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Full text of "Annual report of the Commissioner of the Michigan Department of Health for the fiscal year ..."

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Compliments of 



The State Board of Health, 



Ofpiok at Tjawriwo, Michigan. 



^^i%unD j,^ 




Z\K Soclct? Of tbc Hew ©orft Doapltal, 
Aarcb, 1808. 



TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL EEPOET 



SECRETARY 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH 



OF 



STA.TE OF MICH[IGA.Isr 



T'^'f'';': ;.• < v 



Fiscal Year EiNDUvo Juwk 30, 1894. 




fVPrC KMM9 4UKTII 

to*. 



BY AUTHOBITY. 



LANSING 

BOBBKT SMITH A CX)., STATE PRINTERS AND BINDBBS 

1896 



UmOS OF THlK^CtAJW ^EBbJIfCIVJ! TOifhTWa I>UBLJSHED IN 



Begolvedf That no papers shall be published in the Annual Beport of 
Board except such as are ordered or approved for purposes of such 
paUication by a majority of the members of the Board; and that any such 
p^er shall be published oyer the signature of the writer, who shall be 
flBtitled to the credit of its production, as well as responsible for the 
■Uements of fiicts and opinions expressed therein. 



Mee of dw SMretirr of the Sitte Boird of HmKIi, 1 
Lansing, Michigan, 8ept 26, 1895. J 

To Hon. John T. Bioh, Governor of Michigan: 

SiB: — In compliance with the laws of this State, I present to yon the 
accompanying Report for the fiscal year ending Jnne 30, 1894. 

Very respeotfolly, 

Henbt B. Baeeb, 
Secretary of the Siate Board of HeaUh. 



2fi71 6 



CONTENTS 



[PABT I.l 



Tltli p«i».. i 

BwolntloM rtktlT* to pApani in tha Annoal Baport . li 

LtetaroftnuiMnittaltoth«GoT«»orofMiebican iii 

Oontttte iT-rl 

Inteodnetocr StatiOMnt, If tmben of Board, Nudm, BMidaooM, Terms of OfBoe, CommittoM. tU iz 

Work of th« Botid, flMftl jmt IflM. ,. ix-xbr 

Sanitary GoDTinttona. Ix-x 

HiUadala (Joly 6and 7, 1808) Program oartlad oat ix-x 

Maaominaa (April Band 6, IBM) Procmm oarriad oat x 

BzamlnatftonoC Plana for Propoaed Pablie Baildlngs xi-xrii 

B«nlar and Bpadal MaaCinfa of Btata Board of Haalth xriii-xlT 

Lanainc (Bpaeial maatlnc, Jnljr 6, 1888) xriii 

Lantinc (Spaoial maating. Jalj 28. 18M) xriii-xix 

Luiainc (Bpadal maatinc, Sapt. 89 and 80, 1898) xlx-xxiU 

Lttiainc (Bpadal maatinc, Oet. 87 and 28, 1898) xxiU-xxTii 

Lanainc (Bagolar maatinc, Jan. 12, 1894) xxrU-xxxi 

Luiainc (Bpadal maatinc* Macoh 18, 1881) ...xxxi-xxxiii 

Manominaa (Bpadal maatinc. April 6. 18M) xxxiU-xxxiT 

Luiainc (B«alar maatinc. AprUUl, 1894) xxxIt-xxxIx 

Landnc (Bpadal maatinc. May 8, 1894) xl 

, May 17, 1804) xU 

Jana 1, 1894) xli 

Ann Arbor (Bpadal maatinc. Jana IB. 1804) xU-xlii 

Ann Arbor (Joint maatinc with Btata Live Stook Commiadon. Jana IB. 1894) xUI-xIt 

WorkintbaOfficaof tha Saoraitary of tha Board xlv-xeiii 

Abatraotof tha 8aaratary*a Qaartarly Baporta xlT-lxxiii 

8aeraitary*B Baport for Qaartar andinc Sapt. 80, 1893. xIt-xUx 

SaeraCaiy'a Baport for Qaartar andinc Dm. 81, 1898 xUx-Ut 

Baciatary*B Baport for Qaartar andinc Maroh 81. 1804 It-Ix 

8aoratary*a Baport for Qoartar andinc Jona 80. 1804. Ix-lxxiii 

Omatml Baport of tha work of tha OfHoa of tha Saocatary dorinc fiaoal yaar andinc Jona 80, 

1804 ~ ~ ...Ixxiii-xdii 

OoUaction and Compilation of Information. IzHl-lxxr 

Batama of Mamaa and Addraaaaa of Health Offioaia Ixxiii-lxxiT 

Bpaeial Baporta of Dancwooa Diaaaaaa Ixxir 

SiokMaa Blatiatioa: Waakly Poatal C^ard Beporta IxxIt-Ixxt 

Annoal Baporta by Haalth (Xlloera. for yaar 1808 Ixxr 

Annoal Baporta by Glarka of Boarda of Haalth, for yaar 1898 Ixxr 

Baton of Mamaaot Madioal Pnetitionara Ixxw 

Mlafarilnclnal WifWM rtT .._.._ .. ............. ....•^..... Ixzr 



CONTENTS. V 

G«i«mlB«poctof workof tiwOffioeof thsSaoratary— OonMMMd: ?■•• 

n—iilnirtnn of Information Ixxri-aaUi 

Pobllahad List of Namas and AddnMoa of Health Offiears Izxri 

Dlatiibatlon of Information how to Restrict Dancaroos Diseaeaa ^. Ixxrl 

Printing and Distribatlon of Baoratary'a Annual Report Ixzri 

Printincand Raprintinc Leafleta, Diagrams, etc Izxvii 

Mlahican Qoarantina Law, Act 47, laws of 1893. IzxtU-IxxIx 

PnUiahad Rniaa for Madieal Inapaetion of Immicianta and TmTalars (No. 19B, Ra- 

Tisad Edition, Sept.. 18BB) _ Ixxix-lzxzU 

Looal Qoarantina Revnlatlona, Cirenlar No. (2U) IxxxiU-lxxxr 

**Rlna Latter*" zalatiTa to Typhoid Fevar, Giienlar No. (102) IxxxtI-IxxxtU 

Saoood Annnal Cooferaooa of Health OfBoacs Ixxzriii 

Inatraotions to Nawly-Appolnted Health OfBoars Ixxxrlli 

Health Bolletina. Waaklj, Monthly and Qoartarlj Ixxxrill-xe 

Diaciama of InetmotlTa Rxparianoa in Michigan xe 

Abatraeta of Frooeedinca of Maatlngaof State Board xei 

8aoratary*a Qoarterly Report of Work in Offioe xol 

Raprlnta. — xei 

A Report on Miehican-Ganadian Inspaotion of Immigrants and Travalsra, Gironit Court Da- 

eiaiooa, ate - xeiii-oil 

The T^aehinff of Sanitary Seienoa at Michigan (^oUegae eU-arU 

Bominc of Paopla in Railroad Wreaks might be Prerented oTii-eriii 

le the Use of Atroplna in fitting Glasaee a Branch of the Practice of Medicine cviil-eix 

Caaaomption is a Diaeaaa Dangarona to the Pabllc Health: A special Report by the Secretary 

glTing short statements of action taken by other Boards of Health for ite Restriction. . . oix-exiil 
The Small-pox in Chicago: Report of Delegate to a Bleeting of RapresentatiTe Health Officials cxiii-cxT 

Report of Sectatary, Ralatira to Property, etc., for the flaeal year ending Jane 30, 1894 xcT-cxxriii 

Photo-BngiaTed Platee Pnrohaaad cxvl 

Property Loaned oxvl 

Property Retomed — .......... .............................. ..................... . . cxri 

Meteorologieal Instnunents, etc., Pniehased cxri 

Meteorologioal Instromanta Isaoed. exrii 

MaCeorological Instramants broken while in ose exrli 

Meteorologieal Inatmmenta Retomed exrli 

Meteorolo gi cal Instmmente and Other P rop er ty on Hand exrli 

x> the Library '. cxriil-^xxlT 

the Library cxiv-exxrl 

Paper on handat end of Fiscal year cxxrll 

Amoont and (Uaasiflcatlon of Poatage dnring Fiecal year cxxrli 

Amount and Classification of Bxpanditorea daring Fiscal year... exxrli 

Amoont anii Claseification of Expenditaree daring Calendar year oxxriil 

Expanditarea on Aoconnt of the Board cxxriil 

Ventilation: A paper by Henry B. Baker, M. D oxxIx-cxxxIt 

Qaantity of Air Needed for Reapiration exxix 

Proper Location of Fool-Air Ootlets exxx 

Oanaee of MoTement of Air, and Ratee exxxi 

BMh Room sboald hare Separate Ventilation exxxii 

Discnssionof the paper .jCxxxUI-cxxxIt 

Michigan State Board of Health Exhibit at the WorM's Fair oxxxlT-elTiii 

Statement regarding the Installation of the Exhibit cxxxiT 

Pamphlet RelatiTe to the Michigan State Board of Health Exhibit at the World's (\>lmn-* 

bian Exposition, Cirenlar (200) cxxxr-elTili 

The Gansation of Inflnana and Allied Diseases, with Saggeetione for their Prerention, by Dr. 

Henry B. Baker clix-eexiT 



— H; 



ITAT' Z- 




BEPORT. 



[PART IJ 



Tbie is the Twenty-Seoond AddobI Eeport of the Secretary of the 
MiobigaQ State Board of Health, and is for the fiecal year endiDg June 
30, 18§4. It ifl arranged in two parts. The first part oontaina the Heore- 
tary'a report of the work of the Board, inoluding the programa of sanitary 
ooDTentioDS, reports of the examinatioD of plana and speciOoatioDs of new 
State buildings, and minutes of regular and special meetings; a report of 
the work of the office, whiob includes the Secretary's quarterly reports of 
work in the office, and brief statements relating to special sobjeots 
brought to the attention of the Board, — Michigan Canadian Inspection 
of Immigrants and Travelers, Proposed Chair of Sanitary Science at the 
Miohigan Agricultural College and the State Normal School^ Burning of 
People in Hailroad Wrecks, Use of Atropine in fitting Glassea, The 
Eestriction of Consumption, and Small pox in C^hicago, Then followe 
the Secretary's annual report of property, including accessions to the 
library, with names of donors, and finaucial statements for the calendar 
and for the fiscal year. It also contains an illustrated account of 
the Michigan State Board of Health Exhibit at the World's Fair, 
a paper on '* Ventilation'' and a paper on *'Tbe Causation of Influ- 
enza and Allied Diseases," by Henry B. Baker, M. D-, Secretary 
of the Board. The second part contains papers, abstracts and 
reports, — including one on the "Principal Meteorological Conditions 
in Michigan in 1893,'* one on "Time of Greatest Prevalence 
of Each Disease," being a study of the Causes of Sickness in Michigan 
especially in 1893; one on the dangerons ''Communicable Diseases in 
Michigan in 1893," — Diphtheria, Membranous Croup. Scarlet Fever, 
Typhoid Fever, Small-pox, Measles, Whooping-Cough. Consumption, 
Erysipelas, Puerperal Fever, Rotheln, Chioken-pox, Glanders. Kabies 
(bydTophobib), Actinomycosis (lump- jaw), alleged Cholera, Cholera Mor- 
bus, Tricbiniasis, Tonsillitis, Tvrotoxicon; one on '^Injuries and Loss of 
Life and Property from the Uae of Kerosene"; one on "Injuries and 
Loss of Life and Property from the Use of Gasoline", and one on 
"Alleged Nuisances in Michigan in 1893." 

The publioation of this Beport has been much delayed by several 
causes, some of which have .been operating in preceding years, including 
the inauguration and prosecution of new lines of work which have seemed 
to be demanded, such, for instance, as the inspections and disinfections at 
the Michigan border to keep out emalLpox, cholera, etc., and recently 
the work for the restriction of oonaumption, and the natural increase of 




viii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1891. 

the work, doe to inoreasing^popnlation of 'the State, and more espeoially 
to iDoreasing attention to sanitary affairs throughout the State, the office 
force not having been increased correspondingly. 

Under the law, the Secretary of the Board is required to disseminale 
information **throagh an Annaal Beport and otherwise," and, by direc- 
tion of the Board, he issues immediately after the close of each week, a 
bulletin which shows the sickness during the week just passed ; also a 
monthly bulletin ; and sometimes publishes quarterly proceedings of the 
work of the Board and the condition of health in Michigan during the 
quarter. The proceedings of sanitary conventions are published as soon 
as practicable after the occurrence of each couvention. The office dis- 
seminates information by means of the telegraph, the telephone, by 
letter, and especially by means of hektographed statements prepared and 
distributed to leading newspapers in Michigan. Thus items of sanitary 
work in Michigan which are regarded as useful **news" are published at 
once in the comparatively ephemeral bulletins, etc., while the Annual 
Report is issued, not as a newspaper or journal is, as an ephemeral publi- 
cation, but as a permanent official record of the work of the State Board 
of Health, and in the office of the Board, and of the local boards of health 
throughout the State. The Annual Report contains also statistics which 
require a great deal of painstaking care in their preparation, but which it 
is hoped will be useful, for all time to come, to those who study the causa- 
tion of diseases; and through their labors, to the people of the State and 
country; and the statistics are there preserved in a permanent form, 
accessible, for purposes of study, to a comparatively large number of 
persons. 

However, only about six thousand copies of the Annual Report are 
printed, to supply the two millions and more inhabitants of Michigan; 
and only 3,500 of those copies are at the disposal of the State BoaiS of 
Health. Of these, some are sent to libraries, some are sent in exchange 
for the publications of other State Boards of Health, of prominent city 
boards of health, sanitary journals, etc. ; others are sent to persons 
likely to make good use of them, including each of the fifteen hundred 
health officers in Michigan. 

To this Report there are three Supplements, containing proceedings and 
addresses at the Sanitary Conventions held at Hillsdale and Menominee, 
and at the Second Annual Conference of Michigan Health Officers, held 
in. the State Laboratory of Hygiene at Ann Arbor, June 14 and 15, 1894 

The papers in the Supplements as well as those in this Annual Report, 
are printed subject to a resolution of the Board, printed on page iv. 

The names and postoffice addresses of the members of the Board, and 
the dates of the expiration of 'their terms of office, are as follows : 

Victor C. Vaughan, M. D., Ph. D., Ann Arbor, January 31, 1895. 

Delos Fall, M. S., Albion, Jan. 31, 1896. 

Mason W. Gbat, M. D., Pontiac, July 1, 1897. 

Hon. Fbank Wells, President of the Board, Lansing, July 1, 1897. 

Samuel G. Milneb, M. D., Grand Rapids, Jan. 31, 1899. 

Geobge H. Granger, M. D., Bay City, Jan. 31, 1899. 

Henry B. Baeeb, M. D., Secretary of the JSoard, Lansing. 

The members of the State Board of Health, with the exception of the 
Secretary, are appointed for the term of six years, and receive no salary or 
per diem compensation for their services. 



WORK OP THE STATE BOARD OP HEALTH DURING THE YEAR ix 



STANDING COMMITTEES.* 

1. Epidemio, Eademio and OommaDioable Diseases. — Viotor 0. 

Vaaghan, M. D. 

2. Sewerage, and the Disposal of Ezoreta. — MasoD W. Gray, M. D. 

3. Water supply, incladiDg pDrifioation of sewage-oontaminated water. 

—Prof. Delos Fall, M. 8. 

4. Buildings, including house drainage, ventilation, heating, eto. — 

Samuel G. Milner, M. D. 

5. Climate, geology, topographs and drainage. — Henry B. Baker, M. D. 

6. Foods, drinks and their adulterations. — Viotor 0. Vaughan, M. D. 

7. Poisons, explosives, etc.— Prof. Dalos Fall, M. S. 

8. School hygiene and sanitation.— Samuel G. Milner, M. D. 

9. Sanitary inspections in Cities and Villages. — Prof. Delos Fall, M. S. 

10. Statistics of Mortality and Sickness. — Henry B. Baker, M. D. 

11. Public health legislation. — George H. Granger, M. D. 

12. Finances of the Board.— Hon. Frank Wells. 

13. Animals' diseases daneerous to man. — Mason W. Gray, M. D. 

14. Relations of preventable sickness to taxation. — George H. Granger, 

M. D. 

15. Quarantine at the Michigan border and within the State. — Hon. 

Frank Wells. 



WOHK OF THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH DURING THE 
FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1894. 

Aside from the work in committees and in connection with the office 
of the Secretary of the Board, the work of the State Board of Health 
itself includes that done by means of sanitary conventions, the examina- 
tion of plans and specifications for proposed public buildings, under Sec. 
7, Act 206, laws of 1881, § 418, HoweU^s Statutes, amended by Act 86, 
laws of 1889, and work at regular and special meetings. 



SANITARY CONVENTIONS. 

Two successful sanitary conventions were held daring the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1894, as follows: — 

HILL9DALE SANITIBT CONVBNTION. JULY 6 AND 7, 1888. 

At the Sanitary Convention held at Hillsdale, the following program 
was carried out: — 

•Committees as rearranged bj President Wells and approred by the Board, Sept. 29, 1808. 
B 



X 8TATB BOARD OF HBAI/TH,— REPORT OP SECRETARY, 1894. 

Addrow of WaloooM, br Hoo. L. A. Qoodrieh, Mafor of inn«^*H . 

Bmootme «Dd 8tatem«itof tb« Objeeta of the GonTentlon, bj Hon. Fnuik Wells, Praddflotof State 
Board of Health, Laneiiic. 
Pnrfdeiit*a addreee, by G. F. Moeher, Preeident of Hilledale Gollece. 

What is beinc done by the State, and by the United Btatee in the Beetrietion of Dangeiooe Dieeaeee, by 
Hoo. Fnmk Welle, Piwident of State Board of Health, Lansing. 
Beetrletion and PrerentioD of the Danceroos Coounnnleable Diaeaaes: 

From the Standpoint of a Lawyer, by W. H. Fiankhaaaer. 

From the Standpoint of the Health OfBoer, by Fnmk M. Gier. M. D. 

From the Standpoint of a Miniatar, by Ber. Banaom Dnnn, D. D. 
Genecal Diaeoaaion of the Sabjeet: 

By Prof. Deloa FaU, M. 8., Member State Board of Health. Albion. 

By Henry B. Baker, M. D., Secretary State Board of Health. Laoaing. 
Tantilation, by Henry B. Baker, Seoretary State Board of Health. 

Diaooaeion of the Snbjeet, by Dr. B. B. Moore, and othera. 
Drainage: Sorfaoe, Sabaoil, and Subterranean, by H. P. Parraelee. 

DiaeoBsion of the Snbieet, by Hon. Frank Wella, and others. 
DIspoaal of Waate and Ezereta, and ito Dangera in Hllladale, by L. A. Qoodrieh, Ph. C, Mayor of 
mUadale. 
Bhonld Hilladale haTe inoreaaed Sewerage? by a F. Cook, Hni«rfy] ff. 

Diaooaeion of the Sobjeet, by Dr. Walter H. Sawyer, and othera. 
DiacaaaiQn of Sabjeet of School Sanitation, by Prof. W. L. Shoart, and Prof. S. J. Qier. 
AehieremenU of Sanitation Measured by Vital Statiatica. by George E. WUlitta, Lanaing. 

Diaooaeion of the Sabjeet. 
Cloiing of the Conrention. 



MENOMINEE SANITARY CONVENTION. APBIL 5 AND 6, 18M. 

At the Sanitary Convention held at Menominee, the following pro- 
gram was carried out: — 

Adrtraaa of Weloome, by Byron Taylor, M. D., Mayor of the city. 

Reaponae and Statement of the Objeota of the ConTeation. by Hon. Frank Wella, Preaident of the 
State Board of Health, Lanaing. 
Pkaaident'a Addreae, by Byron Taylor, M. D. 
The Germ Theory of Diaeaae, by Hon. J. F. Hicka, M. D., Menominee. 

Diaooaaian of the Sabjeet, by Hon. Frank Wella, Preaident of the State Board of Health, Lanaing, 
and by Prof. VIetor C. Vangfaan, M. D., Member State Board of Health, Ann Arbor. 
B^ati lotion and Prerention of the Dangerooa Commnnioable Diaeaaee: 

From the atandpoint of the Board of Bdncation, by Hon. B. S Waite. Menominee. 

From the atandpoint of the Clergyman, by Ber. F. J. Mailett. 

From the atandpoint of the Health Officer, by H. L. Boaenberry, M. D. 

From the atandpoint of a Lawyw, by B. J. Brown, Proeaoating Attorney, Meaominae- 

From the atandpoint of the Frees, by H. a Fifleld. 

From the standpoint of the State Board of Health, by Henry B. Baker, M. D., Seoretary, Lanaing. 
The Prevention of Conanmption, by H. A. Vennema, M. D., Menominee. 

Diaoaaaion of the Sabjeot, by Dra. Hicka. Bedelings, and others. 
OoDSomption: Disoossion by Henry B. Baker, M. D., Saoretary of the State Board at Health, Lanaing. 
Fdnl and Noxiooa Airs, by 0. G. Back, Architect, Green Bay, Wis. 
Diapoaal of Waate and Excreta, by T. J. BedeUnga, M. D., Marinette. Wia. 

Diaeoaaion of the Sabjeet, by Prof. Deloe FaU, M. S., Member of State Board of Health, Albion. 
Sohool Sanitation, by Maaon W. Gray, M D., Member of State Board of Health, Poatiac. 
Clofling of the Conrention. 



EXAMINATION OF PLANS FOR STATE BUILDINGS. 



XI 



EXAMINATION OF PLANS FOR STATE BUILDINGS -SEWEK- 

AGE, VENTILATION AND HEATING,- DUBING THE 

FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1894. 

Act No, 206, Laws of 1881 (§418. HoweirB Annotated Btatutea), as 
amended by Act No. 86, Lawd of 1889, is as follows: 

btr tMiUd* 14. Bso. 7. ThAt before the board of any ohmritabLa, peoMi or refonoatorr instltatioD 
thall determine on the plan of any bnllding^, or on any syetem of sewerage, Tentilation, or 
heating, which haa been aathorized hf the lefflelatnre to be oonstnioted. ench plan Bhall 
be enbmitted to the board of oorrectlooa and charitlee and the 8tac« board of health for 
examination and opinion thereon; and the board eo enbcnittlng ench plan ehall, Ln ite 
biennial report^ ehow to what extent it waa approTed bj the boarda ao examining them. 
• * • That it ehall be the dnty of natd State boarde to vleit eaid penal, charitable and 
reforxDatory institntione, when neoeeearr to make the examtoatiooe herein required, and 
their otfioial expeneee nooetearily inoorred bhaU be audited by the Board of State Anditora 
and paid from the general fond.— § 418. 

Tbe following are reports concerning plans for public buildings, sub- 
mitted to tbe State Board of Health for ezaminatioo, during tbe fiscal 
year 1894:— 



PLANS FOB PROPOSEI) KEW COTTAGES AT THE EASTERN MICHIGAN ABYLDM 

FOli 3K8ANE, AT PONTUa 

At tbe special meeting of tbe State Board of Healtb at Lansing; July 
28^ I89B» on motion of Dr. Baker, it was voted tbat the order of business 
be temporarily dispensed with, and tbat the Board proceed to examine 
tbe plans of tbe proposed new cottages at tbe Eastern Michigan Asylum. 

Dr, C. B. BuTTj Medical Supt. of tbe Eastern Michigan Asylum, and 
Hr« Anderson, theSupt of Construction at tbe Eastern Michigan Asylum 
for Insane, presented tbe plans for tbe new cottages, snd verbally 
explained tbe plana to tbe members of the Board, and tbe Board pro- 
ceeded to examine the plans. 

Dr. Baker asked if tbe Board desired to approve tbe common doct for 
all the ventilating shafts for all tbe rooms. He moved and it was voted 
that the Board recommende that eaoh of tbe stacks for ventilation be 
divided into two, three, or four compartments, and that the ventilating 
flues from each part of the building ehall go into a compartment on tbat 
side of tbe stack, in order to ensure ventilation on tbe side of the building 
opposite the side against which the wind is at tbe time blowing. 

There are no written specifications; but, from verbal statements, the 
Board understand that tbe radiators in the basement for indirect beatin 
purpoees, and all in occupied rooms and corridors are to be enclosed, an 
are to receive air from the putside of the building only. 

On motion tbe Board voted tbat tbe statement of what tbe plans show, 
which is to be prepared by the Superintendent, Dr. Burfj be published 



xii STATE BOARD OF HBAI/TH.— RBFOBT OF 8B0KBTABY, UM. 

with the statement of the report of this Board's action on the plans, in 
the Annual Report of the State Board of Health. 

On motion the plans, with the above reoommendations and saggestions, 
were approved and oommended. 

Henry B. Bakbb, 

Secretary. 

Here follows a statement prepared by 0. B. Burr, M. D., Med. Snpt., 
of the plans for a proposed cottage for men, and a cottage for women, at 
the Eastern Michigan Ayslam for Insane, at Pontiao, Michigan. 



EA9TBBN MICHIGAN ASYLUH FOB INSANE. PONTIiG. 

OOTTAQS FOB MSN. 

lofirmary for aDtidy, aged, and epileptic patieats. who need earetal lookfnff after and night attention , 
bat not nnraing attention. 

Location: directly weat of the Hospital for men, and abont 100 feet weat of the driTe. 
Qronnd ooTered: 6,386 •qnare feet. 
Frontage: doe east. 

Baeement 

Boiler-room : 17x80 feet ; oeiUng 10 feet ; oeonpTinff the central portion. 

Kltohan: 10zS7 ftot 6 inches; located in the northwest corner ; ceilings 8 feet, 6, inches. 

Area and steps at the northeast comer, and from this area entrance into a corridor, off which are two 
boot-rooms 10x10 feet each. 

Coal-room next to the boiler-room. 

Balance of basement oconpled by alr-ohambers in which radiators are located for indirect steam- 
heating, all taking fresh air either direct from chatos or from nnoocopled and tightly closed ooil- 
ohambers. 

Central chimney starting from the middle of the boiler-room, carrying a smoke-floe if bollding is 
heated independently; or warmed by radiators or steam-pipes if bnlldlng should be heated from the 
cantral boiler plant. Heated-«ir space (area abont 9 feet) aroond central floe, for Tentllatlon. Floes for 
smoke from flre-plaoee, two each, on first and second floors. Also nnmeroos Tantllating floes terminat- 
ing in the heated space alluded to. 

Firtt Floor. 

Bast and west Terandas: Bast, 8x97 feet ; west, 8x42 feet. 

Day-room, eastern and southern exposure, 86x56 feet; contains two fire-placee. 

Sun-room connecting, western and southern exposure; 16x16 feet. 

The abore rooms so arranged as to furnish excellent faeilitlea for obserratlon of patlenta. 

Brick wall carried through the center of the day-room north and south, with openings on each end 18 
feet wide and 11 feet high, OTer which are steel girders to carry the Joists of the second floor. 

Capadous bath-rooms and clothing-rooms in the northeast corner, apart from the liTtng rooms, and 
so arranged as to offer facilities for cross yentilation from the east Teranda to the north stepe. 

Large drying-room across the hall from these rooms. 

Ventilation from closets, bath and drying rooms to be carried into a heated space about the amoks- floe 
from the kitchen range. 

Dining-room, westerly and northerly exposure, 10x17 feet 6 inches. 

Attendants' dining-room connecting therewith, 10x18 feet. 



EXAMINATION OP PLAN8 FOR STATE BUILDINGS. 



Z11I 



Oda looai w««t from tlie da^'Tooin to bt OMd for dek-room or »ocla«ion-roc»m In tJbo da^-tbnv. DIiomi- 
«loo*: 10xl£ft«l. 

HaU («hieh may alto be oaad a» rlftitiiiB^roora) watt from tba daj-room, l€zl$ fast 6 inehaa. 

From thja, a atAirwaj to tba third floor. 

JLDotbar stairway from iLa oorrldor In tba oorthaaat corner, 

Vantilatlon from ixirtiona of the baUdlng othar than tha oloaata. eta., carried Into tba baatad apnea 
abcQt tha eaotral atack from the boiler-room. 

HeatlDg: For the moat part tndiraot radiation from Gold Pin Badiatora in the baa«ment. 

Uaatinff ttaea for tha moat part in tha innar waUa. Two azoeptiona to thia on tha uaat tide, and one in 
tha MA-room, where ipeolal provuion is mada for oarrrinK a Bne inalde of tha watia ondar wiodowi and 
taaininating on tha ftrat floor, two feet above tha floor*— a marble slab covering tha top. 

HaatiDg floaa, B%n iccbei. 

Ventilating floaa, 8x8 inchaa. 

Ventilation taken from tha bottom of alj room*. 

Heating flnea opening at tha top of rooma, 8 feat from the fioor, 

Cellinga 12 fteat high. 

Second Floor, 

Dormitoriaa over daj*room (opening in oantral wall 16 fawt); alao over ann-room and dining-room. 

EUmm for two attandanta over attandanta' dining-room. 

Bath-room», water-cloaeta and ^lotbea-room eofreepGndlng to lameon the fLrat floor, and TantiJated like 



Two floaa for fire-plaeaa in the aantral ataek. 

Dormitoriaa ao located aa to be nnder the immadiata eommand of tba night-nnraa. 

Third Floor (One-half atory in part) . 
fiooma for attandanta and aight-noraaa. 

In half atory part: OalTanizad^ircm flnaa connactipg with briok floaa in the waUa at the top of the third 
■tory, and termiaatlng in central itack, for Tentliatlon, 

Bewage earried into a aix-ineh Tltrifiad tile aonneoting with the Hoapital aawer. Plpea all of iron in 
the bnildinc. Soil-pipe carried to the roof fall Bize. All trape Tentilatad. All flxtorea to hare anper> 
ficial ranti; tha pipea from tbeae terainatiDg in the top of the aoll-pipe above the higheat flxtora. Sewer 
ventilated jnat oataida of the boildlng bj a foor-lnch pipe carried above the higheat point of the roof. 
Dining-room: F]oor anrfaoe per patient, 14 VL faet« 

Cnbio feet per patient, 171 feet. 
Day-room: Floor anrfaee pt patient, 47 feat. 

" " Cobio feet per patient, fld4 feet. 
Dormitoriaa: Floor anrfaoe per patient, 62 faet, 
Cable feet per patient, 744 feet. 

OOTTiaB FOa WOMEir. 



Located in the orchard, directly aaat of ;the Adminivtratlon Boilding, and aboat 100 feat from Ibt 
aaterty portion of the Aaylnm drive. 

Cottage in all eaaential faatnrea like tha preaant Eaat Cot^ige. 
Heating and veotilation the aame. 

Arrangement o( living rooma on the first floor, and dormitorlea on the aecond, theatme. 
(8ea Report of tba Ekatam Mtohlgao Aar Inm for 188&0 
In the plan for thia eottagflt the woodahed baa been omitted, wood and ooal being earried into I ha 

in that portion which is need in the Eaat Cottage ae a lanndrf. 
Heating will be bj indirect radiation, and from a Farman or Batee boiler. 
Water will be heated hj a WUkee Heater. 

f^om Eaat Cottage carried into aettUng basin. (See blae-print.) 
IHnioff-room: Floor tarfiaee per patient, 124 f«et« 

*' ** Cable feet per patient. 1354 feet. 

Day-room: Floor eorfaoe per patient, 41 feet. 

*' *' Cnbio feet per patient, 451 feet. 
Dormitoriaa: Floor aarface per patient, !16^ feet. 
•• Cnbio feet per patient, 620!^ feet. 



ST azAxm woAMD or "»^t.th Bimgr or 



TH£ 193 UFC AT C4LAMAZ0O. 

At th#^ 3«-5CM >< til* S^tft Bo«d o€ Health at Laanng, Joly 38, 1893, 
y rf^crscary pwentrd ** blae-print " pUaa. aad •pecifi^atfons in leiten 
fcooL itte Hrffeal ^•^lp^Tr£ntl*a.iinl of 5i* MiVhi^gmw Aiylam^ for a pro- 
poaed '»C3ii0f^ Aa accrxiat of tl&e piano, and of the actum of the State 
Board of fuakh aeti& foEovB:— 




• IvPriortfMfadiieoiaL Blrnte«ae»totfa*l 
; tb» mar portliM li flftwu sp to ft briClar raoa. eottl 

'vfthit h ui wiihth» « gnp<faa a(oa*«loarei 

HI rmMmcmm an mtxamfrnd ia the tormwtd part asl chair LieatioM tbowm oa ths i 

L t, md 1. *f9v ti&9 rmymtti^* manm ia vUeh thf Haas froa tiMa opaa. B y 
v> ch«» Svir pteoatt vJlbsaanthaeavehnMxaaaKlaaaliviavnKmhaaa inplaea. Apart 
ba adrficfoaal vaatOatiac flaaa for cha lacw roooM aa iarliaatad. Tba vaatilatan far 
SoorwiUtifcatihaptaeaiatfaawaUoeeaptadbf chakaaCiscftMawhiahtacBuaatobalav. Tha 
»a>ill ba traao# tha tfcjud ia ta^atioa to tfaa aaniml flaoaa. Taa aatica focvanl part will ba aaad aa a 
air cbaaanriasowUehfiMlL air iaiatrQriaeadthfoachthawiadova. If, h u aaiat , ia aay pa rtiiwil a r 
Ckia ia aoe fooad CO work aatiraif atciaCaecorily. traak Haas laidiac dicaetly firoai tha oatrida air to 
ba aaad. Ia oc&ar cjttafaa biilt by thia iaatttacios thia plaa paavaila aad ia 




9r gate^oaa to Cha piaa it wUI ba aam that cba ftrat atory < 

vbieh ara day roo«« far patiaita. bailvAy. attaaiaata* n>3ai, diaiaf n>3ia, kicehaa, lavatocy . 



Ikaialatl^Wsaeioaaaa'laraaaraalunrB. TUa atory ia 11 Caat ia tha daar. 

Tbaaaooid fl vx o?ai>fadl by ball aad altciac or day roooK, attaodaata* roora^ dormiroriaa. vardroba 
aadwatareloaaeaaab-MraiathaplM. Thia atory ia um faac ia haidit and wiU aeeooiodate SI bada. 

Tha third or attie atory. Imm a aittiac <x day rooaa, attaodaata' rooa aad dormitory aeic— landafcioaa 
forSbada. Saah room ia tha hooaa iataadad for liviac or aiaapiac pvrpoaia, ooataioa a ftia^laaa Im 
if aaoaaaary. aaa ba bailt aa opaa data Hia. 

w S iaahaa mrinv aad will fora%h raatUatioa for aaeh room that ia not additioBaiiy pro- 
ridadwith faatilartngahifta. Tha rartooa aaatilatiac ahafU baCora raCamd to aia Uli iaahaa ia aiaa. 
ThaMafaafUwUIbaeoUaetadiatbaattieiatosnmpaof thraa iato a aommoo flaa vhioh thar will aafear 
at dtfanatpoiau aad throoch which tha foal air viUba eoadaetad oat tliroach tha rooC Tha roono 
an wannad by air haatad by paaaing ovar Gold Pin radiatora and eomiac throocfa eondnita IS innhaa in 
•laa. Tha nciaUropaaiaca ara Sfaat from tha fl)or aad will not ba'obtraotal by fiatiasa. Tha flooca 
will ba of oak aad tha iiaiahlng of oak, bottamat, piaa and white wood. 

Iha water eloMta will h» aappUad with diamond hoppara floabed from aatomatie tUtiac eiatern whiah 
will baaappUai with water fnm>a etarated taak aad ayatem of water worka abont to ba ioatallad for 
tha aatlfe eottofa plait. The p!ambia« will be done by the aayla n eacineer aad will be appropriataiy 
trapped, vaatilatad. aad conatroeted after the moet approved aanitary plaaa. 



EXAMINATION OP PLANS FOR STATE BUILDINGS. 



XV 



I 



Th* Mira#a will hm nniad tturooffh an approprUitoly laid pipe into a arstem of iewerage beiag oon- 
• tmotBd for the entira oottace plant. 

Ttiii eottic« ia believed to be plaonad to afford the beat raanlta and b«in« th« fifth large honaa erected 
by Chla aayliUD, our object baa been to aroid defects In oonetrnetion, beating and Teniilation that majr 
have eotered into former oonatraotlona, The honse wOi be ptnln throtighoat bat very sabetanttally 
boilt. The wiodowa of the eeoood and third Ocxirt will be protected br U^bt wire f oarda pennaneatly 
attached from the ontaida. 

Tba baaement wall will be of ttone. the fint three feet Laid in cement. The brick of good <tQalit7» 
proparlj laid and the roof of good qoalitj purple BiaCe. Aa before indicated, the hoose wQl be heated by 
Indiraot ataam radiatloo. Steam will be fnrniBhed from a horizoDtaL« tnbnl&r boiler net in brick with all 
naeaaaary devieee to inanre aafaty, effioieacy and economy. Hot water will be famistied for batblog and 
other pariMMeB from a Riohardeon and BoTQton or other Bnitable hot water beater, 

The appropriation for the conatrnoUon of this cottage U f 16,000,00 and it le confidentlr expected that 
it will be bailt wityn thia amoost* 

Wm. M. Bdwasd8» 
Medical SMperintendent, 



I 



h 



liicfltaAX Aaxhtm roa tbk Iiraiim, / 
Katamasoo, Mich., July MtK IS98. ) 

ffenry B. Baker, M. D., See'y State Board of Health, Lanting, Michigan: 

DiAm Doctiob:— ?{mr letter of Jnly IHh la received. 

T!ta aewage from oor cottage will fiow throngh an iron pipe tmtU ontaide the waUa of the bttildtng and 
than throngh a aix'lnch glazed aewer pipe« mannf 4ctnred in Akron. Ohio, with jointa cemented throngh- 
oat. We have at the " Pratt *^ Cottage a ayat^n of aewemge known aa the Intermittent Bnb-aorfaoe Bya- 
tem. eooaiating of a collecting tank divided in two compartanente, frotn the larger of which the aewage ia 
dlaebargad by a dphon, carried to a dietribntin^r field and spread immediately nnder the ground. It ia 
the aame ayatem that haa received ao mneh attantlon from the llBMaohnaetts State Board of Health daring 
tba paat few yaare. Thta haa now been in operation for a year and ia entirely aatiafactoiT. We are at 
pree e nt bailding a eimilar ayatem that will diapoae of the eewago from the Van Deneen Cottage, the Pai> 
mar Cottage and the one now in oonatmction. The location of the oottagee, the field of diaoharge* etCM 
will be ondentood from the bine-print map that 1 tend yon herewith. The dtttribntlog area will be ondar- 
dralned irltii tilee and any anrplni) water will be carried into a amaller stream and away. The entire eya- 
tem ia pnt in nnder the direction of Mr. George 8. Fieiaon« Civil and Sanitary Engineer of KaUmaaoo. 

I am very troly yoora, 

Wm. M. Edwabdb, Med*t Snp't, 



HlCBTOAir ASTLOI FOS THX IlTBANX, t 



Kalamaxoo. Mich., A%ig. S, i8&3, 
I>r. Bmry B^ Baker, Sec^y State Board of BealtK LanHng, Michigan : 
Deaa Dootor:— Yodt letter of Jnly 29th and the bloe-prlnt plana of oar cottage returned, are received. 
I have indicated on the plana the location of the ventilating floea on the eeeond and third flaora and 
have marked the hot air exit* aa ion reqneat. I aleo send roa in the same pacicagei a bine print of the 
Mheme for plamfaiog. Yon will notice that each fixtnre ia trapped with a fall 8 trap and each trap ven- 
tilated irlth a two-inch pipe into the back air pipe. A aoU pipe irill extend above the roof fall alzed and 
ita top will be nnobatmcted. An on teide ventilating pipe, fonr inohee in alxe, will also extend op throogh 
the roof. The bath tab and alnk which atamd on the aame level vrlth the atoola will each be trapped, The 
ventilating pipe from each trap will extend above the highaat flxtore. 

I am irery tj*nly yoora. 

Wk. M . BDWARDfl, IfedV 3up't. 



The following ib the action of the State Board of Health:— 
At the meeting of the Board July 28, 1898. the plane and s pec ii cations 
were examined, and it was voted that the Superintendent of the Asylum be 
requested to state the amount of provision tor ventilation in rooms on the 
first and second floors, and indicate on the plans the fresh-air inlets and 
the foul- air outlets. Also whether the sewers are to be properly trapped 
at each building, so that each is independent of each other; whether all 



k 



xvi 8TATB BOARD OF HEAI/TH.— REPORT OF 8ECRETART, 1894. 

traps are ventilated, and whether ventilating pipes from traps on fixtures 
extend above the roof. 

On motion it was voted that when the above information is obtained and 
fonnd satisfactory, the plans be approved. 

(Accordingly a letter has been received from Dr. Wm. M. Edwards, 
Med. Supt., and the information is satisfactory.) 

Henby B. Baeeb, 

Secretary. 

PROPOSED DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE AT STATE HOME FOB FEEBLE MINDED, 

LAPEEB, MICHIGAN. 

This subject was not submitted to the State Board of Health. 

The following is a report of those members of the Board who were 
invited to make an examination. The report was based upon examination 
of the stream, and upon representations made by prominent citizens of 
Lapeer, as to its condition at time of examination compared with its con- 
dition for many years past. 

[Copf.] 

Lapeer, Mich,, Dec, 13, t89S, 
To Hon, C, O, lAtoe, J, C, Sharp, and L. A, Sherman, Comtni$»ionier$ for ih^ LoeaUon of a Home for the 
Feeble Minded: 

GxHTLncKii;— We, andenigaed memb«n of the State Board of Health. haTin« been asked by yea to 
expreas an opinion ae to the oapability of the stream known as Fanner's ereek of oarryinc off the eewa^ 
of the proposed hotne with a supposed oolony of one thousand persons, woold respeotf ally sabmit the 
following answw^- 

This stream will oarry the sewage of the proposed home, without detriment to the health of those liring 
along its banks proTided that said strsam be strati^tMied. The oity of Lapeer should obligate itself to 
make these changes subject to your approval before the proposed location is accepted. 

ViOTOK C. Vauoham, 
Gkoros H. Gbamokb, 

HXNBT B. BAKBB. 

PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS OF THE UPPEB PENINSULA ASYLUM FOB THE 
INSANE, AT NEWBEBBT, MICHIGAN. 

At the special meeting of the State Board of Health, at Lansing, June 
1, 1894, for the examination of the plans and specifications of the proposed 
Upper Peninsula Asylum for the Insane, at Newberry, Michigan, no 
quorum of the Board was present. Hon. Frank Wells, president, Lansing, 
and Henry B. Baker, secretary, Lansing, were the only members present. 
Hon. Claude W. Case, Dr. George L, Loope, and Dr. Henry W. Jones, 
members of the Board of Building Commissioners for the proposed Asylum, 
were present to explain the plans and answer any questions which might 
be asked. The plans and specifications were examined by the president 
and secretary of this Board, and their recommendations were afterwards 
approved by the Board. An account of the plans, and of the action of the 
State Board, here follows: — 

Offiox of Clauds W. Case, ) 
Netoberry, Michigan, June 12, 18H. ) 
Dr, Henry B. Baker, Sec'y State Board ofHeatth, Laming, Mich.: 

Mt Dxab Dootob:— Agreeable to yoar leqneet of the let inst., I haye pleasore in giTin« 70a hereonder 
the infoimatlon which has been eappUed by Meen*. Charlton and Gilbert, arohitecte. 



EXAMINATION OP PLANS FOR STATE BUILDINGS. 



XVU 



UrFXS rSJIIKMULA ASTLVM FOB TBS IITSANB, mnmSBftT, MtOH. 
DttaiU of Heattng, VenHt€UU}n., Sewtrage, Ptumbing, etc. 

HMUtnff. PriDelpftlii bjr iudlrttet radiation (hot fresh air] with a oertaia atnoriQt of direct radiation. 

Jndtrxt heat. (Hot fr«ah air} t* dl«tribat«d into tbadiffarQnt floors from all four lidM of the bolldtogfl. 

Btioht of hot air initti, 7 abora floor l«Tela. 

Frtjkh air to lodlreet bosa* i« taken 10 above grad» and protaotad with wire ■craana. 

Ftml air/TKCf are takem from the floor lereli aod are earried ap (each eeparataJy) to top of roof; each 
will be famlabed with eteam pipe In aaina» to overcome eztreme denaitr In the ootaide atmosphere, 
or in caee of emerffenciee.* 

Theee floee are talcen aa much a» poeaible from ooder the windowa and are oarried tip in the inaide walla. 



In each Oottagt, 
Total Dumber of freeh-air flQ*B« 23: aiae, 8 z \2, 
*• fouler " 45; *• 8x 8» 



Total aamber of fre«b-«dr tliiea, B; aii 
" fool-air " 8: • 



In Laundfy. 

8 s 12. 

Us 16. 



8c«arac« ia oondooied from bolldlnga to rUlaoe aewar bjr a 0-iii«h glazed eooket pipe, haTiog a fall of 
lOO ft. la 10,000 ft. 

■ Sewerave of each Mparate bnilding aondaoted to main eewer br i eaat-iroii pipe. 
H All eoil pipes extra heavy 4 . earried np above roof bjr A pipe. 

■ lU ftzturee trapped generallj with the Beanor trap and ventilated into eeparate 2 Mat-Iron pipe, oar- 
H ried np above roof bf i pipe. 

H Large greaae tratM (vootilated} provided to all sinks. 

H All closets and nrlnals flosbei vith laminate time aatomatio flosh^ each provided with local vent. 

H Troatlog that we hava fallj understood aad supplied ronr reqairements in this matter. I beg to remaJln, 

^^^^ Yoora varj trair» 

^^^B GitAUDx W. Cabs, 

^^^^B Chairman. 



The followiog reaommeDdatioos were made by tbe members preflent: — 

That all foulair outlet registers be placed at the floor lerel; aod, when- 
ever practicable, the foul air be taken out by a register under the window, 
and under the fioor to the ventilating abaft which aball go up on an inaide 
wall. 

That the dining room be heated by the indirect method, and the foul 
air be taken out of the dining room in the same manner aa from other 
rooms, having the foul-air registers at the floor level. 

The air supply should be not less than 2,000 oubio feet of fresh air to 
each ocoopant, each hour. It was stated by those submitting the plans 
that a larger supply was provided for. 

In general the plans were approved, and commended for their neatness 
and completeness. 

At a special meeting of the State Board of Health held at Ann Arbor, 
June 15, 1894, the foregoing report of the officers of the Board was on 
motion confirmed. 

Henby B. Bakek, 

Secretary^ 



* [The stsam pipea are plaoed in the veiitUaelDg ahaft Co oaoae apward motion in the shaft at saoh tlojes 

ire so nearlj th 
H. B. B„ Sec. ] 



aa the oat-door aod Is-door trmperatnrse are so nearlj tbm same tliat, witboat haat La tkb ventilaticMl 
shaft, no sach npward motion conld oecsr. 




XTiii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SEORETART, 1894. 



MEETINGS OP MICHIGAN STATE BOARD OF HEALTH, 

FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1894. ABSTRACTS 

AND BRIEF ACCOUNTS OF THE PROCEEDINGS. 

SPECIE MBBTING AT HILLSDAJiB, JULY 6. 1893. 

A oall was iaaaed for a meeting of the Michigan State Board of Health 
during the Sanitary Convention at Hillsdale, Jaly 6 and 7, 1893; bat, as 
Mr. Welia, Prof. Fall and Dr. Baker were the only members present, 
there was no quorom and oonseqnently no meeting. 

SPECIAL MEETING AT LANSING. JULY 28. 18M. 

The oall for this meeting stated that it was for 10:30 A. M., July 28, 
bat at that time only the President and Secretary were present. At 
11K)6 Dr. Mason W. Gray came in. At 3:30 P. M., a qaoram was 
present. The members present were Hon. Frank Wells, President, Lan- 
sing; Mason W. Gray, M. D., Pontiac; Samael G. Milner, M. D., Grand 
Rapids; and Henry B. Baker, M. D., Secretary, Lansing. 

On motion of Dr. Baker it was voted that the order of basiness be 
temporarily dispensed with, and that the Board proceed to examine the 
plans of the proposed new cottages at the Asylam for Insane at Pontiao. 

[A statement of this examination will be foand printed on pages xi-xiii 
of this Report. ] 

Dr. C. B. Barr, Medical Sapt. of the Eastern Michigan Asylam, and 
Mr. Anderson, the Sapt. of Constraction at the Eastern Michigan Asy- 
lam for Insane, presented the plans for the two proposed new cottages, 
and verbally explained the plans to the members of the Board. 

The plans were examined by the members of the Board. 

Dr. Baker asked if the Board desired to approve the common dact for 
all the ventilating shafts for all the rooms? He moved and the Board 
voted that this Board recommends that each of the stacks for ventilation 
be divided into two, three, or four compartments, and that the ventilating 
fines from each part of the bailding shall go into a compartment on that 
side of the stack, in order to ensare ventilation on the side of the baild- 
ing opposite the side against which the wind is at the time blowing. 

There were no written specifications; bat, from verbal statements, the 
Board anderstand that the radiators in the basement for indirect heatine 
parposes, and all in occapied rooms and corridors are to be enclosed, and 
are to receive air from the oatside of the bailding only. 

On motion the plans, with the above recommendations and saggestions, 
were approved and commended. 

On motion of Dr. Baker, the Board voted that the statement of what 
the plans show, to be prepared by the Saperintendent, Dr. Barr, be pab- 
lished with the statement of the report of this Board's action on the 
plans, in the Annaal Report of this Board. [Printed on pages xii-xiii 
of this Report. J 

Mr. Wells, the president, remarked that at some opportane time in the 
f atare he woald probably call the attention of the members of this Board 



REGULAR AND SPECIAL MEETINGS OF THE BOARD, 



SIX 



to the importaiit dotiea they were Boppoaed to perlorm. He thought that 
the members shoold do more work, and take more iQtereet in the work of 
the Board. He mentiooed that every member of the Board ahoold have 
been present at this meeting, but it was with difficulty that a quorum was 
present for a short time. 

The Secretary presented and read the minutes of the regular meeting 
of the State Board of Health, at Lansing* April 14, 1893, and the minutae 
were approved as read by the Secretary, 

The Score tary presented and read the minutes of the speoial meeting 
of the Board at Stanton, April 27, 1893, and the minutes were approved 
as read. 

The Secretary presented and read the minutes of the special meeting 
of the Board at Ann Arbor^ June 15 and 16, 1893, The minutes were 
approved as read. 

The Secretary stated that at the apeoial meeting of this Board called to 
metjt at Hillsdale during the Sanitary Convention, Joly 6 and 7, there 
was not a quorum present. The members present were Hon, Frank 
Wells, President, Prof. Delos Fall, M. S., and Henry B. Baker, M. D., 
Secretary. 

State Board of Health vouchers numbers 2283 to 2289 and 2298 to 
2325, inclusive, were allowed by the Board. 

The Secretary was requested to find out the reason why this Board is 
charged ten dollars for the late edition of the Medical and Surgical Reg- 
ister, when physicians are paying only five or six dollars for the same 
tx)ok* 

Dr. Gray left to reach his train at 5:30 P. M. 

Plans and speoifioations (in letters) for the proposed new cottage at the 
Asylum for the Insane at Kalamazoo, were then examined. [A state- 
ment of the examination will be found printed on pages ziv-xv of this 
Report.] 

It was voted that the Superintendent of the Asylum be requested to 
state the amount of provision for ventilation in rooms on the first and 
second tloors, and indicate on the plans the fresh -air inlets and the foul- 
air outlets. Also whether the sewers are to be properly trapped at each 
building, so that each is indepdndent of each other; whether all traps are 
to be ventilated, and whether ventilating pipes from traps on fixtures 
extend above the roof. 

On motion it was voted that when the above information is obtained 
and^found aatisfactory, the plans be approved. 

[Accordingly a letter has been received from Dr. William M. Edwards, 
Med. Supt. ; and the information was eatiafaotory.] 

The Board then adjourned. 

Henby B. Baker, 
Secretary. 



SPBCUL HEBIIHG AT L1N3IN6 BEPT. » AND iO. IBM. 

Evening Session, Sept 29, 1893. 



The meeting was called to order at 7:33 P. M., by the President, Mr. 
Wells. The following members answered the roll, call:— Hon. Frank 
Wells, President, Lansing; Prof. Delos Fall, M. S., Albion; George H. 
Granger, M. D., Bay City; and Henry B. Baker, Secretary, Lansing. 
Dr. Samuel G. Milner, of^Qrand Rapida, came in at 8:05 P. M. 



XX 3XATB BOABD OP HRAI^IBL— fiEFOBI OP 

Tee SoeretvT resd the minatM of the Spenftl MwtiBz ol Ihm Boflsd at 

LftBEiDg. Jiilj 2S. 1*^. vfaicb vere apprcred as rHid. 

('tEte Board of Health Toocben Dambers 2^^j 2^7. inehiBiTe^ were 
prewDtcd. raad by the Secretirj and alloved by the Board. 

SctcreiaiT Baker read a brief aiiDODDoeisent of it«2ia oi TmiimMi vhM 
be vifibed to preseDi to the Board at tbiE xseeting. 

r>r. TfiDgban'a letter eutiDg that be wooki probab:j not ba preaeot at 
Ir e iseeting, waE read bj the Secretary. 

L>r zDCTioD of Prof. Fall tbe Bovd roted to request tbe Seoreterj. hi 
ibe fLrsre. to bare oopies made of tbe atenoeFaphic repcita of ramarki^ 
disc!i3Kiaii& etc., by members of this Bsard. a: Sanitaiy C o ow tiwi a^ 
and aent to tbe mem here making tbe remarkc. for editui^ befare the **Pko- 
oeadisga of tbe ConTeotion'' is poblisbed. 

Tbe prefiident preaeDted a p roposed lift of aia,Tidi»g esmaiittee% 
ebaiig«d aligbtly from tbe list heretofore in hm:. 

Ti^ aisbject vae diacnaaad. and finally tbe }i«t tm nill fnrtbcr mniended 
snd adopi^d.* 

Tbe Secretary preaented and read portiona of bia quanerij raport of 
▼cffk ia tbe OfBoe. for tbe quarter ending 'vith SepL. 1*93. [Thia 
Vturrerjy Bepcrt of work ia printed on aobeH|i>eBt pa^ of tkia Report.] 

Ia connecTion vitb the diatribotion of pazipblett cf iBStmracai mativa 
IT ibe reatriction and preTention of dangerona diaaiBec. Dr. Graagar 
mesitaoned that in hia part of tbe State ocnodenbk diSenhy vaa azperi- 
ememd in enforcing tbe law. and in obtaining tbe colperactiaii ci the 
fctrcdcz population. becaT3«e they did not beliere in ibe ozm'.MmJiwnrmm of 
a:ax»e ^f *be dangerous diaeaaea Dr. Granger Kked if tbe pamphleta 
rejarinc tc tbe reatriction of dangercne diaeaaea were printed in kmngageB 
^Tt^er "iban English. 

Tbe Secvtary replied : Yes : and I bare bere a przpoKtioa to lepriat 
sie-reral of tbeae leadet& ae they are nearly c.' cf prist 

r>r i.^ranger aaid that tbe Board bad d^ne 2:}=;i ?D3d vork ia tbe dia- 
'•nbciian of^tbeae inatmctire pamphlets to tbe ZKOgbbDca of tbe pemna 
aak with a danceTona oontagione dieeaae Tbe f zsvdgseaa are baid to 
KOiTrzi.. and voii^ bold pisblic fanermls in aaaes zj^ Sfiaib fron danger- 
.-ins sisMsiafi. and other siich dangercTis perf =r=.asci5& were it not far tbe 
«fi«mext boards of health throcgbcct tbe Sii'ie 

fir mMLos of Dr Baker, it was roted :ba: ibe Seaf eta in fo re i ga laD- 
xmaires be reprinted, lo mee: the dez:&nd for disz^b-tii^ii ab^nt tbe Statei 

^*r Baker preaented the s^bfec: of tbe Mirbi^as State Board of Heahb 
o«cJaring Ccns::mpticn. and other disaaaw sre^tc ibe tt:berele barillna^ 

riMiBMis oanferciss to tbe ptiblic be&l:b. ' asd aaSi tbat be believed tbat 
zbf roari bad m f^r years ;&ken a step ac i^pzrast as this propaaed 
fc*?. ass be boped they weald consider tbe si:r:fc: and take deciaiTe 
ar^^a- 

-T >rhacf- aaid tb^t be z:c«: ez:pbarIc*llT s^rpcriec Dr Baker'a pro- 
ii-^n^ as be be'.ieTi%5 tbe S7ep an :r:prrta:i: cizir. aai li ti* rigbt diieetiGii. 

Xfir ^f^ ceaeTa'.'jT tbcccbt tbe prcp:«»sc fcrt::^ iiipcr"-i2t. a3id belieTed 
ii»* arri.Tr sS^-zii be in tbe fcjrj cf a rMc'.-ii:z. az)£ irat aetaoa aboald 
wait mil tbe ir-janiM aessicn. when earb ne^bsr w;i«ji bare bad a 
siian^e v tbirk ti:e s::bj<ct ever aod frrrr-late *:"2-e rBeolhitiGK, 
r-rar-i tc foire oecisioa as t:^ wba: tbe peeper a:r:c S-I':lj5 b«L 

" Tuf .hK vrj. i« frame .-a. 2«rr » •'^ :^J» Lfcvir: 



REGUULR AND SPECIALi MEETINGS OF THE BOARD. 



XXI 



» 



the NatioDsl Ooo- 
dueg, eitra copies 
The oiroolar stated 
distributed aoioDg 



On motion of Mr. Welle the board voted to reqaeet Prof. Fall to pre- 
pare oiroulara, leaHete^ etc., relative to the reatrlotion and prevention of 
oonaumption, for presentation to the Board at its next meeting. 

Secretary Baker read a letter from Heoretary C. N. Metoalf, M- D., 
relative to emall-pox in Indiana, and mentioned that there might be need 
to quarantine against Indiana, In connection with thie 8ubjeot» the Sec- 
retary moved, and with amendments it was voted, that a oommittee oon- 
siating of the Preeident and Secretary, be appointed to frame rules for 
internal qnarantioe, under Act 47, Laws of 1693. 

The Secrt^tary read a circular from the Secretary of 
ferenoe of State Boards of Health, relative to Annual 
of the Proceedings of the meeting at New York, eta 
that eix hundred copies of the proceedings would be 
the boards which are members of the Conference, and it was decided that 
the Board would probably need no extra copies. 

The Secretary presented the question whether the Secretary of the 
Board would be authorized to purchase one Edison's Phonograph for use 
in the Office, provided that in his judgment after testing the question 
the machine was a praotioal one for use in the Office. Members thought 
the machine might be tried, and the subject of buying could be presented 
afterward. 

The Secretary presented and read a portion of a compilation of facts 
prepared relative to diphtheria in Alcona Co., Huron Co.. and other 
counties, reported to have originated from "Camp 8," in Millen town- 
ship, Alcona Co. He also read a report of the investigation, by Dr. 
Haiixhuret, of thie outbreak of diphtheria at **Camp 8;" and, on motion 
of Dr. Granger, the Board voted to have the facts relative to this out- 
break printed in the Annua! Report of the Board.* 

Dr. Baker presented and moved the publication of a letter from Prof. 
Fall relative to a trip into the country with Dr. Parmeter of Albion to 
look into the facte relative to the alleged pollution of Michigan's water 
supplies by artesian wells being used for the drainage of n^arshes, barn- 
yards and other foul places. The Board voted that Prof* Fall's letter, 
and other facts relative to tbia subject, be printed in the Annual Beport 
of this Board, t 

The Board voted that two of Secretary Baker's papers, one on *'Pest and 
Present Sanitary Progress in Michigan/'^ read before the State Eoleotio 
Medical Society^ and the paper on ** Ventilation*' read at the Hillsdale 
Sanitary Convention, be printed in the Annual Report T 

Secretary Baker read a letter, dated Sept 27, which he bad received 
from Dr Walter Wyman, Supervising Surgeon General U. S* Marine 
Hospital Service, relative to the methods of disinfection of baggage by 
U. S. Marine Hospital Service officers at St. Lawrence Quarantine. 

Mr. Wells said that the committee on quarantine, the Secretary and 
himself, bad many important questions to act upon, and 
know if the Board still stood as a unit in sanctioning 
oommittee in the future, and the actions in the past 
eignitied that they did. 

On motion of Dr. Granger the Board took a recess until 8:30 A, M., 
Standard Time, Sept. 30. 



he wished to 
the action of this 
The members all 



* Printed on •nbteqcMot 
u printed tm 



TbJs 



of thfft report, to, ooaneetlon with the article on " Diphtheria.*' 
f thie Bjerdforltn. 
i»^it-cxxiT of the Eeport of thl* Bourd for I6W, 



Printed on pa«ei 1-U, Report of thie B j«rd for ItM. 

. . !• printed on paftee 
Thie paper will lie fotuul prtated on eobeeqaent psffee of thim report 




xxii STATE BOARD OP HEAI*TH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1894 



■ Second Sessimi, Sept. 30, 1S93, at 8:33 A, M, 1 

The following members anewered to roll oallr Hoa. Frank Welle, 
Preaidetit. LanfiiDg; George H. Granger, M. D. , Bay City; Samuel Q* 
Milner, M. D., Grand Rapide; Prof. Delos Fall, M. S.. Albion; and 
Henry B. Baker, Secretary LanBing. 

Tbe Secretary presented a reeolutioti which be had prepared relative to 
the Board placing GonBumption in tbe li&t of '^dieeasea dangerous to tbe 
public health/' Dr, Granger also presented a resolution relative to tbe 
same subject. 

Dr. MiJner thought this action of the Board should be deferred. 

Dr. Baker replied that he hoped that the subject would not be deferred, 
because the Board would be oritioieed if it did not take action on tbia 
disease, as he thought that on this eubjeot the Board was probably behind 
the views of many of the practitionera throughout the State, The State 
Board of Health should take some step in the right direction for tbe 
restriction of oonenmption, even if the action is not complete or perfect. 
He thought lives were to be saved by saoh action. 

On support of Dr. Granger, Dr. Baker's resolution relative to consump- 
tion, as amended, and eubject to minor changes by the Secretary, waa 
nnanimonsly adopted by the Board, The resolution is ae follows:— 

Resolvedj That hereafter, consumption (and other diaeaaea due to the 
bacilhts tuberculosis) BhaW he included in the official list of "Diseasea 
dangerous to the public health," referred to in sections 1675 and 1676 
How el Is Statutes, requiring notice by householders and physicians to the 
local health officer, as soon as such a disease ie recognized. 

The Prfaident suggested that the circular, leaflet or pamphlet to be 
prepared by Prof. Fall in connection with the restriction of consumption, 
be presented to the Board at its next meeting; and, in tbe mean time, 
the pamphlet already printed, be used for distribution. 

President Wells suggested that a copy of the above reaolution and a 
copy of the pamphlet relating to the prevention of consumption be sent 
to each health officer in Michigan. 

On motion of Dr* Baker the Secretary was directed to print the Pro- 
ceed in ge of this meeting, in pamphlet form, for distribution. 

The Secretary presented a proposal for a revision* of tbe Hulea for 
inspection of immigranti and travelers at the Michigan Border, and on 
motion tbe Board voted to amend the rules, aubject to the opinion of the 
attorney general, aa follows: Rule 1 was amended by adding to it the 
words — *'and no immigrant shall come into this State, or travel within the 
State, until inspected under these rules, and until authorii^ed to do so by 
an inspector appointed or accredited by the Michigan State Board of 
Health." 

Rule 5 was aodended ao as to hold immigrants until their baggage baa 
been disinfected. 

An additional Rule waa adopted as follows: 

Rule 7. DangerouB communicable diseases being now present in every 
country from which immigrants are coming into Michigan, no imml- 

frant, and no traveler or other person believed by the State Board of 
[ealth, or its authorized inspect or» to have been exposed to and liable to 

* Tb« revlidd aditlon of thete Ealei le printed oa BatMeqaeot %Ag9t of this Report. 



REGULAR AND SPECIAL MEETINGS OF THE BOARD. xxni 



ooDvey cholera, dipbtberia or other dangerouB oommtmioable disease, shall 
pass through MiohigBD, or from one township, city or village to another 
witbin the State, without permission from the State Board of Health ur 
its authorized inspector. 

The Secretary presented, read and the Board allowed aooonnts as 
follows : — 

George H. Granger, expenses in attending this special meeting., , $6.60 
Samuel G. Milner, '* " •' '' ... 6.26 

Porf. Delos Fall, '^ '' " '' ... 4.80 

On motion the Board voted that, should any other member arrive later, 
when no quorum was present, bis espenses in attendiD^ this special 
meeting, be allowed subject to bis oeTtificate, and the certiiicate of the 
President and Secretary of the Board shall be affiled, as usual. 

Dr. Samuel G. Milner left at 10:20 A. M. to catch bis train. 

Dr. Granger presented a resolution which was sligbtly amended, 
adopted, and read as foliowB; 

Resolved^ That it is the will of this Board that the President and Sec- 
retary continue to take such action as may be necessary to enforce the 
Rules of this Boards and to enforce quarantine at the Michigan border 
and within the State against diseases dangerous to the public health, and 

■ to compel any railroad company operating within the State to obey the 

■ State laws and the Eules and regulations of the State Board of Health 

■ made under the law. 

I Dr. Geo. H. Granger left at 10:37 A. M. in order to take the train for 

I Bay City. 

I The Secretary read a letter dated Sept. 29, relative to the sealing of 

■ baggage by the InspeotorB at Detroit, and relative to disinfection of 
I baggage at Detroit. 

I The Secretary read a letter, of Sept. 28, from Dr. J. K. Niven^ health 

I officer of Ironwood, relative to the status of the typhoid fever outbreak in 

■ that city. 

■ The Board adjourned at I2r00 noon, Sept. 30. 



SPECIAL UEETHfa AT LANSING. OCT. 21 AND 28. 1893. 



Oct, 21 H call for a special meeting of the State Board of Health was 
issued by the President of the Board, to meet in Lansing, Oct. 27, to 
confer and take action relative to "immigrant inspection and disinfection 
of baggage and any other business which may properly come before the 
speoiar meeting, including the auditing of bills.*' 

The meeting was called to order by the President,, at 7 r24 P. M,, Oct. 
27, and the following members answered to roll call: — Hon. Frank Wells, 
President, Lansing; Victor C. Vaugban. M, D., Ann Arbor; Prof, Delos 
Fall, M. S., Albion; and Henry B. Baker, M. D,, Secretary, Lansing. 
(Dr< Samuel G. Milner, of Grand Rapids, came in and took his seat as 
member of the Board, at 8;00 P. M.) 

On motion of Prof. Fall, it was voted that the reading of the minutes 
of the last meeting, be dispensed with. 

State Board of Health vouchers, numbers 2351-2365 inclusive, were 
allowed. 

Dr. Samuel G. Milner, of Grand Eapids, came in at 8:00 P. M. and 
took his seat as a member of the Board. 



mv STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1894 



Under the item of business entitled "Concimuoioations by the Presi- 
dent/* Mr. Wells said:-- 

The State of Miohigan is now paying out a lirge sum of money every 
month for quarantine eervioe along the Miobigaa border, and I thought 
I should like the Board to know the exact situation. The system is now 
and has been, very satisfaotory, a^ far as it oao be. with the exoeptiou of 
the inspeotioo at Sault 8te. Marie. At the Sjo some of the baggage of 
immigrants is being digiafeoted on the Caoadian side, but disinfection of 
the remaining baggage is not being done on the Amorioan side. The 
questions whioh this Board should decide at this meeting are: whether or 
not the inspection should be continued, and whether or not ^e should 
aooept the certificates of the Cinadian authorities. We heard what Dr. 
Montizambert had to say at Chicago, and I think all who heard him 
believe that bis certificates could be relied upou; and I believe that this 
question should be conaidered by the Board, and Dr, Montizambert's 
oertifioate accepted at the Michigan border. Cholera is now abating in 
Europe and I doubt if the citizens of Michigan will sustain this Hoard 
any longer in the expense incurred in quarantine at the Michigan Border, 
so I have taken the responsibility upon myself to call this special meet- 
ing of the State Board of Health. 

The Secretary presented and read a number of items of business whioh 
be wished to bring before the meeting. 

Dr. Vaughan made a motion that this State Board of Health oommend 
the Canadian Government for the disinfection of the baggage of all immi- 
grants, and condemn the United States Government for not disinfecting 
the baggage of all immigrants. 

Dr. Baker said that he would be more gled to vote for the foregoing resolu- 
tion if he was not aware of what Dr. Montizambert bad been doing, and bad 
done privately and openly at Washington during the meeting of the Pan- 
American Medical CongFesa, in Sept. last. He said that Dr, Motizarabert 
was then telling all he met that this Board was maintaining quaran- 
tine for other than sanitary purposes, implying that it was for blackmail, 
thereby tending to injure this Board in the opinion of the tnembers of the 
Pan-Ameriaan Association, the Sanitary Section of which was probably 
the largest body of representative sanitary officials that ever met in this 
oountry, Dr Baker said that Dr. Montizambert openly denounced thia 
Board at the Washington meeting, and now the Michigan State Board of 
Health seemed to want to oommend him for his actions. 

Dr. Vaughan said that be thought the question which should bo 
decided by the Board at this meeting, was whether or not the quarantine 
on the Michigan frontier should be continued; and, in order to hear from 
the members, he moved that the Board disoontinu© the State quarantine 
at the Michigan border. Prof. Fall supported Dr. Vaughan'e motion. 

Dr. Baker said that with reference to cholera alone, he believed the 
quarantine inspection should be continued. 

Dr. Vaughan moved that the Board withdraw the inapeotors along the 
Michigan border provided that the inspection and disinfection by the U. 
S. Inspectors is done in accordance with Michigan rules. The m 3tion 
was not aoted upon at this time. 

Mr. Wt»lls: As far as cholera is concerned, I would discontinue the 
quarantine inspection on the Michigan border very soon ; but, if we wish 
to protect the citizens of Michigan from other diseases, I would continue 
the quarantine. I believe that if an immigrant was afected with cholera, 



REGULAR AND SPECIAL MEETINGS OF THE BOARD. 



XXV 



I 




he woald be stopped before be reached tbe Michigan border, UnleBs we 
are to disiDfeot the baggage of all immigranta in order to keep out other 
daDgeroQB disease than cholera, I should think the quarantine inspeotion 
and disinfection could just as well be dieoontinued. 

The Secretary read tbe Abstract of Proceedings of the Jan., 1893, 
meeting of the Board, relative to lessened sickness from nearly all dis- 
eases in the fourth quarter of 1892, attributable in part to the disinfection 
of baggage on the Michigan border, He read aleo from the proceedings 
of tbe last regular meeting that '*no disease was more than usually pre- 
valent in the third quarter of 1893/' Notwithbtanding the large immigra- 
tion, the cholera abroad, and the small-pox in some of the United States, 
notably in one adjoining State— Indiana. 

Prof. Fall .- I believe that if we were to disinfect the baggage of all 
immigrants the year around, it would be better for Michigan^ but I don't 
believe tbe citizens of Michigan are ready for such a move, or would 
uphold this Board in incurring any such expense, 

Dr. Baker: One has only to watch the Finns come into this State to 
see where small-pox has been and is prevalent. At tbe **Soo^' last July 

I noticed that a large proportion of the faces of the Finns was pitted with 
small' pox, Ccnsumption is very prevalent among the Scandinavians, 
diphtberia among the Germans, and measles among the English. Mich- 
igan does not have Bmall*pox unless the disease is brought into the State. 

II we allow measles to be brought into the State of Michigan, in a short 
time Michigan will probably have as large a death-rate from measles as is 
experienced in England. If this Board was to quarantine only against 
the introduction of measles, it would pay for the expense of the inspec- 
tion and disinfection. 

On motion of Dr. Vaughan, it was voted that the quarantine inspection 
along the Michigan border be continued. 

Dr. Vaughan offered the following resolution : 

Resolved^ That immigrant baggage bearing the certificate of inspection 
and disinfection from Groeee Isle quarantine authorities, showing that it 
has been disinfected, be admitted to enter Michigan without furtber dis* 
infection at the border, unless there ie reason to believe that this baggage 
is liable to be infected since leaving the port of entry. 

The foregoing resolution was supported by Prof. Fall; but, on consent 
of Prof, Fall, Dr. Vaughan temporarily withdrew the resolution. 

Prof. Fall presented the following resolution, on which no formal 
action was taken until the morning session: — 

Resolved, That the action of the Dominion of Canada in disinfecting 
the bsggage of all immigrants from Europe coming into its territory 
and the establishment of its splendid appliances for this purpose as 
described by Dr. Montizambert, at the recent meeting of the American 
Public Health Association at Chicago, meets our most hearty approval. 
We commend earnestly this action of Canada to the U. S. Government 
and hope that similar disinfecting plants will be establisbed by it at U. S. 
Atlantic ports, and that the baggage of all immigrants to this country will 
be disinfected. We ask that this be done not alone that we may be saved 
from threatened invasions of small-pox and cholera, but also that a vastly 
greater saving of lives may be effected from measles, diphtheria, scarlet 
Fever, pneumonia, consumption and other disesses which are of more 
serious concern to the people of this country than cholera or small-pox. 



xzn STTATB BOARD OP HKALTHw— REPORT OP 8ECRBTARY, 1»L 

By ananimoiM cooaent, the Secretary preaented and read a Report* on 
immigrant inspection, and the disinfection of immigrant baggage on the 
Michigan border. Xo action was taken on this report. The ^^dent, 
however, corroborated one of the statements of the Secretary that a fanlt 
of the present quarantine law. Act 47, Lavs of 1893, was that the penal 
claose provided so small a penalty that a case of diaobedienoe of mlee 
oomee before a petit jory. 

On motion of Prof. Fall, it was voted that the officers of the Board take 
proper steps to bring the subject legally before Jadge Steere, of the 
eleventh jodicial cironit, or the proper coart, with a view to deciding 
whether or not Act 47, Laws of 1893, is oonstitational. 

President Wells inqoired of the members how long they expected the 
committee to continae the qaarantine. Altboosh no formal action was 
taken, it was apparent that the members expected the qoarantine to be 
oontinoed nntil the next reg^alar meeting of the Board. 

On motion, the Board adjonmed at 11.03 P. M., to meet again at 8KX), 
Standard Time, the next morning— Oct. 28, 1893. 



Mfjming Session^ Snturday, Oct. 28, at SiCTf A. M. 

Drs. Vaaghan, Milner, and Baker, and Prol Fall and Mr. Wells 
answered to the roll-call at the morning session. 

The following preambles and resolotions were presented and read by 
Dr. Baker, and informally discussed ; 



Whereat, Mirhigii hM bMO rafnarkably favorad hj emnpttnttTa imuumitr from daii«acoos 
dttiiur tbm pMt fear whil* eiiolwm bat bMO and ctill ia ptaiTalant In moat BoropMUi eoontrias, andamaU- 
pos and otitar dao«iroaa diaaasM bava alao baan and imall-pox atill ia pcaralant in aoma of tha Unltad 



Whereat, It ia baliarad tbat thia eomparativa immanity from diaaaaa in Midiican baa baan larcaly daa 
to aolicbtaaad tflForta bf aanltarf ol&alala, gorammanta, eorpocatiooa, and individoala. not onlj in Miob- 
iOB« bot in oar naicbborins Dominion of Canada, in tba Stataa aaatward of Miebioa« in tba Unitad 
Stataa Qoranimaat, and In f of«i«n ooontrlaa, and 

Whereas Tbia Board daaoa It wlaa to laeocniaa tbaaa taeta. to goram our fntnre aetkm aeeordlnglj ; 
and to command thoaa agansiaa wbieb tand toward tba walfaia of onr own paopla, tbacafora 

Beeotved^ Tbat tba IH<^hiian Stata Board of Haaltb eommanda tba aotlon of all tboaa indirldnala, eor- 
porationa, eommmritiaa, and aanltary olEeiala in Miebigan, irtio bara wiaaly dona wbat was praetiflabia to 
ba dona toward tba praraotion <^ tba introdnetion or apread of diaeasa in oar midat, wbatbar aacb aetioa 
waa aanitarj aonraillanea of immigranta, aanitary inapaotJona of pramiaai, abatamant of nniaanoaa, or tba 
prompt raatfietion ci a dancarooa diaaaaa. 

Seaolved^ Tbat tba aetlon of tba govammant of tba Dominion af Canada, in proTiding for tha diainfao- 
tion cit tba haggaga of aU immlgranta, ia wortbj of mantion and commendation ; that tba aetioa of tba 
Grand Trunk Railroad of Canada in diainfaeting aU immigranta' baggaga, oarriad by that railroad deatinad 
to aattia In Michigan in acoordanoa with tba Ralaaof thia Board, ia aapaeiallr worthy of mantion and of 
haarty eommaodatlon ; that tba action of tha Canadian Paoiiio Railway in diainlecting at Detroit, and 
alao for a tima at Sanlt Sta. Maria. All each baggage de atinad to eettla in Michigan la alao to ba warmly 
eommandad. and it ia ragrettad that anch commandation cannot properly ba aztandad to ita branobaa in 
tba Upper Panlnaola of Michigan. 

Be»olved, That tba qoarantaen officials on onr Baatem aeaboard are to ba commandad for their apparent 
anocaea In keeping oat paraona^aick with cholera, and that tha United Btatea anthoritiaa are to be oom- 
DMndad for tba inangoration of ayatama of diainfection of immlgranta* haggaga at tha foreign porta of 
dapartnre. 

Reaolved^ Tbat thia board warmly andoraea, aa it baa heretofore eamaatly adrocatad, tha plan for tba 
diainfection of all baggage of all immlgranta at all timaa, and for other dteeaeea than cholera, aa it waa 

* Tbia report by tba Secretary ia printed on anbaeqaent pagee of thia Report. 



REGULVR AND 8PBCIJLL MEETINGS OP THB BOARD. xxvii 

nsMlClf attaalmoQflly roted bj thv 9«a{i«TT Beotioa of th« PAii^jimariaata MftdlcftJ ConcrMi, at Wuh« 
iagtaa. 

R^motvtd^ That. althcMiffb •atiitarf moaviirai ba*« bemi aod are Inoraaviog io e9iei«acr, aod tb« wloter 
•M«oD 1* DOW approaeliing, 7«t oholenriof«ctloQ e«iit«rt are »catt«retl thron^boot Earop«, and thoraifl 
■tiU daoirar of that disaaM reiMsbia^ thli ooaatrj, aad ma&j of the commnolcable diaaasM most daoiraroiu 
lo Miohicaa arocoaat%Dtlr tiabLa to bs brooffbt ia br imtsUrranti, tberafora thU Board •xproMaB the hope 
Uiftt all will ooDtiaaa to act for the axoLotioa of dlioaaa. and for the rwtrlcUoo of aa/ daosarou* d<>eaia 
'viihln oar bordm, Mraral of tb«aa diaeana b«ia« of Taatly mora ooiuaqaeDoe than cbolara. 

Prof, Fall attain read bis resolution, and on motion of Dr, Vaughan it 
was adopted aa follows:— 

A««9fwKf« That the action of the Domtolna of ( -aoada In dlalnfecttac the bacffa^e of all Unmlgranta 
(Mwi Etarapa eomioc into ita territory, and the aetabliement of it* admIrabli»appliaDoeB for tbia purpose, 
aadeeeribad br Dr. tfontiaarobert, at the raoent raeetinc of the American Pabllc Health Aeeoolatioa at 
Cbleairo, maeta oar moat hearty aproral. We oommeDd eameatly thla action of Caoacla to the U. B Gov- 
ernment and hope that riroilar dielnfectlnc plant* will be eetabliebed bjr it at U. S. Atlantic porta, and 
that tbabacfAfaof all immi«ratite to this coantrr be will diain^Mtedr Weaak that this b« done not 
alone that we may be aa^ed from threatenad inTaaiona of amall-pox and cholera, bot aleo that a Taatlj 
crvater aavinf of liTea ma; be effected from raaaalea, diphtheria, aearlat fever, pneamoaia. eonsnmption 
and otl^ar dieaaeea which are of maoh more eariooa oonaern to the people of thia con&trj than cholera or 
•mall'poz. 

On motion of Dr. Vaughao. it waa voted that a copy of this resolutioa 
be sent to the Secretary of Agriculture of the Domiaion of Canada* Dr, 
Frederick Monti z amber t. Dr. Walter Wyman, and the Secretary of the 
U* S. Treasary Department 

Prof- Fall left at 9:05 A. M. ia order to reach his train for Albion. 

The Secretary presented aod read a letter from N. J. Power, Gen. Pass- 
enger Agent of the Grand Trunk R R. of Canada, relative to oertiEcates 
of disinfection from Canadian authorities being accepted at the Michigan 
border. 

On motion of Dr. Vaughan the following resolutions were passed: 

tUmAv*d, That we inatract onr intpectora at the Micbigan border to accept and allow to paaa all bas- 
ils baarinv eTldeooe from a proper IjHinthorized Dominion iir Prorinoial official that It haa been dlain- 

iMfiad ia aooordaooe with tbo rnlae of tbl* Board, nolees there la reaaoa to belleire that »nch batsa«e haa 

baam Infaeted ainea laaTlng the Canadian point of diaiafeotlon. 
JteiolMd. That the for^ainc reeolotion ba added to the Immicrmnt inapeetlon mlea of the Miohi«a& 

State Board of Health to atand aa " Ezoeption 4." 

Dr. Milner left at 9:15 A. M. in order to catch the train for Grand 
B lipids. 

The Board was practically adjourned when Dr. Milner left, at 9:15 A. M., 
because it left the Board without a quorum. 



RB(}ULiU MKBTf NO AT L4NS1N0 JAN. 12. 1^4. 

The meeting should have been called together at 8:30 P« M,« but as no 
quorum was present, the ineetiDji was not called to order until 7:30 P. M. 
The members preseot were: Hon. Frank Welle, PreiideDt, Lansing; 
Prof. Delos Fall, M. S., Albion; Mason W Gray, M. D , Pontiao; and 
Henry B Baker, Secretary. [Dr. Victor C. Vaughan. Ann Arbor, Dr, 
George H, Granger. Bay City, and Dr, Samuel G. Miloer, had notified 
the Secretary that it was impossible for them to attend this meeting.] 



iXYlll STATE BOARD OF HBALTHw— REPORT OF 8BCRBTART, 189i. 

The Secretary preseDted aod read the minutes of the meeting, Oot. 21, 
1893, and the miDutea of the meeting were approved as read. 

Stistte Board of Health vouohera Nos. 2366 to 2387, inolnsive, were 
allowed. 

Prof. Fall, of Albion, Committee on Water Supply and Purification of 
Sewage- Contaminated water, made a preliminary report. Prof. Fall has 
undertaken an analysis of the nnoontaminated spring waters throughout 
Michigan, in order to ascertain the normal amount of chlorine. Ten 
parts per million has been considered the maximum amount of chlorine 
which should be found in good spring water, but he thinks that the 
standard will have to be raiseid somewhat for Michigan as most of the 
samples that he has examined contain over ten parts of chlorine per mil- 
lion parts of water. Prof. Fall proposes to continue this analysis of 
r'ng water not contaminated by leachings from barns, stables, real- 
oes, etc. 

He wants a half pint of such water in a perfectly clean bottle, with a 
new cork, with reliable statement of source and surrounding conditions. 
Prof. Fall's report on this subject will supply a demand oy which to 
judse of the extent of sewage contamination of waters thereafter exam- 
ined chemically. 

On motion of Doctor Baker, the Board voted to aid Prof. Fall in his 
work by authorizing him to expend a sum not to exceed twenty -five dol- 
lars to be used in paying expressage on samples of water sent to Prof. 
Fall, to determine the amount of chlorine. 

On fiugffestion of Doctor Baker, the members agreed that the Office of 
the State Board of Health should aid Prof. Fall all it could in the collec- 
tion of samples. 

The Secretary read a brief announcement of some twenty -five items of 
business which be wished to bring before the Board at this meeting. 

On motion of Doctor Baker, the Board voted to authorize the Secretary 
to print an abstract of the proceedings of this meeting. 

The Secretary presented the question whether or not the Board wished 
to reprint the pamphlet on the restriction and prevention of diphtheria. 
He mentioned that he had sent copies of this pamphlet to the membera, 
that they might read it with a view to revision before printing. The 
members proceeded to suggest amendments; and. the pamphlet as 
amended, was ordered printed to the number of 15,000 copies. 

Prof. Fall suggested that side heads be placed on the pages of the 
diphtheria pamphlet. 

On motion of Doctor Baker the Board voted to authorize the Secretary 
to have printed not to exceed two thousand copies of the Proceedings of 
the Conference of State and local health authorities, at Ann Arbor, Miob- 
igan, June 15 and 16, 1893. 

The Secretary presented an invitation from the leading citizens of 
Menominee, for the State Board of Health to hold a sanitary convention 
in that city. The Board voted to accept the invitation, and appointed 
Prof. Fall a committee from the State Board to visit Menominee, and 
make arrangement for the proposed convention.* 

On motion the voucher for Prof. Fall's expenses to Menominee to make 
arrangements for a Sanitary Convention was allowed, subject to Prof. 
Fairs certificate. 

•This oonTMitlon uta bdd ftt MMumilnM and th« Proeeedlac hav» Im«i printed in pamphlvt form. 



REQULiR AND SPBCtAL MEETINGS OF TflB3 BOARD. 



TXIX 



The Sdoretary preacDted obarges, made by a oitizen of Sault Ste. 
Marie, agamat Dr. T. N. Rogers, Inapeotor of ImmigraDts and Travelers, 
at Sault Ste. Marie, Miobigan. 

Oq aoootiDt of the proepeotive aospeQsioD of the MiobigSD quarantioe, 
DO aotioD was taken by the Board. 

PresideDt Wells proposed to suapend the quaraDtine on the MiobigaD 
border. 

Dr. Gray requested the Committee op QaarantiDe to give its jadgineiit 
on the advisability of doing away with the Inspeotion, and Mr. Wells 
spoke as follows: — 

As far as I am oonoerDed I am in favor of disooDtinuing quarantine on 
the border, because I do not believe it to be longer neoessary, and 
beoause I believe the people of Michigan would not warrant the expendi* 
tnre of so muc^h money. The deoiaion of the Judge of the 11th Judicial 
Oirouit is adverse, and makes it diffiouU for the Board to oarry out its 
Butes which were made under the State Law, and the penalty clause of 
Ibis law has been deoided to be unooQBtitutiooal. DDctor Wright's work 
at Detroit has been very light; although be has, of course, bad to spend a 
great deal of his time in perrorming the Board's requirements. The immi- 
gration has been so light that he has had very little actual work to do, 
find as far as the need for inspection at Detroit, it is very little* The 
inspeotion at Sault Ste. Marie has not been satisfactory at any time, and 
Port Huron seems to be the only plaoe where there is much of any need 
for an inspector. Considering the decision of Judge Steere, it is quite 
probable the railroads will all object to the detention and inspection, and 
will act as the roads at the Soo have acted. I would rather withdraw 
than be driven away. 

Dr. Baker remarked that be would rather be driven away; then, if 
smalLpox should come Into Miohigan, it would be no fault of the State 
Board of Health. 

Prof. Fall suggested that, by the decision of Judge Steere, the Board 
would be cotDpelled to withdraw its iospectorii. 

Doctor Baker: I believe that the Miohigan inspection of immigrants 
has done much in preventing the introdootion and spread of dangerous 
communicable diseases in Michigan. The stand the State Board baa 
taken has been the means of raising the standard of quarantine in this 
country, tending as it baa toward the disinfection of the baggage of all 
immigrants coming into this country, It is not improbable that the 
inspeotion at the border has been the means of keeping Miobigan free 
from small-poz, and it is probable that it has lessened the introduction of 
other diseases. The Miobigan inepection rules were carried out during 
the summer at -Levis, near Quebec, and are now beins? carried out at 
Halifax, under the direction of Dr. Wiokwire, Port Health Officer of 
Halifax. Small-pox is now quite prevalent is several States, but it is 
hoped that Miobigan will not be visited by this disease. Owing to the 
depression in mining, lumbering and other buiiness, immigration will 
probably be much lessened. 

The recent judicial deoiaion wa9 discussed, and a resolution was adopted 
as follows :^ — 

''Resolved, That in view of the adverse decision of the Hon, Joseph 
H. Steere, of the 11th Judicial Circuit, declaring the penalty portion of 
the Miobigan Quarantine Law unoonstitutional, the immigrant inspeo- 



ij 



8TATB BOARD OP HKAI/rH.-&EFOBT OP 8EGBJDTABY, lOM. 

tioD at the Michigan border is hereby BDBpeDded from and after Jan. 13, 
1894. 

The DDeioberi agreed that the cost of priDtiog the Prcoeedisga of the 
Add Arbor CoDfereoce Bhoald be paid out of the QuaraDtine fond. 

The Board authorized the 'Seoretary to give Mr. Willitta for dietriba- 
tioo by himaelf, two hoDdred copies of his paper od '*AohievemeDts of 
SsDitatioD." 

The Secretary preseoted a letter which he had received from Sopt. 
Clarke of the School for Deaf at Flint; and in accordance with Mr. 
Clarke's request, the Board voted to send Dr. Hanzhurst of West Bay 
City, to the School for the Deaf at Flint, to investigate the outbreak of 
scarlet fever in that institntion, at a compeosatioD of tcD dollars per day 
aod expenses. 

Tke Board also authorized the President and Secretary to employ some 
other expert to go to the School for the Deaf in the event that Dr. Haox- 
burst coo Id not be obtained. 

Doctor Baker presented an invitation which he had received from the 
Wanye Co. Medical Society to read a paper on the ** Prevention of Pul- 
monary Taberculosis" or "'Consumption as a Disease Dangerous to the 
Public Health. " In view of the recent action of the State Board of 
Health, and the proposed cooperation of the Detroit Board of Health in 
the same direction, the State Board requested the Secretary to accept the 
invitation, and offered to pay the Secretary's expenses. 

On motion of Doctor Baker it was voted that Mr. Willitts' paper on 
** Achievements of Sanitation" be printed in thQ Annual Report of the 
State Board of Health. (Later, this action was reconsidered.) 

The Board voted to print in the Annual Beport Dr. Baker's paper on 
''Influenza," which was read before the Nashville meeting of the Ameri- 
can Medical Association, in May, 1890. 

The Secretary presented some letters which be had received from Mrs. 
Todd of Burr Oaks, an officer of the W. C. T. U.. who asked that the 
State Board of Health take up the subject of "Alcohol as a l^oison," and 
teach it to the people at sanitary conventions and in other wajs. The 
Board took no formal action on the subject. Papers on the subject of 
alcohol, by several members of the Board, had previously been published. 

The subject of a chair of sanitary science at the State Normal School, 
and at the State Agricultural College, was presented by Doctor Baker. 
He mentioned that the State Board of Agriculture had already been 
memorialized by the president and other members of this Board, includ- 
ing himself, to establish a chair of hygiene; but he thought the State 
Board of Health as a whole should continue to exert its influence. He 
argued that the State law compelled the common schools of Michigan to 
devote time to the teaching of hygiene, but that there was not much pro- 
vision for the proper education of teachers who are compelled to teach 
hygiene. The State Normal School is devoted to the training and aduca- 
tion of teachers, and the State Agricultural College has its vacation in 
the winter in order that its students may teach, yet neither of these insti- 
tutions has a chair of hygiene or sanitary science. The State Board of 
Health has already put forth its efforts for work at the Michigan Univer- 
sity, and a Laboratory of Hygiene has been established, and is now dohig 
great good. Doctor Baker thought that the youngest pupil in our public 
schools should have an idea of bow the most dangerous communicable 
diseases are spread, and that it would be just as practicable to teach them 



REGULAR AND SPECIAL MEETINGS OF THE BOARD. 



zzxi 



the restrictive meaaureg, ae it is to teaob them all about the bones, 
mufloleB, and Dervee, ae ia now attempted. Each pupil should also know 
just what disease Gauaea moat deatb» in Michigan* and jufit how it may be 
prevented or avoided. But how are tbeee pupils to be taught auoh eub> 
jecta, when there is praotioally no adequate provision for the ednoation of 
the teachers? 

Prof. Fall said he was very glad to Bay that Albion College was teach- 
ing sanitary soienoe. A large olaas of the best students in the college 
have this course of training, and exhibit much interest in tbe subject. 

On motion of Prof. Fall, the Board voted that a committee of three be 
appointed by the Preaident to memorialize the State Board of Education 
to eetablish a chair of Sanitary Science at the State Normal School, 
Prof, Fall of Albion, Doctor Baker and Dr. Milner were appointed to act 
on this Committee. 

On motion of Doctor Baker it was voted that Doctor Gray act as chair- 
man of a committee to memorialize the State Board of Agriculture to 
establish a Chair of Hygiene at the State Agricultural College. It was 
also voted that President Welle end Dr. Vanghan be the other members 
of this Committee. 

[Further statements relative to the Board's e^ort for the establishment 
of a Chair of Sanitary Science at Agricultural College, are printed on 
subsequent pages of this Report.] 

The Secretary presented a number of communication a which he had 
received from Mr. J. B. Nagelvoort, Analyat with Parke, Davie and Co, 
of Detroit, relative to the regulation of the sale of poisoDB in Michigan, 
But on account of the late bour^ tbe Board took no action on the eubject. 
The members however thought such action should be taken sometime in 
the near future. Doctor Baker mentioned that the Massachusetts law 
regulating tbe investigation of sudden deaths was tbe best he knew of. 

The Secretary presented a letter with a copy of a bill for a Bureau of 
Public Health, which he had received from U. S. Senator F. B, Stock- 
bridge. The Secretary read the letter^ and tbe Secretary was directed to 
write to Dr. Avery, aud to procure copies of the bills before Congress 
providing for a National Health Service. 

On motion of Dr. Gray the Board voted to authorize the President and 
Secretary to employ extra clerical help for six months in order to bring 
the work of the Office up nearer to date. 

On motion the Board adjourned at 12:05 A. M* 



BPE9CUL MBKTINQ.'AT LANBINQ. MARCH It, 1804. 

In pursuance of a call by President Wells, the State Board of Health 
should have met in Lansing, March 13, 1894* at 1 .BO P« M., for the pur- 
pose of tbe examination of plana and specifications of the proposed new 
Home for Feeble Minded, at Lapeer, and the transaotion of such other 
business as might properly come before the Board. There was no quorum 
present; the only members present at 1 :30 P. M. were Hon, Frank Wells, 
President, and Henry B. Baker, Secretary. Dr. Samuel Q. Milner oif 
Grand Rapids, came in about 3:30 P. M. 

The Board of Buildiug Commiaaioners for the Home for Feeble 
Minded, and the Board of Corrections and Charities were in joint aeesion 
at the Qovernor's Office where the preaident and secretary of this Board 



xzxii 8TATB BOARD OF HBAI/THw-RBPOBT OF SBGRBTART, 1894. 

joined them, thinking they wonld examine the plana and speoifioationa 
and rely upon the State Board of Health to confirm their recommenda- 
tions at some futnre meeting. 

There were present at the joint meeting: Hon. John T. Rich, Qov- 
ernor and ex. officio member of the Board of Corrections and Charities^ 
Bt. Bev. George D. Gillespie, Hon. James M. Neasmith, Doctor Samnel 
Bell, and Hon. L. C. Storrs, officers and members of the Board of Cor- 
rections and Charities; Hon. Cyrus G. Luce, and L. A. Sherman, mem- 
bers of the Board of Building Commissioners; and Hon. Frank Wella, 
Doctor Samuel G. Milner, and Doctor Henry B. Baker, members of the 
State Board of Health. Ex-Governor Luce presided over the meeting. 

The plans were presented and explained by Secretary Sherman and 
Architect Hess, there were no written specifications. The members of 
the State Board of Health made a number of suggestions, some of which 
are as follows : — 

The heating should be by the indirect method. 

The ventilation should be by the natural method. A blower or*other 
mechanical oontrivance should not be relied upon for the fresh air, 
because, if by any accident or carelessness the machinery stops, the venti- 
lation stops. 

It is a good plan wherever practicable to have the foul-air outlet under 
the window, because the cold air falls down the window, and, unless 
taken out there, it sweeps across the feet of the occupants of the room. 
The foul- air can be then taken under the floor in a duct so lined as to be 
free from risk of fire, to the inside wall and thence up a ventilating shaft. 
The foul-air shaft should be in an inside wall, and it is better to take the 
foul and cold air under the floor than across the feet of the occupants. 
The foul-air outlet should be at the floor level, in order to economize 
heat, and to take out dust which may at any time contain the germs of 
disease. The ventilation of each room should be by a ventilating shaft, 
to the outer air, separate and distinct from that of any other room. 
Several ventilating shafts may be grouped in the attic, in order to avoid 
so many openings through the roof, but each must continue separately to 
the outer air. 

Chairman Luce asked Secretary Baker if he thought the State Board of 
Health wonld approve the plans, if the Building Commission would have 
the plans re-drawn to conform with the suggestions made by the mem- 
bers of the State Board of Health there present? 

Secretary Baker replied that he did not know, but thought the State 
Board of Health would approve of the indirect system of heatins, of 
liaving the foul-air outlets at the floor level, and the ventilating shafts 
.'from each room separate and distinct to the outer air; and the Board has 
heretofore disapproved of the plan of relying npon a blower for ventilating 
purposes. 

Although the foregoing suggestions or recommendations were made, no 
formal action was taken by the members of this State Board of Health. 
The members of the Board of Building Commissioners said they would 
have the plans re-drawn to conform to the suggestions made by the mem- 
bers of the State Board of Health, and would endeavor to submit the 
plans and specifications to the State Board of Health as soon as practic- 
able, perhaps at the regular meeting of the State Board of Health 
March 13. 



I 



^^ RBGULA.R AND SPECIAL MBETINQ3 OP THE BOARD. XXXUl 

The members of the State Board of HeaU.b left the joiot-meetiDg about 
6KX) P. M,, for the office of the Secretary, and nofartber official busineae 
was done. 

Hbnby B. Bakgb, 

Secretary. 

[Tbe report of the exammatioQ of tbe plans and speoifioatioBS for the 
proposed Home for the Feeble Minded, is printed on page xvi of this 
Report.] 

SPKCI4L MKBTINQ 4T MRNOMINSE, APBIL 0. ISH, 

The call for this meeting was as follows: — 

Stats Board of Hsaltb, ICicbiqaii, | 

Orrxos or thk Ssourabt, > 

Lanrine, Marth M, m»4. * / 
Mrmher of SUit« Board of Health: 

DsAB Bts^—A ■pttciftl mi«tlii« of the Btate Board of HiAlth in heraby callad to maet in M«noiDiD«a 

i4>rU ft and 6, 18M. between the MMlons of the Saattarjr CoQf«titioti. for tha parpo«e of aaditin^ biU« and 

■eooonti, uid tor tba tnuuaotloD of aaob other batinaM aa may properly come before the Booj-d at that 

Very rMpeetfoUy, 

FaANK Wkli4, 

President. 

This meeting ooourred at tbe residence of Dr. H. L> Roaenberry, in 
lienomiDee, April 6, 1894^ between the afternoon and tbe evening 
session B of the Sanitary Convention. 

The members present were: 

Hon. Prank Wells* president. 

Mason W. Grav, M. D 

Prof. Deloa Pall 

Henry B. Baker. 

State Board of Health vouchers numbers 239S to 2102, inclusive, were 
allowed. 

On motion of Dr. Baker, it was voted that tbe expenses of members of 
this Board in attending this meeting be allowed at the amounts oertified 
to be correct by the several members incurring the expenses. 

Tbe Secretary presented a letter and resolution received by him from 
Dr. Milner, member of this Baard, who oould not be present. Tbe reso- 
lution related to the dangers to tbe people of Miohigan from the use of 
milk and meat from tabaroulous animals, and authorized tbe Secretary of 
this Board to investigate and report to this Board the extent of the 
danger. 

Tbe resolution was discuiiaed, and, on motion, it was referred to tbe 
Committee on ** Animals' diseases dangerous to man, "—Mason W. Gray, 
M. D., with request for a report on it at the next meeting of the Board. 
The lesolutiou was then handed to Dr. Gray. 

Tbe Secretary presented the subject of a proposed State hospital for 
oonaumptives. He stated that since the publication of tbe two bekto- 
grapbed pages which be had sent to each member of this Board and to 
newspapers and journals, the proposition had been favorably received, 
tbe President of this Board and Prof. Vaughsn, who was obliged to leave 
Menominee before the other members of tbe Board bad arrived, had both 




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REGULAR AND SPECIAL MEETINGS OF THE BOARD. 



XXXT 



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The noiiiutes of the special meetiDg at LsDsiDg, March 13, weie read, 
and approved, Teohuically epeakiDg thee© miDotes were only a Btatemeat 
relative to three members of the Board meeting Id joint eeaaioi] with the 
Board of Buildicgs CommiBBioners for the Home for the Feeble Minded, 
and the Beard of CorrectioDs and Charitiep. No qnorum of the State 
Board of Health was present at that meeting, ao no fcrmal action waa 
taken, but euggestione were made relative to the plana for the proposed 
new Home for the Feeble Minded. 

The minutes of the epeoiel meeting at Menominee, April 5 and 6, were 
read and approved. 

State Board of Health vonohera nombers 2391 to 2395 and 240E to 2418, 
inolufiive, were allowed. 

The Secretary presented the quarterly financial etetement of the Board's 
appropriation, and the etatement was referred to the Committee on 
Finance— Hon. Frank Welle. 

Aa this was the Annual Meeting and the time for the President's 
Address, the President made a brief address somewhat as follows: — 

'^Donng the latt year Ibe State Board of Health has done much good 
work, including that in connection with qnarantine and tbeprevention of 
the Introdnction into Michigan of dangerous communicable diseases. 
The Board has entered upon a most important work — for tbe prevention 
and restriction of tuberculosie in man, and I believe that tbe results will 
be great. This Board has taken the lead of other State Boards of Health 
in declaring ccnenroption to be dangerons to tbe publio health, and has 
recommended advanced measures for its restriction. At this meeting 
committees are to report upon two other measures of restriction which it 
is believed will prove to be exceedingly important," 

Under the head of brief announcements, the Seoretary read a list of 
twenty items of business which he wished to bring before the Board, if 
there was opportunity. 

It was suggested by Dr. Mitner that there might be a desire at the next 
legislature to make some changes in laws relating directly or indirectly to 
public health in Michigan, and he thought it was important that the 
chairmen of committees should be requested to present at tbe next meet* 
ing of this Board, any legislation which they thought should be proposed 
to tbe neit legislature. 

The foregoing suggestion was approved by Doctor Vaughan and other 
members. 

In accordance with the foregoing suggestion by Dr. Milner, the Board 
requested the President to inform the Chairmen of the various com- 
mittees. 

Doctor Vaughan asked if tbe Office had plenty of the Public Health 
Laws so that he could have one hundred copies for distribution to bis 
class in aanitary science. 

Tbe Secretary replied that there was a sufficient number, and that he 
would endeavor to supply Doctor Vaughan with the pamphlets. 

Prof. Fall mentioned that be had been assisting to conduct a teacbera 
institute at Albion, and had been requested to deliver several lectures on 
sanitary science. The lectures had been delivered, and much interest 
was shown, and he believed it was a good way to reach the public, by the 
education of the teachers in the State on sanitary subjects. 

Doctor Milner said that a literary society in Grand Rapids, had taken 
considerable interest in sanitary subjects, and had requested him to snp- 




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REGULAR AND SPECIAL MEETIKGS OF THE BOARD, xxiirii 



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dasgeroDs to Ibe public beeltb, would open the way for tbe Botion of the 
Live Stock Coromjeeioii, and be eincerely boped tbe CotDmieBion woold 
ooOperate wiib tbiB Board for (be reBtriction of tuberoalosis in animalB 
and in maxi. He further eaid that ibe powers of the Live Stock Com- 
mission were great, and they bad sd uDlimited aniooDt of moDey for 
researcb, wbereae tbe State Board of Health's epprcpriation waa exoeed- 
ingly limited. 

Secretary Baker read a newapaper clipping relative to a berd of Jereej 
cattle belonging to tbe Pratt Institute of Brooklyn, beinp killed because 
tuberculin bad proved tbe cattle to be infected with tQDerooLoBiB. Tbe 
berd were valued at about $8,000. 

In conneotion with the propoaition for a State Hospital for Consump- 
tivee there was some discnasiun relative to its management Dr. Milner 
thought that tbe boepital should not be managed or operated by any one 
school of medicine, because that would create opposition and jealousy in 
tbe profession. 

Dr. Vaugban said the Hospital would be more espeoially for tbe isola- 
tion, than for the treatment, and be did not aee why there should be any 
feeling. 

Mr. Wells Eaid he thought tbe Hospital should be at tbe State Uni- 
versity in conneotion with tbe State Laboratory of Hygiene. 

Dr. Vaugban eaid be thought it should be at the State University for 
three reasons: — (1) There would be no expense in buying ground for the 
building; (2) it could be heated and lighted from tbe central plant; and 
(3) it would be a source of inBtruotion to tbe students and to the patients. 

Mr. Wells— What I underetand is that tbe Board shall put itself on 
record as favoring legislation on tbe subject. 

On motion of Dr. Baker, tbe Board voted that the Secretary be autbor. 
ized to print tbe usual number of abstracts of proceedings of this meeting. 

Tbe Secretary presented bis quarterly report, and read some portions 
of it. 

The Secretary preeented and read tbe resignation of Mr. George E. 
Willitts as Acting Secretary; alsj tbe Secretary's letter of acceptance 
which bad been written in the interval of tbe Meeting. On motion of 
Prnf. Fait, the Board voted to formfllly accept tbe resignation. 

On suggestion of Dr. Baker, it was voted that a committee of one be 
appointed to make arrangements for a Sanitary Convention, should an 
invitation from a desirable place be reoeived before tbe next meeting of 
tbe Boaid, (The appointment was not then announced by tbe President.) 

Tbe subject of tuberculosis in man and its restriction, had been refer- 
red to Doctor Vaugban, a committee on '* Epidemic, Endemic and Com- 
municable Diseases,*' with request to report at this meeting. Dr. 
Vaugban Faid tbe time bad been so short that be bad not bad time to give 
tbe subject much thought. He did, however, present a report whioh was 
incorporated in tbe following resolutions which were amended and 
adopted as follows: — 

Mesofved^ That we recognize the following facts: — 

(1) That tuberculosia is the most grave and fatal disease now affecting 
tbe health and lives of the people of this State, destroying about 3,000 
lives per year; 

(2) That this disease originates principally by transmission from man 
to man or frcm man to animals and again to man ; 




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REGULAR AND SP£OIALi MBETINQ3 OP THE BOARD. xrxii 

Id aooordaooe with aotion at the MenomiDee meeting, the Preeideot 
appointed Drs. Gray, Vaughan^ Baker and Granger, as delegates* to the 
meeting of the State Medioal Sooietj, Laneing, Ma^ 3 and I, 1894. 

On motion it was voted that the Preeideot and Secretary act as dele- 
gates to the National Conference of State Boards of Healthy providing 
there was a meeting of the Conferenoe this year. [The meeting was held 
in Washington, Deo. 1891, bat this Board was not represented. There 
was no money at the command of the Board to pay the expenses of a 
delegate. ] 

The Secretary presented a statement which he bad prepared on the 
actions of the different State and Local boards of health in the United 
States in regard to the restriction of tuberculosis in man. He read the 
report and reqnested permission to print it in the Abstract of this meet- 
ingf which permission was granted. [This statement will be found on 
sabsequent pages of this Report.] 

In repty to a question asked by the Secretary, Doctor Vaughan said 
that he would examine or have examined at a small cost any spnta which 
was sent to him which was soapeoted to contain tubercle bacilli. The 
members thought this would help physicians in the diagnosis of the dis- 
ease. The Secretary was directed to make snob a statement in the printed 
Abstract of the proceedings of this meeting. 

The application of Mr. D. E. Keyes of Grand Rapids, for a clerkship 
in the Office was presented, and the subject of additional help discussed, 
bnt no formal action was taken. 

The Secretary presented, and read in part, a report on tyrotoxioon 
poisoning in Detroit, which be had received from Dr. Harvey, the Food 
Inspector. In reply to a question, Dr. Vaughan said that tyrotoxioon 
poisoning was probably due to an anaerobic germ. 

The Secretary presented and read a letter which he had received from 
Dr. D, Milton Greene of Grand Rapids, relative to spectacle venders 
using atropine in the Otting of glasses, and the dangers therefrom. Doctor 
Greene wanted to know whether or not such was not practicing medicine. 
The members thooght it was practicing medicine, and that such venders 
sbould comply with the State law relative to the registration of physi- 
cians* 

On motion It was voted to request Doctor Vaughan to revise bis paper 
on Cholera Infantum if necessary to make it accord with his present 
views, and that the Secretary be authorized to print an edition not to 
exceed 5,000 copies. 

The Secretary presented a pamphlet which had been received from 
Prof. W. H. Sherzer of the State Normal School. The pamphlet con- 
tained rules for the care of the eyes, and recommended a greenish blue 

per, which was the color of the paper used in printing the pamphlet. 

octor Baker said that he did not like the color of the paper, that it hurt 
his eyes, and asked the other members how it afiFected their eyes. Mem- 
bers of the Board thought it made them dizzy. Dr, Gray mentioned that 
Dr* Carrow of Ann Arbor bad examined the eyes of the students at the 
State Normal School, and Dr. Carrow believed that the color of the 
paper was the future relief of poor eyes. 

On motion the Board adjourned at 11:35 P. M. 

J *Tb« dBlec&tM tttt«Qdod tblt m wtJiDv, Doeton VaoLgfciaii ADd B&ker eaob read pftpen. The di40fiBaloii 
wolob followed was of tiitar»it. Th«i proceediogt of thla nie«tiii« lnaTe iMien printed m book form and can 
be foond In tho library of the Stain Boartl of Bealtb OthoeJ 







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REGULAR AND SPECIAL MEETINGS OF THE BOARD. 



zli 



I 



BPECUL MESnNQ AT LANBINO, MAY l7»i8M, 

A epecial meeting of the Board was called for May 17, lor the purpose 
of the examination of the plana and tjpeoiBoationa for the Upper Penin- 
aula Asylum for the Insane. A few days after the call was issQed a letter 
from Hod. Claode W. Case, Chairman of the Board of Building Commia- 
BiODers stated that the plans would not be ready until May 23. Aooord- 
ingly the date for the special meeting was cancelled. However, the plana 
and epecifioationa were examined at a special meeting of the Board, June 
1, 1894. 

BPBCIAL MBSriNO AT LANSING. JUNE 1. 1894. 

A special meeting of the State Board of Health was oalled to meet in 
Lansing, June 1, at 10 A. M, to examine the plans for the proposed 
** Upper Peninsula Asylum for the Insane, at Newberry, Michigan. No 
quorum was present. Only the otfioere of the Board were present, and 
Hon. Frank Wells, President, and Henry B. Baker, M. D., Secretary, 
examined the plans, and made suggestions, relying upon the State Board 
of Health to confirm their recommendations. 

[The Board confirmed their recommendations, at the meeting of the 
Board at Ann Arbor, June 14, 1894, The recommendations are printed 
on page xvii of this Report] 



I 



I 



I 



SPECIAL MEETING HELD AT ANN ABBOB. ItlCHlOAN. JUNE U, IBM. 

The Board met pursuant to a call from the President, made June 2, 
1894. 

The following-named members were present:— Hon. Frank Wells, 
President; Victor C. Vaughan, M, D, ; Prof. Delos Fall, M. S, ; Mason 
W. Gray, M. D. ; George H. Granger, M. D. ; Henry B. Baker, M. D., 
Secretary. 

State Board of Health vouohera Nos. 24222443 and *2445. were audited 
and allowed. (A bill amounting to $20.00, of expenses incurred by the 
Secretary of the Board in attending the Conference of Eepresentatives of 
State Boards of Health, at Chicago, 111., as delegate from Ihis Board, 
was aadited and allowed; but as the said Conference wb» held to consider 
the situation in regard to the small-pox epidemic, the Secretary was 
directed to make a new voucher for this amount for approval by the Gov- 
ernor and payment from the general fund.) 

On motion it was voted that the proceedings of the Second Annual 
Conference of Michigan Health Officers, now in session at Ann Arbor, 
be collected by the Secretary of this Board, and published as soon as 
poBsi ble. 

The Secretary presented a report of the special meeting of this Board, 
which was calleci at Lansing, June 1, 1894, to examine plan 4 for the 
Upper Peninsula Asylum for the Insane. The report contained a' num- 
ber of recommendations by the President and Secretary. 

On motion the action of the officers of the Board at the special meeting, 
June 1894, was confirmed and the report thereof, by the Secretary 
approved.* 

I* Tlie rvcommeDdBtiona of the olIie«rfl of tb« Bowrd approved by the Board ae this mMtiDg, are printed 
<m pace zfil of thha Aanual Report.] 
F 



xlii BTATB BOARD OF HBAI/TH.— REPORT OF 8ECRBTAR7, 1894. 

The Beoretary presented the application of Mr. T. S. Ainge, of 
Detroit, for a position in the employ of this Board, and read portions of 
commendatory letters, accounts of his qualifications, and referred to 
others which he did not read. It was remarked by members of the 
Board, that the services of a person with such qualifications would be 
desirable; but that, for the present, there is greater need for the services 
of a physician who, if occasion demands, can visit a locality and make a 
diagnosis of diphtheria or small-pox. 

The Secretary read a letter received from Dr. Geo. H. Oattermole, 
offering himself for employment in connection with this Board. 

Dr. Baker moved, and it was voted, that the Secretary correspond with 
Dr. Oattermole, to see if his services can be obtained for work in the 
office of the Secretary of the Board, also with the view of having his ser- 
vices as a contagious-disease inspector. 

A motion to hold the next Regular Meeting of the Board on the morn- 
ing of the second Friday in July, was unanimously carried. (This is 
equivalent to an amendment of the by-laws. H. B. B., Sec.) 

The meeting then adjourned. 

Henry B. Baeeb, 

Secretary. 

JOINT MEETING OF THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH AND THE STATE LIVE 

STOCK COMMISSION, TO OONBIDEB THE SUBJECT OF THE RESTRICTION 

OF TUBERCULOSIS IN ANIMALS AND IN MAN. 

The Way it Came About. 

At a special meeting of the State Board of Health, held at Menominee, 
Michigan, April 6, 1894, the subject of Tuberculosis in animals as a 
cause of tubercular diseases in man, was presented for consideration of 
the Board by a resolution sent by Dr. Milner, to the effect, that *' the 
Secretary of this Board institute an investigation of the catlle and milk 
in different parts of the State, and report in what way and to what extent 
the health and lives of the people are endangered by tuberculous meat 
and milk." 

This resolution was referred to Dr. Mason W. Gray, the committee of 
the Board on ** Animals' Diseases dangerous to man," with request that 
he report thereon at the next meeting of the Board. 

At the Annual Meeting of the Boaid, held at the State Capitol April 
13, 1894, Dr. Gray reported relative to this subject: that he had con- 
ferred with veterinary surgeons in Pontiac and Detroit, bad visited the 
health department in Detroit for conference, had corresponded, in regard 
to this suDJect, with members of the State Live Stock Commission, and 
that correspondence with Hon. J. J. Woodman and Dr. Barringer, mem- 
bers of that commission had elicited a statement from the former, that the 
Eresenoe of tuberculosis in animals is not being reported to the State 
ive Stock Commission ; and from the latter, that he hoped this Board 
would investigate the subject thoroughly. 

Dr. Grav expressed the belief that the State Live Stock Board would 
cooperate freely with this Board in an investigation of tuberculosis in 
animals. 

At the same meeting, Dr. Baker said he had conferred with the State 
Veterinarian, who advised further and personal conference by this Board 



REGULAR AND SPECIAL MEETINGS OP THE BOARD. 



zliii 



rith the State Live Stock CommiBBioD, relative to tbiB aubjeot; and 
[Doctor Baker expressed the opiDion that now, while vigorooa action ia 
being taken by the State Board of Health to reBtriot tnberonlosis in man» 
ia a favorable time for concerted action of the State Board of Health and 
the State Live Stock Oommiesion in extending restrictive measures to 
outbreaks of this disease in domestic animals. With this object in view, 
**It waa voted that the President be req^ieeted to call a special meeting of 
thia State Board of Health at snob time as arrangements can be made, for 
a joint meeting with the State Live Stock Commission^ to consider the 
subject of the reatriotion of tuberculosis in animals and in man." 

In accordance with the foregoing resolution, the President of this 
Board issued a call to the members^ to convene in joint-meeting with the 
State Live Stock Commission, at Ann Arbor, during the ''Second Annual 
Conference of Michigan Health Officers/* June 14 and 15, 1894; and, at 
the same time, he addressed invitations to the President and members of 
the State Live Stock Commission and to tbe State Veterinarian, to attend 
tbat meeting. The result of this action was that a joint-meeting of tbe 
two State Boards was held at Ann Arbor June 15, 18^, tbe minutes of 
which are as follows: — 



PfiOCESDINGS OF THE STATE BOASD OF HKALTE AND THE STATR LIVE »TOCK COMMIS- 
SION. AT A JOINT MEETING HELD AT THE COOK HOTEL. ANN ARBOH, MICH., 
JDNR 15, IVai, TO CONSIDEB TBE SUBJECT OP THE RE8TRICmON 
or TUBERCULOSIS IN ANIMALS AN1> IN MAN. 

The meeting was called to order at 7:30 A. M, There w^re present 
Hon. H. H. Hinds, President; Hon* -L J. Woodman and Dn John E, 
Barringer, membere, of the State Live Stock Sanitary Commission-, Hon. 
Frank Wells^ President; Prof. Deloa Fall, member; and Dr. Henry B. 
Baker, Secretary, of tbe State Board of Health. 

The Hon. Frank Wetls was chosen Chairman and Dr. Baker Secretary 
of tbe meeting, 

Hon. H. H. Hinds spoke of tbe pleasure it gave the State Live Stock 
Sanitary Commission to meet with the State Board of Health, and to 
cooperate with it in all measures for the reatriotion and prevention of 
tuberculosis. 

Dr. Baker made a few remarks on the importance of the cooperation of 
these two State Boards for the restriction and prevention of this meet 
important disease. 

Hon. H, H. Hioda spoke of the laws of this State» and those of other 
States, on tbis subject. He thought our State laws excelled. He sug- 
gested that the subject be taken up in the form of original legislation. 
Let tbe present laws alone;— do not let them come before the legislature 
to be amended and poesibly not improved. He thought the present 
Michigan law the best in the country. Under the present law the Texas 
cattle fever is well controlled. He thought the present law would be 
enough to wipe out tuberculosis. 

Mr. Woodman spoke to the same effect as Hon. H. H. Hinds, except 
in that be stated that the present law gave the Commission no power to 
prevent the use of food prcduots, from animalSf which may be dangerous 
to man. 

Dr. Baker asked if the Live Stock Commieaion has the power to inspect 
for tuberculosis, and to test animals by the use of tuberculin. 



xliv STATE BOARD OF HEAIjTH.— REPORT OP SBORETARy, 1894 



Dr, fiarringer eaid oo* 

Mr. Hinde replied — the first aoawer ie, no. The law gives the power if 
the aDimale are in a condition likely to spread the disease to animals. 

Mr. Woodman said they had not the power to prevent the owners of 
diseased cows from milking them and selling the milk to be used by man, 

Hon. H. H. Hinds read the law, to show that the Live Stook Gommis- 
sion deals with those diseases only, which are of a ** malignant'' obaracter. 
Not horse distemper, although contagions; it ie not '* malignant. ** 

Pro! Fall Baked what the Live Stook Comraiesion can do to give us 
knowledge as to the extent of danger to man? If we stamp ont the dia* 
ease in man, are we still in great danger from animals? 

Hon. H, H. Hinds replied that the Commisaion conld be relied upon 
to do all possible under the law. Recently, by request, animals in Battle 
Oieek were inspected; but the Commission oould not inspect all the 
animals throughout the Btzite. If that is required, new legislation is 
needed. 

Mr Woodman said that, if local boards of health would look after this 
Bubject, and report promptly to the Live Stock Commission, muob more 
could be done. The local health officers can do much to learn the exial- 
enoe of animals^ diseases dangerous to man. 

Prof. Fall asked if there was a way to ascertain the extent to wbioh 
tuberculodie in man is derived from tuberoulous disease of animals? 

Di. Baker suggested that there is a way to roughly approximate the 
extent, as follows:— We know that when the germs of tuDerculofiis enter 
the body by the air passages the dieease first makes its appearance in the 
lunge or air pafisagee, and that when the germs enter by the alimeotaTy 
oanal, the disease first appears in the bowels or the ttbdominal oavity or 
viscera. Then women do not very frequently have tuberoular disease of the 
mammary glande; therefore it is fair to aeeume that a large proportion of 
the oases of tubercular disease in the bowels or abidominal oavity or visoera 
are due to the ingestion of the germs with the food, namely, with milk or 
meat A large proportion of suoh cases in children are due to the milk, 
which is not uiually boiled or in any way sterilized. Thus by adding up 
the totals of the deaths from aucb tubercular diseases ae ^'Oonaumptioa 
of the bowels,'* ** Tabes mesenterica, " etc., some idea of the extent of the 
disease due to milk and meat can be gained. 

Dr. Baker further suggested that it ia Important that if any general use 
of tnberouliQ ie made, the tuberculin be sterilized, to the certain knowl- 
edge of officials in this State. In the early preparation of tubeioulin, 
baoilli, or at least spores, were present The immense intereste involved 
make it Incumbent on all offioiala who make tests of this eort, that the 
tuberculin shall be known to be free from infection. 

Hon. H. H. Hinda said that at Battle Creek Dr. Kellogg, the Superin- 
tendent of the Sanitarium, which uses several barrels of milk each day, 
had said, "We will buy milk only that is from tested cows," so, altbDugh 
the ownere were reluctant, they oomplied with bia requirement; and the 
State Veterinurian made the tests, If there had been a ^^reaction'^ in 
any animal tested^ the State Veterinarian would have reported the fact to 
the State Live Stock Comraiseion. It turned out that there was no 
reaction, in any one of the nearly one hundred cows tested. [The infer- 
ence ie that every cow was free from tuberouloaiB. ] 

President Wells asked President Hinds if he would say to the health 
officers here in convention, that if they would report suspected oases to 
the Live Stock Commiision, investigation would follow? 




OFFICE WORK DURING THE FISCAL YEAR 1894. xlv 

Mr. Hindfl said — if a herd of miloh oowa oontains an aDimal wbich ia 
iubercuIouB, tbe berd may be tested, If some of the animala are in a oon- 
ditioD to eodsBger aoimale. 

The joint tneet'mg then adjourDed. 

Henry B. Baeeb, 

Secretary, 



QUARTERLY REPORTS OF WORK IN THE OFFICE OF THE 

SECRETARY OF THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH 

DURING THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING 

JUNE 30. 1894. 

For each regular meeting of tbe State Board of Health tbe Secretary 
prepares a report of work in the OfiBoe during the preceding quarter. 
Tbe abstraote of these might be published with tbe proceedings of tbe 
several meetings; but are ooJleoted and published here in order to bring 
tbe reports of work in the Office all together. In the report of work for 
the last quarter of 1893^ pages l-U, is a summary relative to oommuni- 
cable diseases in the calendar year 1893. Following these quarterly reports 
will be found a general report for the Oscal year 1894 



ABSTRACTS OP SECRETARY'S QUARTERLY REPORTS OP WORK IN THE 
OFFICE, DURING THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1894. 

SECBETABY'S REPORT OF WORK IN THE OFFICE OF THE BOARD DUBINO QUABTEB 

ENDING SEPT. 80. 18»S. 

Communicahle Diseases. 

Tbe numbers of reports of outbreaks of dangerous oommunioable dis- 
eases in Michigan, received from all soarcea and filed, and concerning 
which action was taken by this office^ during the quarter^ are ai follows: 
for diphtheria, 142; for scarlet fever^ 134; for typhoid and typbo^malarial 
fever, 135; for measles, 37, Total for tbe five dieeases, 448, 

The number of communications relative to dangerous communicable 
diseases, received and placed on file daring the quarter, was 1,768, 

Belative to dangerous communicable diseases^ letters, written cards, 
and demands for weekly and final reports, on cards, or in tbe form 
of the circular letter, were sent out during the quarter to tbe number of 
1,643. 

The **fi^ar' reports of outbreaks received and filed during tbe quarter* 
were: for diphtheria, 99; aoarlet fever, 109; typhoid and typbo-malarial 
fever, 37 ; measles, 50. Total for the five diseases, 295. 

During the quarter, the local columns of newspapers to tbe number of 
174, have been looked over for reports of occurrence of oommunioable 
diseases. This has resulted in giving this office information of tbe 
alleged ooounence of 16 outbreaks of dipbtberia, 8 outbreaks of scarlet 
fever, 15 outbreaks of typhoid and typbo-malarlal fever, and 1 outbreak 
of measles. To what extent the reports of these alleged outbreaks were 
verified, is ah own in the acoompanying table. 




zivi aEASB BOAUi aw mrnhLXB^-^amBORt or imnmrhwr, wh. 





^StaUki tkm par ismt of 
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^tmHrmmi ^ tkm imaiik o&sr- dW par cmt of 
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fiffm the leaUh nfjjiar. 



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:a u a xr 

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Tn^ataUmm Ul II JB « 

n 1 IM 4 



Campth'nij, Etiittng, Printing^ etc., for pHhlictstiaiL, 

A oompiltfian of nportu finm haaith afiests md dorks has bean aiad«» 
and the artiaie miadve to anall poz in Miohigsn m 1S9Q has baen 
tar tba ^^nnnai Etapoit for I."^! ; work on tfaaftnmpilatinn of the 
ale., for zhm artiolaa cni Diphthacia and Saaziat Faver in Mrwhigun 
L^I, have baan aommancad. The artida on Saariat Faver in Mrwhigiin 
in 1890 haa baan -arrittoi and pravad. The artidaa on Typhoid Favai; 
and on Nniaaneaa in Miohiaan in 1390 hava bam oompiatad for the 



printer. The article on dmall-pos in Iffiehigan in 1390 has baan pmvad. 



and work on the pnmng of the artioie on MeaaLsa in Mfnhigm in 1990 
haa baan conini anc a d . 

Work in oonnaation with the printing of die Annnal Report for I99I 
haa baan oontinnad. Oxpj haa baa pieparad for the printac; and the 
Pneaadinna of the dtanton Sanitary Convandon haa baan pzintad in 
pamphlet form. 

The artide 'Health in Michigan" for the new edition of 'Ifichigan 
and Ita Reaooicaa^" which haa been pabliahad by the Seeretary of State, 
haa bean reviaed, and additiona were made. 

A pamphlet 'VN'amea and Addzeaaea af Health OtSceis in Michigan for 
the year 1893-4.*' haa been prepared from the o£eial ratnma, prxntad* 
and diatriboted. 

DiMtnhntion of Pnhnrnticnaj etc 

A copy of the pamphlet "!!^amea and Addreasea of Health OfficezB in 
VirthigM for the year lS^-4, " haa been aent to each of L260 health 
oflliw fa whoae name and wifdiuM has been retnraed to thia 0£ce. A 
eopy of the pamp hl #* haa been marked and aent ta each ddinqaent 
locality. 



OFFICE WORK DUKING THE PISCAIi YEAR 1804, 



xlvii 



Copiee uf tbe Eigbteenth AddhbI Keport of tbia Board, to tbe number 
of 1,800, have beeo sent to: Preaidefite and oleika of TillageB, and Sani- 
tariaDB Id tbia aod otber States. 

About the usual number of pamphleta, oo the Keatriotion and Preven- 
tion of eaob of tbe Dangeroua Commanioable Diseases, has been distrib- 
uted to looalitiea where dangeTonB diaeases exist. 

Work on Meteorology. 

Tbe rejzalar tri-daily meteorologioal obBervatioaa have been oontinued 
at this station, and a eummary for eaoh week and month, during tbe 
quarter, has been sent to tbe Direotor of tbe Miobigan Weatber Servioe 
and Local Forecast Offioial at Detroit for bis use, and it is then eent by 
this Offioial at Detroit to the Chief of the U. S. Weather Bureau at 
Washington. 

A fiupply of ozone test-paper for the months of Oot.« Nov. and Deo. 
waa aent, on Sept 15, to eaob of fifteen meteorologioal observers. 

Diagrams for the Annual Beport were made as follows: Nob. ii., iii.» 
iv., vi., vii., viii., ix., and xi,, illQetrating some of the prinolpal meteoro- 
logioal oonditiona in Micbigan for tbe year 189L A diagram of '"Impure 
source of water used by a person who oontraoted typhoid fever in Hart- 
ford, Miohigan, " and a diagram ** Deaths from Cholera in London 1 per 
100,000 persons living*' were made. This laet is to illustiate a paper 
read by Mr, Willitts, at tbe Hillsdale Sanitary Convention. 

The meteorolgioal tables for the year 1892 have been made» and meteor* 
oloffioal registerB for Statione in Miobigan from June to August, 1893,- 
inoTaaive, have been examined, and oompilationa on these regiaters have 
been made, with the exoeption of columns relating to humidity and 
atmospherio piesB u r e. 

Acc€s$ions io the Librariff etc. 

During the quarter 132 books and pamphlets, and 256 numbere of 
journals (weeklies, moDtblies, and ftemi- monthlies) have been received 
and entered in the library of this Board. The work on the card catalog 
has been oontinued. 



I 



Correspondence, Hektograpk Workt etc. 

Daring tbe quarter 1,676 pages of letter-book have been used in copy- 
ing the oorrespondenoe of tbe Office, not including the many postal carda 
and circulars which have been sent out but not copied. 

More than the usual amount of hektograph work has been done, due to 
the great number of lists of immigrants destined to settle in Micbigan 
which have been received from tbe ports of debarkation, and from the 
immigrant inspectors on the Michigan border. About 1,747 pagee of 
hektograph work have been made, of which some 190 pages were relative 
to the opinion of the U. S. Judges in the case of Minn., St. Paul and 
Sault Ste, Marie R. R, vs. State Board of Health. Copies of the opinion 
were sent to the Press and to persons interested in the subject. 



zlviii 8TATB BOARD OF HE AI/TH.— REPORT OF SECRBTARY, 18M. 

Work in Connection with Sickness Statistics. 

Daring the third quarter of 1893, 1,755 blank postal report cards, 125 
record-books, 35 printed oirculars and 72 hektograpbed circular letters 
regarding weekly card reports, have been mailed, in packages, to 122 
health offices and regular correspondents; 1,434 weekly card-reports have 
been received and entered on the register; 52 copies of the hekotgraphed 
weekly bulletin ** Health in Michigan" were mailed each week, ana 101 
copies of the monthly bulletin '^Health in Michigan" have been hekto- 
srapbed and mailed each month. These bulletins have been consolidated 
For this quarterly report. Work has also been done on the compilation 
of the weekly card reports of sickness during the year 1891, for the 
annual report of 1892. 

Health in Michigan in the Third Quarter of 1893, Communicable 

Diseases. 

Compared with the preceding quarter (April, May and June), reports 
from all sources show diphtheria to have decreased by an average of one 
place, scarlet fever to have decreased by an average of eighteen places, 
typhoid fever to have increased, by an average of thirty-five places and 
measles to have decreased by an average of thirty-five places. 

Meteorology and Sickness from All Causes, Third Quarter of 1883^ 
Compared with the Preceding Quarter, 

A comparison of meteorological conditions of the third quarter of 1893, 
with the meteorological conditions of the preceding quarter, shows the 
prevailing direction of the wind to have been the same (south-west), the 
average velocity 26 per cent less, the temperature 10.83 desrees higher, 
the rain-fall at Lansine 4.17 inches less, tne absolute humiaity consider- 
ably more, the relative numidity slightly less, the day and the nisht ozone 
much less, and the heisht of ground above the water in the well at Lan- 
sing to have been 2 inches less. 

Compared with the preceding quarter (April May and June), the 
reports from regular observers show a marked increase of diarrhea and 
inflammation of bowels, and a marked decrease of influenza, bronchitis 
and inflammation of kidney in the third quarter of 1893. 

The Weather, and the Health in Michigan in the Third Qtiarter of 
1893, Compared with the Average for the Seven Years, 1886-1892, 

A comparison of the nreteorological conditions of the third quarter of 
1893, with the average for the third quarters in the seven years 1886-1892, 
shows that in 1893, the prevailing direction of the wind was the same 
(south-west), the velocity was slightly greater, the temperature was nearly 
the same, the rainfall at Lansing was 1.25 inches less, the absolute, and 
the relative humidity were slightly less, the day, and the night ozone 
were considerably less, and the neight of ground above the water in the 
well at Lansing; was five inches less. 

Compared with the average in the corresponding quarters in the seven 
years 1B86-1892, the reports received from regular observers indicate that 



OFFICE WORK DURING THE FISCAL YEAR 1894. 



xlix 



drysipelas, iDtermitteDt fever, remittent fever and oonaumptioD were lees 
than uflaally prevalent, and that no disease was more than usually pre- 
valeDt Id the third quarter of 1893. 



DBCBETABrS BBPOBT OF WOftK DONE IN THE OFFICE OF THE STATE BOABD OF HEILTH. 
DUSING THE QUlRTEa ENDIN(» WITH DBCEIlBftB, 1891. 



I 



Communicable Diseases. 

The Dumber of reports of outbreaks of dangerous oommanioable dis- 
eases in Michigan, received from all sources and filad^ and oonoerning 
which action was taken by this office duriug the quarter, are as follows: 
for diphtheria, 115; for scarlet fever, 147; for typhoid and typho-malarial 
fever, 139; for measles, 18. Total for the four (or five) diseases, 419. 

The number of communicationa relative to dangerous ooEDmunioable 
diseases, received and placed on file during the quarter, was 1,913. 

Relative to dangerous communicable diseases, letters, written cards, 
and demands for weekly and final reports, on cards, or in the form of the 
circular letter, were sent out during the quarter to the number of 1,593. 

The '* final" reports of outbreaks received and filed during the quarter^ 
were: for diphtheria, 81; scarlet fever, 106; typhoid and typho-malarial 
fever, 120; measles, 11. Total for the five diseases, 321. 

During the quarter, the local columns of newspapers to the number of 
927. have been looked over for reparts of occurrence of communicable 
diseases. This has resulted in giving this offioe information of the 
alleged ocourrenoe of 10 outbreaks of diphtheria, 11 outbreaks of scarlet 
fever, 31 outbreaks of typhoid and typho-malarial fever, and no outbreaks 
of measles, To what extent the reports of these alleged outbreaks were 
verified, is shown in the accompanying table: 



TABLE 1, — ShovHng the number of outbreaJa of Dipkiherid, Scarlet Fever, Tjfphoid 
Fev^Tf and Mecukm^from Oct, 1 to Dec. 51. 1893, of which notice was received at the 
oJfl9$ of the Michiffan State Board of Health ; the per cent of reporte, information 
concerning which woe received through the newspapers: the per cent of newspaper 
reports whii^h were conjirmed by the health officer; the per cent of new^aper reports 
which were denied bjf the health officer; and the per cent from which no reply was 
received from the heaith officer. 



DImumm. 



Diphtheris.... 
Scarlet ferer... 
Typhoid farer. 



AvencM for tha four 




Bftporta from 

all BouroM. 

Oct. l-Dec, 

XI. IBVa 



m 

147 

139 

18 



of all 



CrotQ tlM 
papBM. 



12 




It of 




Fareeal of 
MfngMmr rt- 
portalovililoli 



Rfdrto 



ttili 



1 STATJB BOARD OF HEALTH -REPORT OP SECRETARY, 18W, 

Summary Relative to the Calemlar Year 1893. 

Dariog the year 1893, this offioe took aotion upoo 1,881 outbreaks of 
dangerous oommunioabld diBdaaes, wblob nomber iooladoB 540 outbreaks 
of dipbtberia, 674 outbreake of eoarlet fever, 394 outbreaks of typboid 
Bod tjpbo-tDalarial fever, 271 outbreake of measleSf and 2 oetbreaka of 
smaDpos. 

Belative to dangerous oommuDioable diseaaeBf letters^ written oarda, 
etc., were eent out during Ibe year to tbe number of 6,705. Tbe Dumber 
of oommunioatione relative to euob diseaaea, whiob were received and 
plaoed on file during tbe year was 7,365. 

A record is kept of faots conoenaing every outbreak of a '^disease dan- 
gerouB to tbe public bealtb" upon whicb action is taken by Ibia oflBoe, 
and also of every communication relating tbereto received or sent out; 
tbis required over 14,000 entries to be made in tbe ''Record Booka, " one 
of wbicb books ia kept for eaob dangerouB oommonioable diseaee. 

During tbe year tbe local oohimne of newspapera to tbe number of 
3,441 have been looked over for reports of the ocourrenoe of danger- 
oua oommunioable diseases. Tbis baa resulted in giving tbie office 
information of tbe alleged ocourrenoe of 61 outbreaks of dipbtfaeria, 62 
outbreaks of ecailet fever, 71 outbreaks of typboid and typbo- malarial 
fever, and 27 outbreaks of measlea. To what extent tbe reports of tbeae 
alleged outbreaks of tbe five diseaaes were veiiEed during tbe year, is 
ebown in tbe accompanying table: 



TABLE l,—Shovnng the number of Outbreak* of ZHphtkeria, Scarlet Fever, Tuphoid 
Fever and Measiee, from Jan. 1 to Dee. 31, 1893, of tvhieh notice wa» received at the 
afjice of the Michigan State Board of Health ; the per cent of report*, information 
concerning which wa* received through the Newipapert; the per cent of newspaper 
report* which were confirmed by the health ojjlcer; the per cent of newspaper report* 
which were denied bjf 'the health ojicer, and the per eent from whieh no reply was 
received from the health oj^lcer. 





Beporta from 1 

tMooareem, 
Jan. 1 to Doc, 


Per tieat of 

aU reporta wWeb 

w«n obtained 

from th© newB- 
papen. 


PariWLt 

ofoewapaper 
reporitwhleb 
which were oon- 
Anued by the 
.haaithoffioar. 


ParoaDt 

ot oewipamr 

reporta whloh 

ware doQled by 

tbe health 

offloar, 


Pereant 

of nawapaxw 

rapoTia to wbjob 

tb© health officer 

made no replj 

to notioa aaot 

fromtbla 

office. 


Diphtheria., .._, 


•MO 


11 


88 


S8 


80 


SearlAt fer«r 


•634 


» 


4S 


19 


35 ' 


TTpholdfOTOT... 


«894 


18 


30 


41 


•0 


MmiIm _.. 


*m 


10 


Si 


8 


TO 








12 


m 


ao 


88 








* Tbe nambert of oatbraaka ei^r^mi la thle Cable do not neoaMarilr asree with tbe nambtn fifaQ in tablaa 
in another pari ot tbe TolamiEt iocladlns the Imin&l Eeport, for the reaeoa that ail alleaaa ontbnakat of 
which inforcnation was obtained from tbe Eiewapapan are ioc laded is this tabla. If the health ofl~ 
ilemed that Haob oatbre&kB occtarred« or if they otafce no re«pati»9 to the letters Mat from thia offioa, 
aUaged oatbraaka are not incloded In the compilation of that dieeaae. 



OFFICE WOKK DURING THE FISCAL YEAR 1894. 11 

DoriDg the year 1893, oompared with the year 1892, aotion was takea 
on outbreaks of dangerous commonioable diseaees as followe; On diph- 
theria, 44 outbreaks more; soarlet fever 18 outbreaks more on typhoid; 
and typbo-malarial fever, 10 outbreaks more; measles 136 outbreaks 
more, and small-pox, the same number as in 1892. In all 208 outbreaks 
more were aoted upon in 1693 than in 1892. 

(The number of outbreaks acted upon in 1893 was almost the same as 
in 189L The number in 1891 was 1,879, in 1893 it was 1,881.) 

[Here followed aooounts of small-pen, rabies, and alleged cholera in 
Miobi&an in 1893, which are ommitted here because the full aooounts are 
published in Part II. of this volume.] 

No Small'pox has occurred in Michigan daring the last quarter of 1893. 

SmalUpax Now or Recentlif in other States and Promnces, 

In accordance with aotion of the National Conference of State und 
Provincial Boards of Health at Toronto. 1886, and Washington, 1887, 
''loter-State Notifications of Dangerous Communicable Diseases" have 
been received, and the following facts learned relative to small-poz in 
other States and Provinces:-- 



Btet*. 


DatooflMtnotkii, 


Cmm. 


n«ftthfl. 


Obto 

MiaoMote... 


Ootobtr 81. Vm «. 

Noreoibar «. " 


1<»M. 

I out. 

I&SOWM 

1 ew«. 
1 oaM. 
ftouw. 


21 d(«th». 

4d«ftitit. 
*18deattit< 


9. " „ 

I>«e«mb«r It " ..,. ^ 


Wf«t virffinU 


Illinois .„ .. , 

1ii4fflna 


tiaiw* __ _, 

LooitlMm „ 

Oomidotieot 


•* I8» " 


10. " , 1- 

Juairy 4, liW „ — 

•• «. •* 


Pmin«flTiin1ft 


'• 11^ •• _ 


PiOTinoe of Oatario 


11, " .-, - 



*ThH« MMB ACid dottUu an Id tbs etty of ae*dLn«. B«rka Co< Ormi ire ftbo rapottod Id Berk* Co. at 
Frifttomi. Watt L«Mport sod QibrEltar, and atPriadaaobarfl, BohailkiU Co. At Mdobaaicsbarflr, Com- 
b«rlaii<l Co —tan eavis aad oa» deith. Qa» oa«»at Carli«le, Oaaib«riuid Co. aad two at WItiow Qrova, 
AlJ«ffb«Dr Co. 



Compiling, Editing, Proof- reading, Printing, etc.^ last quarter^ 1893. 

A compilation of the reports from health officers aod clerks has been 
made, the compilation proved, and the article relative to'Soarlet Fever in 
Michigan in 1891 has been commenced; the compilation of reports from 
health officers and clerks relatiDg to Typhoid Fever in Michigan in 1891 
has been commenced; the work in oonneotion with proving and writing 
the article relative to Measles in Miobigan in 1890 has been completed; 

■ the compilation relative to Diphtheria in Michigan in 1891 has been 

I made and about half proved. 



lii 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.-REPOBT OP SECRETARY. 1894. 



Artioles relative to Typhoid Fever, Whoopiag-oougb, OonsuiDptioD, 
Glandera, Hydrophobia, Anthrax, Lump-jaw, TyrotoxiooD, lojariea, Lobb 
of Life and Property in Michigan from the use of Kerosene, Gasoline 
and Naphtha, and Alleged Nuisanoes in Micliigan, for the Annual Report 
of the State Board of Health for the year 189l» have been written^ proof 
has been read in this Office, and the articles have been printed. 

Proof has been read on the Proceedings of tbe Sanitary Conventions 
held under tbe auepioes of this Board at Stanton and at Hillsdale, 

The printing of the Annual Report of tbe Seoretsry of the State Board 
of Health for tbe fiaoal year ending June 30, 1891, has been nearly com- 
pleted. The indexing of this Keport is nearfy oompleted. 

A statement of the OaseB and Deaths from Diphtheria, Soar let Fever, 
Typhoid Fever,. Meaales, and Whooping-oongb, in Michigan in 1892, baa 
been made from the annual report blanks from health officers and clerks 
of townships, oities and villages in Michigau. 

Disiribniion of Pnbh'cfdions, etc. 

The ProoeedingB of tbe Sanitary Convention held at Stanton has been 
sent to the Officers and participants of tbe Convention, members and 
ex-members of this Board, Secretaries of State Boards of Health and of 
State Medical Societies of other States, Sanitarians of this and other 
States, and other persons interested in sanitary work, to the number of 
about 1^100 copies. At the same time tbe resolution of this Board rela- 
tive to oonsomption being a ''Disease dangerous to the Fubtio Health," 
was also sent to the foregoing-named persons, and hag been widely 
distributed elsewhere to tbe number of about three thousand copies. 

During tbe quarter 1,571 envelopes were directed to health officers of 
townshpsi oities and villages, and about the same number (1,670) of 
envelopes were direoted to clerks of townabips, oities and villages. These 
envelopes are to be used in sending to eaob clerk and health officer 
in Michigan blank forms for making annual reports of ''DiseaBes 
dangerous to the Public Health'* during the year 1393. Each health 
officer and each clerk also reoeives. with eaob set of blanks, a circular 
letter giving instr notions for making out the annual reports, etc. 
Although the blanks were printed, tbe envelopes addressed and filled 
with the annual report blanks and letter of instruction, there was time 
only to send tbe euppliee to 363 health officers and 362 clerks of cities 
and villagea. The euppliee to health officers and clerks of townships 
will be sent immediately after Jan. 1, 1394. 

About tbe usual number of pamphlets relating to the restriction and 
prevention of the different dangerous com munioable diseases, were dis- 
tributed to health offioers of localities where dangerous diseases were 
reported. It was requested at the same time that thaae pamphlets be dis- 
tributed to the neighbors of the persons sick with such dangerous diseases. 



Correspondence^ Hekiograpk Work, etc. 

During the quarter, 1,061 pages of letter-book have been naed in copy- 
ing tbe correspondence of the Office, not including many postal cards and 
circnlarB which were sent out bat not copied in the letter-book. 

About 1^728 pages of hektograpb work have been made, of wbioh 150 
.pages were relative to the special meeting of the Board Got. 27 and 28 



OFFICE WORK DURING THE FISCAL YEAR 1894. 



lili 



1893, 270 pages were relative to the Dangerous Location of Consumptives, 
as reported to this Office by Dr. Myron Brigga. health officer of Speaker 
Tp.. Sanilac Co., and 200 pages were relative to the opinion of Judee 
Steere in the case of Hurst vs. Warner. The hektograph work is altghtly 
less than the preceding quarter, owing to the change in the manner of 
sending out immigrant notices, which are now mostly sent on blank 
forms for that purpose. 

Work on Meteorology. 

The regular tri daily meteorological observations have been continued 
at this Station, and a summary for each week and month during the 
quarter has been made for use in this O^oe in connection with sickness 
reports. The monthly summary has been sent at the end of each month, 
to the Director of the Michigan Weather Service and Local Forecast 
Official at Detroit for his use, and is then sent by him to the Chief of the 
U. S. Weather Boreau at Washington, D. C. 

On Deo. 16, 1893, meteorological blank regiatere, envelopes, postal 
cards, ozone-test paper, etc.* were sent to meteorological observers for the 
State Board of Health, for their use during the year 1891 

Diagrams for the Annual Report for the year 1892, were made as fol- 
lows: — Nos. xvi,, X., V,, xii., xiv,, xv,, illustrating some of the principal 
meteorological conditions in Michigan for the year 1891 ; Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 
and 5 to be used in the article **Time of Greatest Prevalence of Each 
Disease in Mich, in 1891"; and a Diagrammatic '*Map showing location 
and order of ooourrenoe of Sanitary Conventions held in Michigan. This 
last named diagram or Map accompanies Prof. Fall's paper on '^Sanitary 
Conventions in Michigan/' which was read before the National Confer- 
ence of State and Provincial Boards of Health, at Lansing, June 6, 1892. 
A diagram showing the *'Eeported Deaths from Measles in Michigan 
during each year 1868 91" was also made and has been printed in connec- 
tion with the article relative to measles in the Annual Report for 1891. 

Accessions to the Library, etc. 

During the quarter, 84 books and pamphlets and 309 numbers of 
journals (weeklies, monthlies and quarterlies) have been received and 
entered in the library of this Board, The work on the card catalog of 
this Office has been continued. 



Work in Cotinection with Sickness Statistics, 

During the fourth quarter of 1893, 1,725 blank postal report cards, r2t> 
record books and 34 hektograph ed circular letters regarding weekly oard- 
reports, have been mailed, in packages, to 119 health officers and regular 
correspondents; 1,474 weekly card-reports have been received and entered 
on the register; 53 copies of the hektographed weekly bulletin '* Health in 
Michigan" were mailed each week, and 110 copies of the monthly bulletin 
*' Health in Michigan" have been hektographed and mailed each month. 
These bulletins have been consolidated for this quarterly report. Work 
has also been done on the compilation of the weekly card reports of sick- 
ness during the year 1892, for the annual report for 1893. 



Ht statb board of hbaiiIh.— befobt op SECBETABT, !»«. 

BiTtilih in Miekigtm in the Fourth Quarter of 1893. ComwmmeaMe 

Diseaaes. 

Compsrad with the preceding quarter l-Joly, Aogiut and September), 
reports from all aoaroes ahoir diphtheria to have deoreaaed by an aTerage 
of m: plafiea^ acariet fever to have inoreaaed by an average of fourteen 
plaoea^ tifphoid fever to have increaaed by an average of nineteen plaoea 
and mea$le9 to have decreaaed by an average oi fifteen plaoea. 

Mtteorologji luui Sidbi«aa from All Cattset. Fourth Quarter of 189Sj 
Compart teith the Preceding Quarier, 

A compariaQn of meteQcoIogicel conditiona of the fourth qonrter of 
I$S^ with the meteorological conditiona of the preceding qaarter; riiowa 
the prevailing directioa of the wind to have been the same (aonth-weet), 
the average velocity 4:3 per cent greater, the temperature 2S.98 degrees 
lower, the raia-fall at Tianaing ±47 inches more, the afaaolate homidity 
Btoch leasL the relative homidity maeh more, the day oaone alightiy mote^ 
the night oaoae conaulerably more asKi the depth of water in the weH at 
Idiwaing to have been T iachea leaa 

Compared with the preceding qaarter < Joly, Aogiiat and September), 
the report from i««aJar obaerveia ahow a marked increase of iaflneBia, 
hconehitxa and feonauHtzsi and a marked deerase of dysentery, diazrfaca 
and iniammatioa of the bowels in the foorth qaarter of 1993. 

The ^^euther nui the H^foith in Mieki.j'Tn. in the Fourth Quarier of 
IStfJ, Compared with t^e Awr^ige for the Seeen Te^jn lS9^ia»2. 



A ccm^aruRn cf the nececrolcgical ccnditicas of the bmrth qaarter of 
I:^^ witil the average fer the foorth qoarten in the seven yeani ldS6 
li%^ ^cwa taac in IS^ the prevailing direction of the wuid waa the 
aune acoth-west . "liie velccirr w^e sLi;^^ ty greater, the temperatiire waa 
aeariy the same, the niii>£Ll \i Laadzns wis I.>rr ischea more^ the afaao- 
looe uid the r»iacive giTniif:^ w»re axcr& the day cacne waa lesa. the 
nigh: .acne was mere sod th« iepch dt wa:«r in the well it fiinffiag waa 
4 imahes mere. 

Ccmpared wish the avisnge in the ccEiespciidia^ quartets ia the aa ven 
year^ I58;-Ii9:L sie repcra frzm rwxlar c bteiieis fndfratr that infhi- 
enaa was mere thao. -anally prevalent isc that iaterzifttent fiever. reciit- 
:ttas JevecL er^vQeiaa snd iaiammazfca zt kadaey were leas thaa osvailj 
pcevaleot :ti :ie &iur * J. ^^xarsar dt IfQS. 

Re^eccfxlly sahmitted. 

HZ>%T BL B433B. 



OFFICE WORK DURtNO THE FISCAL YEAR 1894. 



It 



I 



8ECR£TAErS REPOBT OF WOBK DOMB IN THB .OWFICB OF THB STATE BOABD OF 
BBALTH DtfRlNO THB QOABTKR ENDIWG WITH MABCH, 18M. 

Communicnble Diseases, • 

Tfatt Dumber of reports of outbreaka of daDgerous coiiimuiiioBble dis* 
eaeea in Micbigao, received from all sourcca and iled, and coDcernisg 
which aotioD was taken by thia offioe during the quarter, are ae follows: 
for diphtheria, 110; far aoarlet fever, ISI; for tj^phoid and typho-malarial 
fever, 55; for meaalee, 57; for amall-pox, 6. Total for the aix diseases, 
412, 

The Dumber of oommuiiioatioos relative to dangerous oommunioable 
diseases, received and placed on file during the quarter, was 1,820. 

Relative to dangerous communicable disenses, letters, written cards, 
and demandti for weekly and final reports, on cards, or in the form of the 
oironlar letter, were sent out during the quarter to the number of 1,662. 

Tbe ''Bnal" reports of outbreaku received and filed during the quarter, 
were: for diphtheria, 81; scarlet fever, 134; typhoid and typho-raalarial 
fever, 62; measles, 18; amall-pox, 3, Total for the six diseases, 288. 

During tbe quarter, tbe local columns of newspapers to the number of 
1,018, have been looked over for reports of ocourrenoe of communicable 
diseases. This has resulted in gving this office information of tbe alleged 
oooonrenoe of 4 outbreaka of diphtheria, 11 outbreaks of scarlet fever, Z 
outbreaks of typhoid and typbo- malaria I fever, and 2 outbreaks of measles. 
To what extent tbe reports of these alleged outbreaks were verified, is 
sbowii in the accompanying table: 



TABLE LShotHng the mimber of Outbreaka of Diphtheria, Scarlet Fever, Typhoid 
Fever, and Measles from Jan. J to March 31, 1894, of which rioiiee tooB received at 
the o^e of the Michigan State Board of Health ; the per cent of reports, information 
concerning which was rrceived through the newspapers ; the per cent a/ newspaper 
)^report» which were confirmed btt the health ojfficer: the per cent of newspaper reports 
which were denied by the health o^cer; and, the per ctnt relative to which no reply 
was reciivedfrom the health o^Hcer, 



^ 


aapdrttiwm 
llar,3l,lS>4. 


Pm awl or 
•U npMla 

oMiliwd 
tram like 


PFrcaot ol 

ports wtilob 

wenoon- 

flnnMllif Ibe 

bealtti offlocr. 


Ffereeot of 
uewtpapor re- 
ports wUeb 
mndmledlir 
tlM hnlUi 
aaunr. 


Per onitol 

porta to which 
tlM bMUh 

poroplj 

loootloe Moi 

Cramlhls 


PIpbtbOTia ..„ 


110 




» 


» 


10 


Sevl^fwvv 


184 




IB 





u 


T^hold toror , 


U 




n 


» 


s 




M«UlM 


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Ivi 



STATE BOARD OP HEAIiTH.— REPORT OP SECRETARY, IKH. 



SmaU'pox hi Michigan, Firsi Quarter of 1894, 

There had been no emall-pox in Miohigan slDoe January, 1893 (when 
there was an outbreak at Hpriugport Jackaoo Co., and Pitta Eield Tp.» 
Waahtena^iv Co.) until the dieeaae appeared duriog the first part of this 
quarter. Soiall pox baa been reported : At Otsego township and Otsego 
village, Allegan Co. ; the village of Crvetal Falls, Iron Co. ; aod in the 
cities oi Menominee, Ishpeming and Kalamazoo, The total number of 
oases reported from the six looalities waa 16; the number of deaths was 4. 

[Detailed statements of the outbreaks were here given; they will appear 
in the artiole on * 'Small pox in Miebigan in 1894/' in Part II. of the 
Annual Report for 1895,] 

From the foregoing it may be seen that Bmall-pox was present at the 
oloae of the quarter in three di€erent looalitieein the State, and probably 
four, but it is fair to assume that the outbreak at Crystal Falls is over. 

Consumpiion in Michigan Durmg First Quarter of 1894, 

During the quarter, Consumption was reported present in 185 looalities 
in the State. A record is kept of the names of the looatities, the date of 
the receipt of the information that the disease was present in the locality, 
and when correspondence was opened with the health officers of the juris- 
dictions in which the oases are. Over eighteen hundred copies of the 
four- page leadet on the restriction and prevention of con sum pt ion were 
sent to the different localities for distribution where they would be most 
likely to do good. 



Compiling, Editing, Proof -re ft ding, Friniitig, eh. 

A compilation of reports from health officers and clerks has been made, 
the compilation proved, and the article relative to Measfee in Michigan 
in 1891 has been commenced; the compilation of the reports relating to 
typhoid fever In Michigan in 1891 has been completed; the compilation 
relating to Diphtheria in Michigan in 1391 has been completed, and the 
work of writing the artiole has been commenced; and the compilation 
relating to Scarlet Fever in Michigan in 1891 hae been made and the 
artiole is practically ready for the printer, ^ Some new and useful tables 
have been incorporated in the articles relative to Soarlet Fever and Diph- 
theria, especially thoae showing the death-rates per 10, (XX) inhabitants in 
each county, and in each tier ot counties in Michigan. 

The index for the Annual Report for 1891 has been completed, and the 
Report is now being bound, and it is hoped to have copies for distribu- 
tion soon. 

Proof on the ^'first pari" of the Annual Beport of the Secretary for the 
fiscal year ending June 30^ 1891, and on the index for the 1891 Report, 
baa been read, and that for 1892 is ready for the printer. The printing on 
the Annual Report of the Secretary for 1892 has been commenced, ai^d 
proof has been read on the articles '* Meteorological Oonditions in Michi- 
gan in 1891" and **The Time of Greatest Prevalence of Each Disease in 
Michigan in 1891." 

Work has been begun on the artiolee relative to Meteorology, and Sick- 
ness Statistics, and on the *' first part" of the Annual Report for 1893. 




OFFICE WORK DURI^'G THE FISCAL YEAR 18fi4, 



Ito 



Hekiograph Work^ Correspondence y etc, 

Duriog the quarter 2,400 pages of bektograpb work have beeQ made. 
There was ooneiderable work id oonneottoo with the brief abstraot of the 
January meeting, and od otber subjects. 

There were l^lOti pages of letter- book used in oopying the oorrespond- 
«Dce of the Office, not ioolading EDaoy postal cards which have been sent 
out but not oopied in the letter-book. 

[Disiribuiion of Puhlicalions, etc. 

About 1,100 copies of the Abstract of the Sept 29 and 30, 1893, meet- 
ing, and about 1,200 copies of the Abstract of Proceediogs of the Jan. 
12, 1894, meeting of this Board, have betsn sent to: Members and 
ex-membeiB of this Board, sanitary journal exchanges, meteorological 
observers and meteorological exchanges, members of State Boards of 
Corrections and Charities, secretaries of State Boards of Health, secre- 
taries of State Medical Societies, libraries, newspaper?, and health officers 
in other States. 

About 1,500 copies of the printed proceedings of the Hillsdale Sanitary 
Convention were distributed to; Officers and participants of the Conven- 
tion, members and ex-members of this Board, secretaries of State Boards 
of Health and of Slate Medical Societies, sanitary journal exchanges, 
members of State Boards of Corrections and Charities, secretaries of pre- 
vious sanitary oonveDlioDS, libraries, newspapers, and health officers in 
other. States. 

That portion of the printed abstract of the Jan, 1894 meeting of this 
Board, which referred to establishment of chairs of sanitary 
science, was marked, and, together with the Hillsdale Sanitary Conventions 
proceedings and the paragraph quoted from the title page of the annual 
report of the Australian Health Society, was sent to members of facul- 
ties of all colleger in Michigan, members of the State Board of Agricul- 
ture, principals of high schools and superintendents of graded schools in 
Michigan. 

About the usual numbers of pamphlets on the restriction and preven- 
tion of the different dangerous oomiDunioable diseases were eent to the 
health officers of localities from which dangerous diseases had been 
reported. It was at the same time requested of these health officers that 
the pamphlets be dietributed to the neighbors of the person sick with such 
disease, and to such other places as they would be likely to do good. 

By special request of sanitarians in this and other States, copies of 
Annual Reports, proceedings of meetirga and sanitary conventions, and 
pamphlets on the reatriction and prevention of the dangerous diseases, 
have been sent where it was practicable and thought likely to benefit 
public health interests. 



Return of the Name and Postoffice Addresses of Herdih Officers for the 

Year 189i-95, 

I Envelopes to the number of 1.930 have been addressed to supervisors 
B of townships, presidents and clerks of villages, and mayors and clerks of 
I cities in Michigan. These envelopes were used for sending to these 



* 



t 



Iviii STATE BOARD OF HE AI^TH,— REPORT OP SECRETARY, 1894. 

oflBoialfl a oiroolar letter of inatruotioDs, togetber with a form and 
addressed envelope for tbe return of tbe name and poet-offioe address of 
the Dewlj-appoiDted health officer, to tbe Secretary of the State Board of 
Health, in aocordanoe with tbe State law. 

Annual Reports from Health Officers and Cierks, for 1893, 

ADnnal Heportfl for the year 1893 have been reoeived from 1|123 healtb 
offioers and from 1,053 olerke of tjwtiabipa, oities and villages in Miohi- 
gan. These reports convey to tbia offioe information relative to the pre- 
valence of each dangerous oommonioable dtaease, and the condition^ of 
health, and of health work in eaoh jurisdiction. Also reports stating 
tbe name, poatoffioe address, year of graduation, and the sobool of med- 
icine to which each medical practitioner in the township, city or village 
belongs. 

On February 21, a * 'Second request for annual report'' was sent to 102 
health offioera, olerka and mayors of cities and to 345 health officers, olerks 
and presidents of villages from whom no report had yet been received; 
and on March 24, a ''Third requeat" was sent to 234 healtb offioera and 
olerka of cities and villagea, who were still delinquent. 

On March 14, a **SeooGd request for annual report" was aent to 1,018 
health officers and olerka of towoebips from whom no report bad been 
reoeived. Many of the reports from townships have been reoeived, but a 
*' Third request'' will soon be sent out to those still delinquent. 

Of tbe 1,578 localities in Michigan, including townships, cities and 
villages, annual reports have been reoeived from 1,397, leaving at tUe end 
of this quarter 181 localities delinquent. More reports are expected ; and, 
compared with preoeding years, there are fewer delinquent localities. 

Reports of medical practitioners in their juriBdictionej have been 
received from 501 clerks of townships, cities and villages* ^m 

- I 

^H Work on Meteorology. ^M 

Tbe regular tri-daily meteorological observations have been continued 
at this station, and a summary for each week and month during the 
quarter has been made for tbe uae of this Office in connection with sick- 
ness statistics. Tbe monthly summary has been sent at tbe end of eacb 
month to the Director of the Michigan Weather Service and Local Fore- 
cast Official at Detroit for bis use; it is sent by him to the Chief of tbe 
U. S* Weather Bureau at Waahinglon, D. C. 

Ozone test-paper (supply for three months) was sent to each of sixteen 
meteorological observers in Mich ]g8n> 

Diagrams *'Casee and Death a from Scarlet Fever in Miobigan in 
1891" and '^Reported Deaths from Scarlet Fever in Michigan, 24 years, 
1868-91" have been prepared, and photo engraved plates made to be used 
in the Annual Report of this Board for 1892, 



Accessions to the Library^ Card'Catahgiiing, etc. 

During the quarter 119 books and pamphlets and 351 numbers of 
journals (weeklies, monthlies, and quarterlies), have been received and 
entered in the library- acoeesion book of this Office. The work oo the 
card -catalogue of tlie library has been oontinued. 



4 



J 



OFFICE WORK DURING THE FISCAL YEAR 1894. 



Uz 



Work in Connection with Sickneaa Sialisiica. 

Buring the first quarter of 1894, 2,352 blank postal reports-oarde, 159 
record books, 27 hektographed oircular letters and 18 printed oiroulars 
regarding weekly oard-Teporta, have been mailed to 1^2 health officers and 
regular correspondents; 1^281 weekly card-reports have been received and 
entered on the register; 53 copies of the hektographed weekly bulletin 
** Health in Michigan" were mailed each week and 106 copies of the 
monthly bulletin '* Health in Michigan" have been hektographed and 
mailed each month. These bulletins have been oonsolidatecl for this 
quarterly report. Work has also been done on the oompilation of the 
weekly card-reports of sickness during the year 1892, for the annnnl 
report for 1893. 

Health in Michigan in the First Quarter of 1894, Commnnicahle 

Diseases* 

Compired with the preceding quarter (October, November and Decem- 
ber), reports from all sources show scarlet fever to have increased by an 
average of nineteen places, diphtkeriff to have decreased by an average 
of //n*'^. places, typhoid fever to have decreased by an average of forty- 
four places, measles to have Increased by an avearge of seventeeti places 
and small pox to have increased by an average of three places, 



I 



Meteorohgu and Sickness from All Causes, First Quarter of 1894^ 
Compared with the Precedirig Quarter, 

A comparison of meteorofogioal conditions of the first quarter of 1894, 
with the meteorological conditions of the preceding quarter, shows the 
prevailing direction of the wind to have been the same (south-west), 
the average velocity 1,6 mile per hour greater^ the temperature 7,44 
degrees lower, the rainfall at Lansing 2.26 inches less, the absolute, and 
the relative humidity considerably less, the day ozone slightly more, 
the night ozone much less and the depth of the water in the well at Lan- 
sing two inches more in the Grst quarter of 1894. 

Compared with the preceding quarter (October, November and Decem- 
ber), the reports from regular observers show a marked increase of plen- 
ritis, inflammation of kidney, pneumonia and influenza, and a marked 
decrease of diarThea, remittent fever and intermittent fever in the first 
quarter of 1894. 



The Weather and the Health in Michigan in the First Quarter of 1894, 

Cofnpared with the Average for the EitjM Yeara^ 1886-1893. 



A comparison of the meteorological conditions 
1894, with the average for the first quarters in the 
shows that in 1894, the prevailing direction of tb 
(instead of north-west), the velocity was 1.6 mile 
temperature was 4.82 degrees higher, the rainfall 
an inch lees^ the absolute humidity was more, the 
less, the day and the night ozone were much less 
in the well at Lansing was four inches more. 



of the first quarter of 
eight years, 1886-1893, 
e wind was south-west 
IS per hour greater* the 
at Lansing was .54 of 
relative humidity was 
and the depth of water 




SXAXB i^nARTi or wwA r.TW — MMP nafr OF SBCBSIAKi; 



Ccm^oxwi with ch« avenge in the correspoiidiDg qxz«rten ia thm tfiis^t 
yean IS?6-IS^. ch« repcrti frcm reguLar cbaerrers indicate that iacer- 
mittenc fever. lemiRenc fever, eryeipelaa. diarrhea, eunauiuptian, pnea- 
mcnia and pleoritis were lees than xunally prevalent, and that no 
diaeaae was mere ^an ssaally prevalent in the lint qnarter of lc94. 

acHariar^ aKPoar of w.^as sons ci the office of thb 3tatb boa*3 or 

The nam bar af repcrta of aacfareaka of dangerous oommanieabie dia- 
aaaca in Michiiian. received from ail aonrcea and nied. and euncemiBg 
which acdcn was taken by thia ciSce. carina :he qoarter, are afl foliowa: 
for diphdxeria. Ill : t^r acariec fever. ITo : far typhoid and typho-malarial 
Krrer. -^I : ficr meaalea. 17^ . for amali-pox, Zt : and fcr concamptioii, Ta 
Total fcr rh« ais dxaeaaea. ^^ 

The aamber zi ccmm:znicaticna relative to dani^roaa commoaieabla 
dfBi»MMwiii received and piaced en lied daring the qaaxter. was i. l4rL. 

Reiacxve b: dangercoa ccmmonicable diaaaaca. lettera. writtCB earda, 
and demands firr weekly and inal reports on cazda. or in the farm ol^tha 
eixeixlar len^ were wac oa? daring the quarter ta the number of 1,T69. 

The ' friai ' »purfia of aatfareaks~'received and died daring th« qvaxter, 
fisr iiphciaia. i4: aearlec fever. 13^5; :yphcid and typbo Ma l a ri a l 
fa. meaaei^ -fcs: «mall>pcx. T; ccnaampCi^n. 0. Total fcr the aiz 

^ JiAona. Se^itt Fntr. Tfphaid 

jfbsm if sAe JfiL-»v<Bt SbaDi lataH rf SmA : At per ^e:Mt ^ r^gar^M. imi^ 
."imcB-vii/ ■JB.ri, woe -mnvi -^trv^^ :.w TfmpipMrv.- £i« ^per aswi of 

M m ii 7% iw \eaiix it/Lotr - sm p€r smUof mtmam^i^ re 
-i >y ^ Miu&i 7^ir Bbi M p^ srmi rtiaticm ia wkidk mm 
^im -At ImLzh iifbetr 




V±3LE --ofcn 


vm^ :m nmMr j/ 'In&naka if i 


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OPPICE WORK DURING THE FISCAL YEAR 1894, 



ki 



DurtDg tbe quarter, the looal colamos of 931 newapapera, have been 
looked over for reports of ooourrenoe of oommanioable diseases. This 
has resulted in giving this oflSoe information of the alleged ooourrenoe of 
3 outbreaks of dipbtberia. 5 outbreaks of scarlet fever, 4 outbreaks of 
t^pboid find typbo-malarial fever, 10 outbreaks of measles, and 8 out- 
breaks of smalUp^s. To what extant the reports of these alleged out- 
breaks were verified, is shown in tbe aooompanying table. 

Tbe following is a synopsis of tbe 



Brports Eelative to Small-pox^ Received During ike Quarter: 

Th^ first outbreak in the quarter ooonrred at Jackson. The outbreak 
began. April 27, and ended May 27. A final report has been received. 
Number of oases 4, deaths 2. Source of oontagium was: "Supposed to 
have been carried in tbe clothing of a lady visiting from Chicago, or that 
tbe lady was suffering from a mOd case of varioloid/' 

Tbe seccmd outbreak ooonrred in Marquette. The outbreak began 
May 2; number of oases, 1-, no deaths. A final report hag been received. 
The source of contagiom is given by tbe health officer as '*Per steamer 
Peerless from Chicago." 

The third outbreak occurred in Muskegon, The outbreak began May 

6, and ended June 23. A final report has been reoeived. Number of 
cases 3, deaths 1. Relative to the source, of the oontagium^ tbe health 
officer says: "First case from Chicago, May 9. 1894," 

^h^ fourth outbreak, which still continues, ooourred at Bay City, May 

7. Relative to the source of oontagiuoi, tbe health officer states that tbe 
"patient came from Chicago/' Up to the close of the quarter, there 
were reported five cases and one death in that outbreak. 

The ^^A outbreak oooorred at Sturgis, St. Joseph county. The out- 
break beg^n May 10, and ended June 9. A final report has been received. 
Number of oases, 5; deaths* 4. The health officer gives the source of 
oontagium as follows: "A tramp called at the water-works, where Lyncb 
was an engineer, to rest and wash." 

The Lynch family consisted of the father, mother and two children, 
who were all taken with the disease and died. The fifth oaae was the 
Durse, who had an attaok of varioloid. 

The s^ixlh outbreak occurred in Grand Rapids, May 17, which was fol- 
lowed later by two or three other outbreaks, four cases having occurred in 
that city during the quarter. It is diffioult to learn just whether the four 
cases constituted four separate outbreaks or whether more than one case 
belonged to the same outbreak. No deaths have been reported from that 
city, and tbe disease is still present there. 

The seventh outbreak ooourred in tbe city of Detroit, about May 28. 
Source of oontagium not learned, Later another outbreak occurred at 
the Merchanta hotel in that city. Source of oontagium not learned. To 
the close of the quarter there have occurred 29 oases and 5 deaths in tbe 
city of Detroit. The disease is still present. 

The eighth outbreak ooourred in Berlin township, Monroe county, 
June 15. Source of oontagium, Merchants hotel in Detroit. Number of 
cases, 2. No deaths reported at end of quirter. 

The ninik outbreak occurred in French town township, Monroe county, 
June 16. Source of oontagium, Merchants hotel, Detroit. There have 



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. i=r":i- T ■s-htzl'i. '^t^itr^ii ^rjrzur^ fcirrr* if TrnraiC-ini hd- cr«»ei. -^7 

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.:-»-1fs:;:i Lat**:!* *r j>j. - _^ I*riiiT_ i:-v:.-r: x. I a «* Tirinrrj mi Lake 

affa:.'-=T« .li* r.:s!>9«» rriTiC ■: :•» si-r* mi-sr -.L43. sniftJ^-pcs. 

pif^-na. EXit >JBZi£ies, n yLiZ-Z-iTo. :z l?*.;! fic -_i*» JLmuu ^«p3l far 

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lA^sL nni'iue'rffL TTti* Tin ir r:iti»«»n.:Ti ▼"-"_! zttobttm iiif fac put'* 




Ti-* Ti2w zl y^'siisR rT«ruaxir» c£ Each 

has bs'Si nninzxrsi 

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1SS& sat be«a zLft5& mi rxii kijh ior tbe 

is I?{^iiT» nsisii iLa5£. TbeproriBg 

Tvpfficoi *'?rsr 12 V-i*rricBi xm l^SS ia 

=f gni£itrk*m." ifUmat off the 



OFFICE WORK DURING THE FISCAL YEAR ISfi. 



Ixiii 



Proof bae been read on the articles relative to Dtpbtberia, Scarlet 
Fever, Measles and Smallpox io MicbigaD in 1891, for tbe ADoual 
Report for 1892, and on a portion of tbe '* first part" of the Annual Report 
for 1892. 

Copy has been prepared, proof has been read, and tbe printing on tbe 
Proceedings of tho Menominee Sanitary Convention has been completed, 
and it is expected that the pamphlet will soon be ready for distribution. 

Printing on the Annoal Report of the Secretary for the fiscal year end- 
iog June 30, 1892, has been nearly completed, and it is hoped soon to 
have tbe Report in completed form ready for distribution. 

Hekiograph Worky Correspondence^ etc 

About 3,350 paeea of bektograph work have been made, of which about 
700 pagee were relative to small pox in Michigan since January 1, 1894; 
about 350 pages being notifications of poasibly infected immigrants; 
abont 300 pages Inter-State Notifioatione of Small-pox in Michigan; 
about 200 pages relative to tbe proceedings of tbe Regular meeting of 
this Board, April 13. 1894, and about 200 pages relative to extracts from 
Dr. Baker's address, before tbe State Medical Society, on the* 'Relation 
of the State to Tuberculosis,'' The bektograph work has been about 
1,000 pages greater than for the first quarter of 1894, which is probably 
due to the increased presence of small -pox in Miohigan. 

There were 1,282 pages of letter- book used in copying tbe correspond- 
ence of tbe Office, which does not include tbe many postal cards which 
have been sent out but not copied in tbe letter^book. 

Annual Reports from Health Officers and Clerks for the Year 1893* 

During the quarter, annual reports have been received froni 299 healtb 
efficere and clerks of townships, cities and villages. 

On April 20, a ''Third request for annual reports" was eeut to 586 
health officers and clerks of townships, from whom no report had yet been 
received. 

Of the 1,578 localities in Michigan, inclnding townships, cities and 
villages, annual reports have thus far this year been received from 1,485^ 
leaving at tbe end of this quarter 93 delinquent localities. A few more 
reports are expected, and, compared with preceding years, there is a 
marked decrease in the nunaber of delinquent localities. 

Reports of medical practitioners have been received from 113 clerks of 
townships, cities and villages. 



► 



Work on Meteorology. 

Tbe regular tri- daily meteorological observations have been continued 
at this statioD, and a summary for each week and month during tbe 
quarter has been made for use in this Office in connection with the sick- 
ness statistics. The monthly summary bae been sent at the end of each 
month to the Director of the Michigan Weather Service and Local Fore- 
cast Official at Detroit for bis use; it is then sent by him to the Chief of 
the U. S. Weather Bureau at WashiDgton, D. C. 

Ozone test-paper (a supply for three months) was sent to each of 17 
meteorological observers in Michigan. 



SvTrt-s 1'" :>T I II III I" VI VII VIII IX X XT . XVI.. 



* 1^ --^•= It:' : l.Li— rr.i i- 2.1:^1:^5:: :;55-:a iid d*«tb= in 

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:- -1 :: i- i: = -:::'= :^ V --i^.- 



.rL :r r- : i :: :■ L - -: C -/ C ' : ■,. r:^ 

lir.iz -ir :iir:-:r Iv •:.::£= sid p^~pil*:r a^d .:2: L-z;c*r= ^f j-^r- 
ii.= "^r-ri.iTT :zzz.\L..-r iz 1 zzizZrT.'.^r 'i5T* brcL r*<:«r:~'t<5 §sd entered 
:- :*ir .:ir*:7 ^zz^ssizz. 'zz:l zi ti:= • -r:* Th* »::• in tie card-caia- 

-' '• -^-il-'-i'f 0- iif :- Of:"-. '.' Ir'fi-'. 

A t:r:-.;r >':Tr :: ins'!:-':'.::!: s^d '::l%!:k f:r=: f:r t-r rrt-rn lif the 
zsn-r sid =ddTt:s2 :: "be leati ::rcrr. t:::e":'ier "y::"! sl addressed envelope, 
■s'-rr* i-rx" *: t^:i :f '.he =~pTTT: = :r£ :f ::-srrrb:ps presidez:- and clerss of 
-i.sSr? -.id ii-.v:r= ir.d c'.Trk= :: citirs .'iir 4-'\ a ft : . ieniand 
f:T "r r-r'.irz :f :i-r l&z:* arid address :: tbe he&.:i :£reT -Jf^s 23ade to 
-:'?I -.eT£= :: : . -i.=i::c=. c.erks :: cities a::d Ti"..3^e5 

Tirre ia"e lees returned :: this 'I'±?e !ie La~ rs arid pcst-cSre 
addre=?-= ::' I "vi lea'.'b :n:cer5 cf tc— n="iip=. ci::r= aid Tillages These 
fac:= iiare brri eiLt-rrrd en :be ieait::-:£2er'5 'c::k5. aid tie repirta have 
h^ei niared :i fie T: each leahb c:Ecer retined. :iere la-re been gent 

:he restriction and pre-rei:::! :: tie d;f erect dan 
'ep-:- c'.aik ar 
:f tie rasfs if 
2er:i5 :: the pub'.ic beal'b Ccpies cf tbe sane paup lifts b'.anks. etc.^ 
■arere =eit t: ea:b persis naking tbe return :? tie lanie a " " 



3.„i.-.C.S 



ser:i^ d:=eE=e= tx: ripies cf tbe cutbreak rep*:' 'z\%z,'l and :ne sample 
cipv if tie 1. =-nk ::r keeping a iical recird :f tbe rasrs if diseases dan- 



■3, .^ T, 



Ccpies if tie printed Proceedings of the Regular neetinz cf this 
Beard. April ic. ISV'i. to the number of 1.0-5. were sent t:: 'Members 
and ex-meziberg cf *his Board, sanitary journal exchanges, neteirological 
observers for tbe State Board of Health, members cf the State Board of 
Correcticns and Charities, secretaries of other State and ProvinciRl 
Boards of Health, secretaries of State medical societies, libraries, cor- 
respondents, health oScers in other States, and health ciS^ers cf cities 
and villages in Michigan. 

AboDt 2,000 copies of tbe Announcement and about '2.^10 cipies of the 
Program of the Second Annnal Conference of Michigan bealtn oScers at 
Ann Arbor, June 14 and 15, 1894, were distributed t3 mayors, clerka, and 



OFFICE WORK DURING THE FISCAIi S^EAR 18IH. 



Uv 



bealth officers of oitiea, preBidente, olerks and health offioers of villagee^ 
anperviaore, olerks and health officers of townships in Miofaigan; to mem- 
bers of this State Board; about 120 of the prominent newspapers in the 
State; Secretaries of State Boards of Health; and others. 

The pamphlet on the restriction and prevention of small-pox, a oopy of 
the leaflet "Now is a good time to be vaccinated" and six copies of a two 
page leaflet relative to "Local Quarantine Regulations'* were sent to thirty- 
six presidents of villages and twenty-four mayors of cities located on or 
near the Great Lakes or other navi;i;able waters in Michigan, Two copies 
of the leaBet on Local Quarantine Hegulations were sent to health officers 
of 85 townships containing lake or river ports, and five copies were sent 
to each of 47 health officers who are also supervisors of townships located 
on the Great Lakes or other navigable waters in Michigan. One copy of 
the leaflet urging vaccination and four copies of the leaflet urging the 
adoption of Local Quarantine Regulations were sent to each of 122 super- 
visors of port townships. 

The pamphlet on the restriction and prevention of emall-pox, the leaBet 
on vaccination, and Ave copies of the leaflet on Local Quarantine Regula- 
tios were sent to 285 health offioers of townships in Michigan. Four 
copies of the leaBet on vaccination and one copy of the pamphlet on 
smalLpox were sent to each of 118 prominent newspapers in Michigan; 
and two copies of the leaflet relative to Local Quarantine Regulations 
were sent to each of 67 editors of newspapers published in places located 
on the Great Lakes and other navigable waters In Michigan, 

To each supervisor was sent a copy of the blank for the return of the 
name, address, etc., of medical practitioners; and, in oases where there 
was a village in the township, an extra copy of the blank was sent; one 
copy for the clerk of the township and one copy for the clerk of the vil- 
lage. Two copies of the blank were sent to the clerk of each city in 
Michigan. 

A copy baa been made of the Hat of supervisors and clerks as they are 
returned to the Office of the Secretary of State, 

About the usual numbers of pamphlets on the restriction and prevention 
of tbe different dangerous diseases were sent to the health officers of 
localities in which dangerous diBeases bad been reported. It was at the 
same time requested of these health officers that the pamphlets be dis- 
tributed to the neighbors of the persons sick with such diseaeeSi and to 
such other persons as they would be likely to benefit. 

In response to special request of sanitarians in this and other States, 
copies of tbe Annual Reports^ proceedings of meetings and sanitary con- 
ventions and pamphlets on the restriction and prevention of the danger- 
ous communicable diseases, have been sent where it was thought likely 
they would benefit public-health interests. 

The usual accounts of the Office have been kept. 

An invoice cf the oiroulaTS, envelopeB and paper on hand at the end of 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1894 has been taken. 

The Secretary's annual report of property purchased, iBsued» destroyed 
and remaining on hand July 1, 1894, haa been made. 



Menominee Sam'tary Convention, 

Tbe fortieth Sanitary Convention, under the auspices of the State 
Board of Health, has been held at Menominee, April 5 and 6, 1891, and 



^ « 



Ixvi STATE BOARD OP HEALTH-— REPORT OP SECRETARY, 1894. 

WBB B very Buooessful one. The printiD^ on the pamphlet prooeedingfi of 
that ooDveution bas been completed, and it iB hoped to soon have the 

pamphlet ready for diBtributioo. 

Fublio Health Work in Connection with the State Medical Society, 

' In reprinting' the pamphlet relative to the State Board of Health 
Exhibit at the World's Columbian Exposition, a page of text deaoriptive 
of that part of the exhibit whioh onsieted of the diagrame, was prepared 
and published under the title *' Brief Outline of the Exhibit" The 
pamphlet was reprinted in order to dietribnte oopies of it at the State 
Medical Sooiety which met this year in Lansing, The diagrams mounted 
on the Standard of Wing Frames and the larger diagrame were exhibited 
to members of the society in one of the committee rooms, adjoining the 
room in whioh the meetings of the sooiety were held. Your Secretary 
prepared and delivered at that meeting of the State Sooiety an address on 
'*The Relation of the State to Tuberculosis/* (He has since received a 
few reprints of that addreee, for distribution to persona interested in the 
subject. ) 

A special meeting of thie Board having been called at Lansing at that 
time for the examination of plans for a public building, at Lapeer^ 
several of the members of this Board attended some of the Bessions of the 
medical meeting, especially the general Conference relative to Tubercu- 
losis, in the discussion of which Prof. Vaugban took part, and Prof. 
Novy read a paper. 

Conference of Bepresentatives of State Boards of Health in Chicago, 

The Executive Committee of the National Conference of State Boards 
of Health had been considering the advisability of calling a meeting of 
the Conference, on account of the prevalence of small-pox in the Uuited 
Statei, and especially in Chicago, The Secretary of the Michigan Board, 
as a member of the Executive Committee, suggested that the Conferenoe 
be held in Chicago, and restricted to a few of the States especially 
endangered by the small- pox in Chicago. Acoordingly Dr. C. O. Probst, 
Secretary of the Conference, and Secretary of the Ohio State Board of 
Health, called a meeting of delegates of the State Boards of Health of 
Indiana, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Kentucky, Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, 
Ontario and Michigan* The meeting was held at the Grand Pacific hotel, 
in Chicago^ May 9 and 10, 1891. I have written out a brief report of the 
meeting, and submit it herewith. 

(The Secretary's brief report is printed on subsequent pages of thia 
Report- ) 

Recently, I have received from Dr. Probst, the Secretary of the Chicago 
meeting, a much more full and complete report, whiob is also submitted 
herewith. (It is too long to be here reproduced.) 

Local Quarantine Regulations, 

It being known to the Secretary of this Board that smalLpox was very 
prevalent in Chicago, and widespread throughout the world, be considered 
that **The danger from small-pox is now imminent.'* Accordingly he 
prepared a circular to the officers of local boards of health at ports on the 
Great Lakes and other navigable waters in Michigan, calling attention to 
the danger of the introdnction of emall-pos, the impoitanoe of making 



^ 



OFFICE WORK DURING TBE FISCAL YEAR 18^1. 



ktii 



and poblifihiDg regQlations relatire to quarantiDe, relative to the intro- 
duction of dangerone dieeaaep, and to tb© proper management of iaolfition 
bospitalfl, inotuding veeeela and houBds in wbiob a dangeroua dieeaae 
remaiDS. Tbis oiroular was submitted to members of the Board, unani- 
moufily approTed, and it isaaed from the Office May 19. We bav6 
received from a nomber of local ports about tbe State published regula* 
tiona ID accordance with tbe reoommendationa of that circular. 



PuhUcafian of Slip Rtlaiive to the Preveniion of Consumption, 

In tbe laat montb of tbe quarter, tbe slip heretofore printed and widely 
distributed consisting of tbe resolution of tbis Board declaring oonsump-" 
tion to be a disease dangerous to tbe public bealtb« was modified, by 
printing upon the back of it a condensed summary of the leaOet issued 
by this Board on tbe "'Kestriction and Prevention of Consumption/* 
Five tbousaod of these slips were printed, and they are being widely dis- 
tributed about the State. Tbe slip is of convenient size to be inserted 
in tbe ordinary letters sent out from tbe office. Tbe slip is as follows: 

CONSUMPTIQK IS A DISEASE DAKGEeOUS TO THE PiLIC HEALFH. 

IT SUaiLft BE REPttRTEII T0 THE HEUTH illHOItlTIES. 




BE30LUriON ADOPTED BY THE MlCHlGlN STATE BOiBD Of HEALTH. 



*' Resolved, That hereafter, consumption (and other diseases due to the 

Bncillus tuhcrcutosi!^) shall be included in the official list of * Diseases 
dangerous to the public health,' referred to in sections 1675 and 1676 
HowelFe Statutes, requiring notice by householders and physicianB to the 
local health officer, as soon as ^uch a disease is recognized.'* 

[In this resolatioa the qaeetioD of isolation of ih« patient ia not mentioned. Ita porpoae !• to teeare 
to the locai hwalth oathonaea and to the State Board of Headtb luformatton of the location of ee^h oaee 
of tfala moit dacigeroafi tliaease, with the view of plac^Dff la tbe handa of the patient, reliable Laformation 
how to avoid nviofectioir himeelf or hereelf or ffivlOK the dlaeAM to otbere and in the haode of thoae 
moet endaogered, information how to avoid oontmctlns this dlMaee. HENKY B. BAKEfi, Seerttarv.} 

(RXTVBaC SIDE ) 

THE PREVENTION OF CONSUMPTION. 

ConetitnptioQ m the moet deetructive diaesEe^ tbe number of pereoiie dyioff aaDually 
from this cause in Michigan amoutiting to about three thousand. 

Conaumption ia » danf^eroua cotDmunicable dieeaae, the moei dangerous one in Mich- 
igan, One coneumptive may spread the dteease to very many healthy peraons. The 
chief danger exieta in the expectoration of the coDsutuptire person, and if tbis expec- 
toration is carefully destroyed before it is dried little danger need be feared. 

ConsuQiptiree should be instructed not to Bpit upon sidewalks, the floors of rooma, 
public halls, street and railway cars, and other vehicles, nor where fowls or dairy cows 
may take in the sputnm or the dust of it with their food» They should spit into pieces 
of cloth, or receptacles made for the purpose, containing a saturated solution of carboJic 
acid (one part of carbolic acid crystals to about 15 parts of water). Such pieces of 
cloth should be -deatroy^td by fire, before the sputa become dry, aed other receptacles 
should be cleanRed with acaldmg water, their contents having been destroyed or other- 
wise carefully disposed of. Handkerchiefs which may have been used from neceesity 
should be boiled half an hour before waehinii;. 

It is beet that all persons who have a cough should carry pmall pieces of cloth (each 
just large enough to properly receive one sputum) and paraffined paper envelopes or 
wrappers in which the cloth, as soon as once used, may be put and securely enclosed 
and, with its envelope^ burned on the first opportunity. 

Remember that sputa must never be allowed to become dry. 
Office of the Secretary of the State Board of Health, i 
Laming t Michigan ^ June, 1894. { 




Ixviii STATB BOARD OF HBAI/FH.— REPORT OF 8B0RBTART, 1894. 

Demand for Investigations of Alleged Contagious Diseases, 

The small-pox has oaused many requests for investigation by the State 
Board of Health. Two classes of interest have requested these investiga- 
tions. (1.) Where suspected oases of small-poz were causing injury to 
business interests, such investigations have been asked for. In such 
cases, where the local board of health was giving the public safety the 
benefit of the doubt, it has been found practicable to set along without the 
investigation. In one instance, at Sturgis, it was alleged that the money 
interests of the town were being sacrificed, the case of suspected amalf- 

Eoz being alleged to be nothing more than ivy poisoning. The case 
eing carefully isolated by the local health officer, I was able to assure the 
people that there was believed to be no danger from contracting small- 
pox in Sturgis. Subsequent events proved that the case was really small- 
pox, but it is believed that it will be restricted. 

(2.^ In one instance the public fear was that a case liberated by the 
health officer and local board of health might yet be small-pox. In this 
oase, on consultation with the president of the Board, an inspector was 
employed by this Board to visit the locality and investigate the case. It 
proved to be not small-pox. 

; One occasion for an investigation has arisen by reason of a suspected 
-oase of typhus fever. This is a disease so rare in this State that 1 was 
not able to find an expert who could be secured to visit the locality, and 
investigate the case. The local health officer was himself inclined to 
believe it typhus. I telegraphed him as follows: 

" Lansing, June 29, 1894. 
"C. W. Huff, Health Officer, Gobies, Mich.: 

**Oannot find expert tonight, may tomorrow. Best enforce absolute 
isolation of all infected, and disinfect thoroughly. Keep me informed." 

" Baeeb, Secretary^" 

Since that time I have been writing and telegraphing to different 
localities, but have not yet learned whether the disease is actually 
typhus, or typhoid fever. 

Joint Meeting of State Board of Health and State Live Stock Commission. 

This meeting was held at Ann Arbor, Jane 15. It was for the purpose 
of conference relative to the restriction and prevention of tuberculosis in 
man and in animals. The Secretary of this Board was made Secretary of 
that meeting, and has copied out at length the notes he then made. The 
report of that meeting i^ submitted herewith. [It is printed on a pro- 
ceeding page.] . .^ 

** Local Health Regulations.^' ^ 

" To Prevent the Introduction and Spread of Dangerous Diseases.*' 

After the preparation and publication of the leaflet. entitled **Looal 
Quarantine Regulations," which was issued to officers of local boards of 
health at lake and river ports in Michigan, it was considered still more 



K 



OFFICE WORK DURING THE FISCAL YEAR 1804. Irix 

iiDpoftaDi that the offioers of all looal boards of health tbroaghout the 
State should have before them the eeotionfl of law beariDg on the preven- 
tion of the introduotion of dangerous diseasee, and anggeations wbioh 
would enable them to moat effectually act for the prevention of the intro- 
duction of small-pox. The Secretary considered it an opportune time to 
persuade local boards of health generally throughout the State to UQake 
and publish '"regulations" without wbioh local boards are nearly power- 
lees to prevent the intrudootion of any diaease, or to punish a person who 
wilfully brings within their juriEdiction an infected person or dead body, 
and thud introduces a dangerous disease. Without such regulations, iso- 
lation hospitals or bouses, boats or vessels in which dangerous diseases 
occur cannot be properly managed. To place before the local boards of 
health in Michigan the sectionB of law on this subject, a circular was pre- 
pared by tbe Secretary of this Board, and submitted to the membera of 
this Board for amendment or approval. One or two members approved, 
one or two members disapproved, and the President of tbe Board sub- 
mitted a substitute. It was found impracticable to issue tbe circular^ 
The Secretary considered and atill considers it important that suob a 
circular be issued. Unless the Supreme Court soon decides the case 
involving the quarantine powers of the State Board of Health, and 
decides tbtit tbe State Board has such quarantine powers as tbe present 
law specifies, it would seem to be exceedingly impoitant that the luoal 
boards of health do everything that is poeaible under existing laws to 
prevent the introduction of disease. The present indications are that 
there will continue to be great danger from small pox during the coming 
winter and spring. And the subjeot is even of greater iiLportaooe rela- 
tive to other dangerous diseases more prevalent than small-pox. [At this 
meeting of the Board, tbe subject was referred to Prof. Fall, for report 
at the next meeting,] 



Pamphlft on the UestricHon and Prevention of Consumption. 



Tbe supply of copies of tbe leaflet on the Kestriotion and Prevention 
of Consumption having given out, during the interval between meetings, 
the Secretary submitted the pamphlet to the members, with a request for 
amendment or approval, or both. The reprintiog of the pamphlet was 
approved, and an edition of 10,0CM) copies was printed in June. Tbe 
third edition is practically the same as the second, only that a note relative 
to the examination of suspected sputa was added. 

• 
Publication of Diagrams Relative io VaccinaiiofL 

For use in teaching the importance of vaccination, a four-page leaflet 
has been prepared and printed, consisting of diagrams exhibiting the great 
decrease in mortality from small-pox in many countries, dating from the 
time of the introduction of vaooination. These diagrams were Nos. 4, 5, 
6 and 7 of a series eon struct ed by Mr. Willitts to illustrate bis paper on 
''Achievements of Sanitation, " and the plates were in this office. 

For tbe conference of health officers at Ann Arbor, a brief article on 
this subject was prepared and presented by tbe Secretary. 



n 




Ixx STATE BOABD OP HEAI/TH.— REPORT OF SEORETART, 1894. 

Second Annual Cjnfei'e*iC3 of Michiqai Health Officers, ai Ann Arbor, 

The Second Annual Conferenoe of Health Officers in Miobigaii was 
held at the State Laboratory of Hygiene, University of Michigan, Jane 
14 and 15 and was a very sucoessfaland instractive meeting. The pre- 
paration for it, and the collection of the minates of the meeting, papers 
read, and discussions, has involved considerable labor in this Office, 
which it is believed has been profitably exerted. 

Moving Storeroom of State Board of Health Office, 

It has been found necessary to vacate the room on the north of the 
west corridor, heretofore occupied by three clerks of this Office. In 
order to prepare the basement room under the Office so that it can be 
occupied by clerks it has been necessary to remove the Annual Reports, 
Vital Statistics and other property of the Board to a room in the Old 
State Office Building. This removal has been made, and has involved 
considerable labor. The books and other property are now stored in 
room No. 16 of the Old State Office Building. A book has been 
planned and made in which is to be kept a ** Record of Annual Reports, 
Volumes of Vital Statistics, Circulars, Documents and other Property 
transferred to and from the Office of the Michigan State Board of Health, 
in the State Capitol, and to and from the Old State Officd Building, cor- 
ner of Washington Ave. and Allegan street, Lansing, Michigan." 

Special Meetings of the State Board of Health. 

Since the regular quarterly meeting held in Lansing, April 13, special 
meetings of this Board have been held as follows : At Lansing, May 3 
and 4; at Lansing, June 2; at Ann Arbor, Jane 15, 1894. 

A special meeting of the Board was called to maet in Linaing, May 3 

and 4, during the meeting of the State Medical Society, for the purpose 

of examining the plans and specifioatious for the proposed Home for the 

Feeble Minded at Lapeer. The plana wdre examined, and, with a' few 

recommendations, were adopted. 

A special meeting of the Board was called to meet in Lansing, May 
17, to examine the plans and specifications of the proposed ''Upper Pen- 
insula Asylum for the Insane*'. Informatiin naving been received 
that the plans would not be ready for examination May 17, the meeting 
was canceled. Later another call was made by the President for a meet- 
ing June 1, for the same purpose. *Only the President and Secretary 
were present,^ but they acted for the Board, made the examination, and 
also made a few recommendations, relying upon the Board to confirm 
their action at some future meeting. (The Board confirmed the Officers* 
report at the meeting, June 15, 1894.) A call was issued for a special 
meeting of the State Board of Healtb, at Ann Arbor, June 14 and 15, 
during the intervals of the sessions of the Second Annual Conference of 
Michigan Health Officers, for the auditing of bills and accounts, and 
for the purpose of a joint* meeting with the State Live Stock Commis- 
sion, to consider the subject of the restriction and prevention of tuber- 



u 



OFFICE WORK DURING THE FISCAL YEkR 1894. Irxi 

otiloeiB ID maD aod in animale. The joiDt meetiog was first held, and 
proved to be a very iDstniotive meetiDg. and later in the same day (June 
15), tbe State Board of Health held a speoial meeting. Bills aod 
aooounts were allowed, and tbe report upon the examination of the plans 
for the Upper Peninsula Asylum by the President and Secretary was 
oonfirmed. The prooeedings of the meeting June 15, are submitted here- 
with. 

[The prooeedioffs of the joint meetiog are printed on pages xlii-xlv of 
this publication.] 

With a reoent weekly bulletin, there was sent to newspapers a hekto- 
graph slip, as follows: 



THESE IS NO BEMKDY FOB SMALLPOX. IT SHOULD BE rREVENTED BY VAOOINATIOX. 

Anything which beUttlee vaocination, the true preveotive of small-pox, ie agaioat 
public policy. Newspapera can do much good to humanity by learning and spreading 
tbe truth; they can al&o do much barm by spreading false doctrinee. Every time amall- 
pox appears newspapera do much harm by publishing the mischievous falsehood 
inserted below as "a small-pox remedy" which is always stated to be 'Agoing the 
rounds of the papers."' 

'•a small- pox remedy. 

"Hftre U Another 8«id to be a dare Cure. 

" Tbe f oUovint staioQMiii of & florreepondeat of tbe Stockton, GaIlforQi&. Herald hu be«a ffotag Uie 
foonde of tha papers. An ez-Catttomlan amjt he ha» seen it teeted with entire ■nooeaa. We prodaca it. 
therefore, for what it b worth. 

** L herewith append a recipe which haa been oaed, to mj icnowledge, in hnndradt of caaee. It will 
pnveot or oore the emaU-poz, thotivh the pittinja are fllllog. When Jenoer dlioovered cow pox In Enc* 
Uued the world of eoienoe hnrled an aralanohe of fame apon hb head, bmt when the iboet eoieDtifie aehool 
of mediolne In the world— that of Parii— ;>nbtiahed thia recipe aa a panaeea for amall-pox. it la paaeed 
Dinhe»ded. It ia aa nnf alllag aa fate, and conqaara In evenr inataaoe. It la harmlnu when talien bj a 
well person. It will also care scarlet feYer. Here la the recipe, aa I hare ased It. and cared my children 
of the aoarlet fever; here it is ai 1 hare need it to care the small-pox. When learned phfstolans aaid the 
patient mast die, cored. Solphate of sine, one grain ; fox glove (digitalis), one grain; half a teaspoonfn| 
of sogar; mix #ith two tablespoonfala of water. Whan thorooghlr mixed add foor omioea of water. 
Take a taaapooofDJ erary honr^ Either dtssaae will dlaappear In 11 hoora. For a child, imallar doaee 
•oeofdlng to age, If ooantiee wonld compel their phreiolana to nw thia, there woold be no need of peat 
hooaea. If yon valoe adiioe and experience, nae this for that terrible dlaeaae." 

It is about time that all respectable newspaper editors know the truth— that vaccina- 
tion is bhe preventive of smaUpox, and that no remedy is known, and that there is no 
probability that any ever will be known which will cure scarlet fever or small-pos; and 
if one shall be disoovered ita publication may well wait until the truth of it shall have 
been attested by a State Board of Health or some other intelligentguardian of the lives 
of the people. Meantime the publicatioa of such an article as the above ought to be 
puniabed by a fine and imprisonment. Respectfully submitted, Henbv 6. Baker. 

Lansing, Michiyan, July 5, 18^, 



Work in Connection with Sickness Siaiistics. 



DoTiDg the aecond quarter of 1894, 4,200 blank postal report- cards, 
285 reoord'bookfl, 116 hektographed oireular letters atad 172 prioted oirou* 




Ixzii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— RBPORT OF SBCRSTART, 1894 

lars regarding weekly oard-reporta, have beeo mailed to 269 health offi* 
oers and regular oorrespondents ; 1,254 weekly oard-reports have been 
received and entered on the register; 53 copies of the hektographed 
weekly bulletin ^'Health in Michigan, " were mailed each week, ana 110 
copies of the monthly bulletin *' Health in Michigan'' have been hekto- 

fraphed and mailed each month. These bulletins have been oonsoli- 
ated for this quarterly report. Work has also been done on the com- 
pilation of the weekly card-reports of sickness during the year 1892, for 
the annual report for 1893. 

Health in Michigan in the Second Quarter of 1894, Communicable 

Diseases, 

Compared with the preceding quarter (January, February and March), 
reports from all sources show scarlet fever to have decreased by an aver- 
age of seven places, meades to have increased by an average of sixty ^ 
seven places, diphtheria to have increased by an averarge of one place, 
typhoid fever to have decreased by an average of seven places and small- 
pox to have increased by an average of six places. 

Meteorology at one Central Station, and sickness Throughout Michigan 

from all Causes, Second Quarter of 1894, compared with the 

Preceding Quarter, 

A comparison of meteorological conditions of the aecond quarter of 
1894, with the meteorological conditions of the preceding quarter, shows 
the prevailing direction of the wind to have been north west (instead of 
south west), the average velocity 3.1 miles per hour less, the temperature 
27.76 degrees higher, the rainfall 2.32 inches more, the absolute humid- 
ity much more, the relative humidity slightly less, the day and ni^ht 
ozone considerably more and the depth of water in the well at Lansing 
two inches more in the second quarter of 1894. 

Compared with the preceding quarter (January, February and 
March), the reports from regular observers show a marked increase of 
measles, diarrhea and itermittent fever, and a marked decrease of infln- 
enza, pneumonia and pleuritis in the second quarter of 1894. 

The Weather and the Health in Michigan in the Second Quarter of 1894^ 
Compared with the Average for the Eight Years, 1886-1893. 

A comparison of the meteorological conditions of the second quarter 
of 1894, with the average for the second quarters in the eight years, 1886- 
1893, shows that in 1894, the prevailing direction of the wind was north- 
west (instead of south-west), the velocity was slightly greater, the tem- 
perature was 1.35 degrees higher, the rainfall was .65 of an inch more, 
the absolute and relative humidity were slightly more, the day ozone was 
less, the night ozone was more, and the depth of water in the well at 
Lansing was the same. 



REPORT OP WORK IN THE OFFICE OF THH SECRETARY. IxxUi 



Compared with tb© average io tb© oorreapoudiDg quarters in the eight 
years 1886-1893, the reports from regular observers indicate that intermit- 
tent fever, erysipelas, and remittent fever were less than usually preval- 
ent* and that scarlet fever waa more than usually prevalent in the seoond 
\ qQarterof 1894. 

L Henry B. Baker, 

■ Secretary. 

I 

oTo9< 



GENERAL REPORT OF WORK IN THE OFFICE OP THE 

SECRETARY OF THE STATE BOARD OP HEALTH 

DURING THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 

30. 1894. 



ooh of the work of the office naturally groups itself under three 
closely related heads, ^the collection of information^ the compilation and 
elaboration of information, and the dissemination of information. In 
the following outline that grouping is adhered to so far as is practioable 
without repetition. 



k 



COLLECTION AND COMPILATION OF INFORMATION. 



COLLECTION OP INFORMATION RELATIVE TO HEALTH OFPIOERS IN MICHIGAN. 

There is a local board of health in every townsbip) and in every inoor- 
porated city and village in Michigan. 

Every local board of health in Miohigan is required by law to appoint 
and constantly have a health officer, and to report his name and address 
to the Secretary of the State Board of Health at Lansing, 

Blanks for the return of the names and addresses of health officers are 
sent out by the Seoretary of the State Board of Health to the local offi- 
cers about the £ ret day of April, the law (§1634 Howell's Statutes). 
requiring the appointment and return to be made '* within thirty days 
after the annual township meeting in each year. " 

In April, 1894, the usual demand was made upon supervisors of town- 
ships, presidents and olerks of villages, mayors and clerks of cities, for 
the returns of the names and postoffioe addresses of health officers to 
serve in ISO'l-^. Theoiroularsand blank forma used are similar to those 
printed on page ziiiziv of the Heport for 1884. In June, 1894» a£econd 
demand was sent to localities from whiob no return had been made in 
response to the demand in April. 

On the outbreak of a dangerous communicable disease in a township, 
city or village for which no health officer has been reported, a third, and 
even a fourth demand for the appointment of such officer, and the return 
of his name, is generally made. Through the systems of reports to the 
State Board of Health by its corps of correspondenta, as well as by the 
local health officers, and by a systematic searohing of the local columns 
of the country newspapers published in Miohigan, the Seoretary of the 
State Board often receives information of an outbreak of a communicable 



IxziT STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF aEGREEAKr. 



diieafle» and deeires to oommunicate at onoe with the health oflioer; bat 
if no health officer has been appointed in that looality, or no return of 
such appointment haa been made, delays oooar, and before the Secretary 
of the State Board can get into correspondence with the delinqoent local 
board, and a health officer can be chosen, the diaeaae may spread widely 
within or without the limits of the village or township^ with nnni 
sickness and loss of life. 



SPECIAL REPOBTS BEIATrVE TO DA5GEB0US COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. 

Every health officer is sapplied with blanks **L" from this office, for 
reporting ootiareaks of diphtheria, typhoid fever, scarlet fever, smail- 
poz. measles, etc.. < dangerous eommanicable diseases; to the Secretary 
of the State Board of Health, as required by law. 

Upon the receipt of the report of an outbreak of such disease, blanks 
"M" for weekly reports during the outbreak, are sent, with eiroalar let- 
ter < "Blue Letter";, * also a number of pamphlets containing instroctiona 
for the suppression of the disease. These pamphlets are to be distrib- 
u ted to the neighbors of the family in which the disease is, in order to 
obtain tbeir cooperation with the health officer. 

About 1.915 outbreaks of such diseases were thus attended to during 
the fiscal year ending June 3il 1S94. 

Later a blank is sent to each such locality for a final report at the dose 
of the outbreak, asking questions concerning just what was done for the 
restriction of the disease, and with what result the number of cas«« and 
deaths, households invaded or infected, what disinfectants were used, in 
what quantities, and other facts supply reliable and important data for 
future efforts in showing the results of the practical work of local boards 
in preventing and restricting disease, in accordance with recommenda- 
tions of the State Board. The facts thus collected are compiled for pub- 
lication in the Annual Report of the Secretary. 

A compilation of these facts relative to the dangerous communicable 
diseases in Michigan during the year 1593. will be found on subsequent 
pages of this Report, commencing on page 149 in Part II. 

SICKNESS STATISnCS: W2SEI.T POJTAL-CAaO RELPO^ITi OP ALL IMFOBTAST DISKASBB 

IS IJ 



The weekly postal-card reports of diseases, sent on cards supplied by 
the State Bosud of Health, have been received from health officers of 
cities and villages and other leading physicians, who contribute this valu- 
able information from diiferent parts of the State. The plan of these 
weekly card-reports is stated on pages 52 and 53 of this Report; on page 
53 is an example of the reports properly filled out When a report of a 
new health officer of a city or village is received, a printed letter is sent 
(if health officer of a village it is number [ISO], if of a city a similar let- 
ter is sent) with a circular ~129] describing the plan of the reparta, and 
transmitting supplies for making them. 

A list of observers for the calender year 1503 and a compilation of their 
reports^ with a study of relations of sickness to climitic conditions is 
printed in this Report, pages 51-145. The sickness statistics of Michi- 

Izzxvi. 



REPORT OP WORK IN THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY. 



IxxT 



gao, based upon these weekly reports by tbe leading pbysioiaDS in tbe State, 
are probably tbe roost important etatistioa in tbe world. Tbey are also 
made especially useful for tbe purpose of studying tbe causation of 
diseases, by reason of tbe esoellent system of meteorological statistics 
wbiob bave now been oolteoted during suob a long series of years as to 
make tbem exceedingly useful for sucb oombinations. 



ANNUAL REPORTS BY HEALTH OFFICERS FOB THE YEAR ENDING DEC. 11, 18W. 

In Deomber, 1893, a oiroular [201], was sent to the bealtb officer of 
eacb township, oity and villsge in tbe State, about 1,581 in all, traoBmit- 
ting a blank form "I'' for use in making bis annual report to tbis OSoe^ 
This oiroular was substantially tbe same as circular (65), wbiob is printed 
on pages viiiix of the Report for 188^, Blank form **I, " for reports of 
bealtb officers, is printed in former Beporte. With tbe circular 190 was 
also transmitted a blank sheet for a record of diseases dangerous to tbe 
public health, similar to the blank which is printed, reduced in size, on 
page 211 of the Report for 1882. 

Where tbe name of tbe bealtb officer has not been returned to this office, 
the blanks were sent to tbe president of the Tillase, tbe mayor of the 
oity, or the supervisor of the township, accoraing as the vacancy 
occurred in the village, city or township. 



ANNUAL BKPORTd BY CLEBE3 OF LOCAL BOARDg OF EBALTH FOR THE YEAR ENOINQ 

DEC, 31. 1^. 

At the same time (Deoember, 1893) that tbe circulars and blank forms 
were sent to tbe health officers, a circular [200] asking for a report, and a 
blank form ** J" on which to make a report, were sent to the clerk of tbe 
local board of bealtb of each township, oity and village in tbe State, 
about 1,581 in all A blank for a copy of bis record of cases of diseases 
dangerous to tbe public health was also sent; the circular and blank 
form sent to tbe clerk were similar to those sent to tbe bealtb officer, 
except that they were not so explicit in questions relating to sickness and 
deaths, 

BETirBN OF KAarSS OF MEDICAL PBACTITI0NEB8. 

About January 1, 1894, blanks for tbe return of names of medical 
practitioners were sent to each of tbe clerks of the townships, cities and 
villages, about 1,600 in number. An example of these blanks is printed 
on page xi of the Report of tbe Board for 1883. 



r Dri 

\ 



METEOROLOGICAL EEPQRT8. 

A list of meteoroloigcal observers for the calendar year 1893, with a 
tement of what registers were received from each, is printed in this 
eport. Tbe reports are summarized in an article in this Report on the 
'* Principal Meteorological Conditions in Michigan in 1893," wbiob is 
printed on pages 180. The data are of great value for tbe purposes of 
studying the oBuses of diseases. The observations made at the Office of 
the Board, at Lansing, bave been summarized weekly, and a copy kept 
on tile in tbe office. 



Isxfi STATS BOJlKD OF HEALTH.— SEPOBT OF SBCBETABT. 



DISSanyATIOX of IXFORMAXIOy. 

?T5LISKED LIST Oc yjJtE^ AST- AT'DBLESSIS OF HEALTH OrFIOCBS. 

The nazi«s and iddxeoRs cf 1.3fS hemlth ofEcers in Michigan wen 
printed in Atx^tlsC IS^. and a ccpy seat to each health cffioer in Michi- 
gan, in cider to facilitate 2u read'y octi^caticn, to the health officer of 
anj Jccklirj in ibis State ccnoeming the pcfldble spread of any danger- 
cos ccaumnica hie dide«-«e: aleo to facilitate ccrreepcndence en any of the 
nitmiauQn qiz«ecicBtf with which health c£cerp ha^e to denL The 
pamphlec was alac sent to esch of the delinqnent boarda of health, in the 
hope that, en seeing the blank where there shculd be the name of a 
health oiScer they wen Id then comply with the law which reqnirea the 
ap p cia t ai ent cf a heol^ ciScer and the retnni cf his nazre. In some 
fnnranrea that was the resnlL The pamphlet has also been oaeful, in the 
cifice cf the S^te Bcozd cf Health, for seTeral ether purpoeea 

-[STa3CTro5 ■:? zyyrajtxnos eow to EBPraicr a5i> pektest 

lAj'jKUir^ Dr5EA:?l&. 

Wli«ax«v» infcrmaticn is receiTed cf the cocarreoce of diphtheria. 
acariec fsr^^ neaoLeo. szall-pcx, typhoid ferer. or typho- malarial fcTer, 
ccpies cf a dccrzmeat ca the restricticn and preTcnticn cf the dia<«ae 
lepcrted are immediareiy sent tc the health o£cer. with a request that 
he ifscribizte them wh<are they will be likely tc be =:cst read, and it ia 
mt^eaced that the nei&hhcrs d those familiee in which the aickneas ia 
pr ia mi t wcizjd he xcsc likeiy tc read thea at sach times of danger; and 
is is thcant th At after reading them they will be most likely to co-oper- 
aoe with the local health c(5oer fcr the restricticn cf the diseases. 
Thcusands cf pamphLecs reia'f^g tc each of the most danserccs ccnxmim- 
icohle iiseasas ire iiscribfrted by the State Board in this manner — in 
jccolititas whiae the iiseose treated if in the pamphlets is present. Tliey 
are hecxijp iisoihiztad is this way ccnstantly. because there ia no time 
when the Scare is free frrm scarlet feT«r rr diphtheria, these being among 
the meet impcrant zl the ca?rger:'LS ccmmsnicahle diseases in Michi- 
gan. Ccciee if th* iccnments en ii phtheria. scarlet ferer. and smaU- 
pcx la 3 £man ir ii the Titch 'g^gcaze. are also sent when it ia 
thctcfht They can re ^sed tc iCTantageT C^wi^z tc the frecTient requests 
fcr iiicTnnens ia Frsxch. relish. Sw^ish asd l^anish Xtrwegfan. trons- 
Isticns zf a leod'^c in rcatStfiicGS iiseasee ~4T] ha^e been made into each 
cf thaie Jing-iages . and jcpies are sezt tc .•icol beards wh«i sc zeq^estad. 

A reccrd :s kicc if reccrts receiT-c a=d :f c^irrespcndence reLatiTe to 
each nxtcreok if a 3aa«rii2s vMmm^nicoble disease if which toe ofice 
jwe ei^iM m&rmacicn. A ccnriliticc zl rcch i:if irmiticn relatiTe to sst- 
CSL cf the meat im=cr^a:xt iiseaaes is rcbiished in this Til^me. 



:s r? THi szcArrAiT < a5T7j 




Ly fiwr cf the Ann:tal Bepcrts if the Se c r e tary ore pab- 

Tbm whos snxatbiec pahlished is not s^ ^or^e as the whcle nnm- 

SoBBB and aaaatavB sf jccal beards zl h««lth in Myfiigaa Only 

d^lHO nofun j£ this Ask3b1 Sepcrt are publish ^d fcr %L 



REPORT OF WORK IN THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, btxvii 

A little over half of these (3,500 oopiee) are at the dieposal of the State 
Board of Health. These reports are to exchange with sanitary jouinals, 
with other State Boards of Health, with boards of health in other cities 
and coontries, with State and sanitary libraries, and to supply phy- 
sicians in Michigan who contribute to the work of the Board. Michigan 
is a great and prosperous State, and it is believed that it is made richer, 
not poorer, by the intioenofs exerted by the pubHoationsof tbe Michigan 
State Board of Health. 



PBINTINO AND REPRINTING LEAFLETS, PAMPHLETB, DIAQEAMS, ETC, OF 

INFORMATION. 

The pamphlet relative to the Michigan State Board of Health Exhibit 
at the World's Fair was printed to the number of about 3,100 and widely 
distributed at the Fair On subsequent pages of this Report the pamph- 
let will be found in connection with a statement regarding the Board's 
exhibit at the Fair. 

In September, 1893, 10,000 copies of the pamphlet [176.] *'The 
Restriction and Prevention of Measles" were printed for distribution. 

In October. 1SU3, the law (Act 47, laws of 1893) under which the 
Board acted for the '^Inspection of Immigrants and Travelers*' was 
printed to tbe number of 500 copies. The law is as follows:— 



THE MICHIGAN LAW 



PREVENTION OF THE INTRODUCTION AND 

SPREAD OF CHOLERA AND OTHER 

DANGEROUS COMMUNICABLE 

DISEASES. 



Act No. 4.7. Laws of 1893. 

An act to amend sections one, two and three of act number two hundred 
and thirty, lawa of eighteen hundred and eighty. five, approved June 
twentieth, eighteen hundred and eighty-five, entitled *'An act to pro- 
vide for the prevention of the introduction and spread of cholera and 
other dangerous communicable diseases/' and to add four new sections 
thereto to stand as sections four, five, six and seven. 

Section L The Feuple of the State of Miohujan cmicf. That sec- 
tions on Of two and three of act number two hundred and thirty of the 
public acts of eighteen hundred and eighty -five, approved June twen- 
tieth, eigbteen hundred and eighty-five, entitled **An act to provide for 
the prevention of the introduction and spread of cholera and other 
dangerous communioabledisesBeB, " be and the same are hereby amended^ 
and four new sections are added thereto to stand as sections four, five, 
six and seven, bo that said section, as amended and the sections added 
thereto shall read as follows: 




Ixzviii 8TAT£ BOARD OF HilALTH.— REPORT OF SECRETART, IBM. 

Section 1. Whenever it ahall be Bhown to the satisfaction of the State 
Boaid of Health that oholera, diphtheria, or other dangerona oommaoi- 
cable disease exists in any foreign coontry, neighboring State^ or local- 
ity within this State, whereby the public health is imperiled, and it 
shall be further shown that immigrants, passengers or other persons 
seeking to enter this State or to travel from place to place within this 
State, are coming from any locality where snch dangerous communicable 
disease exists, and are likely to carry infection of such dangerous com- 
municable disease, the State Beard of Health shall be aathorized to 
establish a system of quarantine for the State of Michigan or for any por- 
tion thereof. 

Sec. 2. Such quarantine shall be for the purpose of preventing all 
immigrants, passengers or other persons under the circumstances men- 
tioned in section one of this act from entering the State or from going 
from place to place within the State, who, in the opinion of the State 
Board of Health, or in the opinion of an inspector duly appointed by said 
Board are likely to carry infection of cholera, small-poz, diphtheria or 
other dangerous communicable disease: and for the detention of all snch 
persons outside the Ixirders of the State, or if already within the State, 
at the placee where they may be or at the place they have been exposed 
to or have contracted such dangerous communicable disease, or at such 
suitable place as such Board may povide, during the period of the incu- 
bation of such disease, or of its existence if already developed, and until 
in the opinion of the State Board of Health such persons are free from 
all danger of infection. 

Sec. o. The State Board of Health is authorized to establish general 
rules, and by an inspector acting by virtue thereof, to detain railroad 
cars or other public or private conveyances whenever it shall be shown 
to the satisfaction of such Board, or to the inspestor as provided in such 
rules, that such cars or other conveyances contain any passenger, person 
or property which has been exposed to cholera, diphtheria, or other 
dangerous communicable disease, or when it shall be sl^pwn to the satis- 
faoticn of such Board or inspector as aforesaid, any passenger, person or 
prop^ny.are bping transported on such railroad cars or other public or 
private conveyance from any locality within or without this State where 
any such dangerous communicable disease exists and where under the 
circun: stances shown to such Board, such persons or property are likely 
to carry infection cf such dangerous communicable disease. In suoh 
case said Board may. by its duly constituted inspectors, remove , isolate, 
place under the care cf local boards of health, order to be returned to the 
places whence they came, or dispose cf in any other manner it may 
consider prcrer. all railrvad cars, or other conveyances, all pasaengera in 
suoh railrcad cars cr other ccnveyancea. when there is reason, as afore- 
said, to believe such may have contracted or become infected with any 
dacgercus ccmmunicabie disease, cr have been exposed cr infected by any 
such disease in a manner likely to render them bearers of infection. In 
case any person or property is detained by an inspector, for any of the 
purposes mentioned in this act. the party or parties interested shall have 
a ri^ht to a hearing before the said Board, and tbe decision of snch 
Boaid sliall be unal. ^ 

Sic 4. All such pexscnsL their bag^se and ether personal effects. 
•ad lU s t h coDT eya nce e shall be disinfected under such rules and reeula- 
I tte State Boeid of Health may establish for tbe purpose of car- 



REPORT OP WORK IN THE OFFICE OF THE SEC3RETARY. Ixxix 

ryiDg into effeot tbe provisioDB of this act before euoh persoDe or bag- 
gage or ooDveyBDoea aball be permitted to enter the State, or to prooeed 
to their or its deatinatioB if already in the State. 

Sec. 5. The State Board of Health is hereby authorized to oauee'tbe 
disinfeotioD of goods, meTohaDdtse, conveyance or other property wbioh 
they have reason to believe may carry thegerma of cholera or other dan- 
gerous oommonioable diaeafie, and nnder the oiTcnmBtancee mentioned 
IQ seotions two and three of this act, to prohibit the entry of enoh goods, 
merobandiae or other property into the State, or their being moved if 
within the State, until euoh diBinfeotion shall be aooomplished. 

Sec. 6. It eball be the duty of the State Board of Health to frame 
and publiab inlea for the inapeotion, isolation, detention and dieinfeotion 
contemplated in this act. Whoever shall wilfully violate the rules of the 
State Board of Health, made in pursuance of this act, or the order, by its 
duly appointed inspector, mad© in obedience to auoh rules, ehall be 
deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof shall be liable 
to payment of a fine of one hundred dollara and costs of prosecution, or 
imprisonment in the county jail for a period not to exceed ninety days, 
or both such tine and imprisonment, in the disoretton of the court, 

Sec. 7. Upon the written request of the State Board of Health and 
the Governor, the Auditor General is hereby directed to draw bia warrant 
on the State Treasurer from time to time for such sums of money as may 
be necessary to be used by the Stat© Board of Health to carry into full 
effect all the provisions of this act, said warrant to be paid from any 

I money in the State treasury to the credit of the general fund not other- 

I wise appropriated. 

I This act is ordered to take immediate effect. 

ft Approved April 26, 1893. 

In October, 1893, the Rules [No. 198] * 'Michigan Inspeotion of Immi. 
grants and Travelers" were revised and printed to the number of 500 
copies. The revised edition is as follows: 



MICHIGAN INSPECTION OF IMMIGRANTS AND TRAVELERS. 



BuLEs '* Fbamed and Published" by the Michigan State Board of 
Health, Under Act 230, Laws op 1885, as Amended 

BY Act 47, Laws op 1893, 

[lyo.J (RnvtstD Editiok; Skptzubke, lim,} 

The Miobigan titate Board of Healtb, having been informed, and 
believing that obolera, smallpox, typhus fever^ diphtheria, and other 
dangerous oommonioable diseases exist in various foreign countries from 
which immigrants are coming to the United States in large nnmbeiB/ 
and having reason to believe that many of these immigrants are likely to 
come into the State of Michigan, thereby imperiling the health 
and lives of the citizens, does hereby, as required by Act 230, Laws of 
1385, as amended by Act 47, Laws of 1893^ reestablisb tbe syetem of 



Ixxx STATE BOARD OF HEALTH,— REPORT OF SESORBTARY, 1894, 

quarantine heretofore declared, and frafDe aod publish the following 
revised rules relatiTe to inspeotion, isolation, detention and disinfeotion, 
contemplated in said Act. 

Rule 1. No railroad oorporstion, officer, employee, or person id 
charge of or connected with any railroad car< ferry, boat, or other pablio 
or private conveyance, shall bring or assist in bringing into this State 
any sick person, or any immigrant, or any baggage of any immi^ 
grant, or any other article liable to be infected, until such eiok 
person, immigrant, baggage, or article liable to be infected shall 
have been examined by an inspector autborized to act for the 
Michigan State Board of Heslth under Act 230, Laws of 1885, as 
amended by Act 47, Laws of 1893, nor until euob inspector shall have 
authorized the entry of such sick person, immigrant, baggage, or 
infected article; and no immigrant shall come into this State, or travel 
within the State, until inspected under these rules, and until authorized 
to do so by an inspector appointed or accredited by the Michigan State 
Board of Health. 

Whoever shall wilfully violate one of these rules or an order relative to 
such person, baggage, or article, the order having been made by such an 
inspector under the above-mentioned act, is liable to the penalty speci- 
fied in section six of the act referred to above, under which these roles 
are framed. 

DISINFECTION OF IMMIGRANTS' BAGGAGB. 

^ Rule 2. Except as hereinafter specifically excepted, all baggage ol 
all immigrantsand all containers of all such baggage, destined to pass into 
or through Michigan, must be detained until disinfected, under the direc- 
tion of an inspector authorized by the Michigan State Board of Health, 
by the following methods; — 

For disinfection of clothing and other articles made of wool, oottoi 
linen or silk, employ one of the two following methods: 

1. Boiling in water not less than one hour 

2. Exposure to steam not less than one hour, the steam to be not les 
than 212 degrees nor more than 239 degrees Fahrenheit. 

Leather trunks, boxes or other containers of baggage, also wearir 
apparel of leather or fur, and other articles liable to be injured by ' 
ing or by steam heat, must be opened, spread out, and exposed n* 
than three hours to sulphurous acid gas, made by burning not U* 
three pounds of roll sulphur to each one thousand cubic feet of 
the closed room in which the articles are exposed. 



ON 1. BaifgBge bearing a oertiticate issued by an tospeotor 
by the Michigan State Board of Health (wbf m^v bo abr 



Exception 1. 
accredited 

where such baggage has been landed), that said inspect- 
been dieiafected in accordance with the rulea of the Mi' . 
shall not be d&tainedj except by reaaoo of information obUiiu&> 
iBBuiDg of Buoh certificate. 

Exception *2. Immigranta' baggage cor 
broken or the cars opened in the 8iate of :• 
. Exception 3. Hand baggage of itiimigran* 
croBsed the oceao in ahipa nninfeoted with i 
bearing a certificate of diBtnfection, issued ' 
the Michigan State Board of Health, ae p 
fected, unless by reason of aubeequent "* 




REPORT OP WORK IN THE OPPIC3E OP THB 



ExcEPTioif 4. (Adopted October 28, 1893.) loapectorB at th« MioMjig 
to Bccept and allow to pasB all baggage bearing evidence from a 
DotoiQioQ or Provincial official, that it hae been diaiofeoted m i 
Rules of this Board, unless there ia reason to believe that Baoli 
infected einoe leaving the Caoadian point of disinfeotioo. 




DISINFECTION OF PERSONS AND CLOTHIS, 

RtTLE 3. All immigrants and all persona known to have recently had 
cholera, or diarrheal or other aiokness likely to have been cholera, ana 
all peraona, who, for any reason, are likely to harbor on their persona or 
wearing apparel the germs of cholera or other dangerous oommunioiw* 
diaease, shall be required to have a thorough bath ia warm w^'^t^^ 
taining one draohm of oorroBive anbltmatd to eaoh five gallona <« ^ f^^ 
and to have his or her wearing apparel removed from tb* p«i** **• 
dieinfected, by tbe methodB above described. 

DUTIES OF INSPECTORS. 

Rule 4. Every inspeotor of immigranta and travel*** 5 
border daly appointed or recognized by the MiqMj^ ^ 
Health is reqoired to order the detention of all »J2j 
enter the 8tate of Michigan until euob inspector •!•". 
tbe name» nationality, place of embarkation, d 
physical condition of eaoh auoh immigrant. 

RcLE 5. When stich inspector is convinced, ff^ 
otberwiee, that any immigrant orojeed the oof^ 
with cholera, small pox, typhus fever, diphth**' 
communicable diaease, and that §uoh immig'^' 
disease, or the infection of auch disetaa, ^/" 
haggttge has been disinfected in accordtfMe ^' 
HQch immigrant ahall be permitted to proo^' 
should aoob immigrant b- "^"^^ to be me^ ^ 
to any such dangerone o^^ M(P^^^ dm^ 
lion of such disease ^m^^^^rn^^* 
present in th« peraqn ^|Bj[[| | or h* 
infected in accordanc :>- 

allowed to enter th 
8tate« until the f 
Mioblt'Hn Stale 
by Bu ' 

la Ihr 




ters in 



iJeoently 
a around 
idem to of 

vs: 



Ixxxii BTATB BOARD OF flEAJjTIL— REPORT OF BECRBTARy, 1894. 

baggage, or other pereone or baggage, the inspector should be sure that 
DO lawful local requiremetit is oontravened, and, if tbeie is danger of 
tbie» that the local health authorlfies have such timely notice that they 
may themselyes either oontinne the quarantine safeguards, or notify a 
United States Inspector, whose iDstruotione should require him, in 
acoordanoe with Sec* 3, of the Act of Congress, approved Feb. 15, 1893, 
to ''aid State and municipal boards of health in the exeontion and 
enforcement of the rules and regulations of such boards/' 

EuLE 7. Dangerous communicable diseases being now present in 
every country from which immigfants are coming into Miobigan, no 
immigrant, and no traveler or other person believed by the State Boaidi 
of Health or by its authorized in spec tor to have been exposed to and 
liable to convey cholera, diphtheria or other dangeroue communicable 
disease, shall paes through Michigan, or from one township, city or vil- 
lage to another within the State, without permission from the State Board 
of Health or its authorized inspector, 

It ii not the dasii^ of thlt BoRrd to lintalQ imm^g^rantA or travolert nnOiMWiMiiritr. or to caose them i 
anaoytkoee or iacomrealeaoa beyond wbitt iio«m« to it reqalBlta to eusara the pnblic safotr. The mlM 
haa aidopted edom cleartjr nMMtary, and if intelligently enforced na«d oanse but brief detentiott on tJ 
ffTAAt iTiRftB of immij^mnte, and bnt little expeaee to Ham of tmiisiKirtatlon. 

The State Buarti eipecto i nt«lli vent, disc raet. and boneat aerrioe from ita inapeotorB, as it may be 
largejj thronffh tbe ^fTentiTe and thoroiurh work tbey may do, that the passaceof immigrants into ftiul 
tbroDffh Miohi^ao abail be rendered harmleae to the citisena of MichlgaJi. 

Adopted by the Michigan State Board of Health, June 16, 1893, and 
amended September 30, 1893. 

[Official.] 

Attest: FRANK WELLS, Pbesident. 

HENBY B, BAKER, Secretary, 

[Additional roles, under this same laWp espeoially relating to internal 

quarantine, will probably be issued hereafter.] 

At the meeting of the Miohigao State Board of Health, at Lansing, 

September 30, 1893, the following reeolntion was unanimously adopted: 

''Resohedf That it is the will of this Board that the President and 

Secretary continue to take enob action as may be necessary to enforce 

the rules of this Board and to enforce quarantine at the Michigan border 

and within the State against diseases dangerous to the public health, and 

to compel any railroad company operating within the Stat© to obey the 

State health laws, and the rules and regnlationg of the State Board of 

Health made under the law." 

Henry B. Bakeb, 

Secretary. 



8AN1TABY PDBUCATIONB DURING THE FISCAL YEAB 1894. 



The two-page leaflet relative to the dangerous communicable dlseaaes, in 
several different languages, was reprinted, from plates, to the number of 
3,000 copies each, as follows:— In the French [No, 68], in Swedish [No. 
701, in Danish-Norwegian [No. 69], and in Polish [No. 73]. 

The slip relative to consumption being a '* Disease Dangerous to the 
Public Health" was reprinted several times during the year. In Oct. 
1893, it was printed to the number of 5,000 copies, in January, 1894, 



I 






REPORT OP WORK IN THE OFFICE OP THE SECRETARY. Ixxxiii 

5,000 oopiee. And in June, 1894, to the number of 5,000 copies. [The 
slip IB printed on page Isvii of this Eeport.] 

In Jantiary, 1894» 2,000 copies of the diagrammatio leaflet *'Chart I.** 
and ''Chart IL/' ehowing the relation of typhoid fever to sewerage and 
water supply in eities of this and other countries, were reprinted for 
distribution. 

In January, 1894, 15,000 oopies of the pamphlet [No. 110.] "The 
Restriction and Prevention of Scarlet Fever" were reprinted for distri- 
bution. 

In February, 1894, there were printed 2,000 copies of the two-page 
leadet of diagrams ** Lives Saved by Public Health Work,*' and "Iso- 
lation and Diainfeotion Restricted Scarlet Fever and Diphtheria in Mich- 
igau during the 5 years 1886-90. " During this same month there were 
printed 2,000 copies of the two-page leaBet of diagrams "'Deaths in Mich- 
igan, years 1876-87 " on one side and " Pathogenic Microorganisms 
*Germs' of Disease" on the other side; also 2,000 oopies of the two-page 
leaflet of diagrams sbowiog the results of "Isolation and Disinfection" 
in the reetriotion of soarlet fever in Michigan in 1890 and in 1891. 

In May, 1894, there were printed 2,000 copies of the twcpage leaflet 
diagram showing the introduction of sewers and water supply in Munioh 
and a coincident reduction of typhoid fever, and showing alao the rela- 
tion of "Low Water in Welle" and the prevalence of Typhoid Fever. 
During the same months several other leaflet diagrams were printed : 
2,000 copies of "laolation and Dieinfeotion Reatricted Typhoid Fever in 
Michigan in 1890" and W^orld's Fair Diagram No, 14 "Low Water in 
Welle and Sickness from Typhoid Fever in Michigan, 12 years, 1878 and 
1880-90": 2,000 copies of "Isolation and Disinfection Restricted Scarlet 
Fever in Michigan in 1890" and "Isolation and Dieinfection Restricted 
Scarlet Fever in Michigan in 1891"; 2,000 copies of ** Deaths in Michi- 
gan, years, 1876-87 " and " Pathogenio Microorganisms ' Germs ' of 
Diseases"; and 2,000 oopies of "Lives Saved by Public Health Work" 
and *' Isolation and Disinfection Restricted Scarlet Fever and Diphtheria 
in Michigan during the 5 years, 188G-90. " 

During the month of May, 1894, a new oiroular [Ko. 211.], "Local 
Quarantine Regulations," was printed to the number of 2,500 copies. 
The circular is printed here, as follows: — 



LOCAL QUARANTINE REGULATIONS. 



[3811.] 



Circular Issued by the Michigan State Boabb of Health, 

May, 1891 



To the Preiuletds of Local Boards of Health and Local Health Offl^ 
cprs at Ports on the Great Lakes or othei" Navigahle Waters in 
Michigan: — 

Gentlemen — The danger from small- pox is now imminent. Recently 
a meeting of delegates of State Boards of Health of States around 
Chicago, was held in Chicago because of the continued epidemic of 
smalLpox in that city, and one resolution adopted was as follows: 




IxxziT STATE BOARD OF HSALTH^SEFORT OP SECBETABT, UM. 

be alkMPid to «B«ar flsr vast 
Abin«C 

S«ction8 165&-66 inelanva of Howeira Statutes (MctioiM 71-78 of my 
compilation of the Pablie Health laws) give local boaxda of health 
powers of control over quarantine, bat only after the local board shall 
have made and pnhliiked regulations. There is now nnnsnal danger from 
small-pox. Any day it may be brought to any jport in Michijgan, and if 
no regulations have been made and published the local board of health 
may be powerless to control the movements of the Teasel, its offioera or 
crew. Therefore it is important that every local board of health whose 
jurisdiction borders upon une of the great lakes or upon one of the 
*^ principal rivers or straits connecting together any of said lakes or bor- 
dering upon any navigable waters uniting with any of the said riveny or 
straits," shall make and publish regulations relative to quarantine. 

In framing regulations it will probably be well for your local board of 
health to have the advice of the official attorney of the city or village, the 
prosecuting attorney of the county or some other capable attorney. 

Other sections of law than those mentioned above should be consulted, 
especially sections 1636, 1639-55 and 1659 of Howell's Statutes. 

Publication of the regulations is necessary in accordance with How- 
eirs, § 1639. 

The nature of the regulations may not need to be the tame at every 
port, but they should all be sufficiently general to be applicable to any 
conditions liable to occur. One regulation may be somewhat as follows: 



** Xo ▼easel from Chicego or any other port near which small-pox or other 
oommanicable dr'eeee^ ie epideiaic, shall be permitted to [enter this port? ] land a pea- 
seoger or discharge baggage or freight within the jurisdiction of this board of health* 
except [b7 special permission of the health officer of this jarisdiction?] in aooordanoa 
with regulations hereinafter spedflM.** 

Another regulation may specify the duties of the health officer under 
the foregoing regulation, including reference to the bill of health 
required of each vessel.* 

One regulation should require that 

** Except by permissioD of the health officer or other special officer of the local board 
of health in charge of soch hospital, no person shall enter or depart from and no article 
shall be removed from mnf isolation hospital, residence, vessel, or other place in which 
anj person sick or infected with a dangerous communicable disease has been ordered 
to remain by the local health officer or the local board of health." 

One regulation may be as follows: — 

** No person sick with diphtheria, scarlet fever (scarlatina, scarlet rash, rash fever), 
small pox, or anj other dangerous communicable disease ; no corpee of a person dead 
from one of the above-named diseases, or from anj other dangerous oommonicable 
disease; no person who has lately had any such disease, and no article which has been 
infected or is liable to propagate or convey any such disease, shall be moved about, 
removed therefrom, or be brought within this [township, citv. or village, as the case 
may be] or go or be carried out of this [township, city, or village] without the q>eoial 
permit and direction of the health officer or the board of health thereof. 

'*The foregoing regulations shall remain in force until revoked by the board ct health 
of this [township, city, or village]. 



*T1m U. 8. Mariiw Ho«i>iUl SwtIm has a •teim vaanl with ofBoar and sMlatuita to board M^venel 
as it leavM tlM rivOT at ChlcMo ao that aof vaMsl mtitlad to it can UMn auilj obtain a ** Bm ol 
and eaa ako bava its ofBeen and emw varrinatwd. 



I 



I 



REPORT OP WORK IN THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY. Ixxxv 

** Whoever violatee the foref^oing rei^ulatioDB iuoure the peoaltj of the law. 

" Permita for the removal of infected persone or articles, in accordance with law, 
may be granted by this boards and. when the board ie not in eeaaion, by the health offi- 
cer, under circumBtaoceaand condttiocsaa reoommended by the State Board of Health. 
"Signed, 



**M€mber9 of the Board of Health of the [townihip, ciii/, or village of j." 

In oaee a veeeel with infection of a dangerous diaeaee on board, arrivee 
within your joiigdiction before jour board hae published regulations, a 
meeting of the board should immediately be held, regulations ehoutd be 
made, and published at once. No length of time of publioution is speci* 
fied in the law* 

ISOLATION HOSPITAL. 

In oaee em all -pox or other dangerous oommunioable disease is brought 
to your jurisdiction, it will be neoesBary to have a hospital in which to 
isolate infected persons. Sections 1647-8 and 1667-74 of Howell's Stat- 
utes relate to this subject. 

The proper management of such isolation hospital requires that regu- 
lations shall have been made by the local board of health, under 
eeotione 1635^6 ; and all such regulations must have been published 
under section 16B9, Howelfs Statutes. 

Regulations relative to any iaolatioD hospital or hospitals whioh may 
be established in your jurisdiction should be made nat£7 and published. 
On the occurrence of small-pox or other dangerous oommunioable disease 
the chances are that a special hospital wilt be neoeseary. This seems to 
be imperatively required by § 1671 Howell's Statutes. But even if a* 
case is isolated in the residence where it occurs, that residenca must 
then be treated (under HowelTs § ir>72) as an isolation hospital, and 
regulations whioh will be applicable to such cases should be made now 
and published. 

NOTICES TO THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

In case a dangerouB communioable disease such as small-pox, scarlet 
fever, or diphtheria, occurs on board a vesael, information should be 
promptly given the Secretary of the State Board of Health ; of the place 
from whioh the vessel came, and the place to which the vessel is or was 
going, the places at which the vessel has recently stopped, the places at 
which the vessel will probably stop after leaving your port, where the 
vessel ie at the time you telegraph, and where the vessel is likely to be 
for the next 12 or 15 hours; also the name of the disease, and of the 
person eick or infected, end the final destination of such person. This 
information is important, in order to enable this State office to aid other 
localities in preventing the introduction and spread of a dangerouB 
disease. 

Any aid which the office of the State Board of Health can give your 
locality will be cheerfully rendered. 

By direction of the State Board of Health, 

Henry B. Baker, 
Office of the Secretary, State Board op Health, { Seireiary, 

Lansing^ May 19^ 1894, \ 




Ixxxvi STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.-RBPOKT OF SECRETARy, 1894. 



In May, 1894, tbe two-page leaflet on **Now ib a good titne to be Vaooin- 
ated'' was revised somewhat and printed to the number of 5,000 oopiee, 
for general distribution through tbe State, 

In June, 1894, the pamphlet on *'Tbe Reethotion and Prevention of 
Consumption'* [No. 175] was reprinted to. the number of 10,000 oopies. 

The oiroular '* blue-letter" [162], relative to Typhoid Fever was 
amended considerably and 1,000 copies were printed. Tbe amended edi- 
tion reada as followa: — 

liiCBiaAV State Boabd or Ekalth,^ 
Ofpick or thb Becbxtabt, > 



Il«3,] 



Lantifta, UieMtmn, iss. 



Health OStcer of 



Deab Sir:— I am informed that Tjplioid F«¥er Is pr«««m,t In your iarUdictlon, Bf m^W I Bend yoo one 
oopf of a p4itiiphl«t [ 120] whicbfftTea atioatiiae of the doties of tbe Health OEflcer and of the Ex>oal Board 

of Health. 1 alec «ead yon copiee of a dooacneot [tU] laBtied hj ttiia State Board of Health relatlre 

to tbe preTention of typhoid fever, t troat yon will distribote the doetimente aeot to yoa where they will 
do the mofit good; and It U baileTed that if dietribated to the family and to the Deighbors of the famUy 
Id which thie dieeRee is, the docamoute rrill be most Ukelj to be read with lateraet &Dd profit. 

It is of ImportaDoe that prompt, thoroafh. and peratetent meaforee be emp!or«d for the reetrlotlon of 
thedieeaee. Act No. 137, Laws of 1S§3 (printed on page three of oar pamphlet No. IM, oa *' Work of 
Health Offloer«")t reqiilree the health ifdioer to act promptly, evea if hie Board takee no aetioa. DLree- 
tioov for dieiafectioa are ffifen m detaji in eiMsti eopr of the docomeat mlaClDc to tbi» diaease. aeot to 
ron. 

in order to make the meaanreB reoommeaded tnoet effeotaal, it la neoeeaarf to oecare, either from the 
hoaeeholder or the phyalolao, prompt notice of each <»ee of thi« dieease. Bf proper effort it ie believed 
tbat th«9e notioee mar be eeoared under tbo law ae eet forth in gg I87&, 1874, 1684, 8430. 8440 and g442 of 
Howair* Annotated 8tfttQtee. ^ 1675 and 1676 of Hoveirt Statatea were modified b^ Aet No. 11, LawB of 
IBBS. f{ 1675 of Ho well 'e BtatnteB was a«ala afnended by Act 87, La we of 1869. 

I tmat FDR and roar Board of Health will do all that le poeaible to restrict this diaeaee. Yoor aistioD 
ahoald be prompt, efficient and par«iataat. Aar aid which thia o£&Qe mar be able to give joq will be 
cheerfolljr rendered. 

After the outbreak i» over, I woQld be pleaaed to teoalTe from fcm. a Anil report of thia ontbreak (for 
which a blank will be eent to roa later), whloh report, la order to he of the ^reiteaC ttee in iriving 
knowledge of the modea of apreading this dleease and of the beet metbode for ita reAtrlotloQ aod preren- 
tJOQi shoald be exaot and explicit ; then abatraota of repUee from localltiee wbere thia diaeaee oocara will, 
when combined, give valnable knowledge which mar he pabllahed for general nae in the Annaal Beporta 
of thla Board. Thie being one object In view, jonr repliee t^ the qaeetlone are argentlr solicited. The 
an^were to the qneaUona \u the blank for final reporte are important for the parpoae of aeriairing a oor- 
reot knowledge of how tf phoid fever ia spread; and it la enggeated that while the health officer is on the 
premleee where the first case oocarred, that he make a memorandnm of the circnmstancea, aa he will then 
be able to Queetion members of the fatnilr relative to eneb ana wars aa be hiDieelf oaimot atxpplr* The 
Qneati^one lo the fioal report, to which repliee will be asked, are printed on the back of thi» eheet. 

A blank form with a staniped envelope, will be sent for roar final report. A finai report la deeired eireo 
if there has been ockir one case in ronr jariediction. 

Pieaat mafc*? aptcial totekfti reporU. cm blanlu Ufkick J tend you bt/ thi* mail, to iong oj (JW dUetue Uut*, 

Br direction of the SUU Board of Health. 

Verr reepe«tfQllr, 

HKiTHt B. Bakes* Secrelarv. 



IWYBSTIQATION OF AN OUTBREAK OF TYPHOID FEVER. 



quzsTioiT& wmoH should bx ahbwebzd im thz luru. kkfobt. 

1. What waa the dbeaoe caUed by the attending phyaiciaii?* 

2. In what townahip, Tillage, or city did each of the caaea oecor? 

3. How WHS the diaeaee introdnoed into ronr Jtirtedlotion? 

4. What waa the origin of the dioease? 

* Trphoid faTer, trpho^malarlal feveri contiaaed fever, etc., aa the oaae mar be. 



REPORT OF WORK IN THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY. Ixxxvii 

8. If uiy bMide tho firat oua were sick, how djd they contract the diMMe? 
6. Wh«ti w&s thB flrtC oaae taken siok, ami wbeo did the lait caw die, or roooTer? 
7> At tlia b«ciimLo« of this outbreak lo how many hooMhold* wai thia diaeaM? 
8* At the oJoae of thii ootbroak ia how many hooaeholdft ha« this dleeaee bwn? 
9> How manj eaaei war* there In this oatbreaki and how manT died? 

10. FnrrJona to beioff taken aiok, what waa the ordiuarj eoortM of drinking water of the flret poraoQ 
tAken tick in thla outbreak? 
It If from a well, how manr pfiTiaa are within one hnndred feet of thla well? 

12. Haa there been any Biokaeu from an-v fever daring the Laat twelfe montha in an; of the panoae 
nmiag one of theae pririee? If so, what wae the fever? 

13. How mach more or lass than the neoal depth of water waa there In the well joat prflrlooa to, or at 
the time of. the beginning of thiii oatbroak? 

II » Waa water from eoma other a<iaroe drank about eeven to fonrteea daya prevlona to bevinnlng' of 
aiokaea*? 

15. Whan (bow many montba or yeara iso) wa« there a eaaa of typhoid fever on the pr<»miM« wbesra tba 
Arat oaae of thla oatbreak oooarFed? 

li. In ChJM outbreak, ware all of the bowel dltchaivea, of all the aiok. dlaiafeoted before being removed 
from the booae? For which patient waa this done? On what day of the elokaeea was it began? How 
ranch of what diainfaotant was oaed for each diac barge? 

17. What waa done with tba bawel diaebargea from each of the patienta? 

IB. How mneh of what diainfeetant was need in the privy vanlt need by the patlant? Abdnt how many 
cubic feet of excreta are now In the privy vanlt? 

10. Waa the clothing or baddlaj; which waa aoUed by the dlaohargea of the patlant thoronghly dlaln* 
feoted? For which of the patients was this done? 

20, Waa the room which the patient oocnpied white elok, together with ita contents, dlsiofeetad with 
bomlng eolphor? If eo, how mnoh enlphnr waa bnrnedP How maoh was thie iMr thoaaand cable feet of 
air epa«e? For which of the patients wae this done? 

21. Wae everything which came In contact with a atok pereon deatroyed by fire. <St dialnfeoted 
Ihoronghly? How? 

12, Waa the water from the walls on or near the Infaetfld promieee boiled before being drank? If eo, 
when waa the aati of boiled water commanood? How long oontlnoed? 

tL What alae waa done to raetriot the apraad and prevent the reappearance of tba diaaase? 

M. After the first peraoQ waa taken aiek what exoeptlone were there to the oomplete aoeompllehment 
of the foregoing meaanrea,— diainfection of excrata. boiling of water drank, etc. ? 

25. In this ontbreak. how many of the c»aea can yon trace to a previooa caaa? *" 

£0. What are the evidences of snaeees of the efforta at reatrietion? 

23. What facts bear on the sabject of the period of ineobation? 

I Jane 11, 1894» copies of a new form for ealarj youchers for the use of 
I the office were printed, as follows: — 



I. 

Beoalvad of the Anditor General a warrant npon the Treasarer of the State of Uichigan for the aum of 

... doiiara and centa* to apply on ealary. 

Lansing. ..^.189. 

I bereby oartify that the above amount ia daa. 



Secretary State Board of Health. 
No 

BAI^ABT V0t70HSB. 
• 

Balarfae . R. T. t._.„. 

To apply on salary as in the ofiioeof the State Board of Health for month of ...... 189.. 

Andited ...IbS,.. 



^«tdt(ar General* 




Ixixviii STATE BOARD OP HEALTH.— REPORT OP SECRETARY, 189L 



SECOND ANNUAL CONFEBBNCB OF MICHIGAN HEALTH OPFICKB8, AT ANN ARBOR, 

JUNE U AND Ifl. IBH. 

The Seoood Annual Conference of Miobigan Health Officers was held 
at the State Laboratory of Hygiene, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Jone 14 and 
15, 1894, for the pfeaentation of facte and the general ooropariaon of views 
by health offioere and other delegates of local boards of health among 
themaeivee and with the membera of the State Board and others, with 
espeoial referenoe to the three important preventable diBeaaes, namely 
— CoDBumption, Typhoid fever, and SmalUpox. Besides a large nomber 
of health officers and delegates from local boards of health in Michigan, 
tbeie were present representatives of other State Boards of Health, andi 
the Health Commissioner of Chicago. Numerous valuable addreasea were 
made, and the disouasioDs were especially interesting and important. 
The proceedings of the meeting were printed in pamphlet form [Reprint 
No. 417]. 



INSTEUCTIONS TO NEWLY-APPOINTBD HEALTH 0FFICKB8. 

Ab fast as the names and addresses of health officers for 1894-95 were 
received, a copy of the pamphlet [120] detailing the duties of health offi- 
cers was sent to eaoh, together with blanks ''L" for the prompt report of 
dangerous communicable diaeasea, and sample oopiea of the pamphlets on 
the restriotion and prevention of diphtheria, scarlet fever, typhoid fever, 
measles, consumption and smalLpoi, a pamphlet reprint on the **Eeatric- 
tion and Prevention of the Dangerous Communioable Diseases*' and a 
copy of eaoh of two two-page leaflet diagrams, one exhibiting the 
experience in restricting dipbtheria in 1889-90, and one exhibiting 
the experienoe in restricting scarlet fever in 1890-91, and in some 
instances a copy of the pamphlet containing the laws relating to publio 
health in force in Michigan in 1890. 



HEALTH BULLETINS, WEEKLY, MONTHLY^ AND QUABTEBLTT, 

The weekly reports of diseasea received up to Wednesday of the week 
following the week for which they are made, are oompiled on that day, 
week by week» and a bulletin, based on that compilation, is sent for pub- 
lication to a number of newspapers, and to sanitary and medioal journals. 
A telegraph 10 abBtraot from the compilation ia also sent weekly to a 
Michigan Press Association. A specimen of this weekly bulletin can be 
found on page sii of the Report for 1884; and a later specimen of the 
weekly bulletin can be found printed here, as follows:— 




REPORT OF WORE IN THE OFFICE OF THE SECRBTART. Izzxix 



HBALTH IN MICHIGAN. 

B«porU to Um Stata Boud of Health, lAiuinc. by obaer?«n in different parte of the State, ehow 
imum whioh oaoeed meet •ioknew in Michigan daring the week ending Jane 10, 1884, ae foUower— 



Namber of regalar obaerren heard from 80. 



Dii 



I arranged in order of graat- 
t area of preTaleooe. 



Menralgia 

Diarrhea 

Intermittent tarn 

Coneomption, pnlmonary. 

TonaUlitla. 

Bronchitis 

Inflammation of kidney... 
Cholera morbos. 



Bemittent fbrer 

Whooping-ooogh 

Inflammation of boweU.... 

Scarlet f^er 

PleoriUs 

Diphtheria 

Cholera inftmtom. 

Brjaipelaa 

Meaalee 

Inflammation of brain 

Dyeenterj 

Tjphoid foTer (enteric) .. 

Pnenmonia 

Cerebro-apinal menlngitiB. 

Tjpho-malarial feTer 

Membranoac oronp 

Small-poz_ 

Paerperal f erer 



Per cent of 
obeerrera 
wlio re- 
ported the 

pietMxt. 



For preced- 
ing week. 



Per cent of 



who re* 
ported the 



For the week ending Jane SO, 1894, the poetal-oard reporto indicate that inflnenia and intermittent 
fierer increased, and that bronchitis decreased in area of preralence. 

At the State Capitol, for the week ending Jane 30. 1894, compared with the preceding week, the pre- 

TaiUng direction of the wind was the same (sonth-west), the Telocity was 8.1 miles per hoor greater; the 

tampsratare was 8.15 degrees higher ; the rainfall was .85 of an inch more ; the absolnte hamidity was 

mora, the relatiTC homidlty was slightly less ; the day and the night oaone 

L. 



zc STATE BOARD OF HEAI/TH.— REPORT OF SEOBBTABT. IBM. 

Ineladiog nporti by ratnlar obMrren and othan, oontumpKon was reported p r eae at dnring tfa» wmk. 

eading Jane to, and ainoe at two hundred and ttoenty plaoaa ; toarlet fever at fortihiwo plaoea— Allan Tp.i 

Bancor, Beaaemer, Benton Harbor. Bailer Tp., Garmel Tp.. Ck>noord Tp., Galnmat Tp., Clareodoii Tp., 

Onmtning Tp., Detroit, Duncan Tp., Flint, FoltonTp , Grand Bapida,GreenTiUa, Uarrlaon Tp.« HoogiitaB, 

Inceraoli Tp.. Kalamazoo, Lebanon Tp., Mnakeffon, Menominee, Midland, North Haakecoa, OtiM0 1^ 

Grid, Ononda^ Tp., Owoeao, Petoekej, Pontiao. Plainiield Tp., Porter Tp., Salem Tp.. Baffinaw, St. Glalr. 

8 Johna, Storvia. Sonth Frankfort, Sidnej Tp., Walton Tp., and Ipailanti ; meaeiea at tMrtM-two plaoaa 

Albert Tp., Big EUpida, Bloomincdale. Bloomlngdale Tp., Cheeter Tp., Clifford. Conoord, Conoocd Tp^ 

Oasco Tp., Dewitt Tp., Otand Bapida, Groreland Tp., Ionia, Interior Tp., Kimball Tp., Lodingtmi, Maa- 

ebeaterTp., Mendon, Maniatee, Moakegon, MiddleTille, Norvell Tp.. Parma, Pljmoath, PlainHald Tp., 

Fantwater. Saranao. Spring Arbor Tp., Sebewaing, YermontTille, Walea Tp., and Yale; diphtheria at 

twenty-three plaoea— Allen Tp., Alpena, Anrelioa Tp.. Bay City, Calnmet Tp., CheboygaiP, Cbeatar Tp>, 

Detroit, Grand Bapida, Kalamaaoo, Koylton Tp.. Menominee, Monroe, Paria Tp., Solon Tp., SootTllla, 

Saginaw, Sherman Tp., St. Johna, St Lonia, Talmoa Tp.. Vermontrille Tp., and Wixaon Tp. ; ti/photd 

fever at iwetUv-one plaoea— Albion, Beaaemer. Calnmet Tp., Caaoo Tp., Groawall, Conway Tp., CanoATilla, 

Chrand Rapida, Kalamasoo. Kenockea Tpn Mackinaw City, Menmninee, Marine City, Monroe, Owoeao, 

Biehland, Eiohiand Tp., Saginaw, St. Johna, Thetford Tp., and Walea Tp. ; ematl-pox at ten plaoea B ar- 

lin Tp., Bay City, Detroit, Frenohtown Tp.. Farmington Tp., Grand Bapida, Maoomb Tp., Ptmtlao, Stor- 

gia, and Tpailanti ; one oaae of anapected typhui fever at Goblerille. 

HsNBT B. Bakxb, 

LanetrtOf Michioan, July 8, 1894, Secretary- 

This Bubjeot of disBemination of information by means of bnlletins is 
treated of in the artiole on ''Time of Greatest Prevalence of eaoh Dis- 
ease," on page 84 Annual Report of this Board for 1893. 

Beginning with the month of August, 1884, a monthly health bulletin 
has been Issued immediately after the olose of eaoh month, for the use of 
sanitary and medioal journals. Beginning with the bulletin for the 
month of September, 1889, a third column was added, being the average 
for the bulletin month in the preceding series of years, beginning witn 
the year 1886. This enables the reader to make a comparison of the pre- 
valence of eaoh disease in the last preceding month with the same disease 
in the corresponding month in the preceding series of years. An example 
of this form of bulletin was printed on pages zlv-zlvi. of the Report for 
1890; and the bulletin for the month of May, 1894, is printed here, 
pases xcii-xciii. 

At the close of each quarter these monthly bulletins are consolidated for 
the Secretary's ''Quarterly Report of Work in the Office," comparing the 
•ommunicable diseases this quarter with the preceding quarter to loam 
their increase or decrease ; including also the meteorological conditions 
and the sickness fiom all causes compared with the preceding quarter, 
and with the average for corresponding quarters for the series of years 
beginning with 1886. 

DIAGBAMS OF INSTBUOTIYE EXPEBIENOE IN MIOHIGAN. 

Two two-page leaflet diagrams, "Isolation and Disinfection Restrict 
Diphtheria," and "Isolation and Disinfection Restrict Scarlet Fever, " 
have been printed and many hundreds of them distributed as heretofore 
mentioned. They exhibit, in a condensed form, the experience of the 
health officers in Michigan, with these two important diseases, in eaoh of 
the years 1890 and 1891. The evidence in them is similar to that in 
similar diagrams which have been published for other years; therefore 
the evidence gains greatly in strength. 



RBPOBT OF WORK IN THE OFFICE OF THE SEORBTABT. zci 



▲BSTRA0T8 OF PBOOEEDINGB OF MEETINGS OF THE STATE BOABD. 

Abstraota and brief aooounta of the prooeediDgs at meetings of the 
State Board of Health are prepared, printed and distriboted soon after 
the reffolar meetings of the Board. (Eztraots from these abstracts are 
printed on preceding pages of this Report.) The distribution of the 
pamphlet Proceedings is not the same for all meetings, being to different 
olasses of persons, according to the nature of the contents, in some 
instances being sent to teachers and school officers, in other instances to 
health officers, etc. 

sbobbtaby's quabtbblt bepobts of wobk in the offiob. 

At the close of each quarter the Secretary prepares a brief report of 
work done in the Office. This report is presented and generally read at 
the next regular or special meeting; and, if the abstract of proceedings of 
the meeting is printed, the report is printed in the pamphlet. 



BEPBINT& 

Reprints, of articles in the Report and in Proceedings of Sanitary Oon- 
ventions, have been made in pamphlet form, and sent in answer to qne- 
riea, in letters, that can best be answered in that manner. For example, 
many reprints of the article relative to alleged nuisances in the preced- 
ing year, have been thus sent out, in response to questions. 



zcii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.-REFORT OF SECRETARY, 1894. 



HEALTH IN MICHIGAN. MAY, 1894. 

Beporti to the State Board of Health, LAnsiog, by obeetrere in differoat parts of the State, bIk>w tfce 
dlMaaee whloh oanaed the moat eiokneee in Michigan daring the month of May (B weeki aDdinc Jnne <)• 
mt, aa followa:- 



Nnmber of reports reoeived 
for this month 858. 



Diseases amuged in order 

of greatest preralenoe in 

this month. 



Rheumatism 

NeoralgU— 

Bronehitis 

Tonsillitis 

Consnmption, pnlmonary.. 

Ififloena 

Diarrhea 

Pnenmonia 

Intermittent fever 

Inflammation of liidDey ... 

Measles 

Brysipelas 

SearletfeTer 

iDflammation of bowels... 

Remittent ferer 

Pleurltis 

WhoopingKJoogh. 

Diphtheria.. 

Cholera morbns 

Typhoid ferer (enteric).... 

Dysentery 

Inflammation of brain 

Cholera infantum 

Membranous croap 

Puerperal feyer. 

Ccrebro-spinal.menlngitis 

Typho-malarial feyer. 

Bmall-poz 



Per cent of reports stating 
presence of disease. 



May 



AprU 
1(M. 



At. for 
May. 



For the month of May, UM, compared with the preceding month, the preraiUiic diraetioa of tfaa 
was northwest (instead of northeast), the Telocity was slightly greater ; the temperatora waa 8.iS 
higher i the rainfall at LacsiDg was 8.21 inches more ; the abcolute and relative humiditf and Um dav 
night oaone, were much more and the depth of water in tlie well at Lansing was two inahea mora. 

For the month of May, 18M, compared with the preceding month, isfloena and planiltia 
area of preralsnM. 



RSPORP OP WORK IN THE OPPXCE OP THB SECRETARY. 



XOUl 



3ompuad vitfa tbe Ar«n«« for ootreapondinB mootlu Id th» si<ht yean, ISS^fSOU, the prersiliiic 
difMtion of tbA irixid wm oortb-west (Lutoad of ftoixth>wwt), the ▼•loeity wat oaa inila p»r boar gnatm ; 
Ilia tomiMintara was alightlr lower ; tbe raiatall mt Laualas wu 2M mebes mora; tbe Bbsotnte and rala< 
tlve bnmtdity w«re more : the da; otoae wae Ie«i. the olgbt otoiia wsa more, <uid the depth of water ia tbe 
well at LAiuLac was two Lnchee lew Lo May , IS9A. 

Compared with tbe arenice for eorreapondlag moatha in tbe elffbt yeani, lS88^198lt eearlet ferer waa 
more |H«Taleat, a&d remltteot fevert iatermltteat fever and plearltla we«« leai prevalent In Blay, 18M. 

Ia«liidln« report* by regalar obaerren and otbaca, eonMumpHon wu reported preeent in Ulohi«an In 
tbemo3th o( Miy. tSOI. at tw3 huvf rei aad fwmfy plaeai ; mwulea at one hundred and thirty plaeea; 
ioarlel/<fv<n'atOA«^iiA{r«dand eighl plajse; dipktfuria at mv9iUv-tioo plaoee ; typhrOuifevfraX tktrtif 
plaoee, and aiaalf-pcxr at w««!n pbuea. 

Bvporte from all aoareee ahow coiumntpfion, reported at the aame namber of places as In tbe preoedloff 
momtti; mioil'ts *U fifty-flee ptaoea more; diphtheria at eleven plaoee more; KarUt f<nier at ten pLaoea 
more; tifphoid fever at tuto plaoaa leaa and fmali-pcu at one plaoe more in tbe month of May. LBfil, thui In 
the precedlac month. 

Hknbt B. Baksb, 

Lanaing^ MIekiQan, Jut%e 7. t'»4. Seeretam, 



MICHIGA.N-CANADLAN INSPECTION OF IMMIGRANTS. 

The ^'Miobigaa-CdQadiaii laspaotioa of InaoiigrdQte'* whiob was 
inaugtirated by order of tb© State Board of Healtb, Sept. 6» 1892, and 
wae dieoontiDued January IS, 1891, was probably tbe roast oomplete and 
eatiefaotory inspeotioa system tbe Board baa ever maintained. There 
were many points of interest during tbe period of its exiatence. Faots 
oonoerning tbe remoaa leading up to tbe eatablisbmeDt of tbe ByateQi will 
be found ID the "'First Part" of tbe Annaal Report of this Board lor 
1892; other fnota relative to tbe maintenanoe and disoontiuuanoe of the 
eyatem will be found in tbe "First Part" of tbe Report for 1893. and 
inthe^'Firat Part" of tbie Report. The Board framed and published 
Rules governing tbe Inspeotion of Immigrants and the disinfeotion 
of immigrants' baggage. A copy of tbe first publiabed roles is printed 
on pages Ixxix-Ixxxii of the Annual Report for 1893 These rules were 
afterwards revised a second and third time. Tbe second revision is 
printed on pages ixxxiii-lxxxv, of tbe Annual Report for 1S93; and the 
third revision is printed on pages Ixxix-lxxxii of this Report. 

The following court decisions and special raport by the Secretary, are 
only a few of the items of interest; in oonneotion with tbe following^ one 
should refer to the Proceed inga of meetings, etc., on preoeding pages of 
this Report, 



MINNEAPOLIS, 8T. PAUL AND 8O0 R. R. VS. STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. 

About July 6 an order waa served on each member of this State Board 
of Health to appear at Marqoette, July 15, to show cause why a prelimi- 
nary injanotion should not issue ti stop tbe inspection of immigrants 
and travelers under tbe rules of tbe Michigan State B mrd of Health. 
Accordingly the Attorney General of Michigan, and the Preaident and 
Secretary of tbe State Board of Health, went to Marquette, to appear 
before Judge H, F. Severens, United States Circuit Judge of the North- 
ern Division of the Western District of Micbigan. On aoeoant of tbe 
importance of the case Jadge Severens had asked U. S, Circuit Judge 
George R. Sage, of Cincinnati, to sit with him 

Id a few days tbe finding of the U. S. Judges was handed down, and 
a copy was sent to the office of tbe Secretary of the State Board of 
HeaUb, and is as follows : 




zciv 8TATB BOARD OF HBAUXL— RSIPOBT 09 BEOBKTABT. UBA. 



CIRCUIT COURT OF THE UNITED STATES, WESTERN DIBTBIOT OF 
MICHIGAN— NORTHERN DIVISION. 

MiififEAFOiJS, St. Paul A S. Ste. Maris Railway Compaht, 

▼8. 

Samuel G. Milxer, kt al., Membebs of aud CoifSTnTTiifo the Stats Boabv «r 
Health of MicHiOAif. 

On motion for a preliminary injunciion. JBefore Judges Severetm ami 
Sage, 

The bill eets forth that the complaioant, a corporation of the State of Miohinn. is 
and haa been for several years past, eng^aged, under a trafiSc arrangement wiUi the 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company, in the transportation of passenffera, on through 
tickets from Quebec westward tnrough Canada and over the line of uie oomplainant^ 
railway to and through the States of Michigan, Wisconsin, Minneeota and North Dakota, 
also eastward from those States, through Canada to Quebec, a large portion of the pas- 
sengers westward being persons traveling from Norway and Sweden to pointo in said 
States. 

The defendants, it is averred, constitute the State Board of Health of Michigan, act- 
ing under an act passed by the legislature of said State and approved June 20, 1881^ 
entitled "An act to provide for the prevention of the introduction and spread of cholera 
and other ' dangerous communicable diseases'" as amended by an Act approved April 
25. 1883b The Bill has attached to it as exhibits a copy of such of said acts, and of oer- 
tain rules adopted by said Beard, purported to be issued under and by virtue of the 
authority conferred by said amendatory Act It is further averred that said Board 
acting through its Secretary and one of its inspectors and in pursuance of said rules, is 
daily detaining and attempting to detain passengers on said Canadian Pacific Railway at 
the point opposite Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, and prohibiting their entering the State 
of Michigan until they have undergone the quarantine detention and until the disin- 
fection of their baggage as prescribed in said rules. It is averred that this detention, 
examination and process of disinfection of baggage is applied to all emigrants irrespec- 
tive of whether they came from an infected or healthy locality abroi^ and without 
regard to their point of destination. It is further averred that all said emigranto and 
travelers have been, before said detention, inspected by United States officials detailed 
for said purpose and that complainant has not received nor permitted to be conveyed 
within the State of Michigan any passenger, traveler or emigrant coming from any 
European port through the Dominion of Canada, exoeptinff such as have presented s 
certificate of inspection of the United States inspector. It ia also averred that said 
Board is threatening to arrest officials and employes of complainant unleea com- 
plainant shall submit to and comply with said requirements of said Board. 

The claim is that the rules and action of said Board of Health are in direct violatioa 
of Section 8, Article 1, of the Constitution of the United States, in that they attempt to 
regulate and prohibit commerce with foreign Nations; and that they are also in viola- 
tion of the treaty made by and between the United States and Norway and Sweden and 
now existing; also that they are over, above and beyond the powers conferred upon 
said Board by said Act and Amendatory act of the Liegislature of Michigan. The bill 
then sets forth averments of irreparable damages and prays for an injunction. 

The motion for a preliminary injunction will be overruled for the following reasons: 

1. In Brown vb. Maryland. 12 Wheaton 419-433. Chief Justice Marshall recognized 
that the removal or destruction of infectious or unsound articles was undoubtedly an 
exercise of the police power of the State, and an exception to the prohibition resulting 
from the exclusive power of Congress to regulate the operations of foreign and inter- 
state commerce, and he says that ** Laws of the United States expressly sanction the 
Health laws of the State.'' In the license casee 5 Howard, 504, 576. Chief Justice Tansj 
declares that ** It must be remembered that disease pestilence and pauperism are not 
subjects of commerce, although sometimes among the attendant evils. They are not 
things to be regulated and trafficked in, but to be prevented as far as human foresight 
or human means can guard against them." In Ceatcher rs. Kentucky, 141 U. 8. 47» 
Justice Bradley refers to these cases with approval, and states with great cl ea rn sai and 



REPORT OP WORK IN THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY. 



xcv 



\ 



L 



force the diBttnction between the exercise of its police power by a State aod an attempt 
to lejfiBlato upon matters of interetate or foreign commerce, which are exclueively 
within Ihe power of the Federal GoTemment. These authoritiss render it unneceesary 
to refer particularly to the caaea cited for the complainant It ta sufficient to euy that 
they all relate to State enactments concerning articles of commerce and thence are not 
applicable here. Moreover the Quarantine Act of CongresBf approved February 15, 
18ii3, expreesly recognizee the validity of State laws, and in Section 3 requires the 
Supervifling Surgeon General of the Marine Hospital Service to co6perate with and aid 
State and Municipal Boards of Health in the execution and enforcement of their rules 
and regulations. 

2. We find nothing in any existing treaty with Norway and Sweden which conflictfl 
with the institution or enforcement by any one or more of the States of thia Union of 
quarantine regulations. 

3. We do not deem it necessary to express an opinion whether the provision of the 
Michigan Statute making it a misdemeanor to violate the rules of the State Board of 
Health adopted in pureuanco of the Act, is constitutional or valid, for we should not, 
even if we were of opinion that it is unconstitutional undertake to issue an ic junction 
against Criminal Proeecution by the State. That the Legislature might authorize the 
Board to ««lopt rulee is. we think, beyond question. Such rules are eeeential to the 
proper enforcement of the law. 

4. To the objection that passengers from Don-infected countries and localitiea are 
detained, the answer is that such detentions are in the nature of the caee, to a certain 
extent unavoidable; and paseeDgers from such countries and localitiofi may have become 
properly subject to detention by reason of haviDg mingled with others who could com- 
municate pestilence or disease to which Ihey themselves had t)een exposed or subjected. 
An opportunity for separation ie indispenBible also. 

&. The objection that passengers who had oertitlcates from Unitsd States inspeotora, 
were detained, is not tenable. The States may exercise their police power according to 
their own discretion and by meana of their own officials and methods. The inconven- 
ience resulting to emigrants and travelers from being baited and subjected to examina- 
tion and detention at State linee is of triJiing importance, at a time when every effort 
is required and ie being put forth to prevent the introduction and spread of pestilential 
and communicable diseases. 

The coete and charges which are incurred in such quarantine inspection may lawfully 
be imposed on the Railway Co. as being incident to the business in which they are 
engaged. The costs of the motion wOl be taxed to the complainant. 

July 29th, 1893. H. F, Scverkiib. 

G£o. R Sacse. 



COKOBATULATOBT LETTEKB BBLATITE TO THE U. B, COtBT DECISION. 



Copies of the foreKoiog deolsioo were aeot to SeoTeteriee of State 
Boards of Health, laiTioad autborities, acd others iDterested in publio 
health sobjeotB, and espeolally in this case. Letters of ooDgratulatioa 
have been received by the Secretary of the Board, and extracts from a 
few of them are as follows : 

Dr, J. H. Hamilton, Secretary of the Vermont State Board of Health, 
writes: ''Will yon allow me to oongratnlate yon on the important decis- 
ion you obtained, not only for your Board and that of other States, but 
for the people at large. I shall make use of this decision in my report 
soon to be published.*' 

E. B. Frazer, M. D., Secretary of the Delaware State Board of Health, 

Bays : '*Yonr Board won of course. Railroad companiea want dollars — 

oare nothing about the spread of diseases and the loss of life. I will be 

pleased to hear from yon further on the snbjeot. As a rule our State 

courts uphold State Boards of Health, and this is as it should be/* 

N. D. Baker, M. D,, Secretary of the West Virginia State Board of 

a Health, says; ''You have conferred a publio beneiit of far-reachiug con- 

■ sequences in thus securing so unequivocal a statement of the rights and 

I powers of the health autborities of the States/' 

K : 



XCYl STATE BOARD OF HEAI/TH.— REPORT OF SEORETABT, 18M. 

It is undoubtedly understood that all that was done by tbe State 
Board of Health was to prepare a statement of facts bearing upon the 
subject. Some of these facts are very interesting, and not generally 
known. They may be published later. 

seobetaby's bbpobt belative to immigbant inspection at the state 

LINE.* 

The first item in this report may cause surprise, but I think it mast 
be apparent to every member of this Board, and to every person who has 
ezfiimined or shall examine the subject, that in tbe execution of the pres- 
ent quarantine law, its enforcement is a flat failure. My belief is that 
this is not due to the several officials, nor to any one of the officers oharsed 
with the execution of the law. The Governor has expressed himself as 
desirous that this Board should be sure that its course was right, and 
then that the law be carried out. The Attorney General has cheerfnlly 
acted and advised whenever called upon. The prosecuting attorney of 
Ohippewa county, the only county in which the law has been disregarded, 
has zealously endeavored to enforce the law. The justice of the peace at 
Sault Ste. Marie who was applied to to aid in the enforcement of the law, 
faithfully performed his duty. Each one of the several inspectors who 
have been appointed by this Board has labored to the best of his ability 
to fulfill the law. For all ordinary purposes the State law makes the 
Secretary of this Board the Executive officer of the Board. But the 
quarantine service was of such importance to the people of Michigan, 
that this Board appointed a special committee to execute its rules. That 
committee consists of the President and Secretary of the Board. I 
believe no one doubts that this committee has labored diligently, inoes- 
santly and faithfully to carry out the rules of the Board, and its resolu- 
tions requiring the enforcement of the law. Notwithstanding all these 
efforts, extenoing through several months, the law is still being disre- 

farded by at least one comparatively insignificant railroad whose main 
usiness appears to be the bringing in of immigrants from dangerously 
infected countries. And, further, the disinfection of baggage is not 
-completely done at that port (the '*Soo") and there is no immediate 
prospect that it will be done, unless some new method is adopted for 
executing the law. I have several times suggested that there should be 
an effort to force the execution of the law pending any question which 
may be raised as to its constitutionality ; I have asked the Attorney Gen- 
eral if the Circuit Judge, under '*Oircuit Court Rule 107" adopted by 
the Supreme Court May 31, ISQSf, cannot issue a mandamus requiring 
the railroad companies at the "'Soo'* to obey the State law, pending the 
settlement of any question of its constitutionality, or to show cause why 
they should not obey the law. I here repeat this suggestion. Unless 

* Thii report was read by the BeoretaiTi and diaoawed by the Board at meeting Oct. 27 and IB, IflBB, 
zziii-zrvii of this Beport. 



t GiBODiT Court BuXjC 107. Ciroalt ooartt ahaU have jarlwLiotion, witiiin th^ reapeotlTa 
in aU mandamus prooeedinga, inTolring the action of any offioer or board of any ooonty, township, oitf 
or eehool diatriot, or of the oommon oooncU of any city or Tillage, and the action of anj/ private corporis 
Men or offieer or board thereof. Said Clroalt Gonrta ahall alao hare jnrtadiotion to iasne writs of oartfotMl 
In all caaoe where they may now be iaaoed by the Supreme Ck>art to Probate Goart», Gizcoit Court Coa»> 
mlMioners and Jnatioea of the Peace, or any corporate body or offioer thereof. Writs of oartknarl and 
ocden to ahow canae in caaea of mandamiu, ahall be made retarnabie and aerrioo thsraof mads wUhia 
sneh time as the Circuit Gonrta shall upon each application direct. 

Adopted May at, 1898, 



REPORT OP WORK IN THE OFFICE OF THE SEORETARy, xcvii 

some eaob action oao be takeo, it eaema to ma tbat wa abonld all admit 
tbat, 80 far as the enforoement of the la^ is OQQoeraad, it might as v7dU 
be abaodoned. 

The penal eeotioD of the law ia wrong in prinoiple, or at leaat it is 
inoomplete. and apparently worse than none. Tboib of yon who were 
present a few days ago at tbe loiaroatioQal Oongres^ of Hygiene in Chi- 
oago, and heard the address by Mr. B^nney, the Preaidint of tba World's 
Congress Auxiliary, remember bow be laid down tbe principles wbiob 
sbonld govern in framing laws relating to the pablio health, and espaci- 
ally those relating to quarantine, — tbat aaoh laws shoald provide for 
action first, and explanations afterwards He quoted the well-known 
maxim **Salus popidi suprema est lex/* **Tbe welfare of the people ia 
tbe supreme law. " The penal aeotion of the Miohigan quarantine law ia 
woefully inadequate in that this "'Supreme law*' is to be administered 
and upheld (or degraded) not by'the Supreme Court, nor by the Cirouit 
Court, nor even by a justice of; tbe peace, but by a petit jury, The 
result is about what would be expected: In tbe recent case, tbat of the 
agent of tbe ''Soo*' railroad, which mist intelligent oitizens of Miohii^aQ 
DOW know is wilfully disobeying the'^Miobigan quarantine law and rules, 
tbe agent was acquitted. Pending e^orts to uphold the law, the rules for 
disinfection should be acted up to; but tbey are not, and thus far our legal 
advisers— tbe Attorney General and Pros ecu ting Attorney, do not find 
any way to enforce such action. 

In this law, relative to this most vital subject of keeping dangerous 
diseases out of Michigan, a petit jury out-ranks the State Board of 
Health, Thesubjeota of the causation, reatriotion, and prevention of tbe 
oommunioable diseases are now well tinder the domain of science; they 
rest upon a surer soientifio basis than do the sciences of heat and light, 
as taught in our colleges; but the sciences of sanitary chemistry, bioter- 
iolo^y. and other sanitary>cienoes, are new, and not known to tbe aver- 
age juryman. Tbe facts, well known to tbe State Bjard of H»3altb« as to 
the prevalence of each dangerous disease in foreign ooantriei, and tbe 
entire absence of several suoh disdaaes from thi§ State except as brought 
here by immigrants, and the comparative immunity here from several 
other of the most dangerous diseases — such faota are not realized by 
the average member of a jury. 

Then, again, the law supposes a person charged with crime to be inno- 
cent until proved to be guilty. This is right so fir as the iniividual is 
concerned; but tbe question whether or not dangsrous diseases shall be 
kept out of a State should not wait for a patit jury to dacide in a given 
case, or in a large number of oases whether a certain man has or has not 
oommitted an offense under a law. 

Who is best qualified to judge of the correctness of a strictly sanitary 
problem? Is there in Michigan any oourt, jury, or other legally consti- 
tuted organization so well qualified as is tbe State Board of Health? 
Apparently the legislature thought not; beoanae the law makes it the 
duty of the State Board of Health to decide when there is danger of the 
introduotioD of disease, and what measures of disinfeotion shall be 
required at tbe State line, and elsewhere when needed, and to frame gen- 
eral rules for tbe prevention of the introduotion and spread of disease. 
If, then, the State Board of Health ia the best aothority in tbe State on 
snob subjects, the law should be such that, in any case of threatened dan- 





xcviii STATE BOARD OP HEAI^iL-REPORT OF BECRBTARY* 1884. 

ger to the publio froiD the infroduotion and spread of difieaae, the prt* 
BumptioD IB in favor of the correotneeB of the action of the State Board 
of Health, until euoh aotion is legally proved to be wrong. 

Given a legallyconetitDted State Board, its memberB Bwom to "flap- 
port the ConBtitDtioD of the United States, and the ConBtitntion of tbio 
State,'' and to faithfully futfill the lawa of this State, tboee laws having 
been framed by legielatore who have taken a aimilar oath, it aeems to me 
that it ifi to be presnmed, until it ie legally proved to the contrary, thai 
eneh officers are doing the will of the people of the State. And if there ia 
any instance where this preeuniption ebould hold, it is in the oase of the 
enforcement of quarantine laws,— where epeedy, vigilant and oonstant 
action ie required to protect that '* welfare of the people" whiob baa so 
generally been declared to be the "Supreme law*'. (^'Salus popuh 
aiq^rtma est lex,'') 

It ]B now welKknown to sanitarienB that the meat dangerone dieeaaea 
are not epread by nuieanoee. Therefore thie eubjeot of the prevention of 
the intrcduction and spread of dengerous dieeflBea, by ieolation and dia* 
infeotoD of infected periona and things, is of vastly more oonaequenoe, 
to the people of Michigan, than is the general subject of nuieanoes. 
Yet allfaiough there is no similar law relating to dangerous diBeases, the 
State law says: "The Circuit Court for sny county ehall have equity 
jurisdiction in all matters concerning nuisanceB, where there ie not a 
plain, adequate and complete remedy at law and may grant injunotiona 
to stay or prevent nuiaanceB. " § 7965 Howell's, 

UnlesB the common law and court rules give adequate power to circuit 
couits, there is uigent need for a State law relating to the prevention of 
the introduotion and spread of dangerous dlseagea on a principle similar 
to that of the section quoted above. 

If the preEent law ie to hold, I respeotfuUy euggest the following addi- 
tional seotion :— 

Sec. 8. The circuit courts eball have equity juriadiotion in all oasea 
of neglect or refusal to obey the Kulea of the State Board of Health, or 
the order of its duly* appointed inspector, made in accoidance with the 
provisions of this Act, and §ha!I ba\e power to order any such apparent 
violator of law to i^bow cauEe why the rule, cider, or law should not be 
enforced ; and, pending eucb aotion, to order and enforce strict eompH* 
ance with the rules msde under thie law by the State Beard of Health, 
the deciaions of tbst Beard under this law so far as they relate to a 
atriotly sanitary subject, being hereby declared to be final. 



Lansing, Oct, 1893. 



BRIEF HISTORY OP ACTION TAKBB. 



Bobert Finch, a railroad agent at San It Ste. Mnrie« violated and 
continued to violate the Eules of the State Board of Health, relative to 
the detention and disinfection of immigrant baggage, the Bules having 
been made under Aot 47, Laws of 1893. Inspector Rogers made oom- 
plaint to the Justice of the Peace, and asked that a warrant for the arrest 
of Agent Finch be issued. Justice Frank R. Warner refused to issue the 
warrant, holding that Act 47, Lawa of 1893, is unconstitutionab John 
Hurst, the Froeecuting Attorney^ then made application to the Circuit 
Judge to Bee why a peremptory mandamuB abould nut issoe compelling 




REPORT OP WORK IN THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY* xcix 

the Justice to issue tbe warrant for tbe arrest of the offender. The bear- 
log was held before Judge Joseph H. Steere, of the eleventh jodioial 
oironit, Deoember 8, 1893, and the following is a oopy of the Gnding : 

Decision by Judge Joseph H. Steere, 
Statb of Mxosioav,— Im IBS Ctscijiv CcvkT ros TBx Coxnrrr ov CmrnwA. 



JoHM HmsT. £cf«lor, 



Fbajts B. WABjrB»4 BmpomdmJU 



AppMcAtfon for writ ef irstdrona to crmp^l Fr«£k B. Wam«r,ft JtMtic^of tbe Peae«, to AtitirtKln 
erinlBal oomplalni atd to procf«d with the trial of % c&m loiiaht to b« broQfht for violation of raJo* 
promiUf ated bj tte Slate Boaid of Heallh under xh» profUioot of Act No« 47 of the Seaaioo Lftwa of iaO>. 



9f at^mmt of Imve, 

Jn his application for a naodaniiia tb« p«tlticcer e«ts forth that od NoTerobar 18, 188S, hn, beiiv tba 
ProaecotiHK Attom^j of Chiprewa ooooty, formallj prvseotC'd aerimlDal oomp taint, made under oa^jj 
and In writing, to the Reepottd^Dt, who wae a dnlf qDalifii>d Jtittioe of the Peaee of aaid ooanty, and tb«» 
and th«re aeked from him a warrant for the arreet of one fiobert B. Fineh, who wae charged In aaid ecni- 
plaint with violatlst certain rnJ«e and ordere of tbe Micbisan State Boerd of Bealtb. 

That the ecnplalct wbi accooipaDied by an order from the Proeeontinc Attorney for a warrant, and 
that he then cfTered to prcdnce other and farther teatimocy to snbetantiaie the oompiaint, harinc 
w1tne*Me in attendaiice for that porpoee. 

The petitioner farther aUegri that t»id JoitJce tlifr«aroB refnaed to leenea ivarrant upon eald oo 
plaint for tbe arrtet of iaid Bcbert B. FiDch and pevaltted in eo doing, and gare tbe foUowing reaaona 
for eaid refouJ. 

1. " Beeaoee Act No. 2tO of the BeMicn Lawe of 1^9, a« em^tdcd by Aet No. 47 of the Lawe of IfM. oC* 
the L^glaiatnre of this State, was aooocititnttoDal and void/* 

1. *' BecBQM that eTen if «ald Act wae not void, Role No, 2 of the Board of Health of said State of ICieh- 
igan, ander which this complaint waa drawn, waa not anthoriied by laid Act end beoanf* the Board of 
Health exceeded their Bnthorlty in cairsirg said mJe No, 2, and that he did not wish to make this ooontf 
any nnneceseary expense and cost/* 

A oopy of the oompJalnt and order for a warrant are attached to end made a pert of the petitloo. 

The complaint fe carefolly drawn and properly stetee ancffenae tinder the Btatnte and mlee, if tbeysiv 
raUd. 

Hie retnm is, in snbetanoe, a demorrer. 

In his answer filed In response to the order to show cante, he admlte tbe facta stated in the peHAtion^ 
but allegee, as the reaeons why a mandamne shoald not isine, as follows: 

** That the Statnte. Act No. 2S0 of the Laws of mi, ae an^etded by Aet No. 47 of the Laws of l£9t of the 
State of Michigan, under which the mlee of the Boerd of Health of the Btate of Michigan are adopted, b 
ojiooaatitQttonal and void in that it deJegatea legislatiTe enthority to an appolntlTe board and assumae 
to give said board the power to enact rnlce, a Tioiation of which, when framed and pnbliebed (tbonfirhtb^ 
manner of pablication ie not preeeribed) ie made an offense pnnishable by a fine and impHsoDment. and 
to give to said Board tbe forther power to ehaoge, snepend, reroke and re-enact eaJd mlea wben«Ter oar- 
tain coed Itione are shown to these tiaf action of aaid Board to exist, tbcngh the manner in wbieb tba 
•xletenoe of snob eonditione ie to be ebown ia not pointed out," 

The respondent further alleges that, "even if eaid Btatnte is constitutional and ralld. Role No. 2 of the 
aaid Board of Health, a oopy of which is made a part of tbla answer, for a violatloo of which said com- 
plaint waa made and reepondent is asked to Issue a warrant, is roid, for the reason that eaid rale is not 
anthorlaed by said Aet No. 230 of th«!> Laws of 1SS6 as amended by Act No. 47 of the Laws of 18&9, nor by 
any other statute of the Btat9 of M ichigan, and that for theee reeisona thie respondent ehonld not be com'- 
palled to lasne a warrant for the arrest of the aaid fiobert B. Finch opon aaid complaint.** 

Upon this iaaue argument waa had. 




1 



STATE BOARD OF HBAIjTH.--REPORT OF S110RErrAR7» 1891. 



Th0 Mand&mu iriU tM dsalad far tha raaBon th^t tba Statute andar which these orimlnal prooaedtev* 
am Booffht to be brooiht U iaTalid in the partieoUr that It Baskfl to dalas&le to a aoa-«l«otiv» snbordl* 
n&ta board lanieilatiTe powen to create » miadaoitaDur, aad Is ia Tiolatloa of SeoCioiu 1 aad S8 of Artlela 
4 of tha UoQstUation of the Btate of M.iohi«aa. 

SaottoD 1 of said ArtioJe provldaa: "Tha Ijcialatlra powar li vaatad In a Saaata «xiil Hoaaa of 
Ba p raa ao tetiTea." 

Baotioa 33 of said Artiola la aa followt: "Toa LBsialatcir« may ooafar opoa orgaoisad to«raahipt« 
ioeorpotrntad townahipa and Tilla^cw and apon tha Bciard of Sapamaora of tha aararal ooontiaa anoh 
powen of a LoeaL, laflalative, and adoiioiitTaClTa ohatftotar aa the; may deem proper," 

The latter artida la clearly a conatitDtional limitation defining tha soope within wbioh tha ljtg\»^ 
latnre may del^rtte Its ieffialative powers to unbjrdiiiate bodies. The State Board of Health ia not 
aaomerated amoD« thoae boiiea to which this power oaa bu delegated, and. by Implicatioa of law, la 
oonaeQCiently axe laded from those npon whom saoh powar can be ooaf erred. 

It aeema clear that the Legislature cannot oonfer apon tha State Board of Health any lagialatiTV 
fonctions. The etatnte^ to tha extsot that It aaeaniee tt> do so, la cartaUily nnconstltational and voi4. 

lMich.,3il. : 

10 Mich.. 460. ' 

24 MIohM 108. 
Cooler on CoasUtQUoaal Limitations, p. V», and oasea oitad. 

On behalf of the petltioii«-, in snpport of ths appUoation for a mandamns. it is oontaaded tiiat the law 
does not deiecate* and cannot be coastroad as attempting to delegate any legislatiTa power; that it only 
aatborlKee the Board to malce roles within certain wall de&ae J limits, giving it no discretion to decl&re 
paoaltiee, the penalty being fixed by the law f taelf. 

Connael cites to statutes clearly oonatltatlonal in which it ia provldai that aa offloar ahall give aotioa 
%o do or not to do a oertalD, tbiag, on failare to obsarre which notice a person shall be daemad gollty of 
tha misdemeanor, etc. Authority is alio cited to the effect ttiat it is not delegated power to be aathor> 
laad to determiiie some fact or condition of tbinga apon which the law atakaa its own operations depend. 

Lookers appeal, 72 Pa. St,, 4»1. 

It ia also well reasoned that then are mftcy things apon which wise legialattoD dapaoda wbioh eannot 
be known to the law-making power and mast therefore b« snggested afterward and datarmload aabaa- 
qaent to the enaotment of the law. 

This argument wonld be conoiaslTe If the scheme of theatatote in controversy went no farther thaa to 
aathodaa the Board to give notion to do or not to do oertmin thioga tharein stated, or to deter mine oar^ 
tain tmou or a certain state of facta set forth in the liw, and apon which'tha law woald beoomaoperatiTa, 
bat it aaams to ns that the LBgLslatnrd, ia tha atatnte in qaaatlon. attamptad to go maob farther. The 
Board is first aatho'tixed to determine certain facta la thair dissretlon reiatiireto paaseogers and baggage 
coming from Infeoted districts. Thea, baring determined thoae facta, it Is farther aathorissd, aa a dis« 
eretionary matter, to foraialate raJea opon theaabjeet. a Tiolatioo of whloh rolaa, when formalated and 
pobliahed, eonatitate a miedeTneanor and put in operation the criminal lawa of the Btate of Mioblgao. 

Thoae ralee maj infolve, and aa fortualated do ia?olre, certain aotaand cooditions of things which gra 
nut recited in the statate, a rioiatlan of which oonstitate a mlsdsmsaaor, bat without which no offeoaa 
woold exist. 

We have no doubt of the authority of the laglslattita to aathori«4 tha BjArd to adopt mtaa aaaaotigl to 
the proper admlnlatratioa of the law, InroXving ancb m»aiarea as may b^ neceasary to enf jros those rnlea, 
sach aa the detention of a person or baggiga, preventing their entry into the ooantry, and perhaps saia-^ 
ore and forfeitare of property. Bat we don't think that misdeaieaiora can bd created and criminal 
proseoationa aathoriaad by snah indimot and delegated prooeedinga as thoae oontemplated by the atatata 
in qoaation. Bach seeme to be the view taken by tha Bapteme Goart of California In the ea; part« ease of 
John Cox on Habeas Gorpas, 03 Cat., p. 21rand the case of the Board of H^xbor Commlsaioaers of tha 
Port of Eareka, Appellant, va. Ttie Excelalor BeJwood Company, Eeepondent, US 001,, p. 491. 

Oar atteatloo has baaa called to the mattera dieoassad in the case of tha MtoneapoUa. Bt. Panl and 
Baolt Bte. Marie R> Go. agafnat the Btate Boird of Health of Hichlgaa, decidedi in the Ciroait Goart of 
tha Onited Btatea for the Western District of Michigan, northern division^ decided by Jndgea SeTareoa 
aad Saga- In tiiat oaia tha motioa for a pre^timLnary iajQaotloa was overmIed< tha qieatlon Involved 
batng, mainly, the aathorlty of the States to anaot lawi and provide raise faJativa toqoarantlne mattara , 



J 



REPORT OF WOEK IN THE OFFICE OP THE SECRETARY. 



01 



I 



r 



andar B«etlcB S of Artlela t of tb* CosititoticD of tbe United BUtes »od o«rtaixi 
tlM United Bute* and forei«ii ootiiitriee. The itea«e daoided ftre act nliiid in the cue at bar. aod the 
qoettion which we have before ob, tboo«h referred to, was not decided in that opinion, the Conrt eaylnt: 
" W« do not deem it neceseary to ezpreae an opiniun whether the proTieion of the Ulobiffan Statate 
toakiov it a miedeiseanor to violate the ralee of the State Board of Health ailoptad tn pnraaanee of the 
Act, ie oonetltntional or ralid, for we thonld not, «Ten if ws were of the opinion that 'it It tmcoDetitQ- 
tional^ ondertake ti3 iffene an isjanotion a^ainet eriminAl proeeootion by the State." leavln* the QDeetlom 
before oa ondetermined. 

Oor attention Ie ealled to the fact that the Federal qnaraottxie lawe contain proriaiona for the promal- 
gation and eoforeement of roloi by proper ofBccra, and that thoae rolee have been long in exietenoe and 
enforced without qoeetion. 

We recognize that tbeee laws and rnlea, with the asaffe in their admlniatrationi, are entitled to reipeol- 
fnl consideration, and might, in a donbtfnl case. In the abeeace of other aathority. thoogh not bindiiMr 
In the interpretation of our Btate laws, praetlcally oontrol a deeieion- Bat, after a oareftil enmloatiom 
of the lawa to which oar attantion ia ealled, being a pamphlet iaeoed April 4, ISOS, by the Tretaory deparl- 
manii entitled '* Lave and regulations for the Maritime QnarmntlneB of the United States/' we fail to 
thara find any anthority to resort to criminal prooedoro to enforce the qoanintine rwJ^#, or anything in 
the Btatotia making the Tiolation of thoae ruU* a criminal oHenee. Vtolatioos of qoarantlDB law» and 
miecondnct of its officers are made criminal offenses pnniahable by heavy penaltiea, bnt the rutet are to 
be enforead by other methods enoh at the ezelaeionof the partiee who fail to obeerre them from entering 
the eonatry or importiog property, or by the seisnre and detention of a pereon or property for a limited 
period, or the aeitnre and forfeitore of property, as for a violation of the reveane laws. 

We fully recogniae, with Cotmeel for petitioner, all tbat has been orged relative to the Taloable serrloee 
which the Michigan State Board of Health has readerod the State, and the diffiooltlea which beaet it In 
theperfonnasoeof ita duties. Wa ehaerfnlly endorae all which has been said aa to the importanoe of 
rifid Quanuktine laws to protect the health and lives of car citizens from the importation of infeotiooe 
d l asasBB . Bnt we know that the Goorta onlversaLly recognise that the State, throojrh Its proper legisla- 
tive body, has ample power to go tn extremea In the enactment of rigid lawa npoo the sabjeot. and to 
provide heavy penalties for their violaiioa. ThU ease simply LDvoIvea a oonatitatloaal qnestlon as to 
the method of getting the proper provisions upon that enbjeet in legal shape for their enforcement. It 
is oor opinion that where it ie aooght to make a violation of any qoanrntlna regulation a crime, the le<ta- 
latore mast, by its ovm enactment, clearly set forth the facte and conditions creating the < ffense in tbe 
etatate iteelf, and that it cannot leave the question open for sabeeqtient action by another body, and del- 
egate the authority to create a misdemeanor, as has been attempted in the statate in qneetion- 

For these reason* the mandamus is denied but, inasmuch as this ia a friendly litigation, carried on by 
all partiea Ln inteieet in good faith for the pnrpoee of obt^nlng a deelaioo apon an important end 
donbtfol queatiour the decision Is withoot costs. 

Dated DtC€mb€r IB, ISM. J. H. Sraxaa, 

Circuit J^dQ«* 

AdditioDal iDformatioD, diso use ions, eto., legardiDg tbe Miobigan 
Inspection of I m migrants and Traveler**, may be found in the prooeedings 
of meetings of tbe Board, printed on preceding pages of this Keport; also 
in tbe article on Cbolera, on pages 369-372 of tbis Eeport. 

MICHIGAN INSPECTION OF IMMIGBANTS AND TBAVELEB8 DISCONTINUED. 

At the meeting of tbe Board, eJanuary 12, 1894, tbe sabjeot of tbe 
fortber continuance of tbe Micbigan inspection of immigrants was dis- 
cussed. Secretary Baker tboogbt tbat tbe Micbigan inspection of irnmi- 
grants, which has been in pre gr ess for some time, bas dune much to pre- 
vent tbe introdnction and spresd of dangerous communicable diseases. 
He thought also tbat tbe stand the Michigan State Board bad taken bas 
been the means of raising tbe standard uf quarantine in this country, 
tending as it has toward the disinfection of tbe baggage of all immigrants 
coming into tbis country. It is not improbable that t^e inspection at 
the bolder bas been tbe means of keeping Michigan free from smallpox, 



i 



cii 8TATB BOARD OF HBAIjTH.— REPORT OP SECRBTART, ISDi. 



and it is probable that it has lessened the introdaotion of other di 
The Michigan rales for disiofdotioo were carried oat daring the past 
snmmer at Levis, near Quebec, and are now being carried oat at Halifax 
nnder the direction of Dr. Wiokwire, Port Health Officer at Halifax, 
8mall-pox is now quite prevalent in several States, but it is hoped that 
Michigan will not be visited by this disease. Owing to the depression 
in minins, lumbering, and in other business, immigration will probably 
be much lessened. 

The recent judicial decision was discussed, and a resolution was 
adopted, as follows : 

Emobfed, That in tIsw of tb« adrarM daoirion of the Hon. JoMph H. Btaara, of tba alaraath Jodlolal 
Olrooit, daelarinc tha paoaltr portioa of the Mlohisan qoarantlne law oneonstltational, tha immisiaat 
loipaetlon at tha Miohican b<mlar ia heraby snapandMl from and after January IS* IWl. 

It is understood that legal measures have been taken to obtain a decis- 
ion on this subject by the Supreme Oourt. The decision of the Supreme 
Court will be found printed in the next (1895) Annual Report. 



THE TEACHING OP SANITARY SCIENCE AT MICHIGAN 

COLLEGES. 

PBOPOSED ESTABLISHMENT OF A OHAIB OF 8ANITABT SCIENCE AT THE 
STATE AOBICULTUBAL COLLBOE. 

In a circular letter December 2, the Secretary wrote to each member of 
the State Board of Health that *'An opportunity has arisen on a subject 
which I have long held in mind, — the establishment of a chair of hygiene 
at the State Agricultural College, and I have acted promptly for myself, 
but not having opportunity to consult members of this Board I am not 
certain that they fully concur in both the recommendations in my mem- 
orial to the State Board of Agriculture (for the creation of a chair, and 
for the appointment of Prof. Brewer) so I send a copy herewith, and ask 
you to inform me as soon as practicable, so that the full influence of this 
Board can be exerted so far as members of the Bjard direct, and no 
further." As said in the foregoing letter, there was ao '"opportunity" in 
the fact that the services of a good man could be secured at that time; 
an opportunity which had not presented itself before; and it was because 
of this opportunity that the Secretary took immediate action, thinking 
that if the right man could be bad, the probabilities of the establishment 
of a chair were greater than they would be if the State Board of Health 
urged the establishment of the chair, but could not provide for a man to 
fill the same. Of course the State Board was not urgini; that any indi- 
vidual be appointed, but only that some good reliable Professor able to 
teach modern sanitary science, be called to fill the chair. There were 
perhaps others who would acceptably fill the chair, but the Secretary 
bad not before bad the opportunity to recommend the establishment of 
a professorship and at the same time suggest one who could fill it. 



REPORT OK WORK IN THE OPPIOE OP THB SECRETARY. 



cm 



The follc^iog is a oopy of the memorial wbiob bad beeo prepared by 
the Secretary, and aeot to tbe members of tbia State Baard, vSo far as 

tit related to tbe establiabmeiit of a oh air of sanitary scienoe, it received 
tbe approval of a majority of tbe B3ard. before it was form all v pUeed 
before tbe State Board uf Agrioalture at tbeir meetiD^, at LaDsiog, 
December 4, 1893. Following tbe memorial are letters wbiob tbe Secre- 
tary received from tbe members of tbe State Board of Health, and plaoed 
before tbe Board of Agriculture. Tbe memorial aad letters are as fol- 
lows: 

aoatOAiAx. vOE mm Ea^nhvi^aMMur or a ghaia ot tnroturt at TakliuoBiOAit btat» AouoaLTUiii* 



I 



» 



I 



» 



I 



8TATB B04BO OF BBILTH. MIGH10AN,\ 

OrPIOB or THS SBOBSTAliy^ > 

Lantifuj, December 1, 1S98. J 
lb lAe Hm%orable, the MieKitan State Board of Agriculture: 

6WTt.>ipcit— Penfnit me to m«a»CMiRlisB joar Honorable bourd for tfae appointment of a ProfeMor nf 
HyglafM at the State AirHcaltnnI ColleK«, and to enssMt a few of the maox reaaoae why at tbU one of 
the moet important ooUe^ee In Uichi|«kn, the teaching of aaoitarr eoienee eboald be protnliieat. 

▲ large [»ro|>ortioQ of the Bradoatea and etadente at the Agrionltnral College will ooonpy promtnent 
poattlona aaiODg tbe people of the State, being lMdiafacrioaItaraUtta,bortioaItarist», daiiyroen, lawyer*. 
tMkdMn, phrddisiia, and banineea mea. Aa hae been the faot In the paet, many of them will be found In 
Ibe State Leglalatore, tramlng laws for the governmeat of the whole psople. It Lb for the general good 
of the people of Miahlgan that theae ieadere of thooght and aotion throaghoat tbe State aball be well 
grounded in that eort of knowledge whieh U of mott worth* I prtnune that all of yoo ftr» fam,lllar with 
the raaolt of the Lnqnlry into th&t qoeation— '* VHiat knowledge la of moat worth? " whloh waa ao ably 
worked out bj that great philoeopher, Herbert Spenoer, In hia book on " fidacatlon.** He leems to have 
that that knowledge ia of ' moat wtu-th*' *' which tendi direotly to preeerre Ufa ;-' and that 
In the aoale of valoe. ia that knowledge whieh tenda indireotlr to preaerre life, laavLng, aa not eren 
«f i«N>OQdary tmportanoet many of the bcanchea of knowledga bo frtHiaently taoght in oar achoolaand 
eoUflgee. Sanitary ecianee inclndea both of theae two olaaaea of knowledge which hare thna b»an dem- 
onatrated to be of *' moat worth" and a> of next moat worth»^tbat eUae of kaowlelgo which tenda 
4iraetly to praaarre Ufa, and that elnaa of knowledge which tenda indirectly to preaerre life. 

It ie oDderstood that in order to p i ea ar f e life one ranet have n meana of earning a livelihood ; bat meana 
•f Bobaiatence have adranoed ao rapidly that for the immediate fatore all aorta of food prodaota are 
aheap and plantlfai. 

Sanitary Boienoe haa made woadarful progitaae in recent years, ao there ia mnch more now than formerly 
that la poeitiTely known, and which can be tanght to atadenta. There are now many well-deTeloped 
bimnebee of eanitary aeieQc«. We have, therefore, an abandant atore of that " knowledge which ia of 
moat worth " which ia now aTallable to the teacher of hygiene. That knowledge la grttdnaliy being dia- 
aemlnated throagh tha action of State Boardi of Health. Bat it ia not for the pabllc interaata that the 
gradoatea and atndente of the State Agricoltaral (college, who are to be among the leaders of thonght 
and action thronghoot the State, aball be merely on a level with the c<>mmoa«edac»ited people concerning 
theae moet important of ail pnblio qneetionA— relative to the high Intereata of homaa health and life, 
rortonately* tbe Michigan State Agricnltoial College baa among ita profeeeora one who haa been a leader 
in aanltary progreea— Prof. R. C. Kedsie haa been preaident of the State Board of Httalth, and president 
of the American Poblio Health AaBOoiatloQ,and mnch of valae In a eanitary way is tanght by Prof. Kedzle. 
bat hie work in thia direction la neoeaaarily narrowed by the reqairemeate of hie dative ai profaeaor of 
chemiatry. A aimilAr remark appliee to the work of Prof. P. S. Kedaie. who alao haa given mnch atten- 
tion to eanitary eabjeotB. Prof. Grange ha« given attention to at leaat one bnnoh of sanitary eoienoe— 
bftctedologj ; bat hia dotiee as profaaaor of veterinary science and praotioe neoeaaarlly engroaa hia 
attention. 

Permit me to oommond to yon, as a professor of liygien»— Prof . P« W* Brewar, who for tbe past ymr 
and a half has been Saperintendeat of the Bareao of Hy^ane in tbe Deputmeot of Liberal Arte, at the 
World 'e Colnmbian Bzpoaltlon, who previona to that time waa for aboot a year amploj-ed at the experi- 
ment station of tha State Oni varsity of Nebraska* and previous to that waa an aaeiatant to Prof. Yaoghan 
at the Michigan Oniveralty. he being a g radoata of the Medical I>epartm«nt of tbe Mloblgan Uaiveraity. 




CiT 8TATB BOARD OF HBAIiTEL-REPORT OF BEGRErCABT, 180A. 

Afwr or more ago, Prof. Brevrar wuu applioant for the poaiticm of baotariolodftftt tlMiMMdfBii Acri- 
enltwml Ck>Uege, and Mnt testimonials of tils fltiMM for the position. loannotelaimparaoiudlaioivledss 
of his aoQoirmnents in baoteriology or in otlier branches of sanitarj soisnoe, or of his qoalltias as a 
teacher ; bnt I can claim to Imow that he has been an earnest student with Prof. Vanchan at oar UDlvsr- 
dty, that he has studied the Vital Statistics of Mlehican, that he has been recommended bf those with 
whom he has bean aaaociated, and that his work in connection with the World's fUr has farooflfat iilm in 
contact with the best lines of sanitary work being done throoghont this country, and some of that being 
done in other countries. If you employ him as a profsssor of hygiene and bacteriology, yon will hav* one 
who will, I beliere. teach bacteriology not only with reference to the many important bsarlnga npon agfi- 
eulture, but who will teach it also with reference to ite numerous exceedingly important bearlnga upon the 
life and health of humanity ; one who will, I beUeve, teach hygiene not as it was before the reoent great 
progress, but as it has been enriched by the woadmtal disooreries of Pasteur, Kooh, Kltisato, and othsra. 

I hand yon herewith a letter which I have recelTcd from Prof. Brewer, and a copy of a number oC 
commendatory letters relating to him. 

Hoping that your Hon(»able Board will appoint some person to the important position of Proflsaior of 
HygiMie, and commending to you for that position Professor Brewer, I am. 

Very rsspestfully, 

Hbhst B. Bakbb. 



4 



MICHIGAN UNIVBB8ITY, 

OmoB OP Dbam or thx Mkdioal DsPAvnmn. 

^nn Arbor, Mich,, December 2, 1899, 
Dr. Henry B. Baker, Lcmting, Michigan: 

Dkab Dootob.*— It will be impossible for me to come to Lansing next Monday. I should be glad to do 

so, and shoold also be glad to do anything in my power to aid in the establishment of a chair of Hyglsoe 

at the Agricultural College, and I gladly join you in the recommendation of my old fHend and formsr 

Btndent, Doctor Brewer, for a professotahip in that college. Dr. Brewer was my assistant for some three 

years, and I can say that he is conecientloos and skillful in his work. The Agricultural CoUege can 

no mistake in establishing a chair of hygiene and in calling Dr. Brewer to occupy the same. 

Yours truly, 

ViOTOB C. VAmiHAH. 



} 



8TATE BOABD OF HBALTH.l 

MiomaAH, 
Grand Rapide, Mich,, Dec «, lB9t, 
Dbab Dootob Bakbb:— I most heartily commend and second all yon say regarding the importance of 
the eetablishment of a chair of sanitary science in our Agricultural College. Indeed. I was surprised to 
learn that heretofore there has been no special attmition giyen to that enbjeet there. In such an inatitn- 
tion I think it would be much more important to hare a chair In Sanitary or Hygienic Selsaee than to 
hare a chair of Modem Langoagee. 

As to the recommendation of a particular person to fill such chair, it may be deemed InadTisable Uu oar 
board to take any action, although personally I would be willing to sanction the choice of yourself, or 
Dr. Vanghan. Very respectfully, 

8. G. MiuiXB. 



TH,| 
r. J 



STATE BOABD OF HEALTH,! 

MioHiOAir, 

Lan$ing, December 4, 
Dr. H. B. Baker, Seeretary State Board ofHeaUh: 

Dbab SiBr— I am in hearty sympathy with the tIcws expressed by you, relatlTe to the importaneeoC 
establishing a chair of Hygiene at the State AgrienltnraCCollege, as embodied in yoor oommnnlcBtloa to 
the State Board of Agriculture under date of Deo. L The knowledge gained during the last twenty yion 
concerning the canies of all communicable diseaees and the means for their prerention is seoond to no 
other knowledge of this marrelons age, In its influence npon hnman life, human health and human happi- 
ness. Such being the case it would seem that lltUe argumMit should be neoeesary to couTinee any t>»*'»"'«g 
person that this knowledge should be giyen the greatest possible publicity. The meet pmotioal msana to 
this end would certainly seem to be the employment of teachers thoroughly equipped for the work in all 
oar institutions of learning. While its rudiments should be and I doubt not soon will be tanght in tha 
lower gradee of theee InatitotionB, our common schools, yet it is in the higher, iriileh have to do wItt 



h 




8AN1TARY S01£NCG SHOULD BE TAUQUT IN OOIiLEOES. 



CV 



foath who an abocit to taka np ths datios of dtlraaehlp whan it miut prove of the ffrrateat TftliiA. 
Toe Micbiffan Affriooltoiral C^liec* i* t-dooad to aone io this ooontnr for keepioff abreast of the Rcteatlfio 
intMtifatioiu of oor daj aad of impraMlng tbem apoo the mlndi of ita ffredaat«a. It is ffraatlf to be boped 
tliat the nav and TalnabiB Casta ooDaaniiiMr haman life aod haaltti which form lo importaot a Mctioa of 
tbeie iDTMttjtatlonfl mar be ineorporatad Into its oorrieulom I cannot doubt bnt that aoch a etep wiU 
rreatlj lurreoee its efficiencf and add to ita alraadf Dobla repatatioo. 

Vary irnlj f<mn, 

Fbank Wklls, 
Frendmt Mich. 9t9te Bi^rd of B^attK. 



U 



BTiTB DOIRD OP HEALTH, A 
MicsxoAir, > 

Ponttac. December 5, 189^, } 
Dr. Benni B, Baker, Seerttary of (he State Board of Health: 

Mt Db&b DooToa:-Yoor letter of the 21 ioat. relatifo to the actabUehment of a ohalr of hjgiana at tha 
AcHealtaral CoUece and the appointmeat of Prof. Brewer to the chair, was reoaiTed yeatardar, bat, 
owioff to aa onnaoal amonnt of work, was not read nntii thia evening. Of ooaree thie reply will probabljr 
not r e a c h joo la eooo al yoa hopad it would, bat I wUb to aay that I beartUy eoncnr in evarTthins yoo 
eaj ia yoor memorial to tha Board of Agrionltore. Tbongh I know Prof. Brewer only by repotation, I 
beliara him fnily <ioalifi«d for tha Importaot plaoa* Vary tmly yoora. 

M AHOH W. Qbat. 



STATE BOAUO OF HEALTH.^ 
MicmiOAir, > 

AlbUm. December 4, 1893, I 
OmAB Da. Bakbb:— Yonr letter of yeeterday, coDcerninff the eetablishmeat of a chair of sanitary edieaoa 
at tha AgTleoJtnrftl Coliese, ia at band. It eeemi to me that the infl leace of th9 U jard ehonld be need to 
tha foUaet extent whenerer it eonld bring abont anoh a reaolt, not alone to thia eaae bat In all othara. 
Tha tiata abonid come whan there ahonld be no Lnatitntion of any grade that did not give partlonlar atteo* 
tMition to thia rooafc important aabjeot. 

Aa to the Board'a raeoramending a apaela) candidate, I am not eo clear : yon oao do it peraonally, and I 
cooid do the nme, bnt we aboold. I fear, bring critioiem on aa.if we combine in any partioalar peraon'a 
Intareet. t do not know Prof. Brewer, but yon do, and yon eonld eonalstcmtly work for hia appointmant, 

Yonra Tary revpeotfolly, 

Dblob Faix. 



SANITARY SCIENCE SHOULD BE TAUGHT IN MICHIGAN 00LLEQE8. 

At the meeting of the State Board of Health Jaouary 12. 1894, the 
eubjeot of a Chair of SaDitary Soienoe at the Slate Nonixal Sohool, and 
at the State Agricultural College, waa presented by Djotor Baker He 
mentioned that the State Board of Agrioulture bad already been memo- 
rialized by the president and other merobere of this Board and himself, to 
eetablieb a chair of hygiene; but be thought the Board as a whole should 
continue to exert its indoeuoe. ^e argued that the State law compelled 
the Qommon schools of MictiigaD to devote time to the teaching of hygiene, 
but that there was not ranch provision for the proper education of those 
teachers who are cotDpolled to teach hygiene. The State Normal School 
is devoted to the training and education of teachere, and the State Agri- 
oaltnral College has its vacation in the wintdr, in order that its studenta 
may teach, yet neither of these institutions has a obair of Sanitary 
Soieooe.* The State Board of Health had already put forth its efforts for 
euch aobair at the Michigan University, and a Laboratory of Hygiene 



* It waaafterwarda pointed ont by a profeeaoir at the Normal Bebool that nntwllh»tandlQa thia la trna 
yet mnab ia being done there for the edncation of teacbeta in eome bran'^hee of ianitary ecienea. 



CVl 



STATE BOARD OP HEALTH,— REPORT OP SECRETARY, 19&L 



* hud been establiebed and is dow doing great ^ood. Dr. Baker tboagbt 
that the jooDgeat pupil in our sobools fihould have an idea of how the 
meet dangeroua commuDioable diseasea are spread, aod that it woali be 
juet ae practicable to teaob them reetriotive measures as it is to teach tbem 
all about the bonee, moaoles, and nerves, as is now attempted. Eaoh 
pupil should know also just what disease causes most deaths in Miobi- 
gan, and just bow it may be prevented or avoided. But how are these 
pupils to be taught suoh subjects, when there is praotioally no adequate 
provision for the education of the teaohera? 

Dr. Baker said: The work of the State Board of Health ie, to a great 
extent, educational; and it is efiFeotiv© when brought to bear upon the 
neighbors of a residence placarded for a dangerous disease. Eventually 
every part of the Stat^ is thus reached by its instructions, at such times 
of espeolat danger. But this is a slow process; and, although in the 
twenty years of the work of the State Board of Health the deatb-rate 
from scarlet fever has been reduced at least on o half, yet the statistics 
prove that in those localities in which the teacbinga of the State Board 
have been wholly complied with by the people, the death-rate baa been 
not more than oneOfth what it was where this has not been done. This 
implies thai if this teaching could, in some way, be made to reacb every 
locality in the State, the death rate should be reduced by four-fiftbs 
instead of by one-half What is needed for the greater saving of life 
from scarlet fever^ and from the other dangerous diseases— because the 
same principle applies to them, is the proper education of ail the young 
people of the State- The State laws require that Hygiene shall be taught 
in all the schools. But how is it taught? How can it be properly 
taught so long as there are no text books which teach sanitary science as 
it is taught by the State Board of Health, and so long as the teachers 
themselves are not properly prepared? How can the teacher be properly 
prepared? 

It seems plain that in order that the teachers shall be properly pre- 
pared, their places of preparation must be such aa will make this pos- 
sible. Many of the teaohera are trained for their work at the State Nor- 
naal School. J.E. Hammond, Deputy Supt. of Public Instruotion, says: 
"In all two thousand two hundred students have graduated from the 
school, besides many others who, not having completed the course, are 
numbered among the progrestive taaohers of the State, Michigan is 
justly proud of the work of this great institution, and its influence is felt 
in almost every village and city through the entira State.*'* 

The State Agriculiural College also is a school which supplies quite a 
number of teachers, the college vacation being in the winter for the 
especial purpose of permitting the students to teach. 

Prof. Fall said he was very glad to say that Albion College was teach- 
ing Sanitary Science. A large class of the beat students in the college 
have this course of training. 

On motion of Prof. Fill, the Board vot^d that a conamittee of tbree be 
appointed by the President to memorialize the State Board of Educa- 
tion to estabHsh a Chair of Sanitary Science at the State Normal School. 
Prof, Fall, of Albion, Dr. Baker, and Dr. Milner, of Grand Eapids, were 
appointed to act as this committee. 

• " Miobigin and ita RaBoartM, 1889,'' p. tS7. 




BURNING OF PEOPLE MIGHT BE PREVENTED. 



evil 



Go motioD of Dr. Baker, it waa voted that Dr. Gray of Pantiao, act as 
obairmao of a oommittee to memorializa the State B^ard of Agrioal- 
tare to eBtablish a Chair of Saoitary Soieaoe at the State Agrioultural 
College. It waa alsj voted that Preeideot Welle and Prof. YaagbaD of 
the Uoiversity be the other members of this oommittee. 



BURNING OF PEOPLE IN RAILWAY WRECKS MIGHT BE 

PREVENTED. 

At the meeting of tbe State Bsard of Health January 12, 1394, the 
Secretary reported that: — During the laat quarter (Nov. 15, 1893), fbe 
State Commiasioner of Railroaia referred to tbe Secretary of the State 
Board of Health a letter wbiob he had received from John S. Lorimer, 
General StDrekeeper of tbe Chioag.j and Grand Trunk Railway, relative 
to the Bubjdot of band Bre extinguisb^rd on railroad ooaobes, to be used 
in case of wreoka« to prevent the burning of railway ouaobea loarled with 
human beings, as occurred recently in the fearful aooidents at Jiokson 
and Battle Creek where many lives were lost, and others received inju- 
ries that wonld last them through their lives. 

With tbe letter of Mr. Lorimer, the Commissioner of Railroads gave 
to tbe Secretary of tbe State Board of Health, a circular whioh bad been 
sent out from tbe Commissioner's Office in which was urged upon Gen- 
eral Managers and Superintendents of Railroads the importance of tak- 
ing every precaution in preventing the further ooonrrenoe of accidents 
on railroads, and the burDing alive of tbe human baings intrusted to the 
railroads for safe transportation. The Commissioner urgently reoom- 
mended tbe plaoing of band 6re extinguishers in all railroad coaches 
within easy reach and mast convenient for use, tbe use of oil which 
would stand tbe burning test of 30D degrees or more, as provided by the 
statates of Miobigan, and tbe use of tbe safest known pattern of car 
beaters. 

The Secretary of the State Board of Health made a report to the Hon. 
S. R. Billings, State Commissioner of Riilroadi, of which the following 
is a copy : - 

"Relative to tbe question asked of you by John S. Loiimer, General 
Storekeeper of the Chicago and Grand Trunk Railway, in his letter of 
Nov* 14, referred to roe yesterday. I can report that the Skate Board of 
Ht^alth has not recently considered the exact subject of band 6 re extin- 
guishers for use on passenger trains; but some years ago the general 
subject of *The Conditions of Inflammability' was very thoroughly 
investigated and reported upon by Prof. R. C. Kedzie, then a member of 
this Board, and I take pleasure in placing that repirt before you, because 
it will, I think, be found valuable for its suggesttvenass in relation to 
the subject of tbe prevention of fires on wrecked passenger trains; 
because it is probable that if the oars, interior fittings and contents, 
could be made incombustible, or even incapable of burning with a dame, 
I a great part of the danger from fire, would be done away with. That this 



cviii STATE BOARD OP HEALTH,-REPORT OP SECRETARY, 1894* 

can be done so far as relates to tbe oars aod Bttings, at ao expense wbiob 
would be justifiable, I bave op doubt. The report to wbiob I refer is 
published in the AnDual Report of this BoaTd for the year 1880. I 
refer espeoially to pages 180-183, 

**The eubfitaDoes wbiob can be applied to wood, olotb, paper, eto. , aod 
thus render aoob subBtances inoBpable of buiDing with a 6aiDe, are 
oommoD, not expensive, and are numerous, so that no difficulty should 
be found in selecting those wbiob will not interfere with the ornamenta- 
iioD of tbe car or its Ettings. 

'*Id complying with your important suggestion that 'Alt railroad corn- 
panics doing pasfienger business in this State, — provide all coaches, bag* 
gage, express, and mail cars with the best known appliances adapted for 
band use, lo extinguish lire; such fire extinguishers to be placed within 
easy reach, and most convenient for use/ some of the principles se 
forth in Prof. Kedzie's report should be useful to the storekeepers for 
the' several railroads. In that report a number of solutions are men- 
tioned which when applied to wood work, oloth, paper, etc., render such 
articles not easily inflammable. Solutions to be kept in the ao^oalled 
'band grenades,' for extinguishing fire, must, I suppose, be of sooh 
strength that they will not freeze and tbua break the glass or other con- 
tainer; but I think this is eaaily accomplished. A saturated solution of 
oommon salt would not freeze, and would be a useful article in such 
'hand grenades. ' But it is possible that there are substances much more 
useful than that (Many a soot fire in a chimney baa been extinguished 
with a few bandfuUa of oommon salt). By having two kindaof grenades 
kept for use together, each to break into the other, oneoontaininga solu- 
tion of a bicarbonate, and tbe other a solution of an acid sulpbate, 
carfaonio acid gas could be liberated as is done in the oheroical fire 
engines, on a principle similar to that of the *Baboook Fire Extin- 
guishen ' t 

*'If desired, I have no doubt this Board would have a special investiga- 
tion made to ascertain what methods would be most feadble, or at least 
what scientific principles are available. If you wiflb« I will submit the 
subject to the Bjard at its next meeting. 

"Herewith I send you a copy of the Report of this Board for 1880, 
containing the article by Prof. Kedzie, which I have mentioned. 

"Very respectfully, 

"Hekry B. Baker, 

**Secretary" 



: 



IS THE USE OF ATROPINE IN FITTING GLASSES A 
BRANCH OF THE PRACTICE OF MEDICINE. 

At the meeting of the State Board of Health April 13, 18i)4, the Sec- 
retary mentioned that be had received letters asking whether or not 
atropine could legally be used in fitting glasses in oases where the opti- 
cian was not a Doctor of Medicine, and whether or not such an optician 
would be required to comply with the State law relative to tbe practice 
of medicine. Recently the Secretary had received ao interesting letter 
on this subject from a prominent physician in MLohigan, wbiob he read 
to tbe members of the Board. The latter is ae follows i 




REPORT OF THE SESCRBTARY RBIATIVE TO CONSUMPTION, Cir 



I 



Grand Rapid*, MUhigan, Ftbruar^ 31, t9M, 

H. B, SakiT, if. £>,. Secretary State Board of Health, LantinQ, Michigan. 

Mv DK4a OocTos:~Tbm« U a law Iq the State of Miehi««n to regnlato the praatioe of madicioe ('* To 

promote the poblic health ")t Under said lavr, a raao ia reqaired ta reglater, eto., before praotioloff nied> 

icine In aay branch, or presoribing, eto. In these d&ys the prestioe of medioine iaclades all Bpeolaltiee« 

and any epecialty or part thereof ia the pcaotioe of medioloe, in the meaQloit of the law. Now. !• not 

the nae of atropine Id the eyee in fitting glaasaa a presorlptioo or praeeribin« far a patieat in the aame 

■ease that inalEicg a plate and extracting the teeth preparatoir thereto, i« praeticlag dentietrr? If per- 

•ona ahonld htve troable with their ejee. and chink they neeied glftesee and go to an advertlsiDg optician 

(•pc«tacle vender) and he wee in the habit of nelng atrapine In eyes, dow aappoB^ that thie aald patient had 

aenie or chronic glaacoma, the optician woald not know it, baring no koowledge of optbalmology, and 

ha wonld pat atropine into the patlent'a efee» it might be the Qaneeoi the patient loaing the eight of both 

eyea. Yon aee the point. The nte of atropine or any tnidriatio in glaaconia doea harm, and freQnently 

eaoeaa blindneea, tharafore the naoaaeity of great care in eetecting oaeea in which there are eye aymptoma 

in which atropine la a asfe remedy. The caae ia point ia a spectacle vender here who lite glaaaea, and 

naea atropine in eyaa for fitting. Ia this not practicing medioine, aad ahi^nld men naedaoated (in med-> 

ieine) be allowed to tinker with eyee. when they are the moat delicate organa of the body, and in the faoe 

of the fact that ao many people looae their eyeeight by neglect and improper treatment? I have a patient 

whoae eyea were nndonbtedly ftfFeeted with glaacoma; they pained her and she wanted to have glaeeaa 

fitted by an optician; he need atropine In her eyes which Inoreaaed her pain and she finally left him and 

went to another optician wbo oompieted the teat, bnt aha had pain and aymptoma of glanooma for a long 

time, and her sight ia very much impaired, so g leasee will not help her; had she gone to an ocnliat he 

wonld have deteoted ttie glaacoma and given her proper treatment and saved her eyea. Thia ia a matter 

of great importance, and I aboold tike yoar opinion. I bBlleve opticiaiu tiave no right ;to fit glaaaea 

Inaamneh as the majority of tbe yonng people who need glawas shoold haye them fitted by a com patent 

If people want to call for glaaaea all right, but optioiana have no right to advertiai to fit them 

than a draggiat baa to advertise to preecrlba for all the ills of man (free of charge) to gat; OTii<- 

tomers when he ia not a Dootor. Pleaee let me hear from yon. 

Very tnilf yoare. 

D. M, GaaaiiE, 

The raembera of the State Board of Health thought that a perBon 
QBlng atropine in the eyes for the purpose of fitting gtasses was praotio- 
iQg medioine, and should oomply with the State law relative to the prac- 
tice of medioine. 



i 



CONSUMPTION IS A DISEASE DANGEROUS TO THE 

PUBLIC HEALTH. 

A SPECIAL REPORT BY THE SECRETARY, AT THE IIEBriNG Of TBE 3TATB BOIBD OP 

HEALTH APRIL 18. 18W. 

So far as known tft this office, the Michigan State Board of Health was 
the first State Board to take aotion for the notiBcation of this most 
important cause of deaths. Sept. 30, 1893, this Board offiolally declared 
consumption and other diseases due to the Bacillia inhfrculosi's to be 
'^diseases daogerouB to the publio health'* and, in aooordanoe with Sec* 
tions 1675 and 1676 Howell's Statutes, to be reported by houaeholders 
and physioians to the local health officer, us booq as such a disease ia 
recognized. This recent action was for the legal control. This Board 
has carried on an educational oampaign since the year 1831, when it first 
published and distributed information relative to the oontagious char- 
acter and preTention of consumption. Since that time much has been 
written, published and distributed on this subject by this Board. In 
Sept., 1891, the Board publiehed a four-page leaflet on **The Eeairiction 



ex STATE BOARD OF HEALTH,— REPORT OF BECRETARY. IKI. 

and Prevention of ConBamptiDD, " to the oumbsr of 5,000 oopiee. ^ One 
other edition of Bve tbouEQnd copies of the pamphlet has been printed. 
It is believed that the pamphlet has been iostruntental in the edacation 
of the people for the reetriolioo of tubercular digeasea. 

Action by ihr New York City Board of Health. 

AooordiDg to the Samidrutn of March, 1894, the New York City 
Board of Health, od July 13, 1893, took action for the restriction and 
prevention of tuberculosis. The Report of Dr. Cyrus Edson, Chairman 
of the Sanitary Committee of the City Board of Health, wae adopted. 
It summarized a report which Dr Herman M. Biggs, the bacteriologiat 
of the Department, had made, and which was, in the opinion of Dr. 
Edson, timely and well advised. Dr. Biggs 'Report is summed up in the 
foUowirg three statements: Firsff Tuberculosis is a contagiona disease^ 
and is distinctly preventable; Secrmd, It is acquired by direct transmie- 
sjon of the tubercle bacilli from the eick to the well, usually by the 
means of the dried and pulverized sputum Heating in the dust of the air; 
and 7'hird, It can be laigety prevented by simple and easily applied 
measnreB of cleanHness and disinfection. 

Dr. Edecn's report, which was adopted, included recommendations: 
1, that an instructive circular be prepared and distributed; 2, that phy- 
sicians and other persons having knowledege of the existence of a case, 
report it to the Health Department within seven days; 3, that the medical 
sanitary inspcctore should investigate the cages and get samples of the 
sputa for diagnostio purposes, as is done in diphtheria, and if tnberole 
bacilli are foutd the inspector is to inform the physician and requeat him 
to instruct the patient and persons liable to be endangered, or if the phy- 
sician prefers the inspector gives these notices; 4, that the Board urge 
upon hospital authorities ol the city of New York the importanoe of 
separation so far as posaible in the hospitals in this city of peraons suf- 
fering from pulmonary tuberculcsis from those affected with other dis- 
eases, and urge that proper wards be set apart for the exclusive treatment 
of this disease, and that the oommissionera of Chfirities and Corrections 
be recommended to take such steps as will enable them to have and con- 
trol a hospital to be known as the ** Consumptive Hospitar* to be used 
for the exclusive treatment of this disease, and that as far as practicable, 
all inmates of the institutions under their care suffering from tubercu- 
losis be transferred to this hospital; 5, that it be recommended that the 
disinfecting corps disinfect places where evidence of infection from 
fuberculosis exists whenever, in the opinion of the chief inspector of 
contagious diseases, it shall be necessary; and 6, that suitable receptacles 
(cuspidors) be provided and properly oared for in all places where per- 
sons are brought or caused to congregate for any purpose, especially in 
factories. 

According to **The Doctor of Hygiene" for Deo. 20, 1893, the New 
York City Board of Health has adopted the following resolutione: 

*' Resolwd, Tbat tbk Bo&rd ur^e upon boppital aathorRlee of the Cit jr of New York the iroportanoe of 
veparatlon, BO far aa iKiaftiblev In the hoipit&ls of tbl« city, of pereoos lolTeHiiff from polnicnar; laber- 
oa1o«iB from tbcM affected witlii other diaeasefl. and urge that proper wardi be set apart for the ezclu»iTe 
treatment of (hte diaeaee ; and, be it ftirther 

" Resolved, That the CommiMic aere ol Chaiitiee and Ckirrectioni be rM»Dimiieiid£d to take eaoh etepa 
ae will enable them to baye and cootrol a hoBpital to be known aa ' The ConeninptiTe Horpital/ to ba 
need for the ezcIaelTe aa« of thli diieaae, and tbat, ai far ai praetlcable, ail Itmiatee of the inatlttition 
under their oare aofferioff ftfom tobercoloiii be tranaferred to thta hoepltal." 




REPORT OF THE SECRETARY REI^ATIVE TO CONSUMPTION, CXI 

Aciion by the New York State Board of Health. 

At a meetiog of the New York State Board of Health, February, 1894, 
(Dootor EdsoD, to whom the subject bad been referred, made a report 
ttatiDg that ^'TuberouloBis ie a cuntagioud dieease, and ia distiDOtly pre- 
ventable;" that it ie acquired by direct trauBioisBioD. uaually by the dried 
and pulverized sputum floatiug as dust in the air; and that it can, to a 
great extent, be prevented by oleanlinefie and disinfeotion. Dr. Edson 
recommended that inetruotive oirodlars be distributed; that cases be 
reported to the local bealtli officers within seven days of the time when 
the sick persons oome under observation, and the health officers should 
then take the necessary action, vieiting the premises, leaving printed 
instruotiona. After the death of the patient the room oooupied and the 
premises should be disinfected; and that ouepidors be put in aO publio 
places, such as railroad cars, factories, stations, etc* Dr. Edson also 

» recommended that a oiroular to health officers be sent out stating thai 
local health officers will register the name, address, sex, age of each person 
suffering from tuberoulosis; upon notice of a case, inspectors will visit 
the premises and family and leave instructive circulars relative to the 
precautions to be taken; the thorough disinfection of all infected articles; 
and that the authorities of all public institutions that are under the 
jurisdiction ol the State Board of Health, such aa hospitals, asylums, 
prisons, etc., shall be required to furnish the State Board of Health the 
ruame and last address of every consumptive coming under observation 
[within seven days. 

The reoommendfttione of Dr. Edson were embodied in a circular which 
tas been issued and distributed by the Board. The disease was recog- 
'sized as a dangerous communicable disease, and measures were recom- 
Imended for its prevention and restriction. The circular requests that 
[physicians report each case to the health official of the jurisdiction in 
which a case occurs. 

The New York State Board of Health has also investigated the preva- 
lence of tuberculosis in cattle, and has issued a oiroular of rules and rrg- 
nlations for inspectors, owners or keepers, and all other persons having 
lebarge of cattle suffering from tuberculosis. Dr. Balcb, the secretary of 
the Board, writes: ''I have to inform yon that this department has had 
in its employ two or more competent veterinarians to examine cattle 
supposed to be tuberculous, and have examined some 20,000 head either 
by physical or tuberculin test. Of the number examined some 3 per cent 
were found to be tuberculous, and were ordered killed. The work bow- 
ever, had been summarily stopped by order of the board/' 



Act ion by the Philmlelphia Board of Health. 

The Sanitary Committee of the Philadelphia Board of Health, to whom 
was referred the subject of the restriction of tuberculosis, made an elabor- 
ate report, and recommended a series of resolutions, whioh were adopted 
by the board. The resolutions embrace recommtjndations that registra- 
tion be postponed for the present; that circulars containing rules for the 
prevention of the disease be dietributed ; that physicians be requested to 
i^coOperate with the board in the distribution of these oircularp, and to 
lotify the board of oases in which disinfection is required; that a medi- 
cal inspector visit each house in whioh a death from tuberculosis ha& 



cm BTATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OP SECRETARY, 1894. 



I 



occurred, and aiitiefy bimeelf tbat the premisee have been disiDfected ; and 
that all caeea of tuberculosis reported to the Health Bureau be recorded 
ae are oasee of other contagious diaeaB&B. 

The action of the Philadelphia Board is in aoooidance with the reoom- 
mendations of the County Medical Society, and in part with the reoom- 
mendations of the College of FhyeicianB and Surgeons, 

AcHon hy ike Wayne County Medical Society. 

On invitation of the Wajne County Medical Society, the Secretary of 
this Board read a paper before the meeting of that eooiety in Detroit, 
Feb. 15, on the subject of *'ConEumption as a Disease Dangerous to the 
Public Health." The following reeolution was adopted by the society: 

" Reaolvedi That bereaftar. oonaainptiDD (and othar dlMSMa due to the Bacitlua iuberoukMit) uhall be 
inoladed io the UstoCdiMaAM of wbtch aodoe fthoQld be givea bj boQMholders And phrsioians to Uie 
local health boards, as «ood as anch a disease is ncogoized" 

Proposed Action hy ike Detroit Board of Healtk. 

The Health Coie mission er and one member of the Detroit Board of 
Health were in attendance at this meeting of the Wayne County Medical 
Scciety, and thought that consumption should be reported to the local 
board, the subject of unsanitary surroundings, damp basements, etc., 
could then be investigated, as well ae euoh action as is practicable for the 
restriction of the disease. The Health ComtDlBeioner thought it would 
be practicable for the local board to make baoteriologioal examinations 
of sputa of euspeoted caees, as fioon as the new health department building 
is ready for occupancy. 

Addresses t Discussions^ e/c, in Michigan. 

On invitation fiom the President of the Michigan Agricultural College^ 
your Secretary read a paper in the College Chapel, Friday evening, 
March 23, before the faculty and students, on the snbjeot: **Our Great- 
est Danger, and How it may be Avoided'*™" The Bacillus tuherculoais.** 
The Secretary has alao read a similar paper before the U. and I. Literary 
Club of Lansing. As i® well known to the members of this Board the 
subject of the restriction and prevention of coneumption was discussed 
at length, and several papers were read at the recent Sanitary Convention 
under the auBpices of this Board at Menominee. 

Action by the Board of Healtk of Asbury Park^ N. J. 

The Board of Health of Asbury Farki N, J., has declared consumption 
a communicable disease dangerous to the public health, and requires 
case 8 to be reported to the Board of Health, where a record will be made, 
circulars of information will be issued, and measures will be taken for the 
restriction of the disease. 

Action by ike Ohio State Board of Health, 

The Secretary of the Ohio State Board of Health has sent out a oironler 
letter^ with schedule of seven questions, asking the physicians in Ohio to 
give their views of the practicability of the State Board of Health taking 
act ion for the prevention and restriction of consumption. 




J 



I 



I 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY RELATIVE TO CONSUMPTION. Cxiii 

The Subject Discussed in Florida. 

Id a letter dated Marob 24, Dr. J. L. HorBey^ Aeflistant State Health 
OflBoer of Florida, ioforms the Secretary of the Michigan Board that he 
bad used extracts from Dr, Baker's paper read February 15 before the 
Wayne County Medical Society, and read a paper on the eubjeot of the 
Reatriotion of ConsomptioD before the Florida State Medical Society, at 
Tampa, March 20 and 21, 1894, and by bo doing brought out oonaiderabie 
dieouBsioD, which ebowed the viewa of the medioal profeaaion of Florida 
on this Bobjeot. 

Proposed Aciion in Calif or nia. 

The Scientific American, of March 24, oontains an article, quoted from 
the Southern California Praciiiioner, in which it is reoora mended that 
California follow the example of Michigan, and officially declare Con- 
flumption a Contagious disease, and go one step further and deny con- 
sumptives the privilege of engaging in oooupations whereby tbey may 
endanger the life or health of others, 

The Subject Discussed in 3finHesota, 

The Secretary has recently received from H. Longatreet Taylor, A. M., 
M, D.. of St. Paul, Minn., a copy of his paper on *'The Necessity of 
Special Inatitutions for the Consumptive Poor. The first step towards a 
complete eradication of TuberoulosiB/' in which Dt, Taylor, in a note at 
the end of hia paper, says: ^'Sinoe writing the above the State of Michi- 
gan has, through its efficient Board of Health, put tuberonloeis upon the 
list of GontagiouB diseases that must be reported by the Physician to the 
health board. This will soon collect a mass of data of the greatest value 
to the Btudent of the disease in that State, and will, by the limitation of the 
ravages of the disease in Michigan, soon farce the matter to the attention 
of the other States^ and eventually the National Government must take it 

The movement for the restriction of consumption seems to be a general 
one, and other boards of health will probably Boon take action. The 
foregoing brief statement has been prepared to show, as far as the Secre- 
tary is officially informed, what has recently been done for the restriction 
of the most important dieeafie— Consumption. 



THE SMALL-POX IN CHICAGO, 

BEPOHT TO THE MICHIGAJ^ STATE BOARD OF HEALTH, BY ITS DELEGATE 

TO A MEETING IN CHICAGO CALLED AT ITS INSTANCE BY DR. 

PKOBSTj OF OHIO, SECRET ABY OF THE NATIONAL 

CONFERENCE OF STATE BOARDS OF 

HEALTH. 

A conference of represent a ti?eB of the States immediately around 
Chicago WQB held in Chicago May 9 and 10. The alarming increaae of 
BmalUpox in Chicago and the inoreasing danger of its spread to oontig- 
noofl States was the reaaon for the conference. The State Boards of 



cxiv STATE BOARD OP HEALTH. -REPORT OP SECRETARY, 1894. 



Health repfeiented were: IlliDois, Indiaoa, Ohio, Mioblgan and Wis- 

conein* The U* 8. Marine Hoepiial Service was repreBeDted by J. B. 
Hamiltoii, M. D,, Ex-Surgeon General. After the conferenoe bad nearly 
perfeotEd iia propoaitioDP, ooncerDiDg what in its judgment ahouid be 
done at once, the Health CommiBsioner of Chicago oame io, and the 
propoeitioQS were again oonaidered by all present. His name was eigned 
with the otherfl to the propositioDS agreed to as neoeeaary to atop the 
spread of small. pox in a large oity. If the propoaitione are all promptly 
enforced in Chiosgo it is believed that the epidemic will be promptly 
stopped. It remains to be seen whether or not they will all be enforoed. 
The propositions adopted are as follows: 

*' 1, The oitjr BhooJd be dirldfid into diBtricta ooDtainla« not mora than 10;000 peopU. 

*'2t £aoh difliriot ahoald tw pLaoed aader the eapertlsloD of a competent medical inspeGtor with oeoea- 
sary aafllatants to (a) make a honee to honee inflpectioo ; (b) to flaooeeafallr raflciaate within the ahorteet 
poealble time aU pereon» who bave not been iraoolnated dnrin^ the ontbreaJc, aad that the Arat Taoeina- 
tioD be within seven dajre -, (o) to proparljr dieiafect all hoaeea and their eoatente whore unall-pox oceni^. 

"3. NeceABBry meane and appUanoee for efBoient diainfiection of materlala, premieee, etc.. ahocJd be 
protided ae the exigeooiee of eaoh dietriot may reqnire. 

"I. Each oaae of Bn]jall;pox ihoald be tmmediately removed to a enltably oonetrooted and properly 
eqalpped and oifioared ieolalton hoapltal. 

"5. Bicept in extreme oold weather. IjoApital tents, ae preeoribcd in the United Statee Army recnJaF 
tiona, floored and warmed, are preferable to the averaBe hoepltal or piivate dwelling, and inereaae the 
Qh&oeee of r* oovery of the petiente. Cfaee of emall-poz Deoeeearity detained in their own homee ihoald, 
with their attendante. be rigidly ieolated daring the period of daoicer, and phyelolans fieitloff each 
pattenti profeeBionally ihaO be Bobject to aach regnlations ae may be preeoribed by the local health 
oifioer. 

"Q. PereoDs expoeed to small-pox oontagion ahoold be immediately Taooinated, or re-vaoolnated, and 
kept nnder obeenration for not Ie«« than foarteen daye froxa tliue of Uat expoenre. 

**7. It la the aenae of thla oonfereoee that where anch meaeoTM are att enforced it will act be aeoeeeafi' 
for Dfiighboring oitles and Statea to exclade oil peraonji who coidd froin each city who are not proteoted 
againat email- pox by Taooinatlon, and to r«>qaLre dieinfeotlon of all baggage and merfibandlae capable of 
eoDToying emallpox infection." 

The U. S. Marine Hospital Servioe has instituted a system of inspec- 
tion of vefisele, orews, and passengers leaving Ohioago, and vaocination 
of all crews, A resolution relative to lake ports was adopted by the oon- 
ferenoe, also one relative to land quarantine, the two being as follows: 

** Bewoivedt That no Teaael pliliiiff on the takee ahonld be allowed to enter any port within the bonndariea 
al oQr reepeotlre Btatee without baring on board, anbject toioepectlon, a Bill of Health, dnly signed by an 
officer of the United Btatee Marine Hoapital Berrice. 

" Rttohvd, That is the opinion of thin eonferenoe etriet qaarantlne by land le imneoeaaary at preeeat, 
bat the iineetion may well be oonaidered now whether any pereoa from aay ^ity where amall-pox oontin^ 
oee to exiat in eptdomlc form, ahonld be allowed to atop in onr Statea withoat having a oertifioate of vac- 
diiaUoQ within the past three years, and that, in caee of eetabHehment of qoarantine, all paasengen 
boarding trains ehonld be informed, that nnleea provided with vaooinatlon oertifioatee from proper 
aotharitieB, they will be liable to examination, and re-vaccination at the State line" 

On the invitation of the Conferenoe^ a meeting was called of the cloth- 
ing and textile-garment mannfaotorers of Ohioago, which meeting 
appointed a committee to meet the Conference. At that meeting the 
Conference submitted propositions as follows: 

" Rewlved, That thia conference reepectfally iuforma mannfaotnrere of clothing, that owing to the 
prevalence of emall-pox In certain diatiicte of thle city, deep appreheousion exiete in regard to tha poealble 
infection of clothing and textile garments made or finlihed by pereoneor familiee living in aaid diatriota, 
some of whom are In oloee relation with the aick, either in the Berne honee, or having free oommanloatlon 
therewith ; 




REPORT OP THE SECRETARY RELATIVE TO SMALL-POX, crv 



lew of these teota, we farther Inform the said mAnaCBotaren that oadar the ciroomvtaoeee, 
M ebov« Mt forth, we ihAlI be obliced to reoomniead to oar several State ^oardB of Health that no olotb- 
Inff. or itidiee' draaeee or textile sarmeate for sale be allowed to eoter, or to be dlatribated within oar 
reepeotive States exoept in aooocdaooe with the fotlowinff meaiaree; 

"That an eCBeient dallf inepeotion, with aU tliat each LnipeotioD Impllea, of all plaoei in wbiob eooh 
coode are mannfactnred in the ott; of Cbloatfo, be eetebtlehed and audntained nnder the direct enpervi- 
alon of the lllinoli State Board of Health, to theeod that noeooh articlee from an; infected localltf Hbali 
be pnt Qpon the market for eals, or Bhipment, or be otherwlee dletribated to the meoaoe of the pnblio 
health. 

"The adoption of the forevoins ineaaare will in oar opinion mnaanrabl; restore oonfidenoe, and 
fi»cititat« trade, bat wa desire to point oat that the coatinQanoe of trade will finalli' depend on effioient 
general eanitarr operation! for the eappreaalon of the diwMe.'* 

The foregoing propositioDe were aooepted by the committee repreeeut- 
iDg the clothing and textilegarmeDt maDafacturers. The foUowiDg day 
another meeting of the manufaoturerd waa held, when a oonaiderable fiom 
of money was coUeoted, and committees were appointed to colleot more, 
and to eee that the measures are carried out 

The State of Illinois haa Factory iDspectors to look after conditioQs 
affecting the health of employes, and public-health interests. These 
inspectors are not auffioiently numerous to do the work needed now rela- 
tive to sraall-pox; yet they may supply a very well-trained and useful 
nooieuB for that service. The Secretary of the Illinois State Board of 
Health ^ave the Conference emphatic assurance that the work agreed to 
by the Conference and the manufactarers should be faithfully performed; 
and in the event of its failure to start or of its discontinuance, that he 
would see that the mem hers of the Conference have prompt notice. 

The final resalta of the Conference are therefore awaited with interest. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Henby B. Baker, 

Office of the Michigan I Delegcde, 

State Board op Health, > 
Mmj 15, 1S94, ) 



h 



BEFORT OF THE SECRETARY RELATIVE TO PROPERTY 
ETC., FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNfa 

30, 1894 

To the President and Members of the Michigan Sfaie Board of Health: 
Gentlemen:— In compliance with Section 5 of Article II of the 
by-laws of this Boards the following roport of the "Nature and amount 
of property belonging to the Board, which has been received, issued, 
expended and destroyed since the last report, and of the property remain- 
ing on hand, and alao in whose care each item of property is intrusted,*' is 
respectfully submitted: 

Precediog r^portt thoQld «Dtoble on* to learn the itemv of proiettr en head at iho bpglniiiiig of tha 
fiieal Tear 18M. My lost report i« printed en ptgM c-«xii, of th« AiiDa&l fiepoit for 1893. Biro« last 
ntiort, l&atriuxifliitt and artlelw of a almUar natorQ hmve been parchaiNed aa follow*: 



i 



^xyi STATE BOARD OF HEAIiTH.--|lEPORT OF SBCRETARY, 1894. 



^HOTO-BNGRAVED PLATES PUBCHASED. 

One photo-otiirniTedl plata— PJan of part of Htantoa. liieb. 

Two photo-engraved platea— iBhowin* Bacilli and Uiorocoooi of Dlaeaaee. 

One pboto-«nffraTed plate— Ail n oat Oeatha In London by Feven. 

Ona photoHsn^raTed plate— Nnmbera of Deathji, Blrttu and Patipen per aonam io Rnifland. 

One photo^offraved plate—'* Half tone Bnilding ** (Michigan State Capitol). 

One ptioto-ea«raved plate— Typhoid Ftver in liiefaigan in 1890, 

One photo-engraved pl&te^ Annual Deaths in London by Gonanmption. 

One photo^eagraTod plate— Annnal Deathi tn London bjr k^nLaU-pox. 

One pbotc-engraTed plate— Aaanal Deaths Ifi Swedea bf gmall-pox. 

One photc-engTaved plate— Annnal Deatha in Foreign Coantiiea before and after the introdaotloo of 
Vaeoloation. 

One pboto-engrared plate— Deatha in London from all caoaee io periodt repreaanting the 17tb, iStb and 
19th Centoriee. 

One photo-«ngravcHl plate— D^atba In Sweden bjr all Canaee. 

One photo-engTaved plate— NnmberB of Deatha and Birtbe in England, 10 yeare, ISSt-W. 

One photo-engniTed pUta — " Impnre sonr^ of water^ caoaing Typhoid Fever in Hartford, Hlobigan. 

One photoHiDgraved plate— Anfintal Deatha In London by Cbolem. 

One stereotype plate— Seal of the Offioe of the Uichlgan State Board of Healtb. 

Fifteec photo-«Dgimved platee, relating to the caeteorotoirio&J condlU^iu in Michigan In 1801. 

Fivfl pboto-engraTad plataa, relating to Weekly Reporta of Biolcneae in Mleblgan In 189 L 

One photoHBOgraved plate— Reported D^ths from Meaalea in Miehif^aQ, H yean, LS08-O1. 

One photo^nffraved plate— Looalttiae where Sanitary Conventiona have been held In Miolii4iaa. 

One photo-eagraved plate— Map showing distribatlon of Scarlet Fdver in Mieliigan in ISdl. 

One photo-engravod plate— Reported Dd&tbs froa Scarlet Fevor in Miobigan, 24 year*, 18«E-91. 

One photo-engraved plate— Meaalea in Uicbigan, Caeet and Deatha in 1B91. 

One photo- aDgraved plate— Oatbreak of Diphtheria in Ann Arbor, Michigan, In 1891. 

One pfaoto-angraved plate— Reported Deatha from Diphtheria in Michigan, S4 yeara, 1888-91. 
* One photo-engreTed pllate— Map, DletribtitioQ of Diphtheria in Michigan in IB91. 

One photo-eDgravad plate— Diphtheria, Gaeee and D sat ha, In Mfobfgan In lEQl, 

PROPERTY LOANED, 

Six photc-eDgraYed f»lat«e ahowing relation of certain meteorotogical oonditiona to dlaeaaee of tha 
langaand Alr-paseagee f*%re loaned to John Bornman ± Son, printers , Detroit, Michigan fby request 
of Charlee W. Hitchcock, M. D., Pr«ildent of the State Medical Society). 

Many piatea were loaned to R jbert Smith Jb Co., Btate Prlntera and Binders^ Laniaing, to be hbmI in 
printing Atmoal Reporta and other pablicatlona of thia Board, Moat of tbeee plabea haTt bean retorred. 
bnt a few atiU remain charged to them on the property loon book of tble Office. The plates wiLi prot^bl^p 
be retonied ae aoon ae the State Printer ia thron«h naing them. 

PROPERTY RETURNED. 

Six photo-engraved platee— Diagraaia ehowtng relation of certain meteorotcgical dondltione to dla> 
eaaea of the longa and Air>pa«Bagee were retoroed by A. N. Bell, M. D., Editor of the *' SanltarlftD, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

METEOROLOGICAL INSTROMENTa, ErC., PURCHASED. 



Tbree maximnm registeriog thf rmometera. 

Two dry-bnlb thermometera. 

Two galvsnlfed iron paila for measnrlog anowfall. 

One obterving box for baromiflter. 

Ona ekeiii peycbrometar wjcklng. 

Otw magnifyiog band glaaa. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY RELATIVE TO PROPERTY. cxvii 



HETE080LOOICAL INSTBUMENTa 1B6UED. 

Maiaorolosical tiutnimeata bave b«en iotniitcd to ob««irT«rft (or StAte Board of H«*]th u fullowi. 

To lliehi^uk SUte Bj«rd of Heikl;.b« LuDi«iai:— Ouo galvanised .Iroa pall for maaaarUia daptt of 
Mowfali. 

To i, a, Conaat. M. D„ Tawaa City, MlebigaQ— One baroiiiet«r with hcx)k aad box; otie drj balb 
thffBMNiUftar, irlth board and clips ; ooe wat balb tbcrmometor, with cap and wkk ; one maxlmom 
raffiatfrioff thannomater, with Msrew-bolt and pin; ooe mlnimom reglatariotf thermociieteT. with board 
and elipa; one rain 8*nca : one meaaoriDK stlok for rain ffanga. 

ToC C. Tefft. Taoamaeh. Michigan:— One maxlmam r«gUtarios thermometer. 

To C. E. Been. Adrian. UieblKaa:— Oa« barometer witti book and box; one dry balb thermometor, 
with board and ellpe ; 000 wet balb thermometer, wll'Ji cap and wiok;oae maximam regl«tarln« thar- 
momeiar with aerew-bolt and pin : one minLmnra raf iit«riiig thermometer with board and olipa. 

To D. W. Mitehell. M. D,, Hirriavllle. Hiohiffan:-Oje barometer; one wet balb thermomatar ; ooa 
pejrohrometar cap. 



MSTEOfiOLOQICAL 1NBTRUMBNT8 ACCIUE ATT ALLY BBO&BN^ WHILE IN USB 6T 

UB3£BVEBS. 

Ona maziranm tharmometer, retamad, brokui« bj C. C Tefft, Adrian. 
One wet balb; one barometer, returned, broken.* by D> W. Mltohell. U, D,, HarrlsTiUa. 
Ooo dry boJb; one wet balb; ooe oTerflow tabe to rain «aaffi»; one miaaaoring etiak for ralo gaoga; ona 
minlmom tbarmometar, by Qeo. H. Qreena, M. D-, Varahall, 

MBIEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS RETURNED. 

Ooa baromater; ooa maximam raglatarlng tbarmomater with aeraw-bolt and pis; ona wet balb; ona 
nin gaiiffa, by Qao. H. Graana, H. D., HnrabalK 

MBTBOBOLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS AND OTHER PROPERTY ON HAND. 



I standard baromatara (ineladtng one in oaa at thla offioa). 
10 drr bnlb tbarmometers (inelndlng ona In oae at thia office). 
( wet balb thannometere (ineinding one in aae at thia otBoe) . 

4 mlnimnm raglateriag thermometerm (iQclodtDg- one In aea at thia office) 
t maximam regieterlng thermometare (Inoladiog one in aee at thU offioci 1 . 
1 atandard thermometar. 

1 atandard thermometer for inepeeting oila. 

t rccittering thermometer boards (inolndlDg one in naa at tbia offiaa). 

7 psyohroinetar boards (inoiading one In a«e at tbia office), 

1 payobrometer onp in ase at this otiice. 

9 minimnm thermometer oiipa. 

i wet balb olipe. 

5 »erew bolta for regiaterlng therm ometan. 
7 pins for reglatartiig thermometere, 

1 hook for hanging barometer- 

t bairaneter boxes (Ineladiog one in use at this offioe). 

2 rain gangae (icolnding one in nee at this office). 

1 baatn for rain gaoge. 

t oapa for overflow tobas to rain gaacee. 

2 large galvanized iron pails to maasare aoowfail. 
1 Draper's self*reffi«terlo« thermomater. 

1 Anemometer, complete, in nae at this ofliee. 

2 Circular magaifrinff Imod ffUases. 

1 mlnimom tharmometere aad 2 maximam thermomaterB apoiied by expoaare an4 long oae. 

i paychometer oapa, apoUad by rast and kmg aipoaare. 

A peychometar cape. Id jarad by ase i can be repairer). 

24 broken thermometers, ilnciodaa all since observations have bean taken. ) 

1 worn-oat anemometer spindle. 

•00 sheets oxone teat-pa[ier. 



• Repaired and ratnmed to thia offioa by Hanry J. (inan, N. Y. 



Cxviii STATE BOARD OF HEAL.TH.-REPORT OF SECRETARY. 1894. 



ACCESSIONS TO THE LlBEiBY. 

Book* ind other pobliofttioiu bAvd been reoeiTsd aad plaoed io the library of the Board, dortuff the 
ftee&l Ttai eadlns Jane 30, 1894, ae CoUowi :— 

By Girr, Bxchahoi;, bto. (Namea and addreeiee of dooora are printed in italloe.) 

Abbott^ Br, Samuel W., Secretary, Boston, Mom.: 
Manaal for ose of Loeal Boardaof Health in Uaaaa- 

choMtta, giving Lava relatiag to the Pdblio 

Uoalih. 
Anxkaal Beport of the Maaaaohiueite Stale Board of 

Health. 1802. 
Water Snpplr and Sewerage of Maaaaohoaette. 

Armatrcno, Dr. Oeorge 9m Stcrttari/ Olt^pia, 
Wank. : 
Sd Annual Beport of the State Board of Health of 

Waahinffton, year ending Sept. 30, 1891. 

Baker t Dr, Henry B., Secretary^ Lanting, Mich : 
The ReatrietioQ of- Diphtheria in Holland, Michi- 
gan. Reprint No. 300. 
A Stadyof the Action of Aloohol on the Hamau 

Body, lleprint No. IWI 
leth Annoat Report of the Michigan SUte Board of 

Heaitli, ia»l. 
Reprint No. 371.— ''The Time of Qreateat PreTaleiMM 

of Bach Diseaae in Michigan, in 1880." 
Proceedings of Benlt&ry Conveation at Hillsdale, 

Jaly. 1B93. 
Proceeding* of the Banltary Convention at Seantoa, 

Miohigan. April, 1493. 
Reprint No« 400. — *'Commnni cable Diaeaaee in 

Michigan in IBdl." 
Beprint No, 372^— OonuntLOlcable Dieeaaee In Mieh* 

Jean in 1B90. 
Bearlet Fever in Miaygan in 1880. 
ConBamption ae a Dlaeiae Dangerona to the Pobtlo 

Health. 
Aohiereioeote of Sanitation, Reprint No. 888. 
The preeont OomparatilTe Immnnity of Adnite from 

Diphtheria. Reprint No. 189. 

Baker, Dr. L,J., Citif Phu»ician, Ottumwa, lotoa: 
lit Annual Report of the Board of Health of the 

City of Ottamwa» Iowa, Year ending Marob I, IB94. 

Balcht Dr, hetoU, Qecreiary, Alhanv, N. Y.: 
13th Annn&l Report of the New Yotk State Board of 

Health, 1B9B. 
Maya accompanying the 13th Annnel Beport of the 

New York State Board of Health. 
12th Aounal Report of the New York State Board of 

Health, imi 
Local Boarde of Health in the State of New York. 

Becchi, F., i>trecfor-GciieraI <tf tke jlrmy, Bom», 
Italu: 
Delia LeTa Sni Biovuil tiatl nnir anno 1971 delle 

VJcende del B. Eeercito Dal 1 Lngllo al 30 

Oiugno IS&a. 

HtUler, A. M,. Director, Philadelphia, Penn. : 
The Onnoe of PreTantlon. Department of Pablfo 

Health and Safety. 

Billina; M. D., John 3,, Washmjtonj D. C: 
Cataiogae of Exhlbite 1q the Mtiaeam of Hygiene, 

Medical Department of the V. S. Army. 
Vital Btatlatioa of the Dietriot of Golambia and 

Baltimofe, aU yeara ending May 31, 1990. 




BUlinQn, B(m,S, R.^ C*jmv%U$iQner, LanMino, Mieh. : 
Report of the Commlaaioner of Bailroade of Michi- 
gan. 1898. 

Blit», Richard, Librariaiu Newport, B, /. : 
IffSd Annate Meeting of the Board of Diraetora olj 

the Redwood Library. Newport, B. I., Aq«^. 1£8S. 

Boird of Health, Camt>rtdge, Man.: 
Annoal Report of the City Board of Health. Cam- 

bridge, Maaa., year ending Not. 80, 180t. 

Snard of B faith. Mobile, Ala.: 
Annoal Beport of the Board of Health, of th« olty of 

Mobile, Ala., for the year 189Z. 
Annnal Beport of the Mobile Board of Haalth, 

Board of Health, Narrigtown, Pa, : 
BnJee and Regal at iona of the Board of Health, Nor^ 

rletown. Pa., 1894. 

Board of Health, Maw:hesUr,N S.i 
Begnlatlona for the Piambing and Draining 

Boildinga. 
Annaal Beport of the Mancheater Board of Heaith.^ 

1893. 

Board of Health, Nathvitle, Tenn, : 
19th Annnal Report of the Board of Health, Naah- 

rUle. Teon.. 189t, 
Bo<%rd of Health, New Bedford, Maas.: 
Uth Annnal Report of the Bjard of Haalth. Naw 

Bedford. Maaa.. 1892. 

Board of Hf^aUh, Oakland, Cm.: 
Annnal It^port of theOaklatid Board of Health, fmr 

ending Jane 30, 1B9S. 

Boiird of Healih, Portlan'i, M^f,: 
Kth Annnat Eleportof the Buardof Health. Porttaod, 

Maine, year ending Feb. 2% 1898. 

Board ofHeaHh, Rffoding, Pa ; 
Annnal Report of tb? Board of Health of the GiCj of 

Reading, Penn., for the year 1891. 

Board rf Health, Winomi, Minn. : 
Annnal Report of the B>ard of Health of Winoxia« 

Minn., year ending March 31, 1891. ^^J 

Bockh. Prof. R., Director, Berlin,. Oermanif: ^^M 

Statietichee Jahrbnch der Stadt Barlln. 1S91. ^^ 

Bureau of Editcitian, Wanhinoton^ D. C, : | 

Hand-Book of UaiTeraity Extension. Second Edl- I 

tlon. 
Beport of Committaa oa S«&ondary Bohool Stndiaa. j 
The Hiatorr of Edneation in Delaware. 
The Spelling Reform. 

StatiatloB of PobliD Llbrariea in the United Statae. 
Btatiatica of Pablle Libraries in the United Stataa 

and Canada. 
Report of the Commtaaiooer of Elaoation, IS89-90, 

Vol. 1. 
Report of the Commiai-loner of BdnoatioiL, t888-^» 

Voi. 11. 
Beport of th^ Comtmlaaiooer of Ednoatioa« 1887-M, 
Catalog of ''A, L. A," Library, 




REPORT OP THE SECRSTARY RELATIVE TO PROPERTY. 



cxix 



Burmam cf Hggignm^ Havre, Franee : 
Eepoft of tbo Banui of Mnaidpftl HrsiooA for the 

pariod taao-uw. 

Buraau of Labor, Wtuhington, D, C-: 
8th AaAoftl Bffport of tho CommiwioiMir of Labor, 

18BZ. 

Bnrti^u of Public Htalih, Chritliania, Nonoav : 
Bervtainc om Folkemaaaffdao off 8iiDilbadatllitan> 

dan i Chrl4ti&Dia, 1993, * 

Bureau t^ St4iti»tic4, Rome, Ilatv: 
Cwua de Morti, Statiatica dBgii anni 180t 1892. 
NotUla aaila Condltlooi Damo«rafiohe Edilize ed 

AdmioiatxaUve dl AJeniw Orandl dtta ItAllana «d 

E«t«re Dal 1891« 

Burtau of StaiisHct, Watkinoiont D. C: 
StatUtioal Ab«tra«t of tb« U. 6., IMI. 
Yagfuej and Fablio Charitiaa in Foraiga Cooa- 

trim, 
IfltmifralioD and PasMturvr MoTemaat at Porta of 

D. 8., jmr aodins Jaae 30, 189S, 
Comniaroa and Navigatloii of U. S . 1883. 
Qoartarly Baport of Chiaf of Baraaa of Statlatioi, 

relativa to Importa and Eiporta of the U. 8.. Qaar- 

tar amdlDg Jana 30, 1801. 
Somraanr Statamant of Importa aod Knporta of the 

D. S,. /nly, IBM. 

Browne, Dr. J^kn 8., Librarian^ Mrto York City: 
TrauaetioQt of tha Naw York Aoadam^ of M«di«io», 

VoL IX. 

Bryce, Dr. Peter H., Secretaru, Toronto, Oni,: 
fieport on TnbarcnJ Mt la Ootario, iSM. 
lltli Amtnal Report of tha ProTiootal Board Off 

Haalth of Oatario. 

BwTOWt 2>r. J, 0„ Seeretari/, MeibOMmm^ Aiutra^ 
ha: 
IBm Aiunal Uaport of the Aafltraliaa Health 9ooi«tj« 

18V2-93. 
Too Toilat. or the Cara of tba Bkla, Hair. NaUa aod 

Taath. 

CtMU, Dr. OeoTffe 8,, CUy Phyticivn, Burlington, 
Vi,: 
Aunual Bai»ort of tha Haalth Phfaioiaa of Barlins- 

toQ, VannoQt, t8fi<3. 

CaiihBeXI, Dr. A. W^^Secretarg, Davenport, Imifa: 
Prooawliiiga of tha Daveaport Icndemj of Natural 

Boiaiiee«,?ol,&. Part 111. 
An anal Report of the City Otfi?ara of Daveaport, 

i'jwa. ynar andiog Siaroh 1, 1BQ3. 

LatUrmole, Dr. Oeorge H., Point Levis, Quebnic: 
QaaraQtiae Ueralationa for tha Oamiaioo of Caa- 

ada- Jaae 20, 1391. 

C- jrpnwwt, Prof. Charlet^ Director, Oftowa, Con- 
ado ; 
Report of the MetaorologlGal Saryloe of tha Domln- 

i)D of Canada. 18£9. 

Celli, Prof Alotlo^ Director, Rome, Ualy: 
L'Atione dell Boolo snl Qemri del r.arbonohio.^ 
Ctutribato alio Studio dialla ToMicita deUa 

Sptrllfi Colerigeno. 
Kaoro Hathodo di AnoHai delle Materia Coloranti 

Artllioiali DeriTata dal Catrame, 
Balle Fonzoni Reciproche dal Bolli Inorganiol nella 

Iraaziooa Mlaerale analle MaLattle UoaacunptiTe. 




CKalme:r9, Dr, Archte K., M«d4eot Officer of Heallk, 
OUxMQOw, Scotland: 
Scarlatina and Scarlatinal Bore Throat. A Baport 

of MUk lutpectioD. 

Chapin, Dr, Charle$ V„ Swp*, of Health, Provi- 
dene0, B. I.: 
38th Annaal Report npoa Birtha, Harriasea, uid 

Deatha, oltr of P^tldaaoe. B. 1 » jroar VS»L 
10th Atuiiial Baport of tha Bapt. of Haalth. eity of 

Providence, year 1«>E, 

Cheesman, Dr. Timothjt, if., yew York Ctt§ : 
A Conaideration 00 Arteaton Walla and BorCaoa 

Waters from the Standpoint of Baoterioloffj and 

Poblto Uealtb. 
A report of a reoeni: Sanitary Inapeetton of one of 

tha Sooroee of the Croton Water-Sapply, 

Chlpman, Willit, Civil Enoim^er, Toronto, Ont,: 
How to do It. Some BoMastiona on Honaa 

Sanitation. 
Report on tha Propoaed Syatam of Sawaraga of 

Llndaajr, Ontario. 

CMl Service Commimion, Waahington, D, C : 
9tii Anonal Report of tha U. S. Clrll Sartioa Oom- 

miaaioa, Jolj 1. 1891, to Jone 39. 1893. 

Clapp, Dr. E. P., Health Officer, SvanMton, III.: 
Bsriaed Ordinanoaa of the Glty of Evaaatoa, 111. 

College of Phu*teian», Philadelphia, Penn. : 
Tranaactiona of the College of Phyalolaoa of Phila- 
delphia. Third Serlea. Vol. 15. 

CommiMtioner of Labi^r, ITtMAfnfffOfi, D. C. .* 
7th Atmnal Beport of the U. S. r/Omiolaaiooer of 

Labor, 1^1, Vol. 2. 

Conoer, Norman B., InepetUor. DrtroU, Mich. : 
Report on the Poreoaatlog of Thnndamtorma dnr* 

ing the aammer^ 1893. 

CouUhard, Dr, Oeorffe B., Stcretart, Bt. Johm, N, 
B.: 
7th Annnal Report of the ProTincial Bovd of 

Health of New Brnaawlok, year 1898. 

Decoui. Dr» D,, Buenot Apret, Argentine Republic: 
Lea Inatitationa Sanltairda daaa La Repabliqoa 

Argentine. 

DiHi"*, P. Francote, Borne, Italu: 
Pabtlcaziont dtlla Speoota Vatioana, 

Deioey. 3f-/r«. State Librarian, Albany, S, Y.: 
N. Y. State Library Baltetin. LegUladon No. 4. 

Dixon SanUarv Co., Finioy, Ohio: 
Tha Problem Solved— Dlapoaat of Q&rbage, eto. 

Dmcling. Thomas J,, Cammissianer, Albany, N, 

r.; 

Bnreanof Statiatloa of Labor of the State of New 

York. Vol. I. 1891. 
Barean of Statiatioa of Labor of tha State of New 

York, Vol. II, 1591. 
Baroaa of Statiatioa of Labor of the State of New 

York, Vol. 1. l^m. 
Baraan of Statiatioa of lAbtit of the State of New 

York. Vol. lM3fi2. 

Dryden, Mies Mintx, Librarian, Dnyt^m, Ohio: 
Report of the Dayton Free Pabllc Library and 
Unsenm. 1892-1893. 



CXX STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SBCRETABT, 1894 



Dyke*, Dr. Htnry A., Secretarv, Top«ka» Kama*,' 
C>th AnDQftl Report of the Kanau St«t« Bokrd of 

Health, tS&S, 

Klli*, Hon. A, A„ AfUtrneu OrHieral, Lannng, 
Michigan : 
R«port of the Attorney General of the State of 

Miehiffan for the year eodlng Jane S9, I89i^ 

Ferovson, Dr> E. D,, Secretary, ^oy, .V. F.: 
TnuieaetioDe of the New York tledioal Assooiatlos, 

IBM, 

Finleif, John P., Wiuhtnaton^ D. C: 
Certain Climatic Features of the T«ro DakoUa. 

Fotter, Dr, Eugene, Preeident, August a^ Ga,: 
tfith An&oal Report of the Aagoata Board of 

Health, vm. 

Foster, William E., Librarian, Providence, R* -L: 
7th Annual Report of the PobUc Library, year 1893. 

Frater, Dr. E, B.. Secretaru, Wilminot^m^ Del.; 
7th Biennial Report of the Delawari State Board of 

Heallb, 1890-9:. 

GiddinQif, Hon, Theron F., Comminitmer* 
LuTising, JUicfkigan: 
Inaarance Borean— Sammary in ad^anoe of the 

AtinDal Report, showing fiaanoiaL condition and 

Uicbig&n Baelneae, year 11^91, 

Gon, Dr, FranciM W„ Seerttary, Roxburt„ Mau, : 
Medical Gommnnioatioiu of the Maae. State Medi- 
cal Society, 1S93> 

Orimthaw, Thomas. Registrar- General, DttbUn, 
Ireland : 
29th R-iport of the Hegietrar-GeaeraJ of Ireland, 
relatiTe to Blrthe, MarriatreB and Beatha. year 
1692. 

Hambltter, Joseph F., State Tre^isurer, LanHnQ^ 
Mich, : 
Report of the Treasarer of the State of Michigan, 

Barrington, Pre/. Mark H'., Chief, li'ashington, 
B. a .* 
Report of the Chief of tbe U. B, Weather Bnreaii. 

18ei-ie»2. 
Report of the Chlaf of the D, B. Weather Rorean, 

fear IB»2. 

Hareourt, Richard, Registrar-OisneriU, Tiijironio, 
Ont,: 
Report relating to the RegiHtration of Blrthe. Mar- 
riagea, and Deatha in the FroTidence of Ootario, 
18»1. 

HartiPell, Dr. E. M„ Bott&n, Mftt*.: 
Tbe Piinoipal Typei of Physioal Training Com* 

pared. 
Phyaical TrainiiLg Treated from ao 4merioaa and 

European Point of View. 
Proceedings of the Phyaical Training Conference, 

1889. 
On the PhjTftiology of Bxereiee, 
Some Aapeote of Athletica ajitt Gymnaaticsat Home 

and Abr^iad, 
Addreaaea DdllTered at the Tth Aasa&l Meeting of 

tbe American Association for tbeAdTanoeiuant of 

Phyaical Traloing, Philadelphia. April, I89i. 



Haxfn. PfQf, Benfv A,, WashingUm,' D, C: 
Tbe Climate of Chiosgo. Ballstin NCK?tO. tO. fl. 

Weather Bnreao. 

Bauley, Dr. D. C, Secretary, Burixngton, Vt.: 
Tranaaotiona of the Vermont 8 ate Medical 9oe«et7, 

Herrick, Dr. S. 3.r San Francisco, CuL: 
nth Biennial Report of tbe OaL for ula State B»rd 
of Health, year ending Jane SO, 1890. 

Eitchiiock, Dr. C. W,:aecretarv,lDetrotU Micht^ 
gan: 
Trail eacUona of tbe Michigan State Mwlieal 
Society, year 1893. 

i7air Dr. Jo**pht Netb OrUans, La* : 
The New Orleana Sewerage Syetem. 

HvJT, Dr. 0. N ♦ Chicago, III. ; 
A ConalderatioD of theCaoaeof Typhoid Fever bt' 
Cbioai^o, 

Hunt, Dr. Ezra M., Secretary, Trenion, N. J. : 
Sth Atinnal Report of the New Jeraey State Bj*rd 
of Health, l^^l. 

10th Annnal Report of the New Jersey State Board 

of Health,!^. 
14th Ann Dal Report of th« New Jereey State Boa4<d 

of Health, vm. 

nth Annnal Report of tbe Mew Jersey State Board 
of Health, lt9l. 

Ansaol Report of tba New Jeraey Board of HeaiCh* 
yearl89fl. 

Imperial Bureau of Statislicst BerUn<, O^rmoHy: 

StatltiaehBa Jahrbaok fQr daa Deateehes Raleb, 

Ingertolt, Prof. C. I.,, Difeclor^ Lincoln, Neb.: 
The iaflaence of Changee of Food and Temperatare 

on the Qaantity and Qmlity of tbe Millc of Dairy 

Cows— Balletin No. 30, Experiment Station, Uol^ 

veralty of Nebraalia* 
7th Aann&i Report of the Nebraaka Agricaltaral 

Exi>eriment Station, 1B98. 

Jtrrdan. Dr. J. R. Skcretary. Hontgamery, Ala.: 
TraneactioQB of the Alfibima State Medical AaaoeiA> 

tion, ia03. 
The Report of the Board of Haalth of tbe State of 

Alabama, 1B92. 

Kimbatt., Hon^ Sumner I,, Gen. 8upt,, Washing- 
ton, D, €,: 
Atinnal Report of the O. B. Life 3iTin« Serrice for 
gaoal year ending Jan. 30, 189 U 

KfAayoahi^ Prof. K , Director. Tuklo, Japan: 
Atmnal Report of the Central Meteorological 

Obserratory, IS91, Part 2. 
Annnal Report of tbe Central Mateorologicml 

tlbaarTBtory, 1B92, Part I. 
Annnal Report of tbe Central Metear^ogioal 

Obearvatory of Japan fur the fear 1891— Part I. 

Laberge, Dr. Louis, Health Officer, Monir^at, 
Qaettec: 
Report of tba Sanitary State of Montreal, 189 



1^ 




REPORT OF THB SECRETARY RELATIVE TO PROPERTY, 



OX XI 



\ 



I 



Lw. Dr, B^ittmini Seeretan/, PhtktdetphUt, 
Ptm^ ! 
ProeMdiocB of tba National CoaUnaoe of State 

Board* of Haalth. Laoalog, Jane, 1802, 
8th Ananal &«i>oit of tha Pdniuiylf ania State Board 

of Health, 1892. 
Tth Aanoa] Report of the Pdiinerliraala State Board 

of Health. 1801. 
Beffolatioae of the State QoarantlDe Board of 

Penn., adopt<» i Jaae 19. 18M< 
BoleafortbaGaTemmeator the State QaaraottBe 

Board of PeoaHrlTaoia, 189(, 
ProoaediDfs aad Papareof the National Confarenoe 

of State and ProTlnelal Boarde of Health, Lan- 

•lD«, Jane. 1891. 
Prooeedinge of the 9th Sjaltar/ ConventioQ. at 

Erie. Pan a., Maroh, 1801 
Pereotial Prseaatlone Reoommeuded to be talcea hj 

Acteadiog Pbytioiana In Caeee of Comma atoable 

Dlaeaaaa.— Ciraalar No. 41. 
Bow to Meet Cholera.-Cireolar No. 4S. 
Precatjtlonj a«alQ«t Snall-po».— Gircolar No. 8, 
The Law EatabUehlng Boardiof Health la Buroagba 

in Ftem. 
Emercenojr Hoepitala.— Clrootar No. 17. 

Lif ^Saving Cktmmimicn, Wathtnatoi^, D. C : 
Antiaal Beport of the V. 8, Lif^-Sariog Servioe. 

Tear ending Jnoe 30, 1891. 

Lindtletii Dr. Charles A., Sicretarff, ^eto ffiveti, 

Anioal Report of Conaeotlent State Board of 

Htalth, 1891. 
Alphabetical Liit of the Medioal Prmctitlouera In 

CoDoeatleat. IS93. 

Local Oov^mmtnt Board, London, Enffland: 
2Ut Aonnil Baport of the Lio&l Qovirameat Bjard 

of Englaid, li?49l-Oi, with eapplemeat ooQtaining 

the Eeport of the Ueiloal Offi Mr, year 1881, 

JfcLeaii. Df, John T., HifoUh Officer, AlamBda, 
Oal: 
let Aannal Beport of the Board of Health of Ala- 
meda. Cal , 1888. 

MeLeod, Dr. Dttncait^ BtiaUh Oomnteioner, £)«- 
tr(rit,Mieh.: 
Report of the Board of Health for the laat four 

monthe of 1603. 

MeMUtan, Hon. Ntal, State OU Inspector, Rock- 
ford, UicK.: 
Beport of the State loepeetor of IlltunloatiQg CHla 

of the State of Michigan for iho year 1681. 

McShane, Dr, Jantet F., Health CifmrnfiHonett 
BaUimore, Md.: 
Aonoal Export of the Health Department of Sal- 

tlmore, Uarrland. 1883. 

Marehand, P. A^^ Librarian^ Cincinnati. Ohio: 
S3d AoaaftL Report of the Cioolnnati Hoepltal. 1»9S. 

Maryland Wtather Service, Baitimore, Md. : 
TbeCiimatoloK/aiid Physical Featoreeof Marjland, 

Mead, D.tniel W., Civil ffnjJiM-w, Roek/ord, TIL: 
The Qeolo«T of Wiflooa«la Water SappUee. 
Notes on th» Hydro-Geologj of llUnoii in relation 

to ita Watet-SoppUei. 
P 



Meana, Dr. T. A., Secretary, Mobile, Ala, : 
Report of the State B^ard of Health of Alabama, 

fear 1890. 
Report of the State Board of Health of Alabama, 

Tear 1881. 

Mendenhalt, T, C, Supt,, Wa*hinoton^ D, C, : 
Report of the Sapt. of the IT. 8. Coaat and Geodetic 
Sarrey, fiioal fear eodlng Jane ¥), 1891. Part 2. 

M^tcaif, Dr. C. N„ Secretory. Indianapoli/t, tnd.: 
11th Annnal Report of the Indiana State Board of 
Health, fiscal year ending Oct. 31. Wil. 

Moniitamberi, Dr, Frtdmick, Sii|»l.o/ Quarantine, 
Quebec^ Can,: 
Report on the St. La wren oe Qaaraniine Sfitem, 
fear 1888. 

Moriz9, Mr, H„ Director, Rto de Janerio, BratH: 
Aanoario Pdblleado Pelo Obearratorio do Bio de 
Janerio, Anno 1888. 

Moree. Dr. Edward 8., 8aUm, Matt,; 
Lmtrlnea of the Ba«t. 

Morge. Col. W. F., New York OUy: 
Dlipoaal of the earb:i«e and Waste at the World'a 

Pair. 

ffaoei. A., Dir«;tor, Dresden, Saxony: 
Ealendar and Statletlaohea Jahrbnch (Qr daa Knolg* 

retaeh 8aohsen« ana daa Jahr 1891. 

North, Dr, 3, W,, Medical Oj?l<^r. yorJfc. Irelana: 
Report on the Health of ¥ock, Irel^d, La the fear 

isaundidgi. 

FagUani, Fraf. L., Director Bureau ofSinitation, 
Rome, Italv: 
La lje«iala£[oai at L*AdmLniatratioa Banitaire im 

Icall et lea laatitntiona Scienttfiqaea. 
Bilailone intomo All 'Eptdemie dl Cholerm in Italia 

cell *anno 1893. 
ealde dea Tbenaea et Balna D'ltalie. 

Pecham, Hon. C H., Stcretari^ Howard^ R. /.; 
ZSth Annoal Report of the Bjard of Correotlona and 
Choritiee of the State of Rhode lal&nd, ISSS, 

Fopt, Coi, A^ A., Button, Moms.: 
Errors in Boho jI Books, Seoond B^ittion. 

FrenderQost, Dr. J, IV,, Betilth Officer, Cfiw-tn- 
nati, Ohio: 
Annaal Beport of the Health Departmebt of the 

CitT of {..■Inolnaati. Ohio, rear lfr9S. 

FrobMt, Dr* C O , Secrrtarv, Columbut, Ohio: 
Prooeedlnga of the National Conference of State 

Boards of Health, 9th Aann&l Meeting, New York 

CitT. April. 1893. 
Beport of the Ohio State Board of Health. 1B92. 

Reeve t Dr. J. T., Stcrttarjf, Appteton, Wie.: 
Bieanlel Report of the State Biiard of Health of 
Wlseonsln, 1891-92, 

Reed, Dr. R. Harvey, Commistloner, Man^ld^ 
Ohio: 
Aonaal Eteport of the Health Department of Masa- 

field. Ohio, 1892-S. 

Reynoidt Library, Rochester, N. Y.: 
Tth Annaal Report of the Traatees of the Bernolda 

LibrmrT at Roehsetar, N. Y.. ;ear 1892. 





CXXU STATE BOARD OF HEAIiTH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY, I89i 



Rej/iwldtn Dr, Arthur R., Health Camm^M^oner, 
Chieaoo, III. : 
The Water Bai^plj of Chleaso. iU BcmroM aad Bani- 

Robiruon, Dr. D, W.^ Fterr«, Dakota: 
A Climatlo Sketch— Dakota for Health Beakers. 

Robinson, Dr, John. W., Toronto, Cnt. : 
86th Aanaal Ri^i>ort on Aeflame for the Insane of 

Ontario, 1S08. 

Boki, Dr. Oeortfe H., Midtcal SupU Catonmdile, 
Md.: 
Annnal BeDort of the Board of Managera of Marr- 

iand Boepltal for loMoe. Nov., tSBS. 

RuMtell, Dr. James R., Gtasifow^ Scotland: 
Laboratory Reporte of the Rniml CoUega of Pbyai- 

eians, Bdlnboiv. BooUaad, Vol. IV. 

8t, Louis Public Library: 
Aanaal Report of the Sfc* Look (Ho.) Pobllb Li- 
brary, iB01-»i, 

Salmon, Dr. D. A,, Chief, Washinotoit, D. O.i 
Baport of Bonao of Animal IndnBtry, lBdl-1902, 

Sooii, Dr, J Ames W,, Secreiarv, Spring Aetd, Iti,: 
Aonnal lleport of the itUnoii Btate Board of Haatth 

for the years Vm, ISW, and 1801. 

Secretary of Agriculture^ Waskinffton^ D, C* : 
Noitmms for laereaaing the Yield of Bnttar, Bolls- 

tin No. 12. 
The Pollination of Peach Flowers. 
Beoord of Experiments with Sorgham In UB8I. 
Foods and Pood Adalteronts. BoUettn No. II, 01- 

▼ialoo of Chemistry. 
A BarMon of the Ad alt Cestodea of Cattle, 8heei», 

and Allied AnimeJi. 

Secretary of State, Columbua, Ohio: 
Aonoial Beport of the Ssoretary of State of Ohio, 

ralatlve to Vital Btatietios, year 1314. 

Secretary of State^ Lansing, Mtchigan : 
6eoAte JoaraaJ, 1B91, Vol. 1. 
Senate Jonrnal, 18»1, Vol. 2. 
Honse Jonrnal, 189J,, Vol. 1. 
Honse Journal* lb9l, Vol. 2. 
Honse Jonrtial, 1991, Vol. 3. 
Local Acts of 1893. 
Mlohigan and its Reeonroes, IBM. 

Secretary of State, Washinaton, D. C : 
Bammary Btatement of Imports and Exports for 

An4ra»t, 1893. 
Qioartarlf lleport of Bnre&n of Statistics relative to 

Imports, Bxportflt ete,, for the quarters end- 
ing Martth SI, Jane m, Bept. SO. and Dec. 31. im%. 
Commercial ftelatloua of the United gtatei with 

Foreign Conntriei daring the years 189^1-19^1^1. 
PrlDoipal Exports of the U. a declared by the Bev- 

eral Coneolatae. 
Beport fiom the Consuls of the U. 8,, July, Ans « 

Sept., Oot„ Nov., Dec., 1$0J, and Jan.. Feb., Uardh, 

April. Hay, June, IhU. 

Semali, Dr. Benry, Secretarv* Denver^ CW,.* 
lAWi relating to the Public Health pasaed la tba 

Ninth Gaseral Assembly of the State of Colorado. 

aevard, F. D„ Secreiart> St. Louis, Mo. : 
rrooawtltigi of 10th Annnal Confarenoe of Confaa- 
tn the U. B., Jmlf , lS»i, 



Shedd, /, B., City Engineer, Providence, R, f, : 
Annnal Beport of the City Bngioaer of tba City of 

Providence. E. I., year tB»l. 

Sheldon, Dr, C. S., S^icretary, Maiiaon, Wi*, : 
Transactions of the Wis. Medical Society, 189S. 

SAenoood, Eon. T. C, Commissioner, Lansing, 
Mich : 
Report of the CommlMioner of Banking, 1803. 

Simmerman, C. H.,Chif/ of Bureau, TVenfon, JV. J.; 
Beportof fhe Borean of Statistios of New Jersiy, 

1892. 

Simpson. Dr, WiltiamJ., Calcutta, India: 
Beport of th« Health Officer of Caleatta, for year 

1892. * 

Smtih, Dr. CharUs £>., Secretary, Portland, 
Maine : 
TransactLons of the Maine Btate Medical Sa«iaty. 

1891, Vol. II, Parts. 

Smith, Ertoin F., iVa^hington, D.C.: 
Experiments with Fertilizers for the PraTootlon 

and Cure of Peach YeUowe, lB^B-«2. 

Smithsonian Trmtitution, FTosAifiafow, D, C, : 
SmithionlBn Beport, 1892. 
Smithsonian Report, 1&91. 

Smoek, John C, State Oeologift* TrenUm, AT. J,: 
Annnal Report of the Oeologtst of the State of Kav 

Jersey, 1892. 

Snellen, Mauriio, Director, Utrecht, Xetherlands: 
Beport of the Eoyal Ueteoroiogioal Inetltote of 

Ketharlands, year 1&02. 

Somera^ Dr. A. B,^ Commissioner^ Omaha* Neb. : 
Hh Annnal Beport of the Board of HealUi o( 

Omaha, year ifiSS. 

Steivmt, Dr. James R., Secretary, Baltimortt Jfd..' 
10th Annual Report of the Marjland State Board of 

Health, two years ending Dte, II, 1863. 

^orrs, Hon. L. C, Secretary, Lansing, Uichigan: 
Prooeedlngt of the Itth Annnal Conference of Board 

of Correction and Charities in Michigan, at 

Moskflson, Dec., 1803. 

StronQ, Chauneey, Otty Clerk, KalamoMOO^ Miehi- 
ganx 
Annnal Beport of the City of Kalamaaoo, year add- 
ing Uaroh 3t, 1693. 

Strong, Doctor J,, Health Office, Cleveland, Ohio: 

2Cth Annual Hsport of the Health Division. Depart^ 
meot of Police, Clereliud, Ohio, y«Br 1892, 
Surgton Qentral, U, S. A„ fVashingtot, D. C: 

Index Catalogue of the Library of the office of the 
U. S. Surgeon General of the U. S. Army, Vol. U. 
TaneyhUl, Dr, 0, Lane, Seerntary, BaUim,ort, 
Md. : 

TrausactiooH of the Medical and Chirnrgieal 
Faculty of State of Maryland, 91 th Annual Meet- 
ing, April, 1*92. 

Traniaotlons of the MedloaJ and Chlmrgical 
Faculty ef the Stats of Maryland, Sfith Seasion, 
April. 1869. 

Taylor, Dr. B. L,,9t. Paul. Minn,: 
The Neoeasity of SpMlal laatitntioiu for Oooaamp- 
tire Poor. 




REPORT OP THE SECRETARY RELATIVE TO PROPERTY. cxxiii 



Taylor, Dr. Thomas, Chief, WaahinoUm, D. C: 
Baport o( the MioroooplMi for UN. 
Food Prodtiete— I— Tw«It« Edible UoBhrooms io 

D.a 

Pood ProdQCta-lI-Elght BdJbl» MiuhrocMni In D. 

8. 
Food ProdnotA-UI-Uiuhrooin Coltnra, 

Thorn, Dr. WiUiam A., Nor/ttlk, Fa.: 
BoTMt Utten on Qaar&Dtliia. 

Thornton, Dr, Qtori/e B., PreMdent, Memphis, 
Tenn. . 
IBth AnDa&l B«t>ort of the BoHrd of Reftlth. «itj of 
MemphU, Tmn., year lii99. 

Tucker, Prof. WiUU O., Dirtctor, Albany, N. F.: 
B«port of Wim* Q. Taok«r« II . D.. Director of State 

Chanieal Laboratory. Extract of Atmaal Beport 

of Um ataia Board of Haaltb of N«w York. li^9t. 
Baport of WllUi Q. Tackar, M. D., Dlraetor of State 

Cbamioal Laboratory. Extract from Annaal 

BDportoratataB:«Tdof Haaltb of tba State of 

Naw York, 1802. 
Aaaoelatloa of tba Alumni of the Albanj Medi^ 

CoUaga. Prooaadloffs of tha 2iOtb anaoal maadnc, 

April iS, IBM, 

Taeder, Dr. M, A,. LyonM, If. F. ; 
Bolar Elaotro-UasiiBtic laddctloa. 
Tba&daratorma. 

Vmablf, F. P., Chaptl Hitl, N. 0.: 
Jour. Ellaha MitcbaU Boteatifio Sooietr. 1882. Part 

11. 

WadJin, Horaee. Chitf. Bo»ton. Mau, ; 
TbaAnnnat Statiitiea of llanafactorea io Maaaa- 

obnaetta, IBUL 
tSd Annaal Beport of the Botaan of BtetiaU«a of 

L^Kir, Steteof Maaeaohoaetts, March, 1B93. 



W'ar<ag, Jr., a*org« S„ Civil and SanUary 
Enginttr, Newport, R, 1. : 
Report of tba Condition of Beware of Memphis, 

Taim., Maroh I. 11^98. 
The Mamphia 8r»t«in of Sewerage at MemplUa and 

Blaewh«ra« 

Wft, Dr. H. A., Secretary, Otihieaton, Textu: 
Tfanaacttona of Suta Medieal Boclaty of Taxaa, 

GalToaton. IB^S. 

Willntr, Dr. C. L., Chit/. Laraino, Michioon: 
2Sth Beffiatiattoa Baport. of Vital 8tetlBtU», in 

Miehigan. 1801. 

Winoatu, DtKior U. O, B., Health OommUtloner, 
Milwaukee. WU,: 
Stb Anonal Beport of tba Commlaaionar of Health 

of Miiwankae, April, 1808. 

Wood, Dr. E. M., Secretary, Winnipeo, Manitoba: 
An Act Reapecttng the Pnblle Health of Manitoba. 

Wriuht, Dr. Prank W., Health Officer, Nett 
Haven, Conn. : 
Annaal Beport of the Naw Haven Board of Health, 
jeor imi, 

Wyman, Dr. Walter, Surgeon-Omend, U, 8. M, 
H, S., Woihlnoton, D. C. : 
Qoarantlna Rolaa and BagoIatloDa of tba U. B., 

AprU, 18M. 
Weakly Abatraota of Sanltarj Beporte to tba U. S« 

Mariue Hoapltal Barrioe, Waabin«toD, D. C, VoL 

i, 1S90. 
Weekly Abatraote of Banitary Beporte to tba U. S. 

Marine Hoepitel Service. Vol. 6. Ib8l. 
Weekly Abstracte of the Banitary Baporta of tba U. 

8. Marine HoapltaJ t^rrice, Waablnffton« D, C„ 

Vol. 7, 1S93. 
Weakly Abatracte of Banitary Baporta to tba U, S. 

MariDa Hoapital Barf ioe. Vol. », IfiAS. 



ACCESSIONS BY PDBCHABE. 



Annoal Beport of the Baoitery Commlaaionari with 

the Govamment of India, 1^1. (Poataga only.) 
Fortbar Beporte and Paper* on Epidemic InilaenKR, 

1M9-02, 
Tranaaciions of tba Sanitery Lnatitate of Great 

Britain. Vol. 18. 
Andrew J. Graham** Stendard Pbonatio Dictionary. 
Yagarlaa of Sanitary Beienoa-IMbble. 
Cholera: Ite Canaea, Symptoma, Patboloffy and 

Treatment. 
Gray's Deacriplifa and Sargical Anatomy, ISlb 

Edition. 
Modern Meteorology— Waldo. 
Ontllneaof Practical Hyglane-C^nrrler. 
The Hygienic Prevention of Conaomptlon— SqoLre. 
Sewage Dlaposai In tba United Stetea, Baftar and 

Bakar. 
The Bnppretalon of Constmiptioa— Hambleton. 
Foster '« EnoyoJopA:lle Medioal Dictionary. Vol. I. 
International Con gr a as of Charitiaa, Chicago, 1^98. 
International Conxrsas of Charitiaa, Chicago, 1868, 

MoapLtaJ Volama. 
Handbook of Fablio Health and Damoffrapby— 

Wllloogbby. 
Maiboda of Practical Hygiaoa— Lehmann. Two 

Vols. 
Bid Annnil Beport of the Begiatrar-GaDaral of 

EnclaBd. 



A Treatise on Hygiene and Poblie Haaltb— Bteran* 

aoD and Marphy. 
Elementary Metaorology— Davis. 
Stetiitioal Atlas of the Doited Stetea— Hewea and 

Gannett. 
Hat Annual Beport of tba Loeal Government 

Board of Eoeland. 
ISd Aonaal Baport of the Local Government Board 

of Eogland. 
American Lmooet— Detroit. 
8oienti&o American and 8appIemeat~New York. 
U. 8, Po#taJ Guide. 
American .'uornal of Medical Beianoaa— Pbila* 

delpbia. 
Medical News, Philadelphia. 
Popular Salenoe Monthly— Naw York. 
London Laoeet. 
Nat are 

Bri Uab Medioal Jonmal— London. 
8ani tarian — Hrooklyn . 
American Meteorolaiglaal--Boston. 
Sanitery Baoord— London. 
Sanitary Joaroal— Glasgow. 
Central blatt f nr Daktertolo«la and Parasitenknnda 

-Bsrlln. 
Sclanca-New York. 
Jouf . Amerloaii li«&^nai KaKia.— V;t&«fe«^ 



Ciiiv OTATB BOARD OP HEALTH.— REPORT OP SECRETARY, 18M. 



ACCEi3ION8 BY EXCHANGE. 
B«o«lTed In axobao^ for pnbliefttioDt of tbb Board (lo •ome ta^t&Dcss l&eomplete TolamM) : 



U, S Abetraoto of Satiitary B«port«. Washinffton. 

Aroerioao E«:ohaiig«aod HeTiew, Fhilodplphia. 

American Analfst. New York. 

AmarloaLi Practitloasr and News, LoolaTllle, Kr 

Aonald of HyfflaD«, PhiJadelphia^ 

Architecture and Hal ldin«:, New York. 

Eaffalo Medical and Sorg-ioal. 

Brooklfn Medical ioQnial. 

BnlJetla of the ComaU Unlreraity, Ithaca. 

BalleUn Iowa Btate Board of Hoaitb. Daa MoIdm. 

Battetia f4orth Carolina State Board of H««lth, 

Wilminston. 
Bollvtln Rhode lataod Btata Boanl of Health, 

Providence. 
Boiietin Tean. 3tat« Board of Health, MaahTme. 
Bulletin Florida State Board of Health, Jaoluon- 

ville. 
Bnlletln Ohio State Board of Health, ColoimbDa. 
Boiietin Maine State Board of Healtli, Aagntta. 
Canada lOdaoational Monthly, Toronto. 
Canada Laooet, Toronto. 
Canadian Practitioner. Toronto. 
CiBTet&nd Medical (Gazette. 
CoLle«e md CILnic&l Becord, Philadelphia. 
Colambna Medical JonmaL 
Confeotloner'B Journal « Philadelphia, 
Clloioal B«Tiew, Cbieuo. 
Dleteftie Gaaette, New York. 
Dootor of Hrgiene, New York. 
Good Health, Battle Creek* Mioh. 
Indicator, Detroit. 
Joar. ComparatiTe Med. and Tet. Arebivee. New 

York. 
Joor. Franklin laatttnte, Philadelphia. 
Lehiffh Valle; Medical Joamal. Baitoo. 
Leonard's liloatrated Medical Monthly, Detroit. 
Medical Age. Detroit. 
Medical Brief. 



Medical Balletln. Fhiladeiphia. 

Medical Examiner, New York. 

Medieal and Snrglcal Reporter. PhiladelphU. 

Mannfactnrer and RaiWer, New York. 

Maryland Medical Jonrnat, Baltimore. 

Memphie Medical Jonrnal. 

Met«l Worker, New York. 

National DroKgiat. St. Lonia. 

NaahTilie Medici and 8argical Joamal. 

North Carolina Medical Joarnal, WilmiQfftoti. 

Natioaal Popnlar Rot lew. Ban Diego, Cal. 

Phjalcian and Snrgeon, Detroit. 

Fablle Health Ln Minn., Ked Wing. 

Qnarterlr Ketoroe of Birtlie and Deatbe of DabUn, 

Ireland . 
Qaarteriy Royal Meteoroloffieal Jonroal, Loadoti. 
Semana M^dica, Haeooe Afree. A. R. 
Texaa Banitarlan, Aaetln* 
Tirgrlaia Medical Monthly, Richmond. 
Weekly Betnrne of Bertha and Deaths, Oabl 

Ireland. 
BoiUetioderAoademie Royale de Medioioe.BmMela, 

Belgiom. 
Bnlletin Mensnale, Torino, Italy. 
II Howtdo, Pompeii. Italy. 
Jonrnal D' Hygiene. Paris. 
L'Hyiriene Practlqne, Parin. 
Bnlletinaand Banifcary ?abUeat.lon«. Miolttaro del* 

Intemo— Dlrezione Delia Saoit A Poblloft, BoiDi«V 

Italy. 
Bnlietlna and Sanitary FabliGatlons, Miniatero de 

la Gobernaolon— Direction CHnerai de Bene- 

ficeocla V. Banidad, Madrid, Spain. 
Bernt lutematioDale Blblloftraphle, Medloala. eto., 

Paria, France. 
Tablettee MeoaneUea de la 8oci6t6 HoyaJe de 

Medicine Pnbllqne, BrneaeU. Beigrinm. 
VerofF. dea Kaiaerlichen Ge«nndbaitsamte«, Berlin. 
Bel'1-kwat Medical Jonroal, Tokyo, Japan. 



LOANS FROM THE LIBHAHY. 
PabLioationa drawn oat, aod not yet retarned, tre a* folio wa: 

FEOF. B. C. KKDZIK, AOaiOULtlJEAl, COLtKOK, MIOS. 

Report of the National B )ard of Health for the year 107&. 

O, Q. TEMAKB, ». D., DETBOIT, MICB* 

Report on Plan of Beoaring Recorda of Daathe— Harris. 
State Boaid of Health, Indiana, etc. (pamphlet)— Btevena. 
Borne FalUciee on StatlBtioe— Romaey. , 

Death Bate of Each Sex in Micblgan— Baker. 

MKB. M. W. BOWAKO, LAKAIMO, MICH, 

Popalar Science Monthly for Feb , IS9Z, 

FBOF. Q. J, EOLLBN. HOLLAND, MICH. 

Parkee' Hygiene. 

Trans. Indlaca State Modteal Booiety . 
Johnston V Chemistry of Cominon Life. 
Bteele'i Hygienic Fhyaioloffy. 
Alcohol and Hygiene—Coteman. 
Trana. N. Y. Medical Society. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY RELATIVE TO PROPERTY. 



CMV 



BOH. WMAXK WKLL0, JJkSBina, MIOB. 
Roport Natiooal Pare Pood CbmmistioQ, 1887. 
lf«dioal N«WB. Vol. 5f , Qamben for Jnij IB and £5, 1801. 
Britbh Mwlloal JonmAl. Sapplemeot for Jaij 20. 18»1. 



OKOKOI K. WILLITTS, LANSING, HIOH. 



DM0ripCl?» 8oeiotogy-Sp«De«r. 



WILLIAM 0. BUMK, M. D., OOmU271IA, MIOH. 

Tlir«e;CommoiiicstioDlk on Eftblw- 3ibi«T> 

O. H. BKUOISB, M. D., LANBIMa, IQOH. 

Fotharffiira Handbook of TrMtmimt. 

Paor. DKLOB FALL, M. B., ALBION, MiOB. 

Report of the Amoricas Pobllo Health Aiaoo. (Ubrary No. OW.) 

4th &ima&l Report of the Stata Board of Health, of Scath Carolina, 1881. 

THKO. a. MAO OLDBH^ LAMBISTQ, MIOU. 

Qtahata'e Standard Pbonetla Dictionary. 

Materia Medlcm and Therapeoticft— Bartholow. 

Oray'i Anatomy. 

AbboCt'i Pnnciplea of Bsoterioloffr. 

Ptaetieeof Uedioln?, two Vole.-Pagge. 

How to nee the Microeoope— Beale. 

Manoal of Mioroeoopio Jklonn ting— Mar tin. 

Illetoeeopio Teohnoloc;— Prey: 

Practical Biolofff— Hnxley. 

Text-book on Zxilogy— Nloholjon, 

Mlnroaeopleal Teohnologr— FdedJAnder. 

W««ar AnaJTBii— M ac Donald . 

Joor. D^Hjciene, Vol. 17, 1S92. 

Iion<«tB£re Btatletict. 

BaUeUn Iowa State Board cj Health, Vole. 14, iSSMd, 

Jonr. Aii.erican Medical SoUneee, Jan.. ApHl, Jnly, Oct.. 1^. 

BaToe Internationale Bibliographie, Bdedlc&le, YoL 2, ISM. 
ijrltlah Medical Joomal, YoL 2, 1880. 
^Britieh Medieal Jotimal. Yol. 1, 1890. 

Bacteria and Their Prodncte— Woodhead. 

Ceutralblatt fflr Bakteric logie nnd Paraeiteoknnde, Yol. II, 189S. 

London Lancet, Mar 1«, IBM. 

Joomal D'Hfffiene. Noe. S9i and ^93, 180S. 

Animal Plagues— Fleming. 

N. Y. TDerapeotio Qaxetta. No. 2. 199*. 

Britirb Uedical Joamal, No» lAdD. 1080, l«7e. 17I9. 

London Lancet, Noe. 3S7fl and 3884. 

M«dteal News, Yol. 64, Jane le. 1894, 

Text-book on Meteorologj (Library No. 170). 

Weather (Library No. 8650), 

Principlee of Biology— Spencer, 

The Story of Bacteria— Pmdden, 

PEO». S. W, BAXBB, BIO BAPIDB, MIOH, 

Sanitary Condi tiona of School Honiee. eto. 
Ti«na. Amw. Social Science Aeeoo., IS74 (Library No, 878). 

fSeport of the Committoe Concomlog Sanitary Conditiona of Schoole In Philadalphia (Library No. 1*67) 
Tnne. Sanitary Institnteof Great Britain (Library No. 4688), 

BKKBT W. LT8TKB, V. !>., DBTBOXTt MICB. 

at Froyideoce, H. L-Waring. 
Storm Water in Town Sewerage- Waring. 
;8awBr«ce of Ciaee- Waring. 

ite Byitero of Sewerage— Waring, 
CIlroatlc.Treatment of Coommption (Library No. 6288) , 
Medical Committcee of Maai. Medical Society. 
The Philanthropic Index gnd Etsriew, Jnna» L88B. 
Seqoin on Lanacy. 



CZZTI STATB BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SBGRETABT, VSH. 



New Facts and Remarks on Idiocy— Sequin. 

Gliildren of the State (Library No. 5645). 

Conference of Corrections and Charities, Omaha, 18S7. 

HCNBT B. BASKS, M. D., LAM8IMO, MXOH. 

Science. March 24, 1883. 

U. S. Abstract of Sanitary Reports, Vol. 8, April 14, 18M. 

U. 8. Abstract of Sanitary Reports, Vol. 8. Jone 9. 189t. 

U. S. Abetraot of Sanitary Reports, Vol. 8, Jane 23, 18B8. 

Mannfactnrer and Builder, March, 18^9. 

Education and Culture as relates to Health and Disease of Women. 

n. S. Quarantine Laws and Regulations, Feb. 24, 1893. 

U. S. Abetraot of Sanitary Reports, Vol. 8, Feb. 10. 1891. 

Immigration Laws and Regulations, March 11, 1£9S. 

U. 8. Abstract of Sanitary Reports, Vol. 8, AprU 21, 1898. 

Annual Report of the St. Lawrence Quarantine. 1892— Monti sambert. 

Confectioner^s Journal, Jan., 1894. 

National Popular Review, March, 1894. 

0. L. WILBUB, M. D., LAMSIMO, MICH. 

Report of the American Public Health Aflsoc., Vol. 5. 
Statistics of the City of Harre, France, 188M889. 
20th Resistrar-Oeneral's Report of England. 

JOHN HSTZIIKB, XJIPKBB, MIOH. 

Hoepitals: Their Organization and Coufitmction— Wylie. 
Cottage Hoepitals— Burdett. 

HOWABD BAKKB, LANSING, MICH. 

Oray's Deecriptire and Surgical Anatomy. 

BOBKBT SMITH dc OO., LAN8INO, XICH. 

Official Weekly Returns of Births, Deaths, etc., DubUn, Ireland, Vol. 10, 1891. 

LOUIS HOOBSFB. M. D., DXTBOIT, MIOH. 

19th Annual Report of the Local Government Board of England. 

The following table exhibits the amounts and kinds of hard paper on hand at the time of twMirfnj the 
last report, the amoante purchased during the year, the amounts used, and the amoonta now on band 
(June SO, 1891} :- 



Kind of Paper. 



On hand at 
last Report. 



Purchased 

since last 

Report. 



Flat 

Crown 

Folio-Post 

Demy 

Msillom... 



I R|Ton Weston's Folio-Poet 
I Impwlal (Byron Wflflton's). 

' R. Hornet (lloen) 

tvwbl^p 

U^Oap 

' Moitltg paper 



Keams. 


Sheets. 

450 
450 


Reams. 


Shee«8. 


4 






5 


12 


240 


25 


226 


29 




3 


i98 


3 





Iftwsci f wptpef 

Apar 

r.tt S.«;. Whiu 



Used during 

thef 



422 

47S 
111 



220 
150 



410 
200 
130 
200 
200 
800 
2S0 



11 



100 
60 
88 

US 

HI 



OnhandJuM 
80,1804. 


Beams. 


Sheecs. 
1 




28 




81ft 


20 


115 




899 




220 


.--. .— . 


145 


zz 





810 




. 140 
94 
15 






aoo 




89 




M5 



REPORT OF THA SECRETARr RELATIVE TO PROPERTY, cxxvii 

Then ■!• now oo hand 9,480 ilMtU of hard papar (half lattar aiaa) and 180 iheaU of note dae. Than 
war* aboQt 146^1 aoTalopaa oo hand at the tima of making tha laat annual raport of property, 68,B00 
anTalopaa of Tarlocui Unda for oaa in tha oCBoe hara baan porohaaad ainoa, making a total of 814,891. 
Thara ara now on hand M,9SS printad aoTalopaa, and aboat 101,076 anralopaa that ara not printad, making 
a total of aboat 1S7,0S7. Aboat 57,864 anralopaa hava baan naad in tha work of tha offioa dorins thia iiaoal 
laar. 

Yooohara for poataca (for oaa in tha offioa) hara baan allowed daring tiia yaar ig> tha amoant of 81t860. 
Tha eoat of poataca doring tha fitoai yaar haa baan 81,170419. aa followa:— 

Diatribatioo of Annoal Baporta 8218 00 

Gaoaral diatribotloo of dooamanta and eiroalara ^ ^... 840 8B 

Sanding waaUy and monthly bollatina _ _ _ 80 55 

(ToUaetioo and diaaaminaticm of information in ragard to oommnnioabla and othar diaaaawi ... 86 78 

Sanding annooneamanta and programa for aanltary ooATantiona _ 55 18 

Sanding mataorological matarial to obaarrara 7 98 

Work in oomaotion with thaoollaotion of aiokneaa atatiatioa 88 85 

Handing notioa of poaaibly inftetad immigtanta, ato., in oonneotion with Stata qoaiantine 69 58 

Ragolar and apaeial oorreapondanoa of tha offiooi poatal oarda and all othar poataga(inolading a 
aonatdacabla amoant for diatrlbation of dooamanta on tha raatriotioa of diphthariat aearlat 

arar, nnall-poz, ate., to looal i tla a where thoae diaeaaea oeoorred) 876 44 

Poetage money on hand at end of fiacal year.. ^ .'. 79 81 



81,170 69 



TOTAL AMOUNT AND GLiSSIFIGATION OF BXPBNDITURB8 BT THB BTATB BOARD OF 

HEALTH, AS PEB YOUGHKBd 8206-8446 INGLUdlVB, DUBING THE FISCAL 

TEAR ENDING JUNE 80. 1894. 

Chemioal analyaee....... ............................. ........ ........ 

BngraTing, drawing, ate . 

Bzpeoaee of membere:— 

Attending meetinge 864 66 

Other official 684 98 

Inetromente and books 184 86 

Paper, stationery, etc 692 40 

Postage:— 

Office 1,260 00 

Membera 100 

Printing and binding 782 91 

Secretary... 8,000 00 

Special inreetigations 

Exproseage 79 88 

Telegrams 10 91 

Talephonee ~ 40 00 

Mlscellaneooa - 804 92 



Total 1 86340 46 



Beepeotfally aabmitted. 

HxmiT B. Baxkb, 

Secretary, 



czzyiii STATB BOARD OF HBAI/CEL— REPORT OF 8B0RBTABT, IBM. 



BXPENDirUBBS BT THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH IN THE CALENDAR XJBAB 1881. 



Th« toregoing is raportod in oompllanM with law, ralatiT* to th« ftieal yMr. %t 
for the Board are tor the oalandar year, and they amoont to aix thooeand doUan. The ezpandltoraa for 
any oalendar year, therefore, cannot ezeeed six thooeand doUare. The following ie a nlaaemil e t a t a m eat 
of expenditnree for the calendar year 18M:— 

OLASBinaD BTATSMXIIT OW XXPKHDXTUBK8 BT THE BOABD OUBUtO THX OALBHDAB TIAB, 18U, 

Chemical analyeee .— _ — 

BngraTing, drawing, etc _ ^ .^..^.^.. ...^ — 

Expeoaee of membere:— 

Attending meetinge. _ .»^..». tSlli 

OtheroiBdal mw 

Inetramenta and hooka . . ......^..»». 112 ■ 

Paper, etationery, etc. .— ._. .«.^ IW S 

Poctage:— 

Ofllce ^ ^ - MOM 

Membeie « — 

Printing and binding. . . 880 SL 

Secretary... ....^ 8,780 88 

Bpedal InTeatigatione 

Ezpraeeage. ^ a 81 

TWegrama.^ _ 8 8ft 

Telephone ^ 40 88 

Miecellaneoas 117 88 



Total. 



EXPENDITUBBS ON ACCOUNT OF THE BOABD. 

The appropriatione (86,000) at the diapoeal of the State Board of Health are for certain apeeUed pnrpoaea, 
not including clerk hire, the pablication of the Annual Beport, or the ezpoxaee in the eraminatimi d 
plans for pnblic boildingt ; these ezpenditnres on aceouni of bat not by the Board are prorldad for by 
other acts of the legislataro than thoee appropriating money to be expended by thb Board, and the 
aoooonts an kept in other offices ; not in the office of the State Board of Health ; the aocoonta for deck 
hire are kept by the Auditor General, and are reported in his Annual Beport ; the acooont for publloation 
of the Annual Reports, and for expenses in the examinations of plans for public boildings, are kept by 
the Board of State Auditon. and are published in the Annual Report of that Board. 

Respectfully submitted, 

HXKBT B. Bakxb, 

oscrsforg* 



VENTILATION. 



CXZIX 



BY HBNB¥ B. BAEBB, H. 



VENTILATION. 

D., 8BCBETARY OF STATE BOARD OF HEALTH, 
LANSING, MICH. 



Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: *Iii the time allotted to 
me, I propose to euggest some of the general faota and piinoiplea wbiob 
Deed to be iinderBtood by all who have to do with the aubjeot of 
ventilation. 

These general faote and prinoiplea may be profitably studied in groupe, 
as follows: 

1, Faotfl relating to the oonstant needs of the living body for unbreathed 
air. 

2, Faote relating to air and ite iDovemeDts with reference to the parti- 
oles whioh oonetitute the apecifio causes of diseases. 

3, Faote relating to the oanses of movements, and the ratea of move- 
ment of air. 



Quantity of Air Needed for Eespiraiion, 

1. In the first. mentioned group is the well-known fact that unlesa 
fresh air is supplied to the human body, life is not sustained. Fresh air 
is needed to supply the body with oxygen whioh is consumed in the vital 
processes which yield the forces and motions which ooustitute the phe- 
nomena uf life. Fresh air is needed also to displace, drive away, and 
remove produots of vital action, which, if allowed to remain in the body, 
poison it and lead toward death. 

How much fresh air is needed? Those who have studied this subject 
have generally agreed that about 2,000 cubic feet of fresh air per hour is 
a fair allowance for each person ; and as the vital processes of children are 
more rapid than those of adults, I believe that school children should 
have as much as adults. 

There is a common fallaoy that in a large room a less quantity of air 
per hour is sufficient. That is true only lor the very short time until the 
air of the room has been once used. However, the room should be large 
enouffh to allow at least twenty -five square feet of floor space to each 
pupil or person ; and high enough to allow at least six hundred oubio 
feet of air space to each pupil or person. One reason for this is that in a 
less space per person the requisite quantity of air cannot be moved 
through the space without causing drafts which are dangerous to health. 
Just how drafts cause sickness may not be fully dealt with here and now; 
but that drafts do cause eicknesa has been abundantly proved. In order 
to prevent drafts the space allowed for each occupant of a room must not 
be less than as just stated. 



Thii wmtmwter nnuJ iLt the SdkSitvr CofiT«ntioii keld mt HlllidALa In Jul;, iSM. 




cxxx 8TATB BOARD OF HBAI/TH^RBPOBT OF 8BGKBTABT, UBL 



Proper Location of Foul-air Ouileis. 

2. Beoent progroBS in sanitary aoienoe has demonBtrated the fact that 
many diseases, now known as **speoifio," are oaased by living ozttaniams, 
miorosoopio in size, bnt partionlate, having weight, being oapable of set- 
tling as dost npon floors and articles in inhabited rooms. In the human 
body, there seem to be many natural proteotions against the inhalln|^ of snoh 
dangerous partioles. In the first place the normal nose is so formed as 
greatly to avoid catching dust particles which being heavier than air have 
a downward motion — the normal nostrils do not open upward, they open 
downward. In the next place, the opening of such nostril is mnerally 
protected by fine hairs, which, beins moistened bv the air exhued, teno 
to oatch and prevent the entrance of dust. Thirdly, normal seoretions of 
the membranes of the nose and throat tend to stop the further entranoe 
of partioles; and the nasal mucas has power to destroy at least some of 
the germs of disease. Notwithstanding these protections, disease germs 
do gain entrance into the body under favoring conditions. 

A proper system of ventilation must take account of this group of 
facts, and must ensure that the general movement of the air of every 
inhabited room shall be downward. This makes it essential that the 
foul-air outlet of every room should be at the floor level. And it ia best 
that the fresh-air inlet shall not be in the floor. It is not well either, as 
a rule, that the external source of fresh air shall be at the ground level, 
because of the liability to take in injurious dust. 



Causes of Movement of Air, and Rates, 

3. In cae third group the most important fact, with reference to 
natural ventilation, is this — that, except as caused by fans, blowers, and 
other mechanical means, movements of air result from differences in 
weight of air at different temperatures, warm air being expanded air, and 
therefore lighter than cold air, which is denser, — in other words, heavier. 
Accordingly, warm air rises when ita place is supplied by colder air; and 
cold air tends to fall in under and to displace warmer air. The rate of this 
movement of air depends upon the amount of the difference in the tem- 
peratures of the two bodies of air, and upon the height of the two columns 
of air — the displaced and the displacing columns of air. I have here a 
table, taken from Parkes' Hygiene, stating the rate of movement of air 
under different conditions of temperatare and height of oolamn. I will 
not undertake to read the entire table, bat will merely state a few of the 
conditions and resulting rates of movements. 



VENTILATION. 



cxxxi 



Table to ihow the Velocity of Air in linear feet per minute* Calculated from ^font■ 
goljier^a formula ; the expansion of air bein^ taken as 0,002 for each degree Fahren- 
heit, and one-fourth being deducted for friction, (Round numbers have been taken,) 



I 





Differeooe B»tw«eo iDternal ftnd GxteriULl T«mp«rstare, atntdd in deffreea Fab., 8 to 80 d«r«M. 

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a 

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102 


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114 


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135 


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la 


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168 


10 
181 


11 
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12 

178 


18 
188 


14 

100 


15 
197 


16 
804 


li 
210 


18 

216 


19 
i22 


80 
228 


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288 


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289 


28 
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24 
249 


25 




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161 


180 


109 


177 


185 


192 


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239 


246 


250 


286 


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287 


288 


11 


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196 


147| 158 


167 


176 


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198 


2Q1 


200 


216 


223 


280 


237 


S48 


249 


256 


861 


287 


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2f70 


806 


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100 


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140 


m 164 


174 


181 


192 


201 


209 


217 


226 


282 


239 


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258 


269 


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272 


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199 


170 


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190 


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286 


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801 


880 


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108 


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176 


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216 


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241 


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287 


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289 


892 


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188 


204 


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228 


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841 


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115 


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302 


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166 


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480 


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141 


267 


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286 


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386 


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190 


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288 


282 


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186 


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136 


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404 


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426 


486 


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290 


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121 


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458 


463 


473 


483 


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196 


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294 


310 


825 


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370 


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404 


416 


127 


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450 


470 


480 


490 


886 


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172 


m 


222 


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281 


298 


814 


829 


844 


286 


871 


884 


807 


400 


421 


132 


444 


404 


465 


476 


486 


498 


548 


19 


174 


201 


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246 


266 


284 


802 


218 


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848 


862 


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102 


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426 


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481 


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182 


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228 


249 


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467 


477 


488 


499 


500 688 


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540 691 


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8 


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360 
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1 
















. 

















This table is taken from Parkee' Hygiene, Araerican Edition 1884, 
WilHam Wood and Co., page 194. Ita reading is easy, bat may be iilua- 
trated as foUowB : Suppose tbe height of the shaft ie 10 feet, and the 
dififerenoe In temperature on tdoora and indoora ia 3 degreea (aa in the first 
liEe, first two columns) then the rate of movement of the air is 88 linear 
feet per minute. Suppose the height of the ah aft ia 14 feet, and the 
differenoe in temperature is 11 degrees; then the velooity of the air ia 200 
linear feet per minute. If thirty persons in the room are eaoh to ha?e 
2,000 on bio feet of air per hour, all are to have 1.000 oubio feet per min- 
ute, then, under the oonditiona named, the oroea-aeotion of the shaft must 
have an area of five square feet. In practice, however, it is seldom that 
a foul air shaft is not higher than 14 feet. 

The foregoing rates are in ordinary straight shafts with no eztra oauae 
of friotion ; if the shafts are very small, or the friction nn usual, the rate 
of movement ie lessened. 



CXZXH STATE BOARD OP HEALTH,— REPORT OF SBORETAKY, 189i 



It ifl a gdoeral fact, that rnuet be held in miDd, that each right angle in 
a shaft reduces the velocity of the air in that abaft one-halt 

Given the number of proposed ioniatea of a room, tbe height of the 
abaft, and the difference of temperature between the in-door and the oal- 
door air. then the sizes of inlets, outlets, and shafts, can be computed, by 
means of the data which have now been stated, allowing two thousand 
cubic feet of air per hour per person. 

In this climate there is no difficolty in securing good ventilation in the 
warmest weather, because then windows and doora are usually open ; nor 
in tbe coldest weather, because then the difference in temperature is so 
great between the out-door and the in-door air that very rapid movement 
of the in-door air is caused by permitting to be balanced against it a col- 
umn of dense out- door air, The difficulty in aeouring ventilation ocoun 
in the spring and autumn, when there is little difference In the tempera- 
ture of the in-door and the out-door air. The ventilation of every inhab- 
ited room fihould be so planned ae to be susceptible of regulation and 
especially of extension oi espansion, by means of registers into Ouea and 
shafts of a size ample for times of slight difference in temperature of tbe 
out door and the in-door air The oaFculations for sizes of inlets, outlets, 
flues and shafts, should be made upon the basis of a very alight difference 
of temperature. 



Each Room Should Have Separate Veniilatimi* 



4 



One important principle whiob is perhaps most frequently violated by 
architects, oontraotorSj and builders, was stated by Prof. R. C, Kedzte in 
tbe first Annual Beport of the Michigan State Board of Health, page 95, 
ae follows: ''For an oceBsfu I ventilation I consider it eseential that the 
foul air of each room shall enter a separate compartment in tbe ventila- 
ing shaft, and not one common shaft." The old ''Ruttan'* system, and 
tbe **Smead dry-oloeet system'* both violate this very important principle. 
Some of the reasons why it is important that the foul-air shaft from each 
room shall extend separate and distinct to the outer air, are as follows: 
It is practically impossible to so control all the conditions that the pres- 
sure of air into two rooms shall always be the same; all openings into one 
room (except registers) may at some time be oloeed, while at the same 
time a window or a door into the other room may be open ; one room may 
be OB the side toward which the wind is blowing, while the other room is 
on the side from which the wind is blowing; in such oases a com moo 
vent shaft is filled with air from the room into which the pressure of air 
is greatest, to the exclusion of the foul air from the other room, which is, 
therefore, not ventilated. An instanoe^ at one of the State asylums in 
Michigan, will illustrate another reason : foul-air shafts from rooms on 
both sides of the building extended up to tb^ attic, where they terminated 
in that common receptacle from whiob a common shaft extended through 
the roof. During a wind, a window being open in a room on that aide of 
tbe building on which tbe wind did not blow, a current of foul air was 
found to come down from the attic through the foul-air shaft and go out 
of tbe windowi there being a constant circulation of foul air through tbe 
room, while the warm fresh air which was supposed to enter the room 
through a transom was not entering; the only air supplied to the inmate 
of the room being the foul air from the other aide of the building, which 




VENTILATION* 



CXXXlll 



might be Dot only impore with produots of reepiratioD, but aleo coDtalD 
tbe germs of any oommunioable disease wbiob like oonsomption might be 
present in the other rooms of tbe asylum. Suob ''baok-draftB** are not 
nncommon in sobool boildings in wbioh this principle under disoussion 
IS violated; and suob '*baok- drafts'' are believed to be especially danger- 
ous where they oome from excreta wbiob is dry from whiob gerias of 
disease may then be detached and float in tbe foul air. 



In the disoussion following a paper by Prof. French of Hillsdale and 
this paper, Dr. Baker said .—I do not believe in having the beat from 
steam pipes in the rooms; I think it is a vicious system. If we are to 
have the heating by steam, which I agree with the Professor is the pleas- 
antest, perhapt, unless it is tbe hot water, tbe steam pipes should not be 
in tbe room, but should be where the fresh air, in coming from out of 
doors, shall pass over them into the room; that is called tbe ^'indirect" 
system. Tbe method of beating by steam, having tbe coils in the room, 
is a vicious system, and there is no good way of ventilating in such a way 
of heating. You can smell the results of it as soon as you enter tbe room ; 
the exhalations when the pipee are cold are condensed on the pipes, when 
they are heated again, they give them off; but tbe main difficulty is that, 
in that method of heating, there is no provision for fresh air. The 
'*direot'' method of steam heating is vicious, and ought not to be 
employed, as a rule, anywhere, Tbe eteam coils should be outside of the 
room, and the fresh air should pass over those coils into the room, and 
then, in the proper system, the air at the floor level is carried off. 

Prof. Delos Fall, Albion.— V^iih the direct system of heating, by 
eteam, tbe syetem of ventilation is an extra affair, and must be worked 
out by itself; you have to provide an extra place for your air to oome in 
and go out. You can provide that, of course, you can have a place for 
tbe fresh air to come in from outside of the building, and you can 
have a place for it to go out at tbe door level, with tbe coils in the room ; 
but tbe air comes into tbe room oold when its draft is often dangerous, 
and I see no way of having a proper supply of fresh air in the '^direct" 
method of steam heating. 

3l7\ Gooilrich^ Hillsdale— -1 would like to ask if there is much differ- 
ence, as far as the beating and ventilation is concerned, between the 
steam heat and tbe hot water system? 

Dr, Baker ^ Lansing — In the coldest weather, there is perhaps an 
advantage in having the steam: but there is a disadvantage in the spring 
and fall, when one needs a little heat, and not very much. If you have 
to beat the pipes up to 212 degrees before you get any beat, and then all 
at once you get great beat, that is not a very pleasant way to do. If you 
have tbe ** indirect'* method of beating, by means of hot water, you have 
the ideal system. It is expensive, perhaps; but when the Bre is built 
and the water in tbe boiler is heated a few degrees, tbe circulation com* 
mences, and tbe incoming air is warmed, little or muoh as you desire; 
that is the great advantage of beating by hot water, that the heat is more 
easily suited to the temperature of tbe air in the spring and autumn 
months. In tbe coldest weather, it is an advantage to have tbe hot- water 




oxxxiv STATE BOARD OP HEALTH.— REPORT OP SECRETARY, 189L 

surface line in the boiler below the level of the Tadiator, and ao heat by 
steam; that ie a method that ia easily aooompHshed by simply lower- 
ing the water in the boiler; aod instead of paesing the water tbrongb 
the ooiIei, pass ateam through ; that oan be done in the oold weather, 
and in the spring or fall the hot water oan be used. 



MICHIGAN STATE BOARD OF HEALTH EXHIBIT AT THE 

WORLD'S FAIR. 

The Michigan State Board of Health Exhibit at the World's Fair ooa- 
aieted of a set of the annual Reports of this Board for 1873 to 1891, inola* 
aive, a large number of other publioations of the office, and about twenty 
diagrammatic charts or diagrama ahowing the relations of diseases to 
meteorological conditions, and the results of public health work in Mich- 
igan. The diagrams were mostly 22 by 28 inches, placed in wiug frames, 
hung on a standard so that they could be easily viewed by those wlehing 
to study the exhibit Two of the diagrams were large wall charta, one 
ahowing the lives saved by public- health work in Michigan, and the 
other showing the results of isolation and disinfection ic the restriction 
of scarlet fever and diphtheria during the Bve years 183ii-90. All these 
diagrama and charts were also photo-eugraved^ reduced io size to about 
6i by 9i inches, and printed in pamphlet form for distribution to those 
interested in the exhibit A large number also has since been distrib- 
uted. The pamphlet is reproduced on the following pages, 

The preparation of the diagrams caused the office much labor, in col- 
lecting the facts and making the diagrams; but the results have been 
very valuable for general and special educetional purposep. 

The exhibit was completed late in Aprils 1893, and was taken to 
Chicago about April 27. At that time the Anthropological Building was 
in a very incomplete condition, so the exhibit was installed in the Manu- 
facturers Building, Department of Liberal Arts, which was under the 
direction of the Hon. Belim H. Peabody. Afterwards the exhibit was 
installed in the Anthropological Building, in the Bureau of Hygiene 
and Sanitation, under the direction of Doctor F, W. Brewer. 

The exhibit reoei.^ed considerable attention, and seemed to be of inter- 
est to those who took the time for its study. The pamphlets, which 
served as a guide to the exhibit were placed on a shelf in connection 
with the exhibit, and any person wishing a copy wa^ at liberty to take 
one. Many copies of the pamphlet were thus distributed at the Fair; 
and many copies have been sent by mail to various parts of the World. 

In several particulars that part of the exhibit which consisted of 
diagrama was unique: (t) There is nowhere else in the world ao exten- 
sive sickneBB statistics; (2) there is nowhere else in the world so exten- 
sive meteorological data combined with statistics of coincident aickneBa; 
(3) there is nowhere else in the world so extensive contaglouB-diaease 
statistios exhibiting the results of isolation and disinfection. 

That part of the exhibit which wai reproduced in the pamphlet is here 
put permanently on record, aa followfl:-^ 





RELATIVE 



TO THE 



MICHIGAN m\l BOARD OF HEALTH EXHIBIT 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL BUILDING 



WORLDS COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION 

AT 



18 9 3 

[Pabliched by the MieMf^n Statu Buartl of Ho&lth for froe diitribation to peraoo;^ iDt«rest«d Ln nny 

of tlie yubjects treAtod.] 

[Third Itklition.I 




BY AUTHOBITY. 



LAKBlNd 

BOUEHT SMITE A CO., STATE PRINTERS AND BlNDEllU 

lag 4 



cxxxri STATS BOARD OV HKALTH^BEFOBT OF SBCBSXABT, UM. 



BBIZr OCTLiyZ OF THE ETHIBrr. 

Tnis Exhibit iDcIades : i.l > an exhibit of the prindpsl oaufles of nokoea 
is XichiAT. • AD exhibit of the principal caoaea and oonditiotiB of 
i«aih« i3~Michi^vL '3> an exhibit of the diaeaaea which in<srea0e dnring 
c; f cllcvis^ he; veather. • 4 » an exhibit of the diaeaaea which im 
z^riz^ ZT following cold weather. i5.i the relationa of indiTidiud dii 
10 :heir ccnr-oUisg meteorological conditionaL by montha, (6> the d< 
ill recec: Tean cf aicknesa from three impcriant diaaaaea. and (7) the 
SiK»tti« oi The dea:h-rate from three important oommanieaUa dif^aana in 
Troft- jeara when e^crta have been pot forth for their iMliitlirin, 

The digram? No& -4 and 5. ahov that diarrhea and cholera morbus are 
a^pptreBtlT ecntrcUed bj the atmccpheric temperatare. riaiag after the 
7«crpK«i^i« ri£W aad falling after the tempermmre falla. 

No. -^ aho«« that intermittent ferer fellows cloeelj the daily fanga 
z£ &:r:oi$pheT:o ;empera:^xe. which ii :he dif erenoe be C aeen the day and 
;^-« =:^i: ;e=p*rit::r«. :hei>» being mDsi in:*rz:r:ent ferer when there 
s T^:lR exposure to ^tm: h<«t d::ring th? day uid ccspantiTe ookl dni- 
laic :i« ^i^hi 

Vr. T «hv:v« that the aickneaa fram re=::neat fersr ii ooiiicident with 
cc f.-u-:v^ izT^r^sely. ite riae wzd fall ;f irzijapceric cKxe; there being 
3xctfc KC£2-MS f.llrwisg the mcniha zt lea«t :x3c«. 

y.\ ^ »hv:ir» LiAt the sickiieas frc= infirm a.^oe? exactly ooincidaB 
wiii :i.* i::r»rh*r:; oao-r: l:* =:-re 2s.:=* ih* =::re inflacBxa; the 
I«i;<r r^oc'* the I'^bf^ i*dtezs&: rx:ze iz.z irf =?&x» bedsg qaaatitatiTely 

Nj. ; iccvs th^t ihe srkseaa froc pcec^Tc:* itf zxaa titati r e iy related 
ir t2* itiZ'-ifch^r-.o tec:per*t::re az-i at:r3»j;*-ri-r :x.zmt, the edlder the 
*.- 3':»7£:«*j*? 43!ii th* zivir? o^rc* ii* =:r* fiz^iEZ'saa in= paenaioiua, the 
iz^r-r-^r zz** T*c:^nrzr* iz>i th* l«s rticce t-* \im c ^kaa aB from pneo- 
irizsLiM. If izj :£ th-Mif iiiM&Mff ir^ £r-:w^ i: he i^^ u gerai^ but the 
^7«:iw ircar-atlj ^aiz *r estrizo* :: t-* bicy thr:*i«h"th« iaflnenea 
jc r*** -jmtsi.T^ *-*icttf ■* jclii frr iir :i.:-** arc wlxii. 

y.'. 1.' *C'-*^ :iAt t^* £Lrkrfss> frrci iritifdn haa iaae rafatiaa to the 
■»^o.i-7 :i ih- ▼-.2pd T*::: psrarrre :i m"* inijagr-ept aad atmoapherie 

Nr. 11 Sii-:*^ :h4t tozii&llitis f;ljrw« tr* :^:jz i:zii 
-T«* »rn..-tfc-^»irj- rjoxi-* It kjsc *h-:*>5 :iit ri*T3*tii«ii 

N.*. Ii «iic v*f tiif rii'£i::ja re jcosiiirci'ja to iz^^s^taae ii'iati Con- 
sz:zx^':oa :» i:xct;ri«r i:.d«ew Ilt.'t? to r>f iz« ^ a rscn which apparently 
TiuTsr £«aif«^/ i-tiitf ittirtictf to "i* x-CT hioiant jf li-i zaao* and other 

y ,". 1* Slew* nur ti«* Rc£7>Mtf frrr Trpiiioi fi-^sc J* ibzi^ w^Mn the 

S- 1? «ac'¥* tHK Ti* &iica4i9i irroi i2^«rr.r:art i^»«*ac 
ikKr«aMi£ Xttee? me JM^ tx t2<e pvciAi >k r-eiz ti>« T^eaa I?* • and 1ST. 

XiX. 1*7 jort e a tanc aearjK Sewc Swrr aaiwi ix ^- -^zj^csx zicxe laan one- 
nfcg at t^ nacwi b u e aan ilW yem I^ ■ uii lf:r 

S& K7 aiwan liaa di^pWbana s Xbcu^uru S kji — t iiiai'j Arae- 




EXHIBIT AT THE WORLD*S FAIR, 



CXXX711 



The diagTBm on page olvii ahows that m those localitiea where isolation 
and dlBinfection are enforced there are only about one^tifth aa many caeea 
and deaths from ecarlet fever as there are in those looalities where these 
two measores are negleoted. The diagram also shows that substantially 
the same is true relative to dipbtberia. This proves that, as a rule, these 
diseases are spread almost directly from person to person, that, as a rule, 



MICHIGAN STATE BOAllO OF HEALTH E^^'HIBIT . 

SUMMARY STATEMENT QF AETICiCS EXHIBITED BY THE MICKICAll 
STATE BOARD OF HEALTH . 



I 

I 
I 



3,' 



ComfUtU 4€i pj ihe Frefitdm^j adSJdcniiartf t^nt'emitaMJ ilk JLtthigan. held Mtudtr iht 
rrj ^M# Jtalt Beard ^ Jfeaiih i On Jhtljj 



ou^ptef 



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CempieU jei tf P'atnphieix and Dtaqram* tn *uir 4/1 cMteJ^i^en Jci' the Jteiincit^n and Prettm 
i4(M d ihe Dan^trcuj Cca%vkttn4txtifte Du€ttj94i*Mtiuding a Cttn^taiitn fj i/u H«oiihLtm* 

Cciittiten d 10 Fatn^klti h'otttding* ai ht^uiat Jif*Uit^4 «( ikt JSithtgmtm ^iai* Staed 

Ccdi*eiien t^HSPomphiei RtpftHtiJfem iheJInnuoi Rffo«ri4 and t^ihgf puhittaittiMj ^ ikt 

Jitthiyan Si ait B^nrd tf Mttiiih . (Cm jhttj .} 

Out Xtritjieait tj Jkanki'^ic ike Jlietu^ttn Sieit Biofd ej Htnitk *y»t Setifitej Rtaderett 

itJMtd k^id»* Initfnaiienei Hta4ih €thtAii4ent Ltnidtti^En^innd.iii^^itM/rmmfmikttnMJf 

CMt iarqt Diayrcm^Ucn Jortd k^ PuklU-Htaiih U^grA" t Cu ikt waii. I 

On.* iarys Dia^ram-'i^tiaiien tuid DtSiMjcti^tcm Rttineitd Dt^Aiker^a. tmd Jtmrdwi Ftver 

y^iM4ck4^an DurtM^ihtS^ttirjiSi6-'fO"fCt%ihtufo4i ' 

Cnt^akui^Eihikit tj ik* Prtnti^tti Cc^titt* amd Ctntdil*»m4 */ BgaHMa it% tMttkt^an.f /m 

tkt kfinf Ffom44 t*t jl^Mdm^d t 

Diayram^Ji-f JILtioJiVt itn^fia/ttt t/^ and Fiueiueiict^t m ikts HtpirJtd xMtrialiiyJttm 

tatk tjih* iMtntg't4eki artaitji Catntj Gad C^ndiiiifnt tj Ptadk* it* <Jittt*iq*t*%, dtifntf 

Um J-tM patj iii%n96. fJii ihs a^dn^ fromt^J 

Ont yTskviar Etktkii tj ikt 04Jtajtj tJfhith Cause *M&ji ditknwM ut mMttk4faM . fJm ikt d^iMf 
Frajntt ti% jimndard } 

•'Oft Oitt^rait* (JT^. 2 /t*k4k4i4Mf ikt §f*«/^ ^ Suta^t* irAttti , 4» *Jlttk4^en,4**tfta^t dit/tutj 
4rJ*ii»Mf4ny ii/ttrm ifftttihmr^ (In the kTtng Frames tn jiattdard.) 

,*Cttt DittfratH fJtt. 3 J tzhdktitnf the ar^uk '^ B4j*ajes ark4th, tn sJUtk4^au,4ntrta*m dstrim^ 
ttjtiitufitt^ Cfiid ^etiiker ffn ike i^tlj France* t/t jiiurdirrd. I 



/<', 



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17 



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.'vA'/i Biaftajf^ fc/f^pj. *t ,S ,0 .7 , ^ .9 JO, t! .12 J3,JtMhtA4i4nf RtiaLtni *fadt/t*rt/tf4eaiC*4*d* 
titns it Jieknesj Jrt/tm *Mtp*>fiaHl DtnattJ,iittMitk4ffitM. (In ikt /1'4Mj^ flrame^ cm ticmdard^ 

>-C/»t Dta^faa*. f<J'i>.i*i.JtLi^k4i4ng el^*t rtimdi^n ^ J4tkat44 Jrfm Jif^httd x^t^tr if tMitkiftur 
t(B iktlettftrtny ^ iht ii/ad*t tn i^iij. fin ikt it/in g Fratt^t^ en jiajtdard.J 

,•0/%* D4 a^ratn (zJrt>.i6.)tkk4kti4HQ $rtaJ JOttreojt 4J* tt^kntMjrwm initesHitit*^ Fetttr #/• 
\A*tk4gant $n reetui ^earj.fm iht dfing Frajn*^ en Uendord.) 

,*Cmt Oio^rami^cJbJ eiii4kii4n^ srr^ t^rreii Detreajt tn ^itAne^jJJmnJeardti Ftt^-er 4tiJli*ek* 
t^an *n receiti ^eetrj fitt ikr iifing FrftmtJ en dirnctrrtL/ 

Ottf Dungfcen (Jrtijl ItxtitktttnQ ^'f/i*/ ejret4i Dttrrene *n steknrtMjrcm Di^Aihefin 
iiijHiihi^fin 4tt -reetni ijtors i /n ikt dl'tnQ Freimej ./ 



COftES QF A PAMPHlET.COITAlNlffC COPIES OF TME SEVERAL DIACRAHS AMD TAILES IM THIS 
CXHIIIT, tEOUCCD 11 SIZC,AIE HEIE FOR FIEE mSTRIBUTIflN TO FERSONS rNTCRCSTCO 11 AMY QF THE 
SUUCCTS . 



PatelM.i 



J 



cxxsviii BTATB BOARD OF HBALTH.— R£POKT OF S«CBE;rABY» VS9L 

they are Dot reprodaoed oatside the human body, and that by isolation and 
disinfection these two diseases may be praotioally stamped out of 
existenoe. 

The diagram on page olviii shows that throughout the entire State of 
Michigan the mortality from scarlet fever has been reduced more than 
one-half during those years in which isolation and disinfection have been 



MICHIGAN STATE BOABD OP HEALTH EXHIBIT 

JIISEASES WHICH CAUSE MOST SICKNESS IN yiCHICAN . 



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/» />! c if ears /SSI- J iniermiiien Utvrr^ in thtytar* iitV-S nturai^ia,andin ihe ifea^j IBi6- W rhe4ttnoiU 
TitiMt AitknttsMhU doss netimjtly ikat Iktre ufos cml inerease in rneumaium,beeaiue,as uidi^a/gd J^ iku !■• 
hle,aM,di*^m>vedtnih "' ■" ^ ^ • ^ ... a .' / * __j*_ 

J%« Jlfferage Uliseasr'.' 
Jiutlualionsi in IS90 

ihi* tmu dutUihe unusuai^prevaUnet ^li^lu€nxd'*Ufhieh U/naM he'sten was iwit* a* prmtmJMmii 
at m iks a¥*ra^« tfear, Mc 0rd€r in ike tiveragt year being k\ tthtle in. iS90 U teas U, Pnmanonia dSw# 
M^skfiMfan^f VfA ner oxuf aftfiartni ^i*ang€ during Ou, len ^cctf*. 




VP\at©W.-\ 



EXHIBIT AT THE WORLD'S FAIR. 



CXXXl X 



undertakeD. The two middle columns of that diagram ahow that four, 
fifths of the mortality from gmali-poi has disappeared BJBoe efforla for ita 
restriotioQ have beeD inoreased. In this same diagram the last two ool- 
umDB show that typhoid fever has decreased since efforts for its reetiio- 
tion were undertaken ; that during those 32 years 1,671 lives have been 
saved in Michigan throagb the restriction of that disease. 



MrCHICAN STATE BOAJID OF HFaLITI EXHIBIT . 

PRdlCIPAL CAUSES AND CONDITIONS' OF DEATHS IN HICHICAN . 



OrdfT ^ ^tiait*t meriahi^ Jr€>m. Ih* tuttMjf-ngikt qr€ak4t aiUgtd eaa4(4 and ceatUiien.* ^J Jieaihi 



l^n yfarj. ike ntunhtr of d^^iks re^Htd h hiuui tmeujrred ymm 0aeA dueate 




0X1 STATE BOARD OF HEAI/CH.— REPORT OP BBGRETABY, IBM. 

MICHIGAN STATE BOARD OF HEALTH EXHIBIT . 







[Plate 499.] 



EXHIBIT AT THE W0RIiD*8 FAIR. 



cxli 



mCHICAM STATE BOARD OF HEALTH EXHIBIT. 

N0,2.* WARM-WEATHER DISEASES IN MICHIGAN . 



Y"" 



€iif»ff4 rtpe*4«niiny, kg /npnihs, during th€ ^tr'i§d €J IS gtari, iSTT- 9/# ihs JigM* 




lUitiUt tf 4 0th «liitu4t^ •ytr 61,009 iitteki^ re^eris mn etpr&^^wnitd mihii dimfruim' 

rPJat« 500.] 



cxlii STATE BOARD OP HEALTH.— RE I ORT OP SBCRBTABy, 189L 



MiemCAN STATB B0AftB nr* UEAlTlf 'feXHIBIT 

HO.S.-COLO-WEATJIERIISEASCS II MICillCAl . 



\ 







ttuUtaiing mJuU ^tr teni «f ail rtpcri^ reetived Uaied tht ^r€*€nee ^ tattk disease Hen «mdef ike 
Jen ^ ihc^jfMiaus reverting. Aelaiive /o brotsehitis, AatuamcHia^ memhruHme •f—^i " 



ria, u^lU4mza,4eoHutina and rheumaiutn, Hrer6i,0Oo 4ireeklu re^/s,nig44P€ U Amradfim^Md 
luuiiiiiu w«r 47,000, reiaUift U cMsttmMien ew^r 60,000, aadrwiaU»eielU»urUiM t9»rJ%O§0M9mMig #r« 
fmri4 efueitneumnre^rtsemUdm Hut dittytmm, ^Cmsf^m^ieji/oratfy/fiftmn UiuiSiiii mwdnmm^imJtritM < 

[Plate ULl 



EXHIBIT AT, THE WORLD^S FAIB. 



cxliii 



MICHIGAN STATE BOAltD OF HEALTH EIHIBIT. 

M.4.*ATMilPHEUC TEMPERATURE. AID SICKRESS FROM DIARRHEA JH MICHICAR 



• ' 1 


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Jitkness from Diarrhea 



<Ji^eray€ c^m/i^ra^ttrr •.——•. — • ^i... 



* Indie aUnq tuhai per tent «/ all reports reeeivd sUled the presents ef Diarrhea then. 
'Under ike tSserv at ioe% •/ Ihe physician * reporting . 

Ctfsr SffOOO meUltf reports of liUness, and cser ZSStOOO abitrirmlitas of tkt almos^trio 
temperature are re^ftsenMt in Jhis diu.gratn 

IPJateSCtt.] 



cxliv 


SFACT 


BOAHD OF 


HfelALlM.— REPORT OP 


BEORSTABT, 18M 




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~m€HiG4n^fT4T£ ■•4ftl tF KEALTH Cllllirr | 


to. 


5.-ATIj8frK[l|ie TCUrCUTHIE^AMe SICKIESS FI0U CH«l£ilA liilltt It yiCHICU 






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UititmJing ttkatpcr eeni if all rtficri* rtetimed JlaUd iht ^rtstnte iftAUem ivunku iktm mmSo* A»« 
/•Ml </ iht MuMiOMS rthertino '. 



[Plato 508.] 



^^^^^^^^^V mcmn^^^^mt wnTJins ^in? *»1^ 1 


^ mCHlCAN S1AI£ ll«4KJI 9T HILALTR ETCHtBIT M 


^ M.e.-wiy lace %f kiuntfHimt TEMriRATuiiE. amd siciicss ntm 1 


UTEIMfTTIlT FEVO^ll UICHJCJUI. 


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*fndtcoitn^ uAal fieremt 9J all etMertt rMtttptd tlattd tk< hfMtnt* oj tHtttmttUnt Ff^er ■ 

ihtn tender ih* eb4erM9ticn cj Iht ^husittam ftfo^itn^ ■ 

_ C^r SS,OO0 tMiiAt^ ft port J ^ iuAnejM,and €eer 60.000 ibAmreatuH* t/ fkt urtteijt ffati^ ran^e ■ 


^ ^mdmct^tn* tta^^rafkt* t,te i^ffttiU*d m Mm d^u^rs/n | 


K B IPlAtem.1 


^^ 



ozlvi STATB BOARD OF HBAI/TH.— REPORT OF BBORBTABT, 1804. 
N0.7r-AT>IOSPHCRIC OZONE, AND SICKNESS FBOM REMITTEIT FEYCI, II MICHICAi 



f¥1 


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[Plata 60B.] 



^^^^^^ EXHIBIT AT THE WORLD^S FAIR tixlvii ^M 


1 NO.S.-ATWOSPHXRtC OZOMC, AID SICKMCSS FHOML^KFLUENZAJI IIICHICAN . 




1 








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1 


k Plate M»4 


-J 



cxlviii STATE BOARD OF HBAI/TH^BBFOBT OF SlDOKBrABT, IflML 



NQ.§. 



■tCHlOUIatTATI tOai •? HIALTH tMltatt. 

ATMIIPHElie TEIIF£IATUftr, All SICKICSS FROM PIHIIIIA II MICHItAi. 



\ \^i4 mtniks Jai^ a period ct 1^ yeai^sl ^Hj^fOt tht rw£a^t§*n Agimemn 
\ ■ ^Ukn*Si tn tMitkioen from Pneumoniit anfi ikt ^Avgregm ^m^^r^- 

3, int. r€ 94*4^ dt/wnwRfdi^ > 




tin rt^rtjmitdlnthu ^itg^m - 

[PUte607.] 



EXHIBIT AT THE WORLD'S PAIR. 



cxlix 



,;; KICHICAN STATE lOAEO OF HEALTHr^lb^HlllT. 

iBrVELfCITY aF THE HfllB, AID SICKIESS FROM DIPHTHEIIA. IR MICHICAI 



i- 


3^ m&ntht, /or a period cj IQ^ear-i^ J^iZ~fl, iAe reJaitoi* S^Mftej* JicAiw## m 
i^ehi^uit Jretn Dikhth^ria and the utfarage i/tieeiig ^ iha l/itid 4n tJbHat per hamrm 
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[Plat« 506.1 



d 


SI-ATE BOARD 


OF HEALTH.— REPORT OP BECaETAEY, 


18H. 




1 


RO.n.-TOjituuTit mio«rt niumnK; RHEgiuTiiu rvuinrs rmiuint . | 


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"xJUwiMphtru Jemfieraitut .^ — -. — «—. • J>^jiiJ«ii4 KhettmmiifW^n 

t^ctkitjer Aheumalum t Scatter Jht^iUiiU 

*Jndieattnff vhal per e^ai ^ all rtp0ri<t neeired Haled the freeetue ^ imeUlJM I 
Jhen under I he ohiertvlion cj /Ac physUiaiu rehortime 

Over 57,000 weekly reporU i^ sieKneu.erH over 26ifi00 ehitrvalisau ^ ike 
fire repreeenitd in ihit dut^m 

[Plate 508. J 



EXHIBIT AT THE WORLD'S FAIR. 



oU 



MICHICAN STATE lOAlUI tF HI:aLTH EXHIBIT 



•10.12. 


- ATM0SPNeiie line. AID tlCKICSI FIIM IHEIMATIf M, II MICHICAI , 






% mi/iikM.Jfr « ^srifi^ ^ I^^evTi Jil?" f&t /A' P*iainfn ^^i^^t^n JieAaBu 
in jCithi^af^ Jf€tn Jthtit/naiiMm, and ihe aiftrag* ^im-ct^KM^H ^xcim during 
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Siekketsfrcm. RhgttmaiUm. . c^imoj^herie Oicnt, dajf etui riighi . 

* indiealing ufhiU jier cent cf ail rtferi* reeeUtd uctied the Jtreten^e ^ /iht 

tUrihe cbM^r^aiian cf the fthy*i»ions rt^oriintf . 
f Over S^OOO iueekiu re^crii ^jiekntn. and eir^r/Ji.OOO ckatrpmUcn* ^atnxethhmrU nent or* re^rt- 
{4enied in Mi# aia^am . 

LPlateBlO.] 



eBi STATB BOAKD OF HEAIjTH^BIIPOBT OF SQQEEn'AHT* IM. 



MltHtCAM STATE llAA* mt HEALTH EXHIVIT . 

NO jr- ATMlif HEftIC HZfllE, AlO SICKICIS FR0U COiSDMrTltllJI IflCHIEAl 



* 




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Sickness /rem Consumpiion —^.n^.^..— . t^tmcipheric Ozone, cCay ,_..,._. 
^imdiealinQ uthaij^er etnl tf aii reports reeeived Jiated ihe presence ^ eensutnjpi, 
under the cisei^irat^on ^ the Jthysieians reporting . 

OeerSti.OOO niteldif^ repoets of stetL*'»ss, and over 6^.0tHII observations if otmcsfh^rie ozoms are 
fepteeented inthti diagrasn . 

[Plate Sll.j 









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^^^^ " MICIIILA.S ST^rr fOARD'OF MrAlTH tXHlHIT,,_ ^^M 


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ud <XtveF tktn uAder the tS^na- 


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Otm- fSWmttttf rt^U < ..*-/^ «r«<r*r>rr ttt.tu^/it^M 4 iU 44^ /m*" n if*iU **« F«>-i /<j«/#itf m U„ ^m^wn . ^^H 


Jflr*..JI. v-v^y^*,^. 


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fi^oH^t U 0«4A*-, <Jt»« /ir •*«A'p ;■ •«» u «^W4<, /W41, frArn a#>-« mn iit mttt 'tmtk** ^^^1 


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[PUteSlt,] ^H 


^H 



cUy BTATB board of HBAlJTHw-RBFOBT OF 8B0RBTABY, IBM. 



N0.I5.- DECHEASC 


OP SICIMESS 


flOU IITEiyiTTEIT FEVEIja MICHIUI . 


. 


1 


1 CtrgeS rehrcjini'tna Steknejj J rem inttrmtttent ft^er in •MieAi9€tA ^uaji 
hiriods rf ycrs, /l77'Si, amd titJ ^ 9/. Ditriny iUt JirU ^erled ike Mny 
her eeni ej rrprrij h ii, during the ia»l ^mried, tJ,- a tletrtmit ff u 
l%j httij iAf sieKutss; prtkrbl^ ccujed h^ gent rni drain nge ff i^e *cii 


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Ji»*«. .»/«« InUrmilUMlFttur. Sytmn^im-a , — Jiekn»j4/r$ml$UermUUiUfrmi^jmn,tin-'n^ . 

* t0*l%r£ti^ »MMfjtirfi$r^sl//ift//* trmutd itat^rfUu prtnnn tjUlermiUiial^ttr Uum mmder Um •Utfwmiim «fAa i 
cut nfvrtiitiif 
r,»e nOmm^ljf r»^Ht ff iitkmtst •f/v ttntnfJcrlhf/irtt^ritd.auJtvtf I ^^OOOjatUte 4msi ^tntd 

[Plite B18.1 



^ EXHIBIT AT THE WORLD^a FAIR ^ dv 1 




fio.i*.- occRCAte or sickreis ritM scaiut rcvER, ii michicai 


■■ 


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I 


. 5 1 «.^ 4 4 f -r t 5 4 4 






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. *UfUtt,iinif mhiil far eenl e/ aii rtp^rlt trceirttf $ititet( iju ^n^tMt tj <ttarUi Jeur th^n undtt- Iht 


R [Plata 514.] ^^J 


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dvi 8TATB BOABD OP HBAI/Ttt-RBPORT OP BBOBBTAB7, UBL 



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Jieineu/rcm ^v^Mer/o. J^c/-/./^77- 1/ , . Jiekms4t^HmOi^MJmnd,S9man,/n7'% 

^Indieaiiny urhai per ceni e/aii n/tcrh rteeiimijtaied thtpte^^Mt ff dipklHeria 4heH uHtUr 
paiion ofihe ph^siciam ptpcriing. 

Over 17,000 wetklg rtporh cj JtcAness l ^re rtctivtdjcriktjirsi period, aMd09»'UkO$§j9tHmini 



[Plate 5l5.\ 



EXHIBIT AT THE WORLD^S FAIR 



clvii 



ISOLATION AND DISINFECTION RESTRICTED 
CARLET FEVER AND DIPHTHERIA IN MICHI- 
lAN DURING THE 5 YEARS 1886-90. 



SCARLET FEVER. 

^OLATION AHD DISINFECTION 



NEGLECTED . IH 



366 outbreaks; 

AVERAGE 



061 outbreaks 
average 



ENFORCED.IN 




f»tU.litiT|ltiU{i,IJtf>tAllf JUlIilUTMS.III 
ItllCATTi liVIII 0f CAtfl1*JI X Ult * lUll i tt4»l 
IIIICATtl UV1IC fir UVKI Jl 1 MIT • ■•! • III 



DIPHTHERIA. 

ISOUT10N AND DISINFECTION 



NECLE 



CTEaiN[ 



317 OUTBREAKS; 
AVERAGE 



ENFORCER IN 



2S2 OUTBREAK^ 
AVERAGE 



TfiiTALt>etfTI«lAMS,l.liS«CAil|Jil34fB£AtHl,MTi 

• ••ICATII lAVIII »f CAtCI I3JT Kljaf-IMB4ilMtl 

tlllClTIB iiVllfi Of LIVES, 14> K Ultt^ tjl^%^1^'^^'^ 



IPIate l\%:\ 




cMii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.- REIORT O? SECRETARY, 18^4. 



LIVES. SAVED BY PUBLIC-HEALTH WORK. 
COMPARISON or DEATH-RATES IN MICHIGAI 
FROM SCARLET FEVER AND SMALL-POX Bl 
FORE AND SINCE THE STATE BOARD OF 
HEALTH WAS ESTABLISHED AND FROM Ti 
PHOID FEVER BEFORE AND SINCE ITS RE 
STRICTION WAS UNDERTAKEN BY THE STAl 
BOARD. COMPILED FROM STATE DEPART- 

MENfs 'Vital statistics^ of Michigan. 



REPORTED DEATHS PER 10.000 INHABITANTI 



u 



SCARLIT FEVER. 



1863-73. 



1874-90. 



l869-7_3. 



SMALl-POX. 




1874-90 
KSiNCET 



1869-78 
(BEFOREl 



TYPHOID FEVG 



t879-S 






EXHIBIT AT THE WORLD'S FAIR. 



cliz 



It appears that the judge on this exhibit was the veteran sanitariaB, John 
H. Eaucb, M. D,, ex Secretary of the Illinoie State Board of Health, and 
ex-Preeident of the American Public Health Association. 

Notice of the award was received from Washington, as follows: — 

pr0rlb*0 ©ohtmltian ©ommteaiott 

Executive committee on awards. 

JOHN eOYD THACH£R, Chairman, Albany, N. Y. 
BUREAU: W. J. SEWELL, N»w J»r»«y. a. T. eftlTTON, m«trlot Columbia, 

Pacific Building, a. b. Andrews, North Carolina. 

<22 F St., Waahinqtom, 0. C. B. B. 8MALL£Y« Ex-Offlolo Mambar, BuHington, Vc. 

Washington, D, C, March 20, 1894. 

Dear SiBt — I herewith incloee you an official copy of yonr Award which, 
in due time, will be inscribed in the Diploma and forwarded to your present 
address, unless otherwise indicated by you. 

Tours, 

John Boyd Thaoheb, 
Chairman Executive Committee on Awards. 



UNITED STATES. 

Department L*— Ijiberal Arts. 



224^ 



Exhibitor— Si&ie Board of Health. 

jiddreta— Landing, Mich. 

Group--li7. 

Class-Sdd. 

Exhibit — Beports and Diagrams. 



AWARD 

For completene&B, exactness and statistical value. 

Signed^ 

John H. Rauch, 
Approved : Indimdual Judge. 

Db. K. Buknz, 

President Deparimental Committee, 

Ajyproved: 

John Boyd Thacheb, 
Chairman Executive Committee on Aicards, 
Copyist— m R B. 

Da^— February 26, 1894, , 

Subject to change of grammatical and typewritten inaccuracies. 



Clx STATE BOARD OP HEALTH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 18P4. 



THE CAUSATION OF INFLUENZA AND ALLIED DISEASES. 
WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR PREVENTION,* 



BY HENRY B. BAKER, M. D*, LANSING, MICHIGAN. 

InfluBDEa 18 of auffioient ioipoftatiod, by itself , to warrant the devotion 
to it of great effort end long-con tinned study; but that is not the only 
nor even the chief reaaon why it is worthy of estTaordinary exer- 
tiona to learn ita caneation, modes of spreadingj oonoomitanta and 
sequelfe. 

The great importanoe of epidemic infloenza is generally oonoeded. It 
id understood aleo that mncb of the importanoe of the eobjeot ia because 
several of onr most important diseases are so allied to influenza that tbey 
are inoreaaed by the influenza or by the same conditions whioh favor the 
increase of that disease. Some observers go so far as to state that the 
mortality from all dtaeasea ia inoreaaed by epidemic inEaenza, and all 
agree that either influenza or the epidemio influence connected with it 
increaees tbe moTtality froni many diseases, 

The diseases which are most noticeably increased are the diseases of 
tbe lungs and air-passages, the immediate mortality being greateet from 
bronchitis and pneumonia. Thus, for in stance, during the recent 
epidemic, the deaths in Paris, France, by acute diseases of the respira- 
tory passages, during the flrst week in 1890 were 977, instead of 155 in 
the oorresponding week in 1889, fan increase of 822 deaths from these 
diseases in a single week or more than six times as many deaths as when 
the epidemic was not present. Phthisis caused 465 deaths, instead of 
169, an increase of 296 — or nearly three times as many deaths as when tbe 
epidemic was not present. My belief is, however, that not all of the great 
increaee in pfatbisie by reason of tbe epidemic is usually apparent in tbe 
immediate death-rate, Many contract pulmonary oonaumption but do 
not die antil a year or two later. 

For its bearing upon the subject of tbe caasation of influenza and 
allied diseases, as well as showing the importance of tbe late epidemic, I 
quote from the Bulletin of the N, Y. State Board of Health for January 
1890, relative to cities and towns, in that State, as follows:— "The mortal- 
ity for January is over siity per oent * ^ greater than tbe average 
daring the past five years in this month* * * The increase has been 
due to the remarkable ocourreuoe of epidemic influenza, which began in 
December. Only a few hundred deaths have been certified to from this 
cause directly. It has shown itself in a large mortality from all local 
d is eases. The number of deaths from acute respiratory diseases is about 
three times greater than the average in January, and from diseases of tbe 
nervous, oiroulatory and digestive aystema there is an increase of from 
thirty-seven to forty per cent. Consumption shows an increase of seventy 

* A pAper read. Id part, before the Section od State Uediciae. of tbe Amerlcflji UedlttL AtnooiattoD at 



ite cEkeetlaff in NafltiTlllo, Tean., in U&t, ISflO. The paper has never been pubUahed, the «.nthor tiATis# ! 
trnwUtlngf to perniH Ua pnbiioatlon in the ''Journal'' of the Aasoeiation without the dlasractia wMeh 
«Qppl; «o mQch of the evideace on which eoaelniloQt &re bued. 
t Reriew da Hxglene, Jan. 30. 18S0, p. 5. A1m> Brltiflh HedJoai Jonmali Ju. U, ISW. n. 140. 




THE CAUSATION OF INFLUENZA, ETC. 



cl« 



per cent, deatba from old age are inoreaaed, and from unolaesified oauBes 
tbej are Dearty doubted."* 

I believe that snob a statement as the foregoiDg oould not have been made 
relative to aDy epidemic of any other disease usually ooDsidered epidemio; 
it oould not be true of yellow fever, cholera* small pox, diphtheria, 
typhoid fever, scarlet fever, or even measles; although io measles we have 
a disease that in some respects is allied to iDfloenzQ. 



Epidemic^ SubshudiaUtf ike Same as NoiuEpidemic Influenza. 

Id MiohigaD about oDe hundred of the leading physioians in aotive 
general practice report each week the diseases under their observation. 
Such reports have been tabulated by months for m^oy years including 
two in which influenza was epidemic^ namely, 1^79 and 1890. I exhibit 
to you diagrams showing curves of the inorease and decrease of influenza 
in each and every month in each of the twelve years, 1877-1888; from 
which you will see that the epidemio of 1879 has the same sort of a curve 
as have other yeare, only in 1879 the disease was more than usually pre* 
valent, over eighty per cent of all the reports in February 1879 having 
stated that influenza was under observation.! ^^^ diagram does not 
show the curve for 1889-90, but I have here a table (ExDibit 1) which 
shows that in this epidemic the curve rose rapidly, from 37 per cent of 
the weekly reports in December, 1889, to 92 per cent in January 1890, 
and reached its highest point in February during which month 95 per 
cent of all the weekly reports received stated the presence of inQuenza. ^ 
These observers reported it as **inflo6Dza, " and from their reports, from 
the literature of the subject, and from my own observation and experi- 
ence, I believe it to be substantially the same disease as the influenza 
which is present in Michigan in every month of every year. And that the 
influenza in Michigan duriog the recent epidetaio was the same as in 
other parts of the world, I have no doubt 

• ThJfl autameat, uaA €«p«e1jillj the liit oUrote, bu ini tmE>aTtaGt b«ftrio« upon th« tobjact of tlilv 
Lpttr.^fti to whotbor lli» oaoafttioti of tfiflcieatt U wholly bi one sp«elfio mJero-ox-gBiiJMii^ bj mvnnl 



mlOTO-orgnnltmt, wbollf bf met«oroloffle«i oondltlons, or wbetbar, m tmmm movt ecio«i«t4»it with all the 
ftiidaooSt than li probablf one mieroKitiguiiim to wtdcb manr of th« effeetA knowQ fti lafltDAdn an das, 
woAmctau of miqro-orinQiimB tbe «ff««t« of whicb are kicreaaed bf the eajn« meteorologrleal ooadltloQS 
vhioh favor tha oua whlob caiUM luflnaiiisat and tbat of tMa '*c3aBfl" of mlcro^orinuiltmt, Qoiie a lAr«9 



p pyportton of the dleeuea eanaed b; them ha^e not ret been di»finltelr tracati to their epeelfic: eatuee. 
This bfpotbeala ieemi to exptalD the fact qaoted above In the laat elaaoe, from the BalletlQ of the New 
Xtnk aWt» Bocrd of Health, that deathi from imclaaaified oaiuee were nearlf daablad : and thla fact 
•appllea a t«aBO& wbf the iymptoiiiB and effecta attrlbated to inUaeiua have brai so nnmerooa and 
TancHU. 

t llieBe dlacramf axblbitiotf on a aingle iheet the relatione of atmoipherlc temperatore to inflDesua to 
U4 coneeeatiTs raontba wete ezceedlajffir IntereetlDS for 6tBdjr« bot th«f are not eaailjr radtioed eo aa to be 
available for book ilfoatrmtlon, Iherecorei in pnbllaElxis thie paper^ an effort ii made to roaver in erei). a 
more ffrapMo maimer the prominent Idea to be deiiTea from the original dia«rain of each and ererr ofie 
of the lU monthe. ThIe idea le to be gained bj a atndy of the linee^ in Diagiam Z, pege cixlr, whlob repr»- 
■eot bj months the atjerage airkoeae from inflaesn and pnenmoBla dniing the twelve reare, 1877-BS, 
oompazing those lines with the Unee in Diagmm 3. pave clxv. which repreeent by months the alckaeaa from 
inflaenea and paeomockia In the opidemli^ year l^79' ; from which it mar be seen that in the epLdemfe year 
tbeinfilQenza and the pneomonia enstaiu a relation to each other similar to that sqataiaed In th« qod* 
epidemic reare. In Diagram i, aleo, thoro is Rhown, for the epidemic year lhl9, the relations for both icHa- 
eniaand pnaomoniato the atmospheric temperature, by which il la demonstrated that in the epidemio 
year, both of tbew dlteaaee were, apparently, absolntely controlled by the temperature, even to the devia- 
tiona from the regolarltr of the ennree which occnr In November, the deviattonttn both of the linea 
repreeeoting tleknetfh, being nearly qaantitativeiF similar to the deflation in the line representing the 
tamperatnie. 

t Diagram 4, pafe elrrl, copied from the Anntiy Beport of the Secretary of the Hiohigan Btate Board of 
Health, exhlbite inie well, ee also the great unonntof aloknese caused in l!!i90 by inflnenaa.oom pared with 
a few other diseaeee. The llDe in this Diagram #, repreasnttitg LbtlneDxa in an epidemic year, when oom> 
pared with the lino in DisKram t, representing inflnenza in the twelve yeais, 1^7-86, demoDstratat that, 
an far aa relatea to Ite rise and fall by seasons of the year, the epidemic fniJQenza of l^W was the same eort 
of 1 diiiMe ae the ordinary iDGoeosa reported in erery month of the preceding series of years. 






■ clxii STATE BOARD OF HEA IiTH,— REPORT OP SECRETARY, 18^ j 


■ EXHIBIT L— Per cent of weekly reports which stated the presence of Influenza in 
^^^ Michigan bu mo-nths in 1889 and in 1890, { These weekly reports are made by phy- 
^^K sicians in active general practice in different parts of the 8tat^. Each report is 
^^r strictly limited to the actual ob$ervation of the physician reporting.) 






Moatbi. i5ae. 


Per 
cent. 

11 


Monthfl, IBM." 


eant. 




JuiDAn.. 


Jamurrt i 


02 




Fdbniat7 


44 


IFubniiirjt 


91 






Mawjh. ...-, 


45 


March... 

April . „ .,„ „ 


T3 
98 




April * .. 




M., 


91 


Ums - 


U 






Jq^B , ^, ................ 


22 

Ifl 


Jqoa .. 




20 
24 




Jaif _. 


July. 






AnAoat ,^. 


le 


Anffi^nt 


2B 






Beptember . _*. ^ ^„.**.*- 


21 


September _ ^ 


tl 






Ootober . .*. ........ ._— 


ao 


Octobar.... ......... ^.. ........ 

November 


10 
1 M 




Ho»eiinlwr„_ , »..«..„„..» 




December ..„...,. .. .. 


17 

n 


DeoemI 


Her ......... ,. ... 


00 


1 




Y«Ar,«Tirai« ,..,,, , ................ 


Yflsr, avacage.. 




60 








■ 


* Hie taittB for eaoh month la 1893 an ffraphlfallr repraaeatwl 1a Di«STsm 4, paoo olxrl. 
t TMb is «bowQ br weeks at iba cIom of I^ibla 1. farther on la tbi» p&per. 


1 


. 


EXHIBIT 2,—IUlations of Influenza, Tonsillitis, Rheumatism, Neuralgia, Bronchitis 
Pn&tmonia, and Pleuritis, by monthSf for a series of years,* as indicated by the per 
cent of meekly reports stating their presence in Michigan, {These data relate tc 
sicknesSt not deaths, and are graphically represented in Diagrams 1 and 2^ which 
exhibit the relations of each disease to the others^ and also the relations of §ach fc 
seasons of the year.) 


> 




DImum. 


Jan, 


Fab. 


UM£, 


Apr 


U>y. 


Jcma. 


Jaly, 


Ant.! 


Sapt. 


Oet. 
12 


Not. 
40 


Dae. 
47 




iDfliiensat — 


U 


M 


58 


50| 


« 


n 


1» 


10 


28 




TooilUitbt - 


Qfl 


m 


00 


«• 


«S 


40 


m 


11 


M 


44 


54 


SO 






Bh«iim*tl«njt.. * . 


7a 


" 


n 


78 


71 


S8 


61 


67 


81 


07 


71 


71 






Nooralgial .„..„.. 


00 


31 


n 


72 


67 


M 


so 


&B 


5B 


03 


68 


00 






Bronehitlat 


w 


n 


T4 


70 


61 


13 


41 


41 


4S 


B6 


60 


10 






laflnenzal 


54 


m 


AB 


BO 


17 


» 


Ifi 


m 


» 


32 


40 


47 






PaeamoniK J 


D6 


ei 


m 


&£ 


90 


H 


1» 


\» 


10 


21 


•t 


40 






Pl«iiritl»i . „_. 


U 


s 


29 


21 


i& 


14 


B 


a 


i 


15 


16 


tl 




L 


*The diit'& for inflnenzA, bronchltia, pnaQmaniii, emd rhQqjnB.tiim are the per ceuU of weakly rtporti fo 
lajrears. 1S77*88. 
Th* data for toailllitii and Mnralgla are the per ceoU of weekly report* for 10 years, l879-«8. 
The data for pleotitb >» thtt pet caata of weekly reports for tba slogle year ISSB. 
tTbis line la rntphloally repreaemted in DLa^fiuii I, 
i This line it gfapbieally rapreBeatad In Diaffram Z, 

1 1 J 


r 

1 



1 


^^^^V THE OASUATION OF INFLUENZA, ETC. clxiii 


1 


1 

1 




i 


^ey £int c/yepcrt^ M/itcA sfatd y^r^siNce o/ ali leasts repyest?^tt^. 


■ 


<tmt 


4 5--^" 4 4 


r J 


f r 4- ^ §■ 4 4 


r 


I 


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ss 

so 

4^ 
3r 

30 

zs 

20 
iS, 

SO 














^ 





















^^ 




> 


s 










/ 


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\ 








4' 


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■ 














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\ 


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f 










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\ 

1 








* * 

* 










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* 


/ 












\ 


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* 










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V 


\ 

V 






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\ 


% 


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9 

/ ■ 


■^ 

,/ 


/ 
















\ 


\ 




/ 


/ 




















\ 




/ 






















\ 


































































L 


7fi€ curve /or Jcn^siuiTi's represepffj per ceftT 0/ rc/ifirfs 
/or to (/tiLrs idjf *B8. y% canrcs/o*- J>f//ae/?ja arret 


J 



olxiV BTATE BOARD OF EEALTH.— REPORT OP SECRETARY. I<i94. 



Diagram 2.- Peltttioff of J^i*t e>92.€4. Syoftditt^, /Ihblc ?rfoHf\ 



}are Jg ?f g g a/ Jnfj UtTi^a. ^B^wncMttX y%ta*tm*niA. Jfty;^?lffiA*mt/ PA^tTr fks. 



ftts i^^iclk ^at^3 ^y mi0 M£€ o/ atisea^s^^ ^^^^UfAftt^^. 




h Carre y^r fffffiuetrta^Brtno^itif^and^tgHmtniA r$^r*4€fft€ /»€7^ c£H't 





THE CAUSATION OP INFLUENZA, ETC, 



clxT 



'fi 



HiLgram, ^- Jiiia^tic^ i/ atmospheric 7^?ffperatare 



J8i/?na7?t4^j /fir t^e epiderpiic year- 1679^ t/f^. 
peiz ccTT^ c/ wee ff'ii/ repcrf'3 u/AtcA stated 
tAt prcec^ce c/ />f/lue>f^a. ar* el Prfeuf^ 

e^atuT^C^ ai^^-raje m.t' t9 e^at/ orf ^.( 2^4 e^ 










V 



Taboitf itai0tii«tit« lur ali tti« Hum oex Uub oiAnrciuk ara m hixJuibul 3, 



ClXTil. 




clxvi STATB BOARD OF HEALTH.->KBPORT OF 8E0RETARY, 18M. 
OIAQRAM 4.WEEKLY REPORTS OF SICKNESS IN MICHIQAN, IN 1830. 



Per ocnt of reporU whieh tUted prefenoe of diiaoMi roprwontod. 




PtR 

onrr* 
































^ 
























80 
RO - 




V 
























\ 








• 














76 
70 - 




\ 


























\ 




















65 

60 - 






\ 






^ 














» 




\ 
















/ y 




55 

60 - 


hv. 


•UTis 


A 










1 




J 


// 




i 




^oj 


K" 


^0 




■ 




v 


/ 






45 
An 








\ 










/ 


f 














\ ' 


S> 




^A 


/ 








35 

30 - 
25 

20 - 
15 

10 . 
5 










\ 


Ns 


■-- 


' 


















\ 




• 






















\ 




/ 




















\ 
































^^^ 


^*, 






■ r ft^f 






1 












*\ 




=-*— 


»^^ 




t^-' 


Fv 






<«'' 

<.^:» 


,'-^ 




%%hV 


— -• 


\ — ^ 

1_ 


r»— ., 


' 


••^.J 


IMBR^ 


.!f£ui,>' 









to on tU« TMMnum wr» «t bottom of pace olzi. The tabular statement for thejina 
la In B^^' ~^^4a clzli. 




THE CAUSATION OF 1NPLUE^ZA, ETC. 



clEvii 



EXHIBIT X^Atmo9pherie Temperature, and tickne^ from Jvjluenza and Pneu- 
monia in Michigan in ifie epidemic year 1879; exhibiting^ }>y months, the average 
temperature, in degrees, Fcth,, at 19 ttationit and the aicknew by per cent of weekly 
report t ttkich »tated the presence of each diseate. 





Jan. 

TO 

m 


rtto. 

ai 
m 


83X8 

u 


6i 


M«f. 


«t.70 
29 


71.16 

a 


Ai]«. 


a»pt. 


Got. 

sT.ia 

10 
24 


M.dO 
38 
88 


I>«e. 

M.41 
51 
&1 


TMnpvratQfa. .^, „ 


B0.OI 
40 


68.09 
28 
15 


ft7.4S 
II 

28 



Tbm thrM U&a* in tliit exhibit %n (nphioalt^ rat^rMmted La Dia^iram I, pM* elzv* 



I 



Influenza Precedes and is Acccmpanied bf/ Many Diseases. 

In this epidemic of 1889 90, as in previoos oDes, it bae been apparent 
that several very oommoB diseaBeB have coDtiibuted largely to the mortal- 
ity. The reoent epidemio has tanght many that epidemio ioflnenza is 
aooompaDied by, and precedea, several dieeaees, in a way to indicate a 
oaneal or at leaat a neoeseary relation. 

It is stated frequently that epidemio influenza differs from ordinary 
intluenza in being so closely associated with bronchitis, congestion of the 
lungs, pneumonia, heart failure, erysipelas, herpes, etc., it never having 
been generally aooepted as established in inedioal scienoe that ordinary 
ficn-efidtmic iniiuenza is thus associated. I say not ''generally accepted" 
as established because I think that I have established and published the 
fact so far as relates to the most important of these diseases; and I think 
the reason why the members of the medioal profession have not reached 
the flame conclusion from their clinical experience is because in practice 
a physician may see many isolated cases of influenza when that disease is 
nut epidemic, and may see some of those same patients afterwards sick 
with pneumonia, or erysipelas, and yet not have sufficient evidence to 
convince him that there was any nsoessary relation between the two oir- 
oumstanccs; but in an epidemio it is possible for a practitioner to have in 
mind a great number of instances occurring at or near the same time, and 
from them to reach conclusions which could not safely be reached 
through the observation of even the same number of isolated cases widely 
separated in time and place and therefore liable to be under different 
conditions which could not be known or efitimated. 

But I think the fact should be generally recognized that when a statis- 
tician brings together and tabulates obserFations, made by physicians, of 
thousands of cases of a given disease, and does the same for tbousands of 
cases of another disease, occurring in the same area» at the same time, 
and presumably under similar oonditionp, he is praotically enabling us 
to see what relations those diseases sustain to each other. In several 
instances heretofore I have done this for influenza, when it was not 
epidemio and when it was epidemic, and the fact is that in such times in 
the year as inEuenza is least epidemio, — least prevalent, then, or imme- 
diately afterwards several other important diseases manifestly asso- 
ciated with epidemic influenza are least prevalent; and at such times in 



clxviii STATE BOARD OF HEAIiTH— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1894. 



the year as inEueaza is most prevalent then or soon after, those other dis- 
eases are mo8l prevalent; that the relatiun between influenza and these 
dieeasee is» approsimatelj?, qoantitati7e.* 

Thifi w sbown^ more graphioally I think than haa ever been done here- 
tofore, by Diagrams Noa. 1 and 2, which I have had prepared for this 
paper, and oopies of which are diBtributed here. (They are printed on 
pages ohiii,Qlxiv.) They prove that, in Michigan, therelationehip between 
inffoenza and several other dieeaseB, as to times of greatest and of least 
prevalence, is very close. These diagrams relate to sicknesSt not deaths, 
and the data exhibited in tbem may be seen in Eihibit 2, page olxii. 

(DiagramB 1 and 2, ehonld be compared with Diagram 3, pageolxv, which 
exhibits the close relationship of influenza to pneumonia in an epidemic 
year — 1879, Diagram 3 includes also a line representing the ooinoldent 
atmoBpherio temperature, the data for which may be seen in Exhibit 3, 
further on in this paper, tinder the subhead *'IafluenzB and Atmospherio 
TeraperBture. " Comments on the comparison mentioned above, and on 
the teachiug of Diagram 3, may be seen in a footDote on page clxi, in oon- 
nection with the sub^head ** Epidemic, substantially the same as non- 
epidemic influenza, '* under which are remarks bearing upon the branch 
of the subject here dealt with. And the subject ie again taken up and 
<3ontinned further on in this paper, under the sub-head *'The relation- 
ships of rbaumatisin, neuralgia, toDsillitiB, induenza, and diseases of the 
lungs, — cold- weather diseases. ") 



Influenza and Cerebrospinal Meningitis, 



4 



In general, influenza is usually followed by nearly all the diseases of 
the air-passages, and by several communioabla diseaeea that enter by way 
of the air-passages, inoluding diphtheria, scarlet fever, emall-poz, andoon- 
fiumpticn. This general statement which I can assure you is true, is 
illustrated by diagrams submitted herewith, (Not all published here,) 
But perhaps the most frequent noticeable epidemic disease to follow 
epidemic influenasa U oerebro-spinal meniogitis. 

There is now opportunity to offer a possible explanation of the reasDU 
for this: — In cerebro- spinal meningitis it has been found that in the 
intiamed areas there is a mioro-organism, which was Brat discovered by 
Dr, Sternberg in experimcDtB with rabbits, but since then found to be 
present in pneumonia, and believed to be the cauee of pneumonia^ — Stern- 
berg's '\Micrococcus Pasteuri,'' Frankel, Weiohselbaum and others, in 
a Berie8 of oases of primary cerebro-spinal meningitis, have obtained pure 
cultures of this same mioro-organiani, which now has many synonym ous 
names, given it by many observers.t It is now recoguized as present in 
the pus of meningitis. 

* Tosilllitii doM not Mem to be od« of the dii«a»te« which U mcr^ased dnriDcr an epidemic of i&flQdiiza« 
«ltboaib in other >-eafe Ita {>reTftlecic« colncidn mvfcedb with that of ifiHaenza. Thla is ahown hj 
Diag^una 1 and 4, 

* New York Medical Jour., Mareh IT, 18S8. p. tSB, 





THE CAUSATION OF INFLUENZA, ETC. 



clxix 



I 



OsieO' myelitis. Following Influenza. 

The evid6Doe of surgeoos, baoteriologiate and otbers enablee ua to trace 
the resoltfi of influoDza to diseases wbioh would not ordinarily be bos- 
peoted as having snob a oausation. One of tbe interesting facts of ibis 
nature is tbe apparent oaueation of osteo^myelitiB (an inEamtnation of tbe 
bone and marrow). It aeems to be proved tbat tbia disease is caused by tb© 
same mioro-organisma that commonly cause tbe formation of pue. 

The writer of tbe article on this eubjeot in Wood 'a "Reference Hand 
Book of tbe Medical Soiencee/' 8aya: — "Numeroue accurate inveatiga- 
tiona of the pue obtained either directly from the medullary canal or from 
the depth of the tieaues eurrounding tbe bone, and subsequent pufe 
caltivations, have aettled this queation definitely. Ldoke and Heckling- 
baueen have thua shown that numerous oooci and bacilli are invariably 
preeent The moat important of these seem to be the golden and tbe white 
siapktfh>coccus tbe S, pyog^ines aurois and S. pyogenes albus. * * ♦ 

**It has been found tbat if a pare culture of the atapbylococoi 
be injected into the blood of an animal which baa firat been subjected 
to fracture or contuaion of a long bone, the animal dies in about 
two days; and on autopsy abacesses are found in tbe bones and 
around them, at tbe seat of injury, and alao aometimea in the lunga and 
kidneys. 

**How are we to explain tbe entrance of these germs without an appar- 
ent traumatiam as a doorway? The only plauaible aasumption aeema to 
be tbat they paaa in through alight abraaione of the mucoua aurfacea of 
the body. Clinical facta aupport tbe theory that, preceding myelitis, 
patients will be found to have auffered from bronchitis, enteritis, etc. 
(Koober)/'* 

If these particular pus-forming micro-organiama are capable of such 
miaohief in tbe human body, and of causing the death of animala **in two 
days" as just quoted, and if as betieved they do^ enter tbe body through 
breaka in tbe lining of the air-paeeagea, and cause cateomyelitia whenever 
there ia injury to a bone, what do they do when there is not injury to the 
bone? Dra. Prudden and Northrup aay : — *'We have been able to induce 
ia rabbita, with the greatest uniformity, by the intratracheal injection of 
pure cultures of tbe atreptDCCocua isolated from tbe children's lunga a 
lobular and bronoho-pneumonia very aimilar in its character to that with 
whiob we atarted in tbe children, "f And, what ia tbe probability of 
their gaining an entrance? In the nose, mouth, or air-paaaBgeB of what 
proportion of persons ia thia micro- organiam preeent waiting only for tbe 
person to ''take cold";^ to be able to enter the general circulation of tbe 
blood in tbe body? This queation we now have facts bearing upon.§ 
Some of them may be quoted aa follows : — 

• Wood's B«f«r«aee Httndbook of tho Medical Seiencea, Vol, V« pp. 3^-9. 

f Aai«rioaxi JoorDal Sdedloal Bcieaeee, YoL 91„ p, !)7B. 

t Some of the ptieDomeQ& of " TakloR oold " are taggeatbi cuidar that aab-headins, page clxxii. 

g Amedoaa Jour, Medloal Scleiio»» Vol, xovilL Sept,. 1889, dp. 275-277, "Th© Micro -or«ani«fii« of the 
HodU); the Local and QeDeml Dl o ea e mi Caased h; Them/* Bj W. D. HUter, M. D., Ph. D., Prof.. Ualverei ty 
of Berlin, Bvo.. pp. rr, 906. Lttlp«i«, 1839. Neir York Medical Joor., Vol. L, Jolr 2:7. ]8S@, pp. 02-9a. See, 
al*o, the page following this. 




clxx 



STATE BOARD OF HEA1»TH— REPORT OP SECRETARY, 1894. 



Faihogemc Micro-organisms Co7iiained in the Mouths of Healthy \ 

Individuals, 

[ rtwulAted for thlB Bazwa* from La RiviUa TnternaxkmcUe ^'loiene^ April, 1890.] I 

" Tienal bai obeerred more tkaa twenty apMiM of micro-orgmoiams in the moaths of hoalthy lodiTtda- \ 
all. Notter has oondaoted experimeaU directed aolely to the i»thoi«nio mJoro-orgmnlBinB 9Z]«tlimr in th* 
moatb which maj' deUirmlDe affeotiona in other orgaoa, ThflM patho^nic agent* ara the poennioeooec i. 
the ttroptooooecu P70gao<»», the (mpeala baciUaa of Friedlftader, and the ■taphyloeoceaa progsDM. I 

**The pDOomoooooiu exlats in the month of the heaithF Indivldaat ia at least 80 eaaea oat of 100« the ] 
■tveptoooGcna in S.B, the capeale baoillna In 4.5. Tbeae flgaree are propeblj lower than the actaal propor- 
tion. Netter'a raenlta from salita inoonlatione were eometlmee po»itlT«, eometunea negative. The r«a- 
eon for this may be that the aaitva did not contain pathoganlo miero-organiama in enffloiant qnantity at 
a giran moment of inoonlation. 

" The pnenmooocone is the pathogeiiio agent of pnenmonitts and also determines other affectioiu. 
Netter baa Terified Its preeenee in 14 eaaea cot of 43 of hronoho-pneamonia, in 10 oaaee oat of 54 of pQiH' 
iMit plearltls,^ in i$ caeea ont of 6^ of otitis media, in 1(S oaaee oDt of 22 of sappnrative monlngltia, and 
Ln 14 oaaea ont of B7 of nloerons endocarditia. 

*'The etreptooooone pyogenae ie freqaently found in risceral sapporation, in pamlent arthritis and ia 
pfamia; ita identity with the streptoooooas of erysipelas has been Tsrified. Netter lias obaarred the 
■tnptooooooe 20 timea in 43 eases of bronoho-pnenciomtis. Zt times in S4 of pnralent pneomonitla, II 
times in 62 of otitis media, 4 times in 25 of pamlent meningitis, 12 times in 37 of oloerooa en,docarditls, 
times in 6 of acnte cervical adenitis, I times in 4 of suppnTatlTe arthritis. 

** The paeQmo-baciilQa of Fricdl&adar 10 foand in broncbo-pnenisonltis and outla-madia. Natter 
obeerred It In a case of nloerons endo<»rdltis, in one of pamlent plenritls, and one of o«rabro-epiaai 
meningitis, 

" The month is indiapatably the point of departore of pathogBnic agenta. 

" The modna of the iDtrod notion of these agenta is in be conflidered in ooaneotion with tha poaitioB 
and fanotion of the month. Onoe eatablished in the bacoo'pharyDgeal caTlty the germs find the soU fav* 
orable for their developmeDt, thanks to temperatnre and the alJcaUne reaction of the sallTa. Tbay ma| 
remain indefinitely in the month and morbid phenomena fall to appear* The preventing canse is the 
integrity of the membrane which lines the month, the pharynx and the cavity with which the pharynx li 
eonDected. Gamaleia has demonitrated that a cnltnre of pneaaiooooena may be Injeoted into the traohsi 
of a ram without determining pnenmonitis. The pneamoooc^l are absorbed and digested by the oatls of 
the trachea and the bronehes. When these eeUa are destroyed the development of pneomooitie follows 
on inocdlntloa. 

" When tbe integrity of the membranons lining of the bnBoo^pharyngeal cavity is Jmiaipad in conse- 
<inenoe of wonnds, cold, or vaso-motor diatarbsncee, the development of the disease doe to the partionlar 
mioroH[>rganiam ensnes. 

'* Hence the freqaeney of some dlaaases and the gravity of otbarsie dimtnlahed whan the pathofliBla 
microorganisms of the month are destroyed, or when they remain innoonons." 



Modes of Sprmding and of Contracting Micro-organisms. 



4 



Bat when these raioro-orgaDiams are not in tbe raoutb or air-passages 
they may be where Ihey may readily enter. For inetanoe on tbe bands, 
and thus liable at any time to ^ei into the mouth by some euoh act sb 
moiatening the finger to turn the leaf of a book or a paokage of bank 
bills. How generally they may be present on the hands is not known; 
but experiments at the hygienio laboratory of the U. S. Marine Hospital 
Service, New York, November^ 1889, proved that of twenty-six observa- 
tions of tbe hands of d arses in Surgioal wards pus organisms were found 
in sixteen. This was after the hands had been cleansed and effort made 
to free tben^ from auoh organisms. 

* "Abstract of Sanitary aaporte.*' pnblished by the U, S. Marine Hoapltal Boraan, Waahiii«too. D. G. 
Hay 9, U980. 




THE CAUSATION OF INFIiUENZA, ETC. 



clxxi 



It seems probable that a single oase of inEuenza, where the disohargeB 
Irom the nose are alluwed to dry upon the handkerobief, rnQst result In soat- 
tering these micro^organisajs throughout every room in which such per- 
aon has occasion to take out his handkerchief. 



Bronchitis t PTteumonia and Oiher CompUccdions of Influenza, 

The micro- organ isms actually found in the recent epidemic are reported, 
by Dr. T. Mitchell Pnidden, as follows:-^ 

** The rNolta of thia lerlM of •tadiee tnay b» samniMl ap in u vorj fow wordj. In two of tho thrM osmib 
of Lnflaeasa utooUtad with brooohlUs thar» were T'Htj larga onmbers of StreptococcuM pvogenea; thi* was 
thft prevttlUox spteiM. All the real wore scatterioji forms, oommoal; found in tbeapatnm ia broaohltifl, 
moat of th«tu th« ordloair aerial baotarla. Id the other omee of broDchitia thero wore large Damberi of 
Ui» DiplooocoTM pneamooin of Fraenkel and Welohaalbaom, aasi^ciat'dd with a few Staphjloooocne pic 
fenea anrea«, and eeveral Mattorlng forms. 

** In tha eaoretion from the note of one of th« oaaae with ooryza ware a few of tha Staphylocooona 
•aroas, while all the rest, whieh were not nameroas, were B&attwing forme. While theee ooU 
being made the scanty epntam from a ease of moderat^Jy fevere aimpla pharyngitis was etodied 
In th« same way. and in this very larte nombera of the Diploooeoua pneomoDiie ware iaolated, tofirathar 
with a eooaidarable number of scattering forma, * • • 

" Let na tarn now to the poenmonia which ^aa been so f reqaent, and in many caafa io aerions, a oom- 
pUeatioQ of Inflaenat in onr recent epidemio. I have examined by the cnltore methoda the apatnm from 
five ea»ea saffarinf from a prolonged and Irregntar pneamonla immediately following the tnfloenaa 
attack, all tioepltal eases ; also the irregnlarly bepitized lung from a f^tal eaae of pneomonia following 
inflaenaa; six c a aea of pneamonla following inflnenxa in all. 

" The ooltares of the spntnm of the first Ave cases showed oDormooa nombere cX. the Diplooocooa pneo- 
monlflB in fonr. In all of tbeae foarmeee there were also considerable nombei^ of Btaphyloooccoe pyogenes 
anrena, together with moderate nambera of other scattering forms— and in one, large numbers of Strep- 
looooona pyogenes. In the fifth epatnm spcK^imen tbere were ^ery large nambers of Streptoooooue pyo- 
geiMe and Stapbylocoocns pyogenae anreue and a coneiderable number of scattering forms. From the 
Inng of the fatal case enormooa nambers of the Diplooooona paenmonioB wera onltiTatad, and nothing 
elae. It was a pore cnlturo- 

*'Thaa in fire out of six oases of prolonged and irregnlar pneumonia following infiaenza. the Dlploooo- 
eaa pneomoniie was fonnd, being Identified in all fitre cases by caltnre and by animal iaoculation. The 
only othef palbogenio speeiea fonnd were the fltreptoeooena pyogenes, and the Btaphyloooccus pyogenes 



"Iteeeina pretty woU eetabllsh^ that the Biptoooooos pneomonia? of Ftaenkeland Weichsalbeam is 
the moat common, if not the excloaiire. primary etiological factor in acute lobar pneumonia, judging from 
Ita constant occurrence in the afTected regions, from ite pathogenic effects upoa animals in experimental 
inoculation, and from ita fieqaent occurrence in complicating leeious. 

"The very frequent oeeorreaeeof this mlcro-orgatilam in the saliva of healthy peraona not only does 
not militate against its etiological importanoe, bat farnlahee a most satisfactory rationaJe of the occur- 
rence of the diaeaae. For onder ordinary conditions the Diplococcus pneumonjfp appears to be quite 
harm leas In the snlira. It Is only when the aoltable predlspoalng conditions— which we recognise in 
Ifijoriee, and In exposnre to oold and wet, bat which in many cases we do not anderstand at all— are fnl- 
Alled. that the growth of the term in the iunga and its accompanying lesions can occur,*' • * * 

" NoTS.— WbUa thia artide waa In presa the reanlta of a ilmtlar atndy on the inflaenaa, by RUcert» tn 
Bonn, reached thi« ooantry In the Dentaohe Medieiniaohe Woohenachrift, of date of Jan. 2S. 1890. His 
baeteriologlcal atndy of Ats eaaea of icflaansa, two of which were withoot, the olhere wlth» pneumonta, 
ahowed that the only species constantly preeent was the Streptococcas pyngeuea. The Diplococcus pnen- 
monise ho did not fitid at all. Ho yery guardedly eusneeU the poislbUity that the Streptoooccns, in aaao- 
oiation with some anluiown pecaiiar atmospheric condition, may cause the disease. Whether this be true 
or not, he would lay stress upon the probable importance of the dtreptoeoeeua in Indocing the rarioos 
oompUoationa."-r. Mitchell PrudtUn, U, D., tn Medicat Record, Xtw Forfc, r«f6. ;*. 1990, pagtM tS»-no, 




olxxii STATE BOARD OP HEALTH. ^REPORT OF 8ECEETARY. 1894. 

Taking Cold, Taking Qprms. 

'"Taking cold*' Beems to be a oomplioated atfair, one elemeDt of wbiob 
is, BQinetiDoefi, a dryiDg up of the noTmal mucua Id the noae — a "^Btopping 
up of tbe nose," as it ie asoally expressed, 

Tkis removes the normal defense afiainsf the introihfciton of (he specific 
causes of (tiseaseSt tbe * 'germs" ae they are called, which normally are DOt 
admitted in the noae beyond tbe lower one inoh or lese^ being kept out 
by tbe moiat haire and moiet muoua which flow« just fast enough to waeh 
the geimB down to the entrance where normal evaporation Jeavee them.* 
The inhalation of dry air or of cold air (which because of ife coldneaa has 
parted with all vapor of water) tends Bometimea to abnormally dry out 
the nasal mucus and thus to permit all germs which may be lioating in 
the air of infected places to enter the body with the air inhaled. 

Another factor in taking cold is probably a paralyzing eflfeot of the 
prolonged inhalation of cold air on the minute hair-like proceBBee of oellfl 
fining the air-paesages, called cilia, which in health are constantly in 
motion in such manner as to carry all duatand germs upward and outward 
from the air-paesagee. The mouth when open ia not, as is tbe nose, 
guarded from the introduction of germs. In infected localities the 
mouth ia liable to oontain a few germ#, as is proved by quotations in 
another part of this paper. Probably a function of the tonsils is to sup- 
ply mucous corpuscles, ^ — phagocytes, for the destruction of germs which 
gain entrance to the mouth, thus standing as guards at the entrance of 
the body. When, through the inhalation of air unusually irritating 
because too dry, cold, or containing too much ozone, the tonsils are 
irritated unduly, their funoHon may be interfered with, the cilia may be 
paralyzed, and disease germs may then gain entrance to the bronchial 
tubes, resulting in bronchitis, or, if the germs reach the air oells^ pneu- 
monia may result. The germs may be streptococci, FriedlAnder'a pneu- 
mooooous, Sternberg'e Micrococcus Fashiiri^ the acknowledged oause of 
croupous pneumonia, the Baoillue tuberculosis, tbe cause of cooeomp- 
tion or some as yet undiscovered speoitio inftuenza germ. All or many of 
these germs may gain entrance, and '* mixed infeotion" reault. Tbe 
nature of the disease which shall resQlt from the '* taking cold" depends, 
apparently, very much upon what species of germ, and how many of each 
Bpeoies, gain entrance to the body, and to what parts of the body they 
gain entrance. 

Other factors are so thoroughly dealt with further on in this paper that 
they need only be referred to here; they are tbe results of the evaporation 
of the fluids from the nose and air-passages. They are mentioned under 
the sub-bead — *vlntluenza and the salts of the blood." 

This explanation of some of the phenomena of *' taking cold*' should 
serve to give a clear idea of contracting influenza, which apparently, is 
the same as ''taking cold.'* Probably the term might about as well be 
''taking germs." Several factors seem to contribute: First, the germs. 
then either a dusty, windy, cold or otherwise drying atmosphere which 
shall interfere with the mucus in the nose, or by evaporation oauae the 
depositiun of an irritating salt, or an irritating atmosphere which 

* '' PhreiologifltB Btnte that at lieaat a pint of iemm ta poured onl bj the veaDDB alaaiiea of thfl noat oaflk • 
twonty-foBr boofB,-'— C. H^ 6totoeil, M, £>., WanhiiigtCfn, D. C„ in N. Y. Med, Jour., Mar, i, 1590, J». 





THE CAUSATION OP INFLUENZA, ETC. clxxiii 

Like ozone aball oauae some break in the oella of the mocous mem< 
brane, or a paral3^ziog influenoe on tba oilia, euob as a cold atmosphere. 
When all these intlueDoeB oombine, to an unusual degree, epidemio infiu- 
enza reaalts. The evidenoe in the statistioa uf BickneBB and meteorology 
ID MiobigSD seems to prove that this is true; also that any one of these 
influoDoes may be extremely unosual hif itself^ and no very unusual 
amount of iDflaenza ooour. 

Time of Greatest Force of the Epidemic of 1B89-90. 

As showing the foroe with which the reoent epidemio struck various 
Kuropt»an cities, as evidenoed by the mortality from aU causes, also show- 
ing the week in which tb© greatest mortality occurred in each city, which 
may indicate the direction of the movement, I submit a table (1) eshibit- 
ing» by weeks about the time of the epidemio, the reported mortality 
rates in certain European cities, followed by the mortality statements for 
a few American cities, and the weekly sickness-rates in Michigan. The 
week in which the greatest mortality ooourred is indicated by a line drawn 
underneath the Bgures representing the deaths per annum per each thou- 
sand inhabitants. 

Direction of Movement of the Influenza. Possible Explanation. 

Table 1 shows the movement of the wave to have been, in general, 
westward and southward, from 8t. Petersburg where it began about the 
middle of October^ the highest mortality there having been reached in 
the week ending November 30, 1889, This direotion was nearly what 
sbonld have resulted if the disease was carried by the "East wind'' which 
for many years has boen associated, in the minds of many persons, with 
the influenza. The general direction is precisely what it should have 
been if the wind were the same at other places as it was at St. Petersburg 
during a part of the onward progress of the epidemio, namely from the 
Northeast. (I regret that I have not found time to investigate many of 
the other places.) It may be brietly stated here that, in this paper, wind 
and ozone are proved to have causal relations to iniuenza. If the atmos- 
pheric ozone is, as alleged, due in great part to atmospheric electricity, 
and that, as we know, depends greatly upon induenoes reaching this 
earth from the sun, it is easy to see that the variations in the amount of 
ozone must follow the apparent course of the sun— from east to west, and, 
although the movement would encircle the entire earth in twenty-four 
hours, yet if an unusually great electrical disturbance on the sun Gontinued^ 
each succeeding day [would bring to the earth unusual additional electricity, 
accordingly, there would be formed more ozone, which would be exceed- 
ingly increased locally by an east wind which instead of bringing air 
from the Westward where the ozone had been used continuously with- 
out replenishment because of direct solar radiation* for twenty four hours, 
should bring along air in which ozone had just been formed in other parts 
of the world over which the sun has just passed, and where there bad not 
yet been opportunity for the use and destruction of the ozone. The fore- 
going is suggested here for purposes of study in connection with the 
facts exhibited in Table 1, but the subjects of wind and ozone in relation 
to influenza are considered at length further on in this paper. 

* " It k mr oonTiotion that wb«a ■nallffht tnMa apoa aor moiat and oxidable body In tlw preaence of 
tnm okfbbh, cwane ia formod.*'— Pro/. R. C, KetSzig, Annttal Report of the Swretary of the Miehigan State 
Board of Health for 2ff7S, p. IM, whan oxparimanta wbicb led to that oonTictioti, are doflNoribad. 



Ml 1 1 HI 



Ai;rU.-REPOET OP SECRBITABY. 1894. 



;*, } Mfofvmm ^i^Showing the force of the epidemic, 
«iif>'^r4ii<^* indii^aiing the dir^etion of the movefnent 







Inl 


be wee 

iD«!. 

1 2^. 


ka Hfidint. 




urn. 


IfiM. 




Dia. 

7, 


It. 


10. a 


Jan. 
4. 


11. 


Jan. 
IS. 


i3. 


1. 




HI 


U,Z 


1 2s.a ti.i 


29.5 


U.I 


30.4 


».» 




e.fi 


».4 
M.4 , 


S7.1 


g&.l 28, a 27.S 
J^*.£ lfl.9 &5.B 


30.3 




IS.9 
n.9 


m.8 

a.i 




4i.7 




ill 


18.« 


11.7 


+1.4 41.0 17,1 


zo.g 


so.s 


IS.O 


i».i 




».t 


*7.B 


27. 


47,5 ftrO ' 52.2 


27.1 


35.S 


St.5 


81.9 




rs.ij 


21.7 


13.5 


42,^ . mn u.i 


BB.6 


29.0 


3a.5 


84.1 




isJ 


a).6 


21. i 


K,4 


S7.7 32.1 


lfl.2 


2S.4 


2I.E 


22.7 




a.fl 


£3 e ! ^.& 


iiB.T 


4^.0 42.1 


M.I 


M.I 


81.4 


£1,B 




H.7 


1 SI.S 


m.i 


44,11 i W.O 


51.1 


51.1 


47.0 


MA 




. a,it 


i^.'A 1 gi.^ 


n.t 


27,Z 41.1 


3P.£ 


33.7 


£a.2 


t&.t 




2SJ 


2B,a 22.2 


^.i 


32.9 ' 40.3 


44.0 


49.6 


34.8 


n.B 


... 


2T.1 


K1.2 ' w.a 


31.6 


alt. I 4t$.H 


42.4 


30.7 


27.8 


1S.0 




l^.l 


21.2 1 S:0.ri 


2i.» 


i.S.S 1 38.2 


35.B 


30.5 


il.l 


20.1 




ISJ 


Zi.l ' Ifl q 


IBA { 27.4 |j»l^ 


sa.o 


24.7 


is.a 


IS. 8 




19.S 


25.1 ' 27.3 
17.1 i L'^8 


31,2 I 5a.7 


«1.T 


47.5 

bi.8 


S4.S 


9S.4 
lO.I 


2i.l 

31.0 





2,v:! 


3i.j 


fl0.5J 


... 


19.1 


35.7 i«.7 

.1-.,... 


ija.e 


42. S 


W,4 


47.7 
57.1 


U.8 

41.5 


a£.4 


£1.0 




l!I.O 

ie,9 


ii.U ' 24,0 

25 1 1 nil 


ift f* 


2i.O 


?i*.l 

47.S 


08,4 


51. T 


17,1 
33.S 


m.i 

£1,1 




M.4 




23.7 
16,7 
11.5 


11-1 1 21.0 
12.3 1 lA.S 

L 


18.4 
20.2 


24.e 
2a.7 
17.5 


3»,4 


m.i 


BO.S 
SI.S 

4fi.9 , 


«7.4 

SB. 8 


£0.1 
SO.i 

15.4 




381 




flS.l_ 





21. a 


13.3 1 27.8 


is.s 


£7.1 


35.e 


«2,4 


tU.£ 


!&.« 


tt.l 




20.1 


21.6 23.2 


«7.Z 


27,8 




ai.4 
? 

M.4 


43.0 


£8.0 


£2.0 





a.7 


27, r j 2P.0 


30.4 


^IS 


3S.0 


4S.I 


40.0 


m.t 




_, If ooir»tiooed nt tha uma rut* for A yew, woiiid p<];iial in «««li tbcmtuid 
In t2il8 Table. For instwic*. to 8t. Peteraburg In Lh* wwk eDdlns Kot. 10, 
^ of aO.O iw*r tbijOB^Jid InbabitAtits. 

la loiii<!&t(?<l bjr « Uds nodertinRth tb^t blgbest figD»a for tbs loe&lltj. 

ipeak being «hnwD at tb«i top of tb«colarDD. 

_!■ oDlr ai.il pr LSOO (inrintf th» wf^eb «ndiDg NoTerobi-r 2nd, 1S89, einw 

:,,«wa»ect ww'lt by wwk qdiH it rPBchwl 31.2 In tbe w^k (?bditjff December J^lrt, 

... sod farther row t« ilL7 p^r l.COQ darin* the week endiDg Jannary Ith. Tte 

,,,^jTt«poDm£iff porlod of recent yean wat oaJv ^,1 per 1,000; tbe death-rate dor- 

««« tberaforA conMddrabi; mor« thxa donble tbft %v«r*ifo,*'—ffrUUh Medicai 



THB CAUSATION OP INFLUENZA. BTQ clxxv 

TABLE 1.— OoirmrnKD.— Jfortoii^ rates in European eities, etc. 



nummotfsiUm, 


Id tb4 tvMka o&dlJiff, 1 


m». 


tS0O. 


Nor. 
•0^ 


T 




11, 


Dm. 


Jut. 




Jui. 

la 




1. 


RlblftK-,.,-, .... »»..........». ...... 


M.1 
19.1 

l&A 
lA.? 

is.i 

19l7 

£3,8 
UJ6 

U.4 
£1.1 

as.t 
1«^ 

10.1 

lej 
hj ' 


23.S 

28.6 
174 

i«.e 

UJ 

aoLi 

tlJ 
US 

U,B 

2S.4 
17.1 


2L1 
11-7 
ZS.7 
«J 

183 
ITJ 

m,i 
•a,i 

u.s 

«^ 

ia.1 

29,0 
mi 
31.8 
tlJ 


17,S 
M.I 
1^7 
M.S 

ISJ 

XiJ 

US 

u,% 

I7J 

ts,g 
».o 
aaj 

ISJ 
21,3 
£7J 
•tJ 

m.3 


17,0 
M.4 

aT,i 

AS 
28,9 

Si3 
S74 

21.0 
28J 
14^ 
314 
«9J 
t»4 
•Q J 


&0J 

eo.i 

■1,4 

B8.I 
S1,0 
11.6 
43.0 
M.4 
39.0 
livO 

MM 

ta.fl 


52 4 


31.0 
44.9 
14.4 

ifl.l 

M.0 
£8,1 
44.8 
18.7 
HOS 
itl 

9S,0 


27.S 
34.1 
».fi 

L9.2 

ao.« 

8B.7 
1S.0 
%.4 
^.1 
30.S 
41.0 

48.4 

UJ& 
42 jS 

87J 

34.2 
47J 


21M 
27.0 

£ai 

lt.O 
li^ 
314 
SIJ 

1»^ 
».4 
UJf 
28J 

3a.8 

29.« 

18.7 
28.7 
9.1 
2S>£ 
12.6 

au 


tt.8 


Bmmbofc....... -...„.„„,„._,.. 


41.7 


at.1 


^1 


4S.6 
49.0 


Bttitt««rt._. .<„.„.„...„..... „..„,... 


Pnci». *_..*„.„ .^._„. 

Bwtlwi. ....... 

BrOiui.... ....,.„. ...J 


&7J 


31.4 


MS 

64J 
0.1 

64.9 
i9.& 


Tfi-S 


LembsfE..... ......„, 

Qladbwfa. .........J 


47^ 
6fi,9 


Ilf1l«1>mn«m 


714 


llett„„....„„ .„.„... 1 


16.4 


lieBrt«r.....,„„,.„„.._.„„.„,....., 

BottMk ,.,.„. 

AMcbm ..,.-„„_, ....-„-„ — ^„... 

Triart* .„„..„„.. „_„. 


ag.s 
iij 


t7.t 


«l.t 


B8,4 


fit! 





* P&ll Mall Gawtte, London, Deo. », 188B, raporU two oaaes inflnonwu reoently oeeorred at Bedford 
Park. 

t The time of greatest mortality is indicated by a line ondemeath the highest flgaras for the loeality, 
the date of the ending of the week being shown at the top of the oolomn. 



'ATE BOARD OF HEALTH -REPORT OP SECRETARY, 1894. 
TABLE l-'Ck>nnwKD,—Moriulity rates in American Cities. 



Names of Cities and 3Ut«s. 




ISBB, Deevmbar. 


1890. Jaaoary. 




7. 


u. 


2L 


tt. 


4. 


Ih 


|g. 


25. 


Boaton, tfaM.„. „ 

liOwaU, Mbm,. , 

Springfield. Mbm. ,, 


aD.u 

16.12 
7.M 
17-20 
tl.S7 
I7,*t 


19.23 

11 JO 
10.01 

n.»i 

16.110 
18.91 
21.50 
18.17 
tSJl 


lt.U 
10,63 
1«J» 
17.80 
24.10 
15.1« 
16.13 
20.^9 


24.26 
23.36 
3.89 

aj.u 

28.14 

18.28 
16.85 
21.70 
20.60 
19M 


29.16 

10.51 

a>.48 

23.74 
2*.M 
1B.28 

lfi.96 

22.27 

ifiie 


IS.2g 
24.00 
32.55 
30 » 
28.75 
18.00 
17.26 
80 31 
2B.83 
21.68 


61.7,1 


38.78 

20.20 
20.71 


3682 
43.03 


33J8 

SS.U 
SUB 
22JI 
41.78 
18JD 
32.02 
25J3 
IMI 
28JS 

j8 


13.98 

atr.os 

38.96 
Sl.M 


36 81 


18-21 oitiee ia Maes. 


28 20 

«».a4 

17.40 
27.76 
28.40 
2fl.44 
28^ 
t 


Lawrane«. Maaa 

BnffaJo,, N. Y. „_..„.,_„,, 

Baltimore, Md. .„. 

N©w York City ,._ , . 


21.W 
46.54 
3B.19 


37.59 
35.88 
13.71 


BrookJjn, N. Y 

ClBTelaad. Ohio „ 

Chicago. 111.,, „. ..,„,„ „, 


ts.oa 


28.£5 




StatBof Michigan. StfcJfcn«*« ... , 


•3« 


11 


» 


86 


18 


77 


82 


OS 


06 





k 



IT . 

t A record of the death-rate of the citjr of Chfoa^o bjr waaka. doriiiff Cha jreara 1880-00, waa not pobliabad, 
bat in the report of the Department of Health For the year 1890, pa««a &-tl« It ia itated of the epidamie thai 
" It reached itn height in onr oltr the laat w««k nf Jannary^ at whioh time my belief is that orer ona btm- 
dred thonaand of onr ckiuns were vnfiTerf^rH from that eaaae alone.*' •*««••' It oontiDaed to 
prevail during FehrnaiTi March and April, bat in a inodified decree. I do not believe that any freab 
oconrred after the 6.rni of Majr. Its dnmtioti woh aboaf. fnnr months. The deaths dirtctty attribated to 
it by the attendiug phi siciBne, as shown by the certificate's, were one hunfirrd and fwe/w." 

The popnlation of I'hicTBiro at this time waa 1,200.000, and the death-rate for the entire year l^^tf) vta 
IS.L'a, B Hliight iacr«&sri over the prnvloQA year. 

DnrlnfT the month of January, \>>W^ the deaths in Chica^ro from cooanroption, pnenmonia and bronchitis 
were very mnch greiiter than in any JaDoary in the ynara 18.'il-t88Sli, and it m^y fcm addf^ for any aob— QOiBt 
years np to and inolndlog .Janaary, 1^^4, ae shown h> the pabllfhed r^cordn of the> Health DepartttMQt of 
the city. The dieathe from eonaamption and bruDchltie wnre nearly doable tiiat of au j .Tano&ry In the 
preoediDiT 1890. and the deaths from pnenmonia over three times as r 
statement made on pa^elcIxriL, with respect to the relation of these and othi^r cold weather di 
prevalence of Infinenza. 



Teat, a strikinff iJlostratloo of the 
to the 



Meieorologicfil OimdiiiGns, tun I Inffitefiza, 



In 1852, the Sydenbam Sooiety, id London, publisbed the *'AnDalfl of 
InflueBza ♦ ♦ * in Great Britain from 1510 to 1837, prepfired aod 
edited by Theopbilae ThompHon, M. D., F. R. S., eta*' 

Tbeae AntialB review about tweDty epidemics or '^viBitatione" as they 
were called. These are desoribed by several authors, but the series of 
articles is edited, and a smDmary is prepared, and I abstraot, mostly from 
the eummary, (pages 367^372) what I oonsider to be the principal faota as 
to the meteorological conditions which were believed to have relation to 
the Influenza,* naming first the year of the epidemic, then its alleged 
oonree, and a brief reference to the observed and recorded meteorological 
oonditions^ as follows: — 

* Ueteora. oarthcinakes and many other eondltions are tuiined, bnt It ia proi>Br to ezcttida them ban, 
thift beinir an attempt to leam whether or not anch cansee aa cold, wind, etc,, which have lonx been gwh- 
erally b«*li«ved to enstain a cansal relation, were sctaally present in each epidemic. Cold ia, 1 believe, a 
** fruc cau*e " if ' ' pi^t^pnt and acting/' To what extent it was ^' proiftent and acting ^' may be inferred from 
the brief roferen©ee which I have her© collected. Some inveeti^tore and compUere seem to ifrnore thces 
facta whioh are so comTnon ae to be in the poeeee^^ion of the GommoQ people ; tiiey arak for aome oocolt 
4»nAe. It does notn therafore. leesen the value of thf> evkieoce of this table that the comptlor of tiM 
"ADnals of InflaeDza."' from which the data in tbie table are taken, did not himseif seem to reeoffoisa tbs 
fnll force of the evideoce he presented relative to the ioBneaee of cold, espeeiaUy when eoddenly follow- 
ing heat, in the (Mmaatlon of inflnensa. 





THE CAUSATION OP INFLUENZA, ETC. 



clzxvii 



TABLE ^.—Injluenza — Years of Epidemiea, Course^ Season of Year, Meteorological 
Condit 10719^ Aswciated DUeaseet etc. 



i 



y«ar. 


Ooone. 


ammm of Yasr, Metaorolosie*! Comiitlooa. eie. 


IfilO....... 


North'WWterly..... ....^. 


1 Pr«G«l«d br lonff-ix}Dtiiiiied moiitarn ; foLlomd b7 remark- 
1 &bl« ttorttid. (8m book.) 




I«7 


Wmtmlw ..— - 


1 ** The diamse cottimooood in Oetobar, «ft«r » month of imnwlly 




iMa 


Tawwd vert •ad oortb.. 


i *' It oontmeoMd in Oetobur, %fm a eold dry mmd " "M«wle» 
1 sad •Dum-gmz apwodllT followed." 






r*' In April, ia the midst of a wloterlr «piiii«," ** North wind 
eoDUonAlly blowing." • • • " The north wind M>in«- 

J timn l«w«eDiDg, then* woald b# ft day or two vt«ry bot be- 

] iweao," *■ No on© li>inif coald remember each a paar, for 
#itberezoess both of heat aad cold." " Ici r.he»Timmer«aiMfW 

L f«»«r affeotlac the ' brain and aarroat rtook,* " 




1676 _ 


— 


f" in Autumn, after pnoireDt fogH, and [iiiiddAC] fp. 171 oold 
moiat weather, falluwlnK a hot Bammer."' (For Bfdenham'i 
view of canaatioa, see pp. Ifi-lt, Anoala,) "Smali-pox 

L shortly followed." lp.369.) 


l«l 


,„.„„„,„„.., _. 


fin NoT«tDber. after moderately warm weather, npon aaow 
J falling, inddealy It Rrew eztromely cold, socceeded by a fcrw 
daja of vary hard Iroata, wherenpon tba apfdamio aeisad 
1 L «rmt- nofflbere of all eorta of people, (p. St.) 


1710. „„.. 




( •* /« th0 Spring • • • preceded by a Iodi-c on tinned, 
I mteoee «roat." (p. 369,) 






nm 


- 


f "AftiT a rainy November with hi^h tidee." (p. 389.) "The ft. 

and S, W. winds blowiQ« pxtrflmftly hard.*" (p. BO.) "In 
\ Decemh^r the ooogha fever, and amall-poi contioned epi- 

demlr. itnd maniacal disorders more CreqtieaC than naoal."^ 
I (p. 11.) 


im-i. 


8oatb«rly .„ „ 


C'in England. during a damp chilly tpring/' (p. SOO.) Feb> 
\ rtiary and Mareh. <p. a2-3.) At Edinbarth in Nofi'mher 
( and Decern bafi and among horsee In October. 

i Following ■'acraat drought." Fog». (p. 36) *' la Febniary. 
< rheomatic acHl pleoritio ferera enooeeded to the onkla.'* 

I (P.«.) 


Wtat4irlj, from Q«rDiaDF, 


17f7-8 




rThe diMiBo oommeneed in Novenib^r, *' Though the N. B. 
and N. W. winda kept the barometer np throngh the firat 
part of the month, yet did they not In the leant dry the air/' 
Ip. 33.} " The chief caoee appaara bo me to Jie in the thick, 

L damp, ohilly dlipoeltioa.*' (p. M.) 










f"In Febraary^ 1738, ooogha and anginas wera Tery oommon 
amongit horaee." • * '* Many poraona dwindled away in a 
palmonarT cottiqmption, occasioned by the catarrhal fever 
improperly treated, which waa rife in * * Nov. and De- 

L oember/' (p. 87.) 


lTtt.„.-.. 


. _...„ 


C •' Oecorred in the 8pring." •♦ Breat atmospheric vioissitodee. 
i In 1148. very eevere eaaterly wlnda for montha before the ▼!«- 
( iiation." 




clzxviii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPOKT OF SEORBTABT, 180L 
TABLE 2.— CoKGLUDSD.— Jn/{«en«a, Epidemic Yean, Coune, Seammt etc. 



Epidemio 
year. 


Goorw. 


SeaM>n of Year. Meteorological Condltlona, a«e. 


1758 


Imgalar . ... 


< "Commenced in September, daring eaaterlj winda.** "A» 
( anaanaiprendenoeofeaateriywlnda,batak7olaar.** (p.flOD 




nen 




("Commenced in September, after aavora and YarteUa 
weathM-.** " Uneommon Tioiaeitiidfla of heat and ooUL" 
(p. 870.) 






1787 




" Raged in Jane and Jaly, after cold weather.** 






1775 


Wertwly 


"Prerailed daring a wet Antamn." ** Sodden obangea of tan- 
peratare. Thick noisome foga.*' "Thia epidemto waa fol- 
lowed by diarrhea." 


1782t 


f Westward from aea betiteea 

Mala4X» and Canton, 

i tbrooch Bowla, Denmark 


" Perhape the moet widely diffoaed of all reoocded TJattatfon^ 

of n^remarkabiy late, thraf ^oomy. cold, homid, with oe- 
. caaiooal dry fogs, and peeoliar Btorma.** (p. 871.) 




1808 


Northward 


f" Preceded by epidemic diarrhea.** " Narth^eat ^^^n^^B^ 
L animals." 




1811 


From China, in a year.. 


" In Jane, after great Ticiasitadea of weather.** 


1818 




" In April, after damp weather, soeceeding to oold.** 







1836 




{^fSf^rsiS^^jssi.'^'^r'^*^"'''*'^ 


• 
1837 


? .. - . 


( " Beached London in Jannary, after gnat homidilv. and eoa- 
. Blderable atmospheric Ticissitadea. Those moat ezpoeed to 
the weather most scTerely attacked.'* (p.l7L) 








f" Great depreesion of temperatare between the SSnd and SMh 
of December-* faU of 25«F. in three days. Thia dapcaaskai 
waa cansed or accompanied by a change of wind from weak 
or north-north-west to north-north-eaat. On the »th the 
wind blew a sale from the latter point, and dnrinc the time 
sabeeqoent days a very annspal qoantity ofsnow fdl, Oft- 
equaled in thia country for daratton, sererity and extant.** 
• • " On the 2nd day of January, the Infloenn appeared la 
London • * and it waa general throoghoot the ooonta 

L on the 7th. or at farthest on the 10th.*' (pp.8U-a.) 


1870. 
Michigan. 




rinflaena was epidemic in Michigan in the apiin« of UH, 
eighty-one per cent of all weekly reporta of afelrneeB dmiag 

present. The atmoepheric temperatare waa lower tiua 
. usoal in January and February.* 




1889. > 
InSt.Fe- 
tenbnrs. 


Weatward and loatharly 


Bemarka below. 


1800. 
Michigan. 







ibaequent page will show the tacts. Dia^ 
fThe remarkable meteorological oonditiona in St. Petersburg in thia 
on, under the snb-head **Atmoapherlo Humidity and Influenaa." 



THE CAUSATION OF INFLUENZA, ETC. 



clxxit 



I believe that the epideroia rise of iDBneDza in St. Peteraburg beoame 
eapeoially notioeable in the last two weeks of Ootober, athoogb oasea have 
Bince been remembered which ooonrred before that time.* I am indebted 
to the Chief Signal OflBoer of the United States for interesting meteoro- 
logical data which have aided me in my study of tbia subject. The pre- 
vailing wind in St Petersburg in October ia West and Sooth. f In 
October, 1889, the prevailing wind was Efisi and South; and from the 
17th to the 25th of October the wind was East or Easterly at every iri~ 
daily obsef^'ation and at every mid day observation except one it was also 
northerly. By studying the map of that oonntry, I find that it mast 
make a great difference in the atmoephere at St. Petersburg whether the 
wind for several days brings air from the usual Southwesterly direotion, 
from Germany* Austria^ and Italy, or as it did about the time of the 
epidemic riee of influenza in 1889, from nortbero Siberia and the Arctic 
ocean. The wind was not especially strong except on October 8, and 
23 when it was fifteen, on October 10 when it was sixteen, and 
October 22 when it was eighteen miles an hour. This wind on 
October 22 and 23 rapidly lowered the atmospheric temperature, and very 
remarkably lowered the humidity. This had been preceded by unusually 
warm weather, the entire month of October, 1889 averaging 44.4'; 
while the average October temperature there is 40. 1\ 

About the time of the epidemic rise of influenza in St Petersburg, 
then, a warm moist atmosphere was succeeded by a cold dry wind, sweep- 
ing down from northern Siberia and the Arctic ocean, and continuing for 
over a week. Can anyone imagine conditions more favorable for the 
increase of influenza? 

The meteorological conditions described ss having occurred at St. 
Petersburg about the ITth to the 25tb of October, 1889, viz., cold, dry 
wind sweeping down from Northern Siberia and from the Arctic Ocean, 
were sufficiently antecedent to the time of the greatest mortality in that 
city, wbiob reached its highest point in the week ending November 30. 
to be entitled to be considered as having a caosal relation to the epidemic. 

The attention of the whole civilized world has been attracted to 8t 
Petersburg, Bussia, as the source of this epidemic of influenza. Aooord- 
ingly, it seemed to be important to ascertain the meteorological conditions 
there. The result is what might have been expected by a close student 
of epidemiology. 

To the writer, however, it seems probable that St Petersburg has been 
accepted as the source of the influenza in this epidemio, and in some of 
the preceding epidemics, simply for the reason that the eastern places 
suffered slightly earlier than places to the westward, and as St. Peters- 
burg is about the eastern limit of civilization there was no oommunioa- 
tion from any place east of it. So far as relates to mortality statistics, 
this seems to be the truth; but it is stated that: *'Tbe epidemic was 
first noticed in Tomsk an important oommeroial town of Central Siberia- 
separated by nearly 2,000 miles from St. Petersburg^about October 15th, 
that is to say, at the very time when the epidemic was beginning to 
develop with rapidity in St. Petersburg. *' J 

«Britiflh Med. Jour., Jul. 4, UOO. flsj*: *' The flnt oaaas roooffoliMl ia Borope won ol)M(rT««l Id St. Pet«ra- 
hwrn aboat October IS, and oj NoT«mb«r Li it •eemt to bavft ipraid oror ntvly the whoti of BnropflCL& 
Rauia." 

tAT. Telocity. In kilometen. = N. S7.3; E. 108.2; B. 706.6: W. tUX 

tBritieh M edicftl JoonuJ. Jan. 4, 1800, p««e 40. 



clxxx STATE BOARD OP HEALTH.— REPORT OP SECRETARY, 1894. 

Table 1, of this article, demoDatrates that the epidemio oanaed mon 
deatha in acme places in preoiaely the aame week aa it did in other plaoae 
tboasanda of milea to the westward; aa, for instanoe, in LondoD and ia 
oitiea in Masaaohusettfi in the week ending January IL It ia poaaible 
however, and, h'om the data, it aeema probable, that if the deatha wer« 
compiled bj days instead of by weeks, a movement westward and eoDth« 
ward would be apparent. In some of the preceding epidemioa it bae 
been recorded that the rate of movement was about that of travel bj 
means of horses. That would be at about the same rate as the average 
velocity of the wind near the earth's surface. It is worthy of remark, in 
connection with the occurrence of the epidemio at Tomsk, nearly 2. GOO 
miles east and south from St, Petersburg, about October 15, 1889. that 
my Table 4 shows that during the first eight days in October the wind 
at St. Petersburg was from the direction of Tomsk, — "East and South. " 
From the table supplied by the U. S. Signal Service, it appears that 
the average velocity of the wind on those days was eleven and one- 
quarter miles per hour. And the wind may have been from that 
game direction previous to October 1: and it is a fact that at a higher 
elevation than anemometera are usually placed the movement of the air in 
winds is at a much greater velocity*, so that during the first eight days in 
October there was probably opportunity for the germs of induenza to paai 
from Tomsk to St. Petersburg, if suoh germs can reach and be oarried by 
the higher currents of the atmosphere, and continue to remain viralent 
Similar remarks might, probably, apply to other oitiea and countries. 
But, if the view of the writer of this paper is correct, it is not necessary 
to assume that the germs were oarried, by the wind or in any manner, 
except to localities where the meteorological conditions were not such as 
to favor the occurrence of the epidemic, because there are no places of 
considerable size that are free from the germs of the disease. In such 
places as were free from them the disease probably did not occnr except 
the germs were brought by visitors or by the winds. In all large cities, 
however, all that is required is that the atmoapherio conditions shall be 
those which for centuries have been recognized as causal, by careful 
observers. The Italians were correct when they named thia disease 
**Infiueoza*' implying that it was the result of the surrounding uiftuencei. 
Hippocrates was right when, in his work on Airs, Waters and Places, he 
set forth the fact that cold and damp weather produces diseases of the 
respiratory organs.! But in order to place the subject on a scientific 
basis, numerous facts must be placed upon record. The writer regrets 
that he has not investigated aad recorded in this paper the meteorolog- 
ical conditions at each of the large cities at the time of and just precede 
ing the epidemic of 13S9-90. That wjrk remains to be done, for this 
epidemic and for succeeding ones, in order to convince the skeptical. 



(Copy.) 

Mo. 1 O. Hac., laOO. gabjoct:— Wind at St, PetAnbiuy, BaaaiA. 

8ta5AL OrncK, Was DcPAsnmrr, t 
WoMKiitgttm Cittt Januanf M, M90* l 

i>r. H. B. Baker, Secretary State SiMrd of BeaUh. Lonting, MicMoan : 

Bib:— Bepljriiitf to foor reqaaat of th» 31 Initant for the normal and the mvmmg9 wind vttloeitf At 8t» 
Pataribcirs, BoMda, for ■ f»w mioatht past, I beg to enoloM, her«with, a tabla of 15-7«ar oortna] hoorlr 

* Kzp«riment« at Ltanainit, Mleh.t iodicBtfl that whnraaB above and nwr th« tr>p of a thrae-story boild- 
{ny tbe wiad HTorniErecl for b Blngle fmr fivit (5.1) mile* an htmr. aboire the roof of tbe State Capitol (foor 
atnriM hi«rh) the wind avora^ve nearlr twice as mnob, oamsljr 93 mllM par hour. 

t Th« iaflMnoae of dryaeaa. wisdi oaone and dott hxn smsniU; b«Mi OTsrlooked. 



THE CAUSATION OF INFLUENZA, BTC. clxxxi ^| 


•ad dAllf wiad vttloeUlM for Ootobet and NoT«mber. exproeaed in kilomoUan per boar, 41ik> a table ^H 
ahowinc for Ootober and November, 18^9>, the daily temperatore, pareentege of ralatlTe hamidity, wind ^^^ 
dlracdoD and force at St. Petersbnrff. ^^M 
The foroe of the wind by Belf-ragisterlng anemometer is Dot pabtiahed In the BaUetlns of the Phyeloal ^^H 
Central Obeervatory, from which the hut named Ubte was oompiled, and I am therefore anable to give It ^^M 
to yoa except ae ezpniaeed by the Beaafort aeale. The normal wind direction et 8t, Peterebarr fot Oeto- ^H 
ber and Norember U 8. S. W. ^H 

Very reepeetfally, ^^H 

(W. A. G.) ^H 

A. W. G&MZLT, ^^M 

3 Moloenree. Chir/ Sigital Officer. ^^| 


TA BLE 3.— ^wrage velocity of the wind at St PeterBburg, Rutsia, from the N., E., 8 
and W.foT each hour of the dajf, expressed in kilomeiera per hour for each month.* 


I 


Hoot of the day* 


Oeiober. 1 


Nofember. 


1 


N. 


B. 


B, 


w. 


N. 


e; 


S. 


w. 


la-m _. 


m.% 


91.5 


aDft.8 


178J 


97J 


1064 


248^ 


au.8 


la.ni......„ 


«7.S 


97,« 


201.1 


IflO^ 


98.4 


106.8 


258.8 


210.8 


^M 


_ 8 a. m«, „-._.. 


04.4 
Ml 

gft.4 

98,1 

9».t 


OT.l 
fl&4 
98.9 

101.7 


194.4 
£00.1 
199.1 

206,t 


180.8 
176.2 
1?6.7 
17L9 
181J 1 


98.3 
98.2 
108.2 

100.0 
104.5 


104.2 
106 7 
107.1 

110.4 
115.3 


852.4 
251.1 
aiS.9 
2S8.6 

258.6 


807.2 
809.3 
205J 
800.0 
198.8 


1 


1 4..0. 


f 

5 ■• ni...,,, ... ..*.. 


6 a. m *...... . 


7a.in ._.....„. 


8a-m _ 


W.4 


105.2 


m.i 


197.7 


104 J) 


119.9 


254J 


190.a 


^M 


i a*in......j, „. 


100.ft 

101.0 

ioa.4 

104 8 


104, A 
104.4 
lOIJl 

ioa.7 


Z15.S 

221.0 
£334 
2i!9.7 


196.9 
214.0 

826.7 
256.7 


104.7 
101.0 
101.1 
102J 


128.2 
121.8 

laao 

U6.9 


SS0.8 
880.0 
288J 
888.7 


196.9 
802.0 
2096 
218.1 


1 


1 10 a. in,. 


11 a. m.. 




1 Pi Olt 


OT.6 
103.1 
104,7 
06.ft 
«S.4 
ft2jS 
W,9 
00.& 


1028 
90.7 

ioe.8 

108.3 
IU.0 
UQ.B 

lOO.O 


229.2 
218 9 
206.8 

m.9 

186.8 

184.2 
19^2 


274.5 
879.9 
278.4 
255.2 
255.8 
288.7 
210.1 
198.0 


96.2 
98.5 
99.7 
99.8 
98.7 
104^ 
lOSJ 
106.9 


11X4 
110.8 

IW.O 
U5.1 
116.3 
116.5 
110.7 
105.8 


280.2 

283.6 \ 

25L0 

256.9 

2&7.4 

258.8 

856.7 

258.8 


2281 
880.8 
228.9 

218.8 
214.9 
217.7 
106.0 
810.7 


1 


lp.aiL. 


Sd. ID<..... 


ip.iiu . 


fip.m ..„ 


ff p. tn. 


7 p. m.. , 


»p, m 




80.1 
«2.9 


107.8 
103.7 


201.3 
21L0 


189.2 

188.0 


108.6 
110.7 


102.7 
106.9 


855.8 
256.5 


ao8J 

205.8 


I 


10 p. m.. 


Lt p. DO.. ,. 


96.8 

oa.9 


10S.6 
lOfi.7 


809.9 
210 4 


182.2 

184.9 


102.8 
104.1 


99.4 
102.0 


254.0 
245.9 


806.6 
807.6 


1 


It p. m. 




Ummnm 


97.8 


mi 


mff 


218.6 


101.9 


1U.8 


255.8 


809.6 




0. S. mpiaJ Office. WiebiDgton, D, C. Jan. 1% IS90. 

• " FifteeQ-yoar normal hoarly and daily wind Telocitiee for October tod November, eipieuad In kilo 
metereber hoar. '*- Letter JVow Otn. A. iV. Greely, 

m 


1 



clxzxii STATB BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF 8ECRETABY, 1894. 



TABLE ^.—Atmotpherio temperature, and Direction and VelooUif of the Wind^hn 
tri-daUy obeervations at 8t Petersburg, Russia, October and November, 1889, * 



Ootober. 



PraTailing direotlon of wind. 



Sontheesterly t 

Ea»t«rlyt 

BoatbeMterlyt 

do t 

Easterly 

BoatheastorJy 

do 

Eaeterlj 

WeBtorly 

Soatheriy. 

do 

Westerly 

Boathweeterly 

Soatheasterly 

Soath-sontheastorly. 

Westerly 

Northeasterly 

Easterly 

Soatheasterly 

Easterly 

East-northeasterly.. . 
do 

Easterly 

East-northeasterly.. 
Easterly ft northerly. 
Northerly & westerly 
North-northwesterly 

Southwesterly 

Southerly 

Boatherly A westerly 
Northwesterly 



dummary.% 
B.-. 


in 


8. E. . 


K 


W 

8. 


R 
5 


N. E 


4 


N „:::::::::::::: 


8 


N.w. ..:..::::::::. 


2 


S.W 


2 



East and 
south. 



South- 
west. 



VSouth- 
) southeast. 



West. 



-East and 
north. 

Southeast. 



^Esst and , 
I north. < 



J 

i North and 
) west. 



^ South and 
west. 

Northwest. 



At. Temp, 
for Oot., 
1889 

Mean Temp, 
for Oct., 
121 years. 







AT. 

Temp. 


Av. Te- 
locity 

of 
wlndl 


62.8» 


18t 


81.8» 


8t 


69.6* 


18t 


56.1* 


I8t 


54.6 


11 


52.4 


8 


56.2 


8 


585 


15 


51.4 


8 


6tJ 


16 


57.4 


18 


52.0 


10 


56.0 


6 


54.9 


8 


58.4 


10 


52.9 


7 


49.9 


5 


45.0 


13 


U.9 


8 


44.8 


8 


41.1 


6 


86.6 


18 


29.0 


15 


28.5 


11 


28.1 


4 


26.7 


7 


^.4 


U 


82.9 


4 


29.8 


11 


85.8 


10 


30.1 





44.4 




40.1 









NoTember. 



PreTailioff direotlon of wlad. 



Easterly A northerly. 

Southeasterly 

do 

Southerly.. 

Southeasterly 

Southerly 

Southerly & easterly. 

Soatiierly 

East-northeasterly.. . 
North-northweetwly 

do 
Westerly A northerly 

Southerly. 

Westerly. 

do 

do 

North-northeasterly 
Southerly A westerly 

Westerly 

West-north westsrly 

Westerly 

West-northwssterly 
West-southwssterly. 
Westerly A southerly 
SonUierly A Treeterly 

Southerly. 

Southerly A westerly 
Southerly A easterly. 

Southerly. 

Westerly A northerly 



Summary.% 

W 14 

8 12 

N 6 

E 4 

N.W 4 

8.E 8 

N. E 2 

S. W 1 



East and 
north. 



^- Booth and 



Basfe- 
nortl 

-North and 
west. 

South. 

-West. 

North, 
northeast. 
Southwest. 



West and 
north. 



At. 
Temp. 



At, 

Km 



South and 



South 



West and 
north. 



At. Traiip. 

for Not., 

1889 

MeanlWp. 

for Not, 

181 



28.9 

n.6 

S.7 
8BJ 
iSA 

40J 

aB.4 

UA 

n.1 

lt.6 
tS.8 
S7.4 

mja 

84.1 

8tj6 
».S 
40.0 
87.8 
88.4 
88.8 
40.4 
•7.B 



8B.1 
88.8 

89.1 



-J 



88.8 



* Compiled from three tebles. supplied by the U. S. Signal SerTioe, 
Physioal Central ObserTatory, St. Petersburg, Russia." 



'Copied from tlM 



Of tte 



Two obserTations only. 

Yelooity expressed in miles per hour. 

The Domh^Af times in which the wind preTailsd from saoh of eight pointe at tbmi 



THE CAUSATION OP INFLUENZA. ETC. olxixiii 



Winds and the Causation of Influenza and Allied Diseases, 

It IB apparent, I think, to aoy one who will examine the hiatoriea, that 
epidemlos of indaeoza frequently, perhaps generally, follow winds. The 
tables and diagrams whiob I present herewith prove that increase in 
inBnenza generally follows inoreaae in the wind*. In England the records 
not infrequently mention east winds, Winds probably oontribtite to the 
oansation of indaenza in several wayst^l. By oausitig a general drying 
of everything. (The drying influence of wind is well-known to all women 
who hang clothes out of doors to dry.) Unless saturated with iDaistnre, 
air win absorb it from moist sarfaoes, and then, if when saturated, that 
air ia moved on, and is replaced by air not saturated, the drying prooeaa 
continues so long as the wind continues. The relative humidity of the 
atmosphere is generally greatly lowered after high winds. When the 
wind comes to ns from a place colder thao ours, its drying powers are 
observed to be especially great, its moisture has been cooled out of it 
(fallen as rain or enow) leaving the air dry. abaolntely. The inhalation 
of snch cold dryf air is followed by induenza. That this is true of 
ordinary non-epidemic induenza is proved beyond question by the tables 
and diagrams whiob I present with this paper, and which include observa- 
tions extending through many years*. Other evidence in this paper 
proves, to my mind, that epidemic, influenza generally follows the inhala- 
tion of cold air. This is proved by Table 2, pages clxxviiolxxviii, and is 
graphically shown, for the epidemic in Michigan in 1879, in Diagram 8, 
page olxv. 

My belief^ (baaed upon evidence some of which is presented herewith) 
ia that one important reason why oold air causes influenza (and allied 
diseafles) is because it abstracts moieture undnly from the moist mucous 
membrane of the air-passages. This action is intensifled by the wind. 

2. Probably, wind may contribute to the causation of influenza and 
allied diseaseSf by chilling the sorfaoe of the body, stopping insenaible 
peispiration, leaving more salts and excretory products to be excreted by 
the kidneys and lungs, especially as, by the drying eGfeot on the upper 
Bir-passages, an abnormal flow of fluids is required to go there in order to 
maintain the moisture essential to the performance of function. Possibly 
the acrid character of the discharge from the nostrils may be due, in part, 
to substances which normally pass oat of the body through other channels. 

3, I think it probable that winds contribute to the causation of influ- 
enza and allied diseases by bringing to the air-passages of parsons^ in 
proportions greater than common, the vartoiis micro-orgamsfns found in 
these diseases. It is now well known that these mioro-arganiems* such as 
the varieties or species of stapkiflococcns ptfogenes, are to be found in the 
mouths of a very considerable proportioa of people generally J, and this, 
I think, accounts for the fact that a considerable proportion of the people 
will have influenza on exposure to audden changes in certain meteorolog- 
ical conditions; but it has been proved by observation and experiment 

*Tbo t&hlea Are {printed At th« cioA'a of thie paper, bat the diazrame are not all reprodoiced, only thd 
twadiaga of aome of them beiog prinbed to iuiiroate tha natare and extent of the material itadied. Plataa 
79Tt 708 aod 7lM^, pa^iea foliofpiss, exhibit the ralationaof wind, hamiditf and temparaCiire lo iQflaeiisa 
In MiohiAiui* 

t Atr mai be to aatnrated with moisture at a low temperatare aa to appear aa foe, yet ita absolate 
homidlty ia aliMl^it, becanBe cold air cannot ooataln mach water 

t The proportlotia ftre stated od pa«e olxx of thii article, tmder tha sub-head '* Fathosenio Miaroo^gan- 
tama In the Monthi of Me&lthj lodiTldnaia,*' 



clxxxiv STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.^REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1891 

that the number of these micro •organ is ma in the atmosphere is greater in 
time of wind than in atill air*. It has been found that when the wind 
oomefl from an //»i«swai direotlon their number ie etill more inoreaaed,t 
Perhaps tbie faot may well be remembered in oonneotion with the fact 
that in England the records of epidemios of inHaenza show tbem fre- 
quently perhaps generally to have been preoeded or Booompanied by ed 
East windj as waa the oaee in the recent epidemio in Russia, But wind 
from ani/ direotion may bring more "germs" to those who have them 
already, and some to those who had them not, and bring them to air- 
paBsagea wbioh the oold wind has made "raw'\ as it is sometimes 
expreeeed, and wbioh are thereby made a suitable place for their repro- 
dnction and entrance into the body. 

4. Wind may favor the causation of iniluenza and allied diseaaea by 
increasing the thoroughness of ventilation of dwellings^ cities and vil- 
lages, removing air containing oxidizable snbetanoes, and sabatitoting 
air containing ozone, which is a powerful osidizer not usually found in 
occupied rooms, When artificially prepared and inhaled, it is a strong 
irritant to the air passages. As shown by the diagrams which I present, 
the curve repTesenting atmospheric ozone bears a general resemblance 
to the curve repreeenting influenza. It should be noticed, however, that 
there are instances where the change in the ozone did not occur until 
after the change in the intiuenza, indicating that o7,one is not always the 
controlling cause of inMuenza, although probably it usually contributes 
towards its causation. The action of tbe ozone, at least upon our teata, 
is apparently in great part controlled by the temperature, humidity, and 
movement of the Bit^—inJlHtnces which apparently also control the influ- 
enza; and to this fact ** Influenza'* owee its name, having been so named 
by the Italians, who as long ago as in the sixteenth century, were wise 
enough to recognize the faot that tbe disease waa due to atmospheric 
influences. 

5. Tbe relations of wind and of ozone to influenza are dealt with under 
the sub-bead ** Direction of movement of the influenza* \ page clxxiii, also 
under tbe sub-bead "The Disappearance of ozone in the human air- 
passages. * * 

6. [Since this paper was read, the wind has been mathematically demon- 
strated to have very great influence in the causation of mortality from one 
disease allied to influenza, that disease being the most impoitant one now 
afHicting mankind, and one which might not^ by moat people, be Buepected 
of sustaining such a relation; I refer to consumption. Diagrams 1 and 
5, prepared to illustrate a paper read before the American Climatological 
Association, at its meeting in Denver, Colorado, in September, 1890, 
demonatrate that atmospheric temperature has in general a very close 
relation to the mortality from consumption, and that tbe variations from 
an apparent controlling influenoe of the temperature were all in that 
instance apparently due directly or indirectly to the wind. The evidence 
is so remarkable, complete, and convincing, that thase two diagrams are 
printed here with, on following pages.] 

• Jour. Lm. M^d. 4Be<M^., Vol. 16, p. 341, whore i« TOpcwted iplittervatioQA hs Prof. Roater, of FlordD^e* 
who Bays: When the wind ia q& the sea the aambor of b&ot«Fi& is enormoaur {tecreussd. 

t It U not dlQicQlt to tiiidgiftt*Dd why this le a<r.— da»t that ia depoilted while the wind oontitinf:* ia 
the qbiulI dire€tioa !■ qnite liable to be diitarbed bj wind from the opposite direction. 





THE' OASUATION OP INFLUENZA, ETC. 



clxxxv 



Jto A— C cn^iArrrpt tctv, and Oetnperature tn Coio fa do . 




^E the Scale increosts dowrtwards) 



on of deaths 
jfirS ra ge J?fmoS - 
curing reyerjied. 




B ecfth\s 



Jiueraqt ^ty nospheiric Jem^f^t^rd. — — .. 



^Jhe Jemps^aturB curve n^^fjenis th£. JJuerajf for a parted cf /6- 
ucarJjnlfiy.J^eda/nariJrom ihe Heooris o/the CfittJ StgnalOf^ 
/ice r^Ti.S J^e curutforBeaihsJrom cun^^dmption rrftestntt the deatis 
occur r in Q in Cc^graah du n rtgthe ce nju^ i^gm l$7tf, injienve r dv rlnqigBf^ 
jw Ceioraao Jprtngs and in M«uidfr durtng a long jeri£6 of ifiOT^S. 




olxzXTi STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SBGRBTARY, 18M. 



Jf0. X ^ Coi/tsa mpit cn^tLMd %isci ttf &f the Wlttd in Mo ta d^ . 

■T-T . * 

:§ .[ S*f 9nei^ih4 ^i&eh *n€ftie 30 dtrifs) ihe re/atton of 

^X\dffi£y ^vfr'agf Vfiocittf £ij ihi Tf^i'ffdt 



If 




^Bepth^ if€ loci ty c/ tAe Wth d 

*SAe curve for consumpticn represents t^e deaths occurring tnCol" 
orado during ihe censuq ytf«'' /^^O, i n Bert ver during iSSf, in Coio- 
rado Springj and in ^oujaerfor a lon^ series of yearfi. 
^Jhe curve Jor velocity of the wind represents the datjg eiHrage. 
for /6 years, IT72. ^7, at Denver^ Colorado. J^e data u/asULp 
pl/ed Jbtf Sergt ^ff^illigan, U.d' Signal Service JOen»eK Colorado. 



THE CAUSATION OP INFLUENZi, ETC. 



clxxxvii 



It raoet be admitted^ however, tbst it Ih often much eaBier to reoogniBe, 
in oature, a reiatioD of oause and effect, than it is to establieb ou a eound 
scieDti6o basis the fact of the existenoe of suoh a relation; and tbie last 
ifl the work involved in this present paper, to which wideaproad beliefs 
oontribote something of value, even when the underlying evideDoe whioh 
oaused them oannot be obtained* 

One of the most remarkable inataDoes, however, of the statement of 
what is probably a true relation of cauie and effect between ozone and 
influenza oocnrred in the United States before any systematic observa- 
tions of ozone bad been made in this country, and, although possibly 
based upon the views of a foreigner who bad studied ozone very oarefully, 
it is remarkable that a number of medical reporters in the State of Minne- 
sota should have come to the conclusion stated in the oloeing sentence of 
the following statement, and which conclusion, it seems to me, bas been 
demonstrated, by the extensive data since collected in Michigan, to be 
correct relative to intluenza in Michigan in every year as well as in 
epidemic years. The statement is as follows:— 

" Dr. H«iriU of £«! Wing, ftliaa.. In the Traiuaotioa» of Amorioaa Modloal Astodatloo for 1871. p. tlS 
hn$ the foUowtntr t 

" " Tb« pecollhr atmcMphario oondLtioD wliioh la the oacuiQ of oar epidamie ioflaaaxt is now Bttraotlnff 
dMerred attention, aad it ia hoped tbftt the rooenl offer of a prise by the 8tat« Medl^ Society may resolt 
ia iDTafltlgatiofu of practioal ralae. Tbii moch l« kaovo: that whea iafioensa la markedly epidemia , 
Kfmotic rtf Miia dimtnlihiia in Mrarity, beeome* lee« freqaant, and dlaappearB. Thoogh as yet no tnfflolent 
test hM been nsed, the majority reporting (jadglog from its action on 'civic miaflm/ whioh eeeme that of 
an oxidizing: acent. and from raporta of Ite Btady eleewhere) beiiere it to be oaone/ ^'* 

In the above quotation, the term zjmotio disease probably does not now 
convey just the same idea as it did in 1871; but it may be mentioned in 
passing, that in Michigan the ourve representing the increase and decrease 
of sickness from remittent fever follows quite closely the inverted curve 
of the increase and decrease of atmospheric ozone — the more ozone the 
less remittent fever. Another instance of popular reoognition of condi- 
tions oaneative of influenza is obronicled as follows :— 



Causaiion of Influenza* 

The Pall Mall Gazette, London, Dao . 10. 1889, says:— "Everybody in 
England, when the east winds blow, when the fog gathers, when the rime 



is on the windows, knows what an *influenz5 oold* is".t 



Winds, CommmucabiUi^, and Epidemic Movement of Influenza, 

Inasmuch as injtuenza is always present in this country, (it is never 
entirely absent from Michigan, and probably not from any northern State) 
the cause of influenza is therefore always present in this country, but 
there is probably truth in the common belief that its oause is sometimes 
carried "on the wings of the wind," in the ways previously suggested. 
It seems necessary also to consider bow through the influence of wind, 
and cold atmosphere, conditions are supplied for the unusual entrance 
into the body, and unusual multiplioation of its cause. 

*B«port Mlohixan State Board of Health, I'fJS, p. 13». 
fPoblie Health Is Minnesota. Jan., I8d0« p. UK 



clxxzviii STATE BOARD OF HEAI/TH.— RBPORT OF BBQRSSTABY. 18M 

J)iajira7?iZ-^/i elation i^fl^ini te j77//uf?iZii 

in Cmzchfgan, 



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THB CAUSATION OP INFLUENZA, ETC 



cluxix 



Although the movement o! influenza from place to pUoe ie, I think, in 
part, apparent and not real, the epidemic rise of the disease being due to 
the conditions of the atmosphere, which may be similar at the same time 
at many different plaoes, or which are likely to occur io some parts of the 
world soon after their occurrence in other parts, yet the evidence of the 
oommunicability of the disease in several instances seeme to be convinc- 
ing; and these two facta are in harmony if we suppose that what is true 
of the air-pasBflges of the individual is also true of the locality, —that is, 
that just as, by reason of the atmospheric conditions, the mioro-organisma 
generally present in the nose or mouth of the individual are brought into 
the air-passages and greatly increased in numbers and more productive of 
inflaenza, so, through the drying of the profuse nasal fluids on bandker- 
chiefs, and in other ways these mioro-organismg are spread about in the 
locality in greatly increased numbers, the inhalation of these * 'germs" is 
more general, more people than usual get them, and those who nad them 
get more of them than usual. This, I think, explains the fact that an 
epidemic of influenza, once started by extreme atmospheric conditions in 
any part of the world tends to spread even to parts of the world where the 
atmospheric conditions are not bad. But in warm moist localities the 
mortality ie not often great. The disease may even pass as *'hay fever*' 
Of dengue. This recent epidemic is generally believed to have had its 
origin in 8t. Petersburg, although it is alleged that the disease had 
occurred in May, 1889, in Iceland,* and in Greenland in the spring of 1889.t 

But it sh iutd be noticed that this great epidemic, like the preceding 
ones, started on its course at a season of the year when the atmospheric 
oonditionfl were constantly becoming more favorable to the spread of this 
disease, — that is it was beoomiog colder. J And it reached its maximum 
prevalence in Michigan in precisely the same month in which it usually 
does, as is shown by comparing Diagram 4, page clxvi with Diagram 1, 
page olxiii, which exhibits its rise and fall by months, according to expe- 
rience extending through twelve years, showing that influenza is at its 
minimum in July, rises rapidly as cold weather inoreaeea, and reaches its 
maximum in February, then falls to its minimum again iu July, 

The Spreading of Influenza, 

The fact that in the flrst week of the epidemic a targe proportion of the 
deaths from all causes, in Paris, Prance^ were of males while in the last 
week of the epidemic the proportion of females had greatly increased, § 
is, apparently, evidence that the males got the disease by exposure, and 
communicated it to the females. This might occur because the males 
traveled about more and came In contact with more people; or because 
they were more exposed to the atmospheric oonditione out of doors. 
Probably both these explanations are true. The last certainly seema to 
be true, because even at the last, the proportion of males was greater 
than that of females; and because among males the disease has attacked 
those moat exposed to out-door conditions. 

• Addrew of the ohaimiBii of thb Sftetloa, at tfai* oj«tiii«,— Dr* J. B. HainUtoa-Joar. Am, ll»d. Amoc., 

trtauitary EUoord, A£»tll 16, 1880. p, 406. 

1 Thl« 1ft Bspeetallj triM of th« coadiUoa at 61. Petonbnrg, u thown bt tbe table pr^parad for m» by thm 
Offlee of tb« Chi«f Sisiial Offlosr of ths U. a. Army, ftxtraota from whloh table aooofnpauy thl« paper, io 
Table 4, pagn el&zxii. 
S Therapmtte Oaaette Feb. 15« 1890. p. 130 :— 

Laat waak io Dm. malaB. 772: female;*, I15=5S.3 per cent. 
Flnt w«ek 1& Jan., l^W. malee, 1,170 ; fpn^aJ^t l,2ia=S2,A per oent. 
in Jan., 1&90, malM, 1,121; femalea, M4=^84.2 per ceot. 





oxc 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY. 1694. 



SpeekiDg of tbe dcatb-iete id Parifi for the week ending Jacnary 4, 
1890, "The deaths of malefi Bged between twenty and forty yeaia vimt 
more than double those of females at the same age: white among peraoDa 
aged upwaids of aixty years the deaths of females exoeeded those of 
males, * 

Obseivations of similar apparent dispiopoitions of the aexee among 
deotdenta during the epidemic h&ve been notioed in some other cities 
Thus in Baltimore, Md., it was stated: '*A notable fact in oonneotion 
with the deaths ie, that the weaker sex is not dying in as large numbeiB 
as the mates^ which would indioatt) either that the females are better able 
to withstand the attacks of the disease geimp, or that the male popolatioD 
ontvDumbeis the female and baa proportionately a larger death rate. Of 
the 267 death**, 150 were jm ales, and 117 were females: there were 64 boys, 
and only 36 girls. '*t 

These faote are in haimcny witb^ibe belief that influenza is canaed by 
an ordinary mlcio-orgBnieiD, or by a group of miero-organisroB, which, 
like btaphylococous pyogenes, la, not infrequently, present in the baman 
air-paessges, and which, when the germs gain entrance far enough and 
in stffficienl Tivwbers are capable of caufiing influenza, even in a person 
not unusually exposed to cold outdoor air: but that exposure to certain 
atmoapherio influenoee tfnds greatly towaida the entianoe and multiplica- 
tion of these micro-organistna in the air-paEsagea of the head and lunge, 
and ttjward the causation of the disease in persons who if not espoeed to 
the conditions which cause them to **take cold" would not contract the 
disease. 

The BeUdton of Ozone io hijhtenza. 

In the eicknees etatifetics collaborated with the meteorological data, for 
many years in Michigan, there is abundant proof that there la some 
neceeaary and apparently a caueul relation between atmospheric ozone and 
flickness from influenza. This is demonstrated by Diagram **No, 8" 
printed herewith, (page cxci.]t But it has several times been observed 
that an Increase in the atmoapherio ozone has ocourred after the in or ease 
in the influenza. How can this be explained? One explanation might 
bc^that the same influence which promptly Inoreaaed the influenza 
later increased the ozone. This might be, for instance, a low temper* 
ature, which is proved to have a tolerably constant relation to influenza 
and which tends towsid a lessened destruction of ozone by dis-asBooia' 
tion of the three atoms of oxygen which unite to form ozone, and there- 
fore toward its accumulation in the atmosphere; or it might be the wind, 
whioh also bears a somewhat oonatant relation to influenza, and which 
brings more air to the test paper, and therefore tends to inorease the 
amount of ozone apparent. Another explanation may perhaps be found 
in two facts, — firet, that our tables and diagrams of atmospherio ozone 
deal with only ihB reaidvul ozone — that which remaina after all easily and 
rapidly oxidizing aubatances have been oxidized ; and second, that no 
such residual ozone is ordinarily found in inhabited rooma. (One more 
fact is needed in this connection, namely, whether or not In those instan- 
ces in which the residual atmospherio ozone increases after the influenza 
has increased, ozone is then to be found present in inhabited Toome. So 
far as I know, no one has ever made any observations whioh can be used 
to supply tbia information.) 

• Brltlfth Medical JoQrcal, Jan. IB. 1S90, p. i46.> 

t Biltimor<a Amencan, Jan, £6, 1^90. 

iXbe tabnJar data for DiesratD 8 aie In Tfibla 6» peg6 cdx> 




^^^^^V THK CAUSATION OF INFLUENZA. ETO. czoi ^| 


MO^^iTVOSPHCRIC OZOIE^AID mKN£$S FROII.HIirLyCiZAJi MICHICAi . 


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cxcii ;STATE BOARD OP HEALTH.— REPORT OP SBORBTARy. IB&L 



The Disappearance of Ozo7t€ in the Buman[} Air-pas sages. 

The fact that bo residual ozone is ordinarily found in inbttbited rooma» 
aeems to imply tbat, oidinarily, atl the ozone ia used by the bnoian li{e- 
prooeflsee, probably mainly, primarily, in the airpassagea and lungs. Thig 
may explain the fact, encountered experiraentally by Benj. Ward 
Richardson, M. D., that air which had been breathed and no longer aae- 
ful in maintaining life, yet contained tnaoh oxygen; probably the air was 
no longer usefnl for the reason that the oxygen atoms were not so gronped 
aa'to make of them active oxygen or as we call it — ozone. Dt, Ricbard- 
son'e experiments seem to prove that the human life-prooessseB are slowed, 
and finally come to a stop when the ozone is diminished and finally 
exhausted. 

Under conditions the reverse of these, it; is reasonable to asaame that 
the hnman Hfe-proceBses are hastened and increased, and that in locali- 
ties where observations of ozone are made, (which have thus far been near 
inhabited buildings) the ozone is used nearly as fast as formed, and that 
ita main use is in the bodies of persons and animals, therefore the teata 
for reaidual atmospheric ozone do not show any increase or at least not 
the greatest increase until after ozone sball have been formed in exoeM 
of its possible destraction by tbe life- processes of persona and animak 
To explain why influenza aometimes, though unusually, declines before 
tbe maximum ozone is feached, it may be supposed that in snob instan- r 
oes nearly all persons eueceptible to the disease have already bad it 
reoently, and are, therefore, nnuaually protected from exposare to otit* 
door air- 
Probably the most important reason, however, why the apparent effect 
on tbe ozone sometimee lags behind the efiFeot on the human organism, is 
as follows; — 

The ordinary, Soh^nbein, test for ozone may not yield results exactly 
comparable to the effects on the human organism, for the reason that the 
test paper is exposed while dry, and the human air-passages are oon- 
atantly raoisl It is well known that if the test paper be moistened the 
ozone acta upon it much more readily, the inference is plain that in moist 
weather the test shows comparatively too much, and in dry weather too 
little ozone. Inasmuch as dryness of the air la now known to be an 
important factor in the causation of influenza and other diseases of the 
iungs and air-passages (Demonfitration of thia has been supplied in my 
previous papers, and may be found in this paper under the sub- bead 
'^Indnenza and humidity of the atmosphere/*) it follows that at suoh 
times as dryness is most effective in oansing influenza* the tests for 
ozone because of the extreme dryness of tbe paper probably do not show 
B& much ozone as there is present in the atmosphere; and so soon as the 
air becomes more moist, and this dryness an important cause of inflnensa 
is removed^ the test for ozone shows porportionately an increased anaonnt. 

Excessive Oxidaiion as a Factor in the Causation of Infliienza, 

If, as is indicated by the experiments by Dr, Richardson, ozooe in 
normal quantity is essential to tbe life prooeeses throughout tbe body, It it 
reasonable to believe that when an excess of ozone is inhaled, not all of the 
excess will be used in the abnormal oxidation of the air-passages and Inngs, 
but that a considerable proportion of the excess will take the same conrse 





THE CAUSATION OP INFLUENZA, ETC. 



CSCIU 



BLB when a lees quantity ia inhaled — it will enter the oironlatiog blood, 
and go tbrougboQt the body, and will Bret oxidize those tissues whioh are 
moat easily oiidizeci and if oontioued in exoesa will fiEally aboormally 
oxidize tisauea and Ooida throughout the body. 

Probably the tissues most liable to suffer tirst are those most easily 
oxidized, and those in most severe and moat constant activity. The brain 
and nerve tissues are easily oxidized, and in many persons the brain and 
nerves would be in most constant activity; while in some persons the 
alimentary canal and digestive organs will have been overworked or 
irritated, and thus suffer from over-stimulation by ozone. But, in every 
person, the heart muscle is the most constantly-active organ in the body, 
except that small portion of nerve substance near the base of the brain 
which never sleeps but continually presides over the action of the heart 
and respiration, and acts as a heat-regulating center. 

It is precisely in the order indicated by the foregoing consideratioaa that 
the most prominent effects of influenza are usually observed and reported, 
— there is heart failure, nervous prostration, and great disturbance of the 
heat-regulating apparatus; in some instances the suWering from cold feet 
and lege being very great, 

It is established that atmospheric ozone bears a close relation to 
influenza. It is reasonable to conclude that the relation is oausil In 
recent years there have been extraordinary fluctuations in the atmospheric 
ozone — greater than ever before known, since systematic observations of 
it have been made. In recent years there have been extraordinary fluc- 
tuations In the sickness from influenza, greater than ever before known 
during the time covered by the ozone observations. 

If it is conceded that ozone in excess causes influenza, can we trace the 
excess of ozone to its cause, and thus gain a hint of what to counteract 
or take account of in our effort to prevent influenza? In answer to the 
foregoing question, —the great fluctuations, both of the ozone and of the 
influenza, have oocurred since or coincident with a great change in human 
custom which has now come to be world wide. The change referred to is 
one from universal methods of illumination at night whereby ozone was 
destroyed, toward the adoption of methods whereby ozone is not destroyed 
namely by incandescent lamps; and toward methods whereby ozone ie 
believed to be produced, by the action of electricity on atmospheric oxygen. 
(Joinoident, also, is a change from universal methods of locomotion whereby 
ozone was destroyed, toward electrical methods whereby ozone is believed 
to be produced. It is proposed to omtinue similar changes, until the 

freat cataracts and falls shall do much of the world's work in the factories. 
n the great increase in the transmission of electricity there must be great 
increase in the escape of electricity through the atmosphere, and in the 
production of ozone. Does it not behoove humanity to be active and 
earnest in the search for knowledge of the influences which these great 
changes are exerting on human health and life? The resources at my 
command are entirely inadequate to complete the investigations which 
should be carried on in this connection. The experiments which I have 
undertaken have been meagre; but, so far as they extduded they indicate 
that there is reason to believe that the world-wide changes toward the 
production of electricity have had great influence in those great fluctua- 
tions in atmospheric ozone whioh have occurred within a few recent years; 
and there is reason to believe that this has had influence in the causation of 




cxciv STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.-REPORT OF SECRETARY, 169i. 

tbe exoeBBive Bmouiit of inflneziza wbicb baa be€Q more or lees coincidi 
tberewitb. 



(he Causation of 



Is Excessive Oxidaiion an Imporitmi Factor in 

Inflff€7izof 

U. C. Byrne, Lieut. Co], and buig. U* S, A., in charce of U. S. 
SoldieiB* Home, Waebington, D* C, noticed a very remarkable immonity 
to influenza enjoyed by the inmates of the Soldieis' Home^at tb© timeci 
the epidemio iniiueDza. While families aiid afiioeia at the home suffered 
severely and geneTally. the old eoldier inmatee were almost entirely 
exempt, Dotwithstandiiag there wae little or do reatralnt placed on tbe 
movemeDts of the inmates. Dr. Byrne eays: '"PoBsibly tbe drinkiDg 
habit may have some inHuenoe upon tbe snaceptibiHty of iodividnals. 
Nearly all of the inmates here indulge more or lees in alooboiio etimulanta, 
and many are steady and exoessive drinkere. My impresBlon is that 
among tbe inmates who eufiFered from tbe epidemio there were none of 
decidedly intemperate habits. The few officers here are all etriotly tem- 
perate af, of course, are tbe women and obildren; yet it wae tbeae classea 
that suffered the raoat from tbe influenza/' In oonnection'with tbe fore- 
goings three parasrapha from '*Tbe Address on Medioine*' at tbe meeting 
of the American Medical Ascociation, Nashville, Tenn.^ May 21, 1890, bj 
N, S. Davis, M* D., LL. D., are of interest: 



: 



" 1. Alcobol, when prcwest la the bleed, either ccinbiD«a ivitb or eaouft chacges In the molecoJar < 
poaitioD of the hremoilobln, by which th« natar&l cooTeraicn of tbe latter into ozjLapmogiobin ia dimXa* 
isbed. and conscqneotly 1«ih oijrgec ii caiTied from tbe pnlmoDar? to tbe ajstemio oapUlariee. 

"2. TbetBine strocg affinitr of the alccbol for water «nd albnoiiDoida that enables it to aiodify the 
eompoaition and fanetioD of tbe lecmcglobin of Ibe bleed, alio caDeei it to modif? tbe moleenlAr Mmdi- 
lion aad f anetiona of tbe tiisne eelk tbrongbont tbe body, and tLerebj retard or leiien tbe tk^gngaltm of 
metabolic changee and tbeir prcdnote, ta abown la tbe diminiBbed product of carbon-dioxide, tirea, pKob- 
pbatee. heat, etc. ^ 

*'3. Both the direct clffect of tbe alcohol on the jierrm celle, acd ite indirect efTeet in leaeesiiiiff tbe 
amotAt of oxrgenatioD of tbe blood, caiiBee it to prcdnce marked dimitintioti of nerTe aenaibilitr Ifill 
▼aeO'iDotor cerre force ; or, in other woida, a trne a£H'Httede effect npon the nerve centree/** 

Injlttencea of Direciions and Sources of Winds on Amoinits of AimoB' 

pk^ric Ozone. 

The eobjeot of tbe relations of ozone to infliieBza, In conDeotion with 
the subject of tbe direction from which the wind blowa, is diecnseed 
briefly on page olxxiii under the sub-head ''Direotion of movement," etc. 

If the atmoepberic ozone la generally used nearly as fast as formed, and 
is formed in great part by the son's light and by electricarinfluenoeB 
direct from the sun, it follows that wind from a direction and part of tbe 
eartb or ocean over which the bud has joet passed, as, for instaiicei an 
easterly wind in the afternoon, will be likely to bring with it more ozone 
than will, for instance, a weaterly wind in the morning, whiob oomea 
from a direction and portion of the earth over which for many boure the 
influence of the gun has not been exerted. If a large part oftbe nanal 
de&tiuotion of ozone is by its oae by living beinga, it is importaBt to oon- 
aider, for each locality^ whether winds from different direotions do or do 

* Jcmr. Amar. Med. Aaaoc, Mar U, leso, p. Tfil, 





THE CAUSATION OF Il^FLUElSZA, ETC. 



cxcv 



not bring air fioni b portion of tbe country wbiob is tbickly iBhablted, or 
from over an uDinbabited country covered with vegetation which is con- 
stantly giving off OS J gen, or from over the ooean* 



Aimosphtric Temperature amf Sickness f 70m Ivjiuenzat 

Of all meteorological conditione, the one most conetantly related to 
inflaenza is tbe temperature. Although there are etoeptional Instanoes 
in wbiob increased cold is not followed by inflaenza^ and even epidemica 
in years when tbe weather is warmer than is usual at that season of tbe 
year, still the fact remains that in every eeriee of years yet studied tbe 
inBuensa bae been quantitatively related to the atmoepherio temperature, 
the increase in the influenza baa followed a lowering of the temperature and 
the decrease in tbe influenza has followed a rise in the atmospberio 
temperature. 

Eibibit 4, this page, shows that in 1879 in January and February of 
wbiob year the influenzB was epidemic in Miohiganf the atmospberio 
temperature in January was 3,21^ lower than tbe average January in 
the preceding fifteen years, and in February it was nearly four degreea 
(3.97) lower than tbe average. 

Tbe close relation of atmoepherio temperature to influenza ia shown 
by Diagram 3, page cJxv. 



1 



EXHIBIT 4. "Com pari ion of the Avtfage Temperature dufing the Year and dur- 
ing each Month of the Year 1S79, uiik the Annual and Monthly Averages for the 
Year lif78, and with the Average for (lie Fifteen Year* Wd^lS.—ObservationM 
made by Prof. R, C Kedzie, at the State Agricultural College,* near LanHng, Mich- 
igan. 



tmn, 0te. 


ATenc* (Mean) TempflAtiini.— Davraefl Wth. 




Jul, 


F«b. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


Jon». 


JnJT. 


Aog. 


Bept, 


Oct. 


Not. 


Dm. 


AT-forlSff»„l«W-78. 

1878^ 

WI9^ 


4»M 
48.£9 

M.88 




2140 
29.11 
19.19 


18.07 
10.10 


•LI9 

mm 

L70 


«.»8 
50,66 
M.84 


M.IO 

M.&7 

w.7a 


88.4a 

84.08 
88.08 


71.01; 
73.01 
74.08 


89.18 

70.16 
70.00 


80.14 
83.15 
98.81 


47.4S 

48.38 
ST.18 


88.21 

88.89 

• 

88.88 


28.00 

81.89 

• 

87^ 


la 1879 Higher tbaa 
Av. 16 jenn. l%i-78. 

In W9 Low«r thui 
At. IB jimn, 18M-78. 


S.U 


SflfT 


l.U 


.08 


2^ 


LOi 


jm 


4.U 


1».8I 


8.01 


8.48 


8.98 




8.17 


In ia7i BitiMt tbu 
in 1878.^,. . 










4.19 


1.94 


.99 






1.98 


Ill 1079 Lower thnn In 
IBIS ..^ 


1.41 


9,9S 


7.87 


7.71 


S.7I 


IS 


8.04 

















*For Nowmbfir aad Becctraber. 1870, the obBortationi w«re make by Hanr B. Torser* at tba office of tlj« 
Bt«l# Beard of H«altb. Laxtaing. 

Some of tbe ways whereby low temperature may tend to cause influenza 
have been suggested on pages clixii-olxxiii. Other oonsiderations will 
be presented in oonneotion with the subject of humidity of tbe atmos- 
phere, pages oxoviiccii. ^ 




cxcvi STATE BOARD OP HBAI/TH.— REPORT OF SEGRETART. IflW. 






'B9j t^e Msra^t ^t/^aap^enc Temperature, 
a.n3 tk& Ji/^ra^e Jlsrrce^tTa^e of Wee//^jf 
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PLATE MO. 7ff 



THE CAUSATION OF INFLUENZA, ETC. 



CXCVlll 



Wann-weatker, Influenza^ Pneumonia, etc. 

To the faotB wbiob in the timee past I have otfered* proving that both 
in oold and warm olimates the dieeasea of tbti respiratory organs inoreaBe 
after oold weather, and deorease after warm weather, ao objection to the 
aooeptfiDoe of my evldenoe has been made that in some warm oliniates 
diaeaaen of the reepiratory organa have been more prevalent and fatal than 
they have been in some colder climates. Thisobjeotioo is baaed upon the 
aBsnmptioB that, if it ia the oold that, diieotiy or indireotly, oaasea these 
dieeaaeSf then these diseases should be more prevalent and fatal in oold 
than in warm climates. Of oourse this does not neoeaaarily follow; it is 
a question to be determined by evidence. 

It seems to be a fact^ however that although the recent epidemic of 
inflaenza has followed weather unusually warm for the season of the year 
for the locality, yet the epidemio has not visited to any great extent some 
of the southern cities in the United States in wbiob the temperature baa 
been considerably warmer than in those northern cities in which the 
epidemio was quite fatal. This shows that something more than warm 
weather is needed to cause serious trouble from this disease. 

Exposure to Heat one of the Qreaiesf Causes of Disturbance of Body 

Temperature. 

To the ordinary observer of inEoensa, one of the most perplexing com- 
binations offsets is: that while the disease seems to be caused by exposure 
to cold, yet epidemics oome when the weather is extraordinarily warm 
for the season of the year. Not only so, but influenza has been known to 
be epidemio in the warmest month of summer, and in some parts of this 
oountry, is never entirely absent at any season of the year. (This may 
be seen by reference to the tables and diagrams showing the rise and 
fall of the disease in Michigan.) In this connection it should be remem- 
bered that beat is a powerful agent tending to relax the muscular systems, 
voluntary and involuntary, and to debilitate the heat-regulating apparatuB 
of the human body. 

Relapses are more Noticeably due io Cold ihau are First Attacks, 

Drs. Robertson and El kins who reported carefully 140 cases with 13 
relapses, said: **As a general rule the second attack was more serious 
than the first, and headache and fever always recurred/' * « * # 
''In all relapsed cases there was some distinct exposure to cold air, usually 
by going out of doors too soon, and in 710 case did a relapse occur so long 
as the patient was in bed or sirtcUy confined to a heated room. * The 
period elapsing between the exposure and the symptoms of the second 
attack was very short; in 4 of the IB oases the relapse occurred the day 
after going out of doors, and in three others it ooourred within 24 hours 
of leaving the heated sick room for the purpose of going to the water- 
closet where ventilation ia aotive, "7 

• It&ltes mliu*. 

t Brlttth M«dioftl Joor&aJ, F«b. 1, l«flO, p. 229. 



di^ 



cxoviii STATE BOARD OF HBAITrH.— RBFOBT OF SBORBITABT. UM. 
DIAGRAM g.- RELATION OF HUMIDITY TO INFLUSNZA 



t*.l^ 


By -mo-nlKi^^ir Vi& f^ytctj^^ itTi'if^M^ T^toM^rru -c*.t?i* Jfyty<M. 








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THE CAUSATION OP INPLUENZ/l. ETC. CXCIX 



Whff are the Relapses More Serious than the First Attaokf 

The universal experienoe eeema to aooord witb that stated by Drs. 
Robertson and Elkins **Ab a general rule the eeoood attack was more 
eerioQB than the fiifit *' Tbis is easily explained, and must neoessarily be 
6o, if my view oHhe oaastion of influenza is aooepted ; because on the seoond 
exposure there would very likely be more of the micro-organ isma present 
in the nose, mouth and air.passages, and in the surronndinge of the 
person, than on the first exposure. 

Atmospheric Humidity and Infiuetiza. 

That the absolute humidity of the atmosphere has very close relation to 
inflaenza is shown in Diagram 9, on the page opposite this. The data 
exhibited in the diagraoi is contained in Table 8 continued, page eciv. 

One of the most remarkable instances of extraordinary meteorological 
conditions preceding influenza, is the following: — 

Dr. Frank Q, Clemow, recently returned from 8t. Petersburg, read a 
paper at the meeting of the Medical Officers of Health, London, March 
14, on ''Epidemic Inflnenza. " He oiled **tbe historical instances of half 
a miilion persona being seized in London in 1347 in a few days; and of 
40,000 in 8t. Petersbarg in 1782, while the thermometer rose 92 degrees 
between 2 A. M. and 6 P. M., from 47 below zero F. to 45 ftbive. *'* 

Air at zero, saturated with vapor of water, «an contain only half a grain 
in each cubic foot, and the quantity decreases as the temperature is 
lowered, so that at 47 below zero the air is praotioally free from vapor of 
water. As the temperature of air is raised its capacity for moisture is 
increased, and if rapidly raised in temperature its drying effect on every 
moist surface would be great. 

Although in tbis instance the temperature change was the one which 
attracted public .attention, the condition probably causative of 
infiuenza in 8t, Petersburg in 1732 was the extreme dryness and drying 
influence of the atmosphere, which under the circumstances mentioned 
would necessarily be extraordinary. 

Humiditif and other Meteorological Influences, Influenza and Allied Dis- 
eases^ and the Salts of the Blood, 

That the salts of the blood play a very important part in pneumonia, and 
in other diseases induced or aggravated by cold, there can be no doubt. 
For our knowledge of the subject we are chiefly indebted to some of the 
foremost investigators in the medical sciences. In 1850 Red ten bach er 
published the fact that during the onward progress of pneumonia the 
chlorides are absent from the urine. In 1852 Lionel Smith Beale, of 
London, published results of experiments proving that the salt which 
disappears from the urine is to be found in the sputa and in the aolidtfied 
lung. Accurate observatioDS, however, on this subjsct in influenza seem 
to be rare, The only published analysis of urine which I remember to 
have seen showed ''diminished epeciflo gravity (1017)-, chlorides 
diminiihed (3.834 grammes in a litre), "f 

It has been shown that the normal paisons in the urine (leuo^malns?) 
which ip health are fatal to small animals if injected into their bodies, 

* BuiiUiT BMord, April 15. 1090. |». 498. 

t Bdtiali Med. Joar., Fdb. t, IB9Q, p. £06, from WUner Mid. Blatter, Jan, 23, t3!t0. 



I 



I 




cc 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH— REPORT OP SECRETARY. 1891. 



• 



disappear from tbe uiine, as do tb© obloridee, duriag the oDward^progreai 
of pneumonia, and reappear on recovery** 

Eecently, Sir William Roberts bae pointed oot the fact that nrio aoid is 
cnaintBined id Bolution by the bhHb in the blood and in the Drine, and 
that tbe preoipitation of uric acid in calculi, and presumably in tbe 
tiaeuea of the body where it oaueee pain, rbeumatiem and neuralgia and 
other abnormal oonditions, is due to a withdrawal of the Baits of the 
blood, J 

Tbia bears upon the causation of pneumonia and other diseaaea of the 
lunge and air paeeeges, allied to influenza^ aleo upon tbe oausatioo of 
rhevnuiiism, also allied, that being one of tbe diseaseB which increases a 
oonpiderable time after the cold weather, and deoTeaeee soon after the warm 
weather* It also bears upon tbe eubjeot of ttfuralffia (another allied 
disease) which increases and decreases under mnoh tbe same conditioDB 
as does rheumBtisin. An exoess of urio aoid in tbe tisBues| has long been 
GODBidered a cause of rheumatism, but tbe abnormal presence of the acid 
bae not been Batiefaotorily accounted for, certainly not in any quantitative 
relation to tbe temperature of tbe atmosphere, while, as I have elsewhere 
ehown, the disease has such a relation which is well marked. About 
how much rheumatism decreases during the warm season of tbe year, 
and inoreasea during and especially after the cold season, ia sfaown for 
Michigan by Diagram 1 herewith* Page clxiii. 

Another link in tbe chain which binds rheumatism with diseases 
of tbe throat and air-pasaafes, and with the influence of atmoepherio 
temperature, is hmsUliiis. At the last meeting of tbe British Medical 
ABfiooiation, August, 1889, this subject was dealt with in a way to throw 
much light upon it; three of the valuable papers being published in the 
British Med, Journal Sept. 14, 1889. 

From the history of this subject, it seems that the close relationship of 
throat disease and rheumatism has been known to the leaders in tbe pro- 
fession from very early limes; and not only that, bul the fact of both 
troubles being caused by exposure to cold has also been known, Recently 
many have written upon tbe subject. ''In bis work on the Throat and 
lis Diseases, § Mr. Lennox Browne strongly insisted upon the close con- 
nection of tonaillitie with rheumatism/' Dr. Garrod, Assistant Physician, 
West London Hospital, says: **Many sutferers from rheumatic fever 
give histories of soreness of the throat at the very beginning of their ill- 
ness".^ Also: ''There are, however, no dietinotive features by which a 
rheumatic sore throat can be recognized, for it assumes various forms, 
from the most trifling injection of the pharynx, with perhaps some swell- 
ing of the palate and uvula, to tbe severer varieties of follicular and 
parenchymatous tonsillitis'',^' Also, **Dr. Kingston Fowler estimates 
that sore throat is present in no Um than 80 per cent of all cases of rheu- 
matic fever, and there can, I think, be no question that the proportion is 
a very large one'*.*^ On the other hand, **I>r, Haip- Brown found that 
there was a suggestion of rheumatic origin in 76 out of 119 oases of tonsil- 
litis occurring in eobool boys, or 63.9 per cent, and Dr. Green eatimates 
that two- thirds of all cases of tonsillitis are of rheumatic origin. "^J **Dr. 
Cheadle says : 'Tonsillitis may occur at any period of tbe rheumatic eeries, 
although it most often comes Brst, immediately preceding arthritis. ' "^ 

• nenucbe UedielDlsche Wocbsniebrlft, Nov. £», Hm (No. 4H), p. Wi, 

iPa«a lfi6« M«d, Age, Apr. )S, 189D. Qaoted from Med. Frew and Circular, 
In actUe rheQinfttlftm tbera la aolditr of tho blood, dne, apparenllf , to laetle aoid. 
Ffnt edition, )i^8. 
AretillMid E. ^ftrrod, H. A., M. D., M. B. C. P., in British Med. Jour., Sopt U« 1889, pp. 581 




THE CAUSATION OP INFLUENZA. ETO. 



001 



This meana, I think, that toosillitia ia uaually a firat reautt of the oauaes 
of rbeumatiam ; it is a first atep wbioh, if oontiaued in a certain dir&otion, 
leads to rbeumatiaiii ; that ia, when the mioro-orgaDieme,'^ in auffioient 
numbere, enter the oiroulation and leaoh the joints and tissotis involved 
in this dieeasp, in a person s^scseptible to rhemnatiain, beiause of the 
aooumnlation of uric aoid or allied substanoe in the body^ 



Tke Relationships of Rheumatism, yenralgia, Tonsillitis^ Injhiejizaf and 
Diseases of the Liinga^ — CohUwexdkei* Diseases, 

A strong line of evidenoe baa, for several years, been available to me, 
showing the relationships of diseases. I refer to ^the statistics of eick- 
nesB, supplied to the office in whiob I work, by the leading physicians in 
Michigan. The diseases are found to change aooording to the conditions 
of the atmoaphere. Evefyone knows that we have bowel diseases in tbe 
Summer, and diseases of the air-passages in Winter, yet just the relations 
wbiob tbe several diseases in each olass bezir to each other is not gener- 
ally known. I present herewith a table (Exhibit 5) exhibiting the diseaseB 
oaueed in Michigan by tbe conditions existing in the Spring of 1890, in 
oonjnnction with preexisting conditions. It is only for a single week, 
but I think it ia suggestive of what diseases result from euoh conditions 
as favor the introdootion into the body of mioro-organisoiB which entei by 
way of the throat and aii-paasages. 



EXHIBIT 5,—InJluenza and allied disecuea in Michigan^ 
March J5, 1830. 



DImum arrmoged la order of greateat area of pr«TmIa(iuja» 
in Miotdg&ci durlag week endiag M&nch 15, 1890. 



I]lflDM».. ......... 

R.haniiii»^lfm 

BRmeliltii ..,,.„.. .... 

Neuralgia , . . , 

ToMinitia,...„..„.„. 

CioiunBQi»tio& of Itiagt 
PiMamonla. 



Per oect of 
ob«er?QrB 

who 

reported 

tbe dleeaee 

praeaat. 



4 



I have proved beyond any qnestion that all these *'oold weather dis- 
eases** follow olosely» and, to a certain extent quantitatively, not only 
the atmoapberio temperature but the atmospheric humidity, — that the 
relation is inverse,— these diaeafies all increase after the inhalation of dry 
air, and deorease after tbe inhalation of moist air.f 

In view of tbe new light recently thrown on this subjeot, by the impor- 
tant oontributions of Sir William Roberts and others, previonsly referred 
to, I wish again to mention the faota wbiob seem to me to explain the 
reason why on the exposure to the inhalation of oold dry air, the chlorides 

* ProbBbt]- tbe most onJLaarjr epeciea— toch, fnr tnttonce, a» Staph y lijooccu* psfOtreneM. 
t **Tbe caoMtkui of oold-weatber diaeaaee/' Report. Mich. Bel. Ueaith, IgOT, p, m\ alio ''BeJAtioiu of 
Certain Met, Coadbtloaa, etc., p. lit« Beport Mich. Bd. HoalUi, L848. 



ecu 



STATE BOARD OP HEALTH.— REPORT OF SECRBTABY, 1894 



and salts oeaae to appear in the Drine and aooomulate In the throat and air 
passages; and to suggest why it ia that the uric aoid"*^ and the poisoooos 
ooDstituents (leuoomains) of the urine, do the same to some extent, while 
that portion of the urio aoid, etc, whioh does not go with the salts and tboe 
irritates the throat and air-passages tends to be precipitated in the urine and 
in the tisBues. thus tending toward ibeumatism, neuralgia pains, etc. Tbd 
principal faot is so common place that it would seem that no persoa 
should have difficulty in grasping it, being no less than the familiar one 
that rapid evaporation of a fluid containing a comparativeiy non-voiatile 
salt leaves that salt in the solution, and if the saline tiiiid be oontinual]| 
renewed and ss continually evaporated the degree of salinity of the fluid 
is oorTeepondingly and constantly inoreased, and the longer such rapid 
evaporation oontioues^ the stronger becomes the saline fluid. Tbi«, I 
believe,, is precisely what oocurain the air-passages when a person inbalefl 
air unusually dry, or unusually cold, because cold air does not and can- 
not contain vapor of water,t except in very small amount so when it 
reaches the air passages it is dry, and in being warmed by contact with 
the air-passages ite capacity for vapor of water rapidly increases, therefore 
it rapidly abstracts muiature from the air-passages. (It is for ibis reaaos 
that air that is becoming colder always appears damp,— its moistore is 
being espelled from it.) 

Knowing, as we now do, that after exposure to the inhalation of cold, dry 
air (air which, compared with that recently inhaled, is cold and dry) 
there is correspondingly increased sickness from influenza, tonsillitis, 
bronobitis, pneumonia, neuFalgia, rheumatism, pleurisy, etc, knowing 
that there is increase of the salts taken out of the blood through or into 
the air-passages early in the course of all or nearly all of these diBeaseSit 
that (in some of them at least) tbey are taken out to such an extent that 
the chlorides are absent from the urine, and less than normal in the 
blood, knowing that it is these salts which normally keep the urio acid 
from prfcipitating, and that in rheumatism it does precipitate, it seems 
to me that one important phase of the causation of this whole olass of 
'*oold-weather diseases'' is tolerably evident, and that the first link in the 
chain of their causation is the unosoal evaporation of the saline fluid 
which normally moistens the air-passages. 

Bo far as they are non-inflammatory, their causation can, I tbink, be 
fully explained on the lines here suggested, and which I have previously 
treated at auob length that I will not take more time with it bere« 



htjlammation is Oenej*ally Due io Micro-organisms. 

But there is another very important phase of the causation of all 
inflammations; and it will be observed that nearly all of these diseases 
have, sometimes at least, the characters of an inflammation. 

Although the graphic statement '* without bacteria no inflammation** ia 
now questioned, as to its being true as a precise soientifio proposition, 
because inflammationg have been caused experimentally in wbiob no 
bacterium or spore of a bacterium was found, yet the fact remains that 
aseptic surgery has proved that the proposition is practically true. That 
the exclusion of septic micro*organjsms, by cleanliness and care, has, in 
recent times, saved the lives of great numbers of persons who otherwise 



THE CAUSATION OF INFLUENZA, ETC. 



GClll 



I 



I 



would bave died, I have no doubt. Tbauka to the labore of MetohnikofP, 
Nutall,* Buohner.f NisaeDpJ LubarBcli,§ Prodden, |] and otbera, we now 
know that the normal blood-eerum (and this is true of the gaetrio juioe^ 
and aome of the other fiuids of the body) la oaptible of deatroyiog a 
limited uoiuber of mioro-organisma wbioh in larger numbera are known 
to be deadly in their etfeote. And thia may explain why oleanlineea and 
the exoloeion of nearly all * 'germs'' is eometimea effective in preventing 
intiammation. Not only ie the inSammation following wounds now gen- 
erally attributed to septic mioro^organiams, but nearly every one of the 
difieasea allied to iniuenza, and influenza itself has been attributed to 
[nioTO-organiams, Oertainly micro-organisms are present in iniluetiza, in 
bronobitis, pneumonia, taberoular phthisie, and in the inflamed joints in 
rheumatism. That micro-organisms euatain oausal relations to these 
diseases I do not doubt. Although the evidenoe which I present proves 
that the actual rise and fall of these diseases la ccxntroUed by conditions 
of the atmosphere, yet there are phenomena associated with eaoh of these 
diseases wbioh are best accounted for by the facts which have been 
establiabed relative to pathogenic mioro- organ isms. The proposition 
that» in order to be conaidered pathogenic of a given disease, the micro- 
organisms must be found only in that disease, it is now known should be 
modi tied, because there are diseases oauBed by micro-organisms wbioh 
are present in a large proportion uf person s in health r 

Take for instance siaphylococcus pyogenes which is known to cause 
boils, and osteo-myelitis, and is suspected of contributing to many dis- 
eases, and yet ie present in the months of a considerable proportion of 
persons,*^* and although harmless under ordinary oircumitances, is ready 
to increase and cause disease whenever unusual oonditiona favoring it 
occur 

Pneumonia has undoubtedly been produced in animals by their inocu- 
lation with micro-organisms not infrequently found in the human saliva. 

Dr. Sternberg of the U. S. Army was probably the first to do this, in 
18^0-4 and since that time moob has been learned. Pneumonia seems 
to have been caused, in man as well as in the lower animals, by more 
than one species of micro- organisms. Either that is true, or the micro- 
organisms assume different characters under different circumstances. 
Dr. Friedlander was, I think, the Brst to discover, in 1882, a micro-organ- 
ism which has been found in some oases in the lungs of persons dead from 
pneumonia, but it is claimed that the miorooocous of Fraokel (ii/ioro- 
coccus Fitsteuri — Sternberg) is found in a Btill greater proportion of cases. 

Dr. Millertf saya:— ''If the miorooocous of sputum septicaemia is a fre- 
quent inhabitant of the mouths of sound men, so is its presence in 
pneumonia nearly constant In genuiDe croupous pneumonia Fiankel 

• liaull: Experiinants abv di» UUrtarleafstadUebeQ EicflfilMedM thlerUoliea KOriMn. ZeitMshrift Iflr 
Hwete, Bd. It., p. 9M. 

f Baobaer: Ut>er dia balcterientAdt«Dda Wirkoay dee eelleafrAleD. BlotMrttma. Ce&tmlbl&tt fUr Bakter- 
loWie, eie,. Bd. r., No. 2S; Bd. rU. N. 

% NiMan: Zur K^atnba d«r bakterienTomiotitaadeti EigooMbaft dee Blatae. Zeite. r. Hrsiene, Bd. 
vl..t). 4S7. 

§ Lnbaraoh: Dbar die bektarleoTeraiohtendea Ei«eaachartoa dee Blntee.ete. CeiitralbUtt. f. B&ktov 
loWiv. 0to„ Bd. rU, Noe. IS. 19. 20. 

1 T Uitch«U Praddaa. M. D., in MedJc&l Recotd, Jan. 29, 1B90. to whom 1 am itidebted for the four pre- 
eediBtf refaraDoee.--H. B. B. 

T El«htoeath AjinoaL fleport, Local Got. Bd. Etml^ad, IS88-9, lapi^lemeDt ooDtaluIug tbe Ued. Offioet'e 
B«port. 1888, pp. 517, &2I, &U 

** kn ecoooDt of raaolta of experimeQta oa this point ia prlntad in this artiele, pAffe elju. 

tt " MicniHyraanitm der Mundh^Mer—tliUAr, pp. S07-3(>B. Bm aleo CrookBiumk, " Uaooal of Baktt- 
rloloc7," eeoond edition, p, 2S8. tmdeir " Baaterlnm Kptlemm apatlcenam.'* 




i 



cciv STATE BOARD OP HEALTH,-REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1891 

bae found it twelye times in fourteen oaBes, and WeiobBelbaiiin 81 Urnrn 
io 83 casee. " 

Not long ainoe Dr Vito Platania^ Id Italy, publiahed* an aoooant of 
researohee on the pnenmoooocua of Friedlflnder, made with a view to 
oonfirining the proposition that the introductioD of a virus into an 
organiem is not in itself euffioient to oauae the dieease. He ooneidered 
that ''Although it ia certain that, every time the microbe of Friedlander 
baa been inoculated into the lungs through the thoraoio walls pneumonia 
baa, in animals, regularly been reproduced, it abould nevertbeleas be 
borne in mind that this manner of experimenting is difiPereDt from^tbat 
which takes place naturally in man, who, in all probability reoeivee the 
apeoifio infecting germ by way of the respiration".! 

Dr. Platania found that simple inoculation in the trachea of guinea- 

Sige with a pure culture of the pneumooooous, without any other injury, 
id not, aa a rule, cause pneumonia; although by coincident meohanioal 
injury, or by cauaing the inhalation of irritant gases, pneunionia was 
produced, He cauBed guinea*pige to breathe air heated to 60 '% and 
immediately afterwards, air a few degrees below zero. '*Tbe definite 
reeulta of the experiments were, that of the eleven guinea-pigs inoonlated 
by the trachea and subjected to the chilling process, eight times, the resoit 
was positive, and three times, negative. If we compare this result witb 
that of the simple tracheal inoculation where out of ten caaea there were 
nine negative, we must arrive at the conclusion that really the infiueuce 
of the chilling manifests itself, in the experi mental field, as a oondition 
which disposes the organism to cultivate in the lungs the pneamoooooos 

of Fried hinder. J 

Dr* Platania caused the animals to inhale, with the cold air, dnat 
infected with the pneumoooccoa, **0f eight cases there were three posi- 
tive and five negative". Animala subjected to the chilliDg without 
Bupplying the micro-organisms had byper^smia but not inBammation. ^ 

The results of these experiments are in entire harmony with what we 
knew before j because many esperimenters have proved that the injection 
of micro-organisms into the lungs, in conjunction with injury, generally 
oauses pneumonia in animals; many observers have found tbeae micro- 
organ Jsms in the lungs of persons dead from pneumonia; many times 
pneumonia has been caused in animals by injecting into their lungs the 
saliva of healthy persons ;§ these micro-organisms have been found in 
the saliva^ and in the bodies of animals dead from injootions of the aaliva. 
Aooording to a recent writer^ ''The pneumooocous exists in tbe mouth 
of the healthy individual in at least 20 oases out of 100, "ij Statistics 
collected by myself prove that pneumonia occurs most after the atmos- 

Shere (to which all are more or less exposed) baa been oold, and that the 
Isease does not so often occur after the atmosphere has been warm ; that 
in fact exposure to cold atmosphere is a ''controlling cause" of the 
disease, or if that term is objected to, it may be called the controlling 
oondition. My belief ie that the controlling oondition of pneumonia, is 
eiposure to the inhalation of cold air, and that in some localities, probably 
20 per cent of the people generally have in their montbB, throats, noaea, 



• Qiom&l€ inUm. deUde ncivnte m^4ic^«, fnacicute V* 

iBulUiin G^.n^ral do Th'^rapeuUfiue, Paris, Francse, IS Z>«fc^mfrre, 1889. p. 
Bultetin O^ml^ralAe Th^rapeuHgue, 15 Df^eembre, 1S89. p. ^ZZ. 
BoatoQ lied. And 8arff, Jotir., Ja "™ 



SZO, 



\ La Rivltta Interi/ia&ionale d'I\ 
II Abitnct of SaiutaxT Reporta 



Thar. GMOtte, Feb. 15, 18M, pp. lU 



AprU, IE 

Harine Hoepital Benrl<», M&r 9. 1890. 




THE CAUSATION OF DJFLtJENZA, ETC. 



OCT 



I 



or air-pa0BBge«, the mioro-orgaoiBms whiob, tbrougb oonditions brougbt 
about by expoeure to the inbalatioii of oold air, are liable to oause 
pnenmoDia, in persons prediapoeed to tbat disease. 

The foregoing review of what we know about pneumonia, suggests 
what may be true in influen7>a, namely tbat inliaenza is due to roioro- 
organiams whiob are generally present in the noses or upper air-pass* 
ages of a oon eider able proportion of the people, and whiob are 
enabled to reproduce in unusual numbers, and by the poison which 
they excrete to oause influenza whenever through the in halation of oold 
air the upper air-passages are irritated, or tbrougb neiTOUs inHuenoe 
due to the impress of oold or wind on the surface of the body, there is 
fluob a flow of saline fluid to the upper air passages as shall supply oon- 
ditions favorable for tbeir rapid maltiplication; or, what is yet more 
likely, whenever, through the inhalation of an attooaphere which is 
unusually drying in its effects on the nasal seoretiona, the power of the 
Dormal nasal mnous to protect against the entrance of pathogenio micro- 
organisms is abrogated, and the germs then enter, whereas under usual 
conditions they are confined to the lower inch of the nasal cavities. 

Influenza in Animals and in Man, 

In some epidemics of infloenza boraes and other of the lower animals 
are attacked, and as a rule mankind is exempt; in some epidemics both 
lower animals and man are attacked; and in some epidemics mankind 
anffare and the lower animals are exempt. This seems to indicate tbat 
the prevailing germ or specific cause may not be the same in all epidem- 
ics. Some micro-organisms are pathogenic to some animaia and not to 
others.* 

Speaking of epidemic influenza, a writer in the British Medical 
Journal^ says: — 

"As a rule it has been preceded by a similar malady among horses: 
for instance in 1688 the cavalry horses encamped at the Curragb were 
affected several weeks before the influenza or 'short fever' appeared 
among the troops and civil population. In 1732-3 the horses were 
universally attacked with a running of the nose and cougb In 1743 the 
epidemic spread liret amongst the deer; then the horses were affected — 
many died. In 1775 horses and doge were affected in August and Sep- 
tember; but the epidemic did not attack men till October. 

'*The present epidemic among horses has now lasted for at least six 
weeks, and has spread largely in London^ affecting mainly the large 
stables, one firm of carriers having 100 horses affected at the same time. 
Horses in small stables generally escape, whilst those in large ones suffer 
»08t severely. 

**As the horses are already affected it behooves us to prepare by adopt- 
ing every invigorating means in our power to withstand the evil when it 
attacks ourselves. *'t 

The symptoms of Influenza in different pergons differ; and ihe^ sh&uld 
differ, as do the paihogeiiic micrO'OrganiBms which jnay enter the body by 
reason of influenza. 



* MUtro-«r«ftQi«eQ0ti dec HtiadbOhl« 

t Brltlih M«iicm] Joom^. Dog. 14, 18S», p 



HiHenpy. a04. 



ocvi STATU BOAED OF flEAI^TH,— REPORT OF SECRETARY. 18W. 

Seveial different pathogen io m ioro- organ i ems are known to be preseDt 
in the mouths of a propo7tion of all persons, both aiok and well. Among 
thee© aie the miorQcoooua of Hputum septicaemia (known to cause pnea- 
monia) the bdcittus crassiis sputigefins (Kieibohm)*, Staphylococcus 
pyogenes aitreits, and albtts, Sirepiococcus pyogenes^ Micrococcus ietrti^ 
gefiiis^ bactllus sulhyniifs sepiicus^ Coccus sahvtirius sepHcus, etc. 

Given entianoe to the body, these mioro-organisras differ eoroewhat in 
their effeot, and also as to the part of the body which they affect; tbn» 
Kreibohm, in the GottiDgen H5gieniQ Institute, found in bumaD eputaoi 
two kinds of pathogenio bacteria, one of which kind was found in great 
numbers in the lunge of animals that died from inoootatioD therewith^ 
while the other bacterium was not found in the lungs in greater number 
than in the other organs of the body*t Biondi (Breslauer arzliobe 
Zeitscbr, Sept. 1887; No. 18) found oae— the bacillus saiivarius i^epiicm 
which, although it had no special predilection for any organ, yet caused 
enlargement of the spleen, rjedema, and hemorrhages. X Kreibohm found 
twice in sputum a bacillus crassus sj^fttigenus which, in animals (rabhitB 
and dogs) caused diarrhea, bloody stools, death within three to ten hours, 
and post mortem appeaiances of gastro-enteritis.§ 

However, Biondi found two diSerent diseases produced in animals by 
the inoculation of the same mioro-organlem— S^rep/ococcus septo-ptfCEm. 

ict(s. •; 

SCMMABT OF C0NCLU8IONB, 



1, Epidemio Influesza is the same dieease as ordinary infloenza; as is 
proved by facte observed and recorded by a large number of phyaioians in 
Michigan. 

2. InOuensa is, to a very great degree, controlled by known atmos- 
pheric conditions, chiefly the temperature and the humidity of the atmos- 
phere, but wind has much influence, and probably also ozone/ fog and 
dust have influeDoe. 

B. Great epidemics of inHuenza have generally followed or ooincided 
with meteorological oon<|itionB which were very unusual. The recent 
epidemio has, in some parts of the world, followed, and preceding 
epidemioa have followed, or been attended with, great extiemes ot 
temperature, high winds^ winds from unusual directions, etc., dust, 
drouth, fogs, some of these conditions tending to increased numbers of 
micro-organisms in the atmosphere, and all tending either to evaporation of 
the fluids of the air-passages, or otherwise toward irritating the aii- 
passaiies. 

4. Briefly, the atmospheric conditions tending most strongly to cause 
influenza, are a high temperature followed rapidly by a low temperature, 
or by a wind which has theeflfeot of rapidly cooling and drying everything 
exposed to the atmosphere, including the air- passages of man. There is 
some evidence tending to show that when, after extreme cold, or after a 
drying wind the atmosphere suddenly becomes warm, the drying 
iniiience on the air-paesages of man, or at least the influenoe which 

* Pagn 806, Mlero-orianlBEDfla der Mimdhdl«, Millet. 
Fmm^ 204-4 Biul m, metQ-omBoiimm d«r MaadhOln. Mklier. 
Pace Htl, U.i&nM>tiiuilBma& der MaadbAle, Uiller. 
Paffe aoe, MlcTOHxrgaslim«D dar MiindhftLe. Miller. 
Pbgw 312-213, MtorcH>t«uiitiiien der Maud hole, UiUer. 





THE CAUBATION OP INFLUENZA, ETC 



cofU 



oausea ioEuenza ie etill further inoreaBed. Thus in the great apidemio in 
St Petersburg in 1782, the attnoflpherio temperature suddenly rose 92°, 
/rom a temperature of 47 below zero.* By such extreme oold, praoti- 
oally all moisture was oertaiuty expelled from the atmoapbere; by tbe 
euddeu rise of temperature the capacity of the atmoepbere for vapor of 
water was suddenly greatly iuoreaaed, eo that moisture must have been 
rapidly abstraoted from every moist surface inotudiog the air-paBBages of 
every peraon, except tbe few persons who, like cooks and laondreaaeB, 
chanced to be protected by surrouoding vapor of water. 

5, Abnormal evaporation of the mucus in the nose destroys one of 
tbe most Important factors for the prevention of the entrance of tbe germs 
of diseases. This is probably one of the most important factors to be 
considered in the causation of influenza and of all of the communicable 
diseaaea whiob enter with the air inhaled. 

6. Unusual evaporation of the noimal fluids of tbe air-passages leaves 
tbe chlorides and other non-volatile constituents in excess at the place of 
evaporation, and sometimes this goes so far bb to reduce below tbe normal 
tbe salts in tbe blood and urine, and this tends toward the precipitation 
of uric acid, and, consequently, toward neuralgia and rheumatism. 

7, So far as intiuenza is an inEammatory disease, it is probably depend- 
ant upon micro organisms, and upon those which are among the most wide- 
spread and common of all that affect tbe human organism; and they are 
not necessarily always of one species ; and it ia pTobabl® that the several 
varieties of the ordinary Staphifhcoccus and Sirepiococcus pvogenes are 
active agents in influenza, and in other diseaeeB which enter the body by 
way of the air-paeaages. (They are known to be present in influenza, f 
broncbitie,! pneumonia,! and in OBteo-myelitis«)f 

8. Influenza, or the '* influence'' which leads to it, supplies a way for 
tbe entrance to the body of micro-organisms which like SiapkifhcoccHS 
pyogenes may cause one disease or another, or no serioua trouble, accord* 
ing to conditions which, for instance, like a co existing injury to bone, 
may determine tbe ooourrenoe of ogteo-myelitis, or under other oonditions^ 
boile or carbuncles, or herpes. | Erysipelas and cerebrospinal meningitis 
have not infrequently, and pneumonia has still more frequently followed 
influenza,— tbe entrance of the roioro-organisme which cause these dis- 
eases being facilitated by tbe same * 'influences^* which cause influenza; 
but it is quite possible thai in some instances what is known as the 
'^inflaenza'' itself has been the effects of the local action, in the upper 
air-passagee and elsewhere in the body, of one or more Bpeoies of the 
micro-organisms which are believed to be the speciflo causes of the above- 
named diseases. Diagram 3, page clxv, shows that influenza and pneu- 
monia are almost identical in some particulars. If due to different speci- 
fic micro-organisms they must be very closely related species. 

9. Through Bimilarity of causation, and probably by contributing to 
their causation, influenza is allied to several important diseases, and, 
during an epidemic of it, tbe mortality is chiefly from those other diseases. 

10, Although influenza seems to be communicable, yet the onset of the 
disease usually affects so large a proportion of tbe people of a place, of 
the people of a country, and sometimes of widely separated countries, as to 
make it improbable that the disease occurs only by spreading directly 



• Sftaitarr B»oonl« April le. I£d0. p. 40a f Ftoffee cUx-clxxt of thi« nrtlola. 

t SUipkyhcoocuB pt/oe^met hMM bm& fotind in borpM labl&liA* md ettltivkted thafa£ri3iii* 



ccviii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SBCRBTABY, 1894, 

from perBon to persoD. Id the abaenoe of disinfeotion the germs tsnet 
persist for a longtime, and be very widely dieBemioated. The occurrence 
of the dlseaBe in a aimilar maoDer on vessela at sea ia also evidence Id 
the fiame direotion. 

11. The faot that bo large a proportion of the people of a city or a 
oouotry oorae down with iofluenza at thesame time* has led to the belief 
which seema quite possibly true that the germ of the disease baa some* 
times been carried in the air by the wind. But this faot is as eatisfao- 
torily explainedby supposing that the unusual' 'east wind" or other atmos- 
pherio condition to which the people have been exposed has rendered it 
possible for a ^Vgerm" or micro-organism ordinarily present in the noaea 
or mouths of persons to enter the air-passages and to multiply rapidly so 
that the poison and perhaps also the **germ" gains entrance to the 
general circulation of the persons primarily infected, and the germs 
spread to other persona in the same immediate vicinity. 

12. The micro-organisms which, thus far, have been found to bear a 
somewhat constant relation to influenza, bronchitis, and pneumonia, 
have alao been found in the mouths and noaee of a ooneiderable proper- 
tion of people in health. 

13. Ail of these faots are in harmony with the view that, through the 
influence of the unusual atmospherio oonditions, a micro-organ lam whiob 
ia quite generally present in the air-paseagee, or more likely in the moath 
or lower portion of the nose of man is able to gain further entrance, and 
to multiply to an unusual extent, and to affect injuriously the person io 
whose air-passages they are, and to be spread about the comma nity to an 
extent, and in numbeis greater than is common. 

14 If the foregoing is the true explanation, then there should be, 
under ordinary conditions of the atmosphere, occasion al slight changes 
which should be sufficient to cause influenza in a few susceptible persons. 
It is a fact that influenza thuaoooure in Michigan in every month of every 
year. It is also a fact that it sustains well-marked relatione to certaiD 
conditions of the atmosphere. It is also a fact that when influenza 
becomes epidemic those same atmospheric conditions wbiob have 
apparent causal relations to non-epidemic influenza, have similar appar- 
ent causal relations to epidemic influenza^ (This is shown by Diagrams 
3, p. olxv, and 10, p. cxovi. ) 



Tables, etc. 

TABLE ^.—Exhibiting, by Month9, the Average Dailp Velocity of the Windf for a 
period of 16 Years^ 1872-87 ^ id Denver^ Colorado; alao the Deaths from Conimmption,t 



Moath*. 


Jan. 

: 

165.8 
44.02 


Feb. 

160.9 


Mar. 


Apr. 


Mar. 

16S.5 
40,e5 


Jane. 

1B0.4 

20.00 


July. 


Aag. 


Sept. 


Oot. 


Not. 


Deo. 

IBIJ 
41.61 


BkUj &vi»tAge yelGcilt^ ot the 
wind, le ypiirt, 1872-87. at 
DeQTer. Colo.f.,, 

Deatht from ootunmEitlont. 


15.81 


180.S 
*I,00 


150.6 


iM.a 


188.1 
31 .00 


117.1 


154.1 

42.00 



• For inetaaoe, la iSiT th« eTttli« nniTeree wkm itrack In a few moDtbi, la 1850 all Bpaln was aSsotad 
with the Icflaeiiza on the sama day.*'— Pari« CorrM. Am. Pmotitioa«r, Feb. IA, 1800, p. |Q9. 

tThe data fur To!ocitr of the wind were inppUed br Bsrgeant J. J. GUUsan* Onttod States 8f«Dal Serr- 
loe. Denver, Ck^lorado. 

I In Colorado dnrlng the caoani fear 1670, In BeaTer darintf 1389. la Colorado Sprlnsa amd in B<nalder 
for a loQf ierles of Teara. The monthi are here mide of eqa&T leoirtb— tO darii. 




THE CAUSATION OF INFLUENZA, ETC. 



cctx 



The Udw '* D&Uf arsFiige valoeitr of tlw wind'* And *'DM,lbs from ootuampUou " in thla Table nre 
vnphle&Uj rapDMoatod la Dia^ir&m 8, pngs olxxzvl. 



TABLE B.— Average amount of Atmo9pheric Ozone {Night), by Montht for the 14 
Yeara, 1977-90, computed from reports of ab»erv(ition$bjf Meteorologieai ObterverB 
for the State Board of Health, at several stations in Michigan. 



Yem. 


Osone bf Ni«bt -Deiret of ColoaHoa of T^t-papw .• 


Jnc. Feb. 




Apr. 


Mnr. 


June. 


Jolr. 


An*. 


am 


Oet. 


NOT» 


Bw. 


At. 


14 ran™, lan-wu. 


S.89 4.U» 


t.08 


8.77 


168 


a.i7 


1.77 


1,7» 


LSI 


1.18 


i.tl 


8.70 



* Iq this oxblblt aUoiraQ09 hat boea m«d« for diEFereaoe In MDittlTetieM of dlfferait loti of tMt'pnper. 
t ThU averacd line U crftphteally reprMantel la Diagram 8. paff« oxoi. 



TABUFjI. ^Relation of Atmospheric Temperature to Influenza in Michigan:— Ea;hib- 
iting, by months, for the 13 years^ JS77~99, the Average Atmospheric Temperature in 
degrees Fah., at several BtationSt and the average sickness from InJluenzOj stated in 
percentage of weekly reports. 





Jul. 


Feb. 


67 


Apr. 
44.17 


Maj. 


Jaoe. 

W.i8 


Joij. 

70.78 


Aog. 

09.08 

19 


01.09 


Oct. 


Not. 


Dm. 


TMap«nmre* 


WM 

a 


B8 


49.49 
18 


mn 


r?j7 


Infia«Dn* 


BO 


m 


V 


19 


89 


4fi 





*Th« Horn for tempamtar« uid Isflaetisv Ate fraphionUr repreieatod m DiEgnm 10, pnce oxoTi. Tb« 
tftngm tor «T«rr month In th^jranr for eaob of the U joara are obowa in Table S» pacoi a«x and eozl. 



List of Diigram9 which are not here reproduced, but which were made, studied^ 
exhibited, and copies distributed to the audience when the paper was read. 

Oiifnm— Ezbibitlofffor each and erer/ month in eiob of the 12 years, lfiT7-!i8^, tbe relatioit between 
^IcJciieMin Miohigaa from Fnjtuttisa And the Averaje Atrnorpheric Ttmfl^eraturt* (Temperatare oarTe 
rerened.)* 

Dlnffrain^Bzhlbltliig by months. In each of the 10 years, 1879-8S, the relation between Stckneaa In Mioh- 
igftQ f^m /rt/ltt^nja and the Average DaUv Range of Atnuitpheric Ttmperature, 

Diagram— ExhibitloK by mDathfl, in each of the 7 years, 1SS2^H, the relation betweea StckneM In Hiohi- 
gna from fnfiwetua and the STerage dally Range of Atmoepherie PrtMrure. 

Disgram— EKhtbltlng by months In eaftb of the 9 years, 18S&-B9, the relation of Siektvu* in Mlohigan 
tram /4/f 4<eji£a to the Average Veloeits of the Wind in miles per boar. (From Begistan of Boblnson's 
•elf-regltterlng anemometer,)! 

Diagram— Exhibiting by raootha In eaoh of the 12 years, t877--A3, the relation between Sieknen in Michi- 
gan from Iii/luenzi and the average atmospheric Ozone (by obaerratioos day and night). | 

Diagram— Exhibiting by months in each of the U years, tB78-88, the relatloa betweoa Sichnet In Mich- 
igan from InflMmza and the arerage Relative Humiditv. 

Diagram— Exhibiting for eyery month in each of the U 7%sn, 1877-^, the relation between Siekneu in 
Mlehtgan from In/tuenza and the avefa^e AbtoluU Hum^itit^ (Hnmidity onnres reyereod.)! 

* A diagram (iO), page cxctI, exhibits the aTsirege relations for a serlsB ot yean, but not for each of the 
years. 

t A dlBgram, (7), page olxxxritl» exblbite the averags relations for a aerisa of years bat not for each of 
tbi! reara. 

t A diagram (fl), page cxci. exhibits the aTerage relations for a Barlas of yaars, bot not for each of the 
years. 

§ A diagram (0), page oxeriii, exhibits the aTerage relations for a eerlas of years« bnt not for each of the 



|i 






t OCX> STATE BOARD OF HEALTH-^REPORT OP BEOBETABY, IgM. 




TABLE S,— Exhibiting t for each month in the year for each of the H years, 1877-90 
the average percentage of weeklu reports of Hckiiess frovi Influenza in Mtchigan, 
also monthly averages for several series of years ; also, for comparison, exhibiting, 
for each month in each pear in correspofiding series of years, the average Atmos- 
pheric Temperature; the average Daily Range of Atmospheric Temperature: the 
average Daily Range of Atmospheric Pressure; the average Velocity of the Wind; 
the average A^tmospheric Ozone ; the average Relative Bumidity and the averagt 
Absolute HumiditUt all computed from reports of observations by meteorologioai 
observers for the State Board of Health at several stations in Michigan. 


1 




Yean. 


ATOcase par oaol of Beporto of lickooM from Infln«iCT> 






Jan. 


Fab. 


Max. 


Apr. 


MM. 


Jon*. 


Jol,. 


An«. 


Bept, 


Oot, 


Not. 


Dm. 




ign... ....„„.. . 


06 
70 


65 
81 


60 
6t 
76 


BO 
U 
H 


88 
41 


17 
37 




15 
24 
S8 


85 

88 
38 


84 

41 

80 


a 

80 


48 
57 
11 


1B7IU„.„^...«« 






ISSOl.. ..., 


^ 
&? 


64 


60 


46 
B2 


M 

90 


u 

IS 


14 
ft 


ai 

16 


SB 
17 


sa 

18 


iS 


88 

a 




18BL . 




188JL . . 


IS 


61 


K& 


47 


40 


n 


n 


19 


38 


40 


44 


51 






1881., .,„, 


SI 


u 


71 


60 


SO 


u 


S4 


n 


86 


85 


ae 


47 






1884 — ^.. . 


K 


ai 


SO 


48 


41 


m 


S7 


80 


84 


»7 


u 


48 






iflae... „ 


B8 


BO 


sa 


41 


Bl 


^ 


18 


18 


80 


81 


ar? 


40 






1B8S. 


44 
4S 


ei 
u 

M 


6£ 


54 

a 

41 


85 
34 

as 




14 
13 
18 1 


10 
18 


81 
87 
10 


17 

28 


80 
88 
81 


48 

» 
40 




1881...- 


iflsa. 






lawL. 




44 

9S 


IS 
71 


90 
51 


34 
44 


n 

00 


16 
24 


16 

IS 


81 
U 


18 
40 


30 
56 


87 

88 

48 




1880^ 




At. U jtmn^ 1877-S0*_„„„ 


m 


81 


68 i 


60 


m 


87 


l» 


80 


28 


88 


40 




At. 13 jean, IStl^aet— 


ts 


68 


57 


fiO 


87 


tt 


IS 


19 


17 


88 


i» 


40 


AT.l0yeafa.IS80-€»t.^ , 


u 


S6 


96 


4S 


» 


M 


n 


19 


86 


31 


88 


H 




* Ttiift linn is gimpblealir repreeeated in Diagram S, pvse oxci. j 
t This line is graphicidlr repre»ent«d m Bi&sr&tn t, ptg^ exeriii, and in DiAftam 10, pfl#B ozotL 1 
t This Una is frraphicftU; r«preeeQted m DiAgmm T, pBue oIxxxtUL J 

1 1 


1 









THJi CAUSATION OF INFLUENZA, ETC 



CCXr 



TABLE 8.— CowTWUBC— AliFiospAerMJ Temperature in Michigan, SeritB of Ytart 

bf MontJiB. 



L 



























1 


Y«n. 


ATorase AtmCMptiArle Tamperfttnn— Dasrsn fkh. 


























Jul. 
19.18 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


Hay. 


JOD*. 


jQl,. 


Am. 


Sopt. 


Out. 


Not. 


Dee. 


m 


UM 


46.71 


56.14 


67.48 


78.80 


70,52 


08.80 


88.78 


87.67 


86.78 


im... 


27.17 


29.7» 


41.40 


M.W 


S4.7t 


66.18 


74.22 


70.02 


62.00 


60.18 


38.84 


22.74 


vm . 


ao.8e 


ao.w 


33.06 


44.28 


&8.03 


64,70 


71.18 


68.90 


57.48 


67,« 


38.80 


20.41 


IBW...^ . ,_. 


urn 


nm 


S1.€0 


44.I0 


82.17 


67.41 


09.30 


68.07 


S0,54 


40.88 


27.24 


20.07 


1BS1 „. 


li.M 


19.79 


».» 


40.St 


62.73 


63.84 


71.05 


71.70 


87.00 


51.87 


37,42 


84.08 


un 


UM 


».4t 


MJt 


41«fi 


6t04 


64.a 


07.84 


08.05 


81.70 j 


58.58 


37,80 


25.72 


im 


15.78 


tfMHt 


M.fla 


48.00 


&1.87 


04.78 


08.18 


05.41 


07.84 


40.78 


88.10 


26.90 


I88i. _ 


ii.u 


20.04 


28 78 


41.00 


M.38 


67.04 


08,70 


08.10 


04.72 


51.58 


S4.53 


24.77 


188B 


1B.I6 


10.20 


Itfil 


41J« 


5l.tl 


6l.aB 


71.11 


62 J3 


S0.14 


45.78 


18.14 


27.50 


iBse . .. 


]fi.7a 


11.08 


10.10 


46.04 


64.09 


08.81 


mM 


07.86 


01.15 


61.84 


84.82 


80.44 


i«n.. ...... .„..„. 


!«.» 


11,17 


8&.&5 


41.00 


00.68 


06.U 


71,82 


08.U 


s7.oa 


44.46 


8^.18 


27.57 


188B .„ 


1A.9I 


11.BB 


26.S0 


42.81 


U.40 


68.08 


TOlBC 


08.05 


58.20 


46.01 


2S.72| 


80.78 


\m.. _. 


si.ia 


18.(7 


».8a 


46.04 


66.74 


68.06 


70.00 


08.58 


81.88 


44.60 


33.05 


80.70 


kw. \Z 7«an« lfi77-««*.. 


10.4» 


St.92 


2B,ttt 


44.17 


60.18 


65.28 


70.78 


08.08 


81.00 


40.48 


a8J2 


27.77 



Tbii JliM li iiAphldJlir reprerantedllD Dimimii 10, picQ czcrri. 



TABLE 8.— ConTiiiiTED.— .drerafl* Daily Eange of Atfno9pheric 

Degrees Fah, in Michigan, 



Ttmperature — 



T«u«. 


Ju. 


Fftb. 


Mat. 


Apr. 


M^. 


Jan«. 

21Jf7 

18.81 
1S.27 
30.38 
18.13 
21.00 
22 J8 
23.08 
20,88 
21.11 

30je8 


July. 

30.92 

18.E0 
10,40 
20.25 
18.00 
20 J8 
22.08 
22J4 
21.01 
20.08 


Aoff. 

32,21 

17,07 
19.82 
16.80 
22.05 
21.27 
18.40 
18.77 
20.81 
20.21 


8«pt. 

10.06 

17,88 

17.76 

18.81 

29.05 

20JSJ 

20.42 

18.88 

18.78 : 

3023 


Oct. 

18.81 

18.37 
16,111 
10,77 
15,70 
18,69 
16.81 
19.81 
16.50 
1*38 


Not. 

18.00 
14,52 

i4.n 

18.51 
16,34 
16.17 
11.58 
15.11 
U.80 
13,47 


Dm. 

15.83 
11,38! 

nil 

12,48 
15 44 
14.00 
kl8 
15.44 
11.88 
11.28 


im. ...._ „ 

leao 

UM! 


17,13 

15.56 
16.10 
15.70 
17.84 
17.72 
17.03 
13.65 
17.J» 
1&.28 


17.64 
17,47 
17.88 
10.52 
tB.I« 
17.78 
S2,M 
17.40 
17,06 
17.70 

mm 


18.85 
17,46 

14.87 
1&.8& 
£1.44 
19.88 
22.23 
15.01 
18.02 
17.73 

17.60 


21.43 

18.15 
10.48 
IftOB 
18.64 
19,22 
18.25 

mM 

19.52 
18.70 

19.85 


23 J8 
20.86 
21.88 
10.55 
20.21 
19.60 
19.72 
21.87 
22,52 
18.04 


1882 


1883 „...„..„...._. 


1884.... 


1880 ...„. 


1888. 


1887. 


1888 „ 


At. 10 jittrt, 1878-88. ,... 


18.40 


20Jt 


30.86 


19.06 


19.80 


17.86 


14JS 


13.17 



J 



<9Cxii 8TATB BOARD OF HBAI/TH.— ksPOBT OF SBOKBTABY, liBB 



TABLE 8.— OoirmfXTED.— DaiZy Range, Atm^iBpherio Prtmure, 8eriM of Tear% bf 

MonthSt in Michigan, 





YBftlH. 


A¥eni« DaXtr Eaogn of Atiiio«pherlo PniMiu«* 
































Jon. 


Fob. 


M&r. 


Apr. 


M«7. 


Jni&ft 


jQly. 


AtK, 


8#pt 


Oat. 


KOT. 


D«e. 


IBBL.. 


... 


JS8 


.SK 


.862 


.m 


.m 


.1«3 


123 


.095 


.148 


,200 


.18» 


,136 






.307 




.2S5 
,277 


J80 


.177 


.U6 


.130 


.119 

.154 


J98 

.lot 


,326 


.we 

.212 


.281 


__^ ,. ^_ ,__^ 


laes.,. 




.lie 


.an 


.287 


.S5S 
.166 


.148 
.167 


.105 
.131 


.115 

.ly 


.166 
.142 


.178 

.187 


.2S» 


.Idl 

.»9 




1881.,. 




war... 


^. . . . _ . „*______ . . 


.U4 


.417 


.m 


.2£S 


.m 


.lis 


.lit 


.111 


,178 


.tlB 


,357 


.2» 


leaeL.. 


— ...— 


.1192 


.ioa 


.m 


.240 


.171 


,197 


.106 


437 


,m 


.117 


.S06 


JI3 


At. 7 Twn. lB8a^8&,„ 


Ml 


Ml 


.m 


•" 


■tM 


.141 


tUa 


•in 


.m 


.211 


.MS 


Mi 



TABLE S.—CovTiNUKD.— Average Veloeity of the Wind^^Miles per Hour, In 

Michigan, 



Y«&r«. 


JftQ, 


Feb. 


H.r. 


Apr. 


Msr. 




jQir- 


Atig. 


Bept. 


Oct, 


Not. 


Dtw. 


18S0_. . ... „ — .. — ., 


11.0 


ia,6 


12.8 


ms 


1D.4 


6.9 


6.6 


K.9 


g.1 


7.0 


8,« 


7,4 


1S8U..* . 


T.* 


11.0 


10.4 


§.8 


S.4 


a.4 


8.1 


7.0 


10.3 


8,7 


|4,i 


llJ 


i89a.,.„, . ..„..„, ...... 


ILB 


iij 


ll.g 


U,l 


10.1 


a.7 


a.« 


Q.O 


7J6 


8J 


5.8 


l&l 1 


iBsa... „„ ,. , ^... , ._, „._. 


10.9 
11.1 


1D,« 
B.2 


io,a 

8.8 


9.9 
10 J 


10.7 
0,4 


aj9 


B.7 
l.ft 


7.0 
7,0 


0.3 
0.0 


10,S 


Its 

10.t 


10.8 

lOJ 


1884-.„.„... .„_ ._ 


1S16 _,..„„„._.„. 


1D.S 
11.6 


9.0 
U.2 

11,1 


lOJ 
lO.l 
^.9 


10.0 
B.7 
10.7 


0.0 
8.4 
7.4 


8.7 
7.S 
6J 


7.« 
7.0 
7.^ 


ai 

7.4 

7,0 


8.B 
0.0 

8.4 


8.2 

8J 


8.0 


lUB 
lOJ 

Ujo 


isao....- ..„„ 


18»7„.„... _ „. 


IMft— 


102 


10,1 


11.4 


io.§ 


0.1 


8.6 


7.8 


a.6 


8,3 


10.1 


10,8 


1£.0 


ISBflL...... „..„..... ™. 


10.2 


10,7 


*'* 


B,fr 


OJ 


7.5 


6.9 


77 


9.1 


S.S 


».1 


lUt 


At. l&fiara. 188l>-8«t ,_. 


10.6 


io.e 


10.9 


10.4 


e.i 


8.0 


7.6 


7.4 


8.7 


s.a 


10.6 


10.S 



* For Telocity of the Trind, one station only, ia represented for 1880 and 1881 ; for ths remainlnir 
from 7 to 9 stations are represented, 
t This Une is graphically represented in Diagram 7, page olxxxriii. 





^" THE CAUSATION OF 1NFLUE^ZA. ETC. CCxiii 1 




TABIjB ^.—QotnxfiXit^.—Atmowpfwric Ozone in Michiffan, Series of Years, by 

Month$, 




lean. 


AtmcMpberic (Hnnn.— Dsr and Ni«tit Obsenratioiui. 




Jaa. 


Iiib. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


Mar. 


3mm* 


Jmly. 


An*. 


Sept. 


Oot, 


Not. 


Deo. 


IB77„....„,. 


iM 


1.90 


1.8S 


LSI 


119 


i.m 


1.77 


1.00 


106 


2.41 


196 


169 




IWBL....„.„ 


a.w 


4.tl 


4,84 


1.71 


3.5S 


1.00 


tM 


2.50 


167 


8.17 


3.29 


178 






187«.... „„.„„„„.„,„. 


S.BO 


8J8 


8J1 


3,27 


2.84 


1.25 


2.10 


L9S 


2.17 


2.42 


1.01 


107 






I880U . . 


ia» 


4.11 


i.19 


4.10 


1.61 


1.80 


1.96 


1.70 


2.31 


2.71 


1.51 


182 






imL. 


8J» 


4.88 


4.1S 


1.91 


1.41 


t.U 


a.u 


8.15 


3.18 


l.OS 


1.71 


140 






MM. 


3.dl 


1.98 


4.18 


%.n 


1.89 


8.41 


18L 


1.41 


184 


im 


8.06 


180 






VSSL. _ 


4.BB 


4.18 


8J8 


1.48 


1.M 


8.09 


iM 


2.52 


1.61 


1.08 


110 


150 






1884 


Z.K 


3.S3 


8.18 


8.18 


1.18 


181 


1.71 


i.n 


2.49 


2.67 


2.74 


198 






18BS. 


t,U 


1.40 


1.67 


8.00 


8.11 


8.02 


2.75 


1.25 


2.94 


8.24 


1.14 


112 






W&L.,. ._......„ 


tM 


a.41 


1.17 


1.09 


1.10 


8.10 


1.71 


8.17 


1.11 


3.8& 


1.46 


158 






ia» 




1.78 
1.81 

1.77 


I.SO 

4.1S 

1,79 


3.4A 
4.87 


8.B8 


8.18 

&.oe 


1.90 
8.10 


3.04 
1.75 


8.16 
4.24 


8J5 
4.81 


124 
8.61 


191 
4.81 


■ 


1888... 


^ 


kw. liy«an, lim-88.., 


MS 


tM 


1.41 


8.14 


1.70 


178 


188 


1.08 


%M 


151 


g 


* 


1 i 

TABLE 8, — OoNTtNOiD.— ilrercwe Relatitm HumidUy—'Per cent o/ Saturation, bj/ 

Months, in Michigan, 


i 




Y«n. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr, 


May. 


Jime. 


Julr. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Not. 


Deo. 


5 


1878..... ,. „„ 


S3 
BS 


80 
80 


75 


71 
M 


09 
«l 


71 

70 


76 
70 


74 

70 


76 
76 


75 
74 


79 
80 


86 
81 


ri 


im. „,. 


^ 


• 


1880. 


TO 
79 
81 


75 
81 

n 


7fl 


87 
SB 
08 


m 


70 

« 

7t 


74 
69 
70 


75 
60 
81 


74 
74 
77 


75 

m 

76 


77 
79 
79 


81 

60 
91 




I88L 






IfflS. 


82 
80 


SI 

8a 


78 

n 


87 
87 


70 
TO 


71 
78 


76 
71 


71 

73 


75 
71 


76 


76 
79 


80 
81 




Ifl84.._ .„,._,.„.. 


^ 


lasft 


80 


80 


77 


71 1 


80 


70 


71 


78 


76 


79 


81 


81 




■ 


U88L , . „„ 


8» 


81 


80 


76 


71 


78 


71 


75 


78 


75 


76 


81 




\ 


188T. 


7t 


BS 


79 


74 


70 


75 


70 


71 


76 


76 


78 


88 




H 


MB6. . ... 


90 


87 


84 


89 


71 


70 


71 


71 


74 


78 


79 


88 




At. 11 lean, 1878-W 


83 


81 


77 


70 


68 


71 


72 


74 


78 


76 


T9 


91 




i^ 





"OOIV STATE BOARD OF HBAI/TH.— RBPOBT OF SBORBTABY, 1001. 



TABLE H.^ConTnxuED,—Atmo»pherie Humidity in Michigan, Skriei of Ymtn^ ftf 

Montha, 



T«fen. 


ATttncv Abioluto Bamiditr— Qr«lDB of Vapor la a Cable Foot of Air- 




























Jan. 


Fftb. 
LSI 


Mar. 


Apr, 


Mar. 


JOBD. 

1.07 
b.26 


jQlr. 


An*. 


a«pt 


OdL 


Kot. 


Dm. 


isn..„_„-. -,..... 


1J7 


Ul 

i.79 


16S 


4.10 


7.14 


6.a4 
«.37 


&.44 


4.08 

8,43 


MS 

147 


L54 


1W8.— — , ..„.. 


!»».._..- , .„ . 


IJl 


L23 


L83 


I.S4 


3.04 


ft.09 


6.30 


5.QB 


4.4D 


4J1 


LIS 


L70 


IflW, ,.-„„- .,_„„„>, 


2,11 


Les 


L70 


s.a» 


iM 


1^,57 


SjQQ 


».0? 


4.74 


LIB 


L70 


Ltt 


1SM......_. .„„....„ 


LOS 


1.38 


L73 


3.41 


iM 


4.se 


«.S3 


ft.»7 


5.7S 


%M 


%M 


IM 


IBM,,.,,.,., ™:,.„.. 


1,18 


IM 


2.ce 


I,SO 


a.ao 


A.^ 


s,sa 


8.47 


&.08 


tM 


tM 


IM 


*OOW___ r -- 9 v.vav^a^.^BBB.a ■*•••• 


1.U 


L» 


Lse 


£Jfi 


3.44 


a.4£ 


fl.oa 


s.ao 


iJl 


8ja 


i.« 


IM 


uu 


ije 

L3& 


0,»t 
L4S 
LIS 


L77 
L3& 
tJI 
XM 


2,43 


1.78 
tM 

44S 


fi.Efl 
4.B0 
4Jt 

s,so 


&.40 
S.13 

BJ9 
«.20 


6,68 
B,7B 


B.»4 

iM 

4.ST 


1.71 

ai7 

IM 


241 


IM 

L7I 
L» 

Ln 


li^ 


18». ,„„.„ 


mi. ..„ 


vm... ...„..„..- ._ 


LM 
1.77 


IJIl 
LU 


1.87 
1,13 




3.8G 


B.71 




s.ei 


4JI0 
4.BS 


1.01 
1.79 1 


1.4S 
EJl 


LM 
MS 

\M 




At. 18 THAT*, M77-6B •_ . 


1^ 


Ltf 


IJO 


LTt 


1.04 


MS 


tm 


SJI 


i.87 


a.u 


t^ 



•This line is giaphioally repreiented in Diagram 9, page oxoriil. 

NoTS.— For the plan for Table I, page olxxiv, and for aome of the data for It, I am indabted 
^* Ver6ffenUichunoen dec Kaiaerlichan &e»wndJte4teamt««/*— Jan., 1890. 



PRINCIPAL 



[PART 11] 
METEOROLOGICAL 



IN MICHIGAN IN 



CONDITIONS 
1893. 



COMPARISONS OF CONDITIONS IN 1893 WITH THOSE IN PRECEDING 

YEARS. 



A COMPILATION OP REPORTS BY OBSERVERS FOR THE STATE BOARD 
OF HEALTH AND FOR THE UNITED STATES WEATHER BUREAU. 



OOMPILBB UNDER THE 



OIBBCTION OF THE 8ECBETARV 
STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



(1F THE MICHIGAN 



I 



111 the ADDual KeportB of tbis Board, tbere bae been publisbed for eaob 
of tbe years 1817 to 1892, iDclosive, a eiimmary relative to the prinoipal 
iiieteorologioal oonditionB as observed during the year. This paper ood- 
tinoes the subject for tbe year 1893. The names of the observers for that 
year, and the months in that year for which copies of registers of naeteoro- 
logioal oonditions were received from each, are stated in Exhibit 1, page 
2. In Exhibit 2, page 3, is given tbe latitude, longitude, and elevation 
of each of these stations. In the tables which follow, reports received 
from any observer for lees than half the year have not been used. 

The prinoipal conditions treated in tbe following tables are temperature 
and humidity of tbe air, cloudiness, fogs, rainfall, ozone, velocity and 
direction of the wind, and pressure of tbe atmosphere. Tbe tables on 
each subject are illustrated by diagrams representing to the eye variations 
in the given condition from month to month through tbe year, at the 
several localities represented. 

These tables give not only the meteorological oonditions for the year 
and month under consideration, but they also contain, for purposes of 
comparison, statements of the average oonditions for the longest period 
available in each case. 

In the latter part of the Report for 1886, there was published an article 
on ** The Causation of Pneumonia," in which extensive use was made of 
meteorological statistics, especially those relating to the meteorology of 
Michigan. In the Report for 1887, in an article on '* Tbe Causation of 
the Cold-weather Diseases,'' influenza, tonsillitis, bronchitis, scarlet fever, 
diphtheria, and sroall-pox are proved to sustain very oloee relations to 
meteorological conditions. Extensive use of meteorological and sickness 
statistics is made in tbe Report for 1887, in an article entitled *' The Rela- 
tions of Certain Meteorological Conditions to Diseases of the Lungs and 



ft tions c 



2 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT ^OF BEOKBTABY, IBOL 

Air.passagea." In the Report for 1891, ''AbstraofoflPiooeediiin April 
14| 1891, " in a diBcussion od the Bubjeot of '*The OauBation of loflaenn," 
is an important use of the meteorologioal data, with diagrams and other 
evidence, showing how closely influenza is associated with atmospherio 
temperature, humidity, ozone and wind. In the Report for 1891, pim 
ozzvii, is an article entitled '* Relations of Certain Meteorological C^ico- 
tions to Diseases of the Lungs and Air- passages in Colorado," in whioh 
are also data relative to other States and conntries. In eaoh_ of the 
Annual Reports of this Board since that for the vear 1877 oonsiderable 
use has been made of the sickness statistics in Michigan, for the oompletd 
study of which, data of the meteorological conditions coincident with the 
sickness is required. 



EXHIBIT I.— Names of observers whose reports are stimmarized in the folUnting 
Meteorological Tables and Diagrams^ their places of observation, and the eounOet 
and geographical divisions of the State in which these places are situated, amd 
monUis for which reports were received from each observer. 



Name of Obeerrer. 



W.G.GatM. M. D 

P. MoDonon«h,OlMerTer, U. S. 

Weathsr Bareaa. 

C. li. BowU, Obeerver, U. S. 

Weather Bnreaii. 

B. L. Doeher. Obeerrer. U. S. 

Weather Barenn 

A. B. Haokett, Observer, U. S. 

Weather Boreao. 



8. B. Wait 

H. MoP. Baldwin, Observer, U. 
8. Weather Bareaa 



D. W. Mitchell, M. D 

Geo. W. Feloer, Observer, U. S. 
Weather Bareaa 

J. W. Aah 

Wm. M. Edmondson. Obeerver. 
U. 8. Weather Bnrean 



JohnaCaolkins, Id. D. 

Prof. R. C. Kedzie 

Wm.H. Force 



Prof. Chas. B. Barr 

Asaph Hall, Jr., Director De- 
troit Observatory 



J. H. Kellcwg. M. D.^ 

Wm. M. Edwards, M. D.. Sept. 
Asylam for Insane 

Geo. H. Greene. M. D. 

Lewis Mar vill 

C. B. Beers 

C.C.Tefft 



8. Alexander 

Edward A. Evans, Director 

Mich. Weather dervice & L. 

P.O 



Plaoe 
of Observation. 



Rockland 

Marqaette 

SaoltSte. Marie.... 

Manistee 

Manistee 

Traverse City 

Alpena 

HarrisviUe 

Grand Haven. 

Ashton 

Port Haron 

Thorn villfl 



Agr'l College 

Office State B*d of) 
Health, Lansing ) 

Albion- 

Ann Arbor. 



Battle Creek. 
Kalamazoo .. 

MarshaU 

ParkviUe.... 
Tecamseh... 
Teenmseh ... 
Birmingham 



Detroit. 



Coonty. 


State.* 


Ontonagon — 


D.P. 


Marquette.... 


D.P. 


Chippewa 


U.P. 


Manistee 


N.W. 


Manistee 


N.W. 


G'd Traverse.. 


N.W. 


Alpena. 


N.E. 


Alcona 


N.B. 


Ottawa 


W. 


Osceola 


N.C. 


8t.Chdr 


B.&B. 


Lapeer 


B.&B. 


Ingham .. 


C. 




C. 


Calhoun 


8.C. 


Washtenaw... 


S.C. 


Calhoun 


8.C. 




B.C. 


Calhoun 


8.0. 


St. Joseph.... 


8.C. 


Lenawee 


8.C. 


Lenawee. 


8.C. 


Oakland 


8.B. 


Wayne .^ 


8.B. 



Monthajinelcudva) for 



which 



Jan. to Amr., Jdxw to Dml 

January to DaeamlMr. 

January to DaeamlMr. 

January to AprfL 

Juna to Aucoat. 

January to DaoamlMV. 

January to DeoemlMr. 

January to DeoamlMr. 

January to DeoamlMr. 

January to HawmBohm, 

January to DeoamlMr. 

January to 0eoenib«. 

January to DaeamlMr. 

January to DaeamlMr. 

Jan. to Au«. and Oet. to 

Dec. 
January to Deoambar. 

January to Deoambar. 

January to DaeamlMr. 

January to Oetobar. 

January to 

January to ApclL 

May to 

January to! 

Januarjto 



* The oountiMi in each division are stated in Exhibit I. on aubaequeut page. 



METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1883. 



8 



The artiole in this Beport in relation to '* Causes of Diseases," based 
upon weekly reports of siokness in Miohigan, may well be studied in oon- 
neotion with this artiole, the main purpose of whioh is to serve as a basis 
for studies of the causes of diseases. 

It is believed that there is nowhere else so complete a statement of the 
faots relating to the meteorology of Miohigan as is here presented, for any 
nse for which such knowledge may be needed, now or hereafter. 



EXHIBIT 2.— Latitude and Longitude, Elevation above Sea Levels and the Average 
Temperature, and Average Barometric Preseure in 1893, at 6 Meteorological 
Statione in Michigan,— the names of the Stations being arranged in order by 
latitude, highest first 



LooaUeies in order of Laei- 
tods, thoee iSartheet North, 
first. 


Latitude 
North. 


Ix>ncitade 
West from 
Greenwich. 


Altitude 
(Approxi- 

Ftot. 


Heiffhtof 
Meroarj in 
Cistern of 
Barometer 


ATera«e 
Tempera- 
tnre» 1893. 

Degrees 
Pahr. 


AtmospKrio 

LcfSiroi 

Mercmr 

corrected 

for Temp. 


iVw^ian^. 






1,190.34 

669. 

642. 

687. 

598. 

616. 

600. 

700. 

500. 

602. 
§ 975. 

820. 
11900. 
^762. 

608.9 

800. 

944. 

930. 

833. 

965. 

835. 








Marqn^t^ 


46*34 

46*28 

45*5 

44*45 

44*39 

44*13 

43*58 

43*5 

43*0- 

• 42*55 
42'44 

t 42*44 
42*30 
42*20- 
42*20 
42*18 
42-17 
42*17 
42*14 

• 42*1 


87*24 

84*22 

83*3 

85*40 

83*18 

86*16 

85*45' 

86*18' 

8i*i6 

♦ 83*10 
84-29 

t 84*33 
83*10 
, 88*3 
85*11 
85*37 
83*44 
84*58 
84*45 

• 88*57 








Baolt Ste. Marie 








Alpena 








Traverse Cit7 

Ha<Ti«^iiff 


605. 


48.76 
40.76 


29.389 








Athton 




— --"" — 




Oimpri H«v^. 
















Thomville. 


§ 960. 
834. 
917. 


46.99 
44.96 
46.03 
47.08 


28.916 
29.019 
29.0M 


Agrienltoral Gollese 


r.^nf{iif , ff R o' F, 




Detroit 




Battle Creek 




48.27 


29.081 


Kalamasoo 




Aon Arbor 


986. 
886. 
985.25 


46.50 


29.010 


MarehalL 

Albion , 






Teoamaeh 


46.40 


29.108 







« Estimated from lines on a map of Michigan. issDed by the Qeneral Land oflBce. Department of the 
Interior, 1878. For stations having no reference mark, the latitade and longitnde were stated hj the 
observer on the meteorological reports received. 

t The exact latitude and longitnde of the astronomical post placed in the ground near the new Capitol at 
Lansing, bj the U. 8. Lake Survey in 1875, as determined by the obeervations then made, is 43*43' 53.11" 
N.andM*33 19.68 W. 

X Brtimated from data on " Railroad Profiles,*' pages 179-187, Annual Beport of the State Board of 
Health for 1878. 

ft Estimated from data in Taokabury's Atlas of the State of Michigan. 

1l Estimated from comparisons of baromeUical observations at Lansing, Port Huron, and Grand Haven 
fte the font years, 1879-82/ 



NOTB.— Gteen*s standard barometer was used at the above stations for the year 1883. 



STATE BOARD OF HEAIiTH.— RESFORT OF SBGRBTART, IflM. 



EXHIBIT 3.— Average Temperature by Years and ManthSt far each of the Yean 
1877-93, and the Average for the 16 Years, 1877-92. These Averages are for Qnmps 
of Several Stations in Michigan. 



YtmxB, flte. 



At, far W Yrs.,*1f-W 



1*77...... 

1S79 

IBM 

IBM...... 



J8A. 
jsaa. 

1SB7, 
tSBS. 

urn. 



AlLDIUl 



4fl.U 



4ft.£l 

ia.sa 

46.G5 

47,U 

44.71 
i»M 

UM 
UM 
ilM 
4T.S8 

4e.m 

4T.il 
45.31 

4&.64 



Jan. 



il.i7 



1948 
27*17 
£0,86 
S4.U6 
14.03 
UM 
15,7fi 
lft.l« 

lA.ie 

1S.7I 

£8.1g 
10,06 
SBM 

w.n 



Feb. 



21 J^ 



l£*£7 

£0.«9 
£7.» 
10.75 
93.42 

ao.03 

£0.»4 
10.11 

ai.itf 

21J7 
21.a& 
Wi.57 
m07 
27.33 

^.00 



t».aa 



£S.B1 
41.46 
3^08 
31.00 
29.39 
34.12 
£4.SS 
i8.7fi 
1V,S1 
30.10 
£5.99 

aM 
27A1 

2S,44 

•o,ei 



Apr, 



44.31 



4«.T1 
M.a7 
44.29 
U,^ 
iOM 
41.69 
43.00 
42.00 
41.SI 
16.04 
4&09 
4^.BI 
48.04 
15,23 
47,11 
43.hO 
13,19 



Miv, 



VHM 



se.i4 

»4.7> 
S8.03 
9i.i7 
6172 
M.Oi 
S1.37 
54.39 
Bl<81 
54.69 
60.6a 
&8.40 

se.7t 

M.41 
fifi,40 
B3.7a 
&4.80 



Jaii«. 



65,81 



ffr.46 
65. IB 
64.70 
6T.41 
6S.1£ 
64 .48 
64.73 
67.04 
6SK.» 

mM 

^m 

SS.05 

mM 
ilM 
66.70 



JuJ^. 



70.96 



71.80 
74. E£ 
78.16 

60.» 
71.09 
67.»1 
68.i8 
66.70 



Aus, 



6T.e« 



7a52 
70.Bi 

6B.n 

6a.07 
71.76 
ISO.DG 
63.41 
66.10 



TLI8 i «t.2S 



Aa.6H 
n.n 
70.tn 

70.69 
71.2» 
66.67 
70^ 
UM 



e7.M 

0S.41 

66,05 
dS.58 

mM 

66,01 
68^7 



Sept Get, 



61.18 



61.80 

6l.0» 
BT.U 
U.B4 

63.00 
61.70 
57.24 
61.72 
50.14 
61.16 
51.05 

mM 
es.fio 

61^ 

60,40 



49.37 



&S.7S 

Eoas 

57.41 

4a.aB 

51^7 
53,65 
46.79 
51.50 
45.78 
Bl.Si 
UM 
40JQ1 
44 JW 
48.88 
40.01 
4aJ$7 
SO.EW 



Not. 



16.10 



87-57 
S8^S4 



SJgt 



SOJO 
S7.£t 

37.41 

aa^io 

S4.S3 

aSvU 



K.1B 
SS.Tl 
17 JB 



84 JIT 
96.81 



16,11 

9.41 

iLflj 
S4^ 

a.Til 

"I 

14.77 1 
17 JO I 
KM I 
nJT 
HLTO 
WSM 

mm 

14.U 
■4,11 



EXHIBIT 4:.— Average Temperature by Year and 3fonths, for each of the Years 
1879-93, and the Average for the 14 Years, 1879-92, at the Office of the State Board 
of Health, State Capitol, Lansing, Michigan. 



Tears, eto. 


AnnuKl 
At. 


Jan. 


Feb. 
*4J7 


30.K2 


Apr. 
46.08 


liar. 

S7.fl5 


Jane, 
eT.73 


jQlj. 

71.06 


An*. 
68,61 


61 JO 


Out, 


Not. 


Oh. 


AT.forUYrsM'TO^)! 


47.33 


2U7 


50.00 


nj2 


»M 


1870 


48^7 


16.81 


22.40 
61.62 


96.27 
31 as 


47.54 
47.46 


60.88 
65.48 


•7,71 

60.44 


75.86 
71.89 


70.05 
70.18 


58,11 
61.10 


50.U 

4&M 


88.1£ 

18.78 


ftM 
UM 


1880 


1881 


49.BP 


16.QS 


a2.27 


30.5^ 


43.2S 


66.04 


6S.0O 


75,41 


74.63 


71,33 


51,SS 


iS.78 


UM 


1882 


40.23 


25.65 


15,88 


36.14 


44.^8 


53.10 


66,g6 


72.57 


71.^4 


65.64 


55.68 


mm 


a,u 


1883 


45.6tt 
47.43 
45,01 


17,01 
16.48 

15,95 


12.07 
21,80 
10,40 


28 04 
12,26 

ai.s7 


46,42 
45.3f> 
48,B7 


MM 
58.ID 
68,71 


66.08 
70.0B 
65,26 


70,42 
60,77 
73,85 


67,78 
68,58 
63.28 


59.42 
67.00 
&5.8S 


48.31 

58.47 

46.a 


447,08 

ao.6i 

18,11 


18.47 

28.01 
tf.U 


1884 


1885 


1886 


46.10 
46.60 


10.02 

lajfl 


22,44 
24.30 


12.00 
27.H1 


50.16 
4,^.27 


S7,77 
64.24 


66,i!0 
80.44 


70^ 
75.76 


6S.40 
tr.Ofl 


61.81 
E8j66 


&L7S 
45.19 


84.02 
16,50 


19.61 

S7,ei 


1887 


1888 


4M0 


1A.B3 


li.2& 


27J0 


44.10 


51.01 


88,S0 71.00 


67.77 


57.79 


48.« 


30.16 


31.10 


1880 


47.e,S 


£0.00 


ISM 


36.81 


46.01 


56.94) 


63.36 ' 70.59 


68.44 


6ija 


44.M 


87,71 


17^ 


1800 


47.80 


31.63 


31.51 


2^.93 


46.^ 


93.04 


71,01 1 71,81 


69.S8 


67.07 


40,08 


80.46 


27.46 


1881 


48.27 


27.74 


20.1B 


20.90 


48.12 


56.01 


68.27 


tS.S4 


68.20 


65.87 


4S.B8 


84J0 


MM 


1808 


46.sa 


1001 


27.01 


30.15 


44.6S 


54.01 


68.22 


71.41 


SS.5S 


61.48 


40.27 


14,11 


m.u 


1888 


46.03 


15.00 


ao,6K 


"•" 


43 08 


55.20 


60.14 


71.14 


«.« 


60^^ 


51.W 


16.40 


11,10 





METEOROIiOGICAL. CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1883. 



EXHIBIT 5»^Aver€tge Temperature by Year and MonthSt for each of the Years 
1864-93, and the Average for the 29 Years, 1864-92, at the Agricultural College, 
Michigan, 



Yittn, ttto. 



AT.roTe9¥n,.'«4-«e 



ifwa, 

vm. 
isn. 

IWS. 
UN. 

mt^ 

UTS. 



U77. 
WIB. 






1BS4..„. _„_. 

ie». ,. 

im. .— ,„. 

isas... .,..._„ 

1889.. „ ....,-„ 

vm ... .- 

leei „..,_,. 

vm 



AiiniuJ 



iB,i9 



17,32 
15.60 

leji 

IA.S4 

I0.I1 

4S.M 
44^ 
4?. 05 
43.06 
46J7 
47.42 

4«.8e 
IT,3£ 

4a.7a 

4T.5T 
48^ 
49.05 
4S.00 
46.10 
4«.60 
45.08 
47.3S 
4TJ0 
4TJ8 
4&.«8 
44,9B 



Juu 



21J7 



£tZB 
£U0 

n^ 

19.00 
29,36 
2S,I7 

u,n 

UM 

W.87 
27.70 

12,87 

mm 

29.11 
1«.19 
S7.I0 

24.j» 
14.39 
15.4« 
19.34 

18,78 

iB.ao 

111.40 
2S.04 
SI .34 
S0.7O 
Iti.lft 
14^ 



FiBli. 



£4,flO 



27^ 
27.K4 
22.71 

30.69 
1«.72 

mM 

24.2S 
2&.fi5 

ai.34 

19.10 
2!i.Sl 

7.99 
27 .S8 

3t.il 

28.07 
20,40 
29,19 
ZiM 
3&.I2 
19,70 
28.iS 
BM 
ZS.2T 
£4.20 
31,% 
18,25 
31JU 
2B.W 
ST.aO 
21,31 



30,62 

£e,flO 

29.?^ 

riM 

tO,2S 
24,15 

ft2.ao 

Sfi,a} 
so*^ 

24.St 

4D.90 

aai9 

3$.$0 

24,89 

SI ,31 

SS.29 
27.03 
»M 
28.1A 
39.30 

mss 

36. 1« 



Anffil, 



4S,74 

4sje 

47.40 
4a,94 
4S,2lO 

4s.ee 

45.70 
S0.B9 

w.ia 

47.89 
13.17 
«,87 
il.U 
44.16 

aj6 

B0.S5 
44 J« 
4S^ 
4S,&9 
44.70 
4».48 
43.00 



lUy. 



67,77 



00.19 
97.65 
S&M 
5L]1 

59.08 
54)02 
64.32 
61.29 
5S.43 
56.1)6 

00.82 
57.ffi 
58. ES 
54^7 
SII.T6 
64.30 
65.24 
52.73* 
92.98 

M.ao 



43.59 53.76 
60. 18 ! fl8.06 
45.37 I UM 
44.08 ' 5lja5 



46.59 
47. Oil 
47.40 

44.ao 



17.17 

52.69 
56.70 
54.50 



4J».50 ] 54.40 



JUIM. 


Jti^f. 


Ao^. 


»BP<. 


DcL 


Nof. 


Dec. 


67,61 


71.37 


es.w 


60.18 


4S.13 


35.53 


i»,n 


67 .6£ 


74^2 


70.72 


s&.a2 


45.74 


37.88 


24.27 


70.76 


66 JO 


65,84 


6T.66 


46JiO 


38 Ji 


27,72 


66 JO 


71.72 


62.60 


a5,M' 


49.50 


87.94 


25 J« 


7L61 


71.00 


69,78 


56.60 


50.60 


40,4* 


25 Jl 


«a.4« 


77.19 


70 J» 


58.77 


45.19 


50.77 


21.16 


64.45 


70.»' 


70,58 


63.45 


40,80 


8£.05 


28.16 


70^7 


71.40 


70.U 


63,66 


52.45 


3^.40 


24 JO 


6S.2I 


TO.M 


71.19 


58.10 1 


53.91 


8L95 


ai.13 


UM 


74.91 


71,2a 


6t.D3 


47.4i 


t»M 


16.74 


70.60 


70.S2 


e».49 


57,S8 


4IJfi 


3aj.40 


29.54 


70.W 


72.08 


09.39 


62^5 


49,10 


35,(30 


26,96 


6B.57 


09.67 


65.48 


5S,S0 


42.«3 


B2,96 


31.S8 


mA4 


72.« 


7I.B5 


B8J0 


43.74 


86.3S 


16.^ 


asjK 


71.4a 


68,16 


6L2S 


S0,B3 


35,24 


38.57 


64,08 


73.04 


70.15 


63.15 


48.13 


36.29 


21.29 


6102 


74,03 


70^ 


56,21 


57.28 


38,22 


27.46 


67,60 


68,04 


6ajis 


55.31 


46.23 


27,M 


22^ 


64.8] 


7a.i3 


72J9 


69,68 


5£,51 


8s.ao 


51.31 


68.49 


67.71 ; 


mM 


59.9i 


B2.67 


36.80 


24 JO 


65,87 


as.B4 


64.90 


56.43 


46,17 


38,08 


26 J8 


68.92 


67.96 


H«,9L 


65.06 


50.91 


34.11 


24.71 


64.69 


72.70 


tStM 


59,94 


44.M 


37,22 


27.75 


65.72 


70.ffi 


m,m 


62,07 


52.37 


38.94 


19.74 


68.5* 


75.51 


67.96 


58.86 


44.97 


35.66 


27.W 


(fJM 


70.53 


67.5S 


57.73 


45.70 


BS.50 


30 J9 


62.ea 


70.19 j 


68.56 


61.24 


U.19 


S7.Sft 


•6.75 


70.40 


71.04 


65.42 


57.76 


40,11 


89.06 


20.45 


67.40 


66.30 


67.90 


6510 


48.80 


83:90 


34.50 


67.70 


70.29 


68 JO 


60.80 


48.36 


34.20 


£5.59 


66.60 


71.50 


66.10 


58.41 


49.70 


85.61 


27.60 



6 STATE BOARD OF HEAI/TH.— REPORT OF SEORETABY. IBM. 



EXHIBIT 6,— Statements of Meteorological Conditions in the year and in each mtmtk 
of the year 1893, compared toith the annual and montMy averages for 1892, and for 
several stated periods of years. These statements and averages are for Or«afft 
of Seyeral Stations In Mlchiiran. 



Meteorological 
Conditions. 



Ykab 1808. 
At. Temp 



Range of Temi 
lit 



At. Monthly Range 
of Temp.* 

At. Daily Range of 
Temp.* 



January. 
At. Temp 



Range of Temp.* 

At. Daily Range of 
Temp.* 



Clondineee. 



RainfUl 

Atmospheric Pres- 
snre 



Maboh. 
At. Temp 



Range of Temp.*. 

At. Daily Range of 
Temp,* 

Clondinesfl 



Rainfhll 

Atmoepheric Pres- 



May. 
At. Temp.... 



Range of Temp.* . 
At. Daily Range of 



Temp 
Gloodineea.. 



Rainfall .... 

Atmoepheric P^es- 



1898 
Compared with 

ATeragee for 
PreTioos Years. 



No. or 
Tears 
Aver- 
aged. 
end'R 
with 



More(-l-). 
arl«8(-), 
In 1893 than 
the Average 
for PrerloiiB 
Tears. 



-30 
— 1° 



8.14- 

+6per ct. 
+.11 in. 
-.198 in. 



+1.28- 

-V 

-83* 

— 2perct. 

+.14 in. 

-.078 in. 



In 180.3 
More (+), 

OrL888(-). 

than In 



+.81' 
-8» 

+!• 
-i-.77 



-8.49"' 
-4" 
-1.57" 
+15perct. 
+.89 in. 
-.091 in. 



-1.62' 

-5' 

-1.16- 

-.59 in. 
-.124 in. 



+2.270 

-.62' 

+ 8 per ct. 
+1.01 in. 
-.060 in. 



+.57- 
+8» 
+1.98' 
-ISperct. 
-2.54 in. 
-.013 in. 



. Meteorological 
Conditions. 



YxAB It 93. 

Continued. 

Clondineee 



Rainfall 

Atmospheric Pres- 
sure.. 



Fkdbuaby. 
At. Temp 



Range of Temp.*. 
At. Daily Range of 
Temp.* 

Clondiness 



Rainfall... 

Atmospheric P r e »• 
Bare.. _.. 



Apbil. 
At. Temp. 



Range of Temp.*. . 
ATrbaily Range of 
Temp.* 

Cloudiness 



Rainfall 

Atmospheric Pres- 
sure...^ 



JUMX. 

At. Temp 

Range of Temp.* 

At. Daily Range of 
Temp.* 

Cloudiness 



Rainfall ._ 

Atmospheric Pres- 
sure 



1898 
Compared with 

ATengea for 
PreTiona Yeara. 



No. of 
Tests 
Aver- 
aged, 
end*g 
with 
1892. 



in 1893 
the A 
tor 



M««(4-), 
ni893 Uian 



— 2 par ot. 
+1.70 In. 
—.087 in. 



-».7»" 
-9" 

+.98" 

+.80 in. 
-.019 in. 



-l.ia- 
-4» 

-8.08* 
+17p«rot. 
+8.80 In. 
-.131 in. 



18 


+3.a4- 


16 


-^ 


14 


+.«■ 


16 


-16p«rct 


16 


-.88 in. 


10 


-JI26111, 



In 1893 
(+). 

than IB 



— tparet. 

+3J61n. 

—.0861b. 



-«.17" 
-^ 

-f4.U- 
— Uparct. 
+.02111. 
—.018 In. 



+.»■ 



+IDperct. 
+2.611n. 
—.118 In. 



+2J8» 
+«• 
+2.W 
—86 pert 
—132 in. 
+JM0ln. 



* By reffisterimr thermometere. 
Comments on Exhibit 6 are printed on page 10. 

The low temperature for May, January and February, and the small amount of rainfall for Ancast 
are especially noticeable. 



MBTEOROIiOaiGALlCONDITIONS IN MICHIOAN IN 1893. 



BXHIBIT 6.—CovTiinrKD.'-Meteorologieal Conditions at stations in Michigan, in 
months for the year 1893^ compared with averages for corresponding months in 
preceding years. 



Meteorolosioal 
Conditions. 


1898 
Compared with 

AToragee for 
PreTiooe Teare. 


In 1883 
More(+), 
• LBeeH. 

than la 
1892. 


Meteorological 
Gonditiona. 


1898 
Compared with 

ATsrageefor 
PieTloos Years. 


In 1898 
Mcre(+). 
wLeeeH. 

tmmln 
1892. 


No. of 
Tears 
Atbt- 
a««l. 
end'g 

Wl(Il 

1892. 


In 1803 than 

theAveraee 

for Frerloos 

TeUB. 


NO. Of 
Tears 
Aver, 
seed. 
en<rg 
with 
1892. 


Morem. 

or Less ^), 
in 1891 than 
theATersge 
for PrerUnw 
Tears. 


July. 
At. Tamp..^_ 


16 
16 
14 
16 
16 
16 


+140- 
-!• 

-.14* 
-2parot 
-.80 in. 
-.043 in. 


+1.29* 
-!• 

-1.27" 
+6 perct. 
+.44 in. 
-.079 in. 


August. 
At. Temp. 


16 
16 
14 

16 
16 

16 


+.64° 
-V 
+2.04° 
-11 per ot. 
-2.03 in. 
-.088 In. 


-J4« 

+!• 
+2.19" 
-8 perct. 
-1.70 in. 
+.007 in. 


JUnam of Temp.*. 

IrTDiiUr Bange of 
Twinp.* 


Temp.* ?.. 


Olo^flfnittt 


Cloadineas 


R&lnMI 


Rfiinfilll 


Atmoepherio Pree- 
mire.. ... 


Atmoepherio Pres- 
■ore.. 




Sbptkmbm. 
At. Temp... 

Ay. Daily Ban«e'of 


16 
16 
14 
16 
16 
16 


-.78* 
+«• 
+»" 
-1 perct. 
-.63 in. 
-.102 in. 


-.68- 
+6* 
+.22«' 
+6 perct. 
-.49 in. 
-.066 in. 


OOTOBKB. 

At. Temp _.. 


16 
16 
14 

16 
16 
16 


+1.22' 
-3- 
+.09° 

-11 perct : 
+1.07 in. 
-.092 in. 


+1.72° 
+8* 

—Iperot. 
+2.84 in. 
-U)17in. 


Range of Temp.*. 

ArTjSailj Bange of 
Temp.* 


^lnn<ilntM 




BainfaU .. 

Atmoepherio Free- 
iore- 


Rafn^n 


Atmoepherio Free- 


At. Temp 

A?!^^ Ruge of 


16 
16 
14 
16 
16 
16 


+.42* 
-«• 
+.17- 
-4 perct. 
-.12 in. 
-.099 in. 


+8.00- 
+3« 
+2.68- 
-20 perct. 
-.09 in. 
-.011 in. 


DXOKMBXB. 

At. Temp. .._.. 


16 
16 
14 
16 
16 
16 


-.99° 
+11° 
+1.12° 
+6 perct. 
+1.14 in. 
-.068 in. 


+2.72- 
+7° 
+8.04- 
+1 perct. 
+1.79 in. 
-.006 in. 


Bange of Temp.* 

ArTDaily Bange of 
Temp.*.. 


Gloadinees.. 




BainfUl 


BainfiOL 

Atmoepherio Pres- 
Bore - _.— -. 


Atmoepherio Pree- 
eora.^... 







By registering thermometers. 



8 STATE BOARD OP HEALTH.— REPORT OP SECRETARY, 1894. 



EXHIBIT l.StatemenU of Meteorologicai Conditions in the year and in each monik 
of tlte year 1893, eompared with ann%tal and monthly averages for 1892, and for 
several stated periods of years— from obaervationa by Prof. R. C. Kedxie, at the 
State Ag:rieiiltDrat CoUei^ef near Lanjifoir« Miclii^an. 



Meteorolofnoal 
ConditioQB. 



1!W. 

Comporsd with 

Avera^Cifl. for 



¥k.\b 1>J93. 

A.T. Temp... 

BaDfwof Temp.* ... 
Av. Monthly BaDge 

of Tb«rap.* 

Av. Daily Kantce of 

Tamp.* 



Jamdaky. 
At. Temp 



Banmof Temp.* 

AvTDaily Ranore of 
Temp* 



CloadineHD. 



Bainfall ... 
Atmctflpberic 
anre 



Pree- 



Mabuh. 
At. Temp 



Banffe i>f T(»mp.* 

At. i)aily Range of 
Temp.* 



(ylomlinees. 



l™|orLw*(-), 
!JJj:ltJiftAiwr«» 



Rainfall I 

At-moNpheric Pras-' 
bure.. I 



May. 

At. Temp... 



Ranjm of Twiip.*. . .. 

At. Daily Range of 

Temp.* 



CluudiawB . 



Rainfall 

Atmoepheric 



1.51 
-I 
-I- 

+1.00= 



-7.17^ 

+5.71' 
T-fli per et. 
-M in. 
-Ml In, 



-a.ee 

—J perct. 
-,ii in. 

-,01I in. 



In l^m 

Mure(+), 

111 Ml In 



sa 



+2.fl' 



-ft' 

-Mi p«r et. 
■\-M in. 



-M.VI 



I— .31 in. 
IS |-.Oflflln. 



+.V 
+.80' 
+5 per et . 
+Lril in. 
-.071 in. 



^40- 

Tl.3i' 
- IS per ct , 
-3.06 in. 
-j|]«2, in. 



HeteoroloelQal 
(■ondlUoiii. 



Veab 1BII3. 

Cojiiinued. 

<HoQdkieaB.,„. 



Rainfatl...... 

Atmotpherla 



FcBatJAKT. 

At. Temp 



aangeofTemp,*. 
At. Daily Bance of 

Temp*......,,. 



Clcmdiiwea. 



RalnfaU 

Atmoaphiiria 
•ore 



April, 
At. Tiinp...„. 



Baofrenf Temp.*, 
At. Daily Range of 
T«np,*,_.,..„, 



(UondiUMB. 



B«lnfftll„._..._ 
Atmofpharlc Free^ 
■nre.. ..^. 



At. T«mp.^.., 



Rantfe of T^mp.*. „. 

At. Daily Haoge oT 

Ttomp.*...... 

(Tiaadiiieee , . 



Bainfall. 

Atmcxapberic 



Prw 



Compared with 

ATirrMt^ for 
Previuat i'eiura^ 



No. ot 
Ytmn 
Atw- 

witli 



More (4-), 

Ln 1883 (ban 
EheATence 
for pnTloui 



— t per fit. 
-.11 in. 
-JQSI In. 



-8.88- 

Q 
~M in. 
+.028111. 



-tM* 
^* 

+ieperct. 
+2,47 in. 

-.(»1 In. 



-1.01" 

— lOperct. 

+J01I1. 
+.010111. 



(-rl, 
or Lev H, 
tbaoLb 

ie«2. 



—apflret. 
+1.87 iB. 

— .onia. 



-** 

+ije- 

-13 pw ot 
-.10 in. 



+*« 

+11 per ot 
+a.J7iii, 
— l.tSio. 



—1*10' 
^- 

+A.2I' 
— Iflpvrct, 
+.U in, 
-\-JOeD in. 



•By reiiisterinir thermometers, set at 7 a. m., and recorded at 7 a. m., for the pracedinc 
Comments on Exhibit 7 are printed on pa«re 10. 
The low temperatare for May and the snwll amount of rainfall for Jaly and Angoat, 1891, 
notioeable. 



dmj. 
eapecially 



HETBOROLOOICAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 



EXHIBIT 7.— CoirriNUED.— Jfetooroto^tcoi Conditions at the Agricultural College in 
months^ for the year 1893 ^ compared with averages for corresponding monuiein 
preceding years. 



• 


Compared with 

ATerages for 
PreTioDs Years. 


In 1893 
More(+). 
orLeai(-). 

Uumln 
1892. 


"SS38!gS^ 


Compareii with 


In 1883 
More(+). 
orI«s(-). 

than In 
189S. 


No. of 
Tews 

AW- 
aced, 
end'ff 
with 
1902. 


lnl803Uiaii 

theAveraoe 

for Prertooa 

Teen. 


No. of 
Years 
ATsr. 

2a 

with 
1892. 


More(+). 
or Less i-). 
In 1893 than 
theATcrsge 
for PrarlooB 


July. 
At. Temp. . 


29 
20 
19 
29 
89 
18 

29 
20 
19 
29 
29 
18 


+.28* 
-V 
+1.28' 
-5perot. 
-1.20 in. 
-.012 in. 

-1.97- 

+6- 
+4.72" 
—6 perct. 
-.99 in. 
-.142 in. 


+1.21* 
-4" 

+2.66» 
+7 perct. 
-.14 in. 
-.122. in. 


AUOUBT. 

At. Temp.... 


29 
20 
19 
29 
29 
18 


-.46" 
+8» 
+4J7<» 
-18 perct. 
-2.82 in. 
+.021 in. 


-.80" 
+W 
+8J8- 
-5 perct. 
-4.56 in. 
-.006 in. 


ArfCLil^y Buce'of 


Banoe of Temp.*.... 
At. Daily Bance of 




CrInndinMa 


BainftOl 

Atmoepberie Prae- 
eafe-.__- .... .. 


RainfUl 

Atmoepberie Prae- 
Bore.. ....... 


SXPTSMBKB. 

At. Tamp 

BanceofTnnp.*.... 

Arr&ilj Range of 

l^mp.* 


OOTOBXK. 

At« Teinpr 


-2J9" 
+14' 
+6.07* 
+1 perct. 
-.88 in. 
-.152 in. 


29 
20 
19 
29 
29 
18 


+1.57" 
+6'' 
+8.20O 
-Uperet. 
+1.18 in. 
-.120 in. 


+1.40<' 
+8" 
+J6* 
+8 perct. 
+2.88 in. 
-.129 in. 


Ranae of Temp.* 

AVT^idlF Bance of 
Temp.* 




Glondineaa 


BainfnU 

Atmoepherio Prae- 
■nre 


Rainfall 

Atmoepberie Piee- 
anre 




AT.T^mp....,.: 


29 
20 
19 

29 
29 

18 


+.10« 

+5- 

+4.55- 

-5 perct. 
-.11 in. 
-.098 in. 


+1.48" 

+14° 
+4.4C" 
-20 perct. 
+.86 in. 
-.113 in. 


DsozxBn. 
At. Temp. ._...__... 


29 
20 
19 
29 
29 
18 


+1.280 
+16" 
+8.61«* 
+6 perct. 
+.38 In. 
-.113 in. 


+2.01O 
+84« 
+4.76'» 
—4 perct. 
+.76 in. 
-.121 in. 


fr^'lESi-oi 


Bange of Temp.*.... 
At. Daily Bange of 


ClimdinMMi 


Cloadineea . . 


PMitilWH 

Atmospberie "Pnie- 
•ore.... 


RalnftiU 

Atmoepberie Pree- 
aare . 







' By registering thermometers, set at 7 a. if ., and recorded at 7 a. m ., for the preceding calendar day. 
2 



10 STATE BOARD OF HEAI/TH.-^BEPORT OF SBORETART, 18M. 



METEOROLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC^ OF THE YEAR 1893 IN MICHIGAN. 

At the Beveral meteorologioal stations, in different parts of the States 
the average temperature for 1893 was .50° lower than the average for the 
preoedine 16 years: the annual range of temperature was 3° lower than in 
1892, and 3° lower than the annual average range for the preoeding 16 
years; the average monthly range of temperature was 1° greater than in 
1892, and 1^ less than the average for the preceding 16 years; the average 
daily range of temperature was .77° greater than in 1892, and .09° less than 
the average for the preoeding 14 years; the average cloudiness was 3 per 
cent less than in 1892, and 2 per cent less than the average for the preced- 
ing 16 years; the rainfall (rain and melted snow) was 3.26 inches greater 
than in 1892, and 1.70 inches greater than the average for the preoeding 
16 years; the average atmospheric pressure was .036 of an inch less than 
in 1892, and .087 of an inch less than the average for the preoeding 16 
years. 

In Exhibit 6, pages 6, 7, is given by year and months, a comparison of 
conditions in 1893, in Michigan, with those in 1892, and with the averages 
for periods of years. June, July, March, October, August and November 
(naming the months in order of greatest difference) were the months in 
which the average temperature in 1893 was higher than the average for 
corresponding months in the preceding 16 years; January, February, 
May, April, December and September were months in which the averase 
temperature in 1693 was lower than the average for corresponding montns 
in the preceding 16 years. 



METEOROLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE YEAR 1893, AT ONE 

CENTRAL STATION. 

At the State Agricultural College, near Lansing, and near the center of 
the thickly-settled part of the State, the average temperature for 1893 was 
.90^ lower than in 1892, and 1.6V lower than the average for the preced- 
ing 29 years; the annual range of temperature was 4° less than in 1892, 
and 1° less than the average for the preoeding 20 years; the average 
monthly range of temperature was 4" greater than in 1892 and 1" less than 
the average for the preceding 20 years ; the average daily range of tem- 
perature was 2.27'' greater than in 1892, and 1.00" greater than the average 
for the preceding 19 years ; the average cloudiness was 3 per cent less than m 
1892, and 3 per cent less than the average for the preceding 29 years; the 
rainfall (rain and melted snow) was 1.37 inches more than in 1892, and .11 
of an inch less than the average for the preceding 29 years ; the average 
atmospheric pressure was .077 of an inch less than in 1892, and .(^1 of 
an inch less than the average for the preceding 18 years. 

In Exhibit 7, pages 8 and 9, is given by year and months, a oompari- 
Bon of conditions in 1893, at the Agricultural College, with those in 1892, 
and with averages for periods of years. October, December, July and 
November (naming months in order of greater difference) were months in 
which the average temperature in 1893 was higher than the average for 
corresponding months in the preceding 29 years; January, May, Febm- 
ary, March, April, September, June and August were months in which 



METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 189a. 11 

the average temperature in 1893 was lower than the average for oorre- 
eponding mooths in the preoeding 29 years, at that Btation which is near 
the central part of the State, 

Whoever will carefully study Diagram No. 1 (p. 20) in this article, and 
in Bimilar articles for preoeding years, will see that theriuometers and 
methods of observation have become so perfect that, given a curve repre- 
senting correctly the temperature by months at one station in Michigan, 
onrves can readily be con8tructe<4 without actual records, wihoh will some- 
what closely represent the temperature at each of several other stations, 
because the curves for many stations run so nearly parallel that all that is 
neoeesary to do is to find the average ditference of mean annual tempera- 
ture at the station to be represented compared with the station for which 
the data are given. It may also be seen that a curve representing the 
temperature at a station in the central part of the State very closely 
resembles the curve representing the average for many stations represent- 
ing nearly all parts of the State. This proves that the practice adopted 
many years ago of stating the meteorological characteristics at one central 
station is a reasonably safe practice, and it is especially useful when it 
enables us to gain a comparison for a longer, period than can be made 
from records at many stations, and also when employed in advance of the 
receipt of records from all stations, as is the case when the weekly bulle- 
tins of '* Health in Michigan" are issued, for the purposes, for which the 
meteorological conditions at the State Capitol are used to represent the 
conditions probably prevailing throughout the State. 



LOCAL METEOBOLOOICAL PHENOMENA IN THE SEVERAL MONTHS OF THE YEAB 18ML 



mm 



The following general remarks relative to temperature, frosts, effects on 
tation, migration of birds, etc., in 1893, are taken from the monthly 
reports by observers. The names of stations are appended ; the names of 
oDaervers are stated in Exhibit 1, page 2. 



Jamuabt. 

Depth of aaow on ftoaod. 14 laehM, Jan. 15 ; Jan. SI, 24 inches— HarrisvUU. 

•Ton. mm colder by 7 or S d««rree« than tKe z>orm&l. At tbe cIo«e the ice oo the w?e& poods is aboat a 
foot thick. Bdow b to drifted— difficolt to Bfltiznata— probabl^r atxitit two fMt deet>* Qood slaighing ill 
th0 month.— ThomviUf. 

Depth of «aow oo grottod IS.a laches, Jan. IB ; Jan. tl, 1«.4 inches,— Marquftte. 

Depth of snow on gronod. 17.8 inchee, Jan. Ifi ; Jan. 31, 25.6 inches.— Saul/ Ste, Uarie, 

Depth of anow on gronnd, 22.2 inches, Jan. Z\.— Alpena, 

Depth of Buow on irroand, 24 inches, Jan. 15; Jan. 31, 14 laobet. Harbor badly blocked by ice from 
Jan. B to 16th. which extended for miles into the lake, oaoaiim aJmoat a aospf nHiou of nayi^ation whiah 
ie kept open br the boats of the D, Q. H. and Mil. R. R,—Qrand Haven. 

Depth of snow on groand, 17.7 inches, Jan. 15 ; Jan. 81, 4 \uch».— Dtiroit. 

Depth of snow on gronnd, 10 inches, Jan. 15 ; Jan. 31, A inches.— Laiwtnir. 

Bess were oat Jan. 2S, 7&,—ParkvHle, 

PKBBUABY. 

D«pth of inow on ^roaad, 24 inches. Feb. IB and tH.—HarrigvUlB. 

f^ftb* was cold and stormF— several degrees below the average for this tatitnde. Thers was good ateigh- 
ing all Che month where the roads were not too bidljr drifted. Snow in the woods near I j three feet deep 
■k eloaa. Ice on ponds aboat a foot— about the same in open— not mnch in sheltered grounds. It has 
beea a steady oold winter.— T^omHfte. 

ATsrage depth of snow on gronnd, 1& inchsB^ Feb. IS; Feb. 2B, 14.5 inchm. 



12 STATE BOARD OF HEAIJTH.— REPORT OF 8ECRBTART, IBSi. 

NaTigation ^juost siup«idad daring the month on aoeoant of the immaoaa amonnt (^ ioe In ths kki 
wfaioh freqaently blocked np the harbor. The boats of the D. Q. H. and MIL. B. R. mad* Tacy Cmt Mpi. 
—Orand Haven. 

Depth of snow on ground. 4 V inches, Feb. 15 ; Feb. 28, 8^ inches.— Tec vmseJk. 

Depth of snow on groand, 12 inches, Feb. 15 ; Feb. 28, 22.5 inchee.— Afarguefte. 

Depth of sDotr on groand, 24.8 inches, Feb. 15 ; Feb. 28, 25.4 inchfp.— ^t»ff 8t«. Marie. 

Depth of snow on groand, 19 inches, Feb, 2^.— Alpena. 

Depth of snow on groand, Vi inch, Feb. 15 ; Feb. 2S, 5 inches.— Z>tftrott. 

Depth of snow on groand, 5 inchee, Feb. 14 ; Feb. 28, 6 inabes.— Zxintinir. 

Bees were oat Feb. 28 and 21.—Parkvaie. 

Maroh. 

Depth of snow on groand, 18 inches. Mar. 15. No snow on groand Mar. il.—HarritviUe. 

Etobins, blaebirda and biackbirds seen Mar. 11. 

March was a little colder than the normal. Sleighing lasted tUl abont the 10th. Tha earth waa ao wdl 
ooTwed with snow that the wheat and clover wintered well ander it. There was ao little tromt in tbs 
groand that mad has been as bad as asaal and there is promise of a pretty early sprinc. Paaoh bnda wan 
not all killed by the winter's cold. As the month closed the frost is abont all oat <tf tha sroond, but the 
See is still on the scTen pondB.—TkornvUte. 

Disappearance of ice, Mar. 18. Melting snow on the groand, liar. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11.— ^<Mm. 

Bain daring the night, froze as fast as it fell, coTering trees, etc., with ice. Mar. 28.— .^im Arbor. 

Depth of snow on groand, Vi inch, Mtr. 15. No snow on groaod. Mar. tl.—Tecumteh. 

Depth of saow on groand, 16.5 inchee, Mar. 16 ; Mar. 81, 4 inobeB.— Marquette. 

Depth of snow on groand, 20.8 inches, Mar. 15 ; Mar. 81, 8 inches.— Saull 8te. Marie. 

NaTigation opened, Biar. 29. Depth of snow on groand, 0.2 inch. Mar. 15. No snow on gronnd Mar. 8L 
—Detroit. 

Melting snow on groand. Mar. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 19, 28. 

Frosts, Mar. 8. 20. 26, 27, 28, 29. Robins and blnebirds first seen. Mar. 8 ; blackbirds, aong aparrowa and 
meadow larks. Mar. 10. Ice breaking np in Chtmd Biyer, Mar. 10. Orand Biver open. Mar. 18. Depth of 
snow on groand, 1 inch in patohee.— Lafwiiixr. 

Wild geese seen. Mar. 9 : robins and spring birds. Mar. 10.— Parkville. 

Ayerage depth of snow on groand, Mar. 15, 0.08 inch. At end of month, noaB.—Chrand Haven. 

Apbil. 

Bain dnring the night, froze as fast as it fell, covering treee, etc., with ice, Apr. 19.— ilsJUon. 

Frogs firet heard, Apr. 1. Remains of snow drifts still seen, Apr. 9. Qronnd covered with i inehea of 
enow, Apr. 15 ; melted by 3.-00 P. M. Oroand froxe every night except Apr. 80. 

April was wet with cold nights— not favorable for work or the growth of grass and sprinc grains bat 
qaite so for wheat. Very little oate or peas sowed yet and not very mnch plowing done. Wlteat is not 
looking well— badly winter-killed. The prospect for fralt of all kinds is good, even peaohea, the bods of 
which are not all killed by the winter. Clover roots are not badly killed.— 77iomvi/Ie. 

Depth of snow on gronnd l-?i inches, Apr. 15; no snow on groand, Apr. 80.— TeeumseA. 

Killing frost, Apr. 2S. Trace ol snow on gronnd, Apr. 15 and 30.— Martiuette. 

Light frosts, Apr. Id, 18. 80. Navigation opened, Apr. 29. No snow on groand, Apr. 15 and 9i.—8avU 
Sie. Marie. 

Navigation opened, Apr. 10.— Alpena. 

Navigation opened, Apr. 29.— Detroit. 

Killing frost, Apr. 2. Light frosts, 5, 11, 17. Frost oat of groand except in some plaoea, Apr. 8 ; plow- 
ing began. Wild geese flying north, Apr. 2. Ice formed. Apr. 14, 15, 26.— Lan«liH7. 

April has been cold and clondy.— Par ittuU«. 

Mat. 

Groand froae, at night, Biay 4, .\ 6, 7, 8. Light frosts. May 6. 24. Catbirds flnt seen. May 8; Phebe bird 
and king bird. May 4; Baltimore oriole, May 11: chewink. May 29. Apple, plnm and poplar leafing, maple 
and Jnneberry bloesoming. May 12. Strawberries and dandelions bloeeoming, mandxakea coming np, 
May 14. Early cherriee bloesoming, elm and thorn leafing. May 17. Peach trees bloaaoming, May U. 
Soar cherries blossoming. May 20. Apple trees blossoming, yellow oak leafing. May 28. White oak IflBT- 
ing, May 24. 



METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 



13 



lAay WM oool and drr. the LmI hiJf ftlmait a drooffht; Y«ry fft?orable (or work bot aot for growth of 
*i— tation. WfaoBt ha« dooe the bwt, And that like eTerythiiiff elaa is bookward. Tbs promiM of f^nit 
axoapi applM it ffood.— r\omtM'IJ«. 

KillliMi frost. May $. NavigatJoa opaoad May 7.—MarqiatitUi. 

Li«ht frotta. Hay 6, 7.— Orand Havm. 

Froata. May ^ tO.— Porr Huron. 

Usht frotU, May «, 19. BoboUnks first haacd Maj ft; KLUdaar May ITL-Lanxinii, 

loa formed, May 0. Proata, May 6, 7, 6, Vi.-PnrkvilU. 

Dogwood bloaeomlo«, Jtma 4, JaD<e clover blo(iaoiDiii« Jane 6. Wheat heading. blaekbecTlea bloeeom- 
iag, Jona 9. Lociut bloawxnhig, Jnaa 12. Fire fiiea eaea. Joxib 18. 

A tnoDth of aboat normal tamparatare; few rory hot daya* The fore part of the month waa wet« the 
latter part a droaght Tbera was praeipitatioa eaoogh if it h&d been well dlatribated, bat Dearly all fell 
in the two big raina of Jona S and 10. The dry weather wae good for work and exoept oata nothing hae 
really toffered for nla.—Thamiiitlt, 

light froiti Jona 7,— Alpena. 

JVLY. 

Not t«cy hot for the eeason, only fire day* of SO"" and npward, Qolta dry--a drought at the cloee, 
eaeaUaot weather for haying and wheat harveet. The orope were large and of good qoality. Graaa- 
boppara were never eo plentiful before; they did oome damage, mostly to oata and elover eeed.— 
Thtfmvttle. 

AUOT7ST. 

Katydids flret heard, Aag. 4. k month of great drought and notable for the grasehopper plague^ aomo- 
ihing new, here. The damage done to growing orope Ib great in the order mantiooed— elorer seed, oata, 
gardane. beaas and potatoee. com and wheat. The damage to the laat wae by the ^rUie band beiag eaten 
in two.— ThomvilU' 

Froit inffloiant to kill bnokwheat on low groond wae obaerved in this neinity on the morning of Aog, 
dO.—Tecummh. 

Light froat, Aog. Zt-MarqwtU, 

light fioet. Aug. tO.-Sault 8t*. Marit, 

Light froeta, Ang. 11, 14, 30.— ^ipena. 

Light froat, Aog. 30«— <7rand Haven. 

Ftoet, Aog. to.— Port Huron. 
flight froat on low groand, Aog. IB, Wli.—Lanainif. 

Light froet, AQ«r. dO.-ParkvUU. 

SSPTUCBaB. 

Killing froeta, Sept. 26, 27. 29. Earn swallows all gone 8ept. I. YaUow birds going. Sept. 20. Robins 
and Bobolinks going, Sept« £S. A month of eerere drought— perhape the worst ever known heca. On 
Bfleoont of it wheat seeding was very late and there was almost no pastarage for cattle. This oo&dJtion 
was not altogether dna to the drought but partly to the gnuBhoppers.—rAorn nils. 

Light froet on low laud. Sept. 24. Heavy froat on high and low land, Sept. 80, Froat. Bapt. Zl, XH, ta. 
— Ann Arbnr, 
Light froet, Bept. 17. Killing frost, Sept. 2H.— MdrqueUe. 
Light frost. Sept. 0. Killing frosts. Sept. 24, i». 29.-{kiuU SVe, JTorM, 
Its. Sept. 0. 20, 24. 26, 27, iS.- Alpena. 

frosU, Bept, 28, 27, 2S, 19.— Grand Haven, 
tfroats, Sept. 24, $0.-Port Huron. 

frosts, Sept. 26, H.-Detraii, 
Light froeta. Bept. 2. 17. KUling froati. Sept 24. 26, 27. 88, £». loe formed, Sept. », 21, 28, 2».-Loiis»n0. 
Light frosta, Sept. t 9. KUllag froat, Sept. 29. loe formed, Sept. 96. 27, SB. ».-pQrktHUe. 

of snow, Oct. 14,— ^arrm'(/i«. 

nights of Oct. 16, 17, 18. Snow, 0«t. 28, A very fine month ; good for work as well as growth of 

More tain wooJd have been neeful,— r^omrflle. 



« 



14 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SEGRBTAR7, 18M. 

HeaTj erosts. Oct. 16, 17, 29. Light Crotts, Oot. 18, 19. Fint snowfaU of Muon, Oet ».— ^Ibtoi. 
Frosts, Oct. 18. 17, 18, 21, 21. SI. A few flakm of snow, Oct. 28.— .4nn Arbor, 
First snow, Oct. 28.—Mar»hiHl. 

Frosts, Oct. 16, 27. Depth of snow oa ground Oct. 31, 0.t of an ineh.— JtfaifueCfa. 
Light frost, Oct. 9. KiUing frosts, Oct. 24, 28, 29.— SdtiK 8fe. Marie. 
Frosts, Oct. 16, 21.— ^Zpena. 
Killing frost. Oct. 16.— Grand Haven. 
First snow of season, Oct. iS.—Port Huron. 

Wild gesse flying sooth, Oct. 18. Frosts, Oct. 16, 17, 18. 21. 25. Qronnd fross, first time of 
16. Light snow flurries, first of season. Oct. i8,— Lansing, 
Frosts. Oct. 16. 17. 18. 19. 21, 22. 25. 29, 30, 81. WUd geese flying south, Oot. 10.— ParWOte. 

NOTKKBSB. 

Frosts, Mot. 3, 4. i, 6, 7, 18, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 28, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. 89. 80. Inappraolabla sdow. 
Mot. 14, 15, 19. A fine month, good for f^ work. Dry until latter part.— r^ontvais. 

D9pth of snow on ground, 1 inch, Not. 30.- Adrian. 

Frosts, Not. 8. 4, 5, 6, 7, 14. 19. 20, 26. Depth of snow on ground, H inch. Not. 10.— ^sm A.rbor. 

Trace of snow. Not. U,— Birmingham, 

Depth of snow on ground, one-tenth inch, Not. 15; Not. 80, 12.2 inches.— J/drQuetts. 

Depth of snow on ground, two-tenths inch. Not. 15 ; Not. 30. 4 inches.— <?raful Hanen, 

Depth of snow on ground, one-tenth inch, Not. 15 ; Not. 80, six-tenths inch.— i>e(roa. 

Vro&ta, Not. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 20. Melting snow on ground. Not. 16, 17. Qrand BiTer oloaed, flni time sf 
season. Not. 23. Depth of snow on ground, 1 inch, Not. 15; Not. 30, 2 inchee.— LoNSing. 

Depth of snow on ground, 4 inches, Not. 15; Not. 80, 3 InobM.—ParkviUe. 

88 inches of snow fell during the month.— TVaverM CUy. 

DXOKMBBB. 

Depth of snow on ground, about 12 Inches, Deo. 3l.~Harri*vaie. 

December was a cloudy, stormy, unpleasant month but not ssTerely cold. After the enow malted, tke 
wlMSt and grass showed Tery freeh and green. More snow onght to fall to saTs them from Injury that 
freeaing and thawing will otnao.—Thomvaie. 

Depth of snow on ground, 7 inches, Deo. 15; H inch, Deo. 81.— Adrian. 

Depth of snow on ground, 85.1 inches, Dec. 15; Dec. 31, 87.4 inches.— tfar^us^te. 

NaTigation closed, Deo. 9.— vlfpeno. 

Depth of snow on ground, 2 inohee, Dec. 15; Deo. 81. 1 inch.- Orand Haven, 

NaTigation cloeed, Dec 15. Depth of snow on ground, 1 inch. Dec. 15; trace of snow. Dee. tL—DetroU. 

First sleighing of the season. Dec. 2. Grand RlTsr opened, Dec. 24. Snow went off with httkwj rtim. 
Deo. 15. No snow on ground, Dec. 81.— Lansing. 

Bees were out. Dec. 28 and 24. No frost in ground frost Dec. 22 to 26. Regular April wmXhar,— Park- 




METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN MIOHIOAN IN 1893, 



15 



MBA8UREMBNTS AND TEMPERATURE OF , GROUND WATER. 

In B paper entitled ** Typhoid Fever and Low Water in Wells, '* on pagee 
S9-114 of the Heport of this Board for 1884» it is shown that for the years 
1876-82 there was a relation between the eicknese and deaths from typhoid 
fever in Michigan and the depth of water in wells. In the month of Ooto> 
ber, when the water in wells reached the lowest point in the year, there 
were the most deaths and sickness from typhoid fever; and following the 
month of April, when the water in wells was highest, there were the least 
deaths and sickness from typhoid fever. When this comparison is made 
in a diagram, it is found that, ** beginning with June in each year the 
pnrve representing sickness from typhoid fever follows more or less closely 
the cnrve representing the average depth of earth above the ground 
water/' 

On page 256, of the Report of this Board for the year 1889, is a dia- 
ffram exhibiting the relation of typhoid fever to low water in wells, in 
Michigan, for the 10 years, 1878 and 1880^8. 

On page 229 of the Report for 1891 also on page 226 of the report for 
1892, is a diagram exhibiting the relation of typhoid fever to low water in 
wells, in Michigan, for the twelve years, 1878 and 1880-90. 

On page 271 of the Report for 1893 is a diagram exhibiting the relation 
of typhoid fever to low water in wells, in Michigan, for the fourteen yearsw 
1878 and 1880-92. 

Typhoid fever being one of the most important causes of death in Mioh- 
iean, it is of very great importance that further evidence be collected on 
tnJs important subject. 

The measurements for each month in 1893, of the depth of a well at 
each of seven places in Michigan, are shown in Exhibit 8; also the depth 
of earth above the water, and the temperature of the water in each of the 
wells. It is hoped that these measurements and observations may oon- 
tinue, and permit a more extended comparison of the depth of water in 
wells with the sickness from typhoid fever, and with sickneas and deaths 
torn other diseases. 



CHANGE OF EXP09CBB OF IN8TRDMKNT8 AT LANSING IN ISM, 

ComoiMita oa the aobjeot of a new iastrnmefit shelter at LoaBio^ nn printad on pasa 21, Baport for 
188B. Exhiblta A. B. C. and D. iMgea S2 and 8S. of Iha Baport for IBM. relate to that aabjeot. and ma^ be 
■lodiad in eoaoeotlon with what la aaid cifi paga n, Baport for 1886. The f^t of the change of place of 
otmtfatloo in 1BS4 mar QA^d to be taken ioto aeeoont by whoever atDdiea the meteoroloffr at Lanalnff 
throoch a loog serie« of years. 



16 STATE BOARD OF HEAI/TH.— REPORT OF SECRETABTp 1891 





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METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN MICmOAN IN 1883. 17 



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18 STATE BOARD OF HEAI/TH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY. IBM. 



TEMPERATURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE. 



Compared with the average for the preceding 29 years at the Agricnl. 
tnral College, the temperature for January was low. A comparison, by 
months, of temperature in 1898, with the averages for corresponding 
months in the preceding 29 years, 1864-92, at the Agricultaral College, 
near Lansing, is given in Exhibit 10, page 19. 

The average temperature, by months, for the 14 years, 1879-92, at Lan- 
sing, and a comparison of 1893, by months, with that average, are stated in 
Exhibit 11. 

The average temperatures at each of 13 stations in Michigan, and the 
average for 9 stations in 1893, and in each month of that year, are stated 
in Table I., page 21 



EXHIBIT 9,—Avercufe Temperature by Year and MontTu in 1893;* compared wUk 
Annual and Monthly Averages for 1892, and for the 16 Years, 1877-1892. Thm 
Averages are for Groups of Several Stations in Michigan. 



Yean, eto. 


ATerase Temperatare— Degreaa Fahr. 


Annnal 
At. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


Jnne. 


Jnly. 


Ang. 


Sept. 


Oot. 


Not. 


Dsa 


At. 16 yean, 1877-02. 
At. U jean, lS7V-9iL 
1892 (12 atatioDB)... 
1881 (0 atationn).... 


46.14 
45.74 
45.38 
45.64 


21.87 
21.12 
18.72 
15.28 


21.85 
22.83 
26.26 
20.08 


29.88 
28.76 
28.44 
80.61 


44.82 
48.58 
42.50 
48.18 


55.82 
55.78 
53.78 
54.30 


65.81 
65.78 
66.79 
68.05 

8.24 


70.56 
70.14 
70.87 
72.16 


67.88 
67.58 
68.81 
68U(7 


61.18 
60.79 
61.06 
60.40 


49.87 
49^ 
4S^ 
WJS9 


88.19 
88.91 
nSL 
•8.81 


21.87 
87jn 
SUB 


In 18W Higher than 
^^r 18. year.. 








1.28 








.64 


.78 


1.88 


Jl 


M 


In 1881 I^wer than 
At. for 16 yean. 
1877-82 


.50 


6.U 


3.76 


1.13 1.62 



Note.— The etatione repreeented in the lines for aTerage temperatore for the yean 1877-4N) in BshibitI, 
are the foUowing: Port Austin for 1885, 1888, 1889; Meodon for 1877-82: NirTana for 1877-79 ud fint tan 
months of ISSOTlteed City for last eight months of 1880 and 1881-85; Kalamawio tor 1817-89; Ooldvilv, 
Ypsilanti, Woodmera (;emetery (nearDetrolt), for 1877-79; OtisTille for 1878-80, 1888; NUaa for 18^-78. IflB; 
WaahiDgtOD for 1878-88; Benton Harbor for 1877-78; Petoskey for 187tf-78; ParkTiUa for 1881-88; HIUAla 
for 1&2-84; Winfield for 1881, 1883; MaUory Lake for flnt seTen months of 1881, HodMm for last in 
months of 1881; Ionia for 1888-85; Manistiqne. Swartz Craek, for 1884«: Mackinaw Citr for 18BIf8I: 
Mnskegon, Pentwater for 1886: Marqoette for 1879^. 1886-87; OBainaba for 188M7; Alpena. Oind Hma, 
Port Horon for 1878-87; Detroit for 1877-87; Otsego for 1887-80 : Alma for 1880: GoUlTar Jjskm for 189140. 
1882; TraTerae Citv. MarahaU for 18S2-82: Rockland for 1881-82; Teonmaeh for 1877-85. 1888-89. 1898; Hvite- 
Tllle for 1881-82, 1885^. 1880-82: ThornTille for 1877-02; Lansing for 1878-82; Agrionltnzal CkxU^a fat ISH, 
1881-82; Ann Arbor for 1881-82; Birmingham for 1887-82; Albion for 18804)1. 

* Beginning with the year 1895, allowance moat be made for Lanalng in Exhibit 8, baeaiua of a ehanfi 
In location of the instruments. The amonnt of the variation by months is shown In Exhibit A, on pap 
88, Report for 1886. 



BiETEOROLOQICAL CONDITIONS IN BlICHIGAN IN 1898. 



19 



EXHIBIT 10.— Oompamon o/ the Average Temperature during the Year and during 
each Month of the year 1893, with the Annual and unth the Monthly Averages for 
the Year 1892, hnd with the Averages for the 29 Years, 1864^92. Observations mcule 
by Prof. B. C Kedzie, at the State Agricultural College, near Lansing, Michigan, 



¥««n, •to. 


A v«nic» Tem [W»tiir»— De«reM Embr. 


At. 


Jao. 


F«b. 


Umr. 


API. 


Mi7. 


JdHA. 


jQlr. 


Ao«. 


ampL 


Oct. 


Hot. 


Deo. 


kr.Wjmtn,iM*nn. 


%SM 


II.«T 


UM 


30.8t 


4&.U 


67.17 


i7.ei 


7LW 


ee.M 


mM 


48.13 


KM 


UM 


lan . 

un 


45 J8 
44.96 


i4.ao 




88.16 


UM 

tMM 


M.40 


M.60 


7o.ao 

7I.&0 
.28 


WJO 
08.10 


S8.4I 


4ajo 

40.10 


nao 


s7.ao 


tAl«liaiEb»rth4o 
At. fat 29 »Mrt, 




















1,ST 


JO 


1.28 


In laOl Lower tEiu 


t.Bl 


1.17 


ZM 


Sj60 


Z,U 


3J7 


I.OI 


.40 


].«T 










Iiiiae3Blfh«rtban 
In ISM „-„.,... 

In IHH Lower than 
fnian.,^... .„ 
















LSI 






1.10 


1.4a 


SJI 


.90 


iM 


bM 


1.70 


LOD 


.10 


MO 


JO 


o» 





EXHIBIT H.-ilwcroflre Tewi 
06«ervaff(m« made at Office 


perature* by Year and Months, for t?ie 14 years, 1879-92. 
StaU Board of Health, State Capitol, Lansing, Michigan, 


V«ui,«to. 


Atstb^ TompemtiirB— Dograe* F&hr. 


Afiftnud 

At. 


J^ 


Feb. 


Iftir. 


Am-. 


Mftr. 




Jalr< 


Aof. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Not, 


Dm, 
2S.2S 


AT.]4rMn,lS7»^. 


41.29 


iU7 


»4.«1 


mm 


46.0S 


fi1,9S 


«7.78 


n.06 


68.MI 


«l.fiO 


50.00 


30.83 


i»i. 

UM....... 


4BJa 
4A.Ci 


19.01 


2CM 


■a.10 


44.^ 
43.68 


M.01 

K^.ao 


W.14 


n.4i 

73.14 


68 J9 
«8.47 


«,43 


49.t7 
&L19 


H.11 

«.40 




lutSMHlffliertluii 
At. for 14 rMn, 
l§1»^ 

Ia Igfil Lo«r«r thui 
At. for H fwn, 
18TO-M ,,....-. 


IM 






1-S7 






l.U 


.IB 






LIS 






1.1fi 


%M 


2.10 


a.iG 


.14 


iJSd 


M 


.ra 






iDiaeaHtffh«rtiLui 








iM 


JO 


.IS 


.01 


.13 




1.92 


aje 


2.ao 


la MM Lower than 


M 


4J>fi 


7M 


.IE 


IM 











• Baglnninf with the jear 1886, slight allowanoe ahoold be made for T^miring in Exhibit 11, beoauae of 
a ehanga in the location of the Inatniments. The amount of ' 



M% on page 21, Bepott for 1B86. 



theTaiiation by months is shown in Kxhlbit 







^m 20 STATE BOARD OP HEALTH-REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1884. ■ 




QiAOHAm h' AVinAGl lEM P£RATilfil, BY MOMTMJ 


, fsaa. 


^ 




ATSrATtONS rN miCHlSAN: ANN A ft BO A -. .» — .. 

O J tt M 1 U #^ U A *u« . ILf A □ D ■ «L X 1 1 1 1 r . 1 H LI C I 111 rS 


^^i^^t* ^^im^M i 






TtCVMSEH -.UK jiit_tfK;THORNVILlE ^jt^jt. 








TPtAVCAS£ CITr_...^..;AVE{?A6£ FOad STATIONS XXXXX. 




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^HSHHB^^^^^H 


^V METKUKULUUICAL COMDITIUNS IN MICHIGA!^ IN lim. Sii ^M 


TABLE L—Av«rao€ t^mf)eratur€ in DearecB Fahr.. for the Year, and for each Month ^H 


of The Year lauj, at each of 3 stations in Miehigan, ana alao average line* for 9 ^H 


stations, tYom obaervationn made dailv at 7 A. M.. 2 i*. M. and 9 F, Jf..* local ^^1 




time, by obaervera'f for the State Board of Health. 


^B 




Stations In mebigon.t 


Dlvl. 

■Ions 
of the 
State. 


Temperatora in Degms Fahr. 


1 


Year. 


u<mtiM.nim, 


Narm. 


ISPS. 


Jsn. 


g 


Mar. 

30.81 

a 


Apr. 

a JO 

e 


May, 

54.10 


Jon. 

»,05 
b 


July. 

71.10 
e 


08.W 


Sep. 

60.40 
h 


Oct. 
50.S9 


No». 

86.61 
d 


Dec. 


AT.fcrfstattooafi .. 






4»,S4 


t5,23 








i 




Koekland. 


U. P. 




1] 


s.oe 


8.57 


is,ii 


b 
2Hr4t 




esM 


e«.«o 


6e.fie 


57.32 


4ft.67 


29.82 


ia.74 


^H 




TraTerae City. 


N.W. 


I3.4' 


4S,76 


10.20 


1S.M 


27.4A 


40. » 


67.00 


lOM 


67.10 


69.02 


SO. 15 


26.06 


34.81 


jH 




Harrisvtlle_ „ 


N. a 


U.d 


40.76 


12.57 


i4.ao 


24.77 


KJi 


47.38 


6&SS 


06.18 


64.29 


87.06 


47.84 


34.58 


21.77 


^1 




Ashton 


N. C. 




II 


15.01 


i7.«S 


2SM 


99,72 


51.42 


0743 


66.11 


66.t3 


S9.63 


50.09 


84.8S 




'^1 




ThomTille.. .... 


B.&B. 


' i1.lt) 


Ifl.flO 


19M 


HHM 


tun 


44 .M 


S«,4t 


71.00 


7S.fH 


70.05 


0l;6O 


52.23 


88.17 


27.49 


^1 




Agr'l (Allege 


C. 


«.4r 


41.93 


14.80 


2i.ai 


£8:16 


411.90 


S4.40 


66.00 


71.50 


08.10 


58.41 


49.70 


85.62 


£7.60 


^1 




LAnsing, 8. B. of H.t 


C. 


«.tf 


46.0S 


19 no 


io.e8 


32.1§ 


43.96 


55.20 


6044 


72.14 


0a.47 


80.22 


51.19 


36.40 


27.70 


^1 




Albion 


8.0, 


"4»A' 


4e.B0 


1»,40 


2t.30 
21.40 


a4.&o 

3L10 


45,00 
44.70 


5I.S0 
5SJ0 


09.00 
70.30 


7S.S0 
73.10 


70.40 
00.70 


61,60 


51.G0 

50.10 


37.30 
36.74 


»7J0 
27.80 


1 






Battle Cr«k ........ 


a. c. 


a.o^ 


4fl.Z7\ 


15J2 


£1,02 


34.24 


t&.m 


S7.W 


78.84 


76.18 


7IJ0 


61.52 


S2.49 


37.78 


».«! 


^1 




Marshall 


8. C. 




tl.'l 


11.60 


etsi 


SI.42 


U.01 


55.78 


70.88 


73.W 


69.88 


61.71 


30.24 





..— . 


^1 




Ttetimseh.^ 


8. C. 


46.«^ 


40.40 


t$.04 


S2.S1 


3>.!H» 


15.79 


5&J1 


«&.73 


7S.04 


68.02 


61.U 


49M 


30.04 


27.14 


^^ 








T 




a 






b 


c 


d 


a 


b 


b 


a 




a 


^^^1 




Birmingham 


a B. 


47.3.^ 


47 08 


19.93 


St. 31 


ss.ia 


u.8a 


56.19 


71.63 


7a.53 


89.41 


01.67 


51.66 


38.20 


28.13 


^1 




* The daUy aTerages are one-third the som of these three observations. 


^1 


fThe naniM of o/tmiFfvns their plKOo of olwervatloa, and ibe ooanttee Id wtiloli tbeae places are aito- ^^H 


atffd, are stated In l£xhibit 1, p««e 2. ^H 


S rue line la an avera^ for onl? the V itatlOQa from wblcti etatemeata nearLr oompjete were reoeit'ed ^^H 
for ererr mooth of the rear. It does not Inoliuie Asbtoa, Albion, Marshall and Bookland. ^^H 

** Nnniben in * hi» oomina state the arerafe anoaal temperatore for periode of rears eudinff in ea«h oaee ^H 
with Dee^<> t892. The email fisnree above aad at the rifrht of numbars which state the tempentare, ^^H 
denote tb mu ber of years molnded In the aTerm^ ^H 

tt The Cfjinpntationa of At. Tmnp., as uiboilated for months in tfi93 were made at the following etatioos; ^^H 
Albion and Ann Arbor. A 11 other compatatloas Id Table 1. were msde at the odica of the State Board of ^H 
Health. ^H 

1 Beginninir with the year li!^, allowance mnst be made for Lansing in Tabb I., beeaose of a change in ^^H 


the location of the inatramentA. The amonnt of the yarLation br months is shown in Exhibit A, on page ^^H 


U. tieport for vm. ^H 
U The names of diTisiooe, and the oomitiai in each, are stated in Exhibit 1, in a paper which follows ^^H 


on weekly rsporta of sic knees. ^H 


11 The avense for ii months Is 3S.tt. 1111 Tiie arerage for tl months is t«.OK. ^^H 


N For 11 months, 45.^7. im The BTsrage for lU months, Is 49.5^, ^H 


a« b. c. In LbeoolnmnF from JannBry to Ueoember, Incinalre, the letters a, b. c. etc., stand directly ^^H 


aoove toe nnmoers rmm wiiiori inej rerer to tne notes oeiow. ^^H 
aPorSOdaya. bPor2(»day8> o For 28 days. dForaed«ys. e For 25 days, f For 24 days, g For 23 days ^^| 


b For at days, i For 21 days, j For 1» days. 1 


The average line and lines for 7 representative atatione in Table L are ^H 


graph icaily represented in Diagram I., page 20. ^| 



22 STATE BOARD OP HEALTH,— REPORT OP SECRBTTARy, 1894. 



TABLE IL— Extremes of Temperature and Days of Month on which the Hiqhut and 
Range for the Year 1893, at each of 20 Stations in Michigan.— As indicated bjf daily 
2 P, M. and 9 P. M., by Observers* for the State Board of Health, and for the U. S. 



Statums 
in Michigan.* 

(ThoaeoftheU.S. 

Woatfaer Bareaa 

in ItaUcs.) 



At 15 Stations t. 



Rockland % 

Marquette^ 

SaultSte, Marie %.. 

Manistee^ 

TraraneCity t-- 

Alpena %.. 

HarriBTillet 

Grand Haven g ... 

Ashtont 

Port Huron g 



12 ThomTiUet 

is| A«r*l CoUege t •■ 

15! Albion $ 

le' Ann Arbor ' 



17' 

ISJ MarshaU X... 
19; Tecnmseh t- 
20: Birmingham 
21 Detroit % 



imi. 



-IB 



tm 



JaniiAn-. Febmarr. 



« 11 



Iff 



*4'' 

45 
45 

4£ 

■I 
44' 

«*• 

if 

4^ 






-IS 
• 1 



-10 






Idt II 

-11 

-u" 

-u" 



'11 I 

-IZ ' 

-IS - 
1ll< 111 
'13 I 

-lo'i 



44 



50 

42" 
'&" 

1."?. 37 

40 

II 
48 

40 

m" 

44-'^ 
43^'^ 
41^ 

43 

«'* 

r. 
41 

■44 *■ 

40'; 

42 ' 
I. 

43 
•i 

42 



March. 



-19^ 
-28* 



-21 



-31 



-5 

10 
-10 

IS. ift 

-3" 

-»" 

-• I 



I ! 



m; 



ji| 



«2-"i 



6a" 



•1 

57" 
65^ 

54^ 
58 
62" 
66' 



April. 



80 



14* 1: 

-4 



10 I 78 
7 *| 78 



li'^i 79 



ri IB 



8 77 
9"l 75 



11 
16 



21 



27 

2f 27 



May. 



85' 



78 

•■4*; 

84' 






8»» 

3U23 



NoTK.— The small figores above and at the right of nnmbers denoting thedegraea of tempentate, stale 
the day or days of the month on which the highest or the lowest temperatnre ooonrred. 

* The names of observers, etc., are Btat«d in Exhibit 1, page 2. 

t The line No. 1, and the three columns for the year Ib^ relate only to the 15 atatioiiB from which 
obeervations were received for every month of the year. It does not inclnda Aahton. Albion. Uockland. 
Manistee and MarshaU. 

t For stations marked thus %, the daily readlDgs of registering thermometers ware recorded at 7 A. M. 
for the preceding calendar <lay. 

§ At the statioDB of the U. H. Weatho- Bnrean and at Kalamazoo, the maximum thermomater waa md 
and recorded at 8Kn A. M., and the minimnm at SKX) P. M.. 75th meridian time. The looal tima at than 
stations corresponding to 8:00 A. M. and SKiO P. M., 75ih meridian time, is as fdUowa: «t Pott Hanm, IM 
A. M. and 7:90 P. M.: at Detroit, 7:28 A. M. and 7:28 P. M.: at Alpena, 7:26 A. M. and 1:28 P. M. : at Grand 
Haven, 7:15 A. M. and 7:15 P. M.: at Marnnette. 7:11 A. M. and 7:11 P. M.; at Maniatae, 7:15 A. M. and 7:tl 
P. M.: at Sanlt Bte. Marie. 7:28 A. M. and ):23 P. M.; at Kalamazoo, 7:18 A. M. and 7:18P. M. 

!; At Ann Arbor the registering thermometers were read and recorded at 9 P. M. 

^, Beginning with the year 18» allowance mnst be made for Lansing in Table II, beeaoae of a chanss in 
the looaUon of the instmments. The amount of the variation by months is shown in BzhlMt B, on pan 
tt. Bepoct for 188S. 



MBTEOROLOOICALi CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 



the Lowest Temperature occurred by Months of the year 1893; also^ Extremes and 
Readings of Registering Thermometers, or by Observations miade daily at 7 A. If., 
WetUher Bureau. 



Jans. 


July. 


Aiwwt. 


BeRtember. 


October. 


NoTombar. 


BeMmbar, 


1 


1 


j 


1 

i 


1 


I' 


1 


1 

a 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 
1 


1 


1 


M 


N 


w 


« 


w 


s 


w 


» 


u 


U 


m 


( 


81 


-M 


1 


•1 " 

m " 
*. " 
n '• 

n " 
» " 

« » 

» " 


" * 

IS ^ 
13 " 
41 '** 
41 ^ 

w • 

4fi " 
41 " 
4A ' 
SI ' 
61 " 
BO * 
51 " 
49 ' 
fit * 
41 ' 
4fi ^ 
48 * 
M ^ 


n " 


« * 

«" 
41 ' 

H * 
11 * 

M * 

m" 

4S * 
BO ■ 
M * 

60 * 
U * 
iO * 
49 * 


M ' 


« * 

42 * 
«" 

41 " 

4." 

4« ' 

aa" 

41 » 
4." 

45'* 

4ft" 
40* 
4." 
47 ' 


» * 


n - 


7. " 


18" 


75 ^ 
01 ^ 


8 » 
10 » 


4B» 
4«» 
88" 


-14- 


i 

4 

t 

7 

a 
ft 
ift 
u 

IS 
13 
li 
1^ 

17 
10 

ai 


81 ' 

m " 
81 • 


a " 
» » 


71 • 
ID " 
7. » 
7S " 
St " 
82 " 
U " 
81 " 
7. " 
77 " 
» " 

7. '■' 
7. " 
81 " 




59 ' 

58 * 
01 ' 

59 * 

ea 

M ^ 
6ft 

BR * 
81 ' 
01 ' 
08 

«3 '' 
«4 * 
«2 


S'» 
It" 
I8» 

5 » 
«» 
18 » 
8 " 
,8» 
H» 

13 » 

le 


48 » 

4.'" 

«•» 
«" 
8»" 
8I» 

68» 
81 " 

fl-"» 

«." 

80" 


a'" 

1 

10 ' 

-1 ' 

8 ■• 
4 '• 
4 • 
„.... 

■• 


N " 
89 ' 
89 * 


IS " 



The average daily range of temperature at from 6 to 19 stations per year, 
by months, for a period of 14 years, 1879-92, and a comparison of 1892 
with the monthly averages for that period and for 1892, are pven in 
Exhibit 13, page 24. The highest and lowest temperatures m every 
month in 1893, at each of 15 stations, are stated in Table II., pages 22 and 
23. The average daily range of temperature by months in lo93, at each 
of 20 stations, and the average for 15 of the stations, are stated in Table 
m., page 26. The lines for 7 of these stations, and the average line for 
15 of the stations, are represented in Diagram IL, page 27. It will be 
noticed that the greatest average daily range occurred during the month 
of Angosi 



24 STATE BOARD OF HEAIJTH.— REPORT OF SEGRSTTABY, U94. 



EXHIBIT 12.-'Average Temperature in Degrees Fah.,fw the year and months, mi, 
at Office State Board of Health, State Capitol, Lansing, Miehigan, computed from 
readings at 7 A. 3f., 2 P. M, and 9 P. If., daily, from registers of the Draper Sdf- 
Beeording Thermometer, compared with obsenjations made tpith Green's standard 
mercurial Thermometer at the same hours; both thermometers placed in dovik 
latticed shelter for instruments, in southwest part of Capitol yard. 



of liistmroeiiU 
speoififfl 




ATftrae© Tempmitare. in Degrwi Whi^-Ymr und MomUm, ISOL | 


Jan. 


Fub. 


Mtf. 


Apr. 


lUr. 


Jdim. 


JiilT. 


AOB. 


BepU 


o«c. 


Mot. 


Dh. 


At. Tamp, from tri- 

aid Mwcmi&l Tber- 

At. Tsmp. oompat- 
Ml from readinin oE 
the Draper** Belf- 
Beconlins: Thar- 
oi«tui»ti;r ,_„* 


45.M 


tfi.oe 
10.80 


IIM 








ST.38 


71A4 

10.10 




40. U 
B9.M 


0l.li9 
60^ 


ae.io 




Higher <+) br Di»- 
MT'a than by Green'i 
Thefmi>aiet»r 




1*81 


,as 


.67 


















A 






















LAwer (— ) hrDfUr 
par'aibaDbrOnen's 
T heriB«neter .,,,,.. 


.SB 




.-._.. 


- __^, 


.» 


l.U 


1.75 


£.01 


IM 


.(» 


.« 


.m 


-_-- .. 



EXHIBIT 13.— 4t?cra{/« Daily Range of Temperature, by Year and Months in 189S, 
compared with Annual and Monthly Averages for 1892, and for the 14 years, ISTB- 
1892, These Averages are for Groups of Several Stations in Michigan,* 



Ymn, ate. 


Afviage DaUr Bulge ot Tsmparatane— DaffrMa Fobr. 


ADDDa] 

Av, 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Uar. 


Apr, 


Uv 


Jane 


Jnlj 


Aa«. 


B«pt. 


Dot. 


Not. 


D«.' 


At. 14 jwTe« IMe-M, 


ism 


1S.90 


n.t? 


17,« 


1B.40 


aojs 


ao^ao 


mm 


10.06 


noi 


11. IS 


14.11 


ii.i» 


liate(l9atatloa«)... 
l8g3(15aeattoiu)... 


17.U 

i7.ei 


1«.B2 
15.0S 


14,08 

i8.sa 


17.16 
IB^ 


19.12 




is.5a 


*0.7S 


19,08 

st.ia 


10.14 

£0.38 


UB.U 

17.17 


14.9 


UJ7 


In lS9i Q renter 
than At. for 14 

TMra, im-n, ... 

In tnn l^HJi thaD 
At. for 14 Feara, 
18T&J94 


.09 


M 


.sa 


J3 


3.0B 


1.U 


.11 


.11 


LM 


.» 


.oi 


.11 


LU 














lo m^ Ore»t«p 
tbao iaia»« 

In U9S l^iiB thAp 
iniasi --.- 


.77 


l.»7 


4.14 


M 


2.80 


1.08 


2.00 


l,t7 


XVi 


*SS 


M ' 


SJ8 


Ml 














* Otkrtlla for IS19^. iaS2; B^anaba for 1850^ 
too for ias^«l: VtniSeld for 1BB8; llacilftt{qQe, Ioi 
Hilljdaia (or 1884; Pentwater, Eaal Saiinaw, Ha 
isan-eo, t^i- Alma^ OUego for tesorTflcnuiJieb 
f}rmk for t871U!». 1888-59. 19PI; Qranrt HaTen fo 
tSaO-M'. Detroit, Lasfiiuff for lf*7t*-92; Kalamaeoo 
TrmTsrse Gitf, Manhali for li-8£-9^ ; HarrlfiTiUa f 
bam (or iaB7, 188M2i HanLitaa for ISSfr-frl^ Alblo 


1; Adr 

J son f 
for 1.^ 
r IS?* 

forise 

orLBS3 
a fori 


ian to 
faHz < 

or iKse 

-as, B 

10-31,1 
,1885-1 

sgo^i; 


riaso^ 

jTWkf 

i Port 
1892; E 


EasAi 

Aosti 
klarqrn 
Alp«D 
mi; I 
a Arbo 
laudfc 


Ditf for 1882, I8&4^^ Wufaj]l«- 
-85- Maekiaaw City tor IBSf «7; 

a for 188?-'<9; GoUItot Lak» for 
itte for 187^-^, l&8e-&ai BatUn 
a, Port Hnron. TbornTilla fot 
UrlcaUuria College for l8Sl-9i; 
rfor 1882-83, ISSS-Sa^ Blrmln«' 
iT 1891-ei; Suilt StB. Maria for 



METEX)ROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN X883, 



25 



fiXmSIT H.— Comparisons of the Average Dailu Bange of Temperature for the 
Year and for each Month of the Year 1893^ mith Averages for the 19 Yearst 1814-92^ 
and for the Year 1892. Ohservationa made with Registering Thenuometerg by Prof. 
R. V. Kedzie, at the State Agrit^tiUural College, near Lanting, Michigan, 



Yean, etc. 


Ayenff* Daily Rang9 of TsmpOTatare^De^raai Fnhf . 


Animal 
At. 


Jan. 


F<»b. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


Mar 


JtUM 


Jiiir 


Aw. 


Sept 


Oct. 


NOT< 


Dm. 


▲T.19rwn,lS74-9Z* 


10.74 


It5l 


18.«8 


iEM 


2i.a 


S3.M 

■ 


S2.5Q 


24.6S 


aiES 


M.3S 


ao.70 


W.G6 


14.96 


U9I ,. 

iBU 


W.47 
U.74 


W.77 
17.2S 


1«,9I 
U).tO 


19.10 

lfi.70 


22.19 
IBM 


17.48 
18.80 


UJ7 
tl.«0 




ao.97 

20^ 


1S.08 


11.84 


18.80 


13.84 
18 JO 


In 18W Or«ttt«r 

than At. for 10 

jmn, 1874-M..... 

In 1883 I^M than 

At. for 19 ^Mn, 


1.00 


5.71 


M 


.75 








LIS 


4.B7 


4.7S 


3,80 


4.U 


8.61 


5JS 


4,71 


.80 
























la 1808 Greater 
tluuiiilSOS 

In 1M8 I^eM than 
lalSBS... - 


a.27 


S.M 


tM 


M 


e.o» 


IM 


9.21 


iM 


8.«i 


em 


.60 


4.40 


4.76 



























* For tba nan 1874-4, 1£(78, I8T8 (exoept Mot. and D«o.), and ISSO. the oompntationB woro nuide from 
tha report of obaarratiooa pabltAbm. in th« Eeporta of toe State Board of A#ricaltare for thoaa wean. 
For 1877. 1881 (raoapt Jan.) , 1882-93, the oompntationa wero made from nwieteni or eopiea of re^tan 
aoppliad bj Dr. 



The average annual and monthly temperature at from 11 to 22 fltations 
for a period of 16 years, 1871-92^ is stated in Exhfbit 9, page 18, in which 
is also p^ven, by months, a comparison of 1893 with the average for 1892, 
and with the averages for the 16 years, 1877-92. By Exhibit 9, page 18, 
which gives averages for groups of several stations in Michigan, it appears 
that in 1893 the mean temperature in January, February, August and Sep- 
tember was lower than in those months in 1892. It also appears that March, 
June, July, August, October, and November were warmer than the average 
temperature of the corresponding months for the 16 years, 1877-92. 

By Exhibit 16, page 29 it appears that, at the Agricultural College, the 
lowest temperature reached in June, 1893, was above the average lowest 
temperature for the corresponding month in the preceding 20 years, and 
that in the month of February, 1893, the range of temperature was con- 
siderably less than the average range of temperature for the corresponding 
month in the 20 preceding years, and also' the highest temperature for 
1893 was the same as the average highest temperature for the preceding 20 
years, and the lowest temperature was above the average lowest tempera- 
ture for those jrears. The highest and lowest temperatures at the Agricul- 
tural College, in every month of the 7 years, 1887-93, and comparisons of 
months in 1893, with the average highest and lowest temperatures by 
mouths for the preceding 20 years, are stated in Exhibit 16. 
4 




26 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.-REPORT OF SEGRErTARY, 18M. 



TABLE III.— Average Daily Range of Temperature, by Registering Thermometat 
during the Year and during each Awnth of the Year 1893, at each of 15 Statiomt tm 
Michigan, and Average for 15 Stations. 



Stai.tioiii 

la MlehicAD.* 

CTboMof th«U. S. 
WwAlur Bbimn 

laltelkt.) 



> ; 

DlTi- 

.UDSflof.NonD. 
\ the ' t ' 
I etato t 

I 



ATsraffs Diitr H&oce of Twnpwtnre— B miuei WwAa. 



At, for 15 ttatiou §- 






Cltj, ., 



H«rTi»Tilli.„. 

GrudHario... , 

AfbloD. 

Port Jfimj^ ._...„.„ 

ItkvnTiib^... , 

AiCrlciiltBiml CoUqcb. 
L«Daui«, B. B Of B.. 

AlUUn^ _....._ 

ikjm Arbor...-.- 



Ynr, 



i-t.n 



0. P- 
c. P. 
r. p. 

N. W. 
N.W, 
Bi.E. 
S.E. 
W. 



15.VL I 

19.87 



ia.i» 



£0.3 
l#70* 



V 



u.n 

lB.iS 

m- 

ao.ti 



"i 

B. * E. 15 1»\ 



MoDtlH, IMa 



UJ» 



t 



14 u lAJa 






W^iAiiLW 



iM 18.10 II.U1I1.W 1170 I9.I0 ]S,U nJ0tlS,13 



17,90 15.10 t0Mt«.7O 



I 
14.04 11^,18.10 

i._„l 



iA.cn SLSO 18.10 IS ja mm um um 



I 

14.81: l>.e4 IS. Ti 14.00 

it.oa's-41 is.fti|i«,aD 



12.70 IS .00 



IB. AE. »» r 



17.64 £1-22 

14.00 14. 4« 
14,90 I6.(H 



t4.10il4 J» 17^ ItM 1«J0 1».40 ia«0 



.10| 



Har rira'P 

TWnmwh .... 
BirmiQcbvEi 
Dttrvit . 



V. 
C\ 

B. C. 

B.r J 

S. V. 19.T*" ] 



»,4q '[ 

I 



sijtLji.nnjC9 



S. E. 
S. E. 



II -IT 
16,*?0 



19.M 

ao.*o 
1S.4; 



-14.» ie.W 1S.00 16^ 

14^ 1S.I4 1S.64 ssjrr 
1S.4& M.n i«Lee 20.47 

pLS lfl,4e|«JS 
22^ 21^7 14,45 
lt.lLi 13.20 U.TO l5J0|n.« 17,60 1«.4» 



15.0S aO.Ig 19.1ft 10 .78 

b 
ITJS SO.ffi ia.82 l^.TS 



Jim, ilalr. 

I 

i9.ai{aoi.u»,T9 



i&m 



20.?7 



t9j0BjlS.73{29.S7 



14.Wl«,00{l9^n4l 






17 JS \&M VU» 






iSJ7 



&J» 



ie.08 
IT.41 

a. 74 17.23 1A.30 IS.'O lff.10jtgJOJll.flO 
19.U 14.71 17.41 tQ.4S 17^ 

3^ 19 JO 1B.40 IfiJO^SSJoll) JS'20JO|SQ.w|ttJO{.^Jl»,9Qtl<JO|nj| 
li.St 
18.71 



30.30 



19 J8 



t9j3Z3.1fl 



Am, 



11.98 



»,40|lMOlS.aOI«.IO 14.80 



u.m 



lAJSMUlStjI&TS 



lAJLlMfttfJii 



laultftjKtT.islujM 

11.17. 
19,4«{ 



list 

I0.S7 



Oe^ 



17.77 






IBM 



tl.51 

1«^ 

ttlviail7.tt 



g9j4^aja 



um 



UM 



nA^iBM 






itae 10.171 u,Ti 

l7.«»|l4.S7lilll 
I«.ToJ 

iijsaliuB 

1*47 

10,80 IBJDI 
18,01 



n.ii]i)u7B!iajeftu,77 



IBM 



1048 m4l 
MM li.17 






17. 



19.77 



liM 



18.10 iJi,n 



»J7 



14.10 m57 



ISJO 



1$M 



* The names of obaerrers. their places of obeerration. and the coontiee in which Umm plaoaa an afto- 
atfl(L are aUted in Exhibit I. pa«e 2. 

+ For eoontiee in each diTiuon eee Exhibit I. in a |.>aper which followt on w e ak ly repcMta of rickneM. 

I Namban in thie colnmn state the annual averace range of temperatare for periods of Tears ending in 
each case with December 31, 1S93. The small figaree above and at the right of numbers which state the 
lange of temiwratnre. denote the nnmber of rears incloded in the average. 

§This line is an average for all stations for which statements nearLy complete are giTan for even 
month of the year. It doee not inclnde the lines for Ash ton. Albion. Rockland, Manistoe and MarehalL 

' The average for 11 months is 23.S5. ^ For > months. 14.S4. For 11 months. 22.38. *^ For 10 

months. 22 JO. S$ For 11 months. 19.12. 

a. b, e. In the colamns from Janoary to Decembw. inclusive, the letters a, b. c. etc., stand directly 
above the nombers from which they refer to the notes below. 

a For 30 days, b For 29 days, c For 2^ days, d For 27 days, e For H dajs. f For 25 days, g For H 
days. 



Note. — Graphic representations of statements in Table III., are given 
in Diagram II, page 27. 



METEOROLOGICAL. CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 189a 



27 



DMGAAfrT fh- AV« DAILY fiAHBt OF T£fyTP», Br mONTHS, iSSt* 



BTREISTERINO fHER MOrrlCTtR S.- AT $T>»T(0NS INPHCHIGAN. 
f IHMINC|1AM«H*«. .tHARHISVlLLE ^o««o;IANSlNO .d»-. ^c»«.^i 

TMAVEASE CtJY^mm^mm ;A>iiRA6l FOR 1^ STATtOMS XXAXXXX. 




tt*j«t«744.j 



28 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 18M. 



EXHIBIT lo.—Conpariisons of tlw Extremes and the Range of Temperature (Deyrvea 
Fahr,) during the Yeir, and during each Month of the Year, 1893, with the AvertiQt 
of the Extreme*, and of the Range, for the sixteen Years 1877-92, cU90, Statement^ 
the Extremes and of the Range for each of the Seven Years, 1887-93. Observatum 
made with Registering Thermometers by Observers for the State Board of HeaUk, 
and for the I . S, \Veat?ier Bureau. These Comparisons, etc., are far Ijronpi ^f 
Several Station a in Michigran. 





£xCr«tn«i «ad nLn«« of tamperatTun— Dqcxvh VituvolMlt. ' 


















lawHtorj 


and 


vsst. 


lees. 


ISM. 


1^. 


1891. 


last. 


At. tor 16 


I8W.» 


Lio«wf-« 
CIiwiAf.IQ 


Uaatbs* 


















wn-u. 


i 


1 


§ 


1 


-El 


i 


i 


i 

-28 
14 


S 


J3 


1 


1 


j 


1 


i 


Ed 


1 


§ 


i 

J3 


1 


i 


1 


1 


s 


1 


:1 


i 




Be 
2 


1 


m 

99 
73 


1 


9T 


1 


• 

m 


1 


if 


1 


1 


i 


s 


1 


1 


S 


J 


1 


3 


1 


Yiw...... 


m 


-2A 


132 


lao 

63 


100 
79 


-m 

10 


us 

8g 


too 

7S 


-U 
14 


U4| 
64 


m 

77 


-«4 


m 

m 


100 
78 


-m 
11 


1J6 

m 


m 

~ 

77 
49 


-» 


m 


-a 


£f 


-1 


At. Koath 


n 


IQ 


m 


11 


m 


-1 


= 


-1 


JmiUATf.. 


M 


-38 


S2 


a 


-U 


m 


« 


-7 


SO 


ea 


-14 


M 


n 


-ID 


6* 


57 


-O 


7» 


54 


,» 


74 


-36 


75 


-6 


^ 


SS 


FebrOAr?.. 


S9 


-21 


78 


19 


-n 


82 


49 


-29 


72 


OH 


-« 


71 


55 


-14 


OS 


52 


-34 


76 


56 


-30 


76 


U 


-U 


67 


-11 


+> 


-i 


MMt6b^... 


m 


-14 


74 


39 


-30 


99 


es 


5 


flO 


s« 


-» 


s& 


sa 


-8 


is 


Oi 


-IS 


77 


65 


-14 


79 


06 


-6 


72 


'+1 


«8 


7' 


AptH 


Si 


8 


T4 


S8 





82 


90 


14 


€6 


80 


1 


7t: 


87 


10 


77 


79 


U 


66 


81 


8 


76 


80 


9 


71 


— 1 


+1 


1 


Mmr 


Wl 


za 


W 


M 


21 


ei 


99 


ts 


72 


91 


21 


70 


Be 


ffl 


60 


sa 


27 


&a 


89 


IS 


66 


S8 


tl 


61 


-1 


+4 


Jail. 


98 


40 


58 


119 


2» 


70 


St 


m 


S7 


m 


32 


SS 


97 


SI 


63 


102 


tl 


89| 


06 


12 


61 


06 


96 


00 


+1 


44 


-i 


Jolj , 


m 


19 


6S 


VI 


40 


hi 


97 


m 


fit 


98 


a 


w 


»5 


17 


SS 


V7 


41 


56 


Ofl 


40 


58 


96 


43 


SI 


-2 


+■; 


~B 


LagBMt... 


m 


37 


ftl 


M 


33 


41 


91 


VI 


17 


100 


34 


Si 


100 


37 


63 


96 


Jfi 


SB 


97 


S7 


60 


97 


38 


as 


= 


+1 


-1 


SeptecalMr 


n 


a 


fl5 


to 


28 


a2 


93 


2S 


m 


90 


m 


Bt 


93 


39 


Sfl 


92 


30 


82 


91 


29 


64 


89 


81 


07 


—4 


-7 


-H 


October „ 


m 


u 


«e 


71 


21 


so 


TO 


14 


02 


m 


» 


56 


87 


21 


06 


as 


23 


69 


84 


10 


«a, 


84 


21 


61 


= 


+3 


-4 


BtOTembw 


TO 


-* 


w 


71 


& 


u 


06 


11 


U 


« 





fl« 


6S 


-& 


68 


64 


5 


59 


60 


1 


68 


m 


ft 


62 


-1 


4* 


-8 


D«<»mb«r 


56 


-6 


u 


55 


1 


S4 


0« 


a 


•» 


so 


-< 


« 


* 


B 


52 


S8 


-11 


60 


57 


-% 


65 


61 


-U 


76 


+s 


+« 


+11 



• For the 17 ywn, 1877-91, the hi«heet tem^ 
loweet WM -Se*', at Manlatique, January 27, Vl 



iratare wai 106% at Battle Creek, Se|»tanibar 9, 1881; the 



Foot-notea to Exhibit 17: 

* Beoiiminff with the year 1885, allowanoe most be made for Linaiiiff in Exhibit 17. beoanee of a 
in the location of the instramenta. The amount of variation by montha ia aliown in Exhibit G, on 



28. Beport for 1686. 

t Kalamaioo for 1877-^ 1886^ ; Mendon for 1877-82 : OtieTille for 1878-80, 1882 ; Nilea for 1818-78, 1881 ; 
Nirvana for 1878*79 and flrst f oar montha of 1880 ; Beed City for laat eifht montha of 1880 and 1881-86 ; Bn- 



ton Harbor, Goidwater for 1877-78 : Waahinffton f or 1880-83; PeCoekey for 1870 

Cemetery for 1877-79 ; Haatinn. ParkTille for 1888 ;HiIladale for 1882-84 ; Mi 



WinflaUfor 



JW; 



for lasi. u 

Woodmece Cemetery for 1877-79 ; flaatinga^l^arkTUle for 1888 ;HiTladaie fbr 1882-84 : ManiatlqiM forl88l 
Haokinaw aty for 188i-87 : Ionia for IfflS ; Swarts Creek for 1884-85 ; Pentwater for 1888; itarqiMtta for 
187M4. 1886-H7 ; Eacanaba for 1880-87 ; Aloena, Grand Haven, Port Horon for 1870-87 : Detroit for ISH-ST ; 
AUna for 1890 ; l^nmaeh for 1878-85 ; HarriavUle for 1888. 1885-86 ; ThomvUle for 1877-82; Lanaliif flor 
1879-02 ; A«rioaltnral CoUege for 1877. 1881-82; Ann Arbor for 1881-02; Tiaverae City, MarahaU forUil-SI; 
OalUver Lake, Birminffham for 1887-82 ; Albion for 180(^1 ; Battle Creek ftor 1877-79, 1882, 186B, 1882 ; Book- 
land for 1892. 



METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 



EXHIBIT 16. — CompaHsoitit of the ExtremfH and the Range of Temperature (Degreen 
Ffthr,) during the Year, and during eti^h month of th*- Year 1893^ with the Average 
of the EirtremeH and ^\f the Range, for the 20 yearn, 1873-92, aho Statementa of the 
Extremes and of the Range for each of the 7 years^ 1887-92, Observations made 
with ReffUtering Thermometers (enecept for the JirH two monthn of 187H,andfor 
thone two months Ufith an ordinary thermometer, at 7 A^ M„ 2 P. M. and 9 P. M.) 
Daily by Prof R. O. Kedxie, at the 9tate Agrli'altnral College, near liangliig^ 
Mich. 



Year and 
Mootlu. 

1 


£mtT«mei mod BaQ««e of TeinperatTir»— Defr«eB F. 


1^. 




mL 


1880. 


1890. 


1891. 


1898. 


At. 20 


1893.* 


1891 aiffhar 

Lower (-), 
than AT.a6 

iwKa. 


11 


i 

A 

m 


i 

82 


-19 


i 
i 

114 


96 


-IS 


i 

i 

t06 


1 

.5? 

n 

97 


-4 


1019 


i «3 
n -J 


|1 

1010 


11 

3 ^ 

5-30 


i 

115 


1 

•X 
95 


-17 


i 

111 


i 

96 


1 

-16 


i 

A 
lit 


i 


1+1 


-1 


Ymt.. ....»..« 




At. MooOl... 1 


^ 17 


72 


72 


18 
-18 


M 


7t 
5t 


2 


61 
4« 


74 

69 


21 
S 


687 
605 


1 19 

1 S 


547 
19 5 


1 19 

0-80 


81 
70 


73 


10 

7o 


57 


f4 
15 


18 
1)6 


56 
61 


+ 1 


+ 8 


-11 
+ 2 


JftQiiAry 4 


P«bniftr7 5 


a 


M 


4& 


-19 


A4 


41 


-15 


51 


61 


12 


4«5 


4 -4 


684 


8-14 


62 


51 


-9 


8(t 


43 


-10 


58 


- 8 


-1-1 


' 7 


March 6 


»a -1 


5i 


m 


2 


67 


e& 


8 


57 


5£ 


-* 


&as 


^ i 


566 


2 9 


58 


6> 


1 


59 


68 


5 


58 


+ 8 


-1-4 


- 1 


Ai*ril 1 


« 14 


Si 


81 


£1 


60 


76 


ao 


S6 


76 


m 


567 


^ 19 


607 


I 80 


68 


78 


17 


61 


76 


81 


55 


-8 


-1-4 


-6 


Mv. ^.6 


« 38 


8C 


80 


ss 


» 


8S 


to 


10 


86 


28 


66« 


« 86 


548 


81 


49 


86 


19 


86 


88 


88 


80 


- 2 


+ 4 


-6 


JOM t 


1 U 
18 44 

e S7 


48 
54 

01 


91 
90 
90 


99 
47 

m 


U 

41 
64 


06 


90 
47 

a 


4fl 

42 
61 


9a 

92 
97 


80 
44 
34 


888 
48 6 
fits 


» 87 
« 4t 
r? 40 


518 

1 
449 

57 9 


7 4t 
6 45 

45 


45 
90 
45 


90 
08 
98 


40 
4« 
40 


80 
4? 

53 


90 
98 
95 


51 
46 

8a 


89 
46 

57 


+ 2 




-U 
-1 
+ 8 


Jttlf .« 


AofOBt. C 


SaptMDlMr t 


18 86 


flt 


88 


» 


M 


92 


29 


67 


90 


29 


Oil 


88 


628 


7 88 


48 


88 


81 


56 


64 


22 


ftZ 


-4 


-10 


+ 8 


Ootobar. 1 


rs It 


61 


n 


» 


47 


78 


17 


M 


76 


25 


516 


4 21 


887 


8 84 


64 


78 


21 


57 


84 


81 


62 


+ 8 


+ 1 


+ 6 


Novunber... 8 


i5 IS 


52 


72 


IS 


59 


S8 


11 


J7 


62 


20 


iti 


« 


585 


b\ 18 


45 


48 


9 


54 


65 


6 


59 


+ 2 


-8 


+ 5 


D«M«Bbef.... e 


6 -» 


«9 


5i 


9 


43 


62 


U 


18 


47 


7 


40,!5 

1 


5 12 


48 4 


6-10 


56 


W 


't 


54 


62 


-8 


TQ 


+10 


+18 


+16 



• For the 21 yaan, 1873-98, the 
roary 8, 1875. and the range wae 



highflat fcamperatTiTe 
134'' P. 



101°, Angnal 11. 1671 ; the lowest was -a8^ F^brti< 



Foot-oototo ExhibiU9: 

*Beiaiiminff with the year 1885, allowaaca moat be inad« for LannLDg in Exhibit 10. becaose of a cbimce 
in thaloeatioti of lastrGmants. The anDoimt of the variation is flhown in Exhibit I>, on piure 22. Report 
Cor 1880 

tMaekinaw Citv for 18^4^7; Kalarnasoo for m78^. ISmSfi; Hendon for 1S78-S2; OtiRTlile for 1878.80, 
1898; Nirrana for 1678-79 and firat fnor moothB of 1^(80; Rned C'ity for laet eiffht tnontba of 1880 an<J I88I-861 
Nilea ftw 1878-79, 1881 ; Wo<Kim©ro Cemetery for 1*^78-7^; Wa&htnirtonforlSiBO-M; Cold water for lS's*x P*to«- 
kcy for 1879: Mallofy Lak<* for firet spv*>n monthH of 18S1; Hndkin for laet Am roontha of IJ^I; HiUsdale 
for 1882-84; Baatin«B for 1882; Winfield for 1S83; Manistee, 8wartz Creek for 1884^'^; Ionia for 1884; P«nt- 
w«<«r for 1886; Marooetf^ for 1879-84. 1886-67; Eeoanaba for 1880-97; Alpena, (inad Hay on. Port flnron for 
1879-87; Detroit for fK7«U87; Onlllvar Laka for 1687-90. 1892; 4lma for 1890; Thorn r tile for 1876-92; Ann Arbor 
for 1881-92: LazuEins for m9-n-, Affrioaltnral CoUe«e for 1881-92; MarBhall. Traverse Citv for 1882-98; 
Birmingfaani for 1887-9^; Albion for ISOO^OI; Battie CtmIc for 1878-79, 1882, 1865, 1802 ; Bookland for 1892. 




30 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SECRETART, IBM. 



EXHIBIT 11 —AvKnxg- Ab^-'luU Humility. b]f y^.ar and montht in 1B93, 
vith -A'. ?. J.' '2K, i ITo'tfA/y Av^^rag':* for l^y^, an' I for tk^ 1$ jffan, 1977-92* Thete 

Arx^-ig-:'^ -.irr- "V'r 'JT' upf of f^v^ral Mtatiott^ in Michigan. 

AbfclBZe Hosi-iitj— GiauA of Vapor in a CaMe PooC of Air. 
^^ Jaa. F«b. Mar. Apr. May. Jnn*. Jolj. Aug. S^pL Oet. Not. Dk. 



At.Utwt* l«n-K^ ?4ft 14S IVS i:» STi tfil S«0 ««« 3.74 «-» 3.« IS . IS 



UU UicasioD* ... .* 4» IS 1 <■ 1 7» l.-n 197 «> «a s.n I.K t.M i.a l.M 
IM Tfsaacc* .... 151 11» 141 2C3 zTT SiS 4U «S0 SK 4.71 ITl l.TS l.B 



Ir UW GrMMT 
IMK At. -cr 1« 
rMn.l?77-K 

At ftx> If fwrk 
L-r-SL 


IT 




i* 

14 

U 

* 




14 


« M 

... M 

>4 IT 

u 


.10 . 
10 . 


.» 


.»' M'\ 


Ir liW Gt«Mer 

".sas.-Js.ls^L 

•-'« 


:- 


* 


.14 .» 



Fx- f.x-c-^-.r j« :*: Es^^c: IT #•» ;^» ^. 



EXHIBIT >— '.^ -4JO-*: .-:•.- Ar"^z>g- ..-:?**;>.'■.> H'*'!\ i\tf f-jr thf^ ^earandfor 
'.:.'•- fu: :\ :' r>.- ;■ j.- :••.- v.- ;'i Ar-^^:-* - - :*- J7 f'.jr*/ J^fi^^-^i. and fortki 
3|^.3r >>: /c--.-.:: %« n.: - j: 7 J J//, f^ i*- :: i :- P JI.. lail^. &y Prof. R. C. 



iL^K-.r:« E^s-iity— TT^-f :f ~a;cc _r a •■laM: Fo:< e£ Air- 



^Yr*' -^ '«^ »*=• A?^ «v .'1=* .'=-j Aa«. ape Oet- Nor. Dm. 



A*- iT'SiifcrMW-jC I *" : •" : r : <« : *: , :, t ti fa i » 4 -i s a 12! i.n 



a«L IV 1 iE : ^. : -« :. i.t i i^ ^ ;- i y. i •* 4 3 s <: • ao laj 

**■ . I * : : r : * ; * i j- ^ .z i *£ # a ? 3 i.?i s.4o'i.ni 

_. ..... _ _ . . _ .. I 

.'m?k :?«* fit L". > .... M 11 zi tf .o .&» -• 

:?«-K. " XV.... 2; ... 



aiK.ai.ifc. ... B XL ^ B ^ tf .» .» .• 

a:« . . .. aft SJ M £ 



MBTEOROIiOGICAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 



31 



EXHIBIT l9.^Average Relative Humidity, by year and months, in 18SQ,* comj 
with Annual and Monthly Averages for 1892, and for the 15 years, 1878-92, 
averages are for groups of several stations in Michigan. 



YBUi^ate. 


Par Cunt of Satnratloa-BtdatiT* Hnmidltf . 


Annul 
At. i 


Jul. 


Fbb. 


Mu. 




Mar. 
10 


June. 
73 


7* 


73 


78 


Oct 
7« 


NoT.< 


Dm. 


AT.Uf«*n.lJSm«]tt 


TO 


m 


78 


m 


n 


ussaoiiAtioiu}... 

lS03(7iitftt1aiu).„. 


80 
TO 


m 

8fi 


90 

88 


8« 




71 
71 


37 1 


80 
74 


72 

72 


71 
70 1 


77 

7B 


7B 
79 


m 

81 


ss 


In Vm Orm,^t 
Ihui Ar. for IS 

In vm L««il IbAD 


S 


e 


b 


t 


s 


1 









3 


S 


9 


1 





















In IBM Grcfttof 




1 


2 


1 


S 






4 


t 


4 


fl 


1 


In vm Leu Uun 

imam............ 


I 


e 


« 









For foot-notee to Exhibit 19 see page 29. 



EXHIBIT 20— Comparison of the Average Relative Humidity of the Air {Per Cent 
of Saturation) for the year, and for each month of the year 1893, vfith Averages for 
the 29 years, 1864-92, and for 1892. Observations made at 7 A, M., 2 P. M. and 9 P.* 
Jf., daUy, by Prof. R. C. Kedzie, at the State Agricultural College, near Lansing, 
Michigan. 



Yflftn, eio. 


Per Cent of BatnraUoa-HeUtiTe Hanildltr. 


Aiutaai 
At. 


Jul 


Feb. 


Har. 


Apr* 


Hv. 


June. 


Jntj. 


Ang. 


Sept. 


Oct, 


Hot. 


Dm. 


At. 19 raui. 1804^ 


TV 


87 


» 


S2 


7<1 


m 


78 


73 


71 


71 


93 


law..—.— 


TV 
U 


as 


m 
m 


77 


75 


70 
7B 


83 
78 


73 

75 


78 


77 
Si 

10 


78 
81 


63 

m 


81, 
81 




In 1383 G»ttt«r 

;Mr«. \mm 

Eb 1M3 L«» than 
At. for IB fmxm, 

w«-«a.„...:..„. 


t 


s 


1 


3 


5 


« 


t 


Z 


t 


2 


& 


t 






















la vm 0r««t*r 
thuiUimi...... 

In Ui9 L«ii thmn. 
Inl^.... 


1 


4 


1 


9 


U 




1 


3 


11 


3 


4 


1 


1 


ft 























32 STATE BOARD OF HEAIiTH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1894. 



TABLE IV. — Absoluts Humiditt. — The Average Number of Qrains of Vapor of 
Water in a Cubic Foot of Air for Months and Year 1893, at 13 Stations in Michi- 
gan; also Average Line for 7 Stations,— Aver<ige of Observations made Daily at 
7 A. M., 2 P.M„ and 9 P. Jf., by observers* for the State Board of Health, 



StatlDfiB 


DiTi- 
aioniof 

8tot*.t 


araiDH of Vapor la b Cablo Fbot of All— (Ab«olQte Hamldltr.)§ 


Tear, 








Monthi 


*1S». 








































im. 


Jan. 


itoti. 


Uar. 


Apr. 


MMf, 


JiW. 


Juif. 


4aff. 


4. IS 


Oe* 

8.11 


t.87 


Dm, 
I. S3 


^''tSS-V^J 






fl.Sl 


l.li 


1,U 


s.os 


a.TJ 


$,m 


e.iE 


A.oo 


ft.St^ 


Hockiiiiid..„... 


tJ. R 


1 '> 


*• 


I 
IM 


k 


d 

i.es 






d 


f 
5.S7 


m 


i 

4.06 


e 
9.15 


i%> 


k 


TraTorw €il^.„ 


N.W^ 


a.aa 


i,^ 


L3? 


l.BS 


IM 


a.» 


e.4i 


».01 


fi.l7 


4.i5li 


3.50 


2.34 


IM 


HarriiiTiU© 


N,E. 


H. 


n 














I.7S 


h,U 


4.3ft 


i.Ol 


8.11 


1.71 





Afchton,., 


N.a 




n 




1.88 


l.SR 


2.B2 


ZM 


li.Tfl 


fi.70 


4.71 


3.»5 


3.2S 


l.«^ 


„.. 


ThorHTllle.,..,. 


B.A: E. 


9.68 


S.53 


1.2? 


l.Sl 


a.oo 


2.87 


a. 80 


e.oe 


0.6i 


5,53 


4.64 


8,(15 


S.43 


tes 


Agr'lGoUflBn,., 


t\ 


3,49 


3,60 


Ill 


1.47 


2.09 


2.90 


3.02 


B.02 


6.45 


6.02 


5.2^ 


3.76 


2.4a 


1.80 




C. 


15 
3.33 


a,3{( 


l.W 


1.11 


a. to 


2.08 


t.se 


5,96 


6.19 


5.11 


4.4& 


a. 52 


2.L8 


1.72 


Albku ,„. 


B.C. 


3. If 


im 


L(n 


1.96 


8.0!) 


2.81 


s.ai 


640; 


6.34 


5.U 




3.15 


£21 


1.78 




9. C. 


a.43 


l.li 


1.88 


l.SS 


iM 


s.7i; 


B.ai 


6.4B 


5.93 


4JS 


8,50 


iM 


1,74 


Battle Creek... 


B. C, 


a,88 


8.S« 


i.#i 


l.«9 


2.82 


3.00 


4.2S 


6.71 


7.08 


8.02 


5.15 


4.21 


IM 


2.11 


MfirthaU 


fi.U. 




fi§ 


«.B7 


KSE 


1,0?! 


8.00 


8.t7 


6.24 
d 

6.3S 
h 

e.4e 


6.68 


5.SI 


5.18 


tM 





. 


TecniBaeh. 

HlnninghftTn 






nil 










8.90 

e 

4.14 


6.88 
6.61 


5,12 
o 

a.ec 


4.65 

d 

4.77 


1.52 

ft 
8.S& 


2.80 
2,4S 


1.61 

a 
1.5T 


b 


IM 


l.BS 


d 



* The names of obeerven, their places of obeerration, and the ootmties in which these places are aita> 
ated are stated in Exhibit t, page 2. 

t The foil names of the diVisions and the oonnties in each dlTisioa are stated in Bzhibit 1., in a paper 
which follows, on weekly reports of sickness. 

X Numbers in this oolomn state the aTerage annual Absolute Humidity tor periods of years ending in 
each case with Deo. 81, 1898. Tfaus small figures abore and at the right of numbers which state the Abso- 
lute Humidity, denote the number of years included in the ayerage. 

§ The number of grains of vapor in a cubic foot of air at each observation was determined from read- 
ings of the psyohrometer by means of Glaisher*s table, Table XII., of the Smithsonian Meteorological and 
Fh/dical l^bles (18S9). 

1l This line is an average for only the stations at which obswvatlons were made trl-daily, and from 
•which statements, nearly complete, were received fcur every month of the year. It doee not include the 
linee for Harrisviile, Ashton, iQbipn, Rockland, Marshall and Tecumseh. 

** The average for 11 months is l94. ft For 6 months, 8.95. tt For 10 months, 8.58. *r^ For 11 months, 
8.89. 9§ For 10 months, 8.88. J||| For 8 months, 4.26. . ^, 

II Beginning with the year lew, allowance must be made for Liansing in Table I v., because of a change 
in the loctttion of the instruments. The amount of variation by months is shown in Exhibit C, page fa, 
Beport for 1886. 

NoTB.— The computations of Absolute Humidity at Ann Arbor and Albion for each month in 1898 were 
furnished bv the observers there. All other computations in Table IV. were made at the office of the 
Secretary of the State Board of Health. . ,. . 

a, b, c. In the columns from January to December, inclusive, the letters a, b, c, etc., stand directly 
above the numbers from which they r^er to the notes below. „ » . 

a For 98 observations. f For 86 observationB. g For 85 observations. h For 84 obswations. 

e For 87 observations. j For 79 observations. k For 78 observations. 1 For 77 observations. 

i For 81 observatlouB. c For 90 obeervations. d For 89 observations. m For 75 observations. 

b For 91 observations. 



The "average" line, and the lines for seven stations in Table IV. are 
graphically represented in Diagram III, page 33. 



METfORqM^GlCAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1898. 88 ^^M 




DIACRAM MK- AeSOI^UTE HUMlDlTr, 6 r M NT H S , v|8 d 3 « 


,1 




GRAINS or VAPOR TM A CUSIC FOOT OF AIR.'AT STAllONS \H MICHfGAN. 




AfiR'l rnilFrif n , AHH ARRflR .RATTIF. ORFFK— ..-■ —J * ^^ 




RIflMfNfiHAM . .-- .^myiKi^ ^^ . THQc^wtp r ^ , » Ji • 


^H 




TRAVtR3£ CfTY j' AVE HADE FOR 7 STATJONS h x hxxrx XKitMifXXl,' 


■ 




zK)*>'K>'z-'<»n-»->u 


m 




Clt<$. 




■ 


'YdQ - 


1 










y 












■ 


/•M W - 












./'^\ 










■ 














/'J 


\ 










4 














i-'^\ 










^k 














t^w^S 














^00 . 






























« ', 


^VN^ 






















1^\ 
























f' 








m 


<: iiA 










If' 




\V 


I 

t 






1 


a, Pip - 

■tai 


IL 








Hi 














3 


r 


^^11 




_ 






Ifl 






^ 


%\V 






^ 


L 


l^.0fi 








if' 








\W^ 


\ 




1 


k 








jil 










i\ 




1 


■' 










Mi 








\\ 




n 


■' 










ffj 








W 






p 


3.00 








ff : 










m\ 






1 








^ ' 












IV 






. 


iJO 




• 




1 

• 
• 












1 


^ 










/J^ 
















iS 








y 


'J?^ 


















1 








^/ 






















■ 


f,00 


r 

/ 


r 






















[ 




/ 








rpi« 


teMBJ 










i 


J J 


k i n 



34 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SECRBTAB7, 189L 



TABLE v.— Relative RviiiDnY.— Average Per Cent of Saturation of the Atm» 
phere with Vapor of Water for Months and Year 1893 at 13 Stations %n Miekigm; 
aUo average line for 7 Statione. Average of obeervatione made daUff at 7 A. M^ 2 
P. M. and 9 P. If., by obaervertf* for the State Board of Health. 





rw: : 






Par tkmt of SAtmation^-BoIMJ ve Hnmiditj. ' 


' aioiu 
Buttons in Miehigan.*! of the 

1 Qa_&— 


Year. 


Honths, 1803. 




t 


Norm. 
1 


L8i3, 


JSfl. 


SB 


Mar, 

B4 


Aw. 


AUl. 


Jen. 


JbIt. 


Anff. 


aw?. 


cw. 


SI 

fo 

51 

ei 

ff7 
86 
81 
19 

m 

m 
m 

7i 
7» 


9 

leo 

m 

« 
ft 

St 

n 
m 
m 

19 

a 


Ay. for 7 Stations g... 




7fl 


SB 


73 


It 


74 


7! 

T 

69 
07 

71 
76 
70 

m 

75 

, 71 

71 

76 

a 
72 


10 

m 

68 

68 
57 
68 
ff7 
78 

a 
ei 

71 
19 

64 

a 

m 

fo 


7& 

1 
09 

f* 

60 

m 
m 

10 
15 
TO 

n 


7» 
7B 
70 
08 
TS 
81 
» 

m 
m 

■ 

ai 






79~ 
to" 


R<w4ri«Ti^ 


u. p. 

N.W. 
N. E. 

N. C. 
B.ftE. 

C. 

(\ 
8. C. 
8.C. 

s. c. 

8. C. 


m 

M 

V 
hi 
T5 

ft 
SI 
Bi 

ti 


1 
100 

91 

ss 

m 

7S 

W 

10 


96 

91 

St 

m 

SI 
91 

9^ 

m 


d 
Bl 

90 

87 

as 

89 
S4 

m 

S7 
79 


d 
71 

91 
71 

75 

7fl 

n 

71 
7« 


71 

TV 

OS 
71 
97 
75 I 
71 1 
74, 
74 
71 
74 


70 

70 
71 
71 

7S 
74 

75 
78 
74 

T 

h 
76 


TnTttiw Citjr- 


Asliton 

Thomville 

AgrU College 


LM»sin«.aB.ofH.«T 

Albion. 

Ann Arbor. 

BntUeCraek 

if>i-.iii^ii 


Te<minff<>h 


9. C. 

a. E. 


76^: U 




b 
74 


m 


71 


d 
75 



Note. —The obserrations in Table Y. were Tedoced by Gayot*s table, in Bmithaonian Meteorologiail 
Tables, or bj a table sabstantially the same as that. Compatations for Ann Arbor and Albicm in UN 
were made bj theobeerrers there. Ail other Gompntatlons in Table V. were make at tha offioe of tbs 
State Board of Health. 

•The namee of obeerrers, their plaoee of obeerraticm. and the ooanties in wliioh ttaesa i»laeea an dto- 
ated. are stated in Exhibit 1, page 2. 

t The fall namee of the divisions, and the oonntiee in each dirlston are stated in Bzhibit I., in a paper 
which follows, on weekly reports of sickness. 

X Nnrabers in tills eolnmn state the average annual relative hnmidity for periods of vaara *»*«W"g in sash 
aae with December 81. 1S8S. The smaU figures above and at the right of the nombera which state ths 



relative humidity, denote the number of years included in the i 

I Tide line is an average for aa\j the stations at which observations were made tri-daily and troD 
which statements, nearly complete, were received for every month in the year. It does not IneliKla Ashton, 
Albion, Harrieville, Rockland. Marshall and Tecnmeeh. 

*" The average for It months is 82. ** For 6 months, 67. For 10 months, 74. ft For 11 months, IB. 
XX For 10 months, 76. gg For S months, 74. 

*^ Beginning with the year 1SS5, allowance must be made for f«ansing in Table V.. beeanae of a ohangaia 
location of the instrument*. The amount of the variation by months is shown in EzhlbiC D, on page S, 
Beport for 16S6. 

a. b. c. In the columns frcnn January to December, inclusive, the letters a, b, c, ato., stand diraetly 
above the numbers from which they refer to the notes below. 

a For 92 observations. h For 91 observations. c For 90 observations. 

d For ^9 observations. e For 87 observations. f For 86 obeervationa. 

^ For 86 obsTvations. h For 84 observations. i For 81 observations. 

] For 79 observations. k For 7S observations. 1 For 77 < 

m For 75 observations. 



Grrapllio reprr'Sr^utatious of 8 representative lines in Table V. are given 
in Diagram IV., page 35. 



MfiTEOROLOGIOAL. CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 



35 



OlAGftAM IV.-BttAT|VL HUWIDITr, BY MONTHS, *g 93 



PER CIHT OF S ATI/ RATION OF AIR.- AT STATIONS |N MICHJG^N : 
AGR'L COLL£G£^o;ANN ARBOR ^*<.^ ; BATTLE CREEK ^* • 



BlRMlNGNAm. 



;LAHSIN6 



OJ' ;THORNV(LLE 



TRAVERSE CJTY^— •• ;AVERAGt FOR 7 S TATI N S Jf X X XXXXX, 




rPiat«:4(J.J 



86 STATE BOARD OP HEALTH.— REPORT OF SECRETART, IW*. 



FOGS. 

For the year 1893, fog was reported at 63 morning obeervationB, at 6 
afternoon observations (at abont 2 P. M.), at 7 evening observationB (st 
abont 9 P. M.), and 62 times during the day, no special time being men- 
tioned, in many cases the same fog, or fog at the same time, being reported 
by different observers. Fog was reported, at one or more stations at some 
time during the day, on 58 days. 



EXHIBIT 21.- -Number of different days on which Fog was observed at one or more 
of 12 Stations in Michigan* in 1893, and in each month of the year 1893. 


i 1 ' 1 
Year. Jan. Feb. 1 Mar. j Apr. May. j Jnne. 

1 1 ' ! 


Joly. 


Aoff. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


i 
Not. |D«. 


08 ■ 2 2 1 3 S ' 9 1 8 

: 1 1 i 1 


5 


8 


8 


10 


•i' 



* This exhibit eontaine statemente only for thoee localitiee from which reports wvs raoelTed for efvrr 
month of the year, as follows : BockJand, Marquette. Sanlt Ste. Marie. Traverae City.Onnd HnTen, Bittk 
Creek, ThomTille. Laneinff, Ann Arbor, ParkTilie. Birmingham and Tecamaeh. 



Exhibit 21, " Number of different days on which fog was observed," etc, 
supplies knowledge of the time^ in each month, on which fog was observed, 
somewhere in Michigan. Exhibit 22, ''Number of observations at which 
fog was observed," etc., supplies knowledge of the iime combined with the 
area of the occurrences of fog. For the State as a whole, therefore, the 
last-mentioned exhibit supplies the most important information. There- 
fore, in this Report the diagram relative to fog is made to exhibit the facts 
contained in this last-mentioned exhibit. Heretofore it has represented 
the " Number of different days on which fog was observed at one or more 
stations in Michigan.'* 



EiXHIBIT ^.—Number of Obtervations at which Fog was observed in Michiganin 
1893, and in each month of thf year 1893. {Observations taken 3 times daily,* at 12 
Stations.^) 



!,«.. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. April. 


May. 


Jane. 


Jnly. 


A... 


8.pt. 


Oct. 


Not. 


Deo. 
6 


1 - 


3 


4 


9 5 


11 


6 


11 


.. 


24 


U 



• At the U. S. Weather Karaaa Stations the obeerrationa ware made at 8 A. M. and 8 P. M.. 7Stli Meridini 
time, anleaa otherwise stated in Exhibit 23. 

t This exhibit oontains statementa only for thoee localitiee from. which rairiatan wave rsoaived for afwy 
month of the year ; the localitiee are stated in a foot-note to Exhibit 21 above. 



in 



Note. — Graphic representations of statements in Exhibit 22 are given 
Diagram V., page 37. 



BiBTEOROLOOICAX. CONDITIONS IN MICUIOAN IN 1893. 31 

^DIAGRAM V.-CONCERNING FOGS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893^. 



NUmBER OF OGSERVATIONS OF F0C5» AT ONE OR MOKt OF 12 STATIONS 
IN mJCHJGAN^ BY MOMTH& (N 1893 • 




[Plate 747.] 



38 STATE BOARD OF HEAI/TH.— RHPORT OF 8E0RETABT, IWi. 



EXHIBIT 23.— Number of different days on which Fog was recorded in 1895, md 

at 16 ttofiou 





No. of 


January. 




February. 


1 

s 


Day of 
Month. 


Hour of 
ObMrration. 


Day of 
Month. 


Hour of 
ObaenratioD. 


A. M. 


P.M. 


A.M. 


P.M.I 


1 


R4>nklitnri . . 


7 
10 

3 

4 
20 

7 
11 









28 
£8 















6 


6 
14 
14 










Marquette 

Saolt Ste. Marie 



















Travene City 












Grand HavftD 













Ashton 








ThomTille 

Lansing, S. B. of H.. 






Ml 


laOO 


t 






!. 


19 


14 

18 


4 











1. 

: 

11 

III 


Albion 

Ann Arbor. 


7:00 






9:00 
















18 

28 
8 
6 

18 






6 


6,14 






ParkviUe 

Teonxnaeh 






:;:..::i« 


.. 






u 


Jfi rm { ngh Am 










If 


Detroit. 










IT 















• The names of observers, their places of observation, and the eoanties in which the plaoea are aitaatad 
are stated in Exhibit 1, pace 2. 



METBOROLOOIOAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 



89 



in each month, the dates and hours of observationf when Fogs were recorded 
In Michigan. 



1 

1 


lUralL 


Al»riL 


"" 


JlUM. 


SS£ 


Hoar Of 
ObMtratloii, 




Hoorof Ob- 


Day of 


Hour of 
1 ObMtmtlofi. 


BSl 


Hour of 
QtMamtloiL 


A. M, 


P, M, 


A. M. 


F. M. 


A. M. 


P.M. 


A. U. 


P, », 
ttiOO 




u 
1 
1 

m 

« 


S3 




9m 


(1 
1 

B 

IT 


D 






t8 



1^,14 

I 


7i« 




4 
2 








.......... 




...„, 






— " 






9i» 


























■ '* 


Homlnt 


._...._. 








Hornlnt 








7m 


..-.„ 












St 




.. . 











I 
I 


StiUlO 


........ 











w 


&tmto 






11 






11 


£3 

1 


4. U, 


9M 


D 
S.11 







"-— 






I 


" - 


- - 


17 

m 
as 
as 

a 






11 


UornlDff 




14 


.._... 









1A 










7i» 




IS 


-" - 








"""* 




It 






■— -— 


— — 

















t At the U. 8. Weathflr Baraaa Stations dorinff t89S, the obMrrationa w«ro made at 8 A. M. and 8 P. M., 
7tth Meridian time, onleae otherwiM stated inthia exhibit. 

Note.— Beffisters were reoeiTed, bat with no fog recorded thereon, from JKalamasoo, Agrienltaral Coiiege. 
Harrisrille and Port Horon for each month in UM. A cipher (0) indicates that a monthly register was 
reoeiTed from the station with no fog recorded thereon. 



40 STATE BOARD OF HEAUTH.— REPORT OF SBORBTABY. 18M. 

EXHIBIT 23.— ConmrusD.— Dcifes whet 



StatinnR 
in Michigan. 


July. 


Aognet. 


Beptomber. 


1 


Day of 
Month. 


Hoar of 
Obeerration. 


Day of 
Month. 


oS^^^ 


££2[ 


Hour of 
Obaerratian. 


A. M. 


P. M. 


A. M. 


P.M. 


A.M. 


P.M. 


1 


Bookland 

Marquette 

Sanlt Ste. Marie 

TraTerMCitj.- 

Grand HaTen... 

Aahton -| 

Thorn ville 

r 

Lansins.S.B. 
of H ' 

L 
f 

Albion 

Battle Creek.... 
Parkvllle 

Tecomeeh. 

L 
Birmingham ... 
Detroit 


B,8 


7A) 








































16 






























































15 






17,81 






15 




































— 


















































26 
26 
26 


7iOO 




18 
7 
8 


7K» 


Night tm 








Night tiU 








8K)0 


7:46 







































































































































1 






4 












2 

21,29 



Morning 





20,28 

21.80.81 



Morning 




14,16 

16,17 

8.17 




Momliig 

































% 

























































16 




































METEOROLOOICAIi CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1883. 



41 



Fogs were recorded in 1893. 



i 


October. 


NoTember. 


Daoember. 


Day of 

MODth. 


Hoar of 
ObMrration. 


Darof 
Month. 


Hon 
Obwr 

A. M. 


irof 
ration. 


Darof 
Month. 




Hoar of 
ObMrvadon. 


1 


A. M. 


P.M. 


P.M. 


A.M. 


P.M. 











8 
9 










9:00 












7«) 





1 

IS 
20 












24 






















7«) 








7:00 


2:00 




9j00 










1 %V&J 

8,12 

9 

10 

11 

7,9 

9 

10 

11 

11 

12 

8 

9 

11 

12 






15,18,23 













7A) 
















2A9 
2a9 
9iJ0 






10 








7«) 

7:00 

Morning 

9:20 till 








11 














12 


19,22 
20 
21 
22 
22 


Morning 





16 






18 


Night tiU 


2:00 

Night till 
2:00 

Night tm 


9:30 




u 


8:20 




11 


Night tUl 


7«)tm 








18 


8:20 








11 


0:30 








18 


7 

8 

20 

21 

2B.22 

21.22 

21,22 

11, 19, 22 




Night tiU 


9till 











19 


730 


10:00 






20 


Night tlU 


7tiU 






21 


IOjOO 

Morning 

Morning 

7iX) 


10:20 






22 










22 




7 

10 
11 
12 

7 
6,7,9 


Morning 
70) 














u 








Wi 










t6 


7:00 




7jOO 
7A) 
7J00 
7M) 
7K)0 








t7 




9A) 

2A9 

2:00 






28 














(9 














80 


1 'ICti\ 


70) 





14,16 


• 




81 

























42 STATE BOARD OF HEAI/TH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY, IBM. 



TABLE VL— Average Per Cent of Cloudineaa for Months and Year 1893, at U 
Stations in Michigan ; also Average Line for 8 Stations. Average of Observatiou 
made Daily at 7 A. M., 2 P. ilf., and 9 P. M, by observers* for the State Boardnf 
Health. 



]iillk%S!a.- 


Stete.t 








A 


LTBTSffa Per (Jeat of CJondini 


-■ 




Yeu. 






UODthi 


« 1^. 






































1 


latHi. 


JiQ. 


F%1>. 


MJir. 


Aw. 


im. 


Jtm*. 


Jior. 


ABC. 


S»|4 


47 


Nop. 

OS 


im. 

m 


At. for a ste- i 






M 


?« 


« 


B€ 


98 


SO 


31 


38 


30 


4S 


Boeklaiid...... 

TrftTttrt City... 


C, P. 


""ii 

m 




7? 

«3 


m 
SI 


d 
S8 


67 


a 


34 

29 


& 

40 


o 
SI 

30 


n 

98 
h 

ft3 


• 
e 


« 


i 


HlRi«YUl0>.„. 


N.B. 


w- 


SB 


71 


^ 


S3 


71 


11 


17 


18 


Si 


&8 


U 


T4 
1 


m 


AtfatoD ......... 


N,C. 




** 


ei 


38 


le 


41 


28 


la 


22 


16 


tfi 


14 


4& 
d 
i» 


,„. 


TborsTllle, ..., 


B.& E, 


IS 


71 


M 


5S 


51 


4ft 


Bl 


31 


^ 


» 


41 


n 


AgT'lCoIllEfl.. 


i\ 


«."* 


3R 


7a 


M 


w 


71 


ft2 


10 


m 


Si 


iS 


4§ 


01 


11 


Ludbg B. B. I 

ofH..,-.... r 


i\ 


IS 


W 


81 


74 


«0 


74 


fi£ 


34 


44 


38 


M 


4T 


W 


n 


Albion .._,_..., 


&.V. 


"■■]* 

49 


n 


n 


71 


w 


70 


41 


30 


SB 


at 




10 


00 


n 


Aim Arbor,.... 


B.C. 


44 




58 


98 
44 


71 


&I 

Vi 


at 


as 


21 


3& 


5 

10 


S8 


m 


T*CDinBeb„„. 


S. f:. 


? 




e» 


«7 


60 


aa 


41 
57 


d 

18 


28 

k 

32 


IS 

S3 

1 


d 

as 

k 

4fi 


IS 

c 
31 
h 
&1 


'k 
M 

A 

Tl 


m 

7i| 


h 


'» 


k 

m 


t 

"3 



* The namee of obeeryors, their places of obeervation. and the coontles in whioh theM plaoM an rito- 
ated, are stated In Exhibit 1 . page 2. 

t The fall namee of divisions and the oonntiee in each division are stated in Exhibit I., In a paper 
which follows, on weekly reports of sickness. 

X Numbers in this colamn state the average per cent of oloodinees for periods of yeara eodlne in mA 
case with Dee. 81, lb08. The small fignree above and at the right of nombers whioh state the per osnt of 
olondinees, denote the nnmber of years included in the average. 

NoTK TO Tablk VI.— Computations of average percent of clondinees were made and fomialied bf tin 
observer at Albion by months in lfi98. All other computations in Table YI. were made at the oiEce dt tbs 
State Board of Health. 

§ This line is an average for only the stations at which tri-daily obeervationa were made, and from 
which statements, nearly complete, were received for every month of the year. It doea not Inoinds the 
lines for Rockland. Marshall, Tecumseh, Ashton and Albion. 

^ The averam for 11 months is 58. ** For 11 months, 32. 
48. !I1[ For 8 months, 89. 

a, b, o. In the columns from January to December, inclusive, the letters a, b, o. eto 
above the numbers from which th^ refer to the notes below. 

a For 92 observations. b For 91 observations. c For 90 observations. 

e For fcH observations. f For 87 observations. g For 86 observationa. 

1 For {'4 observations. j For 88 observations. k For 82 observations. 

m For 80 observations, n For 72 observations. o For 70 observations. 



tt For 11 months, S8. U For 10 mostfas. 
atand directly 



d For 89 obaervatioas. 
h For 85 obaervatioBS. 
I For 81 obaerratioiis. 
p For 68 obaenrattons. 



Graphic representations of 8 representative lines in Table VI., are given 
in Diagram No. VI., page 43. 



METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 43 

DIAGRAM Vl^ AV, PER CENT BF CLOUDINE 5S, Br M OWTHS^lSW. 



PER CINT or CLOUOlNtSS.- AT STATIONS IN MICHIGAN. 
ANN ARBOKwa..** ; BATTLE CHtt K ^_* ; B I Rf»t I N 6 H A M — ^.^^^»» ; 

HARRlSVILLE....^ ;LAN5ING _ OX ;TH R M V 1 L L E -. jc «| 

TRAVERSE ClTY-»*. if^y/lHAQt FOR 8 9T AT I N 3 X X Y y }C X. 




t Plate 748.] 



i4 STATE BOARD OF HEAI/TH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY, ISOi, 



EXHIBIT 2L-^Average Per Cent of Cloudineaa, by Year and Months in 1893,* Com- 
pared with Annual and Monthly Averages for 1892, and for 16 years, 1877-92, 
These Averages are for Groups of Several Stations in Michigan, 



Ymm, ate. 










Per Gaot dt Cloadlnsn* 










Annaal 
At. 


J«n, 


F«b, 


Mat. 


Apr, 


May 


Jane 


Jnlj 


Aq«. 


Sept 


Oct. 


t«OT. 


Dk. 


Av.MF«an,1^77^* 


Efl 


30 


«G 


ea 


51 


SO 


tt 


iO 


41 


II 


58 


se 


71' 


lasa (11 atatloQAK.. 

l§M(Sitatlcmi>.... 


S7 


ai 

76 


77 
65 


4S 


4B 
66 


68 

m 


60 


IS 

S8 


18 


38 
41 


48 
47 


81 


1» 

il 


In 1861 Or«nt«r 
thaa At, for liJ 




it 




a 


a 


IT 







IS 


% 


11 


I 


11 


i 


i 


In ISffS Le»B tium 
At* foe 16 jBBia, 


£ 




In 1891 Orefttcr 




10 


n 


8 


20 






8 


6 


a 






1 


In 1^93 L«fla thuL 
inia^ .„ 


a 


IS 


m 




1 ' 


10 









• Mendon for 1877-83 ; Nirrana for 1877-79 and first foar months of 1880; Reed City for laat eiffht i 
of 1880 and 1881-85; Nilee for 1878-81; Benton Harbor for 1877-7d and 1880; Uoldwater. Woodmen CeBaetwy 
for 1877-79; Otiaville for 1878-80. 188i!; WaBhinston for 1879^; Ypeilanti for 1877. 1879; Petoekey fgr 
1878-79; Fife Lake for 1877; Ionia for 1880, \9S3^\ Adrian for 18B0; Hilladale for 1880, 1882-84: Parkvilk 
tor 1881-82; Winfield for 1881, 188S; Mallory Lake for first seTen months of 1881, Hndson for last five 
months of 1881; Hastinss for 1882; Port Austin for 1883; ManUtiqne, Swartz Creek for 1884-85; Mac' ' 
City for 1884-87; Pentwater, East Saginaw for 1886; Kalamazoo for 1877-^; Marquette tor 1879-87: 
naba for 188(V87; Alpena, Grand Haven, Port Huron, for 1879-87; Detroit for 1877. 1^79^; Otiieso f ' 
1890; Gulliver Lake for 1887-90, 1802; Alma for 1800; Thomville for 1877-92; Battle (Treek for 19n- 



naba for 188(V87; Alpena, Grand Haven, Port Huron, for 1879-87; Detroit for 1877. 1879^; Otiieso for 1886-87, 
1890; Gulliver Lake for 1887-90, 1802; Alma for 1800; Thomville for 1877-92; Battle (?reekforl9n-«0,188MgL 
1888-89. 1891-92; Lansing for 1879-92; Africultural Collece for 1877, 1881-92 ; Ann Arbor for 1880-92 ; Manhilll 



for 1881-92; HarrisviUe for 1882, 1885-92; Traverse City for 1882-92 
1800-91; Rockland for 1891-92 



Birminffliam for 1887-92; Albioote 



EXHIBIT ^—Comparison of the Average Per Cent of Cloudiness for the Year, 
and for each Month of the Year 1893, with Averages for the 29 Years, 1864-92, and 
for the Year 1892, Observations made at 7 A. M., 2 P, M. and 9 P. M., Daily, by Prof 
R. C. Kedzie, at the State Agricultural College, nexir Lansing, Michigan, 



¥»FS, etc. 






Per rent of Cloudiness. 










ADunal 
At. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


M«y 


June 


Jnlr 


Alw. 


Sept, 


Oct. 


Nov. 


D«h 


Lt.mfvanAmrM 


C8 


n 


m 


61 


55 


SI 


90 


44 


45 


IB 


50 


67 


74' 


1892. .„.„_„.„,_, 

isoa , . 


S8 
5fi 


63 
79 


79 
66 


8* 


m 

71 


n 

u 


59 

40 


n 
m 


37 


41 
4t 


42 

4G 


81 
8t 


61 


In inn Oreater 

than At. for 29 

!««, 1864-02 

In 1899 I.«AA than 
At, for 2S years, 
1864-92 .... 


3 


6 


Oj 



4' 


t 












5 


10 


5 


13 


e 


U 


fi 








In 1893 6rflat«r 
thajtilnl80a._,„. 




IB 


IS 


S 

— 


II 


IS 


19 


7 


5 


1 


s 


BO 


4 


In 1B93 ]>ss tJiaa 
In 1893 .„.. 


s 



METEOBOLOGIOAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 18S8. 



46 



I 

{ 
I 



31 



i 



•?•- 



aiOiaiOioioiaaaie 



«• e» 






S 3 



1 1 1 1 ij 1 1 1 



44 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1894. 



EXHIBIT 2L-^Average Per Cent of Cloudineaa, by Year and Months in 1893,* Com^ 
pared with Annual and Monthly Averages for 1892, and for 16 years^ 1877-92. 
These Averages are for Groups of Several Stations in Michigan. 



Yea™, etc, 


Per Cent of CioDdiiiMe. 


AnQQal 
At, 


Jan. 


F«b. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


Mar 


Jojjo 


Jolf 


Aug, 


Sept. 


Get. 


Not* 


Dee. 


At. 16 jrw». 1^77 ^a» 


H 


7Q 


m 


SB 


fil 


SO 


49 


40 


4t 


4i 


08 


00 


T* 


18e2(llitattoDs)... 

]Bd3C3AtAtloaA).„. 


57 




77 
95 


46 


IB 
«8 


so 


BO 
34 




18 
30 


88 
It 


4S 
47 


as 


TO 

m 


In iset Greftter 

than At. tor Ift 




9 






1 


17 






15 


i 


11 


1 


11 


4 


6 


la leSfi I^M thaa 
At, for Ifl reaiv, 


^ 




Id 1801 Gre>tAr 

than lEi If^^. 




u 


li 


8 


go 


IS 


m 


B 


8 


5 






1 


iniess.. „* 


8 


' 


n 



• Mendon for 1877-83 ; Nirrana for 1877-79 and first four months of 1880; B«ed City for last alffht months 
of 1880 and 1881-85; Nile* for 187i^l; Benton Harbor for 1877-78 and 1880; Ooldwater. Woodxnere Cemetery 
for 1877-79; OtisTiile for 1878-80, 1882; Washington for 1879-88: Ypeilanti for 1877. 1879; Petoskey for 
1878-79; Fife LAke for 1877; Ionia for 1880, 1888-85; Adrian for 1880; HiUsdale for 1880. 1882-M; Parkrlile 
tor 1881-82; Winfieid for 1881. 188S; MalJory Lake for first seTen months of 1881, Hudson for last five 
months of 1881; Hastinars for 1882; Port Austin for 1888; Manlstique, Swarts Greek tor 1881-85; Mackinaw 
Cit¥ for 1884-87 ; Pentwater, East Saginaw for 1888; Kalamazoo for 1877-89; Margnette for 187»^: Beoa- 
naba for 1880^; Alpena, Gkand HaTen, Port Hnron, for 1879-87; Detroit for 1877, 1879-87; Otm«o for 1888-87, 
1890; GolUTer Lake for 1887-90. 1892; Alma for 1890; ThomTUle for 1877-92; Battle Creek for 1977-«0. 188^^. 
1888-89. 1891-92; Lansing for 1879-92; Agricoltnral College for 1877, 1881-92; Ann Arbor tor 1880-92; MarBhall 
for 1881-92: HarrlsriUe for 1882, 1885h92; TraTerse City for 1882-92; Birmingham for 1887-92: Albion tor 
1890-91; Bockland for 1891-92. « 



EXHIBIT 2o.— Comparison of the Average Per Cent of Cloudiness for the Year, 
and for each Month of the Year 1893, with Averages for the 29 Years, 1864-92, and 
for the Year 1892, Observations made at 7 A. M., 2 P. M. and 9 P. M., Daily, by Prof, 
R. C Kedzie, at the State Agricultural College, near Lansing, Michigan, 



¥<wn. etc. 


Per rent of Gloadines*. | 


Annual 
At. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Uiir.j 


Apr. 


Msf 


Jane 


Jalr 


Aug. 


Sept, 


Oct, 


Not, 


Deo, 


AT.t9riittn.l884^ 


58 


72 


m 


ftl 


55 


51 


50 


44 


4i 


IB 


59 


S2 
62 


74 


lB9i . . 


S8 
IS 


63 

76 


n 


52 

57 


50 
71 

le 


70 
58 


50 
10 


SI 

m 


S7 
U 


II 
41 


42 

IS 


as 

T9 


1^99 ,„.„.-„_.... 


In 1193 Gre»t«r 
than At. lor 29 
fears, taS442. ^ 




« 






t 


1 












S 


In 1193 I^H than 
At. for 29 jmrm, 
1894^ - 


s 


10 


5 


13 


a 


14 


a 




In I8f)3 Greater 
than Id 1B&2 , . 




15 


It 


A 


21 






7 


S 


1 


» 






In am Less tlun 

tn 1S92 . 


8 


l» 


19 


20 


4 









METEOROIiOQICAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1896. 



45 



I 
I 

I? 



I 



s s s s s 



aS 



I 1 II II 3 g I J I 



46 STATE BOARD OP HEALTH.— REPORT OP SECRETARY, 189i. 



EXHIBIT 27.— Dates of Solar and Lunar Haloa 



J 

10 


Btatioiu. 


Dates of Haloe Beoordad, 


January. 


Febmary. 


March. 


AprU. 


May. 


1 


1 


1 




i 


1 


1 


a 

•5 


1 


• 

1 


Marqaette 




27 
26 


ISY^Ii 


22,24 
26,28 

24.28 


"■Si 

2 






■ 






SaultSU. Marie. 
Alrmm 





1 


{%.% 


"■?>{ 


1,8 
20 

20.11 


1.21 




24 


Graod Hayoii. . 








22 


17,27 

13 

17,28 


27,80 

ao 

20 
27 
27 




25 

27 


ao 


Albion 


12 




{"•?»{ 




24 
























KfllfUPAVOO 










6.17 




27 
25 


* 




ParkTille 












D»trolt .- - 








2,27 











If 



















Parhelia, Jan. 6, 9, 20 ; Feb. 8 : Mar. 8, 17, 27 ; May 10 ; June 25 ; Oct. 1 ; Dec. Tn.-LanHng. 
Parhelia, Mar. 27.— JTatomozoo. 



EXHIBIT ^,— 'Inches of Rain and Melted Snow, by Year and Months in 1893, com- 
pared with Annual and Monthly Averages for 1892, and for the 16 YearSf 1S77-9B. 
These Averages are for Groups of several Stations in Michigan. 



Yaiira, etc. 


Inehee of Bain ami Ualt«d Bqow. 


AjiWTial 
At. 


Jan: 


Feb, 


Mar. 


Apr. 


Ma,. 


Jnitev 


July. 


Aug. 


Swt. 


Qot. 


Not. 


Deo. 
2.60 


At. Ifl f BAM, 1S7T-W* 

• 


IS.40 


2.33 


t5P 


186 


3.4? 


S.SO 


t.ei 


,a9 


t.25 


3.15 


3 17 


a.tT 


laWdSrtaUonfli.- 
]a3l(l6»tatioiu)... 




1.95 
2.14, 


t.lB 

2,78 


1.29 
2.40 


£.16 
4.77 


2.91 


ass 


£.29 
^62 




a.oi 


1. 40 
4.^4 


91.14 


1,95 
2.74' 


In ms <*r*Ater 
thas Av. tat U 
yean. 1877'S2. ... 

In vm Le»» ^an 
At. tor le jtmx^ 

iaT7'^a.....„: 


M 


.11 


.20 


.14 


2.90 


M 


M 


.30 1 


2.08 


ja 


1.07 


.11 


1.14 














In 1898 Orentcr 

thanlDim. .... 

In 1898 LvftM than 

In 1892. 


2M 


.28 


M 


1.01 


2.61 


2.54 


1.62 


.44' 


1.70 


.49 


IM 


.09 


1.79 















* Benton Harbor for 1877-78; Mendon for 1877-78, 1880-82: NUes for 1878-81; Nirvana for 1877-79, and to 
and inolndinff April 26, 1880; Beed City from April 26 to Ilecember 21 indoaiTe in 1880. and for 1881-86 ; 
Coldwater, Woodmere Cemetery for 1OT7.79: OtiaTiUe for 1878-80. 1882; Bsoanaba for 1880^; Washington 
for 1880^; Fife Lake, Ypeilanti for 1887; Winiield for 1881-83: ICaUory Lake for first seven months of 
1881, Hudson for last five months of 1881; Hastings for 1882: Hillsdale for 1882^; Ionia for 1882^; Man- 
iatiqne. Swarts Greek for 1884-85; Mackinaw City for 1884-87; Pentwater, Bast Saginaw for 1886; GnliiTar 



METBSOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1898. 47 

Recorded on the Monthly Registers in 1893. 



Moutha, im. 


i 

■ra 

M 

1 

i 

1 
t 
i 

1 

7 
8 
« 


iajm. 


Jalr. 


An^Qit. 


Soptamb^r. 


Oetobw. 


NowmbftE, 


DooembftT^ 


1 


1 


u 

I 




Ill 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


s 


1 


1 


UlO 


7 


- 




— ■ -■ 


--— 


IT 





17 


.-,.™ 


'-• 


1S.BI 


,-.,„ 


""— 


































1«.» 

tl 


I.U 


18 

m 


7 


-„,. 










tl, tl 


» 


m 




1.11 






























































































..„.. 


!— — 









-—— 


--" — 




lt,ii 





















PBrtMlia, FAb. ». 27.-ParfeviU«. 
Fwhslla, Deo. &- iSocfeland. 



£XHIBIT 29.— Comparison of the Rainfall during the Year and during each Month 
of the year 1893, with thai for the Year 1892, and with the Average for the 29 Years, 
1864-92, Observations made by Prof. R. C Kedzie, at the State Agricultural College, 
near Lansing, Michigan. 



Yesn.eto. 








Inches of Bain and Melted Snow. 




Annoal 
At. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


Haj. 


Jan*. 


Jnlr. 


kng. 


Sept. 


OeA, 


Not. 


Dm. 


At. 29 yean, 1864-92. 


81.40 


1.80 


2.05 


2.40 
l.BL 


2,34 
tM 


3.Z3 


4.05 


3,16 


2.88 


2.81 


1.48 


1.30 

t.H 

2.1U 


1.90 

2,m 


189S 


29.92 
31,29 


.96 
1.78 


1.93 
1.83 


3.86 
J7 


4.13 
4,S5 


2.€Q 
IJ6 


5.12 


2.17 
1.64 1 


,78 
1.61 


1883 


In 1891 Greater 
than At. for 29 
yean, 1864-92 








.42 


2.47 






Lit 

2.88 


n 


.18 

.36 


In 1881 LeM than 
At. for 29 year*. 
U6i-92 


.11 


.02 
.82 


.22 
.10 


1.80 


2.^ 


.99 








In 1898 Greater 
than in 1892 

In 188S Less than 
In 1892 


1.87 


l.Sl 


t.77 


ao6 


J4 


1.56 


.83 



















Lake tor 18S7-.90. 1892; Alma. Otsego for 1890; Hndson for 1886, 1888^; Battle Creek for 1877.78, 18S4, 1888; 
ThomTille, Detroit for 1877-42; Kalamasoo for 1877^90. 1892; A«ricaltaral College for 1877-78, 1881-92; Mar- 
OMtte for 187944, 18864)2: Alpena, Port Haron for 1879-92; Qrand HaTen for 1879^. 1890-92; Lanaiof for 
1880-98; HarrisTiUe for 18Sl-Siri887-92; Ann Arbor for 1881-S2. 1H85-86, 188M)2: Marshall for 18S1-S4, 18M-08: 
Tkaverae Glt[ for 1882412; ParkTille for 1882-83, 1885-82: Birmingham for 1887-«2; Manistee for 1889-92 ; Albion 
far 189fr«l ; Rockland for 1891; Sanlt Ste. Marie for 1892. 



48 STATE BOARD OP HEAI/TH.— REPORT OP SECRETARY, 18W. 



TABLE VII.— Inches of Rain and Melted Snow for Months and Year 1893, at 22 
Stations in Michigan; Also Average Line for 16 Stations,— as compiled from daUy 
observations made by observers^ for the State Board of Health, and for the U, S. 
Weather Bureau. 



BtBtloaB 




lusbm of Bota and Meltwl 8odw. 


{Thowof tha 0. a. 
Wmther Bnreeti 


tloiuof 

tb» 
Bt&tet 


y«ir. 


AfnnttiB. 1^93. 






























III It&LlcaO 




NoitD. 


mfi. 


Ju, 


Htb. 


Hit. 


Aw. 


Mij. 


JUB. 


JuJf. 


Auf. 


Sept 


Ool. 


K«r, 


dk. 


At. tto- 16 etotlontt §„ 


- 




m.u 


2.K 


&.TS 


a^ 


4.77 


L»l 


1.55 


%M 


i.aa 


%M 


4.34 


105 


1,74 








Eooklwvd.. ,._. 

MarqwiU 


U. P. 


•i.si 





S.27 


i.iia 


i.00 






2.58 
IJ8 




E.I5 
156 


1.55 

0.54 


198 


0.80 

lee 


4^ 

5.88 


131 


3w8» 


OxiiJiate. Marie...... 


U, P. 


34.^ 


IB.H 


L7S 


1.77 


L77 


t.S6 


1.71 


lis 


i.n 


L40 


4.6B 


i.68 


5.09 


4.84 


jraitif£ee ......_„ 

TraTarwflCltT......^. 


H.W, 
N.W, 


38!.f 




2.51 
1.31 


1.85 


1.O0 
S.11 


a.Ti 


2.55 
1.95 


1.00 

IJia 


3.27 
5.Ge 


LOT 










3j0 


4.ei 


100 


4.SB 


^^WWK. - 


N,E, 


^n!i' 


!I3.BG 


J^fA 


1 4^ 


fm 


3 0fl 


^H 


1^71 


1 91 


?00 


^Tfi 


im 


1 fVt 


143 


HaniBTme.,..,. 


«.E. 


3I.&J 


SSJE 


5.37 


3.23 


tM 


5.78 


3.16 


1.70 


Z.^ 


i.aa 


8.13 


4,73 


lit 


4Ji 


Or&Djd E&Teu. 


W. 


•ojS 


%LVl 


1.33 


S.17 


2.47 


4.S3 


1B7 


tAl 


SAD 


0-67 


3.90 


1S3 


185 


%M 


Ashton ,....„ 


N.C. 





m 


IJI 


I.S4 


0.92 


4.ea 


LTfl 


lie 


i.U 


1.23 


3,06 


4,38 


1,63 




PoriH«row. „.,.„.. 


B. i R 


t^^ 


34 79 


a.£i 


3.H 


1,47 


B.7I 


LBO 


4.43 


104 


115 


0.B0 


!».2e 


100 


%M 


Thomvlllt.., ,„ 


B. A E. 


«.**• 


32.31 


2,11 


2.16 


i.as 


s.ta 


Laa 


3.eo 


itte 


aBi 


0.fle 


4,&* 


8.15 


12S 


A«Tleiiltti»] Cclk«e.^ 


C, 


atjS' 


ai.eg 


1.7B 


1.83 


^2 


4.SI 


SJ8 


4.85 


\M 


0,58 


1.84 


B,C1 


119 


1E8 




0. 


Mjoi* 


aB.S2 


1.84 


S.31 


3.TS 


5.30 


4.08 


7.lfl 


O.QS 


0,7* 


134 


4.65 


148 


i«e 


AlbfoD™ 


B. C. 




tt 


IJO 


z.m 


3.SI 


^M 


2,6^ 


4.6^ 


i^E 


47 




%,m 


3.26 


4.AH 


Ann Arbor........... 


a, c. 


„.,S 


41.U 


a-71 


iM 


131 


8.25 


1.62 


4.04 


147 


0.W 


1.3S 


5.^ 


138 


e.ti 


Battle Ciwk..-. 


B. c 




tt 


Lis 


£.10 


4.% 


543 


3,96 


t.m 


Ll5j 


0,70 


l.SO 


170 


1.90 




KalnniMOiL^ _. 


B. C. 


a..o3 


3i,7B 


i.£a 


13S 


2.sg 


&.X£ 


4.42 


'im 


a,i7 


0.75 


147 


a.€6 


2.09 


170 


lUwhalL ...— . 


B. 0. 


.... 


nM 


2.63 


3,93 


2.10 


fl,a2 


2.7[i 


4,17 


S.l« 


0.71 


tM 


B.71 


151 


Z.60 


ParkTille 


8. C. 


».<li'' 


^u 


2.07 


a.4e 


4.06 


7.83 


4.61 


».ei 


^M 


0.53 


145 


105 


126 


111 


Teoum«h 


S, C 




v\ 












._.-. 


a.£s 


a,25 


0.#7 


1.78 


4.41 


4.15 


151 


Blnnlnffhiuii ......... 


S. E. 


si.sj 


33.89 


i.se 


341 


\M 


5,00 


a.37 


4.S0 


1J8 


1,19 


i.zo 


ijse 


a^ 


S.47 


Z)«iroi* ,„.,....,.. 


B. B. 


u.^^ 


34,ia 


1,77 


4.0S 


\M 


3.61 


1.80 


4.Bfl 


2.50 


1.7a 


1.S7 


4.77 


3.68 


S.IB 



* The names of obtterren, their places of observation, and the coanties in which these places are aita- 
ated, are stated in Exhibit 1, page 3. ,.«...... 

t The names of divisions, and the ooontiee in each, are stated in Exhibit I., in a paper which follows on 
weekly reports of siclcneee. . - ,. . ^ ^ - ^, . 

X Nnmbers in this column state the annnal average rainfall for periods of years endinir in each case with 
December 81, 1891 The small fignres above and at the right of nnmbers which state the rainfall deiiot« 
the number of years inolnded in the average. 



§ This line is an average for only the stations from wtiich statements, nearly complete, are given for everr 
onth of the year. Itdoes not inclnde Bocicland, Ash ton, Albion, Manistee. Battle Creek and Ttoonmaah. 
D The total rainfall for 8 months is 19.17 inches. If For 8 months, 18.55 inches. ** For U montha, 37.66 



inches, ft For 11 months. 37.81 inches, tt For 11 months. 25.84 inohee. ^^ For 7 months, 18.88. 

NoTK.— The compntations of amount of rainfall were furnished by tlie observers at Detroit, Alpec&a, 
Grand Haven, Port Huron, Ann Arbor. Manistee, Albion. Kalamazoo, Sanlt Ste. Marie and Marquette for 
the year. All other compntations in Table VII., were made in the office of ttie Secretary of tb« Sti^ 
Board of Health. 

The lines for 8 representative stations in Table VII., are graphically 
represented in Die^am VII., page 49. 



MBTEOROLOQICALi CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 



49 



QtAGRAm Vf).- RAlNfAUU, BY MONTHS IN 1693 • 



(NCHES OF RAIN AND MELTLD 5N OW - AT 5TATJ0N5 IN M»CH 
ANN AR0OR ^•« iBJRnilNCHAhl .^.^. jHARRlSVlLLE ^^^o^^a ; 

KALAmAXDO ^ — .'LANSING ojc-.o« ; M AR QUE TT E ; 

THt>RNVlLLE — JijtiTRAVERSE CITY^x ;AV. FOR \B STATIONS )t XXX . 




[PJite7.»l 



60 STATE BOARD OP HEALTH.— REPORT OP SECRETARY, 1894. 



TABLE VIIL—BelaHve amount of Ozone in the Atmosphere by Day, for Months 
and Year 1893, at 11 Stations^ aleo Average Lines for 5 Stations and for Stations in 
Michigan, as indicated by averages of observations made daily by exposing Test- 
paper prepared according to Schdnbein^s formula, from 7 A. m. to 2 P. M. — 
Recorded according to a scale of 10 Degrees of Coloration of the Test-paper {greatest 
coloration by Ozone equals 10) by observers for the State Board of Health, and for 
the U, S. Weather Bureau* 



la Miebl«iiii t ■ 

(Thoflc of the TJ* B. 

Weather Horaftn 

LnltaUoh} 


DlTi- 

the 
State t 


D^gnm of C'oloratJon of iMt-pnper- D«f Obwrmtioo.** 


You. 


MonthB. It^, 


Mom. 


t6»3. 


a 
1LSS 


Feb. 


Mar. 

"b" 


Apr. 

S.73 
d 


Ml. 

4,16 


1.14 

B,eo 


a.i8 
b 

fl.20 


4uc. 
4.fi8 
4.00 

Jm 


SbpC 
3.C7 

D 

il.42 


ijoa 


li 
Mov. 

I.OS 

1.S2 
».0» 


3Jll 


&T,tDrRiltAti0Qfl|... 


— 


.... 


t,Ml 


At. forivt&tloiufu.. 


„..™ 





i.^ 


BooklajMi...... 


D. P. 




IT 


Marquette........... 


D. P. 




B.94 


1.51 


8.76 


iM 


4.55 


3.63 


4.»H 


4.14 


e,n!i 


3.18 


3^7 


1.4S 


aia 


Manitt^ 

TmwvrmVitj........ 


N.W. 


Zv 


tt 
471 


«76 




fi.7» 


4.17 


l«7 
7.iS 


7.W 


4.413 
a 
6,74 


4.61 
7.50 










6J8 


6.40 


«06 


A,t« 


Atpma^... ..,. 


N.B. 




8.45 


4.64 


4.U 


seo 


3,77 


4.0» 


4.10 


8.30 


2.W 


«,0I 


iM 


lee 


1.89 


HUTiflTUlfl... 


K,B. 


ul 


1.40 


4.28 


%m 


iM 


»3Ct 


3.*4 


180 


2.«t 


3.85 


tm 


3.«3 


Z78 


a,40 


Grand Saven ,„. 


W* 


..... 


i.t4 


tM 


a.ui 


fi.05 


5,34 


S.3a 


B.4t 


4.92 


S.S1 


iM 


4.47 


I.I4 


1.171 


ABhton 


NC. 





n 


6.S7 


«,47 


5,76 


S4I 


4.41 


4,t.O 


3.46 


4,6fi 


iM 


496 


B.56 




Part Huron, ...... 


B.A1L 




L3i 


IM 


1.Q4 


1,S7 


1,^ 


1.&3 


8,37 


Lai 


2.Q» 


IXU 


D.M 





o.ea 


ThomTlllo.^., 


B. 4B. 


U' 


ZM 


4.25 


fi.&4 


4.90 


4.17 


i.ta 


s,m 


I.M 


».40 


871 


3-8i 


1,79 


5.40 


LsntbiM, 8. fi Df H.. 


r. 


...1' 


f.TI 


•sat 


3,M 


a.7s 


2M 


3.A0 


S.27 


I,7J 

f 

3,71 


!I.CS 


Ut 


39a 


lb£ 


S.lfl 


AlbloD „_.._.„... 


B. C, 


-_.. 


m 


tM 


2 9S 

3.oe 


2.i4 


MM 


a.u 


t.Sl 


4 9» 




S,78 


1.B2 


S.31 




a. c. 1 




S,T3 


ISO 


%ii 


i.m 


i.ti 


3.47 


^.SO 


t.&D 




1.02 


1.01 


1.71 


Battle Crwk. „,...,! 


8. C. 




MM 


4.711 


tJ3 


iM 


S.42 


#.87 


1.L0 


(.59 


3.ea 


f.l4 


0.t£ 


■.» 


Mmh*lL. .,.„.. 


s. a 


— 


II li 


1,87 


tM 


137 


1,44 


3,11 


a 

loa 


o.ea 

4,48 


4.8& 


isa 


4J* 






■4.09 


4JB 


ntprntn^am 


8. E. 




L 


2.7II 


179 


'••' 


iM 


Z.60 


.-.- 


1,73 


2.7a 


1.11 


1.H 


1.69 


1,47 





* At the stations of the U. 8. Weather Bareaa and Kalamasoo dorinff the year IHML the obserratioxis were 
made by ezposinc the teat-paper trom 8 A. M. to 8 P. M., all 75th meridiao time. The corresponding local 
time for eome of these stations is stated in a foot note to Table 11., pace 22. 

t The namea of obserrers, ^eir places of obserration, and the coontlee in which these places are situ- 
ated, are stilted in Exhibit 1, page 2. The foU names of the dirlslons and the counties in each diTialoa 
are stated in Exhibit 1., in a paper which follows, on weelcly reports of sickness. 

X Nnmboa in this column state the average annual relatire amount of oaone by day for periods of yean 
endlnc in each case with December 81, 1898. The small figures above and at the right of numbers which 
state the average, draote the number of years included in the average. 

§ This line is an average for only the stations from which statements, nearlv complete, were received for 
ever? month in the year. It does not include Birmingham, Ashton, Albion, Bookland, Battle Creek. Mar* 
ahaU. Teoumseh, and the Weather Bureau Stations. 

IThis is an average line for Alpena. Grand Haven, Ifarqnette. and Port Huron. 
The average for 11 months is 5.04. ft For 7 montha^.08. ;t Pot 11 months, 5.00. % For 11 montha. 
. XII For 10 months, 2.78. ^ For 7 months, 4.24. AFor llmontha, 2.41. 
** Allowance has been made for difference in sensitiveness of teet-paper. Bee "h" below, 
a. b, c. In the columns from January to December, inclusive, the a, b. c, etc.. stand directly above tke 
numbers from which they refer to the notes below. 
aForlOdays. b For 20 days, c For 28 days, d For 27 days. ePorSOdays. ffor25day8. gFor24daya. 
hCoNGEBNiiro OzoHX CoBBaonONS.— It is now believed that 
tivenesa of different lots of test-paper) applied to the monthly av 



hCoNGEBNiiro OzoHB CoBBaonONS.— It is now believed that the correction (for variation in 

Ivenesa of different lots of test-paper) applied to the monthly averages in the tables for the dear and tha 

night oione. tot the month of November in each of the years 1881. 1882, and 1803, at stations in Michigan 

and at Landng, was JO too great for the day (7 A. M. to 2 P. H.) and .54 for the night oaone (2 P. M. to 

P. M.). This should be taken into consideration in studying the tables relative to oaone in the Annoal 



Baporta of this Board for those yeara. 



Six lines in this table graphically represented in Diagram YIII, page 51. 



METEOROLiOGlCAL, CJONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN l«03. 



51 



OiAGRAM Vtil,' OZONt^ AVERAGE BY OAV, MONTHS IN 1893- 



ATMOSPHERIC or pME,F«er« 7 A.M. TO 2. P. JW.- AT STATIONS IN MICM. 

ANN ARBOR^ ;H ARKISVtLL£ —«»•*<» ^« — «_ ,- 

LANSlN6«.aic.^«iri^ o«}THORNV(LLE ^j(-»«.^«ii.»j(^j.; 
T^AVEIISE CITr«»»*^^^* I AV£RA6E FOR 5 STAT I ON S X. X XX K X . 




rPlftl» 750.1 



62 STATE BOARD OF HEAIiTH.— REPORT OF SBORBTART, 189i. 



TABLE lX.—IUUUive Amount of Ozone in the Atmoaphere at Night for Months and 
Year 1893, at 17 Stations, also Average Lines for 5 Stations and for 4 Stations in 



Michigan,— cu indicated by Averages of Observations made Nightly by exposing 
Test-paper, prepared according to Sch&nbein's formula^ from 9 P, M,to7 A, M,, — 
Recorded cuicording to a scale of 10 Degrees of Coloration of the Test-paper {greatest 
coloration by Ozone equals 10), by observers for the State Board of Health, and for 
the U,S, Weather Bureau* 



Stations In Miohigan.f 


Divi- 


Degrees of iW>lomUoiii of Te«t^p«p«r.-Niffhc QbsorraUoD.** 


(Tboae of the U. S. 

Weather Baraao 

in ItaUca.) 


sions 
of the 
State. 


Year. 


MonUu, lera. 


9 * 


18*3. 


J*n. 


4.B2 

e 
7;18 


Mac. 

4.12 

■.06 

"a" 
8,77 


4.82' 

34S 

e 

7.01 


Uar. 

OS 
3.60 


Jmi. 
4.15 

3.36 

e.3i 


3.83 
3.09 

«.oe 


4.56 

4,10 

t 

6.73 


Sep. 
3.34 


6.6fi 


0«». 

3.01 
IJ4 
6.11 


Nof- 

3.28 
IM 
6.09 


Oeo. 
4JI 

I.M 

« 

a.oe 


▲t. for 5 stations Ij... 






IJO 


4.01 








At. for 4 stations H . .. 






3.^ 










BooUand. 


U. P. 




tt 


MarquetU 


U. P. 




i.S 


E.1tt 


4.06 


a.7i 


3JS 


4.S6 


4.ei 


IJ» 


6.17 


6.44 


0,33 


3J6 


4.47 


Mantitee 

TraTsrse Citjr 


N.W. 
N.W. 


"i'^' 


« 1 
6B2 


2A7 
8.i7 


4.40 
8,41 


4.T8 


4.27 
6.47 


4.4S 


8,84 


1.61 
6.74 


4.W 
7.47 










iM 


fi.9ft 


5.7» 


a 
6Jt 


Alvena. .. . 


N. E. 




iM 


tlM 


fitm 


insT 


4«l4 


4Sft 


^KB 


ft 74 


tIA 


3B4. 


4 ?4 


in? 


4^ 


HarrisrUie^ 


N. B. 


«.7U' 


a.T6 


i.m 


i.eo 


4,73 


4.(W 


t.e7 


B.£& 


i.7l 


3.78 


3.14 


3.73 


3.86 


4,0a 


G'rofid H(Mven 


W. 




3.14 


IM 


l,OJ 


Lit 


3,ii? 


a,S4 


3.41 


3,S3 


4.«7 


3.34 


iM 


1.64 


3^ 


Ashton 


N. C. 




fift 


BM 


8.58 


8.02 


».0O 


4,&7 


4.44 


4,18 


8.14 


4.41 


5.tl 


6,53 


.-^^ 


Port Huron 


B.AE. 




IM 


1.02 


l.flS 


IM 


l.fl* 


1,77 


t04 


L» 


3,46 


1,14 


0.85 


0.1fi 


l,4t 


Thomviile 


B.&E. 


3..i' 


iM 


iM 


6M 


8,40 


1,00 


fi.4a 


4.41 


H.90 


4.85 


3,71 


4.75 


4.38 


6.83 


Lanslnff,8.B.ofH.... 


C. 


1.5^' 


a,07 


i.9i 


iM 


ZM 


3.M 


a,77 


3.31 


3.00 


a.20 


2.21 


3,Bfi 


3.13 


3.06 


▲lUon. 


8. C. 




Ji;( 


1.91 


s.n 


iM 


1.40 


3.03 


3.78 


B.21 


4. to 




2.60 


1.99 


4.3S 


Ann Arbor 


8.C. 




2.68 


1.83 


a.« 


3.83 


3.87 


3.01 


3.fil 


2.87 


3.3S 


L31 

b 
0.62 

b 
3.41 


3.17 


1,3& 


2.78 


BatUe Creek 


8. C. 


,.-.. 


S.11 


3.79 


4^t 


fi.1S 


&.04 


4.88 


iM 


2.38 


i.9S 


1.04 


o.e3 


3.90 


Mar.halL 


8. C. 




A 


1.&7 


a.es 


3.e» 


4.17 


tM 


1.43 
d 
4.t3 


1.16 


Z.SB 


1 1.83 




...«.* 


Teeomaeh 


8. C. 




H 


.. -^ 








-,,-,. 


5.45 


s.w 


4.44 


4.40 


4J3 


«.3S 




8. C. 




G 


i,ei 


3.» 


L« 


t,U 


IM 


- - 


%m 


3.a5 


2,18 


3.4fi 


2.03 


3.87 





* At the U, 8. Weather Borean Stations and Kalamazoo daring the year 1S88, the obserTations were made 
bj ^posing the test-paper from 8 P. M. to 8 A. M., 75th meridian time. The corresponding local time fbr 
■ome of these stations is stated in a foot-note to table IL, page 33. 

tThe names of obserms, their places of observation, and the ooontiee in which theee places are ittii- 
ated. are stated in Exhibit 1, page 3. 

1 The fail names of the divisions and the counties in each division are stated in Exhibit I., in a paper 
wEiloh follows on weekly reports of sioJuiesB. 

§Nnrabers in this colnmn state the average annnal relative amount of osone by night for periods of 
years ending in each case with December 81, 1803. The small figures above and at the right of the 
bers which state the average, denote the number of years included in 



which state the average, denote the number of years indu 
VBge Id 
xorevery month in the year. 
Marehafl. Tecumseh, and the U. 8. Weatlier Bureau Stations. 



for 



the average. 

II This line is an average for only the stations from which statements, nearly complete, were received 

month in the year. It does not include Ashton, Albion, Rockland, Bumingham, Battle Creak, 



foot-note, Tabla 



^This Is an average line for Marquette, Alpena, Qrand Haven, and Port Huron. 
** Allowance has been made for difference in sensitiveness in test-paper. Bee "h 
Tin., page 50. 
ii The average for 11 mqnths,is6.16. ttForAn^onths, 4.21. g§For 11 months, 5.26. |||| For 11 montha, 

a,b,o 
above the numbers from which they refer to the notee below. 

a For SO days, b For 20 days, o For 28 days, d for 27 days, e For 26 days, f For 26 days, g For 24 
days. 

Six lines in this table graphically represented in Diagram IX., page 63. 



For 10 months, 2.66. B For 7 months, 6.08. G For 11 months, 2.45. 
In tlie colnmuF from January to December, inclusive, the letters a, b, 0, etc., stand direoUj 



METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN BUCHIQAN IN 1898, 



68 



DIAGRAM tX.- OZONE, AVERAOC BY NIGHT, MONTHS IN IB93« 



ATMOSPHERIC OZONE, FROM 9 P. M, TO 7 A. M*- AT STATIONS IN M»CM 
ANN AREOa «» — — .M^; HAR RISv^i LLC »o — o«»o — o-^<»— .o» 
LAN$mG.oA«^o«.»o< ; THORNVILUC^«.,i .iMAi-^n f 
TRAV&nSe CITY..*. I AVERAGE FOR 5 STATIONS XXXXXX* 



01* 



a 



/^ 



/- 



/ 



s^ 



r- 



; 



'-.'■ 



/* 






— <\. 



'**«». 



\ \ 



7 



^\ 



\ 

/ 4 

/ V 









?s 



/^ 






\^f 






r-i 



/ 



\ 






I V* 



A 









v/ 



/ 



tfO 



t 



/\ 



R 



/;' 



I 
I 






V / 



CPUtolil.J 



54 STATE BOARD OF HEAI/TH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 18M. 



EXHIBIT dO.— Average Amount of Atmoapheric Ozone {Day), by Year and MonthSr 
in 1893, compared toith Annual and Monthly Averages for 1892, and for the IS 
Years, 1877-92, These Averages are for Groups of several Stations in Michigan. 



Tean, eta. 


CteOM by Daf ,— EteCTMi of ColofatloD of Twt-paper,t 


At. 


Jan, 


S.65 


Mar. 


Apr. 


Kar. 


JnoB, 


July. 
I.«9 


ADff. 


Sftpt. 
S.13 


Ctet. 
3,1S 


KOT, 


Dm. 


AT.l6jftarfi,lS77*ffl£* 


B.3& 


a.n 


a.7D 


a^ 


%Al 


8.£4 


i.ii 


8.43 


lBW{7itetloQS>„.. 


%,9S 


4.02 




4.18 
4.30 

M j 




4.S4 
4.1B 


4.S9 

a.»8 


8.60 
i.&0 


1.52 
456 


S.94 


1,68 
8.70 


3,tft 


3^ 


In 18SS QnmUir 
than At, for ]M 

In im !,««. tban 

1BT7-W. „...„_„ 


.53 


.45 


J8 


.40 


.U 


J7 


.tl 


IJl 


Jl 


.H 


.10 


Ji 


























In U» Oreatei- 

tbanliili*ttL 

In 18B9 I.9M than 

immi... 


.01 


.27 


.22 


.12 


.31 






.01 


ja 


M 






.06 


.41 


.10 


.£G 


,0t 











•Mendon for 1877-88; Nilee for 1878-81; Nirrana for 1877-79 and to and inolodins April 25, 1880; Baed 
aty for Aj>ril 26 to end of year 1880 and_for 1^^;. Coldvater. Acricoltoral QoOefe fm 1877-78. 1880 ; 



Hodaon for last flre months of 1881; Hastinsa for 1882; Hillsdale for 1882-84; Parkville for 1888; Port 
▲nstin for 188S-85. 1888-89 ; Winfield for 1880laniBtiqne, MaoUnaw City. Swarts Creek for 1884^; Pen^ 
water for 1886; Kalamazoo for 1877-88; Alpena for 187047; Marqaette f or 1880-81, 1888^, 1886^; Grand 
HaTen for 1880uS4 ; Eecanaba for 1881-85. 1887 ; Port Huron for 1881-86 ; Oteeso for 1890; Teoomseh for 
1877-86 ; MarshaU for 1881-92; ThomTille for 1877-92: Lansing for 1879-92; Ann Arbor for 1880-91: Albion for 
1890-91; HarrUville for 1881-82, 1885-92; Trarerse City for 1882-92; Birmingham for 1886-89; Battle Creek 
for 1877-80, 1882-84, 1892; Rockland for 1891-92. 
I t In this exhibit allowance has been made for difference in aensitiveneas of different lots of test-paper. 



EXHIBIT 'Al.— Average Amount of Atmospheric Ozone {Night), by Year and Months, 
in 1892, compared with Annual and Monthly Averages for 1892, and for the 16 
years, 1877-92. These Averages are for Groups of Several Stations in Michigan.* 





Ozone by Night.-Degree of Coloration of Test-paper.f 


Years, etc. 


Annnal 
At. 


Jan. 
3.98 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 
8.61 


Jnly. 


Ang. 


Sept. 


Oct. 
8.22 


Not. 


Deo. 


At. 16 years, 1877-92. 


^52 


4.21 


4.16 


3^7 

4.83 
4.62 


8.76 


2.89 


2.97 


2.89 


8.83 


8.77 


1892, (7BtaUons).... 
1898. (5 stations)^.. 


4.18 
4.20 


4.37 
4.03 


5.05 
4.92 

.71 


448 
4.92 


4.58 
4.65 

.79 


4.62 
4.16 

.64 


8.44 

8.66 


4.56 
4.56 


3.26 
3.24 

.86 


3.73 
3.91 


3.49 
3.28 


4.20 
4.68 


In 1893 Greater 
than Av. for 16 
yews, 1877-92. 

In 1898 Less than 
At. for 16 years, 
1877-92 . 


.63 


.10 


.76 


.« 


.77 


.69 


.69 


.06 


.76 

















...... 












In 1893 Greater 
than In 1892 

In 1898 Less than 
in 1892 


.02 






.44 


.29 


.22 


.02 


.18 


.21 


.83 


.34 


.13 




.08 


.47 












* The stations represented in Exhibit 81, are the same as those represented in Exhibit 80, relatlTe to day 
OBonei and named in foot-note of tiiat exhibit* 
t In this exhibit ailowanoe has been made for diffareinoe in sensitiTeness of different lou of teet-p«per 



MBTEOROLOOICAIi CONDITIONS IN MICHIQAN IN 1898. 



66 



OB8KBTATXON8 FOB OZONE AT LAHSIirO. 

BlBM Jnly 1, 1884, the obaarratioiu for ocone at Laosinff haye been taken at the new ehelter for 
■letaorolaffioal inatromenta in the eonthweet part of the Capitol yard. Prerioos to Joly 1. 1884, the 
obeerrationa had been taken at the office window. Exhibit E, page 60, of the raport for 1886, ehowa that 
the average for the month of Joly, 1884, ia greater at each obeerratlon— 7 a. m. to 2 p. k., 2 p. m. to 9 p. v.. 
and 9 P. M. to 7 A. m . at the shelter for Instraments than at the office window. Pouibly this fact should 
be taken into consideration in studying ozone at Lansing throogh a long period of years. 

EXHIBIT dl2,— Average Velocity of the Wind in Milee per hour, by Year and Months, 
in 1895, compared with Annual and Monthly Averages for 1892, and for the 11 years, 
1882-92, From Hegisters of the Robinson's Self-registering Anemometer.* These 
Averages are for Gfroups of several Stations in Michigan, 



Yean^eto. 


ATBcage Uttes per Hoar, 


AtltiMl 

At. 


Jaa. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


Hay. 


Jtlnft. 


Joly. 


Ang. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Not. 


Dae., 
11^ 


4T.Uywrm, 1^1-02. 


9.1 


lOJ 


IQS 


UJJ 


iQ.a 


94 


?3 


T.S 


T.* 


U 


9.4 


10.7 


IBBl (9 stations).... 
UBICStFtations).... 


9.2 

1D.2 


lOJ 
9.7 


8,8 
11.7 


9.1 
1L7 


13.2 


9.7 
9^ 


a.2 


6.9 


1J6 


84 
9J 


94 
JO.ft 


10.1 
ILi 


9 J 
U.7 


In 1893 Onmtmt 

than At. for 11 

Twra. mt9l. ... 

In UM l^u than 


.7 


1.1 


LI 


l.i 


i.9 


A 


A 


A 






.1 


J 


IJ 


J 


.7 
IJ 








Z.K 






J 




In Vm Grvater 

thaninlSBl . 

In vm Le>ii than 
in 1»2,,... „.„_.. 


1.0 


IJ 


£J 


1,1 


.1 


1.3 


J 


Li 


JB 







* Gibbon's Anemometer was used at Ann Arbor. 



EXHIBIT Sa,— Average Velocity of the Wind in Miles per hour, by Months for the 
Years 1880-92, and comparisons of 18il3 with this Average and with the Year 1892. 
From Registers of the Robinson's Self Registering Anemometer in the Office of the 
State Board of Health, State Capitol, Lansing, Michigan. 











UUee, by Self- Registering Anemometer. 


Years, etc. 


Annual 
Av. 


Jul. 


Feb. 


Uar. 


Apr. 


May, 


Jnae. 


July. 


Aug, 


Sept, 


Oct. 


Not. 


Dec. 


At. U years, 1S80-92. 


9.7 


ILO 


lui 


10.9 

9.2 
lU 


ILO 

13.« 
It .2 


9.0 


S.i 


7J8 


7.3 


B4 


9.8 


10.8 


11.3 

9.2 
11.2 


1892 

1893 


B.S 
10.2 

.5 


ll.fi 
104 


e.3 

13.0 


10.3 
9.3 

,8 


7.1 
7.6 


&J5 
S.1 

.a 


t.1 


74 
9.0 


7.9 
1D.8 


e.5 
10.8 




In 1899 Greater 
than At. for 18 
yean. 1880-92 

In 1882 Less t.han 
AT^r 13 years, 


La 


1.5 


fl.2 


.s 1 

.1 


L2 


9 


I A 






.1 












In 1893 Greater 
In*MW*\lSSthii 


1.7 


1.1 


a.7 


3.1 


.9 


to 


Ul 


J 


1.6 


i.l 


2.8 


1 
2.0 1 





















56 8TATB BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF 8BGBBTART, 1894. 






S C3» 



I i 






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wi f^ 0i ^^ ^ ^ 






-d O «• « 



2 S 3 



o. <^ 



" ^ ^ TS 






la aq ^ O o OB n 
«i « 4 c^ 4d 9 O 



■^ ^ 



p« -«! n m 
^ •<{ ^ -J 

«■! PN p4 V4 



•• SO *4 «9 

r-' ^ ^ OE 



• d ^ 3 ^' -* 



^ T^ M 



^3333 



■-( ^ V4 pN W ^4 «* 'i4 



2 3-5^ 






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•4 *i «d *f 



^ s 



« M r; « 

3 :i S d 



m p| ol 

-^ ## v4 



■^ ?3 S5 






a ^ 4^ «) 
^ <« «<t « 



I 



I 



A A Ok ift ^= O »J aA « n «; ; 

rS j * 2 S3 li 2 *"'**' '^' "^ ±3 



^ ars I> 



t« a* 



p -r *J r<S lO -» -ij 
W CJ ^ OB t* -g «p 



ac N 



^(i 



CO n M lA n 



O <« O ei to 



•o «e <« o 
Hi ti t^ :£ 



a6 00 



i ,i i i ! i i • ^ ; 
I I I I I i ^ I I I 



II 



9 a 



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» $ flS 

•5 "a 
H 2 a 

u ca c 






-*3 '^ as 

.9 ® * 

P &£30 

a o '^ 
S "C »^ 
a; S s 

■S-o'- 
S aj3 



^^^V METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 189a 57 ^J 




OlAGRAW X. -VELOCITY OF W«NO, BY HOURS AND MONTHS. I893* 


,^ 


■ 


AV. MILES PE« HOUR. FOR EACH HOUR OF THE OAY< AT S ATE C>PITOL, 


1 




LANSIMG. MICH.: JAN. .^p .FEB. p^.j( .MAR. ^..^ O.APR. ....^ o « 


I 




MAY — — — .JUN, -—^•K ,IUL. — *• .AUG. ifji.SEPT. _i o a < 






OCT ^ *"i V r> F r 




; AV. FOR 12 MONTHS xxxxxx*. 


1 








11'. 


JV. M. 1 P, M. 


^. !««. 




«a>2^ ^f^eNt^^-^fOf^-ao^ff^^*^^ 


~ (M rr» ' ^ «ft (6 ^* 


1 




,4»d*es£?!io.rn*«^r-»A^^ 


£! •:. r* <*» -* ^ te 


.1 1 




1 




4 


••' 


k 


































m 








i 


f 




\ 


































■ 




# V 






/ 






1 


,•' 


'<s 






























4 




t m 




Q 


r 








































I 




17 




i 














^ 




























J 



















1 


































/ 
















\ 


























■ 




fi 




a 
















\ 


























■ 


i 


















\ 




























t X- 




1 








/ 


•••, 


^• 


■■■■ 


».«, 


* £ 


























■ 








/ 

9 




/ 


■^ 


s 


*<^ 


> 


'••, 


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a 
1 
























1 




I if- 


f 


./ 


> 














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1 




























/3 


p; 


'/ 


> 


•■ 


^'*' 


§ 


'< 








^' 






















i 








/ 

• 






%l 


^ 


\ 




'*; 


..♦< 


^^ 












,«* 


1 


1 


1 


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u 


4 


((!: 


N 


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w 


h 


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*■ 
o 

1 


i. 






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9 




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Mit, 


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A' 




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> 






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4 


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/« 


^ 


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i 


A 


<? 








Ifcl 


& 


\ 


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*•« 


L., 


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Si- 


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•^ 


i<; 






1 


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f 


/ 










'S 


3^'- 


'*] 


'> 


i:2 


f 








■•sS 


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i 


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i 


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7 


h 


f 


f 








J 








k 




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♦* 


.♦♦^ 


.»»■ 




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<. 




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»*»■ 


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58 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 189i. 

TABLE Xl.—Aver<ige Velocity of the Wind in Miles per Hour for the Year and for 
each Month of the Year 1893, at 8 Stations in Michigan, Computed from Begister^ 
of the Rdbinson^s Self-Registering Anemometer,* by Observers for the State Board 
of Health, and for the U, S. Weather Bureau, 







IfUfli, bj e(ilf^Hfl«isteTiti« An«mcicn«t«r. 


in Mtebivui.t 


■tcABof 


Ywwr. 


Hoalh*. 1S03. 




Norm, 


18«». 


Ju. 


1^1)^ 


Hir. 


Adf. 


Mat. 


,™J 




7J 




Oct, 


Not. 


DM. 


At. for a etH-t 






lOJ 


«.7 


UJ 


U.T 


ia.i 


B.S 


a.£ 


lOJ 


11.3 


lU 


HarQMttfl 


D,P. 


PJ 


tO.A 


lOJ 


UJ 


ILI 


10.1 


tt.S 


S.0 


0.0 


mja 


iM 


M 


UJ 


11.7 


Bftult Bte. MBri«.. 


U. P. 


^I 


iM 


7.» 


10,0 


11.0 


ai 


ST 


7J 


7.1 


«,4 


0.1 


9.1 


10.0 


&S 


Alpena „„..-.... 


K,£. 


^i 


10.2 


0J 


10.8 


12.1 


13J 


8.0 


SJ 


SO 


T.I 


OJ 


U.O 


10.6 


10.0 


QnndH&TBiL..... 


W. 


m' 


lae 


10.1 


12.1 


11.4 


13 3 


im 


S.fl 


*.l 


7.1 


0.1 


U.S 


t2J 


14.1 


Port Huron ^ , 


e.A£. 


id' 


il.t 


10.0 


18.7 


UJ 


IBJ 


UA 


e.a 


0.0 


».a 


L8 


11.1 


ia.fi 


14.3 


'^^^:^?:} 


t:. 


ur 


W,i 


ia4 


11.0 


1£.4 


14.1 


0.3 


7.5 


8.1 


e.i 


0.0 


10^ 


10.O 


ILi 




a.c. 


af 


&J 


u 


10.» 


lO.Ct 


u.e 


. i.» 


Q.1 


^.9 


5.a 


6.8 


IJ^ 


0.0 


»J 


Dfttfolt. -„..„.. 


a. E. 


ai^^ 


11 J 


11 J 


13.3 


lg.6 


15.8 


to.» 


0.6 


9.8 


8,4 


10,4 


11.8 


ILfl 


14.0 



* Qibbon*8 Anemcxneter was ased at Ann Arbor. 

t The names of obeenren, their plaeee of obserration, and the ooontlee in which theee places are eita- 
•tod, are stated in Exhibit 1, i>age 2. 

} Kumbos in this colnmn state the avarase Telocity of the wind in miles per honr for periods of years 
ending in each ease with Dec. 81, 189S. The small fignres above and at the right of numbers which state 
the average, denote the nnmber of years incladed in the average. 

Graphic representations of statements made in Table XI. are given in 
Diagram XI., page 69. 

The constraction and purport of the diagrams relating to direction of 
wind may be explained as follows: — 



In Diagrams XII., XUE., XIV. and XV., pages 64, 60, 61 and 62, relating to the direction of the wind, the 
tingle figores or separate gronps in lines are designed to indicate by the length of ttie lines the number and 
the proportion of regnlar obswvations at 7 A. M., 2 P. M. and P. Bl. daily, at which the wind was blow- 
ing from each of the eight principal points of compass at the places and for the periods of time stated in 
the margin ; and by the direction of the lines on the page, the direction of the wind. Each fignre con- 
sists of lines drawn to a common center from some c» all of the following directions on the page and 
indicating that at the times of observation the wind blew from points of the compass as follows : Lines 
toward the common center from the top of the page indicate obeervations that the wind was blowing 
from the north ; from the right-hand side, observations that the wind was from the east ; from the bottom 
of the page, that it was from the soath ; from the left-hand side, that it was from the weet ; from the npper 
left-hand comer, that it was from the northwest ; from the npper right-hand comer, that it was from the 
northeast ; from the lower right-hand comer, that it was from the soatheast ; and from the lower left-hand 
comer that it was from the soathwest. The nnmber of regnlar observations at which the wind was blowing 
from the direction denoted by a line as indicated by the length of that line, .01 of an inch being the onit 
or the length of line for one observation. The circles indicate calms, the number of regular obso-vation* 
at which there was no wind being denoted by the length of the radius of the circle drawn about the point 
of eonvei^cence of the lines for a given place or period of time, the length of one observation being, as 
before, .01 of an inch. Thus, by Diagram XII., page 64, or by Table XIV., pagee 66-68, it appears that at Ann 
Arbor in February, 1803, at one of the regnlar tri-daily observations for the month there was a calm ; at 
U observations the wind was blowing from the west ; at It observations, from the northwest ; at 1 from 
the northeast, etc. For convenient study the top of these diagrams should be held toward the north. 
Deiinite numerical statemmts corresponding to theee diagrams are given in Tables XII., XIII., and XIV. 
and Exhibit 64, pages 61, 62, 65-68, 6U. 



METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 



69 



DIAGRAM Xl.-VtLOClTY OF WIND, BY MONTHS IN 1693. 



AV. rrllLES PER HOUR» *T ReSlSTIRfNC AMEMOMtTER.- AT STATIONS IN MfCH. 

ALPENA O }AHH AABOR***- .** ; DETROIT «^.-i...«-. ;CiAANO- 

HAVLNmhk^jC ;LAN5ING m^^ox ;niARQUET TE —p** *i«».. ;P RT - 
HUROM^« ;SAIILT STt*MARIC ;AV.FORS STATIONS XXXX X^ 




60 STATB BOARD OF HBAUFHw— KBPORT OF SEOKBTABT, 1894. 



EXHIBIT Si.— DiBKOTiON of Wind, 1878^89.— JVumber of OfmertHMma per Monih 
{meide tri-daUy)^ at wMeh the wind wcu blovfing from the eevercU (eight) poinU of 
Compa8s,—AnnucU and Monthly Averages for the 12 Feorg, 1878-89, ai StatUmt in 



PolntKot Oninpaai. 


ATfir«Be Number of Obaormtloiu par Mooth-O ¥w«, iai8-a». 


JltinnaJ 

At, 


Jul. 


Feb, 


Mar. 


AprtU 


Mir. 


Jras. 


JQir. 


400. 


Bei^ 


Od. 


Mot. 


11K», 


All oba«rTEtloiu,„. 


»1 


n 


m 


93 


» 


«3 


DO 


«i 


«3 


80 


ga 


90 


ftl 


»OrtJi. „ 

Northaut 

^*t,-..-. 


S 
7 
B 
B 
B 

10 
17 
14 
14 


u 
If 

IS 


10 

w 
u 

u 


4 

to 

IQ 

T 

9 

7 j 
11 
14 
19 


4 
« 
U 
S 

u 
s 
11 

11 

le 


6 
8 
U 
8 
11 
10 
Ifl 
11 

u 


6 
7 
» 
S 

10 

u 

16 
U 
11 


8 
8 

e 
& 

10 
LB 
10 
IS 


8 
S 
10 

e 


10 
17 

n 

13 


6 

e 

7 

e 

11 
IS 
IB 

11 
U 


IS 

ifi 
u 
u 


1« 

17 


u 
n 

17 
14 


BoQtheut.. ......... 


IkiQth- — ... 


SdQtlLinvt .... 

WMt........ 

Nortbwwt 



• At U stations tn 1878; 18 in 1879; 19 in 1880; 19 in 1881; 21 in 1882; 191nl88l; 21 in 1884; 21 in 1888; 10 la 
1888; 17 in 1887; 18 in 1^ ; and 11 in 1889. 

Graphic representations of statements made in Exhibit.34 are given in 
Diagram XIII., this page. 



DIAGRAM Xllt.-WINDt DIRECTION, IN MICH., AVERAGE 12 YEARS, 1878-1889. 



• + 



DIRECTION FROM WNICM TNE WIND BLEW, PROPORTION OP 088C1- 
e YATI0N8, AVEfiAjT FOR 12 YEARS, 1878-1880, AT 8TATI0N8 IN 
MICNIGAN. 



12 YEARS, 
1S7a-89. 



\£0^rr£[9. 

JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY. JUN. JULY. tMO. SEPT. C)CT. NOV. 0C6' 



* Scale, Radius .01 op One Inch to One Observation 

[Plato 67P. I 



METEOBOLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 



61 



TABLE XIL—Nfimber of Observations psr Month (at 7 A. M., 2 P. M. and 9 P. M., 
daily), at which the wind was blowing from eich of ths Eight Principal Points of 
Compcus, during the Year and during each Month of the Year 1893, Average for 
8 Stations in Michigan.* 



P<jlnU of CoQipui. 


ATBrtga Nambof of ObMrratioiM per Mootb, ISSI, 


Tw, 


Jan. 


F«b. 


Mmt, 


Ai»r. 


May. 


June. 


,..,. 


AUff. 


Bt^ 


Oot. 


Not. 


Daa. 


'U*3s:?.'™f 


m 


n 


s& 


n 


iO 


tl 


m 


» 


M 


m 


H 

B 
1 
1 
i 

n 
11 
1* 
11 
11 


80 


il 


dim „^„.._ 


e 

& 

» 
u 


10 

W 
19 


a 

6 
8 

11 
1 

16 

te 

17 


s 

7 
11 

« 
14 

7 

la 
11 
lA 


% 

s 
u 
« 

IS 


17 
10 

u 


4 

T 

ID 

7 


U 

le 
11 

ift 


u 

13 

la 

8 


s 

5 
4 
3 

11 
7 
7 
H 
U 


11 
10 
9 
S 
11 
10 

u 
« 
u 


7 
4 

« 

e 
u 
« 
11 


7 
t 

1 

1 

11 

n 

a? 
IS 

8 


11 

go 

14 


^orthmMl ..„ 

ftvn,,, 


SOTtJwirt ...... 

Bonth... ...., 

Boothvait ' 

Wi.t..„. 

Northmtt ... 



*TtM names of obaerrert, their plaoee of obeenratian, and the eoontiee and dlTlalons of the State In 
whieh thoee plaoee are ettoated are etated in Exhibit 1, page 2. 

^Graphic representatioiiB of statements in Table XII. are given in Dia- 
gram XIV., this page. 



DIAGRAM XIV -WIND, DIRECTION. IN MICH..YeAR AND MONTHS.189JL 



MRECnON niOM WHICH THE WIHO BLEW. PHOPORTIOH OF OBSERVATWHS, AYER- 
K AOE FOR 8 STATI0R8 IH MICMGAH. FOR THE YEAR AHO FOR EACH MOHTH 
OF THE YEAR 1193. 



VKAR 

1M3. 



IMOIiTT'IIS I2Sr 180 8. 



> >< X ^ )|f ;«r« ®^ »;*> 



[Plate 755.1 



<S2 8TATB BOARD OF HBALTH^REPORT OF BECRETART, 18M. 



TABLE XllL— Average Number of OburwMtiona per Month for the year 1893, ai 
which the toind was blowing from each of the Eight Principal Points of the Com' 
pass, at each of 8 Stations* in Michigan; aleo the Average line for the 8 StaHone. 



Statto&s in Mfctdgfin.* 


DItU 


Arerflsfi Nomber of OboorrBtioDa per Mouthy 18fi3. 1 


Ota. 


t'lAlma. 


F. 


H.E. 


B. 


B.S. 


8. 


9.W. 


w. 


li.W, 




At. for8it*lifiiM..„ ..„„. 




00 


5 


ft 


G 




la 


i 

16 



s 
» 

u 

le 

14 


ao 


lA 


14 


TnT«rH C)!!!-..,^ ., ^. 


U. B. 
B.&E. 

C. 

c, 

B.C. 
8*C. 
B. K 


91 

n 
n 

91 
91 


U 


13 




U 


4 

19 

ao 

16 
17 

e 

IS 


19 
42 

a» 

It 
11 

11 


1ft 
11 

IB 

SI 


11 

Ifi 

u 
u 

10 
UD 
11 
10 


HuwhtUI*....... 


A#rl Collafa.. 


LtsvliLi, s, Bt. *f Q., 


Ann Arbor. 


Battl*Cw8k.. ..,„.. ........... 

Bl Piling liAn> 





•The namm of oboerrera, th«ir places of obeerrstion, and the ooonties in which theae places are aita- 
ated, are stated in Rxhibit 1, page 2. 

fTbB foil namea of the diTisiona and oonntlee in each diTision, are stated in Exhibit I, in a paper whlA 
fbllowa on weekly reports of sickness. 

Graphic representations of statements in Table XIII. are given in Dia- 
gram XV., this page. 



DIAGRAM XV«->A/INO> Dl RCCT 10 N» AT JTATtOMS IN MICHI0ANtl899. 



f 


DIRECTION 


FROM WHICH THE WIND BLEW, PROPORTION 


OF miERVATIONS. 1 


« ^ 


— • 1 


AVERAGE FOR 8 STATIONS AkD 


FOR EACH OF 8 STATIONS 


IN MICHIGAN 


i 


. 


DURINQ THE YEAR 1899 . 








z 
e 

»- 




• 


-A 




S 


< 




a > 

■c 


s 




ss 


« 


1- 


< 

X 


1- 




« 


^ 





/^ 


^ 




^ 


C9 

Z 




oe 
o 

09 


1< 




si 


•» 

2 
< 




15 


1- 
< 




oe 


-1 




< 


00 




aa 


X 




H^ 


^ 




€) 



I Plate 766. J 



MBTBOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN IBM. 



6SS 



DIAGRAMS BELATINa TO MBTEOBOLOOIOAL OONDITIONt* 

Moat of the diagrama io this paper are to be read by traoiDg eaob irreg- 
ular line aorosa tbe diagram from left to right, aod noting at what poiDt 
it iDteraecta each of tbe perpendtoular lines having tbe name of tbe month 
at the top. What station is represented by the irregular line may be 
learned from the head of tbe diagram. The degree of value denoted by 
the intersection may be learned by referring to the figures in the left- 
hand column. Thus, in Diagram I., page 20, relating to average tempera- 
ture in 1893, tracing the line*' x" representing Thornville, it may 

be Been that the average temperature at Thornville was, in January^ 
16.09*', in March about 32', in August about 70'\ in October about 53 '\ 
etc. Definite numerical statements of the average temperature for each 
month at each station may be found in table I., page 21, and accompany- 
ing each diagram is a table giving exact numerical etatemente for the 
conditions represented. Tbe average lines given in eaob table are repre- 
aented in the corresponding diagram by an X line, thus X X X X- The 
lines in the diagrams give more ready general comparisons of stations 
with each other, or of months, with each other, than is possible from the 
mere numerical statementa. By Diagram II., page 27, it appears at a 
glance that the average daily range of temperature at Lansing in 1893 
wap, during August, higher than at any other of the seven stations repre- 
sented in that diagram, and during January was lower at Marquette. 
The marked agreement in the course of the lines in Diagram L, page 20, 
representing mean monthly temperature at eeven stations, and also that 
the agreement is closer in September, October, November and December 
than in tbe other months^ appear at once on reference to the diagram. 
The resemblance between the lines in Diagram I., page 20, relating to 
mean temperature by months in 1893, and those in Diagram III., page 33, 
relating to absolute humidity of the atmosphere for the same periods, is 
apparent. By Diagram X., page 57. it appears that in every month of tbe 
year the highest velocity of the wind (on an average for tbe month) ia 
reached between 12 m. and 2 p. m., and that the lowest velocity occurs 
in the latter part of tbe night or in early morning, and that in 1893 at 
Lansing, tbe months of most wind were February and April. By refer- 
ence to Diagram XL, page 59, it may be seen that at other stations in Mich- 
igan where records of actual miles of wind traveled were kept, April was 
in 1893, the month of greatest wind. These statements illustrate the 
reading of tbe diagraius for any use it may be desired to make of tbe 
tables and diagrnms. The four diagrams relating to the direction of the 
wind are constructed on a different principle and tbe manner of reading 
them is explained on preceding pages in this article. 

Diagrams XII,. XIII., XIV. and XV., relating to tbe direction of tbe 
wind, are constructed on a plan different from that of the other diagrams, 
A description of tbe plan of their oonBtruotion, method of reading, etc., 
is printed on page 58. 



64 STATE BOARD OF HEAI/TH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY. 1894. 
DIAGRAM XII -WIND. DIRECTION. AT STATIONS. BY MONTHS, 1893. 



N . 



CITY, 



HARRIS- 
VILLE. 



THORNVILLC 



BTATION9 



TKAVCfiie 




A€R*L 
COLLEGE 



LANSIN6 



DIRECTION FROM WHICH THE WIND BLEW. PROPORTION OF OBSERVATIONS AT 
EACH OF 8 STATIONS IN MICH.. DURING EACH MONTH. 



JAM, rSB. MAM. APM. MAY. 



JWLT. AUO. •err. e«T. MOV. 



:Jt ®<i) +(S0£l^^j^*^ 






ciiiifT /t A ^^N /IVr ^ ^' ^ "y ^ "V I T^ 



BIRMING-. 
HAM. 



^^ t-*<5)©<ar 




* 



[PUte 751.1 



>ROLOaiCAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1886. 



06 



a^; 



eS^ 



11 





i?ja|--a5'*^3$Ks^3S 


■4 


^|sj3-''^SK--as3a 


" 


►•|a|"aa*ssaas3i^ 


9 


• l'^IS?3**«'«^-S*'S 


s 


i ^ 


--caaaas^as 




M ' 


H M €b .« M te « O «| A N 


3 




== 


*«5 = saa:s»-s j- 


t~ 


aa-a*--"-*- jS 


i 


' eo 


i 


1 


u 


1 


' 




= 


-•sassaaasss :s 


► 1 = 


a"«s«S!iaaita js 


s ^ 


^an-saassaa ;s 


ttl'°l3S^*^*^'^^'**^S^ :S 


»t s|-'"E;asss5?s»q"JS 


L maej a Or- «*i *4 » pj id ^ •« 
II ' 


||Lip|Cint>Hg^^i*P«*t4 ;•< 


»1" 


«*.0-o-oc*«- J*- 


1 


•* 


-■* g o - e -, o « « <S * ; - 


1 


3 


sasasassssa :IS 




>! S 


5«!Jiiaisaaasd ;« 


■ ^ s 


3s-3a*»-asa js 


i " 


*«:a£2iissa3a:s3 :s 


' ^ 1 s 


r^-*it-o-.«e32« j^ 


Jl [ * 


* ^ * is S 2 S - *'"'0 1 « 


- 1" 


S*- «="*--**•* :* 




W9 


t 1 


•» 


«.-gOi^O^«Q0*^M 


e* 


i 


"' 1 


v.iao*iee>iogooo 


rt 


i 


S 


^8d8S8SS3rS8 :i 


m 




DasS^^cd ^ m m S m tD 




■1^ 

1 

-4 


Jfilli^iiiJii 



3 



3« 



a 

Q 



I 
Si 

S 

CO 
4) 
S 

.2 



00 

o 



a 

-as. 

.9 



66 STATE BOARD OP HEALTH.-REPORT OP SECRETARY, 189i. 



I 

I 






1 


%\* 


^S-a-*-s--'Ss;5«, 


• t« 


5g^«:5S«-3as«s 


5i« 


- a s; g "S S S S S S S S S 


^j«,j|«oo«-3«or^g-P2 


i4|5|"°SI*?38i3"=:5S'-*-' 


^|*|s- = *ii"--Ggas5* 1 


^|«i«ec4oao03g-^«o>t^e«» 


*|"!s- ^~-.. - 


1 


« -.5|ooo«ajg,e.og-3 


i 


So agsssssssssss 


i 


it|s| |SiSsaaa5S'"s*-« 


^[si i"-ss = ;3'-aa^«» 


^ISI |SaS3SSS*3 = ;S- 


«i = t :s---®g-2s»aa 


** 


»j E-as»35'-*s-- 




fr>| lOeMvJgi^it^c-StigaQ 


;f 


SI :-S! = = 3--a»sa- 


it 


^ 


.3««^«*««*^o*» 


J 


* 


,t,o^,^«..gj---*S 


t 


» 


jsssisssssssa^ 


1 




'M 
^ 


-^assas^***"- j* 


Bt' 


s 


<<>«--«sa-::*3a9 .a 


i 


- 


<'S3'^as5S9asa iS 


m 1 * 


««^.4^«ab«i£2£ :a 


: 1 " 


- - g a s t 3 s * s * ; s 


-r 


S^^-^^S-^SGd ;* 


SI" 


-«a*3gS5*'*a 1* 


« r 




1 


- r-«.a = *-»a««o.^ 


1 


* 


^sastssssss :^ , 


: m 


i 


"^ ^ ^ ^ S d d '^ '^ '^ " ^ " 


* 


5 


iij ! N^i jj ! i : 
III I'^i^s i^Vi 



t 

3 



a 



a 
2 

a 

s 

.3 

00 



5 « 



a 

0) 
GO 

a> 

^00* 

I s 

0) 



MBTBOBOIiOOICAL CONDITIONS IN KIOHIOAN IN 1898. 



67 



I 

I 



:§ 

s 

-S 

I 

I 

9 

I 

> 



H s ss 



! a 



s 9 



S 9 



\ a 



SIM 



a D 



"sS" 



3^ 



3 



« « g 

■g— ;=-5- 



B 3 



■sr"5~ 



S|SSSSS$S 



s s s s @ 



"s ii = 5 g = A ^r~ii; s" ■♦ -■• -ii 



«l 



"g 5 ii ^I^ 55 S 35 g «^ g""^3 5" 



« * a s 



- 1 



S 3 



00 ffk « 



i ° H 



S * IS « 



a ° s 



^ ;s 



;£8t83SSaSS9EaSE: 



I" I 



S • !3 



1^' I 



'^ « a 



« ?^ 



r I 



a S 3 a 3 3 



II :s 



T^ 



r I 



- 1 5 



a m 



ssisssaassaas 



■■g m 



ii 
II 



S M 



K as 2S Qj 



1 <« d d 



c; ;; ;; ^ :^ K 

iQi m QQ EC EQ. ^ 



*■ I 



a : I ; ft i ; : j ; in 

Iilgg3°l jl III 






s 

I 

iS 

.9 



5 
.a 



00 

s 
s 



a 
o 

s 

•2 SF 
oTd 

o o* 

^ g 



68 STATE* board: OP HEAJTTH,- REPORT OF SBGRBTART, 1804. 



i 

s 

I 

I 
t 

1 

s 



i 

1 




^ 


•3© |gi<*55S"- jas 


^ 


s 


»S-^ ;GS1S«'SS! |*S 




» 


"ag |at«8S^ [{59 


i 


a 


aa« i^«t3*8a :s8s 




t- 


#j«4b- ■^^'^^^'O lAA 




■« 


4gp^a ,4i^^||di» f*^*^ 


^ 


■* 


M la « . •* t. OB 'V M o , ^ m^ 


m 


^ 


«_ j- — — •' j-- ! 


i 


« 




i 


3 


3SS issassft isa 


' 




w 


OD^^aMaNt^t.* ;^€ 




^ 


ggogg;S^-a3| .33 




s 


»ac5:»s8^3S |sis 


• 


3 


3aoe-^2"3a :ss 




S 


s-'^sssss^as js« 




^ 


= -'- i"° 


3 r 


aOiHiP«i^O»MiPfp4«« t«l9 


m 


M 


I 


1 


I:- 


* 


1 


8 


~s'S83S8Siss ise > 


1 




S 


= 59S5!"Bd'*^;339« 






*r-C>«gJ55^»g»3r-g 




s 


« s ?s^s3 sass^'-'Ss'- 


m 


3 


5jao3«*ga-ggj*2, 




3 


«-SSS5a&3S^3S3^ 


Id : 


» 


^oeo«c4om«3*4«4!C^ 








s 


e* 


1^^0000 O0«n^-*di 


1 


w 


'•s»-°a°s = " = sa[ 


i 


ss 


S83SS883S5SS3 


*i 


j 




1 


5 


a} 
4 


J 3 1 i 1 1"".! i i 1 j i 1 

illih^iailll 



.gj3 



? S 



MBTBOROLOGICAL. CONDITIONS IN MIOHIOAN IN 1860. 



69 



TABLB XV.— Average Daily Range of Atmospheric Pressure (cm determined from 
three daily observations) for Months and Year 1893, at 12 Stations, also average 
Hne for 8 Stations* in Michigan— Stations arranged in order by Latitudet thorn 



farthest North first 






























Stacioo* 




AwtwQ D«Ur Suae of B^viiiiiet«r~y»r ud M Qnthi, ISRa. 


norm, 
t 


18». 


vm. 


Jia. 


IMl 


Mkr. 


Apr. 


.175 


Jon. 

AK 

b 
.IIS 


.1^1 


Aq». 

.1» 

.A, 


AW1 

h 
.211 


Oct. 

,4 


KOT. 

.2U 
d 


Dm. 
.93» 
,214 


AT.eorSfltatlowr-,. 




*"7' 


JS? 


J51 


.3M 


.190 


.£SS 

f 


Boffklanil 




.an 


n 


f 

.inn 


li 
Mi 




n&TmeCltr..-..- 


.ui^ 


.ara 


.m 


.m 


^I 


.m 


^10 


.188 


.137 


.1110 


.134 


.183 


.220 


4ii 


Jft2 


n.r^»iM. 




.ill 


§ 


,ni9 


.181 


.its 


.:ii9 


.^00 


.159 


.IRl 


.tl3 


.m 


.271 






TtunsTlUa... 


,aii" 


.wi 


.£40 


,m 


.US 


.«» 


.an 


.ISO 


US 


.140 


.m 


AU 


.247 


.2aA 


.33B 


4«T'lColleee. ..„..„ 


W 


.m 


.206 


,m 


,35* 


,m 


.2W 


.U% 


.127 


.143 


.iss 


.1S2 


,m 


.164 


.191 






Am 


,m 


.m 




,300 
.306 


-273 


ATI 
e 


.148 
1 


.181 


Aft 

.131 


.m 


T 

.m 


.21S 


.124 


Bim*CnMk,.. ...... 


.III* 


,m 


.^» 


,EK 


.sao 


.!$& 


.m 


.196 


434 


.140 


.lOt 


.iKi 


.2fii 


.117 


.m 


Aim Arbor.,..., „._.. 


.»i' 


Ml 


m 


J51 


-m 


,g«7 


.278 


.m 


.114 


.m 


.111 


Am 


.216 


.HI 


m 


if^^nli 




,m 


tt 




.952 
,393 


.190 

a 1 
.ESS 


.211 
,179 


ABU 
AU 
.170 


135 

.130 


.119 
.13* 
.Iffi 


.118 



.117 
.112 




.m 

.228 
.217 


.207 
.208 


.m 

JOO 


Albion,..,.. .,„. 




"""" 


.aos* 


.\n 



• Th« namea of obMrrffn, their places of obeerration, and the ooontiea in which these places are situ- 
ated, are stated in Bzhibit 1. paoe 2. The aTerage atmospheric pressors at each of theee stations, bf 
months in 1898, is siTon in Table XVII., page 72. 

t Nnmbers in this column state the aTerage daily range of atmoepherio pressnre for periods of years 
ending in each case with Dee. 31, 1891. The small ngores aboTe and at the right of nnmbers which stats 
the aTerage daily range, denote the namber of years Incladed in the aTerage. 

t Not inolnding Albion, Boekland, HarrisTille. and Marshall. 

1 Hie aTerage for 11 months is .240. g For 10 months, .240. *« For 10 months, .208. ft For 11 months, .232. 

aFortOdays. bFor20days. cFor26days. dFor27days. eFor24days. fFor28days. gFor22 
days, h For 21 days. iForlOdars. j For 18 days. 

Mon.— The latltode and elsTStions of some^the stations in Table XY. are stated in Exhibit 2, page 2. 

The daily range ia found by subtracting the lowest observation from th« 
highest observation, 7 A. M. to 7 A. M. ; 



70 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SEGRETARY, 1894. 



TABLE XVI. — Range of Atmospheric Presntre {aa determined from 3 Daily Ohaerva- 
tion8)for the Year and for each Month and for the Average Month of the Tear 
1893, at 8 and at each of the 8 StatUmti, and Average Line for 8 Stations in Michi- 
gan; also the Norm.— Average Monthly Range for a series of years. Stations 
named in order by Latitude, those farthest North firtt. 



In Htabl^. 


Eiuge of Baromeler,- Ye&r and Montfas, imt. 


Worn, 
t 


last 


lfs93. 


Aw 
Heuth 


1.110 


um 

tm 
~b~" 

1.457 
1,B08 
t.£ll 
1.488 
l.!^14 

1.458 

d 
1.521 

1.460 

1.431 

1,477 

i.m 


HAT, 

1.40g 

ijm 

1.110 
1.165 
l.l6fl 
1.055 
1.027 
.1WS 
1.085 
l.tKl 
1.156 
1.Q5S 
1.U5 
1.070 
L04» 


Apr. 

l.BOfl 
1.118 

i.I6Q 
L186 
1.181 
l.lOg 
1.107 
1 US 

i.ne 

b 
MSB 

1.147 

L075 

I.IW 

M54 

Ll&l 


1.956 

1.017 

jm 

1.028 
955 
.B-^1 

L048 
.981 
Ml 

.m 


JiMl. 

Sfil 

b 

.578 

.5^1 
.604 
.m 

.5QS 

.604 
i 
.588 

.571 

.6SS 

.556 
535 
.917 


Jul?, 

.m 

.4B7 

.SM 

.579 

.57* 

500 

.487 

.474 

.488 
b 

.m 

.449 
.471 

.450 
.i83 
.I5& 


.904 
,480 

I 
Ml 

.613 

.506 

.4711 

.4m 

.615 

.«« 

.SIB 
i.40» 

.m 

.484 
.131 
,476 


aai,. 


Od, 


Nor, 


me. 


IbrSvtatioaBt... . 


„_..- 


-„,- 




.669 


1,081 

.616 

It 
.917 

.731 

.m 

J572 

.626 
b 

.61S 
.614 

.B©6 

.sat 


1.701 

i.i&« 

f 

.968 

1.064 

L407 

1.190 

1.415 

1.141 

1.382 

b 
U409 

1.218 

i.sao 

1.140 
I.U4 

iJia 


1.4S1 

I.m 

T 

1.157 

i.Oifi 
i.aoe 

hoai 

1.174 

1.131 

I.m 

1.14£ 


1.731 
IJtiS 

f 
1438 

1.344 

L181 

1.3M 

& 
1.300 

1.440 

ijsa 


AY.IorSBtftttoiulI. 


.,...- 


. — . 


ttooklani 

TrtTan»01tr*-" .- 


^ 




1623 


1 
,882 

(1 
8 

,m 
,vn 
.m 

«• 

t^ 

Mi 


1.194 

^3 
1.187 
1,083 
I.ISO 
l.fo8 
IMt 
L13& 

t.(}ie 

1.201 

ijm 


Jlfht<in .,.,..,..,,. 




ThcwnTlUfl.. „,„„ 
Affr'lCoUi!«e . 

Birmiixghiun ,. . 

BittleOpwk. , 

4iuiH4rbor, .._.. 

If iryhiJl ■■„,■■„,, 
lltikm, 


mi' 

w 


L3ig 
i.m 

1.4Z1 
1.331 

Lise 


1.747 
1.64£ 
IftSB 

i.im 

1,54& 
1>^0 


U17 
1.107 




TeOTiin«h.__* 


w 


L2S4 


LOIS 



tNorabera in this oolomn state the aTenge monthly range of atmospheric pneeoie for a period of 
ftars eodinff in each case with December tl, 1898. inie amall iSgores abore and at the right of nnm- 
Mn wliich state the ayerage, denote the number of years inoladed in the aTenge. 

t Bepresente the dlfiFerenoe between the highest of 8 stations and the lowest of 8 stations for year and 
for each month of year, not inoinding Ashton. Albion, Booklaad, Harrisrille, and Marshall. 
^ Bepresents sum of ranges at 8 staUons dirided by 8. 

i The average for 11 months is .958. B For 10 months, .986. ** For 10 months, .891. ft For 11 months, 
tm. ^ For 11 months. .852. 

a, b, e. In the ooinmnp from Jannary to December, InclnaiTe, the letters a, b, o, etc., stand direetly 
abore the nnmbeiB from which they refer to the notes below. 

80 days, b For 29 days, o For 28 days. dfor87dvs. e For 25 days, f For 21 days, g For 23 
_i For 22 days, i For 21 days, 
cnx.— The statements in the star (*) footnote to Table XY. apply also to Table XVI. 



METliOROLOGlCAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 



71 



EXHIBIT 35. — Average Atmo9pheric Prtnsure, by Year and Months, in 1893, com- 
poured with Annfial and Monthly Averages far 1892^ and for the 16 ^ears, 1877-93. 
Thete Averages are for Groups of several Stalion^ in Michigan. 



Yew^ate. 


Avenge Aitnoaphone PreMorB.— Inehae of Meremr. 


Annoal 
A». 


Jan. 


FM>, 


Mar. 


Apr. 


Ma, 


Jane 


July 

29-120, 


Antf. 


Softt. 


Oct. 


Nor.i 


Das, 


!▼. 16 jmtn, 1877 <«2* 


».147 


».179 


20.173 


29.141 


29. m 


29 100 


20.091 


lOlli 


29.1ffl 


29.171 


29. IH 


29.161 


laei(Ilatatloiiii)... 
UaXSaUttoiu).... 


29.096 
t9dO0O 


to.oes 

2S,«77 


20 143 

2sm 


29.117 
29,007 


29.118 
29.000 


ffl.flOO 

am 


1».017 
t»,0« 


29.017 


29404 


».oeo 


29.008 
29.079 


20.000 
29.000 


29.101 
29.08I 


In 18M Ore«t«i> 

than At. for 10 

l«ar», IM7-tt2 

In im LeM than 
At. for 10 years. 
1877-92 .......... 


,087 


.IftS 


.010 


me 


«tsi 


Ail 


i>2ft 


.048 
.079 


.083 


.102 


.002 


jm 


.018 


tnlMt Greiil«r 

than in JWIL 

In 1888 JLeM than 

iuvm 


,038 


"OBI 


.019 


.o:u 


.118 


.oia 


.049 


.007 


.OM 


XI17 


.081 


jm 





* Woodmoro CMoeforj (D«ar Detroit) for 1877-79; Meadon for 1S77-78. 1881—83 ; Banton Harbor for 1877-76; 
Ypailanti for 1877, 1879; OtiariUe for 1078-80, 1882; W&shiiu^D for 1870^. 188S^: NirvaQS for 1870 and la 
IMO to April 25 inelaaiTe; Beed City for 1S80 aft«r April 25 and tSj^l-Sft; HaHing* for LH.'^i; HilUdal« for 
188^81; Maniatiqaa for I88I-W; Mackinaw dty for 18H4 37 ; Ionia fok- 1884-8B: Bwartz Cr^k for l»85i Port 
Anitin for 1S8&^. 188^-^1^9; Marqaetta for 1879-^4, littiO-^; EMsanafaa for 1880, 18^^: Alpena, Grand HaTan«^ 
Port Horon, for 1S79-H7: LMtroit for 187^7; Kalamasoo fbr 187741. I88&-8O1 Alma for 1800 : QnlllTar Lal»i 
fior 1288^, 1S92; Marahall for I^H3-»2 : Thomrllia for 188041, 1884-02; Traanuah for I87»4i0. 1682^, 1890, 189^ 
Blrmincliam for 1887-tt2; Battle (reek for l.S77-»0, 18S2, ISS&aO. 1861-Ot; LAnafnff for 1879-02; Afriooltaitf j 

Collc«efor 1877. 1^181-92; Ann Arbor for lh81-92; TraverM City for 1882-02; HarrlarlUa for 1882. 

Albion for ISOQuOl; Bockland for 1891^. 



BJXHIBIT 3G,— Comparisons 0/ the Average Atmospheric Pressure during the Year 
and during each Month of the Year 1893^ with Averages for the 18 Years^ 1875-92, 
and for the year 1892. Corrected for Temperature and for Instrumental Error. 
Observations made at 7 A. M.,2 P, M.and 9 P. M., Daily, by Prof. R. C. Kedzie, at 
the State Agricultural College^ near Lansing^ Michigan. 



Y«ar«. etfl. 


ATera«e Atmoepberio Preaeoie.— Inchn of Mercnrr. 


Annoal 
At. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar, 


Apr. 


May 


Jona 


Jnlf 


An«. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Not. 


Dee. 


AT.lJafflara.l67fr^ 


29.070 


».oe2 


29.074 


29.039 


29 047 


29.038 


m.m 


29.068 


so.oes 


£9.m 


89.087 


20.082 


29.084 


1892.. 


29.096, 
S9J»19 


28.004 

i8.g«o 


29.131 
19.102 


29 121 

ao.ofio 


29.107 
28.98ft 


SO.OOi 
28.971 


£9.010 
29.079 


89.178 
29,0W 


20 111 
29.108 


29.132 
28.980 


29.006 
28.987 


29.098 
28.060 


29.092 
28.971 




Is USB Greater 
Uian At. for 18 
jflW, 1875-0*.. „ 

In 1803 I^aa than 
At. for 18 yaaiv, 
IBT^^ 


• 

.m 


.087 


.028 


.ni 




.040 
.080 


.011 


.021 


.142 



.m 


JBO 


.009 


JIM 


.082 


ooa 




In 1803 Greater 
ttiaBlnief»2 














J22 


.000 


.129 


1.11 


.121 


In 1S03 I^M than 
in 1891.., ..,. 


.077 


.m 


.oet 


,071 


.142 


.0i2 



72 8TATB BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SEORBTARY, 189A. 






^' 



•^ 



I! 



PI 
J • 

1. 



5? 



•s ♦♦ 



m 



1 i 



8 a sS 8 



I S § §. M 



a a a 



§ 3 



3 I 
a a 



i g § i § 
a a a i^ si 



§ g g I 
s a a a 



s. s 



9 a 

s i 



g ^ s 

s a ji 



13 S3 



11 



a § 



I S § I s 

S a SS SS 3S 



§ i g § 

ss ss ss » 



S S ss 

8 o ^ 

ss ss a 



a 



3 i § 

s$ s$ sj 



§ § i i 

s si ss s$ 



§ i 



a 1 



S i 



§ § § 
a a ss 



§ § S i 
a a a a 



a a 



S i 
^ a 



S I § 
a a a 



§ I I 
a a' a 



a a 



2 3 
a a 

o 



a a 



8 S I 3 
s a a 



§ i 
a a 






s a s 

M e Ok 

a a a 



§ i s § 
a a a a 



i i 

a a 



§ i 
a a 



S 2 

3 a 



a § g 
a a a 



§ § § g 
a a a a 



a a 



S3 s 

« ca 

§ a 



SSI 
a a a 



<S S N 

S o» «) 

s^ a a 



S s S § 
a a a a 



» t 



o 3 cm 8 

s^ a * a 



8 ^ s § 
a ^ a a 



a a 



a a 



0u ^ ^ 6 
D K SQ ^ 



^ O O 



U U O O O K 
OQ OQ 00 CD OQ OQ 



■d =e 



£11 




11 I 



111 ^lil ^ 
sii i |l I 

S sal ||§S ^ 
a ^ll Ibi a 

nwm » 



I 

.9 






^^^^P METEOROLOGICAX. C?ONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. t) ^3 ^M 




DtA«MAM IVU-ATMOSPHKRIC PRESSURE, BY MONTHS* IN 1833 


^^^^H 


■ AVERAGE iAItOfVtETftiC PRE S S UR £.- AT STATIONS IN mJCH S 

^H AilMADMAB * b M. T T I T r O t C W _. 


H 




«.•«.. ....*..« >_^_ ^ ^_ ^_ p..*.. . wb »Pikkbi«^ —m* ^ • ^ • ^m»^ m (^ • , 


^^^^H 




VILLE ^^K ..Si TRAVERSE CJTY— •««...; AV. FOR ^ STATIONS XXX. 


^1 






1 






^ 




















^^H 








* 
p 

\ 










/ 


-^"^ 


^ 






■ 






/ 

* 


\ 










* 




\ 






^1 




2%3 


• 


* 










/ 




• 






^^^^1 


• 


1 


V 








•* 

r 




\ 

• 




i 


^1 






/ 










i 

i 






^ 


V 


• 


^1 






■ 

/ 




\ 

• 






* 

/ 








* 

■ 


• 

/ 

• 


H 






• 




V 






/ 

« 








• 


r 


H 




3f.Z 






\ 


k. 




f 












^H 










\ 


/ 














^1 








^ 










y 


"*^ 


-—i^* 


*mit^ 


/ 


I 




1%/ 


fi 








J 


^^»- 


?5 


V 


i**^^ 


\ 


/, 


I 


Si 


f 

\ 


% 

h 


^ 


1 
1 




i 


^ 
\ 




S 








1 \\ « 


*V^ 


/fi' 


















'I I 


\ 


\ 


$ 


!^ 


.«-!*- 


/ 


— - 


■*">> 


> 


y 






2Zf 


a 


^ 


\ 














/| 




1 






^. 


' / 
/ 


















/ 






\ 


H 




























f 

f 


















[ Plate 7i7.| 


■ 




fl 



74 STATE BOARD OF HEAI/TH.— REPORT OF 8ECRETART, 1894. 



EXHIBIT 37.— iiveragre Daily Range of Atmoapherie Prenure, by Year and M<mth$, 
in 1893^ compared with Annual and Monthly Averages for 1892, and for the 11 
Years, 1882-92, These Averages are for Groups of several Stations in Michigan. 



Ynn, stQ. 


Anmst) DBilj Bane* of Bkroni«t4r.-¥«i vid MonthB, im. 


A*. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr, 
.£17 


Mar. 

.m 


Jane. 


Jnlj. 


Aqg. 


Sept. 


Ctet. 


Hot. 


Dm. 


4T.llf«An,li82-ftSi* 


.£U 


m 


J£» 


1 
.298 


.l» 


1J1 


.acs 


.2U 


.aes 




.190 

,m 


.2ae 


.260 
.306 


,2B0 
.002 


.230 


,176 


.12» 

A38 


.isa 

451 


.lil 


.ta 


.19B 


.at 


J4« 

,3Efl 


IB 188B Oraitor 
than At. for 11 

In 18^ I^M thim 
At. fcr 11 T«&r«. 
lMa-«2-_,.. 


.010 


j»i 


oeo. 


,071 


^la 


.Wl 


,027 
Mi 


.ooe 

jOOI 


.004 


,01» 


.040 


jm 










In ie9S 6TeBt«r 

th*aiBlS8L,.„.. 

, In im& Lbh than 

In 1802 ,,„. 


,m 


J>if 


aio 


.064 


.Olft 


.OS 


.OOB 


^6 


m 


.oes 


.on 















_• Port Aoatin for 1888^. 1888-89 ; KalamaBoo for 1886^; MaeUnaw aty for 1884^: Baed City for 1881-85; 
Waahlnston, M endon for 188S: Manistlqae, Ionia for 1884-85; Swarta Greek for 1880: Marquette for 188M4, 
18B6-87j^Eeoanaba, Grand HaTen for 18^^-87 ; Alpena, Port floroo . Detroit for 18834r7: Alma fdr 1890 ; Gaili- 
▼er Lake for 1888^. 1802; MarehaU for 188a«2;ThomTUle for 1884-02: BatUe Greek for 1888-80. 189S; TzaT- 
ene GitJ. Lanainf . Ann Arbor for 1882-92; Agrienltaral GoUeoe for 188^: HarrisTUIe for 1885-92; Blnn- 
ingiwm tor 1887-92; AlUon for 1890-01; Teomnaeh for 1882-85, 1890, 1892 ; Boekland for 1891-92. 



EXHIBIT 'A6.— Range of Atmospheric Pressure, by Year and Months, in 1893, com- 
pared with Annual and Monthly Averages for 1892, and for the 11 years, 1882-92. 
These Averages are for Groups of Several Stations in Michigan. 



¥«an, etc. 


RaD8« of Baxomet«r.-¥»T and Months, 1803. 1 


Anniul 
At. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


At»r, 


MayJ 

,7ee 


Jane. 


Job- 
.610 


Aa«. 


aept. 


0«t. 
1J0I1 


Not. 


Dee. 


AT.Uy«n.m!-9i* 


.079 

.9S1 

,060 


1.901 

..... 

1.0S4 
1.110 


r.^ 


1.131 


i-ceo 


.630 


8.30 


1,128 

1.220 
1.135 


I.IM 


laea {12 aUMnnB) . 
UOT(8itatiofi*J,-.. 


1.23S 
1.462 

.100 


1.1S4 

i.ceo 


1.000 
1.13*1 

.oeo 


1.0S1 
.056 


Ml 
,l9i 


.TBI 
.48? 


.177 
.480 


.798 


- 

.095 

1.2» 


1.060 
l,t1l 


In lEOa OnsMter 
than At, for 11 
r«ai«, 1883JBa...... 






.111 

xm 


l&ft 


.141 


A23 

Eoe 


.141 


,214 


.m 


JJIO 


.m 


tn iBSS L«s> than 
At. for 11 lean, 

maa-aa 


,010 


.197 




3m 






In ues llremteF 
thaolnl8«a, 

In 1»3 L«»a t.hrin 
fnl892.„..^ 


.008 


.m 


,m 


421 


• 
.100 


,050 


.011 


.1^ 


.085 


M& 



•Reed City for 1882-85; Port Anatin for 1S8S-84. 1888-89; Waahincton, Mendon for 1888; Maniatlqae. 
Ionia for 1884-85; Maekinaw City for 1884-«7; Bwarts Greek for 1886:liarqQette for 1882.«4. 1888-83; Baoar 
naba. Grand HaTen for 1882-87: Alpena, Port Horon, Detroit for 188R-87; K^amaaoo for 1888-89 ; GolIiT«r 
Lake for 1888-90, 1892; Marahidi for 1888-92: Itenmseh for 1882-85.1892; Battie Greek for 188&-W, 1891-98; 
T "" «"-> rntf, Luiainff. Ann Arbor for 1882-92; A«rioaltaral GolliMB for 1888-92; ThomTiUs for 1884^; 
^ 1885-92 ; Birmin«ham for 1887-M; Albion for 1890«UBoekland fbr 1B98. 



METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 



75 



SUNSHINE AND CLOUDS. 

On the back of each blank register eupplied by this Board to observers, 
on which they are to register meteorological data, is a statement that '*One 
observer has reported a record of days 'all or nearly all cloudy* and days 
l^all or nearly all sunshine.* The State Board of Health would be glad to 
lave such a report from all observers who can conveniently make it. Mem- 
oranda may be mad© in a column headed * cloudy or sunuy/ days more 
than 80 per cent of clouds being marked with the abbreviation * C,' indi- 
cating cloudy t and days with less than 20 per cent of clouds with an *S/ 
indicating sunshine.-' 

The following are statemeots of the davs in each month which were 
sported '* Sunny," ** Clear," ** Fair," ** Partly cloudy,'' and ''Cloudy," by 
observers at stations in Michigan, except Thornville and Kalamazoo, con- 
cerning which notes are given explaining the method of statement, 



jAHUAAY.-BaxuiT, T. 14, IV. 20. 2«, »>. 90-7 days, Cloody. 1. 2. 3, ft. 6, «, 9, 10, U. 12, W, 15. 19, 17, IB. tl, », 

24. », 17, 18, ll-a d»7t. 

mftUAEY.-Stuuij, 1. B. 0. 7, 10, U. 18, 16. la, 10, 20, 2», Xft-lS cU; ». Cloady, t, S, 4, A. ». 12, U, Ifl. 17« tl, 

k, », £4, 27, 2»-lS dvi. 

Mkmm,-Banaf, 1. 2, 4, 5« i, 7, 0. 9, 1ft, 16, 17, 19, 82. », £6. 17. £B, £9, 80. «1— » dv«. Cloadf, 8, 10, U^ U, 
1ft, 14, 18. 80. 21, U, 24-11 days. 

APBlL.-8tumy. 1, % 10, 14^ lb, 16, 17, £8, 28-9 dayi. Cloudy, 2, 8. 4, i, 6, 7. 9, U, 12, 18, 18, 19, 80. 21, U, 84 
86-17 daya.* 

Juirs.-8QnDy. e, 7, 10. 11, 18, 18, 14, 18, 16, 17. IB, 19. 80. 21. 28, 21, 24, 88, 26. 27, 28, 89-28 dayi. Cioody, 1, 
t, 8, 4, fi, a. 9, 80-8 daye. 

jDl.T.-8anjiy, 1. 8, 3, tt, 6, 7, 8. 9, 10, 12, 13, 1&, 18, 17. 18, 19, ZO, 21. 82, 84. 8B. 86. 27, 88, 28. 81—20 day*. Cloudy. 
4, 11. 14, 23. 80-& day*. 

AroOHT.-Bnosy, 1, 2, 8. 4, 5, 6, 7. B. 12, II. 14. 18, 10, IS, 19, 80, 21, 22, £8, 87, 29. 80. 81-28 days. Cloady, 9. 10, 
11,17.28. ZS-«dft)t. 

8KPnMBu.-6iumy. 1, 2, 8. 4. 5, 6, 7. 8. 9, 10. 11, 12, 18, 14, 16, 17. Id, 19, 80, 12, 28, 88^22 day*. Cloudy, 18, 
21, 24. 28, 26, 87. 29. 80-8 day*. 

O0TO]iKa.-SnaDy. 8. 4, 9. 10. 18. 16, 17, 16, 20, 21, 22, 28. 80. 31-14 day*. Qloody, 1. 2. 5. 6. 7. 8. 11, 12. 18. 14, 
19. 24. 2S, 26, 27, 28. 29-17 dayi. 

HOTXMBKB.-BiiQDy, 1, t, 4, B, 6, 7. 8. 9, 10. 16, 18, 19. £5—18 day*. Cloudy. 8. 11, 12. 18, 14, IB, 17. 80, 21, 88, 
28, 24, 26, 27, 23. 19, 30-17 day*. 

DBaKMBsm.-BaDiiy. 2, 28, 26. 27—4 day*. Cloudy. 1, 3. 4, 8, 6, 7, B. 9, 10. 11, 18, 18, 14, 15. 16, If. IB, 19. 81, 82. 

25, 28, 29, 80. 81-26 day*. 



JAHITAmy.-Clear. 10, 19. Cloudy, 1, 2, 8, 4, 6, 6, 7, 6, 9. 11. U. 18, 14. 15, U. 17, lA. 80. 21. 22, 28, 84. 88, 26. 27, 
as, 89, 80. 81-20 days. 

PxBttUABY.- Clear. 4, 5, 12, 18. 18, 16, 80, 26, 27-0 daya. Cloody. 1. 2, 8, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, U, U, 17, 18, 19. n, 81, 
U, 24, 25, 2a-19 day*. 

II AmcH. -Clear, 1, 2. 4, 5. 6, 7, 10, 1«. 17, 18, 19, 26, 27, £8, 29, 80. 81-17 day*. Cloody, 8, 8, 9. 11, II, 18, 14, IB, 
80, 21, 22. 28, 24, 25-14 day*. 

AFan..-€lear. 1. 4, 5, 8, ft, 10, 12, 15. 17, 21, 25-11 day*. Cloady. 2, 3. 6. 7, 11, 18, 14. IB. 18. 19. 20, 21, 22, 24, 
20. 27. 28, 29, 80-19 days. 

Mat, -Claar. 5, 6, 7, 8. 9, 10, 17, 18. 10, 80, 21, 22, 25, 28, 29, 80, 81-17 days. Cloody. 1, 2. 3. 4, U, 12. 18, 14, IB, 
10« a. 14, 88, 27-14 day*. 

Jni«,-Cle«r, 6, 7, 8, 9, U, 12, IB, 14, 15, 18, 17, 18, 19, 28, 83, 24, 88. 1«, 27. 28, 29, 30-22 day*. Cloady, 1, 2, 8, 
4. 5. 10, 20, 21-8 day*. 

* No r««or<i for the rwt of tbe oioolli. 



76 8TATB BOARD OF HEAI/FH.— REPORT OF SEXTRSTTART, 1894. 

JmiT.-GlMT, 2. 8. 5. 8, 9, 10, 11. II, U. U. 16, 18, 19, 80. 21, 88, 88, 84, 25, 86, 87, 89, 80, 81-84 dafs. Oloody, 
1, 4, 6. 7, 14, 17, 88-7 dtya. 

▲DonaT.-Glear, 1, 8, 8, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 9, 10. 12, 13, 14. 15, 17, 18, 19, 80, 81, 22, 88, 84, 86, 27. 88, 29, 80, 81-88 dai«. 
Cloady. 11, 16. 25. 

8jffTXMBKB.-Glear, 1, 2. 8, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. 11, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 82, 28, 24, 26, 26, 27, 28, 89-24 days. Cloudy, 
18, 18. 14, 15. 21, 80-6 daya. 

OOTOBSB.-Clear, 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10. 11, 12. 18, 16, 17, 18, 21. 22, 28, 25, 87, 80, 81-21 daya. Cloody, 8, 6, 14 . 
II, 19, 20, 24, 26, 2S, 29-10 days. 

NomcBKB.-Glaar, 1, 8, 4. 5, 6. 7, 8, 16, 17-9 daya. Oiondy, 8, 9, 10. 11, It, 18, 14, 15, 18, 19. 80, 21, 22, 88, 84, 
81, 81. 27, 28. 29. 80-21 daya. 

THOBMTILXjB. 

In tha following atatemant xeUtiTe to ThornTiila (the par oant of aaaahine haTinc been recorded Cor 
aaeh day), the daya are named clear when the aky waa three^tentha or leaa than three-tentha covered wltk 
•looda; fair, when the aky waa from foar-tentha to MTen-tentht (inclnalTe) ooTered; cloody, when the 
aky waa mora than aeren-tentha coTered,— aa reported by J. S. Canlkina, M. D., Thomrille. 

JAVUABT.-Clear, 6, 10, 17. 19. 20, 21, 29-7 daya. Fair. 8, 18, 14. Cloody, 1. 2, 8. 4, 5. 7, 9. 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 
88, 28, 24, 25. 26, 27, 28. 80, 81-21 daya. 

FUBUABT.-Clear, 4, 5, 8, 11, U, 18, 20. 22, 24, 26, 27-11 daya. Fkir, 10, 15, 16, 28-4 daya. Cloudy, 1, 8, 8. 
6, 7, 9. 14. 17, 18, 19, 21, 28, 25-18 daya. 

Maboh.— Clear, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 16, 17, 18, 26. 27. 28, 29. 80-15 daya. Fair, 8. 9, 18, 20-4 daya. Cloody. 8, 
11, 12, 14, 15, 19, 21. 22, 23, 24, 25, 31-12 daya. 

APBIL.-Clear. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6. 8. 9, 18. 18-9 daya. Fair. 7. 10. 11, 15, 16. 17, 25. 86. 17. 28-10 daya. Cloody, 8, 
U, 14, 19, 20, 31, 22. 28, 24, 29, 80-11 daya. 

MAT.-Sanny, 7. 8. 9, 10, 15, 18. 19. 20, 21, 22. 24. 28, 20. 80. 81-15 daya. Pair. 4, 11, 14. 27-4 daya. Cloody, 
1, 2, 8. 5, 6, 12. 18, 16, 17. 28. 25, 26-12 daya. 

JUMik-Clear. 4. 6, 7. 8, 9, 12. 18. 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. 22. 28, 24, 25, 86. 27, 28, SB, 80-82 daya. Fair, 2, 5, 10, 11, 
88,81-6 daya. Clondy, 1,8. 

Jm.T.-Clear. 8, 8. 9. 10, 11, 12, 15, 17, 18, 10, 80, 21, 22, 28. 25. 26, 27, 29, 80, 81-20 daya. Fkir, 4, 5, 6, 18, 14. 
16, 24, 28-8 daya. Cloody, 1. 2. 7. 

▲ijansT.-Clear, 1, 2. 8, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 18, 14. 16, 17, 20. 21, 82, 28. 24, 25. 80, 81-22 daya. Ftdr, 5, 11, 18, 
18, 10, 86, 27, 29-8 daya. Cloody, 28. 

BxPTKXBBB.— Clear, 1. 2, 3, 4. 5, 6, 7, 8. 9, 10. 11, 15. 16. 17, 19. 80, 22, 25. 86. 27, 28, 29-22 daya. Fair, 18, 14, 
18, 88, 24-5 daya. Cloody, 13, 21, 80. 

O0TOBSB.-Clear, 1, 2, 4, 5. 9, 10, 11, 12, 16. 17, 18, 21, 22. tt, 25—15 daya. Fair, 7, 8. 19. 24, 80-6 days, 
eioody, 8, 6. 13. 14, 15, 20, 26. 27. 28, 29. 81-11 daya. 

NOTKKBXB.— Clear, 3. 4. 5. 6, 7, 8, 10. 16, 17. 18. 20-U daya. Fair, 1, 18, 14. 19. 86-6 daya. Cloody, 2, 9, U, 
18, 15. 21, 22. 28. m, 25. 27. 28, 29, 90-14 daya. 

DMKiCBXB.-Clear. 4, 7, 18. 19, 20. 21, 28, 27-8 daya. Fair, 26. Cloody, 1, 2. 8, 5. 6. 8. 9, 10, 11, 18, 14, 15, 16. 
IT, 18, 28, 24, 25, 28, 29, 80, 81-22 daya. 



JAIOTABT.-Sanny, 10. Fair, 4, 6, 6, 7, 9. 12. 13, 14. 15. 16, 17, 18, 19, 21. 25. 29-16 daya. Cloody, 1, 2, 8, 8, 11, 
89, 22, 28, 24, 26, 27, 28. 80, 81-14 daya. 

FOBUABT.-Sonny, 12, 18, 16, 20. 26-5 daya. Fair, 8, 4, 5, 15. 16. 19, 27, 28-7 daya. Cloody, 1, 2, 6, 7. 8, 9, 
10, 11, 14, 17. 18, 21, 22, 28, 24, 25—16 daya. 

MAB0H.-8anny, 1, 4. 7, 13, 17, 26. 27, 28, 29-9 daya. Fair, 2. 8. 5, 6, 9, 10, 15, 16. 18, 19, 21, 80-12 daya. 
Cloody, 8, 11, 12. 14, 20. 22, 28, 24, 25,81-10 daya. 

▲PBiL.-8anny, 4, 13. Fair, 1. 2. 8. 6. 8, 9, 10, 12. 15, 16. 17. 22, 27, 28, 29-15 daya. Cloody, 6. 7, 11, 14. IB, 
10, 20, 21, 23, 24. 25, 26. 80-18 daya. 

llAT.-Sanny. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, IS, 19, 20, 21, 24. 28. 80-12 daya. Fair. 8. 4, 5, 12, 15, 16. 17, 22, 28, 27, 29, 81-12, 
daya. Cloody, 1. 2, 11, 13, 14, 25, 26-7 daya. 

JuNB.-BnDny, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9. 11. 12, 13. 14, 17. 18. 19, 28. 24. 87. 28. 29-17 daya. jFair, 1. 2, 15, 16, 20, 21, 28. 21, 
86, 80-10 daya. Clondy, 8. 5, 10. 

JlTLT.-Snnny, 3, 9, 10, 11, 19, 20. 21, 23, 24. 29, 80, 81-12 daya. Fkir. 1, 8, 4, 5. 7, 8, 12, 18, 14, 15. 16, 17, 18, 81, 
88, 86. 27-17 daya. Cloody, 6. 28. 

AUODST.-Sonny, 1, 2, 8. 4, 5, 7. 8, 9. 10, 12, 14. 15, 21, 88, SO, 81-16 daya. Vkdr, 6, 18, 17. 18. 19, 80, 88, 84, 86, 
86, 87, 89-11 daya. Clondy, 11, 16, 28. 



METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 



77 



OOKftrntLSnuDj, 1, i, ft. », 10, 11, IJ, 18, 17. 18, n, «, tt, »-H dw^* F»lr, f, 7. 8, 15, 19. 20. tJ, 21, S7. BS, 
•0. It- 12 dft7». Cloodj. 3. 6, IS, U, tS-6 dsff . 

NovstBEE.- Bntmr. 8, 4, 5, 0« 7^ ^. 9, 16« 20—9 dajs. Flktr, 1, 10, IS, U, 17, 19, 2S, tt— 8 dsjr*, Cloody, 1, 11 , 
U, 15, 18. 21. ti, 28. 24, 17, 28, 20, BO- 13 d^B, 

DK(TKMBSK.-BiiDDy, 20. F«1t, 3, 4, $. 7. 8. 18. 19, 2], », 217—10 div** Cloody. 1, 2, 0. 9, 10, U. 12. 18. U, U, 
U, n. 22, 24, 25, 20. 28. 29, 30. 81-20 day*- 



ANH AKBOK. 

jAJiCABT.-SanBj, 19. Pair. I, 4. 0, 7, 9, 10. 12, 18, 14, 17. 80. 21, 29. 80-14 d«ya. CioQdy. I. g, 6.8. U, 18. 10. 
28. 88. 84. 29. 20, 27, 28, 31-16 daya, 

FDBUABT.-eiuiD;. 12. 13, 20, 26-4 daya. FUr. 8. 4, 8. 10, 19, 28. 27. 8»-« daya. Uloody, 1, 8. 8, 6. 7. 9, 10^ 
11, 14. 15, 17. 18. 21, 28. 24, 25-16 daya. 

Uahob,— Saooy, 1. 7. 17. 18. 27, 28-6 dara. Fair, 2. 4, 6, 6, 0, 18. 15, 16, 10. 84. 28. i9. 10-13 dayt. Cloodj. 
8, a, 10, U, 12. 14, 20, 21, 22. ta, 28. 31-U days, 

4PBn..-8iiimy. 4. 9. 18. Fair. 1. 2. 8. 8, 10. 18. 16, 17, 28. 87, 80-11 day*. Cloady. 8, i, 7. 11, 12, 14, 18, 19 
80, 21. 22, 28. 24, 36, 28, 30-16 daya. 

MAT.-aanny, 4.6.7. 8. 9. 10, IB. 19. 80, 81. 28. 80-12 days. Fair, 8, 18. 88. 84. 85. 27, 29, 81-6 daya. Cloody 
1. 8, 5. U. 12, 18. 14, 16. 17, 22, 26-11 dayar 

JUITK. -Sonny, 4, T, 8, 9. 12, 13. 14, 16, IT. 18, 19, 21, 84, 86, 89—18 daya. Pkir. 2, 5, 6, 11, 18. 80. 21, 22. 28, 81, 
28, 80-12 daya. CJ&ndy. 1. 8. 10; 

Jm^T.-Sanny. 3. 10. 19. 20. 21. 28. 8S, 87. SO, 81—10 daya. Fair, 1. 8. 4. 5. 6. 1, 8, 9, 11, 12. 13. 14. 15, 16, 17, IB, 
18, M. 88, 2»-ao daya. Clondy, 28. 

AW»trw.-8oimy. 1. 2, 3, 4, 5. 6. 7, 8, 9. 10, 18. 14, 15, 1«, 21, 28, 28, 80, 31-19 daya. Fair. U, 13, 17, IS. 80. U, 
8B, 26, 27, 29-10 daya. Cloody. 16, 2». 

8BrTXKBUi.-8imny, 1, 2, 3, 4. 5, 6, 7, S, 0, 11, 17, 19. 86, 27. 28-15 daya. Fair. 10, 18, 14, 15, 16. 20, 81. 88,81 
18^10 daya. Cloody, 12, 18, 22. 24. SO-S daya. 

OortosvE.— SQniijr. 1, 4. 8. 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18, IT. 18, 81, 88. 23-14 daya. Fair. 8. 8, 16. 19. 20, 25. », 80, 81-9 
daya. Clondy. 3, 6. 14, 18. 24, 26. 37. 28- 8 daya. 

NoTxiaut.-Siuiny. 3, 6. T. 16-4 daya. Fair, 1. 4. 8, 8, 9, 10, U, U, U, 18, 19, 10, 28, 38-14 daya. Cloudy, 
1, 12, 15, 17, 21, 88, 28, 24, 27. tt, 29. 30-12 daya. 

DxonuiKB.-Siuny. 21. Fair. 4. 5. 7, n, 19, 20, 23. 89. 27-0 daya. Cloody, 1, 8. 3, 6, 9. 10, 11, 12, IS. 14, 18, 
16, 17, 18. 22, 24, £6. 28, 29. 10. 31-21 da^a. 

BATTUI OBBXX. 

JAUVABY.-Siuiay. 4, 6, 7. 10, 12, 13. 15, IT. 18. 19, 20. 25, 29-13 daya. Cloady, 1. 2. 8, 5. 8. 9, 11. 14, 16. 81, tt, 

24. £6, 27. 28, 30. 31-18 day*. 
FKBBDABT.-Soziny, 8. 4, 7, 8. 12, 18. 16. 19, 80. 27. 88-11 daya. Cloody. 1, 8. 5, 6, 9. ID, U. U. 15. 17, 18, U. 

28, 84. 25, 80-17 daya. 

Maboh.— aoBiiy. 1. X. 9, 4, 5. 6, 7, 9. 10, 13, U. 17. 18, 19. 81, 27, 28, 29, 80, 81-80 daya. Cloudy, 8. 11, 11, 14, 
I. 20, 22. 23, 24, 26. 26-11 daya. 

APKn>.-H»nt>y. 1, 2. 4. 5, 8, 9, 10, 12, 18, 15, 16, 17. 27-U daya. Cloody. 8. 6, 7, 11, 14. 18. 19, 80, 81.82. 28. 84. 
80. 28, 29, 80-17 daya. 

MAT.-Snnny. 8, 4, 6. 7, 3. 9. 10, 15. 17. 18. 19, 80. 21, 28. 24. IS, 88. 20, 80, 31-20 daya, Cloody. 1. 2. 5, U. II. 
18. 14. 16. 28, 26. 27-11 daya. 
Jl}lis.-8aDoy. 4, 5, 6. 7, 8, 9. 11, 12. 13. U. 17, 13, 19. 21. 22. ffi, 24. 85, 28, 17. 88, 89-22 daya. Cloody. 1. 2. t, 
». 15. 16, 80, 30-8 daya. 

Jt7LY.-Sa&ny. 1. 2. 3. 7. S. 9. 10. 11, 12, 15. IS. 19, 20. 21, 22. 28, 34, 25. 86. 27. 28, 29. 80. 81-24 daya. Cloudy, 
5, 6, 13, 14, 16, 17-7 daya. 

AUQoar.-Boony. 1. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 9, 10. 11. 12. II. 14. 15. IB, 19, 80. 21. U, 24, IB. £6, 87, 29, 3U. 81—27 daya. 
Cloody. IS, 17, 23, »~4 day*. 

LANamo. 

jAVlIABT.-SoiiDy. 10. 12. 19. 29—4 deya. Fair, 17. 21. Cloady. 1, 8, 8. 4. 5. «, T, 8, 9. IS, 18, 14. 15, 16, 18. 80, 
J». 28, 24, 25, 26. 27. 28, 10, 81-25 daya. 

FXBBOABY.-Banoy, 4, 12, 13. 20, 26, 2fr-6 daya. Cloody, 1. 8. 8, 5. 6, 7, 8, 9. 10, 11, 14. IS. 16, 17. 18. 19. 81, 
n, 23, 24, 25, 27-22 day*. 

MABOR.-SaBiiy, 1, 4, 5, 6. 7, 10. 17, IB, 26. 27, 28, 30-18 daya. Partly atoody, 2, 20. Cloody, 3, 8, 9. U. 12. 
18, 14, 15. 16, 19. 80, 21, 22, 28, 24, 8B. 81-17 daya. 



78 STATB BOARD OF HfiAIiTH.— REPORT OF SESORBTARY, 1884. 

APRiz..-8iinii7.4,8,12,18.16-«dBys. Partly okmdy, 1, 9. Gloodr, S, 8, 5. 6, 7, 10, U. U. M. 17. IS. 10. W. 
SI. 28. 28, M, 88, 86. 87, 18. 89, 80-88 days. 

MAT.-Soxmjr, 7. 8, 9, 17. 18. 19, 20, 81, 84, 28. 80-11 days. Partly oloody, 6. 10. Cloudy. 1, 8. 8, 4, 5, 11. 18. 
18. 14, 15, 16, 28. 88. 2S, 26. 27, 29. 81-18 days. 

Ju]fK.-Saiiny, 7, 8, 9, 18, 18, 14, 17. 18, 19. 83, 84. 25. 26, 87. 88. 89, 80-17 days. Partly oloady, 4. 11, 88. 
Gloady, 1, 8. 8, 5, 6, 10, 15. 16. 20, 21-10 days. 

JX7i.T.-Saimy, 8, 19, 21. 88, 84, 86, 27, 89. 80-9 days. Partly oloady. 9, 10. 11. 18. 18, 80, 22. 26. 81-0 dmrs. 
Gloady, 1. 8, 4, 5, 6, 7. 8, 13. 14, 15, 16, 17. 88-18 days. 

AUOUST.-Saony. 1. 2, 8, 4. 6, 7, 8, 9. 10, 14, 15, 28, 84, 80, 81-15 days. Partly oloady. 5, 12. 13. 80. 21, 88. 89- 
7 days. Gloady. 11. 16. 17, 18. 19. 86, 26, 27. 28-9 days. 

8KPTBMBBB.-BanDy, 2, 8, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 9, 10, 11, 15, 17. 87, 28, 89-15 days. Partly oloady, 1, 19. 21, 22. 23. 26- 
tfdays. Cloody, 12, 18, 14, 16, 18. 80. 84. 85, 80-9 days. 

OOTOBBL-Sonny, 1, 4, 5, 7. 9. 10.11. 12. 16. 17, 18. 81, 88, 88. 25-15 days. Partly oloady, 8, 19, 80, 81-4 days. 
Gloady, 3, 6. 8. 13, 14. 15, 84, 88. 87. 88. 29. 30-12 days. 

NoTXKBSR.-Saany, 1. 8, 1, 5. 6, 7, 8, 18-8 days. Partly oloady, 10. U. 16. 17, 86-5 days. Gloady, 8. 9, 18. 
14, 15. 18, 19, 80, 81. 88. 88, 84, 85. 87, 88, 29, 80-17 days. 

I>nBiCBSB.-Baimy,4,81,28,87-4days. Partly oloady, 8, 80, 84. 86-^ days. Gloady. 1. 8. 3. 5, 6. 7, 9, 10. 
U. 12, 18, 14. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 22. 25. 28. 29, 80, 81-28 days. 

XABQUXTTK. 

Jandabt.— Gloadlsss days, 6. Partly, oloadly, 7. Gloady, 18. 
Fbbbuabt.— Gloadlsss days. 10. Partly oloady, 8. Gloady, 15. 
IfABOH.— Gloadless days, 8. Partly oloody, 12. Cloody, 11. 
Apbil.— Gloadlsss days, 8. Partly oloady. 10. Gloady, 17. 
IfAT.-Gloadless days, 9. Partly oloady, 9. Gloady. 18. 
JuicB.— Gloadlsss days, 9. Partly oloady, 16. Gloody, 5. 
JuiiT.— Gloadlsss days, 8. Partly oloady, 16. Gloady, 7. 
Adoubt.— Gloadlsss days, 12. Partly oloady, 12. Gloady, 7. 
Sbptxmbeb.— Gloodless days, 6. Partly oloady, 15. Gloady. 9. 
OoTOBXB.— Gloadlsss days, 1. Partly oloady. 13. Cloody. 17. 
Notbmbbb.— Gloadlsss days. 4. Partly oloady, 9. Gloady. 17. 
Dbokbcbbb.— Pari ly oloady, 11. Cloady, 20. 

BAULT STB. MABIB. 

Jahuabt.— Cloudless days. 2. Partly oloady, 8. Cloady, 26. 

FKBBUABT.-Cloodlessdays.S. Partly oloady. 8. Cloady, 17. 

Mabch.— Gloodless days, 4. Partly oloady. 12. Cloady, 15. 

APBiL.-Cloadle8sday8.4. Partly oloady. 4. Gloady, 22. * 

Mat.— Cloudless days. 2. Partly cloody, 11. Cloudy. 18. 

JUVB.— Cloudless days, 10. Partly oloady, 6. Cloudy, 14. 

July. -Cloudless days. 4. Partly oloody, 12. Cloady, IS. 

AnoDST.— Cloudless days, 7. Partly oloody, 10. Cloody, 14. 

Bbptxmbbb.— Cloudless days, 8. Partly olondy, 10. Cloady, 17. 

OOTOBBB.— Cloudless days, 3. Partly oloady, 10. Cloody. 17. 

Noyxmbbb.- Partly oloody days, 6. Cloudy, 24. 

DXOBMBXB.— Partly cloady days, 4. Cloady. 27. 

MAMISTBK. 

Januaby.— Partly cloudy days. 8. Cloudy, 28. 
FxBBDABY.— Cloudless days, 5. Partly oloady. 6. Clnndy. 17. 
Maboh.— Cloudless days, 11. Partly oluudy, 4. Cloudy, 16. 
Apbil.— Cloodlees days, 2. Partlycloady.il. Cloady, 17. 
MAY.-Cloadleeedays, U. Partly oloody, 11. Cloody, 9. 
JUN B.— Cloodleee days, 14. Partly oloady, 12. Cloudy. 4. 
July.— Cloudless days. 15. Partly cloady, 10. Cloudy, 6. 
AuonsT.— Cloudless days, 16. Partly cloudy, 9. Cloudy. 6. 



liETEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 79 

ALPBHA. 

JAiruAn.— GloQdl«M days, L Partly oloody, 5. Cloady. £4. 
Fdbuabt.— GloadleM daya, 9. Partly cloady, 8. Cloudy, 11. 
Mabob.— Gloodleaa daya, 11. Partly oloody, 11. Cloady, 6. 
APBZZi.— GloadleM daya, I. Partly oloady, 12. Cloady, 16. 
MAT.-CloadleM daya, 8. Partly eloady, 12. Cloady, 11. 
JULT.— Gloadleea days, 10. Partly oloady, 17. Cloady, 4. 
AixiUBT.-<Jloadlflai days, 12. Partly oloady. 18. Cloady, 5. 
OOTOBBB.— Cloadlaaa daya, 0. Partly oloady. 12. Cloady, 0. 
NoTBHBBB.— Cloadloaa daya, 4. Partly oloady, 7. Cloady, 19. 
I>BOBKBBB.-Cloodleao daya, 2. Partly oloady, 10. Cloady, 19. 

OBAVD EATBZr. 

Jabuabt.— Partly oloody daya, 2. Cloady, 29. 
Fbbbuabt.— Cloodleaa daya, 2. Partly oloady, 7. Cloody, 19. 
Mabob.— Cloodleao daya. 6. Partly oloady. 6. Cloady, 19. 
APBIL.-Cloodlaao daya, 3. Partly cloody, 11. Cloody, 16. 
MAT.-Cloadlaaadaya,8. Partly oloody, 16. Cloody,?. 
JuRB -CloodloM daya, 14. Partly oloady, 12. Cloody, 4. 
July.— Cloodlaoa daya, 15. Partly oloody, IS. Cloody, 8. 
AQODBT.— CloodloM daya, 16. Partly oloady, 13. Cloady, 2. 
Bbftkmbbb.— Cloodlaoa daya. 14. Partly oloady, 9. Cloody, 7. 
OoTOBBB.— Cloodloaa daya, 11. Partly cloody, 10. Cloady, 10. 
Novbmbbb.— Cloodleaa daya. 8. Partly cloady, 6. Cloady, 16. 
Dbobmbbb.— (Uoodleoo day a, 4. Partly oloady, 2. Cloady. 25. 

POBT EUBOM. 

Jabuabt.— (Cloodleaa daya, 9. Partly oloady, 7. Cloody, 15. 
Fbbbuabt.— Cloodleao daya, 6. Partly oloady, 16. Cloady, 6. 
Mabob.— Cloodleaa daya; 11. Partly oloady, 7. Cloody, 13. 
Apbii.. -Cloodlaoa daya, 4. Partly cloady, 11. Cloady, 15. 
MAT.-Cloodleae daya. 10. Partly oloody, 11. Cloady. 10. 
JUBB. — Cloodleee daya, 20. Partly oloody. 5. Cloady. 5. 
JULT.— Cloodless daya, 16. Partly oloody. 12. Cloady. 8. 
AUOUBT.— Cloodlaoa daya. 19. Partly oloady, 9. Cloody. 8. 
Bbptbxbbb.- Cloadlaaa daya, 11. Partlycloady.il. Cloody, 8. 
OOTOBBB. -Cloodleee daya, 15. Partly cloody, 6. Cloady, 10. 
NoTBMBBB.— Cloodleee days, 6. Partly cloody, 8. Cloady, 16. 
Dbobxbbb.— Cloodleee daya, 2. Partly oloady, 11. Cloady. 18. 

DBTBOIT. 

Jabuabt.— Cloodleee daye, 3. Partly oloady. 8. Cloady, 20. 
Fbbbuabt.— Cloodleee daya, 8. Partly cloady, 8. Cloady. 12. 
Mabob.— (noodleea daya, 11. Partly cloody. 9. Cloady, 11. 
Apbil.— Cloodleee daya, 5. Partly cloody, 9. Cloody, 16. 
MAT.-<:ioodlaee daye, 10. PBrtly cloady, 11. Cloady. 10. 
JUVB.— Cloodleee daya, 18. Partly oloady, 13. Cloody. 4. 
JuLT.— Cloodleee days, 16. Partly oloady, 11. Cloady. 4. 
AuousT.-Cloodlaoe daya, 15. Partly cloady, 10. Cloady. 6. 
Sbptbmbbb. -Cloodleee daya. 11. Partly cloady, 11. Cloady, 8. 
O0TOBBB.-CloQdle8edayB. 14. Partly cloady. 6. Cloody. 11. 
Motbmbbb.— Cloodleee daya, 9. Partly oloady. 7. Cloody. 14. 
Dbobmbbb.— Cloodleee daya, 8. Partly cloody, 9. Cloody, 19. 



80 STATE BOABD OP HSlAiyrU.-KEPORT OP BEORBTART, 10M. 

* KAUkMAZOO. 

In the fbllowiDff statement xelatiTe to Kalamazoo, are named for the men the Jannary, Aagnct, Septem- 
ber, NoTember and December, the days of the m<M]th "smmj," "fair,** and "oloady** (thej>ereeii<of 
elnndinees haying been recorded for each day), the days are named sonny when the sky was three^entha 
or lees than three-tenths coTered with olonds; fair, when the sky was from foor-tenths to seren-tentha 
(inoloslTe) ooTored ; oloady, when the sky was more than seren-tenths oo?ered,— as observed by Wm. H. 
Edwards, M. D., Ealamaioo. 

JAHUABT.-Bnnny, 19. Fair, 7, 12. 17, 2»-i days. Cloody. 1, 2, 1, 4, S. 6, 8, 9. 10. 11, 18, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, n, 
22, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30i 21-26 days. 

AuaiTST.-Snnny, 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 80, 81-12 days. Fair, 1, 2, 4, 11. 18, 17, 18. 19, 80, 21, 20-U «v^ 
Ploody, 16, 24, 27. 28. 

8aPTiacBXB.-8DnDy, 8, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 17, 19, 28, 28-10 days. Fair, 1, 2, 5, 9, 10, 14, 15, 16, 20, 22, 26, Sf-U 
days. Clondy, 12, 18, 18, 21, 24, 25, 29, 80-8 days. 

NoTniBCB.-Sanny, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 16-6 days. Fair, 1, 8, 8. 10, 18, 17. 19, 20. 26-9 days. Gloody, 2, U, U, U, 
16, 18, 21, 22. 28, 24, 26, 27, 28. 29, 20-15 days. 

DnaafBUU-Sonny, 20, 21. lUr, 8, 4, 8, 18, 83, 96-6 days, moody. 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, U, M, 15, 10, If, 
IB, 10, 22, 24, 25, 27, 28. 29. 80, 81-28 days. 



THE TIME OF GREATEST PREVAJLENCE OF 

EACH DISEASE. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF THE CAUSES OF 

SICKNESS. 



A STATISTICAL REPORT BASED ON WEEKLY REPORTS OP SICKNESS 
IN MICHIGAN DURING THE YEAR 1893, AND PRECEDING YEARS. 



BY XaS 8BCRBTAKY OF TBE STATE BOARD OF BBiLTH. 



TbiB paper is tbe seventeenth in a serieB of articlea upon the same gen- 
eral Bobjeot begoD in tbe latter part of 1876. It presents a summary of 
tbe compilation of weekly reports of sickness in Miobigan in 189B. It 
includes a series of diagrams or grapbic illustrations wbicb sbow by 
montbs in 1893, the rise and fall of twenty-eight of tbe most prominent 
diseases in Michigan. 

PropositioDS are stated as to tbe relations of specified meteorological 
conditions, and diseases are mentioned nnder these propositions in snob 
manner as to suggest one method of studying some of the facts' brought 
out in tbe compilation. 

Tables are given showing the per cent of tbe weekly reporis which 
stated tbe presence of the various diseases, first (in Exhibit IV.), for each 
of tbe years 1881-1893, and an average for 1877-1892, also for the seven 
years, 1886-1892; and secondly (in Exhibit IV*, continued), by months, 
in each of the years 1892, 1893, and the average for tbe period of sixteen 
years, 1877-1892, also for tbe period of seven years, 1886-1892. tbe dis- 
eases being arranged in tbe order of their greatest reported prevalence in 
1893, to facilitate a comparison with the prevalence of tbe same diseases 
in previous years, and in corresponding months in previous years. 

Tbe per cent of observers stating the presence of each of the diseases is 
given in Table I, for tbe year 1893, and, for comparison, for each of tbe 
years 1881-1893, and, in Table 1, continued, for the months in the year 
1893, and, for comparison, by months in the years 1892-1893, and the 
average by months for tbe period 1877-1892, also for the period of seven 
years, 1886-1892, 

Comparing Table 1, with exhibit IV., we see the correspondence in the 
two lines of evidence, —that of tbe ''prevalence'* of tbe diseases as shown 
by tbe per cent of reports, and the **area of prevalence" as shown by the 
per cent of ohseTVi^Sy the diseases following each other in a somewhat 
similar order from highest to lowest — ^tbe diseases being arranged in the 
table, as in tbe exhibit, in the order of their greatest reported prevalence 
in 1893. 

u 




82 STATE BOARX> OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SECRETARV, 1894. 



One of tbe objeots of this oompilatioQ is to laarB the time of tbe great- 
est and of tbe least prevaleDoe of the more important diseaees in tbe State, 
and to note tbe oonneotion of tbia pre/alence with eaob of the meteoro- 
logical conditions in the State. Casual observation shows that certain 
diseases are much more prevalent in tbe hot months, while certain other 
diseases are much more prevalent in tbe cold months. The relation 
between these diseases and tb&atmoBpbeTio temperature is well marked, but 
aoourate statistics are needed to show just what that relation is. We find, 
also, that other meteorologioal conditioQs than atmospberio temperatnre 
bave a marked elfect upon many of the diseases, apparently diminishing 
tbe effect of temperature in some instances, increasing its effect in other 
instances. For these reasons the State Board of Health undertakes, by 
a compilation of the weekly reports of sickness in connection with tbe 
various meteorological conditions, to learn what causal relations exist 
between the humidity of the air, the ozone, tbe velocity of the wind, tbe 
atmospheric pressure, etc., and the increased or diminished prevalence of 
.diseases in certain months as compared with other months in the same 
year, or with the same months in other years or series of years. 

Since 1B76, when this system of '* weekly reports of sickness" was 
begun, an important work has been accomplished in learning the time of 
the greatest Hfevalenoe of eaob of several of the moat important diseases, 
and consequently the time of greatest danger from eaob suob disease, in 
the State oonsidered as a unit. To facilitate tbe study of the causes of 
sickness and deaths, the State is divided into eleven geographical divi- 
sions, a list of which, and tbe coif n ties embraced in each, appear in 
Exhibit I., page bl. From some of these divisions sufficient data are not 
yet received to make tbe study of the comparative prevalence of diseases 
in different parts of tbe State practicable. The number of reports from 
localities in the newer parts of tbe State is increasing, however, and a 
comparison of sickness by locatitiea may become practicable in the near 
future. 

PHYSICIANS* WEEKLY EEPORTS OF 8IOKNEB8. 

Weekly reports are now received concerning twenty -eight diseases, tbe 
names of which are printed on the blank postal used for the weekly report, 
and concerning these twenty-eight dieeases a positive report is made each 
week by each of many of the leading physicians in Michigan. 

Great credit is due tbe busy medical practitioners in Michigan who 
forward these reports of sickness. Some of them bave made tbe reports 
regularly since this plan was adopted in 1876. The service ia, as a rule, 
without compensation ; a few health officers bave alight pay from their 
local boards of health. Each one should bave full compensation. No 
other class of persons has knowledge of the facts that are necessary in tbe 
compilation of health statistics; and it is greatly to tbe credit of pbyai- 
oiana that they are so willing to cooperate in every effort made to advance 
the public health. 

PLAN OF THE WEEKLY CARD-REPORTS. 

Tbe plan of tbe weekly reports remains the same as last year. (Oards 
having PleujHiis printed on them were first used for weekly reports in 
October, 1887.) Observere now report only the diseases under their own 
personal observation. Previous to tbe year 1885, some of the observere 
reported such diseases as they believed to be present in their locality, 
even tbougb not under their own observation. The change in method of 
waking ib^ reports may sooount partially for tbe apparent decrease in 



STATISTICAL STUDY OP SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN IbOS. 



83 



flicknesg in 1893, when compared with the average for the aixteen years, 
1877-92. Details of the method of secartng and the plan of marking these 
reports may be thus stated:— 

Th0 blaaka for the wmklj raporta Bra printed cm poatal ovde, which &ra aoppUad to the obaerrera of 
4iMAaea. Blank r»oord booka in which to praaerra eopiea of tha raporta, ramarka, ot«., ara alao aappllod 
to theaa obaerrora, to b« retaioad hf them. Tba r«porta ara forwarded waakly to the Seoratanr of the 
Btata Board of H«aJth at LanBloff. 

The plan of maklDir the report la aa follows: Each obeertef la reqoeated to rnvk the diaeaae of whioh 
thara waa tho ffreateat oamber of emtm tmder hia obaerTation dnrlns the weak for wbfeh the report ia 
made, 1 ; that of whioh thace waa the oext «rreat«et natnber of eaaaa, 2 : tha oext, t ; and ao on. applTina 
tofuiecutive nombera to the dlaeaaea reported praeadat ; bat markiof with the aome fiirore all diaeaaea of 
which there ia the aame namber of oaaae ; to write opposite each diatiaae meotiooed of whioh there waa 
BO oaaa ; to apply theae nnmbera withont regard to the aevoritr of tbe caaes ; ro inelnde ail eaeaa, withoat 
laaard to wheo they were taken aiok, ao lon^r aa they are actaall y aiok with the glren dia e aae ; to inelade 
mUoaaaa " oader tha obaerration" of the obeerrer. A blank ia left on the card for the oonvenleDoe of thoaa 
who prefer to atate the nunber of oaaea rather than the order of preTaleooe by the foncoinc 



ToiUaatrate the method of making the reports, the following copy of one of the blanks now in oae ia 
fireo, eorreotly marked, in the "prevalonoe" colnnnn. for the nornber of oaaea atated fm ili« right-hand 
marcio. It shoold be remembered that the nambera in the '*preir&laQoe** oolomn denote aim pi? the 
fala&Te order in which the seraral diaeaaea appear to bo prevalent, and do not denote a definite nomber of 
eaaaa -, ao that a diaeaae miffht one weak be marked i. and the folio wins week, with the aame nnmber of 
oaaeet t>e marked i, Namea of diaeaaea aii4 fignnaa printed in italica an not printed oo the poetal blaoka. 
bat are aoppoaed to hare been loritten on the report by tba obaerTer. 

Di Moae * in _ ,and vicinity. 

^^P^XJiSK Dati. .^I 

weekending Saty ., _ , 1S9 



Brain, Inflammation of . . 
Bowela, InBommation of, 

Bronchitia^ ,. 

Oarabro-apinal Meningitis.. 

Cholera Infunttun 

Cholera Morboa..., 

ConamnptioD, Palmonary, 

Cnmp, Membranooa 

Diphtheria 

Diarrhea.,. „. .„_., 

Dyaentery 

Ekyaipelaa , 

Ferer, Intermittent...,,,. 

Fever, Remittent 

Fever, Typhoid (Enteric). 
PoTert Typho-malarial,,.. 

Influenza 

Kidney, Inflammation of, , 

UeaalGs.. ,.. 

N<!!«inUj?la _ 

Plenritia 

Pneomonia . 

Pnerperal Fe?er 

Elienmatiem 

Scarlatina .^ .. 

8malJ-pDz _.. 

Tonflillitia. 

Whooping-congh.,,.. 

MumpM ,. 

Dj/tpcpna , ,,...,, 



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M.D. 



84 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SBGRETART, 1894. 
BULLETINS OF HEALTH IN MICHIGAN. 

Daring the year 1893 the issue of weekly and monthly balletins of 
**Health Id Michigan" has been continued. The weekly bulletin is oom- 
piled from the physioians' weekly reports from all parts of the State. It 
is designed to give, each week, information to the publio conoeming the 
diseases whioh cause most sickness in the State, the relative amount of 
sickness compared with the preceding week — thus showing any sudden 
increase or decrease which may have occurred in the prevalence of any 
disease, together with a similar comparison of the various meteorological 
conditions; also, a list of the localities in whioh each of the dangerous 
communicable diseases is reported present. If the newspapers would 
publish the localities where dangerous diseases are, the information would 
be valuable to parents who might thus be enabled to avoid taking their 
children to such places until after the disease had ceased and thorough 
disinfection had occurred. A copy of this bulletin has been sent to such 
editors as have expressed a desire to have it for use, entire or in part, in 
their papers. About fifty-five copies are now used for this purpose each 
week. An abstract of it also goes to the Michigan Associated Press. 
The monthly bulletin is similar in character to the weekly bulletin, and 
shows the relative amount of sickness compared with the average for cor- 
responding months in previous years, and compared with the preceding 
month, together with a similar comparison of the various meteorological 
conditions. It is issued as soon as possible after the close of each month, 
and is sent to the sanitary and medical journals which are received as 
exchanges by the library of the State Board of Health. About one hun- 
dred copies are thus used at the present time. 

As a rule, about five-eighths of the card reports reach the office of the 
Statew Board of Health in time for compilation in the weekly bulletin, and 
the monthly bulletins are compiled from the information used in the 
weekly bulletins. It is found that the statements made in the monthly 
bulletins are corroborated by the information obtained after the close of 
the year, in the compilation of the whole number of the reports for the 
corresponding months of the year. 

COMPILATION OF THE WEEKLY BEP0RT8. 

The reports from each locality are compiled by months. The aver- 
age of the numbers stating the order of prevalence of the several diseases 
for the month is considered an indication of the actual order of prevalence 
of the diseases for that time. There is also found for each locality what 
per cent of the reports state the presence of each disease for the given 
month. This per cent of reports for a single locality indicates what part 
of the month the disease was present in that locality. It may also be 
called the per cent of weeks the disease was present. These first results 
of the compilation are stated in Table 3, which, on account of the space 
required, has not been printed in the reports since that of 1882, but is 
preserved in the office of the State Board for reference and study. 

A combination of the statements for localities in Table 3, is made by 
months for the State, so far as it is represented by the localities from 
which reports are received, showing: (1) What per cent of the observers 
reported each disease each month ; (2) for the localities at which a given 
diseases was reported, an average of the per cent of weeks it was reported 



STATISTICAL STUDY OP SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN 1999. 



86 



at those localities; (3) what per cent of all the reporia received for the 
month stated the presence of each disease; (4) an average of the numbers 
denoting the order of prevalence of each disease at the looalities at which 
it was reported present during the month- 

THE PEEViLLEMCE OF TEE SEYEUAL DISEASES IN im. « 

By noting the per cent of all the reports received for a given time which 

;atated the presence of each disease, the relative prevalence of the several 

iseases may be readily seen. This per cent has been compaied for each 

[diaease. by months, for the year 1893. It is thus stated in Exhibit II., 

je 88, which also states the per cent for each disease for the year 1893, 
and an average for the period of sixteen years, 1877-92, also for the period 
of seven years, 188fi-92. What per cent of the reports stated the presence 
of each disease by months in 1893, is graphically represented in Diagrams 
1-5 on page 89 and following pages. 

For twenty diseases a comparison has been made of the amount of sick- 
ness in 1893 (as indicated by the proportion of reports staling the pres- 
tenoe of the disease) with the average amount for a period of sixteen 
years, also for a recent period of seven years. These comparisons are 
shown in Exhibits XL, XIII., XVIII., and XX. A comparison is made 
in Table 1, on pages 97, 98 and 99 between the per cent of observers 
reporting the tabulated diseases present in each of the years 1881-1893, 
and by months in two of those years; also an average by months for the 
period of sixteen years 1877-92, also for the period of seven years* 1886- 
1892. In Exhibit IV., on pages 91, 92 and 93, the per cents of reports 
Btating the presence of each of the twenty-eight tabulated diseaeeSt for 
each of the years 1881-93, and an average by months for the years 1892 
and 1893, and for the period of sixteen years, 1877-92, also for the period 
of seven years, 1886 -ls92, is giv«?n. In Table 1, and in Exhibit IV., the 
|diseases are arranged in the order of the greatest per cents for 1893, the 
bighest being placed first. 

A study of the reported sickness from twenty-eight diseases, in connec- 
tion with meteorological conditions by months in 1893, is made in Exhibit 
X,, and following exhibits. By arranging months in order of greatest 
prevalence of the disease under consideration, noting whether it is more 
or less prevalent than the average for the year, and noting what were the 
meteorological conditions for the same months as compared with the aver- 
age for the year, relations and comparisons are grouped for convenient 

tmparison. A summary of one line of the evidence presented by these 
^exhibits is given in Exhibits XXV. and XXVI, 

In Exhibits VI. and VII., on subsequent pages, the leading dis- 
eases are arranged in order according to the amount of sickness reported 
from them in 1893, those from which there was most sickness reported 
being placed first. Id these exhibits the diseases are arranged with refer- 
ence to the per cent of reports taken in connection with the average order 
of prevalence. 

The comparison with former years is facilitated by reference to Exhibit 
II.. page 88. Table 1, pages 97, 98 and 99. Exhibit IV., pages 9J, 92 
and 93rand Exhibits XL, XIIL, XVIIL, and XX. 

Exhibit IV., on pages 91, 92 and 93, is continued for IS93. In it the 
diseases are arranged in order of the greatest per cent of reports stating 
the presence of the diseases in 1893, the highest per cent being placed 



86 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OP SECRETARY, 1894. 

firet in tbe line. It ia eimilar in form to Table 1, page 97, wbioh ebowa 
tbe per cent o£ observere by wbom dJiseaeeH were reported present. It 
affords a means of comparing tbe diseases showing greatest prevalence 
witb those showing greatest area of prevalence or widest distribution. It 
affords also a means for the comparison of per cent of reports in 1893, 
with tbe avirage per cent of reports in the sixteen years, 1877-1892, also 
in the seven years, 1886-1892, both for the year and by months, also by 
months in 1893 with the year 1892. 

DISEASES FROM WHICPI THERE WAS A MABKED INCKEASE OB DECBEiSB IM 
PBEVaLENCE in MICHIGAN IN 1809. 

By referring to Exhibits II. and IV. it will be seen that there was no 
disease which showed a marked increase in 1893 over the average for the 
sixteen years, 1877-1892. The dieeaBes in which the decrease in 1893 
appears most marked are typho-malarial fever, intermittent lever, diph- 
theria, remittent fever, whooping-cough, measles, erysipelas, oonsamp- 
tion, pneumonia, scarlet fever, dysentory and pleuritis. 

A part of tbe lessened prevalence of some of the prominent diseases 
may be due to the change in the method of reporting sickness, referred to 
in the last paragraph on page 82. 

A comparison of 1893 witli the average for the seven years, 1886-1892, 
shows that there was no disease in which there was a marked increase in 
1893; and that typho-malarial fever, intermittent fever, remittent fever, 
erysipelas and whooping-cough are the only diseases in which there was a 
marked decrease in 1893, 

Change in Method of Comparison of Diseases btf Years* 

In former Reports, ending with the Report for 1888, mention has been 
made of diseases in which a difference of seven or more was shown 
between the per cents of reports stating the presence of the disease in the 
current year and in the preceding year or term of years; in the last five 
preceding Reports those diseases were mentioned of which the comparison 
showed an increase or decrease of twenty-five per cent from the preceding 
year, or from the normal, as the case may be. 

In this report, those diseases wbioh are reported by seven or more 
observers, and which show an increase or decrease of twenty *five per cent 
are generally mentioned, except in cases of cholera, small-pox, typhus 
fever or other particularly interesting or dangerous disease, and these are 
specially considered in each instance. 

This rule was also adopted for the weekly and monthly bulletins, 
^'Health in Michigan," beginning with February, 1893. 

In exhibits XI., XIII., XVIII., and XX., the per cent of reports by 
months in 1893 is placed directly under the per cents for the correspond- 
ing months in 1892. A comparison between the corresponding months in 
the two years is thus made possible, and the comparison of the months in 
1893 with the averages for the months in the series of years preceding is 
made possible by placing the differences, greater or leee^ in separate lines. 



STATISTICAL STUDY OF SICKNESS IN MICHIQAN IN 1893. 



8T 



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88 STATE BOARD OF HEAI/TU^REFORT OF SECRETART, 1894. 



EXHIBIT 11.— Stating for each of 28 Diseases for the Year ending Saturday, Decemr 
ber 30, 1893, by Months of the Year 1893, the average for the period of sixteen years, 
1877-92, and the average for the period of seven years, 1886-92, on what per Cent of 
the reports received each Disease was stated to he present. — Compiled from weekly 
reports by Health OMcers of Cities and Villages, by regular Correspondents of the 
State Board of Health, and by other Physicians.* 



DiMBMi. 



Aintnget. 



BralB,icfltimmiitJoQ of.. 
BovftU, Inflsmmfttioa of 

BcoQcbJttai _ 

(Jerebraapliiftl meoijiffLtJa 

Cb<d<atm {nfuitiiiii . 

Ghokra morbai 

CoDanniptioii, pulmaDiuT 
Croups tnembnmooi . . 
JMphUMiiA .„.....-. „ 

Dlan-hn . 

DyseoUfir— -^-. 

Brftipelu....... 

Fm&T, laCermlttaat... 
FftTor, remlttPDt-..— . 
YtTtr, tTphoid (eateric)- 
Fever, typboumlBri&l,,. 

InfiofuiKB ^..>.. .... . 

Sbduer, ibfimmmatlon of 



PlenrltU„_ _..„.„ ., 

PnanmoBJa ^,...,,.«- 

PberpersLl feTaf_.„.»,,,^ 
RhefDmatUm ..„..»,.... 

Scwlatlna _ — , 

Smim-pox. 

ToQsUilti* _.-., , 

WhoopUigH!onBh.. ....... 



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What Per Cunt of tho B^porti racsolTwl etated tbe Frasaace off 

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* For 1898 the names of obeervera are stated in Exhibit V., iM«es 94, 95 and 96. 

fThis line is an average for sneh of the tabulated diseases as were reported present in the given month 
ryear. 

Statements in this exhibit for months in 1893 are graphically repre- 
Diagrams 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, opposite this page, and on following pages. 



STATISTICAL STUDY OF SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN 1803. 89 
DIAGRAM l-WEEKLY REPORTS OF SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN INieOg. 




PER CENT OF KP0ST8 WHICH STATED PRESENCE OF DISEASES REPRESENTED 



lOVSEII-TERY 






13 



I Plate n8.J 



90 STATE BOABD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SBGRBTART, iSH. 



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S83Sli3Sa»||$@ 



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tvaAJOMio S 



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s 3 a s 



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Sffifl»iSA»i3ioSSAp«S 



m a@ssas3S£S»ias 



$ s 



€ S g S S ^ S 



SSS99SS9 



S 5 53 



"I 



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^•«|jod«a 



s a s s 



s s a s 



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t'waAjasqo 



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j'»iBAje«lO 



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t'UttiJMlfO 



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3 



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3 s a S 3 



3 S 



a s s d 



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a § 

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s I 



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li 



STATISTICAL STUDY OF SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 



91 



EXHIBIT IV. — Stating for each of 28 Diseases, the average for the period of sixteen 
yearg^ 1877-1892, and far each of the last twelve of those years and 189S, and for the 
period of seven years^ 188^-1892, on uehat Per Cent of tlie Reports received the Dis- 
eases were »tated to he present. Compiled from Weekly Reports by Health Officers 
of Cities and Villages and by regular correspondents of tlie State Board of Health** 
Continiied for each month of 1892 and 1S93 on pages 9ii and 9S* 



i 

i 


OiMMMM. 


What Per C3«©t of the Eeporte aUted the Pnwenoe of the Oieeaee. 


At. 

1817- 

n. 


At. 

92. 


1802. 

20 

04 


1*92. 

21 

04 


1891. 

25 
00 


1890, 

25 

71 


1889. 

28 

05 


1688. 

24 

60 


1887. 

28 

08 


18S6, 

20 

70 


1885. 

m 

08 


1881. 

28 

70 


1888. 

30 
08 


1882, 

30 
08 


1881, 

SB 

71 


Af«rag«diMMet-.. 










es 


1 


Shaamatiim 


oe 


t 


K«anlffittt — 


w 


05 


67 


0t 


06 


07 


03 


02 


«7 


07 


88 


70 


09 


08 


08 


■ 


Bronehitis 


00 


S8 


u 


U 


00 


05 


88 


59 


55 


80 


50 


01 


00 


03 


02 


4 


ToBillllU8$„ 


iS 


47 


49 


i& 


4» 


80 


40 


41 


47 


49 


50 


80 


50 


48 


48 


e 


lofloetisA.. _. 




40 

in 


42 

40 


42 
42 


88 
47 


82 
44 


31 
£8 


22 
41 


28 

48 


25 

45 


24 

40 


41 


43 
48 


40 
48 


88 

82 


DUrrhM 


7 


Coiijamption, pal4« 


as 


49 


28 


38 


40 


82 


48 


48 


51 


86 


58 


02 


01 


08 


71 


8 ' 


Intermittent fftTor.. 


00 


42 


24 


27 


30 


41 


41 


45 


48 


84 


59 


08 


09 


71 


82 


9 


Pnooinofiift 


i« 


28 


22 


25 


27 


20 


20 


30 


28 


27 


27 


29 


28 


89 


41 


10 


Remittent feref .._ 


41 


29 


IS 


21 


28 


27 


80 


14 


22 


21 


38 


44 


41 


48 


54 


11 


Inflttm. or kl(lii07t- 


£1 


20 


17 


21 


SO 


It 


20 


19 


18 


80 


21 


to 











n 


PlBarltUt._,.„.._ 


n 


12 




la 


21 


10 


17 


18 


,,-,* 


..... 


..... 


.,,.. 




,*..- 




u 


BnrBipel«%.. 


23 


21 




10 


19 


21 


22 


24 


21 


23 


24 


28 


25 


22 


88 


M 


Cbolnni morboB 


17 


Ifl 




15 


16 


15 


14 


15 


19 


17 


17 


22 


18 


17 


2fl 


15 


DraaDtory- 


IS 


17 




15 


10 


10 


17 


n 


19 


17 


15 


23 


21 


17 


» 


le 




IS 


15 




12 


IB 


14 


14 


14 


18 


17 


17 


17 


18 


13 


14 


17 


Scarlet fever 


\l 


10 




12 


ft 


10 


10 


9 


8 


U 


12 


10 


19 


18 


19 


IS 


Cholera infantnis . . , 


IS 


12 




11 


13 


10 


11 


11 


la^ 


14 


17 


IS 


14 


12 


18 


IV 


Typhoid fever {ent). 


u 


fl 




9 


11 


8 


10 


10 


10 


8 


8 


12 


11 


14 


16 


20 


Whoopiog-ooQirh 


17 


12 




10 


% 


9 


10 


9 


14 


20 


14 


22 


15 


17 


10 


21 

n 

23 


^miimImi 


12 
U 
18 


10 

8 

u 




* 
7 

5 


10 

6 

e 


12 

8 
7 




u 


10 
7 
18 


14 

10 
10 




13 
10 


9 
14 
10 


10 
15 

ao 


24 
17 
IB 


11 

25 
21 


80 
34 

39 


Diphtheria ,,.„ 




U 




8 


4 




4 


1 


4 


8 


4 





6 







7 


7 




25 


InQam.of brain t 


8 


ft 




8 


A 


B 


8 


8 





8 







A 


8 




2« 


liembnuQOQB croap. 


B 


4 




8 


4 


4 


2 


4 


1 


8 


5 







7 




tl 


Gerebro-epi. meo,.,. 


1 


a 




2 


a 


a 


8 


2 


3 


4 







5 







ZS 


9oiaU.p<a 


0,7 
4,417 


O.l 
ft.O0S 


0.2 
5^ 


m 

8.281 



4,2»1 


0.1 
4,9» 


.08 
5,000 


.03 
5,047 


.02 
4.890 


0.4 
5.581 


0.8 
5.106 


0.1 

a,9W 


0.2 
4.458 


2 

4.745 


3,6«7 


No. of reporta reosiTed.. 



*For 181^ the namber of obMnrert, rvport*. weekt in «aoh luooth, etc, are etat«d in the flret five ool- 

mae of Exhibit II L, pa^re 90^ the namee of tiie obeerram and the nnmber of the reporta reoeiTed from 

leb are etated in Exhibit V.. pa«ee 04. 98 and 98, 

fTba Dimiber« oppoelte thenamee of the dieeaaee do not state what per cent of the whole nnmber of 
l^ffapcirta for the year stated the dteoaeo to be preeent at eome time darini; thn year, bnt stAte (on an avecaoe 
for twelve montbe of the y«'«r), what per cent of reporte for the eevernl mcmtbe etat^i the diBenee to be 
. nweent in thoee monthe. The oolnmn for each rear ie thos a etatem^^nt for an average month of that year. 
On the two foUowinf p8«t>e of thin tabl^. however, the colnmns for each month etate what per cent of the 
teporta for that month (the number of which la itated at the foot of the oolnmo) stated the given 
to be vflMBOt in that month, [t For footrnote tee a aubeequent pace.] 



■ 92 STATE BOARD OP HEALTH-REPORT OP SECRETARY, 1894. 

H EXHIBIT IV.— CoJiTiNUBD. - Stating for each of 28 Diseases by monthn, on what Per 
^m and 1893; also thf. Averages by Months for the Periott of seven 


1 




What Per Cent of the Reports Received stated Presenoe of tbe Dlaeaae.; 


1 


1 

10 

11 

12 
13 

I 

17 
1» 
19 

2U 
21 
22 

a 

24 

2a 
n 

«8 


JacQary* | 


Fobrnary.* | 


March.« 


1 


Diaeaaae. 


t 

i 

88 


i 


21 

67 
66 

57 
W 
25 
24 
28 
21 
19 
19 


26 

~U 
71 
57 
73 
B7 
4f> 

10 
92 
24 

22 
11 

22 
11 

8 
2 
12 

8 

7 
5 
2 
1 
3 
2 
7 
1 


248 


Diseasee. 


< 


i 


i 


i 


Diaaaaaa. 


m 

i 




i 

26 

^8 

85 

62 

61 

67 

48 

24 

22 

11 

20 

I!- 

15 

H 

11 

10 

10 

7 

7 

6 

5 

4 

2 

3 

8 

2 

1 

1 

0.2 


n 

72 
04 
S9 
77 
40 
•7 
•2 
» 

n 
O.Q 


J 


Averase Diseasef 


AvetBtfa Diaaaaet. 


29 


iS 


21 


25 


Averace Diaoaset.i 


29 

74 

72 

75 

80 

01 

81 

55 

•0 

27 

28 

ft* 

27 

35 

11 

18 

]Q 

17 

7 

15 

S 

7 







u 

2 
5 

0.8 


26 

73 
72 
72 
59 
61 
52 
47 
30 
20 
22 
28 
26 
25 
18 
16 
12 

7 
8 
5 
5 

J 

7 
1 
4 

0,1 


^ 


Bronchitis. 


71 

n 
m 

55 
J7 
SB 
22 
40 
1« 
26 
31 
21i 
10 
18 

1 
16 
10 

& 
14 

a 

4 

A 

10 

t 

l.f 


70 
71 

09 
61 
f>2 
4» 
28 
10 
21 
J» 

n 

u 

'J 

13 

iS 

7 
6 
h 
2 
2 
5 
7 
2 
0.4 

m 


BroneWtia. 

Rhenmatism .. 

Neoralgia . ^..». 


75 

71 
00 
04 

do 

59 

28 

2» 

22 

26 

51 

33 

12 

19 

17 

17 

IS 

8 

7 

4 

7 

5 

ft 

4 

12 

1 

2 


72 

70 
71 
58 
07 
62 
51 
«8 
20 
21 
2& 
38 
25 

la 

Jl 

8 

{| 


7 
3 
5 
9 
A 
9 
7 
0.4 


87 
67 

59 

38 

>0 
25 
20 
18 
18 
14 
12 
12 
12 

« 
8 
5 
5 
4 
4 
4 
3 
2 
2 
2 
1 


70 
6* 
75 
59 
91 
4?S 
54 
80 
35 
24 
21 

J-: 



10 

8 
8 
9 

9 
7 
4 
5 
5 
8 
2 
1 

3 


Rhenmatism 

Neoralgla 

Bronchitis., _ , .. 




Bhenmatism ...... 

Toni«Uliti». „ „. 


1 


Nenral^ia . . 


TonBillitis „ 

IcitlaeP'Ea 


Tonstliitls 




Inflaenaa 

(^msamptioD, Pal« 

Pnenmonia.. 

Diarrhea 


Inflneoza 

ConsnmpHon, Pnl. 

Pneamonia „ 

Diarrhea.™...... 

Plearitis... 

Infiam, of Kidnej. 
1 ntermittont Fever 
Erysipelas.^.,.... 
Remittent Fever.. 
Inflam. of Bowels. 

Measles 

Scarlet Fever...... 

Whoopin ff^on^ . . 

DfShtbSL!^!!!!! 
Cholera raorbos... 
Hembran. Croop.. 
Pnerperal Fever... 
XynholdFev.Cent.) 
LoSam. of Brain... 
TVphc-maL Fever. 
Cholera infantnm. 
Cerehro-flpi. men.. 
BmaO-pox......,^. 


H 


{kmeomption, FuL 

PDenmonia ... 

Diarrhfw. , 


J 


Plemitie 


Pleurltia.. 

Inflam, of Kidney. 
&i7Bipelai» 




InflEtn. of Kidney. 
Iniarmiitent Fever 
Scarlet Fever 

Remittent Fever!* 

Diphtheria- 

Meaales, 


■ 


Intermittept Fever 
Remittent Fever.. 
M^isl^B .., 


■ 

1 


tJcarlefc Fever...... 

niphtheria.., 

WhoopinK-eooKb. . 
Inflim. of Bowels. 
Uembran. Cronp.. 

Chofera morboa... 
Typhoid Fev. Cent) 

Inflam. of Brain!" 
Orebro-api. men... 
Typbo-msl. Fever, 
Small' pox . 


Inflam. of Bowels. 
Dynentery . 


WhoopJn«-conBh.. 
Typhoid Fev.fent.) 
Puerperal Fever... 
Typho-mal. Fever. 
CerebroHipi* men... 
Cholera iiiorba». . . 
InilHm, of Hrain... 
Hem bran. Cronp„ 
Ciholera Infantom. 
Small-pox.... .,.„ 


Cholera infant om . 




Eeporte reeeivedg 


288 


m 


480 


882 


Reports reoeivw^i >8& 


Usioitft 


S 

2 


April.' 1 


Maj.« 


Jana* 


Dieeasee. 


r 

i 


i 

28 


i 


1 
24 


Diaaaeaa. 


1 

5 


i 


i 


i 


Dlsaaaaa. 


t 

< 
2S 


t 


j 


S 


Averase Dieaaaet- 


Avarasa DlaeMwt. 


27 


u 


19 


20 


Average Diaeaaef. 


22 


ta 


u 


1 

B 
S 
1 

K 
A 

10 

11 

12 
U 
14 
18 

IS 
17 
IB 
10 
SO 
21 
S£ 
83 
U 
2ft 
26 
27 
28 


Rhenmatiem L 

NearalKla „. 

Bronchitis 


15 

n 

71 

U 
S4 

sa 

4» 
21 

m 

£4 

27 

25 

87 

18 

21 

12 

1« 

IK 

f» 

5 

8 

10 

6 

& 



6 
! 


74 
71 
09 
Oft 

u 

64 

40 

30 

44 

25 

27 

18 

£7 

12 

18 

12 

IS 

7 

B 

4 

7 

7 

f^ 

a 

I 

.04 


73 

» 

54 
48 
45 

21 

2» 
25 
22 
1« 
17 
14 
12 
It 
11 
7 
« 

4 
f 
2 
3 
2 

1 

1 

0.2 


68 
71 
67 
60 
56 
41 
20 
22 
20 
31 
24 
23 
Ifi 
18 
t^ 
V 
12 
10 
8 
5 

3 

© 


RbenmaUem 

Nenralsia ^ 

Brooehitis. 

ToBsillitis... 


72 
87 
61 
47 
59 
29 

an 

84 
27 

u 
m 

24 
24 

20 

16 

17 

13 

13 

8 

» 

5 

5 

5 

5 

10 

4 

2 

1.5 


72 

86 

01 

47 

51 

40 

83 

42 

21 

24 

27 

21 

19 

14 

11 

14 

7 

14 

7 

8 

5 

8 

5 

2 

7 

4 

3 

.07 


»7 
56 
04 
49 
43 
40 

i 

21 

19 
17 

17 
13 
11 
10 
8 
8 
i 
4 
4 
4 
2 
2 

2 
2 

1 



flV 
02 

58 

48 

aa 

29 

28 

27 
19 
10 

5 
20 
18 
8 
7 

12 
7 
6 
3 

a 

4 

a 
z 

4 
4 

0.3 

353 


Rhenmatism 

NeoralKia ^ . . 


88 
64 
52 
40 
68 
42 
88 
28 
40 
22 
23 
15 
20 
17 
22 
17 
15 
14 
11 
9 
12 
5 
5 
8 
4 

10 
j 


89 
62 
60 
89 
48 
40 
44 
27 
27 

M 


61 
fiO 
42 

88 

2ft 

21 

21 

19 

14 

13 

13 

13 

12 

12 

11 

11 

9 

9 

9 

6 

6 

a 

2 
1 

0,2 
0.2 


47 
41 
» 

n 

2S 
20 

C 

m 


Bronehirls. . 


Tonsillitis 

Inflnenxft 

ConHnniption, Pnl. 

Pnenmonia... 

Diarrhea .„. 

Intermittent Fever 
InBim. of Kldnef . 

Erysipelas 

PteorW.. 

Scarlet Fever...... 

Inflam.ofBowelal 
WhooplDg-consh. , 

Diphtberk.. 

Paerpera! Fever.., 

Cholera morbus .. . 

Dysentery .—^ 

Typbo-roal. FeVer. 
Inflam. of Brain... 
Xiphoid Fov, (en t.) 
Mem bran. Cronp.. 
4'erebroH'pi. men., 
('holera infant nm. 
SmaU'pox. — . 


TonBlllitifl 

I'lonBnniption, Pol. 
DierrhR8..„ ,.., 
IntPriiiittent Fevef 
InOnenza 


(kmBumptioQ.Pnl. 
Tnfln«D7a 


Diarrhea..... ... 

Intermittent Fever 

Poaomoaia. 

Inliam. of Kidney. 
Remittent Fever.. 

Ss^ils^ 


Remittent Fever.. 
Infliam. of Kidney. 

EryaipelBB. , 

Intiam. of Bowels. 
Ueaalee 


Pleuritis. 


Cholera morbna... 

Pnenmonia .. 

Whooping-ooQgh. . 
Plenritis. 


Scarlet Fever .. 

Whooping-congb,, 

Diohtheria 

Inflfim, of Bowels. 
Cholera morbois... 

Dysentery. .... 

Paerperal Fever... 
Xyphoid Fev,(Bnt) 
Inanm. of Brain... 
Cerebro-spi. men... 
TVpho-mal- Fever. 
Mem bran. Croup.. 
Cholera infantum. 
SmnM-pox _.. 


Scarlet Fever 

Diphtheria... 

Cholera intaotam . 
DyBBntery ....._... 


1 


Xyphoid Fev.Cent.) 
Poerperal Fever... 
Inflajn. of Brain.- - 
Cerebro-Bpi. men._ 
Tvpbo-mal. Fever - 
Merobran. Crt>ap.. 
Small-pox 


J 


Reports received § 


8|7!3#4t4<W 


'320 


Reports received g 


858 


m 


529 


Reports received? 


m 


m 


442 


J 


^^^^M 4 


* For 186V the number of obsBrvera, reporte. weeks ill each month, etc., are stated in the first five ool 
nnma of Exhibit Ill.t page 90, the namea of olwarvara aad the ntimber of reports reoatved from eaoh an 
rtor«/ /- ^^*^fhit v., pegoe 94, 86 and se. 


1 



^^P STATISTICAti STUDY OP SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 93 1 

Cent of the Reports Received the dtBeaaea stated to be Present in each of the years 1892 ■ 
ffears, 1886-189^, and for the Petiod of i^iseteen years, 1^7^1892, g 


^^■•' 


Wliat Per Uaat of the HeporU Raeaivad atatftd Praa^ciee of tha Dlaea*e4 


• 


in\j* 1 


Aoffnat.* 


September.* 


1 

a 

"1 
2 

a 

4 

6 
6 

' 

8 

10 
11 

12 

la 

14 

15 
16 
17 
IB 
19 
20 
21 
£2 
28 
24 
25 
20 
27 
28 

1 

a 
§ 

' I 
2 
3 

4 
S 

a 
7 

8 

9 

v> 
n 
12 

15 
16 

12 

19 
£0 
21 
SS 
18 

y 

m 

27 
£8 


Dlaeaaea« 


F 

i 


i 

SI 

li 

00 

8S 
4S 

47 
47 
S» 

1? 

w 

18 
IS 

iSi 

11 

15 
8 

11 


e 

! 

4 

e 
a 
1 

1.4 
0.1 

416 


f 

IB 

i_ 

00 
64 
ftl 
17 
SS 

1^ 

S4 

ID 


405 


i 

» 

sa 
u 
u 

37 

ao 

£9 

SB 
2S 


4iS| 


Diaaaaaa. 


< 

84 
58 

^7 
^^ 

^^ 
az 

41 
bi 

08 
Ifl 
20 
20 
lb 

le 

11 

12 

•1 

10 

•s 

4 

6 
I 
4 

0.5 


I 

i 

26 

81 
59 
57 
51 
46 
42 
81 
41 
4S 
48 
SS 
19 
17 
17 
15 
13 
17 
A 
9 
7 
A 

le 

4 

a 

1.4 

a 


i 

21 

"74 

58 

sa 

41 

37 
84 
84 
94 
84 


1 

22 

57 

68 

39 

af7 

90 
34 
88 
2B 
33 
30 
IB 
17 
20 
15 
12 
11 
% 
7 
10 
A 
7 
2 
• 
3 
1 
2 



D. 


1? 

> 

80 

la 

61 

60 

46 

4B 

88 

64 

»7 

84 

A8 

51 

ZB 

220 

U 

17 

11 

83 

15 

17 

IS 

11 

14 

4 

5 

4 

4 

8 

0.3 


i 

^. 

»■' 
•< 

1a 

08 

59 

kt 

47 
» 

46 

36 
S« 

47 
27 
25 
IS 
17 
16 
8 
21 
12 
16 

i:i 

7 
7 
4 
4 

a 

a 

2 

0.1 

44B 


1 

21 

"75 
67 
64 

41 
89 
IB 

87 
3; 
33 
29 
25 
2^ 
16 
16 
14 

9 
9 
9 
9 
7 
6 
3 

2 

2 

.02 



458 


i 
"74 

5M 
51 

n 

37 

80 

30 

28 

82 

81 

28 

16 

17 

15 

10 

9 

12 

12 

12 

10 

6 

2 

4 

1 

1 

2 



404 


Avarasa Diawiat, 


ti 




Average Diaeaaat. 


Bhaamatbiin 

Diarrhea 


01 
70 
«0 
W 
41 

AM 

i% 

IS 

2» 
1» 
1» 
20 
28 
16 
19 
11 
11 
12 
U 

U 

4 
IS 

e 

4 
£ 


DUrrbaa „. 

Eheomatiam 

»oral«ia 

{.holflra morbos... 
Coneamption, Pal. 
Cholera infantnm, 
ToMyilti«.._._„ 

Broaehitia 

Dy8«»ntery ..^» ,. 


Diarrhea 


Bbaamatiam 

NaonlKia 

Bronchl3r*n''r" 
Cholern morbaii... 
CoDsamption, Pnl, 
TnuBillitiB... 


NearmUrlft 


Tonailfitia 

BroDChltie.. 

Cooaainpaon.Pal. 
Intorxnltteot Ferer 
Cbolctra morbuB.,. 
B*mitt«nt Feser.. 
Cholera InfaDtDm. 
iafiam. of KidneT 

SiSSr:.::::-- 

Onaoterj.. 

Inflam, of Kowel*. 
Whoopifig-oooah.. 


Cholera infantnm 
Intermittent Fever 
fiemittent Fevor., 


tnturmittent Favar 
Remittent Fiver.. 
LDtlam. of BowelH. 
Inflaenen 


TyDhoidFev.(ent.J 
In 0am. of BoweU. 
lofiam. of Kidney. 

Pleoritia 

Typbo-mal. Fever. 

PoeomoQia 

Eryalpalaa 


it.«am of Kidnej. 
Whoopimj-coDgh.. 
Typhoid Fev,(enl,> 

Eryeipelaa 

Diphtheria 

Pneomonia . ..,» 

PJenritiB. 

BcarletFe»er .„.. 
Tfpho-mal. Fever. 

Pnerparai Fever! 7. 
InflaiD. of Brain... 
Mambran. Crftnp.. 
(Jarebro-api. roan.. 
:}inaU-poz 


ScSi^Fwer:!".*. 

Typhoid FeT. (ant) 
Wpbtberia, ....... 

Typho-mal. F«irer, 
Intlnm. of Brain... 
C«rebro-«pi. mea.^ 
Membran. Ctcnp.. 
Small-pox 


Whooplng-ooash . . 
Hcarlet Fever,,,,,. 

Diphtheria 

Paerperal Fevar. . . 
Inilaio. of Brain... 
Cerebro-spi. mea.^ 

Meaalea 

Mem bran. Croop.. 
Bmall-pox „. 




Beporta reo»iT«K)g 


Reporta reeelved§ 


407 


465 


SAA 


008| 


Raporta reoeivedg 


October.* 


November.* 


Daeamber* 


DIaaaaaa. 


28 


> 
< 


24> 


«' 

1 
{^ 


Diaeaaea. 


i 


i 


i 

20 


20 


Diaaaaaa. 


i 


% 

i 


1 


j 


ATOVca Diaeaaet. 


Avera^ Dineaset, 


U7 


» 


Avaniaa DlaeaMf. 


27 


24 


20 


£3 


Bbeatnatiam 

Neoiftlcia 


m 

02 
5t 
55 
4A 
6fl 
32 
6ft 
23 
BO 
U 
It 

u 

19 

ao 

20 
16 

If 

«5 

15 
20 
fl 
6 
4 
h 

0.8 


as 

02 
51 

% 

81 
45 

a 
as 

19 

11 

14 
IB 
IS 

17 
19 
10 
11 
It 
10 

11 

4 

4 
2 
4 
S 
0.1 


04 

as 

&5 
4S 
44 

3i 

2i) 


6a 

52 
SO 
44 

SO 


Rhenmatlanj 

Infloeiias 


70 
W 

04 
07 
54 

» 

m 

41 

IB 
20 
17 

n 

15 
IS 
11 

m 
u 

10 

A 
7 
4 

4 

5 

A 

% 

0,5 

W\ 


08 
18 

33 
46 
88 
40 
24 
SI 
15 
20 
12 
20 
U 

u 

10 
15 
11 

to 

B 
B 

a 

8 
4 
4 
t 

140 


% 

«i 

00 

68 

87 
29 
26 
M 
21 
20 
15 
12 
U 
11 
10 
« 

8 
7 
5 
8 
S 
£ 
2 
t 



S7« 


A3 

M 

67 
59 
56 

34 
27 
24 
20 
23 
11 
20 
17 
14 
14 

8 
10 

B 
10 

9 

6; 
4 

i 

4, 
8 
£ 

1 



&80 




49 
U 
70 
OB 
59 
57 
40 
28 
21 
51 
23 
21 
15 
SO 
14 
15 
14 

\ 

5 
9 
7 
3 

4 

0.1 


50 
70 
66 
67 
58 
49 
^ 
2? 
16 
84 
22 

m 
It 

27 
14 

10 

It 

10 
9 

4 

a 

6 

7 
2 

6 

4 

I 

0.8 


98 
«> 
62 
57 
55 
3S 
34 
24 
22 

m 


53 

^ 

62 

A3 

87 

28 

2B 

2t 

21 

15 

17 

13 

20 

9 

8 

12 

18 

7 

4 

8 

8 

1 
6 

a 
a 


448 


Ehanmatiam 

Bronchi tie, „. 

Nenralgia ,,..„, 
Toneimtb.,.. ... 
(kinenmption, Pnl. 

Pnenmonia 

Diarrhea. 




Bron^JhltlB. 

Nenralfda 


BroDobttU 

Tonalllttin ,_ 

CooaamptloQ, Pol- 
Inflnensa 


Ton8iJlitiB,._.„„ 
t^onaamption. Pal. 

Dittxrhea .„. 

Intermittent Fevar 
Pnenmonia ..„.. 
Remittent Fever., 
TrnhoidFe».,eot.) 
laflaim. of Kidney. 
PtenritiH. 


iDtermittant Fever 
Dfaentery.. „-*., 
Bamittpnt Fover. 
Trphoid Fev.ient.) 
Obolera infantam. 
Inflam.of Bowela. 
loflam. of Ki4o«r. 
Choiera morbna... 

EryalpelaB 

Pleorltle . 


SB 28 


2A 
24 
S3 

11 

14 
18 
12 

11 
10 
10 

1 
6 
1 

1 

1 




£3 

w 

17 
10 
13 
21 
17 

IJ 

'5 

7 
7 
9 
1 

2 

% 




Plenritia. ... .... 

Intermittent Fever 

inflam. of Kidney. 

Scarlet Fi^ver 

Remittent Fever., 
lofiam. of Bowela.. 
Whooping-congh-. 

Tvpho-mal. Fever. 
Cholera morbne... 
Intlam.of Brain... 
Uembran. Cronp.. 
Dyaentery.... ...... 

Cerebro'^pi. men... 

Meaalee 

Paerperal Fever... 
Cholera infantam. 
9maiKpox... 


Erysipelnii. 


8c«rlet F*ever 

InHatij. of Botreie.. 

DjeHDtory 

Tjpbo-maL Fever. 
IDUvhtberia. ...,,. 
' Wht»o[>inK-ooQeh„ 
jChnlera morbDH... 
jAifflnbran. ' -ronp.. 
Puerperal Fever... 
IJbnlera infantmn. 
iDflam. of Brain... 

Ueaaiei ,. 

C«rebro-sp[. man . 
Small-pox 


^pho-mol. Fever,. 

nflam. of Brain'" 
'oerpand Fever... 
>arbro-epi, men,,., 
lembran. (*ro«ip.. 
Meaalea. 




Imall-pox 


1 




B^pofU received g 


m 


m 


4'5i 


Beporta roeeivadS 


Beporta reoeivedf 


ase 


410 


1 




tTbanambari In ihU tine are ui average, not for all 'it»»»Meii represented, bat onljf for thoee reportat] 
ptaaant In the ^van month, %Bmm foot-note with thla mark on a ftnbecK]aent pa«e. 
|The ftombarB in thla line state how many reporU were received for the month in the »lveo rear. 
•ft Theae note* are on page f»l. 


d 



^^^y STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. -REPORT OP SECRETARY, 1894. ^| 

^^V ILXniBTT v.— By Months and bu Oeographical Divitionn of the Stated the Names of M 
^^^ iOS Obmrvers, whoBe weekly Reports of DUaasen for 1893^ art Compiled in Tables ^^^1 
^V U 3?, 3 and 4, the Loc^ilities* for which they Report, aiid the Nuviber of Report* ^^H 
^^^^ Ractivtd from each Observer. ^^| 




Dfviaiona and localiii«« rcpreAciDted 
«Q(1 phrticiaoe who reported. 

( Health Officers in Italics ) 


Weekly Bei>orta in 1883. -Com piled Id this Article. 


1 


Year, 
IBM, 

S,85» 

420 

13 
U 

a« 

22 
49 
24 
27 
12 

m 
u 
It 
u 
" 

8 
41 
26 
14 

SO 

130 
ft 

n 

47 
10 

ao 

197 

u 
as 

12 
24 
8 
7 

29 
31 
98 

128 
U 
11 
la 

u 

44R 
4iS 
16 
V9 
11 
37 
10 
17 
12 
&l 
19 
f- 
38 
40 
12 

n 

ia» 

17 
22 

U 

&1 
11 
12 


1 

483 

41 

4 
4 

"4 

4 
4 
4 

"2 j 


1 

480 

88 
i 
4 

"« 
3 
4 
4 

"i 


1 

536 

37 
s 

4 

"5- 

6 

T 


1 

< 
406 

.... 
"4 

4 
8 

"a 


1 

52 » 

H2 

"5" 
5 

4 
ft 

"i" 


> 

44S 
29 

"t' 

2 
4 

2 
2 

'4 
'2 


465 

35 

'4* 
8 

8 

^4 

2 


< 
568 

41 

"4' 

"ft 

ft 

'8 


1 

4&8 

32 

"4 
"4' 

"T 

8 

"i 

4 

~4 

!■ 

t 
4 


I 

4S9 
83 

■3' 
4 

"4 

"V 

* 


1 

576 

47 

1 
5 

4 

■ft" 
■ft 

■ft* 
ft 


4&1 

41 

.... 

4 
4 

"4' 

"4" 
8 

**4 
4 


d 


All looalitia.,, ._...._ .,..,._.„. 




Upp«r PenlntQlar Dlvisioo..... ..» • 


Crystal Falls, C. C. Moffat, M. D. „ 

m Escanaba, C\ H. Long, M, D .,._ 

M Escanaba, OtU E, ytmnaquiat, U. D* 

W Horiirht<jQ, H, W, Jonea, M. D, ..„ 

Iron MonntaiD. C, F. La^aon, M. D 

IroQwood, J. K. Niven, if. D, 


IshpemiDK, Q. G. Bartteti, M. D ^^ 

Lak« Liuaea. Gto. W. Orr^ M, D 

I>akt> Lind«n, J. M. F. Picheti^, M, D. . 
Mackinac Istaod. JameM H, Booctn, M, D. 

AleDoiuinee, Evo^ne Urigntm^ M. D 

Menomioft©. H. L. Ro^enberrv, M. D, 

Naobinway, Theo, GrenitTt M, J>, , 

Newberry, S. John Fraser, M. D. .. .. 

Pfclmer, H. M. H(Mk*^iL M. D,. .„... 
Rockland. U'. C\ Gates, M D. .J 


4 
4 
3 


1 
S 


■'3 


1 

2 


"ft" 


"I' 


"9 
a 

4 
4 

13 

"4 
8 

2 
4 

16 


"5 

"T 
ft 

11 

a 


8 
8 
8 

4 

8 


ft 
ft 

'ft' 
5 


3 
4 

-|- 
3 


8t, Issooe, ir. G. Youna, H. JX : 

Wftkefiald. J. H, Eddy, M, D. 


4 

11 


4 
11 


6 
15 


4 

14 


5 

IS 


4 

17 
2 
4 
4 
2 
4 

15 


NorthwaBtera Division ♦ 

Cadlllao* David Rilston, M. D._..... 

CopemJsh, C. B. Jfarfct. M. D.. _. 

FifB Lake. Lemi» >». IVaUitr, M. D ^ 

Lake Ann. ffeo. K, Shirton, M, D 

liaotoQ, Edward Morff^n, M. D.« 

Northern niviaioD .. ., ..• 

floyne City. A D. D^Laeev, M, D.„_ 

Boyn&Ciljt CkoM. Deuetl,,., ..,..,. 


8 
4 


4 
2 


S 


4 

8 

a 
4 

7 


ft 

G 
9 
ft 
1^ 










4 
4 

20 


4 
16 


4 
4 

15 


ft 

80 


8 

17 


4 
* 

T 

"X 

■ 2 ! 


f 

24 
4 

1 


6 

11 

& 


!Z 


S 
4 


4 


4 

"4 


ft 

"6 


4 


4 
.... 


ft 

.... 


4 
"8" 


Charlevoix, Frank W. UFtvre, M. D 

Cbeboygiui, tf. A.St, Armour, M. D 

Harbor Springe, Letu 1^'. Gardner, M. D. 

Kalkaskftt R, 3. Trask, M. D, , 

Kalkaska, Seymour A. Johiuon, M. D 

Uackinaw City. J, J. Rtvcraft, M. D. _, 
Petoskey, Arthur Q. Own, M. D 

Northeastern DiWslon .„ • 

HairisTille. D. \V. Miichell, K. D 

Oecoda, E. a Beem, M, D,..,. 

Rogers City. CHm, W, Tnamina^, M. D... 
l^was City. G. S. Darling, M, D .„„ 

WeeteraDlTieioQ...- ..„„. .„„• 








4 
8 

4 

10 
4 
2 

.... 

28 
8 


4 

a 
3 

12 
4 

. 4 

■*4 

3& 
4 


a 
"ft 

15 

ft 

ft 

■ft' 

43 

ft 


4 

"4* 

8 
4 

"i 

83 
4 


8 

4 

8 
4 


ft 
1 

8 

10 

ft 


4 
2 
4 

8 
4 


! 

1^ 
4 

"a 

4 

HO 
4 

t 
4 

4 


4 
4 

12 
4 

4 
4 

4» 
4 
4 
4 

4 ! 


2 
1 

15 

47 
4 

5 
& 
S 


8 

4 

8 
4 

.... 

37 
4 
S 
4 

.... 


8 

10 
ft 

■ft" 

m 
ft 

■'4 

6 


.... 

38 
4 


42 
4 

"4 

"ft 


.... 

80 
8 

T 

*T 

8 


Cannooeborg, C, R Crosby. U. D...,^._. 

Cedar Spriane, C. S. Ford, M. D. .„ 

Grand Itapida. A. Heilewood, M. D. 

(imnd Havea, J. B, McNett, M. P. 

Grand Ha*on, A. ramUrPeen, ii. D, .„, 

Hart. //. a Hatch, M, D.. _ 

Heeperia. H. C. Hawtey, M. D 

Lisbon. Tho$, J, Apptetcn. M, D.... 

Lowell, OitoC, McDa>inell, M. D... .. 

Lather, Eart Fairbanks, M. D . 

Mnske^on. J. F. Detulow, M. D „. 

MnskeKon. Geo. U UFevre, M. D... ... 

N. MaskegoD, Perln W. Peantalt, M. £>... 

Band Lake, A. R. Hicks, M. D 

Whitehall > John Biubu, M. D 

White I lond, IV. A. Kuhn, M. D. _-. 

Northern Central DivieioD- • 

Big Rfcpidj, IVnu K, Dtickry, M, D 

Big Bapide, C\ F. liigttow, M, D 

Blanchard, /.. A. Hotightan, M. D 

Clare. ./o»pp^t //. Carpt^fm M, D 

Colemen, A, V. Union, M. D . 

Boecommon, J. IL Cumalia, M. D. 


"4 
2 
4 


T 

4 
4 


"ft" 
4 
ft 


■"4 


... 


3 
4 
4 


4 
4 
4 


4 

4 

& 


a 


ft 


4 


4 


ft 


4 


ft 


1 


4 

i 


ft 
4 


8 
8 


4 

8 


ft 

4 


4 
8 


4 


4 










..-* 




3 
4 
2 


4 

4 


4 
4 


ft 

6 


4 
4 

8 


4 

4 
8 


ft 

ft 


4 

4 


"T 

4 

in 

4 

"i" 

4 
4 


8 

.... 

4 

16 

4 

.... 

4 
4 


ft 

"ft 
ft 

18 
ft 

"ft 
ft 
8 


4 
4 

4 
4 

15 

4 

.... 

4 


4 
14 

j'T 
ft 


8 

11 

4 


4 

7 
.... 


ft 

8 

"T 


4 

7 


4 

8 
"V 


ft 
10 


4 

8 

.... 


8 


ft 


4 


4 


ft 


4 


a 


ft 


4 


-— 










a Id majay cases the reports inolnde stokneeB la Ihe vleiiiity u wall ae the eorp<»nt« Uotiite of the plaeai 
named' 
• "«- ~-«^aee in each diTieion eee Exhibit I» pace ST. 

I_ 


1 

1 



STATISTICAL STUDY OF SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 

EXHIBIT v.— CoKTINtlED. 



95 



Diriaioas aod loc«]lti«« repreMoted 
and phjnioiaiM who reported. 

t Health Officer* in IlaUe«.> 


Weekly Reporta in IdOa-Comptled ia tbU Artiel*. 


im: 


9 


i 

54 

4 
4 

4 


67 
8 
6 
5 


i 

4 
4 

4 


1 

7Sf 
5 


1 

«o 

4 


i 


1 

87 

fi 
ft 
fi 


1 

3 
4 
4 


i_ 

67 

4 
4 
4 


I 

n 
ft 
ft 


1 

6$ 
8 

4 
4 


Bay and Butera DItWob.^ „„_-..._* • 

A]«ODM. W. K. Moore, M. D , . 

C*i>ac. Jarn^* R. McOurk, M, D .„ 

C^M City. J. M. Tru*catt, M. D 

Cmto, D. H. {^etms, M. D, 

Chee&aiBH, D. W. MiuUjf, M. D.... ...,„. 

ColnmbiATiUe, C. A. Wtsner, M. D 

CroewelJ. T. S, KinQtUn^ M. D 


78g 

le 
m 

IS 
8 

n 

u 

£S 
12 
IS 
12 
11 
Sg 
21 
B£ 

&a 

m 

IS 

so 

€9 

31 

1,073 
M 
15 
27 
2t 
14 
It 
8 
i6 

la 

12 

B 
*7 
13 

U 

u 

12 
18 
11 


87 

7 
52 

la 

18 
M 
U 

m 
m 

35 

11 

BO 
41 

la 
w 

52 
11 
t5 
11 

24 

35 
£5 


41» 

t 
4 


5 

a 

ft 

.... 

"6 


4 
S 

4 

T 

2 
.... 

.... 


4 






"6* 


"V 


3 
.... 

4 

.... 

"i 
4 

* 
4 
4 
4 


ft 


4 

"i* 

4 
._„ 

a 

4 
4 
8 

4 


4 

4 

"8 
... 

"4 

2 
4 
4 
4 

4 


ft 

ft 

8 

a 

"ft" 

.... 

ft 
ft 

5 
ft 
8 


4 
4 
4 
4 
„.. 

*a 

4 
4 
4 
4 
2 


BeokarrUlA, Geo C. rinceni, M, D- 


BnsxTiUe; Harrv J. Oorftir, M. D. 

B«ll«y. Le<midtu Harffer, M, D 

Marine City, 8, IF. Sadden, M. D 

Marine City, r. Blagbomm, U, D^ „. 

MayTlUe, B^, DU«v. M, D, „„_„. 

ICfrtamOTA. <f7w. m<mw. M. D 


4 
4 


1 

4 


4 
B 












4 

4 

.... 

4 


4 
4 

4 


5 

5 

T 

5 


4 
4 

2 


« 
5 
4 

ft 


4 

4 
4 
4 


Port An«tla. *kroA A. CWe, M, T> 

Port Horon, J. Bdaon Ctw^, hi, D 

Port Sanilac, Grant D. Sov^r, M. D 

Ba&ilao Center, L C. R*ed, M. D.. ,,. „., 
Sanilac Center. Geo, H, Ttveedie, M. D.... 
Bacinaw (W 8.). .*?, E Campbell, M. D... 

ThoraTllte, J. «. C<iulkin», M. 0.». 

UnionTllle, W. C Wright, M. O.. .. 










4 

4 
4 


3 

a 

4 


"ft* 
4 


"8* 
4 


4 

4 
4 

4 
4 
8 


4 
4 
4 

4 

I 


5 
5 

5 

n 

5 
5 
5 


4 
4 

4 

a 

t 

6B 
4 
4 

4 


5 
5 
5 
5 

5 

9^ 
5 

"i' 


4 

4 


4 
3 


UnionvUle, J. Wood, M. D ...^ 

Vaaear, John C. Averu, M. £>._„ 

C5entral DiTielon „ .♦ 

A 'ma, /. N. Braintrd. M. D. 


4 
4 

80 
4 


4 

2 

87 
4 


96 
5 


4 
4 

00 
4 

* 


4 
4 

4 

T 


5 

5 

U« 
4 

"T 


2 

1 

90 
3 

T 

4 


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Brighton, W. 0, Bff>um,M, D... 


Oaraon City, J. Tennani. M. D 

Charlotte, O. B. Allen, M, D | 

Charlotte, P. B. PatUr^an, M. D^ . 

C-fVT^nna, W, C Wi*"**, M. n. ^ 




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Flaehing. C. 8. Wheeler. M, D.. „. 

Fowler, Oeo. C HattnM, M, D 

Oalnae, E. H. Auatin, M. D. .„.„. 


Oreenville. C. 0. Jmiaon, M D.. 


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Howell, Alej-. O'Netl, if, D _ _, 

Ionia. J, n. Connor, if. D , 

Ionia, H, Trevmvne, ^, D 

I«lreTlew, A, H, Forty tK if, D.,^^. 

Leelie, H, W. BariMt, M, D .„.„,. 

l^ona, B. M. Hutchhuton, if. D .„ .. 

Maple Rapids, David Hollutar, M. Z).^„, 

HocTioe, F. N. Jefferv, if. D i 

ML Morrie, H. W, Graham, U. D._.,„. 

NarfjTille, R. P, Omfort, M. D ... 

NashTilie, Wm, H. Young, M. D 

OUvet^ ./. S. ffewlond, M. D 

Ofid. Jos. £. raptor, M, D „ 

Perry, H. W. Cobb. if. D., ,^...* 

PerrlntoD. G. BurUm Wade, M. D 

Potterrllle, E. li, Etpi^M. D 

Saxaaac, Chnrle* Wunch, M. P,.._._ 

Bheridan,!a F. ifenrnom,,^^^ 

Sbefldan, i?. H. Blaitdell, M. B. 

Stanton, IK. P. Oambtr. M. D 

Stanton, Allen L. Corey, M. D „ 

Btookbrid<re, Oeo. A, Rawe, M, D. „, 

8t» John*. Martin Wetter^ M. D. 

VermoDtvilJe. Wm. Parmenter;M. D, . 

Weetphelia, F. W. MarHn, if, />., 

WUliameton, 0. B, Brett, if. D „, 

Woodland, D. B, Kitpattick, if, D.. ...... 


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* For aoQotim in oaob dlTlaJon «ee Exhibit t, page 37. 




96 STATE BOARD OF HEAI/TH^RBPOBT OF SECRBTART, laM. 



EXHIBrr v.— COHCLUDED. 



Of HaiofM mad loealftiM nprewotod 
and phjuiciazLi who reportfld. 

( Haalth Offlcara In Iul£«.) 


Wwiktf &«portfl Id lge3.-<!QnipUi!d in this Article. | 






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ntmfiot, Lu a i/(irriJCHi. M. D ... ... 

B&Dion Harbor, Wafeeman Bjffut, M.3..^ 

Unehanan, Af, M, Knight, M. B. 

Dwiator. JamtM E. ^axti^eU, M. »-..„„. 

Wonfflaa, ifarUv A. Sirfiud. if, 1>.._ 

JtowagiM^ %Vm. E, Farkfr. M. D 

F*DDVJJ1«, «, IV. FfHTtKl, M. i>..„. 


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FrninvHie, IVm. H. Amir f tea, M. D 

HaHfOKi. H, C, MauntiTd, H. B .. 

Hartfoid, E. A. I'abner, M. D ....^. 

Lnwu.n, F. A. FhiUipt, M. D.. 

LawreQoa, 0. B. IViaftins. M. !>..,_,..„,. 

M&TmUq*. Frrd Hhitlitf,. M.D, 

Nww Boffido. F, M. Qowdu. M. D-.„._„ 

NllM, Jtw?, B. Gr^namuvr, M. B. 

Otwiso, M. Cha»e,M.D. „„ 

Bwi«mti3ck, H. M, Siimmm, M, £>... 

Honth llaf©n, JV. B. Attderton^ Jf. D.. 

8t. Jf>8-?ph. Jahn U\ Boi/le, M. D, 

Viintlalia, S. A. Wtyrk. M\ ZJ... -,_„..._ 

%'ajidalia. I^nnd^ Oabom, M. D, „, 

Wat«rTlLet, TK, L. OarratU M, U,... . 










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Wajtaud, J, a. Branch, M. X?. ...,.,.,..„ 
Boathern r«Qtral Uififlion * *.„. • 




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SO 




Addaa. Fmnk E. Andrew. M. D.... 

Brooklyn, K. N. Paiwi^, M. B,,. „_ 




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Broaaon, L^vi Sviindert, M. B..,.„: , 

Barr Oak. J. C. Ruilmtin, M. i>...„ 

BorTUak. C. LK Farfom. M. B .„„ 

ClK|t4>n, Jtimea MeDimald^Mt D., .,._.. 

Clifiton, John L, TvttU. M,B., ..,„, 

(;ciidwati*r, W. £.. FQtd^ M. U. 




(bacord, W, N. A''l^el^f^, Jf, 2>. .-...,-...., 




(.^ODrtLamiag, Dani^i E, Tfumtuu. M, |>,„, 
tkjosmntiiifl. Ft^ki F. Hcmnil^, M. D. .,„, 

I>B6ffield. Websf^r BliM, M, D 

Gftleabnnr. O. F. BurrrnQht, M. !>..,.,.„ 
(fatMbiiiv, IVm. I. Mci/eth, M\ D. ....... 

Oraaa La£a. H, J. HaU, M. D, .. 

UuioTir, d.^ £tf Ambirme^ M, U.,., 

KftlAmm^o, H. H. SebAlUii, M. D..„.„. 

Kakmaaoo, C. Vnnmaaluvienb^Tg, U.D,.\ 
lUlvnuoo, A. HochEtfm, M. B _ 

Wt*hiiold, G«dfTW! Martin, M, D.... .,.,,. 




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Litehfltid, /. 0- Spinning, M, D. ,.,. 

WnQcheatar, T, L, Iddings, M, iJ...^„,.„ 

ManchiBtar, E. At, Conklin, M, J?,.. 

Mar^aU« L. 8.Jojf, M. B „...„. 

Ifwdon, U. C, UJapp, M. D. 




♦ 

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Mendoii, EdimnSt^art, M, !>...„.„,„. 

Bloreaol, Hamwt Stettenton, M. D 

Paroift. E. V. Rik^. M. B.. 

Rfchlimd, J. M. R^mkin, M. D 

Sftlimj, C\ F, Uni^rkirchtr, M, !)..,..,,._. 

Sberwood. C. E. yeiifiKn^p, M. B. 

Spriairpart. J, a Juditmi, M. D 

Stamla, a F, F&IMU M, iJ, „„...... 

Tteoomwb, J. h\ Jflnktna. M. D..,„.-„„, 

tWomwh, a M. n'fifidioaTd, M, B,.. . 

TMumwh. T. 0. T>Jf^ M. D 

TekoDKha, Jfthn L. ItomMeU, M. D 

Vlekabnrg, C. H. JfciTain, Jf. U. . 

White Pigaon* J, F, Hieafried, M, D, 

YpailanU, B. A. Po§U M, D , 




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aontheaatom DiTlaion... _". .„* 

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HUtilEud Park, A. Steward M, B, 

Memiihb, D. H. Vote, M. £).....„.. 

Memphli, A. IK l/t>ii*!, if, B *.„,._-, 

N«* Hftvea. Alfx. Gunn, M. D 

NorthviUtt, Jf, A. Patttr»an, M* I?,,-*.,. 

PJjmntilh, J, M. Cotlier, Jtf. D... 

KkhmoDd. n\ D. Ctark. M. S... „..„... 

Uomeo. J. B. Far^M, M, B. ._„. 

»~liO, H'm. Otetiithietd*, M. B,., 

i Oflik. E, A. Kidder, M. B . 




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A S, S, Fotfer. Jf, D, „..„ 


\ 



itim in met dlrMon see Exhibit I, pi«e 81. 



^^r STATISTICAL STUDY OF SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN ISeS. 97 1 




TABLB I.— Stating, for each of the Thirteen Years, 1881-1S93, and the average for 
1877-18$2, aUo the Average for the period of seven years, 1886-1892, by ufhat Per 
Cent of Observers each of 28 Diseases wis repyrted present in those years {also tht 
Average Pf umber of Observers per htonth and tht Total Observers for each Year),— 
CompUedfrom iVeckly Reports of Health Offi-e'-a of Cities and Villages and from 
Regular Correspondenfs of the Utate Board of Health* —Diseases arranged in 
order of Greatest Number of Observers reporting the. m present in ffSS. --(Continued 
for each month of 18»3 and 1893. on pages &8~B9,) 




H 


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Diaeaaea. 


Obaerrera by vbom the Sevarml Diaaaaaa ivero BeDortad Praaeiit.- 
Averaca Par CanCa (par Moathl of thaae maldn< Baporta.t 




IS77- 
39 


At. 

1880. 

m 


11 


1802, 
U 


1891. 


1890. 
97 


1880. 

16 


1888. 
19 


1881. 
97 


1888, 
37 


1889. 
86 


1884. 
42 


1883. 
48 


1881. 

a 


lesi. 

45 


At. for tabalatad dia- } 
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Eherunatiam _„,. 


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63 


89 


84 








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88 


82 


79 


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81 


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89 


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76 


74 


71 


n 


79 


81 


79 


71 


89 


71 


70 


74 


79 


80 


74 








ToniUUtbl 


70 


70 


71 


71 


74 


79 


71 


84 


88 


70 


72 


78 


71 


71 


89 








Diarrhea 


69 


«S 


fll 


Bt 


87 


08 


09 


80 


8» 


04 


08 


71 


07 


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87 








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19 


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93 


98 


99 


48 








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87 


ta 


47 


4t» 


80 


82 


69 


97 


80 


«4 


08 


72 


71 


74 


78 








PoeomooU......... ... 


93 


17 


91 


a 


40 


90 


47 


49 


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48 


44 


46 


99 


01 


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lntormitt«Qt fafer 


71 


K 


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92 


98 


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71 


71 


79 


62 


63 


90 






to 


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43 


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48 


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48 


47 


42 


42 






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13 


82 


33 


34 


41 












11 


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s& 


44 


IB 


84 


48 


40 


49 


49 


48 


48 


52 


00 


97 


04 


08 






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17 


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88 


82 


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1 


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Cholera Morboa 


tl 


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M 


29 


21 


29 


27 


29 


t2 


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28 


87 


32 


91 


41 




15 


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la 


90 


2S 


28 


tl 


29 


29 


to 


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32 


32 


30 


81 


28 


28 






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80 


81 


32 


20 


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38 


39 


31 


14 




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» 


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18 


W 


17 


19 


20 


22 


29 


n 


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1 


la 


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£2 


sz 


18 


21 


23 


21 


21 


90 


24 


39 


21 


20 


21 


22 


37 




1 


If 


Whoopioff-coagh 


23 


u 


Ifi 


W 


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17 


29 


16 


£i 


28 


21 


29 


23 


89 


24 




■ 


20 


Typhoid Fever (enteric) 


18 


16 


19 


19 


10 


11 


17 


1ft 


13 


15 


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20 


19 


24 


30 






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19 
28 


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12 


22 
16 
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12 
12 
26 


19 
11 

29 


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28 


10 
24 


9 

27 
27 


17 
27 
32 


37 
81 
32 


30 
43 
39 


17 
91 
43 




Diphtheria 


TTpho-mal. Fever $. „. 




U 


FoerperaJ Fever 


n 


11 




u 


ft 


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18 


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14 


12 


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18 


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0.2 
158 
104 


0.]l 
200 
113 


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m 

109 



113 
81 


0.2 

195 
102 


0.9 
139 
100 


142 
102 


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100 

111 


0.4 

103 
104 


0.2 
142 
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140 

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93 


4 
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70 






^^H 


No, of Obaervara 


1 


At. No. of Ob^irvere ) 
per month J 


J 


L 


• For l«fl3, the nomber of ob«erver», report*, weeks io each rooath. «te„ are fttated in the first five ool- 
imas of Exhibit lU. pii«« 90. the DAmoa of the obeerven nad Cbe Dumber of the rai>ortB received from 
Moh »r« atated ia Exhibit V, pa«w »i, 95 and M. f ) Poot-notoa are on pi<e 103. 
13 

u J 


J 





98 STATE BOARD OP HEALTH.— REPORT OP SECRETARY, 1894. ^H 

TABLE I — CoKTiKUED.- ^PtT Cent of Obterver» by whom the Several Dieeagee were, M 

for the Period of geven years, 188€-1892, and^^^ 




Par Cant of ObMrrera by whom the DlaeoMiii wew Reported Preeant.; 


^^^H 


1 

J 

1 

n 

a 

7 

a 

9 
10 

11 

n 

11 

15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
SO 
21 
It 
2S 
24 
2S 

as 
i7 

£8 


Jannary.* 


Febroary.* 


Hareb.* 


Diaeftaee. 


40 


> 

< 


1 

3t 

M 
7ft 

n 

&£ 
41 

Si 

u 

HO 
28 
U 
16 
IS 
IS 
IB 

n 
n 

10 
10 

itt 



8 

e 

2 


i 

87 

83 

^ 

90 
46 
57 
At 
40 

i 

28 
SO 
15 
18 
ft 

14 
1^ 
13 
A 
14 
A 
4 
8 
lA 




Diaeaaea. 




i 


1 

lo 

82 
79 
7' 
71 

51 

4f* 
47 
8!i 
8& 
S 

n 

2? 

19 
Il- 
ls 
IS 
11 
11 
10 
9 
8 
6 
6 
4 
3 
2 

124 


i 

35 

83 

84 

n 

78 
06 
77, 
5i 
46 
41 
55 
88 
B8 
7 

17 
17 

\l 

\l 

9 
14 
13 
9 
7 
5 
7 
4 

lOS 


Diseaaes. 


F 

i 




it 

88 « 
78 98 
St 88 

;m 

42 U 

37 41 

38 SI 
32 81 
27 88 

SS 
Si 

15 9 
11 1« 
10 9 

10 18 
9 18 

8 fi 

3 i 

9 8 

1 Q 


Average t 


Average t 


39 

86 
S& 

84 
78 
74 
78 
68 
4A 
4A 

VS 

65 
20 
30 
25 
&1 
28 
30 

20 


m 
1b 

84 
8!i 
78 
76 
14 
61 
47 
44 
4« 
•7 
62 
19 
19 
26 
36 
18 
16 
13 
7 

in 

12 
14 

M 
8 
4 
IS 
0.4 

93 


Avertiget 


40 

IS 

86 
8U 
>6 
75 
75 
70 
49 

29 
47 
67 
28 
82 
48 
26 
1& 
12 
24 
15 
2B 
14 
15 
10 
18 
11 
4 
1 


87 

"i 

ss 

80 
84 
80 
70 
63 
51 
U 
39 
47 
52 
27 
22 
88 
i% 
14 
9 
20 

II 
It 

6 
12 

10 

S 

0.8 


Tonaillitla 


m 

87 
8S 
U 
S4 

r, 

47 

es 

S2 
20 
» 

48 
17 

lA 

is 
11 

9 
1« 

7 
24 
12 

1] 
A 
Z 


79 
86 

S-i 
73 
65 
78 

48 

et 

47 
44 
3$ 

5i 
28 
27 
SI 
Kl 
1& 
15 
1* 
12 

11 

6 
IR 
13 

16 

4 
0.4 


Bronchitifl 


Rheumatism '.. 

Tonsillitis 


BhoDmativtii 

Broochitia., . I ." 1 " " 


Rbenmatiem 

N«<uraliria 

Toneilhti* 

iDfloeosa 

Pneamaala. 

CooAiamption. Pol, 

DJarrhea. 

Erysipelas 


lDflaati«a 


BroDchatia 


IcflneDsa 


Pneamonia 

*;<maamptioii'.PtLl, 

Pleoritle , 

Kryfiipelaa 

lEflam of Kidney, 
Intermittent Fever 

Scarlet Fover 

Inflam. of Bowala. 

Diphtheria-, 

Remittent Fever.. 
Heaalei 


Pneamonia 

Uonstimption, Pol. 
Diarrhea 


Pl«ariti( 

Intiam. of Kidney. 
EryBipelas. . 
Intermittent Fever 
Inflam. of Bowel e. 

Scarlet Fever 

Bemlttent Fever.. 

Measles,. 

Hyisentery 

jCholf*i-a iriorbas... 
^Vhoopic^l?^;ongh.. 
Idembran. t-ronp.. 

DiphtheHa. 

Pn»»rperal Fever... 
Inflam. of Brain... 
Typhoid Fev Jen t.) 
Typho-mal. Fever 
Cerebro-api. men.. 
Cholera I of an turn. 
SmaU-iKix 


piiirhiB"::. .:: 

Inflam. of Kidney, 
intermittent Fever 

Uea«lee 

Hcarlet Fever .. 
Id flam, of Br>wels. 
Remittent Fever.. 

DiphtherTa 

U em bran. Croap.. 
Cholera morbna... 

Dyeentery-, 

Ptn^rperal Fever... 
Ictlam. of Brain .. 
Typhoid Ft.v.(ent.) 
Cerebro-epi. men-.- 
Cholera infant am, 
Typho-mal. Fever. 
Small-poi 


Draantery ^- 

WhoopiDff-ooagb.. 
E*iaerperal Fever... 
Cholera oiorbae.,. 
Typhoid p6v.(BQt4 
C-eirebro-fl&l, men... 
Typho-mal. Fever. 
InflHm. (if Brain... 
Mem bran. t>onp.. 
Cholera infantum 
SmRll'POX 


ObMTvaral 


S9 


96 


116 


9» 


ObaernrsS 


80 


ObsoTf^rtg 


tt 


» 


118 


» 


1 


ApriL* 


May.* 


jQiia.* 


Dia«MM. 


F 

40 


1 

S7 


i 

HO 


i 

81 

8S. 
78 

8i 
7rt 
67 
49: 
4A 
57 

sa 

42 

48 
40 
21 
27 

S3 
12 
19 
21 
20 
9 
11 
16 
» 
7 
A 
7 
I 


m 


DleeaaeH. 


< 


36 

m 

76 
88 
72 
57 
51 

et 

50 
5!S 
4A 
39 
40 
20 
26 
19 

IS 

I.*! 
17 
19 
12 
ft 
12 
6 
9 
9 
14 
0.1 

too 


82 


81 


Diaeasee. 






i 

28 


i 

88 




Average t^-_._. 


Avertget.. 


VJ 


85 




19 
W 
81 
12 
23 
U 
2A 

27 
18 


Btkenmatiam ...... 

Bronobltii 


*8 
^3 

m 

1^ 

«7 
71 
CO 
7* 
47 
78 
40 

» 

11 

il 
24 

m 
It 

14 

13 

Ih 

la 

1 

9 
11 

2 


88 

82 

T* 
70 

at 

49 

00 
4« 
67 
40 
49 
IS 
40 
22 
20 
22 
14 
14 
lit 
10 
14 
14 
11 
4 

a 

7 
0,1 


8ft 
83 
82 
7S 
6li 
M 
fiO 
48 

a? 
as 

14 

id 

g 

20 
20 

11 

10 
> 
8 
8 
6 
6 
4 
4 
1 


Itheomatiam ...„, 


84 
77j 
8t 
T£ 
AS 

l\ 

41 
BO 
53 
IS 


liheDmstiam ...... 

NpQr&lici& 


84 
80 
09 
65 
65 
66 

V, 

41 

42 
37 
36 

'£9 

40 
30 

ii 

28 

25 
24 

22 
12 
13 
9 
8 
19 
7 
£ 


84 
79 
70 
64 
64 
&ft 
60 
41 
41 
42 
37 
II 

tn 

34 
28 

ao 

19 
18 

21 
22 
12 
11 
12 
8 
8 
11 
A 
0,1 

lOi 


78 
67 
08 
89 
57 
43 
k9 
84 
34 
S3 

J£7 
24 
11 
£1 
19 

IS 

17 
18 
11 
10 
10 
7 
5 
1 
1 

m 


88 
78 
78 
73 
81 
48 
43 
88 
87 
34 
87 
83 
85 
10 
1ft 
18 
18 

n 

M 
28 
11 
10 

•1 

8 
11 

8 


"Si 


Nftnratffla 

Ton«iliitiii. 


NenrBlmift ,,^. 


7.H 7Mi 


Ftronchlils. 

TonalMitie 

Diarrhea. 

OonsnropUan. Pol. 
Intermittent Fever 
Bemittent Fp^ver.. 
iaflaeiic& 


rnrhillitie 


7& 
5« 
56 
54t 
4ft 
4^ 
41 
39 
14 
23 
28 
2A 
2S 
18 
17 
It 

iJ 

8 
7 
7 

e 

A 
4 


iiA 


71 
45 

52 
49 
42 
44 

45 
26 
It 
29 
26 
28 
17 
15 
17 
14 

8 

11 

A 
7 
A 
9 
1 

95 


OtasamptioD, Pal. 

Va&amonh.V.l'.'.'.. 
firyvipelaa ... 
IntafTOitteDt Fever 
lolam. of Kidney. 
PlMritb 

BaaiUtaat FeTer.. 

Pii»rp©rat Fever.,. 
Id flam, of BraJn. 
t'hoiera morbaB... 

DyaoDtery - 

lypho-mal. Fever, 
Hembran. Croap.. 
Cholera infaatam. 
Typhoid Fev. (en t) 
O«rebro-Bpi. men.. 
8mAll-poi 


!■ tiOftDZB., .,,,.... 


Diarrhea 

(JoQsnmption, Pol. 
Intermittent Fever 
Poenmonia 

Inflam, of Kldneyl 
Remittent Fever.. 


Erysipelas . .. 

Iniam. of Ktdaey. 
Cholera morbas.,. 
Inflam, of Bowels. 
Pnenmonia ....... 

Meaalee... ......... 

Plenritis, 

Cholera Infantam. 
Spnrlet Fever .... 
W hoop i ng*eoagh . , 
DjBantery _.. 


PlenrlUi..,. 


Sc«rl«t Psver...... 

iDflam.of Bowels. 
Whooping-congh .-! 

Diphtheria 

Cholera morbne... 
Oyaentwy. ... 
Pnerperml Fever... 
Typhoid Fev. (eat,) 
Inflam, of Brain... 
Carebrc^pi. tnen,.. 
Cholera infantum. 
Uembran. ('mnp.. 
Typho-mat. Fever. 
Smalt-pox..., 


27 
28 
26 
22 
19 
18 
12 
8 
18 
10 

10 
18 
2 


I>iphtheria... 

Paerperal Fever... 
Inflam. of Bram... 
Typhoid Fev.fent.) 
Orebro-epi, mea._ 
Tjpho-mal. Fever. 
Mem bran. Croap.. 
8maJ!t-po V . ........ 




ObeervenȤ 


7y 


88 


114 


Obtmrtmn^...... 


87 


Obeervert§. ..... 


80 


^^^H m 


a For firet part of Table I, and fu!! haadinff, eea psM OT. 

* For 1891 the namber of obaervere. reports, week» in eaob mooth, tte.y are stated Id the first f&v« ool- 
tB/^ '- if'Mblt v.. pagm W-M. t Tb© nnmberm In thii line are an average, not for all diieaaea repTOp 





^Hp STATISTICAL STUDY OP SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 99 

H Reporttd Present by Months in each of the years 1892-1893, and the Average by Montht 
■ for the Period of tixieen years, 1877-1892, 


1 


1 

1 

1 


Fte C«ot of ObMTf en by who«n tti« D\mum wvn Bvported Presoott 


V 


Joiy 1 


An«a»t.* 1 


September.* 


1 


D 


10 


IB 

S8 


i 

2B 


i 

12 


DieeaMM. 


i 


i 


1 


i 


Dieeaee*, 


i 

a 


i 


i 


i 


AT«ng«t 


AteitM!et.,„* * 


a 


40 


Si 


ti 


AvwtMt 


m 


81 


38 






OlwrfaM 

Rh«DfD«iiam ...... 


89 

n 

M 

60 
U 
68 
78 
iS 
50 
SS 
14 

n 

90 
31 


87 

ao 

S7 

ai 

ft4 
05 

48 
47 
14 

84 
37 
(0 
80 

as 

19 
17 
38 
11 
11 
11 
10 
14 
17 
8 
4 
0.1 

108 


7B 
76 
71 
63 
57 
48 
47 
45 
SI 
SO 
30 
29 
20 
SI 
23 
81 
SO 

IS 
IS 
12 
» 
7 

4 



118 


79 
78 
7fl| 

U\ 

Ki 

41 
3S 

ao{ 

S4 

%^ 

m\ 

89 
2ll 
81 
8 
18 

't 

IS 
11 
14 
10 

4 


m 


DlaiTh« 


m 

75 
75 
76 
5A 
7S 
OS 
57 
80 

04 

» 
82 
18 
20 
15 
85 

I 


04 
70 

77: 

74 
M 
00 
65 

fii 

65 
6? 
30 
SI 
20 
S2 
23 
25 

ae 

27 

tz 

12 
20 
11 
W 
fi 
» 
4 

0.1 

m 


7» 
7? 
09 
66 
57 
55 
54 
40 
48 
46 
18 
28 
22 
21 

an 

B 

10 
15 
15 

? 


4 
8 



Si 


m 
41 

76 
68 

m 

5B 
5A 
61 
54 
50 
38 
47 
SO 
B-H 
20 

f? 
u 

16 
35 
16 
10 

5 
S 
6 



Diarrhea.^ 

gbeammUam 

Cholera morbna... 

Djeeutery^ _. 

BrtiDcbitie ..„. 


91 
77 
67 
OS 

Of> 

63 
SO 
57 
«^ 
70 

oa 

43 

•0 

82 

28 
33 
20 

47 

30 
10 
25 
10 
8 
12 
8 
8 
1 

lo 


80 
80 
TO 
01 
06 
t& 
50 
55 
54 
63 
51 
SO 
20 
34 
27 
•4 
25 
83 
84 
22 
14 
15 

11 

D.8 
112 


88 

74 

eo 

50 
50 
57 
55 
58 
43 
40 
14 
34 
28 
27 
22 
IB 
19 

!? 

14 

13 

'i 

« 
5 
2 
1 


m 


88 
78 
76 
61 
62 
66 
57 
52 
49 

2£ 

38 

24 

33 

25 

25 

24 

23 

15 

IB 

16 

11 

7 

t 

10 

3 

4 



m 


10 

u 
u 
11 

14 
15 
10 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
28 
24 

as 

28 
27 
28 

i 
i 

u 
14 

16 
16 
17 
18 
19 
10 
81 
22 
83 
24 
25 
28 
27 
88 


Rbeamatiam 

Nenralsim .... 

rboleramorboB... 
Ton* im tie 


ToMtliitii 

lirooclxiUa 

Conanmption. PolL 
GhoUira morbofl... 
lotwmlttaat F«T«r 
Obolcrainfkatnni. 
Ennlttant Fever., 
loaun. of Kld£Of . 
loflun. of Boweie. 
RrydiMlfte 


DyMDtefT 

iiholerainfantnm. 

Bronchitle - 

Intermittent Fever 
Coasamption, Pnl. 
lQflHiii,of Bowela. 
BfiruitteDt F<ivar.. 
lofloeoEa, 

Typikold Fev.teot.) 
Wbooplns-ooaffh. 

Bryeipelae . ...„. 
Typho-mal» Fever. 

Diphtheria 

ftmrlPt Fever...... 

Pleoritis ,...,.. 


Tonilllitiip... ..,.., 
Cholera infuitara 
()oaeamption. Pol. 
[ntennitteat Fever 
Remittent Fev^.. 
InfloeDia.. 


Typhoid Fev.(ent. J 
[oflam. of Brtwele. 
In flam* of Kidney. 
Eryeipelaa... 

Plonritie 

Typho>mal, Fever, 
whooplns-^tjtigb . . 
'tcarlet Fever..... 

Diphtheria^ 

Paerperal Fever... 
Cerebro-epi. men... 
intlam. of Brain... 
Heaelea.. .......... 


ItiTiiiftffia. .. 
Fleoritift. 


Wliootrfat-ooti«Ii . . 

SSSSiSi" ::■:: 

Typhoid Per (eat) 

Inflwn.ofBJmS". 

Ovebro-epi. meo..! 
ll«iDbnui.Grotip.. 
SmaU-pox 


20 

21 

It 
11 

18 

J 

sa 


PDonmonia 

Infl&m.of Brain... 
Faerperal FsTer... 

MeaelM- 

Hembran. Ooop 
l>n»bn>«pl. men.. 
Small-pox.- 


11 
14 

10 

a 
a 

8 

1 


Hembran. Croup.. 
Bmall-pot. 


OlMerreirȤ. 


Ob«ervnre§. ... 


07 


ObeervereS- 


Oetober.* 


Novemb 


1 


Daftanber* 


OlMMee. 


•4 

i 


|3 

i 


i 


i 


Dieeaeee. 


i 

so 


85 


i 


1 

34 


DiiMiai. 


i 

so 


i 

88 


i 

It 
78 
77 
71 
60 
45 
89 
35 
sr> 

23 

21 

31 

10 

18 

18 

13 

11 

8 

7 

7 

7 

5 

4 

4 

3 

2 




34 

Is 

hi 

84 
82 
fjO 
40 
SO 
52 
41 

att 

34 
80 
25 
83 
22 
13 
18 
2S 
11 

14 

11 


ATemget— 


84 
7H 
St 
78 

oy 

44 
?» 
47 
00 
31 
U 

10 

u 

40 
18 
» 


"S 

70 
81 

7a 

71 

4t 

0:« 

16 
SS 
30 

as 

IS 

SS 

SA 
9S 

80 
IH 
S5 
18 

ao 

10 

It 

5 

11 

7 

0.1 

109 


so 

70 

7» 
78 
70 
01 
4K 
43 
41! 
41 
U 
%l 
1*« 
27 

as 

8S 

11 
20 
8f^ 
17 
16 

1*3 


14 

80 
70 

7S 
70 

ii 

47! 
87 

ii; 

20 
44 

S4 

20 

38 

27 

29 

3iV 

27 

17 

li 

IS 

17 

S 

7 

4 

7 

fi 



121 


Avwacef _. 


Average t 


Rheamatism ..... 
marrhea. ., 


lufliiBiiza ......... 


so 

78 
84 
82 
77 
02 
51 
05 
HO 
72 
28 
SS 


55 
76 
85 
Si 
77 
50 
44 
M 
44 
57 
24 
S3 
S3 
42 
tt 
20 
14 
18 
1» 
21 

n 

10 

11 

10 


5 
« 

loi 


80 
80 
78 
78 
77 
54 

J? 

30 
» 
£0 
27 
17 
25 
2S 
21 
10 
18 
14 

i:i 

13 

'S 

S 

7 
4 
S 


122 


bO 
70 
88 
80 
70 
50 
43 
45 
40 
45 
22 
32 
14 
11 
85 
22 
17 
26 

It 

n\ 

10 

11 

3 



iiii 


Inflnenta .. ... 


84 

88 
81 
^4 

80 
03 
00 
48 

42 
60 
35 
28 
51 
20 
£2 
21 
35 
28 
18 
18 
15 
11 
7 
19 
11 

2 


68 
87 
83 
81 
80 
57 
58 
49 
4« 
42 
51 
34 
81 

'.S 

10 
17 
U 
17 
IE 
11 
16 
11 

6 
16 
11 

6 
0.6 

ir4 


Brono'hitis 

Rheamatiani 

NeoraJ Ilia ... ,,..,. 


Rheamatiam 

Neoralffia. .... 


?EE::::::::: 


Bronchitif^..,,... 
ToneilllUi. ....... 


Tooaimtie. ,..„.. 
DiorrhM. , .. 


DTMDtary^ --.--. 
Btiknnlttent Fe»er 
aflaeosa. 

CouetuDption.Fcd. 

T>pboidFer.(eQb.) 

Bemitteat FeTor. 

CTbolem infantatn. 

Cholera morba»,_ 
KryripelM ..„.„ 

PoeamoDifl 

tnBam. of Kidney. 
Pleorltle .„,_.. 


Poeomonia 

Conanmption, PdL 
nfnrrhea 


Pneomnnia 

i 'oDBDrnpiioa, Pal. 
Eoniitteot Fever.. 
lDt«rmitioDtF«iTer 
Tynhoid Kev..ent.) 
loflam- of Kiiiuey. 
Plenritle. 


Pleariti* 

EryfliipelaB 

Interroittent Fever- 
Inflam. of Kidney 

Bcarlet FcFpr 

Hemlttent Fever.. 
lodam. of Boweta.. 
Whooping-eongh. . 
Typhoid Pev.{ent.) 

Diphtheria 

Typho-mal. Fever, 
liiflam. of Brain... 
Cholera morboB... 

Dyaent«ry„ 

PQerparal Fever... 
Cerebro-epi. men... 
Hembran. Croap.. 


Eryaipelae.. .... 


41 

m 

X7 
15 
£4 
23 
85 
37 
11 

n 
11 

10 


1(1 
1 

«s 


Dynentery.. ..... 


loUam. of Bowete,. 
rhol<*m morboB. .. 
Scarlet Fever .. 
Wboopimi-ooaib.. 
Dlpbtberta........ 

Typbo-mal. Fever . 
Puerperal Fever. . . 
Hembran ■ i Yoap. . 
luflam.of Brain... 
Cholera lofantnm. 
Gerebro-epi. men . 

Meaelee 

gimall-pox^ .... 


DipiSEeSk*?!*..:: 

Inflain.of Brain... 
Puerperal Fever... 

Menibraa. Croop.. 


2S 

&0 
21 
SS 
10 
11 

8 
11 

7 
0.4 

W 


Cholera inf^tam. 
Bmall-po» 




Obeoi »*T« S 


Obeerverafl, ..... 


Obiervereg . 


fil 


U1I122 


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anuM of Eshiblt 11 1., pass 00^ the names of obeerren and the nam bar of reports received from eaeh an 
■anted, bat only for thoee reported preeeot in the ir* ven month. % See foot-note with this mark on paffe 108 
9Tlie nam ben in tbla line atate how many obtervera reported for the month in the |lv«n year. 


J 



100 STATE BOARD OP HBAI/TH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1894. 






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STATISTICAL STUDY OF SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN IttOS. 101 



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102 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1894. 






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108 



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108 STATK BOARD OF HEAIVrtt-REPORT OP SECRETARY, 1894. 



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STATISTICAL STUDY OP SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN 18BB. 109 



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STATISTICAL STUDY OF SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN 189a 111 



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112 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 18M. 



DISIEABBS IN MIGHIQAN, ABRANGED IN OBDBB OF PBBVALBNGfl. TflOSB 
WHICH CAUSE MOST SICKNESS FIBiT. 



EXHIBIT A. — Order of Prevalence of twenty-eight diseaseu in Miehigan, in the 
period of thirteen yearB 1881-1893, and in each of those years, and the average for 
the twelve years 1881-1892, judging from the **Per Cent of Reports" which stated 
the presence of each of the diseases, in connection with the reported *^ Order of 
Prevalence " when and where each disease was present. ( The metliod of rating 
diseases for this Exhibit is described and illustrated in a ^^CompUing Table** on 
pages 122 and 123 of the Annual Report for 1890.) 



i 
i 


in order of rreataiit 


i 


isn. 


lB9a, 


1891. 


1890. 


18S&. 


1688. 


tSifl, 


IBM. 


1B8B 


1M4. 


ism. 


tSS2. 


tS8L 




fiJuHimf^tlam 


1 

£ 


1 
1 


















1 

1 


4 
t 






HwarwltgiA.., , 




BmiMhltlB, .. ........... 


• 


i 


















4 


S 




* M 




Iiitannltteiil, fsTar..,,. 


4 


7 


















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1 








Ccmaain];>tion, L>nl. ...,. 


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6 

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^ 1 


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15 


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11 


li 
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11 
11 








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Sm»H-pot „......„.. ..... 



8TATISTI0AL STUDY OF SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 113 



DISBiSBS WHK^H CkVSR MOST SICKNESS IN MICHI04N. 

This is shown in this Report in Exhibit A, and more specifically in 
Exhibit VL, in this Report, and in similar exhibits in previous Reports. 
The question is differently answered in different years. For many years 
after the compilation of weekly reports was begun, intermittent fever 
appeared to be the leading cause of sickness in Michigan. 

By Exhibit A, one may see that in the years 188I-'d intermittent fever, 
in the years 1884-5 neuralgia, in the years 1886-90 rheumatism, in 1891 
influenza, in 1892 neuralgia, and in 1893 rheumatism appear to have caused 
most sickness in Michigan. This does not necessarily imply that there 
was an increase in rheumatism or neuralgia, because one disease may 
exhibit a higher relative order of prevalence on account of some other 
disease or diseases having been actually lessened in prevalence. 

The *'Avera^ Disease" of those reported, is included in Exhibit A, as a 
standard by which to judge the fluctuations. It may be seen that in 1890, 
the "Average Disease" was higher (9) by one-tenth, than the average (10) 
of a long series of years; in 1891 it was lowered to the avera^; and m 1892 
it was again higher by one- tenth than the average, and in 1893 it was 
again lowered to the average. 

In this connection it should be stated that the average number of 
diseases reported on each card has gradually decreased for the past ten 
years. This is shown in Exhibit B, as follows: — 



EXaiBIT B,^3tating for each of the ten years lS>i4-lS9B, the number of card reports 
received, the total number of diaeaae reports and the average number of diaeaaea 
reported on each card ; also th^i averages for the 9 years, 1834-1892. 



Year. 


Namber of 

cvd reports 

received. 

3,957 
5.106 
5,683 
4.896 
5.047 
5.000 
4.939 
4.291 
5.281 


Namber 

of dlBeeee 

reports. 

81.466 


1 

j At. number 

'^''einsr 


1884 ..... 


7.ai 


1886 


2R,ni 1 7.00 
38.610 1 6.92 
33,049 i 6.7B 


1886 


1887 


1888 

1880. 


38,270 
32,612 
31,914 
28,741 
tl.269 


6.68 
6.5S 
6.87 
6.70 
5.98 


1880 


1891 


1892 




At. for the 9 jmn 1884-1892 


4.000 


St,192 


6.77 




1888 


5.851 


32,728 


..« 





15 



Hi STATE BOARD OF HEAUTH«— REPORT OF 8ECRETART, 1894. 

In 1890 rheumatism, neuralgia, bronchitis and influenza in order named, 
headed the list In 1891 influenza, rheumatism, neuralgia and bronchitis, 
headed the list. In 1892 neuralgia, rheumatism, bronchitis and influenza 
and in 1893 rheumatism, neuralgia, influenza and bronchitis in order 
named, appear to have caused most sickness in Michigan. 

Nearly the same diseases appear above the average line each year. 
Pneumonia has appeared in this exhibit tenth in order for eleven years in 
succession, ending with 1890, and dropped to thirteenth in 1891, rising in 
1892, to eleventh and in 1893 to twelfth in order. Some of the diseases of 
minor importance vary considerably in their order. Whooping-couffh, for 
example, in 1881 and 1883 was nineteenth in order, and rose to twelfth in 
order in 1886, and dropped to nineteenth in 1887, to twentieth in 1888, and 
rose to eleventh in 18o9, and dropped to thirteenth in 1890, and was tenth 
in 1891 and 1892 and eleventh in 1893. 

Exhibit YII. supplies data relative to what diseases caused most sick- 
ness in 1893 in each of several geographical divisions of Michigan. It 
may be seen that there is evidence that there are very great differences in 
the different parts of the State. Further evidence is very desirable, how- 
ever, in order to reach conclusions on this important subject The exhibit 
will be found of great interest to those who study it carefully, and in con- 
nection with previous reports. 

The lines for 1893 in Exhibit XIII., are graphically represented in 
Diagrams 1, page 89; 2, page 125; 8, page 127, and 4 on a subsequent page. 



STATISTICAL STUDY OF SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN 1888. . 116 



EXHIBIT VL—Diaeaaes from which there aeema to have been the Most Sickness in 
Michigan in 1893, as indicated by the Per Cent of Weekly Reports Stating Presence 
of the Diseaaes, as studied in connection with the Average Order of Prevalence of 
said Diseases when Reported Present ; also Order, Per Cent of Reports, and Average 
Order for the same Diseases in 1892, 1891, 1890, and 1889, 



vaa. 



DlaeuM Lit Qrdm of 
AppVBSi^ AmoQOe. of 



Eheamatitm 

Meoralsia . 

iDaoeDa.-. 

BbDDohitlt... ,. 

ToMimui..... 

DIurhea.. ...... 

IntemilttMit F«v«r. 
CoDenoiptloai PoJ.. 
B«inltt«iit Fersr.... 



AintClf* 



MouIh,. ,.„„„ 

WboDplnir^^oiitfli.. ,_. 
PneDmeulA ,,.. 

CJUdlnra Morbaa.-.-,. 
Tn>bo1d Ferer (etkt,). 
C!tioJ«r& Inftntam. .,, 



I 

h 



10 I.I 



imi. 



I 

of 
jj5 



imu 



£t 



I. 
fe-a 

a. 



wm. 



I 



I- 



8 41 






an. 



■s 
IS 



It 



&4ii 



* Jndciog from the per cent of reporta which stated preeence of the diseases in connection with the 
Older of preralence when present. The meth^id of ratinii diseaBee, as caaees nf sickness, as shown in 
Bihibfta VI. and VII.. is fallj described and illnstrated by a ' Compilinic table" on pages 122 and ItS of 
Um Annual Beport for the year 1880. 

d This eolnmn states what per rent the namber nf reports stating presence of a disease is of the whole 
Bomber of reports receiTed for the time specified, from alt obaerverB in the State. It combines and states 
In a general way. an idea of the time a disease was prevalent, with an idea of the area of its prevalttioe. 

e The disease haTing the greatest nnmber of caree was to be marked 1, in the order ; the disease haTing 
the next greatest namber of cases. 2 ; and so on. Diseases not prpsent were to l>e marked 0. The nnmbera 
in this column are found by dividing the totals of the Order of Prevalence coinmns. In Table I (omitted 
in this report), by the nnmbtfr of men who reported the disease present. The eolnmn is, therefore, an 
aTSfage, not for all the localities represented, but only for those at which the given disease was reported 
preaent. The numbers in the "Average** linee for this eolnmn are found by dividing the sum of the totals 
in the Order of Prevalence columns. In Thble 8, for all diseases reported present, by the Bom of the num- 
bers of men who reported the different diseases present, thus counting each man oiice for every disease ha 
reported present. As a rule, small numbers in this column indicate the large prevalence of the disease, 
and vice verso; but the greater the number of diseases reported preeent by each observer, from week to 
wssk. the greater will be the average In this eolnmn. 



116 STATE BOARD OP HEAIVIH^REFORT OF SECRETABT, 18M. 



EXfilBIT VII.— /n ea/ih of Eleven Geographical DivUi<mtl^ of the State, the Fifteen 
Ditefjuet frf^m which there teemM to have been the Greatest Amount of Sieknets in 
1H9S, an indicated by the Per Cent of Weekly Reporte Stating Presence of each of 
'4H Letiding DimaeeM, tohen Studied in eonneetion with the Average Order of Preva- 
lence of miid dieeaeea when reported pren^nt. 



1 


1 




J 


• 


1 
1 
1 




4 

i 
« 
7 

to 

11 




ai) 


5 


11 


1 


y 


r 


14 
IB 




1 

a 
I 


!l*9^ 


u 


h 


t 


i! 


1 


n { 


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im 


r 


10 


1 


11 


111 


m 

12 


r 


11 
U 


^ 


ib 



mmmim fn Onl«r of 
'Act pa rapt 

imoQjicctf afekiUH. 
Mtmt ^nwrnlmit 
DlBMM Pint: 



Urrm rrar'ux vit* 

Brouebltls.... 

iDflmmzB.. 

DiarrhBk. ...,.„,.„ 
ToMlUitli„... „., 

N»araJsia... ...,,, 

Uhfliiuiiiifafxi 

TrtfholdFn, {«nt.). 
Tjplii>mBl. F«Tflr«^. 
(kiDtDidiitfoD, Fnl... 

Whooplxu^coa^h 

(^holnfv tnfimtiun... 



Ills 



Pa«amn&l&. ., 

PleariUi. ........... 

C3iirabr<i-»[il. 11 «n.... 

NoHTHithN crs, Uif .• 

iDturmlttani F«vej-.. 
Hhmi Ri|iti«in . _ . . 

Ti*ti»iiimii.,.. 

NeatBJfim 

InflaetiM... ......... 

llronchltiM ......._.. 

l)lq,rrba&. 

H«niitt«Lt Fmwvr.... 
Paerpftnl Fnver 



U«iwlM ,„., 

UeiubnuioiUf Croup. 

Avarifltt ......... 



4^hotBri Morbo*..,.. 
TViiIio-iniil* F«Tar . . . 

Whooplxi«»e(iiigli 



1^1 



21 

11 
U 

tj 
i.l 

1.0 

as 

£.1 
Z.9 



XHmuw in Order of 

Apparaat 

AincKint of SickQ«M, 

Moat PnTElent 

Flnt. 



Mcatnvwtxhh Hit.* 

ftMinlvla... 

firooabltla 

BhaaEDAtlvii .. 

Olvrfaflft „,.„. 

Too«UIttl> 

llembmumi Crofup 
H«nlttMit F«ttr.... 



InflDAfitt..,.. 
Pommoolm... 



I 

IS 



WhcopiDiKXJcich ^. 



Diphtheria... 

Int«rraiit:<»at Fefer. 
Paerpflirmi FeTer.... 



Wkttkk!^ DiTwti^y.* 



iDfiaeiiEa.,.. ... 

Neuralgia..,..,.,.. 

Rheamatlum .... 

TuDaiilLtLa.„.. 

InrortDltteiit Ferer. 

Dlarrbea...... 

BemltUmt FaTw..., 
fironDhiUt, ,.,,,»< 
luflam. of Kldoer.., 

A: 



M«tnbranocu Croop. 
(^ooaomptJon, Pol^. 



Tfphoid Fer. (eaat,). 
ChoUnt Infantom... 

PlBoritta...... 



hi 



p^ DUSwaea im Order ol 

AppajviDt 

AmoQAt ot Slqkaaaa. 

Moat I'lwnlamt 

DinuaFint, 



OS 
•^1 



le i,« 
1 ti 

3,4 



II 



KOHTHxast Dmnoii,* 

BfaenmBtiatb ._ 

Bronebltla .......... 

Is fLaenca 

ToaailUtla. 

Nnralfffft...... 

DlafrtM... „.. 

Trph<W3aal, P«TW... 
C«nBiimpd.oD, Fat.. 
Dipbtherla.......... 

Gbolera Uorbna 

PD«Qinozila . . 



PrMotaiT. 



Intermittent Fevw. 

llBwle*. 

litflam. of KMiuv.. 



IffORTHKLaTKIlH I^,* 



Lofloanaa .._ 

RhcitiniatlaDi , 

N*nraJjia„.. ,. 

BroDcblUt. ... 

Dlarrbea ,... 

BlphUieria,... 

ToTwtltitls .... 

iQflauL. of Kidner.. 
latormlttieat Farer^ 



HeaalM ,.„ 

Cholera Horbtu. 



Wbooping-oooffb^ 
Cfaoleni latontimi. 
lufiani. of Bowala., 
DrBftHtetT.. ,. 



4 



M 



uo 

i.0 
ij 

I.T 



*The oonnties in each diviBion are atated in Exhibit I., pa^ 87. 
t Jadirinii frum the per cent ol reporca in oonneotion with the 



' aTerage order of preralanoe where 



d, m, Foot-nutM with th«ee Marks are on page 101. 



STATISTICAL STUDY OF SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 117 



EXHIBIT VII.— CowTxifUBD. 



J 



J; 



in Ordtr of 

Appamnt 

Amoant of BiokniMft 

Most PreTaleat 

Diwaw Firtt. 



B*T *NIP CUflTVKir Blf.* 



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Bbennmtifliii 

Id floBiiBm, _ . , ._ ^ , , , 
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CoaiiqmptiOD, Pckl. 
ToQAilUtia, ....... 

Dfie»iit«rT,, 



Cbolon Morlnu .... 

ATBTttgV _., 

Cholera Iufkotmn.., 
UembrauoaB Cronp, 

EryvlpfrUt. ^^,- 

PmnmoEiia.... ..... 

Tfphold roT. (e&t4. 



BfaMitiiAtiBm 

Nioralgia. _ „ _ „ , . 

tDflEMDta __, 

BrDDchitb ._. , ^ 

ToniUiltl*, .„ 

Di*lT(l8A 

lotwmittent FflTsr 
CantomptloD, Ptil.. 
RemlttQiil Fevec. 

Faenmooia. ......_ ^ 



Cholecm Hotimi. 
M«alai ... 

DjuenteiT..— .. 

Scarlet Fstot 

Fcierpenil FaTsr. 



Og 

..J 



£4 



i,2 



DIcauM Id Onlar of 
Aiiparcrat 

AmoBDt of Sicknau^ 
Moflt Pr«valeat 
Diaeaie Flnt* 



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NoaraJ^ .„ .... 

BrotictiitiB _.„ 

lDflClOI>Z.ft. 

ToustUittB 

DJarrbM...... 

iDtormlttiitit Fbtw. . 
Beraltteut Ferer.... 
C?{tugmptioD, PaU.. 



Wbixiploa'OOQeii. 
ATvtase....... 



Tfphofd Fw. itJit.} 

Plsnrltlft..,,,. 

Infiam. of RfdnBgr... 
Scarlnt F*Tflr . „ , , . . 



11 


1- 


<3| 


:^ 


;i 


^1 


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£2 


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6S 


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It 


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15 


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t.9 


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UiMBMi in Order of 
Apptttvxt 

Am on ot of Slekiwii. 
Uoat PraTalanl 
DlHftH First. 



SCJUtlH 



NX DIT," 



RhAfunHtfim . , 

laflasaza.--.,..,,.,, 
NetirmlBiA........... 

Bronchi tto- 

TonsUUtii. 

Di&rrhoH ,^**.., 

CoQBtiinptioiif PaL. 

Mfwdea 

lotermitteDi Ferat . 

Arenffe.. ....... 

Influn. of Kidnar.. 



Bemittent Fotbt.... 
CholATA Infkatnm. , 
TfphcMiikl. FeTor.. 
Typhoid Fbt. t«Qt,}. 
Boarlat F»T«r, 



BOirnraiHTXK<i DmnoH,* 



in flaoaiB ,,<.._...... 

lUioam&liitii.....,,. 

BroDcbltlt.......... 

Conjiiniptkni, Pul.. 

DiAirhM ...... 

ToiwyUtlfl.... 

laterrstttecit Ftmr. 
Remittent Ferw 



Tf pbotd Fsvw («Dtarlo> 

AT«irac«. 

Uholura Hoirbiii... 

iDflftm. of Boipeb ._«., 

Cbotem Infantom. .,, ,, , 
D7KKlteT7 ,,..,^. 

Typho-mid^ FflfTBr....— .. 



1^ 



-^1 

!1 



* Tb« ooontiM in each diTision are stated in Exhibit I., pam 87. 

t Jadclog from the per cent of reports in connection with the "aTerage order of preralenoe where 



Tf 



t." 



e. Foot^ioteo with these marks are on page 101. 



118 STATE BOAlfiD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 18M. 



EXHIBIT WILL— Names of Stations where were mads the Obseroations of Meteoro- 
logieal Conditions used tn Exhibit X^ and foUotoing Exhibits^ relative to Sickness 
and Meteorological Conditions in 1893 , also the Temperature, Humidity, Cloudiness, 
Ozone, Velocity of Wind and Atmospheric Pressure, at each Station for which 
Observations of the given condition are included in the summary statements relative 
to that condition in said exhibit. 



(ThoH of thm U. B. Sivnal 
BwTiwioftalicfl.) 


Teinp««tQ», 


Hamidttf, 


1 

1 


QUDA. 


1 

4 , 


4tiiion»h«rt9 

pEOAmro. 




^ 


1 


< 


1 


^ 


KuitA. 


1 


1 

ai 


i 


Nam bar of 8Utloiu in-l 


15 


9 


7 
7» 


7 


a 


i 


5 


8 


8 


8 


8 


kwfirt^n^^.. . , . 


US2 


4&.G4 


S^l 


54 


&B1 


4.90. 


!&] 




.atr 


99.090 




MaTqMtttB. „. 

8uilt Stfr MariA.... 


11J8 

16.SS 
2DM 
10.44 

£0.U 
16.49 

u.os 

17.48 
2L74 
M,» 

tlM 

».n 
ao.90 

».4£ 














10.1 












.**.*, 














^i»Tiirt*Cltj........ 


l8.Te 


80 


S.8^ 


6ft 


1.71 


§41 


.Ml 


;ia 


».» 


Alpena. 


Harri«TlUe. 


40.70 






58 


&40 


U» 








i*orf Hitr (Ml .„.^.,.. ........ 






lOJ 
U.l 


... 


















"""' 






ThanLTUle. ,. „ 


46.BS 
44 JS 
46Jtt 

4«^ 


77 
Sl| 
75 
83 


3.53 
3LIS 

8.4a 


IB 
55 

5a 

54 


IJI 


1.96 


.965 
.St7 


.«40 
.130 




I«ii.!n«,B.B.ofH. 

Ann Afbof*.._._.. .*,,„. 


177 
ITI 




to.a 


l^canmslL. ^,^^ , .„ 


M.40 
47.08 














JSl 

.ftSO 


.231 


10.101 
18J»1| 


ffiTmfn^h*ni .^ ,, 


71 


3.5i 


5» 




--- 


ILff 


Bfltroit ^* 


Buttli! Oiwk „, .„,. 


4S.27 


m 


li» 


44 






,aee 


,m 


to.oai 













* OboerratioDB of range of temperatare were made with registerinff thermometers read and tet at the 
Signai BerTioe Statione as follows:— the mazimam at the momlog obserratioD, the minimom at the 
ereniag obeenration, at 9 P. H. at Ann Arbor, and at 7 A M. at other stations. For the osone obeerra* 



■g 

, th( 



le test-paper was exposed from 7 A. M . to 2 P. M. for the day obserratlons, and from 9 P. M. to 7 
A. M . for the night obserratlons. The Telodt j of wind was teoOTded b j registering anemometers, niese 
anbieets are treated by months in 1893, and for prsTlons Tears, in an article on Meteorologieal Conditions 
in Miohigan in 1883, on pages 1-8D of this Report. 



STATiSTIOAL STUDY OF SI0KNBS6 IN MIOHIOAIf IN 1893. 119 



-»8 


1 1 


' 3 i 


8 1 


1 

* 


3 \ 


■ 1 




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|s 




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h 


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i s 


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ditiane at 
Exhibit 17 
:Exibit3 


1 2 


11 a 1 

1 [ 1 


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ii; 


Meteorok 

Exhibit 18, 

ExhibUi 


1 i 


1 "^ 1 


I ^■ 


* 


a 1 


2 i 

* 


o o 


^ 1 


P I 




i \ 


2 i" 


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i 
I 

1 

1 
1 

1 


I i i 

II 1 

i S i 

i:i 1 
ill 
i i i 

i i \ 

\ 1 1 

it! 

Ill 


i i 

II 
II 

4 j 
1 1 


[ i 

!l 

1 1 


\ 1 

11 

a • 

i I 
i 1 
1 1 

li 

li 


i 1 

1 « 

53 1 

i 1 
1 1 


1 1 

ii 

l! 


1 1 

11 

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4 i 
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i f 

li 
II 

s f 

^ i 

1 i 
!i 
Ij 


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8 ! 

E i 

II 

& i 

i ; 

1 i 

ii 


EXHIBIT lX,-Showing C 
with thoee in preceding Yi 
Exhibit 28, page 46; Exh 


1 -^ 
1 1 


i 

1 

1 


i 

i 
s 


1 


1 


i 

a 

i 

1 


1 T^ 

i 

* 
* 

! 


* 


f 
d 

1 





120 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OP SBORETARY, IBM. 

CLIMATE AND SICKNESS.* 

Exhibit X., page 123 (and similar exhibits in previous Reports) is an 
attempt to learn something of the relations of bronchitis to meteorologi- 
oal conditions, by noting whether each meteorological condition was above 
or below its average for the year, in months when more or in months 
when less bronchitis than the average for the year was reported. The 
months are arranged in order according to the prevalence of bronchitis; 
those months in which most bronchitis was reported being placed first in 
the column ; those in which more bronchitis than the average was reported 
are placed above the average line, the others below that line. The mete- 
orological conditions for each month are printed, in the proper columns, 
in the line for the month. The statements being thus arranged, it is easy 
to see whether the temperature, the velocity of the wind, or any other 
condition represented, was above its annual average in months when more 
than the average amount of bronchitis was reported, or vice versa. 

That the comparisons may the more readily be held in mind, propo- 
sitions have been made concerning the relations of bronchitis to meteoro- 
logical conditions, grouping the conditions into two classes. The letters 
a and b in the Exhibit, mark exceptions to these propositions. It is not 
supposed that the propositions are in every case true concerning every dis- 
ease; but the propositions serve to bring out the evidence of the exhibit 
on the subject in question. This evidence is appreciated by noting the 
number and force of the exceptions to the propositions, and also whether 
the exception is explained by facts shown in other columns. A summary 
of the evidence is presented in Exhibit XXV., near the close of this 
article. 

Exhibits and propositions similar to those relative to bronchitis, but 
relating to other diseases, are given on following pages. The proposi- 
tions are differently stated for the summer diseases (beginning with the 
exhibit on diarrhea) and for the winter diseases (beginning with that on 
bronchitis), but they are not changed to fit the individual diseases under 
each class. .; 

RELATIONS OF BRONCHITIS TO METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS. 

Pboposition 1. — That in months when more than the average per cent 
of weekly reports stated the presence of bronchitis, the relative humidity 
of the atmosphere, the average per cent of cloudiness, the ozone, the 
average velocity of the wind, the monthly and the average daily range of 
the barometer, were greater than the average for the year; and in months 
when less than the average per cent of reports stated the presence of bron- 
chitis, these conditions were less than the average for the year. In 
Exhibit X, page 123, the letter a marks exceptions to this proposition for 
the year 1893. 

Proposition 2.— That in months when more than the average per cent 
of weekly reports stated the presence of bronchitis, the average dailv 
temperature, the average daily range of temperature, the absolute humid- 
ity of the atmosphere and the average daily pressure of the atmosphere 
were less than the average for the year; and in months when less than 
the average per cent of reports stated the presence of bronchitis these 

* The remarks under this head are applicable, also, by chancing the name of the diseases to diseases 
traated in Bzhibita XII.. XIV., XV.. XVI. and XVII., on the foUowing pages. The meteorological data 
an fr~" ^u^^ indicated in Exhibit VIIL, page 118. 



I 



r STATISTICAL STUDY OP SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 121 

oonditioDB were greater thau the average for the year. Id Exhibit X., 
page 123, the letter b markfl exoeptione to this propoaitioD for rooDths io 
1893. 

Proposition 3. — For those months which are not, aa regards the abso- 
lute humidity of the atmosphere, exceptions to Propoeition 2, it is true 
also that the quantity of vapor inhaled daily was leK8 than the average, 
and the quantity exhaled daily in excess of that inhaled was greater 
than the average in months when more than the average per cent of 
repoTts stated presence of bronchitis*, and that more vapor was inhaled 
and a less excess exhaled daily in months when the per cent of reports 
stating presence of bronchitis was le88 than the average. 

Proposition 3 also holds true in relation to pneumonia, membranous 
croup, diphtheria, toneillitis, influenza, scarlet fever, rheumatiflm, neural- 
gia, pleoritis and pulmonary consumption, treated in Exhibits XI I., 
XIV., XV., XVI. and XVII., on following pages. 

What per cent of weekly reports received in 189B stated presence of 
bronchitis is graphically represented by months in Diagram 1, page 89. 

The evidence of Exhibit X. confirms that of similar exhibits relating to 
bronchitis in previous years. 

What per cent of the reports received stated presence of bronchitis by 
months in each of the years 1877-93; also the averages for 1877-92 and 
1886-92, and a comparison of 1893, with those averages are shown in 
Exhibit XL. page 122. 

RELATIONS OP PNEUMONIA AND OTHEB **OOLD WEATHER*' DISEASES TO 
METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIUNS. 

Proposition 1. — That in months when more than the average per 
cent of weekly reports stated the presence of pneumonia (or of membran- 
ous croup, diphtheria, tonsillitis, influenza, scarlet fever, rheumatism, 
neuralgia^ pleuritiSj pulmonary consumption or average disease), the rela> 
tive humidity of the atmosphere, the average per cent of cloudiness, the 
ozone, the average velocity of the wind, the monthly and the average 
daily range of the barometer, were greater than the average for the year; 
and in months when less than the average per cent of the reports stated 
the presence of pneumonia (or of the other diseases named), these condi- 
tions were less than the average for the year. In Exhibits XlI.-XXVIll., 
on page 124 and the following pages, the letter a marks exceptions to this 
proposition for the year 1893. 

Pboposition 2, — That in months when more than the average per cent 
of weekly reports stated the presence of pneumonia (or of membranous 
croup, diphtheria, tonsillitis, influenza, scarlet fever, rheumatism, neural- 
gia, pleuritis» pulmonary consnmption^ or average disease), the average 
daily temperature, the average daily range of temperature, the absolute 
humidity of the atmosphere, and the average daily pressure of the atmos- 
phere, were less than the average for the year; and in months when less 
than the average per cent of reports stated the presence of pneumonia (or 
of the other diseases named), these conditions were greater than the aver- 
for the year. In Exhibits XII, XX VIII., on page 124 and following 
'|>ages, the letter b marks exceptions to this proposition for the year 1893, 

What per cent of the weekly reports received in 1893 stated presence ol 
pneumonia is graphically represented by months in Diagram 1, page 89. 
What per cent of weekly reports received stated presence of pneumonia, 

le 



122 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SEGRETARf, 1894. 

and of the other diBeases mentioned in the two preceding propositions bv 
months in the years 1892 and 1893, is stated in Exhibit XIIL, page 126, 
where are also given an average for the sixteen years, 1877-1892, also for 
the seven years, 1886-1892, and a comparison of 1893 with those averages. 

From Exhibit XIII., it may be seen that pneumonia was considerably 
less in 1893 than the average for sixteen years, 1877-92, and also less' in 
each month of 1893, than for the corresponding months of the sixteen 
years, 1877-1892, 

The average temperature was slightly lower in 1893, than the average 
for the sixteen years, 1877-92. It was also lower in each month of 1893, 
except in March, June, July, August, October and November, than the 
average in corresponding months in the sixteen years, 1877-1892. 

The absolute humidity was slightly more in 1893, than the average for 
the sixteen years, 1877-92. It was also more in each month of 1892, except 
January, February,* May, August and September, than the average in cor- 
responding months in the sixteen years, 1877-1892. In April it was the 
same. 

The relative humidity was more for the year, and each month of the year 
1893, except August and September, than the average for the fifteen years, 
1878-1892. In July it was the same. 



EXHIBIT XL— Sickness prom Bbonghitis, 1877-93.—^^ Year and Months for each 
of the sixteen yearst 1877-92^ and for 1893^ and an Average for the sixteen ffears, 
1877-1892, also for the seven years, 1886-1892; stating on what per cent of the 
Weekly Reports received Bronchitis was reported present, and comparing the Per 
Cents for 1893, with the Averages for corresponding months in those years. 



Ytmt, Ste. 


i 
1 

a 

5 


1 


1 


1 


4 

a 
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1 

01 
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es 
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70 
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67 

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1W0„....-™ .......„,,. — . .., 


i88i::::::::::::..::. :::: „..„..... 

1^ ,. ,. ., 


iSBa„„„_„„., _.„„„. „,.. 


iSt:::::::::::...:..::.,-... :„..„- -...—. 


IMS,. 


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iSi:...:::::::::::::::.:::: .:,„,.„.. - ..- 


3S::::::::::::::::.„.. :.: 


In laas L.eBii than At. 18T7-ia .......^.. 


7 1 




laiSa I^MtbiwAT. I886^ffi*. ,,„ 


8 


3 


& 





* ThJ« oomparison la made becanae of change of plan of reporta In Majr, 1885, aBezplainad on pacaa 82-81. 




a 4b «xo«ptioo to the ipropofliitioti that more than the arerace p«r cent of iraeklj report* itated pree- 
•HMof bronchitis Id months when the meteoroloffieal oondltioa nsoied mt the bead of the colama wa* 
f renter than the avorage for the year; and leee in naoDtbfl when the •ame oonditloo wa* I cm than the 
ave(ra«e> See propoeitioa 1, ralatiDg to brouehitli, pam 120. 

h An exception to the prot>oaltion that more thaa the aTeraffa per oent of weekly reports atetad prae> 
eaoe of brouchitle in month* when the meteorolocioal condition named at the head of the colama was 
lea* Chan the everege for the s-ear and leae In tnonthe wh«D thn aania eoodltioo wm greater than tha 
at^erage for the jear. See propoeitinn t, ralatlnv to bronchitis, page 120, 

* How maoy statlooe, and what Btatinns are repreeented io the it-atemeota for eaoh metoorolofftcal sab> 
MOt may be Men by rafaoi>ng to Exhibit Till., page 80^ In which the atatiofla are tuimedtand a itatement 
for the year 1X91. in relation to eAch met^orologioaraabjfict, in given for each atatloo Inolnded in the aver- 
age for that anbjeet. la Exhibit ¥ILIm is atao stated what time the tri-daily obeerratioaa wan^ m&tie at 
each atation. Additional atatomenta relative to meteoroJoffioal oooditloaa may be foond in an article on 
the Principal ftleteoroloffloa] Condltloiia In Michigan in ISwS on pegea 1-^^ of this Report. 

t Explanatiooa of atatemenU In tbaae colamna, and other atatementa relative to the pravalenoe. in 188t, 
of the diaeaate under eoEiaideratioQ may be foand in Tablea 2, pagea 100-100. and 4, pagea IIO-IH, of this 
Report] and alao ia Dlagnuna 1 (p. BO), i, X 4 and A, on folIowLng pagna. Whan the per cent of reporta 
atated for any dlsaaae ia Uia lame for tw<^ moDtba or for any month is the same as the averagn> the order 
of months in the flrat oolonui of tbeae exhibita has been determined by raferenoe to fractional per eonta^ 

X Bmali Dqrob«ra in thia oolomn Indioate greet pravaianoe In the looditlea where the dleaaae ox^orrtd. 
as compared vitli other diaeaaea ; and large nombera a leas preralenoe, 

I C-aJcalated from readinga of dry bnlh and wet balb thermometers. 

1 Caleniated for 18 reapirations per minat^, of 20 coble inchea of air each. 

1 Aaenmlog the air exhaled to be aatorated with vapor at tha temperatore of USt" F.« in which ease oaeli 
oobie foot of air eoataine 1%M gralna of vapor, and 18 reapirationa per ininate, of tO cable inches of air 
aaoh, make 11.69 Troy onnoea of vapor exhaled daily. No oorreotloa hae been made for expanaion of air 
•liar It to inhaled. 

** The daily range from which nnmbers In thia eolnmn were eompnied lathe differaooe beiwaaa tha 
hlfbeat and th^ loweat of the f oor oba««rvattone takan daring the M hoora, namely, at 7 A. ll«. t P. M., 9 
PTm. of oD« day, and 7 A. M. of the foDowiog day. 



lb 



124 8TATB BOARD OF HBAIiTEL-RBPORT OF SBCRETART, 1894. 



EXHIBIT XII.— PivEUMOznA and MBMBBAifous Cnoxrp.—SltaHng for the Year and far 
each Month of the Year 1693, what Per Cent of the Weekly Reports of Sickneee 
Stated Presence of Pneumonia and Membranous Croup, and what were the Meteoro- 
logical Conditions as observed at Stations in Michigan.* 



FRXmiOHU. 


Temperar 


Bamidltr 
o( Air g 
A^. Of » 

Daily Ob- 

eerrfttloai. 


lubftLidaad 

ExtLELed 
from the Air 

iff oao Par* 

monlnii 

Hours, Troy 

Ooacec, 


o 

o 

i 


OEone, 

Relative 


1 

11 

■si 

Si ^ 


Atmoipberic Pr»- 1 
Bare, liicbe« 


i 

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^1 

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it. 






Scale of 10*^. 


Reduced to W P* ' 


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a 
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1 rFeb._... 


u 


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bis.tb 


«O,09 


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M 


10.70 


6fi 


4,54 


4-tZ 


11.7 


1,462 


.386 


ft a».m 


If 


Jwi. ,„„ 


u 


3.4 


15.0^ 


lG,t3 


m 


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.74 


10.04 


76 


4.0s 


a 4.02 


a 17 


1.110 


.2CI 


28.077 


Mm 


u 


3.E» 


I6.a4 


9D.61 


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1.2(7 


10.41 


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4.30 


4,02, 


U.7 


LOM 


.200 


6a».067 


III"*' 

1 (.Not.™. 


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3.9 
8.8 


14-ai 

16 34 


41.19 


ss 

a73 




1.71 


10 Bl 
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80 


a 3,81 

8.01 


4.0£ 


11.7 


1.813 

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b 2ft.0t8 
E9.000 


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10.S 


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.247 


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1^ 

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lft.£0 


S4.90 


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w 


a 4.18 


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b2B.mt 




n 


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St.KS 

mm 


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79 


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7.B5 
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17 


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4,U 

3.01 


8.1 


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aum 


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20.C66 


Si»pt.,- 


% 


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M% 


mM 


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8.60 


13 


S.84 


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0.£ 


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.187 


mMt 


Jalf. 


6 


t.£ 


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n 


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68.57 


70 


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& 20,124 


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a ,218 


6 £0.081 
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las 


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0.7 


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% 


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bmM 


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a 10.6 


aum 


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Aug.,.,., 


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» 


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IM 


8.80 


43 


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20,066 






••. For foot-notes with these marke, see Exhibit X. pase 128. 

a to Propoeition 1, reJatiog to PneomoDia and M embranooa Cronp on pac« 121. 

B to Propoaitioa 2, relatisg to PnenmoDia and Membnmou ijKwa <m w 121. 



STATISTICAL STUDY OF SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN 1803. 126 
DIAGRAM 1-WEEKLY REPORTS OF SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN, IN 1693. 




[Plate 7M.1 



126 STATE BOARD OF HEAI/TH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY, 1804. 



EXHIBIT XIII.— By Year and Months for 1693 and for the preceding year, and an 
Average for the Sixteen Years, 1877-92.* Stating on what Per Cent of the Weekly 
Reports received Pneumonia, Membranous Croup, Diphtheria, Rheumatism, Influ- 
enza, Scarlet Peter, Neuralgia* and Tonsillitis,* were Reported Present, and 
Comparing the Per Cents for Months in 1889, with the Averages for Corresponding 
Months in those years.-f 



¥ear«, «te. 


1 

IS 

u 

2i 


1 

19 

m 

31 


59 
Bl 

B4 
36 


17 


1 

49 

40 

30 
31 


ft 

17 
31 

m 

20 


tz 
le 

IB 

12 


i 

14 

U 

10 
8 


n 

9 

7 

7 


1 

15 
IS 

If 
9 


i 

20 
17 

IS 

IS. 


i 

ao 

J4 

io 
34 


1 

40 
■8 

94 


1 

S 

D- 

1' 


8 

"i 


i 

7 
7 


i 


1 

a 
7 

5 

3 
4 


I 

e 
5 

1 

£ 


1 

4 

4 
1 


i 

3 
i 

t 

ft.3 


i 

L4 

1 
1 


i 

1.4 
1 


1 

a 

0^ 


1 

6 

4 

a 
1 


k 

7 9 

S 6 

4 6 

a a 


At. 7 jmn, ISSO-lBS*^, 

1 1B03 , ..,.,.„, 


1 In im Greft**r than At* 


1 
ft 


- 


"i 

i 


i 
1 


i 




"4" 


"i 

":4 


a "4 


"it 
"a* 


^ In lBa3L«8*tfaiui At. 1877-92 

, In legs OrefttQt- tluiD At. 
1 IH8«-18S^ 


u 


21 


23 


£1 


18 


17 


ID 


A 


6 


fl 


8 


e 





e 
1 


In lSd3 I^iM Ihno At. m^-m 




19 


IS 


13 


9 


LI 


4 


8 


2 


a 


a 


I a 


fAT, 18 jwmi, I9n-188a_„„. 
Ar. Irean. 188a-ia«„.. 

J i89a.....__ 

f IBM , 

^ihi 1^99 Or9«tcr thiin At, 

■a isj7-w^ ........... 


le 


11 

B 
10 


I 

s 

9 


IS 

7 

€ 


It; 
7 


11 
7 

'"7 
8 


11 

6 

1 
ft 


11 



4 

7 


U 

6 

ft 
8 


It 

7 

e 


30 
tl 

ft 


23 

It 
10 

8 


31 

10 

u 

6 




64 
64 


7a 

71 

71 

66 

f 

i 


71 

TO 

1 


74 

n 

m 
m 


TO 
14 

08 
73 

"i 

1 


73 
7S 

s 

07 

i 


0^ 
09 

"04 
01 

1 


ot 

01 

fifl 

60 

i 


58 

5i 

67 


91 
03 

ft? 

... 




«7n 

08 «S 

«4!e4 

1"b 
'44 


70 
t 


g In Itte Less than At. 1877-92 

In 1893 Greater than At. 
lisSfl^iyezf -.— - 


- 


U 


9 
I 


i 


i 

1 


1 


3 
B 


4 

1 


4 


7 


i 


14 

"3 


15 
"4 


1' * 


tin i«^ L««i than At. ISSA-m 




1 


TAt. Ifl r(!«nt 1877-1892.. , 

At. 7 yMir»a88«-lB02......... 

WM........ ..„.„... 


40 

m 

n 

41 

8 

S 


m 

04 
59 

1 

"8 


04 

93 

'9 


At 

7"? 
S7 

i 


54 

5B 

5« 

1 
"8 


40 

m 
m 

1 


£1 
■7 

"b 


m 

IS 

It 
4 


i? 

17 

le 
i 

"i 


g 

■3 





as 

SI 

'a 


10 
34 


4$ 
50 

Ml 
9S 

44 

4a 


fifi 
10 

^ 1£ 


19 
1* 

11 
IB 

3 

4 


19 
11 

10 
12 

'7 

I 


1918 
UI2 


Ifl 
tl 

10 

11 
"ft 


14 

9 

» 

U 

J 
t 


u 

6 

~7 
7 

"i 
1 


10 
6 

6 
7 

• 

1 


11 

i 

"4 


14 

11 

i 

1 


IB 
U, 

U 

"i 


u 
11 

u 
u 

a 

1 


1 l«9».,. „.„.,„.,....,„,,... 

l-i In IR93 a Mater tliui At. 
a l877-lS9a 


i 


10 


10 
ft 

1 


12 


S InlS@3L««attiaiiAT.B77-9J 
in IMBS Or«at*r than At. 

lescnEsat...... 

I la 1893 Lout rhfiti At. 138S4»2t 


J 


S 


^ 1 








f At. 14 feare, IH79-I8&a^„,,_, 
At.Tfwti. lai^a^lBQl........ 

, iafi«„. _.._._....._ 

J 1883.......,,..,...,.,, „ 


55 09 
57 S7 


Ti 

71 

75 
02 


72 
71 

72 
85 


7zm 
7]iaa 


61 
62 

57 
GO 


00 
51 


B7 
57 

53 
^8 


59 
&4 


S5 


s 


s 




^1? 


5a 




99 


IS 


41 


40 
Ift 


as 


IS 

31 


17 


45 

46 

44 

44 


54 

53 

«a 

"i 


BO 

» 

ftG 

'i 


7J 




S9 
60 


57 5 


4M 

49 

1 


57 

4 


5* 
1 


69 
61 

i 
t 


54 


48 

i 


41 

87 

i 


37 
4 




30 

as 

"i 


l^ Ifl 18P3 Greater than At. 
d lg79-t.KR2 








f 


^ In l!i98 L«fls~thui'AT:i87V^i 

In Hm Greater than At. 
18M-ie9^ „„_„.,.. 


'fl 


12 


9 


7 


11 


11 


U 


ft 


4 


ft 


7 


7 


11 


'H 


i 


i 


... 
3 


6 


3 


... 


i 


- 


i 


,In mt l.»s tJian Ay . imiSit 


B 


la 


9 


' 


10 


10 


If 


ft 


4 


15 


7 


6 


10 




L,^ 



* The aTersge line for tonsillitis and nenraliria inelades only the foarteen years, 1879-1892. 

i Other statements for 1898. aod months in 1893, relatiTe to these diseasee are giTen in Table 2. pagee IQO- 
. and in Exhibits XIL.. XIV., XY. and XYI.. pages 124 128, 129 and 1£0. where are also glTen for oooTen- 
lent romparison statements of coincident meteorological conditions. 
!i I This comparison is made becaaee of change of plan of reports in May, ISSA, as explained on pflgea 82-3. 



The lines for 1893 in Exhibit XIII. are graphically represented in 
Diagrams 1, page 89, 2, page 125, 8, page 127, and 4 on page 133. 



STATISTICAL STUDY OF SICKNESS IK MICHIGAN IN 1808. 127 
DIAGRAM 3-WEEKLY REPORTS OF SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN, IN IBM. 




L Plate 7tlO.) 



128 BTATB BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SECRETARY. 1894. 



EXHIBIT XIV.— DiPHTHRRiA AND TovBihiATiB,— Stating for the Year cmd for each 
Month of the Year 1893, what Per Cent of the Weekly Reports of Sickness Stated 
Preienee of Diphtheria and Tonsillitis, and what were the Meteorological Condi- 
tions as observed at Stations in Michigan,* 



DiFBTQEUA. 




Temper«P 
tore, P, 


Humidity 

of Air H 


Vapor 
lohflJed and 

fronj the Air 

by one Pe.p-; 

eoo m S4 
BoB™,Tlroy 

Onnoea. 


1 

i: 


HAlatiTQ 


1 

1 


Atmospbedo Prw- 
imten Inches 


il 

pi 
H 


'i 


Q 1 

5 




At. of a 
Dailj Ob- 

aflTTAtiQiia 


ftrsft'e of 10". 


BedQcsd to ^t* P. 


^1 1 




OS 


Bmii«». 


< 


If 


^1 


.1 

1^ 




1 
1 


*4 


1 


■1 


t fJu. 


10 


3.S 


IS.M 


nM 


S& 


UW 


.7* 


10.W 


76 


402 


O4.03 


a 9.T 


i-no 


.tS3 


as 977 


1 


June .... 




H.O 


blO.fiii 


63d .m 


a 74 


b e.ia 


8.^ 


7,e5 


a 31 


6.9S 


a4.IS 


4. 8.2 


o .691 


a.m 


bm.m 




Feb 




4.0 


MS.ao 


S0.(« 


aa 


lAl 


J9 


10,79 


^ 


4.64 


4.9J 


11.7 


Lisa 


jm 


b miu 


Uny 




£.a 


619,20 


frM.m 


nn 


b ZM 


2.» 


9.29 


aeo 


tl6 


4&S 


a 9.6 


a .963 


a.m 


28.961 


J* 

E 


Ati« 




3.1 


632.13 


mM 


O70 


b 5.88 


3.i0 


a.i9 


430 


4.W 


4,66 


o 7,6 


a .m 


d .1^ 


b*&,lU 


Not 




S.7 


14,2a 


m3t 


?e 


2.17 


1.4B 


io.eo 


65 


a 6,06 


a8.£6 


11.3 


1.16B 


a.m 


£9.069 


i LJolT..- 





1ft 
S.4 


bao.76 


bltU 


a 72 
7» 


& e,GO 


iM 


9.19 


038 
54 


ai.M 


a 9.66 


4 ej 

10,£ 


a ,467 

,969 

11.E66' 


a .161 


bvtm 


Awfinn.—... 


17^2 
617.27 


45JS4 


311 


t.n 


6.91 
6,70 


4.S0 


.227 
.226 


29.0S0 


I^roct 




3.5 


50.69 


70 


i.T2 


tM 


e,!E\ 


47 


6.91 


a lOJ 


2P.679 


;| 


SiipL ..„ 




3^ 


msd 


ao.4o 


7B 


4.7S 


tm 


8.OT 


4S 


3.34 


6.14 


9.2 


.6161 


.167 


29.086 


It 

la 


Dec 




S.8 


bU.II 


bi&M 


a^ 


b IM 


1.14 


10.A4 


a»0 


S.8J 


a 4.53 


a IIJ 


41.613: 


a .129 


69.096 


Apr....._ 




i.a 


bte.32 


bia.iti 


73 


b a.77 


l.T> 


4.«fi 


a6$J 


a 1.9 £ 


a 4 62 


a 11.2 


11.118 


a .28S 


b iB.mo^ 


SSLMar...... 




4.« 


bla.fl* 


6aa.fli 


a84 


h ZM 


1.B7, 


I0.*1 


tt56 


ttl.30 


a iM 


aU7 


al,Q66 


..t90 


£9,067 


Tmbillitm. 






















% rJan>^.... 


«i 


ZJi 


li,09 


1K.&1 


m 


LIB 


.74 


10.W 


76 


iM 


aAM 


a 9.7 


1.110 


,m 


aB.«7 


1 


Mat 


01 


S.5 


IBM 


30.61 


&4 


2.01 


1.S7 


10.41 


M 


4J0 


Ifti 


11.7 


1.066 


.£90 


b £9.067 


U 


Fob _ _. 


59 


aft 


til&.W 


mm 


8£i 


l.« 


.69 


10,79, 65 


4.M 


4.91 


11.? 


1.4HI 


.366 


& S9A£4 


.a 

1 


Dec....... 


U 


S.4 


UM 


UM 


S» 


1.8. 


1.14 


\^M^ m 


a 9,61 


4.63 


11.7 


1.611 


.339 


£r 29.091 


Apr...... 


U 


S.7 


UM 


48.1S 


a 73 


2.77 


1.7a 


4.95 


68 


ZM 


4j6I 


16,3 


l.ltS 


,t8S 


i9.00O 


Not 


^ 


s,s 


14,38 


36.61 


82 


Z,37 


\A% 


10,30 


6S 


aZM 


o3,!S 


11,6 


1.115 


a,lU 


39.069 


i iMtr 


49 
44 


2^ 



B.0 


IIM 


4S.64 


a7i 
79 


6 3.es 


2.3e 


^,mbm 


4,1* 


4,55 


a 9.6 


a ,955 
.909 


,l«7 


28.9SS 


AT«nu[e....,, 


lAl 


3.19 
2.S3 


9.49 

9.S6 


61 
47 


IJI 

3.70 


4.90 


10.3 


£9.000 


si ^""^ 

d^^ Jan**...-- 


BO.iVi 


711 


8,7a 


1.91 


a 104t 


al.B56 


.326 


mjm 


17 


2,6 


20.75 


73.19 


72 


6.S0 


4.06 


7.62 


38 


3.90 


3J6 


6,2 


.4fl7 


.Ml 


&.m 


37 


£.8 


20.92 


eg.os 


7* 


B4t 


8J3 


7J5 


« 


a i,99 


4.16 


9.B 


.891 


,18S 


£9,086 


la 


8opt...., 


8!! 


3.3 


£0.88 


00.«Q 


75 


4.78 


tM 


8.69 


46 


3.B4 


3.ii 


9.2 


.619 


.167 


^.036 


SI LAa*...,.. 


M 


3J 


22.12 


08.57 


70 


8.&? 


3.4B 


8.19 


!» 


a4J6 


11156 


7.6 


,469 


An 


89.111 



•.!,♦■""♦♦. For foot-notes with these marks, see Exhibit X, pace 123. 

to Proposition 1, relating to Diphtheria and Tonsillitis, on page 121. 
to PropoBition 2, relating to Diphtheria apd Tonsillitis, on page 121. 



H|P STATISTICAL STUDY OP SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN 1885. 129 ■ 


m BXHIBIT XV.— IifFLumiZA awd Scarlet Fkvbr.— 5fafi»i7 for the Year and for each 1 


■ Monih of the Year 1893, what Per Cent of the Wet'kly Retort* of Sickneaa Stated ■ 

■ Presence of Influenza and Scariet Fever, and what were the Meteorological Condi- | 


1 


tiont a* obterved at Stations in Miehiffon* 


■ 


1 
1 


lUfWUJWJKZk, 


Tampem- 
tora, F. 


Hnmidity 
of Air 8 
At. of 3 

Dailj Ob> 

iarrationa. 


VaiKjr 
InhaJed and 

EibalMi 
from the Air 

b^ooaP^r- 

Hoara.TroT 
OiuuMa. 


1 

t 


Osnoa* 
BatatlTe 

IkiAlaoriO^ 


5* 


Atmoaphaiio Prea- 

vnre, Inohea 
Redocad to 32« F. 


1 


1 

sS.1 


IJ 

a ' 

it 


5 




^1 


11 


1 


< 

L 

5- 


a» 

OS 
1^ 


BAOga. 


1 


1 


1, 
11 




■ 


1 


^1 


J 


*-4 


^1. 


1 


1 


D« 


99 


Lt 


14.31 


£6.88 


88 


1J3 


1.U 


10.54 80 


a Ml 


4.58 


lt7 


1.318 


.3®' 


629.0191 




Not..-.- 


^ 


1.7 


14.28 


38.61 


82' 


2J7 


1.48 


10.80 


m 


a8,(n 


a 8.28 


1L3 


1.115 


a .211 


39.059 






P*b._,. 


sa 


l.» 


M8.80 


3I».09 


88 


L43 


.89 


10.79 


65 


4.54 


4,9i 


IL7 


1.483 


.386 


689.124 






p 


Mar 


fi7 


t.0 


iej4 


30.il 


81 


1.03 


1.27 


10.41 


58 


4J0 


4.91 


UJ 


1.088 


.190 


689.081 






r 


Jan.,„. 


at 


h9 


SS.QS 


1&.23 


80 


Lie 


.74 


10.94 


76 


4.08 


a 4.08 


a 9.7 


1.110 


.151 


18.977 






April,.- 


48 


t.l 


ICH 


4349 


a 73 


2,77 


1-78 


9.95 


68 


1.92 


4.62 


11.2 


1,188 

.989 


.388 

.127 


20.000! 




Av „- 


43 


Z.0 


17.W 


45.34 


7Q 


3.51 


Z.I9' 


9.49 


54 


8J1 


4.88 


10.2 


t»jm 


U 

s 


JUj-... 


« 


1.0 


UJO 


S4.30 


72 


*M 


2.39 


9.29 


10 


a 4.18 


a 4.55 


9.8 


.955 


.178 


628.981 




Oa*, „., 


tt 


J.g 


M7.17 


ao.so 


TB 


8.71 


1.28 


9.35 


47 


L70 


8.91 


a 10.6 


al.2S8 


.IK 


39.079 






Sept.. .. 


2S 


1.7 


80.18 


80.40 


75 


4.78 


1.B9 


8.09 


43 


1.31 


1.24 


9.2 


.816 


.167 


204»6 






Jon.-- 


11 


W 


30.61 


90.Ofi 


74 


8.12 


1^ 


7.85 


14 


a 1.98 


4.16 


8.2 


J191 


.188 


29.088 




^B 


^^ 


10 


3.1 


21.12 


68.57 


70 


5.9S 


8.49 


8.19 


30 


a 4 58 


a AM 


7.8 


.489 


.113 


28.111 




r 


LJnJy.... 


11 


38 


30.75 


78.18 


78 


8.50 


4.08 


7.82 


88 


3.50 


1.88 


8.2 


.487 


.151 


nsm 




8oAB£.rr 










_ 
























Fktbi. 


































1 


T5 


r J*n. .„. 


te 


3.1 


IS.tlS 


is.ta 


^ 


L19 


.74 


10J4 


78 


4.02 


a 4.01 


a 9.7 


IIW 


.253 


28.977 




1 


r 


Fab 


12 


S.E 


1S.» 


8008 


88 


142 


.89 


10.79 


63 


4.54 


4.92 


1L7 


1.482 


J06 


629.114 




I 


ii 


Apr..... 


u 


1.8 


U.I2 


41.19 


aTa 


1.77 


L73 


9.96 


88 


8.91 


4.82 


11.2 


1.118 


.888 


689X100 




L 


D«i 


u 


SJ 


1431 


38.88 


86 


L88 


i.l4 


10.M 


80 


alJl 


4.58 


11.7 


1.811 


.329 


^29.098 




H 


li 

E 


Not 


ii 


3.a 


14.28 


98.81 


8! 


2.17 


1.48 


10.20 


65 


a 8 08 


a 8.28 


UJ 


1.115 


a Mi 


£9.059 




r 


Ma7 


ti 


9.5 


M9.W 


684.10 


a 72 


6 3.83 


1.39 


9.19 a 50 


i,U 


4.M 


a 9^ 


a .955 


a 475 


18.961 




[ 


j IJana.... 


11 


1.6 


62032 


6O05 


d74 


6 6.12 


3.88 


7,85 


al4 


3.9« 


a 4.1s 


a 8,2 
10.2 


a. 591 


a .188 


629.088 
89.080 




Av -., 


10 


1.6 


n.n 


46,84 


71 


3.51 


1.19 


9.49 


54 


8.91 


4.2(1 


.999 


.817 




f Oct, . 


10 


Ui 


A17.27 


MM 


7G 


8.71 


1.33 


9.39 


47 


3.7C 


S.91 


a 10 6 


al.S« 


.139 


8B.a7« 


L 


Mar... 


10 

7 


4.C 
1^ 


616.94 

30.79 


M0.81 
72.16 


o84 
71 


6 2.0s 
6.B0 


1.17 

4.01! 


10.41 

7.82 


a.Tfl 
1^ 


a4JC 
3.9C 


» a 4.93 

3M 


a 11.7 


aiose 

.487 


a. 190 
.151 


29.087 

a9.8'n 










































^F 


An«... 


7 


4.1 


11.12 


88.S7 


7C 


5.&S 


1.49 


8.1s 


3C 


a4S< 


a iM 


7.<l 


.489 


.128 


89.111 




1 


Isept.. 


7 


4.2 


3U.S6 


80.4Q 


7! 


4.7* 


1.9B 


8.6S 


K 


1.84 


3.24 


9.S 


.616 


.187 


29.€e6 




■ 


•. t. i, §. !l. TI. •*, Fnt foot-notw with thevf* ro»rlta see Exhibit X, pafte l«8. 




^B a Jkn e3u»«i»tloo to fropomuon I, ralftUoff to lonaADsa «Dd Heariet r^Ter on pacB Ui* ^^H 


^1 ^ Mm ttmemptioD to Propoeitlon 2, r«]atiaff to Inflaacisa and Bo«rl«t Fever on ptg% 121. ^^^| 


k 


■ ■ 



180 STATB BOARD OF HEALTH.— RBPOBT OP SIKSUBTABT, 1894. 



EXHIBIT XVI.— Rheumatism and Vwx}RAunA,—8taHng for the Year and for each 
Month of the Year 18^3, what Per Cent of the Weekly Beports of Siekneee Stated 
Presence of Rheumatiem and Neuralgia, and what were the Meteorological Condi- 
tions as observed at Stations in Michigan.* 



SacmfA'nftM. 



fig 

Si 



Tempera- 



^1 

ii 



-J 

IS 



of Airg 

Aw. of a 

DHilr Ob- 



£1 



I- 






Vapor 

Inhaled mud 

ExhAlod 
from the Air 

■OD in £1 

Koara, Tftjy 
Oimoai 



p. 



Owine, 


S 


RelAliTft 




ScaJooflOS 


1* 




1 

OS 


OS 


nSa 


lis 


^- 


!•: 


i* 



Bfldncad ho 31" F. 









Apr, ..... 

Hu 

May „,„ 



^'HFeb...... 



Jim* 
n lOat, 



1 -4- .__. 



At. 



i 



fNOT... 



iS^ laept... 



I Feb. .. 



si 



I Apr. ... 



At. 



H I !>«*-„ 
May.... 

if loot. .... 
Sept, ,„ 

Ana- 

July .... 
June,.. 



10.04 

bmM 

14.31 



SOJl 

i&.zs 
ae.sa 



17.92 



4S.e4 



6t4.&S 
£a52 

20 je 



tMAl 

mm 

73.10 
M.57 
«0.40 



a 71 

a 72 



74 

70 
7S 



1S.64 
10.12 

17 Ji 



3Q.0I 

1349 
MO I 



45,04 



bU.m 

611. n 



bu.m 

51.30 
50,59 
60,40 
68.57 



2Q.7S! 72,16 



S8 
a 73 

8i, 

79 

7i 

79 
75 
70 

Ta 

74 



4,77 
2.03 

bim 

1.41 

IJft 

IM 

biM 



t.il 



6 1.87 

•JO 
»^ 
4.78 



£.oa 

1.42 
a,77 
£.37 



M 



bi.n 

b IM 
8.88 
3.72 
4Ja 

ft.50 
0.1! 



1.73 
1,87 

iM 
M 
.71 

141 

1.11 



10.11 

10,7S 
10.91 
10.»4 
9M 



OS 

79 

80 

(141 



I.19 



9.4tt 



S4 



1.4U 
S,49 



10.20 
7.8* 
7M 
B.19 

04 DV 



a4& 
•4 

38 
30 
43 



ia7 

M 
1,71 
1.4i» 



a.ii 



10.41 

10.79 
9.ftS 
10.30 

g.49 



.74 
1.14 

2.13 

a.i»9 

■.4i 

iM 
t.31 



10.Vi 
10.&4 

a.^ 

8.69 
B.t9 
7.«i 
7J5 



70 
a 80 

47 
4S 
SO 
38 
91 



i.ft2 

4; 

4.18 

iM 

AM 
atSl 
a t,70 



3.01 



1.00 

a f.m 

a iM 
AM 



4.80 
4.Q4 

3 



9.91 



a 4.02 
1.81 

a 4.18 
3.70 
8.ii 

a 4,90 
1.50 

a 1.98 



4.03 
IM 

iM 
a 4.01 

113.91 



4.S0 



3.88 
4.15 

3.06 

<$i.Q6 

1.84 



4.92 
4.t£ 

4.A2 
a t.28 



4.0*1 
aiM 
aiM 

3.91 
a.24 
a 4.00 
a.66 
4. IS 



18.2 

ll.T 
a 9.8 

11.7 
aV.T 

IIJ 

10.8 



ia.8 



a 11,3 

8,i 
Kt 
7.6 
B.2 



iL7 
li-7 



11.1 



10.2 



9,7 
a IL7 

a 10.0 

7 J 
8.8 
8.8 



LISS 
1.0SB 

I .966 
1,432 

1410 
1.113 
L266 



I1143& 
Ml 
,187 

,is» 



1.086 

1.488 

uias 

1433 



.989 



oUlO 
al.813 

9fta 

al,25e 
616 

489 

m 



,290 
d 476 



J2& 
a .£25 



.S«7 



.213 

418 

.m 

428 
4C7 



29.000 

b 28.067 

£8.082 

b 19.111 

£8.977 
ft 

fta.oTOj 



b £9.000 
29,000 

d 29^077 
£9.111 
£9.086 



.290 



a .318 



.m 



a .SB 
a .329 
.175 
.!£5 
.167 
.12^ 
.161 
.188 



bt»jm 
ftis.m 

3».000 



^.000 



fr88.W7 
£»Q98 

6 28.082 
^.070 
29.086 
29.fll 
£».0T7 
29.008 



*« ti t. §. li. IT. **. For foot-notes with these marks, see Exhibit X., page 128. 
aA^ -«'«-'*o><'«-* to proposition 1, relating to rheumatism and nearaigia on page 181. 
^A J uroixMitioa 8, i elating to rheomatism and naoralgta on page 181. 



STATISTICAL STUDY OP SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN 1893. 181 



BXHIBIT XVII,— Pui^itoKARY CoifsuMPTiON AWD Flxxjiotw.— Stating for ths Year 
and far each Month of the Vear^ what Ptr Cent of the Weekly Reports of SicknesB 
Stated Prenence of Pulmonary Connumpiion and P/eurt(M, aud what were the 
Meteorological Conditum^ aa obiterved at Stations in Michigan.* 




182 8TATB BOARD OF HEAI/TH.— REPORT OF 8B0RBTARY, IBM. 



BXHIBIT XVIII.— BiOKifSBS raoM Consumption.— 1878-98.— By Year and ManthB 
for each of the sixteen years, 1878-93, and an Average for the fifteenyeara^ 1878-92, 
aieofor the aeven years, 1886-92; Stating on what Per Cent of the Weekly Beporte 
received Consukption was reported Present, and Comparing the Per Cents for 189$ 
toith the Averages for corresponding Months in those years. 



THTtittti. 


4 

1 


frt 


1 


1 


t 


i 


i 

4i 

BO 


1 

58 
47 

a 


1 

BS 
48 

as 


1 

S8 

4ft 

3tl 


1 

87 
46 
>4 


86 

4A 

08 


87 
IB 
88 


AnnfvU rwn. li7S-9t». ,„.„,„„ 


40 


00 

SO 


81 

47 


81 

51 

47 


88 

M 
81 


80 
81 
4ft 


AT«*«fl7jMr«. 1886-621.— 


isn*„„,„. .,....„„.... 


fi£ 


li7S.., .„.„, .„,..--_. 


71 

TO 


m 
11 


7S 
11 


Tie 
m 


7B 
77 


74 


8S 
73 


68 

m 


68 

67 


70 
87 


71 
60 


7t 
67 


71 
84 


IfIS ,.-..„,....„,,.,.. _....„ _ 


ISBO .., ^ . .„.„ . , 


68 
71 


74 


m 


70 
78 


72 
76 


TO 


m 


m 
m 


82 

6? 


88 
70 


68 
71 


88 

74 


70 
67 


1B81.„. ^,..,....._.,„..„.,„.,..„...... 


tS82,,„,.,,,,„^_„„„,.„,^v, ,,*„.*...._, — ___ 


H 


60 


m 


08 


66 


69 


6ft 


m 


63 


as 


88 


62 


66 


I«i-„...„.„,„.,„-,.,...,.........„.. 


ei 


M 


08 


4ft 


fifi 


8S 


61 


BO 


85 


B7 


Bg 


Sfl 


m 


1«M ,.,_„.. . .., , , 


es 

SB 


oo 


81 
88 


68 
71 


70 
9» 


67 


69 
61 


68 

B8 


63 
8t 


63 
84 


SB 
55 


61 
S6 


88 
84 


1888. „.,„.. .„_„_...„. _.._.,_„.,.„ 


lam 


61 


«l 


B8 

64 


00 
61 


ei 

61 


84 


08 
46 


81 

48 


47 


48 
48 


81 
48 


86 

47 


84 

ool 


1BS7 -.-_„.,. ..„,.. 


i^m 


4t 

4» 


BO 


51 
1$ 


81 

m 


47 
50 


S8 

46 


88 
47 


81 
47 


19 

16 


14 

80 


5S 


44 
4ft 


4S 
81 




1880 .,.„„-,.,„,.......„. _.„„...._. 


&2 
49 


60 


61 


m 
u 


61 


87 
08 


El 

45 


48 
48 


BO 


81 
41 


81 
44 


40 
48 


IS 


IM1.„„„„.„._._ ...„ ..,_ 


Utt-.... ,..„- 


88 

ta 


4S 


18 
iS 


40 
4t 


il 

4S 


n 
la 

8 ' 


18 

37 

11 


m 

88 

U 


37 
37 


18 
17 

9 


88 
U 

14 


84 

81 


88 

U 


1803 (m6 Dfi^ara oa opp<»lt« p«t«) 




In ISM Lctf thu At. lS»H«t. 


11 


n 


11 


ID 


« 




In 1893 I.e« thmn At. 1879^ „.„. ,. ... 


m 


sa 


It 


IS 


18 


il 


U 


u 


18 


as 


» 


It 


U 



* At oonramption wm not printed on the first blanks, nor on all nned in 1877, that lear is ecKolodad tram 
lbs aTeraffe line, 
t This comparison is made because of chance of plan of reports in May, 1888, as explained on paces 88-88. 



STATISTICAIi STUDY OF BIGKNBSS IN MIOHIQAN IN 1888. 138 
DIAGRAMI^-WEEKLY REPORTS OFSICKWE6S IN MICHIGAN. IN ISftS. 



PER GENT OF REPORTS WHICH HATE! PREIEHOE OF OUCASES REPREOERTEO. 






i 



80 

00 
76 
70 
86 
88 
68 
88 
46 
40 
88 
88 
16 
88 
16 
18 
6 



^ 



^V 



^ 



^ 



llSta. 




^RFUJII«TI0ll_0JM4||| ^.^ --"'^-N 



\, 



[Plato 791.] 



1S4 BTATB BOARD OF HEAiyTHv-RBPORT OP 8B0R£TAUT, 1W4. 



BBLATIONB OF DIABBHBA TO MBTEO BOLOGIOAL OONDITIONB. 

Pboposition 1. — That in months when more than the average per cent 
of weekly reports stated the presence of diarrhea, the average daily tem- 
perature, the average daily range of temperature, the absolute humidity of 
the atmosphere, and the average daily pressure of the atmosphere were 
greater than the average for the vear; and in months when less than the 
average per cent of reports stated the presence of diarrhea, these condi- 
tions were less than the average for the year. In Exhibit XIX., P&ge 136, 
the letter a marks exceptions to this proposition for the year 1893. 

Pboposition 2. — That in months when more than the average per cent 
of weekly reports stated the presence of diarrhea, the relative humidity 
of the atmosphere, the average per ceut of cloudiness, the ozone, the 
average velocity of the wind, and the monthly aud average daily range 
of the barometer were lens than the average for the year; and in months 
when less than the average per ceut of reports stated the presence of diar- 
rhea, these conditions were greater than the average for the year. In 
Exhibit XIX., page 13H, the letter h marks exceptions to this proposition 
for 1893. 

Explanations of Propositions 1 and 2 are given on page 120, and a 
summary of the evidence in Exhibit XIX , is given in Exhibit XXVI., 
on a following page. 

Pboposition 3. — For those months which are not, as regards the absolute 
humidity of the atmosphere, exceptions to Proposition 1, it is true also 
that the quantity of vapor inhaled daily was greater than the average, 
and the quantity exhaled daily in excess of that inhaled was less than 
the average in months when more than the average per cent of reports 
stated presence of diarrhea; and that less vapor was inhaled and a greater 
excess exhaled daily in months when the per cent of reports stating pres- 
ence of diarrhea, was less than the average. 

Proposition 3 is true also in relation to cholera infantum, intermittent 
fever, remittent fever, typhoid fever, typho-malarial fever, measles, whoop- 
ing-cough, cholera morbus and dysentery, treated in Exhibits XIX., XXL, 
XXII., XXIII. ancT XXIV., page 136, and following pages. 

On what per cent of the weekly reports received, by months in the 
sixteen years, 1877-1892, the eight foregoing diseases were reported 
present, is stated in Exhibit XX., page 137. In Diagram 1, page 89, is 
graphically represented by months what per cent of the reports in each 
month in 1893, stated the presence of diarrhea. 

The greatest sickness reported from diarrhea in 1893, was in the months 
of September, August, October and July. 

As shown by Exhibit XX., the reports indicate a decreased prevalence 
of diarrhea in the year 1893. Compared vath the year 1892^ there was a 
slightly increased prevalence of diarrhea in June, August, September, 
October and November, and in every other month there was a marked 
deorease. 

Compared with the corresponding months in the average for the sixteen 
years, 1877-1892, the per cent of reports of diarrhea was slightly more in 
January and November, 1893, and for every other month of the year oon- 
siderably less. 



STATISTICAL STUDY OF SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN 1883. 



186 



The average temperatnre for the year 1893, was slightly lower than the 
average for 1877-1892. It was also lower for each month of the year, 
exoept in March, June, July, August, October and November, than the 
average for oorreeponding months in the sixteen years, 1877-92. The 
abeohite humidity was elightly more for the year and for each month of 
the year except January, February, May, August and September, than 
the average for 1877-1892. The relative humidity waa slightly less for 
the year 1893, and for each month of the year, except in January, March, 
April, July and October, than the average for the fifteen years, 1878- 
1892. Id July it was the same. 



BELATIONB OF CHOLEBA mPANTUM AND OTHEB " WAKM WEATHER 
TO METEOEO LOGICAL CONDITIONS. 



DISEASES 



Proposition L — That in months when more than the average per cent 
of weekly reports stated the presence of cholera infantum (or of intermit- 
tent fever, remittent fever, typhoid fever, typho- malarial fever, cholera 
moibuB, dysentery, measlee, or whooping-cough), the average daily tem- 
perature, the average daily range of temperature, the absolute humidity 
of the atmosphere, and the average daily pressure of the atmosphere were 
greater than the average for the year; and in months when leKH than the 
average per cent of reports stated the presence of cholera infantum (or of 
the other diseases named), these conditions were less than the average for 
the year. In Exhibit XIX., page 136, the letter a marks exceptions to 
this proposition for the year 1893. 

Explanations of Propositions 1 and 2 are given on page 120, and a sum- 
mary of the evidence of Exhibit XIX. is given in Exhibit XXVI., on a 
following page. 

Proposition 2.— That in months when more than the average per cent 
of weekly reports stated the presence of cholera infantum (or of intermit- 
tent fever, remittent fever, typhoid fever, typbo-m filarial fever, measles, 
or whooping'Ooagh), the relative humidity of the atmosphere, the average 
per cent of cloudiness, the ozone, the average velocity of the wind, and 
the monthly and average daily range of the barometer were less than the 
average for the year; and that in months when less than the average per 
cent of reports stated the presence of cholera infantum (or of the other 
diseases named), these conditions were greater than the average for the 
year. In Exhibit XIX., page 136, the letter b marks exceptions to this 
proposition for 1893. 

What per cent of all the weekly reports of sickness in each month in 
1893, stated the presence of cholera infantum is graphically represented by 
months in Diagram 1, page 69. What per cent of the reports received by 
months in the sixteen years, 1877-92, stated presence of cholera infantum 
and of the other diseases mentioned in Propositions 1 and 2, is stated 
in Exhibit XX., page 137. 

Cholera infantum was most prevalent during the hot months and in 
October, in 1893, but in each month of 1893, except in October, January 
and June, there was much less than the average sickness from this disease, 
January and June were the same and in October, twenty-five per cent 
more than the average was reported. 




1S6 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH.— REPORT OF SEGRBTARY, UOA. 



EXHIBIT XIX.— DiABBHKA A3fD Cholkila imwAjfTuM.SiaHng far the Yearamdpfr 
msk mmtk of the Year 1893, what Per C^nt of th^ Weikig BeparU of aiekmem 
BMed Prmtntm of Diarrhea, alto of ChaUm Infantum^ and whai were ike MeUor- 
olDlfieitJ OomdiHtmM as observed at Stations in Michigan,* 




STATISTICAL STUDY OF SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN 1881 137 



BXHIBIT XX.— By Year and Months for 1893 and far the preceding n^ar, and an 
Average for the sixteen yeara^ 1877-92^ aUm for the ae^en years^ 1886-1892. Stating 
on %that Per Cent of the Weekly Reports received DrABBHKA, Choleba Iwpantdm, 

IllTtRMlTTEHT FftVER, ReMITTKNT PeVER, TyPHOID FeVEB, TYPHO-ftlALARIAt* PeVER, 
BiSASLER, WHOOPtNG-OOUQH, ChOLKBA MoRBUH AttR DVSENTERY WCre Bcporf^ 

Present, and Comparing the Per Centa for HiUS^ with the Averages for Correspond- 
ing Months in those yeara* 



tmrm^Ma. 


1 

48 
4» 

43 
10 

■« 

i 


9 

17 
28 

1 


1 

28 

20 

i 


10 
SO 

Si 

6 

5 


■a 
hi 

1 

SI 
80 

18 

'2 

1 


a 

85 
SI 

80 

"7 
"6 


48 

40 

sa 

S8 
"7 
4 


1 

708 
068 

567 
847 

16 1 

ii* 


II 

4 78 
17fi 

2 74 

4Tfl 

a "a 


1 

54 

51 

52 
51 

1 
4 


1 

25 

S3 

27 
18 

• 


1 

28 
i7 

i« 
24 

4 

8 


lid 

. f 12 2 2 2 
1 U S £ 1 

S u 1 a 2 

^ 10 a 1 1 

1 -f ^ 

^ L'a - "i = 


i 

< 


3a «-j -^ -< 

S| 8?9 45 
8 827 U 

4 6 17 30 

1 8 17 84 

a = is ii 

.. 1 

2 .. 10 8 


34 

82 

28 
38 

i 
1 


i 

12 

U 

16 
15 

1 
4 


z 

4 
s 

1 

8 

i 


1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

i 

i 


i 


r At. 1« jeftn, 1871-ian. „. 

Ay. 7 ywn. l8aj'l8Bt.„..„„. 

tfftS 

Ib moV^'ter tiULD'AVris??'- 

um ..... 

l& vm !*•« ihaa A*, imn. . 

Ib Vm OrMtor than At. 188fi- 
^Ib l^LMa'thwi ATrissO^ttif. 


i 


fAT. w fmt% isn-vsn „. 

At. 7 TMn, lS»-lflM 


m 
it 

u 


4B 

36 

ii 

18 


51 
26 

» 

14 


98 
SB 

U 

18 


80 
41 


84 
43 


88 
44 

25 


88« 
47 4 

Hi 

27 3 


8 88 
8 47 

2S2 

2 28 


65 
IS 

— 
28 


58 
40 

S4 

26 


51 
84 

21 
17 


it 


1843 

8861 

1 111 

8t3U 

821^ 

iial 


8 V> 
5 25 

1 13 
1 14 

} 21 

i ii 


37 39 10 13 
£7i7 27 28 

18 1818^ 
14 18 SI SO 

28 20 19 23 

is 'i'9 8 


48 51 
86 87 

90 81 
22 25 

27 26 

14 12 


SO 

as 

26 

a 

26 

ii 


4131 

St 21 

^si 

2l|lj 

aD2d 
ioij 


1 


ISM 

Itt WW'oViatiBr'tiian aV:1877- 
imt . ... . . ... 


la 1883 1.OM than At. tS77-93.. 
In 1809 Gr«»t«r than At. 1S» 

lB0it 
la IMS i^M than At. ISBBVif. 


36 

18 


30 

17 


37 


35 
JO 


25 

IB 


17 


41 

ii 


80 ii 


»I8 

}t8 


J7 

n 


U 
14 


81 
17 


i| 


f At. Ifl rean, 1877-92 


11 
8 

1 

S 

1 


10 
7 

1 

6 

4 
1 


7 
5 

1 
4 

"2 

i 


a 

4 
4 

a 
a 

z 

I 


- 


5 

3 

"i 

4 

*ii 
1 


5 
4 

4 

ft 

1 
2 


7 L 
6 1 

71 

IL 


B20 
3 18 

118 

ei8 
i I 
I i 


zJlB 


11 
11 

12 

8 

'« 
3 


l(i 


8141 

2 8 

4 5 


2 11 

1 7 

tois 

I 2 


10 
7 

2 
3 


101 
7 

2 


is 
B 8 

l"6 

1 2 


11 
16 


38 

41 

9 


as 
21 

7 
8 


26 

16 

8 
8 


u 

8 

4 

ii 


At. 7 rean. IBM-UOi 


8 

n 

28 

2 

14 


15 

11 

20 

1 
1 


18B3._ 


Id lasaopMitor'tha'D Ay. iB77- 


Ib an L«si» Lhan At. 187782. . 
Ln 1893 Gr«at«r than At. laa6- 

.la IMiieiithiJi'AT.'iasiwn- 


4 8 11 
8 8 1 


» 8 

i's 


7 
4 


8 
5 


9 11 


11 


14 

is 


J7 


n 
i 


f 

31 


rAT.lfl yaan. l877-l8Ba 

At. 7 7«an, lab^WtZ 


n 

10 

1 

7 


10 
8 

1 

W 

2 


IS 
13 


le 21124 
t6 18 IB 


20 
16 

1 
12 

2 

a 


12 
8 

8 

'4 1 

"i 1 


1 4 

1 a 
B^ 

1 2 

I i 

I "i 


4 
2 

1 
1 

~. 

a 

i 


5 

4 

1 
2 

S 

2 


7 
6 

"5 
2 

6 

'4 


11: 


7 18 1 

» 7 1 

i i '1 


,17 
K 18 

*'» 
» 7 

Ho 

*"6 


10 

8 
6 


17 1 
11 I 

ir 
101 

it 

"4 ': 


710 
il5 

)14 
Ul 

i'8 

[ 4 


18 

15 

15 
13 

"e 

i 


IB 
18 

12 
8 

"9 

1 


15 
10 

1 
7 

1 

S 


9 

7 

"9 


is 
10 

8 

8 

■7 
1 


t»l ... 

18W 

la mi Qr^MUiT tima Ay. 1877- 
iS9i 


6 
10 


11 

10 


-5 
17 

'i 
i 


la 1883 J^M than At. lB77-fl2.. 
1 In 1883 Great«r thnn Ay. lB!i«- 

'iB^t E^as'thaa Ay.' 1880-91^. 


S 

a 




fAT. 16 rears, 1877.1882 ._ 

At. 7 r«an. 188«J-l8»i 

188! .„„ „ 


17 
16 

15 
11 


4 

s 

4 
I 




i 
i 

a 

= 


- 


j 

7 
4 


17 
14 

i;; 

13 




42 51 
889 


118 
lii« 

»ai 

us 

t; 


15 

13 

IT 
IS 

2 


8 
6 

1 
5 


6 
4 

4 

8 

'a 
i 


1 

i|; 

I." 


B 7 ' 

1 « ' 

2 7 « 


r 7 

] 7 

f1 
I 7 

1 = 


8 
7 

M 
4 


9V 
8U 

4 1 


128 

12 
IS 


SI 

15 

S8 
24 

i7 
ii 


18 
it 

28 

U 

■5 

i 


ii 

» 

85 

S 
4 


11 

10 

vi 

8 

a 

1 


7 
7 

1 

a 

'6 
S 


Id t8ei'G;iii:tir'thiir*AT:'l87"7: 
188S 


4 

'a 


4 1 


15 

16 


In 1881 JLtMm than At. IH77^.. 

In laes Ot«atar than At. lBb8- 

1*18^ 


3 
S 


= 


2 


1 


18 Ij 




Jn lB»t L«tii than At, 1888-82t. 


I 


14 t 



* Oth«ir •rat«rQ«at{i f ir I'^SH. and mnatM la 1893. ralAtirn to theM (IImmmh are fflTea H Tabled. pft«m iOO- 
108. nod to KxbibiU XIX-. XXl.« XXII., XXtll. aad XXtT.. pa«M 186. 139. 14), 141, and 142, wh«n> are alM> 
■Itm for oouT6rii«>at oomparisna ■laCamaaU of ooiaoldeat znataoraloKiisal ooaditiooj. The line* for 
f UM are crraphicallj repreeantad la Dlacranu 1, pagn 88, 2, pace 127, and 6, pace 188. 

t Thia oomparlBotx u maile beoaoM of obaafa of f^Uo of rapocte in Hajr, IwS, aa ezplaiaad oa pasaa ftt-tS. 

18 



138 STATE BOARD OF HBAL^B*— REPORT OP SECRETARY. 1894. 
DIAGRAM 5-WEEIlLY REPORTS OF SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN. IN 1893 



PER CENT OF ltei»ORTS WHICH STATED PItESENCE Qf DISEASES RIPRESENT£0. | 


CCMT. 


i ^ 1 1 1 i ^ i s s i i 


96 

M 














































so 














































75 
}0 \ 














































96 














































(0 - 








, 
































• 






4S 

40 : 














































u 

IB 




































/ 


% 








n 

It 

10 








niJi 




.-^ 


/ 


^^ 


— — 


■>», 


t. 




4 


f 


^5 


'5^^ 




.o'"* 


.••^ 




*^ 


\ 


V 


^' 


f 


# 


p.^^ 






V 


/ 




V 




^- 




^** 






> 


/ 


\- ^f\ 




N; 


6 


^-> 












^ 


i'-"- 


^•^^ 


^^wmm 


\, 


^ 


_ m 


NOlD 


H'**] 


^A^ 


\ 
^**^ 






SflNA 




irfiim 


^^ 


5* 



CFlAU 76^} 




STATISTICAL STUDY OP SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN li«8, 139 



EXHIBIT XXL— InTiRMiTTEWT Fever aitd RsiirrrEnT FmvzK.^8iating for th€ 
Year and for each Month of the Year 1893^ what Per Cent of the Weeklif Iiepor(9 of 
8iekne§B Stated PreBenee of Intermittent Fev€r and Revtittent Fever, and what 
were the Meteorological Condition* at obterved at Stationtt in Michigan,* 



ISTKKMirrZJfT 


Tamiwra- 
tnre, r. 


HamidltF 
of Air.§ 


Tapor 
labalKl and 

BxhAled 
from tJi» Air 

by oDePer> 
•oaiol4 

Roor«. Troy 
Oqdo**. 


5 

** 


Omoo«. 
RelAtivA 


i 

i . 

it 
l! 


AtlX14 

fiedc 


>«pb#rie Prat* 

r@, Iach«>a 




-I 

1 


8 

ll 

5^ 




At. of 4 
Dallj Ob- 

•anratloiu- 


Scale of 10 ^ 


iced to W P. 


^1 


k 
II 


»- 

JB99 

OS 

5» 


m 
ir- 

OS 


BAii«e. 


< 


1 

1^ 


'1 


1 




1 


III 


1 

ll 


fAo..,.. 


n 


1.8 


22.13 


SS.57 


70 


ym 


1.49 


8.19 


ao 


6 4.58 


6 4.84 


7,8 


.489 


.118 


vkm 


B.pt.... 


tA 


iJ 


20.M 


80.40 


n 


478 


199 


1«B 


u 


134 


814 


12 


.614 


.187 


29.088 


Oct. .. 


t& 


1.S 


an 21 


so.se 


TV 


8,71 


in 


9.85 


47 


870 


191 


6 10.8 


61.258 


128 


29.07« 


July.. 


tl 


1^ 


3073 


72.10 


7J 


8.S0 


4.ttl 


7.81 


18 


1.50 


186 


11 


.487 


.151 


29.0n 


M., 


U 


1.8 


1B.2( 


M,IO 


n 


8.81 


8.88 


919 


60 


t» 4.18 


6 4.55 


9J 


.968 


J75 


al8.9S| 


Not,... 


m 


3.0 


ot4.2« 


tMM 


hBt 


a 1.37 


1.48 


10.8D 


frOB 


8.08 


118 


6 11.8 


61.18S 


.118 


ajm 


V 


JOM... 


23 


IT 


tQ.B1 


99.00 


74 


0.12 


883 


7.85 


84 


6 8.98 


4.15 


8.2 


.691 


.188 


20.088 


.April .. 


15 

e4 


ZM 


al6.«i 


att.l9 


78 


a 1.77 


I.T3 


9.95 


686 
84 
78 


6 192 
191 


6 4.02 
4.80 


6 18.2 

lOJ! 


6Lt38 

.too 


6 .288 


a 19.000 


kr.^ 


IJ 


17,W 


49.44 
Ifi.2i 


TV 
S9 


SJ51 


119 


9.49 


.1«7 
.183 


mo0O 

18.077 




19 


3.4 


ajx 


1.19 


.74 


10.94 


4.08 


6 4.01 


6 17 


1.110 


IS 
17 
1« 


8.0: 


14.31 

alS,SO 


10.«]| 
1088 


84 
B8 

m 


8.01 
1.81 
1,42 


1.87 
1.14 

J9 


10.41 
10.fi4 
10.79 


88 

80 
88 


4.80 

6181 

4J4 


4.91 


11.7 
U.7 
ILI 


1.C88 
1.813 
L48I 


.90 
.829 
J88 


o 89.087 
o 28.008 
a3l.m 


KElCTTTKjrf 

Fktke. 
































5 f*pt... 


Zb 


•>0 


10.36 


mM 


n 


4.78 


8.99 


BM 


48 


8.84 


824 


12 


.618 


.147 


19 088 


1^ Urt.... 


u 


i.7 


al7,87 


m.w 


79 


1.71 


1.38 


985 


47 


8.70 


8.91 


6 10.6 


bl.tW 


,228 


19.079 


»| AM.. 


u 


8.0 


12.11 


8S.67 


70 


8.58 


8.49 


119 


SO 


6 4.88 


6 4.56 


7.6, 


.489 


.188 


29.111 


■■1 < Juw . j 


SI 


2-8 


tOM 


89.05 


74 


8.11 


163 


7.85 


84 


6 198 


4.15 


11 


.fiOl 


.186 


29.086 


f 


NOT..„ 


II 


S.9 


al4.38 


088.81 


bdt 


a 3,17 


1.48 


10.10 


bu 


8.03 


lift 


6U.8 


61.188 


.113 


a».OiB 


Jnlf... 


ao 


2.6 


20.75 


72.18 


Ti 


8JH} 


4-08 


T,8« 


88 


180 


188 


11 


.487 


Mi 


2B.07T 


.tt»F..- 


19 


3,1 


19.20 


N.tO 


73 


8.83 


130 


9.» 


80 


«4.18 


6 4.55 


9.S 


.988 


.175 


aHOBI 


At 


18 


IJ 


17.«2 
llfl.i2 


4S.84 


79 


i.BJ 


119 


9.49| 


84 
48 


8.91 


4.80 


lit 


J09 


«II7 


9.080 


1^2 (avtu.: 


11 


48.19 


611 


1.77 


t.7» 


185 


19t 


4.62 


111 


1.118 


.tS8 


29.000 


1 


lUr....! 


li 


2.9 


lfl.ftl 


•0.81 


B4 


2.01 


1.87 


lOAl 


sa 


4.80 


4.9i 


11.7 


L06fl 


.290 


a2».C87 


Feb.... 


U 


t.& 


018.10 


80.00 


S8 


1.41 


.89 


10.79 


85 


4.54 


4.91 


11.7 


1.482 


.166 


29.124 


Ju... 


U 


1.1 


U.Oft 


U.2S 


B8 


1.19 


.74 


10.04! 


71 


4.02 


b 4.08 


6 9.7 


1.110 


.08 


a 28 977 


SI ID^.... 


11 


1.6 


14J1 


88 J8 


88 


1.88 


L14 


10.84 80 


(»iai 


iM 


11.7 


1413 


Jl^ 


al9.0M 



* 



** 1. 1« § i\, U. **. For foot-aotefl with IbeM marks, «m Bahibit X.. pa«B 111 

a An exoaptiofi to propoaitloQ l« retattnc to iatatadUtat ftTcr via ramittaot ferar* on pasa 185. 

6 All •zeapUcm to [iropo«i£ioD 1 nlAtlac to IntffmlUaiit CaTer aad fMUlUmt f«T«r» on ptc» 181 



140 STATB BOARD OF HBAIiTU.— REPORT OF 8B0RBTARY. ISM. 



BXHIBirrXXII.^TrPHOiD Fkysb aud Ttpho-MaijABial FEyvR.—8tatiiuf for tkt 
Year and for each Month of the Year 189S, what Per Cent of tfie Weekfw Beportt 
of Sichneee Stated Presence of Typhoid Fever and Tj/pho-Maiarial Fever, aimd 
what were t?ie Meteorological Condittona ae obaerved at StationB in Michigan,^ 



Typhoid Wivikm. ' 


T«nper»- 

ttlTBi F, 


HnmMitj 
Of Air J 

AT-Ofl 

wmtioDA 


VaiMjr 
Inhaled and 

BxbiiJed 
from the Air 

FuAaeee 
br oD« Fer- 

KmlnSI 
Hoan, Troy 


1 

1 

5 


Oaon«, 


1 

5« 


Atoio«i>beHo Ptw- 


i 


4 


I'** 




8cal»oflO^ 


BedTMwl to W F. 




1 


4 

i 

JSrt 

OS 


1 

is 


BVIIBI). 


i 


5 = 




1 
1 




i 


III 


S|B Not... 

Iipu..... 


as 


£.« 


ol^fT 


90,68 


7* 


3.71 


£.U 


9.3& 


471 


1.70 


3.91 


b 10.8 


bl.Zfifl 


,228 


^.079 


£0 


£.1 




aM,ei 

S0.40 


6S£ 
7fi 


a £.17 
4.78 


1.48 
£.» 


10.20 
8.99 


41 




1.28 
8.£4 


6 11.3 
9.1 


&1185 


.£13 
.187 


a^.OSi 
S.aBB 


11 


1.4 


££,11 


6&G7 


TO 


S.3S 


I,4tt 


i.i9 


W 


b 4.Bfl 


b 4M 


7.6 


\ .489 


.ISl 


n.iu 1 


A.Tara«».. 


9 


SJ 


n.&z 


I5.«4 


Tft 


3.A1 


£.10 


0.4ft 


M 


3.91 


4.80 


10.2 


.069 


.££7 


10.000 




S 


4.G 


14.»1 


M^ 


^ 


tss 


1.14 


10.U 


80 


h 1.81 


4.53 


11.7 


1.813 


J£9 


030.093 


7 


18 


aaO.75 


aim 


6 12 


a €.60 


4.06 


7.e£ 


bm 


b £.50 


bS,«8 


6 8.£ 


b .4*7 


b .18) 


o29,077 


B 


Lfl 


anj&l 


aao.ofr 


6 74 


m fi.l£ 


38a 


IM 


bU 


1.98 


b4.1fi 


b 8.£ 


& ,891 


fr .1^ 


020 OOf 


e 


a.2 


is.oe 


i&M 


es 


l.l» 


.74 


lO.W 


79 


4.02 


b 4.01 


6 9.7 


1410 


,gfiS 


£8.177 


If 


M^,™, 


i 


£.1 


aiS.W 


oAlJO 


6 72 


ii 3.B3 


Its 


9.29 


6 80 


448 


4.BS 


b 9.8 


b .9&8 


b .178 


£8,082 


IW>.^-. 


4 


a.8 


atfl.»} 


£0.(» 


§8 


1,42 


M 


10.79 


es 


4.11 


4.9£ 


U.T 


1.48t 


jee 


aj»4£4 


Apr...., 


B 


i.a 


16.t^ 


13.18 


6 78 


,.„ 


1.78 


9JS 


08 


892 


4.QZ 


18.£ 


1418 


.288 


29.000 


Lmu-,.... 


3 


4J 


li&M 


ao.«] 


84 


1,01 


La7 


10.41 


u 


4.M) 


4.ft£ 


11.7 


1.086 


.290 


a20j08T 


Tifrao-MAL. 

II r8.pt.. 


9 


S.3 


£0.30 


00*40 


TB 


4.18 


£.W 


8.e9 


43 


8.H 


8.£4 


9.£ 


.818 


.1*7 


£9.088 


.a 

pi' 

II 


Oot„. 


B 


S.l 


al7.CT 


so.n 


79 


1,7£ 


£.ta 


9.S5 


41 


8-70 


3.91 


b 10,8 


&1.£U 


,£2& 


£9.079 


Hot... 


S 


4.0 


aU.£8 


a3S.<IL 


68£ 


a tjan 


1.48 


10. £0 


6ftS 


I.OS 


l.£8 


6 11.1 


&1.13S 


.£11 


a£9.059 


Aw.„ 


7 
A 

1 


3.4 


££4£ 
atJI.OD 


M,fi7 


70 
76 


al.li 


Lift 

.74 


8.19 
10.94 


30 

ii7e 


b 4.H 
b 4.02 


b 4.5C 
4.01 


7.8 
9.7 


,489 
M.llO 


b .m 


£9.111 

a£8.fr77 


Avortflii....... 


IIM 


4&.«4 


SJil 


£.lft 


9.49 


Ml 
60 


•Jl 

b SSI 


4,20 


lai 


jm 


jm 


i».oao 


t 


rD«...., 


1 


BJ 


11.31 


»M 


88 


1^ 


114 


lOM 


4.83 


U.7 


1.313 


J3e 


o£II.S93 


'^j 


Apr..... 


3 


3.1 


U.t£ 


a.ifi 


bU 


aj7 


ija 


9.9ai 


88 


&92 


4.62 


1S.2 


1128 


.288 


S9.000 


M*r..... 


£ 


£.« 


ia.u 


«>.ei 


84 


t.03 


U7 


10.41 


B0 


4.S0 


4.9S 


11.7 


tsm 


.290 


amsm 


i^^ 


Jnlj-... 


£ 


£.« 


a£0.7fi 


oTlJfl 


bl2 


a e.so 


4,08 


7,S£ 


bSS 


t 3.S0 


bUM 


b a.2 


b .487 


b .181 


astjm 


H 
1 


Mmj 


£ 


S.3 


ate.£0 


a»,30 


bn 


a BM 


£.39 


9. £9 


6 BO 


4.18 


4.8. 


b 9.8 


b .BS8 


6 .178 


18.980 


FBb.,„. 


£ 


IJ 


alB.aO 


£0.09 


m 


1.42 


.89 


10.79 


68 


4.84 


4.9. 


U.T 


1.482 


.888 


a£8.l£4 


Jtuie-.. 


1 


t.5[o20.5! 


aoe.o& 


blia *.U 


BM 


T.W 


btl 


i.»s' 


b 448 


b 8.1 


b .»! 


b .138 


^.0«8 






, **. For foot-QotM with thsM marka. m* BzhiUt X. pate in. 

to <*'«**«altioa I, raUtloff to Tf phold Farer aad Tf pho-malarlal Farar, on 
*- ■Uiaat,ral«tiaffCoTfplioldF^?araiid'^lu>-BaalarialF*Tfr,OA 



IH. 



STATISTICAL STUDY OF SICKNESS IN MICHIGAN IN 189S. 



141 



EXHIBIT XXIIL— Mkasleh A2n> Whc>opii«gCougb.— .S^aftng /or the Year and for 
eaek Month of the Year J893, what Per Cent of the Weekly Reports of Sickne9M i 
Stated Presence of ASeasks and Whooping -Cough, and what were the Meteoro- 
logieal Conditiana a» ob§ertJtd at Stations in Michigan,^ 



m 

I 



&i 



>M 



i^5 



^1 
4& 



l^ 



Tein pom- 
tare, F. 



SB 



5^ 



!l 



Httmidlty 
of Air B 
Ay. of il 

DttllyOb- 



s. 
I 



Is 

?-* 

■<otsi 



Vapor 
Xjihaltd and 

Exhaled 
from the Air 

Pat—age 
by one Par- 

aoDiiit4 
Honra.Troy 

Ooncee. 



9 



Oaooe, 

Retative 

Scale of 10«, 



g 



05 



i 

1=-: 

OB 



Atmocpberio 
Reduced to W P. 



Bance. 



|l 



i 



i 



JODfl 

Feb.. 

Apr.^ 



JaD« 



At. 



|1 



Aoff^.^.. 

8ept.-_. 

^-JNof. ... 



tOot. 



Whoopimo- 

COOOH. 



IP- 



Ad*.. 
June. 
Jnly_ 
May- 



Av. 






fPeb. 
Sept- 
Dec. 



Apr 

Jan., . 
Oct..-. 

I Not-... 



19.KI 
30.52 

al6.S2 



M.80 

otO.Oft 
alS.19 



alBM al0.ei 

al&.CnlalA.28 

10.791 TLIO 



1T.02 4&.64 



a20.9fl 
14.2« 

I4.ai 

17.27 



23.11 

ao.7s 



17.91 



al8.£0 

a20.M 

U.»l 

ie.H 

10.32 
U,2» 



afl0.40 
S6.A1 
2»JSB 



AS.S7 
60.05 
TLM 
UJO 



2o.og 

(K60.40 

ae>8 
ao.Bi 

4S.19 
15 
oSOW 
•fi.61 



n 

74 
6 88 

78 
bM 
5 89 

79 
b70 

Si 

ss 

79^ 



9.39 
0.11 

alM 

a 177 

a tsa 

a 1.19 



S.SI 



4.78 
2.17 
1^ 
9.72 



88 

t>75 
88 
84 

&78 

SB 
78 
82 



ft.U 
«.1K 
6J0 



t.Bl 



1.4£ 

1.83 
1.01 

a. 77 

1.19 

a a.7J 
2.97 



3.88 

M 

L79 

La7 

.74 

4.06 



9.28 

7JB 
10,79 



BO 
94 

5 6a 



9.Pft 6 68 



5 4.18 
5 8.98 
b4.M 
5 8.92 



b 488 

4.18 

5 4.92 

6 4.6t 



10.41 
10.94 
7J2 



L19 



9.40 



2.99 
1^ 
1.14 



8.19 
8.49 
10.20 
lO.M 
9J!t 



S.49 

4.08 
2.89 



8.19 
7.8B 
7^82 

9.29 



lLt9 



9^9 



.89 
2.09 
1.14 
1.27 
1.79 

.74 
2.98 
1.48 



10 79 

tOM 
10.41 

9J8 
10.94 

9.K 
10 JO 



5 76 



5 30 
5 48 



BO 
5 47 



5 4.30 5 4.9£ 



5 4.02 
8.80 



a.9i 



4.M 
5 1.24 

5 S.03 
5 t,8l 
5 a. 70 



4.08 
1.68 



4.10 



4.M 
b 3.24 
5 8.18 

4.81 
5 8.91 



5 446 4.86 

5 3,96 5 4.16 

3,80 5 8.66 



5 4.18 



84 



8.91 



5 43 
80 
86 
68 
76 

5 47 
68 



AM 

b ^M 

5 8.81 

4.80 

8.92 

4.02 

5 8,70 

5 8jOS 



4.85 



i.2D 



4JZ 

5 8,24 
4.88 

4.92 

4.62 
5 4.01 
5 8.91 
5 2.28 



9.8 

8.2; 

5 11.7 

5 12.2 

b Vll 

9.7 

8.2 



.991 
51.482 
51.188 

51.066 
51.tl0 

487 



178 
188 
5.966 
5 .288 
5 .290 
5 .288 
.181 



a 28.981 



29.191 



a 28.977! 
28.071 



10.2 



.127 



5 7.6 
5 9.2 

11.2 
U.7 
10.6 



5 .489 

5 J16 

1.128 

1.213 

1JS6 



5 ,128 

5 .167 
5.218 

.220 
5 .228 



a 29.111 

a29XM 

28. 

29.098 
a294»79 



Mi 
,487 

J8& 



1^2 



.128 
.188 
.181 
.178 

J27 



29.111 
18.088 
29.077 
28.988 



29.060 



IL7 
6 S.Z 
11.7 
U.7 
18.2 
5 9,7 
10.6 
11.8 



1.482 



jm 



b .616 b .167 
I 
L8U 



1066 
1,128 
1.110 

1.286 



.290 



.tt8 
5 .228 



1.185 5 .218 



a 29.184 

a 29.068 

a 29.098 

a 29.097 

88.000 

88.977 

a 89.079 

29.069 



*. t. X, fi. I. IT, **. For foot-Dotea with theee marks, tee Exhibit X. page 123. 

a An ezcepuoo to Proposition 1. reJatioir to m^asleeand wbonpiug^coovb on pace 1^. 

5 An exception to PropositioB 2, relating to measlM and whooptn«-«OQ«h on page IX. 



! 



i 



Ua BTATB BOARD OP UEAI/TH.— RBPORT OF SBORBTABT, 180L 



EXHIBIT XXIV.— Cholera Morbus aud Dtsehtkrt.— fitoMfig /or the Year and for 
each Month of the Year 1S93, what Per Cent of the Weekly Reports of Sickfiem 
Stated Presence of Cholera Morbus and Dysentery^ and what were the Meteoro- 
logical Conditions as observed at Stations in Michigan.* 



tsoLSMA MoaBm. 


T«mp«T&- 
tDJe^ F. 


Huratditr 
of Air.ft 
ATiOfH 

Dmilf Ot^ 
Berr&tioafr 


Vapor 
Inh&lediuic] 

ExhiUed 
frfrtntheAir 

bj on»Per- 

HotiTB.Trof 
Oimow. 


i 
1 

1 


Okod«, 

UAJatlve 


1 


AdnoiptHiio Frw- 
sute. in«b«» 


1 


^1 

II 


8 




Scale of 10*. 


Esdojoed to 31^^ F. 


1 

if 


i 

11 


1 


L 

QS 


Baoge. 


1 




11 

Is 

5^1 


£ 
1 

fl 


'i 


j 






Jill «»pt. 


a 
u 


2.& 
S.l 
f.t 

8.1 


UA2 
BO.W 


68.67 
40.40 
7ilfl 


70 
79 


4i7S 


l.4« 

4,06 


6. Iff 

iiSff 
7,62 

9.49 


30 
41 

» 


b iM 
3.84 
>,00 

LSI 


&4.Be 

3.06 


7^ 

B.I 


,4«8 


.ISS 

,167 
i18l 


S9.111 

S9iOW 
W.0T7 


Annaa 


11 


17.«1 


45JS4 


351 


2, Id 


4.tO 


10.2 


\m 


ft .138 


20,060 


1 


'Jniw .... 


13 


u 


mjoi 


6 74 


a 0.U 


s.sa 


7.86 


bU 


BM 


&4.1i 


b sj 


ft iWi 


a 29.006 


Oflt ..„ 


IS 


a.7 


n,£7 


o50.fi(l 


n 


a IJ2 


ii3S 


fl.35 


fr47 


b2.TQ 


b 1.01 


10.6 


1.EM 


6 ,2£6 


a S9.OI0 


Mir, 




i.» 


ja,e* 


90JJ 


84 


1,01 


1,87 


10.41 


!M) 


4.30 


4.0£' 


IIT 


1.006 


,200 


a 29.067 


1 
J 


Not...... 




I.0 


14.38 


3a.ei 


n 


1ST 


1.49 


ia.» 


6C 


fr 8.01 


d S.BB 


11.3 


l.im 


6 .Sit 


20.060 


Apr...... 




£.fi 


le.^ 


4^.10 


5 78 


S.77 


1.71 


%M 


«S 


1.92 


4.A2 


II.S 


1.1IS 


.E8& 


£0.000 


Fflb 




M 


alS.W 


£0.09 


as 


1.42 


.88 


I0,7B 


e& 


iM 


4.0;; 


11,7 


1,4^2 


J96 


a E01H 


Jan.-,.-. 




a^ 


ia.o& 


is,a 


av 


1.10 


.74 


10.04 


76 


402 


fr4.03 


b 0.7 


1.110 


.253 


18 877 


M*j. -^ 




4.R 


aii».ao 


aUM 


fr78 


« kW 


IJ8 


9,2« 


6M 


4.1S 


i,Sft 


b J 


b .96^ 


6 .179 


t&ifts 


Deo...... 




*.8 


14^1 


M.a8 


68 


Lea 


1.14 


10.&4 


00 


blkBl 


4.fi3 


II.7 


iiSia 


■»» 


a £9,069 


i 

DTBinTXBT. 
























it. 


rs^t. .. 


41 


3.3 


2DM 


60.40 


Tli 


4.76, 


iM 


6.iO 


41 


3,14 


a.»4 


9.S 


.«!« 


.107 


i»jm 


Ill 

III 


, Oct,... 


S4 

as 


8.8 


al7.27 


68.67; 


to; 

7S 


a-7i 


3.4« 


Sit 


•0 
47 


3.70 


«p4iIS« 
3J1 


ft 10 6 


.480 


.1*3 


10,111 


1* LJnJf„.. 


u 




80.75 
17.ftl 


73.16 
45.M 


72 


6.90 


4.0« 
iJ3 


7.61 


se 


t.eo 


ZM 


8.1 


.487 
.061 


.IM 
JS7 


29,077 


Ar«ncB ,_,,. 




1.61 


1.40' 14 

7,Si|6M 


1.91 
>.0i« 


4,») 
& 4.1K 


toj 

b ill 


9jaBD 


1 Not...... 

L «" 

«l j„...... 


oaoisE 


a4e.D6 


£i74 


a 6,12 


ftiBOl 


ft .118 


a 2AJX« 


» 


i4] 


I4.8S 


met 


63 


a.37 


1.46 


10.iO; «« 


« 3.0S 


frS.ES 


11.3 


l.li5 


ft .211 


^.060 


7 


l.« 


10.«4 


30,61 


.S4 


i.QI 


l.« 


10.41 !1« 


4.30 


401 


11.7 


1.066 


.2001 


a 20.W7 


7 


4.9 


1S.05 


11,33 


W 


tJV 


i74 


10.1H 76 


4,02 


b 4.09 


fr 0.7 


1.110 


.^ 


m,wn 


r 


F*bt— .. 


a 


4S 


at8.a0 


ao.w 


&3 


1.42 


J» 


10.78, fl&, 


4,54 


4,0K 


11.7 


1.4*? 


.368: 


a t9.ll4 


Mw .... 


1 


a.4 


'il».IO 


aM.W 


&7!* 


a BM 


£.116 


«.®6» 


4,18 


4,M 


* 0.8 


ft .855 


ft .m 


m,m 


! 


Apr. 


1 


e.f 


IBM 


41.19 


6 73 


a,T7 


1.71 


0.95 


ee 


%ȣ 


AM 


Il,2| 


lil^ 


,£8a 


20.000 


I>iw.„.... 


a 


s.t 


UM 


Z8.a§ 


^ 


l.gt 


1.14 


lO.U 


00 


ft iM 


4,^ 


IL7 


liSIt 


.320 


a 10.000, 



^ 1. 1. 9. il. % **• For foot-notes with theoe marks, see Exhibit X, psae 128. 

a An oKoeption to Propo«<«i'm i •«iatin« to Cholera Morbos and Dysenterj, on page 135. 

p An mxo9puoik to Prcr- itlnc to Cholera Morbas and Dysenterj , on page 135. 



STATISTICAL. STUDY OF SICKNEBS IN MIOHIOAN IN I89IL 148 



CoLI>'WeATHEB Di8EA&£B. 



EXHIBIT XXy. Summary Relative to PropoHtiont eontained in Exhibita X,, 
XII., XIV,, XV., XVI., etc., {pagea 123-142) concerning Relationt^ by Monthn in 1893, 
bettoten Greater or Less than usual Prevalence of Diseases Named^ and Certain 
given Coincident Climatic Conditions. 



Bronobitla 



MambrBO. Cniai>. 
I>is»hth«ria 

Toiiflillltb...... 



BearlAt PeTcr. 



HMtralrla. 

noosomption .... 

PlMiitia ..„ 

At." 



MoDtha 
tiiidDsive} in 

which DlMttMM 



nsoBilr 

PrevalMit in 

IBM. 



J&Q. May, NoT« 
D«c 

J&Q.-AprMMot., 
Dec 



Fab.-Apr,, Nor. 

Jan.. Feb.. Mar- 
Aug., Not...... 



Jaa.-lia7iNoT.« 
D^e 

Jao.-Apr., Nov.. 
Ltec. .^...... 



Jaa„ Feb., Apr.- 
Ja.D«, Mot., Dee. 

Jaa.-Ma]r. Oet., 
Dae. 



Feb.-Aprt. Nor. 

Feb.-HB7. ... 

Jan. -Apr,, Dee.. 

Jan. -Apr., Aug., 

NoT^...... 



MoQthe 

(inclaeiTe) in 

wbich Di ao aa o i 

oamed wen 

leee than 

UeoaUf 

PreTalent la 

1B83. 



Jiui»-Oot.. 



Uu-Oot. 



Jan.. May-Oot,, 
l>eo. .. „ 

Mar., Apr..8epL, 
Hot., Uec 



Jane-Oet. 



Maj-Oct....... 

Mar., Jnif-Oot.. 

Jane-Sept., Not. 

Jan.. Mar-Ooti 

Deo. ._ 

June- Dec. 

May-NoT. 



May-Jcilr, Dm. 



For the It moQthfl of the rear 1893. Nnmber of 
moutha in which PropositiooB bold trae.* 



That in Months when Dieeaaei 
named were more than ju