and Moral Training. 

{a) The Ends. (i) Immediate. (2) Ultimate. 

(b) The Means (i) Objective. (2) Subjective. 

{c) School order as dependent upon educative work. 

9. Working Hypotheses for Teacher. 

(a) The Divine in each child. 
{b) The Altruistic Motive. 
10. The Training of the Will. 
(a) Search for Truth. 
{b) Choice. 



209 

X X. Methods. 

(a) The Test, 

(b) Wrong Methods, — unmoral. 

1 . The Method of the Recitation. 

{a) Goal of Instruction. 

(b) Plans. 

(c) Steps. 

2. The Art of Questioning. 

3. Examinations, — Written Tests. 

4. Rewards, Prizes, Marks. 

HISTORY OF EDUCATION. 

The purpose of this course is to have the student become familiar with 
the mistakes, the struggles, and the triumphs of the great educators of the 
past ; to trace the growth and development of educational principles and 
systems ; to gain a clear conception of the diverse phases that education 
has assumed in different nations and ages ; to know how largely education 
and its results have depended upon the conditions of the times and the 
environment of the people. Students will be held responsible for the work 
as outlined and not as it may appear in any particular book. 

I. Oriental education. A general view of education among the ancient 

Chinese, Hindoos, Israelites, Egyptians and Phcenicians. 
11. Greek education. 

{a) At Athens. 
{b) At Sparta. 

{c) Noted educators : Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras. 
'*• Roman education. 

(a) Under the republic. 

(b) Under the empire. 

(c) Educators : Cicero, Quintilian, Seneca. 
• lilarly Christian education. 

(a) Characteristics. 

(b) Educators : St. Jerome, St. Augustine. 
Education during the middle ages. 

{a) Description and explanation of its general character. 

1 . Feudal or knightly education. 

2. Monasticism, 

3. Scholasticism. 

4. Saracenic education. 

{b) Noted educators: Charlemagne, Alcuin,.Abelard, Alfred the 
Great. 

(c) Rise of universities. 



210 



VI. The period of the Renaissance and Reformation. 
(a) Causes of the renaissance. 

1. Decay of feudalism. 

2. Invention of printing. 

3. Invention of gunpowder. 

4. Invention of mariner's compass. 

5. Crusades. 

6. Downfall of Constantinople. 

(d) Characteristics of the renaissance. 

1. Recognition of individual worth. 

2. Use of vernacular as a written language. 

3. Growth of modem science. 

4. Increased attention to the education of women. 

5. Change in curriculum and method of teaching. 
(c) Humanism. 

(//) Noted reformers: Erasmus, Melanchthon, Luther, Sturm, 
Montaigne, Rabelais, Comenius, Ascham, Bacon. 

(e) The teaching societies : Jesuits, Port Royalists, Oratorians. 
VII. Education since the sixteenth century. 

(a) General characteristics. 

1. The " real school " movement. 

2. The kindergarten. 

3. Universal compulsory education. 

4. Professional training of teachers. 

(l>) Special study of the following educators : Fenelon, Locke, 
Rossenu, Basedow, Francke, Pestalozzi, Froebel, 
Jacotot, Arnold, Spencer, Herbart, Mann, Barnard, 
Page. 



ART. 

" The greatest works of art should become the ones most familiar to the 
people." 

The object of this course is to familiarize our students with the lives and 
works of -the great artists, and to aid them in making a collection of supple- 
mentary illustrative material which shall be classified and ready for use 
whenever needed. Special attention is given to the development of Art and 
to a study of the master-pieces of all ages, correlating with the history 
and the literature of the different periods. Emphasis is placed on the 
sociological element as revealed in the ait of a nation, showing that in the 
rise and progress of art may be traced the growth and progress of a historic 
people. 



21 I 

'- Architecture. 

(a) Ancient, Egytian, Grecian, Roman, Early Christian, Byzantine. 

1. History. 

2. Characteristics. 

3. Comparison. 

(A) Mediaeval Italian, Gothic. 
(^•) Modem, European. 
^<^vilpture. 

<^) Ancient, Egyptian, Asian, Greek, Etruscan, Roman, Early 

Christian. 
(^) Mediaeval. Romanesque, (xothic, Renaissance. 
i^c) Modern, European. 
^"^ 5^ in ting. 

3. Classical Period, Egyptian, Assyrian, Arabian, Moorish, Greek, 
Etruscan, Roman. 

2. In Far East — Persian, Indian, Chinese, Japanese. 

3. Elarly (Christian and Byzantine Ages. 

4. Middle Ages. 

5. Renaissance in Italy — Florentine School, etc. 

6. Italian painting in XVI Century. 

7. The Netherlands— XIII and XIV Centuries. 

8. Germany. 

9. Italy— XVII and XVIII Centuries. 

10. Spain and Portugal. 

11. The Netherlands— XVII and XVIII Centuries. 

12. Nineteenth Century Painting — European, American and Japa- 

nese. 

LITERATURE. 

^he central idea of this course is to make the student acquainted with 
^^P^esentative works of the greatest authors and to give him a general 
insight into literary interpretation. The intimate relation between literature 
^^d history is shown in the fact that one cannot fully understand literature 
^thout an acquaintance with the national traits of the writers, the general 
character of the age in which they lived, and the physical and social condi- 
tions by which they were surrounded. A careful study is made of the 
literature for children and of selections best suited for memorizing. The 
<^ourses in history, literature and art are correlated as far as possible from 
^^ psychological standpoint. 

I- Folk-lore and Myths — Oriental, (Jrecian, Roman, Norse, German, 

British. 
^^- Earliest written poems — as Sagas and Ballads. 



212 

III. Literature of Greece and Rome, the histor}^ of its development, with 

sufficient study of individual pieces to reveal its salient character- 
istics. 

IV. Literature of the Renaissance — Italy and Great Britain. 

V. Modem European Literature — Germany, England, Spain and France. 
(The greatest emphasis upon that of England, with an intensive study 
of masterpieces.) 
VL American — Colonial, Revolutionary and 19th Century. (Having 
gained a view of each period, follow with a study of the most valu 
able types of each. ) 



READING. 

The psycholog)' of reading is made the fundamental idea in this course. 
Images to express and motives for expressing them are the underlying prin- 
ciples of all oral reading ; therefore the thought-getting side of the subject 
is emphasized. Special attention is given to the adaptation of literature to 
the nature and needs of the child. 

1 . Psychology of Expression — Verbal, Vocal, Pantomimic. 

(a) Vocal Expression ; its basis in Nature : Characteristics. 

1. -From Within Out." 

2. Organic Unity. 

3. Freedom. 

2. Expression — Its Subjective Side. 

(a) Sequence of Ideas. 

I. Primary Elements of Thinking, 
(a) Attention, (b) Transition. 
(/O Conception — Its genesis; media of expression : manifestation. 

Power to conceive developed through : 

1. Wide range of Apperception. 

2. Study of Art and Nature. 

3. Stimulation of faculties in realizing Truth. 
(r) Abandon. 

Responsiveness — Modes of Expression. Representative. 
Manifestive. 

3. Expression. Its Objective Side. 

(a) Change of Pitch. 

(/') Education of the Eye. 

(c) Phrasing. 

(//) S implicit}'. 

(e) Animation. 

4. Logical Relations. 

(a) Accentuation. 



213 

(d) Touch. 

(r) Centralization. 

(J) Conversational Form. 

(i) Method of Thought and Word. 

(/) Method in Narration. 

{g) Method in Description. 

(A) Antithesis. 

(/) Soliloquy. 

5 • Kmphasis. 

{(i) Inflection. 

1. Kinds. 

2. Direction. 

3. Length. 

4. Abruptness. 

5. Straightness. 
(d) Intervals. 

(c) Subordination. 

(d) Silence. 

(e) Movement. 

(/) Texture and tone : color. 
(g) Stress. 

^* *"i~E. — Problems under each of alx^ve steps will Ix: worked by each student. 
M KTHODS : 

^' Primary' '* Learning to Read." 

(a) Synthetic. 1. The ** A, B, C, Method. 

2. The Phonic Method. 
(fi) Analytic. i. The Word Method. 2. The Sentence Method. 
(r) Analytic. Synthetic. The Phonic Method. 

A study of each as regards History, Psychologic basis and 
results. 
(d) An Ideal Method outlined by each student. 
(<?) Correlation of Reading with other Primary Subjects. 
(/) Introduction of Spelling. 
(j^) Introduction of Phonics. 

*• intermediate. 

(a) The Recitation. 

1. Preparation. Silent Reading. The " Dictionary Habit. ' 

2. Vocal Expression ; its requisites. 

1. Stimulation of Interest. 2. Impulse to Express. 

(l>) Faults of Expression : their cause and remedy, i . Mental. 

2. Physical. 



214 

(r) Need of specific aim in each recitation. 
(//) Correlation of Reading with other subjects. 

(e) The development of ** taste " through good literature. 

(f) The development of the Play Instinct. 

Liter ATURK. 

(a) Definition. 

(b) Characteristics of (Jood Literature. 

1. Aesthetic Value. 

2. Ethical Value. 

3. Thought Value. 

{c) Adaptation to Nature and Needs of the Child. 

1. Primary Literature. 

2. Intermediate Literature. 

3. Grammar Literature. 

(//) Mode of Presentation, i. By wholes. 2. By parts. 
(^) Test of teachers power to teach literature. 



LANGUAGE AND GRAMMAR. 

This course is arranged to correlate with all subjects of the curriculum. 
Its fundamental ideas are that thought should have a clear and distinct 
manifestation, and that training of the language power should be prominent 
in every lesson. Special attention is given to (jrammar as a 'thought 
subject. 

1. Language. 

(a) Its Origin. 

{b) Development of Alphabet. 

(c) Origin and development of Knglish. 

{(i) (Jrowth and change in form of English words. 

{£) Roots, Stems, Compounds, Afiixes. 

2. Methods. 

{(i) Introduction. 

1 . The acquirement of language ; its difficulties. 

2. Language equipment of a child of six years : how utilize 

and enhance. 
ib) Primary Language Work. 
ia) Aims. 
(/') Means. 

1. The Stor)'. 

2. The Picture. 

3. The Poem. 

4. Nature Study. 



215 

5. Manual Elxpression. 

6. The Reading Lesson. 

7. Dramitization. 
(r) Written Work. 

1. First aim — to arouse impulse to express graphically — 

through presenting conditions for the stimulation of 
thought. 

2. Subjects. 

3. Correction of syntax. Rules ; their value ; time of intro- 

duction. Marks of punctuation. Capitals. 

4. Paragraphing. 

5. Original, independent expression ; how develop. 

OlCAMMAR. 

1. Its disciplinary value. 

2. Its definition. 

3. Time to begin. 

4. Diagraming. 

5. Analysis. 

6. Applied. 

7. Correlation with Reading and Literature. 



METHODS IN HISTORY. 

I. General Nature of History. 
(a) Value of history. 
{d) Object of History. 

(c) Essential Elements. Processes involved in Organizing His- 
tory. 
(//) The process of Interpretation. Nature and kinds. Material 
presented for Interpretation. Educational value of Inter- 
pretation. 
(<?) The process of co-ordination. Nature of the process and 
educational value. 
^^' Stages in the Teaching of History. 
^ Biographies. 
Rebellions. 
Battles. 
^ Miscellaneous. 
2» Biographies. 
3* Incidents. 
4« Periods. 
5* Constitutional History. 



* • Stories : -< 



2l6 

111. Periods of American History. 

1. Period of the Growth of Local Institutions. 

(a) Relation of discoveries and explorations. 

(b) The period as a whole. 

(c) Diffusion of rights and privileges. 

(d) Centralization of rights and opportunities. 

(e) The Middle Colonies. 

2. Period of the Growth of Union. 

(a) The period as a whole. 

(p) Union against England. 

(c) Union between States and General Government. 

3. Period of the Development of Nationality. 

(a) The period as a whole. 

4. Period of Nationality and Democracy. 

{a) Period of Conflict. 

(b) Mutual approach of Nationality and Democracy. 

(c) Fusion of Nationality and Democracy. 

5. Period of Nationality and Slavery. 

{a) Development of the Conflict. 
ip) Growth of Sectionalization. 

(c) Destruction of Slavery and Triumph of the Nation. 
(//) Industrial Growth and Development of the Nation since the 
War. 

DRAWING. 

The Drawing Course has been adapted especially to meet the needs of 
kindergarten and grade teachers, and includes work with scissors, pencil, 
ink, water-colors, clay and blackboard, carried on in connection with the 
various school subjects. Every opportunity is given to make the course of 
practical value, not only in ability to draw, and in proper methods of pre- 
sentation, but in the actual application in the school room under the super- 
vision of the Critic teacher. 

A strong effort is made to lead the students to realize that a knowledge 
of art is necessary to a well-rounded life, and that it is the duty of the 
teacher to develop both the aesthethic and the practical side of the subject. 
The course has been planned in progressive steps from the lowest to the 
highest grades, and covers instruction in Representation — including nature 
work, illustrative and imaginative drawing and cutting, pose drawing, form 
and appearance, composition, expression of color values, light and shade, 
and principles of perspective. 

Decoration — Including principles of beauty, line and space relation, 
creative work from nature and historic ornament, composition, and the 
practical application of decorative design. 



217 

Construction — Including the use of instruments, the facts of form, the 
workings drawings showing views, sections and developments, etc., and 
construotive design. The collecting of material and the study of programs 
for this line of work in the schools are made special features of the course. 

History of art, picture study, and proper decoration of the school room, 
receive special attention. As a means of expression, drawing occupies a 
place Mrliich nothing else can fill, and the study of art has proved to be the 
most j>owerful factor toward aesthetic culture. 

Color study does much toward developing the perception and appreci- 
ation of beauty, and has opened the eyes of many to the charms of nature. 



GEOGRAPHY METHODS. 

Mathematical. 

{a) Necessity of correlating Geography with Mathematics and 
Astronomy. 

(b) Directions, i. Relative. 2. Absolute. 

(c) Distance, units, and their application. 

1. Comparative Distances. 

2. Exact Distances. 
(//) Map construction. 

1. Plans of simple surfaces. 

2. Maps of local areas. 

3. Maps of important divisions drawn to a scale and from 
inspection. 

(e) Moulding relief maps and relief globe. 
{/) The Universe. 

1. Solar System. 

2. Stars. 

3. Nebular Hypothesis. 
(g) Globe Study. 

1. Shape. 

2. Size, (a) Comparative, (b) Approximate. 

3. Motions, (a) Daily and result, (b) Yearly and result. 

4. Poles, axis, and equator. 

5. Plane of the ecliptic. 

6. Inclination and parallelism of axis and results. 

7. Circles of 

a. Latitude. 

b. Longitude. 

c. Hemisphere boundaries. 

8. Zones. 



2l8 

(h) Statistics. 

1. Areas. 

2. Distances. 

3. Altitudes. 
II. Physical. 

{a) Necessity of correlating Geography with Biology and Dynamic 

Geology. 
(Jf) Land. 

1. Rocks. 

a. Recognition of common rocks and minerals of vicinity. 

b. Formation. 

1. Solidification of sandstone and shale in process, 
observed in cuttings near the city. 

2. Formation of other rocks. 

3. Metamorphism. 

2. Weathering of rocks, studied in the field. 

a. Agency of water. 

b. Agency of frost. 

c. Agency of organic life. 

d. Chemical agencies. 

3. Erosion. 

a. Wind. 

b. Fresh water. 

1. Field study of spring, brook, river, lake. 

2. Power of erosion. 

3. Carrying power. 

4. Deposits on shore, flood-plain, bar, delta. 

5. Land fonns produced, as hills of erosion, river- 
valleys and gorges, deltas, filling up of lakes, etc. 

c. Ocean. 

1. Work of waves and tides. 

2. Deposits on bars, shores, and sea bottom. 

d. Ice in form of glacier. 

1. Wearing away of surface of earth. 

2. Transportation. 

3. Deposits. 

4. Soils, studied in the field. 

a. Characteristics of common soils. 

b. Formation. 

c. Agricultural value. 

5. First appearance of continents. 

6. Stratification, illustrated by study of river bank. 

7. Land tilting and mountain formation. 



219 

8. Gradual growth of our continent ; geography during the 
different periods, especially 

a. The Coal Period. 

1. Formation of coal. 

2. Flora and fauna. 

b. The Glacial Period. 

1. Glacier. 

2. Direction of movement. 

3. Recession. 

4. Deposits. 

5. Glacial lake. 

6. Formation of Pinnacle Hills, Ridge Road, Sugar- 
Loaf Hills around Irondequoit Bay, Genesee 
River Gorge and Falls. 

9. Structure, relief forms, and drainage of the continents in 
general. 

10. Globe study of land and water areas, 
a. Position. 
. b. Ejrtent 

c. Distribution. 

(<r) Ocean, i. Waves. 2. Tides. 3. Currents. 
(^) Atmosphere. 

1. Air. 

2. Light, electricity, magnetism. 

3. Heat. a. Sources, b. Distribution. 

4. Winds and storms. 

5. Moisture, a. Forms, b. Distribution. 

6. Climate. 

(e) Geographical distribution of animals and plants. 

(/) Races. 

(^) Man in Nature. 

1. Modifying influence of man. 

2. Man and the forest. 

3. Influence of geographical conditions on man and his 
industries. 

^'I- Political. 

(tj) Necessity of correlating Geography with History and current 

events. 
(/') Idea of political divisions developed from village, cit}-, country. 
(r) Description of primitive nomadic society. 
(//) Sketch of development of land ownership, and the various 

systems of government. 



220 

(/) Political divisions of continents. 

1. Position, actual and relative. 

2. Relative size. 

3. Form of government. 

4. Sub-divisions o£ importance. 

5. Capitals, important cities, and strategic points. 

6. Population, relative and approximate. 

7. Prominent men and movementsat present time. 
IV. Commercial. 

{a) Study of Rochester and Monroe County, with personal inves- 
tigation of principal industries, transportation, etc. 

1. Products. 

{a) Kinds, i. Natural. 2. Manufactured. 
{h) Source. 

1. Animal Kingdom. 

2. Vegetable Kingdom. 

3. Mineral Kingdom. 
(c) Distribution. 

1. Ix>cal. 

2. General. 

3. Relative. 
(//) Exchange. 

1. Chief exports. 

2. Chief imports. 

2. Industries. 

(a) Distribution. 

1. Local. 

2. General. 

3. Relative. 

(b) Relation of government to industries of people. 

3. Commercial centers. 

{a) Natural causes that have determined their location. 
(//) Natural causes that have contributed to their growth. 

4. Highways of commerce. 

(a) Natural. 
{b) Artificial. 
( /;) Similar study extended to State, I'nited States, world. 

NATURE STUDY. 

In this course the aim is three-fold. First — To give the students the 
ground-work of Botany, Zoolog)', and Geolog)'. Second — To train them to 
habits of accurate observation. Third — To instruct them in the methods of 
teaching Nature Study in the grades of the public school. 



221 



The work in Botany covers : i . The study of plant relationships and 
the ready recognition of the members of the more important plant families. 
2. Experimental work in physiological Botany, including the functions of 
the root, stem, leaves, flowers, and fruits. 3. Experiments on the influence 
of the ecological factors of water, heat, light, soil, etc., and the cycle of 
plant life throughout the year, with laboratory work on germination. 

Zoology includes : i . The study and recognition of the various orders 
of animals with their chief represenatives ; special attention being given to 
a study of the local fauna, including the angle worm, snail, crayfish, insects, 
fish, amphibia, reptiles, birds, and the common mammals. 

The course in Geology includes the formation of the earth and the 
recognition of ordinary rocks and minerals. Experimental work is also 
given on weather observation and the making of weather charts. 

Systematic field work is required throughout the course in order that the 
students may see objects in their natural environment and may learn to 
observe accurately. 

The latter weeks of the course are devoted to practice in making out- 
lines of work and courses of study adapted to the various grades of the 
public schools, and to methods of applying them. 



PHYSIOLOGY AND HYGIENE. 

Dissection by each student of some mammal, careful diagrams being 
required ; viscera of thoracic and abdominal cavities ; principal veins and 
arteries ; muscles of arm, especially biceps and triceps ; shoulder and elbow 
joints ; brain and few nerves. 

Study of human skeleton ; recognition of principal bones ; comparison 
with those of mammal dissected ; adaptation to position and use ; structure, 
nourishment, joints, cartilages and ligaments studied in fresh bones of 
mammals ; experiements to show composition, strength ; microscopic study 
of bone structure. 

Muscles ; gross structure, use and mode of action ; illustrated by dis- 
sected specimen, and by experiments on the living body ; use of bones and 
levers illustrated by experiments with levers and by reference to skeleton ; 
microscopic structure of muscles. 

Skin ; Microscopic structure ; functions ; glands : hair and nails ; 
cleanliness and bathing. 

Food and digestion ; study of alimentary principles, and the foods in 
which they are found ; condiments ; drinks ; cooking ; general structure of 
organs of digestion ; comparison of teeth and stomach with those of other 
animals with reference to food habits ; microscopic structure of villi, etc. ; 
digestive fluids, with experiments showing gastric digestion, etc. ; passage 



220 

(f) Political divisions of continents. 

1. Position, actual and relative. 

2. Relative size. 

3. Form of government. 

4. Sub-divisions o£ importance. 

5. Capitals, important cities, and strategic points. 

6. Population, relative and approximate. 

7. Prominent men and movementsat present time. 
IV. Commercial. 

(a) Study of Rochester and Monroe County, with personal in-^ 
tigation of principal industries, transportation, etc. 

1. Products. 

{a) Kinds, i. Natural. 2. Manufactured. 
(fi) Source. 

1. Animal Kingdom. 

2. Vegetable Kingdom. 

3. Mineral Kingdom. 
(r) Distribution. 

1. Local. 

2. General. 

3. Relative. 
(//) Exchange. 

1. Chief exports. 

2. Chief imports. 

2. Industries. 

{a) Distribution. 

1 . Local. 

2. General. 

3. Relative. 

(fi) Relation of government to industries of people. 

3. Commercial centers. 

(a) Natural causes that have determined their location. 
(fi) Natural causes that have contributed to their growth. 

4. Highways of commerce. 

{(7) Natural. 
(fi) Artificial. 
( /f) Similar study extended to State, Ihiited States, world. 

NATURE STUDY. 

In this course the aim is three-fold. First — To give the students C 
ground-work of Botany, Zoolog)', and Geology. Second — To train them 
habits of accurate observation. Third — To instruct them in the methods 
teaching Nature Study in the grades of the public school. 



ives- 



223 

The object of the work, then, is to promote higher physical ideals in 
the minds of the pupils as well as to give them individually regular and 
systematic physical training for their own health and general development, 
and to allow them also opportunity for practice teaching in light gymnastics 
and games. Gymnasium work is required daily. The regular gymnasiiun 
suit is worn. 



METHODS IN MATHEMATICS. 

1. The Psychology of Number. 

(a) Value of its study to the teacher. 
(d) The Origin of Number, 
(r) Definition of Number. 
(//) Concrete ; Abstract. 

2. The History of Mathematics as a school subject, — its prominence 

in the past and present. 

3. Methods:— The **01d Method.'^ The »* Grube Method." The 

" Rational (Dewey) Method." 
A study of each and comparison as regards : 
(a) Characteristics. 
(d) Development of Power, 
(r) Development of Figuring Facility. 

4. Subjects. 

1. The Fundamental Operations. 

(a) Psychologic processes of each and their relation. 
(d>) Correlation. 

2. Denominate Numbers. 

3. Measures and multiples. Fundamental principles and appli- 

cation. 
(a) Greatest Common Divisor. (Measure) 
(^) Least Common Multiple. 

4. Fractions. 

(a) Function and Principle. 

(d) Change of Form. 

(r) Comparison of. 

(d) The fundamental operations in. 

5. Percentage. 

(a) Its connection with fractions. 
(d) Application. 

(a) Profit and loss. 

(b) Interest. 

6. Involution and Evolution. 



224 

5- The Method of the Lesson. 

(a) Kind — Development and Drill. 
{b) Problems and their Analysis. 
(c) Test of teacher's ability. 

6. Primary Number Work. 

{a) The Number Instinct and its development ( i) Incidentally 
through kindergarten occupations and manual expression 
work. 

(Jf) Specifically through number lessons. 

7 . Intermediate and Grammar Work. 



223 

T^e object of the work, then, is to promote higher physical ideals in 
^^ Bttbds of the pupils as well as to give them individually regular and 
y^tematic physical training for their own health and general development, 
*^u to allow them also opportunity for practice teaching in light gymnastics 
^^ games. Gymnasium work is required daily. The regular gymnasium 
^^t is worn. 



METHODS IN MATHEMATICS. 

I. The Psychology of Number. 

(a) Value of its study to the teacher. 
(^) The Origin of Number. 

(c) Definition of Number. 
(if) Concrete ; Abstract. 

2- The History of Mathematics as a school subject, — its prominence 

in the past and present. 

3- Methods:— The **01d Method." The '* Grube Method." The 

** Rational (Dewey) Method.'' 
A study of each and comparison as regards : 
(a) Characteristics. 

(d) Development of Power. 

(r) Development of Figuring Facility. 

4- Subjects. 

1. The Fundamental Operations. 

(a) Psychologic processes of each and their relation. 
(d) Correlation. 

2. Denominate Numbers. 

3- Measures and multiples. Fundamental principles and appli- 
cation. 
(a) Greatest Common Divisor. (Measure) 
(^) Least Common Multiple. 

4. Fractions. 

(a) Function and Principle. 

(d) Change of Form. 

(r) Comparison of. 

(d) The fundamental operations in. 

5. Percentage. 

(a) Its connection with fractions. 
(d>) Application. 

(a) Profit and loss. 

(b) Interest. 

6. Involution and Evolution. 



224 

5- The Method of the Lesson. 

(a) Kind — Development and Drill. 
{b) Problems and their Analysis. 
(c) Test of teacher's ability. 

6. Primary Number Work. 

{a) The Number Instinct and its development ( i) Incidentally 
through kindergarten occupations and manual expression 
work. 

{b) Specifically through number lessons. 

7. Intermediate and Grammar Work. 



227 



Namk of Tbacmrr. 



Burke, Mrs. Elizabeth J. 
Kums, Miss F. E. 
Hums, Miss Mary 
Bums, Miss Rose A. 
Bums, Miss K. J. 
Butler, Miss K. A. 
Button, Miss Nettie M. 
Button, Miss Florence E. 



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6 


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9 


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26 


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21 


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[igh 


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15 


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7 


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31 


Assistant 



Krsidhncr. 



2;^^ I^e Avenue 
1 1 Hand Street 
1 1 Hand Street 
50 Phelps Avenue 
1 1 Hand Street 
1 18 Meigs Street 
175 Lexington Avenue 
175 Lexington Avenue 



Calhoun, Miss Eleanor K. 
Carey, Miss Cecelia R. 
Carey, Miss M. A. 
Caring, Miss C. L. 
Carhart, Miss F. L. 
Carmichael, Miss Minnie L. 
Carmichael, Mi.ss Lula M. 
Carr, Miss C. 
C'arr, Mi.ss A. A. 
Carroll, Miss Helena A. 
Case, Miss Emma 
Case, Miss F. L. 
Chamberlin. Miss Josephine 
Chappell, Miss J. G. 
Chillson. Miss Clara L. 
Christa, Miss Nellie A. 
Clackner, Miss M. A. 
('lackner. Miss (letta V. 
Clark, Miss Anna E. 
Clark, Miss Katherine B. 
Clark, Prof. E. R. 
Clark, Miss J. R. 
Clark, Miss Susan 
Clark, Miss Florence J. 
Clark, Miss Mildred Z. 
Clark, Miss Mary E. 
Clark, Miss Jennie 
Clarke, Miss Dora E. 
Clarke, Miss Oertrude M. 
Clements, Miss EIizal)eth M. 
Clements, Miss Sara L. 
Cloonan, Miss M. A. 
Clune, Miss L. G. 
Cochrane. Miss M. E. 
Cochrane, Miss Emma 
Cogswell, Miss Bertha 
Collins, Miss Carrie C. 
Cone, Miss Clara P. 
Connell, Miss Mar)' E. 
Connolly, Miss Kate C. 
Connor, Miss Jennie M. 
Connor, Miss Mary 
C'onnor, Miss Frances 
Conrad, Miss Elizabeth M. 
Cook, Mr. W. E. 
Cook, Mr. James M. 



10 


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20 


Assistant 


30 


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30 


Kg. Assistant 


26 


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26 


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102 Kenilworth Terrace 
88 Hamilton Street 
88 Hamilton Street 

26 Hubbell Park 

54 Kenilworth Terrace 
71 Jones Avenue 
71 Jones Avenue 
827 Main Street East 
827 Main Street East 
The Deavenf>ort,East Av 
I Thayer Street 
I Thayer Street 
218 Columbia Avenue 

25 Cambridge Street 
179 North Union Street 

27 Evergreen Street 
VS97 Oak Street 
897 Oak Street 

172 Alexander Street 
201 Tremont Street 

16 Tracv Street 

172 Alexander .Street 
47 Avenue B, Vick Park 
6 Joslyn Park 

17 Marietta Street 

1 1 9 Ambrose Street 
278 Alexander Street 
86 Plymouth .Avenue 
47 Vick Park 15 
91 Jefferson Avenue 
91 Jefferson Avenue 
8 Austin Street 
27 .Austin Street 
143 Jay Street 
354 Court Street 

19 Jones Avenue 
483 Main Street East 
177 Jay Street 

217 Lyell Avenue 

26 l^opold Street 

20 Glasgow Street 
12 Champlain Street 
4 Warner tStreet 

261 University Avenue 
<)6 Edinburgh .Street 
100 Atkinson Street 



228 



Namk f>p Teachrk. 



Cook, Miss M. Lucy 
Cooper. Miss Lilian M. 
Coote, Miss Cora M. 
Corey, Miss Clara A. 
Cornell, Miss N. F. 
Cosgrove, Miss Martha 
Cottrell, Miss Eva H. 
Coughlin, Miss Elizabeth 
Coughlin, Mi.ss S. L. 
Co^-les, Miss E. Frances 
Cozzens, Miss A. H. 
Craib, Miss Lilian 
Cramer, Miss C. 
Crennell, Miss Mary 
Cunningham, Miss J. M. 
Curran, Mi.ss Ella M. 
Curtice, Miss Florence E. 
Curtiss, Miss H^A. 



SCH(K)L. 


Po^ 


•ITION. 


24 


A.ssistant 


10 




tt 


26 




it 


10 




ti 


24 


Pri 


ncipal 


26 


Assistant 


.35 






30 






20 






18 






High 






33 






High 






High 






'5 






32 






20 


Kg. 




High 


Assistant 



RKMnENCK. 



496 Averill Avenue 

176 North Union Street 

42 Yale Street 

12 Helena Street 

42 Yale Street 

85 Fulton Avenue 

67 Adams Street 

30 Rainier Street 

226 Oak Street 

152 Delevan Street 

62 S. Washington Street 

Culver Street 

26 Clinton Avenue N. 

37 S. Washington Street 

206 Pearl Street 

6i) Bronson Avenue 

216 N. Cioodman Street 

74 S. Union Street 



D 



De Mallie, Miss Nettie S. 


22 


Kg. Assistant 


Davics, Miss E. F. 


27 


Assistant 


Davis, Miss M. H. 


High 


(t 


Davis, Miss Helen A. 


N.T.S. 


Instructor 


Davis, Mi.ss H. F. 


15. 


A.ssi.stant 


De Lai tire, Mi.ss R. K. 


Music 


Super\'isor 


Deyo, Miss Mabel 


24 


A.ssi.stant 


Donaghue, Mi.ss A. T. 


9 


i. 


Donivan, Miss A. 


13 


,, 


Donnelly, Miss Mar\' 


20 


«t 


Donnelly, Miss Alice E. 


29 


», 


Donoghue, Mis> M. 


27 


Kg. .Assistant 


Dowd, Mrs. L. M. 


<^ 


Assistant 


Dowling. Miss Helen (I. 


8 


»» 


Dowling, Miss I^)is 


21 


Kg. Directre.«is 


Dransfield, Mi.ss Mary 


High 


Assistant 


Drur)', Miss V. Blanche 


20 


Kg. - 


Drurv, Miss Alice G. 


26 


.\ssistant 


Duffy, Mi.ss M. E. 


»3 


h* 


Dukelow. Miss Fanny J. 


18 


4» 


Dunn, Miss M. \. 


9 


»k 


Duniey, Miss Ella R. 


10 


Kg. •• 



336 Hudson Avenue 
935 Main Street East 
21 Melro.se Street 
2 Avondale Park 
7 Anson Place 
265 Alexander Street 
105 Savannah Street 
125 Fulton Avenue 
455 South Avenue 
1 13 Alkin.son Street 
1 13 Atkinson Street 
2') I Universitv Avenue 
532 South Avenue 
558 Averill Avenue 
558 Averill Avenue 
20 William Street 
6 Hart Street 
6 Hiirt Street. 
105 Richard Street 
()() Woodward Avenue 
()8 ('hat ham Street 
^ Becklev Street 



Echtenacher, Miss N. E. 
Fkkharl, Miss Henrietta 
Edick. Miss (i. W. 
Ed.son, Miss Ruth C\ 
Ege, Miss E. M. 
Eichelman, Mi.ss Edith E. 
Elliot, Miss Stella L. 
Ellwangt-r, Miss E. L. 
Ely, Miss Jessie Dewey 





Assistant 


9() Fdinburgh Street 


33 


• « 


420 South Avenue 


12 


ft* 


1 51 Meigs Street 


23 


• fc 


lO S. I'ninn Street 


9 


k k 


185 Clifford Street 


29 


• k 


20 Went worth Street 


4 


• « 


.^o (!lifton Street 


■5 


t k 


18 Ciardiner Park 


/ 


• i 


7 Seyle Terrace 



227 



Name of Tbacmek. 



tiwrlve, Mrs. Elizabeth J. 
Kum,s, Mbs F. E. 
t^urwis, Miss Mary 
t^ virus. Miss Rose \. 

liiirrvs. Miss K. J. 

Hxitler, Miss K. A. 

l^utton. Miss Nettie M. 

Hut ton. Mi.ss Florence E. 



)CHC.K)L. 


Position. 


6 


Assistant 


9 
26 




21 


Kg. Assistant 


High 


Assistant 


»5 

7 


Kg. Assistant 


3» 


Assistant 



Kksioknck. 



233 I*ake Avenue 
1 1 Hand Street 
1 1 Hand Street 
50 Phelps Avenue 
1 1 Hand Street 
118 Meigs Street 
175 Lexington Avenue 
175 l^xington Avenue 



Calhoun, Miss Eleanor R. 
^-^artry, Miss Cecelia R. 
<^arey, Miss M. A. 
faring, Miss C. I.. 
^arhart. Miss F. L. 
^armichael, Miss Minnie L. 
^ armichael. Miss Lula M. 
^'[arr. Miss C. 
^'jATT, Miss A. A. 
^arroll, Mi.ss Helena A. 
^*aise, Miss Emma 
^^ase. Miss F. L. 
^"hamberlin. Miss Josephine 
^happell. Miss J. G. 
^'hilkon. Miss Clara L. 
^-biista. Miss Nellie A. 
^[lackner. Miss M. A. 
^'lackner. Miss (ietta V. 
^-'lark. Miss Anna E. 

^^lark. Miss Katherine B. 

<'Urk. I>rof. E. R. 

<;lark, Miss J. R. 

^'lark, Miss Susan 

< lark. Miss Florence J. 

^lark. Miss Mildred Z. 

^ark, Mis.s Mary E. 

'-'ark, Miss Jennie 

J'arke, Miss Dora E. 

V^fke, Miss Gertrude M. 

^-'ernents. Miss Elizal>eth M. 
'en^jjnts. Miss Sara L. 
^«>onan. Miss M. A. 
;>ne, Miss L. G. 
;/'^hrane. Miss M. E. 

'*^hrane. Miss Emma 
.'^K>*wdl, Miss Bertha 
.^*Uins, Miss Carrie C. 
,/^nt, Miss Clara P. 

T^^inell, Mi.ss Mar>- E. 

*»»^nolly. Miss Kate C. 
^,**nnor,'Miss Jennie M. 
^.**»^nor. Miss Mary 
•^nnor, MUs Frances 

;.*»i^rad, Miss Elizal^eth M. 

;;^»k,Mr. W. E. 

\ "^ok. Mr. James M. 



10 


Assistant 


22 


«t 


21 


it 


High 


•• 


■(? 


it 


23 


Kg. Assistant 


»5 


»» »t 


»5 


Assistant 


4 


(t 


23 


Kg. Directress 


High 


A.ssi.stant 


4 


Kg. - 


9 


it t* 


18 


As.sistant 


3» 


ti 


High 


it 


7 


• t 




tt 


4 


tt 


High 


tt 


') 


ti 


'3 


Kg. Assistant 


N.T. S. 


Critic 


20 


Assistant 


30 


it 


30 


Kg. Assistant 


26 


Assistant 


26 


K. Directress 


4 


Assistant 


4 


it 


') 


ti 


'? 


tt 


■7 


ti 


35 


Kg. Dirertit'ss 


^5 


it tt 


3^> 


.Assistant 


6 


tt 


7 


« t 


18 


tt 


18 


it 


22 


ti 


30 


it 


1 1 


ii 


Tniant 


Principal 


3 


ti 



102 Kenilworth Terrace 

88 Hamilton Street 

vS8 Hamilton Street 

2() Hubbell Park 

54 Kenilworth Terrace 

71 Jones Avenue 

71 Jones Avenue 

827 Main .Street East 

827 Main Street East 

The Deavenport. East Av 

I Thayer Street 

I Thayer Street 

218 Columbia Avenue 

25 Cambridge Street 
179 North Union .Street 
27 Evergreen .Street 
8()7 Oak Street 

897 Oak iStreet 

172 Alexander Street 

201 Tremont .Street 

16 Trarv Street 

172 Alexander .Street 
47 Avenue B, Vick Park 
6 Joslvn Park 

17 Marietta Street 

I i<; -Vmbrose .Street 
278 Alexander Street 
86 Plymouth Avenue 
47 Vick Park H 
«^i Jefferson Avenue 
(>i Jefferson Avenue 
8 Austin Street 
27 Austin Street 
143 Jay .Street 
354 Court Street 
l(> Jones .\ venue 
483 Main Street East 
177 Jay Street 
217 Lyell Avenue 

26 lA-o])old .Street 
20 Glasgow Street 
12 (!ham plain Street 
4 Warner Street 

261 University Avenue 
</) Edinburgh .Street 
100 Atkinson .Street 



230 



Name of Tf.acher. 



Giblx>ns, Miss A. N. 
Gifford, Miss N. J. 
Gillette, Miss CM. 
Gillis' Miss K. 
Gilson, Miss J. E. 
Glenn, Prof. F. E. 
(ilover. Miss B. M. 
(loddard. Miss Fannv ('. 
(lolden. Miss I. T. ' 
Golden, Miss Martha 
(joodenough. Miss L. Leila 
(joodman, Miss J. 
(ioodwin. Miss Etta M. 
Goodwin, Miss L. M. 
Gordon, Miss C. 1.. 
Gorsline, Miss L. P. 
(^osnell, Miss Elizalx^th 
Gosnell, Miss Hattie L. 
(Josnell, Miss Iza J. 
Gosnell, Miss SusanneJ. 
Goss, Miss F. 
Gray, Mr. M. I). 
Green, Miss Kate E. 
Greenwood, Miss Margaret 
(iregory. Miss H. E. 
(iruman. Miss E. M. 
(iiitmann. Miss F. 



School. 



High 

3 
High 



36 
24 

19 
18 

3 
M.T. 

15 
10 

4 
iS 

35 

15 
High 

29 

20 

High 
xM. T. 



Position. 


RRSinBNCK. 

1 


Assistant 


97 Ambrose Street 


ti 


20 New York Street 


tt 


61 Griffith Street 


(t 


227 Caledonia Avenue 


u 


62 Frost Avenue 


tt 


36 Meigs Street 

67 Alexander Street 


>t 


87 Avenue D 


,i 


24 Clifton Street 


,i 


24 Clifton Street 




81 Orange Street 
84 Hickory Street 
181 N. Union Street 


it 


^j^ Upton Park 
27 Tracy Street 
45 I^earl Street 


i> 


53 Ontario Street 


t. 


147 Atkinson Street 


t. 


23 Ontario Street 


it 


147 Atkinson Street 


(. 


Burke Terrace 


(t 


4 Canfield I'lace 


tt 


75 Sherman Street 


tt 


(>o S. Union Street 


tt 
t« 


105 Plymouth Avenue 
3() Rowley Street 


(t 


73 Kenilworth Terrace 



H 



Mailer, Miss Julia 
Hamilton, Miss Nellie M. 
Hamilton, Miss N. I. 
Hanna, Miss J. P. 
Hanna, Mi.ss S. 
Harris, Miss A. V. S. 
Harris, I'rof. C. E. 
Harris, Miss Mattie C. 
Harris, Mrs. A. G. 
Harris, Miss Margaret 
Harrison, Mrs. I la G. 
Haskins. Miss M. A. 
Hayes. Miss Emma A. C 
Hayes, Miss E. R. 
Haves, Mii-s K. A. 
Heath, Miss M. E. 
Hebbard, Miss .\. 
Henckell, Mi>s E. M. 
Hendrick^i, Miss Agne^ 
Ilesslinger, Miss M. 
Hibregtsen, Miss Nf. 
Hiser. Miss Elizabeth 
Hitchcock, Miss Lizzie A 
Hoffman, Miss I. L. 
Hoehn, Miss Amelia ('. 
Hoekstra, Miss Sietske 
Hoekstra, Miss Eli/a 



.>o 


Assistant 


2H 


tt 


17 


tt 


High 


tt 


13 


tt 


Pr. & Kg. 


Supervi.«4()r 


High 


Assistant 


^9 


Principal 


34 


Assistant 


8 


Kg. - 


3 


Assistant 


15 


4» 


18 


• » 


> ■? 


ft4 


-/ 




34 


*» 


27 


»• 


1 ^ 


(i 


':5 




9 


K" 




Assistant 


■> -' 


it 


-/ 




3^ 


t. 


7 


t . 


4 


t. 


9 


tk 


iS 


tt 


30 


Principal 


30 


Kg. Directress 



322 l.*:xington Avenue 

140 Jay Street 

935 ^^^^ Street 
23 Prospect Street 
54 Hickor}' Street 
207 East Avenue 
66 Chaml)erlain Street 
zi^i^ Garson Avenue 
32 Smith Street 
1^3 Park Avenue 
I2«; Clifton Street 
30 Somerset Street 
21 Madison Street 
30 Hamilton Street 
202 Jay tStreet 
811 Main Street East 
2 5<) Monroe Avenue 
266 Troup Street 
34 Austin Street 
184 N. Union Street 
y)(i Hay ward .\ venue 
354 Lexington Avenue 

141 Adams Street 

66 Cuml-erland Street 
42 Lincoln Street 
5 Cameron Street 
157 Chestnut Street 



231 



Namr of Tbachek. 



Hogan, Miss K. 
Holcomb, Miss L. M. 
Hoppe, Miss L. C. 
Hoppe, Miss Margaret, 
Home, Miss Hallie 
Howard, Miss Matie C. 
Howard, Miss A. C. 
Howe, Miss Margaret T. 
Howe, Miss Mary H- 
Howe, Mlss Sarah W. 
Howell, Miss Jennie M. 
Hoyt, Miss Harriet E. 
Hubbell, Mr. Benjamin, jr. 
Huck, Miss Margaret, j. 
Hughes, Miss Helen A . 
Hughes, Miss M. F. 
Hunt, MLss C. Ella 
Humphrey, Miss Ethel 



School. 


Position. 


19 


Assistant 


19 
33 

33 


i4 

Principal 
Assistant 


3 
8 


ti 


34 


1 ii 


35 


ti 


12 


tt 


N.T. S. 


ti 


24 
26 


it 

tt 


High 
18 


tt 
it 


20 

27 


Kg. - 
Assistant 


32 
3 


it 
Kg. - 



Rbsidbncb. 



23 Glasgow Street 

180 Lake Avenue 
485 Alexander Street 
485 Alexander Street 
30 Birr Street 

312 Oak Street 

181 Saratoga Avenue 

94 S. Washington Street 

^^^ Alexander Street 

222 Alexander Street 

59 Hamilton Street 

163 Meigs Street 

650 Main Street East 

1 39 Spencer Street 

57 Jay Street 

51 Jay Street 

171 Troup Street 

6 Mount Pleasant Park 



I 



Inman. Miss Amy I). 
Irwin, Miss A. C. 



20 
13 



Assistant 



it 



416 Clinton Avenue N 
42 Gregory Street 



Jenkins, Miss Lilian M. 
Jennings, Miss Adella 
Jennings, Miss Anna 
Johns, Miss F. Emma 
Johnson, Miss Emily A. 
Jones. Miss A. V. M. 
Jones, Miss L. 
Joslyn. Miss Celia M. 
Joy, Miss Julia L. 



22 


Principal 


^8 


Assistant 


8 


it 


30 


tt 


32 


Principal 


27 


tt 


19 


Assistant 


18 


tt 


10 


it 



19 Grant Street 
82 Chatham Street 
82 Chatham Street 
283 Orchard Street 
146 FVank Street 
203 Fulton Avenue 
81 Bartlett Street 
210 Edinburgh Street 
1 1 Edgewood Park 



K 



Kaessmann, Miss H. 
Kane, Miss Annie ¥. 


36 


Principal 
Assistant 


Kane, Miss Libbie M. 


6 


t( 


Kay, Miss Miriam A. 
Kay, Miss Mary 
Keele, Miss A. E. 


7 
30 
17 




Kehoe, Miss Marie A. 


5 




Keogh, Miss M. 
Keogh, Miss Martha M. 
Kermode, Miss Harriet M. 


'3 
26 

20 




Kislingbur>s Miss Enid 
Kohlmetz, Miss E. 


23 
8 




Koehler, Miss Annie M. 


4 




Kostbahn, Miss Josie 


32 





54 Ciibbs Street 

102 Spring Street 

102 Spring Street 

167 Lexington Avenue 

167 l^xington Avenue 

96 Walnut Street 

270 (^k Street 

58 Hickory Street 

20 Hyde Park 

154J4 S.Goodman Street 

106 Frost Avenue 

17 Hart Street 

283 Brown Street 

93 Clarissa Street 



230 



Name of Tfaciihr. 



Gibbons, MiJis A. N. 
Clifford, Miss N. J. 
Gillette, Miss CM. 
Gillis' Miss K. 
Gilson, Miss J. E. 
Glenn. I'rof. F. K. 
Glover, Mis.s B. M. 
Goddard. Miss Fanny C 
(jolden. Miss I. T. 
(lolden. Miss Martha 
Goodenough, Miss L. Lelhi 
(joodman. Miss J. 
(joodwin, Miss P^tta M. 
Goodwin, Miss L. M. 
Gordon, Miss C. L. 
Gorsline. Miss L. P. 
(losnell. Miss Elizalx;th 
Gosnell, Miss Hattie L. 
(iosnell. Miss Iza J. 
Gosnell, Miss SusanneJ. 
Goss, Miss F. 
Gray, Mr. M. I). 
Green, Miss Kate E. 
Greenwood, Miss Margaret 
Gregory', Miss H. E. 
Gruman, Miss E. M. 
(iutmann. Miss F. 



iCHOOL. 


Position. 


Rbsidbnck. 


High 


Assistant 


97 Ambrose Street 


>7 1 


,4 


20 New York Street 


13 


it 


61 Griffi'.h Street 


13 


i. 


227 Caledonia Avenue 


3 


H 


62 Frost Avenue 


High 


ii 


36 Meigs Street 


15 


li 


67 Alexander Street 


22 


t% 


87 Avenue D 


17 


>i 


24 Clifton Street 


3^> 


• t 


24 Clifton Street 


24 


(I 


81 Orange Street 


19 


k. 


84 Hickory Street 


18 


»i 


181 N. Union Street 


3 


ki 


^} Upton Park 


M.T. 


,« 


27 Tracy Street 


15 


• i 


45 Pearl Street 


10 


t> 


53 Ontario Street 


4 


t. 


147 Atkinson Street 


18 


,, 


23 Ontario Street 


35 


i» 


147 Atkinson Street 


15 


It 


Burke Terrace 


High 


«, 


4 Canfield Place 


29 


i( 


75 Sherman Street 


20 


ta 


<>o S. Union Street 


3 


,t 


105 Plymouth Avcni*' 


High 


(> 


36 Rowley Street 


M. T. 


(, 


73 Kenilworth Terra*! 



H 



Ilaller, Miss Julia 
Hamilton, Miss Nellie M. 
Hamilton, Mi.ss N. J. 
Hanna, Miss J. P. 
Ilanna, Miss S. 
Harris, Miss A. V. S. 
Harris, }*rof. C. E. 
Harris, Miss Mattie C. 
Harris, Mrs. A. G. 
Harris, Miss Margaret 
Harrison, Mrs. 11a G. 
Haskins. Mi.«4S M. A. 
Hayes, Miss Emma A. C. 
Hayes, Miss E. R. 
Haves, Mi^^ K. A. 
Heath, Miss M. E. 
Hebbard, Miss A. 
Henckell, Miss E. M. 
Hendricks, Mis.s Agnes 
Hesslinger, Miss M. 
Hibrcgtsen, Miss M. 
Hiser. Miss Elizabeth 
Hitchcock, Miss l,izzie A. 
Hoffman. Miss J. L. 
Hoehn, Miss Amelia C. 
Hoekstra, Miss Siet^kc 
Hoeksira, Miss Eliza 



30 


Assistant 


29 


i> 


17 


*, 


High 


(i 


13 


,t 


Pr. & Kg. 


Supervisor 


High 


Assistant 


-'9 


Princii)al 


34 


.\ssistanl 


8 


Kg. - 


3 


Assistant 


»5 


ft k 


18 


kfc 


^7 


kfc 


34 


i4 


-> -r 


i« 


- 1 




'5 


t» 


9 


Kg. - 




Assi>tant 


■> -* 


tt 


-/ 




?>:> 


kk 


•* 


k k 


/ 




4 


it 


'> 


(k 


iS 


kt 


30 


Principal 


30 


Kg. Directress 



322 lA^xington x\venii 

140 Jay Street 
935 ^^^ Street 

23 Prospect Street 
54 Hickory Street 
207 East Avenue 
66 Chamlxirlain Stret-t 
2-}^^ Garson Avenue 
•}^2 Smith Street 
93 Park Avenue 
I2(; Clifton Street 
39 Somerset Street 
21 Madison Street 
30 Hamiltoit Street 
202 Jay Street 
81 1 Main Street East 
2 5() Monroe Avenue 
266 Troup Street 
34 Austin tSireel 
184 N. Union .Street 
506 Hay ward Avenue 
354 l-*xington Avenue 

141 Adams Street 

66 Cuml>erland Street 
42 Lincoln Street 
5 Cameron Street 
157 Chestnut Street 



233 



Namr op Tbachbr. 



McGoveron, Miss Sarah 
McGowan, Miss Emma J. 
McGrath, Miss Alice K. 
McGaire, Miss Clara 
Mclntvre, Miss F. H. 
McKelvey, Miss Lois £. 
Mc Kearney, Miss I^uise 
McKittrick, Miss Grace 
McLean, Miss Lilian M. 
McMahon, Miss Theresa 
McMath, Miss A. L. 
Mc Morrow, Miss Mary 
McNab, Miss j. 
McNamara, Miss Catherine 
MCSweeney, Miss Laura 
McTaggart Miss Agnes L. 
Meagher, Miss F. M. 
Mellon, Miss Janet C. 
Metherell. Miss E. M. 
Meulendyke, Miss Jennie 
Meyer, Miss C. Maude 
Meyer, Miss M. M. 
Michelson, Miss Dora 
Millard, Miss Carrie B. 
MUler, Prof. L. IL 
Milliman, Miss L. G. 
Mills, Miss F. 
Mink, Miss Hattie C. 
Minges, Miss Mary F. 
Moloney, Miss Anna M. 
Monaghan, Miss M. A. 
Montgomery, Miss Florence 
Monlgomer)-, Miss R. H. 
Montgomer)*. Miss R. L. 
Moore. Miss Julia A. 
Moore, Miss Ida M. 
Moore, Miss Elizabeth F. 
Morgan, Miss Harriet E. 
Morgan. Miss C. 
Morris, Miss Jessie M. 
Morris, Miss May 
Moran, Miss Margaret B. 
Morel and. Miss Ignatia C. 
Moreland. Miss May 
Moshier, Miss Frances 
Moseley, Miss Esther 
Moseley, Miss Rose 
Moulthrop, Mr. S. P. 
Mudge, Miss Helen C. 
Munson, Miss E. L 
Munson, Miss Emma J. 
Murray, Miss Marie E. 
Murray, Miss May A. 
Murray, Miss May E. 
Murray, Miss M. E. 
Murray, W. W. 
Murphy, Miss Helen F. 
Murphy, Miss A. J. 
Murphy, Mij^s A. M. 



SCHCX>L. 


Position. 


, Krsidbnck. 


6 


Assistant 


29 Kenilworth Terrace 


N. T. S. 


,( 


24 Charlotte Street 


i8 


Kg. Assistant 


217 Spencer Street 


36 


Assisunt 


73 Emerson Street 


32 


Kg. Assistant 


25 Dartmouth Street 


6 


Assistant 


60 Spencer Street 


20 


., 


20 Marietta Street 


26 


,« 


4 Greig Street 


25 


>i 


73 Richmond Street 


High 


It 


63 Cypress Street 


%» 


«( 


20 William Street 


5 


.4 


274 Oak Street 


13 


ii 


84 Alexander Street 


22 


ti 


375 Clinton Avenue N. 


10 


(« 


814 Main Street East 


22 


tl 


53 Griffith Street 


27 


i. 


219 Jones Street 


26 


tl 


627 N. St. Paul Street 


9 


• t 


256 Mt. Hope Avenue 


22 


,. 


144 Avenue C. 


22 


.i 


29 Dele van Street 


27 


.» 


19 Dele van Street 


26 


tt 


79 Avenue A. 


23 


.1 


30 Tracy Street 


High 


t« 


182 (jregor)' Street 


t( 


tl 


100 Kenwood Avenue 


19 


It 


775 Genesee Street 


High 


t. 


354 University Avenue 




It 


57 Richmond Street 


21 


it 


21 1 Lyell Avenue 


13 
8 


It 

Kg. Directress 


1 1 I a Fayette Place 
102 Broadway 


High 


Assistant 


303 Alexander Street 


32 


It 


3(^0 Plymouth Avenue 


24 


tl 


2S2 Averill Avenue 


N. T. S. 


It 


72 Woodward Street 


24 


tt 


II South Union Street 


8 


(t 


30 Durgin Street 


"9 


tt 


53 Jefferson Avenue 


8 


tl 


Ridge Rf)ad, Irondequoit 


18 


It 


Ridge Road, Irondequoit 


25 


tl 


1 1 1 Frank St reet 


26 


tt 


3 Payne Street 


26 


Kg. " 


■\ Pavne Street 


3 


Assistant 


86 Adams Street 


5 


Kg. Directress 


30 Rowley Street 


26 


Assistant 


30 Rowley Street 


26 


IVincipal 


40 Phelps Avenue 


12 


Assistant 


240 Monroe Avenue 


High 


tt 


92 Adams Street 


4 


It 


92 Adams Street 


23 


tt 


470 Alexander Street 


26 


11 


8 Ixje Place 


26 


Kg. •' 


28 C'atherine Street 


27 


Assistant 


470 Alexander Street 


M. T. 


Supervisor 


571 (.'linton Ave. South' 


24 


Assistant 


77 Alexander Street 


9 


tt 


121 Kent Street 


6 


Kg. Directress 


70 Marshall .Street 



Namk op Tracher. 



Nagel, Miss U. J. 
Neafie, Miss H. C. 
Nell, Miss Cora 
Nelligan, Miss Julia F. 
Neville, Miss Mar)- J. 
Niblack, Miss C. L. 
Nicholls, Miss C. 
Nicholson, Mre. Anna M. 
Nicholson, Miss Luella B. 
Niven, Miss Margaret J. 
Niven, Miss Mary 
Niven. Miss Elizabeth A. 
Noyce, Miss Mabel C. 
Nugent, Miss Gertrude 





234 






N 




SCHOOI 


-• 1 

1 


Position. 


9 


1 


Assistant 


13 

High 




Kg. Directress 

Assistant 


20 




(( 


29 
9 




Kg. " 
Assistant 


12 




*( 


10 




*( 


22 

.4 




Kg. " 
Assistant 


29 

29 
26 






7 




(( 



Rrsidrnce. 



215 Joseph Avenue 

43 Richard Street 

17$ North Union Street 

9 Hand Street 
139 Sax ton Street 
52 Sophia Street 

10 Birch Crescent 
12 Franklin Square 

4 Sheridan Street 
190 "West Avenue 

10 Kenwood Avenue 
10 Kenwood Avenue 

5 Frederic Street 
137 Fulton Avenue 



O 



O'Brien, Miss Sadie L. 
O'Connor, Miss Agnes G. 
O'Connor, Miss £lizal)eth 
O'Connor. Miss M. L. 
O'Keefe, Miss Amelia E. 
O'Meara, Miss Eleanor G. 
O'Neil, Miss Ella G. 
Orcutt, Miss Helen W. 
O'Korke, Miss Bertie 
O'Rorke, Miss Phebe 
Osburn. Mr. John W. 
C)'Shea, Miss Fannv C. 
Otis. Miss Margaret 





12 


Assistant 




29 


i( 




29 


tt 




27 


«« 




31 


(i 




12 


(i 




8 


(i 


N. 


T. S. 


Instructor 




10 


Assistant 




20 


(( 




15 


Principal 




2 


A.*4sistant 



High 



70 Broadway 
32 Jefferson Avenue 
32 Jefferson Avenue 
104 Hamilton Street 
249 Smith Street 
34 Savannah Street 
26 Saxton Street 
1 1 Arnold Park 
34j^ Emmett Street 
40 Emmett Street 
61 Rowley Street 
273 Allen Street 
34 Vick Park. A. 



Parish, Mi.ss MalK*] 
Parsons, Miss C A. 
Patterson, Miss Ella M. 
l*ealK)dv. Miss Mal)el I.. 
Perrin, Miss Ella 
Perry, Miss Hattie K. 
Perrj', Miss Laura 
Perry, Miss A. M. 
Phaler, Miss Sophia M. 
Phillips, Miss E. A. 
Pierce. Colonel S. C. 
Pierce. Miss Del 
Pike, Miss M. 
Pljiss, Miss Anna A. 
Prendergast, Miss Mar)- 
Prescott. .Miss Nellie G. 
Preston, Miss losephine B, 
Ptice, Mr. W.R. 
Pruvn. Miss M. ('. 
Purcell, Miss Marv 
Pye, Mr. George \V. 
Pyott, Miss M. 11. 



30 


Assistant 


3 


(I 


N. T. S. 


(( 


10 


i( 


35 


(k 


4 


>« 


2^1 


ib 


15 


i« 


35 


*> 


M. T. 


(1 


4 


Principal 


12 


Assistant 


31 


«i 


a^ 


(i 


/ 






Kg. Directress 


High 


Assistant 


20 


t« 


High 


*• 


27 


\k 


High 


ii 


5 


Principal 


3 


Kg. Directress 



59 Saratoga Avenue 
184 Troup Street 
477 Alexander Street 
10 Birch Crescent 
63 Wilmington Street 
29 Gladstone Avenue 
1 13 \Vel>ster Avenue 

55 Brighton Street 
37 Central Park 

21 Park Avenue 
4(; (ireig Street 

56 Emerson Street 

4 Cambridge Street 
91 Ambrose Street 
iS C'ostar Street 

122 S. P'itzhugh Street 
62 Almira Street 
174 Alexander Street 
20 Matthews Street 

5 Birch Cre.scent 
58 Tacoma Street 
105 Troup Street 



235 



Q 



Name of Trachrr. 



Quick, Miss Gertrude 
Quinlan, Miss L. C. 



School. 



23 
9 



Position. 



Rkmdrncr. 



Assistant 174 William Street 
Kg. Directress 149 Atkinson Street 



R 



Keddington, Miss M. G. 
Redmond, Miss Elizabeth A 
Keichelt, Miss E. L. 
Reichenbach, Miss F. A. 
Remington, Mrs. E. P. 
Reuter, Miss Lilian 
Rice, Miss G. A. 
Rich, Mrs. II. A. 
Rickard, Miss Frances 
Roberts. Miss Florence E. 
Robertson, Miss Agnes J. 
Robinson, Miss Elizabeth J. 
Robinson, Miss V. F. 
Robinson, Mrs. H. M. 
Rogers, Miss Isabel 
Rogers, Miss Mabel S. 
Rogers, Miss Florence 
Rohde, Miss Edith J. 
Rohr, Miss Mary A. 
Ross, Miss A. L. 
Rossney, Miss A. L. 
Rothschild, Miss Sarah 
Rounds, Miss D. M. 
Russell. Miss Ivers L. 





Assistant 


57 Waverly Place 


21 
20 


It 


230 Spencer Street 
409 Clinton Avenue N 


19 

High 


Principal 
Assistant 


32 King Street 
1487 South Avenue 


ZZ 


%\ 


104 Park Avenue 


13 
32 


Kg. Directress 


55 Gregory Street 
22 Gardiner Park 


22 


Assistant 


8 Grove Street 


N. T. S. 


(t 


36 Park Avenue 


20 


K 


3 Hart Stieet 


29 


it 


65 Kenwood Avenue 


34 
13 




173 Maryland Street 
48 Howell Street 


High 

N. T. S. 


Kg. '• 

Assistant 


87 Prince Street 
87 Prince Street 
87 Prince Street 


10 


Assistant 


89 Nassau Street 


25 


(i 


159 Portland Avenue 


9 
»9 


t( 
.4 


25 Prospect Street 
155 Genesee Street 


11 


it 


451 Central Avenue 


High 


t. 


12 Gibbs Street 


10 


it 


9 Amherst Street 



Salmon, Miss Jennie E. 
.Salter, Miss A. 
Samain, Miss Helen Y . 
Saunders, Miss Kate M. 
Schaefer, Miss I^uise A . 
.Schake, Miss Ia)uise C. 
Scheib, Miss Lillie E. 
Schwartz, Miss P. A. 
Schwarz, Miss Harriet H, 
Schwarz, Miss Rebecca 
Schooley, Miss Jane M. 
Scofield, Miss C. C. 
Scott, Miss Edith \. 
Schwendler, Miss Sarah 
Scofield, Miss Harriet C. 
Searing, Mr. Richard .\. 
Sedgwick, Miss Alice 
Seitz, Miss Maud 
.Servoss, Miss Carrie V.. 
Shaffer, Miss A. 



31 


Assistant 


19 

4 
26 


k. 

Principal 

Kg. Directress 

Assistant 


2^Z 
26 


t. 
t. 


9 , 
10 


tt 
tt 


12 


1 1 


27 

N.T.S. 


Kg. " 
Critic 


High 


Assistant 


31 
N. T. S. 


t. 
Principal 


22 


Assistant 


6 


Kg. " 
Assistant 


M. T. 


(.' 



21 Milburn Street 
52 PVost Avenue 
34 Reynolds Street 
46 Maple Street 
1 1 5 Genesee Street 
73"\Veld Street 
54 Hudson Avenue 
21 Catherine Street 
292 Monroe Avenue 
292 Monroe Avenue 
82 IJroadway 
30 Huenna Place 
274 Monroe Avenue 
8 Meigs Street 
135 Park Avenue 
47S Alexander Street 
25 Jay .Street 
27 Avenue E 
29 Ravine Avenue 
135 Plymouth Avenue 



236 



Name of Trachrk. 



Shanley, Miss M. F. 
Shatz, Miss Josephine 
Sharpe, Miss Mary F. 
ShaWf Miss Harriet 
Shaw, Miss Ella M. 
Shea, Miss K. 
Shebbeare, Miss E. 
Shedd, Miss J. M. 
Shelton, Miss Sarah 
Shumway, Miss Anna B. 
Sickels, Miss Jessi« II, 
Sike, Miss Nellie A. 
Simmons, Miss Ruby J. 
Simpson, Miss Anna 
Smith, Miss K. A. 
Smith, Miss (iertrude C. 
Smith, Miss F. L. 
Smith, Miss S. Jessie 
Smith, Miss Anna E. 
Smith, Miss Erminia A. 
Smith, Miss Ella A. 
Hnell, Miss I^uraR. 
Sontag, Miss Minnie A. 
Southard. Miss Adelvn 
Sparlin, Mr. E. M. 
Speis, Miss Nellie E. 
Spinning, Miss Sarah H. 
Sprague, Miss Lilian (). 
Stark, Miss Olivene 
Stapleton. Miss M. 
Stede, Miss L. Alictr 
Sleenckcn, Miss H. 
Stevenson, Miss B. H. 
Sterling. Miss Mary A. 
Stewart, Miss Isabel 
Stewart, Miss A. M. 
St. Helens. Miss Sarah 
St. John, Miss Alice M. 
St. John, Miss Jennie B. 
Stone, Miss Jennie V. 
Stone. Miss l^eulah 
Stoll, Miss Marcella K. 
Stone, Miss H. E. 
Strauchen, Miss Harriet 
Strt»wger. Miss Jennie K. 
Sullivan, Miss Emma 
Sweeting, Miss C. Belle 



Sc-HOitL. 


Position. 


8 


Assistant 


High 


ii 


26 


it 


33 


a 


12 


i« 


19 


t. 


7 


(, 


M. T. 


(i 


18 


Principal 


30 


Assistant 


25 


t> 


5 


(4 


2 


Kg. Directress 


22 


Assistant 


17 


it 


iS 


(t 


3 


t( 


2 


«, 


4 


it 


12 


>i 


N.T. S. 


>« 


8 


Principal 


23 


Assistant 


33 


ti 


9 


Principal 


4 


Assistant 


20 


Kg. - 


N.T.S. 


Vice- Principal 


5 


Assistant 


>9 


ii 


26 


,i 


27 


*i 


'3 


it 


N.T.S. 


ii 


10 


>i 


■^ 


i. 


."> 




30 


., 


-5 


• 4 


29 


ii 


i8 


Kg. " 


35 


Kg. - 


26 


.Assistant 


-7 


,. 


S 


>i 


■y 


ii 


.?> 


ii 


10 


it 



Kksidknc'R. 



127 Fulton Avenue 
37 Buenna Place 

75 Driving Park Avenue 
189 Harvard Street 

240 Monroe Avenue 

28 Glasgow Street 
101 Ravine Avenue 
16 Fairview Heights 
20 Wind.sor Street 
141 Spencer Street 
780 University Avenue 
817 Main Street East 
36 Rowley Street 
1077 ^t. Paul Street 
275 Brown Street 

23 Amherst Street 
12 Gibbs Street 
252 Troup Street 
252 Troup Street 
97 Chestnut Street 
121 Weld Street 

29 Clifford Street 
20 Upton Park 

zy^ Arlington Street 

474 Alexander Street 
81 Clarissa Street 

41 Martin Street 

475 Alexander Street 
32 Frank Street 

76 Frost Avenue 
25 Marietta Street 
6 Augustine Street 
145 Meigs Street 

179 I^bumam Crescent 
202 Laburnam Crescent 
240 Caledonia Avenue 
II Walnut Street 
52 Broadway 
52 Broadway 

135 Jay Street 

14 Gorsline Street 
46 Sullivan Street 
27 Birch Cre.scent 
5 Brinker Place 
14S l\)rtland Avenue 

136 Adams Street 
284 Oak Street 



Tailing, Mis^ Arna 






3- 




Assistant 


Tamblingson, Miss I^uise 


M. 


N 


T. 


S. 


(t 


Taylor. Mi.s.s M. A. 






15 




Kg. Directress 


Thayer, Miss Maud R. 






31 




Assistant 


Thorne. Miss S. M. 






17 




Kg. ; 


Toaz, Miss E. 1). 






15 




Assistant 


Toa/, Miss J. B. 






3- 




ii 



65 Tremont Street 
47S Alexander Street 

13 Cirove Street 

231 Saratoga .\venue 
439 State Street 

14 .Arch Street 
14 Arch Street 



237 



Xamk oh Teacher. 



Toaz, Miss C. K. 
Tomlin, Miss Alice M. 
Tower, Miss L. I). 
Towniey, Mrs. K. 
Toi^Tisend, Mr. J. L. 
Trant, Miss Katherine 
Travis, Miss Josephine 
Tuohey, Miss Susie 
Tuttle, Miss Elizabeth 
Turrell. Miss Lilian B. 
Tyler. Mrs. Genevieve E. 
Twist. Mi.ss Ida A. 



School. 



34 

30 
6 

26 

22 

26 

27 

26 
35 



Position. 


Rksiuknck. 


«( 


14 Arch Street 


14 


21 Hudson Avenue 


it 


' 567 Averill Avenue 


i( 


20oTremont Street 


Principal 
Assistant 


64 Plymouth Avenue 
70 Pearl Street 


(( 


85 Frost Avenue 


it 


36 Catherine Street 

I Thayer Street 

73 Richmond Street 


*t 


202 University Avenue 
21 Caroline Street 



Van Dake, Miss E. W. 
Van Ingen, Mi.ss Elizabeth 
Van Ingen, Miss Matie 
Van Ingen, Miss B. D. 
Van Ingen. Miss Fanny 
Vayo, Miss Carrie 1. 
Van Zandt. Miss Minnie J. 
Van Zandt, Mi.ss M. R. 
Verhoeven. Miss M. P. 
Vogel, Miss Carrie L. 
Vosburgh, MLss Minnie 1.. 



J 


.\ss!stant 


6 


(( 


7 


it 


N.T.S. 


Kg. Critic 


36 


Kg. Directress 


29 


Assistant 


M. T. 


it 


High 


ii 


19 


ii 


26 


it 
ii 



29 



50 Howell Street 
274 Frank Street 
274 Frank Street 
29 Hudson Avenue 
29 Hudson Avenue 
139 (ienesee Street 
15 Harper Street 
99 South Union Street 
14 Joiner Street 
198 Frank Street 
7 King Street 



W 



Wade, Miss Elizabeth 
Walden, Mr. (leorge H. 
Wall, Mi.ss Inez A. 
Wallace, Miss E. E. 
Wallace, Miss Ella J. 
Wallace, Miss Josephine 
Ward, Miss Minnie V. 
Warren. Mr. J. B. 
W^atson. Miss Katherine L. 
W^ay, Mr. Mark W. 
Weaver. Mi.^^s Jennie E. 
Weed, Miss Minnie G. 
W^ellman, Miss M. R. 
Wetmore, Mrs. E. P. 
Wetmf«re, Miss K. S. 
Wetmore, Mi.ss G. 
Wegman, Miss A. L. 
Wheeler. Mi.ss C. M. 
White, Mi.^is M. T. 
Whiting, Miss B. U. 
Whit on, Mi.»*s Julia F. 
Wickham, Miss E. E. 
Wile. Prof. A. J. 
Wilcox, Prof. A. H. 
Wilkin.*4on, Miss J. F. 
Wilkinson, Miss L. I). 



8 


Kg. A.ssistant 


10 


Principal 


4 


A.ssi.stant 


Sewing 


Supervisor 


26 


Assistant 


26 


Kg. " 


7 


Kg. Directress 


7 


Principal 


22 


Assistant 


20 


Principal 


18 


Assi.stant 
ii 


/ 
3 


it 


High 


.i 


High 


ii 


19 


Kg. Directress 


32 


Assistant 


34 


«• 


9 


»« 


M. T. 


ift 


23 


I'rincipal 


8 


Assistant 


High 


ti 


High 


Principal 


15 


Assistant 


10 


ii 



80 Ambrose Street 
63 Edmonds Street 
^^ Aniett Street 
22 Catherine Street 
356 St. Paul Street 
22 Catherine iStreet 
I3g Driving Park Ave. 
481 Alexander Street 
558 St. Paul Street 
61 North Union Street 
463 Central Avenue 
41 Avenue B 
91 Adams Street 
49 (ireig Street 
84 South Fitzhugh St. 
713 Lyell Avenue 
146 Adams .Street 
37 P'inch Street 
207 Adams Street 
27 Tracy .Street 
46 Meigs Street 
142 Adams Street 
509 Parsells Avenue 
10 Brighton 
19 South Union Street 
19 South Union Street 



238 



Namk op Tkaciibr. 



Wilson, Miss E. C. 
Wilson, Miss Emma C. 
W'iley, Miss Belle 
WUliams, Miss H. S. 
Willson, Miss Edna Dean 
Williams, Miss Josephine 
Wood, Miss Mae 
Wooden, Miss E. T. 
W^ooden. Miss L. 
Wright, Miss Frances 
Wright, Miss May M. 



School. 


Position. 


Rbsidbnck. 


6 


Assistant 


* 

65 Spencer Street 


4 


*t 


37 Eagle Street 


N.T.S 


*« 


153 South Union Street 


15 


(t 


45 Pearl Street 


23 


(t 


149 Park Avenue 


36 


i( 


30 Avenue B 


33 


Kg Directress 


462 Parsells Avenue 


19 


Assistant 


1 73 Wooden Street 


M.T. 


it 


173 Wooden Street 


3 


»» 


27 Sandford Street 


24 


t( 


27 Sandford Street 




S 


Assistant 


N.T.S. 




26 




High 




12 




30 


Kg. " 



4 1 Avenue C 
23 Linden Street 
8.1 Selye Terrace 
149 Adams Street 
56 Emerson Street 
1 1 7 Chili Avenue 



FIFTY-THIRD 
ANNUAL REPORT 

1 OP IHt 

ioard of Education 




CITY OF ROCHESTER 



238 



Namu (tv Tkachrr. 



Wilson, Miss E. C. 
Wilson, Miss Emma C. 
Wiley, Miss Belle 
Williams, Miss H. S. 
Willson, Miss Edna Dean 
Williams, Miss Josephine 
W^ood, Miss Mae 
Wooden. Miss E. T. 
Wooden, Miss L. 
Wright, Miss Frances 
Wright, Miss May M. 



SC1I(X>L. 


Fosi 


TION. 


6 


Assistant 


4 
N.T. S 


1 




»5 

33 

»9 
M. T. 


•* 

(4 

Kg Directress 
Assistant 


3 

24 







RasiDsw 



65 Spencer Street 
37 Eagle Street 
152 South Union 
45 Pearl Street 
149 Park Avenue 
30 Avenue B 
462 Parsells Avenue 
173 Wooden Street 
173 Wooden Street 
27 Sandford Street 
27 Sandford Street 



Vaeckel, Miss Ix)uise 
Yawger, Miss E. M. 
Vost. Miss S. E. 
Young, Miss L. E. 
Young, Miss Ida C. 
Young, Miss Frances 



s 


Assistant 


N.T. S. 


%» 


26 


ti 


High 


ti 


12 


it 


30 


Kg. " 



41 Avenue C 
23 Linden Street 
8.1 Selye Terrace 
149 Adams Street 
56 Emerson Street 
1 1 7 Chili Avenue 



i 



THE FIFTY-THIRD 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



BOARD OF EDUCATION 



OF THE CITY OF 



ROCHESTER, NEW YORK 



FOR THE YEARS 



1903, 1904. 



Comprising the Reports of the President of the Boafd of 

Education and of the Supekintenoknt of S( hools; the Course 

<jF Study and a Directory ov the Teaciikks: the Law 

UNDER \VHICH THE SCHOOLS ARE OU(iAM/En: THE Rl'LES 

FOR THE Government of the Schools. 



I.J. ■ - ' 






ASTCn. L^INO/ .\»'0 
TILDCN F ;U?;L AT ..).,S. 



BOARD OF EDUCATION, 190^ 



President, 
Secretary, 



Andrew J. Townson 

J S. MULLAN 



Superintendent of Schools, 



Clarence F. Carroll 



George G. Carroll, M. D., 
302 West Avenue. 

\Vm. Bausch, 

537 St. Paul Street. 

George M. Forbes, 

University of Rochester. 

Helen B. Montgomery, 
233 Westminster Road. 

Andrew J. Townson, 
Main Street East. 



Terra 
Hxpires 

1905 



1907 



1907 



1905 



1905 



5 



ANNUAL REPORT 

— OF — 

Commissioner A. J. Townson 

President of the Board of Education 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
1904 

rMembers of the Voard of FAiucation : 

As the fifth year of our association on this Board draws to a close 
it may be of interest and encouragement to recall some of the things 
begun and completed during our term of office. 

Building Operations. 

Since 1900 there have been erected five large grammar schools at 
a cost of $278,000. Substantial additions to four other buildings have 
been built at a cost of $77,000. 

About $8,000 have been expended in order to replace outside closets 
by those within the building, and to substitute modern and sanitary 
closets for those that were antiquated and offensive 

Assembly halls have been built or fitted up in ten schools in addition 
to those that are provided in all the new school buildings. 

Land has been purchased to enlarge the school grounds of five 
^hools. In some cases this has been done to protect the light of the 
school rooms from encroaching buildings, and in some to provide for 
the future growth of the school. It has been possible to secure land 
^^r this purpose at a low figure that otherwise the city must later 
^^^uire at far greater expense, as we know from sad experience. New 
^'tes have been purchased for four grammar schools and two high 
schools. In all, we have expended in the purchase of land $125,875 00. 

One high school building has been built and equipped, and we have 
"^d the satisfaction of knowing that experts pronounce it one of the 
"^<^st successful buildings of its class in the country. To the discussion 
^^d illustration of the heating and ventilating plants of this building 
^»^e foremost engineering monthly devoted its leading article for two 
issues. The cost of this building to the present time, excWswc ol \\\^ 



site, was $252,00x3.00. To furnish it and equip its many laboratories, 
gymnasia, lunch room and library cost J>38,6oo.oo more. The West 
High School, built on substantially the same plan, is not yet completed, 
Dut on its erection we have already expended $197,000.00. 

All these expenditures have been met from the regular annual 
appropriations from city and State provided for by law, wath the excep- 
tion of $260,000.00 derived from the sale of bonds borrowed on the 
city*5 credit. 

To meet this amount when the bonds come due we already have 
laid aside in our sinking fund $120,000.00. For the purpose of meeting 
this loan we annually lay aside $30,000.00, and ultimately the entire 
expense of these high schools will have been met out of the regular 
annual appropriation. The bond issue simply makes it possible for us 
to distribute the financial burden over the appropriations of ten years. 

During the past year, as in the four preceding, the building problem 
has been one of the most serious confronting us The phenomenal 
growth in high school attendance which followe 1 the improved equip- 
ment and organization of the schools has compelled the erection of the 
second high school building. In June of 1900 the average number 
belonging of high school pupils was 790. During the past month it 
was 1,617. The reports of the principals indicate that there will be an 
entering class of 300 this coming February, and a conservative esti- 
mate brings the number of pupils enrolled next September to 2,000. 

A few years will see the end of the extraordinary demand upon th< 
building fund, created in large part because for many years the appro- 
priations for school buildings were not adequate to the needs of a grow 
ing city. We have erected buildings absolutely required. It ha— 
seemed the part of sound economy to build solidly and well so that th- 
work would not need to be redone. To meet even these pressing neec 
has strained the resources of the Board. Things which we could wi 
to have done have been obliged to wait until we had a roof over th 
children*s head. 

Buildings Proposed. 

Nor are these needs yet fully met. The northeastern quarter of 

the city must be the one next demanding our attention. The erecti _on 
of a building for School No. 9 is the first thing to be done. Here= it^ 
one of the largest schools in the city, located in a thickly populatz:^ ed 
section, and needing for its work the best equipment that the city c=r .in 
provide. Next in order would come the enlargement ot School 36 a__ Tkd 
the relief of Schools 22 and 26 by enlargement or by the building o^^ a 
new school further out to care for this rapidly growing section. 




In considering the educational features of the last year's work we 
find comparatively few changes, and yet certain matters are important 
enough to justify their separate mention in this brief report. 

Central Library. 

One of the most important has been the change in regard to the 
Central Library. For years this had been maintained by school funds 
as a circulating and reference library for the general public. The 
attention of the Board was called to the fact that this was contrary to 
law in a letter received from State Superintendent Skinner. In this 
he said : ** I am informed that the school library in the City of Roch- 
ester is maintained as a public circulating library, and I therefore write 
to inform you that the maintenance of this library for the general pub- 
lic is directly contrary to law." The law from which quotations were 
made in his letter p ovides that ** the school library shall be part of 
the school equipment and shall be kept in the school building at all 
times and shall not be used for a circulating library e>:cept that, so far 
as the rules fixed by the State Superintendent shall allow, teachers 
and school officers or pupils may borrow from the said library any book 
not needed for reference in the school room." 

The communication of the State Superintendent was referred to 
the Corporation Counsel. His opinion stated that the "statute seems 
to contemplate a library for the use of pupils and scholars in attendance 
in the public schools, and I apprehend the Board of Education fully 
performed its duty in giving the scholars the facilities for making use 
of the library it maintains." Tke requirements of the law thus brought 
to our attention by the State Superintendent were so plain that no 
considerations regarding the length of time that the illegal custom had 
been maintained or the warm regard in which the library was held 
by the citizens could weigh against our duty thus made clear. 

We therefore discontinued the general circulating and reference 

library so long established, and turned to plans for the founding of 

school libraries such as may be legitimately maintained by school 

funds. In this connection it is a pleasure to speak of the long and 

/faithful service rendered by the librarian, Mrs. Katharine Dowling 

and her assistants, Miss Goodwin, Mr. Bemis and Mr. Teller. Their 

Unfailing courtesy and interest had made many warm friends for the 

Ubrary among its patrons, and it could not but be a painful d.ity 

that devolved upon us in bringing to an end an institution which 

liad meant so much in the higher life of the city. We share with 

^11 good citizens the regret that the municipality of Rochester is 

not doing anything to maintain a public library. 



School Libraries. 

Plans are already matured to carry out the recommendation of 
the State Superintendent that collections " of generous size and of 
suitable character be placed in every study room in the city." The 
High Schools and Normal Training School have received a large 
number of -valuable reference books on literature, history, education, 
art, and science from the distribution of books belonging to the 
Central Library. From the remainder, the books suited to the pur- 
pose have been distributed among the grade schools where they will 
form the nucleus of a school library. 

With the fund available from our appropriation each year it is 
proposed to equip grade libraries for each grade. The books will 
be carefully selected from the very best of old and new. They will 
include fiction, history, biography, travel, poetry, and nature. These 
books will be carefully adapted to the tastes and interests of the 
children, and may by them be drawn out for reading at home. A 
beginning will be made this coming year in equipping the fourth 
and fifth grades, and each succeeding year other grades will be 
supplied until there is a good circulating library of the best books 
carefully chosen, accessible to the children of every grade in the 
city. The plan of supplying these grade libraries has been in suc- 
cessful operation in Buffalo, Pittsburg, and many other cities ; and 
experience has shown that a much larger number of children are 
benefited than when they are obliged to go to a centrally located 
library to draw books. 

Truant Schools. 

Another important change during the past year has been that 
in the organization c»f the Truant School. The members of the 
Board have long been dissatisfied with the traditional method of 
handling the truancy question. The experiment made during the 
past year has proved so successful that we hope a contribution has 
been made toward the final working out of this many-sided problem. 
The old truant school building with its dormitories and its barred win- 
dows has been given up. In its place a room for truants has been 
opened in School No. 26. Here under the care of a skillful teacher 
the truant boys are given individual training and attention. When- 
ever their improvement warrants the boys are promoted into the 
regular school grades. Regularity of attendance is secured, the boy's 
interest aroused, and often wonderfully rapid progress is made. 
Indeed the transfer to the truant school is often the turning point 
in the boy's school life. Our experience has not shown that these 



boys are for the most part vicious. In many cases truancy has 
been occasioned by mortification over poor clothing, or by such 
backwardness in his studies as places the boy with children far 
younger than hinjself. Sometimes the inability to readily under- 
stand or use English is a predisposing cause, and sometimes the 
mere lack of any firm control in the boy's home. Whatever the 
cause, most of the boys yield readily to firm control and kindness, 
and under individual instruction are soon able to be sent back again 
to the grades. High praise is due to Miss C. J. Martens, the 
teacher of these restless lads, and to Colonel Moulthrop, whose firm 
control has made much of the success possible. 

Night Schools. 

The new compulsory education law has still further increased 
the urgency of the need for night schools. By the provisions of 
the law, boys or girls under sixteen who are working in factories 
and have not completed their grammar school course are obliged to 
attend night school. In anticipation of increased attendance there 
was opened last fall in School No. 13 the fourth night .school. This 
with the schools located in Nos. 4, 5 and 26 with the night high 
school on Fitzhugh Street, gives us five well equipped schools. 
The number of pupils has increased three-fold during the past four 
years, and the quality of the work accomplished has steadily improved. 
There are large classes of Russians, Poles, Germans and Italians 
learning to read and write English. There are classes in bookkeep- 
ing, stenography, mechanical drawing, electrical science, arithmetic, 
history, geography, vocal music, carpentry, sloyd, dressmaking, sew- 
ing, millinery and cooking. Certificates are given on the completion 
of a subject, and pupils regularly promoted from the grades to the 
evening high school. 

Manual Training. 

By the employment of two new teachers it has been possible to 
give to the boys of the seventh and eighth grades two hours instead 
of one hour each week for manual training. The increase in time will 
greatly further the efficiency of the manual training work and will not 
^ake time that really counted for other studies. After the boy returned 
^rom his hour in the manual training room the short and broken period 
^t the close of the afternoon session was of comparatively little value. 
The good results achieved in this department are, I am sure, a source 
^^ gratification to us all, and reflect great credit on the Supervisor, 
Mr. Murray, and on his assistants. 



10 

Sewing. 

The exhibit of sewing work held just before the Christmas holidays 
in the Board rooms was a surprise and delight to all who saw it. Miss 
Steiger has succeeded in securing practical work, aitd at the same time 
is constantly educating the child's taste and discrimination in the choice 
of fabric and color. 



Music. 

Twice through the resignation of the supervisor cf music it has 
seemed that it would be impossible to satisfactorily fill the place left 
vacant. Yet thro-^gh a singular good fortune in each case a sticccssor 
has been found to carry on and develop without a break the work 
already ably begun. When Miss Hofer was called to New York, Miss 
de Laittrc stepped in to fill her place. And when, after two years of 
brilliantly successful work, Miss de Laitte's marriage left us again 
wjthout a supervisor of music, we were able to find one who could 
carry on the work without a break and with equal acceptance to teach- 
ers and pupils. Mrs. Clement and her assistant, Miss Snyder, are 
developing and strengthening the course in many ways. The chorus 
singing in the high school, the training of the pupil-teachers in the 
Normal School, the thorough drill in the reading and writing of music 
in the grades are all ]X)ints that arc receiving special emphasis this 
year. Too much credit can not be given to the grade teachers who 
have so loyally ciM^peratcd to make this new, and to many of them 
difficult subject a success. 

Drawing. 

In no department of the schools have more rapid strides been made 
during the past four years than in drawing. Indeed Rochester is 
already receiving recognition as among the foremost cities in the 
country in this line. During the past year special attention has been 
given to the correlation of drawing and color work with manual train- 
ing, with English composition, and with all the studies. It has been 
the aim of the Board to strengthen the work by putting within reach 
of both teachers and pupils the best text-bor)ks and helps. The prac- 
tical nature of the subject and its vital connection with the industrial 
arts is daily becoming more evident. The exhibit of our work recently 
sent to Syracuse to the State meeting attracted wide attention and 
most flattering comment, and our Supervi.sor, Miss Lucas, was honored 
by election to the head of the State Drawing Teachers' Association. 



II 

Physical Training. 

From our Normal Training School outward we are gradually work- 
ing toward a rational and practical system of physical training that 
shall do for the children's bodies what other studies do for their minds. 
By free play and calisthenics, by deep breathing and marching and by 
rhythmic exercises it is sought to make the child erect and strong, to 
quicken the circulation of his blood, and strengthen his sense-percep- 
tion. Miss Newton, through the institutes and in the schools, is 
gradually introducing the best that we can get in the way of physical 
exercise. There is room for further development of this most import- 
ant branch ; as feeble, poorly nourished and ill-developed bodies are 
back of much of the failure in school life. The gymnasia for boys and 
girls are now well organized and successfully conducted in the High 
School by Dr. Pollard and Miss Dumont. The hour in the gymnasium 
is a stated appointment, a part of the regular curriculum, from which 
only a physician's order excuses any pupil The good effect on the 
health of boys and girls is already apparent. 

New Courses in High School. 

There are one or two of our plans for the future of which it may be 
well to speak at this time. Perhaps the most important departure 
will be the establishment of a new course in the high schools. 

Commercial and manual training courses are usually offered to 
P'lpils ia city high schools. Both of these require special equipment 
and additional room, and f r these reasons their introduction into our 
high school curriculum has been delayed. With the opening of the 
new West High School these courses, so important to an industrial 
city like Rochester, will both be provided 

A committee consisting of a member of the Board of Education, 
the Superintendent and Principal of the High School recently visited 
the New; York High School of Commerce and the Brooklyn Manual 
Training High School. Both these schools have been recently 
organized in new buildings. 

The school of commerce is a pioneer school of its kind and offers 
many suggestions. These two schools and others like them are 
crowded to their utmost capacity, showing that many parents prefer 
^high school course that will more fully train their children for service 
in the business world. 

The committee reports that the school authorities of New York 
^d Brooklyn agree that a business or industrial high school course 
should be four years in length, and should represent in intellectual 
training the equivalent of any course offered in preparation for college. 



12 

They also recommend that the special business features of the com- 
mercial course be taken up principally during the last two years iu 
school. 

This will mean that the students in these courses will lay a broad 
foundation of general information and culture in the study of English, 
Mathematics, History and the Language, and in addition emphasize 
those branches that help to prepare for commercial or industrial pur suits . 
It is likely that both the commercial and the industrial course will 
demand a somewhat longer period spent in the school building each 
day and less home study than do other courses. It is expected that 
both courses will be opened this coming fall in each high school build- 
ing, thus making them available for pupils in all parts of the city. 

Acknowledgments. 

In conclusion I am impelled to express the gratification wc all feel 
in the quality of the work accomplished by officers, principals, and 
teachers. Our Superintendent, Mr. Carroll, has been untiring in his 
efforts to promote the best welfare of the schools. His firmness, 
patience, skill in organization and grasp of detail have been felt in 
every part of the great system of schools. Nothing less than the best 
attainable satisfies him. Our primary supervisor. Miss Harris, has 
been adding this year to the enviable reputation already gained for the 
primary and kindergarten work in the Rochester schools To her 
power of initiative and gift of clear exposition is due in no small part 
the success of our teachers' institutes, and it is our institutes which 
have made possible the rapid transformation of the whole system. So 
far as I know, Rochest r is unique in this plan of thus bringing 
together three or four times each year for mutual conference and 
inspiration the teachers of each grade. At these grade institutes the 
Superintendent and Supervisors outline the work of the coming term 
and make suggestions or explanations. Model classes illustrating the 
best features of our work are heard, examples of the children's work 
are shown, ideas exchanged and experiences compared. More can be 
done in one of these days than by almost any other method to unify 
and strengthen the work. There has been a marked increa.se in the 
esprit dii corp and enthusiasm of the teachers this past year which is 
highly gratifying. I wish to express for the Board the pride and 
pleasure we take in the splendid work accomplished by our teachers. 
That this work is being recognized outside of Rochester is evidenced 
by the number of our teachers who are sought to fill important posi- 
tions. One of our principals, Mr. Searing, has been chosen as Super- 
intendent of Schools, one of our teachers. Miss Roberts, as Supervisor 



13 

of Music, two of our primary teachers, Miss Wiley and Miss Edick, 
have had accepted and published by one of the leading publishers of 
the country material which they have developed in the school rooms 
of Rochester for supplementary reading. It can not but be a source 
of gratification to all our citizens to know of the words spoken last 
summer in Chicago before a great educational gathering by one of the 
leading school men of the country, when he singled out Rochester and 
Indianapolis as two cities standing out above all others for strong and 
original work. For all this we are indebted to the unwearied and 
loyal co-operation of the teaching force. 

The resignation of Principal James M. Cook has removed from this 
force one who for forty years has been one of its leaders and best 
exponents. Such faithful and efficient service can receive no adequate 
recognition. It is measured best in the rising standards of life and 
the nobler character of a whole community. To all in the service of 
the schools, the secretary, the young ladies in the office, the officers 
and janitors who have faithfully discharged the responsibility entrusted 
to their care, cordial recognition is due and is heartily expressed. I 
append herewith the financial statement for the year : 

Financial- Statement. 

Receipts from all sources : 

Teachers* fund $437,960.20 

Building fund 208,674.78 

Repair fund 16,125.00 

Library fund 5,046.57 

Contingent fund 147,872.88 

$815,67943 

Expenditures : 

Teachers* fund $425,844.94 

Building fund 204,269.33 

Repair fund 1 5,042.07 

Library fund 3,470.81 

Contingent fund. 137,052.28 

$785,67943 

Balance on hand $30,000 00 

The above figures have been compared with the books of the 
^^tTiptroller and agree in every particular. 

There is no outstanding indebtedness against the Board of Educa- 
*^ii for current expenses except for publishing proceedings for this 
d^te. 



14 

Indebtedness on Current Building Contracts. 

By a recent judicial decision there is due the contractor of the East 
High School the sum of $25,093.38 and some costs. There is also 
due on contracts for the West High School now in process of erection 
the sum of $114,408.43. 

Bond Account. 

There has been paid to us on account of the $300,000.00 of bonds 
authorized by law for the erection of High Schools the sum of 
$259,334 78, leaving a balance of $40,665.22 to be paid on contracts as 
the work progresses. 

With the ending of this fiscal year we will have paid to the City 
Treasurer $120,000.00 for the sinking fund to be applied to the pay- 
ment of the $300,000.00 of bonds above referred to. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. J. Townson. 



f 



15 



REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT 

To the Board of Education : 

I have the honor to present this, my first report, since entering 
\ipon my office as Superintendent. 

The last report was written in January, 1903. During the two 
years which my predecessor was in office it was found necessary to 
make many fundamental changes in the organization. A new course 
of study radically different from that which had preceded it was intro- 
duced. A systematic plan for the training and supervision of teachers 
was adopted. A body of supervisors was selected and put in charge of 
special subjects. Such a complete reconstruction of a system can 
be carried out only when supported by public sentiment. Public 
sentiment has thus far been equal to the emergency. It is believed 
that the severe strain under which the teaching force has of necessity 
worked during these years has for the most part been removed and 
that normal conditions now exist in the schools. 

The Course of Study. 

Within the last half century there has been a new mental activity 
^n the home. Literature, art, music and the love of nature have become 
^ common family possession. Books and pictures and music and 
flowers and hand work were smuggled into the schools long before they 
^'cre publicly recognized as parts of the course of study. In many of 
^he states the legislatures have, as a result of pubHc sentiment, 
clecreed that these shall become a part of the curriculum. The active, 
Aggressive intelligence of both men and women has insisted upon these 
changes. The course c^f study is no accident. It is the result of an 
^^'olution of public opinion and the development of social, industrial 
A^cl intellectual conditions unknown until recent years. 

It is not too much to claim that the recent changes in the course of 
*^^udy have affected most favorably not only the intelligence but also 
^^^ morals of the average individual child. The strain upon the 
^^^cher in securing discipline has been practically removed. Children 
lov'e school and are interested in their work. 

The art of the teacncr consists very largely in providing the right 
^hing for the children to do. So far has this been accomplished that 
^^Tporal punishment has practically disappeared from most of the 
^^hool rooms m Rochester without an edict of the Boaid. K>f>\i^x^\\XX^ 



i6 

it is in many schools a thing of the past, and is exceptional in all of 
the public schools. 

This change in the course of study is destined also to affect favor- 
ably the life and happiness of the average teacher. The teacher, 
recently trained and familiar with the working of the new course of 
study, enjoys her work because it promotes her own mental activity 
and calls for constant mental growth. Very often the teacher of the 
old days has found it somewhat difficult to adapt herself to the new 
and larger curriculum, and the broader treatment of the subjects which 
it contains, but many of these teachers of former days are to-day among 
the most brilliant and helpful in the force. 

There is constantly a tendency to return to the text book method. 
There are occasionally those who count the number of subjects added 
to the curriculum with a hopeless emphasis, but they receive slight 
encouragement either from parents or from their associates. To be 
anything less than a professional teacher inspired by professional aims 
and methods will ere long be practically impossible. 

The Common Branches. 

In the approved modern school children are from the very begin- 
ning learning to read by reading the best literature. An abundance of 
the best literature is supplied in every school room in Rochester. 

S])elling and writing are taught most effectively through written 
exercises which are constantly given in every grade. The art of con- 
versation is learned by the constant interchange of thought based ujxm 
exercises in literature, history, geography, the industries, social con- 
ditions of the race and nature study. Strange to say it is only 
recently that this conversational element has found a place in 
.school instruction. In the judgment of the best critics this free and 
extended oral interchange of thought has a high cultural and practical 
value. In evidence of this it may be stated that many people who, 
under supervision, write correctly often speak incorrectly and with 
difficulty. If children are able to talk correctly, intelligently and 
readily they will easily take their place in good society. 

From the very first, arithmetic is learned by constant experience 
with the concrete. With the present system of writing, penmanship 
is learned early and easily by imitation, with but a minimum ex|Xindi- 
ture of time and effort. This excellency in hand writing is easily 
maintained by slight attention in written exercises and occasional 
formal les.sons in the copy book. 

All that is included in the above statements relating to the common 
school branches appears to be incidental and is indeed superimposed 



17 

upon the old, formal methods of teaching, but these changed methods 
constitute the life of the system. They insure intelligence. They are 
practical and are prized by intelligent citizens who are interested in 
the public schools. But the requirements, as set forth in any reput- 
able school system, go much farther and insist that children actually 
read, write, spell and cipher better than the children of any former 
generation. 

We expect pupils to be able to read well from many books where 

formerly they read from only one. We expect them to be able to 

reproduce with readiness and clearness the substance of what they 

have read and to reduce this to correct written form. We expect that 

the words used in such written composition will be spelled correctly 

and that the sentences will be in good form. We require that pupils 

know the multiplication table thoroughly at the end of the fourth year, 

and be able to jx^rform with accuraco ordinary processes in arithmetic. 

Here the critics of a former generation were satisfied, but in the 

present school system this attainment of the mechanical is but the 

beginning. The teacher herself assumes a new role under a system 

which calls for more alertness of mind and compels her to be a student 

with the children. 

The average citizen has quickly learned to sympathize with new 
requirements, and is now often more exacting concerning the standard 
of the teacher of his own child than even school officials. This senti- 
ment constitutes the strongest safeguard of the system and makes 
f^ure the progress of the future. 

Manual Training. 

Manual training was introduced into the elementary schools when 
the course of study was revised in 1901. Since that date eighteen 
grammar schcx)l buildings have been supplied with manual training 
^uipments. The number will be increased until a shop is provided 
for each building. 

At present fourteen manual training teachers meet the boys of the 
7th and 8th grades at these centres. The same teachers instruct the 
^'s of the 5th and 6th grades in desk-work manual training in the 
school rooms. 

Up to the present school year the programme called for manual 
training one hour each week. In September, 1904, this time allowance 
^ doubled. 

In addition, weaving, raffia work and card board cutting are pro- 
vided for the kindergarten and j)rimary grades. In every school room 
^l^ere is also an attempt to lead pupils to do for themselves in this 



i8 

direction something more than is prescribed by the formal course of 
study. These statements indicate that a complete system of manual 
training has been established for all parts of the public school system 
below the High School. As stated in the paragraph under High 
Schools, manual training, domestic art and domestic science will be 
added to the High School course at the beginning of the next school 
year. 

Manual training has been readily accepted by the general public. 
It is generally recognized that manual training has a strong influence 
upon character and intelligence. It calls for accuracy and individual 
effort, and has a direct bearing upon the effectiveness of the future 
citizen. 

Drawing. 

Drawing is another subject of the new curriculum discovered to be 
indispensable in the public schools because of the development of 
industrial arts in the community. No subject is more closely related 
to other subjects in the curriculum. As art touches every part of life 
so it touches every part of instruction. No reader is complete that is 
not illustrated. Every story that is told by children has its accom- 
panying mental picture. The child himself illustrates his own stor}% 
his own history, geography and nature lesson. 

Most of the instruction in drawing is directly from nature or some 
other reality. All manual and industrial art are based ujxm drawing. 
The brush is used even more freely than the pencil by children from 
the kindergarten to the high school. Manual training and sewing are 
closely correlated with drawing and color work. In these departments 
there is an attempt to do every piece of work artistically. It follows 
that teachers must be thoroughly trained in this direction, and that 
our leaders must be able to draw upon the widest observation and 
culture. It is not too much to say that the work is so far advanced in 
the j:)ublic schools that it has affected profoundly the taste of every 
child and the direction given to a great part of his effort, and yet in 
this, as in other departments of learning, we have only touched the 
possibility that is within our easy reach. This is especially true in the 
high school, which should become a great art centre for the community. 
Many young people in the high school have a natural taste for art work 
and would later be able with a good training in applied art to find 
remunerative occupation in the great industrial enterprises of the city. 
A vast number of our indussries are affected by the artistic element. 
Every article manufactured must have what is termed "finish,*' and 
be^attractive to the eye. Every article of clrQss calls for tasteful 



19 

ornamentation. All home decorations are designed by persons who 
are paid high salaries. In this country, as in many others, home 
industries are growing out of such art education, and the home itself 
has become beautiful because of the application of the general prin- 
ciples of art training consciously or unconsciously attained. 

Sewing. 

Until the beginning of the present year the girls of grades six, 
seven and eight received instruction in sewing one hour each week. 
At the beginning of the present year sewing was introduced into the 
fifth grade and the lessons lengthened from one hour to two hours. 

It is the purpose of the Supervisor of Sewing that from the 
beginning pupils shall learn to sew by making useful articles for them- 
selves, giving only a very limited amount of time to the technical 
learning of stitches. As a result the girls in the sewing classes appear 
to be uniformly interested. An exhibit of work in sewing was held 
about the middle of the year. This exhibit attracted general ^attention 
and indicated a very great interest in the work in all parts of the city. 
Sewing is an old art and has occupied the attention of women, high 
and low, in all time. As now taught in the great industrial training 
'Schools, and as it is now carried on in this city, domestic art is very 
^uch more than mere sewing or stitching. It has to do with the 
harmony of colors and with lines of grace and beauty in every product 
of this form of hand work ; with the decoration of these products ; with 
the production and choice of material, and with the relation in general 
of decorative art to needle work. It also has a direct bearing upon the 
personality of every individual, and of the attractiveness of the home 
itself. The fine touch of a skilled hand will make beautiful even a 
plain and desolate home. Nothing so emphasises poverty and lowers 
still lower the standard of the home as the lack of taste. No skill 
<^oramands a higher price in the market than that which provides the 
beautiful in either decoration or in dress. No instinct in women is 
^^eper than the love of these things, and nothing can be more certain 
"tVian that this instinct should be developed and cultivated early and 
<^srefully as a part of her preparation for life. If this is true all that 
^as been done in this form of training thus far should be only a bcgin- 
^"'ig. This subject gives opjx)rtunity for individual, initiative and 
Activity which rerches far beyond the school room. The girl trained 
^^ this line will find occupation for any spare minutes in school hours 
^nd will quickly learn to fill her home leisure with such effort. A 
young lady early has ability to do for herself. She can make her own 
garments and help to make those for thg household. ShQ cslu produce 



20 

her own Christmas gifts and make happy many hearts with this prac- 
tical form of service. In other words these interests which affect her 
taste, her habits of industry, her character in so many ways, may 
easily at the slightest relative expense be made the possession of every 
girl in the public schools. 

This is a theory which met with approval long before sewing found 
a place in our system of public education. Sewing has been taught 
in convents, in churches and by societies organized by public spirited 
women for many years. It needs no defence and no apology, but it is 
occasionally profitable for us to attempt to comprehend its usefulness 
and the vast consequences following upon its recognition as a part of 
the public school curriculum. 

Cooking. 

In general what has been said of manual training and sewing in 
the public schools may be said of cooking. 

While as a mechanical art it is more limited in its application yet 
its influence is far reaching and has been generally approved by an 
interested public as a part of our school work. 

A generous and public spirited citizen has provided equipment and 
instructors sufficient to meet the needs of the girls of the eighth grades 
in the department of cooking. The instruction is given at the 
Mechanics Institute. Instinctively the girls in both our day and 
evening schools seek the opp<ortunity to take instruction in cooking. 
So long as the present arrangement is sontinued, the girls in our 
schools will receive excellent training in this important art. Should 
this fail it would be necessary either to make some definite arrange- 
ment with the Mechanics Institute to continue this service or to pro- 
vide centres at the school buildings as in the case of manual training. 

The body often suffers irreparable injury and is kept at a low 
standard of efficiency because of the insufficient nutrition which is 
provided for its supjx^rt. The child or the man badly nourished can 
never be at his best either physically or mentally. It is freely claimed 
by experts that the lack of proper nourishment is a first cause of 
intemperahce among men ; of Irregular attendance at school ; of 
vagrancy and crime. 

Music. 

A supervisor in singing was first employed in 1901. Singing is 
now required in every class in the elementary schools ; in the Normal 
School ; in the first year of the High School and is an optional study 
in the other classes of the High School, 



In all the class rooms children have of course always sung songs 
more or less, depending very much upon the musical training and 
inclination of the teacher. Systematic instruction, however, did not 
formerly exist in any part of the system. 

It has been no small task on the part of the supervisor to train 

teachers for their work. It has been necessary for the supervisor to 

organize classes for teachers of little or no training in mi>sic and other 

classes for those more advanced, but this is only the beginning of the 

duties of the supervisor of music. Real enthusiasm can come only 

when the great mass of pupils have caught the spirit of song and have 

begim to appreciate the relation of training in note work and harmony. 

At the High School and in buildings where there are school halls the 

pupils have been assembled frequently for the purpose of creating an 

inspiration which only numbers can furnish. 

The supervisor of music attempts not only to meet the teachers by 
classes and at institutes but also several times in each year visits each 
class room and personally supervises the work of each teacher. 

The place of music in the public schools api>ears to be secure. As 
a part of a complete training for life its importance is unquestioned. 
As a result, familiar songs are now heard everywhere from the school 
room and on the street. The training in rhythm and harmony has 
always been regarded even from an ancient date as indispensable to 
the full development of the intellect and the emotional life. 

Grading .and Promotions. 

Beginning with the year 1899, promotions were made throughout 
the schools at the end of each half year. Previously, as is the custom 
inmost school systems, this advancement and readjustment of classes 
occurred only in September. Under the present plan classes advance 
^rom the grammar school to the High School in September and also 
at the end of the first semester, February first. Oradua- 
tions from the High School occur both in February and in June. A 
I Wf dozen pupils completed their High School course in February of 
IW. The first full winter class was graduated in February of the 
present year. It will follow that two classes will be admitted to and 
graduated from the Normal School in a single year. It is evident that 
there are many advantages in this plan of promotion. Whenever anv 
considerable number of pupils attempt to do the same work it is soon 
discovered that they vary both in knowledge and in ability. These 
differences are more apparent whenever the skill of the teacher is not 
^f the very highest order. In consequence when pupils were classified 
^% once in the year many were found far behind their m^it^s \ow^\i^- 



55 

fore the year was completed. At the end of five months these differ- 
ences are less marked and a readjustment can be made very much 
more advantageously to the slow pupil. 

Under the old system there was often found a congestion in the 
fourth and fifth grades, due very largely to the fact that these slower 
children and children of irregular attendance were delayed in the mid- 
dle grades. This evil, one of the very greatest in a graded school sys- 
tem, is largely corrected under more frequent promotions. The strain 
upon teachers is also very much less, since her labor increases in pro- 
portion as the pupils arc not well classified. The conscientious teacher 
is anxious concerning the pupil who is far behind the rest, and often 
labors, and sometimes in vain, to advance such a pupil. 

In the elementary schools pupils arc promoted upon the recom- 
mendation of the teacher, approved by the Principal of the building. 
Pupils are admitted to the High School upon the same basis. Any 
system of examination for promotion is sure to work injustice fre- 
quently, for under examination no pupil is at his best and any set of 
examinations cannot fully represent the knowledge or ability 
of the* ])upil. On the other hand, in a limited field, an 
examination is likely to indicate that the child knows 
more than he should be given credit for. But the greatest evil of the 
examination for promotion is found in the fact that the pupil working 
for examination results is satisfied when he has passed the examina- 
tion. In spite of any philosophy or effort to the contrary teachers an 1 
pupils are both so human that this aim to secure a mechanical standard 
becomes, to state it moderately, constant, and influences very largely 
all instruction and learning. P>y dint of hard effort pupils were fre- 
quently able to j)ass the examination in spelling, in history or in some 
other subject a year or more before the time when this subject should 
regularly be completed. 

From thenceforth the child was either excused from such a sub- 
ject or he indifferently and mechanically merely went through the mo- 
tions of the rest of the class. Still other pupils whose knowledge of a 
given subject was really respectable, under the strain of examination 
or for some other insufficient reason were unable to pass such an ex- 
amination and wasted a weary year in the dull routine of going over a 
second time what was already very familiar. All of these pernicious 
tendencies were removed bv the vote of the Board to do awav with the 
requirement of examinations for promotion in both the elementary 
and the High Schools. While the Principal and the teacher may to- 
gether occasionally under-eslimate the ability of a child this is but a 
very small evil in comparison with the numerous mistakes that are 



nevitable in connection with any examination system in the public 
schools. Teachers and pupils work freely and, under the present sys- 
tem, such freedom is quite indispensible to success. The examination 
system not only narrowed the attention and thought to a small part of 
the whole field of subject matter, treated in any first-class school, but 
it rendered it difficult to place a proper value upon the different sub- 
jects. Perhaps the most marked effect is found in the Hi^h School 
where the testimony of the Principal is emphatic that pupils come into 
the Hig^h School better prepared than formerly. It has apparently re- 
sulted also in very largely increasing the attendance at the High 
School. A grammar school principal, who is charged with the re- 
sponsibility of sending forward a pupil with his written approval, will 
seldom err in judgment. Occasionally a grammar school Principal 
certifies that a given pupil has done what he can in preparation for the 
High School, and recommends such a pupil conditionally. Such pupils 
frequently succeed. 

The entire system of promotion as at present administered is hu- 
mane and ho])eful and has removed from the teacher and the school 
Principal the heaviest and most difficult burden of former years ; has 
relieved the home and the child of infinite friction and nervous strain, 
and has altogether rendered cheerful and healthful the dull, dead 
atmosphere that formerly pervaded the over-examined and nervously 
exhausted ])upil of our school sy.stem. P>oth health and cheer abound. 
Children are not only interested but hapi)y in their work and a new 
epoch has dawned in the history of both the teacher and pupil. 

Truancy. 

In June, 1903, habitual truants were, under the laws of the State 
>f Kew York, held in confinement in the City Truant School building. 
In this building the pupils were fed and clothed at the expense of the 
"ity. A Principal, Matron and keepers were in constant attendance. 
l"he expense of this institution was about $3,000 i)er year. Pupils 
>ften remained as regular inmates of this institution several years and 
^mtil they passed the age of school attendance. The school had become 
^he nightmare of the School P>oard and was universally condemned by 
^^icieties devoted to the prevention and spread of crime. During the 
last two years of the existence of the Truant School two attempts were 
TTiade by the pupils to burn the building. In the second of these at- 
tempts the children nearly succeeded in accomplishing 'their purpose. 
T^hese boys had become adepts in resisting authority and the institution 
^as a school of crime. Parents deliberately forced truancy uj)on their 
children in order that they might be supported at public ex\><!ws\i. 



After a studv of other truant systems the Board of Edu- 
cation decided to abolish the Truant School as then organized and to 
sell the building. At the beginning of the next school year confirmed 
truants, as fast as they appeared, were sent to one of the grammar 
schools (No. 26), where they were organized under the oversight of a 
teacher selected for her skill in dealing with such children. This 
truant class has continued to the present time with an attendance vary- 
ing from ten to twenty-five boys. At present the number in attend- 
ance is twenty- four. 

The teacher organizes these pupils into an ungraded school, seek- 
ing to advance each pupil as rapidly as possible by the use of individual 
methods. The sympathy shown to each pupil ; the rapid advancement 
made under the individual system of teaching, and the new ambition 
which results have, as a rule, enabled these boys to succeed, and the/ 
are from time to time transferred into the grades and frequently re- 
turned to their own schools. The school is of course at a distance from 
many of the other schools of the city. At first it was intended to open 
a second school on the opposite side of the city, but the numbers have 
been so small that this has not appeared to be necessary. As pupils in 
the city are transported at half rates it is not a serious hardship for 
parents to pay the cost of transportation. These boys are dismissed a 
little before the close of school and are not therefore brought into con- 
tact with other children on the wav home. 

Our experience with this truant class has led to the following con- 
clusions: Pupils who are sent to the Truant School are not vicious 
children, though they are sometimes mentally slow. When in school 
they are not difficult to manage. Often they are interesting and quick 
witted. Every case of absence is quickly reported at the office of the 
Superintendent and the entire force of attendance officers, if necessary, 
produces the boy and returns him to school. The boys soon discover 
that it is impossible for them to escape such vigilance. Much of the 
time the attendance is 100 per cent. Thus far we have not failed tu 
cure of truancy any boy who has been taken to this school. In a very 
few instances, where our vigilance has temporarily failed, corporal 
punishment has been inflicted. As a result of this experiment truancy 
is rapidly disappearing from the public schools. 

From a report of the principals, at a recent meeting, it was found 
that there is not, at present, on an average one chronic truant to a build- 
ing throughout the city. Other influences have helped to eliminate tru- 
ancy. Parents almost universally testify that their children are un- 
willing to remain away from school. Their school life is the subject 
of their most frequent conversation at home. Another cause of the 



disappearance of truancy is found in the fact that children are gener- 
ally promoted with their grades. 

Under the former system of examination children were frequently 
detained in their progress through the school. As a result the middle 
grades were crowded with overgrown boys and girls who had lost 
their interest in school work, and who were out of touch with their 
mates. Thev thus became indifferent to work which had become 
familiar, and it was their first desire to escape from school. The 
change in the course of study; the new spirit of the school; the in- 
creased sympathy and added skill of the teaching force and the pre- 
vailing sentiment of the community, with reference to delinquent chil- 
dren — all of these have tended to revolutionize the question of truancy. 

School Librarie.s. 

A law of the state provides that the School Roard may expend the 
sum of $1,000 for approved libraries, provided the city contributes 
double the amount furnished by the state for the same purpose. The 
intention of the law is of course that this literature should be used 
chiefly in the public schools. For many years this money had been 
applied to building up a circulating library for the general public. In 
January, 1904, the library contained about 47,000 volumes. The 
$3,0CO provided by the state and the city was for the most part applied 
to the payment of the salaries of the librarians. The books had be- 
come much worn, many of them were antiquated and there were no 
funds for additions to the library or for the rebinding of books in us*?. 

After repeated warnings the State Superintedent peremptorily 
ordered the discontinuance of the circulating library. The books were 
distributed among the High Schools, grade schools arid eveniuj^ 
schools so far as the books were suitable for their use. The annual 
appropriation was then applied directly to the purchase of books for 
use in the schoolrooms. This appropriation is ex])cnded for books of 
two classes : First, sets of sup])lementary reading are purchased for 
use in each classroom. These sets of readers each including fifteen 
or more books provide general information and supplement the in- 
struction given in different subjects. Second : A circulating library 
for children will be provided for each schoolroom. This library, in a 
case, provided for the purpose, will consist of about forty books for 
^ach schoolroom. These books are carefully selected with reference 
to the grades in which they are placed, supplying general reading mat- 
ter upon many subjects. The libraries for a given grad,: 
contain several distinct sets of books, and therefore may 
^ interchanged at will. This library is con\\^lctcd (o^ 



26 

the Fourth fi^rade. Nearly enoug^h funds arc on hand to also equi|> 
and provide libraries for the first jj^rade. Within four or five years itr 
is hoped that all the grades will be thus supplied with independents 
libraries. 

In the absence of any g^cneral circulating library for the city thes^ 
school libraries will serve a useful purpose for that part of the genera 
public which they reach. In addition the teachers will have an oppor - 
tunity to distinctly teach the reading habit, and children will learn tc- 
love the best books because they are constantly in their coinpan\ — 
and become their friends. 

The East High School and Training School libraries have received 
large additions from the Central Library treating many topics. These 
libraries are at present being provided with card catalogues of the most 
approved kind, and both the High Schools and Training School wiU 
become literary centers for the teachers in the public schools. 

Formerly it was understood that there was no time for pupils to 
read in the public schools. At present the great classics and general 
history are freely drawn upon and familiarized as an essential part of 
instruction. 

In most cities great public libraries serve the general desire for in- 
formation and opportunity for literary culture. The schools of Roch- 
ester constantly suffer a loss at this point which cannot be estimated. 
A great library is a center of light and influence. The intelligent peo- 
ple of a city where such a library is located eventually make an ac- 
quaintance with its treasures. Its benefits become as much the pos- 
session of every citizen as do the privileges of the public parks and all 
that which is beautiful in nature. Moreover, in such cities the children 
of the public schools are trained to use the public library constantly 
and intelligently. They are sent to its book shelves, to its magazines 
and to its art collections as a part of their public school training. The 
average city points with pride to the moral and intellectual force of 
such a temple of learning. Intelligent people in search of city homes 
enquire carefully with reference to opportunities for general educa- 
tion. Xo one advantage is mentioned more often or more emphatic- 
ally than the public library. A good public library is an advertisement 
of the first order and its absence must often divert to other cities r. 
most desirable element of population. While we are fortunate in hav- 
ing at our disposal sufficient funds to provide reading matter for our 
children, and while the influence of these libraries is incalculable, they 
are in no sense a substitute for the public library as it exists in most 
of the cities of this country, and speaking moderately we are com- 
pelled to pronounce its absence a continued public calamity. 



2; 

Salaries. 

Xew lines of activity are open to women in all departments of our 
industrial life. As a consequence many young women who would 
otherwise enter upon the profession of teaching accept other positions 
of tnist. 

Formerly there were many names upon the eligible list and th«^ 
supply of candidates was greatly in excess of the demand. Apparently 
all this is changed and throughout the country there is a positive short- 
age of teachers for elementary schools. This situation ought to be an 
encouragement to the teaching profession for it will gradually force 
an advance in salaries, and tend to raise the standard of the profession. 

Our examinations have always been open to all comers and the 
eligible list has been made up on the basis of merit, but the minimum 
salary has been so low as to suggest that it was originally the intention 
to bar out applicants from abroad. 

The minimum salary paid to grade teachers was long $25.00 per 
month. Two years ago it was raised to $30.00 per month, or $7.50 a 
week. Xo young woman, who has been trained as a teacher, should 
be asked to live upon so low a salary in the environment in which she 
must labor. The maximum salarv for manv vears was $550.00. In 
September, 1903, the maximum salary was increased to $600. The 
maximum salar>' is at present probably below the average maximum 
salary in other cities of our class and certainly is not sufficient either 
to attract or to hold the services of the best teachers. With such a 
minimum and such a maximum, graduates of the High Schools wiil 
hesitate to enter the Normal School and teachers in service will con- 
stantly be tempted to enter upon other callings. There can be no doubt 
that the sentiment of the community would support an increase in the 
salaries of the teachers in the clementarv schools. 

High Schools. 

The new East High School was occupied in April, 1903. It pro- 
vides seating capacity for 1,050 pupils. When crowded it accommo- 
dates 1,250 pupils. The opening of this building has greatly increased 
^he High School attendance. The enrollment for the past five years 
has been as follows : 1900, %9 ; 1901, 1,022 ; 1902, 1,046 ; 1903, \M':> ; 
1904, 1,575. 

At present the pupils of the first year, 614 in number, are distrib- 
uted in annexes, 319 attend the Fitzhugh Street High School in the 
horning; 176 attend the same building in the afternoon, and 119 
attend the old Chestnut Street grammar school building. The West 
High School building will be ready for occupancy in September, 1905. 



28 

The two buiklinji^s will provide accommodations for the present Hign 
School jiopulation. At the present rate of increase both of these build- 
injj^s will be filled to overflowing within the next two or three years. 
The completion of the East High School has marked an epoch in the 
history of High School education in Rochester. The building whicii 
cost about $325,000, including land and equipment, is a veritable pal- 
ace of education and may well be called the college of the people. Sev- 
eral features of this building are worthy of mention. It is so arrangCvl 
that every room has abundant light. Supply and exhaust fans furnish 
abundant heat and perfect ventilation. It is sanitary to the last degree, 
and apparently contains every improvement known in High School 
construction. The laboratories, which are on the third floor, are well 
equipped with a])paratus for class work. The hall on the first floor 
seats 1.008 pupils and is attractive, and in use has proved very satis- 
factory. The lunch room, which is 81 feet by 70 feet, is an object of 
interest to all visitors because of its spaciousness ; because of the gen- 
erous ])atronagc of pupils and because of the rare tact shown in its 
management. Two gymnasiums, one for boys and one for girls, are 
located on ojjposite sides of the main building. They measure 27 feet 
by 81 feet and are well furnished with apparatus. 

Since this report was written a new salary schedule has been adopt- 
ed. See section for information. 

The library contains about 7.5CO volumes. Before the end of the 
present school year it will be supplied with a complete card-catalogue 
on the dictionary plan. Since the school has occupied its present 
quarters a modern course of study has been provided. This contains 
the following courses — Classical, I^atin-C German, Latin-Scientific, and 
German-Scientific. 

A commercial course and a manual training course will be intro- 
duced into both the High Schools in September. It is the purpose of 
the Board to steadilv raise the efficiency and standard of the teaching 
force. Under the rules of the Board only teachers of experience can 
be permanently employed. 

The proposed introduction of commercial and industrial depart- 
ments will supply a need that has long existed. Pupils will be thor- 
oughly trained in business forms. The commercial course will be as 
comi)lete as the classical course ; will call for the same amount of time 
and the certificate will have the same educational value. The indus- 
trial course should be developed upon the largest and most complete 
lines. Opportunity should be offered for any boy to master the use of 
tools, to ac(|uire a good knowledge of mechanical drawing, and to be so 
far trained in industrial art as to be able readily to enter upon the in- 
dustrial life of the community. 



29 

Industrial training has come to be recognized as mental train- 
ing equal in merit to any so-called intellectual course of the old 
school. The engineer, the architect, the inventor are often first citizens 
and captains of industry. The relation of the intellectual and the in- 
dustrial has been recognized and firmly established, and both courses 
deserve the best development possible in our school system. 

The physical, chemical and biological laboratories present the ap- 
pearance of a vast work shop where each pupil is dealing directly with 
tlie concrete under the oversight of skilled leaders. 

The department of literature, drawing upon a great library and 
under the instruction of a strong faculty, has become one of the most 
interesting and most observed parts of the school system. 

The sanitary conditions of the building, the lunch room and the 
g>mnasium have produced a moral and a physical effect reaching 
the home life of individuals and the community. 

The education provided by the present High School is not far short 
of that furnished by the college of thirty years ago, and will provide in 
large part the intellectual and moral leadershi]) of the community in 
the future. 

The Training School. 

The Rochester Training Class was established in 18^U. In 1900 the 
course was extended to two years. The course of studv, with the re- 
quirenients for admission, is found later in this report. The 
statement following will show the number of pui)ils graduating from 
this school since the course was lengthened to two years : 

Grade. Years. Kindergarten. Years. 

15 1902 8 1902 

15 1903 8 1W3 

13 1904 9 1W4 

The first appointments from the graduates of the Training School 
wtre made in June, 1904. In all 26 of these graduates have been ap- 
pointed and several others are serving in temporary vacancies. It will 
denoted that the number of graduates has not increased. Two reasons 
'nay be given for this small attendance. 

First. In 1901 the new Board of Education found many teachers 
^'hose services were not needed, and it became necessary to place these 
tt^achers, more than one hundred in number, ui)on the supply list. Man\ 
0^ these sought employment elsewhere. Some took uj) other lines of 
^ork, and some have been restored to their places in the schools. So 
*ong as the names of these teachers were upon the eligible hst it was 
"ot possible to appoint recent graduates from the Xoruva\'Sc\\oo\.\i\\<\^^ 



30 

these conditions comparatively few sought admission to the Normal 
School. 

Second. New opportunities for remunerative service are constant- 
ly open to women in all departments of our industrial life. Hitherto 
teaching has been attractive, not only because it was an honorable call- 
ing, but because it offered a better return for service rendered than did 
other callings. 

At preent the profession of teaching is in close competition with 
other callings, and the number selecting teaching as a vocation is con- 
stantly growing less in all parts of the country. It is also doubtless 
true that the advance of the standard in the teaching profession has 
had a tendency to diminish the attendance at the Normal School. Re- 
cently every successful graduate of the Nonnal School has been in- 
vited to serve in the city schools. A few, whose contracts have pre- 
vented them from accepting this invitation will doubtless be found in 
the schools next September. The fact that the supply is less than the 
demand will tend to increase the attendance at the Normal School. It 
would doubtless be a misfortune to appoint teachers entirely from the 
graduates of our own training school. Every year we ought to bring 
at least a few of the most promising graduates from other Normal 
Schools. It will be a distinct advantage, therefore, to be compelled to 
supplement moderately our own teaching force from without. The 
presence and influence of a few such selected teachers in any part of 
the school system is of the very greatest advantage to the schools as a 
whole, but the onlv effective remedy will be found in the increase of 
salaries, which will be discussed in another paragraph. 

The Evening Schools. 

There have usually been in operation from three to five evening 
schools in different parts of the city. At present elementary evenink( 
schools are supported in school buildings 4, 5, 13 and 26, with an even- 
ing High School in the Fitzhugh High School building. School No. 
4 was opened in 1902; School No. 5 was opened in 1888; School No. 
13 was opened in 1904; School No. 26 was opened in 1901, and the 
High School in 1901. The total enrollment of these schools has been 
as follows: 

1900. 1901. 1902. 1903. 1904. 1905. 

High School .... 321 425 594 660 

No. 4 .... 356 535 437 500 

No. 5 816 363 657 684 657 864 

X^ \J » X kJ ••••••••• •••• ••■• •••• ••«• •••• «^ s*r 

No. 26 385 1027 1503 1566 1893 



31 

Formerly a large number of teachers of the evening schools were 
also instructors in the day schools. Beginning with the present year 
no teacher of the day school was employed in the evening school, ex- 
cept in special departments as sewing, manual training, etc. 

The utmost care is exercised in the selection of teachers for the 
evening schools. So far as it is possible teachers of successful ex- 
J>erience are employed. Many of the teachers in the present force have 
been in service for several vears, and as a whole the force is effective. 
Xo definite course of studv can be laid out for the work in the 
evening schools. A large number of pupils have left the day schools, 
and either from choice or under the comi)ulsory education laws are en- 
rolled in the evening schools. These j)upils are organized into regular 
graded classes as in the day schools, and in due course of time are pro- 
moted to the evening High School. The time, however, in the evening 
schools is limited, and the work of these pupils must be confined strict- 
ly to the essentials. 

I»y far the larger number in attendance at the evening schools are 
fcreigners, who desire to study the English tongue, young men, who 
wish to take up drawing, mechanical training or stenography, and 
young women, who wish to study domestic art or 'domestic science. In 
the High School a class is organized in any subject whenever a suf- 
ficient number of pupils are enrolled. Many different subjects arc 
therefore taught in the High School. This list of subjects at 
present is as follows: Advanced English. Elementary English, Plle- 

^entary German, Advanced German, Elementary 1^'rench, Advance! 

^*rench. Second Year Latin, First Year Latin, Geometry, Arithmetic. 

Elementary Algebra, Advanced Algebra, Book-keei)ing, Electricitv, 

^^hysics. Stenography, Chemistry, Mechanical Draw-ing, Commercial 

A-aw and Penmanship. 

hi the elementary schools the list of subjects is as follows : Read- 
^»~ig. Writing, Arithmetic, Geography, Grammar, History, Common 
tiranches. Manual Training, Mechanical Drawing, Electricity, Stenog- 
'^^phy. Bookkeeping, Music, Sewing, Dressmaking and Shirt Waist 
-^Jaking, Millinery and Cooking. 

Under the rules of the Board the evening school term opens on the 

ftrst Monday in October and closes early in A])ril. The schools are in 

^tjssion three evenings each week, Monday, Tuesday and Thursday. 

T^he schools open at 7:30 and close at 9:LS. The evening schools mu^^t 

*^e supported to meet the requireemnts of the state law which requires 

^^at certain pupils between the ages of fourteen and sixteen, who are 

''^ot attending day school must be in attendance upon an evenin^^ 

school. It serves the further and much larger purpose oi *iv\^\A\w^ ^\\\ 



32 

person to secure an education, whether elementary or advance'.!, 
whether industrial or scientific. This conception of the purpose of thtf 
evening school is comparatively recent, and has constantly enlarged as 
the evening school system has been developed. Scores of foreigners 
learn to speak and to write the English language in the evening 
schools. Any one of these schools cannot fail to impress the visitor 
with its great usefulness in any of these directions. Many foreigners 
continue in attendance until they have really secured a fair education, 
and many young men and women remain in the elementary and High 
Schools until they have secured an education scarcely inferior to that 
given in the day schools. The housekeeping of the city as a 
whole is immeasurably improved as a result of the classes in domestic 
science and domestic art. Three hundred young women are enrolled 
in the classes in cooking in one school and an even larger number in 
the classes in sewing in the same school. The schools become also 
great social forces. In each of these evening schools is located a gen- 
erous library. The books of these libraries are in active circulation 
among the students, and in the homes from which they come. 

In one of the evening schools there is a class in electricity which, 
during the present year, has enrolled 83 students. In this class are 
found boys and young men, and mature men from the factories and 
electrical plants of the city. Many of these men are superintendents 
and directors in the local power plants and manufactories. Every 
school furnishes the history of individuals who have risen to positions 
of usefulness and prominence in the city through the help they have 
obtained at the evening schools, and every school and every room pre- 
sents to the visitor a company of interested pupils, each in search of 
something better in life. 

Attendance upon the evening school is a very high evidence of 
character. A boy or a girl, a man or a woman who, after a day of toil, 
is deliberately enrolled as a pupil in the evening school, and who, even- 
ing after evening, sacrifices recreation and rest in the interest of self- 
improvement, is entitled to the assistance and sympathy of the com- 
munity, and this assistance is generously and freely rendered in Roch- 
ester. No part of our educational system is still capable of more de- 
velopment than is possible in the evening school. It deserves closer 
oversight and more careful organization than it has yet received. The 
growth of the evening schools has been so steady and phenomenal that 
it has as yet been impossible to thoroughly organize the system. It i^ 
possible that the number of evening schcx)ls will be increased still fur- 
ther in order to accommodate more completely all sections of the citv. 



33 
The Kindergarten. 

Kindergartens existed in many of the public schools before 1901. 
At that date they were made a part of the system in every building. 

In introducing the kindergarten the Board assumed that the kinder- 
gartner could serve as many hours as teachers in the grade schools. 
Acting upon this theory, the kindergarten teacher has one class in the 
morning and a class of different children in the afternoon. These 
classes arc usually very small, numbering not more than twelve or 
fifteen pupils. Kindergartners themselves appear to be enthusiastic 
and do not often ask for leave of absence or retire from overwork. 
They have been cheerful, enthusiastic and exceedingly earnest in their 
work. The question as to the length of hours of kindergartners is of 
the highest interest. The kindergarten would more often be intro- 
duced if it were not for the limitation which kindergartners place upon 
their hours. The School Board and the community are usuallv con- 
servative and under present conditions the advance of the kinder- 
garten, especially in smaller towns, is likely to be very slow. 

The experiment in Rochester is certainly very significant. It has 
enabled the Board to otTer the advantages of the kindergarten to 
even- neighborhood and to every child in the city, and it appears to be 
true that the kindergartner is not broken either in health or in spirit 
by the service rendered. The work of the kindergarten is familiar to 
the general public, and calls for little explanation in this report. It is 
on a large scale a civilizer of the foreigner, deprived of the best in- 
fluences in life, and it is a safeguard against the selfishness that is like- 
ly to characterize the child of wealth and affluence. The kindergarten 
exercises the child's best instincts and impulses. It ])rovides an abun- 
dance of activity. It organizes and directs surplus energy into chan- 
nels of fruitful effort. It awakens the imagination and provides op- 
portunity for the ex])ression of the child's thoughts and feelings in the 
fonii of story and song. It brings the child into contact with life and 
'lature of the larger world from which he is likely otherwise to be al- 
^nost wholly cut off. 

The inlluence of the kindergarten is also powerfully felt by the 
^^achcrs and the pupils throughout the entire school system. The 
•kindergarten teacher must be a child with her children. The free 
fj^ames of the kindergarten have now a place in all the grades, and the 
^rade teacher has learned both to tell the stories and to play again the 
§^ames of childhood. This spirit has had its invaluable influence in 
^hus bringing together the teacher and the pupil and has given them a 
*ife in comaion such as has never before been witnessed in the school 
^oom. 



34 

The kinderf^arten is also an industrial school of the first order. In 
all the more formal exercises of the kindergarten the children become 
trained workmen skilled in the use of the hand in manv forms of con- 
struction that directly affect their life, their happiness and their use- 
fulness, and that are in themselves an essential part of all true educa- 
tion. 

School Bluldings.^ 

Since 1900 there have been erected five large grammar schools at 
a cost of about $278,000. Substantial additions to four other buildings 
have been built at a cost of $77,000. Two new High Schools have 
been built and equipped at a cost of about $650,000. 

From this it will appear that during five years two High School 
buildings and seven grammar school buildings of the very highest 
character have been completed and occupied. These buildings while 
plain in their finish and appointments are models of architecture, an<l 
have proved to be thoroughly satisfactory for the purpose for which 
they are intended. The grammar school buildings contairt from six- 
teen to nineteen rooms. In each there is a large hall, lighted from 
above, upon the first fioor. These halls are 45 ft. by 58 ft. They are in 
constant use and become the centre of the life of the school. They 
are used as assembly rooms ; for classes in music and gymnastics and 
free games ; for exhibits of the work of i)upils and as gathering places 
for the patrons of the schools. 

In each building there is a well-ecjuipped principal's office, a wait- 
ing room and teachers' room and a library. It has been the policy of 
the l>oard to supply ample building lots upon which to place these 
buildings and they are always an ornament to the section in which they 
are located. The grammar school buildings have cost on an average 
of about $57,CC0. They are constructed in the interest of the children 
and of public health, and only a small body thoroughly familiar with 
the schools could be induced to provide such features as are 
mentioned above. It is doubtful if elsewhere city grammar school 
buildings can be found two stories in height and with such liberal pro- 
visions for halls and conveniences for pupils and teachers. 

Summary. 

Two years have passed since the presentation of the last report. 
In this time the two high schools have been completed, and the enrol- 
ment in these high schools has increased from about 1,500 to more 
than 2,000 pupils. New commercial and manual training .courses have 
been introduced The system of grammar school buildings, originally 



35 

projected by the Board of Education, has been nearly completed, and 

practically all the children in the public schools are provided with 

comfortable school accommodations. The cost of all these buildings 

bxsLS been or will be, met out of the regular annual appropriations. 

In this time the library funds have been restored to their proper 

vise and two grades out of eight are already being supplied with 

generous school-room libraries. Additional supplementary reading 

matter has been furnished in every grade until our equipment is 

probably second to none. 

The truant penal code has been abolished and a more humane 
system has been discovered. In most of our schools principals report 
that truancy, except in rare instances, is a thing of the past. 

Free games are seen in every school for every class, every day ; 
free construction work and school and home gardening are carried on 
by practically every child, and complete systems of manual training, 
sewing, cooking and kindergarten have been fully carried into effect 
in every school. Our system of Friday institutes renders doubly 
effective the work of the supervisors. 

A pension law applying to Rochester teachers has been 
enacted by the legislature. The maximum salaries of all elementary 
teachers has been increased twice in three years, and all together more 
than S5o,cx)0 has been added to salaries during this period. 

These are some visible results due to a rare combination of circum- 
stances that have made the school law of Rochester generally observed 
throughout the country. 

You have steadily insisted upcn a rising standard in the high schools, 
the training school and the elementary schools In the councils of 
the school board only one question is asked and that is what is best for 
the schools. 

It has been easy for your executive to carry out the theory of the 
Board, because you have generously delegated authority and given 
tinspanngly of your individual assistance and support. 

I desire to recognize my deep obligation to my associates who have 
enthusiastically co-operated in the great work carried out under the 
guidance of the Board of Education. Mr. Chas. B. Gilbert, my 
predecessor in office, is entitled to the gratitude of the community and 
the teaching force for the thoroughness with which he organized 
the new course of study. 

Miss Ada Van Stone Harris, supervisor of the kindergarten and 
lower grades, and my helper and counsellor in all departments of the 
elementary schools, has contributed indefinitely by her skillful leader- 
ship, clear vision, and untiring energy in laying the fc»undations of 



36 

our system of elementary education. Our supervisors have co-operated 
most successfully in their respective departments, and are worthy of 
the confidence shown them by the teaching force. The principals 
have carried the heavy burden of the reconstruction that has been 
accomplished, and their enthusiasm and effectiveness have grown with 
their labors. In season and out of season the members of the teaching 
force have cheerfully met the heavy demand made upon their energy 
and resources, and their success is worthy of the commendation bes- 
towed by parents and the confidence and gratitude of the entire com- 
munity. No other large city offers such an opportunity to its super- 
visory and teaching force. Much is expected from us at home, and 
our associates in other cities watch every development. Our work is 
for the community and for humanity and with such incentives we 
may undertake the work of the future with hope and confidence. 



GENERAL INFORMATION. 

The following paragraphs are inserted to answer numerous in- 
quiries, which arc constantly received. The facts contained in these 
paragraphs may. also be considered a necessary part of a report in- 
tended to convey reasonably complete information to the public : 

The School Law. 

The present school law, which is given in full at the end of this re- 
port, was enacted in 1900. The essential features of this law are as 
follows : 

First. The School Hoard consists of five members. 

Second. Three of these members are elected at one time and two 
others are elected two years later. The term of service is four years. 

Third. This Board is a corporation, authorized to expend money 
appropriated for its use. 

Fourth. This appro])riation is based upon the number of pupils 
in the public schools, $25 being allowed for each pupil enrolled. 

Fifth. The Board of Education appoints a superintendent, whose 
term continues four vears. 

Sixth. The Board is made responsible for the general financial 
management of the department. The Superintendent is given the 
initiative in the appointment of supervisors, principals and teachers, 
and transfers teachers. He is also made responsible for the general 



3; 

rraanagement of education. These provisions are all incorporated In 
hat is known as the Dow Law. (See school law at end of this re- 

Supervisors. 

The following are employed as supervisors of instruction : 

Supervisor of Primary Schools and Kindergartens, Miss Ada Van 
tone Harris. 
Supervisor of Manual Training, Mr. W. W. Murray. 
Supervisor of Drawing, Miss N. E. Lucas. 
Supervisor of Music, Mrs. A. C. Clement. 
Supervisor of Domestic Art, Miss K. F. Steiger. 

Thirteen assistants are employed in the department of manual 
training. These assistants are all women. Two hours each week are 
devoted to instruction in manual training. Carpentry is a part of the 
course of study for the boys of the seventh and eighth grades and 
desk work for the boys of the fifth and sixth grades. Manual training 
is fully provided in every primary grade, and consists of basketry, 
weaving, raffia work, clay modeling and card board cutting. 

Domestic science is given to the girls of the fifth, sixth, seventh 
and eighth grades. Two hours are given each week to this subject. 

One assistant is employed in the department of music and one in 
the department of drawing. 

Through the Friday institutes, Miss Newton, the instructor in 
physical training at the Training School, furnishes suggestion and 
directions for this work in all the public schools of the city. 

These supervisors give their entire time to the direction of the 
^vorkin their respertive departments. At least three series of grade 
institutes are held during each year. The teachers of a given grade 
dismiss their schools and are organized as an institute for an entire 
day This institute is held on Friday. The teachers of each 
Srade are in session during each year three entire days. At these 
institutes the superintendent and supervisor meet the teachers and 
^ve to them necessary instruction and directions. Two or more 
classes of children are usually under instruction at such institutes a 
P3rt of each day. The work of these classes is intended to furnish 
suggestion to every teacher of the grade, and the superintendent and 
Ws assistant usually draw upon this instruction for illustration. 

The physical training in the grades consists of formal instruction 
and free games. 



38 
Physical Training in the High Schools. 

There is a gymnasium for boys and one for girls in each of the 
High Schools. A director is employed for each gymnasium. Gym- 
nastics are required of all pupils in the high schools in the first, second 
and third years. 

Music. 

Music is required in the grade schools but is optional in the high 
schools after the first year. 

Drawing. 

Drawing is required in the graded schools but is optional in the 
high schools. The work in drawing will count for the diploma of 
graduation. 

Principals' Meetings. 

The superintendent calls a regular meeting of principals the first 
Wednesday of each month. 

A round table of principals is held on the third Wednesday. 

The first meeting is for routine business and the second for the 
professional study of educational questions. 

Salary Schedule. 

A salary schedule governs the salaries of grade teachers. The 
maximum salary for grade teachers and kindergartners is $650. The 
minimum salary is $400. The salaries of other teachers are not 
governed by schedules. 

Exhibits of School Work. 

At least once each year an exhibit of school work on a large scale 
is held in each school building. Sometimes this exhibit is held in each 
room showing the work of each pupil, and sometimes it is held in the 
school hall, arranged by grades and subjects to show representative 
work and to illustrate the course of study. This exhibit is usually 
held in connection with meetings of the Mothers* Clubs and are visited 
by throngs of patrons. The interest in these exhibits has constantly 
increased. 

Mothers* and Parents' Clubs. 
Connected with nearly every s»cYvoo\ \^ ^.xv -akCXwe organization of 



39 

mothers or parents. These organizations co-operate with the schools 
in beautifying the grounds, decorating the school walls with pictures 
or providing reference books. They meet at regular intervals, hold a 
mass meeting in June of each year and a flower show in September. 

The Women's Union is another large body organized for educational 
work. All these are a power in the community strengthening right 
public sentiment in regard to education, and co-operating with school 
officials and teachers. 



Free Games, Free Construction Work, Dramitization, 

Gardening. 

These lines have been emphasised during the last year. The child- 
ren of every room have free play either in their school room or in the 
school hall, every day. The old fashioned and familiar games are most 
popular. 

Free construction grows out of manual training and drawing and 
is usually a means of expression connected with the common school 
subjects. It is the aim to stimulate every child to do this work both 
at home and at school. 

The familiar classics are studied intensively in every grade, and 
this study generally results in a more or less elaborate dramitization of 
interesting selections. 

Nearlyjevery building has class gardens, and children are urged to 
plant seeds at home. Over 40,000 packages of seeds have been planted 
by school children this season. 

At an extensive flower show held in September, children exhibit 
the flowers and vegetables which they have raised and compete for 
prizes offered by the Women's Union. 

Lunch Rooms at the High Schools. 

Lunch rooms 81 feet by 70 feet are provided in each of the high 
school buildings. These rooms are abundantly fitted with small tables 
and chairs for the use of the students. The session of the high school 
extends from 9:00 until 2:30. Lunch is served at 12:15. A lady 
manager, paid a salary by the Board of Education, superintends this 
department. It is the purpose of the Board that this food shall be 
provided at such rates as merely to meet necessary expenses, and to 
provide for repairs and breakage. The average number of pupils daily 



40 

served in this restaurant is i,ooo. The lunch room is also patronized 
by students and instructors from the Training School and from the 
University. 

Supplementary Reading. 

The following books are used as supplementary reading matter in 
the different grades. Within limits they may be used also by other 
grades. 

Supplementary Books. 







Grade I. 


Name. 




Author. 


Primer 




Finch 


Reader I 




Finch 


Child Life, Book I 




Blaisdell 


Primer 




Baldwin 


Graded Literature, 


Book I 


Judson and Bender 


Oriole Stories 




Lane 


Reader I 




Hawthorne 


Primer 




Holton 


Art Literature Primer 


Grover 


Folk Lore Primer 




Grover 
Grade II. 


Child Life, Book II 




Blai.sdell 


Graded Literature, 


Book II 


Judson and Bender 


Eskimo Stories 




Smith 


Around the World, 


Book I 


Carroll 


Fairy Tale and Fable 


Thomp.son 


Reader II 




Hawthorne 


Bow-wow and Mew 


-mew 




Lodrix 




Wylie and Edick 


Cave Dwellers 




Dopp 


Tree Dwellers 




Dopp 
Grade III. 



Publisher. 

Ginn & Co. 

Ginn & Co. 

MacMillan Co. 

American Book Co. 

Maynard, Merrill Co. 

Ginn & Co. 

Globe School Book Co. 

Rand, McNally Co. 

Atkinson, Mentzer & Grove 

Atkinson, Mentzer & Grove 



MacMillan Co. 

Maynard, Merrill Co. 

Rand, McNally Co. 

Silver, Burdett Co. 

Silver, Burdett Co. 

Globe School Book Co. 

Maynard, Merrill Co. 

D. Appleton & Co. 

Rand, McNally Co. 

Rand, McNally Co. 



Child Life, Book III Blaisdell 

Graded Literature, Book III Judson and Bender 

Heroes of Myth Gilbert and Price 

Seven Little Sisters Andrews 
Big People and Little People of Other Lands Shaw 

Fairy Tales Shaw 

Reader III Hawthorne 

Fables and Folk Stories Scudder 

Fairy Tales Hans Anderson 



MacMillan Co. 

Maynard, Merrill Co. 

Silver, Burdett Co. 

Ginn & Co. 

American Book Co. 

American Book Co. 

Globe School Book Co. 

Houghton, Mifflin Co. 

Maynard, Merrill Co. 



Wandering Heroes 
Ten Little Boys 
Discoverers and Explorers 
Great Americans for Little 
Our American Neighbors 
Friends and Helpers 
Fifty Famous Stories 
Fanciful Tales 
North America 
Adventures of Pinocchio 
Hiawatha 



Gilbert and Price 

Andrews 

Shaw 

Americans Eggleston 

Coe 

Eddy 

Baldwin 

Stockton 

Carpenter 

Collodi 

Longfellow 



First Steps in the History of O 

Story of the Greeks 

American Life and Adventure 

Tanglewood Tales 

Krag and Johnny Bear 

Norse Stories 

Modern Europe 

South America 

The Western U. S. 

Hiawatha 

Tales from Shakespeare 

Viking Tales 

HowelPs Story Book 

Spyri's Heidi 



Grade V. 

ur Country Mowry 
Guerber 
Eggleston 
Hawthorne 
Thompson-Seton 
Mabie 
Coe 
Carpenter 
Fairbanks 
Longfellow 
Lamb 

Howell 
Spyri 

Grade VL 



Heroes of Chivalry 



Gilbert and Maitland 



Story of the Romans 

American Heroes and Leaders 

Marco Polo 

Asia 

Boys of Other Lands 

Snowbound 

Tales from Shakespeare 

Viking Tales 

Howeirs Story Book 

Spyri's Heidi 



Guerber 

Gordy 

Atherton 

Carpenter 

B. Taylor 

Whittier 

Lamb 

Howell 
Spyri 

Grade VII. 



Grandfather's Chair Hawthorne 

Story of Thirteen Colonies Guerber 

First Steps in the History of England Mowry 
Short Stories from English History 
Little Nell Dickens 

Ninety-Three Hugo 

WUIian TeU McMurry 



Silver, Burdett Co. 

Ginn & Co. 

American Book Co. 

American Book Co. 

Silver Burdett Co. 

Ginn & Co. 

American Book Co. 

Charles Scribner's Sons 

American Book Co. 

Ginn & Co. 

Maynard, Merrill Co. 



Silver, Burdett Co. 

American Book Co. 

American Book Co. 

Houghton, Mifflin Co. 

Charles Scribner's Sons 

Rand, McNally Co. 

Silver, Burdett Co. 

American Book Co. 

Heath & Co. 

Maynard, Merrill Co. 

Rand, McNally Co. 

Charles Scribner's Sons 

Ginn & Co. 



Silver, Burdett Co. 

American Book Co. 

Charles Scribner's Sons 

D. Appleton Co. 

American Book Co. 

Houghton, Mifflin Co. 

Rand, McNally Co. 

Charles Scribner's Sons 

Ginn & Co. 



Houghton, Mifflin Co. 

American Book Co. 

Silver, Burdett Co. 

University Publishing Co. 
Little, Brown & Co. 



42 



Washington and His Country 


Irving 


Franklin, His Life 


Franklin 


Last of the Mohicans 


Cooper 


Treasure Island 


Stevenson 


Around the World in a Sloop Sp 


»ray Slocum 




Grade VIII. 


Commercial Geography 


Adams 


Plants and Their Children 


Dana 


Miles Standish 


Longfellow 


Little Nell 


Dickens 


Ninety-Three 


Hugo 


William Tell 


McMurry 


Washington and His Country 


Irving 


Franklin, His Life 


Franklin 


Last of the Mohicans 


Cooper 


Treasure Island 


Stevenson 


Around the World in a Sloop Spray Slocum 



Ginn & Co. 

Ginn & Co. 

MacMillan Co. 

MacMilian Co. 

Charles Scribner*s Sons 



D. Appleton Co. 

Ginn & Co. 

Houghton, Mifflin Co. 

University Publishing Co. 

Little, Brown Co. 

Silver, Burdett Co. 

Ginn & Co. 

Ginn & Co. 

MacMillan Co. 

MacMillzn Co. 

Charles Scribner's Sons 



Teachers' Reference. 



English Classics 

General Method, one volume 

School Administration 

Commercial Geography 

Life of the Ancient Greeks 

Geography (complete) 

School History U. S. 

U.S. History 

Making of Great West 

History of U.S. A. 

History 

U. S. History 

Students* American History 

History of U. S., I, II, III, IV 

Children's Garden 

Arithmetic, Book I 



McMurry 
McMurry 
Dutton 
Red way 
Gulick 
Tarr and McMurry 
Mc Master 
Gordy 
Drake 
Morris 
Butterworth 

Fisk 

Montgomery 

Hart 

Miller^s 

Young and Jackson 

Smith 

Smith 



Primary Arithmetic 

Grammar School Arithmetic ^ 

Excursions and Lessons in Home Geography McMurry 

Type Studies in Geography McMurry 

Elementary Geography King 
Geography of New York City and State 

Source Readers, Vol. I, II, III, IV Hart 

The Western U. S. Fairbanks 



MacMillan Co. 

MacMillan Co. 

Charles Scribner's Sons 

Charles Scribner's Sons 

D. Appleton Co. 

Macmillan Co. 

American Book Co. 

Charles Scribner*s Sons 

Charles Scribner's Sons 

Lippincott 

Estes & Lauriat 

Houghton, Mifflin Co. 

Ginn & Co. 

MacMillan Co. 

D. Appleton Co. 

D. Appleton Co. 

Ginn & Co. 

Ginn & Co. 

MacMillan Co. 

MacMillan Co. 

Charles Sciibner's Sons 



MacMillan 
D. C. Heath & Co. 



43 
List of Text-Books Used in the High School. 

Latin. 

Grammar, Allen & Greenough, Ginn & Co. 
New Caesar, with Vocabulary, Allen & Greenough, Ginn & Co. 
New Cicero, with Vocabulary, Allen & Greenough, Ginn & Co. 
Virgil's Aeneid, Books i-6, with Vocabular>', Greenough & Kittredge, Ginn 
Co. 

Beginner's Latin Book, Smiley & Storke, American Book Co. 
New Latin Composition, Daniell, Part I, Part II, Part I, II, III, B. H. San- 
K>m & Co. 

Greek. 

Grammar, Goodwin, revised edition, Ginn & Co. 

Xenophon's Anabasis, with Vocabulary, Goodwin & White, Ginn & Co. 

Iliad (I-VI), with Vocabulary, revi.sed edition, Seymour, Ginn & Co. 

First Greek Book, White, Ginn & Co. 

Greek Prose Composition, revised edition. Woodruff, Leach, Shewell & Co. 

French. 
Grammar, Fraser & Squair, D. C. Heath & Co. 

German. 

Grammar, Joynes-Meissner, D. C. Heath & Co. 
German Lessons, Harris, D. C. Heath & Co. 

Mathematics. 

New School Algebra, Wentworth, Ginn & Co. 

Higher Algebra, Wentworth, Ginn & Co. 

New Higher Arithmetic, Robinson, American Book Co. 

Plane Geometry, revised edition, Wentworth, Ginn & Co. 

Plane and Solid Geometry, revised edition, Wentworth, Ginn & Co. 

History. 

A History of Rome, Myers, Ginn & Co. 
Eastern Nations and Greece, Myers, Ginn & Co. 
English History, Montgomery, Ginn & Co. 
Student's History of the U. S., Channing, MacMillan. 

Science. 

Practical Physiology, Blaisdell's, Ginn & Co. 
Foundations of Botany, Bergen, Ginn & Co. 
Animal Life, Jordon & Kellogg, D. Appleton & Co. 
High School Physics, Carhart & Chute, Allyn & Bacon. 

Chemistry Descriptive, Parts I and II, bound together, Newell's, D. C. Heath 
&Co. 



44 

Spanish. 

Grammar, Hills & Ford, D. C. Heath & Co. 
Practical Elocution, Shoemaker*s, Shoemaker. 



Text-Books at Present Adopted for Use in the 

Public Schools. 

Arithmetic. 

Rational Elementary Arithmetic, Bellfield & Brooks, Scott Foresman & Co. 
Hornbrook's Grammar School Arithmetic, A. R. Hombrook, American Book 
Co. 

History. 

The Leading Facts of American History, D. H. Montgomery, Ginn & Co. 
United States Hi.story, Horace E. Scudder, American Book Co. 
United States History, Wilbur F. Gordy, Charles Scribner's Sons. 
United States History, John Fiske, Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
United States History, John Bach McMaster, American Book Co. 
United States History, Charles Morris, J. B. Lippincott Co. 
United States History, W. A. and A. M. Mowry, Silver, Burdett Co. 
United States History, A. S. Barnes, American Book Co. 

Geography. 

The Natural Elementary Geography, Redway and Hinman, American Book 
Co. 

The Natural Advanced Geography, Redway and Hinman, American Book 
Co. 

Writing Books. 

The Natural System of Vertical Writing, A. F. Newlands and and R. K. Rowe, 
D. C. Heath & Co. 

Physiology. 

Elementary Physiology and Hygiene, A. W. Conn, Silver, Burdett & Co. 
First Book in Hygiene, Wm. O. Krohn, A. Appleton & Co. 

Music. 

The Modem Music Series, Eleanor Smith, Silver, Burdett & Co. 
Primer, First Book and Second Book, Silver, Burdett & Co. 

Grammar. 

Metcalfs English Grammar, Robert C. and Thomas Metcalf, American Book 
Co. 

Bass Reader, Florence Bass, D. C. Heath & Co. 

Stepping Stones to Literature, I-VIIl, Silver, Burdette & Co. 

Language Speller, Parts I and II, Spaulding and Moore, Richardson, Smith 
& Co, 



AN ACT 

To establish a retirement fund for pensioning retired school teachers 
in the City of Rochester, and to regulate the collection and manage- 
ment thereof. 

The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and 
Assembly, do enact as followss 

Section 1. Subdivision 1. The board of education, the superin- 
tendent of schools, one principal, and one teacher of the public schools 
shall constitute a board of trustees who shall have the general care and 
management of the public school teachers' retirement fund created by 
this act. In September, nineteen hundred and five, and in the same 
month every second year thereafter, a meeting of all the teachers and 
principals of the public schools of Rochester shall be called by the 
superintendent, at which time and place one principal and one teacher, 
then in active service, shall be chosen by the assembled teachers and 
principals to serve for a term of two years upon the board of trustees 
hereinbefore mentioned. The said board of trustees is empowered to 
make payment from said fund, of the annuities granted in pursuance 
of this act ; to take all necessary and proper action in the premises ; and 
to make such rules and regulations for the administration and invest- 
ment of said fund as it may deem best, except that neither the whole 
nor any part of said fund shall be invested in any manner otherwise 
than as the savings banks of the state are by law permitted to invest 
their funds. 

Subdivision 2. The public school teachers' retirement fund created 
by this act shall consist of the following moneys with interest or in- 
come therefrom, to wit : 

(a) All donations, legacies and gifts which shall be made to said 

fund. 

(b) Two per centum per annum of the respective salaries paid to 
the superintendent of schools, supervisors, principals and teachers 
regularly employed in the public schools of Rochester, except that no 
such deduction shall be made from the salary of a superintendent or a 
supervisor unless within one month from the date this act shall take 
effect or from the time of his or her appointment, notice in writing 
shall be given the board of trustees of his or her desire to come within 
the provisions of this act. 

(c) An amount to be paid each year from the funds appropriated 
by the city of Rochester for the board of education for the main- 
tenance of the department of education, equal to one-half the total sum 



46 

deducted from the salaries of the superintendent, supervisors, princi- 
pals and teachers for that year. 

(d) All moneys which may be obtained from other sources or bv 
other means duly and legally devised for the increase of said fimd by 
the board of trustees or with their consent. 

Subdivision 3. The board of education in making the pay rolls 
for the superintendent, supervisors, principals and teachers hereinbe- 
fore mentioned, shall semi-annuallv deduct from the salary of each of 
said persons a sum equal to one per centum of his or her annual salary, 
except that no such deduction shall be made from the salary of a 
superintendent or a supervisor who does not come under the pro- 
visions of this act as hereinbefore mentioned, and shall certify the 
amount of such deductions and the names of the persons from whose 
salaries such deductions have been made ; and such certificate shall 
accompany the pay roll and a warrant for the amount of the deductions 
so certified shall be drawn payable to the city comptroller, and shall be 
deposited by him with the city treasurer, who shall retain the same* 
subject to the disposal of said board of trustees as hereinafter pro- 
vided. At the same time a warrant shall be drawn payable to the city 
comptroller for a sum equal to one-half of the amount of the deduc- 
tions made from the salaries of the said superintendent, supervisors, 
principals and teachers, made chargeable to the funds appropriated by 
the city of Rochester for the board of education for the maintenance 
of the department of education, which sum the said comptroller shall 
also deposit with the city treasurer, who shall retain the same subject 
to the disposal of said board of trustees as hereinafter provided. 

Subdivision 4. The city comjjtroller shall be the custodian of said 
fund, and the city treasurer shall be the treasurer thereof; and all 
orders made payable from this fund shall be made upon the vote of the 
said board of trustees, said orders to be signed by its president and 
countersigned by the city comptroller and the city treasurer. 

Subdivision 5. (a) The board of education shall have power, on 
recommendation of the superintendent of schools, to retire from serv- 
ice or refuse to reappoint to service, any supervisor, principal, or 
teacher who shall have served in such capacity or capacities for an 
aggregate period of twenty years, if a female, and twenty-five years if 
a male ; and any i)erson so retired or refused reappointment, shall be- 
come an annuitant under this act, provided that not less than fifteen 
years of such service shall have been rendered in the public schools of 
Rochester, and in case of any superintendent or supervisor, provided 
also that he or she shall have come under the provisions of this act in 
the manner hereinbefore mentioned. 



(b) Any superintendent, supervisor, principal or teacher who shall 
have served in such capacity or capacities for a period of thirty years, 
if a female, or thirty-five years, if a male, may with the consent of the 
board of education, retire from service and become an annuitant under 
this act, provided that not less than fifteen years of such service shall 
have been performed in the public schools of the city of Rochester, and 
in case of any superintendent or supervisor, provided also that he or 
she shall have come under the provisions of this act in the manner 
hereinbefore mentioned. 

Subdivision 6. Annuities paid in pursuance of this act shall be 
one-half the amount of the annual salary of the annuitant at the time 
of retirement from service, except that no annuity shall exceed eight 
hundred dollars annually ; but if the moneys at the disposal of the trus- 
tees of said fund be found at any time inadequate to fully carry out 
the provision herein above mentioned, the trustees shall then pay to the 
persons entitled to participate in said fund as near a pro rata amount 
as in their judgment the circumstances will warrant. 

Subdivision 7. No person shall become an annuitant who has not 
contributed to the teachers' retirement fund in pursuance of subdi- 
vision three of this act, an amount equal to at least forty per centum 
of his or her annual salary at the time of retirement ; but any such per- 
son otherwise qualified may become an annuitant by making a cash 
payment to the retirement fund before receiving any annuity, of such 
an amount as his or her contributions under said subdivision three may 
have fallen short of the required forty per centum. 

Subdivision 8. No annuity shall be paid from the teachers' retire- 
ment fund before July first, nineteen hundred and seven ; but any per- 
son duly qualified who shall retire or be retired from service before 
that time, and after this act shall take effect, shall not be deemed to 
have forfeited the right to become an annuitant under the provisions 
of this act. 

Subdivision 9. If at any time a superintendent, supervisor, prin- 
cipal, or teacher, who shall be willing to continue service in the public 
schools of Rochester, shall not be re-employed, or shall be discharged 
before the time when he or she would under the provisions of this act 
be entitled to an annuity, then such person shall be paid back, without 
interest, all the money which may have been deducted from his or her 
salary in pursuance of this act. 

Subdivision 10. The board of education shall include in its annual 
report a full account of the condition of the teachers' retirement fund, 
its amount, the manner of its investment, and all receipts and dis- 
l^ursements on account of said fund during the year. 



48 

Sec. 2. This act shall take eflfect September the first, nineteen hun- 
dred and five. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Clarence F. Carroll, 

Superintendent of Schools. 
Rochester, N. Y., June, 1905. 



F 



TT 



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FIRST FLOOR PLAN 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



J. FOSTER WARNCR 
ARCHITECT 



49 



REPORT OF EAST HIGH SCHOOL 

Albert H. Wilcox, Principal. 

Rochester, N. Y., April 22, 1905. 
Mr. C. F. Carroll. Superintendent of Schools. 

Dear Sir: When my Jast report was submitted to the Superin- 
tendent in January', 1903, we were in the old High School building on 
Fitzhugh Street, with an annex on Chestnut Street. Half-day sessions 
for two sets of teachers and pupils were necessary in both buildings. 
On April 15, 1903, we moved into the new East High School building 
on Alexander Street. The attendance had increased so rapidly in view 
of the excellent facilities in prospect that the new building could not 
even then accommodate all of our pupils and it was necessary to leave 
a group in the old building and another in the Chestnut Street annex. 
Since then the number of pupils enrolled has mounted, steadily upward 
until the present year. It has also been necessary recently to resume 
the half-day sessions at the Fitzhugh Street annex. 

This increased enrollment is due not only to larger entering classes, 
but to the fact that pupils remain for a longer time than formerly. This 
is esi)ecially true of the boys. Four years ago the graduating class 
contained 30 boys and 64 girls; the class which will graduate in June, 
1905, contains about 140 pupils and almost half of them are boys. It 
should be remembered that under the present plan of semi-annual pro- 
motion two classes graduate every year, one in January and one in 
June. 

The new building has proven all that we anticipated. After occu- 
pying it for some months we were able to report to the Board that no 
essential change from this plan was necessary in the new West High 
School. Pure air and good light, ample space for all branches of work 
and sufficient time for all valuable features of a school session are 
among the advantages now enjoyed. The plan of twenty-four small 
study rooms with forty-two pupils in each room has proven especially 
satisfactory. It has given each teacher an opportunity to form an ac- 
quaintance with a small group of pupils and has brought in part the 
same advantage which the grammar school teacher enjoys in taking 
charge of a grade room. The two gymnasia under the management 
of competent instructors have enabled us to give to all pupils in the 
school some opportunity for exercise and relaxation from school room 
tension, as well as to give intelligent and expert treatment of a cura- 



so 

tivc or preventive nature where it might be needed. We do not aim to 
make athletes, but to keep our boys and girls in normal health; and if 
they are not in such condition, to help them where possible. The lunch 
room has vindicated itself in the economv of our school life. We have 
not found it necessary to keep hungry nupils at their tasks and then 
send them home at an hour not suited for a noon meal. Under Mrs. 
Hotchkin's efficient management the pupils have been furnished with 
nourishing food, well cooked, served in cleanly fashion and eaten in an 
attractive room. I wish to emphasize the wisdom of keeping the lunch 
room under the immediate control of the Board of Education. 

Over 2,000 pupils have been registered in the school since Septem- 
ber, 1904; they are grouped as follows: 

First vear 770 

Second year 591 

Third vear 403 

Fourth vear 279 

2043 
Unclassified 40 



2083 



It is to be hoped that the opening of the new West High School 
will not only relieve the pressure on this building and the two annexes, 
but afford an opportunity for the introduction of certain commercial 
and manual training subjects which we have not been able to offer as 
yet. The following table will give some idea of the trend among the 
elective subjects in the present course of study. We require all pupils 
to take English throughout their course, elementary mathematics in 
the first and second years, and physiology in the first year accordin^; 
to the state requirement. 

Number of pupils choosing elective subjects: 

Girls. Boys. 

Latin 703 506 

Greek 60 71 

Cjerman 479 293 

French 121 27 

English history 345 297 

Greek history 138 112 

Roman historv 115 97 

Advanced U. S. history ,.... 21 15 



SI 

Zoology 95 148 

Botany 119 42 

Chemistry 92 69 

Physics 68 46 

Advanced mathematics 36 5 

As soon as the new building was in process of construction a com- 
mittee of the faculty was appointed to devise some definite and har- 
monious plan for the decoration of our building. Acting in connec- 
tion with the regular committee appointed by the Board of Education 
to supervise all school decoration and aided by the alumni of the 
school and many public-spirited citizens, some very satisfactory re- 
sults have been secured. The following contributions deserve special 
"lention and will serve to indicate the plan that is being folowed : 

A statue of Minerva, heroic size, in the Assembly Hall, presented 
by the proceeds of the Latin Play in June, 1903. 

A statue of Apollo of the Lyre, heroic size, in the Assembly Hall, 
presented by the Senior Class, June, 1903. 

Statue of Venus of Milo, heroic size, in the Corridor, presented by 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph T. Ailing, 1903. 

A statue of Discobolus, heroic size, in the Corridor, presented by 
the Gamma Sigma Fraternity, 1904. 

A statue of Winged Victory, heroic size, in the Corridor, presented 
by the Arcthusa Society, 1904. 

A series of Robert Burns* pictures in Room 27 , presented by the 
Kappa Epsilon Society, 1904. 

Busts of Homer, Shakespeare, Emerson and Longfellow, with 
brackets and pedestals, purchased with the subscriptions of Miss 
Andrews, Mrs. L. L. Williams, Mr. W. A. Hubbard and Mr. Horace 
McGuire. 

Large carbon photograph of Guido Reni's "Aurora," girls' stair- 
case, a gift of the pupils of the East Annex. 

A large picture of the Cathedral of York, and one of the Cathedral 
^' Rhcims, in boys' stair-case, presented by class of June, 1904. 

A large picture of Santa Barbara, girls' stair-case, a gift from 
c^ass of 1884. 

A statue of Diana and Stag, heroic size, in the Corridor, presented 
l^y class of January, 1905. 

A picture of the Roman Forum, presented by Cicero pupils of June, 
^^2. The study and recitation rpoms contain many v?^\v\^bk v^^\.v\\^^ 



52 

and plaster casts, some the gifts of friends, but mostly procure 
through the efforts of the rooms, and all forming part of the scheii 
of decoration. 

In conclusion, permit me to express appreciation of the active l 
terest in our work shown by yourself and the Board in so many wa^ 

Yours respectfully, 

Albert H. Wilcox « 



S3 



ROCHESTER NORMAL SCHOOL 

Rochester, N. Y., March 27, 1905. 

Mr. C. F. Carroll, Superintendent of Schools. 

Dear Sir: It is with a sense of pleasure that, during the past yea/, 
I have worked in the Normal Training School and helped carry on the 
institution that had already heen successfullv established bv niv prede- 
cessor, Mr. R. A. Searing. 

The Theory Department of our school has been characterized by 
good health, good work and good cheer. Rapid adaptation to condi- 
tions, hearty co-operation and right royal regard for the institution, 
has been the attitude of the student body. As an outgrowth of this a 
(jlec Club has been established, a school paper is on its way to rapid 
materialization, and enthusiastic basketball teams have been organized. 
The student body numbers forty, eighteen of whom are Seniors. 

In order that the school might better fulfill its purpose — that of 
draining teachers for the schools of our city — a mid-year class was or- 
ganized in February. It is thought to continue this class until, at least, 
^he supply shall better meet the demand for teachers. 

Two courses are open to the students : — a Normal course, at the 
^<^>nipletion of which students are fitted for positions in the grades, and 
^ Kindergarten course. Both courses are two years in length. In 
'^rder. that Normal students may better get the Kindergarten point of 
\'it'w and that the Kindergartner may see the relation of the grade 
\vork to her own, the work of all students during the first semester is 
itlentical. After the first semester courses are elective. 



54 



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55 



Tlirouj^hout the buildinp^ many improvements have been made, 
ar I clingy to our comfort and pleasure. The library- which was strictly 
professional, has received a most welcome addition of 2,500 volumes 
from the Central Library, makinpf our total number of books 3,200. 
Tliesc books put within our reach a good working library in literature 
and science. .\ generous supply of current and professional maga- 
zines makes the library a source of pleasure as well as profit to the 
Tlieory Department and the Instructors of the Model School. 

Our gymnasium, though small, is well equipped. It has good light, 
^^nd ventilation is excellent. The dressing room is inadequate and 
^Iiowcr baths are lacking. Students who enter from the High School 
*^el keenly this need. It is hoped that some arrangement may be made 
^y which baths and suitable dressing rooms may soon be added. The 
^im of the Physical Training Department has been, not only to provide 
<^>pportunity for promotion of health through exercise, to give instruc- 
tion in personal hygiene, and to make students somewhat familiar with 
die history and present status of physical training, but also to make 
application of the modern methods in teaching gymnastics and games. 
It is very gratifying to learn that in many of the schools graduates 
^rom this institution have been efficient in promoting the physical 
^vork. The gymnasium as a social factor deserves hearty mention, 
through it the students are drawn together, and it affords a means of 
^<-"creation so necessary when individuals are to give their best effort to 
'i Serious work. 

In the Science Department added equipment has given an impetus 

*^> individual investigation. This has been a long felt need in indoor 

-^^ture Study and Physiology. While we are not planning a depart- 

"^^VMit for elaborate original research, we are encouraging students to 

'^v> dissatisfied with the book and to be satisfied with nothing less than 

^^>t.' seeing with their own eyes and experimenting with their own 

*'^^inds. Thus we hope to vitalize the teaching of Nature Study and 

-* ^liysiology. 

The departments of Singing, Drawing, Manual Training and 

I^^dagogy are laying well the needed bases for practical work. Never 

*><:fore has the Model School been used so extensively for laboratory- 

'^vork. In fact it has come to regard itself as an integral part of the 

Theory Department. 

The Model School, both in Kindergarten and grades, is becon>ing 

. niore worthy of its name. Under the supervision of Critic Teachers, 

y six grades have been taught throughout the year by student teachers. 

m There are four student teachers assisting in the kindergarten. The 

I heart)^ way in which the students take up the work with the classes dvi- 



s6 

Serves highest commendation. Seldom does it occur that a student has 
to be urged to greater effort. 

Finally, I would call your attention to the corps of instructors who 
have made possible the continuance of the organization of our school. 
Though at first many were strangers to one another and to me, there 
has been that earnestness of purpose and co-operative action that, in 
time, makes all things possible. 

Further, I would thank the Board of Education for the unlimited 
confidence they, as individuals, have placed in our work, and to Miss 
Harris and to yourself for your sympathetic and timely aid and sug- 
gestion. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Edith A. Scott, 
Principal of Normal Training School. 



57 



I 



REPORT OF SUPERVISOR. KINDERGARTEN AND 

PRIMARY SCHOOLS. 

Mr. C. F. Carroll, Superintendent of Schools. 

Dear Sir: It gives me pleasure to submit to you the following 
report of the work done in our schools : 

The progress since my last report, two years ago, has been 
niarked. This is largely due to the earnest and progressive work of 
the teachers, who have spared no effort to accomplish the best possible 
results. An atmosphere of joy, sympathy, interest and business per- 
vades nearlv everv class-room. There has been an earnest endeavor 
to bring about a closer relationship between grades and subjects. 
Much has been accomplished ; still I realize a great amount remains to 
be done, in order to attain anything approaching our ideals. 

With the kindergarten in every school as a basis for our work, the 
tendency is more and more to live and work with the children, and 
instead of simply furnishing them a store of knowledge — to develop 
the forces within them, to give them power to think and to do, and to 
teach them HOW TO LIVE. Right living is the end of education. Pow- 
er to think, power to do, the development of strength and beauty of char- 
acter, are the most desirable results our schools can produce ; all true 
education centers in the individual, and develops that personal force 
and power which best fits him for successful living, and individual use- 
fulness in life. 

It is the business of the school to give the child as full a life as 
possible, since the life of today determines largely the life of tomorrow. 
The child must be led not merely to know things, but to know his re- 
lation to the social world. He must continuously, during the period of 
"is education, be led into the belief that all he has and is, is for altru- 
istic use. 

Kindergarten. 

The aim and atmosphere of the kindergarten and modern school 
"ave much in common. In both the children arc active, busy partici- 
pants in the work that is going on. 

In the kindergarten we should find no formalism, no dwelling on 
^0' facts, no set formulas ; the threefold nature of the child, ^V\\s\c^.V, 



58 

intellectual and spiritual, has full scope for healthy, natural, unrestrict- 
ed development and expression. 

All the teachers of the kindergarten have been organized into study 
groups. To each of these a definite theme of study in connection with 
some phase of kindergarten work has been assigned. These groups 
have met separately for discussion and study under the direction of f< 
leader, appointed from their own number. At stated intervals they 
have presented the results of their studies before the whole body of 
kindergartners. 

Special attention has been given in these groups to stories, nature 
study, and program making. We have also given attention to sense 
perception, ball playing, sand and clay modeling, building 
and dictation exercises in connection with the gifts, to greater 
economy in the utilization of odds and ends of material, and to de- 
veloping the possibilities of outside materials. In a large system like 
our public schools the amount of kindergarten material which can be 
furnished by the Board is necessarily limited, and much has been ac- 
complished by the ingenuity of the teachers in discovering possibilities 
of great usefulness in material that may be added to the resources of 
the schools without expense. In some cases I find that the most valu- 
able work of the year has been accomplished through the utilization 
of this material immediately connected with the child's home life. 

In our kindergartens freedom in philosophical experiment is en- 
couraged — each one studying for a deeper insight into the basis philos- 
ophy of the kindergarten, realizing there is no special virtue in the use 
of the particular gifts and occupations as such. 

We stand for wise modifications in the use of Frocbelian material 
for freedom in thought and action, carefully studying the needs of the 
various classes of children. 

This does not signify the advocating of unrestrained lawlessness. 
Far from it. Expression is the inspiring principle of Froebel's spirit 
in education — full, free, unhampered expression of the whole being. 
The wise kindergarten teacher insists upon the child's obedience to 
whatever law is necessary to the harmonious life of the whole. 

We were greatly honored in April, 1W4, in having the Interna- 
tional Kindergarten Union meet in our city. The many weeks of 
planning and preparation previous to the coming of this body brougiit 
our kindergartners together with closer bonds of unity and good will 
than ever before. The influence which came to us by coming in con- 
tact with these notable women and by listening to the wisdom which 
fell from their lips as the result of years of wide experience cannot b-j 
measured. 



S9 

Our Christmas and Thanksgiving exercises were, it seems to me, 
the most satisfactory we have ever held. At Thanksgiving the chil 
dren's thought was centered on the bounty and fruitfulness of harvest 
rather than on the historical associations of the day. To develop the 
*'thank you" spirit in the heart of the child was the aim of the pro- 
grams so successfully planned and carried out by the teachers. 

At Christmas the central thought was 'Moving and giving." Thv? 
Christmas trees were supplied by the Board of Education, and the 
decorating and filling of the tree was entirely the work of the children. 
The presents were very simple, the children's own work, bearing the 
marks of imperfection and naivete that belongs to all real child's work. 
The beauty and variety developed by the use of inexpensive materials 
were indeed remarkable. No two kindergarten Christmas trees were 
alike. Yet all were attractive, and a real education to both children 
and parents, in showing what attractive gifts could be made by little 
fingers out of the simplest and most inexpensive materials. Wood, 
spools, cigar boxes, raffia, cardboard, wall paper, tiny pictures, bits of 
bright wool and colored cloth, and a dozen other things were utilized 
to make into presents for father and mother. Parents were invited to 
see the Christmas tree and hear the children's exercises in honor of 
the dav. 

We have tried whenever it was possible to emphasize the value ot 
occasional lessons out-of-doors. The vital necessity of children gain- 
ing knowledge and experience from the study of things at first hand 
is obvious. I shall hope the coming year to be able to overcome some 
of the obstacles that have made such out-of-door lessons difficult to 
arrange in some schools. 

Visiting in the homes of the children has also received and de- 
serves emphasis. The teacher who becomes familiar with the chil- 
dren's home life, knows better the possibilities and limitations of her 
pupils and can more sympathetically and efficiently direct their work. 

We have had constructed this year the fifth and sixth gift en- 
larged to the scale of a cube 5 x5 , and placed a set in each 
kindergarten for free co-operative building. These have demonstrated 
afresh the value of larger material. Our carpenter's benches, with 
saw, hammer and nails, have been much enjoyed by the children, and 
their free constructive work in the building of play-houses, tables and 
chairs for furniture has been a surprise to the most sanguine of the 
teachers. 

Programs. 
During this past year much attention has been given to the making 



6o 

of the daily programs in the different grades. There has been no at- 
tempt and no desire to secure uniform programs, and while the teach- 
ers have been left free to develop the arrangement of program best 
suited to their individual grades, at the same time the planning of a 
program so as to use the time to the best advantage and with the least 
strain upon teacher and pupil is a difficult undertaking. With a view 
to helping the teachers in planning out individual programs, I have 
prepared for each grade a suggestive outline. 

In making these outlines care was taken to give each subject its 
proper proportion of time, to place the more difficult branches in the 
periods of greatest freshness and vigor on the part of the pupil, and to 
so arrange physical exercises and subjects involving hand work as to 
afford relaxation and rest. The suggestive outlines of grade programs 
as prepared and presented in the institutes are appended under sug- 
gestive circulars. 

Sense Training. 

The importance of sense training as lying at the basis of efficient 
intellectual work has been duly emphasized. Many children fail in 
their studies because of poorly developed, or defective sense percep- 
tion. To cultivate sharpness of sight and hearing, delicacy of touch, 
accuracy of perception, quickness of motion, alertness of mind, a num- 
ber of simple games and exercises have been proved by experience to 
be most effective. A somewhat extended list of such games and exer- 
cises has been prepared from which teachers may select such as prove 
helpful to their pupils. Wonderful improvement in capacity to see and 
to think has been reported from the frequent use of such exercises. In 
preparing the outline I aimed to make it broadly suggestive. 

Institutes. 

In accordance with the provisions of the state law which allows to 
each teacher five days of institute work during the school year, there 
has been developed a system of teachers' institutes that has proved ex- 
ceedingly valuable. An institute has been held on Friday of each week 
with morning and afternoon sessions. We have heid each year thirty 
institutes, thus bringing together the teachers of each grade three 
times during the year. 

Teachers' meetings after school should be reduced to the minimum. 
In thus devoting three days of regular school time to the institute the 
number of grade meetings that would have otherwise been essential 
has materially been reduced. The coming together of the teachers of 
any grade for the day when they are fresh and rested develops a spirit 



6i 

of interest, open-niindedness, sympathy, co-operation and sociability 
on the part of all, which cannot be attained through the grade meet- 
ing after the fatigue of a day's work. 

It has been my aim in all of these institutes, so far as I have 
planned them, to bring to our teachers good cheer through helpful 
suggestions and inspiration. Ways and means for the development of 
the course of study for the particular grade have been considered and 
discussed. In many instances suggestive outlines for the illumination 
of a subject have been given. Specimens of class work from various 
schools have been displayed for study, suggestion and comparison. 

In this connection I desire to thank the teachers who have con- 
tributed so largely to the success of our institutes by the skillful con- 
ducting of class exercises. This feature of the work has been full of 
suggestion and inspiration. We have had from time to time class ex- 
ercises in all of the branches of the school curriculum and have aimed 
to make the conditions surrounding such exercises as nearly those of 
the school room as possible. 

Grouping System. 

During the past two years I have endeavored to still further perfect 
and make effective the grouping system, for I am convinced that it is 
one of the most important factors in efficient school organization. 

The pupils in all the primary grades are divided into two or three 
groups for the purpose of study and recitation. These groups are or- 
ganized so as to bring each child where he can do his best work, neither 
discouraged by those too far in advance nor made listless by tasks too 
easy to call forth his best effort. By the proper grouping of her pupils 
the teacher finds the problems of discipline and good order reduced to 
the minimum, for each pupil in the grade is actively employed. 

While one group of a dozen or more are reading to the teacher, 
another is busy at the desks preparing an arithmetic lesson, and still a 
third is at the board having written work. Or in a younger grade one 
group is doing constructive work assigned by the teacher at the sand 
table or brush work at the occupation table, and another is writing at 
the board what has been gained from a previous reading lesson, while 
the teacher is free to give individual attention to the absorbed little 
group of learners who are reading. 

We are finding that this same plan of group work with modifica- 
tions suited to more advanced pupils is just as valuable in the upper 
grades and does much to solve the problem of securing good attention, 
and of reaching the individual child. More than all, the pupil is en- 
couraged to depend upon himseii, lo work independently and to think 



62 

about what he does. Incidentally, we have found that the groupin;^: 
system has to a great extent made unnecessary tiome preparation of 
lessons. Instead of a whole grade consuming forty-five minutes in 
recitation, each group has thirty minutes for study and fifteen for reci- 
tation. 

Some pupils need the test of the recitation period and the exacting 
comparison with a standard, — this more in some branches than in 
others. But the really vital exercise to the child is when he handles 
by himself some assigned task. The study, or work, or occupation pe- 
riod is the important one. The way in which a teacher manages these 
occasions for personal effort on the part of her pupils is the test of her 
teaching efficiency. 

1 believe aU have come to recognize that the grouping system and 
the more careful grading of our pupils has materially raised the 
standard of scholarship. Unless each child is placed so that his time 
may be spent in doing work which demands supreme effort on his part 
— earnest, vigorous attention, utmost endeavor — the tendency is 
toward indifference, carelessness, droning, dullness. Our teachers are 
continually making greater effort to know the individual child and to 
place him where he belongs ; they recognize that unless the needs of all 
children are studied, injustice is done to many. The child, as the 
known factor, sliould be the basis of all our work. 

Reading. 

That the acquisition of the power to read intelligently without con- 
scious effort is of the highest importance to the child in the early stages 
of his school life is conceded. The power to read intelligently is the 
essential tool in all subsequent efforts to explore the mine of knowl- 
edge. 

The growth in the power to read has so steadily increased that with 
few exceptions the work is up to grade. Not only are the children 
reading more intelligently and fluently but they are able to do much 
more reading in a given time. The ability to take the thought from 
the printed page more easily and rapidly has been the result of con- 
tinued work with the sentence as a unit and also continued practice in 
rapid silent reading. Greater effort needs to be put upon distinct enun- 
ciation. In this respect we are still deficient. A real love for good 
literature is being created by placing in the hands of the children the 
many excellent supplementary books. 

There is little value in re-reading one school reader several times. 
Power in ability to read comes in the thoughtful reading of many 
books. Every exercise pf the school should offer occasion for the child 



63 

to put forth effort ; effort that will result in acquired knowledge anrl 
skill. That this result may be attained^ — the gaining of knowledge and 
skill in reading— we urge the necessity of reading many books. 

Literature. 

Children have an innate love for the story and poetry. The first 
manifestation of this is shown in the nursery, where "Mother Goose" 
and similar collections of nursery songs furnish "remedial treatment 
sufficient for the healing of most of the sorrows of babyhood." 

Fairy tales and folk-stories, fanciful tales and wonder books follow 
in order and furnish an abundance of literature for the primary grades. 
In this literature the child's fancy finds free range. He pictures his 
world with images of beautiful spirits whom he has learned to love, or 
with evil spirits from whom he shrinks. As the child advances in years 
he finds their illustrations in real life and it is then the lessons of child- 
hood become the foundations of the wisdom of maturer years. 

Our list of poems and stories is sufficiently long and so well select- 
ed that teachers are able to select with greatest freedom those which 
are particularly adapted to the needs of their pupils. The interest and 
the results attained in this work show marked growth. The reciting of 
the poem memorized, and the reproduction of the story which has been 
read, the conversations and discussions of the matters of interest con- 
nected with the story, the illustrating and dramatizing of the same, 
fcrnis definite mental pictures, also helps the children in their use of 
English. It is by reading and hearing good Knghsh and by careful 
Practice that we come to use it well. In selecting the best literature 
Or the children the teacher should feel that **she is selecting and 
'anging pictures for all time, and the children's minds are the art 
^^nis which she is furnishing." 

Grade Libraries. 

In accordance with the directions of the Board, I have devoted 
^uch time this year to the preparation of lists of books suited to grade 
ibraries. It was decided to begin with the fourth grade and place a 
i)llection of forty books for home reading in each fourth grade room 
ti the city. In each collection are groups of books covering nature 
^ludy, fairy stories, stories from history and biography, of travel and 
adventure, fiction and verse. In making out these lists we have con- 
sulted the Pittsburg, Buffalo, Boston, Xew York and other grade 
library lists, and to them have added such books as seemed most valu- 
able. It has b^en the aim to so vary the libraries sent to d^\^^T^\>X 



64 

schools that they might be interchanged. It is possible by these ex- 
changes of library groups to use the books for a much, longer period 
than would have been possible if the groups were duplicated. The list 
of books selected for fourth grade libraries is as follows : 



Nature. 

Eyes and No Eyes Aiken 

Stories of My Four Friends Andrews, J. 

Uncle Sam's Secrets Austin, O. P. 

Look About Club Bamford, M. E. 

My Land and Water Friends Bamford, M. E. 
Tools and Machines Barnard, C. 

In Brook and Bayou Bayliss 

Victor in Buzzland Bell, A. F. 

Orchard Land Chambers 

Out-door Land Chambers 

Bird Studies with a Camera Chapman 

Strange Adventures of Billy Trill Chcever, H. A. 



Darelton, A. M. 

Dickerson 
Hamerton 
Hardy, Mrs. A. S. 

Hoi brook 



Wings and Stings 

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Chapters on Animals 

Sea Stories for Wonder Eyes 

Book of Nature Myths 

Story of the Great Astronomers Holden 

Cat Tales and Other Talcs Howliston, M. H. L 

True Tales of Birds and Beasts 

(Home and School Classics) Jordan 

Leaves from Nature's Story Book Kelly, Mrs. M. A. B. Educational Pub. Co. 
Short Stories of Our Shy Neighbors Kelly, Mrs. M. A. B. American Book Co. 



D. C. Heath & Co. 

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Ways of Wood Folk Long 

Wilderness Ways Long 

Wood Folk at School Long 

Little Folks in Feather and Fur, etc. Miller, O. T. 
Liule Mitchell Morley, M. W. 

Buz; or the Life and Adventures 

of a Honey Bee. Maurice Noel 

On the Farm Parker, F. W. & Helen N. 

Play Time and Seed Time Parker, F. W. & Helen N. 
Uncle Robert's Visit Parker, F. W. & Helen N. 

Pussy Meow Patteson, S. L. 

Spinner Family Patterson, A. J. 

Dickey Downey Patterson, V. S. 

Among the Farmyard People Pierson, C. D. 

Among the Forest People 
Among the Meadow People 
Among the Night People 
Among the Pond People 
Dooryard Stories 
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Pierson, C. D. 
Pierson, C. D. 
Pierson, C. D. 
Pierson, C. D. 
Pierson, C. D. 
Proctor 



Ginn & Ca 

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65 



Stories of Humble Friends 

Haunter of the Pine Gloom 

King of the Mamozekel 

Lord of the Air 

Watchers of the Camp Fire 

Lobo, Rag and Vixen 

Earth and Sky (2 parts) 

Bird Life Stories 

Natural History 

Four-footed Americans 

Little Lucy's Wonderful Globe 



Pyle, H. 
Roberts, C. G. D. 
Roberts, C. G. D. 
Roberts, C. G. D. 
Roberts, C. G. D. 

Seton, E. T. 

Stickney, J. 

Weed, C M. 

Wood, J. G. 

Wright, M. O. 

Yonge, C. M. 



American Book Co. 

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Fiction. 



Allen, G. 
Andrews, J. 
Baldwin 
Barry, E. B. 
Booth, M. B. 
Brown, Dr. J. 
Browne, F. 
Bunyan 
Butterworth 



Chambers, R. W. 



Clark, L 
Corkran 



Cruise of the Albatross 

Each and All 

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Granny's Wonderful Chair 

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True to His Home 

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Down the Snow Stairs 
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Hoosier School Boy Egglcston 

J<ickanapes Jan of the Wind Mill Ewing 
Luq' and Their Majesties 
•Mooswa 

^olf and the King's Bow 
Autobiography of a Town Boy 
Queen's Story Book 
Handy Man Afloat and Ashore 
Pickett's Gap 
Half Hundred Stories 
Hall of Shells 

When Grandma Was New 
Things Will Take a Turn 



Farjcon 
Eraser 
French 
Gilder 
Gomme 
Goodenough 
Green 

Hardy 
Ilarland 
Harraden 



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66 



By Pike and Dike 

In the Reign of Terror 

With Wolf in Canada 

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Tom Brown 

Sir Bevis 

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Under the Great Bear 

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Henty 
Henty 
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Klingensmith 

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MacDonald 

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Molesworth 
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Muller, M. 



Story of Akimakoo 
Little Lame Prince (H. & S. Classics) Mulock, D. 
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Old World Wonder Stories (H. & S. C) O'Shea 
Bimbi Ouida pseud. 

Dog of Flanders Ouida pseud. 

Making of a Hero Paull, Mrs. G. A. 

Prince Dimple and His Every 
Day Doings 



Adventures of Mabel 

Gypsy Brcynton 

Human Boy 

Brave Coward 

Two Dogs and a Donkey 

Pepper and Salt 

Garden Behind the Moon 

Twilight Land 

Wonder Clock 

Golden Windows 

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Little Daughter of the Revolution 

Sophie 

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Black Beauty 

Castle Blair 

Heidi 

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l^'ancit'iil Tales 

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Robins 

Lottery Ticket 



Paull, Mrs. G. A. 
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Sage, A. C. 
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Trimmer 
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67 



Two Biddicut Boys 
Wee Dorothy 
Goody Two Shoes 
Story Hour 
Magic Forest 
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Trowbridge, J. T. 

Updegraff 

Welch 

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Winnington 



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Through the Looking Glass 

Katooticut 

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Adventures of Pinnochio 

Brownies 



Aesop 
Andersen 
Arabian Nights 
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Baldwin 
Baldwin 
Bates 
Baum 
Bell, Mrs. H. 

Brpoks 
Brown, A. F. 
Burt & Howells eds. 
Carroll 
Carroll 
Carter 
Chaucer 
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Cox 



Adventures of a Brownie (H. & S. Classics) Craik 



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68 



Brown Fairy Book 

Crimson Fairy Book 

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History of Whittington 

Little Red Riding Hood 

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Prince Little Boy 

Ruby Ring 

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Queer Little People 

Witchery Ways 

Pearl and the Pumpkin 

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Lang, Andrew 

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Lang, Andrew 

Lang, Andrew 

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Longfellow 

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West, P. 
White, M. 
White, S. E. 
Whittier 
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History. 

Tales from Tennyson Allen, G. C. 

Old Greek Stories Baldwin 

Wonder Book of Horses Baldwin 

Wagner Opera Stories Barbur 

Stories of Pioneer Life Bass 

Hero Stories from American History Blaisdell 
F'olk Tales from the Russian Blumenthal 

Son of the Revolution, Godson of Lafayette Brooks, 
In the Days of Giants (School ed.) Brown 
Stories from Plato Burt 

Herakles Burt & Ragozin 

Story of the Indians in New England Burton 
Treasure Ship Butterworth 

Heroes of the Middle West Catherwood 



Brentano 

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69 



Heroes of Chivalry and Romance 

Story of the Odyssey 

Story of an Indian Boyhood 

First Book of American History 

Stories of Old Greece 

Asgard Stories 

Boys' Froissart 

Glimpses of Pioneer Life 

Greek Myths in English Dress 

Pathfinder of the Revolution 

Homeric Stories 

Viking Tales 

Stories of Old Rome 

Untold Tales of the Past 

Tales and Customs of the Ancient 



Church, A. J. 

Church 
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Eggleston 
Firth 

Foster 
Froissart 
Glentworth 

Griffis 

Hall 

Hall 
Hanson 
Harraden 



Hebrews 
Stories from the Hebrew 
Classic Myths 

Wigwam Stories (School ed.) 
Heroes of Asgard 
Knightly Legends of Wales 
Norse Stories 
Pioneers on Land and Sea 
Pioneers of the Mississippi 



Herbst 
Heersman 
Judd, M. C 
Judd, M. C. 
Keary, A. & E. 

Mabie 
McMurry, C. A. 
McMurry, C. A. 



Pioneers of the Rockv Mountains McMurrv, C. A 



William Tell 

Pilgrims and Puritans 

American Heroes and Heroism 

Little People of Japan 

Little People of the Snow 

Child of Urbino 

Nurnberg Stove 

Captains of Industry 

King Arthur and His Knights 

Ancient Greeks 

Little Maid of Concord Town 

Story of the Britons 

Iron Star (School ed.) 

Stories from American History 

Early Days in the Maple Land 

Old Tales from Greece 



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Moore 
Mowry, W. A. 
Muiler 
Muller 
Ouida pseud. 
Ouida pseud. 
Parton. J. 
Radford 
Shaw 
Sidney 
Skinner 
True 
Turpi n 
Young, K. A. 
Zimmern, A. 



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Achilles and Hector 



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Four Old Greeks 


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Candy Country 

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Little Button Rose 

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May Flowers 

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Cruise of the Canoe Club 

Cruise of the Ghost 

Moral Pirates 

New Robinson Crusoe 

Out of the Northland 

Log of a Sea Waif 

Men of the Merchant Service 

Over the Andes 

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Lou 

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World's Discoveries 

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Alcott, L. M. 
Alcott, L. M. 
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Alcott, L. M. 
Alcott, L. M. 
Alcott, L. M. 
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Alcott, L. M. 
Alcott, L. M. 
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Alden, W. L. 
Alden, W. L. 
Alden, W. L. 
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71 



Giant Scissors 

Little Colonel 

Little Knights of Kentucky 

Old Mammy's Torment 

Story of Dago 

The World by the Fireside 

Water Babies 

Little Almond Blossoms 



Johnston, A. F. 

Johnston, A. F. 

Johnston, A. F. 
Johnston, A. F. 

Johnston, A. F. 

Kerby. M. & E. 
Kingslcy 
Knox, J. J. 



Boy Travellers in South America Knox, T. W. 



In Wild Africa 

Two Girls in China 

The Philippines 

Our Little Cousin Ser. 22 V. 

Dotty Dimple, 6 V. 

Prudy, 6 V. 

Against Wind and Tide 

Four of Them 

Her Baby Brother 

Jessie's Neighbors 

Little People of Japan 

Little People of the Snow 

Story of the Wretched Flea 

His Little Mother 

Little Sunshine's Holiday 

Wakulla 

Flamingo Feather 



Knox, T. W. 

Krout 
McClintock 
MacDonald & Wade 
May, Sophie pseud. 
May, Sophie pseud 
Moulton 
Moulton 
Moulton 
Moulton 
Muller 
Muller 
Muller 
Mulack, D. M. 
Mulack, D. M. 
Munroe, C. K. 
Munroe, C. K. 



Left Behind ; or, Ten Days a Xcwsboy Otis. James 



Mr. Stubb's Brother 
Raising the "Pearl" 
Silent Pete 
Tim .ind Tip 
Toby Tyler 
Snowland Folk 
Cottage Neighbors 
Ju-ju's Christmas Party 
Mary Bartlett's Stepmother 
New Year's Call 
That Little Smith Girl 
T*ales of a Poultry Farm 
Little Olive, the Heiress 
Diddle, Dumps and Tot 



Otis, James 

Otis, James 

Otis, James 

Otis, James 

Otis, James 
Peary, R. K. 
Perry, Nora 
Perry, Nora 
Perry, Nora 
Perry, Nora 
Perry, Nora 
Pierson, C. D. 
Plympton, A. G. 
Pyrnelle, Mrs. L. C. 



Chop-Chin and the Golden Dragon Richards, L. V 



Golden-breasted Kootoo 

Sundown Songs 

Little Daughter of Liberty 

Little Puritan's h'irst Christmas 

Little Puritan Pioneer 

Little Puritan Rebel 

Loyal Little Maid 

Ship, Her Story 

Wandering Twins 



Richards, L. E. 
Richards, L. E. 
Robinson 
Robinson 
Robinson 
Robinson 
Robinson 
Russell, W. C. 
San ford 



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Harper Bros. 

Harper Bros. 

Harper Bros. 

F. A. Stokes & Co. 

Little, Brown Co. 

Little, Brown Co. 

Little, Brown Co. 

Little, Brown Co. 

Little, Brown Co. 

E. P. Dutton & Co. 

Little, Brown Co. 

Harper Bros. 

Little, Brown Co. 

Little, Brown Co. 

Little. Brown Co. 

L. C. Page & Co. 

L. C. Page & Co. 

L. C. Page & Co. 

L. C. Page & Co. 

L. C. Page & Co. 

!•'. A. Stokes & Co. 

A. C. McClurg & Co. 



n 



Hans, the Eskimo Scandlin 

Children of the Cold Schwatka 

Around the World in the Sloop Spray Slocum 



Empire State 
The Red Mustang 
The Talking Leaves 
Two Arrows 
Larry, the Wanderer 
On the Trail of Pontiac 
Mysterious Island 



Southworth 
Stoddard, W. O. 
Stoddard, W. O. 
Stoddard, W. O. 
Stratcmeyer 
Stratemcyer 
Verne 



Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea Verne 



Ten Little Indians 
What Darwin Saw 
Swiss Family Robinson 
Little Lucy's Globe 
Northern Europe 
Toward the Rising Sun 
Under Sunny Skies 
Wide World 



Wade 



Wyss & Montolieu 

Yonge 

Youth's Companion Series 

Youth's Companion Series 

Youth's Companion Series 

Youth's Companion Series 



Silver, Burdett & Co. 

Educational Publishing Co. 

Chas. Scribner's Sons 

D. Appleton & Co. 

Harper Bros. 

Harper Bros. 

Harper Bros. 

Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co. 

Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co. 

A. L. Burt & Co. 

American News Co. 

W. A. Wilde & Co. 

Harper Bros. 

Ginn & Co. 

The MacMillan Co. 

Ginn & Co. 

Ginn & Co. 

Ginn & Co. 

Ginn & Co. 



Language and Expression. 

I have regarded it as very important that much attention be given 
to this subject; hence special emphasis has been laid during the past 
two years upon oral language, because written language has in the past 
received far too large a share of attention. 

If one stops to think how much the average citizen talks in com- 
parison with what he writes, the importance of oral language becomes 
apparent. Few powers are more valuable than the power to express 
one's thoughts in speech fluently, accurately and elegantly. If this 
power is given, the power to write fluently and accurately follows with- 
out question and without trouble. The power of oral as of written ex- 
pression of thought comes only through practice. 

Frequent opportunity is given to the pupils to tell in their own 
words, a story to which they have listened, to describe places which 
they have visited, to narrate experiences of their daily lives, and with- 
out self -consciousness to grow accustomed to express themselves 
dircctl) and fully. The eflfect has been at once apparent upon the writ- 
ten work. When it was formerly difficult to secure a two-page com- 
position of stiflf and stilted English on some topic assigned, the only 
difficulty now in many cases is to confine the literary output to reason- 
able limits. The children are anxious to put on paper that about which 
they have freely talked. All sorts of material drawn from all the 
various studies is used for this development of oral language. There 
are stories from Greece, and Rome, and the Orient ; from the history of 
England and of our own country ; there are studies from literature, — 



73 

Beowolf, Siegfried, story of Moses and Joseph, Evang^eline, Lady 
of the Lake, Vision of Sir Launfal ; there are chapters of g^eopfraphy, — 
raining, lumbering^, the great grain fields, the chief industries; there 
are the lives of artists, poets, patriots, heroes. The fifteen minutes 
given each day to the cultivation of both oral and written language 
reacts favorably on the work of everv studv. 

Occupation or Seat Work. 

The occupation or seat work has come in most instances to show 
its educational value in the various modes of expression material. This 
is especially tnie in the brush and color work, due largely to the co- 
operative w^ork of our Drawing Supervisor, Miss Lucas. 

Normal children, when free, delight in realizing their ideals 
through almost any convenient medium of expression, as sand, clay, 
wood, paper, brush, or the written or printed word. The pleasure is in 
the spontaneous action, in anticipating or realizing a desired result. 
The pleasure and educative value cease, however, if the cutting and 
painting are imposed as tasks, to meet the requirements of a teacher 
seeking her own preconceived results. 

The reading, writing, drawing, painting, modeling and music 
should be used as direct means of image growth and as mediums of 
communication. The children's motive must be to tell what they have 
seen or heard. 

The teacher, through the pupils' expression, will study the power, 
originality and difficulties of each individual of the class. She should 
criticise the work as to its demands for genuineness, for constant im- 
provement, and its value as a means of causing the children to enlarge 
their images. 

Every lesson must have a distinct purpose, whatever the form of 
expression may be. 

Constructive Work. 

The constructive work is the * 'putting into form by handicraft the 
'deas developed in solving problems suggested for present necfls or for 
Ae needs of the past." 

The conservative teacher is often frightened by the introduction of 
handiwork into the school. She fears that it will rob her children of 
Aeir prerogative to read, write and cipher. If it does, she has a right 
^0 object to it. Construction work is only another great means for the 
all around development of the brain. 

The good reading, writing or oral language lesson, that has cIq«.t 



74 

imaging^ as a basis, is just as truly constructive work as any house, 
bridge, box or tray that can be made, and the teacher is shortsighted 
indeed who fails to recognize this. Children continually express them- 
selves in physical activity in various ways. The constant strain of ap- 
pealing to the language centers of the brain causes fatigue and the 
children rebel whether the teacher wills it or no. 

Teachers are often responsible for grave habits of inattention and 
waste of time, when they force children to use and value the action of 
such a small portion of the brain. That the development of the chil- 
dren may be many sided, and normal, with less brain fatigue, I urge 
the necessity of more free construction work. Accuracy, sequence or 
system, as the terms are so frequently understood, should not be put 
forward as essentials when framing our lines of action. One of the 
most important gains on the part of the child is in the power of imi- 
tation. To secure this, the child must be given larger freedom in the 
selection of articles to be made by him and in the details of their con- 
struction. We must, however, suggest, or lead, or allow the pupil to 
suggest for construction that which he can in some degree accomplish ; 
and must for the sake of the child and his future welfare lead him to 
think clearly, to do and to live nobly. The work should always be of 
such a character as to offer healthful exercise to the bodv as well as 
skill to the hand. 

Great care should be exercised in directing this work and teachers 
must bear in mind it is valuable only as it stands certain tests. The 
children must feci a puqiose in it, which will arouse their best efforts. 
It must be so adapted to their mental and physical powers as not to 
cause over strain. It should tend to cultivate good taste and should 
develop the power of criticism, as they discover its failure to fulfill the 
purpose for which they designed it. 

Gkocrapiiv. 

Much attention has been given to this topic in our institutes this 
year. The lecture given by Dr. Charles McMurry on "Type Studies 
in Geography" gave our teachers a new view-point in teaching. Sup- 
plementary desk books on geography have been placed in the school 
rooms for the use of teacher and pupil, and there is a growing power 
to develop the subject topically. 

The ends which we have sought to gain in teaching Geography 
have been, first, to train pupils to see the facts of Geography about 
them, whether in the fields or in the city ; second, to learn how to learn 
from books ; and third, to establish the habit of considering facts so as 
to make correct inferences from them. The idea then is to train the 



75 

children to observe, to sec relations, to think for themselves rather than 
to memorize the thoughts of others. 

Visits to industries of our own citv and to nearbv locations have 
helped to make definite and practical the knowledge gained. We hope 
to do more of the excursion work in the future. 

Arithmetic. 

The importance of arithmetic has received due emphasis in our 
teachers' institutes, and many admirable suggestions and demonstrative 
lessons have been given by teachers before the institute. 

In the earlier years the aim is to familiarize the child with simple 
computations of all sorts by applying them to those various depart- 
ments of human interest which come within his grasp. Later as he ad- 
vances in maturity an effort is made to inculcate principles thoroughly. 

Much original supplementary work, in addition to the work in text- 
books, has been undertaken in some of our schools. Our teachers are 
gradually coming to the realization of the truth that number is an ex- 
pression of ratio, — that it docs not exist in itself, and with young chil- 
dren who are incapable of much abstract reasoning it is necessary that 
the number work be expressions of such ratios as naturally fall within 
their experience. 

The tables of linear, dry, liquid and cubic measure are no longer 
learned without reference to actual measurement. All the common 
measures arc in the school room and are practically used by the pupils 
in learning the tables. The aim in the primary arithmetic has been to 
teach all the fundamental processes in arithmetic through the concrete 
handling of things, to make it of a thoroughly practical value. I be- 
lieve we arc doing more in this subject than is done in most cities. I 
am pleased to report that the pupils in our third year master the multi- 
plication table through the twelves and arc able to make intelligent 
use of the same. 

Nature Study. 

The course in Nature Study should be modified in order that it 
mav be more closely inter-related with the humanistic and economic 
aspect of our work. The groundwork underlying the selection of 
topics for Nature Study should be that of social life, the problems of 
living beings, whether plants, animals, or men, and how to solve them. 

Such suitable materials and conditions should be provided as will 
enable the child to so understand the objects and forces about him that 
he may gain an insight into the laws of nature and learn how to make 
use of these laws in answering his reasonable needs; in the planting 



76 

and caring for his flower or vegetable garden, for example ; also awak- 
en in him an appreciation of some of the relationships which he is 
called upon to assume. 

We are unusually fortunate in our beautiful city of gardens, parks, 
rivers and hills which affords rich material for the study of seed, plant, 
and insect life. I desire to call your attention to the necessity of more 
out-of-door work in this connection, — more garden, field and excursion 
work for the purpose of developing the observational powers of the 
children and for enlarging the child's field of knowledge. We are not 
living up to our opportunities in this direction. 

Physical Work. 

This year a decided impetus has been given to the promotion of 
games, rhvthm work, and physical training by the outlines prepared 
and given out at our institutes by Miss Marian B. Newton, Director of 
Physical Work in our Normal School. There is great need of an or- 
ganized department for this work in our course of study if Rochester 
is to keep pace with other cities of like educational standing in the 
country. 

Teachers and pupils have manifested a keen interest in the starting 
of this work ; and the great need of developing and directing the phy- 
sical powers of the child are being constantly realized. Already a 
movement is rife in the city for the promotion of general physical edu- 
cation, and several important and influential bodies are becoming 
affiliated in the work. The registration of public school attendance 
this year is 27,000, nearly one-sixth of the whole population of Roch- 
ester, and in what way could the physical welfare of the youth and the 
future citizens be more effectually dealt with than through our public 
schools ? 

At present conditions are very inadequate for realization of the re- 
sults it is hoped may be attained at some time. The Normal School 
has the only equipped gymnasium, aside from the High School. While 
many of the buildings have splendid assembly halls that are being con- 
stantly used to advantage, there are other school buildings that have 
neither assembly halls nor wide corridors, and the floors of the class 
rooms being undeadened, the work that can be attempted in such build- 
ings is decidedly limited. 

Because of these conditions, I beg to suggest, in order to have more 
space in class rooms for exercises and games, that the aisles should be 
much wider {Z2 inches or a yard). This is a better arrangement than 
to have a space on one side of the room, which, at best, would be too 
small for the use of an ordinary sized class. 



n 

Many of the school buildings have playgrounds, gardens, etc., ad- 
joining. These should be made use of in clement weather throughout 
the year. I trust the time is not far distant when provision will be 
made whereby every school will have its playground and garden. 

In conclusion I desire to express my sincere thanks to the principals 
and teachers for the interest, earnestness and good will with which they 
have co-operated with me ; also, to the Superintendent for his constant 
appreciation and co-operation, and to the Board of Education for the 
support of their encouragement and confidence. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Ada Van Stone Harris, 
Supervisor of Kindergarten and Primary Schools. 



78 



REPORT OF SUPERVISOR OF MANUAL TRAINING. 

Mr. C. F. Carroll, Superintendent of Schools. 

Dear Sir : In compliance with your request, I desire to submit the 
following statement concerning the manual training work in the va- 
rious grades from the first to the eighth, inclusive. Also a brief report 
concerning the manual training and mechanical drawing in the evening 
schools. 

Owing to the necessity for conciseness, the information pertaining 
to methods and other details has been omitted ; these may be found in 
the printed outlines and Course of Study. 

Length of Lessons. ' 

Up to the first of this year, 1905, the pupils of the fifth to eighth 
grades, inclusive, have had but one hour a week for their manual train- 
ing work. However, beginning with the first week in January, 1905, 
the pupils of the seventh grades have had one hour and fifteen minutes, 
and those of the eighth grades have had a two-hour lesson each week. 
The fifth and sixth grades have one hour a week. And it is expected 
that the primary grades will devote at least thirty minutes. Still, this 
is optional; the teachers give more than thirty minutes each week if 
necessary. 

Primary Grades. 

The first step toward the introduction of elementary handwork in 
the primary grades was to organize a class for the training of the 
teachers of the primary grades ; a beginning was made in 1903. The 
class membership is limited to thirty-five ; each school is represented by 
one teacher, who volunteers to prepare herself to teach the elementary 
manual training, then to instruct the other teachers of the same grade, 
and to give general oversight to the work in her school. The class 
meets in the office of the Supervisor of Manual Training on Monday 
afternoons at 4 :30 o'clock. 

Each pupil-teacher is provided with a work-box which contains a 
one-foot measurhig rule ; a 45-degree triangle ; drawing compasses ; an 
eraser ; a pair of scissors ; one raffia needle ; a lead pencil of medium 
grade, and a punch. 

The work of this class includes both practical and theoretical in- 
struction in the use of such materials for school work as raffia, clav, 



79 

carpet warp. rags, cloth and yarn ; straw and tag board ; manila and 
colored wrapping paper; colored cover paper (cardboard) ; white ash 
splint and reed ; thin wood ; and remnants of wood of various thick- 
nesses from the manual training room in the school. 

Besides the above the teachers are given instruction and practice in 
tlie use of some of the common woodworking tools, and such fasten- 
ings as nails, screws and glue. 

Owing to the occasional transfer of teachers from one school to 
anotlicr and other unavoidable changes in the class from time to time, 
it was necessary to change from class instruction to individual instruc- 
tion. Now each member of the class undertakes that work for which 
she feels the greatest need. 

As soon as a member of the class acquires the necessary skill, 
knowledge and confidence she begins such manual work as can be used 
to advantage in connection with some other subject in her own grade. 
before placing it in the other classes. But no teacher has been urged to 
hasten its introduction. Nevertheless, a number of the schools have 
made such progress in the new methods as to compel some of the teach- 
ers to make a beginning somewhat in advance of the necessary prepa- 
ration. Therefore, the work is, I believe, finding the place in the course 
of study to which it belongs ; it has not been tacked on as an isolated 
subject, but, rather, introduced as a method, a necessary and organic 
part of the school life. 

So long as we can have the assistance of such faithful and enthus- 
iastic teachers as have been giving their own time and best effort to 
prepare for the development of this work there can be no question con- 
cerning results. They deserve much credit for the valuable assistance 
they are rendering. 

Because of the time that the thirty-five members of this class devote 
to preparation, and as an incentive to the completion of an elementary 
course in construction work, I would suggest that a certificate be grant- 
^- It would, I am sure, be appreciated by the teachers. 

Work in the Fifth and Sixth Grades. 

The objects made by the boys with such tools 'as a knife, saw, ham- 
J^er, gimlet and scissors have been so planned as to involve the prepa- 
ration and fastening together of two or more pieces, instead of merely 
whittling out such objects as the old style **single-piece" models. The 
W of almost all school work in the upper grades has been the "good 
enough'' spirit — inaccuracy. Hence, one important aim of the work in 
these grades is to lead the pupils to undertake the construction of such 
articles as demand a high degree of care and accuracy. For that rea- 



8o 

son the course comprises frames, cases, racks, trays, etc., that are "built 
up.'* The objects are fairly large, and of such a nature that each part 
must be carefully measured and cut, or else it cannot be used without 
changing either the form or size of the other parts to which it is re- 
lated. 

Seventh and Eighth Grades. 

In these grades, as in all of the handwork leading up to it, the aim 
is to lead the worker to take the initiative, and give expression to his 
own ideas and thoughts concerning the work he undertakes, instead of 
blindly imitating models planned by the teacher. 

All through the various courses the pupils are working from the 
simple to the complex, and from the easy to the more difficult ; and at 
the same time the aim is to have a motive back of every piece they 
make ; that is, to have them work to satisfy a desire or a felt need — 
something for the home, school or play life of the pupils. In case a 
pupil desires to make an article like one planned by his teacher, he is 
encouraged to modify or change its size, form, or decoration, to suit 
the use for which it is intended. Under such methods the work is of 
the highest cultural value; but when a pupil is allowed to imitate or 
merely reproduce a model placed before him, the work narrows down 
to the level of trade teaching. Therefore it is absolutely necessary that 
the teacher of manual training be well trained for the work, and that 
she be tactful, sympathetic and able to talk and work with boys. Fur- 
tliermorc, because of the relation of this work to the other subjects, the 
teacher of manual training should be familiar with grade work. 

There is much to be done in the direction of our ideal regarding 
methods. And yet, since this work was introduced four years ago, the 
special teachers of manual training have made noteworthy progress in 
developing the subject along creative lines. And I desire to express my 
thanks for the time that they have devoted to the work outside of 
school hours, and for the patience and perseverance they have shown 
in taking up new problems, new ideas and suggestions with reference 
to changes in methods, as well as the extra work added to their duties 
from time to time. 

Decoration. 

Now that the time for the lessons has been extended, the decoration 
problem is simplified. A suggestive outline for this important work is 
being prepared, and will soon be ready to place in the hands of the 
teachers. 



Backward Boys. 

A number of the larger and backward boys of the fifth and sixth 
grades have been encouraged by placing them in the manual training 
room, where they have undertaken the advanced work with the older 
boys of the upper grades. Such changes are helpful because, under the 
guidance of a tactful and resourceful teacher of manual training, the 
advanced work often operates in shaping the boy's attitude towaxd 
other subjects ; and it tends to keep him interested in his school. It is 
a privilege to co-operate with the principals of the schools in such 
cases. 

Equipment for the Fifth and Sixth Grades. 

The work of the fifth and sixth grades is done in the regular school 
room, on the pupil's desk. Each school is provided with a large, at- 
tractive cabinet, about 5 feet 6 inches wide by 6 feet high, which con- 
tains the desk-trays, tools and such supplies as drawing paper, thin 
lumber, nails, glue, sandpaper, cardboard, etc. When in use the desk- 
tray covers and protects the pupil's desk, and is used both as a draw- 
ing board and work-bench. Each tray is furnished with a T-square, 
triangle, compasses, eraser, boxwood measuring rule graduated to six- 
teenths, try-square, a sloyd knife and an original device for fastening 
the drawing paper, instead of thumb tacks or clamps. ' Besides the in- 
dividual outfit in the tray there is a set of tools in each cabinet for gen- 
eral use. It consists of the following: four 10-inch back saws, one 
12-inch back saw, five saw boxes, one oil can, one oil stone, four hand- 
led auger bits, two gimlets, six punches, twenty small hammers, fifteen 
pairs of scissors, one blackboard compass, one blackboard triangle. 

Equipment for Seventh and Eighth Grades. 

During the school year of 1901-1902 the manual training work of 
the seventh and eighth grades was done at five centrally locate* 1 
schools, known as "centers," to which the boys from neighboring 
schools went once each week. But each year since then one or more 
schools have been provided with benches and bench tools until the pres- 
ent time, April, 1905, there arc nineteen schools that have a manual 
training room equipped for the construction work of grammar grades. 

Each one of these rooms is on the first lloor and near an outside en- 
trance. The rooms are about 25 feet by 30 feet ; all of them have light 
on two sides. 

The outfit for the work of the seventh and eighth grades consists of 
Ae following : Eighteen modern manual training benches, and each 



182 

bench is provided with a single-fold bench rule; a six-inch try-square; 
one measuring gauge ; one *)4-inch tang-firmer chisel ; one fine nail set; 
a sloyd knife ; a drawing compass ; a 13-ounce hammer ; one of Baileys 
No. 3 iron smoothing; a No. 9y2 iron block plane, Bailey's; one 
13 by 19-inch drawing board with T-square and triangles, and one 
whisk broom. 

The set of special tools for general use includes six 10-inch hack- 
saws ; four 16-inch rip saws; four 16-inch cross-cut panel saws; three 
No. 5 iron jack planes, Bailey's ; eight half-round cabinet files ; one 6- 
inch flat mill file; one bit file; one file brush; six 4-inch screwdrivers; 
two 3-inch and one 6-inch screwdrivers; three 8-inch sweep No. 108 
Spofford braces; auger bits, two each of ^-inch, J^-inch and ^-inch; 
dowel bits, one each of 3-16-inch, 5-16 inch and two >:4-inch; center 
bits, two each of ^-inch, 3^-inch, ^-inch, 1-inch and l^-incli;onc 
pair 5-inch side-cutting plyers ; four 2-inch iron clamps ; four 4-inch 
iron clamps ; two 28-inch cabinet clamps ; tang-firmer chisels, two 
j/^-inch, two j4-J^ch, four ^-inch ; six chip-carving knives; six spoke- 
shaves ; six fine brad awls ; four iron-pad key-hole saws with 6-inch 
blade; two 14-inch bow saws; one automatic drill with nest of drills; 
one 6-inch sliding T-bevel ; one 24-inch steel square ; four carver's 
punches ; three 2>^-inch mallets ; one Washita oil stone ; one India oil 
stone ; one oil stone slip and two oil cans ; one large and three small 
shooting-boards ; four saws boxes, 2j/2 inches wide ; one blackboard 
compass ; one pair of saw horses. Each room is provided with lumber 
racks, a cupboard for supplies, and material and facilities for sheila: 
ing, painting, staining and the ordinary methods of finishing. 

Lumber. 

The lumber furnished for the work varies in thickness from J.^-inch 
to %-inch ; bass wood, white wood, pine, maple and cherry are used. 

Evening Schools. 

The manual training and mechanical drawing classes have been 
larger, and, on the whole, the results are much more satisfactory than 
at any time since this work was organized in the evening schools. 

.Vnd yet, until we can secure a full supply of trained and experi- 
enced teachers for this important work there must be a waste, both in 
time, material and equipment, and continue to be an onerous problem 
for the Supervisor. 

In the work of manual training classes conducted by experienced 
teachers there has been great interest and enthusiasm. And these 
teachers have succeeded in following the plan for correlated work; 



83 

that is, their work included instruction in language, arithmetic, many 
of the most valuable but simple geometric problems, etc. 

To teach these subjects this year it has required fourteen teachers, 
and of that number but five or six were experienced in teaching. 

In the mechanical drawing in both the grammar and high schools, 
an effort was made to adapt the work to individual needs. Some of 
the geometric problems and such confusing drawing lessons as are 
found in intersections have been made clear by drawing the develop- 
ment of the object on heavy manila paper or on tag-board and then 
cutting it out and folding it into concrete form. The drawing paper, 
thumb tacks, drawing boards with T-square, triangles and compasses, 
were provided by this department. 

Everything constructed by the pupils of the manual training classes 
has been of a useful nature ; there were no abstract exercises included 
in the course. Still, each piece undertaken by a pupil afforded an op- 
portunity to teach one or more important principles in practical con- 
struction, the care of tools and tool processes. 

The pupils have had from one to three lessons a week, of two hours 
each. 

With the exception of a few mirrors and expensive metal trim- 
mings, everything has been furnished the pupils by the department. 

One of the most successful teachers of the evening work in one of 
the small schools reports that the young men of one of his classes com- 
pleted one hundred and fifty-two useful articles. The list includes an 
interesting variety of objects, from a simple match-scratch and house- 
hold utensils to drawing boards, clock shelves, foot-rests, book stalls 
and wall cabinets. 

Now, with reference to the value of such work ; in addition to the 
skill and knowledge acquired, I desire to emphasize the fact that the 
planning and construction of every one of those articles involved les- 
sons in drawing, language and practical arithmetic. Then, under man- 
ual training methods, there are the invisible things that may be found 
in history of each piece ; that is, interesting hand-work brings 
about such active co-operation of the head, the heart and hand as to 
aid the development of the inner man, or character. This is due to the 
subtle influence growing out of self-asked questions, self-criticisms, 
the successful endeavor to solve problems and to overcome difficulties. 
Moreover, the completion of each object that the pupil undertook, 
together with the fact that his work received the approval of the 
teacher, is evidence of the many hours of interested mental and manual 



84 

effort put forth by the pupils in the direction of an ideal and for the 
accomplishment of something that they considered worth while. 

Very respectfully, 

W. W. Murray, 

Supervisor of Manual Training. 



8s 



REPORT OF THE SUPERVISOR OF DRAWING. 

Mr. C. F. Carroll, Superintendent of Schools. 

Dear Sir : Complying with your request, 1 submit the following re- 
port: 

The progress that has been made in the Art Work in the schools 
during the past two years is very gratifying. The aim has been to treat 
the subject not only from the educational side but also from the 
aesthetic and the practical ; and we have so far succeeded in this aim 
that the pupils now feel it an essential element in their work. This is 
evident in nearly all of their written lessons which are f reelv illustrated. 

The work in the first three grades consists largely of expressing 
with brush, scissors or chalk, incidents from the daily lessons and the 
child's home and school experiences, and of representing objects relat- 
ed to the school work, following the cycle of the year as closely as 
possible. 

The instructions given during the drawing periods are of such a 
nature as to prove helpful to the child in developing power for better 
self-expression and in making him an independent thinker and worker. 
Some of the best results from the drawing lessons are seen at the occu- 
pation tables, where the pupils apply the knowledge gained in the regu- 
lar lessons. 

The work in the grammar grades is carried along on the foundation 
laid in the primary department, and shows a regular advance over the 
primary work. Practical application of the principles taught is made 
in all grades, not only in relation to the manual training and sewing 
but in nearly all of the other subjects. 

The attitude of the grade teachers toward the work has been one 
of the greatest helps in bringing the work to the high standard that it 
has reached. They have availed themselves of every opportunity 
offered for self -betterment in the work. The instructions to teachers 
have been given at the regular institutes, grade meetings and during 
office hours on Tuesday afternoons and Saturday mornings. The Mon- 
day afternoon optional classes for special instructions are so largely 
attended that it is impossible to do any individual work with the teach- 
ers, and consequently the work has had to take the form of class in- 
struction. 

The new Prang Art Text-books placed in the schools by the Hoard 
of Education have been used as reference books and have proved a 



86 

source of great help to teachers and pupils. Nearly all of our schools 
have purchased many artistic pieces of pottery to be used as models in 
color and form study. The money used for the purchase of these arti- 
cles has been raised by entertainments given by the individual schools, 
thus showing the interest taken by principals and teachers in furnish- 
ing material to help make the work the best. 

Our schools, through the help of the Mothers' Clubs, have done a 
great deal during the past two years toward decorating the walls with 
reproductions from the best artists, thereby making the children per- 
fectly familiar with what is best in art and stimulating the study of the 
famous artists carried on in all grades. One volume of "Masters in 
Art" has been placed in each school as a reference book and will be 
followed as soon as possible by the other volumes thus far issued. 

Miss Orel L. Adams was appointed assistant in the work in Janu- 
ary, 1903, and has ably filled the position. 

The High School work, under the direction of Miss Mattic H. 
Davis, has shown steady improvement. The allotted time is devoted 
to the study of the principles of composition, color and form. Color is 
studied by representing nature in water colors, to be used later as an 
inspiration for color schemes in decoration : and also through 
the study of pottery forms. Form is studied from the 
pose and still life, and in perspective, design and construction. 
The principles of composition are carried out in all that is done, and 
thought is put into the placing of the forms in the space to be filled. A 
knowledge of the mechanical tools is gained in geometric problems and 
projections of objects which the pupils have designed. Throughout the 
entire course the work is as practical and as closely related to the 
pupils' every day life as possible, and is elected by an increasing num- 
ber each semester. In the near future I hope to see the drawing rooms 
in our new High Schools so thoroughly equipped and artistically deco- 
rated that they will prove to be an inspiration to the pupils. In such 
rooms we would expect to find the highCvSt ideals and the best results. 
Considering the subject from an educational standpoint, I feel that 
every High School pupil ought to have the advantage of at least one 
year of High School training in the work with the privilege of two 
years if so desired. 1 would also suggest that provision for a High 
School course in mechanical drawing be considered, as there has been 
a greater demand for it this year than ever before. 

The Training Class work is planned to fit the student to teach in 
all grades in our schools and to meet the requirements of the State De- 
partment of Education. They are prepared by theory, observaton of 
model lessons, demonstration and practical training in methods. Great 



stress is laid on blackboard drawing as one of the greatest factors ip 
creating interest, and the most direct and practical way of illustrating 
the daily work ; for nothing is more pleasing to a child or better calcu- 
lated to produce a permanent impression upon his mind than a black- 
board illustration in connection with the subject being taught, thus 
showing that skill in drawing on the part of the teacher exercises an 
immense influence for good over the advancement and mental growth 
of the pupil. 

In conclusion. I wish to thank the principals and teachers for their 
earnest co-operation, and to express to you and to the Board of Edu 
cation my appreciation of the interest taken in the work of this depart- 
ment. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Helen E. Lucas, 

Supervisor of Drawing. 



ii 



REPORT OF THE SUPERVISOR OF MUSIC 

March 14, 1905. 
Mr. C. F. Carroll, Superintendent of Schools. 

Dear Sir: It is with pleasure that I accept this opportunity to re- 
port to you concerning the progress of music in the public schools of 
Rochester. 

On the occasion of my first round of supervisory visits, knowing 
how short a time had elapsed since the introduction of music study as 
part of the school curriculum, and the lack of preparation and ex- 
perience along this line on the part of the teachers, I was gratified to 
find how much had been accomplished. It seems to be accounted for 
in two ways: the unusual excellence of my two predecessors and the 
sympathetic support given them by the teaching force. The determi- 
nation to master the difficulties of the art and overcome self-conscious- 
ness and timidit) in attempting the work has grown more and more 
evident among the teachers, and I have met everywhere with a kindly 
spirit of co-operation in my endeavors to advance the cause of music 
in our schools. Often where the flesh has been the weakest, the spirit 
has been strongest and success has rewarded the efforts of many such 
teachers, so that few now regard the task as hopeless and an increasing 
number are handling the music lessons in their grades with good re- 
sults. 

The creation o* c* love of song and taste for good music is, to my 
mind, the nrst aim or public school music. The foundation for these 
was laid by Miss Mari Ilofer three years ago. Her efforts toward 
artistic interpretation and good tone quality were continued by her suc- 
cessor, Miss Rizpah dc Laittre, who fixed the ideal of pure, sweet head 
tones so firmly that nearly everywhere I find the teachers striving in- 
telligently to attain these with their pupils. Thus, that which I hold lo 
be the second aim of public school music is being rapidly accomplished. 

This same well-beloved Supervisor began systematic work in the 
study of musical representation, a work which is slowly but steadily 
progressing. My task this year has been, through institutes, optional 
classes and supervision, to increase the teachers' knowledge along this 
line and enable them better to guide the pupils toward the accomplish- 
ment of the third aim of public school music, — the interpretation of 
printed music and power of listening to music intelligently. 

Without change of method, I have endeavored to further the work 



along all three lines projected by Miss Hofcr and Miss de Laittre. 
With the friendly co-operation of the teachers, whose willingness is 
often in advance of their ability, we have been able to make noticeable 
progress. The following points have been emphasized : Vocal exer- 
cises for improving tone quality; individual singing; part songs; 
special attention to unmusical children ; writing of music, and observa- 
tion work on known songs as preparatory to sight singing. The corre- 
lation of the music with other branches in the course has been ever m 
mind and will become more perfect as the teachers' repertoire of songs 
enlarges and as their ability to conduct the class in the work of inven- 
tion of songs improves. 

Systematic work in the High School has been introduced this year, 
whereas before music there has been purely elective. The response 
has been gratifying, in spite of the hindrance from lack of music ma- 
terial. When suitable music books have been provided and more of 
the music teacher's time can be given to the High School, the result 
cannot fail to be a delight to all concerned. 

In the Normal Training School the classes have done more inde- 
pendent, individual work in singing than previously. Each student is 
made to feel responsible for her own ability to sing and teach singing. 

I desire respectfully to call your attention to two weaknesses in 
existing conditions. One is the short time allotted to music study. 
Each grade is allowed but an hour a week, or twelve minutes a day, for 
music. You can readily see that that amount of time is barely suf- 
ficient to get the voices in singing condition and to accomplish the 
learning of a few rote songs. The children cannot accomplish much in 
learning to sing by note independently. 

The other weakness is the small supervisory force. I know of few 
cities of the size of Rochester where the force is so small. Counting the 
actual number of minutes in the school year available for supervision 
and allowing twenty-five to each visit, a maximum annually of three 
visits only to each teacher is possible for the Supervisor. But as the 
Supervisor must also give considerable of her time to Normal Training 
classes, High School chorus, institutes, optional classes, the planning of 
work and the executive duties of her position, this so cuts the time that 
it is well nigh impossible for her to visit each teacher even twice a 
year. The employment of an assistant who can take charge of the 
High School classes and do some supervision, has improved the situa- 
tion somewhat, but still leaves each teacher with a maximum of onlv 
three visits a year. This is much too little considering the lack of 
training and experience in music teaching possessed by our corps of 
^chers. Next year the two High Schools should require one assist- 



90 

ant's entire time. One or two more assistants are badly needed who 
can give their entire attention to supervision in the grades so that each 
teacher may have a visit from a music teacher once a month. The 
grade teachers crave this help ; it is a serious need, and it would save 
them much worrv, nervous strain and futile labor if thcv could have it. 
In conclusion, I desire to thank you for your kind interest and help- 
ful suggestions, the Hoard of Education for their many expressions c^ 
encouragement, the other Supervisors for their friendly comradeship, 
and above all, the principals and teachers of the public schools for the 
constant inspiration I have received from their endeavors and attitude 
toward me and my work. Without this support I could have accorn- 
plished nothing. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Alice C. Clement. 

Supervisor of Music. 



91 



REPORT OF THE SUPERVISOR OF DOMESTIC ART. 

Mr. C. F. Carroll, Superintendent of Schools. 

Dear Sir: I take pleasure in submitting to you my first report of 
the work of the Domestic Art Department from September. 1904. to 
March. 1905. 

During this time the results have been generally satisfactory, al- 
though the work has been necessarily limited in its scope. 

That it may be better understood the report is submitted under 
three heads : 

(1) The conditions that I found upon assuming charge of the 
department. 

(2) What has been accomplished. 

(3) What we hope to accomplish. 

I. On commencing my work as Supervisor I found a corps of 
teachers both earnest and responsive ; some well acquainted with the 
technicalities of this subject, others not only unfamiliar with the uses 
of the needle in general, but now for the first time undertaking to give 
instruction along these lines, another grade having been added in 
September to the three heretofore taking the course. 

The classes seemed to be somewhat ungraded also, some of the 
^vcnth grade pupils having shown no further drill than those of thj 
sixth grade in other schools. The diversified interests and environ- 
ments of the pupils of the various schools, together with my own lack 
^^ familiarity with the conditions in general, made the problem a rather 
^^mplex one. 

The materials and supplies had been used in common by the teach- 
''"5^ in the same building. These I found could be distributed in a way 
*^ relieve somewhat the cares of the teachers and to place at the same 
^^^e a wholesome responsibility upon the pupils individually. 

II. Under the present arrangement each class has its own equip- 
ment furnished from the general supply in the school cabinet. With 
^*^<.^ exception of a few necessary additions from time to time there is 
^o need of the teachers seeking the cabinet for the small outfit neede»l 

^^r the grade lesson. The pupils are held responsible individually for 

^^^e order of the materials in their bags and the care of pins, needles, 

^tc, intrusted to them. It is required that these bags be kept in good 

i^epair and laundered when necessary. At the time of transference 

irom class to class a special responsibility for these details t^sVs vv^ow 



92 

each pupil, thus developing habits of neatness and orderliness. 

The purpose of havinp^ each child furnish her own material is not 
primarily to minimize expenditure in this department, but to p^ive to 
the work its fullest educational value. In order to train the taste and 
to impart a general knowledge of textile fabrics it is necessary that the 
child have some experience in the selection of suitable stuffs. The 
putting of desirable materials of a refined color into her hands will not 
suffice ; she must learn through her own experiences and mistakes. 

The mission of Domestic Art is a large one. Nothing is inferior 
and nothing is superior in importance in the child's education, for all 
instruction should train the self into "the utmost possible large- 
ness of being for the utmost possible service.'' Hence the emphasis 
has been laid not on the doin^ but on the development of pozi^cj to do, 
not on the product but on the child that she may be able to meet an«l . 
solve her own problems when teacher and supervisor are no longer 
near by to direct. 

The knowledge of weaving acquired in the kindergarten and the 
primary grades has been supplemented by a more advanced course. 
though still a simple one, leading to an understanding of the principles ■ 
underlying our present textile industries. It is hoped through these 
exercises to create a broad human symi)athy with the toiler while giv- 
ing some knowledge of the products of the machine. 

In order to develop the habit of independent thinking an effort has 
been made to eliminate stamped work from the class exercises. Until 
the child is able to discriminate between the good and the bad in deco- 
ration, between what is suitable and what is meaningless or over- i 
omate, it seems best to use no stamped work. This ability to discrinii- j 
nate can come only through the exercise of her training in color ami 
simple design by an application of their principles to things of daily 
use. 

The basis of judgment in estimating the worth of the work ex- 
hibited at Christmas was strength rather than fineness of stitch, har- 
monious color combinations, appropriate design and neatness in execu- 
tion. No untidy or soiled work was accepted no matter how manifold 
its other merits. 

While a graduated series of exercises has been planned for th^ 
grades in order to keep within the age limitations of the child, both 
teacher and pupil have been given an opportunity for individual wofV^- 
This free-expression side of the work has manifested itself in man}' 
interesting ways. 

In one school the pupils suggested, planned and constructed ^ 
comer-seat and four pillows for their class room. The boV^ 



utilized their knowledge of manual training by assisting in the adjust- 
ment of the boxes used for the seat. Covers for the whole were made 
by the girls, three of the pillow covers having been decorated. The re- 
sult is rich in promise though not in any sense a faultless product. 

In another school dolls were dressed in Scottish costumes in con- 
nection with the study of literature. 

Another class has developed in the same way Greek costumes, male 
and female, making this a part of the history work. 

Various kinds of flags used during the Revolutionary period have 
also been constructed. 

In diflferent schools the Norwegian, the Japanese, the Mexican, the 
Puritan and our own distinctive types of dress are being studied 
through doll-dressing; while the Indian basket and various typical in- 
dustries, such as Navajo blanket weaving and Abnakee rug-making are 
soon to be attempted. Articles of wearing apparel for the poor of the 
school have also been made in an upper grade and the graduation 
gowns of an eighth grade class are being constructed. Charts illus 
trating the processes of silk culture and decorative covers for sewing 
note-books indicate a further variation of the prescribed course oi 
study. 

In addition to these exercises, every class has been requested to 
Have a box of odds and ends of materials contributed by the children. 
These pieces are to be used co-operatively for free-construction work. 

III. As I inteqjret handwork there seems to be but a small edu- 
cational value in the acquisition of a knowledge of the various stitches, 
the selection of material, most of the preparation of it and the responsi- 
bility of the work being largely assumed by the teacher and the super- 
visor. Such a standard might justify a year of sewing in the schools to 
impart technical knowledge, but as an educational factor it seems to 
have little value. The Course of Study explains my meaning fully on 
this point. 

Neither do I feel that the formal draft has any place in the trainin^j 
0^ the child in the elementary school. In making this assertion I feel 
^s Dr. G.Stanley Hall said of himself in another connection, that I come 
to **a parting of the ways.'* Drafting to me means specialization and 
*ts place is in the trade and the 'technical school. It cannot be thor- 
oughly done without the use of a chart system, which is expensive ; 
the steps in the process being largely mechanical, the directions are 
easily forgotten and the drafts of next year will differ somewhat from 
those of this. What the average school girl needs is to be able to cut 
intelligently but freely, and to know how to adjust a bought pattern. 
To accomplish this a few simple measurements and a training of the 



94 

eye for relative proportions are necessary. This training she has al- 
ready had from the primary grades to the High Schools in studying 
the pose. All that is necessary is to direct the knowledge already hers 
in a new direction. 

The confinement of the work to four grades has crowded the course 
of study somewhat. I think it possible, however, to cover the grounti 
in the given time when the work is once fully organized. Though the 
course has been planned to supplement some of the hand exercises in 
the lower grades and to help in fixing the knowledge gained through 
geography, history, literature and art work in the upper grades, it re- 
mains incomplete so long as it has no place in the High School cur- 
riculum. Dressmaking, art needlework and considerations of home 
decoration and home economics seem fundamental to a girl's fu'l 
training. Woman everywhere has one special ^'profession,'' to plan for 
— that of home-making. Horace Mann, in one of his memorable ad- 
dresses, said : ''Whatever we wish to appear in the life and in the 
homes of a people, we must put into the schools." Within recent years 
there has been a decided reaction against over-decoration in the home 
and over-elaboration of furniture and ornament. This reform is due 
largely to the Arts and Crafts movement. If the High Schools were 
trained along similar lines though in a humbler way, emphasizing dress 
and personal adornment, I feel that a large result would obtain there- 
from. In a few cities this work has begun. A training in art needlework 
and home decoration does not foster extravagant tastes. Beauty comes 
not so much through a lavish expenditure of money as by the exercise 
of taste and judgment in selection. Art is no longer regarded as a 
luxury, a gift of the gods which only a favored few have the capacitv 
to enjoy, but a vital force which can penetrate, refine and uplift all life. 
It is through the eflfort to express — to create — that one develops the 
power to feel or to appreciate beauty in its various forms. Through 
environment, both material and spiritual, the self works towards its 
full realization. An environment which fosters plain living and high 
thinking must result in a finer, broader and more resourceful type of 
womanhood. 

In conclusion, I wish to express my appreciation of the kindness, 
support and interest shown by the Board of Education, the Superin- 
tendent, the Supervisors of the other departments and the principals 
and teachers of the grades. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Katiierine French Steiger, 

Supervisor of Domestic Art. 



95 



COURSE OF STUDY 



Adopted by the Board of Education, July 27. 1901. 



PURPOSE. 



The objects of a course of study for elementary schools are to 
jpply the teachers with working material which they may employ in 
le training of the child. Its business is not to state in definite terms 
ist what the teacher is to do each day, but rather to map out in a 
road way those activities, exercises, and fields of knowledge which 
xperience has shown to be most suitable for the elementary school, 
nd to suggest to the teachers methods for enlarging this work and of 
reparing themselves to perform it. It should take into consideration 
iich facts concerning children in general as the study of child-life has 
lade clear, the character of the civilization in which the child is to be 
factor, and the means necessary to make him a most effective 
oluntary factor for good in his community. It must supply such 
ctivities as will best stimulate growth, such discipline as will produce 
le finest culture, and must suggest such knowledge as will enable 
im to take hold of nature effectively, comprehend what others have 
one and expressed, and to express himself adequately for the benefit 
f others. It must involve also such a vital aicquaintance with social, 
conomic and ethical conditions as is required for perfect citizenship. 
t is not claimed that the present course of study meets these ends, 
ut it is hoped that it will prove suggestive to the teachers along the 
nes mentioned and will stimulate in them renewed efforts to train 
iiildren into the utmost possible largeness of being for the utmost 
ossible service. 

This course of study is intended to furnish the basis tor work in the 
Lochester schools during the coming year. It will be supplemented 
om time to time, as the need appears, by circulars giving additional 
istruction, explanation, and amplification ; also, by explanation and 
istruction given by the Superintendent and Supervisors in meetings 
ith the teachers. 



96 

As further light is thrown upon educational principles and methods 
as the result of study and investigation, as teachers become more; 
familiar with new ways, and as better text-books are made available, • 
it is hoped that this course may be improved. 

CORRELATION OF STUDIES. 

In the correlation of studies in the elementary grades there should 
be little attempt to differentiate the various subjects taught. To- 
gether they constitute the occupation element of the child's school, 
life. This is as true of what is called the recitation as what is called 
** occupation work.*' It constitutes in its entirety the child's rational 
employment. The various subjects used for the stimulation of thought 
and the others employed for its expression are so naturally co-ordinated i 
that any formal separation in the primary schools is forced and 
unnatural. 

It must be remembered that the two elements in all education ait 
impression and expression, and that while the former is necessary as 
furnishing a fund of material, the latter is that upon which growth in 
power, facility, and adaptation depends. 

As the child advances from grade to grade the differentiation of 
subjects necessarily becomes more evident. In the higher grades 
correlation, while no less real, is naturally less evident, until in the 
college and university it becomes the philosophical unity of human 
learning. But in any of the grades of the common school, the rela- 
tion between those subjects which are the great sources of thought, 
and those which include the various forms of expression must be' 
close. 

Instead of such a correlation being unnatural, its opposite is 
unnatural. The divorce of the forms of expression from the subject- 
matter to be expressed is unnatural, and is responsible for much of 
the loss of interest and the failure to connect school with the realities 
of life which has caused the ruin of many schools and pupils. The 
teacher in teaching any subject should never cut loose from the basei 
of supplies. The vital interest which connects the child's school" 
occupations with his whole life is the artery carrying the hfe blood tea 
the former. 

Correlation of subjects and the introduction into the schools ol 
varied work, interesting to the child, is not ignoring the three R.'s, 
but teaching them more effectively and in a better way, because it 
furnishes the irresistible impetus which carries the young student 
swiftly and easily and surely over the otherwise difficult and uncertam 
road of acquisition. 



97 

In the primary grades it is well to take some subject of general 
interest, as the cycle of the year, and relate the other subjects to it. 

Such a subject as a farm or a garden, or a visit to the fields, or a 
story of the observance of a festival, will furnish material for a series 
of lessons in language, drawing, construction, writing, painting, cut- 
ting, and the various other cxpressional subjects, of great value 
because of vital interest. 

A study of the immediate environment growing out into the larger 
environment ; a study of a garment, or a food, or of any of the other 
many objects which suggest man's common interpendence ; a study 
of the family or the neighborhood ; all these items and many more 
may be made the centers of much work of various sorts. 

A caution may be needed. The relations should always be vital 
and natural, not artificial nor superficial. They should, in so far as 
possible, be human rather than mechanical or scientific. They should 
come home to the child's own interests, and suggest the dependence 
of man upon man 

Children should wo k in groups, each being engaged in some part 
of the general scheme. All of the work should bear a definite relation 
to the whole. The children should never be given an occupation whose 
sole motive is to keep them busy. 

Whatever the particular subject ch sen, much attention should be 
given to the literature relating to it. 



CORRELATED OUTLINE. 

First Grade. 

Impression Subjects : Expression Subjects : 

(See separate outlines). (See separate outline-). 

Reading (Literature). Reading (Utterance). 

Geography. Language (Speech) oral and 

History. written. 

Nature. Drawing and Painting. 

School Life. Cutting. 

Home Life. Construction. 

Writing. 

Dramatic Representation (Play) 



98 
Second Graj)e. 



Impression Subjects : 
(See separate outlines). 
Reading (Literature). 
Geography. 
History. 
Nature. 

Number (actual). 
School Life. 
Home Life. 



Impression Subjects : 
(See separate outlines). 



Expression Subjects: 
(See separate outlines). 
Reading (Utterance). 
Writing. 

Number (computation and dri 
Language (oral and written). 
Dramatic Representation (Plaj 
Drawing and Painting. 
Cutting and Construction. 



Third Grade. 



Expression Subjects : 
(See separate outline). 



Reading (Literature). 


Reading. 


Geography. 


Writing. 


History. 


Number. 


Nature. 


Language. 


Number (actual). 


Drawing and Painting. 


Current Events. 


Cutting and Construction. 


Immediate Environment. 


Play. 


FOURI 


:h Grade. 


Impression Subjects : 


Elaboration and Expression : 


(See outlines). 


(See outlines). 


Literature. 


Reading. 


History. 


Writing. 


Geography. 


Language. 


Nature. 


Graphic Arts. 


Number. 


Constructive Arts. 


Current Events. 


(Manual Training). 


PLnvironment. 


Arithmetic. 


F'iFTH AND 


Sixth Grades. 


Expression : 


Elaboration aud Expression : 


(Sec outlines). 


(See outlines). 


Literature. 


Reading. 


History. 


Writing. 


Geography. 


Language. 


Nature. 


Graphic Arts. 


Number. 


Constructive Arts. 


Current Events. 


Arithmetic. 


Environment. 





99 



Seventh and Eighth Grades. 



mpressin: 
Literature. 
History. 
Geography. 
Nature. 
Number. 
Grammar. 
Civics. 
Environment. 



Elaboration and Expression : 
Reading. 
Writing. 
Language. 
Graphic Arts. 
Constructive Arts. 
Algebra. 
Arithmetic. 






ICX) 



ARITHMETIC 

Arithmetic has always been justly regarded as one of the absolutely 
necessary subjects of the school course of study. Indeed, it is more 
important than many of its most strenuous advocates know, because 
it rests upon broader and firmer foundations than those commonly 
advanced. The usual argument in its behalf is its very great utilitarian 
value in that the ordinary computations necessary for even the simplest 
business operations require its use. But the racial instinct which 
demands it goes far beyond that for its ground. Common utilitarian; 
arithmetic, necessary as it is, is little more than the art of *' figuring." 

Newton used merely an advanced arithmetic in arriving at the 
philosophic statement of his wonderful discoveries. Upon it depends 
all sense of proportion, of form, of relative space. It is the knowledge 
of number that makes possible the definite, exact, and consequently 
the practical comprehension of the world. 

What the advocates of educational reform criticize in the old schools 
is not the teaching of arithmetic, but the teaching of it badly, limiting 
the work upon this subject to its minor and baser uses, teaching it as 
form and not reality, drilling upon foolish combinations of figures 
without giving power to perceive relations and to accurately estimate 
values. It was taught in the wrong way and at the wrong time, 
Young children were drilled to death upon what would have conrt 
later naturally, instead of being introduced to number as a vital factoi 
in life. 

Throughout this course of study, number is treated as ratio, a 
always indicating relation between magnitudes. In the first grad 
formal number is not taught separately, that is, the subject is nc 
differentiated, but the child is being familiarized with magnitude ar 
number to an extent unknown to the old drill teacher. 



ALGEBRA. 

For the coming year the course in Algebra will be that provid 
in Hornbrook's ArithmeUc. 



101 



ARITHMETIC. 



PRIMARY SCHOOLS. 

First Grade. 

A continuation of the incidental number work of the kindergarten. 

B) dealing definitely with such magnitudes as come naturally into 
their lives, through counting, comparing, and measuring, children will 
inevitably acquire considerable knowledge of number, and such 
knowledge will be vital and practical. 

The time for drill is not yet. No attempt should be made in this 
grade to drill upon combinations of figures. Such drill is likely to 
result in suspended development, and seriously impair the mathemati- 
cal powers (See Number circular). 

Second Grade. 

In this grade the definite study of number may properly begin, 
though the time for extended drill has not yet arrived. 

The work should be as fully as possible concrete in character. 
Measuring, computing, comparing of things, no longer indefinitely, but 
definitely ; using the terms, pounds, ounces, feet, yards, miles, pints, 
quarts, gallons, bu.shels, and the like, should constitute the earlier part 
of the work. 

Incidentally the children should be acquiring the tables of denomi- 
nate numbers, and directly but gradually the combinations and separ- 
ations known as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. 

Make use of the first pages of the Rational Arithmetic as sug- 
gestive of direct application of the steps therein evolved. 

Third Grade. 

Rational Arithmetic, part I. 

Every subject should be developed through the handling of various 
concrete materials. 

Each child should handle the material and should construct and do 
at every step of the process. 

Each step must be supplemented by the introduction of many like 
problems, using the book as a final test of power and skill. 



102 

By the end of this year the children should be able to use the 
multiplication table fluently and readily and to multiply by one figure. 

Fourth Grade. 

Rational Arithmetic, part II. 

Short division and long division, two figures as divisor, completed. 

Fifth Grade. 

Rational Arithmetic, part III. 
Simple fractional processes completed. 

Sixth Grade. 

"B" Class. Hombrook's Grammar School Arithmetic, Chapters 
I, II and III. 

" A " Class. Chapters IV, V and VI. 

Seventh Grade. 






it 



B" Class. Chapter VII. 

A " Class. Chapters VIII and IX. 

Eighth Grade. 

B" Class. Chapters X and XI. 

A" Class. Chapters XII and Review. 

READING. 

Reading is, beyond comparison, the most important of the convei" 
tional school exercises, not only because it is the key to the world 
great litcMature, but because any considerable advancement in tt* 
other departments of school work is impossible without it. 

llencc it should receive the first consideration of the primaf 
teacher in the preparation of her program of formal work. 

A child who has completed the primary giades should be able t 
read any production whose thought and vocabular)' he can comprehend 

If any considerable number of normal children cannot do this, the^ 
is something wrong with teacher or method. 

It docs not follow from this that a greatly increased amount of tinn 
should be put upon reading. This would cause weariness, loss < 
interest, and would defeat the desired end. 

An abundance and variety of interesting exercises, proper! 
balanced, afford needed mental relief, stimulate interest, and reinfor<^ 
one another. 



Dull grind upon words will not make good readers in any sense. 
Interest is fundamental. The child learning to read must be con- 
sciously seeking thought through the symbol. If reading is well 
taught, children learn to read without much conscious effort to that 
end. The conscious effort will have been expended in the search for 
information or other object of interest, and reading will have been 
merely the new road to the sought for goal. 

In all grades the teacher should constantly bear in mind the im- 
portance of cultivating a taste for good literature. Giving the child 
possession of the art of reading, without the power to discriminate 
between good literature and bad, is like giving him a sharp tool without 
instniction as to its proper use. Hence no demand for formal exercises 
as drill work or for other purposes should ever induce the teacher to 
give the child reading matter which is not in itself worth reading. 

If the course of instruction in the reading does not give most of the 
children power to read freely and with good expression any suitable 
material and to discriminate the gocnl from the bad and choose the 
good, the work is not successful. 

The ** B " Class will aim to cover about half of the assignment for 

the grade. 



THE READING LESSON. . 

The objects of the reading lesson are two. First, to give the pupil 
the power to secure from the written or printed page an intelligent and 
appreciative knowledge of the thoughts of authors as recorded and 
expressed in literature. Second, to give the pupil the power to impart 
to others the knowledge thus obtained in a clear, sympathetic and 
pleasing manner. The teacher should always bear in mind that the 
content of the reading lesson is of more value than its form, and that 
an appreciation of good literature is worth more than the mechanical 
ability to read. 

Careful attention should be paid in all grades to correct enunciation 
and pronunc iation, to proper use of the vocal organs and of the organs 
employed in breathing. Ease, naturalness, and a clear, resonant tone 
should be sought. Frequent exercises in breathing and the carriage 
of the body and in the vocalization of both vowels and consonants 
should be employed when needed. 



104 
RESUME. 

LEARNING TO READ, 



I. The Sentence is the Unit of Expression. 

** Ideas are primarily awakened in the mind by means of impressions 
made on one or more of the senses; thus ideas must be expressed 
through the medium of language." 

The unit of mental action is a thought ; therefore the unit of 
expression is a sentence. 

If reading ** consists in giving expression to the ideas the mind has 
formed," the sentence ought to be made the basis of reading. 

Think the sentence as the whole, and the word as the |:)art. 

2. Emphasize the Unit. 

The sentence as a whole. 

(a.) Awaken thoughts in the mind of the child by means of objects. 

(b.) By skillful questioning elicit as many original statements J 
about the object as ix)ssible. Write the most suitable sentences upon 
the blackboard. 

(6.) Repetition and variety are psychologically necessary in good 
teaching. 

(d.) The same words need to be presented in a great number anc^ 
variety of sentences. 

3. An.vlvsis of Sentences into Words. 

(a.) Analyze the sentences to find the words of which they are 
composed, and teach these words as parts of sentences. 

(b.) Keep a list of all w(Mds presented, using them continually in 
review sentences until they cannot be forgotten. 

(c.) Make every possible combination with all words taught, fonii- 
ing as many sentences as i)ossible. Have all sentences arranged upon 
the board so as to tell a story ; keep to a continuity of thought. 

4. Analysis of Words into Letters and Sounds. 

(a.) Work in phonics should be carried on in connection with oral 

work. 

(b.) Introduce sounds gradually, giving general and S|xvial drill 
upon difficult combinations, for the following purposes : 

1. To give ability to call new words without help. 

2. To improve articulation. 

3. To correct defective speech. 



los 
5. Reading is a Mental Process — A Thought Process. 

**To read aloud, we must get the thought; we must hold the 
thought ; and we must give the thought." — H. S. Clark. 

Necessary steps to the above end : 

1 . Perfect word knowledge. 

2. Silent reading; to get thought. 

3. Oral reading: to give thought. 

A pupil should not attempt to read a sentence orally until he has 
the thought in mind. 

Reading each word by itself is an evil never to be tolerated. 

Spelling out words while reading should not be permitted. 

Train children to read to their listeners, not to their books. 

• 

First Grade. **B" Class. 

Method. — Of the different methods of teaching beginners to read, 
no one contains all the excellencies. The best points of all should be 
employed, but it is important to select the proper unit, which is not 
the sound of the letter, nor the word, but the sentence. Children 
should begin by reading the sentence. • Later, the sentence should be 
analyzed into words, and the words into their sound elements. No 
one of these three methods should be neglected, but the order indicated 
should be carefully preserved. 

Begin with the sentence. As soon as possible call attention to the 
words composing it, which the children will at first recognize through 
memory. After some weeks of such reading, exercises in the sound 
elements of words should be introduced and regularly continued 
through the primary grades. These should be systematic and thorough, 
leading to word building and the use of the dictionary. 

Material. — The first reading lessons should be based upon observa- 
tions of nature and upon poems and stories used in the same connec- 
tion ; also stories told for the sake of their literary or ethical merit 
may be employed in the same manner. 

The first lessons should be script upon the blackboard. They 
should be carefully prepared, so as to be progressive in thought and 
style, and should be preserved. Each school should be supplied with 
a copying pad of some kind and the blackboard lessons preser\^ed 
should be copied upon leaflets and put into the children's hands for 
review lessons. 

By the end of the first semester pupils should have read at least 
two primers, beside much reading from the b\ack\io;3L\A. 



io6 
First Grade. **A" Class. 

Lessons prepared by the teacher or selected from reading books 
based upon the study of plants, animals, the human body, and litera- 
ture. 

During this semester. Stepping Stones No. i, and at least two 
other First Readers should be completed, or an equivalent amount of 
matter read. 

The language work should be closely related to the reading during 
the primary grades. 

Phonics : Training in vocalization. (See circular.) 

Second Grade. **B" Class. 

In this class pupils should read an equivalent of half of Stepping 
Stones No. 2 hnd two other readers, or an equivalent amount. 

Phonics : Training in vocalization. Make lists of rhyming words. 
Practice in the discovery of rhymes by children. 

Give blackboard exercises as preparatory to lessons from the reader. 
In addition, give blackboard exercises from material related as closely 
as possible to the child's interests and experiences. 

Second Grade. **A" Class. 

Pupils should complete three Second Readers and much supple- 
mentary reading matter. 

Phonics : Training in vocalization. (See circular.) 

Third Grade. "B" Class. 

Pupils should read an equivalent of half of Stepping Stones No. 3 
and two other Third Readers and much supplementary matter. The 
matter selected should be appropriate to the work in other subjects. 

Phonics : Families of words ; simple rules for the addition of 
participal endings and of syllabication. (See circular.) 

Third Grade. '*A" Class. 

Lessons selected from Stepping Stones No. 3, and other Third 
Readers and supplementary readers such as may be readily correlated 
with work in other subjects, especially nature study, geography, history, 
and literature. 

At the end of this grade pupils should be able to read readily and 
in pleasing style any matter whose thought and language is within 
their comprehension. 



The sound drill should have given them power to call new words, 
and the use of the sentence as a unit should have enabled them to 
grasp the thought of the author readily. 

Phonics : A continuation and extension of the work outlined for 
-B" Third. 

Fourth Grade. 

From this time on the reading matter should be carefully selected, 
good literature, adapted to the mental powers of the children, and 
material relative to the other subjects of the curriculum. 

Children should now be able to read fluently and for the sake of 
what they read. While continued attention should be p^id to the art 
of reading, the pupils should always realize that they are reading as 
adults read — to get at the thought of the author — and not for the sake 
of going through with the school exercise. 

**B" Class. 

Lessons selected from the Fourth Reader, Stepping Stones, from 
the supplementary readers, and from other good literature, relating to 
the other topics in the curriculum, particularly nature study, geography, 
and history. 

Phonics : The standard rules for spelling and syllabication. 

**A" Class. 

The same as outlined for " B " Class. 

Historical and mythological tales arc here appropriate. 

Phonics : The same as outlined for "B " Class. 

Fifth Grade. "B" Class. 

Fifth Reader, Stepping Stones, and matter selected from geo- 
graphical, historical, and other readers, and from good literature 
appropriate to the work of the grade. 

Fifth Grade. "A" Class. 

The same as **B" Class and good literature appropriate to the 
work of the grade. 

Sixth Grade. "B" Class. 

Sixth Reader, Stepping Stones, and much reading matter selected 
from standard authors, and, in so far as poss\b\e, cox\ A-aX^^ \4\x\v n}cnk. 



io8 

work of the other departments, particularly nature study and the 
picturesque features of geography. 

Sixth Grade. "A" Class. 

The same as **B" Class and much good literature appropriate to 
the work of the grade, especially historical talcs and poems. 

Seventh Grade. "B" Class. 

Seventh Reader, Stepping Stones, and other literature, especially 
by American authors, and relating to periods of American histor). 

Seventh Grade. **A" Class. 
Same as "B" Class. 

Eighth Grade. ** B " Class. 

Eighth Reader, Stepping Stones, and other literature selected from 
English authors relating to English history. 
Good literature in general. 

Eighth Grade. "A" Class. 

The same as " B " Class. 

The literary excellence of selections read should be noted. 

SPELLING. 

For All Grades. 

The spelling lessons are to be upon words used by the children i^ 
other subjects. In all grades above the first there must be every day ^ 
formal spelling lesson upon words selected. The list of words shoul ^ 
be selected from the various lessons, and should include words niij=^ 
spelled or likely to be misspelled by the children in any written exer- 
cise. 

In the primary grades these words should be classified by tK 
teacher. Lists of words given should, in so far as possible, be pi^ 
served for review. New words occurring in any lesson which t^ 
children are not able to read at sight or by spelling should be plac=r 
before them at once, and the pronunciation clearly given, zcitli ^ i 
divisions of the z\.'ords into sy/hiblcs. In all grades, particularly in Th 
primary, sight spelling is a most valuable exercise, and if conducted 
with care and frequency, will in many cases prove almost sufficient for 
the instruction in spelling. 



109 

In formal spelling, from the outset, children should learn to divide 
into syllables. The sounds of the letters should be taught, but of 
more value than all special drill is the correct spelling of all words in 
all written exercises. In one sense, every lesson is a language lesson 
and a spelling lesson. 

Children should from the first be taught to use the dictionary. 
Thev should be instructed never to write a word unless thev are sure 
of its spelling, but to look up the proper spelling before using. 

There is no one method by which spelling may be taught. Teach- 
ers must see to it that all the methods indicated above are employed. 
In the fifth and eighth grades the use of the spelling book is provided 
for review purposes. 

Oral spelling must not be neglected in any grade and must precede 
the written in the primary grades. Such oral spelling must include 
syllabication. 

WRITING. 

First Grade. 

During the first year the writing should be wholly with while 
crayon on the blackboard, or with very large pencils on large sheets 
of paper, such as is used for newspaper, unruled. These sheets should 
be as long as the school desk and not more than six inches wide. Dur- 
ing the first three months all the writing should be upon the black- 
board, and in the **A" First most of the writing should be upon the 
blackboard. Large, free-arm movements should be encouraged. Ex- 
ercises should be given in the air and on the board to cultivate freedom 
and ease of curvilinear motion. • 

The writing book should not be used at all in this grade. 

Second Grade. 

Continue writing upon the blackboard and large sheets of paper, 
gradually reducing the size of the letters. Allow in the "I>" Class the 
use of a large pencil upon unruled paper. The paper used should be 
long, but not more than six inches wide. 

Third Grade. 

The most valuable writing lessons are the ordinary writing re- 
quired of the child in his spelling, language, and other written work. 

The Natural System of Vertical Writing, Book II., should be used 
for necessary drill. 

In using the writing book, always begin wVlVv V\\^\io\Xo\w\vLVfc^ "^"^^ 



no 

advance toward the top of the page. The children will thus avoid 
copying their own writing. 

Fourth Grade. 

All written work and Writing Book No. III. (See directions for 
Third Grade.) 

Fifth Grade. 
All written work and Writing Book No. IV. 

Sixth Grade. 
All written work and Writing Book No. V. 

Seventh Grade. 

All written work and Writing Book No. VI., when needed for 
necessarv drill. 

Eighth Grade. 

All written work and Writing Book No. Vil., when needed for 
necessary drill. 

THE ARTS OF EXPRESSION. 

In a general way, the work of the school concerns itself with 
thought and its expression. As man thinketh in his heart, so he is. 
But he may hope to impress what he is upon others, to make his think- 
ing or himself a factor in society, only as he is able adequately and 
accurately to express himself in ways comprehended by others. 
Thought and its expression cannot in reality be separated. In a senso 
it may truthfully be said that thought is all important while the form 
of expression is wholly subsidiary. But the thought unexpressed ac- 
complishes little, and perfect expression is necessary to the perfect 
fruition of the thought. 

On the other hand, all attempts to consider expression apart from 
thought result in absurdity, though in mature years, after the arts of 
expression have been acquired through use, they may be studied as to 
their technique or method. 

In the earlier years, when the power to think and the power to ex- 
press are being developed together through the entire range of the 
chikVs associations and activities, any attemv)t to separate definitely the 
^rts of expression from the thoughts to be e^x^iessviO^ -a^w^ q.oxv^\^^\ >\\^vc\ 



Ill 

as independent entities is psychologically wrong and results in hollow 
imitation. 

Hence, in the elementary grades of school the various arts of ex- 
pression should be used naturally, to express worthy thoughts whicli 
have been stimulated in the child's mind by his material and spiritual 
environments. 

Little attempt should be made to differentiate the arts from the 
thought which they aim to express. The various means by which chil- 
dren naturally express themselves are gesture, play or dramatic repre- 
sensation, the graphic arts, as writing, drawing, painting, the con- 
structive arts, generally classed under the head of manual training, 
and, most important of all, language or speech. This is the most near- 
ly universal form of expression and is most characteristic of human 
beings. It is so inseparably connected with man's thoughts and his 
ideals that to study it truly is to study spiritual man. 

In the earlier years of the school course the child is absorbing the 
spirit of his environment at every pore of his mind. He is entering 
into his inheritance, the world of nature about him and the spiritual 
achievements of the human race. He is growing at a marvelous rate. 
I do not mean that he is learning about this heritage, but he is enter- 
ing into it. It is vital to him, becomes a part of him. Often the school 
positively interferes with this growth. It alienates the child from his 
spiritual heritage, diverts his mind to hollow imitations of life, deprives 
his activity of spiritual vitality and significance. 

Especially is this true of the attempts to teach the arts of expres- 
sion, notably language. 



LANGUAGE. 

In teaching language in the elementary school the first step is to 
stimulate thought. This is effected through all the activities of the 
school life. 

The second step is to encourage the child to express his thought 
with perfect freedom, for perfect freedom is the prime essential of ade- 
quacy. 

The third step is to impress upon his mind the importance of 
accuracy and fitness in the use of language. 

The fourth step is to teach him how to secure such accuracy and 
fitness through the use of conventional forms without losing his free- 
dom. 

Hence pure technique occupies a late and inferior ^l^icvi \xv V^LW^wa.^^ 
teaching in the elementary grades. 



112 

Power to use language is acquired by its use. All language used 
should be correct in all respects. 

The child's thought determines its form. This is at first simple, 
and gradually increases in complexity with advancing age and growing 
knowledge ; hence, new difficulties will continually arise which need to 
be met by proper explanation and practice at the time ; for example, in 
regard to the use of punctuation and capitals. The child first ex- 
presses himself in short, disconnected sentences. Punctuation for such 
expression is very simple. As conjunctions and pronouns are intro- 
duced to make the compound sentence somewhat more elaborate punc- 
tuation is required. Later, with the use of the complex sentence, which 
is naturally employed to express more complex thoughts, other rules oi 
punctuation are necessary and should be given as needed. To give 
rules for punctuation and then compose exercises to illustrate tliem. 
before the child has need of them for the natural expression of his 
thought, is to begin at the wrong end and work backwards. 

If no attempt is made to force technique upon pupils before it is 
needed, teachers will find that the difficulties have been greatly reduced 
in number and can be readily classified. As difficulties arise and defi^ 
nite instruction is required, such instruction should be given in definite 
lessons and repeated until the points are made perfectly clear and right 
habits started. 

The following outline consists mainly, especially for the earlier 
years, of suggestions as to proper thought material to be used as a basis 
of language instruction, with the mention of sources in some cases. 
Suggestions appearing here and there that certain technical points be 
enforced in certain grades do not nv^^an that they are to be ignored in 
other grades, but imply that in the average school teachers will find 
need of enforcing these points in the grades indicated. 

First Grade.* 

SuGGiiSTEu Material: 

Literature — Stories and poems drawn from the Readers, the; 
**Gradcd List" and other sources. 

Nature — (Geography — material ; environment). 

Social Environment — Home Life — School Life. The child in sinr^ 
pie economic relations — as to the various people who supply his want _ 

History — Stories of Heroes. In particular, stories suitable to th 
celebration of national holidays and for other patriotic occasions. 

* Note. — Allow no paraphrasing of poetry in any grade. 



113 

Art — Pictures representing action, especially those illustrating 
some of the other subjects studied. 
Suggested Exercises: All oral in the **B" Class. 

The development of words, through their use in oral sentences. 

Much conversation about experiences and observations connected 
with the various topics suggested above, encouraging the greatest free- 
dom. 

Word games and sentence games. 

Study and description of pictures telling stories. 

Memorizing verses. 

Retelling of stories. 

Dramatizing of stories, poems and pictures. 

In the **A" Class introduce a little written work. 

Encourage freedom of expression. 

By example rather than by precept impress upon children correct 
forms, especially as to the use of capitals and punctuation. 

Second Gr.\de. 

Suggested Material: 

Literature — Stories and poems drawn from the Readers, the 
**Graded List" and other sources. 

Nature — (Geography — material ; environment). 

Social Environment — Home Life — School Life. The child in sim- 
ple economic relations — as to the various people who supply his wants. 

History — Stories of Heroes as stated for first grade and also stories 
of primitive people and the child life of other lands. 

Add lessons on human body. 

Art — Pictures representing action, also those illustrating some of 
the subjects studied. 

Suggested Exercises: 

Development of the meanings and uses of words employed in 
stories, nature lessons and readers. 

Telling stories for oral reproduction. Development upon the black- 
board of connected stories and descriptions from sentences given in 
conversation bv the children. 

The copying of such sentences and stories by children. Mostly 
oral ; written work on blackboard and at desks, always under the direc- 
tion of the teacher. 

A very limited amount of dictation and always of connected 
thought. 

The silent reading of short selections by the childreu, v^Ko ^l\fc\- 
ward reproduce them orally. 



114 

The co-operative illustration upon the blackboard of scenes an'l 
stories orally produced by them. 

The memorizing of at least one poem each month. 

Dramatizing of stories, poems and pictures. 

Introduce children gradually to compound statements by the use of 
simple connectives and relative pronouns. 

See that children use correctly inflected forms, capitals and punc- 
tuation marks. 

Third Grade. 

Suggested Material: 

Literature — Stories and poems drawn from the Readers, the 
**Graded List" and other sources. 

Nature^ ( Geography — material : environment ) . 

Social Environment — Home Life — School Life. The child in sim- 
ple economic relations — as to the various people who supply his wants. 

Stories of Heroes, in particular world heroes, myths. 

The study of comnumity life, in particular, that of the early set- 
tlers of this State. 

Social and industrial life of primitive people in connection with the 
geography. 

Art. 

Suc;gested Exercises: 

The same as those suggested for the second grade and written re- 
productions of exercises and stories. Original written discussions and 
stories. 

(Jive no technical grammar, but simply see that the correct forms 
re(iuire(l in each case are used. Lead children to use freely complex 
sentences. 

Daily written lessons on the blackboard. Pen and ink work begun. 

Letters. 

Emphasis should still be on oral expression, always under the care 
of the teacher. 

Fourth Grade. 

Suggested Material : 

To be drawn mainly from the outlines of other subjects as in the 
third grade, but somewhat more specifically used ; in particular, nnich 
use of historical studies and of written and oral statements of geo- 
frrnphical topics. 
.Vature study. 



IIS 
Stories and poems from standard authors. 

Suc;ge.sted Exercises : 

Continue the work of the third grade in sentence construction and 
in the correct use of sentences of different kinds. 

Require much oral reproduction and original work, both oral and 
written ; oral should always precede written work. 

Give attention to paragraphing. Compositions may now take more 
definite form. Make use of the letter form, seeing that all the details 
of heading, subscription and* address are properly used. Encourage 
freedom and independence of expression and avoid much use of regu- 
lar outlines. 

Encourage pupils to find and reproduce short anecdotes and short 
stories of animals. 

Select and copy choice passages, descriptive of people and places. 

Fifth Gr^vde. 

Suggested Material: 

To be drawn from the child's environment and other subjects of the 
curriculum. History, Literature, Geography, Nature Study. 

Suggested Exercises: 

Continuation of the work of the third and fourth grades. 

Give much writing upon varied topics. 

Continue oral work. 

Encourage the use of a large vocabulary. 

Introduce much word study in connection with the study of litera- 
ture. Incidentally use varied forms of composition, as letters, essays, 
newspaper paragraphs, debates, discussions, fanciful sketches, simple 
business letters. 

Sixth Grade. 

Suggested Material: 

To be drawn from the child's environment and other subjects of 
the curriculum. History, Literature, Geography, Nature Study. 

Suggested Exercises : 

Continue the work of the fifth grade. 

Give considerable attention to the exact use of the sentence. 
See that written work is divided into proper paragraphs in this as 
in all grades. 

AJJow only correct inflectional and other coi\\eTvUoTv^!v \otw\^. 



Ii6 
LANGUAGE AND GRAMMAR. 

LANGUAGE. 

Seventh Grade. 

Continue the work suggested for the sixth grade, drawing upon 
all the available sources for material, so that the thought studies and 
the expression studies shall be mutually helpful. 

# 

Suggested Exercises : 

Articles and stories on toi)ics drawn from history. 

Sketches of characters in books read. 

Fanciful sketches and descriptions of books read. 

Descriptions of journeys. 

Letters of invitation, acceptance, and regret. 

JJusiness letters. 

GRAMMAR. 

Seventh Grade *'B." 

Definite, careful instruction in formal grammar should begin with 
this grade. 

The unit of the work is the simple sentence. 

Pupils should master the simple sentence thoroughly and be able 
to recognize subject, predicate and object, and should be drilled upon 
paradigms and intlectional forms as needed. 

Parts of speech — Xouns,' Pronouns, \'erbs and Adjectives. 



Seventh Grade "A. 



•»• 



Parts of speech. 

With the simple sentence still as a unit, make a more extended study 
of nouns, pronouns and adjectives. 

Treat fully adverbs, appositivcs, predicate-nominative. 
Continue work upon paradigms and intlectional forms. 
Grannnar lessons three days in the week throughout this year. 

LANGUAGE. 

Eighth Grade. 

Su(;(;esti()Xs as to Material: 

Tlw wJjole of a child's life, particularly the other subjects of the 
currkiihun. 



117 

Sl'(,<;kstei) Exrrcises: 

Afiich writing in various forms upon varied topics. 

Much oral work. 

Discussion of historical themes. 

Character sketches. Reproduction. 

Reproduction of stories. 

Synopsis and review of books read. 

Advertisements, appHcations, and business letters. 

Business forms. 

Note. — Allow no paraphrasing of poetry in any grade. 

GRAMMAR. 

Eighth Grade "R." 

The compound sentence. A careful study of its construction. 
Analysis of simple and compound sentences. 
Study of verbs and phrases. 

Eighth Grade "A." 

Complex sentence. Study of its construction. 
Analysis of simple, compound, and complex sentences. 
Clauses, relative pronouns and other connectives, 
(jramniar lessons three times per week throughout this year. 

HISTORY. 

In teaching the history of any nation or time, the first step is to 
H'lect certain centers of crystallization about which facts and events of 
inferior significance naturally group themselves. 

Such centers may be the names of great leaders, places which wore 
tile scenes of momentous occurrences or events of crucial significance. 
I'or example, lUmker Hill, Abraham Lincoln, The Dred Scott De- 
cision. In teaching young children, the centers selected should be pic- 
ttiresque if possible. lUit they should always have a vital, causal rela- 
tion to the units clustering about them. 

Thoroughness in teaching history requires true perspective, the 
proper relation of events especially as to cause and effect. It is not 
nccessar}' that all events be recorded, but that those recorded have sig- 
nificance and appear in due proportion. 

A mere stringing together of occurrences of varying significance 
t^pon a plane of apparent equality, dissipates interest and produces as 
^ result the opposite of thoroughness. 



ii8 

In the following outline but few centers are named, and it is left to 
the teachers to name more if necessary and to cull and relate facts of 
minor significance in their proper places. 

Send children to available sources for their information. Do not 
zvrife on the blackboard for them to copy in note-books. 

If note-books are used, it should be to record the discoveries of the 
children as the result of searching the available sources of information. 

First Grade. 

The Family: 

Indian Life : Docas ; the Indian Boy, or Hiawatha. 
Eskimo Life ; Agoonack. 

World Stories: 

Fairv Tales. 
Nature Myths. 

Stories relating to national and other festivals, particularly those- 
having a patriotic purpose. 

Second Grade. 

Historic Homes (Primitive) : 

Cave Dwellers. 
ClifT Dwellers. 
Tent Dwellers. 
Lake Dwellers. 

Historic Homes (Ancient) : 

Greek. 

Roman. 

Saxon. 

Stories suitable for the observance of National holidays. 

World Stories : 

Nature Myths. 
Fables. 

Third Grade. 

Local History : 

Stories associated with Rochester and with New York Citv ai—^ 

State. 
Stories suitable for National holidays ; in particular, stories «_ 

braverv. 



119 

During November treat of the comniunitv life of the earlv settlers 
of this state. 

V(»KLi) Stories: 

Great myths taken from the ^reat national epics, such as Beowulf. 
Siegfried, Achilles, Aeneas, Rama. 

Fourth (iRadk. **B" Class. 

^VoRLi) Stories: 

Stories of Xoniads, as Abraham, Moses, Eric, Clovis, Magellan. 
Stories of old Greece. 

Fourth (jRade. "A" Class. 

Stories of the Explorers and Discoverers of the Western Conti- 
nent. 

Fifth Grade. "R" Class. 

Stories of United States History. 
Stories from Irving. 

Fifth Grade. **A" Class. 

► 'oRLD Stories: 

Xorse Stories. 

Heroes of Conquest and Empire; as: 

Alexander the Great. 

Caesar. 

Joshua. 

Sixth Grade. "B" Class. 

t >iiLD Stories. (Two days in each week) : 

Stories of Chivalry. 

Arthur and His Round Table. 

I'. S. History. (I'se books for reference). Two days in each 

week). Mowry. History stories both general and of the 

United States. 
Peter, (iustavus Adolphus, Charlemagne, Xapoleon, William I. 

Sixth C^rade. '*A" Class. 

^ ORLi) Storie.s. (Two days in each week) : 
The Legends of Early Rome. 



120 

Historical stories of Europe, Asia and Africa. 

Mohammed. Kublai Khan, Hannibal. 

U. S. History. Mowry. (Suggested topics from which teachers 
may make selection). 

This work should be largely story work, connected with geography 
and literature. It should be picturesque, leaving vivid pictures in the 
children's minds. It should not be bare memory work, but shoull 
lead to much investigation by the children and should develop much 
interest. Good literature should be constantly employed to enforce 
and vivify the history tales. 

Seventh Grade. **B" Class. 

United States History. 

Prehistoric Period (briefly treated). 

Review, explorations and settlements. 

Topics suggested : 

English influence on the various colonies, Dutch influence, French 

influence. Spanish influence. 
French and Indian War. 
Revolutionary Period. 
Causes of Dissatisfaction. 
Boston Tea Party. 
Patrick Hcnrv. 
Benjamin Franklin. 
Thomas Jefferson. 
George Washington. 
Alexander Hamilton. 
Arnold and Andre. 
Declaration of Independence. 

Seventh Grade. **A" Class. 

Battles and campaigns of the. Revolutionary War: 

Lexington. 

Long Island. 

Retreat across New Jersey. 

Trenton. 

Philadelphia. 

Valley l^^orge. 

Monmouth. 

Burgoyne. 

Yorktown. 



121 

The building of the Constitution. 
Early development of the West. 

Eighth Grade. **B" Cl.\ss. 

United States history continued. 

Topics Suggested: 

Mexican cessions. 

Slavery. 

American statesmen and orators — 

Clay. 

Webster. 

Calhoun. 

Development of the government. 

Causes of the Civil War. 

Heroes of the Civil War — 

IJncoln. 

<-irant. 

Shemian. 

Sheridan. 

Lee. 

Iniportant battles and campaigns of the Civil War — 

f^ninsula. 

^Mississippi . 

Gettysburg. 

Sherman's March. 

*Vil(iemess. 

^ irginia. 

Appomattox — Close of the Civil War. 

The growth and work of the navy. 

The South — 

I^efore the War. 

The Confederacy. 

Reconstruction. 

Eighth Grade. **A" Cla.ss. 

Growth of the United States. 

territory. 

^^opulation. 

Wealth. 

^^fluence. 

Literature. 



i 



122 

Science. 

Review. 

Four days in the week. United States history by topics. 

One dav in the week. Civics. See Circular. 



GEOGRAPHY. 

The object in teaching Geography in school is to make the chill 
acquainted with the earth as the home of man, the scene and the par- 
tially determining condition of his movements and achievements. 

It should give him definite knowledge of a few important geo- 
graphic facts, such as will supply him with stimulus and a key to fur 
ther knowledge. 

It should acquaint him with the common dependence of all mci 
upon one another and upon their physical environment. 

It should show the relation between habitat and plant and animal" 
life, and how economic conditions are largely the product of such re- 
lations. 

In particular, it should enable him to understand the triumphs of 
man over adverse material surroundings and put him in possession oi 
such knowledge as will enable him to use the environing world to the 
best advantage. 

First Grade. 

Study of plants and animals and natural phenomena, as forms of 
water. 

Study of the home life of the child : such various interests and occu- 
pations as immediately affect the home life. 

Observing weather: weather vane, points of compass, making cal- 
endars. 



Second Grade. "B" Cla.ss. 






Calendar work. 
Review of the work of the preceding grade. 
Enlargement of the immediate home life in its relation to other 
homes. 

Observations made of plant and animal life and natural phenomena 
by field excursions, and through the use of such material as can be 
brought into the school room. 

Direction: Winds (vane set), physical forces (story of Ulysses). 



123 

Second Grade. "A" Class. 

The child hfe of the various countries of the world, as affected by 
climate and physical environment. 

This should be given to the children simply and in sharp contrast 
with their own, and should include the simple phases of social life and 
industrial life in other countries. 

At this stage "natural phenomena/' **land and water forms," 
"points of compass," and "maps" should be more thoroughly devel- 
oped. 

All should be in story form. 

Third Grade. "B" Class. 

Review of the work of the preceding grade, 
h^orms of land and water studied from local observation. 
Drawing to scale. 

Stories of the early settlements in Rochester and Xew York, wit'i 
geographical reasons. 

Third Gr.xde. "A" Class. 

Work of "B" Class continued. 

Local geography: Historical, Physical, Political. 

To be outlined in detail to meet conditions. 

Fourth Grade. **B" Class. 

The World. 

This study should include form and relative size of the earth, sim- 
ple zone study with reference to heat and cold, trade winds of hot belt, 
westerly winds of cold belt, plant and animal life, etc., and a study of 
the chains of highlands, forming the "backbone" of the lands, simple 
physiographic processes and the elements of drainage. 

Divisions into Continents. 

XoTE. — This study is to serve as a basis for the special study of 
each continent in its relation to the whole. 

Continents in general should be studied as to : 

1. General relief and relative size. 

2. Their drainage and such features of their coast line as have an 
important bearing on commerce. 

3. Their important political divisions. 

4. The life of the people, and their important industries. 



124 

5. Their commerce, and a brief description of the plant and animal 
Hfe in so far as these enter into the industries and trade. 

Fourth Grade. **A" Cl.ass. 

Thk Western Hemisphere. 

North America, considered topically, as follows: 
Relief. 
Drainage. 
Soil. 

Productions. 
Industries. 

Facilities for transportation, and commerce. 
Central America and South America studied along lines similar to 
those laid down for North America and in relation to it. 

Fifth Grade. *'B'' Class. 

The United States, first as a whole, then by sections, under the fol- 
lowing heads: 
Physical. 
Industrial. 
Social. 
Historical. 

Fifth Grade. *'A" Class. 

The Eastern Hemisphere studied along the lines laid down for the 
study of the Western Hemisphere. 

Sixth Grai^e. 

The world by continents and countries. 

B — Western Hemisphere (excepting U. S.) and Europe. 

A — Asia, Africa and Oceanica. 

Seventh Grade. 
The United States in connection with its historv. 



Eighth Grade. 



Commercial Geography. 
Physical Geography. 



125 

NATURE STUDY. 

It should be understood that throughout all the work in Nature 
Study the children must have an opportunity of studying the actual 
liviiic^ specimens. Many of the specimens will live and grow in the 
school room: but frequent excursions to study them in their natural 
surroundings are absolutely necessary. Short excursions to the school 
grounds and immediate neighborhood may be made often, and longer 
ones to the parks and country occasionally. 

The teacher should require accurate observation and clear and 
trudiful expression. The language and drawing lessons may be very 
profitably based on this work. Every topic should be studied in its 
economic relation. Nature Study is very cJosely connected with geog- 
raphy and should be correlated with it. Nature Study should also be 
correlated with literature. Care must be taken, however, that children 
do not read on any subject until after they have made their own obser- 
vations. 

It is not expected that the teacher will take up all of the topics sug- 
gested for each year; but she may choose those which are best suited 
to the needs and opportunities of her pupils. 

First Grade. 

Fall. 

Color : fields, trees, sky, birds, flowers, charts of leaves and fruits. 
Gardening ; farm life, with excursions to farm. 
Study of some common tree, as horse chestnut, apple or maple , 
eaves, fruit, uses. 

Preparation of plants for winter. 

Moths and butterflies ; development, preparation for winter. 

Winter. 

Color ; snow and shadows, bare fields, forests, fruits. 

Study of common vegetables and fruits. 

Plant passivity. 

Study of same tree continued ; trunk, branches, bark, buds ; study 
f some common evergreen, as pine or Norway spruce. 

Domestic birds, as hen, duck, pigeon, canary, parrot ; comparison 
f structure as related to food and habits; family life and care for 
oung. 

Sl'RIXd. 

Color ; opening buds and leaves, flowers, birds, insects. 
Spring awakening of life. 



126 

Study of the same tree continued : opening of buds, flowering, for- 
mation of fruit, uses of tree. 
Gardening and farm life. 
Moths and butterflies. 

Simple talks on the weather throughout the year ; sunshine charts. 
Stories and poems. 

Second Gkade. 

Fall. 

Gardening and farming. 

Study of tree as in first grade, as poplar, elm, oak or chestnut. 
Dissemination of a few common seeds ; dandelion, milk-vvced, 
stick-tight, burr, maple. 

Fruits ; apples and apple-like fruits, stone fruits, nuts, berries. 
Grasshoppers, locusts, crickets. 

Winter. 

Mow plants and animals pass the winter. 

Study of tree continued ; also cedar or hemlock. 

Study of vegetables and fruit continued. 

Conditions of germination ; experiments to show effect of moisture, 
heat and light. 

Let the children plant flower seeds, as sweet pei or nasturtium, and 
watch germination and growth to fruiting. 

Comparative study of cat and rabbit, or other unlike animals. 

Spring. 

Gardening and farm life. 

Rise of sap ; opening of buds ; si)ringing up of plants from under- 
ground parts. 

Tree study continued. 

Recognition of a few common flowers. 

Wild birds, as robin, English sparrow, crow, oriole; food habits, 
fanu'ly life, use to man. 

Forms of water : wind and directions ; weather charts of sunshine 
and wind. 

Stories and poems. 

Third Grade. 

Fall. 

Recognition of common flowers. 

Trees ; kinds of oaks awA map\es •, o\.V\^t q.o\w\a\qw ^^qa^wq^nx's. -^^^x^k 



ver^rcen trees of neighborhood and in the parks ; ready recognition 
f 'them at all seasons ; uses to man. 

Comparison of seeds, as to mode of dissemination ; use of various 
'lilts to plants. 

Planting of wheat. 

# 

hisect homes ; leaf rollers and miners, galls, tents, nests of wasps, 
Lcs, ants. 
Migration of birds. 

Winter. 

Tree study continued. 

Study of cereals. 

Germination of squash, pumpkin, bean, or pea ; corn or wheat ; 
:arcful study of stages in each : drawings made. 

Domestic mammals ; horse, cow, sheep, etc. ; habits, structure, com- 
parison, uses, products. 

Experiments on air, heat, wind, thermometer, temperature. 

Si'Rixi;. 

Trees and flowers. 

Planting of corn ; study of wheat and corn plants. 

Wild birds ; spring migration and nesting habits ; uses to man. 

Insect homes continued. 

Cloud forms. 

Weather charts of wind, sunshine, cloud forms, and temperature. 

Poems and stories. 

Fourth Grade. 

Fall. 

General plant relationship ; no study of parts of flower by children. 
'*^^t simply recognition of relationship : study of sunflower and com- 
l^rison with other composites collected by children : study of mint 
family. 

Leaf venation ; parallel and netted veined leaves. 

iHrd habits continued. 

Study of bugs and beetles ; aquaria with water insects. 

Winter. 

Cemiination of various plants having one and two cotyledons to 
<^^>nipare ; drawings. 

Wild mammals in groups as far as can be studied ; domestication ; 
relations to man. 

Comparison of food habits and adaptation of animals already 
studied. 



128 

Spring. 

Lily, rose, and butter-cup families, studied in the same way a:> the 
composite family. 

Leaf venation. 

Study of flower parts sufficiently to recognize that parts of one 
group are usually in threes, never in fives, while parts of other groups 
are often in fives. Children by this time should be able to separate the 
plants they find into the two great groups of monocotyledons and 
dicotyledons, and discover the distinctions for themselves. 

Studv of birds and insects continued. 

General problems relating to seasons as suggested by United States 
Weather Bureau. 

Effect of climate on man. 

Stories and poems. 

Fifth Grade. 

Wood ; kinds ; appearance in various sections ; value of different 
kinds. 

Forests ; growth ; enemies ; preservation ; lumbering. 

Study of important plant families ; flower parts. I 

Continued classification into groups of monocotyledons ani 
dicotyledons. i 

Recognition of great groups of algx, fungi, mosses, ferns, gymnos- 
perms, angiosperms. 

Clam, snail, cray-fish, lobster ; fish ; life habits. 

Changes in coloration ; protective coloration of mammals, birds and 
insects. 

How insects live; how they breathe; how they eat; experiments 
with food plants. 

Literature. 

Sixth Grade. 

Work of flower parts ; pollination, wind and insect ; provisions to 
prevent self-i)ollination and to secure cross-pollination. 

Growth of fruit from flower ; careful study of various examples. 

Study of different kinds of fruit as to provisions for seed dispersal. 

Roots ; work, adaptations. 

Stems; work, adaptations. 

Leaves; work, adaptations. 

Locomotion of various vertebrates and adaptations. 

Bees, wasps, and ants. 



129 

Common minerals ; form:ition of rocks, as shale, sandstone, con- 
glomerate, limestone, granite, etc. ; building stones ; formation and 
transportation of soil. 

Literature. 

Seventh Grade. 

Ecological factors ; heat, water, soil, light, wind. 

Plant societies. 

Weeds and useful plants, with especial study of economic relations. 

Differences between wild and cultivated plants ; methods by which 
)ur food plants have been produced from the original wild stock. 

Development of frog and toad; water insects; study of habits in 
aquaria. 

Simple experiments in Physics. 

Literature. 

Eighth Grade. 

General physiology of plants and animals ; experiments. 

Physics. 

Economic relations of animals and insects. 

Literature. 

PHYSIOLOGY AND HYGIENE. 

Instruction in Physiology and Hygiene with especial reference to 
the effects of narcotics must be given from the approved text-books in 
ill grades in which it is required by law. 

SUGGESTIVE OUTLINES TO SUPPLEMENT THE COURSE 

OF STUDY. 

Prepared by Ada Van Stone Harris, 
Supervisor of Kindergarten and Primary Schools. 

THE INCIDENTAL TEACHING OF NUMBER IN THE FIRST GRADE. 

This teaching should he incidental, not accidental. — That is, such 
caching should not be left to chance, but should be given whenever the 
ise of number is necessary for the clear imaging of objects or their 
elations. This will be found to be the case frequently in nearly all 
fie subjects of the curriculum. 

The teacher should watch for opportunities to employ number defi- 



130 

nitely, and should even make them whenever the subject matter under 
consideration is suitable. 

It should be remembered that most children entering the first grade, 
especially those coming from the kindergarten, have already a consid- 
erable stock of number ideas. The number sense is then quite alert. 
The teacher should see that none of this is lost, but that the develop- 
ment thus indicated continues rationally without break. 

"Unless there is to be arrested development when the child enters 
school, some function must be found with reference to which he may 
utilize his ability to count — the number sense becomes viti'ized and 
truly educative at this point by being largely directed towards the 
definition of values in the form of measurements/' — Dr. John Dewey. 

The first exercises should be counting and making comparisons. 
For these the children are ready. In all cases first ascertain what th*' 
children can already do, then proceed to increase their knowledge awi 
power. 

B Class — First Gr.vde. 

Counting. — In counting the child gets an idea of the whole, the 
parts and the hozv many. 

Start with a whole and count by single things ; e. g. Count the 
number of girls in the room, of boys, of children, of desks, etc. Test 
how far the number names are significant ; e. g. name the number anJ 
have corresponding objects selected. 

Count thus two rows of girls, of boys, of desks, of blocks; how 
many twos? Count pairs of eyes, how many pairs? Pairs of hands, 
how many pairs, etc., etc. 

Count groups of three, how many threes? etc. Groups of four. 
etc. Count the same quantity with different units or groups, e. g. these 
twelve pupils: by twos, how many? By threes, by fours, by sixes, 
etc., to dctennine the different numbers (how many), that measure the 
same quantity. Count different quantities with the same unit of 
measure. 

This lot of six (pupils, etc.,) by threes. 

This group of twelve by threes. 

This group of fifteens by threes, etc. 

Toy money may be used with advantage for counting. 

Comparisons. 

This should be first indefinite then definite. Have pupils make 
comparisons involving ideas of more or less, larger or smaller, e. g. 
the length of the desk is greater than the width, etc. One child is 



131 

larger or smaller than another. One pile of books is higher or lower 
than the other. 

A line is long or short in comparison with another, etc. 

Draw lines of varying lengths on the board and have pupils meas- 
ure to find number of inches long, etc. 

Draw triangles, squares, rectangles, etc., and have pupils measure 
sides and find number of inches, etc. 

A Class — First Gr^\dk. 

Measurements, — Counting may be extended to exact measure- 
ments. 

Count the number of inches in a foot. 

Count the two inches in this foot rule (or line) ; the three inches, 
etc. 

Count the number of three inches in lines, ten, twelve, fifteen, eigh- 
teen inches long, and so on. 

Cut out of card board strips respectively one inch, two inches, three 
inches, twelve inches, etc., long by one inch wide. Ask pupils to select 
the three inch strip, the five inch strip, etc. 

Make squares whose sides are respectively two, three and four 
inches. 

Make oblongs two inches by three inches, three inches by four 
inches, four inches by five inches, etc. Divide into square inches, etc. 

Make simple measurements with the foot rule and tape measure, 
e. g., measure the width of a desk, sides of the room, length of table, 
height of children, the number of inches around head, around chest, 
etc. 

Measure the distance between points with the foot rule, the yard 
stick. 

What number do you get? How many feet? How many yards? 

Measure from finger tip to finger tip. 

Measure from crown of head to sole of foot, etc. 

The regular occupations will suggest many similar exercises. 

Employ figures naturally that children may learn their uses. 



ARITHMETIC. 

MATERIAL NEEDED. 

Blocks, acorns, horse chestnuts, shells, etc., are valuable for count 
ing. Every child should have a foot rule, marked in inches for measur- 
ing and objects of various sizes for comparison. 



132 

Children during the first year should learn to count by twos, threes, 
fours. They should also become thoroughly familiar with the proper 
use of terms for comparison of units or objects, and acquire a knowl- 
edge of inch, foot, and yard as units of linear measurement. 

**Thought consists in the establishment of relations. There can be 
no relations established, and, therefore, no thought framed when one 
of the related terms is absent from consciousness." — H. Spencer. 

B Class — Second Grade. 

The suggestions for the first grade should be reviewed and elab- 
orated. 

Counting by 2*s, 3*s, 4*s, 5's, 6's, etc. 

Comparisons of objects of various sizes. 

Continue the use of foot, inch and yard through actual measure- 
ments. 

The object in this grade, as is in the first, is to create an interest in 
number by dealing with familiar things, rather than abstract quantities. 

Have pupils ascertain for themselves prices of various articles used 
in and about the home, ranging in price from one to twelve cents, or 
from one to twelve dollars. Make lists of such articles and have pupils 
evolve problems. For example : 



Grocery Store. 

Sugar 6 cents per pound. 

Raisins. . . .11 

Lard 10 

Beans 7 



Dry Goods Store. Fruit Store. 



(( 



<( 



(( 



(( 



(( 



(( 



it 



n 



Soap 3 

Starch 4 

Tomatoes.. 9 
Clothespins 2 
Crackers.. 5 
Currants . . 8 



<< 



(( 



(( 



(( 



(< 



(( 



quort. 
cake, 
pound, 
can. 
** dozen, 
pound. 



(( 



<( 



(( 



<< 



Calico . . — cents per yard. 

Thread. — " " spool. 

Needles. — " ** paper. 

Hose. . — " " pair. 

Mittens.— " " " 

Ribbon.— " " yard. 

Pins . . . . — " " paper. 



Oranges. 

Dates. 

Apples. 

Grapes. 

Figs. 

Peaches. 

Pears. 



<i 



<< 



133 



The numbers around 
the circle are the 
prices of articles 
which the pupils 
have found. The 
figure within the cir- 
cle shows the num- 
ber of articles to be 
bought. Teacher 
points to three, and 
pupil buys two of 
something at three 
cents. For example: 
If a cake of soap 
costs three cents, two 
cakes will cost six 
cents. 
This form's a practical basis for the multiplication table. 
The reverse relations may also be taught — pupils readily see that 

"if two poimds of sugar cost twelve cents, one pound will cost six 

cents." 

The figure within the circle should be changed when the children 

arc thoroughly conversant with the one in use. 

A list should always be kept on the blackboard, and the prices 

changed from time to time, according to the market. 

In connection with this work the table of weights and measures 

should be developed. Children should handle the various measures 

and be allowed to measure freely. 




A Class — Second Grade. 

Review all the subjects previously suggested, and extend each by 
broader applications of the real value of things studied. 

Elaborate the first pages of the Rational Arithmetic, by direct ap- 
plication of the steps therein evolved, in measurement and comparison, 
to the practical drawing and constructing of objects. 

Create interest, arouse mental activity, and appeal to the sense of 
utility, by having children do at every step of the process, by allowing 
them to deal with familiar articles and prices. 

OUTUNE FOR FIRST GRADE. 



This outline contains abundant suggestiotvs oi m^XfcT\A ^w<i o^ox^-ac- 



i34 

tions from which teachers should select such as they can readily 
follow. 

DO NOT TRY TO FOLLOW THEM ALL 
DO WHATYOUCANDOWELL 

Throughout the year use stories and poems as suggested in the 
course of study and the graded list, suitable for the season and corre- 
lating with the other work. 



September — Family Life. 



General Theme. — Child's interest in things about him. Home ac- 
tivities leading to a comprehension of the following : 

^Underlyiiif; Principle. — Right relationships. Relations with other 
living beings. Mutual heljifulness essential for happiness. 

F'amily Life. 

Families — Homes of children. Homes adapted to occupants. 
Experiences of home life. Family relationships. 

Nature. 

Other homes and families, as : Animals, insects, birds, bees, plants. 



October — Individual Functions. 

In the home. — The contribution of father; his occupation. 

Mother ; her duties in the home. 

Brothers and sisters ; their daily interests. 
The Analogy of Nature. — The preparation for future life as ob- 
served in the care and preparation for their long winter rest. 

Leaves — Fall changes, the falling leaves. 
Runs — How formed, how protected. 
Fi>owk:rs — Their function. 

Seeps — Story of seeds, their many ways of travel. 
Edible Fruits — Where and how they grow, use to nature and ^^^ 
man. 

Note — Classify fruits under main type forms for compari.son and discri*^^ 
nation. 

Caterpillars — Color, movements, where found, food. Cocoes ^ 

How made, when, where. Transformation into the butte 
Birds — Migration. 



135 
November — FLxrvest : Thanksgiving. 

General Theme, — Child's growing interest in activities about him. 
Winter preparation in family and in nature. Place of individual. Re- 
sult of universal labor. 

Underlying Principle — Relation of family to civil society. Inter- 
dependence of nature and man. Thankfulness. 

Work of the F.\rm. 

Grain — Kinds, who planted them, where, how, for what? Who 

grinds them, where, into what? (Story from seed to loaf.) 
Vecetakles — Gathered and distrihuted for winter. 
Fruits — Gathered and distributed for winter. 
Squirrei^ — Covering, movements, food, habits, home, work. 

Preparation for Thanksgiving. 

The First Thanksgiving — Things for which to be thankful. 
Thanksgiving Celebration. 
Indian Life — Hiawatha or Docas. 



December — Ciiristm.xs: Doing and Giving. 

General Theme — Children's interest in the home as the center of 
social and benevolent activities. In the Christmas holidays. The joy 
of giving — of loving. 

Winter — Frost, ice, snow (beauties of nature). 

Animal life — example: 

Sheep — Covering, movements, food, habits, home. 
What the sheep gives. 

Santa Glaus — His work for others (how we get ready for him, how 

we can help him). 
Our work for others, hove — The measure of our gift. 
Story of the First Christmas. 
Christmas Celebration. 



January — Co-operation Tiirougfi Industry. 

General Theme — The child's interest in the home, in the activities 
and industries about him. A fuller development of thankfulness and of 
loving and giving, leading the child through the sU\d\ ol o\.\\^\ >^^Qi^<t., 
to a sense of kinship with all the world. 



U6 

Underlyinj^ Principle — Relation of family to civil society. Grati- 
tude, protection, interpendence and co-operation. 

Time — New Year season, month and days. 

Vacation Experiences — Toys, games, etc., what the "New Year' 
has brought to us. 

Trades — New things that have come to us. Where they come 
from. Busy father who earns the money. Busy mother who 
cares for the home. Brothers and sisters, what thty do for us. 
Other people that help. Woodworking, knitting, shoemakers, 
bakers, etc. 

Eskimo Life — Agoonack. Appearance of the country. Personal 
appearance of the people. Dress : material ; how made. 
Homes; how built; furniture. Food: how obtained; cooking 
utensils. Vehicles for travel; how made; how drawn. Oc- 
cupations: hunting; weapons used. Fishing lK>ats; kinds; 
how made. 

Winter — Nature's rest. Color; snow and shadows, bare fields, 
forests. Winter appearance of trees. Observing weather, 
changes in length of days and nights. Snow crystals, ice. 



February — Patriotism : Relations with Country. 

General Theme — Formation of ideas of patriotism, heroes, birth — 
days. 

Underlying Principle — Our relation to organized society and U _z 
state, dependence. 

Heroes: — Lincoln.. The boy, his home life, games, occupation ~ 

interests, etc. Industrious, ambitious, to what he attained, et 
Washington — The boy, his home life, games, occupatioi 

and interests. The soldier and captain. 
Other Brave Men — Policemen. Firemen. Brave children. 
LoNCiFELLow — The children's poet. 
St. Valentine's Day — Story of the Good Saint. Messengers 

love. Postman. 
Pigeon and Canary — Compare as to home life, habits, uses, etc_ 
Observing Weather — Longer days and shorter nights. WinCim ^^^'^ 

observation of trees, etc. 



March — Beginning of Spring. 
General Theme — Forces of nature, children's interest in the activ 



137 

ties of nature as related to the home. Our dependence upon these. 
Wind, direction. 

Underlying Principle — Unseen power behind all thingfs. Weather 
vane and points of compass. 

Wind — North, east, south and west wind. What each brings. 

Things dependent upon wind ; sail boats, wind mills, kites, etc. 

What the wind does, effect upon nature, etc. 
Water — Things dependent upon water. How utilized by man; 

water wheels, mills, navigation, etc. 
Sun-Heat — Melting of ice and snow. 

Maple Trees — Observe coming cbanges. Sap flowing, sugar. 
Lily Bitlbs — Plant and observe Chinese lily bulbs. 
Pussy Willows — Where grow, use. 



April — Spriistg Avvakexing of Life and Nature. 

General Theme — Children's interest in the activities of nature as 
related to the home. Patience, waitin^e^ for results, continuity of de- 
velopment. Easter. 

Underlying Principle — Right use of opportunities, reverence. 

Easter — Awakening of nature. Lead pupils to see and feel i\\*t 
power of the spring awakening in a few of jts many expres- 
sions. 

Lily Bulbs — 

Budding of the Tree.s — Obscrv'c and compare opening of buds, 
flowering, etc. 

Cocoons — Butterflies, moths. 

Return of the Bird.s — Seeking a place for homes, nests, how and 
where dwell, etc. 

Chickens and Ducks — Food, habits, family life and care for 
young, etc. 

Rain — Spring showers. Observe work of rain. "Spring house 
cleaning." 

Spuing Flowers — Trips to the woods and fields. 

Gardening — At home and at school. 



May — Life in Nature — Growth. 

General Theme — All nature is active. Freedom. Self activity. 
Development. Nature*s expression for our benefit 2itvd ^\^2k.%vvx^. 



138 

Gardening — At home and at school. 

The Farm — Work on the farm as related to all life. The home, 

etc. 
Flowers — Trips to the fields to gather flowers ; where they grow, 

how they grow, color, etc. 
Bees — Ants, fishes and frogs, observed as to development. Where 

found. Activity, industry, etc. 
Memorial Day — 



June — Be.\uty in Nature. 

General Theme — Summer changes in the home, 
cation. Growth and beauty in environment. 

Underlying Principle — Universal relationship, 
flowers, birds and other animals and for each other. 



Preparing for va- 
Love and care ot 



Changes in the Home — 

Clothing — Why needed, what they are. 

Pood — How different in summer from winter. Qassification. 
Changes in Light and Heat — Why more light and heat. How 
these are used. How we protect ourselves from them. 

Preparation for Vacation — 

Flowers, verdure, cloud, sky, rainbow, sunshine. Excursions, 
means of travel, locomotives, boats, trolley cars. 

"Everything is imity ; everything rests upon, strives for and returns 
to unity." — Froebel. 



139 



OCCUPATION WORK. 



"The busy have no time for tears." — Bvron. 

**To play, to build, to construct, are the first tender 
flowers of a child's life." 

Ever\' school exercise should be trulv educative. The function of 
the teacher then is to direct the child's enerji^y and help him to make his 
activity useful. "The destiny, the privilege, the glory of man is to 
work, to do, to create." 

It is through expression that the indefinite mental image takes 
shape and becomes a definite image. The intensity of the desire on the 
part of the child to express depends upon the intensity of the impres- 
sion. 

The school should furnish all possible means for varied expression, 
for the more ways in which a child can express an idea, an image, and 
the wider the range of expression the richer and clearer becomes the 
thought content. • 

''Occupation zvork" is as imperative in its claims as the recitation. 
It is necessary to hand and eye training, to introduce the concrete. — to 
remove difficulties and to strengthen weak places. No period of the 
school, program demands more thoughtful planning and more careful 
preparation than this. 

The material should be so adapted and presented that it will not 
only arouse and strengthen ideas in the child's mind, but will also pro- 
vide conditions for gaining new ideas. It should be so selected as to 
have a definite purpose, and should either supplement a lesson already 
taught, teach a lesson in itself, or aid in the preparation of a ner^ 
lesson. 

All forms of expression and manual work should stimulate the child 
to attain some end which he feels to be good and worthy of his best 
effort. Work under the stimulus of the verv best of motives tends 
to the forming of right habits. 

In the various modes of expression and the manual arts, the cl\\V*V 
gains power through doing which enables \\\\w to cotv^Xx\\^\. "^vi^i \r» 



140 

create ; also to adapt all material which comes to hand for the expres- 
sion of his ideas. 

The child reveals his interest, his experiences and powers through 
the various modes of expression. 

The material or medium of expression depends upon the nature of 
the subject. Such material should be used as will allow the fullest and 
most satisfactory expression. In all forms encourage Large, Free 
Work. 

MODES OF EXPRESSION SUITABLE FOR SCHOOL USE. 

I. Modeling in Sand or Clay. 

Sand modeling may be used for natural land areas. The sand table 
is one of the most useful articles in the class room. Encourage the 
child to create, construct and build for the representation of all stories 
told ; for example, Hiawatha, The Landing of the Pilgrims, Knights of 
the Round Table, Robinson Crusoe, The Three Bears, Ulysses, etc. 
The greatest freedom should be allowed the child in his representation. 
It should tell the story as he sees and feels it. This phase of utilizing 
the things the child has made tends to cultivate power in ora^ language 
expression. The moment a child creates something to represent his 
idea of the story, he is free to talk about it. 

The sand table may be used to represent different occupations and 
the tools or implements used in each : as those of the farmer, carpen- 
ter, blacksmith, shoemaker, etc. 

Describe and represent the work of the seasons and the implements 
used : as the planting of gardens in spring. 

Represent the work of each day in the home, etc., and the things 
needed in each kind of work. 

Represent the means of transportation observed on land and water, 
or imaged from stories and pictures: as boats, bridges, wagons, cara- 
vans, trains of cars, etc. 

Illustrate inventions. 

Illustrate the successive pictures represented in a poem. 

Clay modeling should be used for representing objects requiring 
three dimensions ; or in relief ; for models of huts, houses or parts of 
architectural structures and decorative detail, for utensils, for models 
of animals, for all objects in nature study or history requiring a plastic 
medium for correct rendering. 

II. Weaving, Braiding, Knotting. 
Weaving, braiding and knotting : Raffia, cotton, and coarse wool- 



141 

en varn may be utilized in the construction of mats, miniature rugs, 
doll hats, wall pockets, sewing cases, calendar backs, shopping and 
book bags. 

In the study of primitive people, the child, through this material 
should be led to appreciate the evolution of this form of industry. 

III. Making — Construction. 

Cardboard and paper are good materials for the making of various 
articles suitable for use in the school room — such as boxes, envelopes 
to hokl words, sentences and pictures ; trays and baskets to hold small 
articles such as seed, shoe pegs, etc. 

Also to make articles illustrating the ideas gained from regular 
lessons in history and literature : as, the homes and occupation of primi- 
tive people studied, weapons, utensils, modes of travel and inventions. 

Articles for the use of others, simple but useful gifts, appropriate 
to festival occasions for those at home, or for other children wlio may 
l>e less fortunate. 

IV. Painting — Water Colors — Ink. 

Painting with water colors, ink or colored crayons should be used 
for illustrating those phases of life and nature that possess the color 
elements. 

V. Paper Cutting and Pasting. 

The representation in cutting should always be free hand, cutting 
first from the object and later from imagination. The child may make 
his story better understood by pasting the cuttings in order upon a 
background of some contrasting color. 

VI. Drawing. 

With brush, crayon or pencil illustrate a story that has been told 
or read, also follow carefully the outlines of the Drawing Supervisor, 
making use of them in connection with all other subjects, whenever it 
is possible. 

VII. Pictures. 

Encourage pupils to collect pictures connected with work being 
done; as pictures of people of other countries, their manners and cus 
tonis of living, etc. (Carefully mount and classify them.) 

Note. — In planning the hand-work with the children, take time for 
discussion and explanation, ascertaining that every child knows clearly 



142 

what he is to make, to what use it will be put. and also that he feels 
so sure of materials and plans that he can work freely and indepen- 
dently. 

Criticism, Commendation and Encouragement are tools in hands 
of the teacher to inspire closer study and awaken enthusiasm and desire 
for improvement on the part of the pupils. The pupil should be al- 
lowed to be his oum critic first. 

Improvement must be noticed by the teacher. Growth will be 
shown in pupils' work after a just criticism has given rise to more 
accurate observation. 

In all work the children should be trained to habits of economy in 
the use of materials : neatness and order in care of materials ; honesty 
and accuracy in having the work so well done that it fulfills its intend- 
ed purpose. 

All work done by the child when not under immediate supervision 
should truly tell his power and his needs. 

The child through these various forms of educational activity not 
only gains habits of order, skill and industry, but his powers of obser- 
vation, attention, memory, association, judgment, and accurate reason- 
ing are developed. 

Dr. E. R. Shaw, in *Three Studies in Education,'' discussing the 
"Value of Motor Activities in Education," says : **Seek in every sub- 
ject of study in the lower grades to provide motor activity at least as an 
accompaniment of study and of recitation. If possible, however, in- 
vent means which shall use up the motor tendencies, and at the same 
time make them a contributing part in the more purely thought work 
of the child. In short, let some doing accompany all the child's efforts 
to learn." 

references: 

Clay Modeling for Schools G. S. Haycock. 

Raffia and Reed Weaving E. S. Knapp. 

Story of a Sand Pile G. Stanley Hall. 

How to Make Baskets Mary White. 

Paper and Scissors in Her School Room.. .Miller Bradley Co. 
A Sand Pile (St. Nicholas Mag. Aug. 1886)11. M. Lay. 
Three Studies in Education (Motor Activities) E. R. Shaw. 



143 



VOCAL DRILL 



**Once more, speak clearly, if you speak at all/' 
Carve each word before you let it fall. 

O. W. Holmes. 



To speak or read in pure tone one must breathe deeply, stand erect, 
open the mouth freely, pronounce distinctly and speak clearly. 

Lord Bacon said : "A man would better address himself to a stone 
statue than suffer his thoughts to pass in smother." 

A good voice possesses purity, strength and compass. 

Suggestions. 

The following suggestions are given to aid in developing purity, 
strength and compass of voice on the part of the pupils. Teachers ma\ 
add others to these. 

Pronunciation is the utterance of syllables and words ; it includes 
articulation and accent. 

Articulation is the utterance of elementary sounds contained in a 
syllabic or word ; hence without clear and distinct articulation, there 
can be no correct pronunciation. 

Pupils should have daily practice in repeating elementary sounds, 
also in pronouncing the consonant combinations composed of these 
sounds. 

Articulation. 

Faulty articulation may arise from one or more of the following : 

1. The omission of a sound (histVy for history). 

2. The use of more sounds than necessary ( ca'ow for cow ) . 

3. The substitution of the wrong sound (jest for just). 

Note. — In pronouncing words, also in the reading of sentences, see that chil- 
dren pronounce and articulate every sound distinctly. 



.144 
EXERCISES FOR PURE QUALITY. 

I Grade. 

(i) Practice in rich, musical tones the long vowels a, e, i, 6, oo, a, 
a, etc. 

(2) Sing each long and short vowel to the scale, ascending and 
descending. 

(3) Repeat each voice consonant several times ; first with rising, 
then with falling inflection. 

II Grade. 

(i) Sing the syllabic ah to the scale up and down. 

(2) Practice the vowels e and a together. 

(3) Repeat the syllables nee, ah, nee oh, nee you, slowly then 
more and more rapidly. 

III Grade. 

(i) Sing the syllable sea to the scale, letting the under jaw fall I 
freely. 

(2) Rejxiat the syllables ip, it, ik, slowly, then more and more 
rapidly. 

(3) Practice the following tables, using the mouth vigorously : 

(a) b-p^b-p (b) d-t-d-t (c) g-k-g-k (d) j-ch-j-ch 
b-i>-i>-b d-t-t-d g-k-k-g j-ch-ch-j 

I>-b-i3-b t-d-t-d k-g-k-g ch-j-ch-j 

IV Grade. 

(i) Sing the syllable fa to the scale, letting the under jaw fall 
freely. 

(2) Repeat the scales e, 1, a, ^, a, 00, 00, o, a, 6, with pure musical 
tones. 

(3) Practice the following tables, using the mouth vigorously : 
(a) r-f-r-f (h) z-s-z-s (c) zh-sh-zh-sh (d) tk-th-lr.4li 

r-f-f-r z-s-s-z zh-sh-sh-zh th-ti-ti-th 

f-r-f-r z-s-z-s sh-zh-sh-zh th-t^^-th-t?^. 

Note.— Each grade should review the work of the preceding grade or grades 

SOUND DRILL. 
I Grade. Long and short vowels and consonants. 



I4S 



II Grade. 

III Grade. 

IV Grade. 



All vowel sounds and consonants. 

Work of preceding grades, including much drill in 

initial consonant combinations. 
Work of preceding grades, with much drill in terminal 

consonant combinations. 



TABLE OF ELEMENTARY SOUNDS. 



Vocals. 



a 


as m 


ate 


d 




at 


a 




arm 


a 

• • 




all 


a 




care 


« 

a 




ask 


e 




me 



^ as in met 



her 



1 

o 
6 
o 



ice 
.it 

go 
not 

do 



u as m 


mut 


ft " 


cup 


u " 


full 


ou " 


our 


oi " 


oil 


oo " 


fool 


oo " 


foot 



SUBVOCALS. 



b as in bid 



d 
g 

• 

J 
1 

m 

n 



If 
i< 
<i 
<i 
<< 



did 

lull 

man 

name 



r (trilled) as in roll 
V as in vine 



r (smooth) as in lard 



w 

y 

z 

th 
zh 

ng 



well 

yes 

zone 

this 

ozier 

sing 



Aspirates. 



p as m cap 
t ** take 
k " cake 
ch ** church 



h as in hat 

s ** sun 

sh ** shall 

f " five 
th as in their 



Note — Make lists of words containing each of the above sounds, and have 
nh pronounce the words containing them. 



146 

CONSONANT COMBINATIONS. 



I. Initial Combinations. 



bl as in 


blow 


sk as in 


skill . 


br 




brave 


si 


it 


sleep 


dr 




drag 


sm 


it 


smell 


dw 




dwell 


sn 


it 


snap 


fl 




flour 


sp 


it 


spin 


fr 




fret 


st 


a 


stone 


gl 




gloom 


sw 


it 


swing 


gr 


<( 


grade 


shr 


tt 


shrill 


wh 


it 


which 


skr 


it 


scrub 


(k) cl 




cling 


spl 


it 


splint 


(k)cr 


(( 


crown 


spr 


it 


spruce 


Pl 




plum 


str 


tt 


strong 


pr 


It 


pray 

thw as 


thr 
in thwart 


tt 


three 






II. Terminal 


. Combinations. 


ed as in robbed 


ffs as in 


i cliffs 


dth 


it 


width 


ks 


tt 


rocks 


dths 


It 


breadths 


ts 


tt 


bats 


bs 


tt 


snobs 


sk 


tt 


mask 


ds 


tt 


beds 


sps 


tt 


clasps 


Ich 


tt 


filch 


St 


tt 


mist 


Igc 


tt 


bulged 


fth 


it 


fifth 


dRe 


tt 


budge 


pth 


tt 


depth 


Id 


tt 


fold 


sts 


tt 


fists 


kls 


tt 


holds 


ched 


it 


filched 


dgcd " 


budged 


Iged 


tt 


bulged 



Note.— Make list of words containing each of the above consonant coml 
tion sounds and have pupils pronounce them. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 





I Grade. 




pat-a-cake 


rock-a-by 


north 


baker's 


baby 


wind 


man 


cradle 


blow 


cake 


green 


snow 


just 


father's 


robin 





147 






I Grade — Continued. 




fast 


nobleman 


poor 


roll 


mother's 


thing 


mark 


queen 


sit 


brown 


Betty's 


barn 




lady 


keep 




cock 


wears 


warm 


doth 


gold 


hide 


crow 


ring 


head 


let 


Johnny's 


wmg 


know 


drummer 


thing 


you 


drums 




wise 


king 




time 






rise 


Shoe the colt 

Shoe the colt ; 
Shoe the wild mare; 

Here a nail. 

There a nail. 
Yet she goes bare. 





I had a little pony. 

His name was Dapple-gray, 

I lent him to a ladv, 

To ride a mile awav ; 



She whipped him, she slashed him. 
She rode him through the mire ; 
I would not lend my pony now 
For all the ladv's hire. 



Some little mice sat in a barn to spin ; 

Pussy came by and popped his head in : 
"Shall I come in and cut vour threads off?" 
"Oh, no ! kind sir, you will snap our heads off." 



II Grade. 



If I'd as much money as I could spend, 
I never would cry: "Old chairs to mend!" 
"Old chairs to mend ! Old chairs to mend !'* 
I never would cry: "Old chairs to mend!' 



148 

If Vd as much monev as I could tell, 
I never would crv: **Old clothes to sell!** 
*X:)ld clothes to sell!" "Old clothes to sell!*' 
1 never would crv : **01d clothes to sell !*' 

Hear the sledges and the bells, 

Silver bells! 
How they tinkle, tinkle, tinkle. 
In the icy air of night! 
Oh ! the bells, bells, bells, bells ! 

Do well, do well, do well, do well! 
In mellow tones rang out a bell. 

Over the hills the farm boy goes, 
Cheerily calHng: "Co, boss; co, boss;" 
Farther, farther over the hill. 
Faintly calling; calling still, 
"Co, boss ; CO, boss ; co, co, co/* 

III Grade. 

Robert of Lincoln is gaily dressed, 
Wearing a bright, black wedding coat ; 
White are his shoulders and white his crest ; 
Hear him call in his merry note: 
"Bob-o-link! Bob-o-link! 

Spink, spank, spink!'* 
Look, what a nice new coat is mine ; 
Sure there was never a bird so fine. 

Chee, chee, chee. 

Hushed tlie people's swelling murmur, 
While the boy cries joyously: 

Ring! ring! Grandpa, 

Ring! O, ring for liberty — 

Like a child at play. 

Comes tripping along her joyous way, 

Tripping along, 
With mirth and song. 
Laughing, loving May. 



14$ 
IV Grade. 

Amidst the mists and coldest frosts. 
With barest wrists and stoutest boasts,. 
He thrusts his fists against the posts 
And still insists he sees the ghosts. 

And round and round the rugged rocks, rude, ragged rascals ran. 

The brightest stars are burning suns; 
The deepest water stillest runs; 
The laden bee the lowest flies; 
The richest mine the deepest lies ; 
The stalk that's most replenished 
Doth bow the most its modest head. 

It is not what we earn, but what we save, that makes us rich. It 
is not what we eat, but what we digest, that makes us strong. It is not 
what we read, but what we remember, that makes us useful. 

The following poems are especially strong for articulative exer- 
cises. Selections mav be made from them : 

The Cataract of Lodore. — Robert Southey. 

The Old Year and the New. — Tennyson. 

The Brook. — Tennvson. 

The (J)ld Clock. — Longfellow. 

The Ballad of East and West (opening stanzas). — Kipling. 

Sense TRAiNfNG. 

Hearing. 

1. Blindfold a child, another child raps a wooden ball; tell where 
it is from sound. 

2. lUindfold a child ; teacher taps different substances such as 
wood, iron, marble, glass, steel, etc. Children distinguish objects from 
the sound. 



1$0 

3. Children close eyes ; some child speaks or sings or calls another 
child by name; children recognize child by voice. 

4. Listening for musical tones and sounds of different objects in 
different parts of the room. 

5. All children cover eyes ; one child goes to a different part of 
the room and says, "Where am I ?" The one who can tell raises his 
hand. 

6. Have blindfolded child tell whether another child is running;, 
skipping or walking, or whether it is a boy or a girl that is doing it. 

7. Children rest. Teacher or child walks about room, stopping: at 
one or two places. Children wake up and tell where she has walked 
and how many times and where she stopped. 

8. Child leaves room. Small hoop of bells concealed under ONE 
desk. EACH pupil shakes an imaginary hoop of bells. Locate sound 
bv ear alone. 

9. Hide an object while child is out of room. He finds it by not- 
ing soft or loud singing of pupils when he is near or distant from 
object. 

10. Eyes closed. Drop articles in different parts of room. Chil- 
dren locate sounds, distinguishing heavy, light, etc. 

Sight. 

1 . Place a row of children in front of room. Give each an object 
which is to be described. 

2. Child stand before class and describe another pupil, c. s-- ^ 
am thinking of someone who has light hair, blue eyes, wears a blue 
hair ribbon and a white apron, etc., etc. Who is it? 

3. Finding colors. Pin squares of standard colors where they can 
be seen. Select a color. Tell children to find things in the room tin: 
same color. 

4. Place objects on a tray or table. Children are to pass by quick' 
ly. Tell what was on it. 

3. Arrange pupils in a row. Class observe. Close eyes. R«?- 
arrange. Who can arrange in original order? 

6. Place a number of children in a row in front of room. Give 
each an object (flag. book, flower, doll, colored duster, picture, fniit, 
type-form, etc.) Class observe. Close eyes. Child holding object asks 
another (who is seated, keeping eyes closed) what he has. Pupil 
answers. Continue with the other children. 

7. Write new word on blackboard. Erase. Child write it. 

8. Raise object in sight view. Drop out of sight rapidly. Pupil-* 
give objects in order in which they were presented. 



9. Pupil No. 1 touches an object. Pupil No. 2 touches that one 
and one more. Pupil No. 3 touches those two and one more anil 
so on. 

10. One child comes forward, then another and another quickly. 
Children at seats tell who was on the right, the left, in the middle. 
Have one, two or three groups of three children in each group, who 
stood at the right, the left, etc. 

11. Scatter spelling words of the week all over the blackboard. 
Choose sides ; one from each side comes forward ; a word is then pro- 
nounced. The one who runs and points out the word first counts oul* 
for his side. Repeat and keep tally. 

12. Place colored cards on ledge of blackboard, children name the 
order of colors, children close eyes, teacher removes a card or changes 
its position, children name the changes made. 

13. Place children in a circle. Blindfold a child. A child leaves 
the circle ; the one who was blindfolded names the child who has left 
the circle. 

14. Send children to window, and observe quickly, then return to 
tell how many things they saw. 

15. Have children tell all the things that they saw outside the 
grocery store. Different things they saw on their way to school. 
Things seen in the shop window as they pass. 

16. Blindfold children in turn. Hang a ball somewhere in the 
room ; have them observe quickly. All children blind ; hide ball ; all 
search ; when child sees ball he takes his place in circle on the floor 
without touching ball or telHng playmates. 

17. One pupil comes forward and stands in front of the class with 
his face toward the school. Another writes word on board above hi-' 
head resting on hands, while voyage is taken. 

dren's description of it. Have one child leave the room, c. ^. change 
position of several objects in room. 

18. Have one child leave the room, teacher do something, e. ,^. 
change position of several objects in room ; child describes what has 
been done. The children in room supply what has been omitted. 

19. Write short sentence on board. Have it read, erased, and sev- 
eral children come to board to see who can get it written first. 

20. Give children pictures to observe, then turn them over, and tell 
the story of the picture or what they saw in it. 

Smell. 

1. Have a small bunch of sage or mint and spices of diffcreiu 
kinds. Have children tell, blindfolded, \v\ial eac\\ \s. 



1S2 

2. Blindfold children. Let each one name from odor: 

Flowers ; Easter-lily, carnation, hyacinth, violet, etc. 
Fruits ; Apple, quince, peach, orange, lemon, banana, etc. 
Liquids; Perfumes, camphor, etc. 

Tasting. 

L Blindfold child; distinguish by tasting; salt, pepper, mustard 
cloves, sugar, tea, coffee, flour, ginger. Also liquids, as lemon juice. 
orange juice, milk, water, syrup, catsup, vinegar. Also fruits, as 
apples, oranges, bananas, berries. Candies, molasses, peppermint, 
etc., etc. 

Touch. 

One child blindfolded. Teacher motions to someone to come aii'I 
stand in front of blinded child. He then tells by feeling of clothes, face 
and hair who stands in front of him. 

2. Have children put hands behind their backs. Teacher put ob- 
jects in hands. Child tells what he is holding and describes it. 

3. Let blindfolded child distinguish objects. Soft or hard, wet or 
dry, warm or cold, large or small, silk or cotton, woolen or cotton. 
Different kinds of paper, etc. 

8. Draw oblong in which twenty-six circles are drawn, and in each 

4. Handling solids. Cover eyes. Have pupil handle solid. Take 
it away. Pupil find solid like the one he has had. Give him another 
solid. Tell which of the two was the heavier, larger, longer, etc. 

5. Pupil No. 1 touches an object. Pupil No. 2 touches that ont 
and one more. No. 3 touches those two and one more and so on. 

6. Shut eyes. Children walk around room. Find their own seats. 

7. Shut eyes. Children feel of objects and tell form and sub- 
stance. Distinguish marbles from agates; different books, as reader 
and arithmetic. 

8. Draw oblong in which twenty-six circles are drawn and in each 
circle a letter of the alphabet is printed. Child spell by touching circles 
rapidly that hold required letters. 

9. Touch water, sand, beans, etc., and have blind-folded child dis- 
tinguish. 

Muscular Sense. 

L Write letter of the alphabet on cards; pass to children, call dit- 
ferent letters forming a word. The child holding the letters nins to 
the front of the room and stands beside the letter previously called. 
Have the word shown, pronounced and spelled. 

2. Grab Bag. Have a box of separate words. Place the box on 



1^3 

a chair in front of the room. Have one child close eyes and take out 
a word. Show it to the class, then give the word, or the child may call 
on someone to give the word. 

3. Living pictures. Use one child or group of children. Let them 
act some experience in work or play. Other children describe what 
it is that is represented. 

Result — Getting thought without giving words. 

4. Shut-eye Voyages. Children lean forward, eyes closed. fore- 
Example — 'Tm black, but Fm no negro. I keep you warm but 

I'm no clothing. 1 have thousands of men working for me, but I'm no 
king. I run railways and factories. I've great wealth yet I own noth- 
ing. My home was once a wonderful forest, when no man was on the 
earth ; therefore I am older than Adam, and I shall never die ; yet if I 
should meet a certain enemy of mine I would soon change my form 
and disappear, yet I'm no fairy. I shine like the sun and am harder 
than stone. Fve been buried for thousands of years and men are dig- 
g'lng me out for many, many uses. I smoke when hot yet have no 
mouth. What am I ?" 
You are coal. 

5. Follow the leader (game). 

6. Multiplication game. 

7. Have two children hold window stick a foot from the floor. 
Others form in line, and in turn run and jump over it. 

Ada Van Stone Harris. 

Supervisor Primary and Kindergarten Schools. 



iS4 



SUGGESTIVE OUTUNE FOR THE STUDY OF THE GREEKS. 

CLEON, THE BOY OF ATHENS. 

Second Grade. 

I. Appearance — Description of Cleon's personal appearance 
found in **Ten Boys." Tell especially of the Greeks' love for personal 
beauty and perfection of form, and of their fondness for all physical 
exercises and sports. 

II. Clothing — The chiton (ke'ton) chlamys, sandals, ornaments, 
armor, etc., should be studied with reference to the material used, the 
manner of wearing^, and purpose, and as compared with the clothing 
worn now. 

III. Home: — 

1. Bmironment : — Description of the country. 

2. The House: — (a) Structure. Sohdity. Beauty. ProvisioiiN 

for cleanliness, eating, rest, reading or writing. The num- 
ber and arrangement of rooms. The tiling and wall-paint- 
ing of the interior. The sacred hearth. 

(b) Funtishings and Utensils: — Statues, beds, couches, dining 
tables, benches, chairs, lamps, vases, dishes, portable 
stoves. 

(r) Food: — Kinds used; how procured; how prepared; how 
served. The relations of food to health. 

3. Family Life : — Customs and manners. Relation of parents 

and children. Duties of each. Slaves. Customs in eating. 
sleeping, bathing, hospitality and religion. 

IV. School — Pedagogue, place, studies, utensils (tablet, stylus). 

time spent in school ; purpose of the school. 

Note — For a Greek ideal of school, read about the school taught 
by Chiron in Baldiwn's "Heroes of the Olden 
1 ime. 

v. Social Life — Children's games: Skipping shells, leap frog, 
rolling the hoop, running races, playing ball. Olympian games: En- 
tertainments in the amphitheater, the market, the baths, feasts. 

(Ideal of friendship is embodied in the story of Damon and 
Pythias and of Hyacinthus.) 

VI. The State — Greek ideals of Citizenship. These ideals may be 
found in the stories of Leonidas, Pericles. Socrates and Demosthenes. 

VII. Lndustrial Life — Agriculture, sheep-raising, spinning, weav- 



155 

ip:, coloring^, quarrying, metal working (armor), building, making 
ha riots, pottery, sculpture, painting. 

V'lII. The Church — Rerigious processions and ceremonies in the 
Miiple. The parthenon. The oracles. Worship of nature, nymphs, 
ryads. gods and goddesses, worship at home. 

REFERENCE BOOKS. 

"Ten Boys." — Jane Andrew's, 

"Old Greek Stories." — Baldunn. 

"Stories of the Golden Age." — Baldwin, 

"Stepping Stones to Literature." Book I\'., p. 236-312. 

"The Story of the Greeks." — Gucrher. 

"Stories from Homer." — A, J. Church, 

"Greek Life and Storv." — A. /. Church, 

"Three Greek Children." — A, J, Church, 

"Home Life of the Ancient Greeks." — A. BlumrelL 

THE ROMAN— HORATI US. 

Similar topics should be worked up for the study of Roman and 
■>axon life. Helpful books for the Roman : 
"Ten Boys." — /. Andreivs, . 
"The Story of the Romans." — Guerber. 
"Private Life of the Romans." — Preston and Dodi^e. 
"Stories from X'irgil." — A. J. Church, 
"Stepping Stones to Literature." Book VL. p. 188-208. 



156 



CUFF DWELLERS. 

Second Grade. 

I. Kind of People ; describe characteristics — personal appearance. 

II. Where they hved ; describe region in Arizona and New Mexico, 
its rocks, sand, dryness, barrenness except along the rivers, etc. 

III. Their Homes. Kinds (Lowland Village, Cave Dwelling, Cliff 
Houses). Where and how each was built, materials used, difficulties 
in getting material, furniture of the house. (Have pupils work out for 
themselves what the material would be from the character of the coun- 
try. Tools used). 

IV'. Their Government. 

Clan or Communistic Life. 

V. Food. 
What. 

How obtained. 
Implements used. 

VI. Clothing. 
What. 

How obtained. 
Weaving and making of loom making clothing. 

VII. Occupations. 
Farming. 

Making of Pottery. 
Weaving. 
r>asket Work. 

VIII. Religion. 

References : 

Lolani— The Little Cliff Dweller. 

Webster. Among the Cliff Dwellers. Am. Naturalist. 27:435. 

Schwatka. In the Land of the Cave and Cliff Dwellers. 

Cliff Dwellings of Mexico. Spectator, 64:588. 

Cliff Dwellings of Arizona. Science, 11:257. 

Skertchly. Cliff Dwellers of the Far West. 

Hardacre. Cliff Dwellers. Scribner, 17:266. 

Mason. Cliff Dwellers. Sandal. Pop. Sci., 50:676-9. 



157 
THANKSGIVING. 

Two or three days at most is a sufficient amount of time to devote 
to the topic of Thanksgiving. 

In order to avoid the unnecessary repetition of work which so often 
occurs, the following topics are suggestive for the treatment of the 
subject in the primary grades: 

Thanksgiving Outline. 

Underlying Principle. Relation of family to civil society. Inter- 
dependence of nature and man. Thankfulness. 

I Grade. 

Industries of farm life in connection with the harvesting of food. 

( Carry only so far as experiences of children in visiting farms will 
warrant. ) 

Recall what the children remember of Thanksgiving Day. Why 
celebrated. 

Story of the Pilgrim Fathers told very simply. 

The First Thanksgiving. Things for which to be thankful. 

Thanksgiving Celebration. 

Indian life — Hiawatha's childhood or Docas, The Indian Bov. 

II Grade. 

Recall what the children know of Thanksgiving Day. 
Why celebrated? 

Tell the story of the Pilgrim Fathers. 
W'hv thev left home. 
The kind of homes left. 
The voyage. 

What they brought with them — how the ship was stored for the 
journey. 

How thev dressed. 

Oceanus and Peregrine White. 

The landing — season — Plymouth Rock. 

First Thanksgiving — ( story ) . 

III Grade. 

Recall what the children know of Thanksgiving Day. Why cele- 
brated ; tell the story of the Pilgrim T^athers. The voyage ; the landing 
and all facts connected therewith. 



IS8 

Plymouth — The community. 
Making of homes. 
Kinds of homes needed. 
Material to be found. 
Tools brought with them. 

Hardships in building (compare with wigwams.) 
Hardships of the first winter. 

The meeting with Samosit and Squanto in the Spring. 
The summer work and the first harvest. 
The first Thanksgiving. 

IV Grade. 

History stories. 
Selections from Literature. 

The following stories and poems may be read or told to the chil 
dren in whole or in part, according to the needs : 
The First Thanksgiving — Wiggins. 

First Thanksgiving. )^ . Preston 

Price of a Little Pilgrim, f ^- J • ^ "^^^ton. 

Thanksgiving. ^ 

Mrs. Lucinda's Opinion. J 

The Pumpkin. I J. G. Whittier. 

ror an Autumn Festival. ) ^ 

The Landing of the Pilgrims. — Hcmans. 

Pictures should be used at every step. Models of the peop/c 

houses and ships. Make the stories real. 



»59 



«« 



STORIES OF THE CHRISTMASTIDE." 



**Not what we give, but what we share." 
**The gift without the giver is bare." 

The celebration of festivals tends to strengthen the social element 
in life. 

Following the Thanksgiving festival our thoughts turn to Christ- 
mas and to finding our places in the great multitude of joy-givers. 

We should aim to make the mysterious elements of Christmas i 
living reality. It is the beautiful in literature which should be empha- 
sized in order to develop the highest spiritual thought. 

Santa Claus is a name for everyone who is either giving or doing 
for others. Each can be a Santa Claus. Help the children to feel that 
the spirit of loving kindness is the real Santa Claus. **When the sun 
rises the stars fade; they are neither taken away or extinguished. In 
the presence of a brighter light they fade out of sight. So let it be 
with the Santa Claus idea. Let not the fond illusion pass away until 
the child has in its place a higher, a truer thought, for which the old 
shall have served as a svmbol." 

The following is a suggestive outline for avoiding repetition, and 
for unifying the work of the grades : 

Kindergarten and First Grade. 

Santa Claus: 

When he comes. 

How he comes. 

His home. .... 

His work. 

His reindeer and sleigh. 

His journeys. 

How he leaves happiness wherever he goes. 

How we get ready for him. 

Poems : 

A Visit from St. Nicholas. — Whitiiers Child Life, 
Santa Claus and the Mouse. — Child World. 
The Christmas Cat. — F. D, Sherman, 



i6o 

Stories : 

The Story of the Christ Child — A. H, Proudfoot 

A Bird's Christmas — Child World, 

Legend of St. Christopher — 5*. IViltse. 

The Story of Gretchem — Mother Stories. 

Dorothy's Christmas Eve — Half Hundred Stories, 

Elon — A Story of the First Xmas — Half Hundred Stories, 

The Fir Tree — Hans Andersen, 

Second Gr^\de. 

Other people with homes and Christmas and toys and games iin- 

unlike ours. 
Xorwav and Sweden : 

Mountains of snow and fir forests. 

Length of day. 

Home: Dress of people. 

Preparations for Christmas — tree, decorations, making of presents, 

cooking. 
Length of holidays. 

Feasts and dances. 

Feeding cattle and birds. 

Christmas offering of cakes. 

Xissen : Throwing of gifts. 

Church services. 
Holland : 

Dikes, canals, homes, dress of people, etc. 
Preparation for Christmas ; Date of. 
Kris Kringle. 

His appearance. 

His mode of travel. 

What the children do in return for Kris Kringle. 

Poems: 

Piccola — Celia Thaxter. 
Children's song — Sec Hans Brinker. 
Kris Kringle — T. D, A Id rich. 
P>irds Christmas — Celia Thaxter, 

Stories: 

The Story of the First Christmas — The Story Hour. 
Christmas Cuckoo (in The Wonderful Chair) — F. Browne. 
Christmas in the Barn — Child World. 
A Christmas at Cafe Spaander — Scribners, Dec. 1902, 



i6i 

The Discontented Pine Tree — flans Andersen, 
A Story of the Forest — 1\. D. IVi^i^gins. 

Third Grade. 

-manv : 

Home: Dress of people. 

Preparations for Christmas : : 

City festooned with evergreens. 

Working for the poor. 

Christ market. 
Customs at Christmas: 

X'isit of St. Nicholas. 

Good and bad children. 

Nut throw. 
The Christ Child brings the gifts. 
Christmas tree. 

Song about the tree (Holy Night). 

Story of Christ Child. 

A gift from everyone to everyone. 
issia : 

Home : Dress of people. 
Preparation for Christmas. 
Day of celebration (January 6). 
Mother Goose — "Baboushka.'' 
Christmas eve : 

Processions in costume — dance and song at sunset. 

Evening star feast. 
Christmas tree decorated with lights, etc. 
(jifts near bv. 
Length of festival (two or three days). 

"A hai)py feast to you." 

Dinner a special feature. 

Poor always fed. 
ily : 
Climate ; city streets ; homes ; beggars and street musicians ,' out- 
door bazaars. 
Christmas patron — Mother Goose — "Befana." 
Date of Christmas. January 6, because wise men gave gifts to the 

Christ Child at that time. 
Preparations for Christmas: 

Cireat Christmas log in fire-place. 

Children learn songs and poems. 



l62 

Christmas eve : 

Repeating of poetry, singing of songs. 

Large vase containing gifts. 
The urn of Italy is the Christmas tree of America. 
Christmas feast — special feature. 

Poems: 

December — F. D. Sherman, 

The Little Christmas Tree — 5". Coolidgc. 

Kris Kringle — F. D, Sherman. 

Stories : 

The Christmas Chimes — Alden. 

Christmas, or the Golden Fairv — H. B. Stowe. 

The Shoemaker and the Elves. 

The Carollers — A. H. Proiidfoot, 

A Christmas Festival Service — N. A, Smith. 

* 
Fourth Grade. 

Christmas symbols : 
The Solstice. 
The date of the Nativity. 
The Yule Log. 

Curious Christmas customs of all lands. 
Christmas trees. 
The hollv and mistletoe. 
Christmas carols. 
Santa Claus : 
Ref. Christmas and Its Traditions (Kgtn. Mag., Dec, 1900). 
Christmas in the IJritish Isles. 
Popular customs. 
The Yule-tide. 
Christmas eve. 
Waits. 

Ringing of church bells. 
Christmas da}' : 

Origin and puq)osc of the decorations. 
Pastimes. 
Christmas fare. 
Gift giving. 
Government control of Christmas celebration. 
From 878 to the present in Fngland. 
American customs as derived from the English. 



i63 

Poems: 

Legend of St. Christopher — 5*. 5. to Lit, Book IV. 

Old Christmas — Mary Hozvett, 

Little Town of Bethlehem — Phillips Brooks, 

A Christmas Carol — A, A, Proctor, 

Stories: 

Old Father Christmas — /. H, Ewing. 

Dickens' Christmas Carol. 

The Ruggles' Christmas Dinner. — K, D, Wiggins, 

Bible Stories: ' 

The Story of David. 

The Wise Men. 

The Shepherds Watching Their Flocks. 

The Child of Bethlehem. 
References : 

The Christmas Bibliography. 

Kindergarten Magazine, December, 1900. 

Youth's Companion, September 5, 1895 (Christmas in Italy). 

How Uncle Sam Keeps Christmas — St. Nicholas, December, 
1902. 

Harper's Magazine, vol. 56-1878 (Christmas in Venice). 

CHRISTMAS GAMES. 

An Imaginary Christmas Tree. 

Christmas morning the children waken early, and after much 
stretching, arc able to rise and enjoy the presents on their beautiful 
Christmas tree. One by one they take off the presents, and, after dis- 
covering its mechanism, imitate it. 

SUCiGESTIVE PRESENTS. 

A jointed doll. Jack-in-the-box. Jumping jack. 

Musical instruments. Toy bear. Doll, with head that turns. 

The Christmas Bag. 

Make a large bag of thin paper ; fill it with nuts and candies and tic 
securely around the top to keep it fast, and suspend it from ceiling or 
door frame. Children form a circle. One child in the center is blind- 
folded and given a long, light stick with which he tries to tear a hole 
in the bag. If he succeeds, the nuts arc scattered over the floor and 
the children scramble for them. 



164 

" 'Tvvas here they chased the slipper by its sound. 
And turned the bhnd-fold hero round and round." 
I Mind man's buff. 
Hunt the shpper. 

SONGS. 

Christmas Carols for Kinderf^arten, First and Second Grades. 

Christmas Ilynms (Songs for Little Children) — Eleanor Smith. 
Christmas Carol ((JJaynor's Songs of the Child World). 
Christmas Lullaby (I^atty Hill's Songs for Little Children). 
Little Tai)er (Elizabeth Emerson's Songs for Children). 
Away in a Manger — Luther. 
Carol of the Flowers (Twelve Old Carols, published by Novello. 

Ewer & Co.) 
Christmas Eve (l)ook L Modern Series, p. 28). 
Christmas at the Doors (Smith's Songs for Little Children). 
The Bells (Louise F. Warner's **A Dozen and Two Songs"). 
Santa Claus (Silver Song Series Xo. 4) — Leonard B, Marshall. 
A Letter to Santa Claus (Gaynor's Songs of the Child World). 
Merry Christmas (Ciaynor's Songs of the Child W^orld). 
The Christmas Tree (Primer, j). 106). 
Father Christmas (Primer, p. 57). 



Third and Fourth Grades. 

Holy Xight — German. 

Xazareth (Academy Song F)Ook) — Gounod. 
Christmas Gloria — Old I^'rench Carol (Silver Song Series Xo. 4). 
We Three Kings of Orient Ave. (Silver Song Series No. 3). 
l-'athcr Christmas (Primer, p. 57). 
Christmas Time (Primer, p. 104). 
Christmas l>ells ( Xovello. Ewer & Co.). 

Merry Christmas ( 1^'anny Snow Knowlton's Xature Songs for 
Children). 



i6s 



GEOGRAPHY FOR THE FIRST FIVE GRADES. 

Tlie work of each gfrade should be preceded hy a careful review of 
the work of the previous grade or grades. 

(leograi)hy is not otily a description of the earth's surface, but a 
treatment of the people who inhabit it, and their life as related to cli- 
niate and physical environment. 

The lessons in Xature Study in the first and second grades form 
a basis for work in Geography in giving concepts which the pupils will 
Use more or less in all geographical study. 



WEATHER OBSERVATIONS. 

Make a copy of month's record for future use when it is kept on 
the blackboard. ( It is an economy of time to keep record on a large 
sheet of cardboard). At the close of each month the teacher should 
aid the child in stating general conditions of the month. For example : 

September — I>right sun. rather high : warm days ; days and nights 
nearly equal ; green leaves ; fruits ripening : birds still heard ; crickets 
chirp : thistle, sunflower, aster and goldenrod in bloom. 

At close of each season record general conditions of heat and 
moisture, lengthening or shortening of days and prevailing winds. 
Aim to establish clearly : 

In winter — coldest, shortest days ; low sun, very slanting rays, long 
shadows. 

In summer — warmest, longest days; high vSun. rays nearly vertical, 
shadows short. 

In spring and autumn — mild days and nights, nearly equal in 
length ; sun's arch between highest and lowest ; rays not so slanting as 
in winter; shadows not so long. (Length of shadow taken at noon on 
the same day of week if possible.) A post in the yard may be taken 
to measure shadow. Notice the change in the place where sunlight 
falls in the room each week during the year. 

Thermometer record — same hour each day. 

Moon phases — when seen and where ; sunrise and sunset ; evenin;j^ 
star. 

Sun — form, apparent size and color, rising and setting, apparent 
change of place in different seasons. 



i66 

Sunrise — dawn; noon; sunset; twilight; night. (See picture anl 
story of Aurora in "Brooks and Brook Basins/* page 2). 

Stars — many: some twinkle; others shine steadily; some brig^hter 
than others; evening star, north star 4nd dipper. Myths and poems 
given. 

Wind — direction, how named ; which are warm winds ; w^hich cold; 
which bring storms. Uses. 

Weather-vane and weather signals should be made and used for 
weather studv. 

FORMS OF WATER. 

Rain — drops, varying in size, form clouds ; showers ; storms, which 
season has most rain ; measure rainfall ; use to man, plants and ani- 
mals ; power to cleanse ; to float objects, to carry soil and to dissolve. 

Snow — flakes, etc., as above. 

Hail — ice, balls of diff'erent sizes and shapes ; falls from clouds. 

Dew — drops, collect on objects ; when formed ; when seen ; heavy 
or light. 

Frost — crystals; form on objects; when seen; heavy or light. 

Clouds — mass of water in tiny drops ; colors ; forms ; moved by the 
wind ; seen all the year. 

Fogs — clouds near the ground ; dampen objects ; seen occasionally. 

Mist- 
Ice — crystal ; how formed ; when made ; cff'ect on object holding it; 
light or heavy ; season. 

Note. — Many beautiful poems may be connected with this study 

POINTS OF COMPASS. 

Cardinal and semi-cardinal points taught out of doors from the sun. 

Teach relative positions. 

1 low to find directions at sunrise ; sunset ; noon. 

Mark lines in yard showing chief directions. 

1. Locate pupils with reference — 

a. To different parts of the room. 

b. To other pupils. 

c. To objects in the room. 

2. Locate room with reference — 

a. To other rooms on the floor. 

b. To other parts of building. 



167 

3. Locate building^s with reference — 

a. To parts of yard. 

b. To child's home. 

c. To objects of interest near by. 

d. To part of city. 

Locate adjoining streets and state directions in which they extend. 

MAPS. 

a. Of school room. 

b. Of school house. 

c. Of yard, square, district. 

d. Of dty. 

Note. — While drawing maps, children should face the north when possible. 

Measure sides of room ; compare lengths. 

Draw line representing north side of room and mark it, follow with 
the east, then south, then west. 

Revikw These Points. — While facing north, hold a child's paper 
against the blackboard on north side of room and draw similar plan on 
board. Drill, and have children continue to draw plans until it is clear 
that north is at the top of the map. south at the bottom, etc. (Thus 
develop map idea). 

FIELD LESSONS. 

Children should be led to see the wonderful beauty around them, 
to acquire facts and form habits of personal investigation. 

The field lesson may be for one or all of three purposes : For plant 
study, for animal study, or for land study. (Always collect specimens 
when possible). 

Collect different kinds of soil. Sand, pebbles ; clay or loam are 
near the surface and easily collected. 

Observe characteristics of each. 

Arrangement of soil can be observed by a brook, if banks have been 
worn to any depth. 

Anv excavation into the natural soil, as a sewer or a cellar, is a 
good place for observation. Drawings can be made and samples col- 
lected and marked as to layers. Find kinds of soil near a spring as 
water leaves hillside. 

Observe how often the gutters fill with debris. 

Observe work of small rills wearing away the soil, carrying fine 
material to low places near the mouth. 



i68 

Observe a brook after a rain and watch a stream with its load worn 
from the banks. Lead children to see where this load is deix)sitei. 
(Small rills everywhere doing the same work). 

In the study of streams, a suitable rill mav often be found near tht? 
school. Trace its course from source to mouth if possible. Observe 
windings ; where it flows most rapidly, most slowly — why ? Direction 
it flow's. Red ; bank. 

Examine the valley — the slopes down which the water rims to fonn 
a stream. Draw the course of the stream — the profile of the vaHcv. 

What becomes of water after a rain ? 

Lead children to see that after a rain, some of the water evaporates: 
much sinks into the ground, and part flows off in streams ; from rills 
to gutters, gutters to sewers, sewers to rivers, rivers to lake. 

Trace course of surface drainage in your district — then in the city 
Why does it flow in certain directions? 

Note the kinds of soil which take up most water ; if one kind takes 
it more slowly than another, etc. 

Note how frost and worms prepare soil for water to enter. (See 
Sea Side and Way Side, Part II). The depth water sinks: what 
stops it? 

Hill — Summit ; base ; slopes, long, gradual, short, abrupt. Find 
ranges of hills, groui)s, peaks. 

Read good descriptions ; show pictures. 

Valley — Among hills : shape : slopes forming the valleys ; leiij^th 
and steepness ; where meet ; compare dei)th of valley with height ol 
hills. 

Plain — length and breadth. 
References : 

Frye's Brook and Brook Basins. 

Shaler's F*irst Book in Geology. 

Dana's Geological Story P>riefly Told. 

Clapp's Observation Lessons on Common Minerals and Rocks. 

Hyatt's About Pebbles. 

Darwin's The I^arth Worm. 

HOME LIFE. 

Homes — materials needed (for building and furnishing). 

Lumber — Transportation. l^>om lumber-yard (distributing cen 
ter). 

From saw-mill (transformation of lumber). 

From forest (Lumbering. Appearance of forest, life and work 
of lumbermen). 



i6g 

Work of each static shown by itse of pictures, if excursion is im- 
possible. 

XoTE. — Tlie same plan for other materials used in construct: on. etc.. as 
stone. I rick, lime and the like. Comparisons should he made throughout with 
primitive lite; also with the construction of homes of the cMldren of other 
lands. 

Xccds of daily life, 
a. I'ood. 

r»read: Transportation from bakery; from wholesale 
house, from mill. (Work of the mill and work of the 
farm considered briefly). Xeed of each shown. 
Milk: Transportation, milk depot, milk farm. 
lUitter: Transportation, store, wholesale house, creamery, 

dairy farm. 
X'e^etables. 

c. Fuel. 

Wood : Wood-yards, forest. 
Coal : Coal-yards, mines. 

Note. — Same plan should lie followed for each topic; and former methods 
uf manufacture should he compared with methods of to-day. 

d. Occupations of different members of the family and their 

relation to each other. 

XoTE. — .\11 stories of children of other lands are contributions to the study 
of Geography. Children may get a fair knowledge of people, their relations and 
their homes (different zones) in the study of the "Seven Little Sisters." "I-lach 
aii<l All," and "Big People and Little People of Other Lands." 

Mach section with its race of people should he studied from the same plan 
in the mind of the teacher, (iiven to the children in the most picturescjue story 
form followed by much oral and written work. 

The thoughts, concepts, of the children must he realized in actual things; 
things made and done. The clay and sand tables are fruitful means. Construct 
roads, bridges, houses, tents, boats, etc. 

Children should know locality, plant life, animal life. home, food and occu- 
pation, with reference to themselves; compare and contrast with others. 

CITY— ROCHESTER. 

I. History. 

Ciive a picture of the early life of the community — the homes, man- 
ner of living, industries and resources of the peoi)le. the field, the for- 
est, the sea, dress, education, relij^^ion, government and social life. 

Show that animals, plants and minerals are in general useful to 
man, and that to obtain them man must work. Certain occupations 
require numbers of people to be gathered together and work in large 



170 

companies; thus towns and cities are formed. Discover the occupa- 
tions that led to the city's growth ; show the growth to present popula- 
tion as due to resources, etc. 

II. LOCATIOX. 

1. Position in reference to neighboring towns and cities (this 

point incUides distance and direction). 

2. Position in regard to river lake and bay, 

3. Extent, boundaries, size. 

4. Make a map or plan or original city when possible, and de- 

velop to present boundaries. 

Note. — The teacher should be provided with large map of city l>efore at- 
tempting to teach it. 

III. Physical Features. 

Surface features of the immediate localitv. 

1. Highlands and lowlands. 

School and homes in relation to surface, slopes and high 
lands. 

Slopes followed from school to home ; steepness ; relation 
of traffic to slopes. Length, direction. 

Extent, attitude and air of highlands. 

Extent, attitude and air of lowlands. 

Distribution of people in reference to highlands and low- 
lands. 

Beauty of one in contrast to the other. 

2. Drainage. 

Stream (caused by showers). Its course, its origin, con- 
dition, and work of water. 

Brook: Work of the brook, its course, width, volume. 
origin,' use and relation to the river. 

River: Work of the river, its course, obstructions; causing 
falls, rapids, lakes, etc., width, volume, origin, use and 
relation to the lake. 

3. Hills: Slopes, steepness, length, varying size and shape, alti- 

tude and vegetation. 

4. Valleys: Slopes, steepness, length, altitude compared with 

hills, varying size and shape of valleys. 

5. Climatic conditions recorded. 

Note. — Have pupils discover the xi//iy for each of the above topics. 



171 
IV. Organization. 

1. Productivr Occupations. 

Note. — Be sure before you leave this subject that each instance of occupa- 
tion studied stands to the child as a type of that occupation. 

a. Agriculture. 

1. Gardening. 

Notice what gardening is, why people make gardens. 
Make a list of the products of the garden, and show 
what becomes of them. i.'- 

2. Truck raising. 

Notice how much like gardening this is as regards pro- 
cess — how it differs in purpose. How extensive the 
truck area is ; what truck is raised ; what becomes 
of it. 

3. Farming. 

Notice that farming is truck raising of a more exten- 
sive and less intensive sort — that in connection with 
this the farmer raises stock. 

b. Manufacturing industries. 

Factories — kinds and location, reasons for these? Where 
is raw material obtained? Where the market for fin- 
ished products? 

What becomes of all these products : food products, cloth- 
ing products, wood — kinds and for what purposes used. 

Note. — Study a manufacturing establishment first, for what it is; second, in 
its relation to producers of raw materials; and third, in its relation to the con- 
sumer. Factory studied should always be visited if possible. 

2. Commercial Occupations. 

Note. — Show the relation of the following to the manufacturer, the agricul- 
turi.st, and the child. 

a. Transportation. 

1. Primitive modes used in the city. 

2. Present modes. 

a. City car lines — uses, advantages of, extent, kind of 

service, how regulated. 

b. Hack lines, delivery wagons, bicycles, country 
wagons. 

c. Roads and railroads — name pririoipal lines and cities 

with which thev connect. *'dt. 

m 

d. Canal and river. fl'.) 



172 

e. Aids to commerce, as harbor, telephones, cables, let 

ter service. 

f. Protection to commerce, as Hghthouses, Hfe-savini^^ 

stations. 

Note. — Emphasize all the above as furnishing means of communication l)e- 
tween distant points and individuals, by being of service in the exchange of com- 
modities and as being related to the development of other methods of commiini- 
cation, such as traveling, letters, telegraph, telephone, etc. 

b. Stores, as markets — furnishing the best opportunities for ex- 

change, barter or trade. 

1. Principal dry goods stores. 

Make a sort of inventory of goods ; show where the 
different articles come from, manner of transi)or 
tation and the demand for them. Where do the 
people who buy these things get their purchasin;,^ 
mone} ? Develop the idea of reciprocity ; mutual 
dependence. 

2. Grocery stores. 

Xotice home grown products and canned goods and other 
I^roducts shipped in. Where do these products come 
from? Where packed or canned, as the case may be' 
Mow shipped, etc. 

3. The market place. 

The things seen there. Give an accurate idea of home 
grown i)roducts, and this leads to a study of farming in 
the surrounding country. 

4. I'urniture stores. 
3. Hardware stores. 

6. Shoe stores. 

7. Drug stores. 

8. Jewelry stores. 

9. Book stores, etc. 

XoTE. — These should l)e studied in a similar manner to dry goods and gro- 
cery stores, and in connection with each one studied take some typical manu- 
factory interest. 

c. City or village. 

As being merely a larger market or store with greater oj)- 
portunities in the way of trade. 

3. Educational and Social Institutio.vs. 

a. Schools. 

b. Libraries. 

c. Churches. 



173 

(1. Social life — opera houses, clnbs, charitable organiza- 
tions, industrial societies (our duties as members of .i 
communitv). 

e. Letter delivery (Post Office). 

4. GoVliRXMKNT. 

XoTE. — Lead pupils to get an idea of government from the rules in games^ 
he school yard, school room, and in the home. Lead them to discover the 
[)ose for which all such rules are made, for the comfort and happiness of all. 

a. In the home. 

b. In the citv. 

Citv officials : duties : Citv Hall — uses of. 

1. The Mavor. 

2. The Uoard of Aldermen and other Boards. 

3. Policemen, etc. 

Mathematical Oljsekvatioxs. 

a. Sun risinp^ and setting : moon ; stars ; day and night — their 

varying length ; seasons ; their change and order of recur- 
rence, as observed in our own citv. 

m 

b. Globe lessons. 

c. Maps and mai)ping. 

The map work should develop clearly in the minds of chil- 
dren the following points: 
L The map idea. 

2. ]**ixedness of position. 

3. Scale — (necessary to teach the idea of relative size ot 

countries and continents). 

4. Symbolism — (coloring cities, rivers, etc. Teach symbols 

as you need them and use symbols as you teach them. 
After a s\nibol has once been taught, always require the 
pupils to call to mind a picture of objects represented 
bv the svmbol). 

Note. — In the study of Rochester the historical and physical should he em- 
sized with such of the political as particularly relates to your particular dis- 

t. 

OUTLINE FOR THE STUDY OF ANY COUNTRY. 

I. Position, (a) In hemisphere, (b) In zones, (c) From con- 
ents. (d) h'rom oceans. 

Actual Position, (a) IJetween parallels, (b) Between merid- 
s. 



174 

2. Form. 

1. Relative. 

2. Actual, (a) As shown by map. (b) Indentations, {o 

Prolongations. 

3. Size. 

I 1. Relative, (a) In relation to other continents, (b) In 
relation to ocean' areas. 
' 2. Actual, (a) Number of square miles. 

4. Relief. 

1. Primary highlands, (a) Position, (b) Extent, (c) 

Elevation. 

2. Secondary highlands. (a) Position. (b) Extent- 

width, (c) Elevation. 

5. Climate. 

1. Winds, (a) Over ocean or land, from warm to cold or 

cold to warm latitudes, (b) Prevailing direction; 
whence it came. 

2. Rainfall, (a) Where and why. (b) Where not and why. 

a. Drainage, (a) Rivers, (b) Seas, (c) Lakes. 

b. Vegetable life (zones of). 

c. Animal life (distribution of). 

d. Mineral resources. 

6. The above outlines are conditions of: — (l)Temperature as de- 
pendent upon (a) Latitude, (b) Altitude, (c) Ocean currents, (d) 
Proximity to large bodies of water. (2) Rainfall. (3) Character of 
soil. 

7. Zones of waste as dependent upon : — (1) Lack of moisture. (2) 
Altitude. (3) Latitude. (4) A supply of moisture giving : (a) swamp, 
(b) jungle, (c) eroded lands. 

8. Distril^ution of population as dependent upon possibilities of 
productive occupation. 

9. Productive occupation as dependent upon: — (1) Resources. 
(2) Supply and demand. (3) Occupation. (4) Commercial advan- 
tages. 

10. Development and location of centers of population: as ^expres- 
sions of necessities of the people for: — (a) Collecting stations, (b) 
I'or manufacturing stations, (c) Commercial stations, (d) Goveni- 
mental stations. 

11. Development of commercial and trade routes as dependent upon 
the necessities which a i)eople are under of obtaining the productions 
and j)2itronage of the other peoples of the world. 



175 

SUGGESTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Carl Ritter's Comparative Geography ; American Book Co. 
Carl Ritter's Geographical Studies : American Book Co. 
Guvot's Earth and Man ; Charles Scribner's Sons. 
Keith Johnston's Physical, Historical and Political Geography; 

Stanford, London. 

Guyot's Physical Geography ; American Book Co. 

Appleton's Physical Geography; American Book Co. 

Eclectic Physical Geography ; American Book Co. 

Houston's Physical Geography ; Elbridge & Bro. 

Maury's Physical Geography ; University Publishing Co. 

Maury's Physical Geography of the Sea; Sandon, Lowell & Son; 

London. 

Reclus' Earth ; Harper & Bro. 

Reclus' Ocean ; Harper & Bro. 

Reclus' History of a Mountain ; Harper & Bro. 

Stanford's Compendiums of the Continents. 6 vols.: Stanford, 

London. 

Brown's Countries of the World ; Cassell & Co. 

Brown's Peoples of the World ; Cassell & Co. 

Reclus' Earth and Its Inhabitants. 17 vols. ; D. Appleton & Co. 

Europe. 5 vols. 

Asia. 4 vols. 

Africa. 4 vols. 

Oceanica. 1 vol. 

North America. 3 vols. 

South America — ^being prepared. 

Note. — Reclus' is the most exhaustive work on this subject published in 
English. 

Methods : — 

Parker's How to Study Geography ; Appleton & Co. 

King's Methods and Aids in Geography ; Lee & Shepard. 

Fry's Child and Nature ; Ginn & Co. 

Crocker's Method of Teaching Geography ; Boston School Supply 
Co. 

Geikie's Teaching of Geography ; The MacMillan Co. 

Rcdway's Manual of Geography; D. C. Heath & Co. 

Trotter's Lessons in the New Geography ; D. C. Heath & Co. 

C. McMurray's A Teacher's Manual of Geography. (Note, Bib- 
liography) : MacMillan Co. 

Nichol's Topics in Geography; D. C. Heath & Co. 



176 

Tlie Journal of Geoj^raphy. 

Articles in tlie Encyclopedia Britannica and in the bound voliun 
of Harper's Century, Scribner's, and Popular Science ^Jonthly Mag^; 
zine. 

Ada Van Stone Harris. 




177 



SUGGESTIVE OUTUNE FOR THE STUDY OF THE WORLD. 



FOURTH GRADE. 



(a) General shape. 

(b) Relative size. 

(c) Relative position of the more important countries and conti- 

nents. 

(d) Life, occupations and exports of the people. 

(c) Our relation to and dependence upon the whole world. 

In treating the above topics, the children should gain a general idea 
of zones with reference to heat and cold of the various continents, of 
highlands and lowlands forming the **back bone" of lands, of simple 
physiographic processes, of the elements of drainage, of leading cities, 
and of the relation of its parts in direction and distance. 

The following are suggestive topics chosen with reference to illus- 
trating various phases of life, extremes of life conditions, various 
methods of transportation and commerce. Of these, the first only 
(sealskin) is developed. 

1. Northern Section, North America. 
Sealskin. 

Its use. 

Location ot region from which this. product is obtained (di- 
rection from home). 

Seal fisheries. ^Method of obtaining. 

Climate. 

Plant and animal life. 

People. 

Home. 

Habits of life. 

Transportation. 

Methods in count rv. 

Routes to New York. 

(Time required). 

Note all barriers or difficulties in routes of travel. 

Scenery. 

2. Southern Section, North America, 

Coflfee, 



i;8 

3. Northern Section, South America, Valley of Amazon. 

India Rubber. 

4. Southern Section, South America. 

Hides and wool. 

5. Northern Eurasia. 

Sable. 

6. West Central Europe (Switzerland). 

Cheese. 

7. Southern Europe. France and Spain. 

Wine. 

8. Southeastern Asia. 

Tea. 

9. Central Africa. 

Ivory. 
10. South Africa. 

Diamonds. 
This suggestive outline of articles of commerce belonging icrz::^ va- 
rious countries is quoted from the topics arranged by Richar ^i E- 
Dodge, Teachers* College Record. 



179 



SUGGESTIVE OUTUNE FOR GEOGRAPHY. 

SIXTH GRADE. 

Around the World from San Francisco. 
Points visited. 

Tokio — call at Philippines enroute. 

Seoul (Korea). Cross Yellow Sea to — 

Peking. 

Tientsin. 

Shanghai. 

Nanking. 

Grand Canal. 

(Compare calm, peaceful, blue Yangtse-Kiang with boisterous, 
mad, and capricious yellow Hoang Ho). 

Hong Kong. 

Bangkok (Siam), Gulf of Siam. 

Shigapore. 

Strait of Malacca. 

Calcutta. 

Bay of Bengal. 

(Contrast rivers Ganges and Brahmaputra). 

Colombo. 

Island of Ceylon. 

Bombay (Hindustan). 

Across Arabian Sea, through Gulf of Aden and Strait of 
Babel- Mandeb, stopping at 

Mocha. 

Red Sea. 

Suez. 

Isthmus of Suez — Suez Canal. 

Alexandria. 

(Contrast rivers Nile and Niger). 

Constantinople ( Turkey ) . 

Athens (Greece). 

Naples, Italy. 

Rome, Italy. 

Marseilles, (France). 

Barcelona, Spain, 



i8o 

Malaga, Spain. 

Gibraltar — Strait of Gibraltar. 
Across the Atlantic to New York ; or from Rome by land to — 
Venice. 

Berne, Switzerland. 
Vienna, Austria. 
Berlin, Germany. 

Side trip here to Copenhagen, Stockholm, St. Petersburg. 
Brussels, Belgium. 
Paris — Havre. 

London, Edinburg, Glasgow, Dublin. 
New York. 
Study causes producing differences of climate ; its effect in differ- 
ent countries upon habits and customs of people and upon industries. 

Each city visited should stand as a type of the country, and should 
be studied under the following points : 

1. Geographical conditions — favorable to development. 

2. Important industries; whether agricultural, grazing and lum- 
bering, manufacturing, mining. 

3. Commerce. 

4. Manners and customs of people. 

5. Scenic Centers. 

6. Historical places of note. 

7. Notable places in Literature. 

8. Art of Country. 

Note. — Compare peculiar manners, looks and customs of peoples studied. 
For example : Blacks and Arabs, Hindus and Malays, Chinese and Japanese, etc. 

Ada Van Stone Harris, 
Supervisor of Kindergartens and Primary Schools. 



iSi 



VI GRADE GEOGRAPHY. 

B Class. 

1 . Europe. 

The physiography of Europe compared with North America 
as to reUef — climate — drainage. 

2. British Isles. 

(a) England and Scotland. 
The coal field.y. 

Iron manufactures. 

The textile manufactures. 

(b) Ireland's agriculture and manufactures. 

(c) Important fisheries about the British Isles. 

3. France. 

Grape culture. 
Silk manufactures. 
China manufactures. 

4. Germany. 

The Rhine River. 
Iron manufactures. 
Beet Sugar industry. 

5. Holland and the Lowlands. 

Life, character and occupation of the Dutch people. 

6. The Austrian Empire. 

Life and occupation of the people. 
Vienna — Capital city. 

7. Switzerland. 

Swiss manufacturing and grazing. 
Dairy products. 

8. Norway and Sweden. 

Surface, products and people. 
Russia. 

The Volga and the great plain of Russia — Compare with 
Mississippi Valley. 
10. The peninsulas of Southern Europe. 

Note. — There should be constant comparison of every topic with North 
'nerica as to mountains, rivers, cities, climate, people and industries. 

See McMurry's Special Methods in Geography, pages 191 to 195. 



A Class. 

1. Asia. 

The physiography of Asia compared with Europe ^^ 
North America. 

2. Colonial possessions of the British Empire. 

India. 

Australia. 

New Zealand. 

The English in Africa. 

The Congo Free State. 

Other lesser colonies of England. 

2. Dutch possessions in England. 

Java. 

3. Russia in Asia. 

The great physical features. 
Vast deserts. 
Trans-Siberian Railway. 

4. The Chinese Empire. 

(a) Life, character and occupation of the people. 

(b) Tea culture. 

(c) Manufactures. 

5. The Empire of Japan. 

Comparison with British Isles. 
Life and character of people. 
Artistic manufactures. 

6. Smaller states of Asia. 

7. Comparison of the East Indies and the West Indies and Mada- 

gascar. 

8. Comparative physiography of the Continents. 

9. The controlling influence of Europe and North America. 
10. Location and distribution of races of the earth. 

Note. — Comparison should be made of each topic studied with similar topi^ 
in other parts of the world. 

Aim to constantly bring out the cause and effect idea. 

See McMiirry's Special Methods in Geography, pages 195-197. 
Reference book, pages 214-216. 



i83 



HISTORY. 

Seventh Grape. 

Period of Discovery and Exploration. 
I. Landing of the Norseman. 

1. Naddod. 

Iceland. 

2. Eric the Red. ^ 

Greenland. 

3. Lief the Lucky. 

m 

New Foundland. 

Nova Scotia. 

Sighting New England. 

4. Thorwald. 

Explored the coast of Rhode Island, Connecticut and 
Long Island. 
II. Meeting of Norsemen and Indians. 

III. Legends of other and still earlier discoverers of the New 

World. 
Buddist Monks in the 5th centurv. 
Arabian sailors in the 12th centurv. 

IV. Columbus. 

His boyhood. 

In the service of Portugal. 
Agreement between the Queen and Columbus. 
His departure. 
His voyage. 
Landing. 

Other discoveries. 
Subsequent voyages. 
V. The English Explorations. 
John Cabot's. 
Sir Humphrey Gilbert's. 
Sir Walter Raleigh's. 
Gosnold's. 
VI. Spanish Explorations. 
Balboa. 
Ponce de Leon, 



1^4 

De Ayllon. 
De Narvaez. 
De Sota. 
De Luna. 

VII. French Explorations. 

Verrazani. 

Cartier's Ascent of the St. Lawrence. 
Menendez. 

First permanent European settlement in U. S. — St. Au^ is- 
tine. 

Period of Settlement. 

VIII. The colonial history of Virginia. 

IX. The colonial history of New York. 

X. The colonial history of New England. 

XI. The colonial history of New Jersey, Pennsylvania and 
Delaware. 
XII. The colonial history of Maryland, the Carolinas and Georgia. 

XIII. The French and Indian War. 

XIV. Revolutionary Period. 

Note. — In teaching each of the above topics, the geographical aspect of the 
subject should be considered as to the line of travel — the character of the coun- 
try — the people, their habits and customs, etc. It is the cause and effect idea, 
which should be kept in mind. Maps and the globe should always be before the 
history class. Places and movements of the people located. 

Character study in history is an important element in this grade. Thus lead 
pupils to form moral judgments of right and wrong doing. 

Pupils should fill in topical maps in history as well as in geography. 

Pictures illustrating the life of the people of the various colonies should be 
collected and used to illuminate the subject. 



1^5 



SUGGESTIVE OUTUNE FOR COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY. 

EIGHTH GRADE. 

Introduction. 

I. Physical conditions. 

1. Review of climate, relief, drainage, cost, as regards their 

influence on products, occupations, etc. 

2. Political Divisions. 

States — groups of, as determined by physical conditions 
and products. 

II. Products — where found and whv. 

1. Agricultural products. 

2. Lumber and other forest products. 

3. Alining products. 

4. Animal products. 

Mats, Leather, etc. 
Furs and skins. 
Fisheries. 

III. Industries — Location of. 

1. Agriculture. 

2. Manufactures. (See IV). 

3. Mining. 

4. Lumbering. 

5. Fishing. 
Commercial pursuits. 

IV. Manufacturing Centers. 

1. For clothing materials; cotton, woolen, silk, leather. 

2. For wood ; building purposes, furniture, etc. (paper 

pulp). 

3. For food materials; vegetable, animal, etc. 

V. Commerce. 

1. What is it? 

2. Whv needed? 

3. Means used for carrying it on? 

4. With what countries? 

VI. Principal Seaports. 

1. Why located where they are? 



i86 

(a) New York. 

(b) Boston. 

(c) San Francisco. 
Gulf port — New Orleans. 

II. Small Seaports. 

1. Whv situated as thev are? 

2. Why not so important as those above? 

3. What has made them? 

(a) Norfolk. 

(b) Savannah. 

(c) Charleston. 

(d) Galveston (p^ulf). 

(e) Baltimore. 

(f) Portland, Me. 

VIII. Lake Ports. 

1. Why located as they are, and what about theii positic 
makes them important? 

(a) Buffalo. 

(b) Cleveland. 

(c) Detroit. 

(d) Duluth. 

(e) Milwaukee. 

(f) Chicago. 

IX. River Pbrts. 

1. Why located as they arc? 

(a) St. Paul. 

(b) St. Louis. 

(c) Pittsburg. 

(d) Cincinnati. 

(e) Portland, Ore. 

X. Railroad Centers. 

1. Why good ones? 

(a) Buffalo. 

(b) New York. 

(c) Chicago. 

(d) Omaha. 

(e) Denver. 

(f) Kansas City. 

(g) St. Paul and j\!innca]K)lis. 
(h) Detroit and San Francisco. 



1 87 

t. Commercial routes. 

1. Railroad routes from above railroad centers. 

2. Inland water routes. 

(a) On the Great Lakes. 

(b) On the Mississippi and its tributaries. 

(c) On the canals. 

(d) On the Atlantic system of rivers. 

(e) On the Pacific system of rivers. 

3. Ocean routes from — 

(a) New York. 

(b) Boston. 

(c) New Orleans. 

(d) San Francisco. 

(e) Other ports. 



1 88 



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100 

General suggestions for all grades in program making. 

Theoretically each group should perform a different line of work 
during each group period. 

Seat Work or Study periods, before and after recess, should be 
of a different nature. 

Water colors should be used at least twice a week for expression 
work — illustrative purposes, other than in the regular drawing lesson. 

The hygienic conditions of the pupils and room should be consid- 
ered at every exercise. 

Free Construction work may be done in school during the seat 
or study period. There should be an opportunity for every pupil to 
express himself in such exercise, thereby making more definite mental 
pictures. The formal lessons in manual work should aid this work. 

All pupils should have a written lesson upon the blackboard daily. 

Children should often be required to read aloud what they have 
written upon the blackboard. 

In first grades the same order may be followed for the afternoon 
class — by reducing each 15 minute period to 10 minutes, the 20 minute 
period to 15, and the second (jAme period to five minutes. 

If fourth and fifth grades exceed thirty pupils there should always 
be more than two groups. 

If the class is slow three groups should be made of the thirty pupils 
and the time arranged according to the mental ability of the group. 

There should always be at least two groups in the sixth, seventh and 
eighth grades. 

If the class numbers more than 35 pupils and is slow, it is often ad- 
visable to make a third group of the slow pupils, arranging the time 
for each group, according to the mental ability of the group. 

In the afternoon the teacher should arrange her work to save a 
minute or two from each group so as to allow at least five minutes for 
active games, placing such an exercise where children show signs of 
fatigue. 



200 



SUGGESTIONS FOR WORK DURING THE PERIOD WHEN 
CHILDREN ARE NOT DIRECTED BY THE TEACHER. 

PRIMARY GRADES. 



BLACKBOARD 


OCCUPATION TABLE 
AND SAND TABLE 


SEATS 


Imaginative Drawing 


Clay modeling 


Copying sentences 


Copying sentences 


Card board modeling 


Original sentences 


Original sentences 


Free construction work 


about pictures 


Written language 


Brush work 


Word building 


Spelling 


Cutting and pasting 


Number problems 


Number problems 


Block building 


Dissected pictures 
Games 

Construction worJc 
Sewing 
Brush work 
Braid and wool vvea 
ing 



Raphia 



GRAMMAR GRADES. 



BLACKBOARD 

Imaginative drawing 
Written language 
Spelling 
Arithmetic problems 



SEATS 

Clay modeling 
Card board modeling 
Free construction work 
Brush work 
Cutting and pasting 
Sewing 
Weaving 
Raphia 

Ada Van Stone Harris, 
Supervisor of Kindergartens and Primary Schools. 



20l 



MANUAL TRAINING. 

First to Eighth Grades Ixclusivk. 

The aim of the manual training course is purely cultural. And it is 
intended that the work shall be employed solely as a means of utilizing 
the child's deep-lying motor instincts for self -development. 

The plan includes a series of lessons for each grade from the first 
to eighth inclusive. However, while the scope of the system is con- 
tinuous and covers the entire ground between the kindergarten an^l 
high school, this period falls into three natural divisions : the primary, 
intermediate, and grammar grades. Now, because of these divisions, 
and the needs and conditions growing out of them, it is necessary to 
provide separate equipment and separate supplies for each division ; 
then. too. owing to the fact that the teachers of the primary grades 
oversee the construction work of their own classes, and because that 
of the intermediate and upper grades is taught by the special teachers, 
there must be separate outlines. This separation is, of course, neces- 
sary ; still, a teacher should not allow it to influence the plans for the 
work of his grade. He should keep in mind the fact the work of a 
^rade is but a part of a system. 

Moreover, it should be understood that the course is not an end, but 
that it is a method ; and that it has taken its place in the curriculum of 
our schools for the purpose of supplementing the other subjects. For 
this reason, as well as many others, it is just as important to place and 
keep manual training upon an educational basis as it is to have graded 
lessons in reading, writing, and arithmetic ; and to this end, the teach- 
ers are earnestly requested to co-operate with the supervisor. For 
thennore, the gradation should be such as will lead the pupil along by 
easy stages ''from the known to the unknown and from the easy to 
that which is more difficult." Again, unless the work is kept upon an 
educational basis there is a waste of time and material ; besides, it be- 
comes hap-hazard and aimless. 

However, this does not mean that the pupils should be obliged to 
follow a formal and fixed course of models, to merely imitate and re- 
produce objects designed by others; but it means that the carefully 
planned and arranged course of lessons is necessary as a basis and 
guide for the teacher'Srwork. 



202 

It is expected that the teacher will adapt the course to the needs of 
the pupils ; that is, to encourage individual expression, and to use the 
work as a means of throwing light on difficult prohlems and to sup- 
plement related subjects. 

The teachers* models should be used solely for the purpose of teach- 
ing correct application of principles of construction, for illustration, 
and for creating high standards concerning accuracy, neatness, and 
finish. 

The objects suggested in the various groups of an outline need not 
be taken up in the same order in which they are named for the rea- 
son that the plan of the object selected, as well as the ideas suggested 
by pupils, may be modified, if necessary, to suit their capabilities. For 
instance, the pupil may be led to modify his plan, or the teacher may 
suggest such changes as will add to the difficulty of the work and at the 
same time enhance the value of the work, and the finished piece. This 
method permits of great freedom and it insures a progressive sequence 
in the work of a system of hand-work. 

It is important that the pupils originate and develop ideas to satisfy 
a felt need in themselves, to fill a place in their play, home, or school 
life uozi\ This will bring the work into closer relations with local con- 
ditions. 

Teachers should respond promptly to requests from principals for 
such apparatus, pieces of furniture, and other school conveniences as 
are within the pupils' capabilities and for the construction of which 
there are the facilities in the manual training room. 

It is very desirable that all requests coming in to the manual train- 
ing room for assistance or work to be undertaken by a pupil, should 
come direct to the pupil, and then, when he asks his teacher for permis- 
sion to take up the work, it becomes simply a question of granting the 
pupil a privilege. 

In the intermediate and grammar grades the first step in drawing 
should be the free-hand sketch. Then, after this has been approved by 
the teacher, the pupil will use it as data for the more accurate instru- 
mental drawing which must be completed before the pupil undertakes 
the construction of the object. 

For details concerning methods, correlated work, and suggestions 
for the decoration of the pupils' work, etc.. outlines will be sent to the 
teachers from time to time. Water colors, pyrography, and carvin.; 
will be employed for the decoration of surfaces. However, care and 
tact must be exercised with reference to the means of decoration anl 
the class of articles that are to be decorated. All questions pertaining 



203 

to decoration should be determined before the pupil undertakes to con- 
Struct an object. 

Manual training should develop the child's ability alonf2^ creative 
lines. And the first step in that direction is to teach the child that func- 
tion is the basis of form and size, and that these things are not left to 
chance or guess-work. 

Beginning with the first lesson and all through the course, when 
planning an article for construction or when demonstrating the devel- 
opment of an idea, teachers should show the reasons for the general 
form of the piece, the size, proportion of various parts, and why the 
material used in its construction was selected for the purpose. Then 
such important matters as durability, simplicity, decoration, and finish 
should be taken up. Teachers should place due emphasis upon eacii 
of these problems in order that the judgment of the pupil may be 
trained to perceive and appreciate that which is best and essential in 
design, as: good proportion, beauty, and adaptability of an object to 
its intended use. 

It is expected that the primary-grade teachers will give careful 
attention and emphasis to the drawing for the construction work of 
the second, third and fourth grades. 

(ireat care and tact should be exercised in criticising and in approv- 
ing the pupils' finished work. Lead them to criticise their own work 
as early as possible. Teachers should aim to create high ideals and 
standards regarding neatness, accuracy, symmetry, and all matters per- 
taining to honest and conscientious work ; and yet, one standard shouM 
not be set for all. as is done in a trade school, but no child can give 
more than his best effort and this must be our aim. 

It must be remembered that even painstaking care will not insure 
any great degree of truth and accuracy in the work of a beginner. It 
requires time to develop the muscles and to acquire the dexterity neces- 
sary to perform with any degree of certainty even the various simple 
exercises involved in cutting out and fastening together little paper 
boxes. Therefore, in order to succeed, teachers should be able to dis- 
tinguish between a lack of skill and carelessness. 

From the manual-training point of view, the material things, — the 
objects made by the pupils, — are of especial interest only when the con- 
ditions or methods under w-hich the work was executed are known. 
That is, in order to judge the value of the work of a teacher it is neces- 
sary to go behind the visible things and study the methods. The true 
manual-training teacher emphasizes the invisible or the educational 
side, and will not allow himself to be misled by the temptation to make 
an attractive showing ; therefore, an exhibition of construction work is 



^04 

not, in the best sense, a demonstration of the worth of a teachers' work. 

For the construction work in the primary grades the children will 
use clay, raffia, reed, white-ash splint, yarn, cotton carpet warp, 
cloth, rags, strawboard, tag-board, manilla paper, colored wrappinj^ 
paper, colored cover-paper, remnants of wood from the manual train- 
ing rooms, and such "waste material" as may be brought in from time 
to time by the children. 

In the intermediate and grammar grades pupils are provided with 
the following : : basswood, white pine, whitewood, cherry, maple, reed, 
white ash splint, bamboo, cloth, leatherette, gummed binding, press- 
board, colored cover-paper, a variety of hooks, hinges, locks, etc.. 
mirrors, shellac, paint, varnish, stains, etc. 

In addition to that which is a necessary part of the presentation of 
the principles and the demonstration, the theoretical work will include 
talks on forestry, the methods of converting the tree into lumber; in- 
formation pertaining to the sources of material used in the pupils' 
work; the "evolution of tools," their care and methods of sharpening; 
the manufacture of screws, nails, paints, stains, varnishes ; methods oi 
finishing and preserving woodwork and metal-work, etc. Suggestions 
for this work will be given to the teachers from time to time by the 
supervisor. 

Teachers should give especial attention to the opportunities for 
adding to the vocabulary of the child the words that are new to him. 

And, whenever possible, take advantage of opportunities for apply 
ing the pupils' theoretical knowledge of mathematics. 



205 



SUGGESTIVE WORK FOR THE PRIMARY GRADES. 

FIRST GRADE. 

Tag Board or Old Pasteboard: A tag for labelling the pupil's 
unfinished work ; a' yarn winder, formed like a Greek cross ; an easel 
or mount for picture or calendar, made to suit size of object to be 
mounted upon it ; a locomotive and train of cars (a R. R. station house 
may be made of manilla paper, see group of folded models). 

Clay Modelling: For instruction and suggestions relating to the 
clay modelling, see supplemental outline. 

RAFFIA AND CARPET WARP. 

A Square Raffia Mat: This is to be woven on a simple straw- 
board loom. The mat should be made 5 in. or 6 in. square. 

R.\FFiA Winding: A penwiper made of a pasteboard disc about 
2]/! or 2^ in. in diameter with a ^ or -% in. hole in the center. Cover 
with raffia. Fasten circular piece of tissue paper or chamois skin to 
under side of disc. Finish by sewing raflfia bow in center. 

RAGS OR YARN AND CARPET WARP. 

A Holder : Weave a holder 6 x 6 in. or 5 x 7 in. Use rags or Ger- 
mantown yarn for the woof and cotton carpet warp. Make and fasten 
a loop at one corner for hanging. For loom use the backs of old writ- 
ing pads. 

MANILLA PAPER. 

(Folding Exercises.) 

Tliis is a heavy wrapping paper with a smooth, glossy surface. It 
can be folded and creased without breaking, therefore it is not neces- 
sary to score it before folding. 

For the models named in the first grade series that are foniied by 
folding and creasing, the pieces of paper will be delivered to the schools 
cut to the required forms and sizes, ready for folding. 

A Fan : This fan requires a sheet of paper 8x11 in. 

A Cornucopia : The paper for this is 6 x 6 inches. 

A Button Box : For a button box 3 x 3 in. inside, a piece of paper 
4>4 X AYi in. is required. 



206 

A May Basket : A small basket may be made of a sheet 8 x 8 in. 
The handle should be 3^ in. or ^ in. wide. 

A Seed Box (with a cover) : This requires two squares of paper 
6x6 inches. 

A Colonial Hat : The paper for this should be 12 x 18 in. or less, 
according to the size of head for which it is intended. 

A Toy Lantern: A piece of paper 6x6 in., and two strips of 
dark paper about ^ in. wide for bands at top and bottom edges. For 
the handle cut a narrow strip of the same color as is used for the 
bands. 

A Railroad Station House: This may be made in connection! 
with the train of cars, use manilla paper. A piece 6x9 inches will be 
needed. 

COLORED WRAPPING PAPER. 

An Envelope: This may be made in connection with a language 
lesson or for St. Valentine's Dav. 

Other suggestions for the use of pasteboard and raffia: A pin 
cushion, box for buttons, pin tray, two pasteboard disc with y^ in. 
hole in center of each. Join flat faces, wrap over both with raffia, finish 
with bow at center and hang with strand of raffia, the pieces are placed 
around the edge ; double, and triple picture frames may be made by 
joining the frames at the back after each has been wrapped. 

Old mailing tubes may be used to good advantage for making 
hair-pin box, with cover ; pencil cases ; toy rattle, make handle of dowel 
rod, f^ or y-y in. sticks which may be made round by pupils of the fifth 
or sixth grades. 

A model of a raffia doll may be seen on the model board at the 
office. 

There arc several forms of serviceable and attractive picture 
frames that can be made of mounting board and raffia. But instead 
of covering the entire surface of a frame w^ith raffia it is finished and 
decorated by punching holes at short intervals about Yz or 5^8 of an in. 
from the outer nd^Q or that distance in from both edges and then, with 
a needle threaded with raffia, sew through these holes and over and 
over about the edges. After sewing once around the frame, repeat it 
in the opposite direction. This will fonn a V-shaped decoration. Fas- 
ten bows of raffia at the i)oints where the hanging strand is attached 
to the frame. 

Many useful and interesting pieces may be made by using old 
boxes, the backs of writing pads, ribbon bolts, and' old mailing tubes. 

1 o render the raffia p\\^.V>W ^.wd q.asv to wra^, braid, and tie it should 



207 

be w^t and then allowed to become partially dry before attempting to 
work it. However, if the raffia is very damp it will shrink and expose 
the surface of the foundation upon which it is wrapped. When con- 
venient, it is a good idea to have a small moist cloth through which the 
strand of raffia may be drawn, so as to moisten and flatten it. 

When wrapping with raffia be careful to hold the strands firmly 
and wind closely. There should be just enough lap to cover and allow 
for shrinkage. 

In order to insure the complete covering of the surface of the foun- 
dation, begin, on a circular piece, by wrapping the strands around the 
surface of the disc in such a manner as to leave broad spaces between 
the strands at the outer edge, that is, the result of the first wrapping 
should resemble the spokes of a wagon wheel. Then go over it again 
so as to cover the bare spaces. This method must be followed in 
wrapping discs, in order to be successful. 

To cut such things as mailing tubes into the desired length, bind a 
l)iece of strong paper around it and then use the edge of the paper as a 
guide for cutting with a knife. 

SECOND GRADE. 
TAG BOARD AND OLD PASTEBOARD. 

A Tag: Make a tag about 1^^ x 2>4 or 3 inches. This is to be 
used by the children for labelling unfinished work. 

A **Yarn Winder": If convenient, use a piece of old pasteboard 
as it is stronger than tag board. For this model draw the form of a 
Greek cross based on a 3 x 3 in. square. As soon as it is completed let 
the children wind it with their fastening material, yarn or raffia. 

The tag board or pasteboard will be used for the foundation of 
picture frames and a number of other models. 

Weather Vane: This mav be made in connection with lessons 
relating to direction, weather, etc. 

The wheel should be made of a square of colored wrapping paper 
or nianilla paper 6x6 inches. For the vane, use a strip of tag board 
about 2^ X 7 or 8 inches, and a piece of thin wood y% in. or Yz in. wide 
by 12 in. long, fasten the wheel to the end of the vane. 

The post upon which the vane revolves may be about 3^ x j/j in. 
square and 15 in. or 16 in. long. 

To hold it in an upright position, the lower end of the post should 
be fastened to a piece of thin wood four or ^\^t inches square. 

These small i)ieces of wood may be secured through one of th: 
special teachers of manual training. 



208 
CARPET WARP. 

Toy Horse Reins and Whip: This piece of work will introduce 
the yard stick and the one-foot measuring rule, for definite work in 
measuring. 

The long piece for the reins should be made three yards long. Make 
the **breast piece" one foot long. Use four strands of warp. 

After the reins are completed let the children make a lash for a tov 
whip one-half of a yard long. Use two strands for the lash. Let the 
children provide pieces for the whip handle about sixteen inches loni(. 

These pieces are made by means of the ordinary **loop-chai;i 
stitch," as in crochet work, but it is done without the aid of a needle. 

MANILLA PAPER. 

Box FOK Christmas Pennies: A box made by folding. It is 
made of a piece of paper cut 9 x 9 in. Make slot for pennies in a side 
that will be covered on the inside by one of the loose flaps. 

Envelope (for written work) : A sheet of paper 7x9 in. This 
size will make an envelope about 3^ x 4]/^ in. 

All construction lines in this are made by folding and creasing. 

COLORED WRAPPING PAPER. 

A Book Mark : Make a bookmark for use in school room. When 
cut and ready for folding the paper for this should be 2 x 4 inches. 

A May Basket (projecting lips) : This requires a square of 
paper 6x6 inches. Mark ofT three two-inch spaces on each of the four 
sides. Connect points with oblique lines. Cut out V-shaped pieces. 
Punch and fold. Fasten corners with raffia. Roll lips down without 
moistening. Make handle about J^ or ^^ inch wide. 

COLORED COVER PAPER. 

A Wall Pocket: This may be used for cards or for letters. It 
is made of a square piece 8x8 inches. Decorate the surface. 

A Book ^Iark: For Christmas, the folded book mark may be 
made. Draw and cut an oblong 2x4 inches. Mark for holes. Punch, 
score and fold. Tie with colored raffia. 

COLORED WRAPPING PAPER. 

Free Weaving: As the term implies, free weaving is weaving' 
with loose strips only. The narrow strips are so interlaced as to fomi 
mats, frames, etc. 



209 
YARN. 

Toy Knitters: The small spool-like knitters for the second 
grades may be made in the manual training shops by the seventh or 
eighth grade boys. 

This knitting may be used for making mats, doll hats, spreads for 
doll beds, etc. For instructions concerning the different forms of web, 
see "Directions for Use of Knitter" on separate leaflet. 

RAFFIA. 

A Circular Mat: Make circular mats of braided raffia. Use 
plain raffia. 

Circular and Elliptical Mats: Circular and elliptical mats may 
be made of braided raffia with a stripe of color about the width of two 
braided strands. 

Then make a simple circular "loom" and weave mats with plain 
and colored raffia. Finish edge with fringe. See loom and mat at the 
office of the supervisor. 

Baskets : The braided raffia may be used for making toy baskets 
and bags. 

Doll Hats and Caps: Let the children make these hats and caps 
to suit the size of dolls for which they are intended. 

Handkerchief Bag: This is usually made of two mat-like pieces 
sewed together at the edge, a little more than half-way around. 

In braiding the raffia for this bag use at least one colored strand. 

A slender handle may be made about ten inches long if the bag is 
hung from the belt. If it is to be hung from the neck, make it about a 
yard long. 

A Napkin Ring: For the foundation of this use a piece of ash 
splint about 3/2 inch wide. Make it about 2 inches in diameter. Cut 
the splint long enough to double and have the ends lap about one inch. 

A SouARE Mat with Fringe: Use raffia for both warp and woof. 
For this a simple loom will be made by the boys in the manual train- 
ing shops. 

THIRD GRADE. 
TAG BOARD. 

A Tag (for labelling work): Make tag about V/ixlYz inches. 
Let children mark and cut corners to resemble an ordinary commer- 
cial tag. 



210 

Yarn Winder (X-shape) : This should not be made until it is 
needed. 

Draw a square 3x3 inches. Mark points ^ inch from each comer, 
on all sides. Connect corresponding points with oblique lines. Cut out 
V-shaped piece on each side. Wind with yam or raffia. 

MANILLA PAPER. 

An Envelope: This mav be made in connection with the work of 
St. Valentine's Day or at any time during the school-year when it can 
be used to the best advantage. 

The drawing is based on an 8 x 12 inch rectangle. 

A **CiRCLE Maker" : Cut out a strip of tag board or heavy paper 
about 5^8 or j4 i"ch wide and 10 or 12 inches long. Draw a center line 
the full length of the strip. On this center line place dots 1 inch apart, 
the first should be about >4 inch from the end. On each dot punch a 
small hole with a pin. 

This circle-maker will be used by the pupils in place of a compass 
and should be made in connection with the first piece of work that in- 
volves the use of curved lines. 

COLORED COVER PAPER. 

Book Mark (a simple disk) : Describe circle 3 inches in diameter. 
Mark points yz inch each side of center of circle. From these poinis 
erect perpendiculars cutting the circumference. Cut out circle. Cut 
along the peq^endicular lines to the diameter of circle. 

Book Mark (fan-shaped) : Describe a circle 2 inches in diameter. 
Each side of center mark half the width of ''ribbon" (yi inch wide). 
Draw lines for the ribbon 2j4 inches beyond circumference of circle. 

PvKAMii) Candy Box (based on equilateral triangle) : Draw base 
line. Mark length of base 8^^ inches. With ends of base Hne as cen- 
ters, and Sy2 inches as radius draw intersecting arcs. Complete the 
triangle. Bisect each side and draw inner triangle. From the base 
lines mark height of sides. Punch, score and fold. Fasten with col- 
ored raffia. 

Catch-All (conical form) : Draw base line 9 or 10 inches lone;, 
l^'rom center of line, with a radius of 4^ inches, draw semi-circle. 
Mark width of llap (y^ inch) below straight line, one side of center 
Cut out. Roll into form. Paste. Near the flap and 34 inch below 'top 
edge punch two holes 2 inches apart, through these holes fasten a piece 
of raffia or yarn for hanging the catch-all. 



2II 

A Wall Pockict (for letters) : The parts of this model will be 
Fastened together through projecting flaps. Decorate the surface. 

A Composition Book (for St. Valentine's Day) : For the leaves 
:ut two pieces of writing paper 3j/2 x lOj^ inches. Cut a piece of col- 
ored cover paper for cover 3^ x 11 inches. Fold the cover and punch 
the holes. Fold the leaves, place them inside of the cover and mark 
for holes. Decorate the cover. 

Match Box and Scratch (crescent shape) : Draw a center line. 
Describe outside curve. Mark width. Then find center and describe 
inside curve. Make box to suit length of match. (See model at the 
office.) 

RAFFIA. 

A Circular or Ellii»tical Mat with Open Border (made of 
braided raflfia) : This mat should have a narrow stripe of color near 
the outer edge. The open border may be of plain rafiia or colored. 

A Raffia Coin Book : The coin book is made of several strands 
of braided raffia sewed together so as to fonn an oblong-shaped piece 
with semi-circular ends, about 2^ inches wide and 8 inches long. One 
-nd is folded over and the parts are sewed together along the edges to 
form a pocket. The other end is folded down to form a flap. This 
rtap is held in place by means of a metal fastener. 

A narrow strap-like piece is made of raffia and its ends sewed to 
the back of the book in order that it may be fastened to a belt. (See. 
tiiodel at the office.) 

A Rectangular Picture Frame: In making frames for pictures 
from 2 to 4 inches long the foundation or frame work should be made 
^f strips of pasteboard or tag board 1 inch wide. The strips should be 
nit, glued together and filled in between laps so that the surface of tlie 
rame will be even. Let the child make the frame to fit the picture. 

A Circular Picture Frame: For small pictures the band should 
)e about 1^4 inches wide. Draw and cut out four semi-circles of tag 
>oard or old pasteboard. Glue them together so that the points over- 
ap. Wind this frame work with plain raffia. 

The frame may be left plain or it may be finished by sewing a 
trand of braided raffia around the edges of the outer and inner cir- 
les. If this is done the strand around the outer edge should be looped 
lircctly over the center of the frame, for hanging. 

A Napkin Ring (raffia and splint) : For the foundation of this 
ing use white ash si)lint, cut it about >< inch wide and long enough to 
nake a ring 2 inches in diamrter, pf dpiible thickness and so that the 



2l2 

ends will lap an inch. Wrap with raffia and finish edges with button- 
hole stitch. 

Let the pupils detemiine length of splint. 

A Knotted Work Bag: This should be made of selected raffia, 
strands of medium width and strong. 

A light, attractive material of harmonizing color will be used for 
the lining (a cotton crepe). 

A Twine Bag : This is a bag for holding a ball of twine. Its con- 
struction is very similar to that of the work bag. 

Woven Raffia Mats: Mats with fringed edges. Looms maybe 
made by the boys of the seventh and eighth grades. 

This loom is adjustable in both width and length ; and each is fitted 
with a heddle and a shuttle. 

FOURTH GRADE. 
TAG BOARD. 

A Tag : This tag may be made of the same form and size as that 
for the third grade. 

Pencil Box: Construct the trav first and then make the cover to 
fit it. Make it about -ji or 1 inch deep, 2^ inches wide and }4 of ^" 
inch longer than the length of a new, unsharpened pencil. For such 
work as this the pencils used by the pupils for the drawing must be 
kept very sharp. 

COLORED COVER PAPER. 

A IjLotting Pad: The surface of the pad is to be decorated (see 
sample on model board at office). The size of this model should not 
exceed 2/^8 x 5>^ inches, because the blotters are cut into rectangles 
about 3^/<!, x5}i inches before they are delivered to the schools. 

Hair Pin Tray : This should be made to suit the length of a hair 
pin, between 3 and Syi inches inside ; in depth it may be made }i or 1 
inch. In this piece, as in the drawing of all the work of the grade, the 
children are to make the entire drawing ; that is, they are to bisect, 
locate centers from which to describe the arcs, etc. 

Woven Tray (card tray) : Select two harmonizing colors. For a 
tray 4x4 inches inside it requires a square of paper Syi x Sj/^ inches, 
when cut to the finished size. For a tray of above size weavers shouM 
be 3/' ^"^'li wide by about 17^2 inches long. Other forms may be made, 
circular or octagonal. 

Wall Bracket (for a corner) : This bracket requires a piece of 



^i3 

paper 6 x 6J/2 inches ; this allows for cutting. Let pupils find center."? 
for curves. 

An Easel: Because of the converging-lines, the first step in the 
drawing of this easel is the center line, the base line, then the arc at 
top. Roll the projecting lip without moistening. 

A Fan (circular or elliptical) : For the handle use a thin piece of 
wood about ^ or 3^ inch wide by 12 inches long, and three small 
tacks for fastening together. Make the fan about Gyi inches in diam- 
eter and decorate the surface. See the forms on the model board at 
the office. 



WHITE ASH SPLINT, RAFFIA AND REED. 

Book A/ ark : This is made of splint, plain and colored raffia. The 
splint spokes should be moistened and the ends folded back and tied 
with a slender strand of raffia to hold them in place while weaving. 
The weaving should cover the ends that are turned back about yi inch. 

A Splint and Rafflx Mat: Use splint for the spokes, plain raflfta 
for weaving the body of the mat, and a short distance in from the outer 
edge weave in a stripe of color about 34 i"ch wide. 

A Reed Mat with Open Border : This should be planned to suit 
the size of the object for which it is made. Use plain and colored reed 
or two harmonizing colors. The construction of this piece should ])re- 
cede the basket. 

A Reed Basket: The foundation of the basket will be the same 
as that of the mat preceding this. The new exercises are the turning 
of the spokes to form the side and finish at the upper edge. Use col- 
ored reed. 

Woolen Mats: In the fourth grades of those schools that have 
looms, woolen mats may be woven. For the purpose of weaving 
stripes, checks or other patterns, two colors should be used. This 
weaving must be done from a drawing made by the pupil. 

The loom and attachments for this weaving is the same as that de- 
scribed for the third grade work. 

In basketry and weaving, as well as in other forms of hand-work, 
the general plan and all details of an object must be worked out and 
decided upon before the pupil undertakes its construction. 

In addition to the manual work indicated in this outline, teachers 
may find many helpful suggestions in the course of models arrange* 1 
on the model board at the oflftce of the supervisors. It includes such 
things as weather signals, Dutch windmills, toy boats, carts, wigwams, 
canoes, tents, doll houses, furniture, clock dials, sun dials, simple me- 



ii4 

chanical apparatus, and ideas for the festivals, as Thanksgiving Day, 
Christinas, Lincohi's Birthday, St. V^alentine's Day, Washington's 
Birthday, Easter, May Day, etc. Besides the models, there are books 
in the office of the supervisor that teachers may use during office hours 

A SUGGESTIVE COURSE FOR THE FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADES. 

A Mount, for *'A Good Place to Light." 

St ring- Winder, a frame of four pieces. 

Hanging Shelves. 

Train of Cars and R. R. Station House. 

Match Box and Scratch, horizontal. 

A Key Board, with brass hooks, decorate. 

Necktie Holder, to be decorated. 

A Blotting Pad, decorated. 

Toy Boat. 

Mount for Needle Book and Scissors, decorate. 

Whisk-Broom Case, small ; to be decorated. 

Corner Shelf. 

Spool and Thimble Holder. 

Match Safe, semi-circular box. 

A Coffee-Pot Rest, open work. 

A Paper Knife, carved. 

Whisk-Broom Case, large size ; decorate. 

An Easel for a Calendar or Pen Wiper, to be decorated. 

Frame for Lamp Screen, applied art work. 

Brush and Comb Case. 
. A Reed Tray, a rectangular wood base, and woven sides. 

A Splint or Reed Work Pjox. 

Self-Propelling Boat. 

Wall Bracket, decorate. 

A Bric-a-Brac Shelf, decorate. 

An Insect Spreader, for Nature Study work. 

''Windmill," with circular hub. 

Three-panel Screen, hinged : for applied art work. 

Many of these pieces afford opportunity for decoration in water 
colors. To avoid "spreading" of the colors when applied to the \s^ 
they should be used as thick as possible and at the same time be easv 
to apply. 

SUGGESTED WORK FOR THE SEVENTH AND EIGHTH GRADES. 
Mount for Calendar and Match Scratch, >4 x 2^ x 8 in. 



2l5 

A Necktie Rack. 

Flower-Pot Rack, oblong. 

Dish Drainer, square or oblong. 

Desk Tray, to hang on side of desk for pencils, etc. 

A Scouring Board, for kitchen knives. 

Rack for Tooth Brushes, horizontal. 

Knife Strop, jackknives, etc., ^ in. stock. 

Bench Hook, a bench tool ; Yi in. and }^ in. stock. 

Match Safe, vertical back ; circular box, % in. stock. 

Flower- Pot Rest, halved joint ; y^ in. stock. 

A Weather Vane, halved joint. 

A Bread-Cutter Guide. A Cart. 

Paper File, brass wire ; carved base. 

A Corner-Rack, for kitchen cloths. 

Window-Garden Box, with trellis. 

A Savings Box, decorated with carving. 

Box Kites. Toy Knitter, for Second Grade use. 

A Tool Rack, to suit pupils* tools at home. 

Blue-Print Frame, for Nature work. 

A Coat and Hat Rack, chamfered ; % in. stock. 

Sleeve Board, circular ends ; % in. stock. 

A Broom Holder, y^ in. and J^ in. stock. 

Corner Shelf, 3^ in. stock. 

Coat Hanger, formed to fit coat. 

Nail Box, with several compartments. 

A Simple Foot Stool. A Wagon. 

Bird House, shed or gable roof. 

A Wall Bracket, hard wood. 

A Paper Knife, cherry. A Simple Bicycle Holder. 

Lamp Screen, Venetian iron base. 

Windmill Motors. A Wheelbarrow. 

Clock Shelf. Bicycle Rack. 

Bric-a-Brac Shelf. 

Work Box, on bamboo legs, box made of reed. 

Desk Tray, of reed. 

Shoe Polishing Stool. 

Clock Case, to hang on wall. 

Book Stall, hinged. 

Book Stall, housed standards. 

Book Stall, framed base. 

A Wall Bracket, of hard wood. 



n 
n 
(t (( (( 

ii 

311 
(* 



2l6 

Venetian Iron Candle Sticks. 
" Coffee Rest. 
" Picture Frame. 

" Easel. 
" Sconce. 

" Flower-Pot Holder, etc. 
Tabouret, circular top, triangular shelf, 
square top. 

octagonal or hexagonal top, with sloping standards. 
Ornamental Box, for gloves^ handkerchiefs, or neckties. 
A "Strong Box,'* metal corners. 
Wood and Bamboo Shelves. 
Drawing Board. Picture Frame, halved joint. 
T- Square and Triangles. 
Foot Stool, rectangular fonn ; 5^8 in. stock. 
Stool with splint seat. 
Picture Frame, mitred comers. 
A Loom and Shuttle, for large cushion covers. 
Simple Cabinet, straight line design. 
Toilet Cabinet, with mirror. 
Small Table, with bamboo legs. 
Metre Measure, for school use. 
Hanging Shelves, braided-reed rope. 

School Apparatus: Measuring rulers, insect spreaders, window 

gardens, simple picture frames, simple looms for bead work, etc. 

An Adjustable Loom with heddle and shuttle for use in the grades 

from the third to sixth. 
Because of the importance of the many opportunities for teaching 
the proper use and care of tools and material, as well as demonstrating? 
the correct applications of principles of construction, it is expected 
that the teachers will consult freely with the supervisor. 



217 



DIRECTIONS FOR CLAY MODELLING. 

It is not intended in this to map out a graded course of lessons 
for the children, but merely to present some directions concerning the 
preparation and care of clay in the school ; and a few suggestions with 
reference to the methods of modelling. This is to be used solely as a 
(^uide for teachers. 

As a rule, the clay work undertaken by the children of the primary 
grades will be incidental to or the outgrowth of one of the other sub- 
jects. They should be allowed to model whatever they undertake in 
their own wav. Of course the results will be verv crude; but as it is 
intended that they shall use clay as a means of expressing their own 
ideas and thoughts, rather than imitating or reproducing the teacher's 
work, they must have full freedom. Clay is one of the most plastic 
and responsive materials that can be placed in the hands of school chil- 
dren ; and yet, because of the lack of experience and skill, the efforts of 
beginners result in some very grotesque representations. However, if 
the teacher will look upon the work as a means to an end, instead of 
an aim or end in itself, she will not be discouraged with results. 

If a teacher desires to arrange a course of models in a progressive 
order as a foundation for the work of the upper grades, the fol- 
lowing suggestions will serve as a guide: Select familiar objects and 
begin with one of the simplest forms ; that is to say, forms that involve 
the least number of exercises, and then arrange the group according to 
the number and difficulty of the exercises involved in forming each 
model. . This method insures a progressive sequence of problems and 
exercises. — a course based upon problems and physical difficulties. 
Still, as a formal course of models to be imitated by the children, it is 
isolated and lacks motive, therefore its educational value is small as 
compared with that which is related to the regular subjects. 

In clay modelling as in other forms of manual work, purposeful 
effort should be the key-note. 

How TO Prepare the Clay: To prepare dry clay for use, place 
the small lumps or powder on a strong piece of cloth, bring the corners 
of the cloth together and tie like a bag. Now place it in a box or can, 
then pour water over the bag and allow it to remain two or three hours, 
or until it softens. Remove the bag and while the clay is in the cloth, 
knead it as you would dough. After it has been worked into a plastic 



2id 

mass, and it is free from lumps, remove from the bag. If it is too wot 
allow it to dry out, if too dry, moisten it. 

To avoid waste, lumps of dry clay should be broken up fine b; 
wrapping one or more large pieces in a cloth and then pounding it witli 
a mallet or heavv stick. 

Before giving the clay to the children, see that it is of the consist- 
ency of stiff bread dough. It should yield easily to slight pressure of 
the finger and not stick, but, if lightly rubbed, it should have a smooth, 
glossy, surface. Hard, stiff clay cannot be worked successfully, and it 
will not hold together. 

Distribution of Clay: To divide the wet clav, use a slender wire 
or strong thread, and cut it as you would a bar of soap. 

Neatness and economy in the use of the clav should be inculcate<l 
from the start. 

In the elementary work of the small children be liberal in the dis- 
tribution of the clay, allow each child to have a piece as large as he can 
conveniently handle, that is, if it is consistent with the work in hand. 

It is not always advisable, and, of course, in many cases it is not 
possible, for the children to model objects the same size as the originals. 
The teacher nnist decide such questions and divide the clay accord- 
ingly. 

In the work of small children discourage the modelling of such 
pieces as require minute work in fine details. 

Tools and Appliances: Use no tools except as the children find 
use for and make them. 

For the pupil to work upon, there is nothing better than a table 
covered with oil cloth. But when the modelling must be done at the 
child's desk, either of the following will be found satisfactory: a 
smooth board : a school slate ; a roofing slate ; piece of oil cloth ; or a 
l)a(l of cheap paper from which a sheet may be torn for each child, and 
when the lesson is closed, the paper may be thrown into the waste 
basket. 

GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 

Discourage the tendency to over-emphasize details. 

Lii'R and Action: Whenever consistent with the purpose of the 
work in hand, the children should be led to express life and action. 
This may be done by means of the arrangement of body, head, ami> 
or legs, for example: walking, lifting, digging, oxen or horse hauling, 
(log or cat with cars turned to catch sound, an open door, etc. 

To I^'iNi) RiciiT Pkoportions of an Objfxt: First, decide upon 
the size of l\\e body, ot ^T\\\d^?il ^art, and model it. Then find the 



5I9 

right proportion of a detail by comparing the corresponding part in 
the model with its body and make the piece in hand of the same rela- 
tive size. For example, in forming the head of a little chick, it is made 
about one-third or a fourth of the size of the body to which it is to bo 
joined because in the model the head appears to be that proportion of 
the body. The proportion of and distance between the various parts 
may be found in the same manner. 

When comparing objects talk with the children and lead them to 
see where the pieces are alike ; how they differ, etc. Let them name or 
show the fonns and lines they find in other things about the school or 
home that are similar to those in their work. 

Kei:p the Fingers Clean: A sponge or moist cloth for each 
child is a great convenience in keeping the fingers clean and free from 
the particles of clay that interfere with occasional smoothing of a sur- 
face with the fingers. 

Rapid Drying of the Clay: The warmth from the hands cause 
evaporation of the moisture in the clay, and it dries rapidly. There- 
fore, the children should be cautioned with reference to trouble causel 
by the rapid drying of clay. 

The Model to be Finished in One Lesson: The children 
should undertake nothing but what can be completed in one period 
Objects requiring longer time must be kept wrapped in moist cloths 
until taken up again for completion. 

Models for M()[)ELLINg: When forms or models arc placed be- 
fore the children, they should be the best obtainable. 

Incongruities: Eschew such incongruities as the use of feathers, 
sticks, string or wire except as they may be needed inside of the day 
for the purpose of strengthening a piece of work. 

PjREaking up Models: When breaking up clay models made by 
the children, do not allow it to be done in their presence. 

To Preserve: Models may be preserved by coating them with 
gum arabic and then varnish or shellac. But they should be thoroughly 
dried before doing so. The time required for drying depends on the 
size of the object. They may be placed in a drawer or cupboard until 
dry, or, after a day or two they may be baked in a slow oven. 

Finish of Lines and Angles in Advanced Work: In curved 
objects the ''point of union" between two parts usually forms a con- 
cave line, and, after pieces are joined this concave line should be care- 
fully smoothed out \vith thumb or finger, leaving a graceful curve. 
Still, when the joined parts form a sharp angle, the lines should be tru'j 
and the angle as well defined as the children can make it with finger 
nail or sharp stick. 



520 

Toy Dishes for Dolls' Housekeeping: Miniature dishes should 
be made from single pieces of clay, — large dishes are "built-up." For 
a small cup, bowl, or any deep toy dish, roll a piece of clay into the de- 
sired form. Now with the thumb or finger make a hole in it about 
two-thirds its length. Then the sides should be made thinner by pinch- 
ing it all the way around near the top and as far down as may seem 
necessary, at the same time the outside should assume a general shape ; 
and then finish forming the outside. The form of the outside depends 
upon the manner of pressing and pinching the sides. 

Another Method for Shallow Dishes: (Advanced work of 
upper grades). A method of forming a shallow dish is to roll a piece 
of clay into a roll a little thicker than a pencil and long enough to make 
a dish of the size desired, either square, round or oval. Form a ring 
with the roll and fasten the eiids together. Fill the space within the 
ring with small pieces of clay and carefully work them together. For 
the rim, make another roll and place it around the edge on the top side. 
Now finish. 

r>uiLT-Up Work: The sides of deep dishes like cups, bowls, and 
flower-pots, in advanced work: First the bottom is formed and then a 
roll of clay about as thick or thicker than a pencil is placed around even 
with the edge of the bottom. This is fastened in place and flattened by 
means of a little pressure. Successive rolls are added until the desiretl 
depth is reached. Stick each roll fast to the one preceding it. The 
rolls must be made quickly and used immediately. Both the inside an<l 
outside must be made smooth as the work proceeds, and the top should 
be parallel with the bottom. 

r>y making the rolls shorter or longer, the shape of a dish may bi* 
changed at any point. 

In some work it is better to take off and put on again rather than 
attem])t to compress or rub a piece into shape. This method is some- 
times termed "building-up." 

Example of Ruildinc. Up: A beehive may be built up with the 
rolls of clav bv making: each successive laver a little shorter than the 
one preceding it so that it would gradually finish out to a point at the 
top of the hive. 

The other method of modelling a beehive is to make a ball, taper 
it by rolling in the hands, and flatten the base end. Draw a spiral 
groove with a sharp pointed stick, beginning at the apex. Mark to 
represent rolls of straw. 

Pui:nL() lxi)L\Ns' Method: The Pueblo Indians still practice the 
earliest method of making pottery for domestic purposes, that is, hol- 
low pieces are formed by coiling ropes of clay around in successive 



221 

layers until the right depth is reached. As the work progresses, thii 
outside and inside surfaces are smoothed by means of curved scrapers. 
These scrapers are made of the hard rind of the gourd. The ware Ls 
fired in the open air. The articles are arranged in a circle, between 
two fires, one inside of the circle and another outside. 

In the early days of pottery making, jars and pots for domestic 
purposes were hardened by baking before the fire or by means of a 
fire made of bark and light pieces of wood so arranged as to cover the 
clay ware. 

It is probable that the old Egyptians were the first people to use a 
kiln. 

Potters' Wheel: The potters' wheel was one of the earliest in- 
dustrial inventions. 

A sketch and description of a potters' wheel will be sent to the 
teachers. One of these wheels can be made for each school by the boys 
in the eighth grades. 

Decoration : If there is any decoration let it be simple ; in this 
elementary work, intricate design is not appropriate; use straight line 
and dot units. One method of applying the decoration is to cut or 
scratch it in the moist clay with a pointed stick. Another is to use dry 
color and paint the design on the surfaces after the clay has become 
thoroughly dry. In work similar to that made in connection with the 
study of primitive Indian life, it may be decorated by means of such 
lines and characters as were used by the people whose life and work 
the children are studying. 



222 

DRAWINC 

FIRST GRADE. 

Mediums — Water colors, ink with brush, scissors. 

Type Solids — Make children familiar with type solids through hand- 
ling, comparing, building, etc., whenever applicable to the daily 
work. 

Picture Study — Pictures showing life and action, and illustrating 
home incidents are advisable for this grade ; such as Feeding Her 
Birds and First Steps, by Millet : Sistine Madonna and Madonna 
of the Chair, by Raphael; Baby Stuart and Children of King 
Charles, bv Van Dvck ; Children of the Shell, by Murillo, etc. 

Blackboard Work — Encourage blackboard illustration of lessons and 
the practice of free circles, loops and straight lines. 

September 

Color — Discover through conversational lessons, what the children 
know about color. Lead them to note color in soap bubbles, 
flowers, fruits, vegetables, birds, trees, sky, fields, etc. Encour- 
age them to bring in examples of color, — bits of anything that 
show good color. 

Have children observe and become familiar with the proper order oi* 
the prismatic colors thrown through glass prism. 

Introduce color-box, giving particular attention to the use of water 
and liandHng of brush. Paint flat washes of red, yellow and 
blue. 

Teach color mixing, i. e., red and yellow make orange, blue and yel- 
low make green, and red and blue make violet. 

Paint rainbow or prismatic colors in proper order, allowing colors to 
overla]). 

Paint blue sky and green fields, taking colors direct from cakes of 
paint. 

October 

Give class instruction on painting a large specimen from nature, show- 
ing pupils how to i)roceed with work. 

Paint sedges, grasses, see(l-i)ods, grains, etc. 

I'aint autunm flowers and fruits, selecting large, vigorous specimen*i 
from which to work. 

Paint autumn landscape, noting color changes. 

Paint trees with foliage. See Nature Study Course for selections. 



223 

Illustrate home and school experiences, language and reading lessons, 

nature myths, etc. See Course of Study. 
Picture Study. 

November 

Paint autumn fruits and vegetables. 
Paint in ink, dried sedges, seed pods and bare trees. 
Paint objects used to illustrate daily work. 

Illustrate Thanksgiving stories and songs. For selections see Graded 
List of Poems and Stories for First Grade. 

December 

Paint winter landscape in ink. 

Paint Christmas trees in color. 

Paint or cut objects used to illustrate daily work. 

Teach unit and border in decoration,using straight lines or simple 

spots as units. Apply to articles made, — such as clay, pottery, 

book covers, Christmas cards, etc. 
Illustrate Christmas stories. 

January 

Paint Christmas toys. 

Paint in ink, a child posed in action. 

Paint in color, winter wearing apparel, such as caps, mittens, etc. 

Illustrate winter sports. Mother Goose rhymes, daily lessons, etc. 

Practice free drawing of circles, loops and straight lines. 

February 

Illustrate childhood stories related to the lives of Lincoln, Washington, 

Longfellow, etc. 
Paint or cut objects used as illustrative material in daily work. 
Make valentines, applying some of the principles of decoration taught 

in the December lesson. 
Picture Study. 

March 

Illustrate windv weather. 

Pose drawing from child in action and from animals studied in Xaturo 

Course. 
I'aint squares, oblongs and circles as related to number work or for 

any decorative purj)ose. 
Paint bulbs, bare trees and budding branches. 



224 

April 

Illustrate a rainy day, using ink on moist paper. 

Illustrate spring occupations and sports. 

Paint or cut objects related to the work. 

Paint flat washes, graded washes, sprouting bulbs and branches. 

Picture Study. 

May and June 

Review oral color lessons from September outlines. 

Paint spring landscape. 

Paint spring flowers and grasses. 

Paint trees in spring foliage. 

Illustrate spring and summer sports, — what you would like to do in 
vacation, etc. 

Paint the American flag and illustrate incidents of May Day, Decora- 
tion Day, Flag Day and Fourth of July. 



SECOND GRADE. 

Mediums — Water colors, ink with brush, scissors. 

Type Solids — Make children familiar with type solids through hand- 
ling, comparing, building, etc., whenever applicable to the dailv 
work. 

Picture Study — Pictures studied in this grade ought to show action 
and represent occupations or the supply of wants. Such pictures 
as The Mowers, by Dupre ; Village Blacksmith, by Herring ; End 
of Labor, and The Gleaners, by Breton ; Returning to the Fam, 
bv Trovon ; etc. 

Blaukbuard — Illustration of lessons and free drawing of circles, 
straight lines and loops. 

September 

Lead pupils to talk about colors observed in fields, flowers, trees, skv, 

etc., and what they learned about color in the previous grade. 
Review standards, tints and shades. 
Paint graded washes illustrating standards and tints. 
Paint flat washes in tints and save for backgrounds for plant studies. 
Paint stained glass eff'ects to illustrate color blending on moist paper. 
Paint blue sky and green field, showing middle distance or bushes. 



225 

October 

Paint sedges, weeds, seed-pods, etc. 

Paint autumn flowers and fruits, selecting large, vigorous specimen:^. 

including stems and foliage to show growth. 
Paint trees with foliage. See Nature Course for selection. 
Illustrate Nature myths, incidents from the school life and the homes 

of the pupils, and from Historic and Primitive homes. See 

Course of Study. 
Picture Study. 

November 

Paint autumn fruit and vegetables. 
Paint in ink, dried sedges and seed-pods. 
Paint autumn landscape showing middle distance or bushes. 
Paint bare trees, observing growth of main branches. 
Paint objects used as illustrative material in daily lessons. 
Illustrate Thanksgiving stories and poems. See graded list of Poems 
and Stories for Second Year pupils. 

December 

Paint winter landscape in ink, shewing white ground, gray sky and 
black trees. 

Paint Christmas trees in color. 

Paint or cut objects used in daily work. 

Teach borders for decoration, using simple spot combinations, animal 
or bird forms as units, and apply to made articles such as clay 
pottery, calendars, bookcovers, Christmas cards, etc. 

Illustrate Christmas stories and songs. 

Make Christmas cards. 

January 

Paint Christmas toys and winter wearing apparel. 
r*aint in ink, child posed in action. 

Illustrate winter sports, daily lessons. Nature myths, etc. 
Blackboard practice of circles, loops and straight lines. 
Picture Study. 

February 

Illustrate incidents of bravery of the great men whose birthdays occur 
during this month. 



226 

Represent objects connected with daily lessons, working from the ob- 
ject in every case. 

Make valentines. Apply principles of decoration taught in December 
lessons. 

Picture Study. 

March 

Illustrate March weather. 

Pose drawing from animal life and from child posed in action. 

Represent objects connected with daily work, such as articles of use 

and ornament related to the people and countries studied. 
Teach surface covering and apply to made articles. 
Paint bulbs, bare trees and budding branches. 

April 

Paint sprouting bulbs, branches and growing plants. 

Paint umbrellas, open and shut, rubbers and objects related to work. 

Pose child with umbrella. 

Illustrate a rainy day, spring occupations, spring sports, etc. 

Picture Study. 

May akd June 

Review oral color lessons from September outline. 

Paint spring landscape. 

Paint budding branches, spring flowers, trees in foliage. See Nature 
Course for selection of trees. 

Illustrate spring and summer sports. 

Paint the American flag and illustrate incidents of May Day, Decora- 
tion Day, Flag Day and Fourth of July. 

THIRD GRADE. 

Mediums — Water colors, ink with brush, scissors and pencil. 

Tyi'e Solids — Make children familiar with type solids through hand- 
ling, comparing and building whenever applicable to the daily 
work. 

Picture Study — Pictures studied in this grade ought to show action 
and represent incidents of community life, such as Primarv 
Scliool in Brittany : Children at Work, by Geoff" roy ; Pilgrims 
Going to Church, by l)Oughton, etc. Pictures of animal life also 
will be of great interest to pupils. 



227 

Blackboard illustration of lessons and free drawing of circles, loops, 
reversed curves and straight lines. 

September 

Conversational lessons reviewing knowledge of color gained in pre- 
vious grade. 

Paint standards, tints and shades, using color charts for comparison. 

Paint flat and graded washes for backgrounds for plant studies. 

Paint stained glass effects to illustrate color blending on moist paper 

Paint blue sky and green fields showing middle distance and a tree in 
foreground. 

October 

Paint autumn flowers and fruit on branch. 

Paint sedges, seed-pods or flowers within a vertical oblong or circle, 

. noting good spacing. 
Paint trees with foliage. See Nature Course. 
Paint autumn landscape, noting color changes. 
Illustrate daily lessons, such as Geography, History, etc., i. e., stories 

relating to Rochester, New York City and State, etc. ; nature 

mvths, fables, etc. See Course of Studv. 

November 

Paint autumn fruits and vegetables. 

Paint in ink, dried sedges, seed-pods, rose-berries, etc., within oblongs 

or circles, and use for book-covers. 
Paint November landscape. 
Paint or cut objects used as illustrative material in other lessons, such 

as objects of use and ornament related to the lives of the early 

settlers of Rochester and New York. 
Illustrate daily lessons. Thanksgiving stories, etc. See Graded List of 

Poems and Stories for Third Year. 
F*icTURE Study. 

December 

Paint a winter landscape in three values, showing sky, land and bare 

trees. Use ink on moist paper. 
Teach border, surface and rosette for decoration, using simple spot 

combinations, small plant forms, animal, bird or insect forms as 

repeats. Apply to made articles such as clay pottery, book 

covers, Christmas cards, calendars, etc. 
Illustrate daily lessons. 



228 

January 

Paint Christmas toys. 

Paint a group of objects related to daily work. 

Paint lanterns, on and above the eye level. 

Illustrate winter sports, daily work, etc. 

Blackboard practice of circles, loops, reversed curves and straight 

lines. 
Picture Study. 

February 

Illustrate stories of bravery related to the national holidays. 

Draw from objects related to daily lessons. 

Make valentines — applying principles of decoration taught in previous 

lessons. 
Make book-cover for a language lesson. 

March 

Paint March landscape in ink. 

Illustrate March weather, — what the wind does, etc. 

Pose drawing from children in action and from animals studied in 

Nature Course. 
Draw or cut objects related to daily work. 
Paint bulbs, bare trees and budding branches. 
Paint circles, squares, oblongs, triangles, etc. 
Picture Study. 

April 

Represent in pencil-massing, ink and color, sprouting bulbs, branches, 

growing plants, etc. 
Represent in pencil-massing, objects related to spring occupations or 
to daily work. 

Illustrate a rainy day, using ink on moist paper. 
Paint spring flowers with foliage, arranging in vertical oblong or 

circle. 

May and June 

Review oral color lessons from September outlines. 

Paint spring lan(lscaj)e. showing middle distance or bushes, and tree 
trunks in foreground noting good spacing. The principles of 
spacing taught in the plaids ought to precede this lesson. 

Represent spring ftow^ts \\\ color and in pencil-massing. 



Paint trees in foliage. See Nature course for selection of trees. 
Illustrate spring and summer occupations and sports and incidents of 

the national holidays that occur during these months. 
Picture Study. 

FOURTH GRADE. 

Mediums — Water colors, ink with brush, pencil. 

Type Forms — Pupils of this grade ought to be familiar with all of the 
type forms and be able to recognize them in familiar objects. 

Picture Study — Make pupils familiar with works of art by acknowl- 
edged masters. Landseer, Rosa Bonheur, Dupre, etc. 
History pictures also are suggested for this grade, such as The 
Return of the Mayflower, Pilgrims Going to Church, Pilgrim 
Exiles, etc., by Boughton. 

Blackboard illustration of daily work as frequently as possible. 

Children should be required to constantly apply all principles of Art 
taught during the drawing period to all of the free illustrativo 
work. 

• 
September — February 

Review standards, tints, shades ; and teach intermediate hues, warm 
and cool colors, broken colors. Use color charts and paint box 
to illustrate. 

Paint flat and graded washes and stained glass effects. Save papers 
for future use. 

Paint autumn landscape, showing middle distance or bushes, and trees 
in foreground. 

I^aint a color scale of four tones including a standard, two tints an 1 
one shade. Paint a standard and its two neighboring hues. 
Paint two standards and their two intermediate hues. 

Paint in ink, three or four kinds of simple leaves in different foreshort- 
ened positions. 

Paint autumn flowers, weeds, rose-hips, seed-pods, etc., studying the 
lines of growth and trying to see their beauty. 

Paint in ink, one of the above subjects in a vertical oblong working 
for good spacing. Use for book-cover or any other suitable pur- 
pose. 

Represent a plant form in pencil-massing and one in color. 
Paint autumn fruit on branch. 

Paint a single vegetable. 

Represent in a horizontal oblong, a group of two vegetables in pencil- 
massing, showing two values and good composition. 



230 

Make sketches in ink, of animals studied in Nature Course. 

Make a pencil scale of neutral gray showing three values, i. e. light, 
medium and dark, and apply to a simple landscape composition 
showing sky, middle distance and foreground. 

By the use of simple spot combinations or plant forms, teach the prin- 
ciples involved in decorative borders, surface coverings and ro- 
settes. Apply to some made objects, such as potter)', book-cover, 
keyboard, calendar or any Christmas work. 

Teach pencil testing for measurements in obtaining proportions. 

Teach the drawing of the ellipse representing the circle above and be- 
low eve level. 

m 

Illustrate daily lessons with color, ink or pencil-massing. Avoid line- 
drawing in this kind of work. 

Picture Study. 



February — ^June 

* 

Draw an object based on cylinder below eye level. 

Draw an object based on hemisphere below eye level. 

Draw a pleasing vase form below eye level. 

Draw a group of objects based on cylinder and sphere below eye level. 

Compose space and show color values with pencil. 
Paint lanterns above eye level in a horizontal or vertical oblong show- 
ing good spacing. 
Make sketches from child posed to represent some action or character 

related to other school work. Use ink or color. 
Teach trefoil and quatrefoil and apply to stained glass window, bcM)k- 

cover or any other purpose api)licable to the work. 
Make a simple landscape composition including sky, land, bushes and 

trees, in four pencil values, placing scale at side of paper. 
Practice good lettering and apply to book-covers. 
Design book-cover for daily work, applying flower, landscape or pose 

decorative drawing. Use lettering placed horizontally across the 

sheet. 
Paint a color scale of four tones including a standard, two tints anl 

one shade. 
Review the oral color lessons from the September outlines. 
Represent spring flowers in color and in pencil-mass. 
Paint spring landscapes noting the spring coloring in nature. 

Picture Study. 



FIFTH GRADE. 

Mediums — Water colors, ink with brush, pencil. 

Type Forms — Keep the type forms fresh in the pupils' minds by con- 
stantly referring to them whenever applicable to the work. 

Composition — In decorative composition, work for flatness and gooil 
arrangement of shapes. Flower composition is not the mere 
picture of a flower, but an irregular pattern of lines and spaces. 
The whole space should be cut by main lines; and all lines and 
shapes must be related one to the other by connectings and plac- 
ings so as to form a beautiful whole. The same is true of any 
piece of composition. 

Picture Study — Make pupils familiar with works of art by acknowl- 
edged masters, such as Lerolle, Millet,' Turner, Schreyer, Bon- 
heur, etc. 

Children should be required to constantly apply all principles of art 
taught during the drawing period to all of the free illustrative work. 

September — February 

Review standards, tijits, shades, intermediate hues; and teach warm 
and cool colors, broken colors, contrasted and dominant har- 
monies. Use color charts and paint-box to illustrate. Apply the 
harmonies to the plaids, reviewing good spacing at the same time. 

Paint flat and graded washes and stained glass effects. Save papers 
for future use. 

Paint autumn landscape, including sky, middle distance, trees in fort- 
ground. 

Paint a color scale of four tones, including a standard, two tints and 
one shade ; and make a pencil scale of five tones from very light 
to very dark. 

Make ink silhouettes of three or four kinds of simple leaves in different 
foresliortened positions. 

Represent autumn flowers, weeds and seed-pods in pencil-mass, ink 
and color, studying the lines of growth and noting their beauty. 

Make a decorative arrangement, in ink or color, of one of the above 
subjects in a vertical oblong. 

Paint autumn fruit on branch. 

Represent, in pencil-mass or color, two vegetables placed in a pleasing 
group. Suggest table. 

Make sketches, in ink or color, of animal life studied in Nature Course. 

Make a scale showing four pencil values, including white and black, 
and apply to simple landscape composition, including sky, land, 
bushes and water or trees. 



232 

Design a bilateral unit, using simple spot combinations or plant forms, 
and apply to some made work, such as clay pottery, book-cover, 
key board, blotter or any Christmas work. 

Picture Study. 

Review pencil testing for measurements in obtaining proportions. 

Represent, in pencil or color, an object based on the cylinder below the 
eye level ; and the same or another object above eye level. 

Illustrate daily lessons. 

February — ^Ju n e 

Draw an object based on the hemisphere placed below eye level. 

Draw a pleasing vase- form placed below eye level. 

Draw a group of two objects, showing rough and smooth surfaces ani 

express these qualities in the rendering. 
Pose child in action. Use ink or color. 
Design a bowl, vase or basket-form on eye level, and decorate with a 

pleasing border, using spot combinations or plant forms as 

motifs. Place at side of paper a color scheme derived from some 

textile or from nature, and apply to de3ign made. 
Practice good lettering and apply to book-cover for a written lesson on 

Egyptian ornament. 
Make a simple landscape composition in four pencil values, includini,^ 

sky, land, bushes and trees or water. 
Picture Study. 

Review September color lessons. 
Paint spring flowers. 
Illustrate daily lessons with color, ink or pencil-massing. Avoid line 

drawing in this kind of work. 

SIXTH GRADE. 

Mediums — Water colors, ink with brush, pencil. 

Type Forms — Keep the type forms fresh in the pupils' minds by con- 
stantly referring to them whenever applicable to the work. 

Composition — See Fifth Year outline. 

Picture Study — Make pupils familiar with works of some of the best 
artists, such as, Rembrandt, Troyon, Corot; or select some 
special group as painters of the same subject ; for example, Ani- 
mal Life, by Bonheur, Landseer, Dupre, Troyon, Lambert, etc. 

Children should be required to constantly apply all principles of An 
taught during the drawing period to all of the free illustrative 
work. 



233 
September — February 

Review standards, tints, shades, intermediate hues, warm and cool 
colors, broken colors, contrasted and dominant harmonics, and 
teach analogous harmony. Use color charts and paint box to 
illustrate. 

■ 

Paint flat and graded washes and stained glass effects. Save papers 
for future use. 

Paint autumn landscape, from out-of-door observation if possible, not- 
ing the hannonious blending of the colors in Nature. 

Paint color scale of five tones, including a standard, three tints and one 
shade. Make a pencil scale of five tones from very light to verv 
dark. 

Make ink silhouettes of several kinds of simple leaves showing diffc*- 
ent foreshortened positions. 

Represent autumn flowers, sedges, seed-pods, etc., in pencil-mass, ink 
and color, studying lines of growth and noting their beauty. 

Make a decorative arrangement in ink of one of the above subjects. 
Arrange in a circle or vertical oblong and use for an initial letter, 
considering letter with flower in breaking space. Apply to book- 
cover, paragraph or any other suitable purpose. 

Paint autumn fruit on branch. 

Treat the above subject decoratively in a square, oblong or circle to be 
used for a lamp-shade. Derive color scheme from specimen and 
color in flat washes, using tints of colors. 

Represent in pencil-mass or color two vegetables placed in a pleasing 
group. Suggest table-surface. 

Make a pencil scale showing four values including white and black, 
and apply to landscape composition including sky, land, bushes 
and tree trunks. 

Design a bilateral unit from spot combinations or plant forms. Use 
contrasted, dominant or analogous harmony, and apply to some 
made object such as pottery, book-covers, Christmas cards, etc. 

IMcTL'RE Study. 
Review pencil-testing for measurements in getting proportions. 

Compose, in vertical or horizontal oblong, lanterns above the eye level. 
Use pencil-mass, ink or color. 

Illustrate daily lessons with color, ink or pencil-massing. Avoid line 
drawing in this kind of work. 

February — June 
Draw a pleasing vase form below eye level. 



Draw a group of objects based on the cylinder and hemisphere. Com- 
pose space and finish in pencil vakies. 

Teach principles involved in parallel and angular perspective. 

Draw in outline, an object based on the cube or square prism below 
eye level and in angular perspective. 

Draw a large book below eye level in angular perspective. 

Draw^ an object placed partly above and partly below eye level in 
angular perspective. 

Practice good lettering and apply to book-cover for a written lesson on 
Greek Ornament. 

Pose child for poster, book-cover design, or any other suitable pur- 
pose. Render in pencil, ink or color. 

Compose a landscape in vertical oblong and color in flat tones. 

Picture Study. 

Review September color lessons. 

Paint spring flowers. 

Illustrate dailv lessons. 

^ • 

SEVENTH GRADE. 

Mediums — Water colors, ink with brush, pencil. 

Composition — See Fifth Year outHne. 

Picture Study — In picture study the elements of beauty should be 
sought, i. e., the rythmic lines, the relations of areas, the har- 
mony of mass-composition, and as a whole the blending of all 
these, giving us the sense of ideal beauty. Make pupils familiar 
with the works of a few of the best artists, treating them indi- 
vidually or in groups ; for example, Fontainebleau, Group, Corot, 
Dupre, Rousseau, Diaz and Daubigney as landscape painters, etc. 
See The World's Painters by Hoyt, pages 150-152. 

Pupils should be required to constantly apply all principles of art 
taught (luring the drawing period to all of the free illustrative 
work. 

September — February 

Review standards, tints, shades, intermediate hues, warm and cool 
colors ; and teach active, passive or non-colors : contrasted, domi- 
nant, analogous and complementary harmonies. Use color- 
charts and paint box to illustrate. 

Paint autumn landscape, from out-of-door observation if possible. Use 
blue or violet gray in the distance and carry out the middle-dis- 
tance on the horizontal so as to help the retiring effect. 



235 

Paint color scale of five tones, including a standard, three tints and om» 
shade. 

Make a pencil scale of seven tones, including white and black. 

Paint a pleasing color scheme from some textile or from nature. 

Paint in ink or color, several kinds of simple leaves showing different 
foreshortened positions. 

Represent autumn flowers, sedges, seed-pods, etc., in pencil-mass, ink 
and color. 

Make a decorative arrangement in an oblong or circle of one of the 
above subjects and use for an initial letter for some purpose ap- 
plicable to the daily work. 

Represent autumn trees in pencil and color, and suggest a distant hill, 
a roadway or some other out-door feature to complete the pic- 
ture. 

Paint autumn fruit on branch. 

Paint a pleasing group of vegetables, tinting background and table. 
Compose space in horizontal oblong. 

Treat the vegetable study decoratively in pencil-mass or ink and use as 
tail-piece. 

Make a pencil scale showing five values, including white and black, 
and apply to landscape composition, including land, sky, bushes 
and trees. 

Design a bilateral or a balanced unit from spot combinations or plant 
forms and apply to some made work. It may be used as a single 
unit or as a repeat for border, surface or rosette. 

Design a stained glass window and color harmoniously. 

Picture Study. 

Draw a pleasing vase-form in a vertical oblong, showing three pencil 
values. 

February — June 

Draw a group of curved objects, composing space and showing pencil 
values representing color, light and shade. 

Paint a simple vase-form, tinting background and table. 

Review principles involved in parallel perspective. 

Draw a large object based on the cube or square prism placed below 
eye level and in angular perspective. 

Teach shading of angular objects. 

Draw a pleasing group of objects containing one angular object. Com- 
pose space and show light and dark, and light and shade. 

Draw a large object placed partly above and partly below eye level, and 
in angular perspective. 



236 

Make window sketches of towers above eye level, teaching the cone 
and square pyramid above and below eye level. 

Practice good lettering and apply to book-cover to be used for a writ- 
ten lesson on Roman art. Make pupils familiar with some of the 
best examples of Roman art. 

Pose child for poster, book-cover or any other suitable purpose. 

Compose a landscape composition in flat tones of color and outline 
masses with black. 

Picture Study. 

Review September color lessons. 

Paint spring flowers. 

EIGHTH GRADE. 

Mediums — Water colors, ink with brush, pencil. 

Composition — See Fifth Year outline.. 

Picture Study — In picture study the elements of beauty should be- 
sought, i. e., the rythmic lines, the relations of areas, the har- 
mony of mass-composition, and as a whole the blending of all 
these, giving us the sense of ideal beauty. Select some special 
group or subject and compare the interpretations of the same 
subject by different artists, for example. The Madonnas, por- 
traits, animals, landscape painters, etc. The Madonna has been 
a favorite theme for artists and poets for many centuries. It can 
be treated as the type of mother-love that surrounds all child- 
hood, and the different treatments of the subject may be classi- 
fied and studied by schools, etc. The pupils of this grade shoiil«I 
have a fair knowledge of our best American artists, Sargent. La 
Farge, Whistler, Blashfield and others of note. 

Pupils should be required to constantly apply all principles of art 
taught during the drawing period to all of the free illustrative 
work. 

September — February 

Illustrate with color charts and water colors the following terms:— 
standards, tints, shades, intermediate hues, warm and cool colori. 
broken colors, active and passive or non-colors; contrasted, domi- 
nant, analogous and complementary harmonies. 

Paint autumn landscape from out-of-door observation if possible. Use 
blue or violet gray in the distance and carry out the middle-dis- 
tance on the horizontal so as to help the retiring effect. 

Paint color scale of fixe tones including a standard, three tints and one 
shade. Paint a pkasiw^ color scheme from some textile or from 



237 

Nature. Make a pencil scale of seven tones including white and 
black. 

Paint in ink or color, several kinds of simple leaves showing different 
foreshortened positions. 

Represent autumn flowers, sedges, seed-pods, etc., in pencil-mass, ink 
and color. 

Make a decorative arrangement, in an oblong or circle, of one of the 
" above subjects and use for an initial letter for some purpose ap- 
plicable to the daily work. Use ink or color. 

Paint autumn fruit on branch. 

Make a decorative arrangement in a horizontal oblong, of the fruit 
study and use for tail piece. Use color scheme found in speci- 
men. 

Paint a pleasing group of vegetables, tinting background and table. 
Compose space in horizontal oblong. 

Make a pencil scale showing five values including white and black, 
and apply to landscape composition including sky, land, trees, etc. 
Treat the above composition in color, selecting color scheme 
from Nature and using a different enclosing form. 

Design a balanced or a bilateral unit from spot combinations or plant 
fonns and apply to made articles. It may be used as a single unit 
or as a repeat for border, surface or rosette. 

Picture Study. 

Make a design for a lantern based on cylinder, cube or square prism. 
Color harmoniously. 

Draw a pleasing vase-form in vertical oblong, showing pencil values. 

February — J u n e 

Draw a pleasing group of curved objects showing pencil values in 
light and shade, and light and dark. Compose space in oblong. 

Paint a group of curved objects showing light and shade. Tint har- 
moniously the table and background. 

Review principles involved in parallel and angular perspective. 

Draw an object based on the cube or square prism placed below eye 
level and in angular perspective. 

Draw a large object based on the triangular prism placed below eye 
level and in angular perspective. 

Teach shading of angular objects. 

Draw a group containing one angular object. Compose space and ren- 
der in light and shade. 

Pose child for poster, book-cover or any other suitable purpose. 

Practice good lettering and apply to book-cover for a written lesson 



238 

on the Renaissance. Make pupils of this grade familiar with 
some of the best examples of Egyptian, Greek and Roman art, 
and with the characteristics of ancient, mediaeval and modem 
schools of ornament. 

Compose a landscape composition in flat tones of color. 

Picture Study. 

Review September color lessons. 

Paint spring flowers. 

Design an initial letter using a group of objects, flower or landscape 
composition to balance letter in the enclosing figure. 

Helen E. Lucas, 
Supervisor of Drawing. 
Approved, Sept., 1904, 

Clarence F. Carroll, 
Supt. of Schools. 



239 



MUSIC 

Inasmuch as the study of music representation has been a part of 
the course of study for three years only, the following outline is but 
temporary, subject to change each year. At present, but an hour a 
week is given to music in each grade. Individual singing is insisted 
upon in the first five grades and encouraged in the upper grades. Each 
lesson begins with a few minutes devoted to breathing exercises and 
pure vocal drill, standing position. 

First Grade. 

The gaining of musical experience and development of the rythmic 
and tonal sense. Aim for inspirational singing and spontaneous ex- 
pression. 

Material: Modern Music Primer and supplementary rote song 
books in the hands of the teacher. 

I. Work with monotones. Individual attention and endeavor to 
train each child (for method, see Outline I) to sing single tones and 
simple phrases accurately as to pitch. 

II. Vocal exercises: Sustained tones and descending scale with 
humming and with no and loo, training from high tones downward. 
The ideal is to use only the pure, sweet light tones natural to child- 
hood. For compass see Outline I. 

III. Rote Songs: These form the largest part of the work. For 
method of teaching see Outline I. The songs chosen are simple and 
present a large variety of subjects to correlate with the child's other 
interests. 

IV. Invention of songs correlating with other interests: Poetic 
motives for melodies given and vice versa or both words and melodies. 

y. Observation work on the songs learned: 

1. By the ear (see Outline XI, exercises 1 to 17). Pupil notes 
the emotional characteristics ; the rhythm ; the length of 
tones ; their relative highness ; the rapidity of movement. In 
the last half of the year, several of the simplest songs, al- 
ready known, are learned by rote with the Italian syllables 
as another verse. Among these are several scale songs. 

2. By the eye (see Outline XI, exercises 18 to 23 or 31). In 
the last part of the year simple pictures of the songs are 



240 

drawn on the board for recognition. These may be in any 
form which gives an idea of the relative pitch and length oi 
tones. 

Second Grade. 

From sense perception to mental conception. Aim to increase the 
child's musical experience and observe the rythmic and tonal elements 
which enter into song. 

Material : Same as First Grade. 

I. Continue individual work with monotoncy. Few should be left 
uncured bv the end of this vear. 

II. Breathing exercises in form of game or play. Vocal exercises 
same as first grade and add singing of sustained tones on several 
vowels, passing from one to another without break or additional 
breath ; also descending scale passages with nOy nee, loo, and lah. 

III. Rote songs: See First Grade. 

IV. Invention of songs: See First Grade. 

V. Observation work on rote songs. Certain simple songs repre- 
senting a variety of rhythms and keys and tonal problems are selected 
as **work" songs. These are learned by rote, first with words, then with 
Italian syllables, then used for observation lessons by ear and eye (sec 
Outline XI, exercises 1 to 51). This study of the representative of 
songs learned by car, forms the connecting link between rote songs and 
sight singing and by the end of the second year twelve songs should 
have been thus thoroughly studied from the blackboard staflF. Keys 
are not mentioned — a cross being placed on the degree representing 
do. Particular attention is paid to the position of the tonic chord in 
each key. The meaning of the upper figure of the meter signature is 
made clear. 

VI. Written work on the board : Copying music and writing por- 
tions from memory. 

Third Grade. 

Observation of rhythmic and tonal elements as they enter into 
known songs and application to sight singing. 

Material : Modern Music Primer and Manuscript Series copy 
book I in hands of the children. Supplementary rote songs. 

I. Monotone work completed. There should be no monotones 
after the third year in school except children who enter from schools 
not doing this work. 

II. Breathing and vocal exercises as in Second Grade with some 



241 

added ones for variety. Tuning exercises and chord work as prepara- 
tory to part singing. 

III. Rote songs: See First Grade. 

IV. Invention of songs as in First Grade and also writing orig- 
inal melodies. 

V. Observation work : See Second Grade. The alteration reading 
and writing work occupies more atterrtion. 

VI. Sight singing. This begins in this grade and always follows 
observation work on rote songs in the same key and rhythm. For 
method of procedure, see Outline XI, exercise 54 etseq. The singing 
is done with words at first sight or with loo or with syllables according 
to difficulty. The individual sings first, then the class. This develops 
responsibility on the part of each child. In this grade the children in- 
terpret at sight all kinds of simple rhythms the equally divided pulse 
and common intervals. No keys are learned definitely, a cross being 
placed on the degree representing do. The children count all kinds of 
measures and tap different rhythmic forms. Simple melody forms are 
drilled upon in each key. The names of the lines and spaces are 
learned. 

VII. Written work: This work is closely related to the sight 
singing then in progress and tends to make each child responsible for 
the facts of representation studied. 

Fourth Grade. 

Technical forms studied, compared and analyzed in rote songs and 
applied to sight singing. 

Material : Modern Music First Hook and Manuscript Series copy 
book I in hands of children. Supplementary rote songs. 

I. Breathing and vocal exercises as in Third grade and add more 
formal and elaborate ones. Thev should, however, be correlated with 
other interests as far as possible and grow out of the particular needs 
of the class, preparing for any difficulties in tone production or enun- 
ciation in songs to be studied. Deep, quiet breathing, sustained breath 
with economized emission, high, sweet, light, ringing tones are the 
ideals before the teacher. The chord work is continued. 

II. Rote songs are taught in this grade both for their aesthetic 
value and for use in observation work leading to sight singing in the 
same key, following Outline XI, exercise 1 to 53. 

III. Sight singing: This now assumes a very important place in 
the work. See VI, Third Grade, but the class now learns nine keys 



242 

definitely as keys with their signatures. The rules for recognizing key 
signatures is learned and applied. The meaning of the entire meter 
signature is learned. The sharp chromatics are taught by rote. All 
dynamic signs and movement words are explained as they occur in 
songs studied and learned through use. A beginning is made in the 
study of the lives of composers. The unequally divided beat is the new 
time problem. Two part work is beg^n in rounds, canons and a few 
simple two part studies. 

IV. Written work as in VII, Third Grade. Relative and absolute 
pitch names are placed beneath all notes written by children above the 
Third Grade. 

V. Ear training in rhythm and pitch is a constant factor in the 
work. 

VI. Invention of melodies as in First Grade but more elaborate. 

Fifth Grade. 

Material : Same as Fourth Grade. 

I. Breathing and vocal exercises: See Fourth Grade. Tuning 
exercises in minor chords are added and the normal minor scale. 

II. Rote songs: See Fourth Grade. 

III. Sight singing: See Fourth Grade. The flat chromatics are 
added. The more difficult work in the First Book is studied and more 
attention given to two part work, every child being able to sing either 
part. The rules for recognizing and writing key signatures in major 
and minor keys are learned through much use. 

IV. Written Work. 

Sixth Grade. 

Material : Modern Music Second Book and Manuscript Series 
copy book II in hands of i)upils. A few supplementary rote songs. 

I. Breathing and vocal exercises same as in Fourth and Fifth 
Grades with the addition of more formal ones such as are given adult 
private vocal pupils. A chromatic scale study and the harmonic minor 
scale are added. Care is taken of changing voices. 

II. Rote songs: See Fourth Grade. 

III. Sight singing: See Fourth and Fifth Grades. The easie' 
work in the Second Book is selected for this grade. There is consid- 
erable two part work and work in the minor mode. All the common 
dynamic signs and movement words are learned through use and com- 



243 

posers studied in connection with their songs. Major and minor sec- 
onds are drilled on for instant recognition by eye and ear. 

IV. Written work. 

V. Ear training : There is constant work in this in both pitch and 
rhythm. 

Seventh Grade, 

Material : Same as Sixth Grade. 

I. Breathing and vocal exercises same as for Sixth Grade, add- 
ing the melodic minor scale. 

II. Rote songs: See P^ourth Grade. 

III. Sight Singing: See Fourth. Fifth and Sixth Grades. The 
inore difficult work in the Second Book is given ; unison two part and 
three part songs and studies, pupils alternating in singing alto. Major 
and minor thirds are drilled upon for instant recognition by ear and 
eye. 

IV. Written work. 

Eighth Grade. 

Material : Modem Music Third Book and Manuscript Series 
Hook II in hands of pupils. 

I. Breathing and vocal exercises: See Seventh Grade. Classifi- 
cation of voices for permanent parts. 

II. Sight singing in all keys and rhythms, unison, two and three 
part songs and work from the bass staff. 

III. Written work. 

Alice C. Clement, 
Supervisor of Music. 
Approved April 13, 1905, 
C. F. Carroll, 

Supt. of Schools. 



244 



DOMESTIC ART. 

Introductory Note. — "Handwork in relation to the child is ex- 
pression in terms of form and color : in relation to social life it is the 
interpretation of art and industry." 

Dr. F. M. McMurry. 

The Aim of the Course. This course in Domestic Art aims to 
be an integral part of public school instruction. The possibilities of 
the subject as a factor in the correlation of school studies with home 
life and with our present economic problems justify its place in the 
curriculum. 

Its purpose is distinctly educational and not primarily to meet an 
immediate personal need or to prepare for future trade work although 
it will in a measure react on both. To be of educational worth the 
course should stimulate thought and train judgment and taste as well 
as hands. It fails in its purpose if increasing thinking power and 
greater social efficiency do not follow its use. 

Correlation with Other School Subjects. Domestic .Art 
affords an opportunity for fixing much of the knowledge gained 
through geography, history, arithmetic, drawing and nature study. As 
a part of Manual Training it enriches language work by making 
definite through construction ideas which may otherwise be vaguf. 
The more diversified the opportunities a child has to express himself, 
the clearer his thought and the better his written page. 

To get the largest result the economic and the art side of the sub- 
ject should be taught hand in hand with the stitches. The last stand 
in relation to Domestic Art as technique to music — a means rather tha'i 
an end. 

Through the teacher's guidance habits of orderliness, care in the 
selection of material and taste in decoration can be secured as well a? 
a knowledge of sewing. 

To induce the child to express her own thought and taste, to en- 
able her in her own daily living so to see and appreciate good color and 
suitability of material that she will instinctively avoid tawdry display is 
a fundamental part of Domestic Art work. 

Through a growing knowledge of textiles and a trained apprecia- 
tion of the beauty of simplicity when expressed in correct line, form 
and color, the Vile oi ^2lc\\ m<\\N\dw^V \s enriched and the community 



245 

eflucatcd. For this reason, design which makes for freedom and orig- 
inality in contrast to the unquestioning acceptance of prescribed stand- 
ards of excellence, so-called, cannot be too strongly emphasized. The 
purpose is not to teach decorative work but to encourage independent 
thinking. The school room during the sewing hour should be a labora- 
tory in which the creative tendency is ever active. To create — to feel 
— to appreciate are vital to the subject. 

The Child's Interest Kept Active. The sewing in all the 
grades is based partly on original design which is to be applied to 
something the pupil likes to make. It is hoped by this method to 
stimulate thought and keep active the child's interest in needlework 
until a recognition of the necessity for the plainer kinds is developed. 
Skill in the niceties of plain needlework, usually a matter of mechan- 
ical drill, tends to come spontaneously if the child has put some of her 
own individuality into the work. The desire to make articles which 
the child can put to immediate personal use and as much as possible 
within a limited time — materials selected, and prepared by the teacher 
endangers the educational side of the subject. One is apt to consider 
the product rather than the child — the age limitations and larger social 
aspect of the work being overlooked. With such a standard before us, 
we work for trade skill instead of giving our girls a training which 
will touch life and character and at the same time aid in the solution of 
future individual problems. 

The Need of Free Expression. In this course technique is sub- 
ordinated to free expression. Careful workmanship is desired but that 
the child should have a clear conception of the use of her work and ex- 
press it appropriately is the chief aim. Uniformity of stitch is more to 
be desired than fineness. 

The teacher should act as leader in the various exercises, but a 
margin of freedom should be left to the child. Such work does not 
present to the average mind the appearance of excellence seen when 
w^ork is carefully dictated, but there is promise of larger and more last- 
ing results therefrom. 

General Plan of the Work. The work for the four grades is 
planned to advance from coarse to fine with emphasis on the free 
rather than the formal side. 

Xo formal drafting will be taught. Instead, there will be free pat- 
tern cutting and the enlargement or reduction of simple, cut patterns 
by a study of relative proportions. 

No stamped work is to be used for decorative purposes — simple de- 
signs executed by the children will be substituted. There will be re- 



246 

peated applications of thq color harmonies and principles of design 
studied in connection with the drawing. 

The principles of weaving begun in the kindergarten and the pri- 
mary grades are to be further developed. 

Textile raw materials and manufactures will be studied in their 
relation to the geography and history courses. 

Number work will be utilized in calculating the quantity of ma- 
terial needed for the various exercises. 

A book for notes is to be used in connection with the course. 

General Directions. 

The course is flexible and may be modified at the discretion of the 
teacher so far as the articles to be made are concerned. There should, 
however, be a uniformity in the preparation and the development of 
the lessons. The articles suggested for practical work in each grade 
cover a rather wide range. No class is expected to make all, but those 
made should meet the needs of the pupils in their present environment. 

The lessons should consist of 

(1) Study or thought- work. 

(2) Practical applications. 

(3) Written notes. 

It is requested that a specimen of the object to be made be exhibit- 
ed in the class-room a lesson or two before the time for the practical 
application. During this preparatory lesson the pupils should be en- 
couraged to examine the article carefully in order to become familiar 
with its construction and to prepare themselves for providing suitable 
materials for their own work. A few minutes should be taken at tlu 
beginning of each lesson for class discussion, the questions of tlv 
teacher being few, direct and well-chosen, avoiding detail. 

An outline of the points developed in the class discussion should 
be written on the blackboard and at the same time by the pupils on 
paper. 

The following outline is suggestive : 

1. Name of the article made. 

2. Purpose. 

3. Materials that can be used. 

4. Measurements of materials or pattern. 

5. Names of stitches used. 

6. Further remarks. 

Some of the written notes will precede the practical work and some 
will follow. After the article is completed, these notes should be neat- 



247 

ly copied in ink in a note-book. They will be of use in the solution ot 
succeeding problems. 

Pupils should at all times be encouraged to illustrate their notes 
applying the principles underlying the course in drawing. 

In almost every household are short lengths of left-over materials — 
silks, cottons, woolens, bits of ribbon, lace, etc.. which can be utilized 
under the guidance of the teacher. By suggestion these can find their 
way to the schoolroom to become the common property of the class 
and to be utilized by those who have time for additional exercises. 

The variety of materials, colors, etc., furnishes an excellent oppor- 
tunity for the development of taste and judgment in their relation to 
textile products. While at the same time the pupil is being prepared 
through co-operative drills for a share in the large work and fuller 
life about her. 

Textile subjects furnish material for compositions and themes. 
The knowledge of textile raw materials gained through language ex- 
ercises enriches the thought of the child and leads to more intelligent 
constructive work. 

Spfxial Directions. 

Require oral description of the work done previously. 

To develop habits of clear thinking and correct expression require 
complete sentences in question and answer. 

Encourage blackboard illustration by the pupils. 

Train the pupils to prepare their work in a thorough manner, but 
the age possibilities should be kept in mind and overfine work avoided. 

For rather difficult constnictive work prepare the child by practice 
with paper or on coarse canvas first. 

Be careful of the children's eyes, especially on dark days. 

Grade 5 B. 

Course of Study. 

Weaving and sewing ; instruction on fibres and textiles ; simple de- 
sign ; applications ; written notes. 

Time* — one hour per week. 

This course presupposes a training in the lower grades of the mus- 
cles of the hand through the kindergarten and the manual training 
exercises in knotting, braiding, simple weaving and coarse stitches on 
canvas. 

In this grade pupils should be led to see the connection between the 
braiding and the weaving they have previously done and the more ad- 



248 

vanced work of weaving textile raw materials into cloth. The intri- 
cacies of manufacture are too difficult for comprehension, but the les- 
sons on warp and woof, heddle, shuttle and batten will arouse the in- 
terest of the children in the materials used. 

Syllabus. 

Exercises: Weaving; basting; running; back-stitching; overcasting; 
hemming ; overhanding ; sewing on buttons ; outline or stern 
stitch. 

Applications : Bag initialed ; simple pen wiper of original form ; rugs, 
needle-books, blotters and table mats as exercises in weaving and 
design ; book marks, napkin rings of raffia ; face cloths : disli 
towels; simple costumes for dolls (basted work, — an exercise in 
free cutting, calculation of the quantity of material needed, anJ 
selection of appropriate colors). 

Extra work : Dolls' hats ; original or co-operative exercises. 

Design: (correlated with nature study and drawing) : 

(a) Simple lettering to be applied to some article made. 

(b) Simple space division for a border. 

Textile Study (correlated with geography and history) : 

(a) ]>rief study of textile raw materials — cotton, flax, wool or 
silk. 

(b) Their relation to the woven fabric. 

(c) Contrasted and dominant color harmonies studied by means 
of textiles. 

Grade 5 A. 

Course of Study. 

Instruction on textile raw materials continued; cutting at sight; 
repairing garments ; simple design ; applications ; notes. 

Syllabus. 

Exercises : Review of previous stitches ; sewing on snaps, hooks and 
eyes ; sewing on tape ; patching ; chain stitch ; rope stitch. 

Applications: Simple needle-book (study of form) ; pen wiper (exer- 
cise in accurate cutting) ; ribbon napkin ring; duster; holders; 
button bag ; doll's kimono ; note-book cover ; hemmed towel. 

Supplementary work: Woven pillow cover (co-operative exercise); 
original work. 



249 

Desigfn : 

(a) Simple form for a needle-book. 

(b) Line or border decoration for a table mat or a note-book 
cover. 

Textile Stiidv: 

Children's clothing. 

Materials for different seasons and climates. 

Shapes of garments to avoid restriction. 

Grade 6 B. 

Course of Study. 
Free pattern cutting ; darning ; simple design ; textile study ; notes. 

Syllabus. 

Exercises : Review of previous stitches ; gathering ; putting on band ; 

placket ; dress darning ; catch stitch ; blanket stitch. 
Applications : Doll's skirt ; pinafore ; laundry bag ; work basket ; scrap 

basket; dust cap; sash curtains; repairing of rents in clothing; 

doilies ; bean bag. 
Supplementary work : Sewed baskets ; knotted bags ; original work. 
Design : 

Simple design for doily, tray cloth or bureau scarf (convention- 
alization of plant, flower or leaf form). 
Textile study: 

Textile manufactures of European countries. 

Tartans and tapestries. 

Grade 6 A. 

Course of Study. 
Free pattern cutting continued ; design ; textile study ; notes. 

Syllabus. 

Exercise : Review of stitches, French seam ; practice in cutting by 
thread ; simple decorative stitches ; loops for buttons. 

Applications: Pin case (original design); doll's kimono and dress; 
child's apron ; coarse decorative stitches for waste basket ; pillow 
case. 

Supplementary work : Sewed baskets ; fancy bags ; original exercises ; 



250 

Design : 

(a) Design for a circular enclosing form. 
Textile Study: 

(a) Oriental fabrics and dyes. Fast and fugitive colors. 

(b) Contrasted, dominant and analagous color harmonies stud- 
ied bv means of textiles. 

Grade 7 B. 

Course of Study. 
Advanced stitches ; design ; textile study ; notes. 

Syllabus. 

In order to make an article well it is necessary to think, to plan ; to 
be accurate. 
Exercises: Ilem-stitching; cutting and use of bias strips; tucking: 

marking towels ; herring bone stitch ; simple feather stitch. 
Applications : Collars ; collar case ; underskirt ; towel hemstitched anJ 

initialed ; bibs ; flags. 
Supplementary work: Basket lined and furnished; traveling case; 

original work. 
Design : 

(a) Simple design for collar or collar case. 

(])) Initial for towel. 
Textile Study: 

(a) Fabrics considered from the standpoint of durability and 
good taste. 

(b) Line and spot in relation to dress. 

(c) Removal of ink, iron-rust, and grease spots. 

Grade 7 A. 

Course of Study. 
Advanced stitches ; design ; textile study ; notes. 

Syllabus. 

The decoration of an article should always be planned with thouglu 
of its suitability to the material and the purpose. 
Exercises : Different kinds of basting : darning on stockinet ; marking 

stockings : button holes and loops. 
Applications ; Sleevelets ; g;love mending ; stocks ; apron planned bv 



251 

pupil; table scarf or cover; sachets; bed-slippers; linen book- 

cover. 
SupplcMnentary work: Hemstitched handkerchief; damask darning, 

original work. 
Design : 

Design for linen book-cover. 
Textile Study: 

(a) Review of prehistoric methods of weaving. 
Home processes in the Colonial Period. 

The development of home processes into our present indus- 
tries. 

(b) Study of simple trimmings for costumes. 

Grade 8 B. 

Course of Study. 
Talks on drafting ; use of patterns ; design ; textile study ; notes. 

Syllabus. 

Exercises : Napery darning, rolling and whipping ruffles ; skirt bind- 
ing ; mitring corners ; linen marking. 

Application : Shoe-bag ; sewing apron planned by pupil ; infants* 
sachet; kimono (machine sewed) ; illuminated texts. 

Supplementary work : Samples of embroidery stitches ; original work. 

Design : 

Design for pillow cover. 

Textile Study: 

(a) Growth and manufacture of raw materials — cotton, flax, 
wool, silk. 

(b) Textile illustrations of warm and cool colors. 

Grade 8 A. 

Advanced stitches ; adaptation of bought pattern ; design ; talks on 
dress and the home. ^ 

Syllabus. 

Exercises : Damask or French hemming ; sewing on lace ; review. 
Applications : Kitchen apron, cuffs and cap ; underwaist ; shirtwaist 

(machine sewed) ; table napkins and doilies; linen portfolio. 
Supplementary work : Matching and joining embroidery and lace. 



252 

Art and Design : 

(a) Design for portfolio for drawings — dominant harmony 

(b) Dress: 

Simplicity of style and color. 
Over-elaboration of ornament and trimming. 
Harmonious and inharmonious color combinations. 
Appropriate apparel for different occasions. 
Heauty of neatness and cleanliness. 

(c) The Home. 
Rugs. 
Furniture. 
Pictures. 
Picture hanging. 

r»eauty of orderliness and cleanliness. 
Textiles : 

Study of relative values and widths. 

Amount of material required of differing widths. 

Economics of purchase. 

Judicious planning and cutting. 

Laundering — shrinkage, effects of water and sunlight. 



253 
EAST HIGH SCHOOL. ROCHESTER. N. Y. 



COURSE OF STUDY OUTLINED. 



oHos 
- ^^ 

Q = K 



0550: 






OHaS 



CLASSICAL 



Latin 5 

Algebra S 

English 5 

Physiology 5 

English History 5 

or 
Blem. Drawing s 



Greek . 5 

Carsar 5 

Geometry 5 

English 4 

Elocution I 

Adv. Drawing xOpiional; 3 



Greek 

Cicero , 

English 

Ancient and ) ist 
Greek History | sem 
Konian ' ' 2d sem 
Elocution I 



. . . .i) 



LATIN— GERMAN. 



Latin 5 

Algebra 5 

English 5 

Physiolog-y 5 

English History 5 

or 
Eltm. Drawing 5 



German (or French) < 

Coesar 5 

Geometry 5 

English. 



Elocution I 

Adv. Drawing (optional) 3 



German (or French) « 

Cicero 5 

English 4 

Elocution I 

Ancient and ) ist ) 
Greek History j sem. > 5 
Roman " 2d sem.) 

or 
French 5 



LATIN— SCIENTIFIC. 



Latin s 

Algebra 5 

English 5 

Physiology. 5 

Bn>u!i8h History 5 

or 
Elem. Drawing 5 



Zoology or Botany 4 

Caesar 5 

Geometry 5 

English 4 

Elocution 1 

Adv. Drawing (optional) 3 



GRR MAN-SCIENTIFIC. 



c;erman 2 

Algebra •! 

English i 

Physiology 5 

English History s 

or 
Elem. Drawing i 



Zoology or Botany 4 

German « 

Geometry * 

English 4 

Elocution 1 

Adv. Drawing (optional) 2 



Chemistry 5 

Cicero 5 

English 4 

Elocution I 

And one of the following : 
Ancient and ) ist ) 
Greek History j sem. > 5 
Roman " ad sera.) 

or 
French 5 

or 
German 5 



Greek 5 

Virgil 5 

English 4 

Elocution I 

And one of the following : 
Algebra, review, 

ist sem 

Geometry, review, 

2d sem 

Advanced Mathematics. .5 

Physics s 

French 5 

German 5 

Adv. U. S. History 

ist sem }- 5 

Civics, 2d sem . . 



Arith. review, ist sem ) 
Vocal Music, ad sem.. . ) 



German (or French) 5 

Virgil 5 

English 4 

Elocution I 

And one of the following : 
Algebra, review, 1 

ist sem } 

Geometry, review, j" * 

ad sera J 

Advanced Mathematics. .5 

Physics 5 

French 5 

Adv. U. S. History. ) 

ist sem V 5 

Civics, 2d sera I 



Arith. review, ist sem. ) 
Vocal Music, ad sem.. . j 



Physics 5 

Virgil 5 

English 5 

Elocution I 

And one of the following : 
Algebra, review, 

ist sem 

Geometry, review, 

ad sem 

Advanced Mathematics .s 

French 5 

German 5 

Adv. U. S. History ) 

ist sem > 5 

Civics, ad sera ) 



Arith. review, ist sem. ) 
Vocal Music, ad sem.. . j 



Chemistry 

German 

English 

Elocution ...1 

Ancient and ) ist 
Greek History ) sem. 
Roman " ad sem. 

or 
French 



>.) 



Physics J 

German 1 

English - 

Elocution 1 

A nd one of the following 
Algebra, review, ] 

1st sem I , 

Geometry, review, f ' 

ad sem J 

Advanced Mathematics. .; 

French 

Adv. U. S. Hihtory, 

ist sem 

Civics, ad sem 



} 



Arith. review, ist sem. > 
Vocal Music, ad sem.. . / 



REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION.— Graduates of grammar schools in 
the city of Rochester, are admitted without examination on the recommendation 
of the Grammar School Principal. All other pupils must pass an entrance exam- 
ination or present a Regents' Preliminary Certificate and a pass card in elementary 
U. S. History. 

The tuition for non-residents is $25 per semester ($50 per year), payable Oct- 
ober 1 and March i. 

Pupils who intend to enter college, a normal school, or the Normal Training 
School, should consult the Principal as to their course of study. 

REQUIREMENTS FOR GRADUATION.~The satisfactory comyletiQa ol 
one of the above courses of study. 



254 



SCHOOL ADDRESSES— PRINCIPALS. 



Name. 



Wilcox, Mr. A. H. 
Wect, Mr. H. S. 
Scott, Miss E. A. 
Keefcr, Mr. E. P. 
Samaine, Miss H. F. 
Echtenaclier, Miss N. E. 
Fletcher, Mr. A. P. 
Shedd, Miss J. M. 
Townsend, Mr. J. L. 
Savage, Mr. R. K. 
Snell, Miss L. R. 
Finch, Mr. C. E. 
VValden, Mr. Geo. H. 
Blackmon, Mr. C. D. 
Pye, Mr. George W. 
Clark, Mr. A. C. 
Allen, Mr. John G. 
Shclton, Miss Sarah 
Reichenbach, Miss F. A. 
Wav, Mr. M. W. 
Sontag, Miss M. A. 
Jenkins, Miss L. M. 
Whiton, Miss J. F. 
Cornell, Miss N. F. 
Farber, Miss C. A. 
Moulthrop, Mr. S. P. 
Jones, Miss A. V. M. 
Bradshaw, Miss E. 
Hoekstra, Miss S. 
Cialbraith, Mrs. A. M. 
Stevenson, Miss E. H. 
Hoppe, Miss L. C. 
Shebbeare, Miss E. 
Corey, Miss C. A. 
Hrown. Miss M. E. 
Irazer, Miss T. M. 



School. 



BI. rl. S. 
W. H. S. 
N. T. S. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
12 
13 
15 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
R. O. A. 



IkkatiOn op Schools. 



Alexander near Main St. 
Genesee near Aldine St. 
Scio, cor. University Ave. 
Formerly Brighton 
King, near West Ave. 
Fremont, near PlyTnouth Ave. 
Jefferson, near Bronson Ave. 
Jones, cor. Dean St 
Montrose, near Frank St. 
Pierpont, cor. Kislingbury Sl 
Conkey Ave. ^ cor. Avenue B. 
Joseph Ave., cor. Baden St 
Chatham, near Central Ave. 
Howell, cor. Clinton Ave. S. 
Hickory, near South Ave. 
Monroe Ave., near Alexander 
Orange, cor. Saxton St 
North, cor. Draper St 
Seward, cor. Magnolia St 
Oakman, near Clinton Ave. N. 
Colvin, near Jay St 
Joseph Ave., cor. Avenue D. 
Barrington, cor. Thayer St 
South Meigs, cor. Linden St. 
North Goodman, cor. Bay St. 
Clifford, cor. Thomas St 
Central Park, cor. First St 
Moran, near Genesee St 
Otis, cor. Aab St. 
University Av. cor. Merriman 
Bartlett, cor. Plymouth Ave. 
Grand Ave., cor. Oswego St. 
Lexington Ave., cor. Holmeb 
Field, cor. Kusse St. 
Carter, cor. Bernard St. 
Monroe Ave., near Cobb's Hill 



255 



PRINCIPALS 



Namb. 



Wilcox, Mr. A. H. 
Weet, Mr, H. S. 
Keefer, Mr. E. P. 
Samain, Miss H. F. 
Echtenacher, Miss N. E. 
Fletcher, Mr. Alfred P. 
Shedd, Miss Jessie M. 
Townsend, Mr. J. L. 
Savage, Mr. R. K. 
Snell, Miss L. R. 
Finch, Mr. C. E. 
VValden, Mr. Geo. H. 
Blackinon, Mr. C. D. 
Pye, Mr. Geo. W. 
Scott, Miss Edith O. 
Clark, Mr. AC. 

Allen, Mr. John G. 
Shelton, Miss Sarah 
Reichcnbach, Miss F. A, 
Way, Mr. Mark W. 
Sontag, Miss M. A. 
Jenkins, Miss Lillian M. 
Whiten, Miss J. F. 
Cornell, Miss N F. 
Farber, Miss Clara A 
Moulthrop, Mr. S. P. 
Jones, Miss A. V. M. 
Bradshaw, Miss Emily 
Hoekstra, Miss Sietske 
Galbraith, Mrs. A. M. 
Stevenson, Miss B. H. 
Hoppe, Miss L. C. 
Shebbeare, Miss Elizabeth 
Corey, Miss Clara A. 
Brown, Miss Martha E. 
Frazer, Miss T. M. 



School. 



£. ri. S. 

W. H. S. 

I 

2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 

10 
12 

13 

14 

15 

17 
18 

19 
20 

21 

22 

23 
24 

25 
26 

27 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 

34 

35 

36 

R. O. A. 



Rbsidbncb. 



10 Brighton St. 
Hancock St. 
Brighton, N. Y. 
34 Reynolds St. 
96 Edinburgh St. 

54 Warwick Ave. 
71 Aberdeen St. 
50 Plymouth Ave. 
93 Selye Terrace 
29 Clifford St. 

S3 Edmonds St. 
15 Wellesley St. 
58 Tacoma St. 
210 Alexander St. 

31 Prince St. 

20 Windsor St. 

32 King St. 

)1 N. Union St. 
8 Columbia Ave. 
19 Grant St. 
278 Alexander St. 

55 Yale St. 

141 Portland Ave. 
40 Phelps Ave. 
278 Alexander St. 
10 Jones Ave. 

21 Cameron St. 

14 La Fayette Place 
240 Monroe Ave. 
485 .\lexandcr St. 
247 Ravine Ave. 
12 Helena St. 

56 Rowley St. 
469 Exchange St. 



Name of Teacher. 


School. 


Position. 


Rbsidbncb. 


Abbott, Miss M. E. 


M.T. 


Assistant 


71 Alexander St. 


Abell, Mr. F. H. 


H.S. 


(1 


11 Thayer St. 


Adams, Miss Orel 


H. S. 


(i 


Culver, cor. Bay St. 


Adrian, Miss W. W. 


8 


II 


)6 Caroline St. 


Allen, Mr. John G. 


17 


Principal 


31 Prince St. 


Anderson, Miss L. 


24 


Assistant 


7 Hamilton St. 


Anthony, Miss Gertrude 


13 


II 


358 West Ave. 


Arnold, Miss E. Lillian 


35 


II 


549 Averill Ave. 


Arnott, Miss L M. 


15 


II 


158 Broadway 


Armstrong. Miss C. A. 


8 


II 


365 Jay St. 


Atkinson, Miss A. B. 

« 


23 


II 


5 Van Si. 
\ 



Name of Tkacuer. 



Baird, Miss M. D. 
Baird, Miss A. J. 
Ball, Miss Winifred 
Banta, Miss Ida M. 
Bantleon, Miss A. E. 
Barnard, Miss L. A. 
Barnard, Miss M. E. 
Barrett, Miss May L. 
Barton, Miss G. W. 
Bascom, Miss Martha 
Bastable, Miss J. E. 
Beach, Miss Leila 
Bcattic, Miss Alma 
Beattic, Miss M. 
Beckwith, Miss Corie M. 
Bccchcr, Miss M. A. 
Bcenicr, Miss Clara 
Beiter, Miss Neva T. 
Belknap, Miss Laura 
Beniish, Miss M. J. 
Beniish, Miss Mary 
Benner, Miss L. 
Benncr, Miss Mabel H. 
Benedict, Miss Minnie 
Bennett, W. M. 
Benjamin, Miss M. E. 
Bergh, Miss Minnie C. 
Bergman, Miss Bertha 
Bessunger, Miss C L, 
Betteridge, Miss C. S. 
Betz, Mr. Wm. 
Blackall, Miss G. 
Blackford, Miss Katherine 
Blacknion, Mr. C. D. 
Boddy, Miss K. S. 
Boddy, Miss F. E. 
Bortells, Miss G. B. 
Bowes, Miss E. L. 
Howies, Miss N. M. 
Brace, Miss H. S. 
Bradstreet, Miss Edythe L 
Bradshaw. Miss Emily 
Brennen, Miss Ellen R 
Brewer, Mrs. G. 
Rritenstool, Miss J. 
Brock, Mrs. M. E. 
Brooks, Mrs. A. E. 
Brown, Miss E. I. 
Brown, Miss L. J. 
Brown, Miss M. E. 
Bruce, Miss E. 
Bryan, Miss M. F. 
Buckley. Miss Mary E. 
Burke, Miss Adelaide 
Burke, Mrs. L. J. 
Burns, Miss Katherine 
Burns, Miss F. E. 



256 

B 



School. 



33 

5 
H. S. 

21 

33 

25 

24 

4 

15 

13 
18 

30 

30 
M.T. 

M.T. 
H.S 

2S 
26 

6 

10 
26 

27 

20 

22 
H.S. 

12 

4 
H.S, 

9 

9 
H.S. 
H.S. 

10 

12 

24 
27 

14 

26 

12 

29 
21 

IS 

18 

18 

18 

6 

6 

36 

2 

H.S. 
29 

H.S. 

6 
H.S. 

9 



W 



Position 



Assistant 



Kg. 



Kg. 



Kg. 



(( 
tl 
l( 
11 
(C 
(i 
U 
II 

u 

C( 

il 
u 

(C 
C( 
IC 
(C 

(I 
i( 

IC 
CI 

cc 

cc 

IC 

cc 
cc 
cc 
cc 

CI 

cc 

CI 

cc 
cc 



Principal 

Assistant 

Kg 



II 



II 



Kg. Directress 
Assistant 



II 

cc 



Principal 
Assistant 



cc 
cc 



Kg. Directress 
Assistant 



cc 



Principal 
Assistant 



cc 

CI 

II 
II 
II 
II 



RE8II>RKCE. 



371 Carson Ave. 

14 Morgan St. 
71 Oxford Sl 

95 Glenwood Ave. 
257 Scio St 
561 Averill Ave, 
561 Averill Ave. 
8 E. Piatt St 
85 Kenilworth Terrace 
77 Glasgow St 
107 Chestnut St 
U Warwick Ave. 
19 Selye Terrace 
19 Selye Terrace 
272 Lexington Ave. 

16 Savannah St 
31 Upton Park. 

54 Herman St 
209 Jones St 
183 Alexander St 
345 Monroe Ave. 

17 Thorn St 

17 Thorn St 
10 Hyde Park 
350 Bronson Ave. 
23 Amherst St 
97 Magnolia St 

55 Brighton St. 

18 Merrimac St 
59 Stillson St 
160 Grand Ave. 
342 University Ave. 
52 Meigs St 

15 Wellesley St. 
821 Main St E. 
821 Main St E. 
25 James St 
339 Alexander St. 

44 Prince St 
180 S. Goodman St 
10 Jones Ave. 
131 Cady St 
41 Brighton St 
263 Lyndhurst St 
187 Fulton Ave. 

22 Vick Park A. 

75 Ambrose St 
139 Spencer St 

56 Rowley St 

166 S. Fitzhugh St. 

76 Adams St 
31 Cameron St 
111 Meigs St 
233 Lake Ave. 

23 Cambridge St 
23 Cambridge St 



257 



Namb op Tbachbr. 


SCHJOL. 


Position. 


Rbsidbncb. 


Burns, Miss M. E. 
Button, Miss G. M. 
Button, Miss N. M. 
Button, Miss F. E. 
Butler, Miss K. A. 


26 

3 
7 

31 
15 


Assistant 
Kg. " 

ii 

u 


23 Cambridge St. 
175 Lexington Ave. 
175 Lexington Ave. 
175 Lexington Ave. 
82 Meigs St. 



Calhoun, Miss E. R. 
Camp, Miss Alice 
Campbell, Miss I. S. 
Campbell, Miss Jessie 
Caring, Miss K. L. 
Carey, Miss C. R. 
Carey, Miss M. A. 
Carlton, Miss Gertrude 
Carmichacl, Miss M. L. 
Carmichael, Miss L. M. 
Carpenter, Mr. F. H. 
Carpenter, Mr. H. A. 
Carhart, Miss F. L. 
Carr, Miss A. A. 
Case, Miss E. G. 
Case, Miss F. L, 
Chacc, Miss Alice E. 
Chamberlain, Miss J. 
Chappell, Miss J. G. 
Cherry, Miss H. M. 
Chillson, Miss C. L. 
Christa, Miss N. A. 
Clackner, Miss G. V. 
Clackner, Miss M. A. 
Clark, Mr. A. C. 
Clark, Miss J. M. 
Clark, Miss K. B. 
Clark, Miss J. R. 
Clark, Miss Anna E. 
Clark, Miss M. Z. 
Clark, Miss M. L. 
Clark, Ernst R. 
Clarke, Miss G. M. 
Clark, Miss Dora M. 
Clement, Mrs. A. C. 
Clements, Miss E. M. 
Clements, Miss Sara L. 
Cloonan, Miss M. 
Clune, Miss L. G. 
Cochrane, Miss M. E. 
Cochrane, Miss Emma L. 
Cogswell, Miss Bertha 
Coit. Miss E. L. 
Collins, Miss Carrie 
Connor, Miss J. M. 
Connor, Miss Mary R. 
Conrad, Miss E. M. 
Connell, Miss M. E. 
Connolly, Miss K. C 
Cone. Miss C. P. 



10 

I 

10 
H. S. 
H.S. 

22 

24 

36 
6 

23 
H.S. 

H.S. 

IS 
IS 
23 
H.S. 
10 

4 

9 

23 
18 

31 

H.S. 

i.S 
H.S. 

4 

9 

13 
20 

H'ls. 

26 

26 

Sup Visor 

4 
4 
9 
17 
17 
35 
25 
H.S. 

36 
iS 

25 
22 

7 
18 

6 



Assistant 
Ii 



Kg. 



it 
(I 
(i 
ft 
(( 
II 
II 
II 
If 
U 
II 
11 



Kg. Directress 
Assistant 

Kg. Directress 
Assistant 
Assistant 



II 



II 



II 
11 
11 
11 
II 



Principal 
Assistant 



II 
11 
II 
II 
11 

u 



Kg. Directress 
Assistant 

Music 
Assistant 



It 
II 
II 
11 



Kg. Directress 



Ii 



11 



Assistant 



II 
II 
II 
11 
11 
11 



102 Kenil worth Ter. 

44 Boardman St 
74 S. Union St. 
74 S. Union St. 
88 Hamilton St. 
88 Hamilton St. 
6 Laurel St. 
71 Jones Ave. 
71 Jones Ave. 



54 Kenilworth Terrace 

827 Main St. E. 

1 Thayer St. 

1 Thayer St. 

44 Prince St. 

181 N. Union St. 

25 Cambridge St. 
272 Clinton Ave. N. 
179 N. Union St. 
27 Evergreen St. 
897 Oak St 

897 Oak St. 

41 Vick Park B. 
TOVA Tremont St. 
172 Alexander St. 
172 Alexander St 
17 Marietta St. 
126 Tremont St 
16 Tracy St 
47 Vick Park B. 
86 Plymouth Ave. 
.Alexander St. 
91 Jefferson Ave. 
91 Jefferson Ave. 
223 Chestnut St 
27 Austin St 
253 Jay St 
354 Court St. 

19 Jones Ave. 
1311 Main St E. 
483 Main St. E. 

20 Glasgow St 
12 Champlain St 
261 University Ave. 
217 Lyell Ave. 

26 Leo5^ld S^.. 
Vl9 Nx^xc>^^ "^^v 



258 



Namb of Teacher. 


School, 


Position. 


Rbsidbmce. 


Coughlin, Miss Sara L. 


20 


Assistant 


226 Oak Sl 


Coughlin, Miss Elizabeth 


30 


It 


30 Ranier St. 


Cook, Miss M. L. 


24 


(C 


496 Averill Ave, 


Coote, Miss Cora M. 


26 


u 


537 North St 


Corey, Miss Clara A. 


35 


Principal 


12 Helena St 


Cotter, Miss K. G. 


23 


Assistant 


39 Hand St 


Cottrell, Miss Eva H. 


35 


t( 


67 Adams St 


Cooper, Miss L. M. 


10 


C( 


176 N. Union St 


Cornell, Miss N. F. 


24 


Principal 


55 Yale St 


Coyne, Miss A. M. 


5 


Assistant 


1083 Exchange St 


Cosgrove, Miss Martha C. 


26 


t( 


85 Fulton Ave. 


Cozzens, Miss A. H. 


H.S. 


ii 


3 Upton Park. 


Craib, Miss L. M. 


33 


tt 


Culver Road 


Crcnnell, Miss Mary 


H,S. 


tc 


37 S. Washington St 


Crippen, Miss Ruth 


H S. 


«( 


Culver Road 


Cullinan, Miss Mary H. 


26 


tt 


Mount Morris 


Cunningham, Miss J. M. 


15 


1( 


206 Pearl St 


Curran, Miss E. N. 


32 


(1 


69 Bronson Ave. 


Curtice, Miss F. E. 


20 


Kg. •* 


216 N. Goodman St 


Curtiss, Miss H. 


H.S. 


i( 


74 S. Union St 



D 



• 

Davis, Miss M. H. 


H.S. 


Assistant 


21 Melrose St 


Davis, Miss H. F. 


15 




7 Anson Place 


Davics, Miss E. F. 


27 




935 Main St. E. 


Decker, Miss L. J. 


15 




75 Avenue B 


Dc Mallic, Miss Nettie S. 


22 


Kg. " 


336 Hudson Ave. 


Dcyo, Miss C. M. 


24 




105 Savannah St 


Donaghue, Miss A, T. 


Q 




125 Fulton Ave, 


Donivan, Miss Ada L. 


13 




455 South Ave. 


Donnelly, Miss Mary 


20 




113 Atkinson St 


Donnelly, Miss Alice E. 


29 




113 Atkinson St. 


Dowd, Mrs. L. M. 


9 




532 South Ave. 


Dower, Miss H. 


27 




93 Lvndhurst St 


Dowling, Miss H. G. 


8 




478 Alexander St 


Dowling, Miss Lois 


21 


Kg. Directress 


478 Alexander St 


Drehmcr, Miss C. 


19 


Assistant 


219 Grand Ave. 


Drury, Miss Alice G. 


26 




6 Hart St. 


Drury, Miss F. B. 


20 




6 Hart St. 


Dukelow, Miss F. J. 


18 




99 Woodward St 


Dumont, Miss Bess I. 


H.S. 




87 Park Ave. 


Dunn, Miss M. A. 


9 




90 Hamilton St 


Dunsford, Miss Mabel H. 


H.S. 




38 S. Washington St 


Durney, Miss Ella L. 


10 


Kg. " 


3 Beckley St. 



F.chienacher, Miss N. E. 


3 


Principal 


96 Edinburgh St 


lulick, Miss Grace W. 


12 


Assistant 


5 Lafavette Place. 


I\dson. Miss R. C. 


23 


(( 


39 N. Union St 


Edwards, Miss L. 


19 


Kg. " 


SSyj Woodward St 


ICgo. Miss E. M. 


9 


Assistant 


185 Clifford St 


Eichclnian, Miss E. E. 


[ 2q 


cc 


20 Wentworth St 



259 



Namb of Teacher. 


School. 


Position. 


Residence. 


Elliot, Miss Stella L. 


4 


Assistant 


40 Clifton St. 


Ellis, Mrs. C. S. 


H.S. 




28 Avondale Park 


Ellwanger, Miss Helen 


H.S. 




18 Gardiner Park 


Ely, Miss Jessie D. 


7 




7 Selye Terrace 


Etzel, Miss E. M. 


7 




31 Kelly St 


Evans, Miss Carrie V. 


34 




226 Linden St. 


Evans, Miss E. 


'9 




151 Tremont St. 


Eves, Miss Jennie 


12 




53 Broadway 



Farber, Miss Clara A. 


25 


Principal 


141 Portland Ave. 


Farrington, Miss B. M. 


29 


Assistant 


65 Thorndale Terrace 


F'arrington, Miss C. A. 


29 


(( 


63 Thorndale Terrace 


F'arbcr, Miss Sadie 


33 


i( 


141 Portland Ave. 


Faust, Miss E. M. 


3 


(( 


348 Whitney St. 


F'ay, Miss G. B. 


27 


(t 


83 Charlotte St 


Fehrenbach, Miss A. 


19 


(( 


16 S. Union St 


F'elsinger, Miss H. M. 


2 


t( 


123 Orange St 


Fichtner, Miss K. E. 


18 


(i 


466 North Ave. 


F'iler, Miss Mary R. 


18 


u 


211 Fulton Ave. 


F'icdler, Miss L. J. 


7 


ti 


21 Thorn St 


Fiedler, Miss A. C. 


7 


u 


21 Thorn St 


Finding, Miss A. G. 


2 


u 


1 Magee St 


Finch, Mr. C. F2. 


9 


Principal 




Fitz Simons, Miss F*. 


27 


Kg. Assistant 


565 Lake Ave. 


F'itz Gerald, Miss L. A. 


9 


u 


21 Vick Park A 


F'isher, Miss N. M. 


26 


u 


6 Cambridge St 


Flaherty, Miss Delia 


30 


n 


40 Lime St 


F'lahcrty, Miss Emma 


21 


it 


40 Lime St 


Flanagan, Miss M. E. 


20 


i( 


49 Emerson St. 


Flack, Miss A. M. 


2\ 


Kg. Directress 


765 N. St. Paul St. 


Fletcher, Alfred P. 


4 


Principal 


54 Warwick Ave. 


F'letchcr, Miss F'lora G. 


29 


Assistant 


46 Jefferson Ave. 


F'lint, Miss Lillian A. 


26 


i( 


566 Mt. Hope Ave. 


Flynn, Miss M. V. 


9 


(C 


440 Genesee St. 


Forbes, Miss F". A. 


N. T. S. 


Critic 


1652 Main St E. 


I'oote, Miss Adelaide 


33 


Kg. Assistant 


37 Rowley St 


F^oote, Miss J. B. 


5 


Assistant 


37 Rowley St 


I'ord, Miss Ida L. 


13 


t( 


404 Mt Hope Ave. 


F'oster, Miss A. J. 


H.S. 


ii 


26 Birch Crescent 


Frank, Miss Georgie 


13 


t( 


34 ( J rove St 


F'razer, Miss T. M. 


R.O.A. 


Principal 


469 Exchange St. 


F" reel and. Miss M. L. 


9 


Kg. Assistant 


109 Driving Park Ave. 


F^reeland, Miss F'lizabeth 


3 


Assistant 


469 lilxchange St. 


F'rost, Mrs. A. M. 


M. T. 


it 


488 South Ave. 


F'uller. Miss H. E. 


9 


it 


233 Lvndhurst St. 


Futhcrer, Miss K. K. 


20 


it 


816 St. Paul St 



Gaffney, Miss K. 
Galbraith, Mrs. A. M. 
Gallery. Miss Elizabeth E. 
Gallery. Miss M. A. 
Gatc^s, Miss it K. 




Assistant 

Principal 

Assistant 

Kg. 



it 



II 



55 Rowley St. 
14 La F'ayette Place 
251 Lake Ave. 
,251 Lak^ \\^. 



26o 



Namb of Tbachbr. 



Gendreau, Miss F. E. 
Geraghty, Miss E. E. 
Gibbons, Miss A. N. 
GifFord, Miss Helen J. 
Gillctt, Miss Cora M. 
Glover, Miss B. M. 
Goddard, Miss F. 
Golden, Miss Martha 
Golden, Miss I. 1. 
Goodenough, Miss L. L. 
Goodman, Miss J. 
Goodwin, Miss L. May 
Gordon, Miss A. K. 
Gordon, Miss C. L. 
Gorsline, Miss L. P. 
Gosnell, Miss H. L. 
Gosnell, Miss Susanne J. 
Gosnell, Miss E. 
Gosnell, Miss 1. J. 
Graham, Miss C. M. 
Gray, M. D. 
Gregory, Miss Helen 
Greenwood, Miss M. 
Groves, Miss M. M. 
Gruman, Miss E. M. 
Gutmann, Miss F. 



School 


Position. 


Rbsidbncb. 


21 


Assistant 


340 Oak St. 


9 




69 Joseph Ave. 


H.S. 




97 Ambrose St. 


17 




20 St. Clair St 


13 




51 Griffith St 


15 




109 Pearl St 


24 




87 Avenue D 


36 




24 Qifton St 


14 




24 Clifton St 


24 




81 Orange St 


19 




84 Hickory St 


14 




33 Upton Park 


4 




31 Mark St 


M.T. 




27 Tracy St 


15 




45 Pearl St 


4 




147 Atkinson St 


35 




147 Atkinson St 


10 




53 Ontario St 


18 




23 Ontario St 


26. 




458 Exchange St. 


H.S. 




4 Canfield Place 


3 




105 Pl>'mouth Ave. 


20 




299 Alexander St 


H.S. 






H.S. 




36 S. Goodman St 


M.T. 




73 Kenilworth Terrace 



H 



Hacock, Miss Carrie L. 
Haller, Miss Julia 
Hamilton. Miss N. J. 
Hamilton. Miss E. E. 
Hanna, Miss Sarah 
Uanna, Miss J. P. 
Harris, Miss A. V. S. 
Harris, C. E. 
Harrison, Miss Belle 
Haskin, Miss M. A. 
Hayes, Miss Katherinc A. 
Hayes, Miss E. R. 
Heath, Miss M. E. 
Heaphy, Miss L. 1. 
Heaver, Miss M. L. 
Hobbard, Miss A. M. 
Hendricks, Miss Agnes 
Heston, Miss M. 
Hcsslinger, Miss M. 
Hibregtsen, Miss M. 
Hiser, Miss K. C. 
Hitchcock. Miss L. A. 
Hockstra, Miss Sietske 
Hoffman, Miss R. M. 
1 l«)ffnian, Miss J. L. 
Hogan, Miss K. 
IIoppc, Miss L. C. 
Hoppc, Miss Margaret 



21 

30 
17 
24 

13 
H.S. 

Pr. & Kg, 
H.S. 
27 
15 
34 
27 
27 

31 
H.S. 

15 

33 

7 

27 

33 

7 

4 

30 
24 
9 
19 



Assistant 



Kg. 



a 
tc 
u 
(i 



Supervisor 
Assistant 



(t 
i( 

tc 
ti 
u 
(( 
(( 
t( 
a 



Kg. Directress 
Assistant 



t( 



{( 



(t 



Principal 
Assistant 



li 



\ 



Principal 



47 Thorndale Terrace 

322 Lexington Ave. 

935 Oak St. 

238 Spencer St. 

54 Hickory St 

125 Grand Ave. 

207 East Ave. 

185 Parsells Ave. 

118 Harvard St 

39 Somerset St. 

370 Jav St 

30 Hamilton St. 

811 Main St E. 

88 Locust St. 

Pittsford, N. Y. 

259 Monroe Ave. 

34 .\ustin St. 

57 S. Goodman St. 

185 N. Union St. 

596 I lay ward Ave. 

354 Lexington Ave. 

141 Adams St 

21 Cameron St. 

39 Hudson Ave. 

66 Cumberland St 

23 Glasgow St 

ASS Alexander St. 



# 



26l 



Namb of Tbacbbr. 


School. 


POSITIOW. 


Rbsidbncb. 


Home, Miss H. G. 


3 


Assistant 


30 Birr St. • 


Hotchkin, Miss A. M. 


H. S. 


li 


34 Calumet St. 


Howe, Miss S. N. 


lO 


CI 


333 Alexander St. 


Howe, Miss Minnie H. 


12 


it 


333 Alexander St. 


Howell, Miss J. M. 


24 


(( 


59 Hamilton St 


Howard, Miss M. C. 


8 


(t 


312 Oak St. 


Howard, Miss Alice C. 


34 


t( 


181 Saratoga Ave. 


Howe, Miss M. T. 


35 


i( 


94 S. Washington St. 


Hoyt, Miss Harriet E. 


26 


c< 


163 Meigs St. 


Hubbell, Benjamin 


H. S, 


(( 


652 Main St. E. 


Hughes, Miss Minnie F. 


26 


(C 


85 Jay St. 


Hughes, Miss Helen S. 


29 


CI 


85 Jay St. 


Humphrey, Miss Ethel 


3« 


Kg. Directress 


56 Oxford St. 


Hunt. Miss C. E. 


32 


Assistant 


152 Frost Ave. 


Huck, Miss M. J. 


36 


(i 


139 Spencer St. 



I 



Inman, Miss Amy D. 
Irvine. Miss Cora B. 




Assistant 



816 St. Paul St. 
53 Post St. 



Jackson, Miss M. C. 


4 


Assistant 


44 Ford St. 


Jenkins, Miss L. M. 


22 


Principal 


19 Grant St. 


Jennings, Miss A. E. 


8 


Assistant 


82 Chatham St. 


Jennings, Miss F. A. 


8 


(i 


82 Chatham St. 


Johns, Miss 1*. Emma 


30 


It 


283 Orchard St. 


Jones, Miss A. V. M. 


27 


Principal 


278 Alexander St. 


Jones, Miss L. 


19 


Assistant 


81 Bartlett St. 


Joslyn, Miss C. M. 


18 


(( 


10 Jones Ave. 


Joy, Miss Julia L. 


10 


(( 


190 Monroe Ave. 



K 



Kane, Miss A. F. 
Kane, Miss T. B. 
Kane, Miss L. M. 
Karp, Miss M. A. 
Kay, Miss Mary 
Kcefer, E. P. 
Keele, Miss A. E. 
Kehoe, Miss M. A. 
Keogh, Miss Monica 
Keogh, Miss Martha M. 
Keough, Miss Agnes 
Kermode, Miss Harriet M. 
Killip, Miss J. B. 
Kochenthal. Miss Stella J. 
Koehler, Miss A. M. 
Kohlmetz, Miss E. M. 
Kostbahn, Miss J. 



2 
H. S. 

6 

18 
M.T. 

1 

17 
5 

13 
26 

13 
20 

31 
22 

4 
8 

32 



Assistant 



it 

u 
(t 



Principal 
Assistant 



t( 
It 

u 
ii 



Kg. Assistant 
Assistant 



ti 

i( 



102 Spring St. 

510 S. Goodman St. 

102 Spring St. 

Oakman St. 

167 Lexington Ave. 

Brighton, N. Y. 

96 Walnut St. 

270 Oak St. 

58 Hickory St. 

338 University Ave. 

27 Bond St. 

\S4y2 S. Goodman St. 

5 Concord St. 

21 Vick Park B 

283 Brown St. 

17 Hart St. 

93 Clarissa St. 



262 

L 



Name of Tbachbr 


School. 


Position. 


Residbnck. 


Lane, Mrs. M. E. 


17 


Kg. Directress 


113 Emerson St. 


Langham. Miss H. B. 


7 


Assistant 


245 Saratoga Ave. 


Latz, Miss M. M. 


18 


(( 


59 Cumlwrland St. 


Lattimore, Miss E. L. 


H. S. 


C( 


595 University Ave. 


Leary, Miss Margaret 


6 


ct 


50 Romeyn St. 


Lehrberg, Miss G. E. 


18 


It 


29 Lyndhurst St. 


Leiser, Miss Fannie 


5 


Kg. " 


88 Chatham St. 


Lenihan, Miss Miriam C. 


12 


Assistant 


(^ Piatt St. 


Lennon, Miss C. G. 


17 


u 


29 Churchlea Place 


Lennon, Miss M. J. 


9 


u 


4 Payne St. 


Lennon, Miss Mary W. 


20 


(i 


21 Martin St. 


Lear, Miss C. M. 


15 


(i 


25 Tracy St. 


Leseritz, Miss Julia F. 


20 


(( 


13 Hart St. 


Lipsky, Miss S. 


23 


(t 


305 Monroe Ave. 


Logan, Miss M. Frances 


J4 


It 


9 Joslyn Park 


Love joy. Miss Pearl 


M.T. 


ti 




Love, Miss Kate A. 


29 


(1 


306 Frost Ave. 


Lucas, Miss H. E. 


Drawing 


Supervisor 


784 University Ave. 


Lyke, Miss Clara B. 


13 


Assistant 


673 Averill Ave. 


Lynn, Miss E. N. 


12 


ti 


14 Lamberton Park 



M 



MacCallum, Miss M. M. 
Mac Vicar, Miss E. 
Madden, Miss J. T. 
Madden, Miss Mary 
MaGill, Miss R. 
Mahon, Miss Julia D. 
Mahcr, Miss Elizabeth M. 
Mahcr, Miss K. G. 
Makoham, Miss M. M. 
Mann, Miss I ulna N. 
Mann, Miss M. G. 
Man vol, Miss L. A. 
Mapcs, Miss J. I. 
Marcy, Mrs. E. D. 
Margrandcr, Miss Esther 
Martin, Miss I^lizabeth 
Martens. Miss C. J. 
Mastcn, Miss M. K. 
Matthews. Miss A. M. 
Maxson, Miss J. E. 
Mc.Anally, Miss Helen F. 
McAnarney, Miss M. 
McCorniack, Miss Mary A. 
McCarthy. Miss Mary H, 
McConnell, Miss A. M. 
McClelland. Miss L. 
McDonald. Miss A. S. 
McGrath, Miss A. K. 
McGoverc^n. Miss S. 
McGregor. Miss L. M. 
McGowan, Miss E. J. 
A/cGuirc, Miss Clara 
A/c[ntyre, Miss F. H^ 



\ 



20 


Assistant 


7 .'\lmira St. 


H. S. 


(1 


137 Bronson Ave. 


9 


(t 


358 St. Paul St. 


20 


Kg. Directress 


(jO Phelps Ave. 


»9 


Assistant 


184 Flint St. 


12 


Kg. '• 


126 East Ave. 


14 


Assistant 


623 Jay St. 


17 


u 


319 Jay St. 


6 


(( 


813 Oak St. 


14 


(( 


203 Scio St. 


18 


i( 


203 Scio St. 


13 


(t 


69 Meigs St. 


15 


(( 


31 Meigs St. 


3 


it 


75 Adams St. 


22 


(( 


293 Portland Ave. 


30 


<{ 


527 Court St. 


26 


^l 


1 Brinker Park 


12 


Kg. Directress 


147 Park Ave. 


17 


Assistant 


132 Bronson Ave. 


3 


i( 


554 Hayward Ave. 


13 


it 


15 Gardner Park 


17 


it 


154 Brown St. 


21 


(( 


19 Costar St. 


20 


11 


11 Galusha St. 


17 


it 


229 Jay St. 


2 


u 


Ill Troup St. 


9 


it 


56 Broni^on Ave. 


2 


Kg. " 


217 Spencer St. 


6 


Assistant 


29 Kenil worth Terrace 


23 


tt 


77 Bartlett St. 


4 


(t 


24 Charlotte St. 


36 


if 


76 Glenwood Ave. 


i*?* 


\Tb \^:\\VccN»v\ll\ St. 



263 



NAHB or TIACBBH. 


SCBDOL. 


,„„.,. 


...„...., 


McKclvcy, Miss Lois E. 


6 


Assislanl 


60 Spencer St. 


McKitlrick, Miss G. 


]6 




4 Greig St. 


McKeamey, Miss Louise 






20 Marietta St. 


McLean, Miss Lillian M. 






?•/, Lawn St, 


McMahon, Miss T. 


H. S. 




63 Cypress St. 


McMath, Miss A. L. 


H. S. 




W East Ave. 


McNamara. Miss C. 






4 Sheridan St. 


McSweeney. Miss L. 






814 Main Sl E. 


MeTagsart, Miss Agnes L, 






53 Griffith St. 


Meagher, Miss F. M. 


6 




30 Jones Ave. 


Mellon, Miss J. C 


a6 




22 Chestnut St. 


Mersereau. Mr. S. S. 


H.S. 






Meiherell. Miss E. M. 


9 




SO) Mt. Hope Ave. 


Meulcndyke. Miss Jennie 
Meyer. Miss C. Maii<1 






144 Avenue C 






29 Delevan St. 


Michaelsen. Miss Pauline 


y> 




73 Lowell St. 


Midielson. Miss Dorn 


16 




79 Avenue A 


Mills, Miss P. 


'g 




77fi Genesee St. 


Miller, Mr. L. H. 


H.S. 




182 Gregory St. 
70 Mclroe St. 


Mitliman, Miss C. 


H.S. 




Millard. Mis:, Carrie B. 






30 Tracy St. 


Miller. Miss Mary Jean 


T4 




255 Culver Road 


Minges, Miss Mary F. 






57 Riclimond Sl 


Mink. Miss H. C. 


H.S. 




354 Uiiivcrsilv Ave. 


Monaghan, Miss Nellie A. 


13 




U Lafayette Place 


Moore, Miss I. M. 


>4 




72 Woodward St 


Moore. Miss Julia A. 


'4 




282 Avcrill Ave. 


Moloney. Miss Anna M. 






211 Lyell Ave. 


Montgomery. Miss F. 


8 


Kg. Directress 


102 Broadway 


MonlBomer>-. Miss R. 


Ji 


Assistant 


390 Plymouth Ave. 


Moran. Miss Kathcrine E. 


'4 




1 Birch Crescent 


Moran, Miss M. 


S5 




HI Frank St. 


M.ireland, Miss I. C 


36 


Kg. " 


3 Payne St. 


Morel.ind. Miss Marie 


i6 


Assistant 


3 Payne St. 


Morey. Miss Lottie E. 


j6 




176 N. Union St. 


Morgan. Miss H. E, 


8 




M Field St. 


Morgan, Miss Carrie M- 


=9 




S3 Jefferson Ave. 


Morris. Miss J. M. 






Ridge Road, Irondcqnoit 


Morrissey, Miss May E. 


19 




363 Hayward Ave. 


MnrrisBey, Miss Amelia 
Morris. Miss Way 


36 




5iO Plymouth Ave. 


iS 




Iro-idequoit 


Moscley, Miss Rosedale 


M.T. 




5 Rowliry St, 


Mqseley, Miss Esther 


5 


Kg. Directress 


.■; Rowley St. 


Mnshier. Miss Frances 


3 


Assistant 


86 Adams St, 


Monlthrop. Mr. S, P. 


2(< 


Principal 


40 Phelps Ave. 


Munson, Miss E, M. 


H.S. 


Assistant 


92 Adams St. 


Muuson. Miss E. J. 


4 




92 Adams St. 


Murphy. Miss A. J. 


9 




121 Kent St. 


Murphy, Mif^s A. M, 


6 


Kg. Directress 


70 Marshall Sl. 


Murphy, Miss H, F. 




A.ssistant 


77 AlL-Kander St, 


Murray. Miss May A- 


•6 




250 Lyiidhurst St. 


Murray. MisE. M.iy K. 
Murray. Miss Lillian S. 


j6 


Kg ;• 


3K Catherine St. 


29 


Assistant 


I(t8 Pearl St. 


Murray. Miss M. E 


..-5 




470 Alexander St. 


Murray, Mr. W. W. 


M. T. 


Supervisor 


307 Adams St. 



Name of Tbachkr. 



Nagcl, Miss D. J. 
Neafie, Miss Harriet C. 



B. 



i\eane, miss narri 
Nell, Miss Cora 
Nelligan, Miss Julia F. 
Neville, Miss Mary J. 
Newton, Miss Marion 
Nichols, Miss C. 
Nichols, Mr. Fred G. 
Nicholson, Mrs. A. M. 
Nicholson, Miss Luclla B. 
Niven, Miss Mary 
Niven, Miss Elizabeth A. 
Noyce, Miss Mabel C. 
NuKent, Miss G. 



264 




N 




School. 


Position. 


Rbsidbncb. 


9 


Assistant 


16 Joiner St. 


13 


Kg. Directress 


13 Grove St. 


H.S. 


Assistant 


175 N. Union St. 


20 


# 


9 Hand St. 


29 


Kg. Directress 


302 Saxton St. 


M 


Assistant 


210 Alexander St 


7 


(i 


10 Birch Crescent 


H.S. 


(( 




10 


cc 


317 Frank St. 


22 


Kg. " 


4 Sheridan Park 


2^ 


Assistant 


46 Kenwood Ave. 


29 


(i 


46 Kenwood Ave. 


26 


i( 


5 Frederic St. 


7 


i( 


137 Fulton Ave. 



o 



O'Brien, Miss M. A. 
O'Brien, Miss Sadie L. 
O'Connor, Miss M. C. 
O'Connor, Miss N. L. 
O'Connor, Miss Agnes G. 
O'Connor, Miss Elizabeth 
O'Connor, Miss M. F. 
O'Donnell, Miss L. H. 
O'Hcrn, Mr. J. P. 
O'Meara, Miss Eleanor G. 
O'Neill, Miss E. G. 
O'Rorke. Miss Phcbc 
O'Rorke, Miss Bertie 
O'Shea. Miss F. C. 
Otis, Miss Kate 
Otis, Miss M. 



34 


Assistant 


12 


i( 


27 


Ci 


27 


ct 


29 


(1 


29 


i( 


17 


i( 


27 


i( 


H.S. 


ii 


12 


(( 


8 


ii 


20 


C( 


10 


u 


9 


(C 


H.S. 


(( 


H.S. 


(( 



16 Mason St. 
70 Broadway 
158 St. Paul St. 
104 Hamilton St. 
32 Jefferson Ave. 
32 Jefferson Ave. 
45 Martin St. 
486 Jay St. 
259 Park Ave. 
34 Savannah St. 
28 Saxton St 
40 Eniniett St. 
34y2 Emmett St 
273 Allen St 
541/2 Meigs St 
34 Vick Park B. 



Paget, Miss Frances 


H.S. 


Assistant 


55 Brighton St 


Parsons, Miss C. A. 


3 


Ci 


86 S. Ford St 


Parish, Miss Mabel 


30 


it 


59 Saratoga Ave. 


Patterson, Miss E. M. 


3 


ii 


477 Alexander St 


PealK)dy, Miss M. L. 


10 


ii 


508 Oxford St 


Perry, Miss A. M. 


15 


ii 


55 Brighton St 


Perry, Miss L. V. 


33 


ii 


113 Webster Ave. 


Perrin, Miss F. 


I 


it 


Brighton 


Perrin, Miss Ella 


35 


it 


70 Clinton Ave. S. 


Phaler, Miss S. M. 


31 


it 


37 Central Park 


Phillips, Miss E. A. 


M. T. 


it 


70 Meigs St. 


Pierce, Miss Del 


12 


ct 


154 Emerson St 


Pike, Miss Gertrude 


I 


it 


4 Cambridge St 


Plass, Miss A. A. 


5 




91 Ambrose St 


Power, Miss Katherinc B. 


13 


ii 


898 St. Paul St 


Prendergast, Miss Mary 


22 


Kg. Directress 


18 Costar St 



Name op Teacher. 



Prescott, Miss N. G. 
Preston, Miss Mary 
Preston, Miss J. B. 
Price. W. R. 
Pruyn, Miss M. C. 
Piircell, Miss Mary 
Pvc, Mr. Geo. W. 
Pyott, Miss M. H. 



265 



School. 


^ Position. 


H.S. 


Assistant 


H.S. 




20 




H.S. 




27 




H.S. 




13 


Principal 


3 


Kg. Directress 



Residence. 



99 S. Fitzhugh St. 
74 S. Union St. 
62 Almira St. 
39 Thayer St. 
Matthew St. 
8 Birch Crescent 
58 Tacoma St. 
105 Troup St. 



Q 



Quinlan, Miss L. C 




149 Atkinson St. 



R 



Reddington, Miss M. G. 


22 


Assistant 


57 Waverly Place 


Reichelt, Miss Elfrieda 


20 


«« 


409 Clinton Ave. N. 


Reichenhach, Miss F. A. 


19 


Principal 


32 King St. 


Remington, Mrs. E. P. 


H.S. 


Assistant 


14 Federal St. 


Renter, Miss L. R. 


33 


t; 


104 Park Ave. 


Rich, Miss H. A. 


32 


Kg. Directress 


22 Gardner Park 


Rickard, Miss Frances B. 


22 


Assistant 


8 Grove St. 


Ro])ertson, Miss Agnes J. 


20 


i( 


3 Hart St. 


Robinson, Mrs. Helen A. 


13 


(( 


48 Howell St. 


Rol)inson, Miss E. J. 


29 


it 


202 Kenwood Ave. 


Robinson, Miss V. F. 


34 


ii 


173 Maryland St. 


Rogers, Miss F. 


M. T. 


(t 


87 Prince St. 


Rogers, Miss M. S. 


2 


Kg. Directress 


87 Prince St. 


Rogers, Miss Isabellc 


H.S. 


Assistant 


87 Prince St. 


Robde, Miss E. J. 


10 


t( 


89 Nassau St. 


Rohr, Miss Mary A. 


25 


it 


159 Portland Ave. 


Rossney. Miss A. 


19 


u 


337 Genesee St. 


Ross, Miss A. L. 


9 


it 


169 Saratoga Ave. 


Rothschild, Miss Sara 


33 


(i 


237 Lvndhurst St. 


Rounds, Miss D. M. 


H.S. 


it 


278 Alexander St. 



Salmon, Miss Jennie E. 


14 


Assistant 


177 Milburn St. 


Sal ley, Miss F. W. 


31 


it 


131 Meigs St. 


Salter, Miss A. 


19 




118 Frost Ave. 


Saniain, Miss H. F. 


2 


Principal 


34 Reynolds St. 


Saunders, Miss K. M. 


4 


Kg. Directress 


46 Mason St. 


Savage, Mr. R. K. 


7 


Principal 


93 Selye Terrace 


Schaefer, Miss Louise A. 


26 


Assistant 


115 Gene.see St. 


Schake, Miss L. C. 


33 


It 


73 Weld St. 


Schneebcrger, Miss S. M. 


33 


it 


336 Avenue A. 


Schooley, Miss Jane M. 


12 


if 


^ Broadway 


Scott, Miss Edith A. 


14 


Principal 


210 Alexander St. 


Scofield, Miss H. C. 


31 


Assistant 


135 Park Ave. 


Schwartz, Miss P. A. 


9 


it 


21 Catherine St. 


Schwartz, Miss Rel)ecca 


33 


It 


292 Monroe Ave. 


Schwartz, Miss H. H. 


10 


it 


292 Monroe Ave. 


Schwendler. Miss Sara 


H.S. 


ft 


17 Vick Park A. 


Sedgwick, Miss Alice 


22 


fC 


160 Fulton Ave. 





School 


PoaiTION. 


K..,..s.. 


SeiW. Miss Maud 


33 


Assistant 


27 Avenue E 


Servoss, Miss Carrie E. 


6 




79 Ravine Ave 


Shaffer. Miss A. 


M. T. 




135 Plvmonth Avt 


Sliaiily. Miss M. F. 


8 




129 Fulton Ave. 


Slianly. Miss K. J. 


7 




129 Fulton Ave. 


Sharpe. Miss Mary F. 


16 




75 Driving Park Av 


Shaw, Miss Ella M. 






240 Monroe Ave. 


Shape, Miss E. E, 


14 






Shea. Miss K. A. 


'9 




28 Glasgow St. 


Shcbbcare. Miss Eli^abeih 


J4 




247 Ravine Ave. 


Shedd, Miss Jessie M. 


5 


Principal 


71 .Aberdeen St. 


Shelton. Miss S. 


i8 




30 Windsor St. 


Shumway, Miss Anna B 


3° 


Assistant 


141 Spencer St. 


Sias. Mr. A. B. 


H. S. 




177 Harvard Sl 


Sickels. Miss Jessie H. 


'5 




780 University Art. 


Sike. Miss N. A. 






871 Main SL E 


Silsliy. Mr. Don H. 


nh. 






Simmons. Miss R. J. 


33 


Kg. Directress 


36 N. Goodman St. 


Simpson, Mi.ss Anna J, 






1077 St. Paul Sl 


Smith, Miss F, L. 






B6 Plvmonth Ave. 


Smiih. Miss A. E. 






252 Troup SL 


Smith, Mi.w aara M. 


4 




74 Kenwood Avt. 


Smilh, Mrs. Ella A. 






121 Weld St. 


Smith, Miss G. 






Brighton 


Smith. Miss K. A. 


17 




275 Brown Sl 


Smith, Miss Father A, 


34 




558 Havward Ave. 


Smith, Miss S. J. 






252 Troup St. 


Siiell. Miss Gertnidc 


'4 




1 Birch Crescent 


Sm-ll. Miss L. R. 


S 


Principal 


29 Clifford St. 


Snyder. Miss E- A„ 


Music 


Assistant 


.Arnold P;irk 


Sontag, Miss .\1 A 




Principal 


S Giluml^ia Av.v 


Soiilharil. Mi-s A. M. 


33 


Assistant 


4 ArlinKtoii St. 


Sparlin. Mr, !■;. .\i. 


H. S. 


Assistant 


474 Alexander Si 


Spcis, Mis'^ .\. ]■:. 






81 Claris.sa Si, 


Spinning. MU^ Sarali H. 




Kg. •■ 


41 Martin Si. 


Slapleton. Miss M. 


19 


Assistant 


94 Frost Ave. 


Stark. Miss (), 


5 




32 l-'ranfc St. 


Stcdc, Miss L. Alice 


26 




25 Marietta Sl. 


Steeneken, Mi-s H. 


6 




i Augustine Sl. 


Sterling, Miss M. A. 


'5 




179 Laburnain CreWti 


Stevenimn. Miss B, M. 


32 


Principal 


240 Monroe Ave. 


Slfwart. Mi-ss I, 




Assistant 


218 Wellington Avt 


Stillman. .Miw U 


iS 


Kg. " 


U Austin St. 


Sleigcr. Miss K. F. 

St. John. Miss Jennie B, 


Sewing 


Supen-isor 


91 I'.-irk Ave. 


29 


Assistant 


52 Broadway- 


St. John. Miss Alice M. 


25 




52 Hroailany 


Straiiehen. Miss H. C. 


8 




5 nrliikcr Pbcc 


Stone. Miss Jennie 1'. 


29 


kr. ;; 


245 Jay St. 


Stone. Miss Bcvihh 


35 




14 Gorsline St, 


StroriR. Mrs. C. R. 


R. 0. A. 


Assistant 


133 Maryland St. 


Slrnwger. Miss J. E. 






148 Portland Ave, 


Sullivan. Miss Emma 


36 




IK, Adams Sl 


Swwi. Miss A. M, 


i» 




f>46 University .\vc- 


Sweeting. Miss C. B, 






284 Oak Sl ' 



267 

T 



Namr op Tbachrr. 


School. 


Position. 


Rbsidbncb. 


Tainblingson, Miss L. M. 


3 


Assistant 


236 Oxford St. 


Tanner, Miss G. J. 


19 


ii 


9 New York St. 


Taylor, Miss M. A. 


15 


Kg. Directress 


13 Grove St. 


Thayer, Miss M. R. 


31 


Assistant 


231 Saratoga Ave. 


Thornc, Miss S. M. 


17 


it 


35 Weddale Way. 


Toaz, Miss E. D. 


M. T. 


(C 


14 Arch St. 


Torre, Miss L. 


27 


(t 


186 Saratoga Ave. 


Townley, Mrs. K. 


30 


i( 


200 Tremont St. 


Townscnd, Mr. J. L. 


6 


Principal 


60 Plymouth Ave. 


Travis, Miss J. E. 


22 


Assistant 


265 Plymouth Ave. 


Trant, Miss K. 


26 


(i 


70 Pearl St. 


Tuohev, Miss Susie 


26 


(( 


36 Catherine St. 


Turrell, Miss Lillian B. 


25 


t( 


2 Beckley St. 


Tuttle, Miss E. 


27 


Kg. Directress 


1 Thayer St. 


Twist. Miss Ida A. 


3S 


Assistant 


n Caroline St. 


Tyler, Mrs. G. E. 


26 


it 


394 University Ave. 



V«in Dake, Miss E. W. 
Van Ingen, Miss B. 
Van Ingen, Miss F. L. 
Van Ingen, Miss M. 
V^an Ingen, Miss E. 
Van Zandt. Miss M. J. 
Van Zandt, Miss M. R. 
Vayo, Miss Caroline 1. 
Vcrhoevcn, Miss M. 
Vick, Miss Jessie 
Vick, Miss C. L. 
Vogel. Miss Carrie L. 
Vogel, Miss Clara A. 



18 

19 
36 

7 
6 

3 
H. S. 

29 
18 

33 

31 
26 

29 



Assistant 
Kg. Directress 



11 



it 



Assistant 
tt 



tt 
it 
It 
ft 
t( 
It 
tt 
tt 



50 Hollister St. 
29 Hudson Ave. 
29 Hudson Ave. 
274 Frank St. 
274 Frank St. 
15 Harper St. 
80 Savannah St. 
139 Genesee St. 
14 Joiner St. 
280 Garson Ave. 
57 Emerson St. 
198 Frank St. 
45 Hand St. 



w 



Wade, Miss E. 
Waldcn, Mr. Geo. H. 
Walter, Miss IHorence G. 
Wall. Miss I. A. 
Wallace. Miss J. E. 
Wallace, Miss Ella J. 
Wallace, Miss Emma 
Ward. Miss Kate 
Warner, Miss M. 
Watson. Miss K. B. 
Way. Mr. Mark W. 
Weaver, Miss J. E. 
Weed. Miss M. G. 
Wcet, Mr. H. S. 
Wegnnan, Miss A. L. 
Wcllman, Miss M. R. 
Wesp, Mr. C A. 
Wetmorc, Mrs. E. P. 



8 

10 

26 

17 
26 

26 

26 

M. T. 

24 
22 

20 
18 

7 
W. H. S 

32 

3 
H. S. 

H. S. 



Kg. Assistant 
Principal 
Assistant 



tt 



ti 



Kg. 
Assistant 



tt 

tt 
tt 
tt 



Principal 
Assistant 



tt 



Principal 
Assistant 



tt 
tt 
tt 



80 Ambrose St. 
63 Edmonds St. 
170 Clifford St. 
349 Troup St. 
22 Catherine St. 
356 St. Paul St. 
22 Catherine St. 
86 Dewey Ave. 
29 George St. 
558 St. Paul St. 
61 N. Union St. 
267 Lyndhurst St. 
127 Avenue B. 
Hancock St. 
146 Adams St. 
9Park Ave. 
76 Driving Park Ave. 
49 Grieg St. 



268 



Name op Tbacukr. 



Wctmorc, Miss K. S. 
Whiting, Miss B. U. 
Whiton, Miss J. F. 
White, Miss N. T. 
Wheeler, Miss Carrie M. 
Wickham, Miss E. F. 
Wight, Miss B. 
Wilcox, Mr. A. H. 
Wile. Mr. A. J. 
Wiley, Miss Belle 
Wilkinson, Miss J. F. 
Wilkinson, Miss L. D. 
Williams, Miss J. 
Williams, Miss H. S. 
Willson. Miss E. D. 
Willi.ims, Miss L. M. 
Williams. Miss Grace 
Wilson, Miss E. C. 
Wood. Mrs. M. E. 
Wooden, Miss E. T. 
Wooden, Miss L. 
Wright, Miss M. 
Wright, Miss Frances 
Wright, Miss J. H. 
Wright. Miss M. M. 



School. 


Position, 


H.S 


Assistant 


M. T. 


(C 


23 


Principal 


9 


Assistant 


34 


ti 


8 


u 


H.S. 


({ 


E. H. S. 


Principal 


H.S. 


Assistant 


14 


(( 


23 


C( 


10 


i( 


M.T. 


<t 


15 


(1 


23 


(i 


27 


it 


H.S. 


i( 


6 


(( 


Ch.Horae 




19 


(i 


M.T. 


<c 


H.S. 


4( 


3 


it 


14 


(( 


14 


U 



Residbncb. 



84 S. Fitzhugh St 
27 Tracy St. 
278 Alexander St 
207 Adams St 
37 Finch St 
292 Genesee St 

10 Brighton St 

77 Melrose St 
39 Dartmouth St 
19 S. Union St 
19 S. Union St 
30 Avenue B. 
159 Meigs St 
Rowley St. 

477 University Ave. 
Brockport, N. Y. 
65 Spencer St. 
122 Linden St 
173 Wooden St 
173 Wooden St. 
74 S. Union St 

78 Sanford St 
80 N. Union St 
83 Sanford St 



Yaeckel. Miss L. L. 


8 


Assistant 


41 Avenue C. 


Yawger, Miss Elsie M. 


14 


t( 


92 Linden St. 


Yost, Miss Susie E. 


26 


({ 


50 Phelps Ave. 


Young. Miss Frances 


30 


Kg. " 


117 Chili Ave. 


Young. ( Miss Letitia 


H.S. 


Assistant 


149 Adams St 


Young. Miss II A.. 


10 


t( 


2 Rose St. 


Young, Miss Ida C. 


12 


u 


326 Andrews St 



269 



THE LAWS OF 1898. 
As Amended by the Laws of 1900 and 1901. 



For the Government of the Schckjls of Rochester, N. Y 



Sec. 123. The commissioners of common schools in said city shall 
constitute a board to be stvled **The Board of Education of the city of 
Rochester," which shall be a corporate body in relation to all the pow- 
ers and duties conferred upon it by virtue of this act. The said board 
shall meet on the first Monday of each and every month, and at such 
other times as it shall from time to time appoint. Special meetings 
shall be called by the secretary upon order of the president or upon re- 
quest of a majority of the said board. A majority of said board shall 
constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. In the absence of 
a quorum, a minority of said board may adjourn a meeting from day 
today. The said board shall, at the first regular meeting in January of 
each year, elect one of its members president, who shall, when present, 
preside at all its meetings. In the absence of the president, the said 
board shall elect some other member to preside at such meetings and 
to perform the duties of the president during such absence. 

On and after the first day of January, 1900, the Board of Educa- 
tion of the city of Rochester shall be composed of five commissioners 
of schools to be elected by the electors of the city at large ; and at the 
city election to be held in 1899 there shall be elected by the electors of 
the city at large, five commissioners of schools, three of whom shall be 
elected for a term of two years each, and the other two of whom shall 
be elected for terms of four years each. Their terms of office shall 
commence on January 1, 1900. At the biennial city election to be held 
in the city of Rochester next preceding the expiration of the terms 
of any of the said commissioners of schools, their successors shall be 
elected for terms of four years each. In case a vacancy shall occur in 
the office of a member of the Board of Education for any cause, the 
mayor of said city shall fill such vacancy by the appointment of a suit- 
able person ; and the person so appointed shall hold office by virtue of 
such appointment until and including the 31st day of December fol- 



270 

lowing the next succeeding biennial city election, at which election a 
commissioner of schools for the unexpired term shall be elected by the 
electors of the city at large. The compensation of the commissioners 
shall be twelve hundred dollars ($1,200) per annum, to be paid out o: 
the school fund. 

Sec. 124. Any member of the said Board of Education may be 
removed by the mayor of the said city upon proof, either of official 
misconduct in office, or of negligence of official duties, or of conduct 
in any manner connected with his official duties, which tends to dis- 
credit his office or the school system, or for mental or physical inability 
to perform his duties as a member of said board ; but before such re- 
moval of said member he shall receive due and timely notice in writing 
of the charges against him, and a copy thereof, and shall be entitled to 
a hearing, on like notice, before t