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Annual report of the Bureau of 
Animal Industry for the year ... 



United States. Bureau of Animal Industry 



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R »4 . 1 : 



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(U. A. I. UT.) 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURI-:. 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



Bureau of Animal Industry 



•«j-v 



FOR THE 



W8T5 'y 



iH^ISC^VT. Y3I:AR 1897. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTINCi OFFICE. 
1898. 



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'3 ^ 



iJcH^l^H 



[Public— No. 15.] 

▲N ACT proridiuff for the pnblio prteting and binding and tho distribution of public 

documents. 

Sec. 73. Extra copies of docnments and rei)ort8 shall be printed promptly when 
the same shall be ready for publication, and shall be bonnd in paper or cloth, as 
directed by the Joint Committee on Printing, and shall be the number following, 
in addition to the usual number. 

Of the Report of the Bureau of Animal Industry, thirty thousand copies, of 
which seven thousand shall be for the Senate, fourteen thousand for the House, 
and nine thousand for distribution by the Agricultural Department. 

Approved, Jansary 13, 1895. 



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LETTER OF TRANSMIITAL 



U. S. Department of Ageiculture, 

Bureau of Animal Industry, 
Washington, D, 6'., June 1, 1S08. 

Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the fourteenth annual 
report of the Bureau of Animal Industry, prepared in accordance 
with the organic act of the Bureau. 

For vanous reasons, the reports for the last ten years have been 
printed and bound biennially; but such arrangements have recently 
been made in the line of editorial assistance as will enable me here- 
after to submit the report soon after the close of each fiscal year. 
This report differs somewhat in character from its predecessors in 
the respect that it contains but few scientific papers. This is due 
principally to the late date upon which the editorial work was taken 
up, but the volume does not suffer in size, nor is it uninteresting for 
this omission. 

The table of contents shows a list of interesting popular articles, 
including some investigations relative to sheep scab, anthrax, rabies, 
etc. , conducted by the Bureau. Under the head of * * Some agricultural 
experiment station work" are abstracts of several bulletins issued 
by experiment stations. It is believed that this feature of these 
reports will be of practical benefit, and it is designed to abstract for 
the next report quite fully the station bulletins relative to contagious 
animal diseases, the feeding of farm animals, and the dairy work. 
For convenience of reference there is brought together in this vol- 
ume a largo amount of tabular matter, including the movement of 
farm animals for a series of years; the number and value of farm 
animals from 1870 to 1896, inclusive, compiled from the reports of 
the Statistician of this Department; and the imports and exports 
of animals and animal products for the years 1892 to 1896, inclusive, 
compiled from the reports issued by the Bureau of Statistics of the 
Treasury Department. A strenuous effort has been made to secure 
all of the State and Territorial laws relative to contagious and infec- 
tious animal diseases which have not been published in the previous 
reports of the Bureau, and it is believed that the record is now about 

3 



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4 LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 

perfect. The Dairy Division has also compiled for publication herein 
the Sta-te and Territorial laws relating to the various phases of the 
dairy industiy. Considerable space is also given to a compilation 
of the orders which have been issued by the Bureau since its organ- 
ization. 

Provision for printing this report is made by Congress, and I rec- 
ommend that it be forwarded to the Public Printer for publication. 
Very respectfully, 

D. E. Salmon, 
Chief of Bureau of Animal Industry. 
lion. JA3IES Wilson, 

Secretary. 



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CONTHNTS. 



Page. 

Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry 9 

Outlines of work pursued by the Bureau of Animal Industry 25 

Some essentials in beef production 48 

€k>ntagious diseases in European countries 69 

The curing of bacon 87 

Sheep scab: Its nature and treatment. 98 

Inyestigations relative to sheep scab 155 

Report from Dr. Hinkley 155 

Report from Dr. Qeddes ... 158 

Report from Dr. Treacy 162 

Report from Dr. Ayer 164 

Anthrax in the Lower Mississippi Valley 166 

Report on anthrax in Louisiana in 1896 — 176 

Enzootic cerebro-spinal meningitis in horses and hog cholera in Idaho 179 

Investigation of alleged rabies in Nebraska - 188 

Some agricultural experiment station work: 

Combating anthrax in Delaware 190 

Serum therapy in hog cholera 196 

Hog cholera and swine plague in Indiana 199 

Necessity of coarse feed to grow cattle 202 

Movement of farm animals 207 

Range of prices of live stock at Chicago. 1891-1896 . 240 

Inspection and movement of sheep 242 

Animals imported for breeding purposes 243 

Imports of animals at quarantine stations 250 

Number and value of farm animals 553 

Imi>orts and exports of animals and animal products 305 

Publications of the fiscal year 1897 322 

Rules and regulations of the Bureau of Animal Industry 324 

Laws of States and Territories for the control of contagious animal dis- 
eases - 419 

Laws of States and Territories relative to dairy products 531 

5 



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ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plates. 

Page. 

Plate 1 103 

II 103 

ni 103 

IV 102 

V 103 

VI t03 

Figures. 

Fig. 1. Champion Angus heifer, Smithfield (England) Fat Stock Show 49 

3. High-grade Shorthorn steer 49 

3. High-grade Hereford steer 50 

4. Names of points 53 

V. Chicago wholesale dealers* method of cutting beef . 53 

C. Chicago retail dealers' method of cutting beef 51 

7. English method of cutting beef 54 

8. Newbus ox _ 55 

9. A good head and front 56 

10. A good feeder in stock condition— front view 57 

10a. A good feeder in stock condition— rear view 58 

11. An unprofitable feeding tyi)e 59 

13. A bad back and unprofitable feeding type €0 

1 3. A good back 61 

14. A good feeder C2 

15. A bad feeder 63 

16. A bad feeder 63 

17. Abad feeder _. 64 

18. Diagram showing {daces where needle of pickle pump should be 

inserted in pumping a side of bacon; and the direction in which 

the needle should be thrust... 96 

19. A comparatively early case of common scab, showing a bare spot 

and a tagging of the wool _ 101 

SO. Adult sheep tick (Melophagus oviniis) 108 

31 . Sheep louse ( Trichocdectes sphcerocephalus) 106 

33. Sheep-foot louse (Hcematopinua pedalis) 107 

33. A simple caldron which may be used for boiling dip 139 

34. A caldron with stove 139 

35. A floating dairy thermometer 130 

36. A crutch, or dipping fork 130 

87. Another style of crutch, or dipping fork 130 

38. Dipping sheep in a tub 130 

39. Trough for dipping lambs 131 

80. A small portable dipping vat for small flocks 131 

6 



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ILLUSTRATIONS. 7 

Pasptv 

Fig. 31. A small portable dipping vat, with attached dripping platform 131 

32. Detachable skeleton box, with gate, to fit over the dripping plat- 

form 133 

33. A small patented portable vat arranged as a cart _ V,\2 

34. A small patented portable vat arranged as a cart» niifolded and in 

nse 133 

35. A small dipping plant . 133 

36. Receiving and forcing yards, with attached stage, decoy pen, vat, 

draining yards, etc 133 

37. Australian circular receiving and forcing yards, with straight race 

or drive, the incline chute, straight vat, incline, two draining 

pens, etc 134 

38. Argentine semicircular receiving and forcing yards, with a straight 

vat, draining pens, etc 134 

39. Dipping plant provided with an endless chain or treadmill chuto. 135 

40. Dipping plant 135 

41. Dippingplant 135 

43. A straight vat known as the Australian sheep-dipping tank 136 

43. A straight swim somewhat similar to fig. 43 136 

44. A dippingplant 1.37 

45. A dipping plant in use in Millard County, Utah 137 

46. Atriplevat 138 

47. A circular dipping tank 138 

48. A circular dipping tank, with drive and slide 139 

49. View of a double oblong swim - 140 

50. A double oblong swim 141 

51. Ground plan of yards and vat 143 

53. Ground plan of yards and vat . 143 

53. View of the dipping plant at the Stock Yards, South Omaha, Nebr. 143 

54. View of the dipping plant at the Union Stock Yards, Chicago, UL . 144 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF 
ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF THE BUREAU. 

MEAT INSPECTION. 

It has still been impossible to inspect all tlie animals slaughtered in 
the United States for human food, the meat of which is to be shipped 
in the channels of interstate or foreign commerce. The force engaged 
in this inspection has been enlarged from time to time in i^ecent j'ears 
and the number of animals inspected has increased each year. Dur- 
ing the past year all of the beef exported to Eui-opo and the greater 
part of the pork and other meat i)roducts exported have been 
inspected in accordance with the law. There has, however, been a 
large amount of meat slaughtered for tl^e interstate trade which it 
has been impossible to inspect with the appropriation at the disposal 
of this Bureau. This is a very important matter, and every effort 
should be made to secure the inspection of all the animals which the 
law contemplated should be inspected, as otherwise there is a tend- 
ency to take doubtful or suspicious animals for slaughter to abattoirs 
where inspection has not j-et been established. 

The progress during the year has been satisfactory, and if the 
appropriation is increased so as to allow a continued development of 
the inspection service at the same rate, it will not be many yeai-s 
before the intent of the law is entirely accomplished. The meat- 
inspection force is now a very competent and efficient one. The 
inspectors and assistant inspector are veterinarians, many of whom 
have passed a rigid examination under the Civil Service Commission, 
and the greater part of the nonprofessional members of the force 
have had such long experience that their services are extremely 
valuable. The persons obtained by certification f rou) the eligible list 
of the Civil Service Commission have, as a rule, been more compe- 
tent and efficient than those obtained before the force was brought 
within the classified service, and it has been possible to maintain 
much belter discipline than was the case when a considerable propor- 
tion of the force believed that they liad influence which made them 
more or less independent of the head of the Department and the Chiel 
of the Bureau. 

Tlie work of meat inspection was in operation at 128 abattoirs and 
packing houses, located in 33 cities. 



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10 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



Following is a table showing the number of ante-mortem inspections 
made in the stock yards and at abattoirs, with the number of animals 
condemned at the abattoirs and the number rejected in the stock 
yards. The animals rejected rn the stock yards are tagged and held 
subject to future disposition^ either slaughter, shipment to the coun- 
trj^ for stocking purposes, or release when in proper condition for food. 

Ante-mortem inspections. 



Animals. 



Cattle , 

Sheep 

CalTOs 

Hogs 

Total 



For oflOxsdal 
abattoirs in 
cities where 
the inspeo 
ticm was 
made. 



4,2S9,058 

5,170,643 

259,980 

10,813,181 



28,541,8l:i 



For abat- , 
toirs in other 

cities and 
miscellane- 
ouD Imyers. 



3, ceo, 967 

2,864,713 

189,058 

8,753,668 



Total in- 
8i>ections. 






15,768,206 



8,ffiJ0,025 1 
8,OU,365 , 



448,968 



195 

757 ] 

m i 



35,566,744 ! 12,858 

1 * 



34,951 
10,501 
2,W7 
40.S87 



43,340.107 13,808 I 



79,3 



Below is a statement showing the number of i)ost-mortem inspec- 
tions made at the abattoirs where inspection was maintained, and the 
number made on animals rejecteil in the stock yards and slaughtered 
at various places, with the number of carcasses and parts condemned 
as unfit for human consumption. The rigid character of the ante- 
mortem inspection in the stock yards is evidenced by the fact that on 
the post-mortem examination of rejected aninLals the greater part 19 
passed as fit for food. 

Post'moriem inspections. 



Animals. 



Namber of inspections. 



At abat- 
toirs. 



On ani- 
mals re- 
jected 
in stock 
yards. 



Cattle 

Sheep 

Calves 

Hogs • 16,808,771 

Total ^. 



4,243,216 

5,309,161 

373,134 



11,634 

4,733 

787 

30,363 



26,533,373 47,417 



Total. 



4,258,850 

5,8I8»804 

2T8,9U 

16,830,034 



39,580,680 



Carcasses condemned. 



At abat- 
toirs. 



6,618 

8,086 

238 

141,563 



51,504 



Stock- 
yard 

inspec- 
tion& 



3,725 

1,652 

3U 

13,929 



18,617 



TotaL 



10,343 

4,738 

540 

54,481 



70,131 



Parts of 



con- 
demned 
atabat- 
. toir& 



10.390 

1,318 

4S 

« 37. 750 



40,205 



* Inclades 3,343 condemned on microscopic examination. 
3 Inclades 10,083 condemned on microscopic examination. 

In addition to the above, there were killed by city inspectors 641 
cattle, 1,527 sheep, 40 calves, and 2,081 hogs that had been rejected 
in the stock yards by oflBcers of the Bureau of Animal Industry. 

The meat-inspection tag or other mark of identific<ation was affixed 
to 14,510,602 quarters and 863,248 pieces of beef, 5,161,927 carcasses 
of sheep, 231,879 carcasses of calves, 524,556 carcasses of hogs, and 
314,947 sacks and pieces of pork. 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



11 



The meat^mspection stamp was placed on 4,692,069 packages of 
beef products, 3,711 of Batutton, and 7,463,259 of liog products, includ- 
ing 120,328 containing microscopically examined pork. 

The number of eertifieates of inspection for exported products 
issued was 21,825 for meat products whiek had undergone the ordinary 
inspection and 7,560 for pork microscopically examined, in addition 
to the regular inspection. These certificates covered the shipment of 
1,128,717 quarters and 20,259 pieces of fresh beef, 1,249 carcasses of 
sheep, 3,721 carcasses of hogs, 519,017 packages of beef, 3,711 packages 
of mutton, aaid 411,948 packages of pork, of which 119,549 contained 
pork which had been microscopieally examined. 

There were sealed 12,664 cars containing inspectei! meat for ship- 
ment to packing houses and other places. 

The cost of this work was $385,796.36, which, while including all tlio 
expenses incident to the work, makes an average of 0.91 cent for each 
imte-mortem inspection. 

For the purpose of comparison the following table is given: 

Tabfe tthowing the miniber of animals inspected before slaughter for abattoirs 

having inspection. 



Fiscal year. 

J891 

18»S....^. 

18W 

I«r4 „ 

1895 

1896 

VUU - 



Cattle. 

83,891 
3,167,009 
8,023,174 
8,862, m 
8,752,111 
4,060,011 
4,389.068 


Calves. 


Sheep. 


Hogs. 






59,089 

92,947 

96,331 

109,941 

218,575 

26t,900 


683,361 
870,513 
1,089,764 
l,34i,031 
4, no, 190 
6,179,643 






7.964,850 
13,676,917 
14,301,963 
16,813,181 



Total. 



83,891 
3,809,459 
4,885,633 
12,94t,056 
18,783,000 
23,375,739 
20,641,812 



MICROSCOPIC INSPECTION OF POBK. 

In the microscopic examination for triehinsB 1,881,309 specimens 
were examined — 550,291 from carcasses and 1,331,018 from pieces. 
The number of samples found infected was 13,325, of which 3,243 
were from carcasses and 10,082 from pieces of pork. 

The following table shows the exi)orts of microscopically inspected 
pork, 1892-1897: 

Extent of microscopic inspection of pork for export. 



Fisoal year. 



1893 
1868 
1»4. 
18K. 
1S96. 
1897. 



To coun- 
tries reqnir- 
iBf inspec- 
tion, 

PaundM. 


TooonB- 
tries not re- 
quirinff in- 
spection. 


PoundM, 


33.025,098 


16,127,170 


8.059,758 


13,617,658 1 


18,845,119 


16,608,818 


30,336,280 


5> 739,808 


21,497,321 


1,408,559 


43,570,572 


1,001.783 



Total. 



38,153,874 
30,077,410 
a5,437,«7 
4£>,e84,6e6 
23,900,880 
43.572,855 



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12 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

The number of pouuds exported was 43,572,355, of which only 1,001,- 
783 pounds went to countries not requiring a certificate of microscopic 
inspection. 

The cost of this inspection was $111,609.30, an average per speci- 
men examined of 5.94 cents, or an average of 0.25G cent for each pound 
of microscopically examined meat exported. 

IXSPECTIOX OF VESSELS AXD EXPORT ANIMALS. 

The number of inspections of domestic cattle for export was 845,- 
UG; number tagged, 410,379; number rejected, 1,565; number of 
inspections of domestic sheep, 348,108; number rejected, 189. The 
number of Canadian cattle inspected was 13,136; number rejected, 
12; Canadian sheep inspected, 23,289; I'ejected, 72. 

The number of domestic animals exported under the supervision of 
inspectors consisted of 390,554 cattle (5,501 shipped from Chicago by 
way of Montreal), 184,590 slieep (2,231 from Chicago by way of Mon- 
treal), 22,023 horses, and 100 mules. Canadian animals were exported 
fi-om United States ports as follows: 13,124 cattle, 23,217 sheep, and 
0,185 liorses. 

The number of certificates issued for cattle was 1,503; the number 
of clearances of vessels was 954. 

Following is a statement showing the number of cattle and sheep 
insi>ected at time of landing by the inspectors of the Bureau stationed 
in Great Britain, and the number and percentage of losses in transit: 

Inspection of cattle and sheep in Great Britain and losses in transit. 



Cattle. 
From 



Number Number p__ __„^ Number, Number p«-^„f 
landed. lost. ^^^"^ <^*^*- landed. lout P«»*ce"t 



Sheep. 




United states 

Canada 

Total 

The percentage of loss in export animals during tlie year has been 
moderately low, although not so low as in some previous years. In 
1894 the percentage of loss of cattle was 0.37; in 1895 it was 0.02, and 
in 1890 0.32. The loss of sheep in 1894 was 1.29; in 1895, 2.7; in 
1890, 1.10. We can never expect a uniformly low rate on account of 
the great variation in conditions of the weather. 

The cost of the inspection of export animals, the Texas fever work, 
and the inspection of animals imported from Mexico was $102,555.10. 
If it may be assumed that half of this amount is properly chargeable 
to the export work, the cost of inspecting the 575,150 domestic cattle 
and sheep exported would be $51,277.58, or 8.9 cents per head. The 
number of inspections made on these animals in this country was 
1,193,224 and in Great Britain 534,213, making a tot4il of 1,727,437, 
the average cost of each inspection being 2.97 cents. 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



13 



Following is a statement showing the inspection of domestic cattle 
and sheep for export and the number exported for 1897 and pi'evioiis 
years: 

Extent of inspection of cattle and sheep for export. 



Cattle. 



^*^^^^- fti^ Number 
"^'tiSnT . rejected. 



845.116 1,565 

815,882 I 1.300 

657,756 1,060 

7^25,243 184 

1893 1 611.542 I 283 



1886. 
1885. 
1884. 



Number j Number ! iJyf^^' 
tagrged. ! exported, "^'i^^"^' 



410,379 1 
377,630 ' 
aS4,d38 I 
360,580 I 
260,570 I 



380,554 
365,345 I 
384,289 
363,535 , 
288,240 



348,108 
733,657 
704,044 
135,780 



Sheep. 

Number Number 
rejected, exported. 



188 
893 
179 



184,59(1 
422,603 

350,808 
85,809 



INSPECTION OF IMPORTED .\NIMALS. 

The number of animals imported from Mexico and inspected at the 
ports of entiy along the boundary line was as follows: 292,470 cattle, 
43,393 sheep, 12 hogs, and 171 goats. 

The number imported from Canada and inspected at northern 
boundary jwrts, and not subject to quarantine, consisted of 42,953 
cattle, 331,137 sheep, 212 swine, 2,G35 horses, 9 mules, and 1 goat. 

IJelow is a statement of the imported animals which were quaran- 
tined for the prescribed period at the different quarantine stations: 

Xumber of animals quarantined^ by stations. 



Station. 



Littleton, Mass 

Garfield, N.J 

St. Denis, Md 

Vanceboro, Me 

Houlton, He 

Newport, Vt 

Richford, Vt 

Bouse Point, N. Y. 
Ogdensburg, N. Y. 

Buiralo,N.Y 

Port Huron, Mich. 



Total. 



362 



Number 
of cattle. 


Number 
of sheep. 


Number 
of hogs. 


1 


102 


13 


36 


115 


42 





2 





1 








2 


10 





1 








3 








4 








144 








165 








5 





() 



229 ' 



55 



There were also 14 goats and 18 camels at the Garfield station, mak- 
ing a total of G78 animals quarantined. 



SOUTHERN CATTLE INSPECTION. 



During the quarantine season of 189G there were received and 
yarded in the quarantine divisions of the various stock yards 42,8G9 
cars, containing 1,154,235 cattle; 43,529 cars were cleaned and dis- 
infected. 



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14 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

Tlie supervision and control of the movement of cattle from the dis- 
trict infected with Southern, or splenetic, fever involves the x>lacarding 
of cai^s and stamping of waybills, the proper yarding of Southern, 
cattle in order that they may not come in contact with susceptible 
animals, and, when reloaded at one station, the notification of the 
inspector at the point of destination or at intermediate stations. 

In the noninfected area in Texas 220,54:3 cattle were inspected and 
permitted to be moved to other States by trail and railroad for grazing. 

An experiment is now in progress in Page County, Iowa, to deter- 
mine to what extent and at what cost hog cholera can be prevented or 
controlled by sanitary regulations. The legislature at its last session 
passed a special act giving authority to destroy animals and to enforce 
necessary quarantine regulations. The funds available for this experi- 
ment are not sufiicient, but it is hoped that the work maybe sufficiently 
thorough in a part of the county to indicate what maybe accomplished 
by the enforcement of such regulations. Experiments are also being 
made to learn what can be accomplished by killing only the plainly 
diseased animals and treating those exi)osed with hog cholera anti- 
toxin. It is yet too early to form an idea of the results that will be 
obtained through these experiments, further than to state that the 
antitoxin evidently has a beneficial effect. The laboratorj^ and ex- 
periment station are now engaged npon investigations looking to the 
production of an antitoxin of greater protective power and at less 
expense than has been possible heretofore. 

WORK OF THE PATHOLOGICAL DIVISION. 
DESTRUCTION OP CATTLE TICKS. 

Probably the most impoi^tant work which this division has had in 
charge has been the experimental stndy of the effect of different sub- 
stances in destroying the ticks which spread the infection of Texas 
fever. For a long time it appeared as though no mixtui'e could be 
obtained which would kill these pai-asites without severely injuring 
the cattle which were treated. Recently it has been found that a 
petroleum product known as paraffiji oil will destroy the ticks with- 
out greatly irritating the skin of the animals to which it is applied. 
It is thought that by dipping the cattle twice in this oil, with an 
interval of a few days, all the ticks will be destroyed, and the ani- 
mals, even from the infected district, may thereafter be shipped with 
safety to any part of the country. If this hope is fulfilled, the dip- 
ping of cattle from the infected district must soon become general, 
and will save millions of dollars to the Southern States. At present 
such cattle must be kept separate and in quarantine pens, and sold 
as quarantined animals, at less piices than they would bring in ease 
they were free from restrictions. The general dipping of infected 
cattle would also prevent the infection of cars and stock yards and 



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FOUBTEBHTH ANNUAL REPORT. 15 

eoable ttis Bureau to prevent the difiseminatiou of Texas fever, with 
less hardship to the owners of eattle and with greater safety to the 
stoek interests. 

BlaACKIAO. 

An effort is also being made to prevent the losses from the disease 
known as blaekleg, or symptomatic anthrax, by distributing to the 
owners of herds where such losses occur a vaccine that will produce 
immunity. The ravages of this disease in some of our States have 
become very discouraging to the owners of cattle, particularly those 
who have endeavored to grade up their herds and breed the best beef- 
producing varieties. Many owners of large herds have reported 
annual losses ranging from 8 to 14 per cent. This disease appears to 
be quite easily prevented by vaccination. Heretofore, however, the 
methods used in this country have required two vaccinations, with 
an interval of ten days or more, and the trouble and exx)ense of a 
double vaccination, added to the cost of the vaccine, has deterred 
many stock owners from adopting this method of prevention. The 
Pathological Division has experimented with a vaccine prepared by 
a special method and which produces sufficient immunity to resist the 
disease by one vaccination. This division has prepared a large quan- 
tity of this vaccine and has distributed it for exx>erimental purposes. 
By securing this material free of charge and obtaining immunity with 
a single ox>eration, the method has been so simplified and cheapened 
that cattle owners who have suffered from the disease in the past are 
very anxious to adopt it. 

RABIES. 

3Iany investigations of reported outbreaks of disease have been 
made and a considerable number of tests made of animals supposed 
to be affected with rabies. A great variety of opinions has been 
expressed concei'uing the existence of rabies and the extent to which 
it prevails in this country. There are few institutions which are pre- 
pared to make a scientific test of animals supposed to be affected with 
this disease, and consequently the work of the Pathological Division 
in this direction is of great importance. A considerable number of 
undoubted cases of the disease have been discovered in this way, and 
it has been found that some mysterious outbreaks of disease among 
cattle were really attributable to this cause. 

WORK OP THE BIOCHEMIC DIVISION. 

This division has manufactured and distributed to State authorities 
during the past year sufficient tuberculin to test 57,000 cattle for 
tuberculosis, and sufficient mallein to test 1,400 horses for glanders. 

This division has also succeeded in manufacturing an ink which is 
of great assistance in branding carcasses and pieces of inspected meats. 
Such branding answers the purpose of identification in many cases, 



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16 BUBEAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

as well as seals and tags, and where used results in a great saving of 
money, since it can be applied much more rapidly and costs for mate- 
rial very much less. About 70 gallons of this ink have been pi'epai'ed 
and shipped to the various meat-inspection stations during the year. 

This division has also experimented in the pi^eparation of serums 
for the treatment of tuberculosis, hog cholera, and swine plague, but 
the results up to this time are not such as to enable the Bureau to 
inti'oduce such methods in its practical work. 

An experiment has been made by cooperation between the Bio- 
chemic and Pathological divisions of this Bureau and the Division of 
Chemistry of the Department for determining the alleged poisonous 
properties existing in cottonseed meal. American and Egyptian 
meals have been fed in veiy large quantities, but without producing 
any disease or any evidence of poisoning. The animals in the exper- 
iment thrived and gained rapidly upon the feed, even when the ration 
w^as increased to extraordinary quantities of the meal. Other inves- 
tigations of a chemical nature have been in progress, which will be 
reported in detail elsewhere. 

WORK OF THE ZOOLOGICAL LABORATORY. 

During the fiscal year 1896-97 the Zoological Laboratory has con- 
tinued its work in studying animal parasites. Considerable time has 
been consumed making specific determinations of specimens which 
are referred from the Inspection Division or from sanitary officials, 
physicians, or zoologists in various parts of the countiy. Aside from 
these determinations the laboratory has been occupied with statistical 
hygienic work and original technical investigations. 

With- a view to determining the value of the German microscopic 
examination of pork for trichinae the various outbreaks of trichinosis 
in that country from 1881 to 1895 have been collated. As might be 
expected on theoretical grounds, several cases of this disease have 
occurred from German pork which the German oflicials have inspected 
and declared free from trichime. The number of such cases, how- 
ever, is greater than one would expect from the German regulations, 
and shows conclusively that the German system of inspection is far 
below the degree of thoroughness usually ascribed to it. Over 40 per 
cent of all the cases of trichinosis thus far collected for Germany for 
the fifteen years referred to has been caused by pork which the Ger- 
man inspectors have examined and declared to be free from tricliinje, 
while about 14 per cent of all the cases in Germany during the same 
3^ears was due to pork which in some way escaped the sanitary offi- 
cials. In some cases the inspector would fail to examine the meat ; 
in others it was examined and condemned, but afterwaitls stolen and 
placed on the market. It is a remarkable fact that with all these 
cases of trichinosis, which are laid at the door of the German insi)ec- 
tion and the German pork, there was not a single case of the disease 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL KEPORT. IT 

in Germany during the fifteen yeai-s referred to Avliicli the (iernian 
sanitary authorities have been able to show was due to American 
pork. 

As another line of sanitary study the Zoological Lal>orator}' has pre- 
pared for the use of the Bureau inspectors a bulletin on certain animal 
parasites found in meats, with special reference to their direct or 
indirect transmissibility to man. Most important among tliese is the 
Echinococcus liydatidy wlucli appeal's to be more common in this 
country than formerly supposed. As this is the cause of a very fatal 
disease in man it beliooves sanitary oiTicials to take early and proper 
precautions to prevent its further spread. 

Various laboratory and field experiments upon scab havo been 
begun and are still in progress. 

For about two months t lie entire attention of this laboratory was 
occupied with a study of the parasites of the fur seal, undertaken at 
the requestof the Unit<»d States Treasury Department . An extensive 
report on the subject has l>een submitted to tlu» United States Seal 
Commission for publication. 

Owing to the unsatisfactory state of knowledge concerning most of 
the American parasites it is necessary for this laboratory to under- 
take considerable study of a very specialized and technical nature. 
One bulletin, half of which was comi)osed of technical details, on tho^ 
IMirasites of poultry has been issued, and a technical bulletin on cer- 
tain parasites of hares an<l rabbits and their relation to the parasites 
of cattle, sheep, and horees, prepared by this laboratory, has l>een 
published by the National Museum. 

Finally, the laboratory has made an (»xtensive study of all the vari- 
ous codes of zoological nomenclature in preparation for the meeting 
of the International C'ommission of Zoological Nomenclature, at 
which this Department was represented. This movement, inaugu- 
rated by the last Inte>mational Zoological Congress, has resulted in 
final mutual concessions on the part of scientific men of different 
countries, and the few remaining points of disagreement in this sub- 
ject have been done away with, and we now have a completely uniform 
set of technical names in all countries. 

WORK OF THE DAIRY DIVISION. 

The general survey of the condition of the dairy industry in dif- 
ferent parts of the country, which was begun immediatoly after the 
organization of the division in July, 1895, has been continued through 
the medium of the regular force aided by a few special agents. This 
inquiry has been made by single States and groups of States, and has 
resulted in several rei)orts, some of which have been printed and 
others are in hand awaiting i*evision and i)ublication. 

A special inquiry has been in progress in like manner as to the milk 
sopply and service of representative cities and large towns in the 
7204 2 ■ 

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18 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

Un ite<l States, and the field work, so to speak, has been completed at 
some points. 

The collection of dairy data in general continues with a view to its 
proper arrangement and future use in the form of circulars of infor- 
mation, popular bulletins, and the like. 

The calls for specific information by letter have greatly increased, 
as well as the routine work of the office and the volume of correspond- 
ence in general. This service, together with preparing several pub- 
lications, has so occupied the office force as greatly to retard the 
important work of collating and indexing for permanent use and ref- 
erence the mass of data which is constantly accumulating. 

During tho year there have been published eight bulletins and three 
circulars prepared in the division, besides contributions to the Year- 
book of the Department and to the -^Vnnual Report of the Bureau of 
Animal Industry — in all comprising 287 printed pages. 

Work is well advanced upon a compilation showing the movement 
of dairy products in the United States from producer to consumer, the 
condition of and important changes in the principal domestic mar- 
kets, and the dairy export interests of the country, all to be offered 
for publication as a bulletin under the title of '^CJommerce of the 
Dairy,"as a suitable supplement to ** Statistics of the Dairy," already 
published. 

The chief and assistant chief of the division liave visited during the 
year centers of dairy interest in 23 States, and collected information 
for future use. Incidentally, the same officers have attended general 
meetings of 13 State and similar organizations of dairymen, and have 
been enabled thereby to meet hundreds of the representative men 
connected with this industry in various parts of the countrj^ and to 
establish relations which will be of material future benefit to the 
general work. 

Soon after the establishment of the division, attention was directed 
toward the condition of the foreign trade of the United States in 
dairy products. It was noticed that the cheese trade in general was 
depressed and demoralized, mainly as a consequence of the heavy 
decline in exports during recent years, the causes for which were dis- 
cussed in the Yearbook for 1895. Also, that a surplus of good butter 
was beginning to show itself for the first time in this country, ren- 
dering an enlarged market and new outlets of importance. It became 
known that Canada had secui^ed nearly all the trade for cheese in 
Great Britain which the United States had lost, and this had been 
done through the direct instrumentality of the Canadian govern- 
ment in encouraging, aiding, and instructing cheese factories, and 
improving means of transportation. Canada was found, in addition, 
to be entering upon a similar course of developing and patronizing 
the creamery system of butter making and establishing a foreign 
trade with this product. 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 19 

It was therefore evident that active measures should be taken to 
reestablish and extend foreign markets for the surplus butter and 
cheese produced in the United States, and early in the year a definite 
recommendation was made from this office for preliminary work in 
this direction. 

Arrangements were begun in March for making experimental 
exports to foreign markets of carefully selected butter from cream- 
eries in the large butter-producing sections of the United States. 
These shipment^ commenced in May, and were made every three 
weeks until near the close of the calendar year 1897. The trial 
exports thus made were from the port of New York to the London 
market via Southampton. 

Without anticipating the results of the season's trials, or the report 
to be made thereon, it can be readily asserted that English merchanlfl 
of reputation and influence have been better convinced than ever 
before of the high quality of butter obtainable in different parts of 
this country, and the practicability of placing it in British markets 
from ten to fourteen days after churning, and without appreciable 
deterioration. The terminal facilities and the accommodations for 
refrigerated storage during ocean transit are not yet what is desired 
in kind or capacity, but it is evident that if the commercial demands 
increase and remain sufficiently constant the transportation facilities 
will become adequate and satisfactory. 

These trial exports serve the double purpose of obtaining useful 
information for our own people, as producers and sellers, and of dif- 
fusing desirable information among prospective customers. A very 
widespread interest in this matter has been developed in this country, 
as shown by the comments of the public press and the voluminous 
correspondence already I'esulting. The probable benefit in extending 
the foreign market for American butter seems to make it desirable to 
repeat the trials another year, with an enlai^ed field of operations. 

EXTENSION OF MEAT INSPECTION. 

The most pressing work of this Bureau for the coming year is the 
extension of the meat inspection to abattoirs engaged in an interstate 
business which have not yet been included in the service. Until all 
the establishments which kill for shipment to other States have been 
included the object of the law in preventing the sale of diseased car- 
casses for human food will not be accomplished, and there will be a 
discrimination in favor of those which have received the inspection 
and against those which have not been able to obtain it. There is 
also a demand for increased microscopic inspection, which is neces- 
sary to i^ermit the marketing of American pork products in the prin- 
cipal countries of continental Europe. The exports of these products 
fluctuate largely from year to year, according to the condition of the 
market, and consequently it is impossible to foresee the expenditure 



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20 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

which will be necessary to properly provide for the trade. There 
should either be an emergency fund which can be drawn upon for 
this purpose or the Department should be authorized to charge a 
reasonable sum, say 5 cents per specimen, for the microscopic inspec- 
tion, and the sum so collected should become additional to the appro- 
priation, so that any demands made might be complied with. While 
I believe the general inspection of meats for sanitary purposes should 
be made by the Government without charge to the slaughterers, the 
microscopic inspection is to a great extent a commercial inspection, 
and the cost of it could be more legitimately assessed against the 
trade which it beuefits. If the packers pay the cost of the inspection, 
there would be no longer any reason for declining to grant it to all 
who apply for it, and the inspection could be applied to as small 
pieces of pork as was deemed advisable. At present the inspection 
is demanded of pieces weighing only from 1^ to 3 pounds, and on 
account of the cost of inspecting such small pieces a limit of weight has 
been set (5 pounds), which is more or less unsatisfactory to the trade. 
The inspection of export animals must be continued in order to 
certify to their healthfulness and maintain the market which has 
been secured for them in other countries. At present our live animals 
are shut out of most of the countries of continental Europe, and it is 
only by inspection and certifying to their healthfulness that we can 
hope to have these markets reopened. 

INSPECTION AND QUARANTINE OF IMPORTED ANIMALS. 

The inspection and quarantine of imported animals must also be 
continued, in order to prevent the introduction of contagious diseases. 
While much progress has been made in the control of contagious dis- 
eases in the European countries from which our stockmen import live 
animals, most of these countries are now affected with either pleuro- 
pneumonia or foot-and-mouth disease, or both. The prospects are 
that there will be more importations from Europe during the coming 
year than for several years past, and consequently the expense of 
this inspection may be somewhat increased. 

C ATTLE AFFECTED WITH TEXAS FEVER. 

The inspection and quarantine of cattle from the Texas fever dis- 
trict is an extremely important branch of the service, and it needs 
constant attention to prevent the infection of the central stock yards 
and the widespread dissemination of the contagion. When we con- 
sider that the quarantine line separating the infected from the unin- 
fected district of the countiy extends from the Atlantic Coast on the 
east to the Pacific on the west, and is over 4,000 miles in length, the 
difficulty of preventing violations of the regulations and the unlawful 
movement of infected stock can be appreciated. During the present 
year there have been more violations of the quarantine than for sev- 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 21 

eral years, owing, no doubt, to the increased demand for stock cattle. 
■ It will be necessary to take increased precautions during the next year 
to prevent the movement of cattle contrary to the regulations, or great 
damage to the domestic and export trade and a heavy loss of stock will ^ 
result. The force during the present year is not snfliciont to properly 
guard the line. 

Experiments liave been in progress for sev<»ral yeai^s to destroy the 
ticks on Southern cattle by dipping them in a suitable mixture for this 
purpose. If the ticks could be easily and cheaply destroyed, the cattle 
would be freed from the danger of spreading infection. It has been 
very difficult to find a substance which would destroy the ticks with- 
ont injuring the cattle. It is thought, however, that an agent has 
been found in the petroleum product known as paraffin oil, which 
will accomplish this satisfactorily. At all events, recent exjMjriments 
have been much more favorable than those previously made, and the 
hopes of stockmen have Ixjen raiseiJ accordingly. If this plan of dis- 
infecting the cattle proves successful, it will do away with most of the 
reasons for violating the quarantine and will no doubt save the stock 
raisere of the Southern States much loss and embarrassment in ship- 
ping which they now endure. 

To properly apply this discovery for the benefit of the cattle indus- 
try of the whole countrj% dipping stations should be established by 
this Department at convenient points, and these should be operated 
under official supervision in accordance with stringent regulations. 
By adopting such a plan the dissemination of the disease will bo pre- 
vented without any hardship to the cattle growers of the infected 
district. This service will I'cquire a larger number of inspectors than 
are now employed, but the benefit to the country, particularly to the 
Southern States, will be so great, amounting to many millions of dol- 
lars, that there should be no hesitation in putting it into operation. 

ERADICATIOy OF SCABIES, HOG CHOLERA, AXl) TUBERCULOSIS. 

Measures for <^ont rolling and eradicating the disease known as scab, 
or scabies, in sheep have been in operation for the past year, though 
they must be strengthened and made to apply more generally before 
the prevalence of the disease can bo materially reduced. Experi- 
ment's are l>eing made with different sheep dips for the purpose of 
determining which is most efficacious and at the same time least 
injurious to the animal. Experiments are also being made to deter- 
mine the best methods of treating and controlling hog cholera and 
tuberculosis. The losses from these diseases are extremely serious, 
and every effort should be made to reduce them. In order to accom- 
plish this, it is plain that the Department must exercise fuller control 
over the movement* of animals from one part of the country to 
another, and prevent the dissemination of contagion by stock cars in 
which diseaaed animals have l>een transported. It is pi'obable that 



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22 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

more legislation should be enacted, giving the Department greater 
power in the stock yards that are used for interstate shipments, and 
that more positive authority should be granted for compelling the 
disinfection of ears and stock pens. 

VACCINE FOR BLACKLEG. 

The preparation and distribution of vaccine for blackleg has recently 
been undertaken, and a large number of applications for it have been 
received (amounting at this writing to over 30,000 doses) from stock- 
men whose animals have suffered from this disease. It appears that 
in considerable sections of the country the herds of cattle, particularly 
of important breeds, suffer to the extent of from 10 to 15 per cent of 
their number annually. It is believed from the reports of vaccina- 
tions in other countries that this loss may be reduced to less than 
1 per cent. 

The manufacture and distribution of tuberculin and malleinfor the 
use of State authorities who cooperate with this Department in the 
control of contagious diseases should be continued. The tuberculin 
prepared here has proved to be reliable, and the fact that it can be 
obtained of the Department by State authorities has made it possible 
to continue the measures for suppressing tuberculosis where otherwise 
the expense would have made it almost impossible. It is probable 
that still greater quantities of tuberculin will be required for the 
coming year than were used during the past. 

NEED OF AN EXPERIMENT STATION. 

The work of this Bureau requires the use of an experiment station 
where a considerable number of experimental animals can be con- 
stantly kept. This is needed partly for the diagnosis of diseases met 
with in the inspection of meat and in the investigation of outbreaks 
. of disease in various parts of the country, and also in the investigation 
of the nature of diseases and the best methods of treating them. The 
station which has heretofore been occupied by the Bureau has become 
insufficient for the purpose, and a change has therefore been made to 
a point farther from the city, and where more land can be obtained. 
The importance of continuing such investigations and of pressing 
them forward as rapidly as possible can not be overestimated, and no 
doubt the necessity for such work will continue for many years to 
come. I would therefore recommend that Congress be requested to 
authorize the purchase of suitable grounds for such an experiment 
station, and thus avoid the necessity of moving from place to place 
and abandoning the improvements which must necessarily be made 
where this work is being condncted. 

PROPOSED WORK IN THE DAIRY DIVISION. 

In the Dairy Division it is proi)Osed that a special inquiry shall be 
made of mechanical aids to dairying, with a view of putting that 



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FOUBTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 23 

division in |>o8session of complete, definite, descriptive information 
on this sul)ject; also an inquiry in cooperation with other divisions 
as to the composition and healthfulness of the various materials used 
in this country as preservatives of milk and milk products; also an 
inquiry into the economy of creamery and factor^' management, 
including the utilization of waste products, with a view to devising 
methods for reducing the cost i)er pound in making butter and cheese. 
It is proposed to continue the efforts to develop the foreign markets 
for American dairy products, and it is recommended that Congress 
be i-equested to give authority to the Department to apply the funds 
received from the sale of dairy products shipped abroad by the Dairy 
Division to the purchase of material for other shipments. In this 
way, without increasing the expenditures, a ver>* much larger quantity 
could be purchased and sent abroad during the year. 

INSPECTION TO INCLUDE BUTTER, CHEESE, CONDENSED MILK, ETC. 

It is suggested that an extension of the system of Government 
inspection and certification at pi*esent applied to meats and meat 
products for export, to include butter, cheese, and condensed milk, 
would be advisable and may perhaps be necessary in order to main- 
tain the standing of our products in foreign markets. If a trade in 
pure butter or pure cheese is built up under existing conditions it 
may at any time be ruined through the shipment by unscrupulous 
persons of adulterated products or those which have been preserved 
with agents generally considered harmful. No doubt a certification 
limited to products which would grade above a certain fixed and 
arbitrary standard would be a great benefit and aid in building up 
and maintaining a greatly increased trade in such products. 

INCREASED APPROPRIATIONS NECESSARY. 

The Bureau has entered upon these various lines of work in most 
eases by specific direction of Congress and in others under instruc- 
tions from the Secretary of Agriculture. The value of this work to 
the country and its urgency need not be enlarged upon, but it is evi- 
dent that as the work develops and extends increased appropriations 
are necessary. The increase of the meat inspection alone from less 
than 4,000,000 animals in 1892 to 26,500,000 in 1897 means an enor- 
mous increase in the amount of work that is done and in the force 
required. 

The appropriation, however, is less now than it was in 1892. It is 
not in the meat inspection alone that the work has increased, but in 
every other line that has been referred to. It is essential, therefore, 
for the proper conduct of the work that the appropriation be restored 
to the amount which was formerly given, and I would recommend 
that it l>e fixed at $800,000, in addition to the statutory roll, for the 
year ending June 30, 1899. 

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24 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

GREATER LABORATORY FACILITIES NEEDED. 

Finally, I invite attention to the great desirability of a fireproof 
building for the scientific laboratory. The building now occupied is 
unsuited for housing the valuable working material which has been 
accumulated during the thirteen j'^ears that the Bureau has been in 
existence. In the study of animal parasites, for instance, there have 
been intrusted to Dr. Stiles, our zoologist, the type specimens from 
the principal collections of the world. If these specimens were 
destroyed it would be an irreparable loss to science and to pi'actical 
agriculture. So in each division of the work there are specimens, 
literature, indexes, and working material of all kinds which represent 
years of labor, and which could not possibly be replaced. 

This laboratory is a practical workshop, which aims to make con- 
stant and immediate returns to the farmers for the full amount 
expended for the scientific work of the Bureau. It is accomplishing 
this by the distribution of tuberculin, mallein, and blackleg vaccine, 
by bringing out the best methods of treating diseases, by determining 
the nature of diseases which affect stock and informing the owners, 
and by perfecting methods for making cattle insusceptible to Texas 
fever and for killing the ticks which are the means of spreading the 
disease. This work is worth millions of dollars to our farmers, and 
should not only be encouraged but put beyond the danger of inter- 
ruption and ruin by fires and other avoidable accidents. 

The laboratory' building now occupied is insufficient in capacity for 
the demands now made upon it. There are lines of work of great 
importance which can not be taken up. The biochemical side of 
butter and cheese making, including the microorganisms which play 
a part in these processes and the chemical changes which are due to 
them, should be thoroughly studied. More work should be done with 
a view to the perfection of methods for the control of hog cholera 
and tuberculosis. The expense of such work is insignificant when 
we consider the vast amount of property now lost annually by our 
farmei-s through the ravages of preventable diseases. 

D. E. Salmon, Chief. 

Hon. James Wilson, 

Secretary. 



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Ol'TLINES OP WORK PUESUED BY THK BUREAI OF 
ANIMAL INDUSTRY.' 

By D. E. Salmon, D. V. M., 
Chief of the Burean, 

Tlie Depailmeut of Agriculture was iiuprossed early iu its history 
with many and difficult problems connected with the animal industry 
of the country that needed solution, but in regard to which the most 
enlight«ne<l agriculturists and the most exi)ej't scientific men were 
profoundly ignorant. Most important among these pixiblems were 
the diseases which often caused disastw)us losses. The second Com- 
missioner of Agriculture had occasion to cnll attention, in his second 
and third annual reports, to ** the prevalence of fatal maladies among 
all varieties of farm animals, resulting in the annual loss of not less 
than $50,000,000," and recommended the establishment in the Depart- 
ment of a division of veterinary surgery-. Tlie next year, 1870, Com- 
missioner Capron renewed the subject, referring particularly to a 
forthcoming report ui>on pleuro-pneumonia and Texas fever, diseases 
then prevalent and recently investigated under the supervision of the 
Department. lie says in the annual reiwrt : 

The value of stock lost annually from disease is enormous, and threatens not 
only to decimate our animals, bnt to expose the human family to disease from the 
oonsmnption of miwholesome meats. Neglect of animals and their overcrowding 
in transportation are prolific sources of disease, and its spread is permitted by the 
ignorance of a majority of the present class of veterinarians. Another class of 
disease arises from causes obscurely known, if known at all, and thesQ fatal mal- 
adies are as yet without any indicated effort of cure, rendering necessary the 
barbarous plan of stamping out * * * as the only means of saving the agri- 
culturist or stock raiser from total ruin. 

While recognizing the danger and losses from animal diseases, these* 
observations emphasize the prevailing ignorance of the times. Vet- 
erinarians at that period were few and widely scattered, and how 
could they be expei^ted to guard against the spread of contagion when 
they were seldom consulted, and under any circumstances were with- 
out authority to prevent the driving, the transportation, or the sale 
of affected animals, and the consequent unlimited exposure of other 
animals to the cause of these diseases! 

The method of eradicating disease by the slaughter of affecteil and 
exjxwed animals, rather contemptuously referred to as ** the barbarous 
plan of stamping out," must in many cases remain for all time the 
proper course of procedure. It is sentiment and not science that 
raises objections to it in those spec'ial cases where iU application is 



'Reprinted from Yearbook for 1897. 

25 



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26 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

clearly indicated. With pleuro-pueumonia, for instance, it is absurd 
to allow animals affected with this important plague to remain alive 
as breeding places of the contagion a single hour after they can be 
properly killed. Until we can perform miracles and cure an animal 
in an instant, freeing it by the same instantaneous process of the 
power to transmit the contagion with which it is saturated, it will be 
folly to i^reserve and treat animals affected with plagues that are not 
already generally disseminated. The failure to recognize this axiom- 
atic principle delayed for a long time the beginning of the work for 
stamping out pleuro-pneumonia, and threatened at times to arrest it 
before a fair trial of this method had been made. 

Notwithstanding the attention given annually in the reports of the 
Department to special manifestations of animal disease, no specific 
appiopriation of money was made for investigation until 1877, when 
Congress granted i;10,000 for such purpose, impelled by the prev^a- 
lence of diseases among swine .ind cattle. Whatever the results 
achieved through the subsequent reports, published by the Depart- 
ment in 1878, in the way of educating stock raisers to avoid such 
diseases, the writer will onlj- mention his own effort at that time to 
lay down some general principles for the investigation and successful 
management of contagious animal diseases in general. This method 
was developed more fully in the annual report for 1881-82, of which 
Commissioner Le Due stated introductorily: 

The ultimate objects of Dr. Salmon s investigations have been, first, to discover 
the c:iact form and nature of the germ causing the diseases under consideration; 
second, to learn how it is distributed, and how this distribution can be prevented; 
third, the best methods of destroying the virus within as well as outside of the 
animal body; fourth, methods of rendering animals insusceptible to the effects of 
these germs; and, fifth, if it be possible, to establish breeds of animals that are 
insusceptible to such diseases. 

To properly apply these principles, based upon the recent bacteri- 
ological discoveries, in order that the work might be of permanent 
value, a veterinary division was established in the Department in 
1883, which was replaced by the Bureau of Animal Industry, the 
organization of which was directed by Congress in 1884. The effect 
of the labors carried on under the direction of this Bureau upon the 
health and value of farm animals and their products is a matter of 
world-wide knowledge; and it is at least possible now to modify the 
official statement made by the head of the Department in 1868, that 
our domestic animals *'have all suffered from the local prevalence of 
malignant forms of disease, against which little veterinary skill is 
opposed, and little more than empiricism and superstitious folly is 
practiced." 

NUMBER AND VALUE OF FARM ANIMALS IN 1884. 

It is of interest, in connection with the above, to know both the 
number and value of the pnncipal classes of our domesticated animals 

uigiTizea oy VjOOy Iv^ 



FOUBTEENTH ANNUAL EEPOKT. 



27 



at the time this large but sensitive source of wealth and convenience 
became officially represented in the Department of Agriculture. The 
following table, showing the number and value of these animals on 
January 1, 1884, is, therefore, prepared from MiscellaiioouH Bulletin 
No. 11 of the Division of Statistics: 

Number and value of principal farm animaht on January i, I884. 



Animals. 


Number. 


Total. 


Value. 


Total luUno. 


Hones. 


U, 160, 683 

1,014,136 

13,501,206 

29,046,101 


} 13,083,800 

) 42,547.307 

50.626,626 
44.200.803 


rl838.734.400 
I 161.214.976 
f 423,486,649 
I 683,229,064 




Mules 


^ S994,04n,:}76 


Milch 4¥»w<i 




Oiher cattle 


^ 1,016,715,703 


Sheep 


119,902.700 
246.301,130 


Swine 












Grand total 




150,458,635 




2,467,868.984 









Five years later there were, according to the Eleventh Census, a 
little over 49,000 asses and 285,600,440 domestic fowls, and there 
were also 500,000 goats, all of undetermined value. The number of 
these was npt much less in 1884, and at a low valuation they were 
jointly worth $57,000,000, making the aggregate value of our domestic 
animals at that time not less than $2,525,500,000. A striking fact is 
that should this Bureau be able to save to the owners of live stock 
by the information which it distributes and by its executive work 
but 1 per cent per annum of that value, this saving would amount to 
$25,255,000 of their capital, at the comparatively insignificant cost of 
the annual appropriations which sustain the Bureau, whatever their 
amount may be. The real losses upon hogs, cattle, and sheep not 
killed by dogs, which died during the last census year, reckoned at 
$10, $15, and $2 i)er head, respectively, were $133,601,743, and over 
$98,000,000 of this was in hogs. In addition to the possible and prob- 
able saving of 1 per cent per annum in live stock alone, there should 
not be forgotten the benefits to human health and the maintenance 
and increase of commerce in animals and their products, at home and 
abroad, through inspection, certification, and diminished insurance. 

THE REASONS FOB THE ESTABLISHMENT OP THE BUREAU. 

The immediate cause of the establishment of the Bureau of Animal 
Industry was the urgent need by the Federal Government of oflficial 
information concerning the nature and prevalence of animal diseases 
and of the means required to control and eradicate them, and also the 
necessity of having an executive agency to put into effect the meas- 
ures necessary to stop the spread of disease and to prevent the impor- 
tation of contagion into the country, as well as to conduct the original 
investigations through which further knowledge might be obtained. 
Our exported cattle and sheep had recently been refused admission 



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28 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

into Great Britain aud condemned to slaughter upon the docks where 
landed because of alleged contagious diseases in this country dan- 
gerous to foreign live stock. Our pork has been prohibited entrance 
into most of the countries of continental Europe because it was alleged 
to be infested with trichinflB, and therefore dangerous to the health 
and lives of the consumers. Twenty-live to thirty million dollars' 
worth of hogs were dying each year from contagious disease. Cattle 
raisers were in a condition bordering upon a panic from fear of Texas 
fever and contagious pleuro-pneumonia, and State restrictions were 
seriously interfering with interstate traffic in bovine animals. Sheep 
raising had become precarious in many sections because of scab and 
other parasitic diseases. The repeated demands and agitation for 
governmental assistance culminated in 1884 in the enactment of the 
organic act of this Bureau. 

THE PLEURO-PNEUMONIA PROBLEM. 

Tlie most pressing duty devolving upon the new Bureau was to 
arrest the extension of pleuro-pneumonia and, if possible, eradicate 
that disease from the country. In attempting to perform this duty, 
it developed that notwithstanding the investigations and reports of 
scientific men, the Commissioner of Agriculture, under whom that work 
was to be entered upon, doubted the existence of the disease in the 
United States. The prevalence of some peculiar disease of cattle in 
certain portions of the country was evident, and elaborate experi- 
ments were made to demonstrate whether or not it was of a contagious 
nature. After this demonstration had been made it was necessary to 
secure further authority from Congress before effective work could 
be undertaken. By the original legislation, only diseased animals 
could be purchased for slaughter; but the contagion could not be 
eradicated or appreciably diminished while exposed animals were left 
in the stables to develop the disease and infect other animals. It was 
not until 1887 that authoritj'^ to use the appropriation for the pur- 
chase and slaughter of exposed animals was received. From that 
time forward there were no extensions of the disease into fresh terri- 
tory, and the infected districts were rapidly freed from it. The work 
was at first concentrated upon Illinois, Kentucky, and Maryland, and 
the contagion eradicated from the first two and controlled in the last. 
Then the remainder of the infected district, which was included in 
the States of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York, was embraced 
in the field of operations. In five years from the time the work of 
eradication by slaughter of both diseased and exposed animals was 
commenced the disease was officially declared to be eradicated. Since 
early in 1892 no case of contagious pleuro-pneumonia of cattle has 
been discovered in the United States, and events have consequently 
confirmed the thoroughness and reliability of the work. 

It is almost impossible at this time to give an idea of the danger 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 29 

with which the cattle induBtry was menaeod by the spread of that 
fatal and treacherous disease to a i)oint so far iu ilie interior as Chi- 
cago, or of the difficulties under our form of government of promptly 
and effectually meeting the emergency. Fortunately, although the 
cattle owners in the infected districts were not friendly, the State 
authorities cooperated in ever}^ case and supplied the power whicli 
was lacking in Federal legislation. And although there were many 
who questioned the existence of the Euroi)ean lung plague in this 
country, who did not believe in the success of the measures that were 
adopted, who were positive that the disease could not be eradicat^^l, 
or who were certain that untold millions of money would l>e squan- 
dered before the end was reached, the result was accomplished with 
an expenditure of less than five years of time .and of ♦1,500,000 — a 
sum which is less than 5 per cent of the value of the l>eef exported 
in 1892. 

When we consider that the Governments of Great Britain, Fraju^e, 
and Germany all undertook the work of eradicating pleuro-pneumonia 
long before the establishment of our Bureau of Animal Industry, and 
that none of them have yet succeeded in freeing their territory from 
the plague, we can appreciate the fact that the completion of our task 
in a comparatively shoii time was a notable achievement. 

TEXAS FEVER. 

A disease which was causing much heavier direct losses than pleuro- 
pneumonia, and which was almost equal!}' feared by cattle owners, 
was known by the local name of Texas, or Spanish, fever. This dis- 
ease, which has numerous i>opular and local names, has more recently 
been called by different writers splenetic fever, Southern fever, and 
tick fever. 

When investigations of this disease were first entered upon Ijy the 
Department of Agriculture there were the most profound ignorance 
and skepticism in regard to its nature and even its existence. Cattle 
owners in the Southwest and Middlewest asserted that the herds from 
the Gulf coast of Texas carried with them a poison that destroyed 
nearly all the cattle with which they came in contact. So virulent 
was this poison declareil to Ije that cattle which were simply driven 
across the trail of the Gulf-coast herds, thirty, sixty, or even ninety 
days after they had passed, would still contract the disease in the 
same proportion and in as fatal a form as if they mingled directly 
with the Southern animals. To these assertions were adde<l others 
to the effect that the Gulf -coast cattle were healthy, and that the 
susceptible cattle to which they conveyed a disease which they them- 
selyes did not have were, even when fatally affected, unable to 
transmit the malady or disseminate the virus to any other cattle. 

A few observations of a similar nature had been made in the East- 
em States. Cattle from NoHh Carolina and South Carolina, though 



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30 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

apparently in good health, had caused ontbreaks of disease among 
the cattle of Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, which had min- 
gled with them or grazed along the roads over which the Carolina 
animals had been driven. 

The general features of this disease, as described by the various 
observers, were so unusual, so entirely different from what was seen 
in any other known communicable malady, that the coiTectness of the 
observations was not generally accepted by scientific men, and per- 
haps the majority of stockmen were of the opinion that the malady 
was the result of some local conditions, and was incorrectly attributed 
to poison disseminated by the Southern cattle. The cattle raisers of 
Texas were indignant at the charge broughtagainst their herds, which 
they asserted were as healthy as any in the world, and, not having a 
disease, could not convey one. 

The allegations and discussions in regard to this mysterious disease 
were almost forgotten, when, in 1867 and 1868, the herds of the Gulf 
coast had recovered from the destructive effects of the war and 
appeared upon the markets and feeding grounds of the Northern 
States in great numbers. With the warm weather of summer there 
appeared a remarkably acute and fatal disease among the native cat- 
tle in the sections where the Southern animals had been grazed and 
marketed, which threatened the utter destruction of the native herds, 
and even of the milch cows kept in the vicinity of the stock yards of 
the principal market cities. 

These serious and widespread losses demonstrated conclusively the 
reality of the disease, while careful observations and elaborate reports 
made by Professor Gamgee for the Department of Agriculture, and by 
the boards of health of New York and Illinois, served to collate and 
record all that was then known of the symptoms, mode of transmis- 
sion, the general characteristics, and the changes found in the several 
organs upon post-mortem examination. 

The problem presented to the country was a most important one. 
There were millions of cattle in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi 
seeking a market, and other millions of cattle in the more Northern 
States liable to destruction by this fatal infection which they carried. 
The ranges of the West and Northwest needed these Southern animals 
to consume their grass, and vast herds were driven through Kansas and 
Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming to the most northern limits of our 
territory. The owners of cattle along these trails were heavy losers 
from disease, and hence there was an effort to confine these infectious 
herds to narrow trails, or oven to close the trails entirely. This action 
was resented by the Southern men, who still were not convinced that 
their cattle caused disease, and who looked upon these restrictions as 
efforts to avoid competition and prevent the marketing of the herds 
from the prolific ranges of the South. The time had come when it 
was necessary for the Federal Government to assist both pai'ties. It 



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FOUirrEKNTH ANNUAL BEPOBT. 31 

vfixs e^^sential to prot-ect the Northern herds from destruction and 
scarcely less important to provide for the marketing of the Southern 
cattle. 

Another danger threatened the cattle industry in connection with 
this disease. Our export trade in live cattle, which was giving an 
important outlet for our surplus stock, was looked upon by foreign 
governments with suspicion. It Avas feared that Texas fever might 
be introduced among the cattle of Europe and added to the numerous 
plagues that they had struggled with from time immemorial. The 
limitation to the spread of the disease, due to the failure of the sick 
animals to transmit the infection, and the eradication of the disease 
in newly infected districts by the frosts of winter, were characteristics 
so unusual that they were not accepted as correct. As a great cattle- 
producing nation, we could not afford to allow the foreign markets to 
be closed against us. The Texas fever question was, consequently, 
one of the most momentous ones which confronted the Bureau at the 
time of its organization. 

The first step toward the control of this disease was evidently to 
ascertain the exact extent of the district from which cattle carried 
infection. To determine this, three classes of facts were available: 
First, the liistory of the cattle which had caused outbreaks of disease 
could be traced, and it could be learned where they originated; sec- 
ond, by diligent inquiry many sections could be discovered where 
cattle taken from the North were affected with the disease called 
*' acclimation fever," a disease which we had found was identical 
with Texas fever; and, third, it could be determined by observation 
and experiment whether the cattle of any particular section were 
susceptible to the disease, and if they contracted Texas fever upon 
exposure to cattle from the known infected district, that fact was 
evidence that the district in which they were raised was not infected. 
By a diligent collation and study of such facts the border line of the 
infected district was traced from the Atlantic Coast in Virginia to 
the Pacific Coast in the vicinity of San Francisco, a distance, allowing 
for the departures from a direct course, of about 4,000 miles. 

The scientific study of the disease had not been neglected, and it 
was found that the infectious cattle could be shipped to market with- 
out endangering other animals, provided separate pens were set apart 
for them at the stock yards where they were unloaded, and provided 
the ears in which they were shipped were properly cleaned and dis- 
infected. The settling of the Western States and the construction of 
railroads led to the marketing of cattle from the infected district 
without much driving, and the trail was gradually abandoned except 
during the winter months. 

The regulations of the Bureau hastened this solution of the difft- 
oulty. The border line of the infected district was made a quarantine 
line. No cattle were i)ermitted to cross this line between February 



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32 BUBEAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

15 and November 15, except for immediate slaughter. The cars carry- 
ing such cattle and the waybills accompanying them were marked to 
show the origin of the stock, and when the destination was reached the 
animals were unloaded into cxuarantine pens and the care Avere disin- 
fected under the supervision of an inspector. From November 15 to 
February 15 (changed to January 15 for 1898) the movement of cattle 
was allowed without restriction. By these comparatively simple 
measures the dissemination of the disease was almost entirely pre- 
vented, and the cars and stock yards used for Northern and export 
cattle were kept free from the contagion. 

In this manner the most urgent problems in connection with the 
disease were solved, but others of gi'eat economic importance still 
remained. Buyere took advantage of the fact that the Southern cattle 
must be sold for immediate slaughter, alid would not pay as much for 
cattle in the quarantine pens as they would for the same class of stock 
in the free pens. Hence, the regulations were more or less of a hard- 
ship to those who produced cattle within the infected district. Again, 
cattle taken from the Northern States to the infected district for breed- 
ing purposes and to improve tlie native stock were subject to the dis- 
ease, and from 75 to 100 per cent would die the first year. This was 
very discouraging to the breeders of that section, who desired to pro- 
duce the most improved varieties of cattle, but who were prevented 
from doing so by the presence of this infection. 

The peculiarities of Texas fever made it a most difficult disease to 
investigate, and it seemed at times as though its mysteries could never 
be fathomed. By diligent and persevering observations the Patholog- 
ical Division discovered in the blood of diseased animals a microscopic 
animal parasite which lives within and destroys the red blood cor- 
puscles, and is evidently responsible for the causation of the malady. 

It was also discovered that^ the Southern cattle tick {Boophilus 
bovis) carried this microorganism from the infectious cattle of the 
South to the Northern susceptible animals, and that when free from 
the tick the Southern cattle were harmless. 

It is impossible in this paper to enter into all of the interesting 
details, but it may be said, without attempting any demonstration of 
the statements, that these discoveries made it iwssible to mark out 
the lines of investigation by which alone any further progress could 
be made. Investigators were put to work to discover a mixture in 
which Southern cattle might be dipped to free them from the tick; 
also to work out a method of inoculation or vaccination by which 
Northern stock might be made immune to the disease before they 
were shipped South for breeding or other purposes; and, finally, co 
ascertain whether it was possible to eradicate the tick in the infected 
district, and by what means. 

These great questions have been patiently studied, and it is now 
possible to state that these studies appear to be reaching a successful 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 33 

conclusion. A cheap and comparatively efficient dip has been made 
by floating paraffin oil npon the surface of water. This has some 
disadvantages, but these apparently are not serious, and improve- 
ments will undoubtedly be made after the system of dipping is put 
into practical operation. Again, it has been proved that if young 
Northern cattle are inoculated by injecting under the skin late in the 
fall or in the winter from 6 to 10 cubic centimeters of blood from an 
infectious Southern bovine animal they contract a mild form of Texas 
fever and recover. Afterwards they may be taken to the infected 
district without much danger from subsequent attacks. The eradi- 
cation of the tick, although a serious problem, is not so hopeless as a 
first impression might lead one to suppose. Some farms have been 
freed from this insect by picking aU of the ticks off the cattle and 
allowing none to mature. In a year or two they disappear entirely. 
A number of counties in Virginia, which prohibit cattle from running 
at large, have apparently been freed from ticks by that measure. It 
would appear that this tick can only mature and reproduce its kind 
by passing a portion of its existence upon bovine animals, and that 
the whole species will die out within a year or two if they can not 
reach such animals. If this supposition is connect, then It is only 
necessary to fence up a piece of ground so that no cattle can got upon 
it for the period of time mentioned, in order to rid it from infection. 
From this brief statement of the case it is plain that cattle raisers 
may congratulate themselves that the most difficult problems con- 
nected with this disease are solved, and that it is only a matter of 
detail to put into effect measures which will obviate the hardships and 
losses that in the past have been so burdensome. 

INSPECTION, TAGGING, AND CERTIFICATION OF EXPORT CATTLE. 

. The fear expressed by foreign governments of the introduction of 
pleuro-pneumonia and Texas fever with cattle from the United States 
made it necessary to adopt some method by which the history of the 
animals exported could be ascertained and the animals inspected, 
numbered, and recorded, so that a certificate could be issued showing 
freedom from contagion. Occasionally it was alleged by the English 
inspectors that some of our cattle were suffering from i)leuro-pneu- 
monia when Landed at the British ports. In two cases German inspect- 
ors rejwrted our cattle affected with Texas fever when they rea<*lied 
Hamburg. The German reports plainly show that the two lots of cat- 
tle were not affected with the same disease, and that the diagnosis in 
one case at least must have been incorrect. Such occurrences, how- 
ever, emphasize the importance of supervising the trade, as our live 
cattle and fresh beef have been entirely excluded from Germany since 
this alleged discovery of disease. 

It was found at first to be by no means a simple matter to obtain 
the history of the cattle purchased for export and to mark them for 
7204 3 ^ . 

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84 BUREAU OF ANIMAL rKDUBTEY. 

identifieation with a numbered tag. Such tags had been put ia (h^ 
ears of oows in the ptemo-pnearaonia inspeetion without any serioi» 
trouble, but it was quite another kind of work to ^ into tfte stock 
yards and put tags in the «ars of the powerful and bellioose steers^ 
many of whitjh had never recognized the sovereignty of man. By 
perseverence, however, the details of a practical system were worked 
out. Tagging eliutes were constructs, through which the cattle 
passed in single file and where the tag could be easily attached to 
the ear wil^ an ordinary hog ringer. The cattle were tagged at the 
first stock yards to which they were shipped, their feeding places 
were ascertained, a note was made of the cars in which they were for- 
warded, and the Bureau inspectors at the next unloading point, and 
also at the port from which they were to be exported, were notified* 
With this system in operation the inspector at the port could consci- 
entiously give a certificate of freedom from contagious disease after 
the animals had passed his inspection. 

The number of inspected and tagged cattle which were exported 
during the year ended June 30, 18D7, was 390,554. Sheep are also 
inspected before exportation, but are not tagged, and of these animals 
184,596 were inspected. To properly examine and supervise the load- 
ing of so many animals, to tag the cattle and see that they are shipped 
from the interior to the seaboard without exposure to contagion either 
in cars or pens, and to obtain and record the history of the cattle is 
alone a very extensive work and one which requires constant vigOance 
and attention. In every case where disease has been repcM^d from 
England we have been able to retrace the path of the animal to the 
farm where it was raised, and in none of the alleged cases of pleuro- 
pneumonia reported since March, 1892, could any trace of that dis- 
ease be found either at such fanns or anywhere in the vicinity — 
evidence whioh demonstrates that, wliatever the disease may have 
been, it was not contagious pleuro-pneumonia. 

By such measm^es the British contention has been proved erro- 
neous, and, although the regulation requiring the slaughter of our 
animals at the foreign-animals whai*\'es has not been removed, fur- 
ther limitations have been pre\^nted, and we have held the trade for 
nearly 400,000 cattle and 200,000 sheep. 

REGULATION OF SHIPS THAT CARRY EXPORT CATTLE. 

Another danger that menaced our export cattle trade had its origin 
in the improperly fitted ships and in the alleged cruel treatment of 
the animals on shipboard. In the early years of the transatlantic 
traffic, before the commodious cattle boats of the present day were 
constructed, these animals were largely carried on ^Hramp" ships, 
with temporary fittings and without facilities for supplying the proper 
quantities of feed and water. The aUendants were often inexperi- 
enced and worthless. The sjmce was overcrowded. The ventilation 
was insufficient. The boats were occasionally unseaworthy. 

uigiiizea oy vjvJOv Iv^ 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPOHT. 35 

As a result of these conditions, there were frequently reports of 
ships arriving in the British ports, after an unusually long vo^'age, 
with the feed and water exhausted and the animals suffering from 
hunger and thirst. Sometimes during storms it was necessary to 
batten down the hatches, and then, on account of deficient ventilation, 
large numbers of animals would die asphyxiated. Again, it occasion- 
ally happened that in heavy seas the weight of the cattle Avould be 
thrown upon the halters with such force that the fastenings Avould 
give way and the animals bo mixed and jammed together in the great- 
est confusion. If the attendants were inexperienced and unequal to 
the occasion, some of the animals would be crushed and trampled to 
death, others would be bruised and maimed, and the general appear- 
ance of those landed would make a most unfavorable impression. In 
still other cases a great wave would sweep the decks, tearing the tem- 
porary' fittings from their supports and canying both fittings and 
cattle together into the sea. 

Such occurrences could not fail to attract the attention of humane 
people abroad, particularly when the sentiment of humanity was 
intensified by the desire to limit American competition. The bar- 
barities of the transatlantic cattle traffic were depicted by the pen of 
romance, the cruelties were exaggerated and magnified, atrocities 
were described that never were committed, and illustrated i)auiphlets 
were prepared and circulated in order that the full power of sensa- 
tionalism might be invoked. As a result of this agitation a bill 
was presented in the British Parliament to prohibit the importation 
of live cattle from beyond the seas, and the Queen was strongly 
urged, in the name of humanity, to use her influence to secure its 
passage. 

This emergency was met by Congress through the passage of the 
act of March 3, 1891, authorizing the Secretary of Agriculture to 
enforce necessary regulations to secure the safe carriage and humane 
treatment of cattle exported from the United States. Careful inves- 
tigations were at once made by the Bureau and regulations formu- 
lated which were acceptable to the British Government. The rigid 
enforcement of such regulations drove the poorer class of ships out 
of the trade. Magnificent iron ships were constructed for the cattle 
traffic, with every convenience, with permanent fittings built into 
the vessels, and having all the comforts and safety which human 
ingenuity could provide. The losses were soon reduced to the mini- 
mum of about one-third of 1 per cent. The cattle were unloaded in 
as good condition, as vigorous and active, as they were when they went 
on board. As a result of the improved conditions and the greatly 
diminished losses, insurance rates were reduced from $8 and upward 
per head of exported cattle to less than $1 per head. This saving in 
insorance alone, with an average exportation of 325,000 head, amounts 
to $2,275,000 per year, nearly three times the entire cost of maintain- 
ing the Bureau. 

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36 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



In this elaborate system for determining the healthfulness of its 
exported animals and for guarding them from infection, injury, and 
cruel treatment, the United States stands alone among the nations of 
the world, and its certificates should have great weight in any country 
that is fairly disposed toward our products. 

MICROSCOPIC INSPECTION OF PORK FOR EXPORT. 

In 1881 our pork was prohibited entrance into Germany, France, 
and the principal countries of the continent of Europe, on the ground 
that it was infested by trichinae and was injurious to human health. 

Notwithstanding the fact that it could not be shown that our pork 
had caused disease, and that it was manifestly more wholesome than 
the European pork, and notwithstanding the most vigorous protests 
were made by the American Government, the trade was crushed and 
destroyed. The year before the prohibition went into effect we sold 
to France 70,000,000 pounds and to Germany 13,000,000. 

For ten yeara our pork was shut out of nearly every market of con- 
tinental Europe, when in 1891 the Bureau began the microscopic 
inspection and certification of pork destined to the markets of the 
prohibiting countries. This action led to the removal of the prohibi- 
tions, but the restoration of the trade was a slow and difficult process. 
Our brands of meat were no longer familiar to the people of those 
countries, commercial connections had been severed, and require- 
ments as to cuts and cures had materially changed. It was like 
introducing an article into a country for the first time. -Moreover, 
the prohibition had engendered suspicion as to the wholesomeness of 
our product, while the agitation had established prejudice and antipa- 
thy. There were vexatious and burdensome restrictions by both the 
general and municipal governments. 

Notwithstanding such adverse conditions, the trade with these coun- 
tries has continued to grow until now it requires more meat than the 
Bureau is able to inspect with the available appropriation. The fol- 
lowing table shows the pork which has been microscopically inspected 
and the quantity which has been sold in the countries referred to 
since this inspection was inaugurated: 

Shipments of pork microscopically inspected y fiscal years lSO^-1807, 



Year. 


To countries 
requiring 
inspection. 


To countries 

not requiring 

inspection. 


Total. 


1893 


Pounds. 
22,085,698 
8,059,738 
18,845,119 
39,855,230 
21,497,321 
42,57U,5?2 


Pounds. 
16,127,176 
12,617,663 
16,592,818 
5,739.368 
1.403,569 
1,001,783 


Pounds. 
88,152,874 
20,677,410 
85,437,937 
46,094,598 
22,900,880 
43,532,355 


1893 


1894 


1895 


1896 


1897 





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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 37 

The difficulties met vnth in the inauguration of this system of inspec- 
tion were very serious. There had been no microscopic inspection on 
a large scale in America, and we had neither the appliances nor trained 
inspectors. The glass compressors for preparing the specimens of 
meat and the microscopes used in the German inspection were con- 
sidered too clumsy and not adapted to accurate or rapid work. An 
American type of microscope was, therefore, selected, the stage was 
grooved so that an examination of every part of the specimen was 
insured, and a special form of comi^ressor Avas adopted which greatly 
facilitated the work. 

The cost of microscopic inspection was estimated before the work 
was begun all the way from 15 to 50 cents per carcass. The actual 
cost has been reduced to less than 6 cents per carcass. The packers 
asserted that it would be imimssible to microscopically examine any 
considerable quantity of pork without delaying their business and 
damaging the meat. These fears proved to be groundless. The work 
of the abattoirs has neither been obstructed nor the meat injured. 
On the contrary, there are now from all points the most urgent appeals 
for more microscopic inspection. 

THE GENERAL MEAT INSPECTION. 

By the act of March 3, 1891, Congress directed the Secretary of 
Agriculture to inspect previous to their slaughter all cattle, sheep, 
and swine the carcasses of which were to be disposed of through the 
interstate or foreign trade, and authorized him in his discretion to 
make a post-mortem inspection. This enormous undertaking was 
added to the many other duties of the Bureau. 

The general meat inspection was designed to protect our domestic 
consumers from the meat of diseased animals and at the same time 
to enable the Government to certify to the wholesomeness of exported 
meats. It was specially provided that no beef should be allowed to 
go abroad unless it Imd been inspected and was certified as free from 
disease. 

The magnitude of this work was probably not appreciated by Con- 
gress at the time the legislation was enacted, although the desirabil- 
ity of such an inspection is incontestable. Owing to the great extent 
of our territory and the enormous number of animals slaughtered it 
was impossible at once to cover the whole countr}^ It was necessary 
to instruct inspectors and to devise a system of administration with 
proper safeguards. Beginning at a comparatively few abattoirs, the 
service has been gradually extended until it is now established in 33 
cities and covers the product of 128 abattoirs. 

The animals are first examined while in the stock yards, either at 
the time they are unloaded from the cars or when they are driven upon 
the scales to be weighed. Another examination is made of the car- 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



38 BUREAU OF ANIMAL mDUSTBY. 

casses immediately after slaughter and when the viscera are being 
removed. Carcasses are condemned if found affected with any serious 
disease, or if the animals are emaciated, too far advanced in pregnancy, 
or have recently given birth to young. They are also condemned when 
too young to produce wholesome meat. 

The condemned meat is put into the tanks with the offal, cooked 
with steam, and made into fertilizer. The sound meat goes forward 
with a meat-inspection stamp upon cases and boxes and with a tag 
or brand upon carcasses and pieces. It has been a ver^'- troublesome 
matter to obtain a satisfactory method of marking inspected meat for 
identification that would not be at the same time too expensive. A 
tag attached with a wire and lead car seal has been generally used 
upon carcasses, but is quite expensive, costing from $1.40 to $2.25 per 
thousand, according to the kind, and the cheaper forms are liable to 
be tampered with. Such a seal, to be satisfactory, should be so con- 
structed that it can not be removed from one piece of meat and 
attached to another without plainly showing that it has not been 
properly applied. 

The expense of seals and the difficulty of securing those that could 
be depended upon early led to experiments in branding. A hot iron 
was discarded for this purpose because of inconvenience and danger 
of fire. Branding ink has been used in some European countries, 
but samples imported gave marks which were too easily blurred and 
removed by friction or moisture to be of any use under the conditions 
which obtain in this country. The Biochemic Division has, however, 
after much experimenting, produced an ink which is a great improve- 
ment on any we have found elsewhere, and which promises to largely 
supplant the more expensive and laborious methods of marking that 
have been heretofore in use. Many gallons of this ink have been 
satisfactorily used in the work of the Bureau during the past two 
years. 

It is impossible in this brief account of the work of the Bureau to 
give more than the merest outline of the meat-inspection service. It 
was intended by Congress that all meat shipped from one State to 
another should be previously inspected, but the appropriation up 
to the present has not been sufficient for this purpose. The inspec- 
tion force, however, is being enlai*ged as rapidly as the appropriation 
will permit. The inspection is, therefore, having a healthy growth, 
which, if it is continued for a few years longer, will cover all of the 
meat prepared for the interstate trade, and then it can no longer be 
said, as it has been said occasionally in the past, that we are more 
particular for the people of Europe than for our own i)eople in afford- 
ing protection from unwholesome meat. 

The following table shows the number of animals inspected before 
slaughter from 1891 to 1897, thus giving an intelligent idea of the 
growth of the inspection service and the enormous number of animals 



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FOUSTEENTH AKNUAL B£POST. 



39 



timt s^re a&nually slaughtered in the United States for the prepara- 
turn of food products: 

AnimcUs inspected for abattoirs having inspection^ fiscal years 1S91-1897, 



Yew. 


Cattle. 

83,881 
8,167.009 
8,982.174 
3,862,111 
8,752.111 
4.060.011 
4.239,058 


Calve*. 


Bheep. 


Hos& 


Total. 


1891 








88.891 


1890 


69.080 
92.947 
96.831 
169.941 
213,575 
250,900 


583.361 
870.612 
1,090,764 
1.844.081 
4,710,190 
5,179,643 




3.809.459 


1898 




4,885.633 


18M 


7.961,860 
13.876,017 
14,801.963 
10.813.181 


12, 914, €96 


IBK .* 


18,783.000 


189B ~ 

1897 


23.275,730 
96,541.812 







THB INSPECTION AND QUARANTINE OF IMPORTED ANIMALS. 

On© of the first steps taken for the control of contagious diseases 
among animals was the establishment of quarantine stations at the 
principal Atlantic ports, where imported animals might be detained 
until there was no longer any danger of the development of disease 
from exposure to contagion in other countries. These stations were 
at first under the direction of the Treasury Department, but soon 
after the organization of the Bureau of Animal Industry they were 
transferred to its control. 

Tlicre are a number of destructive diseases in other parts of the 
world which it was necessary to guard against. Pleuro-pneumonia 
had already been imported and had caused us an endless amount of 
anxiety, trouble, and expense. Foot-and-mouth disease had several 
times reached our shores, and it was rather by good luck than good 
management that we had escaped a visitation reaching to every State 
of the Union and to every part of the American continent. Rinder- 
pest existed in European and Asiatic countries, and there was always 
danger of its importation to America. 

We had taken the risk of these plagues for yeaiti without giving 
them much thought. Our people, always buoyant and optimistic and 
never willing to seriously consider danger or admit the possibility of 
trouble until it is upon them, could never be brought to realize the 
danger to which they were exposed until restrictions upon our export 
trade convinced them that something should be done at once. Tlie 
esttiblishment of quarantine stations furnished the necessary means 
to exclude further importations of contagion, and permitted us to 
undertake the eradication of pleuro-pneumonia with confidence that 
when the existing centers of the disease had been discovered and 
stamped out we should not be troubled by new outbreaks caused by 
imported cattle. 

The wisdom of maintaining the quarantine of animals from coun- 
tries in which contagious diseases exist is shown by the terrible epi- 
zootie of rinderpest which for two years has been spreading over 

uigiiizea oy VjOOv Iv^ 



40 BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

South Africa, almost annihilating the stock of bovine animals. The 
contagion was doubtless introduced from Asia, and neither its exist- 
ence nor the perils from it were sufficient to arouse the people to that 
prompt and vigorous action by which alone it could have been arrested. 
And now we see it sweeping across the country like a wall of fire, 
irresistible, seizing upon every herd, and claiming from 90 to 100 per 
cent of the animals as victims. 

Science has at last been able to do something to mitigate these losses. 
A method of vaccination has been adopted which will possibly save 
CO per cent of the animals to which it is applied, but even with this in 
operation, the disease is a great calamity. Such a visitation of dis- 
ease in the United States would cost us hundreds of millions of dollars 
directly, and many years of labor to recover from it. 

Three stations are maintained on the Atlantic Coast — one at the 
port of Boston, one at New York, and one at Baltimore. In the early 
years of these stations, several importations of animals affected with 
foot-and-mouth disease were detected, and one importation of pleuro- 
pneumonia was discovered in the Canadian quarantine. During 
recent years certificates of healthfulness and freedom from exposure 
have been required to accompany imported animals, and permits for 
importation are refused for animals from countries in which danger- 
ous contagious diseases are prevalent. 

The inspection system has been extended so as to include the fron- 
tiers bordering upon both Canada and Mexico. For a number of 
years all cattle from the United States were quarantined three months 
by Canada, and all cattle from Canada were quarantined three 
months by the United States. By mutual arrangements these quaran- 
tines have been removed, and at present animals accompanied by 
pi'oper certificaties of health are permitted to cross the frontier in 
either direction without detention. Cattle from Canada for breeding 
or dairy purposes must have been tested with tuberculin and found 
free from tuberculosis, otherwise they are quarantined one week and 
tested by the inspectors. This regulation is required for protection 
against tuberculosis, and is of special importance to those States 
which are trying to control the disease. 

Along the Mexican frontier the principal problems are to prevent 
the importation of animals carrying the contagion of Texas fever and 
sheep scab. Mexico has her Texas fever districts as well as the 
United States, and sheep scab there is a most common and virulent 
disease. It was necessary, therefore, to inspect carefully all of the 
nearly 300,000 head of cattle and of the 43,000 sheep imported last 
year from that country. If cattle from the tick districts of Mexico 
are allowed entrance into the noninfected region of the United States, 
they cause heavy mortality among our native stock; and if cattle 
from the elevat<3d section of Mexico, free from infection, are forced to 
cross the boundary where they will enter our Texas fever district, 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL KEPORT. 41 

then the imported cattle contract the disease and die in large num- 
bers. Hence the necessity of expert inspection and groat care in 
caiTying out the regulations. 

Notwithstanding the numerous sources of disease in other countries 
from which the animals must be imported and the vast numbei^s of 
animals which are annually brought to our country from abroad, the 
Bureau has successfully protected our animal industry from exotic 
contagion.* The quarantine stations and the inspection of imiwrt^d 
animals have therefore fulfilled their purpose. 

THE HO()l CHOLERA QUESTION. 

The great losses from the contagious diseases of swine early 
attracted the attention of the. Department and of Congress, and an 
appropriation for the purposes of investigation was made in 1878, with 
annual provisions for continuing this investigation until the present 
time. Two diseases, closely resembling each other, yet caused by 
distinct germs, aiid frequently lx)th affecting an animal at the same 
time, have been recognized. The (luestion of formulating pra(*lical 
measures for controlling these diseases has been as difficult as it is 
important. While most prevalent in the great corn-producing States, 
the diseases have l)een carried to all parts of the country, and, there- 
fore, any regulations to be effective must be enforced over a wide 
extent of territory, and would be corresiM)ndingly expensive. The 
losses have, however, been tremendous, being placed by some as high 
as $100,000,000 a year; an estimate which does not appear exagger- 
ated in the light of the careful inquiries in the State of Iowa, from 
which it wa« concluded that this one State lost from $12,C»0(),()00 t^> 
$15,000,000 worth of swine in a single year. 

The scientific investigations relating to this subject have been per- 
sistent, careful, and comprehensive, and the problems that are to be 
met have been veiy clearly defined. Passing over the details of these 
investigations for the sj\ke of brevity, the efforts now being made will 
alone be discussed. There are but two methods of control which, 
from our present knowledge of the contagious diseases of swine, 
appear to promise adequate results. One is the old 8tami)ing-out 
method, the slaughter of diseased and exposed animals, the quaran- 
tine of infected farms, the regulation of transportation, and the dis- 
infection of stock cars, stock pens, infected farms, and all other 
places harboring the contagion. The other is the treatment of dis- 
eased and exposed animals with antitoxic scrum. Both of these 
methods have been tried to a limitod extent during the past year. 

The stamping-out method is attended by many difficulties and limi- 
tations. Farmers often object to the slaughter of exposed animals 
which are still healthy, unless paid more than the animals are worth, 
and they are unwilling to l\ave* their breeding stock killed so long ah 
there is a chance of saving a part of it. On the other hand, it is 

uigiTizea oy VjOOv Iv^ 



42 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

embarrassing, if not impossible, for Government officials to utilize in 
any way the carcasses of exposed animals which have not yet devel- 
oped symptoms of disease, and to destroy these adds largely to the 
expense. Again, it is next to impossible to control transportation 
and the disinfection of cars so as -to prevent constant reinfection. 
The disinfection of farms is also a troublesome matter, as the germ of 
hog cholera has great vitality, and is able to maintain its existence and 
virulence in the soil, in moist organic matter, and even in water, for 
several months. Finally, the wide distribution of the disease, the 
ease with which the contagion is carried, the numerous agencies which 
contribute to its spread are all elements which increase the gravity 
of the problem and militate against the success of the stamping-out 
metlio<l. 

The use of antitoxic serum appears at present to be a much more 
promising method of diminishing the losses, and it is possible that it 
may be combined with sanitary regulations, such as quarantine of 
infected herds, disinfection of premises, and supervision of trans- 
portation, so as to give the advantages of the stamping-out method 
while avoiding many of its embarrassments. The serum is prepared 
by inoculating horses or cattle with cultures of the disease germs and 
repeating these inoculations with gradually increasing doses until the 
animals have attained a high degree of immunity. The blood of such 
aniThals injected under the skin possesses the power of curing sick 
hogs and of preventing well ones from becoming infected. Unless 
the blood is to be used immediately after it is drawn, which is not 
often the case, it is allowed to coagulate or clot, and the liquid i)ortion, 
or serum, is sepai^ated and preserved for future use. 

The Bureau has been diligently working for several years to bring 
the serum treiitment of hog cholera to the highest degree of efficiency. 
The most important point is, of course, to secure a serum with a high 
protective and curative power. This is by no means an easy task. 
The products of the hog cholera germ are very irritating, and when 
Lnjw^ted into the tissues their tendency is to cause paralysis and death 
of the part, with the formation of large abscesses. The intense local 
action hinders the absorption of the cultures into the general circula- 
tion and prevents the animal from acquiring immunity. It is doubt- 
less for this reason tliat the inoculation of swine has generally failed 
to give the necessary degree of protection and that inoculated swine 
are found to contract cholera when they are afterwards exposed. 

The serum produced in 18D7, when used in affected herds, saved 
over 80 per cent of the animals. During the past few months the 
methods have been considerably improved, and it appears probable 
that a serum of higher efficiency will be the result. Tliere is no dan- 
ger connected with the use of this serum, as it is absolutely free from 
the germs of the disease. It is easily applied, and the good effects in 
sick hogs are seen almost immediately.' There is every reason to 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 43 

believe, therefore, that we have in this Berum a practicable method 
of preventing the greater part of the losses from hog cholera, but it 
must be tested upon a larger scale before absolute assurance can be 
given. It is hoped that all doubts may be cleared up by the experi- 
ments planned for 18D8. 

TUBERCULOSIS. 

Although the Bureau has not attempted to enforce regulations for 
eradicating tuberculosis in any section of the country, it has, in many 
cases, cooperated with State and municipal authorities which were 
working with this object in view. The Biochemic Division manu- 
factures tuberculin, which is furnished to local authorities for official 
use. During the past year sufficient tuberculin to test 50,000 cattle 
was thus distributed. 

Cattle for breeding and dairy purposes which are imported from 
Canada must be accompanied by a certificate that they have been 
tested for tuberculosis, and lacking this they are held in quarantine 
and tested by the inspectors of the Bureau. A number of States also 
have regulations requiring similar tests for these classes of cattle, 
and the Bureau inspectors at the various stock yards cooperate with 
the State authorities by inspecting the animals and giving notices of 
shipment. 

BLACKLEG. 

The disease known as blackleg, quarter evil, or symptomatic 
anthrax is one which has long been dreaded by the producers of beef 
cattle, because it appears suddenly among the young stock, affects 
the best and most promising animals, and is almost invariably fatal. 
It has a great tendency to discourage stockmen in their efforts to 
improve their cattle, because the best bred animals are the ones most 
certainly affected. Many plans of prevention have been adopted, 
such as bleeding, setoning, feeding upon diuretics and alteratives, all 
with the object of keeping down the condition, and thus making the 
animals less susceptible. 

Such methods of prevention, while only partially successful, are 
opposed to the principles of successful husbandry. The stock raiser 
should have the best breeds for his purpose, and he should keep them 
thriving and growing rapidly, without check or hindrance. Methods 
of preventing disease which tend to aiTcst the development of his 
young stock are distasteful to him and more or less unprofitable. 

Vaccination was proposed as a preventive fifteen years ago, and has 
been adopted to some extent, but was never very popular on account 
of two vaccines being used with an interval of ten days or two weeks. 
The efficiency of these vaccines has also been questioned. Experi- 
ments made by the Pathological Division have demonstrated that 
cattle *may be vaccinated with much less trouble and expense and 
with greater efficiency by the use of a single properly prepared 
vaccine. 



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44 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

A few months ago a circular letter was distributed, offering to sup- 
ply vaccine prepared in the Bureau for experimental purposes upon 
application by the owners of cattle, providing a report were made as 
to the losses from this disease and the effects of the vaccination. The 
information thus received has been very surprising. It appears that 
blackleg causes greater losses in some of the Southern and Western 
States than all other diseases combined. These losses are placed at 
from 10 to 20 per cent of the young stock. 

About 100,000 doses of the vaccine have been distributed, and 
reports show that it can be safely used by the owners of cattle and 
that the deaths from blackleg soon stop after the herd has been 
vaccinated. 

SHEEP SCAB. 

Scab of sheep should not be allowed to exist in any sheep-raising 
country. It is caused by a parasite which is easily killed and eradi- 
cated, and if this parasite is exterminated the disease will no longer 
develop. The continued existence of such a disease is a reflection 
upon the intelligence and humanity of a people. 

Notwithstanding these facts, sheep scab has for many years been 
one of our most common, widespread, and destructive diseases. The 
time has come when the disease should be controlled and eradicated. 
In order to assist in this, the Zoological Laboratory of the Bureau has 
been making experiments with various remedies in order to determine 
which are most effective in curing the disease, and which cause the 
least damage to the wool and to the general condition of the animals. 

The information obtained in this manner has been collated and 
will be published [see p. 98J, in order that sheep growers may avail 
themselves of it before sending their animals to market. The shipper 
of diseased sheep must always expect to lose money upon them. They 
may be quarantined, they may l>e condemned as unfit for the produc- 
tion of human food, they may be subjected to charges for dipping 
before being forwarded from one State to another, and under any cir- 
cumstances the purchaser is unwilling to allow the full price of healthy 
animals. It is, therefore, greatly to the advantage of the sheep I'aiser 
to eradicate the disease from his flock before any are marketed. This 
the Bureau proposes to assist him in doing by furnishing information 
as to how to make and apply the best remedies. 

ANIMAL PARASITES AND PARASITIC DISEASES. 

The study of animal parasites and the diseases which they cause 
has until recently been greatly neglected in this country, and yet the 
subject is a most important one. A brief mention has just been made 
of scabies in sheep, but this species of animal is subject to many 
other serious parasitic diseases. There are lung worms, stomach 
worms, and intestinal worms of various species, each variety of 
which may cause outbreaks of diseases, debilitating and stopping the 
growth of the animals and causing the death of man^' of them. 

uigiTizea oy VjOOv Iv^ 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 45 

Other species of our domesticated animals are often se riousl}' affected 
by animal parasites, and many mysterious cases of disease are due to 
their effects. Some of these parasites are even dangerous to the 
health and lives of the i)eople who consume the meat of affected ani- 
mals. Everyone has heard of the trichina whicli is so common in the 
flesh of hogs and which has brought so many restrictions upon our 
foreign trade in pork products. It goes without saying that para- 
sites which not only menace the health and lives of our domesticated 
animals, which threaten the health of the consumer of meats, and 
which endanger the commercial relations of great nations, are worthy 
of careful and thorough study. Such a study is being made in the 
Zoological Laboratory of this Bureau, where there is now the best col- 
lection of such parasites that is to be found in the world. 

Investigations are being made to learn the exact nature of each 
imrasite, how animals become infected, how and where the parasites 
multiply, and how they are to be treated. 

THE DAIRY WORK. 

The importance of the dairy industry has long deserved the recog- 
nition of the Depai-tment, but it is only recently that a Dairy Division 
has been organized in this Bureau. Its effoi^ts have been largely con- 
fined to the collection of information, the publication and distribution 
of bulletins upon dairy topics, and the encouragement of daiiy organ- 
izations by attending their meetings and giving legitimate assistance. 
The milk supply and service of large cities has been made a special 
subject of investigation, with the object of assisting in the improve- 
ment of the quality of the milk ^m\ its condition up(m delivery to the 
consumers. 

The depressed condition of the exports of dairy pnxlucts for a num- 
ber of yeai*s emphasizes the desirability of active measures to assist 
and encourage this branch of the foreign trade. AVith a view to this, 
a number of experimental shipments of carefully-selected butter from 
creameries in the great butter-protlucing sections of the country were 
made during the last year. These have furnished much information 
concerning the difficulties that are encountered by the trade and as 
to the requirements of foreign markets. They have also convinced 
English merchants of reputation and influence of the high quality of 
butter obtainable in this country, and of the practicability of placing 
it in British markets without appreciable deterioration. It is pro- 
I)Osed during 1898 to repeat those trial shipments and to extend them 
to a wider fleld. 

PRESENT ORGANIZATION OF THE BUREAU. 

In 1801 it was found that the growth and extension of the work of 
the Bureau made it desirable that it should be reorganized into a 
numl)er of distinct divisions, in oi^der that it might be better system- 

uigiiizea oy vj v^^ v_^ '^^ l\^ 



46 BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

atized and directed. Tliere have been formed up to the present time 
the following divisions: 

(1) The Inspection Division, to which is assigned work of an execu- 
tive nature, including the eradication of contagious diseases, the 
inspection of export and import animals, meat inspection, vessel 
inspection, and the regulation of the movement of Southern cattle (to 
prevent the spread of Texas fever). 

(2) The Pathological Division, which is principally engaged in 
investigating the diseases among domesticated animals to determine 
their nature, cause, and treatment, together with the most practical 
method of prevention. 

(3) The Biochemic Division, to which is assigned the chemical prob- 
lems arising during the investigation of disease and the preparation 
of tuberculin, mallein, and the various serums for the prevention and 
cure of disease. 

(4) The Zoological Laboratory, to which is assigned the study of the 
parasites affecting our domesticated animals and the diseases which 
they induce. 

(5) The Dairy Division, wliich collects and disseminates information 
relating to the dairy industiy in the United States. 

(6) The Miscellaneous Division, which has supervision over the 
accounts and expenditures, conducts the general correspondence in 
regard to diseases and the animal industry of the country, and directs 
the field investigations. 

(7) The experimental station, where the animals used in the experi- 
ments are kept, where small animals for these purposes are bred, 
and where antitoxic serums for animal diseases are prepared. 

All of this machinery of the Bureau is working in one way or 
another to stop the losses and to increase the receipts of the stock 
raisers of the United States. To understand the different lines of 
this work, the objects in view, and what is being accomplished, it is 
desirable to take up one problem at a time. 

THE BENEFITS DERIVED FROM THE BUREAU WORK. 

In what has preceded, an effort has been made to give a general 
idea of the work of the Bureau of Animal Industry, the objects in 
view, and some of the more impoilant results. Many minor points 
have been omitted, and much valuable service that is being rendered 
has not been mentioned. It may be stated in a general way that the 
policy of the Bureau has always been to render direct returns to the 
countiy of a value greater than the appropriations which it consumes. 
It has never been willing to spend money without being able to show 
commensurate results. 

The eradication of pleuro-x)neunionia stoi)ped the ravages of that 
disease, and saved just that much to the cattle industry. The regula- 
tion of vessels reduced the losses at sea, and saves from $2,000,000 to 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 47 

$3,000,000 annually in insurance of export cattle. The Texas fever 
regulations yearly prevent at least §500,000 in losses from that dis- 
ease. The manufacture of tuberculin saves State authorities not less 
than $15,000 a year, and gives them a more reliable article than they 
formerly obtained by importation from abroad. The distribution of 
blackleg vaccine is already saving $100,000 worth of cattle a year, 
according to the reports of the owners. 

In other words, the executive work for the eradication and control 
of diseases and the supervision of export animals has yielded, and will 
continue to yield, direct results that save our farmers many times the 
cost of the Bureau work. The scientific laboratory and experiment 
station are furnishing tuberculin, mallein, blackleg vaccine, and hog 
cholera serum worth much more than the cost of the scientific work. 
And, finally, the Dairy Division, by extending the markets for Amer- 
ican butter, will bring returns that will fully justify its existence and 
the expenditures which it is making. 

Although those few lines of work have yielded such satisfactory 
returns, the benefit of the meat inspection and that of the inspection 
of exjiort and import cattle has been even greater in maintaining our 
export trade and establishing the reputation of our meats. The money 
value of this work is incalculable, as is that of the scientific investiga- 
tion of diseases. The serum treatment for hog cholera, for example, 
will make it x>ossible to save many millions of dollars annually. The 
object at present is to show, however, that the Bureau is jrielding 
direct and definite returns far beyond its cost. 

These statements are made because the appropriations to the 
Bureau have been comparatively large, and there has not always been 
a clear understanding of the nature and results of its work. It is 
incontestable that this is one bureau of the Government which has 
yielded to the country a constant profit, and which still has oppor- 
tunities before it that warrant a further extension of its field of work. 



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SOME ESSENTIALS IN BEEF PRODUCTION.^ 

By C. F. CuRTiss, M. S. A., 

Director of the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station and Professor of Agrienl- 

lure in the Iowa Agricultural College, 

A brief consideratiou of the qualities of practical excellence in beef 
cattle may well engage the attention of the breeder and feeder. A 
topic of this character is too often regarded as of interest only to the 
professional exhibitor or the lecture room instructor and student. 
But every successful breeder must always be a student, for the first 
essential in successful breeding is a clear conception of what consti- 
tutes a good animal and of all the characteristics that go to make up 
real excellence in a herd. It is said that the late renowned Amos 
Cruickshank, the founder of the great Scotch tribe of Shorthorns, was 
often seen by the side of the leading sale rings of Great Britain 
intently studying every animal that came into the ring, and his minute 
knowledge of all the animals shown was the marvel of those who 
chanced to converse with him about them afterwards. While the 
methods of the justly celebrated Robert Bakewell, the first great 
improver of live stock, were largely secret, it is known that he was 
not only an exceedingly close student of living forms, but that his 
rooms were also full of models and parts of domestic animals that he 
had carefully dissected and preserved for future reference. In his 
work of selection and improvement he imparted to the Leicester sheep 
such a remarkable aptitude to take on flesh that this quality remains, 
even to the present day, a characteristic of the breed to a greater 
degree than of any other long-wopled breeds of England. 

This aptitude to take on flesh is of vital importance to the beef 
producer as well as to the breeder of show-ring and sale stock. The 
show-ring type must necessarily keep close to and be largely governed 
by the practical demands imposed by the feed yawl and the block, 
else the lessons of the show yard and sale ring are without, value, if 
not positively misleading. No one is more concerned in what consti- 
tutes the essential qualities of a good beef animal than the man who 
breeds and feeds for the block and attempts to meet the conditions 
imposed by the market; for it must be kept in mind that this is the 

* This article is also published as Farmers* Bnlletin No. 71, and may be obtained 
free by addressing a request to the Secretary of Agiiculture, Washington, D. C. 
48 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



49 



ultimate end of all beef stock, and the best beef animal is the one 
that carriefl to the block the highest excellence and the most profit. 
This, in a word, is the keynote of the whole problem. 




FiQ. L— Champion An^s heifer, Smithfleld (England) Fat Stock Show. 



THE BEEF TYPE. 



There is at the outset a well-defined beef type that admits of less 
flexibility than is generally supposed. We hear much about the dairy 




Fio. 2.— High-grade Shorthorn steer. 



type — and there is a dairy type, fairly clean cuv, and well defined — but 
there is also a beef type, more clearly defined and less variable than 
the dairy type. Common observation and experience confirm this 
7204 4 

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50 



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assertion. There are not a few cows of quite positive beef tendencies 
capable of making very creditable dairy records, and a great many 
that combine milk and beef to a profitable degree, but a good carcass 
of beef from a steer of a pronounced dairy type or breed is rarely 
seen. So clearly and definitely is this beef type established that to 
depart from it means to sacrifice beef excellence. 

The accompanying illustrations (figs. 1, 2, and 3) pretty accurately 
represent the ideal beef type. 

The first is a good reproduction from a photograph of a» prize- 
winning Angus heifer exhibited by Queen Victoria at one of the late 
Smithfield Fat Stock Shows. The next is a portrait of a high-grade 




Fig. a— High-grade Hereford steer. 



Shorthorn steer, raised as a skim-milk calf at the Iowa Experiment 
Station. He was the best steer in the Chicago yards on a day when 
there were 26,000 cattle on the market. The third is of a high-grade 
Hereford steer, fed at the Iowa Experiment Station, that was good 
enough to easily top the market, and was one of a carload to dress an 
average of 67.5 per cent of net beef. He weighed 1,620 pounds when 
2 years old. 

These animals, though representing different breeds, present that 
^Bompactness of form, thickness, and substance, together with supe- 
rior finish and quality, coupled with an inherent aptitude to lay on 
flesh thickly and early^ that always characterizes the beef animal of 
outstanding merit. 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 51 

These points are more specifically itemized in the following score 
card prepared for the use of students at the Iowa Agricultural College : 

Scale ofpoinU. 

^ .-^. Possible 

A. General appearance (25): score. 

WeightSsiJmated ll».; actual 

Farm and size, smooth, even, parallel lines, deep, hroad, low set 10 

Quality y thick covering of firm flesh, mellow touch, soft heavy coat. 

fine hone, velvet-like skin 10 

Siyle^ vigorous, strong character, active, hut not restless 5 

^Obj^tions^ rough or angular in form, harsh coat, hard skhi, dull 

appearance 

B. Head and neck (10): 

Muzzle^ hroad; mouth large, jaws strong, nostrils large 2 

£|{fe8, large, clear, placid 2 

Jbce, short, quiet expression 1 

Fore^teod, hroad, full . . 1 

EarSy medium size, fine texture 2 

iVfecfc, thick, short and full, throat clean 2 

HomSy fine texture, medium size or small 

*ObJ€ction8y long or lean head and neck, dull eyes, coarse, heavy horns. 

C. FOREQUARTEBS (10): 

ShotddeTf covered with flesh, compact on top, smooth 4 

Brisket, prominent and wide 3 

Dewlap, full, skin not too loose and drooping 1 

Legs, straight, short; arm full, shank fine, smooth 2 

*Otrfecti(m8, hare shoulders, narrow on top, contracted hrisket, coarse 
l^fs 

D. Body (35): 

Chest, fuU, deep, wide; girth large; crops full 8 

Ribs, long, arched, well covered with firm flesh 7 

Back, hroad, straight, smooth, and even 10 

Loin, thick, hroad, full 6 

Flanky f uU, even with underline, or nearly so . 4 

*OtQections, narrow or sunken chest, hollow crops, sloping ribs, hare or 
rough hack and loin, high flank 

£. Hindquarters (20): 

Hips, wide, smooth, well covered 5 

Rump, long, even, wide, smooth, not patchy 4 

Pfn bones, wide apart, smooth, not patchy 2 

Thighs, txxlX, deep, and wide 2 

Twist, full, deep, large, level with flank, or nearly so 3 

Purse, full, indicating fleshiness 2 

Legs, straight, short, shank fine, smooth 2 

*Objections, prominent rough hips, narrow or hare rump, spare thighs, 
light twist, smaU purse, coarse legs 

Total 100 



* The score card as used in the classes contained an additional column for mark- 
ing the student's estimate of deficient points. 



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THE USE OF THE SCORE CARD. 

The score card is an educator and of great advantage to the stu- 
dent, but its use is not generally favored in the show ring by leading 
judges. The judge who go«s into the show ring, like the expert buyer 
in the great markets, should carry a well-defined mental conception 
of a good animal and be able to detect at once the qualities that are 
objectionable. This applied to the animals of a ring virtually 
amounts to the use of a score card without the objectionable features 
of that system. In recommending the score card to the student, the 
term student is used in its broadest sense, embracing not only the 




Fio. 4.— Names of points. 



1. Forehead and face. 


9. Shoulders. 


17. Hooks. 


25. Planks. 


2. Muzzle. 


10. Chest. 


18. Rumps, 


26. Legs and bone. 


8. Nostrils. 


11. Brisket. 


19. Hindquarters. 


27. Hocks. 


4. Eyes. 


12. Pore ribs. 


20. Thighs. 


28. Porearms. 


5. Ears. 


la Back ribs. 


21. Twist. 


29. Neck vein. 


6.P0U. 


14. Crops. 


22. Base of taU. 


aO. BushoftaiL 


7. Jaws. 


15. Loins. 


23. Cod purse. 


31. Heart girth. 


8. Throat. 


1ft. Back. 


24. UnderUne. 


82. Pin bones. 



prospective breeder within the class room, but every member of 
the great practical school as well who wishes to keep in the foremost 
rank of his profession. One of the prime causes why so many men 
fail in this field is the lack of a thorough study of the essential char- 
acteristics. In other words, and to put it more plainly, breeders fail 
to breed good animals because they do not know what good animals 
are. A clear and accurate understanding of what constitutes genuine 
excellence is absolutely essential to the attainment of that excellence. 
It is not necessary here to take up in detail all the points enumer- 
ated in the foregoing score card, but it is proper to discuss briefly the 



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53 



controlling principles and logical reasons that govern the formation 
of a standard of excellence of this* nature. The analytical method 
of resolving every problem into scientific formulas and principles, 
based on the firm foundation of unquestionable truth, is the intelli- 
gent method of study and investigation, and this method ought more 
generally to prevail in agriculture. 

BEEF CHARACTERISTICS BRIEFLY DEFINED. 

The first thing that should be looked to is the general beef form — 
low, broad, deep, smooth, and even, with parallel lines. No wedge- 
shape or sharp, protruding spinal column is wanted for the block. 
Next in importance is a thick, even covering of the right kind of 
meat in the parts that give high-priced cuts. This is a very impor- 
tant factor in beef cattle that is often overlooked. The accompany- 
ing illustration (fig. 5) represents the wholesale method of cutting 
beef, showing the relAtive importance and value of the different 
parts. In a test made in Chicago on 6 representative beef animals — 
2 Shorthorns, 2 Angus, and 2 Herefords — ^fed and marketed by the 
Iowa Experiment Sta- 
tion, the cuts desig- 
nated as "rib" and 
"loin" averaged 27.8 
per cent of the aggre- 
gate weight of the 
carcass and sold for 
63.9 per cent of the 
total value. By this 
method the chuck, or shoulder, and rib cuts are divided between the 
fifth and sixth ribs, and in doing so the knife is run close up to the 
shoulder blade. The rib and loin cuts are divided between the twelfth 
and thirteenth ribs, and the loin is separated from the *' round " at 
the point of the hip. In cutting for the retail trade the " rib roast" 
is taken from the cut designated " rib," and the " porterhouse" and 
"sirloin" cuts are taken from the loin cut. Tenderloin steak is taken 
from the inside and just beneath the ribs on either side of the spinal 
column, and the commercial beef tenderloin always comes from infe- 
rior stock, mainly from " canners." That class of cattle has no other 
meat that is desirable for the block, and the tenderloin strips may be 
pulled out and put on the market, while the remainder goes into the 
boiling vats for canned or pressed beef. To take tenderloin steak 
from good carcasses would destroy the value of the "porterhouse" 
cuts. This the dealer never does. The other retail cuts and their 
relative values are shown in the second diagram (fig. 6). The third 
illustration (fig. 7) represents the retail method of English butchers. 

The Chicago and New York markets discriminate more sharply and 
present a wider variation in the relative price of the prime and coarser 




Fio. 5.— Chicago wholesale dealers' method of catting beef. 



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Fig. 6.— Chicago retail dealers* method of cutting beef. 



cuts than any other markets of the world. By reference to the whole- 
sale method of cutting beef used by Swift & Co., and the actual 
wholesale selling prices of the several cuts taken from a bunch of cat- 
tle sold this firm by the Iowa Experiment Station, it will be seen that the 
rib and loin cuts command over four times the average price paid for 
the remainder of the carcass, and it is apparent that the practical 
beef animal must be good in these parts. Broad, well-covered backs 

and ribs are absolutely 
necessary to a good car- 
cass of beef , and no other 
excellencies, however 
great, will compensate 
for the lack of this essen- 
tial. It is necessary to 
both breed and feed for 
thickness in these parts. 
And mere thickness and 
substance here are not 
all. Animals that are 
soft and patchy, or hard 
and rolled on the back, are sure to give defective and objectionable 
carcasses, even though they are thick, and they also cut up with cor- 
respondingly greater waste. 

A marked and important change has taken place in the profitable 
type of cattle within comparatively recent years. This change is 
strikingly illustrated in the development of the Shorthorn. By the 
courtesy of that veteran feeder and most excellent authority on live 
stock, the late William 
Watson, it is possible 
to furnish a good illus- 
tration (fig. 8) of the 
popular type of beef 
animal about the be- 
ginning of the present 
centur}\ At that time 
CuUey said, in one of 
his contributions on 
live stock, that the 
" unimproved " breeds 
of Teesdale were a 

"disagreeable kind of cattle, that, though fed ever so long, never 
produced any fat, either within or without." Youatt, another cele- 
brated author, described them as "generally of great size, thin- 
skinned, sleek-haired, bad in handling, coarse in offal, and of delicate 
constitution." With this as a foundation stock, it is not so difficult to 
understand how an animal of the Newbus ox stamp might be classed 




Fio. 7.— EngUsh method of cutting beef. 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 55 

as belonging to the improved order. This ox was sired by a grandson 
of Charles Colling's celebrated bull **01d Favourite," and the dam 
was supposed to be a Scotch Highland cow. The early Shorthorns 
were large and massive. The famous Durham ox weighed nearly 3,800 
pounds when 10 years old. The demand for early maturity and plump, 
sappy carcasses of medium weight and minimum offal and waste had 
not then set in. It was not until within recent years that the heavy, 
inordinately fat, or rough and patchy bullock, became unpopular to 
such an extent as practically to drive this class from the market and 
to banish the type from the breeding herds. It is well that this was 
done; for the modern type, represented by the first three illustrations, 
makes beef at decidedly more profit and economy to both the producer 
and the butcher and furnishes the consumer a far superior article. 




Fig. 8.— Newlms ox. 

The parts furnishing the high-priced cuts must be thickly and evenly 
covered with firm yet mellow flesh of uniform good quality and alike 
free from hard rolls and blubbery patches. Coarse, harsh, and gaudy 
animals will no longer be tolerated, much less those that are bony and 
bare of flesh on the back and ribs. The men who buy our cattle and 
fix their market value are shrewd enough to know almost at a glance 
how much and just what kind of meat a steer or carload of steers will 
cut out, and if the producer overlooks any of the essential points he 
is compelled to bear the loss. 

Then, in addition to securing the general beef form and make-up, 
together with good backs, ribs, and loins, there is a certain quality, 
character, style, and finish that constitute an important factor in 
determining the value of beef cattle. One of the first indications of 
this is to be found in the skin and coat. A good feeding animal should 



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have a soft, mellow touch aod a soft but thick and heavy ooat. A 
harsh, unyielding skin is an indication of a sluggish circulation and 
low digestive powers. The character and finish exemplified by a clear, 
prominent yet placid eye, clean-cut features, fine horn, and clean, 
firm bone, all go to indicate good feeding quality and a capacity to 
take on a finish of the highest excellence, and consequently to com- 
mand top prices. Coarse-boned, rough animals are almost invariably 
slow feeders and hard to finish properly. A certain amount of size is 
necessary, but it should be obtained without coarseness. The present 
demand exacts quality and finish rather than size. 




Fio. 9.— A Kood head and front. 

Besides these qualities, and above all, it is necessary to have vigor 
and constitution. We find evidence of these in a wide forehead, a 
prominent brisket, broad chest, well-sprung ribs, full heart girth, and 
general robust appearance; and without these other excellence will 
not have its highest significance. 

SELECTION OF STORE, OR STOCK, CATTLE FOR FEEDING. 

Practical and experienced feeders, who breed and purchase steers 
for fattening, observe striking differences in the aptitude of animals 
of varying types and make-up to lay on flesh readily and in such 



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POURl'EENTH ANNUAL REPORT. • 57 

form and quality as to command the highest price on the market. It 
requires a well-trained eye to detect in all cases the possible varia- 
tion of results in the store or stock steer; but there are some dis- 
tinctions that are easily detected. There are certain types of cattle, 
for instance, that never feed profitably under any conditions, and it 
is quite as important to discriminate against these in the feed lot as 
to be able to recognize the excellence in other types. The accom- 
panying illustration (fig. 9) represents a yearling steer that combines 
practically all of the qualities that go to make up a good feeding 
steer, while figs. 11 and 12 represent the opposite type. The latter 
are illustrations of dairy-bred steers, but there is equally as good 
reason for discarding any native or unimprov^ed steer that presents a 
similar angular outline, spare form, and rough exterior. The dairy 
breeds illustrated here are eminently adapted to the purpose of spe- 
cial dairying, but it is a mistake and positive evil to claim for them 
any beef excellence whatever, as the 
kind of beef they are capable of pro- 
ducing will almost invariably cost the 
producer more than its value on the 
market. 

The characteristics that make the 
profitable feeder are naturally more 
difficult to detect in animals in stock 
condition than when fattened, but 
notwithstanding this there are a 
number of indications that are fairly 
reliable. Though the young steer 
may be comparatively thin in flesh 
and temporarily lacking the thick, 

/vT*o.«^ ^^<.-,^^-^^ ^^ 4-"U« "K^^i^ ^^A «;u« «^ ^o- 10.— A good feeder in stock coudi- 

even covering of the back and ribs so tion-front view. 

essential in the finished carcass, he 

must nevertheless present that blocky frame and stoutness of build, 
accompanied by short, straight legs, wide back and loin, well-sprung 
ribs, fullness back of shoulders and in flanks, prominent brisket, full 
neck vein, wide chest, and well-rounded barrel, together with a good, 
soft, mellow handling skin and fine, silky hair, giving what is termed 
the thick, mossy coat, without coarseness, and with it all a good, strong, 
vigorous head, clear, full eye, and quiet temperament. The impor- 
tance of an even covering of flesh and good handling quality can hardly 
be overestimated. The bone should be moderately fine and clean. 
Coarseness either in the bone or about the head and horns is particu- 
larly objectionable, as it indicates coarseness of texture throughout 
and a greater percentage of offal and cheap meat, as well as a tend- 
ency to sluggish circulation. The head should present a certain 
refinement, finish, and vigor that in a measure indicate general quality 
and superior excellence of finished product, though this refinement 




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58 ' BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

must not be accompanied by delicacy. The illustrations (figs. 10 and 
10 a) of a good feeding type in stock condition are taken from photo- 
graphs of one of a carload of skim-milk calves in a feeding experiment 
at the Iowa Experiment Station. * This calf was about a year old when 
these photographs were taken. This picture furnishes a good illus- 
tration of the type that never fails to make a good record in the feed 
lot and on the block. While it perhaps represents a higher standard 
of excellence than can generally be obtained in feeding cattle, the 

standard is none too high 
for the best results, and it 
should be as closely ap- 
proximated as practicable. 

BRBEDING TYPE VERSUS 
THE BLOCK. 

Notwithstanding the im- 
portance of those things 
which go to make up a fin- 
ished carcass of beef of the 
highest value, and while 
the block is the ultimate 
end of all beef cattle, it 

Pio.10o.-A good feeder in stock condition-reap view. should be kept in mind 

that undeveloped breed- 
ing stock can not at all times be expected to measure up to this 
standard. Every fair or live-stock exhibition should have its fat- 
stock classes, and these should be taken as the standard of the 
finished product. They will afford the most practical and useful 
lessons to be gained by the show, and the stock brought out for them 
will represent the culmination of the highest excellence that can be 
attained. The competition will be a measure of everything at its 
best, and in it every animal will rightly be rated according to what it 
is capable of producing on the block. The show ring should afford a 
contest of that kind, and in addition to the practical lessons and its 
educational value it would at least partially remedy the tendency to 
rate breeding stock according to the flesh carried. While heavy flesh 
is necessarily a factor of great importance, yet to go into a breeding 
herd and absolutely rate every animal as if it were to go at once to the 
shambles may lead to entirely erroneous results. Fitting should not 
be undervalued. Other things being equal, the best fltted should 
always win; but an animal in a breeding herd ought to be rated 
accoi-ding to its value as a representative of that herd, and for the 
purpose of the herd, instead of taking rank simply as a carcass of 
beef in the form presented. Breeding and feeding quality should not 
be subordinated to mere wealth of flesh. In a fat-stock ring it is 




* Bulletin No. 35, Iowa Experiment Station. 

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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



59 



proper that only the carcass be considered. In a breeding ring an 
animal should be rated by its valae to go on in the herd and not 
simply to go onto the block. There is a well-marked distinction here 
that should never be overlooked. The fat-stock classes should be 
added to stock-show classifications for the lessons they will bring 
and to avoid diverting the purpose of the breeding-stock classes. 

EXCELLENCE FOR THE BLOCK DUE TO INHERITED QUALITY RATHER 

THAN FEED OR GAIN. 

The misleading practice of rating beef animals mainly by the gains 
made in the feed yard is altogether too common. The distinction 




Fig. 11.— An unprofitable feeding type. 

between cattle of different tyjKJS is absolutely essential to profitable 
feeding. There is not a. very great difference in the rate of gain or 
ihe number of pounds of increase in weight from a given amount of 
feed that will be made by a representative of the best beef breeds, or 
by a genuine scrub, a Jersey, or a Holstein steer. This statement 
may seem somewhat at variance with prevailing opinion concerning 
the potency and superiority of improved blood. Practical breeders and 
improvers of live stock have been rather reluctant to recognize this 
doctrine, and a good many will not concede it yet; but the evidence 
is constantly accumulating, and the principle has been repeatedly 
demonstrated. It is useless to ignore facts. 

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After all there is no well-founded i^ason why a Shorthorn, an Angus, 
or a Hereford should make more gain in weight from a bushel of com 
than a native, or scrub. This is governed altogether by tlie digestive 
and assimilative machinery of the steer. The Holsteins, for instance, 
are well known to be hardy and extremely vigorous eaters. They con- 
sume large quantities of feed and render good returns for their rations. 
Also the despised scrub has a ravenous appetite and is almost as omniv- 
orousas a goat. It is not reasonable to expect that the improved breeds, 
notwithstanding their superiority in other respects, have inherited any 
greater constitutional vigor or more perfect working organs of diges- 
tion than those animals belonging to the class designated as natives, or 
scrubs, which, from the nature of their surroundings and the very 
law of their existence, have been inured to all kinds of hardship. 

Nature's law of the 
survival of the fit- 
test was more rigid 
and exacting tlian 
the selection of the 
average modern 
breeder. Why, for 
instance, should a 
Shorthorn or a 
Hereford steer be 
able to utilize a 
greater proportion 
of a given ration 
than a Holstein? 
Has not the latter 
been as highly im- 
proved, as carefully 
and as continuously 
bred for the express 
purpose of making good return for a liberal ration? Scientists have 
discovered that civilized man has no greater powers of digestion than 
the barbarian or the Indian. Neither has the improved steer mate- 
rially better digestion than the native. The feeder is often deceived 
in the belief that he has a good bunch of cattle simply because they 
feed well and gain rapidly. Economy of production is an important 
factor, but it is by no means all. It is even more important to have a 
finished product that the market wants and will pay for than it is that 
it should simply be produced cheaply. 

The illustration (fig. 11) represents a high-grade Jersey steer, fed and 
marketed by the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station. This steer 
was fattened and finished for market under conditions quite similar 
to those of the Shorthorn and Herefoi-d steers illustrated on pages 49 
and 50, and the rations were practically the same. 




Fio. 12.— A bad back and unprofitable feeding type. 



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THE TYPES COMPARED. 

In making a comparison, only the Hereford will be used, but the 
distinctions are equally applicable to either. While in the feed lot 
the Jersey made a gain of 2 pounds a day for nine months and the 
Hereford 2.03 pounds a day for fourteen months. There was practi- 
cally no difference in the rate and cost of gain. Judged by the record 
they made up to the time they went to market, the Jersey would take 
rank close to the Herefoi'd in both rate and economy of gain. But 
the interesting part of the comparison came later. The Jersey took 
on flesh rapidly and was exceedingly fat and well finished. He was 
as good as it is possible to make a Jersey steer. Yet when he went 
to market he had to sell $2.12^ below the top quotations, while the 




Fig. la— a good back. 



Hereford was one of a carload to sell 10 cents above the top for any 
other cattle on the market. It is sometimes claimed that this distinc- 
tion is partly due to prejudice, but since I have for several years 
followed the cattle through the feed lot and to market and onto the 
block, carefully ascertaining all the facts, I am convinced that the 
expert buyers who fix the price for beef cattle in the great market 
centers rate them strictly on their merits, entirely independent of any 
breed or type consideration. The controlling factor is the utility and 
inherent value of the animal for the practical test of the butcher. 
The slaughter and block test clearly revealed the reasons for this 
marked distinction in the selling value of these two steers. 

The Jersey belongs to a breed that has been developed for centuries 
for the specific purpose of making butter; that is, putting the product 



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BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



of its feed into the milk pail. They are rough, angular, and bony, and 
when fattened they do not put the fat into the tissues of the high- 




Fia. 14.— A good feeder.' 




Fig. 16.— a bad feeder. 



priced cuts of steaks and roasts on their backs, as representatives of 
the beef breeds do; e. g., this steer had 190 pounds of what is termed 
loose, or internal, tallow and 55 pounds of suet on a 763-pound carcass. 

' Both pore- bred Shorthorns fed at the Kansas Experiment Station. Bulletin 51 , 1895. 



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That is, 32. 1 per cent of the steer's carcass was IaIIow. Tallow was at 
that time worth 4 cents a pound, while the best loin cuts were worth 19 
cents at wholesale. And besides that, this steer only dressed 57.5 per 
cent of beef, while the Hereford dressed 67.5 per cent. Then, the 
Hereford had only 95 pounds of tallow and 38 pounds of suet on an 
888-pound carcass, equivalent to 15 per cent. And besides this strik- 
ing difference in the percentage of meat in the high-priced cuts, the 
meat of the Jersey was much inferior to that of the Hereford. The 
Jersey steer went on accumulating fat around his paunch and inter- 
nal organs to the extent of nearly one-third of his entire body weight, 
while he did not have meat enough on his back to decently cover his 
bones. This explains why a Jersey or a Holstein or any other animal 




Fio. 16.- A bad feeder. * 

not expressly bred for beef can never be made plump and smooth, no 
matter how long it is fed or how highly it may be fattened. 

The two illustrations on pages 59 and 60 (figs. 11 and 12) present 
additional evidence of this essential in the profitable beef type. 

One of the steers shown is a pure-bred Holstein and the other a 
pure-bred Galloway. At the time the photographs were taken both 
had been on feed at the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station under 
uniform conditions for six months. The gains made were substan- 
tially the same, and the feed eaten varied scarcely any. At this writ- 
ing these steers have not been marketed, but stock shippers bid $5 
per hundred weight for the Galloway while the best offer for the Hol- 
stein is $3.50. The back of the Holstein steer affords an object lesson 

^ Scrub fed at the Eaosas Experiment Station. Bulletin 51, 1895. 



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64 BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

for the feeder. It presents a model of about all that is not wanted. 
Its deficiencies are strikingly apparent, and, what is more, a back of 
that kind never takes on a smooth covering of good flesh under any 
amount of good feeding. Besides, the scanty flesh that is there will 
be found of inferior quality owing to the absence of that fat deposited 
throughout the tissues of the meat that is necessary to a ripe, juicy, 
and highly flavored cut. This is the fundamental and essential rea- 
son why rough cattle do not sell. These same distinctions are largely 
true of the native and all other unimproved cattle when an attempt 
is made to fatten them for beef. The men who buy them are well 
aware of these distinctions and they fix their market values accordingly. 
It is of vital importance, then, that the feeder should have the 




Fig. 17.— a bad feeder. » 

right kind of cattle for fattening. The Jersey and the Hereford 
steers previously referred to made practically the same gains in the 
feed lot and at substantially the same cost per pound for feed con- 
sumed, but the market comparison revealed the fact that the steer of 
beef type and inherited beef-making capacity was making a product 
worth 49 per cent more than the other steer, and this increased value 
not only applied to the gain made in the feed yard, but to the entire 
carcass as well. The feeder can not afford to ignore these distinc- 
tions. They are of vital concern and determine profit or loss. If the 
producer were hauling any other product to market instead of feeding 
it to cattle, he would not hesitate to select the one that would return 
49, or 25, or even 10 per cent more than another. 



> Scrub fed at the Kansas Experiment Station. Bulletin 51, 1895. 

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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL BEPORT. 65 

EARLY MATURITY. 

Another consideration having a practical bearing on the meat-pro- 
ducing industry is the economy of production as influenced by tlie age 
of the animal. It is but a few years since the prevailing practice 
among cattle raisera and feeders was to allow the steer the first three 
years of its existence in which to attain the standard growth, and sup- 
plement this by six months on a heavy grain ration for the fattening 
process. The two periods were regarded as essentially distinct, and 
it was firmly believed that they must always remain so. Under these 
conditions it was also observed that as the fattening process advanced 
the gains invariably diminished. The last hundred pounds i)ro<luced 
on a bullock not infrequently cost per pound three times the live- weight 
value per pound of the animal on the market. This was the day of 
heavy weights, and they had to be produced at all hazards and regard- 
less of expense. In January, 1893, the Iowa Agricultural Experiment 
Station marketed cattle at 1,500 pounds that were rat'ed 37^ cents per 
cwt. below 1,700-pound cattle of the same quality. The buyers stated 
that they were equally as good in eveiy respect except that they 
lacked the size required to furnish the cuts demanded by the trade. 

THE PASSING OF THE HEAVY-WEIGHT CARCASS. 

A marked change has taken place within more recent years, how- 
ev^er. These years have witnessed the passing of the large, overfat- 
tened steer and the supremacy of the well-fattened, medium-weight 
carcass, yielding better returns in the feed lot and more profit on the 
block, and it is probable that the old sort heavy weights will never 
again outsell the compact tidy bullock of prime quality and medium 
scale. 

The existence of these conditions adds a new interest and pru<*tical 
significance to the question of early maturity. The new order of things 
has placed the advantages and economy to be derived f i-om this source 
within the reach of the feeder, whereas their attainment was formerly 
impracticable. 

In this connection tlie following editorial, appearing in the Live 
Stock Report, Apiil 23, 18D7, is particularly applicable: 

There seoms to be a wide diversity of opinion as to what constitutes a " heavy 
steer.*' * » « One man thinks 1,800 pounds not too heavy for even a June 
market, while another is fearful that his 1,300-pound cattle, unless shipped at 
once, will be too heavy and have to go at sacrifice figures. Every feeder should 
keep in touch with his market, watching that market s fluctuations, noting its 
inreferences, and then cater to its demands. It is not always quality that insures 
a good sale; it is very frequently judicious feeding and shipping. The mo^t suc- 
cessful feeder is the one who, starting with the right class of stock as regards 
quality and condition, aims to finish them at a time when that particular class is 
in best demand at market. This can not always be figured down to a nicety, but 
it can be pretty closely approximated. Feeders who get their cattle in at the most 

7204 — r» 

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66 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

advantageous time are termed *' lucky," but ** brainy" would be a more appro- 
priate term. 

At this time last year large numbers of excessively fat beeves were being put 
upon the market, and this condition of affairs continued throughout April and May 
and on into June. They sold at a fearful sacrifice, and why? Because they were 
heavier than any demand called for. ♦ ♦ * This winter and spring we have 
had an exactly opposite condition of affairs. The tendency has all been toward 
early shipping, and daily and weekly the market has had an oversui)ply of half-f at 
cattle. The x>roportion of 1,400 to 1,500 pound beeves has been remarkaldy small,, 
and yet this has been throughout the entire season the very best selling class, 
owing to the excellent export demand and a good inquiry from Eastern buyers aa 
well. * « * There has been no inquiry for cattle weighing over 1,600 pounds. 
The day of such animals seems past and gone forever. But we have hardly had 
enough beeves weighing between 1,400 and 1,600 pounds to fill requirements, and 
feeders who have heeded our advice and fattened their cattle to within those 
weights have assuredly made money. Those are are ** heavy " steers. Over the 
above weight steers become excessively fat, and buyers discriminate. There ia 
now no demand for cattle weighing over 1,600 pounds, and in fact buyers at the 
yards say 1,500 pounds is heavy enough for any purpose. There are practically 
two months, though, when even 1,400 pounds is a little too heavy, and this period 
is now approaching — May and June. During this time a l,850^i>ound steer is 
heavy enough for any purpose— home slaughter, Eastern shipment, or export aliv«» 
Throaghout the other ten months of the year cattle weighing upward of 1,400 
pounds and not over 1,500 are the most desirable class to handle. The lighter 
weights are first and best sellers on the British markets during warm weather, 
and for this reason exporters want that class here, say, between May 15 and July 
10. And every shipper to market knows that <when exporters are not buying 
heavy cattle those beeves suffer badly. * * * The feeder should know what 
his market wants, and when it wants it. The feeder must cater to the market; 
the market will not cater to the feeder; it is too busy catering to public demand. 

THE ECONOMY OF GAIN AT DIFFERENT AGES COMPARED. 

It is a well-established principle in animal nutrition that young 
animals make more economical gains than older ones, and that the 
amount of feed required for a given gain increases as the age of the 
animal advances toward maturity. 

Comparatively few practipal feeders are aware of the marked varia- 
tion due to the operation of this law. Experiments are recorded 
where gain has been made at the rate of 1 pound of increase in live 
weight for each pound of dry matter in the feed consumed.^ This 
was made with calves under three weeks of age. The ration consisted 
of 17. G pounds of milk per head daily with 3.9 pounds of cream 
added. 

In an experiment conducted by the writer at the Iowa Agricultural 
Experiment Station ^ a gain of 1 pound of increase in live weight was 
obtained from each 1.97 pounds of dry matter in the feed consumed 
during a i)eriod of ninety days, beginning when the calves were about 
one week old. The ration consisted of separator skimmed milk, 
supplemented with corn, oats, and oil meal, and in addition a moder- 

' Armsby's Manual of Cattle Feeding. * Bulletin No. 25, p. 24. 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 67 

ate allowance of hay. But, as compared with Uiis, during the first 
eight months it required 4.6 pounds of feed (dry matter) for a pound 
oi gain, and for the first seventeen months it required 5.97 pounds of 
feed for a pound of gain, and for a period of two years the amount of 
feed required for a pound of gain had increased to 7.10 pounds, and 
during the last four months the amount of feed per pound of gain ran 
up to 9.02 iK>unds. In another experiment, recoiled in Bulletin No. 24 
of the Iowa Station, five steers were finished for market at the age of 
32 months, and it required 10.4 pounds of feed for a pound of gain at 
this age. Director Thome and Professor Hickman have presented a 
summary of results ^obtained at the stations in eight States, covering 
132 head of cattle ranging in age from 2 to 3 years, in which it is 
shown that it has required on an average 10.24 pounds of feed (dry 
matter) for a pound of gain, while the work done by Lawes and Gilbert 
along this line indicates an average of about 11 pounds of feed per 
pound of gain on cattle approaching maturity. 

These results have been repeatedly verified by many other careful 
experiments, not only with cattle, but ^vith sheep and hogs as well, and 
the law of diminishing returns for feed consumed as animals advance 
in age toward maturity is conclusively established, and governs the 
economy of gain in all practical as well as experimental feeding. This 
law should be kept constantly in mind by the meat producer. Economy 
of production is one of the important factors in the practical problem 
of determining profit, and the advantages are all with the young and 
growing animal as compared to the one that has practically attained 
its growth. In comparing the cost of gain made by pure-bred Shrop- 
shire lambs and pure-bred Shropshire yearlings at' the Iowa Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station, it was found that the lambs made gain in 
weight at the rate of 1 pound from each 7. 18 pounds of feed ^ consumed, 
at a cost of 2.88 cents per pound for the gain made, while it required 
11 pounds of feed to make a pound of gain on the yearlings, and at a 
cost of 4 cents. All conditions except age were the same. 

The market also pays a premium on the younger animal, o\\dng to 
the fact that it furnishes a more profitable carcass and less waste by 
reason of the absence of excessive fat. 

The policy of the feeder should be to make use of the advantages of 
early maturity so far as practicable and consistent with existing con- 
ditions. It is not in all cases practicable to do so, however, except in a 
moderate degree. Forcing to an early finish necessarily means more 
expensive feeding than where longer time is taken and more use is 
made of cheaper coarse feeds. Where lands are cheap and grazing 
and coarse fodders abundant, it may even yet be desirable to take 
more time for finishing animals for the block and thereby secure greater 
weight with the minimum amount of grain. In tlie great feeding sec- 

' Bulletin No. 60, Ohio Station. « Btdletin No. 83, pp. 536 and 565. 

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68 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

tion within what is known as the **com belt," however, the conditions 
are such as to favor the liberal policy of feeding from first to last, and 
under these conditions early maturity may be attained by a generous 
use of the ordinary feeding stuffs throughout the entire growing and 
fattening period, q\iite as well or even better than by too extensive use 
of the more concentrated and expensive grain feeds. That is to say, 
early maturity may be largely accomplished by the liberal use of the 
cheaper feeds of the farm, combined with a suitable grain ration, which 
may be quite moderate except in the finishing period. The modern 
feeder must combine the advantages of economy of production result- 
ing from early maturity, and the excellence and enhanced value of the 
finished product that can only come from the right kind of stock well 
handled. This implies good breeding and continuous good feeding. 
These requirements are no longer merely subservient, but practically 
imperative. 



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CONTAGIOUS DISEASES IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 
SWINE FEVER IN 1895. 

The records of the board of agriculture for Great i3ritain show that 
there were forwarded to the chief veterinary officer of that board, 
daring the calendar year 1894, 12,054 sets of viscera for expert exam- 
ination for swine fever. In 1895 the total number of sets of viscera 
forwarded to the same officer was 10,434, an increase over 1894 of 
4,380 sets. The number of swine slaughtered in 1895 iis diseased, or as 
a result of having been in contact or otherwise exposed to this infec- 
tion, amounted to 69,931, and 10,917 more were reported as having 
died of the disease, making a total loss chargeal)U> to swine fever of 
80,848. 

The disease was reported from 73 of the 90 counties of Great Brit- 
ain. The losses in Scotland and Wales were not so great, compara- 
tively, as in the rest of the United Kingdom. The number of liogs 
slaughtered in those countries was less than 5,000. 

For several years a disease known by the term verrucose endocar- 
ditis was investigate in connection with swine fever. It was to a 
large extent coexistent witli swine fever, and by many supposed to 
be a condition due to the fever. The search for indications of this 
disease was made with the 16,434 hearts submitted in 1895, and in 
676 of these deposits were found; "and it is a very interesting fact 
in connection with these deposits that they are almost invariably 
found upon the valves of the right side of tlie heart." The examina- 
tions did not confirm the opinion that the disease was in any way 
related to swine fever. 

The chief veterinar}- officer says: 

On occasions when the circumstances have afforded a favorable opportunity for 
making an inquiry into the history of the animals affected with this disease, the 
veterinary surgeons who have forwarded the specimens have visited the farm or 
premises and invariably reported that the affected animals have remained in 
i^>parently good health until a short time prior to death; that the only deviations 
from health observed during life have been a certain amount of purple or red dis- 
coloration of the skin and a disinclination to feed, and that these symptoms have 
been immediately followed by all those distressing paroxysms which attend upon 
cases of angina pectoris, and death has quickly followed. In no instance has the 
Same disease appeared among the other swine which had been kept in the same 
sty or in association with the diseased pig. 



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70 



BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



The following table, taken from the annual report of the board of 
agriculture for 1895, shows the number of cases of swine fever and 
diseased hearts detected in the post-mortems conducted in London: 

Staiement of post-mortems of swlnc in London in 1S95, 



Month. 



January j. 

February 

March 

April r.: 

May 

June 

Jaly 

Ausrust 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Total 



Total 
number of 

viscera 
examined. 



700 
1,001 
I.ICO 
1.509 
1,638 
1,526 
1.530 
l.o6S 
1,748 
1,490 
1^61€ 



ie,431 



Total 
Qumberof 

swine- 
fever cases 
detected. 



386 
380 
58e 
561 
550 
599 
547 
S28 
587 
799 
500 
515 



6,587 



Total 
number of 



hearts. 



37 
18 
Id 

S3 
27 
S3 
43 
94 
106 
148 
91 
46 



676 



Number of 
of 



h<nart4iiot 

associated 

with swine 

fever. 



15 
7 
5 

13 
4 

K) 

50 
53 
71 
54 
21 



S7 



A committee was appointed in 1895 to study swine fever in all its 
phases, and directed to report results to the board of agriculture. 
The inquiries instituted by this committee were extensive. A report 
was made in which it was asserted that the disease was due to a spe- 
cific organism, a bacillus, which is capable of producing swine fever 
if introduced into the system of a healthy pig by feeding with cul- 
tures of the organism. This statement was founded upon the results 
of tests in which healtliy swine were fed pure cultures of the bacillus 
obtained chiefly from the mesenteric glands of pigs affected with the 
disease. The report states that the bacillus causing swine fever is 
not sharply distinguished by it« form, size, or staining reaction from 
many other organisms, and hence can not with ease be identified by 
microscopic examination. 

Another committee was appointed in 1896 to carry on inquiries 
similar to those of the committee in 1895. Besides the infor,ination 
acquired by these two committees, the chief veterinary officer had 
experience extending over three years. All this is compiled and 
embodied in the report of the board of agriculture for 1896, and is 
deemed of such importance that it is reprinted here in full : 

SWINE FEVEB IN 1896. 

After an experience extending over a period of three years, during which time 
the veterinary officers have made 40,000 post-mortem examinations of the viso^ti 
of pigs either affected with or suspected of swine fever, it is now propoeed to plaoe 
on record the results of the inquiries carried out by them, and of the two oom- 



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FOUBTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 71 

miiteea which were appointed in the yeara ldd5 and 1896 for the purpose of inquir- 
ing into the etiology and pathology of swine fever, and of those other diseases 
of swine which have been commonly regarded in this country as being either 
diagnostic of swine fever, or in some way due to that disease, namely, imeumonia 
in the pig, and verrucose endocarditis. 

The remarks contained in this report will be confined solely to the knowledge 
which has been obtained of those diseases which have been found to exist in the 
pigs of this country, and have come directly under the notice of the board's veter- 
inary officers. It is quite certain that the disease which exists among the swine 
in America, where it has received the name of hog cholera, is identical with our 
swine fever, because in the year 1879 some cargoes of pigs affected with hog 
cholera were lauded at Liverpool, when an opportunity was afforded of identify- 
ing the lesions of that disease with swine fever. 

To offer any observations on the etiology and pathology of the numerous diseases 
said to be of a contagious nature which are reported to exist among the swine on 
the Continent of Europe with a view to establish their identity with, or similarity 
to, swine fever of this country would serve no purpose, and with our imperfect 
knowledge of even the clinical features of those diseases it would be obviously 
injudicious to offer any remarks upon them. 

HISTORY. 

If the actual date and source when and whence swine fever originated can not 
be fixed, all the evid^ice at our command tends to the conviction that it must have 
been introduced from the Continent of Europe some time prior to the year 1858. 

No records appear to have been kept by the customs of the number of pigs 
imported before the year 1858, but a very large number were sent to this country 
during the period which followed, the number of pigs imported in the following 
years being 11,045 in 1854, 12,134 in 1855, 9,940 in 1856, 10,671 in 1857, 11,544 in 1858, 
11,056 in 1869, 24,458 in 1860, 80,275 in 1861, and 18,133 in 1862. Nearly all these 
animals came from cormtries in which swine fever existed. 

It is an admitted fact that prior to the erection of foreign animals* wharves ihe 
inspection carried out by the veterinary surgeons at the ports was of a very per- 
functory character. The animals were brought in small steamers to certain 
wharves sanctioned by the customs for their landing; no sheds were set aside for 
their reception, but they were driven straight from the vessels into the adjacent 
streets whrare after a general inspection they were allowed to be removed either 
to the metropolitan market, which was then held at Smithfield, or elsewhere, the 
custom being to detain only the diseased or injured animals and to allow the 
others to be taken away. 

Viewed in the light ot our present knowledge of the difficiUty which at times 
ezistB of detecting swine fever in the living animal, there can be no doubt that the 
disease was frequently introduced by means of foreign animals; and I have it on 
the authority of Hr. S. G. Holmans, the senior yeterinary inspector of the board 
of agriculture for the port of London, who held the post of veterinary inspector 
to the customs in 1858, that soon after his appointment In that year he frequently 
found cases of *'red soldier** (a name given to swine fever in the trade) among 
pigs imported from the Continent. 

It is not, therefore, unreasonable to infer that prior to the year 1858 numbers of 
pigs affected with swine fever must have been landed in this country. The dis- 
ease, however, was not likely at that time to spread rapidly, as for many years 
the majority of the pigs landed in London found their way to a firm of slaughter- 
ers who wore in a large way of business at the East End. It must also be borne 
in mind that movement by rail at this period was expensive; and further, the 
demand for pigs in country districts was very limited. This combination of 



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72 BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

circmnstances would account for the disease spreading tardily into the interior 
of the country. 

It was not tintil 1802 that the disease was discovered among home-bred pigs by 
Professor Simonds, who informs me that he first saw it on a farm belonging to a 
Mr. Cantrell, residing near Windsor. 

Very soon after his visit to Mr. Cantrell*s farm Professor Simonds heard of 
serlons outbreaks in or near Somersetshire, and two years later (1864) Professor 
Brown witnessed an extensive outbreak at Buscot Park, in Berkshire, where he 
found on his arrival some 40 or 50 pigs dead and upward of 500 more either dying 
or in such a condition that they had to be killed by the owner. 

It was in this year (1864) that Dr. Budd, an eminent physician residing at 
Bristol, became acquainted with the disease at the Clifton workhouse, and in the 
following year he brought the subject before the Royal Agricultural Society. 
Cases of the disease were also about this time seen by the late Prof. John Ghungee 
in Edinburgh. It is evident, therefore, that by 1864 the disease had become widely 
distributed in Great Britain. 

From the year 1865, when the infectious nature of swine fever was first fully 
recognized, until 1878 it continued to spread in Great Britain and in Ireland 
unchecked, and with the increased facilities for movement by rail, it is not sur- 
prising to find that by the latter year it had been carried into nearly every county 
in England and into some of the counties of Scotland and Wales. 

Prior to 1879 no returns were received by the privy council, swine fever not • 
being included within the list of contagious diseases. There was, therefore, at 
that time no reliable information as to the extent of country then invaded. The 
veterinary officers of the board, who, prior to that date were acting as advisers to 
the privy council, had, however, long been familiar with the disease and from 
time to time became acquainted unofficially, through the members of the profes- 
sion and agriculturists, with serious outbreaks and the losses incurred. 

At the urgent request of some local authorities, more particularly Norfolk, 
swine fever was included in the list of contagious diseases at the end of the year 
1878. Local authorities were given power to deal with the affection within tiieir 
districts, and in subsequent years orders declaring infected areas and closing 
markets for the sale of pigs, except for slaughter, were issued by the privy council. 

It can not, however, be said that any results calculated to be of permanent good 
were derived from the measures adopted, inasmuch as the action of local author- 
ities varied in proportion to the personal interest they took in the matter. In 
some of the urban districts the subject was regarded as of little or no importance, 
and in those rural districts where the losses were comparatively small, local 
authorities displayed no energy in its eradication. 

It was not until November, 1893, that, at the urgent request of the agricul- 
turists, the board of agriculture was called upon to make an attempt to stamp 
out the disease. No duty so difficult or troublesome had ever been imposed upon 
the veterinary department since it was created in 1865 for the purpose of stamp- 
ing out cattle plague. This is evidenced by the fact that swine fever has never 
yet been eradicated from any country where it has once obtained a good foothold. 

From the foregoing history of swine fever in this country it will be observed 
that from 1858, at which time there is evidence that the disease was beitig intro- 
duced from abroad, until the year 1879, when it was first legislated for by the 
privy council, it was permitted to extend over Great Britain and Ireland without 
any attempt to check its progress, and that from 1879 until November, 1893, such 
measures as were adopted were of a varying and tentative character. 

When it is taken into consideration that swine fever is a disease which com- 
bines with the fatality and contagious properties of cattle plague the occult 
nature of pleuro-pneumonia and is spread by pigs which, without being sus- 
pected of being diseased, are daily infecting the sties, soil, carts, trucks, and 

uigiiizea oy vj v^^ v./p^ l\^ 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 73 

markets in which they are placed, it can hardly be expected that, after havmg a 
widely spread existence throughout the country for a period of certainly not less 
than thirty years, it will be exterminated as rapidly as other contagions diseases 
of stock which have succumbed to what is termed the stauiping-out process. 

SYMPTOMS OF SWINE FEVER. 

The clinical manifestations of swine fever have been so often and so fully 
described by various writers from the time when Dr. Budd wrote his treatise on 
the disease in the year 1865 that it would be unnecessary to repeat them if it were 
not for the fact that of late years it has become more and more evident that swine 
fever is not in all instances so extremely fatal a disease nor so easily recognized in 
the living animal as was formerly supposed. 

The experimental work carried out by the departmental committee appointed 
in 1895-96, combined with the extraordinary opportunities which have lately been 
afforded the veterinary ofi&cers of the board of examining the lesions found in the 
viscera of pigs of all ages and sizes, have clearly established the fact that swine 
fever may assume two distinct forms, viz, the acute and fatal and the nonacute 
or slowly progressive. 

In the acute form all those symptoms which are indicative of a severe febrile 
affection are present. The animals are disinclined to feed; they present evidence 
of great prostration and lie about their dwellings in a listless manner sheltering 
themselves from cold; their skins are hot, their eyes partially closed, and they are 
otnriously suffering from some severe constitutional disturbance. Within a very 
few hours after these premonitory symptoms have set in the pigs become rapidly 
worse; they may or may not have a deep red blush on the skin, which is more par- 
ticularly noticeable on those parts of the body where there is an absence of hair, 
such as the inside of the thighs, the point of the axilla, and over the abdomen. 
Choleraic evacuations, having a most offensive odor, succeeding upon constipation, 
fellow later on, and the animals die perhaps as early as the third or fonrtli day 
after the symptoms have first been observed. 

In some instances the disease proceeds with great rapidity through a herd, the 
symptoms being of a most aggravated and pronounced character, and the outbreak 
attended with great fatality. 

Generally speaking, the above description depicts tbe symptoms of swine fever 
in tiie acute form, more especially when it breaks out in a herd of young pigs. 

In the nonacute form the disease progresses slowly, the clinical evidence is 
extremely obscure, the reddening of the skin, formerly regarded as being invaria- 
bly present in swine fever, is absent, and beyond the fact that the animal is 
unthrifty, develops slowly, and perhaps has a constantly relaxed condition of the 
bowels, it may be asserted that there are no symptoms which could be regarded 
as absolutely indicative of swine fever, and nothing short of a post-mortem exami- 
nation will enable even an expert to satisfy himself that the animal was affected 
with the disease. * 

As a general rule swine fever assumes this nonacute and slowly progressive 
form in pigs which have arrived at an age when their powers of resistance to dis- 
ease are materially increased, i. e., in animals of eight or more months old; ou 
post-mortem examination they are found to have been extensively diseased, more 
particularly in the large intestine, a portion of the digestive apparatus which does 
not appear to perform any very important function in connection with the nutri- 
tion of the animal, and so long as the stomach and small intestines remain healthy, 
pigs with a considerable amount of disease in the large intestine may still keep up 
their condition for a considerable time. 



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74 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

ETIOLOGY OP SWINE FEVER. 

One of the primary objects for the appointment of the departmental committee 
in 1895 was to determine the etiology or canse of swine fever. So far back as 1865 
Dr. Budd, of Bristol, who had a most favorable opportunity for studying the dis- 
ease at the Clifton workhouse, near Bristol, stated in a paper which he read at a 
meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society; held that year at Plymouth, that he 
"regarded swine fever, like tjrphoid fever in man, to be specific in its character 
and due to poisonous germs which were evacuated by the diseased pigs,^ and he 
further observed what is equally important that it ** was a disease which was not 
communicable to other animals.'' 

Dr. Budd*s statement that this disease of the pig was due to poisonous genua 
was made at a time prior to the germ theory of communicable diseases being 
accepted and long before the study of bacteriology had begun in this country. 

Professor Axe, late of the Royal Veterinary College, in 1875 added materially 
to our knowledge on this subject, and drew particular attention to the fact that 
swine fever could be communicated by mediate contagion; in other words, that 
there existed a special germ which could be transferred from diseased to healthy 
pigs without contact of the animals. 

Dr. Klein, however, was the first in this country who dealt with the etiology of 
swine fever from a bacteriological x>oint of view, and in a very exhaustive report, 
which he prepared for the local government board in the year 1877, he records a 
series of experiments conducted by him at the Brown Institution, during which he 
isolated a bacillus which he regarded as the cause of the disease. 

As regards the etiology of the swine fever of this country no question now 
exists. It has been proved to demonstration by the bacteriological inquiry con- 
ducted by one of the committee. Professor McFadyean, that it is due to a special 
pathogenic organism, a bacillus, which, after cultivation in artificial media, will 
produce in the healthy pig fed with the pure cultures the typical ulcerations whidi 
are found in the intestines of pigs affected with swine fever contracted in the 
ordinary way. 

An experiment of this description must afford more satisfactory and conclusive 
evidence as to the pathogenic property of an organism than one conducted upon 
animals of another species in which the characteristic lesions are produced. 

Dr. Klein's investigation led him to conclude that swine fever was a disease in 
which the lungs as well as the intestinal tract were at times affected, and as a 
result he applied to the disease the name of "pneumo-enteritis," and there are 
some persons in this country who still apply this term to swine fever. 

The observations, however, which were made by the veterinary officers of the 
board when examining the viscera forwarded to the laboratory for examination, 
caused them to doubt whether there was any disease of the lungs of pigs which, 
in the absence of lesions in the intestinal tract, could be accepted as evidence of 
swine fever. 

This most important point which had been raised by the veterinary officers of 
the board was included in the inquiry made by the departmental committee, and 
it will be explained hereafter that the views of the board's officers have been cor- 
roborated by a series of experiments conducted with the object of determining 
this question. 

Another and most important fact was revealed by these experiments, namely, 
that the bacillus which produced swine fever when introduced in the healthy 
pig did not induce any special disease of the lungs. These exi>eriments were con- 
ducted upon upward of sixty pigs, and in the few instances in which any changes 
from the normal were observed in the lungs the lesions were of such a character 
as might have originated from other causes. 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 75 

PATHOLOGY AND MO&BID ANATOMY OF SWINE FEVER. 

It is of special interest to uote in connection with this subject that the views 
expressed by Dr. Budd in 1865 as to the pathology of swine fever have in no way 
been modified or added to by recent research. 

It is quite true that Dr. Klein's experiments led him to believe that swine fever 
was a disease which located itself at times in the lungs as well as the intestines; 
but the exx>erlence of the board's ofQcers and the results of the experimental 
inquiries into the etiology of swine fever before alluded to clearly demonstrate 
that swine fever, like typhoid fever in man, is essentially a disease of the digestive 
system, its chief characteristic being certain morbid changes of a well-marked 
nature which are found upon the surface of the mucous membrane in some part 
of the alimentary canal. 

The changes referred to consist of what have been commonly described as the 
formation of a series of ulcers, single or confluent, distributed upon some part of 
the intestinal tract varying in size and shape, of a yellowish gray to black color, 
and assuming as a rule a circular form. In some instances the lesions consist of 
diphtheritic exudations with necrosis of the lining membrane of the bowels. 

These ulcers or necrotic patches may be found upon the tongue, tonsils, epiglot- 
tis, stomach, ^nd smaU intestines, but they are more constant in the large intes- 
tines, especially the csecum and colon. The lesions may involve the whole 
thickness of the mucous membrane, but seldom penetrate the other coats of the 
intestine; in fact, perforation of the peritoneal covering of the bowel is very rare 
in even prolonged cases of swine fever. 

In cases where swine fever assumes the more acute form and death superveues 
rapidly, it is usual to find that the small intestines are Istrgely involved, v 

In the nonacute or slowly progressing form the lesions are more abundant in 
the large intestines, and in some instances the walls of the intestines become so 
thick as a result of infiltration into their structure and the excessively thick 
deposits upon the lining membrane that it becomes a matter of surprise that the 
passage of the ingesta has been i>ossible and that the animal has lived so long. 

Next to the intestinal lesions the congested condition of the lymphatic glands, 
especially those of the mesentery, may be considered as most prominent among 
the pathological changes which occur in swine fever. Occasionally centers of 
necrosis are observed in the liver, and some writers refer to changes in or upon 
tiie spleen and kidneys. 

The only lesions which can be characterized as absolutely typical of swine fever 
are those present in the bowels, the absence of which will justify any observer in 
declining to accept the case as one of swine fever without some further evidence 
or inquiry. It must, however, be distinctly understood that in the case of very 
young pigs which have died shortly after infection there is often an entire absence 
of the lesions described, the only changes present being inflammation of the stomach 
or some part of the intestines. 

Further, there are instances where older pigs have been slaughtered in the early 
stage of the disease in which no definite lesions have been found, and in such cases 
inquiry into the condition of the rest of the herd becomes necessary. 

One most important feature in connection with the morbid anatomy of swine 
fever which has come prominently before the notice of the officers of the board is 
the di6XK>sition which many animals have to recover from the disease; evidence of 
the reparatory process having often been detected in the intestines after they had 
been carefully washed. This fact came under the notice of Dr. Budd in 1805, who 
tii^i remarked, *'that in advanced cases I found the ulcers had disappeared over 
tbe whole extent of the morbid deposits, leaving sores upon the surface of the 
mucous membrane, and in some specimens the ulcers appear in the form of deep 
excavatioas.'' 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



76 BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

Dr. Klein also maintained that many pigs took the disease in the mild f onn and 
recovered withont presenting any of the marked symptoms of swine fever. 

The experiments of the departmental conmiittee and the experience of the vet- 
erinary ofScers of the board fully corroborate these opinions, as it was fonnd that, 
whether infected in the ordinary way or by direct inoculation, in some pigs kflled 
only a few days after being infected, the ulcers were occasionally seen gradually 
detaching from the surface of the intestines, and cicatrization had already 
commenced. 

VERRUCOSE ENDOCARDITIS. 

In the report of this department for 1894, reference was made to the numerous 
instances in which the hearts of pigs forwarded for examination to London had 
been found affected with verrucose endocarditis. 

Reference was also made to the circumstance that this form of disease of the 
heart was known to veterinarians in Great Britain as far back as the year 1847. 
For reasons given in that report it became obvious that this diseased condition of 
the valves of the hear.t was not produced by swine fever. The question arose 
whether in addition to swine fever we had another disease to contend with, known 
on the Continent under the name of swine erysipelas. The importance of this 
question will be appreciated when it is explained that on the Continent swine 
erysipelas is classed among the contagious diseases of the pig. 

Under these circumstances it became necessary to make inquiries into the etiol- 
ogy and pathology of the disease existing in this country in order to determine 
whether the measures enforced for the eradication of swine fever should also be 
extended to this disease. ^ 

The clinical evidence of the disease called swine erysipelas on the Continent 
appears to be more or less discoloration of the skin, similar to that which is fre- 
quently observed iu swine fever, together with the occasional presence within the 
warty growths upon the valves of the heart of a bacillus which is regarded by 
continental authorities as the cause of the disease. 

Early in the inquiry it was ascertained that a bacillus identical with that found 
in swine erysipelas was also present in the diseased portion of the valves of the 
heart of the pigs in this country. 

But the inquiries made by the officers of the board did not corroborate or favor 
the suggestion that the disease which produced these morbid growths was in any 
way infectious or contagious. Such inquiries as could be made led to the opposite 
conclusion, since in every instance where the cases could be followed up it was 
ascertained that the deaths had been quite sudden, were limited to the single 
animal, and that those in contact remained in perfect health. 

At this stage the all-important point to determine was whether the disease 
which existed in this country, ** verrucose endocarditis," was communicable from 
pig to pig, and with this object numerous experiments have been conducted to 
discover whether the bacilli found within the hearts of diseased pigs were patho- 
genic to healthy swine. 

A large number of healthy pigs have been fed or inoculated with the blood, the 
diseased portions taken from the valves of the hearts, and with artificial cultures 
of the bacilli obtained from the hearts, but in no instance has the attempt to pro- 
duce this disease been successful. 

PNEUMONIA OF THE PIG. 

The occasional association of pneumonia with or without pleurisy in cases oi 
swine fever has led many veterinarians in this country to regard lung complica- 
tions as one of the lesions produced by that disease. 

The views expressed by Dr. Klein in his report on swine fever, to which refer- 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 77 

ence has already been made when dealing with the etiology of this disease, have 
no donbt tended to strengthen those opinions. 

In the board's rei>ort for the year 1894 a description was given of the various 
diseases in the longs of swine which had come nnder the notice of the veterinary 
officers of the board when conducting post-mortem examinations, and as a result 
of the opportunities and experience afforded them it was therein stated that they 
had been unable to discover any special lesion of the lung which would warrant 
them in stating that it was indicative of swine fever or due to contagion. 

It is an indisputable fact that pigs are extremely liable to pneumonia and pleu- 
risy; the tables of the laboratory in Whitehall afford abundant evidence of this. 
But as the clinical appearances present in the lungs forwarded in no wise differed 
from those which take place in the lungs of other animals which have been exposed 
to cold or septicsemia and other causes, the board's officers have never accepted 
these lesions as being specific. 

It is well known that both in G^ermany and the United States outbreaks of pneu- 
monia of a contagious nature attributed to the presence of a bacillus pathogenic 
to the pigs of those countries are reported to occur. Indeed, contagious pneu- 
monia of swine under the names of schweinesuche in Germany and swine plague 
in America are regarded as one and the same disease. 

In view of the fact that in a large number o^ cases pneumonia, more or less 
extensive, sometimes associated with pleurisy, was found among the specimens 
forwarded to London, it was considered desirable that the departmental commit- 
tee should institute a series of experiments to decide whether we had in this 
country a form of pneumonia in the pig which was communicable from one pig to 
another. 

Accordingly a series of bacteriological experiments were conducted by Professor 
McFadyean with a view to isolate, if possible, a microorganism which would be 
capable of inducing pneumonia in healthy pigs. A number of diseased lungs, 
some of which were taken from pigs affected with swine fever, were examined 
microscopically by him, and, as was to be expected, several organisms were iso- 
lated, but they proved to be morphologically and culturally different from the 
bacillus of swine fever. Inoculations were carried out with these organisms not 
only subcutaneously but directly into the lung through the walls of the chest, 
and feeding exi>eriments were also conducted. The results of these experiments 
were entirely negative; a certain amount of local injury was caused to the lungs 
at the seat where they had been punctured, but in no case was either pneumonia 
or swine fever induced. 

The experiments have therefore demonstrated that the pneumonia found in the 
lungs of pigs affected with swine fever is not due to the swine fever bacillus. 

The departmental committee, as the result of the observations and experiments 
on this head, arrived at the conclusion that the pneumonia which is occasionally 
encountered as an independent disease of the pig or in association with swine fever 
is not ascribable to contagion, but to the presence of organisms that are generally 
saprophytic in their mode of life, and which only in particular circumstances (such 
as lowered vitality and diminished resistance on the part of the pig) are able to 
multiply in the air passages and lung tissue and thus induce pneumonia; and it 
appeared to the departmental conmiittee that in this country pneumonia of the pig 
is sporadic and not contagious or epizootic. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

A careful perusal of the two reports which have been issued by the departmental 
committee and the decision at which they arrived should satisfy the reader that 
there is now no reason whatever to believe that there exists at the present time in 
Great Britain any disease of a contagious nature affecting pigs other than swine 



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78 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTET. 

ferer. Further, that the disease of the heart, *' yarrucose endocarditis,'' and the 
pneumonia which are so fi-equently met with in pigs can not be regarded as lesions 
indicative of an attack of swine fever. 

As regards trerracose endocarditis and pneumonia, it may safely be said that 
they do not exist here in a contagions form. If they did the fact mnst at some time 
during the last three years have been brought under the notice of the veterinary 
officers of the board for tho f crowing reasons: Between the Ist of January and 
the 31st of December, 1896, they examined no less than 13,221 sets of viscera. 
Among these they observed hundreds of cases of heart disease, and pneumonia some- 
times combined with pleurisy, all of which were rejected as not being indicative 
of swine fever if not associated with swine-fever lesions in the intestinal tract, 
and in no instance was any extensicm of either of those diseases subsequently 
reported. 

In addition to the above specimens, the veterinary officers during 1896 examined 
and decided what action, if any, should be taken upon 12,149 other reports for- 
warded by veterinary surgeons from various parts of Oreat Britain, and in no 
single instance met with any evidence in those reports that the pigs on the premi- 
ses were affected with a disease of the Itmg which could be said to possess tho 
characteristics of a contagious disease. Under these circumstances it may reason- 
ably be concluded that the departmental committee were correct in their views 
when they stated that '* the evidence obtained during the whole inquiry justifies 
the conclusion at which they have arrived, viz, that there is no epizootic of swine 
except swine fever in any x>art of the United Kingdom which requires to be dealt 
with under the provisions of the act of 1804." 

The decision on the part of the departmental committee is entirely in accord with 
the experience of and corroborates the views expressed by the veterinary officers 
of the board in the reports of this department for the years 1894 and 1895. 

Finally, as an outcome of all the inquiries made by the departmental committee, 
and of the experience of the officers of the board, it may be said that the great 
factors in perpetuating swine fever will always be pigs ^Tviiich are affected with 
that disease in the less fatal and unrecognizable form. These animals are con- 
stantly distributing the germs of swine fever through their highly infective evacu- 
ations wherever they may be taken during the whole period of their illneas, and 
the final extinction of the malady must depend upon the possibility of enforcing 
measures which will have the effect of preventing the movement of pigs affected 
with swine fever in this particular form. 

* During the year 1896 there have been forwarded to the laboratory 13,221 sets of 
viscera of pigs, in 5,288 of which evidence of swine fever was detected. This is a 
decrease of 1,800 in the number of cases confirmed by the veterinary officers of tiie 
board as compared with the previous year. This marked decline has occurred in 
the last six months of the year, the number of outbreaks during the last half year 
of 1896 being 1,919 compared with 3,885 in the corresponding period of 1895. 

In some of the counties where swine fever was formerly exceedingly rife and 
the losses in the past have been enormous very good results have been obtained. 
For instance, in the county of Somerset, where the outbreaks in 1895 numbered 
641 and the pigs slaughtered amounted to 11,124, they fell to 204 outbreaks and 
3,814 pigs slaughtered in 1896. In the West Biding a corresponding falling off in 
the outbreaks has occurred, namely, from 658 in 1895 to 481 in 1896; and in Corn- 
wall also the outbreaks, which amounted to 116 in 1895, fell to 28 in 1896. 

On the other hand, in Derbyshire, Kent, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire. Middle- 
sex, Nottinghamshire, and Warwickshire, there was a considerable increase in the 
number of centers of the disease. 

In Wales the outbreaks fell from 334 in 1895 to 244 in 1896; this reduction would 
have been much greater but for the extension of the disease in Glamorganshire, 
whore they rose from 95 in 1895 to 141 in 1896. 



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FODBTEENTH ANNUAL BBPOBT. 



79 



In Scotland there was an increase in the counties of Aberdeen, Ayr, and Mid- 
lothian, while in the counties of Clackmannan, Fife, Kirkcudbright, Linlithgow, 
and Stirling, which were free in 1895, the disease was reported in 18j^. 

The total number of outbreaks confirmed during the year 1896 was 5,166, which 
is 1 ,139 less than in the previous year. The total number of pigs slaughtered was, 
howeyer, somewhat greater, being 79,586, as compared with 69,931 in 1895. 

The following table, which is otherwise similar to those prepared in former 
years, includes for the first time the number of cases of tuberculosis detected in 
the viscera sent for examination to the laboratory. It will be observed that tuber- 
culosis is by no means a common disease of the pigs in this country, a fact which 
may be regarded as somewhat remarkable when it is borne in mind that pigs 
have access to, and are frequently fed upon, offal of diseased animals. 

Experience in the laboratory demonstrates that the lesions of tuberculosis in 
swine are rarely found in any other organs than the lungs and spleen; that they 
are very seldom met with on the surface of the serous membranes, and when 
present in the lungs t^ey nearly always assume the form of miliary deposits. In 
this respect tnberculosis of the pig UK>re nearly resembles tuberculosis in the 
lungs of man than it does when it attacks the lungs of other domesticated animals. 



Monthly returns of post-mortems of swine made during the year 1S9G, 



Month. 



January... 
February . 

March 

April 

May 

Jnn© 

July 

August 

September 
October ... 
November 
December. 

Total 



Number of 
viiioera ex- 
amined. 



1,728 

1,588 

1,406 

1,&77 

1,288 

1,216 

911 

881 

878 

669 

60S 

745 



13,221 



Number of 

swine- 

fever casei 

detected. 



533 
558 
462 
6S9 

5S8 
378 



358 
301 



804 



5,288 



Number of 
diseased 
hearts. 



Number of 

cases of 

tubercu' 

lods. 



21 
14 
18 

5 

5 
10 
13 

2 
10 

5 



8i5 



150 



PLEURO-PNEUMONIA. 

Only one case of pleiiro-pneumonia was discovered in 1895, and 
that by a butcher in East London. The origin of the animal was 
traced, and all cattle which had come in contact with it were killed, 
but no further trace of the disease was found. 

In 1896 there were 90 reports of suspected outbreaks, but a careful 
examination limited the disease to two of them. In connection with 
these two outbreaks 189 cattle were killed, and out of this number 9 
cases of pleuro-pneumonia were found. 



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80 BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

ANTHRAX. 

In 1895 there were 434 outbreaks of anthrax in Great Britain^ and 
the number of animals attacked was 934. About two-thirds of the 
animals attacked were cattle. In most cases the spread of the dis- 
ease could have been i^reveuted if the ordinary precautions had been 
taken against the spilling of the blood of the diseased animal on the 
premises. It was noted as a matter of interest and importance that 
there was a tendency for this disease to recur on certain farms, in 
some instances three or four times, and in one instance six times. 
" It is easy to understand that where a farm becomes infected to such 
an extent as above described the owner seeks everywhere to find some 
means of prevention, and it is much to be regretted that no safe 
method has yet been disco veiled." Notwithstanding, the chief veteri- 
nary officer, in his report for 1896, says " it can not be said that anthrax 
can be regarded as a disease of very great importance in this country-." 

In 1896 there were about two cases to each outbreak, the same pix)- 
portiou which existed in 1895. Of the 904 cases reported, 632 were 
cattle, 34 sheep, 200 swine, and 38 hoi'ses. It is noted that anthmx 
in Great Britain nearly always originates among cattle. 

GLANDERS. 

It is stated that the number of cases reported in 1894 was 1,172 and 
in 1895, 1,273. This increase is simply an increase of cases reported, 
due to better methods of detecting the disease in the use of mallein. 
*'The general experience is that the mallein test can be regarded as a 
thoroughly reliable agent for the detection of glanders in its occult 
form when no external manifestations of the disease are pi'esent." 

The disease was not so prevalent in 1896, 300 fewer cases being 
reported than in 1895. Upon inquiiy, the conclusion was drawn that 
this decrease was due to the greater precautions being taken to pre- 
vent the introduction and spread of the disease. Mallein was used 
extensively, apparently with the most satisfactory results. 

RABIES. 

The number of cases of rabies reported in 1895 was 672, a remark- 
able increase over any previous year. In 1894 the number of cases 
was 248. It is said that the perpetuation of the disease is due to 
stray dogs. Of the 672 cases mentioned 273 were of this class, and it 
is suggested that the only means of eradication is to seize the owner- 
less animals. In the tibove total are included 55 other animals, 5 of 
them being cats. 

The seizure and slaughter of ownerless dogs, as suggested in 1895, 
and muzzling those that had homes, materially reduced the number 
of cases of rabies in 1896. During this year 438 cases were reported 
and 323 dogs were killed because they had been exposed to the infec- 
tion. Nearly a third of those attacked were stray dogs. In addition 
to the dogs, 4 cattle, 17 sheep, and 1 horse were attacked. 

uigiTizea oy VjOOv Iv^ 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



81 



SHEEP SCAB. 

Sheep scab was reported from every county in England in 1895 
except Berks, Dorset, and Scilly Isles, from every county in Wales, 
and from all counties in Scotland but jSve. The number returned as 
affected was 48,603, but it was assumed that this not nearly covered 
the number that was really affected and would have been detected 
by a careful individual examination. An order was issued this year 
which gave to the local authorities power to deal with diseases within 
their district, and to prevent the movement of sheep into their district 
from that of any other local authority. 

In 1886 the board of agriculture reports that the disease remains 
as prevalent as ever, so far as its distribution is concerned. The 
sheep reported as being affected with scab was 48,688, a number so 
nearly like that for 1895 that it is a coincidence. It is remarked that 
Dorset County, which was reported free from scab in 1895, was also 
free in 1896, although it had 370,000 sheep within its borders, and was 
surrounded by counties in which the disease existed. The disease is 
far less prevalent in Scotland than in Wales. 

FRANCB. 

The following tables show the condition of France with reference 
to contagious diseases of animals for the years 1895 and 1896. They 
are compiled from the sanitary bulletin issued monthly under the 
direction of the minister of apiculture: 

Number of outbreaks of contagious diseases among animals in France during the 

year 189b, 



Name of disease. 



Contagious plearo-pnea- 
monia' 

Namber of outbreaks... 

Number slaughtered ... 

Number inoculated 

Aphthous fever 

Sheep scab 

Sheep pox 

Anthrax 

Bla<Aleg 

Glanders and farcy : 

Rabies (cases) 

Rouget 

Tuberculosis 

Bog cholera 

7204 6 



so 

44 

196 
187 
12 
32 
27 
46 
63 
88 
16 
258 
90 

















u 1 


tH 












^ 5 


1 


1 


1 


i 


►^ 


>» 

? 


1 1 


19 


26 


28 


25 


17 


22 


1 

! 

19 18 


62 


80 


62 


64 


42 


47 


49 I 48 


296 


276 


202 


223 


107 


144 


89 ' 114 


28 


17 


180 


106 


09 


61 


17 1 21 


7 


10 


30 


12 


9 


7 


si 7 


24 


20 


16 


9 


28 


72 


162 1 146 


27 


16 


24 


28 


21 


46 


63 


46 


38 


64 


42 


61 


46 


47 


66 


49 


44 


68 


68 


76 


87 


73 


83 


63 


166 


163 


184 


181 


129 


167 


147 


183 


18 


20 


20 


26 


84 


26 


69 


17 


218 


250 


250 


307 


279 


268 


317 


302 


63 


43 


61 


81 


51 


97 


201 


66 





C 


u 


M 


% 


§ 


^ 


> 


8 





14 I 12 



25 
219 

18 

4 

136 

40 
110 

79 
110 



14 

18 
84 
9 25 
7 I 2 
86 



86 

106 

76 

106 

39 , 81 

270 : 251 

55 i 41 



26 
81 
70 

149 
35 

249 
37 



Total 



639 

1,980 
67T 
110 
804 
394 
730 
833 

1,092 
406 

3,237 
885 



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82 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

Number of outbreaks of contagious diseases among animals in France during the 

year ISOG, 



Name of disease. 



Contagious pleuro-pnemno- 
nia: 
Number of outbreaks. . . 

Number slauprhterod 

Number inoculated 

Aphthous fever 

Sheep scab 

Sh«eppox 

Anthrax 

Blackleg 

Glanders and farcy 

Rabies (cases) 

Bongot 

Hog cholera 















1 


u 


1 


i 




1 


1 


i 


»-9 


•-9 


i 
< 


i 


1 


1 




TotaL 


19 


17 


S6 


18 


12 


19 


11 


13 


12 


18 


189 


34 


43 


55 


23 


3f) 


19 


39 


20 1 34 


45 


40O 


121 


190 


146 


181 


33 


140 


147 


C5 1 146 


106 


1.41» 


294 


144 


165 


202 


lei 


181 


189 


469 


204 


198 


2,334 


11 


9 


11 


27 


2 


4 


1 


l.^> 


9 


2Z 


153 


43 


33 


51 


30 


27 


23 


14 


14 


41 


S9 


405 


27 


83 


24 


34 


32 


25 


37 


48 


27 


25 


ast 


50 


49 


44 


71 


©4 


66 


79 


133 


155 


110 


969 


88 


102 


97 


94 


&4 


95 


74 


87 ! 60 


64 


937 


151 


ISO 


147 


199 


138 


117 


131 


125 


103 


164 


1,6S7 


17 


13 


y9 


54 


113 


67 


153 


91 


68 


30 


«n 


90 


37 


'^ 


12 


51 


46 


^ 


14 


9 


4 


347 



NORWAY. 

The records received from Norway are not complete, but such as 
are available are embodied in the table given below, being compiled 
from the monthly balletin on animal diseases issued by the Norwegian 
Government : 

Table showing the number of cases of contagious diseases rex:>orted for certain 

months of lS9o and 1S9G. 









1895. 










1890. 




Month. 


An- 
thrax. 


Black- 
leg. 


Braxy. 


MaliK- 
nant 
ca- 
tarrhal 
fever 

of 
cattle. 


Bou- 
get. 


An- 
thrax. 


Black- 
leg. 


Braxy. 


Malig- 
nant 
ca- 
tarrhal 
fever 

of 
cattle. 

10 
28 
52 
20 
23 


Rou- 
«et. 


Januft»*y 












20 
14 
27 
24 


1 
1 
4 
2 

1 


9 
3 

1 
1 

1 


25 


February 












31 


March 












39 


April 












29 


May 


40 
28 
20 
15 
29 
20 


2 

1 


1 
2 


24 
14 
30 
15 
23 
5 


42 

87 
155 
129 
148 

33 


20 


Jane 




Jtily 


289 


1 




12 


98 


September 

October 


1 


19 
20 














Deceml^r 


25 






18 


20 










Total 


152 


4 


4S 


111 


6M 


427 


10 


15 


163 


257 



BEiionrM. 

There were in Belgium during the year 1896 outbreaks of conta- 
gious animal diseases as follows : Glanders and farcy, 140; aphthous 
fever, 4C0; anthrax, 285; blackleg, 230; foot rot, 2, and pleuro- 



uigiTizea oy 



Google 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 83 

pneumonia 1 ; 94 cases of rabies were reported. The later months of 
the year showed a marked increase in the number of cases of aphthous 
fever. Vaccination against anthrax, blackleg, and rouget is practiced. 

HUNGARY. 

The following statements are compiled from official documents of 
the Hungarian Government: 

ORIENTAL CATTLE PLAGUE. 

The Oriental cattle plague has not been discovered in a single 
instance in the year 1896. 

ANTHRAX. 

The existence of anthrax has been officially established in 59 coun- 
ties, affecting 191 hoi^ses, 1,780 cattle, and 1,074 sheep. Compared 
with 1895, it is shown that the counties infected are fewer by 1, while 
59 fewer horses were affected, 591 fewer cattle, and 83 fewer sheep. 
There died from the disease 190 horses, 1,703 cattle, and 800 sheep, 
this being 57 horses, 516 cattle, and 356 .sheep fewer than in the pre- 
ceding year. The proportion of the entire number of animals lost is 
as follows: 





Animal. 


1»W. [ 

0.000 1 
.029 
.010 


1895. 


Horses ..................... ...... 


0.012 
.083 
.015 


Cattio 


Sheep 






RABIES. 







This disease has been found in 60 counties, the cases being 1,274 
dogs, 14 horses, 74 cattle, 8 sheep, and 63 hogs. Compared with 1895, 
the number of counties was 3 greater in 1896. The number of dogs 
affected was 47 greater; of horses, 1; cattle, 14; and sheep, 7; while 
there have been 33 fewer hogs affected. 

One hundred and one dogs died, 1,049 were killed, and 124 escaped. 
Of the animals 8usi)ected (having been bitten) the following were 
killed: 3,826 dogs, 7 horses, 1 donkey, 9 cattle, 62 sheep, 1 goat, 27 
hogs, 133 cats, 11 fowls, and 38 other animals. 

GLANDERS. 

Glanders was officially announced as existing in 53 counties, affect- 
ing 628 horses. Comparison with the previous year shows the num- 
ber of counties affected to be one fewer and the number of hoi*ses 549 
fewer Of the 628 horses affected 602 were killed and 26 died. 
Besides these, 53 horses which were suspected were killed, making a 
total of 681 horses lost, 560 fewer than the year 1895. The loss rep- 
resented 0.034 per cent of the total number of horses. 



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84 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE. 

This disease has prevailed in 63 counties and affected 572,809 cattle, 
178,612 sheep, and 82,931 hogs. In the preceding year 13 more coun- 
ties were affected, but the number of cases have increased in 1896 as 
follows: Cattle, 290,527; sheep, 152,992; and swine, 22,990. The dis- 
ease caused the death of 824 cattle, 188 sheep, and 80 hogs, while in 
1895, 465 cattle, 23 sheep, and 314 hogs died. 

PLEURO-PNBUMONIA. 

This disease has been identified in 9 counties, with 313 cases. Of 
these cases 1 died and the remaining 312 were slaughtered by order 
of the authorities. Besides these, 781 were killed on suspicion and 
7,563 were sent to the slaughterhouse on account of having been 
exposed to the contagion. The total loss for the year on account of 
the disease was 8,657. 

SHEEP POX. 

Sheep pox affected 938 sheep during the year in 5 counties. Of the 
938 sheep affected, 684 recovered, 254 died, the total loss reaching 37.1 
per cent of the sick. In the previous year the number affected was 
2,274, of which 265 died, the percentage being 13.1. 

FOOTHALT AND HIVES. 

This disease was reported from 1 county only, wherein a stud of 12 
stallions were affected, and in consequence were castrated. 

BLISTER UPON THE GENITALS. 

This appeared in 15 counties and affected 118 horses and 217 cat- 
tle. This is an increase in cases of 39 horses and a decrease of 121 - 
cattle over 1895. 

SCAB. 

Scab was reported from 44 counties, and 1,713 horses, 119 cattle, 
and 4,156 sheep were affected. The counties affected were 12 fewer 
than the previous year and the number of horses 787 fewer, while 
there was an increase of 87 cattle and 153 sheep. The loss of horses 
affected was -3. 27 per cent and the loss of sheep 3.77. Last year the 
loss of horses affected was 2.76 per cent and the loss of sheep 12.11 
per cent. 

RED MURRAIN OF SWINE. 

This disease affected 28,806 hogs in 52 counties. This is a decrease 
over 1895. 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



85 



HOG CHOLERA. 

Hog cholera appeared in 56 counties and attacked 808,777 heud. 
This is an increase over 1895 of 15 counties and 455,215 head. Of 
the sick hogs, 639,705 died and 13,093 were killed. In addition to 
these, 17,977 were slaughtered because of suspected infection. The 
total loss was therefore 670,853 for 1896 and 365,444 for 1895. 

BUFFALO CHOLERA. 

There were 350 cases of this disease, and they were reported from 
7 counties. This is a decrease over 1895 of 2 counties, but an increase 
of 144 cases. Of the 350 cases, 333 died, making a loss of 25 per cent. 

DENMARK. 

Table shounng extent of contagious diseases and number of animals under pttblic 
supervision for the year 1896, 



[From reports of the Danish Minister of the Interior.] 








5 


i 


1^ 


1 




3 


1 

00 


Rouget. 


law. 




6 


1^ 


Jftntiary 


17 

12 
16 
16 

i 


6 


4 
1 

4 
2 
1 


1 


13 
8 
8 
6 
6 
13 
23 
15 
6 
4 
8 


1 

1 

1 


25 
27 
30 
33 
21 
25 
49 
79 
67 
hi 
82 


14 

13 
20 
18 


73 


Febmary 


m 


Mftirh . . . 


20 


April 


55 


May 


46 


Jnne 


133 


July 


8 


1 
6 
1 
1 

1 




270 


August . . . - 


328 


fiftptember . - 


428 


October 


402 


November * 


200 






Total 


118 


li 


21 


1 


100 


8 


488 


89 


2,2K4 







> Beport for December not received. 



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86 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY 



SWITZERLAND. 

Statement of nunibers of cases of contdgious diseases among doTuestic animals in 
Switzerland for the year 1S96, 





1 

Tt 

as 

■4 


1 

OS 

h 
1 


Foot-and-mouth disease. 


Rabies. 


£* . 
Ill 




Bpuget: Died and 
slaughtered 


Sheep scab. 




Larg< 


Seattle. 


Small cattle. 


^1 
11 

1 


ii 

11 


i 


S 


Month. 


5| 

50 

24 

2G 

1 


1. 


§1 




•d 
'dS 

a 


January 


12 
5 
20 
157 
lU 
8S 
185 
157 
91 
50 
23 
11 


15 
36 
15 
29 
30 
^ 
28 
29 
24 
28 
18 
24 


231 
259 
203 
384 
175 
168 
236 
40 





24 

13 

68 

25 

147 

60 

4 

3 


3 
6 
6 
3 
3 
2 




6 
3 
4 
5 


3^ 

177 
503 
171 
395 
600 
843 
1,501 
766 
602 
583 
365 






February 

March 

April 




6 
3 
1 


May 




June 




5 






July 


3 




August 


1 


8 

o 

24 


3 

3 
1 

4 
3 




September — 
October 






17 
29 


162 
247 
114 




80 
49 
4 


9 
2 







November 






December 












Total.... 


913 


291 


149 


2,209 




4U6 


40 


34 


37 


6,859 


3 


10 



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THE CURING OF BACON. 



Hog raising is one of the most important animal industries of the 
United States. This is attested by the fact that in the year 189G alone 
there were on our farms nearly 41,000,000 head, valued at §106,272,770.^ 
The industry is extensive, every St^te and Ten'itory contiibuting to 
the supply. This being the case, every effort that is made to increase 
the demand for American pork i)roducts is of personal interest to 
every farmer. He can raise hogs easily and he desires a remunera- 
tive market for them. The price is the main thing for the farmer to 
keep in mind; all other considerations — breeds, feeds, methods of 
curing, transportation^ etc. — necessarily must be shaped to this end. 
He must prepare for the market those pork products for which there 
is a demand, and this at the least i>os8ible cost to himself. Herein 
lies the secret of profit or loss. Therefore the successful hog raiser 
will study breeds, feeds, causes of market fluctuations, and -best 
methods of preparing his products for the market. 

Ijet us survey the foreign markets for our pork products, with a 
view to obtaining some hint as to what is desired abroad. The accom- 
imnying table shows the amount and value of i)ork products that 
were exported to all countries during the calendar year 1896: 



Exports of pork products to all countries. 




Name of prodnct. 


Quantity. 


Valne. 


Bacon 


Pounds. 
43l}.859,GG0 
153,012,853 

63.850,513 
5;», 320,200 


$31,057,506 


Hams 


15,224,842 


Pork (fresh and pickled) 


8,223,147 


T^rrl . , , * 


20,821,308 







However, as the United Kingdom is by far the best market we have, 
our attention should be given to its demands in the way of quantity 
and quality. During the year 1896 we exported to that country pork 
product-s as follows: 

Exports of pork products to the United Kingdom. 



Name of product. 



Quantity. 



I Founds. 

Bacon I 334,042,167 

Hams I 126,572,760 

Pork (fresh and pickled) 11,448,858 

Lard 187,610,210 



Value. 



* See number and valtie of hogs elsewhere in this volume. 



$24,755,344 

13,158,318 

667,074 

10,790,156 



87 1 



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88 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

While we send to the United Kingdom more pounds of bacon than 
of any other pork product, the United States is referred to as Eng- 
land's principal source of cheap bacon. Denmark holds the market 
for the high-priced imported bacon. If we send to that country cheap 
meat, it is surely our own fault, and one which might easily be cor- 
rected. There is no reason why the United States should not prepare 
bacon equal to the best, and we must do so if we are to extend our 
markets and are to strive successfully for top prices. Secretary 
Morton, in his report for 1894, emphasizes this fact. He says: * 'While 
the price obtained for Danish bacon is $14.18 per hundredweight 
(112 pounds), that obtained for bacon from the United States is only 
$9.72 per hundredweight. In other words, if the quality of the 
American bacon offered for sale in the British markets had been as 
well adapted to the taste of the British consumers as the Danish, Amer- 
ican ba<5on would have realized $28,192,300, instead of $19,357,376, 
which it did actually realize." 

An English product known as Wiltshire bacon is recognized through- 
out Europe as the standard brand. It commands even a higher price 
thaib Danish bacon. The manufacturers demand lean pigs varjang 
in weight from 130 to 190 pounds. This character of animal, with the 
method of curing, has given the Wiltshire bacon the top of the mar- 
ket wherever it may be obtained at all. On this point Secretary 
Morton further wrote in his report for 1894: "A knowledge of the 
methods which they pursue to maintain their goods in public esteem 
is in the highest degree valuable to the American packers and farm- 
ers. The fact is demonstrated that the bacon which commands the 
best price in the English market is a lean and not oversalted meat. 
In view of that fact it is of interest to American producera to place 
themselves in a position to cater especially for a market which 
demands so much of this peculiarly fattened and particularly cured 
commodity." 

An article on *' Bacon curing," by Mr. Loudon M. Douglas, pub- 
lished in the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, 
has such practical bearing upon the industry that it is deemed wise to 
insert here a part of it. Inasmuch as the United States proposes 
to prepare bacon for the same market that Mr. Douglas advocates, 
there will be found in his article many valuable hints which our peo- 
ple would do well to heed. The article has five chapters, namely: 
I. Pig and bacon statistics; II. The formation of bacon-curing com- 
panies, etc.; III. The equipment of a modern bacon factor^'; IV. 
Modern bacon and ham curing; V. The various forms and cuts of 
English bacon and hams. Chapters II, III, and IV follow herewith : 

THE FORMATION OF BACON-CURING COMPANIES. 

The Danish farmers' cooperative societies are the best models for British farmers 
to follow in forming similar limited companies. It will be remembered that the 
great expansion of the Danish trade in bacon began at about the same time as the 



uigiTizea oy VjOOy Iv^ 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 89 

fanners' societies were formed for the purpose of constructing factories for bacon 
curing. The first of these factories was established in 1887 at Horsens, under the 
able directorship of Mr. Paul Norgaard (now joint proprietor of Holstebro Svines- 
lagteri and others). This factory was the means of teaching the farmers what 
they could do for themselves, with the consequence that, since that date, the 
whole of Denmark has become dotted over with bacon factories. The number, as 
has been stated, is forty-one; and in all likelihood this total will yet be added to, 
in spite of the apparent falling off in the supply of hogs. 

Most of these bacon factories now make provision for the slaughtering of cattle 
as well as hogs. The cattle carcasses are largely exported, in sides, to London 
and Elamburg, and it is thought that the trade may become a remunerative one 
in conjunction with the bacon business. 

It has been the author's privilege to visit most of the bacon factories in Europe, 
and he is in a position to testify to the splendid organization of the Danish farm- 
era and their successful manner of conducting these factories. The factories 
themselves are models of economic construction, and are generally under the 
directorship of an able manager, skilled in all the details of the business. Cleanli- 
ness and economy seem to be the rule everywhere. 

The manner of forming a farmers' association for the purpose of carrying on a 
bacon-curing business may be briefly described, as it has already been done in the 
author's ** Receipt Book" and elsewhere, as follows: 

•'The funds for the erection of the necessary buildings were generally derived 
from a loan effected on the security of the founders, each member being expected 
to become a guarantor for an amount not exceeding £50, the sum guaranteed by 
each individual determining the extent of his ownership in the concern. 

''The administration of the association is vested in a council elected by the 
members. The employees usually consist of a manager, a bookkeeper, and a 
cashier. The regulations of the different cooperative bacon factories agree very 
much in their general principles. It is usually stipulated that the members of the 
association shall deliver all their salable swine to the factory for a period of seven 
years, except in the case of removal from the district. This stipulation, however, 
does not apply to boars, sows in farrow, or to young pigs under 56 i)ounds (in some 
cases 1 12 pounds) live weight, nor does it extend to pigs sold by a member to his 
laborers or consumed in his own house. A corresponding obligation is nearly 
always imposed on the association to accept all the healthy swine consigned by a 
member to the factory. A member may purchase any number of pigs from 
another member of the association and send them to the factory, provided be has 
fattened them for a period varying from twenty to thirty days before delivery; 
but he is not allowed to send in one year more than ten pigs purchased from 
nonmembers. 

** The association usually defrays the expenses incurred in conveying the swine 
from the nearest railway station to the factory; all other charges for carriage 
are paid by the consignors. On removal to the factory, the pigs are divided into 
classes according to quality, the values of the different classes being fixed weekly 
by the council on the advice of the manager. In some cases the prices are paid 
by dead weight, but in the older establishments payment by live weight is still in 
practice. The offal is generally sold to the members of the association or to the 
general public at the current prices of the day. The regulations do not, as a rule, 
contain any restrictions on the methods of feeding swine intended for the factories. 
Sometimes, however, the employment of fish and fish cake is prohibited, as is also 
the use of a ration containing more than 50 per cent of maize. Whenever it is 
found that the supply of swine is falling off, the manager of the factory is empo.v- 
ered to purchase pigs from nonmembers of the association at a price fixed weekly 
by the council and posted up for the information of members. 



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90 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

**At the close of the year the profits arising from the operations of the associa- 
tion are distribnted among the members, after provision has been made for the 
payment of the working expenses, the allocation of a certain sum to the reserve 
fund, and the part repayment of loans. Each member receives a share of the 
profits in proportion to the weight of pork he has delivered during the year. The 
amount carried to the reserve fund is determined annually by the council. In 
some of the Danish cooperative bacon factories it is the practice to elect the mem- 
bers of the council as representatives of the members residing in different par- 
ishes. Thus, in the rules of the Esbjerg factory, it is provided that any parish in 
which ten members of the association reside may be represented by a delegate on 
the council. The president is chosen by the council from among themselves.'* 

Of late the question has been discussed at meetings of the directors of the vari- 
ous factories whether it would not be better to amalgamate the whole of the fac- 
tories and have one general sale office in London. At the present time the bacon 
is distributed by agents who are principally located in Hibernia and Wellington 
Chambers, London Bridge. These agents, of whom there is a considerable num- 
ber, get 3 per cent for selling the bacon, and for this jjercentago they take all 
risks of bad debts. The bacon is consigned 'to the agents as it becomes ready, and 
it is their duty to obtain the best price they can for it. This price, less exx)enses of 
landing, storing, telegrams, commission, etc., is remitted at once to the factories. 

In England it is possible that a modification of the Danish scheme might be 
successfully carried out. The one thing necessary would be that the farmers 
should guarantee so many pigs per annum. The difficulty would be the regular 
supply of pigs, but this difficulty could be got over by arrangements. Let it be 
clearly understood that the factories will take all pigs offered at prices fixed by 
responsible shareholders. Let the factories distribute in various districts well- 
bred boars free, and so encourage the breeding of good pigs, and there seems little 
doubt but that success would follow any well-considered scheme. The nearest 
approach to anything like a farmers* factory in England is the factory now being 
constructed for the Yorkshire Bacon-Curing Company, Limited, at Selby, Yorks. 
The idea of this factory was conceived by Mr. H. L. Chowen, agent of the Earl of 
Londesborough, upon whose estate the factory is situated. It was intended pri- 
marily to help the farmers on his lordship's estates, and there is very little doubt 
but that great success awaits it. 

Some of the more important features of the prospectus of the Yorkshire Bacon- 
curing Company, Limited, may be with advantage reproduced here, as serving to 
show the lines which might be followed in the origination of similar concerns. 
The capital was 35,OD0 ordinary shares of £1 each, of which 20,000 were offered 
for subscription at par on June 10, 1897, the date of publication of the prospectus : 

** 1. This company has been formed to acquire freehold land at Selby, in the 
"West Riding of Yorkshire, and to erect and equip thereon a factory for curing 
bacon in the * Wiltshire ' style, and for the production of real * York ' hams. The 
want of such a factory for a home industry, and the production of an article 
which is in everyday use, has been long felt. Yorkshire, the largest pig-produc- 
ing county in the United Kingdom, is still without the means to manufacture the 
celebrated hams which are sold throughout this country and abroad as prime 
York hams. The deservedly high reputation of York hams is in itself a species of 
good will, and the directors, with other gentlemen in the neighborhood interested 
in agriculture, have associated themselves together with the object of promoting 
this industry in Yorkshire, so that some portion of the profits derived therefrom 
may be retained in the county from which the hams take their name. 

*' 2. The demand for mild-cured bacon and York hams is very extensive, but 
for the production of these it is necessary to have a factory fitted up with the 
most modern appliances in general use in Wiltshire, Ireland, and Denmark. The 



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FOUBTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 91 

new factory will be so equipped, and it is exi)ected will be in operation m Decem- 
ber, 1897. 

"4. lu connection with the bacon-curing industry there are a considerable 
quantity of by-products, which are worked up into sausages, brawn, potted 
meats, polonies, etc., and no better market exists for these than the populous 
industrial centers of Yorkshire, all of which are within easy reach of Selby. 

'*5. Selby i3 exceptionally well situated as a center for the bacon andham-cuiing 
industry, being on the main east and west line on the Northeastern Railway 
between Leeds and Hull at thei)oint where it is intersected by the north and south 
line between London and Scotland. It is served by the London and Northwest- 
em, the Great Eastern, the Great Northern, and Northeastern companies, and, 
owing to the water competition, the rates for carriage of produce to the large 
manufacturing towns of Yorkshire are exceptionally low. The town is situated 
on the west bank of the river Ouse, which is navigable to vessels of 350 tens. 
There is also, by means of a branch of the Aire and Calder Canal, direct water 
communication with the neighboring colliery districts and the West Riding and 
Lancashire. The surrounding district is exceptionally well stocked with pigs. 
The board of agriculture states that within a radius of 15 miles of Selby there 
were 36,752 in June, 1896 (the last census taken). The total number of pigs alive 
in Yorkshire, as returned by the board of agriculture on June 4, 1896, was as 
follows: East Riding, 62,551; North Riding, 59,735; West Riding, 101,808; total, 
224,094. 

**6. The estimate of profits has been carefully made upon expert advice. The 
factory has been. designed with a view to expansion, but it is computed that a 
moderate estimato of the trade to be done from the commencement of the enter- 
prise is an average of 800 pigs per week, and after providing for all expenses in 
connection with the factory, including depreciation of buildings, machinery, etc., 
leares an average net profit of 56. per pig. This would yield £3,900 per annum, a 
very remunerative return, £2,000 being equal to 10 per cent upon the capital called 
up. The saving in carriage alone on 3,000 pigs per week by the manufacture at 
Selby would amount to over £1,000 per annum. 

**7. The directors are in a position to state that the services of a thoroughly 
competent and experienced manager can bo secured. 

*• 8. The following is a report by Mr. Loudon M. Douglas, of the firm of William 
Douglas & Sons, Bacon Factory Engineers, 29 Farrington Road, London, E. C, to 
which is added an independent report obtained by Messrs. Douglas from a prac- 
tical bacon factory manager: 

March 2-K 1897. 

The first thing to be considered in the promotion of an industry such as bacon 
curing is the supply of pigs. Yorkshire is the largest producing county in the 
United Kingdom. The figures for the year 1896, as obtained from the board of 
agriculture, show the total number of pigs alive on June 4 was 224,094. 

The* only county that comes any way near this large total is Sufi:olk, with 
165,630; all other counties are very far behind. It peems rather anomalous that 
amid this great produce there should be no bacon or ham factories. There are, of 
course, numbers of pork purveyors, who do a lucrative business in their own 
special way, but the factory proper, as known to other parts of England, especially 
the west, is wholly unknovm in the county of York. From time immemorial the 
name of *• York "hams has been synonymous with a high-class -product, and on 
the Continent at the present day hams sold under that name may be met with in 
thousands, particularly in France, It is safe to say that few, if any, of these 
ever saw Yorkshire, and, indeed, it is common knowledge that most of them are 
prepared in the great factories of Ireland. It seems, therefore, reasonable to 
suppose that, so far as hams are concerned, no difficulties would arise in disposing 
of them. The same remark applies to bacon. The modern method of curing 
bacon as **mild cure" is unknown in Yorkshire, and the small curers there still 
adhere to the obsolete method, by which the meat is overcharged with salt and not 
only made unpalatable, but in many districts practically unsalable. The intro- 
duction of the modem way of curing would very speedily cause the demand for 



uigiiizea oy VjOOv Iv^ 



92 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDU8TEY. 



York bacon and hams to boand up enormously. Selby as a center seems well 
suited for the proposed factory, as it is on the main line north and south and 
within easy access to a great many large and flourishing industrial centers. The 
importance of situation can not be too much amplified, as the fact of being near 
to large centers of population is itself a warranty of the easy disposal of the offal. 
The requisite conditions in starting a bacon factory are as follows: 

(1) An ample supply of piffs. 

(2) A site where there is plenty of water and a railway. 

(3) Sufficiency of capital. 

(4) A competent manager. 

A fairly lari^e factory would be one to handle about 300 pigs per week, and this 
is only 15,600 per annum, or, roughly speaking, one-fourteenth of the available 
supply. 

* * Messrs. Douglas have obtained the following report from a thoroughly practical 
bacon-factory manager, on whom they can rely: 

March 17, 1897. 

With reference to your letter as to a proposed bacon factory at Selby, I find that 
you are quite right as to the very large supply of pigs in Yorkshire. ' I had no 
idea of its lieinj^ so large until I looked it up, and my only wonder now is that a 
bacon factory or factories have not been started there before, especially as York 
hams have a long-established name in London und on the Continent. On looking 
at the position of Selby on the map, I find that it is situated in a most advan- 
tageous point for the distribution of goods, having a good communication with 
London and being also within about 60 miles of the following large towns, having 
populations as under: 



Burnley 102,805 

Huddersfield 100,463 

Halifax 94,775 

York 67,004 



Total 2,568,617 



Manchester and Salf ord 740, 268 

Leeds 402,449 

Sheffield 347,278 

Bradford ... 228,809 

Hull 220,844 

Oldham 143,442 

Bolton 120,380 

not to mention the numerous smaller towns. This district is one of thd largest 
bacon consuming parts of England, and a very large proportion of the bacon pro- 
duced by the west of England and Wiltshire factories is sent there to be disposed 
of, costing them on an average about 50s. per ton for freight; and as the freight 
for, say, 60 miles round Selby as charged by the Northeastern Railway Company 
would not average more than 10s. to 20s. per ton, the saving on freight alone would 
amount to a very large item indeed. 

This is also a splendid district for the sausage trade, which is a most lucrative 
business, also for disposing of the offals, cuttings, plucks, etc., in the surround- 
ing large towns at good prices. A depot might also be arranged for collecting 
agricultural produce, sucn as butter, eggs, poultry, etc. 

A modem bacon factory is a place which is devoted to the manufacture of bacon 
as its first business. There are subsidiary businesses which may be, and are, gen- 
erally carried on in bacon factories, such as sausage making, pork-pie making, 
etc. But the distinction must be clearly drawn, on the foregoing lines, between 
a bacon factory proper and an ordinary pork-selling business. There are many 
thousands of the latter in England, but these places could not be correctly 
described as bacon factories. 

Bacon factories proper are situated at the following places in England: 



Redruth, Cornwall. 
Highbridge, Somerset. 
Calne, Wiltshire, 
Chippenham, Wiltshire. 
Trowbridge, Wiltshire. 
Malmesbury, Wiltshire. 
Gillingham, Dorset. 
Cirencest: r, Gloucestershire. 
Nailsworth, Gloucestershire. 
Bristol, Gloucester (four factories). 



Stroud, Gloucestershire. 

Oxford, Oxfordshire. 

Reading, Berkshire. 

Andover, Hampshire. 

Wroxall, Isle of Wight. 

Needham Market, Suffolk. 

East Dereham, Noi-folk. 

Birmingham, Warwick (four factories). 

Selby, Yorks. 

Carlisle, Cumberland. 



uigitized by 



Google 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 93 

The totftl output of these factories is a fraction only of the consumption of 
bacon. English-cured bacon commands still a much higher price than any for- 
eign-cured meats, and, so long as attention is given to the breeding of the pigs, 
so long will that advantageous state of things exist. There seenis, therefore, 
every prospect of success awaiting factories which may be started in the future. 

This is a matter for earnest consideration of all agricultural societies, and the 
sooner they recognize its vast imi>ortance the sooner will better profits from agri- 
culture be obtained. 

Among the i)oints to be considered in establishing a bacon factory are the fol- 
lowing: 

(1) The supply of bacon pigs. 

(2) The facilities for transport. 

(3) The water supply (it must be good). 

(4) Easy access to populous districts so as to get rid of offal at a profit. 

The bacon factories in England, it is curious to state, lie mostly in the south. 
In fact, a straight line drawn from the mouth of the Thames to that of the 
Severn would cut off most of them. The reason of this is not quite clear. It 
certainly dees not lie in the supply of pigs, as the Wiltshire factories do not get 
their supplies in that county. Owing to the good cross-channel service, a large 
proportion of the pigs for ** Wiltshire" bacon are brought from Ireland. Of 
course, in addition to that source of supply, there are the adjoining counties. 
The real reason is, doubtless, the energetic enterprise of the owners of these bacon 
factories. 

THE EQUIPMENT OP A MODERN BACON FACTORY. 

The modern method of curing is very simple. It is dependent to a large extent 
upon mechanical appliances of various kinds in the first place, and on the use of 
salt and other preservatives in the curing process. Time was when farm-cured 
bacon of a very coarse quality was made, to a large extent, all over the United 
Kingdom. The curins: of such meat has, however, almost ceased within late 
years, although in some of the remote districts it is still carried on. The fatal 
objection to farm-cured meat is that it can not be produced except in a very salt 
state, and the taste for such meat is becoming rarer since modem processes for 
producing mild-cured meats were introduced. A modem factory consists of a 
building suitably separated into departments and so arranged that there will be 
no loss of labor. The main departments may be set down as — 

Slaughtering house. Boiler house. 

Dressing room. Smoke houses. 

Chill room. Baling loft. 

Cellar. Offices. 
Engine and refrigerator rooms. 

The subsidiary department oonsiscs of — 

Sausage department. Lard-refining department 

Pie department. Bone digesting and grinding depart- 

Canning department. ment. 

There are many appliances, some of them of an ingenious character, placed in 
these various departments. First in importance is the refrigerating machinery, 
without which a modem bacon-curing factory would be incomplete. There are 
many systems of refrigeration, but few lend themselves to the purposes of a bacon 
factory, inasmuch as besides requiring a circulation of air in the chill rooms it is 
indispensable to have a large amount of **cold'' stored. Two gases are used as 



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94 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

refrigerants, viz, ammonia and carbonic add. Ammonia is objectionable, because 
of its smell and dangerous properties, and wonld not seem to be so adaptable to 
the purposes of a bacon factory as carbonic acid (carbon dioxide). Carbonic acid 
has no smell, and it is capable of being nsed in a machine to which a safety yalve 
is attached. The other appliances to which special consideration must be given 
are the singeing stack (which should be of the vertical type), the pickle pump, 
and the lard appliances. 

It would be of very little present interest to detail here all the appliances neces- 
sary to a modern factory; suffice it to say that the equipment of factories may be 
accomplished for a small sum, which may rise to very large amounts according 
to the work to be done. As a guide it may be useful to state that factories may 
be built and equipped for the undemoted sums, excluding price of land: 

A factory to handle, say — 

50 pigs per week, about £700 

100 pigs per week, about 1,500 

300 pigs per week, about 5,000 

500 to 1,000 pigs per week, about 12,000 

1,000 to 2,000 pigs per week, about 15.000 

These estimates are based upon work actually done. The figures bear no rela- 
tion to one another, as it depends very much on local conditions as to levels, etc., 
what the cost may be. 

MODERN BACON AND HAM CURING. 

The great strides made in the business of bacon curing during recent yeai*s and 
the constant developments that are taking place render it necessary that from 
time to time the process of curing, as modified and brought up to date, shotild be 
described in some periodical accessible to everyone. 

The process of curing is simple enough, consisting as it does for the most part 
of adding preserving substances to the meat and allowing time for such materialfl 
to saturate the tissues. This preserving process checks the development of bac- 
teria, and renders it possible to keep bacon and other meats inmilarly treated for 
an indefinite period. 

For the purpose of slaughtering and preparing the animals for the cellars, the 
pigs are hoisted by means of a friction hoist driven from the main driving shaft 
of the factory, by one of the hind legs, to an overhead bar. The moment they 
reach this bar the slaughterman passes a sharp knife quickly into the neck througli 
the jugular vein, and in the direction of the heart, but withdraws it instantly. 
The pigs bleed quickly and suffer very little pain. They are immediately pushed 
along the track bar to the bleeding passage, and are allowed to hang till all the 
blood has flowed from them. They are then flung on a dumping table and the 
leg chains are removed. They are at once rolled into a scalding vat, nearly filled 
with water at 180° F. The carcasses are rolled in this vat until the hair and bris- 
tles come away easily in the hands. They are then hoisted by means of a " cradle " 
onto a scuttling table, where the remains of the hair and bristles are removed by 
means of bell-shapod scrapers. They are next swung by an oblique board onto 
the track bar again, and are brought to the singeing fui-nace, in which they are 
singed for about a quarter of a minute, lowered again to the track bar, and plunged 
into a cold bath, from which they are immediately hoisted to the track bar again, 
and while sprays of cold water are playing upon the carcasses the latter are 
scraped by means of flat hand scrapers free from the burnt surface. The intes- 
tines and offal are then removed and sorted in various departments, and the car- 
casses, after again being cleansed, are split down the back, the vertebral ccdonui 
removed, and the two sides, including the vertebral column, tlie head, the feet, 



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and the flick lard, or kidney fat, are weighed. This is what Is known as ** dead 

weight," or the weight npon which payment is made (the dead weight of a hog 

weighing alive 16 stones wonld be 18 stones). From the dead weight it is the 

nniversal custom to deduct 2 pounds i)er side for beamagej and the price then is 

the price of the net weight. After the weight is ascertained the head and fore 

fe^ are completely severed, the kidney fat and vertebral column are removed, 

and the sides are disconnected and allowed to cool in the banging house for 

a period of from six to twelve hours, according to the time of year. They are 

tiien placed in a chill room for about twelve hours, until the meat registers on a 

meat-testing thermometer 40° F. This temx>erature is obtained by keeping the 

chill rooms at 38^^ P. The blade bones are now removed and the sides trimmed 

and taken to the cellars. 

WGtshire bacon. — On being taken to the cellars the sides are laid on a bench 

and pumped at a uniform pressure of about 40 pounds per square inch, at the 

places indicated in fig. 18, with a pickle made from the formula- 
Pounds. 

Salt 50 

Granulated saltpeter 5 

Dry antiseptic - 5 

Cane .sugar (in winter only) 5 

To this add 20 gallons of water and stir till all the material is dissolved. The 
strength, as shown by the salinometer, should be about 95 \ If such is not indi- 
cated, add salt and stir until it is. 

A mixture of equal quantities of saltpeter and dry antiseptic having been pre- 
viously, prepared, the sides are first wiped with a i)ortion of the pickle used for 
pumping and are then laid on the cellar floor. Some of the mixture of dry anti- 
septic and saltpeter is next sprinkled over the whole of the inside or cut surfaces. 
The quantity is usually just sufficient to slightly cover the whole (a sieve fceing 
▼cry useful for the purpose of distribution). Salt finely ground is now sprinkled 
ail over the same surface, and the side is permitted to lie in that condition for 
seven or eight days, when it will be cured, and may then be washed and baled 
for transport, or the sides may be washed and dried as ** pale-dried bacon," or 
tiicy may be smoked and sold as smoked bacon. Where space is of value the 
baoon is "stacked'' or ** piled.*' 

The most important part of the foregoing description is that referring to the 
pumping. The diagram (fig. 18) is designed to show the various portions into 
which the side will ultimately be divided, and at the same time to indicate the 
precise place and direction in which the needle of the pickle pump should be 
inserted. This diagram has been constructed with the assistance of those well 
skilled in the matter, and will doubtless serve a permanent purpose. 

The process of producing ** Wiltshire" bacon, which has just been described, 
applies practically to all other kinds. The names of different cuts are very many, 
and depend on the local habit of cutting portions of a side in a peculiar way. 
Perhaps the greatest rival of Wiltshire bacon is that produced in Cumberland; 
but the liking for Cuml)erland bacon is an acquired taste. It is highly charged 

'*'Beamage" is the deduction made in weighing pigs warm. The moisture 
which evaporates before the flesh becomes rigid is estimated at 2 pounds per side, 
or 4 pounds per pig all over. It is the universal custom for bacon curers to deduct 
this amount. 

* *' Dry antiseptic " consists of boracic acid neutralized with borax. The mixture 
is dried and concentrated at a high temperature. At the same time chemical com- 
bination takes place, and the resulting compound is nearly three and one-half times 
as soluble in water as boracic acid. Dry antiseptic is now a regular article of 
commerce, and can be readily purchased. 

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96 BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

with salt, as a mle, owing to the primitiye methods in use where it is prodnced. 
These old-fashioned ways will have to go and give place to the modem methods; 
or, if not so, it is safe to say that Cumberland bacon will become a thing of the 
past. 

. When the bacon has been cored, it is, as a rnle, washed free from salt on the 
surface, and from slime, if any, and allowed to drain. If it should be wanted in 
the ''green'* state, it is simply sent out as it is, in bales, wrapped in canvas. If 
wanted in the ** pale-dried'* state, the sides are hung up in a ventilated drying 
room, heated to a temperature of 80° F. with steam pipes, and kept there until 
quite dry. ''Smoked bacon *' is produced by hanging the sides in a smoke store 
for about three days, where it is exposed to the smoke and fumes given off by . 
smoldering hardwood sawdust. The ventilation of the smoke stores is a very 
important matter. When the sides are sufficiently smoked or dried, as the case 
may be, they are allowed to cool in the packing loft, after which they are weighed 
and baled for the market! 

Harns.—A somewhat different process is used in the curing of hams, although 
in principle it is the same. The hams are cut according to the particular descrip- 
tion wanted after the sides have been chilled. They are then flung into a pickle 
tank, filled with pickle made according to the formula already given. Tliey are 
allowed to i-emain there until next morning, when they are taken out and pressed 
so that the blood may be cleared out of the blood vein. The object of putting 
them into the pickle is to purge this blood away. They are next laid in beds of 
salt, care being taken to have the shanks pointing downward. They may be 
pumped or not, according to the taste of the curer. The author's experience goes 
to show that it is wise to pimip the blood vein with an antiseptic pickle at a low 
pressure. The same mixture of antiseptic and saltpeter is sprinkled over the cut 
surfaces, and the whole is covered with salt At the end of three days the hams 
are taken up and pressed again so as to remove any blood that may have remained 
in the blood vein. They are then laid down and covered with fine salt, and are 
left in this position for about fifteen days. A very good rule applying to hams is 
that they require a day for every pound weight to cure. 

Matured bacon and Jiams.—The foregoing description of curing refers exclu- 
sively to meats meant for immediate consumption* The keeping of meat for a 
year or so requires a rather different treatment. The time in salt has to be extended 
for about a week in either case, and the hams or bacon require to be dried. 



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# 




Fio. 18.— Dlaffnun showing plaoee where needle of pickle pump should 
be inserted in pumping a side of bacon; and the direction (shown 
by the arrows) in which the needle should be thrust. 

7204 7 

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SHEEP SCAB : ITS NATURE AND TREATMENT. 

By D. E. Salmon, D. V. M., and Ch. Wardell Stiles, Ph. D., 
Chief and Zoologist of the Bureau of Animal Industry, 

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 

The disease commonly called sheep scab is the mange, or scabies, 
of the sheep. It is a contagious skin disease caused by a parasitic 
mite. This disease is one of the oldest known, most prevalent, and 
most injurious maladies which affects this species of animals. It baa 
been well known for many centuries, and references to it are found 
in the earlier writings, including the Bible, where we find, in Leviti- 
cus xxii : 22, the use of scabbed sheep forbidden in sacrifices. Some 
think that the mite which causes the disease was known to Aristotle, 
322 B. C. ; but it appears that Wichmann, writing in 1786, was one 
of the first authors of modem times to suspect that sheep scab was of 
the same nature as the scabies of man. Wichmann held the erro- 
neous view, however, that both diseases were produced by the same 
parasite. 

The prevailing opinion concerning scab prior to and during th^ first 
years of the present century was that it was caused by some special 
condition of the sheep's system, a "humor of the blood," which led to 
a skin eruption. The parasites were in some cases known and recog- 
nized, but they were supposed to be either an accidental occurrence 
or to have arisen by spontaneous generation as a result of the disease, 
and because the affected skin offered conditions favorable to their 
development and existence. 

As a result of diligent research certain investigators reached the 
conclusion that the malady was due directly to the mites which were 
found inhabiting the diseased parts of the skin. Their opinion was 
not at once adopted, however, but, on the contrary, met with strong 
opposition from those who held that scab was due to a diseased con- 
dition of the blood and from others who held a modified view to the 
effect that the mites carried poisonous or diseased material from one 
animal to another and in that manner communicated the disease. 
The errors and uncertainties which came down to us through centu- 
ries of controversy were finally and for all time dispelled by conclusive 
expenments upon animals made during the first half of this century. 
It was shown that scab does not develop and can not be produced 
without the parasites* The complete life cycle of the mites was 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 99 

studied and demonstrated from the eggs to the adult parasites. It 
was shown that mites are always the offspring of ancestors, the same 
as are the larger animals, and it has in later years come to be 
admitted that there is no such thing known as spontaneous genera- 
tion of any living thing under any circumstances. The demonstra- 
tion was repeatedly made that the disease always developed if mites 
were taken from diseased sheep and placed upon healthy ones, and 
that diseases of the skin resembling scab are not contagious unless 
the mite is pre,sent. 

Questions are still frequently asked, by persons not conversant with 
the investigations of the subject, as to whether the scab is the cause 
of the mite or the mite is the cause of the scab, and also whether the 
disease can develop without the presence of the scab mite. The 
investigations which have been referred to answer these questions 
and also show that the treatment must consist in external applications 
for the destruction of the parasites and not internal remedies to 
**purif}- the blood." 

Is scab hereditary? — An impression has arisen among some sheep 
raisers that scab is hereditary. This impression is, however, erro- 
neous. Scab is no more hereditary than are sheep ticks or sheep lice, 
for the parasites which cause it live on the external surface of the 
body and do not reach the womb. It is possible, however, for a lamb 
to become infected from a scabby mother at the moment of birth or 
immediately after. Lambs are occasionally bom with white spots on 
their skin, and this possibly has given rise to the idea that scab is 
hereditary. 

LOSSES CAUSED BY SCAB. 

Losses in home industry, — The losses from sheep scab have been 
and are still very severe in most sheep-raising countries. They are 
due to the shedding of the wool, the loss of condition, and the death 
of the sheep. 

Although laws were made for the control of the disease as early as 
the beginning of the eleventh century, general ignorance in regard to 
its nature and proper treatment has prevented the successful admin- 
istration of such laws even to the present day. The disease exists in 
most of the countries of Europe, and also in Asia and Africa, and 
until recently in Australia. Most civilized countries now control the 
disease to a certain extent and limit the losses by the enforcement 
of stringent sanitary regulations; but the extent of its prevalence is 
nevertheless surprising. It is a disease not difficult to cure and erad- 
icate, and an accurate knowledge of its characteristics with attention 
to details are all that is needed to secure this result. 

In the United States some sections have been overrun with sheep 
scab, and many persons engaged in the sheep industry have been 
forced to forsake it because of their losses from this disease. It is 



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100 BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

probable that in its destruction of invested capital sheep scab is sec- 
ond only to hog cholera among our animal diseases. The large flocks 
of the Plains and Rocky Mountain region and the feeding stations 
farther east have suffered severely and are constantly sending dis- 
eased animals to the great stock yards of this country. As a conse- 
quence of this marketing of affected sheep, the stock yards are con- 
tinually infected, and any sheep purchased in these markets are, 
unless properly dipped, likely to develop the disease after they are 
taken to the country for feeding or breeding. There is in this way a 
constant distribution of the contagion, and thousands of persons who 
know little of its nature or the proper methods of curing it find that 
they have introduced it upon their premises. 

Losses in export trade. — In addition to the direct losses in wool, in 
flesh, and in the lives of our sheep, we have suffered immensely in our 
foreign trade because of the prevalence of this disease. Great Britain 
appears to have been the first country to prohibit live sheep coming 
from the United States, by an order issued in 1879. Upon representa- 
tions that there was no foot-and-mouth disease in the United States 
this order was rescinded in 1892, but only to be again enforced in 1896 
on account of the many scabby sheep sent abroad by our exporters. 
Our sheep are consequently slaughtered on the docks where landed, 
the market being restricted and the prices much less favorable than 
would otherwise be obtained. The markets of Continental Europe 
have been entirely closed to American sheep, as even the privilege of 
slaughtering at the landing places is denied. For a long time it was 
impossible to send our pure-bred sheep to Australia, where there is a 
demand for them for breeding purposes, because the Australian la^ir 
required them to be transshipped and quarantined in British ports, 
and the British authorities declined to grant this privilege. Arrange- 
ments have since been made for the direct shipment of sheep to Aus- 
tralia, if accompanied by the certificate of a veterinarian appointed, 
by the Australian authorities. 

On the whole, it is seen that the existence of this disease in oar 
flocks has prevented the development of our export trade in many 
directions, and has caused no end of trouble and loss to our exporters. 

CAUSE OF SCAB. 

Sheep scab is a strictly contagfious disease. 

Comrtwii sort — Common sheep scab is caused by that species of 
mites technically known as Psoroptes communist Parasites of this 
species cause scab in horses, cattle, sheep, goats, and rabbits; but for 
each of these species of animals there appears to be a distinct variety 

* The technical term Psoroptes is derived from the Greek, and means that the 
mites hide under the crusts. The parasite is sometimes called Dermatocoptea^ 
which means that the mites wound the skin. A third name, Dermatodecies^ indi- 
cates that the mites bite the skin. 



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101 



of this parasite. Although it is more or less difficult to distinguish 
between these varieties, they differ somewhat in size, and it is found 
that the Psoroptes communis of the sheep does not cause scab of the 
horse, ox, or rabbit; nor, on the other hand, does the Psoroptes com- 
munis of the horse, ox, or rabbit cause scab of the sheep. Natural- 
ists, therefore, distinguish the parasite of sheep scab by the name 
Psoroptes communis var. onis,^ 

The parasite of this disease is one of the larger mites, and is quite 
easily seen with the naked eye. The adult female is about one-fortieth 



^ 




PlO. 19.- 



-A oomparatiyely early case of oommon scab, siiowliiif a bare spot and a tagging of the 

wool. 



inch long and one-sixtieth inch broad ; the male is one-fiftieth inch 
long and one-eightieth inch broad. These mites are discovered more 
readily and more clearly on a dark than on a light background, and 
for that reason the crusts from the affected skin are often placed upon 
black paper and kept in the sunshine for a few minutes in order to 
reveal the parasites crawling about. 

The psoropt inhabits the regions on the surface of the body which 
are most thickly covered with wool; that is, the back, the sides, the 
rump, and the shoulders. It is the most serious in its effects upon 

' Var. is the abbreviation of the Latin word varieteut, meaning variety. 

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102 BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

sheep of any of the parasitic mites, and it is the cause of the true 
body scab. 

Other forms, — Sheep are also affected with three other forms of 
scab, likewise caused by parasitic mites. One of these is the sar- 
coptic scab (head scab, or black muzzle), which is limited almost 
entirely to the head, and is caused by the mite known as the Sarcoptes 
scabiei var. ovis,^ The second is the symbiotic scab (foot scab), whieti 
affects the limbs, scrotum, and udder, and is caused by the Chxyrioptes 
communis var. ovis.^ Lastly may be mentioned an extremely rare 
affection, the so-called follicular, or demodectic, scab, affecting the 
eyelids, caused by a mite known as Demodex foUicuLorum var. ovis.^ 

The sarcoptic, symbiotic, and demodectic forms of scab are with, 
sheep mild diseases compared with common scab, and apx>ear to be 
rather rare. 

DESCRIPTION OF SHEEP SCAB. 
(1) COMMON SCAB, BODY SCAB, OR P80R0PTIC SCAB. 

Although the symptoms of common scab are familiar to most farm- 
ers, they will here be briefly reviewed. 

The mites of common, or body, scab — that is, the Psoroptes — ^prick 
the skin of the animal to obtain their food, and probably insert a 
poisonous saliva in the wound. Their bites are followed by intense 
itching, with irritation, formation of papules, inflammation, exuda- 
tion of serum, and the formation of crusts, or scabs, under and near 
the edge of which the parasites live. As the parasites multiply they 
seek the more healthy parts, spreading from the edges of the scab 
already formed, thus extending the disease. The sheep are restless; 
they scratch and bite themselves, and rub against posts, fences, 
stones, or against other members of the flock. This irritation is 
particularly noticeable after the animals have been driven, for the 
itching is more intense when the sheep become heated. The changes 
in the skin naturally result in a falling of the wool; at first slen- 
der "tags" are noticed; the fleece assumes the condition known as 
"flowering;" it looks tufty or matted, and the sheep pulls out por- 
tions with its mouth, or leaves tags on the objects against which it 
rubs. Scabs fall and are replaced by thicker and more adherent 
crusts. The skin finally becomes more or less bare, parchment-like, 
greatly thickened, furrowed, and bleeding in the cracks. With shorn 
sheep especially a thick, dry, parchment-like crust covers the greatly 
tumified skin. Ewes may abort or bear weak lambs. 

Parts of body affected. — When sheep are kept in large numbers the 

* Sarcoptes, from the Greek, means that the mites wound the flesh. 

^ Chorioptes signifies that the mites hide in the skin. Another name, Symbuttea^ 
signifies that a number of the mites live together; and a third name, DermatopJi- 
aguSy means that the mites eat the skin. 

* Demodex signifies that the mites have a worm-like body. 



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AN. RPT. B. A. I. 1887. 




rie. I. A aLIOHTLV AOVANOCO gam of common tOAB. 




ria 3. A MOftf AOVANOCO CA8I Of COMMON SCAB. 



A.lliMui»Cfi. 



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AN. ftPT. B. A. I. 1897. 




zyrts^^T^i^, 



FIO. 4. AN ADVANCED CA8C Or COMMON SCAB. 



A.Ho«n«.ru. 



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< 

.s 

n 

5 

IS 



S- 



ii 



»s 



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AN. RPT. B. A. I. 1887. 






'•OS. too OF MITT WHICH OAUMS COMMON SHEEP SCAB. FIO. ID. SIX-LEOOED STAQC Of SHEEP SCAB MITC. FIG. II. VOUNO 

FDMALE 8CFO«W MOULTING FOR THE LAST TIME. DORSAL VIEW. FIO. 12. AOULT MALE PARASITE OF SAROOPTIQ SCABIES 

OF MAN 'lH€ OOWWSPONOINO PARASITE OF SHEEP IS VERY SIMILAr), VENTRAL VIEW. X aSO UfTER BLANOHARd). 
no 13 ADULT FEMALE PARASITE OFSAROOPTIC SCABIES, DORSAL VIEW. X aSO (aFTER BLANOHARd). FIO. 14. SAME. 

VENTRAL VIEW ^AFTER BCANOHARo) ALL OREATlY ENLARGED. 

■ A.llo<in»Co. 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



103 



chances for infection are naturally greater, and the disease may begin 
on almost any part of the body. Generally, however, it affects the 
parts which are covered with wool. When the sheep are fat and the 
wool has a large amount of yolk, the progress of the disease may be 
slow; usually beginning on the upper part of the body, withers, and 
back, it extends slowly, but none the less surely and in ever-increas- 
ing areas, to the neck, sides, flanks, rump, etc. In two or three 
months the entire body may be affected. 

Contagion, — Common scab is exceedingly contagious from one 
sheep t^ another, and may in some cases show itself within about a 
week after healthy sheep have been exposed to infection. The con- 
tagion may be direct, by contact of one sheep with another; or indi- 
rect, from tags of wool, or from fences, posts, etc., against which 
scabby sheep have rubbed, or from the places where the sheep have 
been " bedded down." One 
attack of scab does not pro- 
tect sheep from later attacks. 
Transmitted to man, sheep 
scab may produce a slight spot 
on the skin, a point which is 
sometimes taken advantage of 
for the purpose of diagnosis. 
In case of suspected scab, one 
of the crusts is bound lightly 
on the arm. After a short time 
an itching sensation is felt and 
the mites are found on the skin. 
Transmitted to horses, cattle, 
or goats, common sheep scab 
fails to develop. 

Chances for recovery, — Cases 
of apparent spontaneous recovery are rare. Usually, when proper 
methods of treatment are not adopted, the disease increases, leads to 
anaemia, emaciatiou, exhaustion, and death, and may result in a loss of 
from 10 to 80 per cent of the flock. Scab is favored by seasons when 
the wool is longest and by huddling or overcrowding the animals; also 
race, energy, temperament, age, state of health, length, fineness, and 
abundance of wool, and the hygienic conditions of the surroundings 
influence the course and termination of the disease. Young, weak, 
closely inbred animals and those with long coarse wool will most 
quickly succumb. Unhealthy localities, damp climate,- and poorly ven- 
tilated sheds favor the disease. Pure or mixed Merino sheep succumb 
sooner than certain other breeds. The mortality varies according to 
conditions, but is highest in autumn and winter. When ow^ners are 
careless, the death rate may be high; if untreated, the sheep may die 
in two to three months. Hygienic conditions, good food, and cool, dry 




Fio. 20.— Adult sheep tick (a) and puparium {b) 
{Melophagtu ovinua). Enlarg^ed. (After Osborn, 
1896; Bui. No. 5, Div. Entomology, Dept. Agr.) 



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104 BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

atmosphere tend to check the disease. Sheep sheds should accord- 
ingly be well ventilated and open to light and sunshine. With proper 
attention to hygienic conditions and thorough dipping a positive cure 
can be guaranteed. 

Vitality of the parasite. — Taken from the sheep, the mites possess 
a remarkable vitality. It is generally stated that, kept at a moderate 
temperature on portions of scab, the adults may live from four to 
twenty days, but they will occasionally live much longer; cases are 
on record where they have lived three, four, or even six weeks when 
separated from sheep; if the atmosphere is dry, they will generally 
die in about fifteen days; but death is often only apparent, for the 
mites may sometimes be revived by warmth and moisture even after 
six or eight weeks; the fecundated females are especially tenacious 
of life. Various rather contradictory statements may be found 
regarding their resistance to cold: Erogmann states that they may 
live at a temperature of minus 10° C. (+14° F.) for twenty-eight 
days; other authors claim that the mites die in two hours at 47° F.; 
still other authors, that they die at 50° C. (122° F.). They are said 
to have been kept alive in cold water for six days and in warm water 
for ten days. Several authors admit, however, that the parasites are 
usually killed by a soaking rain; though it is claimed that in damp, 
dark stables they "may live for months." 

Experience has shown that in some cases apparently healthy sheep 
have become infected in places where no sheep have been kept for four, 
eight, twelve, or even twenty-four months. The conditions underlying 
this infection are not thoroughly understood. Possibly some of the 
eggs have retained their vitality a long time and then hatched out; 
possibly the vitality of the fecundated female has also played a role; 
while it is not at all improbable that an entirely new infection has 
accidentally been introduced by birds or other animals. Certain 
authors of high standing scout the idea that birds can introduce an 
infection of scab, but there is no reason why birds should not do this, 
and there are some reasons for believing that they do. It has been 
noticed on the Experiment Station of the Bureau, for instance, that 
crows delight in perching on the backs of scabby sheep and picking at 
the scab ; while so doing it is only natural that small tags of wool would 
adhere to their feet, and thus scatter scab. The fact that snails cling 
to birds' feet and are carried long distances is too well established to 
need discussion, and it is very probable that many of the cases where 
sheep are supposed to have become infected with scab on pastures 
which have not been occupied for one or two years are in reality cases 
of fresh infection by means of birds. From the data at hand, while it 
may be admitted that in some cases, under favorable conditions, the 
mites may live from spring to fall, it is scarcely within the limits of 
probability that either the scab mites or their eggs will live through a 
winter -when separated from the sheep and exposed to the elements. 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 105 

All matters connected with the vitality of the scab mite have an 
Important bearing in explaining cases of indirect infection on roads 
over which scabby sheep have been driven, or in fields and sheds where 
they have been kept. From the facts now at our disposal we can lay 
down the following important rules: 

(1) Scabby sheep should never be driven upon a public road; (2) 
sheds in which scabby sheep have been kept should be thoroughly 
cleaned, disinfected, and aired, and should be kept unused for at least 
four weeks (better two months) before clean sheep are placed in them; 
(3) fields in which scabby sheep have been kept should stand vacant 
at least fowr weeks (better six or eight) before being used for clean 
sheep ; (4) a drenching rain will frequently serve to disinfect a pasture ; 
but it is well to whitewash the posts against which scabby sheep have 
rubbed. Even after observing the precautions here given it is not 
possible to absolutely guarantee that there will be no reinfection, but 
the probabilities are against it. 

lAfe history of the parasite. — A study of the life history of the scab 
parasite is necessary in order to determine several important points 
of practical value, such as the proper time for the second dipping, etc. 

The female mite lays about 15 to 24 eggs on the skin, or fastened to 
the wool near the skin; a six-legged larva is hatched; these larv8B 
cast their skin and become mature; the mites pair and the females 
lay their eggs, after which they die. The exact number of days 
required for each stage varies somewhat, according to the writings of 
different authors, a fact which is probably to be explained by indi- 
vidual variation, and by the conditions under which the observations 
and experiments were made. Thus Gerlach, in his well-known work 
(1857), estimates about fourteen to fifteen days as the period required 
for a generation of mites from the time of pairing to the maturity of 
the next generation. He divides this time as follows : Under ordinary 
conditions the eggs hatch in three to four days, although two authors 
allow ten to eleven days for the ^gg stage; three or four days after 
birth the six-legged larvae moult and the fourth pair of legs appears; 
this fourth pair is always present when the mites are two-thirds the 
size of the adults; when seven to eight days old the mites are mature 
and ready to pair; several (three or four) days are allowed for pairing; 
another generation of eggs may be laid fourteen to fifteen days after 
the laying of the first generation of eggs. Without going into all of 
the other observations on these points, it may be remarked that the 
^gs may not hatch for six or seven days; the six-legged larvae may 
moult when three to four days old, and become mature; after pairing 
a second moult takes place, lasting four to five days; a third moult 
follows immediately, then eggs are laid and the adults die; in some 
cases there is a fourth moult, but apparently without any further pro- 
duction of eggs. Accepting Gerlach's estimate of fifteen days as an 
average for each generation of 10 females and 5 males, in three 



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106 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



months' time the sixth generation would appear and consist of about 
1,000,000 females and 500,000 males. 

Several practical lessons are to be drawn from these figures: First, 
it is seen that the parasites increase very rapidly, so that if scab is 
discovered in a flock the diseased sheep should immediately be iso- 
lated; second, if new sheep are placed in a flock they should either 
first be dipped, as a precautionary measure, or they should at least 
be kept separate for several weeks to see whether scab develops; 
third, since the chances for infection are very great, the entire flock 
should be treated, even in case scab is found only in one or two ani- 
mals; fourth, as dipping is not certain to kill the eggs, the sheep 





PiO. 21.— Sheep louse {Tricliodectes sphaerocephaitia) : a, female ; 6, antenna; c, rf, dorfial and 
Bide view of leg. Enlarged. (After Osborn, 1886; Bal. No. 6, Div. Entomology, Dept. Agr.) 

should be dipped a second time, the time being selected between the 
moment of the hatching of the eggs and the m^oment the next gener- 
ation of eggs is laid. As eggs may hatch between three and seven, 
possibly ten or eleven, days, and as fourteen to fifteen days are 
required for the entire cycle, the second dipping should take place 
after the seventh day, but before the fourteenth day; allowing for 
individual variation and variation of conditions, the tenth, eleventh, 
or twelfth day will be the best time to repeat the dipping. 

(2) HEAD SCAB, BLACK MUZZLE, OR SARCOPTIC SCAB. 

Head scab is less frequent and less important than body scab. No 
case of it has ever been reported by the inspectors of this Bureau, and 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



107 



many extensive sheep breeders and professional sheep dippers state 
that they have never heard of a case. 

In this disease the parasites are much smaller than the psoropt of 
body scab. They are almost invisible to the naked eye, but may be 
seen with a magnifying glass. They are found on the moist under- 
surface of the crusts, and live on the fluids of the sheep. They give 
rise to a violent itching, causing the sheep to rub and scratch their 
heads and lick their lips; in advanced stages the eyes may be partly 
closed, and consequently the sight impaired; breathing, and even eat- 
ing, may become difficult because of the formation of crusts around the 
mouth and nostrils. Small papules form, with soft centers; usually 




Fig. 22l — Sheep foot louse (Hoematopinus pedalia): a, adult female; b, ventral view of terminal 
segment of same, showing brushes; c, terminal segments of male; d, egg. Enlarged. (After 
Osbom, 1896; Bui. No. 5, Div. Entomology, Dept. Agr. ) 

the rubbing causes them to break, and they exude a fluid which 
hardens and forms a scab; the scabs, increasing in number, may run 
together; thej'^ become thicker and harder, until almost the entire 
head is merged into one crust. Rubbing causes the crusts to break; 
the wounds heal and form scars; the skin thickens and is raised in 
folds, in which cracks appear and from which there may be bleeding. 
When affecting lambs the disease may assume an ulcerative character. 
Parts of body affected, — This form of scab appears on parts of the 
body where the wool is scarce; usually beginning about the nostrils 
and on the upper lip, more rarely about the eyes and ears, it spreads 
to the cheeks, eyes, forehead, and under the jaws; in severe cases it 
may extend to the belly, front legs, knees, hocks, and pasterns. Coarse 

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108 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

dry wool favors it more than fine oily wool. The line between the dis- 
eased and the healthy skin is quite sharply defined. 

Contagion, — Head scab is contagious from sheep to sheep, from 
sheep to goats, and rarely from sheep to man; when transmitted 
from sheep to horses, cattle, and dogs the disease remains local and 
does not spread. Head scab is also contagious from goats to sheep. 
Yiborg states that the sarcoptic scab of pigs is contagious to sheep, 
but this is denied by Am-Pach. Chabert maintained that sarcoptic 
scab of dogs is transmissible to sheep, but this is doubtful. 

Chances for recovery. — Head scab can be easily treated if taken in 
time, but if neglected it will cause inflammation of the eyes and 
extensive alterations in the skin, and will prevent the sheep from 
fattening. 

(8) FOOT SCAB, OR CHORIOPTIC SCAB. 

Foot scab is rare, if present at all, in this country, but a number of 
cases have recently been reported from England. It is not impos- 
sible that some of the cases supposed to be foot rot are in reality foot 
scab. 

The minute parasites, which are much smaller than those of com- 
mon scab, cause an intense itching, which leads the sheep to stamp 
their feet and scratch and bite the infected parts. There is a red- 
dening of the skin, followed by scaling, and later by the formation of 
yellowish white crusts; the crusts thicken, cracks may form in the 
folds of the pasterns, and the legs may become quite unsightly. 

Parts of the body affected, — The disease appears on the feet and 
legs, spreading slowly to the upper parts of the legs and the adjoin- 
ing parts of the body, scrotum, or udder. 

Contagion. — This disease is contagious from sheep to sheep, but 
not so actively as common scab. 

(4) FOLLICULAR SCAB, OR DEMODKCTIC SCAB. 

The glands of a sheep's eyelids are occasionally infected with a 
fourth kind of microscopic mite, which is elongate and much like a 
worm. It has been recorded but a few times, and for the present, at 
least, is of no importance to the American sheep raiser. 

CONDITIONS WHICH MAY BE MISTAKEN FOR SCAB. 

Any parasite or condition which causes an itching, and thus leads 
the sheep to scratch themselves, or any abnormal condition of the 
skin, may be temporarily mistaken for scab; but if the rule is held 
in mind that no scab is possible without the presence of the specific 
parasites, it will be easily determined whether so^b is present or not. 
The following are the more important cases to be considered : 

(1) Itching due to other parasites, such as the common "sheep 
tick," true ticks, and lice, may be distinguished from scab by finding 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 109 

the parasites. The dipping used for treating scab will also kill sheep 
ticks and lice. 

(2) Inflamirnation of the sebaceotis glands. — This maybe mistaken 
for common scab. It appears most frequently in autumn. There is 
a severe itching, the skin is red and sensitive, and is covered with a 
strong-smelling, yellowish, viscid yolk; tufts of wool may be shed. 
It may be cured, after shearing, with any starchy lotion. 

(3) Sain rot — ^In rainy weather an eruption may appear on the 
skin which might be mistaken for scab. There is, however, no para- 
site present; itching is absent, and the trouble disappears when dry 
weather comes. 

THE TREATMENT OF SCAB. 

In the foregoing discussion attention has been called to the neces- 
sity of keeping sheep under proper hygienic conditions. That alone, 
though of importance in connection with the subject of treatment, 
can not be relied upon to cure scab. The only rational treatment con- 
sists in using some external application which will kill the parasites. 
Formerly medicines were given intemall}^ and even within a few 
years past it has been claimed that feeding sulphur to sheep will cure 
the disease. The statements regarding sulphur were such as to lead 
us to try the experiment, which, however, was soon abandoned as 
unsuccessful. The external application of scab cures is in various 
ways made known as hand dressing, hand curing, spotting, pouring, 
smearing, and dipping. Of these methods, dipping is by far the most 
satisfactory. 

Hand Applications. 

In case of head scab, or in light cases of foot scab, hand applications 
may be resorted to, and will frequently suffice. A nonpoisonous oint- 
ment may be made by taking 4 ounces of oil of turpentine, 6 ounces 
of flowers of sulphur, and 1 pound of lard. Mix the ingredients at a 
gentle heat, and rub in well with the hands or with a brush, at the 
same time breaking the crusts. The simple sulphur ointment may be 
made of 1 part of sulphur and 4 parts of lard; one-fourth part of 
mercurial ointment may be added. Few remedies are so useful in 
mange in dogs, ringworm, and other itching complaints as sulphur 
iodide, and it may well be given a trial on head scab. It is prepared 
as follow: Mix in a nonmetallic vessel, as a porcelain mortar, 4 ounces 
of iodine with 1 ounce of sublime sulphur, gently heating the mixture 
until it liquefies; the red-brown liquid upon cooling becomes a gray- 
black crystalline mass, insoluble in water, but soluble in glycerin 
and fats, with 8 or 10 parts of which it is mixed for ointments or lini- 
ments. An ointment of flowers of sulphur and carbolated vaseline 
would also probably give good results. One author advises for head 
scab and foot scab a mixture consisting of 1 part of mercurial oint- 
ment and 11 parts of sulphur ointment. Foot scab and head scab 



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110 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

would also probably respond to treatment with the various dips used 
for common scab. 

Hand dressing is not recommended for common scab; in fact it 
must be looked upon as directly responsible for a considerable amount 
of the disease, since nt is too often relied upon to cure the disease, 
while in reality it is only a palliative. The only condition under 
which hand dressings can be advised is in case scab is discovered 
in one or two sheep of a flock during severe winter weather, when 
dipping would be impracticable. In that event, the infected sheep * 
should be immediately isolated from the flock; and they might be 
hand dressed, if desired, in order to hold the disease in check. It 
can not be too strongly insisted upon that "pouring," "spotting," 
etc., are only expensive and temporizing methods of dealing with 
scab. 

"Pouring" is done as follows: Part the wool on the back by mak- 
ing a furrow with the finger from the head to the tail; furrows are also 
made along the shoulders and thighs to the legs, and on the sides; 
pour the ointment or dip in these furrows. A still better plan is to 
pour the warm dip from a coffeepot or teapot directly on the affected 
parts, rubbing it well in with the hand, a brush, or a corncob. It must 
be repeated for emphasis, however, that such treatment can not be 
relied upon, and should be used only in emergency ca>ses when dipping 
is impracticable. 

A mercurial ointment may be made as follows: (A) dissolve 1 pound 
of resin in one-half pint of oil of turpentine; (B) mix 1 pound of mer- 
curial ointment with 6 pounds of lard, with gentle heat, and (C) when 
cool mix the two compounds, A and B. It should be remembered 
that mercurial ointments are not unattended with danger, and on this 
account it is better to prepare a small amount of dip and pour it on 
the affected part as described above. 

DIPPING. 

By far the most rational and satisfactory and the cheapest method 
of curing scab is by dipping the sheep in some liquid which will kill 
the parasites. The dipping process is as follows: 

(1) Select a dip containing sulphur. If a prepared "dip" is used 
which does not contain sulphur, it is always safer to add about 16^^ 
pounds of sifted flowers of sulphur to every 100 gallons of water, 
especially if, after dipping, the sheep have to be returned to the old 
pastures. 

(2) Shear all the sheep at one time, and immediately after shearing 
confine theon to one-half the farm for two to four weeks. Many 
persons prefer to dip immediately after shearing. 

(3) At the end of this time dip every sheep (and every goat also, if 
there are any on the farm). 

(4) Ten days later dip the entire flock a second time. 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. Ill 

(5) After the second dipping, place the flock on the portion of the 
farm from which they have been excluded during the previous four 
or five weeks. 

(6) Use the dip at a temperature of lOO** to 110° F. 

(7) Keep each sheep in the dip for two minutes by the watch — do 
not guess at the time — and duck its head at least once. 

(8) Be careful in dipping rams, as they are more likely to be over- 
come in the dip than are the ewes. 

(9) Injury may, however, result to pregnant ewes, which must, on 
this account, be carefully handled. Some farmers arrange a stage, 
with sides, to hold the pregnant ewes, which is lowered carefully into 
the vat, and raised after the proper time. 

(10) In case a patent, or proprietary, dip, especially an arsenical 
dip, is used, the directions given on the package should be carried 
out to the letter. 

CHOICE OP A PREPARATION FOR DIPPING. 

Numerous different sheep dips are recommended by various parties, 
and undoubtedly many of them are efficacious; few dips can be named 
which some persons do not consider far superior, and other persons 
consider far inferior, to all other dips known ; few dips can be found 
which have not cured cases of scab, and probably no dip can be named 
with which failures have not been reported. Under these circum- 
stances the farmer should not be deceived by exaggerated statements 
in either extreme; he should recall that it lies in the business interest 
of the manufacturers of every proprietary, or patent, dip id advertise 
their own particular dip in every way possible, but that too often 
these merchants pursue the method of deprecating the use of home- 
made dips as "dangerous," ** ineffective," "liable to produce blood 
poisoning," etc., and of citing the accidents, failures, and dangers of 
other proprietary dips rather than of giving exact and reliable state- 
ments regarding the successes of their own compounds. 

PROPRIETARY ARTICLES. 

The Department can not properly advertise or recommend the use 
of any dip which is made from a secret formula. It can not be said 
that no such dip has any value as a scab cure, or that such dips have 
never met with any success, for that would be a misrepresentation of 
facts. The farmer should, however, know the composition of the 
material he is using. If he desires to use a ready-made dip, let him 
inform himself of the exact nature of that dip in order to prevent 
impositions and guard against dangers. He would do well to refuse 
to purchase any prepared dip which does not bear on each package a 
printed statement of the ingredients and their proportions, which the 
manufacturer guarantees are to be found in that package; he would 
also do well to avoid any dip which irresponsible parties advertise as 



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112 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

"the only sure cure for scab," etc. Proprietors thus advertising are 
either showing gross ignorance of the history and nature of scab, and 
hence are not to be taken as advisers, or they are intentionally mis- 
representing established facts. 

In case of more than one proprietary dip, it seems quite clear from 
the circulars and advertisements distributed by the manufacturers 
that the firms have had little or no practical experience with scab, 
and that the extravagant claims set forth by them for their mixtures 
are little less than artful methods of advertising, rather than state- 
ments based upon any tests or experiments. Good examples of worth- 
less or almost worthless dips are cited by Bruce, who quotes the treat- 
ment of 80,021 cases of scab with Attends Specific with not a single 
case of cure! Hayeses Specific cured 6,255 cases and failed in 80,931 
cases! 

SUCCESS WITH HOMEMADE DIPS. 

While a dip should not be condemned simply because it is prepared 
ready for use — for it may be frankly admitted that there are some excel- 
lent proprietary dips — the value of homemade dips must be insisted 
upon, and attention is called to the fact that it was almost entirely 
through homemade dips that scab was eradicated from certain of the 
Australian colonies, and that year after year, in the reports of the scab 
inspectors of Cape Town Colony, the first and third places are accorded 
to homemade dips, while second place is accorded (with some qualifi- 
cation) to a secret dip. In this connection the following significant 
remarks, made in 1892 by the chief inspector of stock in Queensland, 
will be of interest : 

Our Anstrallan experience of tobacco and snlphnr and of lime and snlphnr as 
the only effectual means of curing scab is such that at the stock conference held 
in Sydney in 1886, and again in Melbourne in 1889, attended by the chief and 
GK>yemment veterinarians of all the colonies, it was on both occasions decided 
that none but these two dips be recognized in the colonies, and this has now been 
embodied in regulations under the '* Stock disease acts " of all the colonies. 

The stamping out of scab in these colonies has been more retarded by vendors 
of patent dips than by any other cause; hence the determination of the govern- 
ments of all the colonies to forbid the use of any specific except tobacco and sul- 
phur, or lime and sulphur, for scab or for the (precautionary) dressing of imported 
sheep while in quarantine. 

In view of the more or less frequent statements that scab was eradi- 
cated from the English colonies by killing the scabby sheep or by the 
use of prepared dips, it may be well to say that these statements are 
erroneous. " It is true an act was passed in New South Wales about 
1851 compelling the slaughter of scabbed sheep, and a few remaining 
straggling flocks were destroyed under that act, but later, on the reap- 
pearance of scab in that colony in 1863 by infection from Victoria, the 
act was repealed, and the whole of the scabbed sheep, about 400,000, 
were completely cured by means of tobacco and sulphur." ' 



> Statement made by P. A. GK>rdon, chief inspector of stock, Queensland. 

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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 113 

DfPOBTANCE OP PROPER USE OP DIP. 

Whatever dip is selected, the fanner should not forget that there 
are two ways to use that dip. One way is to prepare and use it in 
accordance with the directions given ; the other way is to attempt to 
economize time, labor, or money by using the dip in weaker propor- 
tion than advised, by hurrying the sheep through the swim, or by later 
placing the dipped sheep under unfavorable conditions. If the former 
method is adopted with any of the established dips, the treatment 
ought to be followed with favorable results; if the latter method is 
adopted, the farmer himself must assume the responsibility of failure, 
no matter which dip he decides to use. Every farmer should there- 
fore remember that when he has decided upon the dip he is to use his 
work has only begun; to use the dip properly is fully as important as 
to use a dip at all. 

Preliminary Questions in Choosing a Dip. 

The homemade dips which are most commonly used have either 
tobacco or sulphur as their basis, while the prepared dips contain 
tobacco, sulphur, arsenic, carbolic acid, etc., as curative agents. 

In selecting a dip several points should be considered : First of all, 
the question of expense will naturally arise; next, the question as to 
whether or not scab actually exists in the flock to be dipped, or whether 
or not the dipping is more of a precautionary matter, or for the sake 
of cleansing the animal's skin. The facilities at hand, the setback to 
the sheep, and the length of the wool are also matters for consideration, 
as well as the pastures into which the dipped sheep are to be placed. 
Notwithstanding statements to the effect that a given dip can be used 
under all conditions, the above questions are evidently important. 

Eocpense. — In estimating the expense, one should consider not only 
the actual outlay for the ingredients of the ooze, but the cost of fuel 
and labor, the injury, if any, to the sheep, and the liability of not 
curing the disease. It is much more economical to use an expensive 
dip and cure scab than it is to use a cheap dip and fail to cure it. To 
illustrate with a well-known homemade dip : A lime-and-sulphur dip 
may be made in ten to thirty minutes, with but little fuel and little 
labor, which may or may not cure the disease, and which will surely 
do great injury to the wool; or a lime-and-sulphur dip may be made 
in several hours' time, at the expense of considerable fuel, labor, and 
patience, which can be relied upon to cure scab, and which will do 
little or no injury to the wool. The first dip is cheap, but not 
economical; the second dip is more expensive, but more economical. 

Does scab exist in the flockf — Every farmer should ask himself this 
question before he selects his dip. If scab does not actually exist 
and the wool is long, the dipping in this case simply being a matter 
of precaution, it is best not to select a dip containing lime. The use 
of the lime-and-sulphur dips is therefore not advised simply as pre- 

7204 8 rr^r^n]o 

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114 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

cautionary dressing for healthy long- wooled sheep. On the contrary, 
the use of any dip containing lime as a precautionary measure should 
be avoided. 

Tlie facilities at Imnd for preparing dip, — If fuel is \%vy scarce, 
so that it is impracticable to boil the mixture for at least two hours, 
the lime-and-sulphur dips should not be selected. A tobacco-and- 
sulphur dip, as well as many of the better proprietary dips, can be 
made without the necessity of lengthy boiling, and should be given 
preference whenever facilities for boiling are not at hand. 

The length of the wool. — See remarks upon this subject in discus- 
sion of lime and sulphur, p. 118. 

The pastures. — In case it is necessary to place the dipped sheep on 
the same pastures they occupied before being dipped, it is always 
best to use a dip containing sulphur. If a proprietary dip is selected 
under those circumstances, it is suggested that sulphur be added, 
about 1 pound of flowers of sulphur to every 6 gallons of dip. In 
case it is possible to utilize fresh pastures after dipping, the use of 
sulphur is not so necessary, but is always advisable. The object in 
using sulphur is to place in the wool a material which will not evapo- 
rate quickly, but will remain there for a longer period of time than 
the scab parasites ordinarily remain alive away from their hoste. By 
doing this the sheep are protected against reinfection. 

Kinds of Dips. 

Sulphur is one of the oldest known remedies for scab, its use dating 
back to Columella in the early part of the Christian era. As a scab 
eradicator, it must be placed among the best substances at our dis- 
posal. It is one of the constituents of certain proprietary dips, but 
its use to the farmer is best known in the tobacco-and-sulphur dip 
and in the lime-and-sulphur dip. These homemade mixtures are the 
two dips which have played the most important roles in the eradica- 
tion of scab from certain English colonies, and their use, especially 
the use as well as the abuse of lime and sulphur, is quite extensive in 
this country. 

THE TOBACCO-AND-SULPHUR DIP. 

The formula, as given here and as adopted by the New South Wales 
sanitary authorities, appears to have first been proposed in 1S54: by 
Mr. John Rutherford. Regarding its success in Australia, Dr. Bruce, 
chief inspector of sheep for New South Wales, makes the following 
statements: 

On the Hopkins Hill Station Mr. Rutherford, with two dressings of these ingredi- 
ents, then cured over 53,000 sheep which had been infected for eighteen months; 
and he also subsequently cured with two dinning the sheep on Mount Fyans 
Station, where they were in a most wretcher ntate, and had been scabby for more 
tiian three years, and that, too, in both cases, without destroying a single hurdle 
or yard or removing any of the sheep from their old runa. 



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POXTBTEENTH ANNUAla REPORT. 115 

Since then i n il l i ftns of scabby sheep have been permaoently cared m Victoria in 
the 8ame way, and in South Anatralia and New South Wales hundreds of thou- 
sands of scabby sheep have ako been cleansed with tobacco and sulphur. In fact, 
this dressing has the credit of having eradicated scab from the flocks of both the 
latter colonies, and there are good gpxrunds for asserting that had tliis remedy not 
been known and used neither colony would be, as they both are now. almost 
entirely free from the scourge. Judging therefore from the experienca of the 
three colonies, there is no medicament or specific yet known [1884] that can be 
compared with tobacco and sulphur as a thorough and lasting cure for scab in 
sheep. 

The proportions adopted by Rutherford, and afterwards made 
official by the scab sanitary authorities, are: 

Tobacco leaves pound.. 1 

Flowers of sulphur do 1 

Water gallons.. '6 

The advantage of this dip lies in the fact that two of the best scab 
remedies, namely, tobacco (nicotine) and sulphur, are used together, 
both of which kill the parasites, while the sulphur remains in the w^ool 
and protects for some time against reinfection. As no caustic is used 
to soften the scab, heat must be relied on to penetrate the crusts. 

Directions for preparing the dip, — A. Infusing the tobacco: Place 1 
jwund of good leaf or manufactured tobacco for every 6 gallons of 
dip desired in a covered boiler of cold or lukewarm water and allow 
to stand for about twenty-four hours; on the evening before dipping 
bring the water to near the boiling point (212^ F.) for an instant, 
then remove the fire and allow the infusion to stand over night. 

B. Thoroughly mix the sulphur (1 pound to every 6 gallons of dip 
desired) with the hand in a bucket of water to the consistency of 
gruel. 

C. When ready to dip, thoroughly strain the tobacco infusion (A) 
from the leaves by pressure, mix the liquid with the sulphur gruel 
(B), and enough water to make the required amount of dip, and 
thoroughly stir the entire mixture. 

All things considered, the tobacco-and-sulphur is as good a dip as 
is know^n at the present time. 
See also the discussion of the tobacco dip on page 122. 

LmE-AND-SULPHUR DIPS. 

Under the tenn " lime-and-sulphur dips" is included a large num- 
ber of different formulae requiring lime and sulphur in different pro- 
portions. In general practice all of these dips are spoken of as "the 
lime-and-sulphur dip," but in reality each separate formula represents 
a separate dip. 

To give an idea of the variety of the lime-and-sulphur dips, the 

' The original formula reads 5 gallons (imperial) which ai-e equivalent to 6 United 
States gallons. 



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116 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

following list is quoted, the ingredients being reduced in all cases to 
avoirdupois pounds and United States gallons: 

1. The original "Victorian lime-and-sulphur dip," proposed by Dr. 
Rowe, adopted as official in Australia : 

Flowers of sulphur pounds. . 20f 

Fresh slaked lime do 10^ 

Water gallons.. 100 

2. South African (Cape Town) official lime-and-sulphur dip: 

Flowers of sulphur (minimnm) pounds.. 15 

Unslaked lime do 15 

Water gallons.. 100 

3. South African (Cape Town) official lime-and-sulphur dip, Feb- 
ruary 4, 1897: 

Flowere of sulphur pounds.. 20f 

Unslaked lime do 16f 

Water gallons.. 100 

4. Nevada lime-and-sulphur dip: 

Flowers of sulphur pounds.. 16| 

Lime do 38^ 

Water gallons.. 100 

5. Fort Collins lime-and-sulphur dip: 

Flowers of sulphur pounds. . 33 

Unslaked lime do 11 

Water gallons.. 100 

6. A mixture which, used to some extent by this Bureau, contains 
the same proportions of lime and sulphur (namely, 1 to 3) as the Fort 
Collins dip, but the quantities are reduced to: 

Flowers of sulphur pounds.. 34 

Unslakedlime do 8 

Water gallons.. 100 

Dangerous formulcB, 

7. California lime-and-sulphur dip: 

Flowers of sulphur pounds.. 100 

Lime _ do 25 

Water gallons.. 100 

8. A very dangerous misprinted formula to be found in several 
books and journals, probably due to a typographical error: 

Flowers of sulphur pounds.. 100 

Lime do 150 

Water gallons.. 100 

In case of fresh scab, formula No. 6 will act as efficaciously as the 
dips with a greater amount of lime, but in cases of very hard scab a 
stronger dip, as the Fort Collins dip, should be preferred, or, in unus- 
ually severe cases, an ooze with more lime in proportion to the 

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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 117 

amount of sulphur, such as the Victorian (No. 1), the Nevada (No. 4), 
or the South African (No. 3) dip, might be used. 

Many other formulae might be cited, but these are enough to sliow 
the great variations in the dips which have been tsed ; and to prove 
that when a party simply states that " lime and sulphur" is an excel- 
lent dip, or that it is a dangerous dip, or that he has succeeded or 
failed with it, or that the lime-and-sulphur dip is injurious to the 
wool, his statements can not be taken as definite, unless he also states 
which lime-and-sulphur dip he used and how he used it. 

Prejudice against lime-and-sulphur dips. 

There is at present great prejudice (a certain amount of it justified, 
no doubt) against the use of lime and sulphur, emanating chiefly from 
the agents of patent, or proprietary, dips and from the wool manufac- 
turers. It will be well, therefore, to consider the points brought for- 
ward by them against its use. 

In the first place, it is frequently asserted that lime and sulphur 
do not cure scab. This statement is, of course, in the interest of 
proprietary dips, but it is based either upon an absolute ignorance or 
a misrepresentation of facts. Experience in Australia and South 
Africa, as well as in this country, has shown beyond any doubt that 
a lime-and-sulphur dip, when properly proportioned, properly pre- 
pared, and properly used, is one of the best scab eradicators known. 
Cases of its failure have been due to careless or improper methods of 
its preparation and use. 

It is claimed by some that it produces " blood poisoning." But the 
cases of death following the use of lime-and-sulphur dips have been 
infinitesimally few when compared with the number of sheep dipped 
in these solutions and when compared with the deaths which have 
been known to follow the use of certain proprietary dips. The details 
of such accidents so far as they have been reported have not shown 
that death was due to any properly prepared and properly used lime- 
and-sulphur dip. H the formula of 100 pounds of sulphur, 150 pounds 
of lime, and 100 gallons of water h is killed animals, that surely is no 
argument against the fonnula 33 pounds of sulphur, 11 pounds of 
lime, and 100 gallons of water, but simply shows that the former for- 
mula is too strong; if any other conclusion than this is drawn, con- 
sistency would compel us to reject many of our most valuable remedies 
because some parties had used them in overdose. The argument fre- 
quently raised against lime and sulphur — ^namely, that ** shear-cut" 
sheep die when dipped immediately after shearing in a lime-and- 
sulphur dip which has stood for some time — can be used equally well 
against other dips, and simply shows that it is safer to use a fresh 
supply of dip and to allow a short time to elapse after shearing before 
dipping. It is highly probable that the cases of so-called *' blood 
poisoning" of shear-cut sheep are generally due to an infection with 



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118 BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDU8TBY. 

bacteria in stale dip containing putrefying material. Some cases of 
death are also said to have occurred after using a lime-and-sulphnr 
dip made in brass kettles. 

In an experiraeilt by this Bureau, 5 c. c. of a clear lime-aud-sulphur 
ooze (Formula No. 6) has been injected under the skin of a sheep with- 
out producing any evil effects. 

The greatest objection raised i^^ainst the use of lime-and-sulphur 
dip is that it injures the wool. This objection is raised by many wool 
manufacturers, and echoed with ever-increasing emphasis by tlie man- 
ufacturers of j)repared dips; while, aft^r years of extensive experience 
with a ijroperly prepared dip, its injury to the wool is strongly and 
steadfastly denied by the agricultural department of Cape Colony. 

It is believed that a certain amount of justice is attached to this 
objection to lime and sulphur as generally used ; unless, therefore, 
lime and sulphur can be used in a way which will not injure the wool 
to an appreciable extent, we should advise against its use in ceitain 
eases; in certain other cases the good accomplished far outweighs 
the injury it does. Let us, therefore, examine into this damage and 
its causes. 

The usual time for dipping sheep is shortly after shearing, when 
the wool is very short; whatever the damage at this time, then, it 
can be only slight, and the small amount of lime left in the wool will 
surely do but little harm. 

In full fleece, lime and sulphur will cause more injury. In Australia 
the deterioration was computed by wool buyei"S at 17 percent, although 
in Cape Colony the department of agi'iculture maintains that if prop- 
erly prepared, and if only the clear liquid is used, the sediment being 
thrown away, the official lime-and-sulphur formula will not injure the 
long wool. In oui* own experiments we have found some samples of 
wool injured by dipping, while on other samples no appreciable effect 
was noticeable. 

It must not be forgotten that other conditions, such as variations 
in the feed, pasturing on alkaline land, ill health from any cause, 
etc., may cause brittleness of the wool, which might be mistaken for 
the effects of lime and sulphur. 

If a lime-and-sulphur dip is used, care must be taken to give the 
solution ample time to settle; then only the clear liquid should be 
used, while the sediment should be discarded. In some of our tests 
on samples of wool we have found that the dip with sediment has 
produced very serious effects even when no appreciable effects were 
noticed on samples dipped in the corresponding clear liquid. 

Experience has amply demonstrated that a properly made and 
properly used lime-and-sulphur dip is one of the cheapest and most 
efficient scab eradicators known, but its use should be confined to 
flocks in which scab is known to exist, and to shorn sheep, with the 
exception of very severe eases of scab in unshorn sheep. It shaaki 



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POUBTBBNTH AXNUAL REPORT. 119 

only bo used when it can be properly boiled and settled. The use of 
lime-and-solphur dips in flocks not known to have scab, especially if 
the sheep are full fleeced, can not bo recommended; in such cases 
tobacco, or sulphur and tobacco, is safer and equally good. 

If a lime-and-sulphur dip is chosen, it is better for ordinary cases 
to use the solutions containing a small amount of lime and three 
times as much sulphur as lime, as the Fort Collins formula (33 pounds 
of sulphur and 11 pounds of lime to every 100 gallons of water) or the 
Bureau of Animal Industry formula (No. G) (24 x>ounds of sulphur 
and 8 pounds of lime to 100 gallons of wat^er), rather than the formula 
with a greater proportion of lime. 

If the stronger solutions, as the Victorian formula (No. 1), or the 
present South African formula (No. 3), or the Nevada formula (No. 4) 
are used at all, their use should be confined to unusually severe 
outbreaks. Under no circumstances should the California formula 
(No. 7) or formula No. 8 be used. They are too strong, and the latter 
is espeelally liable to kill the sheep. 

Another objection raised to the use of lime and sulphur is the claim 
thtLt the '^ shrinkage" in the sheep after the use of these dips is 
greater than after the use of other dips. In reply to this objection, 
raised chiefly by patent-dip manufacturers, it can only be repeated 
tiiat such has not been the experience of this Bureau (see p. 126), nor 
was it the experience of Professor Gillette in his experiments in Col- 
oi*ado. The burden of proof for the opxwsite statement, with exact 
statistics, rests upon those who raise tiiis objection. 

Still another objection advanced against lime and sulphur is that 
their continued use year after year will gradually decrease the annual 
clip. Whether this objection be valid or not, it is scarcely necessary 
to discuss it in detail in this place; for, in the first place, the average 
sheep raiser of this country does not keep the same sheep *'year after 
year," but sends most of his sheep (breeding ewes and the rams 
excepted) to market. Hence there will usually be little opportunity 
to injure the wool of a given animal *'year after ye^r." In the next 
place, if lime and sulphur are proi>erly used one year, so that the flock 
is freed from scab and if reinfection be guarded against, it will not be 
necessary to resort again to lime and sulphur. 

These objections have been reviewed somewhat in detail in order 
to place the facts, so far as obtainable, before the farmer. It is not 
particularly advised by the Bureau that lime and sulphur be used in 
this country in preference to sulphur and tobacco, or tobacco alone, 
or any other effective dip. In fact, it is hoped that within ten years 
there will be no further use for the lime-and-sulphur dips. At the 
same time, whore it is a choice, on the one hand, between lime and 
sulphur, with a temporary slight deterioration in the value of wool, 
but an absence of scab, and, on the other hand, the use of a seci^et 
and ineffective x)atent dip, with the continual presence of scab, and 



uigiTizea oy VjOOV IC^ 



120 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

hence permanent deterioration in wool, there can be no donbt that 
the decision should be in favor of lime and sulphur (properly prepared 
and properly used). 

All things considered, where it is a choice between sacrificing the 
weight of sheep, and to some extent the color of the wool, by using 
tobacco and sulphur, and sacrificing the staple of the wool by using 
lime and sulphur, the farmer should not hesitate an instant in select- 
ing tobacco in preference to lime. The loss in weight by using tobacco 
and sulphur is not much greater than the loss in using lime and sul- 
phur, while the loss in staple is of more importance than a slight 
discoloration. 

Preparation of the mixture, — Almost as many different methods of 
preparing the liquid exist as there are different formulae, some of the 
methods laying great stress upon sifting both the lime and the sulphur, 
others laying great stress upon allowing the liquid to settle, others 
leaving out of consideration both of these points. The method which 
has been found in the Bureau to be the easiest and most satisfactory 
is as follows: 

A. Take 8 to 11 pounds of unslaked lime, place it in a mortar box 
or a kettle or pail of some kind, and add enough water to slake the 
lime and form a *'lime paste" or '*lime putty. "^ 

B. Sift into this lime paste three times as many pounds of flowers 
of sulphur as used of lime, and stir the mixture well. 

Be sure to weigh both the lime and the sulphur. Do not trust to 
measuring them in a bucket or to guessing at the weight. 

C. Place the sulphur-lime paste in a kettle or boiler with about 25 
to 30 gallons of boiling water, and boil the mixture for two hours at 
least, stirring the liquid and sediment. The boiling should be con- 
tinued until the sulphur disappears, or almost disappears, from the 
surface; the solution is then of a chocolate or liver color. The longer 
the solution boils the more the sulphur is dissolved, and the less caus- 
tic the ooze becomes. Most writei*s advise boiling from thirty to forty 
minutes, but we obtain a much better ooze by boiling from two to three 
hours, adding water when necessary. 

D. Pour the mixture and sediment into a tub or barrel placed near 
the dipping vat and provided with a bunghole about four inches from 
the bottom and allow ample time (two to three hours, or more if nec- 
essary) to settle. 

The use of some sort of settling tank provided with a bunghole ia 
an absolute necessity, unless the boiler is so arranged that it may be 
used both for boiling and settling. An ordinary kerosene oil barrel 



*Many persons prefer to slake the lime to a powder, which is to be sifted and 
mixed with sifted sulphur. One pint of water will slake three pounds of lime if 
the slaking is performed slowly and carefully. As a rule, however, it is neces- 
sary to use more water. This method takes more time and requires more work 
than the one given above, and does not give any better results. If the boiled 
solution is allowed to settle the ooze will be equally as safe. 

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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 121 

will answer very well as a small settling tank. To insert a spigot 
abont three to four inches from the bottom is an easy matter. Drain- 
ing off the liquid through a spigot has the great advantage over dip- 
ping it out in that less commotion occurs in the liquid, which tliere- 
fore remains freer from sediment. 

E. When fully settled, draw off the clear liquid into the dipping 
vat and add enough warm water to make 100 gallons. The sediment 
in the barrel may then be mixed with water and used as a disinfectant, 
hut under no circiumsiances should it be iisedfor dipping purposes. 

A double precaution against allowing the sediment to enter the vat 
is to strain the liquid through ordinary bagging as it is drawn from 
the baiTel. 

In watching the preparation of lime-and-sulphur dips by other par- 
ties the Bureau investigators have found some persons who laid great 
stress ui)on stirring the sediment well with the liquid before using the 
ooze. This custom is undoubtedly responsible for a great deal of the 
prejudice which exists at present against lime-and-sulphur dips; and 
considering the preparation of these dips in this way there is no 
wonder at the immense prejudice against them in certain quarters. 

To summarize the position of the Department on the lime-and-sul- 
phur dips: When properly made and properly used, these dips are 
second to none and equalled by few as scab eradicators. There is 
always some injury to the wool resulting from the use of these dips, 
but when properly made and properly used upon shorn sheep it is 
believed that this injury is so slight that it need not be considered; 
on long wool the injury i.s greater and seems to vary with different 
wools, being greater on a fine than on a coarse wool. This injury 
consists chiefly in a change in the microscopic structure of the fiber, 
caused by the caustic action of the ooze. When improperly made 
and improperly used the lime-and-sulphur dips are both injurious 
and dangerous, and in these cases the cheapness of the ingredients 
does not justify their use. In case scab exists in a flock and the 
farmer wishes to eradicate it, he can not choose a dip which will bring 
about a more thorough cure than will lime and sulphur (properly 
made and properly used), although it will be perfectly possible for the 
• farmer to find several other dips which will, when properly used, be 
nearly or equally as effectual as any lime-and-sulphur dip. There is 
no dip to which objections can not be raised. 

POTASSIUM-SULPHIDE DIP. 

It has been proi)osed by several parties to use a potassium-sulphide 
dip, and such a dip has been tried to some extent. As yet, however, 
judgment upon it must be reserved. Gillette tried a dip composed of 
^ pounds of potash lye, 16 pounds of flowers of sulphur, and 100 gal- 
lons of water, and promises further reports on its effectiveness. 
Sheep dipped in this liquid gained but 6 pounds, namely, the same as 
the sheep treated with carbolic dip. 

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122 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

TOBACCO DIPS. 

The jictive principle of tobacco, upon which the tobacco dips 
depend for their action, is a poisonous substance known as nicotine. 
This poison when applied to animals externally in too strong solutions 
may cause nausea, fainting, and even death. The dog and the rabbit 
are particularly susceptible to its effects. Diluted to about thirty- 
three one-thousandths to sixty one-thousandths of 1 per cent it makes 
a slow but sure-acting and excellent sheep dip. 

Unfortunately the percentage of nicotine varies greatly, not only 
in different kinds of tobacco, but also in different parts of the plant, 
in different years, and even in different parts of the same paekage. 
There is more nicotine in tlie leaves, for instance, than in the stems. 
In fermented tobacco there seems to be a certain relation between the 
amount of nicotine and the amount of juice present, so that in gen- 
eral drj' thin leaves do not contain so much nicotine as thick, **fat" 
leaves. The variation in percentage of nicotine in different kinds of 
tobacco may be seen from the foUoAving table of determinations taken 
from Kissling, 1893: 

Statement giving the name of tohdcco and amount of nicotine in percentage of dry 

substance. 

Per cent. Per cent. 

Virginia 4.80 Brazil 1.14 

Virginia 4,30 Turkish 2.51 

Kentucky 4.50 Elsaoe 1.91 

Sumatra.- 4.10 Elsace 0.92 

Seedleaf 3.70 Mai-yland 1.26 

Seedleaf 3.00 Maryland scrubs 1.17 

Havana 3.00 Carman 1.18 

Havana 1.90 Ohio Bay 1.06 

Brazil 2.78 Ambahrma 1.17 

Brazil Felix... 2.73 Domingo 0.82 

BrazHFelix 1.25 Ohio..' 0.68 

Java - 2.61 

In four carloads of stems, aggregating 127,273 pounds, one Ameri- 
can firm extracted 1,405.43 pounds of nicotine, 1.104 per cent. 

While the above figures represent the percentages extractied in the 
chemical and manufacturing laboratories, they do not necessarily rep- 
resent the amount which the fanner would be able to extract with the 
methods and apparatus at his dispo.sal. On account of the variation 
in the amount of nicotine in the different samples of tobacco, it is 
practically impossible for the farmer to make up an exact desired 
strength of tobacco dip if he prepares his own mixture from the leaves. 
He can, however, prepare a mixture which Avill come within the limits 
necessary to kill the scab parasites. If a solution of an exact given 
strength is desired, it will be necessary to buy prepared nicotine or 
prepared tobacco dips of a guaranteed strength and reduce them to 
the strength determined upon. 

To prepare the tobacco dip from the leaves, it is best to use at least 

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FOUETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 123 

21 x)OTind8 of leaves to every 100 gallons of water. Assuming that a 
tobacco leaf is used from which the farmer might extract 2 per cent 
of nicotine, the 100 gallons of ooze would contain slightly more than 
five hundredths of 1 per cent; to obtain 100 gallons of ooze of thirty- 
three one-thousandths of 1 per cent strength, it would be necessary to 
use 21 pounds of tobacco yielding nearly 1.3 per cent nicotine. 

Directions for 2)reparing the dip, — For every 100 gallons of dip 
desired, take 21 pounds of good prepared tobacco leaves; soak the 
leaves in cold or lukewarm water for twenty-four hours in a covered 
pot or kettle; then bring the water to near the boiling point for a 
moment and, if in the morning, allow the infusion to draw for an 
hour; if in the evening, allow it to draw over night; the liquid is 
next strained (pressure being used to extract as much nicotine as 
jKwsible from the wet leaves) and diluted to 100 gallons per 21 pounds 
of tobacco. This dip should be used as fresh as possible as it contains 
a large amount of organic material which will soon decompose. 

The proportions here given, 21 pounds of prepared tobacco leaves to 
100 gallons of water, have given very satisfactory^ results, especially in 
Cape Town Colony, where the rejwrts of the scab inspectors accord 
this homemade tobacco dip third place among the dips officiallj* rec- 
ognized. In regard to one of the proprietary tobacco dips the Cape 
Town agricultural depai-tment reports as follows: '* Highly spoken of 
by seveml insi>ectors. Very efficacious, and improves the quality of 
the wool, making it soft and pliable. The one thing which militates 
against its general use is its expense, hindering the poorer fanners 
from using it. It is allowed to be one, if not the best, of the patent 
dips in use, and also the safest." By all means the use of a tobacco 
dip, or of the tobacco-and-sulphur dip, in preference to the lime-and- 
sulphur dii)s, is advised in case the sheep to l>e dipped show no unmis- 
takable signs of scab. 

The advantages of the tobacco dip are that it is comparatively cheap, 
since the farmer can grow his own tobacco; that it is effectual and at 
the same time not injurious to the wool. The disadvantages of the 
dip are that it sometimes sickens the sheep; that it also occasionallj^ 
sickens the persons who use it, especially if they are not smokers; it 
spoils very rapidly; it causes a greater setback than lime and sulphur, 
but less of a setback than carbolic dips. 

ARSENICA!, DIPS. 

There are both homemade arsenical dips and secret proprietary 
arsenical dips. It is well to use special precautions with both because 
of the danger connected with them. One of the prominent manufac- 
turera of dips, a firm which places on the market both a powder arsen- 
ical dip and a liquid nonpoisonous dip, recently summarized the evils 
of ai'senical dips in the following i*emarkable manner; 

The drawbacks to the nse of arsenic may be siimmed np somewhat as follows: 
(a) Its danger as a deadly poison, {h) Its drying effect on the wool, {c) Its 

uigiiizea oy VjOOV IC^ 



124 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

weakening of the fiber of the wool in one particular part near the skin, where it 
comes in contact with the tender wool roots at the time of dipping, (d) Its not 
feeding the \70ol or stimulating the growth, or increasing the weight of the fleece, 
as good oleaginous dips do. (e) The danger arising from the sheep pasturing, 
after coming out of the bath, where the wash may possibly have dripped from the 
fleece, or where showers of rain, after the dipping, have washed the dip out of the 
fleece upon the pasture. (/) Its occasionally throwing sheep ofl? their feed for a 
few days after dipping, and so prejudicing the condition of the sheep, (g) Its 
frequent effect upon the skin of the sheep, causing excoriation, blistering, and 
hardness, which stiffen and injure the animal, sometimes resulting in death. 

Although this manufacturer has gone further in his attack upon 
arsenic than this Bureau would have been inclined to do, it must be 
remarked that when a manufacturer of such a dip can not speak more 
highly of the chief ingredient of his compound than this one has done 
in the above quotation, his remarks tend to discredit dips based upon 
that ingredient. It might be added that Bruce, the chief inspector 
of live stock for New South Wales, pays his respects to arsenical 
dips with the statement, * 'Arsenic and arsenic and tobacco (with fresh 
runs) cured 9,284 and failed with 9,271." 

It may be said, on the other hand, that arsenic really has excellent 
scab-curing qualities; it entere into the composition of a number of 
the secret dipping powders and forms the chief ingredient in one of 
the oldest secret dips used. This particular dip has been given sec- 
ond place (with some qualifications) among the officially recognized 
dips in South Africa. In deference to the opinion of those who prefer 
an arsenical dip several formulae are quoted here. 

Foi'midcB for arsenical dips, — Finlay Dun recommends the follow- 
ing: Take 3 pounds each of arsenic, soda ash (impure sodium car- 
bonate) or pearl ash (impure potassium carbonate), soft soap, and 
sulphur. A pint or two of naphtha may be added if desired. The 
ingredients are best dissolved in 10 to 20 gallons of boiling water and 
cold water is added to make up ^ 120 gallons. The head of the sheep 
must, of course, be kept out of the bath. 

A mixture highly indorsed by certain parties consists of the follow- 
ing ingredients: 

Commercially pure arsenite of soda pounds . . 14 

Qroxmd roll sulphur do 84i 

Water gallons (U.S.)-- 432 

The arsenite of soda is thoroughly mixed with the sulphur before 
being added to the water. 

Precautions in use of arsenical mixtures. — Any person using an 
arsenical dip should bear in mind that he is dealing with a deadly 
poison. The following precautions should be observed: 

(1) Yards into which newly dipped sheep are to be turned should 
first be cleared of all green food, hay, and even fresh litter; if per- 

' The original formula reads 100 (imperial) gallons, which equal 120 United 
States gallons. 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 125 

fectly empty they are still safer. (2) When the dipping is finished, 
the yard should be cleaned, washed, and swept, and any unused ooze 
should at once be poured down a drain which will not contaminate 
food or premises used by any animals. (3) Dipped sheep should 
remain in an open, exposed place, as on dry ground. (4) Overcrowd- 
ing should be avoided, and every facility given for rapid drying, 
which is greatly facilitated by selecting fine, clear, dry weather for 
dipping. (5) On no account should sheep be returned to their graz- 
ings until they are dry and all risk of dripping is passed. 

Suggestion as to danger, — The formulae given above are copied from 
the writings of men who have had wide experience in dipping, but 
this Bureau assumes no responsibility for the efficacy of the dips 
given or for their coiTect proportions. Furthermore, as long as effica- 
cious noni)oisonous dijw are to be had, we see no necessity for running 
the risks attendant ux)on the use of poisonous dips. 

CARBOLIC DIPS. 

A carbolic-acid dip may be made at home or may be purchased as 
a proprietary article. This class of dips kills the scab mites very 
quickly, bnt unfortunately the wash soon leaves the sheep, which is 
consequently not protected from reinfection in the pastures. If, 
therefore, a carbolic dip is selected, it is well to add flowers of sul- 
phur (1 pound to every 6 gallons) as a protection against reinfection. 

The advantages of carbolic dips are that they act more rapidly than 
the tobacco or sulphur dips, and that the prepared carbolic dips are 
very easily mixed in the bath. They also seem, according to Gillette, 
to have a greater effect on the eggs of the parasites than either the 
sulphur or the tobacco dips. The great disadvantages of this class of 
dips are, first in some of the proprietary dips, that the farmer is 
uncertain regarding the strength of material he is using; second, the 
sheep receive a greater setback than they do with either lime and 
sulphnr or tobacco. 

Gillette reports most excellent results from the use of a certain 
prepared carbolic dip. The Bureau purchased the same dip upon 
the oi)en market and tested its effects upon the sheep in the propor- 
tion recommended by the manufacturer on the label of the package 
and also in one-half and one-third that strength. In the first and 
second tests the dip was severe both on the sheep and on the oper- 
ators. In one case it caused a considerable, though temporary, erup- 
tion on the hands and arms of an operator. In all three cases the 
dipped sheep were almost overcome in the dipping tank, and upon 
recovering themselves ran around the field in an excited manner, 
bleating loudly and shaking their heads and tails. The eyes were 
more congested than we have ever seen them to be after a lirae-and- 
sulphur or a tobacco dip. 

An objection to some of the proprietary carbolic dips is that the 



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126 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

manufacturers themselves apparently are little acquainted with their 
own mixtures. Their claims are extravagant and their directions 
often contradictory. It may be admitted that the carbolic dips are 
pix)mising and that they may have a brilliant future, but they have 
not had a very brilliant past, and this Bureau is inclined to be 
extremely conservative in regard to them and to advise their manu- 
facturers to prepare them in a guaranteed strength with moi'e explicit 
directions for use than are to be found in the present circulars. The 
dip just refeiTed to was certainly more severe in its effects on the 
sheep than can be justified by its quick action in killing the scab 
paiasites, considering that other equally effective but milder solu- 
tions are to be had. 

We also found in our tests (which are not yet fully completed) that 
the sheep have gained less in weight when dipped in certain two of 
these washes than when dipped in lime and sulphur, or in sulphur 
and tobacco, or in tobacco. 

If a carbolic dip is used care must be taken that the ingredients 
form a thorough emulsion; if a scum arises to the top, a softer water 
^ould be used. 

In justice to this class of dips, it is only fair to state that while the 
views here expressed are entirely in accord with the opinions of some 
authorities, they do not agi'ee with the views held by others; but 
they are based upon the material purchased in open market, and 
probably represent the experience of many who have used these dips. 
The investigations of the Bureau certainly show that more tests are 
necessary before this class of dips can be indorsed. It is hoped that 
these tests may be made in the near future. 

One of the prominent proprietary carbolic dips was formerly recog- 
nized as one of the three official dips in New South Wales, but it has 
noAv been stricken from the list. In Cape Town carbolic dii)8 are not 
much used, and in the official reports little is said concerning them. 

Setback to the Sheep from Dipping. 

Dipping often results in a slight setback. If sheep are weighed 
immediately before dipping and again at the same hour the following 
day, it will be noticed that the weight has changed. There may be a 
gain, but usually there is a loss, varying from ^ to 3^^ pounds. The 
second day there may also be either a gain or loss. As the weight of 
sheep varies from day to day from 1 to 5 pounds in loss or gain, due 
chieflj'^ to the increase or decrease of the amount of fodder and water 
in the stomach, the effects of dii>ping can not be estimated in twenty- 
four or forty-eight hours. In order to meet statements made concern- 
ing loss or gain in weight, this Bui-eau had sheep dipped at stated 
intervals, and the weights taken from week to week; all the sheep 
were kept under exactly the same conditions. The dips used were 



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FOUBTEKKTH ANNUAL BKPOET. 127 

lime and sulphur, tobacco and sulphur, and two proprietary carbolic 
dips. 

At the end of about two months, after three dippings, all of the 
sheep showed a gain, with the exception of one of the sheep from the 
carbolic dip, which lost slightly. The lowest gain among the sheep 
treated \fith tobacco dip was 3^ pounds, the highest 11^ pounds. The 
lowest gain among the sheep treated with lime and sulphur was 7 
pounds, the highest 8^ pounds. The lowest gain among the sheep 
treated with the carbolic dip was li pounds, the highest 3^ pounds, 
while one animal lost ^ pound. The sheep were given a fourth dip- 
ping, and at the end of another month showed the following gains 
and losses over their original weight at first dipping: Sheep treated 
with tobacco, 9 to 15 pounds gain; sheep treated with lime and sul- 
phur, 11^ to 14 i)ounds gain; sheep treated with carbolic dip, 1 to Gi 
pounds gain, in one case 13^ pounds lost. 

The experiment was then repeated, the lime and sulphur being 
used on sheep previously dipped in carbolic or tobacco dips, and 
vice versa. After ten days the sheep treated with lime and sul- 
phur had gained from 2 to 3 i)ounds; the sheep treated with tobacco 
had remained stationai-y or had lost from 1 to li pounds; the 
idieep treated with carbolic dip had gained as high as 1 pound or 
remained stationary or had lost as much as 2^ pounds. At this 
point circumstances intervened which closed the experiments for the 
season. 

Gillette has also made determinations of the loss of weight of sheep 
from dipping. Part of his results agree with ours and part differ. 
The chief iK)int of difference in opinion is that Gillette considers that 
the best conclusion can be based upon weights taken a few days after 
dipping, while we consider the weight at a later period as the better 
criterion. Gillette gives weights from November 17 to December 22, 
and, taking the cases where the sheep have been dipped twice, 
we see from his tables that the carbolic sheep gained on an aver- 
age a pounds, the sheep treated with tobacco gained 8 pounds, 
the sheep treated with arsenical dip gained 8 pounds, the sheep 
treated with lime and sulphur^ gained 9 pounds, while the sheep 
which were not dipped, in order to give a basis for comparison, gained 
6 pounds. 

Holding in mind that sheep may apparently gain or lose about 3 
pounds per day when not dipped, it is seen from the experiments by 
Gillette, in Colorado, and by this Bureau, in the District of Columbia, 
that the oft-repeated claim that lime-and-sulphur dips give a greater 
setback than other dips are erroneous. In both the Western and the 
Eastern experiments the sheep treated with lime and sulphur averaged 

'Unfortunately for the comparison, this lot did not receive the same fodder as 
the others. 



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128 BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

the greatest gain, the sheep treated with tobacco the second highest 
gain, while the carbolic sheep showed the lowest gain. 

DIPPING PLANTS. 

There are numerous kinds of dipping plants in use, the size and style 
varying according to the conditions which are to be met and the indi- 
vidual taste of the owner. 

The farmer who has but a small flock can use a small portable vat 
for dipping, turning a part of his barn or some shed into a catching 
pen ; by holding the sheep a moment at the top of the incline, as the 
animals emerge from the vat, and allowing them to drain, he can do 
away with the necessity of a draining yard. 

When large flocks are to be dipped at stated periods it will be 
economy to build a permanent plant. Such a plant should consist of 
(1) collecting and forcing yards, provided with a (2) drive, and (3) 
chute, or slide, into the (4) dipping vat, from which an (6) incline with 
cross cleats leads to the (6) draining yards. 

Heating tanks or boilers are also necessary. For a small vat any 
portable caldron (figs. 23 and 24) with a capacity of 30 to 100 gallons 
will answer, and the proper temperature may be maintained by pour- 
ing fresh hot ooze into the vat as the supply is exhausted by the 
dipping. In the large permanent plants the temperature can best 
be regulated by means of a steam pipe or hot- water coil close to the 
floor of the tub. 

Thermometers are an absolute necessity. The floating dairy ther- 
mometer (fig. 25) will be found to be most convenient, and several 
extra thermometers should be kept on hand to replace broken instru- 
ments. The thermometer is dropped into the vat and allowed to 
float for a short time, then quickly removed and the temperature 
determined. It is well to make paint marks at the side of the 100® 
and 110*^ points. 

Building mcderial. — The yards and vat maybe built of wood, con- 
crete, cemented stone, or brick, according to the individual taste of 
the owner and the facilities at hand. 

Dimensions. — The dimensions of the various parts given in the 
following descriptions may be varied according to the breed and 
the number of sheep to be dipped. Dipping liquid will be saved by 
making the tub much narrower on the bottom than at the top. On 
top, simple oblong dipping tanks vary from 1 foot 9 inches to 3 feet 
in breadth, 2 feet or 2 feet 6 inches forming a convenient medium. 
Floors vary from 6 inches to 3 feet in width, 9 inches forming a good 
working medium. Depth varies from 3 feet to 5 feet 6 inches, 4 feet 
to 5 feet forming a convenient medium. If calves are to be dipped in 
the same vat, it will be best to make the tub 5 feet or 5 feet 6 inches 
deep. 

In sinking the tub in the ground it is always well to have the top of 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



129 



the tub 9 inches above the ground line. It is also well to sink one end 
(where the sheep are thrown in) slightly lower than the other end, as 
this will make it easier to empty 
and clean the vat. 

CrutcheSy or forks. — In using 
large vats crutches, or dipping 
forks, are necessary, and even 
with small vats they are useful. 
Crutches should be 5 or 6 feet 
long. The handle should be strong 
(rake handles are a little too light). 
One end is provided with an iron 
ferrule, into which the bent iron is 
inserted. The iron should be one- 
half inch round or three-quarters 
inch half round. The form of the 
crutches is shown in figs. 26 and 27. 

Gauges. — The capacity of tubs should be plainly marked on the 
side every 3 or 6 inches, in order to correctly measure the amount of 
liquid. 




Fig. 28.— a simple caldron whloh may be used 
for boUincT dip. 




FlO. ZL—A caldron with stove. 

Small Portable Vats for Small Flocks. 

If no regular dipping vat is at hand, a good-sized tub may be used, 
as shown in fig. 28. Dipping in this manner is slow and tedious, but 
7204 ^9 

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BUBEAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 




A 



ISO 

m 

121 

izo 
111 

lU 

JiD 
JD 
iD 

in 
ui 



IM 



BS 



6Z 



3f 



I 




may be resorted to in case of necessity, as, for instance, 
when a few sheep are bought from another flock which is 
not known to be absolutely free from scab. If care is 
taken to dip thor- 
oughly, the dipping Q y 
may be done as ^ 
effectually in such 
a tub as it could be 
done in a large vat. 
Recourse to ordi- 
nary tubs is not 
advised, however, 
when it is possible 
to use regular dip- 
ping vat«. Lambs 
may, in case of ne- 
cessity, be dipped 
in troughs, as shown 
in fig. 29. 

A small portable 
vat, suitable for use 
in dipping small flocks, is shown in fig. 30. When not in 
use, this vat may be conveniently stored away. An advan- 
tage connected with this vat is that it may be drawn from 



Pig. 26.— a cratch, or 
dipping fork. (Ck}pied 
from the Agrricnltnral 
Journal, 1894, p. 261.) 



FlO. 27.— Another style 
of crutch, or dipping 
fork. 




FiQ. 28.~Dipping sheep in a tub. (Copied from Stewart^i The Shepherd's 
Manual, 1882, p. 47.) 

place to place as desired. The dimensions here given may 
be varied, according to individual taste, by making the vat 
longer, broader, or deeper. A convenient size will be 9 feet 



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131 




Fia. 2B.— Trough for dipping lamba ( Copied from Stewart*8 The Shepherd's Mannal, 1882, p. 48. ) 




Fio. 31.— A small portable dipping vat with 
attached dripping platform. 



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BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



long by 2i feet broad at the top, 9 inches broad at the bottom, and 3^ 
to 5 feet deep; the floor measures 9 inches broad by 4 feet long; from 1 




Fia. 32.— Detachable skeleton box, with gate, to fit over the dripping platform shown in fig. SI. 

foot above one end of the floor a slant with cross cleats rises to the top 
and end of the vat. The sheep are dropped in by hand, one at a 




Fia 88.— A small patented portable vat arranged as a cart. (Copied from Armatage, 1886, The 

Sheep Doctor, p. 4W. ) 

time, at the deep end, and aft^er being held in the dip for two minutes 
are allowed to leave the vat at the slanting end. They are held a 
moment on the slant to allow them to drain off, thus economizing 



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POnETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



133 




Fig. 34.— Pox*tabl3 vat unfolded and in uae. (Copied from Armatage, ld85. The She( p 

Doctor, p. 404.) 








^ ^^. 



^ -T^ f *^f^^ ^<gy</uyi^ -Lrine . 



Fig. 35.— a small dipping plant: A^ collectingr yard; B^ dipping rat; C, place for man with fork; 
D, incline, with cross cleats, to draining i>ens E and F. Lower diagram gives dimensions of 
the vat. (Copied from Sutherland's Sheep Farming. 1802. ) 



"ReceivmiJ YarB 



/ 



Chain Squbte 




Fig. aBk— Beceiying and tordng yards, with actached stage, decoy pen, vut, draining yards, etc. 
Scale 60 by U inches. (Copied from Brace's Scab and Its Cure, 1894, p. 17. ) 

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BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



in (lip. A gate may be placed at the deeper part of the slant, if 
desired, in order to save labor. This gate sliould swing toward the 




Fig. 37.— Australian circular reoeiving and forcing yards, with straight race or drive, the incline 
chute, straight vat, incline, two draining jmus, etc. Scale fiO feet to U inches, making the 
outer circle of the yards about 66 feet in diameter. (Copied from Bruce*s Scab and Its Cure, 
189*. p. 17.) 

exit of the vat. Such a tank may be made of l^-inch pine boards, 
with tongue and groove, and should be well pitched or painted. 

This plan of vat may be easily 
modified, if desired, so as to have 
a small dripping pen attached, as 
shown in figs. 31 and 32. In this 
modified plan an inclined platform 
is added to the vat shown in fig. 30 
and a removable skeleton box is 
made to fit over it. While one sheep 
is being dipped another sheep is 
allowed to ascend the incline into 
the small dripping pen. When the 
sheep is sufficiently drained, the gate 
is opened, it leaves the pen, the gate 
is closed, the sheep in the vat enters 
the pen, and another sheep is placed 
in the vat. 

A small portable vat used in some 
places is shown in figs. 33 and 34. 
Dipping in a vat of this kind may 
be thorough, but is tedious. 

Another style of small vat suit- 
able for holding three sheep at a 
time is shown in fig. 35. It is esti- 
mated that 1,500 sheep may be 
dipped in this tub in a single day. 
The dimensions of the plant are 
given in the diagram, and need no 
further explanation. 




Fig. 38.— Argentine semicircular receiving 
and forcing yards, with a straight vat, 
draining pens, etc The dimenmons are 



given in tne metric system: 1 m. (meter) 
equals 89.96 inches. (Copied from Gib- 
son's History and Present State of the 
Sheep-Breeding Jndustry in the Argen- 
tine Republic, T 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



135 



Hmt. 




Pig. 39.— Dipping plant pro 
Tided wiui an endless-cnain 
or treadmill chnte. (Copied 
from the American Sneep 
Breeder, 1801.) 




K 


J 














, F 


C 


B 


A 


^ 


1 


^ 



Pig. 40.— Dipping plant illustrating : A^ collecting and forcing yard« : /?, straight drive ; O 
decoy i>en in wnich several sheep are kept ; D, dipping pen with pivoted floor ; E, secured 
by a bolt ; by withdrawing the bolt the sheep are precipitated into the square tub F; G, 
Sliding gate through which the sheep pass from the tub to the draining pens J and K: L, 
channel for drip, coo ducting the ooze utck to the vat. The lower diagram gives a surface 
view of the upper figure. (Cooled from the Veterinarian, 18d2, p. 333. ) 




GROUND PLAN 



SECTION. 




Fig. 41.— yl, collecting yard for the sheep which are to be dipped; B, B, B, small pens leadinsr to 
C, an inner pen with an inclined chute, or in which a man may stand to pass the sheep one 
at a time into the vat; D, D, the tub, which should measure from 20 to 120 feet long, 21 to 30 
inches broad at the top, 6 to inches broad at the bottom; Af, board 2 feet high on each side 
of the entrance of the vat to catch the spla.sh and to prevent the sheep from escaping; E^ J?, 
draining, or dripping, pens; F. swinging gate; G. cross section of the tub; J, crutch for keep- 
ing the oacks of the sheep under the surface, and for catching or holding sheep in the dip. 
(This drawing is taken from the Agricultural Journal, III, 1801, p. 236; it was also published 
in the American Sheep Breeder. Feb. 15. 1892.) 



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BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



CNOSCCTION. 



More Permanent Plants for Larger Flocks. 

receiving and forcing yards. 

Where large numbers of sheep are to be dipped, it is necessary to 
build receiving pens close to the dipping vat. The number and size 
of the pens vary with the number of sheep to be 
handled. The yards may be either square or ob- 

^ long, as shown in figs. 35 and 36, or they may be 

^ / i 4 \ circular, as shown in fig. 37. The square or oblong 

yards are the more simple in construction and 
need no detailed description, as all details may be 
seen by consulting the diagrams. The circular 
yard, however, needs a word of explanation. 

In using the circular yards (fig. 37) two natural 
habits of the sheep are turned to practical account, 
so as to lessen the work of driving, namely, the 
habit sheep have of "ringing" when disturbed in 
a yard, and the tendency they show to escape at 
the point where they enter an inclosure. 

The flock is yarded at AB and finds its way into 
yards 1 and 2 through the openings CD and CE. 
When these yards are full the gates CD and AB 
are closed to form yard 6. The sheep then circle 
through yards 3, 4, 5, and 6, coming to the point 
at which they entered and expecting to escape. When yards 3, 4, 5, 
and 6 are filled the other gates are closed, so that the sheep qau not 




lopsccnon 



raigh 

known as the Aus- 
tralian sheep dip- 
ping tank.1 




anouNO PLAN. 




Fro. 43.— A somewhat similar straight swim taken from Sutherland's Sheep Farming* A,ool- 
lecting pens; B^ B^ smaller penn; O, small pen nt the s'de of the vat: iT, decoy i>en in which 
several sheep are placed to induce the sheep in pen B to enter pen C; A A a tub 50 to 60 
feet long, 5 feet deep, 21 inches broad until 3 feet from the top, then narrowing to 6 or 8 
inches at the bottom, as shown in the cross section, 6; Jf, a board 2 feet high to catch the 
splash; the last 18 feet of the swim slants gradually, with cross cleats, to the draining pens, 
as seen in H; E, E, draining pens, worked alternately with the swinging gate, F; each jpen 
measures 24 by 15 feet, and should slant toward the vat; J, crutch 5 or 6 feet loi 
for stirring the liquid. 



i long; N m&dr 



'This vat is in use at Tulcumbah station, New South Wales, and gives much 
satisfaction. The swimming race is 29 feet S inches long, 1 foot 10 inches wide at 
top, with gradual inward slope to U inches at the bottom, and 5 feet 9 inches 
deep; the landing stage (slant) is 14 feet 8 inches long (surface measurement), 
with a rise of 5 feet 9 inches in 14 feet 3 inches. To allow for any weak sheep, 



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POURTEKNTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



137 








•411. 




^^ 




tott 


TANK. 


^^^^ 







If. 






CATCIflNC KRAAL 


1* 


Flasr «v)ierc i*an«iMfli forVwMiW 




TANK 1 r 


DRAINING KRAAL. 








T 







Fig. 44.— a dipping plant figured in the Agricultural Journal, 1894, p. U2(), in u.se in South Africa. 




Pig. 45.— a dipping plant in use in Millard County, Utah: .4, chute from the large corral; B^ a 
sloping board over which the sheep in attempting to pa.ss to the decoy pen C slide into the 
tame />; AT, K, two pieces. 2 by inchen and VZ feet long, bolted lengthwise of the tank, leaving 
a )3-inch space in the middle of the dip through which the sheep must j>ut their heads, pre- 
venting those in rear from riding those in front, at the same time keeping their backs under 
the dip. (Copited from Powers' The American Merino, 1887, p. 3t)8. ) 



which stand iu the way and block the othera at the end of the swim, the landing 
tita^e opens ont from 1 foot 10 inchc s at top and 11 inches at bottom to a wid h 
/top and bottom) of 6 feet at a distance of 6 feet 3 inches (longitudinally) from 
the end of the swimming race, and gradually widens for the remaining 8 feet of 
length to a width of 7 feet at the end. 

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BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 




Fio. 46.— A triple vat. The various diagrams give surface view, cross section, vertical section 
of entrance to the vat, and vertical section of the incline and dripping pens. 




— /-I4A" 



Pio. 47.— A circular dipping tank. (Copied from the Agrricultural Journal. 1895, p. 119.) 

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POUKTBENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



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return to yards 1 and 2. If the animals hesitate to enter yards 3, 4, 5, 
and 6y another natural tendency of the sheep may here be turned to 
account. A man jumps over the fence and runs through the flock in 
the opx)osite direction (6, 5, 4, 3) to that in which the animals are 
wanted to move. This will generally result in starting the sheep in 
the desired direction. 




Fio. 48.— A drcalar dipptng tank, with drive and slide. 



From the exit of yard 6 (BO) there should be built a narrow run 
extending to the dipping vat. This run should be about 20 feet long 
by 2J feet wide, and should be provided with sides high enough, espe- 
cially near the vat, to prevent the sheep from jumping over and thus 
escaping. These sides should be continued a short distance along 
both sides of the vat. The last 5 feet of this run should slant down- 
ward toward the vat at an incline of 25 to 30 degrees, and should be 



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BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



smooth. By pouring upon it some of the dip it may be made slippery, 
so that the sheep will slide into the vat. If there is no natural incline 
toward the vat, an incline may easilj'' be made by raising the floor of 
the run at a point 5 feet from the vat. The sheep will then pass up 
the incline x to the highest point y, then down the incline chute z. 

Much time will be saved in dipping if the yards and run are 
arranged in such a way that the sheep in the race can not see the 
dipping vat. This can be accomplished by either of two simple 




Fio. 40.— View of double oblong swim. (Consult also fig. 6U.) 



methods: First, the run, instead of being straight, may be built with 
a sudden angle at the point y (see fig. 37); the vat will then not 
be visible to the sheep ascending the incline x; or, second, if a 
straight run is built, as shown in fig. 37, a loose curtain of bagging 
may be hung at the point where the run joins with the vat. This 
curtain will fall back into place as the sheep drop into the vat. 

A modification of the circular pen is seen in fig. 38, taken from 
Gibson's (1893) History and Present State of the Sheep-Breeding 
Industry in the Argentine Republic. 



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CHUTES, OR SLIDES. 



141 



The most simple kind of chute is made by using an incline at the 
* end of the run, as shown in fig. 37. 

A second kind of chute in use is the endless-chain or treadmill 
chute, shown in fig. 39. Its construction can be seen from the dia- 
gram and need not be described in detail. This chute may be 
improved by building it on a slant toward the vat, in which case a bolt 




Fio. fia— A doable oblongr swim: A^ ground plan; B,8ide view of the middle jMtrtition; C, longi- 
tadinal section of the first swim: Z>, longitudinal section of the second swim, with incline; 
R, cross section of the entire vat, with partition in the center. 



or other arrangement must be attached to stop the chute when 
desired; the weight of the sheep on the movable chute will help to 
carry the animals toward the vat. 

A third chut^e in use is a pivoted platform, shown in fig. 40. The 
sheep walk out on the platform until they overbalance its free end, 
and then, when a sliding bolt is removed, fall into the tank. The 
structure of the chute may be seen from the figure. Accidents are 



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BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



more likely to result from using this chute than from using the slant 
or the chain chute. 

For dipping pregnant ewes some x>6r8on8 build a movable platform- 
which can be lowered into the vat and raised at will. 




Fio. 51.— Ground plan of yards and vat. (Copied from Armatase, 1886, The Sheep Doctor. ) 

THE DIPPING VAT. 

The dipping vat may be made on several different plans: The 
single oblong straight vat; the double or triple, with turns at the 
ends; the square; or the circular. In case of single oblong vats, time 



8 Shfcp-Yari 



r- 




Pia. 52.— Ground plan of yards and vat. (Copied from Powers' The American Merino, 1887, 

will be saved in dipping if a long vat is used, so that the animals 
may swim directly through without stopping, and then leave the tank. 
Very naturally, the longer the vat the more building material and ooze 
will be required. Vats are in use varying from 10 to 120 feet long. 



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BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 




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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 145 

The single oblong vat, — Single oblong dipping vats are shown in 
figs. 36, 37, 38, 39, 41. These tanks should be made about 2i feet 
broad at the top, 9 inches broad at the bottom, and 4 to 5 feet deep. 
The length may be 20 to 120 feet, as desired. One end (the entrance) 
should be straight, as shown in figs. 42 and 44, or with a steep slant, 
HS shown in figs. 39, 41, and 43, while the last 5 to 14 feet at the other 
end (exit) should have a gradual slant with cross cleats. 

The square vat — A square vat is shown in fig. 40. This tub should 
be 5 feet deep and large enough to hold 10 or 12 sheep at a time. 
The square vat does not present any particular advantages over nar- 
row oblong vats, except that it gives the sheep an opportunity to 
swim around. This kind of a vat is not in very general use among 
large herders. 

The triple vat. — In the triple vat (fig. 46) the sheep come through 
the run, or drive, and slide into the first vat at A; swimming in 
the direction of the arrows, they round the turns B and C, ascend 
the incline Z>, and enter the draining pens. The theory upon which 
this triple vat is used is that upon rounding the point B the sheep 
bend toward the left, thus crumpling the scabs on the left side and 
opening the wool on the right; upon rounding the point C they bend 
toward the right, crumpling the scabs of that side and opening the 
wool on the left. This is evidently a more theoretical than practical 
consideration. 

Each Tun should be about 15 to 30 feet long and 2^ feet broad; the 
tank should be 4^ to 5 feet deep and 4 to 7^ feet wide at the bottom. 
At the i)oint -4, where the sheep fall into the swim, it is best to have 
the floor of the first sun 2^ feet wide for a distance of 6 feet, in order 
to prevent accidents, but beyond that distance the floor may be nar- 
rowed in order to save the dipping fluid. If the partitions E and F 
are not made solid the ooze will circulate more easily and thus remain 
at a more even temperature; the boards should be close enough 
together, however, to prevent the sheep from calching their feet in 
the cracks. A gate should be arranged at D, so that the animals 
may be delayed in the ooze, if desired. (See also fig. 53 of the triple 
vat in use at the Chicago Stock Yards. ) 

The circular vat — Some parties prefer a circular vat (fig. 47). The 
advantages set forth in favor of this are, first, a fewer number of men 
are required to attend to the animals in the tub; second, where it is 
desired to give any particular sheep an extra long swim, this may be 
done by quickly closing the gate D at the exit, thus compelling the 
animal to swim around again, without delaying the other sheep; 
third, by building a circular vat with a circumference of 30 feet the 
animals may be made to swim around two, three, or four times, thus 
gaining the advantage of a tank 60, 90, or 120 feet long, yet with a 
much smaller amount of building and dipping material. 
7204 10 



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146 BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTKT. 

The vat should be 2^ feet broad at the top, 9 inches broad at the 
bottom, and 5 feet deep. To determine the circumference multiply 
the diameter by 3.1416. 

Despite the advantages of the circular tank in saving material and 
obtaining the advantages of a long swim, there are two rather serious 
objections to it: First, in the vat shown in fig. 47 it is necessary to 
throw the animals in by hand, since a chute directed into the circle 
would lead to accident; second, the circular vat is much more diffi- 
cult of construction than the straight vat. 

These objections may, however, be overcome in several ways, still 
preserving all the advantages. If a circular vat is preferred and a 
chute is desired, the object may be attained by building a short, 
straight vat on a tangent to the circle, as shown in fig. 48. In this 
case two swinging or sliding gates, A and jB, wiU be required. 

The doiihle vat, — All of the advantages of the circular vat may be 
combined with the easy construction of the straight vat by building 
a straight tub with a double channel, as shown in figs. 49 and 50, the 
second swim being prolonged in an incline to the draining pens. 
Such a vat may be constructed as follows: 

Build an oblong tub 15 feet long, 5 feet deep, 5 feet wide at the top, 
and 3 to 5 feet wide at the bottom. Running lengthwise through the 
center, build an upright, partially open, partition 10 feet long and 4^ 
feet deep (measured from the top of the tub), leaving an open space 
of 2. J feet at each end and 6 inches at the bottom; this partition is 
supported by three uprights running to the floor of the tub, and 
cross supports may be placed on top of the tub at any point except 
near the entrance of the swim. A gate is hung at ojie end between 
the slide (eutrance) and the incline (exit), and should extend above 
the tub, in order to prevent the sheep from jumping over the middle 
partition into the second swim; it should extend down to within 
alx)ut G or 12 inches of the floor of the tub. When this gate is closed 
against the middle partition the sheep will leave the vat by the incline 
to the draining pens; when it is closed against the incline, the sheep 
can be forced to swim around the tub two or three times, as desired. 
Or, in place of a swinging gate, two sliding gates may be aiTanged to 
run up and down in grooves, balancing each other or each balanced 
separately by weights. One of these gates is placed between the end 
of the vat and the end of the middle partition, the other is placed at 
the entrance of the incline to the draining i)ens. 

By constructijig the double vat and sending the sheep around three 
times there would result, fii-st, a saving in the original cost of the 
tank when compared with a 90- foot straight swim; second, a saving 
in space; third, less than half as much dip would have to be kept 
warm at a time; fourth, less than half as much dip would have to be 
made up at a time; fifth, the residue after dipping would be reduced 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL BEPORT. 147 

iffid thus the loss decreased. It would, however, take a longer time 
to dip a large floek of sheep in such a vat than in a straight vat 90 
feet long. 

The Incline to the Dripping Pens. 

At the end of the vat an incline, with cross cleats, is built, so that 
the sheep may leave the dip of their own accord and enter the drain- 
ing pens. A board fence, 2 feet high above the top of the vat, should 
run a few feet each side of this incline to prevent the sheep from 
escaping. These inclines are shown in figs. 39, 41, 43, and 44; the 
rise for fat heavy wool sheep must not be too steep, otherwise the 
exertion will be too great. In fig. 42 the incline is 5 feet 9 inches in 
a surface distance of 14 feet 3 inches. At the Chicago Stock Yards 
the incline is 9 feet. 

Much labor will be saved if a hinged or, still better, a sliding gate 
is placed at the deepest portion of the incline. The sheep may thus 
be held in the dip as long as desired; when the time is up the gate is 
opened and the sheep enter the draining pens. 

The Dripping Pens. 

There should be two dripping pens side by side (figs. 35, 3G, 39, 41, 
and 51) with a swinging gate at the entrance; one is filled, the gate is 
then closed, oj)ening the other pen; when the second pen is filled the 
first pen is emptied; or the pens may be in direct line with the vat 
(figs. 35 and 40). 

These pens should have a slight incline toward the tub so that the 
dripping ooze will run back to the tub. A good plan is to build the 
incline from the sides toward the center fence; under the fence build 
a partially covered gutter inclining to the tub; the cover of the gutter 
should be removable to allow cleaning; at the end of the gutter 
nearest the tub place a grating to catch the wool and droppings, thus 
preventing these materials from being washed into the dip. 

Shelter for the Dipping Plant. 

The vat, boilers, and dripping pens should be under cover, and it 
will be well to extend the cover over the drive and the forcing pens. 

Arrangements for Cleaning. 

Cleaning the plant may be facilitated if the following suggestions 
are observed : It is well to have one end of the vat slightly lower than 
the other end, so that the ooze will run toward that point when the 
tub is being emptied. If the entire floor of the collecting pens is made 
of bric^, cement, or boards, and inclines slightly toward one or two 
points, tlie yards may be more easily cleaned by means of a hose and 
stream of water. If this plan is adopted, there should be an upright 



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148 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

baseboard or a solid wall of concrete or brick a few inches in height 
running around the edge of the entire pen. If there is direct sewer 
connection for the vat a trap or manhole should be made to catch the 
droppings and the tags of wool, otherwise the sewer pipe will become 
obstructed. 

Boiling, Infusing, and Settling Tanks. 

The arrangement of the boiling tanks depends upon two factors in 
particular : First, upon the kind of dip used ; second, upon the arrange- 
ment adopted for keeping the bath at the proper temperature. 

In case a steam pipe is placed near the floor of the dipping vat in 
order to keep the ooze at its proper temperature while dipping, the vat 
itself may be used for heating water. Clear water is run into the vat 
and the steam turned on full force until the proper temperature is 
obtained. If a carbolic or a prepared tobacco dip is used, the material 
may then be mixed in the vat if desired. Even in this case, however, 
it is best to provide a separate boiling tank for heating and preparing 
fresh ooze to replace the dip as it is used up. 

These boiling tubs may be made of wood or iron, according to the 
facilities at hand. If steam is to be had, the square or round wooden 
boiling tub may be used, and an open steam pipe run into it to heat 
the water. If the steam pipe can not be used, either in the vat or in 
the boiling tanks, iron tanks should be provided. The iron tanks are 
set in brick or stone frames, with a fireplace below. It is best to have 
two tanks, each with a capacity of about 400 gallons. 

If a homemade tobacco dip is prepared from the leaves there should 
also be provided two iron infusing caldrons, each with a cover and 
with a capacity of 80 to 120 gallons. The infusion is prepared in 
these smaller tanks, while the bulk of the water is heated in the 
boiling tanks or in the swim itself. 

If a lime-and-sulphur dip is used it is absolutely necessary to pro- 
vide some means for settling the mixture, in order that the bath may 
be free from sediment. This may be done in two ways. The better 
way is to have separate settling tubs provided with bungholes or pipes 
three or four inches from the bottom. After the mixture is thoroughly 
boiled it is pumped into the settling tubs and allowed to remain there 
until it is perfectly free from sediment; the clear liquid is then run 
into the dipping vat and diluted with warm water to the proi)er 
strength. Or the boiling tanks may also be used as settling vats. A 
pipe with elbow joint is run into the boiling tank three or four inches 
above the bottom; the opening of the pipe should point sidewise, not 
up. Aftei* boiling the proper length of time the fire is removed and 
the liquid allowed to stand until clear; only the clear ooze is drawn 
off, the sediment remaining on the floor of the boiling tank. • 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 149 

Measures. 

The cai)acity of the vat should be marked at different depths. The 
capacity of the boilers should also be marked in the s&me way. If 
these are marked for every 100, 200, 300, or 500 gallons (according to 
the amount of dipping to be done), separate measuring tanks will be 
unnecessary. In case the tanks are not marked a separate measuring 
tank should be provided. 

If a homemade tobacco dip or a lime-and-sulphur dip is used, a set of 

scales is necessary. To guess at weights in mixing lime and sulpliur may 

result in too strong a dip. 

Pumps. 

A ]x>rtable pump will be found of great use in filling and emptying 
tanks. 



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150 BUREAU OF ANIMAL IKDUSTlOr. 

FEDERAL LAWS AND REGULATiairS RELATIVE TO SHEEP SCAB. 

As the scab of the sheep is iniqnestionably a contagious disease, it 
is unlawful to ship sheep so affected from any State, Territory, or the 
District of Columbia into any other State, Territory, or the District 
of Columbia. The penalties for such shipment of diseased sheep are 
heavy, as will be seen from an examination of sections 6 and 7 of the 
act approved May 29, 1884, which are as follows: 

Sec. 6. That no i-ailroad company within the United States, or the owners or 
masters of any steam or sailing or other vessel or boat, shall receive for transpor- 
tation or transport, from one State or Territory to another, or from any State into 
the District of Columbia, or from the District into any State, any live stock affected 
with any contagions, infections, or commimicable disease, and especially the dis- 
ease known as plenro-pnenmonia; nor shall any person, company, or corporatian 
deliver for such transportation to any railroad company, or master or owner of 
any boat or vessel, any live stock, knowing them to be affected with any conta- 
gions, infectious, or communicable disease; nor shall any person, company, or 
corporation drive on foot or transport in private conveyance from one State or 
Territory to another, or from any State into the District of Columbia, or from the 
District into any State, any live stock, knowing them to be affected with any con- 
tagious, infectious, or communicable disease, and especially the disease known as 
pleuro-pneumonia: Provided y That the so-called splenetic or Texas fever shall not 
be considered a contagious, infectious, or communicable disease within the mean- 
ing of sections four, five, six, and seven of this act, as to cattle being transported 
by rail to market for slaughter, when the same are tmloaded only to be fed and 
watered in lots on the way thereto. 

Sec. 7. That it shall be the duty of the Commissioner of Agriculture to notify, 
in writing, the proper officials or agents of any railroad, steamboat, or other 
transportation company doing business in or through any infected locality, and 
by publication in such newspapers as he may select, of the existence of said con- 
tagion; and any person or persons operating any such railroad, or master or owner 
of any boat or vessel, or owner or custodian of or person having control over such 
cattle or other live stock within such infected district, who shall knowingly \iolate 
the provisions of section six of this act, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, 
upon conviction, shall be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars 
nor more than five thousand dollars, or by imprisonment for not more than one 
year, or by both such fine and imprisonment. 

The provisions of this statute are very si^ecific and clear, and there 
can be no possible doubt of their application to the disease under con- 
sideration. Congress has, nevertheless, gone still further by way of 
emphasizing this application, and has particularly directed the atten- 
tion of the Department of Agriculture to a few important diseases, 
including sheep scab, by the following clause, which has been repeated 
in the appropriation act for a number of years: 

* * * and the Secretary of Agriculture is hereby authorized to use any part 
of this sum he may deem necessary or expedient, and in such manner as he may 
think best, in the collection of information concerning live stock, dairy and other 
animal products, and to prevent the spread of pleuro-pneumonia, tuberculosis, 
sheep scab, and other diseases of animals, and for this purpose to employ as many 
persons as he may deem necessary. 



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POURTBENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 151 

Acting in accordance with this legislation, the following orders have 
been made and promulgated by the Secretary of Agriculture : 

REOULATIOKS PROHIBITINO THE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS AFFECTED WITH 
HOa CHOLERA, TUBERCULOSIS, OR SHEEP SCAB. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Office of the Secretary, 
WasJtingion^ D, C, December 13, 1S95, 

Notice is hereby given that under the law relating to control of contagions and 
infections diseases of animals, the regnlations of the Bnrean of Animal Industry 
dated April 15, 1887, are hereby amended by addition^ section, as follows: 

Sf.c. 15. Animals affected with hog cholera, tuberculosis, or sheep scab shall be 
considered animals affected with contagious or infectious diseases as designated by 
the law and the regulations of the Bureau of Animal Industry, and shall not enter 
mto interstate trade nor be brought into contact with other animals intended for 
such trade. Such affected animals shall not be permitted to enter any stock yards 
or other places where animals are handled for interstate trade, and when so found 
at such places shall be condemned, tagged, and placed in quarantine by inspectors 
or employees of said Bureau until proper disposition is made of same. 

Stoc^-yard companies, transportation companies, or others receiving or handling 
such diseased animals are hereby required to thoroughly disinfect such portions of 
their premises or proi)erty as contained such diseased animals, subject to the 
approval of the inspectors of said Bureau. 

Such diseased animals so quarantined shall not be removed therefrom except by 
written permit of the inspector in charge. When such diseased animals are found, 
inspectors shall make careful inquiry as to shipper and owner of same, and trans- 
portation company handling same, for the purpose of instituting prosecution under 
the law provided in such cases. 

All animals entering stock yards wherp inspection exists shall be carefully 
inspected and those affected with the contagious diseases above mentioned shall 
be condemned and tagged, and when so condemned shall not bo shipped therefrom 
or enter into the interstate trade; and all violations of this regulation should be 
immediately reported to the Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry for insti- 
tution of prosecution according to law. 

J, Sterling Morton, Secretary, 

(B. A. I. Ordeh Kg. 5.) 

transportation of sheep affected with scabies. 

U, S. Department of Agriculture, 

Office of the Secretary, 
Washington, D. C. , June 18, 1S07, 

To the Managers and Agents of Railroads and Transportation Companies of tlie 
United States, Stockmen, and Oiliers: 

In accordance with section 7 of the act of CJongress approved May 29, 1884, 
entitled ' 'An act for the establishment of a Bureau of Animal industry, to prevent 
the exportation of diseased cattle, and to provide means for the suppression and 
extirpation of pleuropneumonia and other contagious diseases among domestic 
animals,"^ and of the act of Congress approved April 23, 1807, making appropriation 
for the Department of Agriculture for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1898, 
you are hereby notified that the contagious disease known as sheep scab, or scabies 



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152 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

of sheep, exists among sheep in the United States, and that it is a violation of the 
law to receive for transportation or transport any stock affected with said disease 
from one St^te or Territory to another, or from any State into the District of 
Columbia, or from the District into any State. It is also a violation of the law for 
any person, company, or corporation to deliver for such transportation to any 
railroad company, or master or owner of any boat or vessel, any sheep, knowing 
them to be affected with said disease; and it Is also unlawful for any person, com- 
pany, or corporation to drive on foot or transport in private conveyance from one 
State or Territory to another, or from any State into the District of Columbia, or 
from the District into any State, any sheep, knowing them to be affected with said 
disease. All transportation companies and individuals shipping, driving, or trans- 
porting sheep are requested to cooperate with this Department in enforcing the 
law for preventing the spread of the said disease. Inspectors of the Bureau of 
Animal Industry are directed to report all violations of this act which come to 
their attention. 

In order to more effectually accomplish the object of the above-mentioned laws, 
it is hereby ordered that any railroad cars, boats, or other vehicles, which have 
been used in the transportation of sheep affected with said disease, shall be imme- 
diately cleaned and disinfected by the owners or by the transportation companies 
in whose possession said cars or vehicles may be at the time the animals are 
unloaded, by first removing all litter and manure which they contain, and then 
saturating the wood- work with a 5 'per cent solution of crude carbolic acid in 
water. Inspectors of the Bureau of Animal Industry are directed to see that this 
order is carried into effect. 

James Wilson, Secretary, 

NOTICE OF ENFORCEMENT OF THE LAW. 

These orders constitute the notice as to the existence of the disease, 
and call the attention of transportation companies, stockmen, and 
others to the provisions of the law. Anyone who violates this law or 
the regulations made in accordance therewith will be subject to the 
penalty, and can no longer plead ignorance or lack of notice. Owing 
to an insufficient number of inspectors during the past years, the 
Department has not been as active in seeking out and prosecuting 
offenders against this statute as the importance of the matter demands. 
There have undoubtedly been many shippers, as well as transportation 
companies, who have rendered themselves liable to prosecution and 
who have not been proceeded against, but it should not be concluded 
that, because the penalty has been escaped in a few instances, this 
immunity will continue. The inspection force is now competent to 
deal with this subject, and the Department of Agriculture will here- 
after take such steps as may be required to stop the dissemination of 
this contagion through the channels of interstate commerce. In such 
action the Department will have the assistance and cooperation of all 
good citizens, and particularly of all of those who are interested in 
the sheep industry. There is probably no disease in this country, 
with the exception of hog cholera, which causes greater losses among 
the domestic animals than does sheep scab, and at the same time none 
which is so easily, cheaply, and certainly cured. It is, therefore, dis- 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 153 

creditable to the intelligence and practical qualities of our people 
that this contagion should still be rampant and continually distrib- 
uted through the channels of commerce. 

All sheep owners who expect to ship or drive their sheep across State 
lines should assure themselves before the animals are started that 
scab does not exist among them. In case symptoms of the disease are 
discovered, the animals should be dipped and cured before they leave 
the farm. The information in this bulletin is sufficient to enable 
anyone to cure this disease with a minimum of trouble and expense. 
There will hereafter be no excuse for those who claim that they are 
unacquainted with the nature of the disease or with the methods of 
treatment. 

EFFECT OF MEAT-INSPECTION REGULATIONS. 

Sheep suffering from scab are affected by the meat-inspection law 
and regulations, as well as by those mentioned above. Section 6 of 
these regulations provides as follows: 

6. The inspector in charge of said establishment shall carefnlly inspect all 
animals in the pens of said establishment abont to be slaughtered, and no animal 
shall be allowed to pass to the slaughtering room until it has been so inspected. 
All animals found on either ante-mortem or post-mortem examination to be 
affected as follows are to be condemned and the carcasses thereof treated as 
indicated in section 7: 

(1) Hog cholera. 

(2) Swine plague. 

(3) Charbon, or anthrax. 

(4) Rabies. 

(5) Malignant epizootic catarrh. 

(6) -Pyaemia and septicaemia. 

(7) Mange, or scab, in advanced stages. 

(8) Advanced stages of actinomycosis, or lumpy jaw. 

(9) Inflammation of the lungs, the intestines, or the peritoneum. 

(10) Texas fever. 

(11) Extensive or generalized tuberculosis. 

(12) Animals in an advanced stage of pregnancy or which have recently given 
birth to young. 

(13) Any disease or injury causing elevation of temperature or affecting the 
system of the animal to a degree which would make the flesh unfit for human 
food. 

Any organ or part of a carcass which is badly bruised or affected by tubercu- 
losis, actinomycosis, cancer, abscess, suppurating sore, or tapeworm cysts must 
be condemned. 

Instructions have been issued to inspectors to rigidly enforce these 
regulations. Sheep in an advanced stage of scab are feverish and 
unfit for food, and their carcasses will be condemned. Shippers who 
forward animals for slaughter in this condition will be likely to lose 
heavily upon them, as they will be subject to quarantine and con- 
demnation. This is an additional and important reason for curing 
affected animals before they leave the feeding place. 



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154 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

Failure to observe the laws and regulations as they relate to this 
disease will in many cases result in hardship and loss. In order to 
avoid such unpleasant results so far as possible and to facilitate the 
control of the disease this article has been pi*epared. It is believed 
that there has been brought together herein all the information 
needed by the sheep owner to successfully combat this scourge of 
American flocks. 



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IXTESTIGATIONS RELATITE TO SHEEP SCAB. 

The Department of Agrictilture, acting nnder authority ^iven it by 
law, issued the order to be found on page 151, prohibiting the trans- 
portation of animals affected with hog cholera, tuberculosis, or sheep 
scab. Inspectors were placed in the field to enforce these regula- 
tions so far as possible, and their reports are embodied in this article. 

During the spring months of 1897 the Bureau of Animal Industry 
received information from various sources that its regulations were 
not being fully complied with, especially that portion wliich relates 
to the transportation of sheep affected with scab. It was stated that 
some transportation companies were not only aware that sheep whidi 
they carried were affected with scab, but that they shipped them 
around points wiiere the Bureau inspectors were located to the feed 
yards in the vicinity of Chicago. It was therefore necessary for tlie 
Bureau to make an investigation of this charge, and this was at once 
instituted. The inspectors who were detailed upon this work were 
directed to visit sheei)-feeding stations at certain points, find how 
many sheep arc being fed or are fed during the season, the condition 
when received and when shipped, the points whence the sheep came; 
and, further, to reiK)rt upon the condition of the feeding stations — 
their vats for dipping, if any, the size of pastures and yards, and the 
sanitary condition of the sheds. These reports form the principal 
part of this article. 

REPORT FROM DR. N. P. HINKLEY. 

On April 17, 181)7, Dr. N. P. Hinkley, inspector in charge at lUifialo, 
N. Y., informed the Bureau of Animal Industry that he was (juite 
sure that sheep affected with scab were being delivered in that 
city, sometimes escaping the vigilance of the inspectors, and that 
they were coming fi-om the States of Ohio, Iowa, and Michigan. Tlie 
conditions which admitted of this elusion of the authorities were 
promptly rectified. An inspector was stationed at the stock yards, 
and such instructions were given him as to insure a thorough inspec- 
tion of every head of sheep arriving there. This inspector began his 
duties at the yards April 1, and on that first day detected and con- 
demned 105 head of scabby sheep and for the next week condemned 
from one to five double-deck loads. AVhile most of these diseased 
animals could be detected only by a x)erson of experience in scabies, 
and showed evidence of recent treatment, 3'et on each one condemned 
was found the live mite {Psovo2)tes communis var. ovis). All tlieso 
sheep were from Miclilgaji. 

155 



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156 BUREAU OK ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

All of the yards, chutes, alleys, scale yards, and cars with which 
these animals had come in contact were thoroughly cleaned and dis- 
infected, under the supervision of the inspector in charge. 

Dr. Hinkley was afterwards informed that a certain commission 
merchant of Buffalo had 30,000 head of sheep at Pontiac, Mich., 
which he was feeding for the Buffalo market. He was also informed 
that these sheep had been dipped twice and were supposed to be 
cured ; but shipping them to Pontiac in cars which evidently had not 
been properly cleaned and disinfected again developed the disease. 

The Bureau of Animal Industry, under date of April 22, directed 
Dr. Hinkley to go to Pontiac, Mich., and make a careful inspection 
of the sheep referred to by him. If any were found to be affected 
with the scab he was directed to notify the railroads and also the 
owner of the regulations issued by this Department in accordance 
with law. The report of this inspector follows: 

Buffalo, N. Y., May 7, 1897. 

Sir: As requested in your instructions of the 22d ultimo, I have visited the town 
of Pontiac, Mich., and vicinity, and made a careful inspection of different flocks 
of sheep which are being fed there for this and other markets, and which I had 
reason to believe were affected with the scab. 

I arrived at Pontiac on April 27, and after some inquiries located several differ- 
ent ranches where sheep were being fed. The first one visited was about 7 miles 
distant, and there were there about 4,500 head. They were confined in well-built 
sheds, but very much crowded for room. It was explained that the purpose of 
keeping these animals in such close quarters was to hasten their fattening by not 
allowing them to move around any more than was absolutely necessary. They 
were well fed, with good, wholesome food — roots, clover hay, corn meal, and 
wheat bran, with a good supply of water. The sanitary condition of the build- 
ings was fairly good, yet I found about 25 per cent of this herd affected with scab 
(Psoroptes communis var. ovis) in a mild form. None of them were in an advanced 
condition or seemed to suffer inconvenience, yet a careful inspection disclosed the 
presence of the disease upon some part of the body. 

These sheep had been purchased at different times, with a number of others 
(which he had sold), on the Chicago market last fall. They were '* Mexican" 
sheep, and were more or less affected with scab when they were purchased. They 
had been dipped in the fall in a preparation of Little's dip (a crude carbolic-acid 
preparation) and were supposed to be cured, as no signs of scab had been seen 
among them until January I, 1897. At this time they were again dipped and 
again supposed to be cured, and the owner was surprised when he learned that 
the disease still existed in his flock. On inquiry, I found that the necessary pre- 
caution of thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting all of his buildings after dipping 
his sheep had not been taken, and consequently they again became infected as 
soon as they were placed back in the contaminated buildings. 

The owner of the flock was under the impression that dipping the sheep once 
was all that was actually necessary to destroy the parasite, thus ridding the ani- 
mal of the disease, and was not aware that the unhatched larvsB were not destroyed 
by this dip. This error, with the uncleaned and contaminated sheds, was the 
cause of the reinfection of his flock. I therefore suggested a thorough and sys- 
tematic cleaning and disinfection of all the buildings, sheds, and yards with which 
the sheep came in contact, collecting all unused bedding, offal, tags of wool in or 
attached to the woodwork, carting the same away to be cremated; then to thor- 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 157 

onghly wash all woodwork with a hot carbolized wash, and to whitewash after- 
wards with carbolized lime; then to shear the animals and dip them twice, at 
intervals of abont seven to ten days; to closely watch all the sheep afterwards 
and isolate and quarantine, and repeat the dipping of any that showed signs of 
scab. I also notified the owner not to ship any sheep which had scab or had been 
exposed to the contagion nnder penalty of prosecution. He signified his willing- 
ness to obey the rnles and regulations of this Department covering this matter, 
and was grateful to the Department for sending an inspector there to aid him in 
stamping out the disease. 

I would also report that when I arrived at this farm four cars were loaded with 
sheep which were slightly affected with scab. These were to be sent to the Buffalo 
market. I advised that they be unloaded and returned to the sheds and the cars 
properly cleaned and disinfected. This was cheerfully complied with. 

The next farm or feeding sheds I visited was about 6 miles from Pontiac. 
Here I found a very extensive plant — large, well-built sheds, shearing houses, 
feed rooms, wool rooms, etc. The farm was well watered with a small river 
flowing directly through the entire farm. In these sheds I found 25,000 sheep aU 
closely crowded together. The feed was the same as for the previous fiock — 
clover hay, roots, com meal, and wheat bran in plentiful quantities. However, I 
found scab to the same extent (about 25 per cent) but in a more advanced form. 

The owner informed me that these sheep were principally from Colorado, but 
some were "Mexican," and that quite a number were affected with scab at the 
time he purchased them last fall. He had dipped them twice in the fall and had 
not seen any signs of scab until it broke out this spring. He had been trying 
hard to stamp it out of his fiocks by dipping, using Little's dip. A large and 
substantial dipping trough had been built, but, as was the case on the farm first 
mentioned, the pens, sheds, etc., had not been cleaned and disinfected, and other 
necessary precautions were not taken, hence his failure in ridding his animals of 
scab. I was also informed by this owner that he had lost between 800 and 1 ,000 
head of sheep during the past nine months and he thought their death was due 
to scab. 

I remained a day and a half at this farm, advising and suggesting the necessary 
systematic quarantining of the entire farm until the disease was stamped out. I 
advised a thorough cleaning and disinfection of all his pens, sheds, yards, shear- 
ing sheds, car chutes, etc. ; also instructed him in the proper manner of dipping, 
shearing, and redipping. He readily consented to all of this, and in fact began at 
once the work while I was there. He was notified not to ship any sheep having 
scab or which had been exx>osed to scab. 

The superintendents of the three railways were visited and notified not to 
receive any animals affected with scab or any contagious disease. They were 
also directed to disinfect thoroughly all of their cai-s that carried sheep, and to 
clean and disinfect their chutes and loading yards at least once a week. These 
officials treated me courteously and promised to have my instructions carefully 
carried out. 

Several other small farms or feeding sheds in the vicinity of Pontiac were 
visited, where I found from 50 to 200 head on each being fed for market. All 
these sheep were carefully examined but no scab could be found. 

I then returned to Detroit and visited the stock yards there, and was informed 
by the superintendent of the stock yards that sheep affected with scab were fre- 
quently brought into the yard for shipment to the Buffalo and Chicago markets. 
Thereupon I called upon the superintendents of the several railroads and trans- 
portation companies handling or trafficking in sheep and formally notified them 
not to receive, ship, or handle sheep affected with any contagious disease, leaving 
with each a copy of the rules and regulations of this Department. I would report 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



158 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

that all of the above officials seemed anxious to comply with the mles and regu- 
lations concerniug the handling, shipping, etc., of animals having scab or aoj 
other contagions disease. 

I would also add that since my arriyal home there has been only now and then 
a sheep affected with scab coming into onr market ; and I am of opinion that, if 
all the precautions and instructions I have giren to the owners of sheep at thefir 
ranches, where the disease was found, is carried out, it will be the means of 
stamping out the disease completely in that locality. 
Respectfully, 

Nelson P. Hdcklky, Inspector, 
Dr. D. E. Salmon, 

Chief of Bureau of Animal Industrn, 

On June 4, Dr. Hinkley supplemented the above report as follows: 

I desire to report to you that all sheep received at the Buffalo stock yards for 
the past five weeks and up to date from Pontiac, Mich., and vicinity are found 
to be in a healthy condition and free from scabb 

REPORT FROM DR. T. A. GEDDES. 

The Chief of the Bureau, under date of May 22, 1897, addressed 
the collowing instructions to Dr. T. A. Geddes, at Davenport, Iowa: 

I wish to obtain as full information as possible concerning the interstate ship- 
ment of sheep affected with scab. In order to avoid having such sheep sub- 
jected to the regulations of the Bureau, I am informed that they are being shipped 
around points where there are no inspectors stationed, such as Kansas City and 
Omaha, to certain feeding stations, and there fed for a time and shipped to Chi- 
cago and the East. I desire that you ascertain what roads usually carry such 
sheep, and whether they do so with the knowledge that they are diseased sheep ; the 
condition of these feeding stations and the sheep at them; the owners of the same; 
where the sheep originated; whether they were diseased when shipped: and all 
the information which you can obtain pertaining thereto. If diseased sheep are 
found, you will deliver to the owner a copy of the order relating to the shipment of 
same, and also deliver copies to the railroad agents at that point. * ♦ » 

In accordance with tliese instructions, Dr. Geddes visited sevei'al 
feeding stations near Chicago and reported his observations to this 
Bureau from time to time. 

At Streator he found one farm of 2,200 acres of timber and farm 
land, with aSn. excellent stream of water running its entire length, 
making a perfect grazing farm for sheep. The owner was feeding 
2,000 of his own sheep here on June 4. About May 1, 900 head had 
been received from Utah; the others came from Texas and Kansas 
City. A careful examination revealed 9 which were affected with 
scab. ITiese cases were in the early stages. On June 3 there was 
received at this farm 900 head from Hutchinson, Kans., but tliese 
were reloaded the same day. Four in the lot were found, upon close 
inspection, to be affected with scab. On the same day 500 head were 
received from Texas, but these were found to be free from disease. 
Twenty-five hundred more came on June 4 from Midland, Tex., and 
were also free from scab. The owner of the last-mentioned flock 
informed Dr. Geddes that the railway companies would take sheep 



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FOUBTEENTH MSHUVAL REPORT. 159 

suffering from scab, if the owner would take the risk of their being 
stopped by a Government inspector. 

Most of the sheep received at the above farm remain from a week 
to ten days and are then shipped to Chicago. Another farm was 
visited at Streator, where there yf&re 2,200 sheep from Laredo, Tex. 
These had gone to Chicago by mistake and wei'e dipped there, and 
were in good condition and free from disease. There was also on this 
farm a flock of GOO sheep from Colorado, which had been purchased 
in Kansas City. Three only of this lot were found affected with scab. 

Dr. Greides found it almost impossible to get from the agents of the 
railway companies any information regarding the shipment of sheep, 
and for this reason was hampered in his work at Streator. 

At 3 miles from Aurora the insi)ector found three feeding shells, 
each 300 feet long and 200 feet wide. Thej^ are well ventilated and 
in good sanitaiy condition so far as cleanliness is concerned. This 
station has a well-equipped dipping vat About 70,000 sheep were 
received here weekly during the ten weeks prior to June 15. The 
gentleman in charge of this feeding station stated that very little scab 
affected the flocks which had been there. He also stated that all 
sheep showing signs of the disease were dipped, using any kind of dip 
the shippers desired. The lime-and-sulphur dip was used principally. 

The inspector visited Lafox on June 18 and found about 18,000 
head feeding there. These were bought at the stock yards at Omaha, 
Nebr. No scab was detected. The proprietor of this station handles 
about 500,000 sheep annually, most of them coming from Colorado, 
New Mexico, and Wyoming. 

On June 17 Dr. Geddes visited the grass-feeding station, about 3 
miles from Piano, which is now operated in connection with the dry- 
feeding station at Aurora. Seven thousand sheep were found here, 
all in rather poor condition. An inspection showed 5 with scab in 
the early stages. 

The Bureau, under date of June 20, directed Dr. Geddes to visit 
several additional points in the vicinity of Chicago, and his reports 
are summarized in the following paragraphs: 

Piano, — July 13: Received during the first week in July one flock 
of 2,700 sheep from Salt Lake City, Utah, 10 per cent of which had 
scab; were reloaded and shipped to Chicago. There were also 
received 5,700 head, coming from Buffalo, Wyo., which were free 
from disease. Also reloaded and shipped to Chicago. July 22: Dur- 
ing last five days 2,800 sheep have been received from Billings, Mont., 
and 1,200 from Buffalo, Wyo. The first flock was free from disease, 
but a touch of the scab was found in the latter flock, although they 
had been dipped twice before starting from Wyoming. 

Sfjcamore. — August 6: The feed yards and buildings are located on 
the Chicago Great Western Railway, one-half mile from Sycamore, 
and are owned by this railix)ad, but are rented to private firms. The 



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160 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

yards contain about 10 acres, and have three buildings, or sheds. Two 
of these are 320 feet long and 165 feet wide, and the other 175 by 75 
feet wide. These are all well lighted, roomy, and in a fair sanitary 
condition. Tl^e first two have a capacity of 11,000 head and the other 
a capacity of 4,500 head. The firm which rents the two large sheds 
handles about 100,000 head every year, being itself the owner of the 
sheep. It contracts with neighboring farmers for pasturage. There 
are no sheep at these two sheds at this time. 

The gentleman who rents the small shed handles about 50,000 sheep 
each year. They are purchased in Utah. He has no sheep on hand 
at this time. 

This station has a straight dipping vat 90 feet long and 4 feet deep. 
Every sheep arriving at these yards is dipped before it is put out 
among the farmers. 

There is another shed a mile east of the above yards. The owner 
does not expect to use it this year. When it is in use he dips at the 
yards mentioned above. 

Kirkland, — August 7: The feedijig station at this point is located 
one-half mile west of Kirkland, and contains 12 acres of yards, and 
two sheds 300 feet long and 150 feet wide, also a smaU dipping vat.. 
This yard is owned by a man who last year handled 1,000,000 sheep, 
including dry-fed and grass sheep. He has 2,300 acres of good grass 
land, with a large stream of water running the entire length of the 
tract. He also contracts with other farmers for additional pasture. 
This gentleman has on hand at this time 3,000 grass sheep, owned by 
a Chicago firm and shipped from Kansas City. All are free from dis- 
ease. At one time last winter there were here 46,000 sheep under 
cover, and all that remained thirty days were dipped. Two more 
sheds, 300 feet long and 165 feet wide, are l)eing built. About Sep- 
tember 1 it is intended to build a dipping vat 100 feet long and 4 feet 
deep. These yards and sheds are lighted by electricity. 

Byron. — August 9: Found one sheep-feeding shed, 250 feet long 
and 100 feet wide, located one-half mile east of Byron. It is owned 
by the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway, and rented by a 
gentleman who is largely interested in the feeding yards at Sycamore. 
No sheep have been fed here for some time; in fact, feeding is prac- 
tically abandoned. There is no dipping vat at this station. Every- 
thing here is in fair sanitary condition. 

Savanna, — August 10: The sheep-feeding station here has been 
abandoned, the sheds having been removed to Kirkland. The yards 
here contain 16 acres and are fitted for cattle feeding. There are now 
no provisions for feeding sheep. 

Morris, — August 12: The station at Stockdale is located 3^ miles 
west of Morris on the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway, and 
is owned by this railroad and rented to a private citizen. There are 
here 10 acres of yards and 700 acres of pasture; two sheds 330 feet 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 161 

long and 155 feet wide; a dipping vat 90 feet long and 5 feet deep. 
This station handles about 150,000 sheep per year, including both 
grass and dry feeders. No sheep are here at present, 3,700 having 
just been shipped to Chicago. These were from Hailey, Idaho. This 
yard is very well equipped for handling sheep; the buildings and 
fences are nicely whitewashed and in good sanitary condition. All 
sheep which are kept here from thirty to sixty days are dipped. Dry 
feeding will begin October 1. 

Freeport. — August 13: The sheep-feeding station is located 4} miles 
south of Freeport. There are two sheds 250 feet long and 150 feet 
wide and a dipping vat 48 feet long and 4 feet deep. The sheds are 
being completely overhauled preparatory to dry feeding, which will 
begin October 1. There are no yards and pasturage in connection 
with this station. The Chicago Great Western Railway owns this 
station and rents it to a private citizen. 

Liiulenwood, — August 12: The station for feeding sheep at Linden- 
wood is located at the dei)ot. There are here two sheds 250 long and 
150 feet wide, also a dipping vat 48 feet long and 4 feet deep. No 
sheep are here now and will not be until October 1. 

Rockefeller, — August 20: There is a small feeding station located at 
this point having one shed 200 feet long and 100 feet wide, and 1 acre 
of yards. Two years ago the owner fed 5,000 sheep, but fed none 
last year. He. is now in the West buying sheep and wool. 

Dr. Geddes furnishes a general report of his inspection of these 
various sheep- feeding stations and it is published herewith : 

Memphis, Tenn., September 15, 1807. 

Sir: Regarding the results of my investigation of the sheep-feeding stations in 
Illinois. I heg to submit the following report : 

I found the sanitary condition of the sheds and yards very good, particularly at 
this season (June) of the year. The manure which had accumulated during the 
winter months in the dry- feeding sheds was eagerly sought for by the neighbor- 
ing farmers. In the case of most stations visited by me the owners had cleaned 
and whitewashed their buildings preparatory to the beginning of the dry-feeding 
season — September and October. 

Many of the feeding stations were not supplied with dipping vats until this 
sea&on. and many of these were being built at the time of my visit. In these dip- 
ping vats is used any one of the well-known dips that shippers may choose ; but I 
tiiink most of them use either the lime-and-sulphur or the nicotine dip. 

The sheep received at these stations came from Montana, Idaho, New Mexico, 
Utah. Tej:as, Arizona, Washington, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming 
by the way of the Chicago stock yards. I do not think that any of the sheep I 
saw at the several stations visited had been shipped around stations where inspect- 
ors were located, thereby intending to avoid inspection. 

The cases of scab which I have reported from time to time to the Department 
were very slight and could not be detected without close and careful inspection 
with the aid of a hand glass. The sheep which I inspected at Streator acted very 
much as if tJiey were affected with the scab— rubbing, biting, and pulling bits of 
wool from the flank and back; but upon closer inspection I found the wool tilled 

7204 11 ^ J 

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162 BURE4U OF AMMAL nfFDUSTRT. 

witiU a small i^aar-sfaoiped needle jgram w^aich pricks the akki, eaoBsig wouae 
sneesuiefis. 

J was told by a camber of proxoftuexit abeep feeders and sbiig>eE8 that any rail- 
road in the West woald. accept for shipment sheep suffering with scab, if the ship- 
per was wining to tal^e the chances of having his slieep stopped en route. I iras 
€bso informed that a biH of healtfa-fram Iftie different Western States coiAd easHy 
l»» obtahied, v9gtGtd\eBB of ilie conation at Khe Amvp. One dipper from XJt«^ hmM. 
^ivatfa himaidlean biiA of Jaaaith, while about lOper eent of lis bIbc^ wwb fvafferins 
from scab. 

In talkii^g with these feeders, I find that moat of them Beam veiy anxiovs to 
cooperate in any way they can-with the "State and Federal inspectors. But they 
complain that tbelaws r^ating to the control at seal) in the-varions States are ncFt 
enforced, nor are the inspeotoirs an^o aw appointed ^n couaties and distriots conkr 
petei]^ 'to perform tkmr ^erk. 

I believe that part of Otdier Ufa. r^^of JuselS, lB97:»'i3«gaBrdlnf tke^JMiinffictictt of 
oavs, is very poorly complied with by the railway*' eon^paaies. They say they oan 
not tell scab in its early stages. At some of the feeding stations where scab is 
detected a tag is placed on the car directing that it be returned from Chicago to 
the feeding fitatf on for the purpose of disinfection. As ^wce are no inspectors at 
Cluae feeding stations, 7 ffarinik 3ittle<ttsiiifcction is done^mfl SMsy ^ ^e cava are 
aat retiNiBed at all. 

Respectfully, T^ A. GcfiDiiS, 

Inspecter, 

Dr. D. £. SM^fOK, 

Cliief of Bureau of Animal Indxustry, 

fifiPOBa* FROM B&. SOBKKT H. TBOSACY. 

Under instructions from the Bureau, dated February 24, 1897, Dr. 
Robert H. Treacy visited several points in Iowa where sheep were being 
fed, to ascertain the pa*evalen.oe of scab iuid also its source. At Ash- 
ton be obtained the information tbAt a iurm -of she^ dealers, durim^ 
^0 years 1^9 to 1698, inehmr^e, kad fdiipped 40,0^ fihmp from Wis- 
consin ftnd Miebig«n to poTWts rn Scmth Dakota. H«^ tJhey iwre Ham- 
trfbuted in small 1^001:8 among the farmers, being sold on iiime, and 
paid for in wool and wetliers. These slieep remained liealthy until 
1893, when another dealer brought in 6,000 liead from Montana, and 
disti41»ttted them in the same n6igh[berlMK>d in tke eam^ way. Those 
latter «heep were affected with ^^he scab, wbiciii mpm»A tduwngk ail tlM 
flocks on the summer ranges, largely thougli the excteeng© of bne^s, 
until it now exists, so far as Dr. Treacy could learn from people wtio 
have a money interest in sheep, in several counties of South Dakota, 
namely, Hyde, Hand, Spink, SuUy, Pfl^tei*, Clark, Marshall, And Faulk. 
A great mamy of them she^ ooone snte Iowa for ifeedtng parposcs. 

Judging from their m^rtrliods dl hfrndllng sheep here, it is safete so^ 
that scab will remain in both ^ates. The sheep are dipped after 
shearing but once, and the feeders dip again before goiing into winter 
feeding. 



'This order appears on p. 151. 

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FOUSnaCNTH AMKUAI. REFa«T. 163 

At a later dat« Dr. Treacy writes as follows from Battle Creek : 

So far as I can learn from observation, from commission metf at Sioux City, 
and from stock agents whom I luure mat, 1 am of opinion that only a small per- 
centre of the sheep going to market from Iowa are raised there. The larger 
nnmber come frc^i small ranches in l^orth Dakota, Sonth Dakota, Wyoming, 
Montana, and Colorado. The reason given for this is that there are more small 
breeders in these States, who sell their sheep on the farm. The large breeders 
market their own flocks. 

Dr. Treaey's farther observation at this point was that sheep on 
the large ranches were healthier than those on small ones, as the 
sheep on the large ranches are dipped regularly and handled by 
experienced help. 

At Ida Grove a flock of 3,000 sheep were inspected, 2,200 of which 
were "Colorado*," brewght in September 15, 1896; they were healthy 
then. Eight hnndred were brought in from South Dakota October 
27. This latter number was scabby. Both lots were fed in the same 
yard. The South Dakota sheep were dipped at Omaha once, but 
scab reappeared in January. Although these have been dipped 
twice since, scab has now appeared again. A load of these sheep 
was placed on tbe Chicago JUArket March 1; 500 are being I^eld for 
shipment to Missouri for breeding purposes; and the balance will be 
sent to market as soon as they are put in condrtion. 

At Artbui- Dr. Treacy inspected a flock of 750 sbeep^ 250 of which 
had oosie froai South Dakota. These wece affected with the scab 
soon after arriving at the farm. They were all dipped twice and aoe 
now healtiry. Ills 'ooeeluding repoi*t was as follows: 

An AMOS A, Iowa, Marr^i SS, 1S97, 

Sir: I have visited all points in Iowa, tn accordance with instructions, and have 
to report that I found sheep scab in every county visited except Jones. There 
was in this county last winter a floc^ of 840 ^eep affected with scab, but on this 
acconat were marketed on Jacmary 22. 

I would estimate the loss from scab to the feeders of this State to be about 15 
X)er cent of the natural profits of the business. Some were forced to pxTt sheep on 
the mai fe e t before they were prime, find ethers have held back and lost a great 
tall qI tfae -wooL Owi i tj flodss wffise vearly miked. 

The farmers here are in the sheep )memiomt^ fiaew. AU am loeksng for fAeep, 
They axe afraid of scalv however, Yeiy Jew knewias anything about it. 

My information leads me to believe that Montaaa and the western parts of 
l^orth Dakota and South Dakota have healthy sheep. Montana, in fact, is sup- 
posed to have been free from sheep scab since 1893. This is what I am told, but 
I tepe BO a ctmiji o zvformatioiii. New Mexico, OefteraAe, Utah, Wyonrmg, the 
southern portion of North Dakota, andttexifar^aDBfica of donth Dakota, with 
tlM«xo6^tiflii of thea:e0«n»itioB» aeei^ltoetod waAb ifafiep flo^ im a great extent. 



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164 



BUREAU OP ANIMAT. INDUSTRY. 



The following table shows the flocks affected by the scab which were visited by 
me, the locality, and the States whence imported: 

Table showing the flocks of scabby sheep inspected in Iowa, 



Town. 


County. 


Number. 


Whence i>urchiised. 


Ashley 


Osceola 


230 
2.800 
ol2 
677 
460 
487 
470 
732 
700 
467 
388 
200 
442 
1,170 
1,150 


South Dakota. ■• 


Arthur 


Ida 


Colorado and S. Dakota. 


Battle Creek 


. ..do 


South Dakota. 


Eldora . ..,. 


Hardin 


California. 


Now Providence 


do 


Colorado. 


Union - 


do 


Mexico. 


Do 


do 


Colorado. 


Do 


do 


New Mexico. 


Do 


do 


Do. 


Do 


do 


Do. 


Do 


do 


Do. 


Do 


do 


Do. 


Brooklyn ............ 


Poweshiek 

. . .do 


Do. 


Do . 


Do. 


Do 


do 


Do. 









a This flock had at first 850 sheep, but all but 12 were shipped in February. 

6 This flock had originally 883 sheep, but all but 77 were shipped thirty days ago. 

One feeder at Malcolm had 500 sheep free from scab. He had 1,500 head in the 
fall, but had shipped them, afterwards selling 1,000 healthy ones. At this point 
I inspected three other flocks of 787, 514, and 180 head, respectively, and found 
them all free from the disease. They were diseased in the fall, but had been 
dipped. 

Respectfully, Robert H. Treacy, 

Inspector, 
Dr. D. E. Salmon, 

Chief of Bureau of Animal Industry, 

REPORT FROM DR. DON C. AYER. 

Dr. Don C. Ayer, inspector at South Omaha, reported the delivery 
at that place of scabby sheep as follows. In each instance the 
Bureau promptly notified the shipper and the railroad transporting 
the sheep that it was in violation of law, and inclosed the regulations 
of this Department governing such cases: 

July 22: Two cars containing 436 sheep affected with scab w^i*© 
received from Casper, Wyo. They had been fed at Grand Island, 
Nebr. 

March 24: A consignment of sheep from Sidney, Nebr., received, 
215 of which were affected with scab. 

April 17: Four hundred and thirty-three sheep from Magdalena, 
N. Mex., and 903 from Las Vegas, N. Mex., all affected with scab, 
were received. 

April 27: There were delivered 238 head of scabby sheep from 
Raymond, Nebr.; 1,239 from Las Vegas, N. Mex.; 476 from Hooi)er, 
Nebr. , and 434 from another shipper at Hooper, Nebr. 

uigiiizea oy v^jOOv Iv^ 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 165 

May 18: A Colorado dealer delivered 1,084 head affected with scab. 
May 21: There were delivered from Socorro, N. Mex., 253 head of 
Bcabby sheep. 

The information embodied in the above reports showed that proper 
care was not being exercised by shippers and transportation com- 
panies to prevent the interstate shipment of sheep, and consequently 
many flocks of sheep having scab were delivered at the feeding sta- 
tions preparatory to being placed upon the markets of Chicago and 
the cities farther east. So far as possible the offender in each case 
was notified by letter of his duty under the law, and Order No. 5 ^ 
was given the widest circulation among sheep men and transporta- 
tion companies. 



> This order appears on p. 151. 



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A^THEAX IN THE LOIOIR MISSISSIPPI TALLET. 

3>iirin^ the spring amd snmmer af 1896 there preTafled iti the norfh- 
em part of the State of Lomsiana and tn a few of the adjommg cown- 
ties of Mississippi and Artausas an esceptionaTly irtdespread and 
fatal epizootic of anthrax, or, as the disease is named by Fretich- 
spealci unpeoples, charbon. In the extern! of eouirtry infects, and in 
the number of animals attacked, this otrtbr^ak of anthrax is unprece- 
dented in the scant historj'^ of the disease as it has appeared in the 
United States. 

EXTENT OF INFECTED TERRFFORY. 

The infected territory was situated in one of the richest agricultural 
districts of the lower Mississippi Valley. It included Madison, More- 
house, Richland, Tensas, Concordia, East Carroll, and West Carroll 
parishes in Louisiana; Phillips and Chicot counties in Arkansas; 
and Bolivar, Issaquena, and Claiborne counties in Mississippi. Loui- 
siana suffered by far the most severely, not only as to the extent of 
territory infected, but also as to the virulence of the plague. In that 
State several thousands of horses, mules, cattle, and hogs were 
attacked, and in some parishes a heavy percentage of them died. A 
few instances also occurred of its communication to man. In some 
localities a veritable panic prevailed. The loss of large numbers of 
farm animals, at a season when the crops were being made and har- 
vested, seriously crippled agricultural operations, and the irreparable 
losses by small farmers of their entire animal power deprived many 
of them of the very necessities of life. 

In Mississippi and Arkansas the infect»ed territory comprised a 
much smaller area than in Louisiana, and the epidemic assumed in 
those States a much less sweeping and virulent form. In Mississippi 
the cases were few in number, and in Arkansas heavy losses were 
reported from Chicot County only. 

INFORMATION, AND EFFORTS TO SUPPRESS THE DISEASE. 

The press of the State devoted liberal space to news and discussions 
regarding the epidemic, and the opinions of leading veterinarians as 
to its cause, treatment, and prevention were eagerly sought for and 
given wide dissemination. Both Federal and State authorities wei*e 
earnestly requested to suggest some means of staying the plague, 
and in the meantime recourse was had to every prophylactic and 
curative measure that veterinary science, observant experience, or 
mere empiricism could suggest. 

166 ^ T 

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FOUXTEBirrH AKKUAL R£P<mT. 167 

HISTORY OF TBS ffWflKiAftf: IS MIHfiMWPW A5I> LOUISIANA. 

It is significant that reliable evidence exists tliat antlirax prevailed 
in several localities of tlie lower ]ffississippi Valley at an early period, 
and has appeared locally at irregular intervals ever since. In 1836 
a disease then known as "choking quinsy^ prevailed in several coun- 
ties of the swamp region of the State of Mississippi. The symptoms 
as described indicate that the disease was none other than true 
anthrax. In 1865 many cases were again reported from the same 
region, and in the spring of 1867, a season that was marked by an 
unusually severe drouth, an epidemic of anthrax set in, from which 
it is said that scarcely a mule escaped and 90 per cent of those 
affects died ; years elapsed before the planters recovered from their 
losses. Since 1867 the disease has prevailed more or less in the same 
localities, and the years 1875, 1876, 1881, 1882, and 1889 were marked 
by light epidemics. In the northern part of the neighboring State of 
Louisiana the disease seems likewise to have prevailed for a consider- 
able i>eriod, and in the scant literature ujwn the subject occasional 
reference is made to local outbreaks of anthrax there, or of a strik- 
ingly similar disease, for a period covering almost half a century. In 
the same parishes that were affected In Louisiana in 1896 an epidemic, 
far less fatal and more restricted in area, occurred in 1884; but since 
then this section is said to have been practically free from the disease. 

PBOBABLE ORIGIN OF THE DISEASE. 

Th© exaet origin of this epidemio is not k»own, btrt with the scien- 
tific knowiedge tiiat » i>©w Imd oi t^ can«e of anthrax, and of the 
lAeteorriogical and other emiiditioRS that favor its development and 
spread, the pwbaUe ortgin can be cmrmieed with considerable con- 
fideiioe. 

Anthrax i» said to have been boeasionally observed in a sporadic 
form in the alluTial distriets of sontiiem Louisiana ever since the 
settleiBe«t of that eo«ntry. Authentic records of its ravages, how- 
erer, ai^ somewhat scarce, and up to recent years a lack of scientific 
knowledge of the pathology of the disease has made intelligent inves- 
tigation impossible. It is now, however, a well-known characteristic 
of this malady that when it is once introduced upon premises the soil, 
grass, plants, water, and other substances are liable to become 
impregoAieA with ikm gems of iiie dteease. These germs are then 
very vetesiive of vitality and Biay lemain pathegenio fot* years, so 
that animak whiefa afterwards gi*aae npon these lai^s or are fed upon 
the pnMbiels of tbem are liable to ooiitrjwit the oontagio«. From the 
juost remote tuftes, hi ail countries where anthrax has prevailed, 
limds nfma whieh it has existed have been obserred to be disease- 
prodaeiiig agents for long perieds jrfterwards, tlMmgk ti^ easse was 

OOkAOWtt. 

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168 BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

Existing facts indicate that anthrax is enzootic in certain localities 
of Mississippi and Louisiana and that the present outbreak probably 
has some unknown correlation with outbreaks of the past. Indica- 
tions point suggestively to the fact that certain localities of these 
States may be impregnated with the germs of the disease; and it is 
important to observe that the climate and soil of the low-lying lands 
of the Mississippi Valley are of that character which is known to be 
propitious to .the long conservation of anthrax germs, and that meteor- 
ological conditions often prevail there which are extremely favorable 
to their dissemination from one locality to another. 

The localities infected in 1896 lie in the rich and fertile alluvial 
bottoms of the Mississippi Valley, and border either upon the Missis- 
sippi River or its tribut; . ies. The infected lands are invariably 
low, usually lying between the rivers and the adjacent uplands, and 
are interspersed with many swamps. These lands are almost yearly 
enriched in organic matter by springtime inundations. After the sub- 
sidence of the floods the favoring influence of a warm climate induces 
a rank and luxuriant growth of vegetation, but all extensive depres- 
sions in the soil are left covered with stagnant pools and the water 
stands deep in the ponds and marshes. Occasionally, as was the case 
in the summer of 1896, drouths of long duration follow; the ponds 
left by the inundations then subside; the herbage becomes withered; 
the pools, marshes, and smaller streams fall to a low level or dry up 
entirely; herbivorous animals are then compelled to seek water in 
the low-lying swamps and to graze either upon the rough forage of 
dried up and dusty pastures or upon the greener vegetation of low 
lands from which the water subsides only in seasons of drouth. 

In all anthrax-infected countries it has been observed for centuries 
that a mysterious correlation existed between such conditions as the 
above — that is, with respect to soil, temperature, humidity, inunda- 
tions, and drouths — and outbreaks of this peculiarly fatal disease. 
This correlation was long erroneously regarded as being that of cause 
and effect, but in recent years the science of bacteriology has demon- 
strated that these natural conditions simply furnish favorable media 
for the preservation of the germs and for the development of the dis- 
ease and are in no way its direct cause. 

THE CAUSE OP ANTHRAX. 

Nothing is more certain in medical or veterinary science than that 
the cause of anthrax, and the only cause, is the invasion of the blood 
of animals by a minut/C parasitical plant, the BaciUxis anthracis, or 
by its more minute seeds, called spores, both invisible ex<5fept under a 
powerful microscope. Where and how these vegetable organisms 
originated can probably never be known, for the disease which they 
or their seeds alone can cause has existed in many widely separated 
countries from remote antiquity. It is only certain that their exist- 

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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 169 

ence in nature was first discovered in the animal system by Davaine, 
who in 1850 demonstrated their presence in the blood of animals 
affected with anthrax, though he had no suspicion then that the plant 
caused the disease. The history of this microorganism therefore 
dates from its discovery in the animal system. Its presence else- 
where in nature— in water, upon vegetation, or in soil — whether in 
the form of plant or seed, is always regarded as being traceable to 
some former connection with animal life. 

The vitality of the BacUltis arUhrads depends upon two conditions, 
a temperature of not less than 70*' F. and the presence of oxygen. 
In its natural habitat — the blood of warm-blooded, living animals — 
these two requisites to its life are furnished by natural heat and res- 
piration. Under these conditions these parasitical plants pullulate or 
reproduce themselves in the blood with inconceivable rapidity — not 
by seeds or spores, the usual method of reproduction in plant life, 
but by a process of fission or indefinite segmentation — and thus pro- 
duce changes in the blood which usually result in sudden death, often 
without visible premonitory symptoms. After death has occurred 
the lowering of the temperature of the animal deprives the baciUi of 
the heat necessary to their existence; oxygen also fails them in the 
carcass, and they soon disappear from the blood. Moreover, the bac- 
teria of putrefaction, which multiply with unusual rapidity in the 
carcass of an animal dead of anthrax, have a peculiarly destructive 
effect upon the bacteria of anthrax and increase the rapidity of the 
di8api>earance of the latter. 

TWO FORMS OF ANTHRAX. 

Two forms of anthrax occur according as the germ of the disease 
gains access to the blood through the abrasion of an internal mem- 
brane or of an external surface of the body. If by an internal abra- 
sion, there results acute, apoplectic, or internal anthrax, which usually 
runs its course rapidly, often without visible external symptoms, 
until the animal is in the throes of death; if by an external abrasion, 
cutaneous, carbuncular, or external anthrax results, which usually 
manifests itself first by swellings in the vicinity of the abraded and 
infected spot, runs its course less rapidly, is more amenable to treat- 
ment in its early stages, and is somewhat less fatal than the internal 
form of the disease. In all other anthrax-infected countries internal 
anthrax has been observed to be by far most common, and their litera- 
ture is devoted chiefly to this form. In Louisiana this order seems to 
have been reversed; the recent outbreak was due largely to external 
inoculation, and carbuncular or external anthrax was at least equally 
as common as the more fatal form. 

SOURCES OF THE CONTAGION. 

Since anthrax is but rarely communicated directly from one animal 
to another during life, the complete disappearance of the bacilli (the 

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170 BUREAU OF AKIMAL IKI>U8TBY. 

sole eauso of the disease) soon after deatli would seem to indicate 
that a particular source of contagion was forever removed with the 
death of each affected animal. But, on the contrary, another phase 
in the life of these jmrasitical plant* makes the dead animal often 
a far greater source of danger than the living one; and this phase 
also accounts for the existence of the spores of the bacilli outside of 
the animal organism — that is, on soil, water, plants, etc. — where in 
infected localities they are a perpetual menace to animal life. 

When blood containing these parasitical plants escapes from the 
animal, either before or soon after death, and is then removed from 
conditions of tCDiperature and atmosphere favorable to their growth, 
the plants are exjwsed to the air and rapidly " go to seed;*' the seeds 
or spores forming within the rod-shax)ed microscopical bodies of the 
bacilli much after the likeness of seeds in the pods of common legumi- 
nous plants. These sjKjres, unlike the bacilli, are very retentive o* 
vitalitj^ very resistant to heat and cold, and will germinate or develop 
into bacilli again when taken into the animal organism, even aft^er 
they have lain in the soil or upon other substances for years. By 
some authorities it is maintained that they will even go through their 
evolution in some kinds of soil, especially in soils rich in organic mat- 
ter, but this is a subject of doubt. This sporogenous property of the 
BaciUtis anthracis is the one to which is accredited the principal 
agency in the perpetuation of the disease; and, unfortunately, tho 
conditions in nature favorable to spore formation are by no means 
rare. In the first place, it is a common symptom of anthrax that dis- 
charges of blood escape from the natural openings of infected animals, 
especially during the convulsions which usually attend their death. 
Pastures may become thus infected with the spores and remain for 
years a source of danger to other herbivorous animals. Again, the 
carcasses of animals dead of anthrax are frequently opened for post- 
mortem examination, or for the purpose of making salvage of the hide 
or flesh, before the bacilli in the blood have lost their sporogenous 
property through putrefaction or a lowering of the temperature. It 
can readily be conceived how these common operations favor the per- 
petuation and spread of the contagion. Animals recently dead are 
often carelessly dragged across fields to out-of-the-way places, where 
their carcasses are left uncovered, and the contagion thus spread in 
obvious ways by carnivorous animals or rapacious birds; or they are 
thrown into streams or swamps, where the spores may again be taken 
into the systems of animals which come to drink, and whence the 
germs may even be carried by inundations and deposited on the 
vegetation of other lands. 

The careless burial of animals is another fruitful source of infec- 
tion. Earthworms may bring the spores to the surface from shallow 
graves, or the natural process of evaporation, especially in seasons of 
drouth on alluvial soil, may draw them up with the moisture. In 



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FOURTEEWTH AJWUAIi REPORT. 171 

fact, so nnmeraiis ape the opportimities preseirt^d for the formation 
of these pmthogenic spores aiid for their dwsemination over snbatanees 
with which animals may take them into their systemB, that anthrax 
woaki be the most devastating scowrge kBown to the amhnal kingdom 
bfit for the limitatiorrg wht«h nature has placed upon the nrvasion of 
the Bfidlhw anfhrams and its flf>ore« in?to the avrimal blood. 

The r«i)ort8 reeefred by this Depwrtnnent from the infeeted parishes 
of Louimaiia, almowfe withowt exeeptiwi, attribifted the extensrv^ spread 
of anthrax there in 1^96 largely to external inooalation by fttes; and 
raanity mqniries w«re made "with t^e sole object of aseertaining some 
svbstanoe that woiM be effioaoi^pos, ^vliefi applied to airnnals, in 
k«ep«Rg flies e* l^iefr bodies. The swarms of these insects indeed 
eootftitated a if^rltabte plague. ThcFre were many varieties, chiefly 
the b|oodH9«<;ktiig sort; but to tbe Tabanus lineola^ a small gray 
borae^y, was atMibolod the prrncipal ag^sncy in dissemtnati'ng the 
gems of ^le ^ s s aoe . ft is rotable that in foreign oomitries, althongh 
it is reoo^ixed t^MSt 1*ie Hy may carry Ifee g€frm of anthrax npon its 
feet or body from a diseased to a healthy animal, or may infect a 
faeaftliy beast wiit(h iito proboscis after having drawn blood from the 
iKfeeted*oiie, 5»et few opportunities have ever oeenrred for extensively 
ofcc er ving thas SMfthod of infection. Bo^ in the lower Mississippi 
Valley inoenlation by flies has long beeii regarded as an especial 
sovDroe of diKB^er, in sri offtteeak in the f=^»te of Mississippi tn 188!^ 
ft is recorded l^w^ -swarms etf a partWHlar speoies of horsefly infested 
the infected dtstricts, and attacked aniimals in such numbers as to 
leave upon the back, belly, and legs thick masses of clotted blood. 
This parttcnlar species was popularly believed to be the direct canse 
«rf the dfseMie, instead of a mere medinm of infection, and, therefore, 
became known as the ^^chai'bom fly." Thait flies also played an 
important i)art in "the extenOTve dissemination of the disease in the 
reoent epizootic in Lonisiana, there seems to be no room for doubt; 
and it will be readily recognized how exceptionally an imjKjrtant 
£»elor this method of dissemination may be in the spread of this 
disease. It has been observed in rtll anthrax infected countries that 
the disease is nsnaHy confined to limited localities, sometimes to a 
nngle fieW where the germs have fownd lodgment and remain local- 
ised. The iBmoval of animals from snch localities is (^ten marked 
by a oessaticm of attacks of the infection; or animals may even 
remain in iihe locality for a long time and only a few of them, pos- 
sibly only one or two, may take the germs into their systems and 
contract anthrax, l^nt where flies become common, active agents in 
the diseomiiiation cf fhe germs in an infected area, particularly flies 
in snch swarms as appear in the lower Mississippi Valley in warm 
dry seasons, tihe disease is not likely to be limited to any defined 
looality, bat to be spread over a territory limited only by the range 
iw, xHe iiies* 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



172 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

Another factor, which was equal if not greater than the above in 
causing the epidemic of 1896 in Louisiana, was the careless disposal 
made of the carcasses of dead animals. Especially was this true early 
in the epidemic before scientific knowledge of the cause of the disease 
and of the prophylactic measures necessary to combat it bad been 
generally disseminated among the people. In many instances it is 
known that animals were left lying in the woods or fields on the spot 
where death had overtaken them. In others they were dragged or 
hauled to the swamps and left exposed to the elements or thrown into 
the ponds, streams, and marshes. Even when burial was resorted to 
it was often made at shallow depth, and little attention was paid to 
the disinfection of the soil or of substances that might have become 
impregnated with germs or spores from the dead animal. Ignorance 
of the vital necessity of preventing spore formation resulted in a com- 
mon lack of effort to prevent all unnecessary escape of blood in hand- 
ling fresh carcasses, or to destroy by disinfection the spores already 
formed in blood which had escaped from the bodies of living animals 
during the course of the disease. Few precautions were taken to 
keep living animals away from infected localities, or to keep carniv- 
orous animals away from the carcasses of the dead. Hogs and dogs 
were allowed access to fresh carcasses, thus contracting the disease 
themselves and spreading the germs over wider areas. Buzzards were 
also believed to have added to the extensive spread of the contagion 
by feasting upon infected carcasses and carrying the germs elsewhere 
upon their feet and bodies. Even the products of soil which had 
become infected by this careless disposal of carcasses were doubtless 
in some instances a source of infection. A well-authenticated instance 
occurred where a number of mules which had previously shown no 
symptoms of ill health were fed upon a newly purchased lot of rice 
bran. A few days later anthrax attacked several of them. The bran 
was suspiciously regarded as being the vehicle in which the spores 
had been transported and its use was temporarily discontinued. For 
the ensuing fortnight no more deaths occurred. It happened that by 
accident the bran was then again used for feeding purposes and three 
more animals died showing symptoms of anthrax. The use of the 
bran was then permanently discontinued, the infected premises care- 
fully disinfected, and the disease has not since appeared upon the 
plantation. A competent veterinarian, who had carefully studied this 
particular outbreak, gave the opinion that the rice bran was doubtless 
the source of the infection and was probably a product of rice which 
had been raised on infected soil. Without detailing specific cases, 
it is evident that the careless handling and disposal of infected car- 
casses, particularly where anthrax is raging in epizootic form, must 
necessarily result in a wide distribution of the pathogenic germs, 
whence they may gain access to the animal system in ways so innu- 
merable that intelligent imagination rather than actual observation 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



173 



can- alone be relied upon in many instances to account for the origin 
of outbreaks of this disease. 

STATISTICS ON THE PARISHES INFECTED. 

It has not been found possible to obtain complete statistical returns 
of the number of animals attacked and the losses incurred from all 
the parishes of the infected territory. Approximate estimates, how- 
ever, have been received from five contiguous parishes of northeastern 
Louisiana, which are valuable as showing the virulence of the plague, 
the species of animals which were most susceptible, the kinds to 
which it proved most largely fatal, and the pecuniary losses that it 
inflicted upon the communities. 

The following is the statistical history of the epizootic in the above- 
mentioned territory, by parishes: 



Table Bhowing number of animals affected with anthrax^ Jiumher dead from the 
disease, and value of animcUs dead from the disease. 



BichlAnd Parish : 

Horsee 

Mules 

Cattle 

Sheepa *. 

Hogs 

Madison Parish: 

Horses 

Mules 

Cattle 

Sheep- 

Hogs 

Morehouse Parish: 

Horses 

Moles 

CatUe 

Sheep 

Hogs 

Franklin Parish: 

Horses 

Mttles 

Cattle 

Sheep 

Hogs 

last Carroll Parish: 

Horses 

Mnlos 

Cattle6 

Sheep6 

Hogs& 



a No statistics. 



Number 
of animals 
in parish. 



400 
1,720 
2,000 



8,000 

2,520 

8,535 

4,882 

350 



5,000 
4,500 

13,500 
4,000 

40,000 

1,660 

000 

10,985 



2,000 
670 



Number 
affected 

with 
anthrax. 



Number 
died of 
anthrax. 



800 
860 
500 



1,500 

10 

500 

500 

None. 

1,000 

140 
100 
100 



150 
420 
460 



175 
20O 
100 



lOO 
570 



1,200 



800 

850 

None. 

1,000 

60 
46 
30 



96 
100 



85 
245 



Total 
value of 
animals 
lost from 
anthrax. 



b No noteworthy mortality. 



$11,260 
88,600 
4,600 



8,000 



20,000 
8,600 



2,000 

1,600 

2,200 

800 



2,550 

3,840 

800 



1,760 
1,716 



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174 BirSEA17 OF AWOiAli INDTJSTRT. 

OOMMIEKTS 09r TMB 6TA11BHCAL SXHimTS. 

A study of the above statistics, with reference to the statistical his- 
tory of anthrax ae it h»s appeared in otker «o«ntn^ will reveal some 
peculiar and unusual features in the Louisiana epidemic. Sheep, 
which have generally been given a first rank among the species of 
animals susceptible to this disease, jseem, according to the received 
returns, to show almost an entire lack of receptivity. It would be 
interesting to know whether flies jilayed even a more important part 
in the e^wead of this epidemic than has been attributed to them, and 
tihe natural covering of wool of this species of animal protected them 
from the attacks of these pests. On,the other hand, swine have com- 
monly been regarded as x>ossessing a somewhat limited d^ree of 
refractoriness to this plague; yet in the returns above given fi*om 
Richland and Madison parishes this animal shows a remarkable 
degree of rdceptivity, and oi thoae ftttecked Almidst nil suoeumbed te 
the disease. Tiie easy «eeeas whiek tiieae eamivorovft uiimals had to 
infected carcasses, through the commonly cai*eless disposition made 
of thjd latter, nai^andly suggests itself as the probable cause of this 
luuxsiial feature of tlus epidjemic It is also notable that horses and 
mul^s showed a greater susceptibility than cattle, though the latter 
have commonly been regarded elsewhere as yielding more i^eadily to 
tile infeetion. 

REMEDIES, UNSCIENTIFIC AND SCIENTIPIC. . 

In the eariy part of the Ixmisiana epidemic, when ig»oranoe ai the 
pathology of the disease was all but universal among the people, flie 
siLbJ43ct of curative treatment naturally attracted great attention, and 
tbe remedies suggested were as varied and innumerable as they were 
unscientific and ineffectual. As is usual in the early part of anttirax 
epidemics, before the virus of the contagion has Undergone the atten- 
uation which it has often been observed to undergo as the epidesiic 
nrns its course, all medicinal agents seemed powerless. Death usnally 
occurred before the need of treatment was discovered. But later on 
in the epidemic, when the carbuncular f orm became more common and 
the swellings presented a definite point for treatment, multitudm^os 
opportunities occurred for popularly recommended unscientific rem- 
edies. A few of them were extraordinarily severe and crueL The 
swellings were pierced with pointed red-hot irons; concentrated iye 
was ajiplied to them; they were burned with red-hot shovels; the 
swollen parts were saturated with turpentine and set fire to; and offi- 
cial record has been made of animals whicii had one continuous siip- 
purating soi^ extending from the lower lip to the fiank. It has l>een 
averred by veterinarians that ** many valuable animals died, not from 
charbon, but from the agonizing and excruciating pain produced by 
powerful esdianytics." As the epidemic progressed, however, and 



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FOCJfiTSBKTU MXmjAJL REPOKT. 175 

fcM^rie^ >^ the «ao8e of axitiirax beoune diflficmimMed among the 
people thnmgii the vfee(Maiii of the prose And v^etoriiuuy ed^ttce, tliese 
pradiees $e»eraMy gave wsy to mere eoligiiteBped mel^de ef treat- 
Bwt It ifl well knewH tb»t wlieve tiie gemte ef anthrax k»Te 
•etiwUJy entered the errcu4»toty sjrBlwm, especi»llf in eeiravderable 
RomberB, caratiTe treatjment is -of little or a© avail, Bxit the iimisaal 
pi«r?aiei»ee of Itie caiiswiicQlar form of the muk^ during this epfdemic 
^?e sdemti&e civr^iitspe ti^eatanrat a proauneoee that it wo«ld net 
o^nrise h«ve possesBed. When the ffweUangs eemld be discovered 
ift thwr very iBcixHewey, and the geiins had not yet gained th« cirea- 
l«feofy «5rstein, t*<e injeetion 0f germveidai eeluticos iTi*o tbe enlai^e- 
iwit eeeats i» sone eneee to hwte bees f ol}owed by g<»od Fesalt^ by 
dettpo ji»g the germe m their lieeaiMxed aoe*. Mmnj dtfterent eelotlons 
were preseril»ed. A piwparatien ppescrilbed by the Staite avt^ienties 
was a 5 per eeot aqnemn Bolntimi -ofi earl>oI&e acid ; te e»eh ounee of 
this was sometimes added 2 grains of corrosive sublimate. The injec- 
tion was made with an ordinary hypodermic syringe. Blistering of 
the swellings Tvas also recommended, by means of liniments ordina- 
rily composed of agents such as hartshorn, turpentine, camphor, 
iodjue, cUoroform, etc, auLxed with oil, and the most dependent part 
•I the eolai^eaient wm BoaietiiMies «aref«lly aearified. The intemdl 
treatiaent prescribed, to he wsed m <wn»ecti«o« with the external, was 
tlie common ptirgatives ireimfly recommended in eases of anthrax. 
Of tbese curative measures it seems only possible to state that iudi- 
vidual experiences occasionally attributed remiirJcahle eMcacy to 
tiiem, but the getteiuJ history of theu: use in this epiidemic is not cal- 
culated to inspire belief in general benefit from their use. Veterina- 
mms rertermted a^in and again dwrag ikte cetirse of thw epidemic 
tfrnt the only successful treatment of anthrax is not curative, but pre- 
ventive; and persistent insistence upon the necessity of prophylactic 
measures gradually converted the p^ublie mind to a belief in them as 
tke oaiy sAurce ef pelie£. 
The preventive measares recoanaeiided were on two lin^s: 

(1) The treatment of healthy Hving animals by a process of vaeci- 
nation which, it was claimed, would render them immune to the dis- 
ease and the application to their bodies of a prepajcation to protect 
tliem from flies. 

(2) The applicatifWL of such saidtary meeflnires thinyiighoat th« 
infected districts as would tend to destroy or neutraiiae, so far as 
posRiWe, every condition favorable to the further increase and wider 
(fistribution of the microscopical plant life which is known to he the 
cause of this disease. 

The vaoeiBe used ia the Louisiana e|)ide«Bie was the Pasteur anthrax 
^aecia^ and it is said thirt 20,000 head o4! «*ock, mostly muies, were 
^''leemffted. This substance is produced by the ai-ti*cial cnlti\^tTon 
of the virus of anthrax in certain media where by continued exposure 

uigiTized by VjOOQIC 



176 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

to the air and a high temperature it can be attenuated to an innocuons 
degree; the animal vaccinated with it suffers from a mild fever, but 
is then said to become immune to anthrax, at least for a period of 
some months. No statistical statements have been received by this 
Department from which can be formulated the general results of the 
use of this preventive. The application most generally used to pro- 
tect animals from the attacks of flies was the following formula, name- 
ly, common hard soap, one-half pound; fish oil, 2 gallons; water, 1 
gallon. Dissolve the soap in boiling water and while still hot add 
the fish oil and agitate the whole until thoroughly mixed. For use, 
add to 1 part of the emulsion 8 to 16 parts of cold water, and apply all 
over the animals. A large or small quantity can be made as desired. 
The sanitary measures usually recommended will be found in the 
following report of Dr. Asa N. McQueen, upon the result of his inves- 
tigations into an outbreak of anthrax in Richland Parish, La. : 

REPORT ON ANTHRAX IN LOUISIANA IN 1896. 

New Orleans, La., June 16, 1896, 

Sir: In accordance with yonr order of the 4th instant, I started on Monday, 
Jnne 8, to investigate an outbreak of anthrax at Bayvllle, La., and its vicinity, 
and arrived there the following afternoon. I readily recognized the disease to be 
anthrax, and gave the authorities advice for its suppression. Below is my report 
on the investigation, with a copy of the rules that I gave to the authorities. 

Richland Parish, La., is very low and swampy, and is drained by the Bcenf 
River, which frequently overflows its banks. The upland is a sandy loam and lies 
in narrow strips from one-fourth mile to 1 mile in width between extensive tracts 
of wooded swamp land. These woody swamps are nearly always covered with 
water, and on many farms furnish the only source of water supply for animals 
turned out to pasture. 

The outbreak of anthrax in this parish was, as is nearly always the case in out- 
breaks of this disease, preceded by a long drouth, during which the water in the 
swamps and smaller streams ran very low. There can be no doubt, moreover, 
that this outbreak was made more extensive by the careless disposal of carcasses 
of animals dead of the disease, the common custom being simply to drag them 
from the spot where death had occurred across fields, pastures, or highways to 
the swamps, and there leave them to decompose or be devoured by the dogs and 
hogs, which here always run at large. Even when burning was resorted to as a 
mode of destroying the carcasses, the work was only half done. In one place I 
saw a burned carcass of which at least two- thirds was unconsumed; in fact, it 
was so little burned that the hair still remained on the under surface of the body, 
upon which two dogs and three hogs were feeding. I was informed that such 
was the way that the burning was usually done. I heard of no instances of the 
burial of carcasses. 

The first outbreak that I investigated was on the farm of J. B. Summerlin, 
situated 5 miles southeast of Rayville, in the midst of a large swamp. On this 
place there were about 50 head of cattle, of which 2 cows and 1 heifer showed the 
following symptoms: Swellings about the region of the larynx, point of breast, 
and undersurface of the abdomen. The respirations were somewhat increased, 
but I attributed this to the animals having been driven from the pasture a few 
minutes before. The cattle showed no other signs of sickness, and were feeding 
well. The swellings had been treated with a blistering mixture containing oil of 
turpentine, aqua ammonia, vinegar, and coal oil, applied twice daily. 

uigiTizea oy vjvJOv Iv^ 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 177 

On the morning of Jnne 10, my attention was called to a grade Jersey cow in 
the yard in the rear of the hotel where I was stopping. The animal had, with 
other cattle, been turned into the yard the night previous in an apparently 
healthy condition. At 6 a. m. I found the respiration 30 per minute, pulse 100 
beats per minute, temperature 103.7' F., attended with rigors and staggering gait; 
tiie conjunctivae were red and injected; rumination suspended. At 10 a. m. she 
was dead and the carcass was destroyed by burning. I intended to hold a post- 
mortem, but as there was another animal which had just died, showing the same 
symptoms, it was more convenient to hold the autopsy on the latter. It showed 
ttie following appearances: The carcass was bloated: a small tumor was apparent 
nnder the sldn of the neck near the larynx, and there were sero-albuminous infil- 
trations of a yellow color under the skin of the left flank and inguinal region. 
The abdominal cavity contained a red serous exudation. The lymphatic glands 
of the abdomen were enlarged and full of dark blood extravasations. The intestines 
tiiroug^out were covered with petechial spots. The liver was also covered with 
and full of petechial spots throughout. The kidneys were enlarged, hyperaemic, 
and of a soft consistency. The stomach, bladder, and urine were normal in 
i^pearance. The spleen was enlarged to about double the normal size, the capsule 
dark bine, the substance disintegrated, nearly black in color, and when cut into 
would nearly run. The lungs were hyperaemic; the trachea and large bronchial 
tubes contained a dark-colored froth ; and the mucous membranes showed petechial 
spots. The epiglottis was swollen and of a dark-red color. I have no hesitancy 
in saying that the animal had died from anthrax. 

After completing my examination of the above case I went, in company with 
Dr. Evans, a physician of the neighborhood, to the plantation of Mrs. F. E. Jordon, 
5 miles north of Rayville, on the Bceuf River. There I found 3 mules sick, all 
showing well-marked symptoms of anthrax. On this place there were 25 mules 
and 28 horses, all kept in the same pastures and under the same conditions as 
regards food and water. None of the horses have been taken sick, while 14 mules 
have died and 3 others are now sick. I obtained from Mrs. Jordon the following 
history of different outbreaks of anthrax on her place: In 1874, after an overflow, 
11 mules died on this place. The cause of death was then supposed to be colic, but, 
judging from the manner and rapidity with which the animals have died this 
season, Mrs. Jordon now believes the cause of the former deaths to have been an- 
thrax. In 1884, 11 cases occurred on the same farm with only 2 deaths. In 1891, 
7 more cases occurred, all showing external swellings. They were treated by deep 
scarifications and by applying a blistering mixture, and all affected animals recov- 
ered. I also visited several smaller places in and about Rayville, but did not find 
many animals sick, because a great many owners had already lost all their stock. 

Of the various remedies used, an injection of the tincture of iodine under the 
skin and into the tumors seemed to produce the best results, but as many cases 
get well without treatment, or with very mild treatment, it is hard to recommend 
any particular plan of treatment. 

Aiter completing such investigations as I thought necessary in the immediate 
vicinity of Rayville, I was advised to go to Delhi, La. , a few miles east of Rayville. 
where I was informed the present outbreak of anthrax in Louisiana had first made 
its appearance. On my arrival I found that, so far as could be ascertained, the 
disease had broken out there simultaneously on a nxmiber of plantations miles 
apart, and, as there were no cases in the immediate vicinity, I returned at once to 
New Orleans. 

The following is a copy of the rules given the authorities of Richland Parish 
for the suppression of anthrax: 

(1) All owners should promptly declare the existence or suspected existence of 
&e disease. 

7204 ^12 

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178 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

(2) Isolate diseased animals so as not to allow them to come in contact with 
healthy animals. 

(3) Prevent all animals from drinking stagnant waiter. 

(4) Thoroughly bnm all dead animi^, also ^1 th» litter a&d alimentary matter 
with which infected animals have been in contact. 

(5) Disinfect all places that have been oecforpied by diseased animals. 

(0) Do not allow dogs, hogs, or potdtry access to dead animals, as they may 
contract the disease by eating the flesh or blood. 

(7) Feed only good, sound feed, and arroid toning animals oHt npon infe^-ted 
pastnxes. 

(8) The disease is contagions, and oarcaflses shosld not be handled by persons 
with sore or scratched hands. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Asa N. McQueen^ 

Veterinary Inepeeior, 
Dr. D. E. Salmon, 

Chief of Bureau of Animal Industry^ 



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ENZOOTIC CEEEBROSPINAI MENINGITIS IN HORSES, 
AND HOG CHOLERA IN IDAHO. 

By W. L. Williams, 
Special Agent, Bureau of Animal Industry, 

la obedience to insiruotions of March 12, 18D6^ I went to Idaho 
Falls, Idaho, on March 17, to investigate reported diseases of horses 
and swine. Prior to this I had received communications, under dates 
of February 26 and March 2, from Mr. W.'F. Cash, at Idaho Falls, 
Idaho, desci'ibing, as well as one not versed in pathology could do, the 
symptoms and i)ost-mortem appearances of a disease affecting horses, 
and of one affecting hogs, all supposed to be manifestations of one 
and the same disease with a common cause. From these descriptions 
it was impossible to arrive at any definite conclusions as to the nature 
of the malady or maladies. 

Reaching Idaho Falls on the morning of March 18, I reported to 
Superintendent W. F. Cash, who rendered me every possible assist- 
ance, and accompanied me to the various points whei^e affected ani- 
mals were reported. 

Idaho Falls is located in the Snake River Valley, at an altitude of 
4^00 feet. The soil of the valley, varying in depth from a few inches 
to several feet, is alluvial and practically free from vegetable mold. 
The subsoil is of gravel and cobblestone, 20 to 30 feet in depth, rest- 
ing upon lava rock. The rainfall is very meager;- but two or three 
rainy spells usually occur dui-ing the year and these continue for only 
three or four days each. Crops are grown by irrigation only. They 
consist chiefly of the smaller cereals, potatoes, alfalfa, and timothy, 
which,, with scant native grasses, furnish the food supply for animals. 
The water for animals is procured, either directly or by irrigating 
ditches, from the Snake River or its tributaries. The latter ai-e all 
mountain streams, and furnish an apparently perfect water supply. 

Referring to the letter addressed to the Chief of the Bureau under 
date of March 3, 1896, by Prof. Charles P. Fox^ of the University of 
Idaho, which foi'med the basis of orders to me, it is evident that a 
common belief prevailed in the affected section that the disease of 
horses was identical with that of swine. 

OBSEKVATTONS UPON THE DISEASE OF HORSES. 

My invesdgatioiis of the disease ^n horses resulted as follows: The 

malady has been known in the Snake River Valley, in the vicinity of 

Idaho Falls> for about three years; it prevails chiefly, but not wholly, 

179 



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180 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

on the east side of the river near the foothills, along a small tributary 
of the Snake River called Willow Creek. Nothin^j in the location 
suggests a possible cause for the notable prevalence of the disease in 
tliis particular section of the valley; except, perhaps, that since the 
water in this creek here flows nearer the level of the valley, and is, 
therefore, more easily available for irrigation purposes, and since 
the soil is here deep and rather fertile, this portion of the valley was 
earlier and more thickly settled. 

So far as could be learned the disease has not prevailed on the 
foothill range, near which the creek before mentioned flows, nor 
have we learned of any similar affection among range horses in the 
northern Rocky Mountain region. 

SYMPTOMS. 

An opportunity did not occur to observe any cases of the disease 
in its earlier stages, but the symptoms of those stages were fully 
described by several losers; their descriptions agree in all important 
particulars. 

The premonitory symptoms, when noticeable, consisted mainly of 
nervous depression and paralysis. First the animal showed dullness 
and lassitude, performing its work with apparent difficulty, and 
sweating easily. The appetite was good, but eating was slow; thirst 
was normal; the urine was apparently unchanged; the bowels were 
torpid; the feces not very hard, and at times coated with mucus. As 
the disease progressed the movements of the animal became uncertain, 
with a marked tendency to stumble; the partial paralysis usually 
affected the fore legs and hind legs alike; the penis became more 
or less pendent, hanging out of the sheath; the power of mastication 
and deglutition was found to be quite deficient in some cases," in 
others almost wholly lost, although the appetite generally remained 
normal at this stage. 

After an interval, varying from a few hours to several days, these 
symptoms all become aggravated, especially the loss of locomotive 
power; the animal falls, unable to rise, but if assisted to its feet it 
will, as a rule, move about with comparative freedom for variable 
lengths of time, feed naturally, and appear much improved, until, 
through a natural desire to lie down or through accidental stumbling, 
it again falls, and is unable to regain its feet without assistance. 

Animals in the early stage of the disease, or those suffering from a 
mild attack, lie naturally upon the chest, but the majority of those 
more seriously affected lie flat upon the side, head markedly opis- 
thotonic. Some affected animals lie very quietly and rarely move 
either the head or feet except when disturbed, but others are in 
almost constant motion, and form semicircular excavations in the 
bedding or earth by constant motion of the feet. When an animal is 
down there is frequently a complete loss of appetite, although in 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 181 

some cases it remains fairly good. The recumbent position increases 
the torpidity of the intestines, and may cause abnormally dry feces 
and difficulty in voiding the urine. The oro-pharyngeal paralysis 
causes decomposition of contained mucus and food, resulting in a 
marked fetor. 

Xo reliable data were obtainable as to the temperature, pulse, respi- 
ration, or the appearance of the visible mucous membranes of affected 
animals except in the three cases examined by me and described 
below. The course of the malady varies. In most cases the premon- 
itory dullness and lassitude continue from one to three days, but in 
some cases these symptoms are either absent or pass unobserved, the 
first symptoms noted being the inability of the animal to rise or stand. 
In a very small minority of cases only the premonitory symptoms 
occur, and after several weeks terminate in a generally incomplete 
recovery, but rarely in complete restoration to health. The mortality 
is great and amounts to over 95 per cent of the number clearly 
affected. 

Age, sex, and condition apparently exert no influence on the dis- 
ease, although many assert that fat horses or those in good condition 
chiefly contract the malady. 

Nearly all the animals reported to have died had been kept in 
stables or paddocks in which considerable quantities of excrement 
had accumulated. The stables were mostly low, with straw roofs 
and straw 'or board sides. They were seldom tight enough to be 
called close. Quite a number of animals, however, died which had 
not been stabled, but had been kept chiefly in cultivated fields and 
only occasionally placed in paddocks. 

The food, as above indicated, consisted at times of the small cereals, 
but generally, and in winter especially, during which season the dis- 
ease has been most severe, alfalfa and timothy hay, straw, and such 
native grasses as might be found were fed. The climate and altitude 
forbid the suggestion of moldy forage. 

CASE I. 

Mr. E. H. Brown, Prospect, Idaho, had on his farm on January 1, 
this year, 7 horses, well fed on lucem and timothy hay and little 
worked; 5 of then^ were stabled in a fair stable, the other, 2 kept 
loose in an adjoining paddock. About January 1 one horse sickened 
and after a few days died. About January 20 two other deaths 
occurred. A fourth animal was attacked at the same time and 
required assistance to regain her feet, but apparently recovered, 
remaining weak, however, easily fatigued, and uncertain in gait. 
It finally grew worse and went down again on March 11 or 12, and 
continued to grow worse until March 18, when death ensued. 

A fifth animal, a small gelding coming 3 years old, in medium 
condition, became affected March 12, while being driven on the road. 



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182 BUREAU OE ANIMAL raDUSTRy. 

The symptoms were apparent weakness and much stumbling. On 
the morning of the 13th he succeeded with diffionlty in getting up, 
but in the evening it was found noeessaiy to assist him to his^ feet. 
From that date on to oui* examination, March 19, he was assisted to 
his feet daily by means of improvised slings, his appetite remaining 
good, with normal mastication and deglutition. 

In the later stages the animal lay flat on the right side, very quiet, 
with no signs of movement of either head or feet; the respirations 
were 30 to the minute and somewhat labored; the pulse was 48, full 
and fairly strong; the temperatui'e was 100° F. ; the conjunctivae 
were of a dirty leaden hue. This animal was kiUed by bleeding from 
the carotid arteries. 

At the autopsy the cadaver was opened by i^emoving the left fore 
and hind legs entire and the left abdominal and thoracic walls. The 
tissues were generally of normal appearance, and the peritoneal 
cavity contained about 1 pint of pale-yellow, rather cloudy serum. 
The spleen weighed about 2i pounds and was grayish red in color; 
the capsule was tough and thick; the pulp dark red and firm. The 
stomach was partly filled with soft, moist, and partly digested food. 
The smaU intestines were healthy throughout and contained a small 
amount of watei^y ingesta. The large intestines were filled with 
moist, well-digested alimentiiry matter. The pancwas was a pale 
grayish yellow and normal. The liver weighed about 12 pounds, wa» 
dark red in color and firm in consistency. ' The kidnej's weighed 
about 1 pound each, were of a dark mahogany color, and in section 
the line of demarcation between the coi*tical and medullary portions 
was not marked. The urinary bladder contained 1 quaj*t of pale 
yellow, flaky urine. The left lung wassomewhut congested, but oth- 
erwise healthy. The right lung was highly engorged, owing to the 
animal having lain for some time flat upon the right side; The peii*^ 
caixlium contained 8 ounces of pale orange-colored serum; the left 
auricle and ventricle were filled by a continuous firm red clot, and 
the riglit side of the heart was partly filled with dark blood. The 
spinal cord in the lumbar region appeared normal, and a small quan- 
tity of fluid escaped when the meninges were cut into. On cutting 
through the spinal cord at the occipito-atloid articulation a lai'ge 
amount of clear serum, apparently 8 to 10 fluid ounces, escaped. 
The cerebral vessels were all much distended with blood, and the 
plexi at the base of the cerebellum were very markedly distended. 

CASE u. 

A. E. Stanger, Ionia, Idaho, had, in Jnly, 1895, 9 horses belonging 
to himself and 5 belonging to other persons. Since the above date 13 
of these have died at different times, showing the general symptoms 
described above. On March 18, the foni'teenth, a S-year-old black 
grade draft gelding, fat and weighing about 1,200 pounds, was down 



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FOURTBENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 185 

with the disease. Up to this date, when he was found down and 
unable to arise, the horse had appeared well. 

On March 19 the animal was still flat on tlio right side and more 
uneasy; the temperature was 100. G° F., the pulse 84, the respiration 
36. It was killed by severing the carotids, and an autopsy made 
immediately. The cadaver was opened by I'cmoving the left fore 
and hind legs and the left chest and abdominal walls. The left lung 
was normal except two slight discolorations on the anterior lobe and 
a slight congestive patch along the inner side of the upper border. 
The lower two-thirds of the right lung was greatly congested, dark 
colored, and impervious to aii*. (This change was evidently the 
result of the decubitus, which liad been constant on the right side for 
two days.) The heart was empty and normal. The spleen was a 
light blui^ grayi the capsule tough; the parenchyma firm and normal 
in size. The intestines were healthy and moderately filled with 
partly digested food. The pancreas was health}^; the stomach was 
well filled with partly digested food, and the walls were healthy. 
The liver and kidneys were normal; the bladder healthy and empty. 
The spinal cord in the lumbar region was apparently normal, and a 
small quantity of serum escaped upon division. Upon cutting 
through the spinal cord at the occipito-atloid articulation the cere- 
bro-spinal fluid escaped in a considerable amount, flowing a stream 
for several minutes as large as a small lead pencil. The cerebral 
meninges were highly congested, as were all the cerebral vessels. 

CASE UL 

Of 15 horses, Mr. J. IT. Payne, Idaho Falls, Idaho, lost one mare 
about March 1, and a second animal afterwards was attacked. 

The animal, a bay mare advanced in pregnancy, weighing about 
1,200 pounds, was noticed weak and dull on March It), and went 
down on March 20. On March 21 I found the mare recumbent on 
the right side, restless, with a respiration of 27, pulse 50, jind tem- 
perature 09.8^ F. 

The animal was killed by stabbing in the heart, and an autopsy 
made immedicitely. The body was opened on the left side, and the 
muscular tissues were found healthy and thickly embedded in fat. 
The left lung was healthy, but the right lung wa» moderatelj^ con- 
gested (decubital). Tlie heart was healthy. The uterus was found 
healthy, and contained a ten-and^a^half months' well-developed 
fetufi. The spleen, inteatines, kidneys, and liver were healthy, the 
bladder empty. The spinal cord in tlie lumbar region was sur- 
rounded by a small quantity of pale, clear semm, and on cutting 
through the oord at the oecipito-atloid artienlaiion a large quantity 
of senun escaped in a stream. There was moderate congestion of 
the brain,. the vessels on its surface being filled with blood, especially 
marked in the plexi about the base of the cerebellum. 



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184 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

NAMB OF THE DISEASE. 

The diagnosis of these three cases showed the animals to be affected 
with enzootic cerebro-spinal meningitis. 

The etiology is unknown. As related above, however, attendant 
circumstances indicate that some of the causes frequently assigned for 
enzootic cerebro-spinal meningitis, especially the defective drainage 
of stables and paddocks, could not operate in these cases, nor could 
moldy food have been the cause, since fungi cannot here grow in any 
great amount upon vegetation, owing to the extreme dryness of the 
climate. The annual numerical loss in the infected region could not 
be readily determined, but it reaches probably over 100 horses. This 
is a large percentage in this small and thinly settled area. Since the 
majority of horses kept in the valley are animals used for work pur- 
poses, and since on many farms all the horses have died, the disease 
constitutes a formidable barrier to successful agriculture. 

OBSERVATIONS UPON THE DISEASE OP HOGS. 

My observations regarding the disease of swine are as follows: 
During the past few months considerable numbers of swine have 
died in and about Idaho Falls. Among the heaviest losers were Mr. 
C. C. Tautphaus and the Cooperative Wagon and Machinery Com- 
pany, both of Idaho Falls. The former is a packer, who bought 
swine in small lots from various farmers and confined them together 
in the slaughter-house pens, where thej'^ ate the offal from slaughtered 
animals. The latter are general merchants, millers, and stock ship- 
pers, who bought swine promiscuously and fed them in a common lot 
upon mill refuse, shipping those which were fat at such times as were 
convenient. The disease also existed in various sections of the Snake 
River Valley, many farmers suffering heavy losses. The affected 
animals which we were able to find were chiefly chronic or subacute 
cases, so that for general symptoms we were compelled to rely upon 
such information as the owners or caretakers of affected swine were 
able to give us. 

SYMPTOMS. 

The general symptoms were dullness and great lassitude. In some 
cases in the earliest stages the animals would lie in cold water in the 
creek. Affected animals usually maintained a recumbent position, 
usually on the chest, but frequently flat on the side. The gait was 
tottering and uncertain, respiration accelerated and difficult, attended 
with wheezing, frequent cough, and rarely spasmodic expiratory 
efforts — thumps. The bowels were constipated and diarrhea occa- 
sionally ensued; the appetite diminished or was lost; the body was 
gaunt; the urine was scanty and highly colored. The disease usually 
assumed an acute form, terminating fatally, in from two to seven 
days; a few cases recovered after several weeks illness. 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 185 

The disease broke out in the herd of Mr. d C. Tautphaus, Idaho 
Falls, consisting of some 300 head, about January 5, 1896, and about 
60 head, mostly pigs, died. On March 18, 11 head were still on hand, 
the others having been slaughtered and packed. Of this remnant of 
11, one was sick. The patient, a sow about 8 months old, weighed 
about 60 pounds, and had apparently been ill for some days. The 
body was emaciated, and the animal showed a disposition to lie 
quietly. On being forced to move she did so with a weak, uncertain, 
staggering gait, and lay down again as soon as permitted. There 
was marked dyspnoea and frequent cough. 

She was killed by bleeding and an autopsy was made immediately. 
The lower and anterior portion of the anterior lobe of the left lung 
was oedematous, the flesh colored and impervious to air; the intra- 
lobular connective tissue was thickened and white, the lobuli dark 
red and dotted with pale reddish yellow spots about one-thirty-second 
inch in diameter. Scattered over the oedematous portions of the 
lung beneath the pleura were small collections of gas about one-eighth 
to three sixteenth inch across, while scattered over the surface of 
the lung were a few small ecchymoses of a bright-red color one- 
thirty-second inch in diameter, the remaining portions being other- 
wise healthy. The right lung was oedematous in the middle portion 
of the anterior lobe and in the lower three-fourths of the middle 
lobe. On section, these oedematous portions of the lungs were found 
semi transparent and the contained fluid oozed f leely from the cut 
surface, while by a slight pressure of the thumb and finger the effu- 
sion was readily pressed out, the lung collapsing. The bronchii of 
the affected portions were filled with a thick, tenacious, transparent 
mucus, containing numerous pus cells. The stomach, intestines, 
liver, spleen, kidneys, bladder, brain, and spinal cord offered no 
microscopical pathological changes. The Cooperative Wagon and 
Machine Company had lost from the disease about 120 swine of dif- 
ferent ages; and, after having shipped the healthy ones fit for market, 
had remaining on the premises about 30 head, mostly young and 
nearly all showing disease in a chronic form, exhibiting the usual 
symptoms of general lassitude, unsteady gait, difficult breathing, 
frequent cough, and loss of flesh. Five of the affected animals were 
kiUed by bleeding and post-mortem examination was made. 

CASE I. . 

Jersey Red sow, about 80 pounds in weight, in fair order. The 
middle lobe of the right lung was oedematous; the flesh was colored 
in its lower four-fifths, and the bronchii of the affected portions filled 
with a tenacious opaque white mucus. The left lung was oedematous 
in the lower half of the middle lobe. The liver, spleen, kidneys, 
bladder, and stomach were normal; the caecum was empty and showed 
several ulcers, chiefly about the ileo-c»cal valve, one-fourth to three- 



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186 BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTBY. 

eighths of an inch in diameter, the ulcer covered with a thick, tongh, 
yellowish white membrane; the large intestines contained a few simi- 
lar ulcers in upper poiiions. 

CASE II. 

Spotted boar pig, weight about 30 pounds, very weak, difficult 
"thumpy" breathing, frequent cough, temperature 105.8° F. On 
post-mortem examination the right pleural cavity was found to be 
obliterated and the right lung closely adherent to the chest walls 
throughout, except at one point at the lower portions of the lung, 
whore there was int<jrposed a dirty gray fibrinous clot, circular in 
shape, being 2 inches across and one-eighth of an inch in diameter. 
The lobes are not distinguishable; the anterior portion was strongly 
cedematous and the bronchii filled with tenacious mucus. The left 
lung was adherent to the chest wall at the lower border; the lower 
portion of the anterior lobe was cBdematous, the other portions con- 
gested. The bronchial lymphatics were hcemorrhagic, dark red; the 
' liver, kidneys, bladder, stomach, and small intestines presented no 
unusual appearances; the cjBcum showed five large ulcers, three- 
eighths of an inch in diameter, covered by thick, tough, dirty, yel- 
lowish whit^ membrane about the margin, while in the center was a 
prominent convex, tough, black, necrotic patch one-fourth of an inch 
in diameter; the large intestines were filled with soft alimentary 
matter and showed a few ulcerated patches. 

CASE in. 

A barrow, weighing about 40 pounds, in fair condition, breathing 
labored, temperature 101.2° F. It had been castrated about two months 
previously, and the wounds had remained open, much swollen, and 
contained diphtheritic fetid accumulations. The anterior and middle 
lobes and the lower portion of the posterior lobe of the right lung and 
tlie anterior lobe and one-third of the posterior lobe of the left lung 
were ciMlematous, the bronchial tubes and bronchioles filled with mucus 
and pus; the sublumbar lymphatics were engorged and dark red; the 
liver was engorged and mottled in appearance; the gall bladder con- 
tained about half an ounce of thick, flocculent bile; the Ciecum con- 
tained a quantity of gravel, and the ileo-cfeoal opening was ulcerated 
and showed at one side an inflamed patch one inch across; the large 
intestines contained six or seven large ulcers, some affecting the 
e]itire thickness of the intestinal walls. 

CASE IV. 

Barrow, weight about 50 pounds, temperature 104.4° F. The ante- 
rior third of the anterior lobe, the lower portions of the middle lobe, 
and several small areas in the posterior lobe of the right lung were 
oedematous; the left lung was cedematous in the lower portion of the 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 187 

middle lobe, and the middle lobe was adherent to the chest walls; at 
the juncture of the middle and the posterior lobes a portion of the 
lung was firmly hepatized; the caecum and large intestines were 
healthy. 

CASE V. 

Sow, weight about 50 pounds, temperature 103.0° F. The right 
lung showed numerous oedematous areas; the left lung was cedema- 
tous in the anterior lobe and in small areas of other portions; the 
pericardial sac was obliterated and the pericardium firral}- adherent 
to the surface of the heart; the cajcum showed one ulcerated patch; 
the other organs were normal. 

HOO CHOLERA THB DISEASE. 

The diagnosis indicated that the disease from which these animals 
suffered was hog cholera. 

The conditions in the northern Rocky Mountain district are, in one 
noticeable respect, very unfavorable for swine breeding. The farmers 
have not yet learned that isolation should bo the chief factor in the 
prevention of contagious diseases. Furthermore, the popular belief 
is that hog cholera will not exist at this altitude, and consequently no 
precautions are observed against it. 

Swine in this section are generally confined for a short time during 
the short cropping season of this altitude and are then allowed to roam 
at will, getting their living from waste grain left upon the fields, from 
alfalfa, etc. As the fences are mostly of three barb wires, they are 
effective only against the larger domestic animals, so that swine go 
from farm to farm and the herds of various farmers mingle indiscrim- 
inately. 

Otherwise the opportunities for limiting the ravages of hog cholera 
are better in this region than they are in the Mississippi Valley, as 
the hog-producing areas are comparativel}^ small and isolated from 
each other, with scant interchanges of stock between them. 

THE TWO DISEASES NOT THE SAAfE. 

The common supposition about Idaho Falls, that the two aifections — 
of horses and hogs — are identical and due to a common cause, is suf- 
ficientl}' refuted by the ante-mortem and post-mortem examinations 
recorded herewith. It may be added, moreover, that no clinical or 
historical evidence of identity could be established through other 
obtainable facts. 



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INVESTIGATION OP ALLEGED RABIES IN NEBRASKA. 

By W. H. GiBBS, 
Veterinary Inspector ^ Bureau of Animal Industry, 

Acting upon instructions from the Chief of the Bureau of Animal 
Industry under date of August 9, 1896, I visited the farm of David 
Braddock, near Burr, Otoe County, Nebr., to investigate an alleged 
outbreak of rabies which was reported to exist at that place. 

I reached Burr August 11. I succeeded in seeing Mr. Braddock 
the same evening, and told him the object of my visit. He informed 
me that all his stock seemed to be in a healthy condition at that time, 
and that no deaths had occurred since August 2, 1896. Knowing 
that what information I obtained must be from him I asked that he 
give me an accurate and detailed description of every circumstance 
connected with the outbreak, which he did. 

He began by saying that previous to the loss of his stock he owned 
a small shepherd dog that had always been kind and docile, and was 
never known to attack any domestic animal unless told by his master, 
always going to the heels and snapping. This dog had been on the 
same premises continuously for more than two years. 

May 2 : The dog acted strangely and attacked a boy savagely, tear- 
ing the hat brim from his hat while on the boy's head. Shortly after, 
without any encouragement or provocation, he attacked a hog in a 
ferocious manner. During the day he attacked another small boy, a 
son of Mr. Braddock, his teeth barely reaching his face, but not lacer- 
ating the cuticle. Mr. Braddock was by this time satisfied that the 
dog was dangerous, and concluded to destroy him in the morning. 

May 3 : The dog could not be found, and was never seen on premises 
again; but a dog answering the description was killed a few miles 
distant while acting in a strange and violent manner. About the 10th 
of May a hog, previously healthy, developed peculiar and violent 
symptoms unusual to swine, namely, rushing at real and imaginary 
objects, jumping in the air, all feet off the ground at once, suddenly 
stopping and circling usually in one direction. During the sixteen 
days subsequent 14 swine were attacked with symptoms very similar 
to the above mentioned, all ending in death two or three days after. 

May 28: A 5-year-old cow, giving milk, was taken with peculiar 

and violent symptoms while in the pasture with other cattle. The 

symptoms were violent, running and bellowing, and excessive 

trembling, due, no doubt, to great nervous excitement. The owner 

188 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 189 

attempted to drive her to the yard, but before going far tne cow fell 
to the ground, where she died thirty hours later. This carcass was 
the only one herein mentioned that was examined by the owner after 
death. He detects nothing abnormal except gall bladder, that being 
exceedingly large and extended. (I am of the opinion that his knowl- 
edge of such matters is very limited. ) 

May 31 : A yearling heifer was attacked with symptoms very simi- 
lar to the case just mentioned, but more aggravated and violent. She 
rushed at everything within reach. In a few hours she fell from 
exhaustion and died forty-eight hours later. • 

June 22: A work mule, 5 years old, was taken sick with severe 
rigor, lasting several hours. On the following day it was apparently 
much improved and was put to light work, but the next morning was 
found in the stable in a violent condition, snapping and plunging at 
every moving object within its reach. It tore the frog from its own 
feet and lacerated the tendons from its own limbs with its teeth. 
When utterly exhausted and unable to stand from the effects of its 
injuries it fell to the ground, where it was destroyed. The duration 
of the attack was four days. 

July 28: A yearling filly that had been in pasture containing tim- 
othy, clover, and alfalfa was taken with premonitory symptoms simi- 
lar to the case above mentioned. As the disease progressed weakness 
of the loins was noticed. She continued to fail in strength, owing, I 
presume, to nervous exhaustion, and twenty-four hours subsequent 
to the attack fell to the ground and died twenty-four hours thereafter. 

As this report will show, there was a loss of 14 hogs, 2 bovines, 1 
mule, and 1 colt that had died from this disease. There was not any 
disease among other herds in this vicinity. The management of the 
stock was good as near as I can learn from Mr. Braddock, and my 
own observation confirms my belief. The cattle and horses were fed 
from pastures containing tame grasses and had good pure water raised 
hy windmill. The land was high and rolling. The swine, 35 in num- 
ber, were kept in an inclosure of about 1 acre set in trees; were fed 
on slop from the kitchen and corn on ear with an occasional feed of 
green corn, with well water for drink. None of the stock mentioned 
received medical treatment, neither were they seen by any medical 
man. Every animal attacked died. The dog in question had attacked 
and killed two or three polecats previous to his strange actions. 

In view of the circumstances connected with the case, I am inclined 
to the belief that the stock died from the effects of rabies communi- 
cated to them by the dog. 

In making this report I would say that it is far from satisfactory to 
me, owing to lack of scientific knowledge of different conditions, such 
as the condition of the pulse, the temperature, and the pathological 
conditions that careful ante-mortem and post-mortem examinations 
would reveal. 



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SOME AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION WORK. 



COMBATING ANTHHAX IN DBIiATTV'ARR 

[A. T. Ncalo, Btillotra No. 32, Delaware Experimeiit Station.] 

Director A. T. Neale, of the Delaware Experiment Station, says that 
OYQTj case of anthrax recorded in that State since 1892 may be 
regarded as belonging to some one of five distinct centers. The first 
outbreak was in 1802, when nine farms ATithin a radius of 1 mHe of 
the one first infected suffered hea\^ losses of milch cows and work- 
ing stock. Six of these farms have escaped subsequent attacks, and 
four years elapsed before tlie disease reappeared on the seventh. The 
eighth farm remained free. " The ninth and last farm represents the 
gravest aspect of this epidemic. In 1892 the losses were severe, and 
the tenant sought a new home. In 1893 his successor lost all of his 
cows b}^ anthrax, and was obliged to abandon farming. In 1894 a sim- 
ilar fate seemed to await the third tenant. He, however, realized his 
position in time to save more than one-half of his herd. The occu- 
pants of this farm in 1895 and 1896, it is reported, have kept no dairy 
herd, have quarantined a certain field against their work stock, and 
have escaped without loss." 

The second outbreak occurred in the midsummer of 1893, when four 
adjoining faims \rere involved. Three animals from the first farm 
were burned the day following their death, and no subsequent losses 
have occurred. Proper precautions were not taken upon the other 
farms and the losses were severe. In 1894 and 1895 the disease 
remained upon one of these farms, but has yielded to vaccination 
since. Upon another place it did not appear in 1895 and 1896, but no 
reason appears for this good fortune. 

The third and fourth centers of contagion were established in July, 
1895. Sixteen farms were affected and 50 cows, horses, and mulea 
died. Thirteen head of stock were lost from the third outbreak before 
assistance was secured and 9 from the fourth outbreak. The sick 
animals were isolated, infected fields quarantined, carcasses cremated, 
and survivors vaccinated. The result was complete immunity in 1896 
on thirteen of the sixteen farms, and the remaining three were but 
slightly affected. 

The fifth outbreak occurred in June, 1895. "The source of the dis- 
ease probably came from the sewage of a morocco shop." A year later 
the disease occurred on two additional farms, ** probably from the same 

190 

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FOURTEENTH ANNI^AL REPORT: 191 

source." Precautions were taken to cremate the carcasses, to fence 
the stream, and to exclude the herd, and so subsequent losses were 
avoided. 

After a careful study of the five centers of contagion, Director Xoale 
gives '* a summary of the experiences of the past fiveyeai'S,"as follows: 

Every case of anthrax which has been recorded in Delaware since the spring of 
1892 maybe regarded as belonging to some one of five distinct centers of contagion. 
The belt of territory in wMch these centers occur is, approximately, 3 miles wide 
and 40 milee long. It passes through a well-developed dairy section, and is fre- 
quently crossed by tide water creeks or streams, A marked characteristic is its 
acreage of banked meadows. 

The centers of contagion have been confined to fields upon the waterways and 
lowlands subject to tidal overflow because of faulty sluices or broken dikes. 
Four years of close inquiry has failed to establish a case of trajisfer of anthrax by 
live stoek or farm products from one of the old to one of the new centers. Tlie 
accepted opinion is that in four out of five instances the cause of each new 
epidemic has been floated ashore from the Delaware River. In the fifth case sew- 
age from a morocco shop contaminated the water supi>ly of each of the infected 
farms. 

During the past five years anthrax has cost Delaware farmers, in the aggregate, 
30 horsefl and mules, 190 milch cows, and a relatively small number of sheep. As 
these animals died upon 33 differ^it farms, the average is considerably lower than 
2 deaihs per farm per year. The claim is made, however, that this average has 
been very much influenced by the timely adoption of necessary precautions, for 
at the beginning of each epidemic such records as the following have been made, 
namely, 7 cows lost out of a herd of 10, 13 lost out of a herd of 18, 33 lost out of 
a herd of 40. 

While anthrax must ^111 be regarded as a most dangerous and deadly disease, 
reports of new ontbraaks no longer awaken the alarm which characterized the 
epidemics of 1892 and 1893. A clearer insight as to the nature of this trouble and 
demonstrations that it yields to proper management are responsible for this change. 
Proper nuinagement upon an infected farm involves the cremation of the carcass 
of every victim, the temporary quarantine of suspected i^astures, the isolation of 
visibly diseased animals, and finally the vaccination of all susceptible live stock. 
This course properly observed will permit of the subsecjuent grazing of infected 
fields^ with Httle if any risk of further losses. 

Director Neale announces in this bulletin that in future the station 
must decline to continue the work of eradicating anthrax, leaving 
this duty to fall upon the individual or the State officials, aud gives 
as a reason that such work is not contemplated in the Ilatch Act. 

[Bulletin "No. 37, Delaware Experiment Station.] 

It will be obserred by referring to one of the paragraphs above that 
one of the outbreaks of anthrax in Delaware was attributed to the 
sewage from a morocco shop. In this connection, two outbreaks 
which occurred in Pennsylvania are of interest and importance. 
"The first oeeurred upon the banka of a ^ream which is tributaiy to 
tlie dusqnefaanna, near it« source; the second bore a similar relation 
to the head waters of the Allegheny River." It is believed that these 
outbreaks hiad their origin in a cargo of hides which had been im- 



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192 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

ported from China. These hides were tanned in yards located along 
these waterways. ** During this work several eases of sickness 
occurred among tannery employees, six of which terminated fatally. 
The death rates in the herds which grazed along the stream below the 
tanneries were also relatively heavy." As these hides were arsenic 
cured, it was at first stated that the death of both men and live stock 
was due to that poison, but "later it was determined beyond all qnes- 
tion that the bodies of the victims contained the bacilli of anthrax,** 
and that to these bacilli the deaths could be directly charged. 

The governor of Pennsylvania addressed a letter to the Secretary of 
the Treasury requesting the enforcement of section 25 of the act of 
Congress of July 24, 1897, which section reads as follows: 

That the importation of neat cattle and the hides of neat cattle from any foreign 
country into the United States is prohibited: Provided, That the operation of this 
section shall be suspended as to any foreign country or countries, or any parts of 
such country or countries, whenever the Secretary of the Treasury shall officially 
determine, and give public notice thereof, that such importation will not tend to 
the introduction or spread of contagious or infectious diseases among the cattle of 
the United States; and the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby authorized and 
empowered, and it shall be his duty to make all necessary orders and regnlationB, 
to carry this section into effect, or to suspend the same as herein provided, and to 
send copies thereof to the proper officers in the United States, and to such officen 
or agents of the United States in foreign countries as he shall judge necessary. 

The correspondence resulting from this request is given herewith in 
detail : 

United States Department op Agriculture, 

Office op the Secretary, 
Washington, D, C, September 14, 1897, 

Sm: Referring to your letters of the 26th and 31st ultimo concerning the alleged 
outbreak of anthrax at Falls Creek, Pa., supposed to be due to infection from 
hides imported from China, I have the honor to state that this Department has 
made as careful investigation of the whole subject as is possible in a limited time. 
Your suggestions concerning the potency of the disinfection recommended for 
foreign hides, and secondly, as to whether the gravity of the situation may not 
demand a strict enforcement of section 25 of the act of July 24, 1897, so as to 
wholly exclude the importation of hides "of neat cattle from countries having 
inefficient sanitary laws, have been duly considered. 

It appears that anthrax is a disease which exists in most countries, and it is par- 
ticularly common in Asiatic countries, in Africa, and in South America, but it 
also exists even in those European countries which have the best sanitary laws 
and regulations. It is plain that the introduction of the disease could not be pre- 
vented with hides unless we excluded this article of commerce coming from the 
principal countries from which importations are made. The extent to which onr 
leather manufacturers depend upon such imported hides makes the prohibition of 
such importations an exceedingly serious question. Unfortunately the authority 
granted in section 25 of the act of July 24, 1897, is not sufficient to protect the 
country from the importation of anthrax contagion, as it only applies to the hides 
of neat cattle, while the hides of sheep, goats, and other animals, as well as hair 
and wool, are equally liable to bring the contagion. 

It may be admitted that disinfection with sulphur dioxide is inefficient for the 
purpose of destroying the germs of anthrax, and if we consider that these germs 



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FOUBTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 193 

are fonnd throtighont the hide, and that in order to destroy them any disinfectant 
must be made to penetrate to the interior of the hide, we mnst conclude that even 
the most powerful disinfectants are unreliable for this purpose. It does not appear 
that the rules for disinfection which were recommended by this Department can be 
improved upon, with our present knowledge, without seriously damaging the hides 
disinfectod. The question for decision, therefore, resolves itself into the proposi- 
tion as to whether, under the circumstances, it is advisable to prohibit the importa- 
tion of foreign hides on account of the outbreak of disease which occurred at Falls 
Creek, Pa. There appears to be a difference of opinion as to whether the disease 
there was anthrax or whether it was arsenic poisoning from the arsenic with which 
the hides were cured, and which adhered to them in considerable quantities. It is 
pofisibiy too late now to obtain information from which a positive diagnosis can 
be made, but if we admit that the disease was anthrax, I should be of the opinion 
that the Qovemment would not be warranted in excluding hides to the extent 
which would be necessary to accomplish any good, and by such exclusion to seri- 
ously damage one of our greatest industries. Anthrax is a disease which has been 
frequently imported into this and other countries with wool and hair, as well as 
hides, and, so far as I am aware, none of the leading countries of the world have 
prohibited the Importation of such articles on this account. I would recommend, 
however, that a letter be sent to onr consuls abroad, instructing them to refuse to 
allow the shipment of hides from districts in which anthrax is known to occur. 
This might have a beneficial effect, although there is some doubt as to whether 
the consuls have sufficient information to enable them to discriminate in such 
matters, since some of these officers have frankly stated that the regulations for 
the disinfection of hides were not and could not be enforced by them. 
Very respectfully, 

James Wilson, Secretary, 
The honorable the Sbcrbtaby of the Treasury. 



Department of State, 
WcL8hington, D. C, September 27, 1897. 
To the commlar officers of the United States: 

Gentlemen: The following letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, of the 
18th instant, is communicated to you for your information and guidance: 

** Referring to section 25 of the act of July 24, 1897, which pi-ohibits the importa- 
tion of the hides of neat cattle from any foreign country into the United States, 
and to Department's circular of November 22, 1895 (S. 16557), permitting the 
importation of such hides if properly disinfected under authority conferred on 
the Secretary of the Treasury by said provision of law, I have the honor to request 
that our consular officers may be instructed to refuse authentication of invoices 
of hides of neat cattle from districts in which the cattle diseafee anthrax is known 
to exist. This request is made on the advice of the Secretary of Agriculture and 
in view of the fact that an outbreak of anthrax has lately occurred at Falls 
Creek, Pa., resulting in the death of animals and human beings in consequence of 
the manipulation in tanneries at that place of the hides of cattle imported from 
China." 
You are directed to comply strictly with this instruction. 
Respectfully, yours, 

Thos. W. Cridler, 
Third Assistant Secretary. 
7204 13 



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194 BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

[Circular.] 

disdtfection of the hides of neat cattle shipped to the united states. 

Treasury Department, Office of the Secretary, 

Wdshington, D, C, November ^2, 1805, 
To collectors of customs and others: 

Representations having been made to this Department that the process promul- 
gated in its letter of November 14, 1895 (Synopsis 16385), for the disinfection of 
hides of neat cattle intended for shipment to the United States is attended with 
Injury to hides, the following method, which is intended solely for the protection 
of cattle in this country, and which is suggested by the Department of Agricul- 
ture, is adopted hereby, and will be required in all cases of shipment of such 
hides, when not, dry -salted or arsenic-cured, from the countries of Europe, Asia, 
Africa, Australia, and South America, viz: 

Dry hides which have been salted or arsenic-cured may be accepted as having 
been disinfected by the process of curing, and need not be submitted to any fur- 
ther treatment. Dry hides which have not been salted or arsenic-cured should be 
disinfected. Disinfection with sulphur dioxide may be accepted in case a room is 
provided which can be tightly closed, and also in case the bundles of hides are 
undone and each hide suspended separately from the ceiling in such manner that 
there may be free circulation of the sulphur fumes and that all parts of the sur- 
face may be acted upon. There should be at least 4 pounds of sulphur bm-ned to 
each 1,000 cubic feet of air space, and the room should be kept closed and the 
hides subjected to the sulphur dioxide for six hours; or the dry hides may be 
immersed in a 4 per cent solution of carbolic acid or a 1 to 1,000 solution of 
bichlonde of mercury until they are thoroughly wet with the disinfectant. Fresh 
or moist hides, whether salted or not, should be disinfected by immersion in a 5 
per cent solution of carbolic acid or a 1 to 1,000 solution of bichloride of mercury. 

It is further directed that hides of neat cattle, other than dry-salted or arsenic- 
cured, the product of the countries above named, will require disinfection as above 
whenever they shall be shipped via the ports of any other country ; and that hides, 
other than dry-salted or arsenic-cured, the product of any country not named 
above, if transshipped and actually landed at ports in any of the countries named, 
wiU require disinfection. 

It should be understood that the regulations herein provided do not in any way 
modify or affect any regulations concerning disinfection issued under the quar- 
antine laws of the United States. 

S. WiKE, Acting Secretary^ 



Treasury Department, Office of the Secretary, 

Washington^ D. C, January 25 y ISOS, 
Sir : Referring to Department's letter of the 3d instant in regard to the outbreak 
of anthrax in Pennsylvania, I have to advise you that the Department is in receipt 
of information, through the Secretary of State, that the consul-general at Singa- 
pore has refused to certify invoices of hides which come from a district where 
anthrax is known to prevail. 

Respectfully, yours, W. B. Howell, 

Assistant Secretary, 
Mr. Arthur T. Neale, 

Delaware College ^ Newark , Del, 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 195 

Treasury Department, Office of the Secretary, 

Washington, D. C, January SI , 180S, 
Sir : As a reply to your letter of the 26th instant, in regard to the prohibition 
of the importation of hides of neat cattle coming from districts where anthrax 
exists, I transmit herewith a copy of a letter this day addressed to the Secretary 
of State in the matter. 

Respectfully, yonrs, W. H. Howell, 

Assistant Secretary, 
Mr. Arthur T. Neale, 

Delaware College Agricultural Experiment Station, Newark, JJel. 

[Inclosure.] 

Treasury Department, Office of the Secretary, 

Washington, D, C, Januamj 31, ISOS. 
Sir : Referring to yonr letter of the 20th instant, in regard to the ref nsal of the 
United States consul-general at Singapore to certify invoices of hides coming 
from districts where anthrax is known to exist, I have the honor to request that 
the consul-general may be instructed to continue to refuse such certification iintil 
he shall be satisfied beyond all doubt that the disease has disappeared in such dis- 
tricts, and to refuse certifications of invoices of hides packed and store 1 in ware- 
house which were stripped during the period when the disease mentioned was 
prevalent, thia Department being advised by experts that the germs of this dis- 
ease remain in affected hides for an indefinite period. 

It is respectfully suggested that the contents of this letter be made known gen- 
erally in connection with the circular of your Department of September 27, 1897, 
to consular officers in hide-exporting countries. 

Respectfully, yours, L. J. Gage, 

Secretary, 
To the honorable the Secretary of State. 

The conclusions reached by the study of the national rules and 
enactments are summed up as follows by Director Neale, of the Dela- 
wiire Station: 

(1) As far as anthrax is concerned, dry hides, salted or arsenic-cured, can no 
longer be regarded as free from disease germs, and any process of disinfection 
which is searching enough to combat anthrax will accomplish the destruction of 
the hides. Hence, the disinfection rule of the Treasury Department, dated Novem- 
ber 22, 1895, is not efficient. 

(2) Section S5 of the act of Congress of July 24, 1807, is not broad enough to 
protect the country from anthrax importations, for the spores of this disease occur 
at times in sheep and goat skins, in hair and in wool, all of which products are 
largely imported, and no one of them is recognized in the above section. 

(3) Orders to consuls to refuse certificates on invoices of hides, etc. , for exporta- 
tion into this country from lands where anthrax prevails may aocomplish much 
good. It is not to be expected, however, that consuls shall in all cases have the 
technical information necessary to decide whether anthrax is or is not prevalent 
in the country to which they are accredited. 

The barriers erected by the National €k>vemment against anthrax importations 
are not impregnable, nor can they be improved materially. The absolute exclu- 
sion of all products which are liable to be carriers of anthrax would not now 
avail, for foci of contagion have been established in several sections of this 
coxmtry for twenty years at least. The work of controlling this disease can bo 
advanced materially by the national laws, but the major portion of that work 
must fall upon State and local authorities. 

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196 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

In this bulletin Professor Neale emphasizes the importance of 
vaccination and of cremating every carcass and all straw, litter, et<5., 
with which the carcass may come in contact. The soil should be 
thoroughly roasted, as the blood from a carcass will frequently stain 
it to a depth of 6 inches. 



SERUM THERAP7 IN HOG CHOLERA. 

[A. T. Peters, D. V. M., Bulletin Ko. 47, Nebraska Experiment Station.] 

Serum therapy is a treatment upon the theory " that the blood semm 
of animals, rendered artificially immune against certain infections 
diseases, injected into another animal will protect it against such 
disease or even cure it after infection." (Dr. Behring.) This treat- 
ment is being used in various diseases, such as tuberculosis, rabies, 
pneumonia, enteric fever, typhus, cholera, syphilis, streptococcus 
infection, cancer, tetanus, diphtheria, swine erysipelas, and in snake 
bites. 

At the station the liquid cultivating medium for hog cholera bacilli 
is prepared as follows: 

One kilogram of lean beef is boiled in 4 liters of distilled water for five hours. 
It is then strained, and neutralized with a canstic soda solution. Then 40 grams 
of common salt are added (10 grams per liter). This infusion is sterilized by dis- 
continuous steaming in stock flasks of convenient size, and incubated thoroughly 
before it is used as a cultivating medium. These flasks are then charged with 
blood from the heart of an animal which had a mild attack of hog cholera. The 
inoculating rod is made of a piece of platinum wire fastened to the end of a glass 
rod. This rod is passed through a flame until the wire at its end becomes red hot. 
It is then allowed to cool a moment. After dipping the end of the wire into the 
blood of the heart the cap is removed from the flask containing the culture mediom 
and the charged rod is quickly introduced and withdrawn. This is repeated three 
times, removing and replacing the cap each time. 

The flask is then placed in the incubator for from two to four days. Soon the 
germs begin to multiply and the previously clean culture medium becomes cloudy 
and milky. At the end of three or four days the culture is ready for use. The 
hog cholera cultures used at the laboratory to make horses immune were of the 
first generation. The horses selected at the station for this purpose are healthy, 
strong, and large animals of good disposition. The circulation, respiration, and 
temperature must be normal, and they must be free from any disease, and must 
have undergone the mallein test for glanders. 

The use of this culture is begun by a small injection of 6 cubic 
centimeters at the thorax or flanks and the injection gradually 
increased to 200 cubic centimeters in several months. "The effect 
of the hog cholera culture upon the system of the horse is mainly a 
rise in temperature of 1^° to 3°, a quickened circulation and acceler- 
ated respiration, but not in a very pronounced type." In order to 
obtain this serum, the horse is bled. 

For one week prior to the bleeding, the horse must be free from all toxic symp- 
toms, during which time it receives no more injections. The horses so bled appear 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 197 

to suffer no inconyeDience from the same, but on the contrary are more lively and 
have an increaaed appetite. The amount of hog cholera culture an animal receives 
is no indication of the strength of the antitoxin obtained. Therefore it is neces- 
sary that the serum from each and every drawing should be tested. When the 
blood is drawn, it passes into two sterilized flasks and is kept in the refrigerator in 
the laboratory for three or four days to allow the clot to press out the serum. 
The serum is then siphoned off into a large bottle and filtered through a large 
Chamberland filter. This filtered serum is then put up in bottles, holding 100 
cubic centimeters each, which are set in a dark, cool place, ready for use. 

Experiments have shown that it requires from 8 to 10 cubic centi- 
meters of blood serum to render a hog immune. 

In order best to show the results of the use of this serum, the 
detailed record of the experiments are quoted in full below: 

Hog No. 1 was a Poland China sow weighing about 100 pounds. She was in 
good health at the time and was inoculated with 1 drop of blood taken from the 
heart of a small pig that had died at the laboratory with hog cholera. She was 
inoculated on August 6, 1896. The sow received at the same time 10 cubic centi- 
meters of blood serum from horse No. 1. August 7 the animal was in good con- 
dition and showed no signs of any disease. August 9 at the seat of the inocula- 
tion could be seen the formation of a small abscess, which was undoubtedly caused 
by the injection of the blood, which had a number of putrefying germs in it in 
connection with the hog cholera bacilli. On August 11 the abscess broke and dis- 
charged pus, but the animal showed no signs of disturbance. August 15 the 
abscess had healed and the animal was to all appearances healthy. On August 20 
the animal was sent to Mr. C. A. Morrill, Stromsburg, so that he might put the 
animal in an infected herd and have the owners feed it dead material. The ani- 
mal remained at Mr. Morrill's farm for about a 'week, for at that time there was 
no suitable outbreak where the animal could be placed. After eight or ten days 
Mr. Morrill placed the animal in a herd where the owner had lost 20 head and still 
had 15 sick. These remaining 15 died, but the inoculated hog remained there two 
weeks after the last one had died. Then Mr. Morrill took the animal back to his 
own farm in order to place it in another infected herd, but during this time the 
animal sickened and died. We were notified too late, and did not receive any 
blood, nor could we make any post-mortem, but Mr. Morrill is certain the animal 
died of cholera, as he stated that the animal showed all the symptoms of cholera. 

Hog No. 2: This animal was inoculated August 6, 1896, at 10 a. m., and received 
blood from the same animal as did hog No. 1, but hog No. 2 did not receive any 
serum, and was tagged '* unprotected.'' On August 6, at 6 p. m., the animal was 
very dull. It would lie down most of the time, and did not partake of the noon 
ration. The animal could not be aroused in the evening, and did not seem inclined 
to take any food. August 7, at 8 a. m., the animal was a little better. It had 
partaken of half of the morning ration. On August 8 the animal began cough- 
*ing and showed the characteristic red spots on the abdomen and fianks. August 
9, at the seat of inoculation, could be seen the formation of a large abscess. 
August 10, 1896, the animal lay on the abdomen most of the time, partook of little 
or no food, and coughed very frequently. August 11 the animal seemed falling 
off in flesh, having taken up no food. August 12 condition not changed. August 
13 about the same. August 15 animal found dead; must have died during the 
night. On post-mortem the characteristic lesions of hog cholera were fonnd. 

Hog No. 3 was inoculated August 18, 1896. It was a shoat weighing about 100 
pounds. It was inoculated with the blood sent in from Broken Bow. It received 
with this 1 drop of blood 10 cubic centimeters of serum. On August 19 the 
annual seemed in good health. On August 20 the same. September 15 the animal 



uigiTizea oy VjOOV IC^ 



198 BntEAir or aisimal iFBrsTRY, 

seemed to cough a little. On Sepftember 1^ the oowlition wag bo better. On Sep- 
tember 17 the animal was found dea^d in "ttie fitalL On September 18 post^mortefm 
revealed that the subcutaneous ^n all along the abdomen was i>erfectly yellow. 
The lungs revealed no congestion nor any deposits of any kind. The kidneys wero 
enlarged, and the liver was very much ei^arged «nd hard. On opening? the bile 
duct we found that it was obeftructed with worms . and that it was very much 
■enlarged and distended. Judging from the post-morlem apxiearances, the hog did 
not die from cholera. Microscopical examination also revealed no bacilli 

Hog Na 4: This hog received August 18, 1896, 1 drop of blood sent in frcnn 
Broken Bow and 10 cubic centimeters of serum. August 19 the animal seemed 
in good health. August 20 the same. October 17 the animal was sent to Mr. 
John Reese, of Broken Bow, to be placed in a herd that was infected with liog 
cholera. On October 30 Mr. Reese placed it in a herd owned by Mr. George Carr, 
which was dying with cholera. On December 14 this hog is stiU alive and is 
doing well. 

Hog No. 5: August 18, 1896, the animal was inoculated with 1 cubic centimeter 
of blood sent in from Broken Bow, and tagged "unprotected." August 19 the 
animal would not partake of anything. August 20 the animal was very sick and 
commenced to cough and ate but very little. August 21, condition was no better. 
The animal lay down most of the time. August 22, condition about the same; 23, 
no change; 24, the animal was found dead. Post-mortem revealed that the intes- 
tines and lungs were very much inflamed. Numerous swine plague bacilli were 
found in the lungs, while in the spleen the hog cholera bacilli were found abun- 
dant. 

Hog No. 6: This animal weighed about 100 pounds, was inoculated with 1 cubic 
centimeter of blood August IS. August 19 the animal was very dull. August 
20 the animal took very little nourishment. August 21 the condition was about 
the same. August 22 the animal began to cough quite freely. August 24 the 
animal seemed but little better. There was a noticeable wasting away of flesh. 
August 27 the animals condition about the same. August 28 the animal was 
found dead. Post-mortem examination revealed the characteristic appearance of 
hog cholera. 

Hog No. 7 was inoculated September 15 with 10 cubic centimeters of serum and 
1 cubic centimeter of a virulent culture of hog cholera 4 days old. On Sep- 
tember 16 the animal seemed in good health. On Septemljer 18 no abscesses had 
formed as yet. From all appearances the animal enjoyed good health. At this 
date, DecemTjer 14, the animal Is still alive and is ready to be sent into an infected 
lierd. 

Hog No. 8 was treated with 10 cubic centimeters of serum and 1 cubic centi- 
meter of culture. At this date, December 14,, it i? ready to be sent into an 
infected herd. 

From the experiments it will be seen that the unprotected animalshave died, and 
there are only two cases where a protected animal died from the disease; in fact, 
I might say one, if I did not count the one which had the yellow -i^pearance ancl 
the obstructed bile duct. The one that was sent to Mr. Morrill led us to presume 
the blood serum had only a limited power of immunity, or that the animal did not 
receive a sufficiently large dose of serum. This is very distinctly seen in the herds 
of Messrs. Joseph and George Hedge. Their herd was inoculated August 6, 1896, 
when the disease was ra^ng all around them. Their herd did not take the dis- 
ease until eight weeks later, when the herd was infected and all but seven were 
lost. The other herd was Mr. Z. S. Branson's. His herd of 36 head was inocu- 
lated August 6, 1896. The disease was on the adjacent farm, but lie did not report 
a loss until eight weeks later, when he lost all but 13. Mr. D. Hedge had liis herd 
of 42 head inoculated. Fourteen of these were small pigs, 24 shoats, and S sows. 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



199 



He bmd the disease on his place, 8 haring died before treatment. At the time of 
treatment it seemed to check the disease for about five weeks, when after that 
time he lost all but 6. 

From these investigations we judge that the serum injected alone has only a 
limited power of immunity. We have therefore experimented with the antitoxic 
serum in connection with a virulent hog cholera culture, injecting approximately 
per lx)dy weight about 10 cubic oentimeterg of antitoxic serum to 1 cubic centi- 
meter of virulent hog cholera culture. We have lately treated 13 head for the 
experiment station in this manner, with good results thus far. The animals man- 
ifest no disturbance from the inoculation. Up to the present date we have by 
this method not produced the disease and hope to lengthen the duration of immu- 
nity through it. 

The following is a list of the field experiments: 

Results of use of hog cholera antitoxin. 



Kumber of ex- 
periment. 


Treated. 


Sick. 

2 
18 
11 
82 
6 
7 
20 
4 
10 
7 
8 
17 
1 
8 
5 
12 
14 


Saved. 

10 
53 

9 
17 

8 
11 
14 

3 
18 
15 


Number of ex- 
perimeDt. 

18 


Treated. 

IT 
18 
21 
11 
47 
08 
48 
60 
23 
43 
21 
88 
27 
15 
118 
13 


Sick. 

___ 
8 

n 

4 

« 

50 

Many. 



Saved. 


• 
1 


12 
64 
15 
IQB 
39 
18 
26 
42 
57 
7 

86 
17 
1 
8 
57 
12 
66 


16 


2 


19 


18 


3 


20 


21 


4 


21 


10 


5 


'Z>:::.;:.:.;.::::.. 


40 


8 


•^ 


50 


T 


1 24 


46 


8 


|2a 




9 , 


'^7 




7 


10 


7 


1 




11 


1 28 


6 


12 


29 


u 


13. 


30 


27 


14 


3 

9 

6 

55 


31 


15 


G 


15 


32 


118 


16 


33 

! Total 




12 






17 


i,m 


339 






650 



From the above table it will bo seen that out of 1,176 animals treated a little 
more than 56 per cent were saved. The exact number of animals that showed 
signs of sickness can not be given, since in a few instances this was not reported. 
In tho33 cases which showed no signs of sickness at the time of treatment, cholera 
was TVLsing in the neighborhood, so that the animals had been exposed to the 
disease. 



HOa CHOLBRA AND SWINE PhAQTJB IN INJDIANA. 

[A. W. Bitting, D. V. M., Bulletin No. 56, Indiana Experiment Station.] 

Historical. — Many breeders regard hog cholera as of recent intro- 
duction, but the "Report on hog cholera," issued by the Bureau of 
Animal Industry in 1889, is quoted to the effect that the disease 
existed in one county in Indiana in 1840. The State Agricultural 
Report for 1859-GO referred to the frequent outbreaks of the disease 
and the heavy loss it had caused. The contagious nature of the dis- 



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200 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



ease seems to have been well understood, and the preventive measures 
recommended are in the main the same as those advised at the 
present. The legislature of 1867 passed a law requiring the burning 
or burial of all carcasses of animals dying from the disease, and this 
law is still upon the statute books. 

Statistical, — In 1886 it was estimated that 80 per cent of all hogs 
that died from disease were victims of hog cholera. The following 
table shows the number that died during the nine years in which a 
record was kept: 

Loss of hogs by cholera in Indiaiia. 



Year. 


Number. 

288,286 
351,156 
326,555 
402,164 
512,602 


Year. 


Number. 


1882-^ 


1888 


326.859 


188^-84 


1889 


247,114 


1885 


1890 


266,901 


1886 


1894 * 


278.143 




m^x„i 




1887 


2.989,400 







No record was kept for the years 1891, 1892, and 1893, and the data 
for 1895 is not yet available. It is estimated from recent data, how- 
ever, that the loss for 1895 was $2,500,000. In some localities not 
enough hogs were left for breeding purposes. 

Characteristics of the disease, — The investigations show two dis- 
eases, hog cholera and swine plague. Both are caused by a microbe 
or germ, both occur under similar conditions, and have general symp- 
toms so much alike that it is difficult to distinguish between them. 
They differ in this respect, that the germs of hog cholera are longer 
than those of swine plague, are more resistant to climatic conditions 
and other influences that affect low forms of life ; they obtain entrance 
to the body through food, water, and air; young pigs are especially 
susceptible and may die when older ones have a mild attack or escape 
altogether; the intestines are the primary seat of affection; the dis- 
ease is more readily communicated than swine plague. The germs 
of swine plague are believed to gain entrance to the body mainly 
through the air; the older and fatter hogs suffer the greatest fatality; 
the lungs are the primary seat of affection. 

The symptoms of the two diseases are much alike. They vary 
according to the severity of attack. Often the hog will be found dead 
before it is known to be ailing, while in chronic cases it may be sick 
for two or three weeks. The condition of the eyes gives early indica- 
tions of disease; the mucous membranes become reddened and the 
lids gummy and glued together. The pigs appear chiUy and lie in 
the sun when they would ordinarily remain in the shade. They will 
hunt for litter under which to secrete themselves. The appetite is 
lost and a diarrhea is developed. In the earliest stage constipation 
may be present. The attack may or may not be attended with a 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 201 

eough, which may be frequent or only when the animal gets up from 
its bt3d. In breathing, the ribs seem to remain quiet and a quick 
jerk is seen in the flank at each expiration. Lameness in one or 
more limbs, stiffness of the back, thickening and cracking of the 
ears, scabs on the skin, purpleness of the belly or patches on the 
body are all attendant. In swine plague the respiratory symptoms 
are early developed and more characteristic than in hog cholera. 
On post-mortem the intestines and lungs are found to be points of 
attack. 

Investigation, — A circular was addressed to 109 breeders in Indiana 
whose stock was more exposed to the contagion than that of their 
neighbors, as it was exhibited at fairs. The herds were frequently 
visited, and the following interrogatories submitted: "How many 
hogs do you raise each year? Have you had cholera in your herd 
during the past year? If so, how many hogs died ? How introduced, 
if known ? How close did the disease come to you ? Was the loss 
light or heavy? What is the source of your water supply and how 
given to the hogs? If you escaped, what precautions were taken to 
prevent it? Give briefly your method of handling hogs." 

Ninety-five replies were received, a summary of which follows: 
**The 95 breeders produced 11,000 hogs, of which they lost 822, or 
approximately 8 per cent, during a year of severe trial. Seventy-two 
breeders escaped the disease; 23 had it. Ten of the breeders could 
not- account for its introduction into their herds; 1 fails to state how 
it was introduced, if known, and 12 account for its occurrence. The 
disease was on adjoining farms or within one-half mile of 55; in the 
neighborhood of 76, and not in the vicinity of 17. Sixty-two reported 
that the losses were severe, and 14 that they were light. Eighty-two 
had used wells or springs as the source of water supply; 13 used 
surface water or permitted access to it. The preventives recom- 
mended are pure water; cleanliness of quarters; removal of litter; 
care in feeding, particularly new corn; dividing the herd into 
bunches according to the age, and breeding to mature hogs. In 
addition to the concentrated foods, liberal allowance of salt, ashes, 
and charcoal were very generally recommended." 

From the tabulated statement of the 95 replies the conclusions are 
drawn that the total loss was very low compared with the loss in the 
State as a whole, and that one-third of the loss is accounted for as 
having been caused by exhibiting at fairs, by purchase, by bringing 
in hogs to breed, etc. 

Preventive measwres. — Pure water, clean quarters, and litter 
removed and burned at least once a week; if new com is given, 
feed judiciously; use liberal supply of charcoal, salt, and ashes, 
using one-eighth or one-tenth as much salt as charcoal and ashes; do 
not ship the hogs or allow them to roam on the farm; separate the 
sick ones from the well ones; dead hogs should be buried or burned. 



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202 BUREAU OF AKIMAli IWDUSTRV. 

The formula for hog cholera wliicli Avas published by the Bureau 
of Animal Industry in Farmers' Bulletin No. 24 "has proved as 
efficacious as any we have heard of the past sea*>ou/' but the authoi* 
himself recommends no medicinal treatment. 



IfBCBSSITX OP COARSE PBBO TO <5RO^W CATTLE. 

[Eugone Davenport, H. A^., Bulletin No. 4C, Illinois Experiment Station.] 

Four exi)eriments wei-e conducted with calves, all begun immedi- 
ately after birth, in order to obtain, to some degree at least, an answer 
to the query, To what extent in it necessary to cater to the instinct 
and the appetite of the animal in the matter of nutrition ? The plau 
in each experiment was to attempt to raise the calf to maturity with 
all conditions normal or the most faA'orable, except tliat it was deprived 
of all coarse feed. The feed given was ample in abundance and in 
vaiiety. While at first it ipras not expected that much would be 
learned by the trials, the results pointed surely and accurately toward 
the principle that we can not offend with impunity the constitutional 
need for coarse feed. 

The first experiment was upon a grade Shorthorn calf. Upon the 
first indication of a desire for coarse feed its bedding was removed 
and shavings substituted. Grain was fed early, but a phenomen^al 
appetite was developed for bulky food- Its appetite was wicii tha^t, 
if allowed, it would freely eat the shavingis, bits of rope, etc. Altihou^ 
up to this time it appeared healthy, it consumed inordinate qaajatitiee 
of gix)und feed, composed of half com and half oats, and At five montbs 
of age it consumed more than a half bushel daily. Dirt wa« eaten 
freely if obtainable. The expectation that these peculiarities would 
disappear and that t-he calf would becoiBe accustomed to its food was 
not realized. We quote : 

At about four months the joints commenced to swell and the legs to stiifen. 
Later, by spells, the calf walked with a reeling motion, althongh at other times he 
played as would any other ealf . One of the mo«* peculiar facts notieeable was 
the body eonditions as to flesh. It ^rm poor, hoi jyot thin. Its nxcffiCaes remained 
plump aud exceediaigly §xjaL, not to say solid, to i^ touch. 

At about five monthe there was an evident disturbance of the nerve centers, 
and, although the calf never missed a meal or suffered from disturbed digestion, 
it was evident that it could not long survive. It was at ttiis time taking over a 
half bushel of grain daily with evident relish. It was now killed, and a post- 
mortem ezaminaifcion revealed nothing peculiar in the deTAlopBObKit of the uitemal 
oa:;g^ina. A gxewt quantity of food was found in the stomachs, but there was no 
sign of inflammation or of internal disturbance of any kind. The one noteworthy 
feature of the carcass was the absolute lack of fat, either external or intemaL 
This, together with the plumpness of the muscles, left the outlines of each dearly 
defined and not obscured, as is the case in normal specimens, in which the ooa- 
nective tissue, even in thin animals, carries ooneiderable fat. 



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FOUBTEENTH ANNUAL REPOKT. 



203 



The second exi)eTimeiit was upon the offspring of a Holstein-Friesian 
cow end Jersey bnll. This calf was put upon a diet of skim milk, and 
by August 1 had consumed 950 pounds, or 25 pounds a day. 

The following table shows the progress of the experiment to January 
11, when it refused milk: 

Table showing amount of milk consumed, iceight of calf, and amount of gain. 



Month. 



' Amount of Txr-j^uf 
milk con- y,«if ?; 



sumod. 



August 

September 
October ... 
Korember 
December - 
January 11 



Pounds. 
1,130 
1,300 
1,600 
1,533 
1,313 
250 



of calf. 

Pounds. 
197 
215 
285 
291 
297 
333 



Ilatioof 
Amount ' pjain to 
of gain, milk con- 
I snmed. 



Porunds. 

90 

48 

40 

G 



1:23 

1:27 

1:40 

1:253 

1:219 

1:7 



At the end of October there was a pronounced stiffness in the 
joints. At the end of November the stiffness had increased, accom- 
panied by lessened activity and appetite. At the end of December 
the calf was in a bad condition — \Qxy stiff, disinclined to move, and 
indifferent as to whether it ate or notu The first ten days of January 
showed a phenomenal gain in weight, but a violent reaction set in on 
the llth. The calf refused to stand and to take milk, and seemed 
nearly dead. "At 8 a. m. hay and straw were put before it and it 
ate greedily, e\incing no choice between the two, and at 11 a. m., 
three hours after taking coarse food, it was ruminating for the first 
time in its life, and exhibited a brightened eye and a most contented 
expression of countenance. Before night it was standing up and 
moving about. Drank 6^ i>ounds of milk." Ilay and milk were 
^ven each day thereafter, a-nd occasionally some other food, such as 
oats, oil meal, or silage, and the calf rapidly improved in condition and 
^ined in weight The experim^^nt closed on March 31, when Direc- 
tor Davenport said the calf **was in every respect well, hearty, and 
growing, and as able and as disx>osed to be active as was any calf in 
tlie barn." 

The third experiment was upon a grade Jersey, dropped May 1. 
The progress of the experiment was essentially the same as that of 
the one first above, except that its condition was not permitted to 
become so severe. The calf was first reported as **not doing well" 
th& last week in Sepl^eml^or^ j^nd in the second week of October was 
given 8ome hay. Hay aad grain, as well as milk, were given daily 
thereafter till Oeftober 12, when the experiment closed, and when it 
was noted " calf greatly improyed."" 

Experiment No. 4 was upon a grade Jei^sey which, on June 3, was 2 
weeks old and taking 20 pounds of milk daily. It was designed in 



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204 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



this oase to wean the calf and put it upon an exclusive diet of grain. 
The following table shows the progress: 

Progress of experiment tenth a calf upon an exdvMve diet of grain. 



Week 


ending- 


Juno 


17 


June 


24 


July 


1 


July 


8 


July 


16 


July 


32 


July 


29 


Aug. 


5 


Aug. 


12 


Aug. 


19 


Aug. 


20 


Sept. 


j> 



MUk 
used. 


Grain 
used. 


Bran 
used. 

Pounds 


Oats 
used. 


Water 
used. 


Weight 
of calf. 


Gain. 

Pounds 
5 

10 

8 

7 

13 
2 

8 
1 
2 
8 
15 


Remarks. 


Pounds 
280 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Pounds. 
107 
112 

122 
180 
137 

160 
162 
144 
145 
148 
135 
120 




280 


17* 

21 
21 
10 

17i 
18 
20 
22i 
20 
17i 

m 




' 






280 








corn, oats, and wheat 
ground. 
Do. 


280 








Do. 


210 








Grain in equal parts by 
weight, corn and oats 
ground. 
Do. 


140 









98 








Do. 


84 


16 

m 

10 

4 






Getting poor. 


40 





4 

7 

16 
16 


80 
21* 






Not doing welL 
Had 3 pound oil cake. 
2* pound oil cake. 
Appetite not good. 



On September 5 and 6 the calf, having refused water for two weeks, 
was given a little milk, but on September 8 refused all food. Next 
day drank 8 pounds of milk, but was bloated badly. "It weighed 
now 167 pounds, and had apparently gained 24 pounds since August 
20, when it refused water, and since which time it had drunk but 19 
pounds. It weighed 47 pounds more than on September 3, when it 
refused all food and drink, and since which time it had consumed but 
3 pounds of oats and 19 pounds of milk, not counting the few swallows 
recorded as *a little.' The query is as to the source of this gain, and 
it would be most readily chargeable to error were it not that a like 
increase had been noted in both No. 2 and No. 3 at a similar stage in 
the experiment." 

From this time until September 16 its appetite increased, and it 
seemed to rally without hay, but on this day, almost without warning, 
it died. This was the only one of the calves to show signs of a dis- 
turbed digestion. 

The discussion of the data upon these experiments by Director 
Davenport is interesting, and is embodied herewith in full : 

A close study of these animals, their feed, gains, and attendant symptoms, dis- 
closes certain peculiar and not a few abnormal and puzzling facts. 

Rumination, — From the first it had been a query whether anything like normal 
rumination would follow the consumption of coarse grains like bran or oats in 
the absence of coarser food, but the closest observation failed to discover it until 
hay or straw was taken. No. 2 was contentedly chewing his cud for the first 
time at 7 months of age, three hours after his first meal of hay. With No. 8 it 
was not until ^yq and one-half hours after the first meal of hay that rumination 
was noticed, and Nos. 1 and 4 never ruminated. 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 206 

Absence of fat aiid character of flesh, — The total absence of fat, either internal 
or external, as revealed on post-mortem examination, particularly after the enor- 
mous amounts of food consumed, is unaccountable. No. 1 at 6 months of age was 
taking about one-half bushel of mixed grain per day, yet no fat was to be found 
even about the kidneys. But the muscles were not shrunken; on the contrary, 
they were plump and exceedingly dense. The animals would all attract instant 
attention. At a glance they looked poor, yet they were not thin like those that 
have suffered from insufficient food. ni>on touching with the hand it would be 
noted instantly that the muscles were exceedingly hard, and that the general 
appearance of the animals is approached by those only that have been long on dry 
p€hsture with insufficient water. 

Enormous consumption of food. — These experiments serve an important purpose 
in showing that the amount of food that is consumed is no indication of its eco- 
nomic use, and that enormous amounts may be taken in the vain attempts to 
satisfy an abnormal appetite. These animals were wanting something that they 
could not get, and, with the appetite of the first stages of dyspepsia, ate everything 
in sight. This is one of the symptoms of insufficient nutrition, which is but 
another name for the early stages of starvation, and is a condition of things that 
the careless feeder often brings upon his stock by poor care or insufficient food in 
early winter. That the rally, if made at all, will be made at great expense of food 
is more clearly shown in these experiments than by data heretofore possessed. 

No. 1 ate at 6 months of age a half bushel of mixed grain per day. At 2 months 
of age No. 2 ate 40 pounds of milk daily, and rose to over 50 pounds at 4 months, 
which proved inadequate to its wants. After being allowed hay, the same calf 
made gains amounting to from 2 to 3 pounds a day on a ration of from 2 to 8 
pounds of hay, 2^ to 3 pounds of grain, and 80 to 85 pounds of milk. No. 8 went 
to pieces at between 4 and 5 months, after consuming an average of 71i pounds of 
milk daily for five weeks. This is 85 quarts per day, and it seems almost incon- 
ceivable that a Jersey calf, at less than 4 months, could consume so much. 

Nondisturhance of digestion, — It would seem that such inordinate amounts of 
food must destroy a calf or at least lead to complicated disturbances within the 
machinery of digestion. In none but the last (No. 4) was any disorder of the kind 
noted. The bowels remained regular throughout and the droppings appeared 
normal. It raises a query as to the extent to which digestion was really accom- 
plished and whether failure was primarily in the digestive apparatus or in the 
metabolic processes of the body. 

G^atTw.— Some of the gains secured are worth noting. No. 2 in the first one hun- 
dred days gained 188 pounds on 8,880 pounds of skimmed milk, or 1 i>ound of gain 
for 25 pounds of milk. The same calf increased from 107 pounds to 888 pounds at 
seven months, a gain of 226 pounds, on an exclusive diet of skimmed milk. But 
the limit was reached and gains as high as 8 pounds per day were made later on a 
moderate feed of hay, grain, and milk. No. 8 gained less on his diet of milk, and 
in ninety days gained 108 i)ounds on 4,789 pounds of milk, or 1 pound of gain for 
48 of milk. No. 8, although much smaller than Na 2, ate more milk, as will be 
seen, and put on less gain. 

Sudden apparent heai*y gains,— -It will be remembered that No. 2 appeared to 
have gained 86 pounds in the eleven days just before its collapse ; that No. 8 
apparently gained 48 i>ounds in the seven days from September 2 to 9, and went 
** off " immediately after, and that No 4, September 9, weighed 47 pounds more 
than it did six days before, although it could not have consT\med in the meantime 
more than that amount of food. Some allowance must be made for the inaccuracy 
of gains computed from a difference in consecutive weights, and an error in weights 
is always possible ; but the substantial agreement, in all cases, in a sudden and 
extreme increase of weight just before a collapse is, to say the least, surprising 
and difficult of explanation, especially in the case of No. 4, in which the material 



uigiiizea oy VjOOv Iv^ 



306 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

appears to be wanting. The diflftcnlty is not lessened by the fact that this 
occnrred once, and once only, with each calf. 

Uniformity of symptoms, — All agreed substantially in the essential symptoms 
resnlting from deprivation of coarse food, namely, a ravenons appetite, followed 
by enlargement and stiffening of joints, spells of dizziness and difficult locomotioti, 
all followed by periods of relief, and finally by a settled feeling of indifference to 
food. This indifference conld be removed temporarily by any change of food, 
but permanently by coarse food only, which never failed to effect a restoration to 
normal conditions. 

Starvation. — These experiments, considered in connection with common obser- 
vation and experience, seem to teach that whether food be insufficient in quantity 
or imperfectly adapted in quality to the needs of the animal, the result is the 
same— defective nutrition, which is in no sense different from starvation. 

It may be argued that depriving milk of its fat violated a law of nature. The 
teaching has been, however, that the casein would be a full ef|uivalent if in suffi- 
cient quantity, and the fact is clear that all these calves that were put on a diet 
of skimmed milk flourished remarkably well till at the age of four or five months. 

However that may be, they all failed to sustain the demands of life on any diet 
until a ration of hay or straw was added, and then, as in the case of Nos. 2 and 3, 
made a rapid recovery. Further, from the first the attendant symptoms were 
those chai-act eristic of slow starvation, namely, a ravenous appetite, soon giving^ 
place to a disturbance of the nerve centers, and later an entire indifference to 
food and a total loss of appetite. 

As starvation in mature animals is accomx>anied by a wasting of the tissues, 
especially fat, so here starvation by imi)erfect nutrition during development 
resulted in the total absence of fat. 

As bearing upon the more general principles of physiological requirements and 
body behavior, it may be said that these calves have exhibited phenomena notably 
similar to those of ill-fed children, as they have been studied by the writer in the 
tropics and observed to some extent in certain quarters of great cities. In hot 
countries a very little food will sustain life in a mature body, but the demands of 
growing children are more exacting, and they may be seen by hundreds tucked 
away in obscure comers, with face in hands* exhibiting that characteristic expres- 
sion that may be called the starved look and that is easily detected in human 
being or in animal wherever present. 

There is a popular belief that starvation in all its stages is an acute and painful 
condition incident only upon insufficient amounts of food. There could be no 
greater error. The acute stage soon passes and there is only a nameless and dull 
yearning left till life is extinct. These experiments appear to teach that starva- 
tion, partial or complete, may ensue upon an apparently slight interference with 
constitutional habit. 



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MOVEMENT OF FARM ANIMALS. 

Tlie tiible on page 208 shows a summary of the receipts and sliip- 
ments of fanu animals for the year of 180(5 at lliirty of the prineii)al 
stock centers of the United States. The succeeding tables sliow the 
receipts and shipments in detail for these stock centers and cover a 
varj'ing number of ye«ars. The figures for the hii-ger points are accu- 
rate, while many of those given for the smaller points are estimated 
from reports of stock-yaM officials and railway officials. 

A table showing in brief form the total receipts and shipments, so 
far as they are obtainable, is given herewith : 

Total receipts and shipments of f ami animals for ISi**). 

Animal. Receipts. jShipmenta. 



Cattie ; 9,081,070 

Calvos : 1 615,813 

Hogs 28,589,353 

Sheep 

Hones and mules 



13,903,856 

437. no 



Total ■ 50,52:,:I02 



5,059,131 

129.347 

10,813,694 

5,055,365 
411,144 



22,0aj>,081 



The total movement of cattle, sheep, or hogs does not indicate tlie 
exact number that was marketed. The receipt*j and shipments at 
Denver may appear later in the receipts and shipments at Kansas 
City, and still later in tlie receipts and shipments at Chicago. So it 
will be observed that there must certainly be many duplications and 
some triplications. 

As this is the first time that statistics of this character have 
appeared in tliese rejwrts, an effort is made to have them as complete 
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The reports for Kansas City go back to 1871. 

207 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



241 



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242 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



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ANIMALS IMPORTED FOE BREEDING PURPOSES. 

Cafih\ shrcp, and swine imported into the United States for breeding purposes 
through ports along the Canadian border, 

PORT HURON, MICH. 



I 



Date of 
tion. 

1800. 

Jnlj- 15 
AufiT. It 
Aug. liJ 
Aug. 13 
Ang. 14 
Aug. 14 
Aug. 24 
Aug. 2 
Ang 
Aug. 27 
Aug. 27 
Aug. 31 
Sept. 1 
Sept. 10 
Sept. 11 
Sept. 12 
Sept. 12 
Sept. 15 
Sept. 15 
Sept. 17 
Sept. 21 
Sept. 21 
Sept. 21 
Sept.ii 
Sept. 25 
Sept. 25 
Sept. 29 
Oct. 5 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct, 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 30 
Oct. 21 
Oct. JS 



Name of importer. 



J. W. Neal 

A. D. McMichaol... 

G. J. Campbell 

A.J.Wright 

George UcKorrow . 

-,. do 

J. G. Boynton 

F. W. Harding 

-...do 

...do 

...do 

H. H. Cleaver 

George Bick ford ... 

J.H.Patrick 

C. C. Rico 

Rogers & Stewart. . 

E.Hurd 

.....do 

J. W. Neal 

John Ross, jr 

John LuchembiU . . 

S. H.McLellan 

Robert Head 

E. K. Carr 

William Oliver 

do 

Rob Jones , 

Kelvin Jones 

D-P. Clarke 

Fred Wilson 

William Grimes.-. 
Wesley Schlich tor. . 

Joseph Dawson 

G eorge Harding ... . 

do 

-..do 

E.O. Woods 

A. O. Fox 

H. Bishop 

A. J. Richardson .. 

Isaac Smith 

diaries Borland. ... 
George Maney 



Address. 



Bay City, Mich 

St. CUir, Mich 

Ripton,Ohio 

Bay City, Mich 

Packwaukee, Wis 

.....do 

Rochester, Minn 

Waukesha, Wis 

...do 

.....do 

do 

Stoutsville, Mo 

Ovid, Mich 

Reese ville. Wis 

Armington, Mont 

Durand, Mich 

Lansing, Mich 

do 

Bay City, Mich 

Bucyrns, Ohio 

Durand, Mich 

Portland, Mich 

Sears, Mich 

Jonesville, Mich 

Springfield ,111 

do 

Fort Steel, Wyo 

Vassar, Mich 

Grand Junction, Colo . 

Conde,S.Dak 

Yale, Mich 

Brown City, Mich 

Marlette, Mich 

Waukesha, Wis 

do 

do 

Flint, Mich 

Oregon, Wis 

MilUngtofn, Mioh 

Thayer, Nebr 

St. John, Mich 

WilUamsbarg, lowm. . . 
Oconomowoc, Wis 



Breed and kind. 



Oxford sheep 

Berkshire swine. . . 

Oxford sheep 

Yorkshire swine . . 

Oxford sheep 

Southdown sheep . 
Shropshire sheep. . 

Cotswold sheep 

Shropshire sheep. . 

Dorset sheep 

Lincoln sheeep — 
Leicester sheep . .. 

Lincoln sheep 

do 



... .do 

Shropshire sheep.. 

do 

do 

...do .. 

do 

Lincoln sheep 

Cotswold sheep . . . . 

do 

Shropshire sheep . 

do 

Lincoln sheep 

Oxford sheep 

Berkshire swine. . 

Lincoln sheep 

Cotswold sheep . . . 
Leicester sheep ... 
Yorkshire swine . . 
Leicester sheep .. . 
Cotswold sheep. . . 

Dorset sheep 

Shropshire sheep. 

Oxford sheep 

Shropshire sheep. 

Lincoln sheep 

Leioester sheep. . . 

Lincoln d^ep 

do 

do 



Num- 
ber. 



848 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



244 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



Catiley sheejy, and swine imported into the United States for breeding purposes 
through ports along the Canadian border — Continued. 



PORT HURON, MICH.-Continued. 



Date of 
inspec- 
tion. 



1890. 

Oct. 38 
Oct. 27 
Oct. 29 
Oct. 30 
Oct. 31 
Nov. 3 
Nov. 3 
Nov. 4 
Nov. 5 
Nov. 9 
Nov. 10 
Nov. 10 
Nov. 11 
Nov. 11 
Nov. 11 
Nov. 11 
Nov. 13 
Nov. 13 
Nov. 16 
Nov. 17 
Nov. 18 
Nov. 18 



Name of importer. 



Nov. 19 
Nov. 21 
Nov. 21 
Nov. 33 
Nov. 23 
Nov. 33 
Nov. 24 
Nov. 24 
Nov. 37 
Nov. 28 
Nov. 28 
Nov. 30 



Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 14 
Dec. 18 
Dec. 18 
Dec. 18 
Dec. 18 
Dec. 18 
Dec. 18 
Dec. 23 
Dec. 33 
Dec 24 
Dec. 30 
Dec. 31 



H.H. Cleaver 

E. Waverly 

George Harding & Son . ... 

Isaac Smith 

Charles Sheldon 

H. White 

Henry Turner 

Smart & Webster 

E. S. Plumb 

George B. Hyde 

R.Scott 

A. E. Bnrrongh 

LT. McFee 

H.Stewart 

P.O.Babbitt 

T. H. Oreutt 

A.O.F0X 

Pailthrop & Hackney 

N. H. Gentry 

James Massie 

Alex. McKenzie 

Ames Agricultural Col- 
lego. 

M. Bricker 

EmilGoise 

William Mason 

GJeorge R. Hyde 

J. Whitmer 

J. P. Hyde 

John Johnston 

Dr. D. P. Miller 

J. W. Boynton 

P.L.King 

E. Buchanan 

Duncan Paterson 

Robert Jones 

do 

G. A. Lockwood 

H. A. Daniels 

J. B. Wells 

William Pearsell 

George Harding & Son .. 

H. 8. Brown 

J. W.Boies 

M.H. Smith 

C. J. Poulter 

E. C. & J. A. White 

Patrick Bruin 

Albert Decker 

Arthur Brewer 

George H. Wardell 

David Dunlop 



Address. 



Stouts viUe, Mo 

Los Angeles, Cal , 

Waukesha, Wis 

St. John, Mich 

St. Clair, Mich 

Evart.Mich 

Brown City, Mich... 
Market Lane, Idaho. 

Lafayette, Ind 

Doster,Mich 

Portland, Oreg 

Morley, Iowa 

Lenox, Iowa 

Durand, Mich 

Boyd, Wis 

Rocky ford, Colo 

Oregon, Wis 

Mount MorHs, Mich. 

Sodalia, Mo 

Capac, Mich 

OarksvUle, Mich 

Amos, Iowa 



Breed and kind. 



Leicester sheep 

Tam worth swine.. 

Cotswold sheep 

Lincoln sheep 

Leicester sheep 

do 

do 

Lincoln sheep 

Shropshire sheep . . 

Leicester sheep 

Cotswold sheep 

Berkshire swine. . . 
Shropshire sheep . , 

do 

Southdown sheep. 
Cotswold sheep — 
Shropshire sheep. . 
Berkshire swine. . . 

do 

Shropshire sheep.. 

do 

Yorkshire swine. . . 



Bolding, Mich Lincoln sheep.. 

Clark Station, S. Dak ' Leicester sheep. 



Avoca, Mich 

Delton, Mich 

Brown City, Mich 

Mount Sterling, Iowa. 

Sandbeach, Mich 

Flint, Mich 

Rochester, Minn 

Charlotte, Mich 

Sterling, Colo 

Lambs Comer, Me 

Casper, Wyo 

do 

Chariton, Iowa 

Flint, Mich 

Mitchell, S. Dak 

Lansing, Mich 

Waukesha, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn — 

Auxvasso, Mo 

Baraboo, Wis 

Big Mound, Iowa 

Mount Carroll, 111 ! do 

Smith Creek, Mich ' do 

Deckerville, Mich ' Berkshire swine. . 

Millington, 111 Tamworth swine. 

Eennard, Nebr ! do 

Marlctte, Mich ■ Berkshire swine. . 



.-..do 

....do 

Yorkshire swine. . 
Shropshire sheep. . 

Lincoln sheep 

Oxford sheep 

Shropshire sheep . 

Lincoln sheep 

Cotswold sheep — 
Leicester sheep . - 

Oxford sheep 

Lincoln sheep 

...do 

.....do 

—..do 

.....do 

Cotswold sheep . . . . 
Shropshire sheep. 
do 



.do. 
.do. 



Num- 
ber. 



1 

166 
1 
1 

1 
1 

75 
1 

15 
1 
1 
1 
« 

1 
51 
55 

1 
1 
1 

1 



1 

117 
49 
13 

163 



4 
1 
2 
1 

7» 

13 
1 

3S 
4 
4 

15 
1 
1 
3 
1 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



246 



Cattle, sheep, and swine imported into tJie United States for breeding purposes 
through ports along the Canadian 6orci<?r— Continued. 



PORT HURON, MICH.-Contiimod. 



Date of I 

inspec- , 

tion. \ 

1807. 

Jul 1 
Jan. 4 
Jan. 2:* 
Jan. 37 
Feb. 2 
Feb, 3 
Feb. 10 I 
Feb. 17 ! 
Feb. 23 
Feb. 25 
Feb. 15 
Feb. 27 
Mar. 5 
Mar. 12 
Mar. 17 
Mar. 19 
Mar. 25 
Mar. 31 
Apr. 1 
Apr. li ' 
Apr. 15 
Apr. 15 
Apr. 25 . 
May 1 I 
May 4 
May 4 
May 15 , 
May 20 ' 
May 21 
May 27 
May 27 \ 
Jnne 3 
Juno 8 
Jane 15 
June 22 
June 22 
Jane 23 
Jnne 35 , 



Name of importer. 



Jobu Marsball 

Isaac Smith 

8 N. Wescott 

Arthur Brought on . 

J. C. Ponltcr 

J. W. Murphy 

A. E. Qeer 

P.P.Smith 

W.L. Carson 

F.W.Harding 

do 

do 

Arthur M.Clark.... 
Norman MacNell ... 

I.G.Rcbbins , 

Clay & Forest 

W.O.Yoris 

A.O.FOX 

William Graves 

I.T.McFee 

C. S. Schroeder 

Edson Carr 

James J.Hill 

I.T.McFee.... 

C.J.Poulter 

W.C.FrazIer 

NickKersch 

W.A.Sharp 

M.Hayse 

George McKenow . . ■ 

do 

E. H. Spaulding 

W.O.Yoris 

Alez.Qunu 

A. McLaughlin 

do 

Chris. Kerrn 

P. A. By water 



Total. 



Cattle. 
Sheep. 
Swine. 



Total. 



Address. 



Cass City, Mich.... 

St. Johns, Mich 

Caro,Mlch 

Evansville, Wis.... 
Big Mound, Iowa. . . 
Cass City, Mich.... 

Russell, Kans 

Flint, Mich 

Ramsey, 111 

Waukesha, Wis 

do 

do 

Lexington, Mich 

Qrand Blanc, Mich . 

Horace, Ind 

Wibaux, Mont 

Mound City, Mo... 

Oregon, Wis 

Winden City, Mich . 

Lenox, Iowa 

West Bend, Wis.... 

Joncsville, Mich 

Cardigan, Minn 

Lenox, Iowa 

Big Mound, Iowa . . . 

Atlantic, Iowa 

Carroll, Iowa 

Roseburg, Mich — 

Yale, Mich 

Pewaukee,Wl8 

---do 

Westfleld, Iowa 

Mound City, Mo 

Janesville, Minn — 

Cass City, Mich 

....do 

Port Huron, Mich. . 
Memphis, Mich 



Breed and kind. 



Leicester sheep . . . , 

Lincoln sheep 

do 

Shropshire? sheep. 

do 

Oxford sheep 

Yorkshii*e swine. . 

Oxford sheep 

Lincoln sheep 

Shropshire sheep. 
Cotswold sheep . . . 

do 

Durham cattle 

Oxford sheep 

Durham cattle — 

do.... 

Tam worth swine.. 
Shropshire sheep . 

Durham cattle 

Shropshire sheep . 
Yorkshire swine .. 
Shropshii*o sheep . 

Ayrshire cattle 

Durham cattle 

Shropshire sheep . , 

....do 

Tam worth swine.. 

Durham cow 

.....do 

Oxford sheep 

Shropshire sheep . 
Tam worth swine. . 

do 

Berkshire swine. . . 

Durham rattle 

Leicester sheep 

Durham cattle 

Yorkshire swine. . , 



Num- 
ber. 



1896. 

July 1 
July 23 
July 23 



DETROIT, MICH. 



George Allen . . 
W. T. Donoho . 
J.G.Snell 



Allerton,Ill 

HartsviUo,Tenn. 



Southdown sheep - 
Berkshire swine.. 



7 

4 
40 
I 
•) 

120 
S3 
•» 

30 
12 
20 

1 
83 

1 
54 

1 

»> 

10 
1 
3 

J 

1 
1 

ra 

5 
1 
3 
1 



2,401 

2,290 
41 

"2^ 



PaHs, Ky Cotswold sheep 

uigiTizea oy VjOOy Iv^ 



246 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



Cifttle, sheep, and swine imported into the United States for breeding purposes 
through ports along the Canadian border— Continued. 

DETROIT, MICa-Omtinued. 



Date of 
iospec- 

tiOD. 

1800. 

July 28 
July 29 
Aug. 8 
Aug. 13 
Aug. 14 
Aug. 23 
Aug. 26 
Sept. 1 
Sopt.lt 
Sept. 15 
Sept. 19 
Sept. 30 
Oct. 9 
Oct, 13 
Oct. IG 
Oct. 17 
Oct. 20 
Oct. 27 
Oct. 28 
Nov. 3 
Nov. 10 
Nov. 11 
Nov. 13 
Nov. 21 
Nov. 25 
Dec. 5 
Dec. 20 

1807. 

Jan. 19 
Jan. 19 
Jan. 19 
Jan. 2:2 
Jan. 23 
Jau. 23 
Feb. 2 
Feb. 4 
Fob. 13 
Feb. 13 
Feb. 19 
Feb. 23 
Feb. 23 
Mar. 3 
Mar. 11 
Mar. 13 
Apr. C 
Api*. 8 
Apr. 30 
May 20 
Juno 3 



Name of importer. 



M.G.Shaller 

James B. Smith 

D.N.Cherry 

J. M. Garrett 

Ed. Morris 

D. W. Evans 

Leonard Byan 

T. J.Hiller 

John Stephenson 

James McGregor — 
S. H.Todd 

E. Wineland 

G. 8. Millard 

George Capp 

JohnPhilport 

H.L.Holbrook 

E. £. Garr 

Frank Bishop 

W. T. Donoho 

W. Coles 

L. S. Dunham 

Marvin Fordick 

C. Friend 

Allen Bradshaw 

William Richardson. 

L. 8. Dunham 

E. C. Whoaton 



Address. 



J. J. Krass 

do 

----do 

T.M. Rider 

E.G. Palmer 

William Michell-. 

W. W. Burns 

E. T. Tnnham — 
W. S. Hankshaw . 
B. 6. De Lander. 
Chapman Bros — 

I J.J.Cross 

Prof. Craig 

L. S. Dunham 

W. Lambert 

D. C. Harter 

J. Russell 

J.Hume 

W.S. Hankshaw.. 

Alex. Dunn 

L.S. Donham 



Beach City, Ohio 

Middlerox, N. Y 

Xenia, Ohio 

Versailles, Ky 

Glasgow, Ky 

Yenedocia, Ohio 

Bryant, Ind 

Orchard Lake, Mich. 

Ensley,Mich 

St. Clair, Mich 

Wakeman, Ohio 

Avoca, Iowa 

East Olaridoa, Ohio . 

SaranacMich 

OtisviUe, Mich 

Laotto, Ind 

Jonesville, Mich 

Almont, Mich 

Hartsville, Tenn .... 

Chatham, Va 

Concord, Mich 

Williams, Mich 

Madisonville, Ky.... 

Ovid, Mich 

Campbell, Mich 

Concord, Mich 

Marshall, Mich 



Breed and kind. 



Cots wold sheep 

Leicester sheep — 

Cotswold sheep 

Shropshire sheep. . 
Berkshire swine. . . 
Shropshire sheep. . 

Cotswold sheep 

Lincoln sheep 

Leicester sheep 

Yorkshire swine. . . 
Shropshire sheep . . 

do 

Cotswold sheep 

Lincoln sheep 

do 

Shropshire sheep. . 

do 

do.... 

Berkshire swine . . . 
Jersey Red swine . 
Shropshire sheep. . 
Southdown sheep . 
Berkshire swine . . . 

Lincoln sheep 

Shropshire sheep . . 

do 

Southdown sheep . 



Oxford sheep 

Shropshire sheep. 
Cotswold sheep . . . . 
Shropshire sheep. 



Fremont, Ohio 

do 

—..do 

Fairfield, Iowa 

Fumcssville, Ind I Tarn worth swine . 

Frankford, 111 ! do 

Salem, Ohio I Berkshire swine.. 

Everett, HI Tarn worth swine. 

Glamworth, Ontario Shropshire sheep. 

Wythoville, Va do. 

South Rockwood, Mich do . 

Fremont, Ohio do. 

Madison. Wis ' do 

Concord, Mich do 

Reed City, Mich Shorthorn bull... 

North Manohester, Ind... Shr<^>Bhire sheep. 

Denton, Mich Jerseycattle 

Pcmiona, Oal do 

Dublin, Ya ■ Shropshire sheep. 

Janesville, Minn ' Shorthorn bull... 

Concord, Mich ' Shropshire sheep. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAIi REPORT. 



247 



Cattle, sheep, and swine imported into the United States for breeding purposes 
through ports along the Canadian border— Continued. 



DETEOIT, MICH.-Continuod. 



Date of 

iMpec- 

tion. 


Name of importer. 


Address. 
Bluff, Ohio 


Breed and kind. 
Durham bnll 


1896. 

Jtme 8 


F.L. Darling 


June 8 


do 


.-.-do 


DnrliATTi ocwF 




Total 








Cattle 








Sheep 








Swhie 








Total 















BUFFALO, N. Y. 



1896. 

Aug. 4 
Aug. U> 
Aug. 17 
Aug. 22 
Oct. 9 
Oct. 9 
Oct. 13 
Oct. 20 
^ct. 20 
Oct. 21 
Nov. 10 
Nov. 27 j 
Dec. 17 I 

1897. I 

Mar. IG ! 
Apr. 5 I 
Apr. 28 I 
June 14 ; 
JunelC \ 
Juno 22 
June 36 ' 



H.U.Noble 

S. V. McDoweU 

W. A. McKay 

C.W.Lewis 

S. M.Harris 

Thomas Thompson. 

A.W.Milburn 

J.M.8ccord 

Frank Sadler 

A. H. Adams 

S.V. McDowell 

H. Chattuck 

E.G. McElhany 



Brecksville, Ohio 

Fredonia, Pa. 

Mercer, Pa 

Hopewell, N.Y 

Cold water, N. Y 

Cherry Creek, IT. Y . . 

Bell, Ohio 

TrumaQ0hurg, N. Y. 

Ravenna, Ohio 

Batavia, N. Y 

Fredonia,Fa 

Erie, Pa 

Burgettstown, Pa . . . 



H.W.Ritchey 

E.S.EUis 

Miller & Sibley .., 

Charles Friend 

P.D.Riefler ! Buffalo,N. Y. ... 

A. T. White Homellsville, N 

Samuel Laundon I Elyria, Ohio 



Smicksburg, Pa . . . 
Somerville, Mass . 

Franklin, Pa 

Madison viUe, Ey. 



Total. 



Southdown sheep . 

Cotswold sheep 

Leicester sheep 

Southdown sheep . 

Cotswold sheep 

do 

Lincoln sheep 

Southdown sheep . 

.....do 

Berkshire swine. .. 
Shropshbc sheep.. 

Dorset sheep .. 

Shropshire sheep.. 



Yorkshire swine. . 
Shorthorn calf .... 

Jersey cattle 

Berkshire swine. . 
Jersey Red swino . 

Lincoln sheep 

Durham cattle 



SUSPENSION BBmOE, N. Y. 



1896. 

July 1 
Aug. 5 
Aug. % 
Aug. t» 
Aug. 13 
Aug. 34 
Aug. 2;> 
Ai«r.27 
Sept. 19 
Sept.19 



John Chick 

J.W.Garrett-.. 
W. &C.Trazee- 

J. E. Wyler 

H. W.XDbaffoe.. 

C.E. White 

H. W. Keys 

Watts Bros 

Motcalf Bros. . . . 
Stephen Wilson 



Griswold, N. Y Cotswold sheep. 

Fort (Jarrett, Ky Southdown 6heop . 

GreenTdUey, HI do- 

Mount Hope, Ohio • do 

Brecksville, Ohio Shropshire sheep 

Paineflville,^hio do 

Newbury, -Vt do 

Xenia, Ohio Cotswold sheep.. 

Elma,N. Y Berkshire hog... 

Avon, Ohio - Cotswold sheep.. 



Kum 
ber. 



084 

G56 
19 

G81 



59 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



248 



BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



Cattle, sheepj and swine imported into the United States for breeding purposes 
through jyorts along the Canadian border— Continued. 



SUSPENSION BRIDGE, N. Y.-Contlnued. 



Date of 
inspec- 

tiOD. 

1896. 

Oct. 9 
Oct. 27 
Nov. 7 
Dec. 4 

1807. 

Jan. 7 
Jan. 20 
Feb. 10 
Feb. 19 
Apr. IG 
Apr. 27 
June 1 
June 1 
June 1 
Juno 1 
June 15 



Name of importer. 



Princeton, Pa 

Springwater, N. Y . 
Emeryville, N. Y... 
Goo. Howatt Kensico, N. Y 



S. Shaffer 

W. H.Norton... 
W. V. Hazleton . 



Address. 



C. F. Hosford 

P. A. Beardsley 

J. C. Duncan 

i W. H. Wakeman... 
I James Cloud & Son. 

I W.J.Lawrence 

! Robert Miller 

. H.C. Stuart 

I Robert Miller 

I H. W. Foster 

Isaac Norris 



Total. 



Mexico,N.Y 

Leon, Ohio 

Lewiston, N. Y 

Dalton,N.Y 

Kennett Square, Pa... 
New York Qty, N. Y. 

Elks Garden, Va 

do 

do 

Boston, Mass 

Bryn Mawr, Pa 



Breed and kind. 



Shropshire sheep . . 

do 

Southdown sheep . 
do 



Shropshire sheep. 

do 

.....do 

Lincoln sheep 

Jersey bull calf .. 

Jersey cow , 

Shropshire sheep . 
Shorthorn cattle. 

.....do 

Jersey cow 

Jersey bull 



Num- 
ber. 



OGDENSBURG, N. Y. 



1800. ; 

Dec. 11 ' 



M. I.Coyne i Chester ville, Ontario. 



ROUSE POINT, N. Y. 



1890. I 

Aug. 8 ; 
Sept. 13 I 
Dec. 7 

1807. 

Feb. 4 
Feb. 2.> 



C. F. Boshart . 
W. Whipple . . 
J. F. Anwden. 

C. E. Colburn. 
L. L. Moore... 

Total.... 



LoulsviUe, N. Y . 
Malone,N. Y.... 
do 



Corthindville,N.Y. 
Not given 



Berkshire hog... 
Leicester sheep . 
do 



French Canadian cattle 
Cotswold sheep 



3 
1 

1 
1 

3 
1 
3 

4 
1 
1 

10 
5 

16 
1 
1 




33 



1800. 

Sept. 18 
Sept. 25 
Dec. 18 



1800. 

Nov. 20 
Dec. 9 



J.Ballard 

George Cossio ... 
Herbert Dwyer . 

Total 



ST. ALBANS, VT. 



Georgia, Vt.. 
Barre,Vt..... 
Swanton, Vt. 



NEWPORT, VT. 



O. V. Band GUford, N. H 

8. A. Cleveland Coventry, Vt 



Shropshire sheep. 

.....do 

....do 



4 

4 

"io 



Shropshire sheep. . 
Southdown sheep . 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



249 



eolith; xhcfjty and sichie imported into the United States for breediny pur^toses 
through porta along the Canadian border — Continued. 



NEWPORT, VT. -Continued. 



Date of 

inspec- Namo of importer, 

tion. 



1897. ; 
Jan. 12^ Elmer E.Boot^-h. 
Feb. 17 M. W. Cochran . 
Mar.:i2 [ L. N. Collier.... 
Juno 31 C. M. Chapman . 
June :?> C. L. Drown 



AikUvs.s. 



BrccMl and kind. 



Total. 



Num- 
ler. 



I 

Not given ' Berkshire nwiue 

do I Shropshire sheop ' 

Derby, Vt Durham bull ' 

Vergonnes, Vt , Jerfioy bull ' 

Newport Center, Vt do t 



10 



RICHFORD, VT. 



1890. ; I 

Not. 18 H. 8. Hcrrick .' Enosburg Falls, Vt. 

1897. : 

May 11 , M. J. Leden \ East Berkshire, Vt. 

j Total ' 



Shropshire sheep 

Chester White swine. 



ISLAND POND, VT. 



1896. 

Nov. 11 B. B.Wyman j Bryants Pond, Me. .. 

1897. 

John Lodge | Manchester. N. 11 . 

Total. 



Jan. 



Shropshire sheep. 
Berkshire swine. . 



BEECHER FALLS, VT. 



1807. 

Apr. 8 Thomas Judd ; Canaan, Vt 

HOULTON, ME. 



Cow; breed not given. 



1896., 

Oct. 30 ; A. P. Dearborn.. 

1897. 

Apr. 1 R. A. Nickorson. 

Apr. 28 J.Thomas 

May 28 W. Nob!o 

Total 



Sherman, Mo . 



Honlton, Me. 
do 

Smsrraa, Mo . 



Shropshire sheep. 



Cotswold sheep. 

do 

do 



10 
3 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



IMPORTS OF ANIMALS AT QUARANTINE STATIONS. 

Imports of live stock received at tlie animal quarantine stations during fiscal year 

ended June 30, 1807, 



GARFIELD, N, J. 



Date of 

arrival. 

1806. 

July 7 
July 29 
July 29 
July 29 
Aug. 4 
Aug. 11 
Aug. 13 
Aug. l:? 
Aug. 12 
Aug. IS 
Aug. 12 
Aug. 18 
Aug. Vi 
Aug. 18 
Sept. 1 
Sept. 15 
Oct. 15 
Nov. 18 
Dec. 23 

1807. 

Feb. 6 
Mar. 19 
Mar. 19 
Mar. 25 
Apr. 15 
Apr. 27 

May 10 



Importer. 



Jacob BQlman 

Dr. G. Howard Davison . 

do 

do 

John Milton 

M, a Campbell 

Wills A. Seward 

Robert Hoe 

....do 

....do 

....do 



Address. 



Sullivan, Ind 

MiUbrook,N.Y 

do 

do 

Marshall, Mich 

Spring Hill, Tenn 

Budd Lake, N.J 

Golden Bridge, N. Y . 

do 

— ..do 

....do 



Metcalf Brothers I East Elma, N. Y. 

....do ' do 

do do 



Walter W. Law . 
M. C. Campbell.. 

Overton Lea 

F. W. Barrett ... 
Glen Walker 



J. E. Bobbins 

J.W.Martin 

do 

Bamnm & Bailey . 

F. S. Peer 

Robert Taylor 

Victor Roditl 



Total, 



New York City, N. Y . 

Spring Hill, Tenn 

Nashvillo, Tenn 

Wadsworth, N. Y 

F<^r t Worth, Tex 



Breed. 



Shropshire sheep . 

do 

Irish goats 

English goa1» 

Hampshire sheep . 
Berkshire swine. . 
Berkshire boar... 
Berkshiro swine. . 
Hampshire ram . . 
Southdown sheep . 
Yorkshire swine. , 
Berkshire swine.. 
Yorkshire swine . . 
Berkshire swine. . 

Swiss cattle 

Berkshire swine. . 

Sussex cattle 

Sonthdown sheep . 
Berkshire swine. . 



{Kwn- 
ber. 



Greensburg, Ind Jersey cattle 

Richland, Wis ' Red PoUed rattle 

do ; Hereford cattle 

Bridgeport, Conn Camels 

Mount Morris, N. Y I Guernsey cattle 

Abbott, Nebr | Border Leicester 

I sheep. 
Coney Island, N. Y ' Camels 



21 

i: 
Id 

4 
16 



1 
1 
2 

18 
5 
1 

U 
3 
1 

10 
3 

10 
5 
1 

12 
5 

i9 

6 
"5 



LITTLETON, MASS. 



1800. 
July 23 
Oct. 4 
Oct. 4 
Dec. 21 

1807. 

Apr. 



C. LHood 

D. L. Tappan... 
G. P. ChurchiU . 
a LHood 



J. G. Massey. 



Total. 



Lowell, Mass 

Arlington, Mass. 
Winthrop, 3 
Lowell, Mas8 . 



Rawlins, Wyo . 



Berkshire swine. 

do 

Jersey cow 

Berkshire swine. 



Hampshire Down 
sheep. 



ST. DENIS. MD. 



1(B 



1806. I 

July 21 ! Baltimore City Park 
I Board. 



Baltimore, Md i Sonthdown sheep 



250 



uigiTizea oy VjOOy Iv^ 



FOUBTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



251 



Imports of live stock received at tlie animal quarantine stations during fiscal year 
ended June 30, /597— Continiied. 



Date of 
arriral. 



Importer. 



BUFFALO, N. Y. 



Address. 



1800. 

Not. 7 I J. W. Wadsworth \ Avon,N.Y. 

1807. 

Feb. 2 
Feb. 2 
Feb. 3 
Feb. 9 
Feb. 9 
Feb. 9 
Feb. 18 
Feb. 16 
Feb. 18 
Feb. 16 
Feb. 18 
Feb. 23 
Feb. r 
Mar. 1 
Mar. 2 
Mar. 3 
Mar. 4 
Mar. 8 
Mar. 9 
Mar. 16 
Apr. 28 
May 23 



Br&od. 



Canadian cattle 



Matbeson & Co 

Rice & Whaley 

WflliamsoD, Ranitom & Co. 

Matbeson & Co 

Williamson, Ransom & Co. 

Ric©& Whaley 

Kelver &Co 

Rice&Wbaley 

Matheson&Co 

Williamson, Ransom & Co. 

JohnGrobe 

Reiver & Co 

Pfciffer Ss Windsor Bros. . 

Matbeson Ss Co 

do 

Rice & Whaley 

Matbeson* Co 

do 

Williamson, Ransom & Co. 

John Grobo 

Miller & Sibley 

J.H.Pratt 

Total 



Buffalo, N.Y Canadian cattle. 



. ..do 

do 

... do 

....do 

do 

.-..do 

-...do 

do 

do 

...do 

...do 

do 

.....do 

....do 

...do 

do 

.....do 

....do 

.-..do 

Franklin, Pa. 
Buffalo, N.Y. 



do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Jersey cattle. 
Grade cattle. 



Num- 
ber. 



iia 



165 



OGDENSBURG, N. Y. 



1800. 

Nov. 24 
Dec. 12 

1807. 

Feb. 8 
Feb. 13 
Feb. 13 
Feb. 20 
Mar. 8 
Mar. 5 
Mar. 15 
Mar. 16 
Mar. 19 
Mar.23 
Apr. 5 
Apr. 21 
Apr. 21 
June 17 



W. C. Browning. 
....do 



JohnCronk 

Wm. Stanton 

John Cronk 

W.LDaUey 

J. R. Humphrey . . . 

D.Murphy 

I.F.Colo 

L. McRoberts 

D. Murphy 

W.M.Coegrove.... 
Thomas P. Shelly . 

8 S. Rodgcrs 

Gilbert Nelson .... 
do 



Total. 



Alexandria Bay, N. Y. 
...-do 



Rensselaer Falls, N. Y . 

Popes Mills, N. Y 

Rensselaer Falls, N. Y. . 

Heuvelton, N.Y 

.....do 

Ogdensburg, N. Y 

Gouvemeur, N. Y 

Ogdensburg, N. Y 

.....do 

Redwood, N.Y 

Ogdensburg, N. Y 

Lisbon, N.Y 

....do 

....do 



Jersey cattle . 
...do 



Holstein heifer . 

Grade cattle 

....do 



do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Jersey cattle . 



2 

1 

1 
G 
6 
5 

28 
3 

37 
1 
2 

37 
1 
G 
5 
3 

Hi 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



252 



BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



Imparts of live stock received at the animal quarantine stations during fiscal year 
ended June 30, 7557— Continued. 



Date of 

arrival. 

1800. 

Sept. 14 

1807. 

Feb. 1 



Importer. 



S.L.Judd. 



P. S. Peer.. 
Total. 



ROUSE POINT, N. Y. 
Address. 

Georgia, Vt 

Mount Morris, N. Y... 



Breed. 



Ayrshire cattle. 
Ayrshire cattle. 



Nnm- 
ber. 



PORT HURON, MICH. 



1807. 

Jnne23 A. McLaughlin. 
June2S do 

Total 



Cass City, Mich. 
do 



Durham cattle . 
Holstein cattle . 



1807. 

June 23 ! C. L. Drown. 



1807. 

June 19 



1807. 

Apr. U 
Apr. 28 
Juno 7 



Henry Bashaw . 



C. Russell.. 
J. Thomas . 
John Gray. 

Total. 



1800. 

Nov. 16 



J. A. Fletcher . 



NEWPORT, VT. 

Newport, Vt 

RICHFORD, VT. 



Durham bull . 



Enosburg, Vt 

HOULTON, MB. 



Fort Fairfield, Me. 

Houlton, Me 

.....do 



Jersey cattle . 



Jersey cow 

Cotswold sheep . 
Jersey cow 



1 

10 

! 1 



VANCEBORO, ME. 



Vanceboro, Me . 



Jersey cow . 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



M MBER AND VALUE OF FARM ANIMALS, 1870-1896. 

The Division of Statistics of the Department of Agriculture has been 
collecting statistics relating to farm animals since January, 1804, and 
the resnlts have appeared in the annual reports of the Department 
and also in the form of Inilletins. The numbei's and values of farm 
animals from January 1, 1880, to January 1, 1890, were published as 
Bulletin No. 11 of the Division of Statistics. In this bulletin the 
statistician, Mr. IlenryA. Robinson, referring to the returns previous 
to 1880, disavows their accuracy owing to "the defects of the census 
of 1800, upon which the official estimates for a number of yeai's were 

AVERAGE PRICES OF FARM STOCK. 1870 TO 1896. INCLUSIVE. 

Tabic showing the estimated average farm price of farm animahfor the years 1S70 

to 1806, inclusive. 





Cattle. 


Hogs. 


Sheep. 


Horses. 




Year. 


MUch 
cows. 


Other 
cattle. 


Mules. 


im 








i8n 

1872 

1873 


$31.97 
29.72 
27.99 
28.52 
28.89 
27.32 
36.41 
21.73 
23.27 
23.96 
25.89 
30.21 
31.87 
39.70 
27.40 
26.06 
24.65 
23.94 
22.14 
21.62 
21.40 
21.75 
21.77 
21.97 
22.56 
28.16 


$19.01 
30.06 
19.16 
18.08 
19.04 
17.10 
17.14 
15.39 
10.10 
17.33 
J9.80 
21.81 
23.62 
33.26 
21.17 
19.79 
17.79 
17.06 
15.21 
14.76 
16.16 
15.24 
14.66 
14.06 
15.86 
16.65 


84.36 
4.00 
4.30 
5.34 
6.80 
6.09 
4.98 
3.18 
4.28 
4.7D 
5.07 
0.75 
5.57 
5.02 
4.20 
4.48 
4.08 
5.79 
4.73 
4.15 
4.60 
6.41 
5.98 
4.97 
4.85 
4.10 


$2.80 
2.96 
2. 01 
3.79 
2.60 
3.27 
3.25 
2.07 
2.21 
2.80 
3.37 
3.53 
3.37 
3.14 
1.91 
2.01 
2.06 
3.18 
2.27 
3.50 
2.58 
3.66 
1.98 
1.68 
1.70 
1.83 


$73.37 
74.21 
71.45 
08.01 
04.96 
60.08 
58.10 
52.41 
54.75 
58.44 
58.53 
70.50 
74.04 
73.70 
n.27 
73.15 
71.83 
71.80 
68.84 
68.00 
05.01 
61.22 
47.83 
86.39 
38.07 
31.51 


$94.83 
96.15 
80.22 


1874 

1875 


80.00 
75 83 


\m 

W! 

1878 

187» 


08.91 
03.70 
56.06 
01.26 


1880 

1881 


09.79 
71.85 


1882 


79.49 


1883 


84.23 


1884 


83.38 


1885 


70.00 


1886 


78.91 


1887 


79.78 


1888 


79 49 


188Q 


78 25 


1860 


77 88 


18M 


75.65 


18B 


70.68 


1868 


00 17 


18W 


47.66 


1865 


46.20 


1896 


41.66 







353 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



254 



BURKAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



based." However, as the estimates are the only figures available and 
are of some use for comparisons, it has been determined to insert them 
here. The tables herewith presented are from the published reports 
of the statistician, and cover the years from 1870 to 1890, inclusive. 
The Division of Statistics dates its returns January 1 of each year, 
but as the figures are really for the previous year, the dat<?s in these 
tables have been changed accordingly. Thus, reports dated January 
1, 1871, are here given for 1870. 

In all matters pertaining to values previous to 1878 it is well to keep 
in mind the fact that values arc given in currency. TJio currency 
equivalent of $100 in gold for the years 1870 to 1878, inclusive, is as 
follows: 1870, $114.9: 1871, $111.7; 1872, $112.4; 1873, $113.8; 1874, 
$111.2; 1875, $114.9; 1876, $111.5; 1877, $104.8; 1878, $100.8. 



UNITED STATES. 

Table showing the estimated nmnber arid valiie of farm animals for the years 1SC7 

to ISOG, inclusive, 

[From Rep(»^ No. 145 of the Stfttistidao, Department of Agricultare.] 



Year. 


Horses. 


Mules. 


Milchi 


cows. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


1867 


5,758,040 


1432,606,226 


a=>5,685 


$66,415,760 


8.C91,568 


$319,681,153 


1868 


6,332,703 


533,024,787 


(Kl,663 


(^,386,350 


0,247,714 


361.732,676 


1860 


8,248,800 


on, 319, 461 


1,170.500 


128,584,796 


10,095,600 


304,910,743 


1870. 


8,7X12.000 


683,257,587 


1,242,300 


126,127,786 


10,023,000 


374,0,088 


1871 


8,090,000 


650,707,916 


1,276,300 


121,027,316 


10,303.500 


aa>,304.9B3 


18?2 


0,222,470 


684,463,057 


1,310,000 


124,668,065 


10.575,900 


314, 358. 9^ 


1673 


0,333,800 


606,027,406 


1,330,860 


119,501,850 


10,705,800 


290.0Q».300 


1874 


9,504,200 


646,370,030 


1,398,750 


111,502,713 


10,906,800 


311.089,824 


1875 


0,735.300 


632,446,035 


1.414,500 


106,565,114 


11,065,400 


330.34«,«8 


1876 


10,155,400 


010,aOO,63H 


1,443,600 


00,480,970 


11,360,800 


307,743.211 


1877 


10,329.700 


000,813,681 


1,637,500 


104,822,950 


11,800,100 


298,409,806 


1878 


10,038.700 


573,254,808 


1,713,100 


90,033,971 


11.820,400 


256.958,988 


1879 


11,201,800 


613,296,011 


1,729,500 


1(15,948,319 


12,OB7,000 


279.809.420 


1880 


11,429,626 


667,054,335 


1.730,721 


120,006,164 


12,368,653 


296,277,060 


1881 


10,521,564 


615,824,914 


1,836.166 


130,945,378 


13,611,682 


336,480,310 


1862 


10,838,111 


765,041,308 


1,871,070 


148,732,390 


13,125.685 


396,575.405 


1883 


11,160,683 


833,734,400 


1,014,126 


161,214,976 


18.501,206 


423,486,649 


1884 


11,564,572 


862,282,047 


1,972,660 


163,497,007 


18,904,?23 


412, 903, €98 


1883 


12.077,667 


860,828.208 


2,052.509 


163,381,006 


14,235,888 


380.965.823 


1880 


12,406.744 


001,685,755 


2,117,ia 


167,057,538 


14,522,068 


878,;oo,aw 


1887 


13,172,936 


946,006,154 


2,191,727 


174,853,563 


14,856,414 


366, 252, 173 


1888 


13,663,204 


082,194,827 


2,257,574 


179,444,481 


15,206,625 


866.236,376 


1880 


14,213,837 


078,516,562 


2,331,027 


182,804,009 


15,052,883 


852,152.133 


1890 


14,056,790 


041,823,222 


2,206,682 


178,847,870 


16,010,501 


846.897,000 


1801 


13,498,140 


1,007,580,636 


2,314,609 


174,882,070 


10,416,351 


351,373 1» 


1802 


16,206,802 


002,225,185 


2,381,128 


164,763,751 


16,424,087 


857,299,786 


1888 


16,081,139 


760,224,799 


2,352,231 


146,232,811 


16,487,400 


868,908,061 


1804 


15,803,818 


576.730,580 


2,338.106 


110,027,884 


16,504,620 


862,001.79 


1805 


15,124,057 


500,140,186 


2,278,046 


103,204.457 


10,137,686 


863,965,545 


1896 


14,864,667 


452,649,390 


2,215,654 


02,302,000 


15,041,727 


300.280,998 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



255 



ITNITED BTATBS— Continued. 

Table skmring the estimated number arid vahte of farm animals for the years }Sf,7 
io I89G, inclusive — Continned. 



Year. 


Oxen and other cattle. ^ 


Sheep. 


Swine. 


Total value 










. or larm 




Number. 


Value. 1 


Number. 
38,991,912 


Value. 
998,407,809 


Number 
24.817,258 


Value. 1 animals. 


1 
1867 • 


U.94£,4d4 


$219,144,5£K) 


^10,766,266 l?ll,277,lH.8:i2 


108 ; 


12,185,385 


306,211,473 37,724,279 


63,189.979 


23,818,470 


146,188,75.") 1 1,527, 70*. ftiO 


m 5 


15,388.S00 


346,936,440 40,853,000 


93,364,433 


26,751.400 


lS7,191,5fr.» ■ 1.822., -5^7, :J77 


VStQ 


16,212,20U 


369,940,056 31,851,000 


74,035,837 


29,467,600 


ia2, 602.312 


1,810.112,711 


1871 


10. aw, 800 


321,503.608 31,679,390 


88,771,197 


31,796,800 


138,733,828 1 1,659,211, 9u3 


1«2 


13,413,800 


309,208.755 33,002,400 


97,922,350 


32,6aeS,0j0 


133,729,015 


1,684.4.31.03 


V^ 


10.218,100 


318,649.806 


33,928.200 


88, 680, 669 


30,880,900 


134,565,5:215 


1.C19,W1.1'.2 


1874 


iG,a3,4eo 


304,858,850 


33,783,100 


94,820,652 


28,808,200 


149,809,234 1,01.^012.221 


1875 


19,783,300 


319,838,909 


35.685,800 


98,606.818 


25,726,800 


173,070,484 l,047.n9.1C8 


187« 


17, 956, MO 


307,105,886 


35,804,200 


8e,8B2,«63 


28,077,100 


m. 077, 106 1 1,570,506,0© 


1877 


19,«8,800 


329,541,708 


35,710,500 


80,808,002 


32,262,500 


180,838,332 1 1,574,680,783 


IS78 


21,466,100 


329,513,327 


38,128.800 


79,023,964 


34,786.160 


UO, 613. 044 1,44a. 423, C82 


1879 


21,281,000 


341.761,154 


40,765,900 


90,290,537 


34.684,100 


145,781,515 1 1,576.917,530 


1^0 


20,987.708 


362,861,509 


43,576.899 


104,078.759 


36.247.603 


170,535,435 I 1.721.795,2,12 


1881 


2a,280,2» 


468,069,490 


45,0)6,224 


106,594,954 


44,122,280 


283,543,195 ' 1.906,459,230 


18B2 


28,616,077 


611,549.109 


49,237,291 


124,865,885 


43,279,086 


291,951,221 ; 2,338,215.2 8 


IM 


29,046.101 


G8S,SS9,884 


50,696,826 


119,902,706 


44,800.883 


246,3ai,i:« 1 2.467,808,921 


1W4 


20,836,578 


094,382,913 


50,860,213 


107,900,650 


45, m, 057 


226,401,6KJ 


2,450,428,880 


tBK 


31,2:5,»12 


6(a,^»,274 


48,322,331 


02,443,867 


46.092,043 


183,560,801 


2,.')Ur>,l50.8G2 


1836 


33,511,750 


663,137,926 


44,759.314 


60.872,839 


44,612.836 


200.043.201 


2, 401), 5^0, 10-} 


1887 


34,878,863 


611,750,620 


«. 541. 755 


89,279.526 


44,346,525 


220,811,082 


2, 40t», 013,418 


1838 


X5, 032, 417 


507,236,812 


42,599,079 


90,640.369 


50.301,502 


291,307.193 


2,507,050,a>S 


18» 


' 36,849,004 


560,025,137 


44,386,072 


100.659,781 


51,692,780 


243,418,336 


2,418,7tW,C2« 


MSO 


36.875,6« 


544,127,p08 


^.431.130 


106,307,447 


50,625,106 


210,193,921 


2.329,787.770 


»91 


37,6»1,230 


579,749,155 


44,038.885 


118,121,290 


52,398.019 


2U,«n,415 


2,401,755.698 


MK 


33,^4,196 


547,882,204 


47,273,5% 


125,909,264 


46,604,807 


295,426,492 


2,483,5(56,681 


1808 


3^608,168 


536,789,747 


45,048,017 


89,186,110 


45,206,498 


270,384,628 


2. 171), 816, 754 


1»1 


3i,a64,21« 


482,900,129 


42,294,064 


60,685,707 


44,lfi5,716 


219.501,267 


l.blJ>,446,3J0 


188S 


32,0^,400 


508,928,416 


88,296,783 


65,167,735 


42.8^.750 


186.529,74.5 \ 1,727. 920, 084 


WW 


30,508,406 


507,169,421 


38,818,643 


67,e»Q,942 


40,600,276 


166,272,770; 1.055,414,612 

t 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



256 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



ALABAMA. 

Table showing th^ estimated nuniber and value of farm aiiimaU for the years ISTO 

to 1S90, inclusive. 



Cattle. 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
18?i 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
18SA 
1887 
1888 
1880 
1890 
1801 
1803 
1883 
1894 
1895 
1886 



Milch cows. 



Number. 


Value. 


177,200 


$i,:u 1,400 


180,700 


xmt,m 


177,000 


a..-)!;}. 450 


178,400 


;}.:tsi.;x)0 


160,900 


:;.<m,-114 


168,200 


;;, nfj, 114 


171,500 


:i.mH,;i70 


205,600 


;i 48.5. (100 


215,200 


;,MUs,-40 


217,300 


;.', \m, rfiO 


215,127 


:,MKW.719 


274,157 


;i.t>t!,580 


276,809 


•1, :,*»), 850 


279,668 


l.(U7,:il9 


282,465 


4,510.440 


285,290 


4, .Ml. 817 


288,143 


i,;A»7.r«i 


296,787 


l.r,7o.r«) 


302,723 


5.140.^1 


311,805 


i,ieti.r>i9 


308,687 


i. '((W. 123 


811,774 


4,o:*s.»ilO 


814,882 


4,4S7,:Jll 


811,743 


:j.8si.'J00 


817,978 


:i.-4.'U.162 


508,439 


:i;H-».(e9 


305,355 


■•i.:m.rAS 



Other cattle. 
Number. Value. 



I 



Year. 



Hogs. 



Number. 



1870.... 
1871.... 
18'/2.... 
1873.... 
1874.... 
1875.... 
1876.... 
1877.... 
1878.... 
1870.... 
1880.... 
1881.... 
1882.... 
1883... 
1884.... 
1885.... 
1886.... 
1887.... 
1888.... 
1880.... 
1890.... 
1891.... 
1892.... 
1803.... 
1894..., 
1895... 
1886... 



900,000 

081.000 

961,300 

990,100 

010,800 

755,900 

793,600 

052,300 

1,005,100 

1,117,000 

1,184,000 

1,189,830 

1,225,534 

1.286,811 

1,351,152 

1,351,152 

1,310,617 

1,376,148 

1.408,671 

1,530,001 

1,514,701 

1,499,554 

1,484,658 

1,514,248 

1,680,816 

1,848,896 

1,885,876 



Value. 



$3,870,000 
3,590,460 
2,980,090 
2,851,488 
2,814,372 
3, 010, Ml 
2,753,792 
3.104,408 
2,606,338 
3.1(15,200 
3,800,640 
4,818,848 
5,818,818 
4,079,191 
4,580,405 
4,261,533 
3,882,703 
4,661,014 
6,038,477 
4,643,552 
4,838,108 
4,356,205 
4,761,719 
4,988,093 
5,885,886 
5,280,452 
4,763,724 



;>LM,roo 
;i:{7,,-00 
:ui.rj00 
:m. 100 
:tt<t,roo 
:{:i7. :m 
:m. -lOO 
:n5.<)00 
:?-i7,r«) 

'.*ti7 HOO 

:?ir>. 122 

474, t«0 

48t,950 
48O.100 
4:i:iJ190 
4;JL>,(I90 
4:Uh 411 
4r>. 139 

4^,042 
454,012 
449,502 
445,007 
486,107 
545,134 
545,134 
623,829 
491,929 



:{,8^7,r,42 

:;.Hi- («l 
;}. 4:.9. 122 
4.is.i,l67 
3, :.*«.•!. 780 
:j,tw)7.r»00 
;.'. VM. 475 
:i,07:». 160 

4. :m. 798 

r.,(f77,426 
r.,4:i:».r)33 
4.^^tn,:i96 
4,Wi,:i75 
4.:iiil,:«5 
4.187.H35 
. 4,;57u.:J48 

4,1^},<»1 
4,(Kr.. 179 
:?.741,463 
tJ,7:r..H06 
i:, 7:^^.113 
:{.;-)< »7, 

:{-;is4. 129 



Horses. 
Number. Value. 



108.600 
106,700 
107,700 
106,600 
104,400 
104,400 
105,400 
106,500 
11^,800 
113,900 
115,089 
U5,0e9 
116,240 
119,727 
120,924 
123,342 
127,042 
180,853 
133.470 
134,803 
133,457 
121,446 
123,511 
119,806 
128,400 
128,336 
120,619 



8U».:.'til.t|24 

' ri.:.M*7..S38 

!M^t.*.<l04 

7.icc:.:«) 

7.4iu.!)84 
ti, tVM). 714 

(1. 101, 786 
f'.,4.5<M67 
♦l.8i;i.760 
7. 88:1. ."(06 
8. 127. .-.01 
8.ra).:)88 
8.r.^it,.'a2 
s.7;n.tt43 
8.7.-.l.r»35 
H»,8(Ni..S25 

ir. 740. 188 
t*.,'<:;s.;J62 
8.48.-1,421 
8. LV), 485 
tl.8tXl. 130 
.5.7r»H,:W0 
fi, 4.1*1, ti87 
n.(Ki:;.t»7 



Sheep. 


Number. 


Value. 


200,200 


1354,354 


188,100 


342,342 


186,200 


3»,a06 


189,900 


345. «18 


182,300 


362.777 


183,900 


868, 7«7 


195,100 


8»,a»i 


270,000 


47:^.600 


204,000 


297,840 


214,200 


333,010 


224,910 


375.000 


354,489 


486.285 


350,014 


636,944 


343,925 


612.448 


343,925 


6(6,570 


337,047 


471.806 


'd23,565 


458, Qfn 


310,622 


453.1.35 


301.308 


426. 5S4 


280,288 


413,613 


274,788 


427.873 


309,292 


443,927 


358,158 


542,251 


343,832 


421,067 


326,640 


474,804 


sn.iu 


311.534 


25!!, 133 


316,074 



Mules. 
Number. I Value. 



98,700 
101,600 
103.600 
102.500 
102,500 
101,400 
102,400 
105.400 

in.Too 

llfj.lOO 

12-!. :>93 
l:r,.il61 
l::7.:»21 

ril.iciw 

1:{1.'W5 
i:t7.ta>5 
140,449 
i i^'i :J58 
14:{.:jr>8 
V.i^\Am 
1:15. 415 

]y>.9y6 

l:i.'..936 
Vi7. 19.-> 
!:,*?>, 7:i9 



$11,.'>40,991 

10,7.52,328 

10,575.488 

9,363,375 

8,330.950 

8.132.280 

7,122;m4 

7.a5o,4.50 

B,0ri:j,(r70 

7,300,571 

7,806,715 

8.S&4..^W 

iai<i9.l>» 

J1.7:JL».:ci 

11.33:1.477 

IKlrJ'i.HlK 

11,194.624 

ll,98iJ..^i25 

ll.fftl.ifti 

12. ^.W, 313 

12.81.5,875 

11.7?r0.744 

10. 93). 4.14 

8,4'M,tift3 

7.2ai.473 

H.7tM,54« 

ft.35H,0O7 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



267 



ARIZONA. 

Table shoicing the eatimated number and value of farm animals for the years 1S70 

to ISOG, inelusive. 



Voar. 



1870. 
1S71. 
1872- 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 



Cattle. 



Milch cows. 



Other cattle. 



Slieoi). 



Xnmber. ' Value ; Number. Value. \ NuuiIkt. 



Valui' 



1878 















1879 i 


1 1 1 


llifl) ' 




1881 


• 


...1 1 


1883 


10,044 
13,057 
13,188 
13,847 
15,333 
16.398 
16,624 
16,790 
16,790 
17,797 
16,907 
14,878 
14,878 
15,623 
16.872 
■ 


$2;itt,034 
4^,a53 
408,828 
429,257 
;»5,363 
006,286 
:T74,040 
335,800 
461, ?25 
441,92.-> 
355,047 
260,365 
:»4,755 
:»0,550 
380.464 


145,000 
303.000 
217,210 
238,931 
243.710 
4^,000 
441,000 
004,170 
725,004 
761,254 
822,154 
649,502 
649,502 
636.512 
547.400 


^l, 75.5, 0(J0 
4, 060, 0*30 
4.561.410 
4,778,0:20 
4,630,4!)0 

7,717.-500 
il.{Xi2.5:jO 
10,1.50,056 
11,418,810 
12.414,525 
7, 306, HS»8 

n,2»il.:,*04 

0,4-57,164 

ti.5T;.i)ii 


UtKi,000 
812, 700 
853, 3a> 
896,002 
(J27,201 
a58,56l 
065.147 
098, 404 
.50:1, 643 
611,452 
580,879 
001,246 
740.646 
74<J,546 
828.666 


$l,264,2rjO 


18KJ 


1.625,400 


1884 


1,021,337 


1885 


1,. 523, 203 


1886 


1.003, .533 


1887 


1,152,482 


1888 


1,197,205 


1888 


1,152.:367 


1890. 


l,;m,607 


1801 


1.406,340 


1893 


1,306,978 


1893 


1.209,681 


1804 


901,081 


1885 


lew, 196 


1886 


l.:ioi.l?i 







Year. 



1870. 
1871. 
1873. 
187:}. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 



Hogs. 
NumlK^r. VrIuo. 



Horsi'S. 
Number. \ Value. 

I 



Mules. 
NuinlK?r. Value. 



1877 L .. 1 t ' -- ... 


1878 1 




18?9 


...... . .. . 


1 


1880 






! 1 


1881 






1 


1882 


9,200 
9,384 
9,853 
10,149 
13,701 
16,441 
16,112 
30,140 
20,140 
20,143 
19,536 
19,536 
20,904 
20,605 
26,076 


$73,600 
60,996 
02,074 
45,671 
54,804 
94,5Ji6 
96,6?2 
90,630 
106,742 
108,756 
122,100 
141,036 
101,696 
152,980 
128,206 


7,704 
8,628 
8.801 
9,681 
lO.lftj 
10,287 
29,700 
:i2,670 
31,(J37 
51,668 
52,175 
52,697 
54,278 
56,449 
62,498 


*f.r^,r20 

uii,;9c. 

15;.ii52 
51:{.il93 
5-^.580 

1.4.10.1,50 

l.53'.i.l.5;5 
1,:^' 165 
2 '*! 520 
1 5t 50 

i.it*;. 160 

l.TTH Hl5 
l.HU 770 

i,rt^t29 


1,064 
1,075 
1,129 
1,242 

1,86:} 

1,882 
2,850 
2,936 
2.055 
1.336 
1.340 
1,327 
1,327 
1.221 
1,026 


860,160 


1883 


7.5,250 


1884 


79,080 


1«5 

18« 

1867 


117,369 
137,862 
ia5,504 


1888 


300,213 


1880 


205,520 


1800 


123,300 


1801 


74,816 


1802 


67,000 


1803 


40,805 


1804 


39,940 


1805 


33,605 


1806 


25,815 







XoTK.— Returns from Arizona previous to 1882 were included with Nevada, Colorado, and the 
Territories. 



7204- 



-17 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



258 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



ARKANSAS. 

Table showing the estimated niimher and value of farm animcUsfor the years WO 

to 1806^ inclusive. 



Year. 



Cattle. 
I Milch cows. I Other cattle. 

Namber. ' Value. Number. ' Value. 



Sheep. 



1870 
1871 
187;i 
1873 
1874 
1875 
187ti 
1877 
1S78 
1879 
1880 
1881 

188:J 

1883 
1884 
1885 
188G 
1887 
1888 
1880 
1800 
1891 
1893 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1890 



Year. 



1870. 
1871. 
187:2. 
1873. 



1874. 
1875 - 
1870 . 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880- 
IKSl . 
1882 



18H3... 
1884... 
1885... 
I884i . . . 
1887... 
1888... 
1889... 
1890... 
1891... 
1893 ... 
18.0:}... 
1.S04... 
1895... 
1896... 



133,1 
140. J 
150.; 
151, 
151,1 
100, ! 

\m. \ 

183,1 
187, 
199. ( 
.•aw, I 
314, 
357, 
257. 
»»,( 
376,: 
289.1 
304. 

;k3.( 

339.: 
329,: 
342, J 

:j38,i 

338, ( 
;J88,( 
395. J 
386,: 



863. G 
1,036,: 
1,067,; 

88:j,( 

901.; 
i.fjoo,; 
V040.; 

j, 123,.' 
! U6,( 
l.-.SO.i 

I. tn. 

I. ','30,1 
i.:>jO,< 
1. 

I . rzi, ] 

!.:^.: 



600 


$ ,M35.764 


221.900 


82.622,858 


500 


;,!tiW,865 


235,200 


2,8n,792 


300 


;Ut70,«29 


251.000 


2,961.332 


800 


? t,W.450 


256,600 


2.917,542 


800 


::,ao,5^ 


248,900 


2,486.511 


IKX) 


:.M-r06,580 


261.300 


2,775,006 


700 


:; .535,310 


261,300 


2,090.229 


300 


• sr3,3»4 


3a5.0C0 


4,317,350 


700 


;:, m),779 


357,000 


3.430.770 


000 


:'.:i8.340 


371.300 


3,891.224 


960 


;;,ni:3,338 


378, ?36 


3.828,920 


419 


1.-04,007 


445,071 


5,19:?, 979 


753 


n .-.44,2«') 


429,465 


ft. 437, 027 


753 


.^>,r.96,486 


420,876 


5,749,166 


063 


r., 430,214 


429,294 


5,421,983 


104 


4.;>W,350 


442,173 


4.979,796 


909 


4.:a5,223 


451,016 


4,838,890 


404 


1.453,431 


469,^57 


4.003,415 


668 


4.r.91,886 


501,891 


4,586,305 


131 


4.182,628 


587.212 


5,0rr2,101 


131 


4 ;%25,414 


704,651 


5.961,934 


386 


4.706,43;} 


725,794 


6,353,230 


86.3 


;t.s98,ft25 


ni,278 


6,782,338 


697 


;i.r>36,780 


&M,376 


4,593.263 


697 


;?.:J16,553 


615.113 


4,406,c»4 


837 


;:.sa7,2n3 


516,095 


4.388,064 


344 


;i..'U)0,413 


4W,523 


3,3n,357 



1,(579,! 

).563.: 
I . r.47 
i,r,47,( 
1.583,; 
].:;75,l 



Hogs. 


Ho 


,er. 


Value. 


Number. 


600 


$-■-', >32, 008 


138.100 


:ioo 


:ii*.i8,666 


147,700 


300 


;,',T53,634 


100,900 


GOO 


:-VS33,870 


162,500 


(HX) 


;M55.984 


154.300 


JJOO 


:^. 523, 093 


158,900 


300 


;i, 571,071 


162. 0(K) 


300 


:}.:97,095 


165.200 


.'JOO 


;;. f.96, 400 


180,300 


(NX) 


;;. 403.620 


191.100 


500 


5j!io.ia5 


191,100 


192 


4.413,676 


150,723 


513 


4.-^51.990 


156,752 


(B6 


....551,277 


161,455 


IHl 


...574,&4« 


166,299 


;i(5.> 


4,197,066 


160.625 


139 


4.(^.293 


174.714 


360 


;;.!^,j.^3 


179,9.55 


1:^7 


4.(f98,561 


187, 153 


375 


4.i'di,657 


187,153 


908 


:!.n72,;>78 


190,896 


109 


:i. 1*78, 158 


187,078 


•.^ 


4.689.967 


190.820 


089 


4.961,892 


196,645 


(M9 


3,401.823 


218, Iftj 


1B6 


3,954.809 


235,018 


586 


3,196,861 


240,330 

1 



Value. 



$10,240, 
11,640, 
12,611, 
11,8^. 
9,163, 
8,694, 
7.769. 
7.471, 

:.;j47. 
\)^:>\:. 

](I.4U5. 

i(».(i:,'t. 

KMil:.'. 
10.5i!», 

io.;;v.t. 

S. <>:5H, 

7. ].->*;. 

7, 7iU, 
0,353, 



S'umbcr. 


Valne. 


ia-5,000 


%i\x,m 


147, 100 


m,f» 


160,300 


391,(167 


176,300 


315, 5« 


183,300 


348.2n) 


192.400 


m.m 


190,400 


337.eOJ 


285.000 


527,250 


283,500 


437.315 


293,500 


457,«» 


296,4;)5 


438,7?* 


349,225 


353,(0 


239,250 


430,661 


227,290 


m4« 


225,030 


m.m 


234.061 


a67,au 


224,660 


341.983 


230,167 


3M,127 


2»4.570 


33I,:K 


269. 4«4 


401.SW 


260, 4M 


SS'St 


264.004 


3»,i37 


240,;^ 


30,714 


228,310 


307,<&( 


212.328 


2».S» 


188.972 


2I4.«8! 


170,075 


218.51:? 



Mules. 



Number. 



67,900 
76,700 
82.800 
83,600 
81.000 
83.400 
85.000 
85,900 
80,300 
92,900 
97,445 
91,436 
96.008 
102,729 
106,833 
114,317 
117,747 
122.457 
128,580 
129.866 
132,463 
1^,112 
137,130 
130.882 
141.281 
145,510 
145,519 



Value 

7.467.MJ 
7.ffift»m 
7.4n.»4 
5,8I6,5I» 

5.ima 

4,f<(>^>.'*^i" 

n.5l.TSH 

n sK.a^ 

{-: ^: w 
:.i.i;.r?a 

7..i7tJ,»« 
7.9nJ.W 

9, 1163, W 

ll.r»(2.«8 
8,f>47.576 
9.232.3^1 

8.8n.8K7 

^c.4.=v:.7e 
iK u;i,.j»i 

4.!i(Ni.9'iJ 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



259 



CAIiIFORJTIA. 

Table sJiowing the estimated nwnber and value of fann animahfor the years 1S70 

to 1896 J inclusive. 



Year. 



1870. 

isn. 

1872. 
18T3. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877 . 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
IWo. 
1888. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1880. 
1891. 
18B3. 
18B3. 
1884. 
1885. 
1896. 



Year. 



Cattle. 



Milch cows. 



Number. 



180,800 
186,800 
270,000 
310,500 
340,000 
363,800 
381,000 
380.500 
450,600 
473,400 
473,400 
214,280 
214,280 
210,706 
331,743 
236.378 
243,469 
250,773 
258,296 



290,521 
299,237 
320,161 
330,036 
335,616 
330,002 



Value. 



18,660.048 

8,342,488 

11,728,800 

10,954,440 

10,044,600 

11,445,148 

11,701,416 

10.905,5a5 

11.903,610 

13,563,910 

14,992,578 

7f*)0,95a 

•)O,508 

»,904 

S,106 

}9,648 

)8,040 

75,509 

)5,328 

>4,427 

r9.711 

>9,541 

S4,206 

16.937 

S2,274 

. .171,583 

^<.t'S8,281 



Other cattle. 



Number. 



Value. 



Sheep. 
Number. Value. 



490,000 
465,500 
442,200 
428,900 
660,000 
1,075,000 
1,053,500 
1.000.800 
1,010,000 
999,900 
999,900 
422.433 
575.000 
609,500 
615,505 
027,907 
659,302 
692,267 
?i6,880 
697,805 
558,244 
602,904 
916.414 
925,578 
916,322 
888,832 
853,279 



10. jM:.' 

:;i,:)Sf;, 
i:.-l(n. 

I'J.IHCl, 

:;n.:U7. 

iT.Ti;*;. 

i:i.(V)7. 
ll.iiHii. 

ii.:i!i, 

I't <-,! 

14,962, 
14,008, 
14,057, 
14,448, 



00 I 

too! 
;562 i 

128 
€0 1 
(00 ' 
>^ i 
784 
100 I 
153 ! 

m ' 
too 

'.^25 
776 
loO 
.95 
:47 
181 
707 

21 

63 
640 
157 
785 
319 
828 



W.090 
:i, 1172,300 
4J)03,800 
4. r. 53, 200 
t,r,S},2n0 
n. 750,000 
7.:.>90.000 
<i.:.81.000 
(l.N^.OOO 
7. r, 46. 800 
7. t9Q.864 
»i.;;'j2.344 

r..si}2.9ii 

r.,m)0,G08 

*i.n».()98 
n, f 62. 728 

;;.! 1.50,000 

\ im,\2() 
:).712,310 
' » «,541 
34,376 
18, 157 
; ».341 
,;• ■*«2.120 
.^r.77,060 



19,417,000 
10,208,994 
11.888,316 
10,818,192 
11,»46,496 
13,035,000 
10,206,000 
9,«r2,7a) 
11,091,290 
12,387,818 
12,739,660 
10,481,368 
11,93:1,514 
11,785,822 
11,1:17,002 
1], 061, 288 
10,728,192 
10,291,779 
7,4.53,104 
8,400,190 
8,157,801 
n. 884, 211 
9,55J>,479 
7.074,685 
5.817,068 
.•i, 483, 784 
4,800,787 



1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1878 

isn 

1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1888 
1863 
1884 
1886 
1888 
1887 
1888 
1888 
18M) 
1881 
18BBS 

vm 

1881 
1805 
1886 



Hogs. 



Horses. 



Mules. 



Number. 



450, rxx) 
440.600 
427,300 
448.600 
403,700 
363,300 
417.700 
438,500 
535. C«) 
661.000 
067,000 
585.443 
556,000 
950.160 
978.665 
1,027,598 
1.017.322 
1.047.842 
647,000 
647,000 
517,600 
512,424 
309.091 
435.663 
487.94.1 
507.461 
487, 163 



Value. I Number. | Value. | Number. I Value. 



§;^, 7:J<). 160 
2.22,5.00 

2.mo,H08 
2,Tr;K:j70 
:.'.;?2'.i.:i49 
.^^tJ<l4.^«l 
r.',r>s!).7'40 

:i.:M1.750 
:-'.»iL'M70 

:j.ti:^.t,7'47 
r,,in..S40 
ri.:J77.!l06 

r.j;:*;. •;57 
4.;;«i(i,.j86 
;;.Kih.t09 

l,.s.lti.<lOO 
:M;ir..L'13 
;f. 175. 176 
2.7:i:t.<;il 
:i,:Mj\7') 
:.'.4»*i. 110 
:;,i27.:t42 
:.',T(C.812 
:ijn:t *{77 
L\01,i.738 



204,800 
20B,7OO 
250,000 
232,600 
230.100 
209,300 
260.000 
282,600 
273,000 
273,000 
281,990 
240,087 
240.507 
252,595 
265,525 
275.834 
280,626 
307,004 
368,400 
327.084 
360,921 
415,059 
518.824 
513. G36 
513.636 
482,818 
439.364 



in.; 

VK' 

l:.M 
11. 



si ■».•,'!(:; :i48 

]|.(»;J7..'«) 

ll,():rt, 100 
;',:^74.i61 
Ml. '.78 

.vuoo 
"js.r^o 

■-'IT, 140 
i/.-^M'lO 

c,f,. 115 
;:i 1 1^,723 
l.-i.^'il..31 
io.r-,7.:.'ll 
i:.::77.:42 
].H ,v;}.'.48 
;:i,;9i,255 
25.857,250 
23,664,984 
24.202,571) 
26,010,(45 
29,821.982 
21, 562,949 
16,4fU,«K 
13.114,254 
12,037,918 



21,4a) 
20,500 
25,000 
23.000 
23.200 
19.400 
26.500 
25.40() 
25,700 
25.700 
25,700 
28.910 
:)0,06G 
29,765 

:n,55i 

31,551 
36,284 
38,824 
40.765 
42,803 
43,0.'i9 
54,574 

co,ocn 
03,o:h 

03,033 
5.*), 251 
57,47;j 



$1,404,696 
1,225.080 
1.776,500 
1,466,0») 
1,542,568 
1,41)7,080 
L7!)5,375 
1,7.'>2,093 
1,702,308 
l,7:35.n8 
1.707.903 
2.000,5r2 
2,134,(H5 
2.:{86,558 
2.650,749 
2,4."A08l 
3,035,912 
3.301,JJ«) 
3,415,201 
3.347,496 
3,4417,093 
4,077,548 
4,076,130 
:j,55:],899 
2,915.041 
2,074,789 
2.120.:J29 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



260 



BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



COIiORADO. 

Table showing the estimated miniber and value of farm animals for the years JS70 

to 1896, inclusive. 





Cattle. 






Year. 


Milch cows. 


Other cattle. 


ouwp. 




Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


V'aluo. 


Number. 


Value. 


1870 










1 


1871 













1872 ., 










: : .. .J.::::: : 


1873 










1 


1874 










i 


1875 














1876 














1877 


55,000 


$1,815,000 


365,000 


$0,113,750 


6ot),ax) 


11.290 (Ot 


1878 




1870 








...::: ::.'::: 




1880 














1881 










1 


1882 


39,195 
43,114 
48,719 
51,155 
57,294 
03.023 
61,914 
65,56-3 
62,28-5 
60,416 
63, 437 
76,124 
77,646 
79,975 
82,374 


1,531,741 
1,750,428 
1,948,760 
2,080,474 
2,177,172 
2,345.080 
2,233,042 
1,993,115 
1. 7.7), 831 
1,570.816 
1,617,644 
1,75.1,419 
1,792,070 
1,999,375 
2,150,785 


696,000 

772,560 

849,816 

1,019,779 

1,070,768 

1,049,353 

1,0^5.366 

1,018,933 

1.017,465 

1,037.814 

8:J0,2;j1 

996,301 

926,560 

926,560 

926,560 


18,767,200 
20,419,663 
^,843,054 
28,211,893 
23.768,479 
.'^,918,327 
:^,5^,696 
17,505.648 
16,016; 133 
17,112.303 
14,fe7,i>24 
15, 468, 276 
12,379.767 
15.910,331 
18,044,569 


1.21:?. 000 
l,24s.:560 

1,1K5,1»43 
1,VMJ45 
1,H1M78 
l,137,t«8 

i,ii4,!e2 

l,7Ki.^91 
1.81it.5«e 
],7IO.;«5 

1.2:^1.184 
1.2!«j68 

i,;n-i,'.«9 

1,3U»..>49 
1,411.:J82 


2.690, GUI 


1883 


2,606 458 


1884 


2,305,833 
1,994,1^ 


1885 


1886 

1887 


1,845.579 
2.^7.109 


1888 


2,508.151 


1889 


8,778,3*1 


1890 


4,306.555 


1891 


4,263.673 


1892 


3.105,803 


1893 


2,396.:i95 


1894 


1,984.058 


1895 . . 


2.251.W1 


1806 


2,4^,:»0 







Year. 


H 
Number. 


ORS. 

Value. 


Horses. 


Mules. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


1870 










1871 






! 




1872 






I 


1 


1873 











1 


1874 










1 


1875 












1876 












1877 


12,500 


$93,750 



50,000 




$2,250,000 


5,000 


$392,300 


1878 




1879 












1880 








. 




- 


1881 














1882 


12,100 
12,342 
14,193 
17,032 
21,290 
23,419 
28,108 
29,508 
23,606 
23,842 
25,511 
26,021 
26,081 
23,419 
22,716 


140,118 
117,249 
126,743 
125,611 
146,424 
153,103 
207,964 
180,737 
126,353 
131,730 
184,956 
192,424 
151,116 
133,967 
103,131 


47,700 
»4,000 
98,700 
106.570 
123,770 
127,483 
130,033 
137,835 
124,062 
161,268 
185,458 

194. rai 

184,994 
164,645 
159,706 


r?jCt;,(K)3 

r...55i.sr5 

*i.U.\!it2 
7, 17>^!il8 
V.i;i7,(tS6 
7.<Jl«i.{:» 
7.ti3I.:U7 

<i.tyi7,odl 

.H.l 119,890 

rum, 798 
;i.7:M,r'30 
:it)l.^,:i40 


3,132 
7,200 
7,560 
7,560 
8.165 
8.247 
8,000 
8,000 
4,800 
5,184 
5.230 
9,163 
9,163 
8,888 
8,888 


383, JN9 


1883 


674,640 


1884 


568,063 


1885 


607,311 


1886 


685,234 


1887 


759,687 


1888.. 


762,730 


1889 


606,44^7 


1890. 


401,616 


1891 


413,744 


1892 


373,230 


1893. ... 


560,563 


1894 


518.018 


1895 


404.907 


1896 


380,454 







NoTE.--Returns from Colorado previous to 1877 were included with Nevada, Colorado, and 
the Territories. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



261 



CONNECTICUT. 

Table shoicuig estimated number and value q 



of farm animals for tiie years IS?'/ to 
ISOOf inclusive. 



Cattle. 



Year. 



1870 
J«71 
1872 

igns 

1^4 
1875 
187« 
1877 
1878 
1879 
188r) 
1881 
18ft2 
1883 
18M 
1885 
1880 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
18dl 
18ft> 
1801 
18&I 
1885 
1801} 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
18^) 
1880 
1881 

\fm 

1863 
1684 
1685 
1666 
16S7 
1888 
1866 
IMO 
1891 
188S 
1693 
1691 
1»5 
1696 



Milch cows, 
nber. Valne. 



I 



Other cattle. 



Number. 



■| 



110 200 
107,900 
106,800 
100,800 
113,300 
110,900 
112, (XW 
112. COO 
116,500 
118.800 
118,800 
117,482 
121,000 
121,006 
121,006 
123,426 
124,660 
127,153 
130,968 
134.897 
184.807 
136,246 
134.884 
137,582 
137.582 
136,206 
130,206 



I 



f' 



,trtJ 



I.TvptJItO 

l.:i)f!*,44i} 
4.L'<«i.<0) 
;i. \M, 750 
:t.48MJ5ti 
:i. 37( I. :ijO 
n.THI.iiOU 
I.-IKUIH 
4,0U,U21 
4,195,278 
4,063,184 
4,ir>4,918 
4.286,328 
4,518,300 

4.m5e9 

4,318,701 
3,970,208 
3, 776, 752 
3.981,623 
4,042.150 
4,072,550 
3,776,992 



Hogs. 
Number. Value. 



69, 
05, 
63, 
61, 
00, 
57, 
58, 
50, 
61 
fiO, 
(iO, 
01, 
<I2, 
02, 
<S2v 
01, 
01 
01 
01, 
55, 
55. 
51, 
54. 
53, 
52, 
53, 
53, 



$1,299,375 
757,113 
836,381 
824,312 
811,776 
968,667 
919,216 
690,200 
482,431 
535,704 
833,250 
809,423 
647, n4 
614,075 
019,088 

no8,83;i 

538,245 
561,543 
594,654 
509,503 
498. 128 
510,260 
551.442 
579.590 
608,940 
480,406 
498,900 



128,700 
117. 100 
111,200 
107,800 
115,300 
114,100 
112,900 
112,900 
120,8a) 
125,600 
125,600 
119,361 
118.107 
113,440 
108,902 
106.724 
109,920 
109,926 
111.<J25 
102,143 
101,122 
100,111 
96,107 
Hy 880 
73,042 
60,300 
<W,614 



Value. 



§i-»,864,850 
4, .5a), 151 
4,521,a»2 
4.7.5:3,980 
5,206,948 
4, ia'>, 188 
4,3(W.714 
4,046,3;m 
3.515.810 
3,6.'HM20 
2,815,728 
3,718,095 
3.951,504 
3.966,997 
3.745.140 
3.586.535 
3,484.0&> 
3.4;M,104 
3.358,2:37 
2.778.071 
2,896,129 
.2,905.812 
2.754.8:*) 
2,125,980 
2.085,891 
1.745,494 
l,68«,a-i2 



Sheep. 



I 



Uorsen. 



Number. 



51.500 
50,9a) 
50,300 
40,700 
.50,600 
51,100 
52, 100 
51,500 
53,500 
51,000 
54,000 
45,839 
46,297 
47,223 
47.450 
47,934 
48, 413 
49,381 
50.360 
51,376 
51.376 
46,238 
45.313 
45.766 
43,478 
43.913 
43,085 



Value. 



775 
156 
167 
429 
416 
354 
743 

55 

00 
^00 

:80 

:i54 
n40 
(10 
m30 
1P5 
:'42 

ym 
m 

t90 
♦■52 
>72 
•119 I 
t71 { 

:«1 

:.68 



Numlx»r. 



SI, 000 
79.:*)0 
83. 200 
K5,000 
8H.100 
92, 500 
92,5f)0 
92.500 
96.200 
97. la) 
98,071 
tiO,Cie5 
59. 426 
58,831 
.59,419 
53, 477 
53,477 
59, 199 
47,231 
46, 759 
45,824 
47, 199 
42.479 
:)9,930 
:n',034 
:J4.520 
:J2, 101 



Value. 



$929,670 
339,404 
410, 170 
375,784 
352,4a) 
386, 6») 
333,000 
342,250 
2)0,120 
330, 140 
348,152 
235.094 
228,780 
226.499 
218,662 
17:j..575 
187.474 
187,517 
18:1,251 
171.95ti 
189.:)08 
192,454 
171,74:1 
138.014 
12:1,24:1 
91.892 



Mulea 



Nnmlx?r. 



Vaiuo. 



! 


1 

i:/: 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


544 1 :c^).8io 
544 .59.840 
555 1 01,050 




1 


1 




1 




















1 








Digitized by VjOOQIC 



262 



BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



DAKOTA TBRRITOR7. 

Table showing tJie eaihnated luiniber and value of farm animals for the years WO 

to 1896, inclusive. 





Milcl 


Cattle. 


r cattle. 


Shetp. 


Year. 


1 cows. 


Othei 




Nnmljer. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Valu€. 


1870 











1871 1 . .' 


j 






1872 ' 


i 






1873 ' ' 








1874 .. . ' 1 











1875 ' ' 










1870 ' ' 










1877 












1878 " 1 . " 












1879 1 












1880 .. .1 













1881 ' 






* 






1882 

188:1 

1884 

1885 

1880 

1887 

1888 

1881) 


i:;i.750 

7:..r'37 
i(H,r.90 
iM.;i45 
i!r:t..iHO 
I,*:? !. tI8 

-i8,*;19 


$1,873,530 
2,534,018 
3.149,110 
6,610,814 
5,585,440 
4.841,468 
4,603,590 
4,803,319 
3,856,700 


230.000 
270,600 
419,430 
629.145 
710,934 
7*i7,800 
813.878 
823.017 
739,815 


^^>. s-.'7. sno 
7,'i--.:il4 
lI,(J»tl,n49 
li.7.>'M«0 

lr»,*;^:.171 
hi.(ilit.r>18 
lJ,t«r^K.-;.55 
11,771,702 


140,000 
182.000 
183,820 
253.672 
256,209 
289,019 
242.117 
206,389 
274,319 


483,» 
439.3» 

m,m 

6S3,U» 
700.5M 
609,717 

703. MB 


1890 

1891 


86S.ffiO 


1892 












1893 












1894 













1895 




1 






1896 

























1870. 
1871. 

1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875 . 
1870 . 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1S80. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1881. 
18S.5. 
1880. 
18.H7 . 
1888. 
18S9. 
1890. 
1801. 
1893 . 
189:J . 
1894. 
1805 . 
18X . 



Hogs. 



Year. 



Number. 



Value. 



Horses. 
Number. I Value. 



Mules. 
Number. ! Value. 



■1- 



109,600 
123,752 
177,990 
355,980 
427,170 
533,970 
453.875 
476, 569 
428,912 



8tHi5,570 
KU, 714 
1.028.782 
l,7rJ.H49 
Ji,ol4.013 
3,173,1)18 
y. 2 m, 386 
?.\-'is;t,4)18 
2, l.V>, 285 



72, (RX) 
84.240 
117,930 
206.388 
Ii27,027 
247,459 
264, 781 
296. .555 
237.244 



i 
1( 
11 
1{ 
2( 



3.520 
3.872 
4.H40 
11,616 
11,964 
12.3S3 
10.850 
16,682 
17.016 



^,734 

457,88 

l,166.3ff 

Lao?. WO 

1,506.384 
1486,401 
U71,m 



Note.— Returns from Dakota previous to 1882 were included with Nevada. Colorado, and the 
Territories. The Territory was divided and became the States of North Dakota ana bonin 
Dakota on November 2, 1882. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



263 



DELAWARE. 

Table sJiomng tJie estimated miiriber and value of farm animals for the years 1S70 

to 189G, inclusive. 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
1873 
1S73 
1874 
1H75 
187*1 
IJ«77 
1.S78 
1><79 
1«80 
lf<Sl 

18KI 

1884 
INS 
18H6 
18S7 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
180:3 
180» 
I8»i 
\9^ 
1806 



Year. 



Cattle. 



Milcli COW8. 
Number. Value. 



Other cattle. 



Sheep. 



Naml>er. Value. ' Number. 



Value. 



26,000 
20,000 
26,000 
24,900 
22,400 
23,000 
23.000 
23,200 
23,200 
24,800 
25,048 
27.339 
27,566 
27,842 
28,399 
28,309 
28,683 
28,683 
28.683 
29,543 
29,543 
31,020 
31,330 
33.836 
33,836 
34.174 
84,867 



I 



1910,000 


31,900 


832,000 


33,400 


858,000 


33.400 


834,150 


31,700 


716,800 


31,700 


738.000 


31,700 


782.000 


31,700 


777.200 


32.000 


003,200 


32,000 


806,000 


32,000 


576, 1(V4 


32.640 


(»4,411 


26,005 


895,805 


26,005 


991,175 


28,525 


051,387 


28,005 


809,372 


26,605 


874,833 


27,137 


860,490 


27,137 


788,783 


27,137 


812.43:) 


28,866 


723,804 


26,866 


798,765 


27,941 


757.246 


27,941 


838. 98:i 


26,544 


845,900 


28,544 


091, W8 


25,482 


058,568 


25,482 



$819,830 
606,544 
963,^^16 
710.397 
074,62.-) 
783. 62» 
812. 154 
800,040 
754.240 
081.440 
638. 765 
565.727 
737,503 
863. 12:j 
823, 6in 
758.912 
722,930 
759.835 
708,391 
065,614 
568,627 
(151,941 
625,396 
482, KM 

410, aw 

509,258 
538,4^1 



25,300 
25,300 
27,300 
23,200 
23,200 
23,600 
23,600 
35,000 
37,400 
3). 800 
38,800 
22.077 
23.077 
22,077 
22,519 
22,294 
23,294 
22,204 
Jii,294 
22.294 
22,517 
22,967 
13.551 
12,873 
12,873 
12,358 
12,358 



$04,875 
101.200 
112.476 
87,003 
78,184 
8»,U12 
08,412 
140.000 
123.420 
148.601 
122,608 
68,880 
74,179 
71,750 
77,916 
62,368 
65.377 
72,790 
67.942 
71,798 
80.701 
88.708 
48,987 
40,968 
33,921 
35,730 
38.779 



Hoffs. 



Number. 



IjjTO 
1871 
1872 
ISTJ 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1S78 
1879 
1880 
IflBl 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1865 

\m^ 

1887 
1888 
1880 
1800 
1891 
1803 
1803 
1804 
1805 
1800 



46, 
48, 
*7, 
48, 
48, 
46. 
46, 
47, 
4-" 
47, 
4^^ 
46, 
46. 
45, 
44, 
44. 
42, 
4.2, 
42. 
51 
51, 
53, 
52, 
62, 
52, 
52, 
^. 



Value. 



^7.500 
230.000 
271.975 
328,2*2 
282,034 
4ft5.487 
391. !M8 
366.520 
244.188 
287,088 
330,344 
451.976 
364. 5?i 
357,279 
354,334 
271,028 
304,977 
290.048 
290,475 
296,873 
282.541 
338.022 
365.187 
198. 2»t 
271.268 
333,867 
287.443 



Horses. 


M 
Number. 


ules. 


Number. 


Value. 


Value. 


100 


$1,799,800 


4,000 


1523.900 


W) 


1.516,400 


4,000 


455.000 


•-•o.ilOO 


l.H08,:J00 


4,000 


461,240 


.-.'IIJIOO 


1,74,3, :J00 


4,000 


444,840 


': 1,(100 


1,631>JJOO 


4,000 


463,480 


: iOO 


l.f>3.>.(l20 


4,000 


380.000 


m 


i.rmi5,3eo 


4,000 


397.200 


m 


1.410.t»10 


4.000 


350.040 


Vk'M) 


i,4m,*«o 


4,000 


337,400 


r:t.:JOO 


1,507,275 


4,000 


858.320 


;M. :06 


1.7at,(l68 


4. 080 


402,370 


:i\.\m 


i.5.'>2,(en 


3,939 


345,135 


"A Am 


1.K76.1I55 


4,001 


401.380 


'.'! '>99 


2,058. i40 


4,001 


463,313 


09 


2.187.022 


4,021 


456,745 


130 


2.i?i.;«4 


4,061 


461,915 


ISO 


2, 135. 491 


4,061 


480,130 


100 


2,179.:i50 


4,102 


476,787 


100 


2,l(L»,r4K) 


4,184 


478.670 


100 


2.103.ri80 


4,184 


462,269 


;:;.'I00 


2.008,:«0 


4,1M 


484.654 


-5.;ioo 


2,144,(»1 


4,812 


515,205 


;r),."i53 


2. 049. 814 


4,828 


401.549 


.-*.:B6 


l,4«4.!e4 


5.550 


480,343 


;.•<»,. '186 


l,;3fB.:i45 


5,217 


253.285 


;5i.;>74 


1,578,.S81 


5,269 


348,140 


:t!:i.:J74 


].e91,r,16 


5,289 


314,838 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



264 



BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



FLORIDA. 

Table showing the estimatCAl number and value of farm animals for tl^e years 1S70 

to ISOC, inclusive. 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
18?^ 
1873 

1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 

]8as 

1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1803 
1894 
1805 
1890 



Year. 



Cattie. 



Milch cows. 



Other cattle. 



Sheep. 



I 



Number. 



73,500 
74,200 
71,900 
09,000 
60,200 
66.800 
67.400 
70,700 
70,000 
72,800 
65,520 
43,017 
43,447 
46,054 
40,975 
47,915 
49,833 
53,822 
51,407 
51,951 
54,951 
56.600 
57, 16C> 
114,332 
114,832 
114,332 
116,019 



Value. Number. 



i,fm,n28 

1,086,409 

liKS. (60 
INll, !*54 
U7(i.(il6 
1,019,(188 
1.113.525 
883.400 
t!:4..s56 
71»t»,!i99 
fvtl :360 
(;i:j.l72 
(•*■>. r»72 
(W». 123 
7«u;.t40 
:74..S88 
.^•.:3.(I55 
*«i7.r09 
;«> 1,196 

s til. (00 

!(H,t;56 

l.W 1,(62 

1 , rm . rm 

l.52*J.!i02 
I.l»'™'l.s81 



Hogs. 



Number. 



1870 


180,000 
18(3,400 
181,600 
183,400 
190,700 
175,400 
160.000 
190,000 
197,600 
217.300 
302.954 
•^t,!80 
;i*.'n,(l00 
.'SlH.tOO 
:;i7.:{38 
L'its. 108 
-.s. 108 
;'/>7.(61 

;;;.-.. i74 
:r,s.((21 
;;*ii,ii01 
:m, •)13 
:kmj»74 
:K'i.(l74 
;t7»t. 132 
-!*.-,. :)54 
41.'., (117 


1871 


18?2 


187:^ 


1874 


1875 

1876 


1877 


1878 


1879 


1880 


1881 


1883 


1883. ... 


1884 


1885. . 


18W1 


1887 


1888 


1889 


1890 


1891 . .. . 


1893 


1893 


1894 


1895 


1896 





Value. 



$495,000 
480,186 
490,320 
447,496 
549,216 
396,404 
453,152 
493,100 
561.184 
506,309 
418,085 
663,139 
880,000 
671,104 
835,933 
709,498 
729,768 
638,840 
819,675 
867,414 
795,621 
883,710 
972,614 
924,648 
833, ?23 
856,013 
837,604 



412,000 
395,500 
383,600 
383,600 
352,900 
363,400 
363,400 
508,700 
518,900 
518,000 
539,656 
433,700 
560.000 
560,000 
565,000 
565,600 
565,000 
576,913 
583,681 
56.5,201 
548,245 
553.727 
537,115 
375. 981 
372,221 
361,054 
353,833 



Value. 



$;i;J36,040 
;t,:-'48,100 

:{.425,548 

:.'.!f99,650 
:.M»58,076 
:,'.:t40.296 
4.106.209 

:{,S50,238 
:i, 154.912 
IJ 152. 817 
:u;2l,395 
n. 101,600 

.-^^140.800 
.^.(•28,184 
1 i(70,606 
4,s27,633 
4.M41.0W 
:..»39,642 
.'.1116.334 
i.Nl5,62() 
4.1.94,13») 
4,ti31.8l5 
:i lll,:i93 
:.\921.985 
™»,s78.718 
;.*. 408, 150 



Number. 



80,800 
20.200 
:i2,900 
31.900 
31,500 
37,800 
40,400 
56,500 
60,900 
50,900 
70,083 
58,38S 
103,000 
08,940 
97.951 
91,094 
90.183 
92,888 
91.959 
110.351 
111,455 
117.028 
106,495 
112.885 
110,637 
101.777 
97.706 



Value. 



$40,348 
50,516 
C6,7^7 
61,5o7 
61, 4S 
73.:JK 
81,018 

107,331) 

ii«.a» 

104,825 
12»,»151 
101, (*8 
180,540 
173.145 
172.394 
150, S^i 
160, 8^-. 
182. («1 
171,864 
23). 085 
303, 7K4 
241. 4W 
3W,471 
3113.3^ 
172.3.57 
188,573 
1.>4,610 



Ho 
Number. 

16,300 


rsos. 
Value. 

si. ■►66,083 


Numljer. 
0,900 


ales. 


Value. 


$986,04 


16,800 


1. ■.71,130 


10,400 


1,302.704 


16,800 


:.(il3,632 


10,400 


1,321.330 


16,600 


1. -.66,376 


10,000 


l,183,8n0 


16,600 


l.r>90,114 


9.800 


1,152,872 


16,700 


l.:506.274 


9,600 


87?, 840 


16,700 


I.;il8,432 


9,100 


765,946 


22,300 


1.. -.55, 998 


11.800 


067,128 


23,400 


1.:K)9,504 


11,900 


789,684 


28,400 


l.:^2l,600 


11,600 


748,986 


23,644 


l..'»41,825 


12,257 


018,540 


23,768 


1.597,210 


10.278 


732.513 


24,066 


l.^76.601 


10,&«6 


1,040,710 


27,202 


:-'.:!». 331 


11,221 


1,004,721 


28,662 


:.*.r.22.506 


11,558 


1,160,078 


29.419 


.^;{47.183 


11,568 


1.133.588 


31,184 


2.rv45,S2 


11,780 


1,107.284 


33,743 


L>.t47.961 


12.406 


1,199,885 


33,725 


.?H0O,739 


12,871 


1.267.688 


34,737 


•J. 741,086 


18,000 


1.255.»4 


34,737 


*. 480. 361 


12,860 


1,129,884 


33,653 


:;.;.W,111 


10,408 


942,127 


32,816 


-.-41,340 


10,466 


939,830 


33,144 


-.200,674 


8,865 


724, ;21 


34,138 


l.!tl6,484 


8,114 


5fll,35o 


as, 162 


1,761.225 


8,357 


543,916 


36,865 


1,. -.81,331 


8,273 


492,084 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTU ANNUAL REPORT. 



265 



GBORGIA. 

Table showing the estimated number ami value of farm animals for the years lS7(f 

to J80G, inelusive. 



Cattle. 



Year- 



Milch cows. 



Other cattle. 



Sheep. 



Number. 



Value 



1870 .. 
1871.. 
1872.. 
1873.. 
1874.- 
1875.- 
1876.. 

isn.. 

187«.. 
1879.. 
1880.. 
1881.- 
1882.. 
1^1.. 
1884.. 
1885.. 
1886.. 
1&7 .. 

am .. 
isfif» .- 

1WM».. 
1M91 .. 
18H2.. 
1890.. 
1894.. 
18fi5.- 
1896.. 



2SS,500 
280,000 
257,400 
257,400 
257,400 
285,100 
270,400 
273,100 
ri73, ICO 
273.100 
273,100 
318,224 
331,406 
341,048 
344,458 

:«l,013 
337,60Cj 
337,603 
340,979 
:354,618 
351,072 
354,58;J 
:M7, 401 
312,742 
;I09.615 
312,711 
;«)6.457 



$5,456,5^ 
6,410,600 
6,644.782 
4,7ri,196 
4,851,»90 
4,512.000 
4.510,272 
4.369,600 
8,817,938 
3,621,306 
4,023,76:3 
4,8(fi,182 
5,521.755 
6,493,554 
6,028,015 
6,257,589 
5,941,813 
5,7^,251 
5,898.937 
6,113,614 
6,354,403 
6,382,494 
6,289,587 
5,141,478 
4,811,417 
5,300,451 
5,212,834 



Year. 



Hog8. 
Numl)or. Value, 



1870- 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 

1881. 

188?. 

1S83. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1880 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1898. 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 



428, 
528. 
559, 
497, 
511 
360, 
483, 
586, 
630, 
684, 
•^01 
426, 
412, 
582, 
597, 
565, 
r,18, 

m, 

549, 
637, 
610, 
691, 
674, 
791, 
934, 
954. 
012, 



^.630,096 
5,075,948 
4,678,200 
4,356,270 
5.594,0:)0 
5,320,JJ37 
5,324,329 
5,250,tt)l 
4,746,600 
5,200,272 
5,036.854 
4.«36,148 
-». 706,920 
:..H)6,366 
.^.r,-»,8a2 
t.H:)0,9jO 
t, 405,098 
l.HJ9,0S3 
:>,H37,476 
:>79,540 
,*a3,651 
.0^2,832 
> 91, 744 
.154,313 
,S85,119 
.!';n,302 
073.544 



4, 



Number. 



400,500 
401,900 
401,:300 
405,300 
303,100 
400,900 
404,900 
404,900 
404,900 
400,800 
408,816 
597,812 
508,834 
610,811 
610,811 
610,811 
604, 7«« 
598,650 
586,683 
580,816 
569, 20f) 
569,200 
552, 124 
.5.57. 645 
5.57.645 
540,916 
513.870 



Value. Number. 



f^"^ ^'99 

k4lu.:.^7 
:j, 088. 152 
;t.7<w,N98 
:i. 572. 019 
fl, 70.5, ."►-O 
3.tJ03jaO 
3, 174 416 
3, 178, :i44 
:t,262.;i52 

rKa>5.!!45 

ti.i)4:>.:»a5 
7, 177, < '29 

(i. .5*16. :iis 
6,0(5:1,141 
5. 975. 851 
6,r>8R.<i30 
6,911.H90 
0, 408. tm 
r,,6i8,:.73 

5.r.l3, !50 
fi.'-MO.sOO 

4,«26,9:W 
4,347,650 



Horses. 
Number. Value. 



112,800 
115,(100 
117, 'JOO 
116.100 
117,200 
118,300 
118,;300 

118. ;wo 

119,200 
119,200 
121,584 
98,717 
99,704 
102,295 
105, 776 
106,834 
107.902 
110.060 
112,261 
115,629 
112,160 
KM, 300 
104,935 
105.984 
107,044 
100,185 
110,277 



.^12,313,120 
11 ; 192,950 
12,293,040 
11,007,627 
10.648,792 
9.389,471 
8,581,482 
8,;372,091 
7,343,912 
8,057,931) 
8.751,616 
7,117,496 
7,594,454 
8,064,377 
8,736,040 
8,715.984 
8,757,3:15 
9,203,399 
9,545,203 
9,582,125 
9,408,231 
8,4.50,807 
8,562,298 
7,786,699 
5.458,470 
5,775.830 
5,;J31,018 



;3i]9,500 
258.700 
25.3,500 
:»5, 700 
:375,000 
:jn,300 

;n'8,600 

:K2,300 
374, 400 
374,400 
!178.144 
538. 141 
532,760 
543,415 
532,547 
500.594 
16.5, .552 
442,274 
424.583 
411,846 
:J83,017 
:I83.017 
432.809 
411,169 
402,946 
378.769 
:J44,680 



A'nlue. 



$444,675 
;»5,811 
410.670 
.•J74.V6:) 
6')7.5«)0 
642,176 
617,118 
(J00,211 

530, L% 
578,560 
780,304 
847,088 
815,122 
793,495 
730,868 
659,780 
064,.S2il 
636,005 
640, 173 
058.03:) 
67:i9.5<i 
765.21V. 
646, 6S7 
5;y7.53() 
51!»,368 
5(0. fUO 



Mules. 
Number. Value. 



88,300 
90,900 
92,700 
92, 700 
91,7(J0 
96,200 
96,200 
1)6,200 
97,300 
98.200 
99.182 
13J3,O03 
133,0(1) 
139,653 
143.843 
143,843 
146, 720 
143,654 
152,647 
155,700 
1.57,257 
157,257 
1.58,043 
161,204 
161.304 
166.040 
164,380 



^11,623,812 
11,088.891 
11,734,80:3 
10.553,895 
9,964,122 
8,:380,944 
8,(H(i,:i4(; 
7. 581,. 522 
6, 984, 792 
7, .520.151) 
8.J>34.315 
10,803,834 
12.947,J>i2 
13,490,480 
1:3,7.54.288 
1:3,880,850 
13,980,552 
14,407.417 
14.928,033 
15,119.:»4 
15,092,208 
14,916,a59 
14,710,547 
14.240,462 
10,470,828 
11,207,968 
10.34:3.69s 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



266 



BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



IDAHO. 

Table shoxcing the estimated number and value of farm animals for tlie years WO 

to 1896^ inclusive. 



Year. 


Cattle. 
Milch cows. 1 Other cattle. 


Sheep. 




Number. 


Vahxe. 


Number. 


Vahie. 


Number. 


Valno. 


1870 








IgTl 








:::::::::::::::::::: 




1872 














1873 














1874 















1875 


1 




t 




1876 


1 




1 




1877 















1878 










1879 











1880 












18S1 




1 









1882 


15,400 
15.862 
20.621 
22,271 
24,498 
28,458 
31,750 
31,750 
32,068 
32,700 
30,419 
30,419 
29,203 
2S.(m 
28,505 


$554,400 
504.825 
824,840 
779,485 
857,430 
706,035 
1,080,978 
958,500 
920,972 
883,143 
7tiO,475 
659,180 
584,040 
567,680 
660,541 


195,000 
204.760 
223,178 
290 131 
330,453 
4^,816 
415,830 
374,247 
381,738 
515.338 
417,424 
429, M7 
399,851 
395,852 
387,835 


■" '>-" noo 
m 

,....:.-. W6 
u.:^^-,\.S82 
7.:r*s.240 
7.orr,/.i25 
f^.;'n;j)00 

fl, 177,. 1)76 
r..-i;i<M»i 
7.s.>,!)05 
r>,47o.(»73 

n.;5r4.:t38 


XX) 
iOO 

i so 

::lu,;r75 
:^!i 413 

;U2.408 

:;74..«0 
.H7.:»7 

7tV4.:J62 

77!»,.-H7 

JUH,.«5 

3,011, «2 

1 'CO, 119 


S3SS.O0O 


1883 


m.m 


1884 


4^,m 


1885 


441,788 


1886 


S8),e» 


1887 


610.436 


1888 


«».« 


1889 


I.ar2.tf5 


1890 


1,1H.50 


1891 


h^M 


1892. 


i,m« 


1893 ' 


l,7a3.M 


1894 


1299.770 


1895 


2.281,2» 


1896 


2,aM,a3 







Year. 
1870 


Hogs. 
Number. | Value. 


Horses. 


Mules. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


1871 












1872 













1873 






' 






1874 


1 




1 




1875 












1876 












1877 













1S78 .... 


1 










1879 


1 










1S80 


" [ " 








1881 












1882 


23.'fi6o' 

24, 7W 
26.7ttJ 
26, 762 
28,100 
42,150 
46,000 
31,000 
34,100 
64,790 
57.015 
58,735 
64,598 
77,518 
75,192 


«250,000 
227,976 
240,858 
149,8(J7 
147,525 
252.900 
487,500 
1.55. (XX) 
238,700 
469.728 
527,613 

478, erx) 

;i52,381 
398,250 
277,7r»l 


28.400 
29.252 
29,545 
44.318 
48.750 
lfle.375 
136,500 
137,865 
89.612 
185.497 
192,917 
144,688 
137, 4&4 
134.705 
132,011 


J.iVi-. U2 

:Mr;Mt80 
•.•..M/J50 
5. 11 v 730 
(i- IS- 1,730 
r..7!M.;ao 
:!,:.si (80 
n. i!':J.:«5 
r>,!'i:..oi2 

;i.:j:.^,r,70 
L*,:i'>o.:i70 


'780' "' $54.(W) 


1883 

1884 

1885 

1886 


2.38S 1 »7.7» 
2 436 1 210,714 


1887 


1 tS ! ii»-® 


1888 

18,H9 

1890 

1891 

189*5 


1.671 

1.7U4 

1,738 

1,(H3 

1,053 

990 

990 

941 

941 


46,«B 


1893 

18IU 

18a^ 

1896 





NoTK.— Returns from Idaho previous to 1882 wore included with Nevada, Colorado, and the 
Territories. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



POURTEENTff ANNUAL REPORT. 



267 



XLUNOIS. 

Table shounng the estimated number and vcdue of farm animals for the years 1S70 

to 1896, inclusive. 



Year. 



1870 
1K71 
1872 
187J 
1874 
IfCo 
187G 
18n 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1«52 
1883 
1884 
1885 
188S 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1881 
18S3 
18» 
1804 
18B6 
1896 



Cattle. 



I 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
1873 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
188S 
1883 
1884 
18K5 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1880 
1890 
1891 
1888 
1883 
1894 
1895 
1896 



Milch cows. 



Other cattle. 



Number. 



Value. 



Number. 



400 
000 
900 
100 
100 
800 
000 
flOO 
400 
400 
308 
r,72 
318 

004 
194 
476 
476 
975 
473 
923 
861 
813 
121 
730 
443 
259 



$25,750,512 
23,537,600 
21,0(6.905 
21,771 '^ 
20,73 100 
20, a^ 
20,20 
19,13 
16.62 
18,51 
19.ri5 
25,71 
29.15 
31.53 
32.08 
29,30 
27,49 
24,84 
24.56 
24.25 
.%06 
24,56. 
25,15: 



26,108,730 
26,6:e.820 
27,906,445 
28,735,382 



.l.:i2i.(00 
l.;ir.,:JOO 

I.LVJ^IOO 

00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
47 
89 
64 
44 
91 



&4 
27 
66 

1,747,731 
1,538,003 
1,&53.383 
1.523.315 
1,430,976 
1,330,806 



Value 




^'11, MS. 


180 
:!86 
01 



05 
00 

eo 

00 
'77 
21 
77 
31 
83 
74 
26 
46 
57 

33,029,792 
32,398,551 
33.076,631 
31,628.292 
33,992,610 
30,630,796 
28,984,266 
29,7:^2,644 
29,214,530 
31,264.305 



Hogs. 



Horses. 



Number. 



3,363. 
3.598, 
3,706, 
3,409, 
3,034, 
2,640, 
2.750, 
2.900, 
3,336, 
3,202, 
3,202. 
4,136, 
3,970, 
4,010, 
4,090, 
3,967, 
3,650, 
3,103, 
5,275, 
5,433, 
4,9M, 
4,894. 
3,720, 
3,423, 
3,148, 
2,392, 
2,249, 



Value. 



Number. 



$25,289,760 
16,912,480 
15,937.090 
17.764.537 
19.14S.32ri 
23.784.06;J 
23,(100,000 
17.081.000 
11,042,160 
17,966.586 
18,763,720 
29,367.113 
29,631.899 
27,231,105 
21,4a5.168 
18,897.017 
19.997.573 
20,088,468 
39,317,740 
30,517,479 
24,603,627 
20.583.760 ' 
30.281,284 
23,988,664 
19,617,398 
12,301,830 
11,651,896 



1,008,800 
1.028,900 
1,049,400 
1.069.800 
1,070.300 
1,091,700 
1,102,600 
1,091,500 
1,103.000 
1,078.000 
1,067.220 
1.012.851 
1.017,915 
1,038.094 
1.008,375 
1,048.759 
1,059,247 
l,069.a3n 
1,091,236 
1,133.973 

28 
54 

l.;^H.-71 
].:-*! tr)ji83 
l.i;it.(i72 

i,o:*.M«6 



r.l, 



Value. 



$70,878,288 
67,711,909 
69, .585, 714 
68,087,933 
07.033. 18»l 
'-. ;'29,075 
<il.r.34,413 
,s>7,860 
liO.OOO 
V.,fi^,480 

(;-.MS5,r3i 

:>:» -53,060 
;.. .30.433 
.it,:>02.500 
;s. ! 49. 231 

;c»,.^r3.i27 

81,152.417 
82,649.687 
85,529,^5 
83,301,912 
79.314,809 
91.873.771 
89,583,790 
50.799.353 
44,393.903 
34.503.059 
33,166,043 



Sheep. 
Number. | Value. 



1,424.000 
1,367,000 
1.394.300 

1,408,300 

i.;wo,ooo 

1.311,000 

1.258,500 

1,Sj8,500 

1.089.000 

1,110.800 

1.1.55,333 

1,036,703 

1,149,906 

1,136,908 

1.093.101 

1,005,653 

935,201 

814, m 

773,468 

688,387 

770,983 

848.092 

1,187,329 

1,033,976 

857,370 

694.470 

604,189 



I 



12,819.520 
3.638,220 
4,461.760 
3.563.746 
3,588.000 
3.159.510 
3,146,250 
3, 121. OHO 
2.308,680 
2,888.(180 
3.350.173 
2,928.101 
3.300.230 
3.008,844 
2,634.373 
2,205,196 
2,260,<^ 
2.026.894 
2,065,160 
2,090,287 
2,456.769 
3,025,314 
4.337.900 
2,450.632 
1,747,835 
1,670,687 
1,725,564 



Mules. 



Number. 

96,900 
96.900 
98.800 
96.800 
110,000 
111.100 
113, ;«o 
13H.000 
138,800 
133,900 
134,527 
112.045 
13:i265 
133.265 
135, 730 
124, 473 
135,718 
11.5.661 
112,191 
109.947 
94,554 
106,846 
106,778 
104,720 
108,673 
97,543 
90,631 



Value. 



$8,253,043 
7,813,047 
7,n8.524 
7.379.064 
8.010,200 
7,929,207 
7,713.464 
8.754,730 
7,331.940 
8,119,096 
8.431.214 
8.50rt,.586 
10.187,863 
10.632.839 
10,649.;B1 
10.250,7.U 
10,476,670 
9,684.515 
9.187,023 
8,608,(09 
7,182,792 
7,733,399 
7.200.609 
5,367.673 
4.083,286 

3,5:n.7a5 

3,234.290 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



268 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



INDIANA. 



Table showing the estimated niunber and value of farm animus for the years 1S70 

to 1S96, inclusive. 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1870 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1880 
1887 
1.S83 
1880 
181)0 
1891 
18»2 

isaj 

1894 

ISiiS 
1890 



Year. 



1870 

1871 

1873 

1873 

1874 

1875 .- 

1870 

1877.-.. 

1878 

1879 

1880 

1881 

1882 

1883 

1884 

1885 

1880 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1803 

1894 

18ft5 

1800 



Cattle. 



Milch cows. 



Number. 



435,500 
444,200 
453.000 
448,400 
448,400 
434,900 
439,200 
439.200 
430.200 
434,800 
439.148 
4S^,995 
499,795 
504.793 
530,033 
&40,634 
551.447 
550,961 
573.670 
002. a54 
008.378 
657.048 
063,018 
056.982 
050,412 
037,404 
618,282 



Value. 



I 36,750 
11,794 

I i W.690 

i:i.;,'Sl,608 
n Sl0,856 

II !t 16, 260 
11.736,640 
il.;36,640 
\n.:m,\20 
lf»,!K)9,132 
in. 754, 735 
i;t, (168,167 
15. 768. 532 
17 t;d7,755 
17,r.n,300 
K; L'19,020 
1.-..(^,619 
l.y 155,668 
li.(i«,585 
l:i,*!38,504 
i:H).S0,127 
r,,:.'76,366 
10.:.'58.641 
iri.s72,685 
ir..n32,650 
i:.. 743,879 
n.ti86,649 



Other cattle. 



Number. 



750,000 
750,000 
765,000 
780,300 
788,100 
772.300 
764.500 
756,800 
780,000 
758.600 
7iilJ66 
s:»l.440 
^{:M»26 
sr.l , :;55 
s:i;..s96 
-s<>.(i65 

»57, «43 

i,a>tji27 

l,0tij,:i38 
l,06;?.rai 

9()H0l 
807,841 
798.414 

72t). 557 



Value. 



$I:J,ti3ri,<)00 
10,t?95,(O0 
18,;U4,700 
10,128,K)1 
15,r2:»,r«5 
15,17."i,ti85 
13.,'V40,!40 
13,7:i:>,l«0 

n. 
11, 

VJ. 



Sheep. 



90 
79 
52 
62 
82 
40 

;i:*,5]l,t,70 
21,831.(37 
2«).00li,l»41 
19. .582. 493 
18,027,r)77 
19,041.149 

21.436,!«52 
18.178,747 
17,211, :?72 
10.447.H70 
15,317,115 



Number. 



X),000 
]3,000 
13,900 
32.500 
X).000 
jO.OOO 
75,000 
»,700 
»,500 
19,000 
»,570 
L1.516 
2,631 
45.084 
S,182 
J8,517 
M,001 
)3.C68 
20.000 
78,000 
50,200 
41,702 
«,3H3 
.;72,345 
836.217 
?^.500 
654.758 



Value. 



$3,822,000 
4,960,630 
5.416,337 
4,fi64.(S:) 
3.1J3,O0O 
3,275.0(1) 
2.680.^ 
2,338.3;« 
2,»4.53i) 
2,333,510 
2,800.00 
2,945,.517 
3,177,045 
3,217. Qf« 
2.670, raS 
2,388,fl>7 
2.567,131 
2,^611 
3,W5.4» 
3,ieJ,821 
4,114.151 
4,298.783 
4, 145,430 
2,S£i,654 
1,581.454 
1,689.7:» 
l,7n,5;9 



Hogs. 



Horses. 



Number. 



Value. j Number. | Value. 



Mules. 
Nnmlx?r Valne. 



SM 



1S7,1J80 
lL'.r,'7r),:,'07 

IIIJtS7K»80 

H.SiisjiOO 
1(1, U7.;.D0 
l.^.Trt^l.^'oO 

r.*.5ks,.5») 
r.. ^^ir.i>32 
in.:>7+,:iOO 

I I , -i:!?. 780 

1<»,,V>!).H50 

:.'ti.sii,:i80 
i';.:n:i,:>lo 

15.770,sl8 
l:MK{(),-t20 
i;i.:;t>>)..K80 
U.(>si.:j49 
l.;.:u:t.4lC 
15, ];r). 190 
lLM!M.;i23 
l:>,787ji61 
15, 111 J, 146 

III. ;:,*'). 789 
7,WL',580 
0, rOL*. 409 



ft'iO.flOO 
06:1,000 
069,600 
649, .500 
662,400 
075,600 
675,600 
668,800 
688,800 
688.800 
702,576 
687.258 
593.131 
593,131 
616,856 
635,362 
835,362 
041.716 
618,133 
067. .577 
647,550 
?25.2rj6 
747,014 
761,9.54 
746,715 
094.445 
045,834 



847,04 

44.275, 

45, 3a^ 
42,441. 
42,46«). 
41,?r» 
36, 9&.*, 
84,255 
33,381., 
37,0(h, 
38,4811. 
33,045. 
43,2»t, 
45.74^ 
47,695 
47.95ft 
49,24;} 
.52,03.>. 
52,917. 
52,677. 
50.7;V.. 
53.388. 
52,470, 
38,331. 
29,184 
23.732. 
20,547, 



35,700 
a5,300 
35,000 
58,500 
59,000 
58.400 
60.100 
63.100 
61,200 
58,800 
.54,664 
51,521 
51.779 
52,815 
54,390 
54,943 
53,844 
.54,382 
53.294 
.53,827 
61,674 
56,841 
56,557 
57,688 
54,227 
50,431 
46,897 



S2,t&T5ttl 
2,421,6»i 

3.996.1:6 
S; 814. 350 

1187, H(i4 
:i.8:«t.l8!* 
:j.,Slti.48it 

3, m m 

3,570,138 
3,427,«J 
3, 410. OR) 

4, :;»,»» 

4, 5:52.^05 
4.658,18« 
4,5(JJ,SB 
4,4a5.a)l 
4,5fN5.4iC 
4.4l5.7iCi 
4,310.100 
4,<J^i.:33 
4.3i2.0I4 
3.980.497 
3.241..S15 
2,m5*l 
l.tKM.AK 
1.674,144 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



269 



IOWA. 

Table sliowiug the CHiinuited number and value of farm animals for the years 1870 

to 1890, inclusive. 



Year. 



i»:3 

1874 
1875 
1876 
18n 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1888 
1887 
1888 
1880 
1880 
1801 
1893 

isai 

1864 
18% 
1898 



Year. 



Cattle. 



Hilch cows. 
Number. I Value. 



465,900 

511,800 

537,300 

560.500 

502,300 

G21.800 

065,300 

632.000 

676.200 

?i4,.500 

782,480 

905.438 

], 014, 091 

1,085,077 

1,150,182 

1, 230, 695 

1,24a, 002 

1,255,432 

1,20;3,005 

1.331.888 

1.278,612 

1,304,184 

1.291,142 

1,278.231 

1.227,102 

1,202,560 

1.190,534 



$15,964,443 
14,581,182 
15,130,368 
15.001,750 
15,603,300 
16,728,420 
15,074,468 
15,515,600 
14,294.868 
17,532,900 
20.891.082 
21,971,980 
31,284.707 
IM. 451, 195 
JM. 503. 460 
%. 444, 016 
32,541,792 
29,251,506 
28,861,880 
26,a58.064 
23, 97:}, 975 
24.479,534 
27,113,982 
30,127,905 
35,450.977 
31,001,997 
33,601,027 



Other cattle. 



1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

18:3. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877- 

1878. 

18n^. 

1880. 

1881. 

1862 

1883. 

1864. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

18B0. 

18»1. 

mt. 

1803. 
1894. 
1805. 
1896. 



Hogs. 



Number. 



Number, f Value. 



Value. 



$i-j, i«5,ono 

17.116.960 
17.199,219 
17,H03,634 
23,030,796 
2fi,633,396 
3:}, 788, 728 
ir,,ft89,000 
!t.r>32,050 
11,sg2,224 
Ui,:»87,018 
;I0. 138,576 
40,961,709 
:?0.t;30,367 

M>,;4i,55e 

24,596,107 

23.065.603 

27,969,624 

rj0,922,fl00 I 

34,481,700 

29,475.236 

41,645,708 

54,^48,874 

49,403.718 

36.252,134 

27.462,917 

21,182,330 



814.900 

871,900 

820.000 

852,800 

8G0.800 

913,200 

a)8,800 

1.nr>4,600 

i. 156, 800 

l.;!70,400 

1.111,512 

l.;75,427 

I, •17,461 

I.!i55,810 

,'.'.014,484 

:.' 074,919 

:.M16,417 

:.' (-95,253 

:i 1*95,253 

r. r>77,161 

:.'.»;.w,^l7 

^;(rr.049 

r* :04,ai2 

:; ;31,385 
:.V .-.40,188 
:i.:36,9r3 
M 96, 755 



1 



s|!i,, -,;.,- ..45 
■ls,f.!i;i.:.30 

v.Kvy^ voo 
IS. <!]:,. iw 
I^.ti4s -.12 
lii,(t:ir).nl2 
17.085 siu 
:».522. 16 
2;},038,)M 
26,040.576 
:J0, 700, 386 
40,a'i7,278 
47,470,334 

so.a'ii.noo 

52, am 915 

1;?. \'m. ; 95 
12,8tw..-31 
16, 455. 99 
17,038. :;41 
50.7!*2,:]52 
52,313,:i4t 
54,06^1,497 
47,306.437 
50. 159. :«9 
.'j4:wi.:i06 



Sheep. 



Horses. 



Number. 



570,400 

016,000 

631,400 

647.000 

647,000 

6H5.800 

728,900 

7:M, lOfJ 

no. 700 

778.400 

809,536 

816,092 

8.76,897 1 

801,173 j 

917,908 I 

945,4*5 

973,808 

1,008,002 

1,053, m 

1,095, 5W0 

1,095,300 I 

1,314,360 

1,353,791 

1,307,329 

1,296,963 

1,182,050 

1,067,492 



Value. 

!^40,583,r)60 
40,062,160 
40,500 440 
42,921, 1«0 
41,002, *»rj 
4:1, 774,014 
12,0;«.*»5 
41,a51.s53 
39.244,044 
42.9;'i9.^«6 
51,52«.ft66 
48,271, K42 
6.1,401, H09 
i>H, 002, 498 
«i>i,;i4(i, 160 
♦i-'^, '.'4.5, .'i26 
ri/r,v.,(i52 
rt.- .: '62 

79,020,009 
76.726,750 
86,921,929 
83,041,533 
59,792,200 
30,945,828 
34,082,583 
31,460,631 



Number. 



^ 00 
- 00 

;i 00 

00 

t. 00 
r. 00 

-; 00 
00 

1 00 

451, 100 
4<V3, 488 

4«2, ♦ai 

407. 161 
197, 161 
472, m 
407, ri80 
V^'t. 498 
!i!H. 178 
.«.,, .00 
475,816 
452,025 
r)65,081 
791,034 
775,222 
627,930 
565.137 
553,834 



Value. 



$3,116,817 
4,000,940 
4,278,560 
4,123,588 
4.31^,666 
4,425.974 
3,848,345 
1,288,000 

890,910 
1.154,176 
1,344.115 
],:i61,160 
1,401,994 
1,382,108 
1, in, 311 
1,067.204 
1,020,515 

985, 249 
1,322,552 

l,:33«).38:i 

1,430.750 
1,933,084 
2,847,755 
2.004,724 
1,292,028 
1,399,279 
1,6?>,578 



Mules. 



Number. 



Value. 



34,400 


SS,863.4o6 


.•}5,700 


2,659.650 


36.400 


2,654,.052 


35.300 


2 611,494 


36,000 


2,605,:eo 


:J7,000 


3.041,770 


37,700 


2,861, 4;)0 


41,400 


2,9:n.5:M 


43,400 


2.Sf«).702 


44,700 


3.166,995 


45.594 


3.610.589 


45.312 


3.277,870 


47,124 


4,316,087 


48,066 


4.410,7^5 


49,027 


4,395.761 


48. .537 


4,178,575 


48,062 


4, 186. 822 


45.649 


3, 9:%, 540 


47,018 


4,003.124 


42.810 


3.341,065 


42,739 


3,332,618 


41,020 


2,995,508 


40.208 


2.689.9?2 


36,187 


1,938.145 


.35,463 


1.432,749 


34,044 


1,230,083 


33,704 


1,195,015 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



270 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



KANSAS. 

Table .showing the estimated miniber and value of fai*ni animals for the years 1870 

to 1S96, inclusive. 



Year. 



Milch cows. 



1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873 - 
1874. 
1875. 
1870. 
1877. 
1878 . 
1870 . 
1880. 
1881 . 
188:^ . 
188;J- 
1881- 
18S.i. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1880. 
1890. 
1801. 
189i- 

1804. 
1805. 
1890. 



Value. 

s''..ri30,530 
'n,S80.l47 
r>, 193, 160 
5,846,830 
4..S67,a05 
r».fi00,232 
(i,;J59,284 
n.:.'75,200 
7.(123.858 
8,; 121.152 
!M>56.427 
]K!)15,538 
in.h27,a51 
17,704,049 
IHJ»1,632 
in, ^{87,204 
1ti,<>14,218 
11,:;44,215 
i;},;,«2,608 
14. < '33,732 
i;).H77,3Il 
il.'J32,198 
1:^450,980 
lr,M40,780 
l:>.;^,838 
i;t. 778,371 
ir.,il3,4e4 



Horses. 

Value. 




le. 




Sheep. 


Othei 


• cattle. 
Value. 

39,967,104 






Number. 


Number. 


Value. 


»i5,eoo 


115,000 


S39D960 


397,400 


8,333,478 


116,100 


271,674 


457,000 


9.350,230 


123. Ott) 


301,50) 


507,200 


9,586,060 


141,000 


200.400 


476,700 


7,941.822 


118.000 


2n),e« 


486,200 


0,213,400 


123,900 


m,m 


5ta.000 


8,972,250 


142,400 


343. lai 


535,500 


10,248,470 


156,000 


361,746 


578.300 


10,001,335 


312, 5(X) 


mm 


047,700 


13,161,2*4 


371,900 


8»,3I7 


667.131 


13,802,940 


449,099 


I.IKT.IW 


1,094,687 


24,258.264 


640,573 


l.G2k9SI 


1,280,000 


31,577.000 


747,008 


1.7Se,8l9 


1,395,200 


37,&37,834 


821,700 


1.888.931 


1,433,104 


36,730.314 


a38,143 


1,617,616 


1,494,259 


34,273,065 


1,190,163 


l,8W,e67 


1, .583, 915 


35,501,864 


1,106,852 


1,93».7» 


1,583.915 


33,271,948 


830,139 


1,457.596 


1,663,111 


30,361,088 


rao,522 


1,297.115 


1,839,42:2 


30,5G3.9b7 


438,313 


870,2n 


1,930,893 


32,168,437 


447,079 


l,aJ7.(Mft 


1,978,530 


33.207.283 


409.433 


i,a»,w 


1,958.735 


31,772.640 


389, 6S9 


BS 


1,978,323 


32,713.134 


333, 3B3 


635. 7» 


1,830,839 


31,123.160 


274,883 


4M,a» 


1,766.245 


;«J.903,fl04 


2^,390 


413. MG 


1,801,570 


39,133.349 


223,215 


398,966 



Mules. 
Number. Value. 



14,900 
16,300 
17.400 
19, 100 
19,600 
20,700 
26,200 
27.500 
60,UC10 
57.000 
68.710 
68.761 
70,824 
75.0r3 
75,824 
79,615 
83.588 
86,104 
88,104 
94,714 
89.978 
93.677 
ie,399 
97,019 
94,108 
87,520 
83,369 



1,1S4,41S 
1,376,433 
1.173.854 
1.3Si,(«> 

i.7i;i,7e 
i.n*7,ia 

3,162,0(r» 

3,5se,ijg 

3.736.888 

6,816,067 
6.873.9S 
6,937.891 

7.ia.« 

7,^M 
7,li3,»4 
6. 91ft, 135 
7,185,907 
6,5»,2g 

ClftS 

2, saw 
;.\t3.40 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



POUBTEENTH ANNUAL REPOBT. 



271 



KBNTUCKT. 

Table showing the estimated number and value of farm animals for the years 1870 

to 1896, inclusive. 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
1872 
181'J 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
IKS 
18611 
1881 
188^ 

i8s:i 

1881 

i88ri 

1886 
1887 
1888 
18H) 
18BU 
1891 

i8es 

1868 
18M 
1865 
1806 



Cattle. 



Milch cowB. 



Other cattle. 



Number. | Value. 



Number. 



Value. 



223,1 

244, 

247, 

2K.( 

257.: 

270, ( 

270, ( 

295,] 

304,' 

304,' 

30*.' 

307. 

310. ( 

313,! 

813,1 

317. ( 

317.1 

3?0,: 

313, »< 

330. r 

310, ( 

308, ( 

285,^ 



300 


88,665.406 


4U) 


7,457,794 


400 


6.911,832 


400 


6,069.924 


SiO 


5.894.025 


700 


f "iy. 018 


100 


: .M(;,.r78 


(100 


: i;;r m) 


ISJO 


:. (.;l','.W8 


000 


t. in:. 100 


000 


Iv!»<>i>,«i00 


845 


7.r.ni.;r70 


730 


n,:,M:.780 


T^0 


II s-;m.:{C2 


730 


III ll'.i. 750 


767 


s. ;,Mi.:J93 


845 


H.i<it.;)09 


053 


;.ti-:.i,<68 


053 


:,;V14.S73 


(KCi 


t>.s;;.r47 


003 


(;.i.-.v*63 


264 


(i IN I') 743 


H50 


<;. 7I7,1«0 


553 


tv7i'»,,^ia5 


665 


i ■'■ -.73 


683 


O, *^., vlOO 


461 


5,646.419 



400,400 
400,400 
384.300 
380,400 
357,500 
389,600 
377,900 
460,000 
485.000 
460,700 
419,337 
509,397 
503,937 
408. 8K8 
503,877 
539,071 
534,363 
53l».018 
539.018 
533, ?38 
476,503 
467,0Grj 
443.707 
509.004 
551. (m 
506,097 
481,867 



^! 



I 



$12,4.'>3, 
10,406. 
9,230. 
8,578, 
8,029, 
8,236. 
8, 113, 
0.077, 
8.305, 
8.776, 
8,288. 
11,793, 
13,441 
13, 794. 
13,554, 
11.308. 
12,727, 
11,2^7. 
10,650. 
9,263, 
7.974. 
7,933, 
7.63H. 
0,41 
8,438, 
8.786. 
8,168, 



Year. 



IKO.. 
1871.. 
1872.. 
1873.. 
1874.. 
1879.. 
1876.. 
1877.. 
1878.. 
1879.. 

1881.. 



Hogs. 
Kumbor. i Value. 



IBM. 
1885. 
1»8. 
1887. 



MO. 



i8Be 

]8» I 

1801 

18K 1,688, 

1806 1,604, 



2.816. 
l.OM, 
1.794. 
1,758, 



100 
700 
TOO 
(00 
00 
:«0 
:J00 
1 00 
.00 
lOO 
'W 
,46 
r»7 
'10 
t65 
138 
tj03 
173 
716 
!02 
J04 
208 
277 I 
849 
953 I 
!m I 
164 ' 



j Horses. 

Number. ' Value. 



90,501,631 
7,050,7.58 
6,742,703 
6,566.160 
8,687.013 
8,830,603 
8,671,573 

10,003,500 
4,391.085 
5,907,120 
6,714,470 
0,002.149 

10,982,044 
9,618,201 
0,700,101 
7,068,006 
6,905,247 
7,330.727 
0,018.1.53 
0,444.369 
8,413,680 
0,066.686 

10,791,003 
8,505.803 
6,887,354 
6,053,046 
5.350.192 



827,400 
337,200 
343,000 
343,900 
350,700 
364.700 
368,300 
370,;iOO 
386,000 
403,400 
398,376 
368.031 
370,028 
370, re8 
371,878 
383.034 
386,864 
300,733 
398,548 
300,677 
304, 4&3 
402,373 
410,430 
430,041 
439.560 
417,582 
400,879 



$24,571,370 
23,673.653 
23,343,03^ 
21,748,236 
20.033.283 
30,766,018 
19.580,877 
18,027,423 
16,8.57,233 
18.124,096 
21.145.798 
3r), 567, 346 
26.142,478 
27,411,674 
25,436.4.55 
24.304,384 
26,242,445 
28.250,003 
28,207,215 
28,474,801 
20,346,700 
27,890,620 
27,963,224 
24,237,842 
18,201,032 
14,521,753 
13.050,021 



Sheep. 



Number. 



004,300 
868,100 
824.000 
808.100 
7.59. fiOO 
r,83.000 
«00,400 

m,m) 
1 teo.ooo 

i . • on. 800 

1 fC>0.006 

!'90,3f<6 

1 iOO.lffl) 

:'80.1(]6 

.•50.761 

!'03.22Jl 

s68. ()03 

;97,f«W 

s05,i>7H 

s05,978 

;&5.079 

: 73, .336 

I.:.'37.338 

1. 163.098 

1,(^46,788 

.^68, .W« 

738,106 



Value. 

$2,287,879 
2,265,741 
2.383.094 
2,fJ68,730 
2,187,648 
1.048.260 
1,928,216 
2,6r3,000 
2.060,400 
2,554,794 
2,879.208 
2,8^,258 
2,650.448 
2. .on, 837 
2, .529, 024 
2,024,666 
l,007,.'ie9 
1,986.741 
2.038,318 
2.108,708 
2. 309. 485 
2,456,880 
2.075.793 
3.707,483 
1,934,046 
1,003.257 
1,405,229 



Mnlc3. 
Number. I Value. 



&5.noo 

83,700 
84.500 
83.600 
81,000 
85,000 
83.400 
lin.O(X) 
n7,8(J0 
109,600 
87.544 
113.8.T0 
116,107 j 
113.7K-> ' 
116,061 ' 
124. 18,''. 
132,94.T 
162.28;'. I 
159,0:]9 
155.858 
148,065 I 
151,026 I 
153.291 
150,225 I 
143,714 : 
131.297 I 

110,8:'.4 



$7,073,415 
0,562,080 
6.589.310 
5,919,716 
5, 01.5. .520 
5,000,050 
4.223,000 
5,781,020 
5,180.090 
5,319,084 
.5,383,081 
7,643.084 
8,611.656 
0,(68,840 
8,877.500 
8.616 370 
8,883.535 
11.680,018 
ll,(i51.079 
11.712.018 
10,847.737 
4.4?2,211 
0,887,3.V> 
8,253.398 
6,038.057 
4,740,184 
3.9(J0,48:2 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



272 



BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



LOUISIANA. 

Table showing tlie estimated nuniber and value of farm animals for the years ]S:o 

to 1S06, inclusive. 



Year. 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
1873 
18?3 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1883 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
188^ 
1880 
1890 
1891 
1893 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1806 



Cattle. 



Milch cows. 



Number. Value. 



87, 
«•! 
st», 

no. 

115. 
11. -i, 
\IU 
117, 

us, 
I'kk 
\'u, 



$:i,;?15,800 
:.\:-*7:;,;j0O 
ti, 4.^1, -too 
1,S77.490 
1,7*30,010 
l,8."i,r>15 

i,sr>').til6 

2, .'>8 1,440 
1 , S*>:J, 120 
tl, D7:t, t:00 
2,018.256 
2.5H8.II54 
2.i*.VJ,:J43 
'J.i;r),<J04 

L*.:(Kt,(i34 

2.012,i»47 
2. 408,158 
2.tMl.l79 
2,8^il.ti55 
2,8<»8.»;44 
2.o.so,:.»29 
:{,(hi<;.n53 
3,1!W,0S0 
2,!K)0,136 

2.;^t:i.r>54 
2.:r„'],l85 
2.:;il.f51- 



1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1880 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1880 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1880 



Hogs. 



Number. 



300,000 
288,000 
290,800 
247,100 
210,000 
222,600 
242,600 
JI50,000 
380,500 
378,500 
62.5.400 
627,154 
561,439 
026,527 
563,874 
580,790 
551,751 
573,821 
6:31,203 
706,947 
706,947 
756.433 
767,779 
806,168 
838,416 
888, ?20 
790,961 



Value. 



$1,290,000 

1,296,880 

1,142,844 

793,191 

751,800 

P85,948 

!K)7,324 

1,138,500 

i,x^29,305 

1,521,570 

2.539,124 

2 527.431 

2.427,068 

2.:;88,2?3 

1 877,700 

i. 800,449 

1.754.567 

i.:ao,663 

2,163,763 
;i. 120, 842 
2,243,850 
2,390,328 
2,588,165 
3,019,904 
2,750,002 
2.534,628 
2,235,255 



Other cattle. 



Sheep. 



172,600 
177,700 
181,200 
173,900 
168,000 
171,900 
171,900 
275,000 
118,700 
119,900 
118,701 
317,664 
285,898 
271,603 
258,023 
252,863 
265,506 
370,813 
281,649 
295,731 

295, rai 

298,688 
289,727 
391,131 
371,574 
312.123 
288,425 



$-*,t>r«i,012 
2,:r>fi,r90 

2.24.i.:356 
l,787,tB2 
iJilU.OSS 
2.<N»7,';-92 
1 . 7:r2. 438 
2,!M<,(IOO 
!ri7.047 
1.151jt40 
l,2;s.4l0 

:i7;ti;,f85 

;j.i:5tM60 
:*.;jl8,i«) 
:{.2t'C},t«l 
:i.(nr.,<)48 
:i.251.r55 
;j.(^-.iM87 
2.i':itijil3 
2.s^l.'.41 
2. 8.};, (03 
2,i'8!M23 
2,iC2,L'17 
;}.5ll,r04 
;i. ]2i.]«t 

2,(i():i.;vll 



umber. 


Value. 


90,000 


$196,200 


77.400 


166, 6»i 


73,600 


147,000 


64,600 


112,404 


62.600 


117,688 


08,800 


140.333 


71,500 


133. HB 


125,000 


225,000 


m,50() 


2K.(S) 


135,100 


225,617 


116,994 


191, fCO 


135,631 


287,890 


128,849 


217, iM 


124.984 


208,723 


121,234 


203.673 


116,385 


192,466 


111,730 


1<3,015 


113,96.1 


186. H31 


116,244 


176, 8n 


115,082 


i;9.1l4 


113.931 


182,825 


118.488 


191,210 


191, a^i 


296,611 


184,273 


279, «1 


178.745 


244,112 


146,571 


208, a>} 


138,311 


166.885 



Horses. 



Mules. 



Number. 



70,800 

72,200 

75,000 

75,700 

74.900 

76,300 

77,000 

78,500 

79.300 

83,500 

82,500 

104,960 

105,475 

110.749 

111,856 

112,975 

114,106 

119,810 

132,206 

124,650 

122,157 

127,043 

132,135 

130,804 

130,804 

137,844 

141,464 



Value. Number. 



S0.463,:332 
fi,l*U,436 
7,:v50.260 

f;.52ti.,s54 
«;. KS'i. 740 
4, 4 8t, 1114 
4.:tv5.s70 
4.11!t,:i40 
:i.(t2-M23 
:i,l47.:?75 
4.72t;.4«6 
('>, 4;n, 486 
♦;,ftl7.<lB0 
(i.Oin. 145 
♦i,598.;»5 
<i.:{72.!e7 
♦;..VU.!i62 

t;.8i7.:«7 
Ii.»;t5.,s83 
fi.4t;i..«6 

t). 575. 443 

(;..Vi2,:341 

0.871,827 
0.017.731 
4.«i*;5.;95 
4,Hti8,:a6 
3,855,824 



75,500 
76.200 
76,200 
78.400 
79,900 
79,900 
79.100 
79,100 
80,700 
80,700 
80,700 
77.441 
74,343 
75,830 
75.830 
78,863 
81,229 
84,478 
86.168 
96,785 
95,733 
91.904 
90,985 
92,8(6 
90,940 
90.040 
88,239 



Value. 

$10,176,645 
8,881,110 
9,2K,158 
8.6K.C34 
8.087,478 
6. 708. 404 
6,031,539 
6.294,163 
4.746.774 
5,613,4i2 
6.984,585 

6. 006. no 

5,759,332 
6,763,2nj 
6,455,4C8 
6, 801; 147 
6.876.8?5 
7,472,811 
7,305,033 

8,or8,6a> 

7,949,274 
7,514,451 
7.289,6W 
7,316,191 
5.613,293 
5,068,858 
4,661,317 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



POUBTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



273 



MAINS. 

Tdble showing the estinutted number aiid value of farm animals for the years 1870 

to 1896, inclusive. 



Year. 



1870 
1871 

isrs 

1873 
1874 
1875 
1878 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
188S 
1883 
1881 
1885 
1888 
1887 
1888 
18H9 
1890 
1891 
180e 
180 
18»ft 
18B5 
1898 



Year. 



Cattle. 



MUcb cows. 



Number. 



141,300 
117.800 
147,000 
153,500 
188,700 
164.300 
167,600 
165,800 
160,100 
160,600 
157,388 
151,599 
158,051 
16^,095 
163,716 
165,353 
165,849 
167,507 
174,207 
175,949 
172,430 
175,879 
174,120 
177,602 
182.930 
192,077 
192,077 



Value. 



^. t 



:i!».'^81 

.V;.V,,250 
♦>,4:ii;,ti50 
i-,O7'M0O 
r,,(e3.<l00 



:},:•»' ; 
i.s;: 

\.\\v; 

■I.Kir.?, 546 
•Ls.n :03 
i>;; 706 
4.;i'tv^25 
i.r>vi.l52 
I. »?*'»(>. 794 
i. :.'»;'). !t40 

r».4U.-)j>47 
' si:^ tSO 



Hogs. 



Number. 



1870. 
1871. 
1|}72. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 

i»n. 

1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
18in. 
1882. 
1883. 
1881. 
1865. 
1886. 
1887. 
1S88. 
U89. 

VKi'. 
1886. 



7204 18 



Value. 



67,600 


$667,212 


61,500 


614,385 


62,7«I0 


620,730 


60,800 


670,016 


60,100 


776.492 


58,800 


685,606 


50,900 


605,589 


02,200 


481,428 


60,300 


289,691 


60,000 


475,800 


57,600 


507,456 


73,625 


837,116 


L1'*J« 


847,7(0 


71,416 


688,450 


n,416 


627,747 


70,702 


620,760 


n,060 


611,080 


73,188 


067,971 


73,188 


714,006 


79,048 


664,913 


78,263 


641,678 


76,688 


650.317 


S»KS 


7W.721 


79,906 


005,476 


79,195 


7jg,849 


78,408 


605,865 


76,835 


456,092 



Other cattle. 



Number. 


Value. 


00 


76 


00 


39 


! , 00 


... ,64 


in,s,(jOO 


7,7l'.i,720 


:,>»il,'.«0 


7,t;s.^;}52 


LDMOO 


7.ir».y:a6 


l^«^^00 


r»,i.-i<j,s44 


I'.i.yf^OO 


4,7;m,i02 


■.'(1 1.700 


4.IS7.:.'92 


00 


4,KS.K,SOO 


26 


4,r,tVl.l50 


i 1 ,40 


4.*y)7.100 


r/.t,<t23 


.'>.<>^!M65 


^-'►19 


H. (tr,l . (^76 


is;. (00 


rKH:u.t66 


1S7J0O 


5.:,0(M74 


jsr,. 160 


.-,j]^)S.833 


1>V!«0 


.'■>,(«»:{. 108 


1 » 160 


4.7'js.(i92 


1-.. m 


:j.7;{i»,(e4 


157, a86 


:i 707,(140 


152,664 


:{,77i;,!)ao 


145, (m 


:j.:.»01.192 


130,628 


:(.lsi,r.l7 


124,002 


:{,(K>^.;J42 


117,802 


;i, ss(t. liQO 


108,878 


:,MS 1.4:93 



Horses. 



Number. 



83,000 
78,800 
78,000 
78,000 
78,700 
79,400 
80,100 
81,700 
81,700 
81,700 
81,700 
88,726 
89,613 
88.509 
89,394 
90,283 
92,004 
94,857 
96,754 
99,657 
100,654 
100,719 
111,051 
116,604 
115,438 
116,602 
115,426 



Value. 

$7,169,540 

*t. Ji:J8. :i52 
♦i. *»so. ->80 
7.514,530 
7. 445, MW 
0.4*',:!. '.154 
5.;o:j,<)21 
5. 10;i, 165 
4, 051. 440 
4JM4.r.'55 
.5.H7.5.(k43 
5.tr>,-,.:595 
»i.475,4% 
7.2K-).I76 
7.97:1.051 
7.07;i.463 
8j*j7.(i50 
H,i>iM.:«3 
;M;i;i.;i93 
!i.:iSH. 168 
!t.:ts.i.i*78 

H, 8*>5. 781 
7,;j;>4.453 
«, :ri(), 866 
n, 240. 147 
5. :)7»',, 791 



Sbeep. 



Number. 



415,000 
348,600 
413,800 
444,900 
491,500 
525.900 
520,600 
525,800 
557,800 
596,300 
632,078 
577,236 
577,236 
577,236 
548,374 
587,407 
526,669 
547,725 
547,?^ 
542.248 
547,670 
569,577 
398,704 
326,987 
284,435 
258,836 
230,364 



Value. 

$1,1.32,950 
1,07^,688 
1,775,302 
l,etW,751 
2,030,065 
1,987.902 
l,.50y,740 
l,4«l,r34 
1.499,137 
1,926,049 
2,028,970 
1,847,155 
1,841,383 
l.(i27,80G 
I,2J:«,195 
1.1.W,771 
1,470,695 
1,545,914 
l,tJ4;t,175 
l,5Wi.920 
l,7iKt,516 
1,717,274 
1,100,413 
671,855 
.5i9,670 
.'Vi*I,438 
47! t;71 



Mulea 



Number. 



Value. 



301 
801 
304 
304 



$27,165 
25,781 
24,753 
26,27& 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



274 



BUREAU QF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



MAR7LA2n>. 

Table showing the estunatcd nunnber and value of fai'm anitnals for the yean WO 

to 1896, inclusive. 



Year. 



1870. 
1871- 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875 . 
1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881 . 
1882. 
1883, 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
18UU. 
1801. 
18SW. 
1893. 
1804. 
18J)5. 
1806. 



Milch cows. 



Number. 



Year. 



1870 


250,200 
256,600 
2W.200 
256,200 
248,500 
2:J3,500 
252,100 
259.600 
:2(V2,200 
264,801. 
2M,m) 
3:J2,054 
325,413 
325,413 
300,142 
2JW,8(i8 
275.879 
281.397 
870,141 
343,079 
346,510 
349,075 
325,477 
328,732 
332.019 
338,660 
331,886 


1871 


1872 


1873 

1874 


1875 


1870 


1877 


1878 


1879 


1880 


1881 


1882 


1883.. 


1884 


18S5 


1886 


1887 


1888 


1889 


1890 


1891 


1892 


1803 . . .. 


1891 


1895 


1806 





06, 
Oft, 
09, 
100, 
99, 
101, 
100, 
99, 
08, 
122. 
123, 
124, 
128, 
131, 
i:i3, 

135, 
140. 
141, 
14:), 
147, 
149, 
147, 
147. 
150, 
150, 



Value. 



Cattle. 

. Other cattle. 
Number. | Value. 



;{,l:i'>.(i25 
2.!M1.»;13 
;Nihi:i.(>40 
2.!H;j.lB2 
:t. (*-.:>. 217 
:i,u*w),i»B8 
;t,a<t..-«5 
::,•, .>-!.">. SB5 
U*,7Ui.40O 
:/. !M(). 401 

:t.TU.<)96 
1.5-M87 
4,:Mis,:B2 
:t.'.r,i.549 
:{,SM;j.ti78 
;i..HH,;{43 
;{.i^-ii.«»78 
;j.i:it,>81 
;{.;V 1.100 
:}.S(i:.i)50 
n.s:tti.7B8 

:>. i.^ijao 

:i.?'>I.}27 
:;.tKS!>.r«7 

a. ^)■,^ m 



125,700 
126,000 
125,600 
125,600 
121, 8a» 

119,300 
116.900 
120.400 
119,200 
120,400 
120,400 
138,237 
136,855 
139.582 
139,502 
l:i8,196 
13^578 
13^182 
134.(87 
127.3% 
124.788 
121,044 
119.834 
112. OU 
113,770 
116. 4M5 
113,724 



'2.771.406 
2.!»71.»i86 
2, .s:2, 472 
2,74()..'iOO 
2.7:^.:»1 
2. m\ 421 

2. a>^, 432 
2.:-»it.V7a8 
2. ;Di. iM 
2. l.VJ. !«6 
n.2-i2.n7 
:J.517.L«2 

;j. 872, .282 

;i.4(yi,i07 

:i. 4<>9. 243 

:i..'ii(>,7W 

2,!»17.r*4 

2.;r>s.;08 

2. a] 4. 164 
2. t>i7. :m 
2,5*;2.fi52 
2.4."4,?«3 
2, 4N-V. 104 
2.241.<«I0 
2,5i:j.-«5 



liOgB. 



Number. ' Value. 



Horses. 
Number. Value. 



$2,011,302 i 
1,311,226 
1,664.460 
1, 5.55, 134 
1,473.005 
l,6.57,aT0 
1,684,038 
1,458.0.52 
1,145.814 
1,321. a53 
1,496.120 
2,300,789 
2.58.3.779 
2,4.53.614 
l.'nt '»(« 
1. TV.. 115 
1 7s!». 077 

i.-;:>»Ktei 

1.7:-ii,i)03 
l,NyiJ448 
I, 7s). (60 
2.(Hf.s.449 
2.:i!7..'»76 
2.:i:;-i.475 
2.r.5<>,714 
l.SfttK((5l 
2,2:)7.741 



ine.fioo 

10.J,5JM) 
104. soo 
104.500 
104,500 
105,500 
107.600 
108.600 
108.600 
108,600 

108. ono 

118. (£12 
119.212 
122.788 
125,244 
126.496 
129.020 
130.316 
131.619 
130.303 
128. 39( 
131, 4M 
133,685 
136,^9 
136.359 
134,995 
103,645 



$9,278,300 
9,432,990 
0,291,095 
0,094,6:15 
0,2.^4,825 
8,779,710 
8,186,840 
7,444.5:» 
7,02:1.162 
«,7»«,78«J 
7,493.410 
8,:!a2,7:t> 
9.581,0»W 
10,205,774 
10,&14,2irj 
10,324.641 
10,728,077 
11.207..590 
10,462,758 
9,654.144 
10,120.235 
10.490,907 
10.101.585 
8.64l.(fc?7 
6.2Sr7.a55 
6,010.939 
5.111,360 



Sheep. 



Number, i Value. 



135.000 
126,000 
129.400 
133,200 
138.500 
141,200 
144.000 
151.260 
152,700 
152.700 
1.52,700 
172.896 
173,760 
172.022 
172,022 
168,582 
165.210 
100,254 
152.241 
153,763 
156.838 
16(,680 
151,506 
145,446 
138,174 
129.884 
121.689 



5Si.8« 

sai.stt 

5M8.74I 
505. ft0 
5t9.SK 
59.90 
551. tW 
451,IK 
4n.KI 
467.« 

637,6N 
572.89 
6S7.M) 
519.» 
544,aB 
537.171 
4»7.a6 

sat. OB 

573, tS 
644, 5B 
S9B,2B 
447,8fi 
3S1,919 
3K33 

3si.aa 



Mules. 



Number. 


Value. 


10,800 


91,337.« 


10.800 


I'^S 


10.900 


1.358,»l 


10.700 


1,288,118 


10,800 


I.?™.!!* 


11.000 


i,i«i#; 


11,100 


^'SJffi 


11,200 


999,811 


ii.aoo 


^'S 


11,300 


918,gl 


11.413 


1,188,W 


12,686 


l•"^!5 


12,712 


i,aKH! 


12,830 


I,4a9.8» 


12,067 


i'*S»2J 


13,228 


*»**s 


13,358 


1.284.11} 


13,625 


1,479,2 


13.ee25 


l,449.Jg 


13,761 


^•<^K 


I3.6;!3 


1,4SI,I£ 


13.467 


I'SS 


L3,6S2 


'SJH 


13,212 


^'SS 


13,212 


8*5} 


13,212 


^B 


12,817 


749,917 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



275 



MASBACHUSBTTS. 

Table shawmg Uie estimated number and vaJtie of farm animaU for the years 1870 

to 1896^ indtuive. 



Ye«r. 



BM 

mn 

tmV.'.'.y.V.'.'.V. 
jam 

WB/k'S/.'.'.' ".'.'.'.'. 

18W 

Tear. 



Cattle. 



Ifilchoowa^ 



Number. 



laD.aoo 
14ft eoo 
ia9,K» 

i»,auo 

140.800 
148»70U 
151,000 
180.700 
i«7,100 
173. 7W 
L'il.lH? 
15c?. 009 

ieo,2S 

103.4:31 
1SO,OI» 
175,067 
180, m9 
183. W5 
174,720 
17B.479 
177, 47B 
1H1.7T0 
178,135 
178. 135 
174,572 
172,886 



Yaloe. 



■.THlt. 
.. 10.'), 

,'sIh' 

1. Ui-K 
I, V:-^ », 

v^: 

m. 

078, 
717. 
74, 
OOH, 
780, 
7»), 
045, 
310, 



Other cattle. 



Number. 



18S0 

vn 

1853 
1874 
UBS 

wn 



Hogs. 



Number. 



84,800 
80,500 
80,500 
78,00) 
75,600 
75,600 
78,600 
78,600 
84,900 
»4,90O 
88,290 

79, ass 

80,908 
80,060 
81.701 
77.610 
7e.H40 
85,314 
85,314 
88,580 
87.208 
60.536 
86. 8n 
88.805 
01.266 
80.780 
68.297 



Value. 



$1,318,640 

963,925 

1.084,336 

i,oa».3» 

1,146,364 

1.363.068 

1.163,280 

1,080,390 

960.558 

1,057.854 

1,181,862 

1,213,627 

1,157.793 

1,007,356 

1,014, ?26 

779,677 

77.5,319 

872.862 

?i2,944 

058.997 

819.067 

8GS.066 

706,796 



642,734 
612.847 
402, 085 



122,700 
120,200 
1^1,400 
1^,600 

i2i,dno 
ia),ooo 

110,400 

112, 6tO 

114,900 

114.000 

116,040 

109.510 

110,006 

118. 398 

107,309 

108,382 

110,560 

1&'>.023 

103.973 

98,774 

96.799 

96.799 

fle,927 

86,422 

82.965 

80.476 

75,647 



Value. 



.'82 

::• 142 

'. - ■ ' 104 
■l.^u-;, m 
■t.;(*i,444 
n.THLiHOO 

4,HH.;I60 

4,L';!*..H87 
:t,Htt.,-i65 

:(.:*;-:« 

'A. vvr *57 

;;, i.vi. 157 

1\'JIHK 106 

:.'.!+ )s.".^77 

'J,:»i>.l3i» 
:,'. vXk :V7 
'i, :;^»:^fK;6 

;.'.n-...:|ttl 
'!. l.'l.tWK 

l.Mn..«» 



Sheep. 



Uorses. 
Number. Value. 



09.900 

101.800 

101,800 

102,800 

105,800 

104,700 

131.000 

13(2,300 

L31,000 

136.200 

149,820 

80. ^> 

60,225 

61.429 

82,043 

82,663 

63.916 

65,194 

86,488 



63.200 
64.484 
65.100 
66.760 
85.760 
65.102 
8i),800 



n.5.-«.!«4 

!l.H:a»..s68 



..76 

us 

/'68 



1;.', iv: 
i>.n. 
ii.u-.: 
{!.:»■;( 
II. h'l. ;oo 

n.x-N.;«7 

I.:;7.r4« 

n. l-.l.:«l 

(1, i;^'.^^ 

r^^l*^:«) 

7.Mi;K:»76 

r.(wt.i80 
♦iji;s.:sJ7 

*i.T.-'7.:22 

<i. ^sra, .'6: 

4,H74.ia7 

4.7l!i.J65 
4, l:i^ '.*46 



Number. 


Value. 


72,000 


1234.790 


0tJ,900 


234,819 


74,900 


289,888 


76,300 


309.016 


76,300 


265.601 


76,300 


270,989 


61,000 


223,870 


60,300 


217.080 


00,900 


175,368 


03.300 


22»V.614 


65,199 


149,306 


68,059 


205,977 


09,346 


268.389 


69.346 


277,384 


07,950 


238,536 


64,561 


19JJ,104 


63,270 


211,184 


02,637 


206,702 


50,505 


191,180 


56,530 


190,789 


56,965 


208.470 


57,644 


223,947 


63,032 


2»,n2 


51,441 


187,760 


49,383 


169. 137 


48,3ft> 


11)9,708 


42,104 


142,206 



Mules. 



Number. 


Value. 




1 


1 


! 


1 


1 


1 


















245 
247 
249 


$23,766 
27,864 

28,836 


1 


1 






















t 


'.".'...' .. ..1 /. II 


I 









Digitized by LjOOQIC 



276 



BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



UCHiaAN. 

Table showing the estimated 7nimherand valtie of farm animals for the years WO 

to 1806, inclusive. 



Year. 



1870 

isn 

1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 



Year. 



Cattle. 



Milch cows. 
Number. Value. 



1870.. 
1871.. 
1872 -. 
1873.. 
1874.. 
1875.. 
1876... 
1877.. 
1878.. 
1879.. 
1880... 
1881.. 
1882.. 
1883... 
1884.. 
1885.. 
1886.. 
1887.. 
1888.. 
1889.. 
1890... 
1891.. 
1892.. 
1888.. 
1894.. 
1896.. 
1896.. 



333,900 
347,300 
850.600 
350,600 
857,600 
381,100 
868,300 
875.600 
416,900 
416,900 
416,900 
888,424 
400,077 
404,078 
416,200 
420,962 
432,978 
437,303 
441,676 
454,926 
459,475 
459,475 
464,070 
468,711 
478,085 
468,533 
459,153 



,s!;i7:n>,ie5 
jx\ :rt7, 792 
ii.(i^i.i:«2 
ioji(i:i,;«0 

]l,72r»,!«0 

v^M(ii»,()70 
il.tw»,843 
ll,2tks,(00 
1 1 . :.VK». :j72 
ll.l^*,^«2 
M.!»^i»>,^«l 
ii:7:i(>,406 
ll,i».Vi,t«5 

l:i,77n.ri98 
l.J, l(r>.(«3 
l^*,t>si,';B7 
l;?.t',tts.i8o 
i;t.f):i7.:58 
11.. 'Milt.. 181 
ll.l:n,*M4 

i::.7t;i.ie5 
i;{,:i-w»,-i60 
l;-\(vi->.787 
11,788.(00 
l:,M!«tt,093 



Other cattle. 
Number. I Value, 



450,000 
450,000 
463,500 
468,100 
440,300 
410,000 
367,700 
389,700 
416,000 
432,600 
308,660 
501,962 
607,002 
491,792 
501,628 
506,644 
521,843 
511,406 
521,634 
646,716 
508,899 
508,938 
463,134 
472,397 
458,225 
398,656 
370, 750 



$14.242,iS00 
18,068,560 
18,108,145 
11,885,069 
12,248,426 
10,806,600 
9.616,886 
9,442,481 
8,515,520 
9.787,826 
9,294,813 
13,658.910 
14,885.679 
13,765,268 
14.140,808 
12,929,152 
13,484,860 
12,865,948 
12,557.817 
11,710,832 
10,155.165 
10,521,889 
9,506,289 
9,494,064 
8,584.482 
7,018,486 
7,076,185 



Sheep. 



Number. 



Value. 



;{.h>4,i*oo 

a.ilM.ra) 
:M8ti,;i0O 

;;,tir.,.5ao 
;{.4.-)<).ti00 
:M«xi.000 

i.:.5(»,«ioo 

1.8:.»( 1.000 
l,s.Vi.400 
l.!«:jii,.jS6 
x*.:Wi.752 
■.'. * J»;. 790 
^•. n':.422 
:i,:^U.l74 
;,*.'>tEt.t'fl7 
xM.v».127 
:-Ml.i.(04 
lm;u.134 

x\:,'.vt.:,'49 
:J.:Kvi,7T9 
.'.'..->l8,r>44 
'i/?"M-.i7 
l,.)wl,«»46 
1,491,079 
1.341,»71 



9,878,a» 
8.611,161 
10,451,490 
9, 144, dm 
5,712,0!» 
4.427,500 
4, 18ft. 000 
4.0W,fle 
2, 10), 871 
7,240,746 
7,8K,0K 
7,a«l.aB0 
6,350,09 
4,786.871 
5,48IM87 
5,743.900 

5,»o,oe 

6,858.706 
7,348,310 
7,060,338 
8,512.67» 
5,40(».5» 
8,007,001 
2,843,188 
3.5a8.MW 



Hogs. 
Number. Value. 



Hor.9es. 



I 



Mules. 



517.400 
532,900 
548,500 
510,800 
459,700 
459,700 
505,600 
656,100 
567,200 
538,800 
506,437 
915,867 
984,184 
840,766 
849,174 
H40,682 
823,868 
906,255 
906,255 
978,755 
910,242 
892,087 
713,630 
720.766 
727,974 
730,604 
718,487 



I Number. 



Value. 



i:i,8i;i,338 
:i.4S8.043 
."».:i-xi.*i20 
;i.U<i.732 
:t, ]:i^>.;«0 
:{. (1^1.421 
;J,7l*1,216 
;!,.^H].(e8 
;.M:i8,:}44 
.',', H"i<). H96 

7. Ha: J, 865 
.M:i8.*.j73 
n, 1.51,186 

1,7!M.419 

5. : 8n, 700 
t;. r.*8*t, 161 

5,187,400 

4. (►::!, :i84 
l.ail,H33 
r),:{inj.:i72 
r.,lt)l,405 
4..{ltl.H86 
4.;jf):j,."il8 
4,220,277 



L^4.'»00 

:.^::*, 7(J0 

riss.:»o 
:,tH,lOO 

:m. ,^00 
:n4.tW0 
:tCl.j«0 

;m,(i05 
?^K :J64 

4UJ,006 
■108,005 

i:.^i,;i45 
4:^,tB0 
154.:l89 

1^.5113 
Kt't. ,t02 
477, 407 
47;;, (138 

^)ll^^^96 
rvt!»,-J94 
:m, 779 

483, tl28 
15*.»ttO 



Number. 



.•<.n.s7t.tia> 

;il.W»4.08O 
•«,7;.'!».{|B0 

^>,:117,;J08 
^i^.x.'i.rBO 
lit, 4.17, .«9 
:ri. If^r.?, 103 i 
^{,2-j:j,875 I 
X'4,!ei,ri08 
2rt,.'i2o,H40 
:i8,04(»,786 i 
:i*),a67.rt62 1 
:tl,5t{4,395 I 
:U,815,067 
:r>,87fi,;{16 
;r>,«o,:J92 I 
;i8.r>tvj,,T65 ! 
42, 12tl, 410 ; 
4;i,fKU,316 
4(»,aitK'rB2 
:{8.:W6.437 
40,7.J7,3B3 I 
4<»,tri9,tff2 
:in,3:i"»,949 
25,7!»3,!)05 
2t»,;U(»,<IB5 
18,437,058 



4,200 
4.000 
4,000 
8,900 
3,700 
3.800 
3.800 
4,200 
4.800 
4,400 
4,576 
5.134 
5,339 
5,606 
5,718 
5,775 
4.486 
6,065 
6,005 
6.095 
6.005 
8,779 
8. 783 

U'S 
3.006 

3,006 

2,784 



Value. 



^,9» 
a51,«) 
863, a» 
a»,40 
822,018 
806.250 
354, 1« 

aoo,ia8 

375,0» 
874,SS0 
438, 98) 
4W,14« 
004.990 



588,008 
575,]i» 
656,S0R 
ffi6^6» 
^200 

838,613 
2S7.S» 

142,003 
104,080 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



277 



lONNBBOTA. 

Table showing the estimated number and value of farm animals for the years 1870 

to 1396, inclusive. 



Year. 



vm 

18T2 
1873 
1874 
1875 
18916 

ign 

1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1883 
1883 
1884 
1886 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1880 
1800 
1801 
1802 
1883 
1804 
1806 
1806 



Cattle. 



Milch cows. 
Number. Value. 



Other cattle. 



Year. 



1870 
11^ 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
188S 
1883 
1884 
1886 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1880 
UOO 
1801 



153,800 
168,000 
182,400 
106,900 
222.400 
232,600 
240,800 
240.800 
278,000 
304,000 
316.160 
291,833 
321.368 
343,864 
364,496 
886,366 
417.275 
483,066 
455,664 
408,117 
565,035 
577,254 
671,481 
577,106 
588,740 
600,515 
618,530 



Number, j 



s->. 054,076 
^, (116,330 
5,486,502 
r> 172.563 

rMJ04.480 
r..sai.865 
5,^58,290 
r..i.53,134 
5.:^, 990 
n. 128,640 
7.;.^i7,418 
7.783,501 
It, 1*23,844 
10.s31,7l6 

10 h72,916 
10,768,020 
10,t',40,513 
lo,:M)8,e03 
lo: 181,307 
KK 231, 113 
llJiOl.668 

1 1 1 12, 140 
11.1(3,880 
ll.L^,146 
1 1 . S63, 111 
l™\s75,042 
li. 541,640 



228,000 
261.700 
269.300 
282,700 
310,900 
329,500 
339,300 
290, OGO 
316,100 
882,400 
328,848 
381,175 
414,645 
427,084 
439,887 
448.095 
475.617 
489,886 
514,880 
617,256 
617,256 
641.046 
648,365 
778,088 
754,807 
094,321 
652,662 



Value. 



5;5,2f)7,275 
r.,iv^7.740 
5,77^,792 
0. L^J-J, ^i27 
.5, MOO, 1,71 
H,W«i.t75 
n.i;i 1.151 

5. ft;?; -JOS 

04 
81 

1 62 

M),:;<j.s,()75 

Hi. :!t(Mi73 
1(»,(KIS,;«0 
10,^H,186 

{»,;»ii(».253 
1(1, is.^. (517 

•f,;C7.:556 
10, l,s7,i«0 
l(i,:l;i;i.(»3 
i!i.(;s7,;«5 
M',:;^r,,'i95 
l'i,-t;u..'>40 
io.t:;(i;i2l 



Sheep. 



Number. Value. 



140,000 
145.600 
151,400 
157,400 
176.200 
190,200 
2r«,200 
300,000 
307,600 
307,600 
313,650 
278,802 
281,065 
275,463 
272,708 
278,162 
278,162 
283,725 
337,500 
327,375 
330,640 
357,101 
499,941 
514.937 
489,192 
435,381 
404,904 



1210,800 
381,472 
466,812 
442,204 
410,866 
500,286 
487,486 
660,000 
648,825 
654,875 
802.044 
681,840 
784,727 
732,782 
608,132 
615,204 
655,230 
674,688 
750,105 
800,106 
881,245 
098,606 
1,447,820 
1,128,128 
876,241 
844,290 
887,711 



Hogs. 
Number. 



177,000 
208,600 
800,600 
201.200 
206,200 
213,400 
215,600 
180,000 
106,200 
104,200 
208,900 
389,043 
424,057 
411,335 
431,902 
440,540 
422,918 
540,793 
522,808 
627,526 
638,077 
501,885 
660,453 
666,067 
578,306 
680,067 
621,600 



s. 


Horses. 


Mules. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


$l,ltii»,fl70 


110,900 


>1»,lH7.il87 


2.700 


$281,205 


l,0r)«,165 


131,800 


I0,0.s!t.290 


2,900 


256,331 


l.(154,:«8 


142,300 


11.2ii>.()66 


8,000 


266,100 


mi 748 


152,200 


11,010.076 


8,060 


247,880 


1,042,416 


165,800 


12.070.240 


8,200 


365,062 


l,491.t«6 


172,400 


Iri.a4r.,rii6 


3.200 


306,528 


i,zj2,mi 


310,000 


^t). 077, 000 


6,000 


501,660 


m2, jijo 


215,000 


14,7:iO.»XlO 


6,100 


606,727 


7'i5,040 


247,300 


15..V:i.;^3 


7,000 


553,140 


1,025,:)76 


274,600 


17,727.210 


7,300 


048.313 


l,f>74,484 


285,480 


I!i,i"-.7,!I07 


7,528 


716,063 


:,',tj26,040 


270,146 


n.H-saoas 


9,380 


751,807 


:j, 159,^85 


280.056 


22,;i;l>.467 


9.755 


046,018 


:.M47.160 


306,899 


:>:.,l:i 1,718 


9,853 


083.625 


2,2i>],166 


318,655 


2-,,79S.;iOO 


10,050 


890,126 
1,035,680 


2.056,000 


334,588 


20.707.040 


10,553 


l,94:j,:30 


354.663 


20,4rw,052 


10,447 


1,036,624 


n,:i->4.775 


879,489 


;n, wr,.290 


10,860 


1,084,415 


;j,tt:n,r,74 


300.874 


;j:!,4!t 1.024 


11,188 


1,041,779 


2M7jm 


804.783 


;iO,70l,148 


11,412 


1,010,023 


;i,9tJI,fB7 


300,835 


2'.t,V28.:»7 


11,412 


1,004.663 


3,439,:»4 


461,186 


;i.5.;30i>,.l45 


10.271 


869,410 


4,lft5,(l03 


475.021 


30. 2;'>.5, (107 


0,757 


820,130 


4,184,;il6 


498,772 


29. 040. r»42 


0.260 


666,370 


:j,913,;io8 


503,760 


22,711,700 


0,260 


516,601 


2,869,205 


488,647 


lH,7K;i,<ig0 


8.001 


422.626 


2..W0.1I77 


460,101 


lo,H*i4,:»7 


8,631 


358,067 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



278 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



jaX8ai»BXPPZ. 

Table showing the estimated number and value of farm animals for the ^ears WO 

to 1896, indiLHive, 





Cattle. 






Year. 


MUchcows. 


Other csttie. 


e-Deep. 




Number. 


Valua 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


1870 


188,(100 
183,800 
180.100 
180,100 
180,100 
174,600 
178, ax) 
186,900 
188,800 
190,700 
200 235 
269.519 
277,605 
274,829 
272,081 
277,523 
283,073 
285,904 
297.340 
- 300,234 
806,142 
312,265 
JJ09,142 
302.959 
303,959 
293.870 
290,931 


5^4, «U, 880 

4,;i«l,574 
4.]B3,012 
3.886,558 
3,756.886 

:t.f;n.838 

:i. 289. 440 
:>,;>90,558 
2.543,136 
2.490.542 
3.(/99,6S8 
:i 943, 063 
4,(108.243 
4.«i08.386 
4.579.123 
4,429,267 
4.(176,251 
4.445,807 
4,831.775 
4,756,019 
4.745,201 
4.(^05.900 
4,173.417 

;5.;>u,20i 
:;.;;93.14l 

4,(158.345 
:i.T38,463 


883,500 
840,100 
886,600 
829.800 
816,600 
807,100 
810,100 
341,100 
247,300 
247,500 
«5»,875 
446. fiU 
433.504 
420.499 
416,294 
420,457 
424.682 
428,909 
487,487 
441,862 
424.188 
419.946 
411,547 
555.568 
516.697 
485,695 
446,839 


$4.S65,;165 
4,598,163 
4,274,tffl0 
4.«i3.342 
3,697.888 
3,63tM85 
3. 352. 181 
3,441,099 
1.9JI2.375 
1,9(«,275 
2,2r3.906 
4.^57,382 
4, 699, 183 
4,54:5,504 
4,3.54,485 
4,158.822 
3.8;£1.«53 
4,Ot>4,{)00 
4,3t»7.071 
4.1XH98 
3.774.258 
3.340.Sin 
3.ai»2.H07 
4,2tAS.363 
3,497.(89 

3, 6;i6. mi 

3.589,456 


200.000 
174,000 
167,000 
153.600 
147,400 
151,800 
163,900 
2SU.000 
192,600 
200,800 
202,308 
290.571 
203,477 
293, 4n 
281,738 
270,103 
242,971 
247.830 
252,787 
240,148 
235,345 
223.578 
447,156 
415,855 
380.904 
343,996 
806,156 


^9.30 


1871 


1872 


arH.9G0 

290,448 


i8;3 


1874 


294, 80B 


1875 


274,758 
281.908 


1878 


1877 


437. SOD 


1878 


20a,58D 


1879 

1880 


aui,4SS 
315.90 


1881 


4^.tS 


1882 


432.488 


1883 


4m,T9 


1884. 


4SH,24S 


1885 


413.)f!8 


1886 


818.884 


1887 


390. » 


1888 


a67,SD 


1869 ^ 

1890 


33U.2SI 
3S0.8B8 


1891 


3&}.8tf 


1892 


6(i4,a!7 


1893 


5i».43S 


1894 


4vS4.» 


1895 


423.115 


1890 


240.388 






Year. 


H 


OgB. 


Horses. 


Mules. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


1870 


850,000 

918,000 

890,400 

819.100 

769,900 

792,900 

1.189.300 

1,284,400 

1,386,700 

1,6:^6,300 

l,i3(t,H00 

1.1(«,338 

1,(I70.:»9 

lA:7.:m 

1,212.144 
1,115,172 
1,226.<i89 
1.312.557 
1,443.813 
l.;{71.(i22 
1.;ij7.i«6 
1,371.485 
1,577.208 
1,087, (U3 
1.940.755 
1,998,978 


$;^. 710. (100 
:t. lu:, 100 
2.(k5:i.:»2 
2.K58,fl50 
2.887.125 
3,417.:J09 
4,352.838 
4.289,896 
3,4W),(517 
4,418,010 
4.000,100 
4.ft53.344 
4, :i34, 589 
3,873.;»4 
3,979,:»1 
3,6a5,m5 
3,345.516 
3,801,754 
4,144.529 
3.919.(i62 
3,C;^}.683 
3,Ua>.:J57 
4,18:3.030 
5.478.907 
4.7,55,017 
5,991,888 
4,790,763 


82,000 
83,400 
87,500 

68,aoe 

88,800 

89,100 

90,800 

95,800 

97.200 

99.100 

101,083 

113,432 

114,566 

120,294 

122.700 

125,154 

130,100 

134.065 

138.087 

139.468 

135,384 

155,577 

159,466 

ltW,250 

170.820 

182,777 

185,571 


$B.6(iS,572 
7,648,614 
H.211,W5 
7,082,100 
7,fti,^.n89 
(i. 775. 164 
(;.2S4.;iB8 
a, 2.%'J. ri86 
4.9J13,164 
5.721,013 
7.355,7^17 
8.3tW,223 
8.318,637 
0,056.935 
8,093.910 
8.688.875 
9.187,566 
9.04,7,784 
9.WH.519 
9,19.H.458 
8.948.;i73 
9,7;j:j,285 
9.4a5.;»6 
H.«m,912 
0. 932, 520 
7,2(19,55:1 
6,b82.1B8 


96,300 
97,200 
99,100 
99,100 
96,100 
96,100 
96,100 
08,000 
100.000 

mi, 200 

131. (r76 
ia5.(Xl8 
i:i9.(^ 
144.(120 
147,512 
15;{,412 
159. .548 

ir2.;ii3 

l!^i,436 

hi2.;J54 
l(i:i,978 

1.50, seo 

irio.Hrjo 

15:1,877 
1(J0,U^ 


fi2.aoi.w 


1871 


llflSaB 


1872 


itm,m 


1873 


10,50, 7» 


1874 


8.8(13,781 


1875 


9.a28,427 


1876 


8.a3].fl9 


1877 


781i;fi88 


1878 


6!347.(KO 


1879 


7Mm 


1880 


9,55!1.638 


1881 


1().531.S58 


1882 

1883 


ltl.915,387 
12.ti8S.0B0 


1^4 


13280,38 


1885 


13ftJ4,S04 


1886 


12>53.8@8 


1887 

1888 


13,9.^.^4 
14.(»1.3«3 


1889 


17.006.688 


1800 


15.8Ha3Bl 


1891 


1:1,383.647 


1802 


12.357,840 


1888 


10,H».i« 


1894 


8:^.S<0 


1895 

1896 


7:fl^4,g 

7,iiasa 







Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



279 



MiaSOURI. 

Table hunting the estimated number and value of farm animals for the years 1S70 

to 1896^ indusitv. 



Year. 



1B7U 
1871 
1873 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1883 
1888 
1884 
1886 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1880 
1800 
1891 
1893 
1898 
1894 
1806 
18B0 



Cattle. 



Hilch oowB. 
Number. Valve. 



871,200 
803,400 
405,200 
431.400 
421,400 
438.200 
460,100 
606,100 
516,300 
520,500 
543.295 
608.000 
681,379 
674.666 
688.066 
708.606 
720.950 
737,350 
787.250 
774.123 
813.828 
860.736 
834.937 
784.811 
75:1.447 
733,800 
701,610 



$M,.-<s.:04 

;Mxn,ii52 
;>. iti«(,430 

N..?ir,;lX) 
!M!ii>53 
!»,7iL',rii 

lo.!*n.:«0 

in. Mi,(«6 
lo.Msl. 174 

IT.IM.:^ 
ls.Ns;.,s20 
ls.5r:.,M3 

i:, ^2.;.?^84 
i:, i.^».f87 

M,iet.495 
U.rr.MjOO 
\\.:Ui.m 
i:i.s]«v.(/r6 
i.V:rni.:,'06 
u.i!';;.'.09 

l:;.N(W, 140 
U.Dl' 14 

i:.;i7: 16 

Hi.*:: : 86 



other rattle. 



Number. Volne. 



7;ji,ioo 

TUT. two 

mn;,;I0O 

7H», {,00 

M:J,.S00 

M«i.;juO 

l.DV.MOO 

lJi:;-J.(O0 

l.i;is.:W) 

ijin;.:49 



1. 



46 
r73 
182 
31 

118 
58 
53 

.748 



1 , A-: 
I . I-.". 
1.4i: 
i.al.- 

1.1»:>.:.«0 

l.s:jl,.S56 

1 -v^ 175 

(70 

190 

01 



.133 



Si:.s-i.vo6 
i;s.::h,741 
n,::j7.(rro 
n.'t(ii.s72 

!(.t.:js, 173 
lLl!;;,.s44 

is, !•:,:.'. -350 

;.'1.:n.m«0 

r*s. VX>. ^01 

:{!.]!!•, 739 

:: :r> 09 

91 

55 

48 

84 

33 

«7 

■.i.;;nt,:iJ4 

:.'4.'rJl :(22 

:,'7. ir.', 175 

;n, >■.'!. S46 

:n. i;'.»,;21 

72 

93 
00 



SLeep. 



Number. ' Value. 



1,57-. 300 
1,451 lOO 
1,4:17. :«0 
1.40^. 00 
1.3CJ.J0O 
l,28LliOO 
1,287.(100 
1,271.(100 
1,28. too 
1,52). 100 
l,fll!»,!81 

1,42- m 



1,45 
1.43 
1,3:1 
1,28 
1,1H 
1,08 
1,10 
1.18 



119 

60 
123 

178 
173 

00 

.+44 

m 



88-.ii60 
01'>^t23 
1,08:-. !»48 
1,000,053 
8(50,830 
774,738 
607,364 



$3,540,902 
3,80J),34;i 
3.iM6,465 
2.070.150 
3,009,443 
3,388.613 
2,477,270 
2,313.:^ 
3,001.378 
2,787,6y0 
3.547,610 
3.8.'i0.822 
3,951,456 
3,878,760 
3.390.135 
1,908.340 
1.908,838 
1,894.978 
1,1)H4,573 
3.5')6,754 
3,17^1,884 
3.a>5,263 
3,(^79,414 
1,914.023 
l,44)l,.'i87 
1,47.5,063 
1,330,197 



Year. 


H 

Number. 

- ;i»,000 
:-',:>30,orw 

;.' (^56.500 
fi.ti*)3,300 


Value. 

$9,548,000 

8,222,500 

6,375.600 

8,590.890 

6,518,538 

11,133.343 

13,953,000 

10.652.672 

0,230,896 

9.014,176 

9,983,300 

17,907,434 

21,644,635 

19,875.063 

16,934,076 

14,404,933 

14,033,297 

15,013,246 

34,585,600 

18,660.824 

15.612,106 

16,583,605 

23,008,041 

18,045,671 

16,060.041 

13,863,8?3 

12,360,848 


Ho 
Number. 

483,000 
511,900 
537.300 
543,000 
570, 100 
ftSL-TOO 
598,900 
601,800 

627, aw 

639.800 
640,198 
074,4'>4 
687, WJl 
701,702 
715.730 
737,208 
750,324 
783,104 
797,740 
789.760 
805.664 
930.666 
088,689 
1,008,861 
908,377 
018,415 
854,126 


r»es. 
Value. 

$89,733,630 
27,202,306 
37,145,528 
38,:«1.640 
34.571.310 
36,400,100 
J5>.;B1,437 
35,18:J,8?i 
35,032,997 
35.^28,720 
30,474.098 
33, 938, .525 
40,574,878 
42,510.124 
43,;»4,414 
43,138.118 
44,642,180 
46.040,090 
40,140,4:12 
47,189,413 
46, 673. .503 

54,892,:i:J2 

50,140.230 
88.500,008 
37,081,443 
38,(n0,540 
21,176,838 


M 
Number. 

83,400 
87,500 
89.300 
89,200 
135,000 
126.200 
134.900 
190.000 
191,900 
191,900 
184,334 
192.987 
194.917 
194.917 
190,866 
212.615 
318,998 
235.563 
227,819 
J5».097 

348. K50 
319.348 
250.828 
249.133 
231,684 
315,466 


ules. 

Value. 


1870 

1871 


$6,958,063 
0,416,875 


1872 

1873 


0,339.638 
0,093.!M) 


1874 .. . - 


;.' (i«,600 


7 28:J 730 


1875 


:i.sr4,3oo 
j'.mooo 

-. .-.55.600 
t.' -^17,600 


7,070,980 


ICTB 

IMT 

1878 


0,314,944 
9.448,700 
8,324 022 


IBTO 


f:,ti30,400 


9.131.007 


1800 

1881 


- cw.ooo 

4, « 197,811 
£{>92,930 
4,tJ^,566 
4,310,198 
4,168,091 
8,870.326 
8,7ii8,790 
6,200.000 
5,(»6,0Q0 
4.586.400 
4,632,384 
4.070.393 
3,700,517 
3,661,186 
8,160,411 
8,074.820 


10.550.»I8 
12,061.687 


wag 

IffiS 


13,354,356 
11,5^*5,385 


1884 


13.im7.643 


MR6 


14,4O7,00i 


wm 


14,799.633 


vm . 


15,019,634 


1888 


15.835.030 
15.597.076 
15,627,401 


35::::::.. 


15,911,437 




14.334,510 


wm 

18M 


11.791,483 
8,096,916 


Mff 


6,914,427 


1808 


6,445,651 







Digitized by LjOOQIC 



280 



BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



MONTANA. 

Table shoiviiig the estimated number aiid value of farm animals for tlie years 1S70 

to 1896, inclusive. 





Mac] 


Cattio. 




Blieop. 


Year. 


1COW8. 


Other m%i^ 




Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Vidue. 


Number. 


Value. 


1JJ70 














1871 














IQTZ 














1873 














1874 


1 










1B75 


1 










1876 














1877 














1878 














1JJ79 














1880 














1881 














1882 


13,900 
14,239 
23.000 
25.300 
29,095 
31,132 
31,443 
3:3,015 
34,005 
35,705 
36,419 
36,419 
39,333 
42,086 
42,928 


$516,520 

526,843 

920,000 

936,100 

1,091,063 

BS4, 149 

1.108,366 

982,196 

974,923 

1,026, .51 9 

1,037,942 

898,457 

976,638 

1,174,199 

1,HJ8,830 


590,000 

672,600 

615,000 

725,700 

812,784 

9^34,500 

962,5;J5 

981,786 

iK32.697 

1,025,967 

1.036,227 

1,056,952 

1,078,091 

1,153,557 

1,176,628 


$14,809.(«0 
17,595,216 
17,324.550 
16,02:3.4.56 
IH, 775. 310 
17,948,007 
21,002,514 
16,925,99:3 
14,242,293 
16,72.5,333 
18,049,013 
16,627,979 
15.822,066 
19. 882, 720 
20,708,660 


405.000 

465:750 

625,000 

718, 750 

7.54,688 

l,26i5,00O 

1,:391,.500 

1.989,-845 

2, 089. 13:37 

2,C»89,337 

2,528,098 

2.780.908 

2,806.717 

:j.0in,502 

3,122,7aJ 


$1,2:31.201) 


1883 


l.aiO,«75 
I.aa7.fi00 


1884 


1885 


1.523, Ml 


1886 


i:7&:m 


1887 - 


2.a58,aM} 


1888 


a,44>*,415 


1880 


4, 467, VM 


1890 


4,948,505 


1891 


5,228,366 


1892 


6,5^,50) 


189:3 


4,891,^1 


1894 - 


4,227,400 
4, 7«). 429 


1895 


1896 


5,033.S£U 






Year. 


H 


OgB. 


Horses 


Mules. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Numlxsr. 


Value. 


1870 










1871 


1 


1 t 




1872 






i 






1873 , 






1 






1874 






t 






1875 






i 






1876 












1877 






._*.... ...... 








1878 














1879 














1880 














1881 














1882 


17,200 
17,544 
19,298 
19,298 
:30,26:3 
22,289 
23,403 
29,2ij4 
35, IC^ 

ai.ios 

38,616 
39,388 
46,690 
52,087 
51,045 


^82,320 
162,808 
189,120 
120,805 
119,168 
1.50,898 
198,342 
198,926 
250,303 
263.290 
:364,7;iO 
:363,036 
297,807 
359,868 
401,486 


i39,!t90 
4.5,885 
105,000 
120.750 
129,203 
187,344 
200,458 
216, 495 
1.51,. 547 
197,011 
206,862 
196. 519 
198.484 
182,605 
175,301 


^,4:36,294 
2,826,887 
5,860.050 
7,568,028 
6,.5:i5,088 
9, .547. 985 
9,427,934 
8.989,946 
.5, 978, .527 
7, 131, 796 
7,2:16.244 
5,108,703 
4,481,371 
4,005.441 
4,2r2,970 


929 

1,022 

2,800 

8.9ii0 

9,229 

.5, .537 

.5,316 

2.450 

1.838 

1,231 

1,243 

994 

094 

904 

024 


$8.'»,^jH 


1883 . 


74,780 


1884 


211,540 


1885 


75:J.9« 


1886 


(«K. 181 


1887 


a51,746 


1888 ... . 


312,Sfifl 


1889 


ia5,316 


1890 


97,424 


1891 


58,053 


1893 


58,545 


1893 


45,217 


1894 


33.811 


isa"* 


26,467 


1896 


29,067 







Note.— Returns from Montana previous to 1883 were grouped with Nevada, Ck>Iorado, and 
the Territories. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



281 



NEBRASKA. 

T€Me ahoicing the estimated nuniber and vahie of farm animals for tlie years 1870 

to lS96j inclusive. 



Yoor. 



1870 
1871 
1S72 
1873 
1874 
1873 
187B 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
188S 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
188S 
1880 
1800 
1881 
1892 
1863 
1894 
18N6 
189G 



Year. 



1870.. 

isn.. 

1872 -. 
1873.. 
1874 -. 
1875.. 
1876.. 
18n.. 
1878 -. 
1839.. 
18».. 
1881.. 
1882.. 
18B3.. 
1884.. 
18».. 
1889.. 
1887.. 
1888.. 
1889.. 
1890.. 
1891.. 



Cattle. 



Milch cows. 



Other cattle. 



Sheop. 



Nnmber. ' Value. I Number. 



1 



34,801) 
41,700 
46.800 
49,900 
53,800 
50,700 

&5,aoo 

83. 700 
1^7,000 
142,900 
167,190 
185,305 
288,145 
255, 5U 
288,300 
300,106 
333,834 

;B7,aos 

400,066 
420,069 
424,270 
530,338 
525,035 
535,536 
562,313 
534,197 
531, 197 



% 1. 454,068 
1.^59,500 
1,417,068 
1.172,050 
1.522,002 
I ♦76,973 
:-.:*85,918 
^•>36,152 
;(.ir9(t,852 
{,715,400 
t .'07,976 
r> '11,928 
: 77,346 
J- K,1K2 
s 36,270 
;« 30,465 
.^ »,999 
• ]H,651 
)1,485 
M,d00 
18.905 
13,838 
13,148 
[)2,861 
r2,974 
[)0,598 
57,272 



11 



I 



M,roo 

(M.400 

7.\,'JfXi 
S,H00 

Tfi.'OO 
wi fOO 
VXy fOO 

•>r,. 107 
:i»mjiOO 
4->,<W0 
r,(i.-,.(>40 
r.!tL\!»41 
i:t*i,f)00 
;i-^,r4)0 
:»<r..;«0 

.Vf.\467 

ai.s,;J0O 
n:i),t;46 
IsTjill 
;;*k;.:j72 
;;ir,.:,63 
tin. (^76 
>'^J,:36 
• ii:5.;i33 
i:':;,:r85 
.i>t;:.M69 
i)Ht.!)70 



Value. 

il,tUi,275 
l..V.i(. 162 
l,>'M'.;i48 
:.'.()::{, n36 
l,si>-, 150 
!.MM.f»44 
4,ii7i;,(44 
i,;u;vfao 
;,i:-;,'60 

i».:;ln,:(60 



43 

00 
40 
49 

,t08 

:th 

»390 
S» 

.-»4H 
H02 

:;^^).;J00 

.:{■><. fi73 

.!H!.t31 

,:vi:i.:31 



in. Hi: 






Number. 



26,700 

83,300 

36,600 

39,100 

42,000 

48,900 

00,600 

62,400 

144,000 

1?2.800 

193,536 

249,316 

324,111 

333,834 

873,894 

448,673 

439,700 

422,112 

342,000 

239,400 

234,012 

269.804 

272,502 

277,952 

183,448 

192,620 

188,768 



Value. 



$59,808 
81,918 
102,846 
86,802 
108,630 
135,453 
166,650 
1?2,848 
831,200 
471,744 
632,2^ 
618,222 
794,0/2 
727,758 
788,916 
965,993 
844,004 
852,466 
634.717 
500,338 
548,171 
690,887 
723,084 
643,014 
839,783 
417,234 
46<},182 



Hog«. 



Number. 



76,200 
102,800 
131,300 
128.500 

77,100 

80,900 
170,500 
:i55,700 
1 107,600 
'.98, 700 
:^,000 

116,227 
.".36,823 



Value. 



Horses. 
! Number. ! Value. 



1 
1 
1 

I,ti79,200 
. il2.7H4 
:'.:82,168 
i. :i34.525 
i ::64,489 
:;.:«), 779 
•.'.;W9,779 
*!.r,86,952 
'*, 198,909 
2.068,964 

i.;;i6,047 

1.289,726 

i,;:83,aji 



$653,796 

588,016 

668,363 

.'>79,535 

315,339 

613,222 

1,224,190 

1,48.3,060 

1,841,028 

3,640.227 

6,732,000 

9,081,966 

12,1.53,511 

13,022,732 

10.495,000 

n. 748,943 

i;j.*>r3,336 

li, t41,813 

It;. (132,584 
12,! '85, 579 
•a; 72, 676 
i;t::.37,52l 
);.>i24,258 
It;, si 1,981 
0,447,314 
0,468,948 
O.C»26,422 



36,200 


^\,m\, ilO 


8,400 


43,400 


•t, i:r..»a8 


4,000 


47,700 


:i.;.H>.:78 


4,100 


56,700 


},:ii:i, 128 


4,400 


61,800 


:i.sfM06 


4,300 


67,900 


I7n,i;i8 


4,600 


111.000 


:..'ii>.(O0 


9,000 


116,500 


',.ss\.\1!fi 


9,400 


157,200 


lu,:,v>,s48 


1.3,600 


176,100 


ll.:t^^t,:-'74 


15,200 


188,427 


1'.'. (1^^.(66 


16,568 


221,263 


l:{,:i74.744 


21,399 


258,865 


I!t.74s.H87 


23,325 


284.7.53 


;.*::. (n»;i,n85 


24,958 


310, .3Sl 


T.J. 4:»7. .%58 


27,464 


341,419 


•I'k i:!.V 716 


28,827 


382,389 


-).;Mi».719 


40,358 


412.980 


:{I.:;n.!t68 


41,165 


433,629 


MMwrm 


44,458 


542,096 


:i7.7s7.l94 


45,792 


568,297 


:iV l.V^.748 


45,792 


625,288 


:^i,;.»!»s.768 


46,708 


»J87,828 


;{:t,;7(i.:34 


46,474 


708,457 


:,li. 1(H1.,S08 


46,989 


665,950 


17. 7 1 -.,202 


45,061 


632,653 
576,714 


l»i,;iV».*)e6 
ll,2»i7 ;«8 


48,709 
41,961 



Mules. 
Number. I Value. 



8405,790 

390,960 

425,949 

454, 168 

419,637 

450,800 

860,490 

871,662 

1,1k:»,320 

1,320,808 

1,496,587 

1,508,629 

2,111,146 

2,-349,297 

2,569,604 

2,723,641 

3,716,460 

3,?il,383 

4,019,378 

4,040,759 

3,642,780 

3,473,182 

3,282,531 

2.672,932 

1,794,246 

1,556,735 

1,356,689 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



28*2 



BUBEAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



NEVADA. 

Table showing the estimated number and value of farm animals for the years WO 

to 1S96, inclusive. 





Cattle. 


0.%t 




Year. 


Milch OOW3. 


Other (»ttle. 






Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


1870 


7,100 
7,800 
8,500 
9,000 
9,300 
9,900 
10.000 
10,500 


$365,000 
812,000 
831.500 
337,500 
311,550 
326.700 
315,000 
315,000 


28.700 
82.000 
40,000 
44,000 
44,500 
46,700 
48,100 
50,500 


$817,030 
808,320 
020,000 
l,(]Bil.680 
933,375 
080,700 
913,900 
886,780 


12,800 
12,800 
15.000 
18,000 
19.000 
20,900 
24.000 
72,000 


$55,188 


1871 


48.UI) 


18?i 


Siouo 


1873 


48.S0O 


Itf74 


57.(00 


1875 


5t,310 


1876 


50,IOi) 


1877 


14i(X0 


1878 




1879 














1880 














1881 














1882 


ii.;i60 
lt>.(29 
It;.; SO 
i(i.s41 
lTji83 
IS, (07 
I8.:J17 
iH,;?00 
U\.:^ 
11.1108 
ir..:«j 
IS, 106 
i», 106 
18,196 
18,106 


530,280 
506.863 
654.000 
656,790 
. 638,356 
631,205 
646,704 
551,070 
513,820 
400,833 
401.700 
633,143 
254,744 
445,802 
487,653 


212.000 
218.380 
240,106 
288,235 
817,050 
323,400 
355,740 
3r3,527 
817.408 
317,408 
%3,09S 
250,078 
250,078 
250,078 
253,806 


n. sir.. 1)00 

5,tcs.474 
U.tl-J.:,»04 
(;,:NS,:i30 
<i.iitu,'.f33 
r..sis«,(i48 
7.:.Ns, 198 
5. 4;.Hi. •!34 
4.!*(Kt,;89 
4.(is:t.,U6 
;;,i»fiujj34 
;i.:«Ht.732 
:.*.;iij, 4to 
:!. ILU'.^M) 
4.^K?. 128 


367,000 
385. a% 
423.885 
661.261 
674.486 
660,996 
604.046 
700,986 
504.710 
504,710 
555.181 
.514,077 
544.077 
544.077 
644.077 


767, USD 


1883 


7S3.8S1 


1884 


8131)89 


1885 .... 


1.145,438 
1.153,371 


1886 


1887 


1,259,68) 


1888 


1,914,509 


1880 • 


1.33},tBS 


1890 


twiaa* 


1801 


1.256,23 


1892 


1,347.06 


189;} 


1.154, MS 


1894 


l,316,«Sr 


1895 


9JU.373 


1896 


917,314 







Year. 


Hogs. 


Horses. 


Mules. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 

1.000 
1.000 
1.000 
1,000 
1,050 
1.100 
1.100 
1,100 


Value. 


1870 


4,300 
4,300 
4,750 
4,900 
4,900 
6.2U) 
6,400 
10,800 


$32,207 
30,100 
35,625 
41,65tJ 
42,875 
46,800 
48,600 
75,600 


8.600 
0,400 
9,870 
10, 100 
10,200 
10,900 
11,000 
n,500 


$504,476 
417,360 
468,825 
384,810 
555,900 
588,600 
4?3,«)0 
800,875 


175,009 


1871 


^Am 


1872 

lf?73 

1874 


n.999 


1875 


8^800 


1876 


T^ltO 


1877 


77,23 


1878 




1879 . . 














1«80 






1 






1881 














lt{82 


12,000 
13,200 
14,266 
14,390 
14,543 
21,087 
20,244 
19,232 
12,501 
12,tB» 
11,363 
11,590 
11,590 
11.500 
U.126 


136,800 
110,880 
95,943 
65,517 
77,339 
m,846 
108,308 
101,031 
76,870 
86.107 
77,940 
101,866 
44,042 
72.653 
56,653 


37,100 
39,326 
40,506 
42,126 
44.654 
45,547 
51,013 
51,523 
48,047 
57,757 
60.645 
55,793 
55.793 
53.561 
53,561 


1.873,921 
2,181,413 
2,400,740 
2,574,966 
2.462,449 
2,342,496 
3,443,350 
2,849.270 
2,355.380 
2,471,075 
2,425.782 
1.316,764 
1,318.104 
1.000. »» 
067.820 


1.330 
1.406 
1,434 
1,563 
1,6">7 
2,154 
2,360 
2,880 
1,777 
1,686 
1,688 
1.604 
i;604 
1.604 
1.444 


«i034 


Ib8;) 


122, »i 


1884 


liSl65 


1885 


12^0Si 


1886 


wliU 


1887 


u^oos 


1888 


%413 


1889 


W,96 


1.S90 


121,912 


1SI»1 


106,951 


1892 


80.234 


isai 


&,9& 


1894 


il,& 


1S95 


44.91^} 


1896 


46.W 







Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOUBTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



283 



NBW HAMPSHIRE. 



Table showing the estimated number and value of farm animals for the years IS70 

to 1896^ inclusive. 



YiMir. 



1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
18BS 
1888 
1884 
1JB85 
18B6 
1887 
1888 
IffiB 

noo 

1891 
18B2 

1894 
1816 
1896 



CaUld. 



Milch cows. 



Number. 



95,000 
88.300 
90.000 
92,700 
95,400 
98.200 
98,200 
95,200 
98.100 
98,100 
08.100 
91.470 
92,385 
95,157 
96,109 
97,070 
98,041 
99,021 
100,011 
103,011 
104,041 
106,122 
109.306 
112.585 
119,340 
127,604 
128,971 



Valne. 



Other cattle. 



Namber. 



133,000 
117.000 
118,100 
118, 100 
116,900 
118.000 
119,100 
121.400 
125,000 
122.500 
123,725 
141.678 
144,678 
141,784 
138.948 
136,160 
138.892 
141,670 
141,670 
116.169 
116. 169 
113.848 
100,292 
92,898 
88,2r)3 
84,^:1 
77,098 



Value. 



$4,870,400 
3,589,560 
4.536,221 
4,4S4.655 

4.564.818 

.>,;.... I 01 
;i.t.::H :il8 
:?. it;. :«) 
:;.:7.H;.r«0 
:i, SM',. 169 
:i.;«-.l.(28 
4.7li'i.(i76 
4.7n.:57 

4..;-;.v,7'46 

\.'ln\. 112 

4.rM.:.74 
4.;*!i,n9 

:{. sis.. sift 
ri.r7?.l47 
:.',(i-,7.(rr2 
X'.r,;:t,r,50 
^*.;;:.7.;J05 

i.'Jii; :^88 
:j.r.v.f ;W9 
:Mr,>7.:)06 

i..>v;. ^10 



Sheep. 



Number. 


Value. 


234.000 


$549,900 


219,900 


644,307 


230.800 


976.284 


237,700 


950.800 


242,400 


. 882,336 


242,400 


654.480 


242.400 


044,784 


2:»,900 


623.740 


235, 100 


536,028 


242,100 


68.5,143 


246.942 


702.951 


213,943 


620.435 


211,804 


679.891 


209,680 


TSQA'^ 


201.299 


511.:».1 


195,260 


478. :»7 


195.260 


539. H94 


205,023 


610.968 


194, TTi 


57:i6n8 


192,824 


561.311 


183,183 


536,900 


188,678 


540.7.51 


135. MH 


396,676 


115,471 


274,821 


100.233 


208.9ttl 


87,111 


1M.849 


77,529 


180.332 



Year. 


Hogs. 


Horses. 


Mules. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 

$4,419,855 
3.754,400 
4,1;K,975 
4.21^,475 
4,:!H,80O 
:!..s<>4.180 
;i.s->>.200 
:s. 408.299 
;i. '.'19,867 
:; Kfi.940 
;i. 113,2W) 
.\ r7,7W) 
:i. 125,813 
:;.!t38,lM8 
4, •'32,230 
4.u74,211 
4.143,889 
4.:f98.244 
4.:.tt3,006 
l.'«2.079 
4.r»99,2»4 
4. t43,906 
4.L'00,328 
:i.:id7,145 
:;.r.29.420 
;;. 7,52, 366 
;i,H27,428 


Number. Value. 


18a) 


47,200 
43,400 
42.000 
87.800 
37,000 
37.800 
38,700 
42,900 
42,900 
45.000 
45.450 
58»971 
54,511 
55,056 
54.404 
51,404 
53.860 
54,899 
51,679 
58,713 
58,186 
51,664 
51,147 
51,658 
54.757 
56,400 
65,278 


$839,210 
606,912 
493,500 
485,730 
623,550 
604,260 
680.118 
645,688 
888,097 
528,750 
638,582 
681,654 
661.218 
602,313 
551.113 
607, ?i5 
604,938 
604,311 
545,862 
484,299 
410,960 
426,711 
623,364 
538,151 
467,487 
437,5:« 
406,790 


49,500 
47,500 
47,500 
47,500 
47.000 
47,(J00 
66,000 
75,100 
57,100 
57,100 
57,100 
47,007 
47.947 
49,385 
49,138 
49,138 
49,384 
49.878 
50.876 
52,402 
52,926 
63,985 
54,080 
56,741 
57,808 
66,689 
55,008 


1 


1871 


j 


1872 






1873 




1874 






1875 







1878 






18n 






1878 






1879 






1880 






1881 .... 


88 
88 
89 


$7,744 
7.040 


1888 


1889 


7,120 


1884 




188i> 






188B 






tW7 












1889 






1890 






I8n - 






18tt 






1808 






fiS .::.:. 












1896 













Digitized by VjOOQIC 



284 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



NEW JERSBT. 

Table shoicitig tfie estimated munberand value of farm animals for the ffears WO 

^ to 1896, inclusive. 



Cattle. 



Year. 



-- 



1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875 . 
1870. 
1877. 
1878. 
1878. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
188:^ 
ISSi. 
1885. 
188(5. 
1887. 
1888- 



Milch cows. 
Number. Valne. 



1891 . 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1805. 
1890. 



145, 
147, 
147, 
147, 
147, 
144, 
146, 
149, 
1.52, 
153, 
153, 
150, 
159, 
104, 
107, 
171, 
1?2, 
178, 
181, 
183, 
185, 
189, 
188, 
190, 
192, 
200, 
200, 



$8,90 
8,10 
0,5.1 
e,7fl 
7,02 
0,42 
0,14 
0,19 
5,38 
5.30 
5,19 
5,54 
0,3:] 
0,47 
0,5(1 
5,88 
0,22 
0,39 
0,28 
0,:)2 
0,30 
0,01 
0,7(1 

o,n 

0,05 
0,88 
0,05 



.40 



Year. 



1870. 
1871 . 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1870. 
1877- 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1880. 
1887. 
1883 . 
1880. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 

189:). 

1894. 
1805. 
1890. 



Hogs. 



Number. 



150, 
171. 
104. 
103, 
104, 
153, 
151, 
154, 
152, 
li2, 
220, 
214, 
214 
212, 
200, 
193, 
189, 
191, 
180, 
204, 
194, 
190, 
181, 
182, 
175, 
163, 
153, 



541 

105 

795 

919 

818 

063 

669 

430 i 

547 I 

020 

830 

517 

231 

437 



Value. 



^-.*.4ln,:jOO 
UM7.*i5fl 
I,. '.:.*:(, 475 
l,ti;7.:370 
;.'.(u:.,!*78 
:.Mi.Kn90 
i,i47.:{84 
(.:f:i,<J72 

l.l:U.l:00 

i.a-w.riao 
:i. tk;:?. 131 
:.*,T:{7:.'v72 
:».;W(.459 
I . \m, 801 
rtus,574 

i,:MK"i2e 
t . :&:. Jfflo 
1,: 70, 701 
i.t;i^^.!»73 
l.(>U,t'>53 
i . 7r»,^, 740 
.'ij)s,'),f«4 
I,!)si,.s80 
l,;UH,729 
1.2»)i»,448 
l,:510,872 



Other cattle. 
Number. Value. 



84,100 
86,700 
84,800 
83.900 
83,900 
8:3,100 
82,100 
83,700 
84,500 
84,500 
84,500 
00.054 
70,054 
60,947 
09.947 
69,248 
09,940 
08,541 
08,541 
07,850 
05,820 
63,845 
01,030 
52,041 
48,950 
47,487 
45,313 



Sheop. 



Number, i Value. 



s!, :sit,r»46 
;{.;.':m,175 I 
:.».7:»<tjl04 ! 
:i.s4J>..s54 i 
;i.ir>{.i2l 
;i.(cj7,H00 I 
:i.i;w.:i78 
:t,(i7:i404 
:*.4ai,!»10 

:^4iU,s05 

:.', o!i;!. 758 
:i. •127, !«0 
z. m">. (lOO 

:i. mK 1 L5 

•:. ;u7. 180 

ri. 21 7. 4.07 
;.'.RX:34 

l.'Ht.>.4l7 
1,S1U,H67 

1 , .^r>, rJl 

l,77;t,li01 
1,.>L>,272 
1.174.:^ 
l/r.l.r,fl8 
1.(KW.486 



Horses. 



127,400 


•012.794 


122.800 


6S1,S»4 


1 125,900 


eS4,404 


125,900 


647,190 


127.100 


087.275 


125,800 


e30.258 


125,800 


012.616 


128,300 


572. 21H 


127.000 


480, OOD 


127,400 


510,874 


129,748 


538.264 


118,190 


4S6,3B8 


117.008 


510,516 


117,008 


505.475 


119,348 


476.199 


107.413 


403,851 


106,339 


381, ms 


ia).27e 


389,100 


103.170 


383.924 


103,170 


416,807 


100.175 


385.497 


10S.077 


413.022 


01,240 


296,743 


57,571 


235.171 


50,002 


372,849 


45.089 


182.340 


41.482 


135.507 


Mules. 



Number. 

115,800 
110,900 
115,700 
115,700 
115.700 
115,700 
115,700 
114,500 
114,500 
114.500 
114,500 
87,809 
88,087 
89.574 
89.843 
90,741 
91,648 
94,397 
95,341 
90,294 
97,257 
87.531 
87.700 
83,321 
84,987 
82.437 
80,788 



Value. I Number. Value. 



i 



§15,054,000 
15,091,790 

14,718,197 
l-»,2.si.fi66 
i;{,:7S.718 
12.s:.'4J88 
l(t,!i79.!'90 
10,547,740 
!».7:S.V^I35 
".».i:fc!.o20 

io.;r>t;-i5 
7.u:.':|.(aj 
H.s:.^>,r.83 
it,2:,U122 
n,:ilti,719 

i>.;c>r,. no 

tt.4^i-'{,130 
!»,!».">,->. ,'{74 
lii.(»(U.'?80 
It. im , 703 

;♦. .^ns, 000 
s, 78i, m) 

8.:j!4;t,915 
7. 10.5,(j87 
ri,ri<>t.l80 
r.,.3i}7.:i56 
*,7»H,706 



14,800 
14,900 
14,900 
15.000 
15,000 
15.000 
14,800 
14,500 
14,400 
13.700 
13,563 
9,286 
9,2c)6 
9,280 
0,314 
9.407 
9,407 
9,501 
9,501 
9,501 
9,406 
8,465 
8.380 
8,280 
8,047 
7.886 
7,482 



$8,o:^oi» 

2,234,255 

2. 199; 780 
2,034,560 
1,834.800 
1,646,944 
1.577.600 
1,501, 4K8 
1,454. Ml 
1,6H6.1S? 
1,071.790 

i,oas:49R 

1,124,906 
1,130,254 

1,136,740 

1,180,482 

1,135,075 

1,001,214 

1,101,404 

88S,0S7 

9S4,464 

848,644 

061,103 

006,480 

574,876 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



285 



NBW BffEXICO. 

Table sJiOwing the estimated number and value of farm animals for the years 1870 

to 189G, indxisive. 





Mile] 


Cattle. 




Sheep. 


Year. 


liOOWS. 


Othei 
Number. 


r caUle. 
Value. 




Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


WTO 




wn 














1872 














Sra. ::::::.:: ..... 










. 




1»4 














1875 














VStt 












vgn 1 










ia78 












1879 













1880 1 












1881 1 












1882 


15,;95 
16,743 
17,580 
17,932 
18,829 
19,394 
19,782 
20,375 
19,356 
18,775 
18,400 
18,400 
18,962 
18,383 
18,751 


84f «7 
fi 05 
4 60 

4t.. as 

4Kt ;{40 

4'i>^,*)76 

4Ji-.iie9 

3S7.iaO 
3^r>.^00 

• a;^,ioo 

3Ul.UiO 
422,809 
423,773 


•^6,000 

80,662 

58,881 

- .51,857 

l,L'20,968 

1:37, 597 

l.:iH3,357 

l.:t83,357 

i:;^l,850 

l.:i88,182 

1,:49,537 

1 i24.546 

1.79,637 

793,606 

153,831 


i7,2--J,500 
13, e is, 146 
18,0:!.5.'59 
20,7;Jt,42« 
21,821, ai2 
18,911,121 
18, 6.5! 1,697 
16,560,693 
14,771,151 
14,179,659 
12,529,733 
ll,5")6,5:i3 
7, aw. 363 
8,(ir>ti.069 
8,864,297 


3,960.000 
4,4.35,200 
.^,410,0U 
4.328, 75."> 
4.025,742 
3,623,168 
3,514,473 
3.092,7.36 

2,9*57,480 
2,730,082 
2,921,188 
3,008.824 
2,7;».030 
2,683,209 


15,940,000 
7,539,840 
8,873,948 
6,934,666 


186:) 


1884 


18*i 


1886 


5,958,088 
3,953,238 
4,001,579 
3,872,106 


1887 


1888 


1889 


1880 


6,268,057 


1«81 


4,550,566 


1882 


4,101,948 


1888 


8,089,169 


1884 


2,692,896 


1^85 


2.732,654 


1893 


2,847,763 








H 
Number. 


ogs. 

Value. 


He 


r8e«. 


M 

Number. 


ales. 


Year. 


Number. 


Value. 


Value. 


MUO .' 




1871 














1872 














1873 














1874 ! 












1875 ' 












1876 1 












1877 1 1 ' 










1878 


1 








1879 


1 -_ 










1880 




!.. 








1881 














vm 


19,300 
23,363 
24,988 
17,482 
20,990 
19,841 
21,935 
22,603 
24,862 
24,862 
24,855 
27,621 
28,887 
81,787 
31,151 


$208,440 
187,768 
177,416 
97,062 
. 181,665 
112,466 
120,204 
113,010 
186,688 
146,628 
167,080 
204,680 
140,162 
178,886 
151,143 


16,640 
17,130 
17.996 
19,796 
20,786 
40,633 
42,660 
52,360 
83,604 
93,000 
91,140 
82,963 
86,466 
88,862 
84,701 


... 

?:u,i89 

7n.r,46 
r,7s.:.'«8 
7711. ;J88 
745. !i44 

l.;jtm.:68 

3.i:.V..r88 
1.;m2.H54 

;.>,7m,i06 

2,121.4:74 

1 -.M't ^78 




10,082 
10,183 
10,488 
10,088 
10,912 
10,803 
10,803 
10,263 
9,750 
8,760 
8,638 
3,747 
8,747 
8,747 
8,660 


8636,766 


1888 


547,640 


mm:::::: ..r.: 


51.5,800 


iS 


584,155 


S: :::::::::: 


520,601 


1887 


662,604 


iS :::::::::::::.... 


680,176 


1888 


488,282 


1880 


452,421 


\m\ 


162,413 


1882 


147,976 


1«8 

UM 


117,630 
102,430 


1885 


128,860 


1886 


68,306 







Note.— Returns from New Mexico previous to 1882 were included with Nevada, Colorado, and 
the Territories. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



2»6 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



NBW YOBEL 

Tdbie showing the estimated number and value of farm animals for the pears 1879 

to 1S96, inclusive. 



Year. 



IWO 

1871 , 

1873 

1873 

1874 

1875 

1876 

1877 

1878 

1879 

1880 

I8i*l 

1882 

188?} 

1884 

1885 

1886 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890 :.. 

1891 

18ftJ 

180U 

1894 

1895 

1890 



Year. 



1870- 
1871. 
18?3. 
187.3 . 
1874. 
1875 . 
1878. 



Caitle. 



Milch cows. 



Number. 



1,411,100 
1,125,200 
1,}»,400 
1.410,600 
1.4tS7,OOa 
1.496,300 
l.:)36,200 
1,104,100 
l.i46,200 
1.4:31,700 
1.431,700 
1. i66,613 
1.431,278 
].ni0,904 
1. 511. 122 
1.510,300 
1.195,197 
1.:>IO,063 
1.552,373 
],r>53,373 
1. 536,849 
1. '-52.217 
1,. 556, 874 
1.572,443 
l..-:88,167 
1.445,232 
1.416,327 



Value. 



56, iiia, 166 
4*<.lKto,000 

43,i«y.;«o 
rw,ui;i,ra) 

r>tt,lll.;350 
53,417,(100 

88, im. 128 
40,121.147 
56, IW,^ 
54. Bill, 142 
5U,H57.ie8 
44,704,}«0 
40.700,086 
40,971.(117 
4.1.950.341 
4;t.(*IT.J05 
•U,. SIT. 061 
40.(io'r.041 
41.0JJ!),ig9 
4<l,5:i7,n81 
43, 785, 764 
35.119,138 
:u, 2r5. 113 



Number. 



705,000 
097,900 
704,810 
683,600 
069.900 
063,200 
603.200 
600,300 
689,300 
668,600 
040,542 
883,8^ 
894,991 
860,041 
877,181 
86B,«J0 
854.725 
851,128 
842,017 
783v6»4 
783,634 
775,798 
768,t>40 
700,507 
071,287 
597.428 
561,582 



:i:K:!t^;»0 
'j:i W^. 440 
1!».T4l*.:B8 

L'l.lUlJ.lttO 

It*. i*;t5, -480 
lU.7o.5.a» 

is,:.r>,i74 

lT.rHii>.(B2 
15.(XV>.770 
:i5. .^.>7.H07 
;ai.5r:!.HD3 
;>:i(^ 1.771 
o 1.5,52, "'* 
27,8tV», 
ri.H.51; 



•- -Mv -117 

S14 
74 

,....,...,.81 
:-ii.ilH.tlBO 
L^4rl.nB0 
]5.6f>7.187 
Ki. 813, 491 
n,7«Ki,.j64 



Sheep. 



Number. Value. 



t.\()t'>t»,;DO 

:j, iVfi. doo 

l.!^lM1.4flO 
l.!ei<i..'i» 

1.51>.lfl0 

:m.:;i.(«) 

2.2(C>.H0O 
It, :m, 1.48 
l.r;:i.:flB 

1, r.ii, :aj 

l.7:iL'.:a8 

1.5!»,.S24 
1.57!i..Sfl6 
l,it;i.U87 
1,548, 4» 
1,&48.4S8 
1,393,583 
1,421.455 
1,4«2.528 
1,388.0.31 
1.096.650 
899,179 
809,281 



8^277.ft$( 

1>,e31.2» 

0,844.1 

7,5». 

7.049.175 

0.7».» 

O.97)«.(a0 
7,874.7nO 
0.947,188 

7.007.91S 
6,323.lJi!S 
5,890.«7 
4.873.20 
&,2a.5» 
5.4^15,5B» 
5,140,774 
5.481,49 
5.313.fS 
5,444.00 
5.66e.2» 
S,9te.8« 
2,480.4» 
2.1W.;» 
2,100,79? 



Hogs. 



Number. 



656,800 ! 
678,500 ; 
671,700 
651,500 
586,390 ' 
568.700 I 
.•580,000 1 



1877 

1878 

If^O 


975,000 
975.000 
936,000 
904.080 
7;».809 
744,2;38 
736.796 
7:».796 
722,060 
700,388 
686. 3S0 
679.527 
686,321 
67'^, 595 
672,605 
045,601 
658,606 
658,606 
045.433 
032,5^ 




1880 . , 




1881 




188:5 




1883 




1884 




1885 




1880 




1^87 




1888 




1880 




1890 




1891 




1893 




1803 




1894 




1895 




1890 









Value. 



$7,306,092 
4.980,190 
5.581,827 
5,036,095 
5,775,(X>6 
6,477,496 
5,394,000 
?.i" 'XIO 
. J50 
I-., vol. 760 
;'.5:.N.}05 

s, 1. ■,(!,, S48 
r..7:n,:515 
r>.:.»Mt,H70 
5.4-15.448 
5, U5.;31 
5..Ht);Me4 
5. 911.. ^39 
4.tt^7.r44 
4.4(H.rfi8 
5.(K}5.?21 
5.7;in,t«2 
r>.!)4fKl«0 
5.041.187 

4,i.^i,;«2 



Horses. 


Mules. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


656,800 


$60,906,472 


19.300 


|S,3O7.0» 


659,300 


65.297,072 


19.100 


2^280,50 


659,300 


67,030.994 


19,100 


2.484,M0 


059, ;«o 


02,732,395 


18,900 


2,a2s.Mi 


065,800 


50.802.150 


18,500 


2vl2d.7M 


079,100 


01,119.000 


18.500 


1,810,4» 


092,000 


59,293,480 


19,600 


1,7^.4» 


890,000 


rt eor. .^ 


12,000 


1,057,«0 


898,900 


., = ,'...,.477 


11,800 


980,W 


898,900 


HH.(.s4.1449 


11,800 


1.083,7B 


907.889 


iv-,,s:)!i.«>40 


11,504 


90i^,0M 


010,468 


I;i, 17;5.()04 


5.082 


443,00 


682,627 


57,2r)ti.^31 


.5, 082 


542, 4« 


628,853 


ri«>.042..S84 


5.062 


565,«0 


6:35, J« 


(;;i.7L'*.«l 


5.107 


5n)k,2» 


047.845 


tULJi-itKUO 


6,107 


548,19 


060,802 


»M, 01 7. 137 


5.158 


571.8M 


674,018 


iVKim.tm 


5,210 


552,M 


680.738 


li-..K)7-.085 


5,288 


640,110 


073,960 


W.8:U.410 


5,288 


537,09 


040,253 


5(>.s;]I.(B5 


5.288 


50».8» 


050,401 


.5.s,n'JH.!»8 


6,182 


514. SH 


009.058 


r4\.mim 


4,819 


4a»,m 


702,831 


ri).-mrJ»i 


4,819 


370, 8M 


605, 7SB 


m.^xijm 


4,819 


m,\m 


054,.045 


:ii.L'4rt.tJB8 


4,074 


277,1* 


021,343 


30.8tJw2,H98 


4,504 


2^,701 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 
NORTH CAJROLIHA. 



287 



nbie showing the estimated number and value of farm animals far the years 1870 

to 1S96, inclusive. 



Year. 



18«0 
1871 
1872 
1823 
1874 
187S 
1876 
1877 
1878 
VSS9 
1880 
1881 
18B2 
UBS 
18&4 
1885 
1888 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1»0 
1801 



Caittle. 



IfilchcowB. 



Number. 



208, 
206, 
201, 
190, 
lOT, 
2U1 
203. 
230, 
232, 
230, 
230. 
228, 
236. 
234, 
241, 
238, 
241, 
243, 
247. 
272, 
206. 
28», 

2:rz. 

274, 
274, 

27r 



Value. 



SKr.i*(i.;38 

;s,i:.*ti.400 
a, mi. 160 

a. in, 480 

3,0!>7.780 

^.(YvMOO 

n.Ku.Toa 

•„*,ww.o(jo 
;^(Hl:.,^00 
:i,"i:>Lr^B2 
J.tMiti.tjOO 
3. RHJJ, 763 
4,JfEJ,273 

;!>"!. 184 

:j.;«W), 128 

i,t^;r, !80 

4,7*L(t70 
4,4^0.285 
4,1HM82 
4.ttiH.4B0 

3, 665. ^19 



Other cattle. 
Number. | Value. 



298,400 
907.300 
316,600 
816,500 
810,100 
313.200 
816,300 
420,000 
415.800 
415,800 
4(r7,484 
429,546 
428.069 
410. 5<« 
427.808 
423,619 
410.383 
419,383 
410,383 
398.414 
300,446 
300.446 
382,687 
386,463 
878,734 
863,585 
345,406 



,^1, ls<-,,ia2 

n. 21 1 . *.»5 

;i, ioL,s65 

::,7^*^,^«0 
■I, 1!»).:^ 

:i. :;.:-. :j60 

:i.4nl.''44 

:i, :>::!. ti35 
4, l(r,VS47 
4. r,: 1,777 
4.:>t:. 167 

r.,ti'J.i,;«5 

4. :;•!!*. 160 

4, l>-s,m3 
4.ti'rr.l33 
1.rs:j. 141 
4, i;n.:Sl 
4.:n:J. 140 
4,;V,'ti.t«0 
4, :*»>::. 101 
4.; MS. 146 
:(.rrt;H,:30 
;{J>sn. :i»3 
:!.;ftm.:tB2 



Sheop. 



Number. 



Value. 



315,200 
206,200 
293,200 
278,. "500 
275.700 
283,900 
281,000 
490.000 
425,000 
425,000 
385.000 
470,871 
466,162 
455.176 
488,350 
468.816 
450,063 
427,560 
419.000 
414.810 
308,226 
390,201 
396,115 
376.309 
357,494 
343.194 
319,170 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
187B 
1878 
18n 
1878 
1879 
18B0 
1881 
1868 
1883 
1»4 
1888 
1888 
1887 
1888 



Hogs. 
Number. Value. 



I 



Horses. 



Mules. 



841,500 

875.100 

848,800 

823.300 

806,800 

758,300 

7.J5,500 

1,180.800 

1.262.600 

1,262,600 

1,237.300 

1.380,864 

1,311.821 

1,364.294 

1,432,500 

1,316, 558 

1.279,230 

1,206,438 

1,279,102 

1,291,893 

1,291,893 

1,253, KM 

1,250,402 

1,331,966 

1,441.768 

1.^7.346 

1,456,898 



83,402,225 
2,625,300 
2,614,304 
2,354,638 
2,670.508 
3,040,783 
3,098,100 
4.425,000 
3,787.296 
3.1>77.190 
3.959.360 
5,689,160 
5,444.057 
5,334.390 
5,:>i7,3a6 
4,;«7.4«0 
4.Jr-«,700 
4,464.194 
4,809,936 
4,367.760 
4,343,843 
4,630,735 
6,004.882 
6.328,916 
6,712.120 
6,802,196 
4,624,475 



Number. 

126,700 
130,500 
181,801 
131,800 
133,100 
130.700 
141,000 
142,400 
145.200 
146, 700 
146,700 
134,354 
135,698 
137, 066 
141,167 
142,579 
142,679 
140,708 
151,206 
154,229 
146,518 
131.866 
133,185 
134,617 
130,808 
144,606 
146,636 



Value. . 1 Number. 



$11,454,947 
11,815,470 
11,879,134 
11,148,962 
10.441.605 
10,47^.309 
9.912.300 
9,.<>56,464 
8.218.320 
8.687.574 

, tl6 

;L.MiM«5 
-M.M17 

•:fui88 
;.:-'.. m 
iii,;i;i.(ii2 

,ln7.i89 

11.. -.7: ',404 
[l.:n7. i64 
.U\\.%7 
.;ttu;,!l53 
.:ut.475 
i'.71:MlU5 
;,70I.ti04 
7.8:w.;«2 
(1. :>u. HOO 



44,400 
46,7«0 
47,500 
48,400 
40,300 
51,700 
52,700 
65,300 
74,000 
74,700 
74.700 
82,281 
82.281 
84, 749 
85.506 
86,452 
88,181 
89, W5 
00,844 
1)6.295 
98,221 
100,186 
99,784 
109,762 
100,782 
110.860 
110,860 



Value. 



S5,flW0.«ai 
6,073,614 
f.,:i^),950 
4,ir79,:j92 
4, 70 J. 699 
4.207,318 
3.892,mn 

4,454.000 
4,Wf*.255 
r),5T5.(jn8 

n,or>«.ir3 

7,541.876 
7, Wy.m\ 
7, JJ to, 291 
7, laj. \Zi 
B,J«U.09ii 
7,5r»7,050 
7,712,43^ 
7.881. lis 

H,r.i5,3aj 

8,828.881 
8,6;3<t.310 
8,521.i^'i 
0,452.414 
C, .574, 729 
5, .^46. 305 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



288 



BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



NORTH DAKOTA. ^ 

Table showing the estimated number and value of farm animals for the years WO 

to 1S96, inchmve. 





Cattle. 






Year. 


Milch cows. 


Other catUe. 






Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


1870 


-- - 










1871 












1872 












1878 












1874 












1875 












1876 1 












1877 ' ' 










1878 1 










1870 1 ! 










1880 1 






1 


1881 i • 










1882 i 












1883 












1884 ' 












]885 \ 






i 


1886 










1887 













1888 












1889 1 













1890 • 












1891 

1802 

1803 

1894 

1805 

1896 


65,000 
117,250 
140,700 
m,828 
156.571 
161,268 


$1,377,350 
2,408,625 
2,784,453 
2,756,820 
8,386,631 
3,514,080 


2?^, 000 
255,680 
250,566 
258,083 
255,502 
265,60} 


$4,066,587 
4.752,71® 
4.219,914 
4,604,113 
5,061,618 
4,553,911 


320,000 
800,400 
370,880 
367,171 
850,828 
356,230 


$1,080,400 

\\\7im 

754,078 
616. 7« 
710,735 
005,210 



1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1800 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1806 



Year. 


Hogs. 


Horses. 


Holes. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. | Value. 

i 


Number. | Value. 




1 



" ' . 






1 












[ 












1 












1 












t 












1 


.. .- . -| 


:::::::;:::;::::::::!:::::::::::: 




! 










1 






i 




1 






1 




1 








1 .. 




j 












1 













1 


















1 




1 






i ; 













1 












1 






, 


■ 



































05,000 

90.250 

09,275 

106,210 

117,949 

120,308 


$601,160 
670,878 
654,228 
724,083 
005,787 
641,885 


142,000 
161,880 
163,499 
166,760 
170.104 
166,702 


$10,044,001 
11,128,776 
9,486,840 
7,887,408 
5.814,212 
6,672,802 


8,000 
7,840 
7,840 
7,7tt2 
7,607 
7,151 


$716, 8» 




ooa^ 




563,374 




4:14, 576 




416,26 
84^461 


, 







Note.— Returns not separate previous to 1801. (See Dakota Territory.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



28» 



OHIO. 

Table shoiring the estimated number and value of farm aninudsfor the ycar.^ ls:o 

to 1800, inclmive. 



Y»*ar. 



1870 
1871 
l«7tf 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1881) 
ISJ^l 
1882 
1»<J 
18S4 
1885 
1H86 
1887 
1888 
1880 
1800 
1891 

i«e 

1803 
lfi04 
1893 

1896 



Year. 



1870... 

1871... 

1872... 

18r.J .. 

1874... 

1875 .. 

1878... 

1877.. 

1878... 

1879.. 

1880... 

1881... 

1882... 

18H3... 

1884.. 

18K5.. 

1886... 

1887... 

1888... 

1880... 

MOO... 

1891... 

1802... 

1803... 

18M... 

1895... 

1806... 



Cattle. 








— _ 




,Shc«(M>. 


Milch cows. 


Other trattle. 






Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Numlx»r. 


Valu«'. 


73i,400 


.-n. 114,006 


800,700 


$28,296,738 


l.r.n.iK)0 


$10.1^,660 


771,000 


:.'.^ ^04,560 


&jO,000 


25,075,000 


1. MMOO 


14. 144. .591 


780,400 


;:.y;»8,352 


901,000 


24,906,710 


i,i;;cM)0O 


14,OJ9,78<> 


778,500 


;{<«), 246 


882.900 


23,220,270 


: ...j^tjKX) 


1:3,081,960 


778,500 


;i {.*«!, 976 


891,700 


3:J, 710, 30:3 


1 vr tJOO 


12, 767, 428 


800.600 


LM, 133,440 


S64.900 


•?1 510(163 


iOO 


13,366,7.52 


700,000 


:r J. (37,000 


775,000 


.50 


m 


9,828,00<) 


707,000 


-.188,460 


767,200 


08 


wo 


10, .516, 740 


714,100 


1!M'37,750 


800,000 


l.,'-v.\(iOO 


t >'<:',')00 


9,776,800 


700,000 


IS. ,08.000 


792,000 


i:,:i7,t^40 


Misn. 100 


ll,5t7..532 


(160,000 


l'.». 147,600 


776.160 


iMn."«2 


i.-.'f;t.(;i6 


l3,07o,:3;r/ 


751,702 


-':;. 115,517 


1,038.486 


•'s.:m^:»5 


{".-.1.511 


L>.:349.<»4 


774,253 


;*:j/98,855 


1.028,101 


;;i, H'.Milo 


.yn.7i.r>41 


15.707,18:3 


781,006 


:>.:.42,854 


1,017,820 


'M'.Hi.:M 


-».i»'«'JI36 


14.&VMft> 


783,560 


;.v,,:.»85,753 


1,017,820 


•:j <.»•:: 1 '.108 


l.iKi^ijm 


13,350.088 


775, ?i4 


:.':\r-82,854 


1,017,820 


': ni.'joo 


i.'.rajm 


9,918, 1.-j6 


775,721 


-i (35,626 


997,4*4 


■.'. -:; -»7 


;.v;-,!H3 


ll,.5;«,675 


783,481 


*.',^77,645 


m57,r>40 


w 


S22 


10,714,177 


783.481 


:.'•, -.25,079 


957,865 


40 


»56 


10,017,6.57 


791,316 


I!K>124,637 


986,601 


;i;,oi.,.il8 


i89 


ll,ie7,38< 


783,403 


l^s01,672 


917, 55» 


19,714,982 


\ uA.:m 


13,189,386 


783,403 


I!t,.%85,075 


871,662 


19.559,404 


t. u\<.im 


14,724,681 


767,735 


iy,i>22,723 


845,513 


18,767,498 


1,:J:s,725 


13,900,26:3 


787,735 


19.915.(H6 


803.236 


16,780,881 


:!,:ir..7(W 


8,506,735 


783,000 


20,062,766 


771,107 


10,097,322 


:; .■.:;.il9 


6,1.39,924 


750,507 


18,420,227 


686,285 


14,603,645 


'.'.::. (.613 


5. 2*7. .5:38 


752,001 


18,935,385 


6^31,382 


14,1:35,761 


■.'.;v.s '.167 


5,877,171 


H 


o^s. 


Ho 


r.ses. 


Mule-s. 


Number. 


Value. 


Numlx»r. 


Value. 


NuiuUm*. 


Valuo. 


2.083,000 


$16,040,370 


724,20f> 


$57,.V)0.416 


22,300 


.^l.Ki0..j93 


2,173,600 


11.324,456 


738,000 


.57, 721,. 500 


23,4a) 


1,809,05<V 


2,217.000 


10,131,600 


738,000 


.58.910,7:» 


22,600 


1,861..5«K 


2,017,400 


11,176,396 


738,600 


.58,61.5.290 


:J2,:joo 


1,807,415 


1,731,900 


13,352,488 


7.53,300 


.55,947,501 


2;J.900 


1,<J88,875 


1,506,100 


12.864,566 


760.800 


.52.001.712 


36.500 


l,9n9.(k»> 


1,755,700 


13,290.649 


750,000 


47.59.5,000 


r«. .500 


1.7.54.;30O 


2,250,000 


13,18.5,000 


765. (JOO 


46,466.100 


•.»7,000 


i,::j7.4.7) 


2.2?2,500 


7,635,600 


7?2,700 


44,136.621 


36,700 


1.587.04H 


2,045,200 


10,246.452 


811,300 


46,674.as» 


34,800 


1.50.5,113 


1,063.392 


10,053,897 


7a5,074 


4.5,95.5,277 


32. ,568 


I,490.:BH 


2,827,200 


20,695. 104 


714.384 


40,lt55.6.T) 


18,702 


1,299,789 


2,714.112 


21,902,884 


717,243 


.5.5,0iUJ,608 


:ii>.5?3 


1,734..5;*>1 


2,442,701 


15,144,746 


724,414 


60. 162, .583 


31.601 


1,9.54,036 


2,467,128 


13.297,820 


738,902 


"16 


31.817 


1,911.931 


2,442,457 


11,720,864 


753.680 


85 


33.999 


3,104,3:iS 


2,aa0,334 


12.967,882 


761.217 


< ' :^- 0] 


24,479 


3.ir>3..571 


2,068,384 


15 %l,(jei 


733, 156 


r:).vv:.uZ\ 


34,72t 


3,210,79.5 


2,748,436 


1-^ !i 13, 639 


701,461 


r^i, '.'"•,;>. ,\57 


31,2:30 


3,133,794 


2,611.014 


i:,t;l9,047 


771,607 


;.■.'.:» J ufl:> 


34.473 


3,1.5:3,40!J 


2,741,565 


11.1W.352 


779,323 


wi:,-:j.im 


33.983 


1.999,49:j 


2.851,228 


i:;. '.'58,212 


888,428 


•■..;,.;.>. 761 


18,947 


1,546,195 


2,423,544 


i:.!«M,638 


891, 0»:} 


i;i.::.\'{.;i6 


18,000 


L.Y^l.afiO 


2,360,838 


15,o46,30t} 


864,360 


i:.-lHS.:,'o5 


20,700 


1,230,326 


2,585,922 


ir.,:.l6,o32 


838,429 


:;i.:{«i|..M9 


20,286 


871,975 


2.456.626 


1().S22,911 


771, .355 


r.'^t.siH.rei 


19, 475 


801,980 


2,284,662 


Il.:.'r3,436 


701,933 


;i5. 737. 701 


18, .501 


713,872 



7204- 



-10 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



290 



BUREAU OF ANIMAI^ INI>USTRY. 



OKIiAHOMA. 

Tabic shoiviHff the estimated number and value of /ami animals for the years 1S70 

to 1896, inclusive. 



1B70 

D<n 

1»72 

iH'rs 

1»74 
1875 
187« 

1877 
187,-^ . 
1871) . 

vm). 

1881. 
1882. 

am. 







Cattle. 


r cattle. 
Value, 


Sh 
Number. 


eep. 


Year. 


Milch cows. 


Othei 




Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


- 
1870 












1871 . 






:::..:":::: ::::::::::::::i:::::::::-:: :::: ::: 


1872 








1873 ' 




1 • 1 


1H74 1 




1 


1875 . . . J . - .. 




i ; 




1870 ' 








1877 




! 




1878 




1 




187» ..' 








1800 




; 


1881 ' 






1882 ' 




1 1 


188:J ! . - . 




! 1 ' 


1884 - 


1 i ' ' 


1KM5 1 


1 1 : 


1880 




i 1 


1887 




t ! _. 


1888 




t 


imi . .^ 1 




' 1 


1890 1 




j 




1801 








:::::::::::::::::::::::::: 


1802 










! 


180!) 

BOt 

1805 

180i 


20,275 

27,777 
Si. 888 
.•B,356 


$364,960 
500,930 
57<^538 


121.219 
145,463 
155,645 
175.879 


$1,878,805 
2,240,133 
2,365.031 
3.187,809 


18.222 1 
22,778 
22.322 
33,215 


$38. 2M 

36.887 
33,011 



Hogs. 



Horses. 



Mu!e3. 



Year. — 

Number. | Value. 

1 1 


Number. Value. ' Number. Value. 


' 


_j . .' 


t 


1 i i 


1 i •• 






1 


j 1 


:::::::::: :::::::::::::: ::::::::: "i :::::::::::: 


.: ::.ii:::r'" ";'::"■::;:".... ::::::::::::•::: :::..::::: ::::::.:;;:'::;:::::::::: 



1881 

18 C> 

I88t5 

1847 

1888 

1881} 

189. » 

1891 . 

189:i. 

189:3 . 

1891. 

180.".. 

1896. 



24.158 
48, 3W 
62,811 
78.514 



$126,830 
251. 4;« 
299, .577 
;»0,141 



29,515 
34,533 
38,388 
39.009 



$1,166,86 
751,006 
619,698 I 
6(».222 



6.427 
6,512 
6,968 

7,m 



$863,210 
28(2.835 
155.187 
156,703 



Not K.— Oklahoma was organized as a Territory on May 2, 1890. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



POUETEBNTH ANNUAL EEPOET. 



291 



ORBOON. 

TaiAe^owiny the estimated number and value of farm animala for the years 1S70 

to 189G, inclvisive. 



Year. 



CatUe. 



Milch cows. 
Number. 



Other cattle. 



1870 1 62.400 

\Sn I «6,700 

1«2 i 70,000 

1873 1 73,500 

1874-. I 76,400 

1875 ' 80,900 

1876 i 88,900 

ISn ; 102,200 

18^* 112,400 

\S!9 121,400 

1860 125,043 

1881 68,9J^1 

1863 82,4fll 

1883 65,616 

WM >...-.! 68,897 

1885 72,343 

1886 75.959 

1387 78,997 

1888 82.157 

1889 _ 88,780 

1890 102,040 

1891 106,123 

ltt3 107,183 

1SB3 110,898 

U94 1 112,606 

1»5 113,732 

1806 ! 110,007 

i 



Value. 


Number. 


$-.\oi;>, 100 


102,000 


:>. 5-7,1190 


109,100 


:.'.:Mi,riOO 


116,700 


1.791.870 


133,700 


ijMijjeo 


128,600 


1 . 751), 575 


137,600 


1,S1SJI05 


147,200 


:i.(X),-,.l64 


176,600 


JiJNi, 144 


188.900 


t.M4'J.n92 


201,500 


::,W7.189 


199.485 


l.;i»fc->.H81 


331,724 


1,1W4.()92 


515,000 


:t/Mi:t.m 


535,600 


i.ieMie 


551.668 


J.tl^r, 111 


606.835 


:.M2i:,'. '09 


643,345 


;.'.;u-,:ttl 


-w o|8 


^/M^m 


1,111.182 


-'. 4'j:i, Ul6 


;t;; :.'. :^ 


:i,i+(H.i40 


vi\.:m 


.'.'. tkVt. (160 


VitT.ffil 


:i.57::.:»2 


7H 1.110 


'iM'^\Mfn 


wM.ri43 


'tMSA.r&i} 


M)t.r43 


;,Mrtui.()8l 


Tss. .-153 


" .V's '.153 


711.145 



Value. 



j:i ;.13,380 
i..i»4,393 
.?.:i87.481 
i.1'98.903 
i.H76,274 
I -' ■" 



Year. 



1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1S». 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1BB5. 
1886. 
1887. 



1889. 
186Q. 
1891. 



1884. 
18B». 
1896. 



Hog«. 
I Numlj<»r. Value. 



149, 
158, 
163, 
171, 
174, 
181, 
188. 
198. 
221. 
228, 
239. 
160, 
168, 
184. 
187, 
191, 
229, 
231), 
225. 
270, 



301, 
210, 
229, 
282. 
340, 



500 
400 
100 
3U0 
600 
600 
TOO 
100 
900 
500 
900 
909 
054 
160 
843 
600 
920 
723 
137 
164 
639 
343 
€09 
747 
714 
685 
051 



754,400 
I 86.900 
;: 70.414 
:-' 87,845 
r:, 95.085 
X '86,984 
r '15.667 
11 22,700 
14 88,076 
h 17, 103 
97.777 
89.941 
72.122 
ll.:.B0.;J43 
l: J. 079,341 
l:'. 463,783 
i:;. 1190,374 
1:;.:j38,899 
K*. 041.277 
liM)62.021 
'.M*fi2,C40 
1!^(«43,483 



I • Horses. 

Number. I Value. 



Sheep. 



Number. 



i lit, ;J00 
js(i.:«0 
r.'M..soo 

r^n,. TOO 



n 



400 
100 
TOO 

no 
no 

100 
183 
62 
57 

178 

160 

;51 

129 

123 

■.i.V.i, 424 

'^i*.*. .^*30 

!:n.750 

4r.ti. tnr 

\:rk\. i>77 
:,:.''». 750 
:^K 750 
«'•:«». mo 

ii))t.i(40 



Value. 



$790,480 
1,101.190 
1,476.048 
1,408.750 
1,643,006 
1,413.896 
1,547,460 
1,891,296 
1,822,1^ 
1,847,046 
1,717,593 
3,750,059 
5,160.788 
4,654,194 
4,057,120 
3,618,130 
3,670,173 
4,987,060 
5,105,884 
5,623.3U 
5,154,114 
5,491.780 
5,903,183 
4,433,403 
3,945.905 
3,590.983 
3,459,223 



Mules. 
Number. Value. 



$375,245 
600,336 
678,406 
402.320 
851,258 
800,415 
845,854 
727.027 
707,861 
604. ICO 
885,331 
941.318 
927,557 
7n,630 
706.290 
538.381 
656,423 
664.810 
1,165,084 
1.153.069 
036,928 
981.575 
912.760 
079.805 
017.996 
801,819 
567,864 



73,400 

78,600 

80.800 

88.400 

85,500 

91,400 

07,700 

101,600 

109,700 

117,400 I 

130,922 

126,589 

135,450 

142,223 

149.333 i 

159.786 

167.775 I 

177,843 

181,390 

188,841 

181,236 

223,645 

294,500 

2^,607 

285,607 

219,115 

203,777 



s:;,!i64,888 
;{. 742,880 
1.098,984 I 
:i.ti84,006 
:;. 546.540 
:;.!«). 933 
f,r-'B3,915 
l;>33,606 
,1.190.485 1 
!i.t'96,5R2 I 
(1,708.2*) I 
<;.;85,170 I 
V.'.»34,661 
s.tt74.208 
.137,261 
s :iH9,155 
:t 045.603 
: ,s74,804 
ii, 181.808 
H. 180,719 
s.r.B8,230 
\K'A\,\7\ 

1), 170,667 
*;.1>47,718 
5.183,941 
4.«B6,783 
-1.704,688 



4,200 
4,300 
4,000 
3,700 
3,7TX) 
3,700 
3,400 
3,500 
3,500 
3,600 
3,528 
3,832 
2,800 
8.917 
3,946 
3,005 
3.155 
3,155 
3,218 
3,315 
3,647 
4,741 
4,755 
6,183 
6,183 
6,182 
5,811 



$213,444 
234.;i07 
201,9a) 
173,308 
176.971 
100.016 
143,358 
154.315 
178. Ift5 
160.788 
213.774 
179. 090 
190,130 
315. ;W4 
199,444 
193,550 
339.068 
215.739 
203.813 
197,958 
228,618 
281,34;j 
249,508 
278.064 
303,464 
170,75.-) 
137,404 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



292 



BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



PBNNSTLVANIA. 

Table showing the estwiated number and value offann animals for the years 1S70 

to 1896 y inclusive. 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1880 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 



Ycai*. 



Cattle. 



Number. 



Milch cows. 

Value. 



788, 
788, 
796, 
812, 
828, 
837, 
846, 



828, 
858, 
867, 
884, 
893, 
902. 
911, 
929, 
929, 
938, 
919. 
929, 
933, 
938, 



947,766 

938,288 



i;.'^>,8l7.1«3 
:}<).MiH,;{24 

:ilt. 'm. 096 
;i!>,o:>7, 160 
.'i^>, ir,:>, 860 
28. ( mi, 536 
Iti.7K-i,;»4 
*J*.»,:HH). i22 
LM,::i,Kl68 

L^t). \m, H30 
;{i:nrjB5 
:l'. \:i{). ;108 
:;), 11:{.:J90 



m 

:.C,.tU:i.t66 
L'*j,;i:i^.«)40 
:.M.,>i;,rao 

23,l.V.i.r>48 
24,lt>J,r«7 

2;], 04t;. (162 

f*2.U'>4,.S90 
:J4.a'.n).H06 



Hogs. 



Number. 



1870 . 
1871. 
1872. 
18r<J . 
1874. 
1875 . 
1876- 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
188:3. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885- 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 



1,047, 
1,099, 
1,088, 
1,034, 

875, 
TIOl. 

!lfl<t. 
]2S, 

(h;(). 
111. 



. 157, 

.ten, 
\Atn, 

1.022. 



Value. 



$11,230,272 
7,836,333 

^.841.868 

<i.Sl7.?i8 
:M22,.S20 

i;i,(><j2,r4)0 
s.5i:!,:{76 
7.r,u. 160 
n.:(ri.".)62 
i;, 2 m. :j96 
:;fn,»;76 
:•;<!. ;j70 
'.^^(t^;M9 

]tM:i^M62 

;m'12,'111 

H,24!..'^ 
7.V:»!M78 
,^.2.Vt.748 

H.;;si.:i71 
H.t;i(i.,s4o 
h.:j:u,h15 
8,7ti2,(J72 



12. 



n. 077, -183 
7,:nr»jQ8 
0, 4 W. 234 
C, 822, 816 



Other cattle. 
Number. Value. 



Sheep. 



760,900 
722,800 
716,600 
722,600 
722,600 
706,100 
701,000 
693,900 
687,000 
659.600 
626,625 
884,842 
876,994 
875,994 
876.994 
858,474 
867.059 
867,059 
869,660 
852,267 
835,222 
8a5,22:2 
793,461 
737.919 
686,265 
610,776 
568,022 



$:n,508,.S60 
22,414,028 
21,r,;j8.016 
19,141,674 
20,456,800 
;20,r>56.143 
18.233,010 
17, 916, 498 
16,199.460 
U,3a4,r,55 
14,G9r2,011 
25.394,SI65 
:26,069..581 
27. 812, H09 
26, 761,017 
23,484.080 
23, 6C;3, 198 
ri2.620.108 
21.344,240 
20,175,387 
lH,fKi5.n76 
18,514,790 
17.491,916 
15,965,1/72 
14,118.804 
12.642,S'79 
I2.27S.S80 



Horses. 
Number. I Value. 



640,700 
546.100 
546, 100 
557,000 
573.700 
585, 100 
690,900 
614,500 
614,500 
(i08,200 
602,200 
536,255 
5*6,980 
557,920 
574,658 
577,531 
583,306 
504,972 
600,922 
006,931 
570,515 
621,861 
628.080 
050,484 
646,294 
607,616 
583,215 



^57,811,644 
5:5,069,JJ98 
rv5,953,406 
5.5. 382, 510 
'yA, 790. 113 
4i».5:57,!W 
U. 707. 494 
44,840.065 
40. 7I>.5. 205 
40,479.884 
13, 779.1*40 
:>^>,275,:J16 
4<».4,H.-i,:i8l 
r^lTii!. :?r5 
:^\ S22; 278 
54,;Jt(i.474 
.5.5. \W., (63 
55. 757. 103 
57,121,786 
56.973,887 
51,937.861 
51,867,709 
49.289,409 
42. 053, 101 
ai; 684, 058 
28. 629, 689 
25, 819. 103 



Number. 



1,702,500 
1.674,300 
1,601,000 
1.674,000 
1,674,000 
1,640,500 
1,607,600 
1,607.600 
1.666,000 
1,649.300 
1.632.807 
1,785,481 
1,808,336 
1,749,236 
1,486,851 
1.189,481 
1,094,323 
984,801 
935.646 
945,002 
1,089.502 
1.091,477 
1,687.216 
1.473,494 
1.178,795 
907,672 
798,751 



Value. 



$5,668,500 
5.700.863 
6.223,880 
5.356,800 
6.050,880 
5.872.900 
5.096,002 
4,967,484 
4.981,340 
4.964.898 
5.330,279 
6.892,087 
6.664.143 
6.580.063 
4.000,238 
3,187.800 
3.072,859 
2,756,119 
2.884.783 
8.170.671 
8,858,631 
4,178,173 
6,047,876 
4,530.700 
2.804,309 
1,957.667 
2,200.984 



Mules. 
Number. Value. 



25,200 
24,900 
24,900 
24,900 
25,600 
26,300 
28.000 
25,700 
24,900 
24.700 
as. 453 
22.983 
23,213 
23,909 
23,909 
23,670 
23.670 
24.143 
24,264 
24,021 
24,021 
29,065 
20,210 
86.513 
36,879 
86,500 
86,144 



$3,830.2S2 
3,243.^9 
8. 196, 168 
3,164.2aj 
8,017.984 
2,5»,745 
2. 351. 820 
2,236.414 
1.067,518 
2.125,929 
1.896.(69 
1.970.108 
2.462,308 
2.647,683 
2,682,267 
2.603,488 
2.615.691 
2.610,08:1 
2,670.233 
2,602,471 
2.514,778 
2,063,207 
2.738,204 
2.969.014 
2.312.006 
3.216,098 
2,125.529 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



293 



RHODB ISLAND. 

Tabic showing the estimated nuniher and value of farm animals for the years JS70 

to 1806, inclusive. 



Year. 



1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 

1881. 

18K3. 

1883. 

1881. 

1885. 

1880. 

1887. 

1888 

1880. 

1900. 

1801. 

189S. 

1803. 

1801. 

1896. 

1806. 



Year. 



Milch cows. 



Cattle. 

i Other cattle. 



Number. 

21,900 
21,000 
20,700 
20,400 
20,400 
20,400 
20,400 
21,000 
22,000 
22,000 
22.000 
21,245 
21,882 
21,882 
22,101 
22.513 
22,656 
22,883 
23,341 
24,041 
24,281 
34,524 
24,279 
24,765 
25,013 
31,763 
24.7H3 



Value. 



$060,075 
867,990 
879,750 
849,864 
902, 7a) 
795,600 
785.000 
808.500 
728,000 
660,000 
660,000 
047,972 
787,752 

n6,8ii 

806,687 
786,462 
804,288 
818,067 
770,253 
745.271 
801,273 
784,768 
?28.370 
658,749 
?^'>,377 
949,166 
74.3.890 



Hogs. 



Number. 



1870 


30,400 
18,500 
18,100 
17,100 
18,500 
16,300 
17.100 
18,100 
15.400 
13,800 
13,1^00 
14,362 
14.405 
14.549 
14,840 
14,395 
14,107 
13.261 
13,659 
13.790 
13.796 
13,658 
13,617 
13.481 
13,616 
14,433 
14,280 


IKl 


1872 


L**73 


1874 


1873 


1876 


1877 


1878 


18n> 

1880 


1881 


1882 


1883 


1884 


1886... 


1886 


1887 

1888 


1880 


1800 


1801 


1802 


1803 


1804 


1805 


1806 





Value. 

$298,218 
194,065 
317,200 
234,612 
359.875 
277,915 
3a»,980 
245,2.>5 
141,680 
130.060 
120,060 
181,127 
193,883 
173.13:J 
166,802 
Ul,071 
136,130 
135,078 
131,18:3 
121, 163 
117,265 
121,550 
135,486 
152,064 
137,030 
141,446 
100,024 



Number. I 



18,800 
17,100 
16,900 
16,000 
16,000 
16,000 
15,600 
1.5,900 
14,300 
15,700 
15,700 
L3,700 
13,563 
13,427 
13,034 
13,024 
13,154 
13,154 
13,549 
13,194 
11,950 
11,950 
11,8:« 
11,713 
11,596 
11,596 
10,784 



Value. 



$975,908 
690,498 
890,968 
800.160 
8a), 640 
795.520 
719,473 
713,010 
.•178, 335 
471,785 
471.7a-) 
401,410 
480,624 
517,074 
486,837 
480,490 
4:J2,243 
431,463 
418.799 
;Si3.357 
318,713 
34:1,280 
317,651 
3^17.451 
375, 782 
276,120 
381,893 



HorflOH. 
Number. Value. 



15, 
If 
If 
14, 
U, 
14, 
14, 
16, 
16, 
16, 
16, 
9, 

», 
9. 
9, 
9. 
10, 
10, 
10, 
10, 
10, 
10, 
10, 
10, 
10, 
10, 



300 i 

900 

700 

700 

700 

00 
500 
300 
200 
200 
200 

'58 
7.58 

'58 
807 
Oft* 
9.5;> 
055 
1.50 
258 
258 
361 
340 
443 
234 
029 
129 



Shoe]). 
Numbor. j Value. 



:»,000 


$111,30) 


27,900 


100.008 


27,900 


149, 5« 


25,600 


110,080 


25,30) 


113, a50 


25.:«0 


100,188 


25,000 


02,500 


24,500 


91,875 


24,500 


85,015 


28,200 


101,340 


38,200 


104,3(0 


21,514 


66,603 


21.?39 


86,916 


21,077 


a5,151 


20,866 


79,083 


30,449 


76,684 


2«),34o 


73,540 


30,a53 


79,498 


30,435 


73,8.51 


30.331 


73,073 


30,433 


8:1,009 


30,433 


88, 8W 


13,200 


51,615 


11,279 


41,168 


11.279 


:n,468 


12,279 


;i8,067 


10,715 


:)0,]36 



I 

Numljer. 



Mules. 



VaUu\ 



$l,.j(K.307 '. 
I,368,n4 . 
1,474.410 . 
1,608,915 . 
1,590.431) . 
1,438,687 . 
I,:i71,990 . 
1,513,370 ;. 
1.003,500 . 
1,-530,900 ,. 
1.530,900 1. 

781,713 

985,070 
1,000,976 
1,001,403 '. 
1.016,071 - 
1,031,443 . 
1,057,1311 . 
1,131.554 ;. 
1,110,335 . 
1,098,980 . 
1,083.840 . 
1,041,623 . 

996,565 . 

831,131 



84,404 
5. 106 
5. 1.53 



73,186 1. 

763,310 I 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



294 



IWJREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY, 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Table showing the estimated number and value of farm animals for the years 1870 

to 1896, inclusive. 





Cattle. 






Year. 


Milch cowB. 1 Other cattle. 


oavcy. 




Number. 


Value. 

i^i. 424,950 
;i.ti61,020 
;ij{47,400 
:j. 452, 664 
;{.484,950 
:j. 146,175 
;i 1.^48,000 
:>,275,000 

i,rao,733 

::j«2,150 
.,199,005 
:i.:.>96,503 
:i. 655. 443 
:).(I76,248 
:ijt25,076 
,'•856,268 
-.041,651 
•i.7n,705 
;j. 131,499 

;i.M50,7n6 

:j.;i24.087 
a, 148,233 
a. 140,480 
2,-,n,421 
:i, :]31, 110 
:>,184.0eo 
:i.(H8,212 


Number, 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


1870 


147,500 
154,800 
154,800 
157,800 
159,300 
150,300 
162,400 
130,000 
L31,30O 
132,000 
133,928 
139,182 
140,574 
137,763 
141,800 
143,315 
144,748 
146.195 
149,119 
156,575 
156,575 
155,009 
157,024 
125,619 
129,388 
129.388 
129,388 


17i,400 
179,600 
179,60>J 
184,000 
186,700 
186,700 
184,800 
190,000 
195,700 
191,800 
175,456 
221,500 
228.205 
216,880 
216,880 
214, ni 
216,858 
212,521 
212,621 
210,396 
206,292 
204,126 
202,065 
161,668 
160,051 
158,450 
156,866 


S2. 101, 752 
:i.401.2S2 

:j.;yji.fa8 
;i. 101. 162 
.'.*. JI72, lae 

:i,m.:<sa 

;.\!?!8.;«o 
i.wa-i.HOO 

l,KiM).462 

;.'.(H7.ra8 

l,7t>S..T96 

:^54LH37 

;.',r>4H.:{40 
:].;t77.(05 
2,4(if)J0O 
:.\:n4. 199 
:i.a-)i.,sa5 

r},7rt7.f04 
;».Gi;{.(e3 
2.t;--iit.(>43 
;*.-t8i.u04 
1,9.V>.:;90 
1.774.439 

i,;js7.ttJ2 


156,700 

163,500 

155,000 

153.400 

147,200 

142,700 

144,100 

175,000 

182,000 

176,600 

187,090 

120.078 

120.078 

116.476 

117,641 

112,035 

108.418 

107,834 

105.187 

102,031 

96,970 

89,073 

78,384 

78.384 

78,384 

74,465 

72,976 


S3C6.5K 


1871 


flBiul 


1872 


817.730 


1873 


268,710 


1874 


miS 


1875 


266.287 


1876 


283,101 


1877 


815, on 


1878 


206.480 


1879 


810.610 


1880 


834. an 


1881.. 


904.131 


18»i 


misB 


188:} 


194.515 


1884 


mIoM 


1885 


194.290 


1880 


166,314 


18S7 

1888 


164.400 
180, OSS 


1889 


180 286 


1800 


180. IS 


1891 


167,000 


1892 


148.000 


1893 


123.600 


1894 


iSaao 


1895 


100. no 


1806 


114.184 



Year. 


Uogb. 


Horses. 


M 

Number. 


ules. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Value. 


1870 

1871 .. . . 


317,200 

330,400 
332.600 
322,600 
303,200 
275,900 
284.100 
459,000 
508,500 
544.000 
676,640 
500,506 
.584,601 
578, 755 
.567.181 
667, 181 
^nO, 180 
55f»,16G 
583,176 
670,652 
670.652 
684,065 
097,746 
767,521 
851,948 
945.662 
1,096,968 


$1,487,668 
1.130,020 
l.-»49,916 
l.™^n,044 
l,;i.i2,272 
1.133,949 
1. 187,538 
1.r)70,500 
1 r>8l,0fi5 
l.r>28,640 
•JJ.'73.510 
;>.r>39.176 
:i.r^37,168 
;;,419,196 
;i,;U8.129 
1, 1)27,962 
:M*88,625 
:i. 159.072 
-.412.015 
::. (146, 125 
-.('.28, 957 
:^H"J7.924 
;j. 130,512 
4,]«5,799 
a. 649, 404 
4.(190,933 
3,830,172 


53,800 
54,800 
55,300 
56,400 
67,500 
56,900 
57,400 

:'.7,il00 

M).*)00 

t.;.\<)00 

til. 480 

(Mi.;67 
(•.I.ri64 

VA), !»48 
m. 167 

«i;j. 789 
r.t.<i73 
(r>,r«6 
r.'i.S«55 

;ii,;503 

m. *29 
r.H.,sli 
fi-,tj85 
4ii,U35 
64,514 
66,449 


$5,465,986 
5.198,:fi8 

ri.57.j,:u6 

r>,4!K>.;164 

r..57:{.475 
5.(M(>.:j03 

4, rsh 446 
t.or.t.(!88 
4.7(i'>.-JS2 

j.inu, 780 

4.;J^i;^^■47 

4.8:j»},468 
r..SL»2.453 
r..lM7,(S5 
r,,,^s;,481 
:..7m.'i26 

5. tun. 100 
(i, 071), ',iffl 
il 180, 143 
<i, Itn. 754 
5, J2s:>. 433 

r>.i;{'».H5d 

4,4H.«22 
3.8(M>.977 
3,304,877 


42,300 
43.900 
45,200 
45.200 
46,100 
44,700 
45.600 
50,000 
61,500 
53,000 
57,240 
67,675 
09,028 
69,718 
70,415 
71. U9 
73,253 
75.451 
76,060 
79,269 
79.200 
86.403 
87,267 
95,904 
04,074 
05,965 
08,884 


$4:578. 0» 
^,947!001 


18?2 


6,073.700 


1873 


&;o76;m4 


1874 


6.236.577 


1875 

1876 


4.80^800 

4.180.6tt 


1877 


4^546.000 


1878 


4007.8Si 


1879 


4,811,810 


188<). ... 


6.410.895 


1881 


5;oob;28s 


1882 

188;i 

1884 


o.wO. 7m 
7.167.010 
7.120.788 


18S.> 

18cSi 

1887 

1888 


6.000.028 
6,886.388 
7^800.068 
7.820.008 


1880 .. 


7.004.8M 


1890 


7.77tl,81l 


1891 


8.257,104 


1893 


8,843.808 


1803 


O.80B.744 


1894 


6.541^087 


1895 


7.071.880 


1890 


6.098.201 







Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



295 



SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Table shotting the estimated number and znltie of farm animals for the years 1870 

to 1896, inclusive. 





Ca 


btle. 

Other cattle. 


Sheep. 


Year. 


Milch COW8. 




Number. 1 Value. ! Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


1S79 


1 






1871 


.: i::::::::.:: :::::::: : 




1872 




' 




1073 






-1 




1874 










1875 1 










1K7U ! 1 










MST ' 


1 1 ' ■ 


1878 ' 1 






187V ; 




, 


1880 






1881 ! 




1«^ ' 




1883 1 






1884 f ' 





1 


18R? I . . . i 






1886 ' 1 






1887 ' ' 




1S8» 




1 




1889 










1893 








1 


1891 


133,000 
223,500 
290,5fi0 
278,928 
2n8,874 
313, 375 


82,527,000 
3,967.125 
5,555,316 
4.000,765 
5.977,558 
7,185,689 


410,000 
389,500 
467,400 
425,334 
399,814 
427,801 


$8,662,500 
0.335,?i5 
7, .52:}, 317 
0,368,775 
6,597,768 
8,568,664 


270,000 

:»4,ooo 

336.960 
323,482 
:ti0.247 
336,250 


$831,080 


186e 


1,066,606 


1803 


759,612 


]fl94 


532,069 


18&5 


624,354 


1896 


7.')1.1fll 











Year. 


Hogs. 


Horses. 


Mules. 




Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


1 Number. | Value. 


1870 






1 1 


1871 








1872 








* 


1873 










1874 










1875... 


1 ■" 1 " "" 




1870. 




1 




1877 .. 








1878 ' 




1879 




1888 1 




Si ' : .:.: 




leaa i 





1884. 
1885. 
18». 

vm . 

18BB. 



JMOW -- - 

1890 . ,, ,1 1 


t , 1 


1891 


275,000 
239,260 
241.643 
173,963 
160,064 
158,463 


$1,567,500 

1,980,664 

1,812,081 

1,012,408 

836.054 

606,128 


260.000 
283.800 
290.862 
293,771 
287,806 
290,775 


18.620,858 
13,338,256 
8,608,620 
7,675,013 
7,706,063 


8.200 
8,200 
7,380 
6.937 
6,987 
6,660 


$672,274 


1802 


629.546 


18B3 


447,712 


M04 

189& 


259.361 
230,727 


1896 


206,090 







Note.— Returns not separate previous to 1891. (See Dakota Territory.) 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



296 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



TBNNBSSBB. 

Table show'uig tJie estimated miniber and value of farm animals for the years 1870 

to 1896, inclusive. 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
1873 
1873 
1874 
1875 
187G 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1S81 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 

\m) 

1H87 
1888 
1889 
1S90 
1K91 
189*^ 

i«9;j 

lh94 
18J»5 
18»« 



Year. 



1870.. 
1871 .. 

1872.. 

i8r3.. 

1874.. 
1875.. 
1870.. 
1877.. 

J878.. 
1879.. 
IH80.. 
1881.. 
1S82.. 
1883.. 
1884.. 
J885.. 
188(5.. 
1887.. 
188H.. 

im.. 

18W.- 
1891.. 
1892.. 
1893.. 
18^.. 
1895.. 
Ib^.. 



Cattle. 



Milch cows. 
Number. 



233,600 
242,900 
247,700 
247.700 
242,700 
225,700 
225,700 
248,200 
245,700 
248,100 
255,543 
300,794 
300,810 
313, 742 
320,017 
326,417 
336.210 
330.572 
366,738 
;^.740 
366,406 
373,736 
360,909 
351.499 
344,409 
330.600 
307,642 



Value. 

$5,505,052 
5,545,407 
5,335,458 
5,414,722 
4,375,881 
4,701,331 
4,247,674 
4.681,062 
3,886,974 
4,240,029 
4,382,662 
5,363,157 
6,903,225 
7,379,212 
7.523,600 
6.528,340 
7,060,410 
6,706,547 
7,019,965 
6,414,025 
6,066,087 
6.166,644 
5,975.484 
5,782,150 

6, 280, no 

5,135,616 
4,899,144 



Other cattle. 
Numljer. Value. 



I 



Hogs. 
Number. >. Value. 



l.r,2»>,000 
1.580,800 
1,596.600 
1,420,900 
1,103,500 
1,020,400 
1,087.900 
1,900,000 
1,900,000 
1,710,000 

i,02;i,5a) 

2.050,261 
1,JW8,753 
2.127,966 
2.021.568 
2,122,646 
1,910,381 
1.8.53,070 
2.038.377 
2,242.215 
2,287,0:50 
2,287,059 
1,989,741 
1,930,049 
1,930,049 
1,910.749 
1,796,104 



338,100 
348,200 
351,000 
355,100 
340,800 
333,700 
317,200 
460,000 
414.000 
397.400 
377,630 
470,206 
485,604 
466,084 
466,084 
47.5,406 
470,652 
401,230 
475,076 
484,578 
460,349 
469,556 
460,165 
575,206 
546.446 
519,124 
466,829 



1 93, 737 
33,016 
KSi]6.872 
rKi)49,522 
:j.s78.804 
45,903 
33,824 
r4,600 
11.920 
47,556 
38,753 
51,226 
92.270 
92,246 
71,327 
S6.604 
19,257 
15.073 
09,102 
B0,G45 
08,405 
21,187 
93,008 
06.704 
98,909 
93,215 
i,:W,805 



Sheep. 
Number. Value. 



$8,824,800 
5,248,256 
5,396,608 
4,3«0,5S1 
4,105,640 
5,a57,808 
4.688,849 
7,714,000 
4.218,000 
5,865,300 
5,227,070 
9,328,688 

11,(H7,467 
8,873.618 
8,126.703 
6.788.222 
6,922,181 
6,774,825 
8,095.620 
7,932,050 
7.590,293 
7,741,239 
9,339,843 
9,285,780 
7,002,990 
6.384,190 
6,978,162 



Horses. 
Number. Value. 



280,000 

291,200 

294.100 

302,900 

318,000 

318,000 

321,100 

327,600 

323,700 

326.900 

320,362 

206, &51 

269,318 

274,704 

282,945 

288,604 

294,376 

300,264 

306,269 

:*)3,206 

300.174 

312,181 

321,546 

334,408 

344,440 I 

3U,440 

337,661 



323,654,400 
24.090,!J77 
'Zl 492, 7m 
2:j,477.r79 

•MK 7m, :ao 

19, 019. ri20 
IT. 7.51). 408 
17.328.(66 
U. 242. 800 
10,203.275 
17,«1?3.141 
14. f)25, 843 
17.551,464 
19,569.913 
19,803.;39 
18. 966, 768 
19.667.285 
2(), imi 284 

I.",', at;, 245 

21.4.52,283 
21.207,056 
21.. 522, 778 
:Jt». 421. ft24 
lH.s:i{i.tl62 
1.5. m:, 508 
l:i 7.58. i»44 
J2,2!Ht.744 



400,000 
302,000 
372,400 
350,000 
325.600 
341,700 
343,100 
8.50,000 
858.500 
858,600 
858,500 
075,478 
605,478 
655,214 
635,558 
603,780 
561,515 
516,504 
.5^,926 
511,118 
511,118 
506,007 
541,427 
519,770 
493.782 
439.466 
382,335 



9684,000 

882,080 

718.732 

731,500 

651.000 

720,987 

aQ,651 

1,632.000 

l,aJ7.7r,0 

1.873,600 

1.323.(«0 

1.148.313 

1.239.370 

1.172.833 

1,137.648 

987,255 

846,877 

832.440 

907.281 

968,722 

1.055.883 

1.1(6.879 

1.230,3R.> 

999. Ki2 

767,633 

651.088 

548,838 



Mules. 
Number. Value. 



04,600 
98,300 
100,200 
103,200 
107.300 
101.900 
99,800 
101,700 
99,700 
96,700 
96,7a) 
1?2,968 
170,427 
178. 191 
183, .537 
187.208 
190, a52 
194,771 
^,405 
229,246 
224,681 
222,414 
230,190 
198,171 
200,1.58 
182,130 
168,389 



$8,981,246 
9,348.330 
9.346.854 
9.374.888 
7.894.081 

ft 010 -^sj-* 

4.(eJ.177 
5, 44V.. 497 
6,315,477 

12, .586. 123 
13,410.218 
i:i. 8i5. S40 
14.nls,.M« 

13. m*;. 443 

13. .521,. 572 
U.2i«.(Mjl 

14. itSi, loa 

i«,:i2T.oos 

16, .^1,680 

15,891,309 
14. f^J. 257 
11,»;75.:C.5 
IMte.TtVI 
7.06«^.h23 
8.835.688 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



297 



TBXAS. 

Table showing the estimated number and value of fann animals for the years ls:o 

to 7S06f i.icJusii'e, 



Year. 



1870. 
1871. 
1873. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875: 
1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
18H2. 
1W3. 
1884. 

\m. 

1888. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1881. 
1893. 
1833. 

mi. 
\m. 
\im. 



Year. 



1»70 . 
1871. 
18?-J. 
187:1. 
1874 
1K75. 
1876. 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 

\m 

\m 
\m 

188R 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1800 
1891 
1882 
1893 
1804 
1895 





Cattle. 








- 








Sheep. 


Milcl 


I COW8. 


Other cattle. 






Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. ' 


Value. 


506, SOT) 


s;.*.>3,006 


3,230,000 


$23,731.4^)0 


i.i:i:.;ioo 


$1,592,220 


0(ri,40D 


s..-*»J5,888 


3,123,400 


25.299,540 


1 . -r.i'.K vw 


1,844,192 


rm.wo 


; ♦,13,700 


2,842,200 


21,344,922 


] . '.".iit. t^OO 


2,2:31.280 


526,500 


^.in».125 


2,41.5.800 


19. .543, 822 


]/u^.:m 


2, 704. 174 


530,500 


:j)l8,245 


2,367,400 


I7,755,5aj 


3 u.v;oo 


2.775,744 


500. 100 


;>'H.672 


2,34? TOO 


2:^429,209 


l.tiHl, 100 


;3, 382, 800 


605,100 


;.;;», 108 


3,80(1 :>00 


31.328,320 


:.',s-.v.,:oo 


5, 7fi6. 468 


5r)0,000 


.-.112,600 


3,46^.:;00 


;j5.inx).400 


;;..i7i,70O 


7. two, 12:3 


544,600 


7. '.'11,585 


4,80iMO0 


43,9'»,000 


■\ :,*-yiKi)O0 


8.208.000 


566.300 


:M3.256 


4,46.1,100 


39,64<l,320 


r.. I !■>, 100 


9. 7Jl», 476 


566,300 


s.nl3,146 


4,0r.' ;.'40 


41.3:«,236 


*i,():5t.(;38 


12,:J1«.4:37 


000,650 


l.».!'i)7,804 


3, 44!. 784 


43,014,165 


(. x^i.itOO 


14.:385.0i)0 


660,715 


n.''.>8,588 


4,410 iiOO 


tt5.223,900 


:.s..,::()0 


I8.1M)6.0I»I) 


867,501 


ir;,: 1)3. 774 


4,27: -00 


74,902.527 


:.!':»^i.;.75 


17,822.056 


700.876 


h\.y>A,OM 


4,231 .23 


JW, 784, 736 


^..-..v^.Jttl 


14,738.999 


700,876 


U.-,^J0,774 


4.02!'., 177 


.52.298,087 


K.s.r;,.,l.r, 


11.582.812 


7a>,ft» 


ll.n,J6.973 


6,031.766 


7),292,25J2 


4.:.ii.s3i 


7,718.JLN 


772, 716 


in,!fr2,567 


6,33i.-.04 


rH,077,99;} 


L :.;':;, .39 


6.8IV4.774 


826,808 


l!.n')2,438 


7,09ti>84 


6.5.907,»4<J 


'l.tiV.t, 151 


6.749.215 


843,342 


1I,!»^0,289 


7,167 ^53 


63,294,293 


.^;.v:.r,40 


7.2:30.6Wi 


851,775 


!'*.m:15,681 


7.021.496 


62,444,360 


1 !»it«i.',*72 


7.601.682 


868.811 


I-.',:vW,557 


7,021 196 


62,177,3:» 


:..nKi. 175 


;. 81 IS, 2:39 


816,682 


11, Ml, 889 


6,4^., -30 


58.512,448 


r:;\!..T)l 


6,924.44,5 


808,615 


11,189.848 


6,591 787 


62, cm. 840 


05 


5,07.5.065 


810,600 


11,8()8,«J6 


6,08t 144 


.50,081.024 


,.17 


4,541.812 


783,006 


14.(RJ4,615 


5,518,6U 


69, .520, 010 


3,065,25ti 


:i, 839. .544) 


7r>2,579 


12.:Vi4.8?3 


5.242,712 


58,417,413 


2.789,383 


:),650.<w 


H 


OgB. 


He 


►rses. 


Mules. 


Number. 


Value. 


Numlx'r. 


Value. 


Number. 


Valup. 


1,200,000 


s;.,:S12.0ll0 


615.700 


$19.880.95;i 


S2.900 


i;4,;B35,6:0 


1,272,000 


:i. i21,680 


640,300 


2i.:i»,38;3 


H7,00r) 


4,205,580 


1.233,800 


;; ■.78.020 


672,300 


25,1.50.743 


92,200 


5,209.300 


1.147,400 


;: s2l,r,64 


609,100 


36,(515.710 


97,701 


.5,55(M99 


1,147,400 


.5 155,:)50 


720,000 


2:3,457,600 


101,600 


4,804,664 


. 1,000,000 


1 . 158. 100 


770.400 


25,554.168 


110,700 


5.1K32.413 


1,144,600 


1 :15.:mo 


785,800 


23,754.734 


112,900 


.5. 579. .518 


1,716,700 


r..:iOt».289 


725.000 


19,901.250 


160,000 


7,147,200 


1,057,000 


.- »iW,870 


918.000 


30.563,200 


180,200 


7,249.446 


1,817,800 


3 r.;36,;»0 


96:), 9a) 


21.331,107 


191.000 


7.991.440 


2. 03.), 000 


(:.:;72,:j07 


1,002,456 


36,865,821 


'at*,m) 


9,041.864 


1.896,300 


ti,: 452, 605 


838, .-m;} 


29, 761, 176 


139.210 


7,280,»W:3 


1 1. aw. 189 


i,;r3,682 


880.260 


33,168.197 


143.:i86 


7,527,765 


! 2,011,785 


7,08.5,019 


889.063 


:34.557.879 


149.121 


8,842.875 


; 2. 23:^,081 


8, 128, 415 


833,516 


:37,854,(/74 


164,08:3 


9. 448. :WH 


2.411,727 


0,6.56,367 


908.862 


:I5, 8.51, 466 


175,515 


9.56«;.081 


1 2,532.313 


7.09<»,476 


l.f«8.816 


:3:i.(»42,055 


186,046 


9,6:37.2:32 


2,270.082 


0,4:W,128 


1.225.803 


:38.1l5,ia5 


19:3. 4.S8 


10,(1:32,2.54 


2,210.710 


8,68:j.(34a) 


1.32:J.867 


4:3.973,604 


30S.967 


11, 2:3:3. :M2 


2,321.m 


8,073,292 


l,.'Jf)0.:J44 


44,527.176 


:>13. I4<i 


11, 34:1. .579 


2,321,246 


6,569,136 


1.512, 1385 


49,613,:32:3 


215.277 


11.9:32.965 


' 2,821,246 


7,311.924 


1,209,908 


;J8.092.747 


.•i:30,2:39 


12,272.852 


1 2.ai4,458 
2.555,450 

2.r^.;«i 

3.035,119 


9,049,608 
10,97:J,142 
10, 111.. 502 
10.896,078 


1.246.305 
1.18:1,895 
1, lft5. 7W 
1.183,777 


:}6. 1.51.400 

:32.30;3.:376 

25,168,0|,T 

i ^.528,6KJ 


241.751 
25:3. 839 
261.454 
:J64.069 


11.8T).587 


11, 351.. 5:35 


9.2i((.418 


9,12.5.29»} 


2,044,065 


7.301,281 


1,160,101 


20,571,»« 

1 


261,428 


7,799,259 





Digitized by LjOOQIC 



298 



BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



UTAH. 

Table showing the estimated number and value of farm animals for the ifears 1870 

to 1896 y inclusive. 





Cattte. 


Sh 


eep. 

Value. 


Year. 


MUchcows. 


Other cattle. 




Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


1870 










i 


1871 










' 


1872 










' 'i 


1873 










i. 


1874 










1 


1875 










1 


1876 










::::::::::::l:: :::::::::::: 


1877 








: i 


1878 








1 




1871> 








1 




1880 














1881 














188*i 


35,070 
38,473 
40,012 
42.013 
44,534 
49,878 
51.873 
52,910 
52.910 
54.497 
55,042 
56,143 
66,704 
57,271 
56,698 


?iw:,ii22 
i.;i.->i,i72 
I,:m408 
l,:.':xi.ri2l 

l,:i^-)i),420 
l.;r>:i,885 
1.1 Hit. an 
I.](j).ri28 
l.:.M0.:{78 
l.:j!-M,008 
r, (Jilt, 574 
.Vvl l»98 
h:()..119 
1,017,729 


103,000 
132.180 
145.396 
162,846 
219,842 
435.000 
421,950 
426.170 
883,553 
402,731 
300,640 
851,584 
358,616 
309,374 
356,293 


$2,371,080 
3.157.780 

n,5r^,797 

:i,s8.^.586 
4.49S,H71 
7.:5C'.733 
(k5DL162 
h, \m. U15 
5. 'Si^, 518 

r,,t>7(».r»i2 
r),;ji.r>.ui6 

4,U7o.882 
4,184.886 
4.2,>J,114 
4.9:53.182 


513.000 

564,900 

620.790 

651.767 

658,285 

1.335.000 

1.468,500 

2,055,900 

2,065,900 

2,065,900 

2,117,577 

1,905,819 

2,039,226 

1,998,441 

1,908,441 


il. 179.900 


1883 


TS07;S» 


1884.... 


1.315,918 


1885 


i,;e6.a8 


1886 


1,343.80 


1887 . .... 


2.594.172 


1888 


2.798.(64 


1889 


4.281.617 


1890 


&, 070.20 


1801 


4;6ao;Si 


1892 


6,086.00 


1893 


3.096.480 


1894 


2.908.885 


1896 


8.157.537 


1896 


3.096.80 







Year. 


Hogs. 


Horses. 


Mnles. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. I Value. 


1870 












1871 






1 






1872 




' .J 






1873 















1874 














1875 










r ■■" 


1876 














1877 















1878 




:::::::::::::: :::::::::::: 








1870 








1880 1 


; 






1881 1 










1882 


22,500 


... 

$279,450 
224,404 
243,526 
197.357 
237.052 
286.840 
432.939 
826,819 
350,400 
416,274 
417,624 
438,887 
386,200 
393,671 
293,382 


44,100 
48,510 
50,038 
52,464 
56,136 
120.092 
132,761 
130.809 
90,609 
07,957 
76,791 
09,112 
00,803 
n,897 
71,178 


$2,140,173 
2,382,174 
2,289,708 
2.440,806 
2,466,490 
4,906,026 
4,534,358 
4.838,522 
8,315,151 
2.414,946 
2,808,948 
1,516,265 
1,129.671 
902,149 
1,207,941 


3.060 
3,152 
3,247 
3,400 
3,579 
8,886 
4.065 
4.055 
4.055 
2. OSS 
1.825 
1.789 
1,780 
1,736 
1648 


^515.00 


1883 


24,525 
26,242 
27,554 
28.656 
40.118 
50.148 
47.641 
47,641 
48,594 
47,136 
51,850 
54,443 
56,621 
63,700 


^wiS 


1884 


203.783 


1885 


214,554 


1886 


215. 9SS 


1887 


201.60 


1888 


lSti,aKI 


1HH9 


178.812 


1890 


177.807 


1891 


111.30 


1893 


87.748 


1893 


SflLLS 


1894 


45.781 


1895 


4a 885 


1890 


40.264 



Note.— Returns from Utah previous to 1882 were included with Nevada. Colorado, and the 
TeiTltories. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL BEPOBT. 



299 



VBBMOIfT. 

Table showing the estimated number and value of farm animals for the years 1870 

to 1896, inelusive. 





Mild 
Number. 

103,900 
191,900 
195.700 
196,700 
201.500 
209,500 
215,700 
217.800 
217,800 
207,100 
200,887 
221,874 
225,801 
230,317 
225, ni 
218.940 
221,129 
225.552 
232.319 
234.642 
234,648 
289,335 
238.656 
246,022 
S3, 408 
258,471 
263,640 

H 
Number. 

66.700 
61,300 
58.200 
58.500 
52.400 
51,800 
53.300 
54,300 
60.600 
49.400 
49.400 
75,020 
74.864 
74,864 
74,115 
74.115 
74.856 
76.353 
77,117 
77,888 
75,551 
74,795 
74,047 
76,288 
77,081 
78,572 
76,215 


Cat 
I cows. 
Value. 

$9,210,250 
7,027,878 
6,914,081 
6,947,350 
7,834,600 
7,000,150 
9,2K,300 
6,370.650 
5,445,000 
6,187,855 
4,881,554 
6,667,174 
6,848.544 
7,139,827 
5.888.486 

(;.(ii'j.]3l 
ti,-}7o.;42 

(;.U^i.758 
r,, r,7^', 748 
r.,r»nj«7 
r.,.v;;.i»21 
r,,(>u.ia7 

i;.:n-,r56 

(i, ti:).;50 

ii. t::.'35 

Value. 

$1,133,900 
583,576 
516,302 
513.065 
655,000 
6:n.442 
549,523 
434,400 
290,880 
87o,934 
406.562 
843.163 
873,66.3 
646,825 
619,601 
611.112 
589,688 
688,385 
714,486 
667,682 
554.210 
587,412 
751,205 
605,032 
730.007 
582,990 
555,701 


tie. 




Sheep, 


Year. 


Other cattle. 
Number. | Value. 




Number. 


Value. 


1870 


140,600 
130,700 
130,700 
128,000 
130,500 
130,500 
131,800 
130,400 
127,800 
126,500 
125,235 
187,988 
187,983 
187,983 
180,416 
176.808 
178.576 
180,382 
185,778 
160.058 
167.362 
166,688 
100,717 
L52,681 
146,574 
143.643 
137,897 

Ho 
Number. 

71.000 
71,000 
71,000 
71,000 
72,400 
74,500 
75.200 
75,900 
77,400 
77,400 
77,400 
75,967 
76,119 
76.880 
77.049 

79, ae 

82,370 
84,841 
86.962 
84,353 
84.358 
90.258 
92,966 
94.825 
98.877 
01.999 
88,319 


itj.r.iT.rao 

4.U:;, 190 

r.jn:j'34 

4.',*<>^M0 
4,(c:;M»10 
:i>:rr.r65 

:,',:iM).4l4 
a. mi :M 

4.(iT:i.:.a2 
H. 1S1.I16 

«, 1-S075 
5. IL*;».:.D6 
4.«;<i:.t«3 
4.MM.I93 

r>.ttvj,fifl8 

4.T7I.:«8 

:!.,s';i.:63 
:j.r.v>,,N84 

:i,r.s;.798 
:;.:iu;. 122 
^i.Otj. 164 

;5.ou.r,76 
::.r.lti.;S7 

rses. 
Value. 

»i. 1*21. 790 

o.:ryi,tajo 

(;.t;:ri.r«) 
(;,(ntt.'iOO 
.;.•;! i*.:32 
('..r.-fil^iSO 

r,,;i-t, ;24 

4.'.H't.:i38 
4, 4sii. 104 
1.!US.770 
1.:v^,4.90 
4.717.r.51 

ft, »!:?♦. :U7 
(i.;^ti.<l62 
n.r.-^j71 

<;.7s.Mm 

V. 1m. Ill 
r.:>;. 194 
r,,7I\:J7« 
(Nt^i<i.-346 
0,KU.:J01 
t;,;i.-»:i.;W0 
r,,i:i..s51 

4,:j-U..106 
4.07n,J81 

3.srr7,l51 


548,000 
580.800 
604,000 
543,600 
516,400 
490,500 
47.5,700 
461,400 
466,000 
498.600 
508,572 
444,260 
448.712 
448,712 
385,892 
878,174 
878, 174 
393,301 
866,770 
862,112 
851,249 
358,274 
329,612 
280.170 
2S8.938 
181.560 
157.948 

M 


$l,4:r>.7tJ0 
2,474,308 


ign 


1872 


2 4;M, 120 


1878 


l.ir>l.,'i24 


1874 ,-. 


2,(jei>,452 


1875 


1, WW, 470 


1876 


1 :i.50,983 


1877 


1,;!01.148 


I87B 


1,068,280 


1879 


1,735,128 


IMO 

1881 


l,(W8,4.'i9 
l,41ilt,0K8 


MBS 


2 t>46, 127 


1889 


2.aCG65 


ISM 


1 142 240 


18B5 


1,082.031 


1886 


I Ut{l 459 


I8R7 


1,1:.1).279 




1 111,941 


iBBB 

1600 


1,070,114 

1 (f.m (m 


18M 


1, 170, 725 


I8K 


1.109 382 




004,719 


IBM 


363,464 


fflK 


348,898 


UK 


;uH.42:t 






1 


ales. 


Year. 


Number. 


Value. 


lgS9 




1871 






1872 






1878 






1874 






1875 






1876 






1877 






1878 







18W 




1680 






1881 


286 
205 
300 


$25,025 


Hue 


26,777 


VM3 


27,000 


11184 




Ifff^ 






WW 






mc 




1888 






1S80 






MM) 




IWl 




]8e 




Sib::: :::::::::::....: 




18H 








1896 











Digitized by LjOOQ iC 



300 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



VIRGINIA. 



Table shoiving tJie estimated number and value of farm animals for the years 1S70 

to 1896y inclusive. 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
18?i 
1873 
1874 
1875 
187«J 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
Itm 
\mi 
1884 
1HH5 
1886 
I8«7 

mi's 

1889 
1890 
1891 
1 89:' 

1891 
1895 
189J 



Year. 



1870 
1H71 
1872 
187;j 
1874 
1875 
I87«) 
1877 
1878 

\H',r, 

188() 
1H8I 

188:; 
18^ 
18S5 

1887 
1888 
1889 
18)10 
1891 
18S)2 
1893 
1894 
1895 





Cattle. 










1 






SI leep. 


Milch cows. 


Other cattle. 






Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


229.500 


$8,676,155 


307,800 


$8,480,053 


394,800 


$935, 67< 


234,000 


5,833,620 


405,700 


6,98- 'V? 


386,900 


1,044,630 


234,000 


5.543,460 


405,700 


6,84 59 


886,900 


1,176.175 


234,000 


6,148,000 


405,700 


0,97 40 


987,600 


1,065,750 


220,300 


5,260.143 


997,500 


6.16 00 


967,500 


1,005,150 


227,000 


6,168,790 


997,600 


6,70 50 


356.400 


1,044.253 


229,200 


r> 014,896 


993,500 


0,73 30 


867.000 


1.031,270 


240,600 


n. 122,374 


431,100 


6,58 83 


4^,000 


1,088, 760 


238.200 


1,:.'81,398 


4:31, 100 


0,a5 01 


417,800 


933,33s 


240,000 


4 rN)7,716 


431,100 


0,68 61 


438,100 


fiao.atn 


243,006 


4.(177,865 


431,100 


7,32 80 


447.405 


1.199.045 


240.631 


4.U4,968 


420,829 


7,02 86 


603.282 


1,245.610 


^45,353 


r>, (34,765 


441,232 


8,85 28 


603,388 


1.371,175 


»4o.358 


n (;06,316 


436,820 


8,97 51 


487.194 


1.356.96! 


247,807 


(;.(>24.188 


432,452 


8,98 53 


477,450 


1,250,919 


247,807 


5,104,671 


423,803 


7.80 59 


463.137 


1,035.933 


255,241 


n. 870, 543 


428,041 


7.95 53 


449,333 


1,031.131 


257,793 


r> 542.550 


423,761 


7.38 25 


444,741 


1.078.063 


259,082 


r.,:i42,271 


419.523 


7,24 00 


435.846 


hdKi.^l 


272.036 


5.-44,854 


419,623 


6,56 gs 


444,583 


1,151.063 


277.477 


(i,(il8.476 


419,523 


0,97 57 


444,563 


1,383.730 


280,;iJ2 


<;.:.^,607 


419,533 


7,33 56 


449,000 


1.370.016 


279,411 


5.588,220 


403,937 


«,55 06 


496,400 


1,497,194 


276,617 


5,001,235 


411,006 


«.30 36 


488,433 


l.S47.iVil 


273,851 


5,014.212 


394,566 


6,73 56 


449,357 


974, 037 


265.635 


4.818,610 


386,670 


6,13 m 


428.889 


894,760 


260,322 


4,657,161 


371,208 


5,?2 60 


392,738 


8*3.774 


H 


og». 


Ho 


rsoa. 


Mules. 


Numlier. 


Value. 


Numlx>r. 


Value. 


Numlx>r. 


Value. 


757, 500 


sl.;:42,000 


178, 500 


$15,160,005 


29,400 


$3.3K.rrf2 


810, 500 


:-'.'>01,590 


183,800 


14,389,484 


29,400 


3.246,34S 


818,600 


;uo4,a62 


185,600 


15,1:39,393 


29,400 


8.213,430 


753.100 


:i t.43,381 


189,300 


I4,871,a% 


29.600 


8.073.368 


em.'iW 


r?. 717,070 


191,100 


13,801,342 


29,800 


2,896 858 


589.800 


;:.t;34.610 


194,900 


13,551,397 


29,800 


2,550,s^l 


W7, 400 


-TBI, 892 


198,700 


12,824,098 


29,800 


2,386,716 


759.200 


.V i'06,4:« 


204,600 


12,807,960 


:31,300 


2,355.912 


713.600 


1.1 '69. 536 


208,700 


10,998.490 


30.600 


1.943.488 


69;J, 100 


:M22.350 


212,900 


12.075,688 


;».30O 


2,0^,rfSl 


950,800 


o,:36.644 


227,803 


153.595,283 


31.612 


2,258,04l> 


889,499 


t. 180,645 


221, (e<J 


13.314.606 


33,934 


S,4o«,4)« 


773,864 


4,147,911 


221,4(58 


15. 779. .595 


34,002 


3.845,797 


820,296 


;M78,065 


22!),8J)7 


16.562,708 


a4.0(K 


8.008.117 


795.687 


:i!21,454 


229,285 


16.768.497 


:)4,342 


8,057.125 


875.256 


;5..n(j.06:3 


233,871 


16,267.609 


94,342 


2.237,298 


787, 730 


:; ::37,570 


2:^8.548 


10,735,673 


:ft.372 


8.058. («6 


m,;m 


::. 521,313 


243,319 


17.249,636 


:J5.728 


8.12M.W 


S27,r)89 


:;. 434,495 


246,969 


17.49t{,863 


38,CK3 


8.193,125 


1.0;K).659 


:;.(;:«, 764 


259.317 


18,1?2.031 


:J6.083 


8, lid. ,584 


965), 27:) 


■i. 126,381 


243,758 


17.781,390 


36.444 


3.214.85:3 


978.966 


:J. 596, 722 


246,196 


18.407.152 


37.173 


3,319.391 


920,228 


:s. 772,013 


248,658 


17,ia5,626 


37,545 


8.100.007 


920.228 


I.»t60,044 


251.145 


14.074,839 


39.422 


2.756,408 


9.>7,037 


4.(t41,567 


25:3,656 


11.327,410 


38,634 


2.244.251 


985.748 


:f. 788,514 


246,016 


9.808.229 


:38.248 


2,134.133 


095.605 


:{,:i61,164 


243,586 


8,870,3«) 


37,483 


1,830,890 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



301 



"WASHINGTON. 

Table shoicing the estimated number mid value of farm animals for the yrars ls:o 

to JS90, inclusive. 



1870... 


Year. 


Cattle. 
Milch COW8. Other cattle. 
Number. Value., Number. ! Value. 

1 


Shcop. 

' Number. Value. 

! i 


1871 


1 




1872 




1 1 


1873 






1874 


1 , 


1875 


, 


1 1 


1876 


' 


. .. 1 _ .. ' 


1877 - 


' 


1 1 


1878 1 





1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
l.SHo- 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
18&). 
1801. 
list*. 
1863. 
1^Q4. 
If^. 
1886. 



31.200 
45,63a 
51,108 
56,730 
02,403 
65,523 
72.731 
83,641 
92,005 
06,005 
101,435 
108,535 
113,963 
117,381 
120,902 



J 



$978, 
1,665. 
1,715, 
1,815, 
2,059, 
2,181, 
2,509, 
3,001. 
3,404, 
3,381, 
3,347. 
3,117, 
2,835, 
2,591. 

2,ms, 



117,3(JO 

;ao,376 

253.414 
286, a58 
300,676 
;»0,676 
31.5,710 
309,381 
443,257 
447,690 
429,782 
408,29:j 
428,708 
;B1,550 
;R1.026 



$2,814. 
5,7ti, 
0. 979, 
7.44.5. 
7.m7, 
7,0t«>, 
7,91,% 
8,(i84, 
II, •.*l».l. 

u. 8sr, 

.5.803. 



31iO,000 
456.300 
533,871 
54^1,548 
555,439 
549, 885 
560,88:1 
673,060 
673,060 
»i86,521 
823,825 
832,063 
748,867 
7.56.346 
741,219 



S955,50O 
1.0ttO,557 
1.270,62:$ 
1,223,491 
1.110.878 
1,068,976 
1, OEM, 829 
1.51,5.346 
l,;t;3,<i87 
1,8;>8,824 
2.:J28.l;li) 
1,989. 79ti 

1.318. 4412 
1,:J75,8.-,1 



Year, 



Hops. 
Numlx»r. VjUuo. 



Horses. 
Number. Vahie. 



Mulos. 
I Number. Value. 



1S70 ' 




1871 1 1 


]8?J . . ' i 


1873 


1874 ; ' 


1875 ' 


1876. ... 


1877 ' 


1878 ' 



1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1883. 
1883. 
1884. 
1J»5- 
1880. 
1887. 
1888. 
1880. 
1800. 
1»1. 
1803. 
1893. 
1894. 
1896. 
189S. 





1 ' 




. .. 


- .. 





5o,:juo 

54.827 
♦W.599 
66. 779 
90.152 
91,054 
1*5,607 
143,411 
147.713 
153,144 
1.58,230 
162.977 
211,870 
230.413 
210.683 


6272. 6:W 
423.813 
489, 712 
:t>1.28<> 

;i84,m9 

4.W.997 

.5.«2.058 

7A->,8ltt 

888.052 

987,476 

1,208,878 

897,678 

1,189,268 

1.041,160 

700,310 


55. 640 
68,994 
7:1,824 
81.94;) 
94,237 
{16.122 
98.(»44 
118,tt3:^ 
148,291 
170,535 
198,115 
198,076 
200,057 
192,055 
176,601 


--^, flO,732 

i.:;;^,:i08 

4.78:j,(i57 
.5,.526..S21 
6,018.1.58 

5,a55,»ri7 

6,;i57,:£51 
7, .5:17. 475 
]0,;{84,819 
10,018,740 
n,6K'1.903 
8.040.(167 
6. 4.57, 8ft5 
.5:574,95*> 
:irtl6,:i27 


840 
874 
961 
1,009 
1,231 
1.243 
1,24:3 
1.268 
1,306 
1,371 
1.878 
1.302 
1.392 
1,420 
1,420 


??8<»,2iV4 
75.050 
80. 705 




85. 7iM 




102.247 




99. 52!» 




104,367 




108.06!) 




116,89:1 




m, 108 




JKl.OU 




96,295 




5«1,616 




r)6,0lU 




55,077 







Note.— Roturns from Washington previous to 188rJ were included with Nevada, Colorado, and 
the Territories. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



294 



BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY, 



SOXTTH CAROLINA. 

liable showing the estimated number and value of farm animals for tlie years 1870 

to 1896. inclusive. 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
18?^ 

isrj 

1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
188:j 
1884 
1885 
1860 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1800 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1805 
1896 



Cattle. 



Milch cows. 



Number. 



147. 
154, 
154, 
157, 
159, 
159, 
162, 
130, 
131, 
132, 
133. 
139, 
140, 
137, 
141, 
143, 
144, 
146, 
149, 
156, 
156. 
155. 
157, 
125, 
129, 
129, 
129, 



Value. 



$-1424,950 

;;,9i7.40o 

:{. 452. im 
.'i. 421. 1)60 
:i. 14^5,175 

;l 2is, too 

2, 275. < 100 
l,7ti<). 7^ 
2.(r2:M60 
2,19:».(I85 
2.:.n»(i..T03 
;i. a5i. 443 
:{.07ti,rJ48 
2. (e>. (176 

2,s5f;.;«8 

2,W1.(K>1 
2.nT,705 
:i. 1:11,-499 
n.:r.(*,71l6 

:i.;r24.(e7 

:;.14,s,:S3 
:]. 140,480 
2. 571. 421 
2.281.110 
2,1^4.069 
2.(>iH,212 



Other cattle. 



Sheep. 



umber. 


Value. 


174,400 


S2.10fi.r32 


179.000 


3.401.252 


m.eoij 


2.501.!^ 


184,900 


2.101.162 


188,700 


2. 272. 139 


186,700 


2.182,:.33 


184,800 


2, :5«8, ;«0 


190,000 


l.Wil.HOO 


195,700 


l.W^L4«2 


191.800 


2,017.736 


175,466 


l.Tt>s,.Tfl6 


821.590 


2.5U.^37 


228,295 


2. ;iij. 458 


216,880 


2.54s.:{40 


210.880 


2.;J77.(06 


214, ni 


L'.4<io.(eo 


216,858 


2.:n4. 199 


212,521 


2.«51..'^ 


212,521 


2.SO*i.H89 


210. S96 


2. 7(57. (04 


208,292 


2.Gl;J,(e3 


204,126 


2. (?-**!. 043 


202,065 


2.4,Hl.(.i04 


161,668 


].U.Vi,;"90 


160,051 


1.774.439 


158.450 


l.r,0l.:'46 


156,866 


l.;i^7.t:22 



i Number. 



Valne. 



156.700 


I306.M5 


153.500 


2B3.W 


155.000 


m,79 


153.400 


m,m 


147.200 


m,si 


142.700 


a8,w 


144.100 


2SS,MI 


175.000 


215.000 


182.000 


as.in 


176.500 


810,M 


187,090 


834,«l 


120.078 


201, IS 


120.078 


2W,13B 


116,476 


lM,5tt 


117,641 


207.018 


112.935 


'**'S 


108,418 


ltt.314 


107.834 


184,400 


105,187 


180,90 


102.081 


18B,» 


98,970 


180. IS 


80,073 


lOT.m 


78,384 


148,« 


78.384 


1S.« 


78,384 


^'S 


74,466 


100.W 


72,976 


114,114 



Year. 


Hoge. 


Ho 


rses. 
Value. 


Mules. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Number. 


i Value. 


1870 

1871 


317,200 
339,400 
332.600 
322,600 
303,200 
275,900 
284.100 
459,000 
508,500 
544,000 
676,640 
500,606 
584.601 
578.755 
567,181 
507.181 
550, 186 
55?M66 
583,176 
670,652 
670.652 
684,065 
697,746 
767.521 
851,948 
946,662 
1,096,963 


^1.487,668 
1,130,020 
1.519,916 
1.271,044 
1,;152.272 
1,133,949 
1.187,538 
1.570,500 
1,561.095 
1.5S8,640 
2,273,510 
2.539.176 
2.-537,168 
2.419,196 
2,:il8,129 
1,1*27,962 
2.068,635 
2.1.59,072 
2.412.015 
2. (Vie, 125 
2.(i38,957 
2.S^7,924 
;j 180,512 
4.185,799 
;j. 619,404 
4,(»90,033 
3,830,172 


53,800 
54.800 
55,300 
56,400 
57,500 
56,900 
57,400 
57.900 
59,600 
63,000 
64.480 
00.357 
61.664 
60,948 
02,167 
62,789 
64,673 
65,966 
68,955 
70,308 
68,897 
60,620 
00,811 
02,635 
62,635 
64,514 
66.449 


^VkS5,!66 
5,llts.:?» 
5.575 146 
5.4!Kt,-64 
5.,57;{. i75 
5.oio.:J02 

4. 7.2:{. 446 
4,t3r'i.(588 
4,7ii'K253 
4.;>to.780 

5.;t-r..!64 

4.:}(VX.^47 
4.KJ<i.468 

5. 8'.»2, 453 
5. «1 7 J 165 
.^.>.Si.-l81 
5.7(fl,t'26 
5.!Mj), 100 
(3,070.267 
a. 18!). 143 
«). im, 7 54 
5. 2S->. 433 
5,2lW.c,68 
5. i:j^).h53 
4.4H.('82 
;j.80(i.l*77 
3, mi, 877 


42,300 
43,900 
45.200 
45,200 
-^ '00 
4 (TOO 
4-i..'^00 
.VJ.fOO 
rAJOO 
r>].iO0 
57. 240 
fi7,(^75 
*;i»,()28 
o!». 718 
70 415 
71.119 
7:5.253 
75.451 
7r,,m 
7T),2«9 
79.209 
8tt. 408 
87.:i«7 
t»5.1*M 
1H.074 
95.955 
1*8.834 


$i; 578, 975 
4,947.mi 


18?i 


5, (TAW) 


1873 


5.(r6.8C( 


1874 


5, 2;©, 577 


1875 


4.30L»29 


1876 


4,m640 


1877 


ifyi^m 


187H 


4.0?T,K» 


187!) 


4,t^U,3f3 


1880 . 


5.410,23 


1881 


■■^'Si'S 


18H2 

1883 

1884 




1885 


^'SS-S 


ISi^ti 


*^'SS*S 


18.S7 


^■StS 


18HS 


7.g0,« 


188^1 


^'SK-S 


1890 


7,770,36 


la^i 


**-^'lSt 


18D2 


8, 343,283 


1893 


P,3(K.7« 


1894 


(],r>4i.n^ 


I8m 


7,07i.esJ 


189a 


0.O9ft.«l 







Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL BBPORT. 



295 



SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Table shoicing the estimated nutnber and tnltie of fai^i animals for the years 1870 

to 1896, indusive. 







Cattle. 


r cattle. 
Valno. 


Number. 


eep. 


Year. 


Mile 
Number. 


Iicows. 


Othei 




Value. 


Nnmbor. 


Value. 


1S70 







1871 


' 1 < ' 




StI ::::::::::::::.:::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::: 








1813 i : 




::::::::::::::i:::::::::::: 




18T4 ! 








M75 ' 








1876 ; 




1 




ytn ; 






|»78 ' 






1879 




1 


liW) 




1 


1881 






iffe_ ' 




. 


w©:.;. ....:.. .:::: 






18B4 1 


1 




1886 . 


1 




imn 1 1 1 


' 


1887 : 


1 




ism 1 


1 




1880 








18a) 






-. 








ISOl 


133,000 
223,500 
290,560 
278,928 
292,874 
313,375 


$2,827,000 
3,967,125 
5,555,316 
4,900.765 
5,977,558 
7,185,689 


410.000 
389,500 
467,400 
425,334 
309.814 
427,801 


$6,662,500 
6.3a'>,?25 
7.523.317 
0,368.775 
6,5W,768 
8,568,564 


270,000 
324.000 
336.960 
1)2:3. 482 

:fc».247 
:»U,2S0 


$831,060 


1868 


1.066,608 


1893 


759,642 


If94 


532,069 


1895 


624,354 


1896 


731,161 







YeM-. 


Hogs. 


Horsea. Mules. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. j Number. | Value. 


1870 








1 


1871 










1872 








1 " 1 


1833 




1 


1 


1874 




j 




1813 




j 


1 


1876 - - — 








1877 


1 


1 


1878 ' .- . ' ' 




1879 1 




1880 --- 1 




1881 ' 


1 


iSS : ::::::.! ::: 




10g3 




1884 : ! : ' 





18H5. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 



1800 . ... L - - - t 




1881 


275,000 
238,250 
241,643 
173.963 
160,064 
158.463 


$1,567,500 

1,960.654 

1.8U3.061 

1,012.408 

836,054 

696,128 


260.000 
293,800 
290,862 
293, TH 
287.896 
290,776 


$17,154,826 
18,629,858 
13,328,256 
8,608,620 
7,575,013 
7,706,063 


8.200 
8,200 
7,380 
0,937 
6,987 
6.660 


$672,274 


1802 : 


029,540 


189CI 


447,712 


1804 


259.361 


1805 


230,727 


1896 


206,090 



Note.— Returns not separate previous to 1891. (See Dakota Territory.) 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



296 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



TENNESSEE. 

Table showing tlie estimated number and value of farm animals for the years 1870 

to 1896, inclusive. 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1870 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
18&4 
1885 

nm 

1887 
1888 
188J) 
1890 
1891 
180:2 
189.3 
1894 
1»»5 
189« 



Year. 



1870.. 
1871 .. 
1872.. 

isr.K. 

1874.. 
1875.. 
1870.. 
1877.. 
1878.. 
1879.. 
1880.. 
1881.. 
1882.. 
1883.. 
1884.. 
1885.. 
1886.. 
1887.. 
1888.. 
1889.. 
1890.. 
1891.. 
1892.. 
1893.. 
1894.. 
1895.. 
1890.. 



Cattle. 



Milch cows. 



Number. 



233, 
242, 
247, 
247. 
242, 



218, 
245, 
2i8, 
255, 
300, 
300, 
313, 
320, 
326, 
336. 
339, 
306, 
377, 
306, 
873, 
369, 
^1. 
344, 
330, 
307, 



Value 



$5,505,952 
5,545,407 
5,335,458 
6,414,722 
4,875,881 
4,701,331 
4,247,674 
* m\.052 
.i.^>^^!^74 
4,24Ji.()29 

r..;{^ .1.157 

(i,lti)-{,:i5i5 

:.;;?.). r-'i2 

7.52:iJW) 
(;.:,ris.:i40 
V.nt>K4lO 

<i,:()t;,r47 
;.|>1!».:J85 
ti. 411,025 
(i,tis«i,(37 
ti, I(>;.r.44 
5. <C.K 484 
:.. Ts:*. 150 
r.. :.V(K 710 
."i. i:r..016 
4.K«t.l44 



Other cattle. 



Number. 



a38.100 
348,200 
351,000 
355,100 
340,800 
3S3,700 
317,200 
450,000 
414,000 
397.400 
377,530 
470,200 
485,504 
466,084 
466,084 
475,406 
470,652 
461,239 
475,076 
484,578 
400,349 
400,556 
460,165 
575,206 
546,446 
519,124 
456,829 



Value. 



$4, 99 >. 737 

4, 8a; J 116 

4,80(i,:^2 
5,04!l 
3,87S 
3,94- 
3,46 
4.77 
8,841 
4,34. 
4,43'> 
6.451. JS6 
7. 29c;. -270 
7,80r* .:346 
7,471 27 
6,38 04 
6,61 S7 
5, 81.., 1 173 
0,10!>.192 
5,600 r45 
4,79- 95 
4,92 87 
4.49 08 
6,00.i..O4 
5, 19s. 1)90 
5,40;J,J15 
4,907,805 



Sheep. 



Hog8. 



Number. 



Value. 



l,52iM00 


$6,824,800 


280,000 


1,5a 


00 


5,248,256 


291,200 


1.59 


00 


5,396,508 


294,100 


1,42 


00 


4,390,5.81 


302,900 


1,19 


00 


4,105,640 


318,000 


1,02 


00 


5,357,808 


318,000 


1,08 


00 


4.688,849 


321,100 


1.90 


00 


7,714,000 


827,500 


1,90 


00 


4,218,000 


323,700 


1,71 


(JO 


5,8a5.300 


826,900 


1,62 


U) 


5.227,670 


320,302 


2,05 


61 


9,328,688 


266,651 


1,98 


5;i 


11.047,487 


269,318 


2,12 


66 


8.873,618 


274.704 


2.02 


68 


8,128.703 


282,945 


2.12 


46 


6,788,222 


288,flG4 


1,91 


81 


5,922,181 


294,376 


1.85 


70 


6, 774, 825 


300,264 


2,03 


77 


8.095,620 


306,260 


2,24 


15 


7.932,059 


303,206 


2,28 


59 


7,590,293 


300,174 


2,28 


59 


7.741,239 


312, 181 


1,98 


41 


9,339,843 


321,546 


1,9:) 


49 


9,265,780 


S34,408 


1,93 


49 


7,002,990 


344,440 


1,91 


49 


6.384,190 


3U.440 


1,79 


04 


6,978,152 


337,651 



Horses. 
Number. Value. 



$23,654,400 
24,000,977 
23.492,706 
23,477,779 
20,746,320 
19,919.520 
17.750,408 
17,328.025 
14.242,800 
16,203,275 
17,293,141 
14,025,843 
17.551^54 
19,50 ^;«13 
19,86.' ; 39 
18.961 758 
19,66: 165 
20,09 34 
22.03 45 
21,45 83 
21,20 56 
21.52 78 
20,42 24 
18,83 62 
15.00 00 
13.75 44 
12,29 44 



Number. 



400,000 
392.000 
372,400 

a^o.ooo 

325,500 
341,700 
345.100 
8.50.000 
858,500 
858,500 
858,500 
675,478 
605.478 
655,214 
635,558 
603,780 
561,515 
516,594 
526,026 
511,118 
611,118 
506,007 
541.427 
519, 770 
493,782 
439.466 
382,335 



Value. 



$664,000 

682.000 

718. 73B 

731.500 

651.000 

730.987 

093.651 

1.632.000 

1,287.750 

1.373,600 

1.322.000 

1.148.313 

1,229,370 

1,172.833 

1,137.649 

967. 2% 

846.877 

8^.440 

907.261 

968,722 

1,055,663 

1.105.879 

1.230.2K5 

939,952 

767,633 

651.068 

549.836 



Mules. 
Number. Value. 



94,600 
08.300 
100,200 
103,200 
107.300 
101.900 
09,800 
101,700 
99,700 
96,700 
96,700 
172.968 
170,427 
178, 191 
183,537 
187,208 
190, a52 
194,771 
,208,405 
229,246 
224,661 
223.414 
220.190 
198. 171 
200.1.53 
182,139 
169,389 



$9,981,246 
9.a4.S,:Wi 
l*,:W.'i.tl.>4 
t>, 374. t><8 
7.81*4,061 
6,910.a58 
6,976,024 
5.77T.577 
4,!tJri.l77 
5. 4< Hi. 497 
(i. 'Sir,. 477 

ie..v*}. ir> 
i:i4io.2in 

l.'J.Hi'->>40 
H.dls.Vii; 

13, < ►44}. 44.1 
13,ri21..772 
I4.:ij*i.ri61 

14, \m. 102 
l«,:t,*7.iXc; 
ifj..Vii..v)n 

]4,(Ki.:«v7 
ll,rir5.:tTri 
9.U2.7tji» 

7.ams'it 
6.tj:jr>,(>S2 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



297 



TEXAS. 

Table shoiciiig the estimated mnnber and value of fann animals for the years is:0 

to ISOGj iACliisive, 



Vcar. 



Cattle. 



Milch cows. 
Number. I Value. 



Other cattle. 
Number. Value. 



Sheep. 
Number. ' Value. 



1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 

[m 

1884 
18H5 
18W 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1883 

]m 

1895 
1896 



Year. 



002, 

5^, 
SM, 

rm, 

505, 
550, 
544, 
566, 
566, 
liOO, 
660, 
667, 
700, 
700, 
7.35, 
772, 
838, 
W3, 
8.->l, 
86K, 
816, 
808, 
810, 
783. 



$7,653,095 
8,505.888 
7,M3,700 
8.089,125 
7,018,245 
7.861,572 
7,339,103 
8,112.500 
7,011,585 
7,843.256 
8.013,145 
10,l«7,8O* 
14.058,588 
16,353.774 
16.821,024 
14,23r).774 
11,656.973 
10,972,567 
11,302,438 
11,033.280 
12.0a5.581 
12,380,557 
11,841,889 
11,189.848 
11,808,05^ 
14.024,615 

I2.;m.8?j 



:; s\:t,;0O 

X'.4ir>,,s00 
:',;^i7.40O 
■J. -Mil. TOO 
;;.:>^M. .'00 
:;. 4.%s. ;;00 
-,.^nt.()00 
1. hit. (.00 
4,i):'».;.'40 

i. (tdjOO 
4. :.'::. TOO 
4.*i;u,o23 
4.«e!. 177 

«,,:pi.:.04 

r, It;: 

r.trjf 

T.'rjt 



^84 
-53 
.196 
496 



r...V. •1.787 
i;,*MVl,-444 
.\:>1^.<'44 
5.242.riJJ 



$23,731.4^)0 
2.5,299,540 
21,344,922 
19.543,822 
17,755,500 
22.420,209 
31.328.230 
35.1«20,490 
43,920.000 
;».W(»,320 
41,3:«,236 
42,014.165 
ft>,223,9()0 
74.902,527 
06, 784, 736 
.52.298,087 
73,292,232 
<53,077,993 
65.907,JW*i 
63,294,293 
<J2,444,260 
♦S2, 177,330 
58. .512. 448 
62,604.840 
50.081.024 
W, 520, 010 
58.417.413 



1,137,300 1 
1.239,600 1 

1.230.600 ; 

1,338,700 
1,415,700 
1,691.400 
2.836.700 
3.674.700 
4.560,000 
5.148.400 
6.(K«.028 
6.850,000 
7.877,500 
7.956,275 
7.558.461 

31 
.:30 

!51 

.40 



1 l^.' 



.^,^lll. 175 
) ;..L.V)1 
.,.v,.4.405 
3,7:18,117 
3,065,25<i 
2.789.38:1 



$1,502,220 
l.K44,192 
2.2:^1.280 
2. 7(M. 174 
2, 775. 744 
3..S82.800 
5, 7tW. 44i8 
7.680.12:1 
8.20S,<») 
9.7:>0.476 
12,:ilM,4:i7 
14.:i>*5.0«)0 
18, IN Nt. 000 
17,822,056 
14, 7:i8. WW 
11.582.812 
7.71H.1LN 
6,s«g.774 
6,740.215 
7.2:i0.W'»i 
7.»J01.<J82 
7.80S.230 
6,024.445 
.5,(»75,065 
4.541.812 
:i.8fl»,510 
:K 650, 1-4)7 



Hof^B. i Horses. 

Number. Value. Numlx»r. , Value. 



Mules. 
Number. Valuo. 



1870 

18n 

1872 

1873 

1874 

1875 

1876 

1877 

1878 

187» 

1880 

1881.... 
1W2... . 

\m 

1884 

1885.... 
1886... 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1800 

1891.... 
1882.... 

1883 

1»4... 
1»5.... 
18W.... 



200. ( 

272, ( 

233,1 

147 

147,^ 

090, ( 

I44,j 

716,' 

957, 

817,1 

0515.1 

806,: 

ft53.] 

Oil. 

2:1:1, ( 

411. 

532, 

279. ( 

210.: 

321.; 

321, 

321,; 

.^4. 

.5.55, • 

7M,', 

085. 

944,1 



000 


83,312,000 


615.700 


000 


3,421.680 


640,300 


800 


:i, 578, 020 


6?2.3no 


400 


3,821,564 


009,100 


400 


3,li>5,a50 


720,000 


000 


4,458.100 


770,400 


500 


4,715.340 


785.800 


700 


0,300,289 


725,000 


000 


5.694,870 


918.000 


800 


4,635.:390 


96:1,900 


90rj 


0,:i72,:w7 


1,002,456 


300 


0,:i5.2,605 


838,343 


189 


7,77;3,69:> 


880.260 


785 


7,68.5,019 


889.06:) 


081 


8,128.415 


933.516 


7**7 


0,656,367 


998.862 


313 


7Am,i7Q 


1, WW. 816 


082 


6,4:W.128 


1.225.803 


710 


8,ti8:i.rj<» 


1,32:1,867 


2^16 


8.07:1,202 


l,:fi0.344 


244} 


0,569,126 


1.. 512. .385 


246 


7.311,924 


1,200,908 


458 


9,049,«J8 


1.2445.205 


450 


10,97:1,142 


1,18:1.80(5 


,:ui 


10,111.592 


1,19.5.7:« 


.119 


10.896,078 


1.183,777 


,065 


7,301,281 


1,160,101 



$19,880.95.4 
21,:iJ8,388 
25, 150. 74:1 
28,635,710 
23,457,600 
25.554,168 
33,754,7:14 
10 001,250 
;i<» ,^«3,200 
:n ;;ii,i07 

:•<• N<35,821 
:.'.t ;ai.l76 
;^^; 168.197 
:u '57.879 

;; s>4,074 

;v '>1,466 
:;!.f;42,055 
ivll5.ia5 
!v 7:1.694 
;,..^.176 
19,61.3,:i2:3 
:18.092.747 
:i6.151.4(W 
:i2,20;3.:i76 
25.168.04:1 
24.528,6K1 
20..571.»W 



82.900 
87,000 
92,200 
97,701) 
101,600 
110.700 
112,900 
160,000 
180,300 
191.000 
202,460 
1.39.210 
14:5. :J86 
149, 121 
1(U,(K» 
175, 515 
186,04<J 
19:1.488 
2<1S.967 
213. 146 
215,277 

:««), 2:30 

211. V51 
253, 8:39 
261.4.54 
:)»4.069 
261.428 



i^.:j:35,670 

4.205,580 
.5.209.300 
.5.55<i.l9n 
4.804,664 
5,1112.413 
.5.57D,.518 
7,147,200 
7,249.416 
7.991.440 
0,041.864 
7.280,IW3 
7.527,765 
8.842.H75 
9,44H.:»H 
9.56(^.081 
9,6:17.2:12 
10.0:12.2.54 

11, 2:3:1. :U3 

11.31:1.579 

li,9;32.mv5 

12,272.8.52 
11. 83.5. .587 
11,351. :5.r> 
9,256.418 
9.12.5.2fti 
7,799,2.59 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



298 



BUBEAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



UTAH. 

Table showing the estimated number and value of farm animals for the years 1870 

to 1S96, inclusive. 





Cattle. 


Sh 


eep. 

Value. 


Year. 


MUchcows. 


Other catUe. 




Number. 


Valae. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


1870 










1871 










' 


1872 










1 


1873 








...... ,. 1 ..1 


1874 








t 


1875 








1 1 


1876 








: 1 




1877 








1 




1878 . . .. 








1 




1879 












1880 












1881 








1 




Iftsri 


36,070 
38,473 
40,012 
42,013 
44,534 
49,878 
51,873 
52,910 
52,910 
54,497 
55,042 
56,143 
56.704 
57,271 
56,696 


0:r.Ll'72 
l,;i»^.4(l8 

i,:rf0.5'»i 

l.^fW.OtiO 
1,2.^9,4:10 

i.;t>i,BH5 

1.169,311 

i.ioo.ri:^ 

l."J10.a78 

i.:ci,o08 

1,010,574 
55a. 998 
870,519 

1,017/729 


108,000 
132,180 
145,306 
162.846 
219,842 
435,000 
421,950 
426,170 
883,553 
402,731 
800,640 
851,584 
358,616 
369,374 
858,293 


$:.',;iri,080 

;l 157,780 
;:v»,797 
:;. )8,586 
4, »,871 
T. 32,733 
(i 31,162 
n »,615 
r, 58,618 
r. (9,512 
r. K,016 
4, 75.882 
4 1M.866 
4 J3,114 
4 »,162 


513,000 
564,300 
620,790 
651,767 

00 
00 
DO 

...r.M.-.OO 

:.u-:,.!a) 
;, il7,.-.77 

J. :>():,. sl9 
• (1:^:^26 

J.tH's.Hl 
■!.^»^'.s.4.41 


Sl,m.iOO 
l.S07.8n 


1883 


1884 


1,315, M8 


1885 


1,356,506 


1886 


hw,m 


1887 


sltm'Ait 


1888 


2.7V8.674 


1889 


4.281,617 


1890 


b,(m,tti 


1891 


4,650,Sl 


1892 


5^on^S 


1893 


3,086.480 


1894 


2.808,685 


1895 


8,lS7.5Sr 


1896 


3,086,89 







Year. 


Hogs. 


Horses. 1 Mules. 


Number. 


Value. 1 Number. 


Value. Number. 


Value. 


1B70 




i 








1871 1 










1872 












1873 








1 


1874 






. .. i . 


1 


1875 














1876 














1877 














1878 














1879 








1880 ! 


; 






1881 


1 






1882 


22 500 


$279,450 
224.404 
243.526 
197.357 
237,052 
286,846 
4;C.939 
328,819 
350.460 
416.274 
417.624 
438.887 
386.200 
393,671 


44,100 
48,510 
50,936 
52,464 
56.136 
120.092 
132.761 
138.889 
90.609 
07,957 
76.791 
69.112 
09,803 
71.897 


$:,M40.173 

:^;e-M74 
;.'.-t59.70e 
:.',4jn.H06 
V. 4m, 490 

4. !•(«•.. ♦06 
4.r»:tl,:!58 

4.Kj.^.ra2 
:>.;{i'>. 151 
:.'.4li.;^ 

l,ilii.J86 

1.129,671 

902,149 

1,207,941 


3,G60 
3,152 
3,247 
3.408 
3,579 
3,686 
4,055 
4,066 
4,055 
2,028 
1,825 
1,788 
1,789 
1,735 
1,648 


^5. OB 
197, ?B 


188:1 


24,525 
26,242 
27.554 

40,118 
50.148 
47.641 
47,641 
48.594 
47.130 
51.850 
54,443 
56.621 
53.700 


1884 


203, ;ks 


1885 


214.554 


1886 


215. 0BS 


1887 


a)l,6B8 


1SK8 


lflB.803 


1889. 


178.818 


!«¥) 


in, 887 


1891 


Ul,aB8 


18i« 


87.74S 


1K93 


56.1S8 


1894 


45.731 


1895. 


40.865 


1890 


293,382 71.178 


40,254 











Note.— Returns from Utah previous to 1882 were included with Nevada, Colorado, and the 
Territories. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL BEPOBT. 



299 



VBRMOIfT. 

Table showing the estimated number and valve of farm animals for the years 1S70 

to 1S96, inclusive. 



Year. 



1S70 
1871 

isns 

1873 
1874 
1875 
IKV 

1877 

vm 

1B79 
1880 

laa 

1882 
1868 

1881 
1685 

1886 
1887 



Cattle. 



Milch cows. 
Number. Value. 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
1872 
181S 
1874 
187a 
1876 
1877 
187K 
1879 
1880 
1881 
188S 
10B3 
1884 
1885 
188B 
1887 
1888 
SBO 

urn 

1868 



193, 
Wl, 
1%, 
195, 
201, 
209, 

«r 

207, 
200, 
231, 
2S5, 
230, 
2S5, 
218. 
221, 
235, 
232, 
234, 
234, 
230, 
236, 
246, 
253, 
j^, 
263, 



Other cattle. 
Number. Value. 



$9,210,250 
7,027,378 
41,914.081 
6,947,350 
7.834,600 
7,000,150 
9, 2rA 300 
6,370.600 
5,445.000 
6.187,855 
4,881,654 
6,667,174 
6,848.544 
7.139.827 
r,,sa8,488 
(;.!>08,25J5 
(. (»19,131 
fi, 173,343 
(i, 096,758 
n. 578,748 
r. -.14,087 

n.sss.oei 

r>.t 144.167 
n. .12,066 

*l,!t25,5(4 
*,. iL'i.gSO 
ti. i77,635 



140,600 
130,700 
130,700 
128,000 
130,500 
130,500 
131,800 
130,400 
127,800 
126,500 
126.235 
187,983 
187,933 
187,933 
180,416 
176.806 
178,676 
180,382 
185,778 
160,063 
167,308 
166,688 
100,717 
152,681 
146,574 
143,643 
137,897 



'4. u;j. 190 

5.01? J 84 

i.tei.dio 

;{.fs;27.:">65 

;ij>77.rao 
2.!»?a.*«4 

:,\7(K>.U4 

:i, tiim. ;ao 
+.(>:!», ra2 
(Msl.116 
r.. IHLH75 
5.1:?M.:J06 

4.w;r,.493 

4.77l.r«j 
:{.H:u,r«3 
:{. ^s'^. .^«4 
;i,(;H:,r98 
:;,'.{Ui.i22 
:{jhi:M64 
;;.(*;«*, S14 

a, 014, 576 



Sheep. 



Number. 



548.000 
580,800 
604,000 
543,600 
516,400 
400,500 
475.700 
461,400 
460.000 
408.600 
508, 6?2 
444,209 
448,712 
448, n2 
385,892 
878,174 
878, 174 
303,301 
865,770 
862,112 
861,249 
358,274 
329,612 
280,170 
226,938 
181,550 
157.948 



Value. 

$1,4T),760 
2,474,208 
2,434,120 
l,»r>l.G24 
2,028,452 
1,834,470 
1,350,088 
1,801,148 
1,668,280 
1,735,128 
1,688,450 
1,466,088 
2,046,127 
2,038.665 
1,142,240 
1,082,081 
1,061,458 
1,120.270 
1,111,941 
1,070,114 
1,096,038 
1,179,725 
1,199,302 
604,719 



818,423 



H 


Value. 


Horsea. 


mber. 


Number. 


V 


66,700 


$1.133,9C0 


71,000 


$ri. 


61,300 


583,576 


71,000 


tJ. 


&8.S00 


516,302 


71.000 


(', 


53,500 


513.065 


71,000 


r, 


53,400 


655,000 


72,400 


('. 


51,800 


631,442 


74,500 


c. 


53,300 


5*9,523 


75.200 


;> 


54.300 


434^400 


75,900 


■1 


fi0,6(X) 


290,880 


77,400 


4 


49,430 


375,934 


77,400 


4 


49,4<» 


406.562 


77,400 


4 


75,030 


843.163 


75,967 


4 


74,864 


873,663 


76,119 


t 


74,864 


646,825 


76,680 


i\ 


74,1L5 


619.601 


77,049 


<i 


74,115 


611.112 


79,303 


i; 


74,850 


589.688 


83,370 


V, 


76.a53 


688,385 


84,841 


J 


77,117 


714,486 


86,962 


7 


77,888 


667,682 


84,353 


<'t 


75,551 


554,210 


84,353 


i\ 


74,795 


587,412 
751,205 


90,258 


i\ 


74,047 


«8,986 


(; 


76,288 


605.082 


94,826 


r> 


77.031 


730.007 


98,877 


4 


78,572 


582,990 


91,999 


4 


76,215 


555,791 


88,319 


■» 



Mules. 



1.031, 

7r»(K 
i.or.t, 

.r.-oi, 

.ISli. 

.717! 

..5(ti. 



71M, 



790 
t«0 

r&o 
:m 

33 

:J80 

m 

t<J8 
104 
770 

JrOO 

r»51 

im 
;{17 

163 
•i71 

on 
111 

1.94 

m 

:»1 

m 

H51 
.106 
J81 
151 



Number. 


Value. 










































286 
295 
300 


$35,025 
26,777 
27,000 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



300 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



VIRGINIA. 

Table showing the estimated nuinber ami value of farm aniimds for the years 1S70 

to 1896 J inclusive. 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
18?2 
1873 
1874 
1875 
187(5 
1877 
1878 
187« 
1M8() 
1881 
1HH2 
I88:i 
1884 
1885 
188<} 
18«7 
V^» 
1881) 

\m) 

1891 
1892 
I8«l 
1891 
1895 
189J 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
1872 
187.J 
1874 
1875 
I87«) 
1877 
1878 
IHI?! 

\m) 
l.^xi 

I>^S2 
l^Ki 
18,-i4 
18S5 
1SS<5 
1887 
1888 
1880 
18H0 
1801 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
189G 



Cattle. 









- 


Sheep. 


Milch cows. 


Other cattle. 






Namber. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


229.600 


$8,676,155 


387,800 


$8,489,052 


394,800 


PB^m 


234,000 


5,833,620 


405,700 


6,982,007 


386,900 


1.044,630 


234,000 


5,543,460 


405,700 


«.?H4 159 


886. 9(« 


1.176,i:tf 


»M.O0O 


6,148,000 


405,700 


(iJtTs.iHO 


367,600 


1,065,730 


220,300 


6,260,142 


397,600 


r.. lt".:t,rJOO 


887.500 


1.096,150 


227.0ri0 


6,168,790 


897,500 


tl. :n!.s50 


3.56,400 


1,044.2^3 


229,200 


5,014,896 


893,500 


(;,'::Ki.:20 


887,000 


1.031,270 


240,600 


6,122,374 


4.31,100 


(',..>H).(?<3 


422,000 


1,088, 7«l 


238.200 


4,261,398 


4:J1,100 


fi,;r^". 101 


417.800 


923.33(( 


240,000 


4,537,716 


431,100 


rvt;s:;,:«il 


426.100 


»30.5B 


243,006 


4,677,865 


431,100 


^.:;:,'t,;589 


447,405 


1,199.045 


240,631 


4,714,368 


429,829 


7. (;•.'-), 166 


602,282 


1,215. 610 


245,353 


6,424,755 


441.232 


s. >*.'., r^O 


5(B,282 


1.371.175 


^ld,a')8 


5,606,816 


436,820 


h,t':c,,t'51 


487,194 


1.^6.961 


247,807 


6,024,188 


432.452 


H,!'-i.;i53 


477.450 


1.250,919 


247,807 


5,4(H,671 


423,803 


;.sul:59 


483,127 


1.035. 9£S 


255,241 


6,870,543 


428,041 


^,;c,^.:i33 


440.233 


1.031.134 


257,793 


5,542,550 


423,761 


T.:i*>>.725 


444.741 


1.078,063 


250,082 


5,342,271 


419.623 


i.'.'iVlOO 


435,846 


1,085.257 


2?2,036 


6,244,854 


419,623 


<; ;>.,■', ;'«3 


444.563 


1.151.063 


2n,477 


6,018,476 


419,523 


r,,',i:iK 157 


444,563 


1,283.7a) 


280,2:52 


6,235,607 


419,623 


:.:,';{. 1,56 


449.000 


1.370.016 


279,411 


5,588,220 


403,937 


r,.:,M.(<i6 


496.400 


1,497,194 


276,617 


5.001,235 


411,000 


fi.:.ih;.n36 


488,432 


1.217.651 


273,851 


5,014,212 


394,666 


r..:;}i.s56 


449.:)57 


974,0*7 


26.5,635 


4,818.619 


386.670 


ti. I:w.s96 


426.889 


mism 


260,322 


4,657,161 


371,208 


:».;-:{. ;«o 


392.738 


840.774 


H 


ogs. 


Hf 


►rsos. 


Mules. 


Number. 


Value. 


Numlx>r. 


Value. 


Numlwr. 


Value. 


757, 500 


$4,242,000 


178, 500 


,s!5. 180,005 


29.400 


$3,202,542 


810, 500 


2,901,590 


183,800 


H :'fl0,484 


20.400 


3.246,34S 


818,600 


3,004,262 


185.600 


IV 130,392 


20.400 


3,213.430 


7.5.3, 100 


2.643,381 


189.300 


M 71,656 


29.600 


8.073,3W 


mz, 7(X) 


2,717,070 


191,100 


I 01,242 


29.800 


2.896 )«S8 


589.800 


2, 62*, 610 


194,900 


! 51,397 


29.800 


2.650.«<0 


607.400 


2,781,892 


198.700 


1. 24,098 


29.800 


2.366,716 


759.200 


2,006,432 


204.600 


1- 07,960 


31,200 


2.^5.912 


713, 600 


].9({9,536 


2<J8,700 


1 '98,490 


:io.600 


1.942.488 


60:>. 100 


2.422,350 


212.900 


i - 75,68^ 


:»,30o 


2, 042. .'K J 


9.-j(»,800 


3,7;W.644 


227,803 


1 : 95.283 


31.612 


2,258.045 


889.499 


4,180,645 


221,026 


l:i.:!14.606 


33.934 


2,456.4« 


773,864 


4.147.911 


221.468 


I\;79,595 


34.062 


3,345,TW 


820,296 


3.478,055 


22;».897 


hi. ,-,62, 768 


84.002 


8,000.117 


795.687 


8,421.154 


2:»,285 


iw;&<.497 


;^4,342 


8.057.125 


875. 256 


3,206,063 


233.871 


16,267.609 


ai.342 


2.237.296 


787,730 


8.237.570 


238.548 


16.725,673 


;»,372 


8.058.090 


811.362 


8.521,313 


243,319 


17.249.636 


:e,726 


8.121.1.W 


s:.'7,589 


3,434.495 


246,909 


17,496,863 


38.083 


8.193,125 


1.1X»9,6.59 


3, 635), 764 


259,317 


18,172,031 


:»,083 


3.116,584 


969,273 


3,426,381 


243,758 


17.781.396 


36,444 


8.214.85:1 


978,966 


3,590.722 


246,196 


18,407.152 


37.173 


8.319.391 


920,228 


3,772,013 


248,658 


17.ia5,626 


37.545 


8,109.067 


920,228 


4,060,044 


251,145 


14.074,839 


30,422 


2,756.400 


9.)7,037 


4.041,567 


2513,656 


11,327,410 


38,634 


8.244,254 


985,748 


8,768,514 


246,016 


9,808.229 


:18.246 


2,134,133 


995,605 


3,361,164 


243,580 


8,870,380 


37,483 


1.820,S90 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNCAL REPORT. 



301 



WASHINaTON. 

Table shoiring the estimated lutmber and value of farm a)iimals for the yoars ls:o 

to ISOO, inclushr. 



1878. 

18H0. 
1«81. 
1«2. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889- 
1860. 
1891. 
18(C. 
1863. 
18W. 
18». 
1886. 



1870... 


Year. 


Cattle. 
Milch cows. Other cattle. 
Number. Value., Number. Value. 

: i 


Sheoi). 

' Niimber, Value. 

1 


1871 


1 


1 


1872 




1873 


1 ■ 1 


1874 


, 


1875 




1878 


i 1 


1877 


1 1 



Year, 



31,200 


^78,432 


117,J10O 


$2.8U.(r27 


;i90,oo(j 


59.w.r)00 


45,632 


I.tl«5.r-i68 


230,376 


5, TTii, 540 


456.300 


1.090,557 


51, 108 


1.712,118 


253,414 


li. 979, 0-22 


533,871 


1.270,62-3 


56,730 


lb 15, 380 


286,358 


7,i4r,/.m 


ryii, .548 


1.22:3,491 


62,403 


:-',(i.39,299 


300,676 


7.(W7..H49 


555,430 


1.110,878 


65,523 


:.MS1,910 


300,676 


'iJhVK 177 


549, 885 


1,0(W,976 


72,731 


- :.09.22O 


315,710 


7,91:{,1X)1 


5«iO,88:3 


l,aW,82S} 


83,641 


:;,(m.875 


300,381 


8, 684, r>35 


673,060 


1.5t,5,34<i 


93,005 


•im,is.'i 


443,257 


9,2aJ,HJ6 


673,060 


l.'ii«,iW»7 


96,605 


;;.:tS1.175 


447,690 


9,345.r>12 


686,521 


1,8.58,824 


101.435 


;t.:it7.355 


429,782 


9,49ii,(.7:3 


823, 8215 


2.:fcJ8,i:)J 


108, 5a5 


:i, 117, 125 


408,293 


8,487.108 


K.32.063 


1.989,796 


113,963 


»',.s35,375 


428, 708 


0.8S7,tl72 


748,857 


I.;}04,:>KI 


117,381 


2,591.772 


381.550 


5,80:1.002 


756,346 


1.3l8.4fti 


120,902 


2,83lV;tel 


351, •)26 


r^.-.m.'^u 


741,219 


1.375,K-,1 


H 


ogs. 


Ho 


rsos. 


Mules. 


Numl)er. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 



1870 

1871. 

18?i. 

1873. 

1S74. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 

1881. 

1883. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885- 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1888. 

1800. 

1801. 

1802. 

1803. 

1804. 

1805. 

1890. 





















__ ' 







5<>,:300 
54.827 
»W,599 
66. 779 
90, 152 
91,054 
95,607 
143.411 
147.713 
152,144 
158.230 
162,977 
211,870 
2;)9,413 
210,683 


f272.tf:iJ 
423.813 
4«), 712 
321.2W5 
;{84,019 
15.j,997 
5S:», (k"8 
78,>,8SI2 
888,052 
987, 476 

1,208.878 
897,678 

1,180,268 

1.041,160 
700,310 


.v.. 640 

♦i8,994 

73.824 

8l,94;-> 

94,2137 

96,122 

98.044 

118,633 

148,291 

170,535 

196,115 

198,076 

200,057 

192,055 

176,601 


S^I. 410. 7;k 
4.7:18,508 
4.78.3.057 
.5,52»J,82l 
6,018.458 
5.9.->5.6'37 
6,;357.22:3 
7,537,475 
10,3^^,819 
10,018.740 
11,683,903 
8,010,067 
6,457,895 
5.574,956 
3,616,227 


840 
874 
961 
1,009 
1.231 
1.2433 
1,243 
1.268 
1,306 
1.371 
1.378 
1.392 
1,392 
1,420 
1,420 


?8(),254 




7:tjm 

K). 705 




8;-), 7i'm 




H12.247 




99.52!» 




KM, 367 




108.06!) 




116,81«1 




W), 108 




«J,017 




96,295 




56.616 




56, aw 




r)5.677 







Note.— Returns from "Washington previous to 1882 were included with Nevada, Colorado, and 
the Territories. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



302 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



WEST YIBOINIA. 

Table showing tlie estimated number and rxUue of farm animals for the years 1S70 

to 1896, indusive. 



Year. 



1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
187fi 
1877 
1878 
1879 

im) 

1881 
188*i 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1689 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 



Cattle. 



Milch OOW8. 



Number. 



Value. 



117,300 
118,400 
130,700 
124,300 
124,300 
125,500 
125,500 
126.700 
130,500 
131,800 
133,118 
157,427 
158.214 
161.378 
164,606 
166,252 
167,915 
171,273 
176,411 
179,939 
181,738 
183,565 
184, 106 
182,265 
180,442 
175,029 
171,628 



Other cattle. 



Number. 



<f,'i:o,.s29 


233,200 


4,Ott7,840 


238,200 


;),5!^i.860 


285,500 


.'i.4is,;j50 


242,600 


;;.;t'^7.i75 


287.000 


0,2:^4.135 


235,200 


;i. 'j:5k r.l5 


235,200 


:S. 4(14, 429 


244,600 


M, (KM, 140 


242,400 


^^ 71^^46 


232,700 


- st;;j.H56 


237,364 


■}, 1*27. ^€4 


298,473 


4,57;{J«7 


289,519 


5.012.401 


289,519 


4.77:5.574 


288,519 


4,;J2r.,128 


289,519 


4.44<>,:48 


286,624 


4,l*-*2.r41 


280.802 


4,128,(117 


283,701 


;j.8T2,?.«7 


286,538 


4,(1H!)J06 


286,638 


4.1(3H.r)84 


282,269 


:},r2H.i47 


283,501 


;5,4i*o,;^5 


854,376 


:t.:>i»9.rj97 


339,570 


;;, 59.-1. («6 


296,613 


:i. t>]l . 248 


266,952 



Value. 



|6,961,t02 
6,77s,(»2 
5,807.130 
5,538.^)0 
5.684 :300 
6,087. :nB 
4,92ii.;»4 
5,2&s.ll)0 
4,787.400 
4,38.5.452 
4,785.(67 
6,67t>,S41 
tt.mi.:3e0 
7,401). 106 
6,76<;jl69 
5.2&j,:i27 
5,824.480 
5,19(K!)13 
5,127.(191 
5,16r>.H82 
5,24.^.102 
5.46.-.. 723 
5,001, H07 
5,387.721 
4,932.221 
4,66:1. it85 
4,481..^ 



Sheep. 



Number. 



562,000 

540,000 

561,000 

565.900 

539.200 

544.500 

544,600 

549.900 

571,900 

600,500 

600.550 

681,517 

684.925 

6n,226 

637,005 

624,912 

503,606 

474,933 

484.432 

508,654 

518.827 

SS9.204 

841,434 

765,705 

035,535 

514,783 : 

458,157 



Value. 
1.290,m 

i.4».fn 

1.4110. MB 
1.931«aM 
1.380, 4» 

i,2SB,ai 

1,193,» 

1,2IS,€B« 
1.605. W 
1.600,Ui 
1.0SB,18i 

i,i5i,m 
i.42i,m 

1.174.2M 
1.297.00 
1.073.01 
1.103,01 
1.2n.30 

i.4».4a 

1.646. »C 
2.&19.ai 

1.619. m 

1,187.734 

8M.S1 

l.OOOpOO 



Year. 



1872 
187)3 
1874 

1875 
1870 

isn 

1878 
1871) 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
188G 
1887 
1888 
188JI 
1800 

mn 

1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 



Hogs. 



Number. 1 Value. 



319,000 
331,700 
351,600 
334,000 
310,600 
248.400 
270.700 
281,500 
281,300 
287,100 
504.300 
450,552 
404,406 
434.628 
416, la:} 
416.133 
432,778 
432,778 
454,417 
486,220 
476,501 
481,266 
442.765 
407,344 
378,830 
375,042 
371,292 



$1,. 531. 200 
1,210,705 
l.;i58,728 
l.L'21M20 
1.2<W.:)08 
].;n(i.:«J 
1.2s;jjl8 
l.l(;s.!i25 
7!t:i. 197 
1 , (m. ri60 
i.stft.noo 

2. 1.y».h94 
2..V.I4.(«4 
2.(t,S4,Ul4 
1.7:7!i,436 
Lr,r>i. 133 
1.7,sti.448 
I . Sift. 744 
l.I)H,S.S88 
l.;«i, 139 

i.72;{.rfl9 

l,H:il.(»8 

i.!»7r..ri08 

1.48<),;>17 
1. 5(^470 
1,677,100 



Horses. 



I 



Mules. 



Number. 



97.800 
99.7100 
103,600 
104,600 
106,600 
111.900 
114.100 
117,500 
122,200 
124.600 
127,092 
124,883 
125,257 
126,510 
129,040 
131,621 
135,570 
138,281 
139,664 
146,647 
146,647 
155.446 
158,365 
163,312 
169.844 
161,862 
166,511 



Value. 

$8,002,974 
7,210,;»4 
6,»;W.H40 
U. 850. 254 
6,7:31,790 
ecu. 336 
0.314.394 
0, 147. 000 
5, 805, T22 
5,963.:jS6 
(1, 693. (165 

«.r>fw.;«8 

8,175,584 

8,887.:Sg7 

8,(XI^.848 
8.910,107 
9, 213. 076 
», 341. 337 
9.638,ri81 
9,ait'>,ti41 
10,216,770 
9,3(^.705 
7,.^»86,782 

o.58i.nre 

5,311,341 

5,209,206 



Number. 



2,300 
2,900 
2,300 
2.390 
2,400 
2,400 
2,400 
2,400 
2,400 
2,500 
2,425 
6,164 
6,348 
6,349 
6,340 
6.412 
0,540 
6,475 
0,700 
6,867 
6,867 
7,210 
7,280 
7,001 
7,001 
7.601 
7,601 



Value. 



IM^ttl 
1»1,5M 
174. 8H 
16S.OS 
142. 04 
137.18ft 
119.t0ft 

IS. too 

10,00 
88UO0 
438. 7U 
G07,fiO 
480. 41ft 
484.10 
406,80 
47r.2B 
600.40 
814,4U 
617,632 
627.00 

mhta 

421.0B 
S».QM 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



303 



WISCONSIN. 

Table 8f lotting the estimated number and value of farm animala for the years 1S70 

to 1896, inclusive. 



Year. 



1870 

mn. 

1872 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880 

1861 

1882 

1883 

1884 

m6 

1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
18B0 
1»1 
1888 
1808 
18M 
1886 
1806 





Cattle. 
















bl e«p. 


MUcI 
Number. 

386,200 


ticows. 
Value. 


Other cattle. 


Number 
1,066,000 




Number. 


Value. 


Value. 


$13,617,412 


388,600 


$iu,4;i.-., 110 


S:3,57t>,tUO 


406.500 


11,877,005 


419.500 


ii.uK-eo 


1,008,200 


2,021,212 


425,700 


11,919,000 


440.400 


10,40<-.,f52 


1,153,100 


3,2i>j.273 


442,700 


11.634,156 


444.800 


!*,7.i; 08 


1,187,6C0 


3.ia'i.2ft4 


464.800 


12.256,776 


435,900 


'.K:r.\ 03 


1,211.300 


;;, KM, 442 


474,000 


12,679,500 


448.900 


!M:.; 71 


. ,p« c^^ 


'.ijmjm 


474,000 


12,731,640 


466,800 


'l.'.HI.y. }:96 


l.l.M.iOO 


2,mKm 


450,300 


11,901,429 


513.400 


so.sn,(08 


i.;c!.700 


.1,230.828 


477,300 


<»<>86,024 


533,500 


.^.HKL460 


i.;m:;.ijoo 


2.586.610 


458.200 


:','.i3l,178 


522,700 


^•.:n!*.741 


i,ai«;. 100 


a,U>,479 


439,872 


!M09,749 


517,473 


hKi)ii'-iJ,22 


;i.;?-i.:J6l 


3.:H0.738 


487, Wl 


I'i.it^.llO 


687,752 


ii/.m.:iM 


J.ii'***. 175 


3, n75, m 


517,217 


17.171,604 


689.640 


17,ti*;^.:>77 


i.;Ki,ti77 


:j,51m.:»7 


632, 78( 


i;.;tL3,855 


682,743 


lH.-;is.750 


].;j.'Jii.408 


3.18;».o:t9 


518,716 


I'i. 702,915 


710,053 


17. (}-.!». iil8 


1.:>-M47 


2,wf».or>4 


666,177 


Ki. 1.^1,018 


710,053 


lt;,is'.».(«86 


l,:.Ms,sOO 


2/.m.iM» 


548,222 


U.n«),305 


681.661 


]r,.(i^)s.:j(J9 


■.('::,'.:44 


2, 2^). 462 


648,222 


i:i.iNJ4,iaO 


610,762 


i:!. -1:^^.103 


mi, (.62 


1.0ti2.261 


686,598 


li.r.*U,960 


659,975 


l:'.sis,:»e2 


7".;. 146 


MNRt.895 


674,588 


Ui.:;?«.743 


805,170 


rj, 7::i. 132 


Ni;t,iO0 


2. at.'. 416 


694,826 


I4.ii;»,750 


845.429 


i:;.:ni.5*79 


H^'j.'AO 


2,597,114 


701,774 


11.414.438 


836.975 


i;>.71i',o*22 


!M?7.';08 


2. GH8, m\ 


715,800 


i(i.:i^W,184 


820,236 


l»..V.U.r.'93 


l,l!t.s. 175 


3.008.903 


787. S90 


l'M45,073 


779,224 


];}.»r.i.*;93 


].ik;*i,:;70 


2..Tr>4.22.5 


811,012 


1, 17.621 


748,055 


! i . 7:):,Mt26 


y.c.rm 


1.474,414 


802,902 


17,832.453 


673.250 


n. *>.*;{, s24 


770, ;S0 


l,49K.nf. 


786,844 


18.888.519 


682,855 


ln.5:i.<i04 


71 IS, 722 


l.fuTMOt 



Year. 


H 
Number. 

651,900 

651.900 

658,400 

618,800 

687,800 

640,700 

462,300 

635.300 

635,300 

571.800 

571,800 

1,117,537 

1.162,238 

1,046,014 

1.066,KH 

1,056,265 

1, (no, 452 

1.123,866 

989,002 

1,087.9(6 

1.109,660 

1,100,660 

921,018 

990,228 

911,683 

902,607 

902,507 


Value. 


Ho 
Number. 

310,200 
828.800 
835,300 
335,300 
348,700 
852.100 
859,100 
362,600 
384.400 
392,100 
399.942 
»»,001 
317,521 
381,296 
388,922 
306,700 
408,601 
412,687 
425,068 
4:37,820 
433.442 
463,783 
480.479 
475.674 
466,161 
442.853 
4JK),nO 


rses. 
Value. 

<i4 775,674 
r^.Va'>l,272 
::n. ('39.398 
,;4M2,190 
:it>.s70.822 
;i:5,»H)8,805 
:i;i.r42,696 
iy..-*25.488 
23.283,108 
23,020,104 
25,448,309 
23,ttT0.563 
28,838.829 
31.230.581 
r?n. 097. 5.54 

:i'i.!*57,952 

;;> ^«3,234 

■EMU, 507 

;;i.:;95,550 

;;>.Hr3,249 

;!L 757,833 
:;i.iU.649 
:r,, -19,199 
-7.193,118 
-o.:il6.806 
ls.r.S3,229 
17.;,^, 021 


M 
Number. 

4,800 
5,000 
5,000 
4,800 
6,100 
6,200 
8,500 
8.400 
8,700 
8.900 
8,989 
7.207 
7,423 
7.423 
8,091 
8,010 
8,010 
7,930 
7,851 
7,066 
6,359 
5,342 
5,289 
5.025 
5.025 
4.925 
4.820 


ales. 

Value. 


1870 


$5, 169, .567 
2,874,879 
3,074,728 
2,728,908 
3.038,926 
4,098,506 
3,773.033 
3,602,151 
2,071.078 
2,899.026 
3,019,1W 
8,381.527 

11.34:3,443 
6,359,765 
6.316.241 
5,468,282 
5,314,284 
6,766,798 
7,340,375 
6.141,208 
5.831,263 
5,925,684 
7,663,657 
7, 317, in 
5,807.050 
5,666,011 
4,850,097 


$511,440 


1871 


449.950 


1872 


504,300 


1873 


4^^,768 


1874 


461,244 


1875 . 


44.3,352 


1876 


?2«.585 


1877 


698,040 


1858 


063.723 


1879 


648,721 


lt«0 


696, 108 


wS:::::::::::: 


560. 7a-) 


1882 


705.482 


1888 


714.315 


1884 


747.366 


1885 

1886 

1887 


732,995 
754,877 
716. 424 


1888 


711,693 


18W 


610.681 


18M) 


548,797 


18n 


438,810 


\m?s 


421, S» 


latB 


318.579 


1884 


258,106 


1805 


216.880 


1886 


182. 054 







Digitized by LjOOQIC 



304 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



WYOMING. 

Table shoicing the estimated number aiid value offai^m animals for tlie years 1870 

to 1896 f i)iclu8iv€. 





Milcl 
Number. 


Cat 


tie. 

Other cattle. 
Number. ; Value. 


Sheep. 
Number. ' Value. 


Year. 
1870 


1 cows. 
Valne. 


1871 




1 1 




1872 




1 




1873 








1874 




1 • ! • " 


1875 




1 1 1 


1870- 




1 


1 


1877 






, 


1878 






1 




1879 








1 


1880 








1 


1881 






j 






18S2 


3,916 

4.53;i 

5,666 

6,233 

6,358 

6,994 

8.323 

10,404 

13,005 

13,305 

17,815 

17,815 

18,706 

18,332 

18,515 


§97.900 
149.589 
::.'15, 308 

184, im 

244,790 
305, 454 
3a^529 

429, l&i 
428, (HO 
r>a4, 4.'i0 
4,18,249 

mi, mi 

449. i;J4 
467,504 


80,000 

97,000 

:U.940 

1.-80,916 

1,:S5,298 

K:mi«2 

1,107,173 

1,217,890 

I,(fl6,101 

1 107,062 

774,943 

M)2,437 

767.193 

751,849 

781, 92;^ 


00 
oO 

.:.,,' :w.. 137 
;lmi;^:.mI00 
-s.si.-,.;ia5 
■::;.r,(!t.(i63 

ls.:;4ii.'l47 
[j. •<(>(;. (»1 
I."».in(i.t06 
ll.u:it, 118 
11.9;i:i.(tt2 
I(i,5*i:*.:B2 
l::.oSi 1.717 
i:i.:u7. i31 


sai.ooo 

598,000 

609,960 

518.466 

534; 030 

523.340 

565,207 

1,017,373 

1.119,110 

1.141,492 

1.198,567 

1,198,567 

1,222,538 

1.393.693 

1,6?2,4;C 


$1.591,9)i» 
l,d03,(M'l 


1883 


1884 


1,268 717 


1885 


1.072,188 


1886 


l,047,4tB) 


1887 


l,088,aVj 


1888 


1,187,217 


1889 

1890 


2,240,fei 
2,521,014 


1891 


2,808,070 


1892 


3.300,255 


]893 


2.00d,2K4 


1894 


2,0(H.ia7 


imy 


2.513.9M 


1896 


3.0(^.8S> 







Year. 
1870 


H 
Number. 


ogs. 

Value. 


Horses. 
Number. , Value. 


Mules. 
Number. ' Value. 


1871 




1 1 1 


1872 




1 1 1 


1873 




1 •* ' '. 1 


1874 




i 1 


1875 




...1 1.. . 


1876 




1 . ' ' 


1877 




! .L... ." ....""'. 


1878 




1 1 


1879 




i 1 . ! 


1880 


1 










1881 
















1882 


7a5 


$7,784 




14.&50 
16,3:35 

18,785 

72,oaj 

82,500 


>-n;i- ;*70 

Mtl.TBO 
St;:.»J44 

:t,>^r>.;jeo 

:>.ti7*^.ri75 


780 


$00,840 


1883 




1884. 


1 






1885 


2. 500 
2. 7.50 
2,613 
2,744 
5,200 
10,400 
10,920 
15,834 
15,834 
15,834 
15,834 
17,734 


16,250 

17,506 

17,358 

25,136 

34,424 

60,211 

66,392 

137,993 

106,530 

102,417 

113.933 

80,122 


3,100 
2.8.'j0 
2,«» 
a. 200 
2.880 
2,304 
1.382 
1,888 
1.505 
1,505 
1,445 
1,474 


;M8.uw 


18S6 


198.887 


1887 


K),000 1 :i;)ti.:i79 


227,904 


1888 


108,900 
141,570 
142,986 
100,090 
97,087 
82,624 
82,524 
81,699 
77,614 


].tii.").iao 
r».rMt*..(i97 
r,..>-.-36 
:>. ^i^^ 190 
:.*.niH 1.175 

l,.'KHy,467 

i.;jf>j>.<X)6 

l,ois.ti83 


257,280 


1889 


209,884 


1890 . . 


166,76:} 


1891 


98,040 


1892 


88,942 


1893 


85,870 


1894 


50,018 


1895 


48, 063 


1896 


53,01ft 







Note.— Returns from Wyoming previous to 1882 were included with Nevada, Colorado, and 
the Territories. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF ANIMALS AND ANIMAL 

PRODUCTS. 

The ultimate end of all surplus farm products is to find a market. 
Grenerally speaking, the supply of agricultural products in this coun- 
try always exceeds the demand, hence the foreign market is ever one 
of importance. A careful consideration of the tables which follow 
will show that this country imports many animal products which 
might be produced with ease and profit on our own farms. . 

With these tables, as with all foreign commerce, one must take into 
consideration tariff rates, reciprocity treaties, exceptional demands 
on account of drouths, etc. — all those matters which to some extent 
have a bearing ui)on the law of supply and demand. 

BOGS. 

Table allowing the quantity and value of imports and exports of eggs from 189'^ to 

1896, inclusive, 

[Compiled from reports issued by Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department.] 





Imports. 


Exports. 


Imports ov€ 
Quantity. 


)r exports. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 

Dozens. 
193,742 
161,811 
174,523 
181,754 
405,192 


Value. 


Value. 


188S 


Dozens. 
8,873,066 
2.467,576 
1,641.901 
1,854,962 
en, 359 


Dollars. 

• 879,516 

284,178 

190,487 

219,459 

66,004 


Dollars. 
34,851 
43,096 
28,268 
20,346 
63,460 


Dozens. 
3,179,844 
2,306,265 
1,467,378 
1,773,208 


Dollars. 
344,665 


1888 


241,080 


jflM 


162,179 


1»5 

im 


190,113 
a7,466 






Total 


10,104,884 


1,129,691 


1,106,522 


199,013 


8,998,362 


930,581 







a Excess over imports. 
BUTTER. 



Table showing the quantity and value of imports and exports of butter from 1892 

to 1896, inclusive, 

[Compiled from reports issued by Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department.] 





Imports. 


Expoi-ts. 


Exports over imports. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


ygfjH 


Pounds. 
64,725 
170,387 
62,868 
66,095 
37,623 


DoUars. 

10, 7U 

27,942 

9,921 

10,867 

6,069 


Pounds. 
11,307,937 
6.945,874 
10,089,224 
14,198,014 
27,281,910 


Dollars. 

2,000,600 

1,348,121 

1,730,463 

2,194,481 

3,918,886 


Pounds. 
11,897,937 
6,n4,967 
10,086,356 
14,132,919 
f!7,2ii,2S3 


Dollars. 
1,989.898 


1893 


1,320,179 


1804 


1,720,532 


1866 


2,183,624 


1896 


3,912,277 






Total 


890,606 


65,480 


60,912,465 


11,192,000 


60.686,472 


11,126,510 




_ 



Note.— The exports include exports of foreign butter, a small item. 
7204 20 



Digitized by 



Google 



306 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



CHEESE. 

Table shotving tlie quantity and value of imports and exports of cheese from 1S02 to 

ISOGy inclusive, 

[Compiled from reports issned by Bureau of Statistical, Treasury Department.] 



Year. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Exports over imports. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1892 


Pounds. 

9,210,123 
10,029,649 

9.150,269 
10,440,863 
11,349,856 


Dollars, 
1,297,609 
1,411,857 
1,291,067 
1,471,091 
1,547,741 


Pounds. 

83,302,041 

69,479,432 

69,881,988 

40,894,295 

44,627,889 


Dollars. 
7,851,557 
6,691,656 
6,694,210 
3,414,389 
3,860,146 


Pounds. 

79,091,918 

59,449,8^ 

60.80,669 

30,453,422 

33,280,063 


Dollars, 
6,553,948 
5 280.289 


1896 


1894 

1805 


6,4IB,US 
1,943,288 
2,312,406 


1896 






Total 


60,180,650 


7,018,855 


307,685,585 


28.511,997 


262,506,985 


21.483,142 





NoTB.— The exports include exports of f ocetiirn cheeae, amoantinir to 489^153 pounds, rained at 
$69,237. 

V700L, V700L MANUFACTITRES, ETC. 

Tahle showing tlie value of imports and exports of tvool and wool manufactures 
(including hair of the goat, camd, etc.) for the years 189S to 1896, indnrnve, 

[Compiled from reports issned by Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department.] 



Year. 



1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 

1896. 



Total. 



Imports. 



$58,706,064 
44,192,055 
30,605,194 
94,069,490 
59,680,774 



287,123,697 



Exports. 



$1,018,496 
1,820,543 
1,549,873 
2,310.881 
3,094,660 



9,794,468 



Imports 

orer 
exports. 



$57,167,688 
42,371.512 
29,06S,«I 
91,778,«» 
56,436,114 



277,829,144 



LEATHER AND I»EATHER MANUFACTUREa 

Table showing tlie value of imports and exports of leathei" and manufactures of 
leather from 1892 to 180G, inclusive, 

[Compfled from reports issned by Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Departaient.] 



Year. 



1892 

1893 

1894 

1896 

1896 

Total 



Imports. 

$14,441,349 
13,668,046 
10,660,301 
15,790,701 
11.208,284 


Exports. 

$11,424,156 
13,675,724 
13,161.247 
16,279,190 
18,877,457 


Excess of 
imports t-r) 

or ex- 
ports (-). 

+83,017.198 

- 7,678 
-2.500.916 

- 486,486 

- 7.669,175 


65,768,681 


73,417,783 


— 7, 619. we 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



307 



HORSB8, CATTLB, SHBEP, BTC. 

Table siwwing the number and value of imparts of horses^ cattkf sheep, etc. , for tite 
years 189S to 1896, incliLsive. 

[Ckunpiled from reports iasoed by Bureau of StatisticA, Treasury Department.] 



Tear. 


Horses. 


Cattle. 


Sheep. 


All others, includ- 
ing fowls. 




Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 'Number. 

t 


Value. 


18BS 


14,184 
12,512 

7,798 
14.883 
8,2S8 


$2,461,262 

2,183.657 

923.990 

841,815 

501,819 


3.406 

1,717 

47,2U 

236,888 

141, O^B 


$62,244 

23,066 

257,970 

1,447,612 

988,227 


442,752 
253,181 
206,836 
823.558 
382.443 


$1,604,863 

879,786 

723,583 

840,679 

1.013.481 




$317,381 


180 




480,208 


1£94 




280, 3SB 


]80( 




235.617 


1896 




233.477 




u^.-rw 1 , . 






Total 


57.050 f a.8fil.792 


430,896 


2,779,000 


1,700,765 i 5.Q63.aDe 




1.516,989 






-, ' 











CATTLE. 

Table shotting the number and value of cattle exported, and countries to which 
exported, for the years 1802 to 1896, incluMve. 

[Compiled from reports issued by Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department.] 
1892. 189a [ 1894. 



Country to which 
exported. 



United Kingdom 

Germany 

France 

Other Europe 

British North America — 

Mexico 

Central American States 

and British Honduras.... 

West Indies and Bermuda. 

8o<uth America 

Asia and Oceanica 

Other countries 



Total. 



Number. 



290.945 



Value. 



$35,396,084 



Number. 



244,110 



Value. 



$22,712,978 



351 
635 



668 



1,749 

279 

18 



248,284 



30,060 

51,250 

8.657 

38,367 

6.900 

107,923 

27,241 

1,016 

170 



22,984,562 



Number. 



385,794 
9,505 
14,540 
5,860 
715 
2,160 

47 
1,851 
158 
60 
156 



420,835 



Value. 



$36, 
1, 



097,905 
907,712 
197,540 
514,450 
16.104 
35,331 

4,400 
150,284 
13,812 
8.375 
13.581 



38,963,554 



1895. 



Country to which exported. 



Number. 



United Kingdom 

Oermany 

France... .- -.--..... - 

Other Europe 

Brittsh North America 

Mexico 

Central American States and British Hon- 
duras 

West Indies sad Bermuda 

South America 

Asia and Oceanica 

Other countries 



284,258 



208 

1,909 

166 

61 

17 



Total. 



289,350 



Value. 



$96,627,461 



62,400 

66,100 

6,049 

34,503 

12,685 
173,288 
8.735 
3,850 
2,600 



28,997,701 



1896. 



Number. Value. 



385,350 



3,328 
861 

204 

1,817 

45 

107 

2 



394,772 



$35,932,727 



238,150 
211.430 
28,441 

12,196 

123,945 

8.323 

5,500 

700 



36,576,412 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



308 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



HORSES, CATTLB, SHBBP, ETC. 

Table shovnng the number and value of exports of horses, oattle, sheep, etc, for 
the years 189S to 1896, inclusive. 

[Ck)mpiled from reports issued by Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department.] 



Year. 


Ho 
Number. 


rses. 


Mules. 


CatUe. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value.. 


Number. 


Value. 
$35,89(1,724 


1892 


8,025 
8,678 
8,174 
19,970 
26,713 


$622,512 
1,022,424 
1,865,663 
8,065,007 
8,640,782 


1,896 
1,796 
1,982 
4,884 
6.584 


$280,608 
216,762 
201,004 
821,158 
475,106 


290,961 


1893 


248,284 
420,835 
289,360 
894,772 


22,981,562 


1894 


88.963,554 


1895 


26,907,7m 


1896 


36.576,412 






Total 


61,460 


9,716,888 


16,992 


1,444,683 


1,644.202 


100,918.96s 






Year. 


Sh 


eep. 


Hogs. 


All others, including 
fowls. 




Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


1892 


41,850 

88,134 

274,133 

600,260 

823,506 


$151,059 
145,586 
1,711,855 
3,311,797 
1,948.933 


42,170 
2,029 
3,881 
11,852 
83,785 


$582,186 
46,032 
81,479 
116,672 
867,917 




$30,794 


1893 




58,308 


1894 




40,471 


1895 




56.807 


1896 




60S, 384 








Total 


1, in, 975 


7,268,730 


92,717 


1,094,236 




247,799 









HOGS. 

Table showing the number and value of hogs exported, and countries to tohieh 
exported, for the years 1892 to 1896, inclusive. 



[Compiled from reports issued by Bureau of Statistios, Treasury Department.] 




Country to which 


1892. 


m 


93. 

Value. 

$700 
2,047 
84,670 
1,476 
2,805 
8,883 
951 


1804. 


exiwrted. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Number. 


Value. 


United Kingdom 






62 
258 
977 

80 

91 
510 

42 






British North America 






501 
1,305 
66 
149 
1,218 
57 




$8,377 


Mexico 






16,565 


West Indies and Bermuda 






l.OBl 


South America 






2,188 


Asia and Oceanica ... 






7,278 


Other countries 






969 










Total 


42,170 


$582,136 


2,020 


46,032 


3,381 




81,479 







Country to which exported. 



United Kingdom 

British North America 

Mexico 

West Indies and Bermuda. . 

South America 

Asia and Oceanica 

Other countries 



Total. 



1895. 



Number. 



310 

915 

8.105 

23 

22 

1,873 

104 



11,352 



Value. 



$8,940 

3,874 

97,765 

896 

425 

8.596 

1,674 



116,672 



1896. 



Number. 



815 

2,987 

28,848 

56 

21 

1,499 

UO 



33,785 



"Value, 



$2,989 

10.061 

845,066 

1,822 

631 

6.582 

L286 



367,917 



uigiTizea oy VjOOy Iv^ 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



309 



8HBEF. 

Table showing the number and value of sheep exported, and countries to which 
exported, for the years 189S to 1896, inclusive. 

[C!ompiled from reports iBsned by Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department.] 



Conntry to which 
exported. 



United Kingdom 

Other Europe 

British North America — 

Kexico 

West Indies and Bermnda. 

South America 

Other countries 

Total 



18Q2. 
Number. Value. 



41,839 



$60,7^ 



Number. Value. 



32,557 

1,861 

2,9i2 

1,828 

46 

38^134 



$106,877 

4,417 

2S,233 

11,832 

728 



145,586 



1894. 



Num'ber. Value 



209,566 



60,467 
5,538 
8,078 
1,581 
3,893 



$1,405,83) 



138,504 
8,648 
23,674 
13,081 
30,606 
1,711,553. 



Conntry to which exported. 



1885. 



Number. 



Value. 



1896. 
Number. Value. 



United Kingdom 

Other Europe 

British North America 

Mexico 

West Indies and Bermuda. 

Sonth America 

Other countries 

Total 



414,914 

20,841 

56,378 

1,768 

4,453 

1,682 

140 



$2,828,047 
168,486 
150,472 
8,047 
83,288 
16,465 
6,180 



600,171 



8,810,986 



241,276 
14,106 
55,848 
6,878 
5,858 
1,482 
122 
323,576 



$1,624,842 
118,420 
123,048 
14,121 
87.987 
20.427 
8,995 



1,948,841 



Note.— This table does not include the export of foreign sheep, which was a small item in 
each of the years 1895 and 1896. 

FRESH BEEF. 

Table showing quantity and value of fresh beef exported, and countries to which 
exported, for tlie years 189S to 1896, inclusive, 

[Compiled from reports issued by Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department.] 



Country to which 
exported. 



Pounds. 

United Kingdom |231, 587,694 

Other Europe 

British N orth America .... 
West Indies and Bermuda 

Other countries .'. 

Total 



1892. 



Quantity. 



748,854 
631,221 
5,700 
232,983,868 



Value. 



Dollars. 
18,071,866 



53,046 

61,768 

452 



18.176,627 



1883. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 
172,608.464 



117,642 

270,015 

467 



172,887.488 



Value. 



Dollars. 
16,407,001 



24,168 
43 



1884. 



Quantity. Value. 



Pounds. 
208,492,515 



16,440,207 



835,281 
167,243 
819,921 



204,814,960 



Dollars. 
17,342,383 



20,906 

14,682 

26,786 

17,404,763 



Country to which exported. 



United Kingdom 

Other Europe 

British North America 

West Indies and Bermuda. 

Other countries 

Total 



1895. 



Quantity. 



Pourids. 

188,998,620 

113,260 

94,658 

150,770 

816 



181,858,114 



Value. 



Dollars. 

16.483,852 

7,723 

6,140 

14,731 

72 



16,522,018 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 
282,648,895 



51,085 
225.473 



Value. 



Dollars. 
22,477,747 



3,682 
IB, 913 



!, 926. 463 22,498,251 



uigiiizea oy vj v^v^'i l\^ 



310 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



CANNBD BBEF. 

Table showing the quantity and vahie of canned beef exported^ and countries to 
which exported, for the years 1892 to 1896, inclusive. 

[Compfled from reports issued by Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department.] 



Country to which 
exported. 



United Kingdom 

Germany 

France 

Other Europe 

British North America — 

Mexico 

Centrai American States 

and British Honduras — 

Cuba 

Porto Bico 

Santo Domingo 

Other West Indies and 

Bermuda 

South America 

Chinaa 

British Australasia 

British East Indies b 

Other Asia and Oceanica. . . 

Africa 

Other countries 



Quantity. 



Total. 



Pounds. 
63,500,968 
7,790,460 
9,676,751 
4,406,466 
1,638,712 
90,803 

106,457 

810, aoi 

3,043 
2,013 

495,203 
G20,441 



945,171 



462,025 
900,296 
34.654 



90,112,775 



Value. 



Dollar: 
5,826,248 
632,860 
790,740 
401,487 
136,452 
10,070 

9,174 

71,496 

254 

178 

40.961 
26,637 



73,660 



66,406 
76,579 
6,088 



8,167,199 



1898. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 
48,447,996 
6,627,934 
1,232.806 
8,214,073 
1,173,378 
79,702 

98,934 

197,934 

6,212 

1,492 

523,653 
649,772 



360,216 



307,741 
783,644 
19,150 



68,711,530 



Value. 



Dollars. 

4,593,526 

660.085 

104,975 

290,928 

94,072 

8,780 

8,873 

17,067 

546 

167 

45,060 
74,439 



32,780 



68,817 

66,737 

2,818 



5,040.115 



1894. 



Quantity. 



Pounds, 
36,131,456 
6,682,463 
7.019,579 
8,466,248 
1,410,428 
80,173 

143,906 
00,310 
4,795 
8,572 

669,426 

905.310 

66,500 

349,263 

3,024 

2,355,932 

1,164.608 

14,730 



50.584,794 



Value. 



Dottars. 
3. Ids. 779 
486. 8W 
678, 7S3 
304.906 
116. 80 
8,074 

li,842 

4.»11 

376 

en 

54,633 
72, 8& 

7,ei4 

27,023 

410 

334,688 

04.466 

l.STO 



6,283,7» 



Country to which exported. 



United Kingdom 

Germany 

France 

Other Europe 

British North America 

Mexico 

Central American States and British Hon- 
duras 

Cuba 

Porto Rico 

Santo Domingo 

Other West Indies and Bermuda 

South America 

China 

British Australasia 

British East Indies 

Other Asia and Oceanica 

Africa..: 

Other countries 

Total 



1895. 



Quantity. 



Pounds, 
41,451,626 
8,654,048 
1,921,911 
8,261,349 
1,104,257 
131,248 

241,327 

21,110 

768 

200 

625,893 

1,006,638 

119,600 

174,151 

4,880 

867,450 

1,060,817 

16,930 



61,463,112 



Value. 



Dollars, 
8,740,148 
708,341 
100,850 
287,178 
05,126 
14,242 

25,104 

1,644 

62 

14 

47,280 

81,183 

15,064 

13,440 

.602 

125,623 

156,721 

2.334 



6,476,040 



1806. 
Quantity. Vahie. 



Pounds. 

38,061,048 
8,728,020 
4,650,363 
8,302,838 
1,623.658 
124,135 

235,530 

28,046 

1,S36 

1,087 

800,000 

483,246 

84,784 

13,200 

2,131 

1,207,430 

6,421,796 

2,130 



61,168,837 



Dollars. 
8,374.707 
407,508 
377,333 
204.434 
128,786 
14.547 

27.548 

2,115 

115 

86 

33.100 

38,453 

13,143 

1,777 

183 

120,282 

408,260 

240 



6.335.263 



a Exports to China for 1892 and 1803 are included in *' Other Asia and Oceanica.*' 
^Includes British IndU for 1802 and 1803. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



311 



CURBD BEBF. 

Tabie showing the quantity and value of expartg of satted, pickled, arid other cured 
beef, and courUriea to which exported, for the years 1892 to 1896, inclusive, 

[Compiled from reports issaed by Bareau of Statistics, TreAsnry I>ep«rtment] 



Ck>antr7 to which 
exported. 



United Kingdom 

Gemumj 

France 

OtJMr Europe 

Britlah North America .... 

Mexico 

Central American States 
and British Honduras.... 

Cuba 

Pdrto Bico 

Santo Domingo 

Other West Indies and Ber- 



Braxa 

Colombia 

Other South America . 

Asia and Oceanica 

Africa 

Other countries 



Total. 



1892. 



Quantity. Value. 



P&unds. 
ae,280,«74 
7,303,976 
4fi3,aOO 
7« 144, 068 
9.022. e» 



686,107 
108, »5 
100,180 
163, 940 

8.149,8K 

39,347 

833,916 

3,307,568 

465,800 

05,818 

49,308 



70,360,653 



Dollars. 

1.784,108 

302,696 

24,815 

403,788 

469,745 



31,515 
5,578 
4,745 

8,061 

4dO,470 
2,144 
10,813 
186.089 
23,602 
4,671 



3,803,761 



1863. 



Quantity. Value. 



Pounds. 
24,153,837 
5,600,579 
430,700 
4,536,068 
6,623,619 
2,086 

673,910 
70,864 
85,880 

136,460 

8,321,874 
55,400 
244,588 

2.489,288 
729,400 
119.776 
•31,750 



54.307,218 



Dollars. 

1,468,372 

380,940 

24,409 

251,154 

306,373 

353 

30,468 
4.004 
4,363 
7,096 

504,048 
3,526 
12,800 
157,047 
36,245 
5,978 
1,694 



3,135,825 



189i. 



Quantity. Value. 



Pounds. 

28,307,788 

8,273,362 

743,800 

5,137,266 

7,802.288 

21,118 

5a, 927 

54,811 
35,600 
616,371 

8,851,808 
68,100 
217,736 
4,010,928 
751,780 
866,530 
67,007 



65.360,004 



Dollars. 
1,685.274 
505,897 
42,049 
283,862 
347,382 
1,728 

29,222 
2,975 
1,938 

85.123 

514.355 
3,563 
11,487 
241,700 
44,381 
18,601 
3,911 



3,732,914 



Coontry to which exi>orted. 



United Kingdom -- 

Germany 

France 

Other Europe 

British North America 

Ifezioo 

Central American States and British Hon 

duras 

Cnba 

Porto Bico 

Santo Domingo 

Other West Indies and Bermuda 

BraiU ^ 

Colombia ^ 

Other South America 

Asia and Oceanica 

Africa 

Other countries 

Total 



1806. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 

30,386,334 

8,086,006 

308,600 

7,466,631 

6,245,004 

6,062 

688,539 

10,541 

45,050 

54,600 

6,719,348 

65,760 

210,502 

3,123,898 

1,166,863 

238,685 

83,100 



65,002,722 



Value. 

Dollars. 

1,823,090 

467,978 

19,100 

432,297 

302,631 

410 

30,147 

587 

2,300 

3,066 

386,151 

8,8BB 

10,345 

181,512 

03,427 

12,200 

4,065 



1806. 



Quantity. | Value. 



Pounds. 

50,167,890 

6,306,760 

580,066 

8,342,065 

5,780,518 

6,712 

6fle.9SS 

38,600 

48,900 

48,790 

7,435,006 

99,250 

228.004 

4,306,179 

1,696,227 

227,161 

23,300 



8,743.651 85,803,206 4.707.094 



Dollars. 

2,907,280 

888.208 

81.091 

444,861 

258,100 



20,201 

1,735 

2,273 

2,140 

369,489 

4,844 

10.180 

212,288 

80.253 

13.764 

1,014 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



312 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



BACON. 

Table showing the quantity and value of exports of bacon, and countries to which 
exported, for the years 1892 to 1896, inclusive. 

[Compiled from reports issued by Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department.] 



Country to which 


1892. 


189a 


1894. 


ezi>orted. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


United Kingdom 


Pounds. 

435,050,161 

17,L59,862 

1,420,720 
62,431,072 

4,833,886 


Dollars. 

34,244,077 

1.241,675 

108,968 
4,780,853 

365,085 


Pounds. 

296.943,650 

4,058.640 


Dollars. 
80,541,679 


Pounds. 
342.606.960 


Dollars. 
20,500,284 




484,602 13.425.610 


1,0&4,887 


Prance - 




4,540,521 

43,050.609 

7.868,497 

60.880 

152.045 

5.312,029 

800,307 

168,232 

503,683 

21.749,733 

13,107 

280.491 

14.515 

72,801 

684 

45,825 


305.464 


Other Euroi>e .. ......... 


26,881,869 

8,411,223 

51,404 

120,006 

6.042,418 

124,410 

77,185 

223,888 

3,802,354 

14,662 

196,167 

15,006 

245,561 

28,865 

520 


2,506,116 

722, 14B 

^063 

13,240 

578,000 

11,144 

8,174 

20,067 

426,342 

1,200 

20,947 

2,447 

23,746 

2,429 

74 


8,56a,4n 


British North America .... 
Mexico 


583,631 
6,387 


Central American States 

and British Honduras 

Cuba 


174,133 

7,760,884 

614,108 

144,624 

302,439 
3,018,977 


13,942 

526,485 

42,002 

10,001 

80.583 
268,368 


18,430 
416,794 


Porto Bico - 


28,403 




13,406 


Other West Indies and 
Bermuda 


41,781 


Brazil 


1,986,755 


Colombia 


90S 


Other South America 

China 


246,760 


18,583 


19,004 
2.040 


Other Asia and Ooeanica . . 
Africa 


93,700 


12,914 


10.171 
66 


Other countries 


108,844 


9,018 


3,786 




Total 


523,458,670 


41,672,484 


347,636,890 


85,863,647 


440,514,068 


87, 7%, 868 





Country to which exported. 



1805. 



Quantity. Value. 



1896. 



Quantity. Value. 



United Kingdom 

Germany 

France 

Other Europe 

British North America 

Mexico 

Central American States and British Hon- 
duras 

Cuba 

Porto Rico 

Santo Domingo 

Other West Indies and Bermuda 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 

China , 

Other Asia and Ooeanica 

Africa 

Other countries 

Total 



Pounds. 

364,437,873 

12,280,636 

6.948.354 

38,070,396 

5,014,263 

92,432 

274,093 

5,647,114 

388,150 

28,203 

426,106 

21,618,509 

19,976 

200,835 

22.150 

71,195 

25,041 

5,514 



Dollars. 

80,808,330 

885.462 

580,268 

2.046,276 

357,065 

8,766 

20,728 

883,237 

27,681 

2,025 

36.178 

1,824,175 

1,479 

15,447 

3,012 

9.441 

1,790 

586 



Pounds, 
334,042,167 
23,360,114 
3,430,430 
40,981,400 
10,327.263 
96,048 

267,216 

8,433,031 

892,281 

86,080 

478.710 

14,409,813 

25,963 

823,844 

19,802 

72,910 

72,806 

702 



Dollars. 

24,765,844 

1,404.682 

242.151 

2,570.582 

484,943 

9.419 

18,801 

476.968 

22,100 

2.185 

86,00(1 

966,316 

1,501 

21, 4U 

2. 628 

0.982 

4.488 

68 



455,580,061 



37,411,944 



486,860,660 



81,057,506 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOUBTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



313 



HAMa 

Table showing the quantity and value of exports of hams, and countries to which 
exported^ for the years 1892 to 1896, inclusive, 

[Compiled from reports Issued by Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department.] 



Country to which 
exported. 



United Kingdom 

Germany 

Pranoo 

Other Blurope 

British North America 

Mexico 

Central American States 

and British Honduras 

Cuba 

Porto Eico 

Banto Domingo 

Other West Indies and 

Bermuda 

Braadl 

Colombia 

Other South America 

China 

British Australasia 

Other Asia and Oceanica. . . 

Africa 

Other countries 



Total 82,206, 



1892. 



Quantity. Value. 



Pounds. 
64,1^,060 
1» 539, 560 

841,917 
6,176,774 
1,078,361 

816.789 

192,073 

6,307,799 

638,240 

70,058 

1,004,326 

16,890 

119,062 

920,309 



265,768 
25,637 



Dollars. 
6,608,018 
163,530 
35,081 
617,083 
115,490 
89,422 

28,067 

618,400 

66,286 

8,814 

132,162 

2,007 

12,604 

116,741 



86,054 
2,996 



8,577,088 



1898. 



Quantity. Value. 



Pounds. 
69,862,641 
671,332 
28,661 
1,694,116 
689,914 
283,886 

148,101 

5,766.240 

667,605 

80,768 

1,010,458 
83,101 
60,000 

QQQ OQA 

80,212 

48,707 

177,257 

10,025 

6.102 



81,775,612 



Dollars. 

8,780,981 

79,482 

8,n6 

218,981 

66,010 

88,840 

20.228 
767,197 
116,888 

12.661 

151,876 

4,914 

10,282 

140,685 

6,144 

7,254 

27,586 

1,346 

849 



1894. 



Quantity. Value, 



Pounds. 

81,815,606 

1,607.576 

875, n3 
2,073,121 
1,710,928 

228,964 

176,467 

4,664,860 

668,602 

87,721 

1, on. 201 
25,915 
90,130 

1,086,112 
42,921 
17,731 
211,813 
16,067 
18,378 



Dollars. 
8,588,840 
180,270 
43,814 
282,975 
182,749 
28,131 

. 20,565 

668,964 

74,258 

11.665 

128,178 
2,907 
9,801 

123,797 
5,860 
2.431 
20,215 
2,031 
2,100 



10,436,028 95.946,141 10,239,228 



Country to which exported. 



United Kingdom 

Germany 

France 

Other Europe 

British North America 

Mexico 

Central American States and British Hon 

duras 

Cuba 

Porto Rico 

Santo Domingo 

Other West Indies and Bermuda 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 

China 

British Australasia 

Other Asia and Oceanica 

Africa 

Other countries 

Total , 



1895. 



Quantity. Value, 



Pounds. 

91,810,688 

1,848.875 

446,739 

6,255,648 

2,551,960 

280,913 

240,806 
8,663,760 

856,560 

55,296 

1.168,961 

28.883 

102.860 

870.828 
40.015 
13.890 

243,924 
22.756 
14,665 



110,860,526 



Dollars. 

9,040,187 

192,106 

45,514 

644,681 

259,685 

, 26,711 

26,360 

873,889 

86,960 

6,512 

128,670 

3,648 

9,661 

100,774 

6,641 

1.766 

81.687 

2,580 

1,649 



10,906,870 



1896. 
Quantity. \ Value. 



Pounds. 

126,572,760 

2,305,363 

676,120 

16,394,656 

3,782,487 

279,606 

277,879 

4,000,803 

868,534 

56,053 

1,228,235 

6,435 

137,119 

829.449 

49,653 

14.480 

261,728 

73.906 

7.464 



Dollars. 

12,158,318 

224,265 

66,815 

1,607,430 

368,815 

31,384 

29,093 

371,658 

78,920 

6,387 

127,566 

650 

11,925 

90,476 

6,625 

1,033 

34,175 

7,728 

700 



156,912,862 15,224,842 



uigiiizea oy VjOOv Iv^ 



314 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



PORK. 

Table showing the quantity and value of exports of pork {fresh and pidded)^ and 
countries to whicJi exported, for the years 1892 to 1896, inclusive. 

[Compiled from reports issued by Bureau of Statistics^ Treasury Department] 



Country to which 
exported. 



1892. 



United Kingdom 

Germany 

France 

Other Europe 

British North America — 

Central American States 
and British Honduras — 

Cuba 

Porto Rico 

Santo Domingo 

Other West Indies and Ber- 
muda 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 

Asia and Oceanica 

Africa 

Other countries 

Total 



Quantity. 



PoundH. 
18,150,0(6 

4.405,800 
184,000 

3,250,522 
13,800,004 

1,640,231 
757,400 

4,115,000 
338.000 

26,565,362 
17,854 
163,950 
4.324,490 
144,550 
135,084 
175,711 



78,193,253 



Value. 



Dollars. 

1,215,928 

279,064 

12,045 

200,378 

812,337 

89,343 

51,780 

271,660 

21,650 

1,654,476 

1,253 

10,207 

274,650 

10,907 

8,409 

11,418 



4,925,564 



Quantity. Value. 



Pounds. 

10,206,136 

783,100 

35.100 

628,200 

8,874,380 

1,092,108 
629,005 

3,505,000 
274,650 

19.248,631 
46,050 
108,655 
4,764,700 
161,080 
60,914 
91,979 



50,504,078 



Dollars. 

906.353 

70.937 

3,385 

57,258 

738,136 

97,066 

60,725 

342,339 

25,34:2 

1,779,784 
4,846 
9,916 
461,062 
12,738 
6,751 
8,731 



4,584,347 



IS»L 



Quantity. Value. 



Pounds. 
15,424,573 
2,666,585 
214,650 
1,118,300 
8,710,250 

1,022,504 
675,828 

3,567.800 
462,447 

23,<H1,C08 

1,006.192 

105,414 

4,666.670 

152.765 

76,337 

182,444 



68,675.407 



DoUar*. 
1,164,916 
197,533 
15,806 
85, «0 
602,060 

72,617 

47,990 

251.408 

34,197 

1,751,672 
88,967 
7,800 
348,658 
10.641 
6.056 
12,682 



4,101,872 



Country to which exported. 



United Kingdom 

Germany 

France 

Other Europe 

British North America 

Central American States and British Hon 

duras 

Cuba 

Porto Rico 

Santo Domingo 

Other West Indies and Bermuda , 

Brazil 

Colombia , 

Other South America 

Asia and Oceanica 

Africa 

Other countries 

Total 



1806. 



Quantity. Value. 



Pounds. 
14,505,365 

1,744,950 
210,600 

1,138,760 
14,216,052 

1,316,070 

191,960 

4,202,550 

175,857 

25,975,756 

423,820 

85,420 

5,430,190 

163,860 

96,600 

162,122 



70,129,941 



Dollars. 

992,858 

115,945 

16,719 

73,675 

849,954 



79, 

12, 

280, 

10, 

1,601, 

30, 

5, 

352, 

11, 

6, 

10, 



1896. 



Quantity. 

Pounds. 
11.448,866 

1,749,236 
150,700 

1,231,486 
13,581,009 

1,281,382 
^!e,000 

3,871,800 

84,000 

24,196,515 

361,650 

123,380 

5,138.500 
153,757 
109,300 
107,850 



4,430,155 68,850,513 



Value. 

DoUar*. 

667,074 

93,845 

9,281 

68,348 

650,619 

59,310 

1S.19) 

185,175 

4.078 

1,170,975 

21,618 

6,338 

251,485 

10,548 

5,813 

5,662 



8,228.147 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOUBTEEMTH ANNUAL BEPOUT. 



815 



BX7TTBH. 

Table shaunng the quantity and value of butter exported, anil countries to which 
exported, for the years 1892 to 1896, inclusive. 

[Ckm&piled from reports issned by Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department.] 



Country to which 
exported. 



United Kingdom 

Germany 

Other Europe 

British North America . . . . 

Mexico 

Central American States 

and British Honduras.... 

Caba 

Porto Rico 

Sem to Domingo 

Other West Indies and 

Bermuda 

Brarfl 

Colombia 

Other South America 

Chinaa 

Other Asia and Oceanlca . . 

Africa 

Other countries 



Total. 



1802. 
Quantity. ,' Value. 



Poundg. 

5,027,680 
330,857 
460,661 
613,278 
120,723 

188,075 

207,880 

102, »i 

80,982 

3,0O4,7!» 
101,528 
142,968 
764,849 



Dollara. 
864,456 
53,838 
62.126 
114,806 
26,472 

41,284 
41,816 
13,706 

15,858 

526,227 
19,548 
28,144 

138,747 



230,268 

4.136 
6.052 



50,477 
1,272 
1,272 



11,395,424 2,000,057 



Quantity. Value. 



PoundM. 

2.468,152 

41,070 

7,806 

300,270 

161,242 

156,841 
181,870 
128,687 
97,105 

2,175,472 
91.121 
105.882 
838,873 



Dollars. 

440,856 

7,730 

1,220 

60,604 

37,708 

85,615 
39,965 
19,854 
19,216 

442,136 
19,940 
22,133 

101,621 



177,286 
8,740 
3,434 



a5,882 

2,467 

748 



6,944,310 I 1,347,742 



1894. 



Quantity. Value. 



Pom n da. 

3,680,170 ! 
705,465 
821,536 I 

817,648 ' 

124.717 

I 

175,540 



Dollars. 
615,688 
108.841 
137,966 
113,615 
25,055 

35,543 



97,176 


20,840 


76,074 


11.264 


09,158 


16.470 


1,930,258 


341,556 


842,250 


06,461 


157,874 


29.078 


793.670 


130,617 


5,381 


1,182 


162,872 


38,614 


15,754 


3,876 


42.748 


7.758 



10,088,152, 1,730,210 



Country to which exported. 



United Kingdom 

Germany 

Other EJurope 

British North America 

Mexico 

Central American States and British Hon- 
duras 

Cuba 

Porto Rico 

Baato Domingo.. 

Other West Indies and Bermuda 

Braxil 

Colombia 

Other South America -... 

China , 

Other Asia and Oceanica 

Africa 

Other countries 



Total. 



1805. I 1896. 

Quantity. | Value. I Quantity. Value. 



Pounds. 

7,440,901 
785,040 

1,812,675 
640,227 
in, 263 

236,213 

55,372 
103,807 

60,904 

2,098,866 

216,911 

82,166 
660.328 

14,628 

283,134 

6,006 

18,057 



14,000,499 



Dollars. 

1,202,111 

06,101 

178,304 

96,007 

92,711 

43,460 
11,790 
12,522 

8.225 

327,491 

81.203 

12.270 

88,376 

2,661 
49,652 

1,455 

2,624 



2,194,108 



Pounds. 

16,527,412 
2,258.263 
3,146,946 
1,495,087 
208,875 

248,452 

46,384 

1,120 

42.938 

1,094,862 

257,261 

119,219 

029,654 

18,313 

208,581 

7,740 

13,448 



Dollars, 

2.469,987 

264.108 

872.982 

227.826 

85,837 

42,688 

8.566 
186 

5,908 

800,288 

86,600 

16,886 

83,508 

3,361 
37,835 

1,401 

1,060 



27,220,213 3,908,900 



a Elxports to China for 1892 and 1808 are included in '* Other Asia and Oceanica.'' 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



316 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



CHBBSE. 

Table ahovnng the quantity and value of cheese exportedy and countries to which 
exported, for the years 1892 to 1896, irudusive. 

[Compiled from reports issued by Bureau of Statistlos, Treasury Department.] 



Country to which 
exported. 



United Kingdom 

Germany 

British North America . . . . 

Mexico 

Central American States 

and British Honduras.... 

Cuba 

Porto Rico 

Santo Domingo 

Othci West Indies and 

Bermuda 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 

Ohinaa 

Other Asia and Oceanica . . 
Other countries 



Total - 83,184,808 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 

71,917,804 

5,887 

8,896,950 

121,712 

138,850 

215,472 

240,270 

65,538 

1,034,127 

7,015 

63,919 

327,980 



151.515 
2,739 



Value. 



Dollars. 

6,694,827 

515 

842,839 

16,175 

16,612 
30,101 
29,766 
8,554 

126,227 

761 

8,480 

39,757 



20,280 
376 



189a 



1894. 



Quantity. Value. Quantity. 



Pounds. 
58,120,900 

17,398 
8,876,768 

156,065 

130,297 
283,375 



72,462 

1,010.589 
12,872 



845,446 



135,395 
8,600 



69,374,802 



Dollars. 

5,683,741 

1,745 

835.415 

19,139 

16,827 
33,942 
24,161 
9,449 

130,396 

1,472 

8,557 

43.903 



17,905 



6,677,017 



Pounds. 

55,884,104 

11,483 

U,305,548 

104,518 

134,506 
150,531 
73,068 
89,884 

1,015,718 
4.327 
48,987 
838,364 
26,646 
112,024 
48,086 



69,306,654 



Value. 



Dollars. 

5,848,631 

1,0T7 

1,066,574 

13.886 

17,048 
28,491 
9,806 
11.964 

126,080 

sa 

6,414 
44,017 

3,468 
14,186 

5,4a0 



6.6^,604 



Country to which exported. 



United Kingdom 

Germany 

British North America 

Mexico 

Central American States and British Hon- 
duras 

Cuba 

Porto Rico 

Santo Domingo 

Other "West Indies and Bermuda 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 

China 

Other Asia and Oceanica 

Other countries 



Total- 



1805. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 

33,251,910 

6,812 

5.792,115 

112,079 

165,202 
38,020 
26,127 
50,642 

900,712 
8,043 
73,037 

179.526 
40,810 

186,800 
19,091 



40,800,934 



Value. 



DoUars. 

2,758,602 

628 

438,656 

13,252 

18,720 
6,559 
3,104 
5,891 
102,481 
843 
8,366 

22,068 
4,469 

15,168 



3,401,117 



1896. 



Quantity. Value. 



Pounds. 
86,297,922 



6,499,8a 
126,112 

160,520 
41,454 
18,390 
38,353 

884,205 

1,442 

81,629 

180,800 
84,005 

205,831 
10,640 



44,530,234 



DoUars. 
8.113,691 



531.860 
14,780 

17,534 

7.571 

2,050 

8,999 

101,831 

153 

9,640 

15,380 



1,208 



3,846.70$ 



a Exports to China for 1892 and 1808 are included in ** Other Asia and Oceanloa.*^ 



Digitized by LjOOQiC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



317 



LARD. 

Table showing the quantity and value of exports of lard, and countries to which 
exported, for the years 1892 to 1896, inclusive, 

[Ckunpiled from reports issaed by Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department. J 



Coantry to which 
exported. 



United Kingdom 

Germany 

France 

Other Europe 

Britiah North America 

Mexico 

Central American States 

and British Honduras.... 

Cuba 

Porto Rico 

Santo Domingo 

Other West Indies aod 

Bermuda 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 

, Asia and Oceanica 

Africa 

Other countries 



1892. 



Quantity. Value. 



Pounds. 
148,712,680 
110,807,062 
26,872,830 
96,372,080 
4,010,086 
8,275,276 

1,963,061 

44,579,889 

3,544,062 

457,199 

6,828,9115 



4,817,680 

1,290,426 

10,962,648 

412.943 

319,918 



Dollars. 

11,616,867 

8,333,671 

1,902,496 

7,696,766 

292,670 

229,113 

165,965 

8,825,399 

264,407 

37,249 

602,760 



384,106 

101,760 

872,279 

87,732 

30,608 

4,552 



Total 463,910,026 36,790,474 341,834,808 85,446,240 479,705,479 



1898. 



Quantity. Value, 



Pounds. 
132,188,415 
69,822,415 
16,618,440 
69,765,642 
1,524,013 
2,141,371 

1,724,794 

38,452,760 

3,675,522 

414,098 

6,426,601 

147,804 

6,666,060 

1,797,887 

11,268,565 

366,572 

814,715 

40,636 



Dollars. 
13,796,394 
6,112,063 
1,672,252 
6,174,843 
143,177 
202,364 

173,353 

3,922,878 

371,449 

42,665 

725,824 

18,484 

651,636 

187,176 

1,176,175 

37,578 

83,703 

4,997 



1894. 



Quantity. Value. 



Pounds. 
160,132,123 
107,024,301 
83,914,883 
89,783.975 
3,745,209 
1,418,829 

2,225.664 

88,676,309 

3,458,258 

604,683 

7,380,977 

16,296 

17,037,580 

1,844,607 

11,508,537 

848,127 

542,769 

47,352 



Dollars, 
13,153,864 
8,707,308 
2,785,606 
7,449,068 
278,065 
100,066 

186,844 

2,953,919 

262,874 

48,486 

660,314 

1,668 

1,587,813 

141,000 

986,964 

81,380 

48,620 

3,872 



39,378,351 



Country to which exported. 



1895. 



Quantity, i Value. 



Quantity. Value. 



United Kingdom 

Germany 

France 

Other Europe 

British North America 

Mexico 

Central American States and British Hon- 
duras 

Cuba,... 

Porto Eioo 

Santo Domingo 

Other West Indies and Bermuda 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 

Asia and Oceanica 

Africa 

Other countries 

Total 



Pounds. 

214,175,787 

113,848,030 

85,642,520 

77,326,820 

5,933,530 

2,727,160 

2,130,175 

80, 701,. 581 

8,861,604 

508,166 

7,258,341 

35,332 

9,888,609 

1,668,568 

10,795,257 

382,535 

473,930 

^,260 



Dollars. 
15,731,008 
8,026,588 
2,506,955 
5,572,577 
415,851 
181,333 

152,046 

2,036,387 

258,045 

96,797 

565,165 

2,768 

805,604 

113,440 

779,687 

81,419 

40,427 

2,276 



Pounds, 
187,610,210 I 
151,087,296 
26,732,335 
83,943,570 
4,964,444 | 
4,968,370 

2,046,916 

26,486,002 | 

4,002,726 I 

364,700 ' 

7,232,546 | 

84,067 ■ 

11,227,810 I 

2,521.790 ' 

11,504,961 

402,480 i 
1,097.180 
32,811 



Dollars. 
10,790,156 
8,324,635 
1,530,736 
4,M4,003 
245, 762 
216, .361 

120,585 

1,884,300 

21^,393 

20,611 

448,256 

4,792 

720, 192 

138,589 

679,363 

29,662 

72,961 

2.051 



517,806,756 . 37,348,753 



526,320,303 2fl.8:il,308 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



318 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL IHDUSTRT. 



TALIiOMr. 

Table shotmng the quantity and value of exports of tcUlaw, and countries to vfhieh 
exported^ for the years 189S to 1896, inclusive. 

[Compiled from reports issued by BureMi of Statistics, Treuiuy Deiisrtment.] 



Country to which 
exported. 



1882. 



Qnantlty. Value. 



Quantity. Value. 



1894. 



Quantity. Value 



United Kingdom 

<3ermany 

France 

Other Europe 

Biritish North America 

Mexico 

Central American States 
and British Honduras — 

Cuba 

Porto Rico 

Santo Domin^ro 

Other West Indies and Ber- 
muda 

Brasdl 

Colombia — 

Other South America 

Asia and Oceanica 

Other countries 



Pound*. 
89,^0, 8Se 
K), 300,628 

6,703,668 

94,184,060 

707,848 

l,538,&i0 

2,037,834 

880.808 

12,600 

874,908 

96,848 
27S,0B3 



Dollars. 

1,874,108 

604,618 

385,980 

1,197,196 

34,800 

82,006 

103,161 

ai,f]9 

8U 

19,827 

6,864 
14,648 



493.800 



60.688 



28,815 
3,241 



Pouada 
28,646,882 

4,676,186 

10,146,190 

15,691,649 

961.791 

2,434,962 

1,780,001 

902,787 

8,426 

644,827 



121,510 
42,280 

322,801 
24,886 
8.027 



Dollars. 

1,102,078 
230,806 
621,067 
791,970 
47,632 
137,868 

113,602 

42,560 

186 

37,415 

56,874 
7,823 
2,954 

18,935 
1,190 



Pounds. 
9,434,401 
3,155,419 
1,329,490 
12,902,133 
337,586 
1,612,168 

2,844,306 

039,540 

4,217 

712,215 

1,085,609 

58,260 

71,822 

205,840 

500 

20,480 



Donors. 
400, lf4 
158,384 
67, l« 
00,915 
86,778 
86,817 

180,078 

45,077 

Ml 

87,586 

52,668 
8. 488 
4.4» 

12,996 

25 

1,516 



Total 87,088,614 



4,237,5«8 



62,233,180 



3,211,786 



34,683,618 



1,752,085 



Country to which exported. 



United Kingdom 

Germany 

France 

Other Europe 

British North America 

Mexico — 

Central American States and British Hon- 
duras 

Cuba 

Porto Rico 

8anto Domingo 

Other West Indies and Bermuda 

Brasil 

Colombia 

Other South America 

Asia and Ooeaaica. 

Other countries 

Total 



1806. 



Quantity. Value. 



Pounds. 
5,136,370 
2,627,633 

400,204 
7,507,434 

685.447 
1,705,258 

2,853,249 

819.731 

5,583 

738,327 

1,400,307 

49,649 

120,932 

265,788 

48,402 

6.595 



24,3n,117 



DollfU's. 
212.269 
120,806 
19.366 
383,318 
22.176 
n,812 

150,470 

82,974 

331 

37,309 

83,915 

2,990 

7,027 

15,380 

1,873 

335 



1,207,350 



1806. 



Quantity. Value. 



Pounds. 
20,216.750 
10.918,519 
22,081,2i8 
14,009.003 
680,605 
1,427,817 

2,767,174 

682,021 

4,6U 



1,661,118 

71,100 

157.874 

242,754 

31,0^ 

1,730 



85.449.086 



Dollars, 
1,125,SM 
423.231 
876. M) 
660.580 
27.2e 
64,996 

128.066 

24,433 

236 

28,805 

88. US 

1,979 

8,405 

10. »4 

1.885 

86 



3,386.111 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOUBTBBNTH ANNUAL B£POBT. 



319 



OLBO AXID OLBOMAROARINB. 

Table showing the quantity and value of exports of oleo and oleomargarine ^ and 
countries to which exported, for the years 189S to 1896, inclusive, 

(Compiled from reports issued by Bareauof Statistics, Treasury Department] 



Country to which 
exported. 



United Kingdom 

Oermaoy 

France 

Other Europe 

Brltiah North America... 

Mexico 

Central American States 

and British Honduras... 

Porto Bicoo 

Other West Indies and 

Bermuda 

Colombia 

Other South America 

Asia and Oceanica 

Other countries 



Total 



Quantity. Value. 



Pmtnds. 

6,751,dS7 
21.062,014 

2,347,810 
77,079,557 

1,129.886 



Dollar $. 

669,635 
2,061.631 

214.090 
7,439,224 

126,686 



63,142 
1.696.085 



200,030 
63,918 



110.405.069 



7,263 
103,715 



24,821 
5,568 



10,743,333 



1808. 



Quantity. Value. 



Pounds. 

7,852,808 
26.072,638 

1,471,785 
78.730,760 

1,378,135 
4,316 

11.871 
84.454 

2,420.071 

05.000 

305.692 

18,160 

36,662 



118,543,327 



Dollara, 
804,520 

2,650.119 
138,851 

7,727,288 

136,309 

669 

1,838 
11,250 

301,056 

8.305 

48,076 

2,601 

4. 009 



11,834.720 



1894. 
Quantity. Value. 



Pounds. 
8,082,455 
28,408.900 



75,672,233 

l,5n,246 

22,851 

17.644 
54,740 

2,7n,550 

83.045 

445,961 

77.960 

78,765 



118,195.049 



Dollara. 

872,115 
2.629.875 



7.175.806 

149.098 

2,906 

2.008 
7,001 

342.068 
9,515 
54.831 
9,717 

10,076 



11,205,010 



Country to which exported. 



United Kingdom 

Oeim any 

France 

Other Europe 

British North America 

Mexico 

Central American States and British Hon- 

dnraa 

Porto Rico 

Other West indies and Bermuda 

Colombia 

Other South America 

Asia and Oceanioa 

Other countries 



Total. 



1805. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 
8,510.709 
21.710.016 



56,251,362 

1,142,482 

13,156 

7,375 
101,415 
2,588,948 
91,407 
276,721 
50.240 
22.882 



00,766,713 



Vahie. 

Dollars. 

717,130 
1,609,645 



4,959.098 

92,420 

1,613 

873 
11,008 
294,274 
9,579 
30,356 
6.079 
2 213 



7,824,898 



1896. 
Quantity. | Value. 



Pounds, 
8,096,268 
27.734.630 



80.130,466 

1.647.836 

13.064 

2,896 



2,540.040 

88,081 

289,174 

75,427 

63,460 



120,680,267 



Dollars. 
545.865 
1,728.136 



5,582.605 

83,686 

1.367 

334 



260,709 

7,813 

31.417 

8,443 

7,004 



8,255,849 



a Includes for 1892. 47,342 ix>nnds, valued at $5,421. exported to Cuba. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



320 



BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



HIDES AND SKINS. 

Table showing the quantity and value of imports of hides and skins (other than 
fur skills), and countries from which imported^ for the years 1892 to 1896 , indw- 
sive. 

[Compiled from reports issued by Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department.] 



Country from which 


1892. 


1898. 


1804. 


* imported. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value, 


United Kingdom 


Pounds. 


Dollars. 


Pounds. 


Dollars. 


Pounds. 


Dollars. 
2,893,456 
832,7(0 


Pi^nce - - 












rt-ArTiniiiiv 












734,505 
1,496,161 


Other EuroDe 












British North America 












S91.31S 


Central America 












158,213 


Mexico 












1,442,545 


West Indies 












240,65^ 


South America 












7,084,690 


Bast Indies - ....- 












1,608.480 


Other Asia and Oceanica . 












756,671 


Africa 












867,89 


Other countries 












460. 8SI 
















Total 




28,144,440 




22,797,740 




18, 5a, 448 












Country from which imported. 


1895. 1 


1896. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity, i Value. 


United Kingdom 


Pounds. 

46,691,152 

16,579,517 

17,776,003 

24,937,623 

18,087,702 

1,738,278 
11,040,860 

2,885,686 
95,153,528 
26,063,337 
13.920.532 

6,330.423 

2.387,053 


Dollars. 

5,833,604 

2,401,677 

2,190,212 

3,254,263 

1,265,493 

224,442 
1,629,381 

817,455 
13,144,252 
3,243,a^ 
2,128,048 

950,703 

349,607 


Pounds. 

18,986,105 
8,456,680 
3,876,601 
9,448,976 

18,721,484 
1,810,962 

10,065,530 
4,929,140 

49,781,448 

10,545,405 
6.893,846 
3.780,828 
4,871,992 


Dollars. 
2.707,067 
938,797 
665,388 


Prance .. .... ..... 


Oermany 


Other Eurone . . 


1,050,962 
1,188,888 


British North America 


Cen tral America 


234,388 


Mexico 


1,402,744 
428,210 


West Indies 


South America 


7.882,488 


East Indies 


1,487,946 


Other Asia and Oceanica 


1,107.885 


Africa 

Other countries 


388, 7» 
607.085 






Total 


283.516.793 


36.432.989 


146,159,006 


20,713,588 










1 





Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



321 



WOOL, HAIR OF CAMEL, ETC. 

Table ahotmng the quantity and valtLe of imports of wooly hair of the camel^ goaty 
alpaca f etc, and countries from which imported, for the years 189^2 to 1890, 
in^usive, 

[Compiled from reports iasned by Bureau of StatiBtics, Treasury Department.] 



Importations. 


1892. 


1893. ' 1894. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. ' Quantity. 


Value. 


Class 1.— Clothing wool. 


Pounds. 
51,313,983 


Dollars. 
9,809,640 


Pounds. 
30,778,327 


Dollars. Pounds. 
5,573,238 | 32,533,590 


Dollars. 
5,315,919 






Cl^ss 2.— Combing wool. 
From all countries 


6,043,697 


1,376,651 


8,884,062 


896,266 * 5,646,620 


1, 166, 150 






Cl^SS ^.—Carpet toool. 
From all countries 


110,226,828 


10,605,348 
37,615,445 


n, 060, 989 


7,485,045 
30,238,506 


67,5^,601 


6,780,443 
17,342,682 


countries) 















Country from which imported. 



CLJiSS 1.- 

United EinRdom . .. 

France 

South America 

Asia and Oceanica . . 
Other countries 



-Clothing toool. 



Total. 



Class 2,— Combing wool. 

United Kingdom 

Other £uroi)e 

British North America 

South America 

Asia and Oceanica 

Other countries 



Total. 



Class ^—Carpet wool. 

United Kingdom 

France 

Chirmany 

Other Europe 

British North America 

South America 

China 

Other Asia and Oceanif^a 

Other countries 



Total-... 

Manufactures (from all countries) . 



1895. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Pounds. 
71,292,503 
5,634,884 
19,839,485 
13,366,108 
16,302,594 

126,435,569 



Dollars. 

11,992,520 
1,351,971 
2,116,505 
1,996,221 
2,200,605 



1896. 
Quantity. , Value. 



19,667,912 



Pounds. 
31,869,876 
5,400,299 
10,556,165 

9,385,500 
8,668,687 



75,370,527 



7,894,004 
2,507,965 
6,564,341 
1, 158, 106 
354,410 
188,216 



18,757,042 



896,617 
371,164 
882,770 
681,294 
802,230 
166,876 
ni,306 
419,633 
364,716 



108,796,608 



1,827,492 
668,920 

1,272,943 
138,159 
167, 756 
17,886 



4,092,656 



8.481,081 

773,871 

95,484 

1,962,203 

80,842 

1,462,910 

1,510,5?2 

619,599 

42,989 

10,019,591 
60,319,331 



3,800,620 

426,464 

8,242,014 

2,363,053 

224,569 

14,239 



10,079,959 



Dollars. 
5,612,010 
1,482,336 
1,300,737 
3,423,470 
1, 169, 159 

13,077.71^ 



849,219 
114,620 
640,297 
360,110 
65,549 
3,374 



2,032,169 



21,600.844 
2,514,019 
1,176,764 
11,269.544 
8,774 
15,144,952 
18,648,524 
3,935,093 
143,015 



74,326,529 



2.664,892 
290,200 
119,568 

1,255,838 
620 

1,426,854 

1,277,666 
874,017 
*12,889 



7.311,638 
87,100,868 



7204- 



-21 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE FISCAL TEAR 1897. 

The following is a list of the publications issued by the Bureau 
during the year. A special appropriation is made by Congress for 
publishing Farmers' Bulletins, and they are distributed free by the 
Secretary of Agriculture and by Senators, Representatives, and Dele- 
gates. The total number of copies of Farmers' Bulletins issued by this 
Bureau in 1897 amounted to 565,000. The reprints of this series of 
bulletins had wide circulation during the previous year. 

Copies. 

Tapeworms o^ Poultry. Report upon the Present Knowledge of the Tape- 
worms of Poultry. By C. H. Wardell Stiles, A. M. , Ph. D.— Bibliography 
of the Tapeworms of Poultry. By Albert Hassall, M. R. C. V. S. Pp. 
88, pis. 21. BulletinNo. 12. July, 1896 3,000 

Check List of the Animal Parasites of Geese (Anser anser domesticuA), 
By Albert Hassall, Zoological Laboratory, Bureau of Animal Industry. 
PJp. 5. Circular No. 14. July, 1896 2,000 

Check List of the Animal Parasites of Pigeons {Columbia libia domestica). 
By Albert Hassall, Zoological Laboratory, Bureau of Animal Industry. 
Pp. 4. Circular No. 15. August, 1896 2.000 

Facts About Milk. By R. A. Pearson^ B. S., Assistant Chief. Dairy Divi- 
sion, Bureau of Animal Industry. Pp. 29, figs. 8. Farmers' Bulletin 

No. 42. September, 1896 50,000 

Reprint, February, 1897 ^,000 

Reprint, April, 1897 60,000 

Tuberculosis Investigations. The Growth of the Tuberculosis Bacillus 
upon Acid Media. By E. A. de Schweinitz and Marion Dorset. —Further 
Experiments with an attenuated Tuberculosis Bacillus. By E. A. de 
Schweinitz and E. C. Schroeder.— The Effect of Tuberculin Injections 
upon the Milk of Healthy and Diseased Cows. By E. A. de Schweinitz. 
Prepared under the direction of Dr. D. E. Salmon, Chief of the Bureau 
of Animal Industry. Pp. 27, pis. 2, figs. 7. Bulletin No. 13. Septem- 
ber, 1896 2,500 

Statistics of the Dairy, compiled from the United States Census for 1890 
and other reliable sources, with explanatory notes. By Henry E. 
Alvord, C. E., Chief of the Dairy Division, under the direction of Dr. 
D. E. Salmon, Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry. Pp. 53, dia- 
grams 5, map 1 . Bulletin No. 1 1 . (Reprint. ) October, 1896 1 , 000 

Dairying in California. By Prof. E. J. Wickson, M. A., University of 
California, under the direction of Dr. D. E. Salmon, Chief of the Bureau 
of Animal Industry. Pp. 31, map 1. Bulletin No. 14. October, 1896, 8,000 

Hog Cholera and Swine Plague. By D. E. Salmon, D. V. M. Pp. 16, 

Farmers' Bulletin No. 24. (Reprint.) December, 1896 15, 000 

Reprint, January, 1897 50,000 

Reprint, May, 1897 50,000 

The Dairy Industry in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota. By 
John H. Monrad, Special Expert Agent, Dairy Division, under the direc- 
tion of Dr. D. E. Salmon, Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry. 

Pp.21. BulletinNo. 16. December, 1896 4,500 

823 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 323 

Copies. 
Regolations f or the Inspection and Quarantine of Animals Imported from 

Canada into the United States. Pp. 3. January, 1897 3, 000 

Exports of Animals and their Products. Pp. 3. Circular No. 17. Jan- 
uary, 1897 10,000 

Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry for 1896. By D. E. 
Salmon. Pp. i-iii, 1-8, from Report of Secretary of Agriculture in Mes- 
sage and Documents. February, 1897 500 

The Cheese Industry of the State of New York. By B. D. Gilbert, 
Special Elzpert Agent, Dairy Division, under the direction of Dr. D. E. 
Salmon, Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry. Pp. 54. Bulletin 
No. 15. February, 1897 10,000 

Dairy Schools. By B. A. Pearson, B. S., Assistant Chief of Dairy Divi- 
sion. Under the direction of Dr. D. E. Salmon, Chief of the Bureau of 
Animal Industry. Pp. 38, pis. 4, figs. 2. Bulletin No. 17. February, 
1897 10.000 

Standard Varieties of Chickens. By George E. Howard, Secretary of 
National Poultry and Pigeon Association, under the 6Ui)ervi8ion of Dr. 
D. E. Salmon, Chief of Bureau of Animal Industry. Pp. 4S, figs. 4*3. 

Farmers' Bulletin No. 51. March, 1897 .-- 100.000 

Reprint, May, 1897 50,000 

Reprint, May, 1897 50,000 

The Dairy Herd: Its Formation and Management. By Henry E. Alvord, 
C. E., Chief of Dairy Division, Bureau of Animal Industry. Pp. 24. 
Farmers* Bulletin No. 55. May, 1897 20,000 

List of Officials and Associations Connected with the Dairy Interests in 
the United States and Canada for 1897. Pp. 8. Circular No. 18. May, 
1897 10,000 

Butter Making on the Farm. By C. P. Goodrich, Dairy Inspector, 
Farmers' Institute Department, University of Wisconsin. Under 
supervision of the Dairy Division, Bureau of Animal Industry. Pp. 15. 
Farmers' Bulletin No. 57. June, 1897 100,000 

Factory Cheese and How it is Made. By G. Merry, of Verona, N. Y. 
Pp. 8. Circular No. 19. Printed from Bulletin No. 15. June, 1897. . . 5, 000 



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RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF ANIMAL 

INDUSTRY. 



RULES AND RBaULATIONS FOR COOPBRATION BBTWEBN THB 
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUIiTXTRE AND THB AXTTHORITIBS 
OF THE STATES AND TERRITORIES FOR THE ST7PPRB88I0N 
AND EXTIRPATION OF CONTAaiOUS PLEITRO-PNETrMONIA OF 
CATTLE, IN ACCORDANCE V7ITH SECTION 3 OF THB ACT 
BSTABLISHINO THB BT7RBAT7 OF ANIMAL INDT7STR7. 

U. S. Department op Agriculture, 

Office of the Commissioner, 
Washington, D. C, July i, 1SS5. 

1. The properly constitated inspectors of the Bureau of Animal Industry are to 
be authorizea by the governor of the State to make inspections of cattle and to be 
assisted by local police authorities when this is necessary. 

2. In case of a discovery of contagious pleuro-pneumonia among the animals of 
any State the inspector will immediately report the existence of the disease, the 
number of animals affected, and the number exposed, to the governor of the State 
or to any officer or board which the governor may designate, and he will also 
report the same to the Bureau of Animal Industry. 

'*'. When the governor of the Stato or other designated officer is satisfied of the 
exis^^ence of pleuro-pneumonia as reported, all the affected and exposed cattle and 
the infected stable and premises shall be placed in quarantine under State laws, 
s jch quarantine to remain iu force until at least three months after the destruc- 
tion of ilie last affected animal. The animals which ar<» sick with the disease are 
to be immediately slaughtered by direct'on of State officers and under State laws 
and at the exx)ense of the State. (In newly infected districts it is earnestly recom- 
mended tha'. all exposed arumals be immetliately slaugiitered. ) 

4. The rules of quarantine shall be such that no animal, sick or well, can leave 
the infected herd except for slaugliter or be taken into it during the period of 
quarantine. Tne attendants of mfected animals shall not be allowed to visit 
healthy herds except after change of clothing and shoes, nor shall any person 
from other premises be allowed to go am )ng the infected cattle except by special 
permission. 

5. The inspectors of the Bureau of Animal industry shall be authorized to visit 
quarantined animals and inspect them as often as may be necessary, ani no qnar> 
an tine restrictions shall be removed until the Chief of the Bureau of AninoAl 
Industry certifies that this may be safely done. 

0. The Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry shall be authorized to carry out 
sut'h measures of disinfection in regard to infected premises as he may consider 
necessary. 

7. The salaries and expenses of the inspectors of the Bureau of Animal Industry, 
the necessary expenses of maintaining quarantine under the conditions prescribed 
above, and the expenses of disinfection will be paid out of the fund appropriated 
by Congress for the work of the Bureau of Animal Industry, in accoraance with 
th(^ law approved May 29, 1884; but no compensation will be allowed for the food 
or ordinary care of animals in cjuarantine. 

s. In order to prevent the spread of the disease from one State or Territory into 
anotlier the owners of infected herds in the various States and the railroad and 
transportation companies doing business in their vicinity will be notified by the 
Commi^isioner of Agriculture of the penalty provided for the violation of sections 
6 and 7 of the act referred to. 

Norman J. Colman, 
Commtasioner of Agriculture^ 
324 "^ ^ 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 325 

RULBS AND REaiTLATIONS FOR COOPERATION BBTWEBN THE 
T7. 8. DRPARTBffRNT OF AaRICXnCiTXTRll AND THE AUTHORITIES 
OF THE 6UBVERAL STATES AND TERRITORIES FOR THE SUP- 
PRESSION AND EXTIRPATION OF CONTAQIOUS PI.EURO.PNEU- 
MONIA OF CATTLE. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Office of the Commissioner, 
Washington^ D. C, Augmt ;?, 1886, 

Recent acts of Congress make it the duty of the Commissioner of Agricolture 
to prepare rtJes and regulations for the suppression and extirpation of the con- 
tagious pleuro-pneumonia of cattle, and authorize expenditures for investigation, 
disinfection, quarantine, and for the purchase of diseased animals for slaughter. 
The following are the sections bearing upon this subject: 

Sec, 3. That it shall be the duty of the Commissioner of Agriculture to prepare 
such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary for the speedy and effectual 
Bupinression and extirpation of said aiseases, and to certify sucn rules and regula- 
tions to the executive authorities of each State and Territory, and invite said 
authorities to cooperate in the execution and enforcement of this act. Whenever 
the plans and methods of the Commissioner of Agriculture shall be accepted by 
any State or Territory in which pleuro pneumonia or other contagious, infectious, 
or communicable disease is declared to exist, or such State or Territory shall have 
adopted plans and methods for the suppression and extirpation of said diseases, 
and such plans and methods shall be accepted by the Commissioner ot Agriculture, 
and whenever the governor of a State or other properly constituted authorities 
signify their readiness to cooperate for the extinction of any contagious, infectious, 
or communicable disease in conformity with the provisions of this act, the Com- 
missioner of Agriculture is hereby authorized to expend so much of the money 
appropriated by this act as may be necessary in such investigations and in such 
disinfection and quarantine measures as may be necessary to prevent the spread 
of the disease from one State or TeiTitory into another. (Approved May 29, 1884. ) ' 

Bureau of Animal Industry. 

For carrying out the provisions of the act of May twenty-ninth, eighteen hun- 
dred and eighty-four, establishing the Bureau of Animal Industry, one hundred 
^ousand dollars; and the Commissioner of Agriculture is hereby authorized to 
use any part of this sum he may deem necessary or expedient, and in such man- 
ner as he may think best, to prevent the spread of pleuro-pneumonia, and for this 
purpose to employ as many persons as he may deem necessary, and to expend any 
part of this sum m the purchase and destruction of diseased animals whenever in 
his judgment it is essential to prevent the spread of pleuro-pneumonia from one 
State into another. (Approved June 80, 18w.) 

In accordance with these laws 1 hereby certify the following rules and regula- 
tions for cooperation between the Department of Agriculture and the authorities 
of the several States and Territories, which I deem necessary to insure results 
commensurate with the money expended: 

inspection. 

1. The necessary inspectors will be furnished by the Bureau of Animal Industry 
of the Department of Agriculture. 

2. The properly constituted inspectors of the Bureau of Animal Industry, which 
are assigned to the respective States, are to be authorized by proper State author- 
ities to make inspections of cattle under the laws of the State; they are to receive 
such protection and a'^sistance as would be given to State officers engaged in 
similar work, and shall be permitted to examine quarantined herds whenever so 
directed by the Commissioner of Agriculture or the Chief of the Bureau of Ani- 
mal Industry. 

8. All reports of inspections will be made to the Bureau of Animal Industry, 
and a copy of these will then be made and forwarded to the proper State author- 
ities. When, however, any inspector discovers a herd infected with contagious 
pleuro-pneumonia, he will at once report the same to the proper State authority, 
38 well as to the Bureau of Animal Industry 

4. The inspectors, while always subject to orders from the Department of Agri- 
culture, will cordially cooperate with State authorities and will follow instructions 
received from them. 



» See Report of Burean for 1884, p. iTa 

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326 BUREAU OP A^TMAL INDU8TBY. 

QUARANTINE. 

5. When contagiotiB plenTo-pnemnonia is discovered in any herd, the owner or 
person in charge is to be at once notified by the inspector, and the quarantine reg- 
niations of th«^ State in which the herd is located are to be enforced from that 
time. The affected animals will be isolated, when possible, from the remainder 
of the herd nntil they can be properly appraised an(T slaughtered. 

6. To insure a perfect and satisfactory quarantine, a chain fastened with nam- 
bered lock will be placed around the horns, or with hornless animals around the 
neck, and a record will be kept showing the number of the lock placed upon each 
animal in the herd. 

7. The locks and chains will be furnished by the Department of Agriculture, but 
they will become the property of the State in which they are used, in order that 
anyone tampering with them can be proceeded against legally for injuring or 
embezzling the property of the State. 

8. Quarantine restrictions once imposed are not to be removed by the State 
authorities without the consent of the proper officers of the Department of Agri- 
culture. 

9. The ]>eriod of quai*antine will be at least ninety days, dating from the removal 
of the last diseased animal from the hwd. During this period no animal will be 
allowed to enter the herd or to leave it, and all animals in the herd will be care- 
f uUv isolated from other cattle. 

When possible, all infected herds are to be held in quarantine and not allowed 
to leave the infected premises except for slaughter. In this case fresh animals 
may be added to the herd at the owner's risk, but are to be considered as infected 
animals and subjected to the same quarantine regulations as the other members 
of the herd. 

SLAUGHTER AND COMPENSATION. 

10. AU animals affected with contagious pleuro-pneumonia are to be slaugh- 
tered as soon after their discovery as the necessary arrangements can be made. 

11. When diseased animals are reported to the State authorities, they shall 
promptly take such steps as they desire to confirm the diagnosis. The animals 
found diseased are then to be appraised according to the provisions of the State 
law, and the proper officer of the Bureau of Animal Industry (who will be desig- 
nated by the Commifsioner of Agriculture) notified of the appraisement. If this 
representative of the Bureau of Animal Industry confirms the diagnosis and 
approves the appraisement, the Department of Agriculture will jmrchase the 
diseased animals of the owner and pay such a proportion of the appraised value as 
is provided for compensation in such cases by the laws of the State in which the 
"anmials are located when they are condemned and slaughtered by State authority. 

DISINFECTION. 

12. All necessary disinfection will be conducted by the employees of the Bureau 
of Animal Industry. 

INOCULATION. 

13. Inoculation is not recommended by the Department of Agriculture, and it 
is believed that its adoption with animals that are to be afterwards sold to go into 
other herds would counteract the good results which would otherwise follow from 
the slaughter of the diseased animals. It may, however, be practiced by State 
authorities under the following rules: 

14. No herds but those in which pleuro-pneumonia has appeared are to be inoc- 
ulated. 

15. Inoculated herds are to be quarantined with lock and chain on each animal, 
the (quarantine restrictions are to remain in force as long as any inoculated cattle 
survive, and these animals are to leave the premises only for immediate slaughter. 

16. Fresh animals are to be taken into inoculated herds only at the risk of the 
owner, and shall be subject to the same rules as the other cattle of the inoculated 
herd. 

17. The Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry is to be promptly notified by 
the State authorities of each herd Inoculated, of the final disposition of each mem- 
ber of the herd, of the post-mortem appearances, and of any other facts in the 
history of the herd which may prove of value. 

The cooperation of the governors, of State live stock commissions, and of other 
officers who may be in charge of the branch of the service provided for ^b» con- 
trol of the contagious diseases of animals in the States where pleuro-pneumonia 
exists, is earnestly requested under these rules and regulations, which have been 

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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL IlEI>ORT. 327 

framed with a view of securing uniform and efficient action thronghont the whole 
Infected district. It is hoped that with a vigorous enforcement of such regulations 
tike disease may be prevented from extendiiii; beyond its present limits, and may 
be in time entirely eradicated. 

Norman J. Colman, 
Commissioner of Agriculture, 

By virtue of the authority imposed upon me as governor of the State of , 

I hereby accept the above rules and regulations, and the proper officers of this 
State will cooperate with the United States Department of Agriculture for their 
enforcement. 



1886. 



RITI.es and REaUIiATZONS FOR THB ST7PPRBSSION AND EXTIR- 
PATION OF CONTAGIOUS, INFECTIOUS. AND COMMUNICABLE 
DISEASES AMONG THE DOBffESTIC ANIMALS OF THE UNITED 
STATES. 

U. S. Department op Agrictlttre, 

Office of the Commissioner, 
Washington, D. C, Ajyril l'>, 1SS7, 
In pursuance of an act of Congress entitled *^An act for the establishment of 
a Bureau of Animal Industry, to prevent the exportation of diseased cattle, and 
to provide means for the suppression and extirt>ation of pleuro-pneumonia and 
other contagious diseases among domestic animals,*' approved the 29th day of 
May, 18S4,' and of section 3 of said act, the following rules and regulations are 
hereby prepared and adopted for the speedy and effectual suppression and extir- 
pation of contagious, infectious, and communicable diseases among the domestic ' 
animals of the United States: 

RULES AND REGULATIONS. - 

1. Whenever it shall come to the knowledge of the Chief of the Bureau of 
Animal Industry of the Department of Agriculture that there exists, or there is 
j^ood cause to believe there exists, any contagious, infectious, or communicable 
disease among domestic animals in any part of tiie United States, and he believes 
there is danger of such disease spreading to othei States or Territories, he ^all 
at once direct an inspector to make an investigation as to the existence of said 
disease. 

2. Said ins^tor shall at once proceed to the locality where said disease is 
believed to exist ajid make an examination of the animals said to be affected with 
disease, and report the result of such examination to the Chief of the bureau of 
Animal Industry. 

3. Should the inspector on such investigation find that a contagious, infectious, 
or communicable disease exists among the animals examined, and especially 
pleuro-pneumonia, he shall direct the t^porary quarantine of said animals and 
the herds among which they are, and adopt such sanitary measures as may be 
necessary to prevent the spread of the disease, and report ms action to the Cnief 
of the Bureau. He will further notify in writing the owner or owners, or person 
or i)eraons in charge of such animal or animals, of the existence of the oontagious 
disease, and that said animal or animals have been placed in quarantine, and warn 
him or them from moving said animal or animals under penalty of sections 6 and 
7 of the act of Congress approved May 29, 1884. 

4. When the Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry is satisfied of the existence 
of any contagious disease among domestic animals in any locality of the United 
States, and especially of pleuro-pneumonia, and that there is danger of said dis- 
ease spreading to other States or Territories, he will report the same to the Com- 
missioner of Agriculture, who will quarantine said locality in the mode and manner 
as provided in rule 12. He shall cause a thorouxh examination of all animals of 
the kind diseased in said locality, and all such animals found diseased he will 
cause to be slaughtered. He shidl establish a (]^uarantine for a period of not less 
than ninety days ot all animals that have come m contact with diseased animals, 
or have been on premises or in building on or in which diseased animals have been, 
or have been in any way exposed to disease; and shall make and enforce all such 



» See Bopoit of Bureau for 1884, p. 473. ^ See amendments on pp. 320, 3»r>. 

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328 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

sanitary regulations as the exigencies of the case may require. He will cause to be 
disinfected in such manner as he deems best all sheds, corrals, yards, bams, and 
buildings in which diseased animals have been, and until such premises and build- 
ings have been so disinfected and declared free from contagion by a certificate in 
writing signed by an inspector of the Bureau of Animal Industry, no animal or 
animals shall be permitted to go upon or into said premises and buildings. Should, 
however, any animal or animals be put upon said {premises or into said buildings 
in violation of this rule and regulation, then such animal or animals shall be placed 
in quarantine for a period of not less than ninety days, and said premises or ouild- 
in^s be again disinfected. Said second disinfection and the quarantine of such 
animals to be at the expense of the owner of said premLses or buildings. 

5. AH animals Quarantined by order of the Chierof the Bureau of Animal indus- 
try shall have a chain fastened with a numbered lock placed around their horns, 
or, in case of hornless animals, placed around their necks; and a record will be 
kept, showing the number of lock placed upon each animal, name and character 
of animal and marks of identification, name of owner, locality, and date of quar- 
antine. The Chief of the Bureau, however, may, in his discretion, in place of 
chaining said animals, cause the animals to be branded in such manner as he may 
designate, or may place a guard over the same. 

6. All animals quarantined will be deemed and considered as ''affected with 
contagious disease,'* and any person or persons moving said quarantined animala 
from the infected district will be prosecuted under sections 6 and 7 of the act of 
Congress establishing the Bureau of Animal Industry, approved May 29, 1884. 

7. Whenever in the judgment of the Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry it 
becomes necessary to kill animals that have been exposed to the contagious disease 
known as pleuro-pneumonia. In order to prevent the spread of said disease from 
one State or Territory to another, he shall cause the same to be slaughtered. 

8. All animals diseased with pleuro-pneumonia, and all animals exposed to 
pleuro-pneumonia, that have been condemned to be slaughtered, shall be first 

. appraised as to their value at the time of their condemnation. Said appraisement 
shall be made in the mode and manner provided for by the law of the State in 
which they are located, and such compensation on their appraised value will be 
paid as is provided for by the law of such State. In case such State has no law 
for the appraisement of the value of animals diseased with pleuro-pneumonia, or 
that have been exposed to pleuro-pneumonia, or either, tnen the Chief of the 
Bureau of Animal Industry shall direct an inspector of the Bureau to convene a 
board of appraisers to consist of three members, one of whom said inspector shall 
appoint, one to be appointed by the owner of the animal or animals condenmed, 
and these two will appoint the third; in case the said owner shall neglect or refuse 
to name an appraiser, then by two appraisers to be appointed by said inspector. 
This board will appraise the value of the animals condemned and certify to the 
same in writing under oath, and the amount so fixed by said board shall be paid 
to the owner of the animals condemned. Should the owner of the animals con- 
demned be dissatisfied with the appraisement, he may appeal from said appraise- 
ment to the circuit court of the United States, and the amount foimd by saia court 
to be the value of the condemned animals will be paid to the owner. 

9. Whenever it is deemed necessary by the Chief of the Bureau of Animal 
Industry to supervise and inspect any of the lines of transportation operating in 
the United States that do business in and through more than one State or connect 
with lines doing business in and through other States, and the boats, cars, and 
stock yards in connection with the same, he shall designate suitable inspectors for 
that purpose, and make all necessary regulations for the quarantine and disinfec- 
tion of all stock yards, cars, boats, and other vehicles of transportation in which 
have been, or in which have been transported, animals affected with a contagious 
disease or suspected to have been affected with such a disease. Such cars and 
other vehicles of transportation declared in quarantine shall not be again used to 
transport, store, or shelter animals or merchandise until certified to be free of con- 
tagion by a certificate signed by the Inspector supervising[ their disinfection, and 
such stock yards shall not again have animals placed in them until likewise 
declared free of contagion. 

10. All quarantined stock, premises, and buildings will be under the charge and 
supervision of an inspector of the Bureau of Animal Industry, and shall be in no 
case free from quarantine until so ordered by the Chief of the Bureau. 

11. Whenever any inspector of the Bureau of Animal Industry is prevented or 
obstructed or interfered with in the discharge of his duty in the examining of 
animals suspected to have a conta^ous disease, or in placing under quarantine 
animals or premises, or in disinfecting them, he will report the same to the Chief 
of the Bureau. He will also call upon the sheriff or other police authorities of 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 329 

the locality where said obstrtiction or interference occnrs for aid and protection 
in the performing of his duty. Should such sheriff or police authorities neglect 
or refuse to render such aid and protection he will then apply to the United States 
marshal of said district for the necessary force and assistance needed to protect 
him in the carrying out of the duties imposed upon him by these rules and regu- 
lations and the provisions of the law by authority of which they are made. He 
will also file with the United States district attorney information of all the facts 
connected with such obstruction and interference, and the names of the party or 
parties causing the same. 

12. Should, from any cause, the Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry find 
that it is impossible to enforce these rules and regulations in any State, and that 
in consequence thereof there is great danger that pleuro- pneumonia will spread 
from said State to other States and Territories, he will report the same to the 
Commissioner of Agriculture. Thereupon the Commissioner of Agriculture, if 
he believes the exigency of the case requires it, will declare said State, in which 
pleuro-pneumonia exists, and in which it is impossible to carry out these rules 
and regulations, to be quarantined against the exportation of animals of the kind 
diseased to any other State, Territory, or foreign country. Said order of the 
Commissioner declaring the quarantine of a State will be published in at least two 
papers in said State once a week during the existence of said quarantine, and in 
such other papers as he may select. Notification of the order declaring said <iuar- 
antine will be certified to the governor of the State quarantined, as well as to the 
jfovemors of all other States and Territories, and to the agents of all transporta- 
tion companies doing business in or through said State. All animals of the kind 
quarantined against in said State will be deemed as animals ** affected with c-on- 
tagious disease,*' and any person moving or transporting any of said animals to 
any other State or Territory, or delivering any of such animals to any transpor- 
tation company to be so transnorted, will be prosecuted under sections 6 and 7 of 
the act of Congress approved May 29, 1884. Provided, howeter, that any animal 
of the kind quarantined against that has been examined by an inspector of the 
Bureau of Animal Industry, and by a certificate in writing signed by such 
inspector declared to be free from pleuro-pneumonia, mav be exported to any 
other State or Territory; and provided further, that said animal shall be exported 
within forty-eight hours after such examination and signing of said certificate, so 
that said animal may not be exposed to disease before leaving said State. 

13. Before giving the certificate provided for by rule 12 the inspector must be 
furnished with an affidavit made by two reputable and disinterested persons, 
stating that they have known the animals to be examined for a period of six 
months immediately prior to the date of examination, and that during that time 
the animals have not oeen exposed to pleuro-pneumonia; that they have not been 
in any of the buildings or on any of the premises or among any of the herds 
known to be affected with pleuro- pneumonia, or suspected to be so affected. The 
inspector may also require further proof as to whether said animals to be examined 
have been exposed to pleuro-pneumonia. 

14. All rules and regulations heretofore made are hereby revoked, and these 
rules and regulations will be in full force and effect on and after the 15th day of 
April. 1887. 

Norman J. Colman, 
Commissioner of AgriciUture, 



nrsTRUcnoNs to inspbctors of the u. s. bttrbau of animal 

nn>nsTR7. 

U. S. Department op Agriculture, 

Bureau of Animal Industry, 
WashingtoTiy D, C, May 27, 1S87. 

1. Insi)ector8 are to carefully study and familiarize themselves with the rules 
and regulations prepared by the Commissioner of Agriculture of date April 15, 
1887,' and follow them strictly in carrying out the work they are detailed to do 
by the Chief of the Bureau. 

2. No step or action of any kind is to be taken by any inspector without first 
receiving ejcpress instructions from the Chief of the Bureau, except as is provided 
for in rule 3. 

3. They will promptly make the reports called for by the rules, giving the 
fullest information possible of the facts relating to each case, and make all sug- 

" » 8oe p. 327. 

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330 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

geetions that they think proper, in order that the chief may be fully advised, ao 
as to issue the proper instructions. Should they at any time be in doubt as to the 
proper action to be taken they will ask for further orders, and explain the diffi- 
culty. In all cases of importance, and whenever they believe the circumstances 
require immediate action, they will use the telegraph in requesting orders. 

4. As there exists much hostility among owners of animals to the work intrusted 
to this Bureau, inspectors are to act with the utmost caution and civility in the 
performance of their official duties. They will avoid as far as possible all assump- 
tion of authority in making examinations and iuspections of animals and prem- 
ises; first requesting as a favor or privilege permission to examine, and endeavor 
to persuade owners and jiersons in charge to grant the same. It is the wish of the 
Bureau to allay all the opposition, if possible, that may exist as to its work, and 
have its officers secure the friendly aid and assistance of those for whose benefit 
the law has been made. The Bureau believes that its inspectors can secure this by 
being courteous and avoiding unnecessary friction vnth the public Should an 
inspector fail in this manner in obtaining permission to make an examination, he 
will then present a copy of the rules and regulations of April 15, 1887, tog^thor 
with the act of Congress of Hay 29, 1884,' to the owners or persons in charge, and 
quietly biit firmly insist upon making the examination. If permission is still 
refused the inspector will proceed to enter the premises and make the examina- 
tion. But should any force, or show of force, or threats of force be made against 
the inspector, in his attempt to enter on the premises or to make the examinaticxi, 
he will relinquish the attempt and report at once all the circumstances f ullv to 
the Chief of the Bureau, as provided m rule 11, and wait for orders. The cliiet 
will then direct him as to whether he shall secure the assistance provided for by 
said rule. 

5. Inspectors will prepare and carefully keep a daily journal. In this will be 
stated daily each and every act done by tne inspector, ^ving the fullest detail of 
his work, the name' and residence of the owners of animals inspected, the char- 
acter of animals and their condition, and the character and condition of the prem- 
ises in which they are kept; the attitude of owners toward the woark of the Bureau 
and any other information he may think will be of interest; in case of contagion, 
as far as can be obtained, a history of the animals diseased, how, if known or con- 
jectured, they contracted the disease, number in herd, number Quarantined, date 
of quarantine, and all other particulars useful to be known. Also a register, in 
which is to be entered a brief statement of work done each day, ruled and filled 
out in like manner as blank Form F for the daily reports. 

6. It is necessary that the Bureau shall be kept fully advised daily of the prog- 
ress of all work being done by inspectors. To accomplish this purpose daily 
reports— Form F— are to be made out and forwarded to the Bureau. These 
reports are to be made by the chief inspector of each district, or by the inspector 
in charge of work at any place. All inspectors at work under a chief inspectin 
will forward daily to said chief inspector all reports required by the rules and 
instructions, who will from said reports make up his daily report, and forward it 
to the Bureau, together with all the reports, vouchers, etc., received by him from 
insi>ectors under his charge. When no work of the kind specified on the blank 
has been done in the district or place for which the report is made, that fact will 
be so stated on the report, and also a statement of what work is being carried on. 
In addition, inspectors in charge are required from time to time to forward written 
reports of the cases they and those under them are at work upon, and progress 
being made in the same, in lik« manner as heretofore. 

f 7. Notice of temporary quarantines provided by rule 3 will be made in duplicate — 
one copy to be served on the owner or persons in charj^e of the animals, tlie other 
indorsed with the time, place, and person on whom served, to be forwarded to the 
Bureau. The inspectors will also keep a record of the same. This is to be done 
whenever a herd is found infected. Inspectors will also see that the State authori- 
ties place the State quarantine on the infected herd. Both quarantines are 
required; the first to prevent the quarantined animals leaving the State, the sec- 
ond to prevent them from being moved to other places within the State. Inspec- 
tors will notify the Bureau of the date that the State quarantine of the herd is 
made. 

8. When the diagnosis of disease has been confirmed in the manner provided by 
instruction 12, the animals of the herd quarantined are to be locked, or tagged, 
and numbered. A report of this record, as specified in rule 5, will be made and 
sent to the Bureau on blank Form K. 

9. In convening boards of appraisement under rule 8, the certificate of appraise- 
ment is to be made and sworn to in duplicate, one copy to be for the benefit of the 

» See Report of Bureau for 1884, p. 47a 

uigiTizea oy VjOOv Iv^ 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 331 

owBer, the other to be at once forwarded to the Bureau. Whenever it is impos- 
sible to haye the oaths administered to the appraisers and owners by a notary pub- 
lic or jxistioe of the peace, the signatures of the appraisers to Form C and of owners 
to Form E may be attested by a witness. This, however, is to be done only in 
cases where an agreement as to price is made with the owner, and he does not 
object to the killing of his cattle. Appraisers are to be directed that cattle are not 
to be valued at more than they would bring at public auction, and when appraise- 
ments are made in excess of such values in the judgment of the inspector he will 
disapprove such appraisements and convene a new board. In all caseS where pos- 
sible it will be best, before the appraisement is made, to secnre the owner's con- 
sent to the maximum valuation that will be approved. Whenever owners object 
to the killing of their cattle, and no amicable arrangement can be made, inspectors 
will pursue strictly the mode and manner of making appraisements as prescribed 
by the rules and regpilations and the law of the State in which it is to be made. 

10. No animal shall be killed unless expressly ordered by the Chief of the Bureau, 
which order will be sent after the appraisement of the animal is approved and the 
amount to be paid to the owner shall have been fixed by the chief and a release 
and quitclaim of all demands against the United States has been signed by the 
owners. Blanks for this purpose will be furn'shed inspectors— Form E. 

11. A post-mortem examination must be made of every animal killed and a 
report of the result of such examination must be made in writing to the Chief of 
the Bureau. It must state name of owners, character of animal, date of the quar- 
antine, and the number of animal quarantined, if chained or locked or numl ered 
in any other way. These reports are to be forwarded with the daily reports. 

ItJ. Whenever an inspector discovers the existence of pleuro- pneumonia he will, 
in addition to reporting in the manner provided by the rules, likewise report it to 
the chief inspector of his district. The chief inspector will himself proceed to the 
locality for the purpose of verifying the diagnosis, or in case of his being otherwise 
engaged the Chief of the Bureau will detail another inspector to make the veriti- 
cation. The result of this examination should be reported at once to the Bureau. 
Should the diagnosis be confirmed, a notice of the fact of the discovery of pleuro- 
pneumonia is to be sent at once to the State veterinarian or board of State sanitary 
commissioners, and an invitation extended to them to make an examination and 
cooperate with this Bureau. 

I'ii, It is deemed necessary and essential that the utmost harmony and friendly 
relations should exist between the officers of this Bureau and State officers, and 
that hearty cooperation be secured. Inspectors are requested to do everything in 
their power to maintain such relations, and to consult with and receive from State 
officers' all suggestions and assistance that can be obtained. All friction is to be 
avoided. 

14. The certificate provided for in rule 12 is to be made in duplicate, one copy to 
be given to the shipper and the other to be forwarded to the Bureau. These cer- 
tificates have on the backs the affidavits for the citizens and owners to make oath 
to, and are to be executed in duplicate. When additional proof is required by tlie 
inspector, such proof is to be forwarded with the duplicate certificate or permit to 
the Bureau. 

15. The reports provided for by these instructions are to be commence:! and for- 
warded on and after June 1, 1887. 

16. These instructions may be from time to time altered, amended, or suspended 
by the Chief of the Bureau in his discretion, and special instructions to govern 
particular cases will be sent as the circumstances may require. 

D. E. SAhM.o:<, Chief of Bnveaii. 



NOTICE CONCERNINQ PLEURO-PNEUMONIA. 

U. S, Depabtment of Agriculture, 

Commissioner's Office, 
Washington, D. C, May Jl, ISS7, 
To the managera of all railroads and transportation companies in tlie United 
States: 

Your attention is called to the fact that contagious pleuropneumonia exists 
among cattle in the States of Illinois, Maryland, and New York, and that the 
infected districts in said States have been duly quarantined by the Department of 
Agriculture in the manner provided by the act of Congress of March 29, 1884,' 
establishing the Bureau of Animal Industry. 



• See Report of Bureau for 1884, p. 4Ta 



uigiiizea oy v^jOOv Iv^ 



332 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

The existence of this contagious disease in such important cattle centers as these 
States i* a danger so menacing to the cattle interests of the United States that it 
calls for the most prompt, thorough, and energetic measures that can be taken, 
not only by the National Goyemment, but also by all parties interested in the pres- 
ervation of the great cattle industry of the country. 

No persons or class of persons are more interested in the safety and growth of 
this industry than transportation companies, who derive a very lar^e proportion 
of their earnings from the shipment of cattle and their products, ana none should 
be more active and energetic in enforcing such measures as are necessary to stamp 
out this disease and prevent its possible spread. 

The insidious character of this disease, its easy and imperceptible propagation 
by contact with animals having the germs of disease and ^ving no outward symp- 
toms of its presence, the contra<;tion of the plague from mfected cars, the spreaa- 
ing of the germs by means of manure earned in uncleansed cars from place to 
place, all make it a matter of grave concern and render it necessary that stringent 
mejisnres shonld be adopted to protect the cattle interests of the country from this 
great evil. 

I have, therefore, to suggest and to request that all transportation oompanieB 
shall establish on their respective lines a rule, and see that it is rigidly enforced, 
that all cars that have carried live stock shall be thoroughly cleansed on the dis- 
charging of their freight, and not allowed to leave the freight or stock vards before 
this is done; also that the said cars shall be carefully dismfected in the following 
manner: 

1. Remove all litter and manure. 

2. Wash the car with water thoroughly and until clean. 

3. ^turate the walls and floors with a solution made by dissolving 4 ounces of 
chloride of lime to each gallon of water. Stock yards and pens should be cleansed 
and disinfected at least once a week. 

Transportation companies having connections with infected districts should 
require parties offering cattle for shipment to present at point of loading affidavits 
of the owner and two disinterested persons stating that the cattle to be Bhipx>ed 
have been known to affiants for at least six months next preceding, and that said 
cattle have not been in any of said districts, and have not come in contact with 
any cattle from said districts. Said affidavits should be attached to and accom- 
pany the waybill to point of destination. 

As several very extensive outbreaks of pleuro-pneumonia have recently been 
traced to cattle tnat had been shipped from infected districts a considerable dis- 
tance by rail, the necessity of these precautions can not be overestimated, and if 
enforced they would be a material safeguard against the spread of this disease. 

Railroad companies can be of the greatest assistance to the Bureau of ALnimal 
Industry in its work of extirpating pleuro-pneumonia if they will cooperate with 
it and assist in maintaining the rules and regulations prescribed by me on April 
15, 1887,^ and the quarantine orders since made. 

I hope this support and assistance wiU be cordially ^ven. 

Very respectfully, Norman J. Colman, 

Commissioner of Agriculture, 



CONCERNINa TRANSPORTATION OF CATTLR 

U. S. Depaetment of Agriculture, 

Office of the Secretary, 

Washington, D, C, July S^ 18S9, 
To the Managers and Agents of Railroad and Transportation Companies of the 

United States: 

In accordance with section 7 of an act of Congress approved May 29, 1884,* 
entitled "An act for the establishment of a Bureau of Animal Industry, to prevent 
the exportation of diseased cattle and to provide means for the suppression and 
extirpation of pleuro- pneumonia and other contagious diseases among domestic 
animals,'" you are hereby notified that a contagious and infectious disease known 
as splenetic, or Texas, fever exists among cattle in the following-described area 
of the United States: 

All that country lying south and east of a line commencing at the northeasterly 
corner of the county of Crittenden, in the State of Arkansas, thence running in a 
northwesterly direction to the Osage Agency, in the Indian Territory, and thence 
running southwesterly to the Rio Grande River, at the intersection of the south- 



» See p. 337. « See Report of the Bureau for 1854, p. 473. 

uigiiizea oy VjOOv Iv^ 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL EEPOBT. 333 

easterly comer of Peooe County and the northeasterly comer of Presidio County, 
in the State of Texas. 

No cattle are to be transported from said area to any portion of the United States 
north or west of the above-described lines except in accordance with the following 
r^^nlations: 

First. On nnloading north or west of this line anyi^attle in coarse of tran8i>oi'ta- 
tion to be fed or watered on the way, the places where said cattle are to be so fed 
and watered shall be set apart and no other cattle shall be admitted into said places. 
Once a week from the date hereof nntil the 1st day of December, 1889, these water- 
ing and feeding places shall be thoroughly cleansed and disinfected. 

Second. On unloading said cattle at their points of destination the regulations 
relating to the movement of Texas cattle prescribed by the cattle sanitary officer 
of the State where unloaded shall be carefully observed. The cars that have car- 
ried said stock shall be cleansed and disinfected before they are again used to 
transport, store, or shelter animals. 

The cars used to transport such animals and the pens in which they are fed and 
watered shall be disinfected in the following manner: 

(a) Remove all litter and manure. This litter and manure may be disinfected 
by mixing with lime, diluted sulphuric or carbolic acid, or if not disinfected it 
mav be stored where no cattle can come in contact with it until after December 1. 

(o) Wash the cars and the feeding and watering troughs with water until clean. 

(c) Saturate the walls and floors of the cars and the fencing, troughs, and chutes 
of the pens with a solution made by dissolving four ounces of chloride of lime to 
each gallon of water. 

The losses resulting yearly to the owners of Northern cattle by the contraction 
of this disease from contact with Southern cattle and through infected cars and 
by means of the manure carried in unclean cars from place to place have become 
a matter of grave and serious concern to the cattle industry of the United States. 
It is necessary, therefore, that this cattle industry should be protected as far as it 
is possible by the adoption of methods of disinfection in order to prevent the 
dissemination of this disease. 

A rigid compliance with the above regulations will insure comparative safety to 
Northern cattle and render it unnecessary to adopt a more stringent regulation, 
such as the absolute prohibition ot the movement of Texas cattle except for 
slaughter during the time of year that this disease is fatal. 

Inspectors will be instructed to see that disinfection is properly done, and it is 
hoped that transportation companies will promptly put in operation the above 
methods. 

Very respectfully, J. M. Rusk, Secretary. 



CONCBRNINO TRANSPORTATION OF CATTLE. 

U. S. Department op Agriculture, 

Office of the Secretary, 
Washington^ D, C, August 10, 1889. 
To the managers and agents of railroads and transportation companies of the 

United States: 

In addition to my order of July 3, 1889,' in regard to cleaning and disinfecting 
cars and pens which have been occupied by cattle liable to disseminate splenetic or 
Texas fever, I desire to impress upon you the importance of special precautions to 
prevent the infection of cattle which have been selected for exportation. The 
number of cattle shipped to Europe has rapidly increased and the trade is probably 
more promising than ever before. This relieves our markets, gives new vifjor to 
the cattle industry, and proportionally increases the business of transportation 
companies. 

It IS feared by shippers that some of these export cattle may become infected 
from cars which had carried Southern cattle before the reGTulations of July 8, 1889, 
went into effect. A single shipment of animals thus affected might lead other 
countries to prohibit the entrance of our cattle and consequently ruin this trade, 
which is now of so much importance to the country. Not desiring at present to 
make a regulation requiring that all stock cars should be cleaned and disinfected 
before cattle are loaded into them, I would earnestly request the managers of all 
transportation companies doing business between the interior and the seaboard to 
make provision whereby all cars, in which cattle for export are to be transported, 

1 See p. 882. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



334 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

shall bo thoroughly cleaned and disinfected previoos to loading, in accordanoe 
with the instructions contained in my order or July 3. 

Arrangements have been made at New York by which one yard, accessible to all 
railroad companies, has been set apart exclusively for export cattle. I understand 
that one of the trunk lines between Chicago and New York has already, at the 
request of shippers, instructs its agents to furnish disinfected cars for such cattle, 
and I trust that all others will immediately fp.ye the export trade the benefit of 
similar precautions, thus avoiding the necessity for an extension of the order of 
July S to include all cars in which cattle are transported. 
Very respectfully, 

J. M. Busk, Secretary. 



REGULATIONS FOR THE INSPECTION OF SALTED PORK AND 
BACON FOR EXPORT. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Office of the Secretary, 
Washiiigtony D. C, September 12^ 1800. 
By virtue of the authority conferred upon the Department of Agriculture by 
section 1 of an act entitled ''An act providing for the inspection of meats for 
exportation, prohibiting the importation of adulterated articles of food or drink, 
and authorizing the President to make proclamation in certain cases, and for other 
purposes," approved August 30, 1890 [appended hereto], the following regulations 
for the inspection of salted pork or bacon for export, and the marks, stamps, or 
other devices for the identification of the same, are hereb^r prescribed: ' 

1. Whenever any foreign country, by its laws, regulations or orders, requires 
the inspection of salted pork or bacon imported into such country from the United 
States, all packers or exporters desiring to export to said country shall make appli- 
cation to the Secretary of Agriculture for such inspection; also, whenever any 
buyer, seller, or exporter of such meats intended for exportation shall desire inspec- 
tion thereof, he shall likewise make application to the Secretary of Agriculture for 
such inspection. 

2. The application must be in writing, and shall give the name of the packer of 
such meats, and, if the packer be the exjwrter, the probable amount of such meats 
to be exported par week or month for which inspection is requested; the name of 
the country or countries to which such meats are to be exported; the place at 
which inspection is desired and the date for such inspection. The applicant shall 
likewise agree to abide by these regulations, and to mark his packages as herein- 
after provided. 

3. Every package containing salted pork or bacon which has been inspected 
must be branded or stenciled both on the side and on the top by the packer or 
exporter, as follows: 

for export. 

a. (Here give the name of the packer.) 

b. (Here the location and State of the factory where packed). 

c. (Here give the net weight of the salted pork or bacon contained in the 

package. ) 

d. (If exported by other than packer, the name of the exporter. ) 

e. (Name of consignee and pomt of destination.) 

The letters and figures in the above brand shall be of the following dimensiona: 
The letters in the words **For export" shall not be less than three-fourths of an 
inch in length, and all the other letters and figures not less than one-half inch in 
length. Ail letters and figures affixed to the top and sides shall be legible, and shall 
be in such proportion ana of such color as the meat inspector of the Department 
of Agriculture may designate. 

4. The meat inspector of the Department of Agriculture, having, after insx>ec- 
tion, satis&ed himself that the articles inspected are wholesome, sound, and fit for 
human food, shall affix to the top of said packajB^ a meat-inspection stamp, to be 
furnished by the Department of Agriculture, said stamps bearing serial numbers, 
and the inspector will write on said stam^ the date of inspecUon. The stamp 
must be securely affixed by paste and tacks, in such a wav as to be easily read when 
the package is standing on its bottom. Not less than nve tacks shall be driven 
through each stamp, one at each corner and one in the middle of the stamp. 



1 8oo additional regulations on p. 343. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAX REPORT. 335 

The stamp baying been affixed, it must be immediately canceled. For this pur- 
pose the inspector will use a stencil plato of brass or copper, in which will be cat 
five parallel waved lines long enough to extend beyond each side of the stamp on 
the wood of the package. At the top of said stencil will be cut the name of the 
ixisi>ector and at the bottom of said stencil will be cut the district in which inspec- 
tion is made. The imprinting from this plate must be with blacking or other 
durable material, over and across the stamp, and in such manner as not to deface 
the reading matter on the stamp; that is, bo as not to daub and make it illegible. 
The stamp having been affixed and canceled, it must immediately be covered with 
a coating of transparent varnish or other substance. Orders for stamps must be 
made by the inspector on the Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry. The 
inspector, having inspected and found wholesome the contents of said package 
and affixed the stamp thereon, will issue to the packer or^xporter a certificate of 
inspection, reciting the time and place of inspection, the name of the packer, the 
name of the exporter, and the name of the consignee and country to which 
exported. He will also place on said certificate the number of the packas^e. One 
certificate only will be issued for each consignment, and must designate the stamp 
numbers of all the packages contained in said consignment. 

5. The inspector will enter in the stub of his stamp Dook the information given by 
the packer's brand on the package inspected, and will report daily on blank form 
(M. L 1 ) the number of stamps issued on each date and all the information required 
by said blank. 

6. The certificates of inspection will be furnished by the Department of Agri- 
culture and be issued in serial numbers and in triplicate form. The inspector will 
deliver one copy of said certificate to the consignor or shipper of such meat 
inspected, one copy he will attach to the invoice or shipping bill of such meat, and 
the third copy he will forward to the Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry of 
the Department of Agriculture for filing therein. He will likewise make a daily 
report on blank form (if. /. f ) of all certificates issued on that date and fill out 
said blank with all the information required thereon. 

7. Whenever the inspection of any salted pork or bacon is requested by an 
exporter or shipper at any other place than where packed, the packages containing 
each meats are to be opened ana closed at the expense of the exporter, and said 
packages must be branaed or stenciled in the same manner and contain the same 
information as prescribed in the case of inspection for a packer. 

J. M. Rusk, Secretary, 



[Public— No. 247.] 

AN ACT proyiding for an inspection of meats for exportation, prohibiting the importation of 
adulterated articles of food or drink, and authorizing the President to make proclamation in 
oertjtin cases, and for other purposes. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of 
America in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of Agriculture may cause to 
be made a careful inspection of salted pork and bacon intended for exportation, 
with a view to determining whether the same is wholesome, sound, and fit for 
human food, whenever the Taws, regulations, or orders of the Government of any 
foreign country to which such pork or bacon is to be exported shall reu uire inspec- 
tion thereof relating to the importation thereof into such country, ana also when- 
ever any buyer, seller, or exporter of such meats intended for exportation shall 
request the inspection thereof. 

Such inspection shall be made at the place where such meats are packed or boxed, 
and each package of such meats so inspected shall bear the marks, stamps, or 
other device for identification provided for in the last clause of this section: Pro- 
vided, That an inspection of such meats may also be made at the place of exporta- 
tion if an inspection has not been made at the place of packing, or if , in the opinion 
of the Secretary of Agriculture, a re-inspection becomes necessary. One copy of 
any certificate issued by any such inspector shall be iiled in the Department of 
Agriculture; another copy shall be attached to the invoice of each separate ship- 
ment of such meat, and a third copy shall be delivered to the consignor or shipper 
of meat as evidence that packages of salted i)ork and bacon have been inspect-ed in 
accordance with the provisions of this act and found to be wholesome, sound, and 
fit for human food; and for the identification of the same such marks, stamps, or 
other devices as the Secretary of Agriculture may by regulation prescribe shall be 
affixed to each of such packages. 

Any person who shall forge, counterfeit, or knowingly and wrongfully alter, 
deface, or destroy any of the marks, stamps, or other devices provided for in this 



uigiiizea oy v^jOOv Iv^ 



336 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

section on any package of any such meats, or who shall forge, coTinterfeit, or 
knowingly and wrongrnlly alter, deface, or destroy any certificate in reference to 
meats provided for in this section, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and 
on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine not exceeding one thousand dol- 
lars or imprisonment not exceeding one year, or by both said punishments, in tlM 
discretion of the court. 

Sec. ^. That it shall be unlawful to import into the United States any adulter- 
ated or unwholesome food or drug or any vinous, spirituous or malt liquors, adul- 
terated or mixed with any poisonous or noxious chemical, drug or other ingredient 
injurious to health. Any person who shall knowingly import into the United 
States any such adulterated food or drug, or drink, knowing or having reasons to 
believe the same to be adulterated, being the owner or the agent of the owner, 
or the consignor or consignee of the owner, or in privity with them, assisting in 
such unlawful act, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and liable to prose- 
cution therefor in the district court of the United States for the district into which 
such property is imported; and, on conviction, such i>erson shall be fined in a sum 
not exceeding one thousand dollars for each separate shipment, and may be 
imprisoned by the court for a term not exceeding one year, or both, at the discre- 
tion of the court. 

Se(\ 3. That any article designed for consimiption as human food or drink, and 
any other article of the classes or description mentioned in this act, which shall 
be imported into the United States contrary to its provisions, shall be forfeited to 
the United States, and shall be proceeded against under the provisions of chapter 
eighteen of title thirteen of the Revised Statutes of the United States: and such 
imported property so declared forfeited may be destroyed or returned to the im- 
porter for exportation from the United States after the payment of all costs and 
expenses, under such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe; 
and the Secretary of the Treasury may cause such imported articles to be inspected 
or examined in order to ascertain whether the same have been so unlawfully 
imported. 

Sec. 4. That whenever the President is satisfied that there is good reason to 
believe that any importation is being made, or is about to be made, into the United 
States, from any foreign countrv, of any article usod for human food or drink 
that is adulterated to an extent dani?erous to the health or welfare of the people of 
the United States, or an^ of them, he may issue his proclamation suspending the 
importation of such articles from such country for such period of time as he may 
think necessary to prevent such importation; and during such period it shall be 
unlawful to import into the United States from the countries designated in the 
proclamation or the President any of the articles importation of which is so 
suspended. 

Sec*. 5. That whenever the President shall be satisfied that unjust discrimina- 
tions are made by or under the authority of any foreign state a^g^ainst the importa- 
tion to or sale in such foreign state of any product of the United States, he may 
direct that such products of such foreign state so discrim mating against any 
product of the United States as he may deem proper shall be excluded from impor- 
tation to the United States; and in such case he shall make proclamation of his 
direction in the premises, and therein name the time when such dire/tion against 
importation shall take effect, and after such date the importation of the articles 
named in such proclamation shall be unlawful. The President may at any time 
revoke, modify, terminate, or renew any such direction as, in his opinion, the 
public interest may require. 

Sec. 6. That the importation of neat cattle, sheep, and other ruminants, and 
swine, which are diseased or infected with any disease, or which shall have been 
exposed to such infection within sixty days next before their exportation, is hereby 
prohibited; and any person who shall knowingly violate the foregoing provision 
shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall, on conviction, be punished 
by a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars, or by imprisonment not exceeding 
three years, and any vessel or vehicle used in such unlawful importation with the 
knowledge of the master or owner of said vessel or vehicle that such importation 
is diseased or has been exposed to infection as herein described, shall be forfeited 
to the United States. 

Sec. 7. That the Secretary of Agriculture be, and is hereby, authorized, at the 
expense of the owner, to place ana retain in quarantine all neat cattle, sheep, and 
other ruminants, and all swine, imported into the United States, at such ports as 
he may designate for such purposes, and under such conditions as he mav by regu- 
lation prescribe, respectively, for the several classes of animals above described; 
and for this purpose he may have and maintain possession of all lands, buildings, 
tools, fi2ture6» and appurtenances now in use for the quarantine of neat oatUe, 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH A.NNL.M. KEPOKX. 337 

and hereafter purchase, constrnct, or rent as may be necessary, and he may appoint 
veterinary surgeons, inspectors. ofHcers. and empJoyees by him deemed necessary 
to maintain such quarantine, and provide tor theexecutioxi of the otlier provisions 
of this act. 

Skc. 8. That the importation of all animals describeii in this act into any port 
in the United States, except buch as may be desi-nati'd by thy Secretary of Api- 
culture, with the approval of the Secretary of t:ie Tiea^^ury, as <iuarantine stations, 
is hereby prohibitetl; and the Secretary of Agriculture may cause to be slaughtered 
such of the animals named in this act as may be, under regulations prescribed by 
him. adjudged to be infected with any contagious disease, or to have be n exposed 
to infection so as to be dangerous to other animals; and that the value of animals 
BO slaughtered as l)eing so exposed to infection but not infected may be ascertained 
by the agreement of the Secretary of Agriculture and owners thereof, if praticable; 
otherwise, by the ai'praisal by two persons familiar with the c! aracter and va"ue 
of such propertv, to b > appointed by the Secretary of Agriculture, whosj decision, 
if they agree, shall be final; otherwise, the Secretary of Agriculture shall decide 
between them, and his decision shall be final; and the amount of the value thus 
ascertained shall be paid to the owner thereof out of money in the Treasury appro- 
priated for the use of the Bureau of Animal Industry; but no payment shall be 
made for any animal imported in violation of the provisions of this act. If any 
animals subject to quarantine according to the provisions of this act are brought 
into any port of the United States where no quarantine station is established the 
collector of such port shall require the same to be conveyed by the vessel on which 
they are imported or are found to the nearest (luarantine station, at the expense 
of the owner. 

Skc. 9. That whenever, in the opinion of the 1 r( sident, it shall be necessary for 
the protection of animals in the United States against infectious or contagious 
di8ea8eH, be may, by proclamation, suspend the importation of all or any cituss of 
animals for a limited time, and may change, modify, revoke, or renew such proc- 
lamation, as the public goo I mayrecjuire; and during the timeot such suspension 
the importation of any such animals shall be unlawful. 

Sec. 10. That tlie Secretary of Agriculture shall cause careful inspection to be 
made by a suitable officer of all imported animals describe<l in this act, to ascer- 
tain whether such animals are infected with conta*? ous diseases or have been 
exposed to infection so as to be dangerous to othtr animals, which shall then 
either l)e placed in (quarantine or dealt with according to the regulations of the 
Secretary of Agriculture: and all food, litter, manure, elothing. utensils, and other 
appliances that have been so related to such animals on board ship as to be judged 
liable to convey inlection nhall be dealt with according to the regulations of the 
Secretary of Agriculture; and the Secretary of Agriculture may cause inspection 
to be m lie of all animals described in this act i- tended for exportation, and pro- 
vide fertile disinfection of all vessels en^,* iged in the transportation thereot. and 
of all barges or other vessels used in the conveyance of such animals iutendtd lor 
export to the ocean steamer or other vessels, and of ail head-ro:»es and other appli- 
ances used in such exportation, by such orders and regulations as he may pre8cril)e; 
and if, upon such insi)ection, any such animals shall be adjud,;ed, under the regu- 
lations or the Secretary of Agriculture, to be infected or to have been e :posed to 
infection so as to be dangerous to other animals, they stiali not be allowed to be 
placed upon any vessel for exportation; the expense of all the inspection and dis- 
infection provided for in the section to be borne by the owner of the vessels on 
which such animals are exported. 

Approved, August ;J0, 1890. 



RfiGXTLATIONS FOR THE INSPECTION AND QUARANTINE OP 
':-: NEAT CATTLE, SHEEP, AND OTHER RUMINANTS, AND SWINE 

IMPORTED INTO THE UNITED STATES. 

U. S. Department of Aoriculture, 

Office of the Secretary, 
Washington, D, C, October W, 1890, 
M In pursuance of sections 7, 8, and 10 of an act of Congress entitled **An act pro- 
t'lf viding for the inspection of meats for exportation, and prohibiting the importati<m 
'y of adulterated articles of food or drink, and authorizing the President to make 
It*' proclamation in certain cases, and for other purposes," ' approved August 30, 1890, 
# 



l*.*^ » For text of act, see p. 836. 

7204 22 ^ T 

[ Digitized by COOgle 



338 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

the following regulations are hereby prescribed for the inspection and quarantine 
of neat cattle, sheep, and other niminants, and swine imported into the United 
States. 

1. With the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, the following-named 
porta are hereby designated as quarantine stations, and all cattle, sheep, and other 
ruminants, and swine imported into the United States must be entered through 
said ports, viz: On the Atlantic seaboard, the ports of Boston, New York, and 
Baltimore, on the Pacific seaboard, San Diego; along the boundary between the 
United States and Mexico, Brownsville, Paso del Norte, Eagle Pass, Laredo, and 
Nogales: and along the border or boundary line between the United States and 
British (Columbia and Canada, through the customs ports in the collection districts 
of Aroostook and Bangor, Me.; Vermont, Vt.; Buffalo Creek, Niagara, Cai)e Vin- 
cent, Champlain, and Oswegatchie, N. Y.; Detroit, Port Huron, and Superior, 
Mich.: Minnesota and Duluth, Minn.; Puget Sound, Wash. 

2. The word *' animals," when used in these regulations, refers to and includes 
all or any of the following kind: Neat cattle, sheep, and other ruminants, and 
swine. The words * * contagious diseases, '* when used m these regulations, includes 
and applies to all or any of the following diseases: Anthrax in cattle, sheep, goats, 
or swine; contagious pleuropneumonia in cattle; tuberculosis in cattle; foot-and- 
mouth disease in cattle, sheep, goats, and swine; rinderpest in cattle and sheep; 
sheep-pox, foot-rot, and scab in sheep; hog cholera and swine plague in swine. 

8. All cattle, sheep, and other ruminants imported into the United States from 
any part of the world except North and South America shall be accompanied with 
a certificate from the local authority of the district in which said animals have 
been for one year next preceding the date of shipment, stating that no contagious 
pleuro-pneumonia, foot-and-mouth disease, or rinderpest has existed in said dis- 
trict for the past year. And all swine imported into the United States from any 
part of the world except North, Central, and South America shall be accompanied 
with a similiar certificate relating to the existence of foot-and-mouth disease. 
All such animals shall also bo accompanied with an affidavit by the owner from 
whom the importer has purchased them, stating that said animals have been in 
the district where purchased for one year next preceding the date of sale, and that 
neither of the above-mentioned diseases has existed among them, or among any 
animals of the kind with which they have come In contact, for one year last past, 
and that no inoculation has been practiced among said animals for the past two 
years. Also by an affidavit from the importer or his agent supervising the ship- 
ment, stating that the animals have been shipped in clean and disinfected cars and 
vessels direct from the farm where purchased; that they have not passed through 
any district infected with contagious diseases affecting said kind of animals, and 
that they have not been exposed in any possible manner to the contagion of any 
of said contagious diseases. 

4. The foregoing certificate and affidavits must accompany said animals and be 
presented to the collector of customs at the ports of entry, and by him be delivered 
to the inspector of the Bureau of Animal Industry stationed at said i)ort, to allow 
them to be imported into the United States. 

5. All neat cattle imported into the United States from any part of the world 
except North, Central, and South America shall be subject to a quarantine of 
ninety days, counting from date of arrival at the quarantine station. All sheep 
and other ruminants and swine from any part of the world except North, Cen- 
tral, and South America shall be subject to a quarantine of fifteen days, counting 
from date of arrival at the quarantine station. 

6. Any i>erson contemplating the importation of animals from any part of the 
world except North, Central, and South America must first obtain from the Sec- 
retary of Agriculture two permits, one stating the number and kind of animals to 
be imported, the port and probable date of shipment, which will entitle them to 
clearance papers on presentation to the American consul at said port of shipment; 
the other stating the port at which said animals are to be landed and quarantined 
and the approximate date of their arrival, and this will assure the reception of the 
number and kind specified therein at the port and quarantine station named, at 
the date prescribed for their arrival, or at any time during three weeks immedi- 
ately following, after which the permit will be void. These permits shall in no 
case be available at any port other than the one mentioned therein. Permits must 
be in the name of the owner of or agent for any one lot of animals. When more 
persons than one own a lot of animals for which permits have been issued, a release 
from quarantine will be given each owner for the number and kind ho may own, 
and this release will be a certificate of fulfillment of quarantine regulations. 
Permits will be issued to quarantine at such ports as the importer may elect, so 
far as facilities exist at such port, but in no case will i)ermits for importation at 

uigiiizea oy vj v^^ v./ pt l\^ 






FOURTEENTH ANNUAL BEPORT. 339 

any port be granted in excess of the accommodations of the Government quaran- 
tine station at such port. Every importer shall, on the day of the shipment from 
a foreign port, telegraph to the Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry the num- 
ber land kind of animals shipped, the vessel on which they are shipx)ed, and the 
port at which they are to be landed. United States consuls at foreign ports are 
hereby notified to give clearance papers or certificates for importation of animals 
only upon presentation of permits as above provided, with dates of probable arival 
and destination corresponding with said permits, and in no case for a number in 
excess of that mentioned therein. 

7. All animals imported Into the United States shall be carefully inspected by a 
veterinary inspector of the Bureau of Animal Industry, and all animals found to 
be free from disease and not to have been exposed to any contagious disease, 
except as provided in Regulation 5, shall be admitted into the United States. 
Whenever any animal is found to be affected with a contagious disease, or to have 
been exposed to such disease, said animal, and all animals that have been in con- 
tact or exposed to said animal, will be placed in quarantine, and the inspector 
quarantining the same shall report at once to the Chief of the Bureau of Animal 
Industry, who will direct whether or not said animals quarantined shall be 
appraised and slaughtered, as provided by section 8 of the act under which these 
regulations are made. All animals quarantined by reason of disease or exposure 
to disease shall not be admitted to tne established quarantine grounds, but shall 
be quarantined elsewhere, at the expense of the importer, or be dealt with in such 
manner as the Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry shall determine. 

8. In case of imported animals proving to be infected, or to have been exposed 
to infection, such portions of the cargo of the vessel on which they have anived 
as have been exposed to these animals or their emanations shall be subjected, 
under the direction of the inspector of the Bureau of Animal Industry, to disin- 
fection in such manner as may be considered by said inspector necessary before it 
can be landed. 

9. No litter, fodder, or other aliment, nor any ropes, straps, chains, girths, 
blankets, poles, buckets, or other things used for or about the animals, and no 
manure shall be landed, excepting under such regulations as the veterinary 
insi)ector shall provide. 

10. On moving animals from the ocean steamer to the quarantine grounds, they 
shall not be unnecessarily passed over any highway, but must be placed on cars 
at the wharves or removed to the cars on a boat which is not used for conveying 
other animals. If such boat has carried animals within three months it must be 
first cleaned and then disinfected under the supervision of the inspector, and after 
the conveyance of the imported animals the boat must be disinfected in the same 
manner before it may be again used tor the conveyance of animals. When pas- 
sage upon or across the public highway is unavoidable in the transportation of 
animals from the place of landing to the quarantine grounds, it must be under 
such careful sui)ervision and restrictions as the veterinai*y inspector may, in 
special cases, direct. 

11. The banks and chutes used for loading and unloading imported animals 
shall be reserved for such cattle, or shall be cleansed and disinfected as above 
before being used for such imported cattle. 

12. The railwav cars used in the transportation of animals to the quarantine 
grounds shall either be cars reserved for this exclusive use, or box cars not other- 
wise employed in the transportation of animals or their fresh products, and after 
each journey with animals to the quarantine grounds they shall be disinfected 
by thorough cleansing and disinfection under the direction of the veterinary 
inspector. 

13. While animals are arriving at the quarantine stations or leaving them, all 
quarantined stock in the yards adjoining the alleyways through which they must 
pass shall be rigidly confined to their sheds. Ammals arriving by the same ship 
may be quarantined together in one yard and shed, but those commg on different 
ships shall in all cases be placed in separate yards. 

14. The gates of all yards of quarantine stations shall be kept locked, except 
When cattle are entering or leaving quarantine. 

15. The attendants on animals in particular yards are forbidden to enter other 
yards and buildings, except such as are occupied by stock of the same shipment 
with those under their special care. No dogs, cats, or other animals, except those 
necessarily present, shall be allowed in the quarantine grounds. 

16. The allotment of yards shall be under the direction of the veterinary in- 
spector of the port, who shall keep a register of the animals entered, with descrip- 
tion, name of owner, name of vessel in which imported, date of arrival and release, 
and other important particulars. 



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340 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

17. The veterinary inspector shall see that water is re^larly furnished to the 
stock, and the manure removed daily, and that the prescribed roles of the statiop 
are enforced. 

18. Food and attendance mnst be provided by the owners of the stock quaran- 
tined. Employees of such owners snail keep die sheds and yards clean, to the 
satisfaction of the veterinary inspector. 

19. ** Smoking " is strictly forbidden within any quarantine inclosure. 

20. No visitors shall be admitted to the quarantine station without special 
written permission from the veterinary inspector. Batchers, cattle dealers, and 
their employees are especially excluded. 

21 . No public sale shall be allowed within the quarantine grounds. 

23. The inspector shall, in his daily rounds, as far as possible, take the temper- 
ature of each animal, commencing with the herds that have been longest in quaran- 
tine and ending with the most recent arrivals, and shall record such temperatures 
on lists kept for the purpose. In passing from one herd to another he shall inva- 
riably wash his thermometer and hands in a weak solution ( 1 to 100) of carbolic 
acid. 

23. In case of the appearance of any disease that is diagnosed to be of a conta- 
gious nature, the veterinary inspector shall notify the Chief of the Bureau of Ani- 
mal Industry, who shall visit the station personallv or send a veterinary inspector, 
and on the confirmation of the diagnosis the herd shall be disposed of according 
to the gravity of the affection. 

24. The yard and shed in which such disease shall have api>eared shall be sub- 
ject to a thorough disinfection. Litter and fodder shall be burned. Sheds, uten- 
sils, and other appliances shall be disinfected as the veterinary inspector may direct. 
The yard, fence, and manure box shall be freely sprinkled with a strong solution 
of chloride of lime. The flooring of the shed shall be lifted and the whole shall 
be left open to the air and unoccupied for three months. 

25. In the casb of the appearance of any contagious disease the infected herd 
shall be ri&ridly confined to its shed, where disinfectants shall be freely used, and 
the attendants shall be forbidden all intercourse with the attendants in otber 
yards and with persons outside the quarantine grounds. 

J. M. Rusk, Secretary, 

[The designation of the ports named in the foregoing regulations as qnarantine 
stations was approved by the Secretary of the Treasury on the 16th day of Octo- 
ber, 1S90, as provided by section 8 of the act of Congress approved August 30, 1890, 
providing for inspection of meats and animals. J 



ORDER AND RBQULATIONS FOR THE INSPECTION OF CATTLE 
AND SHEEP FOR EXPORT. 

U. S. Department op Agriculture, 

Office op the Skcrbtart, 
Washington, D. C, October 20, 1890. 
The following order and regulations are hereby made for the inspection of neat 
cattle and sheep for export from the United States to Q-reat Britain and Ireland 
and the 'Continent of Europe, by virtue of the authority conferred upon me by 
section 10 of the act of Congress approved August 30, 1890,' entitled **An act pro- 
vidint? tor the inspection of meats for exportation, prohibiting the importation of 
adulterated articles of food or drink, and authorizing the President to make proc- 
lamation in certain cases, and for other purposes; " 

1. The Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry is hereby directed to cause care- 
ful veterinary inspection to be made of all neat cattle and sheep to be exported 
from the United States to Great Britain and Ireland and the Contment of Europe. 

2. This inspection will be made at any of the following-named stock yards: 
Kansas City, Mo. ; Chicago, 111. ; Buffalo, N. Y. ; Pitteburg, Pa. ; and at the fol- 
lowing ports of export, viz, Boston and Charlestown, Mass.; New York. N. Y.; 
Philadelphia, Pa.; Baltimore, Md., and Norfolk and Newport News, Va. All 
cattle shipped from any of the aforesaid yards must be tagged before being shipped 
to the ports of export. Cattle arriving at ports of export from other parts of the 
United States will be tagged at said ports. 

JJ. After inspection at the aforesaid stock yards, all cattle found free of disease 
and shown not to have been exposed to the contcigion of any contagious disease 



1 For text of act see d. 335. 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 341 

will 1>^ x-i^joii under tin- direciion of the veterinary inspector in charge of the 
yards. A' l'^■ t;i j^iug, tiie car tie wil! be loaded into cleaned and disinfected cars 
and ahif-]H*(i tlirou^u froiu sai I yams in said cars to the port of export. 

4. Ail am ninls will be rein^pected Jit the port of' exx)ort. All railroad companies 
will be iv'i.iired to turniKh Tor tho transportation of cattle and sheep for export 
ole:ni aiui «ininfet;t*d cars, and the varions stock yards located at the ports of ex- 
port sh ill Ko*»|) separate clean and disinfected yards for the reception of export 
anim.iis only. 

5. ShipoevH will notify the veterinary inspector in charge of yards of intended 
shipments ot cattle, and will jnve to the said inspector, when possible, the name 
of tlie locality from whi^^h said animals have been bronght. and the name of the 
feeder ot said anmiils, and snch farther and other information as may bo prac- 
ticable tor proi^T identification of the place fro-n which said animals have come. 

6. The inspec or, after passing said cattle, and ta*cj:inj? the same, will noti' y the 
veterinary in^p^^ctor in charge of the port of export ot the inspection of said ani- 
mnls. giving him th3 tag numbers and the number and designation of the cars in 
which said animals are shipped. 

1. E cport animals, whenever possible, shall be unloided at the port of export 
from the cars in which they have been transported directly at the wharves from 
which the.>' arc^ to he ehippod. They shall not be unnecessarily passed over any 
highway "r removed to cars or l)oa s which are used for conveying other animals. 
Boats transjiorting sa d animals to the ocean steamer must be first cleansed and 
di8iniect»*d under the supervision of the veterinary inspector of the port, and the 
ocp III sterijiier must, before receiving said animals, be thoroughly cleaned or dis- 
infM'ted m accordance with the directions of said inspector. When passage upon 
or acr"^s the public hghway is unavoidable in the transportation of animals from 
thp cars to the b )at, it must be under such caret ul supervision and restrictions 
as the ve nrnary in pector may, m spfcial cases, direct. 

rt. Any cattle or sheep that are oiferetl for shipment to Great Britain or Ireland, 
or the Continent or* Europe, which have not been inspected and transported in 
accordance wth this order and re;<ulations. will not be allowed to be placed upon 
any vessel for exportation, as they will be deemed, under the law, to have been 
expos* < I to infection so as to be dangerous to other animals. 

9. The s ip »rv.sion of the movement of cattle from cars and yards to the ocean 
steamer at tho ports of export will be in charge of the veterinary inspector of the 
] oi t. No ocean steamer will be allowed to receive more cattle or sheep than it 
can comfortably carry. O ^ er^ro Wiling will not be x>ermitted. 

19. The v-'terinary inspector at the port of export w 11 notifjr the collector of 
the port of the various shipments of cattle or sheep that are entitled to clearance 
papers, and cartificatt^s of the inspection of said animals will be given to the con- 
signors for transmission with the bills of lading. 

J. M. Rusk, Secretary, 



REaiTLATIONS CONCBRNINa CATTIiB TRANSPORTATION. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Office of the Secretary, 
Washington, D. C, February 5, 1S91, 
To the managers and agents of railroad and transportation companies of the 

United States, stockmen, and others: 

In accordance with section 7 of the act of Congress approved May 29, 1881,' enti- 
tled •*An act for the establishment of a Bureau of Animal Industry, to prevent the 
exportation of diseased cattle, and to provide means for the suppression and extirpa- 
tion of pleuro pneumonia and other contagious diseases among domestic animals,'' 
and of the act of Congress approved .July 14, 1890, making appropriation for the 
Department of Agriculture for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1H91 , you are hereby 
notified that a contagiotis and infectious disease known as splenetic, or Soathem, 
fever exists among cattle in the following-described area of the United States: ' 

All that country lying east and south of a line commencing at the southeast cor- 
ner of the Territory of New Mexico, thence running northerly along the eastern 
boundary of New Mexico to the southwestern comer of the county of Cochran, 
State of Texas, thence easterly along the southern boundaries of the counties of 

> See Report of Bareaa for 18H4, p. 473. 
s See statement of April 4, 1891, p. 3(0. 

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342 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

Coch»an, Hockley, Lubbock, Crosby, Dickens, and King to the one hnndredih 
meridian of longitude; thence northerly along said one hundredth meridian to the 
southern boundary of the State of Kansas; thence easterly along the southern 
boundary of the State of Kansas to the northeast comer of the Indian Territory; 
thence southerly along the eastern boundary of the Indian Territory to the south- 
western comer of the State of Missouri; thence easterly along the southern bound- 
aries of the State of Missouri and the State of Kentucky and the State of Virginia 
to a iDoint where said boundary is intersected by the Blue Ridge Mountains; thenco 
in a northeasterly direction, following said Blue Ridge Mountains, to the south- 
western corner of the county of Madison, State of Virginia; thence easterly along 
the southern boundaries of the counties of Madison, Culpeper, and Stafford, 
thenco northerly along the eastern boundary of Stafford County to the Potomac 
River; thence, following the Potomac River, southerly to the Chesapeake Bay; 
thence easterly along the southern boundary of Maryland to the Atlantic Ocean. 

From the 15th day of February to the 1st day of December, 1891, no cattle are 
to be transported from said area to any portion of the United States north or west 
of the above- described line, except in accordance with the following regulations: 

First. When any cattle in course of transportation from said area are unloaded 
north or west of this line to be fed or watered, the places where said cattle are to 
be so fed or watered shall be set apart, and no other cattle shall be admitted 
thereto. 

Second. On unloading said cattle at their points of destination pens shall be set 
apart to receive them, and no other cattle shall be admitted to said pens; and the 
regulations relating to the movement of Texas cattle prescribed by the cattle san- 
itary oflBicers of the State where unloaded shall be carefully observed. The cars 
that have carried said stock shall be cleansed and disinfected before they are again 
used to transport, store, or shelter animals or merchandise. 

Third. Whenever any cattle that have come from said area shall be reshipped 
from any of the points at which they have been unloaded to other points of aesti- 
nation, the car carrying said animals shall bear a placard stating that said car 
contains Southern cattle, and each of the waybills of said shipment shall have a 
note upon its face with a similar statement. At whatever point these cattle are 
unloaded they shall be placed in separate pens, to which no other cattle shall be 
admitted. 

Fourth. The cars used to transport such animals and the pens in which they are 
fed and watered, and the i)ens set apart for their reception at points of destination, 
shall be disinfected in the following manner: 

( a ) Remove all litter and manure. This litter and manure may be disi n footed 

by mixing it with lime, diluted sulphuric acid, or, if not disinfected, it 
may be stored where no cattle can come in contact with it until after 
December 1. 

(b) Wash the cars and the feeding and watering troughs with water until 

clean. 

(c) Saturate the walls and floors of the cars and the fencing, troughs, and 

chutes of the pens with a solution made by dissolving 4 ounces of chlo- 
ride of lime to each gallon of water. Or disinfect the cars with a jet of 
steam under a pressure of not less than 50 pounds to the square inch. 
The losses resulting yearly to the owners of susceptible cattle, both in the inter- 
state and export trade, by the contraction of this disease fi'om exposure in unclean 
and infected cars and pens and by means of the manure carried in unclean car:^ 
from place to place, and the threatened prohibition of our export trade by foreign 
governments because of the occurrence of this disease, have become a matter of 
grave and serious concern to the cattle industry of the United States. It is abso- 
lutely essential, therefore, that this cattle industry should be protected as far as 
possible by separating the dangerous cattle and by the adoption of eflftcient methods 
of disinfection. 

A rigid compliance with the above regulations will insure comparative safety to 
Northern cattle and render it unnecessary to adopt a more stringent regulation, 
such as the absolute prohibition of the movement of Southern cattle except for 
slaughter during the time of year that this disease is fatal. 

Inspectors will be instructed to see that disinfection is properly done, and it is 
hoped that transportation companies will promptly put in operation the above 
methods. 

Very respectfully, J. M. Ruse, Secretary. 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 343 

REQITLATIONS FOR THE INSPBCTION OF LIVE STOCK AND THEIR 

PRODUCTS. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Office of the Secretary, 
Washington, D. C, March ^\'>, Li'JL 
The following rnlee and regulations, being additional to the rules and regula- 
tions* heretofore made under the act of Congress approved August 30, 1890,- are 
hereby prescribed for the inspection of live cattle, hogs, and their carcasses, by 
virtue of the authority confeiTed upon the Secretary of Agriculture under the 
provisions of the act of Congress approved March 8, 1891 [api)ended hereto], 
entitled **An act to provide for the inspection of live cattle, hogs, and the carcasses 
and products thereof which are the subjects of interstate commerce, and for other 
purposes.'* 

export cattle inspection. 

1. The order and regulations providing for the inspection of export cattle and 
sheep, made October 20, 181)0,^ under the provisions of section 10 of the act of Con- 
gress approved August 30, 1890, are hereby continued in full force and effect, the 
same as if made under the provisions of the act of March 3, 1891, and all export- 
ers, to secure clearance for their shipments of cattle, must comply strictly with 
the said regulations. 

MEAT inspection. 

2. The proprietors of slaughterhouses, canning, salting, packing, or rendering 
establishments, engaged in the slaughter of cattle, sheep, or swine, the carcasses 
or products of which are to become subjects of interstate or foreign commerce, 
win make application to the Secretary of Agriculture for inspection of said ani- 
mals and their products. 

3. The said application must be in writing, addressed to the Secretary of Agri- 
culture, Washington, D. C, and shall state the location and address of the slaughter- 
house or other establishment, the kind of animals slaughtered, the estimated num- 
ber of animals slaughtered per week, and the character and quantity of the prod- 
ucts to go into interstate or foreign commerce from said establishment; and the 
said applicant in his application shall agree to conform strictly with all regula- 
tions or orders that may be made bv the Secretary of Agriculture for carrying on 
the work of inspection at such establishment. 

4. The Secretary of Aigriculture, upon receipt of said application and after con- 
sideration thereof, will give said establishment an official number, by which all 
its inspected products will thereafter be known, and this number will be used 
both by the mspectors of the Department of Agriculture and by the owners of 
said establishment to mark the products of the establishment, as hereinafter 
prescribed. 

5. The Secretary of Agriculture will appoint and designate a veterinary inspector 
to take charge of the examination and inspection of animals and their prod- 
ucts for each establishment which has been officially numbered, as prescribed by 
rule 3, and will detail to such inspector such assistants or other employees as may 
bo necessary to properly carry on the work of inspection at said establishment. 
The inspector appointed and all employees under his direction shall have full 
and free access at all times to all parts of the building or bull dings used in the 
slaughter of live animals and the conversion of their carcasses into food products. 

6. The veterinary inspector in charge of said establishment will carefully 
inspect all animals m the pens of said establishment about to be slaughtered, and 
no animal shall be allowed to pass to the slaughtering room until it has been so 
inspected. Whenever any animal is found on said inspection to be diseased, said 
animal shall thereupon be condemned by the insi>ector. and the owner of the same 
shall at once remove it from the premises and dispose of it in such manner as may 
be provided by the laws of the State in which said animal is located. 

7. The veterinary inspector or his assistant shall carefully in8i>ect at time of 
slaughter all animals slaughtered at said establishment and make a i)08t-mortem 
report of the same to the Department. Should the carcass of any animal, on said 
I)ost-mortem examination, be found to be diseased and unfit for human food, the 
said carcass shall at once be removed from said establishment under the super- 
vision of the inspector and be disposed of in the manner provided by the laws of 
the State where slaughtered. Any owner of any establishment in which inspec- 
tions are being made under the provisions of the act of March 3. 1891. who shall 
willfully cause or i)ermit any animal which, upon inspection, has been found to 



»Seop.3&4. «Seep.336. »Beep.3«». 

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344 BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

be diseased to remain on said premises beyond the time allowed by the inspector 
in charge for its removal shall forfeit his right to inspection, and said establish- 
ment will, for such time as the Secretary may direct, be refnsed certificates of 
inspection upon Its products. 

8. The carcasses of cattle which leave said establishment as dressed beef will be 
stamped by said inspector \vith a numbered stamp issued by the Department of 
Agriculture, and a record of the same will be sent to the Department at Washington. 

9. Each and everv article of food products made from the carcasses of animals 
inspected will be labeled or marked in such manner as the owner of said establish- 
ment may direct. Said label, however, must bear the official number of the estab- 
lishment from which said product came and also contain a statement that the same 
has been inspected under the provisions of the act of Mai'ch 8, 1891. 

A copy of said label must be filed at the Department of Agriculture, Washing- 
ton, D. C, and after filing said label will become the mark of identification show- 
ing that the products to which it has been attached have been inspects, as 
provided by these rule.s and regulations; and any x)erson who shall forge, counter- 
feit, alter, or deface said label will be prosecuted under the penalty clause of 
section 4 of the act of March 3, 1891. 

Each and every package to be shipped from said establishment to any foreign 
country must have printed or stenciled on the side or on the top, by the packer or 
exporter, the following: 

FOR EXPORT. 

(a) Official number of establishment. 
(6) Location of factory, 
(c) Number of pieces or x)ound8. 
{d) Trademark. 

In case said package is for transportation to some other State or Territory or to 
the District of Columbia, in place of the words ** For export " the words ** Interstate 
trade*' shall be substituted. 

The letters and figuras in the above print shall be of the following dimensions: 
The letters in the words **For export" or the words "Interstate trade** shall not 
be less than three-fourths of an inch in length and the other letters and figures 
not less than one-half inch in length. The letters and figures affixed to said pack- 
age shall be legible and shall be in such proportion and of such color as the inspector 
of the Department of Agriculture may designate. 

10. The inspector of the Department of Agriculture in charge of said establish- 
ment, being satisfied that the articles in said packages came from animals inspected 
by him and that they are wholesome, sound, and nt for human food, shall affix to 
the top of said packages meat-inspection stamps, to be furnished b^ the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, said stamps oearing serisu numbers, and the mspector will 
write on said stamps the date of inspection. 

The stamp must be securely affixed by paste and tacks in such a way as to be 
easily read when the package is standing on its bottom. Not less than five tacks 
shall be driven through each stamp, one at each comer and one in the middle of 
the stamp. 

The stamp having been affixed, it must be immediately canceled. For this pur- 

gose the inspector will use a stencil plate of brass or copper, in which will be cut 
vo parallel waved lines long enough to extend beyond each side of the stamp on 
the wood of the package. At the top of said stencil will be cut the name of the 
inspector and at the bottom of said stencil will be cut the district in which inspec- 
tion is made. The imprinting from this plate must be with blacking or other 
durable material over and across the stamp, and in such a manner as not to deface 
the reading matter on the stamp; that is, so as not to daub and make it illegible. 
The stamp having been affix^ and canceled, it must immediately be covered with 
a coating of transparent varnish or other substance. Orders for stamps must be 
made by the inspector on the Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry. 

11. Wheiiever any package of meat products bearing the stamp of inspection 
shall have been opened and its contents removed for sale the stamp on said pack- 
age must be effaced and obliterated from the package. 

12. Reports of the work of inspection carriea on in every establishment will be 
forwarded to the Department by the inspector in charge on such blank forms and 
in such manner as will be specified in ** instructions to inspectors of slaughtering 
establishments.** 

SWINE. 

18. The inspection of swine for export or interstate trade will be conducted in 
the same manner as pi-escril^ed in the foregoing rules, with the addition, however, 
that a microscopic examination for trichina will be required for tkii swine pro I nets. 

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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 345 

14. When the slaughtered hog is passed into the cooling room of said establish- 
ment the veterinary inspector in charge or his assistants wiil take from each hog 
two samples of mnscle, one from the "pillar of the diaphragm'* and the other 
from another part of the lx)dy, and said samples will be put In a selt-locking tin 
box and a numbered tag will be placed upon the hog from which said samples 
have been taken and a duplicate number of said tag will be placed in the box with 
said samples. The boxes containing the samples from the hogs in the cooling 
room so tagged will be taken to the microscopisr. for such establishment, who shall 
thereupon make a microscopic examination of each box containing samples and 
shall furnish a written report to the inspector in charge of the cooling room, giv- 
ing the result of said microscopic examination, together with the numbers of the 
hogs from which sam])les have been examined. 

15. All ho^8 reported by the micros opist to the inspector in charge of the cool- 
ing room to be anected with trichina will at once be removed from said cooling 
room of said establishment under the supervision of said inspector or one of his 
deputies and be disposed of by the owner in such manner as may be required by 
the laws of the State where said factory is situated. 

16. The inspector in charge of the slaughtering or other establishment will issue 
a certificate of inspection for all carcasses of animals or the food products thereof 
which are to be exported into foreign countries, which certificate will cite the 
number of the factory, the name of the owner or owners operating the same, the 
date of inspection, and the name of the consignee and country to which said arti- 
cles are to be exported. Said certificate will also contain the numbers of the stamps 
attached to the articles to be exported. One certificate only will be issued for each 
consignment. The certificates will be issued in serial numl)ers and in triplicate 
form. One copy thereof will be delivered to the consignor of such shipment, one 
copy will be att^hed to the invoice or shipping bill to accompany the same and 
be delivered by the transportation companies to the chief officer of the vessel upon 
which said consignment is to be transported, and the third copy will be forwarded 
to the Department of Agriculture for filing therein. 

J. M. Rusk, Secretary, 



AN ACT to provide for the inspection of live cattle, hogs, and the carcasses and products 
thereof whush are the subjects of interstate commerce, and for other purposes. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Reprenentatives of the United States of 
America in Congress assembled. That the Secretary of Agriculture shall cause to 
be made a careful inspection of all cattle intended for export to foreign countries 
from the United States, at such times and places, and in such manner, as he may 
think proper, with a view to ascertain whether such cattle are free from diseape; 
and for this purpose he may appoint inspectors, who shall be authorized to give 
an official certificate clearly stating the condition in which such animals are found, 
and no clearance shall be given to any vessel having on board cattle for exporta- 
tion to a foreign country unless the owner or shipper of such cattle has a certifi- 
cate from the inspector herein authorized to be appointed, stating that said cattle 
are sound and free from disease. 

Sec. 2. That the Secretary of Agriculture shall also cause to be made a careful 
inspection of all live cattle the meat of which is intended for exportation to anv 
foreign country, at such times and places, and in such manner, as he may think 
proper, with a view to ascertain whether said cattle are free from disease and 
their meat sound and wholesome, and may appoint inspectors, who shall be author- 
ized to give an official certificate clearly stating the condition in which such cattle 
and meat are found and no clearance shall be given to any vessel having on board 
any fresh beef for exportation to and sale in a foreign country from any port of 
the United States until the owner or shipper shall obtain from an inspector 
appointed under the provisions of this act such certificate. 

Sec. 3. The Secretary of Agriculture shall cause to be inspected, prior to their 
slaughter, all cattle, sheep, and hogs which are subjects of mterstate commerce 
and which are about to be slaughtered at slaughterhouses, canning, salting, pack- 
ing, or rendering establishments in any State or Territory, the carcasses or products 
of which are to be transported and sold for human consumption in any other State 
or Territory or the District of Columbia, and in addition to the aforesaid inspec- 
tion, there maybe made in all cases where the Seci*etary of Aj^riculture may deem 
necessarj' or expedient, under the rules and regulations to be by him prescribed, 
a po:st-mortem examination of the carcasses of all cattle, sheep, and hogs aliout to 
be prepared for human consumption at any slaughterhouse, canning, suiting, i ack- 
ing, or rendering establishment in any State or Territory, or the District of 
Columbia, which are the subjects of interstate commerce. 

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346 BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

Sec. 4. That said examination shall be made in the manner provided by rales 
and regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture, and after said 
examination the carcasses and products of all cattle, sheep, and swine found to be 
free of disease, and wholesome, sound, and fit for human food, shall be marked, 
stamped, or labeled for identification as may be provided by said rules and regu- 
lations of the Secretary of Agriculture. 

Any person who shall forge, counterfeit, or knowingly and wrongfully alter, 
deface, or destroy any of the marks, stamps, or other devices provided for in the 
regulations of the Secretary of Agriculture, of any such carcasses or their products, 
or who shall forge, counterfeit, or knowingly and wrongfully alter, deface, or 
destroy any certificate provided for in said regulations, shall be deemed guilty of 
a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine not exceed- 
ing one thoa«and dollars, or imprisonment not exceeding one year, or by both said 
punishments, in the discretion of the court. 

Sec. 5. That it shall be unlawful for any person to transport from one State or 
Territory or the District of Columbia into any other State or Territory or the 
District of Columbia, or for any person to deliver to another for transportation 
from one State or Territory or the District of Columbia into another State or Ter- 
ritory or the District of Columbia the carcasses of any cattle, sheep, or swine, or 
the food products thereof, which have been examined in accordance with the pro- 
visions of sections three and four of this act, and which on said examination 
have Ijeen declared by the inspector making the same to be unsound or diseased. 
Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a 
misdemeanor and punished for each offense as provided in section four of this act. 

Sec. 6. That the inspectors provided for in sections one and two of this act phall 
be authorized to give official certificates of the sound and wholesome condition of 
the cattle, sheep, and swine, their carcasses and products described in sections 
three and four of this act, and one copy of every certificate granted under the pro- 
visions of this act shall be filed in the Department of Agriculture, another copy 
shall be delivered to the owner or shipper, and when the cattle, sheep, and swine, or 
their carcasses and products are sent abroad, a third copy shall be delivered to the 
chief officer of the vessel on which the shipment shall be made. 

Sec. 7. That none of the provisions of tnis act shall be so construed as to apply 
to any cattle, sheep, or swine slaughtered by any farmer upon his farm, which 
may be transported from one State or Territory or the District of Columbia into 
another State or Territory or the District of Columbia: Provided, however^ That 
if the carcasses of such cattle, sheep, or swine go to any packing or canning estab- 
lishment and are intended for transportation to any other State or Territory or the 
District of Columbia as hereinbefore provided, they shall there be subject to the 
post-mortem examination provided for in sections three and four of this act. 

Approved, March 3, 1891. 



CONCBRNINa CATTLE TRANSPORTATION. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Office of the Secretary, 

Washington, D, C, April 4, 1801. 
Notice is hereby given that the regulations made February 5, 1891,' for the trans- 
portation of cattle from the area designated by said regulations as infected with 
the contagious disease known as splenetic fever, applies to the movement of cattle 
from said area north for immediate slaughter. The transportation of cattle from 
said area for feeding or for any other purpose except immediate slaughter is pro- 
hibited by the act of Congress of May 29, 1884.'' 

J. M. Rusk, Secretary. 



CONCERNING CATTLE TRANSPORTATION. 

U. S. Department op Agriculture, 
Office of the Secretary, 

Washington, D. C, April S3, 1891. 
Notice is hereby given that cattle which have been at least ninety days in the 
area of country hereinafter described may be moved from said area by rail into 
the States of Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana, for grazing purposes, in accord- 



» See text, on p. 3U. « See Report of Bureau for 1884, p. 473. 

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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 347 

ance with the regulations made by said States for the admission of Southern 
cattle thereto. Provided: 

1. That cattle from said area shall go into said States only for slaughter or graz- 
ing, and shall on no account be shipped from said States into any other State or 
Territory of the United States before the Ist day of December, 1891. 

2. That such cattle shall not be allowed in pens or on trails or ranges that are 
to be occupied or crossed by cattle going to the Eastern markets before December 
1, 1891, and that these two classes of cattle shall not be allowed to come in contact. 

3. That all cars which have carried cattle from said area shall, upon unloading, 
at once be cleaned and disinfected in the manner provided by the regulations of 
this Department of February 5, 1891.' 

4. That the State authorities of the States of Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana 
agree to enforce these provisions. 

The area from which cattle may go into the States of Colorado, Wyoming, and 
Montana by rail for grazing, as above provided, is as follows: All that area included 
within the following boundary lines, viz, commencing at the southeast corner of 
the Territory of New Mexico; thence running northerly along the eastern bound- 
ary of New Mexico to the southwestern corner of the county of Cochran, State of 
Texas; thence easterly along the southern boundaries of the counties of Cochran, 
Hockley, Lubbock, Crosby, Dickens, and King to the one hundredth meridian; 
thence northerly along said one hundredth meridian to the Red River, where it 
crosses the eastern boundary of the county of Childress; thence following said 
Red River to the northwest corner of the county of Wichita; thence along the 
eastern boundaries of the counties of Wilbarger, Baylor, Throckmorton, and 
Shackelford; thence west along the southern boundary of Shackelford County; 
thence south along the eastern boundaries of Taylor, Runnels, Concho, Menard, 
and Kimble counties: thence west along the south lines of Kimble, Sutton, and 
Crocket counties; thence south along the east line of Pecos County to the Rio 
Grande River; thence along the Rio Grande River to the one hundredth meridian, 
and thence northerly along said meridian to the point of beginning. 

J. M. Rusk, Secretary, 



CONTAGIOITS DISEASES OF SHEEP AND SWINE. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Office of the Secretary, 
Washington^ D, C, May JO, ISOU 

Whereas, under the act of Congress approved August 30, 1890,* it has been pro- 
vided by the Department of Agriculture, in order to protect the sheep and swine 
of the United States from contagious diseases now existing in foreign countries, 
that all sheep and swine imported from Great Britain and the Continent of Europe 
must be held in Quarantine for a period of not less than fifteen days; and. 

Whereas the Cominion of Canada makes no requirement of quarantine for 
sheep and swine imported into that country from Great Britain or the Continent 
of Europe; and, 

Whereas to permit importations of these animals from Canada into the United 
States without quarantme would be dangerous to the stock interests of the 
United States, owing to the failure on the part of the Canadian authorities to 
enforce this measure of protection, and would enable importers to evade the quar- 
antine at United States ports: Therefore, it is 

Ordered^ That all sheep or swine to be imported from Canada into the United 
States are hereby made subject to the regulations of the Department of Agricul- 
ture of date October 13, 1890,- and the exception contained in the third and sixth 
regulations of said date, as applicable to Canadian sheep and swine, is hereby 
rescinded; and all animals named in said regulations, except cattle imported from 
Canada, are subject to the same conditions and requirements as if they were 
imported into the United States from Great Britain or the Continent of Europe. 

J. M. Rusk, Secretary, 



»Soep.341. «Seep.337. 



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348 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

REQULATIONS FOR THE SAFE TRANSPORT OF CATTLE FROM 
THE UNITED STATES TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 

U. S. Department op Agriculture, 
Office of the Secretary, 
Washington, D, C, June 6, 1891, 
Pursuant to the authority invested in the Secretary of A^culture by virtue of 
an act of Congress approved March 3, 1891 [hereto appended] , entitled ''An act to 
provide for the safe transport and humane treatment of export cattle from the 
United States to foreign countries, and for other i>urpose8," the following regula- 
tions are hereby prescribed for vessels engaged in the transportation of cattle 
from the United States to foreign countries: 

1. The owners, agents, or master of any vessel desiring to transport cattle from 
any port of the United States will make application to the Secretary of Agricul- 
ture at Washington, D. C, for a certificate of register. Said application shall be 
made upon a blank form furnished by the Department of Agriculture to be tUied 
out by the applicant, and on receipt of the same the Secretary of Agriculture will 
direct the veterinary inspector in charge of the port from which said vessel is to 
clear to examine said vessel, and if the same has complied with the regulations 
hereinafter prescribed a certificate of registry will be issued, good for the term of 
one year, which will entitle said vessel to engage in the trade of carrying export 
cattle, and will state the number of cattle which said vessel may transport. Pro- 
vided, however, that any certificate of registry issued shall be subject at any time 
to cancellation upon the violation of any of these regulations by said vessel, and 
that the veterinarjr inspector of the port may from time to time make such 
changes in the fittings of said vessel as in his judgment may seem necessary. 

SPACE. 

2. Cattle carried on the upper or spar deck must be allowed a space of 2 feet 
6 inches in width by 8 feet in depth per head. No more than four head of cattle 
will be allowed in each pen. Cattle loaded between decks must be allowed a 
space of 3 feet 8 inches in width by 8 feet in depth, no more than four head bein§ 
allowed in each pen, except at the end of a row, where five may be allowed 
together. 

3. Vessels will be allowed to carry three deck loads of cattle; but where it is 
desired to carry cattle on the lower or steerage deck special permission must be 
obtained from the inspector, which will only be granted in cases where said deck 
is provided with sufficient ventilation, as hereinafter prescribed. 

upper-deck fittings. 

4. Stanchions, u'oocfen.— Stanchions must be of good, sound timber, 4 by 6 inches, 
placed at proper distances from centers, against ship's rail and inside stanchions, 
m their proper place directly in line with out-board stanchions, to be set up so 
that the 6-inch way of the stanchion shall be set fore and aft. A proper tenon 
shall be cut on the head of same to receive the thwart-ship beam; the tenon not to 
be less than 3 Inches in length and the shoulder not less than "Z^ inches on each 
side of the stanchion, thus leaving the tenon H inches thick. A piece of 2 by 3 
inches or 2-inch plank shall be fastened to ou^ide of stanchion and run up to 
underneath rail to chock stanchion down and prevent lifting when beam is sprung 
to crown of deck. Open-rail ships shall be blocked out on backs of stanchions 
fair with the outside of rails, to receive the outside of planking. Where upper- 
deck fittings are not permanent, the heels of outside stanchions shall be secured 
by a bracing of 2 by 3 inch sound lumber from the back of each stanchion to shear- 
streak or waterway, the heels ot inside stanchions being properly braced from and 
to each other. Bulwark stanchions must also be extra stanchioned by raking 
shores running diagonally from the top of the stanchions to the deck. 

Slanchlons, iron, — These may be used in place of wooden stanchions, and should 
be not less than 2 inches in diameter, set, in iron sockets above and below, and 
fastened with nut and bolt. 

Hook bolts or clamps.— Hook bolts or clamps must be made of five-eighths inch 
wrought iron, with hook on out-board end and thread and nut on in-board end. to 
pass over and under rail and through out-board stanchion, and set up on the 
inside of same with a nut. These bolts may be double or single. If double then 
no thread or nut is necessary, but the stanchion will lie shipped through it, thus 
double hooking the rails. This will be found very useful where funnels or other 
deck fitting come in the way of beams passing from side to side of ship. 



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foi.kti:entu annual kepokt. 349 

Beams, — Beams must lie of ;^fu>d. souu<l lumber 3 by G inch, to run clear across 
the Bhip beam where practicable. ^>hould any house or deck fiuinijrs be in the 
way, then butt np closely to samfj. These b^ams shall have a 1 1 by 4 inch mortise 
cut in to Deceive the tenon oi f^ach and every stanchion, and to take the same 
crown as deck of ship by springing? down to shoulder of outside stanchions, and 
to be properly pinned or nailed to tenon atid wedf?ed tightly afterwards. The 
monises shall be cut not h'ssthan <*» inches from outside ends of beams and a piece 
nailed on outsidi of same, and trimmed off fair with beam ends to prevent 
splitting. 

DUigojial braces from stanchions to beamn. — Diagonal braces shall be fastened 
oil each stanchion on both sides of same, running up to top side of beam and 
properly secured by well nailing to both stanchion and beam. 

iiV'ar/6f>cerc/i<.— Headboards shall not be less than 2 by 10 or 3 by 8 inches, of 
goud sound lumber, and secured to every stanchion by five-eighths inch screw bolts 
passing through same and set up on same with a nut. Where headboards butt on 
a stanchion a piece of 1 -inch lumber (p;ne) shall be placed over the butts, like a 
butt strap, the b)lts to go through same and be set np with a nut on the stanchions. 
These headboards can be placed ' -n either side of the stanchions. All headboards 
shall have 1 . -inch hok s bored through thorn at proper distance, to tie the animals. 

/•>>o/6o«n<'.s'.— Footboards shall be of the same material as headboards, properly 
nailed or bolted to stanchions on the inside of same. 

Division 6<>«rd«.— Division boards shall be of 2-inch sound lumber, fitted so as 
to be removable at any time, and so arrangM as to divide the animals into lots of 
four, thus making compartments for this number all over the vessel. These 
division boards may be fitted perpendicularly or horizontaDy. 

Flooring. — Flooring shall be of l-mch boards, laid tore and aft, on ships with 
wo*>den decks, at the option of the owners. Iron-decked ships shall be sheathed 
with 2-inch spruco, hemlock, or yellow pine, or with 1-inch hemlock; but if 1-inch 
hemlock is used then the foot lo ks shall be 3 by 4 inch^^s, to be laid so that they 
will properly secure the 1-inch boards, thus preventing them from slipping and 
at the same time acting as foot locks by showing a surface of 2 by 4 inches to corre- 
spond With the 2 by W inches. It is optional with the owners whether they permit 
sheathing to be used on their ships with wooden decks, or whether they allow 
foot locks to be secured to the deck. But on iron .decks it is absolutely necessary 
(if permanent foot locks are not down) to sheath them before putting down the 
foot locks, in order to fasten same. Cement can be used instead of wood sheathing, 
and toot locks molded in same. 

Fo:>t ltx*ks, — Foot locks shall be of good, sound lumber, size 2 by 3 inches or 3 by 
4 inches hemlock, laid fore and aft of ship, placed 12 inches, 14 inches, 2 feet 2 
inches, and 14 inches apart, the first one distant 12 inches from inside of foot- 
lioard, filled in athwart ships opposite each stanchion, properly secured to sheath- 
ini; or deck, and secured by a batt n to go over all from stanchion to stanchion. 
When troughs are usetl. foot locks will be placed 17, 16, 23. and 16 inches apart. 

Otifsnir fiUmling.— AW ontaide planking on open and closed railed ships must 
be properly laid fore and aft of ship and nailed to the backs of stanchions, as 
c\os^'> as jossiblo for the cold season, and for the warmer months the top course 
planking sliall l)e left off fore and aft of ship in order to allow a free circulation 
of air. Nothing ^.ess than i-inch spruce or lA-inch yellow pine is to used for this 
purpose. There shall be placed over each seam of outside planking a I by 5 inch 
batten securely nailed thereto, which will help to exclude wind and water. 

PLANKING OF SHELTER DECK TO BE ERECTED ON SPAR- DECKED SHIPS. 

The plank to be nailed on this deck is simply to shelter the cattle, and it should 
be laid ^vith l^inch sound lumber. 

PLANKING OP SHELTER DECK TO BE ERECTED ON WELL- DECK SHIPS. 

The plank to form the shelter deck on well-deck ships shall be laid with 2-inch 
sound lumber stiflicient to cover cattle. This plank shall be laid as closely as pos- 
sibb* and well nailed to the beams, thus making a good deck from which to work 
the ship's gear. 

A*///7x. — No nails less than 20-penny shall be used in foot locks or where 2-inch 
material is used. Twelve-penny nails can be use in l^-inch plank or under. 

UNDERDECK FITTINGS. 

Stanchions,'-St&nch\oxia shall be of good sound lumber. 4 by 6 inches, set up at 
proper distances from centers so that the 6-inch way of same shall stand fore and 
aft and jammed in tight between the two decks, properly braced on head and from 

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350 BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

side to side of ship. This bracing shall be of 2 by 3 inch spruce or yellow pine and 
bo properly butted against each stanchion. Where it is found impracticable to 
run these braces across ship, by reason of hatches, etc., coming in the way, then 
they shall be well braced from hatch combings and from the obstruction which 
prevents running braces from side to side. The heads of these stanchions shall be 
braced fore and aft by 2 by 3 inch pieces well nailed on each stanchion and run- 
ning fore and aft close up to the lower edge of the ship beams and butted at each 
end of compartment and against themselves, or chocked in underneath beam and 
well nailed to heads of stanchions. If upper and lower decks are wood, then the 
stanchions set up between decks may be secured by well cleating to each deck at 
heads and heels of same. 

Headboards, — Headboards shall be of the same dimensions as those on the 
upper deck and fastened in the same manner, with l^-inch holes borejd at right 
distances, to tie animals. 

7' bo^^oarrf*'.— Footboards shall be of same dimensions as those on upper deck, 
and fastened in the same manner. 

Z)/r?s/o/i boards.— Division boards shall be fitted perpendicularly or horizontally, 
and arranged so that they divide the animals into pens of four or, at end of row, 
into pens of five, and shall ship or unship by forming a slide on cargo battens to 
head and foot boards or on stanchions. 

F/oortna.— Where ships have decks of wood it shall be optional with owners 
whether they have boards put down to protect decks, or whether they allow the 
foot locks to be nailed to the ship's deck. ( Permanent foot locks may be put down) . 
If the decks are of iron, then wooden flooring must be laid either of 2-inch spruce 
with 2 by 3 inch foot locks, or of 1-inch hemlock with 3 by 4 inch foot locks, same 
as provided for upper decks. Cement may also be used instead of wood flooring, 
molding the foot locks in their proper places between same. 

Foot locks,— Foot locks may be put down any size over 2 by 3 inches, but nothing 
under this size shall be used. They should be laid fore and aft of ship at distances 
mentioned in upper- deck fittings, and be well fastened to either deck or flooring, 
or to themselves, and properly tilled in athwart ships between stanchions, same as 
on upper deck. 

Troughs.—Smtable troughs may be formed on the footboards about 13 inches 
wide, when required, by nailing footboard on outside of stanchion and fitting up 
on the inside 

Casinrj for steering gear,— A suitable casing must be placed over the ship's steer- 
ing gear when found necessary. 

Alleijwatjs, — Alleyways between the pens must not be less than 18 inches, unless 
otherwise authorized by inspectors. 

VENTILATION. 

5. Each compartment containing cattle must have at least four bell-mouthed 
ventilators, of not less than 18 inches inside diameter, and with tops exceeding 7 
feet in height, two situated at each end of the compartment. 

G. Vessels desiring to carry cattle on third deck may obtain special permit from 
the inspector of the port, when said vessel is fitted same as second deck and prop- 
erly ventilated. 

7. No cattle shall be loaded along the alleyways by engine room , unless side of said 
engine room is covered by li-inch grooved and tongued lumber, making a S-inch 
air space. 

8. No cattle shall be loaded on hatches on decks above cattle, nor shall any mer- 
chandise, freight, or food for cattle be loaded on said hatches, but said hatches 
shall at all times be kept clear. 

9. Only two days' feed for cattle, at the discretion of port inspectors, shall be 
allowed to bo carried on deck, properly covered, and this must be the first feed 
used. 

10. All vessels will carry not less than four hogsheads of over 100 gallons capac- 
ity for each 100 head of cattle, and these shall be filled with freshwater before sail- 
ing and refilled as emptied. 

11. Vessels will require shippers to furnish a foreman to be in charge of cattle, 
and one cattleman for each 25 head of animals shipped. Three-fourths of the men 
iu charge of a shipment of cattlemust be experienced men who liave made previous 
trips with cattle, and who must satisfy the velerinary inspector of the port, by 
satisfactory evidence, that they are cax)able and reliable. ^px>er8 will notify the 
inspector of the port, two days before the sailing of a vessel, of the name of the 
foreman to be in charge of their shipment, and of the names of the attendants, and 
the veterinary inspector will certify said men to the captain of the vessel, if he 



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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 351 

has reason to believe they are reliable. The captain of the vessel will report to 
the veterinary inspector of the port on his return as to the conduct and efficiency 
of each of the men in charge of cattle on his previous trip, and such men as have 
been found to be unsuited to be in charge of cattle will thereafter be refused cer- 
tification to go with any shipment of cattle by the inspector of the port. 

It?. Cattle will be tied with three-fourths inch rope, which shall not bo used 
more than once. 

13. On vessels having false decks upon which cattle are loaded, these must be 
removed and the manure and dirt cleaned from underneath before receiving 
another cargo of cattle. 

1-1. No vessel will be allowed to take on board any cattle for export unless the 
same have been at the port of embarkation at least twenty-four hours before the 
vessel sails, except in special cases and by direction of inspector. 

15. The inspector of the port may, in case ho finds any of the fittings are worn, • 
decayed, or appear to be unsound, require the same to be replaced before he clears 
the vessel. He will also supervise the loading of cattle and see that they are prop- 
erly stowed and tied, and that all the requirements of these regulations have been 
complied with. 

J. M. Rusk, Secretary, 



AN ACT to provide for tlio safo transport and humano treatment of export cattle from the 
United States to foreign countries, and for other par];>oses. 

Be if enacted by tJie Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of 
America in Congress assembled^ That the Secretary of Agriculture is hereby author- 
ized to examine all vessels which are to carry export cattle from the ports of the 
United States to forei^ countries, and to prescribe by rules and regulations or 
orders the accommodations which said vessels shall provide for export cattle, as to 
space, ventilation, fittings, food, and water supply, and such other requirements 
as ho may decide to be necessary for the safe and proper transportation and humane 
treatment of such animals. 

Sec. 2. That whenever the owner, owners, or master of any vessel carr3ring export 
cattle shaU willfully violate or cause or permit to be violated any rule, regulation, 
or order made pursuant to the foregoing section, the vessel in respect of which 
such violation shall occur may be prohibited from again carrying cattle from auy 
port of the United States for such length of time, not exceeding one year, as the 
Secretary of Agriculture may direct, and such vessel shall be refused clearance 
from any port of the United States accordingly. 

Approved, March 3, 1891. 



IMPORTATION OF SHEBP AND ST77INB FROM CANADA WITHOUT 

QUARANTINE. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Office of the Secretary, 
Washington, D, C, June ,irt, i.s'.9/. 

Whereas on May 19, 1891,^ the Department of Agriculture, under the act of Con- 
gi-e^g approved August 30, 1890,'^ issued an order providing that all sheep and swine 
to be imported from the I)ominionof Canada into the United States should be sub- 
ject to a quarantine of fifteen days at the port of entry, this order being issued 
upon the ground, as stated therein, that the Dominion of Canada had made no pro- 
vision for a quarantine for sheep and swine imported into that country from Great 
Britain or the Continent of Europe; and 

Whereas the said Dominion of Canada, on the 6th day of June, 1891, by an order 
in council, duly established a quarantine of fifteen days on all sheep and swine 
imported into said Dominion from Great Britain or the Continent of Europe: 
Now, therefore, it is 

Ordered, That the quarantine of sheep and swine imported from Canada into the 
United States, re(juired by the aforesaid order of May, 1891, is hereby removed, 
and sheep and swme may be imported from Canada into the United States without 
quarantine, provided on inspection of said sheep or swine at the ports of entry they 
are found to be free of disease, and provided further that sheep or swine imported 
into the United States from Great Britain or the Continent of Europe through 



» See p. 347. « Soe p. 837. 

uigitized by VjOOQIC 



352 BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

Canada shall have been held in quarantine by the Canadian government for fifteen 
days, and the importer shall produce at the port of entry into the United States a 
certificate from the proper quarantine officer of said government showing the fact 
of said quarantine. 

J. M. Rusk, Secretary, 



1 



CONCERNING CATTLE TRANSPORTATION. 

U. S. Department op Aoriculturb, 
Office of the Secretary, 

Washington, D. C, July U, 1S9L 

To all railroad companies transporting cattle unthin the United States: 

The attention of the officers of all railroad companies engaged in the transporta- 
tion of live stock from one State or Territory into another, or whose roads form 
any part of a line of road transporting live stock from one State or Territory into 
another, is directed to the following sections of the Revised Statutes hereto 
annexed, viz, sections 4380. 43S7, 4388, and 4389. 

Complaint has been made to this Department by its officers supervising the 
movement of Southern and export cattle that the provisions of the foregoing sec- 
tions are not complied with by many railroad companies, and that cattle and other 
live stock are confined in cars for a period exceeding twenty -eight hours, and that 
when at times they are unloaded they are not allowed the five consecutive hours 
for rest provided by statute. 

The failure of the railroad companies to conform to this'law results in much suf- 
fering to the cattle while in transit to their points of destination, which it is the 
intent of the law to prevent. Railroad companies will therefore make such 
arranp^ements as are necessary in their train service, and provide the necessary f eed- 
inj; and watering stations to comply with the above-named sections of the Revised 
Statutes. 

J. M. RU8K, Secretary. 

The following are the sections of the Revised Statutes of the United States 
referred to in the foregoing notice: 

Si:c. 4386. No railroad company within the United States whose road forms any 
part of a line of road over which cattle, sheep, swine, or other animals are con- 
veyed from one State to another, or the owners or masters of steam, sailing, or 
other vessels carrying or transporting cattle, sheep, swine, or other animals from 
one State to another, shall confine the same in cars, boats, or vessels of any 
description /or a longer jyeriod than twenty-eight consecutive hours, without unload- 
ing the sanie for rest, water, and feeding, for a period of at l^'ost five consecuti^'e 
hours, unless prevented from unloading by storm or other accidental causes. In 
estimating such confinement the time during which the animals have been confined 
without such rest on connecting roads from which they are received shall be 
included, it being the intent of this section to prohibit their continuous confine- 
ment beyond the period of twenty-eight hours, except upon contingencies herein- 
before stated. 

Sic. 4387. Animals so unloaded shall be properly fed and watered during such 
rest by the owner or person having the custody thereof, or in case of his default in 
so doing, then by the railroad company or owners or masters of boats or vessels 
transporting the same, at the expense of the owner or person in custody thereof; 
and such company, owners, or masters shall in such case have a lien upon snch 
animals for food, care, and custody furnished, and shall not be liable for any 
detention of such animals. 

Sec. 4388. Any company, owner, or custodian of such animals who knowingly 
and willingly fails to comply with the provisions of the two preceding sections 
shall, for every such failure, be liable for and forfeit and pay a penalty of not less 
than one hundred nor more than five hundred dollars. But when animals are car- 
ried in cars, boats, or other vessels in which they can and do have proper food, 
water, space, and opportunity to rest, the provisions in regard to their being 
unloaded shall not apply. 

Sec. 4389. The penalty created by the preceding section shall be recovered by 
civil action in the name of the United States, in the circuit or district court of the 
United States, holden within the district where the violation may have been com- 
mitted, or the person or corporation resides or carries on its business: and it shall 
be the duty of all United States marshals, their deputies and subordinates, to 
prosecute all violations which come to their notice or knowledge. 

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f 



FOUBTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 353 

MODIFICATION OF RSaULATIONS CONCERNING CATTLE 
TRANSPORTATION. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Office of the Secretary, 
Washhigton, D, C, August S, 1891, 
Notioe is hereby given that the regnlations of the Department of Febmary 5, 
1891,' concerniDg cattle transportation, are modified so as to permit cattle coming 
from the area of conn try hereinafter named to be admitted north of the quaran- 
tine line described in said regulations for grazing purposes: Provided— 

1. That the cars on which cattle are loaded from this area of country shall not 
have been used for transporting cattle in or out of the area described in the afore- 
said regnilations, as modified by this notice, and that the agent of the railroad 
company loading the same shall certify to this fact, which certificate shall be for- 
warded with the manfest or way bill and delivered to the agent of the Bureau of 
Animal Industry, at Louisville, Ky., or at such other point where the cattle are 
unloaded, and if no agent of the Bureau is stationed at suchpoint the said certifi- 
cate shall be forwarded to the Secretary of Agriculture, at Washington, D. C. In 
case said cars shall have been used in transporting animals in the area last aforesaid, 
then said cars must be cleaned and disinfected, and the agent of the railroad load- 
ing the same shall certify to said fact and forward said certificate in the manner 
herein provided. 

2. The shipper of cattle from this area shall sign a written certificate stating 
that the cattle to be shipped have been on his premises, or on the premises of the 
person from whom purchased in said area, for the past ninety days, and that they 
have not come in contact with any cattle from south of the line of the herein- 
after-described area. This certificat(^ of the shipx)er shall be delivered to the agent 
of the railroad comi)any, to be forwarded by him in like manner with the certifi- 
cate above mentioned. 

The area above referred to, and to which this order applies, is all that section of 
country in the State of Tennessee lying north of the southern boundaries of the 
following-named counties: Lauderdale^ Crockett. Gibson, Carroll, Benton, Perry, 
Lewis. Maury, Marshall, Bedford, Coffee, Grundy, Sequatchie, Hamilton, Meigs, 
McMinn, and Monroe. Also that section of country in the State of North Caro- 
lina west of the Blue Ridge Mountains, excepting the county of Henderson, in said 
State. 

Edwin Willits, Acting Secretary, 



REGITLATIONS CONCBRNINa CATTLE TRANSPORTATION.* 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Office of the Secretary, 
Washington, D, C, January 11, 1892, 
To the managers and agents of railroad and transportation companies of the 

United States, stockmen, and others: 

In accordance with section 7 of the act of Congress approved May 29, 1884,' 
entitled **An act for the establishment of a Bureau of Animal Industry, to pre- 
vent the exportation of diseased cattle, and to provide means for the suppression 
and extirpation of pleuro-pneumonia and other contagious diseases among 
domestic animals," and of the act of Congress approved March 4, 1891, making 
appropriation for the Department of Agriculture for the fiscal year ending June 
80, 1892, you are hereby notified that a contagious and infectious disease known as 
splenetic, or Southern, fever exists among cattle in the following-described area of 
the United States: 

All that country lying east and south of a line commencing at a point on the 
Bio Grande River where said river intersects the one hundred and third meridian 
of longitude; thence, from said point of intersection, running northerly along said 
one hundred and third meridian of longitude, to the southwestern corner ot the 
county of Cochran, State of Texas; thence easterly along the southern boundaries 
of the counties of Cochran, Hockley, Lubbock, Crosby, Dickens, and King to the 
one hundredth meridian of longitude; thence northerly along said one hundredth 
meridian to the southern boundary of the State of Kansas; thence easterly along 

>8e«p. 341. 

•These reffalations were revoked on February 28, 1892, and others substituted. See p. Jijo. 

» 8e© Report of Bureau for 1884, p. 473. 

7204 ^23 ^ _ Pooalp 

Digitized by VjVjiJV IL 



354 BUKEAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTEY. 

the sonthem boundary of the State of E^ansas to the northeast comer of the Indian 
Territory; thence southerly along the eastern boundary of the Indian Territory to 
the southwestern comer of the State of Missouri; thence easterly along the south- 
em boundary of the State of Missouri to the Mississippi River; thence, running 
southerly along the Mississippi River, to the southwestern comer of the county of 
Lauderdale, State of Tennessee; thence, running easterly, following the southern 
boundaries of the counties of Lauderdale, Crockett, Gibson, Cflm)il, Benton, 
Perry, Lewis, Maury, Marshall, Bedford, Coffee, Grundy, Sequatchie, Hamilton, 
Meigs, McMinn, and Monroe, State of Tennessee, to the eastern boundary of said 
State; thence, following the northern boundaries of the counties of Cherokee, 
Macon, Jackson, Transylvania, and Henderson, Sta^ of North Carolina, to the 
southeast corner of the county of Buncombe, of said State; thence in a north* 
easterly direction, following the Blue Ridge Mountains, to the southwestern cor- 
ner of the county of Madison, State of Virginia; thence easterly along the sonthon 
boundaries of the counties of Madison, Culpeper, and Stafford; thenoe north^y 
along the eastern boundary of Stafford County to the Potomac River; thence, 
following the Potomac River, southerly to the Chesapeake Bay; thenoe easterly 
along the southern boundary of Maryland to the Atlantic Ooean. 

From the 15th day of February to the 1st day of December, 1602, no cattle are 
to be transported from said area to any portion of the United States north or west 
of the above-described line, except by rail for immediate slaughter, and when so 
transported the following regulations must be observed: 

1. When any cattle in course of transportation from said area are unloaded north 
or west of this line to be fed or watered, the places where said cattle are to be so 
fed or watered shall be set apart and no other cattle shall be admitted thereto. 

2. On unloading said cattle at their points of destination, pens shall be set apart 
to receive them, and no other cattle shall be admitted to said pens; and the regu- 
latious relating to the movement of Texas cattle, prescribed by the cattle sanitary 
officers of the State where imloaded, shall be carefully observed. The cars that 
have carried said stock shall be cleansed and disinfected before they are again used 
to transport, store, or shelter animals or merchandise. 

S. All cars carrying cattle from said area shall bear placards stating that said 
cars contain Southern cattle, and each of the waybills of said shipments shall have 
a note upon its face with a similar statement. Whenever any cattie have come 
from said area and shall be reshipped from any point at which they have been 
unloaded to other points of destination, the cars carrying said animals shall bear 
similar placards with like statements, and the waybills to be so stamped. At 
whatever points these cattle are unloaded they shall be placed in separate pens, to 
which no other cattle shall be admitted. 

4. The cars used to transport such animals, and the pens in which they are fed 
and watered, and the pens set aiMtrt for their reception at points of destination, 
shall be disinfected in the following manner: 

(a ) Remove all litter and manure. This litter and manure may be disinfected 

by mixing it with lime, diluted sulphuric acid, or, if not disinfected, it 
may be stored where no cattle can come into contact with it until after 
December 1. 

(b) Wash the cars and the feeding and watering troughs with water until 

clean. 

(c) Saturate the walls and floors of the cars and the fencing, troughs, and 

chutes of the pens with a solution made by dissolving 4 ounces of chloride 
of lime to each gallon of water; or disinfect the cars with a jet of 
steam under a pressure of not lees than 50 pounds to the square inch. 

5. It is, however, hereby expressly provided that cattle which have been at least 
ninety days in the area of country hereinafter described, which lies within the 
above-described area, may be moved from said area by rail into the States of 
Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana, in accordance with the regulations made by 
said States for the admission of Southern cattle thereto: Provided— 

(1) That cattle from said area shall go into said States only for slaughter or 
grazing, and shall on no account be shipped from said States into any other State 
or Territory of the United States before the 1st day of December, 1892. 

(2) That such cattle shall not be allowed in pens or on trails or ranges that are 
to be occupied or crossed by cattle going to the Eastern markets, before Decem- 
ber 1, 1893, and that these two classes of cattle shall not be allowed to come into 
contact. 

(3) That all cars which have carried cattle from said area shall, upon unloading, 
at once be cleaned and disinfected in the manner provided by these regulations. 

(4) That the State authorities of the States of Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana 
agree to enforce these provisions. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 355 

The area from which cattle may go into the States of Ck)lorado, Wyoming, and 
M<Hitana by rail for grazing porposes, as above provided, is as follows: All that 
country lying north and west of a line commencing at the sontheastem comer of 
the connty of Pecos, State of Texas, on the Kio Grande River; thence running 
northerly along the western boundary of the county of Valverde, State of Texas, 
to the xwint of intersection with the river Pecos; thence, following said river Pecos, 
northwesterly to the southwestern comer of the coxmty of Upton; thence running 
along the southern boundary line of the counties of Upton and Tom Green to the 
aoutfaeastem comer of the county of Tom Green; thence northerly along the east- 
Bra boundary line of the coomties of Tom Green, Nolan, and Fisher to the southern 
bonndaxT of Stonewall County; thence along the southern boundaries of Stonewall 
and Hask^ counties to the southwestern comer of Throckmorton Coun^; thence 
northerly along the eastern boundary line of the counties of Haskell, Knox, and 
Hardeman to the Red River; thence westerly along the Red River to its point of 
intersection with the one hundredth meridian of longitude. 

The losses resulting yearly to the owners of susceptible cattle, both in the inter- 
state and export trade, by the contraction of this disease from exx>03ure in unclean 
and infected cars and pens, and by means of the manure carried in unclean cars 
from place to place, have become a matter of grave and serious concern to the 
cattle industry of the United States. It is absolutely essential, therefore, that 
this cattle industry should be protected as far as possible by separating the dan- 
gerous cattle and by the adoption of efficient methods of disinfection. 

Inspectors will be instructed to see that disinfection is properly done, and it is 
expected that transportation companies will promptly put into operation the above 
methods. 

Very resi)ectfully, 

J. M. Rusk, Secretary, 



REaULATIONS COHCBRNIHa CATTLB TRANSPORTATION. 

U. S. Department op Agriculture, 

Office of the Secretary, 
WashingtoUy D. C, February 26, JSV,?. 
To the managers and agents of railroad and trc^nsportation companies of the United 

States, stockmen, and others: 

The r^ulations concerning cattle transportation issued by this Department 
January 11, 1892,' are hereby revoked, and the f (blowing prescribed in place thereof: 

In accordance with section 7 of the act of Congress approved May 29, 1884,^ 
entitled *' An act for the establishment of a Bureau of Animal Industry, to prevent 
the exportation of diseased cattle, and to provide means for the suppression and 
extirpation of pleuro-pneumonia and other contagious diseases of domestic ani- 
mals/* and of the act of Congress approved March 4, 1891, making appropriation 
for the Department of Agriculture for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, you 
are hereby notified that a contagious and infectious disease known as splenetic, or 
Southern, fever exists among cattle in the following-described area of the United 
SUtes: 

All that country lying east and south of a line commencing at the southwest 
comer of Valverde County, State of Texas, on the Rio Grande River; thence run- 
ning northerly along the western boundaries of Valverde and Crockett counties 
to the northwest corner of Crockett County; thence easterly along the northern 
boundaries of Crockett and Schleicher counties to the southeastern corner of Irion 
County; thence northerly along the eastern boundary of Irion County to the 
northeast corner of said county; thence northerly to the southern boundary of 
Coke County; tJience westerly to the southwestern corner of Coke County; thence 
northerly along the western boundary of Coke County to the southern boundary 
of Mitchell County; thence easterly to the southeast corner of Mitchell County, 
and thence northerly along the western boundaries of Nolan and Fisher counties 
to the southern boundary of Kent County; thence easterly along the southern 
boundary of Kent County to the southwestern comer of Stonewall County; thence 
northerly along the western boundary of Stonewall County to the southeastern 
corner of Dickens County; thence easterly along the northern boundary of Stone- 
wall County to the southwestern corner of Knox County; thence northerly along 
the western boundaries of Knox and Hardeman counties to the Red River; thence 
northwesterly following the Red River to its point of intersection with the one 



•Scop. 358. »beeRei)ortof Bureau for 1884, p. 473. 

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356 BUREAU OP ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

hundredth meridian of longitude; thence northerly from said point of intersectlQii 
along said one hundredth meridian to the southern boundary of the State of 
Kansas; thence easterly along the southern boundary of the State of Kansas to 
the northeast corner of the Indian Territory; thence southerly along the eastern 
boundary of the Indian Territory to the southwest comer of the State of Missouri; 
theuce easterly along the southern boundary of the State of Missouri to the Mis- 
sissippi River; thence running southerly along the Mississippi River to the south- 
western comer of the county of Lauderdale, State of Tennessee; thence running 
easterly, following the southern boundaries of the counties of Lauderdale, Crockett, 
Gibson, Carroll, Benton, Perry, Lewis, Maury, Marshall, Bedford, Coffee, Grundy, 
Sequatchie, Hamilton, Meigs, McMinn, and Monroe, State of Tennessee, to the 
eastern boundary of said State; thence following the northern boundaries of the 
counties of Cherokee, Macon, Jackson, Transylvania, and Henderson. State of 
North Carolina, to the southeast corner of the county of Buncombe of said State; 
thence in a northeasterly direction, following the Blue Ri